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Full text of "Coleoptera Atlantidum, being an enumeration of the coleopterous insects of the Madeiras, Salvages, and Canaries"

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Gomera. 



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AFRICA 




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LONDOU: JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW. 







</ 



COLEOPTERA ATLANTIDUM, 



BEING AN ENUMERATION 



OP THE 



COLEOPTEEOTJS INSECTS 



OF THE 



MADEIRAS, SALVAGES, AND CANAEIES. 



Br 



T. VERNON WOLLASTON, M.A., F.L.S. 




LONDON: 
JOHN VAN VOOEST, 1 PATEENOSTEE EOW. 

MDCOCLXV. 



PBINTED BY TAYLOB AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



TO 

JOHN GRAY, ESQ., M.E.S., 

IN WHOSE YACHT I FIRST VISITED THE CANARIAN ARCHIPELAGO, 
AND FROM WHOSE ZEAL IN THE CAUSE OF ENTOMOLOGICAL 
SCIENCE I HAVE, AT VARIOUS TIMES, RECEIVED MUCH PRACTICAL 
AID, THIS COLEOPTEROUS FAUNA OF THE ISLANDS WHICH WE 
EXPLORED IS DEDICATED, 
COEBE ET MANXT. 



PREFACE. 



Considering that scarcely more than a year has elapsed since 
the publication (by the Trustees of the British Museum) of 
my volume on the Coleopterous insects of the Canaries, 
I should have been content to let the subject rest for 
awhile, had not the recent arrival of fresh material from those 
islands demanded my immediate attention. The material 
alluded to is the result of the late researches of the Messrs. 
Crotch; and it is so extensive and important, that I felt it 
would not be possible to do it complete justice without a 
thorough revision of the entire catalogue into which the new 
species would have to be incorporated. 

With this somewhat tedious prospect before me, I began 
to consider whether it might not be desirable to take the 
opportunity of comparing critically, at the same time, inter se, 
all the Coleoptera which have hitherto been detected in those 
Atlantic Groups ; for the Madeiran fauna had been steadily 
increasing since the appearance (in 1857) of my Madeiran 
Catalogue, and even the little rocks of the Salvages — so 
remote, and difficult of access — had been adding their quota 
to the general list. True it is that the greater number of the 
novelties thus gradually brought to light, both in the Madeiras 
and the Salvages, had been described by myself, from time to 
time, in our various scientific periodicals, and thus far there- 



VI 



PREFACE. 



fore secured; but, in spite of that, there still remained a 
residuum which had not yet been examined; so that to 
bring together the species which were widely scattered over 
the Journals, adding to them these new ones, as well as those 
above referred to which had been obtained by the Messrs. 
Crotch in the Canaries, and to amalgamate the whole with 
the contents of my Catalogues already published — throwing 
it into systematic order, and correcting whatever might be 
necessary, — seemed worth the sacrifice, of time and attention, 
which a task so laborious could scarcely fail to involve. 

In the present Treatise therefore I have endeavoured to 
gather up all that has yet been registered on the Coleoptera 
of these particular islands, fusing into it the additional matter 
accumulated by recent explorers, and revising the whole in 
accordance with the latest conclusions at which I have been 
able to arrive on the question of classification and affinities. 

So far as my own work is concerned, although the elabora- 
tion of this volume has occupied but eight or nine months, 
its subject-matter may be said to have been in constant pro- 
gress since the autumn of 1847 — when I commenced my first 
sojourn at Madeira. Three prolonged visits in that island, 
undertaken at different periods of the year, supplied the basis 
for my ' Insecta Maderensia,' which appeared in 1854 ; and 
a subsequent residence there, during the summer of 1855, 
added to the material which was placed in my hands by 
various naturalists (including the Rev. R. T. Lowe, the late 
Mr. Bewicke, Senhor Moniz, the Barao do Castello de Paiva, 
Messrs. Leacock, Mason, Park, Ross, and others), enabled 
me to prepare a more complete ' Catalogue of the Madeiran 
Coleoptera,' which was published (by the Trustees of the 
British Museum) in 1857. It was at the close of that same 
year that my thoughts were first directed to the Canaries, — 



i 



PREFACE. Vll 

my friend John Gray, Esq., having liberally offered to take 
me, in his yacht 'the Miranda/ on a cruise amongst the 
islands of that Group. Mr. Gray being equally anxious with 
myself to investigate the fauna, I felt that this proposal 
(which included likewise his valuable assistance in matters 
entomological) was not to be rejected; and accordingly in 
January of 1858 we reached our destination, and, after being 
joined by the Rev. R. T. Lowe (who was passing the winter in 
Teneriffe) , began our researches in the Canarian archipelago, 
visiting the different parts of it in rotation. Although 
Mr. Gray's continuance with us was cut short by his desire 
to cross the Atlantic on his homeward route, I nevertheless 
remained in the Canaries until the following July; and, 
having become much interested in the result of a six-months' 
toil, I again left England, at the close of 1858, and spent 
from February to July of 1859 amongst the same islands — 
principally, as before, in company with Mr. Lowe. 

On my return home in the summer of 1859, I commenced 
the almost hopeless operation of throwing into systematic 
order, and examining critically, every single specimen (some 
20,000, at the very least) which I had accumulated during 
these two Canarian campaigns, as well as those which were 
amassed by Mr. Gray at the beginning of our first trip ; and 
I had likewise the advantage of a few smaller collections, and 
types, communicated by Dr. Heer, M. Hartung, the Barao 
do Castello de Paiva, MM. Chevrolat, Schaum, Deyrolle, &c., 
from the continent. Yet, in spite of this vast amount of 
combined material, I found that there were some wide gaps 
in the local distribution of the several forms, — owing to 
certain islands, particularly Gomera, having been visited by 
us in comparative haste, and during the depth of winter; 
and it seemed, therefore, well nigh presumptuous to attempt 



Vlll 



PREFACE. 



even an approximate Coleopterous fauna of the whole archi- 
pelago. It was at this juncture that my friend Dr. Crotch, 
with time and energy at his disposal, professed himself ready 
to be enlisted in a good cause, and to essay the difficult task 
of exploring Gomera more thoroughly. Consequently in the 
spring of 1862, having procured a tent and the necessary 
appendages, he set sail for the islands ; and after a few 
months^ residence, chiefly in Gomera hut partly in Teneriffe, 
he brought back a noble memento of his labours — not only 
in an abundance of careful observations and most extensive 
material, but by his having added no less than 44 actual 
novelties to the entire Canarian list. With this great and 
valuable accession, therefore, from the exact department 
of the Group whence it was most needed, I felt myself better 
able to undertake my ^Catalogue of the Canarian Coleoptera ;' 
and it was accordingly published in June of 1864. 

I have been induced to go thus at length into the history 
of the material from which my recent Canarian Catalogue 
was compiled, in order to show more clearly the exact posi- 
tion in which I now stand with respect to the data which 
have accumulated since its appearance. Whilst its sheets 
were passing through the press. Dr. Crotch, accompanied this 
time by his brother Mr. G. R. Crotch (so justly celebrated 
as one of our most accomplished Coleopterists), was preparing 
for a second trip to the Canaries — with the intention of re- 
visiting Gomera, and of exploring likewise the stUl more 
distant island of Hierro. It would have been useless for me 
to think of postponing my volume until their return ; for it 
was already nearly in type, and moreover, having been 
undertaken for the Trustees of the British Museum, I was 
not at liberty to suspend its progress. But, true to their 
arrangements, the Messrs. Crotch divided the summer of 



i 



PREFACE. IX 

1864 between Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro, — ^returning, as 
indeed might have been anticipated from collectors so accu- 
rate and indefatigable, with a goodly booty. I will not ven- 
ture to speculate on the number of specimens which they 
amassed ; but it must have been more than half that of my 
own, which I estimated [ore rotundo) at 20,000. The species 
of course were not nearly so numerous as those which I my- 
self met with — for they were obtained in only three islands, 
whereas mine were from the whole seven ; nevertheless their 
researches were beyond all expectation successful — ^for, in 
addition to swelling out very considerably the local lists of 
the particular islands which they visited (as will be seen by a 
reference to the pages of this treatise), they increased the 
entire fauna by actually 77 species which had not until then 
been detected in the Canarian archipelago. 

I will now only add that, whilst recording with gratitude 
the assistance I have received, in different ways, from nume- 
rous friends and correspondents, during the several years 
which have elapsed since my Atlantic labours were com- 
menced, my especial acknowledgements are due, first. 

To the Rev. R. T. Lowe — who has been my constant com- 
panion, since 1847, whilst encamping in many distant Ma- 
deiran localities, and sojourning (at intervals) in the various 
islands of both Groups, and without whose aid and local 
advice I could scarcely have attempted any general and con- 
tinuous work j secondly, 

To John Gray, Esq., in whose yacht ^ the Miranda ' I first 
visited the Canaries — a widely scattered archipelago, which, 
in all probability, I should never have explored had it not 
been for his liberality and zeal ; and lastly. 

To the Messrs. Crotch — whose invaluable and well-directed 
researches have been made to supplement my own with such 



PREFACE. 

tact and judgment that I am enabled to fill up the exact de- 
ficiencies which were most conspicuous in the Canarian fauna ; 
and who, with characteristic generosity, have entrusted their 
entire material to my care, and have permitted me to des- 
cribe their novelties in the Appendix of this volume. 



Teignmouth, Oct. 25, 1865. 



INTEODUCTOEY EEMAEKS. 



iHAT the progress of our knowledge on the subject of geographical 
distribution is mainly dependent on the collecting of accurate local 
data, few wiU dispute; and when the field of research (however 
small) from which those data have been gleaned constitutes an entire 
country, circumscribed by physical barriers, and is not merely a 
portion of some larger one, its fauna will gather in significance. On 
this account it is that, for a certain class of naturalists, islands possess 
a charm which is peculiarly their own, — each one being in itself a 
kind of separate, miniature world, in which we may wander at large, 
observe, and speculate. Not that the " speculations " to which I 
would allude will often be worth much ; but, constituted as we are, 
it is next to impossible not to indulge in them, and they certainly 
have the advantage of riveting our interest on these oceanic centres 
of creation ; whilst the facts on which they rely, if carefully and 
honestly recorded, cannot but prove of real value, sooner or later, in 
the solution of some of the many intricate questions arising out of 
the diffusion of animals and plants. 

The particular islands which have furnished the material for this 
Memoir, being many in number, would seem to have many corre- 
sponding points of interest — some of which suggest themselves almost 
intuitively. Such, for example, are their several degrees of similarity 
inter se, and dissimilarity, as evinced by the distribution of the species 
here enumerated; and not merely the relation (thus far) of the islands 
to each other in the three separate Groups, but also (which is much 
more important) of the Groups themselves. Then, again, there is 
the resemblance, or otherwise, of their entire fauna to that of southern 
Europe and northern Africa ; also the proportion which appears to 
exist of endemic creatures (or those which there is the strongest 
reason for believing are confined exclusively to the islands) ; and, to 
what families these latter more especially pertain, — a question of 
eminent significance, when their modes of life are taken into account, 
as bearing on the primitive conditions of the various districts which 



Xll 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



they inhabit. These, and others, are some of the many problems 
which a local Catalogue, if even approximately complete, should aid 
us in discussing. Perhaps however the greatest enigma of all on 
which the subject of the present volume, and the results therein 
arrived at, might tempt us to speculate, is the possibility of the 
Madeiras, Salvages and Canaries being in reality but the remaining 
portions of a vast continent which was broken up by some over- 
whelming catastrophe at a very remote epoch — ^but when nevertheless 
it was tenanted by the same forms which occur (in some instances 
slightly altered by isolation) on its now detached parts. But as this 
well-known theory, if referred to again, will be better placed towards 
the close of my Introductory chapter, I will not comment upon it 
here ; but I will proceed to the consideration of some drier details, 
about which there can be no room for doubt. 



General Statistics. — ^In the examination of the Coleoptera recorded 
in this work, I may state broadly, at the outset, that I have had but 
one object in view — namely, to arrive at the truth. Had I been 
anxious to augment the list, by straining, in the slightest degree, 
the importance of minute differences (which my better judgment led 
me to conclude were in reaUty the result of variation), I might have 
had abundant opportunities for doing so ; but in each separate case 
I have tried to take into account all the evidence that was before 
me, and whilst in some instances comparatively obscure distinctions 
have seemed sufficient for indicating a true species, in others I have 
allowed the widest limits for aberration. As a general principle, this 
must be philosophical, — to any one who believes in species as they are 
commonly understood by that term ; for they cannot all be equally 
plastic, and will therefore vary — each in its own way, and in precise 
accordance with its inherent capacity for external change. Hence, 
likewise, I have not failed to act honestly towards supposed species 
(when such happened to present themselves) which I had myself 
formerly described, but which further and more satisfactory material 
has since convinced me would be better treated as varieties, or insular 
states. In all cases where the latest evidence seemed to point towards 
an amalgamation of forms which I had assumed hitherto to be truly 
distinct, I have not hesitated to act upon it — ^whether the forms in 
question were originally named by myself, or by others*. 

* The following, consequently, which until now I had regarded as true species, 
have been suppressed in this Catalogue : H^droporus LyelHi, W. ; Myrmeco- 
xenus sordidus, W. ; Phlosophagus affinis, W. ; Hypera variabilis, Hbst ; Bruchiis 



m 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. Xlll 

It will be seen, on reference, that the total number of species which 
(so far as I am able to ascertain) have occurred up to the present 
time in the whole of these Atlantic islands combined is exactly 1449. 
After a careful computation, I find that (of these 1449 species) only 
215 have not been taken by myself — in some part or other of the 
three Groups ; whilst those which I believe to have been captured by 
myself alone (or which have escaped the united researches of the 
various other naturalists who have collected in diiferent portions of 
the archipelago) amount to 325 *. The 1449 species are distributed 
as foUows : 

Madeiras 661 

Salvages 24 

Canaries 1007 

If the species enumerated in this volume amount (as just stated) 
to 1449, the number of genera into which they fall I have considered 
to be 423. Of the 1449 species, I believe that 935 were first described 
by myself (in different publications and papers), as well as 82 of 
the 423 genera. Nevertheless, although this be the case, it does not 
follow that the whole of the species and groups which I happen to 
have been the first to characterize are necessarily confined to the 
islands (though it is unquestionably true that the greater portion of 
them appear to be in that predicament) ; for many have since been 
detected in Mediterranean latitudes t. 

As regards the species which are exclusively Atlantic (a somewhat 
difficult point to ascertain, except in the case of such wZira-indigenous 

Jloricola, W. ; Criocephalus pinetorum, W. ; Longitarsus consanguineus, W., and 
fractus, W. ; Ofhiics vestitics, W. ; Platystethiis fossor, W. ; and Conosoma livi- 
dum, Er.? 

* I need scarcely add that, next to myself, the Messrs. Crotch secured by far 
the greatest number of species which nobody else has hitherto met with in those 
islands— namely, 102. The next in order is the late Mr. Bewicke, to whose 
exertions belong 22. Thirdly follow MM. Webb and Berthelot (concerning 
many of whose supposed captures, however, I consider that further evidence is 
required) and the Barao do Castello de Paiva, who number 11. Then comes the 
late Dr. Heineken, who obtained 8 (though most of them are, like those of MM. 
Webb and Berthelot, extremely doubtful as regards habitat). Then succeed 
Messrs. Leacock and Park, to each of whom pertain 5 which no other collector 
has yet fallen in with. Mr. Gray is answerable for 4 ; Senhor Moniz, and Dr. C. 
Wolff for 3 ; M. de la Perraudiere for 2 ; and M. Hartung, Mr. J. J. Eoss, 
Mr. F. A. Anderson, and Mrs. Phelps for 1. Those of MM. Webb and Berthelot 
and Dr. Heineken, which alone contain species of unsatisfactory habitats, will 
be noticed more particularly — further on. 

t Only one new genus — namely Ptinodes — has been proposed in the present 
Catalogue, though the names of two others (Nitpus and Eremotes) have been 
changed ; but no less than 75 species, now for the first time defined, have been 
established in its Appendix. Of these 75 novelties, 57 were found by the Messrs. 
Crotch. 



XIV 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



forms as TarpMus and the Laparoceri), this appears to be the right 
place for a remark on which I would desire to lay considerable stress. 
Of the 1449 species here registered, it will be seen from the Topo- 
graphical Index that 1039 (or aU those in italics) are treated as 
peculiar to the islands, whilst the remaining 410 are looked upon as 
known elsewhere (chiefly in central and southern Europe, or northern 
Africa). I need scarcely add, however, that that number (1039) must 
be greatly reduced if we would gain an approximate idea of the species 
which are absolutely endemic in these oceanic Groups ; for many of 
them will doubtless be found in Mediterranean countries, and a cer- 
tain proportion msij possibly be but geographical modifications of 
species (the names of which I have usually indicated within brackets, 
prefixing to them an -^— ) which are found in higher latitudes. 
Hence, the italics merely imply that the species which are entered in 
that particidar type have not hitherto been recorded, so far as I am, 
aware, except for these islands ; but they do not indicate my belief 
that so large an amount of the species are necessarily peculiar to the 
archipelago *. ^Hj 

But since a very considerable number of the forms are most un- ^il 
mistaJceably aboriginal — being either attached to particular plants ' 
which do not grow in other regions, or belonging to types which are 
manifestly insular, it seems desirable in a tabular catalogue to note 
all such by some simple mark ; and I have, therefore, prefixed to 
them an asterisk (*). So that whilst every species which is italicized 
will bear the character imposed upon it (seeing that / have not been 
able to ascertain that it has hitherto been recorded elsewhere), and 
whilst also many both of those tuhich are italicized and those which 
are not appear to be truly indigenous, it is only those to which an 
asterisk is additionally appended that I would regard as (par excel- 
lence) endemic, and therefore not likely to be found in any other 
country. The number of these last-mentioned species, which may 
be called " wZ^ra-indigenous " (as being the very avToyQoves of the 
soil), appears to be about 700. And hence we may arrive at the 
conclusion that, of the 1449 species which have been observed (up 
to the present time) in these three oceanic Groups, nearly one-half 



* After the above explanation, it will not appear absurd that in a very few 
(exceptional) instances even undoubtedly imported insects (such as the Ithizopertha 
bifoveolata and the Adelina f armaria, which are probably American) should be 
inserted in italics. The fact is, I have no means of knowing absolutely that they 
have yet been met with in any other country ; and therefore I had no choice but 
to italicize them. Yet it is quite certain, nevertheless, that they do not belong, 
in reality, to the Atlantic fauna at all. 



I 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XV 

would seem to be peculiar to the province of which the several islands 
are detached parts. 

If we turn to the tabular list given at the end of this volume, it 
is interesting to remark that the larger Sections into which the 
Coleoptera are usually supposed to be subdivided retain pretty much 
the same relative proportions (inter se) in the Madeiras and Canaries. 
Thus, in both instances, the BJiynchopliora (or weevils) take the lead, 
whilst the Eucerata (or Longicorns) occupy the lowest place, and the 
Hydradephaga (or water-beetles) nearly the lowest. The other 
great Divisions (nine in number) change places a little in the two 
Groups ; but the alteration is very slight and unimportant, and leads 
to no general results worth taking into account. But the wonderful 
prevalence of the Curculionids in all the islands is a salient fact ; 
whilst the extreme scarcity of the Cerambicidce — of which I consider 
that only ten exponents which are unquestionably indigenous have 
yet been brought to light, though (including those which are natur- 
alized) 22 have been admitted into the present Catalogue — is equally 
remarkable. This being the case, there is little to be said concerning 
the difference presented by the relative proportions of the primary 
Groups of the Coleoptera in the Madeiras and Canaries respectively 
— seeing that in both clusters they follow each other in nearly the 
same order ; and therefore I need not occupy space by the insertion 
of two separate lists, compiled to show this at a glance. But the 
annexed Table will indicate the numerical development of the dif- 
ferent Sections in the entire archipelago : 

Rhynchophora 282 

Necrophaga 219 

Brachelytra 215 

Geodephaga 188 

Heteromera 172 

Priocerata 135 

Tliytophaga 64 

Cordylocerata 64 

Pseudotrimera 30 

Philhydrida 29 

Hydradephaga 29 

Eucerata 22 

14^ 

After what has just been said concerning the very great relative 
correspondence (in numerical development) of the 12 primary Sections 
of the Coleoptera in the Madeiras and Canaries respectively, we should 



XVI 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



anticipate that there would be a marvellous Bimilarity in the actual 
faunas of the two Groups — particularly when we recollect that their 
physical conditions are nearly alike, and that the distance which 
separates them is but trifling. And, accordingly, it will be found 
that the genera are, on the whole, pretty much the same in both 
archipelagos ; for although the more extensive list furnished by the 
Canaries naturally includes within it many well-known forms (such 
as Nehria, Carabus, Silplia, Hispa, Zophosis, Tentyria, Pimelia, Oossy" 
phics, and Ocypus) which are absent from Madeira, the types which are 
most esoteric, or peculiar, do decidedly permeate the entire archipe- 
lago — giving it a unity of character which it is impossible to mistake. 
And yet, in spite of this, if we descend lower in the scale, and look 
to the absolute species^ it is surprising to find that tlieir coincidence I 
falls far short of what we should have been led to expect from the 
above considerations ; for whilst (as already stated) the number which 
has been observed in the Madeiras is 661, and in the Canaries 1007, 
only 238 have yet been detected which are common to the Groups. 
Moreover even of that number there are exactly 38 which we may 
properly deduct, as being (like the Carpophili, Silvani, Sitophili, 
Alphitobii, Gnathoceri and TrihoUum) unmistalceable importations 
through the medium of commerce, and which therefore have no real 
connexion with the Atlantic fauna ; in which case there wiU remain 
but 200 belonging equally to the Madeiras and Canaries. How we 
are to interpret this remarkable fact I will not now stop to conjec- 
ture ; but I may perhaps have occasion, further on, to allude to it 
again*. 

Local Statistics. — In investigating the natural history of an oceanic 
Group, it should be borne in mind that we have a far more intricate 
task to achieve than if our field of research, had been a continuous 
land. In the latter case, it is but a sim/le (though more or less pro- 



■ 



I 



* After discarding the 38 species above referred to, which have without doubt 
been introduced through human instrumentality (as indeed is the case with them 
in almost every country of the civilized world), it is marvellous to note how few 
there are even of the remaining 200 which I should regard as positively endemic. 
In fact no less than 66 of these, there can be little question, must have been natu- 
ralized within a comparatively recent period ; and even the 134 to which we 
are thus ultimately reduced contains but a small proportion which are purely 
" Atlantic," — the majority of them being found equally in Mediterranean 
countries. So that the actual species which range over the entire archipelago 
would appear to be not only few in number (compared with the extent of the 
Madeiran and Canarian faunas), but also on the whole commonplace, — and that, 
too, whilst the most peculiar and characteristic genera in the two Groups are 
absolutely identical. 




INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XVU 

longed) operation with which we are concerned ; for the fact of a 
species having been found once in any part of a given country, is 
sufficient for its name to be entered into that country's fauna. But 
when it is an archipelago that we have to deal with, instead of an 
unbroken tract, a Catalogue (if it is to be worth anything, in point 
of accuracy) must not only record the united productions of the whole, 
but likewise those of each individual part ; and the labour will con- 
sequently be increased, in proportion to the number of islands which 
it is our duty to examine. Nor is the question materially affected 
whether the latter be extensive or minute, for the real difficulty lies 
— not so much in prosecuting our researches on them when there as 
in reaching them at all, and that, too, sufficiently often to enable us to 
gain a knowledge of what is found in them at different seasons of 
the year. Each island is, literally, a country in itself (whether large 
or small), and must be investigated separately, — the commonest 
species of each having to be added up with as much care and veracity 
as if that particular island were the only one we had to ransack ; 
and when we consider that, in the present instance, some of the 
islands are well-nigh inaccessible, and that their extremes are re- 
moved from each other by at least 400 miles of stormy ocean, it will 
be admitted that I do not exaggerate the difficulty which a thorough 
exploration of the whole of them must of necessity involve. 

In the Atlantic clusters which have supplied the material for this 
monograph, the islands (exclusive of mere rocTcs, which of course 
cannot be taken into account) are 14 in number ; and some of the 
uninhabited ones are so dangerous to approach that they are scarcely 
accessible during the winter months. In the case however of the 
three Desertas of the Madeiran Group, I think that there is no real 
need to enumerate the species of each of them separately (although 
I have done so, nevertheless, and have used the utmost caution in 
preventing an intermixture) ; for not only are the islands exceedingly 
small, so that they could not singly be contrasted with the others in 
the archipelago, but they are likewise so barely separated inter se 
that they form a little system of their own, and there can be no pos- 
sible doubt that they were once united. Perhaps, too, the same 
might be said of the Salvages ; for although they are removed from 
each other by as much as nine or ten miles, the distance is but slight 
compared with that which isolates them from the Madeiras and Ca- 
naries ; whilst, as in the instance of the Desertas, their area is so 
diminutive that we may well be permitted to treat them also as one 
— at any rate until we have acquired a more perfect knowledge of 

b 



XVlll INTRODUCTOUY REMARKS. ^^^^^H 

their fauna. Hence, for the above reasons, and in order somewhat 
more to equalize the different portions of these widely scattered 
Groups, we will regard the Desertas and Salvages (mc7i, collectively) 
as one ; in which case the following list will show the exact number 
■of species which have been observed, up to the present date, in the 
several islands (as thus understood) of the whole archipelago*. 

Observed in Madeira proper 598 

Porto Santo 160 

Northern Deserta 22 1 

Central 77 [ Desertas 87 

Southern 35 ) 

Great Salvage . . 20 I g^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ g^ 

Great Piton .... 5 1 " 

Lanzarote 277 

Fuerteventura 261 

Grand Canary 341 

Tenerifte 578 

Gomera 396 

Palma 258 

Hierro 224 

It will be seen that these numbers are very much in accordance 
with the relative sizes of the islands, and their greater or less fer- 
tility; though doubtless they have also been regulated, in some 
degree, by the fact of certain of them having been better explored 
than others. And after what has already been stated on the extreme 
difficulty of filling up the local lists of each separate island in so large 
and scattered an assemblage, I need scarcely repeat, what I insisted 
upon in my late Canarian Catalogue, that, although of course the 
faunas of the different islands are to a great extent composed of species 
which are common to them all, nevertheless, so far as the labour of 
observation is concerned, the whole of these numbers (which amount, 
in the aggregate to 3252) might have represented distinct species ! 
So that when we further recollect that every unit of that number 
corresponds to the positive assertion of some Jiabitat-islayid, accu- 
rately ascertained, and is independent of the particular localities 
within the island (which are recorded for each, either in this or my 
other volumes), it will be perceived that the "■ 3252 '^ is really the 
exponent of a vast amount of solid work. In spite of this, however, 

" Although it has seemed desirable to treat the Desertas and Salvages in the 
collective way that I have done, nevertheless, for tlie sake of accuracy, I have 
given likewise the number of the species wliich have been met with hitherto on 
each of the email islands which compose them. 




INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XIX 

there is yet much to be done in all the islands, though unquestionably 
less in Madeira proper and Teneriffe (which have been comparatively 
well ransacked) than in any of the remainder. The only ones which 
I have not myself visited are the Salvages ; for although a landing 
was attempted there by Mr. Gray and myself, from his yacht, in 
January 1858, the sea was running so high at the time, and the 
rocks are so dangerous, that we could not accomplish it, and had to 
pass on to the Canaries. But their area (even combined) is very 
small, and it can hardly be expected that many species will be found 
on them. Still, the few that Jiave been obtained from thence (hitherto 
only by Mr. Leacock, of Funchal, and the Barao do Castello da Paiva) 
I am bound to add are most interesting and significant ; and I can 
but express a hope that some enterprising naturalist may yet arise to 
take them specially in hand — fx)llowing the example of the Messrs. 
Crotch, who so nobly investigated Gomera. 

Importance of accuracy. — Before proceeding further, I may perhaps 
be permitted to call attention to the paramount importance, in pre- 
paring a Catalogue like the present one, of the most perfect truthful- 
ness on the question of habitat. Hence it has been my endeavour to 
use the greatest possible caution in filling up the lists of the separate 
islands, and to admit no species into them which rested upon unre- 
liable evidence. In the majority of cases where an insect has been 
communicated to me with the name of an island appended to it which 
I had reason to regard as loose and untrustworthy, I have preferred 
the omission of the species from that island's f?iuna to the risk of a 
possible error, — seeing that a mere omission is but trifling, whereas 
a fault of commission would place permanently upon record a serious 
topographical blunder. If, in spite of this, however, I have in a very 
few instances conceded a species to an island upon evidence which 
did not completely satisfy me, it will be observed that these excep- 
tional cases are always guarded either by a note of interrogation 
or an express statement of the authority on which their insertion 
depends. 

This absolute necessity for accuracy (on the subject of localities), 
in a topographical enumeration, compels me to advert to the grievous 
want of it displayed by several of my continental correspondents who 
have from time to time forwarded to me their material. It is chiefly 
from Paris that the specimens to which I now allude have been sent ; 
and it really does appear as if the label " Teneriffe " was the only one, 
for Canarian species, that ever suggested itself to our well-intentioned 

b2 



XX 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



entomological neighbours. Almost without an exception, the insects 
of that archipelago which I have hitherto received have been em- 
bellished with this universal ticket ; yet there is nothing of which I 
am more sure than that a large proportion of them were never found 
in Teneriffe at all — being in point of fact from one of the two eastern 
islands of the Group, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, where the fauna 
is unmistakeably characteristic, and possesses more of an African ele- 
ment than is the case elsewhere. But these Coleoptera are neverthe- 
less communicated as unquestionably " Teneriffan," and circulated 
throughout Europe as such — probably for no better reason than that 
they had been received from some careless amateur who made his 
head quarters in Teneriffe, and who did not think it worth while to 
preserve a record of the exact islands whence his material was ob- 
tained. And thus a geographical error is at once established in 
collections, which no amount of after-protest (from those who have 
studied the distribution in situ) can hope to neutralize. It may 
perhaps be urged that a blunder of that sort is simply inevitable, on 
account of the specimens having been received as nominally coming 
from Teneriffe ; but I reply that it was the duty of those to whom 
they were first consigned to sift the evidence for the habitat before 
reasserting the latter in positive terms, and if they found it (as, in 
this case, they manifestly would) to be untrustworthy, not to stereo- 
type them as Teneriffan — but to call them, merely, " Canarian." 
This latter would have been perfectly correct, and it entirely satisfies 
the ordinary requirements of naturalists ; whereas the former is 
absolutely untrue, and perpetuates a falsehood. I am fully aware 
that these remarks will make no practical difference in their mode 
of labelling ; but is it too much to ask of such Coleopterists whether 
the omitting to point out some exact locality, or islaud (which is 
seldom required to he known), ought not to be preferable to a down- 
right misstatement?* . 

. . m 

The * Histoire NatureUe des lies Canaries.' — But before dismissing 
my plea for accuracy, I feel bound to say a few words, also, on the 
strange absence of it, so conspicuously exhibited, in the meagre list 
of Coleoptera (numbering but 179 species !) which was prepared for 
the ponderous Canarian work of MM. Webb and Berthelot. In the 

* On one occasion I received from a Parisian correspondent an Heteromerous 
insect even from the Cape de Verdes (a most unmistakeable species, which is 'quite 
peculiar to those islands) with the eternal label " Teneriffe " fastened to it ! But 
this qnasi-habitat, however much insisted upon, was really too ridiculous to do 
any permanent harm to the cause of entomological geography. 



■ 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXI 

marvellously loose manner in which that list is strung together, as 
well as in the wrong determination of nearly every species which 
was not treated as new, in its entire freedom throughout from a 
single remark of either local or scientific interest, and in its complete 
silence on the great subject of habitats — so essential to every fauna, 
particularly one which treats of an island-Group, it is perhaps un- 
equalled by any Catalogue (of like pretensions) on record. True it 
is that the mateiial which sufficed for compiling it was about as poor 
and unsatisfactory as material could well be ; but still, bad as it 
was, it might have been done more justice to than was the case ; 
for when I examined the specimens in Paris I observed that nearly 
all of them had the names appended of their particular islands, 
whilst there were many small species amongst them which are not 
even alluded to in the published list. Moreover I have elsewhere 
recorded my belief that a few even of these 179 species are not Cana- 
rian at all, but were brought from Madeira by Mr. Webb, and that 
others were most likely either obtained from the opposite coast of 
Morocco or else were captured alive in some of the many trading 
vessels which ply between the Canarian islands and Mogadore*. 
And I may further add that this suspicion is supported by the other- 
^\^se almost inexplicable fact that the very small collection of MM. 
Webb and Berthelot contains at least eleven species (after disposing 
of a few others whose presence as " novelties " merely consists in 
their being wrongly identified) which are totally unrepresented in 
the enormous masses of material, numbering upwards of 30,000 
specimens, which have been taken subsequently in the same field of 
research, and which have passed through my own hands. This com- 
pels me to look with distrust on at all events some of these eleven 
species — about seven of which are common European ones. Their 
names are as follows : — Dytiscus circumflexus, F. ; Berosus spinosus, 
Stev. ; Attageyius pellio, L. ; Ootoma obscura, Br. ; Hesjperophanes 
roridus, Br. ; Clytus Webbii, Br. (probably a variety of the C. A-punc- 
tatus, F.) ; Mononyx variegatus, Br. (perhaps an Acalles) ; Tentyria 
interrupta, Lat. ; Pinielia fomicata, Hbst (cited as the P. obesa, Sol.), 
and sjjarsa, Br. ; and Ischnomera melanura, L. (quoted under the 
title of " Dytilus rufus, Fisch."). I have nevertheless admitted 
these eleven species into the fauna, though in each case my reasons 
for doing so are published ; and I have sufficiently guarded myself 
from recognizing them as positively Atlantic until further material 
has been brought to light. There are four, however-, recorded by 
* Cf. ' Cat. Can, Col.,' ^jossm, but especially pp. 8, 55, 438, and 469. 



XXll 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



MM. "Webb and Berthelot, which I have altogether rejected ; though 
perhaps they might have been allowed to enter the list on the same 
footing with the remainder — the evidence in each case being equally 
bad. They are the Cicindela nilotica, Dej. ; Colaspis barbara, F. ; 
Erodlus europceus, F. ; and Akis acuminata, F., — which are never- 
theless alluded to, in foot-notes, in their proper places. I really 
cannot take into account the Clytus griseus, which figures, in addi- 
tion to the C. Webbii, in MM. Webb and Berthelot's catalogue, — 
because the griseus is acknowledged to be a mere variety of the 
4-punctatus, to which species it seems probable that even the C. Webbii 
equally pertains ! And as it appears likely that there is no Clytus 
at all which is absolutely Canarian, I think that if one of these two 
are admitted on the very questionable evidence of Mr. Webb (c/. 'Cat. 
Can. Col.' p. 390, note), it is quite as much as ought to be ventured 
upon*. 

Dominant Forms. — Reverting to the statistics, it may be interest- 
ing to note what the particular forms are which are most dominant 
throughout the archipelago, as well as a few of those which would 
seem par excellence to be characteristic of certain parts of it. And 
when the great preponderance of the weevils (to which I have already 
called attention) is taken into account, we perhaps shall not be sur- 
prised that one of the primary features which meet us at the outset 
should consist in the extraordinary development of some closely 
allied types of the Curculionidce. It is the subfamily Laparocerides 
to which I refer, — a group which is not only monstrously expressed 
(though under different species, and slightly different genera) both in 
the Madeiras and Canaries, but one likewise which is so essentially 
Atlantic that the whole of its exponents (in these islands) which have 






* Some of the above remarks may be applied with equal justice to 8 species of 
a still smaller collection, which was formed in Madeira by the late Dr. Heineken ; 
for although I do not doubt that they were really obtained in that island, I sus- 
pect nevertheless that all of them (except perhaps one — the Cholovocera Madera) 
were mere accidental importations from more northern latitudes. And in entire 
accordance with this hypothesis is a note which was communicated by the late 
Mr. Bewicke, — who ascertained from a merchant resident on the spot the positive 
fact that at any rate a few insects were once captured amongst some foreign 
timber, in a yard on the Funchal beach, and were given to Dr. Heineken ; and 
that another was found on the roof of the Cathedral, which is situated imme- 
diately behind the custom-house. The following are the names of these 8 (more 
or less doubtful) species of Dr. Heineken — which nobody else has since met with 
in Madeira, and six of which it will be perceived are ordinary European ones : — 
Gyrinus natator, L. ; Cholovocera Madera, Westw. ; Chasmatopterus nigrocinctus, 
W. ; Crioceris asparagi, L. ; Gasfrophym polygoni, L. ; Cassida nebuhsa, L. ; 
Coccinella l4-^ustulata, L. ; and Tenebrio molitor, L. 



i 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXIU 

hitherto been detected, amounting to no less than 57, appear to be 
absohitely endemic ! Of these 57, 19 are found in the Madeiras, 
and the remaining 38 in the Canaries. Of the 19 Madeiran ones, 15 
belong to my genus Atlantis, and only 4 to La/parocerus (even whilst 
merging Cyphoscelis into the latter) ; whereas of the 38 Canarians, 
33 are Laparoceri, and merely 5 are Atlantkles, — from which it 
follows that Atlantis may be regarded as almost exclusively Ma- 
deiran, and LaparocertLs proper as Canarian*. 

After Laparocerus (and its attendant satellites, Atlantis and Cy- 
phoscelis — which perhaps ought scarcely to be treated as more than 
subdivisions of it), the genus Homalota has the largest number of 
exponents — namely 43 ; but as I believe that the majority of them 
will be found ultimately to be common European ones, and since 
these minute Staphylinids are eminently liable to become diifused 
(by human and other agencies) over the civilized world, I lay but 
little stress upon this fact. The next in order, however, is most 
significant and wondei-ful ; for it seems barely credible that the 
group Acalles, of which about 27 species only have as yet been 
detected in the whole of Europe, should (in conjunction with the 
closely allied genus Echinodera) possess as many as 36 in these 
Atlantic islands ! True it is that some 4 or 5 of them have hitherto 
been so imiDcrfectly examined (on account of the deficiency of ma- 
terial) that I can scarcely regard their diagnoses as altogether satis- 
factorj^ ; nevertheless I do not believe (so long as slight permanent 
differences, in sculpture and colouring, are looked upon as necessarily 
specific) that that number can ever be much reduced, unless certain 
representative forms in the Madeiras and Canaries be considered but 
modifications (brought about by isolation, or local influences) of 
single species which were aboriginal. For my own part I am in- 
clined to suspect that the real clue to this extraordinary number of 
apparent species may reside in the fact that insular phases have in 
many cases been matured from primeval types ; for the genus Acalles 
seems to be emphatically " sportive," or subject within reasonable 
limits to external change. But there is perhaps no Coleopterous 
group in this entire archipelago which, so far as my own observa- 

* So local are these 57 exponents of the subfamily Laparocerides, or so re- 
stricted to their particular islands (and even districts), that I believe there is no 
single instance of any one of them occurring both at the Madeiras and Canaries ; 
for although it is true that I have queried for the latter Group the Laparocerus 
morio (which is so abundant throughout the Madeiran archipelago), I neverthe- 
less cannot but feel a suspicion that some mistake may have arisen concerning 
the habitat of tlie Baron Paiva's two examples of it, which (up to the present 
time) are all the evidence for its admission into the Canarian fauna. 



XXIV INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. ^BiSffll^H 

tions would imply, is altogether so difficult, and concerning which 
therefore we have yet so mitch to learn, as Acalles ; and I must conse- 
quently be content to leave some of the problems which it suggests 
unsolved, and will merely refer to certain remarks which I have 
made on that subject at p. 270 of this work*. 

Scarcely less numerous than Acalles — in reality perhaps more so 
(for there must be many still undetected) — are the species of that 
singular genus Tarphius, which (so far as yet brought to light) 
amount to 34. On the whole, indeed, I should look upon the Tarphii 
as emphatically the most characteristic of all the Coleoptera in this 
widely scattered archipelago, at any rate of those which constitute an 
extensive generic assemblage ; for not only are they (in every instance) 
unmistakeably endemic, and apparently adapted to the particular 
regions which contain them, but likewise so sedentary and phleg- 
matic in their modes of life, and so circumscribed in their several 
areas of diffusion, that it is impossible to resist an inquiry as to what 
the particular offices may have been which they were originally de- 
stined to fulfil in the economy of those remote and elevated sylvan 
districts which they would seem (almost solely) to inhabit. Though 
not absolutely peculiar to the islands — for a single representative 
occurs in the south of Europe, and a second has lately been found 
in Algeria — there can be little doubt that the Atlantic province of 
which these Groups are now the detached parts was the great pri- 
meval centre whence the Tarphii emanated, and to which, in point 
of fact, they are even still principally confined. 

Helops likewise is very largely expressed, and perhaps also more 
difficult to investigate satisfactorily than even Acalles, As in the 
case of the latter, it seems to be preeminently " sportive ; " so that 
we are often left in doubt as to whether forms which appear, in par- 
ticular districts and elevations, to be tolerably well-defined are more 
in reality than local states of species which are plastic and widely 
spread. Still I believe that there are but few (not more than about 
five) of those here enumerated which will be likely to have their 
specific claims called in question ; and since it is most improbable 
that all the Atlantic representatives have yet been brought to light, 

* Although often self-evident, these " representative " species (not only in 
Acalles, but likewise in various genera) are frequently so doubtful that I have 
thought it safer not to attempt to indicate them universally in my Tabular Cata- 
logue, lest too much stress should be laid on the subject, and mj conclusions 
should consequently be relied upon too confidently by those who are not disposed 
to take the trouble to examine for themselves. I have always, however, alluded 
to them, where the evidence seemed to warrant it, in the body of the work. 



■ 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXV 

I think that the number which I have recorded, namely 27, will not 
be found, although thus large, to have been exaggerated. 

Still more remarkable than Helops, because usually less developed 
in southern countries, is the genus Calathus — of which as many as 
23 exponents have already been met with. It is however in the 
Canaries that the Calathi are most dominant, no less than 19 of the 
above number being peculiar to that archipelago. After Calathus, 
the small flower-infesting Malacoderms comprised in the genus 
Attains^ are (as observed hitherto) the most numerous — as many as 
22 species of them, chiefly Canarian, having been detected. Then 
follow Hegeterf, Longitarsus, and DromiusX, each of which is 
represented by 20 members. The first of these, indeed, namely 
Hegeter (which is principally Canarian), is, like Helops, a very 
puzzling group — the species being singularly variable, and difficult 
to define. That there are at least, however, ten forms amongst them 
which were aboriginal I have little doubt ; but whether the remain- 
der are more than races, well expressed in the central parts of their 
several districts but shading off towards the upper and lower limits 
of them, I consider very questionable. 

So far as "has been ascertained up to the present date, Apion and 
Pliilonthus have each 18 exponents, a large proportion of which 
however I believe to be mere introductions from higher latitudes. 
Arthrodes and Anthicras have 15, the former representing in the 
Canaries (to which it seems to be confined) Erodius of Mediterranean 
countries. Of Trechus, Bembidium, and Aphanarthrum 14 species 
have been brought to light ; but of the last — which is an exceedingly 
interesting little assemblage of minute Euphorbia-miestmg wood- 
borers, widely diffused over these various Atlantic islands (to which, 
apparently, it is peculiar) — we may expect to meet with many 
others, as yet undetected. In less important genera, Pterostichus 
and Saprinus are represented by 13 species ; Hydroporus, Sphcericus, 
and Pimelia (which last does not occur in the Madeiran Group) by 
12 ; Acrotrichis (i. e. TricJiopteryx), Atomaria, and Corticaria by 11 ; 
Anohium, Scymnus, and Lithocharis by 10; Tarus, Cryptophagus, 
Aphodius, Lichenophagus, Ocypus, and Trogophloeus by 9 ; and Li- 
partJirum, Caulotrupis (a Madeiran group of Phloeophagous Curcu- 
lionidce), Lixus, Haltica, CoccineUa, and Aleochara by 8. 

* I include Peeteropus amongst the Attali. 

t With Hegeter I include Thalpophila and Gnophota, which are scarcely more 
than subgeneric groups. 

\ I regard Dromius as including Blechrus and Metabletus. 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Deficiency of certain Types. — Although particular genera, which I 
have just alluded to, are largely indicated throughout the archipelago 
— a ]3roportion of them being actually endemic, whilst others (such 
as Tarpliius and the Laparocerides) appear merely to attain their 
maximum in these various islands — there are nevertheless some 
striking deficiencies in the fauna, consequent on the absence of many 
well-known and familiar groups. It is mainly, however, in the 
Madeiras that these gaps are noticeable ; though I think, perhaps, 
that the much less extensive surface afforded by the component 
parts of that cluster, as compared with the Canaries, may supply at 
all events a. partial clue to what might otherwise be difficult of ex- 
planation. Thus, the great division of the thalerophagous, flower- 
infesting Lamellicorns (better known as the Cetoniads, and their 
allies), although with about ten representatives in the Canaries, 
seem to have no existence in Madeira ; for the unique Chasmato- 
pterus nigrocinctus, on the strength of which I originally admitted it 
into the fauna, is unique still (after a lapse of 18 years), and I have 
little doubt therefore that it was accidentally imported from some 
other country. Then, in Madeira proper the monstrous family Ela- 
teridm appears to have no place ; and indeed in the entire Madeiran 
Group the little Coptostethus femoratus, found under stones in Porto 
Santo, and of excessive rarity, is (so far as observed hitherto) its 
sole exponent. Even in the Canaries the Elateridce are but feebly 
shadowed forth, — a small assemblage of species, closely simulating 
each other, and which I have referred to the Porto- Santan genus 
Coptostethus, being all that has yet been brought to light. I have 
elsewhere recorded my belief that the insertion, by MM. Webb and 
Berthelot, of the Cicindelidce into the Canarian list rested on insuffi- 
cient evidence ; and if this should prove to be the case, that widely - 
scattered family has not so much as a solitary witness throughout 
this whole archipelago ; for in the Madeiran Group I am quite 
satisfied that it does not occur. In the latter, also, the Buprestidce 
are but faintly traceable — their presence being vouched for, only, by 
a unique (but truly indigenous) Agrilus, which I captured during 
the summer of 1855 ; though in the Canaries, on the other hand, 
species have been met with. Amongst certain commonplace 



SIX 



genera which seem to be omitted in Madeira, but which have full 
play on the larger area presented by the Canaries, I may call atten- 
tion to the following : Nehria, Carahus, Silpha, Ilispa, ZopTiosis, 
Tentyria, Fimelia, Cossyphus, and Ocypus. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXVll 

Anomaloits Forms. — Although a considerable majority of the forms 
which are preeminently signijlcant, or characteristic of this Atlantic 
province, are members of largely developed groups (such as Lapa- 
rocerus, Atlantis, Hegeter, Helops, Acalles, and Tarphius), the most 
anomalous ones, as indeed might be anticipated, are not usually 
referable to extensive genera — being far oftener single species, for 
the reception of each of which a separate genus has been founded. 
Arranged according to the amount of their peculiarity, or departure 
from the nearest known types to which they respectively approxi- 
mate, I may call attention to the following 15 which display unusual 
eccentricity of structure ; and I have added, after each, the names 
of the families to which they severally belong : Onycholips (Curcu- 
lionidse), Aglycyderes (Anthribidae ?), Cossyphodes (Colydiadse?), 
Triotemnus (Tomicidse), Stereus (Anisotomidae), Euxestus (Erotylidae), 
Xenonychus (Histeridae), Xenorchestes (Anthribidae), Xenoscelis (Cu- 
cujida)), Lipommata, PentartJirum, Torneuma, and Echinosoma (Cur- 
culionidac), Casopus (Ptinida)), and Pseudanemia (Trachyscelidae). 

Blind Species. — Considering that blind insects are decidedly scarce 
in the order Coleoptera, we may be said to have a rather large 
number of them in these Atlantic islands, — no less than 22 species 
having been detected, the eyes of which are either totally absent or 
else so rudimentary and imperfect that they must be practically 
useless. The genera in which the organs of sight appear to me to 
be absolutely non-existent are Anommatus, TJiorictus ? (represented 
by four species), Lipommata, OnycJiolips, and Torneuma ; wliilst 
those in which they are exceedingly abortive, or nearly obsolete, are 
Cossyphodes, Cholovocera, Xenonychus, Metophthalmus (5 species), 
Pentatemnu^, Mesoxenus (2 species), Pselaphus palpiger, and Ache- 
nium subccecum. 

Ants'-nest Species. — So far as observed hitherto, the Coleoptera 
which are associated normally with Ants do not appear to be very 
numerous in these island-Groups ; but this may be partly due to the 
nests of the latter not having been sufficiently examined, and at the 
proper seasons of the year. The principal ones are the four Thoricti, 
Cossyphodes, and Sunius formicarum ; but it is likely that many of 
the smaller species enumerated in the present volume may, in reality, 
be more abundant in such situations than elsewhere ; and we may 
expect, also, that the hitherto unique Cholovocera Maderce will be 
found eventually to be of myrmecophilous habits. 



XXVlll 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Sand-infesting Coleoptera. — Seeing that the whole of these Atlantic 
Groups are of volcanic origin, and more or less mountainous in 
character, we should not anticipate the existence of those particular 
localities which are favourable for species of sand-infesting habits ; 
and accordingly in most parts of the archipelago (as, for instance, 
the central and western ones) we find but few traces of them. Yet 
there are districts, nevertheless, towards the east, both in the 
Madeiras and Canaries, which present all the conditions supposed to 
be necessary for creatures of that peculiar mode of life, and which 
so far resemble the low and sandy tracts on the opposite coast of 
Morocco as to introduce a sub- African element into the fauna. Such 
regions as these constitute a very significant feature, not only in 
Porto Santo (where the beds of calcareous sand which undulate 
around the base of the mountains are sometimes extensive), but 
likewise in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary, in each of 
which there are districts bordering upon the sea- shore which are 
entirely covered with loose drifting sand — often accumulated into 
hillocks and slopes of considerable dimensions, and more or less 
studded with such few plants as are able to maintain themselves in 
those arid wastes. We may therefore, for the sake of accuracy, 
class under the two following heads the species of the particular 
districts in question (each of which, in a general way, differs 
somewhat from the other: — (1) those which occur (beneath marine 
rejectamenta, &c.) along the edges of the sea, or in other h-acMsh 
spots, and which are principally of subsaline habits ; and (2) those 
which are found either on the dry sandy hillocks and ridges which 
commence behind the actual beach, and which often extend to some 
little distance inland, or in the calcareous localities which are situ- 
ated for the most part at a distinctly higher (though seldom at a 
very high) elevation, and in which the triturated sand is liable to 
become deposited in the inequalities, or depressions, of the exposed 
weather-beaten surface. Although the regions which I would thus 
define are apt to merge into each other, they are nevertheless, in a 
broad sense, so opposite in character that what I term the " sand- 
infesting Coleoptera" could scarcely be enumerated satisfactorily 
without some rough explanation (such as the above) concerning the 
nature of their respective habitats having first been given; and 
therefore in the subjoined list I have added the numbers (i) and 
(2), according as required, after each of the species, so as to afibrd 
an idea (occasionally, however, only approximate) of the hind of 
places in which the latter are normally to be found. The 13 which 



i 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



XXIX 



I have inserted in italics have been met with likewise, at Mogadore, 
on the opposite coast of Africa; and I may state that the little 
which has yet been brought to light from the sandy tracts along the 
western shores of Morocco seems to have so much in common with 
the species which characterize the lower districts in the eastern 
islands of these Atlantic Groups that it is impossible not to regard 
it as a portion of the same fauna*. 



Scarites gigas (2). 
Dyschirius armatus (l), 
Masoreus arenicola (l, 2). 
Pogonus salsipotens (l). 

Grayii (l). 

Dichirotrichus levistriatus (l). 
Aepys gracilicomis (l). 
T achy a sciiteUaris (l). 

centromaculatus (l). 

Cercyon littorale (1, 2). 
Acrotrichis fucicola (1). 
Ptenidium punctatum (l). 
Acritus punctum (l). 
Xenonychus fossor (2). 
Saprinus lobatus (2). 

erosus (2). 

apricarius (2).^ 

mundus (2). 

angulosus (2). 

minyops (2). 

ignobilis (2). 

nitididus (2). 

Ulster major (2). 
Psammodius sabulosus (2). 

porcicoUis (2). 

Epicometis femorata (2). 
Dignomus gracilipes (2). 
Lipomraata calcaratum (2). 
Pentatemnus arenarius (2). 
Onychohps bifureatus (2). 



Baris sellata (2). 
Tychius robustus (2). 

aridicola (2). 

Gronops hmatus (2). 
Rhytidorhinus brevitarsis (2). 
Thylacites obesulus (2). 
Sitona punctiger (2). 
Epilachna 4-plagiata (2). 

bella (2). 

Lithophilus deserticola (2). 
Zophosis bicarinata (2). 
Arthrodes subciliatus (2). 

subcostatus (2). 

costifrons (2). 

Tentyria BruUaei (2). 
Melanochrus Lacordairii (2). 
Pimelia granulicollis (2). 
Sclerum asperulum (2). 
Opatrum oblitum (2). 
Halonomus salinicola (l, 2). 
Pseudanemia brevicoUis (2). 
Trachyscelis aphodioides (l, 2). 
Phaleria bimaculata (l, 2). 

cadaverina (1, 2). 

omata (l, 2). 

ciliata (l, 2). 

Pseudostene fossoria (l, 2). 
Helops pallidus (2). 
Mecynotarsus semicinctus (2). 
Anthicus humilis (l). 



* In addition to the 13, included in the above list, which are common along 
the sandy shores on the opposite coast of Africa, the following 17 might likewise 
have been mentioned, had they been as strictly " sand-infesting" species : Pristo- 
nychus complanatus, Stenolophus Teutonus, Bermestes Frischii, Acritus minutus, 
Saprinus chalcites, Phyllognathus Silenus, Apkodius lividus, Corynetes rufipes, 
Mezium sulcatum, Anthicus instabilis, floralis, and hispidus, Aleochara puberula 
and crassizcscula, Heterothops minutus, Stemis guttida, and Trogophloeus ruficoUis. 



XXX 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Anthicus opaculus (2). 

dimidiatus (l). 

Phytosus dimidiatizs (l). 

nigriventris (l). 

balticus (2). 

Tachyusa maritima (l). 

simillima (l). 

Homalota plumbea (l). 

gregaria (l, 2). 

Aleocliara littoralis (1, 2). 



Aleochara nitida (l, 2). • 

binotata (1, 2). 

Creopliiliis maxillosus (2). 
Philonthus xantholoma (l). 

sericeus (l). 

Aclieniiim salinum (l). 
Sunius bimaculatus (l). 
Bledius j anuvianus ( 1 ) . 

cornutissimus (l). 

galeatus (l). 



To these 80 species perhaps several others might have been added, 
for many which are not noticed amongst them do certainly occur 
more in sandy places than elsewhere ; nevertheless as I wish to 
record those merely which are more particularly characteristic of the 
localities in question (whether saline, maritime, or calcareous), I 
believe that the above-mentioned ones wiU suffice for that purpose. 
Of the 80 species, there are apparently only 8 which are j^eculiar 
(so far as these Atlantic islands are concerned) to the Madeiras*, 
and one (Phaleria himaculata) to the Salvages ; so that the remaining 
71 (only 10 1 of which have been observed also in the Madeiran 
Group) are distributed over the Canarian archipelago. 

Euphorhian Fauna. — If, as just stated, the low and sandy tracts 
are sufficiently extensive even in these volcanic Groups, to introduce 
a distinct element into the fauna, but one which is dependent 
(secondarily) on the nature of the soil ; we shall hardly be surprised 
if certain peculiarities in the vegetation should, in like manner, be 
connected with species which are characteristic. That there are 
wel^defined areas, and altitudes, in which some particular plant, or 
set of plants, attains its maximum, and becomes dominant, is but 
the result of a comprehensive law of distribution which we see 
indicated, more or less plainly, in most countries of the world — and 
perhaps nowhere more so than in mountain-islands ; but it is seldom 
that the insects which pertain (often exclusively) to these natural 
"provinces" have been investigated, as such, with sufficient care. 
In the Madeiras and Canaries it is clear that the laurel-regions 
stand preeminent in importance ; for the primeval forests, once so 

* A'epys gracilicornis, lApommata calcaratum, Tychius robustus, Phaleria cili- 
ata, Hel(yps pallidus, Tachyusa marithna, Phytostis balticus, and Sunius bimacU' 
latus. 

t Cercyon Uttorale, Saprinus nitidulus and apricarius, Hister major, Psammo- 
dins sahulosus and porcicolUs, Homalota gregaria, Aleochara nitida and binotata, 
and Creophilus maxillosus. 



1 



I 

I 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXXI 

magnificent and vast, but now rapidly disappearing, were composed 
mainly of the Launnece, the bright leaves of which distilled from the 
surrounding atmosphere an unfailing supply of water — which, in its 
turn, kept up a luxuriant under-verdure, nourishing an entire fauna 
of its own*. And so, in the latter Group, the ancient Finals (or 
pine-woods), as well as the upland districts occupied by the various 
species of Broom (there known as the " Retamas "), and those which 
are clothed with the shrubby Cisti, or arborescent Heaths, have each 
of them their special quota to add to the general list ; yet it still 
remains for me to allude to another, and totally different, race of 
plants, which play a part so significant amongst the aboriginal vege- 
tation as to invest themselves with an interest second only to that 
which surrounds the great family of the laurels. 

The plants to which I refer are the Euphorbias — a monstrous 
assemblage of wonderful, and even fantastic, forms, which are widely 
distributed over this scattered archipelago, and which in the Canarian 
Group have acquired a marvellous ascendency. In the latter indeed 
there are whole tracts (especially towards the south of Grand Canary) 
absolutely clothed with them ; and some will occasionally attain a 
size so gigantic as to be almost comparable with dwarf gnarled oaks ; 
whilst the prickly stalks of the quaint, Cactus-'^e E. canariensis 
are, at the same time, so abundant on the rocky declivities of Tene- 
riffe, and the islands to the westward of it, as to constitute a really 
conspicuous feature in the landscape. It is on the dry sunny slopes 
of rather low and intermediate altitudes that the various Euphorbias 
seem more particularly to flourish ; yet a few of them (as, for in- 
stance, the noble E. mellifera of Madeira) ascend to a high elevation, 
and thrive in comparatively damp and cloudy regions at four or five 

* I once had a very pretty illustration of the almost magical effect produced 
even by a single tree, in helping to keep up a supply of water through this curious 
but natural process. Whilst collecting at a high altitude on the mountains of 
Madeira (in the upland region of the Fanal), a light-drawn cloud, so thin and 
vapoury as to be barely traceable, and quite insufficient to obscure the full glare 
of the sun, suddenly made its appearance. Being an ordinary occurrence I took 
no notice of it, but passed on to an old laurel which stood out, with its extended 
arms, isolated and vast, on the green park-like lawn, and commenced my re- 
searches beneath its shade. In a few minutes I found myself gradually becoming 
wet, and in a very few more the large drojjs began to distil upon me, one by one, 
in a most tmcomfortable manner ; so that I had to move a few yards away, into 
the broad sunshine, to dry myself. If one tree can be made the instrument for 
effecting so much, even in the merest haze, what must be the result, during the 
constant alternations of cloud and sunshine, when entire mountain-sides are 
thickly covered with them ? Yet the improvident inhabitants clear away their 
noble forests, rutlilessly and without hinderance ; and ultimately wonder that 
the streams have gradually diminished, and that the islands themselves, once a 
jimgle of luxuriance, are being slowly reduced to mere heaps of dust and .scoria?. 



XXXll 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



thousand feet above the sea. The greater number, however, delight 
in barren, stony places near the coast, where wind and sunshine 
seldom cease to fight for the mastery in either stunting or developing 
their growth. 

No one who believes in the adaptation of insect life to every 
special department of the vegetable kingdom could fail to anticipate 
the existence of a curious fauna attendant upon this remarkable 
assemblage of viscous shrubs. Yet I must own to considerable dis- 
appointment when, in company with Mr. Gray, I first penetrated 
(at the Canaries) into a thicket of them and found absolutely nothing. 
Still, however, I felt firmly persuaded that such an important set of 
plants could hardly occur without, at any rate, a certain number of 
Coleopterous parasites ; and we concluded therefore that the speci- 
mens in sound and vigorous health, such as those which we had 
examined, were not the ones likely to satisfy the requirements of 
an entomologist. Unfortunately, however, the old and decayed stems 
are much sought after for fuel, and so were not readily to be met 
with ; but when at length (in the north of Lanzarote) we came upon 
a quantity of them, erect and undisturbed, all doubt as to their pro- 
ductiveness was at an end. From that time I made it a constant 
practice to overhaul the dead Euphorbias, whenever they came to 
hand ; and it is surprising what a number of Coleopterous insects 
are supported by them, which we might in vain look for in any 
other situation. Already indeed about 50 species have been brought 
to light, which would appear to be exclusively of Eupliorhia-miQ^img 
habits; and we may be sure that many others yet remain to be 
found. But what struck me most, is the incredible mass of indivi-^ 
duuls by which some of them are represented ; for the Aphanarihra, 
particularly, are often in such multitudes that the rotten stalks and 
branches seem absolutely alive with them. And yet, in spite of 
this, so confined are they to that actual group of plants that, unless 
the latter be examined rigidly, one might ransack the islands from 
end to end and not obtain even one of them. And so also the 
Mesites euphorhice in Madeira and the M. fusiformis in the Canarian 
Group, which are well nigh universal amongst the decaying Eu~ 
phorbia-stems, are marvellously abundant; whilst the same might 
be said of the Eur ops impressicollis, which I feel satisfied will be 
found to permeate the entire archipelago. The following list, how- 
ever, wiU show what the exact species are which have been ascer- 
tained to frequent the Euphorbias ; but as my object is to register 
everything which (so far as observed hitherto) a collector would be 



I 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



XXXlll 



likely to meet with when investigating those singular shrubs, I have 
been compelled to admit a few which occur under other circum- 
stances likewise. These latter, which are not numerous, I have 
indicated by italics. There are six, however (captured beneath 
Euphorbia-hark), which have as yet been taken only once ; and of 
these, therefore, to which I have prefixed an asterisk, further 
evidence is required before we can pronounce them to be exclusively 
Euphorbian*. 



*Carpophilus tersus (C). 

Europs impressicoUis (M., C). 

duplicatus (C). 

Lipaspis caidicola (S., C). 
*Trogosita recta (C). 

latens (C). 

Caulonomus rhizophagoides (C). 

Lcemophloeus clavicollis (M., C). 

Xenoscelis deplauatus (C). 

Cryiitophayiis fmiformis (C). 
*Metophthalmu8 exiguus (M.). 

Corticaria maculosa (M., C). 

Thallestiis typhaeoides (C). 

subellipticus (C). 

Eubrachium politum (C). 

ovale (C). 

Eutriptus putricola (M., C). 

Teretrius cylindricus (C). 

Hololepta PeiTaudieri (C). 

Oryctes i)rolixus (C). 

Clerus Paivae (C). 

Piotes inconstam (C). 

Xyletinus flavicollis (C). 

latitans (C). 

desectus (C). 

*Anobium oculatum (C). 

Aphanarthrum Jubae (C). 

tuberculatum (C). 

annatum (C). 

canescens (C). 

canariense (C). 

pygmaeum (C). 

bicinctum (C). 

piscatorium (M., C). 



Aphanarthrum euphorbiae (M.). 

affine (C). 

glabrum (C). 

bicolor (M., C). 

lividum (C). 

pusilhmi (C). 

Liparthrum inarmatum (M., C). 

Lowei (C). 

ciirtnm (M., C). 

bicaudatum (C). 

Triotemnus subretusus (C). 
Phloeophagus caulium (C). 
Mesoxenus Monizianus (C). 
Caulotrupis subnitidus (M.). 
Mesites euphorbiae (M.). 

proximus ? (C). 

fusiformis (C). 

pubipennis (C). 

Acalles fortunatus (C). 

cinereus (M.). 

Aylyeyderes setifer (C). 
Lepromoris gibba (C). 
Deucalion oceanicus ? (S.). 
Stenidea annulicornis (C). 

albida (C). 

pilosa (C). 

llj'pophloeus euphorbiae (C). 

ambiguus? (M.). 

Tenebrio Crotchii (C). 
Ditylus concolor (S., C). 
Homalota canarieiisis (C). 

coriaria (M., C). 

* subcoriaria (C). 

putrescens (C). 



* In the above list I have used the letters (M.), (S.), and (C), to indicate the 
island-Groups to which the several species pertain. 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Homalota vagepunctata (C). 
Xantholinus marginalis (C). 
Dolicaon viigricollis (C). 



Dolicaon rujicollis (C). 
•^Homalium tricolor (M.). 
clavicorne (M.). 



I should add that it is under the dead bark, and within the rotten 
wood, of the various Euphorbias that the whole of the above-men- 
tioned species have been obtained; and although there are a few 
others (mentioned, passim, in this volume) which have been found 
on the blossoms of those plants, and which may or may not be pecu- 
liar to them (for I have no evidence enabling me to decide), there is 
but one which I have succeeded in satisfying myself lives exclusively 
upon the foliage — namely, the Haltica Paivana. It is possible 
however that the Longitarsus Meiniiperda may be in the same pre- 
dicament ; on which subject, see my remarks at page 367. 

Pine-destroying Species. — In Madeira I think it is extremely doubt- 
ful whether the pines were truly aboriginal — or, at aU events, whether 
they ever played an important part amongst the native vegetation ; 
for although there are now considerable tracts, on the southern 
and eastern slopes of the mountains, which are covered with them, 
it is well known that the extensive woods to which I refer are com- 
paratively recent, — the trees having been brought, at various times 
and in large numbers, from Portugal. Still, I am not prepared to 
assert that even the Pinus canariensis may not have been indigenous 
in Madeira (though possibly not abundant) when the island was 
first discovered ; and if this should prove to be the case, it will un- 
questionably give greater significance to the very few pine-infesting 
insects which yet exist (tenanting the present plantations), but which 
I am rather disposed to believe have in reality been introduced during 
the last half-century, and perhaps along with the young trees them- 
selves, from south-western Europe. In the Canarian Group, how- 
ever, it is far otherwise ; for there the ancient pine-forests (or Finals) 
constitute a most conspicuous feature in the districts of a lofty al- 
titude, and are often so remote and difiicult of access as to be scarcely 
approachable. It is true that in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura there 
are not (and perhaps indeed never were) any traces of them ; but in 
the more central and western islands they frequently clothe consi- 
derable tracts — at any rate in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Palma 
(for in Gomera and Hierro they are being fast exterminated). 

After the above remarks it will not be expected that the pine- 
destroying Coleoptera can be very abundant in, at all events, the 
Madeiran archipelago ; and although it is possible that a few of the 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXXV 

species enumerated in this volume, the exact habits of which I have 
failed to ascertain, may in reality be attached to the modern fir-vs^oods, 
I have not satisfied myself of more than six which I can regard as 
unmistakeably peculiar to those localities. They are as follows : 
Hylurgus ligniperda and destruens^ Pissodes notatus, Oxypleurus 
Bewichii, Griocephalus rusticus, and Coccinella Andersoni, — three of 
which occur in higher latitudes, whilst it is doubtful whether even 
the remainder (namely Hylurgus destruens, Oxypleurus Bewichii , 
and Coccinella Andersoni) are more than geographical phases of or- 
dinary European forms. In the Canaries, on the other hand, where 
the Finals were both primeval and vast, there is of course a larger 
fauna attendant upon the pines ; nevertheless even there, although 
the individaals are occasionally very numerous, the number of species 
appears to be small — in proportion to the extent and magnificence of 
the regions which they inhabit, — a fact which will at once be ad- 
mitted when I mention that only 18 species have yet been brought 
to light of strictly pine-infesting propensities. The following are 
the species to which I allude : 

Rhizophagus pinetorum. Hylurgus piniperda. 

subopacus. Hylastes Lowei. 

Temnochila pini. Syntomocerus crassicomis. 

Lipaspis pinicola. Rhyncolus crassirostris. 

Aulonium sulcicolle. Brachyderes rugatus. 

Buprestis Bertheloti. sculpturatus. 

Dinoderus brunneus. Oxypleurus pinicola. 

Tomicus nobilis. Griocephalus rusticus. 

Crypturgus concolor. Hypophlceus pini. 

Of the above 18 species, detected in the Canaries, two only {Hy- 
lurgus ligniperda and Criocephalus rusticus) have been met with in 
the Madeiras likewise ; and since, moreover, out of the 8 captured in 
the latter Group there are four (namely Hylurgus destruens, Pissodes 
notatus, Oxypleurus Bewichii, and Coccinella Andersoni) which have 
not been observed hitherto in the former, it follows that the species 
of exclusively pine- infesting habits which have yet been brought to 
light in these numerous Atlantic islands combined amount to only 22. 
There are doubtless certain others which are much attached, or par- 
tial, to the T^mQ-districts, but which can hardly be looked upon as 
dependent (directly) upon the trees themselves. These, therefore, 
coxdd scarcely be defined as " pine-destroying ; " though perhaps 
some few of them might have been mentioned as characteristic 
(from some cause or other) of the regions in question. Such, for 

c2 



XXXVl 



INIRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



instance, are the common European Conosoma pubescens, found both 
in the Madeiras and Canaries, and the Catops pinicola (taken by 
the Messrs. Crotch in the latter Group) ; and such, likewise, are the 
three Ptinellas — namely the P. Proteus in Madeira, and the angus- 
tula and aptera in Palma and Hierro. 

Species of the " Retamas,'" Cisti, Semperviva, and Tamarisk . — In 
addition to the Euphorbian and pine-infesting Coleoptera, there are 
certain others which attach themselves to the various kinds of vege- 
tation which characterize particular districts and altitudes ; but in 
no instance have I detected a sufficient number of them to be worthy 
of more than a passing notice. Yet it is probable that the different 
species of " Retama " (or Broom) which attain their maximum on 
the upland slopes of Teneriffe and Grand Canary, as well as the 
shrubby Cisti which cover considerable tracts of country (usually at 
a great height, and often bordering upon the Finals), especially in 
those two islands and Palma, would amply repay an investigation, and 
would supply us (in each case) with a small fauna of their own. 

The Retama-fZis<>*/c^s indeed I have always found to be eminently 
productive, and to harbour a large assortment of the most striking 
of the Atlantic forms ; but in most instances the latter do not seem i 
to be actually dependent on the Cytisi, Spartia, and Genistoe, and 
therefore could not be cited as in any way connected directly with 
those plants, — their presence among them being mainly due, as I 
imagine, to the loftiness of the several regions, and not to any posi- 
tive connexion (on their part) with the flora. The common Genista 
scoparia, however, in Madeira, does decidedly support the beautiful 
little Coccinella genistce, as well as the European Phloeophthorus rJio^ 
dodactylus and the Sitona htipennis (which is attached to the same 
plant in Teneriffe, and which is said to occur likewise in Portugal) ; 
while the more indigenous Iletamas of the Canarian archipelago fre- 
quently abound with the inconstant Coccinella miranda and the 
Acmceodera cisti — the second of which, according to the Messrs, 
Crotch, undergoes its transformations within the stems of the yellow 
''Codeso." Whether any of the numerous species which (like the 
Melyrosoma hirtiim and the Attains cenescens) haunt the blossoms of 
the Spartia and Cytisi are positively dependent on the latter, I have 
no evidence to enable me to decide. 

The great prevalence of the Cistus monspeliensis and vagans in the 
more or less elevated districts of the central and western parts of the 
Canarian Group, especially in Grand Canary and Palma, would lead 



d 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXXVU 

US to expect that at any rate a certain number of Coleopterous forms 
must exist which are dependent on them exclusively ; and perhaps 
this would be found to be the case, were the upland tracts properly 
investigated which they frequently almost clothe. Yet hitherto I 
have not been able to satisfy myself that there are many species in 
that predicament ; though a few there unquestionably are, as even 
a slight research is sufficient to demonstrate. Thus the Hisjpa occator 
often abounds in Teneriffe and Palma, upon the foliage of the Cisti ; 
and a dark variety of it was met with, under similar circumstances, 
by M. do la Perraudiere, in Hierro. In Grand Canary the Pseudo- 
colaspla ohscuripes is common, in like situations; and possibly also 
the Antlimxia shnilis may be of C/s^ws-destroying habits (though I 
am somewhat doubtful whether the latter is not, rather, attached to 
the pine trees). The Apion tvhiferum, which I captured in Grand 
Canarj' and Hierro, I believe to be dependent on the Cisti — andper- 
haps the Melyrosoma costipemie, the Bruchus antennatuSy and the 
Calomicrits Wollastoni. 

There is another race of plants, both in the Madeiran and Cana- 
rian Groups, which constitute a significant feature amongst the native 
vegetation — their large succulent leaves either drooping gracefully 
over the rocks, or studding the perpendicular sides of them in flat, 
rosette-like clusters. I refer to the various species of Sedum and 
/Sempervivumf which flourish at most elevations, though principally 
at intermediate ones. It is difficult to conceive that forms so un- 
mistakeably aboriginal, and numerous, should not have a correspond- 
ingly important fauna attendant upon them ; yet hitherto there are 
but five representatives of the Coleoptera Avhich have been ascertained 
positively to require them as a means of actual subsistence. Of these 
five, no less than four are members of the Curculionidce, — one being 
the Canarian Amlles ceonii, and the other three the Ceuthorhynchus 
pTiytohiokles, liesperus, and lineatotessellatus (the first two of which 
occur in the Canarian, and the last in the Madeiran archipelago). 
The fifth species alluded to as being (I believe) of Sedmn-infesting 
habits is the Haltica crassipes — found in Teneriffe, Gomera, Palma, 
and Hierro. There are many more however to be met with, parti- 
cularly during the winter months, harbouring beneath the dry and 
dead leaves which often (at any rate in the compact, rosette-shaped 
plants) surround the base of the stems and are matted closely against 
the rocks ; but I have no evidence that any of these are more than 
casual visitors, which necessity has compelled to take shelter there 
and to hybemate. Nevertheless some few of them (as, for instance. 



XXXVUl 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



the Laparocerus suhopacus and Lichenophagtis huccatrix, discovered 
by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera) may perhaps be strictly attendant 
on the Semperviva ; though it is impossible to assert this, until fur- 
ther material shall have decided the question. 

A very small assemblage of species still remains to be noticed, of to- 
tally different habits, which are peculiar to the shrubs of the common 
Tamarisk (the Tamarix gallica of European latitudes) ; and it is far 
from unlikely that the few yet detected (only four in number) may all 
of them occur in Mediterranean countries. They are Nanophyes 
lunulatus, Coniatus tamariscij Stylosomiis hiplagiatus, and Coecinella 
Douhlieri, — the first two of which I captured in Grand Canary, and 
the last two in Fuerteventura. Although it is not probable that 
many other species wiU be met with of a similar mode of life, I 
think it almost certain that these will be found, when searched for 
in the right situations, to be more widely spread over the archipelago ; 
but, whether truly native or originally introduced, it is chiefly in 
spots near the coast, of low or but slightly elevated districts, that the 
Tamarisk may be said to flourish. 



J 



General Considerations. — In reviewing some of the preceding re- 
marks, it will not be deemed out of place if I offer a few observations 
on one or two points which appear to present themselves for notice. 
We have seen that there are certain districts and altitudes charac- 
terized by the presence of Coleopterous forms which are dependent 
on the ]ci7id of vegetation which attains its maximum there and has 
become dominant. Yet it remains for us to ask whether there is 
reason for suspecting that any of the latter are but mere states of 
well-known species which have acquired their present peculiarities 
through long attachment to the particular plants in connexion with 
which they are now found. I am fully aware that an inquiry of 
this nature must open up questions of great difficulty, and concerning 
which there would be much variety of opinion. In the consideration, 
however, of all such problems (which are perhaps unsolvable) we 
can but use the evidence that we possess ; and surely, if the latter 
is admitted to be necessary at all in attempting their solution, it can 
scarcely be more available than when gathered into a focus on smaU 
insular areas which have been so long and carefully explored. That 
there are positive limits (even though, by the nature of the case, un- 
definable) between which all species are free to become modified has 
generally been received as an axiom ; nor has this primary truth been 
so much as touched by the ascertained fact that the permitted range 



4 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. XXXIX 

for certain forms (when systematically acted upon by the skill and 
intellect of man) is so extremely wide, in comparison with that al- 
lowed in the case of others, as to be practically almost injinite*. And 
consequently, if it ever should be shown that we have fallen largely 
into error in regarding certain closely allied organisms as specifically 
distinct, I would surmise that it proves absolutely nothing except 
the fact of our own ignorance as to where the proper lines of demar- 
cation are to be drawn. But that those lines have an (abstract) ex- 
istence somewhere I take for granted ; and it is the province of the 
naturalist to endeavour to obtain an approximate idea, so far as may 
be, and so far as his limited experience will permit, of their several 
positions. 

After these remarks I shall not be misunderstood when I express 
my belief, that some of the forms enumerated in this volume, which 
differ but slightly (though permanently) from those of European lati- 
tudes, -ttdll perhaps prove to be but local phases of the latter — brought 
about either by isolation, or a diiferencc in the exact chemical pro- 
perties of the plants on which they have long been compelled to sub- 
sist. And hence, for instance, when I find attached to the Finns 
canariensis Coleoptera which recede but minutely from those which 
destroy the fir trees of more northern countries, I cannot but feel 
it probable — even whilst (on account of the fixedness of their cha- 
racters) registering them as distinct — that they do in reality repre- 

* It seems often assumed that if variation is acknowledged to be " infinite," 
we tacitly imply that it must needs be also Tnonsfrous ; but this appears to me a 
very gratuitous conclusion. Although common circumstances are sometimes apt 
to be overlooked, they nevertheless will frequently supply evidence more satis- 
factory than we can gather elsewhere ; and even in the present case, therefore, 
we may perhaps venture to appeal to them. Although incapable of ocular de- 
monstration (for it is a trutli of reason and not of sense), there are probably few 
reflecting minds which would reject the dogma that no two human beings ever 
have existed, or ever will exist, which are absolutely aUke in every single part, 
and combination, of their entire structure. Yet, in spite of this individual vari- 
ability, which is strictly infinite, we are not driven to believe in forms which are 
in any degree " monstrous." On the contrary, so unmistaJceably are they in- 
cluded within the morfhotic limits assigned for the human frame, that (whilst 
those "limits" are by us undefinable, and the variations zw^weYe) the forms them- 
selves seldom strike us as even extraordinary, and therefore never {a fortiori) as 
monstrous. And if this be true for "individual variability," it is true also for 
" variation " (as commonly understood by that term) ; for distinct varieties are as 
much a fact in the human family as " individual variability." From which I 
infer that variation may have full play, and be by us undejinable, and yet posi- 
tively restrained within the limits which were imposed upon it aboriginally for 
each separate species; and, therefore, conversely, that a species may be inde- 
finitely plastic, and yet remain true to its type. Those naturalists therefore 
who tell us that we have no logical right to believe in " species " (as hitherto 
enunciated) whilst we are unahle to define their limits, merely appeal to an impos- 
sibility, or our want of omniscience, as the evidence for overthrowing a lun- 
damental truth. 



xl 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



sent no more than geographical states of the latter ; though to act, 
always and without discrimination, upon that hypothesis might in- 
volve errors of a worse kind than the mere insertion (into a Cata- 
logue) of an occasional form which has been wrongly entered as 
specific. I believe however that the instances are not very numerous 
in which an accurate and experienced naturaUst would have much 
difficulty in satisfying himself concerning the proper rank of the 
various creatures with which he has here to deal ; for the greater 
number of them are most clearly defined, whilst even in the case of 
the obscurer ones there are often local considerations by which ap- 
parent discrepancies may be explained. 

]3ut if we admit the prohahility that a" small proportion of the 
forms which are treated in this volume as specific may be but geo- 
graphical modifications of others which are abeady known, I must 
at the same time express my conviction that an overwhelming ma- 
jority of them are quite in the opposite predicament, and owe next 
to nothing (so far as their specific features are concerned) to the 
action of the external influences by which they are surrounded. 
Especially will this apply to the Euphorhia-mie^ijm^ group — an 
assemblage of marvellous types which (as lately insinuated) are 
nearly without a parallel, both as regards the number of the indi- 
viduals by which they are severally represented, and the greater or 
less eccentricity of their structure. It is true that a few of the species 
(if indeed I am correct in regarding them as such) display a certain 
amount of correlation with the particular hind of Euphorbia to which 
they are attached. Thus, in the Aphanarthra the development of 
tubercles on the anterior edge of the pronotum seems, in some 
mysterious manner, to be connected with the " sweeter," or less 
pungent, members of that curious race of plants ; for those species 
which are nourished within the acrid stalks of the E. canariensis 
have no indication of prothoracic pustules, whereas those which feed 
on the less caustic, or more palatable, E. balsamifera and regis- Jubce 
show a decided tendency (more or less expressed) to be armed with 
them. This however is but a trifling circumstance (although un- 
doubtedly interesting), and one which leaves untouched the won- 
derful dissimilarity (inter se) of these Euphorbian types, and their 
wide divergence from every other organism of the same geographical 
domain. 

As above stated, however, the vast multitude of quaint and gro- 
tesque shrubs on which this esoteric assemblage depends for sub- 
sistence is becoming gradually exterminated. True it is that the 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xU 

process of annihilation is extremely slow ; yet year after year sees 
portions of the rocky declivities brought into rude cultivation, whilst 
the constant search which is made after the dead plants for fuel still 
further operates to direct the axe of the destroyer. Here then we 
have an unmistakeable fact, and one over which it is worth while to 
pause, — not of a single species, but of a whole fauna surely dying 
out before circumstances which are adverse to its continuance. 
Already upwards of 50 members have been ascertained to inhabit 
the Euphorbias ; and (as I recently mentioned) some of them lite- 
rally swarm, to an extent which is well nigh incredible. Yet in vain 
do we look around for anything like an adaptation to altered, and 
ever altering, conditions ; and I will indeed venture to affirm that 
no one instance can be produced, throughout this noble fauna, in 
which the slightest tendency is shown by even a single species, to 
accommodate itself to the change of cii'cumstances, and to become 
modified accordingly. In Lanzarote and Fuerteventura the E. cana- 
riensis seems to have already gone ; and what is the consequence ? 
Simply that not one of the numerous species which characterize that 
plant appears to have adapted itself even to the other Euphorbias ! 
And if this be the case. Can we wonder that the extinction of the 
latter should result in the complete disappearance, and for ever, of 
their entire fauna ? I do not adduce this as any anomalous effect of 
the gradual change which has long been going on in the vegetation 
of these Atlantic Groups ; for it is precisely what I should have 
anticipated, and in perfect accordance with what we cannot but 
observe equally in the case of the great laurel-tauna. — which is 
slowly becoming exterminated, leaving no trace behind it of its 
many, and very peculiar, forms. 

Yet, whilst the majority of the species appear unable to survive 
the loss (however gradual) of the particular kind of vegetation on 
which they were originally destined to subsist, there is some reason 
for suspecting that a considerable number may nevertheless have 
braved many a physical change in the extent and altitude of the 
several areas over which they had spread. Por if catastrophes arc 
admitted to have had any place at all in the geological record, it is 
clear that some result must have been afterwards traceable in the 
regions w^hich were disturbed — and if in the regions themselves, 
also in the economy of their occupants. Yet, provided that insta- 
hility (to a greater or less degi'ee) is an element in every organism, 
it seems impossible to realize events such as those to which I now 
allude without being struck with the conviction tlmt some slujht 



xlii 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



departure from their normal standards, consequent upon the altera- 
tion of surrounding circumstances, must ere long have become (more 
or less) apparent in most of the creatures which had been thus indi- 
rectly operated upon. And if this be granted, I think we have all 
that we require to account for many of the trifling (though per- 
manent) deviations from central types which are seldom so conspi- 
cuous as on the broken-up portions of a once continuous land. 

It will be seen that the above remarks have a direct bearing on 
the conclusion at which I arrived (vide p. xvi.), when discussing 
the Coleopterous statistics of these Atlantic Groups — namely, that 
whilst the genera are, on the whole, pretty much the same in the 
Madeiras, Salvages, and Canaries, the actual species (using that term, 
however, as expressing only a mere assortment of individuals more 
or less abruptly differing from those of every other assemblage — 
and not in its absolute, theoretical, and practically more difficult 
sense) which permeate the entire archipelago are marvellously few in 
number, compared with the extent of the respective faunas. This 
indeed would seem almost to follow from the premises which I have 
assumed ; for we should naturally be prepared to expect that the 
individuals (for instance) which might chance to become isolated on 
a small and barren rock would probably initiate a race which in a 
very few generations'^ would have acquired some trifling peculiarity, 
serving thenceforth to distinguish its exponents from those oi another 
conclave (specifically identical with them) which had remained un- 
molested amidst the more favourable conditions of a comparatively 
elevated central tract. I believe that it is mainly upon some such 
principle as this that we can hope to understand that most puzzling 

* I say " in a very few generations," because I cannot but think that a vast 
deal too much is made of what is called " the argument from time." Where an 
organism has been ascertained positively to be advancing steadily onwards in 
one undeviating direction (and it would indeed be a marvellous fact), I then 
admit that time (as an element) is all-important. But this self-acquired, self- 
directed progress is in most instances quite imaginary, and is merely assumed 
for the sake of upholding a theory which could have no existence without its aid. 
To say that alternations and changes are constantly going on in organic nature 
is but asserting a truism, for perfect quiescence seems to be impossible ; but that 
is a very different thing from a continued and uniform advancement in a given 
course. My own belief is that in the feral world all such systematic progression 
is the exception, rather than the rule, and is seldom prolonged (if ever) beyond 
a few generations, and that its existence, as a universal fact, is a myth. I hope 
to state shortly that, at any rate in these Atlantic islands, if there is one thing 
which is more striking than another, and in pi'oof of which we have some real 
evidence to adduce, it is the apparent unchangeability of the great mass of the 
endemic forms. And if this be the case, of what use (when there is nothing to 
"add up") is the argument from time'2 Nothing, multiplied by ten or ten- 
million, is the same iking. In both instances it equals nothing, and can never 
be made to represent a positive quantity. 



i 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xliii 

phasis of certain insular phenomena, in which nearly every detached 
islet appears on first investigation to add its own particular "species" 
to the general list ; and certainly it seems to me to offer a clue to 
much that might otherwise be unintelligible in the fauna of this 
scattered archipelago. 

In estimating the action of physical changes in the earth's surface 
on its fauna, I would not wish to give them an undue importance, 
or to exclude a consideration of the countless other methods by 
which species may (and have) become established on even the re- 
motest rocks, — where, be it observed, they would be as much subject 
to the same modifying influences as if they had been left there by 
some overwhelming geological crisis. Yet in ventilating all such 
questions, it is not by the assumption of " general laws " (which are 
sometimes imaginary), but by the actual evidence before us, that we 
are compelled at last to form our judgment; and I must confess 
that all the varied means of dispersion (often so anomalous and 
unlooked-for) do not appear to me, in these Atlantic islands, to have 
done much (if indeed anything) towards determining the present 
distribution of the truly endemic species. Yet a natural catastrophe, 
on a scale sufficiently gigantic to break-up a continuous land which 
was already stocked with its own aboriginal organisms, would in all 
probability lay the foundation of phenomena (as regards the latter) 
exactly parallel to what we now meet with in the various component 
parts of these oceanic Groups. 

Although it is true that numerous slight modifications, or insular 
states (for the most part unimportant), appear to have been brought 
about (probably at a very remote epoch) in many of the species, I 
can detect no trace of anything like a law of development which 
could be regarded as still operating to intensify (however gradually) 
the peculiarities of the forms which now exist. On the contrary, 
indeed, if there is one thing which strikes us more than another, ic 
is their permanence, or apparent freedom from all tendency to fur- 
ther change, — the extremely sedentary nature, and phlegmatic habits, 
of a large proportion of them (as in the case of Deucalion and most 
of the Ta7j>7ili) seeming almost to place them beyond the influence 
of those external circumstances and conditions which might be sup- 
posed to have some infinitesimal power over the outward configura- 
tion of creatures which are more nervously organized. Amongst the 
Land-shells, indeed (in which the insular races are still better de- 
fined, and also far more numerous, in proportion to the extent of 
the fauna, than is the case amongst the Coleoptera), this fixedness of 



xliv 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



their present characteristics is proved to a demonstration ; for in 
various parts of the Madeiran Group there are thick beds of indurated 
mud and calcareous sand, which literally teem with them in a semi- 
fossilized state, and yet (except in a few cases, involving mere size, 
on which I shall have soon to comment) the latter specimens (dis- 
tributed over upwards of one hundred species) display no perceptible 
differences from their recent homologues. Geologically speaking, 
these deposits (which occur in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and even 
on the top of the southern Deserta) may perhaps be comparatively 
recent ; but as there is strong reason for suspecting that they were 
formed (at any mtQ) previous to the dissolution of the intermediate 
land, and since it is the opinion of Sir Charles Lyell that these 
oceanic Groups were islands in a miocene sea, we have at least a 
monstrous period during which we may be quite sure that no ap- 
preciable change has taken place. And since moreover it is equally 
a fact that the semifossilized forms of the several species are found 
onlj/ in the immediate vicinity of the areas (often very limited ones) 
which are occupied by their descendants, we possess likewise con- 
clusive evidence concerning the sedentary modes of life which would 
seem to have formed at that- distant epoch as much a part of their 
history as they do now*. I have alluded to the shells, simply be- 
cause the particular phenomena, in connexion \^dth them, to which I 
would call attention are capable of actual proof; but, as already 
implied, I believe that the majority of the Coleoptera which are 
truly endemic will be found to be in an exactly similar predica- 
ment. Hence I infer that the " insular phases " which we are now 
discussing have not been matured in accordance with any law of 
development, or an imaginary process of " natural selection," f but 

* Cf. 'Variation of Species,' pp. 127-135. 

t It has always seemed to me that " Natural Selection," so-called (if indeed it 
has ever more than an occasional, or intermittent, existence in the feral world), 
is, on the whole, conservative, rather than progressive ; for being emphatically 
and confessedly utilifarian, or dependent on the principle that the strongest 
shall prevail, it is clear that the question "which is the strongest?" must be 
solved before we can form an opinion on its supposed action. It is but asserting 
a truism to say that sound and vigorous health, with proper room for the exer- 
cise of its various endowments and faculties, are a sine qua non to the perfection 
of every species, and that we may consequently expect the race which possesses 
those advantages to be not only the most perfect, but likewise, in a general sense, 
the most successful. For I think there cannot be much doubt that the speci- 
mens which have all their organs developed, simultaneously, to the utmost are 
the really strong ones, and not those which have one (or more) of them increased 
at the expense of the remainder. I will not deny that creatures in the latter 
predicament ma?/ enjoy some temporary advantage against (perhaps) a particular 
foe, and may even transmit it to their immediate descendants; but still that 
does not prevent the structure itself (if important enough to be worth notice) 




INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xlv 

ivere dependent upon circumstmices altogether exceptional — probably 
at (or following" upon) the very remote period when this great 
Atlantic province was rent asunder. 

We have seen that there are strong reasons for believing that a 
vast majority of the true insular modifications which now present 
themselves have not been matured by any process of slow develop- 
ment, which might be supposed to have operated imperceptibly, and 
to be acting still — but, on the contrary, that they have remained 
unchanged through an immeasurable period, at the commencement of 
which they were probably brought about in obedience to a combina- 
tion of circumstances and conditions which are altogether unprece- 
dented and exceptional. And this conclusion appears to be sup- 
ported by the fact that, whilst there is not the faintest trace, 
amongst the existing forms, of anything like a law of gradual ad~ 
vancemeyit, unmistakeable signs of deterioration are nevertheless 
conspicuous everj'where : or, in other words, the departures (when- 
soever they may have occurred) from their respective types, nearly 
always seem to be of a retrograde character, and therefore in pre- 
cisely the opposite direction to what would be required by any 
theory of general progressive tendencies. In nearly every instance 
(and there are plenty of them) where two forms are almost identical 
with each other except as regards size, the one being monstrous and 
the other comparatively diminutive, it is the larger state which is 
the scarcer and more typical ; and so decidedly is this sometimes 
expressed that it is difficult to avoid the suspicion that the latter 

from being abnormal ; and all experience shows us that it is the tendency oi what 
is irregular to die out, and to revert to wliat is typical (wherein resides the true 
maximum, the heaii idiaJ, of every type). So that if strengtli and full muscular 
development are to be the vouchers for ultimate success, the *' naturally selected^* 
race would certainly be the 'iiwst normal <3ne, and not the most aberrant. I 
believe that this must be true, in a broad and general sense, if the principle of 
" natural selection " can be supposed to enter permanently, and incessantly, into 
tlie great scheme of nature. But for my own part I can see nothing to warrant 
that hypothesis, even whilst admitting (as I have done elsewhere, and often) 
that to a very limited extent there appears no reason, but quite the reverse, why 
some such process (call it what we please) may not have been silently at work — 
even if only at particular epochs, and in special regions ; for if eccentricities of 
structure can with difficulty be made to move on in one undeviating path by 
the unwearied skill, and forethought, of an active, living intelligence, it seems 
preposterous to suppose that an imaginary agency which nobody has yet defined 
can both exaggerate and stereotype them. Moreover mere utilitarianism could 
not be made to fulfil more than one of the many final causes of Creation — 
amongst which stand preeminently Beauty (in its widest sense, and as the uni- 
versal index, everywhere expressed, of the existence of a Master-Mind), and the 
fact, strangely ignored, of universal enjoyment for all created beings. That ''might 
is right" may satisfy the requirements of " natural selection ;" but, happily for 
the world, a more comprehensive, and merciful, law prevails. 



Xlvi INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



may be in reality but a depauperated phasis of the former, conse- 
quent upon an alteration (at some distant period) in the various 
local influences by which the species was originally surrounded. 
And I might again appeal to the Land-shells, in support of this 
hypothesis ; for there we have ocular demonstration, in the deposits 
above referred to, that certain gigantic forms, now well nigh extinct 
but which absolutely teemed in those early days, are represented at 
the present time by others which are equally common, only reduced 
to about half the size. Yet there is no case here of a gradual trans- 
mutation ; for the intermediate hnks do not exist, even though both 
forms are found under both conditions — the smaller ones being as 
rare semifossilized as the larger ones are recent. The transition 
from one state to the other appears to have been sudden, as though 
occasioned by some radical change in the physical conditions of the 
area overspread ; and the result is now before us, in the deteriorated 
race occupying the deteriorated region. 

There are several other points, in connexion with this immediate 
subject, to which I might properly call attention ; but space will not 
permit me to do so. A few words, however, I will just add on the 
general character of the fauna. That the eastern parts of the 
Canarian, and even (though less decidedly) of the Madeiran, Group 
appear to have much in common with the sandy districts on the op- 
posite coast of Morocco, I have already expressed my belief ; yet, 
in spite of this, I think that a tridy " African " element is perhaps 
scarcely indicated. Nearly all the species which are not absolutely 
peculiar to the islands seem to be (what would be termed) " Me- 
diterranean " — being found (more or less) on one side or both of the 
Great Mediterranean basin, and extending down the western limits 
of Barbary and Morocco, but not (so far as I can ascertain), on the 
central African continent, south of the Atlas range. Yet, at the 
same time, there is reason to suspect that so large a proportion of 
the forms are positively endemic, that to define the fauna as simply, 
and purely, Mediterranean, would be wanting in accuracy ; for the 
most significant, and esoteric, genera do so thoroughly permeate the 
entire archipelago (represented, however, on the diff'erent islands by 
different species) that the unity of character which they impart to it 
is perhaps more suggestive of a separate " Atlantic province," than 
of a component part of the quondam " Mediterranean " area. 

With respect to the Groups themselves, so completely do they 
seem to constitute (when combined) a single system, that, be the 
geological difficulties what they may, 1 must be excused if I have 






INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. xlvii 

occasionally spoken of them, without hesitation, as the " fraj^ments 
of a broken-up land." So far as any evidence can be gleaned 
from their Coleopterous statistics, I am bound to repeat that I can 
see no more difference between the Madeiras and Canaries than 
what would naturally be looked for at stations distant from each 
other to an equal extent on a continuous tract ; and it is some- 
what to the purpose that the little rocks of the Salvages, which are 
nearer to the latter, are (as regards most of the few species, as yet 
found upon them, which are in the least degree characteristic) 
essentially Canarian. That there are features distinctive of the 
Madeiras and Canaries, as Groups, it is certain ; but (as just affirmed) 
the same kind of differences might also be apparent in the separate 
departments of many a continent ; whilst the mere fact that a far 
more extensive surface is presented by the Canaries would in itself 
account for the presence in that archipelago of numerous well- 
known types (lately alluded to) which are absent from Madeira : 
so that the " discrepancies " which have sometimes been insisted 
upon, between the faunas in question, I am inclined to think, are, 
in a great measure, more superficially- conspicuous than they are 
truly and geographically significant, li anything, however, it would 
seem as if the Canarian Coleoptera were more European (or, on the 
whole, less isolated in their character) than those of the Madeiras ; 
which, considering the more northern position of the latter Group, 
is contrary to what we should have anticipated. 

What relation the fauna of the entire archipelago may bear to 
that of the Azores, and of the Cape de Verdes, remains yet to be 
seen. 



COLEOPTEEA ATLANTIDUM. 



Fam.l. CARABID^*. 

(Subfam. I. ELAPHRIDES.) 

Genus 1. NOTIOPHILUS. 

Duradril, Consid. Gen. siir les Ins, 169 (1823). 

1. Notiophilus gemlnatus. 

NotiopMlus geminatus, De/., Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 589 (1831). 

, BruMe, in Wehh et BeHh. {Col) 58 (1838). 

., Woll, Ins. Mad. 17 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 9 (1857). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 1 (1864). 



Habitat ins. Maderenses {Mad., Des., Bugio) et Canarienses (in 
Pahnd sola adhuc hand detectus), sub lapidibus quisquiliisque, 
passim. 

The N. geminatus, which, is widely spread over Mediterranean 
countries (but which is somewhat scarcer in central Europe), is pro- 
bably universal, though nowhere very common, in the Madeiran and 

* I do not think it would be prudent, without further evidence, to admit the 
CicindelidfS into this volume ; for although the north-African Cicindela nilotica 
is included by M. Brulle in the short and inaccurate list of Coleoptera which he 
compiled for MM. Webb and Berthelot's gigantic ' Histoire Naturelle des ilea 
Canaries,' nevertheless, since he gives us no kind of information about it, and the 
very meagre collection of those naturalists contained so large a proportion of 
species the habitats of which I consider to be most questionable [Cf. pp. 7, 8, 55, 
56, 320, 390, 437, 438, 469, 501, &c., of my late Catalogue], I cannot but look 
with unbounded distrust on the reputed existence of the member of a Family of 
.whi«h I have seen hitherto no trace whatsoever in aovy of these Atlantic islands. 
At the same time, however, I must candidly confess that some of the low and sandy 
regions of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Grand Canary do certainly afford all 
the apparent conditions for the presence of a Cicindela ; and therefore whilst 
feeling it unsafe to admit the insect in question on evidence which is altogether 
80 slight and unsatisfactory, I am nevertheless far from wishing to ^cord my 
belief that it may not perhaps occur in some one of the districts to which I have 
just alluded. 



2 



CARABIDvE. 



Canarian Groups. Nevertheless at the former it has been observ? 
hitherto only in Madeira proper and on the two southern Desertas ; 
at the latter it has been met with in all the islands except Palma. 

(Subfam. II. LORICEEIDES.) 

Genus 2. ELLIPTOSOMA. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 18, tab.i. f. 2 (1854). 

2. EUiptosoma WoUastonii. 

Loricera WoUastonii, Jbye^, Bull, de la Soc. Mit. de France^ 23 (1852). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 19, tab. i. f. 2 (1854). 

EUiptosoma Wollaatonii, Wall, Cat. Mad. Col 10 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in humidis sylvaticis excelsis, rarissimum. 

This remarkable insect appears to be essentially Madeiran, occur- 
ring at a high elevation within the moist sylvan districts of Madeira 
proper — where it is both rare and local. 

(Subfam. III. CARABIDES.) 

Genus 3. LEISTUS. 
Frolich, Naturf. xxviii. 9 (1794). 

3. Leistus nubivagus. 
Leistus nubivagus, WoU.^ Cat. Can. Col. 1 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses(T'm.), in humidis sylvaticis excelsis, rarissimus. 

This interesting little Leistus has been observed hitherto only in 
the lofty sylvan districts of Teneriffe — where it was taken by my- 
self (during May of 1858 and 1859) in the region of the Agua Mansa, 
and more sparingly by Dr. Crotch (during the summer of 1864) inj 
the Pinal above Ycod el Alto. It is one of the rarest of the Canarian 1 
Coleoptera. 



I 



4. Leistus ellipticus. 

Leistus ellipticus, Woll.y Cat. Mad. Col. 8 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in humidis sylvaticis excelsis, rarissiijaus. 



i 



A most anomalous Leistus, occurring in precisely the same sort of 
places at Madeira as the L, nubivagus does at Teneriffe — within the 
damp ^Ivan districts, at a high elevation. Like the Teneriffan 
species, it is extremely rare. 




CARABIDiE. & 

Genus 4. NEBRIA. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust et Ins. i. 225 (1806). 

5. Nebria dilatata. 

Nebria dilatata, DeJ., Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 580 (1831). 

, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58, pi. ii. f. 7 (1838). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 2 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten,), ad mpes aquosas in montibus excelsis, 
hinc inde baud infrequens. 

A superb Nebria which has been detected hitherto only in the 
higher altitudes of Teneriffe, where it occurs about the wet rocks 
and trickling streams. In such situations I met with it (during 
April and May of 1859) in the Pinal above Ycod el Alto, as well as 
in the district of the Agua Mansa ; and it was taken by the Messrs. 
Crotch (during the summer of 1864) in the Barranco at Ycod el 
Alto itself, " under the waterfall, where the water splashes," 

6. Nebria currax. 

Nebria currax, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 3 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in aquosis intermediis, rarissimus. 

Apparently very rare, the only two specimens which I have seen 
having been taken by myself in Grand Canary (during April 1858) 
— from amongst wet stones and rubbish at the edges of the little 
river at Teror. 

Genus 5. CALOSOMA. 
Weber, Observat. Etit. 20 [script. Ccdlisoina'] (1801). 

7. Calosoma indagator. 

Carabus Maderse, Fab., Syst. Ent. 237 (1775). 

indagator, Fab., Mant. Ins. i. 197 (1787). 

Calosoma Maderae, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 58 (1838). 

, WoU., Im. Mad. 15 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 7 (1857). 

indagator. Id., Cat. Can. Col 3 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (in ins. " Chdo " sola adhuc baud observatum) et 
Canarienses (Can., Ten., Pahna), passim. 

The C. indagator, which is widely spread over (though apparently 
somewhat scarce in) Mediterranean latitudes, is rather common in 
the Madeiran Group, where there can be little doubt that it is uni- 
versal — the Flat Deserta, or Ilheo Chao, being the only island of the 

b2 



CARABIDiE. 




five in which it does not happen to have been observe 
Canaries it is decidedly scarcer ; but it is probably general in, at all 
events, the central and western portions of the archipelago. Never- 
theless hitherto it has been detected only in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, 
and Palma ; and it is certainly remarkable that the late indefatigable 
researches of the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera did not bring it to light 
in that island : indeed they state that no one with whom they con- 
versed at Gomera seemed to be acquainted with it. 

8. Calosoma azoricmn. 

Calosoma azoricum ?, Ilee?', Fossil. Calosom. 5 (note). 
, WoU.^ Cat Can. Col. 4 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), minus frequ^ns. 

This Calosoma seems to replace the C. indagator in the two easte^ 
islands of the Canarian Group — Lanzarote and Fuerteventura ; but 
I must add that the features (alluded to, seriatim, in my recent 
Catalogue) which separate it from that insect do not appear to me 
to be very important ones. Nevertheless it was the opinion of Dr. 
Schaum that they are sufficient to indicate a distinct species ; and it 
seemed, both to him and to myself, that that species was prohahh/ 
the one from the Azores which Dr. Heer has described under the 
name of azoricum, and which occurs likewise at the Cape de 
Verdes, — the two examples (captured by Mr. Fry) on the strength 
of which I admitted it (vide ' Ann. of Nat. Hist.' 1861, vii. 95) into 
the fauna of St. Vincent appearing, on further inspection, to belong 
to the azoricum rather than the indagator. 

Genus 6. CARABUS. 
Linnaeus, Syst Nat. ii. 668 (1767). 

9. Carabus faustus. 

Carabus faustus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 57, pi. ii. f. 3 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 6 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sjdvaticis intermediis, rarissimus. 

Apparently peculiar to the intermediate sylvan districts of Tene- 
riffe, where moreover it must be not only very rare but also extremely 
local, — seeing that it has not been met with either by myself or the 
Messrs. Crotch, during our continued researches in that island. It 
was, however, taken by M. Hartung ; and it has been communicated 
" from the Agua Garcia " by the Barao do CasteUo de Paiva. 





CARABIDiE. O 

10. Carabus interruptus. 

Carabus interruptus (Lat), Doj., Sjjec. Gen. des Col. v. 547 (1831). 

abbreviatus, Bridle, in Silb. Rev. Ent. iii. 298 (1835). 

interruptus, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 6 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (2 en.), in montibus excelsis circiter ad 7000' 
s. m. ascendens. 

Like tbe C. faustus, this Carabus has been observed only in the 
higher elevations of TeneriiFe — where, however, it is not uncommon 
in certain regions difficult of access. I have taken it in the district 
of the Agua Mansa, and from thence to the lofty Cumbre above it; 
as well as above Ycod el Alto, where it has subsequently been cap- 
tured by the Messrs. Crotch. 

11. Carabus coarctatus. 

Carabus coarctatus, JSrulle, in Webb et Berth. ( Col.) 57, pi. ii. f. 2 (1838). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 5 (18G4). 

Habitat Canarienses (Caw.), in intermediis et elevatis, rarissimus. 

This line and distinct Carabus has been observed hitherto only in 
the intermediate and higher elevations of Grand Canary, where 
(during March and April of 1858) I took it in the region of El Monte 
and on the ascent to the Roca del Soucilho. 



(Subfam. IV. SCAEITIDES.) 

Genus 7. SCARITES. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 249 (1775). 

12. Scarites gigas. 

Scarites gigas, Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 314 (1781). 

Pyracmon, Boti., Obs. Ent. ii. 33 (1813). 

, Hartung, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 

gigas, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 7 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Can.), in aridis submaritimis, rarissimus. 

The S. gigas of Mediterranean latitudes (which is also tolerably 
common at Mogadore, on the coast of Morocco) occurs rarely at the 
Canaries, where however it is probably universal in the more eastern 
portions of the Group. It was taken by Mr. Gray and myself in 
the low arid district around Arrecife in Lanzarote ; and by myself 
in the little island of Graciosa (off the north of Lanzarote), as well 
as at Maspalomas in the extreme south of Grand Canary. 



CARABIDiE. 



13. Scarites humeralis. 



Scarites humeralis, TVolL, Ins. Mad. 12 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 6 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P*" S^"), rarissimus. 

Apparently peculiar to Porto Santo, where it occurs (though 
rarely) in company with the S. ahhreviatus, — more particularly on 
the slopes of the Pico do Castello. I have taken it, sparingly, on 
several occasions; and examples have been also communicated by 
the Barao do CasteUo de Paiva. 



14. Scarites abbreviatus. 



4 



Scarites abbreviatus (KolL), Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. i. 379 (1825). 

dimidiatus, Bndle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 57, pi. ii. f. 6 (1838). 

abbreviatus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 11 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 6 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes) vulgaris, ab era maritima usque ad 
summos montes ascendens. 

This (rather variable) Scarites is universal in the Madeiran Group, 
occurring in every island and at all elevations ; but it has not yet 
been observed either at the Canaries or on the rocks of the Salvages. 
It is true that a Scarites is described by M. Brulle (under the trivial 
name of dimidiatus) as Canarian, which is clearly identical with this 
species ; but I have recorded at some length [vide * Cat. Can. Col.' 7 
(note)] the reasons why I consider that an error undoubtedly arose 
with regard to it — feeling satisfied that the example which served 
M. Brulle for a diagnosis was in reality brought by Mr. Webb from 
Madeira, and was accidentally mixed up with the Canarian material 
which he afterwards amassed. I considered the evidence on this 
point so conclusive that I had (and still have) no hesitation what- 
ever in rejecting the insect as a Canarian one. 

Genus 8. DYSCHIRIUS. 
Bonelli, Observ. Ent. i. (1809). 

15. Dyschirius armatus. 

Dyschirius armatus, Woll, Cat Can. Col. 8 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), in salinis parcissime degens. 

The only specimens which I have seen of this Dyschirius were 
taken by myself (during March 1859) in Lanzarote, of the Canarian 
Group — along the sandy shores of the salt lake of Januvio, adjoining 
the south-western coast of that island. 



■ 



CARABID^E. 7 

16. Dyschirius subseneus. 

Dyschirius subasneus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 9 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in lutosis (nee salmis) ad Arguiniguin 
repertus. 

Very closely allied to the European D. ceneus, of wbich it may 
possibly be but a geographical state. It is evidently rare, the few 
specimens as yet detected having been captured by myself (in April 
1858) at Arguiniguin in the south of Grand Canary. 

17. Dyschirius pauxillus. 

Dyschirius pauxillus, Woll, Cat, Can. Col. 9 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Teti.), ad Portum Orotavae captus. 

Like the last, this may possibly be a modification of a European 
species — the D. misellijis, Schaum, from Mediterranean latitudes. It 
would seem to be quite as scarce as the subcencus, two examples 
only — taken by myself at the Puerto Orotava in Teneriffe — being 
all that I have as yet seen. 

(Subfam. V. APOTOMIDES.) 

Genus 9. APOTOMUS. 

(HofFmansegg) lUig., Mag.fdr Ins. vi. 348 (1807). 

18. Apotomus Chaudoirii. 

Apotomus rufus, Woll. [nee Rossi, 1790], Ins. Mud. 14 (1854). 
-, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 6 (1857). 



Chaudoirii, Id, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 217 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^ S*"), sub lapidibus in locis inferioribus, 
parum rarus. 

This is perhaps a mere state of the A. rufus of Mediterranean 
latitudes, with which indeed I had always identified it until 1860, — 
when the Baron de Chaudoir, who has paid great attention to the 
Carabidoe, informed me that he believed it to be specifically distinct. 
Induced therefore by such high authority, I described it as new 
(though not without some hesitation) in the * Annals of Natural 
History.' It unquestionably possesses a few features of its own, 
but they appear to me to be of such trifling importance that I doubt 
if they are indicative of more than a slight geographical variety. It 
seems to differ from the ordinary type of the A. rufus, merely, in 
having its limbs extremely pallid, whilst at the same time the fifth. 



a 



CARABIDiE. 



sixth, and seventh joints of its antennae are very much darker than 
the remaining ones (the hasal four and apical four being always 
pale). 

Whether specifically distinct or not, the A. Chaudoirii is decidedly 
rare, — occurring, however, sparingly at low elevations in Madeira 
and Porto Santo ; but it has not yet been observed in either the 
Salvages or the Canarian Group. 

19. Apotomus testaceus. 

Apotomus testaceus, De/., Spec. GSn. des Col. i. 461 (1825). 
f Woll., App. htfjtis op. I. 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), a Barone " Castello de 
Paiva" nuper communicatus. 

As will be seen by a reference to the Appendix of this work, the 
present Apotomus has been communicated recently from the Great 
Salvage by the Baron Paiva. And, as there stated, it is a most 
interesting addition to our fauna, from supplying another instance 
of an Egyptian species (which in this case, however, occurs likewise 
in the south-east of Europe) inhabiting these Atlantic islands. The 
example sent by the Baron Paiva I have placed in the collection of 
the British Museum. 

(Subfam. yi. DITOMIDES.) 

Genus 10. ARISTUS. 

(Ziegler) Latr., Bhgne Anim. (^d. 2) iv. 387 (1829). 

20. Aristus subopacus. 

Ditomus clypeatus?,5rw//e \necRossi\in WebhetBer. (Col.) 57(1838). 
Aristus subopacus, Woll.f Cat. Can. Col. 63 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.) rarissimus, a meipso semel lectus. 

Apparently very rare, the only specimen which I have seen 
having been captured by myself on the summit of La Atalaya (above 
Betancuria) — the loftiest mountain of Fuerteventura. Pnmo visu 
it might almost be regarded as the Canarian representative of the 
JDitomus opacus, of the southern parts of Algeria. 






(Subfam. YIL SIAGONIDES.) 

Genus 11. SIAGONA. 

Latreille, Consid. Gen. 160 (1810). 



CARABID^. 9 

21. Siagona europaea. 

Siagona Europaea, Dej.y Spec. Gen. des Col. ii. 468 (1826). 

Habitat Canarienses ( Can.), mihi non obTia, specimine unico a Barone 
" CasteUo de Paiva" nuperrime communicato. 

A single specimen of the S. europcea of Mediterranean latitudes 
has lately been communicated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva, 
who obtained it (as he positively assures me) from a correspondent 
in Grand Canary. It is the only example of the genus which I 
have yet seen from these Atlantic islands ; but as it was associated 
(in the bottle of spirits which contained it) with the ordinary 
Canarian insects, I can have little doubt that its asserted hahitat is 
a correct one. 

(Subfam. VIII. BRACHINIDES.) 

Genus 12. PHEROPSOPHUS. 
Solier, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, ii. 461 (1833). 

22. Pheropsophus hispanicus. 

Brachinus hispanicus, De}., Spec. Gen. des Col. i. 303 (1825). 

, BndU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 55 (1838). 

Pheropsophus hispanicus, TFoU., Cat. Can. Col. 10 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten.?), in humidis rarissimus. 

The noble P. hispanicus (which occurs in the south of Spain and 
the north of Africa) is found, though very rarely, at the Canaries. 
I have met with it at Arguiniguin, in the south of Grand Canary ; 
and a single example has been communicated by M. Chevrolat 
purporting to have been taken in Teneriffe — a locality, however, 
which requires further corroboration. Grand- Canarian specimens 
have also been obtained by the Barao do Castello de Paiva. 

(Subfam. IX. DRYPTIDES.) 

Genus 13. POLYSTICHUS. 

Bonelli, Observat. Ent. tab. (1809). 

23. Polystichus bruimeus. 

Polistichus brunneus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 298 (1831). 

unicolor, Bridle, Hist. Nat. des Ins. iv. 179, pi. 6. f. 2 (1834). 

Polystichus brunneus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 10 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), in locis elevatis usque ad 9000' 
s. m. ascendens. 

This distinct and interesting Polystichus appears to be essentially 



10 ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^1 

Canarian, and confined to very lofty elevations. I have taken it on 
the Cumbre adjoining the Caiiadas, in Teneriffe ; and it was found 
(during the summer of 1864) by the Messrs. Crotch at a high alti- 
tude on the mountains above Hermigua, in Gomera, — " above the 
cataract ; between it and Monte Fuerte." | 

The Gomeran specimens seem on the average to be a trifle larger 
than the Teneriifan ones, with their prothorax and limbs a little 
more elongated, and with the apices of their elytra more rounded off 
(separately). Their punctation also is not quite the same, — it being, 
if anything, at aU events on the forehead, a little more remote, and • 
on the prothorax and interstices not quite so deep. But such slight 
differences cannot, I think, indicate more, at the utmost, than an 
unimportant insular phasis of the species. Nevertheless having 
pointed out the distinctions (such as they are), I would at any rate 
cite the Gomeran form as " var. /3. aptinoides." 

(Subfam. X. LEBIADES.) 

Genus 14. TARUS. 
Clairville, mt. Helv. ii. 94 (1806). 

24. Tarns suturalis. 

Cymindis suturalis, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. i. 206 (1825). 
Tarus suturalis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 2 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 19 (1864). 

Cymindis suturalis, Hart., Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*° S*", Des.), Salvages (ins. majorem, 
borealem) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), hinc inde sub 
lapidibus, praecipue in inferioribus, vulgaris. . 

The T, suturalis was supposed formerly to be peculiarly an 
Egyptian insect, whereas in reality it is well nigh universal through- 
out these Atlantic islands — having been taken in the whole three 
groups. At the Madeiras it is more especially abundant in the low 
arid districts of Porto Santo ; nevertheless it is found likewise on 
the Ponta de Sao Lourengo (the extreme eastern promontory) of 
Madeira proper, and on the Deserta Grande. From the Salvages a 
single example was obtained by the Barao do CasteUo de Paiva, from 
the larger (or northern) island ; whilst at the Canaries it teems in j 
certain dry and sandy places of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand 
Canary. So that, both at the Madeiras and Canaries, it would seem 
to be common in the eastern parts of the respective archipelagos, 
and to disappear gradually as we approach the west. 




I 




CARABID^. 11 

25. Tarus discoideus. 

Cymindis discoidea, Dej., Icon. i. 78, t. 8. f. 5 (1829). 

discordea, Bridle,' in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 55 (1838). 

, Hart., Geoloy. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 

Tarns discoideus, Woll, Cat Can. Col. 19 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus hinc inde vulgaris. 

This elegant Tarus is essentially Canarian, — occurring, / believe, 
only in the more eastern portion of the Group. It is abundant under 
stones in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura ; and we may expect it to be 
found likewise in the sandy parts of Grand Canary, though it has 
not yet been observed in that island. I have indeed received two 
examples from the Barao do Castello de Paiva as even Teneriffan ; 
but as he had many insects sent to him from Fuerteventura, I am 
inclined to suspect that some mistake arose as to the Tiahitat. At 
least further evidence is necessary before I can believe that the 
species exists in so central a portion of the archipelago. 

26. Tarus Paivanus. 

Tarus Paivanus, Woll.j Journ. of Fnt. i. 85 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), a Barone "Castello dc 
Paiva " communicatus. 

A beautiful Tarus, appearing to represent at the Salvages the 
T discoideus (ju.st enumerated) which is so general in the eastern 
portion of the Canarian Group. It has been received on several 
occasions from the Great Salvage by the Baron Paiva, to whom I 
had much pleasure in dedicating the species*. 

27. Tarus Maderae. 

Tarus lineatus, Woll. [nee Schoti. 1806], Ins. Mad.' 2 (1854). 
Madera, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 1 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in montibus vulgaris. 

This Tarus is somewhat akin to the T. lineatus of southern 
Europe, with which indeed I had originally identified it ; and it was 
Schaum who first called my attention to certain characters which 
must nevertheless separate it entirely from that insect. Hitherto it 

* The T. Paivarms is smaller and narrower than the discoideus, its head and 
(differently shaped) prothorax are darker, and its elytra are flatter and less 
shining, with their humeral angles less obtuse, their striae much more crenated, 
the impressions on their third interstice larger and deeper, and the fascia across 
their hinder disk very much more developed. 



13 



CARABIDiE. 



has been detected only in Madeira proper, where it is essentially a 
mountain species, — occurring, sometimes abundantly, from about; 
2000 feet above the sea to the summits of the peaks. 



4 



28. Tarus marginellus. 

Cymindis marginella, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 55 (1838). 
Tarus marginellus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col 20 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus in aridis parce occurrens^ 

1 
Hitherto this Tarus has been observed only in the north of Lan-; 

zarote, of the Canarian Group — where it occurs sparingly, beneath 

stones, on the barren rocky ground immediately behind the Salinas, I 

towards the Risco, 



29. Tarus cinctus. 

Cymindis cincta, Brvlle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 55 (1838). 
Tarus cinctus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 20 (1864). 



i 



Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten. ?), in montibus excelsis degens. 

A few specimens of this remarkable Tarus, taken by myself at a 
high elevation on the mountains of Grand Canary (in a lofty Pinal 
of the district of Tarajana), are all — with the exception of M. BruUe's 
type, and an example which has just been communicated by M. de 
Marseul — that I have yet seen. It must therefore be considered 
both local and rare. De Marseul's specimen, which was captured by 
M. de la Perraudiere, is labelled as coming from " Teneriffe." It is 
very possible that this habitat may be correct; nevertheless since 
many of the insects in the same consignment have (without doubt) 
wrong localities indicated for them, I think it safer to query Tene- 
riffe for the species. The prothorax of this particular example is 
just perceptibly wider, and its punctation is (if anything) not quite 
so deep as in the Grand-Canarian ones ; so that it is far from unlikely 
that it may represent some slight insular (Teneriifan) modification 
of the species. 

30. Tarns velatus. ^ji 

Tarus velatus, Woll^ App. huj. op.x. ^H 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in lauretis humidis editioribus degens. ; 

A Canarian Tarus, apparently peculiar to the sylvan regions of 
Gomera — where it was detected by the Messrs. Crotch, during the 
summer of 1864, at a high elevation on the laurel-clad mountains 
above Hermigua. 




CARABIDiE. 13 

31. Tarus amictus. 

Tarus amictiis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 21 (1864). 
, Id., Ajyp. Jwj. op. 2. 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Gam.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens. 

Likewise a Canarian species, and one which has been observed 
hitherto only in the sylvan districts of Grand Canary and Gomera. 
In the former it was taken by myself, on the wooded mountains near 
Osorio ; and in the latter by the Messrs. Crotch, in the laurel-forests 
above Hermigua. As will be seen from the amended diagnosis of it 
which I have given in the Appendix, it presents in Gomera two 
slightly diiferent forms, both of which have much in common with 
the T. velatus. 

32. Tarus zargoides. 

Tarus zargoides, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 214 (1863). 
, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 21 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis editioribus humidis prccser- 
tim lauretis parce occurrens. 

This interesting little Tarus, which may perhaps be regarded as 
the Canarian representative of the T. cordatiis of southern Europe, 
has been detected hitherto only in the sylvan regions of Teneriffe 
— where moreover it is decidedly scarce, occurring sparingly at in- 
termediate and lofty altitudes. 

Genus 15. DROMIUS. 
Bonelli, Observ. Ent. ii. tab. syn. (1813). 

33. Dromius agilis. 

Carabus agilis?, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 139 (1792). 

Bromius agilis ?, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 268 (1860). 

, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 11 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), rarissimus ; semel tantum captus. 

The sole authority for the admission of this European Dromius 
into the Atlantic fauna is a single immature specimen which I cap- 
tured in the Eio Palmas of Euerteventura. And although I am 
nearly certain that it is referable to the agilis of more northern 
latitudes, and quite satisfied that it cannot be conspecific with any 
of the other forms here enumerated, I nevertheless cannot but feel 
that further evidence is greatly wanted before its identification can 
be regarded as absolutely settled. 



CARABTD^. 



34. Dromius plagipeiinis. 

Dromius plagipennis, Woll., Apjjetid. huj. op. 3. 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Hierro), in intermediis rarissimus. 

This large Dromius was detected by the Messrs. Crotch in Tene- 
riffe and Hierro, during their late Canarian campaign — where it 
seems to be very rare and confined to intermediate altitudes. It 
has apparently a close affinity with the B, meridionalis of southern 
Europe. 

35. Dromius alutaceus. 

Dromius alutaceus, Woll, Cat. 3Iad. Col. 2 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo praisertira Ericce ^ 
Taxi in intermediis parce degens. 

Although extremely local, not very uncommon in certain places in 
Madeira proper — ^harbouring principally beneath the bark of yew 
trees, and the dry outer fibre of heaths, at intermediate altitudes. 
In such situations it has been taken at " the Mount " (above 
Funchal), at Camacha, and at S. Antonio da Serra. It belongs to 
the same type as the last species, to which indeed (although unques- 
tionably distinct from it) it is closely allied *. 

36. Dromius oceanicus. 

Dromius insularis (p.), Woll., Ins. Mad. 4 (1854). 

(p.), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 2 (1857). 

oceanicus, Id., Append, huj. op. 3. 

Habitat Maderenses (Chao, Des.), sub lapidibus in aridis rarissimus. 

Observed hitherto only on the Northern and Central Desertas (^. e. 
the Ilheo Chao and the Deserta Grande) of the Madeiran Group, 
where it occurs (though very rarely) beneath stones in arid spots. 

37. Dromius insularis. 

Dromius insularis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 4 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 2 (1857). 

, Id., Append, huj. op. 4.. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus sub 
cortice laxo praecipue latitans. 

* In the B. alutaceus the head and prothorax (the former of which is a little 
rounder, or more suddenly narrowed behind the eyes, whilst the latter is a trifle 
smaller and more quadrate) are less shining than in the plagipennis, being in 
fact alutaceous (though less coarsely so than the elytra), and the pale blotch on- 
the fore part of each elytron is so increased in length as to cover tl^e larger por- 
tion of either disk. The entire insect also is somewhat smaller and slenderer, 
and its elytra are straighter at the sides and more depressed. 







CARABID^. 15 

Occurs in the damp sylvan regions of Madeira proper, where it is 
extremely scarce and ascends to a rather high altitude. 

38. Dromius strigifrons. 

Dromius strigifrons, WolL, Append, huj. op. 5. 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), sub quisquiliis in editioribus a DD. 
Crotch aistate a.d. 1864 parce detectus. 

Found sparingly in Teneriffe by the Messrs. Crotch, during their 
late Canarian campaign, — 1 believe, under leaves and refuse, at 
YcodelAlto. 

39. Dromius amcenus. 

Dromius amcenus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col, 12 (1864). 
, Id., Append, hitj. op. 5. 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub cortice laxo in sylvaticis humidis 
editioribus parum rarus. 

Inhabits the sylvan regions of a rather high elevation in Teneriffe, 
where it occurs sparingly beneath the loosened bark of the laurels in 
damp spots. 

40. Dromius elliptipennis. 

Dromius sigma (p.), Woll. [nee Rossi\ Ins. Mad. 5 (1854). 

(— ), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 3 (1857). 

elliptipennis, Id.j Cat. Can. Col. 12 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Hierro), 
plerumque in sylvaticis intermediis, sed interdum etiam in in- 
ferioribus, occurrens. 

Found both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups, though perhaps 
(on the average) at a rather lower elevation than the D. sigma, and 
more frequently (though by no means always) within the sylvan 
districts than elsewhere. I believe it to be truly distinct from the 
sigma, and I may add that it was so regarded by Schaum ; never- 
theless occasional specimens approach the latter very closely. It is 
apparently as inconstant as that insect, both in the exact shape and 
colour of its prothorax and in the depth of its fascia. Nevertheless 
the latter is nearly always more developed than is the case in the 
sigma, its elytra are more elliptical (or rounded off at the shoulders) 
and have their scutellary region generally a little infuscated, and its 
surface is frequently subopake *. In the Teneriffan examples (which 

] * A single example which I captured (during March 1849) at a low elevation 
in Madeira proper — namely on the little islet known as the Ilheo de Fora, which 



16 



CARABID^E. 



supplied the type from which my diagnosis of the species was drawn 
out) the prothorax is a little wider behind than in either the ordinary 
Gomeran ones or in those from Madeira (which last constitute the 
vars. " /3 " and " y," in my ' Ins. Mad.,' of the D. sigma) *. 

Assuming "therefore that no second species is indicated amongst 
the many slightly diiferent forms which I have treated (and, I believe,, 
correctly) as but local states, or modifications, of the elliptipennis, 
the present Dromius may be said to have been captured in Madeira 
proper, as well as in Teneriife, Gomera, and Hierro, of the Canariau 
Group. 

41. Dromius sigma. 

Carabus sigma, Rossi, Fna Etrusc. i. 226 (1790). 
Dromius sigma (p.), Woll, Lis. Mad. 5 (1854). 

X—), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 3 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 13 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.y P^" S*", Des.) et Canarienses (Can., Tc^ 
in intermediis et valde elevatis, usque ad 9000' s. m. parce as- 
cendens. 

The European D. sigma occurs sparingly both at the Madeiras and J 
Canaries, principally (beneath stones) in open spots of a rather high 
elevation; but I think that the examples from the former Group 
(especially the Porto-Santan ones) are more typical than those from | 
the latter. It is essentially, however, a variable insect — not only in 
the development of its zigzag fascia, but even in the exact shape and 
Unt of its prothorax. Thus the Madeiran specimens would seem on the 
average to have the former narrower, and their prothorax a trifle 
wider (and more margined) behind, than is the case with the Cana- 
rian ones ; but I can see nothing about any of them to warrant the 
suspicion that they are more than geographical, or insular, states of 



constitutes the detached extremity of the Sao Louren^o promontory — has the 
above characters, of opacity and the development of its darker portions, so much 
exaggerated that I at first thought that it must be the representative of a distinct 
species. Ultimately, however, I recorded it (in my * Ins. Mad.') as a " var. y " 
of the D. sigma. 

* A considerable series of Gomeran specimens, which were captured by the 
Messrs. Crotch, seem to me to present sufficient differences from the ordinary 
Teneriffan type to render it desirable to treat them as an insular variety. They 
differ in being a little smaller— the prothorax especially being less developed, 
as well as relatively narrower and more cordate (or attenuated behind) and less 
margined at the sides, — and in their elytra being if anything a trifie less elliptical, | 
with the fascia a little less broad or thickened. This particular state may ba 
recorded, briefly, thus : — 

Var. /3. parvicollis. Vix minor, prothorace sensim minore, paulo magis cor- . 
dato, postice ad latera minus explanate marginato, elytrorum fascia paulo minore 
(i. e. longitudinaliter angustiore). 



ii 

■ 



CARABID^. 17 

a single species. There are few questions, however, bearing on our 
present subject, which are more difficult to decide than the amount 
of importance which should be attached to the many slightly diiFer- 
ing forms which arrange themselves around the D. sigma ; and unless 
therefore we are prepared to acknowledge an indefinite number of 
closely allied species, I think we shall be compelled to regard that 
insect not merely as eminently variable but as varying (more or less 
appreciably, though doubtless within fixed limits) in nearly every 
country and district in which it is found *. 

Taking it for granted therefore (as in the case of the D, ellipti- 
pennis) that the numerous modifications to which I have just referred 
are but local states of the sigma, I may add that the species has been 
taken in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande, of 
the Madeiran Group, and in Grand Canary and Tcneriffe, at the Ca- 
naries. It ascends occasionally to a very lofty altitude, — indeed in 
Tenerifife to nearly 9000 feet above the sea, in which elevated district 
it represents the " var. (3 " (found on the Cumbre adjoining the 
Canadas) of my Canarian Catalogue. 

42. Dromius umbratus. 
Dromius umbratus, Woll., Append, hvj. op. 6. 
Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarior ; a Dom. Bewicke parcissime lectus. 

Two examples of this Dromius, which were captured by the late 
Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper, are all that I have yet seen. The 
species is closely allied to the D. sigma ; but it appears to be consi- 
derably larger, with the head and pro thorax wider and more deve- 
loped, with the elytral fascia very much thicker and straighter (or 
less dentate), and with the limbs more rufescent (or less testaceous). 
It is certain, however, that further material is required, in order to 
ascertain that these various characters are constant. 

* Two Teneriffan examples, however, which were collected by the Messrs. 
Crotch, if not specifically distinct from the sigma, appear to be worth recording 
as representing at any rate a very remarkable variety. They diifer in the head 
and prothorax being a little more developed, in the latter being also very appre- 
ciably longer and of a paler testaceous hue, and in the elytral fascia being a 
great deal thicker and less dentate. They have much the general colouring of 
the D. ohlitus, Boield., of more northern latitudes ; but their head is rather 
larger, their prothorax considerably more elongated, and their elytra are more 
conspicuously striate. The state (or species ?) of which they are the exponents 
may be enunciated as follows : — 

Var. y. lovgicollis. Capite prothoraceque paulo majoribus, hoc sensim longiore 
et clare tci^tacco, elytrorum fascia multo crassiore, rectius transversa vel multo 
minus dentatii. 



18 



CARABID.^:. 



43. Dromius pervenustus. 
Dromius pervenustus, Woll., Cat. Can. Cd. 14 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), sub foliis dejectis prseci-? 
pue in intermediis parce degens. 

Occurs beneatli fallen leaves, and other dry refuse, in the Canarian 
Group, principally at intermediate elevations. It has been observed 
in Teneriife, Gomera, and Palma ; but it is both local and rather 
scarce. 

44. Dromius incertus. 
Dromius incertus, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col 13 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), rarissimus; specimina duo hactenus 
sola vidi. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this Dromius 
were taken by myself in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group. The 
species appears to be allied to the European B. nigriventris, Thoms. 
(=fasciatuSf Dej.) 

Genus 16. BLECHRUS. 

Motschulsky, Butt, de Mosc. iii. 219 (1847). 

45. Blechrus glabratus. 

Lebia glabrata {Meg.), Dufts., Fna Austr. ii. 248 (1812). 
Dromius glabratus, Brulle, in JVebb et Berth. (Col.) 55 (1838). 

negrita, JVolL, Ins. Mad. 9 (1854). 

glabratus, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 4 (1857). 

Blechrus glabratus, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 275 (1860). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 15 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis 
rarior. 

The European B. glabratus is not uncommon in the intermediate 
elevations of Madeira proper ; but from the Canaries I have seen 
hitherto only a single example, which was taken by myself at the 
Agua Garcia in Teneriffe. It is certainly very closely allied to the 
B. maurus, from which, indeed, small specimens are occasionally not 
easy to separate. 

46. Blechrus maurus. 

Dromius maurus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, vii. 55, 1. 171. f. D (1827). 

glabratus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 9 (1854). 

maurus. Id., Cat. Mad. Col 6 (1857). 

Blechrus maurus, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. jDeutsch. i. 276 (1860). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 15 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P'" /S'% Des.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten.fi 
Palma), passim. 




CARABIDiE. 19 

The B. maurus, so abundant throughout Europe, is widely spread 
over these Atlantic islands — where, indeed, most probably it is uni- 
versal. As yet, however, it has been observed only in Madeira proper, 
Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande, of the Madeiran Group, and 
in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Palma, of the Canaries. 

47. Blechrus plagiatus. 

Lebia plagiata {Meg.), Dufts., Fna Austr. ii. 249 (1812). 
Dromius plagiatus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 5 (1857). 
Blechrus plagiatus, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 277 (1860). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 15 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (P'" S*") et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., 
Ten., Gom.), hinc inde occurrens. 

The B. plagiatus of central and southern Europe is, like the last 
species, widely spread over these Atlantic Groups. It is certainly, 
however, scarcer than the B. maurus — at any rate in the Madeiran 
archipelago, whence two examples collected by the late Mr. Bewicke 
in Porto Santo are all that I have yet seen. But at the Canaries 
it is far more common, and may perhaps be universal; though 
hitherto it does not happen to have been observed in either Palma 
or Hierro. In the other five islands, however, although local, it is 
not by any means rare. 

Genus 17. METABLETUS. 

Schm.-Gobel, Ent. Zeit. Stett. 390 (1846). 

48. Metabletus patruelis. 

Dromius patruelis, Chaud., Enum. des Car ah. de Cauc. 60 (1846). 

exclamationis, MenStr., Ins. rec. ]). Lehm. i. 6. f. 4 (1849). 

arenicolus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 6 (1854). 

arenicola, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 4 (1857). 

obscm'oguttatiis, Hart., Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fttert. 141. 

Metabletus patruelis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 16 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*" S^") et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), 
hinc inde in aridis arenosis et calcareis vulgaris. 

The M. patruelis, which is widely spread over Mediterranean lati- 
tudes, occurs in at any rate the eastern parts both of the Madeiran 
and Canarian archipelagos — particularly in arid, sandy, and calca- 
reous spots. It abounds in Porto Santo, and is found on the Ponta 
de Sao Lourengo (the eastern promontory) of Madeira proper ; whilst 
at the Canarian Group it has been observed hitherto only in Lanza- 
rote and Fuerteventura. 

c2 



20 



CARABIDiE. 



49. Metabletus obscuroguttatus. 

Lebia obscuroguttata (Anders.), Diifts., Fna Austr. ii. 249 (1812). 
Dromius obscuroguttatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 7 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 4 (1857). 

Metabletus obscuroguttatus, Sch., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 279 (1860). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), in montibus valde elevatis sub lapidibus 
vulgaris. 

The very widely spread M. obscuroguttatus occasionally abounds 

in Madeira proper, at a high elevation — occurring beneath stones 

on the exposed mountain-slopes, from about 3000 feet above the 

sea to the summits of the peaks ; but it has not yet been detected in 

any of the other islands. It is a species which is stated to exist in 

many distant parts of the world, having been reported even from 

the Himalayas. 

50. Metabletus insequalis. 

Metabletus insequalis, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 214 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 16 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Oom., Pahna, Hierro), praesertim 
in sylvaticis intermediis vulgaris. 



J 



Found in the sylvan districts of the Canarian islands, at inter- 
mediate and lofty elevations, where it occasionally abounds. It is 
universal in the central and western portions of the Group — having 
been detected in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, Palm a, and 
Hierro (in the last of which it was met with recently by the Messrs. 
Crotch). It is closely allied to the M. foveolatus, Dej. {cupreus, 
Waltl), found in the south of Spain and at Tangiers, and which I 
have taken at Mogadore on the opposite coast of Morocco ; but, apart 
from minor differences, it entirely wants the pale humeral patch 
which is always more or less conspicuous in that insect. 



51. Metabletus lancer otensis. 

Metabletus lancerotensis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 17 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Lanz.), sub lapidibus, praesertim in intermediis, 
passim. 



i 



The present Metabletus would appear to represent in Lanzarote 
(and, we may expect, in Fuerteventura also, though it does not happen 
as yet to have been observed there) the M. inceqmdis, which is so 
general throughout the central and western portions of the Canarian 
Group. It is not uncommon (beneath stones) at intermediate ele- 
vations, particularly in the north of the island. 




CARABID^. 31 

52. Metabletus brevipennis. 

Metabletus brevipennis, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 18 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus ; a W. D. Crotch semel 
repertus. 

The only specimen which I have yet seen of this Metabletus was 
taken by Dr. Crotch, during the spring of 1862, in TenerifFe. Its 
distinctive characters have been fuUy pointed out in my Canaiian 
Catalogue ; and although apparently well defined, more examples 
are nevertheless much required in order to ascertain that the features 
which characterize it as a species are true and constant. 

Genus 18. MASOREUS. 
(Ziegler) Dej., Spec. Gm. des Col. iii. 538 (1828). 

53. Masoreus nobilis. 

Masoreus nobilis, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 22 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), rarissimus ; juxta Olivam captus. 

This large Masoreus occurs in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian 
Group, though very rarely — the only three examples which I have 
seen having been taken by myself, during March 1859, near Oliva. 

54. Masoreus arenicola. 

Masoreus arenicola, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 214 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. CoL 22 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Faert.), in arenosis maritimis plus minus 
salinis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Found in sandy and saline places (on and near the shore) of the 
two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, Lanzarote and Fuerte- 
ventura, where it is occasionally abundant. Both it and the M. 
alticola are closely allied to the European M. Wetterhalii; but the 
characters which separate them from that species, as well as inter se, 
have been fully pointed out in my Canarian Catalogue. 

55. Masoreus alticola. 
Masoreus alticola, WoU., Cat. Can. CoL 24 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus, in humidis elevatis usque ad 
8000' s. m. ascendens. 



22 



CARABIDiE. 



Likewise a Canarian insect, but one which has been observed 
hitherto only in the lofty elevations of TenerifFe — where it occurs, 
very sparingly, in damp sylvan (and subsylvan) spots, ascending to 
at least 8000 feet above the sea. 

(Subfam. XI. CHLiENIIDES.) 

Genus 19. CHL^NIUS. 
Bonelli, Ohserv, Ent. i. tab. syn. (1813). 

56. ChlaBnius spoliatus. 

Carabus spoliatus, Rossi, Mant. Ins. i. 79 (1792). 
Chlsenius spoliatus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. ii. 312 (1826). 

, Schaunif Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 329 (1860). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 25 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam.) rarior, in aquosis inferioribus 
praecipue occurrens. 

The C. spoliatus of Mediterranean latitudes occurs sparingly at 
the Canaries, along the edges of streams, principally at low eleva- 
tions. I have taken it in Grand Canary and Teneriffe, and it was 
found by Dr. Crotch in Gomera. 



57. Chlsenius canariensis. 



J 



Chlsenius canariensis {King), I^V-) Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 657 (1831). 

' , JBi-^dle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 67, pi. ii. f 6 (1838). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 25 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten.), hinc inde in aquosis parum vulgaris. 

This fine Chlcenius appears to be peculiarly Canarian, occurring 
in similar spots as (though more plentifully than) the preceding 
species. Hitherto it has been observed only in Grand Canary and 
Teneriffe. 

(Subfam. XII. LICINIDES.) ~ 

Genus 20. LICINUS. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. i. 199 (1806). 

58. Licinus Manriquianus. 

Licinus Manriquianus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 438 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 25 (1864). 

spec, (agricolae afiinis), Hart.,Geol.Verh.Lanz.u.Fitert.\4iO,\4^ 



Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus in intermediis 
hand infrequens. 




CARABID^. 23 

Detected hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, in the 
east of the Canarian Group, where it is far from uncommon (during 
the winter and spring) at intermediate elevations. It is not im- 
probable that it may exist also in Grand Canary. I have, indeed, 
received it from Paris with the label " Teneriffe " appended to it ; 
but as it seems to be a custom with many of the French collectors 
to cite everything (from these islands) as Teneriffan for which they 
have no precise habitat, I cannot lay any stress upon a fact which 
seems to be the result of mere inaccuracy and carelessness. 

Genus 21. EURYGNATHUS. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. tab. i. f. 1 et 3 (1854). 

59. Eurygnathus Latreillii, 

Licinus Latreillei, Laporte, Mud. Ent. i. 83 (1834). 

, Casteln., Hist. Nat. des Ins. Col. i. tab. 8. f. 9 (1840). 

Eurygnathus Latreillei, Woll, Ins. Mad. 21, tab. 1. f. 1 et 3 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 10 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S^^, Des.), in intermediis et subelevatis 
degens. 

This large and remarkable Licinid appears to be confined to the 
Madeiran Group, and to occur principally in the intermediate elevations 
of Porto Santo and the adjacent islet known as the Ilheo Debaixo. 
It is found, however, sparingly, on the Deserta Grande likewise — 
where, moreover, it assumes a slightly altered state, being, on the 
average, a Kttle larger, with its elytra rather more parallel at the 
sides. In Porto Santo I have taken it abundantly during the winter 
months; and specimens from the same island have recently been 
communicated by the Barao do CasteUo de Paiva. 

(Subfam. XIII. BROSCIDES). 

Genus 22. BROSCUS. 
Panzer, Index Ent. i. 62 (1813). 

J 60. Broscus crassimargo. 
Broscus crassimargo, Woll., Append, huj. op. 6. 
Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in lauretis humidis excelsis a DD. Crotch 
parce deprehensus. 

A large Broscus which was detected by the Messrs. Crotch at a 




24 ^HH^F CAKABIDiE. 

high elevation in the laurel-districts of Gomera, during their late 
Canarian campaign. It appears to be extremely rare, and (like the 
B. rutilans of Teneriffe) to occur in wet places. 

61. Broscus glaber. 

Feronia (Percus) glabra, BrnlU, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 57, pi. ii. 

f. 4 (1838). 
Broscus glaber, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 26 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), sub lapidibus in collibus aridis, praeser- 
tim calcareis, sat rams. 

The only island in which I have observed this Broscus is Grand 
Canary, where (during March 1858) I took it beneath stones on the 
dry calcareous liiUs above Las Palmas. 

62. Broscus rutilans. 

Broscus rutilans, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 438 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 27 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in montibus excelsis usque ad 7000' s. m. 
ascendens. 

Likewise peculiar to the Canarian Group, but detected hitherto 
only in Teneriffe — ^where it occurs at very lofty altitudes, principally 
about wet rocks. In such situations I obtained it, rather abundantly, 
on the mountain -ridges above the Agua Mansa (at an elevation of 
at least 7000 feet). 

(Subfam. XIV. PTEKOSTICHIDES.) 

Genus 23. POGONUS. 
(Ziegler) Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iii. b. (1828). 

68. Pogonus salsipotens. 

Pogonus salsipotens, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 27 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in salinis juxta oram maritinrnm parum 
vulgaris. 

Common (in saline places) in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Grouj), 
but it has not yet been detected in any of the other islands ; though 
we may expect to find it in Fuerteventura, and perhaps also in Grand 
Canary. It is not peculiar, however, to the Canaries, having been 
taken by myself and the Messrs. Crotch on the opposite coast of 
Africa. 




CARABID^. 25 

64. Pogonus Grayii. 

Pogonus Grayii, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 438 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 28 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in iisdem locis ac praecedens, sed rarior. 

This pallid and extremely narrow little Pogonus inhabits Lanzarote, 
occurring in the same spots as the last species (and indeed in com- 
pany with it, though more rarely). It appears to be found likewise 
on the opposite coast of Morocco, for the Messrs. Crotch captured it 
(during the past summer) near Mogadore. In shape it much re- 
sembles P. Jiliformis from Sardinia, but its colour is more that of 
the testaceus (likewise of Mediterranean latitudes). 

Genus 24. ZARGUS. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mud. 22 (1854). 

65. Zargus Schaumii. 

Zargus Schaumii, Woll, Ins. Mad. 23, tab. i. f. 5 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in intermediis parum vulgaris. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it is tolerably 
common at intermediate (and occasionally rather lofty) elevations. 
On the northern side of the island, however, it descends to the sea- 
level. 

QQ. Zargus Desertae. 

Zargus Desert?e, WoU., Ins. Mad. 24, tab. i. f 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Des., Bugio), in summis insularum Desertarum 
dcgens. 

Apparently peculiar to the two southern Desertas (namely the 
Deserta Grande and the Bugio) of the Madeiran Group, where it 
occurs on the extreme summits of the islands. 

67. Zargus Crotchianus. 
Zaigus Crotchianus, Woll, Append, hvj. op. 7. 
Habitat Canarienses (Qom.), in lauretis humidis elevatis rarissimus. 

In the Appendix to the present Catalogue I have given a diagnosis 
of this large and distinct Zargus, which has lately been discovered 
by the Messrs. Crotch in the lofty sylvan districts of Gomera. It 



36 



CARABIDiE. 



is extremely rare, for in spite of their careful researches three 
specimens only were obtained ; and moreover it is peculiarly inter- 
esting, as introducing the (hitherto Madeiran) genus of which it is 
a member into the Canarian fauna. I have had much pleasure in 
naming it after my friend Mr. G. K. Crotch, to whose investigations 
(in conjunction with those of his brother) I am so greatly indebted 
for the majority of the species described in the Appendix to this 
volume. 

68. Zargus Monizii. 

Zargus Monizii, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 217 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus ; a cl. Moniz in inferioribus 
repertus. 

Discovered in Madeira proper by Senhor Moniz, who met with 
several examples of it (during December 1858) on the cindery slope 
behind the sea-beach in the little bay immediately within the Cabo 
Garajao, or Brazen Head. It is possible that it may be but an ex- 
tremely developed state of the Z. pellucidus, its larger size and 
darker hue being the principal characters which separate it from 
that species. 

69. Zargus pellucidus. 

Zargus pellucidus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 25, tab. i. f. 6 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des.), late diifusus sed rarissimus. 

Inhabits Madeira proper and the Deserta Grande, occurring 
sparingly at most elevations. 



Genus 25. SPHODRUS. 
Clairville, Ent. Helv. ii. 86 (1806). 

70. Sphodrus leucophthalmus. 

Carabiis leucophthalmus, Linn., Fna JSuec. 784 (1761). 
Sphodrus leucophthalmus, Clairv., Ent. Helv. ii. 86 (1806). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 381 (1860). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 29 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.) rarissimus; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

This common European insect is found in Lanzarote, of the Cana- 
rian Group, where, however, it is extremely rare. Possibly it may 
have been introduced accidentally from more northern latitudes, 
since it occurs for the most part near the towns. 



M 



CARABIDiE. 27 

Genus 26. PRISTONYCHUS. 

Dejean, Spec. Gen. des Col. iii. 43 (1828). 

71. Pristonyclius altemans. 

Pristonychus altemans, Dej.j Spec. Gen. des Col. iii. 61 (1828). 
Sphodrus altemans, Bi'ulle, in TV. et B. ( Col.) 56, pi. ii. f. 8 (1838). 
Pristonyclius altemans, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col. 29 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), sub lapidibus praesertim in montibus 

parce sed late diiFasus. 

This fine Canarian Pristonychus has been observed in a typical 
state only in Teneriffe, where it occurs sparingly (beneath stones) 
from about 700 to 7000 feet above the sea. Three specimens, how- 
ever, are now before me, which were captured by the Messrs. Crotch 
in Gomera, on the mountains above Hermigua. They differ 
from the Teneriffan ones in having their prothorax a trifle less 
coarsely punctured, and in their elytra being a little less acuminated 
behind, with the punctures of the alternate interstices considerably 
reduced in number ; but as these are all points which are essentially 
variable in the nearly allied group of Calathus, I have no hesitation 
in regarding these examples as the exponents of a mere insular 
phasis of the Teneriffan species. Nevertheless I would here cite 
them under the name of " var. /3. obliterata" in the event of sub- 
sequent inquiries proving them to be truly distinct. 

72. Pristonychus picescens. 
Pristonychus picescens, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 30 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Hierro)j rarissimus ; semel tantum repertus. 

I have seen but a single example as yet of this distinct Pristonychus. 
It was captured by myself in the sylvan district of Hierro, the most 
western island of the Canarian Group. 

73. Pristonychus complanatus. 

Pristonychus complanatus, J)ej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iii. 58 (1828). 
Sphodrus complanatus, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 56 (1838). 
Pristonychus alatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 27 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

complanatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 29 (1864). . 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^°) et Canarienses {Lanz., Ten., 
Palma), sub lapidibus prsesertim in cavemis tufic apertis hinc 
inde latens. 

The p. comp1<inatus of Mediterranean latitudes is widely spread 



28 



CARABIDiE. 



over these Atlantic islands, where it is very probably universal. 
Nevertheless hitherto it has been observed only in Madeira proper 
and Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, and in Lanzarote, Teneriffe, 
and Palma, of the Canaries. It is recorded also at the Azores, and | 
was captured by the late Mr. Bewicke even at St. Helena. 

Genus 27. CALATHUS. 
Bonelli, Observ. Ent, i. tab. syn. (1809). 

§ I. Tlhice in utroque sexu {omnino vel fere) simpUces. 

a. Corpus magnum, prothorace postice plus minus angustiorey punctis 

eli/trorum discalihus obsoletis. 

74. Calathus sphodroides. 

Calathus sphodroides, Wall, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 342 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 30 (1804). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in lauretis humidis editioribus prassertim 
sub cortice laxo putrido rarissimus. 

Hitherto I have observed this fine Calathus only in the laurel- 
regions of Teneriffe, where it occurs (though very sparingly) at 
intermediate and lofty altitudes. 

75. Calathus acuminatus. 

Calathus acuminatus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 342 (1862). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 31 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus hinc 
inde baud infrequens. 

Likewise a Canarian Calathus, and peculiar (so far as observed 
hitherto) to the moist sylvan districts of Teneriffe at a high elevation. 
In such places it is not particularly uncommon, though, on account 
of their being more or less difficult of access, the species must be 
regarded practically as rare. 

b. Corpus minoris mcignitudinis, prothorace postice (ut in Calathis 
typicis) plus minus latlo re, punctis elytrorum discalibus plus minus 
clistinctis. 

76. Calathus rufocastaneus. 



Calathus rufocastaneus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 343 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 31 (1864). 



< 



Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens rarissimus. 

Inhabits much the same regions as the last two species, being 
apparently peculiar to the damp wooded parts of Teneriffe. It is 



i 



CARABID^. 29 

decidedly scarce, the only district in which I have captured it being 
above the Agua Mansa. 



7. Calathus carinatus. 



Calathus carinatus ?, BnilU, in Wehh et BeHh. (Col.) 55 (1838). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 343 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 32 (1864). 

Ilahitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis parum vulgaris. 

A species which seems to be pretty common (though scarcely 
abundant) thoughout the sylvan districts of Teneriffe, at intermediate 
and lofty elevations ; but it has not yet been observed in any of the 
other islands. 

78. Calathus advena. 

Calathus advena, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 344 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 32 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can,), in intermediis degens. 

Apparently peculiar to Grand Canary ;' though, since hitherto I 
have seen but a single example of it (which was taken by myself in 
the region of El Monte), further material would be desirable in order 
to establish its specific characters more completely. Like most of 
the Calathi, it will doubtless be found commonly where it occurs at all. 

79. Calathus abacoides. 

Calathus abaxoides?, Bndlc, in Webb et Berth. Col 56 (1838). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 345 (1862). 

abacoides, Id., Cat. Can. Col 33 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis intermediis baud infrcquens. 

A small Canarian Calathus which has been observed hitherto only 
in the sylvan regions of Teneriffe, where, however, it is locally rather 
abundant. 

80. Calathus obliteratus. 

Calathus obliteratus, Wall., Append, huj. op. 8. 

Habitat Canarienses (Oom.), in lauretis editioribus h DD. Crotch 
lectus. 

Apparently peculiar to Gomera, of the Canarian Group, whence 
the single example described in the Appendix to this volume was 
obtained by the Messrs. Crotch. 



CARABID^E. 

81. Calathus cognatus. 
Calathus cognatus, WolL, Cat Can. Col 34 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), in lauretis editioribus vulgatissimus. 

The present Calathus is strictly a Gomeran one, having been taken 
in profusion by the Messrs. Crotch during their lateCanarian researches. 
From the report which they give, it would seem to abound every- 
where within the laurel-districts of that island, at a high elevation*. 

82. Calathus rectus. 

Calathus fuldpes?, jBmlle[necLat.'], in Webbet Berth. (Col) 6G (1838). 

rectus, Woll, Ami. Nat. Hist. ix. 346 (1862). 

, Id.^ Cat. Can. Col 34 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in inferioribus intermediisque, passim. 

Peculiar apparently to Teneriffe, where it is found sparingly at low 
and intermediate altitudes. 

83. Calathus simplicicollis. 

Calathus simplicicollis, Woll, Ami. Nat. Hist. ix. 347 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col 35 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in inferioribus aridis saxosis rarior. 

Detected hitherto only in the north of Lanzarote, of the Canarian 
Group — where it occurs sparingly at a low elevation on the rocky 
ground between the Salinas and the Risco. In size and general 
contour it a good deal resembles the common European C. melano- 
cephalus ; nevertheless I do not believe that its affinities are in reality 
with that species. 

84. Calathus ascendens. 



Calathus ascendens, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 345 (1862). 
, Id.j Cat. Can. Col 33 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus valde excelsis vulgatissimus ; 
usque ad 8000' vel etiam 9000' s. m. ascendit. 

Strictly an alpine Calathus, occurring in profusion throughout 
almost the loftiest districts of Teneriffe — where it ascends to 8000 
or even 9000 feet above the sea, and but seldom descends into the 
sylvan regions. 

* The range in size of the G. cognatus is more than I indicated in my Canarian 
Catalogue, where the diagnosis was compiled from only two examples which were 
taken by Dr. Crotch in 1862. Instead, therefore, of " Long, corp, lin. 5," read 
Long. corp. lin. 4^-6. 



i 



CARABIDiE. 31 

85. Calathus subfuscus. 

Calathus fuscus, TVoll. [nee Fab.], Ins. Mad. 31 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 12 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in montibus valde excelsis sub lapidibus 
\iilgaris. 

Occupies much the same position in Madeira proper (the only 
island in which this Calathus has been detected) as the Canarian C. 
ascendens does at Teneriffe — abounding beneath stones on the ex- 
posed mountain-slopes above the limits of even the sylvan districts, 
and ascending thence to the very summits of the peaks*. 

86. Calathus complanatus. 

Calathus complanatus (KoUar), Dej., Spec. Gm. des Col. iii. 73 (1828). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 30 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 <1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Chdo, Des., Bugio), ab ora maritima 
usque ad summos montes ascendens. 

A most abundant Calathus in the Madeiran Group (to which it is 

peculiar), teeming on every island except Porto Santo (where it is 

represented by the Jlmbriatus) — from the sea-level to the summits 

of the peaks. It is decidedly a variable insect, presenting many 

slight modifications according to the locality and altitude at which 

it is found. 

87. Calathus vividus. 

Carabus vividus, JbJ., Syst. Eleu. i. 194 (1801). 

, Schim., Syn. Ins. i. 199 (1806). 

Calathus vividus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 29 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus praecipue degens. 

Apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, where, however, it is uni- 
versal throughout the sylvan districts of intermediate and (more 
especially) lofty elevations. 

* Although so closely resembling at first sight the European C. fuscus that I 
have hitherto regarded it as a geographical modification of that insect, a recent 
and more accurate comparison of this Madeiran Calathus has induced me to 
believe that (after all) it is not absolutely conspecific with its more northern ally. 
For not only does it differ in having its under-wings obsolete, but it is likewise 
not quite the same even in its external features. Thus, its prothorax is rather 
convexer and a little more equally rounded at the sides, with the extreme pos- 
terior angles very decidedly obtuser or less sharply defined ; and the basal rim 
of its elytra is not minutely-prominent at thfc humeral angles (so as to shape out 
a small projecting denticle) as in that insect. Indeed the shape of its prothorax 
is more on the type of that which obtains in the Teneriffan C. ascendens than in 
the European fuscus : and I strongly suspect that its afiinities are rather with the 
former than with the latter. 



32 



CARABID^. 



§ II. Tibice posterior es maris intus plus minus dense Jimhriatce, 

88. Calathus ciliatus. 

Calathus ciliatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 348 (1802). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 36 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus excelsis plus minus sylva- 
ticis hinc inde parum vulgaris. 

A large Calathus which may be regarded as the Canarian repre- 
sentative of the C. vividus of Madeira. It has been observed hitherto 
only in the higher elevations of TenerifFe, where it is locally far 
from uncommon on the upper limits of the sylvan districts. 

89. Calathus auctus. 

Calathus auctus, Woll.y Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 349 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 37 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Ten.), in iisdem locis ac prsecedens. 

Likewise a Teneriffan Calathus, residing in precisely the same sort 
of places as the last species — indeed for the most part in company 
with it. It is in fact very closely allied to the ciliatus ; and although 
I believe it to be permanently distinct, yet examples do occasionally 
occur which are so far intermediate between the two that I cannot 
but feel it possible that it may be in reality but an extreme modifi- 
cation of that species. 



90. Calathus angustulus. 

Calathus angustulus, Woll., Auji. Nat. Hist. ix. 349 (1802). 
, id., Cat. Can. Col 37 (1864). 



i 



Hahitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis editioribus praesertim sub 
truncis corticeque arborum laxo putrido parce latens. 

Attached to the damp sylvan regions of Teneriffe, particularly at 
a high altitude ; occurring, sparingly, under wet logs of wood, and 
beneath the loose rotting bark of trees. 



91. Calathus depressus. 



I 



C^athus depressus ?, BrulU in Webb et Berth. { Col.) 55, pi. 2. f. 1 (1838 

, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 350 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 38 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis vulgatissimus. 

Abounds throughout the wooded districts of Tenerifi^e, being 
haps the most common of the Canarian Calathl ; but it has not y 
been observed in any of the other islands. 





CARABIDiE. 33 

92. Calathus fimbriatus. 

Calathus complanatus, var. y, WoIL, Ins. Mad. 30 (1854). 

(p.), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 11 (1857). 

fimbriatus, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 18 (1858). 

J Id., Apjjend. huj. op. 8. 



Habitat Madereiises (P'" S*"), sub lapidibus prsesertim in inferioribus 
vulgaris. 

Apparently peculiar to Porto Santo, where it is strictly the repre- 
sentative of the G. complanatm which is so universal throughout the 
other islands of the Madeiran Group. Indeed, until within the last 
few years, I had recorded it as an insular modification (" var. y ") 
of that species ; and it was not until my attention had been called 
by Mr. Janson to the fact of its posterior tibiae being internally 
fringed (an important character which had nevertheless escaped my 
notice) that I felt compelled, when its other slight differences (alluded 
to in my diagnosis) were taken into account, to treat it as truly and 
specifically distinct. 

93. Calathus appendiculatus. 

Calathus appendiculatus, W oil., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 351 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 38 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in sylvaticis intermediis occurrens. 

The only specimens which I have seen of this distinct Calathus 
were taken by myself in the laurel-districts of Grand Canary, between 
Osorio and Gaidar. There can be little doubt that it must occur 
abundantly in, at all events, that particular region. 

94. Calathus laureticola. 

Calathus laureticola, Append, huj. op. 9. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), in lauretis humidis excelsis h DD. Crotch 
captus. 

Found by the Messrs. Crotch, during their late Canarian campaign, 
in the sylvan regions of Gomera — to which it seems to be peculiar. 
It was taken at a high altitude in the laurel- districts above Her- 
migua, " under Monte Fuerte," 

95. Calathus barbatus. 

Calathus barbatus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 352 (1862). 
,Id., Cat. Can. Col. 39 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis editioribusque degens. 

D 



34 



CARABIDiE. 



Taken hitherto only in Grand Canary, where it occurs both in 
sylvan and subsylvan spots of intermediate and lofty elevations. 

96. Calathus spretus. 

Calathus spretus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 352 (1862). 
^ Jd.^ Cat. Can. Col. 39 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ffierro), prsecipue in intermediis vulgaris. 

A Canarian Calathus which is common throughout the intermediate 
elevations of Hierro, to which island it would seem to be peculiar. 
It bears a considerable prima facie resemblance to the C. harbatus 
from Grand Canary ; and it is the only exponent of the genus which 
has been detected in Hierro. 



Genus 28. ANCHOMENUS. 
Bonelli, Observ. Ent. i. tab. syn. (1809). 

97. Anchomenns NichoUsii. 

• Anchomenus NichoUsii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 40 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), inter lapillos et sub lapidibus 
margines rivulorum in editioribus vulgaris. 

A Canarian Anchomenus which was discovered by Dr. Crotch and 
S. T. NichoUs, Esq., in the spring of 1862 ; and which has since 
been captured in profusion, not only by the former but also by his 
brother, Mr. G. K. Crotch, during their late expedition to those 
islands. Erom the report before me, it seems to abound in the higher 
districts of Gomera — occurring " by the edges of every stream " ; but 
it is clearly much more scarce in Teneriffe (where I myself indeed 
have never met with it), though it was certainly found there by Dr. 
Crotch — above Ycod el Alto — during his first Canarian campaign. 





98. Anchomenus debilis. 
Anchomenus debihs, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 41 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), inter lapillos ad margines rivulorum 



;n. ^H 

m 



ranssimus. 



The only specimens which I have seen of this insect I captured at 
the edges of a stream at Teror, in Grand Canary. Having now had 
an opportunity of comparing it with a more extensive series of the 
A. NichoUsii, I am quite satisfied that the two species (although 
closely allied to each other) are totally distinct. 




CARABIDiE. 35 

99. Anchomenus albipes. 

Carabus albipes, Fah., Ent. Syst iv. ind. alpli. 33. 
Anchomenus pallipe^, Woll, Ins. Mad. 33 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 12 (1857). 

albipes, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 408 (18G0). 

, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 42 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert.), per margines 
aquarum hinc inde vulgatissimus. 

The common European A. albipes abounds in damp spots generally 
(particularly along the edges of the streams) in Madeira proper, and 
also in Fuerteventura of the Ganarian Group ; but it is somewhat 
remarkable that, although thus universal in those two islands, it has 
not yet been observed elsewhere throughout the archipelago. 

100. Anchomenus marginatus. 

Carabus marginatus, Linfi., Fna Suec. 222 (1761). 

Platynus marginatus, BndU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 56 (1838). 

Anchomenus marginatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 33 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 12 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 42 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom.), in 
humidis et aquosis hinc inde vulgaris. 

The A. marginatus, so universal throughout Europe, occurs spar- 
ingly at high elevations in Madeira proper, but is more abundant at 
the Canaries — where it has been detected in Grand Canary, Tenc- 
riffe, and Gomera. 

Genus 29. OLISTHOPUS. 
Dejean, Spec. GSn, des Col. iii. 176 (1828). 

101. Olisthopus humerosus. 

Olisthopus maderensis, var. /3, Woll, Ins. Mad. 35 (1854). 

(p.). Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 12 (1857). 

humerosus, Schaum, in litt. 

, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 407 (1858). 

Habitat Maderenses (Des., Bugio),m summis insularum Desertarum 
sub lapidibus necnon etiam in rupium fissuris degens. 

Apparently peculiar to the Desertas, of the Madeiran Group, oc- 
curring on the summits of the two southern islands — the Deserta 
Grande and the Bugio ; but it has not yet been observed on the 
northern one, or Ilheo Chao. In the ' Ins. Mad.' I regarded it as a 
large, insular modification of the 0. maderensis — in which the colour 

n2 



36 



CARABID^. 



I 



is paler, the surface less shining, or more aliitaceous (though free 
from the very lightly impressed, remote additional punctules which 
are always more or less traceable in that species, when viewed beneath 
a high magnifying power), and the humeral angles of the elytra are 
more porrected or acute ; but I was subsequently induced, through 
the strongly expressed opinion of Schaum, to record it as distinct. 



102. Olisthopus maderensis. 

Olisthopus maderensis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 36, tab. i. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 12 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis editioribus pra)sertim vulgatis- 
simus, usque ad summos montes ascendens. 



•I 



This is the universal Olisthopus of Madeira proper, though it hasj 
not yet been observed in any of the other islands of the Group. It 
abounds at intermediate and lofty elevations, particularly the latter, 
ascending to the very summits of the peaks. 

103. Olisthopus acutangulus. 

Olisthopus acutangulus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 13 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus; a Dom. M. Park semel captus. 

A single example only of this Olisthopus, taken by Mr. M. Park 
in Madeira proper (I believe near Funchal), has hitherto been brought 
to light : and it is possible that it may be merely some local state of 
the 0. maderensis in which the elytra are a little more coarsely alu- 
taceous and deeply striated, with their shoulders a trifle more acute, 
and in which the prothorax is smoother and more finely margined, 
and the limbs are a shade darker in tint ; but until further material 
has been obtained to judge from, I do not think it would be safe to 
treat it as such. 

104. Olisthopus glabratus. , 

Olistopus glabratus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 56 (1838). ^ 
Ohsthopus glabratus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 43 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Hierro), ubique vulgaris. 

Strictly the representative at the Canaries of the Madeiran 0. ma- 
derensis, to which indeed it is very closely allied. StiU, I have else- 
where expressed my conviction that it is no modification of that 
species (however nearly resembling it) ; for it retains its characters 
unchanged throughout all the islands (four in number) of the Cana- 
rian archipelago in which it has been observed, and under many 






CARABIDiE. 37 

different and opposite local conditions — which would scarcely be the 
case had its inherent tendency for variation occasioned it to assume 
a separate state in Madeira, whilst remaining constant in four other 
islands which are more or less remote inter se. 

The 0. glabratus is common in Grand Canary, TeneriiFe, Gomera, 
and Hierro, occurring independently of altitude ; but in Palma it has 
not yet been observed, its place being there supplied by the following 
species. In the two eastern islands of the Group, Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura, I do not expect that it will be found to exist. 

105. Olisthopus palmensis. 
Olisthopus palmensis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 42 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in sylvaticis subsylvaticisque degens. 

Found only, hitherto, in Palma, of the Canarian Group — where it 
is locally common at intermediate altitudes, particularly within the 
sylvan regions. Although so distinct from \hQ glahratus as to remove 
all doubt concerning the specific value of its characters, it is never- 
theless very remarkable that it should take the place apparently of 
that insect in the above-mentioned island. I may add, however, on 
the other hand, that we are scarcely yet perhaps in a position to assert 
positively that the glabratus proper does not occur (simultaneously 
with the palmensis) in some of the remoter districts of Palma. 

106. Olisthopus ericse. 

Olisthopus Ericge, Woll, Ins. Mad. 37, tab. i. f. 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 13 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus hinc inde vul- 
garis ; praesertim sub fibris Ericarum laxis aridis congregans. 

Occurs in the higher elevations of Madeira proper, principally on 
the upper limits of the sylvan districts, from about 4000 to 5000 
feet above the sea. It may often be found in abundance, harbouring 
beneath the loose outer fibre of the gigantic Heaths — the Erica ar- 
borea and scojparia, Linn. 

107. Olisthopus elongatus. 

Olisthopus elongatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 38 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 14 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 44 (1864). 

glabratus, Hart, fnec Bndle]. Geoloq. Verhdltn. Lanz. undFuert. 

140,141. J' .V 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P'" S*") et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), 
hinc inde sub lapidibus parum vulgaris. 




38 CARABIDiE. 

Pound, though not abundantly, both in the Madeiran and Cana- 
rian Groups — namely, in Madeira proper and Porto Santo of the 
former, and in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura of the latter. It occurs 
principally under stones in hot and arid places, at rather low and 
intermediate elevations. 

Genus 30. PLATYDERUS. 

Stephens, III Brit. Ent i. 101 (1828). 

108. Platyderus alticola. 

Platyderus alticola, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 45 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus prsecipue valde excclsis 
lapidibus in aperto rarissimus. 

Observed hitherto only at very lofty altitudes on the mountains of 
TenerifFe, where I have taken it sparingly (from beneath stones) on 
the elevated Gumbre overlooking the Cafiadas, at nearly 9000 feelj 
above the sea ; and I have little doubt that two Teneriifan specimend 
now before me, from the collection of M. de la Perraudiere, are from 
the same district. A single example which was captured on a com- 
paratively low maritime ridge in the vicinity of S*'^ Cruz differs 
slightly from the ordinary type, and may possibly prove to be th^^ 
exponent of a closely allied species. 

109. Platyderus tenuistriatus. 
Platyderus tenuistriatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 45 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus rarissimus. 

A Canarian insect of the greatest rarity — a single example only,"J 
captured by Dr. Crotch in TenerifFe (during the spring of 1862), 
having as yet been brought to light. 

Genus 31. PTEROSTICHUS, Auct, 

(Subgenus Pcecilus, Bon.) 

110. Pterostichus crenatus. 

Feronia crenata (Hoffm.), Dej., ^yec. Gen. des Col. iii. 226 (1828). 1 

, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 56 (1838). I 

Pterostichus crenatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 46 (1864). I| 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus in intermediis 
rarior. 

A south-European insect which occurs very sparingly in Lanzarote 



■ 






CARABID^. 39 

and Fuerteventura, the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, 
where it was taken both by Mr. Gray and myself. It is found 
under stones at intermediate elevations, making its appearance after 
the winter-rains. 

(Subgenus Lagarus, Chaud.) 

111. Pterostichus fignratus. 

Pterostichus figuratus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 46 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), rarissimus ; ^W. D. Crotch semel tantum 
deprehensus. 

A single specimen of this Canarian insect is all that I have yet 
seen. It was captured by Dr. Crotch " in Teneriffe," during the 
spring of 1862. 

(Subgenus Orthomus, Chaud.) 

112. Pterostichus longulus. 

Feronia barbara, Brulle [nee Bej.'], inWehh et Berth (Col.) 56 (1838). 

longula, beiytensis et prselonga, Reiche, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de 

France, iii. 616, 618, 619 (1855). 

elongata {Klug), Chaud., Stett. ent. Zeit. 116 (1859). 

canariensis. Hart, [nee Brulle], Geol. Verh. Lanz. u. Fuert. 140, 141. 



Pterostichus longulus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 47(1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can,, Ten. ?), sub lapidibus hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

An insect widely spread over Mediterranean latitudes, assuming 
several slight (and very unimportant) local modifications which have 
been described as species. It occurs abundantly in the eastern part 
of the Canarian Group, but seems gradually to disappear as we ap- 
proach even the central islands. Thus in Lanzarote and Puerte- 
ventura it is exceedingly common, and moreover quite universal; 
whilst in Grand Canary it appears to be confined to a few sandy 
places along the coast. "Whether it exists at aU in Teneriffe I have 
not been able completely to satisfy myself ; but I think perhaps that 
it may just make its appearance in one or two spots. At any rate 
I have received examples professing to be Teneriffan both from the 
Baron Paiva and M. Hartung ; but as I have never met with it in 
that island, and since I have so often found the material transmitted 
to me from those two sources to be remarkable for its inaccuracy, I 
cannot but feel that the Teneriffan habitat of the species requires at 
least further corroboration. 



40 



CARABIDif:. 



113. Pterostichus haligena. 
Pterosticlius haligena, WoU., Jown. of Ent i. 87 (1860). 
Habitat Salvages (ins. major em, borealem), sub lapidibus vulgaris. 

Common beneath stones on the Great Salvage, whence it has on 
several occasions been received by the Baron Paiva. It is closely 
related to the preceding species, but the characters which separate 
it therefrom have been fully pointed out in my Canarian Catalogue 
[vide p. 48, note]. 

(Subgenus Lyperus, Chaml.) 

114. Pterostichus nigerrimus. 

Feronia nigerrima, Dej., Spec, Gen. des Col. iii. 291 (1828). 
Pterostichus simplicipunctatus, Kollar, in litt. 
Omaseus nigerrimus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 45 (1854). 
, Id.j Cat. Mad. Col. 15 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in humidis inferioribus rarissimus. 

The P. nigerrimus of south-western Europe, which may perhaps 
be but a geographical modification of the more northern aterri- 
mus, occurs sparingly in Madeira proper (in swampy places around 
Funchal) ; but it has not yet been detected in any of the other 
islands. 

115. Pterostichus WoUastoni. 

Pterostichus WoUastoni, Heer, in litt. 

Omaseus WoUastoni, Woll., Ins. Mad. 46, tab. i. f. 9 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 15 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^), in subinferioribus rarissimus. 

Peculiar to the Madeiran Group — where it occurs very rarely, at 
rather low elevations, both in Madeira proper and Porto Santo. In 
the former it has been taken principally on and near the Cabo 
Garajao, or Brazen Head. 

(Subgenus Haptoderus, Chaud.) 

116. Pterostichus harpaloides. 

Pterostichus harpaloides, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 50 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), in sylvaticis editioribus rarissimus. 

A Canarian species which appears to be peculiar to Hierro, where 
Gioreover it is extremely scarce. The few examples which I have 
icen were captured by myself at a high elevation in the upper part 






CARABIDiE. 41 

of the wooded district of El Golfo, on the western slopes of that 
island. 

117. Pterostichus angularis. 

2 . Calathus angularis, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 56 (1838). 
(^ . Feronia canariensis, Id., in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 56 (1838). 
Pterostichus angularis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 49 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis prsesertim lauretis sat 
vulgaris. 

A rather common insect within the sylvan districts of Teneriffe ; 
but it has not yet been found elsewhere. 

118. Pterostichus robustus. 

Argutor robustus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 40 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 14 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in intermediis editioribusque baud 
infrequens. 

Inhabits the mountains of Madeira proper, occurring in the sylvan 
and subsylvan districts, and being often comparatively common in 
the fir- woods of intermediate altitudes. 



119. Pterostichus gracilipes. 

Argutor gracilipes, Woll., Ins. Mad. 41 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 14 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in intermediis pra3cipue 
degens. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, and with (on the average) 
a somewhat lower range than the preceding species, — occurring 
principally at intermediate elevations, but descending occasionally 
(at any rate on the northern side of the island) to nearly (or even 
quite) the sea-level. 

120. Pterostichus calathifonnis. 

Pterostichus calathifonnis, Woll., Append, huj. op. 9. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in locis elevatis rarissimus; a DD. 
Crotch sestate a.d. 1864 parcissime lectus. 

Discovered at a high elevation (above Hermigua) in Gomera by 
the Messrs. Crotch, during their late Canarian expedition — " above 
the cataract, at the foot of Monte Fuerte." It is evidently extremely 
rare, three examples being all that they obtained. 



42 



CARABIDiE. 



121. Pterostichus dilaticollis. 

Argutor dilaticollis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 42 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 14 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus Line 
inde sat vulgaris. 

Occurs in the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper (espociAUy 
in the laurel-forests in the north of the island), where it is locally 
rather abundant at intermediate and lofty elevations. 

122. Pterostichus curtns. 

Argutor curtus, Woll., Im. Mad. 43 (1854). 
^ Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 14 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), hinc inde in intermediis occurrens. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, but with a rather lower range 
than the last species, — occurring for the most part at intermediate 
altitudes, but sometimes descending into less elevated districts. 




Genus 32. AMARA. 
Bonelli, Observat. JEM. i. (1809). 

123. Amara trivialis. 

Harpalus trivialis, Gyll. [nee Dufts.'], Ins. Stiec. ii. 140 (1810). 
Amara trivialis, WolL, Ins. Mad. 47 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 15 (1857). 

, Schaum, Nat. der his. Deutsch. i. 531 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^), sub lapidibus sat vulgaris. 

The A. trivialis, so common throughout Europe and in the north 
of Africa (and which has been recorded from North America, and 
even Siberia), is rather abundant in the Madeiran Group — where, 
however, it has been observed hitherto only in Madeira proper and 
Porto Santo ; but it has not yet been detected in any other of these 
Atlantic islands. 

(Subgenus Leiocnemis, Zimm.) 

124. Amara versuta. 

Amara bifrons, Hart, [nee Gyll.'], Oeol. Verhdltn. Lanz. undFuert. 141. 

versuta, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 215 (1863). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 51 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in intermediis parum rara. 
A Canarian species, which has been captured hitherto only in Lan- 






carabidjE. 43 

zarote and Fuerteventura — the two eastern islands of the Group. It 
appears to be rather scarce, and to occur at intermediate elevations. 

(Subgenus Trisena?, Le Conte.) 

125. Amara snperans. 

Amara superans, Woll.j Ins. Mad. 48 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 15 (1857). 

Habitat Madercnses {Mad.), rarissima; in summos montes sub 
lapidibus parcissime occurrens. 

A large Madeiran Amara which has been detected hitherto only- 
near the summits of two of the highest mountains in Madeira proper, 
— the " Ice House Peak " and the Pico do Areeiro, where, more- 
over, it is of the greatest rarity. 



Genus 33. ZABRUS. 
Clairville, Ent. Helv. ii. 80 (1806). 

126. Zabrus crassus. 

Zabrus crassus, Bcj., Spec. Gen. des Col. iii. 451 (1828). 

, Zimm., Mon. der Carab. 42 (1831). 

, BrtdU, in Webb et BeHh. {Col) 67 (1838). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 52 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienscs {Ten.), praecipue in intermediis sed parum rarus. 

Apparently peculiar to Teneriffe, where, however, it is both local 
and rather scarce, — occurring principally at intermediate and some- 
what lofty altitudes. 

127. Zabrus laevigatas. 

Zabrus laevigatus, Zimm., Mon. der Carab. 43 (1831), 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 52 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), paulo magis vulgaris nccnon ple- 
rumque in locis paulo inferioribus occurrens. 

Likewise a Canarian species, but one which has been found both in 
Teneriffe and Gomera. It has a rather lower range than the crassus 
— occurring more particularly in the dry and cindery regions of inter- 
mediate, and even low, altitudes. Its existence in Gomera is stated 
on the authority of the Messrs. Crotch, who obtained two dead speci- 
mens from under stones upon the sea-shore below Hermigua. One 
of these is now before me, and has its prothorax a little more broadly 
margined, and the elytral stria) a trifle deeper, than is the case in 



44 



CARABID^. 



the ordinary Teneriffan type; nevertheless although thus far ap- 
proaching the crassus, I believe that it is truly referable to the Icevi- 
gatus — the less basally-impressed prothorax, which has its anterior 
angles less porrected, being more in accordance with what obtains 
in the latter. 

(Subfam. XV. HAKPALIDES.) 

Genus 34. ANISODACTYLUS. 

Dejean, Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 132 (1829). 



128. Anisodactylus binotatus. 

Carabus binotatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 151 (1792). 
Anisodactylus binotatus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 140 (1829). 

, Woll, Ins. 3Iad. 49 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 15 (1857). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in humidis et aquosis vulgaris. 

This common European insect is universal in Madeira proper, 
principally in damp places of intermediate elevations ; but it is re- 
markable that it has not yet been observed in any other of these 
Atlantic islands. 



Genus 35. CRATOGNATHUS. 

Dejean, Spec. Gen. des Col iv. 46 (1829). 

129. Cratognathus solitarius. 

Harpalus consentaneus, Hart, [nee Dej.'], G. V. Lanz. u. Fuert. 140, 141. 
Cratognathus solitarius, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 215 (1863). 
, Id.^ Cat. Can. Col. 64 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in intermediis vulgaris. M 

Apparently peculiar to the two eastern islands of the Canarian 
archipelago — Lanzarote and Puerteventura, where it is locally abun- 
dant at intermediate and lofty elevations. 

130. Cratognathus pelagicus. 

Harpalus pelagicus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 88 (1860). 
Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), vulgaris. 

This large and broad Cratognathus (the prothorax of which is wide^ 
transverse and convex, and not at all constricted behind, the edges 
being rounded in a continuous curve) is peculiar to the Salvages, 





CARABIDiE. 45 

from the larger island of which (known as the Great Salvage) it has 
on several occasions been received by the Baron Paiva. 

131. Cratog:nathns fortunatus. 

Cratognathus fortunatus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 216 (1863). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 55 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in montibus excelsis hinc indo vulgaris. 

Detected hitherto only on the mountains of Grand Canary, where 
it would seem to represent in that island the C. micans of Teneriffe 
and Gomera, and the solitarius of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. 
During April 1858 I met with it in abundance in one of the lofty 
Finals in the central district of Tarajana. 

132. Cratognathus micans. 

Ilarpalus vividus, Hart, [nee DeJ.'], Geol. Verh. Lam. undFuert. 140. 
Cratognathus micans, JVoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 215 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 56 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), in inferioribus et intermediis prae- 
sertim illis prajdominans. 

This seems to be the common Cratognathus in Teneriffe and Gomera, 
where it abounds in certain (usually exposed) places of intermediate 
and (more especially) rather low altitudes, assuming a slightly dif- 
ferent aspect in each of those islands. 

133. Cratognathus empiricus. 
Cratognathus empiricus, Woll., Append, huj. op. lo. 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom.), a DD. Crotch nuper deprehensus. 

Detected in Gomera by the Messrs. Crotch during their late Cana- 
rian campaign — namely, at the base of the cataract (about 2000 feet 
above the sea) in the sylvan district above Hermigiia. It is very 
closely allied to the G. micans; nevertheless I have stated in the 
Appendix to this volume what the exact characters are which seem 
to separate it from both states (the TenerifFan and Gomeran ones) 
of that species. 

134. Cratognathus semulus. 
Cratognathus aemulus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 57 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in humidis sylvaticis editioribus rarior. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this very 



46 



CARABIDiE. 



Harpalus-like Cratognathus were taken by myself in TenerifFe, in 
the sylvan region above Taganana. 

135. Cratognathus vividus. 

Harpalus vividus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 332 (1829). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 53 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 16 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes), ab ora maritima usque ad summos 
montes vulgaris. 

Abounds in the whole five islands of the Madeiran Group (as well 
as on the small adjacent rocks), from the sea-level to the summits 
of the peaks, and presenting many slight variations according to the 
exact locality in which it is found*. 

Dejean, who described this insect (as a Harpalus) at considerable 
length, was mistaken in referring it to the Carahiis vividus of Fa- 
bricius — the latter being in reality a Calathus. However, I do not 
think it necessary, on that account, to propose for it a fresh specific 
title ; which of course I should have been compelled to do had Dejean 
published it as a Carabus instead of a Harpalus, and therefore under 
the same actual name (both in genus and species) as Pabricius did ; 
for where two different insects are recorded under an absolutely 
similar title, it is clear that one of them must be re-named, even 
when in reality they belong (as afterwards ascertained) to distinct 
genera. 

Genus 36. HARPALUS. 
Latreille, Gm. Crust, et Ins. i. 201 (1806). 

136. Harpalus distinguendus. 

Carabus distinguendus, Dufts., Fna Austr. ii. 76 (1812). 
Harpalus distinguendus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 274 (1829). 

rubripes ?, Brulle [nee Creutz.'], in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 67 (1838). 

distinguendus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 52 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 16 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^), sub lapidibus ubique vulgaris. 

This European Harpalus is common, at nearly all elevations, in 
Madeira proper and Porto Santo ; but it has not yet been detected 
at the Canaries — though I have reason for suspecting that the species 

* The Porto-Santan specimens of the C. vividus have their prothorax almost 
(or entirely) unpunctulated, and a little less narrowed behind ; but as both the 
punctation (at the utmost very faint) and the exact outline of the pronotum are 
characters eminently variable, I do not consider that the Porto-Santan form has 
any claim to be regarded as specific. 







CARABID^. 47 

which is cited by M. Brulle, in his short and inaccurate list, as the 
rubripes of Creutzer was founded on an example of the distinguendus 
which had been brought by Mr. Webb from Madeira*. 

137. Harpalus attenuatus. 

Ilarpalus attenuatus, Stejih., III. Brit. Ent. i. 152 (1828). 

consentaneus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 302 (1829). 

attenuatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 51 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 16 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., F^° S*^, Des.), sub lapidibus parum vul- 
garis. 

A common European species, which is widely spread over (and 
probably universal in) the Madeiran Group ; but it has not yet been 
observed at the Canaries*. In Madeira proper, however, Porto Santo, 
and the Deserta Grande it occurs at most elevations ; and we may 
expect it to be found likewise on the Ilheo Chao and the Bugio. 

138. Harpalus Schaumii. 

Harpalus consentaneus ?, Brulle [nee -D<^".], in W. et B. (Col.) 67(1838). 
Schaumii, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 58 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), sub lapidibus passim. 

Apparently peculiar to the Canarian Group, where it occurs (rather 
sparingly) beneath stones in Teneriife, Palma, and Hierro. 

139. Harpalus tenebrosus. 

Harpalus tenebrosus, Dej., Spec. G4n. des Col. iv. 378 (1829). 

, Bndle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 57 (1838). 

Wollastoni, Daws., Geod. Brit. 144 (1854). 

litigiosus, Woll. [nee DeJ.], Ins. Mad. 52 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 16 (1857). 

-, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 598 (1860). 



tenebrosus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 58 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^'^) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert,, 
Palma), sub lapidibus hinc inde vulgaris. 

An insect widely spread throughout Europe, and one which is 
found (chiefly in sunny spots of a rather low elevation) both in the 
Madeiran and Canarian Groups. It is, however, more common in 
the former than in the latter, being tolerably abundant in Porto 
Santo and on the Ponta de Sao Lourenco of Madeira proper. At 
the Canaries it has been observed sparingly in Lanzarote, Fuerte- 
ventura, and Palma. 

* Cf. ' Cat. Can. Col.' p. 55 (note). 



48 



CARACID.E. 



Genus 37. OPHONUS. 

(Ziegler) Steph., ///. Brit Ent i. 159 (1828). 

140. Ophonus rotimdicollis. 

Harpalus rotundicollis, Fainih, Fmm. Ent. Franq. i. 121 (1854). 
Ophonus obsciirus, Woll. [nee Fah.\ Ins. Mad. 68 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 17 (1857). 

Harpalus rotundicollis, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 574 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), 
rarissimiis. 



« 



A single specimen of this European OpJionus was captured by 
myself (during July 1850) at tbe edge of the little stream at the jl 
Fomo da Cal, in the north of Madeira proper ; and two more have 
lately been communicated, from the same island, by the Barao do 
Castello de Paiva, who has also obtained a third from the Great 
Salvage. I had formerly identified it with the 0. ohscurus, Fab. ; ^1 
but I am informed that it is more properly referable to the rotundi- 
collis, of Fairmaire. The example from the Salvages differs from the 
Madeiran one in being more brightly cyaneous, and in its prothorax 
(which is more deeply channelled) being rather more densely and 
coarsely punctured. 

Genus 38. DICHIROTRICHUS. 
Jacq. Duval, Gen. des Col. i. 35 (1857). 

141. DicMrotrichus levistriatus. 
Dichirotrichus levistriatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 60 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), in salinis semel captus. 

Hitherto I have seen but a single example of this insect, — which 
was taken by myself (at the Salinas) in the extreme north of Lan- 
zarote, in the Canarian Group. It is a good deal allied to the Euro- 
pean D. obsoletus, though scarcely (I think) any geographical modi- 
fication of that species. 



Genus 39. STENOLOPHUS. 

(Megerle) Steph., ///. Brit. Ent. i. 165 (1828). 

142. Stenolophus Teutonus. 

Carabus vaporariorum, Fah. [nee Linn. 1761], Syst. Ent. 247 (1775). 

teutonus, Schrank, Emim. Ins. Austr. 214 (1781). 

Stenolophus vaporariorum, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 57 (1838 





CARABID^. 49 

Stenolophus Teutonu8, WolL, Im. Mad. 59 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 17 (1857). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 613 (1860). 

vaporariorum, Woll., Cat. Can, Col, 60 (1864.) 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Fuert., Can., Ten., Gom., 
Palma), in humidis vulgaris. 

The European S. Teutonus (which I possess also from the Azores, 
and which I met with at Mogadore on the opposite coast of Africa) 
is probahly nearly universal throughout these Atlantic islands. At 
the Madeiran Group, however, it has been observed hitherto only in 
Madeira proper, where it is common in damp places at most eleva- 
tions. But at the Canaries it has been captured in all the seven 
islands except Fuerteventura and Hierro (in both of which, however, 
we may be pretty sure that it exists)*. It is a species of a very 
wide geographical range. 

143. Stenolophus discophorus. 

Stenolophus discophorus, Fischer, Ent, de la Russ, ii. 141 (1824). 

, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 409 (1829). 

, Heer, Fna Helv. 115 (1841). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins, Deutsch, i. 615 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. Tnajorem, borealem), a Barone de Paiva semel 
communicatus. 

Tlie only Atlantic example which I have yet seen of this Euro- 
pean Stenoloplius has been communicated by the Barao do Castello 
de Paiva, by whom it was obtained from the Great Salvage ; and 
although I have no reason to question the correctness of its stated 
habitat, yet I cannot but feel that further material would be desi- 
rable in order to establish it beyond the possibility of a doubt t. 
It appears to be found, chiefly, in Mediterranean latitudes. 

* The principle of priority in nomenclature (which seems to be, in a general 
sense, the only just one) has occasioned some little confusion regarding the 
synonymy of this species. It appears to have been first described by Fabricius 
(in 1775) as the Carabus vaporariorum (as he supposed) of Linnaeus. But inas- 
much as Linnseus's insect was in reality totally distinct, and two beetles cannot 
at any time be allowed to bear the same name in the same genus (even though 
they be subsequently placed in different genera), it follows that the later of them 
(which in this case is Fabricius's) must be suppressed, and that the next published 
title (in this instance by Schrank) should be accepted in lieu of it. 

t The 8. discophorus would seem to differ from the Teutonus in its paler hue, 
in the dark portion of its elytra (which have their short second stria rather less 
abbreviated) being so far reduced in size as to form a comparatively small patch 
on the liinder disk, and in its prothorax being more narrowed posteriorly, and 
therefore less evenly x-ounded at the sides. 



50 



CARABID^. 



144. Stenolophus marginatus. 

Stenolophus marginatus, Dej., Spec. Gen. des Col. iv. 427 (1829). 

, Brum, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 57 (1838). 

, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 407 (1858). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 61 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten.), sub lapi( 
bus rarissimus. 



li-' 



A species, of Mediterranean latitudes, wbich appears to be exceed- 
ingly rare in these Atlantic islands. It has, however, been taken, 
very sparingly, in Madeira proper; as also in Grand Canary and 
TenerifFe. 

145. Stenolophus dorsaHs. 

Carabus dorsalis, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 165 (1792). 

Acupalpus dorsalis, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 57 (1838). 

Stenolophus dorsalis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 60 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 17 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col 61 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom.), in 
humidis hinc inde parum vulgaris. 

The European S. dorsalis is both local and rather scarce in 
Madeira proper; but at the Canaries it is much more common, 
where it has been detected in Grand Canary, TenerifFe, and Gomera. 




Genus 40. BRADYCELLUS. 

Erichson, Kaf. der Mark Brand, i. 64 (1837). 

146. Bradycellus harpalinus. 

Acupalpus harpalinus, DeJ., Spec. Gen. des Col iv. 471 (1829). 

, Heer, Fna Col Helv. 118 (1841). 

Bradycellus fulvus, Woll [nee 3hhm 1802], Ins. Mad. 61 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 17 (1857). 

harpalinus, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 627 (1860). gi 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in montibus parce degens. ^Hl 

Occurs sparingly on the mountains of Madeira proper, principally 
at a rather high elevation. I had formerly regarded it as the 
B. fulvus of more northern latitudes, though aware of certain slight 
discrepancies which it presented from the normal state of that 
species ; but Mr. Rye has lately informed me that he believes it will 
be better associated with the European B. harpalinus. Still it does 
not completely agree even with the latter, though its differences aref 
very trifling and unimportant ones. 




CARABID.T.. 51 

147. Bradycellus excultus. 

Bradycellus excultus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 61, tab. ii. f. 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 18 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus sat rams. 

Inhabits the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, occurring spa- 
ringly in damp spots of a rather high altitude. 

148. Bradycellus ventricosus, 
Bradycellus ventricosus, WolLj Cat. Can. Col. 61 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten,), in sylvaticis humidis parce occurrens. 

Clearly the representative at the Canaries of the Madeiran 
B. excultus, though most distinct from it specifically. It occurs in 
similar situations (within the sylvan districts at a rather high alti- 
tude), but has been observed hitherto only in TenerifFe. 

Genus 41. TRECHICHUS. 
Leconte, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. x. 386 (1853). 

149. Trechiclius fimicola. 

Trechus fimicolus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 63 (1854). 
fimicola. Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 18 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub quisquiliis in cultis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it occurs, imder 
various kinds of refuse (chiefly in cultivated grounds), at low and 
intermediate elevations. Its freedom from flexuose frontal furrows, 
and an ajpically-recm'ved sutural stria, will at once distinguish it 
from the normal Trechi. 

loO. Trechichus Jansomanus. 

Trechus Jansonianus, WoU^, Ann. Nat. Hist, i. 19 (1858). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), inter plantas a Dom. Mason ab insulA 
ohm deportatas etiam in urbe Londinensi repertus. 

Likewise peculiar (apparently) to Madeira proper, being very 
closely allied to the last species — of which, indeed, it is barely pos- 
sible that it may be some extreme local state. The history of its 
discovery is rather a singular one — it having been captured in 
London, amongst the refuse which had accumulated around the 
trunk of a Dragon-tree, and other plants, which had been brought 
from Madeira by Mr, Mason. It was in tolerable abundance ; and 

£2 



52 



GARABID.E. 




from being accompanied by various undoubted Madeiran insects, 
there could be no question as to its habitat (which indeed its near 
affinity with the T.fimkola would have made sufficiently evident)*. 

Genus 42. TRECHUS. 
Clairville, Ent. Helv. ii. 23 (1806). 

151. Trechus detersus. 
Trechus detersus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 62 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus, passim. 

Occurs in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, of the Canarian Group, 

where it may be regarded as the representative of the common 

European T. minutus (which at first sight it greatly resembles). As * 

stated elsewhere, however, I believe it to be truly distinct from that 

species. 

152. Trechus umbricola. 

Trechus umbricola, Woll, Ins. Mad. 67, tab. ii. f. 3 (1854). 
J Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 20 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus hand 
infrequens. 

Peculiar to the higher elevations of Madeira proper, — occurring in 
the moist sylvan districts, but by no means abundantly. 

153. Trechus nigrocruciatus. 

Trechus nigro-cruciatus, JVolL, Ins. Mad. 64, tab. ii. f. 1 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 18 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in humidis editioribus sylvaticis rams. 

This fine Trechus is peculiar to Madeira proper, where it Occurs 
(for the most part sparingly) in the damp sylvan districts of a high 
elevation. 

154. Trechus laevis. 
Trechus Isevis, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 18 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 



i 



It is just possible that this Trechus may be but a large, polished, 
somewhat flattened, and lightly striated form of th.e Jlavomarginatus ; 

* The T. Jansonianus seems to differ from the Jimicola, principally, in having 
its prothorax and elytra darker (though never black like the head), and the latter 
shorter behind — so as to expose more of the pygidium. Its head and prothorax 
also are just perceptibly narrower ; and the former has a minute, rounded, pimc- 
tiform fovea in the centre of the forehead. 




CARABID^. 53 

nevertheless I believe that it is really a distinct, though closely 
allied, species. It occurs, rather sparingly, in much the same spots 
as the nigrocrudatus — within the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, 
at a high elevation. 

155. Trechus flavomarginatus. 

Trechus flavomarginatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 65, tab. ii. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 19 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (i¥acZ.), in sylvaticis et subsylvaticis ubique 
vulgatissimus. 

The present Trechus is the universal one in the sylvan and sub- 
sylvan districts of Madeira proper, occurring in profusion from about 
2000 to 5000 feet above the sea ; but it has not yet been observed 
in any of the other islands of the Group. 

156. Trechus flavolimbatus. 

Trechus flavolimbatus (Schaum),Woll.,Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 216 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 63 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), in sylvaticis 
et subsylvaticis vulgatissimus. 

This is strictly the Canarian representative of the Madeiran 
T. flavomarginatus ; indeed I am far from satisfied that it is more 
than a topographical modification of that insect. Nevertheless 
as the slight features which characterize it remain quite constant 
throughout the whole five islands of the Canarian archipelago in 
which it has been observed, it is difficult to regard its small pecu- 
liarities as the result of any combination of local influences ; and it 
was on this account that, at the instigation of Schaum, I described 
it as a distinct species. It abounds, in sylvan and subsylvan spots, 
throughout every portion of the Canarian Group except Lanzarote 
and Fuerteventura — where it has not yet been detected, and where 
I suspect that it does not exist. 

157. Trechus signatus. 
Trechus signatus, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 19 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis parce occurrens. 

Occurs sparingly within the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, 
the few examples which I have yet seen having been captured by 
myself (during June 1855) from beneath fallen leaves at the extreme 
head of the S^ Cruz ravine. 



54 



CARABIDiE. 



158. Trechus dilutns. 

Trechus dilutns, Woll, Ins. Mad. (36 (1854). 
, Id, Cat Mad Col. 20 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.),\n sylvaticis humidis editioribus sat rams. 

Inhabits the sylvan regions of Madeira proper, occnrring sparingly 
in damp spots at a high elevation. 





159. Trechus felix. 
Trechus felix, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 63 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus rarissim^ 

Apparently peculiar to the sylvan regions of Teneriife, where it 
may perhaps be regarded as the Canarian representative of the 
T. custos of Madeira. It is extremely rare, the few specimens which 
I have seen having been taken by myself (during May 1859) in tlie 
damp laurel-woods on the mountains above Taganana. 

160. Trechus quadricollis. 

Trechus quadricollis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 68 (1854). 
, LL, Cat. Mad. Col. 20 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), m mpntibus supra urbem Funchalensem 
semel tantum repertus. ' 

The only example which I have seen of this Trechus was taken 
by myself (during the autumn of 1847) in Madeira proper, on the 
mountains above Funchal ; and it is just possible that it may repre- 
sent some aberrant state of the T. custos, peculiar to the southern 
slopes of the island. It would be necessary, however, to inspec' 
further material before such could be assumed as probable. 

161. Trechus custos. 

Trechus custos, WoU., Ins. Mad. 68 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 20 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis praesertim editioribus vul- 
garis. 

A rather common insect in the sylvan regions of Madeira proper^ 
to which island it appears to be peculiar. 

162. Trechus alticola. 





Trechus alticola, WoU., Ins. Mad. 69 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 20 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis valde elevatis extrasylvaticis 
hinc inde parce occurrens. 

Inhabits the loftiest elevations of Madeira proper, above the sylvan 




CARABID^. 55 

districts, — occurring sparingly, beneath stones, in open grassy spots 
towards the summits of the peaks. In such situations I have met 
with it between the Ice House Peak and the Pico do Areeiro, as 
well as on the Boca das Torrinhas. It may possibly be an aberrant 
form of the T. custos peculiar to the highest altitudes ; but I have 
stated elsewhere that I do not believe such to be the case. 

163. Trechus cantus. 

Trechus cautus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 70 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^ S*"), in gramineis editioribus apertis sub 
lapidibus parce degens. 

Apparently peculiar to Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, where 
moreover it is extremely local, — occurring, beneath stones, on the 
open grassy slopes of a high elevation. 

164. Trechus minyops. 

Trechus minyops, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 287 (1862). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus a Dom, Moniz in montibus 
captus. 

Only two specimens of this curious little Trechus (so remarkable 
for its minute eyes, the almost aciculated last joint of its maxillary 
palpi, and the rather short and moniliform subapical articulations 
of its somewhat abbreviated antennae) have as yet come beneath my 
notice. They were both of them captured by Senhor Moniz at S. 
Antonio da Serra, in Madeira proper. 

Genus 43. THALASSOPHILUS. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 71 (1854). 

165. Thalassophilus Whitii. 

Trechus Uttoralis? Bridle [nee I)eJ.'],in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58(1838). 
Thalassophilus Whitei, Woll, Lis. Mad. 71, tab. ii. f. 5 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 21 (1857). 

Whitseij/d, Cat. Can. Col. 64 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*" 8*") et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom., 
Palmd), inter lapillos per margines rivulorum, passim. 

Widely diffused over these Atlantic islands, where it may be re- 
garded as the representative of the European T. longicornis. It is 
found beneath wet stones and shingle at the edges of the small 
streams, as well as about the dripping rocks, at low and intermediate 




56 CARABID^. 

altitudes. In the Madeiran Group it is extremely rare, occurring 
however hoth in Madeira proper and Porto Santo ; but at the Ca- 
naries — where it has been taken in Grand Canary, TenerifFe, Gomera, 
and Palma — it is less scarce (being in some places indeed almost 
common). 

Genus 44. AEPYS. 
(Leach), Samouelle, Usef. Cotnp. 149 [script. Aepus] (1819). 

166. Aepys gn^acilicornis. 

Aepys gracilicornis, Woll., Ann. Nat Hist. v. 218 (1860). 
, Id., Ajypend. huj. op. ii. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lutosis maritimis subsalinis necnon 
inter lapiUos per oram ipsam, rarissimus. i 

This most interesting little Aepys has been observed only (in two 
localities) along the edges of the sea-shore in Madeira proper ; and 
it must therefore be regarded as extremely rare, even though by no 
means uncommon in the few spots which harbour it. It was detected 
by myself (during December 1858) in the crevices of a low muddy 
bank, facing the beach, which terminates the marshy ground at the 
mouth of the Sao Vicente ravine, in the north of the island, as also 
from beneath the shingle and stones which must have been submerged 
at high tides. And the late Mr. Bewicke subsequently obtained it 
on the opposite side of the island, in the vicinity of Funchal — " in jl 
wet sea-sand near the Gorgulho, below high-water mark." From l| 
which it will be gathered that its habits are precisely similar to those 
of its more northern ally, the ^. marinus (from which, however,, 
specifically, it is most distinct). 

Genus 45. PERILEPTUS. 

Schaum,iVo<. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 663 (1860). 

167. Perileptus nigritulus. 

Perileptus nigritulus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 216 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 65 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam.), inter lapillos per margines aquarum 
hinc inde sat vulgaris. 

Detected hitherto only in Teneriffe and Gomera, of the Canarian 
Group, — in the former of which it was taken by myself (at the edges 
of a small pool near S**Cruz), and in the latter (during the summer' 
of 1864) by the Messrs. Crotch. Possibly it may be merely a dark 



CARABID^. 57 

state of the European P. areolatus ; nevertheless it possesses a few 
other minute distinctive characters, apart from colour, which I have 
fully alluded to in my diagnosis. 

(Subfam. XYI. BEMBIDIADES.) 

Genus 46. TACHYS. 
(Ziegler), Staph.., lU. Brit. Ent. ii. 4 (1829). 

168. Tachys Fockii. 

Bembidium Fockii, Hummel, Ess. Ent. ii. 27 (1822). 

silaceum, Dej.^ Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 50 (1831). 

numidicum, Luc, Col. de VAlgerie, 79, pi. 10. f. 3 (1849). 

Fockii, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 21 (1857). 

Tachys Fockii, Schauiiiy Nat. des Ins. Deutsch. i. 751 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), semel tan turn repertus. 

The T. Fockii, of central and southern Europe and the north of 
Africa, occurs very rarely in Madeira proper. Indeed only a single 
example, which was taken by myself at the edge of the stream in 
the Ribeira do Alcaide near Feijaa d'Ovelha, has hitherto been 
detected. 

169. Tachys bistriatus. 

Elaphrus bistriatus {Meg.), Ihifts., Fna Austr. ii. 205 (1812). 
Bembidium bistriatum, Woll.,Ins. 3Iad. 73 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 22 (1857). 

Tachys bistriatus, Schaum, Nat. der Lis. Deutsch. i. 746 (1860). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Cd. 66 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses {Gam.), in humidis sat 
rarus. 

■ This European Tachys occurs both at the Madeiras and Canaries. 
At the former it is tolerably common in Madeira proper, in wet places 
at low and intermediate elevations ; but at the latter it is extremely 
rare— two specimens only, taken by Dr. Crotch in Gomera (during 
the spring of 1862), being aU that have yet been observed. 

170. Tachys scuteUaris, 

Trechus Scutellaria, Germ., Than, Ent. Archiv, ii. fasc. i. 11 (1829). 
Tachys scuteUaris, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 5 (1829). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 745 (1860). 

, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 66 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), in salinis hinc inde vulgaris. 

The common European T. scuteUaris is rather abundant in certain 



58 



CARABIDiE. 



salt places in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group ; but it has not yet 
been detected in any of the other islands. It occurs also at Mogadore, 
on the opposite coast of Africa. 

171. Tachys centromaculatus. 
Tachys centromaculatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 67 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses(Ziaw2;.),in locis similibus ac praecedens, sed rarior. 

Likewise peculiar, so far as has been observed hitherto, to Lanza- 
rote of the Canarian Group — having been detected by myself at the 
edges of the salt lake of Januvio, adjoining the south-western coast 
of that island. 

172. Tachys curvimanus. 

Bembidium curvimanum, Woll., Ins. Mad. 74, tab. ii. f. 6 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 22 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 67 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^S*") et Canarienses (in Hierro sola 
adhuc baud observatus), sub lapidibus per margines rivulorum 
necnon in aquosis, ab ora maritima usque ad 8000' s.m. ascendens. 

This Tachys, which may possibly be but a small state of the T. 

4-sic/natus of southern Europe, is nearly universal throughout these 

Atlantic islands — occurring at the edges of the streams, and in wet 

places generally, at most elevations. At the Madeiran Group I have 

taken it sparingly in Madeira proper, and rather abundantly in Porto 

Santo ; whilst at the Canaries it has been captured in the whole 

seven islands except Hierro, where, however, it will doubtless be 

found to exist. 

173. Tachys Lucasii 

Bembidium lAicasn,Duv.,Ann. de la Soc. JEnt. de France,x. 137 (1852). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 75 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 22 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in humidis prsecipue inferioribus degens. 

The T. Lucasii of Mediterranean latitudes occurs rather commonly, 
at low and intermediate elevations, in Madeira proper ; but it has 
not yet been detected in any of the other islands. 

174. Tachys haBmorrhoidalis. 

Bembidium haemorrhoidale, He/., Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 68 (1831). 

, Huv., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, x. 193 (1852). 

Tachys haemorrhoidalis, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Heutsch. i. 750 (1860). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 68 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam.), in aquosis baud infrequensJ 



CARABID^. 59 

A species of southern Europe which is widely spread over the 
Canarian Group, though somewhat scarce. It occurs at low and in- 
termediate altitudes, and has been captured in Grand Canary, Tene- 
riffe, and Gomera. 

Genus 47. BEMBIDIUM. 
Latreille, Gen, Crust, et Ins. i. 183 (1806). 

(Subgenus Philochthus, Steph.) 

175. Bembidium obtusum. 

Bembidimn obtusum, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, vi. 165 (1825). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 75 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 22 (1857). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 741 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (in Chdo sola baud detectum), sub lapidibus 
vulgare. 

The European B. ohtusrmi is probably universal at the Madeiran 
Group, the northern Deserta being the only island of the five in 
which it does not happen to have been detected ; but it is somewhat 
remarkable that it should not yet have been brought to light at the 
Canaries. In the Madeiras it is decidedly common, and occurs at 
most elevations — assuming a rather large form, which is found like- 
wise in southern Europe. 

176. Bembidium biguttatum. 

Carabus biguttatus, Fah., Mant. Ins. i. 205 (1787). 
Bembidium vulneratum,i)<?/., Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 182 (1831). 

biguttatum, Schaimij Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. i. 737 (I860). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 69 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {^Can.), rarissimum; semel tantum lectum. 

A single example (which presents scarcely any appreciable differ- 
ence from the ordinary type) of this common European insect is all 
that I have yet seen from these various Atlantic islands. It was 
taken by myself, near Teror, in Grand Canary. 

177. Bembidium vicinum. 

Bembidium vicinum, Liic, Col. de TAlgerie, 86, pi. 10. f. 9 (1849). 

, Duv.y Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, x. 178 (1852). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 69 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fttert.), per margines rivulorum in locis 
intermediis parce occurrens. 



60 



CARABID^. 



Observed hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fiierteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group — where it occurs, sparingly, 
along the edges of the streams at intermediate elevations. It is a 
species of Mediterranean latitudes ; and the Canarian examples seem 
to differ a little from the few which I have had an opportunity of 
inspecting from more northern countries. . 

(Subgenus Ocys, Steph.) 1 

178. Bembidium dubium. J 

Bembidium dubium, Woll., Cat Mad. Col. 23 (1857). 1 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimum; semel tantum deprehensum. 

Detected by Mr. M. Park in the south of Madeira proper, and 
apparently of the greatest rarity. It is closely related to the Euro- 
pean B. rufescens, of which indeed it is possible that it may be but 
a geographical state. i 

(Subgenus Peryphus, Meg.) 

179. Bembidium atlanticum. '^ 

BemhidmT0[idecoTam,BruUe[necDeJ.~\,mW'ebbetBe9'th.{Col)5S(1838). 

atlanticum, WolL, Ins. Mad. 77 (1854). I 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 23 (1857). . * 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 70 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*<^S^^) et Canarienses (in Hierro sola 
adhuc hand observatum), ad margines aquarum vulgare. 

The universal Bembidium throughout these Atlantic islands, oc- 
curring at the edges of the streams and pools at nearly all elevations. 
At the Madeiran Group, it abounds in Madeira proper and Porto 
Santo ; whilst at the Canaries, Hierro is the only island of the seven 
in which it does not happen to have been observed (though there 
can be little doubt that it must exist there likewise). It is a most 
unstable insect as regards colour, — varying from a dark and almost 
spotless green to a pale, maculated state ; and it is the latter which 
is especially characteristic of the more arid (or eastern) islands of 
the archipelago, both in the Madeiras and Canaries. 

180. Bembidium tabellatum. 

Bembidium tabellatum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 79 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 23 (1857). 

habitat Maderenses (Mad.), per margines rivulorum in locis inter- 
mediis parce occurrens. 



CARABIDiE. 61 

Apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, where it occurs (though 
sparingly) along the edges of the streams at intermediate altitudes. 
It is the representative of the European B. tihiale, from which never- 
theless it seems (and such is likewise the opinion of Schaum) to be 
truly distinct. 

(Subgenus Lopha, Meg.) 

181. Bembidiiun elongatum. > 

Bembidium elongatum, Dej.j Spec. Gen. des Col. v. 148 (1831). 

, Woll, Lis. Mad. 79 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 24 (1857). 

, Schaum, Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. i. 692 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), per margines aquarum in intermediis 
editioribusque degens. 

A European species, which occurs (though by no means commonly) 
along the margins of the streams in Madeira proper — at intermediate 
and lofty elevations. 

182. Bembidium concolor. 

Bembidium concolor, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 70 '(1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (in Fuert. sola hactenus hand observatum), per 
margines aquarum necnon ad rupes aquosas hinc inde vulgare. 

Peculiar to the Canarian archipelago, where it is doubtless universal, 
though hitherto it does not happen to have been observed in Fuer- 
teventura. But in- the remaining six islands of the Group it is more 
or less abundant, occurring along the edges of the streams and about 
dripping rocks at intermediate altitudes. 

183. Bembidium subcallosum. 

Bembidium 4-guttatum, J9rM/^ [nee Fab.\ in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 

(1838). 
subcallosum, Woll., Cat. Can. Cd. 71 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), in aquosis 
et humidis vulgatissimum. 

The representative at the Canaries of the European B. callosum, 
in like manner as the B. Schmidtii represents that insect in the 
Madeiran Group. Prom which it follows that the B. callosum, sub- 
callosum, and Schmidtii may possibly be but geographical modifi- 
cations of a single species, though it is of coui-se difficult to regard 



63 



CARABIDiE. 



this as probable. Indeed practically it would be most rash to act 
upon the latter hypothesis ; for the topographical evidence would 
rather tend perhaps to uphold their specific distinctness, seeing that 
the Canarian insect occurs unchanged in no less than five separate 
islands of the archipelago, and the Madeiran one in two — each of 
them retaining its peculiar features unaltered by surrounding in- 
fluences and the most opposite heal conditions. 

The B, subcallosum is universal in all the islands of the Canarian 
Group except the two eastern ones, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura 
(in which it has not yet been observed), — abounding at the edges of 
the streams, and in damp places generally, at most elevations. 



184. Bembidium Schmidtii. 

Bembidium Schmidtii, Wall., Ins. Mad. 80 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 24 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad,, P^^ S^^) in aquosis prsesertim intermediis 
sat rarum. 

Occurs (though somewhat rarely) at the edges of the streams, and 
about wet rocks, in Madeira proper and Porto Santo. It is closely 
allied to the European B. callosum, and about equally so to the sub- 
callosum of the Canaries ; nevertheless, as already stated, I believe 
the three forms to be specifically distinct. 

185. Bembidium inconspicuum. 

Bembidium inconspicuum, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 72 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), rarissimum; a W. D. Crotch semel 
captum. 

Somewhat allied to the European B. A-maculatum, and captured 
by Br. Crotch (during the spring of 1862) in TenerifFe. 

(Subgenus Leja, Meg.) 

186. Bembidium laetum. 

Bembidium Isetum, BrulU, in Wehhet Berth. (Col.) 58,pl.ii.f. 9 (1838). 

dives, jDwcas, Col. deVAlgerie, 82, pi. 10^ I 6 (1849). 

laetum, HarUyGeolog. Verlialtn. Lanz. und Fuert, 141. 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 72 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Ten.), late sed parce diifusum. 

"Widely spread over the Canarian archipelago, where perhaps 
eventually it may be found to be universal, though hitherto it has 



DYTISClDiE. 63 

been observed only in Lanzarote, Fiierteventnra, and TenerifFe. It 
is decidedly scarce, or at any rate very local, occurring in wet places 
at low and intermediate altitudes. It appears to exist in the south 
of Europe also (having been taken by Kiesenwetter in Greece), and 
in the north of Africa ; but I have not had an opportunity of com- 
paring one of the more northern examples with the Canarian type. 

(Subgenus Bembidium, Auct.) 

187. Bembidium Crotchii. 
Bembidium Crotchii, WoU., Cat. Can. Col 73 (1864). 
Hahitat Canarienses {Palmam), in humidis rarissimum. 

A Canarian Bembidium, detected by Dr. Crotch in Palma, — where 
it would appear to represent the B. pallidipenne of more northern 
latitudes. It is evidently extremely rare, and was captured at the 
edges of a Levada on the mountain-slopes above S** Cruz. 

(Subgenus Notaphus, Meg.) 

188. Bembidium marginicolle. 
Bembidium margiuicolle, Woll.^ Cat. Can. Col. 74 (1864). 
Hahitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimum. 

Detected in Teneriife, during the spring of 1862, by Dr. Crotch ; 
but whether it is more than a geographical modification of the Euro- 
pean B. varium I will not undertake, from the evidence afforded by 
only two specimens, to decide. Further material, when procured, 
must settle the point. 

Fam. 2. DYTISCID^. 

Genus 48. HALIPLUS. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. i. 234 (1806). 

189. Haliplus suifusus. 
Haliplus sufFusus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col 74 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can., Gam.), hinc inde in aquis parum vulgaris. 

A Canarian Haliplus, which has been detected hitherto only in 
Grand Canary and TenerifFe. It much resembles the common Euro- 
pean H. lineatocollis, though I believe it to be truly distinct therefrom. 



Cii} ^^H^ DYTISCID^.. 

Genus 49. HYDROPORUS. 

Clairville, EnL Helv. ii. 183 (180G). 

190. Hydroporus musicus. 

Hydroporus musicus, Klug, Symh. Phys. pi. 33. f. 12 (1829). 

, Auhe, Hydrocanth. A:J^ (1838). 

^ WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 75 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in aquis rarissimus. 

Observed hitherto only in Grand Canary, where it appears to be 
scarce. I possess examples from Egypt, which, however, differ a 
little from the Canarian ones. 

191. Hydroporus coniiuens. 

Dytiscus confluens, Fah.,Ent. Syst. i. 198 (1792). 
Hydroporus confluens, WoU.,Ins. Mad. 87 (1854), 

. Id. Cat. Mad. Col. 27 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 75 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (in Bugio sola hand detectus) et Canarienses 
(Fuert., Gam.), hinc inde vulgaris. 

The common European H. confluens is widely spread over these 
Atlantic islands, in which it will most likely be found to be universal 
wherever there are pools or streams. It is, however, far more abun- 
dant at the Madeiran Group (where it has been taken in all the islands 
except the Southern Deserta) than at the Canaries, — in the latter of 
which it has been found as yet only in Fuerteventura and Gomera. 

192. Hydroporus geminus. 

Dytiscus geminus, Fah.,Ent. Syst. i. 199 (1792), 
Hydroporus geminus, Steph.^ III. Brit. Ent. ii. 57 (1829). 

, Aube, Hydrocanth. 491 (1838). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 76 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), rarissimus. 

Captured by myself in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian Group, but 
it has not yet been observed in any other of the islands. It is a 
common species throughout Europe. 

193. Hydroporus minutissimus. 

Hydroporus minutissimus, Germ., Ins. Spec. Nov. 31 (1824). 

, Aiibe, Hydrocanth. 493 (1838). 

trifasciatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist, xviii. 453, pi. 9. f. 3 (1846). 

minutissimus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 76 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam., Palma), hinc inde vulgatis-' 
simus. 



DYTISCID.E. 65 

The H. minutissimus of central and southern Europe is locally 
abundant in the Canarian Group. It has been taken in Grand 
Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma. 

194. Hydroporus delectus. 
Hydroporus delectus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 76 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), minus frequens. 

Taken hitherto only in Teneriffe, where it appears to be scarce. 
It may be regarded as the representative at the Canaries of the Eu- 
ropean H. Jlavipes, to which it is closely allied. 

195. Hydroporus comptmctiis. 

Hydroporus compunctus, WolL, Append, huj. op. ii. 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), a DD. Crotch semel tantum repertus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this Hydroporus was 
taken by the Messrs. Crotch, during the summer of 1864, in Tene- 
riffe — I believe, in the Barranco at Ycod el Alto. ^ 

196. Hydroporus xanthopus. 

Hydroporus xanthopus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. v. 393 (1832). "■ 

lituratus, Aube, Hydrocanth. 589 (1838). 

xanthopus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 77 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

Found in Teneriffe and Gomera (in the latter by the Messrs. Crotch), 
of the Canarian Group, and ascending to at least 8000 feet above the 
sea. The Canarian specimens differ a little from the ordinary Eu- 
ropean ones ; but the discrepancies are so small and unimportant 
that I do not think they indicate more than a shght geographical 
variety. 

197. Hydroporus planus. 

Dytiscus planus. Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 195 (1792). 
Hydroporus holosericeus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 61 (1829). 

planus, Aube, Hydrocanth. 583 (1838). 

, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 77 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), hinc inde vulgaris. 

Occurs abundantly in certain streams of Teneriffe, at intermediate 
elevations, but it has not yet been detected in any of the other islands. 
As in the case of the last species, the Canarian examples are not quite 



66 



DYTISCID^. 



similar to those of more northern latitudes ; but I do not believe 
that they can be regarded as epecifically distinct from the latter. 

198. Hydroporus Clarkii. 

Hydropoms Clarkii, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 438 [June] (1862). 

AndalusifB, Clark, Journ. of Ent. i. 469 [Sept.] (1862). 

Clarkii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 77 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), in rivulis vulgatissimus. 

Abundant in aU the streams of Fuerteventura, of the Canarian 
Group, though it has not yet been observed in any of the other islands. 
We may, however, expect it to exist in at any rate Lanzarote. It is 
very closely aUied to the H. affinis, from Sardinia ; but I am assured, 
nevertheless, by Schaum that he believes it to be truly distinct from 

that species. 

199. Hydroporus Ceresyi. 

Hydroporus Ceresvi, Aube, Hydrocanth. 543 (1838). 

LyeUii, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 26 (1867). 

Ceresyi, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 78 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*^ S*^) et Canarienses (Lanz.), in aquis salinis 
subsalinisque interdum stagnantibus sed plerumque fluentibus, 
rarior. 

The H Ceresyi of southern Europe I have taken sparingly in Porto 
Santo of the Madeiran Group and in Lanzarote of the Canaries, where 
it seems to occur for the most part in waters which are more or less 
brackish. In the former I met with it towards the northern side 
of the island, beyond the little village of Camacha, and in the latter 
in the saline lake of Januvio adjoining the south-western coast. 

Judging from the few individuals which I have seen from Porto 
Santo it would appear to be (on the average) a trifle smaller and 
darker in that island than is usually the case elsewhere, and conse- 
quently in my Madeiran Catalogue I described the Porto- Santan ex- 
amples under the title of //. LyeUii ; but I now believe that that 
particular form ought not to be treated as more than a slight and 
unimportant insular variety, and I have therefore suppressed it as a 
species. Nevertheless if future material should prove it to be really 
distinct (which I cannot but consider most unlikely), the trivial name 
of LyeUii will in that case have to remain for it as hitherto. 

200. Hydroporus vigilans. 

Hydroporus vigilans, Woll, Ins. Mad. 86 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 25 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in aquis fluentibus vulgaris. 






DYTISCIDiE. 67 

Apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, where it occurs in the 
streams at most elevations. 

201. Hydroporus tessellatus. 

Hydroporus tessellatus (DeJ.), Avbe, Hydrocanih. 616 (1838). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 79 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Caw., Ten., Gom,, Palma), in rivulis vulgaris. 

This species would seem to represent at the Canaries the H. vigi- 
lans, of Madeira; and it is equally abundant wherever there are 
streams. In the two eastern islands, however, of the Group it has 
not yet been observed ; and the absence of water in Hierro has pre- 
vented its being detected there. But in Grand Canary, Teneriife, 
Gomera, and Palma it is common, at nearly all elevations. 

Genus 50. LACCOPHILTJS. 

Leach, Zool. Miscell. iii. 69 (1817). 

202. Laccophilus inflatus. 

Laccophilus inflatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 79 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam.), in aquis hinc inde hand in- 
frequens. 

A Canarian Lacmphilus, which has been ohserved hitherto in Grand 
Canary, Teneriife, and Gomera. Although differing a little from 
both of them, it is not impossible that it may be in reality a geogra- 
phical modification of either the minutus or hyalinus of more northern 
latitudes; but as the acknowledged distinctions between so many 
allied species in these groups of the Hydrocantharidce are extremely 
slight, I think that the L. inflatus has at least as much claim for 
separation as many other forms which are universally recognized. 

Genus 51. COLYMBETES. 

Clairville, Ent. Helv. ii. 198 (1806). 

203. Colymbetes coriaceus. 

Dytiscus coriaceus, Hoffvi. in litt. 
Meladema coriacea, ia/;., Etud. Ent. 98 (1834). 
Colymbetes coriaceus, Auhe, Hydrocanth. 220 (1838). 
Dyticus coriaceus, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 
Colymbetes coriaceus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 80 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten.), in aquis prsesertim fluentibus sat 
frequens. 

f2 



68 



DYTISCID^. 



The G. coriaceus of Mediterranean latitudes occurs, not unfre- 
quently, at the Canaries ; though hitherto it has heen observed only, 
in Grand Canary and Teneriffe. 

204. Colymbetes lanio. 

Dytiscus Lanio, Fah., Ent Syst. i. 190 (1792). 

Colymbetes Lowei, G, R. Gray, Griff. A. K Ins. i. pi. 32. f. 2 (1830) 

Lanio, Auhe, Hydrocanth. 221 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 82 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 24 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in rivulis parum vulgaris. 

This species vrould seem to be the Madeiran representative of the 
G. coriaceus of the Canaries and southern Europe, which indeed it 
greatly resembles. It is not uncommon in the streams of Madeira 
proper, at intermediate and lofty elevations. 




Genus 52. AGABUS. 
Leach, Zool Miscell. iii. 69, 72 (1817). 

205. Agabus bipusttilatus. 

Dytiscus bipustiilatus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 667 (1767). 
Agabus bipustiilatus, Auhe, Hydrocanth. 357 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 83 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 25 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in aquis prsesertim fluentibus vulgaris. 

The common European A. bipustulatus is universal in Madeira 
proper, occurring at nearly all elevations ; but it has not yet been 
detected in any other of these Atlantic islands. 

206. Agabus nebulosus. 

Dytiscus nebulosus, Forst, Nov. Spec. Ins. 56 (1771). 

bipunctatus, Fab., Mant. Ins. 190 (1787). 

Colymbetes bipunctatus, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 
Agabus nebulosus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 84 (1854). 

^ Jd.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 25 (1857). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 80 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Ghd6, Des.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten,^f^ 
hinc inde vulgaris. ■jl 

The A. nebulosus, so common throughout Europe, is locally abun- 
dant in these Atlantic islands. It has been captured in Madeira 
proper and the two northern Desertas, of the Madeiran Group, and 
in Grand Canary and Teneriffe at the Canaries. 




DYTISCIDiE. 69 

207. Agabus biguttatus. 

r Dytiscus biguttatus, Oliv., Ent. iii. 40. 26, pi. 4, f. 36 (1795). 
Agabus biguttatus, AuMy Hydrocanth. 341 (1838). 
Colymbetes biguttatus?, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 
Agabus biguttatus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 81 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in aquis minus frequens. 

I am not altogether satisfied that the present Agabus is truly- 
distinct from the following one ; nevertheless if further material should 
prove that the small (and not very important) features which ap- 
peared to me (when I compiled my Canarian Catalogue) to separate 
it from that species are constant ones, it will follow that the A. bi- 
guttatus of southern Europe has been observed hitherto only in Grand 
Canary, of aU these Atlantic islands. But if, on the other hand, we 
are compelled ultimately to regard it as identical with the consan- 
guineuSf the insect will then be seen to be pretty generally distributed 
throughout the Canarian archipelago. 

208. Agabus consangulneus. 

Agabus consanguineuS; WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 81 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.y Gam., Palma), in intermediis aquas 
fluentes colens. 

A locally abundant Agabus in the streams of intermediate eleva- 
tions in Tenerifie, Gomera, and Palma (in the second of which it has 
been captured in profusion by the Messrs. Crotch, during their late 
Canarian campaign). As already stated, it may perhaps prove ulti- 
mately to be conspecific with the preceding one ; in which case 
(whether it be the true biguttatus of Olivier, or not) the insect will 
be perceived to have a still wider range throughout the Canarian 
Group. 

209. Agabus maderensis. 

Agabus Maderensis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 85 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 25 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in aquis praesertim editioribus passim. 

Apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, where it occurs (here and 
there in tolerable abundance) in the streams of intermediate and 
lofty elevations. 

Genus 53. CYBISTER. 

Curtis, Brit. Ent. iv. 151 (1827). 



70 



DYTISCID^. 



210. Cybister africanus. 

Cyibister africanus, Laporte, Etud. Ent. 99 (1834). 
Troclialus meridionalis, Gene, De quih. Ins. Sard. i. 10 (1836). 
Cybister africanus, Auhe, Hydrocanth. 71 (1838). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 83 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), ift aquis quietis rarissimiis. 

The C. africanus of Mediterranean latitudes occurs, though very 
sparingly, in the Canarian Group. Indeed the only examples which 
I have seen were taken by myself (during April 1858) in the pools 
at Arguiniguin, in the south of Grand Canary. 

Genus 54. DYTISCUS. 

Linnseus, Syst. Nat. ii. 664 (1767). 

211. Dytiscus circumflexus. 

Dytiscus circumflexus, Fab., Syst. Eleu. i. 258 (1801). 

, Aube, Hydrocanth. 113 (1838). 

Dyticus circumflexus, Bridle y in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 
Dytiscus circumflexus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 83 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (?), mihi non obvius ; a Dom. BruUe in faunam 
Canariensem admissus. 

This common European Dytiscus is admitted by M. BruUe into the ' 
Canarian fauna, on the evidence of specimens presumed to have been 
captured by Messrs. Webb and Berthelot. I have not myself met 
with it, nor was it found by the Messrs. Crotch ; and I am conse- 
quently unable to say from what island it was supposed to have been 
obtained. M. BruUe of course gives us no information, for it was 
not his habit (in the meagre list compiled for the gigantic * Histoire 
NatureUe des iles Canaries ') ever to record a single fact of either 
local or geographical interest. 

Genus 55. EUNECTES. 
Erichson, Gen. Dytic. 23 (1832). 

212. Eunectes subdiaphanus. 

Eunectes subdiaphanus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 100 (1861). 

-, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 84 (1864). 

, Id., Append, huj. op. ii. 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in aquis quietis rarissimus. 

A Canarian insect, and apparently of the greatest rarity, having 
been taken only by myself in the pools at El Charco in the extreme 
south of Grand Canary. 




GYRINlDiE. 71 

213. Eunectes subcoriaceus. 

Eunectes subcoriaceus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 99 (1861). 
, Id. J Append, huj. op. iz. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in cisterna quadam supra urbem Fun- 
chalensem a Dom. Bewicke parcissime eaptus. 

Detected by the late Mr. Bewicke near Funcbal in Madeira proper, 
and apparently quite as rare in the Madeiran Group as the preceding 
species is at the Canaries. Although, I believe, truly distinct from it, 
they are both of them closely allied to the widely spread E. sticticus. 



Fam. 3. GYRINID^. 

Genus 56. GYRINUS. 
Geoffi-oy, Hist. Ahr. des Lis. i. 193 (1762). 

214. Gyrinus striatus. 

Gyrinus striatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 203 (1792). 

strigosus, Aube, Hydrocanth. 719 (1838). 

striatus, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 58 (1838). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 84 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses ( Can., Ten.), hinc inde baud infrequens. 

The 0. striatus of central and southern Europe is locally abundant 
in the Canarian Group, though hitherto it has been detected only in 
Grand Canary and Teneriffe. 

215. Gyrinus urinator. 

Gyrinus urinator, Illig., Mag. fur Ins. vi. 299 (1807). 

, Aub4, Hydrocanth. 704 (1838). 

, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 84 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam.), in aquis sat vulgaris. 

This common European Gyrinus is widely spread over the Cana- 
rian Group, where it is decidedly more abundant than the last species. 
It has been taken in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera. 

216. Gyrinus Dejeanii. 

Gyrinus Dejeanii, Brulle, Exp. sclent, en Moree, iii. (Ire part.) 128. 

seneus, Aube [nee Steph.'], Hydrocanth. 690 (1838). 

Dejeanii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 85 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten.), in aquis vulgaris. 

Likewise a common European species, and one which is locally 



Fam. 6. HELOPHORID^. 

Genus 58. HELOPHORUS. 
Fabricius, Syst Eleu. i. 277 (1801), 



II 



72 ^^^V FAKNIDiE. 

abundant in the Canarian Group. Hitherto however it has been 
observed only in Grand Canary and Teneriffe. 

217. Gyrinus natator. 

Dytiscus natator, Linn., Fnxi Suec. 779 (1761). 
Gyrinus natator, Auhe, Hydrocanth. 664 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 88 (1854\ 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 27 (1857). : 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.)'i olim a Dom. Heineken, M.D., semel 
repertus ; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

I feel very doubtful whether this common European Gyrinus should 
any longer be included in the fauna of these Atlantic islands, the 
single specimen captured man}^ years ago in Madeira proper by the 
late Dr. Heineken embodying still the sole evidence on which its 
claim for admission rests. As, however, it has been recognized | 
hitherto, I wiU not suppress it; though I must record my belief 
that the insect does not oc.cur in Madeira, and that the example 
alluded to (if really taken there) was a mere accidental introduction 
from more northern latitudes. 



Fam. 4. PARNID^. 

Genus 57. PARNUS. 
Fabricius, Ent. Syst. i. 245 (1792). 

218. Parnus prolifericomis. 

Parnus prolifericomis, Fah,, Ent. Syst. i. 245 (1792). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 90 (18$4). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 28 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 85 (1864). 

Bahitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom., Palma), 
in aquosis vulgaris. ,|j 

This widely spread European insect is common in these Atlantic 
islands, where in all probability it will be found to be nearly uni- 
versal. It is abundant in wet places in Madeira proper ; and it has 
been taken in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma, of the 
Canarian Group. It occurs Hkewise at the Azores. 



HELOPHORIDiE. 73 

219. Helophoms longitarsis. 

Helophoms longitarsis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 86 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), rarissimus ; semel tantiim repertus. 

Taken by myself in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian Group, where, 
however, it would seem to be very scarce. My unique specimen was 
captured in a tank in the Eio Palmas. 

Genus 59. CALOBIUS. 

WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 92 (1854): 

220. Calobius Heeri. 

Calobius Heeri, Woll, Ins. Mad. 92. tab. ii. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 30 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad,, P^^ S**^) at Canarienses (Gom.), in aquis 
omnino salinis inter Confervas marinas degens ; hinc inde 
vulgaris. 

Occurs amongst marine Confervce in unadulterated sea-water, 
chiefly in the still pools left by the tide on the rocks. In such 
situations it is locaUy abundant in Madeira proper, and Porto Santo, 
of the Madeiran Group ; and a single example was taken by Dr. 
Crotch at Gomera, in the Canaries (adhering to his skin whilst 
bathing at San Sebastian). 

Genus 60. OCHTHEBIUS. 
Leach, Zool. Miscell. iii. 91 (1817). 

221. Ochthebius 4-foveolatus. 

Ochthebiiis 4-foveolatu8, Wall., Ins. Mad. 91 (1854). 

^ M,^ Cat. Mad. Col 28 (1857). 

^ Id.^ Cat. Can. Col. 86 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^" S^^) et Canarienses (Fuert., Can., 
Ten., Gom., Pahna), in rivulis vulgaris. 

"Widely spread over the Madeiran and Canarian Groups, in which 
it will probably be found to be universal wherever there are streams. 
It is common in Madeira proper and Porto Santo; as well as in 
Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma, of the 
Canarian archipelago. 

222. Ochthebius pygmaeus. 

Elophorus pygmseus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 205 (1792). 
Ochthebius pygmaeus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 115 (1829). 



74 



HELOPHORIDiE. 



Ochthebius riparius, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, x. 69, tab. 222. f. a. a (1836). 
, pygmseus, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 87 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fmrt., Ten., Gom,, Palma), hinc inde vulgaris. 

The common European 0. pygmceus is locally abundant at the 
Canaries, where most likely it will be found to be universal. I have 
taken it in Fuerteventura, Teneriffe, and Palma ; and in Gomera it 
has been captured lately by the Messrs. Crotch. But hitherto it has 
not been observed in the Madeiran Group. 



223. Ochthebius subpictus. 

Ochthebius subpictus, Woll, Cat Mad. Col. 29 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S^^), in aquis vix subsalinis rarior. 



Observed hitherto only in the somewhat brackish streams in the 
north of Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group ; and perhaps (although 
abundantly distinct from it) it may be regarded as the representative 
in that island of the 0. marinus of more northern latitudes. 



224. Ochthebius mgulosuSi 

Ochthebius rugulosus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 28 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ yS'^''), una cum specie praecedente in aq 
occurrens. 



Likewise Porto-Santan, and found in company with the subpictits, 
both species having been detected by myself during April 1855. 

225. Ochthebius lapidicola. 

Ochthebius lapidicola, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 87 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), in aquis et aquosis 
late sed parce diffusus. 

Widely spread over the Canarian archipelago, to which (so far as 
observed hitherto) it is peculiar. I have taken it in Palma ; and it 
has been met with sparingly by the Messrs. Crotch in Teneriffe (at 
Souzal and Ycod el Alto), Gomera, and Hierro. The examples from 
the last-mentioned island were found about the wet rocks at the 
Fountain (on the descent from the Cumbre) in the upper part of 
the sylvan region of El Golfo. 



Genus 61. HYDRiENA. 

Kugelann, in Schneid. Mag. i. 578 (1794). 



II 







HYDROPHILIDiE. 75 

226. Hydraena serricollis. 

Hydrsena sinuaticoUis et serricollis, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 87,88(1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Oom.), in intermediis editioribusque vul- 
garis. 

A Canarian Hydroeyia, which is locally abundant in the streams of 
intermediate and rather lofty altitudes. When searched for in the 
proper situations, it will most probably be found to be widely spread 
over the archipelago ; yet hitherto I have myself observed it only in 
Teneriffe. It has, however, been captured, more recently, by the 
Messrs. Crotch both in that island and Gomera. It varies a little, 
in the greater or less exaggeration of its several characters ; and I 
now perceive (from more satisfactory material) that the single 
example which I described under the trivial name of sinuaticoUis 
cannot be regarded as more than a somewhat largely developed one 
of our present species. That particular individual was taken by 
Dr. Crotch at Ycod el Alto, in Teneriffe, during the spring of 1862 ; 
and I have a series now before me which were captured lately, by 
himself and his brother, at the same place. 

227. Hydraena quadricoUis. 

Hydraena quadricolhs, Woll^ Cat. Can. Col. 89 (1864). 

^Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in inferioribus prope urbem Sanctam 
Crucem parce capta. 

This minute Canarian Hydrama I have observed hitherto only 
near S**^ Cruz, in Teneriffe ; and it would seem, consequently, to be 
peculiar to the lower elevations. 



Fam. 6. HYDROPHILIDiE. 

Genus 62. LIMNOBIUS. 

Leach, Zool. Miscell. iii. 93 [script. LimneUus] (1817). 

228. Linmobius gracilipes. 

Limnebius gracihpes, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 89 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Palma), in inferioribus in- 
termediisque late diffasus. 

Widely spread over the Canarian Group, where it occurs in the 
streams of low and intermediate altitudes. It has been taken in 



76 HYDROPHILID^. 

Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma. It is about the size 
of the European L. nitidus ; but it is more oblong (being less acute 
behind), blacker, less brilliant, and not quite so convex, its puncta- 
tion is appreciably closer and stronger, and its prothorax is relatively 
a little more developed and not quite so rounded at the sides. 

229. Limnobius grandicollis. 

Limnebius grandicollis, WolL, Ins. Mad. 94 (1854). 
, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 30 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in aquis et aquosis editioribus occurrens. 

Peculiar to the higher districts of Madeira proper, where It ascends 
to at least 5000 feet above the sea, occurring principally about wet 
rocks and small trickling streams. It is a species which is well 
distinguished by its coarsely alutaceous, remotely and minutely 
punctulated, and finely pubescent surface, by its medially-broad 
elliptic outline, and by its deep -black hue — its lateral margins being 
but very obscurely (often, indeed, not at all) diluted or subpicescent. 

230. Limnobius pimctatus. 

Limnebius punctatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 90 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Oom.), aquas et aquosos in intermediis 
colons. 

A Canarian Limnobius which occurs in the streams of intermediate 
altitudes. I have taken it abundantly at the Agua Garcia in Tene- 
riffe, and examples are now before me (differing a little from the 
Teneriffan ones) which were captured by the Messrs. Crotch in Go- 
mera. It is not only a trifle smaller and convexer than the Madeiran 
grandicollis, but it is likewise much more shining (there being no 
appearance of the alutaceous sculpture which is so conspicuous in 
that insect) ; it is also rather more closely, and very much more 
deeply, punctured, as well as more thickly clothed with a coarse 
silken fulvescent pile ; its colour is less black — its sides, particularly 
of the prothorax and towards the apex of the elytra, being for the 
most part brightly ferruginous ; and its feet are, if anything, some- 
what shorter. 

The Gomeran examples appear to be altogether a little narrower 
than the ordinary Teneriffan ones (particularly at the junction of 
the prothorax and elytra) ; and their punctures, when viewed be- 
neath the microscope, will be seen to be not quite so coarse. But I 



HYDROPHILID.E. 77 

cannot think that they are the exponents of more than a slight 
insular modification of the L. 'punctatus*. 

Genus 63. LACCOBIUS. 

Erichson, Kdf, der Mark Brand, i. 202 (1837). 

231. Laccobius minutus. 

Chrysomela minuta, Linn., Fna Suec. 166 (1761). 
Laccobius minutus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 95 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 31 (1857). 

, Id., Cat Can. Col. 90 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*^ S^^) et Canarienses (in Hierro sold 
adhuc haud observatus), in aquis et aquosis vulgaris. 

This common European insect would seem to exist in nearly all 
parts of these Atlantic Groups where water is to be found, though 
the absence of streams and pools from some of the smaller islands 
(at any rate during the greater part of the year) renders it doubtful 
whether it will ever be met with quite universally. In Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo it is locally abundant ; whilst at the Canaries 
it has been detected in all the seven islands except Hierro (though 
even there probably there are places sufficiently moist for its 
occurrence). 

Genus 64. PHILHYDRUS. 
Solier, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 315 (1834). 

232. Philhydras melanocephalus. 

Hydrophilus melanocephalus, Oliv., Ent. iii. 39. 14 (1795). 

— ; , BruUe, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 58 (1838). 

Philhydrus melanocephalus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 98 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 32 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 91 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., 
Ten., Gam.), in aquis et aquosis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Almost as common, both throughout Europe and in these Atlantic 
islands, as the Laccobius minutus. At the Madeiran Group, however, 
1 have observed it hitherto only in Porto Santo, though we may 
expect it to occur in Madeira proper likewise. But at the Canaries 

* I would, however, just record tliis Gomeran Limnobiiis in the following short 
formula, since it is not impossible that further material may prove it to be spe- 
cifically distinct from the L. punctatics of Teneriffe : — Var. (3. similis. Suban- 
gustior, oblongior (minus obovatus), punctis omnibus (oculo fortissimo armato) 
paulo subtilioribus. 



78 



HYDROPHILID.^. 



it has been detected in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, and Gomera. 

Genus 65. BEROSUS. 
Leach, Zool. Miscell iii. 92 (1817). 

233. Berosus spinosus. 

Hydrophilus spinosus (Stev.), Schon., Syn. Ins. ii. 8 (1808). 
Berosus spinosus, Ahr., Fna Lis. Eur. iii. f. 5 (1816). 

, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 59 (1838). 

, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 91 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. MM. Webb et Berthelot), mihi non obvius/ 

I have not myself met with this European Berosus in any of these 
Atlantic islands ; but since it was included in the Canarian list of 
M. Brulle, on the evidence of specimens (which I have carefully 
examined) supposed to have been captured by MM. Webb and Ber- 
thelot, and since there seems no reason why it should not occur in 
(for instance) some of the brackish streams and pools of Lanzarote 
or Fuerteventura, I think perhaps that it should scarcely be refused 
admission into our Catalogue. At the same time I cannot but call 
attention to the unsatisfactory nature of the evidence for its occur- 
rence, M. Brulle (as in the case of every single species which his 
meagre list includes) giving us no word of information concerning 
either its habitat or anything else. 



Genus 66. HYDROBIUS. 
Leach, Zool. 3fisceU. iii. 93 (1817). 

234. Hydrobius haemorrhous. 

Hydrobius h^morrhous, Woll., Cat Can. Col. 92 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Gam.), ad rupes aquosas in locis editiori- 
bus hinc inde vulgaris. 

A Canarian species, which occurs about damp rocks and small 
trickling streams at high and intermediate altitudes. In such situ- 
ations I met with it sparingly in Grand Canary, and it has been 
found subsequently in Gomera (much more abundantly) by the 
Messrs. Crotch*. 

* The H. hcsmorrhous differs from the Madeiran H. marchantits in its more 
oval and much less convex body, in the more rounded edges of its prothorax, in 
its very much coarser punctation, its considerably deeper and longer sutural 
stria, and in the extreme tip of its palpi being black. 



HYDROPHILID.E. 79 

235. Hydrobius marchantiaB. 

Hydrobius Marchantiae, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 31 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ad rupes aqiiosas inter plantas humidas 
Marchantiae polymorphce, L., praecipue in locis inferioribus parce 
degens. 

Apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, where it may be regarded 
as the representative in that island of the Canarian H. hcemorrhous. 
I have observed it hitherto only in wet places along the north coast, 
principally at low elevations, where it resides amongst the dripping 
masses of Marchantia polymorplia which mat the rocks at the edges 
of the waterfalls and trickling streams. 

236. Hydrobius conglobatus. 

Hydrobius congoblatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 97 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 32 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ad rupes et caet. in aquosis editioribus 
rarissimus. 

Likewise peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) to Madeira proper, 
where it occurs very sparingly about wet rocks and trickling streams 
at a high elevation on the upper limits of the sylvan districts*. 



Genus 67. CHJETARTHRIA. 

(Waterhouse) Steph., ///. Brit. Ent. v. 401 (1832). 

237. ChsBtarthria similis. 

Chaetarthria simihs, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 93 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Oom., Palma), hinc inde in aquosis 
et humidis baud infrequens. 

This may possibly be a geographical modification peculiar to the 
Canarian archipelago of the common European O. seminulum ; never- 
theless it has a few small distinctions of its own, alluded to in my 
diagnosis. It is not very abundant, but occurs in moist places and 
about trickling streams in Grand Canary, TenerifFe, Gomera, and 
Palma. 

* The H. conghhatus differs from the marchantim, mainly, in its smaller size 
and more finely pmictulated surface (at any rate of the head and prothorax), and 
in its elytra (which are a trifle obtuser, and less cariniform, behind) having their 
sutural stria a little finer but nevertheless continued rather further towards the 
middle (from the apex). 



80 '^^^^^ff HVtiJERlDlADJE. 

Fam. 7. SPHiERIDIAD^. 

Genus 68. CYCLONOTUM. 
(Dejean) Urich., Kaf. der Mark Brand, i. 212 (1837). 

238. Cyclonotum orbiculare. 

Hydrophilus orbicularis^ Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 184 (1792). 
Cyclonotum orbiculare, Erich., he, cit. 214 (1837). 
Coelostoma orbiculare, Bridle, ifi Webb et Berth. {Col.) 58 (1838). 
Cyclonotum orbiculare, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 93 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Can., Ten., Gom., Palma), in aquis 
vulgaris. 

The common European C. orbiculare is probably universal through- 
out the Canarian archipelago, in all the islands of which, except Lan- 
zarote and Hierro (where, however, it most likely exists), it has been 
taken plentifully. Although so abundant at the Canaries, it is 
somewhat singular that it has not been detected yet in the Madeiran 
Group. 

Genus 69. DACTYLOSTERNUM. 

Wollaston,iws. Mad. 99 (1854). 

239. Dactylostemum abdominale. 

SphsBridium abdominale, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 79 (1792). 
Coelostoma abdominale, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 58 (1838). 
Dactylostemum Eoussetii, Woll, Ins. Mad. 100, tab. iii. f. 1 (1854). 

^ Jd.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 32 (1857). 

abdominale, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 94 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom.), pu- 
trida varia in inferioribus destruens. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes, and widely spread over 
these Atlantic islands. Possibly, indeed, it will be found to be almost 
universal, — its habitat, amongst putrid substances generally (whether 
vegetable or animal), enabling it to attach itself to many different 
kinds of localities. It is found usually at low elevations, about the 
towns and gardens. Thus at the Madeiran Group it is occasionally 
common in the immediate vicinity of Funchal, amongst filthy rejecta- 
menta (such as the empty shells of crabs, &c.) in the neighbourhood 
of the drains and sewers ; whilst at the Canaries it more often 
attacks the putrid leaves of the Prickly Pear {Opuntia Tuna, MiU.) 
which have been thrown away to rot, as well as the various accumu- 
lations in the yam-grounds. In such like places it has been observed 
hitherto in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera. 




SPH.^RIDIAD.E. 81 

Gtjnus 70. SPHiERIDIUM. 

Fabricius, Si/st Eleu. i. 92 (1801). 

240. Sphaeridium bipustulatum. 

Sphgeridium bipustulatum, Fob., Spec. Ins. i. 78 (1781). 

, Mills., Palpic. de France.^ 154, var. B (1844). 

, JFoll., Ins. Mad. 101 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 33 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^), in stercore bovino parum vul- 
gare. 

The S. bipustulatum^ so common throughout Europe, occurs in 
the dung of cattle both in Madeira proper and Porto Santo ; but it 
has not yet been observed at the Canaries. Very possibly it may 
have been naturalized in the Madeiran Group from more northern 
latitudes. 

Genus 71. CERCYON. 
Leach, Zool. Miscell. iii. 95 (1817), 

241. Cercyon littorale. 

Sphaeridium littorale, Gyll.^Ins. Suec.i. Ill (1808). 
Cercyon Httorale, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 137 (1829). 

, Mills., Palpic. de France, 172 (1844), 

, Woll, Cut. Mad. Col. 33 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Can,), sub fticis necnon 
in putridis per eras maritimas parce fodiens, 

A common European insect which occurs sparingly amongst putrid 
substances on and near the Eunchal beach, in Madeira proper; and 
a single example was captured by the Messrs. Crotch, during the 
summer of 1864, near Las Palmas in Grand Canary. 

242. Cercyon inquinitum. 

Cercyon inquinitum, Wall., Ins. Mad. 103 (1854). 

^M, Cat. Mad. Col. 34 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 94 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in putridis prae- 
sertim juxta oras maritimas parce occurrens. 

Occasionally not uncommon in Madeira proper, amongst putrid 
substances in the vicinity of the sea-beach, near Eunchal ; but at 
the Canaries I have taken hitherto only a single specimen, close to 
the Puerto Orotava, in the north of Teneriffe. We may, however, 
expect it to be met with more generally when searched for in the 
proper localities. 



82 ^^^H SFHiERIDlADiE. 

243. Cercyon fimetarium. 

Cercvon fimetarium, Wall., Ins. Mad. 103 (1854). 
^ , Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 34 (1857). 

Habitat Maclereiises {Mad., P^^ S^^), in stercore bovino et equinoj 
passim. 

Found in the dung of cattle in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, 
of the Madeiran Group, — at most elevations, but nowhere abundantly. 



II 



244. Cercyon lepidum. 

Cercyon lepidum, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. 94 (18G4). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert., Gam.), in stercore bovino, equino, ca-J 
melino, minus frequens. 

Observed hitherto only in Euerteventura and Gomera, of the 
Canarian Group, — in the former of which it was taken by myself 
(from beneath the refuse of a camels' stable in the Rio Palmas), and 
in the latter by Dr. Crotch. 

245. Cercyon nigriceps. 

Dermestes nigiiceps, MsJwi, Ent. Brit. 72 (1802). 

Splia3ridium centnmaculatum, Sturm, Detitsch. Fna, ii. 23 (1807). 

Cercyon centrimaculatuiu, WolL, Ins. Mad. 104 (1854). 

^^ , Id, Cat. 3Iad Col. 34 (1857). 

nigriceps. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 95 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^), Salvages (ins. majorem, borealcm) 
et Canarienses (Lanz., Can., Ten., Gom., Palma), in stercore 
bovino parum vulgare. 








A common European Cercyon which is in all probability nearly 
universal throughout these Atlantic islands, occurring in dung inde- 
pendently of elevation. It is abundant in Madeira proper and Porto 
Santo, of the Madeiran Group ; and it has been captured in all the 
Canarian islands except Euerteventura and Hierro (where doubtless, 
however, it must exist). And a single example has been communi- 
cated by the Baron Paiva, obtained by him from even the Great 
Salvage. Being, from its habits, a species of 'easy transportation, in 
various ways, we can scarcely be surprised at its having become so 
generally diffused amongst the islands. 

246. Cercyon quisquilium. 

Scarabreus quisquilius, Linn., Fna Stwc. 138 (1761). 
Cercyon quisquilium, WolL, Ins. Mad. 105 (1854). 




SILPHID^. 83 

Cercyon quisquiliiim, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 34 (1857). 
, M, Cat. Can. Col. 95 (1804). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad., P^" S^^) et Canarienscs {Lanz., Fuert., 
Ten., Gorn., Palma), in stercore bovino et equino viilgare. 

Likewise an abnnclant European Cercyon, and equally general in 
these Atlantic Groups — where most probably indeed it is universal. 
It is common in IMadeira proper and Porto Santo, in the dung of 
cattle ; and it has been detected in all the islands of the Canarian 
archipelago except Grand Canary and Hierro, in both of which, 
however, there can be little doubt that it must occur. 

Fam. 8. SILPHID^. 

Genus 72. CATOPS. 

PaykuU, Fna Suec. i. 342 (1798). 

247. Catops Murrayi. 

Catops IMurrayi, Wall, Ami. Nat. Hid. v. 219 (1860). 
, Id., Airpe)id. Imj. op. 12. 

Habitat Maderenscs (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus raris- 
simus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this very distinct Catops 
was captured by myself at a high elevation in the sylvan districts of 
Madeira proper, during December 1858. There can be no doubt, 
therefore, that the species is both thoroughly indigenous and ex- 
tremely scarce, 

248. Catops patridus. 

Catops putridus, WoU., Cat. Can, Col. 96 (1804). 

Hahitat Canarienses (Palmam), sub cortice laxo putrido in lauretis 
editioribus semel repertus. 

The only specimen of this Catops which I have yet seen was taken 
by myself in Palma, of the Canarian Group, — from beneath the 
damp rotting bark of an old laurel, at a high elevation, in the Bar- 
ranco de Galga. 

249. Catops velox. 

Choleva velox, Spence, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 154 (1809). 
Ptomophagus velox, Stejih., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 6 (1830). 
Catops velox, Woll, Ins. Mad. 106 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col, 34 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenscs (Mad.), in humidis editioribus prsesertim sylva- 
ticis parce occurrens. 

g2 



84 ^H^^P SILFHIDif:. 

The common European C. velox occurs sparingly in moist spots of 
a high elevation in Madeira proper, particularly within the sylvan 
districts ; but it has not yet been obseiTed in any of the other islands. , 

250. Catops pinicola. 

Catops pinicola, Woll., Append, huj. op. 12. 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), a DD. Crotch sub foliis aridis dejectis iuj 
pinetis editioribus deprehensus. 

A Canarian species (closely allied to, but, I believe, nevertheless 
truly distinct from, the C. velox) vrhich was taken by the Messrs.' 
Crotch, rather abundantly, at a high elevation in TenerifTe — by| 
sifting fallen leaves, in the pine-woods above Ycod el Alto. 

Genus 73. SILPHA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ii. 569 (1767). 

(Subgenus Heterotemna, Woll.) 

251. Silpha simplicicornis. 

Silpha simplicicornis, Brulle, in Webb, et Berth. {Col.) 59, pi. ii. f. 10 

[script, tenuicornis * ] ( 1 8.S8) . 
, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 97 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in humidis sylvaticis hinc inde non'in- 
frequens. 

This noble Canarian Silpha has been observed hitherto only in 
Teneriffe, where it occurs (though by no means plentifully) in the 
wooded districts of intermediate and lofty elevations. 

2^2. Silpha figurata. 

Silpha figurata, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 59, pi. ii. f. 11 [script. 

■costata*^(im&). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 97 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), mihi non obvia. f^ 

Likewise a Canarian species ; but, not having myself taken it, I 
can give no information as to either its proper island or its habitat. 
Still, I have every reason to conclude that the former is Teneriffe, 
inasmuch as an example (the only one that I have seen) has been 
given to me by Mr. A. Fry, of London, who received it from a friend 
by whom it was professedly'' captured in that island. It is of course 
needless to add that M. Brulle supplies no information on the subject, 
so as to enable us to solve the doubt. . 

* Cf. ' Cat. Can. Col.' p. 97 (note). 






ANISOTOMIDiE. 85 

Fam. 9. ANISOTOMID^. 

Genus 74. STEREUS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Mad. Col. 148 (1857). 

253. Stereus cercyonides. 

Stereus Cercyonides, WoU., op. cit. 149, pi. fig. 1 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub foliis marcidis in lauretis humidis 
editioribus rarissimus. 

Peculiar to the sylvan regions in Madeira proper, where it bur- 
rows beneath fallen leaves and other vegetable refuse lying on the 
damp ground — a mode of life for which its robust, spinose tibiae emi- 
nently fit it. It is extremely rare, and was detected by myself 
during the summer of 1855 in the laurel-woods at the head of the 
S^ Cruz ravine, at S. Antonio da Serra. And I subsequently met 
with it, under decapng rubbish, at the Lombarda das Vacas (on the 
mountains to the east of Sao Vicente). 

Genus 75. ANISOTOMA. 

(Knoch) Illig., Kdf. Preuss. 69 (1798). 

254. Anisotoma canariensis. 

Anisotoma canariensis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 216 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 98 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can. ?, Hierro), in intermediis rarissima. 

A small Canarian Anisotoma of great rarity, and of which I cap- 
tured a few examples in the sylvan district of El Golfo on the western 
slopes of Hierro. An immature specimen, which I obtained in the 
region of El Monte in Grand Canary, I believe to be conspecific with 
the Hierro ones ; but since it is impossible without more satisfactory 
material to decide this for certain, I have thought it safer to query 
the occurrence of the species in that island. 

255. Anisotoma oceanica. 

Anisotoma oceanica, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 99 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), rarissima ; in sylvaticis subedi- 
tioribus parcissime capta. 

likewise a Canarian species, and equally scarce with the last one. 
Indeed only three examples of it have hitherto come beneath my 



86 



ANISOTOMID^. 



notice — one of which I captured in TeneriiFe (in the highest part ol 
the forest of Las Mercedes), whilst the remaining two were found by 
the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera (in the wooded district above Iler- 
jnigua). 

Genus 76. AGATHIDIUM. 
niiger, Keif. Preim. 81 (1798). 

256. Agathidium globulum. 

Agathidiimi globuhuii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 99 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Hierro), in sylvaticis sub- 
sylvaticisque intermediis hinc inde baud infrequens. 

A Canarian Agatliidium which resides, though very locally, in the 
sylvan districts of intennediate elevations. It will probably be found 
to be universal in the central and western islands of the Group, though 
hitherto it has not been observed in Palma ; but in Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro (in the last two of which it was cap- 
tui*ed by the Messrs. Crotch) it occurs, more or less sparingly. It 
varies a little in its sculpture, the TenerifFan examples being rather 
more perceptibly punctured (and with their head and prothorax more 
evidently alutaceous) than those from the other islands. 

I have tried hard indeed to find a specific distinction between the 
Teneriffan specimens (always very appreciably punctured) and those 
from the other islands of the Group, but have entirely failed. In 
some of the lightly sculptured examples (particularly Gomeran ones) 
I have occasionally thought that the loi^ping-off of the shoulders was 
more obHque than is the case in those from Teneriffe ; but even this 
I now believe to be more apparent than real, for the greater or less 
Jiorizontality in the mounting of the Agathidia completely alters the 
aspect of their humeral region (in specimens of undoubtedly the same 
species) ; so that T can really find nothing except the relative strength 
of the punctation in which the two forms differ from each other *. 

I imagine that the Teneriffan individuals of this Agathidium which 
I have placed under the microscope are males ; but in a female speci- 

* I would not wish, however, to imply by the above remark that the oblique 
truncation of the humeral angles is an unimportant feature, for I believe that 
it is one of the most important which distinguishes the various species of the 
Agathidia ; only I tliink we must be very cautious in our practical employment 
of it, for it is surprising how much the contour of the same individual insect is 
altered (in that respect) according to the exact manner in which its abdominal 
region is moimted upon the card, and according therefore as the upper surface 
of its elytra is more or less overlapped by the pronotum (or upper surface of the 
prothorax). 



■ 



I 





CYBOCEPHALIDiE. 87 

men from Gomera w^hich I have just examined, I perceive that all 
the tarsi are 4-articulate — a fact which would remove the species 
into the same Section as the European A. marginatum. 

257. Agathidium integricolle. 

Agathidium integricolle, Woll, Cat. Can, Col. 100 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.?, Gom.), rarissimum ; exemplaria duo, 
mortua, fracta, cepit oculatissimus W. D. Crotch. 

Likewise a Canarian species, and one which is doubtless distinct 
from the globuliim, though further material is re(iuired in order to 
complete its diagnosis — for it is somewhat remarkable that the only- 
two examples which have yet been detected are both of them exceed- 
ingly imperfect. They were found by Dr. Crotch — one of them 
(during the spring of 1862), I believe, in TenerifFe, and the other 
(during the summer of 1864) undoubtedly in Gomera *. 

Fam. 10. CYBOCEPHALID^. 

Genus 77. CYBOCEPHALUS. 

Erichson, in Germ. Zeitsch. v. 441 (1844). 
The affinities of this little genus have been, and still are, the sub- 
ject of dispute. In my ' Ins. Mad.' I assigned it to \h.Q Anisotomidce 
(as then broadly defined), and gave reasons [vide p. 483] which 
seemed to me, at the time, to be sufficient for indicating its approxi- 
mate position. But as I there enunciated it as a new group {Stayo- 
nomorpha), being unaware that it was already acknowledged under 
the name of Cybocephalus, I of course did not think of referring to 
the diagnosis of the latter in order to ascertain what had been said 
by others on its supposed relationship. So that it was not until I 
had gathered the information that Stagonomorpha and Cgbocephalus 
were identical, that the opinion of Erichson, who had placed it in 
the same family as Nitidula, became known to me. Yet, acting on 
the assumption of Erichson's usual accuracy, I endorsed his views in 

* Of the latter island there can be no question ; for in a letter now before me, 
received from Mr. G. R. Crotch whilst collecting in Gomera, he adds the follow- 
ing short remark concerning the A. integricolle : " one body only ! which is most 
extraordinary." And indeed it is through the certainty of this habitat that I feel 
it just possible that Dr. Crotch's former specimen may perhaps have been Go- 
meran likewise ; for he could not recall where it was, in TenerifTe, that he met 
with it. Nevertheless it was certainly amongst his Tenorift'an material on his 
return (in 18(32), and I have no other reason than the above for querying its 
locality. 



88 



CYBOCEPHALID^E. 



my Canarian Catalogue, without further inquiry, even whilst feeling- 
far from satisfied that my own were not, in reality, more in accord- 
ance with the truth [vide ' Cat. Can. CoL' p. 115]. Eut the recent 
publication by Mr. A. Murray of his extensive monograph, in which 
he excludes Cyhocephalus, without the slightest hesitation (and, as 
I believe, with perfect justice), from the Nitidulidce, has induced me 
to reconsider its structure ; and the result is that I am more firmly 
persuaded than ever that it is better retained in the neighbourhood 
of the Anisotomidce and Clamhidce than in that of any other known 
groups. The mere fact of Erichson's verdict having been subscribed 
to implicitly by most subsequent naturalists does not militate against 
this conclusion, but is simply in accordance with what we should 
have been led to anticipate ; whilst the plain fact that Erichson was 
mistaken in regarding the quadriarticulate feet of Cyhocephalus as 
pentamerous immediately disposes of the most significant point of the 
very few which he adduced in support of his thesis. Whilst, there- 
fore, I would not wish to pronounce positively on its exact location 
in a natural system (for in some respects it is unquestionably ano- 
malous), I am satisfied that the one which is here assigned to it is 
at any rate more in harmony with the details of its entire structure 
than could be obtained by admitting it amongst forms from which 
in most of its characters it is totally dissimilar. 

258. Cyhocephalus sphsemla. 

Stagonomorpha sphaerula at unicolor, TFo/Z., Ins. Mad.^i, 485, tab. x. 
f. 8 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. 3Iad. Col. 148 (1857). 

Cyhocephalus sphaerula, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 116 (18G4). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (in Fuert. sola baud de- 
tectus) praecipue in herbidis, passim. 

Widely spread over these Atlantic Groups. In the Madeiras, how- 
ever, it is extremely rare, though occurring in the damp sylvan dis- 
tiicts of Madeira proper at intermediate altitudes ; but at the Canaries 
it is locally abundant, and doubtless universal, though hitherto it 
does not happen to have been taken in Fuerteventura. We may be 
pretty sure, however, that it exists in that island, as it does in the 
other six — where it is more or less common. Its detection in Hierro 
is due to the late researches of the Messrs. Crotch. In Grand Canary 
I have observed that it is very partial to the foliage of the narrow- 
leaved Myrtle of the gardens. 





CLAMBIBM. 89 

259. Cybocephalus Isevis. 

Cyboceplialus IjBvis, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 117 (1864). 
Habitat Caiiarienses (Lanz.), rarissimTis ; in maritimis parce captus. 

The few examples which I have yet seen of this very distinct little 
species were captured my myself in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group. 
They were taken on the sea-shore near Arrecife ; but it is probable 
that that habitat was merely an accidental one, and that they had 
found their way there from some kind of plant not far distant. 

Fam. 11. CLAMBID^. 

Genus 78. CLAMBUS. 
Fischer, Entomog. i. 52 (1820). 

260. Clambus complicans. 

Clambus comphcans, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 101 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., G^om.), in intermediis hincinde vul- 
garis. Sub fohis dejectis interdum abundat. 

Observed only at the Canaries, where it is probably universal in 
the central and western islands of the Group. It occurs beneath 
rubbish and fallen leaves, at intermediate elevations, and has been 
detected in Grand Canary, TenerifFe, and Gomera. I did not, my- 
self, meet with it very abundantly ; but the Messrs. Crotch, during 
the summer of 1864, found it in profusion. 

^ Genus 79. CALYPTOMERUS. 

Redtenbacher, Fna Austr. 159 (1849). 

261. Calyptomenis dubius. 

Scaphidium dubium, Mshm, Ent. Brit. 234 (1802). 
Clambus enshamensis {Westw.), Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 184 (1829). 
Comazus enshamensis, Fairm., Faun. Franq. i. 328 (1854). 
Calyptomerus dubius, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 147 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 102 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), in interme- 
diis et editioribus hinc inde vulgaris. Saepe in domibus, sed prse- 
sertim in aperto sub foliis dejectis, occurrit. 

This European insect is widely spread over these Atlantic Islands. 
I have taken it crawling on the damp inner walls of houses, at in- 
termediate elevations, in Madeira ; and I likewise met with it, 



90 



CORYLOPHIDiE. 



sparinglj^, in Teneriife. But the Messrs. Crotch, during their late 
Canarian researches, found it in profusion, by sifting rubbish and 
dead leaves^ both in Teneriffe and Gomera. In the former island, 
they obtained their specimens chiefly at Ycod el Alto and in the lofty 
Pinal above it. 



Fam. 12. CORYLOPHID^. 

After re-examining the structural minutuB of this family, with 
reference to the difficult question of its affinities, I have come to the 
conclusion that it is more natural to keep it in the neighbourhood of 
the Anisotomidce and Trichopterygiclce than to force it into juxta- 
position with the groups which follow upon Coccinella and Rhizohms 
■ — to which, as it now appears to me, its resemblance is perhaps more 
fanciful than real. Not to enter into the secondary features of the |j 
diminutive insects which compose it (such, for example, as their 
tctramerous simple feet, and the tendency which they possess to have 
their antcnnal joints reduced in number), I believe there is one point 
which binds them so closely to the Anisotomidce that it might well 
nigh render superfluous the consideration of every other — namely, 
the more or less diminished size, which obtains in most of the genera, 
of the second joint of their elongated club*. The importance of this 
little character, which may be regarded as diagnostic of the various 
forms which arrange themselves around Anisotoma, and which I am 
not aware is indicative of any other Coleopterous family whatsoever, 
need scarcely be insisted upon ; for it can hardly fail to be acknow- 
ledged. And when, therefore, we find other peculiarities likewise 
which either tend to or do not militate against the same conclusions, I 
think we may accept the place here assigned to the Corylophidce as at 
all events more in harmony with the several details of its structure 
than any that could be obtained by granting it a doubtful admission 
into the Pseudotrimera. 

With the exception of J/oroniZZMS — which (if its antennae be really 
11 -articulate, so as to separate it from my previously published Oloe- 
osoma) I consider to be still unenunciated, seeing that Duval com- 
piled his diagnosis of it from two totally different insects — it is worthy 
of remark that our Atlantic Catalogue contains exponents of all the 
genera which, so far as I am aware, have hitherto been characterized 

* Saciiim and ArthroUps are the only forms in which this peculiarity of the 
antennal club is not indicated ; and in some other respects also they are perhaps 
less typical of the CorylophidcB than the remaining groups which have hitherto 
been characterized. 




CORYLOPHIDvE. 91 

in this interesting family. Thus, arranging them according to the 
number of their antcnnal joints, we have Sacium ( = Ch/^) easier 
oHm) and Mkrostagetus in which there are eleven articulations, 
ArthroUps, Glceosoma, and Sericoderas ( = Gr)/phinus, Redt.) in which 
there are ten, and Corylophus and Orthoperus {=Pithophilus, Heer, 
and Microsphcera, Redt.) where there are only nine. 

Genus 80. SACIUM. 
Leconte, rroc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelph. 129 (1852). 

262. Sacium pusillum. 

Cossyphus pusillus, GylL, Ins. Stiec. ii. 576 (1810). 
Clvpeaster pusillus, Germ., Fna Col. Eur. fasc. viii. 10 (1822). 

— , WolL, Ins. Mad. 474, tab. x. f. 4 (1854). 

, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 140 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.), hinc inde in graminosis intermediis. 

A European insect which occurs in the Madeiran Group, principally 
in grassy spots of intermediate altitudes. I have taken it in the 
chestnut-woods in the north of Madeira proper, and more sparingly 
on the Deserta Grande. 



Genus 81. ARTHROLIPS. 
WoUaston, Lis. Mad. 475 (1854). 

263. Arthrolips sequalis. 

Arthrolips aiquale, JVolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 140 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarior, in subinferioribus prajsertim cul- 
tis et graminosis. 

Detected by myself in grassy places, of but a slight elevation, in the 
south of Madeira proper — by brushing the coarse herbage near the 
base of the Pico do Cardo, about three miles from Funchal ; and it 
was subsequently found by the late Mr. Rewicke*. 

264. Arthrolips obscurus. 

Clypeaster obscurus, HeJ., Cat. 129 (1821). 
Cossyphus obscurus, Sahib., Ins. Fenn. i. 474 (1834). 

* M. Duval's A. rufithorax, which he captured at Montpellier in the south 
of France, is closely allied to my cequalis ; but it is a Httle smaller (being in fact 
scarcely larger than the obscurus), more shining and convex, and relatively not 
quite so broad ; and its scutellum is more triangular, or pointed at the apex.- 
But I liave not examined its antennje, in order to ascertain if it possesses any 
structural difference in the exact proportions of the joints. 



93 



CORYLOPHIDiE. 



Clypeaster piceus (Knnze), Comolli, Be Col. Nov. 50 (1837). 
GrypMnus piceus, Redtj Fna Austr. 574 (1849). 
Arthrolips piceum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 476, tab. x. f. 6 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 142 (1857). 

obscurus, Buvd, Gen. des Col. d'Eur. ii. 232, pi. 57. f. 279 (1859). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des.), et Canarienses (Ten.), in subinfe- 
rioribus intermediisque hinc inde vulgare. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which in all probability will 
be found to be widely spread over these Atlantic islands. In the 
Madeiran Group I have taken it (at a rather low elevation) in the 
south and east of Madeira proper and abundantly on the Deserta 
Grande ; but from the Canaries I have seen hitherto only a single 
example — which was captured by the Messrs. Crotch, '* amongst 
rubbish, in a cave, at Ycod el Alto," in TeneriiFe. 



Genus 82. CORYLOPHUS. 
(Leach) Steph., Man. Brit. Col. 99 (1839). 

265. Corylophus tectiformis. 

Coryloplms tectiformis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 480, tab. x. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 142 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in intermediis editioribusque sylvaticis 
humidis parce occurrens. 

A rather large and apterous Corylophus which has been observed 
hitherto only in the moist sylvan districts of Madeira proper, where 
it occurs very sparingly at intermediate and lofty elevations. 



Genus 83. ORTHOPERUS. 

Stephens, BL Brit. Ent. ii. 186 (1829). 

266. Orthoperus atomus. 

Cryptophagus atomus, Gyll, Ins. Suec. i. 185 (1808). 
Orthoperus atomus, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 144 (1857). 
, Duval, Gen. des Col. d'Eur. ii. 236 (1859). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), plerumque ad muros domuum internes 
rarissimus. 

The European 0. atomus is found sparingly on the inner walls of 
houses and outhouses in Madeira proper, particularly when in a 
damp and neglected state — a mode of life which is precisely similar 
to that which it usually leads in our own country. 



CORYLOPHID^. 93 

267. Orthoperus atomariiis. 

Pithopliilus atomarius, Heer, Fna Col. Helv. 433 (1841). 
Orthoperus atomarius, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 145, f. 3 (1857). 
, Duval, Gen. des Col. d'Eur. ii. 236, pi. 57. f. 283 (1859). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ad muros in domibus cellisque, passim. 

Likewise a European species, and one which is met with in 
Madeira proper. Its habits appear to be much the same as those of 
the 0. atomus, the insect occurring for the most part on the damp 
inner walls of houses which have been long shut up and untenanted. 
In the " Pilgrims' House" at S. Antonio da Serra I once met with it 
abundantly, crawling out of the crevices of the wainscot and white- 
wash — in company with the Calyptomerus duhius and the Mycetcea 
hirta ; and I likewise captured it in a house at Feijaa d'Ovelha. 



Genus 84. GLCEOSOMA. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 480 (July, 1854). 
M. Jacq. Duval, in the * Gen. des Coleopt. d'Europe,' has cited this 
genus as identical with his Moronillus ; and the subsequent Euro- 
pean Catalogues have acted on his conclusions, assuming them to be 
necessarily correct. Yet it is not pnly a fact that he had never even 
seen Gloeosonia, but equally true that both my description and figure 
of it give the antennae as 10-articulate, whilst he distinctly claims 
eleven joints for Moronillus. And, not content with thus ignoring 
altogether this important structural discrepancy, he then proceeds 
to make use of my published details of Gloeosoma to fill up the gaps 
in his own imperfect diagnosis of Moronillus ! Unfortunately the 
only specimen of the latter which (through the kindness of Mr. G. E. 
Crotch) I have been enabled to dissect has its antennae broken off, 
so that I cannot speak of those organs from personal observation ; 
but I have re-examined Gloeosoma with great care, and I am not 
only satisfied that its antennse are composed of merely ten joints, 
but also that the admirable drawing which Professor Westwood 
prepared for my ^ Ins. Mad.' is (as regards the very curious propor- 
tions of the joints themselves) remarkably correct. Now, although 
Duval appears to have failed in extracting the entire oral organs of 
Moronillus, he at least obtained a perfect view of an antenna ; and 
the figure which he has given of it in his ' Genera,' when compared 
with the corresponding one of Gloeosoma in my ' Ins. Mad.,' wiU not 
only show its articulations to be eleven in number but also of a 
different shape inter se from those of the latter; so that, unless 



94 



CORYLOPHIDiE. 



Duval's diagnosis and figure are both of them absolutely wrong, it 
is impossible to regard these two genera as identical. 

Yet, on the other hand, they have so much in common that I can 
scarcely resist the suspicion that he possibly may have been mis- 
taken, even on so plain a question as the precise number of antennal 
joints; though, if this should prove ultimately to have been the 
case, even then the name of OJceosoma will not have to be suppressed 
(as he would fain imply), it being several months prior in publi- 
cation to that of Moronillus *. 



268. Glceosoma velox. 

Gloeosoma velox, WolL, Ins. Mad. 482, tab. x. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 142 (1857). 



« 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.)j sub lapide in inferioribus semel tantum 
lectum. 

Hitherto unique — a single example which was captured by myself 
(on the 8th of May 1848) at a low elevation, immediately above the 
Praia Formosa, in Madeira proper being all that I have yet seen. 

If, as already stated, the present genus is probably distinct from 
Moronillus (which must needs be the case, unless tJie j^uhlished dia- 
gnosis of tJie latter is absolutely erro7ieous), it follows a jpriori that the 
species cannot be identical with the M. ruficoUis, to which Duval, 
nevertheless, unhesitatingly assigned it. But, indeed, were it to be 
shown ultimately that he was mistaken concerning the details of 
Moronillus, and that it is in reality congeneric with Gloeosoma, still, 
even then, I do not think that the velox could be made to quadrate 
with the ruficoUis — even though it undoubtedly possesses the same 
very peculiar sculpture, and has much in common with that insect ; 
for not only is it a little smaller and paler, and more ohovate in 
outline (or rather more pointed behind), but its elytra are more 
shortened (as well as diluted in hue) posteriorly. Nevertheless it 
yet remains for me to add that, if both the genus and species could be 
proved (in direct opposition to the recorded evidence) to be identical, 

* My 'Ins. Mad.,' which contains Glceosoma, was published in July 1854; 
whereas Duval's diagnosis of Moro7iiUus was only read before the French Ento- 
mological Society on the 28th of the precedwg month, so that it coidd not have 
been published (at soonest) before quite the end of the year — perhaps not before 
the commencement of 1855. In addition to which fact, his' notice was but a 
short one and unaccompanied by a figure ; whereas my volume gave not only 
the various details, but an elaborate plate. Yet, in spite of this, Duval quietly 
sinks Glceosoma (in his subsequent work) as a mere synonym of Moronillus ! — 
and that, too, whilst the recorded minutiae of the genera were absolutely at 
variance. 



corylophid;e. 95 

still (as I have ali'eady shown) the name of Glceosoma velox has the 
priority ^^ 

Genus 85. MICROSTAaETUS. 
Wollaston, Atm. Nat Hist viii. 103 (18G1). 

269. Microstagetus parvulus. 

Microstagetus parvulus, Wall.., loc. cit 106 (1861). 
, Id., Ajjpend. hiij. op. 14. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub quisquiliis in inferioribus interme- 
diisque captus. 

A very minute insect which has been taken sparingly in Madeira 
proper, beneath vegetable refuse at low and intermediate altitudes. 
I met with it near Funchal ; and it was captured subsequently by 
the late Mr. Bewicke at the Praia Formosa, and at S. Antonio da 
Scrra. 

Genus 86. SERICODERUS. 
Stephens, HI. Brit Ent ii. 188 (1828). 

270. Sericoderus lateralis. 

Cossyphus lateralis (Meg.), GylL, Lu. Succ. iv. 0I6 (1827). 
Sericoderus thoracicus, IStqih., loc. cit. 188 (1828). 
Clypeaster lividus, Dej., Cat. (edit. 3) 455 (1837). 
Gryphinus lateralis, Redt, Fna Austr. 573 (1849). 
Sericoderus lateralis, WoU., Lis. Mad. 478 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 142 (1857). 

, Duval, Gen. des Col. d'Eiir. ii. 232, pi. 56. f. 280 (1859). 

^ WoU., Cat Can. Col. 431 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.) et Canarienses (Fttert., Can., Ten., 
Gam.), sub quisquiliis necnon in herbidis humidiusculis vulgaris. 

There are few insects more widely spread over these Atlantic 
islands than the common European S. lateralis. Indeed I think it 
far from improbable that it will be found ultimately to be universal, 

* Happily it is not often that we are compelled to call attention to such a 
string of evasions as that which M. Duval allowed himself to be led into con- 
cerning my Gfceosovui velox (wliich he misquotes as Glocosoma). For, in the 
first place, he did not hesitate to identify ihe genus positively with his Moronillus, 
whilst my diagnosis axidi figure both showed it to be totally distinct. Then, he 
referred the species also to his ruficollis — with which, even had the genera coincided, 
it could not be made to agree. And lastly, he had the duplicity to suppress 
both my genus and species, in favour of his own, when he was perfectly well 
aware tiiat it had the priority in publication by at least several months, — and 
that, too, whilst his notice of Moronillus was short and incomplete, and mine of 
Glceosoma was comparatively full and accompanied by an elaborate figure, both 
of the insect and its oral organs ! 



96 



PTILIAD^. 



though its minute size renders it liable to escape observation. It 
abounds in Madeira proper, under vegetable refuse and amongst 
dense herbage, at low and intermediate altitudes ; and I met with 
it even on the Deserta Grande. At the Canarian Group it has been 
found in Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, TenerifFe, and Gomera. In 
TenerifFe it was captured in profusion by the Messrs. Crotch. 



Fam. 13. PTILIAD^*. 

Genus 87. ACROTRICHIS. 
Motschulsky, Bull, de Mosc, xxi. 569 [script. Acratrichis] (1848). 

271 . Acrotrichis fucicola. 

Trichopteryx fiicicola, Allihert, in Rev. Zool 52 (1844). 

, Fairm. et Lak, Faun. Frang. 332 (1854). 

mollis, Haliday, in Nat. Hist. Rev. ii. (P?'oc.) 123 (1855). 

Acrotrichis fucicola, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 102 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten.), sub fucis per oras 
arenosas maritimas hinc inde sat vulgaris. 

This European insect occurs beneath marine rejectamenta along 
the sea-shores at the Canaries, but it has not yet been observed in 
the Madeiran Group. I have taken it commonly in Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura ; and it was found by the Messrs. Crotch (during the 
summer of 1864) near Las Palmas in Grand Canary, as well as by 
Dr. Crotch previously in TenerifFe, — in both instances, however, 
sparingly. 

272. Acrotrichis umbricola. 



Acratrichis umbricola, WolL, Ins. Mad. 108 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 35 (1857). 



i 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus sub quisquihis 
foliisque dejectis. 

A large and distinct species which appears to be peculiar to the 
sylvan regions of Madeira proper, where it occurs (under fallen 
leaves, &c.) principally at a high altitude. 

From a communication which I have lately received from the 
Ilev. A. Matthews, I gather the remarkable fact that the present 

* I should state that all the species which are here recorded for the Ptiliadee 
have been examined most critically by the Rev. A. Matthews, who is well known 
to have studied these minute forms with greater care than any other naturalist, 
and I believe therefore that their synonymy, as now corrected, will be found in 
accordance with the conclusions at which he has elsewhere arrived in this difficult 
family of the Coleoptera. 



PTILIADiE. 97 

Acrotrlchis is so closely allied to a species from Ceylon ! (the A. 
orientalis, Mots., Etud. Ent. vii. 52, a.d. 1858) that he does not feel 
at all satisfied (despite the existence of a few very minute, and un- 
important, difi'erences) that the two are not absolutely identical. 
If this should be true, it will certainly afford a difficult problem on 
the subject of geographical distribution ; for there is no member of 
the fauna more unmistakeably indigenous to Madeira, or less likely 
to become accidentally diffused (even to a short distance, and there- 
fore a fortiori to a country so remote as southern India), as the 
A. umhricola — which seems to be confined to the higher elevations 
of that ^sland, above the inhabited districts. In that case it will 
supply another fact, of a small category, for which the usual laws of 
insect-migration afford us no kind of clue ; and a somewhat analo- 
gous instance may be adduced in the common European Metahletus 
ohscuroguttatus (likewise abundant on the mountains of Madeira 
proper), which is stated to occur on the Himalayas. 

273. Acrotrlchis Matthewsii. 

Acrotrichis Matthewsii, Woll^ Cat. Can. Col 103 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palmam), sub foliis dejectis in humidis sylvaticis 
editioribus copiose occurrens. 

Observed hitherto only in Palma of theCanarian Group, where, 
however, it is so general and abundant that it is difficult to suppose 
that it does not occur in the other islands likewise, though un- 
doubtedly it has not yet been detected in any of them. In Palma 
it is universally diffused over the sylvan regions of a rather high 
altitude — occurring beneath fallen leaves (particularly in the laurel- 
woods), where it would seem to supply the place of the A. WoUasfoni 
which is so common in similar situations throughout the greater 
portion of the Canarian archipelago. 

274. Acrotrichis atomaria. 

Dermestes atomarius, De Geer, Ins. iv. 218 (1774). 
Trichopteryx atomaria, Gillm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 46 (1845). 
Acratrichis quadrata, Mots., Bull. cU Moscou, ii. 528 (1845). 

fascicularis, Woll. [nee Hbst], Ins. Mad. 108 (1854), 

, Id. [ ], Cat. Mad. Col. 35 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub quisquiliis foliisque dejectis per 
regiones sylvaticas vulgatissima. 

The European A. atomaria abounds beneath fallen leaves, and 
other vegetable refuse, in Madeira proper, — principally at inter- 

H 



98 



PTILIAD^. 



mediate altitudes and within the sylvan districts ; but it has not '' 
yet been observed in any of the other islands. I am informed by 
Mr. Matthews that the Madeiran specimens which he examined are 
identical with the particular state which Motschulsky separated fro 
the atomaria under the name of quadrata, but which he believes; 
cannot be upheld as specifically distinct. Indeed, judging from a 
note now before me, Mr. Matthews appeared to think it far from 
improbable that the very slight differential characters which serve to 
separate the quadrata from the atomaria proper are in reality butj 
sexual ones ; for he remarks " I have again looked into the quadrata- 
question, and I am inclined to think that quadrata and atomaria 
are but sexes of the same species ; the difference between them is 
analogous to, and not greater than, that which exists between indi- 
viduals of the fascicularis.'* 






275. Acrotrichis anthracina. 



JM 



Trichopteryx ajit]ira,cma,Matth.,{nJEnt. Month. 3Iag.u.36 (Jidy 1865), 
Acrotnchis anthracina, WoU.yAjjpend.huJ.oj). 14.. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch lecta. 

Three examples of this small Canarian Acrotrichis were taken by 
the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera ; and Mr. Matthews, who detected 
them amongst their other material, makes the following observation 
concerning them : — " I feel convinced that they represent a new species 
belonging to the atomaria-grow^ (i. e. with a wide thorax and atte- 
nuated elytra), but differing from all in having nearly black antennae, 
a jet-black colour, and a very minute size*; and moreover their 
sculpture is remarkable, and very distinct. I do not think it pos- 
sible to refer them to any known species." 

276. Acrotrichis Wollastoni. 

Acrotrichis fascicularis, Woll. [nee Jlerbst'], Cat. Can. Col. 103 (1864), 
Trichopteryx Wollastom, Math., in Mit. Mmth.MagA. 248(Aprill865). 
Acrotrichis Wollastoni, Woll., Ajypend. huj. op. 14.. 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Hierro), vulgatissima ; per 
regiones intermedias praesertim sylvaticas sub quisquihis foli- 
isque dejectis. 

Abounds in the intermediate altitudes of the Canarian Group, 
where it occurs in much the same kind of places as A. atomaria 

* Mr. Matthews further states, under his published diagnosis, "This species 
is the smallest I have seen with the thorax largely dilated towards the base, and 
the posterior angles much produced," 



I 





PTILIADiE. 99 

does at Madeira — beneath fallen leaves, and other vegetable refuse, 
in sylvan and subsylvan spots. It has been taken hitherto in Grand 
Canary, TenerifFe, Gomera, and Hierro ; but it is somewhat remark- 
able that it has not yet been observed in Palma, in which island it 
appears to be represented by the A. Matthewsii, 

The present Acrotrichis is closely allied to the European A. fasci- 
cularis — with which, indeed, in my Canarian Catalogue I identified 
it, and of which even Mr. Matthews then thought that it should be 
regarded as a geographical variety. A more careful inspection, how- 
ever, of a greater number of examples, in all of which he found its 
small peculiarities to be quite persistent, induced him to believe that 
it is truly distinct from that species ; and he therefore described it 
under the trivial name of Wollustoni*, 

277. Acrotrichis Crotchii. 

Trichopteryx Crotchii, Math., in Ent. Month. Mag. i. 248 (April 1864). 
Acrotrichis Crotchii, TVolL, Append, huj. op. 15. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch parcissime deprehensa. 

A brownish species, allied to the fenestrata, Gillm., five examples 
of which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, during their 
late Canarian campaign. In all probability, therefore, it is scarce. 

278. Acrotrichis sericans. 

Trichopteryx sericans, JIeer,Fna Helv. i. 374 (1841). 

depressa, GiUm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 51 (1845). 

Acrotrichis sericans, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 104 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.y Ten., Gom., Hierro) inter quisquilias, 
passim. 

The European A. sericans occurs rather sparingly in the Canarian 
Group, where, however, it is widely diffused. It has been taken in 
Grand Canary, Teneriff'e, Gomera, and Hierro. 

279. Acrotrichis Montandonii. 

Trichopteryx Montandonii, Allib., in Rev. Zool. 51 (1844). 
simihs, Gilbn., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 53 (1845). 

* In a letter now before me, written immediately after his final examination 
of these Atlantic Ftiliadce, Mr. Matthews makes the following remark concerning 
the A. Wollastoni : " I think that this species must stand : there is an immense 
series of it, varying somewhat in pri^nci facie appearance, but (so far as I can 
see) inseparable. You will observe that the same long yellovj antennae, and the 
same superficial sculpture, obtain throughout the whole of them. The variation 
of shape is mainly sexual, and can be traced grada,tim ; indeed often it is only 
apparent, owing to the peculiar position of the individual specimen." 

h2 



100 ^^^F PTILIAD^. 

Acratrichis pumila, WoU. [nee JEWc/i.], Ins. Mad. 109 (1854). 

Id::[ ], Cat. Mad. Col. 35 (1857). 

insularis, Id. [nee Mann.'], Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 109 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), hinc inde in subinferioribus mtermedi-| 
isque, inter quisquilias et folia dejecta. 

Likewise a European Acrotrichisy and one which occurs (though 
not very abundantly) in Madeira proper — at rather low and inter- 
mediate altitudes ; but it has not yet been detected in any of the 
other islands*. 

280. AcrotricMs Guerinii. 

Trichopteryx Guerinii, Allih., in Rev. Zool. 52 (1844). 

, Fairm. et Lab., Faun. Franq, i. 333 (1854). 

Acratrichis obsccena, WoU.y Cat. Mad. Col. 35 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses (Gam.), prgecipue sub 
stercore bovino et equino in locis inferioribus parce occurrens. 

Like the two preceding species, a European Acratrichis and one 
which seems to be comparatively rare in these islands — where it 
occurs, for the most part, at rather low elevations. In Madeira 
proper however I met with it somewhat commonly, under (and 
within) the dung of cattle, about a mile to the westward of Funchal 
—towards the Praia Formosa; and two examples of it were cap-1( 
tured by Dr. Crotch in Gomera, during his first trip to the Canaries. 

281. Acrotrichis canariensis. 

Trichopteryx canariensis, Matth., in Ent. Month. itf a^.i.249 (April 1865) . 
Acrotrichis canariensis, Woll. Append, hiij. op. 15. . 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), a "W. D. Crotch a.d. 1862 detecta.j 




A small and deep-black Acrotrichis — remarkable for its rather 
short and parallel, or even (at any rate in one sex) somewhat joos- 
teriorly widened outline, and for the almost unproduced hinder angles 
of its prothorax. It is a Canarian species, several examples of it 
having been captured by Dr. Crotch (during the spring of 1862) in 
Teneriffe and Gomera. 

Genus 88. NEPHANES. 
Thomson, Skandin. Coleopt. i. 62 (1859). 

* The A. Mo7itandoni appears to be very nearly allied to the Chevrierii of 
Allibert ; but Mr. Matthews remarks that in the former the prothoracic granules 
" are further apart from each other, and the interstices more coarsely alutaceous 
[or, rather, as it seems to me, reticuiose] ; whereas in the Chein-ierii they are 
closer together and more numerous, and the interspaces are finely alutaceous." 




I 



PTILIADiH, 101 

282. Nephanes Titan. 

Trichopteryx Titan, Newm., in Ent. Mag. ii. 201 (1835). 

abbreviatellus, Hear, Fna Helv, i. 375 (1841). 

curta, Gillm. hi Sturm, D. F. xvii. 92 (1845). 

Elachys abbreviatellus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 221 (1860). 
Nephanes abbreviateUa, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 104 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), hinc inde 
inter quisquilias vulgaris. 

A European insect which occurs both in the Madeiran and Cana- 
rian Groups, — perhaps (considering how liable these minute species 
are to accidental transportation) introduced originally from more 
northern latitudes. It abounds occasionally (beneath dead leaves, 
and other vegetable refuse) around Funchal, in Madeira proper ; and, 
although it escaped my own observation at the Canaries, it was 
detected by Dr. Crotch both in Teneriffe and Gomera. 

Genus 89. PTENIDIUM. 
Erichson, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 34 (1845), 

283. Ptenidium laevigatum. 

Trichopteryx laevigata, Gillm. in Sturm, D.F. xvii. 87 (1845). 
Ptenidium laevigatum, Erich., he. cit. 36 (1845). 

, Fairm. etLah., Faun. Franq. i. 340 (1854), 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 104 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom., Pahna, Hierro), sub quis- 
quiliis in inferioribus intermediisque late sed parce diffusum. 

A European Ptenidium, and widely though sparingly distributed 
over the Canarian archipelago — in all the islands of which it has 
been captured except the two eastern ones, Lanzarote and Fuerte- 
ventura. But it has not yet been observed in the Madeiran Group. 

284. Ptenidium apicale. 

Trichopteryx apicalis, {Sturm) GiUm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 85 (1845). 
Ptenidium apicale, Erich., loc. cit. 36 (1845). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 110 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 37 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col 104 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.) et Canarienses {Fuert., Can., Ten., 
Gom.), vulgare. 

This common European insect will probably be found universally 
throughout these Atlantic islands, though hitherto it does not happen 
(partly, perhaps, on account of its minute size) to have been observed 



102 



PTILIAD.E. 




in more than about half of them. At the Madeiran Group it has 
been taken in Madeira proper and the Deserta Grande, and at the 
Canaries in Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera. 
It occurs beneath vegetable refuse, often in profusion, and principally 
at intermediate altitudes. 

285. Ptenidium punctatum. 

Scaphidium punctatum, Gyll, Ins. Sttec. iv. 293 (1827). 
Trichopteryx alutacea, Gil'lm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 84 (1845). 
Ptenidium punctatum, Fairm. et Lab., Faun. Franq. i. 341 (1854). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 105 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), per eras arenosas maritimas sub fucis 
parce degens. 

The only locality in these islands in which I have observed the 
European P. punctatum is (beneath marine rejectamenta) along the 
sandy shores of Lanzarote ; so that its habits at the Canaries are^^ 
precisely similar to those which obtain in higher latitudes. Doubt- 
less, however, it will be found to be more general if searched for in 
the proper situations. 

Genus 90. PTINELLA. 

(Motschulsky) Matth. in Zool xvi. 6106 (1858). 

286. Ptinella aptera. 

Ptilium apterum, Gtter,, in Rev. Zool. 90 (1839). 
Trichopteryx aptera, Gillm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 63 (1845). 
PtiUum apterum, Fairm. etLab., Faun. Frang. i. 339 (1854). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), sub cortice Ptni canariensis in pineto 
quodam antique excelso a DD. Crotch parcissime lecta. i] 

Two examples of this minute Ptinella, which in the opinion of 
Mr. Matthews does not differ from the European P. aptera, were 
captured by the Messrs. Crotch at a high elevation in Hierro — the 
most western island of the Canarian Group. Considering the remote- 
ness of its habitat, it is a most important addition to our Atlantic 
• fauna ; and it is interesting to observe that its mode of life appears 
to be much the same as in more northern countries ; for the Hierro 
specimens were taken from beneath the bark of some old pine trees 
(in this instance, however, the Pinus canariensis) constituting the 
remains of the ancient Pinal which once clothed the southern extre- 
mity of the lofty Cumbre, or central ridge, of that island. We may, 
expect it, therefore, to occur in the Pinals generally. 




PHALACKID^. • 103 

287. Ptinella Proteus. 

Ptinella aptera, JVoll [nee Gue?-'], Ami. Nat. Hist viii. 101 (1861). 

ratisbonensis, Id. [nee GtUm.~], ibid. x. 341 (18(32). 

Proteus, Matth., in Zool. xx. 8262 (1862). 

, Woll.j Append, huj. op. 1 5. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice prope urbem Funchalcnsem 
a Dom. Bewicke deprehensa. 

Captured in tolerable abundance by the late Mr. Bewicke in Ma- 
deira proper — amongst " a blue mould, under bark,'' near Funchal. 
It seems to agree perfectly with English examples of the P. Proteus, 
with which it has been compared both by Mr. Matthews and myself; 
but its synonymy has been the subject of much confusion (I having 
already recorded it, in my Papers on " Additions to the Madeiran 
Coleoptera," under two distinct titles), — lowing entirely, however, to 
the fact of Mr. Matthews, who originally identified it with the 
British species, having received types from Paris which were falsely 
named. 

288. Ptinella angustula. 

Ptilium angustulimi, Gillm., in Sturm, D. F. xvii. 66 (1845). 
Ptinella angustula, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 106 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), sub cortice Plni canariensis h meipso 
parcissime deprehensa. 

Three specimens of the European P. angiistula, which is totally 
distinct from the two preceding species, were captured by myself in 
the island of Palma in the Canarian Group. They were all taken 
beneath the loosened bark of the Pinus canariensis, — one of them 
high up in the Barranco above S** Cruz, and the other two (in the 
great Pinal of the Banda) near the edges of the Caldeira. 

Fam. 14. PHALACRID^. 

Genus 91. PHALACRUS. 

PaykuU, Fna Suec. iii. 438 (1800). 

289. Phalacms coruscus. 

Phalacrus coruscus, Payh., Fna Suec. iii. 438 (1800). 

^ Steph., Ill Brit. Fkt. ii. 161 (1829)._ 

corruscus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 110 (1845). 

coruseus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 106 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), hinc inde parum vulgaris. 



104 



PHALACRIDvE. 



This common European insect is universal (at low and interme- 
diate elevations) at the Canaries — in the whole seven islands of which 
it has been taken, more or less abundantly. Eut although thus 
general at the Canaries, it is somewhat remarkable that it has not 
yet been detected in the Madeiran Group. 

Genus 92. OLIBRUS. 

Ericlison, Nat. der Ins. Dcutsch. iii. 113 (1848). 

290. Olibrus cinerariae. 

Olibrus cinerarisB, Woll, Ins. Mad. 112, tab. ii. fig. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 37 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in locis editioribus rarissimus ; floribus 
Cinerarice auritce (Senecionis maderensis, De Cand.) ad rupes 
excelsas praGcipue gaudet. 

Apparently peculiar to the lofty sylvan districts of Madeira proper, 
where, however, it is extremely rare, — infesting the flowers of the 
Cineraria aurita, the large clusters of which are so conspicuous on 
the damp rocks of a high altitude. 



291. Olibrus florum. 

Olibrus florum, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 106 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), praesertim 
super flores Cinerarice in intermediis hinc inde vulgaris. 

A Canarian Olibrus, with much the same habits as the preceding 
one in Madeira — infesting the flowers of a large and pale Cineraria 
(quite distinct from the Madeiran plant) at intermediate elevations. 
It has been detected in aU the islands of the Group except the two 
eastern ones, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — appearing to become 
gradually commoner as we approach the west. And, accordingly, 
in Hierro, the most western of them all, I have seen the Cinerarias 
around Yalverde absolutely teeming with it. In Gomera it was 
taken, during the summer of 1864, by the Messrs. Crotch. It has 
very much the colour and aspect of the European 0. corticalis ; 
nevertheless I believe that its true afiinities are rather with the 
Madeiran cinerarice than with that species. 



292. Olibrus bicolor. 

Sphseridium bicolor, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. 82 (1792). 



■ 



PHALACRIDiE. 105 

Olibrus bicolor, M-ich., Nat. dej- Ins. Deutsch. iii. 116 (1845). 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 113 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 37 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), ad flores in subinferioribus vulgaris. 

A European species, which abounds on flowers in Madeira proper 
at rather low and intermediate elevations ; but it has not yet been 
detected in any of the other islands. 

293. Olibrus Stephensii. 

Phalacrus Stephensii, Leach, in litt. 

^ Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 164 (1829). 

Ohbrus liquidus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 117 (1845). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 114 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 37 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), una cum praecedente degens vel in locis 
simiHbus occurrens. 

Likewise a European Olibrus, and one which occurs in precisely 
the same sort of places in Madeira proper as the last species — indeed, 
usually in company with it. 

294. Olibrus congener. 
Ohbrus congener, Well, Cat. Can. Col. 107 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), ad flores parum rams. 

Detected hitherto only in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group, 
though we may certainly expect it to occur in, at all events, Euer- 
te Ventura likewise. It is rather an insignificant species, the charac- 
ters of which, however, I have fuUy pointed out in my diagnosis. 

295. Olibrus subsereus. 
Olibrus subsereus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 107 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Hierro), super flores varies, rarior. 

A small Canarian species, having much the jprimd facie aspect of 
the European 0. millefolii. It occurs at intermediate altitudes, and 
is apparently rare, — having been detected hitherto in Grand Canary, 
Tenerilfe (where it was found, at Souzal, by the Messrs. Crotch), 
and Hierro. 

296. Olibrus consimilis. 

Dermestes consimilis, Mshm, Ent. Brit. i. 75 (1802). 
Phalacrus geminus, Illig., in Panz. Krit. Rev. i. 27 (1805). 



106 



NITIDULIDiE. 



Olibrus geminus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deidsch, iii. 120 (1845). 

consimilis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 115 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 37 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 108 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom.), ad 
flores, passim. 

This common European insect is widely spread over these Atlantic 
islands, though apparently nowhere abundant. It occurs in the in- 
termediate elevations of Madeira proper, as also in Grand Canary, 
Teneriife, and Gomera, of the Canarian Group. In all probability, 
however, it wiU be found to be universal ; yet, in spite of this, I 
believe it to be a naturahzed species. 



Fam. 15. NITIDULID^. 

• (Subfam. I. BEACHYPTERIDES.) 

Genus 93. HETEROBRACHIUM. 

Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 108 (1864). 

297. Heterobrachium longimanum. 

Heterobrachium longimanum, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 109 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus 
rarissimum. 

Eound hitherto only in Teneriife and Palma, of the Canarian 
Group, where it appears to be extremely rare, — occurring at a high 
elevation within the sylvan districts. 

Genus 94. BRACHYPTERUS. 

Kugelann, in Schneid. Mag. 506 (1794). 

298. Brachjrptems aeneomicans. 
Brachypterus aeneomicans, WoU., Append. Tiuj. op. i6. 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom.'), a DD. Crotch parce lectus. 

' Two specimens of this Brachypterus were captured in Gomera by 
the Messrs. Crotch, during their recent expedition to the Canaries. 
The species appears to be quite distinct from the (somewhat variable) 
B. velatus, the characters which separate it therefrom having been 
fully pointed out in the Appendix. 





NITIDULID^. 107 

299. Brachypterus velatus. 

Brachypterus velatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 217 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 110 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz. ?, Can., Ten., Gom., Hierro), praecipue 
super folia Urticce urentis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Likewise a Canarian Brachypterus, and one which is common on 
the foliage of nettles (particularly the Urtica wens, L.) in Grand 
Canary, Tenerijffe, Gomera (where it was detected by the Messrs. 
Crotch), and Hierro ; and I also obtained a specimen which differs a 
little from the ordinary type, and which possibly therefore may be 
the exponent of an allied species, in Lanzarote. 

300. Brachypterus curtulus. 
Brachypterus curtulus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 110 (1864), 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), ad flores minus frequens. 

Occurs rather sparingly in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, but I have not yet observed 
it elsewhere. 

(Subfam. II. CARPOPHILIDES.) 

Genus 95. CARPOPHILUS. 
(Leach) Staph., 111. Brit. Ent. iii. 50 (1830). 

301. CarpopMlus mutilatus. 

Nitidula hemiptera, Fab. [nee Linn., 1767], Ent. Syst. i. 261 (1792). 
Carpophilus mutilatus, {Hoffrn.) Erich., Germ. Zeitsch. iv.258 (1843). 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 116 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 38 (1857). 

, Murray, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bond. xziv. 378 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in mercatorum repositoriis, ex alienis 
forsan saccharinis et fi-uctibus introductus. 

Not uncommon in the warehouses and stores of Madeira proper, 
where it has undoubtedly been naturalized through the medium of 
commerce. 

302. Carpophilus dimidiatus. 

Nitidula dimidiata. Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 261 (1792). 
Carpophilus auropUosus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 117 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 38 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. Ill (1864). 

dimidiatus, Murray, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bond. xxiv. 379 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Can., Ten.), in. 



108 N1TIDULID.E. 

locis similibus ac prsecedens sed interdum etiam in aperto oc- 
currens. 

Likewise an introduced species, and found in much the same places 
as the G. mutilatus and liemipterus ; though I have occasionally met 
with it in the open country, and on one occasion (in Fuerteventura) 
from beneath the refuse of a camels' stable. It has been detected in 
Madeira proper, as also in Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Tene- 
rifFe, of the Canarian Group. 

303. Carpophilus hemipterus. 

Dermestes hemipterus, Linn., Si/st. Nat. ii. 567 (1767). 
Carpophilus hemipterus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 117 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col 38 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. Ill (1864). 

, Murray, Trans, Linn. Soc. Lond. xxiv. 362 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), in locis 
similibus ac praecedentes, hinc inde vulgaris. 

This widely spread insect has been naturalized (like the preceding 
two) both at the Madeiras and Canaries, occurring about houses and 
various kinds of stores — ^particularly dried fruits. It is frequently 
common in Madeira proper, and has been captured in Teneriffe and 
Gomera (in the latter by the Messrs. Crotch) at the Canaries. 

304. Carpophilus tersus. 

Carpophilus tersus, WoU., Append, huf. op. i6. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), a DD. Crotch in HupJiorbid quadam 
emortua semel lectus. 

A single example of this distinct and rather large Carpophilus 
was taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, during their late trip to 
the Canaries. It was found beneath the bark of a dead EupTiorbia, 
and is doubtless therefore the exponent of a species which is truly 
indigenous. 



(Subfam. III. NITIDULIDES.) 

Genus 96. EPURiEA. 
Erichson, in Germ. Zeitsch. iv. 267 (1843). 

305. Epursea obsoleta. 

Nitidula obsoleta, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 266 (1792). 

Epuraea obsoleta, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 148 (1845). 



NITIDULIDiE. 109 

Nitidula obsoleta, Woll, Ins. Mad. 121 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 40 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice arborum truncisque recenter 
sectis in intermediis parce degens. 

The European E. obsoleta occurs sparingly throughout the inter- 
mediate sylvan districts of Madeira proper, beneath the bark and 
chippings of trees ; but it has not yet been observed in any of the 
other islands. 

Genus 97. NITIDULA. 

Fabricius, Si/st. Ent. 77 (1775). 

306. Nitidula flexuosa. 

Nitidula flexuosa, Oliv., Ent. ii. 12. 7 (1790). 

, Wall, Ins. Mad. 119 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 39 (1857). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. Ill (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S*'^) et Canarienses (Fuert.), hinc inde in 
ossibus parum vulgaris. 

Likewise a European species, and one which we may expect to be 
found pretty generally in these Atlantic islands if searched for in 
the proper places — ^namely, in bones. Hitherto, however, it has been 
taken only in Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, and in Euerte- 
ventura at the Canaries. 

307. Nitidula 4-pustnlata. 

Nitidula 4-puatiilata, Fab., Ent. Sj/st. i. 255 (1792). 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 159 (1845). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 119 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 39 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), hinc inde in ossibus. 

Also a European Nitidula, and one which is not uncommon at low 
and intermediate elevations in Madeira proper — occurring in bones, 
particularly about the towns and in cultivated spots. 

Genus 98. OMOSITA. 
Erichson, in Germ. Zeitsch. iv. 298 (1843). 

308. Omosita discoidea. 

Nitidula discoidea, Fab., Si/st. Ent. 78 (1775). 

Omosita discoidea, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 168 (1845). 

Nitidula discoidea, Woll, Ins. Mad. 120 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 39 (1857). 



110 



NITIDULIDiE. 



Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), circa oppida in locis similibus ac prae- 
cedens. 

The common European 0. discoidea is found in Madeira proper, in 
similar places with the last species ; and, like it, it has probably been 
naturahzed from more northern latitudes. 



309. Omosita colon. 

Silpha colon, Linn., Fna Suec. 151. 4G2 (1761). 
Nitidula colon, Fah., Syst. Eleu. i. 351 (1801) ._ 
Omosita colon, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 167 (1845). 
Nitidula colon, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 39 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in ossibus minus frequens. 

The European 0. colon is less common in Madeira proper than 
either of the two preceding species ; nevertheless it is found sparingly 
around Eunchal, and has doubtless been introduced accidentally into 
the island. 

Genus 99. PRIA. 
(Kirby) Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 49 (1830). 

310. Pria dulcamaraB. 

Laria dulcamarse, Scop., Ent. Cam. 22 (1763). 
Pria dulcamaras, WolL, Ins. Mad. 122 (1854). 
-, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 40 (1857). 



, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 112 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Palma), ad flores 
varies late sed parce diffusa. 

This European insect occurs sparingly on flowers, at most ele- 
vations, in Madeira proper ; and it has also been taken in Teneriffe 
and Palma, of the Canarian Group. 

Genus 100. MELIGETHES. 
(Kirby) Steph., ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 45 (1830). 

311. Meligethes ecMi. 

Meligethes Isoplexidis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 123 (1854). 
Echii, Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 40 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Hierro), ad 
plantas Eehii hinc inde in editioribus. 

Not uncommon at a rather high elevation in Madeira proper, 
where it is attached principally (if not indeed altogether) to the 
flowers and foliage of the gigantic Echium candicans. At the 



NITIDULIDiE. Ill 

Canaries (where the specimens, judging from the few now before 
me, are not quite so typical) it was taken sparingly by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro. 

Whether, however, the M. echii is anything more than a rather 
large and somewhat elongated state of the tristis, in which the elytra 
are relatively a trifle shorter (or perhaps, rather, the abdomen more 
developed), the limbs not quite so black, the punctation (at any rate 
posteriorly) just perceptibly less dense, and the pubescence more 
robust and of a yellowish-fulvescent tinge (instead of being cine- 
reous), I cannot but feel a little doubtful. 

312. Meligethes tristis. 

Meligethes tristis (Schiipp.), Sturniy Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 40 (1845). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 124 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 113 (1864). 

, Hartung, Geolog. VerJidltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^, Des.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten., 
Gom.f Palma, Hierro), ad flores sat vulgaris. 

The European M. tristis seems to be well nigh universal through- 
out these Atlantic islands. At the Madeiran Group it has been 
observed in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande ; 
whilst at the Canaries it has been detected in all the islands except 
Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern ones*. 

313. Meligethes picipes. 

Meligethes picipes, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 47 (1845). 

, Eneh., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 199 (1848). 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 125 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), ad flores saepe vulgatissimus. 

It is somewhat remarkable that although the present European 
Meligethes is abundant in Madeira proper, frequently teeming at 
intermediate elevations, it has not yet been observed in any other of 
these Atlantic islands. 

314. Meligethes virescens. 

Meligethes virescens, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 113 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), hinc inde vulgaris. Floribus 
Messerschmidtice fruticosce preesertim gaudet. 

* Cf. ' Cat. Can. CoL' p. 114. 



112 



NITIDULIDJE. 



A Canarian Meligethes, detected hitherto in Teneriife and Gomera, 
where it is more particularly partial to the fragrant blossoms of the 
Messerschmidtia fruticosa. 

315. Meligethes varicollis. 

Meligethes varicollis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 126 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857). 

^ M^ Cat. Can. Col. 112 (1864). 

er jthropa, ^ar;^. [nee Mshni], Geol. Verhaltn.Lanz.undFuert^\40. 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten.), ad 
flores rarior. 

A large Meligethes which appears to be widely spread over these 
Atlantic islands, though exceedingly local. In Madeira proper 
(where its prothorax has a curious tendency to become pallid at the 
edges) it is decidedly rare, occurring in the sylvan districts of inter- 
mediate altitudes ; whilst at the Canaries it is comparatively common 
jn certain parts of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, but scarce in 
Teneriffe. 



Genus 101. XENOSTRONGYLUS. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 127 (1854). 

316. Xenostrongylus histrio. 

Xenostrongylus histrio et canariensis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 127,128 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 41 (1857). 

arcuatus, Kiesw., in Berl. Zeit. 57 (1859). 

histrio, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 114 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P*<^ S^^, Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), 
praecipue in herbidis intermediis vulgaris. 

This most variable insect, which occurs sparingly in the south of 
Europe, may be regarded as quite universal throughout these Atlantic 
islands ; for although it does not happen to have been observed on 
the (almost inaccessible) northern and southern Desertas, of the 
Madeiran Group, yet its presence on the central island would render 
it probable that sooner or later it wiU certainly be met with on them 
likewise. In Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande 
it is often abundant — attaching itself to various plants (particularly 
those of the Smapis-trihe), or hibernating amongst lichen in the 
crevices of the weather-beaten rocks. Whilst at the Canaries, X 
have myself captured it in the whole seven islands of the archipelago, 
where perhaps it is more especially common within the sylvan 
districts of intermediate altitudes. 




RHIZOPHAGID.E. 113 



Fam. 16. RHIZOPHAGIDiE. 

Genus 102. RHIZOPHAGUS. 

Herbst, Kiif. v. 18 (1793). 

317. Rhizophag^s pinetorum. 

Rhizophagus pinetoriim, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 118 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma, Hlerro), lignum vetustum Plni 
canariensis in piuetis destruens ; hinc inde vulgaris. 

A Canarian Rhizophagus which appears to be attached to the 
Piiials of intermediate and lofty elevations, where it occurs beneath 
the bark and within the rotten wood of the Pinus canariensis. 
Under such circumstances, it is locally abundant in Teneriffe and 
Palma ; and it was found by the Messrs. Crotch, in the Pinal, in 
Hierro. We may expect, indeed, to meet with it wherever the 
ancient Pinals still exist. It is closely allied to the B. fcrrugineus 
and perforatus of more northern latitudes, and might possibly be re- 
garded as a geographical modification of either of them ; though, of the 
two, I think perhaps that it has more in common with the former. 

318. Rhizophagus suhopacus. 

Rhizophagus subopacus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 119 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in locis similibus ac praecedens, sed 
multo rarior. 

Of precisely the same habits as the last species, though very much 
rarer — the few examples which I have seen having been captured 
beneath the bark of pine trees in Palma, of the Canarian Group. 

319. Rhizophagnis bipustulatus. 

Lyctus 2-pustulatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 503 (1792). 
Ryzophagus bipunctulatus, Hbst, Kdf. v. tab. 45. f. 9 (1793). 
Rhizophagus bipustulatus, ^n'cA., iVot derlns.Deutsch. iii. 234 (1845). 
Rhyzophagus bipustulatus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 42 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo in castanetis parce 
occurrens. 

The European R. bipustulatus occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, 
for the most part beneath the bark of Spanish chestnut-trees on 
the mountains above Funchal ; but it has not been observed m any 
of the other islands. 



114 



TROGOSITIDvE. 



Genus 103. EUROPS. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 149 (1854). 

820. Europs impressicollis. 

Europs impressicollis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 150, tab. iii. f. 2 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 50 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 145 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 128 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), En-] 
phorbias emortuas vetustas copiosissime destruens. 

This insect is probably universal throughout these Atlantic islands 
wherever Euphorbias are to be found ; for it is attached exclusively 
to the rotten stems and branches of those singular plants. Never- 
theless at the Madeiran Group it has been detected hitherto only in 
Madeira proper and the Deserta Grande ; though at the Canaries it 
has been met with abundantly in the whole seven islands of the 
archipelago ; and I even found it in the little islet of Graciosa, off 
the extreme north of Lanzarote. 

321. Europs duplicatus. 

Europs duplicatus, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 146 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 129 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), in plantis putridis Ewphorbice canarierms 
prsecipue degens. 

I 
Detected hitherto only in Gomera, of the Canarian Group, where, 

however, it is locally somewhat abundant within the putrid stems of 

the Euphorbia canariensis. 




Fam. 17. TROGOSITIDiE. 

Genus 104. TEMNOCHILA. 

Westwood, Zool. Jmirn. v. 231 [script. Temnoscheila'] (1835). 

322. Temnochila pini. 

Trogosita pini, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 70 (1838). 
Temnochila pini, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 119 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Palma, Hierro), truncos antiques 
Pini canariensis in pinetis perforans ; rarissima. 

This superb Temnochila, which may be regarded as the represen- 
tative of the T. ccerulea of more northern latitudes, is confined to the 
old Pinals of the Canarian Group ; and it wiU probably, therefore. 



TROGOSITID^. 115 

be found to occur wherever the remains of those ancient pine-forests 
still exist. Nevertheless it is extremely rare, or at any rate local, 
even in those particular regions. I have myself taken it in Grand 
Canary and Palma ; and it was captured by the Messrs. Crotch during 
the past summer in TenerifFe and Hierro. Its presence in Hierro is 
most interesting ; for the Pinal itself (in its now reduced dimensions) 
occupies but a small and elevated area at the southern end of the 
Cumbre, or backbone, of that remote island. 

Genus 105. LIPASPIS. 
WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lmid. 140 [script. Leipmpis'] (1862). 

323. Lipaspis lauricola. 

Leipaspis lauricola, Wall, loc. cit. 143 (1862). 
Lipaspis lauricola, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 120 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), sub cortice arbo- 
rum laxo prtesertim in lauretis humidis editioribus latens. 

A Canarian insect, attached normally to the damp laurel-regions 
of a high altitude — where it occurs beneath dead, loosened bark. 
Occasionally, however, it vrill attack other trees; for the Messrs. Crotch 
report its capture (in a few instances), both in Gomera and Hierro, 
in fig-trees ; but I think it is not unlikely that such specimens may • 
have been brought down accidentally from the laurel-forests amongst 
bundles of fire-wood, and may have adapted themselves subsequently 
(as they were best able) to the altered circumstances and a lower 
range. In Teneriffe and Palma I have met with it in tolerable 
abundance ; whilst in Gomera and Hierro it has been taken by the 
Messrs. Crotch. 

324. Lipaspis pinicola. 

Leipaspis pinicola, Woll., loc. cit 143 (1862). 
Lipaspis pinicola, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 120 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma"), in pinetis rarissima. 

Hitherto I have observed this (likewise Canarian) Lipaspis only 
in TenerifFe and Palma, where it occurs (though very rarely) beneath 
the dead bark of pines at rather lofty elevations. The discovery by 
the Messrs. Crotch of the L. lauricola in fig-trees renders it just 
possible that the pinicola may be some form of that species peculiar 
to the Pinals, for certainly its distinctions are not very conspicuous 
ones. Nevertheless I do not believe that such is probable ; though, 
from the very few examples of the pinicola which I have yet seen, 

i2 



116 



TROGOSITIDvE. 



I admit that further material is at all events desirable in orde 
ascertain whether the small diagnostic features which I alluded to 
in my description are constant. 

325. Lipaspis caulicola. 

Leipaspis caulicola, WoU., loc. cit. 142, pi. viii. f. 1 (1862). 
Lipaspis caulicola. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 121 (1864). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem) et Canarienses (J'< 
Hierro), intra caules Euphorhiarum putridos rarissima. 

Likewise of the greatest rarity, but peculiar (so far as observedi 
hitherto) to the Euphorbias — within the rotten stems of which it 
occurs, though very sparingly. A single example was taken by 
myself in Teneriffe, — from out of the putrid stalks of a E. canariensis, 
on the mountains above S** Cruz ; and five more were obtained by 
the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro (one of which they found at El Golfo, 
and the remaining four near Yalverde — "under the bark of the 
E. piscatoria and hahamifera^^ respectively). It differs from the 
lauricola, mainly, in its smaller size, ferruginous hue, rather nar- 
rower, less shining and more lightly striated elytra, and somewhat 
slenderer legs. 

I have moreover received from the Barao do Castello de Paiva a 
*single example which he procured from the Great Salvage. It 
recedes a little from the Canarian ones ; but the differences are so 
unimportant that I cannot consider them indicative of more than 
a slight insular variety, which, however, I would here record as the] 
"var. jj. oceanica^'*. 1 have placed the specimen in the collection 
at the British Museum. •, 



Genus 106. TROGOSITA. 
Olivier, Ent. ii. 19 [script. Trogossita'] (1790). 

326. Trogosita mauritanica. 

Tenebrio mauritanicus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 674 (1767). 
Trogosita caraboides, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 71 (1838) 
, Hart, Geoloff. Verhdltn. Lanz. imd FueH. 140, 141. 



^ This individual from the Great Salvage is a trifle narrower than the Cana- 
rian ones now before me, with its head and prothorax (the former of which is 
just perceptibly convexer, whilst the latter is somewhat more abbreviated) a little 
less developed, and not quite so densely or coarsely punctured. Assuming it to 
be typical of its race, it will suffice to record in the following short formula the 
very slightly aberrant state of which it may be regarded as the exponent: — 

Var. j8. oceanica. Subangustior, capite prothoraceque vix parcius leviusque 
punctatis, illo paulo magis convexo, hoc sensim breviore. 







TROGOSITIDi^. 117 

Trogosita mauritanica, IFolL, Ins. Mad. 154 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 50 (1857). 

' , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 121 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten., 
Gam.), in domibus et prsesertim sub recremento farris circa basin 
aecrvorum tritici sparso hinc inde vulgaris. 

The nearly cosmopolitan T. mauritanlca, although evidently natu- 
ralized, is doubtless universal in the inliabited islands of these 
Atlantic Groups. In Madeira proper, it has been observed princi- 
pally about the houses and stores ; but at the Canaries it is far more 
abundant, as weU as more completely established — occurring not 
onl)^ in the towns and Avarehouses, but (far more commonly) beneath 
the refuse at the base of corn-stacks. Palma and HieiTo are the 
only islands of the seven in which it does not happen to have been 
detected; but there can be no question that it exists there, as it 
does throughout the rest of the archipelago. In Gomera it was 
taken by the Messrs. Crotch. 

Examples of the T. maurltanica have been communicated by the 
Baron Paiva, professedly from the Great Salvage ; but as I have 
little doubt they were captured amongst the provisions taken by the 
boatmen from Funchal, I do not consider them worth noticing. 

327. Trogosita serrata. 

Trogosita serrata, Woll., Ins. Mad. 155 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 60 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissima; in insulam fortasse saccha- 
rinis introducta. 

Occurs, though very rarely, in the houses and stores of Madeira 
proper, where it has doubtless been naturalized through the medium 
of commerce. By the late Mr. Bewicke it was found in sugar ; and 
it has lately been communicated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva. 

328. Trogosita recta. 

Trogosita recta, Woll, Trans. Ent. Sac. Lond. i. 144 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 122 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Lanz.), semel tantum reperta. 

A Canarian species and very closely aUied to the serrata, though 
I believe truly distinct from it. Indeed its habits would seem to be 
different, for the only example which I have seen was captured 
within the stem of a dead Enpliorhi'i in the north of Lauzarote. 



118 



MONOTOMIDiE. 



329. Trogosita latens. 

Trogosita latens, Woll, Trans. Ent Soc. Land. i. 143 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 123 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Ten., Gom., Hierro), sub cortice Eu^hor- 
hiarum versus radices praesertim emortuas latens. 

Detected hitherto only at the Canaries, where, however, we may be 
pretty sure that it is universal — though it happens to have been 
observed merely in Lanzarote, Teneriffe, Gomera (where it was found 
by the Messrs. Crotch), and Hierro. It is peculiar to the various 
Euphorbias, occurring beneath the damp bark (and within the rotten 
wood) towards the base of the stems — and, more often, actually 
underground at the roots. In such situations I have met with it in 
Lanzarote, Teneriffe, and Hierro. 



Fam. 18. MONOTOMID^. 

Genus 107. MONOTOMA. 
HiBibst, Natursyst. v. (1793). 

330. Monotonia spinicollis. 

Monotoma spinicollis, Auhe, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. vi. 463 (1837). 

spinifera, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 67 (1857). 

spinicolhs, Id., Cat. Can. Col 123 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), sub quis- 
quiliis parum rara. 

A European insect which occurs, sparingly, beneath vegetable 
refuse, both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups. At the former 
it has been found in Madeira proper, and at the latter in Teneriffe 
and Gomera. 

331. Monotonia plcipes. 

Monotoma picipes, Hhst., Kdf. v. 24 (1793). 

, Aube, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, vi. 458 (1837). 

congener, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 68 (1857). 

picipes, Id., Cat. Can. Col 123 (1864). 




Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.), sub quisquiliis rara. 



The common European M. picipes is probably about equally dif- 
fused (and equally scarce), in these Atlantic islands, with the M. spi- 
nicollis. It has been detected sparingly in Madeira proper, and also 
in Teneriffe. 





MONOTOMIDiE. 119 

332. Monotonia quadricoUis. 

Monotonia quadricoUis, Aube, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. vi. 465 (1837). 

, Redt, Fna Austr. 203 (1849). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 263 (1860). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 124 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten.y Gom.), 
sub quisquiliis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Although somewhat less abundant throughout Europe than the 
preceding one, this Monotonia is decidedly commoner in these islands 
than either it or any of the other species. In Madeira proper it 
occurs beneath refuse in cultivated grounds, particularly around 
Funchal ; whilst at the Canaries I have little doubt that it will be 
found to be universal. Hitherto, however, it has been observed only 
in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Teneriffe, and Gomera, in the last of 
which it was met with by the Messrs. Crotch. 

333. Monotonia 4-foveolata. 

Monotoma 4-foveolata, AubCf Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. vi. 468 (1837). 

, Bedt., Fna Amtr. 203 (1849). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 264 (1860). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 124 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Ten.), hinc inde 
sub ossibus et quisquiliis. 

Although locally abundant around Funchal in Madeira proper 
(where it was taken in profusion, both by Mr. E. Leacock and 
myself, beneath the refuse of a bone-house), the present European 
Monotoma has been observed hitherto very sparingly at the Canaries 
— the only islands in which has been found being Lanzarote and 
Teneriffe. Doubtless, however, it will be met with more generally 
when searched for in the proper localities. 

334. Monotoma longicollis. 

Monotoiha longicollis, Schonherr, in litt. 

Cerylon loiigicoUe, Gijll, Ins. Suec. iv. 635 (1827). 

Monotoma longicollis, Aube, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr, vi. 467 (1837). 

, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 102 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub quisquiliis rarissima. 

The European M. longicollis has been found sparingly, beneath 
vegetable rubbish, in Madeira proper (where two examples were 
taken by the late Mr. Bewicke at S. Antonio da Serra) ; but it has 
not yet been detected in any of the other islands. 



120 



ENDOPHLCEID/E. 



Considering the secretive habits of the Monotomas, in various 
kinds of refuse, they are insects easy of accidental transportation ; 
and it is exceedingly j)robable therefore that the whole five species 
here enumerated may have been introduced originally into these 
islands from more northern latitudes, and may have thus become 
naturalized. 

Fam. 19. ENDOPHLCEID^. 

Genus 108. TARPHIUS. 
(Germar) Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 256 (1845). 

335. TarpMus Lowei. 

Tarphius Lowei, Woll, Ins. Mad. 134, tab. iii. f. 5 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 43 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^° S*^), inter lichenes in fissuris rupium 
vel ad truncos arborum crescentes, hinc inde (saltern in Portu 
Sancto) vulgaris. 

Peculiar to the Madeiran Group, occurring amongst lichens (whether 
in the crevices of the rocks or on the trunks of trees) in Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo, — being rather scarce in the former, but 
occasionally abundant in the latter. 

336. Tarphius excisus. 

Tarphius excisus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 47 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses (P^^ S*^), rarissimus, in summo monte " Pico 
Branco " parcissime repertus. 

Observed hitherto only in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, 
where it appears to be extremely rare. Indeed I have seen but two 
specimens of it, which were taken by myself (on the 9th of May, 
1855) on the lofty and almost inaccessible promontory immediately 
over the extreme summit of the Pico Branco, in the north of that 
island. It probably has much the same habits as the T. Lowei. 




337. Tarphius parallelus. 

Tarphius parallelus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 134 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 42 (1857). 



4 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub truncis arborum prolapsis in lauretisj] 
humidis editioribus parce degens. 



Inhabits the mountains of Madeira proper — occurring beneath' 



ENDOPHLCEID^. 121 

logs of wood in damp, shady spots of a high elevation (particularly 
in the region of the Fanal). 

338. Tarphius angustulus. 

Tarphius angustulus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 289 (1862). 
, Id., Append, htif. op. ly. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in montibus supra urbem Funchalensem, 
in castanetis a Dom. Moniz detectus. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, and apparently of the greatest 
rarity, the few examples hitherto detected having been taken by 
Senhor Moniz in the chestnut- woods on the mountains above Funchal. 



339. Tarphius inomatus. 

Tarphius inomatus, TFoll., Ins. Mad. 135 (1854). 

spinipes, Id. [ = maris status extrem.J, ibid, 136 (1854). 

inomatus, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 43 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis, vel lauretis vel pinetis, hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

Inhabits the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, occurring (rather 
commonly) both in the laurel-forests of the interior and in the pine- 
woods on the southern slopes of the island. It is barely possible that 
what I have regarded as the sexes of this Tarphius may be specifi- 
cally distinct, though I do not think it lilceli/ that such is the case. 

340. Tarphius nodosus." 

Tarphius nodosus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 140, tab. iii. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 45 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lauretis humidis editioribus eat vul- 
garis. 

Pretty generally distributed, and occasionally common, in the 
damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper— principally at a high 
elevation. 

341. Tarphius compactus. 

Tarphius compactus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 139 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 45 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lauretis humidis parum vulgaris. 

Occurs in Madeira proper, in similar spots as the last species, and 
about in equal abundance. 



122 ENDOPHLCEID^E. 

342. Tarphius lauri. 

Tarphius Lauri, Woll, Ins. Mad. 138, tab. iii. f. 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 44 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis prsesertim lauretis vulgaris. 

Peculiar to Madeira proper, and by far the most abundant of the 
genus in that island — occurring universally within the sylvan dis- 
tricts, though (like most of the species) more particularly in the 
laurel-forests. 

343. Tarphius formosus. 

Tarphius formosus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 44 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lauretis humidis excelsis rarissimus. 

Detected hitherto only in the dense sylvan regions in the north of 
Madeira proper, where it appears to be extremely rare. 

344. Tarphius angusticollis. 

Tarphius angusticollis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 252 (1860). 
, Id., Append, huj. op. 17. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus parcissime oc- 
currens. 

The only specimens of this Tarphius which I have yet seen were 
taken by the late Mr. Bewicke in the north of Madeira proper, in 
the upland district of the Fanal. It is certainly, therefore, ex- 
tremely rare. 

345. Tarphius sylvicola. 

Tarphius sylvicola, Woll, Ins. Mad. 137 (1854). 
^ Id,^ Cat. Mad. Col 44 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (if«cZ.), in sylvaticis humidis excelsis rarissimus. 

This Tarphius I have observed hitherto only in damp sylvan dis- 
tricts in the north of Madeira proper, particularly that known as the 
Lombarda das Vacas (on the mountains to the east of the Kibeira 
de Sao Vicente). 

346. Tarphius rotundatus. 

Tarphius rotundatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 137 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 44 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis parum vulgaris. 

I^ext to the T. lauri (and perhaps the inomatus), this is decidedly 
the commonest of the Madeiran Tarphii — being pretty generally 
distributed throughout the sylvan regions of Madeira proper. ^ 



i 



ENDOPHLffilDiE. 123 

347. Tarphius tnmcatus. 

Tarphius truncatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 142 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 47 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus rarissimus. 

Evidently of the greatest rarity, the few specimens which I have 
seen having been captured by myself in the damp sylvan regions of 
Madeira proper — in company with the other species. 



348. Tarphius Wolffii. 

Tarphius Wolffii, WolL, Append, livj. op. 2 1 . 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in castanetis longe supra urbem Fun- 
chalensem a Dom. C. Wolff, M.D., repertus. 

Discovered in the chestnut-woods at " the Mount," in the south 
of Madeira proper, by Dr. C. Wolff. The distinctive features which 
separate it from the T. truncatus, to which it is closely allied, are 
fully alluded to in the Appendix to this volume. 

349. Tarphius sculptipennis. 
Tarphius sculptipennis, Wall., Cat. Mad. Col. 46 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in humidis sylvaticis rarissimus. 

Occurs in the north of Madeira proper, where it appears to be very 
rare, in damp sylvan spots of intermediate altitudes. 

350. Tarphius testudinalis. 

Tarphius testudinalis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 141 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 46 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in lauretis editioribus rarissimus. 

Likewise peculiar to the lofty sylvan districts of Madeira proper, 
where it is extremely rare. 

351. Tarphius cicatricosus. 

Tarphius cicatricosus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 141 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 45 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens rarissimus. 

Found in similar localities as the last species, in Madeira proper, 
and of about equal rarity. 



124 



ENDOPHLfEIDiE. 



352. Tarphius echinatus. 

Tarphius echinatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 143 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 47 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in lauretis excelsis rarissimus. 

Extremely scarce, and confined to the sylvan districts of Madeira 
proper — my specimens having chiefly been collected in the vicinity 
of the Pico da Suna, in the east of the island. 

353. Tarphius brevicollis. 

Tarphius brevicollis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 144 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 48 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praeccdens rarissimns. 

Of about equal rarity with the last species, and found (like it) in 
the sylvan districts of Madeira proper — principally towards the east 
of the island. 

354. Tarphius rugosas. 

Tarphius rugosus,- Woll, Ins. Mad. 144 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col, 48 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis — vel castanetis vel lauretis 
— rarissimiis. 

Likewise peculiar to the sylvan regions of Madeira proper, where 
it is of the greatest rarity. Until lately indeed I had seen but the 
single example (taken by myself, / believe at the Eibeiro Frio) fi'om 
which my diagnosis was compiled in 1854; but two more have 
recently been communicated by Dr. C. Wolff, captured in the chest- 
nut-woods (at the Mount) above Funchal. 

355. Tarphius explicatus. 

Tarphius explicatus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 48 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lauretis humidis excelsis rarissimus. 

One of the rarest of the Tarphii, the only two specimens which T 

have seen having been taken by myself in the north of Madeira 

proper (in the dense forest-region of the Montado dos Pecegueiros) 

during July 1855. 

356. Tarphius deformis. 

Tarphius deformis, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 387, pi. 19. f. 9 (1862). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 127 '(1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis sylvaticis prajsertim lau- 
retis late sed parce diffusus. 



m 



ENDOPHLCEID^. 125 

A Canarian species, apparently peculiar to TenerifFe — where it is 
widely, but sparingly, spread over the sylvan and siibsylvan regions 
of intermediate altitudes. I have taken it in the districts of the 
Agua Mansa, Agua Garcia, and Taganana; and it was found by 
Dr. Crotch (and afterwards by his brother) in the garden of their 
house at Ycod el Alto, as well as in the Barranco below it*. 

357. Tarphius camelus. 

Tarphius camelus, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 383, pi. 19. f. 2 (1862). 
, Id., Cat, Can. Col. 125 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), in sylvaticis rarissimus. 

The only two examples of this Tarphius which I have yet seen 
were taken by myself (during February 1858) in the sylvan region 
on the western slopes of Hierro, in the Canarian Group. 

358. Tarphius canariensis. 

Tarphius canariensis et erosus, Woll.y Journ. of Ent. 383, 384, pi. 19. 

f. 3 et 4 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 125 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Pahna), in sylvaticis prajsertim lau- 
retis vulgaris. 

A strictly Canarian Tarphius, and more widely spread over the 
archipelago than any of the other species. I have taken it in the 
sylvan and subsylvan districts of Grand Canary, Teneriffe (where it 
occasionally abounds), and Palma — the examples from the latter 
island differing slightly from the ordinary type, and constituting 
what I had described (in my diagnosis) as a " var. /3." It is decidedly 
more variable than any of the Canarian members of the genus 
hitherto detected; for whilst most of the Tarjphii are exceedingly 
unstable in size (retaining their other features without much appa- 
rent change), the present one fluctuates appreciably both in outline 
and in the greater or less excavation of the posterior half of its 
prothorax ; and it was this latter circumstance that induced me to 

* The T. deformis may perhaps be regarded as the representative at the Cana- 
ries of the Madeiran T. explicatus. Nevertheless, althougli in their general contour, 
greatly developed nodules, and densely scaly, wwsetose surfaces the two insects 
have a good deal in common, they are specifically totally distinct. Thus the 
T. deformis is much more rugosely granulated, its nodules and ridges (the latter 
of which are almost obsolete in the explicatus) are very much more developed, 
its prothorax and elytra are both of them relatively longer, and the former is 
differently shaped — being straighter at the sides behind (although oblique), 
more gradually rounded anteriorly, and more deeply trisinuate along its basal 
margin. 



126 



ENDOPHL(EIDiE. 



describe as an additional species (under the name of erosus) what I 
now believe cannot be regarded as more than an aberrant, and ex- 
tremely exaggerated, state of the canariensis, in which the prothorax 
is greatly and suddenly scooped out, on either side, behind. Indeed, 
after a careful inspection of additional material, I am persuaded that 
the form alluded to is merely a phasis which can be connected by 
intermediate gradations with the ordinary type ; and I have conse- 
quently suppressed it as a species. 

359. TarpMus setosus. 
Tarphius setosus, Woll., Append, hwj. op. 1 7. 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Hierro), in lauretis parum vulgaris. 

As will be seen by a reference to the Appendix, this Tarphius was 
detected by the Messrs. Crotch during their late researches at the 
Canaries. It appears to be common in the damp sylvan districts of 
Gomera, and possibly also in Hierro — though, on account of the dry- 
ness of the season, and the lateness of their sojourn, in that island, 
they obtained but a single example from the latter. It is more 
nearly related to the T. canariensis than to any of the other species ; 
but I have stated in my diagnostic observations what the characters 
are which seem to separate it entirely from that insect. 

360. Tarphius humerosus. 

Tai-phius humerosus, WoU.y Append. Jiiij. op. 19. 
Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), in lauretis editioribus rarissimus. 

Likewise a Canarian species, and peculiar to Gomera — where, how- 
ever, it appears to be extremely rare, the Messrs. Crotch, by whom 
it was detected, having obtained but three examples during their 
late researches in that island. 

361. Tarphius affijiis. 
Tarphius affinis, Woll., Append, hnj. op. 19. 
Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in sylvaticis hand infrequens. 

Like the T. humerosus (to which it a good deal allied) this Tar- 
phius is apparently peculiar to Gomera, of the Canarian Group, — 
where it was found by the Messrs. Crotch (more commonly than that 
species, but by no means in abundance), during the summer of 1864, 
in the laurel-woods of a high elevation. 



ENDOPHLOCID^E. 127 

362. Tarphius abbreviatus. 

Tarphius abbreviatus, Woll, AppeTid. hiij. op. 20. 

Hahitat Canarienses (Gom.), in iisdem locis ac praecedens sed multo 
copiosior. 

Apparently common in the laurel-regions of Gomera, at a high 
elevation, — where it was met with abundantly by the Messrs. Crotch, 
during their late Canarian explorations. 

363. Tarphius quadratus. 

Tarphius quadratus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 384, pi. 19. f. 5 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 126 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses (Palma), in lauretis humidis editioribus raris- 
simus. 

This distinct Canarian Tarphius has been observed hitherto only 
in Palma, where (during May and June of 1858) I met with it in 
the laurel-region on the ascent to the Cumbre above Buenavista, as 
weU as in the Barranco de Galga. 

364. Tarphius monstrosus. 
Tarphius monstrosus, Woll., Append, huj. op. zo. 

Habitat Canarienses (6?om.), in lauretis humidis vulgaris. 

A very large and well-defined species, which was discovered by 
the Messrs. Crotch, during their late Canarian expedition, in the 
laurel -regions of Gomera — where it appears to be common, at a high 
elevation. 

365. Tarphius gigas. 

Tarphius gigas, Woll., Jmirn. of Ent. i. 386, pi. 19. f. 7 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 126 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in humidis sylvaticis rarissimus. 

Likewise a very large Tarphius, and essentially a Canarian one, 
being peculiar to the sylvan regions of Tenerifie. It is evidently 
extremely rare, the only two specimens which I have seen having 
been taken on the mountains towards Taganana and Point Anaga, 
during my sojourn there in May 1859. 

366. Tarphius caudatus. 

Tarphius caudatus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 386, pi. 19. f. 8 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 126" (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in iisdem locis ac prsecedens. 



128 



ENDOPHLCEID^. 



This singular Tarpldus is also a Teneriffan one, and confined (so 
far as I have observed hitherto) to the sylvan mountains in the north- 
east of the island — where, although local, it is not very uncommon. 



367. Tarphius congestus. 

Tarphius congestus, Wall., Journ. of Etit. i. 385, pi. 19. f. 6 (18G2). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col 126 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis intermediis pra3sertim pine- 
tis hinc inde vulgaris. 

The T. congestus seems to be characteristic of the /)i/ig-regions of 
Tenerifie, though occasionally found in spots where the fir trees and 
the laurel grow together. Its true habitat, however, is clearly the 
Finals ; for although I took it sparingly (during 1858 and 1859) at 
the Agua Mansa, where the various laurels and the Pinus canariensis 
are intermixed, the Messrs. Crotch have subsequently met with it in 
profusion throughout the great Pinal which clothes the mountain- 
slopes above Ycod el Alto, and which continues thence (almost with- 
out intermission) to within a short distance of Ycod de los Vinhos. 



368. Tarphius simplex. 

Tarphius simplex, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 382, pi. 19. f 1 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 124 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis parum vulgaris. 



The T. simplex, which is likewise Canarian, seems peculiar to 
laurel-regions of Teneriffe — where it is pretty generally distributed, 
and occasionally common. 



ffie 



Genus 109. PROSTHECA. 
WoUaston, Ann. Nat. Hid. v. 254 (1860). 

369. Prostheca aspera. 

Prostheca aspera, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 255 (1860). 
-, Id., Append, hnj. op. zi. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), semel tantum capta. 

A single example captured near Funchal in Madeira proper by 
the late Mr. Bewicke, is all that I have yet seen of this curious in- 
sect (the structural characters of which are a good deal in accordance 
with those of the European genera Pycnomerus and Xylolcemus). 
"Whether it be of Euphorbia -infosting habits I am unable to say ; but 



COLYDIAD^. 129 

such seems far from improbable, for the specimen was taken in the 
immediate vicinity of some dried stems of the E. piscatoria which 
had been brought (some months before) from Porto Novo, in the east 
of the island. 

Fam. 20. COLYDIAD^. 

Genus 110. AULONIUM. 

Erichson, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 275 (1845). 

370. Aulonium sulcicolle. 

Aulonium sulcicolle, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 127 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), sub cortice Pini canari- 
ensis rarissimum. 

May perhaps be regarded as the Canarian representative of the A. 
bicolor of Europe, though quite distinct from that insect specifically. 
It is apparently very rare, and confined to the old Pinals of inter- 
mediate and rather lofty altitudes. In such situations I have taken 
it both in Teneriffe and Palma, beneath the loose rotting bark of 
Finus canariensis ; and it was found by the Messrs. Crotch in the 
remote, but elevated, Pinal in the south of Hierro. 

Genus 111. AGLENUS. 

Erichson, Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 285 (1845). 

371. Aglenus brunneus. 

Hypophloeus? brunneus, GylL, Ins. Suec. iii. 711 (1813). 
Aglenus brunneus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 285 (1845). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 254 (1860). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 128 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses (in Canarid sola adhuc 
hand observatus), praesertim sub recremento farris circa basin 
acervorum tritici sparse, vulgaris. 

The European A. brunneus is tolerably common, beneath refuse 
generally, around Funchal in Madeira proper ; whilst at the Canaries 
it is still more abundant, and almost certainly universal ; for although 
it does not happen hitherto to have been observed in Grand Canary, 
there can be no doubt that it must exist there (as in the other six 
islands of the Group, in which it has been taken plentifully). Its 
Canarian habitat is, principally, under the rubbish which has accu- 
mulated around the base of corn-stacks. 



130 



CUCUJID^. 



Genus 112. PLCEOSOMA. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad, 147 (1854). 

372. Plceosoma ellipticum. 

Ploeosoma ellipticum, WolL, Ins. Mad. 148, tab. ix. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 49 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus ligni 
antiquum putridum parce destruens. 

Peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) to Madeira proper, where if 
occurs sparingly beneath the bark of trees and in rotten wood at in- 
termediate and lofty elevations. 



Genus 113. COSSYPHODES. 

Westwood, Trans. Ent. Sue. Lond. i. 168 (1851). 

373. Cossyphodes WoUastonii. 

Cossyphodes WoUastonii, Westw., loc. cit. 170 (1851). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 146, tab. iii. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 49 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 127. 



Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), formicarum 
nidos hinc inde in locis subinferioribus apricis colons. ^ 

Occurs in ants' nests (particularly those of (Ecophtliora jpusilla, 
Heer), in warm, sunny spots in the south of Madeira proper — where 
it is occasionally far from uncommon. And I have also captured it 
(though much more sparingly), in similar situations, in Teneriffe and 
Gomera of the Canarian Group. It is an insect of very difficult lo- 
cation in a natural system of arrangement, and is merely placed here 
on account of its according better m some of its structural peculiarities 
with the Colydiadoe (though far removed from them in other respects) 
than perhaps with any Coleopterous family hitherto enunciated. 



Fam. 21. CUCUJID^. 

Genus 114. CAULONOMUS. 
Wollaston, Trans. Ent. Sac. Zand. i. 147 (1862). 

374. Caulonomus rhizophagoides. 

Caulonomus rhizophagoides, Woll, loc. cit. 149, pi. 7. f. 2 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 129 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Ten., Gom., Hierro), sub cortice, necnon 




CUCUJID^. 131 

in ramulis emortuis, Euphorhiarum, una cum Europe ^ Aphan- 
arthro, et caet., parce degens. 

A Canarian insect peculiar to the rotten Euphorbias, and one which 
will probably occur wherever the latter are to be found. Hitherto 
however it has been detected only in Lanzarote, TenerifFe, Gomera 
(where it was captured lately by the Messrs. Crotch), and Hierro. 
It appears to be somewhat scarce. 

Genus 115. LJEMOPHLCEUS. 
(Dejean) Erich,, Nat. der Lis. Deutsch. iii. 815 (1845). 

375. LaBmophlceus donacioides. 

Lsemophlceus Donacioides, Woll., Ins. Mad. 159, tab. iii. f. 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 52 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice arborum praesertim in casta- 
netis parce degens. 

Occurs beneath bark, though sparingly, in the intermediate alti- 
tudes of Madeira proper — particularly in the chestnut-woods of the 
north*. 

376. Laemophlceus graimlatus. 

Laemophloeus granulatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 160 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 52 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 130 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam., Palma), 
sub cortice arborum praesertim in lauretis, hinc inde sat vulgaris. 

A widely spread species, which occurs beneath bark in the sylvan 
regions both of Madeira proper and of the Canarian Group — where 
it will probably be found universally wherever the laurel-forests still 
remain, I have taken it commonly in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and 
Palma ; and it was captured by the Messrs. Crotch, during the sum- 
mer of 1864, in Gomera. Although more particularly partial to the 
laurels, it attaches itself to other trees likewise. 

377. Laemophlceus pusillus. 

Cucujus minutus, Oliv. [nee Kugel. in Schneid. Mag. 1791-1794], Ent. 

iv. bis, 8, 9 (1795). 
pusillus, Schon., Syn. Ins. iii. 55 (1817). 

* The L. donacioides is a good deal allied to the granulatus, but is rather larger 
and darker, with the antennce a little longer and the elytra somewhat more trun- 
cated behind. Its prothorax also is sensibly wider, though relatively more nar- 

K 2 



132 



CUCUJIDiE. 



Laemopliloeus pusillus, Erich. ^ Nat. der Lis. Deutsch. iii. 321 (1846). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 162 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat Mad. Col. 52 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses {Can., Ten.), cum fru-: 
mentariis et cset. in insulas certe introductus. 

This little Lcemophloeus (which is a species liable to transportation, 
with grain and other articles of commerce, throughout the civilized 
world) occasionally teems in the storehouses of Funchal, in Madeira 
proper ; and I have taken it (though sparingly) in similar situations] 
at Las Palmas in Grand Canary, as well as in S*^ Cruz of TenerifFe. 

378. Laemophlceus fermgmeus. 

Cucujus ferrugineus (Creutz.), Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iv. 232 (1831). 
Laemophlceus ferrugineus, ^ncA., Nat. der Ins. Deittsch. iii. 322 (1846).] 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 163 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 52 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens, ex alienis 
introductus. 

I 
Also an introduced species (probably with grain, &c.), like the L. 

piisiUits. Hitherto, however, it has been observed only in Madeira 
proper, where it is occasionally common in houses and about various] 
kinds of stores. 




379. LsemophlcBus clavicollis. 

Lsemophloeus clavicollis et vermiculatus, Wol.,Ins.Mad.l(jl,168(1854). 
' ' Cat. Mad. Col. 52, 53 (1857). 



et 



Id., 



, Woll, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 150 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 130 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), sub cortice 
arbonim necnon etiam plantarum, late sed vix copiose diffusus. 

An almost universal insect throughout these Atlantic islands ; for 
although at the Madeiran Group it has hitherto been detected only 
in Madeira proper, we may nevertheless expect it to occur wherever* 
there are plants large enough to afford bark beneath which it can 
secrete itself. At the Canaries it has been taken in the whole seven 
islands of the archipelago, and I even met with it on the little rock 
of Lobos (off the north of Fuerteventura) in the Bocayna Strait. It 
is found under bark generally, whether of trees or plants, preferring 
perhaps the various species of Euphorbia. 

rowed posteriorly ; and its elytral Hnes are both more distinct and (at any rate 
the inner ones) less evanescent in front. The pronotum, moreover, of its male 
sex has usually two large impressions (or rounded foveac) placed longitudinally 
on either side of the hinder disk. 




CUCUJIDiE. 133 

380. Laemophlceus axillaris. 

Lsemopliloeus axillaris, WolL, Ins. Mad. 164, tab. iii. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 53 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis rarissimus. 

Occurs in the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, chiefly (I believe) 
beneath the bark of laurels, where, however, it is extremely rare. 

381. Laemophloeus stenoides. 

Lsemophloeus Stenoides, WolL, Ins. Mad. 165, tab. iii. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 53 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens, rarissimus. 

Like the last species, apparently peculiar to Madeira proper, — 
occurring in the sylvan districts, though very rarely. 



Genus 116. CRYPTAMORPHA. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 156(1854). 

382. Cryptamorpha musaB. 

Cryptamorpha Musae, WolL, loc. cit. 157, tab. iv. f. 1 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. CoL 51 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Afad.), sub fibris extemis laxis Musce sapientum, 
Linn., in apricis inferioribus occurrens. 

This beautiful insect seems to reside peculiarly (or nearly so) 
beneath the loose outer fibre of the Banana-stems, — in which situ- 
ations it is not uncommon in low, sunny, cultivated grounds around 
Funchal, in Madeira proper. Possibly therefore it may have been 
introduced originally into the island, with one or other of the 
various species of Banana. 

Genus 117. PEDIACUS. 
Shuckard, Ulem. of Brit Unt. i. 185 (1839). 

383. Pediacus tabellatus. 

Pediacus tabellatus, WolL, Cat. Can. CoL 131 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub cortice rarissimus; semel tan turn 
captus. 

The only specimen which I have yet seen of this insect was cap- 
tured by myself (beneath the bark of a felled Spanish chestnut-tree) 
at the Agua Mansa, in Teneriffe. Possibly it may be but a geo- 



134 



CUCUJIDiE. 



graphical state of the European P. depressus ; but further material 
would be necessary, for comparison, before such could be ascertained, 

. Genus 118. XENOSCELIS. 

WoUaston, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 151* (1862). 

384. Xenoscelis deplanatus. 

Pristoacelis deplanatus, Woll, he. cit. 152, pi. 7. f. 3 (1862). 
Xenoscelis deplanatus. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 132 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma, Hierro), sub fibris EupJiorhiarum^ 
laxis latitans. 

Detected in Teneriife, Palma, and Hierro, of the Canarian Group 
— where it is locally common, beneath the outer fibre of the dead 
Euphorbias. On one occasion, however, (in Palma) I took a single 
example under the bark of a pine-tree; but as that is the only 
instance (so far as I am aware) in which the species has been 
observed away from the Euphorbias, I believe that that particular 
specimen must have taken shelter there accidentally, and I have 
therefore no hesitation in regarding the insect as strictly of 
Euphorbia-iniestmg habits. In Hierro it was captured abundantly 
both by Mr. Gray and myself. 



Genus 119. NAUSIBIUS. 

(Schaum) Kedtenbacher, Fna Austr. (edit. 2) 998 (1858), 

385. Nausibius dentatus. 

Coi-ticaria dentata, Mshm, Ent. Brit. i. 108 (1802). 
Silvanus dentatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 167 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 54 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 132 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Ten., Gam.), in 
domibus, certe ex alienis introductus. 

Clearly an importation into the islands, as indeed it is throughout 
a large portion of the civilized world — occurring (frequently dead) 
amongst various articles of commerce, about houses and stores. In 
such situations it is met with occasionally in Madeira proper ; and 
it has been observed, under similar circumstances, in Lanzarote, 
Teneriffe, and Gomera, of thp Canarian Group. 

* The genus is there published as Pristoscelis ; but it will be seen that subse- 
quently (in my Canarian Catalogue) I altered it to Xenoscelis, the former name 
having already been employed by Dr. Leconte. 




CUCUJIDiE. 135 

Genus 120. SILVANUS. 

Latreille, Geti. Crust, et Ins. iii. 19 (1807). 

386. Silvanus surinamensis. 

Dermestes surinamensis, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. 2. 565 (1767). 
Anobiuni frumentarium, Fab., Mant. Ins. i. 39 (1787). 
Dermestes 6-dentatus, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. 232 (1792). 
Silvanus Surinamensis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 167 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 54 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 133 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (in Ten. et Gom. solis 
hand observatus), certe introductus; in domibus, granariis et 
praesertim sub recremento f arris ad basin acervorum tritici 
sparse, hinc inde vulgaris. 

An almost cosmopolitan insect, which has been naturalized in 
Madeira proper through the medium of commerce, as well as at the 
Canaries. In the latter Group indeed we may- be quite certain that 
it is universal ; for although I am not aware that it happens to have 
been observed in either TeneriiFe or Gomera, there can be no doubt 
whatsoever that it must exist in both of them (as it does in the 
other five islands of the archipelago). It occurs about houses and 
granaries, and frequently teems beneath the refuse at the base of 
corn-stacks. 

387. Silvanus unidentatus. 

Ips unidentata, Oliv., Ent. ii. 18. 12, pi. 1. f. 4 (1790). 
Dermestes unidentatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 232 (1792). 
Silvanus imidehtatus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 338 (1846). 
, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 63 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in castanetis editiorihus supra urbem 
Punchalensem sub cortice laxo parce occurrens. 

This European Silvanus occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, where 
it was detected by the late Mr. Bewicke beneath the bark of Spanish 
chestnut-trees on the mountains above Funchal. It is not unlikely 
that it may have become accidentally naturalized there from more 
northern latitudes. 

388. Silvanus nub^ena. 

Silvanus nubigena, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 217 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 133 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), inter lapillos ramulosque emortuos sub 
arbusculis /Sp«rh"i nubi/jence humi jacentes, usque ad 9000' s. m. 
ascendens. Yelocissime currit. 



136 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 



Hitherto I have observed this interesting and truly indigenous 
iSilvanus only in the very elevated regions of TenerifFe which are 
characterized by the presence of the Spartium nuhigena, or 
" Retama "— from about 6000 to 9000 feet above the sea. It 
occurs amongst the small stones and rotten sticks which accumulate 
beneath the shrubs of the Retama in the dry cindery districts, run- 
ning with the utmost rapidity. In such situations I have taken it 
on the lofty Cumbre (overlooking the Canadas) above Ycod el Alto, 
as well as on the opposite heights above the Agua Mansa. It bears 
a considerable resemblance, prima facie, to the European >S'. elon- 
yatus ; but the points (some of them structural ones) which imme- 
diately distinguish it from that species have been fully alluded to in 
my diagnostic remarks. 

389. Silvanus advena. 

Cryptophagus fen-ugineus, Sturm, Cat. 127 (1826). 

advena (Kunze), Waltl, in Silh. Rev. Ent. ii. 256 (1834). 

Silvanus advena, Erich,, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 339 (1846). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 168 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 54 (1857). • 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), sub quisquiliisiri 
cultis parce occurrens. 

The European S. advena is not uncommon, under garden-refuse 
and about houses, in Madeira proper; but the only Canarian ex- 
ample which I have yet seen was captured by the Messrs. Crotch, 
during the summer of 1864, at Souzal in Teneriffe — "out of thatch." 



■ 




\\ 



Fam. 22. CRYPTOPHAGID^. 

Genus 121. CRYPTOPHAGUS. 
Herbst, Keif. iv. 172 [script. Kryptophagtis'] (1792). 

390. Cryptophagus saginatus. 

Cryptophagus saginatus (Schiipp.), Sttirjn, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 88 (1845).. 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 354 (1846). 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 54 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), certe ex alienis introductus; a Dom. 
Bewicke parce captus. 

Two specimens of this European Cryptophagus, captured by the 
late Mr. Bewicke near Eunchal in Madeira proper, are all that I 
have yet seen from these Atlantic islands. Like the C. cellaris and 



CllYPTOPHAGIDJE. 137 

affinis, it has probably been naturalized from more northern lati- 
tudes. 

391. Cryptophagus cellaris. 

Dermestes cellaris, Scopoli, Ent. Cam. 16 (1763). 
Cryptophagus crenatus, Stur7n, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 70 (1845). 

cellaris, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 361 (1846). 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 55 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in domibus et 
granariis parce occurrens. 

Occurs sparingly in houses and granaries around Funchal in 
Madeira proper, where (like the last species) it has doubtless been 
introduced from Europe ; and two examples of it were captured by 
the Messrs. Crotch in Teneriffe. 



392. Cryptophagus dentatus. 

Kateretea dentatus, Bbst, Kdf. v. 15, tab. 45. f. 6 (1793). 
Cryptophagus dentatus et pallidus,<S'^Mrm,Z)eM^. JP«a,XYi.67,69(1845). 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 364 (1846). 

, WolL, Cat. Mad Col. 56 (1857). ' 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 135 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten., Gom., 
Palma), vel in cultis vel sub cortice laxo in lauretis editioribus 
vulgaris. 



The European C. dentatus is widely spread over these Atlantic 
islands, where it would seem to have completely established itself — 
occurring not merely in houses and under the refuse at the base 
of corn-stacks, but (far more frequently) in the open country at a 
comparatively high elevation, where it is common beneath the bark 
of trees within the sylvan districts. In both of these situations it is 
found in Madeira proper and at the Canaries, in the latter of which 
we may be pretty sure that it is universal; for although it does not 
happen to have been observed yet in either Grand Canary or Hierro 
(where it must doubtless exist nevertheless), it has been captured 
more or less abundantly in the other five islands of the archipelago. 
Its presence in Gomera is on the authority of the Messrs. Crotch, 
who met with it plentifully in the laurel-woods above Hermigua. 



393. Cryptophagus afllnis. 

Cryptophagus affinis, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xvi. 79 (1845). 

, EricI)., Nat. der Ins. Detdsch. iii. 360 (1846;. 

■ , WolL, Ins. 3Iad. 170 (1854). 



138 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 



Cryptopliagiis affinis, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 57 (1867). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 136 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Ilierro), in 
domibus ac granariis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Doubtless imported originally into the islands from more northern 
latitudes ; nevertheless it is now widely spread, and rather common, 
about houses and granaries. In such situations it is often abundant 
in Madeira proper, particularly amongst Indian corn ; whilst at the 
Canaries, although perhaps less plentiful, I have little doubt that it 
will be found to be universal. Hitherto, however, it has been 
observed only in Teneriffe, Gomera (where it was taken by the 
Messrs. Crotch), and Ilierro. 

394. Crjrptophagus obesulus. 

Cryptophagus obesulus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 136 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), praesertim sub recremento farris 
circa basin acervorum tritici sparso hinc inde vulgaris. 

Hitherto observed only in Lanzarote and Puerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group — where, however, it is locally 
common, under the rubbish at the base of corn-stacks. And 1 once 
met with it beneath the refuse of a camels' stable. 




395. Cryptophagus impressus. 
Cryptophagus impressus, Woll., Append, huj. op. i%. 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a DD. Crotch bis deprehensus. 

Two examples of this distinct Cryptophagus (which is fully 
described in the Appendix) were captured by the Messrs. Crotch in 
Teneriffe, during their late trip to the Canaries ; but they are all 
that I have yet seen. 

396. Cryptophagus fusiformis. ^Ml 

Cryptophagus fusiformis, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 156 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 137 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), rarior; praecipue sub cortice Euphorbi- 
arum in locis editioribus degens. 

A Canarian Cryptophagus which I have detected hitherto only in 
Teneriffe, where moreover it would seem to be scarce. It occurs in 
the higher elevations, and has more the appearance of being truly 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 139 

indigenous than any of the preceding species — the few examples 
which I have seen having heen taken principally (if not indeed 
entirely) beneath the bark of Euphorbias on the mountains to the 
north of S** Cruz. 

397. Cryptophagus nitiduloides. 

Cryptophagus Nitiduloides, JFolL, Ins. Mad. (Append.) 618 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 58 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice in lauretis humidis editioribus 
rarissimus ; certe indigenus. 

Peculiar to the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, where it 
appears to be truly indigenous and extremely rare — the few speci- 
mens hitherto detected having been taken from beneath the bark of 
laurels in damp and remote spots. It was first captured in 1851 (by 
the Eev. K. T. Lowe) at the Ribeiro Frio, and was found subsequently 
(by myself) in the north of the island. 

398. Cryptophagus hesperius. 

Cryptophagus hesperius, Woll^ Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 217 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 137 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), valde indi- 
genus ; in sylvaticis subsylvaticisque vulgaris. 

A strictly Canarian species which has been taken in all the islands 
of the Group except the two eastern ones, Lanzarote and Fuerteven- 
tura. It is a truly indigenous insect, occurring (often very abun- 
dantly) in sylvan and subsylvan spots of intermediate altitudes. 

The examples from Hierro (where I captured a single specimen, 
in February 1858, and whence several more are now before me 
which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch) have their punctation just 
perceptibly stronger and denser, their pubescence a little longer 
and more erect, and their elytra a trifle convexer and more fusiform 
(or rounded off at the shoulders) ; but I do not believe that they 
represent more than a slight insular phasis of the hesperius. Never- 
theless in my Canarian Catalogue I defined them as the " var. ft. 
occidentalis " ; so that if they should prove hereafter to be specifi- 
cally distinct, the species of which they are the exponents will have 
to stand under that name. 

Genus 122. MNIONOMUS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 138 (1864). 



140 



CRYPTOPHAGIDiE. 



399. Mnionomus ellipticus. 

Mnionomus ellipticus, TFolL, Cat. Can. Col. 138 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), inter muscos et sub foliis marcidis in 
lauretis editioribus parce occurrens. 

A Canarian insect which I have observed hitherto only in the 
sylvan districts of Teneriife, where it occurs beneath fallen leaves 
and amongst damp moss in the laurel-woods of intermediate alti- 
tudes. It is clearly, however, both local and rare ; for it escaped the 
researches of the Messrs. Crotch, and the only regions in which I 
have myself taken it are Las Mercedes and the Agua Garcia*. 

Genus 123. PARAMECOSOMA. 

Curtis, iti Ent. Mag. i. 186 (1833). 

400. Paramecosoma simplex. 

Paramecosoma simplex, Wall., Cat. Mad. Col. 59 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 141 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Ten., Gom., 
Hierro), sub quisquiliis degens. 

Rather common in Madeira proper, principally under garden- 
refuse about Funchal ; but at the Canaries, where it has been taken 
in Fuerteventura, Teneriife, Gomera, and Hierro, it appears to be 
less abundant — though probably, when searched for in the right 
localities, it will be found to be pretty general throughout that 
Group. Indeed the Messrs. Crotch report it as somewhat plentiful 
in Gomera ; but in Fuerteventura, where I obtained it beneath the 
refuse of a camels' stable, it is decidedly scarce. I have seen but 
one specimen from Teneriffe, and one from Hierro — both of which 
were captured by the Messrs. Crotch. 

Genus 124. LEUCOHIMATIUM. 

Rosenhauer, Die Thiere Andalus. 179 (1856). 

401. Leucohimatium elongatiun. 

Paramecosoma elongata, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xviii. 72, pi. 342. f. a. a. 

(1846). 

* In my diagnosis of this insect I omitted to call attention to the fact that 
each elytron has a slight tendency to have a longitudinal subglabrous line down 
its entire length, at some distance from the suture. In a specimen now before 
me, which was collected in Teneriffe by the Messrs. Crotch, this line is quite 
evident (and has almost the appearance of being somewhat raised) ; but in the 
examples from which my description was compiled it is so extremely faint as to 
be scarcely appreciable, and consequently I altogether failed to observe it. 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 141 

Paramecosoma elongata, Erich., Nat. der Im. Deutsch. iii. 371 (1846). 
Leucohimatium angustum, Rosenh., loc. cit. 179 (1856). 

elongatum, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 290 (1862). 

— , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 140 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Palma), sub lapidibus 
rarissimus. 

This European insect is of the greatest rarity in these Atlantic 
islands, nevertheless it occurs both at the Madeiran and Canarian 
Groups. Indeed three Atlantic specimens are all that I have yet 
seen, — two of which were taken by the late Mr. F. A. Anderson, 
above Funchal, in Madeira proper ; whilst the third was captured by 
myself at the Canaries, below Argual on the western side of Palma. 

Genus 125. HYPOCOPRUS. 

Motschulsky,^ J5mZ/. de Moscoit, 72 [script. JJpocoprus] (1839). 

402. Hypocoprus latridioides. 

Upocoprus lathidioides, Mots., loc. cit. 73, tab. v. f. d-T^'" (1839). 
Myrmecinomus Ilochuthii, Chaud., Bull, de Mos. ii. 206 (1845). 
Monotonia caucasicum, Kolen., Melet. Ent. iii. 43 (1845). 
Hypocoprus Hochuthii, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 141 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Oom.), sub quisquiliis in intermediis 
rarissimus. 

This minute and somewhat scarce European insect occurs very 
rarely at the Canaries, where, however, it altogether escaped my own 
observation. Three examples only have come beneath my notice 
hitherto. They were taken by the Messrs. Crotch — two at Ycod el 
Alto in Teneriffe, and the third in Gomera. 

403. Hypocoprus Motschulskii. 

Hypocoprus Motscliiilskii, Woll, Ins. Mad. 174 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 59 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^° ^^^), semel tantum repertus ; an praecedentis 
varietas ? Ex specimine tamen unico et forsan immature vix 
adjudicare Hcet. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this Hypocoprus was 
captured by myself (during 1849) in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran 
Group ; and inasmuch as the H. latridioides has now been detected 
at the Canaries, I cannot but feel it probable that the Porto Santan 
insect may after all be conspecific with it. Nevertheless, as there 
certainly do seem to be a few small characters (some of which I 



142 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 



alluded to in my ' Ins. Mad.') which appear to separate the unique 
Porto Santan individual from a Gomeran one at present in my pos- 
session, I think perhaps, since the former has already been described 
as distinct, that it would not be desirable to assign it absolutely to the 
latridioides — at any rate until further material has been obtained*. 



Genus 126. ATOMARIA. 
(Kirby) Staph., ///. £rit. Ent iii. 64 (1830). 

404. Atomaria piLosula. 
Atomaria pilosula, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 142 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus valde elevatis rarissima. 

The only example which I have seen of this Atomana was cap- 
tured by myself in TenerifFe, on the elevated Cumbre adjoining the 
Caiiadas, more than 8000 feet above the sea. It is closely allied to 
the A. canariensis ; but I believe that the distinctions alluded to in 
my diagnosis wiU separate it from that species. 

405. Atomaria canariensis. 

Atomaria canariensis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 142 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), sat vulgaris ; in locis inferioribus 
intermediisque degens. 

Although nowhere very common, this Atomaria is universal 
throughout the low and (more especially) intermediate elevations of 
the Canarian Group — in the whole seven islands of which it has 
been taken, more or less abundantly. It is a variable insect, both 
in size and hue. 

406. Atomaria laticoUis. 
Atomaria laticollis, Woll., Append, huj. op. 22. 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis a DD. Crotch deprehensa. 



4 



having 



Like the last, a Canarian Atomaria and truly indigenous 
been captured by the Messrs. Crotch at Tcod el Alto in Teneriffe, 

* If the Porto Santan specimen be quite mature (which I think, however, is 
extremely doubtful), the H. Motschulskii would appear to be of a ferruginous- 
brown, instead of black. Judging also from my unique type, it is (if anything) 
a trifle larger than the Hochuthii, with its antennae a little longer, and its head 
perhaps somewhat more developed. Its elytra likewise seem to be appreciably 
straighter at the sides, or more parallel, and rather less abbreviated. Still, dif- 
ferences such as these, in an insect so minute, and with merely a solitary example 
for comparison, may possibly be more apparent than real. 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 143 

during the summer of 1864. A reference to my diagnosis given in 
the Appendix will show that it is an exceedingly peculiar and well- 
defined species. 

407. Atomaria pusilla. 

Dermestes pusUlus, Payk,, Fauna Sttec. i. 295 (1798). 
Silpha phaeogaster et evanescens, 3IsJim., JEnt. Brit. 125, 126 (1802). 
Atomaria pusilla, Erich., Nat der Ins. Dmtsch. iii. 397 (1846). 
, Woll, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond. iv. 71 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), forsan ex Europa introducta ; exemplar 
unicum sub ligno in montibus supra Funchal nuper detexit cl. 
C. Wolff, M.D. 

Only a solitary example of this common European Atomaria has 
been captured hitherto in these Atlantic Groups. It was found in 
Madeira proper, beneath a log of wood in the cultivated district at 
" the Mount," above Funchal ; and its discovery is due to the late 
researches of Dr. C. Wolff, to whom we are indebted for three more 
additions* to the Madeiran fauna. Dr. Wolff is of opinion, from the 
circumstances under which he found it, that the specimen could hardly 
have been an introduced one ; nevertheless I suspect that, like many 
other minute Coleoptera easy of transmission (in boxes of plants, &c.) 
from more northern latitudes, the species at all events is probably of 
recent establishment in the island. 

408. Atomaria mmida. 

Atomaria munda, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 338 (1846). 

, Rtdt, Fna Austr. 195 (1849). 

, Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iv. 64 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 60 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses {Ten.), in intermediis 
rarissima. 

A European Atomaria which occurs very sparingly, at intermediate 
elevations, both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups. In Madeira 
proper I have taken it at S. Antonio da Serra ; and in Teneriffe it 
was captured, during the summer of 1864, by the Messrs. Crotch, 
at Ycod el Alto. 

409. Atomaria apicalis. 

Atomaria apicalis, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 395 (1846). 

, Woll, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iv. 78 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 61 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) rarissima ; semel tantum lecta. 

* Namely, the TarpUus Wolffii, Woll. ; the Lixus angruinus? Linn. ; and the 
Procas picipes, Mshm. 



144 



CRYPTOPHAGID^. 



Hitherto I have seen but a single Atlantic specimen of this Euro- 
pean Atomaria. It was captured hy myself, during the summer of 
1855, in Madeira proper ; but as it was taken in so remote a district 
as the Boa Ventura (though certainly in the neighbourhood of culti- 
vated grounds), I can scarcely suppose that it had been accidentally 
imported into the island. 

410. Atomaria rubricollis. 

Atomaria ruficollis*, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col. 143 (18G4). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub foliis dejectis in sylvaticis humidis 
editioribus parce occurrens. 

This beautiful Canarian Atomaria occurs beneath fallen leaves, 
&c., in the damp sylvan districts of intermediate and lofty elevations. 11 
Under such circumstances I have taken it in Teneriffe, where it was 
met with likewise by the Messrs. Crotch during the summer of 1864. 




411. Atomaria venusta. 

Atomaria venusta, WoU.j Append, huj. op. 23. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch sub quisquiliis foliisque 
dejectis nuper reperta. 

Detected by the Messrs. Crotch (during their late Canarian cam- 
paign) in Gomera. At first sight it closely resembles the A. rubri-]\ 
collis, of which perhaps it may be regarded as the Gomeran repre- 
sentative ; but the many characters which (when carefully inspected) 
separate it therefrom have been fully pointed out in the Appendix 
to this volume. 

412. Atomaria bulbosa. ^i| 

Atomaria bulbosa, Wall., A^yjiend. huj. op. 24. ^Hl 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), a DD. Crotch aestate a.d. 1864 sat 
copiose lecta. 

Found hitherto only in Gomera, of the Canarian Group, where ani 
extensive series (now before me) was captured during the summer of 
1864 by the Messrs. Crotch. 

* Having already described this insect minutely, I may be permitted to alter 
its name to rubricollis without giving a fresh diagnosis ; for although the title of 
ruficollis has already sunk into a mere synonym amongst the European Atomaria, 
still, inasmuch as it was employed by Panzer (vide Fna Germ. 99. 13) for the 
nigripennis of Paykull, it of course cannot properly be again made use of in the 
same genus. 




CRYPTOPHAGIDiE. 145 

413. Atomaria insecta. 

Atomaria insecta, TFolL, Cat Mad. Col 61 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub foliis marcidis in sylvaticis humidis 
editioribus rarissima. 

A Madeiran Atomaria belonging, like the following one, to an 
indigenous and rather peculiar type. It has been found only in 
Madeira proper, where it occurs (though very rarely) beneath damp 
leaves and refuse in the sylvan districts of a high elevation. The 
Lombarda das Yacas is the principal region in which I have ob- 
served it, on the mountains to the east of Sao Vicente, in the north of 
the island. 

414. Atomaria alternans. 

Ephistemus alternans, Wall., Ins. Mad. 177 (1854). 
Atomaria alternans, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 62 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis sinulibus ac praecedens sed 
frequentior. 

Likewise peculiar to the sylvan regions of Madeira proper, where 
it occurs in the same kind of places as the A. insecta, but (although 
decidedly scarce) somewhat more frequently. 

Genus 127. EPISTEMUS. 
(Westwood) Steph., HI. Brit. Ent. ii. 167 [script. Ephistemus] (1829). 

415. Epistemus gyrinoides. 

Dermestes gyrinoides, Mshm., Ent. Brit. 77 (1802). 

Phalacrus dimidiatus, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, ii. 85, t. 32. f n (1807). 

Ephistemus gyrinoides, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. ii. 168 (1829). 

dimidiatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 176 (1854). 

gyrinoides. Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 63 (1857). 

Epistemus gyrinoides, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 144 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom.), sub 
quisquiliis baud infrequens. 

The E. gyrinoides, so universal throughout Europe, is widely 
spread over these islands ; and though nowhere very abundant, never- 
theless, when searched for in the proper locahties, it will probably 
be found to be nearly universal in both Groups. Hitherto it has 
been detected only in Madeira proper ; and in Grand Canary, Tene- 
riffe, and Gomera, of the Canarian archipelago. 



146 



LATRIDIADiE. 



Fam. 23. LATEIDIADiE. 

Genus 128. CHOLOVOCERA. 

Motscliulsky, Bull, de Moscou, 177 (1838). 

416. Cholovocera Maderae. 

Coccinella succina, Heineken, in litt. 
Cholovocera MadersG, Westw., in litt. 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 180, tab. x. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 64 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.\ rarissima ; a cl. Heineken, M.D., semcl 
reperta. 



!ll 



The single example, captured many years ago by the late Dr. 
Heineken in Madeira proper, is all that has yet been brought to 
light of this insect ; which is a somewhat remarkable fact, when wf 
consider how long and carefully the islands of the Madeiran Group 
have now been (at intervals) investigated. Yet there is no reason 
for suspecting that it was taken elsewhere, for the species has not 
been observed in any other country. In aU probability it is an, 
inhabitant of ants' nests. 



Genus 129. ANOMMATUS. 

Wesmael, Bidl. de VAcad. de Bruxell ii. 339, tab. 4 (1836). 

417. Anommatus 12-striatus. 

Lyctus 12-striatus, Milll., in Germ. Mag. iv. 190 (1821). 
Anommatus terricola, Wesm., loc. cit. 339 (1836). 

12-striatus, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Beutsch. iii. 286 (1845). ^jH 

, Wall, Ann. Nat. Mist. v. 258 (1860). Ml 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub ligno recenter secto truncisque 
arborum prolapsis in cultis intermediis rarissimus. 

This minute European insect has been observed hitherto only in 
Madeira proper, of all these Atlantic islands, — where it was detected 
by myself, during December 1858, 'beneath the trunk of a felled 
cherry-tree which was lying on the damp ground at the bottom of 
the Curral das Freiras ; subsequently, however, it has been captured 
by Senhor Moniz, under the chippings of Spanish chestnut-trees at 
S** Anna, in the north of the island*. 

* For observations on the structure and affinities of Anommatus, compare my 
remarks in the ' Ann. of Nat. Hist.' (3rd series) v. pp. 257 & 258. 





LATRIDIAD^. 147 

Genus 130. HOLOPAEAMECUS. 
Curtis, in Ent. 3Iag. i. 186 (1833). 

§ I. Antennce 9- et 10- (an secundum sexum ?) articulatce. 

418. Holoparamecus Kunzii. 

Calyptobium Kunzei, Aiihe, Ami. de la Soc. Ent. de France, i. (1843). 
Holoparamecus Kunzei, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 259 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), circa urbem Funchalensem rarissimus. 

The H. Kunzii, which seems to occur sparingly in many distant 
parts of the civilized world, and which (Hke most of the Holopara- 
meci) is eminently liable to accidental dispersion through human 
agencies, is found occasionally about houses and amongst garden- 
refuse around Funchal in Madeira proper ; but it has not yet been 
detected in any of the other islands. Like the H. singularis, its 
anteimae are sometimes 9- and at others 10-articulate, — a variation 
which is probably a sexual one, though this has not yet been posi- 
tively ascertained. That the variation, however, exists in the Kunzii, 
no less than in the singularis, I have lately satisfied myself by a 
most careful observation ; though when I compiled my Canarian 
Catalogue I was under the impression (vide p. 146) that the antennae 
of the Kunzei were in all instances 10-jointed. 

419. Holoparamecus singularis. 

Silvanus singularis, Beck, Beitr. zur Baierisch. Insectenf. (1817). 
Amphibolonarzron difficUe, ViUa, Cat. Col. Eur. 26 (1833). 
Holoparamecus depressus, Curt., Ent Mag. i. 186 (1833). 

, Id., Brit. Ent. xiii. 614 (1836). 

Cal}'ptobium Villae, Auhe, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, i. 243(1843). 
Holoparamecus singularis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 145 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), rarissime ; sub quisquiliis semel captus. 

The only Atlantic specimen which I have seen of this minute 
insect (which is widely, though sparingly, diflPused over Europe and 
the north of Africa) was captured by myself from under vegetable 
refuse in the north of Lanzarote, in the Canarian Group. 

§ II. Antennce semper 11-articulatce, 

420. Holoparamecus caulantm. 

Calyptobium caularum, Aube, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de F, i. 244 (1843). 

, Bedt., Fna Austr. 204 (1849). 

Holoparamecus caularum, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 144 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub quisquiliis semel tantum lectus. 

l2 



148 



LATRIDIAD^. 



As in the case of the last species, the only Atlantic example oi 
this European Holoparamecus which has yet come beneath my notice 
I captured in the north of Lanzarote, in the Canarian Group— r^j 
from under vegetable refuse, near Haria. 

421. Holoparamecus niger. 

Calyptobium nigrum, Chewier, in litt. 

, Auhe, Ann. de la Soc. JSnt. de France, i. 246 (1843). 

Holoparamecus niger, WolL, Ins. Mad. 182 (1854). 

, Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 64 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 145 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^) et Canarienses {Ten.), sub lapi- 
dibus in inferioribus ac paululum elevatis preecipue latens. 




II 



The //. niger, which occurs in Sicily, is common at the Madeiras 
where it is usually to be met with under stones and scoriae, in sunny 
spots of low and intermediate altitudes. Hitherto it has been taken 
only in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, but we may expect to find 
it on the Desertas likewise. At the Canaries, however, it is decidedly 
scarce, where, indeed, it entirely escaped my own researches ; but 
two examples were captured by Dr. Crotch, during the spring a 
1862, in Teneriffe. 

Genus 131. CORTICARIA. 

Marsham, Mit. Brit. 106 (1802). 



422. Corticaria pubescens. 

Latridius pubescens, Illig., in litt. 

^ Gijll^ Ins. Suec. iv. 125 (1827). _ 

Corticaria pubescens, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 106 (1830). 
, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 260 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.), sub recremenfo 
culmi necnon in cultis circa domes hinc inde occurrens. 

I have not myself observed this common European Corticaria in 
any of these Atlantic islands ; nevertheless it was taken on several 
occasions by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper, and a few 
specimens have been found by the Messrs. Crotch in Teneriffe 
(namely, " in thatch at Souzal ") during their late Canarian campaign. 
We may expect it, therefore, to occur pretty generally if searched 
for in the right situations. 



423. Corticaria fulva. 
Latridius fulvus (Chevr.), VUla, Cat. Col. Eur. 45 (1833). 




LATRIDIADvE. 149 

Corticaria fulva, Mami., in Germ. Zeit.fur die Ent. v. 42 (1844). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 185 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 65 (1857). 

, Id., Cat Can. Col. 146 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Ten.), forsan in- 
troducta ; in domibus et granariis parce occiirrens. 

The European G. fulva occurs sparingly (in and about houses) 
both at the Madeiran and Canarian Groups, where it has probably 
become established from more northern latitudes. It has been taken 
in Madeira proper, of the former, and in Lanzarote and TenerifFe, of 
the latter ; but we may expect to meet with it pretty generally 
throughout the islands, except those which are uninhabited. 

424. Corticaria crenicollis. ^ 

Corticaria crenicollis ?, Mann., in Germ. Zeit.fur die Ent. v. 37 (1844)» 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 185 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 64 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), semel reperta ; vix, nisi faUor, praece- 
dentis varietas. 

A single example, taken many years ago in Madeira proper, em- 
bodies the whole evidence that I possess for the admission of this Euro- 
pean Corticaria amongst the Atlantic Coleoptera. And considering 
also that I am far from satisfied that even that specimen has been 
correctly determined, I cannot but feel a suspicion that perhaps after 
all the C. crenicollis should not properly be included in the Madeiran 
Catalogue. Yet the individual on which its insertion rests (and 
which was originally identified with the crenicollis by Motschulsky) 
does not, I think, accord sufficiently with the fulva to be regarded 
as even an accidental variety of that insect. But it is quite possible 
that such may be the case ; and I would therefore merely wish to 
state that further material is greatly required before the species can 
be looked upon as an undoubted member of our fauna. 

425. Corticaria maculosa. 

Corticaria maculosa, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 408 (1858). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 186 (1862). 

, Id.,_Cat. Can. Col. 147 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (in Can. sola hand obser- 
vata), passim ; ab ora maritima usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

Widely spread over the low and intermediate districts of Madeira 
proper ; whilst at the Canaries there cannot be a question that it is 



150 



LATRIDIADiE. 




universal, Grand Canary (where, however, we may be quite sure that 
it exists) being the only island of the seven in which it does not 
happen to have been observed. In the other six islands of the archi- 
pelago, indeed, I have myself captured it, and in some of them it has 
been taken likewise by others. And I even met with it on the little 
rock of Lobos (in the Bocayna Strait), off the north of Puerteventura. 
It occurs in many different situations (under the bark of Euphor- 
bias, and elsewhere) from the sea-level to an altitude of at least 
8000 feet ; and it varies from a brightly maculated to a pale-ferru- 
ginous state. 

426. Corticaria serrata. 

Dermestes serratus, Payk., Fna Suec. i. 300 (1798). 
Corticaria rotulicoUis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 184 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 64 (1857). 

serrata, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 148 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Ten 
Hierro), in cultis et praecipue sub recremento farris ad basin 
acervorum tritici sparse hinc inde vulgaris. ■ 

The common European C. serrata has probably been naturalized 
in these islands from more northern latitudes. It occurs principally 
about cultivated grounds and beneath the refuse at the base of corn- 
stacks, though it has likewise estabhshed itself in less inhabited 
districts. In such situations it is found in Madeira proper, as also 
in Lanzarote, Euerteventura, Teneriffe, and Hierro, of the Cana- 
rian Group. It will most likely, however, be met with almost uni- 
versally if searched for in the proper localities. 

427. Corticaria inconspicua. 

Corticaria inconspicua, Wall., Ann. Nat Hist v. 260 (1860). 
, Id., Append. Imj. op. 24.. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.),m. hortis et circa domes praecipue degens ;■ 
vix praecedentis varietas minor, depauperata, inconspicua. 

Found in Madeira proper, about out -houses and cultivated grounds 
— much in the same way as the last species, to which, indeed, it is 
very closely allied. I scarcely think, however, that it can be a small] 
or depauperated state of the serrata ; for its characters (such as they 
are) seem to remain constant. It has been met with around Funchal, 
and at S. Antonio da Serra ; but it is the former district in which it 
has been observed most plentifully, — it having occurred in abund 
ance, amongst some old bones, in Mr. Leacock's garden at the Quinta 
de Sao Joao. 



I 




I 



LATRIDIADiE. 151 

428. Corticaria rotundicollis. 

Corticaria rotundicollis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 186 (1854). 
^ Jd., Cat. Mad, Col 65 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus parce occurrens. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it occurs spa- 
ringly within the sylvan districts of intermediate and rather lofty 
elevations. 

429. Corticaria angulata. 
Corticaria angulata, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 148 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can.), hinc inde hand infrequens. 

A Canarian species which I have detected hitherto only in Lan- 
zarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary, where, however, it is 
locally far from uncommon. 

430. Corticaria curta. 

Corticaria truncatella? (Mots.), ilfa/m., in Germ. Zeitsch. v. 59(1844). 

curta. Wall, Ins. Mad. 187 (1854). 

, Id. Cat. Mad. Col. 65 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 149 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (in Clido sola non observata) et Canarienses (in 
Hierro sola haud detecta), late sed vix copiose diffusa. 

Although nowhere very abundant, this seems to be the universal 
Corticaria of these islands — in the whole of which I have no doubt 
that it will be found to occur. Already indeed it has been observed 
in every one of the Madeiran islands except the Flat Deserta (or Ilheo 
Chao), and in all the Canarian ones except Hierro ; so that we may 
feel pretty sure that it is quite universal. 

It is a European species, and has lately been captured in England 
by Mr. Brewer — who considered it to be the truncatella, Mann. If 
this should prove to be correct, of course the Jia,me of curta will have 
to be suppressed ; but as I am informed by Mr. Eye that the British 
examples do not by any means accord with Mannerheim's diagnosis, 
I cannot alter the title under which I described the Atlantic insect 
until this question has been properly decided. 

431. Corticaria tenella. 

Corticaria tenella, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 150 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Palnia, Hierro), passim. 



152 



LATRIDIADiE. 



A rather insignificant little Corticaria which is widely spread over 
the Canarian Group, in all the islands of which it has been detected 
except the two eastern ones — Lanzarote and Puerteventura. 

432. Corticaria fagi. 

Corticaria Fagi, WolL, Ins. Mad. 188 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 6& (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis intermediis praesertim cas- 
tanetis hinc inde vnlgaris. 

A little species much allied to (though perfectly distinct from) the 
European C. elongata, and one which has been observed hitherto 
only in the wooded regions of Madeira proper — particularly in the 
north of the island. It seems to be attached principally to the 
Spanish chestnut-trees. 



Genus 132. LATRIDIUS. 

Herbst, Natursyst. v. 8 (1793). 

433. Latridius assimilis. 

Lathridius assimilis, Mann., in Oerm. Zeit.f'dr die Ent. v. 98 (1844). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 189 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col ^ (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), prsecipue in cultis parce degens. 

The European L. assimilis occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, 
principally within the cultivated districts. 




434. Latridius minutus. 

Tenebrio minutus, Linn., Nat. Syst. ii. 675 (1767). 
Lathridius minutus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 190 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 65 (1857). 

Latridius minutus. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 151 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses ((7an., Ten., Gam., Palm., 
Hierro) vulgaris. 

The L. minutus, so general throughout Europe, and so widely 
spread in distant parts of the world, is doubtless all but universal in 
these Atlantic islands (^ where, most likely, it has been established 
from more northern latitudes). Nevertheless at the Madeiran 
Group it has been observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where! 
it abounds at low and intermediate altitudes. At the Canaries it is 
somewhat less common, yet probably universal — Lanzarote and 



J 



LATRIDIAD^. 153 

Fuerteventura being the only islands of the seven in which it does 
not happen as yet to have been detected. 

435. Latridius opacipennis. 

Latridius opacipennis, WolL, Cat. Can. Col 151 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis semel tan turn repertus. 

A single specimen, captured at the Agua Garcia in Teneriffe, 
embodies aU that I yet know concerning this Latridius ; and peculiar 
as its characters most unquestionably are, I nevertheless cannot feel 
perfectly satisfied that it may not be some very anomalous, accidental 
(or even abortive) form of the miyiutus. At any rate further evidence 
is much needed in order to ascertain for certain that its features are 
constant, and not the result of any lusus Naturce. 

436. Latridius transversus. 

Ips transversa, Oliv., EnL ii. 18. 20 (1790). 

Lathridius transversus, Mann., in Germ. Zeit.fur die Ent. v. 94 (1844). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 191 (1854). 

, Id.. Cat. Mad. Col. 66 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), praecipue in cultis rarior. 

A most abundant European insect, but one which has been ob- 
served hitherto only in Madeira proper of aU the Atlantic islands. 
There, however, it is widely spread, though somewhat scarce, and has 
probably been naturalized from more northern latitudes. 

437. Latridius delectus. 

Lathridius delectus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 409 (1858). 
Latridius delectus, Id., Append, hiij. op. 25. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), praecipue in subinferioribus sat rams. 

Occurs sparingly around Funchal, in Madeira proper ; but it has 
not yet been detected in any of the other islands. In Mr. Leacock's 
garden at the Quinta de Sao Joao it was taken abundantly by the 
late Mr. Bewicke, beneath the dead leaves (and refuse) of Sugar- 
canes. 

438. Latridius ruficollis. 

Corticaria ruficollis, Mshm, EnL Brit. Ill (1802). 

Lathridius liliputanus, Mann., in Germ. Zeit.fur die Ent. v. 85 (1844). 

ruticoms, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 66 (1857). 

Latridius ruficollis. Id., Cat. Can. Col 152 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz.), sub quisquiliis 
recrementoque focni hinc inde occurrens. 



154 



LATRIDIAD^. 



A European Latridius which occurs, very locally, both at the 
Madeiras and Canaries. Though probably if searched for in the right 
situations (beneath the refuse, around the base of hay-stacks), it 
would be found to be pretty general, as yet it has been observed 
only in Madeira proper, and in Lanzarote of the Canarian Group. 

Genus 133. METOPHTHALMUS. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 192 (1854). 

439. Metophthalmus asperatus, 

Metophthalmus asperatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 193, tab. iv. f. 4 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 67 (1857). 

, Id., Append, hiif. op. z^. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice arido laxo necnon inter lig- 
num antiquum pulverulentum in sylvaticis intermediis occurrens. 

Found in the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, where it occurs 
amongst dry rotten wood, and under mouldy bark, at intermediate 
altitudes. In such situations it appears to feed upon some kind of 
minute Cryptogam, or perhaps a Thallus, with the white particles of 
which it is often (particularly on the underside) densely powdered*. 



440. Metophthalmus ferrugineus. 

Metophthalmus ferrugineus, Woll., Append, huj. op. 26. 
Habitat Canarienses (^Hierro), a DD. Crotch sat copiose repertus. 

Captured abundantly by the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, the most 
western island of the Canarian Group, where it would seem to re- 
present the M, enmustus of Teneriffe and Gomera. 

441. Metophthalmus encaustus. 

Metophthalmus encaustus, Wall., Append, huj. op. 26. 

Habitat Canarienses {Tm,., Gom.), inter lignum antiquum et sub foliis 
aridis dejectis degens. 

Likewise a Canarian species, occurring in the sylvan districts of 
Teneriffe and Gomera, — in the latter of which the Messrs. Crotch 
lately met with it abundantly, by sifting dead leaves and other dry 
refuse. 

* Specimens of the Mould amongst which I captured a profusion of the M. 
asperatus, in the dry tinder-like wood of an old Til-tree at the Ribeiro Frio, were 
submitted to the Eev. M. J. Berkeley, who identified it with the Rhinotrichum 
Bloxhami, Berk. 



MYCETOPHAGID^. 155 

442. Metophthalmus sculpturatus. 

Metophthalmus sculpturatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hisl. x. 290 (1862). 
J Id., Append, huj. op. 26. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo arido in inWmediis 
captus. 

Detected abundantly by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper 
—beneath the bark of plane-trees at the Palmeira, on the mountains 
to the east of Eunchal. It may be looked upon as the representative 
at Madeira of the Canarian M. encaustus. 

443. Metophthalmus exiguus. 

Metophthalmus exiguus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 261 (1860). 
, Id.f Append, huj. op. zj. 

Habitat Maderenses (ilfacZ.), a Dom. Bewicke inter Euphorbias fractas 
desiccatas antiquas semel deprehensus. 

Hitherto unique, the only example which I have' seen having been 
taken by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper — amongst some 
old Euphorbia-Tuhhish. which he had brought from the east of the 
island. Whether its presence there was merely accidental, or whether 
(as is more likely) the species is of Euphorbia-mtestmg habits, it is 
of course impossible without further evidence to decide. 



Fam. 24. MYCETOPHAGIDiE. 

Genus 134. BERGINUS. 
(Dejean) Erich., Nat. der Ins, Deutsch. iii. 405 (1846), 

444. Berginus tamarisci. 

Berginus Tamarisci, DeJ., in litt. 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 195 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 69 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^), in inferioribus intermediisque 
parce occurrens. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which occurs rather sparingly 
in the Madeiran Group — namely in Madeira proper and Porto Santo 
(at low and intermediate elevations). 

Genus 135. MYRMECOXENUS. 
Chevrolat, in Silb. Rev. iii. 267 [script. Mynnechixenus'] (1835). 



156 



XETOPHAGIDiE. 



445. Myrmecoxenus picinus. 

Mymieclioxenus picinus, Aube, Ann. Soc. Ent. de Fr., Viii. 330 (1850). 
Myrmecoxenus picinus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 265 (1860). 
sordidus, Id., Cat. Can. Col 152 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses {Fuert.), sub quisquiliis 
rarissimus. 

An insect which occurs sparingly in Madeiran latitudes, and of 
which I have seen hitherto but three Atlantic examples. Two of 
them were taken by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper, in his 
garden above Funchal ; and the remaining one by myself in Fuerte- 
ventura of the Canarian Group, from beneath the refuse of a camels' 
staUe in the Eio Palmas. 



Genus 136. MYCETiEA. 
(Kirby) Staph., Ill Brit. Ent. iii. 80 (1830). 

446. MycetsBa hirta. 

Dermestes fumatus, Mshm [nee Linn. 1767], Ent. Brit. 65 (1802). 
Cryptophagus hirtus, Gyll [nee Mshm, 1802], Ins. Suec. i. 184 (1808). 
Mycetasa fumata, Steph., Ill Brit. Ent. iii. 81 (1830). 
hirta, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 70 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in cultis et praecipue circa domes oc- 
currens. 

This widely spread European insect occurs on the inner walls of 
houses, and about cultivated spots generally, in Madeira proper, 
where it has doubtless been established accidentally from more 
northern latitudes. 

Genus 137. SYMBIOTES. 

Redtenbacher, Fna Amtr. 198 (1849). 

447. Symbiotes pygmaeus. 

Symbiotes pygmaeus, Hampe, in Ent. Zeit. Stett. 353 (1850). 
Microchondrus domuum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 197, tab. iv. f. 2 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat. Mad, Col 71 (1857). 

Symbiotes pygmaeus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 153 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Palma), rarissimus. 

Likewise a European insect, but one which is found very sparingly 
in these islands. It is to be met with occasionally in Madeira pro- 
per, both about houses and beneath the bark of trees in cultivated 
grounds ; and two examples were taken by Mr. Gray in Palma, during 
our Canarian trip. 




MYCETOPHAGID^. 157 

Genus 138. LITARGVS. 
Erichson, Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 415 (1846). 

448. Litargus pictus. 

Litargus pictus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 200, tab. iv. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 71 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.),mieT lichenes ad truncos arborumvetustos 
crescentes in sylvaticis editioribus occurrens. 

Peculiar apparently to the sylvan districts of Madeira proper at 
intermediate and lofty elevations, where it is more particularly at- 
tached to a gigantic fleshy lichen (known locally as the " Madre de 
Louro ") which grows in large masses on the trunks of the native 
laurels. 

449. Litargus pilosus. 

Litargus pilosus, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 71 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub quisquiliis in cultis inferioribus 
degens. 

Also peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) to Madeira proper, but 
totally different in its habits from the last species — being confined 
apparently to the lower elevations, and occurring for the most part 
beneath vegetable (or even animal) refuse in the cultivated districts 
near Funchal. 

450. Litargus 3-fasciatus. 

Litargus 3-fasciatus, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 154 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), sub quisquiliis in cultis inferioribus oc- 
currens. 

Strictly the Canarian representative of the L. pilosus of Madeira, 
to which, indeed, it is closely allied. It was detected by Dr. Crotch 
in Gomera, during the spring of 1862 ; and during the past summer 
he (and his brother) again met with it in the same island, — " under 
old cucumber-stems, and other refuse, in cactus-grounds " near 
Herraigua. 

Genus 139. TYPHJEA. 
(Kirby) Staph., lU. Brit. Ent. iii. 70 (1830). 

451. T3rpliaea fumata. 

Dermestes fumatus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ii. 564 (1767). 
Typhaea fumata, IVoll, Ins. Mad. 199 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 71 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 153 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.,Ten.,Gom.), 
sub quisquiliis prsesertim in cultis hinc inde vulgaris. 



158 



TELMATOPHILID^. 



This common European insect will most likely (when searched for 
in the proper localities) be found to be universal within the inhabited 
districts of these Atlantic islands, where perhaps it may have become 
established from more northern latitudes. It occurs beneath vege- 
table refuse, particularly in and about gardens and fields, and has 
been observed hitherto in Madeira proper, as well as in Lanzarote, 
Fuerteventura, Teneriffe, and Gomera, of the Canarian Group. 



Fam. 25. TELMATOPHILIDJE. 

Genus 140. THALLESTUS. 
Wollaston, Trans, Mit. Soc. Lond. i. 153 (1862). 

452. Thallestas typhaeoides. 

ThaUestus typhaeoides, Woll, loc. cit 155, pi. 7. f. 6 (ISOi?). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 135 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), plantas Euphorbice canariensis putridas 
copiose destruens. 

Detected hitherto only in Gomera, of the Canarian Group, where 
it is locally abundant within the putrid stalks of the Euphorbia carha- 
riensis. In such situations I took it commonly on the hills above 
San Sebastian ; and an extensive series is now before me, captured 
by the Messrs. Crotch during their late sojourn in Gomera. Some 
of the latter specimens differ a little from my own in having their 
prothorax appreciably longer and more conical, as well as somewhat 
more deeply punctured and obscurer in colour * ; but there seems to 
be every intermediate grade between the two forms, and, since I have 
failed entirely to draw a line of demarcation between them, I cannot 
but conclude that the shape and tint of the prothorax is subject to 
some slight amount of variation. 



453. ThaUestus subellipticus. 

Thallestus subellipticus, Woll. loc. cit. 155. pL 7. f. 4 (1862). 
-, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 134 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (jT^ti.), inlocis similibus acpraicedens sed rarior. 

* I would, however, just express this state in the following short formula, and 
I have given it a subspecific name in the event of characters which I may possibly 
have overlooked proving it ultimately to be distinct: — 

Var. /3. ohscuricollis [an species ?]. Prothorace paulo longiore, magis conico, 
obscuriore profundiusque punctate ; elytris vix grossius striato-punctatis. 



DERMESTID^. 159 

The very few examples which I have seen of this species were 
captured by myself within some putrid stalks of the Euphorbia cana- 
riensis on the mountains above S** Cruz, in Teneriffe. Perhaps, there- 
fore, it may represent in that island the T. typhceoides of Gomera. 

Genus 141. DIPHYLLUS. 
Stephens, III. Brit. Ent. iii. 87 [script. Biphyllu»\ (1830). 

454. Diphyllus lunatus. 

Dermestes lunatus, Fah., Ent Syst. i. 232 (1792), 
Biphyllus lunatus, Steph., loc. ck. 87 (1830). 
Diphyllus lunatus, WolL, Lis. Mad. 172 (1854). 
Biphyllus lunatus. Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 51 (1857). 
Diphyllus lunatus^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 134 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Gam., Palma), in Sphce- 
rid fraxined ad truncos arborum antiques creseentes rarissimus. 

The European D. lunatus occurs very sparingly in the intermediate 
elevations of Madeira proper — amongst a black Splioiria which grows 
on the trunks of the old trees, and which does not seem to differ 
from the S. fraxinea of more northern latitudes ; whilst at the 
Canaries I have met with it (under the same circumstances as at 
Madeira) high up in the Barranco de Galga, of Palma, and a single 
example was taken by the Messrs. Crotch, during the summer of 
1864, in Gomera. 



Fam. 26. DERMESTID^, 

Genus 142. DERMESTES. 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ii. 561 (1767). 

455. Dermestes vulpmus. 

Dermestes vulpinus. Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 64 (1781). 

, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 59 (1838). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 202 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 72 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 155 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Can., Ten. Gam.), 
in cadaveribus pellibusqne late sed parce diffusus. 

The almost cosmopolitan D. vulpinus occurs about the towns both 
in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups, where it has doubtless become 
established through human agencies. In Madeira proper it is found 
occasionally around Funchal ; whilst at the Canaries it has been ob-^ 



160 



DERMESTID^. 



served hitherto in Lanzarote, Grand Canary (by the Messrs. Crotch, 
near Las Palmas), Teneriife, and Gomera. It has been likewise 
naturalized at the Cape de Verdes. 

456. Dermestes Frischii. 

Dermestes Frischii, Kugel., in Schneid. Mag. 478 (1794). 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 441 (1846). 

, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xix. 44, tab. 350. f. D (1847). 

^ Woll., Cat. Can. Col 155 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.,Can.,Ten.),va. locissimilibus ac prsecedens. 

Likewise a European Dermestes, and one which occurs (in much the 
same sort of places as the vulpinus) at the Canarian Group. It has 
been captured in Lanzarote, Grand Canary, and TenerifFe. And it 
is found likewise at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Africa. 

Genus 143. ATTAGENUS. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 32 (1807). 

457. Attagenus megatoma. 

Dermestes megatoma, Fab., JEnt. Sgst. v. Suppl. 71 (1798). 
Attagenus megatoma, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 441 (1846). 

, Sturm, Deutsch. Fna, xix. 76, tab. 355. f. C (1847). 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 204 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 72 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Gom.), in domibus ra- 
rior ; certe ex alienis introductus. 

The European A. megatoma occurs sparingly, about houses, in 
Madeira proper ; and two examples are now before me which were 
taken in Gomera, of the Canarian Group, by the Messrs. Crotch. It 
is doubtless an imported insect, through the medium of commerce. 

458. Attagenus Schaefferi. 

Megatoma Schsefferi, Herbst, Kaf. iv. 93 (1791). 

macellarium ?, BrulU, in l^ebb et Berth. (Col.) 59 (1838). 

Attagenus Schaeff'eri, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 440 (1846). 

, Sttirtn, Deutsch. Fna, xix. 75, tab. 355. f. A (1847). 

, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 266 (1860). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col 156 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.), certe introductus ( 
in domibus mercatorumque repositoriis hinc inde occurrens. 

Like the last species, clearly introduced into these islands by 
human agency. It occurs sparingly in houses in Madeira proper ; 
and I have taken it in similar situations at S** Cruz, in Teneriife. 



DERMESTID^. 161 

459. Attagemis pellio. 

Dermestes pellio, Linn., Fna Suec. 141 (1761). 
Attagenus pellio, Stejjh., Ill Brit. Ent. iii. 126 (1830). 
Megatoma pellio, Br idle, in Webb et Betih. (Col) 59 (1838). 
Attagenus peUio, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 155 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. DD. Webb et Berth.), in faunam Canari- 
ensem a Dom. BruUe admissus. 

This almost cosmopolitatan Attagenus is admitted by M. BruUe 
into his loosely compiled list of Canarian Coleoptera, on the authority 
of specimens (or a specimen) supposed to have been found by MM. 
Webb and Berthelot. Of course no information is given concerning 
its Imbitat, or indeed as to anything about it ; but since it is not 
improbable that an insect so liable to accidental transmission through- 
out the civilized world may perhaps have been picked up by MM. 
Webb and Berthelot in some of the houses at S** Cruz (which appear 
to have been one of their chief collecting-grounds), I think that per- 
haps I can scarcely refuse it a place in this Catalogue. At the same 
time I must express my belief that the species has not become even 
naturalized at the Canaries, and also that I am far from satisfied 
that M. Brulle may not have mistaken an example of one of the 
preceding Attageni for the A. pellio. 

Genus 144. TELOPES. 
Redtenbacher, in Rmseg. Reisen, i. 984 (1843). 

460. Telopes obtusus. 

Dermestes obtusus, GyU., in Schon. Syn. Lis. ii. 88 (1808). 
Attagenus obtusus, Lucas, Col de VAlgerie, 2.S9 (1849). 

abbreviatus, Hart, Geoloy. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 

Telopes obtusus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 157 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), ad flores hinc inde vulgaris. 

An insect of south-western Europe and the north of Africa, and 
which occurs rather commonly in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (the 
two eastern islands of the Canarian Group), as filso more sparingly 
in the low and sandy district between Las Palmas and the Isleta 
in Grand Canary. It is found, during the spring months, on flowers ; 
and will occasionally, like other Dermestideous forms, attack the 
dried skins even of animals. I met with it also on the little island 
of Graciosa, off the extreme north of Lanzarote. It is extremely 
partial to the blossoms of a dwarf prickly Sonchus (the S. spinosus, 
Forsk.), which is known locally as the '' Ahulaga." 

M 



162 



DERMESTIDjE. 



461. Telopes anthrenoides. 

Telopes anthrenoides, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 159 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in aridis arenosis parce lectus. 

Found hitherto only in Grand Canary, where I captured a few' 
specimens of it in the dry sandy region of Maspalomas (in the ex- 
treme south of that island). 

462. Telopes multifasciatus. 

Telopes multifasciatus, WolL, Aim. Nat. Hist. xi. 218 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 159 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), ad flores varies sed praesertim Cistorum 
in intermediis editioribusque vulgaris. 

Likewise peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) to Grand Canary, 
where it abounds during the spring months at intermediate and lofty 
elevations. It occurs on various kinds of flowers, but prefers those 
of the Cistus monspeliensis. 

463. Telopes fasciatus. 

Telopes fasciatus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 218 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 160 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), ad flores in subinferioribus 
intermediisque hinc inde vulgatissimus. 

Abounds at rather low and intermediate altitudes in Teneriffc, 
Gomera, and Palma, where it takes the place of the multifasciatus 
of Grand Canary, and the obtusus of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. 
We may expect it to be found likewise m Hierro. 

Genus 145. ANTHRENUS. 
Geoflroy, Hist, des Ins. i. 118 (1764). 

§ 1. AntenncB ll-articulatce (clavd 3-articulatd). 

464. Anthrenus varius. 

Anthrenus varius, Fab., JSnt. Shjst. i. 262 (1792). 

Megatoma verbasci, Brtdle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 59 (1838) 

Anthrenus varius, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deidsch. iii. 455 (1846) 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 205 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 73 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 161 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^), Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem) 
et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten.), ad flores, passim. 





BYRRHIDiE. 163 

The European A. varius is probably universal throughout the 
whole of these Atlantic islands, though hitherto it does not happen 
to have been observed in all of them. It is rather common, however, 
on flowers in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, principally at low 
elevations ; whilst at the Canaries it has been captured in Lanzarote, 
Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Teneriffe. It has moreover been 
communicated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva, who received it in 
abundance even from the Great Salvage. 

§ II. Antemice 10-a7'ticulatce {clavd 2-articulata). 

465. Anthrenus minor. 

Anthrenus clai-iger, Woll [nee i:rich.,lS48], Cat Can, Co/. 161 (1864). 
minor, Id., Append, huj. op. 28. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Palma, Hierro), hinc inde ad flores prSB- 
sertim Euphorhiarum vulgaris. 

As stated in the Appendix to this volume, the present Anthrenus 
was wrongly identified in my Canarian Catalogue with the European 
A. claviger ; and I think it far from improbable that it is in reality 
conspecific with the A. minutus of Mediterranean latitudes. Be this, 
however, as it may (for I have no means of deciding the question 
positively), the A. minor occurs in profusion throughout the inter- 
mediate altitudes of Gomera, Palma, and Hierro, of the Canarian 
Group — in the second of which it was captured by myself, whilst in 
the first and third it has been met with more recently by the Messrs. 
Crotch. 

Fam. 27. BYRRHIDiE. 

Genus 146. SYNCALYPTA. 
(DillwjTi) Steph., lU. Brit. Ent, iii. 133 (1830). 

466. Sjrncalypta Integra. 
Syucalypta Integra, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 162 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Gam., Hierro), in sylvaticis editioribus rarissima. 

A Canarian Synmlypta of which I have seen as yet but two ex- 
amples — one of which was taken by myself in the sylvan region 
of El Golfo on the western slopes of Hierro, and the other (more 
recently) by the Messrs. Crotch above Hermigua in Gomera. The 
Gomeran specimen has its prothorax and elytral strise a little more 

m2 



164 



BYRRHID^. 



deeply punctured ; but I can see nothing about it to warrant the^ 
suspicion that it is specifically distinct from the Hierro one*. 

467. Syncalypta granulosa. 
Syncalypta granulosa, WoU., Append, hitj. op. a 8. 
Hahitat Canarienses (Oom.), a DD. Crotch in elevatis parcissime capta. 

Likewise a Canarian species, and found hitherto only in Gomera — ■ H 
where it was taken sparingly, from under dead leaves at a high 
elevation, by the Messrs, Crotch. It may be known from the S. in- Ml 
tegra by its more obovate (posteriorly acuter) outline, by its elytra 
when denuded of their scales appearing more granulated and less 
shining, and by the last joint of its antennae being smaller and 
rounder. 

468. Syncalypta capitata. 

Syncalypta capitata, Woll, Ins. Mad. 207 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 73 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub lapidibus in editioribus usque ad 
summos montes ascendens. 

Apparently peculiar to the loftiest elevations of Madeira proper, — 
occurring beneath stones on the exposed grassy -mountain- slopes 
(above the upper limits of the wooded districts), and ascending 
thence to the summits of the peaks. It differs from the granulosa 
in being rather larger, with its elytra free from granules ; from 
the Integra in being more obovate (or less rounded), with the last 
joint of its antennae smaller; whilst from them both it recedes in its 
very much more deeply, and regularly, striate-punctate elytra. 

469. Syncalypta ovuliformis. 

Syncalypta ovuliformis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 207 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col 73 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 162 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis 
praecipue pinetis parce occurrens. 

Found in Madeira proper, and also in Teneriffe of the Canarian 
Group. It is very closely allied to the last species, of which it may 
possibly be a permanently smaller state peculiar to somewhat lower 

* The 8. Integra may be known by its rather large size, regularly oval, or 
rounded-oyai (instead of obovate) outline, by its elytra having their subsutural 
striae almost evanescent but the others distinctly and remotely punctured, and 
by the terminal joint of its antennal club being largely developed. 






HISTERIDiE. 165 

(though, at the same time, sufficiently elevated) districts. It seems 
to occur principally in the pine-woods, and subsylvan spots, of inter- 
mediate altitudes. 

470. Syncaljrpta horrida. 

Syncalypta horrida, Woll.f Ins. Mad. 208 (1854). 
, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 73 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (/*" S*°, Des.), sub lapidibus rarissima. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this Syncalypta 
were captured by myself in the Madeiran Group, — one of them in 
Porto Santo, and the other on the Deserta Grande. The specimens 
differ a little from each other, but not sufficiently so (I think) to 
warrant the suspicion that they are specifically distinct. 



Fam. 28. HISTERID^. 

Genus 147. ACRITUS. 

Leconte, Proc. Acad. Philadel. iii. 288 (1853). 

§ I. Protlbora-x lined plus minus punctatd ante basin impressus. 

471. Acritus gemmula. 

Acritus gemmula, WoU., Append, hiij. op. 29. 

Habitat Canarienses {Oom.), in lauretis humidis editioribus sub 
truncis arborum prolapsis a DD. Crotch deprehensus. 

Discovered by the Messrs. Crotch, during their late Canarian 
expedition, at a high altitude in the laurel-districts of Gomera, 
adhering to the underside of rotten wood. 

472. Acritus minutus. 

Hister minutus, Hbst, Natursyst. iv. 41, tab. 36. f 4 (1791). 
Acritus mini it us, De Mars. , Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iv. 614 (1857). 

, IFoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 76 (1857). 

, Jd, Cat. Can. Col. 183 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^" S^'^) et Canarienses {Fuert., Can., 
Ten., Gom., Palma), sub quisquiliis, passim. 

The common European A. minutus will most likely be found uni- 
versally in these Atlantic islands, when carefully searched for in the 
proper situations. It occurs beneath refuse generally, and has been 
taken in Madeira proper and Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, and 



166 



HISTERIDiE. 



throughout the whole Canarian archipelago except in Lanzarote and 
Hierro (in both of which, however, it must doubtless exist). I met 
with it also at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Africa. 



473. Acritns homceopatliicus. 

Acritus homcEopathicus, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 77 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), semel tantum repertus. 



The only specimen which I have yet seen of this Acritus was 
taken by myself in the north of Madeira proper, during August 
1845. 




§ II. Prothoracc simplex (lined punctorum ante basin Jmud impressus), 

474. Acritus punctum. 

Abrseus punctum, Aube, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France^ 232 (1842). 
Acritus punctum, De Mars., ibid., 607 (1856). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 182 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Can.), per oras maritimas sub fucis 
degens. 

The A. punctum, which is widely though sparingly distributed 
along the sea-shores in central and southern Europe, occurs (though 
very rarely) in the Canarian Group. I have taken it from beneath 
marine rejectamenta in Lanzarote, and it was found by the Messrs. 
Crotch near Las Palmas in Grand Canary. It will probably be 
met with more generally, however, if searched for in the proper 
situations. 

Genus 148. EUBRACHIUM. 

WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 159 (1862). 

475. Eubrachium politum. 

Eubrachium politum, Woll, he. cit. 163 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 182 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Hierro), sub cortice Euphorbiarum laxo 
putrido rarissimum. 

A minute Canarian Histerid which seems to be attached to the 
Euphorbias ; so that it will probably be found pretty generally when 
searched for in the right places — namely, beneath the loose rotting 
bark of those singular plants. However, it is clearly rare, and has 
been observed hitherto only in Lanzarote and Hierro. 




HISTERID^. 167 

476. Eubrachium ovale. 

Eubrachium ovale, Wall,, he. cit. 161, pi. vii. f. 9 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 182 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Of precisely the same habits as the last species, and almost equally 
rare. The only island in which it has been found is Hierro, the 
most western one of the Canarian Group — where it was taken by 
myself in 1858, and by the Messrs. Crotch in 1864, beneath the 
rotting bark of old Euphorbias. 

477. Eubrachium punctatum. 

Eubrachium punctatum, IVoU., loc. cit. 162 (1862). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 181 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma), in sylvaticis humidis edi- 
tioribus sub cortice laurorum laxo latens. 

Whilst the two preceding species are of Euphorbia-udesting habits, 
the present one appears to be attached to the laurels of intermediate 
and lofty altitudes. I have taken it beneath the loosened bark of 
old trees in the damp wooded regions of Teneriffe and Palma ; and 
it has been captured by the Messrs. Crotch, in similar situations, in 
Gomera. 

Genus 149. XENONYCHUS. 

WoUaston, Cat. Can. Col. 179 (1864). 

478. Xenonychus fossor. 

Xenonychus fossor, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 181 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Can.), in arenosis aridis maritimis ad 
radices plantarum parce fodiens. 

This remarkable Canarian Histerid resides in sandy places near 
the coast, where it burrows into the dry hillocks of loose sand which 
have gradually accumulated around the roots of the various shrubby 
plants which stud those arid wastes. In such situations it was 
taken by Mr. Gray and myself, to the south of Puerto de Cabras, in 
Euerteventura ; and two examples are now before me which were 
captured by the Messrs. Crotch during the summer of 1864, in the 
sandy district of Grand Canary between Las Palmas and the Isleta. 
Like so many of the sand-infesting Coleoptera, it is most anomalous 
in structure ; but its various peculiarities have been fully alluded to 
in my generic and specific diagnoses. 



16a 



HISTERIDiE. 



Genus 150. SAPRINUS. 
Erichson, in King's Jahrh. i. 172 (1834). 

§ I. Elytrorum strid suturali antice integrd {cum quartd dorsali 

comnte). 

a. Fronte a clypeo lined (vel carina) transversd plus minus distinctd 

clivisd. 

479. Saprinus lobatus. 

Saprinus lobatus, WbU., Cat. Can. Col. 178 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can.), in arenosis maritimis sub 
rejectamentis necnon ad radices plantarum fodiens. 

Occurs along the sandy shores of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and 
Grand Canary — burrowing beneath marine rejectamenta, and at the 
roots of sand-plants. It may be regarded as the representative of 
the S. maritimus of more northern latitudes, to which indeed it is 
closely allied ; but it is not peculiar to the islands, for I have myself 
captured it at Mogadore on the opposite coast of Morocco. 

480. Saprinus erosus. 
Saprinus erosus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 177 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), in arenosis maritimis parce fodiens. 

Taken by myself beneath marine rejectamenta on the sandy beach 
at Corralejo in the extreme north of Fuerteventura, of the Canarian 
Group ; and it would consequently appear, like most of these imme- 
diate species, to be of maritime habits. 

481. Saprinus apricarius. 

Saprinus apricarius, Erich., in Klug's Jahrh. 194 (1834). 

Hister metallicus ?, Bndle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 59 (1838). _ 

Saprinus apricarius, De Mars. , Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 725 ( 1855). 

metallicus, Woll. [uec Herbst], Ins. Mad. 217 (1854). 

^ Jd.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 75 (1857). 

mundus, var. /3., Id., Cat. Can. Col. 176 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^^ 8^^) et Canarienses {Can.), per eras arenosas 
maritimas sub rejectamentis fodiens. 

A species of Mediterranean latitudes, which is locally abundant 
beneath rejectamenta along the sandy shores of Porto Santo in the 
Madeiran Group, and also in Grand Canary* I had formerly re- 
ferred it wrongly to the metallicus of Herbst, but am informed by 
Do Marseul that it is unquestionably the apricarius of Erichson. 




HISTERIDiE. 169 

482. Saprinus mundus. 

Saprinus mundus, WoU., Cat Can. Col. 176 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert), in arenosis maritimis sub rejec- 
tamentis cadaveribusque fodiens, 

Not uncommon in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern 
islands of the Canarian Group — occurring under dead animals and 
marine rejectamenta, in low sandy places about the sea-beach. It is 
very closely allied to the apricaritis, of which I am by no means 
satisfied that it should be regarded as more than a variety *. 

483. Saprinus angulosus. 

Saprinus angulosus, Wall., Cat. Can, Col 175 (1864), 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub cadaveribus et rejectamentis in 
arenosis maritimis degens. 

Taken in company with the S. minyops in Lanzarote, of the 
Canarian Group, where I obtained four examples of it from beneath 
a dead hen immediately outside the town of Arrecife, 

484. Saprinus minyops. 

Saprinus minyops, Woll, Cat, Can. Col. 174 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz,, Fuert.y Can.), in locis similibus ac prae- 
cedens. 

Also a Canarian Saprinus — occurring sparingly beneath dead 
animals, and other rejectamenta, in low arid places near the sea- 
beach. In such situations I have taken it in Lanzarote, Fuerteven- 
tura, and in the sandy region between Las Palmas and the Isleta, of 
Grand Canary. 

b. Fronte a clypeo Jmud distincle divisd. 

485. Saprinus ignobilis. 
Saprinus igiiobilis, Wall., Cat, Can. Col 173 (1864), 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), a Dom. Gray parce repertus. 

Like most of the preceding species, observed hitherto only in the 

* The 5. mundus seems to dijBer from the apricarius, mainly, in being darker 
(or les3 aineous), in the third and fourth " dorsal" striie of its elytra being more 
abbreviated (extending in fact only to the coni?nencement of the punctured portion 
of the surface), in the transverse strire of its forehead being rather less confused 
(or more evidently condensed into two angulated plaits), and in the teeth of its 
anterior tibiai being somewhat less acute. 



170 



HISTERID^. 



eastern part of the Canarian Group — the few specimens which I 
have seen having been captured by Mr. Gray near Arrecife, in 
Lanzarote. 

486. Saprinus fortunatns. 

Hister virescens, Bridle [nee Payk.'], in Webb et Berth. ( Col.) 59 (1838). 
Saprinus fortunatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 172 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), in stercore bovino, equino, 
camehno praecipue in intermediis occurrens. 

A common Sajprinus in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group ; and it also occurs, though 
less abundantly, in Grand Canary. It is found in the dung of cattle, 
principally at intermediate elevations. 



487. Saprinus chalcites. 

Hister chalcites, Ulig., Mag. fur Ins. vi. 40 (1807). 

Esneus?, Bridle [nee Fab.'], in Webb et Berth. (Co/.) 59 (1838). 

Saprinus chalcites, Woll, Ins. Mad. 216 (1854). 

, De Mars., Ann. de la Soc. Fmi. de France, 445 (1855). 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 75 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col 171 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^, Des.), et Canarienses (in Hierro 
sola hand observatus), vel in cadaveribus vel in stercore parum 
vulgaris. 

The European S. chalcites is the most widely diiFused of all the 
Saprini which have been detected in these Atlantic islands. Indeed 
we may be nearly certain that it is actually universal throughout 
the whole of them ; for the northern and southern Desertas are the 
only islands of the five Madeiras in which it has not been observed ; 
whilst at the Canaries it has been captured in every island except 
Hierro (where doubtless, however, it must exist). I likewise met 
with it at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Africa. 



n 



§ II. Elytrorum stria suturali antice plus minus dbbreviatd. 

488. Saprinus subnitidus. 

Saprinus subnitidus ?, He Mars., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. 404 (1855). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 169 (1864). ^1 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), in stercore late sed parce diifusus. 
Specimina (ut opinor typica) ex insulis orientalibus, sc. Lanz., 
Fuert. et Can., plerumque paulo majora ac paulo levins parci- 
usque punctulata sunt; sed ad ins. reliquas var. /3 (simillimus), 



HISTERID^. 171 

saepius minor et subdensius grossiusque punctata, prsesertim 
pertinet. 

Found in aU the islands of the Canarian Group — ^having been 
taken lately in TenerifFe, Gomera, and Hierro by the Messrs. Crotch. 
In Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Palma I have my- 
self met with it. Whether it be the true subnitidus of De Marseul 
I cannot undertake to pronounce for certain ; but if not, and if at 
the same time distinct from his various other species of this imme- 
diate division, it will have to be recognized by the name ofproccimus 
— proposed for it in my Canarian Catalogue (vide p. 170). 

The examples from the three eastern islands of the archipelago I 
have regarded as typical. They are generally somewhat larger, and 
appear always to be a little more finely and sparingly punctured. 
The " var. /3," consequently, from the central and western parts of 
the Group, which are usually smaller and with their punctation 
coarser, may perhaps prove ultimately to be distinct, though I 
scarcely think it probable that such will be the case. 

489. Saprinus nitidulus. 

Hister nitidiilus, Fab., Si/st. Eleu. i. 85 (1801). 

, Bndle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 59 (1838). 

Saprinus nitidulus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 215 (1854). 

, Id, Cat Mad. Col. 75 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 169 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Can., Ten.), prae- 
cipue in cadaveribus sat frequens. 

This common European insect occurs sparingly both at the Madeiras 
and Canaries, where it will most likely be found to be pretty gene- 
rally distributed in the vicinity of the sea-shores and towns. 
Hitherto, however, it has been observed only in Madeira proper ; and 
in Lanzarote, Grand Canary (where it was captured by the Messrs. 
Crotch), and Teneriffe, of the Canarian Group. 

490. Saprinus nobilis. 
Saprinus nobilis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 167 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in inferioribus intermediisque rarissimus. 

A Canarian Saprinus, which I have captured on two occasions in 
Teneriffe — near S** Cruz and in the wood of Las Mercedes. In all 
probability it is allied to the S. ficjuratus of De Marseul's Mono- 
graph. 



172 



HISTERIDiE. 



491. Saprinus osculaaiB. 

Saprinus osculans, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 168 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), sem«l tantum captus. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but found hitherto only in 
Fuerteventura of the Canarian Group. 



Genus 151. CARCINOPS. 
De Marseul, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 83 (1855), 

492. Carcinops minimus. 

Hiater minimus, Dej. Cat. (edit. 1) (1821). 

Paromalus minimus, Auhe, Ann. dela Soc. Ent. deFr. viii. 322 (1850). 

, Wdl, Ins. Mad. 212 (1854). 

Carcinops minimus, De Mars., loc. cit. 90 (1855). 
Paromalus minimus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 74 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.)j sub lapidibus in intermediis editiori- 
busque vulgaris. 

A European species which occurs rather commonly, under stones, 
in the intermediate and lofty elevations of Madeira proper ; but it 
has not yet been detected in any of the other islands, De Marseul, 
in the last edition of his Catalogue, has changed its specific title into 
that of " corpusculus''^ ; but his reason for doing so seems to me to 
be insufficient. 

493. Carcinops 14-striatns. 

Dendrophilus 14-8triatus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. v. 412 (1832). 

Paromalus pumilio, Erich., in Klug^^ Jahrb. i. 169 (1834). 

Histerl2-striatus?,^/-. [necPay^.],m^re6&e^5erj;A.(a>^.)59(1838)," 

Paromalus pumiHo, WolL, Ins. Mad. 213 (1854). 

Carcinops pumilio, De Mars., loc. cit 91 (1855). 

Paromalus pumilio, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 74 (1857). ^^1 

Carcinops 14-8triatus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 166 (1864). ^Bl 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Ten., Gam., 
Hierro), sub putridis praecipue in inferioribus degens. 

Likewise a European insect, and one which is widely spread over 
these Atlantic islands — where most probably it is nearly universal. 
It occurs beneath damp and putrid refuse (both vegetable and animal) 
principally at low, but sometimes at intermediate elevations. It has 
been taken near Funchal in Madeira proper, and also in Lanzarote, 
Euerteventura, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro, of the Canarian 
Group. Its detection in Hierro is due to researches of the Messi^s. 
Crotch. 




HISTERID^. 173 

Genus 152. HISTER. 
Linnaeus, ^st. Nat. ii. 666 (1767). 

494. Hister major. 

Hister major, Linn.y Spst Nat. ii. 566 (1767). 

, BruUe, m Wehh. et Berth. (Col.) 69 (1838). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 210 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 74 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 165 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses (P^*' S*^) et Canarienses (Can., Ten), minus 
frequens. 

The H. major, so widely spread over southern Europe and northern 
Africa, occurs sparingly at low elevations (for the most part near 
the sea-shore) in these islands — where perhaps it will be found 
ultimately to be pretty general. In such situations it has been 
taken in Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, as well as in Grand 
Canary and Teneriffe at the Canaries. Porto Santan examples have 
also been communicated by the Barao do CasteUo de Paiva. 

495. Hister canariensis. 

Hister Canariensis, Woll.^ Cat. Can. Col. 166 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), in intermediis prsesertim sylvaticis 
parcissime occurrens. 

Apparently a Canarian Hister, and somewhat scarce. I have 
taken it sparingly in the intermediate (sylvan) districts of Teneriffe, 
and an example is now before me which was captured by the 
Messrs. Crotch in Gomera. 



Genus 153. EUTRIPTUS. 
WoUaston, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 157 (1862). 

496. Eutriptus putricola. 

Eutriptus putricola, Woll., he. cit. 159, pi. vii. f. 7 (1862). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 292 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 164 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (in Palmd sola adhuc 
hand observatus), sub cortice Euphorbiarum laxo putrido panim 
vulgaris. 

Widely spread over these islands, where it will probably be found 
to exist wherever there are Euphorbias — to which plants it is ex- 



174 



HISTERID^. 



chisively attached. In Madeira proper it was detected by the late 
Mr. Bewieke, in the district to the east of Punchal ; whilst at the 
Canaries it is far more abundant, and has been captured in all the 
islands except Palma. But as there can be little doubt that sooner 
or later it will be met with in Palma likewise, we may feel nearly 
certain that in the Canarian Group at any rate it is universal. 

Genus 154. TERETRIUS. 

Erichson, in King's Jahrh. i. 201 (1834). 

497. Teretrius cylindricus. 
Teretrius cylindricus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 164 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), in E^iphorhid canariensi degens. 

A Canarian Teretrius which appears to be of Euphorhiu-mtesting 
habits ; for although the only example which I myself met with was 
captured accidentally on the inner canvas of my tent, whilst encamped 
at the Agua Garcia in Teneriffe, it has nevertheless been taken sub- 
sequently by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera out of the decayed stalks 
of the Euphorbia canariensis. 



Genus 155. HOLOLEPTA. 
Paykull, Mon. Hist. 101 (1811). 

498. Hololepta Perraudieri. 

Hololepta Perraudieri, De Mars., Ann. Soc. Ent. de Fr. v. 397 (1857). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 162 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.'), sub cortice EupJiorbiarum laxo 
emortuo rarissima. 

This noble Histerid appears to be peculiar to the dead Euphorbias 
of the Canarian Group, where it is of the greatest rarity. Indeed 
the only two examples which I have seen were captured by Dr. Crotch 
in Gomera — one during the spring of 1862, and the other in the 
summer of 1864, the latter of them having been taken out of a 
rotten Euphorbia. It was, however, described by De Marseul from 
a specimen stated to have been brought by M. de la Perraudiere 
from Teneriffe ; and since his type seems to have been smaller than 
the two individuals from Gomera, it is extremely probable that his 
habitat is correct, and that the Teneriffan examples (wheresoever 
found) may perhaps be somewhat smaller than the Gomeran ones. 



M 



THORICTIDiE. 175 



Fam. 29. THORICTIDiE. 

Genus 156. THORICTUS. 
Germar, in mb. Rev. Ent ii. 2. 15 (1834). 

499. Thorictus gigas. 

Thorictus gigas, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hid. ix. 439 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 184 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in montibus rarissimus; nidos Formicce 
pubescentis, Fab., sub lapidibus colens. 

A gigantic Thorictus which I have observed only on the mountains 
of Grand Canary, where moreover it is extremely rare, — occurring 
in the nests of a large brown ant, the Formica pubescens, Fab. Al- 
though perfectly distinct from every species which I have yet seen, 
it belongs to ^n African type of form which occurs in Algeria and 
Abyssinia. 

500. Thorictus Westwoodii. 

Thorictus Westwoodii, Wall., Ins. Mad. 220, tab. v. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 78 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^° S^^), in apricis subinferioribus nidos 
formicarum colens. 

Apparently peculiar to the Madeiran Group, where it occurs be- 
neath stones (in, or near, the nests of ants) in sunny spots prin- 
cipally of a low elevation. It has been observed hitherto in Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo. 

501. Thorictus canariensis. 

Thorictus canariensis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 439 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 185 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), sub lapidibus in formicarum nidis 
ab ora maritima usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

This is the universal Thorictiis of the Canarian Group, in the whole 
seven islands of which it has been taken (more or less commonly), 
ascending from the sea-level to an altitude of at least 8000 feet. It 
resides beneath stones, in or near the nests of ants ; and during the 
early spring it is sometimes abundant. Indeed on one occasion, in 
the Eio Palmas of Fuerteventura, I believe that I cannot have ex- 
tracted less than two hundred specimens out of a single nest. 



176 



APHODlADiE. 



502. Thorictus vestitus. 

Thorictus vestitus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col 186 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus in saxosis submaritimi» 
parce repertus. 

Likewise a Canarian species, but apparently rare — the few ex- 
amples which I have seen having been captured by myself, at a low 
elevation, in the north-east of Lanzarote. 



Fam. 30. APHODIAD^. 

Genus 157. APHODIUS. 
lUiger, Kdf. Preuss, i. 28 (1798), 

503. Aphodius hydrochaeris. 

Scarabseus hydrochaeris, Fab., Ent. Syst. Suppl. 23 (1798). 
Aphodius hydrochaeris, WoU., Ins. Mad. 222 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 78 (1857). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 187 (1864). 

, Hart, Geolog. Verhaltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (in Palmd sola 
hand observatus), in stercore bovino vulgaris. 

The A. hydrochceris of Mediterranean latitudes is doubtless uni- 
versal throughout the whole of these Atlantic islands which are 
inhabited, occurring in the dung of cattle at low and intermediate 
elevations. It has been taken in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, 
of the Madeiran Group, and in aU the Canarian islands except Palma 
(where, however, there can be no question that it must exist). 



504. Aphodius "WoUastonii. 

Aphodius Wollastonii, Harold, Berl. Ent. Zeit. 397 (1862). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 188 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in stercore vulgaris. 



An Aphodius which appears to occur in the north of Africa, and 
which is common throughout Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, in the 
east of the Canarian Group ; but it has not yet been detected in 
any of the other islands. 



505. Aphodius nitidulus. 

Scarabaeus nitidulus. Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 30 (1792). 
Aphodius sordidus, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 60 (1838) 
nitidulus, Woll, Lis. Mad. 223 (1854). 





APHODIADiE. 177 

Aphodius nitidulus, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 78 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 188 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^'^ S^^) et Canarienses (ins. omoies), vul- 
garis. 

The European A. nitidulus is universal throughout aU the inha-- 
hited islands of these Atlantic Groups, occurring in the dung of 
cattle at most elevations. It is common in Madeira proper and 
Porto Santo ; and I have myself taken it in th« vsrhole seven islands 
of the Canarian archipelago. 

506. Aphodius taeniatus. 
Aphodius taeniatus, Woil., Cat. Can. Col. 189 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Faert,), in stercore minus frequens. 

Found in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern islands 
of the Canarian Group, where however it is not very abundant. It 
occurs likewise at the Cape de Yerdes, where it has been found lately 
by Mr. Gray. Although very closely allied to the A. nitiduhis, I 
believe nevertheless that it is totally distinct from it specifically ; but 
the exact points which characterize it have been fully alluded to in 
my recent Catalogue *. 

507. Aphodius maculosus. 

Aphodius conspurcatus, BrulU [nee Linn.'], in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 
m (1838). 

sticticus, Hart, [nee Fnz\ Ged. Verhaltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 

macidosus, Harold, in Hit. 

, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 189 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert,, Can.), in stercore vulgaris. 

Likewise a Canarian Aphodius, which is abundant in Lanzarote 
and Fuerteventura, and which occurs more sparingly in Grand 
Canary. It has somewhat the general colouring and aspect of the 
common European A. inquinatus, but the many characters which 
separate it from that species have been pointed out seriatim in my 
Canarian Catalogue. 

* The A. tcmiatus differs from the nitidulus in being still more cylindrical ; 
in its prothorax being convexer, more rounded at the sides, with tlie anterior 
angles less porreeted or acute, and rather more straightly truncated at the base ; 
in its elytra liaving their striic both finer and less coarsely crenate, and their 
interstices still more minutely and rather more closely punctulated ; in its head, 
prothorax and a broad sutural band being of a deeper black ; and in its legs 
being darker or more piceous, with the spinules wliich surmount the extreme 
apex, and outer teeth, of the four hinder tibige shorter or less developed. 



178 



APHODIADiE. 



508. Aphodius rufus. 

Aphodius rufus, Illig., Mag. fur Ins. ii. 195 (1803). 

, Erich., Nat. der Ins. Deutsch. iii. 836 (1848). 

, JFoll., Ins. Mad. 224 (1854\ 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 78 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), prsecipue in inferioribus haud vulgaris. 

A European Aphodiiis which occurs, principally at low elevations, 
in Madeira proper ; but it has not yet been detected in any of the 
other islands. 



509. Aphodius lividus. 

Scarab£eus lividus, Oliv., Ent. i. 3. 86 (1789). 
Aphodius lividus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 225 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 78 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 191 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^S^°) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom„ 
Palma), late sed parce diffusus. 

The European A. lividus is very widely, though sparingly, distri- 
buted over these islands, where most likely it will be found to be 
almost universal, — occurring principally at low and intermediate 
elevations. It has been taken in Madeira proper and Porto Santo^ 
as well as in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma, of the 
Canarian Group. It is an insect of a very extensive geographical 
range, which it has doubtless acquired accidentally through human 
agencies. I have captured it at Mogadore (on the opposite coast of 
Morocco), and it was taken by Mr. Gray at the Cape de Yerdes. 



I 



510. . Aphodius Pedrosi. 

Aphodius Pedrosi, Woll., Ins. 3Iad. 226 (1854). 
^ Jd., Cat. Mad. Col. 79 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^<^S*^), sub lapide in arenosis inferioribus captus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this rather insignificant 
Aphodius was taken by myself (during 1848) from beneath a stone 
in a low sandy spot, close to the ViUa, in Porto Santo, of the 
Madeiran Group. 



511. Aphodius granarius. 

Scarabseus granarius, lAnn,, Syst. Nat. i. ii. 547 (1767). 
Aphodius carbonarius, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838 
granarius, Woll, Ins. Mad. 226 (1854). 





APHODIAD^. 179 

Aphodius gTanarius, Id, Cat. Mad. Col 79 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col 191 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., V^^ S^^) et Canarieiises (ins. omnes), in 
stercore vulgaris. 

The common European A. granarius is universal throughout the 
inhabited islands of these Atlantic Groups. It abounds in Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo, and has been captured in the whole seven 
islands of the Canarian archipelago. 

Genus 158. OXYOMUS. 
(Eschscholtz) De Casteln., Hist. ii. 98 (1840). 

512. Oxyomus Heinekeni. 

Oxyomus crenulatus, DeJ., Cat. 1G3 (1837). 

Heineckeni, Woll, Ins. Mad. 228 (1854). 

Heinekeni, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 79 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub putridis in inferioribus occurrens. 

Found around Funchal in Madeira proper — where it resides 
amongst various kinds of putrid refuse, or filthy rejectamenta, parti- 
cularly in low spots towards the beach. It is a species of a wide 
geographical range — occurring even in Brazil and the West Indian 
islands, and having been captured by the late Mr. Bewicke at Ascen- 
sion. I have, also, inspected examples of it which were obtained by 
the Rev. Hamlet Clark in Algeria*. 

513. Oxyomus brevicollis. 

Oxyomus brevicollis, Woll, Lis. Mad. 229 (1854). . 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 79 (1857). 

^ Id., Cat. Can. Col 191 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Gam., Palma), passim. 

Rather common around Funchal in Madeira proper, occurring 
beneath damp garden-refuse and under putrid substances near the 
beach ; and it has been taken by the Messrs. Crotch below Hermigua 
in Gomera, and by Mr. Gray in Palma, of the Canarian GroujD. 



* In a paper on certain Coleoptera from the island of Ascension, published in 
the 'Ann. of Nat. Hist.' for 1861, I called attention to a sexual peculiarity in 
the 0. Heinekeni whicli I had not before observed — namely, that "the males 
are not only more shining than the females, but the external edge of their front 
tibise is much more powerfully tridentate, whilst their four hinder ones have 
their spurs more elongate and subflexuose, and their outer apical angle produced 
into a much longer and acuter spine." 

n2 



180 



APHODIAD^. 



Genus 159. PSAMMODIUS. 

Gyllenhal, Ins. Suec, i. 6 (1808). 

514. Psammodius csesus. 

Scarabseus caesiis, Pms., Fna Ins. Germ. 35. 2 (1796). 
Psammodius csesus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 231 (1854). 

• • , Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 79 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 192 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (Lanz., Can.), 8ub| 
quisquiliis prsecipue in inferioribus fodiens. 

A European Psammodius which is widely but sparingly distri- 
buted over these islands, occurring beneath refuse principally at low 
altitudes. It has been taken in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, of] 
the Madeiran Group, and in Lanzarote and Grand Canary, at the 
Canaries. 

515. Psammodius sabulosus. 

Oxyomus sabulosus, Dej., Cat. (edit. 3) 163 (1837). 
Platytomus sabulosus, Muls., Lamell. de France, 310 (1842)» 
Psammodius sabulosus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 230 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 79 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 192 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (in Palma sola' 
haud observatus), sub lapidibus quisquiliisque praesertim in 
arenosis submaritimis fodiens. 

The P. sabulosus of Mediterranean latitudes is probably universal 
(or nearly so) throughout these Atlantic islands, occurring princi- 
pally in low and sandy spots towards the coast. At the Madeiran 
Group it has been taken sparingly in Madeira proper (by the Barao 
do Castello de Paiva, the late M. Eousset, &c.) and commonly in 
Porto Santo, and at the Canaries in all the seven islands except 
Palma — where it does not happen to have been observed, but where 
nevertheless it must doubtless exist. 




516. Psammodius porcicollis. 

Aphodius porcicollis, Illig., Mag. fur Ins. ii. 195 (1803), 
Psammodius porcicollis, Muls., Lamell. de France, 322 (1842). 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 80 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 192 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^'^ S^^) et Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in are- 
nosis maritimis prsecipue ad radices plantarum fodiens. 

A species of Mediterranean latitudes, like the P. sabulosus^^^^^ 






TROGIDiE. 181 

residing for the most part on or near the sea-beaches, where it 
burrows beneath various rejectamenta and at the roots of sand-plants. 
In such situations I have taken it abundantly in the eastern parts 
both of the Madeiran and Canarian Groups — namely, in Porto Santo 
of the former, and in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura of the latter. 



Fam. 31. TROGID^. 

Genus 160. TROX. 
Fabricius, Ent. Syst. i. 86 (1792). 

517. Trox confluens. 

Trox hispidiis ?, BrulU [nee Fah.\ in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838). 
contluens, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 193 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus. Sub lapide juxta urbem 
Sanctae Crucis exemplar unicum collegi. 

A single specimen of this Trox was captured by myself at a low 
elevation in Teneriffe — beneath a stone, in the Barranco do Passo 
Alto, near S** Cruz ; but it is the only one that I have yet seen. 

518. Trox scaber. 

Silpha scabra, Linn.j Syst. Nat. i. ii. 573 (1767). 
Trox ai-enarius, Gyll., Ins. Suec. i. 11 (1808). 

scaber, Woll, Lis. Mad. 233 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 81 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), circa domes parce occurrens ; forsan ex 
Europa introductus. 

The European T. scaber occurs very sparingly in and about houses 
in Madeira proper, where in all probability it has become naturalized 
from higher latitudes. It has been taken by the late Dr. Heineken, 
as well as by Messrs. Bewicke, Park, and F. A. Anderson. 



Fam. 32. MELOLONTHIDiE. 

Genus 161. OOTOMA. 
Blanchard, Cat. Col. Ent. 120 (1850). 

519. Ootoma bipartita. 

Melolontha bipartita, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. {Col) 00 (1838). 
Ootoma bipai-tita, Blanch., loc. cit, 120 (1850). 



182 



MELOLONTHID^. 



Meloloiitlia bipartita, Hart, Geol. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 
Ootoma bipartita, Wall, Cat. Can. Co/. 195 (1864). 

HaUtat Canarienses {Lanz., Faert., Can., Ten.), sub stercore lapidi- 
busque in cuniculis fodiens. 

All the Ootomas hitherto detected are peculiarly Canarian, 
occurring for the most part in small holes or burrows in the soil, 
which are excavated either beneath stones or the dung of cattle. 
The 0. hipartita is found more particularly in the eastern portion of 
the Group, becoming gradually scarcer as we approach the west. f| 
Thus in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura it is rather common, in Grand 
Canary decidedly scarcer, and in Teneriffe extremely rare ; whilst 
in the islands to the westward of Teneriffe it has not yet been 
observed even to exist. The blackish hue of its head, prothorax and 
scutellum, whilst its elytra are rufo-castaneous, will, apart from 
minor differences, at once separate it from the other species here 
enumerated. 

520. Ootoma fuscipeimis. 

Melolontha iw%(n^e\m\Q,BruUe,in Webb etBer. ( Col.) 61, pi. i. f. 1 (1838). 
Ootoma fuscipennis, Blatich., he. cit. 120 (1850). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 196 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert., Ten., Gom.2, Pahna?), in locis similibus 
ac praecedens. 

Widely spread over the Canarian archipelago, but (like the last 
species) apparently more abundant in the eastern islands than in the 
western ones. I took it rather commonly in Fuerteventura (beneath 
the refuse of a camels' stable in the Eio Palmas), and sparingly in 
Teneriffe; and I obtained two dead examples in Palma, and the 
Messrs. Crotch one (even more mutilated still) in Gomera, which I 
believe are referable to the fuscipennis ; but- they are much too im- 
perfect to enable me to decide this point for certain. 

521. Ootoma Integra. 
Ootoma Integra, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 197 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Oan.), semel tantum reperta. 

The only example which I have seen of this Ootoma was captured 
by myself in Grand Canary ; and although its characters, if constant, 
seem abundantly sufficient to indicate a distinct species, yet I cannot 
but feel that further material is much required in order to ascertain 
positively that its features are true and permanent ones. 



^1 





GLAPHYRID^. 183 

522. Ootoma castanea. 

Melolontha castanea, BrulU, in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838). 
Dasysterna cnnaviensis?, Bambur, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. deFr. 331 (1843) . 
Ootoma castanea, Blanch., loc. cit. 120 (1850). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 198 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), rarissima ; in cuniculis fodiens. 

Observed iiitherto only in Teneriffe — where it was taken by Mr. 
Gray and myself, and whence it has been obtained by the Barao do 
Castello de Paiva. It is closely allied to the 0. fuscipennis ; but the 
particular points (some of them structural ones) which appear to 
separate it from that species have been fully alluded to in my 
Canarian Catalosrue. 



523. Ootoma obscurella. 
Ootoma obscurella, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 200 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), rarissima. 

Hitherto I have seen but two examples of thii? Ootoma, both of 
which were captured by myself (during February 1858) in Hierro. 

524. Ootoma obscura. 

Melolontha obscura, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. ( Col.) 61, pi. i. f. 2 (1838) . 
Ootoma obscura, Blanch., loc. cit. 120 (1850). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 200 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses, a Dom. Brulle inter Coleoptera Canariensia 
admissa. 

As M. Brulle did not think it necessary to indicate a single habitat 
in the small and inaccurate list which he prepared for the gigantic 
work of MM. Webb and Berthelot, I am quite at a loss to conjecture 
in what island the present Ootoma was taken. And although most 
of the characters which his diagnosis is built upon are merely those 
which are common to aU the species here enumerated, there is 
nevertheless one referred to (namely, the enlarged spatuliform clava 
of its antennae) which would seem to prevent me from identifying 
the 0. obscura with any of the preceding species. 



Fam. 33. GLAPHYRID^. 

Genus 162. CHASMATOPTERUS. 

(Dejean) Latr.^ Bcgn. An. iv. 567 (1829). 



184 



DYNASTID.E. 



525. Chasmatopterus nigrocinctus. 

Chasmatopterus nigrocinctus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 236 (1854). 
, M, Cat. Mad. Col. 81 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a cl. Heineken, M.D., olim captus; an 
ex alienis intro ductus ? 

As in the case of the Oyrinus natator, I cannot but feel a little 
doubtful whether I ought any longer to admit this insect into the 
Atlantic fauna, — a single example from the collection of the late 
Dr. Heineken, and which was taken by him many years ago in 
Madeira proper, embodying all that I yet know concerning it. So 
large a species, if really indigenous (or estabHshed) in tlie island, 
could hardly have escaped the combined researches of so many 
naturalists who have since (with such unwearied assiduity) toiled 
over the same ground as that which Dr. Heineken investigated. 
And although perhaps I cannot well refuse admission to the insect 
in this Catalogue, I must nevertheless express my belief that it is 
not truly Madeiran, but was more probably an accidental importation 
from some other country. 



Fam. 34. DYNASTID^. 

Genus 163. PHYLLOGNATHUS. 

Eschscholtz, Bull, de 3Ioscot(., 65 (1830). 

526. Phyllognathus Silenus. 

Scarabaeus Silenus, Fab., Si/st Ejit. i. 13 (1775). 

, BniUe, in IVebb et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838). 

Oryctes Silenus, Hart., Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 
Phyllognathus Silenus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 201 (1864). 



141. 



Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten.), sub recremento stabulorum 
necnon sub stercore bovino, equino, camelino fodiens. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes* which occurs sparingly in 
the Canarian archipelago, particularly in the eastern portion of it.. 
It is not very uncommon in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, under, 
stable-refuse or burrowing beneath dung ; but I have not observed 
it in any of the other islands. A specimen however, stated to be 
Teneriffan, has been communicated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva. 
In Lanzarote it is called " Chamorro" by the inhabitants. 



* I have captured it at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Morocco. 



d 



CETONIAD^. 185 

Genus 164. ORYCTES. 

Illiger, Kdf. Freiiss. 11 (1798). 

527. Oryctes prolixus. 

Scarabseus nasicomis, BridU [nee X.], in Webb et Ber. (Co^.) 60 (1838). 
Oryctes prolixus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 202 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Hierro), rarior. Eadices truncosque 
emortuos Euphorbice piscatorice sub terra edere apud oculatissi- 
mum G. E. Crotch dicitur. 

Sparingly distributed over the central and western islands of the 
Canarian Group, to which it seems to be peculiar — having been 
captured by myself in Teneriffe and Hierro, and by the Rev. R. T. 
Lowe and the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera. Although much allied to 
the European 0. gri/ptis, I beheve nevertheless that the features which 
distinguish it therefrom are truly specific ones ; and this is rendered 
all the more probable from the singularity of its habits, concerning 
which I received an interesting communication from Mr. G. R. Crotch 
during his late sojourn in Gomera. According to his report, it would 
appear to feed on the roots (and underground portions of the stems) 
of the Euphorbia piscatoria — a plant eminently characteristic of 
these Atlantic islands. Mr. Crotch states that, in one instance, on 
pulling up a dead shrub of the piscato7^a, he found "a female Oryctes 
and some 20 or 30 larvae." We may therefore, perhaps, expect to 
meet with it throughout the Euj^horbia-regions generally. 

Fam. 35. CETONIAD^. 

Genus 165. EPICOMETIS. 

Burmeister, Handb. der Ent. iii. 434 (1842). 

528. Epicometis squaHda. 

Scarabasus squalidus, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. ii. 656 (1767). 
Cetonia crinita, Chaip., HorcB Ent. 213 (1825). 

hii-ta, BrnlU [nee Fab.\ in Webb et BeHh. {Col) 62 (1838); 

Tropinota Reyi, Muls., Lamell. de France, 675 (1842). 
Epicometis squalida, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 203 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), ad flores vulgaris. 

A Mediterranean insect which is quite universal throughout the 
Canarian archipelago, in the whole seven islands of which I have 
myself captured it. It occurs principally at intermediate elevations, 
and often abounds on the flowers of the AspJiodelus Jistvilosus, as 
well as on those of Thistles. 



186 



BUPRESTID^. 



529. Epicometis femorata. 

Cetonia femorata, Illig., Mag. fur Ins. ii. 231 (1803). 
— — hispanica, Gory et Perch.) Mon. des Get. 280 (1833). 
Epicometis femorata, Burm., Hamlb. der Ent. iii. 435 (1842). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 204 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Can.), in aridis arenosis rarissima. 

The B. femorata, which is found in Spain and Algeria, ocenrs very 
rarely at the Canaries. I captured a few specimens of it in the sandy 
tract at Corralejo, in the extreme north of Puerteventura, burrowing 
into the loose sand around the roots of shrubby plants ; and two more 
were taken (dead) by the Messrs. Crotch, near Las Palmas, in Grand 
Canary. 



Fam. 36. BUPRESTID^. 

Genus 166. ACMJEODERA. 

Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, i. 9 (1823). 

530. Acmseodera cisti. 

Acmseodera cisti, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 439 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 204 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palmd), ad flores prsesertim Cisti, 
Cytisi, et S^artii in locis elevatis usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

Occurs at lofty elevations in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Palma, 
on the flowers of the various shrubs (such as the Spariium nubigena, 
the Cystisus proliferus, and the Cistus monspeliensis and vagans) 
which characterize the higher districts, ascending to at least 8000 
feet above the sea. Judging however from a note now before me, 
which was received from Mr. G. R. Crotch during his sojourn in 
Teneriffe, it would appear that it is not in reaHty attached (^. e. in 
its previous states) to any of those particular plants ; for he mentions 
that he had extracted it " out of the burrows where it feeds — in the 
' gorse ' (as they term it), not in the E-etama." I cannot say for 
certain what is the exact shrub referred to by Mr. Crotch ; but I am 
informed by the Rev. R. T. Lowe that it is jorobably identical with 
the " codeso — a name which in the Canaries includes several species of 
Genista.'' Elsewhere, however, I see the " codeso " referred to the 
Adenocarpus franlcenoides ; but, still, whether the " codeso " and 
" gorse" be one and the same plant remains to be proved*. 



* Since the above was written, Dr. Crotch has informed ine that the 
and " codeso" &re positively identical. 



gorse 




BUPRESTIDiE. 187 

531. Acmaeodera fracta. 

Acmaeodera fracta, TFolL, Cat. Can. Col. 205 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), ad flores rarissima. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this Acmceodera 
(which is closely allied to the preceding species) were captured by 
myself in Grand Canary, — one of them in the low sandy region of 
El Charco, in the extreme south of that island, and the other in the 
lofty Pinal of Tarajana (above San Bartolome). It would appear, 
consequently, to be independent of elevation. 

532. Acmaeodera plagiata. 

Acmaeodera plagiata, JVoU., Cat. Can. Col. 206 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), rarissima; semel tantum reperta. 

Likewise found in Grand Canary, but hitherto unique — a single 
example taken by myself, beneath a stone, on an arid slope in the 
south of Grand Canary (between Maspalomas and Juan Grande) being 
the only one that I have yet seen. 

533. Acmaeodera omata. 

Acmaeodera omata, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 207 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), semel deprehensa. 

Also unique, but found in a different island of the Canarian Group 
from any of the preceding species — namely, Fuerteventura. It 
was captured by myseK in the Rio Palmas, at the beginning of April 
1859. 

Genus 167. BUPEESTIS. 
Linn^us, Syst. Nat. i. ii. 659 (1767). 

534. Buprestis Bertheloti. 

Buprestis Bertheloti, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) pi. ii. f 12 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 207 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Hierro), rarissima ; in pinetis praecipue 
(an semper ?) degens. 

A large Canarian Buprestis (of excessive rarity) which entirely 
escaped my own researches, no less than those of all other recent 
naturalists except the Messrs. Crotch — who during the summer of 
1864 met with several dead examples of it, in spiders' webs in the re- 



188 



BUPRESTIDiE. 



mote PiTial which occupies a small but elevated area at the southern 
extremity of the Cumbre in the island of Hierro. Previously however 
to this important discovery, I had received a single example of it from 
the Barao do Castello de Paiva, by whom it was obtained from an old 
(but accurate) collection which had been formed many years ago in 
Teneriife ; and it would appear, from inquiries subsequently instituted 
by the Baron Paiva, that the TeneriiFan example was professedly 
from the Agua Garcia (or, rather, its immediate vicinity). Although 
however I have no doubt that it was strictly TenerifFan, I do not 
place entire confidence in the exact habitat claimed for it, but should 
be disposed to conclude, from the positive evidence gained by the 
Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, that it is normally a pine-destroying insect 
and is consequently attached to the Pinals. 

Judging from the single individual just alluded to, the Hierro 
specimens would seem to be a little larger than the TenerifFan ones, 
with their prothorax even still more roughly punctured and having 
its lateral yellow streak carried further back — indeed almost to the 
hinder margin. 

Genus 168. ANTHRAXIA. 
Eschscholtz, Zool Atlas, i. 9 (1823). 

535. Anthraxia senilis. 

Anthraxia senilis, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 208 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in pinetis editioribus inter flores Cisto- 
rum parce deprehensa. 

The few specimens of this Anthraxia which have hitherto been 
met with I captured at a high elevation on the mountains of Grand 
Canary, — flying in the hot sunshine, amongst CistusAAomomBf in 
the lofty Pinal of Tarajana (above San Bartolome). 

Genus 169. AGRILUS. 
(Megerle) Staph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 239 (1830). 

536. Agrilus Darwinii. 

Agrilus Darwinii, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 82 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus ; semel tantum repertus. 

A Madeiran Agrilus, and evidently one of the most rare of aU the 
truly indigenous Coleoptera of these Atlantic islands. Indeed the 
only specimen which has hitherto been brought to light was captured 






THROSCIDiE. 189 

by myself, during August 1855, by beating rank vegetation in the 
north of Madeira proper — about a third of the way up the llibeiro 
de Sao Jorge. 

Fam. 37. THROSCIDiE. 

Genus 170. THROSCUS. 
Latreille, Fr(tc. des Caract. Gen. des Ins. 42 (1796). 

§ I. Oculi integri. 

537. Throscus latiusculus. 
Throscus latiusculus, Woll, Append, huj. op. 30. 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), a DD. Crotch sat copiose deprehensus. 

Captured by the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, the most western of the 
Canarian islands, where they obtained it rather abundantly. 

538. Throscus elongatulus. 

Throscus integer, WolL, Cat. Can. Col [sed vix Cat. Mad. Col'] 209 

(1864). 
elongatulus, Id., Append, hnj. op. 30. 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam., Pahna), in sylvaticis editioribus 
rarissimus. 

Likewise Canarian, occurring sparingly under dead sticks and 
rubbish in the sylvan districts of a rather high elevation. A tolerable 
series of it was taken in Gomera, during the summer of 1864, hy 
the Messrs. Crotch ; and it is from their specimens that my diagnosis, 
given in the Appendix, has been compiled. I had myself, however, 
met with a few examples previously, both in Teneriife and Palma, 
which I have little doubt are conspecific with the Gomeran ones, 
even though it is true that a Palman individual which is now before 
me does not perfectly accord with the latter. At any rate, since it 
is the Gomeran insect that I have taken as the type of the present 
species, I need scarcely add that if future material should prove the 
Teneriffan and Palman Throscus to be distinct (which I consider im- 
probable) the name elongatulus must of course apply to the former. 

The T. elongatulus closely resembles the Madeiran T. integer, of 
which I am far from satisfied that it is more than a geographical 
state ; but the characters, small though they be (even whilst constant), 
which distinguish it therefrom have been fully pointed out in the 
Appendix. 



190 



ELATERIDiE. 



539. Throscus integer. 



Trixagus integer, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 82 (1857). 
Throscus integer, Id., Append, hvj. op. 31. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus ; hinc inde in lauretis humi- 
dis excelsis. 

Found in the damp sylvan districts of a rather high elevation in 
Madeira proper, where howevel* it is extremely scarce. I have taken 
it beneath rotten wood, at the Montado dos Pecegueiros, in the north 
of the island. 

§ II. OcuXi in medio transversim sulcati. 

540. Throscus gracilis. 

Throscus elateroides? ITeer, Fna Helv. 443 (1841). 
Trixagus gracilis, Wall., Ins. Mad. 237 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. 31ad. Col 84 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice laxo necnon inter lichen es 
ad lignum antiquum crescentes in inferioribus rarissimus. 

The few examples which I have yet seen of this Throscus were 
taken by myself at a low elevation in the south of Madeii'a proper 
— namely under the loosened bark of a plane-tree in the Praea da 
Rainha in Funchal, and amongst lichen growing on the rotten wood 
of an old peach-tree in the Rev. R. T. Lowe's garden at the Levada. 
In all probability the species will be found to be identical with the 
T. elateroides of southern Europe ; but until further material has 
been obtained for comparison, I will not suppress the name under 
which it has hitherto been cited, particularly as De Bonvouloir 
(judging solely, however, from my diagnosis) records a doubt as to 
whether it is absolutely conspecific with that insect. Should it ulti- 
mately prove to be so, of course Heer's title would have the priority. 



Fam. 38. ELATERID^. 



Genus 171. COPTOSTETHUS. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 238 (1854). 

541. Coptostethus femoratus. 

Coptostethus femoratus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 240, tab. iv. f 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 84 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*° S^^), sub lapidibus in montibus rarissimus. 



ELATERID^. 191 

Observed hitherto only in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, 
where moreover it is of the utmost rarity, — occurring beneath stones 
on the rocky mountain-slopes. It is the only member of the Ela- 
teridcF which has been detected in the Madeiran archipelago. 

542. Coptostethus crassiuscxilus. 

Coptostethus crassiusculus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 213 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis editioribusque rarissimus. 

A very variable CojpostetJius which inhabits the intermediate and 
lofty elevations of Grand Canary, occurring sparingly beneath stones. 

543. Coptostethus brunneipennis. 

Coptostethus brunneipennis, JVolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 218 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 210 (1864). - 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Palma,Hierr6), sub lapidibus rarior ; 
praecipue in intermediis et editioribus (rarissime in inferioribus) 
occurrens. Species valde inconstans. 

A Canarian insect, which has been observed in Teneriffe, Gomera, 
Palma, and Hierro, — occurring for the most part at intermediate 
and rather lofty (but now and then even in the lower) altitudes. It 
is eminently inconstant, the whole of its characters (though never 
simultaneously) being more or less subject to variation ; and in three 
examples now before me, which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch 
(while sifting fallen leaves) at a high elevation on the mountains of 
Gomera, the elytra are somewhat more rounded (or widened) before 
the middle, but I cannot see anything about them to constitute a 
specific difference. 

544. Coptostethus gracilis. 

Coptostethus gracilis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 211 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), prsecipue in montibus valde elevatis sub 
lapidibus parce degens. Usque ad 9000' s. m. ascendit. 

Likewise Canarian, and observed only (hitherto) in the higher 
altitudes of Teneriife — where it attains its maximum on the exposed 
elevated Cumbres from about 8000 to 9000 feet above the sea. It 
occurs beneath stones, in company with the C. globulicollis, but 
much more sparingly; and although it is evidently allied to the 
(very inconstant) brunneipennis, I nevertheless do not believe that 
it can possibly be regarded as any small and narrow modification of 
that insect. 



192 



CYPHONIDiE. 



545. Coptostethus canariensis. 

Coptostethus canariensis, WolL, Aim. Nat. Hist. ii. 196 (1858). 

, Cmuidze, Mon. des Elat. iii. 105 (1860). 

^ WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 211 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), sub lapidibus in inferioribus occurrens. 

This Coptostethiis (which is also Canarian) has been detected only 
in the lower districts of Teneriffe — where it occurs, beneath stones, 
from the sea-level to an elevation (so far as has been hitherto 
observed) of no more than about 800 feet. It is not uncommon in i 
the rocky ground to the westward of the Puerto Orotava. 



546. Coptostethus globulicollis. 

Coptostethus globulicollis, WolL, Aim. Nat. Hist. ix. 440 (1862). 
^ Id., Cat. Caiu Col. 212 (1864), 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus valde elevatis usque ad 
9000' 8. m. ascendens. 

Also peculiar to Teneriffe, occurring in the higher elevations of 
that island. It attains its maximum from about 8000 to 9000 feet 
above the sea, and seldom descends into even the sylvan districts. 
I have taken it in profusion, from beneath stones and scoriae, on the 
lofty Cumbre (adjoining the Canadas) above Ycod el Alto, as well as 
on the opposite heights above the Agua Mansa. 




547. Coptostethus obtusus. 

Coptostethus obtusus, WolL, Cat. Can. CoL 21-3 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus ; in sylvaticis editioribus 
semel tantum repertus. 

Hitherto I have seen but a single specimen of this insect, which 
was captured by myself in the sylvan region of the Agua Mansa in 
Teneriffe. It presents so many peculiarities of its own that I scarcely 
think it can possibly be regarded as any modification, or monstrosity, 
of the globulicollis ; nevertheless further material is much required, in 
order to ascertain for certain that its characters are constant ones. 






Fam. 39. CYPHONID^. 



Genus 172. EUCINETUS. 
SchUppel, in Germ. Mag. iii. 255 (1818). 



ft 



DRILID^. 193 

548. Eucinetus ovum. 

Eucinetus ovum, TFolL, Ins. Mad. 242 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 85 (1857). 

; Id., Cat Can. Col. 215 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), sub cortice 
lignoque putrido in sylvaticis humidis editioribus rarissimus. 

Occurs sparingly in the damp sylvan districts, of intermediate and 
rather lofty elevations, both at the Madeiras and Canaries. At the 
former it has been taken in Madeira proper, and at the latter — by 
myself in TenerifFe, and by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera. 

Genus 173. CYPHON. 
PaykuU, Fna Suec. ii. 117 (1798). 

549. Cyphon gracilicomis. 

Cyphon gracilicomis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 214 (1864). 

Habitat Canarionses (Can., Ten., Gom.), in herbidis humidiusculis 
intermediis late sed parce diffasus. 

Found amongst herbage, in damp spots, in the intermediate dis- 
tricts of Grand Canary, TenerifFe, and Gomera ; and we may expect 
to meet with it in Palma and Hierro likewise. It closely resembles 
the European C. eoarctattis, of which I am far from satisfied that it 
is more than a geographical state. ♦ 



Fam. 40. DRILIDiE. 

Genus 174. MALACOGASTER. 
Bassi, Mag. de Zool. (Ins.) pi. 99 (1832). 

550. Malacogaster tilloides. 

Malacogaster tilloides, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 215 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), rarissimus; inter plantas Arundinis 
donaas in aquosis nascentes parcissime lectus. 

A Canarian insect of the greatest rarity, which I captured sparingly 
in Fuerteventura — amongst plants of the Arundo donax growing in 
swampy places in the Rio Palmas. Although allied to, it is totally 
distinct from the Sicilian M. Passerinii, which is a little larger, 
broader, and less shining, — its surface (which is studded with shorter, 
less erect, and darker hairs) being more sculptured. 



194 



TELEPHORIDiE. 



Fam. 41. TELEPHORID^. 

Genus 175. MALTHINUS. 

Latreille, Gm. Crust et Ins. i. 261 (1806). 

551. Malthinus mutabilis. 

Malthiniis mutabilis, Woll, Journ. of Ent i. 424 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 216 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), ad fiores, passim. 

A Canarian Malthinus which has been found in the whole sev 
islands of the archipelago, occurring on flowers at low and interme- 
diate elevations. It is extremely variable, both in size and colour ; 
and, although perfectly distinct from the European M. fiaveolus, it 
may perhaps be looked upon as the representative at the Canaries of 
that species. 

552. Malthinus ilammeicollis. 

Malthinus croceicoUis, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 426 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 217 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), ad flores in intermediis minus frequens. 

This Malthinus I have met with as yet only in Grand Canary, 
where it is not uncommon during the spring months throughout the 
region of El Monte. I have changed its name to jlammeicollis on 
account of Motschulsky having previously described a croceicoUis in 
the nearly allied genus Malthodes — a group so close to Malthinus 
that in all probability it will not long be upheld as distinct. 




Genus 176. MALTHODES. 
Kiesenwetter, in Linn. Ent. vii. 265 (1852). 

553. Malthodes Kiesenwetteri. 

Malthodes Kiesenwetteri, Woll, Ins. Mad. 243 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 85 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., F^^ S*^), ad flores in herbidis inter" 
mediis parce occurrens. 

Not uncommon on flowers in the intermediate districts of Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo, where it represents the M. brevicollis of 
more northern latitudes. Indeed it is so closely allied to the latter 
that I should scarcely have treated it as more than a geographical 



MALACHIAD.E. 195 

modification of it, had I not been informed by Kiesenwetter (who 
examined it carefully, after having compiled his elaborate Monograph 
of the group) that he considered it to be specifically distinct. 

Fam. 42. MALACHIADiE. 

Genus 177. MALACHIUS. 
Fabricius, St/st. Ent. i. 221 (1792). 

554. MalacMus militarls. 

Malachius militaris, WolL, Ins. Mad. 245 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 85 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), hinc inde ad flores in cultis inferioribus. 

A Malachius which is sometimes tolerably common in the lower 
elevations of Madeira proper, occurring principally about gardens 
and other cultivated grounds. I have taken it in and around Funchal ; 
and specimens have lately been communicated by the Barao do Cas- 
tello de Paiva. In colour and general aspect it greatly resembles 
the European M. rubricoUis, Mshm, — from which however it difiers 
in its very much shorter limbs (the antennae particularly being more 
abbreviated), in its tai'si and anteiior legs having a tendency (more 
or less expressed) to be diluted in hue, in its prothorax being less 
transverse (or more narrowed behind) and with a longitudinal black 
patch (seldom absent) down the disk, and in its elytra being almost 
free from any appearance of erect blackish additional hairs*. 

* A single example of a Malachius which possibly may prove to be conspecific 
with the Madeiran M. militaris, but which I think seems scarcely to differ from 
the common European M. rzibricollis, has been communicated by De Marseul 
(who informs me that he possesses two more of them) as Canarian ; but since 
several of the insects in the same consignment are labelled with unmistakeahJy 
wrong localities, I feel that I cannot safely admit the species (even whilst pro- 
fessedly from the collection of M. de la Perraudiere) into this Catalogue. The 
only point, so far as I can detect, in which the individual before me recedes from 
the ordinary type consists in its total freedom from pubescence ; nevertheless, as 
its antenna; are broken off, I cannot say this for certain. But, if truly Canarian, 
it is not impossible that further and more satisfactory material might disclose 
some other small diagnostic features (either external or structural) ; and I will 
therefore record it briefly as follows, in the event of its proving ultimately to be 
distinct from the ruhricollis and militaris, and its habitat to be correct : — 

Malachiiis rufoterminatus, n, sp. ? 

M. nitidus, calvus, (oculo fortissime armato) minutissime, vix perspicue punctu- 
latus ; capite latiuscizlo elytrisque nigro-cyaneis, his ad apicem prothoraceque 
laste testaceo-rufis ; [antennis mihi non obviis;] pedibus subcyaneo-nigris. — 
Long. corp. lin. If. 

Cantharis rubricollis ?, Mshm, Ent. Brit. 371 (1802). 

Habitat ins. Canarienses (sec. cl. De Marseul), mihi non obvius. 

o2 



19G 



MALACHIAD.E. 



Genus 178. ATTALUS. 

Ericlison, JEntomograph. 89 (1840). 

§ I. ProtTiorax plus minus (i. e. vel omnino, vel in parte majore, vel 
versus angulos solos jposticos) paUidus. 

555. Attalus pellucidus. 

Pecteropus pellucidus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 247 (note) (1854). 
Attalus pellucidus, Id., Jonrn. of Ent. i. 429 (18C2). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 219 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), ad flores vulgaris. Ab ora maritima 
usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendit. 

A Canarian Attalus whicli has been detected hitherto only in 
Teneriffe, where it occurs on flowers (often very abundantly) at 
nearly all elevations. 

bbQ. Attalus ruficollis. 

Attalus ruficollis, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 428 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 219 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, prsecipue illam), vulgaris, in locis 
similibus ac praecedens. 

Found in Teneriffe, generally in company with the last species — to 
which indeed it is so closely allied that it appears to differ from it 
merely in having its prothorax red, instead of black. As stated 
however in my Canarian Catalogue, I can nevertheless scarcely treat 
it as a variety of that insect, inasmuch as I have not yet been able 
to procure even an approximation to anything like an intermediate 
link between the two ; and that the differences are not sexual ones 
is certain, for the males and females of each form remain perfectly 
constant to each other. Moreover the specific distinctness is perhaps 
rendered still more probable through the circumstance that there is 
a small state of the ruficollis (the " var. j^. pauper cuius ^^ of my dia- 
gnosis) peculiar to Palma, and I have seen no Attalus in that island 
at all analogous to the pellucidus of Teneriffe ; whereas had the 
latter been a modification which the ruficollis is so eminently liable 
to assume, w« might certainly have expected to meet with some 
traces of it in Palma — in like manner as we do (thus abundantly) 
in Teneriffe, 

557. Attalus pallipes. 

Attalus pallipes, Woll., Cat. Can. Co/. 220 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.'i), u AV. D. Crotch deprehensus. 




MALACHIADiE. 197 

Found by Dr. Crotch (rather abundantly) in Teneriffe, during his 
Canarian expedition of 1862 ; and he had also a single example of 
it amongst his material from Gomera. I think however that further 
evidence would be desirable for the latter habitat before it can be 
considered to be perfectly established, for it is of course within the 
range of possibility that one of Dr. Crotch's Teneriffan specimens 
may have become mixed up accidentally with his Gomeran collection. 

The A. pallipes is nearly related to the rufi^Uis, but its many 
distinctions (chiefly, however, of colour) have been fuUy pointed out 
in my Canarian Catalogue. 

558. Attalus omatissimus. 

Attalus omatissimus, WolL, Joum. of Ent. i. 431, pi. xx. f. 2 (1862), 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 221 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Pahna), ad flores in intermediis et praesertim 
editioribus hinc inde vulgaris. 

Peculiar apparently to the intermediate and (more especially) lofty 
elevations of Palma, in the Canarian Group — where it has been taken, 
successively, by Mr. Gray, myself, and Dr. Crotch, 

559. Attalus rugifrons. 

Attalus rugifrons, WoU., Joum. of JSnt. i. 431 (1862). 
, Jd.y Cat. Can. Col. 221 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in intermediis tempore hiemali captus. 

Taken by Mr. Gray and myself (on the hills above San Sebastian) 
in Gomera, of the Canarian Group, during February 1858 ; but it 
has not yet been detected elsewhere. 



560. Attalus ovatipennis. 

Attalus ovatipennis, Woll, Joum. of Ent. i. 429 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 220 (1*864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), ad flores varies, passim. 

The most widely spread of all the Canarian Attali, it having now 
been detected in the whole seven islands of the archipelago; for 
although until lately it had not been observed in Hierro, six examples 
are now before me from that island which were found by the Messrs. 
Crotch at a high elevation in the sylvan district of El Golfo— close to 



198 



MALACHIADiE. 



the ronntain known .locally as the *' Fonte de Tivataje," oiT tne 
descent from the Ciimbre. It is the only Attalus which has yet 
been met with in Hierro*. 

561. Attalus bisculpturatus. 

Attalus bisculpturatus, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 430 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 221 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses (Faert.), rarissimus. 
ennte a. d. 1859 deprehendi. 



Specimina duo Aprili in- 



A remarkable species, two examples only of which have as yet 
come beneath my notice. They were taken by myself in Fuerte- 
ventura, of the Canarian Group — near the little town of S** Maria 
Betancuria, in the Rio Palmas. 



562. Attalus chrysanthemi. 

Anthocomus analis, Hart, [nee Puz.'], Geol. Verh. Lanz. u. Fuert. 140. 
Attalus chrysanthemi, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 432, pi. xx. f. 3 (1862). 
, Jd, Cat. Can. Col. 222 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), adflores praesertim Chrysanthemi 
ochroleiici, AV. et B., in intermediis hinc inde vulgaris. 

A most beautiful (and constant) Attalus, which has been observed 
hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — the two eastern islands 
of the Canarian Group. It is locally abundant, at intermediate ele- 
vations, on flowers — particularly those of a large Chrysanthemum (the 
C. ochroleu^us, W. et B.) ; but it is less common in Fuerteventura 
than in Lanzarote. 



I 



563. Attalus commixtus. 

Attalus commixtus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 433 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 223 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), ad flores Eujphorbiarum in saxosis in- 
termediis parce captus. 

The few examples which I have seen of this Attalus (which is a 
good deal allied to the preceding species, though I believe perfectly 
distinct from it) were taken by myself in Lanzarote, of the Canarian 
Group — from Eitphorbia-hlossoms, in the north of that island. |fl 

* I have no reason to suppose that there is any deficiency of the Malacoderms 
in Hierro ; but as our short sojourn in that island was too early in the season, 
and that of the Messrs. Crotcli too late, for the generality of the flower-infesting 
Coleoptera, we did not fail in with many of them. 




MALACHIADiE. 199 

564. Attains Isevicollis. 

Attains Irevicollis, Wall, Journ. of Ent i. 434 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 223 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), rarissimus ; una cum specie praecedente 
semel repertus. 

Hitherto unique, the only example which I have seen having been 
captured by myself (in company with the last species) in the north 
of Lanzarote — of the Canarian Group. 

565. Attains posticus. 

Attalus posticus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 434 (1862), 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 2^4 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert), semel tantum lectus. 

Taken by myself in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian Group — close 
to ^^ Maria Betancuria, in the Kio Palmas ; but, like the last species, 
it is hitherto unique. 

566. Attains anthicoides. 

Attalus anthicoides, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 435, pi. xx. f. 4 (1862), 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 224 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), vel ad flores vel saepius sub re- 
cremento farris circa basin acervorum tritici sparse hinc inde 
sat vulgaris. 

Peculiar (so far as I have yet observed) to Lanzarote and Fuerte- 
ventura, the two eastern islands of the Canarian archipelago, — where 
it occurs not merely upon flowers, but (far oftener) beneath the refuse 
around the base of corn-stacks. Its habits indeed, no less than its 
prima fade aspect, are quite those of the Heteromerous genus 
Anthictts ; and in fact it so nearly resembles, at first sight, the A, 
mnariensis (with which it is frequently found in company) that 
until carefully examined it might almost be mistaken for that insect. 

§ II. Prothorax cum capite elytrisque concolor (rarius ad angulos 
ipsissimos posticos obscurissim^ et anguste pallidus). 

567. Attalus tnberculatus. 

Attalus tuberculatus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 436 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 225 (l864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), ad flores minus frequens. 

Likewise a Canarian Attcdus, and one which I have myself observed 



200 



MALACHIAD^. 



only near the Puerto Orotava in Teneriffe ; but several examples are 
now before me which were captured by the Messrs. Crotch, during 
the summer of 1864, in Gomera. The Gomeran specimens are more 
or less appreciably aeneous ; whereas the TenerifFan ones are black, 
with only a ve^y faint brassy tinge. 

568. Attalus obscurus. 

Attains obscurus, Woll, Jovm. of Ent i. 437 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 225 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Can.), ad flores in intermediis occurrens. 

I have observed this Attalus hitherto only in Grand Canary, where 
it is not uncommon during the spring months throughout the region 
of El Monte and towards the summit of the Bandama mountain. 

569. Attalus subopacus. 

Attains subopacus, WolL, Jouni. of Ent. i. 437 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 226' (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), ad flores sat vulgaris. 

Detected as yet only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the eastern 
islands of the Canarian Group, — where however it is widely spread, 
and in certain districts rather common. 

570. Attalus metallicus. 

Attalus metallicus, Woll., Jwirn. of Ent. i. 438 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 226 '(1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Ten.), ad flores praesertim Enphorhlarum 
hinc inde baud infrequens. 

A Canarian Attalus which is rather common in Lanzarote, where 
it is particularly partial to the flowers of the various Euphorbias in 
in the north of that island. It would seem likewise to occur in 
Teneriffe ; for I captured a single specimen of it there (the " var. p. 
similis " of my diagnosis), which however differs a little from the 
Lanzarotan type. 

571. Attalus aenescens. 

Attalus senescens, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 438 (1862). 
_, Id., Cat Can. Col. 227 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom., Palma), ab ora maritim; 
usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

A rather common little species,- and widely spread over the centri 




MALACHIAD.E. ' 201 

and western islands of the Canarian archipelago, occurring from the 
sea-level to an altitude of at least 8000 feet. It has hcen captured 
in Grand Canary, TeneriiFe (where it often abounds at a lofty eleva- 
tion on the blossoms of the lletama), Gomera, and Palma ; and we 
may consequently expect to meet with it in Hierro likewise. 

The A. cenescens varies a little in sculpture — the examples from 
the higher altitudes of Teneriffe (where it abounds on the blossoms of 
the Retama) being a Httle more sparingly and strongly punctured, 
as well as somewhat more polished and with their heads just percep- 
tibly rounder and more developed ; but I do not think that they 
have the sHghest claim to be regarded as distinct from those which 
are found in the less elevated districts. Nevertheless that particular 
state is the one which I took as my type of the species ; and if there- 
fore the rather more closely punctured form (which occurs not only 
in Teneriffe, but in Gomera and Palma likewise) should at any future 
time have to be separated (which I cannot but regard as extremely 
improbable), it must stand under the name of puncticollis — which I 
applied to it, treating it as a '' var. /3," in my diagnosis. 

572. Attalus maderensis. 

Pecteropus maderensis, Woll.j Ins. Mad. 247, tab. iv. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 85 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^'^., Buffio), ad flores praesertim 
Cinerarice auritce in editioribus vulgaris. 

Peculiar to the Madeiran Group, where most probably it will be 
found to be quite universal, — though it is evidently far more abun- 
dant in Madeira proper than elsewhere. It occurs principally in the 
higher elevations, and has been detected hitherto in Madeira proper, 
Porto Santo, and the southern Deserta (or Bugio). In the sylvan 
districts of Madeira proper it is very partial to the flowers of the 
Cineraria aurita (the Senecio maderensis of De Candolle), the large 
clusters of which often teem with it. Judging from the examples 
which I have yet taken, the species would appear to be much smaller 
in Porto Santo and the Bugio than it is in Madeira proper, — a fact 
however which is rendered quite intelligible from the comparatively 
exposed and weather-beaten nature of those two islands. Indeed 
the only spot where I have observed it in Porto Santo is the extreme 
summit of the Pico Branco ; and on the southern Deserta I met 
with it, in like manner, on the very top of that remote and almost 
inaccessible rock. 



202 



MALACHIAD^. 



573. Attalus mgosus. 

Pecteropus rugosus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 249 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ad flores in inferioribus occiirrens. 

Closely allied to the last species, though I believe truly distinct 
from it. Hitherto, however, it has been observed only in Madeira 
proper ; and whilst the A. maderensis is peculiar (both there and 
elsewhere) to the higher elevations, the rugosus occurs nearly at the 
sea-level. Indeed it has been captured hitherto merely in one 
locality — immediately above the Praia Formosa, to the westward of 
Punchal; though we may of course expect to meet with it more 
generally, throughout the lower districts. 

Genus 179. PECTEROPUS*. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 245 (1854). 

574. Pecteropus rostratus. 

Pecteropus rostratus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 250, tab. iv. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*° S*^., Des., Bugio), ad flores sat vulgaris. 

Peculiar apparently to the Madeiran Group, though it has not yet 
been observed in Madeira proper ; but in Porto Santo and on the 
two southern Desertas (namely, the Deserta Grande and the Bugio) 
it is tolerably common during the spring and early summer months, 
occurring on flowers and principally at rather low elevations. The 
Porto Santan examples (var. a) are on the average somewhat paler, 
more brassy, and less rugose than those (var. /3), which are more 
coppery, from the Desertas. 

575. Pecteropus angustifrons. 

Pecteropus angustifrons, Woll., Journ. ofEnt. i. 427, pi. xx. f. 1 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 218 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), ad flores tempore hiemali deprehensus. 

* In a Paper " on the Canarian Malacoderms," published in the ' Journ, of 
Ent.' in 1862, I expressed a doubt whether my genus Pecteropus can be truly- 
upheld as distinct from Attalus. I am still however inclined to believe (as then) 
that the few species which compose it are sufficiently separated from the normal 
Attali to constitute a little group of themselves — in which the head is narrower 
and much more oval, with the forehead more depressed (often indeed concave), 
the eyes less prominent, the epistome more produced in front, and the neck 
relatively broader, whilst, at the same time, the maxillary palpi are somewhat 
longer, the entire surface is usually more densely sculptured, and the outline is 
more acuminated anteriorly. As thus defined, Pecteropus would bear much the 
same sort of relation to Attalus proper as Malthodes (in the TelephoridcB) does 
to Malthinus. 




MALACHIADiE. 203 

A most elegant species, and likewise peculiar to Gomera — having 
been taken by Mr. Gray and myself on the hills above San Sebastian, 
during our short sojourn in that island in Eebruary 1858. 

576. Pecteropus scitulus. 
Pecteropus scitulus, WolL, Cat Can, Col. 218 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch repertus. 

Observed as yet, like the two preceding species, only in Gomera 
— where it was taken first by Dr. Crotch during the spring of 1862, 
and subsequently by himself and his brother during their late 
Canarian expedition. As implied in my Canarian Catalogue, it has 
so much the general colouring and aspect of a true Attains that at 
first sight it might appear doubtful whether it should not be assigned 
to that group rather than to Pecteropus ; nevertheless its more pro- 
duced head and narrower, flatter forehead, in conjunction with its 
less prominent eyes, are more in accordance with the Pecteropi than 
with the Attali. It is extremely variable in colour, — its prothorax, 
which has generally only the sides and hinder region broadly rufous, 
being sometimes entirely red; whilst its elytra are either dark- 
cyaneous or else with a greenish, or greenish-brassy, tinge ; and its 
front legs, which are usually but partly pale, are sometimes entirely 
so. Its prima facie aspect is consequently more suggestive of such 
species of the normal Attali as the ruficollis and ornatissimus than 
of the totally metallic Porto Santan P. rostratus (which I would 
regard as the type of its particular group) ; nevertheless with its 
immediate ally, the P. aiicjustifrons (which is likewise pecuhar to 
Gomera), it has much in common. 

Genus 180. MICROMIMETES. 
Wollaston, Joum, of Ent. i. 439 (1862). 

577. Micromimetes alutaceus. 

Micromimetes alutaceus, WoU., Joum. of Ent. i. 441, pi. xx.f.5(1862). 
, Id.j Cat. Can. Col. 227 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), rarissimus; ad flores in aridis arenosis 
parce captus. 

The only examples which I have yet seen of this Malacoderm were 
captured by myself, during April 1858, in the sandy district at Mas- 
palomas in the extreme south of Grand Canary. 



240 



MALACHIADiE. 



578. Micromimetes ? jucundus. 

Micromimetes ? jucundus, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 441 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 228 (1864)." 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), semel tantum repertus. 

Likewise peculiar (apparently) to Grand Canary, the single speci- 
men hitherto detected having been captured by myself in the region 
of El Monte in that island. Being unfortunately a female one, I can- 
not tell whether the tarsi of the male would assign it, or not, to this 
particular group. I believe however that it is not a Micromimetes ; 
and it is therefore only provisionally that I have placed it in its 
present position. 

Genus 181. CEPHALOGONIA. ~ 

Wollaston, Jmirn. of Ent. i. 442 (1862). 

579. Cephalogonia cerasina. 

Cephalogonia cerasina, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 444, pi. xx. f. 6 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 228 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), floribus Phijsalidis aristatce in 
apricis inferioribus praecipue gaudens. 

The most beautiful of the Atlantic Malacoderms, and which has 
been observed hitherto only in Teneriffe and Palma of the Canarian 
Group. It occurs principally at low elevations, in sunny spots, 
and is chiefly attached to the blossoms of the Physalis aristata — a 
shrub which is rather common in certain cindery districts towai'ds 
the coast. 



Genus 182. CEPHALONCUS. 
Westwood, in Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 178 (1863). 

580. Cephaloncus capito. 

Cephaloncus [script. Ogcocephalus] capito, Westw., loc. cit. 178 (1863). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 229 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), rarissimus ; super arbusculas Plocamce 
pendulce parcissime lectus. 

It is in Grand Canary only that this exceedingly rare, and beaw^' 
tiful, little Malacoderm has hitherto been observed, — the few speci- 
mens brought to light having been captured by myself oif some 
shrubs of Plocarnxx pendula at Aldea de San Nicholas, in the west of 
that island. 




U 



MELYRID.E. 205 

Fam. 43. MELYRIDiE. 

Genus 183. DASYTES. 
Paykull, Fm Suec. ii. 156 (1798). 

581. Dasytes subaBnescens. 

Dasytes nigricornis? Brum[necFab.], in Webb etI{erth.(CoL)ijO(1838). 

subaenescens, WolL, Journ. ofJEnt. i. 444 (1862). 

r— , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 230 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (in Hierro sola baud detectus), ad flores, passim ; 
ab ora maritima usque ad 8000' s. m. ascendens. 

Doubtless universal tbrougbout the Canarian archipelago, Hierro 
(in which however we may be pretty sure that it exists) being the 
only island of the seven in which it does not happen to have been 
observed. It is independent of elevation, occurring from the sea- 
level to an altitude of at least 8000 feet. We may regard it as the 
representative at the Canaries of the European D. Jlavipes, to which 
in many respects it is closely allied ; and indeed it is not impossible 
that it may be, in reality, but a geographical phasis of that species. 

582. Dasytes dispar. 

Dasytes dispar, Woll., Jow-n. of Ent. i. 445 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 230 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in intermediis ad flores deprehensus. 

The only specimens which I have seen of this Dasytes were taken 
by myself in Grand Canary, where it is not uncommon during the 
spring months throughout the region of El Monte. 

583. Dasytes illustris. 

Dasytes illustris (Mots.), WolL, Ins. Mad. 252 (1854). 
, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (in Ilheo Chao sola hand detectus), ad flores 
vulgatissimus. 

Abounds on flowers in the Madeiran archipelago — where it is 
doubtless universal, though I do not happen to have observed it on 
the northern Deserta (or Ilheo Chao) ; but in Madeira proper, Porto 
Santo, the Deserta Grande, and the Bugio it has been captured in 
profusion. It occurs likewise in the south of Europe; but it is 
somewhat remarkable that, although thus common at the Madeiras, 
it has not yet been detected in the Canarian Group. 



206 ^^^H MELYRID^. 

Genus 184. DOLICHOSOMA. 
Stephens, Man. Brit, Col 193 (1839). 

584. Dolichosoma Hartungii. 

Dasytes filiformis, JHari. [nee Creutz.l, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und 

Fuert 140, 141. 
Dolichosoma Hartungii, WoU., Journ. of Ent. i. 446 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 231 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can., T'en.), ad flores in infen^ 
oribus intermediisque sat vulgare. 

Not uncommon at low and intermediate elevations in the Canarian 
Group, at any rate in the eastern and central parts of it — having 
been taken in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Tene- 
riffe. Although I have not been able to procure a type of that 
insect for comparison, I believe that it will be found to be closely 
allied to the D. protensum from Sardinia. 

Genus 185. HAPLOCNEMUS. 
Stephens, ///. Brit. Ent. iii. 316 [script. Aplocnemus] (1830). 

585. Haplocnemus sculpturatus. 

Haplocnemus sculpturatus, WoU., Journ. of Ent. i. 447 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 232 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam., Palma), in intermediis et prsesertii 
elevatis rarior. 

Occurs sparingly at intermediate and (more particularly) lofty 
altitudes in Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma, of the Canarian Group ; 
in the first of which I took it (not uncommonly) on the blossoms, as 
well as from amongst dead sticks beneath the shrubs, of the Eetamas 
on the lofty Cumbi-e adjoining the Caiiadas — more than 8000 feet 
above the sea. 

586. Haplocnemus vestitus. 

Haplocnemus vestitus, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 447 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 232 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), parce deprehensus. 

Likewise a Canarian Haplocnemus, though as yet observed only 
in Hierro — where it may be regarded as the representative of the 
preceding species, which occurs in at any rate three of the other 
islands. It is in fact closely allied to that insect, of which perhaps 
it may be some extreme insular modification which is densely beset 
with long and erect hairs. 




MELYRIDiE. 207 

Genus 186. MELYROSOMA. 
WoUaston, Ins, Mad. 253 (1854) . 

587. Meljrrosoma oceanicum. 

Melyrosoma oceanicum, Woll, Im. Mad. 253, tab. v. f. 1 (1854). 
,/d, Cat. Mad. Col. 86 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), ad floras in editioribus hinc inde viil- 
gare. Usque ad summos monies ascendit. 

Peculiar apparently to Madeira proper, where it occurs on flowers 
(occasionally in abundance) at lofty elevations, — ascending to the 
summits of the highest peaks. 

588. Melyrosoma costipenne. 

Melyrosoma costipenne, WoU., Journ. ofEnt. i. 448 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 233 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Observed hitherto only in Grand Canary, where (although per- 
fectly distinct from it) it may be regarded as the representative of 
the Madeiran M. oceanicum. Like that species, it is found on flowers 
at very lofty altitudes. 

589. Melyrosoma hirtum. 

Melyrosoma hirtum, Woll, Jotirn. of Ent. i. 449 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 233 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus valde excelsis rarius ; etiam 
ad 12,000' s. m. a cl. W. D. Crotch parce lectum. 

A Canarian species which has been detected hitherto only in the 
higher (and highest) elevations of Tenerifffe, where it ascends to the 
actual summit of the Peak — Dr. Crotch, during the spring of 1862, 
having captured a few examples of it on the very top of the cone 
itself (upwards of 12,000 feet above the sea). I have myself met 
with it on the ascent to the Cumbre from the Agua Mansa. 

590. Melyrosoma abdominale. 

Melyrosoma abdominale, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 87 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in inferioribus rarissimum. Exemplar 
unicum in insula parva " Ilheo de Fora " dicta deprehendi. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it would appear 
to be rare and to occur at a low elevation. Indeed the only (typical) 



208 



CLERIDiE. 




example which I have seen was captured by myself on the little ' 
rock known as the Ilheo de Fora, off the eastern extremity of the 
Ponta de Sao Lourengo. 

591. Melyrosoma flavescens. 

Melyrosoma flavescens, WolL, Journ. of JEut.i. 449 (1862). 
, M, Cat. Can. Col 234 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom., Pahna, Hierro), ab ora maritime, usqiii 
ad, vel ultra, 3000' s. m. ascendens. 

This very distinct little species has been detected hitherto only 
in the western islands of the Canarian archipelago, where it occurs 
from the sea-level to an altitude of more than 3000 feet. I have 
taken it in the Pinal of Palma, above the Banda; and several^ 
examples are now before me which were captured by the Mess: 
Crotch ('* on EuphorUa-hlo^^om^, above and below Hermigua ") i: 
Gomera, and Hierro. 

592. Melyrosoma artemisiae. 

Melyrosoma Artemisiae, Woll., Ins. Mad. 254, tab. v. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 88 (1857) 

Habitat Maderenses (Ilheo, Chdo, Des.), pra)sertim ad flores Arte 
misice argenteoe, Herit. 

Found in the northern and central Desertas, of the Madeiran 
Group, where it is very partial to the flowers of the Artemisia ar- 
gentea ; but it has not yet been detected elsewhere. Although ex 
ceedingly distinct from that species, it may be regarded as the 
representative at the Madeiras of the Canarian M. flavescens. 

Pam. 44. CLERID^. 

Genus 187. OPILUS. 
Latreille, Hist. Nat. des Ins. iii. Ill [script. Opilo] (1802). 

593. Opilus mollis. 

Attelabus mollis, Linn., Fna Sttec. 186 (1761). 
Opilo mollis, Lat., Hist. Nat. des Ins. ix. 149 (1804). 
Opilus mollis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 256 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad, Col. 88 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in subinferioribus circa domes r, 
simus. 





The European 0, mollis occurs very sparingly about one or two 



CLERID^. 209 

cultivated spots, and old houses (near Funchal), in Madeira proper ; 
but it has not been observed elsewhere in these Atlantic islands. 
Most probably it has become naturalized accidentally from more 
northern latitudes. 

Genus 'l88. CLERUS. 
Geofiroy, Hist Ahr. dcs Ins. 303 (1764). 

594. Clems Paivae. 

Clerus Paivae, Wall, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 163, pi. vii. f. 5 (1862). 
. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 234 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (in Palma sola hand observ'atus), in ramulis 
truncisque Euphorbiarum emortuis late sed parce difinsus. 

This most interesting little Clerus (which was dedicated to my 
worthy friend the Barao do Castello de Paiva) is attached exclu- 
sively to the dead Euphorbias in the Canarian archipelago, where it 
is doubtless universal ; for although it does not happen to have been 
observed in Palma we may be pretty certain that it must exist there, 
and in the other six islands it has been taken more or less abun- 
dantly. Its detection in Gomera is due to the recent investigations 
of the Messrs. Crotch. 

Genus 189. CORYNETES. 
Herbst, Kdf. iv. 148 [script. Korynetes'] (1791). 

595. Cor3nietes ruficollis. 

Anobium ruficoUe, Thunh., Nov. Ins. Spec. i. 8 (1781). 
Dermestes mficonis, Fab., Ent. Si/st. i. 230 (1792). 
Necrobia rufieolHs, WoU., Ins. Mad. 258 (1864). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 88 (1857). 

Corynetes ruficolhs, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 235 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in cultis et circa 
domos necnon in cadaveribus parce occurrens. 

This almost cosmopolitan insect has become established both at 

the Madeiras and Canaries, — where however it is extremely local, 

and (at any rate at the latter) rather scarce. It occurs about 

houses and cultivated grounds, as well as in dead animals, in 

Madeira proper; and I have also met with it near S*^ Cruz, in 

TenerifFe. 

596. Corynetes rufipes. 

Anobium rufipes, Thunb., Nov. Ins. Spec. i. 10 (1781). 
Corynetes rufipes, Fab., Si/st. Elm. i. 286 (1801). 



210 



PTINIDiE. 



Necrobia rufipes, BndU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838). 
Corynetes rufipes, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 235 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten., Gam.) in cadaveribuM 
et circa domos hmc iude vulgaris. 

The C. rufipes, which like the last species has become naturalizet 
throughout the greater portion of the civilized world, is doubtless 
universal at the Canaries — in all the islands of which it has beei 
observed except in Palma and Hierro, where however we may fet 
quite sure that it exists. But although thus general at the Cana- 
ries, it is somewhat singular that it has not yet been detected in the 
Madeiran group. 



597, Corjmetes fimetarius. 

Corynetes fimetarius, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 440 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 236 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.'), in stercore arido bovino, equinoj 
cameHno hinc inde vulgaris. 

Locally abundant in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern 
islands of the Canarian Group, to which it seems to be peculiar. It 
is a truly indigenous insect, occurring in the dung of cattle at?!i 
low and intermediate altitudes ; and in its purely structural details 
it has more in common vdth the subgenus Opetiopalpus, of Spinola, 
than with Corynetes proper. 



Fam. 45. PTINID^. 

Genus 190. CASOPUS. 
WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. i. 194 [script. Casapus'] (1862). 

598. Casopus Bonvouloirii. 

Casapus Bonvouloirii, Woll., loc. cit. 196, pi. viii. f. 1 (1862). 
Casopus , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 237 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis editioribus rarissimus. 

This noble Canarian Casopus seems to be attached to the sylvan 
districts of Teneriffe at a high altitude, where it is both local and 
scarce. In the humid region around the Agua Mansa, however, I 
obtained it in tolerable abundance ; and it was found sparingly by 
the Messrs. Crotch neai* Ycod el Alto, as well as in the Pinal 
above it. 




PTINID^. 211 

599. Casopus dilaticollis. 

Casapus dilaticollis, JFoll, loc. cit. 197 (1862). 
Casopus , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 237 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in inferioribus et intermediis sat vul- 
' garis. 

Likewise Teneriffan, but more abundant and much more widely 
diffused than the last species. It occurs beneath stones and dry- 
fallen leaves at low and intermediate elevations, ascending from the 
sea-level to an altitude of about 3000 feet. 

600. Casopus alticola. 

Casapus alticola, Woll., loc. cit. 198, pi. viii. f. 2 (1862). 
Casopus , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 238 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in locis elevatis rarissimus. Usque ad 
8000' s. m. ascendit. 

Attached to the loftier altitudes of Teneriffe, where it would 
appear to be extremely rare. I have taken it above the Agua 
Mansa, and on the elevated Cumbre adjoining the Canadas; and it 
has been found sparingly by the Messrs. Crotch in the Pinal above 
Ycod el Alto. It is very closely allied to the C. dilaticollis, of 
which indeed it may possibly be but a phasis peculiar to the higher 
regions ; in which case the upward range of that species would, of 
course, be greatly increased. Nevertheless, as stated in my paper 
on the Canarian Ptinidce, I am more inclined to believe that 
(however nearly resembling it) it is truly distinct from the dila- 
ticollis*, 

601. Casopus pedatus. 

Casopus dilaticollis, var. y, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 238 (1864). 
pedatus, Id.,Ap2)end. huj. op. -^z. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch repertus. 

The representative in Gomera of the Teneriffan C. dilaticollis (or 
perhaps, rather, of the alticola), from which however it appears to 
be sufficiently distinct — as wiU be seen by a reference to my diag- 
nosis, given in the Appendix to this volume. It was first found by 
Dr. Crotch, during his sojourn in Gomera in the spring of 1862 ; in 

* The C. alticola is rather larger than the dilaticollis, with its pubescence not 
quite so long ; its elytra are more deeply substriate-punctate, and have their 
front transverse fascia developed (instead of being obsolete) ; and the first joint 
of the hinder feet of the male is perhaps somewhat more inflated. 

p2 



212 



PTINIDtE. 



which same island it has lately been taken more abundantly b] 
himself and his brother. 

602. Casopus radiosus. 

Casapus radiosus, Woll, he. cit. 199 (1862). 
Casopus radiosus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 238 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), sub lapidibus in elevatis et intermediis 
rarior. 

The few examples which I have seen of this Casopus were take 
by myself in Grand Canary — on the ascent to the Roca del Soucilho, 
above San Mateo. It will doubtless be found as abundantly as most 
of the other species, when the higher elevations of Grand Canary 
have been carefully explored. 




603. Casopus subcalvus. 

Casapus subcalvus. Wall., loc. cit. 200, pi. viii. f. 3 (1862). 
Casopus subcalvus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 239 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), sub lapidibus in intermediis parce lectus.^ 

Peculiar apparently to Hierro, the most western island of the 
Canarian Group, where it occurs sparingly at intermediate altitudes. 
It was taken by Mr. Gray and myself, near Valverde, and subse- 
quently by the Messrs. Crotch ; and an example is now before me 
which has been communicated by De Marseul from the collection of 
M. de la Perraudiere, and which was met with by the latter in the 
same island. 

Genus 191. DIGNOMUS. 
WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 201 (1862). 

604. Dignomus gracilipes. 

Dignomus gracilipes, Woll., loc. cit. 202, pi. viii. f. 4 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 239 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in stercore bovino, equino, came- 
lino in aridis inferioribus latens. 

One of the rarest of the Atlantic Ptinidce, and confined apparently 
to Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (the two eastern islands of the 
Canarian Group) — where it secretes itself within the dried dung of 
cattle in arid sandy spots of a low elevation. This peculiarity of 
habit, however eccentric for a member of the present family, is 
nevertheless in accordance with what seems to be normal for at any 
rate one more Canarian Ptinid — namely, the Piarus basalts. 





PTINID^. 213 

Genus 192. PTINUS. 
. Linnaeus, Si/st. Nat ii. 565 (1767). 

605. Ptinus testaceus. 

Ptinus testaceus, Olw., Ent. ix. 8 (1790). 

advena, Woll, Ins. Mad. 261 (1854). 

testaceus, De Boield. , Ann. de la Soc. Unt. de France j i v. 654 (1857) . 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 89 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 239 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Hierro), ex alienis intro- 
ductus ; circa domos mercatorumque repositoria parce occiirrens. 

The European P. testaceus occurs sparingly, about houses and 
stores, both at the Madeiras and Canaries, where it has doubtless 
become established accidentally through the medium of commerce. 
I have captured it in Madeira proper, of the former, and in Hierro, 
of the latter ; but it is decidedly scarce. 

606. Ptinus brunneus. 

Ptinus bnmneus (Meg.), Dufts., Fna Austr. iii. 65 (1825). 

, Be Boield., Atin. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iv. 649 (1857). 

, JVoll., Cat. Mad. Col. 89 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens et certe 
introductus. 

Taken by myself in Madeira proper, the species being in precisely 
the same predicament as the last one — clearly introduced, and 
perhaps become naturalized, through human agencies. 

607. Ptinus variegatus. 

Ptinus variegatus, Bossi, Mant. Ins. 20 (1792). 

mauritanicus, Lucas, Col. de VAlgerie, 208 (1849). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 261 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub lapidibus in inferioribus, praecipue 
in cavcrijis tufae apertis, sese occultans. 

Not uncommon in the low, or but slightly elevated, districts of 
Madeira proper, — occurring for the most part beneath stones (par- 
ticularly in the open basaltic caves near the coast), though occasion- 
ally under the dried masses of Senvpervivum which stud the perpen- 
dicular rocks; but it has not yet been observed in the Canarian 
Group. It is a species of Mediterranean latitudes, being found in 
the south of Europe and the north of Africa. 



214 



PTINIDiE. 



Genus 193. MEZIUM. 
(Leach) Curt., Brit. Ent. v. 232 (1828). 

608. Mezium sulcatum. 

Ptinus sulcatus, Fab., Spec, Ins. i. 73 (1781). 

Gibbiuin sulcicolle, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 60 (1838). 

Mezium sulcatum, Woll.^ Ins. Mad. 273 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

-^— ^ , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 240 (1864). 

Gibbium sulcicoUe, Hart, Geolog. Verhaltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 14( 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), sub lapidibus 
scoriisque praesertim in cavernis tufge apertis vulgaris. 

This insect, which is rather sparingly distributed over central and 
southern Europe, abounds in these Atlantic islands — where it seems 
to be quite indigenous, and where I have little doubt that it will be 
found to be universal. And it is worth noting that the original 
examples from which Fabricius compiled his diagnosis of the spccieaj 
were Canarian ones. It is common at rather low elevations in' 
Madeira proper, chiefly beneath stones and scorisB in dry spots (more 
particularly in small open caverns of the basaltic rocks, towards tb 
coast), often in company with the Ptinus variegatus ; whilst at th( 
Canaries it is still more abundant, and has been found (in similar 
situations) in the whole seven islands of the Group. I met with it 
likewise at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Africa. 

Genus 194. GIBBIUM. 
Scopoli, Int. ad Hist. Nat. 505 (1777), 

609. Gibbium scotias. 

Ptinus scotias. Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 74 (1831). 

Gibbium scotias, Kugel., in Schneid. Mag. iv. 502 (1794). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 274 (1864). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimum. Exemplar unicum, forsan 
ex alienis introductum, in domo quadam cepi. 

A single specimen of this common European insect, which I took 
many years ago in a house at Machico in Madeira proper, is the 
only one that I have yet seen from these Atlantic islands. Perhaps 
it was a mere accidental importation from more northern latitudes ; 
though it is very possible that the species may have become esta- 
blished, in some of the storehouses and towns, through the medium 
of commerce. 






PTINIDiE. 215 

Genus 195. MICROPTINUS. 
Nitpusy Duval, Glan. Entom. 138 (1860). 
Although unwilling to press too far the Linnaean rule against 
generic names " simili sono exeuntia/^ I nevertheless have no hesi- 
tation in acting upon it in this instance — seeing that the existence 
simultaneously of such titles as Nitjpus and Niptus, a fact which is 
rendered even more objectionable still on account of their representing 
consecutive groups, cannot but prove a constant source of confusion 
and perplexity. It is for this reason alone that I would venture to 
alter it, by proposing instead the more euphonious one of Micro- 
ptinus ; though, on other grounds as well, few probably would be 
found to regret its suppression — ^names like Nitpus, Niptus, and 
Tipnus being a positive outrage on the laws of orthography. 

610. Microptinus gonospemii. 

Nitpus gonospermi, Duval, lac. cit. 138 (1860). 

, Wall, Trans. Ent. Sac. Land. i. 206 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 240 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Qom.), in inferioribus intermediisque hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

Observed hitherto only in TenerifFe and Gomera, of the Canarian 
Group, where it is occasionally common at low and intermediate 
elevations. Its general aspect is quite that of a JSphcericus ; never- 
theless its 9-jointed antennao and the quadriarticulate hind feet of 
its male sex wiU at once separate it from the members of that genus. 
In Teneriffe I have taken it very abundantly off a large Tanacetum. 

Genus 196. SPH^RICUS. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 2a3 (1854). 

611. Sphaericus albopictus. 

Ptinus albopictus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 267, tab. v. f. 4 (1854). 

longicornis, Id., Ibid. 270 (1854). 

albopictus, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes), vel inter lichenes in rupium fissuris 
vel intra caules Carduorum (praesertim Silyhi Mariani, Grtn.) 
hinc inde vulgaris. Species statura atque etiam colore valde 
inconstans. 

The universal Sphcericus of the Madeiran Group, in all the islands 
of which it is locally abundant, — occurring at most elevations, though 
particularly at rather low and intermediate ones. Like the gene- 



216 



PTINIDiE. 



rality of the SpJicerici, it varies immensely in stature (according to 
the circumstances under which it is found) — the examples from the 
northern Deserta descending to a most diminutive size. It occurs in 
many different situations, hut is extremely partial to the pithy stems 
of Thistles (especially the gigantic Silyhum Marianum, Grtn., — the 
Holy Thistle of the ancients). However, it is often to be met with, 
in absolute profusion, harbouj-ing amongst lichen within the crevices 
of the weather-beaten peaks ; as well as amongst the dead leaves 
around the roots of Semperviva, the jflat rosettes of which are fre- 
quently so conspicuous on the faces of the perpendicular rocks. 

612. Sphaericus simplex. 

Sphsericus simplex, WolL, Tr.Ent. Soc. Lcmcl. i. 207, pi. viii. f. 6 (1862). 
, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 241 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Hierro), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Although at first sight so closely resembling the alhopictus of the 
Madeiran Group that it might well be mistaken for it, I nevertheless 
believe that the present Sphcericus must not be regarded as any local 
modification of that insect. And yet, on the other hand, its distinc- 
tions are so little apparent until the specimens are examined with 
the greatest care, that it is difiicult to feel altogether satisfied that such 
may not be the case. At any rate since I have already recorded the 
T. simplex as a separate species, and since one at least of its small 
diagnostic features is structural, I will not suppress it ; though, in 
that case, it must certainly be looked upon as at aU events the Cana- 
rian representative of its Madeiran ally. 

I have taken the S. simplex in Hierro, and it was found by the 
Messrs. Crotch both in that island and Gomera *. 

613. Sphaericus pilula. 

Ptinus pilula, Woll, Lis. Mad. 266 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Hahitat Maderenses {Mad.), semel tantum repertus. 



* The S. simplex differs from the alhopictus in its prothorax (when denuded 
of its scales) being a httle less densely, and less regularly, scabrous (having more 
the appearance of being roughly punctured), as also somewhat more evidently 
margined along its basal edge ; in its elytra being usually rather rounder, as well 
as more deeply and sparingly punctured ; and in the penultimate joint of its feet 
being rather less expanded, and almost simple — though this last character is not 
very evident until the two species are viewed, side by side, beneath the micro- 
scope. 



PTINID^. 217 

The only example of this SpJicericus which I have yet seen was 
taken by myself many years ago in Madeira proper ; and although 
the small characters alluded to in my diagnosis seem perhaps sufficient 
(if constant) to indicate it as a distinct species, nevertheless I cannot 
but feel that further material is greatly required in order to ascertain 
for certain that the S. jpilula is no depauperated modification of the 
(very variable) alhopictus. 

614. Sphaericus ambiguus. 
Spheericus ambiguus, Woll.j Append, huj. o??. 33. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. Bewicke olim repertus. 

Found by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper ; but I have no 
means now of ascertaining its precise locality. It is a good deal 
allied to the alhopictiis ; nevertheless I believe that it possesses too 
many features of its own to admit of its being regarded as any largely 
developed, coarsely sculptured, thick-limbed state of that species. 

615. Sphaericus gibbicollis. 

Sphaericus gibbicoUis, Wall., Tram. Ent Soc. Lmd. i. 208 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 241 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in intermediis rarissimus. 

Observed hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, where it occurs sparingly at 
intermediate elevations. ' 

616. Sphaericus pinguis. 

Ptinus pinguis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 264 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus ; prsecipue in subinferioribus 
occurrens. 

Occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, principally at rather low ele- 
vations ; but it has not yet been detected elsewhere. , 

617. Sphaericus impunctipeimis. 
Sphaericus impunctipennis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 241 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), a "W. D. Crotch, M.D., parce captus. 

Detected by Dr. Crotch (during the spring of 1862) in Gomera, 



218 



PTINIDiE. 



of the Canarian Group, where it may be regarded as the represenfa^ 
tive of the Madeiran S. pinguis*, 

618. Sphsericus orbatus. 

Ptinus orbatus, Woll., Ins, Mad. 264, tab. v. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in ligno antique semel lectus. 

Found in Madeira proper, and hitherto unique ; but, apart from 
all other characters, the sculpture of its elytra is so peculiar (the 
punctures being enormous, and very remote, though not particularly 
deep) that it is impossible to confound it, even in the absence of 
further specimens to judge from, with any of the other Spfioerici 
here enumerated. 

619. Sphaericus nodulus. 

Ptinus nodulus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 265 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^^ S*^), inter lapillos et lichenes in rupium fis- 
suris saltem tempore hiemali latens. 

Found in Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, wher6 it occurs 
(along with the S. albojpictus, though much more rarely) amongst 
lichen, and adhering to small stones, within the crevices of the ex- 
posed weather-beaten rocks, at intermediate and rather lofty eleva- 
tions. 

620. Sphsericus Dawsoni. 

Ptinus Dawsoni, Woll, Ins. Mad. 263, tab. v. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 90 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Des., Bugio), sub lapidibus necnon inter liche- 
nes in rupium fissuris nascentes rarissimus, 



i 



A large and beautiful SpJioericus which I have observed only on 
the two southern Desertas, in the Madeiran Group, where moreover 
it is of the greatest rarity. Like most of the species it may be found 
secreting itself beneath stones in high and exposed spots, or harbour- 
ing amongst lichen within the crevices of the weather-beaten rocks. 

* The impunctipennis, when denuded of its scales, will be seen to have its pro- 
thorax much more roughly scabrous than is the case with the pinguis, whilst its 
elytra (which are a little more oblong, or less globular, and not quite so opake) 
have indicationsof very minute and obsolete granules scattered over their surface 
(particularly behind), of which I cannot detect any traces in that insect. The 
Canarian species, also, is probably (on the average) a little larger ; and its limbs 
are more elongate, the subapical joints of its antennae being conspicuously less 
abbreviated. 



PTINID^. 219 

621. Sphaericus marmoratus. 

Spheericus marmoratus, WoU., Append, huj. op. n. 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Hierro), a DD. Crotch nuper lectus. 

Taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera and Hierro, during their 
late Canarian campaign. By a reference to my diagnosis given in 
the Appendix, it will be seen that the specimens from those two 
islands differ a little inter se, but that the differences are so very 
slight and unimportant that I do not believe they can be indicative 
of more than insular phases of the species. 

622. Sphaericus Crotchianus. 

Sphc^ricus Crotchianus, Wull., Cat. Can. Col. 242 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), a DD. Crotch copiose repertus. 

Detected by Dr. Crotch at Hermigua, in Gomera, during his first 
Canarian campaign ; and since captured abundantly, by himself and 
his brother, in the same locality — chiefly " amongst garden-refuse." 

Genus 197. PTINODES (nov. gen.). 
(Ptinus, Sectio B., Ins. Mad. 271.) 

Corpus et instrumenta cibaria fere ut in Sphcerico, sed antennce pedes- 
que fragiles, illce ad basin distantes ; tat'sii breviores, filiformes, 
articulis lo-4"* brevibus, inter se suba3qualibus. Corpus nigres- 
cens, plus minus albido-squamosum ; elytra magis quadrata (nee 
globosa)*. 

A Ptinus, et eUos, forma. 

623. Ptinodes nigrescens. 
Ptinus nigrescens, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 91 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in subeditioribus rarissimus. 

The only specimens which I have seen of this insect were taken 
by myself (at rather a high elevation) at Feijaa d'Ovelha, in the west 
of Madeira proper, — where, although exceedingly distinct from that 
species, it may perhaps be regarded as the representative of the Porto 
Santan P. fragilis. 

* Apart from their structural peculiarity, of basally-distant antennae and 
shorter, narrower, filiform feet (the four basal joints of which are much abbrevi- 
ated, and subequal), both of the Ptinodes enumerated above have a different 
general aspect from the Sphcerici — being blacker, though more or less covered 
(particularly on the head and prothorax) with snowy-white scales, with their 
elytra rather squarer (or less globose), and the limbs more fragile. 



220 ^^^^^F PTINIDiE. 

624. Ptinodes fragilis. 

Ptinus fragilis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 271 (1864). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*(> S*^, Bes., Bugio), inter lichenes in rupium 
fissuris crescentes latens. 

Likewise peculiar to the Madeiran Group, though hitherto it has 
not been detected in Madeira proper. But in Porto Santo and on 
the two southern Desertas (and we may expect it to occur on the 
northern Deserta likewise) I have taken it in tolerable abundance, 
from amongst the lichen which fiUs up the crevices of the exposed 
rocks. From the very fragile nature of its (slender and abbreviated) 
limbs, it requires considerable care to retain the specimens in a per- 
fect state — even when captured. 

Genus 198. PIARUS. 
Wollaston, Tratis. Ent.Soc. Lond. i. 209 (1862). 

Q)2b. Piams basalts. 

Piarus basaUs, Woll, he. cit. 210, pi. viii. f. 7 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 243 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus in apricis et prae^ 
cipue in stercore arido bovino, equino, camelino vulgaris. 

Abundant in certain districts (of low and intermediate elevations) 
in Lanzarote and Puerteventura, the two eastern islands of the Ca- 
narian archipelago ; but it has not yet been detected elsewhere. 
Like the Dignomus gracilipes, it usually secretes itself within the 
dried dung of cattle in the most hot and dusty spots ; nevertheless 
it occurs also beneath stones and scoriae. 



Genus 199. PIOTES. 
Wollaston, I^-ans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 211 (1862). 

626. Piotes inconstans. 

Piotes inconstans, Woll, loc. cit. 212, pi. viii. f. 8 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 243 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), sub lapidibus in aridis apricis necnon 

sub cortice Euphorbiarum laxo minus frequens. ^^1 

A most variable insect, both in colour and pubescence, and which 
has been taken hitherto only in Grand Canary, — where it secretes 



ANOBIADiE. 221 

itself beneath stones, and in the dry loosened bark of Euphorbias, 
principally at low elevations. 

627. Piotes vestita. 

Piotes vestita, WolL, he. cit. 213, pi. 8. f. 9 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 244 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), sub lapidibus in intermediis rarissima. 

A large Canarian species which seems to be peculiar to the island 
of Palma, where it occurs (though very rarely) beneath stones at 
intermediate altitudes. 



Fam. 46. ANOBIADiE. 

Genus 200. STAGETUS. 
WoUaston, Atm. Nat. Hist. vii. 11 (1861). 

628. Stagetus crenatus. 

Stagetus crenatus, Woll., he. cit. 13 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 245 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), inter lichenes ad truncos arborum ve- 
tustos crescentes necnon in ligno antique in. intermediis occur- 
rens. 

A Canarian insect which (if indeed it be positively distinct from 
what I have regarded as the " var. /5 " of the following species) has 
been obsei'ved hitherto only in Teneriffe, where it is widely but spa- 
ringly distributed at intermediate elevations — harbouring amongst 
the lichen which grows on the trunks of old trees, as well as amongst 
dead wood and other dry vegetable refuse. 

629. Stagetus hirtulus. 

Stagetus hirtulus, Woll, he. cit. 12 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 246 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam., Hierro), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 
Specimina quaedam minora (=var. /3. intermedia) in Gomera 
capta minus typica sunt et forsan ad speciem praecedentem me- 
lius pertinent. Differunt praecipue statura minore, elytrorum 
striis profundioribus ac sensim subcrenatis ; sed in pube longiore 
suberecta S. hirtulo congruunt. 

Found in Gomera and Hierro, where it represents the JS. crenatus 
of Teneriife. Although in its normal state very different from that 
species, nevertheless (as stated in my Canarian Catalogue) I cannot 



222 



ANOBIADiE. 



feel entirely satisfied that it is' more than a modification of the 
crenatus ; particularly so, since some of the smaller examples have 
their elytral striae appreciably deeper and subcrenate, and appear, 
thus far at all events, to be intermediate between the two. The 
distinctions however of these small and densely clothed Coleoptera 
are often so difficult to catch, that it is far from improbable that 
other characters which I have overlooked may eventually raise my 
*' var. /3. intermedia " into a separate species ; and therefore I would 
not hastily employ it to throw doubt upon the specific validity of 
two other forms which are not only well defined in their external 
details, but likewise topographically*. 



Genus 201. XYLETINUS. 
Latreille, Beffne Anim. (ed. 2) iv. 483 (1829). 

In my Canarian Catalogue I distributed the Xyletini under two 
Sections — characterized by the size of their eyes, and the form 
(simple or excavated) of the last joint of their maxillary palpi. 
Although these divisions may very likely be exceedingly useful ones 
in a general classification, the inspection of further Canarian mate- 
rial has convinced me that at any rate in those islands they are 
much less pronounced (and therefore less available) than I had 
imagined ; for I believe that both the eye and the emargination of 
the joint referred to are more or less expressed according to the sex. 
Thus, for instance, whilst the X. latitans has undoubtedly larger 

* When denuded of their pubescence, the sculpture of the S. crenatus and 
hirtulus (as typically defined) is quite dissimilar ; for not only are the minute 
punctules with which the surfaces of both of them are densely crowded percep- 
tibly coarser in the former, but there is also no appearance in that species of the 
additional (though likewise minute and very shallow) punctures which are more 
or less evident on the elytra of the hirtulus when viewed beneath the microscope. 
Then, in the crenatus the additional punctures of the prothorax are not only 
coarser but extend (although shallower in that part) even over the posterior 
region ; whereas in the hirtulus they are quite obsolete on the hinder disk. And, 
lastly, as stated in my diagnosis, the crenatus (which is, on the average, a smaller 
insect) has its pubescence shorter and more depresssed, and its strise deep and 
conspicuously crenated (instead of being fine, Hghtly impressed, and almost 
simple). Still, as mentioned above, the smaller examples of the hirtulus (at any 
rate in Gomera, if not also in Hierro) have their striae deeper and appreciably 
crenated, and their entire sculpture rather more in accordance with that of the 
Tenerifian crenatus ; so that it is possible, after all, that the crenatus and hirtulus 
may be but extreme phases of a single species. Nevertheless I think it is far 
more likely that I have overlooked some additional character which would tend 
to raise my "var. /3. intermedia" to the rank of a separate (Gomeran) species. 
However as I have failed to draw a satisfactory line of demarcation between this 
smaller form and the hirtulus proper, I think it safer to record it as a variety, 
and to leave it to future inquiry as to whether (or not) any other distinctive 
features have escaped me. 




ANOBIADiE. 223 

eyes than any of the other species, it is nevertheless only in the 
male that they are perfectly enormous. And the same applies, in a 
great measure, to the maxillary palpus ; for although the females 
have the ultimate articulation almost simply securiform, I now per- 
ceive that in the opposite sex it is slightly scooped out, though less 
so than is the case in the species afterwards enumerated. It is 
probable therefore that all the Xyletini hitherto detected in the 
Atlantic islands, except perhaps the JlavicolUs, would fall under 
Duval's genus Meilwlcus ; but inasmuch as I have just shown that 
the main feature on which his group was made to rest (namely, the 
excavation of the extreme apex of the maxillary palpi) is not only 
a variable one (according to the species and sex), but that it is 
sometimes so feebly pronounced as to be barely traceable, I believe 
that Meiholcus cannot stand as a distinct genus, though its charac- 
ters, as secondary ones, may properly be made use of for sectional 
purposes. 

§ I. Palpi TnaxUlares articulo ultimo leviter seeuriformi, integro. 

630. Xyletinus flavicollis. 

Xyletinus flavicollis, Wall., Append, hij. op. 34. 

Habitat Canarienses (^Gom.)^ in caulibus Euphorbice canariensis a 
DD. Crotch nuper deprehensus. 

A remarkable little Xyletinus which was detected by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Gomera, during their late Canarian campaign. Having 
been found only within the rotten stalks of the Euphorbia canariensis, 
it is in all probability attached exclusively to that plant. 

§ II. Palpi rtmxillares articulo ultimo valde seeuriformi, sed ad 
apicem internum plus minu^ oblique-excavato. [Genus Metholcv^, 
Duval.] 

631. Xyletinus latitans. 

Xyletinus latitans, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 14 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 246 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Ten., Gom., Hierro), sub cortice 
Euphorbiarum arido laxo praecipue latitans. 

Attached to the Euphorbias of the Canarian archipelago, where 
indeed we may be pretty sure that it is universal. In fact it has 
already been detected in every island of the Group except Grand 
Canary and Palma, in both of which however it must doubtless 



224 



ANOBIAD^. 



exist. Its discovery in Gomera is due to the late researches of the 
Messrs. Crotch, who captured it abundantly by sweeping the flowers 
of the Euphorbias near Hermigua. 

632. Xyletinus desectus. 

Xyletinus desectus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 13 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col 246 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom.), minus frequens. 

Likewise Canarian, but whether of Euphorhia-mfestmg habits I 
am scarcely able to say, though I have little doubt that such will 
be found to be the case. I have taken it in the region of El Monte 
in Grand Canary, and also at Souzal in Teneriffe — from which latter 
island a single specimen is now before me which was captured (I 
believe near the Puerto Orotava) by the Messrs. Crotch, who more- 
over obtained another in Gomera. It is evidently very much scarcer 
than the latitans, to which however it is closely allied*. 

633. Xyletinus brevis. 

Xyletinus brevis, Woll, Ami. Nat. Hist. vii. 15 (1861). 
, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 247 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), rarissimus. 

The only two examples yet detected of this Xyletinus I captured 
in the Barranco above S**^ Cruz, in Palma, of the Canarian Group. 



634. Xyletinus excavatus. 

Xyletinus excavatus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 15 (1861), 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 247 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), semel tantum deprehensus. 

Hitherto unique, a single specimen having been taken by myself 
(during April 1858) in the south of Grand Canary. 



Genus 202. NOTIOMXUIUS. 
WoUaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 15 (1861). 



i 



* The X. desectus differs from the latitans in being umially a little smaller and 
darker, with its pubescence somewhat shorter and not quite so coarse ; in its elytra 
being a trifle more convex (or drawn-in) posteriorly, more distinctly (though 
very delicately) punctulated, and apparently free from the minute and distant 
granules which are scattered over the anterior portion in that species ; in its 
tibiic being appreciably slenderer ; and in the basal joint of its antenna; being 
rather less swollen, and not exactly of the same shape, ~ 




ANOBIADiE. 225 

635. Notiomimus fimicola. 

Notiomimus fimicola, Woll., he. cit. 17 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 247 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert,), in stercore arido bovino, equino, 
camelino latens. 

Apparently peculiar to Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, — where it resides (exclusively, 
so far as I have yet observed) within the dried dung of oxen, horses, 
and camels, especially in the most arid and dusty spots. 

636. Notiomimus holosericeus. 

Notiomimus holosericeus, Woll., loc. cit. 17 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 248 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), rarissiraus. 

Likewise Canarian, and apparently exceedingly scarce — the only two 
examples of it which I have seen having been captured, one of them 
by Mr. Gray in Palma, and the other by Dr. Crotch in Teneriffe. 

637. Notiomimus punctulatissimus. 

Notiomimus punctulatissimus, Woll., loc. cit. 17 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 248 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), semel tantum deprehensus. 

Hitherto unique — a single example having been taken by myself, 
during April 1858, in the south of Grand Canary. 



Genus 203. ANOBIUM. 
Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 62 (1775). 

638. Anobium villosum. . 

Anobium viUosum, BrulU [nee Boti., ined., nee Dej. Catl] *, in Webb 
et Berth. (Col) 60 (1838). 

, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 18 (1861). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 249 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Oom., Hierro), in ligno antiquo praesertim 
Fid necnon circa domos et in cultis late diffiisum. 

* The last Berlin Catalogue cites the A. villosum of Brulle as identical with 
Illiger's hirtum, from southern Europe ; but, judging from an example of the 
latter now before me, I can hardly regard it as conspecific with the Canarian 
insect, although undoubtedly much resembling it; for it is not only smaller 
and with longer pubescence, but its prothorax is differently shaped and exceedingly 
gibbous on the hinder disk (where there is only a slight glabrous line or keel in 



226 



ANOBIADiE. 



A Canarian Anohium which is probably universal throughout th 
archipelago, though as yet it has been observed only in Teneriife, 
Gomera, and Hierro. It occurs principally about houses and culti- 
vated grounds at low and intermediate altitudes, but is in reality 
attached to the old wood of various trees, particularly of the Pig 
The Messrs. Crotch however met with it likewise in willows, an 
even in Euphorbias. 

The examination of further material, collected by the Messrs 
Crotch in Gomera and Hierro, inclines me to believe that the speci 
men from the former of those islands which I regarded in my Cana- 
rian Catalogue as conspecific with the velatum is better referred t 
the villosum ; in which case it would follow that the velatum has, 
at the Canaries, been met with hitherto only in Lanzarote. The 
two insects however are so nearly allied to each other that I do not 
feel perfectly satisfied that they may not, after all, be but modifi- 
cations of a single species. 



639. Anobium velatum. 

Anobium velatum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 276, tab. v. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

, Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 18 (1861). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 249 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Bugio) et Canarienses (Lanz.), in locis 
similibus ac prsecedens. , 

As already implied, this species is very closely related to the pre- 
ceding one — and, apparently, with much the same habits. It has 
been captured in Madeira proper, and even on the southern Deserta (or 
Bugio); and we may expect it to occur in Porto Santo likewise. 
Indeed I believe that it attaches itself to (amongst other trees) the 
old vines ; and if so, this may account for its presence on the Bugio 
— on one of the lower slopes of which I saw evident traces of former 
cultivation. The only Canarian example of it which has yet come 
beneath my notice I found (dead) in a house at Haria, in the north 
of Lanzarote. Its pubescence is not quite so much developed as is 





the villosum). The mistake doubtless arose from M. Brulle having erroneously 
referred the Canarian species to the villosum of Bejean's Catalogue, which is 
properly the hirtum of Illiger. If my " type " from the south of France be truly 
typical, I believe that the A. hirtum, Illig. {=villosum, Bonelli, ined., and of 
Dej. Cat.) is distinct both from the villosum of M. Brulle's inaccurate Canarian 
list, and the velatum. The Canarian insect however ought scarcely perhaps to 
be quoted as the villosum of Brulle ; for the few words in which the latter alludes 
to it are absolutely no kind of " description " at all ; perhaps indeed they did 
not even profess to be so. 



ANOBIAD^. 227 

the case in the Madeiran type ; but it is much longer than on the 
vilhsum; added to which, its general aspect and the shape of its 
prothorax are more in accordance with the velatum than with the 
villosmn. 

Whether (as above stated) the A. velatum be more in reality than 
a geographical modification of the viUosum, I cannot undertake to 
decide. It seems to differ from the latter, mainly, in its much 
longer and more erect pubescence, in its prothorax being a little 
straighter at the sides and somewhat less rounded off behind, and 
in its elytra being just perceptibly less parallel. 

640. Anobium paniceum. 

Dermestes paniceus, Linn.j Fna Suec. 431 (1761). 
Anobium paniceum, Woll., Im. Mad. 277 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad, Col. 93 (1867). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col 250 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses (Lanz., Can., Ten., Gom.), 
in domibus mercatorumque repositoriis, passim. 

The A. paniceum, so liable to diffusion though human agencies 
over the civilized world, occurs sparingly (in, and about, houses and 
stores) in Madeira proper ; and it has likewise been captured in 
Lanzarote, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera, of the Canarian 
Group. It will doubtless be found in all the islands which are in- 
habited, 

641. Anobium striatum. 

Anobium striatim, Oliv., Ent. ii. 16.9 (1790). 

, Woll.,Im. Mad. 278 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 92 (1857). 

-, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 250 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma), 
late sed parce diffusum. 

This common European insect is widely scattered over these At- 
lantic islands, where very likely it has become established from 
higher latitudes, and where in all probability it is nearly universal. 
It has been taken in Madeira proper and the Deserta Grande, of 
the Madeiran Group, and in Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma, of the 
Canaries. I have never met with it abundantly, and have captured 
it for the most part in and about houses and cultivated grounds ; but 
a note from Mr. G. R. Crotch, received during his sojourn in Gomera, 
states that it " mines in profusion the fig- and mulberry- trees " in 
that island. 

q2 



228 



ANOBIAD^. 



642. Anobium cryptophagoides. 
Anobium cryptophagoides, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 250 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), rarissime ; semel repertum. 

Hitherto unique, a single example having been captured by myself j 
at a low elevation on the -western side of Hierro in the Canarian| 
Group. 

643. Anobium impressnm. 
Anobium impressmn, WolL, Appc?id. Jmj. op. 35. 
Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), a DD. Crotch semel tan turn lectum. 

Likewise unique, and confined apparently to Hierro, the single 
specimen from which my diagnosis has been compiled having been 
taken by the Messrs. Crotch during their late Canarian expedition. 

644. Anobium molle. 

Dermestes mollis, Linn., Fna Suec. 415 (1761). 
Anobium molle, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 93 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 250 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Palma), Finos antiquas 
parcissime destruens. 

The European A. molle occurs sparingly on pine-trees, above 
Funchal, in Madeira proper ; and I also obtained a single example 
of it (dead) within the dried cone of a Pinus canariensis in the island 
of Palma, — the only Canarian example which I have yet seen. 




4 



645. Anobium lyctoides. 

Anobium lyctoides, TVoll., Append, huj. op. 35. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), rarissimum. Exemplar unicum cepe- 
runt, DD. Crotch. 

The single example of this Anobium from which my diagnosis has 
been compiled was captured by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, during 
their expedition to the Canaries in the summer of 1864. 

646. Anobium oculatum. 
Anobium oculatum, Woll., Append. Jmj. op. 36. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom.), a DD. Crotch parcissime deprehensum. 

Detected by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, during their late 
sojourn at the Canaries. It was captured very sparingly, and, I 
believe, out of a dead Euphorbia. 




ANOBIADiE. 229 

647. Anobium ptilinoides. 

Anobium Ptilinoides, Woll., Ins. Mad. 278 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 93 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimum ; in domo quadam antiqua 
supra Funchal a Dom. Leacock frequenter cap turn. 

Found in Madeira proper, but extremely rare. Indeed the only- 
spot in which it has hitherto been observed is an old house (the 
Quinta dos Padres) about two miles from Funchal, in the parish of 
S. Antonio — where it was detected originally by Mr. Leacock, and 
where occasional specimens have been captured by him subsequently. 

Genus 204. PTILINUS. 
Geoffroy, Hist. Ahr. des Lis. i. 65 (1764). 

648. Ptilinus pectinicomis. 

Dermestes pectinicomis, Linn., Fna Suec. 141 (1761). 
Ptilinus pectinicomis, Bufts., Fna Amtr. iii. 43 (1825), 

, Steph., lU. Brit. Ent. iii. 331 (1830). 

, Redt, Fna Austr. 353 (1849). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in domibus circa urbem Funchalensem 
parce occurrens ; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

A few specimens of this common European Ptilinus were taken 
by the late Mr. Bewicke and myself, in his house the Quinta da 
Palmeira, above Funchal, in Madeira proper. There can be little 
doubt that the species has been introduced accidentally from more 
northern latitudes. 

649. Ptilinus cylindripennis. 

Ptilinus cylindripennis, Wall, Ins. Mad. 285 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 94 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in cultis et circa domes lignum antiquum 
perforans. Praecipue in inferioribus sed interdum in locis pa- 
rum elevatis occurrit. 

Taken in Madeira proper at low and intermediate elevations 
(especially the former), where it occurs principally about vineyards 
and cultivated grounds, boring into old wood generally. In fact it 
is strictly the representative in the Madeiran Group of the Canarian 
P. lepidus, though at the same time most distinct from that insect 
specifically. 

The males of both of these Atlantic Ptillni are scarcely distin- 
guishable from those of the common European P. pectinicomis ; and 



230 



ANOBIADiE. 




it is to the female sex, therefore, that we must look for the true 
characters of the species. But even the males of the cylindripenms 
are usually a trifle hroader than those of their more northern ally, 
and have their elytra rather more decidedly granulated (or still freer 
from shallow, somewhat longitudinally disposed, subasperated punc- 
tures). The females however may readily be known from those of 
the pectinicornis by being paler or more rufescent, whilst their an- 
tennaB are a little darker and have the serrated joints less produced 
internally ; their prothorax also is a little more rounded at the sides ; 
and their elytra are less coarsely alutaceous, and almost free from 
the rather large though very shallow and irregular punctures which 
are tolerably evident in that species — being merely roughened with 
comparatively small transversely-subconfluent granules, which tend 
to merge behind into obscure subasperated punctures. 

650. Ptilinus lepidus. 

Ptilinus lepidus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 251 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), in intermediis lignum 
antiquum perforans. ^j 

A Canarian Ptilinus which 1 have captured at rather low and 
intermediate elevations in Teneriffe and Palma, where it burrows 
into old wood — principally about houses and in cultivated grounds. 
A single (dead, and greatly mutilated) example is now before me 
which was taken by the Messrs. Crotch, " out of its burrows," in 
Gomera. Its elytra are rather rougher, and more strongly punctured, 
than is the case in the Teneriffan and Palman specimens; but I 
have little doubt that it represents a mere local, or perhaps insular, 
state of the lepidus — though further material would be desirable, in 
order to ascertain this for certain. 

The females of the P. lepidus have their entire surface more 
shining than is the case in the corresponding sex of the Madeiran 
cylindripennis, as also rather more rufo-ferruginous and quite glabrous 
(instead of being densely, though delicately, pubescent) ; their pro- 
thorax is finely punctulated behind (instead of being granulose) ; 
and their elytra likewise are regularly, though very minutely, punc- 
tulated (instead of being coarsely alutaceous, and roughened with 
obscure, somewhat transversely- confluent granules, or shallow sub- 
asperated punctures), and are apparently without even the faintest 
tendency to be longitudinally subcostate. The two species, however, 
are clearly the representatives of each other in their respective Groups. 



BOSTRICHIDiE. 231 

Fam. 47. BOSTRICHID^. 

Genus 205. XYLOPERTHA. 
Guerin, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France^ Bull. 17 (1845). 

651. Xylopertha ficicola. 

Xylopertha ficicola, Woll., Append, huj. op. 36. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom.), in ligno Fid antique a DD. Crotch 
capta. 

A large Canarian XylojpertJia which was found by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Gomera, where they bred a considerable number of it 
from the rotten wood of an old fig-tree. In colour, clothing, and 
sculpture it is very closely allied to the X. liumeralis, Lucas ( = 
Chevrierii, Villa), of Mediterranean latitudes, though I think it is 
scarcely possible to regard it as a geographical modification of that 
insect*. 

652. Xylopertha barbifrons. 

Xylopertha barbifrons, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 252 (1864). 
, Id.y Append, htif. op. 27- 

Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in intermediis semel tantum reperta. 

The only example which I have seen of this distinct Canarian 
Xylopertha was captured by myself in Palma — on the mountains 
between Galga and the sea, in the east of that island. 

653. Xylopertha barbata. 

Enneadesmus barbatus, WoU.y Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 359 (1860). 
Xylopertha barbata, Id.j Append, hvj. op. 38. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in inferioribus baud procul ab urbe 
Eunchalensi a DD. E. Leacock et Bcwicke deprehensa. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it was first 
detected by Mr. E. Leacock in his garden at the Quinta de Sao Joao, 
near Eunchal ; and where it has subsequently, on several occasions, 
been captured (at a low altitude) by the late Mr. Bewicke — prin- 
cipally amongst rotten wood in an old out-house at the Praia For- 
mosa, but in one instance in his grounds at the Palmeira. 

* The X. ficicola differs from the humeralis, chiefly, in being considerably 
larger, and in having the various characters which distinguish the retuse portion 
of its elytra very much more expressed (or exaggerated). 



232 



BOSTRICHID.E. 



Genus 206. DINODERUS. 
Stephens, Man. Brit. Col. 203 (1839). 

654. Dinoderus brmmeus. 

Dinoderus brunneus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 440 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col 253 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), truncos Pini canariensis emor- 
tuos in pinetis editioribus destruens. 

The Canarian representative of the B. suhstriatus of more northern 
latitudes, being attached to the rotten wood of the Pi7iits catmriensis 
at intermediate and rather lofty elevations. Hitherto it has been 
found only in Teneriffe and Palma ; but we may expect it to occur 
wherever the ancient Finals still remain. 

Genus 207. RHIZOPERTHA. 
Stephens, III. Brit. Ent. iii. 354 (1830). 

Qbb. RMzopertha bifoveolata. 

Rhyzopertha bifoveolata, Woll., Ann. Nat, Hist. ii. 409 (1858). 
Rhizopertha, Id., Append, huj. op. 'i^. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.)^ certe introducta; in urbe ipsa Fun- 
chalensi inter farinam Americanam (?) a Dom. M. Park reperta. 

Perhaps this insect should scarcely be admitted into our Atlantic 
Catalogue — the only specimens hitherto detected having been found 
by Mr. M. Park in a cask of (American ?) flour at the Funchal 
custom-house, in Madeira proper. But as it was taken abundantly, 
and since it is through the agency of commerce that numerous 
insects become established in the islands (in like manner as they do 
throughout the civilized world), possibly it should not be altogether 
omitted — even though an evident importation. It was in company 
with the Adelina farinaria — an insect equally /or^i^w in its affinities, 
and which has more of an American aspect about it than either a 
European or an Atlantic one. 

656. Rhizopertha pusilla. 

Synodendron pusillum, Fab., Ent. Syst. v. (Suppl.) 156 (1798). 
Rhyzopertha pusilla, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 354 (1830). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad 287 (1854). 

, Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col 95 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens et certe 
introducta, sed in repositoriis Punchalensibus hand infrequens ; 
in insulam farinariis radicibusque ex alienis invecta. 






LYCTID^. 233 

Found likewise in Madeira proper, and as certainly an importation 
into the island as the last species. Nevertheless whilst the hifo- 
veolata has been met with hitherto only on one occasion, the pusilla 
has fairly established itself in the houses and stores of Funchal. 
As is usually the case in other countries, it seems attached princi- 
pally to dried vegetable substances and preparations — such as pow- 
dered arrowroot and various kinds of seeds and roots. 



Fam. 48. LYCTIDiE. 

Genus 208. LYCTUS. 

Fabricius, Ent. Syst, i. ii. 502 (1792). 

657. Lyctus brunneus. 

Xvlotrogus brunneus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 116 (1830). 
Lyctus colydioides?, Dej., Cat. (edit. 3) 338 (1837). 

Glycyrrhizae, Chev., in Dcj. Cat. 338 (1837). 

brunneus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 152, tab. iv. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 50 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Gom.), rarissimus. 

An insect which is found sparingly in Europe and northern Africa, 
and which is decidedly rare in these islands. It has been taken in 
Madeira proper, principally about houses ; where we might well 
suppose it to have been accidentally introduced, did it not sometimes 
occur in spots altogether removed from the cultivated districts. And 
a single example is now before me which was captured by the 
Messrs. Crotch (in a house at Hermigua) in Gomera, during their 
late Canarian campaign. 

658. Lyctus Leacocianus. 

Lyctus Leacocianus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. \. 256 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus ; a Dom. E. Leacock semel 
captus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this very distinct Lyctus 
was taken by Mr. E. Leacock near Funchal, in Madeira proper. 
Apart from minor characteristics, it may be known from the brun- 
neus by its black hue and rather shorter and much squarer pro- 
thorax (the anterior angles of which are completely rounded off, 
instead of being produced), by its somewhat coarser elytral sculpture 
(the punctules being oblong and with a tendency, tolerably con- 



234 



CIOIDJE. 



spicuous towards either side, to be disposed in double rows, whilst 
the interstices are very obsoletely raised), and by its antennae being 
appreciably thicker or more robust. 



Fam. 49. CIOIDiE. 

Genus 209. CIS. 
Latreille, Precis des Caract. gen. des Ins. 50 (1796). 

659. Cis WoUastonii. 

Cis WoUastonii, Mellie, in Guer. Rev. i. 586 (1849). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 280, tab. v. f. 8 (1854). 

, Id.j Cat. Mad. Col. 94 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice laxo in lauretis huraidis 
editioribus latens. 

A large and beautiful (though somewhat variable) Cis, which 
seems to be peculiar to the damp sylvan regions of Madeira proper, 
where it occurs sparingly beneath the bark of trees (especially the 
native laurels) at intermediate and lofty elevations. 

660. Cis cucullatus. 

Cis cucullatus, Woll.y Appetid. huj. op. 39. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch parce deprehensus. 

Three specimens of this very distinct Cis were taken by the 
Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, during their late expedition to the Cana- 
ries ; but they are aU that I have yet seen. 

661. Cis fuscipes. 

Cis fuscipes (Chey.), Mellie, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. vi. 271 (1848). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad 281 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 94 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), praecipue inter lichenes et fungos in 
locis subinferioribus parce occurrens. 

Occurs (for the most part at rather low elevations) around Fun- 
chal in Madeira proper — principally amongst lichen and small 
fungi on the trunks of trees, in cultivated spots. As it is stated by 
Mellie to be an American species, I think it far from unlikely that 
it may have originally been imported into the island by accident ; 
though, if this be indeed the case, it has at any rate completely 
established itself. 





cioiD^. 235 

662. Cis puncticoUis. 

Cis puncticoUis, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 360 (1860). 
y Id. J Append, huj. op. 4.0. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.'), vel in castanetis 
vel in pinetis parcissime degens. 

First detected by the late Mr. Bewicke in Madeira proper, beneath 
the bark of Spanish chestnut-trees at " the Mount " above Funchal. 
And three examples are now before me which were taken by the 
Messrs. Crotch, during their late Canarian campaign, in the Pinal 
above Ycod el Alto in TenerifFe. It would therefore seem to be 
attached equally to various kinds of trees. Some of the Madeiran 
specimens are a trifle larger and browner than the remainder ; but, 
after a very careful examination of them, I can detect nothing 
whatever about them to warrant the suspicion that they are speci- 
fically distinct. 

663. Cis lauri. 

Cis Lauri, WoU., Ins. Mad. 282, tab. v. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 94 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gam.), in lauretis 
editioribus hinc iiide vulgatissimus. 

A most variable little species (both in size and in the development 
of its thoracic segments), which abounds in the sylvan districts of 
Madeira proper, occurring principally beneath the moist bark and 
within the rotten wood of the old laurels (which are often devoured 
by it). And it occurs in similar situations at the Canaries, though 
not quite so universally. I have taken it in the woods at Las 
Mercedes and the Agua Garcia, in Teneriffe ; and it was found by 
the Messrs. Crotch at Ycod el Alto, as well as (above Hermigua) in 
Gomera. 

Genus 210. OCTOTEMNUS. 
Mellie, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, vi. 384 (1848). 

664. Octotenmus opacus. 

Octotemnus opacus, Mellie, loc. cit. 386 (1848). 

, WolL, Ins. Mad.. 283 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 94 (1857). 

, Id., Cai. Can. Col. 254 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), in 
lauretis humidis editioribus hinc inde vulgaris. 

Found under much the same circumstances as the Cis lauri, and 



236 



TOMICIDiE. 



indeed often in company with it. It abounds in the damp laurel- 
woods of Madeira proper, at intermediate and lofty altitudes ; and I 
have taken it in similar situations in Teneriffe and Palma, of the 
Canarian Group, where however it is comparatively scarce. It was 
also found by the Messrs. Crotch, during the summer of 1864, in 
Gomera. 



Fam. 50. TOMICID^. 

Genus 211. TOMICUS. 
Latreille, Hist, Nat. des Ins. iii. 203 (1802). 

665. Tomicus nobilis. 

Tomicus nobilis, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 441 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can, Col. 254 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), lignum antiquum in 
pinetis editioribus destruens. 

Apparently peculiar to the Finals of the Canarian Group, where 
it perforates the old trunks of the Pinus canariensis. I have taken 
it in Teneriffe and Palma ; and it was captured by the Messrs. 
Crotch in the remote, but elevated, Pinal in the south of Hierro. 

666. Tomicus erosus. 

Tomicus erosus, Wall., Cat. Mad. Col. 95 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice in castanetis praecipue 
degens. 

Closely allied to the Canarian T. nobilis, of which indeed it may 
be regarded as the Madeiran representative. Hitherto it has been 
found only in Madeira proper, where it occurs sparingly beneath the 
bark of trees (principally, I believe, of the Spanish chestnut) on the 
mountains above Funchal*. 



667. Tomicus villosus. 

Bostrichus villosus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 367 (1792). 
Tomicus villosus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 356 (1830). 



* It is very possible that I may have overlooked characters which would addi- 
tionally tend to separate the two species; but it seems to me that the T. erosus 
diflFers from the Canarian T. nobilis, merely, in its imiformly smaller size and 
narrower outline, in the punctures on the hinder region of its prothorax and elytral 
interstices being a little smaller, and in the asperities which fringe tlie obliquely 
trimcated portion of its elytra being altogether less developed. Yet although so 
nearly allied, I am quite satisfied that they are truly and specifically distinct. 




TOMICID^i 237 

Tomicus villosus, Woll, Ins. Mad.-2^0 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 96 (1867). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice laxo emortuo praesertim in 
castanetis parce occurrens. 

The European T. villosus occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, 
principally beneath the bark of Spanish chestnut- trees within the 
cultivated districts. Possibly it may have been naturalized, acci- 
dentally, from higher latitudes. 

668. Tomicus Saxeseni. 

Bostrichus Saxesenii, Hatz., die Forst-Insect. i. 167 (1837). 
Tomicus Dohrnii, Woll., Ins. Mad. 290 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 96 (1857). 

Saxesenii, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 255 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), 
vel in lauretis vel in pinetis degens. 

Likewise a European insect, and one which is very widely spread 
over these Atlantic islands — where it has adapted itself to various 
kinds of trees. Of the Madeiran Group I have observed it only in 
Madeira proper, where however it abounds at lofty elevations within 
the sylvan districts — attacking, almost exclusively, the native 
laurels. At the Canaries, on the other hand, it is comparatively 
scarce, and seems to prefer pine trees. At any rate the few exam- 
ples which I have myself met with were taken from under the bark 
of the Pinus canariensis in Teneriffe and Palma — in the former of 
which islands it was also found by the Messrs. Crotch, in the Pinal 
above Ycod el Alto. I have Hkewise examined a series which was 
obtained by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera — according to a note now 
before me, " out of poles," though whether the poles were of fir 
or laurel I am unable to say. 

669. Tomicus perforans. 

Bostrichus ferrugineus?, Fab., Syst. Eleu. ii. 388 (1801). 
Tomicus perforans, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 96 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), obturamenta doliorum in cellis vinariis 
Funchalensibus destruens ; forsan ex alienis introductus. 

Although, from information which I have received, there can be 
little doubt that this Tomicus is occasionally very destructive in the 
wine-cellars of Madeira proper (where it feeds on the corks used as 
bungs for the casks), nevertheless it is somewhat remarkable that I 
have been unable to obtain hitherto more than a single example of 



238 



TOMICID^. 



it. And although it has so many characters in common with the T, 
Sa^ceseni that at first sight it might almost be regarded as a pale 
variety of that species, I nevertheless am quite satisfied that it is 
totally distinct ; and I believe moreover that it is not even a Euro- 
pean insect, but one which has been established accidently in the 
stores of Funchal (perhaps from South America) through the medium 
of commerce. Indeed if a Brazilian type which is now in my pos- 
session can be relied upon, and which was given me (with a very old 
label appended to it) by the late Mr. Melly of Liverpool, there can 
be no doubt that the Madeiran Tomicus is the Bostrichus ferrugineus 
of Eabricius ; nevertheless as I can scarcely act on this conclusion 
without further evidence (the Fabrician diagnosis being, of course, 
utterly worthless), I will not suppress the name of perforans until 
it has been settled positively that Mr. Melly's specimen is rightly 
identified*. 

The T. perforans is not only much paler, but also a trifle larger, 
broader and less pubescent than the Saxeseni ; its prothorax is longer 
and more developed, and very much more polished behind — where 
there is no trace of the alutaceous sculpture which is always so con- 
spicuous under a high magnifying-power in that insect, and where 
likewise the punctules are still more remote ; and its elytra have the 
asperities towards their apex (which is itself less bent downwards at 
the extreme point) larger and fewer in number, and the punctures 
of their interstices more distant. 



Genus 212. XYLOTERUS. 
Erichson, in Wiegm. Archiv, ii. 60 (1836). 

670. Xyloterus longicollis. 

Xyloterus longicollis, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. 256 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Faert.), rarissimus ; semel tantum captus. 



The only specimen of this insect which I have seen was captured 
by myself in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian Group, beneath the 
refuse of a camels' stable in the Eio Palmas. It is probable however 
that its presence in that particular situation was merely accidental. 



i\ 




Genus 213. CRYPHALUS. 

Erichson, in Weigm. Archiv, ii. 61 (1836). 



* If this should prove to be the case (as I cannot but think extremely pro- 
bable), may not Fabricius's " Varietas nigra, vix distincta " refer to the European 
T. Saxeseni? 




TOMICIDiE. 239 

671. Cryphalus aspericollis. 

Cryphalus aspericollis, TFolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 365 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 26Q (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.., Gom.), in ligno 
arido emortuo praesertim Fid hinc inde vulgaris. 

This minute insect wiU probably be found to be generally spread 
over these Atlantic islands, though its small size renders it very liable 
to escape observation. It is not uncommon around Funchal in Ma- 
deira proper, in the dead wood of old fig- and other trees ; and I have 
taken it in Teneriffe, of the Canarian Group, in much the same situa- 
tions, as well as within the rotten stalks of Geraniums. In Gomera 
it was found by the Messrs. Crotch — under the bark of " fig- and 
mulberry-trees " ; but it is not peculiar to the Atlantic Groups in 
question, for it was captured by the late Mr. Bewicke even in the 
island of Ascension (where, however, in aU probability, it had been 
introduced by mere accident). 

Genus 214. APHANARTHRUM. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 292 (1854). 

§ I. Pronotum antice productum, cajput fere occultans. 

672. Aphanarthnim Jubae. 

Aphanarthrum Jubae, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 164 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 257 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Can., Gam.), in ramis Eujphorbiarum 
emortuis praesertim E. regis- Jubce hinc inde vulgare. 

This large and very pubescent Aphanarthrum I have captured 
abundantly, from within dry twigs and stems of the Euphorbia regis- 
Jubce, in Lanzarote of the Canarian Group ; and during the summer 
of 1864 it was taken, pretty commonly, by the Messrs. Crotch both 
in Grand Canary and Gomera. 

673. Aphanarthrum tuberculatum. 

Aphanarthrum tuberculatum, Wall., ApjJend. huj. op. 40. 

Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), inter Euphorbias emortuas a DD. Crotch 
copiose repertum. 

Found abundantly by the Messrs. Crotch (" amongst sweet Euphor- 
bias only ") in Hierro, the most western island of the Canarian Group ; 
but it has not yet been observed elsewhere. 



240 



POMICID^. 



674. Aphanarthrum armatum. 

Aphanarthrum armatum, Woll., Trans. JEnt. Soc. Lond. i. 167 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 2b7 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), intra caules Euphorhiarum parce lectum. 

The only two examples which I have seen of this species were 
taken by myself, out of EupJiorhia-stem.s, in Lanzarote of the 
Canarian Group. Apart from colour, they differ from their immediate 
allies in having their elytra somewhat less parallel and more finely 
punctured, the punctures being less evidently disposed in longitudinal 
rows, and in their prothorax being a little more produced at the 
apex (where it is armed with much larger tubercles, the inner pair 
of which are elongate and porrect) and rather more carinated behind. 
Their pubescence, which is soft and very dense, appears on the elytra 
to be pale and nearly decumbent. 



675. Aphanarthrum canescens. 
Aphanarthrum canescens, Woll., Append, hvj. op. 41. 



i 



Habitat Canarienses {Can., Gam,), in ramulis EupJiorbiarum a DD. 
Crotch lectum. 

Taken abundantly in Gomera by the Messrs. Crotch, and also near 
Las Palraas in Grand Canary, — the specimens from the latter island 
differing in having their minute prothoracic pustules usually obsolete. 

676. Aphanarthrum canariense. 

Aphanarthrum canariense, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 164 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 261 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), plantas Eu- 
phorbiarum putridas prsecipue E. canariensis destruens. 

Widely spread over the Canarian archipelago, in all the islands of 
which I have taken it except Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. It seems 
to be attached principally (perhaps entirely) to the rotten stalks of 
the Euphorbia canariensis ; but as that plant, I believe, does not now 
occur in the two eastern islands of the Group, the species probably 
will not be found in either of them. 

677. Aphanarthrum pygmaeum. 

Aphanarthriun pygmseum, Woll., Append, huj. op. 42. 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Palma), intra plantas Euphorbice 
canariensis putridas rarius. 





TOMICIDiE. 241 

This extremely minute Aphanarifirum appears to be attached to 
the rotten stalks of the Euphorhia canariensis, being widely though 
sparingly diffused over the Canarian Group. I took a single specimen 
of it in Palma, during the spring of 1858 ; and a tolerable series is 
now before me, captured by the Messrs. Crotch in Teneriffe and Go- 
mera during the summer of 1864. Although its elytra are quite 
dark compared with those of the other Aphanarthra (except the 
A. pusillum) here enumerated, nevertheless the Teneriffan examples 
are usually a shade paler than the Gomeran (and Palman ?) ones, 
and have their central fascia (which in the latter is almost entirely 
suffused and obsolete) often quite appreciable, — under which cir- 
cumstances it takes much the same form as that of the A. canariense. 
The specimens from Teneriffe have also the extreme apex of their 
pronotum for the most part rather less evidently biplicate (or mi- 
nutely bipartite) than is the case in those from Gomera and Palma. 

678. Aphanarthrum bicinctum. 

Aphanarthrum bicinctum, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 165 (1860). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 260 (1864). 

, Id., Append, huj. op. 4.3. 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten.); in Euphorbiis emor- 
tuis hinc inde vulgatissimum. 

A Canarian Aphanarthrum which seems to put on at least three 
slightly different phases (probably indeed more), according to the 
island in which it is found; but these states, although usually 
separable in a general way, do in reality merge into each other so 
completely that I am satisfied it would be unsafe to attempt to 
uphold any one of them as specifically distinct from the rest. The 
A. bicinctum, as thus received, has been observed abundantly in 
Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Teneriffe ; but it is 
the form from the fii-st and second of those islands which I have 
regarded as the type — simply, however, because it was the Lanza- 
rotan and Puerteventuran examples which supplied the data for my 
original diagnosis. The specimens (thus treated as typical) from 
the two eastern islands are a little smaller than the Gi^nd-Canarian 
ones, and the latter (which are consequently, in that respect, inter- 
mediate) than those from Teneriffe. Moreover the Teneriffan ones 
are not only (on the average) somewhat larger and broader than the 
others, but they are also just perceptibly more opake and a trifle 
more thickly pubescent ; and their entire colour is usually darker, 
the fasciae being often greatly suffused. Yet the corresponding 



242 



TOMICIDiE. 



characters of occasional individuals from these four different islands 
are so similar that I am convinced it would be worse than useless to 
define as separate species what further material would tend only to 
reunite. 

I hlive taken the normal form of the A. hicinctum abundantly in] 
the rotten Euphorbias of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and the 
states '' /3 " and " y " sparingly in Grand Canary and Teneriffe. 
These two latter phases were found more commonlj'' by the Messrs. 
Crotch, — the " y " (or Teneriffan one) indeed in the utmost pro- 
fusion, within the stems of felled Euphorbias at Souzal ; and it waaJ| 
likewise met with by Mr. Gray in the Barranco do Passo Alto, near 
S** Cruz. 



m 



679. Aphanarthrum piscatorium. 

Aphanarthrum piscatorium, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 166 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 260 (1864). 



I 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten,, Oom., Palma, 
Hierro), rSi.mo8 Euphorbiarum emortuos prsesertim E. piscatorias 
erodens. 

A small species which is widely spread over these Atlantic islands, 
where probably it will be found to occur wherever there are plants 
of the Euphorbia piscatoria — to which it seems principally to be 
attached. It is common, at rather low elevations, in Madeira proper ; 
whilst at the Canaries it has been taken abundantly in Teneriffe, 
Gomera, Palma, and Hierro. 



■ 



680. Aphanarthrum euphorbiae, 

Aphanarthrum Euphorbiee, Woll, Ins. Mad. 293, tab. vi. f. 2 (1854). 
^ Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col 97 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (3Iad.), sub cortice necnon in ligno putrido 
Euphorbice melliferce, Linn, fil., in locis editioribus occurrens. 

A Madeiran species, which has been captured hitherto only in the 
higher regions of Madeira proper — ^where it occurs beneath the bark 
(and within the damp rotting wood) of the gigantic Ewphorbia mel- 
lifera, ascending to at least 5000 feet above the sea. 

681. Aphanarthrum affine. 

Aphanarthrum affine, WolL, Ami. Nat. Hist. v. 166 (1860). 
— , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 259 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can., Gom.), inter Euphorbias 
antiquas hinc inde vulgare. 







TOMICID^. 243 

Widely distributed over the Canarian Group, though apparently 
more common in the eastern islands than in the western ones. It 
is abundant amongst the decayed Euphorbias in Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura ; and it also occurs in Grand Canary, and more spa- 
ringly in Gomera. 

682. Aphanarthnim glabrum. 

Aphanarthrum glabrum, Wall., Attn. Nat. Hist. v. 167 (1860), 
^ Id.^ Cat. Can. Col. 258 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom., Hierro), inter Euphorbias rarius. 

One of the rarer of the Canarian Aphanartlira, or at any rate 
extremely local, it having been observed as yet only in Gomera and 
Hierro. 

683. Aphanarthrum bicolor. 

Aphanarthrum bicolor, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 165 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 259 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (^Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom.j Palma, 
Hierro), Euphorbias emortuas copiose destruens. 

Like the A. piscatorium, widely spread over these Atlantic islands, 
where very likely it will be found to be nearly universal. It occurs 
in the dead Euphorbias, at rather low elevations, in Madeira proper ; 
and it has been taken in Teneriife, Gomera, Palma, and Hierro, of 
the Canarian Group. 

§ II. Pronotum antice minus productum, caput (longiusculum, fere 
subrostratum) haud occultans. 

684. Aphanarthrum luridum. 

Aphanarthrum luridum, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 163 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 262 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), intra caules Euphorbice canariensis 
putridos degens. 

A Canarian Aphanarthrum which has been observed hitherto only 
in Tcneriffe and Gomera, though most probably it will be found 
wherever the Euphorbia canariensis (to the rotten stalks of which it 
seems to be pecuHar) still exists. Like the A.pusillum (which how- 
ever is dark, concolorous, and extremely minute), it differs from the 
other species here enumerated in having its pronotum only slightly 
produced in front, so that the head (which is somewhat more ros- 
trate) is less concealed from view. 

r2 



244 



TOMICID^. 



685. Aphanarthrum pusillum. 

Aphanarthrum pusillum, Woll, Ann. Nat Hist. v. 167 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 263 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gom.), plantas EuphorUce canari- 
ensis putridas destruens. 

This minute and uniformly dark-brown species is widely diifused 
over the Canarian Group, where it is attached to the putrid stalks 
of the Eupliorhia canariensis. I have taken it in Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, and Gomera, in the last two of which it was found also by 
the Messrs. Crotch. 

Genus 215. CRYPTURGITS. 

Erichson, in Wier/m, Archiv, ii. 60 (1836). 

686. Crypturgus concolor. 

Aphanarthrum concolor, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 263 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Pahna, Hierro), sub cortice Pini ca>ian-| 
ensis latens. 

A minute Canarian wood-borer, which occurs under the rotten] 
bark of the Pinus canariensis. I have taken it in Teneriffe and] 
Palma — in the former of which islands it was captured also by the 
Messrs. Crotch, who likewise met with it in the Pinal in the south 
of Hierro. 

In my Canarian Catalogue I referred this insect to the genus 
AplianaHhrum — though with considerable reluctance, seeing that in 
its external fades and pine-destroying habits it is totally opposed to 
the members of that exclusively Euphorbia-infesting group ; and it 
is therefore with some satisfaction that a more recent and critical 
inquiry into its structural peculiarities has convinced me that it 
belongs, without doubt, to the European genus Crypturgus — with 
which in the exact number and proportions of its antennal joints, 
and its perfectly solid (unannulated) club, it agrees entirely. Indeed 
it closely resembles the C. pusillus of more northern latitudes — 
from which it would seem to differ merely in being a trifle larger 
and more pubescent, with the spines on the outer edge of its tibiae 
more elongated and developed. The minute punctules also of its 
elytral interstices will be seen, beneath the microscope, to be both 
somewhat more regular and more numerous ; but as none of these 
characters are important ones, I think it far from unlikely that it 
may be in reality but a geographical modification of its European 
ally. 



TOMICID^. 245 

Genus 216. TRIOTEMNUS. 

Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 264 (1864). 
As Dr. Crotch's original specimen, for the reception of which I 
established this genus in my Canarian Catalogue, happened to be a 
female one, I had no opportunity of detecting the singular and most 
anomalous character afforded by the opposite sex, and so merely 
called attention to its 3-jointed funiculus, the subretuse apex of its 
elytra, and sundry other secondary features which served to distin- 
guish it from the immediately allied groups. But further material 
has now disclosed to me a sexual peculiarity of a kind which I have 
never before witnessed (so far as I can recollect) in any member of 
the Coleoptera — namely, that the males (in which the forehead 
appears to be concave) have a small and incurved, but upwardly- 
incHned, horn, or tooth (more or less expressed in different indi- 
viduals), on the outer face of their mandibles ! Had this process 
been a development of the front edge of the clypeus there would 
have been nothing very remarkable about it ; for although such a 
structure is not usual in the Tomicidce, it at any rate obtains in the 
male sex of the various forms around Cls (of the preceding family), 
the frontal tubercles of which frequently present much the same 
appearance, at first sight, as these mandibulary processes of Trio- 
temnus ; but to be placed where they are, on the upper surface of the 
mandibles, is quite without a precedent in any insect with which I 

am acquainted. 

687. Triotenmus subretusns. 

Triotemnus subretusus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 265 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam.), in plantis EuphorbicB canariensis 

antiquis aridis emortuis a DD. Crotch deprehensus. 

Found first by Dr. Crotch in Gomera, during his Canarian cam- 
paign of 1862, and subsequently by himself and his brother (in 
tolerable abundance) both in that island and Teneriffe. Mr. G. R. 
Crotch informs me that they met with it only in the dry but rotten 
stalks of the Euphorbia canariensis. 

Genus 217. LIPARTHRUM. 
WoUaston, Lis. Mad. 294 [script. LeipaHh'um'\ (1854). 

688. Liparthrum mandibulare. 

Leiparthrum mandibulare, Woll, Ins. Mad. 295, tab. v. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 97 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub corticc in castaneto quodam captum. 



246 



TOMICTDiE. 



The only example of this insect which has yet been brought to 
light I captured (during the summer of 1850) in the chestnut-woods 
at S** Anna, in the north of Madeira proper ; and as the specimen 
was far from a perfect one, further material is greatly needed in order 
to ascertain more fully the true characters of the species. 



689. Liparthrum nigrescens. 

Liparthrum bituberculatum, Woll, Cat. Can. C. \nec Ins.M.'] 265(1864). 
nigi'escens, Id., Append, huj. op. 44. 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis et prsesertim editiori- 
bus rarissimum. 

A Canarian insect which has been observed hitherto only in the 
intermediate and loftier altitudes of TeneriiFe, where moreover it 
would seem to be scarce. I have taken it at the Agua Garcia and 
on the Cumbre above the Agua Mansa (in the region of the Eeta- 
mas); and several TenerifFan examples are now before me which 
were captured by the Messrs. Crotch. In my Canarian Catalogue 
I referred it to the Madeiran L. hituherculatum ; but in the Appendix 
to this volume I have stated that additional material has since con- 
vinced me that it is truly distinct from that species. 





690. Liparthrum bituberculatum. 

Leiparthrum bituberculatum, Woll., Ins. Mad. 297, tab. vi. f. 3 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 97 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis intermediis prsesertim cas- 
tanetis sat vulgare. ! 

Rather common in the intermediate altitudes of Madeira proper, 
both in the chestnut-woods and (amongst the laurels) in the strictly 
sylvan districts. The examples from the latter are perhaps, on the 
average, more typical than those from the former, — being usually a 
trifle larger and darker. 

691. Liparthrum curtum. 

Leiparthrum curtum, Woll., Iris. Mad. 298 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 97 (1857). 

Liparthrum , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 266 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses (ins. omnes), in interme-|| 
diis et praecipue inferioribus hinc inde vulgare. d 

One of the most widely spread of all the wood-boring Coleopterd 
within these Atlantic islands, where it is nearly universal, — occurring ' 



TOMICIDiE. 247 

principally at rather low elevations, but ascending likewise into the 
intermediate districts. It often swarms under the dry, loosened 
bark of old palings, and about cultivated grounds generally. I have 
taken it in Madeira proper, as well as in all the seven islands of the 
Canarian Group except Gomera — whence however an extensive 
series is now before me, which was captured by the Messrs. Crotch. 
I do not feel entirely satisfied that the L. curium is specifically 
distinct from the bituherculatum — occasional specimens from the 
intermediate regions so far uniting the two forms that it is difficult 
to say for certain to which they should be referred. Still both of 
them are on the whole so well defined that I think it is far from 
impossible that some diagnostic character (for one or the other of 
them) may have escaped my observation ; and therefore I will not, 
particularly as they have already been established, venture to unite 
them. Whether however the L. bitubercvlatum is indicated amongst 
the Canarian examples now before me I consider somewhat doubtful, 
and am rather inclined to refer the whole of the latter (even the 
darker ones) to the curium. 

692. Liparthrum inarmatum. 

Leiparthrum inarmatum, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 364 (1860). 
Liparthrum , Id., Cat. Can. Col. 266 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses (in Fuert. sola adhuc 
haud observatum), ramulos Euphorbiarum emortuos erodens. 

Strictly a EupJiorbia-ude&img species, and one which in all pro- 
bability is (like the L. curium) universal throughout these Atlantic 
Groups, — occurring in the dead stems and twigs of the Euphorbias, 
principally at rather low elevations. It has been taken in Madeira 
proper (to the westward of Funchal), and in all the seven Canarian 
islands except Fuerteventura (where, however, there can be no doubt 
that it must exist). Its capture in Hierro is due to the Messrs. 
Crotch, who met with several specimens of it (now before me) in 
that island during the summer of 1864. It varies considerably in 
stature. 

693. Liparthrum artemisiae. 

Leiparthrum Artemisiae, Woll, Ins. Mad. 299 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. 3Iad. Col. 97 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Ilheo Chdo) inter plantas Artemisice argeniecB, 
Herit., sat copiose deprehensum. 

Found hitherto only on the northern Deserta (or Ilheo Chao), of 



248 



TOMICID^. 



the Madeiran Group, — whore I obtained it rather abundantly, during 
June 1850, by beating the dense masses of wormwood (Artemisia 
argentea, Herit.) which clothe certain parts of that singular little 
island. But whether it was actually attached to the wormwood, or 
had come out of the dead branches of some Euphorbia or other 
plant, I am unable to say. 

694. Liparthrum Lowei. 

Liparthrum Lowei, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 174 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 267 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.y Gom.), in Euphorbiis emortuis minus 
frequens. 

A most minute Canarian Liparthrum^ which has been observed 
hitherto only in the dead Euphorbias of Teneriffe and Gomera. It 
was first detected by the Rev. E. T. Lowe in the former island, near 
Garachico ; and a considerable series is now before me which was 
captured, likewise in Teneriffe, by the Messrs. Crotch, during the 
summer of 1864. We may, however, expect it to occur more gene- 
rally throughout the Group. 

695. Liparthrum bicaudatmn. 

Liparthrum bicaudatimi, WoU., Append, huj. op. 44. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in ramulis Euphorbiarum emortuis a 
DD. Crotch sat copiose lectum. 

This curious little insect, so remarkable for the enlarged process, 
or nodule, into which the raised second interstice of each elytron is 
backwardly produced behind, was captured abundantly by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Gomera, during their late Canarian expedition. According 
to their report, it was found Avithin the dead twigs of one of the 
*' sweet " Euphorbias (perhaps the E. balsamifera, or the reyis- 
Jubce), 

Genus 218. HYPOBORUS. 
Erichson, in Wiegm. Archiv, ii. 62 (1836). 

696. Hypoborus ficus, 

Bostrichus Fici, Dej. Cat. (edit. 1) 101 (1821). 
Hypoborus Ficus, Erich., loc. cit. 62 (1836). 

, Lucas, Col. de VAlgerie, 462, pi. 39. f. 2 (1849). 

, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 98 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^), in ligno antiquo praesertim 
in cultis inferioribus occurrens. 



HYLESINID^. 249 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which occurs sparingly at 
low elevations in the Madeiran Group, for the most part about cul- 
tivated grounds. I have taken it around Funchal in Madeira proper, 
and also near the Villa in Porto Santo ; and it would appear to be 
attached normally (as indeed the name implies) to the rotten wood 
of old fig-trees. 

Fam. 51. HYLESINIDiE. 

Genus 219. HYLESINUS. 
Fabricius, Si/st. Elm. ii. 390 (1801) . 

697, Hylesinus indigenus. 

Hylesinus indigenus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 267 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ifierro), sub cortice lauri cujusdam antiquae in 
regione " El Golfo " semel repertus. 

A single example of this Canarian wood-borer, taken (in a dead 
and mutilated state) out of its burrow in an old laurel on the 
western slopes of Hierro, embodies all that I yet know about the 
species. From its very imperfect condition I had no opportunity of 
examining the whole of its structural details, nevertheless I believe 
that it will be found ultimately to be a true Hylesinus, though 
further material would, of course, be very desirable in order to ascer- 
tain this for certain. There can be no doubt, I think, that it is 
common in at any rate the sylvan districts of Hierro ; for the tree 
which produced it was nearly destroyed by its ravages ; but as our 
short visit to that island was in midwinter, there was naturally but 
little chance of obtaining living specimens. 

Genus 220. PHLCEOPHTHORUS. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 299 (1854). 

698. Phlceophthorus rhododactylus. 

Ips rhododactylus, Mshm, Ent. Brit. 58 (1802). 
Ilylurgus rhododactylus, Sieph., III. Brit. Ent. iii. 365 (1830). 
Phloeophthorus perfoliatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 301, tab. vi. f. 1 (1854). 
, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 99 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) in ligno ramulisque emortuis Genistce 
scojparice rarissimus. 

A European insect which occurs at rather high elevations in Ma- 
deira proper, where however it is exceedingly rare. As in more 



250 



HYLESINlDiE. 



northern latitudes, it appears to be attached to the dead wood of the 
common Broom ( Genista scoparia) ; and it is possible, therefore, that 
it may originally have been naturalized in the island. I have taken 
it at the Lombarda das Vacas (on the mountains above Sao Yicente) j 
and it was captured by the late Mr. Bewicke at S. Antonio da Serra* 

Genus 221. HYLURGUS. 
Latreille, Gm. Crust, et Ins. ii. 274 (1807). 

699. Hylur^s ligniperda. 

Bostrichus ligniperda, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 367 (1792). 
Hylurgus ligniperda, Woll, Lis. Mad. 302 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 99 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 268 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des.) et Canarienses(yew., Palma, Hierro), 
in pinetis degens. ^| 

The European II. ligniperda will probably be found to occur in 
most of the fir- woods of these Atlantic islands. At the Madeiras 
I have taken it in Madeira proper, as well as in a small and recent 
plantation of fir-trees on the summit of the Deserta Grande ; and at 
the Canaries, in the Finals of Teneriffe and Palma. In the latter 
Group, it was found also by the Messrs. Crotch in the remote and 
elevated Pinal at the southern extremity of Hierro. 

700. Hylurgus destruens. 

Hylurgus piniperda, WoU. [nee Linn."], Ins. Mad. 303 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 99 (1857). 

destruens, Id., Append, huj. op. 45. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice Pini in subinferioribus parce 
captus. 

Taken sparingly in Madeira proper, chiefly (I believe) at rather 
low elevations and beneath the bark of pine trees. I have hitherto 
referred it to the common European H. piniperda ; but the numerous 
points in which I now perceive that it differs permanently from that 
insect will be gathered by a reference to my diagnosis given in the 
Appendix. StiU, although with a certain number of decided features 
of its own, it is difficult to feel quit^ sure that it is in reality more 
than a fixed geographical modification of its more northern ally. 



Genus 222. HYLASTES. 

Erichson, in Wiegin, Archiv, ii. 47 (1836). 





CURCULIONIDiE. 251 

701. Hylastes Lowei. 

Hylastes Lowei, Paiva, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 211 (1861). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 269 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma), in ligno Pini canariensis antiquo 
emortuo hinc inde vulgaris. 

Very closely allied to the European H. ater, of which possibly it 
may be but a geographical state. Hitherto it has been observed 
only in TeneriiFe and Palma, of the Canarian Group, where like the 
Hylurgus ligniperda it is attached to the pine trees of intermediate 
and lofty elevations. "We may, however, expect to meet with it 
wherever the old Finals still exist. 

702. Hylastes clavus. 

Hylastes clavus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 30o (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 100 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice truncisque arborum prolapsis 
in subinferioribus intermediisque parce occurrens. 

Found hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it occurs very spa- 
ringly (beneath bark, and logs of wood) at low and intermediate 
elevations. 

703. Hylastes trifolii. 

Hylesinus trifolii, Miill., in Journ. Sac. des S. du Mont Tonnerre (1803). 

, Schmidt, in Stett. Ent. Zeit. v. 395 (1844). 

Hylastes Trifolii, Woll, Ins. Mad. 304 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 99 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarior ; in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

A European Hylastes which occurs in Madeira proper — in much 
the same sort of places as the last species, and with nearly the same 
range. 

Fam. 52. CURCULIONIDJE. 

(Subfam. I. COSSONIDES.) 

Genus 223. SYNTOMOCERUS*. 
Wollaston, Trans. Ent. Soe. Lond. (EremoUs) v. 364 (1861). 

704. Syntomocerus crassicomis. 
Hylurgus crassicomis, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 71 (1838). 

* A ovvro^o?, breviatus, et Kepas, cornu. 



252 



CURCULIONID^. 



Eremotes crassicornis, Wall., he. cit. 365, pi. 18. f. 1 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 269 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Palma), rarior; lignum Pinicana- 
riensis antiquum perforans. 

Peculiar apparently to the Pinals of the Canarian archipelago, 
where it occurs beneath the bark and within the dead wood of the 
Pinus canariensis. I have taken it sparingly in Grand Canary, Tene- 
riffe, and Palma, in the last two of which islands it was found also 
by the Messrs. Crotch. We may expect to meet with it likewise in 
the Pinal towards the south of Hierro. 

In order to avoid confusion, I have thought it desirable to change 
the name which I had imposed on this genus, — Eremotes being too 
near to Eretmotes, of De Marseul. 

Genus 224. HEXARTHRUM. 
Wollaston, A7in. Nat. Hist. v. 448 (1860). 

705. Hexarthrum capitulum. 

Ilhyncolus capitulum, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 410 (1858). 

Hexarthrum compressum. Id., ibid. v. 449 (1860). 

capitulum, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. v. 366, pi. 18. f. 2 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimum ; sub ligno antique in infe- 
rioribus parcissime captum. 

Observed only at low elevations in Madeira proper, where it is 
both rare and extremely local. It was detected first by Mr. M. Park ; 
and was found subsequently by the late Mr. Bewicke, amongst old 
wood in an outhouse, at the Praia Formosa near Punchal. 

Genus 225. RHYNCOLUS. 
(Creutzer) Germ., Ins. Spec. 307 (1824). 

706. Rhjmcolus crassirostris. 

Rhyncolus crassirostris, WolL, Trans. E. S. L. v. 367, pi. 18. f. 3 (1861). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 270 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.) lignum antiquum Pini canariensis in 
montibus parce destruens. 

The only specimens which I have seen of this Rhyncolus were 
captured by myself in the rotten wood of an old pine tree on the 
mountains of Grand Canary. It somewhat resembles the European 
jK. truncorum ; neverthelesss, as stated in my paper on the Atlantic 





CURCULIONID^. 253 

Cossonides, " its rostrum is broader and shorter, its antennsG are still 
more abbreviated, with their club abrupter and more straightly 
truncated at its apex, its prothorax is much more deeply and remotely 
sculptured, and its elytral punctures are also larger, the small inter- 
mediate ones especially being more perceptible." 

Genus 226. CAULOPHILUS. 

Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 315 (1854). 

707. Caulophilus sculpturatus. 

Caulophilus sculpturatus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 315, tab. vi. f. 4 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 104 (1857). 

, Id.j Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 368 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus. Exemplar unicum sub 
lapide collegi. 

The only example of this small Cossonid which has hitherto been 
brought to light was captured by myself in Madeira proper, during 
the autumn of 1847 — from beneath a stone on an exposed grassy 
slope to the eastward of Funchal, in the direction of the Cabo Ga- 
rajao (or Brazen Head). It would appear, therefore, to be extremely 
scarce. 

Genus 227. PHLCEOPHAGUS. 
Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 1047 (1838). 

708. Phlceophagus tenax. 

Rhyncolus tenax, WoU., Ins. Mad. 307 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 100 (1857). 

Phloeophagiis tenax, Id., Tram. Ent. Soc. L. v. 370, pi. 18. f. 4 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.),m sylvaticis editioribus prsesertim lauretis 
vulgaris. 

Peculiar apparently to Madeira proper, where it is universal 
throughout the sylvan districts (particularly in the laurel-woods) of 
intermediate and lofty elevations. 

709. Phlceophagus sulcipennis. 

Phloeophagus sulcipennis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 308 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 100 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 369 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), lignum antiquum in inferioribus colens. 

Attached to old wood at low elevations, in Madeira proper — prin- 
cipally around Funchal. It was once captured abundantly by Senhor 



254 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



Moniz even in the town itself, beneath rotten planks lying in his 
garden. It is very closely allied to the European P. s^adix, of which 
indeed I am far from satisfied that it is more than a geographical 
state. 

710. Fhloeophagus caulimn. WM 

Phloeophagus caiilium, WolL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 370 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 270 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), truncos ramosque Eujphorhiarum 
emortuos perforans. 

Observed hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian archipelago, where it is locally abun- 
dant within the dead stems and branches of the various Euphorbias. 

711. Phloeophagus laurineus. 

Phloeophagus laurineus et affinis, WolL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 371, 

373 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 271 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), sub cortice laxo 
prsecipue laurorum in subinferioribus et saepius intermediis 
occurrens. || 

Although by no means certain that the P. laurineus and affinis 
may not be, after aU, as I originally assumed, specifically distinct ; | 
yet the recent inspection of more extensive material than I formerly 
possessed, including a considerable series from Gomera which are 
strictly intermediate between the two, has convinced me that it will 
be safer to regard them as but states of a single species — consequent 
perhaps on their attachment to particular trees and plants, some of 
which (as, for instance, the Laurels and Euphorbias) are widely 
different in their nature and properties. So long as the affinis 
appeared to be exclusively of Euphorbia-mie^tmg habits, I could 
scarcely suppose otherwise (even though its differential characters 
were but small and insignificant) than that it was truly distinct 
from the more deeply sculptured and laurel-feeding P. laurineus; 
yet the detection of intermediate individuals in the dead wood of 
mulberry, willow, and fig (each set presenting some just appreciable 
feature of its own) would seem to imply that they are all of them 
but slight and unimportant modifications of a rather plastic form — 
capable of sustaining itself under various and opposite conditions. 
And hence I have come to the conclusion that it will be better to 
suppress (as a species) the P. affinis, which is but one of the rather 



J 



I 

I 
I 



CURCULIONID^. 255 

more decidedly pronounced phases, of the many just sejparahle ones 
{inter se) which I have lately examined. Indeed even in its most 
marJced aspect the P. afinis seemed to differ, from the typical lau- 
rineiis, merely in being on the average a trifle smaller, with its 
elytra perhaps somewhat more convex (or less straightened at the 
sides) and less deeply sculptured ; and I should not have hesitated 
therefore to regard it as a variety, had not its attachment to the 
Euphorbias seemed to me to imply a distinction of real importance. 
But if the latter peculiarity in its mode of life does not obtain uni- 
versally, I think that the affinis should no longer be treated as 
separate from the laurineus*. 

If therefore my conclusion, just arrived at, be correct, the present 
Phloeoplmgiis may be said to attach itself to many kinds of trees and 
(even) shrubs, but to be most partial to the native Laurels of inter- 
mediate altitudes, and to be tolerably abundant in Teneriffe, Gomera, 
Palma, and Hierro. 

712. Phlceophagus simplicipes. 

Phloeophagus simplicipes, Woll., Travis. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 374 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 272 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), lignum Fid antiquum aridum praecipue 
in inferioribus erodens. 

Found hitherto only in Teneriffe, where it would seem to have 
a lower range than the P. launneus — being attached (so far as has 
yet been observed) to the dead wood of old fig-trees, in cultivated 
spots of a low elevation. 

713. Phlceophagus piceus. 

Phloeophagus piceus, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 374 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 273 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), arbores antiquas Fici ple- 
rumque in intermediis colons. 

* The question of the specific claims of certain closely allied forms is now and 
tlien so difficult of solution that we are compelled to leave it in partial doubt. 
Thus, although I imagine that the above conclusion is correct, I still cannot 
feel quite satisfied that I may not have overlooked some character which would 
perhaps yet prove the affinis to be (as I originally supposed) distinct from the 
laurineus. I wiU therefore merely add that if this should be the case, the specific 
titles will of course have to remain as hitherto. But if, on the contrary, my 
present explanation is the right one, we may then (ignoring all subsidiary 
modifications) regard the P. laurineus as tending to assume two slightly difierent 
states — namely, the typical one (abundant in the laurel-districts of intermediate 
altitudes), and the " var. /3. affinis" which descends to a lower elevation and 
attaches itself indiscriminately to various kinds of trees, and shrubs. 



256 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



A Canarian Phloeophagus which has been detected hitherto in 
Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary, — where it seems to be 
attached principally to the dry, rotten wood of old fig-trees at inter- 
mediate altitudes. 

714. PhloBophagus calvus. 

Rhyncolus calvus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 448 (1860). 
Phloeophagus calvus, /«?., Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond. v. 370 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub ligno antiquo in inferioribus una 
cum Mesoxeno et Hexarthro captus. 

Detected by the late Mr. Bewicke, at a low elevation, in Madeira 
proper, — ^having been captured by him beneath logs of old wood ii 
lying in a shed, or outhouse, at the Praia Formosa near Funchal (in "I 
company with the Hexarthrum capitulum, Mesoxenus BewicJcianus, 
and Xylopertha harhata). 

Genus 228. LIPOMMATA. 
WoUaston, Cat. Mad. Col. 100 [script. Leipommata'] (1857). 

715. Lipommata calcaratum. 

Leipommata calcaratum, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 101 (1857). 
, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 395, pi. 19. f. 3 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*^ S^^), in coUiculis arenosis ad radices plan- 
tarum, praecipue Arundinis donacis, mox pone oram maritimam 
crescentium parce fodiens. 

This curious little blind Cossonid has been observed only in Porto 
Santo, of the Madeiran Group, where it burrows into the loose drifting 
sand which has gradually accumulated into ridges and hillocks im- 
mediately behind the sea-beach. I have taken it sparingly around 
the roots of various sand-plants, particularly the Arundo donax, — \ 
it ssubfossorial tibiae, pilose body, undilated feet, and total freedom 
from eyes being alike indicative of its subterranean mode of life. 



Genus 229. PENTATEMNUS. 
WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 385 (1861). 

716. Pentateimms arenarius. 

Pentatemnus arenarius, Woll., loc. cit. 388, pi. 19. f. 1 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 273 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can.), in locis similibus ac praoce- 
dens, sub terrain aridis arenosis juxta radices plantarum fodiens. 



CURCULIONIDiE. 257 

Of precisely the same habits as the Porto-Santan Lipommata 
calcaratum, of which perhaj^s it may be regarded as the Canarian 
representative; but its funiculus is composed of only five joints, 
instead of seven (as in that insect) ; and although there can be little 
doubt that it is practically blind, its eyes nevertheless are not literally 
absent — being just indicated, in a most imperfect and rudimentary 
state, when viewed beneath the microscope. 

The F. areimrius has been captured in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, 
and Grand Canary, where it resides (at some depth below the sur- 
face) amongst the loose sand which has accumulated into hillocks 
around the various shrubby plants which stud certain arid tracts in 
the immediate vicinity of the sea-beach. In Fuerteventura espe- 
cially I have taken it in considerable abundance, principally at 
Corralejo, by scooping out the sand at the roots of ZygophyUmn 
Fontanesii and a small maritime EupJiorhia ; and I likewise met 
with it in the little island of Graciosa, off the extreme north of 
Lanzarote. 

Genus 230. ONYCHOLIPS. 

Wollaston, Traji.i. Eut. iSoc. Loud. v. 389 (1861). 

717. Onycholips bifurcatus. 

Onycholips bifurcatus, Wall, he. cit 894, pi. 19. f 2 (18G1). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 274 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can.), in arenosis aridis subma- 
ritimis ad radices plantarum una cum Pentatemno fodiens. 

Found sparingly in the dry sandy districts of Lanzarote, Fuerte- 
ventura, and Grand Canary, in the vicinity of the sea-shore (though 
seldom actually upon it) ; and I likewise met with it in the little 
island of Graciosa, off the extreme north of Lanzarote. Its habits 
in l^act are precisely similar to those of Pentatemnus (with which it 
is often taken in company) and of the Porto-Santan Lipommata, — 
to both of which in its fossorial mode of life, and in the long erect 
hairs with which it is sparingly beset, as well as in its freedom 
from sight, it is manifestly allied. Yet in the marvellous confor- 
mation of its tibias and feet it recedes from those insects altogether, 
as well as from every other group with which I am acquainted — a 
fact which, in combination with the above-mentioned peculiarities 
of habit and structure, stamps it as perhaps the most anomalous 
member of the Coleoptera which has hitherto been detected in these 
Atlantic islands. 



258 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



The 0. hifurcatus was first taken by Mr. Gray and myself near 
Puerto de Cabras in Fuerteventura, in 1858, where I again captured 
it in 1859, Its Grand- Canarian habitat is the low sandy isthmus 
between Las Palmas and the Isleta, — where I met with a single 
specimen of it, and where a second was found by Dr. Crotch during 
the summer of 1864. 



Genus 231. MESOXENUS. 
WoUaston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 395 (1861). 

718. Mesoxenus Monizianus. 

Pentarthnim Monizianum, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 450 (1860). 
Mesoxenus Monizianus, Id., loc. cit. 896, pi. 19. f. 4 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 275 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), vel sub ligno an- 
tique super terram posito vel in ramis Eiiphorbiarum emortuis 
in inferioribus rarissimus. 

Detected in Madeira proper (during 1859) by Senhor Moniz, who 
found several specimens of it adhering to the underside of old boards 
which were lying on the damp earth in his garden at Funchal. I 
had myself, however, a year previously, met with a single example 
of it at the Canaries, — in a house above the Puerto Orotava in 
Teneriffe, in which island the Pev. R. T. Lowe took a second (from 
within a dead Euphorbia-stem, at Garachico). But in spite of the 
latter fact, I scarcely think that the species is normally attached to 
the Euphorbias ; for the habits of the Mesocceni seem to be those of 
Pentarthrum, and precisely such as the very peculiar habitat which 
was discovered for the present insect at Funchal by S^" Moniz would 
appear to indicate. 

719. Mesoxenus Bewickianus. 

Pentarthrum Bewickianum, Wall., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 451 (I860) 
Mesoxenus Bewickianus, Id., he. cit. 397, pi. 19. f. 6 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub ligno antique hand procnl ab nrbe 
Funchalensi a Dom. Bewicke deprehensus. 





Found at a low elevation in Madeira proper by the late Mr. Be- 
wicke, who captured it rather abundantly beneath old wood (in a 
and crumbling state) which was lying on the ground in a shed at 
the Praia Formosa near Funchal — in company with the Hexarihriv 
capitulum, Phloeojphagus calvus, and Xylopertha barbaia. 



m 

Be-^H 
dry^l 




CURCULIONTDiE. 259 

Genus 232. CAULOTRUPIS. 

WoUaston, Lis. Mad. 308 (1854). 

720. Caulotrupis lacertosus. 

Caulotrupis lacertosus, WoU., Ins, Mad. 309, tab. vi. f. 6 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 102 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 376 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice necnon in ligno emortuo 
laurorum hinc inde sat vulgaris. 

Peculiar to Madeira proper — where, although extremely local, it 
is occasionally far from uncommon within the rotten wood and under 
the loosened bark of the native laurels. It occurs principally to- 
wards the lower limits of the sylvan districts, and for the most part 
towards the north of the island. 



721. Caulotrupis subnitidus. 

Caulotrupis subnitidus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 452 (1860). 
, Id.j Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 376 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in subinferioribus ramos Eujphorhiarum 
emortuos parce destruens. 

Likewise peculiar (so far at least as observed hitherto) to Madeira 
proper, where it would seem to be attached to the dead branches of 
the Euphorhia piscatoria at rather low elevations. It is very closely 
allied to the 0. lacertosus, of wliich perhaps it may be but a modi- 
fication consequent upon a change of food, though it is scarcely 
prohahle that the same species would subsist indiscriminately upon 
Euphorbias and Laurels *. 

722. Caulotrupis lucifagus. 

Caulotrupis lucifugus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 310, tab. vi. f. 7, 9 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 102 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 377 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes), sub lapidibus ramulisque plantarum 
emortuis fractis humi jacentibus in inferioribus intermediis(]ue 
latens. 

Universal throughout the Madeiran Group, in the whole five 

* The C. subnitidus differs from the lacertostis, mainly, in its surface being a 
little less opake, in tlie punctules of its prothorax being more evident, and in its 
elytra (which are just perceptibly more straightened towards the slioulders) being 
somewhat rougher and more distinctly striated. 

s2 



260 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



islands of which I have myself captured it. It occurs beneath 
stones, and (more especially) amongst small broken sticks around 
the roots of shrubby plants — for the most part at rather low, but 
sometimes at intermediate, elevations. It is a variable insect, both 
in tint and sculpture, having a slightly different phasis for each of 
the separate islands ; and it appears to be more abundant on the 
northern Deserta, and in Porto Santo, than elsewhere. 

723. Caulotrupis impius. 

Caulotrupis impius, Woll., Ins. Mad. 311 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 103 (1857). 

-, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lmd. v. 376 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des., Bugio), intra caules Carduorum 
praecipue Silybi Mariani, Grtn., latitans. : 

Found in Madeira proper and the two southern Desertas, though 
more especially common on the Deserta Grande. It seems to reside 
principally (if not indeed entirely) within the dry stems of Thistles, 
feeding upon the pith ; and I have seen dead stalks of the gigantic 
Silyhum Marianum (the "Holy Thistle" of the ancients), on the 
summit of the Deserta Grande, absolutely devoured by it. 



■ 




724. Caulotrupis terebrans. 

Caulotrupis terebrans, Woll, Ins. Mad. 312, tab. vi. I 8 (1854), 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 103 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 377 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S^^), rarissimus. In summo ipso monl 
"Pico do Facho" dicto specimina duo collegi. 

The only two examples which I have seen of this Caulotrujpis were 

captured by myself on the extreme summit of the Pico do Facho in 

Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group ; and it would therefore seem 

to be rare. 

725. Caulotrupis Chevrolatii. 

Caulotrupis Chevrolatii, Woll, Ins. Mad. 313 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 103 (1857). 

, Id., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 377 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus sub 
ligno praesertim recenter secto late sed vix copiose diffusus. 

Peculiar apparently to the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper, 
where it occurs beneath logs and chippings of wood, principally at a ' 
high elevation. 




CURCULIONIDiK. ^"^ 

726. Caulotrupis opacus. 

Caulotrupis opacus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 313 (1854). 

, ll^ Cat. Mad. Col. 103 (1857). 

, Id., Tram. Ent. Soc. Land. v. 377 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (3Iad.)j in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, occurring in much the same 
places as the last species — for the most part within the sylvan 
districts. 

727. Caulotrupis conicollis. 

Caulotrupis conicollis, Wall., Ins. Mad, 314 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. 3Iad. Col. 103 (1857). 

— , Id., Tram. Ent. Soc. Loml. v. 378 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.), in locis similibus ac C. lucifmjus 
— sub lapidibus sc. necnon inter ramulos plantarum emortuos 
fractos aridos humi jacentes in subinferioribus intermediisque 
latens. 

Found in Madeira proper and on the Deserta Grande — principally 
beneath stones, and amongst smaU broken sticks around the roots of 
shrubby plants, in exposed spots of rather low and intermediate 
altitudes. The specimens from the Deserta Grande differ a little 
from the Madeiran ones, but not so much so as in the case of the 
G. lucifugus. 

Genus 233. STENOTIS. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 316 (1854). 

728. Stenotis acicula. 

Stenotis acicula, WoU., Im. Mad. 316, tab. vi. f. 5 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 104 (1857). 

, Id., Tram. Ent. Soc. Lmd. v. 400, pi. 19. f. 8 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), folia laurorum in humidis sylvaticis 
parcissime destruens. 

Confined to the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper, where it 
is both local and exceedingly rare. I have captured it, however, on 
three separate occasions (always in the north of the island, and on 
the folioffe of the native laurels) — namely, twice at the Montado dos 
Pecegueiros, and once in the Eibeira do Ponteclaro (a tributary of 
the Sao Jorge ravine). Its extremely narrow outline and general 
aspect are strongly suggestive of certain exotic forms— such as Cata- 
lethrus and Forthetes, from America and southern Africa. 



262 



CURCULlONIDiE. 



Genus 234. MESITES. 
Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 1043 (1838). 

§ I. Corptts sat magnuirij parallelum ; femoribus omnibus muticis. 

729. Mesites complanatus. 

Mesites complanatus, WolL, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 401 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 276 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), sub cortice laurorum laxo emortuo in 
sylvaticis editioribus occurrens. 

A large Canarian Mesites which I have observed hitherto only in 
the island of Palma, where however it is locally abundant (beneath 
the loosened bark of the native laurels) in the damp sylvan districts 
of intermediate elevations. 



730. Mesites maderensis. 

Mesites maderensis, WolL, Im. Mad. 319 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 104 (1857). 

' — , Id.j Trans. Ent Soc. Lmxd. v. 403 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo emortuo in lauretis 
humidis editioribus congregans. 

Occurs beneath the loosened bark of the native laurels in the 
sylvan districts of Madeira proper, particularly at a high altitude. 
It is extremely gregarious, and (like most of the Mesitce) very vari- 
able in stature. 

731. Mesites persimilis. 

Mesites persimilis, Woll., Tram. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 402 (1861). 
, Jd.^ Cat, Can, Col, 276 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam.), plerumque in locis similibus ac 
praecedens ; sed interdum, sec. G. R. Crotch, etiam in ficis et 
salicibus occurrit. 

Found in the sylvan districts of Teneriffe and Gomera, under 
much the same circumstances as the last species is at Madeira — of 
which it may be regarded strictly as the Canarian representative. 
There can be no doubt that, like the 31. maderensis, it is normally 
attached to the native laurels ; nevertheless it does sometimes occur 
in other trees likewise, for Mr. G. R. Crotch informs me that during 
their late sojourn in Gomera they occasionally met with it both " in 
fig and willow." 

The M. persimilis differs from the maderensis, chiefly, in its elytra 





CURCULIONIDiE. 263 

being a little flatter (or less cyliiidric), and jiearly entirely free from 
the fine pubescence which is always conspicuous in that insect, with 
their striae broader, deeper, and more coarsely punctured and their 
interstices less transversely-rugulose, in its scutellum being a trifle 
smaller, and in its frontal fovea and prothoracic keel (especially in 
front) being more obscure. 

The M. maderensis and jpersimilis are intimately allied to the 
British M. Tardii, which is found in Ireland and the south-western 
parts of our own country ; and I think it far from unlikely that the 
three forms may be in reality but geographical developments from a 
primeval Atlantic type. 

732. Mesites euphorbias. 

Mesites Euphorbic^, Wull., Ins. Mad. 318 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 104 (1857). 

f,Id.j Tram. Erd. Soe. Lond. v. 403 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ab ora maritima usque ad 5000' s. m. 
Euphorbias emortuas destruens. 

This is emphatically the Euphorbia-destrojing Mesites of the 
Madeiran Group, though hitherto it has been observed only in 
Madeira proper. In that island, however, it is universal, wherever 
there are dead Euphorbias — ascending from almost the sea-level 
(where it infests the E. piscatoria) up to an elevation of at least 
5000 feet, where it abounds in the gigantic E. mellifera. Like aU 
the members of this genus, it is most variable in size. 

733. Mesites proximus. 

Mesites proximus, Woll, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 404 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 277 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), hactenus parcissime repertus. 

A Canarian Mesites which appears to be quite distinct from the 
persimilis, and more allied perhaps to the Madeiran M. euphorbice ; 
though, as I have seen hitherto but two examples of it, captured by 
myself at Taganana in the north of TenerifFe, further material is 
much required in order to establish its characters more completely. 
From its general fades I should be inclined to suspect that the 
species is of Euphorbia-udestmg habits (though possibly attached to 
the Euphorbias of the higher districts) ; but I have no recollection 
of the precise spot in which my specimens were taken, though I 
believe that they were brushed out of dense herbage by the edges 
of the Vueltas on the ascent to the Cumbre. 



264 



CURCULIONID^. 



§ II. Corpus minus, fasiforme (elytrls postice sensim acumhuttis); 
femoribus masculis sabtus obtuse subdentatis. 

734. Mesites fusiformis. 

Mesites fusifomiiF, Woll^Trcms.Ent. Soc.Lond.yA<db,^\. 19.f. 7,9(1801). 
,Id,, Cat. Can. Col. 278 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (in Palma sola hand observatus), vulgatissimus ; 
tnincos ramnlosque Euphorbiarum emortuos praecipue in subin- 
ferioribus destruens. 

Peculiar apparently to the Canarian archipelago, where it swarms 
in the rotten stems of the various Euphorbias at low and intermediate 
elevations. It is doubtless universal throughout the Group ; for 
although it has not been observed in Palma, there can be little doubt 
that it must exist there — though it is certainly remarkable that the 
few Euphorbian Mesitce which have hitherto been captured in that 
island belong to a distinct (though closely allied) species, the M, 
jmbipennis. Throughout the remainder of the Group, however, it 
abounds ; and I met with it even on the little islets of Graciosa and 
Lobos — off the extreme noj'th of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura re- 
spectively. 

735. Mesites pubipennis. 

Mesites pubipennis, JVoU., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. v. 406 (1864). 
, Id.y Cat. Can. Col. 278 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

As just stated, this Mesites has been observed hitherto only m 
Palma — where it seems to take the place of the last species, which 
abounds throughout the remainder of the Canarian archipelago. 
Although allied to the fusiformis, I scarcely think that it can be 
regarded as any insular modification of it ; for the latter does not 
appear to present any local peculiarities in the various islands and 
altitudes in which it elsewhere occurs, and moreover we have yet 
to ascertain for certain that it does not exist, simultaneously with 
the pubipennis, in the rotten EupJiorbia-siems of Palma. 

(Subfam. II. RHYl^CHOPHORIDES.) 

Genus 235. SITOPHILUS. 

Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 967 (1838). 

736. Sitophilus granarius. 

Curculio granarius, Linn., Fna Stiec. 587 (1761). 

Calandra linearis, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 73 (1838). 




CURCULIONID^. 265 

Sitophilus granariiis, Woll, his. Mad. 321 (1854). 

, Id, Cat. 3fad. Col. 104 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 279 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (in Gam. sola haud 
captus), vel in domibus et granariis vel sub recremento f arris 
circa basin acervorum tritici sparse hinc inde vulgaris. 

A cosmopolitan insect which has doubtless become naturalized in 
at any rate all the inhabited islands of these Atlantic Groups — 
occurring about houses and granaries, as well as beneath the refuse 
around the base of corn-stacks. It is common in Madeira proper ; 
whilst at the Canaries it has been observed in the whole seven islands 
except Gomera, where doubtless however it must exist. 

737. Sitophilus oryzae. 

Curculio oryzse, Linn., Cent. Ins. 12 (1763). 

Calandra oryzae, Urulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col). 73 (1838). 

Sitophilus orvzae, Woll., Lis. Mad. 322 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 105 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 280 (1864). 

, Hart., Geolog. Vei'hdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), vulgaris; 
in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Found in the same kind of places as the last species, and equally 
universal. At Madeira however it is perhaps less common than it 
is at the Canaries, in the whole seven islands of which it has com- 
pletely established itself. 



(Subfam. III. CIONIDES.) 

Genus 236. NANOPHYES. 
• Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 780 (1838). 

738. Nanophyes longulus. 

Nanophyes longulus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 299 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten.), super folia plantarum in herbidis 
humidiusculis rarior. 

A Canarian Nanojphyes which has been observed hitherto only in 
Grand Canary and Teneriife. It appears to be rare, and occurs 
amongst dense vegetation in rather damp spots of intermediate 
altitudes. My Grand-Canarian examples are from Mogan and the 
region of El Monte, and the Teneriffan ones from Souzal. 



266 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



739. Nanophyes lunulatus. 



Nanophyes lunulatus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 218 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 300 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), super folia Tamaricis gallicce in inter- 
mediis captus. 

Taken rather abundantly in Grand Canary — off some shrubs of the 
Tamaricc gallica, L., at the edges of the stream at Mogan, in one of 
the south-western Barrancos of that island ; but it has not yet been 
observed elsewhere. 

Genus 237. CIONUS. 
Clairville, Ent. Helv. i. 64 (1798). 

740. Clonus pulcheUus. 

Curcuho pulcheUus, Ilhst, Kaf. vi. 356 (1795). 

Clonus pulcheUus, Schon., Gem. et Spec. Cure. iv. 741 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 323 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 105 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), super plantas Scrofularice in intermediis 
parce occurrens. 

The European C. pulcheUus occurs sparingly in Madeira proper, 
on plants of JScrofularia, at intermediate elevations ; but it has not 
yet been detected in any of the other islands. 



(Subfam. lY. CEYPTOEHYNCHIDES.) 



Genus 238. CEUTHORHYNCHIDEUS. 
Jacq. Duval, Gen. des Col. d^Eur. (Curcul.) 60 (1855). 

741. Ceuthorhjmchideus pyrrhorhynchus. 

Curculio i^jrrhoThynchus, Mshm, Ent. Brit. 257 (1802). 
Nedyus suturaHs, iSteph., III. Brit. Ent. v. 419 (1832). 
Ceuthorhynchus pulvinatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 494 (1837). 
pyrrhorhynchus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 281 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), in cultis intermediis parce deprehensus. 

Likewise a common European insect, and one which I have taken 
sparingly in Euerteventura of the Canarian Group — namely, at OHva 
and at the Agua Bueyes. It seems to occur in and about cultivated 
grounds, and may perhaps have been naturalized accidentaUy from 
more northern countries. 




CURCULIONIDJJ. * 267 

Genus 239. CEUTHORHYNCHUS. 
(Schuppel) Schcin., Cure. Disp. Meth. 298 (1826). 

742. Ceuthorhynchus echii. 

Curculio Echii, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 436 (1792). 
Ceuthorhynchus Ecliii, Schon., Gen. etSjjec. Cure. iv. 504 (1837). 

Ceutorhynchus , Wall., Ins. Mad. 325 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 105 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^° /S^^, Des.), ad folia Ecliii violacei, Linn., 
in intermediis degens. 

The G. echii, which is so generally spread throughout Europe, 
will probably be found to be universal in the Madeiran Group; 
though it has not yet been observed in the Canaries. It occurs on 
the foliage of the Echium violaceum, L., at rather low and interme- 
diate altitudes ; and it has been captured in Madeira proper, Porto 
Santo, and the Deserta Grande. 

743. Ceuthorhynchus poUinarius. 

Curciilio poUinarius, Forst, Nov. Ins. Spee. 33 (1772). 

dentatus, Mshm,Ent. Brit. 280 (i802). 

Ceuthorhynchus poUinaiius, Sehon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 543 (1837). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 280 (1834). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Hierro), in foliis Urticarum hinc 
inde minus frequens. 

A common European Ceutliorhynclius which occurs very sparingly, 
at low and intermediate elevations, in the Canarian Group — for the 
most part on the foliage of nettles, in semicultivated spots. I have 
taken it in Teneriffe and Hierro, and it was found by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Gomera. 

744. Ceuthorhynchus quadridens. 

Curculio quadridens, Pnz., Fna Gei'in. xxxvi. 13 (1796). 
Ceutorhynchus quadridens, Woll., Ins. Mad. 326 (1864). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 105 (1857). 

Ceuthorhynchus , Id. Cat. Can. Col. 280 (1864). 

i?a6ito^ Maderenses (Mad., Des.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Ten., Gam., 
Falma, Hierro), plerumque in cultis intermediis parce occurrens. 

Almost universal (perhaps indeed quite so) throughout these At- 
lantic islands, where very likely it may have become established 
fi-om more northern latitudes. It occurs sparingly in semicultivated 
spots of intermediate elevations, and has been captured in Madeira 
proper and the Deserta Grande of the Madeiran Group, and in all 



268 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



the Canarian islands except Lanzarote and Grand Canary (in both 
of which, however, wc may be pretty sure that it exists). 

745. Ceuthorhynchus nigroterminatas. 

Ceutorhynchus nigroterminatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 327 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 106 (1857). 

mixtus, Muls. et Bey, Ann. Soc.Ac/r. Lyon (s^r.iii.) ii. 295 (1858). 

Ceuthoiynchus nigroterminatus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 281 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), et Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Hierro), in 
herbidis subinferioribus intermediisque, passim. 

A European species which is widely (though sparingly) diffused 
over these Atlantic islands, where in all probability it will be found 
to be well nigh universal. It occurs amongst herbage, at rather 
low and intermediate elevations, chiefly within the cultivated dis- 
tricts ; and it has been captured in Madeira proper, as well as in 
Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro of the Canarian Group. Its detection 
in Gomera is due to the late researches of the Messrs. Crotch. I am 
informed by Mr. G. E. Crotch that it is identical with the G. mbotus 
of Mulsant and Key ; and indeed a recent inspection of an example 
of the latter, which was taken by myself in the east of England, 
leaves no doubt on this point. 

746. Ceuthorhjrnchus phytobioides. 
Ceuthorhynchus phytobioides, Woll., Cat. Can. Co/. 281 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), ad folia Sedi in sylvaticis rarissimus. 

A single example only of this Canarian GeuthorJiynchus has hitherto 
come beneath my notice. I met with it in the sylvan region above 
Taganana, in the north of Teneriffe. 

747. Ceuthorhynchus hesperus, 

Ceuthorhynchus hesperus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 282 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Hierro), ad rupes herbidas in editioribus 
folia Sedi destruens. 

Likewise Canarian and exceedingly scarce. I have taken it at a 
high elevation in Hierro (where it was also captured by M. de la 
iPerraudiere), and it was found by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera. 

As conjectured in my late Catalogue, the habits of the C. jphyto- 
hioides, hesperus, and Uneatotessellatus are identical — the three 
insects being attached to the succulent leaves of the various species 
of Sedum and Sempervivum, which form so marked a feature on the 
sides of the perpendicular rocks at intermediate and lofty altitudes. 





CURCULIONIDiE. 269 

748. Ceiithorhynchus lineatotessellatus. 

Ceutorhynchus lineatotessellatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 327 (1854). 
^ M, Cat. Mad. Col 106 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad,), folia Sempervivi patince, Lowe, ad nipes 
crescentis plenimque in subinferioribus erodens. 

Observed hitherto only in Madeira proper, where moreover it is 
extremely scarce. It occurs principally at low elevations (at any 
rate in the north of the island), and subsists on the fleshy leaves of 
the Sempervivum j>atina, Lowe, — the rosette-like plants of which 
stud the faces of the perpendicular rocks, so conspicuously, in certain 
districts. 

Genus 240. CCELIODES. 
Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 296 (1826). 

749. Cceliodes guttula. 

Curculio guttula, Fah., Ent. Sijst. i. ii. 436 (1792). 

fuliginosus, Mshm, Ent. Bnt. 280 (1802). 

Cceliodes fuliginosus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 329 (1854). 
^ Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 100 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), forsan introductus; in cultis circa 
urbem Funchalensem parcissime occurrens. 

This widely diffused European insect occurs very sparingly in 
gardens and cultivated spots around Funchal in Madeira proper, 
where most likely it has become established accidentally from higher 
latitudes. 

Genus 241. MONONYX. 
Brulle, iti litt. 

750. Mononyx variegatus. 

Mononyx variegatus, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. ( Col. ) 72, pi. i. f. 16 (1838). 

Habitat ins. Canarienses (sec. DD. Webb et Berthelot), mihi non 
obvius. 

In my Canarian Catalogue I alluded to M. BruUe's Mononyx 
variegatus in the " Introductory Remarks " only, it being utterly im- 
possible even to conjecture the systematic position of a genus of 
which there is no diagnosis on record. Still, since 2. figure is given 
of it in MM. Webb and Berthelot's work, and it is barely possible 
that M. Brulle may have intended to write " Mononychus^^ (which, 
of course, is a well-known group) instead of Mononyx, I will ven- 



270 



CURCULIONIDtE. 



ture to assume its identity (or at least its relationship) with the 
former, and embody it in the text of this volume — placing it where 
I now do. Still, in reality, I know no more about it than 1 did 
formerly, and can therefore give no information as to the island in 
which it was captured ; though, as the illustration of it and specific 
description equally prevent my referring it to any other Curculionid 
which has hitherto been met with in these Atlantic islands, I think 
perhaps we may conclude it to be at all events Canarian, and await 
the detection of future material to supply us with a knowledge of its 
undoubted affinities and its exact habitat. I may, however, just add 
that I am more inclined to suspect that it wiU prove ultimately to 
be a variegated Acalles than a Mononychus. 



Genus 242. ACALLES. 
Schonherr, Cure. JDisp. Meth. 295 (1826). 

The excessive variabihty of most of these Atlantic Acalles renders 
it next to impossible to give satisfactory diagnoses of them which 
shall define accurately the respective limits of their variation. Yet 
when examined with the aid of large numbers for comparison, they 
may usually be well enunciated in a general way, though the defi- 
nitions can scarcely be made, even then, without great difficulty, to 
include within them occasional specimens which either depart from 
their respective types or which (more frequently) are in such a bad 
state of preservation that their true characters (of colour and clothing) 
have become nearly obliterated. Individuals indeed such as these 
last referred to, the collector would do well to destroy ; for they only 
tend to perpetuate confusion by ap'pearing to connect species which 
are in reality well expressed, and under one or the other of which 
they would themselves unmistakeably fall were they sufficiently 
perfect to render all their external features appreciable. 

The practical naturalist vdU not misunderstand these remarks, or 
suppose for a moment that I would wish to solve difficulties by 
simply ignoring them. They do not apply to variations (as such), 
in any form or shape, but simply to the retention of material (in 
these scale-covered, inconstant creatures) which is absolutely worthy 
less on account of its having lost the main characteristics on which 
we are often compelled to rely in framing our several diagnoses. I 
am fully aware how difficult it is in some few instances, even with 
the best of material, to determine critically where one species may 
be assumed to end, and another to commence; yet 1 positively 



CURCULIONID^. 271 

afErm my belief that the difficulties gradually diminish, in propor- 
tion as we become acquainted with the objects themselves which we 
would endeavour to describe ; for when viewed superficially, nothing 
can be more plausible than the easy and wholesale conclusion that 
all of them alike are but chance developments from a central type. 
Even as regards the obscurer forms, however, there is yet one way 
(whensoever a favourable opportunity may occur for practising it) by 
which we may hope to arrive at a considerable amount of truth, — 
namely, by a careful inquiry, into their previous states and modes of 
life. The good results of such an investigation have been more than 
verified by the late researches of the Messrs. Crotch, who took the 
pains not only to collect but also to note the particular plants on 
which the species which they happened to fall in with subsist ; the 
consequence of which has been that at least three or four forms, the 
distinctions between which (from the want of proper material) I 
had looked upon with some suspicion when compiling my Canarian 
Catalogue, have been so fully established that there can be no longer 
any doubt as to their true specific claims. Such, for instance, are 
the A. argillosus (which is peculiar to the Kleinia neriifolia), the 
ceonii (to the Semperviva), the fortunatus (to the Ewphorbice)^ and 
the senilis (to the fig). 

With these few remarks therefore I would commend the numerous 
Acalles recorded in this Catalogue to the patient observation of those 
who may have opportunities, from time to time, of testing their 
diagnoses, and (if needs be) of correcting them — merely adding that, 
although I feel it anything but improbable that some few may 
eventually have to be suppressed, I nevertheless believe that by far 
the greater nimiber will stand the test of a rigid inquiry, and that a 
careful attention to the exact plants on which they severally feed 
will further tend to elucidate those particular forms which the defi- 
ciency of material has compelled me to leave in partial doubt. 

751. Acalles Neptunus. 

Acalles Neptunus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 330 (note) (1854). 
, Id., Journ. of Ent. 90 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. minorem, australem), a Dom. Leacock tempore 
vemali a.d. 1851 deprehensus. 

This noble Acalles appears to be peculiar to the Salvages, where 
several specimens of it were captured by Mr. Leacock of Madeira 
on the Southern island (or ' Great Piton ') during the spring of 



272 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



1851. It is extremely interesting geographically, through the fact 
of its being very closely allied to the A. argiUosus from TenerifFe. 
Although greatly resembling that species, however, both in size and 
general aspect, I do not think that it vrould be safe to treat it as an 
insular state of it — at all events until a more accurate knowledge 
has been acquired as to how far these numerous Atlantic Acalles are 
subject to external modification through the long-continued action of 
surrounding influences*. 



752. Acalles argillosus. 

Acalles urgillosus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iv. 327 (1837). 
Tylodes scaber, BrulU, in Wehh etBeHh. (Col.) 72, pi. 1. f. 14 (1838). 
Acalles argillosus, Woll., Cat. Can. Cul. 283 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Hierro), intra caules Kleinice nerii- 
folice, De Cand., degens. 

A large Canarian Acalles, which seems to undergo its transforma- 
tions within the stalks of the Kleinia nerii folia. I obtained it from 
the hollow branches of the Kleinia at Taganana in Teneriife ; and the 
Messrs. Crotch met with it abundantly, under similar (and indeed 
under no other) circumstances, in Gomera and Hierro ; and even 
Messrs. Webb and Berthelot, who seldom give us any information of 
either local or general interest, record its capture " dans les branches 
et les vieux troncs du Cacalia Kleinia ; " so that there can be little 
doubt that it is attached exclusively to that singular plant. 

The A. argillosus is eminently musical ; but in all probability this 
is owing more to its large bulk, and its consequently increased power 
for stridulation, than to any specific peculiarity of its own. In the 
* Ann. of Nat. Hist.' for July 1860 I gave a full account of the 
manner in which this fine Curculionid generates its " anal song; " 
but I have subsequently ascertained that all the Acalles are able to 
perform — more or less audibly, according to their respective sizes and 
capacities. Since the publication of the paper above alluded to, Mr. 
F. Smith has tested certain British species, and finds them to be 

* The A. Neptiinus differs from the argillosus, mainly, in its scales being yel- 
lower (or of a much less chalky white), in its rostrum being rather flatter and 
less keeled in front, in the third articulation of its feet being a trifle less 
expanded, and in its prothorax (when denuded of the scales), although very 
coarsely and densely punctured, appearing scarcely so deeply or so thickly pimc- 
tured, or so decidedly opake, as is tlie case in that insect. Its elytra likewise are 
more or less ornamented posteriorly with irregular black spots, or broken lines, 
which do not appear to exist in the argillosus; and the first joint of its funiculus 
is perhaps a little more elongated, being more decidedly longer than the second 



one. 



CURCULIONIDiE. 273 

gifted with a like power ; and the late Mr. Bewicke heard no less 
than^ve of the Madeiran AcalJes "sing" most distinctly. Future 
observations will probably show that a large proportion of the 
weevils are endowed with this capability ; for I myself called atten- 
tion to two gigantic Canarian Plinthi which were able to stridulate, 
and Mr. Bewicke detected a similar noise in the CeutJwrhynchus 
echii — " which (as he quaintly expressed it) sings heautifulhj, work- 
ing its pygidium against the elytra, which are curiously thickened." 
It is by the rapid vibration of the pygidium that the jarring is pro- 
duced — its setose upper surface being made to play, at each move- 
ment, against the reticulated inner face of the elytra (the apical 
portion of which, as well as in some instances the rim, is specially 
roughened for this particular purpose). 

753. Acalles seonii. 

Acalles aeonii, Chevrolat, in litt. 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 285 (1864). 

, DeBarnv., An?i. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iv. 452 (1865). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), intra caules Sempervivi occurrens. 

Likewise a Canarian Acalles, which has been observed hitherto in 
Teneriife and Gomera, and which appears to be attached to the dif- 
ferent species of Sempervivum (some of which constitute the genus 
ionium of Webb). In the latter of those islands the Messrs. Crotch 
took it abundantly — " from out of the great rosette-like Sempervivum 
which everj'where studs the rocks;" and examples were communi- 
cated to me from Paris by M. Chevrolat (who purchased them from 
a French naturalist who formerly collected at TeneriflFe), with a note 
appended to them to the effect that they were captured within the 
stalks of the '' ionium frutescens.'' Although in some respects the 
A. ceonii and the argillosus (which infests the Kleinia neriifolia) are 
closely allied, a fine series of both species, now before me, from the 
recent material of the Messrs. Crotch, shows that they have much 
less in common than I had originally supposed*. 

* The A. eeonii ranges smaller than the argillosus, and the scales with which 
it is clothed are of a very much darker (or browner) tint ; its rostrum (in both 
sexes) is a little longer and more deeply sculptured, as wcil as more naked pos- 
teriorly (which causes it to appear more conspicuously incised on either side at 
its extreme, base) ; its prothorax is more rounded at the edges ; its eljtra are 
rather more pointed (or less obtusely bisinuated) at their apex, and have their 
inequalities rather more abrupt and developed ; and its feet are longer. In the 
numerous examples now before me, the ceonii varies in length from 2^ to 4^ 
lines, whilst the argillosvLS ranges from 3^ to 5^. 



274 



CURCULIONIDiE. 




754. Acalles saxicola. 

Acalles saxicola, Woll, Ins. Mad. 332 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 106 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Des.)^ sub lapidibus in elevatis parce captus. 

Observed hitherto only on the Deserta Grande, of the Madeiran- 
Group, where I have on two or three occasions captured it from 
within the holes (or cavities) on the undersides of stones and scoriae 
on the high and exposed headland which forms the northern ex 
tremity of that island. 

755. Acalles Mstrionicus. 

Acalles histrionicus, Wollj Cat. Mad. Col. 106 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S*^), semel tantum repertus. 

Hitherto unique — a single example having been taken by myse 
in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, near the ruined church of 
Nossa Senhora da Grace (above the Villa). It is the only Acalles 
which has yet been detected in Porto Santo. 

756. Acalles pulverulentus. 

Acalles pulverulentus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 333 (1854). 
J Id,, Cat. Mad. Col. 107 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in aridis subinferioribus parce lectus. 

Taken sparingly in Madeira proper — at a rather low elevation, on 
the sunny and exposed cliiFs to the eastward of Funchal. Further 
material is much required, both of this Acalles and of the following 
one, in order to complete their diagnoses. 

757. Acalles oblitus. 

Acalles oblitus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 333 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 107 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus ; in locis similibus ac prsece- 
dens. 

Found in the same situation, in Madeira proper, as the last species, 
and equally rare. Indeed it is hitherto unique ; and until further 
(and more satisfactory) material has been obtained, I cannot feel that 
either the A. oblitus or pulverulentus (although, I think, they can 
scarcely be referred to any of the other species here enumerated) 
have been properly defined. 






CITRCULTONID.'E. 275 

758. Acalles nodifems. 

Acalles nodiferus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 334 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 107 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice laxo necnon inter lichenes 
ad truncos arborum vetustos crescentes in lauretis editioribus 
occurrens. 

Found in the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper, principally 
at a high elevation ; but whether it is actuallj^ attached to the native 
laurels (amongst which it occurs), or to some plant growing in the 
same region, I am unable to say. I have generally taken it, how- 
ever, either beneath loosened bark or else amongst the grey lichen 
which occasionally clothes the trunks of the older trees. 

759. Acalles vau. ^ 

AcaUes Vau, Woll., Ins. Mad. 835 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 109 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Occurs in much the same places (within the sylvan districts of 
Madeira proper) as the A. nodiferus, to which indeed it is a good 
deal allied. 

760. Acalles sigma. 

Acalles sigma, Wdl, Cat. Can. Col. 288 (1864). 

Habitat Canaiienses (Palma^, in lauretis humidis editioribus raris- 
simus. 

Observed hitherto only in Palma, of the Canarian Group, where it 
occurs in the laurel- districts of a rather high altitude — apparently 
under much the same circumstances as the two preceding species do 
at Madeira, of either of which it might perhaps be regarded as the 
Canarian representative. 

761. Acalles fortunatus. 

Acalles fortunatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 286 (1864). 
, Id., Append, huj. op. 46. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Hierro), in Euphorbiis emortuis a DD. 
Crotch sat copiose deprehensus. 

Detected by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera and Hierro, of the 
Canarian Group. According to their report it would appear to be a 
true ^w^^o/'^ia-infesting species, being never found in any other plant. 

'I 2 



276 



CURCULIONID^. 



Their Gomeran examples were obtained from the rotten stems of the 
E. piscatoria, and the Hierro ones from those of the regis-Jubm. 



762. Acalles ornatus. 

Acalles ornatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 336 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis hnmidis editioribus captus. 

Found at a high elevation in the sylvan districts of Madeira pro- 
per ; and it so closely resembles the A. fortunatus that I think it far 
from impossible that it may be a geographical modification of the 
same species. Still, when carefully examined, it will be seen to have 
distinctions of its own ; and I think therefore that it would scarcely 
be safe to unite it absolutely with that insect. Whether its habits 
are similar, I have no evidence to enable me to decide. 

763. Acalles senilis. 

Acalles senilis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 288 (1864). 
, Id., Append, hitj. op. 4.7. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam,, Hierro), in ligno Fid antiquo a DD. 
Crotch lectus. 

A Canarian Acalles of which I took a single (small and unusually 
cinereous) example close to Yalverde, in Hierro, but which has 
lately been captured in tolerable abundance, by the Messrs. Crotch, 
in that island and (more particularly) Gomera. During their sojourn 
at the latter, indeed, they bred a considerable series of it from the 
rotten wood of an old fig-free ; and since their Hierro specimens 
were also obtained from fig-trees (near Yalverde) the species would 
appear to be of difierent habits from its ally the fortunatus — which 
is attached exclusively to the Euphorbias. The additional material 
both of the present insect and of the fortimatiis has enabled me to 
catch the characters of the two so much more satisfactorily than I 
had hitherto done, that I have thought it desirable to give fresh 
diagnoses of them in the Appendix to this volume. 



764. Acalles terminalis. 

Acalles terminalis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 335 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis editioribus hand infrequens. 
Occurs in the higher elevations of Madeira proper, within the 



fl 




I 



CURCULIONIDiE. 277 

sylvan districts ; and if (as lately implied) the A. ornatus be regarded 
as the representative in that island of the Canarian A. fortunatus, 
the present species is as assuredly the Madeiran analogue of the se- 
nilis of the Canarian Group. Yet, on the whole, I think that it is 
perhaps more distinct from the latter than the ornatus is from the 
fortunatus ; so that, a fortiori, I cannot treat it as any local modifica- 
tion of that insect. 

765. Acalles brevitarsis. 
Acalles brevitarsis, Wall., Cat. Can. Col 289 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis lectus. 

The only district in which I have taken this Acalles is that of El 
Monte in Grand Canary. It has a good deal in common with the 
amtus, of Teneriffe ; but the characters which distinguish it from that 
insect have been fully alluded to in my Canarian Catalogue. 

766. Acalles acutus. 
Acalles acutus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 289 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis intermediis parum vulgaris. 

A Canarian Acalles which is widely spread over the sylvan districts 
of Teneriffe, where it is tolerably common. Whether it occurs else- 
where in the archipelago I am doubtful ; for although a few rubbed 
and unsatisfactory individuals which I have examined from Grand 
Canary and Gomera have much the appearance presented by equally 
bad ones of this species, I cannot regard them as affording evidence 
one way or the other — since (as stated in the remarks at the com- 
mencement of this genus) examples of these variable, scale- covered 
Curculionidce in that kind of condition are generally quite useless, 
as being simply undeterminable. As hitherto observed, therefore, I 
do not think that it would be safe to record the A. acutus positively 
for any island except Teneriffe. 

767. Acalles instabilis. 

Acalles instabilis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 290 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.?, Ten., Gom.?, Palma'2), in sylvaticis, 
passim. 

Like the last species, widely spread over the laurel-districts of 
Teneriffe ; but whether the more or less imperfect and abraded 
examples from Grand Canary and Gomera which I have (provision- 



278 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



ally) identified with it, or the highly -coloured (aberrant?) ones from 
Palma, be absolutely referable to the instabilis, the unsatisfactory 
nature of the material which I have hitherto been able to inspect 
compels me to leave somewhat in doubt ; so that, as in the case of 
the acutus, I would not venture to record it positively for any island 
except Teneriffe. At the same time I should state that I am almost 
satisfied that it does occur both in Goraera and Palma, and probably 
in Grand Canary likewise ; for I believe that the few specimens just 
alluded to are merely the exponents of slightly modified races cha- 
racteristic of those islands. 

Even in its typical phasis, however, the A. instahilis is very closely 
allied to the acutus ; and it is possible indeed that it may ultimately 
have to be regarded as only a small form of the latter; though 
further material, and (above all) a knowledge of its habits, can alone 
decide this point for certain. 

768. Acalles dispar. 

Acalles dispar, Woll, Ins. Mad. 337 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in lauretis humidis hand infrequens. 

Peculiar to the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, but so much 
resembling the acutus of Tenerifie that at first sight it might almost 
be mistaken for that species. In spite of this general resemblance, 
however, I do not believe that the A. dispar can be regarded as any 
insular state of its Canarian ally*. 




769. Acalles coarctatus. 

Acalles coarctatus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 108 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus ; in herbidis intermediis 
lectus. 



i 



Peculiar to Madeira proper, and of great rarity — the few speci- 
mens which I have seen having been taken by myself in the Boa 
Ventura and the Eibeiro de Sao Jorge, in the north of that island. 



* The A. dispar is, on the average, a little larger than the acutus ; its elytra 
(which are rather more rounded at the sides, and are more conspicuously orna- 
mented with a narrow, elongate, blackish sutural patch in front of the postmedial 
fascia) will be seen, when denuded of their scales, to be vey-y much more coarsely 
sculptured (the punctures of the striae being perfectly enormous, and nearly 
three times the size of those of that insect) ; and its rostrum and limbs are per- 
ceptibly broader, or more robust. 




CURCULIONlDiE. 279 

770. Acalles xerampelinus. 
Acalles xerampelinus^ Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 287 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in lauretis humidis rarissimus. 

A remarkable Canarian Acalles which I have observed hitherto 
only in the laurel-regions of Teneriffe, my few specimens having 
been brushed out of rank vegetation (in damp spots) at the Agua 
Garcia and above Taganana. 

771. Acalles nubilosus. 

AcaUes nubilosus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 287 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens. 

Likewise Teneriffan, and found in much the same kind of places 
as the last species — to which indeed it is a good deal allied. Having 
seen as yet but two examples of it (which I took in the laurel-dis- 
tricts of Las Mercedes and above Taganana), its diagnosis can scarcely 
be said perhaps to have been satisfactorily completed until further 
material has been obtained for inspection. I may add however that 
I do not believe that it can be regarded as any extreme modification 
of the xerampelinus *. 

772. Acalles cinereus. 

Acalles cinereus, Woll.y Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 453 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), intra Euphorbiam melliferam in sylvaticis 
humidis editioribus a IleV" R. T. Lowe parce lectus. 

A few examples of this distinct Acalles were met with by the 
Rev. R. T. Lowe at a very high elevation, towards the head of the 
Boa Ventura, in Madeira proper, — within the crevices of a dead stem 
of the Euphorbia mellifera; and it is probable, therefore, that, the 
species will be found to be of j^^^or6m-infesting habits. In its 
ashy-white surface and but slightly developed nodules, though not 
in its general outline and comparatively small size, it is a little 
suggestive at first sight of the A. argillosus. There is also a speci- 
men of it in the collection of the late Mr. Bewicke. 

* The^. nubilosus seems to differ from the xerampelinus in its more ovate (or 
less straightened) outline, and in the apex of its elytra being less drawn out or 
produced, in its prothorax (when denuded of the scales) appearing rather less 
coarsely punctured, and in its more variegated hue — the darker scales being less 
rufescent, and the paler ones spread over a larger portion of the surface, whilst 
the postmedial fascia is not produced forward (in a straight line) on either side. 



280 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



773. Acalles festivns. 

Acalles festivus, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 109 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad), sub cortice laurorum vetustarum laxo a 
Dom. Bewicke in editioribus deprehensus. 

Several specimens of this brightly maculated and beautiful little 
Acalles were taken by the late Mr. Bewicke, at a rather high eleva- 
tion, in Madeira proper — from under the loosened bark of old laurels 
in a small ravine immediately over the ridge to the west of the 
Ribeira das Calles bridge (beyond the Pico do Arrebentao), on the 
mountains above Funchal. 



774. Acalles lunulatus. 

Acalles limulatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 340 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in lauretis editioribus hand infrequens. 

Rather widely spread over the laurel-regions of Madeira proper 
at intermediate and lofty altitudes, being taken in much the same 
kind of places as the allied species. 

775. Acalles albolineatus. 

Acalles albolineatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 338 (1854). 
, Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarior ; in locis similibus ac prsecedcns. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, where it occurs sparingly (in 
company with several of the other species) in the wooded districts at 
intermediate and lofty elevations. 

776. Acalles WoUastoni. 

Acalles WoUastoni, Ckevr. in Guer. Rev. iv. 279 (1852). 

et cylindricoUis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 341, 342 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis subsylvaticisque late diffu- 
sus, etiam in regiones vix elevatas nonnunquam descendens. 

Widely diffused over the sylvan and subsylvan districts of Madeira 
proper — where it occurs amongst herbage generally, descending 
sometimes into comparatively low altitudes. It and the A. seticollis 
are the most minute of all the Acalles of these Atlantic islands, and 
indeed amongst the smallest of the Cu7Xidionidce here enumerated. 






CURCULIONID^. 281 

A more critical examination of the type on which the A. cylindn- 
colUs of my ' Ins. Mad.' was founded, has satisfied me that it is only 
a largely developed specimen of the A. WoUastoni. 

777. Acalles seticollis. 
Acalles seticollis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 291 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Hierro), in herbidis intermediis rarissimus. 

The representative at the Canaries of the Madeiran A. WoUastoni^ 
and found in much the same kind of places. It has been taken 
(very sparingly) by myself in Hierro, and by the Messrs. Crotch in 
Teneriffe. It bears so strong a prima facie resemblance to the 
A, WoUastoni that it is difficult to beheve that it can be more than 
a geographical modification of that insect ; and yet, when carefully 
inspected, it wiU be seen to have a few very constant characters of 
its own. Thus, it is altogether more setose than its Madeiran ally, 
and its prothorax when denuded of its scales is much more coarsely 
and densely punctured, whilst its elytra have the punctures of their 
striaB less developed and their interstices more rugulose. 

778. Acalles globulipennis. 

Acalles globulipennis, Wall., Ins. Mad. 339 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 110 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), praecipue sub cortice laxo necnon inter 
lichenes ad truncos arborum vetustos crescentes in lauretis 
humidis editioribus occurrens. 

This comparatively rounded little species, which is more on the 
pattern of the ordinary Acalles of more northern latitudes, is widely 
diffused over the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper — where it 
occurs principally beneath the loosened bark, and amongst lichen 
growing upon the trunks, of the old laurels. 

779. Acalles pilula. 

Acalles pilula, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 292 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), in locis similibus 
ac praecedens et forsan ejus varietas geographica. 

Whether this Acalles be anything more than a Canarian modifica- 
tion of the last one, I wiU not undertake to decide ; but it certainly 
bears as great a resemblance to it, at first sight, as the A. seticollis 
does to the Madeiran A. WoUastoni. Yet (as in the case of that 



282 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



insect) it unquestionably possesses a few distinctions of its own, 
which are very evident when examined with care. Thus, for in- 
stance, the rostrum of its female is a little slenderer and more convex 
than that of the globulvpennis ; its prothorax is relatively narrower 
and more conical, and when denuded of its scales will be seen to be 
less constricted behind the apex, as also more deeply and less closely 
punctured; and its elytra are even convexer still — especially at 
their base. 

The A. pilula is widely spread over the sylvan and subsylvan 
districts of the Canarian Group, at any rate in the central and 
western portions of it. I have taken it in Teneriffe and Palma, and 
it was found sparingly by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera and Hierro. 

780. Acalles verrucosus. 

Acalles verrucosus, WulL, Ami. Nat. Hist. xi. 219 (1863). 
^ Id., Cat. Can. Col 292 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), in lauretis humidis editi- 
oribus sub cortice laxo truncisque putridis rarior. 

A large and most distinct Canarian Acalles, which seems to be 
peculiar to the damp sylvan regions of a lofty altitude. I have 
taken it beneath the loosened bark of trees, as well as under moist 
rotting wood, in Teneriffe and Palma ; and several specimens are 
now before me which were captured by the Messrs. Crotch, in the 
laurel-district above Hermigua, in Gomera. 



Genus 243. ECHINODERA. 

Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 293 (1864). 

781. Echinodera hystrix. 

Echinodera hystrix, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 294 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Palma, Hierro), in sylvaticis intermediis 
degens. 

Apparently peculiar to the western portion of the Canarian Group, 
where it occurs at intermediate altitudes, principally within the 
sylvan districts. I have taken it in Palma and Hierro ; and it was 
captured by the Messrs. Crotch in the latter, as well as (above Her- 
migua) in Gomera. Although variable in tint, it is usually an ob- 
scurely coloured insect ; but it may always be known by the rather 
long and erect setae with which it is studded, and by the punctures 



4 



CURCULIONID.^. 283 

of its elytral strias being of an enormous size — a character, however, 
which is appreciable only when the elytra are denuded of their 
scales. 

782. Echinodera crenata. 

Echinodera crenata, WoU., Ami. Nat. Hist. xi. 219 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 295 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus in montibus valde excelsis 
ultra region es sylvaticas occurrens. Usque ad, vel etiam ultra, 
9000' s. m. ascendit. 

Eound at a high elevation on the mountains of Teneriife, where it 
would appear to occur from about GOOO to 9000 feet above the sea — 
beyond the upper limits of the sylvan districts. I have taken it 
(under stones) on the Cumbre adjoining the Canadas, as well as on 
the opposite ridge above the Agua Mansa. 

783. Echinodera angulipennis. 

Echinodera angulipennis, WoH., Cat. Can. Col. 296 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis sylvaticis subsylvaticisquo 
baud infrequens. 

Widely spread over the sylvan and subsylvan regions of Teneriife, 
having a decidedly lower range than the last species. It occurs em- 
phatically indeed at intermediate altitudes, being occasionally found 
even a little below the wooded districts. In its general colouring and 
aspect it might almost be mistaken for the E. hystrix ; but its robust 
setae are not quite so long or so erect, and its elytra (which have 
their humeral and apical halves more obliquely truncated, or lopped 
off, in opposite directions, so as to shape-out a more evident angle 
on either side at about a third of the distance from their base) wiU 
be seen when denuded of their scales to have their striae very much 
less coarsely punctured. Despite its prima facie resemblance, there- 
fore, I do not think that it can be regarded as a Teneriffan modifica- 
tion of the hystrix, — particularly so, since the latter species appears 
to retain its peculiarities of sculpture unaltered in Gomera, Palma, 
and Hierro. 

784. Echinodera orbiculata. 

Echinodera orbiculata, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 297 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), in sylvaticis editioribus saepius 
occurrens. 

This rather smaller, rounder, and more speckled Echinodera seems 



284 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



(on the average) to have a somewhat higher range than the anguli- 
pennis, but a lower one than the crenata, — occurring for the most 
part towards the upper limits of the sylvan districts, and occasionally 
ascending even beyond them. In Teneriffe indeed I have taken it 
as much as 7000 feet above the sea, though it is from about 4000 
to 5000 that it is principally to be found. It was captured by the 
Messrs. Crotch in the laurel-regions of Gomera ; but the Gomeran 
examples differ a little from the Teneriifan ones ; their setae espe- 
cially not being quite so short. 

785. Echinodera compacta. 
Echinodera compacta, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 297 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediia semel deprehensa. 

The only example of this Echinodera which I have yet seen was 
taken by myself, in the region of El Monte, in Grand Canary ; and 
although its characters are tolerably well defined, the species never- 
theless can hardly be said to have been satisfactorily established 
until further material has been obtained. 

786. Echinodera picta. 
Echinodera picta, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 298 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), semel tantum in intermediis reperta. 

Like the last species, this one also is unique, — a single example 
having been taken by myself in Fuerteventura of the Canarian 
Group, from beneath a stone in the Eio Palmas. In its freedom 
from erect setae, as well as in its many other characters fully alluded 
to in my diagnosis, it is so distinct from all the preceding members 
of the genus that I have no hesitation (even in the absence of further 
material) in regarding the E. picta as satisfactorily established. 



Genus 244. TORNEUMA. 

WoUaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 453 (1860). 

787. Torneuma caecum. 

Tomeuma csecum, Woll, loc. cit. 455 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimum ; sub trunco quodam arboris 
prolapse in montibus semel captum. 

The only specimen of this singular little blind Curculionid which 



CURCULIONID^. 285 

has yet been brought to light I captured beneath the trunk of a 
felled cherry-tree, at the bottom of the Curral das Romeiras, in the 
mountains of Madeira proper. 

788. Tomeuma orbatum. 

Torneuma orbatum, Woll., Append, huj. op. 48. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), inter lignum putridum in lauretis 
humidis excelsis a DD. Crotch parcissime deprehensum. 

Very closely allied to the Madeiran T. ccecum, of which it may be 
regarded as the Canarian representative ; for I think perhaps that 
it can scarcely be looked upon as any local modification of that 
insect. Two examples of it were taken by the Messrs. Crotch at a 
high altitude in Gomera, from under rotten wood in the laurel- 
district above Hermigua. 

(Subfam. V. BARIDIIDES.) 

Genus 245. BARIS. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 197 (1824). 

789. Baris seUata. 

Baridius sellatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. viii. 124 (1844). 

, Lucas, Col. de VAlgerie, 452 (1849). 

, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 298 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), rarissima ; in aridis arenosis lecta. 

The large and beautiful B. sellata of northern Africa occurs very 
rarely in the east of the Canarian Group, two examples taken by 
myself in Fuerteventura being aU that I have yet seen. They were 
found on the hillocks of loose drifting sand at Corralejo, in the 
extreme north of that island. 



(Subfam. VI. TYCHIIDES.) 

Genus 246. SIBYNIA. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 289 [script. Sibima] (1824). 

790. Sibynia sericea. 
Sibynes sericeus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 301 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten.), parce occurrens. 

Widely, though very sparingly, diffused over tho eastern and 



286 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



central parts of the Canarian Group — at low and intermediate ele- 
vations. It has been captured in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Grand 
Canary, and Teneriffe. 

Genus 247. TYCHIUS. 
(Germar) Schon., Ciirc, Lisp. Meth. 245 (1826). 

791. TycMus robustus. 

Tychius robustus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 344 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. Ill (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes), sub lapidibus in aridis praecipue in 
apricis inferioribus occurrens. 

This large Tychitis is universal throughout the Madeiran Group — 
in the vt^hole five islands of which I have myself taken it except in 
Madeira proper, where, however, it was found (on the !Sao Lourengo 
promontory) by the late Mr. Bewicke. It occurs principally in low 
and arid spots, whether sandy or calcareous, and is more abundant 
in Porto Santo and on the northern Deserta than elsewhere. 



792. Tychius aridicola. 

Tychius aridicola, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 302 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Can.) ; sub lapidibus in aridis, 
vel calcariis vel arenosis, parce degens. 

It is difficult to beheve that this immense Tychius is more than a 
Canarian modification of the preceding one — being found in pre- 
cisely the same sort of places, and being so like it at first sight that 
it might well be mistaken for it. It seems to differ from the robustus, 
principally, in its elytra being less inflated and convex (or straighter 
and more cylindrical), in its feet being a little narrower (the bilobed 
third joint being appreciably less expanded), and in its scales being 
whiter or more cinereous. 

The T. aridicola I have taken in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and 
Grand Canary, — namely, on the dry mountain -slopes between San 
Miguel de Teguise and Los Valles de S**" Catalina, of the first ; near 
S*** Maria Betancuria, of the second ; and between Las Palmas and 
the Isleta, of the third. j^HI 

793. Tychius decoratus. 

Tychius decoratus, Rosenh., Die Thier. Andalus. 271 (1856). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 302 (1864). 

i/a6iiat Canarienses ((7rtw.),fohis Ononis n«^r^c^s,L., praecipue gaudc 



CURCULIONID^. 



287 



Captured by myself, rather abundantly, off the bushes of a yel- 
low-ilowered Ononis (the 0. natrix, L.) in Grand Canary — in the 
Barranco de Mogan, towards the south-west of that island. I think 
that it does not recede sufficiently from the T. decoratus, which is 
found in the south of Spain, to be separated from that species ; 
nevertheless I stated in my Canarian Catalogue that if future inves- 
tigations should prove it to be distinct, I would then (having already 
given a full description) propose for it the trivial name of gloriosus. 

794. TycMus filirostris. 

Tychius filirostris, Woll, Ins. Mad. 346 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. Ill (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*° S*^), in aridis calcariis inferioribus parcis- 
sime lectus. 

Found in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group — the only two 
specimens yet detected having been captured by myself in the low 
calcareous district of the Zimbral d'Areia, in the east of that island. 

795. Tychius depauperatus. 

Tychius depauperatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 303 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), rarissimus. Sub lapide in inferioribus 
submaritimis exemplaria duo deprehendi. 

An insignificant little species which I have taken only in Fuerte- 
ventura, of the Canarian Group, where I captured two examples of it 
from beneath a stone in a low sandy spot (at the edges of the coast- 
road) about three miles to the north of the Puerto de Cabras. 

(Subfam. VII. OECHESTIDES.) 

Genus 248. RAMPHUS. 
ClairviUe, JSnt. Helv. i. 104 (1798). 

796. Ramphus seneus. 

Hamphus aeneus {Def. Cat), Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 310 (1833). 
, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 456 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.'), foha pomorum in cultis destruens. 

Detected by the late Mr. Eewicke, and found subsequently by 
myself, on the foliage of apple- and pear-trees (in cultivated grounds) 
on the southern side of Madeira proper, from a short distance above 
Funchal to almost the elevation of " the Mount." It is not unlikely 



288 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



therefore that it may have become naturalized accidentally from 
Portugal, where the insect is stated to occur. 



(Subfam. YIII. MAGDALINIDES.) 

Genus 249. MAGDALIS. 
Germar, in Annal. Wetterauer, i. 130 (1819). 

797. Magdalis barbicornis. 

Rhina barbicornis, Latr., Hist. Nat. des Crust, et Ins. xi. 103 (1803). 
Magdalis barbicornis, Germ., Ins. Spec. i. 192 (1824). 
Magdalinus barbicornis, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Owe. vii. ii. 143 (1843). 
Magdalis barbicornis, Woll., Apipend. huj. op. 49. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), a Dom. C.Wolff, M.D., in foliis pomorum 
parce capta. 

Two examples of this European Magdalis have, as stated in the 
Appendix, been captured lately in Madeira proper by Dr. C. Wolff, 
of Bonn. They were brushed off the foliage of pear-trees at the 
base of the Pico do Cardo, about two miles from Funchal ; and it is 
not improbable that the species may have been introduced into the 
island from more northern latitudes. Dr. Wolff has presented one 
of these specimens to the collection at the British Museum. 



(Subfam. IX. RHINOMACEEIDES.) 

Genus 250. AULETES. 
Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 46 (1826). 

798. Auletes cylindricollis. 

Auletes cylindricollis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 304 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten,, Gom., Palma), in herbidis intermediis ^jl 
late sed parce diffusus. ^Hl 

Sparingly, though widely, diffused over the central and western 
islands of the Canarian archipelago — where it occurs amongst dense 
herbage at intermediate altitudes. Its less abbreviated and com- 
paratively cylindrical prothorax, in conjunction with its coarse punc- 
tation, which on the (more shining) elytra is also remote, and its 
rather longer pubescence and feet, will distinguish it from the other 
species here enumerated. I have taken it in Teneriffe and Palma ; 
in the former of which, as well as in Gomera, it was captured by 
the Messrs. Crotch. 



CURCULIONIDiE. 289 

799. Auletes anceps. 

Auletes anceps, TFoll., Cat. Can. Col. 305 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), hactenus parcissime deprehensus. 

Two examples of this Auletes, taken by myself in Hierro of the 
Canarian Group, are all that I have yet seen ; and although they 
appear really to differ (even though slightly) both from the preceding 
species and the following one, further material must decide whether 
it be possible to regard them as representing any insular phasis of 
those insects. 

In some respects indeed the A. anceps is intermediate between the 
cylindrkollis and conveadfrons, though (so far as I can judge from 
merely two individuals) I do not think that it would be safe to treat 
it absolutely as a mere state of either of them. It differs from the 
former in being of a paler hue, with its punctation altogether a little 
denser and less coarse, in its rostrum being rather longer and more 
lightly punctured, in its eyes being just perceptibly smaller, in its 
prothorax being a trifle more expanded behind (or less cylindrical), 
in its elytra being more elongated and less shining, in its antenna! 
club being perhaps (if anything) more abruptly defined, and in the 
basal joint of its feet being somewhat shorter ; whilst from the latter 
it recedes in its rostrum being longer, in its prothorax being less 
abbreviated and less rounded posteriorly, in its forehead being less 
convex, and in the last joint of its clava being rather less conical or 
acute. Of the two species, I think perhaps that it is more allied to 
the convexifrons than to the cylindricollis, 

800. Auletes convexifrons. 

Auletes convexifrons, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 305 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom.), in locis similibus ac A. cy- 
lindricollis. 

Likewise a Canarian Auletes, and found amongst herbage in the 
intermediate districts. I have captured it in Grand Canary and 
Teneriffe, and it was taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera. 

801. Auletes maderensis. 

Auletes Maderensis, WoU., Ins. Mad. 416, tab. viii. f. 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 122 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in herbidis intermediis hand infrequens. 
Widely spread over the intermediate elevations of Madeira proper, 



290 



CURCULIONIDTE. 



and so nearly allied to the last species that I am doubtful whether 
it should be treated as more than a slight geographical modification 
of it. 

The A. maderensis seems to differ from the convexifrons, merely 
(unless indeed any characters have escaped my observation), in its 
limbs and rostrum being just perceptibly thicker and less pale, in its 
forehead being a trifle less convex, in the second joint of its antennae 
being a little shorter and more oval, whilst the last one is appreciably 
wider and less acute (or conical). Perhaps also, on the average, it 
is somewhat more densely pubescent. 



(Subfam. X. APIONIDES.) 

Genus 251. APION. 
Herbst, Kdf. vii. 100 (1797). 

802. Apion frumentariimi. 

Ourculio frumentarius, Litm., Fna Suec. 175 (1761). 

Apion frumentarium, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 283 (1833). 

^ Wall, Ins. Mad. 412 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 121 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^), in intermediis editioribusque, 
passim. 

This common European Apion occurs sparingly in Madeira proper 
and Porto Santo, where perhaps it may have become established 
from more northern latitudes ; but it has not yet been detected in 
the Canarian Group. 

803. Apion malvse. 

Curculio Malvse, Fab., Si/st. Ent. 132 (1775). 

Apion Malvfie, ScMn., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 272 (1833). 

, WoU., Ins. Mad. 411 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 121 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ilfac?.), folia Malvarum ssepius in cultis destruens. 

Likewise a European Apion, and one which is locally common (on 
the foliage of Mallows) in Madeira proper, though hitherto it has 
not been found in any of the other islands. 



804. Apion senex. 
Apion senex, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 306 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom., Palrm), in intermediis rarissimum.' 




CURCULIONIDiE. 291 

A Caiiarian Apion, of which two specimens were taken by myself 
(during- May of 1858) in the island of Palma ; and a third is now 
before me, captured by the Messrs. Crotch (during the summer of 
1864) in Gomera. 

805. Apion vernale. 

Attelabus vemalis, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 392 (1792). 
Apion vemale, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 273 (1833). 

, Wall, Ins. Mad. 409 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 120 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 307 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses(T'ai., Hierro), plerumque 
super folia Urticce urentis in cultis inferioribus parce occurrens. 

The European A. vernale has been captured sparingly, on Nettles 
(for the most part at low elevations, and about cultivated grounds), 
both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups — namely, in Madeira 
proper of the former, and in Teneriffe and Hierro of the latter. 

806. Apion delicatulum. 

Apion delicatulum, TVolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 120 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 307 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Oom., Palma, 
Hierro), in inferioribus intermediisque hand infrequens. Ad 
folia Parietarice invenit cl. G. R. Crotch. 

Widely spread over these Atlantic islands, at low and intermediate 
elevations, though nowhere very common. I have taken it in the 
north of Madeira proper ; and it has been observed in Teneriife, 
Gomera, Palma, and Hierro, of the Canarian Group. Its occurrence 
in Gomera is on the authority of the Messrs. Crotch, who obtained 
an extensive series of it in that island, and who state that it is pecu- 
liar to the Parietaria (or Pellitory). 

807. Apion sagittifernm. 

Apion sagittiferum, Woll., Lis. Mad. 410 (1854). 

, Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 121 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 308 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^, Pes.) et Canarienses (in Lanz. 
sola baud observatum),in subinferioribus intermediisque vulgare. 

There is no Apion so widely diffused over these Atlantic islands 
as the present one. Indeed we may be nearly sure that it is abso- 
lutely universal throughout the Madeiran and Canarian Groups ; for 
although in the former it does not happen to have been observed on 

v2 



292 



CURCULIONID.E. 



either the northern or southern Desertas, or in Lanzarote of the latter 
(unless indeed the following species be but a modification of it), there 
cannot be much doubt that it will be found ultimately to exist in 
them — ^no less than it does in the various other islands, in each of 
which it has been taken (more or less abundantly). 

808 Apion Germari. 

Apion Germari, Walton, Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. 456 (1844). 

albopilosum, Lucas, Col. de PAlgerie, 408, pi. 35. f. 5 (1849). 

Germari, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 308 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fiiert.), plerumque folia Mercurialis 
annuce nisi fallor edens. 

Found in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern islands of 
the Canarian Group, and so nearly related to the preceding species 
that I should scarcely have ventured to separate it therefrom had 
not Mr. Haliday informed me that he considered it to be identical 
with an Apion (" distinct from the sagittiferum ") which he had 
captured in Italy. The latter species he identified with the Algerian 
albopilosum and the European Germari ; and since both his Italian 
examples and my Lanzarotan ones were taken off the Mercurialis 
annua, there seemed every reason to conclude that they (at all events) 
were conspecific. 

Assuming therefore my Lanzarotan (and a few of the Euerteven- 
turan) specimens to be rightly referred to the European A. Germari, 
it certainly follows that the sagittiferum approaches that species very 
closely. Nevertheless its habits appear to be different ; and it has 
also a few permanent characters of its own (even though small ones), 
which have been fully alluded to in my Canarian Catalogue. 



809. Apion chalybeipenne. 

Apion chalybeipenne, Schon., ined. (teste Boheman). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 413 (1854). 

Id., Cut. Mad. Col 122 (1857). 



, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 310 (1864). 

Habitat Madercnses {Mad., P*^ S^°, Des.) et Canarienses (Fuert, 
Gom., Palma, Hierro), foliis Malvarum gaudens. 

Like the A. sagittiferum, this Apion will probably be found to be 
universal throughout these Atlantic islands — where it occurs on the 
foliage of Mallows, at low and intermediate elevations. It has been 
taken in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande, of 
the Madeiran Group, and in all the Canarian islands except Lan- 




tt 



CURCULIONIDiE. 293 

zarote and Grand Canary, in both of which however there can be no 
question that it must exist. Its detection in Gomera is due to the 
late researches of the Messrs. Crotch. 

810. Apion calcaratum. 

Apion calcaratum, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 310 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), plantas Garduoi'um nisi faUor destruens. 

The only four examples which I have seen of this Canarian Apion 
were collected by myself — I believe, off Thistles, in the sylvan dis- 
trict of El Golfo on the western side of Hierro. It may be re- 
garded as the representative at the Canaries of the common European 
A. carduorum, to which indeed it is closely allied. 

811. Apion Westwoodii. 

Apiou Westwoodii, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 311 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in intermediis et editioribus rarissimum. 

Peculiar, so far as I have yet observed, to Grand Canary — where 
it is exceedingly rare, at intermediate and lofty elevations. I have 
taken it in the district of El Monte, and likewise, at a very high 
altitude, in the great Pinal of the central region of Tarajana. 

812. Apion tutifemm. 

Apion tubiferum {Dej.), Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 284 (1833). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 311 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Hierro), foliis Cistorum ut mihi videtur 
in editioribus delectatum. 

The A. tubiferum of Mediterranean latitudes appears to occur, 
though very sparingly, at the Canaries. Indeed the only four 
examples of it which I have yet seen were captured by myself (I 
believe, off plants of Cistus) in Grand Canary and Hierro — namely, 
in the sylvan district of El Golfo, of the former, and at a very 
high elevation above the Pinal of Tarajana, in the latter. 

813. Apion austrinnm. 
Apion austrmum, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 312 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Oom.), k W. D. Crotch semel repertum. 

A single example of this small Apion (which has much the general 
appearance of the European A. seniculus) was captured by Dr. Crotch 



29i 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



ill Gomera, during his first Canarian campaign ; and further material 
would be desirable, in order to complete our knowledge of the insig- 
nificant little species of which it is the exponent. 

814. Apion fallax. m 

Apion fallax, Woll, Cat. Can, Col 313 (1864). ^ 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.,Can., Ten., Palma, Hierro), in inferioribus 
intermediisque, passim. 

Doubtless universal throughout the Canarian Group, Fuerteventura 
and Gomera (in both of which we may nevertheless be pretty sure 
that it exists) being the only islands of the seven in which it does 
not happen to have been observed. It is found at low and inter- 
mediate altitudes ; and, although quite distinct from them specifically, 
it may be regarded as the representive in the Canaries of either the 
A, violaceum or the A. hydrolajpatJii of more northern latitudes. 

815. Apion ceuthorhynchoides. M 

Apion ceuthorhynchoides, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 314 (1864). 9 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a Dom. Gray semel deprehensum. fl 

A small and robust Canarian Apion which is hitherto unique — 
a single example having been captured by Mr. Gray, during the 
winter of 1858, near the Puerto Orotava in Tenerifie. 

816. Apion rotimdipenne. jl 

Apion rotundipenne, Woll, Ins. Mad. 415, tab. viii. f. 6 (1854). fl 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col 122 (1857). ■ 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col 313 (1864). ^ 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P*^ S^^, Des.) et Canarienses {Can., Ten., 
Gam., Palma, Hierro), praesertim in cultis Vidas destruens. 

Probably universal throughout these Atlantic islands, where it 
occurs at low and intermediate elevations, chiefly on the species of 
Vicia in semicultivated spots. It is locally abundant in Madeira 
proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta Grande, of the Madeiran Group ; 
whilst it has been observed in aU the Canarian islands except the 
two eastern ones — Lanzarote and Puerteventura. Its detection in 
Gomera is due to the researches of the Messrs. Crotch. 



817. Apion Wollastoni. 
Apion Wollastoni, Chevr., in Gucr. Rev. iv. 27^ (1852). 



CURCULIONID^. 295 

Apion Wolkstoni, Woll., Ins. Mad. 414, tab. viii. f. 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat, Can. Col. 122 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad,), inter Ffcias in humidiusculis mtermediis 
minus frequens. 

A beautiful Apion, which has been observed hitherto only in Ma- 
deira proper — where it occurs (principally, I believe, on a species of 
Vicia) at rather low and intermediate altitudes, and chiefly in the 
north of the island. 

818. Apion umbrinum. 

Apion umbrinum, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 314 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), in sylvaticis 
subsylvaticisque vulgare. 

A common species throughout the sylvan and subsylvan districts 
of aU the Canarian islands except the two eastern ones (Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura), in which it has not been observed. I have taken 
it in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Palma — in the first and second 
of which, as well as in Gomera and Hierro, it was found by the 
Messrs. Crotch. It somewhat resembles the European A. ononis, of 
which perhaps it may be regarded as the Canarian representative. 

819. Apion longipes. 

Apion longipes, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 315 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), in sylvaticis subsylvaticisque 
hinc inde vulgare. 

A rather abundant Apion in the sylvan and subsylvan districts of 
Teneriffe and Palma ; but hitherto it does not happen to have been 
detected in any of the other islands. It is so closely allied to the 
common European A. vorax that I am doubtful whether it should be 
treated as more than a geographical phasis of that species. Indeed 
it seems to differ from it, merely, in being a little larger and more 
pubescent, and in having its legs still longer. The tarsi particularly 
are modified in accordance with this last peculiarity ; for their basal 
joint is very conspicuously more lengthened. 



(Subfam. XI. CEYPTOPHIDES.) 

Genus 252. SMICRONYX. 

Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 423 [script. Micronyx] (1836). 



296 



CURCULIONIDyE. 



820. Smicronyx albosquamosus. 

Tychius albosquamosus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 345 (1854). 

^ , Id., Cat. Mad. Col. Ill (1857). 

Smicronyx albosquamosus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 316 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Des.) et Canarienses {Ten., Gam., Hierro),Ta.Tis^ 
simus. 

Found very rarely both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups. 
From the former indeed I have seen hitherto but a single example, 
which was captured by myself (in 1850) on the Deserta Grande ; 
but at the Canaries I have taken it sparingly in Teneriffe and Hierro 
— in the latter of which islands, as well as in Gomera, a few speci- 
mens were met with (during the summer of 1864) by the Messrs. 
Crotch. 

821. Smicronyx pauperculus. 

Smicronyx paupercidus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 317 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Hierro), in inferioribus interme- 
diisque parce difiusus. 

Occurs in much the same places as the last species, though only 
(so far as has been observed hitherto) at the Canarian Group. It is 
found at low and intermediate altitudes ; and the smaller examples 
of it descend to a most minute size. I have taken it in Grand Canary 
and Teneriffe, and a single specimen was captured by the Messrs. 
Crotch in Hierro. 



(Subfam. XII. ERIEHINIDES.) 

Genus 253. PROCAS. 
Stephens, III. Brit Ent. iv. 90 (1831). 

822. Procas picipes. 

CurcuHo picipes, Mshm, Ent. Brit. 272 (1802). 
Procas picipes, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iv. 01 (1831). 
Erirhinus Steveni, Schon-, Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 287 (1836). 
Procas Steveni, Id., op. cit. vi. 387 (1842). 

picipes, Id., ibid. (1842). 

Steveni, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 318 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Palrna), in inier- 
mediis rarissimus. 

I do not believe that the few Atlantic examples of Procas which 
I have yet seen are distinct from the picipes of Marsham ; for 
although it is under the name of Steveni that the more southern 



CURCULIONID^. 297 

ones have hitherto been cited, the characters which separate the 
latter from the former seem to be scarcely more than imaginary. 
That there are slight differences between certain individuals of a 
species which varies so marvellously in stature is evident ; but I 
have not yet been able to discover any which I can look upon as 
unquestionably of specific signification ; for it is but natural that 
the larger specimens should have their general characters a little 
more developed. The only Atlantic example however (a Madeiran 
one) which is now before me has its prothorax a trifle shorter, and 
more rounded at the sides, than an English jpicipes with which I 
have compared it, and the central keel is quite obsolete — if we ex- 
cept the merest fragment of a line (which may be supposed to indi- 
cate it) on the fore disk — and its scape is just perceptibly more 
robust (and curved) at the base ; but I doubt if these little dis- 
crepancies would be constant, and, even supposing this to be the case, 
whether they are specific ones. As it is barely possible however 
that further material may render it desirable to treat this Atlantic 
Procas as separate from the pidpes (and Steveni), I will just record 
it as the " var. /3. brevicollis/' though as already stated I do not 
imagine that features so minute and unimportant in a species which 
doubles itself in stature can be indicative of more than a slight geo- 
graphical, or perhaps an insular, variety. 

If, therefore, my premises be correct, I may add that the P. pidpes 
is very sparingly though widely distributed over these Atlantic 
Groups — two specimens only having as yet been taken in the 
Madeiras, and two in the Canaries. Of the former, one was found 
under a stone (at a rather high elevation) near the Great Curral by 
the late Mr. F. A. Anderson, and the other by Mr. Bewicke (drowned 
in a tank, in his garden, above Funchal) ; whilst of the latter, the 
first was captured by myself at Oliva in Fuerteventura, and the 
second by the Rev. E. T. Lowe at a tolerable altitude in the Bar- 
ranco de Nogales of Palma *. 

* Considering the almost unparalleled instability as regards size which 
obtains in Procas, and the corresponding slight alteration in some of the super- 
ficial characters, I doubt whether in reahty more than a single species has 
hitherto been described. That the picipes and Steveni are conspecific I have 
already recorded my suspicion ; and I think it very questionable whether the 
granuJicollis of Walton is distinct from the latter. Indeed Walton himself re- 
garded it originally as a mere variety of the picipes, and afterwards thought that 
it might be identical with the Steveni ; and of the three characters on which he 
founded it, two are literally worthless. Thus, he says it maybe known "by 
having the head foveolated [in an example of the gravnJicollis now before me this 
is scarcely distinguishable, and it is absolutely ignored by Boheman in his 
diagnosis], the rostrum slightly incrassated at the apex [this is confessedly a, generic 



298 



CURCULIONlDiK. 



(Subfam. XIII. HYLOBIIDES.) 

Genus 254. PISSODES. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. 316 (1824). 

823. Pissodes notatus. 

Curculio notatus, Fah., Mant. Ins. i. 103 (1787). 

Pissodes notatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 258 (1836). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 347 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. Ill (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Des.), in pinetis hand infrequens; forsan 
ex Europa introductus. 

The European P. notatus is rather common in the pine-woods of 
intermediate elevations in Madeira proper, and it exists likewise in 
a small patch of firs which have been planted within a comparatively- 
recent period on the summit of the Deserta Grande. Inasmuch 
therefore as it is clearly a mere introduction into the latter island, I 
am inclined to suspect that it may perhaps originally have been 
imported even into Madeira — along with the pines, which have now 
become large trees, and which clothe a considerable portion of the 
mountain-slopes in certain districts. It has not yet been detected 
in the Canaries. 

(Subfam. XIV. LIXIDES.) 

Genus 255. LIXUS. 
Fabricius, Syst. Ent. ii. 498 (1775). 

824. LixTis angninus. 

Lixus anguinus, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. ii. 610 (1767). 

, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cmx. iii, 11 (1836). 

, Bndle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 72 (1838). 

, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 331 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 318 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), et Canarienses (Can., Ten.), in inferio- 
ribus rarissimus. 



feature and one which is equally indicated, according to the sex, in the picipes, 
Sfeveni, and granulicoUu'], and the thorax granulated." This last, of course, 
has to be duly considered ; but I believe that the supposed difference in sculpture 
is more apparent tlian real ; for even the picipes has each of its large punctures 
furnished internally with a little prominence, or tubercle (out of which arises a 
short hair), and when the punctures are very closely packed together (as is the 
case in the smaller individuals) these inner tubercles become a trifle more deve- 
loped, and give the surface rather more the appearance perhaps of being granu- 
lated than punctured. But I am exceedingly dubious as to the value of such a 
character, which will probably be found to merge gradatim iuto the other. 



CURCULIONID^. 299 

The L. anrfuinus of Mediterranean latitudes appears to occur, 
though very rarely, in these Atlantic islands ; for although the ex- 
tremely few specimens which I have yet seen are not very typical 
ones for the species, I nevertheless can scarcely believe that they 
represent more than slight geographical modifications of it. Through- 
out the Madeiran Group indeed only a single individual, found by 
the late Dr. C. Wolff (near Funchal) in Madeira proper, has hitherto 
been brought to light ; whilst even from the Canaries I have as yet 
seen but two, both of which were captured by myself — one in the 
south of Grand Canary, and the other near S^*^ Cruz in Teneriffe. 

825. Lixus anguicTilus. 

Lixus angiiiculus et hneatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 11, 12 (1836). 
, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 319 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), rarissimus ; a Barone " Castello de 
Paiva" communicatus. 

Two examples of a Lixus which were communicated by the Barao 
do Castello de Paiva from Fuerteventura appeared to me, when 
compiling my Canarian Catalogue, to accord better with the published 
description of the anguiculus (from Greece, Egypt, &c.) than with 
the ordinary anguimis ; and I consequently referred them to the 
former species. At the same time I cannot regard their identi- 
fication as quite satisfactorily established, though it seemed pretty 
evident to me at the time that they could not represent any state of 
the anguimis ; so that further material is much required in order to 
expose their diagnostic features more completely. 

It is barely possible that the Lixus from Madeira, which (on the 
evidence afforded by a single example) I have identified above with 
the anguimis, may prove ultimately, when more satisfactory material 
has been obtained, to be referable to the present species. 

826. Lixus cheiranthi". 

Lixus Cheu-anthi, WolL, Ins. Mad. 349 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 112 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), folia plantarum praesertim Genistce sco- 
parice et Cheiranthi cheiri, L., in subinferioribus destruens. 

This fine Lixus is found at rather low elevations in Madeira, 
proper, or at any rate principally within the cultivated districts, — 
attaching itself to various plants, such as the common Broom 



300 ^^^P CURCULIONIDuE. 

{Genista scoioaria, L.) and the Wallflower (CheirantJius cheiri, L.) ; 
but it has not yet been observed elsewhere*. 

827. Lixus Chawneri. 

Lixus Chawneri, Woll.^ Ins. Mad. 350 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 112 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 319 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^° S^°) et Canarienses (Fuert.), plerxun- 
que in subinferioribus inter plantas Arundinis donacis, L., parce 
occurrens. 

Found in Madeira proper and Porto Banto, of the Madeiran Group ; 
and I took a single specimen of it at Oliva in Fuerteventura, during 
my second visit to the Canaries. It occurs for the most part in 
rather low situations, and often amongst plants of the Arundo donax ; 
but whether it is actually attached to that gigantic reed, I have not 
sufficient evidence for deciding. 

828. Lixus vectiformis. 

Lixus vectiformis, Woll., Ins. 3Iad. 351 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 112 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P^^ S*^), rarissimus ; in aridis calcariis inferi- ji 
oribus specimen unicum collegi. || 

A single specimen of this Lixus, which was taken by myself 
(during December 1848) in Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, is 
all that I have yet seen. It was found in a dry calcareous spot, of 
a low elevation, on the Campo Debaixo. It has much in common 
with the L. Chawneri ; but (so far as I can judge from a solitary 
example) it appears to be considerably smaller, somewhat narrower, 
and a trifle more pubescent; its rostrum is relatively shorter; its 
elytra are more lightly and finely punctate-striate, as weU as a little 
more acuminated (separately) at their apex; and its legs are less 
thickened. 

* The L. cheiranfhi belongs rather to an Algerian type, and is a good deal 
allied to the L. Wagneri of Lucas. It may readily be known, however, from 
that insect by its larger size, and by its coarsely and regularly seriate-punctate 
elytra ; whereas in the latter insect the elytra have only the striae on either side 
of the suture deeply impressed, the remainder being extremely fine and almost 
obsolete. The cheiranfhi likewise has its rostrum a httle thicker than is the case 
in the Wagneri, as also rather more shining, more finely punctured, and totally 
unkeeled; its prothorax is somewhat more roughly sculptured, or variolose, and 
with the minute intermediate punctules coarser ; and its pubescence is altogether 
more robust. 




CURCULIONID^. 301 

829. Lixus rufitarsis. 

Lixus rufitarsis, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 78 (1836). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 352 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 112 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), prsecipue in Carduis gaudens. 

A European LiojiLS which is not nncommon in Madeira proper, 
where it occurs on Thistles at low and intermediate altitudes ; but 
it has not yet been detected in any of the other islands. 

830. Lixus guttiventris. 

Lixus guttiventris (Genn.), Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. vii. 469 (1843). 
, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 320 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), inter plantas Arundinis donacis 
praecipue sed parce lectus. 

A species found in Mediterranean latitudes, and which occurs in 
Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — the two eastern islands of the Cana- 
rian Group. In the former I have captured it near Magui (towards 
the north of the island), and in the latter off some plants of the 
Arundo donax in the Rio Palmas. 

831. Lixus angustatus. 

Curculio angustatus, Fab., Syst. Ent. 135 (1775). 

Lixus angustatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. iii. 43 (1836). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 351 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 112 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in herbidis subinferioribus intermediis- 
que degens. 

The European L. angustatus is not uncommon in Madeira proper, 
where it occurs amongst dense vegetation at rather low and inter- 
mediate altitudes ; but I am not aware that it has been observed in 
any other of these Atlantic islands. It is true that it is admitted 
into the meagre and inaccurate list of Coleoptera which was prepared 
by M. Brulle for MM. Webb and Berthelot's gigantic work ; but I 
have given the reasons in my late Catalogue (vide p. 320) why I 
cannot regard it as Canarian, until at any rate some more conclusive 
evidence has been obtained. Like the ordinary Licci, it undergoes its 
transformations within the stalks of plants ; and branches of a large 
Malva have lately been communicated by the Barao do Castello de 
Paiva, found by him near Eunchal, which were completely devoured 
by it, — some examples being in the larva-, some in the pupa-, and 
others in the perfect state. 



302 



CURCULIONID.^. 



(Subfam. XV. CLEOMDES.) 

Genus 256. BOTHYNODERES. 

Schonherr, Cure. Diqi. Meth. 147 (182G). 

832. Bothynoderes Jekelii. 

Cleonus Jekelii, JVoll, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 441 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 320 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), sub lapidibus in aridis in- 
ferioribus prsesertim submaritimis latens. 

Abounds in Lanzarote and Euerteventura, the two eastern islands 
of the Canarian Group ; and I have taken it, at San Juan, in the 
south-east of Grand Canary. It occurs beneath stones in dry and 
sandy, or calcareous, spots (and often in subsaline ones) — particu- 
larly near the coast. 

Genus 257. CLEONUS. 
Schonherr, Cttrc. Disp. Meth. 145 (1826). 

833. Cleonus Armitagii. 

Cleonus Armitagii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 321 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus. Exemplar unicum, a.d. 1848, 

cepit Rev'^'^'' W. J. Armitage ; necnon alterum a DD. Crotch, 
lectum, nuperrime vidi. 

A Canarian Cleonus which until quite recently was unique, a 
single example of it having been captured by my late friend the 
Rev. W. J. Armitage (during the spring of 1848) in Teneriffe ; but 
a second has just been communicated by the Messrs. Crotch, which 
they met with (at Souzal) in the same island. 

834. Cleonus variolosus. 

Cleonus variolosus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 323 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), sub lapidibus in infcrioribus rarissimus. 

Apparently very rare, Euerteventura being the only island (with 
the exception of the little adjacent rock of Lobos) in which I liave 
hitherto observed it. Probably, however, it is not purely Canarian ; 
for M. Jekel informs me that it is so nearly allied to an unpublished 
species from Barbary that he is doubtful whether it is more than a 
variety of it. 



CURCULIONlDiE. 303 

835. Cleonus tabidus. 

Lixus tabidus, Oliv., MiL v. 83. 262 (1807). 

Cleonus tabidus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 192 (1834). 

Cleonis obliqua, Hart, [nee ///.], Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. undFuert.141. 

Cleonus tabidus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 324 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can., Ten.), sub lapidibus in 
aridis hinc inde vulgaris. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which is widely spread over 
the Canarian Group, but it has not yet been observed in the 
Madeiras. It occurs for the most part in hot and dry spots of low 
and intermediate elevations ; and it has been captured in Lanzarote, 
Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, and Teneriffe. 

Genus 258. RHYTIDODEEES. 
Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 149 [script. Rhytideres] (1826). 

836. Rhytidoderes siculus. 

Cleonis plicata, ^mZ^e [nee Oliv.'], in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 72 (1838). 
Cleonus siculus {Diipont), Schon.. Gen. et Spec. Cure. vi. 61 (1842). 

plicatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 401 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 119 (1857). 

Cleonis plicata, Hart., Geoloy. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 
Rhytidoderes siculus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 325 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses (Mad., P^° S^^, Des.) et Canarienses {Lanz., 
Fuert., Can., Gam., Hierro), sub lapidibus necnon in rupium 
fissuris late sed parce diffusus. 

Likewise a species of Mediterranean latitudes, and one which is 
very widely (though sparingly) diffused over these Atlantic islands 
— in which I have little doubt it will be found ultimately to be 
universal. It occurs beneath stones, and in crevices of the exposed 
rocks, in dry spots of low and intermediate elevations ; and it has 
been captured in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and the Deserta 
Grande, of the Madeiran Group, as well as in all the Canarian 
islands except Teneriffe and Palma. In Gomera it was met with by 
the Messrs. Crotch. 



(Subfam. XVI. HYPERIDES.) 

Genus 259. ALOPHUS. 
Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 166 (1826). 



304 



CURCULIONID^. 



837. Alophus magnificus. 

Alophus magnificus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 326 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in editioribus rarissimus. 

A noble Canarian Curculionid which appears to be of the greatest 
rarity, and which has been observed hitherto only at a rather high 
elevation in Teneriffe. Indeed the very few specimens of it which I 
have seen were obtained by myself, at the foot of the Organo rocks, 
in the damp snbsylvan district above the Agua Mansa. 

838. Alophus alternans. 

Alophus alternans, Woll.f Append, hij. op. 50. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), rarissimus; in montibus excelsis supra 
Hermigua a DD. Crotch semel captus. 

Likewise Canarian, and equally scarce with the last species — of 
which indeed, although abundantly distinct, it may perhaps be 
regarded as the Gomeran representative. A single example was 
taken by the Messrs. Crotch at a high elevation, on the mountains 
above Hermigua, in Gomera. 

Genus 260. HYPERA. 
Germar, Maff. der Ent iv. 335 (1821). 

839. Hypera lunata. 

Phji;onomus Dauci, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 72 (1838). 
Hvpera limata, Woll, Ins. Mad. 398 (1854). 

^ ^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 118 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 326 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*^ S*^, Des.) et Canarienses (in Gam. 
sola baud observata), sub lapidibus in aridis praesertim calcariis 
inferioribus late diffusa. 

A Hypera of Mediterranean latitudes, which there can be little 
doubt is universal in these Atlantic Groups — where it occurs in dry 
spots, whether sandy or calcareous, principally at rather low eleva- 
tions. It has been taken in all the Madeiran islands except the 
northern and southern Desertas, and in the whole of the Canarian 
ones except Gomera. 

840. Hypera irrorata. 

Hypera irrorata, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 327 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus in aridis, vel are- 
nosis vel calcariis, plerumque in inferioribus occurrens. 





CURCULIONIDiE. 305 

A large Hypera which I have observed hitherto only in Lanzarote 
and Pucrteventura, the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, — 
where it occurs siDaringiy (beneath stones) in sandy and calcareous 
spots, principally at a low elevation. 

841. Hypera murina. 

Curculio murinus, Fah., Ent. Syst i. ii. 4G3. (1792). 

variabilis, Hhst, Kdf. vi. 263, tab. 80. f. 1 (1795). 

Phytonomus murinus et variabilis, Schm., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 383, 

384 (1834). 
Hypera murma et variabilis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 399, 400 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 118, 119 (1857). 

variabilis. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 328 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (in Ilheo Chdo sola baud detecta) et Canarienses 
(ins. omnes), in cultis vulgaris ; forsan ex Europa introducta. 

There is no weevil more general throughout these Atlantic Groups 
than this common and variable European Hypera. Indeed I have 
myself taken it in the whole seven Canarian islands, and in aU the 
Madeiran ones except the northern Deserta (or Ilheo Chao). Yet 
although thus universal, I have little doubt that it has become gra- 
dually naturalized from more northern countries. It occurs for the 
most part about cultivated grounds, especially corn-fields, at low 
and intermediate elevations*. 



Genus 261. CONIATUS. 
Germar, May. der JS?it. ii. 340 (1817) . 

842. Coniatus tamarisci. 

Curculio tamarisci, 2^a6., Mant. Ins. 113 (1787). 
Hypera tamarisci, Germ., May. derEnt. iv. 337 (1821). 
Coniatus tamarisci, Schm., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 406 (1834). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 328 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), foliis Tamaricis gallicce gaudens. 

The C. tamarisci of Mediterranean latitudes occurs on shrubs of 
the Tamarix gallica, at low and intermediate elevations, in Grand 
Canary ; but I have not yet observed it in any of the other islands. 

* The two forms which stand in collections (as species) under the names of 
murina and variabilis are alike indicated at the Madeiras and Canaries, and 
indeed they were formerly treated by myself as specifically distinct. Nevertheless 
I am now quite satisfied that they merge gradually into each other, and there- 
fore I will not attempt any longer to uphold them. I have consequently been 
compelled to cite the insect under the title of murina, on account of its being 
prior in publication to that of variabilis. 



306 



CURCULIONID^. 



(Subfam. XVII. SYNAPTONICIDES.) 

Genus 262. ECHINOSOMA. 
Wollaston, Ins. Mad. 395 (1854). 

843. Echinosoma porcellus. 

Echinosoma porcellus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 396, tab. viii. f. 5 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 118 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in lauretis bumidis editioribus sub lapi- 
dibus lignoque putrido rarissimum. 

Apparently peculiar to tbe damp sylvan districts of Madeira 
proper, at a ratber bigb elevation, especially in tbe nortb of tbe 
island. It is bowever extremely rare, occurring beneatb stones and 
moist logs of wood. 

(Subfam. XVIII. PLINTHIDES.) 

Genus 263. PLINTHUS. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. 327 (1824). 

844. Plinthus musicus. 

Plinthus musicus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vi. 18 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 329 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in sylvaticis bumidis editioribus praecipue 
degens. .. 

A large PZm^^MS wbicb bas been observed only at intermediate 
and lofty elevations in Teneriffe, particularly bowever witbin tbe 
sylvan districts. Prom about 2000 to 4000 feet above tbe sea is its 
normal range ; nevertheless it ascends occasionally to a mucb bigber 
altitude, for I bave taken it sparingly amongst tbe Retamas on tbe 
Cumbre above tbe Agua Mansa. 

845. Plintlius velutinus. 

Plinthus velutinus, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. vi. 19 (1860). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 329 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus excelsis usque ad 8000' s. m., 
vel etiam ultra, ascendens. 

Likewise a Teneriffan Plinthus, but one which seems to ascend to 
a still bigber altitude than the musicus — or, at any rate, which 
never c?escends so completely into tbe sylvan districts. The few 





CURCULIONID^. 307 

specimens which I have seen were captured by myself on the two 
elevated Cumbres — above the Agua Mansa, and adjoining the Ca- 
nadas, respectively. 

846. Plinthus cucnllus. 
Plinthus cucullus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 330 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in lauretis subeditioribus semel captus. 

A single example of this Plinthus, taken by myself in the laurel- 
district of Grand Canary between Osorio and Guia, embodies all that 
I yet know about the species. And since that one presents no very 
important characteristics of its own (even though readily appreciable), 
it is clear that further material is much required in order to enable 
us to ascertain whether the P. cucuUus should be treated as any 
insular modification of either the velutinus or the musicus — ^between 
which it would appear, perhaps, in some respects, to be intermediate. 

(Subfam. XIX. MOLYTIDES.) 

Genus 264. XENOMICRUS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 331 (1864). 

847. Xenomicrus apionides. 

Xenomicrus apionides, Woll.j Cat. Can. Co/. 331 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma), in lauretis humidis editioribus 
sat rarus. 

Peculiar apparently to the damp sylvan districts, of a rather high 
altitude, in the Canarian Group. I have taken it sparingly, from 
amongst dense vegetation, in Teneriffe and Palma, — namely, on the 
wooded mountains above Taganana in the former, and in the Bar- 
ranco da Agua of the latter. 

(Subfam. XX. RHYTIDORHINIDES.) 

Genus 265. GRONOPS. 
Schbnherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 157 (1826). 

848. Gronops lunatus. 

Curculio lunatus, Fab., Syst. Ent. 148 (1775). 
Rhynchaenus costatus, Gyll., Ins. Suec. iii. 89 (1813). 

x2 



308 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



Gronops lunatus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 253 (1834). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 332 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert., Ten.), sub lapidibus scoriisque 
in aridis inferioribus submaritimis hinc inde congregans. 

The common European G. lunatus, although extremely local, is 
occasionally abundant in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — the two 
eastern islands of the Cantirian Group, where it congregates beneath 
stones and scoriae in low arid spots near the coast. It seems^to exist 
likewise, though much more rarely, in Teneriffe ; for I captured a 
single specimen of it in one of the streets at S*^ Cruz. 

Genus 266. RHYTIDORHINUS. 
Schonherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 162 [script. Rhytirhynus] (1826). 

849. Rhytidorhinus brevitarsis. 

Rhytidorhinus brevitarsis^ TFb//., Cat. Can. Col. 333 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in iisdem locis ac Gronops lu- 
natus. 

Found in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, in precisely the same 
kind of places as the Gronops lunatus — indeed often in company 
with it ; and I met with it even on the little island of Lobos, oif the 
extreme north of the latter. It is closely allied to the R. aispatu^ 
from the south of Spain, and may be regarded as the Canarian repre- 
sentative of that insect; nevertheless its shorter Hmbs (the tarsi 
especially being very much more abbreviated) will, apart from minor 
diiferences, at once separate it therefrom. 

(Subfam. XXI. BRACHYCERIDES.) 

Genus 267. BRACHYCERUS. 

Fabricius, Sysf. Eleu. ii. 412 (1801). 

850. Brachycerus opacus. 
Brachycerus opacus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 334 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), rarissimus ; semel tantum repertus. 

A Canarian Brachycerus of excessive rarity, a single specimen 
which I obtained (on the hills above Haria) in the north of Lan- 
zarote being all that I have yet seen of it. It is, moreover, the only 
member of the genus which has been detected hitherto in these 
Atlantic islands. 






CURCULIONIDiE. 309 

(Subfam. XXII. LAPAROCERIDES.) 

Genus 268. ATLANTIS. 
Wollaston,iws. Mad. 361 (1854). 

(Subgenus Amphora, Woll.) 

851. Atlantis canariensis. 

Laparoceras canariensis (Chevr.), Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. vii. 228 

(1843). 
Atlantis canariensis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 336 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), ultra regiones sylvaticas usque ad 9000' 
s. m. ascendens. Sub lapidibus scoriisque inter arbusculas 
Spartii nuhigence tempore vernali abundat. 

This singular Canarian Curculionid, so remarkable for the con- 
struction of its eyes and rostral scrohs, and for the strongly carinated 
pronotum of its female sex, seems to be peculiar to the higher ele- 
vations of Teneriffe (beyond the upper limits of the sylvan districts) 
— where it abounds, during the spring months, beneath stones and 
scoria3 on the lofty Cumbres from about 7000 to 9000 feet above 
the sea. 

(Subgenus Canopus, Wall.) 

852. Atlantis subnebnlosa. 
Atlantis subnebulosa, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 337 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), semel tantum deprehensa. 

Hitherto unique, a single example which I obtained in Grand 
Canary being all that I have yet seen of the species. Although 
aUied in general contour to the tibialis, I scarcely think that it can 
be regarded as any insular modification of that insect. 

853. Atlantis tibialis. 

Atlantis tibialis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 338 (1864). 
Lichenophagus incomptus. Id., Append, huj. o/?. 55. 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma, Hierro), sub lapidibus scoriisque 
praecipue in aridis inferioribus degens. 

A large and black species which is probably universal throughout 
at any rate the central and western portions of the Canarian archi- 
pelago, where it occurs beneath stones and scoriae — generally in dry 




310 ^^^^" CURCULIONID^. 

spots of a rather low altitude. I have taken it in Teneriffe and 
Palma ; and it was found in Hierro by the Messrs. Crotch. 

854. Atlantis tetrica. 

Eremnus tetricus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 542 (1834). 
Otiorhynchus simplex, Bindle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 71 (1838). 
Laparocerus tetricus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. vii. 228 (1843). 
Atlantis tetrica, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 338 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in inferioribus vel sub lapidibus vel in 
plantarum bifurcationibus parce latens. 

Likewise Canarian, but observed hitherto only in Teneriffe, and 
only at rather low elevations around S** Cruz. It is much allied to 
the last species ; but the many constant characters which separate it 
therefrom have been fully pointed out in my diagnosis. 

855. Atlantis Grayana. 

Atlantis angustula, Woll., Atm. Nat. Hist. xi. 219 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 240 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), sub lapidibus in inferioribus intermedi- 
isque occurrens. 

Pound only, so far as observed hitherto, in Grand Canary — where 
it is widely diffused, though apparently nowhere abundant, at low 
and intermediate altitudes. j|| 

The Omias an^ustulus of my Madeiran Catalogue having been re- 
moved into the genus Atlantis, of which it appears to be scarcely 
more than one of the smaller members, I have been compelled to 
change the title of the present species ; and I have much pleasure 
in dedicating it to my friend John Gray, Esq., in whose yacht I first 
visited the Canaries, and whose indefatigable researches (in conjunc- 
tion with my own) commenced the collection which has since been 
gradually accumulating until it has at length enabled me to prepare 
an approximate fauna of the Coleoptera of that Group. 

(Atlantides typical.) 

856. Atlantis lamellipes. 

Atlantis lamellipes, Woll, Ins. Mad. 364, tab. vii. f 5 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 113 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in editioribus prassertim sylvaticis hinc 
inde vulgaris. 





CURCULIONID.E. 311 

Peculiar to the higher elevations of Madeira proper, where it attains 
its maximum on the upper limits of the sylvan districts — being 
locally abundant. 

857. Atlantis calcatrix. 

Atlantis calcatrix, WoU., Ins. Mad. 366 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 113 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis similibus ac praecedens sed rarior. 

Likewise peculiar to the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, but 
evidently much rarer than the A. lamellipes. Indeed of its male sex 
I have seen hitherto but a single example ; and therefore, since the 
structure of the tibiae of the male embodies the chief characteristics of 
the species, it is evident that further material is much needed in order 
to ascertain positively that the tyge (now in the British Museum) 
from which my original diagnosis was drawn out is a normal one of 
its kind. 

858. Atlantis noctivagans. 

Atlantis noctivagans, Woll., Ins. Mad. 367 (1854). 

lauripotens et australis, Id., ibid. 369, 370 (1854). 

noctivagans, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 114 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), folia laurorum in intermediis editiori- 
busque destruens. 

Like the last two species, attached to the sylvan districts of Ma- 
deira proper, though (on the average) with a considerably lower 
range ; for it descends to a comparatively slight elevation, whilst at 
the same time ascending quite as high as either of them. It appears 
to subsist on the foliage of the native laurels, a mode of life which 
we may be pretty sure obtains equally with the lamellipes and cal- 
catrix. It is an extremely variable insect, presenting many appre- 
ciable modifications according to the altitude and locality in which 
it occurs ; and it is just possible indeed (though, I think scarcely 
probable) that more than a single species may perhaps be included 
amongst the several slightly different forms which I am now disposed 
to regard as mere unimportant states of the noctivagans, but two of 
which I had myself treated originally as distinct. 

859. Atlantis vespertina. 

Laparocerus piceus ?, Schm., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 531 (1834). 
Atlantis vespertinus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 371, tab. vii. f. 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 114 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), praecipue in locis valde elevatis apertis 
graminosis sub lapidibus vulgatissima. 



312 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



A common Atlantis in the higher regions of Madeira proper, oc- 
curring beneath stones on the grassy mountain-slopes (for the most 
part above the upper limits of the sylvan districts) and ascending to 
the summits of the peaks. 

I think it very likely that this Atlantis is coincident with the La- 
parocerus jpiceus of Schonherr ; for both that species and the L. morio 
appear to have been described from examples supplied by Falder- 
mann, who seems either to have collected in Madeira or else to have 
obtained insects from there ; whilst the fact of their both being 
recorded for " Portugal," a habitat ivhich is now acknowledged to he 
erroneous as regards the latter, is only in keeping with that excessive 
confusion on the subject of localities which is unfortunately so pre- 
valent amongst the majority of continental entomologists. I need 
scarcely add that if it should prove hereafter to be identical with the 
jpiceits, that name will of course have the priority. 

860. Atlantis lanata. 

Atlantis lanatus, Wall, Lis. Mad. 372, tab. vii. f. 6 (1854). 
^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 114 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in regionibus minus ele- 
vatis parce occurrens. J 

Found likewise in Madeira proper, but at a considerably lower 
elevation than the preceding species — occurring for the most part in 
barren spots below the sylvan districts. 

861. Atlantis navicularis. 

Atlantis navicidaris, Woll, Ins. Mad. 374 (1854). 
^ Jd.^ Cat Mad. Col. 114 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S^^), in inferioribus arenosis submaritimis 
rarior. 

Observed hitherto only in Porto Santo of the Madeiran Group, 
where I have taken it sparingly about the slopes and low hillocks of 
drifted sand immediately behind the southern beach. 



I 





862. Atlantis inconstans. 

Atlantis inconstans, Woll., Ins. Mad. 375 (1864). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 



Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S^^), in locis similibus ac prsecedens. 

Also a Porto -Santan Atlantis, and one which is found in exactly 



CURCULIONIDiE. 313 

the same sort of places (adjoining the southern beach) as the last 
species. 

863. Atlantis mendax. 

Atlantis mendax, Wbll., Ins. Mad. 376 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S*^), in arenosis inferioribus snbmaritimis 
inter plantas ibidem crescentes parce occurrens. 

Apparently peculiar, likewise, to Porto Santo of the Madeiran 
Group, where it occurs about various plants on the drifted sand- 
hills behind the sea-beach on the southern side of that island. 

864. Atlantis instabilis. 

Atlantis instabilis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 377 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^" S*°, Hheo CJido ?, Btogio ?), sub lapidibus in 
clivis saxosis paululum elevatis latens. 

Inhabits Porto Santo, like the preceding three species, but found 
usually at a rather higher elevation — beneath stones on the rocky 
slopes and headlands, for the most part towards the northern coast. 
I suspect that it occurs also in the Desertas ; for on the Ilheo Chao 
and Bugio I met with some mutilated examples of an Atlantis which 
I believe are referable to the instabilis^ 

865. Atlantis excelsa. 

Atlantis excelsus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 378 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (ikfac?.), per atque etiam supra regiones sylvaticas. 

Widely spread over the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, and 
ascending likewise even somewhat above them — being occasionally 
common under stones in comparatively open, grassy spots of a rather 
lofty altitude. 

866. Atlantis Schaumii. 

Atlantis Schaumii et For£e, Woll, Ins. Mad. 379, 380 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 115 (1857). 

Habitat {Mad., P*^ /S^^^), sub lapidibus hinc inde congregans. 

Found on the Ponta de Sao Lourengo of Madeira proper — the low 
rocky promontory in the east of that island — as also on the summit 
of the Pico do Castello in Porto Santo. It would seem, consequently, 
to be attached to the eastern parts of the Madeiran Group. 



314 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



867. Atlantis angustula. 

Omias angustulus, JVolL, Cat. Mad. Col. 116 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in graminosis apertis edi- 
tioribus rarissima. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this Atlantis were 
captured at a high elevation in Madeira proper — beneath stones, on 
the grassy slopes of the mountains above Punchal. The species is 
closely allied to the ventrosa ; and although I believe it to be truly 
distinct, its diagnosis can scarcely be regarded as satisfactorily esta- 
blished until further material has been obtained for comparison. 

868. Atlantis ventrosa. 

Omias ventrosus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 382 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in graminosis apertis edi- 
tioribus usque ad summos montes ascendens. 

A common insect in the higher elevations of Madeira proper — 
where it is found beneath stones on the grassy mountain-slopes 
(principally above the sylvan districts), ascending to the very sum- 
mits of the peaks. During the winter and spring it often occurs in 
great profusion — in company with the Atlantis vespertina, the Tarus 
Maderce, the Anthiciis Lubbockii, and certain other species of those 
upland tracts. 

869. Atlantis aenescens. 



Omias aenescens, Woll, Ins. Mad. 383 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 115 (1857). 



A 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in locis 
multo rarior. 



similibus ac praecedens sed 



Found in the higher altitudes of Madeira proper, in the same kind 
of places as the last species — indeed often in company with it, though 
very much the rarer of the two. It is indeed most closely allied to the 
ventrosa — from which it principally differs in being (on the average) 
a little smaller, as well as a little more shining and subaDnescent, 
in its prothorax (which is a trifle more cylindrical, or less rounded 
at the sides) being somewhat more deeply and less densely punc- 
tured, in its eyes being just perceptibly less prominent, and in its 
limbs being usually rather more rufescent and robust. The erect 
additional hairs, also, of its elytra are generally softer and longer 
than those of the ventrosa. 



J 



CURCULIONIDiE. 315 

870. Atlantis Waterhousii. 

Omias Waterhousei, WolL, Ins. Mad. 384, tab. vii. f. 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 116 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des.), sub lapidibus in intermediis ssepius 
latens. 

Not uncommon, beneath stones, in the intermediate altitudes of 
Madeira proper and the Deserta Grande ; ' but it has not yet been 

detected in any of the other islands. 

« 

Genus 269. CYPHOSCELIS. 
WoUaston, Im. Mad. 356 (1854). 

871. Cyphoscelis distorta. 

Cyphoscelis distorta, WolL, Im. Mad. 556, tab. vii. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 113 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis editioribus 
rarissima. 

This remarkable Curculionid, so singular in the structure of the 
tibiae of its male sex, appears to be confined to the damp wooded dis- 
tricts of a high elevation in Maderia proper — where moreover it is 
extremely rare. 

Genus 270. LAPAEOCERUS. 
Schonherr, Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 530 (1834). 

872. Laparocerus clavatus. 

Atlantis clavatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 363, tab. vii. f. 3 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 113 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in graminosis plerumque 
valde elevatis necnon etiam in rupium fissuris parcissime latens. 

Likewise peculiar to Madeira proper, and extremely scarce, but 
with a stiU higher range (on the average) than even the Cyphoscelis 
distorta — occurring beneath stones in exposed grassy places, as well 
as within the fissures of the rocks, at a very lofty elevation, above 
the sylvan districts. 

873. Laparocerus undulatus. 

Laparocerus undulatus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 332 (1862). 
, Id., Append, huj. op. 51. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in montibus valde excelsis semel captus. 
The only example which I have yet seen of this insect was cap- 



316 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



tured by myself at a high elevation (I believe at the Fanal) on the 
mountains of Madeira proper. In their comparatively narrow, elon- 
gate, apically subdilated rostra the present species and the preceding 
one are somewhat removed from the other Laparocen here enumerated, 
and are thus far aUied inter se ; nevertheless the undulatus is not 
only larger than the clavatus, and of a different colour (its legs being 
dark instead of testaceous, and its pubescence more or less opal, or 
greenish-cinereous, instead of golden-brown), but its head and ros- 
trum also are nearly unsculptured, its eyes are a little larger, more 
oval, and less prominent, its prothorax is very much more deeply 
and sparingly punctured, and more uneven on the hinder disk, and 
the first joint of its funiculus is perceptibly longer than the second. 
The sexual characters, likewise, of the legs (as indicated in my 
diagnosis) appear to be different in the two species. 

874. Laparocerus mono. 

Laparocems morio, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 351 (1834). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 300, tab. vii. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 113 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 341 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes), ab ora maritima usque ad summos 
montes copiosissime ascendens; Salvages? (ins. majorem^ bore- 
alem) et Canarienses? (Ten.2, Gam.?), sub lapidibus congregans. 

The universal Laparocerus of the Madeiran Group, abounding on 
every island and rock — from the sea-level to the summits of the 
peaks. I have not myself detected it at the Canaries, nor was it 
included in the extensive material of the Messrs. Crotch, neither 
was it met with by Messrs. Gray, Lowe, Hartung, Perraudiere, or 
Webb and Berthelot ; so that I can scarcely believe that it extends 
beyond the limits of the Madeiran archipelago. Yet two specimens 
were communicated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva, one of which 
was professedly from Teneriffe and the other from Gomera, differing 
in no appreciable particular from the ordinary Madeiran type. And 
since moreover the Baron Paiva's Canarian Coleoptera were all sent 
to me (at intervals) from Madeira, I cannot but feel a little doubtful 
whether the examples referred to may not have found their way into 
his boxes by some unintentional mistake. At any rate I think that 
further evideuce must certainly be obtained before the L. morio 
should be regarded as even probably existing at the Canaries. 

The same remark will apply, hut scarcely with equal force, to cer- 
tain specimens which the Baron Paiva has also communicated as 



II 
II 




CURCULIONIDiE. 317 

having been received by him from the Salvages ; though I must add 
that I think it is far more likely that the L. morio should occur on 
those remote (intermediate) rocks than in the Canaries, where so 
many naturalists have failed entirely to detect any traces of it. Yet, 
considering that the Coleoptera obtained at the Salvages were brought 
to Funchal before they were delivered to the Baron Paiva, and like- 
wise that they were kept there for some time by the latter before 
they were transmitted to me in England, I consider it safer to query 
the species for those islands also — even whilst feeHng it far from 
improbable that the specimens may truly have come from thence. 

875. Laparocerus sculptus. 

Otiorhynchus sculptus, BriilU, in Webb et BeHh. (Col.) 71 (1838). 
Laparocerus sculptus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 341 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in lauretis humidis editioribus raris- 
simus. 

A large Canarian species which I have observed hitherto only in 
the island of Palma, where it appears to be rare and to occur in the 
damp sylvan districts of a rather high elevation. 

876. Laparocerus undatus. 

Laparocerus undatus, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 342 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), rarissimus; in locis similibus ac prae- 
cedens. 

Likewise a very large species, and Canarian, — the few examples 
which I have seen having been captured by myself in TenerifFe, in 
the damp laurel-woods on the mountains above Taganana. 

877. Laparocerus excavatus. 

Laparocerus excavatus, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 219 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 343 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.), in intermediis editioribusque prae- 
sertim sylvaticis humidis occurrens. 

A large and black Canarian Laparocerus which is found in the 
damp sylvan regions of Teneriffe and Gomera, in the latter of which 
islands it has been met with lately by the Messrs. Crotch. It is a 
variable insect in nearly all its characters — ^being either shining or 
comparatively opake, bald or conspicuously studded on its elytra 
with remote hairs, with the punctures of its interstices either large 



318 CURCULIONID^. Vl^l^l 

or small, and with its sexual peculiarities (which consist in the 
scooping-out of the anterior tibiae, and the serrations of the hinder 
pair) more or less expressed. Amongst the many phases thus assumed, 
I have tried hard to find the indications of a second species ; but 
after a careful comparison of individuals from many diiferent loca- 
lities and altitudes, it appears to me that the several states above 
alluded to pass so completely into each other that it is quite impos- 
sible to treat any of them as of specific importance. In a general 
sense, however, those examples in which the surface is duUer, and in 
which the interstitial punctures are more minute and the tibiae of 
the males less excavated (or, in other words, in which the essential 
characteristics of the species are less pronounced), may be regarded 
as falling under the " var. /3. luguhris " of my diagnosis. 

Three Gomeran individuals which are now before me are such 
thorough exponents of this last-mentioned state that, if taken alone, 
they might well be cited as specifically distinct ; but when examined 
in conjunction with others from Tcnerifife, I am satisfied that they 
have no claim whatever for separation. Of the Teneriffan examples, 
those from the laurel- woods on the mountains towards the north- 
east of the island (in the direction of Las Mercedes, Taganana, and 
Point Anaga) seem to have their specific features most exaggerated ; 
whilst those from the Agua Garcia, and above Ycod el Alto, are 
appreciably somewhat more on the Gomeran (or "var. /3. luguhris^^) 
type. 

878. Laparocerus grossepimctatus. 
Laparocerus grossepunctatus, Woll.j Cat Can. Col. 344 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in locis similibus ac praecedens sed rarior. 

Found under similar circumstances, and in the same district at 
Teneriffe, as the last species — the only two examples which I have 
seen having been captured by myself on the laurel-clad mountains 
above Taganana. 

879. Laparocerus squamosus. 

Otiorhynchus squamosus, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 71 (1838). 
Laparocerus squamosus, Woll, Cat Can. Col. 344 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis intermediis rarissimus. 

Likewise found in the sylvan districts of intermediate elevations in 
Teneriffe, and a species of which I have captured but few examples. 
Further material, therefore, is much wanted, in order to complete 




CURCULIONID^. 319 

our knowledge of its characters and to enable us to trace out the 
limits of its variation. 

880. Laparocenis crassirostris. 
Laparocerus crassu'ostris; Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 345 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in pineto quodam excelso semel captus. 

The only specimen hitherto detected of this distinct Laparocerus 
I captured at a high elevation on the mountains of Grand Canary, in 
a lofty Pinal of the central district of Tarajana. 

881. Laparocerus crassifrons. 

Laparocerus crassifrons, Woll, Ami. Nat. Hist. xi. 220 (1863). 
, Id,, Cat. Can. Col. 346 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus scoriisque in montibus 
valde elevatis occurrens. Usque ad 9000' s. m. ascendit. 

Peculiar apparently to the very lofty regions of TenerifFe, above 
the sylvan districts, which are characterized by the presence of the 
Spartium nvMgena (or "Retama"). I met with it abundantly during 
the spring of 1859, beneath stones aiid scorije, on the Cumbre 
adjoining the Canadas, as well as on the opposite ridge above the 
Agua Mansa. 

882. Laparocerus scapularis. 

Laparocerus scapularis, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 347 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in iisdem locis ac praecedens — sub lapi- 
dibus inter arbusculas Spartii nubiginoe humi jacentibus latens. 

Found, in company with the L. crassifrons, on the lofty Cumbres 
of Teneriffe, which are more or less clothed with the shrubs of the 
Retama. It is however less abundant than that species, and ascends 
perhaps to even a higher elevation still. 

883. Laparocerus aethiops. 

Laparocenis aethiops, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 347 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), sub lapidibus in graminosis editioribus 
apertis lectus. 

Taken (beneath stones) in Hierro, the most western of the Cana- 
rian Group, — on the open grassy Cumbre, immediately above the 
descent into El Golfo, which forms the extreme summit of that 
island. 



320 



CURCULIONID^. 



884. Laparocerus hirtus. 

Laparoceriis hirtus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 348 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in editioribus semel deprehensus. 

A single example, taken by myself at a high altitude on the ' 
mountains of Grand Canary, embodies all that I yet know about 
this Laparoceriis ; and although I believe it to be truly distinct from 
the incequalis, further material would nevertheless be desirable 
order to ascertain for certain that it is no insular modification o: 
that species. 

885. Laparocerus insequalis. 

Laparocerus insequahs, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 220 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 348 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in lauretis humidis editioribus minus 
frequens. ^ 

A Canarian species which is peculiar (so far as I have observed 
hitherto) to the damp laurel-districts of Teneriffe, where I have 
brushed it off rank vegetation on the densely wooded mountains 
above Taganana. 




886. Laparocerus globulipennis. 

Laparocerus globulipennis, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 349 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), in locis similibus ac praecedens raris- 
simus. 

i 
Likewise Canarian, and found in much the same sort of places as 

the last species — only in Palma instead of Teneriffe. It appears to 

be extremely rare, two specimens which were taken by myself in 

the Barranco de Galga being all that I have yet seen. 

887. Laparocerus occidentalis. 

Laparocerus occidentalis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 350 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), in sylvaticis humidis excelsis semel 
captus. ' 

Hitherto unique — a single example having been taken by myself 
at a high elevation in the sylvan district of Hierro, the most western 
island of the Canarian Group. Although apparently quite distinct 
inter se, the present species and the three preceding ones belong to 
much the same tjjpe of form ; and they may perhaps be regarded 
the representatives of each other in their respective islands. 



•1 





CURCULIONIDyi:. 321 

888. Laparocerus obtriangularis. 

Laparocerus obtriangularis, Wull, Cat. Can. Col. 351 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), rarissimus; in sylvaticis editioribus hu- 
midis semel tantum repertus. 

A single (female) example of this Canarian Laparocerus is all that 
I have yet seen of the species. It was taken bj myself in the inter- 
mediate districts of Teneriffe — I believe, at the Agua Mansa, Al- 
though thoroughly distinct from everything else here enumerated, its 
diagnosis can scarcely be regarded as complete until the male sex 
has also been examined. 

889. Laparocerus ellipticus. 

Laparocerus ellipticus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 220 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 351 (1864). 

Habitat Canaiienses (Ten., Gom., Palma), vel sub cortice laxo vel 
inter muscos et lichenes ad truncos arborum nascentes in syl- 
vaticis editioribus latitans. 

A large and curious Laparocerus which is widely spread over the 
central and western islands of the Canarian archipelago, where it 
occurs in the sylvan districts of intermediate and lofty altitudes. I 
have taken it in Teneriffe and Palm a; and it was found by the 
Messrs. Crotch, during the summer of 1864, in Gomera. 

890. Laparocerus inflatus. 
Laparocerus inflatus, WoU., Append, hvj. op. 51. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.). a DD. Crotch semel deprehensus. 

A single specimen of this large and distinct Laparocerus was taken 
by the Messrs. Crotch in the sylvan districts of Gomera, during their 
late Canarian campaign. 

891. Laparocerus lepidopterus. 

Laparocerus lepidopterus, WoU.j Cat Can. Col. 352 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gan.2, Ten., Palma, Hierro), in intermediis 
sylvaticis, passim. 

"Widely (though sparingly) diffused over the sylvan districts in the 
Canarian Group, where it occurs at intermediate and lofty elevations. 
I have captured it in Teneriffe, Palma, and Hierro ; in the last of 
which it was found likewise by the Messrs. Crotch. I also met 

Y 



322 



CURCULIONIDiE. 





with a single example at a high altitude in Grand Canary, whic 
believe is referable to the lepidopterus ; nevertheless as I cannot decide 
positively until further material has been obtained, I have though 
it safer to query its existence in that island. 

892. Laparocerus rasus. 
Laparoeerus rasus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 354 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in montibus parce degens. 

Apparently peculiar to Lanzarote and Puerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, where it occurs sparingly at 
intermediate and lofty elevations. 

893. Laparocerus seniculus. 
Laparocerus seniculus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 353 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in inferioribus parcissime lectus. 

Two examples, which I captured near Las Palmas in Gran 
Canary, embody all that I yet know about this Laparocerus; and 
further material, therefore, is much required in order to complete 
our knowledge of the species. I believe however that it is truly 
distinct from everything else here enumerated, though probably be- 
longing to much the same type of form as the subojpacus, mendicus, 
and obscurus. 

894. Laparocerus subopacus. 

Laparocerus subopacus, Woll., Append, hvj. op. 52. 

Habitat Canarienses {Gam.), in locis valde elevatis a DD. Crotch paro 
repertus. 

Taken sparingly by the Messrs. Crotch (during their late expe-" 
dition to the Canaries) at a very high altitude in Gomera, " by beating 
plants of Sedum, above Hermigua, on Monte Fuerte." As stated in 
the Appendix to this volume, it may be regarded as the Gomeran 
representative of the obscurus (from Teneriffe), of the mendicus 
(from Hierro), and perhaps also of the senicidus (from Grand Ca- 
nary), although abundantly distinct from those species. 



895. Laparocerus obscurus. 
Laparocerus obscurus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col, 355 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), semel tantum lectus. 





CURCULIONIDiE. 323 

The only example of this Laparocerus which has hitherto come 
beneath my notice I captured in Teneriffe ; but unfortunately I cannot 
recall the precise locality. I stated, however, in ray Canarian Cata- 
logue, that it was j^robabli/ from the neighbourhood either of Orotava 
or S'* Cruz. This may be so ; nevertheless, from its evident affinity 
to the suhopacus (which was taken at a very lofty elevation in 
Gomera) and the mendicus (which is found on the Cumbre in Hierro), 
I am now inclined to suspect that I must have met with it in some 
higher district. 

896. Laparocems mendicus. 

Laparocerus mendicus, Woll.^ Cat. Can. Col. 355 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), sub lapidibus in montosis graminosis 
non infrequens. 

Observed as yet only on the mountains in Hierro, the most western 
of the Canarian Group, where I have captured it beneath stones in 
open spots, both in the vicinity of Yalverde and on the grassy 
Cumbre which forms the summit of the island to the south of San 
Andre. 

897. Laparocerus gracilis. 

Laparocerus gracilis, WoU., Cat. Can, Col. 356 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), in clivis saxosis inferioribus ad folia 
Chrysanthemi frutescentiSy L., captus. 

A slender and very distinct species which was captured by Mr. 
Gray and myself in Gomera, during our visit to the Canaries in the 
winter of 1858. It was taken on the rocky slopes of the low moun- 
tain-ridge immediately outside, and to the north of, San Sebastian ; 
and it appeared to be attached to the plants of the Chrysanthemum 
frutescens, known locally as the " Magarza." 

898. Laparocerus dispar. 

Laparocerus dispar, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 357 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus in aridis saxosis inferi- 
oribus rarissimus. 

A rather small Canarian Laparocerus (remarkable for the great 
dissimilarity of its sexes) which has been observed hitherto only in 
the extreme north of Lanzarote — on the rocky ground between the 
Salinas and the Risco ; and probably, therefore, it is extremely scarce. 

y2 



324 



ri:TONiD;E. 



899. Laparocerus debilis. 
Laparocerus debilis, WolL, Append, huj. op. 53. 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a DD. Crotch semel deprehensus. 

A single example of this Laparocerus (from which my diagnosis, 
given in the Appendix, has been drawn up) was captured by th^ 
Messrs. Crotch in Teneriffe, during their late expedition to the Ca-' 
naries ; and although it seems to be perfectly distinct from everything 
else here enumerated, it is evident that further material must be 
obtained before our knowledge of the species can be regarded as 
satisfactory. 

900. Laparocerus vestitus. 
Laparocerus vestitus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col 358 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus in inferioribus latens. 

Bather a common Laparocerus at low elevations in Teneriife, where 
it occurs beneath stones in dry and cindery spots. It is abundant 
around the Puerto Orotava, and tolerably so near S*" Cruz ; but the 
examples from the latter region, which I have indicated as the 
" var. /3. affinis," differ a little from those (regarded by me as typical) 
from the former — though not sufficiently so, I think, to admit 
their being treated as specifically distinct. 




901. Laparocerus tesseUatus. 



it ofi^H 

J 



Omias tesseUatus ?, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. ( Co/.) 72, pi. 1. f.l5 (1838). 
Laparocerus tesseUatus, TTolLf Cat. Can. Col. 300 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), in intermediis editiori- 
busque hinc inde vulgaris. 

One of the most widely spread of the Canarian Laparoceri — over 
at any rate the central and western islands of the archipelago, being 
locally abundant at intermediate and lofty altitudes (both in the 
sylvan districts and above them). Though at aU times small, it 
varies a good deal in size — being for the most part more largely 
developed within the wooded regions than elsewhere. 

902. Laparocerus obsitus. 

Laparocerus obsitus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 361 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis et praecipue editioribus 
parum vulgaris. 




Apparently the representative in Grand Canary of the last species, 



CURCULIONID/E. 325 

which indeed it so closelj^ resembles that I am not altogether satisfied 
that it is more than an insular variety of it. It seems, merely, to 
be (on the average) a little smaller than the tessellatus, and to have 
its elytra rather more oblong, and densely beset with suberect setae 
(or short stiffish hairs). Still, since its ally obtains in at all events 
three of the islands without any appreciable change, it is scarcely 
likely to become modified in a fourth one ; and moreover we have 
yet to ascertain that the tessellatus proper does not exist, simultane- 
ously with the ohsitus, in Grand Canary. 

903. Laparocerus tenellus. 

Laparocerus tenellus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 362 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in editioribus rarissimus. 

A minute Canarian species, being the smallest of the Laparoceri 
hitherto detected. I have seen but two examples of it, which were 
taken by myself at a high elevation in TenerifFe — at the foot of the 
Organo Rocks, above the Agua Mansa; and therefore it would 
appear to be extremely scarce. 

904. Laparocerus puncticollis. 

Laparocerus puncticollis, WoU., Cat, Can. Col. 362 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (JHierro), in intermediis graminosis parce captus. 

Found in Hierro, the most western island of the Canarian Group, 
— the few examples of it which I have seen having been obtained by 
myself at the sides of the lower road between Yalverde and El Golfo, 
at an altitude of scarcely more than about 1000 feet above the sea. 

905. Laparocerus indutus. 

Laparocerus indutus, Woll., Append, huj. op. 53. 
Habitat Canarienses [Gam.), a DD. Crotch parcissime repertus. 

Although perfectly distinct from it, on much the same type as the 
last species ; but found in Gomera (instead of Hierro) — where three 
examples of it were captured by the Messrs. Crotch, during their 
late Canarian campaign. 

906. Laparocerus compactus. 

Laparocerus compactus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 359 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in editioribus rarissimus. 




326 ^^^^ CURCULIONID^. 

Four specimens of this insect were taken by myself, at a high 
elevation, on the mountains of Grand Canary. In their cnriously 
compact and rather parallel outline and basally subemarginated elytra, 
as well as in their thick, subtriangular rostra and their small and 
comparatively sunken eyes, both the present species and the following 
one differ considerably from the whole of the Laparoceri with which 
they are here associated, and would seem to approach the larger 
members at the commencement of the genus, or even the Cyphoscelis 
distorta ; nevertheless, upon the whole, I think perhaps that it is 
better to place them amongst the smaller forms than elsewhere. 

907. Laparocerus sulcirostris. 

Laparocerus sulcirostris, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 359 (1864). 

^cf6ito^ Canarienses ((7an.), rarissimus; in locis similibus ac prse- 
cedens. J 

Hitherto unique, a single specimen having been taken by myself 
on the mountains of Grand Canary (in company with the preceding 
species). It is indeed closely allied to the compactus, though Ij 
believe that the many small distinctions which were pointed out in 
my diagnosis will more than suffice to separate it from that insect. 



(Subfam. XXIII. TRACHYPHLGEIDES.) 

Genus 271. ANEMOPHILUS. 

Wolla.8ton, Ins. Mad. 385 (1854). 

908. Anemophilus crassus. 

Anemophilus crassus, Woll.y Ins. Mad. 386, tab. vii. f 7 (1854). 
, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P*^ S*^), inter lapillos lichenesque in rupium 
fissuris editiorum tempore hiemali hinc inde vulgaris. 

Observed only in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, — where I 
have met with it rather commonly during the winter months, 
harbouring amongst lichen and small stones, within the crevices of 
the exposed rocks of a tolerably high elevation. 

909. Anemophilus subtesseUatus. 

Anemophilus subtesseUatus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 387 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (F^^S^^), una cum specie prsecedente degens. 







CURCULIONID^. 327 

Likewise Porto-Santan, and found in company with the last 
species — to which indeed it is closely allied. 

910. Anemophilus trossulus. 

Anemophilus trossiilus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 388, tab. viii. f. 1 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ S*^), sub lapidibus in aridis calcariis in- 
ferioribus rarissimus. 

Also a Porto-Santan insect, and apparently extremely rare, oc- 
curring beneath stones in arid and calcareous spots of a rather low 
elevation. 

Genus 272. SCOLIOCERUS. 

WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 391 (1854). 

911. Scoliocerus Maderae. 

Scoliocerus Maderse, WolL, Ins. Mad. 392, tab. viii. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {^Mad.), sub lapidibus plerumque in graminosis 
paulo elevatis rarissimus. 

Detected hitherto only in Madeira proper, where moreover it is 
extremely rare — occurring beneath stones, for the most part in 
open grassy spots of rather low and intermediate altitudes. 

912. Scoliocerus curvipes. 

Scoliocerus curvipes, Woll., Ins. Mad. 393 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 118 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in intermediis et editio- 
ribus hinc inde parum vulgaris. 

Peculiar, Hkewisc, to Madeira proper ; but found usually at a 
rather higher elevation than the last species, and also (though it is 
extremely local) much more abundantly. 



Genus 273. TRACHYPHLCEUS. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 403 (1824). 

913. TrachyphlcBUs scaber. 

Cm-culio scaber, Linn., Fna Suec. 176 (1761). 

Trachyphloeus scaber, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 490(1834). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 394 (1854). 



328 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



Trachj-phloeus acaber, Wall., Cat. Mad. Col 118 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 363 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), hinc inde sub 
lapidibus in intermediis. 

This common European insect is widely spread over the interme- 
diate elevations of Madeira proper, where it appears to be truly indi- 
genous ; but at the Canaries it is extremely rare, the few specimens 
which I have seen having been taken (by myself above the Agua 
Garcia, and by the Messrs. Crotch and myself at Ycod el Alto) in 
Teneriffe. 

Genus 274. CJENOPSIS. 
Bach, Kdfer-Fauna, 268 (1854). 

914. Caenopsis Waltoni. 

Trachyphloeus Waltoni, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. vii. 115 (1843). 
CaBnopsis Waltoni, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 335 (1862). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), a Dom. Bewicke in cultis intermediis 
semel capta. 

The only example of this European Curculionid which I have yet 
seen from these Atlantic islands was captured by the late Mr. 
Bewicke in Madeira proper — at " the Mount," above Eunchal. It 
is not unlikely that the species may have been introduced acci- 
dentally from more northern latitudes — perhaps through the agency 
of the English residents, who have long been in the habit of im- 
porting boxes of plants (at intervals) to replenish their gardens. 
Still this is but a conjecture ; and it is probable, even if it be the 
case, that the insect has at all events become established. 



I 



(Subfara. XXIV. PERITELIDES.) 

Genus 275. LICHENOPHAGUS *. 

WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 389 (1854). 



* Fortunately it is not often that a species which has been established in the 
Appendix of a volume has to be suppressed in the text ; yet I am compelled in 
the present instance to do so, from having been led into an unaccountable mis- 
take concerning a Canarian Curculionid which was communicated a few months 
ago by De Marseul. The individual in question being immature, and also re- 
markably small, I failed to recognize it as the Atlantis tibialis, to which I am 
now satisfied that it should be referred ; and so I inadvertently described it as a 
large, aberrant Lichenophagus, under the trivial name of incomptns. As implied 
however in the Appendix, I did not feel at all satisfied about its affinities, and 
even proposed for it (in consequence) a subgeneric title. Yet the recent trans- 



CUilCULIONID^. 329 

§ 1. Corpus sat parvum; oculis minutis, rotundatis, proTuinentibics ; 
funiculi arf^ 2^° primo sub breviore. (Lichenophagi typici, insulis 
Maderensibus proprii.) 

915. Lichenophagus fritillus. 

Lichenophagus fritillus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 390, tab. viii. f. 1 (1854). 
, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Madcrenses (P^^ S^^), sub lapidibus in aridis saxosis necnon 
inter lichenes in rupium fissuris cresccntes bine inde vulgaris. 

Peculiar apparently to Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, — 
where it is locally abundant beneath stones in dry places, as weU as 
amongst the masses of lichen which fill up the crevices of the ex- 
posed weather-beaten rocks. It being the species from which my 
generic diagnosis was originally compiled, the L. fritillus must be 
regarded as the ti/pe of the genus Lichenophagus. 

916. Lichenophagus acuminatus. 

Lichenophagus acuminatus, Woll.y Ins. Mad. 391, tab. viii. f. 3 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 117 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Des.), rarissimus ; in locis similibus ac praece- 
dens. 

Hitherto I have observed this species only on the Deserta Grande, 
of the Madeiran Group ; though we may perhaps expect to meet with 
it on the northern and southern Desertas likewise. It appears to 
be extremely rare, and to occur in much the same kind of places as 
the L. fritillus — of which it may be regarded as the Desertan repre- 
sentative. 

§ II. Corpus majoris magnitudinis ; oculis parvis, ovalibus, demissis ; 
funiculi artf2^°primo plus minus evidenter longiore. (Licheno- 
phagi aberrantes, ioisulas Canarienses colentes.) 

917. Lichenophagus auctus. 

Lichenophagus auctus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 363 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Gom., Hierro), sub lapidibus in intermediis 

mission by De Marseul of a second (and mature) specimen of the same species 
has at once shown me that I fell into an error about the previous one, since both 
of them appear to belonfj to a rather depauperated state of the A. tibialis which 
is found in the island of Hierro. As the original example moreover happened to 
be a female one, its diagnostic characters were less conspicut)us than would have 
been the ease had it pertained to the opposite sex. I would therefore erase in 
toto the description of the L. incomptus, given at p. 55 of the Appendix to this 
work. 



330 



CURCULIONIDiE. 



rarissimus. Exemplaria a Gomera minus typica sunt, sed, nisi 
fallor, L. aucto vix omnino discedunt. 

Taken by myself (though very sparingly) in Hierro, the most 
western of the Canarian islands, — from beneath stones, about mid- 
way between Port Hierro and Yalverde. Independently of minor 
distinctions, the species may easily be recognized by its compara- 
tively swollen second funiculus-joint (which is, if anything, a trifle 
larger than the first — not only in length, but even in breadth), by 
its freedom from erect setae, and by the rudiments of an obscure 
glabrous abbreviated keel which is more or less evident in the centre fl 
of its prothorax behind. Two examples, however, which are now 
before me, and which were captured by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, 
seem to be a little smaller, paler, and more deeply sculptured than 
the Hierro ones, with their short central prothoracic keel rather 
narrower and more acute (being less triangular, or noduliform), and 
with their elytra (which, when denuded of the scales, are less 
shining), more ovate, or more regularly narrowed anteriorly — being 
more rounded off, but less obliquely-truncated, at the shoulders 
(which are themselves consequently more sharp and porrect). But 
although thus numerous, I do not think that any of these sHght dif- 
ferences are of much importance — more especially as the specimens 
retain the essential characters (of the funiculus, &c.) which mark 
the L. auctus, and since moreover most of the lAchenophagi hitherto 
detected seem to present some trifling secondary modifications indi- 
cative of particular islands or localities, as will readily be seen by 
a reference to their published diagnoses. So that I would not cite 
this Gomeran insect as more than an insular phasis of the Hierro 
one ; though I will (briefly) enunciate it below, giving it a sub- 
specific name, in the event of further material proving it to be truly 
distinct*. 

918. Lichenophagus tesserula. 

Lichenophagus tesserula, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 364 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), plerumque in subinferioribus hinc inde 
vulgaris. 



* This Gomeran Lichenophagus, wliich I believe to be a modification of the 
auctus, may be recorded in the following short formula : — var. /3. ampUficata 
[an species?]. Paulo minor, pallidior profundiusque sculpturata, carinula 
prothoraoica abbreviata postica angustiore, acutiore, minus triangulariter nodu- 
liformi, elytris magis ovatis, versus humeros facilius sive magis ^equaliter an- 
gustatis (i. e. minus oblique truncatis, angulis ipsis huraeralibus acutius sub- 
porrectis), sub squamis magis opacis. % 




I 



CURCULIONID^. 331 

A Canarian LieJienophagus which has been observed hitherto only 
in Teneriife, where it is common beneath stones in certain spots of 
a rather low altitude — particularly around the YiUa and Puerto of 
Orotava. 

919. Lichenophagus persimilis. 

Lichenophagus persimilis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 365 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Pahna), sub lapidibus in intermediis 
occurrens. 

Also TeneriiFan, and very closely allied to the last species ; but 
found at a higher elevation (my examples having been taken at 
Ycod el Alto), and differing in a few jmall but constant particulars 
which have been fully alluded to in the published diagnosis. I also 
met with it sparingly in the island of Palma, in the Barranco above 
S** Cruz ; but the Palman individuals, which represent the " var. 
/3. seriesetosa " of my description, differ from the Teneriffan ones in 
having their longitudinal rows of short setse somewhat longer and 
paler (and therefore more apparent). 

920. Lichenophagus subnodosus. 

Lichenophagus subnodosus, Wbll.f Cat. Can. Col. 366 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Hierro), in intermediis praesertim sylva- 
ticis degens. 

Not uncommon at intermediate and rather lofty altitudes in 
Teneriffe and Hierro, of the Canarian Group, particularly within 
the sylvan and subsylvan districts. The examples from Hierro, 
taken by myself and the Messrs. Crotch, and representing the " var. 
/3. suhcalva " of my diagnosis, differ from the Teneriffan ones in 
having the setae of their elytra considerably shorter; but I can 
detect nothing about them to warrant the suspicion that they are 
specifically distinct. 

921. Lichenophagus sculptipennis. 

Lichenophagus sculptipennis, JVoll, Cat. Can. Col. 367 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Palma, Hierro), in intermediis minus frequens. 

Found in Palma and Hierro, of the Canarian Group, and in 
some respects intermediate (as will be gathered by a reference to its 
diagnosis) between the L. subnodosus and impressicollis. Further 
material must decide whether it can be regarded as an extreme state 



332 



CURCULTONIDiE. 



of either of them ; meanwhile I believe that its recorded distinctions 
(particularly those of sculpture) are quite sufficient to necessitate its 
isolation. At the same time I should add that three examples now 
before me, which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, seem 
to have their elytral punctures (although very large) less enormous 
than is the case in the Palman type. 

922. Lichenophagus impressicollis. 

Lichenophagus impressicollis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 368 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in lauretis humidis editioribus hinc 
inde parum vulgaris. 

A fine Canarian species which I have observed hitherto only in 
the laurel-woods of Teneriffe, where it occurs in damp and shady 
spots of a rather high elevation. Indeed all my specimens were 
obtained on the north-eastern mountains of that island — at Las 
Mercedes, above Taganana, and towards Point Anaga. 



923, Lichenophagus buccatrix. 

Lichenophagus buccatrix, Woll., Append, huj. o^j. 54. 

Habitat Canarienses {Qom.), in locis valde elevatis a DD. Crotch 
parce lectus. 

A large and most singular Canarian Lichenophagus which was 
taken sparingly by the Messrs. Crotch at a high elevation in Gomera, 
by beating plants of Sedum on Monte Fuerte — one of the loftiest 
mountains above Hermigua*. 



(Subfam. XXV. TANYMECIDES.) 

Genus 276. THYLACITES. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. 1. 410 (1824). 



* Somewhat in this position, and probably under the subfamily Cyphides, I 
may allude to a reputed Teneriffan weevil, the Curculio cribrarius of Olivier — 
a rather large species, which Dejean (and, after him, Schonherr, who appears, 
however, never to have examined it) placed in the genus Geonemus. Neverthe- 
less to the latter it clearly does not belong ; and M. Jekel has suggested that it 
has probably much more in common with the South-African group Cafamonus. 
But be this as it may, I feel almost certain that Olivier was mistaken as to 
its habitat, and that the insect, so far from being Teneriffan, is not even a 
Canarian one. For further remarks on this question, as well as for a diagnosis 
of the Curculionid referred to (the original type liaving been lent me by M. 
Chevrolat), vide p. 369 of my Canarian Catalogue. 




CURCULIONIDiE. 333 

924. Thylacites o^besulus. 

Thylacites obesulus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 374 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), rarissimiis ; in aridis submaritimis 
arenosis semel tantum deprehensus. 

A single example, which I took in Lanzarote of the Canarian 
Group, is all that I have yet seen of this distinct Thylacites. It 
was captured on a low sandy ridge, immediately behind the sea- 
beach, about a mile to the south of Arrecife. 

Genus 277. HERPYSTICUS. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 413 (1824). 

925. Herpysticus eremita. 

Curculio eremita, Oliv., Ent. v. 85. 321, tab. 24. f. 383 (1807). 
Herpysticus Isesicollis, Germ., Ins. Spec. i. 413, tab. 2. f. 3 (1824). 

, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 556 (1833). 

eremita, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 72 (1838). 

, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 370 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam., Palma), sub lapidibus in 
aridis praecipue in inferioribus atquc in locis paululum elevatis 
latens. 

A Canarian insect, which is the largest of all the Curculionidce 
hitherto detected in these numerous Atlantic islands. It is likewise 
extremely variable, not only in size but also in the greater or less 
development of its pubescence — which is for the most part barely 
traceable (or even totally obsolete), though sometimes quite distinct, 
and at others elongate and conspicuous, the three states however 
(corresponding to the a, P, and y of my diagnosis) passing into each 
other, apparently, by imperceptible gradations. It is principally in 
Grand Canary that its tendency to become clothed is most evident — 
even the comparatively bald examples in that island being seldom 
entirely free from traces of a slight additional pile, whilst the indi- 
viduals from certain sandy and calcareous spots are often densely 
covered with erect hairs. 

Assuming therefore that none of these (more or less clothed) 
states have any real claim for specific separation, I may add that 
the H. eremita appears to be a common insect throughout the low 
and intermediate altitudes of Grand Canary, TenerifFe, Gomera, and 
Palma ; and wo may be pretty sure that it must exist in Hierro 
likewise, though as yet it does not happen to have been observed 
there. 



334 



CURCULIONID^E. 



926. Herpysticus calvus. 

Herpysticus eremita^ Hart, [nee 0/w.], Geolog. Verhaltn. Lanz. und 

Fuert. 141, 142. 
calvus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 372 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.^ Fuert.), in locis similibiis ac prae- 
cedens. 

Found in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, where it would appear to 
take the place of the H. eremita which is so widely diffused over the 
more central and western parts of the Canarian archipelago. This 
being the case, it is almost impossible to resist the inquiry as to 
whether the calvus may not in reality be but a modification of the 
(essentially variable) eremita peculiar to those two eastern islands. 
Without wishing to record my belief that such is by any means im- 
possible, I will merely add that I have given the reasons, in my 
Canarian Catalogue, why I think it is more likely that the calvus is 
a truly distinct (though nearly allied) species. 

927. Herpysticus oculatus. 
Herpysticus oculatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 373 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in intermediis aridis calcariis degens. 

Observed hitherto only in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group, 
where it occurs beneath stones in dry calcareous spots of interme- 
diate altitudes ; but we may expect to meet with it in Fuerteventura 
likewise. 

The remarks under the preceding species are perhaps equally ap- 
plicable here ; for the H. oculatus bears much the same kind of 
relation to the calvus that the latter does to the eremita. 




(Subfam. XXVI. NAUPACTIDES.) 

Genus 278. SITONA. 
Germar, Ins. Spec. i. 414 (1824). 

928. Sitona gressorins. 

Curculio gressorius, Fab., Ent. Si/st. i. ii. 465 (1792). 
Sitona gressoria, Bridle^ in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 72 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 403 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 119 (1857). 

Sitones gressorius, Id., Cat, Can. Col. 374 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma, 
Hierro), foliis Lupini thermis, Forsk., in intermediis gaudens. 



CURCULIONIDiE. 335 

The S. gressorius of southern Europe is widely spread over these 
Atlantic islands, where it occurs principally at intermediate eleva- 
tions and on the foliage of Lupines {Lupinus thermis). It has been 
taken in Madeira proper, as well as in Teneriffe, Gomera, Palma, 
and Hierro, of the Canarian Group. 

929. Sitona latipennis. 

Sitones latipennis, Schon.y Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 99 (1834). 
Sitona verrucosa?, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col) 72 (1838). 

latipennis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 404 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 119 (1857). 

Sitones latipennis. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 376 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Can., Ten.), folia 
Genistce praesertim scojparice, L., in intermediis editioribusque 
destruens. 

Kather abundant locally at intermediate and lofty altitudes in 
Madeira proper, where it occurs on the foliage of the common 
Broom (Genista scoparia, L.); and I have taken it under similar 
circumstances in Grand Canary and Teneriffe, of the Canarian 
Group. The specimens from the latter islands differ from the Ma- 
deiran ones in having the pile with which their elytra are studded 
usually longer and more erect ; but this is not always the case, and 
I am satisfied that it is a mere geographical tendency of no specific 
signification. The insect is stated by Schonherr to be found in 
Portugal. 

930. Sitona punctiger. 

Sitones punctiger, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. xi. 220 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 376 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus in aridis arenosis 
et calcariis parce degens. 

This large Sitona I have observed hitherto only in Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura, the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, 
where moreover it would appear to be rare. It occurs for the most 
part at low, but occasionally at intermediate altitudes — secreting 
itself beneath stones in sandy and calcareous spots. 

931. Sitona cambricus. 

Sitona cambrica (Kbj/), Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iv. 140 (1831). 
Sitones cribricoUis, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 101 (1834). 
Sitona cambrica, Woll., Ins. Mad. 405 (1854). 



336 



GUKCUHONIDiE. 



Sitona cambrica, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 120 (1857). 
Sitones cambricus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 376 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (Can., Ten.), sub 
lapidibus, passim. 

A European Sitona which is rather common in the east of Madeira 
proper, as well as in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group ; and we 
may be pretty sure that it must occur on the Desertas likewise. In 
the Canaries it is decidedly scarce, the few specimens which I have 
yet seen having been taken by myself in Grand Canary and Teneriffe. 

932. Sitona lineatus. 

Curculio lineatus, Linn., Fna Suec. 183 (1761). 
Sitona lineata, Woll., Ins. Mad. 406 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 120 (1857). 

Sitones lineatus. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 376 (1864). 

J^aJ/toi Maderenses (Mad.,P*^S^^)et Canarienses (Ctm., Ten.,Pahna), 
prajcipue in cultis ; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

This common European insect will most likely be found to be 
universal (or nearly so) throughout these Atlantic islands, where 
very probably it has become established from more northern latitudes. 
It occurs for the most part about corn-lields, and in other cultivated || 
grounds. It is rather abundant in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, 
of the Madeiran Group ; and I have taken it in Grand Canary, Tene- 
riffe, and Palma, of the Canaries. 



933. Sitona humeralis. 

Sitona humeralis {Khy), Steph., Ill Brit. Ent. iv. 138 (1831). 
Sitones promptus, Schdn., Gen. et Spec. Cure. ii. 113 (1834). 
Sitona humeralis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 407 (1854). 

, Id,, Cat. Mad. Col 120 (1857). 

Sitones humeralis, Id., Cat. Can. Col 377 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (ins. o^nnes), ple- 
rumque in aridis calcariis inferioribus late sed parce diffusus. 

Likewise a common European species, and one which is perhaps 
more widely spread over these Atlantic Groups than any of the Sitonce 
hitherto detected. Yet it is nowhere abundant — though with the 
appearance of being more tralj indigenous than any of the remainder, 
except perhaps the punctiger and seriesetosus. It occurs for the most 
part at rather low elevations, and in dry or calcareous spots. I have 
taken it in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, as well as in the whole 
seven islands of the Canarian archipelago. 



CURCULIONID/E. 3^7 

934. Sitona seriesetosus. 

Sitones seriesetosus, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. vi. 277 (1840). 

setiger, Woll., Arm. Nat. Hist. xi. 221 (1863). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 378 (1864). 

seriesetosus, Allard, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. iv. 358 (1865). 



Habitat Canarienses (in Palma sola baud observatus), aridos inferiores 
ubique colons. 

Abundant (cbiefly in dry spots, and at low elevations) througbout 
tbe Canarian Group, wbere we may be quite sure tbat it is universal ; 
for altbough it does not happen to have been observed in Palma, it 
is impossible to doubt that it must exist there — no less than it does 
in the other six islands of the archipelago, in all of which I have 
myself captured it. 

I have not been able to procure a type of the Mediterranean S. 
seriesetosus, for inspection, but in my late Catalogue I called attention 
to several particulars in which the Canarian species differs entirely 
from at any rate Schonherr's diagnosis of the former. As, however, 
I sent examples to M. Allard, and he has identified them with the 
Mediterranean insect, I have suppressed the name of setiger in favour 
of the one which has the priority. Nevertheless I must remark that 
if this Canarian Sitona be positively conspecific with the seriesetosus, 
the published description of the latter is so inaccurate as to be ab- 
solutely worthless. 

M. Allard records the S. seriesetosus (nominally, on my authority) 
as Madeiran ; but this is a mistake, for I expressly mentioned that 
the examples which I gave him were from the Canaries. The insect 
(so far as observed hitherto) does not occur in the Madeiran Group*. 

(Subfam. XXVII. BEACHYDERIDES.) 

Genus 279. BRACHYDERES. 
Schtinherr, Cure. Disp. Meth. 102 (1826). 

935. Brachyderes rugatus. 

Brachyderes rugatus, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. 379 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Palma), ad folia floresqne Pini canariensis in 
pinetis editioribus vulgaris. 

* The Sitona setuliferus of southern Europe and northern Africa was described 
in Schonherr's work from an example in the possession of M. Chevrolat, said to 
have come from " Teneriife," — a habitat yfhich has consequently been again cited, 
by M. Allard, in a late revision of the Sitona. M. Chevrolat having kindly 



338 



CURCULIONID^E. 



Found at a high elevation in Palma, of the Canarian Group, where 
it is attached to the foliage and flower-cones of the Pinus canariensis 
in the ancient Finals. 

936. Brachyderes sculpturatus. 

Brachyderes sculpturatus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 379 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens. 

Likewise Canarian, and found under precisely similar circum- 
stances as the last species — only in Grand Canary and Teneriffe in- 
stead of Palma. This being the case, it is impossible to feel quite 
certain that the Palman insect is more than an insular modification 
of the present one. Yet it undoubtedly possesses characters (though 
perhaps of only slight importance) which immediately separate it 
from the sculpturatus ; and I do not believe, therefore, that we have 
sufficient grounds for assuming it to be a local variety of the latter. 




Genus 280. STROPHOSOMUS. 
(Billberg) Schon., Cure. Disp. Meth. 97 (1826). 

937. Strophosomus coryli. 

Cm-cuHo coryli, Fab., Syst Ent. 148 (1775). 
Strophosomus coryli, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iv. 126 (1831). 
Cneorhinus coryli, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 535 (1833). 
Strophosomus coryli, WolL, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 455 (I860).. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), a Dom. Moniz primum detectus. 

The common European S. coryli was detected by Senhor Moniz, 
near Funchal, in Madeira proper ; and it was captured subsequently 
by the late Mr. Bewicke — " on oaks in flower, at the Mount ; " but 
it has not yet been observed in any of the other islands. It is far 
from unlikely that it may have become established, perhaps recently, 
from more northern latitudes. 



granted me the loan of his type, I was enabled to give a diagnosis of it in a foot- 
note of my Canarian Catalogue ; but I there stated, and now repeat, that I am 
far from satisfied that the species does truly occur in those islands. Geographi- 
cally there is no reason why it should not ; nevertheless as there is not a trace of 
it in the enormous amount of material which has been brought together by various 
naturalists during the last few years, and since it is associated in Chevrolat's col- 
lection with another weevil (the Catamonus ? cribrarius) which I have been com- 
pelled to reject as Canarian, I feel that I have not sufRcient evidence for its ad- 
mission into the fauna, though it seems at all events desirable to notice it as a 
possible member of the Atlantic Coleoptera. 




I 



AGLYCYDERIDiE. 339 

Fam. 53. ANTHRIBID^. 

Genus 281. XENORCHESTES. 
Wollaston, Im. Mad. 417 (1854). 

938. Xenorchestes saltitans. 

Xenorchestea saltitans, Wdl, Im. Mad. 418, tab. viii. f. 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 122 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo in lauretis humidis edi- 
tioribus rarissimus. 

Peculiar to Madeira proper, where it is extremely rare, occurring 
for the most part beneath loosened bark in the damp laurel-woods 
of intermediate and lofty elevations. It is one of the most extra- 
ordinary of the Atlantic Coleoptera, though, in its subsaltatorial 
habits and general structure, it has an evident affinity vrith the Eu- 
ropean genus Ghoraf/us. 

Fam. 54. AGLYCYDERID^. 

Genus 282. AGLYCYDERES. 
Westwood, in Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. clxxix (1863). 

939. Aglycyderes setifer. 

Aglycyderes setifer, Westw., loc. cit. (1863). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 385 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), vel in caulibus Euphorbiarum 
putridis vel sub cortice Ficormn arido laxo hinc inde congregans. 

A most anomalous little beetle which has been taken in the whole 
seven islands of the Canarian archipelago. I feel sure that it is 
attached exclusively to the Euphorbias in at all events its earlier 
states ; though, unlike most of the ^Mj9^or6ia-infesting species, the 
perfect insect is found in various situations — particularly beneath 
the bark of old fig-trees, where I have observed it in profusion. 
But in aU such instances the trees were in the immediate vicinity of 
Euphorbias ; whilst the fact of its having been captured abundantly, 
both by myself and the Messrs. Crotch, actually within the putrid 
stalks of the E. canariensis would go far to establish its mode of life. 
I have met with it in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura (or rather on the 
rock of Lobos, off the extreme north of that island), Grand Canary, 
Teneriffe, and Palma ; whilst in Gomera and Hicrro it was obtained 
by the Messrs. Crotch. 

z2 



340 



BRUCHIDiK. 



Fam. 55. BRUCHID^. 

Genus 283. BRUCHUS. 
Geoffroy, Ins. de Paris, i. 163 (1762). 

940. Bruchus pisi. 

Bruchus pisi, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. ii. 604 (1767). 

, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 57 (1833). 

Fab^ ?, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 71 (1838). 

pisi, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 380 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), in cultis et 
granariis sat vulgaris. 



41 



The European B. pisi is widely spread over these Atlantic Groups, 
where it has doubtless become established from higher latitudes. 
It occurs more particularly in pea-fields, but may be found in cul- 
tivated spots generally — as well as in granaries and about houses. | 
It has been taken in Madeira proper, and in the whole seven islands 
of the Canarian archipelago. 

941. Bruchus rufimanus. 

Bruchus rufimajius, Schon., Gen. et Spec. Cure. i. 58 (1833). 

, Woll, Lis. Mad. 419 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 123 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 381 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), praecipu^ 
cultis. 

A more abundant European Bruchus than the B. pisi, and one 
which has probably (like the latter) become naturalized in these 
Atlantic Groups, from more northern countries. It occurs for the 
most part about houses and cultivated grounds — under which cir- 
cumstances it has been taken in Madeira proper, as well as in the 
whole seven of the Canarian islands. 

942. Bruchus terminatus. 
Bruchus terminatus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 381 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis parce captus. 

Two specimens of this Bruchus were captured by myself in Tene- 
rijffe — on the mountains above S^* Cruz ; and a third is now before 
me, taken (likewise in Teneriffe) by the Messrs. Crotch, which seems 
to differ from my own, merely, in being free from the small, robust, 
upwardly-directed, subbifid spine, or process, at the inner apical 




bruchida:. 341 

angle of its intermediate tibia3. Unless, therefore, this latter example 
be the representative of a distinct species, in all probability it will 
prove to be a female of the B, terminatus — the pair from which my 
diagnosis was drawn up having been males. 

943. Bruchus subellipticus. 

Bruchus subellipticus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 420 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 123 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in domibus granariisque interdum vul- 
garis. 

Found about houses and granaries in Madeira proper, sometimes 
in profusion, being more particularly attached to dried beans. In 
all probability, therefore, it is an introduced species ; nevertheless I 
have not been able to satisfy myself that it is known elsewhere. 

944. Bruchus TeneriffaB. 

Bruchus TenerifFse (Steveti), Scho'n., Gen. et Spec. Cure. v. 106 (1839). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 382 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Palma), floribus Spartii ac Cytisi 
in intermediis et praesertim editioribus gaudens. 

A common (and truly indigenous) Bruchus in the higher altitudes 
of the Canarian Group, where it occurs principally on the blossoms 
of the Cytisus proliferus and the Spartium nubigena. It is found 
likewise in the intermediate districts, though it is far more abun- 
dant from about 7000 to 9000 feet above the sea — in the regions of 
the " Retama." It has been taken in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and 
Palma. 

945. Bruchus lichenicola. 

Bruchus lichenicola, Woll., Ins. Mad. 421, tab. viii. f. 9 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 123 (1857). 

floricola, Id., Cat Can. Col. 383 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (P*^ S*^, Ilheo Chao, Des.) et Canarienses (in 
Palma sola hand observatus), vel ad flores varies vel inter lichenes 
in rupium fissuris crescentes late diffusus. 

This very minute Bruchus is widely spread over these Atlantic 
Groups, where I have little doubt that it wiU be found ultimately to 
be quite universal. It is a truly indigenous species — either occurring 
on flowers, or else secreting itself (particularly during the winter 
season) amongst the masses of lichen which fill up the crevices of 
the exposed weather-beaten rocks at intermediate altitudes. Under 



342 



cerambicidvT:. 



the latter circumstances I have taken it abundantly in Porto Santo 
and on the two northern Desertas, of the Madeiran archipelago ; 
whilst Palma (where, however, we may be quite sure that it exists) is 
the only one of the seven Canarian islands in which it does not happen 
to have been captured. Its detection in Gomera is due to the recent 
researches of the Messrs. Crotch. 

In my last published Catalogue I regarded the Canarian ex- 
amples of this Bruchus as specifically distinct from the Madeiran 
ones ; but a careful inspection of fresh material has since convinced 
me that the very small differential characters on which my diagnosis 
was made to depend are quite insufficient to indicate more than a 
most trifling geographical phasis of the insect — some of them indeed 
being perhaps sexual, rather than specific. But most of the Bruclii 
are so eminently variable, both in size and general development, 
that the only thing to be surprised at is that there should not be a 
greater amount of discrepancy than is really the case between the 
representatives of the B. lichenicola in the two Groups. 

946. Bruclius antennatus. 

Bruchus antennatus, Woll., Cat. Can, Col. 383 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palma), in pinetis editioribus ra- 
rissimus. 

This singularly long-horned Briwhus appears to be confined (so 
far as I have observed hitherto) to the higher altitudes of the Cana- 
rian Group, where it occurs sparingly in the regions occupied by the 
Pinals ; though whether it is positively attached to the fir trees I 
have not sufficient evidence to decide. At any rate, I have taken it 
in Grand Canary, Teneriife, and Palma, — in every instance, either 
amongst or near the Pinus canariensis. 

Fam. 56. CERAMBICID^. 



Genus 284. STROMATIUM. 
Serville, Ann. de la Soc. Ent de France, iii. 80 (1834). 

947. Stromatium unicolor. 

Callidium unicolor, Oliv., Ent iv. 70. 58, pi. 7. f. 84 (1795). 

strepens, Fah., Ent. Syst. v. Suppl. 150 (1798). 

Stromatium unicolor, Woll, Ins. Mad. 423 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 123 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), introductum ; hinc inde in domibus. 



CERAMBlCIDiE. 343 

A Longicorn of Mediterranean latitudes which occurs sparingly 
in and about houses in Madeira proper, where it has doubtless been 
established from more northern countries. 

Genus 285. HYLOTRYPES. 

Serville, loe. eit 77 [script. Hylotrupes] (1834). 

948. Hylotrjrpes bajulus. 

Cerambyx Bajulus, Linn., Fna Suec. 489 (1746). 
CaUidium Bajulus, Bndle, in Webb et BeHh. (Col.) 62 (1838). 
Hylotrupes Bajulus, WolL, Cat. Mad. Col 125 (1857). 
Hylotrypes bajulus. Id., Cat Can. Col. 386 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten.), circa domos in 
oppidis parce occurrens ; certe ex aHenis introductus. 

This widely spread European insect has established itself both at 
the Madeiras and Canaries, in both of which it would however 
appear to be scarce. It occurs in and about the houses of Funchal, 
in Madeira proper ; and I have taken it, in similar situations, at 
S*" Cruz in Teneriffe. 

Genus 286. PHYMATODES. 
Mulsant, Longic. de France, 47 (1840). 

949. Phymatodes variabilis. 

Cerambyx variabilis, Linn., Fna Suec. 669 (1761). 
Phymatodes variabilis, Muls., loc. cit. 47 (1840). 

— "- , WolL, Ins. Mad. 425 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 126 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), sub cortice laxo in castanetis intermediis 
parce latens ; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

Found sparingly in the chestnut-woods of intermediate elevations 
in Madeira proper, where most likely it has been introduced acci- 
dentally from higher latitudes. I have observed it principally at 
S** Anna, in the north of the island. 

Genus 287. BLABINOTUS. 

WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 426 (1854). 

950. Blabinotus spinicollis. 

Blabinotus spinicollis, Wall., Ins. Mad. 426, tab. ix. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 126 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 386 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Oom., Pdlma), sub 
cortice laxo in lauretis humidis editioribus parce latens. 



344 



CERAMBICIDiE. 



A truly indigenous Longicorn both at the Madeiras and Canaries, 
where it occurs in the damp laurel-woods of intermediate and rather 
lofty elevations. It is not uncommon in Madeira proper; and I 
have met with it, beneath the loosened bark of old trees, in Teneriffe 
and Palma, of the Canarian Group ; whilst in Gomera it was found 
by the Messrs. Crotch. 

Genus 288. OXYPLEURUS. 
Mulsant, Longic. de France, 57 (1840). 

951. Oxypleurus Bewickii. 

Blabinotus Bewickii, Woll.j Cat. Mad. Col. 126 (1857). 

Habitat Maderensea {Mad.), rarissimus; sub cortice Pinorum mox 
supra urbem Funchalensem a Dom. Bewicke deprehensus. 

Detected in Madeira proper by the late Mr. Bewicke, who captured 
several examples of it beneath the bark of old pine trees (in his 
garden at the Palmeira) above Funchal. 

952. Oxypleurus pinicola. 

Oxypleurus pinicola, Woll., Journ. of Ent. ii. 102 (1863). 



18 pm: 
-Jd., 



Cat. Can. Col. 386 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses {Palma), in cono quodam Pini canariensis semel 
repertus. 

The only example which I have yet seen of this Oxypleurus was 
taken by myself from the interior of a dried cone of the Pinus canari- 
ensism Palma, of the Canarian Group, where it may probably be looked 
upon as the representative of the Madeiran 0. Bewickii. It is indeed 
closely allied to that species, as well as to the 0. Nodieri of southern 
Europe ; but the characters which distinguish it from them both have 
been fully pointed out in my Canarian Catalogue. 




Genus 289. CRIOCEPHALUS. 
Mulsant, Longic. de France, 63 (1840). 

953. Criocephalus rusticus. 

Cerambyx rusticus, Linn., Fna Suec. 492 (1746). 

CaUidium rusticum, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 62 (1838). 

Criocephalus rusticus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 124 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 387 (1864). 

pinetorum, Id., ibid. 388 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des.) et Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), 
truncos arborum antiques emortuos in pinetis destmens. 



' CERAMBICIDiE. 345 

The European C. rusticus is widely spread over these Atlantic 
Groups, where most likely it will be met with wherever there are 
pine trees. In Madeira proper it may perhaps have originally been 
naturalized from more northern countries, being found in the fir- 
woods of a comparatively recent introduction which clothe large tracts 
of the mountain -slopes towards the east and south of the island ; and 
it seems to have made its appearance even in the fir-plantation which 
has been established within the last few years on the extreme summit 
of the Deserta Grande, whence a specimen has been communicated 
by the Barao do Castello de Paiva. But, on the other hand, it may 
perhaps be truly indigenous to the Canaries, where it abounds in 
the ancient Finals of intermediate and lofty elevations. I have 
taken it in Palma ; and it has been captured by the Messrs. Crotch 
in Teneriff'e and Hierro. 

A more critical comparison of the (immature) specimen, from 
Palma, which I described under the trivial name of pinetorum has 
convinced me that it cannot properly be regarded as distinct from 
the extremely variable C. rusticus.. 

Genus 290. HESPEROPHANES. 
Mulsant, Longic. de France j 66 (1840). 

954. Hesperophanes senex. 

Trichoferus senex, Woll, Ins. Mad. 428, tab. ix. f. 3 (1854). 
Hesperophanes senex, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 127 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 388 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), lignum antiquum 
praecipue in inferioribus destruens. 

Found about old wood in Madeira proper, principally at low ele- 
vations and in cultivated spots ; and a single example of it was ob- 
tained by the Barao do Castello de Paiva from a small, but accurate, 
collection which was made many years ago in Tenerifi'e. Although 
I have no reason to question the authenticity of that particular 
specimen (but quite the reverse), I should add that it embodies all 
the evidence that I yet possess for the occurrence of the H. senex in 
the Canaries. 

955. Hesperophanes roridus. 

Callidium (Hesperophanes) roridum, Bridle, in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 

m, pi. 1. f. 6 (1838). 
Hesperophanes roridus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 389 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. DD. Webb et Berthelot), mihi non obvius. 



346 



CERAMBICID^. 



I know nothing whatever about this insect except that it is figured' 
in the work of MM. Webb and Berthelot, and that the description of 
even M. Brulle is sufiicient to prevent its being identified (at all 
events in both sexes) with any of the other Longicorns here ennme- 
rated. As no single remark of local interest is to be found, from 
beginning to end, in the meagre list of Canarian Coleoptera which 
M. Brulle elaborated for that gigantic History, I am of course un- 
able to state in which of the seven islands the H. roridus is supposed 
to have occurred. But it is far from unlikely that it was captured 
in the town of S** Cruz, in Tenerifie, (one of the most prohfic collect- 
ing-grounds of MM. Webb and Berthelot,) and that it was a mere 
accidental importation from some other country. Judging however 
from M. BruUe's diagnosis, I think it is ^erj prohahle that he has 
regarded two distinct species as sexes of his Callidium roridum, one 
of which might possibly be identical with my JI. senex ; but as I 
could get no sight of his types, when in Paris, I cannot state this 
for certain. 

Genus 291. CLYTUS. 
Fabricius, Syst. Eleu. ii. 345 (1801). 

956. Clyttis arietis. 

Leptura Arietis, Linn., Fna Suec. 695 ri761). 
Clytus Arietis, FaK, Syst. Eleu. ii. 347 (1801). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 429 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 127 (1857). 

HaUtat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus ; forsan ex alienis introductus. 

Two specimens only of this common European Clytus have as yet 
occurred, so far as I am aware, in these Atlantic islands. They were 
both of them taken in Madeira proper — one (many years ago) by 
the late Dr. Heineken, and the other (much more recently) by Mr. 
Bewicke. Having been found near Funchal, it is probable that the 
species (if indeed it be truly established, which I somewhat doubt) 
has become naturalized accidentally from higher latitudes. 

957. Clytus Webbii. 

Clytus 4-punctatus (var.) ?, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 337 (1792). 

Webbii, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 63 (1838). 

Webbei, Gory, Mon. des Clytus, 80 (1841). 

— Webbii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 389 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., sec. Dom. Webb), mihi non obvius. 
As in the case of the Hesperophanes roridus, the occurrence in the 



CERAMBICIDiE. 347 

Canaries of this Clytus (which is probably a mere variety of the com- 
mon European 4:-j)unctatits) rests on the most meagre and unsatis- 
factory evidence. It appears that both Gory and M. Brulle cited it 
as Teneriffan on the authority of a specimen in the collection of Mr. 
Webb, who seems to have so confused its habitat as to have reported 
it both for Madeira and the Canaries. But as I possess the most 
conclusive evidence of Mr. Webb's unpardonable inaccuracy in mix- 
ing up his Madeiran and Canarian material, this perhaps is not to 
be wondered at. My own belief is that the species pertains to neither 
of these Atlantic Groups ; though it is far from unlikely that an 
accidentally imported example may have been captured by Mr. Webb 
in one or the other of them, and afterwards described by Gory as a 
distinct species. And I certain^ should not have admitted the 0. 
Webbii into the present Catalogue at all, had it not already been cited 
as Teneriffan in two separate works*. 

958. Clytus erythrocephalus. 

Callidium erythrocephalum, Fab., JEnt. Syst. i. ii. 335 (1792). 
Clytus erythrocephaius, Id., Syst. Eleu, ii. 350 (1801). 
, Lap. et Gerry, Mon. 20, tab. v. f. 23 (1835). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), k Barone Castello de Paiva 
communicatus. 

It is a most remarkable fact that this strictly North- American 
Clytus should occur in any of these Atlantic Groups — above all, on 
the remote, uninhabited, and almost inaccessible rocks of the Salvages. 
Yet a single example has lately been communicated by the Barao do 
CasteUo de Paiva, who certainly obtained it from the larger (and 
more northern) island — known as the Great Salvage ; and after a 
careful comparison of it with American ones, I can see nothing to 
warrant the suspicion that it is specifically distinct. The small raised 
transverse lines on the disk and posterior region of its prothorax 
differ a little, in shape and development, from those on the ordinary 
type ; but it is so little, and the insect is altogether so well defined, 
that such slight discrepancies are scarcely worth alluding to, and 
afford no evidence whatever of anything approaching to a specific 
character. 

As the existence of this Clytus on the Salvages is a unique fact, 
it must probably be dependent upon something altogether excep- 

* Cf. the remarks on this Clytus at pp. 389 and 390 of my Canarian Cata- 
logue, as also the reasons for rejecting the C. yriseus, which is quoted as Canarian 
by MM. Gory and Brulle. 



348 



LAMIADiE. 



tional; and it seems far from unlikely therefore that the wreck 
of an American vessel upon those dangerous rocks may have been 
the occasion of timbers being cast on shore which were infested by a 
wood-borer so eminently likely to attack recently-sawn planks. At 
least some such solution as this, of a problem otherwise difficult, ap- 
pears to me to be by no means impossible. 

Genus 292. GRACILIA. 
Serville, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 81 (1834). 

959. Gracilia pygmaea. 

Callidium pygmseum, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. ii. 323 (1792). 
Obrium minutum, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. iv. 250 (1831). 
Gracilia pygmaea, Muls., Longic. de France, 103 (1840). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 390 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Gom., Palma), 
prsesertim in vimineis circa domes, hinc inde hand infrequens. 

The European G. pygmcea is widely spread over these Atlantic 
Groups, where in all probability it has become established from 
higher latitudes. It occurs for the most part about houses, or in 
their immediate neighbourhood, and seems to be attached principally 
to different kinds of wicker- or basket-work — on the dry sticks, and 
wood, of which it feeds. It has been found sparingly, around 
Funchal, in Madeira proper, and, more commonly, in Fuerteven- 
tura, Gomera, and Palma, of the Canaries. During my sojourn in 
the last-mentioned island, I took it (at the Souces) emerging from 
its perforations in the sides of some light open trays in which silk- 
worms were being fed. 



Fam. 67. LAMIADJE. 

Genus 293. DEUCALION. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 430 (1854). 

960. Deucalion Desertarum. 

Deucalion Desertarum, WolL, Ins. Mad. 434, tab. ix. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 127 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Des., Bugio), in summis insularum rarissimus. 

This fine Longicom has been detected hitherto only on the extreme 
summits of the two southern Desertas, in the Madeiran Group, where 
it is truly indigenous and of excessive rarity. I have taken it in 




LAM IAD iE. 349 

both of those islands, from under stones and within the fissures of 
the rocks; and on the southern one of them (or Bugio) a single 
specimen was found by the Eev. E.. T. Lowe, whilst a second was 
obtained from it by the Barao do Castello de Paiva. Although the 
few examples as yet brought to light have been captured either 
beneath slabs of stone or in the crevices of the exposed rocks, there 
can be no doubt that the insect is attached in reality to the stalks of 
some of the shrubby plants (perhaps Euphorbias) which grow on 
those remote islands. 

961. Deucalion oceanicus. 

Deucalion oceanicus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 433 (note) (1854). 
, Id., Journ. of Ent \. 90 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. minorem, australem), a Dom. Leacock repertus. 

Several specimens of this noble insect were captured by Mr. T. S. 
Leacock, of Madeira, during 1851, on the southern island of the 
Salvages — known as the '' Great Piton." Although taken under 
stones, we may be pretty sure that their proper habitat must have 
been (as in the case of the Leprosoma gibbum in the Canaries) 
within the rotten stems of some plant — possibly of a Eupborbia or 
Kleinia. 

Genus 294. I.EPROMORIS. 
Pascoe, in Journ. of Ent. ii. 278 (1864). 

962. Lepromoris gibba. 

Leprosoma asperatum, Uef., Cat. 372 (1837). 

Lamia gibba, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 62, pi. i. f. 5 (1838). 

Leprosoma asperatum, Thoins., loc. cit 23 (1860). 

gibbum, Woll, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 178 (1862). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 391 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Ten., Gam., Hierro), truncos Eaphor- 
biarum emortuos destruens. 

Peculiar apparently to the Canarian archipelago, in all the islands 
of which it will most likely be found to exist. I have taken it in 
Fuerteventura and Teneriffe ; in the latter of which, as well as in 
Gomera and Hierro, it was captured by the Messrs. Crotch. It is 
attached exclusively to the Euphorbias, and occurs for the most part 
at intermediate altitudes. The generic title of Leprosoma (under 
wliich it was described by M. Thomson in 1860) having been pre- 
occupied by Baerensprung, I have been compelled to adopt the one 
which was proposed for it subsequently by Mr. Pascoe. 



350 



LAMIAD^. 



Genus 295. POGONOCHERUS. 

(Megerle) Steph., ///. Brit Bnt. iv. 233 (1831). 

963. Pogonocherus hispidus. 

Cerambyx hispidus, Linn., Fna Suec. 484 (1761). 
Pogonocherus nispidus, Staph., loc. cit. 234 (1831). 

, Muls., Longic. de France, 159 (1840). 

, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 128 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissimus; forsan ex Europa intro- 
ductus. 

Of this European insect I have seen hitherto but three specimens 
from these Atlantic islands. They were all taken in Madeira proper 
— two of them by Mr. Mason (I believe near Funchal), and the third 
by the late Mr. Bewicke (off a myrtle on the summit of the Cabo 
Giram). It is not unlikely that the species may have been natu- 
ralized accidentally from some more northern country. 

Genus 296. STENIDEA. 
Mulsant, Coleopt. de France {Lamell. Suppl.) (1842). 

964. Stenidea annulicornis. 

Cerambyx annulicornis, Brulle, in W. et B. {Col.) 62, pi. 1. f. 3 (1838). 
Blabinotus annuHcornis, Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 179 (1862). 
Stenidea annulicornis. Id., Journ. of Ent. ii. 108 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 391 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam., Hierro), sub cortice Eivpliorhiarum 
laxo emortuo latens. 

A Canarian Longicorn which seems to be attached to the dead 
Euphorbias, at low and intermediate altitudes, beneath the loose 
bark of which it is locally far from uncommon. It will probably be 
found universally throughout the Group, though hitherto it has been 
observed only in Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro. I have taken it in 
the first and third of those islands, and it was captured in the whole 
three of them by the Messrs. Crotch. 

965. Stenidea albida. 

Cerambyx albidus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 62, pi. 1. f. 4 (1838). 
Blabinotus albidus, Woll., Trans. Ent. Soc. Bond. i. 180 (1862). 
Stenidea albida^ Id., Journ. of Ent. ii. 109 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Cot. 392 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.y Ten., Gom., Hierro?), in locis 
similibus ac prfecedens. 




LAMIAD^. 351 

Likewise Canarian, and of Ewphorbia-intestmg habits. Indeed it 
occurs in exactly the same kind of places as the last species (to which 
it is closely alhed), and often in company with it. It will doubtless 
be found universally throughout the Group, though hitherto it does 
not happen to have been observed in either Grand Canary or Palma ; 
but we may be pretty sure that it exists there, as it does in the 
remaining five islands. I have captured it in Lanzarote, Fuerte- 
ventura, and Teneriife ; and it was taken by the Messrs. Crotch in 
Gomera and Hierro *. 

966. Stenidea pilosa. 

Blabinotus pilosus, Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 181 (1862). 
Stenidea pilosa, Id., Journ. of Eni. ii. 109 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 392 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in Ewphorbiis emortuis rarissima. 

The few examples which I have seen of this Canarian Stenidea, 
which I believe to be likewise attached to the Euphorbias, were 
taken by Mr. Gray and myself in Lanzarote. In a paper on Euphor- 
bian Coleoptera, I cited this and the two preceding species as Bla- 
binoti ; but their deflexed heads and more deeply emarginate eyes, 
added to their apicaUy acute (instead of securiform) palpi, and their 
much longer antennae, assign them (equally with the following one) 
to a different section of the Longicorns. 

967. Stenidea Hesperus. 

Stenidea Hesperus, Woll., Journ. of Ent. ii. 110 (1863). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 392 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Hierro), super folia Rumicis lunarice semel lecta. 

Hitherto unique, a single example having been captured by my- 
self in Hierro, the most western island of the Canarian Group. It 
was beaten from a bush of the Rumex lunaria, at a low elevation 
(scarcely indeed above the sea-level), on the ascent from Port Hierro 
to Yalverde ; but whether it was in any way dependent on that 
plant, or whether its presence there was merely accidental, I am of 
course unable to decide. But, judging from analogy, I vshould sus- 
pect, rather, that the species is of Euphorbia-inie^ivci^ habits. 

* I have queried the existence of the S. albida in Hierro, because a series of 
specimens now before me which were taken by the Messrs. Crotch in that island 
have their distinctive characters (which consist chiefly in the colour and arrange- 
ment of their clothing) so completely obliterated, through their having been pre- 
served in alcohol and glycerine, that it is next to impossible to decide absolutely 

. to which of these two closely-allied Stenidece some of them pertain. I feel almost 

. certain, however, that both species are represented. 



352 



CRIOCERID^. 



Genus 297. AGAPANTHIA. 
Serville, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France^ iv. 35 (1835). 

968. Agapanthia cardui. 

Cerambyx cardui, Linn., Syst. Nat. (edit. 12) i. 632 (1767). 
Saperda suturalis, Fab., St/st. Eleu. ii. 326 (1801). 
Leptura suturalis, Br-idle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 63 (1838). 
Agapanthia cardui, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 393 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palma), praecipue ad flores cardu- 
orum tempore vernali in intermediis occurrens. 

The A, cardui, of southern Europe and northern Africa, occurs 
in the Canarian Group — where it is widely diffused, although no- 
where very abundant. It is found at intermediate elevations, prin- 
cipally on the flowers of Thistles ; and it has been captured in Grand 
Canary, Teneriffe, and Palma. 



Fam. 58. CRIOCERID.ZE. 

Genus 298. LEMA. 
Fabricius, Ent. Syst. v. Suppl. 90 (1798). 

969. Lema melanopa. 

Chrysomela melanopa, Linn., Fna Suec. 573 (1761). 
Lema melanopa. Bridle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 74 (1838). 

, Woll, Lis. Mad. 4-36 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 129 (1857). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 393 (1864). 

, Hartung, Geolog. Vei-hdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S*^, Des.), Salvages (ins. majorem, 
borealem), et Canarienses (ins. omnes), prsecipue in cultis vulga- 
tissima ; forsan ex Europa introducta. 



This common European insect abounds throughout these Atlantic 
Groups, where we may feel tolerably sure that it is universal. It 
has been found in aU the Madeiran islands except the northern and 
southern Desertas, and in the whole seven of the Canarian archi- 
pelago ; and a specimen has been obtained, by the Barao do Castello 
de Paiva, even from the Great Salvage. Yet, although thus general, 
I have little doubt that it has become established from more northern 
countries ; for it is a remarkable fact that many of the species which 
are met with in the greatest profusion, and at nearly every altitude, 
are the most unmistakeably naturalized. It occurs chiefly in cultivated 
spots, particularly corn-fields, at low and intermediate elevations. 



vi 



EUMOLPID.E. 353 

Genus 299. CRIOCERIS. 
Geoffroy, Ins. des Env, de Paris, i. 237 (1764). 

970. Crioceris asparagi. 

Chrysomela asparagi, Linn., Fna Suec. 567 (1761). 
Crioceris asparaofi, Fah., Ent. Si/st i. ii. 10 (1792). 

, Woli:, Ins. Mad. 437 (1854). 

^ Id, Cat. Mad. Col. 129 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), in cultis rarissima ; forsan ex Europa 
introducta. 

I am doubtful whether this common European Crioceris should 
any longer be included in the fauna of these Atlantic islands, — two 
specimens, which were taken many years ago (near Funchal) in 
Madeira proper by the late Dr. Heineken, embodying the entire 
evidence, up to the present date, on which its claim for admission 
rests. Still, as it has already been published as Madeiran, and since 
it is certainly possible that it may be found to occur even on the 
indigenous species of Asparagus, I will not venture to suppress it. 

971. Crioceris nigropicta. 

Crioceris nigropicta, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. 394 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), rarissima; ad folia Arundinis donacis 
in intermediis parcissime deprehensa. 

An extremely rare, and most elegant, species which I have ob- 
served hitherto only in Grand Canary, — where I obtained four 
examples of it off some plants of the Aru7ido donax, at Mogan, in a 
Barranco towards the south-west of that island. 



Fam. 59. EUMOLPID^. 

Genus 300. PSEUDOCOLASPIS. 
Laporte, Hist. Nat. des Ins. Col. ii. 514 (1840). 

§ I. Scutellum subsemicirculare. 

972. Pseudocolaspis divisa. 

Pseudocolaspis divisa, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 394 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz.), sub lapidibus in aridis rarissima. 

Observed hitherto only in the extreme north of Lanzarote, of the 

2a 



354 



EUMOLPID^E. 



Canarian Group, — where it occurs (though very sparingly) on the 
dry rocky ground at the base of the Risco, immediately behind the 
Salinas. 

§ II, Scutellum subquadratum, 

973. Pseudocolaspis dubia. 

Pseudocolaspis dubia, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 395 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fiiert.), in intermediis rarissima. 

The only three specimens which I have seen of this Canarian 
Pseudocolaspis were taken by myself in the Rio Palmas, of Fuerte- 
ventura. 

974. Pseudocolaspis splendidula. 

Pseudocolaspis splendidula, Woll.j Ann. Nat, Hist. ix. 442 (1862). 
, Id. J Cat. Can. Col. 395 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palma, Hierro), in inferioribus in- 
termediisque occurrens. 

Widely spread over the Canarian Group, where we may be pretty 
sure that it occurs in all the islands except perhaps the two eastern 
ones. It is found for the most part in hot sunny spots of low and 
intermediate elevations (especially the former), frequenting the foliage 
of various shrubs. I have taken it abundantly in the south of Grand 
Canary, particularly in the sandy tract at Maspalomas (and, to a 
certain distance, on the mountains which rise gradually to the north 
of it), and likewise in the Barranco above S** Cruz of Palma. In 
Hierro it was captured by Mr. Gray — almost at the sea-level, on the 
ascent to Yalverde from Port Hierro ; and in Teneriife it was beaten 
in profusion by Mr. G. R. Crotch off a Nectarine-tree, between 
Matanza and the Yilla of Orotava. 




975. Pseudocolaspis obscuripes. 

Pseudocolaspis obscuripes, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 441 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 396 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), ad flores Cistorum in montibus excelsis sat 
copiose deprehensa. 

Found at a high elevation in the mountains of Grand Canary, 
where I captured it on Cis^its-blossoms in a lofty Pinal of the central 
district of Tarajana. It is closely allied to the splendidula; but, 
apart from its different habits and range, it may be known from that 
species by its obscurer surface (even the limbs, with the exception of 



C-RYPTOCEPHALID.'E. 355 

the second antennal joint, being of a metallic black), by its somewhat 
narrower tibiae, and by the short silverj- pile of its elytra being rather 
more evidently arranged in longitudinal rows*. 



Fam. 60. CRYPTOCEPHALID^. 

Genus 301. CRYPTOCEPHALUS. 
GeofFroy, Hist. Ahr. des Ins. de Paris, i. 232 (1762). 

976. Cryptocephalus crenatus. 

Cryptocephalus crenatus, WolL, Lis. 3fad. 456 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 135 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), hinc inde in graminosis herbidisque in- 
termediis. 

Detected hitherto only in Madeira proper, where it occurs spa- 
ringly (in grassy places, and amongst dense herbage) at intermediate 
altitudes. 

977. Cryptocephalus nitidicoUis. 

Cryptocephalus nitidicoUis, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. 397 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), late sed parce diffusus. Ab era 
maritima usque ad 9000' s. m., ascendit. 

* The " Colaspis barhara, Fab." { = Colapkus ater, Oliv., of the more modern 
and correct catalogues), is admitted by M. Brull^ into the meagre Ust of Canarian 
Coleoptera which he compiled from the material of MM. Webb and Berthelot ; 
and I think therefore that it should at all events be noted in the present place — 
which is its proper one in a natural system. Although there is no reason (since 
it is an insect of Mediterranean latitudes) why it should not occur at the Canaries 
— beyond the fact of its not having been brought to hght amongst the enormous 
mass of specimens which have been collected (by myself, Mr. Gray, the Messrs. 
Crotch, and other naturalists) during the last few years in that archipelago — I 
nevertheless cannot admit it into the fauna without some kind of evidence beyond 
that which is supplied by M. Brull^ having merely inserted it (unaccompanied by a 
word of information) into a short list which is only remarkable for its unparaUeled 
inaccuracy and its total silence on every single point of local or scientific interest. 
And this course seems to be the more necessary on account of several other species 
(such as the Erodits europceus, the Akis acuminata, the Cicindela nilotica, &c.), 
on which I have already had occasion to comment, being in a similar predica- 
ment, and with every appearance of being mere importations from the African 
coast. Moreover a simple li^t affords us no possible guarantee that the indivi- 
dual (on the strength of which we may suppose that he admitted the G. harhara 
into the fauna) was ever correctly identified by M. Brulle ; whilst, judging from 
the almost incredible proportion which are wrongly determined, amongst the 
very few species which his catalogue contains, there is more than an average pro- 
bability that the (so-called) '^Colaspis harhara''^ which he there records was in 
reality something entirely different. So that, until further evidence has been 
obtained, it is impossible that I can safely regard the insect in question as a 
Canarian one. 

2 a2 



356 



CHRYSOMELIDiE. 



Universal, though by no means abundant, throughout the Cana- 
rian archipelago, — in the whole seven islands of which it has been 
captured, occurring from the sea-level to an altitude of about 9000 
feet. In the higher elevations it varies a good deal in colour — its 
limbs, and the obscurer portions of its surface, becoming at times 
nearly black. This is particularly the case with many of the speci- 
mens which I have taken off the blossoms of the Retama, on the 
upland Cumbres of Teneriffe. 

978. Crjrptocephalus puncticollis. 

Cryptocephalus puncticollis, Woll., Cat Can. Col. 398 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.^ Oom.y Palma, Hierro), in intermediis parce 
degens. 

Likewise Canarian, but perhaps somewhat scarcer than the last 
species, occurring at intermediate altitudes. I have taken it in Tene- 
riffe, Palma, and Hierro ; and it was found by the Messrs. Crotch 
(" above Hermigua, towards the Valle Hermoso ") in Gomera. 

Genus 302. STYLOSOMUS. 

Suffrian, in Linn. Ent. iii. 146 (1848). 

979. Stylosomus biplagiatus. 

Stylosomus biplagiatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 399 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses (^Fuert.), ad folia Tainaricis galliccein. intermediis 
deprehensus. 

The present Canarian Stylosomus, which appears to be quite dis- 
tinct from the European S. tamarisci, I took rather abundantly in 
Fuerteventura — off shrubs of the Tamarix gallica, in the Eio Palmas ; 
but it has not yet been observed elsewhere. 



Fam. 61. CHRYSOMELID^. 

Genus 303. CHRYSOMELA. 

Linnseus, Syst. Nat. edit. 1. (1735). 

980. Chrysomela sanguinolenta. 

Chrysomela sanguinolenta, Linn., Fna Suec. 165 (1761). 

sanguiiiea, BrulU, in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 73 (1838). 

lucidicollis?, Kust. Kdf. Eur op. ii. 73 (1844). 



CHRYSOMELID^. 



357 



Chrysomela sanguinolenta, Hart, Geolog. VerMltn, Lanz, und FueH. 

141, 142. 
_, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 399 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (in Gom. sola baud observata), plerumque in 
subinferioribus occurrens. 

Doubtless universal tbroughout tbe Canarian Group, in all the 
islands of which it has been taken exce]3t Gomera — where, never- 
theless, we may be pretty sure that it exists. It appears to be 
tolerably common in the more eastern islands (occurring principally 
at rather low elevations), and to become scarcer as we approach the 
western ones. Its detection in Hierro is due to the late researches 
of the Messrs. Crotch. 

The Canarian examples differ a little from the ordinary European 
type, and may perhaps be referable to the C. lucidicollis of Kiister ; 
but as the latter is acknowledged to be a mere variety of the sangui- 
nolenta, there is no reason for suspecting that the Canarian form is 
specifically distinct. 

981. Chrysomela regalis. 

Chrysomela bicolor, Fab. [nee Linn.'], Syst. Ent 95 (1775). 

regalis, Oliv., Ent. v. 91. 538, tab. vii. f 98 (1807). 

canariensis, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. {Col) 73 (1838). 

regalis. Hart, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert 141. 

bicolor, Woll, Cat Can. Col. 400 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), sub lapidibus in inferi- 
oribus intermediisque minus frequens. 

The C. regalis of Mediterranean latitudes occurs, though locally, 
in at any rate the eastern portion of the Canarian Group ; but it has 
not yet been observed in the central and western islands. It has 
been taken in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary — 
occurring beneath stones, principally at rather low elevations*. 

982. Chrysomela obsoleta. 

Chrysomela obsoleta, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 73 (1838). 

, Hart, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 

, Woll., Cat Can. Col. 401 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Te^i., Gom.?), praecipue in sylvaticis editioribus. 

* I have indeed received the C. regalis from Paris with the label " Teneriffe " 
attached to it ; but as it appears to be a custom of certain continental entomo- 
logists to cite all Canarian insects as Teneriffan when fliey do not know the iwe- 
else hahituf, and since species undoubtedly from Lanzarote have been communi- 
cated at the same time, bearing this universal appendage, I do not consider the 
evidence afforded by a label of that kind as worth notice. 



358 



CHRYSOMELID^. 



A Canarian Chrysomela which is widely spread over the inter- 
mediate and rather lofty elevations of TenerifFe, where it occurs 
principally in sylvan spots. I have not myself detected it in any of 
the other islands ; but a single example was communicated by Dr. 
Crotch, obtained (as he believes) in Gomera during his first sojourn 
there in 1862. 

M. Hartung cites the C. ohsoleta as found in Lanzarote; but I 
have not the slightest hesitation in regarding this habitat as erro- 
neous — the species being emphatically a sylvan one and confined 
to the central portion of the archipelago. The mistake must 
undoubtedly have arisen from his having failed to take sufiicient 
precautions against the after-intermixture of the material which he 
collected in the various islands, — a fact on which I have already 
been compelled to comment, in the case of several insects concerning 
the localities of which there could be no room for question. It is a 
grievous misfortune for the subject of topographical distribution 
when travellers omit to take that amount of care in the separation 
of their specimens which can alone enable them, afterwards, to 
report faithfully on the exact districts in which the latter were found. 

983. Chrysomela fortunata. 
Chrysomela fortunata, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 402 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Palma), in montibus semel capta. 

A single example of this Chrysomela, taken by myself in Palma 
of the Canarian Group (on the mountains above S*^ Cruz), embodies 
all that I know about the species of which it is the exponent. I 
scarcely think that it can represent any insular phasis of the obsoleta ; 
nevertheless until further material has been obtained for inspection 
it would be unsafe to regard its diagnosis as satisfactorily established. 



984. Chrysomela rutUans. 

Chrysomela rutilans, Wall, Cat. Can. Col. .402 (1864). 
Habitat Oananenses (Gom.)y rarissima. 



A noble Canarian species which has been found hitherto only in 
Gomera. It was taken by Mr. Gray and myself in the Barranco 
above San Sebastian, and recently in greater abundance by the 
Messrs. Crotch. Its large size, and brassy, unalutaceous, brilliant 
surface, added to its subquadrate and considerably developed protho- 
rax (which is very deeply impressed on either side), will at once 
abundantly distinguish it. 




i 




CHRYSOMELIDiE. 359 

985. Chrysomela gemina. 

Chrvsomela gemina et nitens, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 73, 74 

(1838). 
, WoU.,Cat. Can. Col. 403 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom., Palma), in inferioribus interme- 
diisque sat vulgaris. 

Likewise a Canarian Chrysomela^ and perhaps the commonest of 
the species hitherto detected — even whilst not the most widely- 
spread. I have taken it in Teneriffe and Palma ; and it was found 
in Gomera by the Messrs. Crotch. It attaches itself to various 
plants. Thus, in Teneriffe, it was captured abundantly by Mr. Gray 
and myself upon the Lavandula abrotanoides, near the Puerto Oro- 
tava ; and I subsequently met with a bush of Bystropogon, above 
Taganana, literally sparkling with it, — a fact of which I have seen 
the exact counterpart at Madeira, in the case of the C. onychina. 
And near S^ Cruz I have observed it congregating around the roots 
of the Euphorbias. 

The prothorax of the present Chrysomela is usually quite entire ; 
but sometimes there are faint indications of a longitudinal depression 
towards either side, which in rare instances is exaggerated so as to 
become quite conspicuous. Nevertheless the two forms graduate 
into each other so completely that I am satisfied there is no indi- 
cation of a second species amongst the large mass of material which 
I have examined, from various altitudes and three different islands. 
Yet I have little doubt that M. BruUe's C. gemina and nitens were 
founded on an extreme example (or examples) of these particular 
states. Most of the (few) Gomeran and Palman individuals now 
before me have the sides of their prothorax more evidently impressed 
than the ordinary Teneriffan ones ; but in one or two the impression 
is obsolete, whilst occasional specimens even from Teneriffe have it 
pretty strongly expressed. 

986. Chrysomela onychina. 

Chiysomela Fragarise, WolL, Ins. Mad. 458, tab. ix. f. 7 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 135 (1857). 

onychina. Id., Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 459 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis subeditioribus plantas pras- 
sertim Bystropogonis punctati, Herit., destruens. 

A most remarkable Chrysomela which appears to be peculiar to 
the damp sylvan districts of Madeira proper, where, however, it is 



860 V^V CHRYSOMELIDiE. 

extremely scarce. It is much attached to the foliage of the Bystro- 
j^ogon punctatus, Herit., — bushes of which I have (on one or two 
occasions), at the Eibeiro Prio, seen absolutely glittering with it. 

Genus 304. GASTROPHYSA. ~ 

(Chevrolat) Redt., Fna Austr. 653 (1849). 

987. Gastrophysa polygoni. 

Chrvsomela Polvgoni, Linn., Fna Suec. 520 (1761). 
Gastrophysa Polygoni, Redi, op. cit. 553 (1849), 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 459 (1854). 

,Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 135 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. Heineken semel deprehensa. 

I am very doubtful whether I ought still to admit this common 
European insect into our Catalogue, — a single example, taken many 
years ago in Madeira proper by the late Dr. Heineken, being the 
only one (so far as I am aware) that has hitherto occurred in these 
Atlantic islands. In all probability, therefore, that specimen was 
a mere accidental introduction from more northern latitudes. 

Genus 305. PH-ffilDON. 

(Megerle) in Dahl, Cat. 74 (1823). 

988. Phsedon menthsB. 

Chrysomela rufipes ?, Brulle [nee De Geer], in Webb et BeHh. (Col. 

74 (1838). 
Phffidon menth^, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 404 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), foliis Menthw in humidis intermediis 
gaudens. 

Hitherto I have observed this Phcedon only in Grand Canary, — 
where it is locally abundant, at intermediate elevations and in watery 
spots, on the foliage of a large Mentha. 

Genus 306. PHRATORA. 
(Chevrolat) Redt, Fna Austr. 554 (1849). 

989. Phratora vulgatissima. 

Chrysomela vulgatissima, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. ii. 589 (1767). 

, Dufts., Fna Austr. iii. 210 (1825). 

Phaedon unicolor, Steph., III. Brit. Fnt. iv. 336 (1831). 
Phratora vulgatissima, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 405 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), a W. D. Crotch semel capta. 




HALTICIDiE. 361 

Of this common European insect I have seen as yet but a single 
example from these Atlantic islands. It was taken by Dr. Crotch, 
during the spring of 1862, in Palma of the Canarian Group. 

Genus 307. MNIOPHILOSOMA. 
WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 453 (1854). 

990. Mniophilosoma Iseve. 

Mniophilosoma laeve, WolL, Ins. Mad, 454, tab. ix. f. 8 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. 3Iad. Col. 135 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), praecipue inter muscos ad truncos arbo- 
rum crescentes in lauretis editioribus baud infrequens. 

Peculiar apparently to the higher elevations of Madeira proper, 
where it is far from uncommon amongst moss — whether growing on 
the trunks of trees or on rocks. 



Fam. 62. GALLERUCID^. 

Genus 308. CALOMICEUS. 
(Dillwyn) Staph., HI. Brit. Ent. iv. 293 (1831). 

991. Calomicms Wollastoni. 

Calomicrus Wollastoni, Paiva, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 210 (1861). 
, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 405 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten,, Gam., Palma, Hierro), ad ilores varies 
praesertim Cistorum in intermediis editioribusque occurrens. 

This pallid CalomicriLS would appear to be essentially Canarian, 
occurring on various flowers and for the most part at rather lofty 
altitudes. It has been taken in Teneriffe, Gomera, Palma, and 
Hierro. I have usually met with it on the blossoms of the Cistus 
vagans and monspeliensis ; but Mr. G. E. Crotch obtained it in 
Gomera " by sweeping potatoe-plants in the laurel-region." 



Fam. 63. HALTICID^. 

Genus 309. HALTICA. 
Geofiroy, Hist. Ahr. des Ins. i. 244 [script. Altica] (1762). 



362 



HALTICID^. 



(Subgenus Crepidodera, Uliev.) 

992. Haltica AUardu. 

Haltica AUardii, Woll, Joum. ofEnt i. 1 (1860). 

Crepidodera AUardii, All, Atm. de la Soc. Ent. cle France, 312 (18G1). 

Haltica AUardii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 406 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), foliis Physalidis aristatce in apricis infe- 
rioribus gaudens. 

A Canarian JIaltica which I have observed hitherto only in the 
north of TenerifFe — in hot cindery spots of a low elevation around 
the Puerto Orotava. It is closely aUied to the European H. atropce, 
and is attached to the foUage of the Physalis aristata — a shrub 
intimately related to the Atropa belladonna, on which its more 
northern representative exclusively subsists. 

993. Haltica ventralis. 

Haltica ventralis, UUg., Mag. fur Ent. vi. 58 (1807). 

SalicarisB, Woll. [nee Payk.'], Ins. Mad. 442 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. 3Iad. Col 131 (1857). 

Crepidodera ventralis, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France 54 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S*^), in inferioribus baud infrequens. 

The European H. ventralis occurs at low elevations in Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group — being rather scarce 
in the former island, but tolerably common in the latter. 

994. Haltica lubrica. 
Haltica lubrica, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 406 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a W. D. Crotch semel deprehensa. 

A single specimen of this Haltica was taken by Dr. Crotch in 
TenerifFe, during his first Canarian campaign (in the spring of 1862). 
The many characters which distinguish it from the ventralis, to 
which it is aUied, have been fully pointed out in my diagnosis. 

(Subgenus Phyllotreta, Chev.) 

995. Haltica procera. 

Haltica procera, Pedt., Fna Austr. 532 (1849). 

subtihs, Woll, Ins. Mad. 441 (1854). 

, M, Cat. Mad. Col 131 (1857). 

Phyllotreta procera, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 378 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^., Des.), hinc inde, prascipuc in 
cultis subinferioribus. 





HALTICID^. 363 

A species of southern Europe which occurs sparingly in the Ma- 
deiran Group — having been captured in Madeira proper, Porto 
Santo, and the Deserta Grande. It is found for the most part at 
rather low elevations and in cultivated spots, and may perhaps have 
become established from more northern latitudes. 

996. Haltica varlipemiis. 

Haltica variipennis, Boield.,Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France 477 (1859). 
Phyllotreta varians, Foudr.j Altisides, 248 (1860). 

variipennis, AIL, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France^ 385 (1860). 

Haltica variipennis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 407 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), 4 W. D. Crotch semel lecta. 

The only specimen of this Haltica which I have yet seen from 
these Atlantic islands was captured by Dr. Crotch in TenerifFe, 
during his first expedition to the Canaries (in 1862). It is a species 
of Mediterranean latitudes. 

(Subgenus Aphthona, CJiev.) 

997. Haltica Paivana. 

Haltica Paivana, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 2 ((I860). 
Aphthona Paivana, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 333 (1861). 
Haltica Paivana, Woll, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 182 (1862). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 407 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (iianz., Can., Ten., Gam., Hierro), folia, EupTwr" 
biarum destruens. 

Attached to the foliage of the various Euphorbias in the Cana- 
rian Group, where we may be pretty sure that it is universal — 
Fuerteventura and Palma being the only islands of the seven in 
which it does not happen to have been detected. Its occurrence in 
Gomera is on the authority of the Messrs. Crotch. Although local, 
it is found at nearly all elevations — in most of the districts which 
are occupied by the Euphorbias. The species was named after the 
Barao do CasteUo de Paiva, to whose researches I have on several 
occasions been much indebted for additions to the Atlantic fauna. 

998. Haltica plenifrons. 
Haltica plenifrons, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 408 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Palma), a W. D. Crotch semel capta. 

Hitherto I have seen but a single example of this fine Canarian 



364 



HALTICID^. 



Haltica, 
of 1862. 



It was taken by Dr. Crotch in Palma, during the spring 



999. Haltica crassipes. 

Haltica crassipes, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 3 (1860). 

Aphthona crassipes, All., Ann, de la Soc. Ent. de France, 331 (1861). 

Haltica crassipes, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 408 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), foliis Sempervivi 
et Sedi in intermediis editioribusque gaudens. 

A Canarian species, which appears to be attached more parti- 
cularly to the plants of ^empervivum and Sedum which grow on the 
rocks at intermediate and lofty elevations. I have taken it in Tene- 
riffe and Palma, and examples are now before me which were cap- 
tured by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera and Hierro, 



Genus 310. LONGITARSUS. 

Latreille, Fam. Nat des Ins. 405 [script. Longitarse] (1825). 

1000. Longitarsus cinerariae. 

Longitarsus Cinerariae, Woll., Ins. Mad. 44A, tab. ix. f. 6 (1854). 
-, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 131 (1857). 



consangiiineus, Id., ibid. 132 (1857). 



Teinodactyla Cinerariae, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent.de France, SIG (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), plantas Cinerarice auritce, Herit. ( = 
Senecionis maderensis, DC), in editioribus crescentes colens. 

A singular and very beautiful Longitarsus, which has been ob- 
served only in the higher altitudes of Madeira proper— -where it is 
locally abundant on the flowers and foliage of the Cineraria aurita, 
the purple clusters of which are often so conspicuous within the 
damp sylvan regions. Although generally a constant species, it 
varies a little in certain districts— so that all the legs, and even the 
^pex of the elytra, are sometimes pale. That particular form I 
described in my Madeiran Catalogue under the trivial name of con- 
sanguineus ; but I have since satisfied myself that it is a mere 
variety, passing into the typical state gradually and completely. 



1001. Longitarsus ecMi. 

Haltica Echii, Illig., Mag. fur Ins. vi. 171 (1807). 
Longitarsus excurvus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col 133 (1867). 
Teinodactyla Echii, All, Ami. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 00 (1860) 
Longitarsus echii, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 415 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^o S*^) et Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gom., 
Palma), in foliis Echiorum degens. 



I 



i 



HALTICID^. 365 

This European species is widely spread over these Atlantic islands, 
where it occurs on the leaves of EcJiivm (particularly the E. violaceum, 
L.) at intermediate elevations. It has been found in Madeira proper 
and Porto Santo (by the late Messrs. F. A. Anderson and Bewicke, 
respectively), and in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, and Palma 
of the Canarian Group. 

1002. Longitarsus fuscoseneus. 

Longitargus fuscoaeneus, Hedt, Fna Austr. 535 (1849). 
Teinodactyla i\\QQ.o?ene?ijAll.,Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 92 (1860). 
Longitarsus fuscoa^neus, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col. 415(1864). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. major em, borealem) et Canarienses {Fuert., 
Ten.) in locis similibus ac praBcedens. 

Likewise a European Longitarsus, and one which has precisely 
the same habits as the last species — wdth which indeed it is often 
found in company. It has been obtained from the Great Salvage 
by the Barao do Castello de Paiva ; and it has been captured (upon 
the Echium viohceum) in the Canarian islands of Fuerteventura and 
Teneriffe. 

1003. Longitarsus Masoni. 

Longitarsus Isoplexidis*, TVoll, Ins. Mad. 443, tab. ix. f. 4 (1854). 

— — - Masoni, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 131 (1857). 

Teinodactyla Masoni, All., Ann^de la Soc. F?it. de France, 318 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), foliis Echii candicantls, L. fil., in sub- 
editioribus gaudens. 

A noble Longitarsus which is peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) 
to the intermediate and lofty elevations of Madeira proper, where it 
is attached to the robust leaves of the gigantic Echium candicans' — 
the large shrubs of which form so marked a feature on the damp 
rocks — principally within the sylvan districts. 

1004. Longitarsus persimilis. 

Longitarsus persimihs, WoU.,Joum. of Ent. i. 4 (1860). 
Teinodactyla persimihs, AU., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. 319 (1861). 
Longitarsus persimilis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 409 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Hierro), folia Echiorum praesertim E. 
simplicis in subeditioribus destruens. 

Strictly the representative in the Canaries of the Madeiran L. 

* For the reason which compelled me to alter the specific title of this insect, 
see the note at p. 131 of my Madeiran Catalogue. 



366 



HALTICID^. 



Masoni, of which indeed (despite its many constant points of dissimi- 
larity) I cannot feel altogether certain that it may not be an extreme 
insular modification. Like that insect it occurs at intermediate and 
rather lofty altitudes, and seems to be attached to the various Echia 
— ^particularly a large species (perhaps the simplex) which is closely 
related to the gigantic E. candicans, of Madeira, on which the L. 
Masoni subsists. I have however observed it, likewise, at any rate 
in Hierro, on the foliage of the common E. violaceum. The L. per- 
similis has been captured, as yet, only in Teneriffe and Hierro ; but 
we may expect it to be found more generally distributed. 



1005. Longitarsus messerschmidtiae. 

Longitarsus messerschmidtiae, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 6 (1860). 
Teinodactyla messerschmidtiae, All., Ann. Sac. Ent. de Fr., 319 (1861). 
Longitarsus messerschmidtiae, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col. 410 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), ad plantas Messer- 
schmidtioi fruticosce in inferioribus intermediisque hinc inde vul- 
garis. 

So far as I have observed hitherto, this Canarian Longitarsus ap- 
pears to subsist on the leaves of the fragrant Messersclimidtia fruti- 
cosa — ^principally at rather low, but sometimes at intermediate 
altitudes, — under which circumstances I have taken it abundantly in 
Teneriffe, Palma, and Hierro. Although most thoroughly dissimilar 
in its normal state to the L. persimills, it is somewhat curious that 
occasional highly-coloured examples of it should make so decided a 
prima fade approach to the paler ones of that insect that it is almost 
impossible to resist the inquiry whether it might not be an ex- 
treme (unspotted) modification of the latter, brought about perhaps 
by the adoption of a food-plant so totally difi*erent from the Echia. 
As recorded however in my Canarian Catalogue, I believe nevertheless 
(despite the existence of the very rare, and exceptional, individuals 
just alluded to) that the two species are completely distinct. 



1006. Longitarsus kleiniiperda. 



i 



Longitarsus Kleiniiperda, Woll., Journ. of Ent. i. 4 (1860). 
Teinodactyla Kleiniiperda, AIL, Ann. de la Sac. Ent. de Fr. 325 (1801). 
Longitarsus Kleiniiperda, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 409 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Palma, Hierro), folia Kleinice nerii- 
folioi, DC, in inferioribus prsecipue destruens. 

A large and pale Canarian species which has been observed in 



HALTICID^. 367 

Teneriffe, Gomera, Palma, and Hierro. It is found principally in the 
lower districts, and seems to subsist for the most part on the Kleima 
neriifolia. At least I believe that to be the plant which I have often 
observed absolutely devoured by it ; and it is merely through the 
fact of Mr. G. E. Crotch having assured me that he has met with it 
in Teneriffe on Euphorbias that I am inclined to question the jpossi- 
hiliUj of my having mistaken the shrub on which my own specimens 
were captured. 

1007. Longitarsns saltator. 

Longitarsus saltator, Woll., Ins. Mad. 445 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 132 (1867). 

fractus, Id., ibid. 133 (1857). 

Teinodactyla saltator. All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 319 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in inferioribus et intermediis rarissimus. 

A large Longitarsus which has been captured hitherto only in 
Madeira proper, where it occurs very rarely at rather low and inter- 
mediate elevations. I have taken it beneath stones at a short distance 
(probably about 800 feet above the sea) outside Funchal ; and a 
single example was found by the late Mr. Bewicke at the Eibeiro 
Frio. It was this latter specimen, which happened to be an un- 
usually highly coloured one, that I described under the trivial name 
oi fractus ; but as I have since ascertained that the saltator is deci- 
dedly a variable insect (being sometimes of a uniform lurid or 
yellowish brown, and at others ornamented with an obscurely dark- 
ened sutural band, as well as with a broken lateral dash), I have no 
hesitation in regarding the fractus as a variety of it. 

The L. saltator in its unmaculated state has a good deal in common 
with the European L. verbasci. It is, however, a little smaller than 
that species, with its head, posterior femora, and the apical portion 
of its antennae darker ; and the punctation of its elytra is finer and 
less dense. 

1008. Longitarsus brevipennis. 

Longitarsus brevipennis, WolL, Journ. of Ent. i. 8 (1860). 
Teinodactyla brevipennis, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. deFr. 320 (1861). 
Longitarsus brevipennis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 412 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), ad plantam Heliophyti erosi, Lem., per 
litus arenosum crescentem deprehensus. 

Taken by myself in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group — off a plant 
of the Heliophytwn erosum, growing in the loose sand behind the sea- 
beach, about a mile to the south of Arrecife. 



368 



HALTICID^. 



1009. Longitarsus atricapillus. 

Haltica atricapilla, Dufis., F/ia Austr. iii. 257. 

Longitarsus lutescens/lFo//. [nee Gyll.'], Ins. Mad. 446 (1854). 

— , Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 132 (1857). 

Teinodactyla atricapilla, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr., 117 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^o S^^., Uheo Chdo), in graminosis inter- 
mediis hand infrequens. 

A European Longitarsus which is rather common, in grassy spots 
of intermediate elevations, in the Madeiran Group. It has been taken 
in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, and on the northern Deserta (or 
Ilheo Chao). 

1010. Longitarsus nervosns. 

Longitarsus nervosus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 447 (1854). 

— , Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 1.33 (1857). 

Teinodactyla nervosa, All., Ami. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 326 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P*° S*^., Des.), in locis similibus ac prae- 
cedens. 

Found at the Madeiran Group, in much the same situations as the 
last species ; and, according to M. AUard, it is distinct from every- 
thing European. I have taken it in Madeira proper, Porto Santo, 
and the Deserta Grande. It has a good deal in common with the 
L. ochroleucus, from which it seems to differ principally in its rather 
convexer, shorter, and more ovate body, darker hue, coarser puncta- 
tion, and somewhat less elongated limbs. 



1011. Longitarsus ochroleucus. 



4 



Chrysomela ochroleuca, MsJim, Ent. Brit. 202 (1802). 
Longitarsus ochroleucus et cognatus, Woll. , Joiirn. of Ent. i. 7 (1860). 
Teinodactyla ochroleuca, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. 131 (I860). 
Longitarsus ochroleucus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 411 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Can., Ten., Gotn.), hinc inde in inferi- 
oribus intermediisque ; forsan ex Europa introductus. 

This European Longitarsus is widely spread over the Canarian 
Group, where it is somewhat scarce and may perhaps have been in- 
troduced from higher latitudes. In aU probability it will be found 
to be universal ; nevertheless hitherto it has been observed only in 
Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera. Its occurrence 
in the last-mentioned island is on the authority of the Messrs. 
Crotch. The " L. cognatus " (which I described in the ' Journ. of 
Ent.,' and suppressed in my recent Canarian Catalogue) was founded 
upon a rather infuscated specimen of the ochroleucus, captured by 
Mr. Gray in Fuerteventura. 




HALTICID^. 369 

1012. Longitarsus circumseptus. 

Altica dorsalis, BndU [nee Fah.'], in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 74 (1838). 
Longitarsus dorsalis, Troll, [nee Fab.~\, Journ. of Ent. i. 8 (1860). 
Teinodactyla circumsepta (GenS), All, Ami. Sac. Ent. Fr., 105 (1860). 
Longitarsus dorsalis, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 413 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in graminosis intermediis, pra3sertim ad 
folia Senecionis crassifolii, Wilden., occurrens. 

A species which is recorded by M. AUard from Sardinia and Algeria? 
and one which occurs sparingly in the Canarian Group — having been 
taken by Mr. Gray and myself (during January 1858) around Haria 
in the north of Lanzarote, and again by myself in the same district 
during March of 1859. It seems very partial to the foliage of the 
Senecio crassifolitis, Wilden. 

Hitherto I have referred this Longitarsus to the ordinary European 
L. dorsalis ; but a recent comparison of it with types of that insect 
and of the circumseptixs, which have been communicated by M. Allard, 
has convinced me that it is better identified with the latter — which 
moreover is peculiarly a Mediterranean species, whereas the dorsalis 
is found not only in Mediterranean latitudes but likewise throughout 
central Europe. The Canarian examples however differ from the 
Algerian one now before me in having their prothorax testaceous 
instead of black ; but as they agree with it in every other particular, 
I feel satisfied that this peculiarity is merely a geographical one and 
is totally insufiicient to indicate a distinct species *. 

1013. Longitarsus strigicollis. 

Longitarsus strigicollis, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 412 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), a W. D. Crotch semel captus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this insignificant Longi- 
tarsus was taken by Dr. Crotch in Teneriffe, during his first Canarian 
expedition (in 1862). 

1014. Longitarsus nubigena. 

Longitarsus nubigena, Wall., Ins. Mad. 447 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 133 (1857). 

* The L. circumseptus seems to differ from the dorsalis, mainly, in being a 
little smaller and more shining, with its limbs (except the hinder femora) pale, 
its antennce longer, its eyes a trifle smaller, and its elytra somewhat convexer, 
more distinctly punctulated, and less rounded off separately at their apex. In 
their testaceous prothorax, however, the Lanzarotan examples agree with the 
dorsalis ; and I would therefore acknowledge this slight insular modification of 
the circumseptus by recording it as the " var. /3. pallidicollis.^' 

2b 



370 



HALTICIDiE. 



Longitarsus nubigena, WoU., Journ. of Ent. i. 8 (1860). 
Teinodactyla nubigena^ All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr., 329 (1861). 
Longitarsus nubigena, Woll.y Cat Can. Col. 413 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (^Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), rarissimus. 

Found, though very rarely, at intermediate and lofty elevations in 
Madeira proper; and it has likewise been taken in Teneriffe and 
Gomera, of the Canarian Group. 



1015. Longitarsus lycopi. 

Teinodactyla Lycopi, Fmidras, AUis. 193 (1859). 
, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 832 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in intermediis parce degens. 

A common European Longitarsus which occurs very rarely, at in- 
termediate altitudes in Madeira proper ; but it has not yet been ^ 
detected in any of the other islands. It was formerly referred by 
M. AUard to the abdominalis of Duftschmidt ; but he appears (from 
a note subsequently pubhshed) to have confounded at that time two 
closely allied forms — namely, the one just alluded to and the lycopi 
of Foudras ; and although its rather stronger punctation would tend 
to identif}'' the Madeiran insect with the abdominalis (at all events | 
as defined in M. AUard's diagnostic note), yet its more elongated and 
less convex elytra assign it rather to the lycopi ; whilst ty2^es of both 
species which M. Allard has communicated would still further neces- 
sitate its identification with the latter*. 



1016. Longitarsus pusillus. 

Haltica pusilla, Gyll, Ins. Suec. iii. 649 (1813). 
Thyamis pusilla, StejjJi., Ill Brit. Ent. iv. 313 (1831). 
Teinodactyla pusilla, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 125 (1860). 
Longitarsus pusillus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 414 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a W. D. Crotch semel deprehensus. 

Of this minute species, so abundant throughout Europe, I have seen 
hitherto but a single Atlantic example. It was taken by Dr. Crotch 
in Teneriff'e, during his first sojourn (in 1862) at the Canaries. 




* Judging from the examples (communicated by M. Allard) which are now 
before me, the L. lycopi is a trifle more elongated (or less bent inwards at its apex) 
than the ahdominalis, which causes the elytra to be somewhat less convex pos- 
teriorly, and its punctation is a little coarser. But the Madeiran examples ap- 
pear to have their shoulders rather more romided off (or falling away) than is 
the case in the (single) European type from which my comparison is drawn 






HALTICID^. 371 

1017. Longitarsus inconspicuus. 

Longitarsus inconspicuus, WoU,, Journ. of Ent. i. 9 (1860). 
Teinodactyla inconspicua, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. 317 (1861). 
Longitarsus inconspicuus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 414 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in intermediis et praecipue editioribiis 
rarior. 

A Canarian species which has been observed hitherto only in the 
intermediate and lofty districts of Teneriffe, where moreover it would 
appear to be scarce *. 

10^18. Longitarsus vilis. 
Longitarsus viUs, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 415 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten.), adhuc parcissime lectus. 

A rather insignificant little Longitarsus which has been taken only 
in Grand Canary and Teneriffe — namely, by myself in the former, 
and by the Messrs. Crotch in the latter. 

1019. Longitarsus maderensis. 

Teinodactyla Maderensis, AIL, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr. 659 (1863). 
Longitarsus maderensis, Woll. Append, hnj. op. 56. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. F. A. Anderson in graminosis 
editioribus detectus. 

A few examples of this small Longitarsits were captured by the 
late Mr. F. A. Anderson in Madeira proper — ^by brushing some grass 
at the Palheiro, on the mountains to the eastward of Eunchal. It 
appears to be aUied to the obliterata of Kosenhauer. 

* Eight individuals are now before me, taken by the Messrs. Crotch in Tene- 
riffe, which may possibly be the representatives of a distinct (though closely 
allied) species. I do not beheve, however, that they are more than a slight local 
phasis of tlie inconspicmts ; though this question can be decided only when 
further, and more satisfactory, examples of the latter have been obtained. Un- 
fortunately the two specimens of the inconspicuus to which I have access are 
females, so that I am unable to tell whether the males have the first joint of their 
anterior tarsi as greatly dilated as is here the case. And moreover, as these eight 
examples are more uniformly brown than the only mature one of the incon- 
spicuus with which I have compared them, and since also they have their elytra 
a trifle more elliptical and convex, the punctures being a little coarser and with 
a rather more evident tendency to arrange themselves in oblique longitudinal 
rows, I think perhaps it will be desirable just to record the form of which they 
are the exponents in the following diagnosis — lest it should prove ultimately to 
be specifically distinct. Var. j3. dlipsodes. — Fere concolor, plus minus testaceo- 
brunneus; elytris subconvexioribus atque etiam magis ellipticis, sensim pro fundi us 
punctatis, punctis vix magis subseriatim dispositis ; tarsis anterioribus (sed prae- 
sertim anticis) in maribus articulo basilari valde incrassato. — Long. corp. Hn. 1. 

2b2 



372 



HALTICID^. 



Genus 311. PSYLLIODES. 
Latreille, Fam. Nat. des Ins. 405 [script. Psijlliode] (1825). 

1020. Psylliodes chrysocephala. 

Chrysomela chiysocepliala, Scop, [nee Linn., sec. Mus.\ Mzt. Cam, 

213 (1763). 
Psylliodes chrysocephala, Woll, Ins. Mad. 449 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 134 (1857). 

, All., Ann. de la Sac. Ent. de France, 810 (1860). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), hinc inde in intermediis preecipue cultis. 

This common European Psylliodes occurs sparingly in the inter- 
mediate districts of Madeira proper, particularly in cultivated spot^'; 
but it has not yet been observed in the Canaries. Yery probably it 
may have been established at Madeira from more northern latitudes. 

1021. Psylliodes umbratilis. 

Psylliodes umbratilis, Woll., Ins. Mad. 450 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 134 (1857). 

, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 339 (1861). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad), in editioribus rarissima. 

The very few specimens which I have yet seen of this Psylliodes 
were captured by myself in the higher elevations of Madeira proper, 
where it would appear to be extremely rare. Possibly it may prove 
to be but a geographical state of the common European P. napi ; 
but until further, and more satisfactory, material has been obtained, 
it is difficult to arrive at any positive conclusion on this point*. 

1022. Psylliodes amplicolHs. 
Psylliodes amplicoUis, Woll., Append, huj. op. 56. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. Bewicke semel deprehensa. 

The only example of this species which has hitherto come beneath 
my notice was captured in Madeira proper by the late Mr. Bewicke, 
in whose collection alone it consequently exists. In some respects 
it is intermediate between the umbratilis and vehemens, and, al- 
though I do not believe that it can be any modification of either of 
them, I feel that further material is necessary before the species is 
satisfactorily established. 

* Mr. Rye, to whom I communicated an example of the P. umbratilis, remarked 
as follows : " Closely allied to our napi, from which, however, it seems to differ 
somewhat — chiefly in the very evident punctation of its interstices, but likewise 
in the more feeble build of its legs, smaller size, slightly different colour, and 
more sloped shoulders." 





HALTICIDiE. 373 

1023. Psylliodes stolida. 

Psylliodes stolida, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 11 (1860). 

-, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 340 (1861). 



, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 417 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.)^ foliis Mercurialis annuce nisi 
fallor praecipue gaudens. 

A small and rather insignificant Psylliodes which has heen cap- 
tured hitherto only in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the eastern 
islands of the Canarian Group, where I believe that it is principally 
attached to the common Mercurialis annua. 

1024. Psylliodes hospes. 

Psylliodes hospes, Woll, his. Mad. 449 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 134 (1857). 

, Id., Journ. of Ent. i. 10 (1860). 

, All, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 340 (1861). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 416 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^, Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), 
in herbidis praecipue cultis vulgaris. 

There can be little doubt that this Psylliodes is universal through- 
out these Atlantic Groups. Indeed I have myself captured it in aU 
the Madeiran islands except the northern and southern Desertas, 
as well as in the whole seven of the Canarian archipelago. Yet 
although thus general, it has somewhat the appearance of being an 
introduced species — occurring for the most part in and about cul- 
tivated spots, where it attaches itself principally to certain plants of 
the Sinapis-tvihe* . 

1025. Psylliodes vehemens. 

Psylliodes vehemens, Woll, Ins. Mad. 451 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 134 (1857). 

, Id., Journ. of Ent. i. 10 (1860). 

, AU., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 341 (1861). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 416 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^, Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), 
in intermediis editioribusque herbidis vulgaris. Species colore 
valde inconstans — modo palHda concolor, modo Isete nigro 
picta. 

* Unless the P. hospes be but a geographical modification of the cuprea, lUig., 
of more northern latitudes, the fact of its being distinct from every European 
species hitherto recorded would certainly militate against the hypothesis that it 
was introduced originally into these Atlantic islands. It is possible therefore 
that it may be truly aboriginal, but attached to some of the indigenous members 
of the CriicifercB. 



374 



HALTICIDiE. 



As widely diffused as the last species over these Atlantic Groups, 
where we may be equally certain that it is universal. Moreover 
there can be no doubt that it is truly indigenous ; for it occurs in 
the most remote districts of intermediate and lofty elevations, and 
comparatively seldom within the regions that are cultivated. It has 
been taken in all the Madeiran islands except the northern and 
southern Desertas (where, however, we may be pretty sure that it 
exists), as well as in the whole seven of the Canarian archipelago. 

1026. Psylliodes tarsata. 

Psylliodes tarsata, WoU., Ins. Mad. 452, tab. ix. f. 5 (1854). 

^ Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 135 (1857> 

, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 339 (1861). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in sylvaticis humidis intermediis degens. 

Peculiar apparently to the damp sylvan regions of Madeira proper, 
at intermediate and rather lofty altitudes, occurring principally in 
the north of the island. 



Genus 312. DIBOLIA. 
Latreille, mff7ie Anim. v. 139 (1829). 

' 1027. Dibolia obtusa. 

Dibolia obtusa, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 417 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), rarissima ; semel tantum reperta. 

Hitherto I have seen but a single example of this Dibolia, which 
was captured by myself in Puerteventura of the Canarian Group. 




Genus 313. CH-ETOCNEMA. 

Stephens, Ml. Brit. Ent. iv. 325 (1831). 

1028. ChsBtocnema tarsalis. 

Chsetocnema tarsalis, Woll, Journ. of Ent. i. 11 (1860). 
Plectroscelis tarsalis, All., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 337 (1861). 
Chsetocnema tarsalis, Tfoll., Cat. Can. Col. 418 (1864). 



Habitat Canarienses 
detecta. 



(Can.), in graminosis humidis inferioribus 



The few examples hitherto detected of this Chcetocnema I cap- 
tured at Arguiniguin, in the south of Grand Canary, by brushing 
the short grass along the margins of the freshwater lake immedi- 
ately behind the sea-beach. 



CASSIDIDiE. 375 



Fam. 64. HISPID^. 

Genus 314. HISPA. 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (1776). 

1029. Hispa occator. 

Hispa occator, BniUe, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 73, pi. i. f. 17 (1838). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 418 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma, Hierro), prgesertim ad folia Cis- 
torum in pinetis editioribus crescentium hinc inde vulgatissima. 

An abundant insect throughout certain regions of a rather high 
altitude in the Canarian Group, where it may be looked upon as the 
representative of the H. testacea of southern Europe (to which indeed 
it is closely allied). I have captured it in profusion off the shrubs 
of the Clstus monspeliensis and vagans in Teneriffe and Palma, par- 
ticularly in the districts occupied by the Pinals ; and two examples 
are now before me, taken by M. de la Perraudiere in the island of 
Hierro, which differ from the Palman and Teneriffan ones in being 
uniformly of an obscure black (even the limbs being darkened). But, 
after a very careful examination of them, I can detect no character 
to warrant the supposition that they are specifically distinct ; and I 
conclude, therefore, that they must represent some insular phasis of 
the occator, peculiar to Hierro. I would however record them as the 
" var. /3. adumbrata,'' in the event of future material rendering their 
separation desirable. I am informed by De Marseul that these in- 
dividuals from Hierro were found (along with many others) on the 
shrubs of Cistus monspeliensis, in the district of El Golfo, 



Fam. 65. CASSIDIDiE. 

Genus 315. CASSIDA. 

Linnseus^ Syst. Nat. i. (1735). 

1030. Cassida nebulosa. 

Cassida nebulosa, Linn., Fna Siiec. 468 (1761). 

, Stepk, III. Brit. Ent. iv. 367 (1831). 

, Woll, Im. Mad. 439 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 129 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. Heineken, M.D., semel lecta. 
The only example of this European Cassida which I have yet seen 



376 ^^^f COCCINELLID^. 

from these islands was taken by the late Dr. Heineken, many yeM 
ago, near Funchal, in Madeira proper ; and I am extremely doubtful 
whether it can be regarded as more than an accidental importation 
from higher latitudes, and whether the species should properly be 
admitted any longer into the Atlantic fauna. 

1031. Cassida hemisphserica. 

Cassida hemisphaerica, Hbst, Kdf. viii. 226 (1799). 

viridis, Br. [nee Fab:\, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 74 (1838). 

hemisphaerica, WolL, Ins. Mad. 440 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 130 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 419 (1804). 

Habitat Maderenses(ilt/afZ.)et Canarienses (Can., Ten.,Palma, Hierro), 
in inferioribus intermediisque, passim. 

A European Cassida which occurs sparingly, for the most part 
within the cultivated regions, in Madeira proper. In the Canaries 
it is far more common, and more widely spread — having been cap- 
tured in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Palma, and Hierro. 

1032. Cassida Rossii. 

Cassida Rossii, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 130 (1857). 
Habitat Madei-enses {Mad.) a J. J. Ross semel deprehensa. 

The single example on which I founded this species was captured 
by Mr. J. J. Ross, near Funchal, in Madeira proper ; but I am ex- 
tremely doubtful whether it is more, after all, than a large and pallid 
(because immature) variety of the C. hemisj>hcerica. At any rate, 
until further material has been obtained, its diagnosis can scarcely 
be regarded as quite satisfactory. 



Fam. 66. COCCINELLID^. 

Genus 316. CHILOCORUS. 
Leach, Edirib. Encyclop. xv. 116 (1815). 

1033. Chilocorus renipustiilatus. 

Coccinella renipustulata, Scriba, Journ. 276 (1790). 

Cacti, Mshtn, Ent. Brit. 163 (1802). 

Chilocorus renipustulatus, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. iv. 374 (1831). 
, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 424 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (ins. omnes), in inferioribus aridis apricis prae- 
sertim inter plantas Opuntice iunce et Plocamce pendulce. 




COCCINELLID.E. 377 

A common European insect which is universal throughout the 
Canarian archipelago, in the whole seven islands of which it has been 
captured. It occurs principally in dry sunny spots of a low eleva- 
tion, and is very partial to the Opuntia tuna (or Prickly Pear) as 
well as to the Plocama pendula. In higher latitudes, however, I 
have generally met with it on the stems of ash trees. 

Genus 317. EPILACHNA. 
Chevrolat, Diet Univ. d'Hist. Nat. iv. 43 (1844). 

1034. Epilachna 4-plagiata. 
Epilachna 4-plagiata, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 425 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), in inferioribus aridis arenosis rarissima. 

A Canarian Epilachna of great rarity, and of which I captured a 
few specimens in the extreme north of Euerteventura — in the low, 
arid, sandy district at Corralejo. 

1035. Epilachna bella. 
Epilachna bella, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 425 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Detected hitherto only in Grand Canary, and with much the same 
habits as the last species — occurring in low, sandy spots near the 
coast. I met with a single example of it at Maspalomas, in the ex- 
treme south of that island ; and a considerable series is now before 
me, taken by the Messrs. Crotch, near Las Palmas — in the extreme 
north. 

1036. Epilachna 10-plagiata. 

Scymnus 10-plagiatus, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col. 137 (1857). 
Epilachna 10-plagiata, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 426 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten., Gorn., Palma), in 
subinferioribus intermediisque late sed parce diffusa. 

A small Epilachna which seems to be widely spread over these At- 
lantic islands, where we may expect that it will be found ultimately 
to be well nigh universal. I have taken it sparingly in the sylvan 
districts of Madeira proper, as also at rather low and intermediate 
elevations in Teneriffe and Palma, of the Canarian Group. And 
several examples are now before, me which were obtained by the 
Messrs. Crotch, " from off the flowers of Euphorbias," in Gomera. 



378 



COCCINELLIDiE. 



Genus 318. COCCINELLA. 

Linnaeus, St/st Nat edit. i. [script. CoccioiieUa] (1735). 

1037. Coccmella mutabilis. 

Coccinella mutabilis, Scriba, Journ. 183 (1790). 
Adonia mutabilis, Muls., Securip. de Frajice, 39 (1846). 
Coccinella mutabilis, Woll, Ins. Mad. 461 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 136 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ S^^), sat vulgaris, praecipue ad flores. 

The European C. mutabilis is rather common in Madeira proper 
and Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, occurring principally on 
flowers and at most elevations ; but it has not yet been detected in 
the Canaries. 

1038. Coccinella 7-piiiictata. 

Coccinella 7-punctata, Linn., Fna iSuec, 477 (1761). 

, Brulle, in Webb et BeHh. (Col.) 74 (1838). 

, Woll., Ins. Mad. 462 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 136 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 422 (1864). 

, Hart, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Ftiert. 141, 142. 



Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P^^ 8^^, Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), 
vulgaris. 

This almost cosmopolitan Coccinella is doubtless universal through- 
out these Atlantic Groups. It has been taken in all the Madeiran 
islands except the northern and southern Desertas, as well as in the 
whole seven of the Canarian archipelago. In Madeira it is called 
by the inhabitants " Joaninha," and at the Canaries " San Antonio." 
It is a remarkably constant insect, seldom showing any appreciable 
tendency to become modified by external influences. 



1039. Coccinella 14-pustiLlata. 

Coccinella 14-pustulata, Linn., Fna Suec. 502 (1761). 

, Muls., Securip. de France, 93 (1846). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 462 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 136 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), a Dom. Heineken semel capta. 

The only example of this European species which I have yet seen 
from these islands was taken, many years ago, in Madeira proper by 
the late Dr. Heineken. I am doubtful therefore whether it ought 
to be regarded as more than an accidental introduction from higher 
latitudes. 



COCCINELLID^. 379 

1040. Coccinella Doublieri. 

Harmonia Doublieri, 3Iuls., Seeiirip. de France, 118 (1846). 
Coccinella Doublieri, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 423 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Faert.), in foliis TamaniGis gallicce capta. 

A small Coccinella which I have taken off Tamarisks in Fuer- 
teventura, of the Canarian Group, and which occurs on the same 
shrub in the south of Europe. 

1041. Coccinella Andersoni. 

Coccinella Andersoni, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 337 (1862). 
, Id.y Append, huj. op. ^j. 

Habitat Maderenses (^Mad.), ad folia Pini pinece a Dom. F. A. An- 
derson reperta. 

Captured in Madeira proper by the late Mr. F. A. Anderson, and 
subsequently by Mr. Bewicke, off trees of the " Stone-pine '^ in the 
parish of S. Antonio — about two miles from Funchal. 

1042. Coccinella testudinea. 

Coccinella testudinea (Hein.), Woll., Ins. Mad. 463 (1854). 
( ), Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 136 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (^Mad.), ad folia plantarum (so. Hibiscl, Daturce 
et caet.) in cultis inferioribus plerumque occurrens. 

Found in Madeira proper, and chiefly at low elevations in gardens 
and other cultivated grounds. It occurs on various plants and shrubs, 
doubtless in quest oi Aphides ; but I have more often met with it on 
the species of Hibiscus and Datura than elsewhere. 

1043. Coccinella Miranda. 

Coccinella hieroglyphica, Bridle [nee Oliv.'], in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 

74 (1838). 
Mu-anda, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 422 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can., Ten., Gam., Palma), in intermediis editi- 
oribusque degens. Usque ad 9000' s. m. ascendit. 

Widely spread over the Canarian Group, where it occurs at inter- 
mediate and lofty elevations, ascending to at least 9000 feet above 
the sea. It has been taken in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, 
and Palma ; and we may be pretty sure that it exists in Hierro like- 
wise. I have met with it more commonly in the higher districts 
than elsewhere, particularly amongst the blossoms of the Eetama on 
the Cumbres of Teneriffe. . a 



380 



COCCINELLID^. 



1044. Coccinella genistae. 

Coccinella Genistas^ WoIL, Lis. Mad. 404, tab. x. f. o (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 136 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), rarissima ; foliis Genistce scoparice, L., 
in editioribus prsecipue gaudens. 

A beautiful little species, allied to the G. i^halerata of Mediter- 
ranean latitudes, which has been observed hitherto only in the 
higher regions of Madeira proper, — where it occurs very sparingly 
on the Genista scoparia (or common Broom), and where it may per- 
haps be regarded as representing the G. Miranda of the Canarian 
Group*. 

Genus 319. SCYMNUS. 
Kugelann, iti Schneid. Mag. 515 (1794). 

1045. Scymnus marginalis. 

Coccinella marginalis, Rossi, Mmvt. Ins. ii. 87 (1794). 
Scymnus marginalis, Muls., Securip. de France 24l4: (1846). 

. jyolL, Ins. Mad. 466 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 137 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), ad folia plantarum (sc. Tamni edulis, 
MuscB sapientum et caet.) in inferioribus crescentium vulgaris. 

The European S. marginalis is common, principally at low eleva- 
tions, in Madeira proper ; but it has not yet been observed in any 
of the other islands. It occurs for the most part in gardens and 
other cultivated grounds ; and I have often taken it in profusion 
off the large leaves of the Banana and the Tamnus edulis — known 
by the Enghsh residents as the " Yam." 

1046. Scymnus durantae. 

Scymnus Durantse, JFoll, Ins. Mad. 465 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 137 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), plantis diversis prsecipue Durantd et 
Hibisco in.cultis gaudens. 

* In his list of a few Canarian Coleoptera which was prepared by M. Brulle 
for MM. Webb and Berthelot's gigantic work, there is a Coccinella quoted under 
the name of " semipustulafa, Oliv." To what it can refer I have no means of 
conjecturing ; and although in the elaborate account of it, which is contained in 
six words — " Espece du midi de I'Europe," it is asserted to be likewise European, 
I nevertheless do not see that any European species is acknowledged under that 
title. Perhaps it may have represented one of the many states of the variable 
C. Miranda ; but, happily, as the question is quite unsolvable without either a 
diagnosis or so much as a single observation to serve as some kind of clue, it is 
ecarcely perhaps of much importance to inquire. 



COCCINELLID^. 381 

Likewise common in Madeira proper, — occurring for the most 
part at low, but sometimes at intermediate, altitudes ; and frequent- 
ing the foliage of various trees and plants, particularly the Duranta 
Plumieri and the different species of Hibiscus. I have observed it 
abundantly in gardens, especially on the northern side of the 
island. 

1047. Scynmus canariensis. 
Scymnus canariensis, WoU.y Cat. Can. Col. 426 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (ins. om7ies), vulgaris. 

Universal throughout the Canarian archipelago, in the whole 
seven islands of which I have myself captured it. It is a variable 
species both in size and colour ; and it may be regarded as the re- 
presentative in the Canaries of the Madeiran S. durantce. It is 
indeed closely allied to the latter, but the characters which dis- 
tinguish it therefrom have been fully pointed out in my Canarian 
Catalogue. 

1048. Scymnus oblongior. 

Scymnus oblongior, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 427 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in montibus valde elevatis parcissime 
captus. 

The only two examples which I have yet seen of this Scymnus 
were taken by myself at a very high altitude (upwards of 9000 feet 
above the sea) on the mountains of Teneriffe. Although undoubtedly 
much allied to the canariensis, I do not believe them to be the ex- 
ponents of any local phasis of that insect; nevertheless further 
material is greatly needed in order to complete the diagnosis of the 
species, which at present I can scarcely regard as altogether satis- 
factory. 

1049. Scymnus cercyonides. 
Scymnus cercyonides, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 428 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam., Palma, Hierro), minus frequens. 

Sparingly distributed over the Canarian islands, principally at 
low and intermediate altitudes ; and we may expect that it will be 
found to be universal. Hitherto it has been taken in Teneriffe, 
Gomera, Palma, and Hierro, — in the last of which it was found by 
the Messrs. Crotch. 



382 



COCCINELLID^. 




1050. Scymmis maculosus. 

Scymniis maculosus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 428 (1864). 

Halitat Canarienses (in Hierro sola baud observatus), late sed parce 
difFusus. 

Widely but sparingly distributed over tbe Canarian arcbipelago, 
wbere tbere can be little doubt tbat it is universal — tbougb as yet 
it does not happen to have been observed in Hierro. In Lanzarote, 
Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, TeneriiFe, and Palma I have myself 
taken it ; and in Gomera it was found by the Messrs. Crotch. 

1051. Scynmus flavopictus. 

Scymnus flavopictus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 469, tab. x. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 138 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Ilheo Chao), in inferioribus interme- 
diisque degens. 

Closely allied to the last species, of which it may perhaps be re- 
garded as the Madeiran representative. In Madeira proper it is 
decidedly rare, but on the northern Deserta (or Ilheo Chao) it is 
comparatively common. The characters which distinguish it from 
the S. maculosus have been alluded to, under the diagnosis of that 
insect, in my Canarian Catalogue. 

1052. Scymnus arcuatus. 

Coccinella arcuata, Hossi, Mant. Ins. ii. 88 (1794). 
Scymnus arcuatus, Wall., Ins. Mad. 468 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 138 (1857). 

^ Id., Cat. Can. Col. 429 (1864). 

iTaSiitoif Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Ten., Palma), super folia 
plantarum praecipue in cultis inferioribus occurrens. 

The S. arcuatus of Mediterranean latitudes abounds at a low ele- 
vation in Madeira proper — occurring on the leaves of various plants, 
particularly in gardens and other cultivated grounds. In the Cana- 
ries it would appear however to be rare, at least so far as has been 
observed hitherto. Indeed the only three examples which I have 
yet seen were taken by myself — two of them in Teneriife, and the 
third in Palma. 

1053. Scymnus minimus. 

Coccinella minima, Rossi, Mant. Ins. ii. 89 (1794). 
Scymnus minimus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 470 (1854). 





COCCINELLIDiE. 383 

Scymnus minimus, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 138 (1857). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 429 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (in Palma sola baud 
detectus), in inferioribus intermediisque late diiFusus. 

This small European Scymnus is widely spread over these Atlantic 
islands, where very probably it will be found to be universal. It 
occurs on the foliage of various plants, at low and intermediate ele- 
vations, particularly in cultivated grounds. It is rather common in 
Madeira proper ; and it has been captured sparingly in all the Cana- 
rian islands except Palma, where however we may be pretty sure 
that it exists, 

1054. Scynmns linmichoides. 

Scymnus Limnichoides, Woll., Ins. T^fa J. 470, tab. x. f. 3 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 139 (1837). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*^ S^^), in intermediis rarissimus. 

A curious little ovate, apterous Scymnus, which might almost be 
made to form the type of an allied genus. It seems to be peculiar 
to the Madeiran Group, and extremely rare. I have taken it 
sparingly in the sylvan districts of Madeira proper, and more abun- 
dantly from beneath stones in Porto Santo — on an open, grassy 
mountain-ridge between the Pico do Facho and the Pico do Castello, 

Genus 320. RHIZOBIUS. 
Stephens, III. Brit. Ent. iv. 396 [script. Hhyzobius] (1831). 

1055. Rhizobius litura. 

Nitidula Htura, Fab., Mant. Ins. i. 52 (1787). 

Cacidula litura, JSndle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 74 (1838). 

Rhyzobius litura, Woll, Ins. Mad. 472 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad Col. 139 (1857). 

Rhizobius Htura, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 430 (1864). 

Habitat Madierejises (Mad., P^" S*^, Des.) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), 
sub lapidibus necnon in graminosis vulgaris. 

There is scarcely any Coleopterous insect which is so widely, and 
so generally, spread over these Atlantic Groups as the common Euro- 
pean R. litura. At the Madeiras it is doubtless universal, the 
northern and southern Desertas being the only islands of the five in 
which it does not happen to have been detected ; and it has been 
found in the whole seven of the Canarian archipelago. Its detection 
in Gomera is due to the recent researches of the Messrs. Crotch. It 
is recorded by M. Morelet in the Azores. 



384 



ENDOMYCHID^. 



1056, Rhizobius oculatissimus. 
Rhyzobius oculatissimus, TFoll.j Cat. Mad. Col 139 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), a Dom. Bewicke semel tantiim reperlns. 

Hitherto unique, a single specimen having been captured in] 
Madeira proper by the late Mr. Bewicke. The characters which, 
separate it from all the known varieties of the preceding speciesj 
are so pronounced that I do not think it is possible to x-egard it as 
any state, or even monstrosity, of that insect ; nevertheless it is 
certainly remarkable that the combined researches in Madeira of soi 
many Coleopterists should not have succeeded hitherto in detecting 
second example. 

Genus 321. LITHOPHILUS. 

Frohlich, Naturforsch. xxviii. 11 (1799). 

1057. Lithophilus deserticola. 
Lithophilus deserticola, Woll.^ Cat. Can. Col. 431 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), sub lapide quodam in inferioribuff 
aridis arenosis semel deprehensus. 

The only specimen which I have seen of this Canarian insect was] 
taken by myself, at a low elevation, in the extreme north of Fuerte- 
ventura — from beneath a stone in the dry, sandy district at Cor- 
ralejo. 

Fam. 67. EITDOMYCHIDiE. 

Genus 322. DAPSA. 
(Ziegler) Latr., Itegne Anim. (edit. 2) v. 159 (1829). 

1058. Dapsa edentata. 
Dapsa edentata, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 432 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palma), hinc inde sat vulgaris. 

Rather a common insect in the Canarian Group, where we may 
be pretty sure that it will be found universally throughout at any^i 
rate the central and western islands. Hitherto however it has been 
taken only in Grand Canary, Teneriife, and Palma. In aU proba- 
bility it is closely allied to the D. barbara of northern Africa ; but 
as I have not been able to procure a type of the latter for compa- 
rison, I cannot say whether or not it would be possible to regard it 
as any geographical modification of that species. 



I 




EROTYLIDiE. 385 

Genus 323. LYCOPERDINA. 

Latreille, Gen. Crmt. et Ins. iii. 73 (1807). 

1059. Lycoperdina humeralis. 

Lycoperdina humeralis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 432 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses (^(?»i.), rarissima; in sylvaticis editioribus bis 
tantum capta. 

A Canarian Lycoperdina of the greatest rarity, which has been 
found hitherto only in Teneriffe. Indeed but two specimens of it 
have come beneath my notice — one of which I captured in the 
damp laurel-woods on the mountains above Taganana, whilst the 
other was found by the Messrs. Crotch " under leaves in the Pinal 
above Ycod el Alto." 

Fam. 68. EROTYLIDJE. 

Genus 324. XESTUS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 420 (1864). 

1060. Xestus throscoides. 

Xestus throscoides, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 421 (1864). 

Hahitat Canarienses {Ten.), ad fungos necnon etiam sub cortice arbo- 
rum laxo putrido in lauretis humidis excelsis rarissimus. 

A fungus-eater of great rarity which appears to be peculiar to 
the Canaries. Indeed hitherto I have observed it only in the damp 
laurel-districts of a high elevation in Teneriffe, where I captured 
eleven specimens of it (partly within fungi, and partly under the 
putrid bark of trees where minute Cryptogams were more or less 
evident) on the densely clad mountains above Taganana and Point 
Anaga. 

1061. Xestus fungicola. 

Xestus fungicola, Woll., Append, huj. op. 57. 

Habitat Canarienses (Oom.), ad fungos putridos a DD. Crotch in 
lauretis humidis parce repertus. 

Likewise Canarian, but found hitherto only in Gomera — where it 
would seem to take the place of X. throscoides of Teneriffe. It 
appears to have the same mode of life as that species, and to be 
equally scarce, — four examples of it having been captured by the 

2c 



386 



ZOPHOSID^. 




Messrs. Crotch, in a dead fungns, on the laurel-clad mountains 
above Hermigua. 

Genus 325. EUXESTUS. 
WoUaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 411 (1858). 

1062. Euxestus Parkii. 

Euxestus Parkii, WoU., he. cit 413 (1858). 
, Id.y Append, huj. op. ^S. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub quisqiiiliis necnon rarius in fonni- 
carum nidis, hinc inde loca inferiora colons. 

This curious little insect, so suggestive at first sight of the common 
Olihrus Stejohensii (or liquidus), is locally abundant aroimd Punchal 
in Madeira proper — where it was originally detected by Mr. M. Park. 
It occurs principally in gardens, under dry vegetable refuse ; but it 
is also found occasionally in the nests of ants. 



Fam. 69. ZOPHOSIDiE. 

Genus 326. ZOPHOSIS. 
Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 146 (1807). 

1063. Zophosis 4-carinata. 

Zophosis 4-carinata, Deyr., in WoU. Cat. Can. Col. 433 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a Barone "Castello de Paiva" 
mimicata. 



A Canarian Zophosis of which I have seen hitherto but four ex- 
amples, which were communicated by the Barao do Castello de 
Paiva from Teneriffe. 

1064. Zophosis pUcata. 

Zophosis plicata, BruUe, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 64, pi. i. f. 8 (1838). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 434 (1864). 

vagans, Hart, [nee Br.'], Geol. Verh. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert), ubique vulgaris. 

Abounds in the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group — Lan-' 
zarote and Puerteventura, in which it would appear to be universal ; 
and I likewise met with it on the small adjacent islets of Graciosa and 
Lobos, off the extreme north of the former and latter respectively. 







ERODIADiE. 387 

1065. Zophosis vagans. 

Zophosis vagans, Brulle, in Wehh et Berth. (Col.) 64 (1838). 
vagans, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 435 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis editioribusque occurrens. 

Found hitherto only in Grand Canary, where it would appear to 
represent the Z. plicata of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. It is 
indeed much allied to that species, though I hardly think that it 
can possibly be looked upon as an insular modification of it. The 
Z. vagans occurs for the most part at intermediate and rather lofty 
altitudes. 

1066. Zophosis Clarkii. 

Zophosis Clarkii, Dei/r., in Woll. Cat. Can. Col. 435 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in inferioribus intermediisque, passim. 

Likewise Grand- Canarian, and very closely allied to the Z. vagans 
— being in some respects intermediate between that insect and the 
bicarinata. It is barely possible that it may be, in reality, an ex- 
treme phasis of either of them ; though I scarcely think that this is 
the case. It seems to be found at low and intermediate elevations. 

1067. Zophosis bicarinata. 

Erodius minutus ?, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. 93 (1792). 

Zophosis bicarinata, Sol., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 617 (1834). 

et minuta ?, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 64 (1838). 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 436 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Gam.), in inferioribus late diffusa. 

Taken at low altitudes in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Gomera, — 
having a slightly different phasis for each island. Indeed in Grand 
Canary there seem to be at least two forms of it, if not more ; but 
the different aberrations are included within such narrow limits that 
I cannot think there is any ground for the suspicion that more than 
a single (rather plastic) species is indicated amongst them all. 



Fam. 70. ERODIADJE*. 

Genus 327. ARTHRODES. 
Solier, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iii. 513 [script. A7-throdeis] (1834). 

* Although I beUeve that all the Canarian members of this family belong to 
the genus Arthrodes, which seems to be the representative of Erodius proper in 

2c2 



388 



ERODIAD^. 



§ I. Epistoma apice plus minus evidenter tridentatum. 
a. Epipleurce plica humerdlis nulla. 
1068. Arthrodes Perraudieri. 
Arthrodes PeiTaudieri, WoU., Append, huj. op. 58. 

Habitat Canarienses, a Dom. de la Perraudiere (an in Lanzarota ?) 
capta. 

A single example of this distinct Arthrodes, which is remarkable 
inter alia for its humeral plica being entirely absent, was taken at 
the Canaries by M. de la Perraudiere ; but I have no information 
as to the exact island. 

b. Epipleurce plica humeralis obsoleta. 

1069. Arthrodes inflatus. 
Arthrodes inflatus, Woll, Cat Can. Col. 439 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus in aridis rarissimus. 

The only specimens which I have myself met with of this large 
and exceedingly inflated Arthrodes were captured in the little islet 
of Graciosa (of the Canarian Group), off the extreme north of Lan- 
zarote. A single example, however, has been communicated b^ De 
Marseul with the label "Teneriife" appended to it; but as the 



that archipelago, I ought nevertheless to add that M. Brulle's list contains what 
appeared to me (when I inspected the types, hastily, in Paris) to be a true Ero- 
dius — where it is cited as the " E. europceus, F." Whether it be rightly identified 
with the europaus, or not, 1 was unable to examine it with sufficient accuracy to 
decide ; but, be that as it may, I have so strong a suspicion that the examples of 
MM. Webb and Berthelot were in reality imported from the coast of Africa that 
I cannot admit the species into the present volume without evidence of a more 
conclusive nature than that which is supplied by the mere fact of its having been 
inserted into the loosely prepared catalogue of M. Brulle — unaccompanied by a 
single word either as to its habitat or the circumstances under which it was taken. 
Indeed I think it exceedingly probable that the insect in question (whether the 
europcBus, or not) will prove to be identical with an Erodius which is common 
on the opposite coast of Morocco — having been captured at Mogadore by the 
Rev. R. T. Lowe, the Messrs, Crotch, and myself — and which also Dr. Crotch 
picked up alive (on the Mole, at S** Cruz) in Tenerifie, escaped from the actual 
vessel which had conveyed him from Mogadore ! It was (on that occasion) in 
company with a Pimelia and a large Scaurus, which are equally abundant on the 
African shore ; and I think it extremely likely therefore that MM. Webb and 
Berthelot's " Erodius europ&us," as well as their " Akis acuminata," were ob- 
tained under similar circumstances. At any rate, in the total absence of any 
information vouchsafed to us, either by them or M. Brulle, I prefer this probable 
explanation to the risk of perpetuating (what perhaps might be) a grave geogra- 
phical error by admitting the species into my fauna — particularly since it appears 
to me to be a fact (and if so, a most important one) that the genus Arthrodes 
does strictly, as above stated, take the place of Erodius in the Canarian Group. 



ERODIADiE. 389 

same consignment includes insects similarly labelled which without 
doubt were never taken in Teneriffe at all, I can place no reliance 
whatever on its professed habitat. 

1070. Arthrodes curtus. 

Erodius curtus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 63, pi. i. f. 7 (1838). 
Arthrodes curtus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 439 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in montibus hinc inde vulgaris. 

Found on the mountains of Grand Canary, principally at a rather 
high elevation, where it is locally abundant ; but I did not observe 
it in the lower districts. 



c. Epipleurce plica humeralis hrevissima. 
1071. Arthrodes obesus. 

Erodius obesus, Brulle, in Webb et BeHh. (Col.) 63 (1838). 
Arthrodes obesus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 440 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten,, Palma, Hierro), praecipue in infe- 
rioribus, passim. 

An Arthrodes which appears to be more widely spread over the 
Canarian Group than any of the others yet detected ; though since 
it is just possible that my "var. /3. simillima^' (from Palma and 
Hierro) and the " var. y. crassa " (from Grand Canary) may, either 
of them, prove to be specifically distinct, further material is perhaps 
required before this can be affirmed for certain. Still I have little 
doubt that the slight aberrations just referred to are mere unimpor- 
tant insular states of a rather variable species — the ti/pe of which I 
have assumed to be from Teneriffe, through the simple fact that the 
particular modification which there obtains appeared best to accord 
with the individual described by M. Brulle. Assuming therefore 
that the little differences of punctation, and even in the development 
of the humeral costa, are but topographical ones, the A. obesus may 
be said to occur sparingly, for the most part at low (but sometimes 
at intermediate) elevations, in Grand Canary, Teneriffe, Palma, and 
Hierro. Its detection in Grand Canary is due to the late researches 
of the Messrs. Crotch, who obtained three examples of it near Las 
Palm as*. 

* These tliree specimens from Grand Canary differ from at all events two 
Palman ones now before me (and, I think, likewise from the Teneriifan type) in 
being somewhat more distinctly punctulated, with their shoulders a trifle rounder 



890 



ERODIADtE. 



1072. Arthrodes byrrhoides. 

Arthrodes byn-lioides, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 441 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), adhuc parce deprehensus. 

Two examples, taken by myself in Fuerteventura of the Canarian 
Group, are all that I have yet seen of this Arthrodes. In general 
sculpture, contour, and immarginate prothorax it has much in 
common with the injlatus ; but it appears to be smaller, and to have 
a short humeral plica well developed. 



1073. Arthrodes laticoUis. 

Erodius laticoUis, BruUe, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 68 (1838). 
Ai'throdes laticolhs, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 441 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), sub lapidibus rarior. 



Found sparingly in Fuerteventura of the Canarian Group, whence 
Messrs. Webb and Berthelot's types, as would appear by a label still 
attached to them (for I need scarcely add that M. BruUe does not 
allude to the habitat), seem to have come. I captured a few examples 
of it either in the same island or else on the small adjacent rock of 
Lobos (unfortunately I cannot now exactly recall which of them) ; 
but since I invariably cite the latter as a portion of Fuerteventura, 
in like manner as I regard Graciosa as pertaining to Lanzarote, it is 
of but slight consequence whether they were taken on the main- 
land or not. 

d. Epijpleurce ]plica humeralis longior (sed vice ad medium ducta). 

1074. Arthrodes Hartungii. 

Erodius obesus? Hart, [nee Br.^Geolog. Verhaltn. Lanz.und i^wer^. 141. 
Arthrodes Hartungii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 442 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), a Dom. Hartung repertus. 

The only example of this large Arthrodes which I have yet seen 
is from the collection of M. Hartung, by whom it was taken in 
Fuerteventura ; and further material therefore is desirable, in order 
to complete our knowledge of the species of which it would appear 
to be the representative. 

— consequent on the humeral costa being still less developed, and nearly obsolete. 
I would record briefly the state of which they are the exponents, as follows : var. 
y. crassa [an species?]. Sensim profundius punctata ; elytris ad humeros paulo 
magis rotundatis, plica humerali etiam breviore (fere obsoleta). Habitat Canariam 
Grandem, in inferioribus capta. 





ERODIADiE. 



391 



1075. Arthrodes punctatulus. 

Arthrodes punctatulus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 443 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert), haud infrequens sub lapidibus. 

Pretty general throughout Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, where it is not uncommon 
(beneath stones) at rather low and intermediate altitudes. 

1076. Arthrodes parcepunctatus. 

Arthrodes parcepunctatus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 443 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Gom.), a DD. Gray et Crotch lectus. 

Two examples are all that I have yet seen of this species. They 
were both found in Gomera — one by Mr. Gray, and the other by 
Dr. Crotch (during his first trip to the Canaries). 

§ II. Epistoma apice vel fere vet omnino simpliclter emarginatum. 

a. Epijpleurce plica humeralis obsoleta. 

1077. Arthrodes subciliatus. 

Arthrodes subcUiatus, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 444 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.), in aridis arenosis submaritimis juxta 
radices plantarum fodiens. 

A comparatively small species which has been observed hitherto 
only in the low sandy districts of Fuerteventura, adjoining the sea- 
coast — where it burrows into the hillocks of loose sand which have 
gradually accumulated around the roots of shrubby plants. It was 
taken by Mr. Gray and myself about a mile to the south of Puerto 
de Cabras, and subsequently by myself at Corralejo (in the extreme 
north of that island). 

1078. Arthrodes subcostatus. 

Erodius (Arthrodeis) subcostatus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. {Col.) 64 

(1838). 
Arthrodes subcostatus, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 445 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in locis similibus ac prsecedens, sc. in 
aridis arenosis submaritimis, juxta urbem Las Palmas sat vul- 
garis. 

Found in the same kind of places as the last species, but in Grand 
Canary instead of Fuerteventura. It is indeed closely allied to the 



392 



ERODIADiE. 



suhciliatus, but the several points in which it permanently differs 
have been fully alluded to in my Canarian Catalogue. It has been 
taken abundantly, both by myself and the Messrs. Crotch, in the 
low sandy submaritime district of Grand Canary between Las Palmas 
and the Isleta *. 



b. Epipleurce plica humeralis distincta sed vix ad medium ducta. 

1079. Arthrodes costifrons. 

Arthrodes costifrons, Woll^ Cat. Can. Col. 445 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in aridis arenosis fodiens. 

Observed hitherto only in the eastern islands of the Canarian 
Group, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, where it appears to have 
much the same habits as the last two species — burrowing into the 
dry, loose sand in submaritime spots. 

1080. Arthrodes malleatus. 
Arthrodes malleatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 446 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus minus frequens. 

Found apparently in the intermediate districts of Lanzarote, though 
occasionally in the lower ones also ; for I took a single example of 
it in the little island of Graciosa (off the north of Lanzarote), at but 
a short distance from the sea. It was captured sparingly by Mr. 
Gray and myself between Haria and the Risco. 



1081. Arthrodes emarginatus. 

Arthrodes emarginatus, W^o/^., Cat. Can. Col. 447 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), semel tantum repertus. 



A single example of this Canarian Arthrodes, taken by myself in 
Fuerteventura, is all that I have yet seen. Although apparently 
distinct from everything else here enumerated, it is evident that 
further material is required in order to complete our knowledge of 
the species. 

* The A. subcostatus seems to differ from the suhciliatus, principally, in having 
its punctation altogether a Httle denser, but with two or three obscure, irregular, 
ill-defined lines down each of its elytra (as well as a small rounded space on 
either side of its prothoracic disk) which are comparatively glabrous or free from 
sculpture, in its prothorax being quite immarginate along the anterior edge, and 
in its antennae being usually a trifle shorter. 





TENTYRIAD^. 393 

1082. Arthrodes geotrupoides. 

Arthrodes geotrupoides, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 447 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), hactenus parce deprehensus. 

Likewise Fuerteventuran, a few examples of it having been taken 
by myself in that island — which would seem to be specially rich in 
the genus Arthrodes. 



Fam. 71. TENTYRIAD^. 

Genus 328. TENTYRIA. 
Latreille, Hist. Nat. des Crust, et Ins. x. 270 (1804). 

1083. Tentyria interrupta. 

Tentyria mterruiDta,[Latr.?],£rulle,m Webb et Berth. (Col.) 66 (1838). 
[— ], Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 448 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. DD. "Webb et Berthelot), mihi non obvia, 

A Tentyria which is admitted by M. Briille into his meagre Cana- 
rian list on the evidence of a specimen supposed to have been captured 
by MM. Webb and Berthelot. I examined it hastily, when in Paris, 
and it certainly appeared to be different both from the T. elongata 
and the Paivoea hispida ; but as no information whatever is given us 
as to its habitat, I think it is not unlikely that it may have been acci- 
dentally introduced in some of the trading vessels from the coast of 
Africa — in like manner as was the case with other Coleopterous 
insects to which I have already had occasion to aUude*. I feel a 
little doubtful, therefore, whether it ought properly to be admitted 
into this Catalogue. 

(Subgenus Eulipus, Woll.) 

1084. Tentyria Bnillsei. 

Tentyria elongata, Brulle [nee Gebler, 1830, nee Waltl, 1885], in Webb 

et Berth. (Col.) 66 (1838). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 448 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Fuert., Can.), in arenosis aridis submaritimis 
juxta radices plantarum latens. 

A large and slender Canarian insect which resides amongst the 
* Cf. * Cat. Can. Col.,' pp. 437, 469 (note). 



394 



TENTYRIAD^. 



loose sand, in the vicinity of the sea-shore, which has drifted into 
hillocks around the stems of shrubby plants. It has been taken 
about a mile to the south of Puerto de Cabras in Ftierteventura, and 
on the low sandy isthmus of Grand Canary between Las Palmas and 
the Isleta. I have been compelled to change its specific title, the 
name of elongata having been employed no less than twice in the 
genus Tentyria previously to the publication of M. Brulle's insect. 

Genus 329. PAIViEA. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 449 (1864). 

1085. Paivsea hispida. 

Tentyria hispida, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 66 (1838). 

, Martunq, Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140, 141. 

Paiv£ea hispida, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 450 (1864.) 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus vulgaris. 

A common insect throughout Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the 
two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, where it occurs under 
stones at nearly aU elevations. I likewise met with it on the small 
adjacent rocks of Graciosa and Lobos, off the extreme north of the 
former and latter respectively ; but I have no evidence as yet for 
supposing that it extends further westward in the archipelago, — 
though it is far from impossible that it may make its appearance in, 
at all events. Grand Canary*. 

Genus 330. HEGETER. 
Latreille, Hist. Nat. des Crust, et Ins. iii. 172 (1802). 



* It is a grierous fact for geographical distribution that more accuracy, as re- 
gards precise habitat, is not observed in many even tolerably well arranged col- 
lections. From no less than two different sources, in Paris, I have received this 
insect as coming from " Teneriffe ; " yet out of more than 20,000 Coleopterous 
specimens found by myself at the Canaries, and at least half that number obtained 
by the Messrs. Crotch, besides the numerous smaller batches which have from 
time to time been submitted to me, there is no trace of the Paivcea hisjpida from 
any of the islands except Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Yet it is sent to me un- 
hesitatingly as Teneriifan — probably for no better reason than that some lazy 
collector who touched at several of the islands put his material into a single bottle, 
or box, and either forgot or did not much care to preserve his habitats correctly ! 
In like manner one of the Parisian consignments now before me has the Licinus 
Manriquianus and the Arthrodes inflatus, which are also unmistakeably Lanza- 
rotan and Fuerteventuran, marked with the universal label " Teneriffe ; " and a 
similar ticket is appended even to the " Phylax validus " (so-called in collections), 
which is peculiar exclusively to the Cape de Yerdes. Surely it would be far 
better to give no localities at all than thus to falsify the plainest fects, and so help 
to disseminate error. On this subject, vide the foot-note at page vii of the 
Introductory Remarks in my Canarian Catalogue. 



tentyriadte. 395 

1086. Hegeter tristis. 

Blaps tristis, Fob., Ent. Syst. i. 108 (1792) [sec. Schauni]. 

elongata, Oliv., Ent. iii. 60, pi. i. f. 7 (1795). 

Hegeter striatus, Lat., loc. cit. x. 276 (1804). 

-, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 64 (1838). 



elongatus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 510, tab. xi. f. 7 (1854). 



, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 157 (1857). 

— tristis, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 451 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S*^) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), sub 
, lapidibus in aridis necnon in cavernis tufae congregans. 

A large Hegeter ■which is more widely spread than any of the other 
members of the genus, and which is doubtless universal throughout 
these Atlantic Groups. Of the Madeiras, however, it has been ob- 
served only in Madeira proper and Porto Santo ; but there can be 
little question that it must exist on the Desertas likewise. In the 
Canaries, where it is still more abundant, it has been captured on the 
whole seven islands of the archipelago*. 

1087. Hegeter Webbianus. 

Hegeter Webbianus, Heineken, in Zool. Journ. v. 40 (1835). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 452 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten. 2), in editioribus captus. 

I met with several examples of this Hegeter at a high elevation on 
the mountains of Grand Canary, and I believe it to be the one which 
was described by the late Dr. Heineken under the above title ; but 
in that case it is probably Teneriffan also, for he expressly mentions 
that his type was from TenerifFe. It is scarcely of much importance, 
however, whether it is or not ; for I am extremely doubtful whether 
the H. Webbianus can be regarded as more than a small state of the 
tristis. 

1088. Hegeter glaber. 

Hegeter glaber, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 65, pi. i. f. 9 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 453 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Palma), sub lapidibus hinc inde vulgaris. 

* The H. tristis has been taken by Messrs. Gray, Clark, Dohrn, &c. at the 
Cape de Verdes, and it is recorded by M. Morelet at the Azores ; so that it would 
appear to exist throughout the whole of these Atlantic Groups. Nevertheless it 
is not absolutely peculiar to the islands, at any rate now, though it is far from 
improbable that it may have been so originally ; for it is found likewise on the 
northern and western coasts of Africa. I believe however that it is not European, 
having very properly been expunged (together with the H. amaroides) from the 
recent Catalogues. 



396 



TENTYRIADiE. 



Likewise a Canarian species, but one which I have observed' 
hitherto only in the island of Palma — where it is far from uncom- 
mon, beneath stones. 

1089. Hegeter amaroides. 

Hegeter amaroides, Sol., Ann. de la Soc. Ent de France, iv. 378 (1835). 

, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 64 (1838). 

politus, Id., he. cit. 65 (1838). 

amaroides, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 453 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gom.,Hierro), sub lapidibus vulgaris. 

Next to the H. tristis this appears to be the most widely spread 
of the several Hegeters here enumerated ; nevertheless hitherto it 
has been observed only in the Canarian Group. It is a variable 
species, having many slightly different states, or races, — most of 
which however merge gradually into each other, and aU of which 
rest on characters extremely superficial and unimportant. It is 
locally abundant in Teneriffe, Gomera, and Hierro ; and if the H. 
glaber should prove eventually to be but an insular modification of 
it (which I consider far from improbable), it will then have been 
detected in Palma likewise. 



1090. Hegeter transversus. 

Hegeter transversus, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 65 (1838). 
, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 455 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis et rarius in inferioribus 
occurrens, in illis statum majorem latiorem (a.), sed in his mi- 
norem (/3.) efficiens. 

A Canarian Hegeter which has been observed only in Teneriffe, for 
the most part on the northern side of the island, where it ranges 
from the sea-level to an altitude of about 4000 feet ; but it is 
towards the wpper of those limits that it attains its maximum, be- 
coming gradually larger and broader as it ascends. This change in 
its outward contour is very perceptible if we trace it from the Puerto 
Orotava (where it is comparatively small) up to the damp sylvan re- 
gion of the Agua Mansa, or (though somewhat less conspicuously) 
to that above Ycod el Alto*. 

* In M. Hartung's volume, the H. transversus is cited for Fuerteventura ; but 
this is clearly a mistake — the result either of his having omitted (as in numerous 
other cases) to preserve his habitats with sufficient precision, or else of an error 
on the part of Dr. Heer (who compiled the list) in regarding some truly Fuerte- 
ventviran species (such, for instance, as the Thalpojphila plicifrons, to which it 
bears a considerable prima facie resemblance) as identical with it. 




TENTYRIADiE. 397 

1091. Hegeter brevicollis. 

Hegeter brevicollis, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 65 (1838). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 456 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Gam.), plerumque in locis inferioribus. 

In its typical state (or that on which the species was originally 
founded) the present Hegeter seems to be peculiar to the lower 
districts of Teneriffe, where it is rather common in the vale of Oro- 
tava towards the coast ; and large examples of it might often well be 
confounded, at first sight, with small ones of the transversus. Never- 
theless the characters which I pointed out in my Canarian Catalogue 
appear to be sufficient for distinguishing even these quasi-mterme- 
diate individuals (aberrations in opposite directions) of the two 
species. 

In Gomera it seems on the average to be a little larger and more 
appreciably punctulated than is the case in Teneriffe, and its hinder 
prothoracic angles are somewhat more sharply defined (or rectangu- 
lar) ; but I cannot think that more than a slight insular phasis of 
the species is indicated, though I recorded that particular state as 
the *' var. /3. gomerensis." 

1092. Hegeter abbreviatus. 

Hegeter abbreviatus. Bridle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 66 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 457 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in lauretis editioribus sub lapidibus 
parce captus. 

One of the rarest, and best defined, of the Hegeters hitherto de- 
tected, and one which I have observed only in Grand Canary — where 
I captured eight examples of it in the laurel-district, at a rather 
high elevation, on the mountains between Osorio and Guia. 



1093. Hegeter costipennis, 
Hegeter costipennis, JTo//., Cat. Can. Col. 457 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Can.), sub lapidibus in montibus rarissimus. 

Likewise peculiar (so far as observed hitherto) to Grand Canary, 
and probably the rarest of all the species yet detected. Indeed the 
only five examples of it which I have yet seen were captured by 
myself at a high altitude on the mountains above San Mateo, on the 
ascent to the Roca del Soucilho. 



398 



TENTYRIAD^. 



1094. Hegeter impressus. 

Hegeter impressus, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 64 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 458 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), sub lapidibus ubique vulgaris. 

The universal Hegeter in Grand Canary, to which island it seems 
to be peculiar. Like most of the species, it presents many slight 
local modifications — ^in size, breadth, and its more or less crumpled 
(or corrugated) surface ; but all the states that I have yet seen pass 
into each other by imperceptible gradations. It is more particularly 
common in dry cindery districts of intermediate altitudes, and 
abounds throughout the region of El Monte. 

1095. Hegeter subrotundatus. 
Hegeter subrotundatus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 459 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), sub lapidibus parce deprehensus. 

It is barely possible that the three examples from which my 
diagnosis of this Hegeter was compiled may be but extreme aberra- 
tions of the H. impressus ; nevertheless they certainly cannot repre- 
sent any local state of that species, for they were found in company 
with it — in the south of Grand Canary. Although therefore I be- 
lieve the H. subrotundatus to be truly distinct, future and more 
extensive material can alone decide whether I am correct in that 
conclusion. 

1096. Hegeter tenuipunctatus. 

Hegeter tenuipunctatus?, Brnlle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 65 (1838). 
, WolL, Cat. Can. Col. 459 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus in regionibus valde elevatis 
latens. Usque ad, vel etiam ultra, 9000' s. m. ascendit. 

A Teneriffan species which seems to occur only in very elevated 
districts, from about 7000 to at least 9000 feet above the sea. On 
the lofty Cumbre overlooking the Caiiadas I took it in profusion, 
from under stones and scoriae amongst the bushes of the Eetama. 

1097. Hegeter lateralis. 

Hegeter lateralis, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 65 (1838). 
,Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 460 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), una cum specie praecedente degens. 
Captured abundantly, in company with the preceding species, in 



TENTYRIADiE. 399 

the lofty regions of Teneriffe, which are characterized by the pre- 
sence of the Spartium nuhigena (or E-etama). It will perhaps be 
found to ascend even still higher than the tenuipunctatm. 

1098. Hegeter latebricola. 

Hegeter latebricola, Woll, Ins. Mad. 510 (note) (1854). 
, Id., Journ. of Ent i. 91 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem, et minorem, australem), 
sub lapidibus vulgatissimus. 

An abundant Hegeter on the rocks of the Salvages, being found 
equally on the northern island (or Great Salvage) and the southern 
one (or Great Piton). From the former it has been obtained in 
profusion, during the last few years, by the Barao do Castello de 
Paiva; whilst on the latter it was captured (in 1851) by Mr. T. S. 
Leacock, of Madeira, by whom the species was then for the first 
time detected. 

Genus 331. THALPOPHILA. 
Solier, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, iv. 370 (1835). 

1099. Thalpophila plicifrons. 

Hegeter brevicollis, Hart, [nee Br.'], Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und 

Fuert. 140, 141. 
Thalpophila pUcifrons, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 461 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Fuert,), sub lapidibus scoriisque in aridis. 

Found hitherto only in Fuerteventura of the Canarian Group, 
where it was captured by Mr. Gray and myself near Puerto de 
Cabras, and subsequently by myself at Oliva. 

1100. Thalpophila Deyrollii. 

Hegeter pohtus, Hart, [nee J5r.], Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 141. 
Thalpophila DeyroUii, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 462 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus ubique vulga- 
tissima. 

A universal and most abundant insect throughout Lanzarote and 
Fuerteventura, the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, oc- 
curring likewise on the small adjacent islets of Graciosa and Lobos 
(off the extreme north of the former and latter, respectively) ; but I 
have no evidence as yet of its having been captured further west- 
ward in the archipelago*. 

* In accordance with the sad want of accuracy (as regards precise habitat), in 
certain collections, on which I have already felt it necessary to comment, this 



400 



TENTYRIAD^. 



1101. Thalpophila fuscipes. 

Hegeter fuscipes, BrulU, m Webb et Berth. (Col) 66 (1838). 

, Hart., Geoloq. Verhdltti. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 

Thalpophila fuscipes, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 463 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert), sub lapidibus in intermediis 
vulgaris. 

Likewise peculiar (so far at least as has yet been observed) to the 
two eastern islands of the Canarian Group, Lanzarote and Fuerte- 
ventura, where it is abundant beneath stones at intermediate alti- 
tudes. 

1102. Thalpophila suhmetaUica. 

Thalpophila submetallica, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 464 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), una cum specie praecedente oc- 
currens. 

The smallest of the Thalpophilce hitherto detected, and one which 
bears a close prima facie resemblance to the last species. Like it, 
it seems to be peculiar to Lanzarote and Fuerteventura — where it 
occurs beneath stones, often in company with its ally, at interme- 
diate elevations. 

Genus 332. GNOPHOTA. 
Erichson, in Wieg. Archiv, ix. 237 (1843). 

1103. Gnophota cribricoUis. 

Hegeter cribricoUis, Bridle, in Webb et Berth. {Col) 66 (1838). 
Gnophota cribricoUis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 465 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in inferioribus intermediisque degens. 

Not uncommon in the central and southern districts of Grand 
Canary, but I have not yet observed it in any of the other islands. 

1104. Gnophota inaequalis. 

Gnophota insequalis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 466 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Can.), adhuc parce deprehensa. 

insect has on seyeral occasions been transmitted to me from Paris with the label 
" Teneriffe " appended to it. Yet I am perfectly satisfied that the specimens 
communicated were never taken in Teneriffe at all, but are either Lanzarotau or 
Fuerteventuran. When naturalists at home receive material unaccompanied by 
any positive statement of the exact district in which it was obtained, would it not 
be far wiser not to attempt to define the localities thus rigidly ? Had these ex- 
amples been called simply " Canarian," it would have been perfectly correct ; but 
by affirming them to be from "Teneriffe" — merely perhaps because the person 
who collected them made his head quarters in that island, or else did not much 
care to preserve a memorandum of his habitats — a downright misstatement, in 
volving a serious topographical blunder, is at once placed on record. 





BLAPIDiE. 401 

Three examples, which I captured in Grand Canary, embody all 
that I yet know about this Gnojphota. Although agreeing with 
neither of them, it appears in some respects to be intermediate 
between the cribricollis and punctipennis ; and therefore, until fur- 
ther material has been obtained for a more complete inspection of 
its characters, I can scarcely regard its diagnosis as entirely satis- 
factory. 

1105. Gnophota punctipennis. 
Gnophota punctipennis, Woll., Cat Can. Col. 467 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Can.), in subinferioribus intermediisque hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

Also found in Grand Canary, where it would appear to represent 
in the more northern parts of that island the G. cribricollis, which 
is as widely distributed over the central and southern districts. 
The G. punctipennis is universal throughout the region of El Monte 
and in the vicinity of Las Palmas. 

Genus 333. MELANOCHRUS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 467 (1864). 

1106. Melanochrus Lacordairii. 

Melanochi-us Lacordairii, JFoll., Cat. Can. Col. 468 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lariz., Fuert.), in arenosis maritimis submari- 
timisque ad radices plantarum fodiens. 

A Canarian insect which has been observed hitherto only in 
Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, where it resides in low sandy places 
near the coast — burrowing amongst the loose sand around the roots 
of shrubby plants. 

Fam. 72. BLAPID^. 

Genus 334. BLAPS. 
Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 254 (1775). 

1107. Blaps gages. 

Tenebrio gages, Linn.,Sy8t. Nat. ii. 676 [script., per err., ^rt^rcw] (1767). 
Blaps gages, BndU, in Webb et Berth. {Col!) 68 (1838). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 506 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 157 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 469 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., P*^ S^^), Salvages (ins. majorem, 

2d 



402 



PIMELIAD.E. 



borealem) et Canarienses (Lanz., Can., Ten., Gom.), in infe- 
rioribus late sed parce diffusa. 

This large European Blaps, although nowhere very common, is 
widely spread over these Atlantic islands — where we may be pretty 
sure that it wiU be found to be nearly (if not indeed quite) universal. 
It has been taken in Madeira proper and Porto Santo, of the Ma- 
deiran Group, and in Lanzarote, Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and 
Gomera, of the Canaries. And it was obtained by the Barao do 
Castello de Paiva even from the Great Salvage. 

1108. Blaps alternans. 

Blaps alternans, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 68 (1838). 

, Hart., Geolog. Verhiiltn. Lanz. tmd Fuert. 140. 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 470 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus magnis necnon in 
cavemis tufae praecipue in editioribus congregans. 

Locally abundant in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern 
islands of the Canarian Group ; but it has not yet been detected 
elsewhere. It is more particularly in Lanzarote that I have myself 
observed it — where I met with it in profusion, beneath slabs of 
stone, on the hills around Haria. 

1109. Blaps similis. 

Blaps similis, Lat, Hist. Nat. Crust, et his. x. 279 (1803). 

fatidica, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 68 (1838). 

fatadica, WoU., Ins. Mad. 508 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 157 (1857). 

similis, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 470 (1864). 

Hahitat Maderenses (Mad., P^c S*^) et Canarienses (Fuert., Ten.), 
minus frequens. 

The common European B. similis occurs sparingly both at the 
Madeiras and Canaries, where very likely it may have become esta- 
blished from more northern latitudes. It has been taken in Madeira 
proper and Porto Santo, of the former,. and in Euerteventura and 
Teneriffe, of the latter. 




Fam. 73. TlMELlABm. 

Genus 335. PIMELIA. 

Fabricius, Si/st. Ent. 251 (1775). 



PIMELIADiE. 403 

§ I. Scutellum (ut in Pimeliadis typicis) cons^icuum, jiostice d'datato' 

trmisversum. 

1110. Pimelia lutaria. 

Pimelia lusaiia, Bridle, in JVebb et Berth. (Col.) 68, pi i. f. 11 (1838). 

lutaria*, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 471 (1864). 

canariensis, Hart, [nee -5r.], Geol. Verh. Lanz. u. FuerL 140, 141. 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus vulgaris. 

This pubescent Pimelia, the short cinereous under-])i[e of which 
gives it the appearance of being partially clothed with a muddy de- 
posit, is the common species throughout Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, 
the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group ; and I also met 
with it on the little islet of Graciosa, off the extreme north of the 
former: but so far as I am aware, it has not yet been observed 
further westward in the archipelago. 

I should state, however, that a specimen has just been communi- 
cated by De Marseul with the label " Teneriffe" attached to it ; but 
as several of the insects in the same consignment which are unmis- 
taTceably either Lanzarotan or Fuerteventuran ones have a similar 
ticket appended to them, I canuot place sufficient reliance on this 
habitat to feel justified in citing the species for any other island than 
the two to which my own observ^ations would imply that it is essen- 
tially peculiar. At the same time I must add that this single example 
does really differ a little from the ordinary type ; though the differ- 
ences are so very slight that I cannot attach much importance to 
themf. 

1111. Pimelia canariensis. 

Pimelia canariensis, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 67 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 472 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in summo ipso monte " Pico de Teyde " 
(12,100' s. m.) a DD. Webb et Berthelot necnon de la Perrau- 
diere deprehensa. 

* On the singular manner in which the orthography of this specific title has 
been tampered with, through M. Brulle haring spelt it wrongly in his letter- 
press but rightly on his plate, compare ' Cat. Can. Col.' p. 471 (note). 

t As it is of course barely possible (even though, I think, most unlikely) that 
this individual may really be a Teneriffan one, I will just record it as follows ; 
and I have given the race which it represents (or may be supposed to represent) 
a subspecific name, in the event of further material proving it to be truly dis- 
tinct : — 

Var. /3. lutvlenta. Vix angustior, oblongior, depressior ; prothorace sublongiore 
ac paulo minus lato, ad latera prsesertim antice minus rotundato (quare postice 
paulo rectius angustato, angulis posticis sensim magis determinatis). 

2d2 



404 

A Pimelia which appears to occur in the highest elevations of 
Teneriffe, having been captured by MM. Webb and Berthelot on the 
very top of the " Peak " itself (at an altitude of more than 12,000 
feet). Their types indeed, which I examined carefully when in Paris, 
were until quite lately all that I had seen ; but an example is now 
before me which has just been communicated by De Marseul from 
the collection of M. de la Perraudiere, and which (although labelled 
merely as Teneriffan) must doubtless have been taken in the same 
locality. As considerations of health would not permit me to venture 
much higher than about 9000 feet on the mountains of Teneriffe, I 
did not reach the summit of the Peak, and consequently did not ob- 
tain this beautiful Pimelia, though the elevated Cumbre (overlooking 
the Canadas) which formed the upper limit of my explorations was 
thickly strewed with the P. ascendens. 

1112. Pimelia fomicata. 

Pimeha fomicata?, Hbst, Natursyst viii. 79, tab. 122. f. 8 (1799). 

obesa?, Sol., Ann. de la Soc. Ent de France, v. 191 (1836). 

, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 67 (1838). 

fomicata, Wall., Cat Can. Col. 472 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. DD. Webb et Berth.), mihi non obvia. 

A Pimelia of Mediterranean latitudes which is admitted by M. 
Brulle into his short and inaccurate list of Canarian Coleoptera, on 
the evidence of specimens supposed to have been captured by MM. 
Webb and Berthelot. I examined the latter, whilst in Paris, and 
they certainly are different from every other species recorded in this 
volume, and perhaps also rightly identified with the obesa (or fomi- 
cata) of southern Europe. I need scarcely add that M. Brulle gives 
us no kind of information about them ; and therefore, until further 
evidence has been obtained on the subject of their habitat, I cannot ; 
regard them as by any means undoubtedly Canarian — and especially 
so, since a Pimelia much resembling the fomicata swarms on the 
opposite coast of Morocco, and I have already had occasion to com- 
ment on the accidental importations, through the medium of trading 
vessels, which from time to time have unquestionably taken place at 
S** Cruz. 

1113. Pimelia ascendens. 

Pimelia barbara, Br. [nee Sol], in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 67 (1838). 
ascendens, WolL, Cat Can. Col. 473 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in montibus excelsis usque ad 10,000 
s. m. ascendens. 




PIMELIADiE. 



405 



All abundant Pimelia on the elevated Cumbres of Teneriffe, from 
about 7000 to 9000 feet above the sea, and ascending, I believe, even 
still higher — though scarcely, I imagine, to the very highest point 
of all (which seems to be tenanted by the P. canariensis). On the 
upland tracts adjoining, and overlooking, the Caiiadas, I took it in 
profusion — beneath stones and scoriae, as well as crawhng sluggishly 
on the ground, amongst the bushes of the Retama. 

1114. Pimelia radula, 

Pimelia radula (DeJ.), Sol., Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de Fr., v. 136 (1836). 
(— ), Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 474 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), plerumque in inferioribus degens. 

Likewise Teneriffan, but found at a low elevation (almost at the 
sea-level), and seldom ascending into even the intermediate districts. 
Around the Puerto Orotava, on the northern side of the island, its 
elytral tubercles are less strongly defined than is the case around S** 
Cruz ; and the former state corresponds to the " a " of my diagnosis, 
whilst the latter is defined as the " /3. granulata" 

1115. Pimelia sparsa. 

Pimelia sparsa, BndlS, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 67 (1838). 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 475 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (sec. DD. Webb et Berthelot), mihi non obvia. 

Recorded by M. BruUe as having been found by MM. Webb and 

Berthelot at the Canaries, but without any information as to the 

island. I examined the type, when in Paris, and do not feel quite 

certain that it is more than a variety of the radula in which the 

elytral tubercles (between the costae) are very much less numerous. 

Still, as I could not compare it with sufficient accuracy, and the 

species has already been established, I think it would hardly be safe, 

without further evidence, to treat it as otherwise than specifically 

distinct. 

1116. Pimelia ambigua. 

Pimelia ambigua, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 475 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), a Dom. DeyroUe olim communicata, 
sed a DD. Crotch nuperrime deprehensa. 

A Canarian Pimelia which I described from a single example com- 
municated from Paris by M. Deyrolle. It had been received by him 
as coming from Teneriffe ; but, as implied in the remarks accom- 



406 



PIMELIAD^. 



panying my diagnosis, that was no proof whatever of its being 
positively Teneriffan, — a conchision indeed which was still further 
evident at the time from the fact of his having sent me other insects 
likewise, with the label *' Teneriffe " appended to them, which clearly 
were not from that island, but which were captured (without doubt) 
either in Lanzarote or Fuerteventura (where the fauna is most 
characteristic, and unmistakeable). But a second specimen of the 
P. amhigua, which was found by the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, for- 
tunately sets at rest the question of its habitat ; and I think it is 
most probable therefore that M. Deyrolle's example was from the 
collection of M. de la Perraudiere, who it is well known visited 
Hierro. 

Although quite satisfied however that the present Pimelia is not 
Teneriffan, its proper island becomes of less importance from the 
consideration that I cannot but feel a slight doubt whether it is more 
(after all) than a local variety of the costijpennis, in which the elytra 
are much crumpled transversely (occasioning the ridges to appear 
rather angular and undulated) and the prothoracic punctures are a 
trifle more evident. Still I have not been able to connect it vdth 
the ordinary type of that insect (which abounds in Hierro) ; and 
therefore I must leave in doubt the question of its specific claims, 
to be solved by future observation and more extensive material. 



1117. Pimelia costipennis. 

Pimelia costipennis, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 476 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom., Hierro), praecipue in subinferioribus vul- 
garis. 

The common Pimelia of Gomera and Hierro, where it is occasion- 
ally abundant at rather low elevations. The Gomeran specimens 
are on the average a little larger than the Hierro ones, and have 
their limbs thicker ; but I can detect nothing about them to warrant 
the suspicion that they represent more than a slight insular phasis 
of the latter. 

1118. Pimelia laevigata. 

Pimelia levigata, BruUe, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 67 (1838). 
laevigata, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 477 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.?, Palma), saepius in subinferioribus hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

An abundant species at rather low elevations in Palma, of the 



PIMELIAD^. 407 

Canarian Group ; and it appears also to occur in Teneriife, though 
I have not myself observed it in that island*. 

1119. Pimelia serrimargo. 

Pimelia verrucosa, Br. [nee Fisch. de Waldh., 1821], in Webb et Berth. 

(Col.) 67 (1838). 
serrimargo, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 477 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), late diffusa et hinc inde vulgaris. 

A Pimelia which has been observed hitherto only in Grand Canary, 
over which island however it is widely diffused. It is an extremely 
variable species, both in stature and in the greater or less develop- 
ment of its elytral tubercles. 

§ II. Scutdlum brevissimum, pronoto tectum (nee pone basin elytro- 
rum ipsissimam extendens), ergo superne vix observandum. [Subg. 
ApJmnaspis, Woll.] 

1120. Pimelia granulicollis. 

Pimelia granulicollis, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col- 478 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in arenosis submaritimis prope urbem 
Las Palmas parce deprehensa. 

This large and subopake species occurs in the low sandy district 
of Grand Canarj^ between Las Palmas and the Isleta, where, how- 
ever, it would appear to be scarce. It has been taken sparingly 
both by myself and the Messrs. Crotch. 

1121. Pimelia auriculata. 

Pimelia bajula, Br. [nee Klug, 1830], in Webb et Ber. (Col.) 57 (1838). 
auriculata, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 479 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), late diffusa, ab ora maritima usque ad 
regiones montosas ascendens. 

An oblong, shining, and comparatively unsculptured Pimelia, which 

* Althongh I can scarcely doubt the occurrence of the P. IcBvigata in Teneriffe, 
I nevertheless cannot but feel that more conclusive evidence is still wanted on 
the subject of its extra-Palman range. Considering however that MM. Webb 
and Berthelot, Hartung, and Crotch are supposed to have met with it in "Tene- 
riffe," it may perhaps seem unreasonable that further proof for its existence in 
that island should be required. But as I have not been able to elicit any kind of 
information as to where the Teneriffan examples were found, and it is a remark- 
able fact that all of its captors visited Palma, I must crave their indulgence if I 
should appear to be unnecessarily sceptical concerning its Teneriffan habitat. 



408 



CONIONTIDJE. 



seems to be peculiar to Grand Canary. It is widely spread over that 
island — occurring at quite low, intermediate, and even rather lofty 
elevations. 

Fam. 74. CONIONTID^. 

Genus 336. CRYPTICUS. 
Latreille, Regn. An. (^dit. i.) iii. 298 (1817). 

1122. Crypticus navicularis. 

Crypticus? navicularis, Brulle, in Webb et JBertJi. (Col.) 69 (1838). 
^ jroll, Cat. Can. Col. 481 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), in sylvaticis editioribus sat rarus. 

A Canarian Crypticus which has been observed hitherto only in 
Teneriife, where it occurs sparingly in the damp sylvan districts of 
a rather high elevation. 

1123. Crypticus punctatissimus. 
Crypticus punctatissimus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 480 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Palma), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

Found in much the same kind of places as the last species, but 
in Palma (instead of Teneriffe) — where it appears to be universal 
throughout the wooded districts of intermediate and lofty altitudes. 

1124. Crypticus calvus. 

Crypticus canariensis (p.), Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 482 (1864). 
calvus, WoU.j Append, huj. op. 59. 

Habitat Canarienses (Hierro), in sylvaticis intermediis degens. 

Taken abundantly by the Messrs. Crotch in Hierro, during their 
late Canarian campaign, in which island, however, a single example 
had been captured previously by myself — in the wooded district of 
El Golfo. It would seem therefore to have much the same habits as 
the last two species, to which it is evidently allied. Indeed, as 
stated in the Appendix, I think it is not unlikely that these three 
Cryptici may be, in reality, but permanent phases of a single, some- 
what plastic species — each of them peculiar to its respective island. 
But since it is impossible to affirm this for certain, I have no option 
but to treat them as specifically distinct ; and future observers must 
decide for themselves whether they consider it safe to amalgamate 
them. 




i 



CONIONTID^. 409 

1125. Crypticus canariensis. 

Ciypticus glaber, Br. [nee Fah.\ in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 69 (1838). 
canariensis, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 481 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), sub lapidibus foliisque dejectis in inter- 
mediis editiorib usque occurrens. Per regiones sylvaticas usque 
ad 9000' s. m., vel etiam ultra, ascendit. 

Widely spread over the intermediate and lofty elevations of Tene- 
rifFe, but it has not yet been detected in any of the other islands. 
It occurs both in the sylvan districts and on the lofty, open Cumbres 
above them — ascending to an altitude of more than 9000 feet. The 
examples from the latter regions differ a little from those in less 
elevated spots ; but the points of difference are very slight, and the 
two forms merge gradually into each other. 

1126. Crypticus nitidulus. 
Crypticus nitidulus, Woll., Append, huj. op. 6o. 

Habitat Canarienses (Gam.), a DD. Crotch parce deprehensus. 

A few examples of this comparatively shining and deeply punc- 
tured Crypticus were taken in Gomera by the Messrs. Crotch, during 
their late expedition to the Canaries. The characters which distin- 
guish it from its allies have been fully pointed out in the Appendix. 

1127. Crypticus oblongus. 

Crypticus oblongus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 482 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom., Hierro), in intermediis editioribus- 
que late diffusus. 

Widely diffused over the intermediate and lofty elevations of Tene- 
riffe, Gomera, and Hierro, in the Canarian Group, occurring beneath 
stones and fallen leaves. Its detection in Gomera is due to the late 
researches of the Messrs. Crotch. The examples from Hierro have 
their sculpture just perceptibly finer than those from Teneriffe, and 
the Gomeran ones than those from Hierro. 

1128. Crypticus minutus. 

Crvpticus minutus, Brulle, in Webb ei> Berth. (Col.) 69 (1838). 
—^ , Woll, Cat Can. Col 483 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in intermediis et editioribus rarior. 

Two specimens only, with the exception of M. Brulle's type (which 
I examined, when in Paris), of this comparatively minute Crypticus 



410 



PEDINIDiE. 



have as yet come beneath my notice. They were taken by mysel 
in Grand Canary, — one of them in the region of El Monte, and the 
other at a high altitude on the mountains to the south of the Eoca 
del Soucilho. 

Genus 337. .ELLIPSODES. 

WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 485 (1854). 

1129. EUipsodes glabratus. 

Sphseridium glabratum, Fah., Ent. Syst. i. 79 (1792). 

, Id., Syst. Eku. i. 93 (1801). 

EUipsodes glabratus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 486, tab. xi. f. 2 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 150 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus in intermediis editioribus- 
que vulgaris. J 

An abundant insect at intermediate and (more particularly) lofty 
elevations in Madeira proper, ranging from about 1500 feet above 
the sea to the summits of the peaks. It occurs principally beneath 
stones. 

1130. EUipsodes oblongior. 

EUipsodes glabratus, var. j3., Woll, Ins. Mad. 486 (1854). 
oblongior. Id., Cat Mad. Col 150 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {P*° JS^^, Des., Bugio), sub lapidibus in editioribus 
rarior. 

Likewise peculiar to the Madeiran Group, and so closely allied to 
the preceding species that I am extremely doubtful whether it ought 
to be regarded as more than a modification of it. I have taken it 
sparingly, under stones, at a rather high elevation, in Porto Santo, 
the Deserta Grande, and on the Bugio. 




Fam. 75. PEDINIDiE. 

Genus 338. MELASMA. 

WoUaston, Cat. Can. Col 484 (1864). 

1131. Melasma lineatum. 

Phylax? Hneatus, BrvlU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 69 (1838). 

, Hart., Geolog. Verhdltn. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 

Melasma lineatum, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 485 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), sub lapidibus vulgare. 

Common throughout Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two eastern 



OPATRID^. 411 

islands of the Canarian Group ; and I likewise met with it on the 
little islet of Graciosa, off the extreme north of the former. It 
occurs beneath stones, principally at intermediate altitudes*. 



Fam. 76. OPATRIDJE. 

Genus 339. CNEMOPLATIA. 
Costa, Ann. Ac. Asp. Nat. Nap. i. 146 [script. Cnemeplatia'] (1847). 

1132. Cnemoplatia laticeps. 

Autocera laticeps, WoU., Cat. Mad. Col. 155, fig. 2 (1857). 
Cnemeplatia laticeps. Id., Cat. Can. Col. 485 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Ten.), in intermediis, 
prsecipue sub recremento ad basin acervorimi foeni sparse, ra- 
rissima. 

A curious little insect very closely allied to the Italian C. Atrojpos, 
of which it is just possible that it may be but a geographical modi- 
fiication. Still I believe it to be truly distinct ; for its small differ- 
ential characters remain constant both in the Madeiras and Canaries, 
which would hardly be the case if it were any mere local phasis of 
the Mediterranean species. It occurs rarely, at intermediate alti- 
tudes, in Madeira proper — having been taken by myself on the 
ascent from S^ Cruz to S. Antonio da Serra, by the late Mr. Bewicke 
beneath haystack-refuse at Camacha, and by Senhor Moniz at " the 
Mount " above Funchal. From the Canaries I have seen hitherto 
but a single example, which was captured by Dr. Crotch (during the 
spring of 1862) in Teneriffe ; though we may expect to meet with it 
more abundantly, if searched for in the proper situations. 

* I have no shadow of evidence that the M. lineafum has occurred anywhere 
except in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (and on their small adjacent rocks), and 
feel satisfied that it is peculiar to the eastern part of the Canarian archipelago ; 
yet, as usual, I have been somewhat troubled by receiving from Paris an example 
of it labelled '• Teneriffe." It really would appear as if accuracy of habitat was 
a subject totally uncared for in many of the continental collections ; for it is 
grievous to observe how the species from these various islands, and some even 
from the Cape de Yerdes, are hawked about indiscriminately as Teneriffan, and 
that too with a confidence bordering on pugnacity. If naturalists would but 
consider the amount of falsehood which they wantonly propagate by this slovenly 
confusion of their localities, they would pause before attempting to define the 
latter too rigidly on insufficient evidence. If in cases like the present one they 
would but cite their specimens simply as " Canarian," instead of assigning them 
to some particular island to which they do not belong, it would be far more satis- 
factory, and at the same time less offensive to those who are labouring to arrive 
at the truth on special questions of topographical interest. 



412 



OPATRID^. 



Genus 340. SCLERUM. 
(Dej.) Hope, Col. Man. iii. Ill [script. Scleron] (1840). 

1133. Sclerum aspemlum. 

Sclerum asperulimi, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 486 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), sub lapidibus in inferioribus arenosis 
captum. 

Several examples of this fine Sclerum were taken by myself, at a 
low elevation, in the south of Grand Canary — beneath stones, at 
Maspalomas. 

Genus 341. OPATRUM. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 76 (1775). 

1134. Opatrum lutosum. 

Opatrum lutosum, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 486 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.)^ sub lapidibus vulgare. 

The universal Opatrum of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two 
eastern islands of the Canarian Group, where it is common beneath 
stones at low and intermediate altitudes. I have no evidence for 
supposing that it occurs further westward in the archipelago, though 
I think it far from unlikely that it will be found in the sandy parts 
of (at all events) Grand Canary. 

1135. Opatrum fuscum. 

Opatrum fuscum, Hhst, Kdf. v. 225, tab. 52. f. 1 (1793). 
-, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 68 (1838). 



errans, Woll., Ins. Mad. 501, tab. xi. f. 3 (1854). 
-, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 156 (1857). 



fuscum, Hart., Geolog. Verhdlin. Lanz. und Fuert. 140. 
, Woll, Cat. Can. Col 487 (1864). 



Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert, Can., Ten.), 
late diffusum. 

An Opatrum of Mediterranean latitudes which is widely distri- 
buted over these Atlantic islands, though seldom very abundant. In 
Madeira proper (whence I described it as a new species, under the 
name of errands) it has been observed hitherto only at rather lofty 
elevations ; but in the Canarian islands of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, | 
Grand Canary, and Teneriffe (in each of which it has been taken) it 
seems to be found equally in the low and intermediate districts. 




OPATRID^. 413 

1136. Opatrum hispidum. 

Opatrum tomentosum, Dej., Cat. (edit. 3) 214 (1837). 

hispidum, Brum, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 68 (1838). 

proliximi, Erich., in Wiegm. Archiv, 248 (1843). 

fusciim, WiM. [nee Hbsf], Ins. Mad. 500, tab. xi. f. 1 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 156 (1857). 

hispidum, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 488 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (ins. omnes) et Canarienses (ins. omnes), sub 
lapidibus, passim. 

There is no insect more general throughout these Atlantic Groups 
than this Opatrum, in all the islands of which (namely, the five Ma- 
deiran and the seven Canarian ones), except those of the Salvages, 
it has been captured — more or less abundantly. It is likewise com- 
mon at the Cape de Yerdes. In my ' Ins. Mad.' and Madeiran 
Catalogue I erroneously regarded it as the fuscum (or 7i(sticum) of 
southern Europe ; which led me into the further mistake of describ- 
ing the latter (under the name of errans) as a new species. 

1137. Opatrum oblitum. 

Opatrum obUtum, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 489 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert.), in aridis arenosis et calcaiiis, 
praesertim submaritimis, occurrens. 

A rather small species (somewhat allied to the 0. pygmoeum of 
southern Europe) which occurs at low elevations in the two eastern 
islands of the Canarian archipelago, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura ; 
and I likewise met with it on the little islet of Graciosa, off the north 
of the former. It is found generally in sandy and calcareous spots, 
towards the coast. 

1138. Opatrum dilatatum. 

Opatrum dilatatum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 501 [note] (1854). 
, Id., Journ. of Ent. i. 91 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. minorem, australem), a Dom. Leacock semel 
depreheusum. 

The only example which I have yet seen of this distinct Opatrum 
was taken on the southern of the two islands of the Salvages (known 
as the " Great Piton "), in 1851, by Mr. Leacock of Madeira. 

Genus 342. MELANSIS. 
Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 491 (1864). 



414 



OPATRID^. 



1139. Melansis costata. 

Phylax costatus, BmlU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 69 (1838). 
Melansis costata, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 491 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), hinc inde in editioribus hand infrequens. 

Hitherto I have observed this insect only on the mountains of 
Grand Canary, where it is locally far from uncommon at a rather 
high altitude. On the ascent to the great Pinal above San Barto- 
lome, in the central region of Tarajana, I met with it in tolerable 
abundance. 



1140. Melansis angulata. 
Melansis angulata, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 492 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Palma, Hierro), in intermediis rarissima. 



1142. Hadrus Paivse. 

Hadrus Paivse, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. vi. 50 (1860). 
, Id., Append, hyj. op. 6i. 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in inferioribus prope oppidulum Porto 
da Cruz adhuc tantum lectus. 

* The Hierro specimen has its costae just perceptibly less sharply developed, 
and its hinder prothoracic angles more decidedly simple (or with no apparent 
tendency to be subrecurved) ; but such slight characters are hardly worth noticing, 
being scarcely appreciable. 



I 



I captured about twenty examples of this well-defined species in 
Palma, of the Canarian Group, — beneath stones in the Barranco 
above S** Cruz, at about two miles from the latter. And a specimen 
has been communicated by De Marseul, which was taken by M. de la 
Perraudiere in Hierro*. 

Genus 343. HADRUS. 
(Dej. Cat.) WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 502 (1854). 

1141. Hadrus alpinus. 

Hadrus alpinus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 502, tab. xi. f. 5 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 156 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in intermediis editioribusque sat vul- 
garis. 

Rather common in the intermediate and somewhat lofty altitudes 
of Madeira proper, occurring (beneath stones) both in the sylvan 
regions and above them ; but it does not appear to descend into the 
lower districts. 




I 




OPATRID^. 415 

Likewise found in Madeira proper, but at quite low elevations. 
Indeed the only spot in which I have met with it hitherto is, at the 
sea-level, close to the little town of Porto da Cruz (on the eastern 
coast) — ^where I captured it in profusion beneath stones. It was 
named after the Barao do Castello de Paiva, to whose researches in 
Madeira I have often been indebted for much interesting material. 

1143. Hadrus cinerascens. 

Hadrus cinerascens, De/., Cat. (edit. 3) 214 (1837). 

, Woll, Ins. 'Mad. 503, tab. xi. f. 4 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 156 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., Ilheo ChJao, Des., Bugio), sub lapidibus 
ubique vulgatissimus. 

One of the most abundant of the Coleopterous insects of the Ma- 
deiran Group, to which it seems to be peculiar. It occurs from the 
sea-level to the summits of the peaks (being most common, however, 
at rather low elevations), and is found in all the islands except Porto 
Santo — where its place is taken by the H. illotus. 

1144. Hadrus illotus. 

Hadrus illotus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 503, tab. xi. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 156 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ ^S^''), sub lapidibus in inferioribus interme- 
diisque abundans. 

As already stated, this Hadrus seems to be the Porto-Santan 
representative of the H. cinerascens, which abounds on all the other 
islands of the Madeiran Group. And such being the case, one can 
scarcely resist the inquiry whether it is not in reality an insular 
modification of that species. It is certainly possible that this may 
be so ; nevertheless the fact that the cinerascens remains constant on 
the various other islands (and adjacent rocks) would render it a priori 
unlikely that it should have become permanently altered in Porto 
Santo. 

Genus 344. HALONOMUS. 
Wollaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 201 (1861). 

1145. Halonomus salinicola. 

Halonomus salinicola, Woll., loc. cit. 203 (1861). 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 490 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Can.), sub lapidibus in locis salinis hinc 
inde vulgatissimus. 



416 



TRACHYSCELID^. 



A Canarian insect which was taken in great abundance by Mr." 
Gray and myself at the Salinas (or salt-works) in the extreme north 
of Lanzarote, and of which I subsequently captured a single example 
at the southern point of Grand Canaiy. I am far from certain that 
it is more than a geographical state of the H. ovatus {=iHetero'phaga 
ovata, Dej. Cat. y=zOpatrum ovatum, ^rich..,= Halonomus Grayii, 
WolL), which is recorded from Senegal and Sicily, and which occui'S 
likewise at the Cape de Verdes. But whether this be the case or 
not, it certainly exists on the opposite coast of Morocco — it having 
been captured by the Messrs. Crotch at Mogadore. 



Fam. 77. TEACHYSCELIDJE. 

Genus 345. PSEUDANEMIA. 

Wollaston, Cat. Can. Col. 492 (1864). 

1146. Pseudanemia brevicollis. 
Pseudanemia brevicollis, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 493 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), in arenosis submaritimis capta. 

The only specimen which I have yet seen of this singular Canarian 
insect was captured by myself in Lanzarote — on a low sandy slope 
immediately behind the sea-beach, about a mile to the south of 
Arrecife. The fact of its antennae being only 10-articulate and the 
edges of its body unciliated, will, apart from the less important 
differences in the shape of its head, eyes, and prothorax, readily 
separate it, even at first sight, from the members of the closely allied 
genus Atumia. 

Genus 346. TRACHYSCELIS. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 379 (1809). 

1147. Trachyscelis aphodioides. 

Tracliyscelis aphodioides, Lat, loc. cit. (1809). 

, Guerin-Men., Icon. Ins. pi. 31. f. 3. 

, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 494 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Can.), sub fucis necnon juxta 
radices plantarum in arenosis maritimis crescentium fodiens. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which occurs in the morJI 
eastern portions of the Canarian Group-^where it burrows beneath 
marine rejectamenta on the sea-beach, as well as around the roots of 
plants (growing in the loose sand) immediately behind it. It 
been taken in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary. 





tRACHYSCELID/E. 417 

Genus 347. PHALERIA. 
Latreille, Hist, des Crust, et Ins. iii. 162 (1802). 

1148. Phaleria bimaculata. 

Tenebrio bimaculatus, Hbst, Natursyst. viii. 16 (1799). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem), h, Barone " CasteUo de 
Paiva " missa. 

A single example of this rather large Phaleria has been communi- 
cated by the Barao do Castello de Paiva, by whom it was obtained 
from the Great Salvage. 

In the European Catalogues the P. bimaculata is given as a variety 
of the cadaverina, but I believe nevertheless that it is specifically 
distinct. Unquestionably there is a maculated phasis of the cada- 
verina ; but the examples now before me, from the Salvages and 
Portugal, can scarcely be referred to it ; for not only are they paler 
with a much more rigidly defined patch on the disk of each elytron, 
but the latter are likewise more convex and oval (or less straight- 
ened at the sides) and have their edges (instead of being nearly bald) 
conspicuously ciliated. Their prothorax also is less bisinuate along 
its basal edge (which causes the hinder angles to be more decidedly 
right angles), and their interstices are more transversely wrinkled. 

1149. Phaleria cadaverina. 

Tenebrio cadaverinus, Fab.f I!?it. Syst. i. 113 (1792). 

, Sturm, Deidsch. Fna, ii, 230 (1807). 

Phaleria cadaverina, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. v. 15 (1832). 
, Woll.j Cat. Can. Col. 494 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses ( G^om. ),juxta cram maritimam a W. B. Crotch 
reperta. 

This common European insect was captured in Gomera, of the 
Canarian Group, by Dr. Crotch — who obtained a few examples of it, 
during the spring of 1862, on the sea-shore at San Sebastian. I 
met with it at Mogadore, on the opposite coast of Morocco. 

1150. Phaleria ornata. 

Phaleria cadaverina, Br. [nee Fab.\ in Webb et Berth.(Col.) 70 (1838). 

picta, WoU. [nee Mann.], Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 246 (1861). 

ornata, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 494 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Puert., Can.), in arenosis maritimis hinc 
inde vulgaris. 

An elegant Phaleria which has been observed only in Lanzarote, 

2e 



418 



ULOMIDiE. 




Fuerteventura, and Grand Canary, — where it is locally abundant 6 
(and near) the sandy sea-shores, burrowing beneath algse and other 
rejectamenta. It has much in common with an equally beautiful 
species, the P. ClarMi, which was found by Mr. Gray and the Rev. 
Hamlet Clark at the Cape de Verdes ; but the many characters which 
distinguish it permanently from that insect have been fully alluded 
to in my Canarian Catalogue. 

1151. Phaleria ciliata. 

Phaleria ciliata, Woll, Ins. Mad. 488 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 151 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P*^ S*^), in locis similibus ac praecedens. 

A comparatively small and oval species which I have observed 
only in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, — where it is occasionally 
abundant, beneath marine and other rejectamenta, along the sandy 
sea-shores. 

Fam. 78. ULOMID^. 

Genus 348. ADELINA. 
(Chevr.) WoUaston, A7m. Nat. Hist. ii. 413 (1858). 

1152. AdeHna farinaria. 

Adelina farinaria, Woll, loc. cit. 414 (1858). 
, Id., Apjiejid. huj. op. 6i. 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), certe introducta. Inter farinam Ame- 
ricanam (?) in urbe ipsa Funchalensi coUegit Dom. M. Park. 

As has been already stated under the Hhizopertha bifoveolata, this 
insect was found by Mr. M. Park in Madeira proper — where it had 
without doubt been imported accidentally into the island in a cask of 
flour. Indeed it was taken absolutely in the Custom-House, at 
Punchal ; and / believe that the flour was American. Under these 
circumstances I certainly should not have admitted the species into 
the present Catalogue at all, had it not been so extremely abundant 
that there is at least a possibility that it may have established itself 
in some of the warehouses and stores, and that it may consequently 
be again met with at a future time. And moreover, when we con- 
sider what a number of insects have already been naturalized in a 
similar manner, such a contingency cannot be regarded as by any 
means an improbable one. 





XJLOMIDiE. 419 

Genus 349, ALPHITOBIUS. 

Stephens, III. Brit, Ent v. 11 (1832). 

1153. Alphitobius diaperinus. 

Tenebrio diaperinus, Kugel., in Panz. Fna Ins. Germ. 37. 16 (1797). 
Uloma o^atroides, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 70 (1838). 
Alphitobius diaperinus, Woll.y Ins. Mad. 498 (1854). 

, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 154 (1857). 

, id.^ Cat. Can. Col. 497 (1864). 

Crypticus opatroides ?, Hart., Oeolog. Verhdltn. Latiz. und Fuert. 142. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Ganarienses (Can., Ten.), in domibus 
mercatorumqae repositoriis ex alienis introductus. 

This widely diffused insect occurs sparingly, about houses and 
stores, both in the Madeiran and Canarian Groups — where it has 
doubtless become established from more northern latitudes. It has 
been taken in Madeira proper, as well as in Grand Canary and 
Teneriffe. 

1154. Alphitobius picens. 

Tenebrio mauritanicus. Fab. [nee Linn. 1767], Ent. Si/st. i. 113 (1792). 
Helops piceus, Oliv., Ent. iii. 58. 17. 22 (1795). 
Tenebrio Fagi, Pnz., Fna Ins. Germ. 61. 3 (1799). 
Alphitobius picipes, Steph., III. Brit. Ent. v. 11 (1833). 
Heterophaga mauritanica, Dej'., Cat. (edit. 3), 220 (1837). 
Alphitobius mauritanicus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. i. 20 (1858). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Can. (Ten. 7), certe introductus; in 
locis similibus ac prascedens. 

Found in just the same kind of places as the last species, and like 
it clearly introduced (along with farinaceous and other substances) 
through the medium of commerce. In Madeira proper it is more 
frequently met with than the diaperinus, being often rather abun- 
dant in the stores and warehouses of Funchal ; but at the Canaries 
it seems the scarcer of the two. Indeed the only example of it which 
I have yet seen from that Group has been communicated by De 
Marseul with the label "Teneriffe" appended to it; but, although 
it is far from unlikely (judging from the numerous mistakes of 
habitat in the same consignment) that this particular specimen is 
not Teneriffan at all, yet I have no hesitation in citing it as Canarian 
(and possibly from Teneriffe) ; for we may be pretty sure that it 
would .be found in most of the towns, if searched for in the right 
localities. It will be seen that its nomenclature has been much con- 
fused, — the insect having been published under four specific names, 
and assigned to at least as many different genera. 

2e2 



420 



ULOMIDiE. 



Genus 350. GNATHOCERUS. 

Tliunberg, Act. Holmiens. 47 (1814). 

1155. Gnathocems cornutus. 

Trogosita comuta, Fab.^ Ent. Syst Sup^il 51 (1798). 
Uloma comuta, BruUe, in Webb et Btrth. (Col) 70 (1838). 
Cerandria comuta, Wall, Ins. Mad. 490 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 151 (1857). 

Gnathocerus cornutus, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 496 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Can., Ten., Gowf 
Hierro), in domibus officinisque pistoriis, ex alienis introductus. 

The common and widely spread 0. cornutus has established itself 
both in the Madeiras and Canaries, where it is found principally 
amongst farinaceous substances in houses and stores. It occurs in 
the towns and villages of Madeira proper ; and it has been taken 
sparingly in Fuerteventura, Grand Canary, TenerifFe, Gomera, and 
Hierro, of the Canarian Group. 

1156. Gnathocerus maxillosus. 

Trogosita maxillosa ?, Fab., Syst. Eleu. i. 155 (1801). 
Gnathocerus maxillosus, Woll., Ann. Nat. Hist. vi. 49 (1800). 
, Id., Append, huj. op. 6i. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice Platani laxo etiam in urbe 
ipsa Funchalensi repertus. 

Detected by myself in Madeira proper, beneath the bark of plane- 
trees growing in the Praga da Rainha in Funchal. I need scarcely 
state that it is, as undoubtedly as the G. cornutus, a mere introduction 
from some other country, though the latter perhaps is more likely 
(in this case) to be America than Europe*. 



Genus 351. TRIBOLIUM. 
MacLeay, Ann. Javan. 47 (1825). 

1157. Tribolium ferrugineiun. 

Tenebrio ferrugineue, Fab., Spec. Ins. i. 324 (1781). 
Tribolium castaneum, MacLeay, Ann. Javan. 47 (1825). 
ferrugineum, Woll, Ins. Mad. 491 (1854). 





* As the maxillosus is the only other known Gnathocerus, I have had but little 
hesitation in referring the Madeiran insect to it. Nevertheless, as stated in the 
remarks accompanying my diagnosis in the ' Ann, of Nat. Hist.,' if the latter 
should prove to be distinct from the Fabrician species, I would then propose for 
it the trivial name offalcatus. 



wm 



UliOMID^. 421 

Tribolium femigineum, Well.f Cat. Mad. Col. 151 (1857). 
^ Id,^ Cat. Can. Col. 496 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.) et Canarienses (Fuert., Ten., Gam.), hinc 
inde in domibiis mercatorumque repositoriis. 

An almost cosmopolitan insect which has become established, 
through the medium of commerce, both in the Madeiran and Canarian 
Groups — where it occurs sparingly about houses and stores. It is 
not uncommon in Madeira proper; and it has been captured in 
Fuerteveatura, TenerifFe^ and Gomera^ of the Canaries.. 



Genus 352. PSEUDOSTENE. 
Wollaston, Ann. Nat. Hist. vii. 247 (1861).. 

1158. Pseudostene fossoria» 

Pseudostene fossoria, Woll., loc. cit. 250 (1861) ► 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 497 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), rarissima ; in salinis necnon sub fucis 
per Oram arenosam maritimam fodiens. 

Observed hitherto only in Lanzarote, of the Canarian Group, — 
where it would appear to be both extremely rare and perfectly 
indigenous. The very few examples of it which I have yet seen 
were found by myself, in salt places, at the level of the sea-shore — 
namely, at the Salinas in the extreme north of the island, and under 
marine rejectamenta on the sandy beach to the south of Arrecife. It 
is so closely allied to an insect from the Cape de Verdes, which I 
described as the P. angusta, that I am doubtful whether it should 
be regarded as more than a slight geographical modification of it. 

Genus 353. HYPOPHLCEUS, 

Fabricius, Skrivt. af Natur. Selsk. (1790). 

1159. Hypophloeus pini. 

Hypophloeus pini {Creutz.), Panz., Fna Ins. Germ. 67. 19 (1799). 

, Redt., Fna Austr. 692 (1849). 

nocivus, WoU., Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 442 (1862). 

pini, Id.y Cat. Can. Col. 498 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten., Palma), in subeditioribus pinos emortuos 
destruens. 



A European Hypophlceus which is found sparingly in the Canarian 
Group, where it occurs in the old pine trees of intermediate and lofty 



422 



ULOMID/E. 



elevations. Hitherto it has been taken only in Teneriffe and Palma^| 
but it will probably be met with wherever the Pinals still exist. 



1160. Hypophlceus euphorbiae. 

Hypophloeus euphorbise, Woll, Tn 
, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 499 (1864). 



Ent. Soe. Land. i. 183 (1? 




Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Can., Ten., Gom., Hurro), sub cortice 
Euphorhiarwtn emortuo late sed parce diifusus. A 

A very narrow and comparatively minnte species which occurs 
sparingly under the bark of dead Euphorbias in the Canarian Group, 
in all the islands of which it has been detected except Fuerteventura 
and Palma. There can be little doubt, consequently, that it is uni- 
versal. It has much the same habits as the Madeiran H. ambiguus, 
of which it may be regarded as the Canarian representative. It 
diifers however from that insect in being altogether narrower, with 
its prothorax relatively longer (and not transverse), with the striae 
of its elytra (the latter of which completely cover the apex of the 
abdomen) both fainter and more finely punctulate, and with its 
antennje less abbreviated. 

1161. Hypophlceus ambiguus. 
Hypophlceus ambig-uus, Woll,. Cat. Mad. Col. 152 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in Euphorbiis antiqnis, nisi fallor, parce 

degens. 

The few examples which I b ave yet seen of this HypojpJilceus were 
taken in the higher elevations of Madeira proper ; and although I 
have not myself met with it, I feel almost satisfied (from its mani- 
fest affinity with the preceding species) that it is attached to the 
Euphorbias. Indeed I have little doubt that the individuals from 
which my diagTiosis was originally compiled, and which were taken 
by Mr. Mason in the upland region of the Fanal, must have occurred 
beneath the bark of the E. mellifera — which attains a gigantic size 
in that particular district. 

1162. Hypophlceus subdepressus. 

Hypophlceus subdepressus, Woll.y Cat. Can. Col. 499 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), hactenus semel deprehensus. 

Closely allied to the European H, dejyressus, of which, indeed, it is 
just possible that it may represent some geographical state; but 



d 





CCELOMETOPID^. 423 

until further material has been obtained for inspection, it is difBcult 
to pronounce definitely concerning it. The only example which I 
have seen was captured by myself in the B-io Palmas of Fuerte- 
ventura, in the Canarian Group. 



Fam. 79. COSSYPHID^. 

Genus 354. COSSYPHUS. 

Olivier, Ent iii. 44 bis (1795). 

1163. Cossyphus insularis. 

Cossyphus siculus, DeJ., Cat. 220 (1837). 

insularis, Laporte, Hist, des Col. ii. 228 (1840). 

, Brhne, Ess. siir les Cossyph. ii. 16, pi. 2. f. 2 (1846), 

, TFoll., Cat. Can. Col. 500 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), mihi non obvius. 

A Gossyp7ivs of Mediterranean latitudes which is apparently found 
in Teneriife ; but it is most remarkable that, whilst I have received 
it from no less than Jive different quarters as having been captured 
in that island, it should totally have escaped my own observations 
hitherto, as well as those of the Messrs. Crotch. Yet it appears 
unquestionably to have been taken by several naturalists — most of 
whom merely touched at the Canaries, and who paid but little or no 
attention to general collecting*. 



Fam. 80. C(ELOMETOPID^. 

Genus 355. MACROSTETHUS. 
WoUaston, his. Mad. 504 (1854). 

1164. Macros tethus tnhercnlatus. 

Macrostethus tuberculatus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 505, tab. xi. f. 8 (1854). 
■ , Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 157 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Ilheo Chdo), rarissimus ; sub lapidibus magnis 
bis captus. 

Of this rather large and singular insect I have seen but two 
examples. They were both of them captured on the northern 

* The C.insularis was found by MM. Hartung and De la Perraudiere; and 
it has likewise been communicated by the Baron do Castello de Paiva, by Mr. A. 
Fry of London, and by M. Deyrolle of Paris. 



424 



TENEBRIONIDiE. 



Deserta (or Ilheo Chao), in the Madeiran Group — from beneal 
slabs, or blocks, of stone in the centre of that peculiar little island. 
I am doubtful whether the genus is sufficiently distinct from Coelo- 
metopus, of Solier, found in Spain and Portugal, but of which I, 
possess no type for comparison. 



Fam. 81. TENEBRIONIDiE. 

Genus 356. TENEBRIO. 

LinnaeuSj S^jst. Nat. edit. 6 (1748). 

1165. Tenebrio molitor. 

Tenebrio molitor, Linn., Fna Suec. 815 (1761). 

, Fab., Ent. Sj/st. i. Ill (1792). 

, Woll, Ins. Mad. 496 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 153 (1867). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad.), rarissimus; inter farinam ex Europa 
introductus. 

I have not myself observed this common European insect in any 
of these islands, though its near ally the T. obscurus is almost uni- 
versal throughout the whole of them. But of the molitor the only 
two Atlantic specimens which I have yet seen are from the small 
collection of the late Dr. Heineken — by whom they were captured, 
many years ago, in Madeira proper. Of course the insect is a mere 
introduction, through the medium of commerce, from more northern 
latitudes. 

1166. Tenebrio obscurus. 

Tenebrio obscurus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. Ill (1792). 

molitor?, BrulU, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 68 (1838). 

obscurus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 497 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 153 (1857). 

, Id., Cat. Can. Col. 500 (1864). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P*^ S^^) et Canarienses (in Lanz. sola 
hand observatus), in domibus, granariis, et prsesertim sub recre- 
mento farris ad basin acervorum tritici sparso, vulgaris. 

There can be little doubt that this Tenebrio, which is the scarcer 
of the two species in central Europe, is universal throughout the 
whole of these islands which are inhabited — it having become per- 
manently established, through the medium of commerce. In Madeira 
proper it is locally abundant, and it has been obtained by the Earao 
do Castello de Paiva from Porto Santo ; whilst at the Canaries it has 






TENEBRIONID^. 425 

been observed in all the seven islands except Lanzarote (where, 
however, we may be quite certain that it exists). It occurs about 
granaries and bakehouses, but is more particularly abundant beneath 
the refuse around the base of corn-stacks. 

1167. Tenebrio olivensis. 

Tenebrio olivensis, WolL, Cat, Can. Col. 501 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses {Fuert.)^ sub lapide in intermediis semel lectus. 

Of this curious Tenebrio a single specimen is aU that I have yet 
seen. It was captured by myself in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian 
Group — from beneath a stone on a flat seraicultivated piece of 
ground, about a mile to the south of Oliva. In the very acute 
angles of its prothorax, and the wide and extremely securiform last 
joint of its maxillary palpi, it would appear at first sight to recede 
almost generically from the other species here enumerated. 

1168. Tenebrio Crotchii, 

Tenebrio Crotchii, WoU.j A])pend. huj. op. 62. 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gam.), in caulibus Euphorbice canarieTisis 
emortuis a DD. Crotch copiose deprehensus. 

A remarkable little Canarian Tenebrio, of Eujohorbia-infeating 
habits, which was captured abundantly by the Messrs. Crotch in 
Teneriffe and Gomera. It is a truly indigenous insect ; and it wiU 
perhaps therefore be found to be widely spread over the archipelago, 
when the dead stalks of the Euphorbia canariensis (to which plant 
it would seem to be attached) have been more generally examined. 

Genus 357. CALCAR. 
(Dej. Cat) Latreille, Eegn. An. (6dit. 2) v. 25 (1829). 

1169. Calcar elongatus. 

Tenebrio elongatus, Hbst, Kaf. vii. 259, tab. 112. f. 2 (1797). 
Trogosita calcar, Fah., Syst. Eleu. i. 153 (1801). 
Calcar elongatus, WoJl, Ins. Mad. 495 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 153 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses {Mad., F^^ S*^, Bugio ?), sub lapidibus in infe- 
rioribus. 

An insect of Mediterranean latitudes which is locally far from 
uncommon in the Madeiran Group, where it occurs (beneath stones) 



426 



HELOPIDiE. 



principally at low elevations. It has been taken in Madeira propeF 
and Porto Santo ; and I have received specimens from the Barao do 
Castello de Paiva purporting to come from the southern Deserta (or 
Bugio). Although I cannot feel quite satisfied concerning the latter 
Tuibitat, I have little doubt that it is correct — the species being one 
which I should expect to meet with on the Desertas. 



Genus 358. BOROMORPHUS. 

(Mots.) WoUaston, Ins. Mad. 492 (1854). 

1170. Boromorphus tagenioides. 

Boros tagenioides, Lucas, Col. de VAlff^rie, 338, pi. 30. f. 9 (1849). 
Boromorphus Maderae, Wall., Ins. Mad. 493, tab. xi. f. 9 (1854). 
, Id., Cat Mad. Col. 153 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., P^^ S^^), sub lapidibus plerumque in 
apricis inferioribus. 

Found likewise in Mediterranean latitudes, and tolerably common 
in the Madeiran Group ; but it has not yet been obseiTcd at the 
Canaries. It occurs, principally, beneath stones and scoriae, in open 
grassy spots of a sunny aspect and a rather low elevation ; and it 
has been captured hitherto in Madeira proper and Porto Santo. 

1171. Boromorphus parvus. 

Boromorphus parvus, Wall., Cat. Can. Col. 502 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Lanz., Fuert., Ten.), in intermediis et praecipue 
editioribus rarissimus. 

The Canarian representative of the B. tagenioides, yet certainly 
distinct from it — both in structure and habits. It occurs under 
stones and in crevices of the rocks at rather lofty altitudes, and is 
extremely rare, — having been observed in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, 
and Teneriffe. 




Fam. 82. HELOPIDiE. 

Genus 359. HELOPS. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 257 (1775). 

1172. Helops altivagans. 

Helops altivagans, Woll, Cat, Can. Col. 503 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in montibus valde excelsis usque ad 9000' 
s. m. ascendens. 



HELOPID.E. 427 

A Canarian Helops which appears to be peculiar to the elevated 
regions of Teneriffe, ascending to at least 9000 feet above the sea 
(perhaps indeed higher still). I have taken it sparingly on the 
Cumbre overlooking the Canadas, as well as on the opposite ridge 
above the Agua Mansa. 

1173. Helops elliptipeniiis. 

Helops elliptipennis, Woll.^ Cat. Can. Col 603 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses {Ten.), in locis paulo minus elevatis parce oc- 
currens. 

Likewise Teneriffan, and closely resembling the last species. 
Indeed it is far from unliltely that it may prove to be but a phasis 
of that insect peculiar to the sylvan regions of (although sufficiently 
elevated) a rather lower altitude ; but as I possessed only a single 
example from which to compile my diagnosis, it is impossible until 
further material has been obtained to pronounce definitely concerning 
the permanence (or otherwise) of its distinctive features. 

1174. Helops Marseulii. 
Helops Marseulii, Woll.j Append, huj. op. 63. 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.'}), a cl. De'Marseul communicatus. 

As stated in the Appendix, a single example of this Helops, from 
which my diagnosis is compiled, has been communicated by De Mar- 
seul. It has the label " Teneriife " attached to it, and I think it far 
from unlikely that that habitat may be correct ; nevertheless, as the 
localities of a considerable number of the insects which have been 
sent from the same quarter I have found to be positively inaccurate, 
I cannot regard its island as satisfactorily ascertained. 

1175. Helops arboricola. 

Helops arboricola, Woll, Ann. Nat. Hist. x. 338 (1862). 
, Id., Append, huj. op. 64. 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub cortice laxo in intermediis a Dom. 
Bewicke lectus. 

A large Helops which was detected in Madeira proper by the late 
Mr. Bewicke, under the loosened bark of an old tree in the Eibeira de 
S*" Luzia, and which he captured subsequently (in a similar situa- 
tion) in the Vasco Gil ravine — about three miles from Funchal. It 
is much allied to the H. Vulcanus, but differs in being relatively 



428 



HELOPIDiE. 



narrower and more cylindric — in its prothorax being less transversa 
rather less convex, more narrowly margined, more scooped out before 
the hinder angles (which are consequently acuter), and somewhat 
more densely punctulated, with the punctures a trifle smaller and 
more confluent — and in its elytral interstices being less wrinkled, 
but closely and minutely granulated, and with the remote additional 
tubercles which stud them posteriorly and towards the sides consi- 
derably smaller and less developed. 



1176. Helops Vulcanus. 

Helops Vulcanus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 513, tab. xii. f. 1 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col 158 (1857). 



(1854). 



4 



Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Chao, Des., Bugio), sub lapidibus necnon 
in rupium fissuris praecipue versus oram maritimam congregans. 

Common in the vicinity of the coast in Madeira proper and, es- 
pecially, on the smaller islands of the Group, — abounding on the 
three Desertas, where it attains a still more gigantic size. It con- 
gregates beneath stones and in the fissures of the exposed rocks, at 
low and intermediate altitudes ; but I have not yet observed it in 
any districts which are removed from the immediate influence of the 
sea (unless indeed the H. asper be regarded as a small, more or less 
sylvan, modification of it). 



1177. Helops asper. 

Helops asper, ^Ms^., Kaf. Eur. xxi. (1860) [sec. SchauTri]. 

confertus, Wall, Ins. Mad. 515, tab. xii. f. 2 (1854). 

^ Id.^ Cat. Mad. Col. 158 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), sub lapidibus cprticeque laxo ubique 
vulgaris. 

This is the common Helops of Madeira proper, abounding under 
stones and beneath the loosened bark of trees at most elevations — 
though more frequently perhaps within the sylvan districts than 
elsewhere. It is extremely variable, both in size and sculpture ; 
and, as already stated, I do not feel quite certain that it is more, 
in reality, than asmallphasisofthojE?. Vulcanus — or (which amounts 
to much the same thing) that the latter is more than a monstrous, 
sublittoral development of the asper. In my ' Ins. Mad.,' however, 
I took some pains to point out the exact characters (such as they 
are) which nearly always suffice for separating the two ; and I must 
therefore (as originally) leave the question of their specific distinct- 






HELOPIDiE. 429 

ness an open one — to be decided by each naturalist, according to his 
belief in the modifying effect of local influences on external form. 

1178. Helops gomerensis. 

Helops gomerensis, WoU., Append, huj. op. 64. 
Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), a DD. Crotch sat copiose repertus. 

Taken in tolerable abundance, by the Messrs. Crotch, in Gomera — 
of the Canarian Group. As mentioned in the Appendix, it is closely 
allied to the H. congener (and, I might have added, to ihe Madeiran 
H. asper likewise) ; nevertheless I think it has too many distinctive 
features of its own to be regarded as any insular state of even that 
most variable species. 

1179. Helops congener. 

Helops congener, WoU., Cat. Can. Col. 504 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can., Ten., Palma, Hierro), hinc inde praecipue 
in intermediis congregans. 

Widely spread over the Canarian archipelago, where it is found 
principally at intermediate altitudes, and where it may be looked 
upon strictly as the representative of the Madeiran H. asper (to which 
it is very closely allied). Like that species it is extremely variable, 
having a slightly different phasis for nearly every district in which 
it occurs ; and on this account it is impossible to resist the inquiry 
whether it may not, in reahty, be but a Canarian modification of 
the Madeiran insect. Yet, amidst its many fluctuations, it certainly 
does possess secondary characters which serve practically to separate 
it from the asper ; and, this being the case, I will not waste time in 
attempting to speculate on the exact amount of importance which 
we ought properly to attach to these (or any such) distinctions. 

1180. Helops carbuncTilus. 

Helops transversus ?, BrullS, in Webb et Berth. (Col) 70 (1838). 

carbunculus, WolL, Ins. Mad. 519 (note) (1854). 

, Id, Cat. Can. Col. 505 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Palma, Hierro), plerumque in inferioribus, 
rarius in intermediis, degens. 

Widely spread over the central and western parts of the Canarian 
Group, where it occurs principally at low (but sometimes at inter- 
mediate) elevations. Like most of the other species it is extremely 



430 ^^^^^W HELOPIDvE. 

variable, having a slightly different aspect for nearly every district 
in which it is found, — each race, however, remaining constant m its 
own particular region. It has been captured in Teneriffe, Palma, 
and Hierro ; and in the first of those islands it is the common ffelojps 
around S** Cruz and Orotava. 

1181. Helops aterrimus. 

Helops aterrimus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 506 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Gom.), sub lapidibus juxta et supra Sanctum 
Sebastianum praecipue congregans. 

Apparently peculiar to Gomera, of the Canarian Group, where it 
was taken abundantly by Mr. Gray and myself (beneath stones) 
around San Sebastian — both in the Barranco itself and on the hills 
above it. 

1182. Helops nitens. 

Helops nitens, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 506 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Ten., Gom.), a DD. Crotch sat copiose repertus. 

A sHghtly metallic Canarian Helops which was captured abundantly 
by the Messrs. Crotch in Gomera, (according to a note now before 
me) " beneath stones imder a mulberry-tree in the village of Her- 
migua ;" and they likewise obtained it, though much more sparingly, 
in Teneriffe. 

1183. Helops lucifugus. 

Helops lucifugus, Woll, Ins. Mad. 518, tab. xii, f 5 (1854). 
. Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 159 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P^^ /S^^), sub lapidibus, saepius in editioribus. 

Found in Porto Santo, of the Madeiran Group, where (although 
perfectly distinct from that species) it may perhaps be regarded as 
the representative of the H. asper of Madeira proper. It occurs 
beneath stones at most elevations, but chiefly towards the summits 
of the peaks. 

1184. Helops gagatinns. 

Helops gagatinus, Kiist., Kd^. Eur. xxi. (1850) [sec. Bchauni]. 

Pluto, Woll, Ins. Mad. 516, tab. xii. f. 3 (1854). 

, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 158 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), in editioribus abundans. Usque ad 
summos montes copiose ascendit. 

An abundant insect in the higher regions of Madeira proper, where 



HELOPID^. 431 

it occurs beneath stones on the exposed mountain-slopes — from about 

3000 feet above the sea to the summits of the peaks. 

Dr. Schaum informs me that he has compared types of the H. ga- 

gatinus of Kiister (in Germar's collection) with my H, Pluto, and 

that the two are unquestionably con specific, though, by a mistake, 

Kiister's species is recorded as having come from Portugal (instead 

of Madeira). 

1185. Helops Leacocianus. 

Helops Leacocianus, Woll., Ins. Mad. 517 (note) (1854). 
, Id., Journ of Ent. i. 92 (1860). 

Habitat Salvages (ins. majorem, borealem, et minorem ?, australem) a 
Dom. Leacock et Barone " Castello de Paiva " communicatus. 

Common on the rocks of the Salvages, from the larger (or north- 
em) one of which it has often been received by the Barao do Castello 
de Paiva. It was however originally detected (during the spring of 
1851) by Mr. T. S. Leacock of Madeira, who captured a single speci- 
men of it — I believe, on the southern island of the two, known as the 
« Great Piton"*. 

1186. Helops infernus. 

Helops infernus, IVoU., Ins. Mad. 517, tab. xii. f. 4 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 158 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (P*^ S*^), in inferioribus intermediisque vulgaris. 

Universal at low and intermediate altitudes in Porto Santo, of the 
Madeiran Group, occurring likewise on the small adjacent rocks ; 
but, as is the case of the H. lucifugus, it has not been observed else- 
where in the archipelago. 

1187. Helops subdepressus. 

Helops subdepressus, Woll, Cat. Mad. Col. 158 (1857). 
Habitat Maderenses (Mad.), adhuc parcissime repertus. 

Three examples of this Helops were taken by Mr. Mason in the 
north of Madeira proper, and three more are in the collection of the 

* The few Coleopterous insects which Mr. Leacock obtained at the Salvages 
were communicated as coming from the " Great Piton ; " but as he landed first 
on the northern island (which he left almost immediately for the southern one , 
finding it unprofitable), I carmot but feel it possible that his single example of this 
Helops may in reality have been picked up on the Great Salvage. At any rate 
both it and the Hegeter latebricola (which were first brought to light by Mr. 
Leacock) are certainly abundant on the Great Salvage, from which they have 
frequently been received by the Baron do Castello de Paiva. Nevertheless it is 
far from unlikely that they may exist on the Great Piton likewise. 



432 



HELOPIDiK. 



late Mr. Bewicke ; but it is a species which entirely escaped my owii 

observation. 

1188. Helops congregatus. 

Helops congregatus, WoU., Ins. Mad. 518, tab. xii. f. 6 (1854). 
, Id., Cat. Mad. Col. 159 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des., Bugio), sub lapidibus necnon ii 
rupium fissuris plerumque in locis parum elevatis congregans. 

Found in Madeira proper and on the two southern Desertas, where 
it congregates beneath stones and in the crevices of the exposed rocks 
— ^principally at a rather high elevation. 

1189. Helops quadratus. 

Helops quadratus?, Brulle, in Webb et Berth. (Col.) 70 (1838). 
, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 507 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Can.), in pinetis editioribus parce lectus. 

Taken at a rather high altitude on the mountains of Grand Canary 
— where (during April 1858) I met with it, not uncommonly, in an 
elevated Pinal above San Bartolome in the central district of Tarajana. 



1190. Helops rimosus. 
Helops rimosus, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 508 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Fuert.), a Dom. Gray semel deprehensus. 



The only specimen of this Helops which has yet come beneath my 
notice was taken by Mr. Gray in Fuerteventura, of the Canarian 
Group, during January 1858. 

1191. Helops porrectus. 

Helops porrectus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 508 (1864). 
Habitat Canarienses (Lanz.), sub lapidibus minus frequens. 

A Canarian Helops which is apparently rather scarce, and one 
which (unless indeed the H. cethiops be but a modification of it) has 
been captured hitherto only in the north of Lanzarote. 

1192. Helops SBthiops. 

Helops sethiops, Woll., Cat. Can. Col. 509 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in inferioribus intermediisquei^ 
passim. 

Occurs sparingly, at low and intermediate altitudes, in Lanzarote 



^■1 



J 



HELOPID^. 433 

and Fuerteventura — the two eastern islands of the Canarian Group ; 
and I likewise met with it on the little islet of Lobos, off the extreme 
north of the latter. It is just possible that it may prove ultimately 
to be but a phasis of the preceding species ; but imtil more extensive 
material (of both) has been obtained for comparison, I can scarcely 
decide this question positively. 

1193. Helops picescens. 

Helops caraboides ?, Br. [nee Linn.], in Webb et ^er^A.(Co/.)69(1838). 
picescens, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 509 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Lanz., Fuert.), in intermediis hinc inde vulgaris. 

Peculiar apparently to the two eastern islands of the Canarian 
archipelago, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, where it is locally abun- 
dant (particularly in the former) at intermediate altitudes. It is a 
variable species in stature, occasional large and dark examples of it 
approaching a good deal at first sight to the smaller and less 
blackened ones of the ff. cetMops. 

1194. Helops fusculus. 
Helops fusculus, Woll, Cat. Can. Col. 511 (1864). 

Habitat Canarienses (Ten.), a W. D. Crotch semel deprehensus. 

A single example is all that I have yet seen of this Canarian 

Helops. It was captured by Dr. Crotch, during the spring of 1862, 

in Teneriffe. 

1195. Helops futilis. 

Helops futilis, WoU., his. Mad. 520, tab. xii. f. 7 (185 i). 
, I(j„ Cat. Mad. Col. 159 (1857). 

Habitat Maderenses (Mad., Des., Bugio), in inferioribus intermediis- 
que minus frequens. 

A species which occurs at low and intermediate altitudes in the 
Madeiran Group, particularly in the eastern parts of it. It has been 
found in Madeira proper and on the two southern Desertas, and we 
may expect to meet with it on the Ilheo Chao likewise. In Ma- 
deira proper I h