(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Coleoptera of the British islands. A descriptive account of the families, genera, and species indigenous to Great Britain and Ireland, with notes as to localities, habitats, etc"

>■:'<< ''>^i>'y^-:'y.''- 



^ 












^^^^H 






■:| 



«^ 


tt^^^ll^r55v 


^ 


M^^ 


g 


^fe 


p 


^^ 


i 




i 





HARVARD UNR^RSITY 



LIBRARV 

OF THE 

MUSEOl OF COMPARVTRE ZOOLOGY 




FROM THE 
^\1LIARI) PEELE HITNNEWELL 

(,CLAS S OF I904) 

MEMORLAL FUND 



The income of this fund is used forthe purchase of entomological books 











M 


i 




@ 


1 




H 


1 



p<T^d 



iKi 



^\i 



tr > ' 







^m 


wwV 




^^^^ 


xB*A 


P 


^^^^ 



THE GOLEOPTEEA 



OK 



THE BJRITISH ISLANDS 



LONBOTf 
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND KIVINGTON, LIMITED. 

ST. John's house, clerkenwell road. 



THE 



COLEOPTERA 



THE BEITISH ISLANDS 



A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILIES, GENERA, AND 

SPECIES INDIGENOUS TO GREA T BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 

WITH NOTES AS TO LOCALITIES, HABITATS, ETC. 



BY THE 



REV. CANON FOWLER, M.A., F.L.S. 

Seceetart to the Entomological Society of Lonbon, and Editor (for Colf.opteua) of 
THE "Entomologist's Monthly Magazine." 



VOL. Ill, 

CLAVICORNIA 

(LEPTlNID.E-HETEROCERII).t;. 




-P 

LONDON : 
L. REEVE AND CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, OOVENT GARDEN 

1889. 



COLEOPTEEA. 



CLAVICORNIA (s-ontlnued). 

This division of the Coleoptera, as has been already ohserved (vol. i. 
p. 217), must be regarded as more or less artificial, and as adopted for 
the sake of convenience, rather than as being scientifically accurate, and 
perhaps it must be admitted that the more the various forms are studied, 
the more obvious does it become that the division is a very loose one, 
and that certain of its members present such close affinities to other 
families that they can hardly be separated from them ; in fact, it seems 
more than probable that the term Clavicornia, as applied to a group, will, 
sooner or later, be abandoned altogether ; as, however, it has already 
been adopted in this work, it seems the best course still to retain it ; the 
group Clavicornia is therefore regarded as containing the Hydrophilidre 
(vol. i. pp. 217-261), the Staphylinidte (vol. ii.), and the whole of the 
various families contained in the present volume ; the Staphylinidae 
have been, for convenience' sake, placed in a separate volume, but, as a 
matter of fact, their proper position appears to be between the Pselaphida3 
{EiiplecUis) on the one hand, and the Trichopterygidse {Ptinella) on the 
other ; in one sense, therefore, the present volume commencing with the 
Leptinidse and Silphidse, ought rather to be regarded as the second and 
not the third volume, the order of the families being Hydrophilidse, 
Leptinidse, SilphidiE, Scydmcenidse, Pselaphidse, Staphylinidse, Trichop- 
terygidae, &c. 

As regards the arrangement of the Clavicorn series I have followed 
almost entirely that of the catalogue published by the Kev. A. ]\Iatthe\vs 
and myself in 1883 ; Mr Matthews has studied the anatomy of the 
group almost more than any other Coleopterist, and his arrangement will, 
in most points, be found to be correct and logical ; at the same time it 
must be borne in mind that it is perfectly impossiljle to construct any 
linear arrangement or tabulated synoiDsis of the families ; their affinities 
are so intermingled and so closely inoscuLite one with another, that all 
attempts to do this have proved utterly unsatisfactory, and, for all prac- 
tical purposes, worse than useless. I have therefore merely given below 
the chief characters of each family, being convinced that to draw up a 
practically useful dichotomous table of the families is an impossibility, 
I am largely indebted to the work on the Classification of the Coleoptera 
of North America, by Dr. Lcconte and Dr, Horn, for many of tlia 

VOL. III. B 



2 CLAVICORNIA, 

characters I have adopted, and beg here to express my obligation to their 
work generally, but I cannot help thinking that their table of the 
Clavicorn families (Introduction, p. xxxi) would tend far rather to 
mystify than to instruct the oi'dinary student of Coleoptera, and yet it is 
probably the best yet published ; in no group is a general acquaintance 
with forms more needed, as there are a very large number of obscure and 
closely allied genera contained in the various families ; every student, 
therefore, is strongly recommended to make himself acquainted with as 
many members of the group as possible superficially, before he begins to 
study the complex as a whole. 

ZIydrophilidaD. This family is chiefly distinguished by the great 
development of the maxillary palpi ; these in many instances are several 
times longer than the antennae, which are inserted under the sides of the 
front, and are composed of from six to nine joints and terminate in a 
club, which is usually 3-jointed ; the abdomen is made up of five, rarely 
seven, free segments ; the tarsi are all five-jointed, and the middle and 
posterior tibite are often ciliate and compressed for swimming ; the size 
is very variable (from fmni. to 48mm.). 

Zieptinidae. Closely, allied to the Silphidfs, but differing in their 
transverse nientum, long filiform antennre, small anterior coxa?, very 
short metasternum, and the fact that the sternal epipleurse of the elytra 
are almost obsolete or very little pronounced ; eyes entirely wanting or 
represented by translucent eye spots ; size small. 

Silphidse. Mentum quadrate, antennae straight, inserted under the 
margin of the front, 11-jointed, rarely 9- or 10-jointed, thickened 
towards aj)ex or more often furnished with a club ; eyes finely granu- 
lated, sometimes absent ; thorax margined ; anterior coxfe large, conical 
and contiguous ; abdomen composed of five or six ventral segments ; 
elytra often not covering the whole body ; legs sometimes stout, some- 
times slender ; tibite, as a rule, spinose externally ; tarsi usually, but not 
always, 5-jointed; size very variable (^mm, to 30 mm.). 

Scydmaenidae. Mentum transverse : antennae 11-jointed, inserted 
upon the front, thickened or clavate ; maxillary palpi long with the last 
joint very small ; anterior coxte subovate, contiguous ; thorax not or 
scarcely transverse ; elytra covering the abdomen entirely or with the 
pygidium rarely exposed (as in Eufhia) ; abdomen with five or six free 
ventral segments ; legs moderately long, tarsi 5-jointed with the claws 
simple ; size very small. 

Clavig-eridse. Allied to the Pselaphidce, but distinguished by having 

the joints of the antenna? varying in number from two to six and the 

palpi one-jointed and rudimentary; the head is long and cylindrical, and 

.the basal segments of the abdomen are connate and deej)ly excavated ; 

size very small. 

Psslaphidae. Mentum small, more or less quadrate ; antennas in- 



CLAVICORNIA. 6 

serted on the front above the base of the mandibles, as a rule 11-jointcd ; 
maxillary palpi usually very long ; anterior coxae conical, contiguous ; 
thorax very variable ; elytra very much abbreviated, leaving a great part 
of the abilomen exposed ; abdomen composed of six or seven free ventral 
segments ; legs long with the femora usually clavate ; tarsi 3-jointed with 
the claws equal or unequal and very often single ; size very small. 

Staphylinidae. The characters of this family will be found fully 
discussed at the beginning of vol. ii. ; the principol distinguishing ones 
are as follows : — Elytra truncate, with a straight suture, never deliiscent, 
very much abbreviated, so that the greater part of the abdomen is 
exposed (except in rare instances) ; wings Avhen present completely 
folded beneath the elytra ; abdomen or hind body composed of seven 
segments, all freely movable, and all entirely, or almost entirely, corneous, 
even when more or less hidden by the elytra ; size very variable (| mm. 
to 28 mui.). 

Trichopterygridee. This family contains the most minute of all 
Coleoptera ; its genera may be known by their pedunculated lanceolate 
wings which are fringed on both sides with long setae, and by their 
3-jointed tarsi ; the maxillae are bilobed ; their antennae are generally 
long and very slender and ornamented with long verticillated hairs ; 
the last three joints usually form an elongate club ; they vary much in 
outward form, and in many characters exhibit a close affinity to the 
Staphylinidae, from which they appear to lead by an easy gradation 
into the other Clavicorn groups. 

Corylophidae. The members of this family are very small oval or 
round convex insects, which are very closely related to the Trichoptery- 
gidce through having their wings fringed with long hairs ; the wings, 
however, are much shorter, and the species are further distinguished 
by having the maxillae nnilobed and the tarsi 4jointed (the third joint 
being small and concealed in an emargination of the second joint) ; the 
abdomen is composed of six free ventral segments. 

Sphseriidae. Only one genus is contained in this family, which is 
closely allied to both the TrichopterygidaB and the Corylophidae ; the 
wings are fringed with long hairs ; the maxillae have two lobes ; * the 
antennae are 11-jointed with a loose 3-jointed club; the abdomen is 
composed of only three ventral segments, and the tarsi are 3-jointed ; 
the form is very small, round, and convex, the upper surface being 
glabrous and very shining. 

Phalacridae. 'J'his family contains a few genera of small ovate or 
subhemispherical insects Avhich are very shiny and almost, if not quite, 
glabrous ; the head is sunk in the thorax, with the eyes half hidden ; 
antennae inserted under the elevated margin of the forehead, 11-jointed, 

* According to the generally received opinion, the maxillae of Sphcerius have only 
one lobe, but Mr. Matthews has lately discovered that they are really bilobed. 

B 2 



4 CLAVICORNIA, 

with the hist three joints forming a ckib ; maxiUa3 -witli tU'o lohes ; 
ftnterior coxae globuhir ; thorax as broad as elytra, margined at sides ; 
elytra entirely covering abdomen ; legs short and rather stout, tarsi 
5-jointed, claws armed with a tooth at base ; size small. 

Coccinellidae. Form usually rounded, seldom oval, convex, often 
subhemispherical, usually shining and glabrous, but in some genera 
strongly pubescent ; antennte usually 11-jointed, terminated by a more or 
less distinct club, inserted on the forehead near eyes ; mandibles, as a 
rule, concealed ; maxilte v/ith two lobes ; thorax transverse and usually 
&hort, anterior coxal cavities, except in one or two genera, closed behind ; 
elytra covering abdomen, which is composed as a rule of five free ventral 
segments (sometimes of six or seven), the first being furnished Avith 
more or less distinct coxal lines ; legs short, more or less retractile, 
tarsi apparently 3-jointed, but really 4-jointed, the third joint being very 
minute and concealed in the lobes of the second joint ; claws appendiculate 
or toothed. 

Endomychidae. This family is closely allied to the preceding ; 
the species that belong to it, however, are more elongate in form and 
usually are furnished with a transverse groove before base of thorax and 
a longitudinal impression on each side ; the antennae and legs are longer 
and the anterior coxal cavities are always open behind ; the chief 
difference, however, appears to lie in the fact that the claws are simple 
and the first ventral segment has no coxal lines ; the tarsi are plainly 
4-jointcd,* or apparently 3-jointed, the third joint being very small 
and concealed. 

Erotylid£8. The members of this family are closely allied to the 
preceding, but may be easily distinguished by having the anterior coxal 
cavities closed behind ; from all the species of the Endnmychidae except 
the INIycetsenia, they may be known by having the tarsi distinctly 
4-jointed, and, occasionally, 5-jointed; the antennae are 11-jointed and 
are inserted at the sides of the forehead, with the last three or four joints 
forming a distinct club ; the thorax is distinctly margined ; the elytra 
completely cover the abdomen, which is composed of five usually equal 
segments ; the legs are moderately long and the claws are simple. 

Colydiidae. The members of this family are distinguished by their 
usually elongate or cylindrical form, small globular anterior nnd middle 
coxae, and simple 4-jointed tarsi ; the upper surface is, as a rule, shining 
and glabrous ; the antennae are inserted under the margin of the front, 
and are short, 10- or 11-jointed, rarely 8-jointed, and terminate in a 
small club ; the anterior coxal cavities are almost always closed behind ; 
the elytra always cover the abdomen, which is composed of five ventral 
segments, the first being the largest. 



• This is only the case with the Mycetaeiua which might perhaps, with advantage, 
be formed into a separate family. 



CLAVICORNIA. 5 

Histeridae. This family is very well defincLl, an 1 its memLcrs arc, 
with few exceptions, oval or oblong-oval insects, of a shining black or 
brownish colour, glabrous, with the elytra sculptured with very distinct 
stria3 ; the size is variable, some of the genera being rather large and 
some (as Acritas) very minute ; the antenna3 are short, geniculate, and 
usually received in grooves beneath the thorax, and terminate in a very 
compact club ; the anterior coxal cavities are open behind ; the elytra 
are truncate behind, leaving the pygidium and propygidium exposed ; 
the abdomen is composed of five ventral segments, the first being the 
largest ; the legs are short and retractile, with the tibise compressed and 
the anterior pur almost always toothed; the tarsi are 5-jointed (except 
in Acritus and one or two other genera where they are heteromerous), 
and the anterior pair at least are received in grooves on the tibiae. 

micropeplidae. This aberrant family has been by many authors 
included under the Staphylinidce by reason of the much abbreviated 
elytra : its present position, however, seems more natural ; the antennae 
are received in a cavity beneath the margin of the thorax, and are 
terminated by an obsoletely 3-jointed, almost solid, club ; they are 
inserted under the sides of the forehead ; all the coxje are distant, and 
the anterior coxal cavities are open behind ; the abdomen is composed 
of six segments ; the tarsi are very short, 3-jointed, the last joint being 
much longer than the rest ; the strongly-ribbed thorax, elytra and 
abdomen will serve to distinguish our single genus. 

Nitidulidse. The characters of this family are very variable ; the 
species are mostly small insects with the last one or two segments of the 
abdomen very often, but by no means always, exposed ; sometimes a 
considerable portion of the abdomen is not covered by the elytra : the 
antennae are inserted under the margin of the front, and are as a rule 
lljointed, and terminated by a 3 jointed club; the maxillae (except in 
the Brachypterina) are composed of one lobe ; the abdomen is composed 
of five free ventral segments, except in a few genera, where the male has 
an extra dorsal segment; the tarsi are 5-jointed, except in the Khizo- 
phagina, in which they are heteromerous in the male ; the fourth joint 
is always very small ; in shape the species vary from short and round or 
ovate to long and cylindrical. 

Trog-ositidae. This family is closely related to the Nitidulidse, but 
may easily be distinguished by the fact that the tarsi have the first joint, 
and not the fourth, very small ; the maxilljB have two lobes, and the 
elytra always cover the abdomen. 

I^onotoxnidae. This family bears a considerable relation to the 
Xitidulidffi, but, apart from other characters, it may be distinguished by 
the shape of the anterior cox^, which in the last named family are 
transverse, and in the INIonotomidae are rounded ; the antennae are 
inserted under the sides of the forehead, and terminate in a solid or 
obsoletely 2-jointed club ; the head is large and the eyes are strongly 



6 CLAVICOnXIA. 

grannlateJ ; tlie thorax is not, or scarcely, transverse, and is more or less 
distinctly crenulate at the sides; the elytra are truncate and leave the 
pygidiiun exposed; the tarsi are 3-jointed; the species are elongate and 
more or less depressed, and are usually dull and strongly sculptured, 
being more or less scabrous. 

Ziathridiidae. A rather extensive family of minute insects, the con- 
stitution of which has not altogether been settled: form usually more or 
less oval, with the head and thorax narrower than the elytra, but some- 
times parallel or even filiform ; head varying in shape, but usually rather 
large in proportion, antenna3 8-1 1 jointed, terminating in a more or less 
distinct club ; maxillse with two lobes, maxillary palpi 4-jointed, with 
the last joint large : anterior coxpe conical and prominent, with the coxal 
cavities closed behind ; thorax variable in shape ; elytra covering 
abdomen ; abdomen composed of five free ventral segments, of which 
the first is the longest ; legs moderate, tarsi 3-jointed, with the first 
joint elongate terminating in two small simple claws. 

Cucujidae. An extensive family, of which only a few outlying 
members are found in Britain, and which is very differently constituted 
by different authors : they are elongate or oblong, and more or less de- 
pressed, insects ; the antennae are inserted at the margin of the front, 
and are 1 1 -jointed, sometimes long and slender, sometimes with the apical 
joints enlarged, and forming an indistinct club ; anterior coxae small, 
with the cavities closed in some tribes and open in others ; thorax often 
denticulate at sides; elytra covering abdomen in all our tribes; tarsi 
5-jointed in both sexes, or with the posterior tarsi occasionally 4-jointed 
in the males, first joint usually very small, 

Byturidae. A very doubtful family which has been placed in very 
different positions by various authors, and can only be considered as 
located provisionally ; the single genus, of which it consists, is distin- 
guished by its 5-jointed tarsi, of which the fourth joint is small, and the 
second and third joints are lobed beneath, and by having the anterior 
coxal cavities narrowly closed behind, as well as by its toothed claws ; 
the antennae are inserted before the eyes and terminate in a loose 3-jointed 
club ; the abdomen is composed of five free equal segments ; the genus 
appears to be most closely related to the Telmatophilina, but also bears 
strong affinities to the Mycetophagidte and the Xitidulidse^ as will be seen 
by a comparison of their characters. 

Cryptophag"id». An extensive family of minute insects which 
are easily distinguished from the Lathridiidre by having the tarsi all 
5-jointed in both sexes or heteromerous in the males ; in some respects 
they approach certain of the Cucujidee, from which they may be known 
by the distinct club of the antennaj and the longer first ventral 
segment ; the form is variable, being either oblong, oval, or almost 
circular, and the pubescence and sculpture is also very different in the 
various genera; the antenna^ are 11-jointed, and are inserted at the sides 



CLAVICORNIA. / 

of the front, or on the front, being distant or approximate at base ; the 
anterior coxse are transverse and oval, and except in the DiphylUna the 
cavities are open behind. 

Scaphidiidae. This family is placed in its present position partly on 
account of tlie formation of the anterior coxal cavities, of which one 
half is formed by the prosternum and the other lialf by the meso- 
sternum:* in Ej;J])istemns the formation is somewhat analogoiis, and 
the present family seems therefore to come somewhat naturally after that 
genus ; in some respects the characters of the family are somewhat 
anomalous ; form more or less boat-shaped, with the elytra broadly 
truncate and not covering abdomen ; antennae 10-11 -jointed, with the 
last five or six joints enlarged and forming a slight club, inserted at the 
margin of the forehead, which is somewhat prolonged in front ; thorax 
margined at sides and sinuate at base; elytra with a sutural and marginal 
stria ; legs very long and slender, with the tarsi filiform, S-jointed, 
abdomen composed of six free ventral segments, of wdiicli the first is the 
largest and the fifth longer than the three preceding ones ; the species 
range in size from about 2|-6 mm, 

Ittycetophag-idae. Oval or oblong insects, of small or moderate 
size, often handsomely variegated with yellowish or orange-red spots, 
and with the upper surface always more or less pubescent ; they are 
characterized by having the tarsi all 4-jointed in the female, and the 
anterior pair 3- jointed in the male, the intermediate and posterior pair 
in the latter sex being 4:-jointed as in the female ; the mandibles are 
bifid at apex ; the antcnnse are inserted before the eyes and are 
11- jointed, with the apical joints gradually thickened or forming a 
club ; the anterior coxal cavities are always open behind ; the thorax is 
transverse, truncate at apex, and the elytra usually cover the abdomen, 
which is composed of five free and almost equal segments. 

Sermestidae. An important family of insects which vary consider- 
ably in size and general appearance ; foim oblong oval or oval, in 
some cases almost round, usually strongly pubescent, and sometimes 
squamose ; head variable in size, furnished, except in Dermcstes, with a 
frontal ocellus; antennie inserted in front of the eyes, usually 11-jointed, 
but variable, clavate or thickened at apex ; thorax short, usually excavate 
beneath for the reception of the antennae ; anterior coxal cavities open 
behind ; elytra covering abdomen, not striated ; abdomen composed of 
five free convex segments ; legs short, somcAvhat coutractile, tibia3 with 
distinct spurs, tarsi 5-jointed, with the fifth joint long, and the first four 
joints as a rule short, claws simple. 

Byrrhidse. This family is in many respects allied to the preceding, 
but may as a rule be distinguished by the much more strongly retractile 

* Dr. Sharp informs me that this formation is not so imcomraon as Mr. Matthews 
supposed it to be ; tlie position of this family may tlierefore have to be modified. 



8 CLAVICORNIA. 

legs of wliicli the til)ia3 are compressed and generally sulcate for the recep- 
tion of the tarsi, and also by the connate anterior segments of the 
abdomen, as well as by the usually striated elytra ; the antennae are, as a 
rule, 11-jointed, rarely 10 jointed, with the apical joints, in our genera, 
forming a club ; the anterior coxal cavities are open behind ; the elytra 
cover the abdomen, which is composed of five segments, of which the 
first two or three are usually connate ; the tarsi are 5-jointed, Avith the 
hist joint elongate, except iwAspidiphorus, in which they are heteromerous; 
the species are short, oval, and very convex, and vary very much in size. 

G-eoryssidae. This and the succeeding family are more or less 
aquatic in their habits, and by some authors are placed near the Hydro- 
philidae ; the family Georyssida^ contains a single genus, Georyssus, 
which is very closely allied to Elmis, but may at once be distinguished 
by the distinct 3-jointed club of the antennse, and the short 4-jointed 
tarsi ; all the coxae are distant, and the anterior pair are compressed and 
flattened at the tip, forming two plates which conceal the prosternum ; 
according to Thomson these plates are formed by the laminate tro- 
chanters ; the elytra are entire, and are very roughly sculi)tured ; the 
abdomen is composed of five segments, of which the first is very large and 
the last three are free. 

Parnidae. The following are the chief characteristics of this family, 
which has by many authors been divided into two separate families, 
the Parnidae and Elmidce : head usually retractile ; antennae variable, 
either filiform and moderately long, as in Elmis, or very short, with the 
second joint dilated and ear-shaped, as in Parnus ; eyes rounded, some- 
times hairy : anterior coxal cavities open behind, all the coxse distant ; 
prosternum prolonged behind the coxa3 ; legs slender, sometimes very 
long, tarsi 5-jointed, with joints 1-4 short, equal, fifth very long, claws 
strong, simple ; abdomen in our genera composed of five ventral segments ; 
upper surface strongly pubescent, and often pilose, in the Parnina,and 
the form larger and sul)cylindrical ; in the Elmina the pubescence is 
very fine and scanty, and the form is more depressed and much smaller. 

Xleteroceridae. An aberrant family, of somewhat doubtful affinities, 
containing a single genus Heterocerus, which by its subaquatic habits, 
general form, strong pubescence, and very short antennee, appears to be 
allied to Parnus, but differs in several very important points; the 
following are its chief characters ; head large, with the eyes half-hidden, 
antennse short, inserted above the base of the mandibles near the inner 
margin of the eyes, with first two joints large and ciliate, and joints 
5-11 forming an oblong serrate club; thorax transverse with the angles 
rounded, and the anterior coxal cavities open behind ; elytra completely 
covering abdomen, which is composed of five ventral segments, of which 
the two last are free, and the first is furnished with a stridulating org:in ; 
legs fossorial, tarsi 5-jointed, apparently 4-jointed, the first joint being 
minute and obsolete; size 2\-5\ mm. 



Lejit'niidui.l cl.vvicornia. 9 

LEPTINIDiE. 

This family contains two ri-encra Lpptinus and Leptinilhis, the latter 
of which, from North America, was at first included with the former; 
they differ from the Silphida3 in their transverse mentum, very long 
filiform antennae, the very short metasternum, and the fact that the 
sternal epipleune of the elytra are almost obsolete, or very little pro- 
nounced ; the eyes are entirely wanting, or represented by translucent eye 
spots. 

ZiEPTINUS, Miiller. 

This genus at present contains one or two species from Europe, 
the Caucasus district, and North America ; they are found living with 
various small rodents and birds, sometimes on their bodies and sometimes 
in their nests, but, as Dr. Horn observes, it has not been yet determined 
whether they are true parasites or merely guests ; our single species, L. 
testaceus, is also occasionally found in numbers in the nests of humble-bees. 

3u. testaceus. Mull. Oval, much depressed, of a dull, testaceous 
colour, clothed with rather strong yellowish pubescence ; head projecting, 
almost semicircular, much narrower than thorax, antennae very long, 
filiform ; thorax transverse, crescent-shaped, rounded and narrowed in 
front, broadest behind, with the posterior angles prominent and acute, 
very closely punctured, fully as broad at base as elytra ; scutellum 
rather large, triangular; elytra about twice as long as thorax, and of 
about the same breadth, with sides subparallel, obtusely rounded at 
apex, very obsoletcly striated, and very finely and somewhat rugosely 
punctured ; legs testaceous, femora rather stout, tibise sparingly spinose ; 
posterior tarsi with the first joint almost three times as long as second. 
L. 2 mm. 

In deafl leaves, rotten wood mould, birds' nests, on small rodents, &c. ; also in tlie 
nests of Bombi ; very rarely in nests of Formica ful'iginosa ; rare; Chatham (J. J. 
Walker, in numbers), Tilgate P'orest, Caterham, CobliMui Park, Chatham, Purley 
oaks ; Guestling near Hastings ; Needwood, Burton-on-Trent, in large numbers in a 
humble-bee's nest (Rev. H. S. Gorhiim) ; Ripen (VVatcrhouse), three specimens— one 
on mouse in a tnip, one on leg of trousers, and one behind some old ivy ; Scotland, 
very rare, about the nests of Bombi, Clyde and Forth districts. 

SILPHID^. 

This family contains a large number of genera which are widely 
distributed over the surface of the world, but, as at present known, 
are chiefly characteristic of colder and temperate, rather than of tropical 
regions; some of these are very large and conspicuous insects, while 
others are obscure and minute; the members of the family differ very 
much in size, shape, and general appearance, and by many authors are 
divided up into three or four separate families ; they are, as a whole, 
distinguished by their large quadrate mentum, large and promuieut 



10 OLAVICOUNIA. [Silphidce. 

anterior coxse, which are conical and contiguous, and finely granulated 
eyes which are sometimes wanting; the maxillae are Lilohed ; the antennae 
are straight, inserted before the eyes, and thickened, or more often 
furnished with a club ; the thorax is margined ; the prothorax has the 
epimera and episterna not distinct ; the mesosternuni is short, and its 
epimera reach the coxae ; the naetasternum is large ; the abdomen has, as 
a rule, six free segments ; in SjjJuerites only it has five ; the legs arc 
variable, sometiuies stout, sometimes slender ; as a rule the tibiae are dis- 
tinctly spined externally ; the tarsi also vary as regards the number of 
their joints. 

The family may be divided into the following tribes: there is, however, 
a very great difference in the views of authors regarding the division : 
Sphceri/es, for instance, is regarded by some as merely a genus of the 
Silphina, by others as a tribe of the Silphidae, and by others as a separate 
family Sphteritidae. 

I. Anterior coxal cavities closed behind. 

i. Posterior coxte laminate ; size very minute ; tarsi all 4-jointed 

in botli sexes Clambina. 

ii. Posterior coxa; simple ; tarsi variable, but never all 4-joiuted ia 
both sexes. 

1. Upper surface, as a rule, glabrous or almost glabrous, shiniug ; 
episterna of mesothorax small and linear, of metathorax 

hidden Anisotomina. 

2, Upper surface pubescent, dull; episterna of mesothorax rather 

large, subquadrate, of metathorax free Cholevina. 

II. Anterior coxal cavities open behind. 

i. Abdomen with five free ventral segments Sph.^.ritina. 

ii. Abdomen with six free ventral segments Silphina. 

CLAMBINA. 

This tribe has by many authors been placed in close proximity to the 
Trichopterygida?, and it does in fact bear a close relationship to that 
family, from the fact that the edge of the wings is fringed with long 
hairs ; in other points, however, especially in the fact that in most 
species the body is retractile and capable of being rolled up into a ball, 
the tribe is closely related to Agathidium ; the head is large and 
transverse, and the antennae 11 -jointed, 10-jointed, or 9-jointed, with 
2-jointed club ; the anterior coxae are conical and contiguous with the 
cavities closed behind, and the middle coxse in our two British genera 
are slightly separated ; all the tarsi are 4-jointed ; the species are all very 
minute, of convex and short oval form, and are found in decomposing 
vegetable matter. 

There are two British genera which may be separated as follows : — 

I. Antenna) 10-joiuted, with club 2-]'ointed, inserted at a 

distance from eyes ; abdomen with six segments . . . Caltptojieexts, Redt. 

II, Antenna3 O-jointed, with club 2-jointed, inserted near 

eyes ; abdomen with five segments Clambus, Fiscli. 



Cali/ptotnerus.] clayicornia. 11 

CAIiVPTOIWERUS^ Eedtenbaclier. (Comaziis, Fairm.) 

This genus comprises four or five species from Europe and North 
America ; they are found in vegetable refuse, flood rul^bisli, &c. ; the 
larva of C. dubius (enshamensis) is described and figured by Perris (Ann. 
Fr. 1852, p. 574, t. 14, fig. 1-10) ; it is 2 mm. in length, of a livid colour, 
setose at sides, broader in front and gradually narrowed behind, covered 
with very small roughnesses or tubercles which are visible under a high 
power ; the thoracic segments are proportionally large ; the anal 
appendage is like a fleshy nipple, helpuig progression, and serving as a 
jjohit cVappui, when the insect wishes to move from place to place ; the 
pupa is chiefly remarkable for the small space occupied by the abdominal 
segments. 

C. dubius, Marsh, {ejisliamensis, Steph. ; cephalotes, Dej.). Short 
oval, convex, of a lighter or darker testaceous colour, shining, thickly 
clothed with very fine silky yellowish pubescence, very finely punctured; 
head very large, larger than thorax, antennae short, testaceous, with the 
club slightly darker ; thorax very sliort, Avith the anterior and posterior 
angles almost confluent, sides very short ; scutellum minute, triangular ; 
elytra five times as long as thorax, scarcely dilated at sides, very convex 
in front and sloped towards apex, Avith a sutural stria which is abl)reviated 
in front, sutural angle somewhat acuminate ; under-side testaceous, 
pubescent ; legs pale. L. f mm. 

In haystack and flood refuse, &c. ; local but not uncommon in some places ; Croydon, 
Ripley, Lee, Mickleliam, Birdbrook (Essex); Hastings; Glauvilles Wootton ; Wivenhoe 
(tidal refuse) ; Ely ; Wicken Fen (in sedge) ; Knowle near Birmingham (on damp 
walls); Keptou ; Northumberland district, rare, sea-coast near Hartley; Scotland, 
not common, amongst straw in outhouses, Solway, Tweed and Forth districts; 
Ireland, Rathkurby, Waterford, near Dublin, &c, 

CZiAMBUS, Fischer. 

About a dozen species are comprised in this genus, five of which are 
found in Europe, and the remainder have been recorded from North 
America^ the Canary Islands and Ceylon ; it appears therefore to be rather 
widely spread, and is probably much more extensive than at present 
known ; the species are very minute convex insects, and have the power 
of rolling themselves up into a ball ; they differ from Galyptoinerus in 
havmg the antennae 9-jointed, and in the smaller head and longer thorax ; 
the metasternum is excavate in front for the reception of the head, and 
the posterior coxae are semicircular ; the species are found in hot-beds, 
and among moss, dead leaves, and vegetable refuse generally. 

I, Elytra more or less distinctly pubescent. 

i. Pubescence close, fine, and short ; size smaller . . . C. tubescens, Jiedt. 

ii. Pubescence long and diffuse ; size larger C. armadillo, i)e. G. 

IJ. Elytra entirely without pubescence C. minutus, fi^tenn. 



12 CLAVicoRNiA. [Clamhus. 

C pubescens, Kedt. Short oval, not quite as convex as tlie 
following species, tliickly clothed with very short and fine pale silky 
pubescence, of a lighter or darker pitchy colour, with the sides of the 
thorax lighter, apparently impunctate ; antennae yellow ; thorax as broad 
as elytra, and broader than head (which is large), very transverse, posterior 
angles rounded ; elytra three times as long as thorax, narrowed towards 
apex; under-side thickly and very finely pubescent ; legs pale yellow, 
last segment of abdomen with a raised fold. L. |-f mm. 

lu vegetiible refuse, hot-beds &c. ; not uncommon and probably very widely 
distributed in many parts of England; Chatham, Darenth Wood, &c. ; Hastings and 
other localities in the South ; Knovvle, Smallheath, Edgbaston, Repton, &c. ; 
Manchester district ; Northumberland district, rare ; Scotland, not common, Solway 
district. 

This and other species of Glamhus are probably very often overlooked, 
as they have the power of rolling themselves up into a ball, and so lying 
quiet until danger is passed ; in walking they hold their large heads 
stretched out horizontally, which gives them a peculiar appearance. 

C armadillo, De. G. Very closely allied to the preceding, but of 
darker, usually black, colour, and clothed with much more sparing and 
longer pubescei^.ce ; the margins of thorax are brownish-red, and the legs 
and antennae are reddish ; in this and in the other species the disc of 
elytra is sometimes lighter ; the last segment of the abdomen is more 
thickly pubescent, but has no fold. L. f-f mm. 

In mo?s, deid leaves, vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; ronimoncr than the preceding 
in some localities, and less common in others ; London district, generally distributed ; 
Hastings; Devon; Soham, Cambridge; Midland districts, Bewdley, Sutton Paik, 
Salford Priors, Repton, &c. ; Manchester district ; Northumberland district, common ; 
Scotland, not common, Solway, Tweed, and Forth districts; Ireland, near Dublin and 
Belfast. 

C minutus, Sturm. On an average distinctly larger than the two 
preceding, and distinguished by its very smooth, shining, and glabrous 
surface ; the sides of the thorax are rather distinctly yellowish or 
yello_wish-red, and the disc of the elytra is often lighter ; the last segment 
of the abdomen is furnished with a little brush of hairs, and in the male 
has also a small fovea. L. f-1 mm. 

In vegetable refuse, flood rubbish, &c., rare, but perhaps overlooked or confounded 
witli the preceding ; Dulwieb ; Cobliam Piirk ; Horning Een ; Southampton ; Exeter ; 
Tewkesbury ; Bewdley ; Yardley ; Manchester district ; Northumberland district ; 
Scotland, not common, Solway district. 

A fourth species, C. punciulum, has been included in the British list, 
but has been dropped, as the specimens on which it was introduced 
appear to be only small C. minutus ; C. punciulum is smaller and rounder 
than C. minutus, and has the last joint of the antennae only as long as 
broad, and the last segment of the abdomen bare ; in C. minutus the 
antennas have the last joint much longer than broad, and the last 



Clamhus] CLAVICORNIA. 1 3 

segment of the abdomen is furnished with a bnisli of liairs, as above 
mentioned. 

The genus Cybocephcdus is now rightly regarded as belonging to the 
Clambma rather than to the Nitidulidse. 



ANISOTOMINA. 

This tribe contains a considerable number of small genera, which are 
distinguished by having the upper surface glabrous or almost glabrous 
and the anterior coxal cavities closed behind ; the body is oval and 
convex, and in some genera capable of being contracted into a ball ; the 
antenna3 and tarsi are very variable, and aUbrd good cliaracters for tlic 
separation of the genera ; of these about ten are represented in Europe, 
nine of which occur in Britain ; some of the species are very rare, and 
many are exceedingly difficult to determine; they are found in moist 
fungi, under bark, by sweeping herbage at sundown, &c. 

I. Head with distinct antennal groove on its under-side ; 

thorax with the posterior angles rounded ; elytra not 

striated with the exception of a sutural stria which 

is sometimes absent ; tibiae finely spinose ; tarsi 

dissimilar in the sexes. 

i. Club of'antennge 3.jointed Agathidium, III. 

ii. Club of antennae 4-jointt'd Amphicyllis, i>. 

iii. Club of antenuffi 5-jointed, 2nd joint small . . . Liodes, -Er, 

II. Head without or with indistiucL* antennal grooves 

on under-side; thorax with the posterior angles 
right angles or obtuse, hut not rounded ; elytra 
more or less plainly striated ; tibiaj distinctly 
spinose ; tarsi similar in the sexes. 
i. Base of thorax margined ; posterior tarsi with less 
than five joints. 

1. Anterior and intermediate tarsi 5-jointed, 
posterior 4-jointed. 

A. Club of antennae apparently 4-jointed, the 
second joint being scarcely visible or quite 
concealed ; mesosternum not carinate . . . CxETDSA, Mr. 
_ B. Club of antennas plainly 4-jointed, the second * 
joint being small l)ut distinctly visible ; meso- 
sternum carinate Anisotoma, 111, 

2. Anterior tarsi 5-jointed, intermediate and pos- 
terior tarsi 4-joiuted ; club of antennae 3-joiuted. CoLENIS, JSr. 

' 3. Anterior tarsi 4 jointed, intermediate and pos- 
terior tarsi :-'-joiuted ; club of antennae 5- 

jointed, second joint small Aqaricotbaovs, Schmidt. 

ii. Base of thorax not margined ; all the tarsi 5- 
jointed. 

1. Club of antennas 5 jointed, second joint small . KYDyoBlVS, SchmicU 

2. Club of anteunai 3-joiuted Teiarthron, Schmidt. 

* Horn mentions Cyrtusa as possessing antennal grooves ; Thomson and Reittcr, on 
the contrarj-, class it with the species liaving no antennal grooves. 



14 CLAVicoRXiA. [AfjatJiidinm 



AGATKZDIV2M, Illigcr. 

This genus contains about fifty species which arc chiefly found iu 
Europe, Northern Asia, and North America ; in all prohaliility many 
more will be discovered ; one or two have occurred in the Canary Islands ; 
they are small shining, more or less globose, insects, many of which have 
the power of rolling themselves up into a ball like Clamhus ; they are 
usually black or brownish, but occasionally the thorax is bright red ; the 
antennse are terminated bya3-jointed club; the mandibles are stout, and 
the left one sometimes strongly projects or is furnished with a process 
varying from a small tooth to a long curved horn ; the thorax has the 
posterior angles rounded and the margins always more or less distinctly 
lighter ; the mesosternum is more or less plainly carinate ; the tarsi are 
variable in the female, which sex in some species has the anterior tarsi 
with five joints and the rest with four, and in other species has four 
joints to all the tarsi ; the elytra are not striated on disc, and even the 
sutural stria is often wanting or very much abbreviated, Thomson 
divides the genus into two on the formation of the meso- and meta- 
sternum, but his division is not satisfactory, as it does not separate the 
species that have variable tarsi in the females, a character that has much 
more weight than the comparatively slight diflercnces on which he founds 
his two genera. The species of Agathidium are found under bark, in 
fungi, moss, dead leaves, &c. 

The larva; of Agathidium appear in many points to strongly resemble those of 
Leiodes and Choleva ; that of A. seminiilum. according to Perris, has the segments 
clothed with a coriaceous skin in the place of corneous scuta ; the mandibles are bi- 
dentate, and the eight first abdominal segments are furnished with a small tubercle on 
each side; the last segment is terminated by two cerci and a long clavate anal 
appendage ; the whole surface is set with whitish silky hairs ; the larva of A. tnandi- 
hiilare is described by Schiodte as oblong-ovate, convex, of a pale fuscous colour, with 
the corneous parts fuscous ; antennaj and legs short and stout ; cerci stout, sparingly 
setulose, scarcely as long as the ninth abdominal segment ; these larva? are found iu 
the same habitat as the perfect insects. 

I. Elytra with flatly and widely rounded shoulders j 
female with the anterior tarsi 5-jointed and the 
intermediate and posteiior tarsi 4-jointed ; insect 
with complete ability to roll up into a ball.* 
i. Elytra with a sutural stiia reaching middle, finely 
but distinctly punctured. 

1. Head and thorax bright red, elytra deep black, 

considerably longer than together broad . . A. NlGRirENNE, I{'uj. 

2. Upper surface black or deep brown, elytra 

scarcely longer than together broad. 
A. Third joint of the antenntc very long, as long 
as the next three together ; thorax broadest 
behind middle ; size larger and broader . . A atetim, rayh. 

* The German term for this " Kugelvermogen Vollstiindig," is very expressive, and 
might with advantage be literally translated and adopted by English authors. 



Agathldiiim.'] 



CLAVICORNIA. 



15 



B. Third joint of the antenna} mnch shorter, 
scarcely as long as the next two together ; 
tliorax broadest before middle; size smaller 

and narrower . . 

ii. Elytra without sutural atria, impunctate . . . 

II. Kl\tra with obtuse humeral angles; species with 

incomplete ability to roll up into a ball ; tarsi of 

female variable. 

i. Head with the temples not swollen behind eyes, 

eyes, when the head is retracted, reaching the 

angles of thorax. 

Elytra without sutural stria, very closely and 

rather distinctly punctured 

Elytra with a distinct sutural stria reaching 

from apex to about middle. 
A. Front margin of clypeus broadly and rather 
deeply emargiuate 



A. SEMINULtJM, L. 
A. L^VIGATCM, Er. 



1. 

2. 



A. MARGINATUM, Sturm. 



B. Front margin of clypeus truncate or feebly 
bisiuuate. 

a. Colour variable, usually brownish yellow, 

with the sides of thorax and the elytra 
darker; all the tarsi of female 4-jointed ; 
elytra impunctate 

b. Colour black ; anterior thrsi of female 5- 

jointed ; elytra finely punctured, 
a*. Antennae unicolorous red ; clypeus not 
separated from forehead by a line . . 

I)*. Club of antenn£B, except sometimes apex, 
black ; clypeus separated irom forehead 
by a more or less distinct line . . . 
. Head with the temples plainly swollen and pro- 
jecting behind eyes; eyes not reaching the angles 
of thorax. 

1. Upper surface less distinctly punctured; left 

mandible of male simple 

2. Upper surface more distinctly punctured ; left 

mandible of male very much developed, often 
with a tooth or long horn on its upper surface 



A. CONFUSUM, Bris. 
(cl^peaium, Sharp ) 



A. VABIANS, Beck. 



A. OLOBOStlM, 3Illls. 

{convexum, Sharp.) 
A. EOTUNDATUM, Gijll. 



A. NiGKiNtTM, Sturm. 



A. EHINOCEEOS, Sharp. 



A. nigripenne, Kug. Head and tliorax bright red, elytra deep black, 
more elongate and less convex than in any of our other British species ; 
under-side blackish or l)lackish-brown ; antennaj reddish with darker 
club ; head and thorax very finely punctured, the latter transverse with 
all the angles rounded, a little narrowed in front ; elytra finely but dis- 
tinctly punctured with faint traces of rows of punctures, and with a deep 
sutural stria reaching from apex to beyond middle ; legs red. L. 2- 
2|- mm. 

Male Avith the anterior tarsi slightly dilated, posterior femora termi- 
nating in a Ijlunt tooth. 

Under bark of dead ash and other deciduous trees, at sap, &c. ; local ; not recorded 
from the London district ; New Forest ; Ghmvilles Wootton (dead brambles in May) ; 
Dean Forest ; Sutton Park ; Needwood ; Maikfield, near Leicester ; Sherwood Forest ; 



16 CiAVicoRNiA. [Jgathidium. 

Repton ; Davlingtoii ; Ripon ; Manchester district ; Northumberland district, not 
uncommon iii many localities, VVallington, Gosfortli, Jesinoud, Raveusworth, Whittle 
Dene, &c. ; Scotland, rare, at oozing^ sap of trees, Forth and Clyde districts ; 1 have 
also received it from Ireland from Mr. J. J. Walker, who has found it at Westport 
(Co. Mayo) and RathmuUan (Co. Donegal). 

A. atrum, Payk. Shining black, with the margins of thorax and 
usually the extreme margin of elytra pitchy ; under-side blackish or 
pitchy with apex lighter ; antennae reddish-brown with the two first 
joints of the club darker and the last joint lighter ; head thickly and 
distinctly punctured ; thorax ample, ver}'' finely punctured, much more 
so than head and elytra, broadest behind middle, with all the angles 
rounded ; elytra finely but plainly punctured, with a distinct sutural 
stria reaching from apex to beyond middle ; legs reddish-brown, posterior 
femora often blackish. L. 2f mm, 

Male with the posterior femora produced into a tooth at apex, and the 
metasternum in middle furnished with a little bunch of hairs. 

In dead leaves, moss, fungi, &c. ; rather local, but, as a rule, not uncommon ; 
London district, generally distributed ; The Holt, Farnliam ; Hastings ; Swansea ; 
Yardley ; Sutton Park j Cannock Cliase ; Needwood ; Sherwood Forest; Langworth 
Wood, Lincoln ; Manchester district ; Northumberland district rare, but rather 
widely distributed ; Scotland, Lowlands and Highlands, not rare, Solway, Tweed, 
Forth, and Tay districts. 

A. seminulum, L. Lighter or darker pitchy brown, sometimes red- 
dish brown, Avith the margins of thorax and elytra lighter, and the under- 
side always reddish-brown, a character, which together with its smaller 
and narrower form, will easily separate dark examples from the preceding 
species ; antennae reddish-brown with yellowish club ; head very finely 
punctured; thorax scarcely visibly punctured, with sides strongly rounded, 
broadest before middle, and if viewed when quite level apparently 
dilated in front ; elytra finely but distinctly punctured, with a sutural 
stria reaching from apex to about middle; legs reddish. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the posterior femora produced at apex into a rounded 
angle. 



^O"^ 



In dead leaves, moss, rotten wood, &c. ; local ; London district, not uncommon ; 
St. Leonard's Forest, Sussex ; New Forest ; Southampton ; Parkhurst Forest, Isle 
of Wight, in nests of F. rufa (J. J. Walker); Dean Forest, common; Coleshill ; 
Knowle ; Cannock Chase ; Sherwood Forest ; Chat Moss ; Repton ; Rijjon ; not 
recorded from any locality in England further north than Yorkshire, or from 
Scotland. 

A. laevigratum, Er. This species is easily distinguished by its 
smooth and impunctate surface and the absence of a sutural stria on 
the elytra ; it is black or pitchy, with the margins of the elytra distinctly 
reddish-brown ; antennae brownish-red, with the first two joints of the 
club ]:)rown, and the last lighter ; thorax very broad, broader than elytra, 
widest about middle; elytra smooth ; under-side black, abdomen sometimes 



A(jatJndium.] clavicornia. 17 

pitchy ; legs reddish or brownish-red, posterior femora sometimes 
blackish, without distinction in the sexes, L. 2 mm. 

In moss, dead leaves, rotten wood, &c ; London district generally distributed and 
common; Dover; Hastings; Glanvilles Wootton ; New Forest; Isle of Wifjlit ; 
Kuoivle; Duiiley ; Buddon Wood, Leicestershire; Chat Moss; Bold records it as 
very rare in the Northumberland district, and says he has only one local specimen ; 
Scotland, Lowlands and Highlands, among moss, common, Solway, Forth, Tay, Dee, 
and Moray districts ; it appears probable from the Scotch record that the species has 
beeu overlooked iu the northern counties of England. 

A. marg'inatuin, Sturm. A small species, globose, pitchy-black or 
black with the extreme margins of thorax, and the apex of elytra more 
or less broadly, pitchy-brown ; head extremely finely punctured, antennas 
reddish with the club, except apical joint, blackish ; thorax short, scarcely 
as broad as elytra, narrowed in front, broadest behind, very finely and 
scarcely visibly punctured ; elytra thickly and distinctly punctured 
without sutural stria ; legs brownish-red, posterior femora blackish 
L. lj-l| mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi slightly dilated, the apex of elytra less 
deflexed, and the left mandible rather strongly developed ; female with 
all the tarsi 4-jointed. 

In haystack and flood refuse, &c. ; not common ; Caterham, Forest Hill, Weybridge, 
Horsell, Shcerness, Chatham ; Deal ; Hastings ; Littlington ; Norfolk fens (specimens 
variable in size) ; Wallasey, near Liverpool ; Northumberland' district, widely dispersed 
but not common ; Scotland, very rare. Forth district ; also taken by Mr. Bold at 
Taiu, Ross-shire. Ii"eland, Portmarnock. 

A confusum, Bris. (clypeatum, Sharp, polonicum, Wank., piceum, 
Thorns, nee. Er., mandihulare, W.C, nee. Sturm.). Very like the pre- 
ceding in size, shape, and colour, but easily distinguished by having the 
clypeus distinctly, although shallowly, emarginate, and by the presence 
of a sutural stria on elytra reaching from apex to about middle ; the 
elytra are distinctly, although finely punctured ; in the female the tarsi 
are all 4-jointed, and in the male the left mandible is considerably 
developed. L.li-l|mm. 

In fungi; very rare; New Forest, Lyndhurst (Sharp); Headley Lane (E. W. 
Janson) ; Northumberland district, North Seaton (Bold) ; Dr. Power is said to have 
taken a specimen, but I have not noticed it in his collection. 

In the catalogue of Heyden, Eeitter, and Weise (1883) this species is 
given as synonymous Vflih. piceum, Er. ; I have, however, followed the 
synonymy given by Eeitter himself in the Bestimmungs-Tabellen der 
Eur. Col. Necrophaga, published in 1885. 

A. varians, Beck. Colour very variable, sometimes entirely tes- 
taceous, with the disc of thorax and base of elytra darker, sometimes 
dark, with the head and margins of thorax, and apex and margins only 
of elytra light ; head large, sparingly and very finely punctured ; 
antennae reddish-yelluw, with the two first joints of the club blackish ; 

VOL. HI. 



18 CLAVicORNiA. [Agathtdium. 

thorax about as broad as elytra, broadest behind middle, narrowed in 
front, exceedingly finely punctured ; elytra inipunctate with a distinct 
sutural stria reaching to about the middle ; legs reddish-brown. L. 
1|- 2 mm. 

Male with the left mandible sometimes considerably developed, 
female with all the tarsi 4-jointed. 

In vegetable refuse, rotten wood, at the damp bottoms of old woodstacks, &c. ; not 
uncommon, but somewhat local. Darenth Wood, Shirley, Croydon, Caterham, &c. ; 
Glanvilles Wootlou ; Knowle ; Needwood ; Repton ; Ripon ; Lincoln ; Liverpool and 
Manchester district ; Northumberland district, not rare, in fungi growing on decaying 
trees ; Scotland, rare, Solway and Forth districts. 

The colour and impunctate elytra will easily distinguish this species 
from its allies. 

A, g-lobosum, Muls. {convexuni, Sharp). This species is allied 
to A. inarghiatum, but at once distinguished by the presence of a sutural 
stria on the elytra which reaches from apex to about middle, and by 
the female tarsi ; the antennae also are unicolorous red, whereas in 
A. marginatum the first two joints of the club are almost always dark ; 
it is also allied to A. 7-otundatum, but is larger than that species and less 
pointed at apex, and may further be easily distinguished by the colour 
of the antennae which in A. rotundatum always have the club dark, 
L. If-ll-mm. 

In the male the left mandible is sometimes very much developed ; 
in the female the tarsi are 5- 4- 4-jointed. 

In dead leaves, moss, &c. ; rare; Shirley, Esher, Bexley, Chatham, Barenth, 
Hainault, Birch Wood, Loughton, Miokleham, Highgate (Champion, Power, &c.) ; 
Hopwas Wood, Tamworth (Hlatch); Drinkwater Park, Manchester ; Repton ; Scot- 
land, rare, Lowlands, Highlands, Solway, Tay, and Dee districts (Sharp). 

A. rotundatum, Gyll. One of the smallest, if not the smallest, of 
our species ; deep black, shining, with the extreme margins of thorax, 
and apex of elytra obscurely pitchy ; form globose but rather longer and 
not quite as broad as in other species ; head finely punctured, antennae 
reddish with club dark (often lighter at apex) ; thorax fully as broad 
as elytra, very finely punctured, the punctuation being scarcely visible 
except at sides; elytra with a sutural stria reaching to about middle with 
punctuation, as in thorax, visible at sides ; legs reddish or reddish- 
brown. L. 1-|— 1| mm. 

Male with the left mandible often produced or furnished with a horn ; 
female with tarsi 5- 4- 4-jointed. 

In fungoid growth on dead trees, under bark, &c. ; rare in England ; Esher, Cater- 
hrtm, Darenth Wood, Cobham Park, Chatham; Cannock Chase ; Sherwood Forest ; 
Wallasey; Bowden Park, Manehpster ; Northumberland district; Scotland, under 
b:ii k, not rare, Solway, Tay, Dee, Sutherland, and probably other districts. 

This species is closely allied to A. marginatum, but is easily dis- 



Agathidiuvi.'] clavicornia. 19 

tinguislied by the presence of a sutural stria, and the very indistinct 
punctuation of disc of elytra. 

A. nig-rinum, Sturm {staph ylmum, Gyll.) This and the suc- 
ceeding species are placed in a separate group by Eeitter together with 
A. arcUcum, Thorns., and A. discoldeum, Er. ; the species belonging to 
this group are easily distinguished by having the temples swollen and 
projecting behind the eyes ; A. nigrinum is the largest British species of 
the genus ; in general appearance it much resembles A. atrum, but is 
rounder and more globose ; in colour it varies, being usually black or 
pitchy black with the edges of thorax and apex of elytra pitchy-brown, 
but varieties occur which are almost entirely of a light pitchy-brown 
colour ; head very finely punctured, antennae reddish, with club, except 
apex, dark ; thorax short and convex, hardly visibly punctured, broadest 
behind middle ; elytra plainly and rather thickly punctured, with a 
sutural stria reaching from apex to middle ; breast black, abdomen reddish- 
brown ; legs reddish-brown, or pitchy, with tarsi lighter. L. 3 mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi slightly dilated, female with the tarsi 
5- 4- 4-jointed. 

In dead leaves, faggot stacks, fungoid growth, &c. ; not common ; Chathiira, 
Darenth Wood, Caterham, Sanderstead, Coombe Wood, Shirley, Esher, Wey bridge, 
Highgate, Lough ton, &c. ; Hastings; New Forest; Sherwood Forest; Need wood ; 
llipon ; Manchester district ; Northumberland district, rare, Bothal, Gibside, Gos- 
forth, banks of Irthing. Scotland, Lowlands, Highlands, under bark, rare, Solway, 
Forth, Tay, and Moray districts. 

The pale variety is the A. staphylceum oi Gyllenhal (Ins. Suec. ii. 569. 
13), which he expressly says has a 3-jointed club ; it cannot therefore be 
referred to the var. feiTugineum of AmpMcyllis globus, with Avhich many 
authors identify it. 

A. rhinoceros, Sharp. Allied to the preceding species, but 
evidently more acuminate behind, and more distinctly punctured, with a 
more deeply impressed sutural stria, and with the antennje rather stouter, 
the apical joints being more transverse ; the colour is usually deep pitchy 
red, sometimes almost black, and the legs are of a dark reddish-brown 
colour ; the chief peculiarity, however, lies in the extreme development 
of the left mandible of the male, which in sqme cases is only increased 
in length and curved, in others bears a short tooth on its upper surface, 
and in others has this tooth prolonged into a very loiig, elevated, recurved 
horn reaching far above the head ; female with tarsi 5- 4- 4-jointed. 
L. 2i-2| mm. 

Under bark of dead firs, &c. ; Rannoch, Perthshire (first taken by Messrs. Sharp 
and Bishop in the autumn of 1864). 1 have also received it from the same locality 
from the Rev. A. E. Hodgson. 

AX«PKZCVZ.]:.ZS, Erichson. 

This genus contains two European species, one of w]iii;li is {♦)iiiiil in 

G 2 



20 CLAVICORNIA. [AmpllicyUis. 

Britain ; it resembles Leiodes in form, but is easily Jistinguished by the 
4-jointed club of the antennse (the club of Leiudf^s being 5-jointed with 
the second joint very small) and the non-spinose posterior tibia? ; it is 
also related to Aguthidium, but the latter genus is less globose and has 
the club of the antenna3 3-jointed, and the mesosternum keeled instead 
of tuberculate. 

A. grlobus, F. Very convex, almost hemispherical, head and elytra 
shining black, thorax bright red ; antennce red, with the two middle 
joints of the club blackish ; head thickly and finely punctured, mouth 
parts red ; thorax at hinder margin more than double as broad as long, 
plainly narrowed in front, anterior angles rounded, posterior angles 
o1)tuse, thickly and finely punctured ; elytra rather distinctly punctured, 
with a deep sutural stria reaching from apex to about middle ; meso- 
sternum tuberculate at apex; legs reddish-brown, posterior femora often 
blackish. L. 2|mm. 

Male Avith the three first joints of the anterior tarsi and the two first 
joints of the intermediate tarsi widened and pubescent beneath ; female 
with all the tarsi 4-jointed. 

In dead leaves, faggot stacks, rotten wood and fungoid growth ; not common, but 
occasionally occurs in numbers ; Woking, Caterham, Coonibe ^^'ood, Daien'h Wood, 
Chiitham, "Purley Down, Wimbledon, Dulwicli, Highgate, Sbeppy ; E«sex ; Hastings ; 
New Forest ; Church Strettou ; Sherwood Forest ; Nortliumberland district, very 
rare, Gosforth and Long Beuton ; not recorded from Scotland. 

V. ferrugineum, Sturm. This variety is entirely rufo-ferruginous ; 
it is less common than the type form ; I have taken it near Lincoln and 
it has occurred at Eipon and in other localities. 

Z1IODES9 Latreille {Anisotoma, Eeitter et auct). 

This genus contains about a dozen species from Europe and J^orth 
America, four of wliich are found in Britain ; like Anisotoma they have 
a 5-jointed club with the sixth joint very small, but they may be dis- 
tinguished from that genus by their more hemispherical shape, and by 
having the mesosternum tuberculate at apex and not carinate ; they are 
also, as a rule, larger and dark-coloured, occasionally being furnished 
with yellow spots on the elytra. 

Tlie larva of L. glabra {Anisotoma glahra) is described and figured by Schiodte, i. 
37 PI. X. fig. 7. It is very like that of Chuleva fusca, but is more parallel-sided and 
more gradually narrowed behind ; the hciid projects, but is sm:dl, and very much 
narrower than the piothorax ; the three thoracic segments are very transverse, of about 
equal size, with tiie angles rounded, and with strong muscular impressions ; the 
abdominal segments are much contracted in front and behind, and gradually decrease 
in i)rcadth : theniuth segment is about as loug as broad and cylindrical, and bears a 
viry short anal appendage and two long cerci; legs and antenna short; this larva is 
p;ik' with the corneous parts fuscous ; it is found in fungi. I have retained the name 
of Liodes for this genus, although Rritter and several authors have changed it to 
Anisoloma, as the iuterchange of the names of genera gives rise to so much coulusiou; 



LiodeS.] CLAVICORNIA. 21 

if a change ninst be luade, it will be far better to adopt entirely new names rather thiiu 
call Neerophorus Silpha, and Silpha Necrophorus, Liodes Anisotoma, and Anisotoma 
Liode.i, and so on, as is now done in many cases. 

I. Elytra finely pubescent with a yellow spot at each 

shoulder; female with tarsi 5- 4- 4-jointed . . . L. HUMEEALIS, Kug. 

II. Elytra glabrous without spots at shoulder. 

i. Size larger; elytra with very distinct rows of 

larger punctures ; female with tarsi 5- 4- 4- 

joiuted L. GLABRA, Kug, 

ii. Size smaller ; elytra with rows of larger punctures 

indistinct or irregular; female v/ith all the tarsi 

4-jointed. 

1. Elytra coarsely and almost evenly punctured ; 

sutural stria of elytra almost reaching base . L. CASTANEA, Herbst. 

2. Elytra finely punctured with feeble rows of 

larger punctures ; sutural stria of elytra reach- 
ing a little beyond middle L. obbiculaeis, Herbst. 

Xi. humeralis, Kug. Black, almost heujisplierical, with a broad 
patch at tlie shoulder of each elytra reddif-h or reddish-yellow ; the 
mouth-parts and a more or less obscure spot on forehead are also reddish, 
and the margins of thorax are reddish-brown ; head finely punctured, 
antennge reddish, with the club blackish or dark brown, except the apical 
half of the last joint which is reddish-yellow ; thorax transverse, nar- 
rowed in front, broadest behind, finely punctured, posterior angles rather 
marked ; elytra thickly and finely punctured, with double rows of larger 
punctures, the whole surface clothed with very fine brownish-yellow 
pubescence ; under-side and legs reddish-brown. L. 2|—3| nun. 

Male with the three first joints of the anterior tarsi strongly dilated, 
and the posterior femora dilated into an obtuse tooth at apex. 

In powdery fungus on old logs, stumps, &c. ; locally common ; London district in 
many localities; Wrabness, Essex; Hastings; Glanvilles Wootton ; New Forest; 
Devon ; Sutton Park, Birmingham ; Cannock Chase ; Ncedwood ; Robins' Wood, 
liepton; Liverpool and Manchester districts ; commoner further north ; Northumber- 
land and Durham district, common ; Scotland, Lowlands and Highlands, in fungi 
under bark, common throughout almost the whole country. 

Zi. g'labra, Kug. Larger and broader than the preceding species, 
black, shining ; head finely punctiired, anteuna? brownish-red, with the 
club, except at extreme apex, blackish ; thorax very transverse, finely 
punctured, posterior angles obtuse, but well marked, with the extreme 
margins pitchy-red ; elytra finely punctured with distinct rows of larger 
punctures, and a deep sutural stria reaching from apex to about middle ; 
under-side and legs reddish-brown. L. 3]:-3| mm. 

Male with the three first joints of the anterior tarsi feebly dOated. 

Under bark of fir ; local and only found in the extreme north of England and in 
Scotland ; Northumberland district, rare ; Scotland, Highlands, Tay, Dee, and Moray 
districts. 

Ii. castanea, Herbst. Ovate, rather convex, pitchy-black, usually 
with a castaneous or reddish-brown tinge ; head finely punctured, 



22 (JLAVICORNIA. [Liodes. 

antennse brownish with the club, except apex, darker ; thorax extreinely 
finely and scarcely visibly punctured with margins lighter than disc ; 
posterior angles distinct; elytra somewhat acuminate behind, with 
irregular rows of rather coarse punctures, and the interstices between 
these rather coarsely punctured, so that the whole surface almost appears 
to be evenly punctured ; the spaces between the punctures are very finely 
punctured or cross-striated ; the sutural stria almost reaches base of 
elytra ; under-side and legs brown-red. L. 3 mm. 

Male Avith the three first joints of the anterior tarsi rather strongly 
dilated. 

Scotland, Highlands, under bark of fir ; local ; Tay, Dee, and Moray districts. Dr. 
Sharp has found it in some numbers at Rannocb. 

Zi. orbicularis^ Herbst. A small, short oval, somewhat globose 
species, pitch-black or darker or lighter pitch-brown, antennfe reddish 
with the club, except apical joint, blackish ; head finely punctured, with 
the mouth-parts and often a spot on forehead reddish ; thorax very finely 
and hardly visibly punctured, with the margins rather broadly lighter, 
posterior angles distinct, elytra with fine and somewhat indistinct rows 
of large punctures, interstices very finely punctured, sutural stria deep 
and reaching to about middle ; under-side and legs rather bright reddish 
or brownish-red. L. 2-2i mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi feebly dilated, posterior trochanters pro- 
jecting in a small point, posterior femora furnished with a small tooth 
in middle. 

In dry and powdery fungoid growth on old trees ; rare; Darenth Wood, Ashstead, 
Claygate, Strood, Caterham, Cobham Park; Hastings; Lewes ; New Forest ; Can- 
nock Chase ; Delamere Forest, Cheshire; Nocton, near Lincoln ; Ripon ; Northumber- 
land district, Gosforth, rare ; not recorded from Scotland. 



CYRTUSA, Erichson. 

This genus contains about half a dozen species from Europe and i*7orth 
America ; they are very small insects of a lighter or darker testaceous or 
reddish-brown colour, and much resemble the smallest species of Aniso- 
to'tiia, from which they differ in having the antennse apparently 10-jointed 
and the club 4-jointed, the second joint of the club being very niinute 
and scarcely visible even under a high power ; it diff"ers further from 
this latter genus in not having the mesosternum carinate ; from Colenis it 
may be known by the formation of the club of the antennas and the fact 
that the tarsi are 5- 6- 4-jointed. 

I. Form larger, less elongate, and more convex ; posterior 
tibiae gradually widened to apex ; posterior angles of 

thorax rectangular C. minuta, Ahr. 

I. Form smaller, more elongate, and less convex ; pos- 
terior tibise abruptly widened at apex ; posterior anglea 
of thorax blunt (but not rounded) C pauxilla, Schmidt. 



Ci/rtusa.'} CLAVicoltNiA. 23 

C. mlnuta, Ahr. Short oval, convex, subglobose, testaceous or red- 
dish, brown, shining ; antennae reddish with club brown ; head thickly 
and rather plainly punctured ; thorax transverse, finely punctured, with 
the sides somewhat strongly rounded, posterior angles rather sharp right 
angles ; elytra with regular rows of punctures reaching nearly to base, 
interstices rather thickly and plainly punctured, with a sutural stria 
reaching from apex to about middle ; legs testaceous, tibise^ especially 
the middle pair, strongly spined. L. Ij-lfmm. 

Male with the posterior femora gradually widened to apex, and fur, 
nished at apex with a recurved tooth. 

By evening sweeping, &c. ; rare; Scarborough; Scotland, Lowlands, very rare, 
Sohvay district, banks of Firth in flood refuse ; the specimens formerly referred to 
C. minuta must be most of them referred to C. yauxilla, which is, apparently, confined 
to the London district and the south. 

C. pauxilla, Schmidt. This species is allied to the preceding, but 

diflfers in being, on an average, decidedly smaller, and of more elongate 

and depressed form; the posterior angles of the thorax are blunt, 

although not rounded off, and in the male the posterior femora are 

abruptly dilated at apex and terminate in a right angle on the lower side 

instead of in a recurved tooth ; the second joint of the club of the 

antennae is also rather more visible, and the punctuation of the interstices 

of the elytra is more diffuse ; these latter characters, however, are not 

very obvious. L. vix 1 mm. 

By evening sweeping ; not uncommon in the Loudon district, Mickleham, Shirley, 
Forest Hill, Caterliam,Claygate, Cobham, Birchwood, Maidstone, Gravesend, Chatham ; 
Hastings; New Forest; Plymouth. 

ANZSOTOBSA, Illiger. {Liodes, Latr,). 

This genus contains a considerable number of species, the majority of 
which are found in Europe; several, however, have been described from 
Northern Asia and North America, and it is probable that the number 
at present known will be largely increased in course of time ; about 
fifty species are now recognized as European, of which nearly half are 
found in Britain ; many of these are extremely closely allied, and are 
very difficult to determine with accuracy. The late Mr. Eye took a great 
interest in the group, and added several new species ; it is, however, 
doubtful whether all his species can be regarded as distinct ; in the 
present book the arrangement of Reitter has been in the main followed, 
as his work (Bestimmungs-Tabellen der Eur. Col. Necrophaga, 1885), is 
the latest that has appeared on the subject. The habits of the genus 
are at present very imperfectly known ; the species are, as a rule, captured 
by sweeping after sunset in damp and dewy places, but they occasionally 
occur in fungi, or on sandhills. I have also found them early in hot 
mornings, sitting upon stones in the sun. The genus Anisotoma is dis- 
tinguished from its nearest allies by having the anterior and inter- 
mediate tarsi 5-jointed and the posterior -tarsi 4-join(ed. 



24 CLAVicoRNiA. [Auisotoma. 

The larvae of Anisotoma and its allies appear to bear a close relation to that of 

Choleva. 

Eeitter divides the genus into the four following groups: — 

I. Posterior angles of thorax projecting, more or less pointed, fitting closely to the 

base of elytra (Group I.). 

II. Posterior angles of thorax blunt or rounded, seldom right-angled, 
i. Interstices of elytra without cross striation. 

1. Side margins of elytra without distinct outstanding hairs (Group II.). 

2. Side margins of elytra set with distinct outstanding hairs ; posterior angles 
of thorax rounded (Group III.). 

ii. Interstices of the elytra, especially at the sides, with cross striation (Group 
IV.). 

The first group is not as yet represented in our fauna ; the second, 
containing two species (J., ciliaris and A.furva) may perhaps with reason 
be separated ; but.the fourth, containing the two British species A.parvula 
and A. rugosa, may with more reason be classed with the third : our 
species will then fall into two groups which are very uneven in point of 
numbers. 

I. Side margins of elytra without distinct outstanding hairs; posterior angles of 
thorax, rounded, blunt, or rarely right-angled (Group I.). 

II. Side margins of elytra with distinct outstanding hairs; posterior angles of thorax 
rounded (Group II.). 

The characters on which many of the species are separated are very 
slight, and in many cases comparative, so that a table is not of much 
value, unless taken in conjunction with the detailed descriptions ; except 
in two or three instances, all our species of Anisotoma are of a bright 
chestnut-red, or testaceous-reddish colour ; they vary in size from about 
2 mm, to nearly 7 mm., and are of oval or oblong-oval form, and more 
or less convex, with the thorax gradually rounded at sides, narrowed in 
front, and broadest behind ; the antennae terminate in a more or less dis- 
tinct club, and their eighth joint is much smaller than those above and 
below it ; the elytra are furnished wnth rather strong punctured strige, 
and the interstices, at least the alternate ones, are, as a rule, punctured 
in fine rows : the shape of the tibiae, and of their apical spines are also 
useful characters for determination. 

Group 1. 

This group contains all our British species except two ; its members 
are distinguished from those of the other group by not having the sides 
of the elytra set with distinct outstanding hairs. 

I. Interstices of elytra without cross striation. 

i. Club of antennae narrow, last joint not narrower 
than the penultimate. 
1. Anterior tibise dilated towards apex. 

A. Average size larger (4.-6i mm.) ; form oblong 
oval or long-oval. 
a. Second joint of antennae much longer than 

broad, club usually dark A cinnamomea, Panz. 



Anisohnna.'] 



CLAVICORNIA. 



25 



b. Second joint of antenna scarcely longer than 
broad, club usually ligbt 



B. Average size smaller (2J-4i mm.) ; form short 
oval. 

a. Colour dark pitchy -brown or blackish ; 
length 3-4A mm. janteunaj with the penul- 
timate joints more transverse, and the last 
hardly as broad as the preceding .... 

b. Colour brown-red or yellowish-red ; length 
2i-3| mm. : antennaj with the penultimate 
joints less transverse and the last quite as 

broad as or broader than the precedmg. 
a* Thorax not quite as broad as elytra, with 
sides distinctly rounded, posterior angles 

blunt .• : • 

b* Thorax as broad as elytra, with sides 
almost parallel from a little behind middle 
to base, posterior angles almost right 

angles 

2. Anterior tibise narrow. 

a Thorax smooth on disc : mesosternum strongly 
' and sharply keeled ; striae of elytra with the 
punctures set comparatively far apart, 
a*. Size smaller ; posterior angles of thorax 

right angles n ' , ' 

b*. Size larger ; posterior angles of thorax 

slightly obtuse • 

b. Thorax more or less plainly punctured 
throughout : mesosternum finely keeled, 
a*. Striaj of elytra more coarsely punctured 
b*'. Stria3 of elytra more finely punctured, 
af. Posterior angles of thorax very obtuse, 

almost rounded • • 

b+. Posterior angles of thorax slightly 
obtuse, but projecting, 
aj. Club of antenna} unicolorous ; 
upper surface ferruginous. 
*. Club of antennee long and nar- 
row, with the last joint not broader 
than the penultimate . . - • • 
**. Club of antennce broad, with 
the last joint slightly broader than 

the penultimate 

bj. Club of antenna; dark ; upper sur- 
face usually dark, or with thorax 
dark and elytra ferruginous . . . 

Club of antennae as a rule broad, with the last 

joint plainly narrower than the penultimate. 
1. Anterior tibiae narrow. 



A. OBLONGA, Ur. {grandis, 
Fairm.). 



A. PICEA, III. 



A. DTJBIA, Kug.* 



A. OBESA, Schmidt* 



A. BADIA, Sturm. 
A. SIMILATA, Bye.\ 



A. sciTA, Er. 



A. OVALIS, Schmidt. 



A. BRUNNEA, Sturm. 



A. ci/ATicoENis, Rye. 



A. PTJNCTUIATA, Oyll. 

(litura, Steph.). 



u 



* These two species are so closely allied that they can hardly be regarded as speci- 

cally distinct. 
•|- It appears t( 
of the preceding. 



^'f \ttpTears to be very probable that this species may eventually prove to be a form 



26 CLAVICORNIA. [Altisof())lta. 

A. Posterior margin of thorax sinuate on each 
side ; posterior tibiae of male very much curved. 

a*. Club of antennae dark ; posterior femora 

of male with a large lobe-like tooth, ending 

in a point A. calcabata, Er. 

b*. Club of antennse ferruginous : posterior 

femora of male with a large lobe-like 

tooth, rounded at apex A. curvipes, Schmidt 

{macropus, Ryf). 

B. Posterior margin of thorax straight ; posterior 

tibiae of male almost straight. 

a. Posterior angles of thorax obtuse; colour 

ferruginous A rubighnosa, Schmidt. 

b. Posterior angles of thorax almost right 
angles; colour variable, sometimes entirely 

black A. NiGRiTA, Schmidt, 

2. Anterior tibiae dilated towards apex. 

A. Form long oval ; elytra broadest at or behind 

middle. 

a. Thorax with two or three larger punctures 
on disc before scutellum, besides the usual 

basal row; size larger (length 4-4^ mm.). . A. silesiaca, Kraatz. 

b. Thorax without larger punctures before 
scutellum besides the usual basal row ; size 

smaller (length 3-3^ mm.), 
a*. Thorax hardly as broad as elytra ; club 

of antennae large and broad A. curta, Fairm. 

h*. Thorax fully as broad as elytra : club of 

antennae smaller and narrower .... A. lunicollis, Si/e. 

B. Form short oval; elytra broadest before 

middle, and thence narrowed to apex. 

a. Posterior margin of thorax sinuate on each 
side near posterior angles, size larger and 

more depressed A. triepkei, Schmidt. 

b. Posterior margin of thorax straight, size 

smaller, and more convex A. fallens, Sturm, 

II. Interstices of elytra with more or less distinct 
cross striation. 
i. Posterior angles of thorax obtuse ; size larger ; 
last joint of antennae distinctly narrower than the 

preceding A. rugosa, Steph. 

ii. Posterior angles of thorax sharp right angles ; size 
much smaller ; last joint of antennae not narrower 
than the preceding A. parvula, Sahib. 

A. cinnamomea, Paiiz. Oblong, rather convex, ferruginous or 
reddish-testaceous, shining ; head rather large, finely punctured, antennse 
moderately long, with the 2nd and 3rd joints elongate, cylindrical, the 
3rd being half as long again as the 2nd, club black, last joint as broad as 
the penultimate ; thorax about as broad as elytra, thickly and finely 
punctured, moderately rounded at the sides, with posterior angles obtuse, 
but almost right angles : elytra fully twice as long as thorax, sides sub- 
parallel until a little before apex, with regular punctured striae, inter- 
stices very finely punctured, the alternate ones with rows of larger 
punctures. L. 4y-6^ mm. 



Anisotonia.] ci-avioornia. 27 

Male with the posterior legs very long, the femora emarginate and 
furnished with strong teeth at apex, the tibiae very strongly curved, in- 
termediate pairs much curved, intermediate femora toothed at base ; 
female Avith the apical angle of the posterior femora somewhat pro- 
minent. 

By evening sweeping among dead leaves in autumn, but more especially in truffles ; 
rare; Mr. Champion says that he has invariably found it by sweeping as above under 
old beech-trees. Chatham, Caterham, Micklehara, Sanderstead, Amberley ; Eythorne, 
near Dover ; Audley End, Saftron Walden, in truflBes (Curtis) ; Marlborough ; Devon ; 
Swansea ; Scotland, very rare. Forth District ; Ireland, near Belfast and Dublin ; the 
species, as might be expected, is common in France in the Pe'rigord district. 

A. oblong-a, Er., grandis, Fairm.). About the size of smaller 
specimens of the preceding species, but rather more elliptical, and with 
shorter antennae, which have the club of the same colour as the rest of 
the body ; the species may be easily recognized by the shorter second 
joint of the antennae, which is scarcely longer than broad ; thorax with 
the anterior angles less marked, and the posterior angles more nearly 
right angles ; elytra with sides rather more rounded, and somewhat 
broader proportionally, with more strongly punctured striae ; in the male 
the posterior tibiae are more evenly curved, and the posterior femora are 
strongly emarginate and toothed at apex ; in this point, however, the 
specimens appear to be somewhat variable. L. 4-5 mm. 

The two species A. ohlonga, Er., and A. grandis, Eairm., appear now 
to be considered identical ; the chief difference on which they were 
separated seems to have been taken from their sexual characters ; the 
denticulation, however, of the apex of the posterior femora of male appears 
to vary in degree, and the same probably ajDplies to the female, which in 
A. grandis is said to have the posterior femora angulated, and in A. oh- 
longa rounded. In case, however, the two species should again be 
separated, it may be as well to give the records under different head- 
ings : — 

A. dhlonga. One specimen taken by Mr. Harris near Burton-on- 
Trent and named as A. oblonga, by Dr. Kraatz ; Famham, Surrey (one 
male, Champion) ; one specimen beaten from broom in a wood near York 
(Hutchinson) ; Sherwood Forest ; Dumfries, Scotland. 

A. grandis. Caterham, Mickleham, Esher, by evening sweeping in 
the autumn in woods (Champion) ; Mickleham " Hilly Field " under 
trees (Rye) ; Tilgate Forest; Loughton and Cowfold (Power) ; Highgate 
(Janson) ; Bretby Wood, near Burton-on-Trent, where I captured a fine 
specimen on September 30th, 1879, by sweeping in the evening when 
the grass was so wet that water could be wrung out of the net at each 
sweep ; this specimen was named for me as A. grandis, and it is worthy 
of note that it comes from the same locality as the original specimen of 
A. oblonga. 

A. picea, HI. Oblong ovate, convex, of a deep pitchy-black colour, 



28 CLAVicORNiA. [Anisotoma. 

shillings antennae moderate, ferruginous; thorax as broad as elytra, 
closely punctured, mucli narrowed in front, posterior margin truncate, 
hind angles rounded ; elytra with sides rounded, with rather strongly 
punctured striae, each interstice with two more or less irregular rows of 
very fine punctures, alternate interstices with larger punctures ; legs red. 

L. 3| mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora with an obtuse 
tooth on each side at apex, and the tibiae curved, female with the 
posterior femora terminating in an obtuse angle somewhat rounded. 

Very rare; Scotland, Forth, Clyde, and Tay districts; the few specimens captured 
were all, or nearly all, taken by Mr. Foxcroft ; the species is one of the most distinct 
of the whole genus. 

IL. dubia, Kug. Subovate, ferruginous or reddish testaceous, occa- 
sionally quite pale, sometimes with the head and thorax pitchy, and the 
elytra ferruginous, size also variable; head thickly punctured, with 
larger impressions on vertex ; antennae 'moderate, with 3rd joint half as 
long again as 2nd, club darker or lighter ; thorax not quite as broad as 
elytra,°thickly punctured, rather long proportionally, with sides strongly 
and evenly rounded, posterior angles very obtuse or rounded ; elytra with 
strongly punctured striaj, interstices very finely but not very closely 
punctured, alternate ones Avith the usual larger punctures ; legs moderately 
stout. L. 2i-3| mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, femora furnished at apex with 
a small tooth on each side, tibiae feebly biarcnate ; female with the 
posterior femora terminating in an obtuse angle at apex. 

By evening sweeping in woods, on sand-hills, &c. ; local, but not uncommon in many 
places ; it is perhaps the most common British member of the genus except A. calca- 
rata; Chatham, Dareuth Wood, Caterbam, Mickieham, Woking, Esber, Shirley, 
Coombe Wood; Harwich ; Deal ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; New Forest ; Exeter; 
Repton, and other Midland localities; Manchester district ; Hartlepool; Holy Island 
(in numbers), J. J. Walker; Mr. Bold records the capture of large numbeis on the 
sea-shore near Whitby in October and adds, " They were on a sandy slope, with head 
to windward ; whence they came bothered me entirely." * Scotland, rather common, 
Solway, Tweed, Forth, Tay, and Moray districts ; Ireland, Portmarnock. 

The following varieties of this very variable species may perhaps be 
mentioned : — 

V. bicolor, Schmidt. Size smaller, head and thorax pitchy, elytra 
ferruginous ; it occurs with the type. 



* It is probable that many of the Anisotomina which are now exceedingly rare, will 
be found plentifully as their habits become better known : they appear to have a 
great affinity for the sea-shore or the sand-hills adjoining, and many should perhaps 
be looked for in late autumn : the capture of Hydnobius ptuictafissinms in very large 
numbers by Mr. T. Wood near Kingsgate, quite Lite in the autuuni of 1886, is an 
example : A. ciliaris and Hydnobius Perrisii, and several of the commoner species 
have occurred in numbers near or not far from the sea-coast. 



Amsotoma.'] clavicornia. 29 

V. lomjipes, Schmidt. Size larger, colour entirely ferniginous, legs 
apparently more elongate ; rare, Northumberland district, Hartford 
Bridge. 

The V. pallescens, Schmidt, is probably founded on more or less imma- 
ture specimens. 

A. obesa, Schmidt. Very closely allied to the preceding, with which 
it is probably identical ; it is about the same size, shape, and colour, but 
has the third joint of the antennae a little longer in proportion, the sides 
of the thorax not so strongly rounded, and subparallel from a little be- 
hind middle to base, and the teeth at the apex of posterior femora of 
of male more or less obsolete ; the difference of the relative length of 
the second and third joints of the antennae is, however, not very apparent 
in some cases, and the other diflerences are not very striking ; of two 
males of the species that I have before me, that of A. duhia has the 
punctuation of the striae of elytra considerably the stronger, but the 
latter species appears to vary in this respect. L. 3-3| mm. 

By evening sweeping ; rare ; Esher ; Weybridge ; Wicken and Burwell Fens ; Sher- 
wood Forest (where I have taken several specimens at the end of August) ; Scotland, 
Moss Morran (Power). 

A. badia, Sturm. A small shining species, ovate, sub-globose, very 
convex, variable in colour, sometimes almost entirely pitchy, and with 
the head and thorax usually darker than the elytra, often, however, en- 
tirely ferruginous ; head obsoletely punctured, antennae ferruginous, with 
rather a narrow club, last joint as broad as the two penultimate joints ; 
thorax at base as broad as elytra, strongly narrowed in front, hind 
margin tnuicate, posterior angles well marked, almost right angles, disc 
impunctate, smooth and shining, a point that will distinguish it from 
almost all allied species ; elytra very convex, usually lighter at apex, with 
strongly punctured striae which become more obsolete towards apex, in- 
terstices scarcely visibly punctured, except for the larger rows in the 
alternate ones ; legs short, shorter than in any other species of the 
group, posterior tibiae only just reaching apex of elytra, tarsi rather long 
proportionally. L. l|-2 mm. 

By evening sweeping ; occasionally in moss and dead leaves ; local but not un- 
common in some places ; London district, generally distributed, Chatham, Cuxton 
(Kent), Faversham, Mickleham, Crovdon, Caterham, Esher, Reigate, Cowley, Purley 
Down ; Hastings ; Glanvilles VV'ootton ; Repton, near Burton-on-Trent, and other 
Midland localities ; Hartlepool ; Northumberland district, Hetton Hall, near Belford. 

A. sixnilata, Eye. Mr. Eye describes this species as " closely allied 
to A. hadia, from which it differs in its rather larger size and lighter 
colour, the more slender basal joints of its antennae, and its proportionally 
rather longer elytra, of which the punctures are, though regular and 
well defined, much more delicate, the fourth stria from the suture being 
moreover, slightly waved about the upper third." L, 2 mm. 



30 CLAVicoRNiA. [Amsotoma. 

Two specimens taken by Mr. Rye at Shirley, near Croydon, by evening sweeping, 
and returned by Dr. Kraatz as distinct from A. badia. 

A. scita, Er, Very closely allied to A, duhia, and equally variable 
in colour; it is chiefly distinguished by having the anterior tibiae less 
widened ; this character, however, is not altogether trustworthy, and it 
is quite possible that the species are not really distinct ; it appears, how- 
ever, to have the thorax widest at or very near the base (instead of nearer 
the middle), with a much more shallow emargination for the reception of 
the head, and is, on the average, considerably smaller. L. 2|-2-| mm. 

The species was first taken as British near York by Mr. Hutchinson, and has occurred 
in some small numbers to Dr. Sharp in the Solway district, Scotland. I have also 
taken a specimen near Hunstanton, Norfolk, which was somewhat doubtfully referred 
to this species by Mr. Rye. 

A. ovalis, Schmidt. Oval, convex, ferruginous ; head thickly and 
finely punctured, antennae rather long, with a somewhat elongate club 
of which the tliree last joints are equal in breadth ; thorax at base 
somewhat narrower than elytra, thickly and finely punctured, narrowed 
towards apex, with sides evenly rounded, base truncate, posterior angles 
almost right angles ; elytra very convex, with moderately strongly punc- 
tured striae, interstices very closely and finely punctured, the alternate 
ones with larger punctures. L. 3-3-i- mm. 

Male with the posterior legs somewhat elongate, femora simple, 
rounded at apex, tibiae moderately curved, female with the posterior 
tibiae almost straight. 

By evening sweeping ; local, and as a rule not common ; Caterham, Forest Hill, 
Claygate ; Matlock ; Scarborough ; Whalley, Lancashire ; Northumberland district, 
recorded by Mr. Bold as not uncommon, and often found on the tops of walls, beneath 
ti'ees, especially after rain ; Scotland, scarce, Solway and Tay districts. 

Reitter (Best, Tab. der Eur. Col., p. 101) distinguishes this species 
from A. scita on the groimd that the latter species has only one puncture 
on each side of forehead, whereas A. ovalis has two ; A. scita, however, 
appears, at all events in some cases, to have two ; it is a differently 
shaped insect as compared with A. ovalis, and has the sculpture of elytra 
considerably stronger. 

A. brunnea, Sturm. Entirely ferruginous, shining, with a narrow 
club to its concolorous antenntB, last joint not broader or narrower than 
the preceding ; thorax not sinuate at base, with the posterior angles 
almost right angles, distinct ; striae of elytra moderately finely punctured, 
somewhat irregular, the third stria somewhat waved in middle ; male 
with the posterior legs rather elongate, the femora unarmed, and the 
posterior tibiae curved, especially in middle. L. 1|-2|- mm. 

By evening sweeping; very rare; Weybridge (Power); Mickleham, on the wing 
(Marsh); Scarborough (Lawson). 

This species was originally considered by Dr. Kraatz as a small form 



Auisotoma.^ clavicornia. 31 

of A. ohesa, and as sucli was expunged from our lists (Ent. Annual 
1859, p. 122); Mr. Rye, however, in reintroducing the species (Ent. 
^Monthly Mag. IX. 135), discusses the whole question, and proves 
satisfactorily that it is distinct ; in fact it is more closely related to A. 
calcarata than to A. ohesa, from which latter it is easily distinguished, 
among other points, by the singly curved posterior tibiae of the male, 
the less dilated anterior tibiae, and the relative length of the second 
and third joints of the antennae: from small specimens oi A. calcarata 
it may be known by the truncate hind margin of thorax, and more acute 
posterior angles of the same, as well as by the unarmed posterior tibiae ; 
it somewhat resembles A. litura, but may be easily separated from that 
species by the narrower and entirely ferruginous club of the antennae, 
and the comparatively wider apical joints. 

A, clavicornis, Rye. Oval, convex, ferruginous-testaceous, thorax 
not very closely punctured, with sides evenly rounded, truncate at base, 
elytra rather coarsely but not deeply pimctured ; distinguished from all 
other species by the structure of the antennae, which are very short, 
gradually widened towards apex, with the fourth, fifth, and sixth joints 
unusually small, and the apical joints, though short, as wide as the two 
preceding, which are very transverse. L. 2\ mm. 

This species was described by Rye from a single specimen taken in flood refuse on 
the banks of the Nith, near Tbornhill, Dumfries, October, 1873, by Dr. Sharp ; it 
has occurred since in France and Southern Europe. 

A. punctulata, Gyll. {litura, Steph., ornata, Fairm.). Oblong, 
ferruginous, with the head and thorax often more or less pitchy, and 
the elytra, as a rule, with the suture, and a more or less defined streak on 
each side, darker ; occasionally almost the whole insect is of a dark 
pitchy colour ; antennae moderate, with the club rather long, fuscous or 
blackish ; thorax a little narrower at base thari elytra, with the sides 
very gently rounded, posterior angles almost right angles, upper surface 
finely and not very closely punctured ; elytra with strongly punctured 
striae, interstices scarcely visibly punctured, except for the large punctures 
in the alternate ones. L. 2|-3 mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora unarmed, and the 
tibiae rather strongly curved. 

By evening sweeping in autumn among dead leaves, in flood rubbish, &c. ; local 
but not uncommon in some places ; Mi. kleham, Caterham, Shirley, Forest Hill, High- 
gate, Darenth ; Folkestone ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; New Forest ; Burton- 
on-Trent; Lincoln; Hartlepool; Northumberland district, rare, Wallington, Gosforth, 
&c. ; Scotland, Lowlands, rare, Solway, Forth, and Dee districts; Ireland, Port- 
mannock. 

A. calcarata, Er. Oblong ovate, ferruginous, with the head and 
thorax sometimes somewhat darker, exceedingly variable in size : head 
thickly and finely punctured, antennae moderately long, with fuscous 
club, last joint narrower than penultimate : thorax not quite as broad 



32 CLAVicoRNiA. [Anisotona. 

as elytra, with sides rather strongly rounded in front, hase hisinuate, 
posterior angles nearly right angles, hut hlunt, or even almost rounded, 
upper surface finely and not very thickly pimctured ; elytra with strongly 
punctured strise, interstices extremely finely punctured, except for the 
rows of larger punctures in the alternate ones. L. lf-3| mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora terminating in a 
large sharp tooth at apex, and the tibiae very strongly arcuate ; female 
with the posterior femora terminating in a slightly promment angle, 
tibi^ almost straight. 

By evening sweeping, &c.; generally distributed and moderately common through- 
out the greater part of England ; Bold, however, records it as rare in the Northumber- 
land district ; Scotland, common, Solway, Forth, Dee, Moray and probably other 
districts ; Ireland, Belfast, Portmarnock, Waterford, &c. 

A. curvipes, Schmidt (viaeropus, Eye). Oblong-ovate, convex, 
ferruginous, (immature examples testaceous) ; antennae rather short, with 
the club scarcely darker, and the last joint evidently narrower than the 
preceding ; thorax with the sides evenly rounded, slightly sinuate on each 
side at base, posterior angles obtuse, upper surface closely and finely 
punctured ; elytra with strongly punctured striae, sides subparallel imtil 
behind middle and thence narrowed and rounded to apex ; anterior 
tibiae slender, posterior femora coarsely punctured beneath. L. 2-3 
mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora armed beneath with 
a large lobe-like tooth which has the external angle rounded, tibiae 
moderately curved to apex. 

By evening sweeping under fir trees ; very rare ; Esher, five examples taken by 
Mr. Champion in August, 1873. 

This species is allied to small examples of A. calcarata, but differs in 
being always of a uniform clear ferruginous colour, of rather larger 
build, Avith the base of thorax not distinctly sinuate near posterior 
ano-les ; the punctures of the striae of elytra are larger, and the lobe-like 
tooth at the apex of posterior femora is rounded and not sharply pro- 
minent. 

A. rubig-inosa, Schmidt. Globose-ovate, strongly convex, shining, 
ferruginous or yellowish-red ; head large, finely and not very thickly 
pimctured, forehead with only two larger punctures, antennae short and 
stout with the third joint a little longer than the second, club thick, as 
a rule concolorous but sometimes darker, last joint much narrower than 
the preceding ; thorax strongly rounded at sides, base truncate, finely 
and sparingly punctured, posterior angles blunt ; elytra rounded at sides, 
broadest in middle, with strong punctured strias, interstices scarcely 
visibly punctured, except for the larger punctures in the alternate ones ; 
legs very stout, tibiae strongly spined. L. 2-2f mm._ 

Male with the posterior femora terminating in an oblique and 
slightly prominent tooth, tibiae slightly curved. 



AitUotoma.'] cla.viookxia. '^?> 

This species luis been alternately introduced and omitted from our 
lists on two or three occasions, and I here introduce it again with some 
reserve, on a specimen named for me on the Continent as " pres ruhi- 
ginosa," (now in the possession of INIr. Mason), which must, I think, ba 
referred to this species, as it is certainly not sufficiently distinct to he 
regarded as a new species. 

The species appears to be chiefly distinguished by having the thorax 
more convex than the elytra, by the very fine and at the same time 
diflfuse punctuation of the thorax, and the almost invisible punctuntion 
of the interstices of the elytra. 

A. nigrita, Schmidt. Oblong-oval, moderately convex, colour 
variable, sometimes almost entirely' pitchy black, sometimes quite light 
ferruginous, and varying between these two extremes ; antenna^ reddish, 
with the club dark brown ; thorax at base almost as broad as elytra, 
narrowed in front, hind margin truncate, posterior angles almost right 
angles, upper surface convex, very finely and not very thickly punc- 
tured ; elytra rather long, more 4han twice as long as thorax, with 
strongly punctured strice, which are rather irregular towards suture, inter- 
stices finely and very sparingly punctured ; legs ferruginous, posterior 
tibiae short and straight in both sexes. L. 2-2| ni*ra. 

Male with the posterior femora terminating in a large sharp tooth. 

By evening: sweeping, under fir-trees; very local ; London district, not nnconinion, 
Chatham, Eslier, XVoking, Shirley, Reigate ; it has also occurred iu the New 
Forest. 

A. silesiaca, Kr. A large and fine species; oblong-oval , very 
convex, entirely ferruginous, except the club which is darker, sometimes 
blackish, and the eye and apex of mandibles which are black : head 
and thorax closely and very distinctly punctured ; thorax a little nar- 
rower than elytra, with sides slightly rounded, base truncate, posterior 
angles almost right angles : elytra twice as long as thorax, convex, with 
strongly punctured striae, interstices very finely and closely but distinctly 
punctured, so that they appear rather dull, alternate interstices with 
rather closely set rows of somewhat large punctures. L. 4|-4| mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi rather strongly dilated, posterior femora 
simple with the apical angle rounded, tibiae slightly curved. 

A single specimen was taken by Dr. Sharp in July, 1866, at Inver- 
cannich, at the foot of Glen Affrick, Inverness-shire : the species was 
formerly introduced by Mr. Crotch into the British list as a large speci- 
men of A. ovalis, named A. sileslaca by M. Schiodte : the two species, 
however, differ entirely in sculpture, the elytra of A. ovalis being much 
more finely punctured ; the latter insect is moreover less elongate and 
more ovate, and has the club of the antennae longer and less stout. A. 
silesiaca. somewhat resembles A. furva, but has longer posterior legs 
and no cilia at the margins of the elytra, besides being difl'ercnt in other 
respects. 

vol. III. D 



34 CLAVicoRNiA. \^A7iisofoma. 

A. curta, Fairni. Oval, very convex, almost e(T[iially narrowed in 
front and behind, of a shining testaceous reddish colour ; antennae short 
with club slightly darker, stout and broad ; head usually darker than the 
rest of the body, very finely and closely punctured ; thorax very convex, 
not quite as broad at base as elytra, posterior angles ol)tusely rounded, 
closely but distinctly punctured ; elytra twice as long as thorax, with 
Viitherdeep and closely and strongly punctured strios, interstices obsoletely 
punctured, alternate rows with widely set larger punctures. L. 3-3| mm. 

Male with the posterior femora terminating in a blunt angle, or as 
Fairmaire in his description says, "terminated above and below by two 
small an<l slightly projecting teeth," * posterior femora curved. 

The species is closely allied to A. diibia, but is easily distinguished by 
its rather longer build, the much stronger punctuation of its thorax, tiie 
sides of which are more contracted behind, by the apical joint of the 
antenniB being distinctly narrower than the penultimate, and by the 
different curvature of the posterior tibite of the male. 

Sandy places, by evening sweeping under fir-tret's, very rare ; one example taken 
by Mr. Champion at Esher, October, 1873, and one by tlie Rev. T. Laundy Browne 
near Norwic^ii ; it appears to be very commou on the sandy coasts of Normandy, 
and also occurs near Paris ; it will probably be found in numbers on our south-east 
coast. 

A. lunicollis, Rye. Oblong ovate, convex, shining, ferruginous ; 
antennae with tlie club somewhat elongate, fuscescent, last joint distinctly 
narrower than the penultimate ; thorax in middle a little broader than 
elytra, ample and convex, sides strongly rounded, base truncate, upper surface 
finely and moderately thickly, but distinctly punctured ; posterior angles 
rounded ; elytra with rather strongly and thickly punctured .strife, the 
punctures being someAvhat smaller than in some of the allied species, 
interstices finely but distinctly punctured ; intermediate and posterior 
tibiae rather stout. L. 2| mm. 

Male with the intermediate tibiae dilated towards apex and slightly 
curved, posterior femora produced in a lobe terminating in a tooth above 
and below at apex, tibife slightly curved. 

By evening sweeping, in flood refuse, &c. ; very rare ; Forest Hill (Marsii) ; 
Sydenham ( Waterhouse) ; Cowley (Power); Scarborough (Lawson) ; Hartlepool 
(Gardner). This species is allied to A. calcarata, but dili'ers in the more rounded 
sides and angles of thora.x, and the truncate base of the same, and also in its more 
oblong build, and closer set and smaller punctures of the striaj of the elytra, as well 
as by the less strongly dilated posterior tibiaj of the male. 

A. triepkei, Schmidt. Oval, moderately convex, lighter or darker 

* The descriptions of the male characters of ^*w'soio)Ha often vary very much in 
different authors; the posterior femora are usually dilated in a lobe, which from above 
appears single, but in reality is double, being formed of two plates separated by a 
groove, as will be seen by viewing the tibias sideways; the apex of each of these 
plates is terminated by one or more teeth, or is obtuse or rounded ; some authors 
describe the characters ou one plate, some on both, and hence arises the confusion. 



Anisotoma.] clavicornia. 35 

feiTuginous or brownisli-reJ ; antenna? rather short, club long, as Ion"- 
as the rest of the antenna?, first and last joints not so broad as the 
others ; thorax at base narrower than elytra, rounded at sides, broadest 
in middle, base bisinuate, posterior angles almost rounded, upper surface 
ratlier thickly and very distinctly punctured ; elytra with sides not 
strongly rounded, rather depressed on disc, with strongly punctured strise, 
the punctures, however, being not as large as in some of the allied species, 
interstices very finely punctured, alternate ones with distinct larger 
punctures. L. 3-4j mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora angularly dilated and 
finely denticulate in middle, and rounded at apex, tibia? biarcuate. 

By evening sweeping; very rare; Forest Hill (Power); Weybridge ; Hartlepool 
(Gardner) ; Scotland very rare. Forth and Tay districts ; the first British specimen 
was taken by Mr. Hislop, near Falkirk. 

This species is allied to A. dubia, but differs in its more oval and 
depressed form, bisinuate base of thorax, and In-oad head, as well as by 
having the last joint of the antennae narrower than the penultimate, 
and the forehead furnished with two instead of four depressions ; it 
appears to vary very much in size ; in Dr. Sharp's collection there is a 
large, almost pitcliy-ferruginous, male, which is nearly 4^ mm. in 
length. 

A. pallens, Sturm. Short oval, of a light testaceous colour, strongly 
convex ; head largo, antenna? very short, club a little darker ; thorax 
narrower at base than elytra, as broad or broader in middle than at base, 
base truncate, posterior angles obtuse, upper surface thickly and finely 
punctured ; elytra convex with rather finely punctured stria?, interstices 
thickly and exceedingly finely punctured ; legs in both sexes stout, pos- 
terior legs short, shorter than in any other species in the group except 
A. hadia, femora rather broad. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the posterior tibite slightly curved. 

By evening sweeping in sandy places near the coast ; tlircc specimens taken by 
Mr. J. J. Walker at Deal on September 19th, 1873. 

This species by its short legs and antennae and general appearance 
seems at first sight to belong to the other group which contains J.. ciUaris 
and A. furca; it is, however, readily distinguished from these, apart from 
its smaller size, by the absence of cilia on the margins of the elytra and the 
somewhat longer and less stout posterior tibiae, as well as by the much 
finer punctuation of the thorax, and the finer punctuation of the striae and 
interstices of the elytra : it is one of the species that will probably be 
found in considerable numbers in Britain, as it is widely distributed on 
the continent, having occurred in France, Germany, Austria, and 
Russia. 

The next two species are easily distinguished from all the others 
belonging to the genus by the distinct cross striation of the interstices 
of the elvtra. 



3(3 ■ f'LAVIOoRNMA. [Atiisofonm. 

A. rug-osa, Steph. Sliort oval, moderately convex, ferruginous or 
biownish-red, shining ; head and thorax thickly and distinctly punctured, 
antennae comparatively long, with rather a long club, the last joint of 
which is much narrower than the penultimate, and is rather long and 
pointed ; thorax at base slightly narrower than elytra, narrowed in front, 
liase truncate, posterior angles obtuse and almost rounded ; elyti'a oval, 
rounded at sides, with rather feeble and not strongly punctured striae, 
interstices very plainly transversely rugose, and besides this more or less 
distinctly punctured ; the alternate interstices are also furnished with 
larger punctures ; legs red. L. 3-4 mm. 

Male with the posterior legs elongate, the femora dilated and rounded 
at apex, and the tibiae strongly curved. 

By eveniug swpf'ping-; very rare ; Loiuloii district (Stephens and Janson) ; Cater- 
liain (Cliampioii) ; Weybridge; Micklehain (Power); Scarborough (Lawsoii) ; 
Hartlepool (Gardner) ; Northumberland district, bauks of tlie Irtliing, near (iilshniit ; 
Ireland, North Bull, near Dublin. 

A. parvula, Sahib. A very small species, which can only be com- 
pared with A. badia from which it is easily distinguished by the dis- 
tinct cross striation of the interstices of the elytra; the thorax moreover, 
which is impunctate on disc in A. badia, is finely punctured throughout ; 
the sculpture of the elytra is much liner and the posterior legs are longer; 
the form is short oval and convex : antennae rather long, with the club a 
little darker ; thorax rather short, base truncate, posterior angles sharp 
right angles, upper surface very finely punctured ; elytra with finel}" 
punctured striae, interstices cross-striateil ; legs simple in both sexes. 
L. 1-1 1 mm. 

By evening sweeping iu woods; rare; Chatham, Darenth Wood, Micklehaui, 
Caterhani, Esher, Wlatstable ; Bognor ; Grlanvilles Wootton ; I'lynioutli ; Scotland, 
rare, Solway, Tweed and Forth districts ; it probably occurs iu many other localities ; 
it 19 usually uucomniou but is somewhat widely distributed iu Northern and Central 
Europe. 

Group 2. 

This group contains the two rare Species A. c-iHuri's and A.furvi, whicli 
are distinguished from those of the preceding group by having the side 
margins of the elytra set with distinct outstanding hairs ; they may be 
also easily recognized by their short and stout dilated posterior tibiae, 
which hardly extend to the apex of the elytra, a point in wdiich they 
differ from all the other species of the same size : A. badia has rather 
short posterior tibiae, but they are scarely dilated, and the whole insect is 
of an entirely dillcrent appearance and much smaller : it is important that 
these characters should be carefully noted, as the short hairs on the 
margins of the elytra of A. furva are apt to get rubbed off. 

I. Side margins of elytra set with long hairs ; thorax 

broadest just behind middle; size smaller ; colour lighter. A. I'lLlARlS, Schmidt. 

II. Side margins of elytra set with short hairs ; thorax 

broadest just before base ; size larger; colour darker . . A. FUUVA, Ev. 



Anisofoiiia.] clavicokma. 



oi 



A. ciliaris, Scliinidl. >Shuit elliptical, very convex, of a reddish- 
briiwn or reddish testaceous colour ; head latlier large, thickly punctured, 
aiitenna3 short, with well-iuarked club, of which the last joint is consider- 
ably narrower than the penultimate ; thorax short, distinctly narrower 
than elytra, broadest just behind middle, posterior angles rounded, finely 
and thickly punctured ; elytra A'ery convex, with distinct and rather 
long outstanding hairs on margins, with rather tine striie, interstices flat. 
Somewhat iinely and thickly ])unctured ; legs stout, posterior tibicB short 
and dilated towards apex, strongly spinose externally ; male with the 
anterior tarsi scarcely dilated. L. 3-3j mm. 

In saixly places, especially on sand-hills uear the sea; rare; the first British 
spocitnens were recorded by Mr. G. R. Waterhouse ; Mr. W. G. Hlatch has found it 
in cousidcrable miuihers on the sand-hills near Swansea, and Mr. Moucreaii" has taken 
it at Cumberland Fort near Portsea. 

A. furva, Er. Very closely allied to the preceding, but larger, and 
of a darker reddish colour, with the thorax broadest just before base and 
exactly as broad as the elytra; the club of the antennse is longer, and the 
l)enultimate joint is more transverse ; the interstices of the elytra are not 
so closely punctui'ed, and the marginal cilia are shorter and less apparent, 
and the posterior tiljise are less thickened ; the general form, moreover, 
is rather longer and less convex. L. 3|-3| mm. 

On sand-hills, &c. ; very rare; Constantine, Lancashire (Power); in Dr. Sharp's 
collection there is a line specimen without locality ; it has also been recorded from 
Devonshire. 

COIiSNZS, Erichson. 

This genus contains five or six species from Europe and North America ; 
Ihey are minute globose insects, of a testaceous colour, and are distin- 
guished by having the antennse with a 3-jointed club, the mcsosternum 
carinate, and the tarsi 5-4-4 jointed : one species is found in Britain. 
Curtis describes another as C. Lati/nms which is mentioned in Water- 
house's catalogue as " Leiodes?" and is given as synonymous with C 
(leniipes : in the European catalogue of Heyden, Keitter, and Weise 
it is mentioned as a distinct species, but lleitter omits it altogether in his 
work on the Kecrophaga. I cannot find out anything further about it, 
and believe that we only possess one species. 

C. dentipes, Gyll. (fmmmida, Sturm., aciculafa, Steph., hnmnea, 
8leph. coll.). Short oval, strongly convex, reddish-yellow or reddish- 
brown, shining ; head moderately large, antennae rather long with the 
last joint narrower than the preceding, reddish-brown ; thorax behind 
about as broad as elytra, narroAved in front, gently rounded at side.>, 
anterior angles rounded, bat-al margin truncate, posterior angles sharp 
jight angles, upper surface ira punctate ; elytra with very fine punctured 
stricB, the interstices finely transversely strigose, sutural stria distinct 
from apex to beyond middle ; Icg.'^ reddish testaceous. L. 1-1^ nim. 



38 CLAVICORNIA. [Cole.'us. 

Male with the posterior femora broad and compressed, with a l)huit 
tootli between base and middle, and a sharp tooth between middle and 
apex. 

By bcatiug, evening sweeping, &c. ; London district, not nncommon and generally 
distributed; Hastings; New Forest; (ilanvilles Woottou ; Devon; Knowle, near 
Birmingham; Bretby, near Burton-on-Treut ; Matlock; Lincoln; Nortlinniberland 
district, not rare; Scotland, scaree, Sohvay, Tweed, Forth, and Clyde districts; 
L-elaud, near Belfast and Dublin. 

AGARZCOPKAaUS, Schmidt. 

This genus contains three European species, of which two occur very 
rarely in Britain; they resemble Anisotoma in having a 5-jointed club to 
the antennae, the second joint of the club being very small, and in the 
fact that the mesosternuni is carinate ; they differ, however, in having the 
tarsi 4- 3- 3-jointed. 

I. Larger, long oval ; interstices of elytra moderately 

thickly cross-striated A. CEPHALOTES, kichmidt. 

IL Smaller, short oval ; interstices of elytra very 

thickly cross-striated A. coNFORMis, Er. 

A. cephalotes, Schmidt. Oblong-oval, not A^ery convex, of a 
lighter or darker reddish testaceous or ferruginous colour ; head large, 
very finely punctured and cross-striated ; antennae moderate, with rather 
long 5-jointed club ; thorax as broad as elytra, with sides slightly rounded 
and very little narroAved in front, with all the angles rounded, upper 
surface extremely finely punctured and cross-striated, so that it appears a 
little dull ; elytra with distinctly punctured stria^, sutural stria rather 
strong, reaching from apex to about middle, interstices rather thickly and 
plainly cross-striated ; legs reddish testaceous. L. 2 ram. 

Male with the head larger than in female, and with the i)osterior 
femora dilated, emarginate beneath, and armed in the middle with a 
recurved tooth. 

By evening sweeping in and about woods ; rare; London district, where it occurs 
ill several localities ; Shirley, Caterliam, Claygate, Mickleham, Tilgate, Shepherds 
^Yell (Champion, Tower, and Waterhouse); Rusper (Goiham). 

A. conformis, Er. Very closely allied to the preceding, but 
smaller and of a shorter oval form, with the head smaller, and the thorax 
more narrowed in front ; the elytra also are more thickly cross-striated, 
and the posterior femoi'a of the male are only armed Avitli a minute 
tooth in middle. L. 1-g— H mm. 

A specimen in Dr. Power's collection named A. conformis has been 
confirmed for me by lierr Eeitter as belonging to this species ; this 
specimen is from IMicklcham, and there are others in Dr. Power's collec- 
tion from Birch Wood and Cowfold ; the differences appear to me so 
slight that I should be very sorry to separate the species if mixed. 
A. covforiius has been before introduced into the British list by Mr. 



A(/ancup//ii(/iis.] clavicoknia. 39 

Crotch ami llien diupped as being only a ymall cci/Ita/off.^, and I s]i(iu]d 
prefer to consider Dr. Power's specimens as all belonging to the latter 
species, were it not for Reitter's determination ; A. pnvcellens, Hanijx', 
the third European species, is regarded by Reitter as synonymous with 
A. ccpludotcs ; it is plain therefore that the species are all very closely 
connected. 

HVI>lfOBZUS, Schmidt. 

This genus contains al)0ut eight species, two of which are found in 
North America and one in Chili ; the others occur in Eurojie ; four of 
these have hitherto been discovered in Britain ; they have, as a ru](>, 
been considered very rare, but one or two have lately been found in 
large numbers ; Rye added a fourth species, H. t^jn'iiijies, Gyll., but after- 
wards withdrew it, believing that his specimen was only a highly 
developed male of H. strigosns ; H. sjmiipes appears, however, to be more 
closely related to H. puvdatus (of which it has been by some authors 
considered as the female) than to H. strigosus; the genus resembles 
'Triartliron in having all the tarsi 5-jointed, but differs from that genus 
in having the club 5-jointed with the second joint small, as in Aniwfimia. 

Our species may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Size larger (3-^-4 mill.) ; puiicfnation very co-arse; 

side margins of eljtru set with fine hairs .... II. inatKlsi, Fairm. 

II. Size smaller (\l-2\ mm.); punctuation finer; 

side martrins of'clytni without hairs, 
i. Length 2-2^ mm. ; club of antenna? nearly 
always dark, last joint plainly narrower than the 
penultimate. 

1. Colour variable, nearly always pitchy black, 
but sometimes ferruginous ; punctuatiou of 

elytra somewhat confused ; male with the • 
posterior femora arn;ed with a large trian- 
gular recurved tooth H. punctatissimus. Step//. 

2. Colour always ferruginous or reddish -yellow ; 
rows of punctures on elytra regular, those of 
the interstices being almost as strong as those 
of the regular striae ; male with the posterior 

femora armed with a spiuiform tooth ... II. PUNCTAITS, Sturm. 
ii. Length I'.-l^ mm.; club of antcnuai reddish 
testaceous, last joint hardly, if at all, narrower 
than the penultimate H. SXEIGOSUS, Schmidt. 

H. Perrisi, Fairm. Oblong ovate, somewhat depressed, varying in 
colour from lerruginous (in somewhat immature specimens) to dark 
reddish-brown, which latter is the usual colour of the insect ; the elytra 
are often obscurely darker at suture ; head large, rather strongly punc- 
tured ; antennae short, with well-marked blackish club, the last joint of 
which is narrower than the penultimate ; thorax narrower than elytra, 
narrowed in front, broadest behind middle, and thence nanowed to base, 
jiosterior angles veiy obtuse, almost rounded, upper surface thickly and 



40 CLAVICORNIA. \_H ijihiohius. 

coarsely punctured, base truncate ; el3'tra long, rather depressed on disc, 
Avith strongly punctured strife, and with the interstices very distinctly 
punctured, sometimes presenting a slightly rugose appearance ; legs rather 
stout, tibife somewhat dilated towards apex in both sexes. L. 3|-4 mm. 
Male with the posterior legs longer, the femora dilated and terminating 
above and below in a well-marked, but not sharp, tooth ; tibiae rather 
strongly curved. 

In sandy places on the coa^t ; rare ; first introduced as British on two old speciineus 
in Mr. Waterhouse's collection, supposed to have come from Scotland ; three specimens 
were also found by Mr. Rye among some undetermined Anisotomida iu the Rev. H. 
Clark's collection; it has also been recorded from Gateshead, but has been considered 
one of our rarest Bi'itish Coleoptera until (juite recently, when most of our collections 
have been supplied with it throngh the liberality of Mr. J. Gardner, who has taken it 
in numbers near Hartlepool. 

IX. punctatissimus, Steph. Oblong-ovate, rather depressed, usually 
of a deep pitchy black colour, but variable in this respect, and occasionally 
ferruginous ; liead rather large in both sexes, finely and rather difi'usely 
punctured ; antenna? moderate, reddish with dark club, last joint narrower 
than the penultimate ; thorax about as broad as elytra with sides rounded 
and narrowed in front, posterior angles rounded, upper surface rather 
diffusely punctured ; elytra Avith moderately strongly punctured striaj, 
and the interstices also plainly punctured ; the sculpture, however, is 
rather confused and irregular ; legs entirely ferruginous, or black with the 
knees reddish, tarsi always reddish-yelloAV. L. 2-2^ mm. 

Male with the posterior femora armed Avith a strong triangular recurved 
tooth. 

By evening sweeping ; also iu sandy places on and near cliffs ; very local ; Caterham ; 
Mickleham ; Kingsgate ; Glanvilles Woottou ; Uphill, near VVcston-supcr-Mare ; 
Mablethorpc, Lincolnshire; Scaiborough ; Constantine, Lancashire; Northumbcilaud 
district, very rare, Saltwell and Long Benton; ScotLmd, very rare, Forth district. 

This has usually been considered one of our rarest British species, but 
quite recently Mr. Theodore Wood has found it by hundreds on the 
shore and on and about the cliflf's at Kingsgate near Margate ; it has 
usually been distinguished from H. jmndatus by its dark pitchy black 
colour, but among these there were a number of apparently mature light 
ferruginous specimens Avhich plainly belong to the species, of Avhich they 
must be regarded as a light variety. 

H. punctatus, Sturm. Very closely allied to the preceding, but of 
smaller average size, and distinguished by being invariably of a ferru- 
ginous colovrr, and by the more regidar punctuation of the elytra, the 
punctures on the interstices being as large and regular as those of the 
strife ; the male also has the posterior femora terminated by a long spini- 
form tooth. L. 2 mm. 

By sweeping, &c. ; very rare ; Mr. Crotch records eight specimens of this species 
and n. spinipes (which, as above observed, is regarded by some authors as a form of 
i\\c idmA\e o\' n. punctatus) fro;ii "North Wales, Livcri'ool, and Scotland;" I'uilcy 



II ijdnohiu?.'] cr.AviCoRNiA. 41 

T")owii and Hiokloliiini (Powii) ; MaucJiesfer and Livorpool dii-trict, Higlitowii (Avclicv); 
Mr. Crotch's spe>cinicns named H. spinipen inii.st evidently be referred to this iusect, 
as H. spiiiipes, if distinct, appears not to have been found in Britain. 

K. strig-osus, Schmidt. A very small species, obloiig, lighter or 
darker reddish testaceous or ferruginous, sometimes with the head and 
thorax darker ; antennae entirely reddish testaceous, ■with a moderately 
long club, of •which the last joint is about as broad as the penultimate ; 
thorax about as broad as elytra, narrowed in front, broadest near base, 
posterior angles blunt, upper surface finely punctured ; elytra with sides 
subparallel until a little before apex, Avith rather fine rows of punctures, 
interstices more or less plainly wrinkled transversely, sutural stria deep ; 
legs clear yellow. L. 1-^-1 1 mm. 

Male with the posterior femora armed Avith a broad triangular tof)lh. 

By eveninp: sweeping; rare; Chatham, Parenth Wood, Catorham, Micldehani, 
Forest Hill, Maidstoue, Sheppy, Bearstead, Chiygatc, Birdbrook i Essex). Sanderstcad ; 
Sliipley near Horsham ; Bognor, in plenty (Waterhouse) ; Barmouth (Blatcli). 

TRXARTKRON, Maerkel. 

This genus contains one species which is found very rai'ely in England 
and in Central Europe; it is distinguished from all the other members of 
the Anisotomidge except Hydnohius by having all the tirsi 5-jointed ; 
from Hi/dnoMt(s it differs in having the club of the antenme 3-jointed ; 
in the latter genus it is o-jointed. 

T. IVIaerkeli, Schmidt. Oblong oval, convex, of a reddish-ycllcw 
colour, shining ; head rather larger in male than in female, finely punc- 
tured ; antennas moderately long, with broad and distinct 3 jointed clul) ; 
thorax behind middle as broad as elytra, transverse, with sides rounded, 
posterior angles rounded, upper surface finely punctured ; elytra wilh 
sides gently rounded, Avith strongly punctured stria?, interstices almost 
smooth, except for a few Avidely spread large punctures on the alternate 
ones; legs rather short. L. 3-3 1 mm. 

Male Avith the jiosterior femora compressed, excised underneath at 
base, and dilated and denticulate in middle, anterior tarsi somewhat 
dilated. 

By evening sweeping, invai-iably beneath fir-trees; very rare; E>her (Power and 
Kye) ; Shirley (Janson) ; Woking (Saunders and Champion) ; New Forest (Jauson) j 
in the latter locality some very large speoiimus have been obtained. 

SIZiPZIINA. 

This tribe contains the largest members belonging to the family, 
including the Avell-known " I^ecrophori " or "Burying beetles;" the 
anterior coxae are conical and prominent and furnished Avith a large tro- 
chantin or jiaracoxa, and the posterior coxae are contiguous ; the anterior 
coxal cavities are open behind ; the abdomen has six free ventral segments, 
and the tarsi are all H-joinlcd. 



12 CLAViCORNIA. [Si/^'hiiia. 

I. Aiitc'mut3 appaiuiitly lU-joiattd, the second joint being 

very small, with an abrupt capitate 4-jointecl club . NecrOPHOKUS, F. 

II. Antennic distinctly 11-joiuted, with a giadual club," 

or simply thickened towards apex, 
i. Thorax suborbicular ; eyes very large ; general shape 

like Necrophorus NeceodeS, iVUkin. 

ii. 'i'horax more or less semicircular ; eyes small or 

moderate; form ovate Silpha, L. 

NECROPHORUS, Fabricius. 

This genu.s is distiiiguislied from the other members of the Silphina 
by having the antennae apparently lO-jointed, and terminated by a very 
abrupt round club made up of four joints : the antennge are, however, 
really 11 jointed, the second joint being very small ; the Necwphori are 
large insects, sometimes black, but more often blaiik with the elytra 
traversed by broad orange bands ; the genus contains a considerable 
number of species, which are chiefly found in Europe, Northern Asia and 
Ntirth America ; very few have hitherto been discovered in tropical 
countries : as the well-known " burying beetles " they are familiar to all 
observers of nature ; in the larger carcases, which they frequent in 
considerable numbers, and in the birds, small quadrupeds, frogs, &c., 
which they bury bodily they lay their eggs, which hatch and grow into 
thick fleshy larvcB, sustained by the food thus provided for them ; these 
laiva^ in shape somewhat reseml)le those of Cen-yon, but are provided 
A\ith short legs ; wlien full-grown they attain a considerable size : those 
of N. v'spiJlo and N. mortuonmi are figured by 8chiodte I., viii. figs. 1, 
11, and 15 ; the head is small, and is furnished with short antennae ; the 
prothorax is narrower, but considerably longer, than the meso- and meta- 
thorax ; the abdominal segments are furnished with rather small corneous 
plates, each of which is furnished with four teeth pointing backwards ; 
the ninth segment bears two short cerei, which are more elongate in N. 
mortuonmi than in N. vespillo. The colour of these larv?e is dirty-Avhitu 
or yellowish, with the corneous paits of a deeper dirty-yellow colour ; the 
pupa does not present any striking peculiarity ; it is considerably narrowed 
behind, and is terminated by two small cerci ; when the larva has 
reached maturity, it forms for itself a cell underground, in Avhich it 
untlergoes its transformation to the perfect insect. 

The Necrophori resemble each other very closely in structure, so that 
a separate description is not necessary in each case : tlu^ head varies 
somewhat in size, but is strongly narrowed at some little distance behind 
eyes ; the antennae vary chiefly as regards the colour of the club ; the 
thorax is trapezoidal, with the angles rounded, slightly narrowed behind, 
with large explanate borders, which are much more strongly punctured 
than disc; in the middle there is a central furrow, and the anterior pait 
of the disc is uneven, the central part being rather raised ; the elytra are 
dilated behind, or subparallel, truncate, and leaving part of the abdomen 



Nccroj^h or/is.] clavicornia. 43 

exposed ; legs stout^ posterior tibite either straight or curved ; some of 
the species are very variable as regards size. 

About a dozen species of Necropliorus are found in Europe, of -whi*!! 
seven are regarded as British ; one of these, however, N. (jcrnw.uicns, is 
somewhat doubtfully indigenous. 

I. Elytra black, without orauge bands. 

i. Club of anteuiiffi black, epii)lcuia3 red . . . . N. geemanicus, L. 
ii. Club of antenusR reddish-yellow, epipleurae black 

or ob.scurely brown N. nUMATOR, F, 

II. Elytra black, with large orange bands. 

i. Club of antenna; black N. MORTUORtrM, F. 

ii. Chib of auteunse reddish yellow. 

1. Posterior tibia3 straight. 

A. Thorax with long yellow hairs on all the 

margins N. VESTIGATOH, Htisch. 

B. Thorax witliont yellow hairs on margins. 

a. Anterior orange band continued without 
interruption across both elytra ; abdomen 

with thin pubescence at extreme apex . N. uusPATOK, Tir. 

b. Anterior orange band of elytra inter- 
rupted by alongitudinal common dark band 
at suture: abdomen broadly and thickly 

pubcK'cut before apex N. intkiikui'TUS, Sfcp/i. 

2. Posterior tibias curved; thorax with yellow 

hairs on anterior margin N. vespillo, L. 

N. g"ermanicus^ L. The largest species of tlie genus ; l)lack, with 
a spot on forehead (which is obscure in female), and the epipleume of 
<'lytra reddish testaceous, antenuic short, with the club black ; thorax 
trapezoidal, with angles rounded, disc finely cliannelled and punctured, 
rather raised, sides strongly punctured; scutellum long; clytia closely 
]iunctured with two feebly raised longitudinal lines on each ; legs some- 
what stout, anterior tarsi of male dilated and furnished beneath with 
reddish brush-like hairs. L. 25-32 mm. 

Very rare and doubtfully indigenous; recorded by Stephens from Moushold Heath 
near Norwich, Oxford, and the banks of the Thames above Windsor, and by Curtis 
from Norfolk; it has lately been recordt d from Fairlight near Hastings, in the 
catalogue of the Coleoptera of the neighbourhood compiled Ijy ]\lr. E. A. Butler and 
others. 

N. humator, Goeze. Entiicly black, with the head and thorax 
shining, and the elytra thickly jiunctured and duller; club of antennae 
yellowish-red, thorax slightly narrowed behind, finely and diffusely 
jiunctured on disc, thickly and strongly at sides; elytra with three rather 
distinctly raised lines on each ; anterior tarsi strongly dilated in male. 
L. 18-28 mm. 

In carcases; common and generally distributed throughout the kingdom. 

N. mortuoruxn, V. {veqiilloides, Herbst). Black, witli two orange 
bauds on the elytra, the latter of which is reduced to tAVO large kidney- 
bhaped patches : this point and tlie black club of the aiitcnnte will at 



44 glavicormjS. \_N'ecro]j}iorus. 

once distinguisli it from all our allied species ; ihorax without pubescencp ; 
abdomen with dark pubescence except at apex, which is furnished _ witli 
a tuft of yellowish hairs, poftevior tibiae straight ; anterior tarsi dilated 
in male ; the size is very variable, some specimens being very small. 
L. 10-15 mm. 

lu carcases, decaying fungi, &c.; rather local in some districts, but^, as a rule, 
comiiion and generally distributed in England and Scotland, and probal)ly in 
Ireland. 

MT. vestig-ator, Hersch. Black, with two orange bands on the elytra ; 
club of antennae orange-red : thorax considerably dilated in front, with 
long yellow hairs on all the margins, Avhich are also present to a less 
extent on the head; the abdomen and femora are also coveied with 
yellow pubescence : it most closely resembles N. vegpil/o, but is easily 
distinguished from that species by the straight posterior tibiae, and the 
emarginate posterior trochanters which terminate in two short spines. 
L. 16-18 mm. 

In carcases, &c.; not common; London district, Battersea Fields (Sf(pbcns), 
Weybridge; Deal; Dawlisb, Devon; Cromer, Norfolk; not recorded from ti.e 
northern districts of England, or from Scotland ; Irehmd, near Belfast (Haiiday). 

N. ruspator, Er. {bwestigcdor, Zett). Black, elytra with two 
orange bands, the anterior of Avhich is not interruj)ted at suture, but is 
continued in common across their Avliole breadth ; the black band between 
the two is more regular and less dentate than in the other species ; 
thorax without pubescence ; abdomen with scanty, dark pubesceiue, 
except for a yellowish tuft of hair at the apex ; posterior tibiae straight_, 
posterior trochanters emarginate at apex; male with the aiiterior taisi 
strongly dilated, and furnished as in the allied species Avith yellow 
brush-like hairs beneath, L. 15-18 mm. 

In carcases, &c. ; local; Shirley, Mickleham, Weybridge, Shipley near Horsham; 
Hastings; Devon; common in the Midlands ; Manclle^ter and Liverpool districts; 
Nortiinuiberland and Durham ; Scotland, couimou, Sohvay, Forth, Tay, and probably 
other districts ; Ireland, near Dublin, Waterford, &c. 

V. Microcephalus, Thoms. This variety differs from the type in 
having a very small more or less triangular head ; the apex of the pos- 
terior trochanters, which are recurved in the type form, are straight, and 
the clypeus is only feebly- emarginate ; the specimens appear to be males : 
it has occurred at Weybridge and other localities. 

N. interruptus, Steith. {/ossor, Er.). This species is closely allied 
to the preceding, but may be distinguished by having the anterior band 
interrupted more or less broadly at suture, and by the distinct yellowish 
or yellowish-grey pubescence of the abdomen ; the club of the antenna? is 
orange-yellow, the thorax is not pubescent, and the posterior tibiae are 
straight; the posterior trochanters are obscurely emarginate at apex. 
L. 12-18 mm. 



Xeo'ophoras.] clavicornia. 45 

In carcases, &c ; rare; Dulwii-h ; C;iterliani ; Woybriclge ; Wimbledon; Tilgate 
Forest.; Dover; Hastiugs; New Forest ; Phillack, Coruwall; Himstaiitoii, NorfolU, 
Norwich. 

V, gallims, Diiv. This variety has the posterior trochanters hooked, 
instead of obscnrelj' emarginate at apex, and the clypeas of the male 
more deeply emarginate. I have only seen one or two British specimens, 
withont locality attached. 

N. vespillo, L. This species may at once be known from all the 

other orange-banded species by the strongly curved posterior tibiiie : the 
thorax has a yellow fringe of hairs in front, and the abdomen is thickly 
clothed with yellow pubescence, so that superficially it bears a strong 
resemblance to N. vestigator : apart, however, from the shape of the 
tibicP, it may be easily known from that species by having the thorax 
much less dilated in front, and by the long pointed posterior troclianters. 
L. 15-20 mm. 

Ill carcases ; not uncommon and generally distributed throughout the greater part 
of England ; rarer further north ; Scotland, not common, Solway, Forth, and Moray 
districts; Ireland, Dublin, Waterford, Belfast, &c., and probably general. 

NECRODES, Wilkin (Ashdiis, Yoet). 

This genus in shape much resembles Necrophorus, but in several 
points is more closely related to Silpha, and has l)y many authors been 
regarded merely as a sub-genus of this latter genus ; it might perhaps be 
more correct so to consider it, but external structure certainly ought to 
have some weight, and the single European species of Necrodes differs so 
much in this point from all our native species of Silpha that it appears 
to be the best plan to separate it at all events provisionally ; representa- 
tives of the senus have also been recorded from India and South 
America. 

N. littoralis, L. A large species, somewhat varialile in size, black, 
with the thorax sliining, and the elytra somewhat dull ; head triangular, 
strongly contracted behind eyes, which are prominent ; antennae black, 
with the three last joints reddish-yellow, club very gradual (a point that 
at once separates the genus from Necrophorvs) ; thorax rather broader than 
long, with the sides strongly rounded, disc almost smooth, finely punctured, 
sides thickly punctured, with an indistinct central furrow, and more or less 
obsolete depressions towards base ; scutellum long, pointed behind, thickly 
punctured ; elytra much widened behind, thickly punctured, with rather 
strongly raised margins, and three raised lines on each ; third interstice 
with a strong tubercle behind middle ; in the male the posterior legs are 
very much enlarged, the femora being very strongly thickened, and tlie 
tibiae very much curved ; the anterior tarsi are also dilated. L. 13-25 mm. 

In carcases; somewhat locals but not unco, Kiumi. and generally distributed through- 
out tlie countrv . 



4"C CLAvicoRxiA. [Si/pha. 

SIZiPHA, Lima'. 

This genus in its Lroadest sense contains a large number of species 
■which are Avidely distributed over the surface of the globe, but are, as at 
present known, more characteristic of the northern and temperate zones 
than of tropical regions ; if we exclude the Necrophorus-like genus JVe- 
crodes, all our species may be easily known by their broad more or less 
ovate shape, continuous outline, and small head, which is more or less 
retracted beneath the thorax when the insect is at rest ; the exotic 
forms, however, present great degrees of variation, and, in some instances, 
supply strong connecting links between the various sub-genera. Thomson, 
Reitter, and others divide the genus Silphrt, as it has been usually 
regarded in our British catalogues, into several separate genera : some of 
these are more and some less distinct, and therefore, although one or two 
certainly, perhaps, ought to be entirely divided off, I have thought it 
best to regard them, as has been done in other instances, as sub-genera : 
no genus or group has suffered more from the late revival of obsolete 
names than this ; in Herr Reitter's monograph, published in 1885, not a 
single genus of the tril^e Silphina goes by the name that it bore in the 
catalogue of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise, published in 1883, with the 
exception of Pterolema, which is not represented in our fauna ; and, 
what is worse, although Silpha survives, yet it is applied to Necrophoras ; 
it is true that some, at all events, of the changes of nomenclature appear 
to be historically correct,, as far as the law of priority goes, l^ut in many 
instances the descriptions of the old authors of the last century are so 
meagre, that it is almost impossible to tell what their type really was ; 
and, at any rate, when the names Silpha and Necrophorus have been in 
use with their present connotation for upwards of ninety years (v. 
Fabricius, Syst. El. I. 333 and 336), it certainly seems a '^ reductio ad 
absurdum " of the present rage for reviving old names, to thus mix them 
up and confuse them past all recognition ; the same remarks will apply 
to Necrodes, Oiceoptoma, and Phosphuga, which have been in use for 
nearly sixty years, and to many other genera in other groups and families. 

The larvae of several species of Silplia are well known, and in some cases they 
have proved vei'y injurious to crops; this is especially the case with the larva of 
Silpha opaca, which at times does very great damage to beet and mangold- wurzel ; 
the larva, like the generality of the Silpha larva?, is shaped much like a wood-louse, 
and is black and rather shining, with the thoracic segments rounded or obtusely 
angled at base and the abdominal segments with the posterior angles rather sharp 
and produced ; the last segment bears two sharp spinose cerci ; when full-fed these 
larvae bury themselves three or four inches in the earth and emerge as perfect beetles 
at the end of two or three weeks (See Curtis, "Farm Insects," p. 391). If it can be 
proved that the eggs of the beetle are laid originally in putrefying matter, Miss 
Ormerod's suggestions (" Manual of Injurious Insects," p. 13) that artificial manure 
should be used where attacks are frequent, or that the ordinary farm -yard manure 
should be applied in the autumn instead of in the spring, might be productive of very 
good results ; it appears to me, however, that this is by no means a certain fact, for 
1 have found the larva3 of a species of Silpha which I believe to be 8. opaca or a 



Silliha.] OLAVICOHNIA. 47 

closely iiUiod spocios at the roots of wild plants on tlie side of cliH's in tlic Isle of 
Wight, and if the larva at one period of its existence is a plant-feeder, there is no 
reason why it should not be so from the time it hatches out of the egg ; the insect 
appears only to attack the leaves, and not to affect the root directly ; if, therefore, 
the field is left to itself, it may recover after the larvae have all assumed the pupa 
stage, which happens about the beginning of July. 

The larva? of Silpha ruffosa and iS. oh.icura are described and figured by Schiodte I. 
p. 35, PI. IX. i. 15 ; they are very different in shape, the former being much more 
elongate than the latter, with the angles of the thoracic segments rounded, and those 
of the abdominal segments strongly produced ; the prothoracic segment is not much 
narrower in front than behind, and the cerci are three times as long as the anal 
appendage ; the larva of S. obscura is broad in front and narrowed behind, almost 
shield-shaped, with the prothorax very large, semicircular, with posterior angles 
blunt ; all the other segments except the tenth are strongly produced at the posterior 
angles, and become gradually narrower ; the tenth is broad aud subquadrate, and 
bears a short blunt anal appendage and two short cerci ; the head, which in the 
larva of S. rugosa, is rather large and projecting, is almost concealed behind the 
thorax, and the antennae are much longer than in this latter species ; their appearance 
rather tends to prove that the species are, as they are regarded by many authors, 
generically distinct. 

I. Thorax truncate or emargiuate in front ; head not 

elongate ; mandibles not produced, 
i. Intermediate coxse not widely separated ; elytra in 
both sexes rounded together at apex. 

1. Head moderately or slightly conti acted behind 

eyes ; labrum moderately emargiuate. 

A. Antenna? with club not strongly marked, and 
with second joint equal to third ; tibiae straight ; 

colour unicolorous black (in our species) . . . Silpha, i. sp. {Para- 

silpha, Keitter). 

B. AutennsB with club strongly marked, and with 
second joint longer than third ; tibiae curved, 
more so in the male than in the female; elytra 
reddish testaceous, with two black S])ots on each 

(in our species) Dendroxena, Mots. 

(Xt/lodrepa, Thorns. f. 

2. Head short and broad, not narrowed at all behind 

eyes ; labrum emargiuate to base {Oiceoptoma, 
Leach). 

A. Antennae with very gradual club, seventh joint 
very little narrower than eighth, second joint quite 

twice as long as third ACLTPEA, Re'dter. 

B. Antennae with well-marked club, seventh joint 
much narrower than eighth, second joint about a 

quarter longer than third Blitophaoa, Reiiter. 

ii. Intermediate coxas very widely separated ; elytra 
with the sutural angle produced in female; antennao 

with second joint shorter than third Thanatophilus, Leach. 

(^Fseudujjelta, Reitter). 

II. Thorax forming a complete semicircle; head much 
longer than broad ; mandibles produced. 

i. Antennae very short and stout ; elytra smooth ; legs 

stout, with tibiae widened towards apex Ablattabia, Reiffer. 

ii. Antennae long and slender ; elytra ribbed ; legs 

slender Pnoavavok, Leach. 

(Pelfis, Heitter, 
nee auct.). 



48 CLA.V1C0RNIA. [S/'lpJia. 

(Sub-Gen. Silpha, i. sp. (Parasiljiha, Reitter). 

This sub-genus contains about eight European species, of which three 
are British ; they are rather large, and are of a unicolorous black colour ; 
they are chiefly distinguished by the sculpture of the elytra. 

I. Elytra with three very distinct raised keels on each ; upper 

surface rather shiuiug; interstices evenly punctured . . S. tristis, J/Z. 

II. Elytra with three less distinct raised lines on each, the 

outer one being the strongest. 
i. Upper surface rather shining ; interstices of elytra coarsely 

and unevenly punctured, with slightly raised irregulnr 

smooth spaces, which are more or less conriuent . . . S. niqbita, Creutz. 
ii. Upper surface very dull ; interstices of elytra evenly and 

rather strongly punctured S. OBSCURA, L. 

S. tristis, 111. A rather large, oblong, or elliptical species, some- 
what depressed, black, rather shining ; head contracted behind eyes, 
antennae ratlier long, with second and third joints of about equal length, 
and a rather gradual four-jointed club ; thorax transverse, with anterior 
margin truncate, and posterior margin rather strongly sinuate, impressed 
at base, more closely punctured at sides than on disc, posterior angles 
rounded ; ^scutellum acuminate, thickly punctured ; elytra subparallel, 
with three strongly raised smooth keels on each, interstices very closely 
but evenly, distinctly and rather coarsely punctured ; legs moderately 
stout. L. 13-15 mm. 

Male Avith the first four joints of the anterior tarsi dilated and 
furnished beneath with brush-like hairs, intermediate tarsi feebly 
dilated. 

In carcases, moss, &c. ; often found on pathways; not uncommon in some districts, 
but very local ; Southend, Sheerness, Chatham, Deal, Dover; Isle of Wight ; Alver- 
stoke ; Swansea; Barmouth; Sutton Park; Repton ; Nottinghamshire ; Crosby near 
Liverpool; Lancaster; Northumberland district; Carlisle; Scotland, rare, Solway 
and Forth districts. 

S nigrita, Creutz. (tyrolensis, var. Laich., alinna, Germ.). In size 
and shape very like the preceding, but easily distinguished by the 
sculpture of the elytra, which have the inner two lines very indistinctly 
raised, and the third only moderately raised, and the interstices coarsely, 
unevenly and rugosely punctured, the punctures being separated by more 
or less distinct smooth and somewhat raised spaces, which are confluent. 
L. 12-14 mm. 

In carcases, &c.; London district, very rare, and apparently not found in the south 
of England ; not uncommon further north in some localities ; Smallbeath near Bir- 
mingh.im ; Erdington ; Repton; Matlock; Bala, N. Wales; Shropshire; Nottingham- 
shire ; York ; Lake district ; Northumberland and Cumberland ; Scotland, not 
eommon, Solway, 'I'ay and Dee districts. 

S. obscura, L. Of the same size and general shape as the tAvo 
preceding, but easily distinguished from IS. tristis by its much duller 



Silpha.'] cLAVicORNiA. 49 

appearance, and the much less distinctly raised lines on elytra, as well as 
by the somewhat coarser pnnctnation of the interstices ; i'rom S. iiiijrif'i, 
it may be known by having the interstices evenly punctured, as well as 
by its less shining appearance and more even and broader thorax. L. 
12-14 mm. 

In carcases, at roofs of grass, &c. ; frequently found on pathways ; not nnconnnon 
in some ilistrict:^, but local ; liOnclon district, rather common, Box Hill, Morton, 
Shecrness, Southend, Chatham, &c. ; Ilurne Hay; R.imsffate; Deal; Dover; Hastings; 
J^riglitou; Glaiivilles Wootton ; Bournemouth j Isle of Wight; Devonshire; Nolting- 
h.iuishire; Cambridgeshire; summit of Skiddavv in company with Leistus inontanus ; 
Nortliniiihcrland district, rare ; Dr. Sharp considers tbc species to be dcubtful as 
Scottisli ; Murray records it as " not common but generally distributed," but he must 
Lave made a mistake as no other record appears to be known. 

(Sub-Gen. Dendroxena, Mots. (Xijlodrepa, Thorns.) 

The single European species belonging to this sub-genus is easily 
distinguished by its coloUr, and also by its habitat ; it is found on trees 
where it appears to devour the larvae of caterpillars ; it is local but not 
at all uncommon in some localities. 

S. quadripunctata, L. Oblong-oval, slightly convex, smooth and 
shining ; head, antemue, and legs black, thorax l)lack with margins 
broadly reddish testaceous, scutellura black or pitchy, elytra reddish 
testaceous witli two round black spots on each, one at base, and one 
behind middle ; head narrowed behind eyes; antennse moderate, with 
second joint longer than third, and with well-marked four-jointed club ; 
thorax transverse, emarginate in front, posterior angles rounded, disc 
less thickly punctured than sides, margined ; scutellum large, pointed 
behind, thickly punctured ; elytra with rather broadly raised margins, 
rugosely punctured, with three indistinctly raised lines ; legs moderately 
stout, anterior tarsi with the first four joints clothed with yellowish 
pubescence beneath. L. 12-14 mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi somewhat dilated and the posterior tibiiB 
strongly curved. 

On oaks and other trees ; not found in carcases ; it feeds on Lepidoptcrous and 
other larvjE ; not uncommon in the Midland and Southern districts, but rarer further 
north; Darenth Wood; Cooralie Wood; Loughton ; New Forest; Plymouth; 
LlMugollen ; Sutton Park; Dean Forest; Burton-on-Trent ; Sherwood Forest; 
Kocton, near Lincoln ; Northumberland district, rare ; Scotland, very i-are, Forth, 
Tay, Moray, and Sutherland districts ; Ireland, the Dargle, near Dublin. 

(Sub-Gen. Aclypea, Reitter.) 

This sub-genus and the next have usually been regarded as one, under 
the name of Oiceoptoma ; there are, however, considerable differences 
between them, as regards the formation of the club of the antennae and 
the relative length of the joints and also in the sculpture of the elytra. 

VOL. III. E 



50 CLAVICORNIA. [^SilpJia. 

Aclijx'ea contains three European species, of which one is found rarely in 
Britain. 

S. reticulata, R {undaia, Miilh). Oblong, somewhat depressed, 
black ; head not narrowed behind eyes, thickly and rugosely punctured, 
nntennte rather short with very gradual club, second joint much longer 
than third ; thorax transverse, with sides moderately rounded, apical 
border straight, narrower than basal border, which is sinuate, posterior 
angles rounded, upper surface very thickly and comparatively finely 
punctured, depressed obscurely on each side towards posterior angles ; 
scutellum large, pointed behind, thickly punctured ; elytra with sides 
subparallel, with three raised lines on each, of which the external one 
is considerably the strongest, interstices coarsely punctured, with irre- 
gular transverse elevations, but with no marked tubercle behind middle ; 
legs black, L. 11-13 mm. 

Male with the first four joints of anterior tarsi dilated. 

In carcases, &c. ; rare ; Battersea Fields, Loudon ; Swansea, Crymlyn Burrows ; 
Cambridge ; Nottinghamshire ; Dr. Power has also taken it at a phice called " King's 
Ledges," but I do not know the locality. 

(Sub-Gen. Blitophagra, Keitter.) 

Three European species are contained in this sub-genus, of which one 
is found in Biitain ; in general appearance it is closely connected with 
>S'. diapar and its allies, but may at once be separated by the formation 
of the head, and the deep emargination of the labium. 

S. opaca, L. Oblong-oval, almost quadrangular, somewhat de- 
pressed, black, clothed with close yellowish or yellowish-red pubescence ; 
head not contracted behind eyes, antennte moderately long, with club 
well marked ; thorax transverse, with sides rounded, anterior margin 
feebly sinuate at sides, posterior margin strongly sinuate, disc with 
evident depressions, finely and closely punctured ; scutellum pointed, 
thickly punctured ; elytra parallel-sided, rounded at apex, with three 
distinct raised keels on each, interstices finely punctured, the third with 
a strong tubercle behind middle ; legs moderately stout. L. 10 mm. 

Male with the first four joints of anterior tarsi dilated. 

In carcases, moss, &c. ; local in England ; London district, not common, Woking 
and Coombe Wood, Surrey; Suffolk; Sheerness ; Whitstable; Deal; Exmouth ; 
Devon ; Swansea ; Knowle ; Cannock Chase ; Nottinghamshire ; Chat Moss ; Ripon ; 
Northumberland district ; Scotland, rather common, Sohvay, Tweed, Clyde, Forth, 
Tay, Dee, and Moray districts ; Ireland, Portmarnock. 

(Sub-Gen. Thanatophilus, Leach. (Pseiidopelfa, Reitter.) 

This sub-genus contains about eight European species, of which four 
are found in Biitain ; the first is easily distinguished from all our 
other species of Sdplia by its red thorax and black elytra; the other three 
are dark, obscure-looking insects. 



Silp/ia.] CLAVICOENIA. 51 

1, Thorax red, elytra black ; length 13-16 mm S. tiiouacica, L. 

II. Thorax concolorous with elytra, dull black, or brownish j 
length 8-10 mm. 
i. Elytra with the interstices furnished with very strongly 

raised ridges or tubercles, placed transversely S. RtraoSA, L. 

ii. Elytra with the interstices smooth. 

1. Scutellnm finely pubescent, elytra almost without pu- 
bescence ; base of thorax moderately sinuate S. SINUATA, F. 

2. Scutellum very thickly, and elytra thickly, covered with 

yelli I wish pubescence; base of thorax strongly sinuate . . S.dispau, Rerbsi. 

S. thoracica, L. A large, broad, rather depressed, elliptical species 
with red thorax and velvety-black elytra, head and thorax clothed with 
yellow pnbescence ; head black, contracted behind eyes, antennae short 
with strongly marked fonr-jointed club ; thorax much broader at base 
than apex, emarginate in front, basal margin not strongly sinuate, pos- 
terior angles rounded, upper surface very uneven, thickly and finely 
punctured at sides, more strongly on disc ; scutellum acuminate, some- 
what concave ; elytra liroader behind than thorax, finely puirctured, Avith 
the suture and the external keel strongly raised, the latter terminating 
behind in a strong blunt tubercle, and the internal lines feebly raised 
until near apex, then stronger and continued to apex ; legs black, rather 
stout and spinose ; humeral angle of elytra dentate in both sexes, sutuval 
angle distinctly produced in female, obtuse in male. L. 13-16 mm. 

In carcases, fungi, &c..; also by sweeping ; not uncommon, and generally distributed 
throughout England, Wales, and Scotland, and probably in Ireland. I have once 
taken it by sweeping in a wood near L'ncoln on a hot day. 

S. rug-osa, L. An obscure, dark-coloured, species, of an oblong- 
oval or elliptical shape, with the head and tliorax rather thickly clothed 
with yellowish-grey pubescence ; antennae short, Avith a strongly marked 
three-jointed club, the eighth joint also being somewhat dilated ; thorax 
emarginate in front, basal margin sinuate, sides strongly rounded in front, 
upper surface thickly and finely punctured, and covered with large and 
bare, slightly raised, elevations, which are arranged in irregular rows ; 
posterior angles rounded ; scutellum acuminate, thickly pubescent, except 
for a bare patch on each side ; elytra with sides subparallel, finely 
punctured, with the suture and three lines raised, and the interstices 
furnished with raised elevations or tubercles, placed transversely, apex 
truncate in male, sinuously produced in female ; legs moderately stout. 
L. 10-11 mm. 

In carcases, &c. ; the commonest member of the genus in Britain ; generally dis- 
tributed throughout the kingdom. 

S. sinuata, F. In size and colour, and also in the structure and 
sculpture of head and thorax, as well as in the pubescence of the same, 
much resembling the preceding ; it is, however, at once distinguished by 
the elytra, which are finely punctured, and have the interstices between 
the ridges plain, and not furnished with transverse raised elevations or 
tubercles ; in the female the apex is emarginate and very strongly pro- 

E 2 



52 CLAVICORNIA. [Sil^'ho. 

duced at sutural angle ; in the male it is truncate ; in some respects 
this species resembles ;S'. opaca, but the latter species has the head 
not contracted behind eyes, the thorax more even, the antennal club 
more gradual, and the elytra more coarsely punctured, and thickly 
covered with yellowish pubescence, whereas in S. sinuata they are almost 
glabrous. L. 10-12 mm. 

In carcases, &c. ; not uncommon in the London district and the South, bat perhaps 
commoner in the Midlands ; further north it becomes rarer ; Northuaiberland and 
Durham district, rare; Scotland, rare, Solway and Forth district; Ireland, near 
Belfast. 

S. dispar, Herbst. Allied to the preceding, from which it may be dis- 
tinguished in having the scutellum wholly, and not partially, covered with 
thick yellowish pubescence, and the elytra plainly pubescent ; the base 
of the thorax is more strongly sinuate, and the disc of the same is more 
even ; the sutural angle of the elytra, moreover, is considerably less 
strongly produced ; this species bears a much closer resemblance to >S^. 
opaca than S. sinuata does ; it may however be easily knoAvn bj'- having 
the head contracted behind eyes, and also by the shape of the thorax, 
which has the anterior margin plainly emarginate, whereas in S. opaca 
it is almost truncate ; the sides also are less narrowed in front in the 
latter species. L. 10 mm. 

Ill carcases, &c. ; rare ; Norfolk ; Caernarvon ; Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire ; 
Repton, very rare ; Northumberland and Durham district, rare, Prestwich and South 
Shields : Scotland, rare, sea coast, and banks of rivers and lakes, under dead fish, 
Solway, Forth, and Moray districts (Paisley, Loch Leven, &c.) ; Ireland, neighbour- 
hood of Armagh, shores of Lough Neagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson). 

(Sub-Gen. Ablattaria, Reitter.) 

This genus was formed by Reitter to include S. Icevlgaia and one or 
two allied species which have been hitherto placed under Phosphitga : 
it is one of the most distinct of the sub-genera by reason of its short 
stout antennae, stout legs, and smooth elytra, but can hardly be regarded 
as a distinct genus ; it differs very widely from S. atrata, with which it 
has for so long been classed by many authors. 

S. laevig-ata, F. (jwUta, Sulz.). Oblong oval, convex, deep black, 
moderately shining ; head elongate ; antenna) rather short and stout, 
with the first joint elongate, and the club very gradual ; thorax semi- 
circular, thickly and evenly punctured, with posterior angles rounded ; 
scutellum pointed behind, thickly punctured ; elytra closely and rather 
deeply punctured, without raised lines, with a strong raised margin ; legs 
stout, tibiae dilated and produced into a blunt tooth at apex. L. 11-13 
mm. 

Male with anterior tarsi dilated. 

In carcases, at roots of grass, crawling on pathways, &:c. ; not uncommon especially 
near the sea and in challiy districts ; Lcwisham, Gomshall, Box Hill, Sheerness, 



Silj>ha.] CLAViconNiA. 53 

CliiitliaiiJ ; K;\m«g:\tc ; Ilcnie lJ;iy ; Dover; Hastings; Glaiivillea Wootton ; Isle of 
Wight; Devonshire ; Maugun, St. Coluiuhs ; Swansea ; VVest(>n -super-Mare ; Cannock 
Chase ; Reptou; Northumberland and Durham district, South Shields, Hartlepool &c. ; 
not recorded from Scotland. 

(Sub. -Gen. Phosphug-a, Leach. {Peltis, Eeittcr 7icc auct.) 

Tliis sub-genus contains one variable European species, which has been 
subdivided by some authors into three or four separate species ; it appears, 
however, to be best to retain them as varieties ; according to Eeitter, 
Geoflfroy first applied the name of Pelf is (in 1762) to Silpha atrafa; he 
therefore snbstitutes the name for that of Jr'hosphuga, and revives 
Laicharting's name Ostuma for the genus of Trogositidai usually known 
as Peltis. 

S. atrata, L. Oval or oblong-oval, moderately convex, shining 
black ; head elongate, antennae long and slender witli the three last joints 
forming a rather distinct club ; thorax forming an almost complete semi- 
circle, with disc somewhat raised in middle, and depressed at sides, 
closely punctured at sides, posterior angles obtusely rounded ; elytra with 
strong margins, strongly and rugosely punctured, with the suture and 
three lines distinctly elevated into keels, without tubercle behind middle ; 
legs slender and elongate. L. 10-11 mm. 

In carcases, moss, rotten wood, under dead bark, &e. ; common and generally dis- 
tributed throughout Euglund aud Scotland ; apparently represented mostly in Ireland 
by the var. subrotundata. 

V. Inmnea, Herbst. Of a reddish-brown colour and rather small ; 
this variety appears to be chiefly found in high districts. L. 9-10 mm. 

V. subrotundata, Steph. Larger and more ovate than the type form, 
with the elytra considerably more rounded at sides, and often of a 
brownish or reddish-brown colour ; the centre of the disc of thorax is 
more sparingly punctured, and the central raised line is the longest. 
L. 11-14 mm. 

This variety has been recorded from Glanvilles Wootton, Devonshire, and South 
Wales, but appeal's to be rare in England ; in Ireland, however, it is very common in 
several localities ; Reitter gives Scotlaud only as a locality, but has probably made a 
mistake between this country and Ireland ; 1 have not seen a Scottish specimen, and 
Dr. Sharp does not record it from that country. 

CHOLEVINA. 

This family has been divided by Reitter into three groups, Bathysciae, 
Cholevse, and Colones ; the former of these comprises a large number of 
genera and species, the majority of Avhich have been comparatively 
lately described ; the other two comprise three or four genera, one or two 
of which have been, however, further subdivided by some authors; the 
anterior coxae are cylindric-conic, prominent, and contiguous ; according 
to Horn they have no trochanter, but this does not ajjpear to be invariably 



54 CLAvicoRNiA. [Clioleviiia. 

the case; the upper surface is finely pubescent, and the elytra are usually 
transversely strigose. 

I. 8tli joint of antennai distinctly smaller than 7th and 9th ; 
abdomen with six free ventral segments. 
i. Last joint of maxillary palpi as loni; as the preceding ; 
tarsi all 5-jointed ; antennre variable, filiform or 

clavate Choleva, Latr. 

ii. Last joint of maxillary palpi short, subulate. 

1. Antennas short and stout with gradual club ; tarsi 

all 5-jointed ; eyes large Catops, Payk. 

2. Antennte rather long, thickened gradually to apex, 
but without club; tarsi 4- 5- 5-jointed; eyes very 

small Bathyscia, SchiiJdte. 

IL 8th joint ofautennaj not smaller than 7th and 9th ; 
abdomen with five free segments (sometimes four only 
in female) Colon, Herbst. 

CKOZiEVA, Latreille. 

The genus Choleva, or, as it used to be called, Catops, contains more 
than a hundred species, the majority of which are found in Europe and 
the adjacent countries ; representatives, however, are known from North 
and South America (Caraccas, Chili, &c.), and also from Tasmania, and 
it is probable that the genus is very widely distributed ; they are of a 
dull black or fuscous, occasionally red-brown colour, and are found 
chiefly in the carcases of birds or small animals, or in fungi ; a few live 
in ants' nests ; they are exceedingly active in their movements and are 
in many cases soft and fragile, so that care is required in their preserva- 
tion, and they should, if possible, be mounted soon after their capture ; 
they may be distinguished from Colon by the small eighth joint of the 
antennse, and by their abdomen having six distinct segments instead of 
five ; in many points, such as length and stoutness of antennae, pubes- 
cence, size, shape, dilatation of tarsi in male, &c., they differ considerably, 
and in consequence have been divided into several genera by Thomson 
and others ; one of these, Catoj>s, Payk, is evidently distinct, but it 
seems better to consider the others as at the most sub-genera ; the species 
vary considerably in size (froin 1 or 1| to 5 mm.), and are of an oval or 
oblong-oval form, with more or less distinct fine pubescence ; the elytra 
are, as a rule, very finely sculptured, and, except in the first sub-genus, 
the striiie, with the exception of the sutural stria, are either entirely 
wanting or very obsolete. 

The larva of C.fusca is described and figured by S<hi6dte, I. p. 36, PI. x., Pig. 1 ; it 
is broad in front and much narrowed behind, pale, with the corneous parts fuscous; 
the head is small, about one-fourth as broad as the prothorax ; the antenna) are longer 
than the head and have the second joint elongate ; the prothorax is large and ample, 
considerably rounded in front, longer than cither meso- or metathorax. but of equal 
breadth wiuh these segments; the abdominal segments are all considerably narrower 
tlian the thoracic segments, and gradually decrease in size; the nintli is much 
narrower than the eightii, and bears two very long slender ccrci ; the anal appendage 
is cylindrical, longer than the ninth segment; legs long aud slender; the dorsal 



CholeVd.] CLAVICORNIA. 55 

scuta are complete and are covered with minute setaj ; the hirva bears a cousiJcrablc 
reseuililance to that of Liodes. 

I. Mesosternum simple without carina; elytra without 

cross striation. 
i. Intermediate tarsi of male simple ; tarsi slender ; 
antenna) long and slender. 

1. Species larger (4^-5 mm.) nnd more elongate ; 

posterior femora twice as long as coxai .... Sub. -Gen. Ciioleva, i. sp. 

2. Species smaller (l2-3 mm.1, more or less ovate; 
posterior femora one and a half times as long as 

coxa3 Sub.-Gen. Naeghs, Tlioms, 

ii. Intermediate tarsi of male with the first joint 
dilated; tarsi rather stout; antenuaj, as a rule, 

sensibly or strongly thickened towards apex . . , Sub. -Gen. Ptomaphaous, 

Helltv. 

II. Mesosternum carinate; elytra with fine cross 

striation Sub.-Gen.NEMADUSjTAoms. 

(Sub.-Gen. Choleva, i. sp.) 
The species iDelonging to this sub-genus are easily distinguished by their 
elongate form, long legs and slender antennae, and large size, as well as 
by the more distinct sculpture of th(i elytra ; with regard to the first 
three or four species there has been considerable difference of oi^inion 
among various authors, and the question cannot be considered as yet 
having been settled finally ; the shape of the thorax in G. uvyustata and 
its near allies varies considerably in different specimens, but this part 
appears never to be widest behind as in C. a</ili\ Avhereas C. spadicea is 
very distinct by reason of its sculpture and the wide margins of the 
thorax ; I have followed Eeitter in considering C. angnstata, C. inter- 
media, and C. cisteloides as separate species, and in regarding C. Shirmii 
as the male or a variety of C. angustata, but I do not feel at all sure 
whether it would not be more correct to regard all four species as merely 
forms of one variable species, as the distinctions are after all very slight, 
and seem to be more or less variable ; for further particulars as to the 
group, and in fact as to the whole genus generally, the student is referred 
to Andrew Murray's Monograph of the Genus Catops (Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, July, 1856). 

I. Thorax narrower than elytra, broadest at or about 
middle. 
i. Thorax feebly punctured with margins not strongly 
explanate. 

1. Pubescence of elytra even without raised hairs at 
sides and apex ; posterior trochanters of male 

moderately produced. 

A. Sutural angle of elytra in female produced 
into a small sharp tooth ; pubescence yellow ; 

posterior femora of male not dilated ... . C. anGUSTATA, F. 

B. Sutural angle of elytra in female simide ; 
pubescence of elytra greyish-brown ; posterior 

femora of male dilated C. cisteloides, FrohL 

2. Pubescence of elytra uneven at sides and apex, 
with rows of raised hairs ; posterior trochautera 

of male long, gougc-shapcd C. intekmedia, Kriiulz. 



56 cLAvicoRNiA. [Cholevci. 

ii. Thorax strongly punctured, with margins rather 

broadly cxplanate C. SPADICEA, Sturm. 

II. Thorax as broad as elytra, broadest at base . . . C. agilis, III. 

C. ang'ustata, F. Elongate, dark brown, with the head, and 
sometimes thorax, dark, antennje long, reddish-testaceous or reddish- 
hrown ; thorax broader than long, rounded at sides, broadest before 
middle, with posterior angles blunt, finely punctured ; elytra long, finely 
punctured, with rather distinct striae ; in the female the sutural angle 
is produced into a small tooth ; legs long and slender, ferruginous ; 
posterior trochanters of male more or less produced into a point, femora 
with a small tooth on the first third. L. 5 mm. 

Ill moss, vegetable refuse, &c. ; local, and not as common as C cisfeloidcfi. 
!Mr. Champion records it as rare in the London district, but it seems to be generally 
distributed tliroughout England from the southern to the northern counties ; it is, 
perhaps, most common in the Midlands ; Mr. Bold records it as less common in the 
Northumberland district than C. eisteloides ; Scotland, rare. Forth district ; Ireland, 
near Belfast and Dublin. 

C. Sturmi appears to be the male of C. angustata, or a variety of 
the male ; it only differs in one or two very unimportant particulars, 
such as the somewhat more elongate elytra, and tlie depth of the im- 
pressions on the segments of the abdomen ; it cannot, however, be in 
any way regarded as a separate species ; it has been recorded fi'om the 
London district, Mickleham, &c., by Mr. Champion and Dr. Power, 
from Hampton-in-Arden by Mr. Blatch, and from Eepton by Mr. W. 
Garneys. 

C. eisteloides, Frohl. This species may be distinguished from 
C. angustata by its colour, which is darker, and usually pitchy or pitchy- 
black ; the thorax is broadest in the middle and evenly rounded from 
the middle towards apex and base ; the antenna3 are always more or less 
darkened towards apex ; the posterior trochanters of the male are acumi- 
nate and produced into a more or less projecting tooth on their inner 
side, and the posterior femora of the male are rather plainly widened, 
but without a tooth on tlieir first third ; the sutural angles of the elytra 
are not produced as in C. augndata. L. 5 mm. 

In moss, dead leaves, vegetable refuse, by sweeping, &c. ; rather common and 
generally distributed thron-hcut England and Wales ; Scollaud, local, Forth district; 
it is probably common in Irolaud. 

C. intermedia, Kraatz. This species appears to derive its name 
from being intermeditite between G. angudata and G. spadicea, being 
shorter and broader than the former, and not nearly as robust as the 
Itxtter, from which, moreover, it may be distinguished by the sculp- 
ture and the form of the margins of thorax ; from G. angustata and 
C. eisteloides it may be known by the pubescence of the elytra being 
uneven at sides and apex with rows of raised hairs, and by the long, 
pointed, gouge-shaped trochanters of the male; it must, however, be 



Choleia.'] cLAvicoRNiA. 57 

admitted that the first of tliese characters is not easy to distinguish ; in 
colour it is more or less fuscous with the elytra and sides of thorax 
sometimes lighter; it may also, as a rule, be separated from C. cideloides 
by the shape of the thorax, and from lioth that species and C. aiujudata 
it may be known by the shape of tlie elytra^ which have the sides dis- 
tinctly less parallel and more dilated. L. 5 mm. 

lu moss, dead leaves, &e. ; rave ; Birch Wood, Claygate, Lee, Shirlej', Cowley, 
Highgate ; Dover; Hastings j Wicken Fen; Kuowle, uear Birniinghaiii ; Lan- 
caster. 

C. spadicea, Sturm. A rather broad and robust species ; head, 
thorax, and under surface pitchy black, elytra chestnut brown ; in some 
specimens the thorax also is more or less brown ; head rather long, with 
prominent eyes, antenucB long and slender, reddish-testaceous, darker 
towards apex ; thorax plainly narrower than elytra, broader than long, 
with the sides rather strongly rounded, upper surface strongly punctured, 
margms broad and explanate, posterior angles obtuse and rounded ; elytra 
rounded and dilated at sides, broadest, as a rule, a little behind middle, 
with rather distinct strite, and the interstices plainly and rugosely punc- 
tured ; legs ferruginous, posterior trochanters gouge-shaped. L. 5 mm. 

In de;id leaves, fungi, &c. ; rare; Highgate (Waterhouse and Power); Bexley, 
Surrey (Cliampion), Coouibe Wood (l>ye), Shirley, near Croydou, and St. Mary Cray 
(Sliari)); Bishop's Wood, Dulwich ; Holm Bnsh, uear Brighton (Power); Kepton 
(W. Garneys) ; Drink water Park, Manchester (Ueston) ; Lincoln (one specimen taken 
in Lungworth Wood by myseU') ; Scotland, rare, Tay district (llaunoch (Sharp)). 

C. ag'ilis, 111. Shorter, broader, and more coiivex than G. cmr/ustafa 
and its allied species, and easily distinguished by its short thorax, Avhich 
is broadest at or just before base; colour variable, lighter or darker 
ferruginous brown ; antenmie reddish, usually darker towards apex ; 
thorax finely punctured, with the lateral margins not raised, about as 
broad at base as elytra, with posterior angles obtusely rounded ; elytra 
convex, very feebly striate', closely but rather distinctly punctured; 
legs ferruginous, male with the posterior trochanters armed on the inner 
side with a short curved strong pointed tooth, and the middle tibiie 
bent strongly inwards. L. 4|-8 mm. 

In dead leaves, moss, haystack refuse, &c. ; not uncommon, and ratlier widely dis- 
tributed throughout the southern and midland districts ; less common further north ; 
Scotland, rare, Clyde district and Isle of Arrau ; Ireland, near Belfast. 

(Sub.-Gen. Kargrus, Thomson.) 

This sub-genus contains sixteen European species, of which three are 
British ; they are much smaller and more ovate than the members of the 
preceding sub-genus, but by their slender antennae and in other points they 
much resemble them ; they are easily distinguished from the species 
belonging to the other sub-genera. 

I. Posterior angles right angles ; upper surface dull ; 

size larger C. Velox, Spence. 



58 cLAvicORNiA. [C/ioIeva. 

II. Posterior angles of thorax bluut or rounded j size 

smaller. 
i. Upper surface dull, shagreened or alutaceous be- 

tween punctures C. wilkini, Spence. 

ii. Upper surface shining, smooth between punctures C. anisotomoides, Spence. 

C velox, Spence. Oval, dull, ferruginous-red, with, the head brown, 
reddish in front, very finely punctured ; antennse long and slender, 
reddish-testaceous, with the penultimate joints often darker; thorax 
transverse, as broad behind as elytra, with sides rounded and narrowed 
in front, posterior angles right angles, pointed a little inwards, very finely 
punctured j elytra scarcely widened in middle, very thickly and finely 
punctured, with very indistinct striae ; legs ferruginous, anterior tibiae 
somewhat widened at apex. L. 2|-3 mm. 

In dead leaves, haystack refuse, carcases, &c. ; common and generally distributed 
throughout the greater part of England ; Scotland, not uncommon, Tweed, Solway, 
Forth and Clyde districts ; I have seen no record from Ireland, but it is probably 
common in that country. 

C. Wilkini-, Spence {prcecox, Er.). Much smaller than the pre- 
ceding, and of an oblong-oval shape, gradually narrowed behind, and 
with the elytra considerably narrower in proportion ; colour reddish or 
brownish ; antennae not as long proportionally as in C velox ; thorax 
transverse, slightly broader than elytra, very finely punctured, with 
posterior angles obtuse ; elytra rather narrow and almost truncate at 
extreme apex, with the punctuation fine, but more distinct than on 
thorax, with obsolete or very feeble striae ; legs reddish, anterior tibiae 
slightly widened towards apex. L. 2-21 ^m^^ 

In dead leaves, moss, haystack refuse, &c. ; not as common as 0. velox, but very 
generally distributed throughout England ; Scotland, not common, Solway and Forth 
districts ; it has been taken in Darenth Wood in company with Formica fuliginosa. 

C. anisotomoides, Spence, This species is very easily distin- 
guished from the preceding by its more shining appearance, and short 
oval form ; it is very convex, of a ferruginous brown colour, which is 
somewhat variable ; antennae rather long and slender ; thorax transverse, 
as broad at base as base of elytra, very thickly punctured, posterior angles 
obtuse ; elytra oval, convex, with the striae, except the usual sutural 
stria, quite obsolete, somewhat distinctly punctured, with the spaces 
between the punctures smooth; legs reddish. L. l|-2 mm. 

In moss, dead leaves, &c. ; not uncommon, but local ; London district, generally 
distributed ; Essex ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Exeter ; Bristol ; Knowle, near 
Birmingham; Stratford-on-Avon ; Hunstanton, Norfolk; Northumberland district, 
not uncommon ; Scotland, local, in moss, Tweed and Forth districts, 

(Sub-Gen. Ptomaphagrus, Hellwig.) 

The species belonging to this sub-genus are characterized by having 
tlic first joint of the intermediate tarsi of the male dilated and by the 



Choleva.'] CLAvicOKNiA. 59 

fact that the antenna; are in almost all cases distirictly thickened towards 
apex ; the genus Cafopomorphus, of which there is no I>ritish repre- 
sentative, forms a connecting link between this and the preceding 
sub-genus ; the species belonging to this last-named genus are dis- 
tinguished by the very long last joint of the antennre and by their being 
always found in ants'-nests. The name Ptomopliagus has been by many 
authors applied to C. sericeus and C. varicornis, while the name Catops 
has been retained for the species belonging to the present sub-genus ; 
as, however, the type species of Catops described by Paykull appears to 
have been C sericeus, it appears more correct to confine the name of 
Catop)S to the species with truncate elytra. 

The species belonging to the sub-genus Ptomapliagus are, in many 
cases, extremely hard to determine with certainty ; this is more espe- 
cially the case with C. trlstis and its allies, which appear as a rule to be 
mixed in collections ; the differences in one or two cases are so slight, 
that it is doubtful whether all the species can really be considered as 
distinct ; in fact Murray regards G. longula, C grandicollis, and O. 
rotund kollis ( = Kirhi/i), and the two continental species G. abdominalis 
and G. montivaga as all varieties of G. tristis. 

I. Thorax more or less distinctly narrowed before base. 
i. Pubescence greyish or yellowisli ; antenna9 rather 
long, slender, or more or less distinctly thickened 
towards apex. 
1. 'J'horax with sides rounded completely to base, 
not sinuate before posterior angles. 

A. Antenna; long and slender, only slightly 
thickened towards apex, with sixth joint al- 
ways longer than broad in male, sometimes 
as long as broad in female ; size larger (4- 
5 mm). 

a. Colour fuscous-brown ; posterior angles of 

thorax scarcely projecting C. FUSCA, Panz. 

b. Colour black ; posterior angles of thorax 

distinctly projecting C. NIGBICANS, Sjpence. 

B. Antenna; moderate, distinctly, but not strongly 
thickened, with sixth joint about as long as 

broad in male, sometimes transverse in female. 

a. Antennse with joints 6-8 of nearly equal 

length, feebly transyerse C. LONGULA, Kell. 

b. Antenna; with eighth joint half as long as 

sixth, strongly transverse, 
a*. Last joint of autennje as broad as penul- 
timate ; thorax not quite as broad as 
elytra. 

af. Elytra shorter ; antennse ferruginous 

with darker club C. COEACINA, Kell. 

bf Elytra longer ; antenna; dark with first 

two and last joints reddish yellow . . C. mokio, F, 
b*. Last joint of antenna; narrower than 

penultimate ; thorax ample, fully as broad 

as elytra C. GRANDICOLLIS, Er. 



60 CLAvicoRNiA. . [Choleva. 

2. Thorax slightly sinuate before the posterior 
auglcs which are usually projecting. 

A. Sixth joint of antenna) always longer thau 
broad in male, sometimes as long as broad in 
female; apical joint of autenuaj usually (but 

not always) lighter tliau the rest of the club . C. NIGKITA, Er. 

B. Sixth joint of antenna) always as long as broad 

iu male, sometimes transverse in female ; 
club of anteunai usually unicolorous. 
a. Thorax less narrowed behind, with sculpture 

finer C. TEISTIS, Panz. 

h. Thorax more narrowed behind, with sculp- 

ture stronger C. Kibbyi, Spence. 

ii. Pubescence blackish or grizzly ; antenna) short, 

strongly thickened ; size rather large (4-4^ mm.) . C. chkysomeloides, Panz. 
II. Thorax not narrowed before base, almost semicir- 
cular ; antenna) short and plainly thickened. 
i. Club of antenna) narrow ; thorax fully as broad as 

elytra, with somewhat projecting posterior angles . C. FUMATA, Spence. 
ii. Club of antenna) broader; thorax hardly as broad 

as elytra with posterior angles right angles . . . C. Watsoni, Spence. 

Cm fusca, Panz. Kather a large and broad species, oval, convex, of 
a dark brown fuscous colour, with the head and the thorax, except 
margins, darker or even black ; the colour, however, is somewhat variable ; 
head and thorax very closely punctured, with yellowish pubescence ; 
antennae long, feebly thickened towards apex, ferruginous; thorax broadest 
behind middle, much broader thad long at base, posterior angles right 
angles, slightly projecting ; elytra convex, rather broad, widened in 
middle, considerably narrowed to apex, very obsoletely striated, thickly 
punctured ; legs reddish. L. 4-4| mm. 

la dead leaves, garden and haystack refuse, carcases, &c. ; generally distributed 
throughout England but never abundant; Scotland, in outhouses, not "common, 
Tweed, Solway, Forth, and Clyde districts ; Ireland, Portmarnock, &c. ; Mr. Bold 
says that nearly all his specimens from the Northumberland district were found in 
cellars. 

C. nigricans, Spence. (caliginosus, Steph., favicorms, Thorns. (1) 
soror, Newm.). Very like the preceding in size and general appearance, 
but easily distinguished by its darker colour and by the antennae being 
almost always dark with the base reddish, as well as by the more evi- 
dently projecting posterior angles of the thorax ; thorax with the greatest 
width in the middle, very thickly and finely punctured, almost always 
with two or three more or less obsolete depressions on disc ; elytra oval, 
convex, thickly and finely punctured, with the striae a little more 
evident than in C. fusca ; legs reddish-brown, femora blackish. L. 4- 
4 1 mm. 

In dead leaves, moss, haystack refuse, &c. ; generally distributed throughout 
England, but never very common ; Mr. Bold is inclined to refer his Northumberhind 
specimens to Thomson's C. Jlaviconiis, but they probably belong to the variety of 
C. nigricans with unicolorous reddish antenna), which sometimes occurs ; Scotland, 
not common, Solway and Forth districts. 



Choleva.] CLAVICORNIA. 61 

C. longipennis, Chaud., appears to be a variety of this species ; it 
has the elytra more convex ami dilated and the striro of the elytra more 
feebly marked ; Erichson's C. faliginosns is also referred by many 
authorities to C. nigricans, but there seems to be some doubt regarding 
the matter. 

C. long-ula, Kell. {inlicornis, Thorns.). Elongate, black, oval ; 
antenna? as long as head and thorax, rather robust with the basal joints 
and the terminal joint, at least at apex, reddish testaceous, joints G-8 
of nearly equal length ; thorax thickly punctured, clothed with 
yellowish-grey pubescence, with sides rounded, and narrowed in front 
and behind, posterior angles right angles ; elytra long, indistinctly 
striated, finely pubescent, appearing, like many of the allied species, to 
be covered with a kind of bluish bloom; legs blackish-brown or ferru- 
ginous, tarsi lighter. L. 4-4^ mm. 

Under moss, in fungi, dead birds, &c. ; rare; Manchester district; Ripou (Wntcr- 
house) ; Manchester district; Hartlepool; Walliuqton, Northumberland; Scotland, 
rare, Forth and Sol way districts; Ireland near Waterfbrd (Power). 

Murray regards this species as a variety of C trisHs ; it difi'ors, how- 
ever, considerably in shape, and in having the club of the antennae less 
distinct ; it appears to be identical with G. inlicornis, Thorns. 

C. coracina, Kell. A rather small, black species, which may be 
distinguished from all the succeeding species except G. murio, by having 
the last joint of the antennte as broad as the penultimate, and from the 
latter species by its smaller size, shorter elytra, and unicolorous club of 
the antenna? ; head and thorax thickly and finely punctured, with fine 
short yellowish pubescence, the latter almost as broad as elytra, broadest 
in middle, with the posterior angles right angles, not projecting, and 
appearing at first sight obtuse ; elytra short oval, without yellow 
pubescence at base of elytra, but with the usual ashen-grey or bluish 
bloom, thickly punctured, indistinctly striated ; legs pitchy-red. L. 
3-3 i mm. 

The male has a small prominence on the under side of the anterior 
femora. 

In dead animals, &c. ; rare in England; Shirley near Croydon; Esher; Bewdlcy; 
. Coleshill ; Knowle ; Needwood near Burton-on-Trent ; Ripou (Waterhouse) j North- 
umberland district, "near Wooler, very rare;" Scotland, uot uncommon, Solway, 
Forth, Dec, Moray, and Shetland districts. 

C. morio, F. This species may be recognized by its rather long 
oblong-oval shape, obtuse posterior angles of thorax, and the colour of 
the antennae, which, as a rule, have the first two joints ferruginous, and 
the rest, with the exception of the last, blackish ; the last joint is yellow ; 
rarely however the whole antenna? are ferruginous, and this fact, as in 
other species, sometimes gives rise to confusion ; the general colour is 
black wdth yellowish grey pubescence on the thorax, and an asliy-grey 
bloom on the elytra; bead and thorax tluckly and finely punctured, the 



62 CLAvicORNiA. [Choleva. 

latter rather depressed with sides gently rounded ; elytra rather long, 
more distinctly sculptured than thorax, with scarcely a trace of striae, 
with the sides subparallel, evenly and slightly rounded ; legs ferruginous 
red, with the femora, or at all events the posterior ones darker. 
L. 3|-3| mm. 

In haystack refuse, dead birds, fuugi, &c. ; not common although somewlrit widely 
distributed; London district, ratlifir r.ire, Slieeriiess, Chatham, Lee, Sliiriey, C iterhani, 
Barnes, Coonibe Wood, Ashstead ; Bewdley ; Coleshill ; Sutton Parli ; Alcester; 
Sherwood ; Repton ; Liverpool and Manchester district ; Northumberland district, 
rare, in moss, in shady woods, Wallington (Power) ; Scotland, rare, Solway, Tweed, 
and Clyde districts j Ireland, Portmarnock, &c. 

C. grandicollis, Er. This species bears some resemblance to C. trt'stis, 
and by one or two authors has been considered to be a variety of that 
species ; it is however easily distinguished by its broader and more ovate 
form, and especially by its large and ample thorax, which is fully as 
broad as elytra, or even broader in the middle than the elytra at base ; 
the colour is blackish, or blackish-brown ; head and thorax thickly 
punctured, covered with distinct yellowish pubescence ; antennae mode- 
rately long, gradually thickened, reddish, darker towards apex ; thorax 
very transverse, with sides strongly rounded, posterior angles obtuse ; 
elytra ovate, broad, convex, thickly sculptured, with a purplish-grey 
bloom, and yellowish pubescence along the base, which is not very distinct 
in many cases ; legs ferruginous with femora, at all events the posterior 
ones, darker. L. 3|-4 mm. 

In carcases, haystack refuse, vegetable and flood rubbish, &c.; local, but rather 
widely distributed throughout England and the greater part of Scotland; Ireland, 
near Waterford, and probably generally distributed. 

C. nig-rita, Er. {affinis, Steph.). Oblong-oval, black ; antennte 
with joints 1-6 ferruginous, and the rest brown, except the last, which is 
yellowish-red, but sometimes, especially in dried specimens, appears to 
be unicolorous with the penultimate joints ; thorax hardly half as broad 
again as long, slightly variable, but as a rule broadest in middle, with 
posterior angles either slightly pointed, or right angles, or even somewhat 
obtuse,* clothed with yellowish pubescence ; elytra finely punctured, with 
yellowish pubescence at base, and a purplish bloom on the rest of their 
surface ; legs ferruginous, posterior femora sometimes darker. L. 
3^-4 mm. 

In moss, fungi, carcases, &c. ; occasionally by sweeping ; not uncommon and widely 
distributed throughout England ; recorded by Bold as not uncommon in the North- 
umberland district beneath dead birds, &c. ; it is however scarce in Scotland, and has 
been found in the Forth district only ; it is probably not uncommon in Ireland. 

This species is very closely allied to C. trisHs, but has the antennae 

* This point is discussed by Murray, Monograph of the genus Catops, page 35, note; 
it is the variability in points that are regarded as distinguishing characters that causes 
the confusion iu this group of the genus. 



Cholcva.'] cLAvicoRNU. G3 

longer and thinner and the chib not well defined, whereas in this latter 
species the club is short, thick and well marked. 

C. tristis, Panz. Very closely resembling the preceding in size and 
form anil apparently often mixed with it in collections ; black or brown- 
ish ; antennte shorter and with more abrupt club than in C. nigrita, with 
the first five or six joints reddish, and the apical joints more or less 
fuscous, the last often reddish ; thorax not as broad as in the preceding 
species, especially behind, and more transverse, broadest in or a little 
before middle, posterior angles sharp right-angles ; elytra thickly punc- 
tured, Avith very feeble traces of striae, and with the nsual purplish 
bloom, and a yellowish pubescence at base ; in all cases this pubescence 
must be observed in fresh specimens ; legs ferruginous or reddish-brown, 
femora darker, and tarsi, as in many other species, often lighter. 
L. 3^-4 mm. 

lu moss, haystack refuse, deeaj'ing vegetable matter, carcases, &c. ; often by sweep- 
ing J generally distributed and common throughout the kingdom. 

C. Kirbyi, Spence {rotundicoUis, Kell.). This species is given by 
IMurray (1. c. p. 43) as a variety of C. tristis, but he says that it is not 
without hesitation that he removes it from the list of distinct species, 
and he adds, " The characters, however, which distinguish it being all 
variations in degree, and at times approaching more or less to the type of 
tristis, I have come to look upon it as a variety of that species. It is well 
known that carcass-feeding beetles are always more subject to variation 
than others, owing to the chance of the food of the larvae becoming 
exhausted before they are full fed. This species may be a starved 
variety." These remarks are well worthy of note in considering allied 
species of Necrophaga, whether we hold Murray's view regarding this 
particular species or not, as a diminution of food must affect the size, 
and also the development of the chitin, Avhich might cause some altera- 
tion in the shape of thorax, &c. ; C. Kirhyi is smaller than C. tristis, and 
has the sides of the thorax miich more strongly inflexed before base and 
so more rounded and dilated in front ; the sculpture of the thorax is also 
more strongly marked, a character which seems to preclude its being 
considered a starved variety ; the antennae are not so much thickened, 
and the elytra are shorter and more ovate. L. 3-3^ mm. 

In decaying animal and vegetable matter ; local, but not uncommon ; London dis- 
trict, occasionally in profusion and apparently generally distributed throughout 
ELgland ; Scotland, local, Solvvay, Forth, and Dee districts ; it is probably widely 
distributed in Ireland. 

C. chrysomeloides, Panz. This species may very easily be dis- 
tinguished by its large size taken in conjunction with its short stout 
antennae ; the pul)escence also is blackish or of a grizzly grey colour, and 
is rather thick and distinct ; form ovate, convex, colour deep brown or 
black ; antennae shorter than head and thorax with a strong and abrupt 



64 CLAvicoRNiA. [Choleva. 

black or daik brown club, basal joints red ; thorax very transverse, with 
the sides plainly rounded, narrowed in front and behind, posterior angles 
sharp right angles, somewhat projecting; elytra finely and thickly 
punctured, with indistinct stride, and with an ashy-grey bloom; legs 
ferruginous, femora often darker. L. 4-4^ mm. 

In dead birds and animals, decaying fungi, &c. ; generally distributed tbrougbout 
tlie greater part of England, and occasionally taken in numbers, but rarer in the north 
than in the south and midland districts ; Northumberland district not common (Bold); 
Scotland, not common, Solway, Tweed, Forth, Dee and Moray districts. 

C. fumata, Spence {scitulus, Er. ). Oblong oval, of a deep pitchy- 
brown colour, sometimes almost black ; antennse short and thick, but 
with the club not broad, usually unicolorous reddish, and joints 4-5 hardly 
transverse ; thorax almost seinicircular, forming a continuous or almost 
continuous line with elytra, not narrowed at base, very transverse, thickly 
and finely punctured, with distinct greyish pubescence, posterior angles 
sharp and somewhat projecting ; elytra oval, thickly punctured, without 
trace of striae ; legs ferruginous. L. 3 mm. 

In dead birds and animals, haystack refuse, &c.; rather common and generally 
distributed throughout the country. I once took it in great profusion by shaking a 
hedgehog hung up by a keeper in Seal Wood, near Burton-on-Trent ; it is common in 
Scotland, but Bold records only one specimen from the Northumberland district ; he 
has pi-obably confused this and the next species. 

C. Watsoni, Spence (ar/ilis, F., fumatus, Er., nee Spence). Very 
like the preceding, and rather hard to distinguish from it ; in fact, it has 
by many authors been regarded as only a variety ; the club of the 
antennae, however^ is broader, with joints 4-6 transverse, and is, usually, 
of a darker colour, and the posterior angles of the thorax are right angles, 
and are not, or scarcely, projecting; the differences, however, as a matter 
of fact are very slight, and it would perhaps be the best course to unite the 
two species, which are very distinct from any that we possess ; they most 
closely resemble G. sericeus, at first sight, but are, of course, easily 
distinguished by the elytra not being truncate at apex. L. 3 mm. 

In dead animals, &c. ; often by sweeping ; not uncommon and generally distributed 
throughout the greater part of England. Bold records it as very abundant in moss, 
dead leaves, &c., in the Northumberland district. Scotland, not common, Solway, 
Forth, and Dee districts. Bold's record, as above mentioned, may be in error. 

(Sub-Gen. Nexnadus, Thomson.) 

This sub-genus only contains one very rare British species, which is 
distinguished from all the preceding species by having the mesosternum 
carinate and the elytra finely but distinctly cross-striated, and from 
Catops, which it resembles in these particulars, by the fine mesosternal 
carina, the dilatation of the first joint of the intermediate tarsi of 
the male, and the fact that the apex of the elytra is rounded and not 
truncate. 



Choleva.'] clavicornia. 65 

C colonoides, Kraatz. OLloiig ovate, head and thorax Llackish- 
brown, elytra dark-brown, lighter towards apex, clothed with distinct 
silky pubescence ; antenna? about as long as head and thorax, gradually 
and very slightly thickened towards apex (a point that will at once dis- 
tinguish it from any species of Colon, some of which it much resembles); 
thorax about a fourth broader than long, with sides moderately rounded, 
extremely thickly and finely granulated, posterior angles sharp, projecting 
liackwaixls ; elytra gradually narrowed to apex, finely strigose trans- 
versely, not truncate ; legs ferruginous-brown ; under-side blackish-brown, 
with the margins of each segment lighter. L. 1|-1|- mm. 

Very rare ; first taken by Dr. Power, at tlie cud of Marcli, 18(11, at the Holt Forest, 
Hampshire, from the debris of fern, in an old hovel ; it has also been takeu by Mr. 
Champiou at Ashtead, vSurrey, iu "rotten wood mould of decaying oaks," and by 
Mr. Waterhouso, near Ripon ; it has occurred, too, in the New Forest ; according to 
Kraatz it is taken near Berlin, in loose sand at the foot of old oak-trees, and is 
frequent on moors : Reitter says that it occurs in north and Mid-Europe in nests of 
Formica cunicularia. 

CATOFS, Paykull. 

This genus contains six European species, of which two are found in 
Britain ; one of these is common, the other is extremely rare ; they are 
distinguished from the members of the genus Chohva by their truncate 
elytra and the very short and subulate last joint of the maxillary palpi ; 
as mentioned above, Paykull's type on which he described the genus 
Catops appears to have been C scriceus, and it is perhaps better therefore 
to adopt this name, although many authors have included the species 
under the genus Ptomapliarius, 

I. Antennas less thickened, club entirely black ; first joint 

of posterior tarsi as long as the next two together . . C. seeiceus, F. 

II. Antennse shorter and thicker, club reddish-yellow at 
apex ; first joint of posterior tarsi as long as the next 

three together C. varicoekis, Rosenh. 

C. sericens, F. {truncaius, GylL). Oblong-oval, of a dark pitchy- 
black or blackish-brown colour, clothed Avith very distinct silky pubescence ; 
head large, antennae short and stout, dark with reddish base, plainly 
thickened ; thorax a little broader than long, fully as broad at base as 
elytra, and often more darkly coloured, finely wrinkled transversely, 
posterior angles pointed, projecting backwards ; elytra gradually becoming 
narrower from base to apex, with apex l)roadly truncate, more or less 
distinctly strigose transversely ; legs dark ferruginous-lDrown, femora 
often darker ; size very variable. L. 2-3 mm. 

In moss, decaying seaweed, haystack and vegetable refuse, small carcases, &c. ; 
common, and generally distributed throughout the kingdom. 

C. varicornis, Rosenh. Closely aUied to the preceding, but easily 
distinguished by the antennae, which are shorter and thicker, and are 
ferruginous at apex as well as base, and by the long first joint of the 

VOL. III. F 



(50 CLAVICORNIA. [Cato2)s. 

posterior tarsi which equals in length the three following taken together ; 
the elytra also are more rounded and are not so strongly truncate ; the 
average size also is somewhat larger. L. 2|-3^ mm. 

In moss, leaves at the foot of trees, flood refuse, &e. ; very rare ; Eiclmioncl 
(Guyon) ; Folkestone (Power); it has also been recorded from Staffordshire and 
from Sherwood Forest. 

COXiON, Herbst. 

The species belonging to this genus very closely reseml)le some of the 
small species of Choleoa, but may at once be distinguished by not having 
the eighth joint of the antennas smaller than the seventh ; the antennae are 
short and are terminated by a distinct 5-jointed club, and the tarsi are 
all 5-jointed ; according to the Munich catalogue there are twenty-nine 
species, but the number has been somewhat modified since the date of its 
publication ; they are chiefly confined to Europe, but representatives have 
been recorded from Northern Asia and Alaska; in all probability the 
species are much more numerous than they are supposed to be, but they 
are, as a rule, extremely rare, and very difficult to determine, as they are 
exceedingly alike, and their specific distinction often rests with the male ; 
owincT to their rarity very little is known about their habits ; they are 
usually taken by evening sweeping in early summer, and from one or 
two captures that have been made it is quite possible that they might be 
found in larger numbers on open and seemingly barren spots on the sides 
of hills, &c., where the collector would not, as a rule, think of searching 
for them. The following table of the species is more or less a provisional 
one, as many of them require very careful study and comparison with 
other species before they can be determined with any accuracy. 

This genus may be divided into two sub-genera as follows : — 

T. Anterior tarsi simple in both sexes CoiON, i. sp. 

II. Anterior tarsi moderately dilated in female, more 
strongly dilated in male Mylcechus, Lair. 

(Sub-Gen. Colon » i. sp.). 

I. Form longer oval : thorax scarcely broader at base than 
elytra ; elytra with rather distinct traces of striae ; pos- 
terior femora of male without tooth C. VIENNENSE, fferJs^. 

II. Form shorter oval ; thorax ample, plainly broader at 
base than elytra ; elytra with only slight traces of 

strise. 
i. Thorax less strongly punctured ; eighth joint of an- 

tennaj considerably smaller than uiuth ; posterior 

femora of male with a very small tooth C. SEREIPES, Sahib. 

ii. Thorax more strongly punctured; eighth joint of 

antenufe only slightly smaller than ninth; posterior 

femora of male with a strong sharp tooth . . . . C. puncticolle, Kr. 

C. viennense, Herbst. Oblong, rather long and narrow, of a 
brownish or reddish-brown colour, with rather close yellowdsh pubescence ; 
antennse reddish-brown, with club usually darker ; thorax almost as long 



Col<Vl.'\ CLAVICORNIA. C7 

as broad, vcr}' closel}-, but distinctly punctured, posterior angles obtusely 
rounded ; elytra about as broad at base as thorax, very closely and not 
very finely punctured, wiih distinct traces of fine striae in front; legs 
reddish-brown. L. 2^-3 mm. 

Male with the posterior tibiae somewhat curved, and the posterior 
femora without tooth before apex, but somewhat widened and terminating 
in a sharp angle at apex. 

By evening sweeping in early summer ; rare ; Lee, Chatliam, Darenth Wood, Bircli 
Wood, Peckliam, Caterliam (Champion, Walker, and Power) ; Cliobbam and Bromley 
(Saunders) : New Forest ; Ilfracombe (Saunders) ; Scotland, very rare, Solway district, 
banks of Nitb in flood refuse. 

C. serripes, Sahib. ( ? fuscidum, Er., (^ simiilex, Thorns.). Oval, 
convex, fuscous, a little shining, clothed with yellowish pubescence, very 
closely punctured ; antennas reddish-brown, with club darker ; thorax 
shorter, broader, and more ample than in the preceding species, broader 
at base than elytra, with the posterior angles obtuse or rounded ; elytra 
very finely and closely punctured, with traces of striae usually visible in 
front ; legs ferruginous. L. l|-2 mm. 

Male with the posterior femora furnished behiixl middle with a very 
small and sometimes obsolete tooth ; they appear also to be often very 
finely crenulated on their under-side. 

By evening sweeping ; rare ; Maidstone (Gorbam) ; Lee (Kent) ; Hammcrsmitli 
Marsbes (Sharp) ; The Holt, Farnham (Power); Wicken Feu ; Scotland, rare; Solway 
and Clyde districts, banks of Nith in flood refuse, &c. 

C. puncticolle, Kr, ( ? dentipes, Er., nee Sahib.). This species is 
exceedinglj^ closely allied to the preceding, and is considered by some 
authors as merely a variety ; it appears, however, to be cjuite distinct by 
reason of its more coarsely punctured thorax, and by the larger size of 
the eighth joint of the antennae, as well as by the fact that the posterior 
femora of the male are armed with a rather strong sharp tooth ; it is also 
a little larger than C. serrijjes. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Very rare ; I only know of tbree specimens which are in Dr. Sharp's collection, one 
without locality, and two others from Eccles, Thornbill, near Dumfries, which are 
somewhat doubtfully referred to this species. 

(Sub-Gen. Myloechus, Latreille.) 

I. Thorax longer, a little less long than broad. 

i. Anterior tibiae of male straight ; posterior femora 
with a more or less distinct small sharp tooth 
before aper. 

1. Thorax considerably more strongly punctured 

than elytra, only slightly narrowed in front . C. ANaULAEE, Er. 

2. Thorax only a little more strongly punctured 

than elytra, strongly narrowed in front . . C. miceops, Czwal. 
ii. Anterior tibiae of male curved ; posterior femora 

simple C. eufescens, Kr. 

II. Thorax shorter, distinctly broader than long, 

i. Size smaller ; form more elongate ; anterior tibiae 

F 2 



68 CLAVICORNIA. [Cvio)/. 

of male straight ; thorax not or scarcely broader 
than elytra. 

1, Thorax evidently more strongly punctured 

than elytra. 

A. Anterior margin of clypeus straight in male; 
posterior femora of male with a very long 

slender curved tooth before apex . . . . C. deNtipks, SaJilh., v. Zelei, 

Kr., V. Barnevillei, Kr. 

B. Anterior margin of clypeus with a slight 
emargination in male ; posterior femora of 

male with a small tooth before apex . . . C. brunneum, Lair. 

2. Thorax not more strongly punctured than 

elytra. 

A. Posterior femora of male with a long 
straight spinose tooth before apex, termi- 
nating in a tuft of hairs. 

a. Size larger ; colour darker ; elytra with 

traces of s<: rite C, appendicttlatttm, Sahib. 

b. Size smaller ; colour lighter ; elytra 

without traces of striaj C, calcaeatum, Ur. 

B. Posterior femora of male with a very small 
tooth before apex ; elytra with traces of 

Stria3 C. DENTICXTLATUM, Kr. 

ii. Size larger ; form broader ; anterior tibla3 of 
male curved ; thorax evidently broader than 
elytra ; posterior femora simple in both sexes . . C. LATUM, Kr. 

C. angrulare, Er. Oblong-oval, somewhat narrowed behind, 
blackish-brown or dark-brown, with yellowish pubescence ; antennae fer 
ruginoiis, lighter at base and apex, club with the apes obtusely pointed ; 
thorax about as broad at base as elytra, almost as long as broad, with the 
posterior angles right angles or somewhat acute, very closely and some- 
what deeply punctured ; elytra distinctly and somewhat rugosely punc- 
tured ; legs ferruginous. L. 2-2| mm. 

Male with the posterior femora furnished Avith a very small sharp 
tooth in the middle, apical angle pointed and slightly projecting. 

By evening sweeping; it has also once been found on a wall; very rare ; Forest 
Hill (Marsh) ; Caterham, Peckham, Mickleham (Sbarp and others); Stretford, ne-ar 
Manchester (Reston) ; Scotland, very rare, Solway and Tay districts, banks of Nith 
in flood refuse (Sharp), and Braemar. 

Small examples of this species appear to be the C. rectangulam, 
Chaud. 

C. microps, Czwal. This species diflfers from the preceding in 
having the thorax less strongly punctured, and strongly narrowed from 
posterior third to apex ; the thorax, also, is narrower at base, being 
hardly as broad as the elytra. L. 2|^ mm. 

The sole locality for this species, which was described by Czwalina in 1881, is given 
as Enj;laud, find Reitter treats it as a good species, resting on a female in Kraatz'a 
collection from England ; the male appears to be unknown. 

C. rufescens, Kraatz. Eather long-oval, of a reddish or brownish- 
red colour, with the antennas and legs lighter ; thorax as broad as elytra. 



Culon.'\ CLAVICORNIA. 69 

and much more strongly punctured, nearly as long as broad, with 
posterior angles almost right angles ; elytra finely but distinctly punctured. 
L. 2 mm. 

Male with the anterior tibire curved and the posterior femora simple ; 
concerning the latter point, however, there seems to be some doubt, as 
some authors say that the posterior femora are furnished with a small 
straight tooth before apex. 

By evening sweeping; very rare; Caterhaui (Clianipion, two specimens); in 
Dr. Sharp's collection there is a male without locality from Crotch. 

C. dentipes, Sahib. ( $ spinipes, Hal.). Oblong-oval, moderately 
convex, brown, with silky, greyish-yellow pubescence ', antennae short 
and stout, reddish-brown ; thorax as broad as elytra, much broader than 
long, about twice as strongly punctured as elytra, not strongly contracted 
in front, with the posterior angles obtuse ; elytra rather finely and closely 
punctured, without trace of dorsal stritB ; legs reddish. L. 2-2| mm. 

Male with the posterior femora armed behind middle Avith a very long 
thin spinose tooth which is a little curved. 

By evening sweeping, during early summer ; very rare ; Darenth Wood and 
Caterhara (Cliampiou) ; Eslier (Power) ; Ilfracombe (Saunders) ; Ripon (VVaterhouse) ; 
Bewdley, Kuowle, and Cliurch Stretton (Blatch); Northumberland district, a fine 
male, by sweeping low herbage iu a wood on the Irthing ; Scotland, Balmuto, 
Fifeshire (Power) ; Ireland, near Dublin (Power). 

V. Zebei, Kr. This variety differs from the type form in being on 
an average larger, and in having the thorax more strongly punctured; it 
is by many authors considered a separate species. L. 2-3 mm. 

By evening sweeping, during early summer; very rare; Chatham (Walker); 
Mickleliam and Caterham (Champion) ; Birch Wood and Claygate Lane, Esher 
(Power); Ton bridge Wells (Saunders); Ilfracombe (Saunders); Scotland, Balmuto, 
Fifeshire (Power). 

V. SarnevUlei. This variety appears to be pimctured about as strongly 
as the type form, but to have the punctuation somewhat rugose ; it is 
described as "much resembling C. Zebei," but smaller, with the antennre 
always entirely testaceous, the thorax darker than the elytra, which are 
more strongly punctured, and the shorter and less regularly curved hind 
femoral spine of male ; these characters, however, are somewhat variable, 
and Mr. Eye (Ent. Mo. Mag. xii. 177) comes to the conclusion that the 
British examples taken by Mr. Waterhouse at Studley, near Ripon, and 
by Mr. Champion, at Caterham (and returned to him by M. Tournier as 
C. Barnevillei) are only undeveloped specimens of C. Zebei. 

C brunneum, Latr. Short-oval, rather convex, lighter^or darker 
brown, with yellowish, somewhat golden, pubescence ; antcnucB ferru- 
ginous or ferruginous-red with the club, except the last joint, darker ; 
thorax about one and a quarter times as broad as long, narrowed in 
front, and very slightly, sometimes almost imperceptibly, contracted 
before base, Avith posterior angles nearly right angles or slightly obtuse, 
rather finely and closely punctured j elytra a little narrowed towards 



70 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Colon. 

apex, more finely punctured tlian thorax, without traces of dorsal stria?, 
hut appearing in certain lights somewhat transversely wrinkled ; legs 
hrownish-red. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Male with the anterior margin of the clypeus slightly emarginate in 
middle, and the posterior femora furnished behind middle with a small 
tooth; 

By sweeping in the evening, and occasionally by beating ; very widely distributed 
and sometimes not uncommon ; London district generally distributed ; Esher, Shirley, 
Forest Hill, Caterham, Ashtead, Dorking, Sevenoaks, Darcnth, Chatham, &c.; Heme 
]?ay ; Wrabnes?, Essex; Glanvilks Wootton ; Knowle ; Portishead ; North Wales; 
Ki'pton ; Northumberland district; Scotland, not rare, Solway, Tweed, Forth, 
Moray, and Clyde districts ; Ireland, Co. Wicklow. 

This species seems to be very variable in size and colour, and many 
mistakes have been made in consequence ; it is by far the commonest 
species of the genus. 

C- appendiculatum, Sahib. Oblong-ovate, slightly convex, fus- 
cous, clothed with fine silky greyish-yellow pubescence ; antennte 
ferruginous with a rather strong club, which is darker except at apex ; 
thorax transverse, not broader than elytra, very closely and finely 
punctured, with the posterior angles nearly right angles ; elytra a little 
narrowed towards apex, very thickly and finely punctured, with traces 
of fine striaj towards base ; legs ferruginous. L. 2-3 mm. 

Male with the posterior tibiae curved, and the posterior femora 
armed with a long spinose tooth, furnished at apex with a tuft of 
hairs. 

By evening sweeping ; very rare ; Eeigate (Brewer) ; Birch Wood (Power) ; 
Scotland, very rare, Solway district, banks of Nith (Sharp). 

C. calcaratum, Er. ( ? pygmceum, Er.). This species is allied to 
the preceding, but may be distinguished by its smaller size and lighter 
colour, and also by the fact that the elytra present no traces of dorsal 
stria3 ; in the male the posterior margin of the thorax is not emarginate 
near the posterior angles, whereas in the preceding species there is a 
slight emargination ; the posterior femora of the male are armed, with a 
long spinose tooth as in the allied species. L. 1^-2 mm. 

Very little appears to be known regarding this species as British ; it was, I believe, 
taken by Haliday, and there is a doubtful specimen in Dr. Sharp's collection from 
Eccles, Thornhill, near Dumfries. 

C. denticulatum, Kr. This species is closely allied to the two 
preceding ^species, and ajipears to be intermediate between them as 
regards size ; the colour is usually dark brown ; the distinguishing 
character is found in the male, in Avhich sex the posterior femora are 
furnished with a small pointed straight tooth, instead of with a long 
spinose tooth as in the other two species. L. l|-2j mm. 

By evening sweeping ; very rare ; Hythc (Rye) ; Darenth V/ood (Power) ; Scotland, 
Tweed district, Cheviots (Sharp). 



CoIu7l.] CLAVICORNIA. 71 

C. latum, Kr. One of the most distinct species of the genus, and 
easily known by its short and broad oval form, and very large ample 
thorax, which is plainly broader than the elytra, and has the sides 
dilated behind middle, and the posterior angles somewhat prominent ; 
colour fuscous or fuscous-lirown ; jjunctuation fine and even ; elytra 
narrowed behind with very fine transverse strife ; legs ferruginous, tibiae 
dilated towards apex and denticulate externally ; posterior femora simple 
in both sexes. L. 2|-3 mm. 

By evening sweeping; very rare; Shirley near Croydon (Janson) ; Sliiere, near 
Guildford (Capron) ; The Holt, Farnhani (Power) ; Bishops Wood (Sharp) ; Green- 
liithe (Waterhouse) ; Easthani, near Liverpool (Ellis) ; Scotland, very rare, Clyde 
district (Sharp). 

BATKVSCIA, Schiodte {Adelops, auct.). 

Our single species of BatliTjscia is the sole British representative of a 
group which is one of considerable extent, both as regards species and 
genera ; the members of the group are to a great extent cave-frequenting 
insects, and have the eyes either rudimentary or entirely wanting, as is 
the case with so many other of the vertebrates and invertebrates that 
inhabit like localities ; it is quite possible that more species will be 
found in Britain, but our bone caves that have hitherto been discovered, 
are not of very great extent, and researches made in them by Mr. 
Matthews and Mr. Crotch for the purpose of discovering new Coleoptera, 
have proved fruitless ; considering, however, that nearly one hundred 
species of Bathyscia have already been described from Europe, a large 
proportion of which are found in France, it is not unreasonable to expect 
that further additions to our fauna may yet be made ; the most curious 
member of the group found in Europe is Leptoderus ; it is, however, 
improbable that this will occur in Britain. 

B. Wollastoni is found like other members of the genus under leaves, 
refuse, &c., but appears especially to affect the old rotten shells of seed 
potatoes, in which it is found occasionally in large numbers, when the 
new crop is dug up in the summer. 

B. Wollastoni, Jans. Short, oval, convex, reddish-brown, with 
fine and rather close yellowish pubescence, finely and thickly punctured, 
the punctuation of the elytra being somewhat asperate ; head depressed, 
with acute lateral angles ; antennae reaching about to base of thorax, 
thickened gradually toAvards apex, penultimate joints almost or slightly 
transverse ; thorax transverse, a little broader than elytra, gently and 
evenly rounded at sides, much contracted in front, posterior angles pro- 
duced, acute, fitting closely to shoulders of elytra; elytra narrowed 
behind, gradually rounded at apex, with sutural stria distinct; legs 
rather long and slender, male with the anterior tarsi 5-jointecl,* dilated. 



* According to several authors the tibise are 4- 5- 5-jointed in both sexes. 



72 CLAVicoRNiA. [Bathi/scki, 

female with the anterior tarsi 4-jointecl, tibiae in Loth sexes, especially 
the middle ones, moderately spinulose. L. l|-2 mm. 

Beneath vegetable refuse, rhubarb and lettuce-leaves in gardens, rarely in the 
nests of humble-bees ; common in seed potatoes in some localities in the summer ; 
local, but probably overlooked ; first takeu by Mr. E. W. Jauson near Fincbley, in 
August, 1854; Hammersmith; Staple, Keut (Gorham) ; VVingham, Kent (Hamlet 
Chirk); Eastry, Kent; 'St. Peter's and Kiugsgate, Kent (T. Wood in great 
numbers) . 

SPH^RITINA. 

This tribe contains one genus SjjJuentes, which is included by some 
authors with the Silphina., but is perhaps more correctly separated by 
reason of its truncate elytra, and the fact that the abdomen has only 
five segments, whereas in all the members of the Silphina it consists of 
six segments. 

SPHSIRZTSS, Duftschmidt. 

This genus contains one species, *S^. glabratus, Avhich is common to 
Northern Europe, Alaska, and Vancouver's Island, and a second, S. 
jwJifus, described from Sitkha, N"orthern Asia^ Avliich may perhaps be a 
fijrni of the first ; S. glabratus has an appearance very similar to Hider ; 
it is very rare in Britain, and has only occurred in Scotland, and once 
in the Northumberland district. 

S. grlabratus, F. Oblong, somewhat ovate, shining black, glabrous, 
with a more or less distinct metallic reflection ; head small, thickly 
punctured, mandibles strongly developed ; antennee short with a long 
scape and a solid 3-jointed club ; thorax fitting closely to base of elytra, 
transverse, with sides narrowed slightly in front, posterior angles almost 
right angles, upper surface very finely and scarcely visibly punctured ; 
scutellum large, triangular ; elytra as broad as thorax and long in com- 
parison, sides subparallel, apex truncate, upper surface with fine punctured 
striae, interstices almost smooth; legs pitchy, tibise spinose externally, 
tarsi all 5-jointed. L. Q-Q\ mm. 

Under bark of dead trees, in decaying fungi, and at oozing sap, also in dung ; rare; 
Scotland, Tweed, Tay, and Dee districts ; one specimen has also been taken at Wooler, 
in the Northumberland district, by Mr. J. Hardy. 

SCYDM^NID-ffi. 

This family difi'ers from the Pselaphidaj in having the tarsi 5-jointed, 
and the elytra not or scarcely abbreviated ; as a rule they entirely cover the 
abdomen, but are occasionally, as in Eutlda, truncate and leave the 
jiygidium exposed ; the posterior coxre are conical and distant ; in the 
tribes represented in our fauna^ the maxillary palpi are 4-jointed, with 
the last joint small and often obsolete ; the members of the family are 
small, shining insects, usually ovate, but sometimes rather slender, of a 
unicolorous black, dark broAvn, or reddish colour, more or less clothed 



Sci/ilmccmdic] clavicornia. 73 

with erect hairs ; they occur in moss, under stones, under l)ark, in ants' 
nests, &c., and are often found in company with Psehiphidae. We know 
comparatively little of the family ; a large number of species have heeu 
described from almost all parts of the world, but more are perpetually 
being found in every district which is worked for them ; the generic 
dill'erences are by no means strictly defined ; several new genera have 
recently been formed to include various divisions of the large genus 
Sci/drncenus, but they must be regarded as only a provisional arrangement 
towards the final settlement of the genus. The British families may be 
defined as follows : — 

I. Last joint of maxillary palpi narrow, distinct, subulate ; 

thorax narrower than elytra SCYDMJENINA 

II. Last joint of maxillary palpi very short and broad, obsolete, 

obtusely pointed, and rounded in conjunction with the 

third joint. 
i. Thorax narrower than elytra; antennae feebly geniculate 

■with the first joint as long as the two following .... EUMICEINA. 
ii. Thorax as broad or nearly as broad as elytra ; antennae 

straight ; first joint not as long as the two following . . Cepheniina. 

SCYDM^NINA. 

This tribe contains the old genus Scydmcenus, which is now divided 
into several genera on certain characters of the head^ thorax, coxce, i^'c. ; 
upwards of two hundred species are enumerated in the Munich catalogue, 
but this number by no means represents the limits of the genus. Our 
species may be subdivided as follows: — 

I. Head short, without distinct neck, eyes approximate to 

margins of tliorax. 
i. Thorax strongly margined, with sides nearly straight 

from base to beyond middle; hind coxa? contiguous . . Netieaphes, Thorns. 
ii. Thorax cordiform without distinct margins ; hind coxae 

moderately separated SCTDM^NUS, Lair. 

II. Head long, divided from thorax by a distinct neck ; eyes 

placed at a considerable distance from margins of thorax . Euconnus, Thorns. 

NEURAPZSES, Thomson. 

This genus contains about sixty European species ; it is distinguished 
from ScydmcBmis by the shape of the thorax and the contiguous hind 
coxae ; none of our British species are common ; the insects that stand 
in our collections under the name of S. immilio ( ^=ininutuSj Chaud.) 
appear to me to be nothing more than varieties at the most of S. 
SparshaUi. 

I. Forehead with a strong fovea near eyes ; thorax at 
base with a fine longitudinal keel above scutellum. 

i. Thorax distinctly punctured N. ELONGATULUS, Mull, 

ii. Thorax not, or scarcely, punctured. 

1. Size larger; thorax about as long as broad, 
strongly narrowed and angled at sides on 
anterior third N. anguiatus, Miill. 



74 CLAvicouNiA. INeuraphes. 

2. Size smaller ; thorax longer than broad witli 
sides rounded and gradually narrowed in 
front. 

A. Antenna} with penultimate joints feebly 
transverse; elytra with the four basal im- 
pressions almost equally deep, the external 

ones elongate N. ettbicundtts, Schaum, 

B. Antennae with penultimate joints strongly 
transverse ; elytra with external basal im- 
pressions small and shallow N. Caeinattjs, Mids. 

U. Forehead without fovea near eyes ; thorax without 

longitudinal keel before scutellura. 
i. Colour lighter ; form more convex ; antennje less 

thickened towards apex ; transverse basal furrow 

of thorax with two fovea} on each side near 

margins N. Spaeshalli, Denny. 

ii. Colour darker ; form depressed ; antennae more 

thickened towards apex ; transverse basal furrow 

of thorax with one fovea on each side . . . . N. longicollis, Mots. 

(prceteritus, Rye). 

N. elong-atulus, JMiill. Dark pitcliy-red or reddish-black, sliiiniig, 
antennEe and legs reddish-testaceous, palpi and tarsi yellow ; somewhat 
immature specimens are lighter ; head rather large, a little narrower 
than thorax ; antenna? rather long and stout, gradually thickened to 
apex, with the penultimate joints distinctly transverse; thorax rather 
long with the sides rounded in front and almost parallel behind, more or 
less distinctly punctured, depressed at base, with a fine keel above 
scutellum, and two foveas on each side ; elytra long oval, much broader 
than thorax, finely and not thickly punctured, Avith two rather long 
foveae at basc^, of which the inner one is the broadest and deepest ; 
femora thickened at apex. L. If mm. 

In moss, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping ; not uncommon In some districts ; 
London district, generally distributed ; Hastings ; Gosport ; Riddlesdown ; Midland 
districts, in most localities, Bowdley, Sherwood, Rcpton, Birmirgham district, &c. ; 
it appears to become rarer further north ; Scotland, rare, Solway and Tay districts. 
Ireland, Galway (J. J. Walker). 

N ang°ulatus, Miill. {impressus, Sahib. Wif/hami, Denny). In 
size, colour, and general appearance this species rather closely 
resembles the preceding, but is very easily distinguished by the 
shape and sculpture of the thorax, which is about as long as 
broad, strongly angled on anterior third, abruptly contracted in front, 
and gradually narrowed towards base in almost a straight line ; it is 
impunctate, and strongly pubescent at sides, especially in front ; the 
antennee^ moreover, have the penultimate joints less transverse than in 
N. clongatulus, the elytra have the sides a little less rounded, and are 
more finely punctured ; the shoulders also are more marked, and the 
femora are less dilated at apex. L. lf-l|. 

In moss, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping ; not uncommon ; Lee, Sheerness, 
Mickleham, Woking, Esber, Shirley, Ashtead, Caterham, West Wickham, Toubridge ; 



Neuraphes.l clavicornia, 75 

The IIoU, Fanilifim ; Slicrwood Forest, under bark ; Rejiton Slinib?, near Burton-ou- 
Trent ; it is not recorded from the uortlieru counties or from ScotLmd. 

N. rubicundus, Muls. (Sharpi, Sanlcy, teste, II. R. W). Long 
oval, very slightly depressed, entirely rufous or rufo-testaceous, with the 
palpi and tarsi yellow ; head together with eyes, which are prominent, 
somewhat narrower than thorax, antennae rather strongly thickened 
towards apex, with the three penultimate joints plainly transverse ; thorax 
considerably longer than broad, gradually rounded in front, and margined 
and narrowed almost in a straight line behind, with thebasal foveie distinct, 
and a longitudinal keel before the scutellum ; elytra long oval, broader 
than thorax, very sparingly and obsoletely punctured, with two fovero at 
the base of each, which are of almost equal depth ; legs slender, femora 
somewhat dilated towards apex. L. H nim. 

In raoss, &c. ; very rare ; Shirley (Champion), in a sand-pit ; Ripon (Watcrhouse) ; 
Scarborough ; in Dr. Sharp's collection there is a specimen without locality labi lied 
S. Sharpi, De Saulcy ; it is of about the size aud colour of S. Sparshalli, but answers 
very well to the description of )S'. rubicundus, of which it appears to be a small 
example. In the catalogue of Heyden, Reitter and Weise S. ISharpi is given as a 
synonym of S. ruhicundus. 

N". carinatus, 3l7iJs. {(ihjptocephalus, Saulcy, teste, H. E. W.) Very 
like the preceding, but rather smaller, and as a rule more darkly coloured ; 
it is distinguished by its shorter antennae, which are more strongly and 
suddenly thickened at apex, and have the intermediate joints less slender 
and cylindrical ; the keel at the base of the thorax before scutellum is 
more defined and more prolonged towards the front ; and the elytra have 
the shoulders a little more marked, and the external impressions at their 
base more feeble than those next the sutxire, L. 14 mm. 

In moss, &c. ; very rare ; Shirley (Rye) ; in Dr. Sharp's collection there is a 
specimen from Eltham labelled S. ijlyptocephalus, De Saulcy, which appears to belong 
to this species, of which it is quoted as a synonym in the last European catalogue. 
S. carinatus was originally recorded as occurring under stones in company with 
Formica brunnea in the Beaujolais mountains, France. 

N. Sparshalli, Denny (lielvolus, Schaum). Ferruginous or rufo- 
testaceous, convex, clothed sparingly with yellow pubescence, antennaj 
and legs reddish-testaceous, palpi and tarsi lighter ; head together with 
eyes, which are large and projecting, only a little narrrower than thorax, 
antennae moderate, gradually thickened towards apex ; thorax sub- 
quadrate, with sides gently rounded in front, and gradually and slightly 
narrowecl in almost a straight line to base, thickly pubescent at sides, 
with a transverse furrow at base, but no longitudinal keel above scutellum ; 
at the ends of the furrow are two fovese of which the outer one is deep 
and narrow ; elytra rather short, broad oval, convex, finely and plainly 
punctured, Avith two fovese at the base of each, and a very plain humeral 
fold ; femora feebly thickened at apex. L. 1 mm. 

In moss, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping; rare; Mickleham, Caterham, 



76 CLAVicoRNiA. {Neuraplies. 

Croydon, Woking, Bromley, Choblmni, Wanstead, Esber, Birdbrook, Higbgate, 
Horsell, Lee, Sbeerness, Westerbam, &c. ; Norfolk ; Acocks Green, near Birmingbara ; 
Repton and Burtou-on-Trent ; Scotland, very rare, Tweed and Fortb districts. 

V. minuius, Chaud. (Scydvicenns pumilio, Schaum ; Neurapiies 
minufus, Eeitter). This variety^ which some authors consider a separate 
species, appears only to differ from type N. Sparslialli by its somewhat 
smaller form, broader head, and plainer basal foveae of thorax ; it is also 
said to be visually of a darker colour, and to have more obtusely pointed 
elytra, but the differences are very slight, and can hardly be considered 
specific. L. f mm. 

First taken by Mr. Mattbews at Gumley, Leicestersbire, and by Dr. Power, at Lee 
pit, Kent, Tbe Holt near Farnbam, and Littlington, Cambridge. 

N. long-icollis, Mots {prceteritus, Eye). Fusco-piceous, often with 
a reddish tinge, with antennae and legs reddish-testaceous, somewhat de- 
pressed, sparingly pubescent, head with eyes a little narrower than thorax, 
antennae rather long, plainly thickened to apex, with joints 8-1 transverse ; 
thorax elongate-quadrate, narrowed in front, and with sides almost straight 
behind, impunctate, with a transverse furrow at base furnished with one 
fovea only at each side, and without longitudinal keel before scutellum ; 
elytra elongate-ovate, sparingly and very obsoletely punctured, with tAvo 
deep foveas at the base of each ; legs slender, femora thickened at apex. 
L. 1-1 J mm. 

In moss, &c., generally in company witb ants, occasionally by evening sweeping; 
rare; Croydon, Weybridgc, Eritb, Caterbam, Darentb, Snodlaud, Strood, Norwood, 
Forest Hill ; Cbatbam ; Folkestone ; Isle of Wigbt ; Seaford, Devon. 

In colour and general appearance, as Mr. Eye remarks in his descrip- 
tion (Ent. Monthly Mag. ix. 6), this species very closely resembles a very 
small specimen of S. elongatulus, from which it may be known by its more 
depressed elytra, and impunctate thorax, and also by the absence of a 
longitudinal keel on thorax before scutellum. 



o"- 



SCVUM^NUS, Latreille. 

The genus Scydmccnus proper contains only about twenty-five 
European species, and apparently is less extensive than either Neuraphes 
or Eucoimus ; it resembles the former in having the head short and the 
eyes approximate to the margins of thorax, but may be easily distin- 
guished by the cordiform shape of the latter, and by the moderately 
separated hind coxae ; in all our species (with the exception of S. exilis) 
there is no transverse furrow at the base of the thorax, but in its place 
four more or less distinct round foveas ; the genus is easily separated from 
Euconnus by the formation of the head, which in the latter genus is long 
and separated from the thorax by a distinct neck, and also has the eyes 
placed at a considerable distance from the margins of thorax. 



Sijdmcenus,'] clavicornia, 77 

I. Elytra with two distinct fovetc at the base of each ; 

thorax with four fovea) at base, 
i. Size large (nearly 2 mm.) ; elytra broad oval, coarsely 

and diffusely punctured ; colour brownish-red . . . S. GODARTI, Lair. 
ii. Size smaller (not exceeding \^ mm.). 

1. Elytra finely and indistinctly punctui-ed ; colour 

black ; size larger. 

A. f'orm shorter and broader ; elytra broad oval ; 

sides of thorax gently rounded S. SCUTELLAEIS, Mill!. 

B. Form longer and narrower ; elytra oldong 
oval ; sides of thorax sharply rounded, almost 

angled, in front S. COLLAEIS, MiUf. 

2. Elytra rather strongly and not closely punctured ; 

size smaller. 

A, Colour black : elytra narrower, more coarsely 

and diffusely punctured . . , S. PUSIILUS, MiXll. 

B. Colour dark reddish-brown; elytra broader, 

less coarsely and diffusely punctured . . . . S. PoWEEf, Fowler, 

II. Elytra with one distinct dorsal fovea at base of 
each ; thorax without distinct basal fovese, but with an 

indistinct transverse basal furrow S. exilis, T!i\ 

S. G-odarti, Latr. Tlie largest of our British Scydmsenidce ; of a sliort 
and convex form, colour lighter or darker chestnut-brown or reddish, 
antennae and legs red, tarsi testaceous-yellow ; antennae rather long and 
slender and scarcely thickened towards apex, with the four penultimate 
joints as long as broad. ; head a little narrower than thorax ; thorax 
feebly cordiforni, about as broad as long at its widest, with the basal 
f ovege small ; elytra much broader than thorax, oval, very convex, plainly 
punctured, with two rather small foveas at the base of each, of which tlie 
outer one is less distinct ; the usual fold at the shoulders is only just 
indicated. L. 14—2 mm. 

Male with anterior femora more thickened towards apex, rounded 
externally. 

Under bark, in rotten wood, in company with ants ; rarely under decaying leaves ; 
rare; Loughton, Essex; Buddon Wood, Leicestershire, in nests oi Formica riifa ; 
Sherwood Forest (in rotten wood with ants, also on newly felled timber in the evening) ; 
Dunham Park, Manchester, in moss and hepaticae. 

S. scutellaris, Miill. Black, shining, very convex, with sparing 
yellowish pubescence, antenna3 and legs reddish-testaceous, femora dark, 
palpi yellow ; head narrower than thorax, eyes large ; antennae rather 
slender, feebly thickened towards apex, with the two penultimate joints 
about as long as broad ; thorax about as broad as long, feebly cordifoini, 
impunctate, with four fovese at base ; elytra broad, rather short oval, 
sparingly and finely punctured, with two foveae at base of each ; humeral 
fold short but distinct. L. 1|-H mm. 

Male with the anterior femora rather strongly inflated and angled 
externally towards apex. 

In haystack and other refuse, moss, decaying sea-weed, &c., also under stones, 
especially in long grass near the coast ; generally distributed and common in the 



78 cLAViooRNiA. [Scijdmcenus. 

London disf.rict, <and the Southern and Midland Counties ; rarer further north, 
and apparently very rare in the Northumberland district ; it is not recorded from 
Scothmd. 

S. collaris, Miill. Black, shining, very like the preceding iu 
general appearance, but narrower and more elongate, with the thorax 
longer than broad and less gradually rounded in front, and the elytra 
long oval and less obtuse at apex ; the humeral fold is very short and 
indistinct ; the male anterior femora, moreover, are only gradually 
dilated, and not angled but rounded externally, and broadest near the 
middle. 

In moss, &c. ; generally distributed and common throughout England, and 
probably Ireland, and not rare in Scotland, Solway, Tweed, Forth, and Dee districts. 
L. l^-ii mm. 

Immature specimens often occur of this and the preceding species 
•which are entirely rufo-testaceous and cause great confusion 5 the form 
and sculpture Avill, however, serve to distinguish them. 

S. pusillus, Miill {flavicornis, Mots.). Long oval, convex, smaller 
than the two preceding species, black, shining, clothed sparingly with 
rather fine yellow pubescence, antennse and legs reddish-testaceous, 
femora usually darker, palpi and tarsi yelloAV ; head narrower than 
thorax, antennse moderate, with the two penultimate joints somewhat 
transverse ; thorax convex, feebly cordiform, slightly longer than broad, 
impunctate, with four foveae at base of which the inner pair are some- 
what larger than the others ; elytra long oval, very plainly punctured, 
with two fovese at the base of each ; humeral fold short and not distinct. 
L. li-lj mm. 

Male with the anterior femora, gradually dilated, and acutely angled 
externally at apex. 

In moss, flood refuse, &c., especially about river banks ; rare ; Chatham, Eghara 
(Sun-ey), Mickleham, Walton-ou-Thames, Sydenham, Staines, Tottenham ; Hawk- 
hurst; Glanvilles Wootton ; Devonshire; Buddon Wood, Leicestershire (in nests of 
Formica rufa) ; Durham (in hotbeds at Gilesgate Moor) ; Scotland, very rare, Solway 
district. 

This species closely resembles in general appearance small specimens of 
/S. coUaris, which often do duty for it in collections, but apart from its 
size it may be known by the much plainer punctuation of the elytra, the 
shape of the basal thoracic foveae (of which the inner pair are larger than 
the outer in S. imsilliis, whereas in S. collaris the inner pair are more or 
less obsolete), and the shape of the anterior femora in the male ; all the 
femora appear to be more dilated at apex than in S. collaris. 

S. Poweri, Fowler. This species (described by myself in the 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, xx. 247) is closely allied to S. pnsillns, 
but may be easily distinguished by its colour which is dark reddisli- 
brown (as in S. clongatulus), and by the less coarse and diffuse punctuation 



Scydmcenuii.'] clavicornia. 79 

of the elytra ; the general form too is broader and the elytra are wider 
and more convex ; the basal foveas of thorax are somewhat different, the 
central pair being often rather indistinct ; the legs are yellow, with the 
femora somewhat inflated at apex. L. 1^ mm. 

In marshy and damp places; rare ; taken at Wimbledon, Birdbrook (Essex), and 
Seaton, Devonshire, by Dr. Power, who bad the specimens separated as distinct in 
his collection for some time before he requested me to describe it. 

S. exills, Er. (hicolor, Denny ; vicimn^, Chaud.i; Steniclinns exilis, 
Thoms.). The smallest of our species of Scydmci^aus proper ; of much the 
same form as *S. imsillus but smaller; rufo-castaneoiis with the head and 
thorax visually darker, sometimes black, antennae and legs rufo-testaceous, 
tarsi yellow ; head with eyes, Avhich are rather large, narrower than 
thorax, antennas rather long, gradually thickened to apex ; thorax a little 
longer than broad, feebly cordiform, impunctate, with an indistinct basal 
furrow, but Avith the usual fovege only indicated ; elytra long oval, finely 
and sparingly punctured, with only one distinct fovea at the base of 
each, the fovea near shoulder being shallow and usually more or less 
obsolete, humeral fold absent. L. 1 mm. 

Male with the anterior femora a little more thickened than in the 
female. 

Under bark ; rare ; Chatham, Leith Hill, Cobham Park, Humpstead, Loughton ; 
Norwich ; New Forest ; Netley ; Parkhurst Forest, Icle of Wight ; Sutton Park and 
Coleshill, near Birmingham ; Bewdley Forest ; Hopwas Wood, Tamworth ; Cannock 
Chase ; Sherwood Forest (in some numbers) ; Ripon ; Scotland, Highlands, very 
rare, under bark of dead trees, Clyde and Tay districts. 

EUCONNUS, Thomson. 

This genus contains about fifty European species ; four of these are 
British, one of which, E.fimetarius, is considered by many authors as at 
most a variety of .E. li irticollis ; the character presented by the antennae 
seems however to be specific ; E. denticornis is rather a large species and 
is very easily known by the characters of the antennae in the male, 
Avhereas E. nanus is the smallest of all our Scydmsenidge and certainly 
appears to be generically different. The characters of the genus have 
been pointed out above (p. 7Q). 

I. Antennse with four-jointed club. 

i. Size larger ; male with the 8th and 9th joints of 

antennae dilated, securiform E. denticornis, Midi. 

ii. Size smaller; joints of the antennse simple in both 
sexes. 

1. Antennae distinctly shorter and less slender with 
the joints less elongate j pubescence of elytra 

closer E. fimetaeius, Chaud. 

2. Antennae distinctly longer and more slender with 
the joints more elongate ; pubescence of elytra less 

close E. HIBTICOLLIS, IlL 

II. Antennae with threc-joiuted club ; size very minute . E. nanus, tSchaum. 



80 CL&.VICORNIA. \_Euconniis. 

E. denticornis, Miill. {rnficornis^ Denny). Rather a large species, 
convex, black or pitcliy-black, shining, with thick bristly pubescence at 
the sides of thorax and on the temples, antennae and legs ferruginous, 
femora black or pitchy ; head large, nearly as broad as thorax, antennae 
rather long and robust ; thorax somewhat cylindrical, longer than broad, 
narrowed in front, impunctate, with two distinct fovesE at base and 
between them a small fold ; elytra oval, convex, almost impunctate, 
foveolate at base, with a strong humeral fold; femora dilated. L. 1^- 
If mm. 

Male with the first two joints of the club dilated and denticulate, the 
first longer than broad, securiform, the second subquadrate and strongly 
toothed at apex ; in the female the three first joints of the club are 
simple, about as long as broad. 

In moss, vegetable refuse, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping ; rare ; Mickle- 
ham, Esher, Caterham, Dorking, Faversliam, Ashford, Darenth, Surbiton, Furley, 
Cowley, Chattenden ; Norfolk ; Hollingtou and Guestling, near Hastings ; New- 
Forest ; Scarborough. 

E. hirticollis, 111. Of very much the same shape as the preceding, 
deep black, shining, sparingly pubescent, except on thorax, Avliich is 
clothed with very thick and long bristly pubescence ; antennae, palpi and 
legs ferruginous, club of the former and the femora blackish ; head 
small, somewhat orbicular, with a large neck, antennae long and slender 
with the joints rather elongate ; thorax longer than broad, somewhat 
cylindrical, narrowed in front, base transversely compressed, with two 
indistinct foveae ; elytra short oval, impunctate and very sparingly 
pubescent ; legs long, femora dilated at apex. L. 1^ mm. 

Marshy places — in wet moss, and at roots of grass ; also under fallen leaves in 
woods; rare; Faversliam, Weybridge, Caterham; Horning Fen; Wicken Fen; 
Tewkesbury ; Sutton Park, Birmingham ; it is also recorded from the Southern dis- 
tricts (Hastings, Portsmouth, &c.), and from the neighbourhood of Durham, and 
other localities, but mauy of tlie records of its capture evidently apply to the following 
si>ecies, which is by far the commoner of the two. 

E. fimetarius, Chaud. (JnrtlcolUs, rar., Reitter, &c.). Very closely 
resembling the preceding species, but with the penultimate joint of the 
palpi fuscous, and the hairs on the elytra shorter and less scattered ; the 
chief difference, however, lies in the formation of the antennae, which are 
evidently shorter and more thickened towards apex, and have the joints 
less elongate ; accoi-ding to Thomson the male has the penultimate seg- 
ment of the abdomen impressed in the middle at apex, and the posterior 
margin subtruncate. L. 1|^ mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse ; rather local ; London district, not common, 
Dorking, Esher, Putney, Bromley, Shirley, Mcrton, Darenth, Hammersmith ; Sheer- 
ness; Tonbridge ; The Holt, Farnham ; Glauvilles Wootton ; Repton, Burton-ou- 
Trent ; Durham district ; Scotland, very rare. Forth district. It appears to be com- 
moner than JJ. /«Jr^/eoW?s; its habitat is diflerent, and it may easily be distinguished 
by the formation of the antenna3 ; the two species are very often mixed together, but 



Eitconnus.] clavicornia. . 81 

typical specimens appear to be very distiuct; a good many authors, however, consider 
thein to be merely varieties of one species. 

Z:. nanus, Scliauni. {minimus, Chaucl. ; gihhuJiis, Mots.). A very 
minute species, the smallest of the European Scydmjcnidre ; of a rather 
long convex form, clothed "with line and rather thick pubescence, which 
is thicker and somewhat bristl}^ at the sides of thorax, brownish-red, or 
pitchy, or reddish-testaceous (the colour of the head and thorax being 
sometimes darker than that of elytra) with the legs and antenna) yellow ; 
head somewhat round, narrower than thorax, antennae rather stout, with 
a three-jointed club, the two penultimate joints transverse ; thorax some- 
what cylindrical, a little narrower than elytra, impunctate, with four 
fovese at base of which the inner pair are large, and the outer small and 
indistinct; elytra oval and convex, very finely punctured, impressed at 
base, L. | mm. ^ 

Under decaying leaves, &c. ; extremely local ; I know of no other locality except 
Scarborougli, iu the nei:;hbourhood of which place it has been taken iu some numbers 
by Messrs. Lawson and Wilkinson. 

EUMICEINA. 

The members of this tribe resemble the Scydrnj^nina in general 
appearance, but agree with the Cephenniina in the formation of the 
maxillary palpi ; they are rather closely allied to the Mastigina, a tribe 
Avhich contains some of the largest representatives of the Scydmainidse ; 
in fact this tribe is by some authors included under -the Eumicrina ; 
the Eumicrina are represented in Britain by one genus containing two 
species, which dilTer from one another in several important points, and 
have in consequence been placed by some authorities in difl'erent 
genera. 

EUMZCRUS, Castelnau. 

This genus contains a considerable number of species which are found 
in various parts of the world, representatives having been recorded from 
Korth and South America, India, Australia, Arabia, &c. ; they occur in 
moss, vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c., and also in damp wood mould 
under bark. 

T. Elytra and thora.K with more or less distinct basal impres- 
sions or foveaj ; eyes large ; anterior tarsi strongly dilated 
in male ; size larger; colour pitchy-reddish or castaueous . E. TAuSATtrs, MiiU. 

II. Elytra without basal impressions, thorax without distinct 
fovejB ; eyes small ; anterior tarsi simple in both se.xes ; size 
smaller; colour rufo-testaceous E. eufus, Milll. 

E. tarsatus, Midi. Chestnut-broAvn or pitchy-red, head and thorax 
often darker, antennae and legs red ; form rather long, convex, narrowed 
in front ; upper surface clothed rather sparingly with yellowish pubes- 
cence ; head somewhat orbicular, antennae long Avith the first joint 

VOL. III. G 



82 CLAVicoENiA. [Ewmcrur. 

cylindrical, as long as the two following, anJ thicker, joints 9-11 forming 
a gradual and not very marked club; thorax longer than broad, im- 
punctate, feebly rounded and widened before middle, with four fovesa 
at base ; elytra oval, convex, much broader than thorax, very finely and 
obsoletely punctured, each with a distinct fovea at base ; femora clavate, 
thickened towards apex ; posterior trochanters elongate. L. 2 mm. 

Male with intermediate tarsi feebly, and anterior tarsi strongly, 
dilated. 

In hnystack ami vegetable refuse, cut grass, dung-heaps, under stones, &c. ; 
ponerally distributed and common tliroiigbout the Loudon and southern districts and 
the niid'ands ; rarer further north ; Northumberland and Durham district, rare ; 
iSeotLtiid, rare, Sohvay and Tweed districts. 

Z:. rufus, ]\IiUl. (iiffilis, Mots. ; Cholems rnfti.9, Thoms.; Heterognathvs 
rufiis, King). A small convex species, of a rufo-testaceous colour, with 
rather fine yellowish pubescence ; head large, antennae moderately long, 
Avith the last three joints forming a club, the two pentdtimate ones 
being about as long as broad ; thorax ovate cylindrical, slightly longer 
than broad, without fovete at base ; elytra short oval, much broader in 
the middle than thorax, very finely but visibly punctured ; femora 
clavate, strongly thickened towards apex ; the mctasternum is very long, 
and the hind legs vicAved from above appear to start from the apical 
portion of the elytra ; this is the case, to a somewhat lesser degree, 
with E. tarsatus ; the sexual differences appear to be very slight. L. 
1^ mm. 

Under bark, and in damp wood mould ; very rare ; two specimens only have 
occurred in Britain, one taken liy Mr. Champion in Kichniond Pai-k, Surrey, in 
March, 1871, and a second which was kindly given me by Mr. E. A. HutUr, who 
captured it in 1882 at Hurst Green, Sussex, a village near Ktchincham Station on the 
S.E. railway; he found it on his little girl's dress, after she had been playing in a 
field for some time, so that it evidently came out of the grass, and might peihaps be 
obtained by sweeping in the locality ; it is found not rarely in some parts of Enrojie 
under bark and in rotten stumps with ants. This species and U. tarsatus certainly 
seem to belong to diflereut genera. 

CEPHENNIINA. 

The genera belonging to this tribe are very distinct from the rest of 
the Scydma3ni(;l8e in general appearance by reason of tlie l)road thoi'ax 
which is aljout as wide at base as the elytra, so that the insects present 
a continuous outline; in the genus Euthin, moreover, the elytra are 
truncate and leave the pygidium exposed ; the maxillary palpi, as in the 
Eumicriua, are apparently 3-jointed, the fourth joint being very short 
broad and obsolete, and rounded in conjunction with the third joint ; 
two of the three European genera are found in Britain. 

J. Apex of elytra truncate, pygidium exposed ; base of thorax 

with five foveas EuxniA, Stt-ph. 

II. Apex of elytra rounded, pygidium covered; l.ase of thorax 

without fuvia; CEPUENNirM, MiiU. 



Eiithia.'] CLAVicoRXiA. 83 

EVTKIA, Stephens. 

This genus contains at present only a few species which are mainly 
confined to Europe ; they are very distinct from the rest of the Scydmai- 
nidai as may be gathered from the characters above given ; they are 
found in nios.-, vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c., and often in ants' nests ; 
four species occur in Britain, all of M'hich are rare, and one or two 
extremely rare ; they may be separated as follows : — 

I Colour unicolorous black or pitchy-black. 

i. Club of aiiteuute less abrupt; elytra broarler and 

more ovate, less plainl}' punctured E. scrDM^XOlDES, Steph, 

ii. Clnb of antennaj abrupt ; elytra narrower and more 

parallel-sided, very plainly punctured E. CLAVATA, Reitter. 

II. Elytra testaceous or reddish-brown. 
i. Elytra reddish-browu ; uiiper surface very finely 

and rather clo-ely punctured and pubescent; club 

of antenna? abrupt ; size smaller E. ScHAUMr, Kies. 

ii. Elytra testaceous ; upper surface very finely and 

sparingly punctured and pubescent ; club of an- 

teiinaj very gradual ; size larger E. PLICATA, Qyll. 

E. scydtnaenoides, Steph. {linearis, Mais. ; ahhreviatdla, Er.). 
Elongate, not very convex, pitchy-black, clothed with rather fine and 
short greyish-yelloAV pubescence ; head much narrower than thorax ; 
antennae rather stout, reddish with the club often pitchy, club not very 
abrupt, both the penultimate joints transverse ; thorax scarcely broader 
than long, rather convex and with sides rounded in front, depressed and 
with sides narrowed behind, not very thickly but plainly punctured, 
with five foveas at base ; elytra at Ijase scarcely broader than thorax, 
with sides slightly rounded, broadest about middle, finely but plainly 
punctured, with the apex truncate ; pygidium scarcely visibly punctured ; 
legs slender, testaceous or reddish-testaceous. L. 1-li mm. 

In moss, haystack and vegetable refuse, &c. ; not common ; Caterbam ; Black- 
lieath : Lee pit ; The Holt, Faruliam ; Kegworf b ; Dover ; Devon ; Knowlo (abun- 
dant in hot-beds, Blatch) ; Repton, Burton-on-Trent j it often occurs on the wing, 
and is sometimes, apparently, found in company with ants. Stephens first described 
it from Highgate and Wimbledon. 

E. clavata, Reitter. Very closely allied to the preceding, but 
narrower, with the sides of the elytra more pai'allel, and usuall}^ of a 
more pitchy-brownish colour ; the antenna? are lighter, except the three 
last joints which are darker, and form a distinctly more abrupt club ; 
the thorax is a little more narrowed in front and behind, so that at its 
broadest it seems rather more dilated ; the antennae in the female are 
very elongate, being very nearly one-fourth longer than those of tlie 
male, with the club less pronounced, a point which is noticed by j\Jr. 
Ulatch but not by Herr Reitter in his description, L. 1-1 1 mm. 

Under hark of oak logs in Sherwood Forest ; rare ; first taken by ]\Ir. Blatch iu 



84 CLAVicoRNiA. [Eathta. 

tlie early spring of 1883, and subsequently by Mr. Blatcli and Mr. Ilorner in tbe 
same locality. 

E. Schaumi, Ivies {aUireviatella, Tliojns.). Fusco-piceous with the 
elytra testaceous or brownish-testaceous, antennae palpi and legs reddish- 
testaceous ; somewhat depressed, with very line, short, and somewhat 
thick silky pubescence ; head narrower tlian thorax, eyes large and rather 
prominent, antennae long, with distinct three-jointed club ; thorax scarcely 
broader than long, with sides feebly rounded in front before middle, 
])Iainly but variably punctured, the punctuation being sometimes. as 
close as that of elytra and sometimes decidedly less close, base depressed 
and foveate ; elytra rather long and parallel-sided, very finely and rather 
closely punctured ; abdomen and pygiclium pitchy-brown, apex of latter 
li<diter : legs slender. L. 1^-11- mm. 

In liot-beds, under bones, also under poplar-bark, &c. ; rare; Felixstowe (Water- 
liouse) ; Knowle and Small Heath near Birmingbam and VVicken Feu (Blatch) ; 
Repton (Garneys) ; it has been taken near Gla-govv, and I have a specimen taken by 
Mr. Beaumont in Scotland, without any locality attached. 

S. plicata, Gyll. Very like the preceding, but larger and more 
shining, and with the elytra of a bright rufo-castaneous colour ; it may 
moreover be easily distinguished by the very gradual club of the antennae, 
and its much more sparing and very fine punctuation; it is the largest 
of our British species of Eidlila. L. \\ mm. 

Under bark, in company with ants ; a:so in cut grass, flood refuse, &c., and occa- 
sionally by evening sv;eeping ; rare; Shiiley, Caterham, Mickleham, Surbiton, 
Leytoustone, Esher ; Whittlesea ; Buddon Wuod, Leicestershire (in nests of J^o/v/iica 
rvfa) ; Stretford, near Manchester. 

CSPHSNNZUM, Midi. 

Eleven species onlj' are enumerated in the Munich catalogue as be- 
longing to tliis genus, but in the last European catalogue about forty 
species are mentioned from Europe abme, so that in all probability the 
genus is an extensive one ; it differs from Euthia in having the apex of 
elytra rounded and the pygidium covered, and in the sculpture of the 
base of the thorax; two species have usually been regarded as British, 
but the second appears merely to be a variety of the first; the members 
of the genus are found under leaves, in moss, &c., in company with 
species of Scydmcenus. ^ 

C. tlioracicum, Miill. [Scydmcemis ihoracicua, Denny). Pitchy- 
black or obscurely castaneous, or with the thorax reddish and the elytra 
pitchy, or entirely reddish, of a short and broad, almost parallel, form, 
clothed with fine yellowish pubescence ; head nearly always ferruginous, . 
pmall, triangular, antennae slender, reddish yellow, with the three last 
joints forming a clul), the last being nearly as long as the two preceding; 
thorax very large and convex, wider in front than elytra, a little con- 
tracted at base, scarcely punctured, av ithout basal fovea' ; elytra long 



Cej'henmiim.] cl.vvicorxia. 85 

oval, very iinoly and ratlier thickly puucinved, each -wiili a deep fovea 
in middle of baf^e, apex and also the pygidiuni reddish. L. 1 mm. 

Male Avith the anterior tibia3 sliglitly thickened towards apex, and 
slightly curved before apex ; mctasternum deeply impressed. 

In moss, &c. ; not uncominou and ratlier generally distributed in the London and 
Soutliern disliicts, and it occurs generally in some of the niiilhmd districts, but tliiro 
appiars to be no record from further north tliau lleptou, Burtou-ou-Trent (where it 
is rare) ; it does uot occur in Scotland. 

(C. intermediuxn, Aube. A single specimen of an insect, named 
as this species by M. Fairmaire, was taken by the Eev. A. Matthews 
near Silcliester, Hants, in 1859, and described by him in the Zoologist 
for 1862 (797G) ; according to Mr. Matthews the species may be known 
by its dark colour, smaller thorax, rather longer antenna3, and more 
elongate shape ; according to Aube's description, however, the shape 
should be shorter, so that M. Fairmairc's determination of the specimen 
appears to be doubtfully correct ; the species appears to be represented 
in many collections by colour varieties of C. thoracicum). 

CLAVIGERID^. 

The species that fonu this family are by many authors included as a 
tribe under the Pselaphidse, "R'ith Avhich they liave some points in 
common ; at the same time they differ so widely as a whole from these 
latter, that it is best to separate them off as a family ; they may be 
distinguished by their long cylindrical head and curiously formed 
abdomen, of which the front segments are connate, as well as by their 
gereral contour ; the number of joints in the antennae varies fr(mi two 
to six, and the palpi are one-jointed and inconspicuous ; these points, as 
a rule, serve to distinguish them from the Pselaphidae, which generally 
have the antenna 11-jointed and the palpi 3- or 4-jointed and long and 
conspicuous ; abnormal species of Pselaphidaj, however, occur, which 
resemble the Clavigeridae in these characters ; the tarsi are 3-jointed, 
the first and second joints being very short, and the third long, and 
terminated by a single claw ; many of the species are totally devoid of 
eyes ; they live with ants Avhich, by caressing the tufts of hair that 
grow on their abdomen, cause the exudation of a fluid ; this they 
swallow greedily, and in return appear to support the Clavigers, which 
seem to have lost the natural instinct of feeding themselves ; as Sir 
John Lubbock observes (Ants, Bees, and Wasps, Int. Scientific Series, 
p. 84), the slave-making ant and Claviger and certain other myrme- 
cophilous beetles are the only cases in nature of an animal having lost 
this instinct. We possess one species only of the family in Britain, 
which is local but not uncommon where it occurs. 

GIiAVZGSR, Preyssler. 
This genus contains seventeen or eighteen European species and one 



86 CLAVicoRNiA. [Claciger. 

or two representatives from India, <&c.; the characters given for the 
family will serve to distinguish our single species, which is totally unlike 
any otlier British insect. 

C. testaceus, Preyss. (Joveolatus, Miill ). Entirely testaceous or 
reddish-testaceous, shining, head and thorax rather thickly pubescent ; 
head long cylindrical, antennEe short, club-shaped, six-jointed, last joint 
large, eyes wanting ; tliorax longer than broad, narrowed in front, with 
a fovea at base ; elytra much broader than thorax, widened and deeply 
impressed towards apex ; abdomen, if viewed from above, apparently 
composed of one segment with a deep longitudinal furrow at base; legs 
short, tibiae narrowed at base. L. 2-2 j mm. 

Male with the intermediate femora before middle and the intermediate 
tibicG before apex armed Avith a little tooth ; abdomen with the sixth 
ventral segment furnished with a small tubercle at apex. 

In nests of Formica flora {Lasivs flavns), bcncatli flints on chalky hillsides or 
clowns ; local, but not unconimou where it occurs ; Box Hill ; Mickleham ; Dorkiii;^ ; 
Portland; Southdowns (Clianctonbury) ; Freshwater, Jsle of Wight; Seafoid, 
Devon; Clevedon, Somerset; Scotland, very rare, Tweed and Forth districts ; Ireland, 
near Waterford; the species occurs on the continent in company with Lasius niger 
as well as L.flavus, 

PSELAPHID^. 

This family contains a considerable number of genera which are in 
many points closely allied to the Scydmfenid?e, but differ in having the 
tarsi 3-jointed and the elytra much abbreviated; in the arrangement 
i'oUowe.l below two tribes only are adopted, but some authors add two 
others, Batrisina and Bryaxina ; there is, however, no particular reason 
why they should be adopted, and it is well not to multiply tribes 
too much if possible ; the two tribes distinguished below are very 
distinct. 

I. Posterior coxaj transverse not prominent or contiguous ; form 

never linear PSELAPHINA. 

II. Posterior coxaj conical, prominent, contiguous; form usually 

linear Euplectina, 

PSELAPHINA. 

The genera contained in this tribe are widely distributed throughout 
the world ; as yet, however, we know comparatively little about them, 
ai we may judge from the number of species that have lately been 
obtained in various countries by collectors who have found time to 
attend to the minuter groups of Coleoptera ; they are easily distinguished 
from the Euplectina by their wider bottle-shaped form, and from the 
Scydmsenidae by their much shorter elytra. 

I. Antenna) inserted on two more or less approximate tuber- 
cles ; maxillary palpi (iu our genera) very long and cou- 
spicuous. 



Ps(fJaj)hina.'] clavicoknia, 87 

i. Mnxilliry palpi with the \:\f.i jolut very lona:, duh-shaped PSELiPnus, Herlst. 
ii. M:ixill;iry pulpi with the hist joiut securitbnn, usually 
broad. 

1. Anteunaj with the first joint moderate, very closely ap- 
proximate at base; abdomen with the first visible 

dorsal segment longer than the following TrCHUS, Leach. 

2. i^ntennoe subgeniculate with the first joint large, less 
approximate at base; abdomen with the first dorsal 

segments subeqnal BrTniNUS, Leach. 

II. Antcunaj distant, inserted at the sides of the head; iiiaxil- 
lary palpi uoc conspicuously large. 

i. 'J'arsi with two unequal claws Bateisus, Axihe. 

ii. Tarsi with a single claw. 

1. Thorax witli three foveas at base united by a transverse 
furrow, elytra of male produced iu a short and broad 

lobe at apex RtbaxiS, Saulci/. 

2. Thorax with three foveae at base, not united by a 

furrow ; elytra of male simple at apex Beyaxis, Leach. 

PSEX.APKUS, Herbst. 

The genus Pselaphus contains, according to tlie Munich catalogiie, 
twenty-one species, but nearly that number of new European species 
alone has since been described ; representatives occur in ISTorth and South 
America, India and Australia, so that the genus is evidently very wiJely 
distributed ; its limits, however, are very imperfectly known ; the species 
occur in moss, vegetable refuse, &c., and are among the most elegant of 
the minuter Coleoptera ; they may be distinguished, as a rule, by their 
large and somcAvhat triangular abdomen, which is much narrowed in 
front, long and more or less cylindrical neck, and the very long maxillary 
palpi ; they are found in moss, vegetable refuse, &c. 

I. Thorax narrow, much longer than broad, without 

impression at base P. HEISEI, Herbst. 

II. Thi rax broader, only a little longer than broad, with 

an impression at base P. deesdensis, Herbst. 

P. Keisei, Herbst. {Herhsti, Reichb.). Bright chestnut or reddish- 
brown with the apex of the elytra sometimes darker ; head long, eyes 
large, forehead strongly furrowed, with two large yellowish tubercles 
between eyes ; antennae long, rather strongly thickened towards apex, 
second joint twice as long as third ; thorax long, ovate cylindrical, without 
furrow at base ; elytra narrow in front, strongly widened behind, with 
long and thick tonientose pubescence at apex ; abdomen with the first 
visible dorsal segment longer than the following taken together, strongly 
margined ; legs red, tarsi usually lighter, elongate, with the tibite con- 
stricted at base. L. l-|-2 mm. 

In moss, haystack refuse, &c. ; generally distributed throughout the greater part 
of England, as far north as Yorkshire ; rare in the northern counties; Scotland, rare, 
I>owlands, among sphagnum. Forth and Solway districts; Ireland, Dublin, Portishead, 
Armagh aud Galway, and probably generally distributed. 



88 CLAVicoRNiA, [PdelapJpis. 

P. dresdrensis, ITerbst. Very like tlie preceding in general appear- 
ance but darker, and easily distinguisbed by tlie sbape of the thorax, 
which is broader in proportion, and not much longer than broad, and is 
furnished with a distinct longitudinal semicircular impressed line at 
base ; the second joint of the antennte is almost equal to the third, and 
the last joint is ovate and smaller, instead of almost securifoim and larger 
as in P.Heisei ; the pubescence also at the apex of the elytra is shorter; 
the two species differ also in the sculpture of the metasternum in the male, 
but the sexual characters do not appear to be important. L. l|-2 mm. 

In damp localities, in moss, &c. ; extremely rare, and usually occurring singly ; The 
Holt-, Farnham, one specimen (Power) ; Askhani Bog, York, where Archdeacon Hey 
used to take about one specimen yearly from the moss at the side of the stagnant 
pools; Scotland, very rare, Tweed district. Denny used to take it very sparingly at 
Woodbastwick and Loddon in Norfolk (Mon. Pselaph. et Scydm. Brit., page 48.) 

TirCHtTS, Leach. 

This genus contains forty or fifty species from various parts of the 
world ; they differ from PselapJnis in the formation of the palpi and 
general shape, and from HyfJdinis in the relative length of the segments 
of the abdomen ; we possess one British species, the insect that has been 
introduced as I'ycJuis ihericus he'ing a variety of T. niger with reddish 
elytra. 

T. nigrer, Payk. Elack, with the antennpe and legs reddish tes- 
taceous, elytra sometimes chestnut brown or reddish, at all events on 
disc ; head triangular with large and prominent eyes ; antennse stout, 
rather long, with the first joint about as long as the second, last three 
joints forming a strong club ; maxillary palpi yellow, last joint securi- 
form ; thorax somewhat broader than long, convex, with five largo 
punctures at base; elytra much broader than thorax, convex sub- 
quadrate, with an entire sutural stria ; abdomen with the first visible 
dorsal segment longer than the following which are gradually narrower, 
sparingly pubescent with long out-standing setcB ; legs long, especially 
the posterior pair, femora sometimes infuscate. L. 1| mm. 

Male with the 5th joint of the antennse strongly dilated, about three 
times as broad as those contiguous to it. 

In moss, dead leaves, haystack refuse, &c. ; generally distributed and common in 
the Southern and Midland districts of England, but I , cannot find any record from 
further north than Manchester, and it does not appear to occur in Scotland; Ireland, 
near Belfast and Armagh. 



'o' 



BYTillNUS, Leach. 

In the Munich catalogue forty-seven species only of this genus are 
ejiumerated (including those belonging to the genus Macha^rites) ; in the 
catalogue of Hey den, Eeitter and Weise, more than a hundred species 
are mentioned from Europe alone ; it is evident therefore that our 
knoAvledge of it is very limited ; species have been described horn 



Ihjthinus.'] clavicorkia. 89 

America ami Australia, so that it is evidently widely distrilnited ; tlio 
shape of the maxillary palpi, ^vhich are large ami eonspicuous, differs very 
much in individual members of the genus, and the characters presented 
by the second joint of the antenntB in the male are very important. 
The genus may be divided into two sub-genera as follows : — ■ 

I. Antennae with the first joint very long; basal 

joint of ])alpi, at least in the female, uneven ; 
eyes of feniiile very small or wanting ; elytra 
inipunctate Sub-gen. MacHjEKITES, Midler. 

II. Anteua; with the first joint moderate; basal 
joint of palpi without trace of i)rominences or 

teeth ; elytra in all our species punctured . . Sub-gen. BrTniNTJs, i. sp. 

(Sub-Gen. Machserites, Miiller.) 

This sub-genus contains only one British species ; fifteen species are 
enumerated in the last European catalogue, but one or two others have 
been recently described by M. Fauvel ; they are found iu caves, and also 
in ants' nests, under stones, &c. 

S. g-labratus. Rye. Testaceous-i-ed, very shining, thinly-clothed 

with long scattered yellowish hairs ; head lather narrow and elongate, 
eyes black, very small; antennas rather slender, basal joint almost cylin- 
drical, and almost as long as joints 3-8 together ; 2nd joint as long as 
3 and 4 together, with no perceptible peculiarity of structure, 10th and 
11th forming a club ; thorax cordate rather straightly narrowed behind, 
with a large shallow fovea on each side below the middle, rcacliing the 
lateral margin and connected across the base of thorax by an impressed 
curved line ; elytra with the sides gradually widened and rounded from 
the base to the outer posterior angle, impunctate, or at most with a few 
obsolete traces of punctures ; abdomen smooth and shining, legs reddish- 
testaceous, slender and elongate. L. lj-l-| nim. 

Three ppecimens of this very rare species were taken by Messrs. F. H. and E. A. 
Waterhouse at the end of the funimer of 18(!5 in a mossy hollow on the chalk on 
Seaford Downs, in company with Trichont/x MaerJcelii and a small yellow Myrmica 
(y. Ent. Monthly Mag. vii., p. 33) ; I captured a single specimen under a stone iu 
company with T. MaerJcelii at Sandown, Isle of Wight, on April 12th, 1884 Tbi re 
are two specimens in Dr. Sharp's collection from Eccles, near Dumfries, which are 
doubtfully referred to this species. 

(Sub-Gen. Bythinus, i. sp.) 

This sub-genus has usually been considered to contain five British 
species, but a sixth, B. validus, must be added ; the characters of the 
antennce and maxillary palpi will serve, as a rule, to distinguish them. 

I. Thorax distinctly punctured. 

i. Male with the femora simple and the first joint of the 
antennce armed with a small dentiform appendage 
at apex ; thorax narrower B. PUNCTICOLLIS, Benny, 



90 CLAVicoRMA. ■[Bijthiniis. 

ii. Miilc with the femora iiicrassate and the first joint 

of antenna3 simple ; thorax wider B. VALIDUS, ^«J^. 

II. Thorax not or scarcely punctured, at all events 
behind. 
i. Male with the first joint of the antennse produced 
into a small and indistinct tooth on the inner side, 

second joint simple, cylindrical B. BUIBIFEK, /lei'c/i. 

ii. Male with the first joint of the antennse cylindrical, 
second joint dilated. 

1, Colour dai'k chestnut-brown or reddish ; maxillary 

palpi with the last joint very elongate . . . B. CuRiisii, Leach. 

2. Colour usually pitchy-brown or black, sometimes 

reddish-brown ; last joint of maxillary palpi 
broad, securiform. 

A. 2nd joint of antennaa in male broader than 

long, securiform ; 1st joint in female one and 

a half times as long as broad B. SECUEIGEE, Reich, 

B. 2nd joint of antenna? in male longer than 

broad, luuulate, 1st joint in female scarcely 

longer than broad B. biteeeli.ii, Denny. 

B. puncticollis, Denny {Areopagus puncticollis, Denny). Colour 
very variable, entirely chestnut-brown, or reddish, or red with elytra 
pitchy, or red with elytra and abdomen pitchy ; head narrower than thorax, 
trianf^ular, with two large fovese between eyes.; antennie ferruginous, rather 
short and thick, palpi pale with the last joint rather long, dilated inter- 
nally ; thorax broader than long (in some specimens about as long as 
broad), broadest before middle, strongly punctured ; elytra and abdomen 
together short oval, convex, the former longer than together broad, 
strongly punctured, the latter short ; legs testaceous or reddish, tarsi 
lighter. L. 1^-H mm. 

Male with the two basal joints of the antenucB thickened, the first 
armed with a small dentiform appendage on its internal apex, femora 
simple. 

In moss, dead leaves, &c. ; local but somewhat widely distributed, and in some 
localities not uncommon ; Loudon district, not common ; Shirley Mickleham, Cater- 
ham, Croydon ; Hastings; Glanvilles Wootton ; Devon; Midland counties, generally 
distributed ; common in the Burton-ou-Treut district ; Lincoln, railier common ; 
Northumberland and Durham districts, not uncommon ; Scotland, Lowlands and 
Highlands, not rare, Solvvay, Tweed, Forth, Clyde, and Dee districts ; Ireland, 
Armagh. 

B. validus, Aube. Very like the preceding, but distinguished by the 
characters of the male, which has the first joint of the antennte slightly 
shorter and without a dentiform appendage at apex, the femora strongly 
thickened, and the tibite robust, the posterior pair being of equal breadth 
throughout ; the thorax is rather broader in proportion than in the pre- 
ceding species, and the colour, as a rule, is said to be darker, but this is 
by no means a reliable character, as it is variable. L. 1^ mm. 

Found under the same circumstances as B. puncticollis, and apparently widely 
distributed, and mixed with that species iu collections ; in Dr. Sharp's collection there 



Bi/thinus.] CLAVICORNIA. 91 

are specimens from Bishop's Wood, and Hamp^tead, as well as from several Scotch 
localities (CiMmond, Corstorphine Hills, Dalnieney Park, Dabton Loch, banks of 
Nitli, &c.) ; 1 have specimens from Urethy Wood near Kepton. M. Fauvel (Revno 
(i'Kntomolon;ie, vol. v., p. 28G) says that he possesses specimens from Scotland, and 
that it is without doubt widely distributed iu Fi-ance, but confounded with JS. puncti- 
co/lis ; it is evidently the insect refened to by Deiniy (1. c. p. 26) as the female of 
Areopagus puncticollis, of which he says " thii;hs very thick in the female." 

B. bulbifer, Eeicli. {Arcoiiagiis lulhi/er, Denny). Black with the 
autcunaj palpi and legs red; head triangular with prominent eyes; 
antennae with the second joint cylindrical in both sexes, palpi long, 
Avith the last joint securiform, broader than in jB. Curtisii, but narrower 
than in 23. secnn'r/er and _B. Burrellii ; thorax shining and finely pubes- 
cent, about as long as broad ; elytra strongly punctured ; abdomen short, 
about half as long as elytra ; legs moderate, femora simple in both sexes. 
L. 1^-H mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiae armed on their interior side with a minute 
and indistinct tooth before apex, and the first joint of antennse obsolctely 
subdentate internally at apex ; the difference of the antennae in the sexes 
is however very slight. 

In marshy places, damp places in woods, &c., in moss and dead leaves; thecommnn- 
est species of the genus and often abundant where it occurs ; it ajipears to be generally 
distributed throughout the greater part of the kingdom ; immature specimens are 
often reddish. 

B. Curtisii, Denny (hi/ngarlcus, Eeitter). Ferrnginous-brown or 
reddish, with the antennce, palpi, and legs lighter ; head rather long, 
antennte robust, palpi with the last joint elongate, dilated internally and 
secuiform, thorax a little broader than long, convex, cordate, widest 
before middle, base narrowed, Avith an impressed semicircular line ; elytia 
rather strongly punctured Avith a someAvhat deep sntnral stria ; abdomen 
short : legs rather longer in male than in female, femora simple in both 
sexes. L. If-ly mm. 

Male with the clypeus armed with a very small horn or prominence, 
antennae. Avith the tirst joint simple, and the second globose Avith a 
distinct prominence on its inner side. 

In rotten beech bark, moss, dead leaves, &c. ; local ; London district, rather 
connuon ; Chatham, Birch Wood, Cobham, Shirley, Ashtead, Mickleham, Caterhani, 
Coombe Wood, Cowlev, Amberley, Croydon ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; New 
Forest; Devon; Midland districts, generally distributed; rarer further north; 
Kipon ; Northumberland and Durham districts, scarce ; Scotland, rare, Sohvay district 
only. 

B. securig-er, Eeich. (iinicorins, Aube). Pitchy-brown, sometimes 
reddish-brown ; antennae and legs lighter ; head subtriangular, deeply 
punctured, antenna robust, palpi Avith the last joint large and broad, 
securiform ; thorax someAvhat broader than long, convex, obsoletely punc- 
tured ; elytra thickly punctured, shining, and finely jxtbescent, with the 
suture a little elsA'ated and an impressed line on each side ; abdomen 
short, first tAvo joints Avith the margin reflexed ; legs moderate, femora 
and tibiae simple in both sexes. L. 1 g mm. 



92 CLAvicoRNiA. [^Bytliinus. 

Male with tlic first joint of the antenna2 cyhndrical, simple, second 
joint strongly dilated, broader than long, securiform, with the internal 
apical angle acute and produced ; female with the first joint one and a 
half times as long as broad, second joint not narrower than first, sub- 
quadrate, 

III moss, dead leaves, &c. ; rare; Horsell, near Wokiiifr (Power) ; Bvomley, Kent 
(E. Sauuders) ; Hastiiig-s ; Glauvilles Woottou ; Isle of Wight ; Barmouth; ISuddou 
Wood, Leicestershire ; Ilepton ; Scarboi-ougli ; Nortliuuiberlaad district, Raveiisvvortli, 
aud near Gilsland ; Scotland, rare, Solway and Tay districts. 

S. Siirrellii, Denny (limiger, Aube). Very like the preceding but 
of a pitchy-black or black colour, with the thorax less dilated before 
middle and more obsoletely punctured ; the palpi much resemble those of 
the preceding species, but have the last joint a little more rounded at 
apex ; the species may, however, be at once recognized by the characters 
of the antenna3 in the male, the second joint being distinctly longer than 
broad, and crescent-shaped, with the concave portion of the crescent 
facing inwards, and both the interior angles acute ; in the female the 
first joint is scarcely longer than the second, subcylindrical, and some- 
Avhat globose. L. 1-^- l^ mm. 

lu moss, dead leaves, &c. ; rare ; Faversham, Mickleham, Caterham, Esher, High- 
gate, Amberley, Birch Wood, Cowley, Bromley, Croydon ; Norfolk ; Ilepton ; Ripon ; 
Hartlepool; Scotland, rare, Solvvay and Clyde districts; Denny (1 c. p. 23) records 
that the species was first discovered in the latter part of April, 1824, near Lethering- 
Bett, in Norfolk, hy the Rev. J. Burrell, after whom he named it; from the localities 
above mentioned it is evident that the insect is widely distributed, and this is prol^ably 
the case with a very large number of our minuter Coleoptera which at present are 
recorded from only one or two localities ; when a species has occurred in the South of 
England, the Midland districts, and in Scotland, a fair inference may be drawn as to 
its occurrence iu intermediate localities. 

BATH IS US, Aub(?. 

This genus contains at present about a hundred species, which are 
widely distrilmted over the world ; they differ from Bnjaxis and its 
allies in the fact that the tarsi are furnished with two unequal claws, and 
they have, therefore, been separated otf with certain allied genera by 
some authors as a separate tribe Batrisina ; they are among the most 
elegant of the Pselaphidte, and most of them are brightly coloured ; they 
seem, in great part at least, to be found in company with ants ; there is 
only one British species, which is usually considered very rare, but 
sometimes occurs in considerable numbers iu certain localities. 

B. venustus,- Reich. (^ice?Y5, Mills.). Eather elongate, light chest- 
nut-brown or reddish, with the abdomen pitchy, convex ; head rather 
large as broad as thorax with two deep furrows, rugosely punctured ; 
antennse rather long, last joint large terminating in a point ; palpi with 
the last joint elongate, somewhat fusiform ; thorax scarcely longer 
than broad, broadest before middle, with lateral furrows which appear to 



Bafrisiis.'] CLAVicouxiA. 93 

separate off callose prominences on sules in front, and with fine central 
furrow, the three furrows terminating in punctures at base, which are 
situated in a semicircular line ; elytra much broader than thorax, convex, 
broadest behind middle, finely and very obsoletely punctured with an 
entire sutural stria and a very short dorsal stria, humeral prominences 
distinct ; abdomen about as long as elytra very finely ininctured ; legs 
red, femora thickened in middle, tibiae thinner at base. 1^. 2 nun. 

Male "with the last two joints of antennae larger than in female, the 
ninth being obliquely truncate at apex, and the intermediate femora with 
a very minute spinule in middle ; the last ventral segment of alidomen 
also in this sex is foveolate. 

In ants' nests, usiially in old trees ; also in rotten wood-nionkl of old oak, ash, and 
beech trees ; IocmI ami as a rule rare; Ashtead, Surrey (Clirtinpioi)) ; Lougliton, Essex ; 
Birch Wood and Purley Oaks (Power); B.irham, Hullblk ; New Forest; Bago!s 
Park, Stattbrdshiro, and near Gaiusboroush (Gorhani) ; Sherwood Forest (IJhitch) ; 
Shrewsbury ; Ripon ; I have taken it at Sherwood Forest in a nest of Formica full- 
ciiiiosa in an old tree, and at Ulting, near Maldon, Essex, in an old oak stump with 
Paromalus, AbrcBus, &c. ; it appears also to occur with Formica rufa and Lasius 
irunnens, 

K.'g'BAXrS, Saulcy. 

This genus, which has until recently been included under Brj/axis, 
comprises a considerable number of species which are widely distributed 
throughout the world ; it is distinguished from Bryaxis by having the 
inflexed margin of the elytra longitudinally sulcate, by the sculpture of 
the thorax, and by the structure of the apex of the elytra in male ; in 
our sjiecies the male has the antennse much longer than in the female ; 
it was therefore described as a separate species by Denny. 

S,. sang-uinea, L. {longicoimis, ^ Denny). Black or pitchy-black, 
shining, palpi testaceous, antennae and legs reddish or pitchy-red, elytra 
bright red with suture, base and apex usually more or less darker • head 
somewhat narrower than thorax with deep i'urrows, almost impunctate ; 
antennae long, fifth joint longer than those contiguous to it ; thorax 
somewhat variable in larger and smaller specimens, but usually much 
broader than head, broadest before middle, with three equal fove« at 
base connected by a furrow ; elytra as long as together broad witii a 
sutural and dorsal stria ; abdomen black and shining, first visible dorsal 
segment longest, with two impressed lines in centre, the margin a little 
reflexed, apex obtuse ; legs long, slender, and rather compresseJ, tarsi 
pale. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Male with the antennae longer, ajid with the anterior tibiie armed with 
a small tooth on their inner-side a little below the middle, and sinuated 
towards apex. 

Marshy places — in flood refuse, at roots of grass, «tc. ; locally common ; Lee 
Strood, Sheerness, Snodland, Egham, Claygate; Dagenhani, Essex j fen districts of 
Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, sometimes very abuudaut ; Kingsgate; Folkestone; 



94^ CLAVicoRNiA. [Bri/axis. 

Guestl'mor, "ear Hastings; Portsmouth; Lucconil e Cliinc, Isle of Wight; I)e\on; 
not recorded from the Midland or Northern Counties; the only Scotch record 
" llaehills, Rev. W. Little ;" Murray's Cat., is prohably erroneous ; Ireland, near 
Belfast. 

BRVikXZS, Leach. 

This genus in its widest sense includes a Inrge number of species ; 
more than a liundred are enumerated in the Munich catalogue, and a 
considerable number have since been described ; they appear to be 
generally distributed throughout the world ; they are^ as a rule, black 
with bright red elytra, or entirely reddish, but some species are uni- 
colorous pitchy-brown or blackish ; they are found, like so many of the 
others of the group, in moss, at roots of grass, &c., and sometimes are 
taken abundantly by sweeping ; from Batrisus they arc distinguished 
(together with Ryharis) by the fact that the tarsi have only a single claw, 
and from Bythinns by the much shorter and less conspicuous maxillary 
palpi of which the last joint is about as long as the two preceding. 

I. Thorax at base with three equally large and deep 

fovese. 
i. Anterior trochanters of male simple ; elytra red, 

thorax and abdomen reddish or pitchy-red ; size 

comparatively large B Wateehousei, Ri/e. 

ii. Anterior trochanters of male more or less strongly 
toothed. 

1. Colour unicolorous pitchy-brown ; size compara- 
tively large B. fossulata, Reich. 

2. Colour pitchy-black, elytra red or reddish -brown ; 

size smaller. 

A. Male with first visible segment of abdomen with 
a tubercle at apex surrounded behind with a 
semicircular fovea ; i'orm broader ; abdomen 

more closely and distinctly punctured . . . . B. Helfeei, Schmidf. 

B. Male with first visible segment of abdomen 
simple ; form narrower ; abdomen less thickly 

punctured B. COTUS, Saulci/. 

3. Colour entirely red, elytra brighter; male with 
the apical margin of the firt;t visible dorsal 
segment dilated at each side and incised in the 

middle B. H^MATICA, Reich. 

II. Thorax with three foveae at base of which the middle 

one is extremely small. 
i. Colour entirely red, elytra brighter ; head and thorax 

thickly punctured ; size smaller B. juncoeum. Leach. 

ii. Colour black, elytra bright red; head and thorax 

smooth, very obsoletely punctured ; size larger . . B. IMPEESSA, Panz. 

S. Waterhousei, Eye {simplex, Wat.). Rather a large and long 
species, of the size of R. sanyiiinea ; lighter or darker pitchy-red or dark 
brown with a reddish tinge, with the elytra red, usually darker at 
margins ; head subtriangular, rather broad ; antenna? and palpi pitchy, 
last joint of the former ovate ; thorax broader than head, much dilated 
in middle, smooth, with three eqiially large foveae at base ; elytra taken 



Bryaxis.'] clavicounia. 95 

togother somewhat transversa, wideueil l)eliin(l, impnnctatc ; abdnmou 
longer tlian elytra, with reflexed margins, first visible segment very long, 
sinijile in both sexes ; legs ferruginons or fusco-testaceous, anterior 
trochanters simple in both sexes. L. 2 mm. 

Male characters very slight, the sex being only distinguished b^' a 
small spine at the apex of the intermediate tibire. 

Salt miiralies at roots of gras=', under stones, t'uliil I'of use, &c ; also under stones on 
or near the shore ; local, hut sonietiuies not uncommon where it occurs ; Rochester, 
Rainham. Strood, Southend, Sheerness, Whitstahle ; \\sc ; Newhaven ; I'orLsmouth ; 
Isle of Wight, Veutnor, Luccombe, Covves, &c. ; Weymouth ; it has not occurred 
further uorth than the Loudon district. 

S. fossulata, Eeich. (Brachyfjlutafossulafa, Thorns.). This species 
is easily distinguished from all our others by its colour, which is entirely 
]iitchy-brown or dark chestnut-brown, the elytra being som(;times a little 
lighter ; head narrower than thorax, with large prominent eyes, sub- 
triangular; antennae and palpi ferruginous, last joint of former large, oval ; 
thorax shining^ smooth, dilated in middle, Avith three large fovero of oiiual 
size at base ; elytra nearly quadrate shorter than abdomen ; abdomen 
with reflexed margin smooth and shining, first visible dorsal segment the 
largest, simple in both sexes ; legs ferruginous. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the anterior trochanters with a short tooth, and the anterior 
and intermediate tibiie with short apical spurs. 

In moss, haystack refuse, &c., and often by sweeping in woods; generally dis- 
tributed and couimnn in the Loudon, Southern, and Midland districts of England ; 
rarer further north ; Northumberland district, banks of the Irthing, rare ; 
Scotland, Lowlands, local in marshes, Sohvay and Clyde districts; Ireland, Armagh. 

V. ri'fesrejis, Keitter. This variety is more or less rufescent in 
colour and appears to be very rare ; Denny (1. c. p. 38), records the fact 
that he has one in his possession : there is also a bright shining black 
variety (B. aterrima, Ileitter), but I do not know whether it occurs in 
Britain. , 

B. Kelferi, Schmidt. Black or pitch-black with the elytra red, 
darker at margins, antenna?, palpi, and legs pitchy, sometimes aliuost 
black ; form rather short and broad ; head large, together with eyes 
scarcely narrower than thorax ; antennae rather long, last joint large, oval ; 
thorax slightl}' broader than long, broadest a little before middle, with 
three large equal foveas at base ; elytra much broader than thorax, widened 
towards apex, about as long as together broad, obsoletely punctured ; 
abdomen shorter than elytra, margined, closely punctured. L. 1^1| mm. 

Male with the first visible dorsal segment with a tubercle in centre 
of apex, surrounded behind with a semicircular fovea ; anterior trochan- 
ters armed with long and very sharp spines, intermediate tibiae with 
long spurs just before apex on their inner side. 

Salt marshes, in tidal refuse, under stones, &c. ; local but sometimes in profusion 
where it occurs; Gravesend, Whitstahle, Chatham, Shcerness, Southend, Strood, 



96 CLAVicoRNiA. [B)'i/axis. 

Dulwicli ; Waltonon-Naze ; King-Jgate ; Bognor, in profusion ; Newliavcn ; Hustings ; 
Shorehani ; Porlland and neighbourhood, plentiful by sweeping; Ghmvilles VVootou ; 
it appears to be confined to the south-eastern and southern coasts. 

S. cotus, Saulcy {=B. Lefebonci\ Sharp's cat. Isted. necAn])6). This 
species very ckisely resembles tlie preceding, but is of a somewhat longer 
and narrower form, and has the abdomen less closely punctured ; it may 
also be known by the fact that the first visible segment of the abdomen 
is simple in both sexes and not tuberculate at apex in the male ; it is 
very closely allied to B. Lefehvriei, and the specimens first taken in 
Britain were referred to that insect. L. 1| mm. 

On the banks of rivers, vei-y local ; Scotland, Sohvay district, in sandy places by 
the Nith and Kew ; it appears to be peculiar to Scotland. 

S. hsematica, Reich, (emarginata, Forst. ; Brachyr/hifa hcematica, 
Thoms). Entirely rufous, with the palpi reddish-testaceous, elytra 
brighter ; head triangular, smooth and shining, frontal fovcie deep ; 
antennge moderately long, last joint ovate ; thorax about as broad as long, 
smooth and shining, widest before middle, rather gradually narrowed to 
base, with three large equal basal foveas ; elytra nearly quadrate, scarcely 
visilily punctured ; abdomen as long as elytra, margined, smooth and 
sliining ; legs reddish, tarsi paler. L. l|-2 mm. 

^[ale with the trochanters and tibite simple and the first visible dorsal 
segment produced in a lobe on each side at apical margin, the space 
between the lobes being more or less deeply emarginate ; this cliaracter 
is variable, the lobes being sometimes rounded, and sometimes rather 
sharp ; occasionally on the upper surface of each lobe there is a more 
or less deep fovea, and sometimes the emargination between the lobes is 
bidenticulate : Aube has named three varieties as duftata, perforaia, 
and hideaticulata. 

Marshy places ; in flood refuse, &e. ; local, but occasionally abundant; more fre- 
quent about the banks of large rivers than elsewhere; Chatham, Barnes, Egham, 
Staines, Walton-ou-Thames ; Hastings; Glanvilles Wootton; New Forest ; Barnstaple, 
Devon (recorded as t.aken in company with Formica Jiava and 3It/rmica rubra) ; 
Salford Priors; Tewkesbury; Hartlebury, Woi'cestersbire ; Repton ; Church Stretton, 
&c., Cheshire ; Stretford, near Manchester, at roots of trees in winter ; banks of 
Mersey; Northumberland district, banks of the Irthiug, rare ; Scotland, very rare; 
has only occurred in the Sohvay district at the estuary of the Nitli below New Abbey ; 
Ireland, Galway (Walker). 

S. juncorum, Leach. {Dierohiajimcorum, Thoms.). This insect in 
colour and general appearance very closely resembles a small specimen of 
the preceding, but may at once be known by having the central basal 
fovea of the thorax minute and much smaller than the lateral ones Avliich 
are large ; its general form is shorter and broader in proportion, and the 
head and thorax, especially the latter, are thickly and distinctly punctured ; 
the elytra and abdomen also are finely punctured, the punctuation being 
distinctly visible under a high magnifying power ; in the male the an- 
terior trochanters are armed with a short spine and the intermediate ones 



Bnjaxis.'\ clavicornia. 97 

with a larger spine ; in this sex also the anterior tibiaj are acutely dentate 
on their inner side before apex, and the intermediate pair are furnished 
with a spur at apex. L. 1-H mm. 

lu moss, flood refuse, by swooping, &e. ; £^ouerally distributed and common through- 
oat Enghuid ; recorded as cominou in tlio Noithumborlaiul district by IJold ; Scotland, 
Lowlanils, iu spbngaum, very local, Tweed and Solway districts ; Ireland, near Dublin 
and Belfast. 

S. impressa, Paiiz. (Dierohia impressa, Thorns.). Black or pitcli- 
hlack, shining, with the elytra bright red, with suture and margins some- 
times darker, palpi testaceous, antennae and legs pitchy, tibiae and tarsi 
lighter than femora; liead and thorax impunctate or almost impunctatc, 
the latter with the central of the three basal foveae minute ; this cliaracter 
will easily distinguish it from all our other species except B. juncorum, 
from which it may at once be known by its colour ; elytra about as long 
as together broad, hardly visibly punctured ; abdonien shorter than 
elytra, margined, the segments becoming gradually narrower towards apex. 
L. If-lf mm. 

Male with the intermediate coxaj spinose, trochanters simple, inter- 
mediate tibiae with distinct spurs. 

In haystack refuse, moss, refuse on the hanks of ponds, &c. ; local, bub sometimes 
abundant where it occurs; London district, not common, Lee, Woking-, Eltham, 
Strood, Tottenham, Lageiibaui ; New Forest; Shirley Warren, Southampton; The 
Holt, Farnham ; Coleshill near Birmingham, in abundance; Needwood Forest, near 
Bnrton-on-Ti-ent ; Aslduim Bog, York ; not recorded from the Northumberhmd and 
Durham districts, and very doubtful as Scottish, the only record being " RaehilU, 
Kev. W. Little," Murray's catalogue. I also feel some little doubt as regards the 
record from Askham Bog. 

- EUPLECTINA. 

This tribe, which forms the second great division of our British 
Pselaphida?, contains about fourteen or fifteen European genera of which 
four are indigenous ; one of these, BibJnpor/is, has usually been classed 
with Eupledus ; they differ from the Pselaphina in having the posterior 
coxae conical, prominent, and contiguous, and in their more or less linear 
form, but this latter character is not so marked in Triclionyx as in our 
other three genera ; the four British genera may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

I. Tarsi with two unequal claws Tbickoxtx, CJiaud. 

II. Tarsi with a single claw. 

i. Abdomen with the first visible dorsal segirent of 
abdomen elongate ; last joint of antennaj very large ; 

form more convex Trisiium, Auhe. . 

ii. Abdomen with the first visible dorsal segment not 
longer than second ; last joint of antennas moderate ; 
form more depressed. 

1. Head distinctly narrower than thorax BrBLOPORTiS, Thorns. 

2. Head not narrower than thorax Euplectus, Leach. 

VOL. III. H 



98 CLAVICORNIA, [Trichomjx 



TRZCHONTTX, Chaudoir. 

This genus in its widest sense comprises about eight or nine European 
species, of which two are British. Eeitter, however, has formed a new 
genus, Amauroni/x, to receive T. Maerlcelii and three other European 
species, which dilfer from Trichonyx proper in the relative length of the 
abdominal segments ; both our indigenous species are very rare ; they are 
distinguished from the other members of the tribe Euplectina by the fact 
that the tarsi have two very unequal claws ; the contiuental genus Fa- 
ronus, v\diich is not represented in Britain, has the tarsi furnished with 
two equal claws, while in Euplectus and its allies the claws are single. 
The species of Trichonyx are found, as a rule, in company with 
ants. 

I. First visible dorsal segment of abdomen elongate, much 

longer than the second ; form narrower and more 

linear ; elytra obsoletely and not closely punctured . . T. Maerkelii, Aviie. 

II. First visible dorsal segment not elongate, only slightly 
longer than second ; form broader and less linear ; 

elytra very closely and finely punctured T. sulcicollis, Reich. 

T. Maerkelii^ Aube {Amauron>jx Maerlcelii, Eeitter). Elongate, 
slightly convex, entirely rufo-testaceous or ferruginous, sparingly pubes- 
cent ; head as broad as thorax, subtriangidar, with deep frontal furrows, 
eyes not large or prominent ; antennae rather long and robust, penulti- 
mate joints transverse, last joint large, ovate, subacuminate at apex ; 
thorax longer than broad, dilated in front, broadest before middle, and 
narrowed to base, impunctate, with a central channel, and three fovea? at 
base connected by an impressed line ; elytra almost double as long as 
thorax, obsoletely punctured, with a deep dorsal stria extending beyond 
middle of disc ; abdomen with the first visible dorsal segment elongate ; 
legs rather long, reddish testaceous. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the trochanters of the intermediate legs furnished, with a 
small blunt tooth. 

In moss, dead leaves, under stones, &c. ; usually in company with atits ; rare; 
Micklehara (Champion) ; Bsher (Power) ; Seaford, Devon, August, 1865 (Water- 
house), in company with B. glahratus and a small yellow Myrmica; Guestling near 
Hastings ; Eastbourne (Waterhouse) ; Sandown, Isle of Wight, April, 1884, where I 
captured three specimens, in company with ants, under stones (one specimen of B. 
glabratus occurred at the same time) ; Freshwater (Gorham) ; Scarborough (Lawson); 
the late Mr. Garnej'S captured one specimen by sifting dead leaves in winter, I 
believe in Suftblk. 

T. sulcicollis, Keich. The largest and finest of our indigenous 
Pselapludic; entirely rufescent, moderately shiny, with thick and 
short yellowish pubescence ; head narrower than thorax, eyes not large, 
moderately prominent, antenna? rather long, all the joints with the 
exception of the penultimate longer than broad ; thorax transverse, 



Trichoni/x.] clavicornia. 99 

widest before middle, scarcely visibly pmrcturcd, with tlircc fovea? at base 
united by a transverse furrow, elytra much wider at apex than at base, 
with rather strong reflexed margins, finely and thickly punctured, 
shoulders prominent, with a deep dorsal stria hardly reaching middle ; 
abdomen with the first visible dorsal scguient scarcely longer than 
second, with strongly reflexed margins, finely but distinctly punctured ; 
legs rather long, reddish-testaceous. L. 3 mm. 

Male with the femora and intermediate tibia? somewhat thiclvcned, the 
latter with a short strong spur at apex, Gth ventral segment of abdomen 
emarginate. 

Very rare; under bark of old ehii stumps in company with ants, Lee, Kent 
(Douglas and Scott); York (Hutchinson, one specimen); Nettlecomb, Somerset, 
under oak bark, August, 1866 (Power, one specimen). 



THZBZIUM, Aube. 

This genus contains about a dozen European species, and is also 
represented in India and North America ; it much resembles Euplectut^, 
but is more convex and less linear, the head and thorax being narrower 
than the elytra and abdomen ; two species have been described as 
British, but they have since been proved to be the sexes of one 
insect. 

T. brevicorne, Reich. ( ? hrevippiine, Chaud. ; latipenne, Tourn. ; 
Chevrieri, Tourn. ; Eupledus hrevicornis, Denny, &c.) Elongate, rather 
convex, varying in colour from reddish-chestnut brown to rufous, very 
finely pubescent ; head hardly as broad as thorax, very finely punctured, 
with two short converging frontal furrows ; antennae short and robust, 
with the last joint very large ; thorax longer than broad, cordiform, with 
three small equally deep fovese at base, which are connected by a fine 
fuiTOW ; elytra plainly broader than thorax, varying in length according 
to sex, narrowed in front and widened behind, broadest a little behind 
middle, with a sutural and dorsal stria, the latter being very short ; 
abdomen as broad as apex of elytra, parallel-sided, plainly margined, legs 
moderately long, lighter or darker reddish-testaceous. L. 1^- mm. 

Male usually darker than female, with the thorax and elytra longer, 
the latter being rather longer taken together than their breadth at apex ; 
the third ventral segment also of the abdomen is slightly fovcate on each 
side and the anal segment flatly impressed. 

Female usually lighter with the thorax and elytra shorter, the latter 
Ijeing not quite so long as together broad {T. breciimnne, Chaud.). 

In moss, dead leaves, &c. ; not a rare species in north and middle Europe generally, 
but extremely local in Britain ; Stephens records it as having been taken within 
the metropolitan district, and in Norfolk, Suffolk and Lincolnshire; the only recent 
locality that I know of is Scarborough, where it has been taken in some numbers by 
Messrs. Lawson and Wilkinson. 

H 2 



100 CLAVicoRNiA. \_B llloporus. 

BIBZiOFORUS, Thomson. 

Tliis genus, separated from Eupledus by Thomson, contains two or 
three European species, which are distinguished by having the head much 
narrower than the thorax, and by the fact that the basal fovese of the 
thorax are not united by a transverse furrow ; the segments of the ab- 
domen are subequal in length ; our single species very much resembles 
E. nigricans at first sight, and is found under the same conditions and 
in the same localities. 

S. bicolor, Denny {glabriculus, Gyll.). Pitch-black or deep black, 
shining, with the mouth, antennae, and legs reddish-testaceous, head 
plainly narrower than thorax with deep frontal furrows or fovete ; thorax 
broader than long, with sides much dilated and rounded in front, and 
much narrowed behind ; elytra considerably broader and longer than 
thorax, rather convex and dilated, with a short but distinct dorsal stria ; 
abdomen with depressions at base of first segment of thorax very shallow, 
L. 1-1^ mm. 

Male with the intermediate femora strongly thickened, and armed 
with a small sharp spine at base, intermediate tibiae dilated in the form 
of a strong triangular tooth, last ventral segment raised ; nietasternum 
channelled in both sexes^ but more deeply in male. 

Under bark of oak, birch, bcecb, &c. ; local ; London district, not common, Cliatham, 
Bexley, Brasted, Sevenoaks, Cobham, Lougbton, Bearsted, Hampsteud, Higbgate, 
Deau Forest ; Midland districts, locally abundant (Blatcli) ; Bewdley and Sbervvood 
Forests; Cannock Chase; Sutton Park, Birmingham; Hopwas Wood, Tamworth 
(very abundant under bark of oak-trees infested by Rhagium inquisitor) ; Scotland, 
under bark of dead birch, rare, Forth, Tay and Dee districts. 



EUPLECTUS, Leach. 

This is one of the hardest genera in the whole range of the Coleoptera, 
and the differences are often so minute that it is impossible to know 
how many species it really contains ; forty-five only are enumerated in 
the Munich catalogue, which are widely distributed over the surface of the 
world, but it is certain that the genus is much more extensive than is at 
present known ; there are about thirty European species belonging to the 
genus Eupledus proper ; of thcjse eleven are found in Britain ; they are 
easily known by their very long and quite linear shape, and their very mi- 
nute size ; they are found in hot-beds, heaps of cut grass, and other vege- 
table refuse, and some species occiir under bark or in rotten wood ; they 
are very sluggish in their movements, and this, coupled with their small 
size, causes thorn often to be passed over by collectors unless they are very 
carefully searched for ; their colour is bright rufous or castaneous. or 
dark pitchy-black ; I have paid considerable attention to this genus, and 
in company with Mr. Garneys, of Repton, was fortunate enough to find. 



Enpledus.'] clavioornia. 101 

in June, 1879, the rare species E. minutisslmus, Aube, in large numbers 
in flood refuse at Kepton ; this species was tlien unknown to Britain, 
and rare on the continent; the collector, however, who has in recent 
years given most work to the British Euplecti, is Mr. W. G. Bhitch, 
whose arrangement I have in the main followed, and to whose valuable 
monograph on the genus (published in the Entomologists' Monthly 
INIagazine, for February, 1886) I am much indebted, as I am also to 
Mr. G. E. Waterhouse's monograjih which appeared in the Transactions 
of the Entomological Society, Vol. I., 3rd Series, Part II. 

The species of Eapledus are distinguished from Trichonyx and tlie 
continental genus Faronus by the fact that the tarsi have only a single 
claw ; the sexual differences, as a rule, are unimportant, but are very 
marked in one or two cases. 

I. Abdomen with a more or less sharply defined de- 

pressed area in the middle of base of the two first 
visible dorsal segments ; dorsal striae on elytra 
distinct, and reaching more or less nearly to 
middle. 
i. Colour lighter, red, or rufo-testaceous. 

1. Head with a distinct basal fovea ; length 2 mm. E. Kukzei, Auhi. 

2. Head without any distinct basal fovea ; length 

less than 2 mm. 

A. Autennaj longer; size larger; frontal fur- 

rows broader E. DuPONTi, Anhi. 

B. Antennae shorter ; size smaller ;• frontal fur- 

rows narrower and more curved .... 

a. Head and thorax more or less strongly 

punctured throughout ; head broader, 
a* Thorax less narrowed behind ; the two 

large frontal punctures on the head not 

situated close to side margins . . . . E. PUNCTATUS, Male, 
b* Tliorax more narrowed behind ; the two 

large frontal punctures on the head 

situated close to the hind margins . . . E. Kaesteni, Reich. 

b. Head punctured only at sides above eyes ; 
thorax not, or scarcely punctured; head 

narrower E. sign'ATUS, Reich. 

ii. Colour darker, pitchy-black, brownish-red, or cas- 
taneous. 

A. Head with a distinct basal fovea E. NANUS, Reich. 

E. Head without any distinct basal fovea 

a. Antennae shorter ; head longer in proportion 
to its width (usual habitat in hot-beds and 

decaying grass heaps) E. SANGUINEUS, Denny. 

b. Antennae longer ; head shorter in proportion 
to its width ; (usual habitat under bark and 

in decaying wood) E. riCEUS, Mots. 

(nigricans, Chaud.) 

II. Abdomen without any distinct depressed area at the 

base of the first two visible dorsal segments ; dorsal 
striae on elytra very short or entirely absent. 
i. Elytra with short dorsal striae ; colour rufo-tes- 
taceous; length l^-l^'g mm . E. nubigena, i2e?7^er. 



102 CLAvicoRNiA. [Eupleclus. 

ji. Elytra without dorsal striic; lengtli uot exceeding 
1 mm. 

1. Colour pitch-brown ; form broader ; elytra 

almost impunctato ; female with apex of 

abdomen simple E. Ambiguus, Reich. 

2. Colour rufous or rufo-castaueous ; form narrower 

and more linear ; elytra plaiwly punctured ; 
apex of abdomen in female armed with a long 
pointed process E. MiNUTlssiMU3, Aube. 

B. K.iinzei, Aube (Aheillei, Saulcy^). The largest of our species; 
rufo-testaceous, with the elytra sometimes lighter ; finely pubescent ;' 
head large, broader than thorax, with the sides rounded behind eyes 
which are small, vertex with a distinct fovea ; antennas moderately long, 
thorax cordate, about as broad as long, Avith three foveje at base, con- 
nected by a deep transverse furrow, the central of which is the smallest ; 
elytra together longer than broad, impunctate ; abdomen broad and sub- 
depressed, the two first visible dorsal segments each with a depressed 
area in the middle of base, the area being bounded on each side by a 
slender groove^ Avhich grooves are not parallel^ but diverge towards apex. 
L. 2 mm. 

Male with the 5th ventral segment of abdomen with an oblong im- 
pression in middle of base, 6th segment widely emarginate at apex, and 
bearing on each side a tubercle tufted with long whitish hairs, abdomen 
with sides clothed with rather long hairs. 

o 

111 moss, dead leaves, &c. ; rare; Esher (Power) ; Sevenoaks, Caterham, Dorking, 
Shirley (Champion); Greenhithe, Wandsworth and Hampstead (Waterhovise ; 
Darenth Wood (Power and Waterhouse; Mr. Waterhouse's specimen occurred in the 
sawdust of a recently fellel oak) ; Bearsted (Gorham) ; Cobham Park ; Birdbrook 
(Power). 

Dr. Sharp possesses two specimens of a Eupledus from Mickleham, 
which Avere named by M. de Saulcy E. Abeillei (apparently a new species, 
as it is mentioned in the European catalogue as from iiritain alone) ; 
these specimens must, I think,* be referred to E. Kiinzei. 

E. 33uponti,' Aube. Eathcr a large and depressed rufo-testaceous 
species with the head broad at the sides ; the head is rather smaller than 
in E. Kunzei, and is more contracted and rounded behind the eyes, Avhich 
are a little more prominent ; head, thorax, and elytra almost impunc- 
tate in male, punctured in female ; antennae longer than in the following 
species ; thorax at broadest somewhat broader than long, with a central 
cliannel, and with the three fovese at base connected by a rudi- 
mentary groove ; elytra longer than together broad with the dorsal 
striae nearly reaching middle ; abdomen with depressions at base of 
lirst segment feebler tlian n the preceding species and with the grooves 
at each side parallel-sided ; legs stouter, with all the tibiae armed with 
a small spur at apex. L. If mm. 

Male more shining than female, with the head only punctured at the 



^iqjledus.] clavicornia. 103 

sides, nnd thorax and elytra almost impunctatc ; female duller, with the 
head thickly and plainly, and the thorax and elytra moderately thickly, 
punctured ; in the male the last ventral segment of the abdomen is 
transversely depressed. 

In rotten bark of beech, &c. ; very rare; Scarborough (Pt. Lawson, who first cap- 
tured the species in Britain) j Strood (J. J. Walker in company with £. bicolor). 

Z2. punctatus, MuLs. Rufo-testaceous, with antennce and legs 
lighter ; head large, but rather short (being double as broad, including 
the eyes, as the length from the front margin of forehead to the margin 
of vertex), thickly punctured, very wide across the eyes, the forehead 
being strongly transverse, frontal furrows obsolete ; thorax scarcely nar- 
rower than the head, and more finely punctured, although the punctuation 
is rather close and distinct ; dorsal furrow plain, often reaching the basal 
fovea ; elytra very finely and scarcely visibly punctured, longer than 
together broad ; abdomen narrower than elytra with basal depressions on 
first segments narrow and feeble. L. If- l^mm. 

Male with the penidtimate ventral segment of abdomen broadly 
emarginate at apex, and narrow in middle, last segment strongly foveo- 
Jate ; in this sex also the intermediate tibipe are fvu'nished with a spur 
at apex ; in the female the last ventral segment is feebly foveolate. 

In rotten wood under bark; it is also said to occur under dead leaves; rare, and 
almost entirely confined to the Midlands ; Sherwood Forest (in some numbers) ; Dean 
and Bewdlcy Forests; Cannock Chase; Knowle; Salford Priors, Warwickshire; 
Bretby Wood, near Reptou ; I also have records from Ashtead, Surrey, and from the 
New Forest. 

S. K.arsteni, Eeich. Very like the preceding, with the same 
short broad head, and with the head and thorax punctured, the former, 
however, not so distinctly as in E. jmndatus ; the forehead, however, is 
less strongly transverse than in the latter species, and has the two large 
frontal punctures placed close to the side margin, a character which, as 
Mr. Blatch points out, is apparently peculiar to the species ; the thorax 
is much more strongly narrowed towards base, and the male characters 
are different ; this species is often mixed with E. signatus in collections, 
Avith which it is often taken in company, but this latter species may 
easily be distinguished by its longer and narrower head (which is hardly 
as broad as thorax), and by having the head punctured only at the sides, 
and the thorax almost impunctate. L. 1-1^ mm. 

Male with the fourth ventral segment of abdomen foveolate on both 
sides, and the space between bisinuate ; fifth, transversely foveolate; 
sixth, widely emarginate at apex ; anal segment with two or three more 
or less obsolete foveae. 

In haystack refuse, cut grass, dung-heaps, &c. ; it also sometimes occurs under the 
bark of dead trees; Strood, Caterham, Mickleham, Ashtead, Shirley, Wandsworth, 
Putney, Loughton, Cobham Park, Twickenham, Esher, &c. ; Glanvilles Wootton ; 



104 CLAVICORNIA. [EHplccflCS 

Miilland Counties, generally distribnted, Birmingham district, Sherwood and Bewdley 
Forests, Repton, Cannock Chase, &c. ; Scotland, rare, Forth district only ; Ireland, 
near Dublin ; it appears to be widely distributed but never very common.* 

S. sig-natus, Eeich. Eufo-testaceous, Avitli the head not hroader 
than the thorax, and longer in proportion than in J^J. Karxteni, from 
which species it is, however, distingnished \>j its punctuation, and by 
liaving the two large frontal punctures situated at some little distance 
from the margins ; the depressions of tlie alidomen are deeper ; it is 
most closely allied to E. sanguineus, from which it only differs in its 
colour, its rather smaller size, and in having the lateral thoracic fovese 
a little shallower. L. l-l|-mm. 

Male with the penultimate ventral segment foveolate in the middle, 
and furnished on each side of the fovea with a sharp tubercle ; inter- 
mediate tibise with a small spur at apex. 

In moss, haystack and vegetable refuse, cut grass, dung-heaps, &c. ; rarely under 
hark, and in ants' nests ; local, but common in some districts ; Londou district, rather 
common; Hastings, and probably the South Coast generally; Falmouth; iVlidhind 
districts generally distributed ; it used to be very common in my hot-bed at Repton ; 
Mr. Blatch records the occurrence of two specimens under bark in Sherwood Forest ; 
Scotland, rare, in nests of the wood ant, Tweed, Forth, and Moray districts ; this and 
other species are probably much more widely distributed than is at present known, 
as the Euplecli have been systematically neglected by many collectors owing to the 
difficulty of their determination. 

S. nanus, Reich. {Reichenhachi, Denny ; Kirlyi, Denny). Colour 
rather variable, pitcliy-castaneous, or reddish-brown, often with the 
front parts pitchy and the abdomen reddish, antennae and legs lighter ; 
occasionally the elytra only are dark and the rest of the body red ; 
pubescence ratlier long ; \ipper surface finely punctured tliroiighout ; 
head as broad as thorax, with a distinct basal fovea (a character which 
will separate it from all its near allies), frontal furrows deep, converging, 
but variable, sometimes taking the form of a V and sometimes of a (J ; 
thorax a little broader than long at its widest ; elytra broader than 
thorax, somewhat longer than together broad, usually with a distinct 
fchort stria at base between the dorsal and sutural stride ; basal depres- 
sions of first segments of abdomen distinct, their sides very divergent. 
L. 1 \-i\ mm. 

Male with the penultimate ventral segment with four obsolete 
fovese near base, with a larger transverse fovea in the centre, anal 
segment obsoletely foveolate ; intermediate tibise with a distinct spur 
at apex. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse; also under hark; local; Shirley, Lee, Esher, 
Cowley ; Glanvilles Woottou ; Wiudsor ; Tamworth ; Birmingham ; Bewdley ; Can- 
nock Chase; Sherwood Forest ; Northumberland district, common (Bold). According 

* Mr. Waterhouse (I.e. p. 6) mentions the capture of an unusually large example of 
this species near a uest o( Formica fuliffinosa. 



Ellplertus.] CLAYICOUNIA. 105 

to Ml-. Waterlionso it is commou near LoiulcMi, but Mv. Clininpion ppcaks of it as 
r;\re in tlie Lnulon district. Mr. Blatch snys tliat he has met with it in some numlicra 
ill Sherwood Forest uiuler hark of faUen trees. 

E. Klrliji is only a form of this species, whicli has been chiefly- 
separated on the ground that the frontal furrows converge strongly, 
"whereas in E. nanus they are parallel ; there is, however, no real 
difference between the insects, as the frontal fun^ovvs are very variable, 
and specimens may be found that are intermediate as regards their 
formation. E. nanus is variable both in size, colour, and sculjiture. 

E. sang-uineus, Denny. In structure this species most closely 
resembles E. sirjnatus, and is only distinguished from that species by its 
black or pitchy-black colour and rather larger size, and by having the 
lateral basal foveaj of the thorax a little deeper ; immature specimens are 
often found, which cause great confusion, as they are entirely red in 
colour ; in general appearance E. sanguineus closely resembles E. nigri- 
cans, but it may easily be known from this species by its shorter 
antennae ; the head, moreover, is not so short in proportion to its width ; 
the antenucB and legs are ferruginous or reddish-testaceous. L. 
11-11 mm. 

Male with the penultimate ventral segment furnished with a largo 
deep fovea in the middle, on each side of which there is a minute 
tubercle. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, dung-heaps, hot-beds, &c. ; very rarely under 
decaying logs or hark; rather common and generally distributed in the London, 
Southern, and Midland districts ; York; Manchester; Withington, Cheshire; Scot- 
land, rare, in decaying hay, Solway district only, 

E. piceus, ]\rots. {nigricans, Chaud.; Dennii, Wat; sulcatnlus, 
Saulcy). Pitchy-blacky shining, antennte, palpi, nnd legs reddish-tes- 
taceous, very rarely pitchy ; head as broad as thorax, sparingly and 
finely ])UDctured on disc, strongly and thickly at the sides, rounded and 
narrowed behind eyes ; antennae rather long ; thorax very feebly jDunc- 
tured, rather broader than long ; elytra plainly broader than head and 
thorax, a little longer than together broad, scarcely punctured, dorsal 
stria reaching middle ; abdomen with basal depressions broad and 
shallow. L. l|-l|^mm. 

Male with the posterior femora thickened, metasternum channelled 
and bearing a blunt tubercle on each side; fourth ventral segment of 
abdomen somewhat produced and bisinuate in middle of apical margin ; 
fifth, tuberculate on each side at base ; sixth, with a transverse furrow 
at base, emarginate at apex ; in the female the metasternum is feebly 
channelled. 

Under hark and in decaying wood; very rartly in hot -beds; London district, not 
common, but rather widely distributed ; Darenth Wood, St. Mary Cray, Chatham, 
Hawkhurst, Forest Hill, &c. ; Loughton, and Ulting, near Maldou, Essex ; The Holt, 



106 CLAvicoRXiA. \_Enplectus, 

Fiirulitim ; Parkliurst Forest, Isle of Wight, in nests of F. rufa ; New Forest ; Mid- 
land districts, common in miiny localities, Birmingham (Sutton Park, &c.), Tam- 
worth, Cannock Chase, Bewdley and Sherwood Forests, &c. ; it has not, however, 
been recorded from the northern counties or from Scotland. 

E. nubig-ena, Eeitter. Narrow and elongate, rufo-testaceous, 
sinning, almost impunctate, with fine and scanty pubescence, which is 
longer at the apex of the abdomen than on the rest of the body ; head 
rather large, with two small deep punctures at base, from each of Avhich 
proceeds a furrow ; these unite in front, forming an inverted (J enclosing 
a smooth and shining area ; antennse rather long and slender ; thorax 
about as broad as long, rounded in front, much narrowed behind, with 
three foveae at base, the lateral ones small, and the central one crescent- 
shaped, discoidal fovea very small ; elytra long, narrowed at base, dorsal 
stride deep, but very short; abdomen elongate, with no trace of depressions 
at base of first segments; legs clear testaceous, L. ll— If mm. 

Male with the ventral segments of abdomen longitudinally sulcate in 
middle, anal segment with a longitudinal keel. 

Under bark of beech and oak logs ; discovered by Mr. Blatch in Sherwood Forest 
in May, 1884, and again captured by him in September, 1885 ; it occurs on the Con- 
tinent in the mountainous parts of Hungary, in the Caucasus, &c. 

Xj. ambigruus, Reich. A small, narrow, somewhat depressed species, 
pitchy-brown, with the antennaj, palpi, and legs testaceous, clothed with 
line grey pubescence ; head as broad as thorax with strongly impressed 
converging furrows, antennae rather slender ; thorax about as long as 
broad, not strongly narrowed behind, with three deep basal foveie con- 
nected by a fine and rather deep furrow ; elytra broader than thorax, 
much longer than together broad, almost impunctate, with a deep sutural 
stria, and without dorsal strice, but with short, more or less elongate, 
fove?e at base ; abdomen parallel, without depressed area at the base of 
the front segment. L. 1 mm. 

Male with a spur at apex of intermediate tibiae, characters of the 
abdominal segment unimportant. 

Marshj' places; at roots of grass, &c. ; occasionally in haystacks and other refuse; 
local, but sometunes not uncommon in some places; Lee, Wimbledon, Eltham, Sheer- 
uess, Weybridge, Bromley, Walton-on-Thames; Tewkesbury (in moss stripped from 
poplar trunks after a flood) ; Horning Fen and other fen localties in refuse, and also 
by beating or sweeping reeds in hot weather. Scotland, Lowlands, rare, iu moss, 
Solway district only; it probably occurs in many other localities. 

E. xninutissimus, Aubc (Garneysi, Fowler). Linear, elongate, very 
narrow, much depressed, castaneous, shining, sparingly clothed with 
short hairs ; head rather large, triangular, obtuse in front, moderately 
punctured, with two deep foveae between eyes joined by a longitudinal 
furrow to two smaller fovea) situated above the epistoma, antenna) robust ; 
thorax small, rounded at base, narrower than the head, with three deep 
equidistant foveae at base, connected l)y a straight line ; elytra con- 



Eupledus.] CLAVicoRNiA. 107 

siilerably longer than together broad, parallel-siiUul, distinetly punc- 
tured, Avith sutiiral stria and fovctc much as in the preceding species ; 
abdomen long, widely and very deeply margined ; legs testaceous, long 
and slender. L. |-|^ mm, 

Male Avith the apical ventral segment marked throughout its length 
•with three lines, of which the central is the deepest ; the latter is deeply 
grooved on each side, and the lateral lines are incurved at apex ; the 
penultimate segment is dej^ressed deeply at apex, the depression corre- 
sponding with the depressed portion of the apical segment ; the inner 
side of the intermediate tibice is prolonged beyond the articulation of the 
tarsus, and curved inwardly in the shape of a hook. 

Female with the apical segment produced into a long aculeate spine. 
This rare species was taken by j\Ir. Garneys and myself in large 
numbers in flood refuse from the Trent near Eepton in June, 1879; it 
has not occurred before or since in Britain, and is rare on the continent ; 
it is extremely sluggish, and may very easily be passed over ; even with 
the flood refuse on a dish before me I found it very hard to find, 
although it was present in numljers ; for a more detailed account of the 
species the student is referred to the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
xvi. pp. 158, 159. 

TRICHOPTERYGID^. 

This family comprises the smallest known species of all the Coleoptera : 
owing to their minute size and the difficulty of determining the species 
they have usually been much neglected ; the Monograph, however, of the 
family published by the Rev, A. Matthews, is most complete, and by 
the aid of the figures and descriptions there given, many of the diffi- 
culties are very much diminished ; the chief character of the family lies 
in the wings, which are very long a.nd narrow, and consist of a horny 
peduncle from which proceeds a long slip of membrane which is fur- 
nished on both sides with very long and thickly set hairs; hence the name 
of " Trichopterygidse," or " hair-Avinged ; " the antennae are long and 
slender, and usually verti cillate-pilose, with the two basal joints large and 
stout, and the three apical joints forming a more or less distinct club ; the 
maxillary palpi have the penultimate joint much inflated, and the last 
joint small and more or less acicular : the mandibles are very curious, 
the outer-side being furnished Avith transverse ribs like the cogs of a 
wheel ; these are used for mastication, the insect having the poAA^er of 
seizing its prey (Avhich consists of very minute insects), with the sharp 
points of the mandibles, and then turning these latter iuAvards until their 
backs meet, Avhen the cogged processes act upon each other, and first 
crush and then grind the food between them (MatthcAvs, Trichopt. 111. 
p. 43) ; the elytra are sometimes entire, sometimes truncate, and together 
Avith the thorax are comparatively seldom punctured, the sculpture 
usually taking the form of asperate raised points, as in a rasp ; the 
abdomen is usually composed above of nine segments, the ventral por- 



108 CLAVicoRNiA. [Tric/iopter>jgina. 

tion consisting of six or seven segments ; the legs are moderate, short in 
some genera, with 3-jointecl tarsi, the last joint terminating in two 
equal claws. 

The Trichopterygidee are known already to comprise a considerable 
number of genera (twenty-one are enumerated by Mr. Mattlrews, and 
others have been described by him), and a large number of species; as, 
however, fresh representatives are perpetually being found in every 
quarter of the world in which they are looked for, it is most probable 
that the genus is one of the most extensive and most widely distributed 
of all the Coleoptera, 

The larvae of TricTiopteryx, Fteryx, and Ptinella (the only genera known in that 
state) are stated by Mr. Matthews to resemble each other so closely that one de- 
script'on is sufficient to characterize all of them ; in his Monograph the larva of 
Flinella is described on page 50, and figured PI. I. figs. a. b. ; it is slender and elon- 
gate, almost raoniliform, transparent and crystalline in appearance ; the head is large, 
subtrlangular, with prominent eyes ; antennae short, last jo'.ut furnished with long 
setffi ; the segments are of about equal breadth, the abdominal ones being all fur- 
nished with a strong short seta on each side; last segment large, bearing two cerci 
terminated by long setae : legs short, tarsi formed apparently of one joint terminated 
by a single claw. 

The family may be divided naturally into the two following tribes : — 

I. Elytra truncate Teichoptebxgina. 

11. Elytra not truncate Piiliina. 

TRICHOPTERYGINA. 

This tribe contains eight European genera, all of which, except 
Astafopteryx are represented in Britain ; some authors still consider 
BcBocrara, Thorns., formed to include T. variolosa, to be distinct, but 
it only differs from Trkhopteryx in sculpture, and cannot with good 
reason be separated on that point alone. 

In the following tables and descriptions I am much indebted to Mr. 
Matthews for his kind help, extending over a period of several years, 
during which I have taken a considerable number of the rarer species 
belonging to the family ; at the same time it must be admitted that no 
very satisfactory tables can be drawn up, and that in some of the 
genera, more especially in Tricliopteryx, it is extremely difficult to 
determine the more closely allied species from descriptions, and that 
long practice and comparison with authentic types is the only method 
by which anything like accuracy can be arrived at in this most difficult 
group ; the difficulties are increased by the fact that the colours, espe- 
cially of the antennae, appear to alter to a greater or less extent after 
death, unless very great care is taken with regard to preserving and 
setting the insects. 

I. Thorax not contracted or constricted behind, 
i. Abdomen wilh seven free ventral segments. 



Trichoptcryijina.] clavicornia. 109 

1. Thorax moderately dilated ; liiiid coxtu iiiodcrattly 
distaut ; posterior mai'gin of metasteruuiu not 

produced into points Ptertx, Ma/l/i. 

2. Tlioi ax strongly dilated; hind coxjb widely distant, 
posterior margin of nietasternum produced into 

two sharp points between the coxib ACTiNOPTEiiYX, Malik. 

ii. Abdomen with six free ventral segments .... Tkicuopteeyx, Kirby. 

II. Thorax constricted behind. 

i. Elytra short; mesosternum not cariuatc; intermediate 

coxic approximate; colour pale Ptinella, Mots. 

ii. Elytra long ; mesosternum cariuate ; intermediate 

coxiB distant ; colour dark Smicrus, Matlh. 

III. Thorax gradually contracted behind, not constricted. 

i. Elytra long, posterior coxas simple Microptilium, Matth. 

ii. Elytra short, posterior coxa; laminate Nephanes, Thorns. 



PTERVX, J\[atthews. ■ 

This genus comprises one European species wliicli is found rather 
commonly in many localities under Ijark and in rotten Avood ; a few 
other species have been described from North America. 

P. suturalis, Heer. {mutahilis, Matth. ; bicnJor, Mots.). Oval, con- 
vex, rather shiny ; colour very variable, reddish, or castaneous, or with 
the elytra reddish and the head and thorax almost black, sometimes 
with the apex of the elytra alone dark ; head rather prominent ; thorax 
transverse, broadest at base, deeply and very closely tuberculate ; 
elytra rather remotely asperate, with the apices strongly rounded ; legs 
and antennae rather long, yellow. L. f-f mm. 

In rotten wood, under bark, sometimes in moss ; not uncommon in some 
localities, and probably very widely distributed ; Surrey ; New Forest ; Deau Forest ; 
Midland district, general ; Lincoln (under bark of dead tir) ; Scarborough ; Scotland, 
rare, under bark of dead fir ; Tay and Moray districts (Sliarp) ; Bidmuto, Fifeshire 
(Power.) 

ACTINOPTERTTX, Matthews. 

This genus was founded by Mr. Matthews to include the single 
species T. fucicola of Allibert ; it is distinguished from Ptery.c by 
having the thorax strongly dilated, and from Trkliojjterijx by having 
seven free ventral segments, and from both by the fact that the meta- 
sternum is produced into two sharp points between the cox?e ; our 
single species is rather widely distributed on the southern coasts of 
Europe, and also on the shores of North Africa and the Atlantic 
islands, but until recently has been considered very rare in Britain. 

A. fucicola. All {m(Alis, Hal. ; dilatirollis, j\Iots. -jViarinum, Mots.). 
Fuscous, rather depressed, thickly clothed with short Avhite silky pubes- 
cence ; head large and broad with prominent eyes ; thorax large, strongly 



110 CLAVicoRNiA. \^Adinnpte.ryx. 

dilated, lu'oadest before base, (dutaceous and not tuberculatc, postcvior 
angles strongly produced and acute ; elytra considerably narrowed be- 
hind, scarcely rounded at apex, very closely asperate ; legs and antennae 
long and slender, clear yellow. L. |-|- mm. 

Under seaweed on the coast; first taken by Mr. Haliday in Ireland ; it lias recently 
been found in profusion at Kingsgate by Mr. T . Wood, in company with Actidium 
coarctatum, and also at Margate. In the summer of 1886 I found it at Broadstairs, 
and it has been taken at Weymouth ; it is probably more widely distributed on the 
south-eastern and southern coasts than is at present known, but I have never found it 
in tlie Isle of Wight, although I have searched for it. 

The species is very easily recognized l^y its habitat, shape, and thick 
whitish pubescence. 

PTINSZiIiA, Motschulsky. 

About a dozen species Jiave been described of this genus from Europe, 
America, and the Atlantic Islands, and one has comparatively recently 
been found in ISTew Zealand, so that the range of the genus is pro- 
bably very extensive ; they are easily recognized by their narrow form 
and short elytra, and as a rule by their very light colour ; they appear 
to live only under bark of dead trees, especially beech, fir, oak, and 
birch. 

I. Abdomen broader with apex obtuse. 

i. Tliorax scarcely rounded in front, hardly constricted 

behind, head elongate P. BEITTANICA, Matth. 

ii. Thorax plainly rounded in front, constricted behind, 
head rounded. 

1. Elytra broadest at middle. 

A. 'J borax more strongly constricted behind ; form 

narrower P. TESTACEA, ITeer. 

B. Thorax less strongly constricted behind ; form 

broader P. denticollis, Fairiit. 

2. Elytra broadest at apex P. Maria, Matth. 

II. Abdomen narrower, with apex acuminate. 

i. Thorax feebly constricted behind ; elytra rather long . P. aptera, Guer. 
ii. Thorax strongly constricted behind. 

1. Elytra longer ; thorax considerably shorter than 

head P. TENELtA, Tlr. 

2. Elytra very short ; thorax hardly shorter than 

head P. angustula, Gi/Jl. 

P. testacea, Heer. (Proteus, Matth. ; ? limbata, Heer.). Elongate, 
rather obtuse, moderately convex, yellow, sparingly clothed with pale 
hairs ; head large, rather elongate, rounded in front, eyes rather variable, 
antenna? long and slender, pale yellow, with the two basal joints very 
large ; thorax moderate, a little broader, but scarcely longer, than head, 
broadest before middle, with the sides slightly margined, strongly 
rounded in front and constricted behind, closely and hnely tuberculate, 
posterior angles very acute and prominent ; elytra not dilated behind, 
widest at middle, rather finely and remotely asperate, apices strongly 



FH.'iella.] clavicoun'ia. Ill 

rounded, witli hvo more loss dofiued darker bands in the female which 
meet near base ; abdomen elongate, with five segments uncovered, obtuse ; 
legs long, pale yellow. L. -|-1 mm. 

Under bark of ilead beech ; taken in great abnndancc by Rev. A. Matthews in 
Sherwood Forest, and also by Mr. Bhitch in Sherwood Forest and Dean Forest, and 
on Cannock Chase ; Mr. WoUastou has also taken it in the Canary Islands. 

P. ZVXaria, Matth. Broad, depressed, reddish-yellow, sparingly 
clothed with short pale hairs ; head rather small, a little narrower than 
thorax, eyes rather variable, antennae pale yellow, rather short ; thorax 
broad, widest in middle, with the sides margined and rounded, and 
feebly constricted behind, posterior angles not prominent, finely and 
closely tuberculate ; scutelluni small ; elytra longer and much broader than 
head and thorax, dilated behind, broadest at apex, rather deeply and not 
very closely asperate in irregular tratisverse rows ; abdomen broad and 
very obtuse with five segments uncovered ; legs pale yellow. L. ^ mm. 

Very rare; one example taken by Mr. Matthews under bark of dead Pinus sylvestris 
at Eakewell, Derbyshire; it has also once been taken by Mr. Crotch. 

Tliis species may be known by its broader form, and by having the 
thorax feebly constricted behind with the posterior angles nearly right 
angles, and also by the sculpture of the el} tra, which are dilated and 
broadest behind. 

The female has the elytra sufiiised with darker colour which takes 
the appearance of two almost parallel bands joined at base. 

P. denticollis, Fairm. ( $ pundipennis, Fairm.). Depressed, pale 
yellow, rather thickly clothed with golden hairs ; head broad and short, 
eyes variable, antennse pale yellow ; thorax broad, Avidest at middle, with 
sides rounded in front, and moderately constricted behind ; posterior 
angles strongly acute, prominent, moderately strongly tuberculate ; scu- 
telluni rather large ; elytra a little longer than head and thorax, oval, 
with sides rounded, deeply and very remotely asperate, interstices feebly 
asperate, apices not strongly rounded ; abdomen with five segments un- 
covered ; legs pale yellow, L. f mm. 

Under dead bark of various trees, especially poplars, mountain ash, willow, &c. ; 
local ; Sherwood Forest ; Cambridgeshire ; Middlesex ; Mr. Blatch has taken it in 
numbers in various places, Yardley, Sutton and Knowle, near Birmingham, Hopwas 
Wood, Tamworth, Bewdley, Needwood Forest, and Sherwood Forest. 

The females have two bands of darker colour on the elytra, whit-h 
meet behind ; these are sometimes indistinct, and the colour is occasionally 
spread over the whole elytra. 

P. britannica, Matth. Elongate oval, rather convex, head and 
thorax castaneous, elytra rufo-testaceous, rather thickly clothed with short 
pale hairs ; head large, elongate, obtuse in front, eyes small, antennoe rather 
long, clear yellow ; thorax a little longer and broader than head, broadest 



112 GLAVicoRMA. [PtineUu. 

at middle, Avith sides strongly margined, slightly rounded in front and 
contracted beliiud, posterior angles nearly right angles, closely and 
rather deeply tuberculate ; scutellum short ; elytra rather long, con- 
tracted at apex, Avith sides rounded and margined, very closely and some- 
what deeply asperate in transverse rows, apices scarcely rounded ; abdomen 
rufo-testaceous, Avitli five segments uncovered, very obtuse ; legs long 
and stout, yellow ; under-side rufo-testaceous. L. -|- mm. 

Very rare; one specimen taken by Mr. Matthews running ou the back of a slug, 
Limux maxiinux, near Weston, Oxfordshire, the probable liabitat of which was 
under apple bark; a second has occurred near Vincennes, France. 

The specimens that have been taken have a transverse impression at 
base and a smaller oval one on disc at each side : these impressions are, 
however, variable in the Trichopterygida3, The species may be 
distinguished by the shape of the head and thorax, the long elytra, and 
also by the sculpture and colour. 

P, aptera, Guor. ( ? Ratishonensis, Gyll. ; v. ? palliiJa, Er.). 
Smaller than any of the preceding, elongate, oval, rather depressed, 
clear yellow, clothed somewhat thickly with rather long pale hairs ; 
head rather large, strongly rounded in front, eyes rather large and 
prominent, or altogether absent ; thorax a little longer and broader than 
head, broadest at middle, with sides slightly margined, moderately rounded 
in front, and feebly constricted behind, Avith posterior angles almost 
right angles, not prominent, thickly and finely tul)erculate ; scutellum 
rather small; elytra oval, longer and broader than head and thorax, 
deeply and closely asperate in transverse rows, apices strongly rounded ; 
abdomen elongate, Avith five segments uncovered, acuminate at apex ; 
legs pale yellow. L. |-| mm. 

Under baric of dead trees and in decaying wood ; Chatham ; Mifklchnm ; Sevenosks ; 
Cobham ; Bearsted ; New Forest ; Salford Priors ; Cannock Chase ; Sherwood Forest. 

In the females the elytra have two darker bands Avhich meet l)ehind ; 
these, however, are variable and sometimes absent ; occasionally the 
dark colour is spread over the Avhole elytra. 

P. palliduni is distinguished from this species by Erichson l\y its 
narrower form, thicker pubescence, less strongly rounded sides of 
thorax, and less obtuse posterior angles of the same. 

P. ang-ustula ( ? gracilis, Gyll.). This species somcAAdrat resembles 
the preceding, but may be easily distinguished by its shorter head and 
longer thorax, Avhich is strongly constricted behind, and especially by 
its very short elytra, which leave six segments of the alxlomen uncovered ; 
the abdomen is acuminate at apex, and is furnished at the sides Avith 
long setas ; the sculpture of the thorax is rather deeper, and of the elytra 
more remote ; in the female there is a single dark band of a darker 
colour on each elytron. L. |-| mm. 



Pfittella.] CT.AVICORNIA. ] 13 

Under bai-k of viifious dead trees, often in company with P. apfera,]ocii]]y cmn- 
mou ; Sherwood Forest; Sutton near Birmingham; SoliliuU ; Salford I'riors; 
Cannock Chase ; Windsor ; VVickeu Fen. 

P. tenella, Er, (1 m'tcroscopica, Waltl.) Elongate, very iianow, 
pale yellow, clothed with short pale hairs ; liead large, elongate in front, 
eyes (at all events in the female) very large, antennas rather long, ])alo 
3'cllow ; thorax very short, much shorter than head, with sides roundeil 
in front, and strongly constricted behind, posterior angles prominent, 
very acute, extremely finely tuberculate ; elytra long and narrow, much 
longer than head and thorax, with sides scarcely rounded, very finely 
asperate in remote transverse roAvs, apices strongly rounded, with a lon- 
gitudinal hand of darker colour in the female : logs rather long, pidc 
yellow. L. | mm. 

Very rare ; one example has been takiMi by Mrs. Matthews under bark of dead oalc 
in Sla-rwood Forest ; it is very rare on tlie Continent. 

The species may be known by its very short thorax, which is strongly 
constricted behind, long elytra, and firie sculpture, 

TRZCHOFTBZt^X, Kirby. 

This genus contains a very large nvimber of species ; seventy- four are 
enumerated by Mr. Matthews in his monograph, but a considerable number 
have since been described from Central America and other parts of the 
world, and the genus is so widely distributed that it is probable that only a 
small fraction of the existing species are at present known, as very few col- 
lectors trouble themselves to look for them ; they are distinguished by not 
having the thorax constricted behind and by the fact that the abdomen 
has six free ventral segments ; they are very rapid in their movements and 
run with a swift jerky motion very different from that of 'Ptenidhim, and 
Pttlium; there are thirty-nine Iiritish species at present known^ which in 
many instances are exceedingly closely allied, and require the greatest care 
in their determination ; they may be roughly divided as follows, but, as 
above stated, no really satisfactory table can be formed ; the colour, for 
instance, is in many cases a very important point, but immature 
specimens of the black species are sometimes reddish or brownish ; 
Mr. Matthews and I once found a large number of a brownish-looking 
Tndwpteryx in faggots in Sherwood Forest, which we thought at first 
must be a good species, but they turned out to be very sliglitly 
immature T. fascicular is ; the only way to work the genus is first to 
separate those that seem at all diiferently formed by a simple Codding- 
ton or Browning's platyscopic lens, and then to compare ihem caivfuUy 
with authentic specimens of the species to which they seem to belong 
under a compound microscope, with a rotating stage, as the asperate 
sculpture presents a very different nppearance in different lights. 

The species are chiefly found in hot-beds, haystack refuse, dead leaves, 
VOL. iir. I 



114 CLAVICOKXIA. [TricJiopferi/x 

moss, &c. ; a few occur under bark or in rotten wood ; a species found 
under these latter conditions is nearly always a rare one. 

I. Thorax finely margined ; sculpture tuberculate. 
i. Thorax evidently broader than elytra. 

1. Posterior angles of thorax plainly produced. 

A. Head and thorax black, elytra rufescent . . T. Sab.^!, Matlli. 
U. Upper surface entirely castaneous ; form 

rather narrow T. Championis, Matth. 

C. Head and thorax black ; elytra fusco-piceous. 

a. Elytra shorter ; tliorax broadest in middle. T. TIIORACICA, Waltl. 

b. P]lytra longer. 

a*. Thorax distinctly broadest at base. 

af. Antennas yellow, longer T. Atomaeia, De Oeer. 

bf. Antennas blackihh, sliorter . . . , T. brevicoenis, Mots. 
b*. Thorax about as broad at base as in 

middle T. convexiuscula, Mots. 

D. Upper surface entirely deep black. 

a. Sides of body with long outstanding seta; . T. GKANDICOLLIS, Mannh, 
h. Sides of body without outstanding setas. 
a*. Antennae and legs pitch-black. 

af. Posterior angles of thorax much pro- 
duced and curved T. feateecula, Mafth. 

bf . Posterior angles of thorax not much 

produced T. L.^jtitia, Matlh. 

b*. Legs lighter or darker yellow. 
af . Antennas pitch-black. 

aj. Antennte short T. antheacina, Matth. 

bj. Antenu£B long T. attenpata, Gyll. 

bf . Antennas more or less obscurely yel- 
low, 
aj. Elytra broad, parallel-sided . . . T. lata, Mots. 
b^. Elytra more or less narrowed 
towards apex, 
*. Thorax very shiny ; elytra dull . T. sem:initens, Matth. 
**. Thorax not much more shiny 
than elytra. 
f. Elytra longer ; size larger ; 

mouth organs yellow . . T. fasciculaeis, Herlst. 
f f . Elytra shorter ; size 
smaller ; mouth organs 
pitchy T. Caegonaeia, Matth. 

2. Posterior angles of thorax not much produced. 

A. Colour griscous-brown : elytra longer than 

broad, dilated at the middle T. Edithia, Matth. 

B. Colour fuscous ; elytra quadrate, parallel- 
sided T. FUSCULA, Matth. 

ii. Thorax scarcely, or not at all, broader than elytra. 
1. AntennaB black or pitchy-black. 

A. Autennse with eighth joint incrassato . . . T. picicoENiS, MartH/*. 
P. Antennae with eighth joint not incrassate. 
a. Anterior tarsi of male dilated. 

a*. Antenna; longer J elytra oblong, parallel- 
sided ' T. lONaicORNiS, Mannh. 

b*. Antenna; shorter; elytra somewhat 
dilated behind, or about middle. 



I'richoj'lery.r.] clavicornia. 115 

af. Elyti'a shorter, subquadrate, broadest 

bebiud middle T. BREViPENNis, Ei: 

bf. Elytra longer, ovate, broadest about 

middle T. Kirbii, Matlh. 

b. Anterior tarsi of male not dilated. 
a* Pubescence short. 

af. Elytra not narrowed behind, oblong or 
subquadrate. 
aj. Posterior angles of thorax much 

produced T. cantiana, Matth. 

bj. Posterior angles of thorax not pro- 
duced T. VOLANS, Matlh. 

bf. Elytra narrowed behind, oval. 

a J. Thorax more narrowed from base 
to apex ; sculpture less pronounced; 

antenna? shorter T. BOViNA, Mots. 

\>X- Thorax scarcely narrowed from base 
to apex ; sculpture more pronounced ; 

antennse longer T. loxgula, Matth. 

b*. Pubescence longer. 

at- Size larger J elytra moderately long ; 
thorax with rather large tubercles, sides 
ver}' finely margined ; pubescence 

fuscous T. SEEICANS, Ileer. 

bf. Size smaller; thorax more plainly 
margined; elytra very short. 
aj. Thorax with rather large tubercles; 
elytra deeply asperate, margined ; 

pubescence fuscous T. beetis, Mots.* 

bj. Thorax with very small tubercles ; 
elytra feebly asperate, not margined ; 

pubescence whitish T. Cheveoiatii, All. 

2. Antennae yellow, or pitchy-yellow. 

A. Colour entirely castaneous or fusco-castaneous. 

a. Thorax with sides almost straight, strongly 

tuberculate, head broad T. ambiofa, Matth. 

b. Thorax with sides distinctly narrowed in 

frout, feebly tuberculate. 
a*. Form very convex ; head very broad ; 

eyes small ; elytra not dilated behind in 

female T. Poweei, Mafth. 

b*^'. Form rather depressed ; head narrower ; 

eves large and prominent ; elytra strongly 

dilated behind in female T. dispar, Mal/h. 

B. Head and thorax black or pitchy-black ; 

elytra castaneous. 
a. Elytra longer than head and thorax . , . T. Gfeeinii, AH. 
h. Elytra not longer than head and thorax . T. obscjena, Jl'o/l. 

C. Head and thorax black, elytra yellow 

testaceous ; sculpture very faint T. WATEEHoirsir, Matth. 

D. Head and thorax black, elytra brownish-black. 
a. Head longer ; thorax smaller ; sculpture 

distant T. Montandoxii, All. 



* This very rare species appears occasionally to have the antenna? yellowish ; in my 
snecimcn, however, they are decidedly pitchy. 

I 2 



IIG CLAVICORNIA. [Tricliopieri/cc. 

b. Head shorter ; thorax longer ; sculpture 

close T. RIVTTLARIS, All. 

E. Upper surface entirely deep black. 

a. Form broad almost cylindrical ; head very 

broad; thorax large /elytra parallel-sided . T. Jaxsoni, il/««/t.* 

b. Form narrower ; head less broad ; thorax 
small with sides rounded, narrower than 

elytra ; elytra dilated about middle . . . T. STTFFOCATA, Bah 
II. Thorax coarsely margined; sculpture variolosa 

(Bcsocrara Thorns.) T. variolosa, Muls. 

T. Sarae, Matth. Short, broad, very strongly convex, shining, 
clothed with rather thick greyish pubescence ; head and thorax black, 
elytra rufo-castaneous ; head large and wide, antennae slender, with the 
apical joint much elongate, the two basal joints bright yellow, the rest 
darker; thorax very large and convex, broader than elytra with miuiite 
tub;?rcles placed in regular sinuate rows, interspaces reticulate ; elytr i 
rather short, strongly narrowed behind, deeply and very closely asperate ; 
abdomen piceous, moderately exserted ; legs short, bright yellow; under- 
sarface castaneous, with a large spot near the apex of the metasterniim, 
and the cox£e, bright yellow ; abdomen with terminal segments paler. 
L. \-l mm. 

Two specimens were taken in Nottinghamshire by the Rev. H. Matthews in 1861 ; 
the species has not been found since that time. 

T. ChampioniS; Matth. Narrow, elongate, conveK, obscurely 
castaneous, shining, sparingly clothed with yellow hairs ; head rather 
small, eyes small, not prominent, antcnna3 long, bright yellow ; thorax 
moderate, broadest at base, with the sides slightly rounded, covered with 
very small tubercles in indistinct wavy rows, posterior angles much pro- 
duced ; scutellum very large, rather deeply asperate ; elytra short, much 
narrowed behind, about as long as, but slightly narrower tban, head and 
thorax, faintly asperate in transverse wavy rows ; abdomen much cx- 
SiTtfd, with live segments uncovered, terminal segment minutely tiiden- 
tate ; legs moderate, bright yellow. L. -| mm. 

Seven examples were taken many years ago in Wicken Fen near Cambridge by a 
collector of Lepidoptera, and giveu by him to Mr. J. T. Harris of Burton-ou-1'rent. 

T. thoracica, Waltl. Very short, broad and convex, fuscous 
black, clothed with rather long greyish hairs ; head moderate, antenna; 
rather robust, yellow ; thorax very large and convex, broadest before 
base, with rather close irregular tubercles, posterior angles strongly pro- 
duced ; scutellum rather short ; elytra very sliort, (Quadrate, deeply 
asperate, a little narrowed to apex ; abdomen moderately exserted ; legs 
sliort, clear yellow, with the femora dusky ; under-side black, mouth and 
coxije flavescent. L. f mm. 

In moss and flood refuse, chiefly in the latter; rare; Woking, Claygate, Lee; 



* This species appears to have the antenna^ either yellow or obscurely yellow. 



Trichopteryx.'] Clavicoknia. 117 

]{i'ptoii, Hurton-ou-Treiit, Knowle, Needwooil, ami otluT Mullaiid localities!; Duuluim 
Park, Manchester; Nortliumberlaiul district ; Scotland, Forth and Solway districts. 

This species closely resembles T. atcmar/'a. and iDay perhaps he a 
small race of tliis latter insect, but is distinguisluHl by its ampler thorax, 
which is broadest before base, and is furnished witli larger and more 
closely set tubercles, and by its shorter and narrower elytra. 

T. atomaria, De G. Somewhat ovate, rather broad, convex, pitchy- 
black, shinin,L;v, clothed with rather long yellowish hairs ; lioad large, 
antennre rather short, yellow ; thorax large, broadest at base, with small 
remote tubercles, interspaces shining, posterior angles strongly produced ; 
scutellum large ; elytra very slightly narrowed to apex in female, strongly 
in male, rather deeply asperate ; legs yellow^, with femora dusky ; under- 
side black, mouth, coxa?, and apex of abdomen flavescent, L. f-| mm. 

In moss, haystack refuse, flood refuse, &c. ; not uncommon and generally dis- 
tributed throughout the kingdom. 

T. brevicornis, Mots. A-^ery like the preceding species, but dis- 
tinguished by having the posterior margin of the thorax trisinuate, by 
its longer elytra, which have a more distinct fuscous tinge, and its 
shorter antennae, which are nigropiceous : the sculpture also is coarsei', 
and its average size is larger. L. |-1 mm. 

Several specimens were taken by IMr. T. R. Billups at Canning Town, West Ham 
Marshes, Essex, on November 29, 1883, by shaking the bottom of a stack of radish 
seed, but it has not been taken in any other locality in Britain ; it is common in the 
island of Madeira. 

T. convexiuscula, Mots, (convexa, Matth.). Oval, obtuse, very 
strongly convex, very shining, fuscous-black, sparingly clothed with short 
pale hairs ; head largo, very broad, antennae slender, rather short, clear 
yellow ; thorax very little ciliated behind, about as broad at base as in 
middle, Avith little tubercles irregularly arranged in sinuate rows^ inter- 
spaces very shining, finely reticulate, posterior angles strongly produced ; 
elytra almost quadrate, not narrower than thorax ; legs clear yellow ; 
nnder-surface ni>iro-piceous, with abdomen lighter, and the mouth, coxae 
and posterior margins of metasternum, yellow. L. |- mm. 

Taken by Mr. Matthews in Oxfordshire ; it has also occurred in Russia. 

T. antbracina, Matth. Subovate^ convex, strongly narrowed 
liehind in male^ less strongly in female, deep black, veiy shining, clothed 
with short grey hairs ; head large, prominent, antennae rather short, 
pitchy-black ; thorax very convex, dilated Ijchind, with transverse 
sinuate rows of large tubercles, interspaces reticulate, very shining, pos- 
terior angles strongly produced; elytra narrower than thorax, rather 
finely asperate, suture a little raised behind ; legs clear yellow ; under- 
side black, with the abdomen lighter and the mouth, apex of meta- 
sternum, and coxa? yellow. L. |-|^ mm. 



118 CLAVICORNIA. [Tiicho-ptt'rijx. 

In moss, haystnck refuse, &o. ; local ; London distvict, rare, Slieerness, Chatham, 
and Rejgate ; Hastings; iSuiailhi alb, Eiifrbaston, and Knowle ; Reptou, liear liurton- 
on-Trent, common in hot-bed in my garden ; Sherwood Forest, not uncommon ; it is 
probably widely distributed. 

The species may be known by the elytra being strongly attenuated 
beliind in male, the short dark antennae, and the sculpture of the thorax, 
Avhich is like that of T. sericans but with broader interspaces. 

T. fratercala, IMatth. Rather short and broad, black, shining,- 
clothed with short yellow hairs ; head large, broad in front, eyes large 
and rather prominent, antennse rather short, pitchy-black ; palpi black ; 
thorax large, very convex, Avidest before base, upper-surface Avith minute 
remote tubercles arranged in distant wavy rows, closely reticulated, or 
alutaceous, posterior angles broad, much produced, and dilated on their 
exterior edge^ somewhat in the shape of the bill of the Puffin, Fratercula 
arrtica (hence the name of the species) ; scutellum large ; elytra short, 
slightly narrowed behind, narrower than head and thorax, moderately 
asperate ; abdomen considerably exserted ; legs rather short, robust, yellow, 
with the femora dusky ; under-surface entirely black. L. f-|^ mm. 

Three specimens of this species have been taken by Mr. Matthews at Gumlcy, near 
Market Harborougb, by sweeping. 

T. grandicollis, Mannh. Eather broad, convex, black with an 
reneous reflection, thickly clothed with rather short yellow hairs ; head 
large, eyes not prominent ; antennae moderate, pitchy or pitchy-testaceous ; 
thorax rather large, broadest at middle, with moderate^ irregularly 
arranged, tubercles, and with a large black seta on each side behind 
middle ; elytra rather short, slightly narrowed behind^ deeply asperate, 
ftirnished at sides with two long setae, one near the shoulder and another 
behind middle ; legs yellow, under-side black, with the mouth testaceous 
or piceous, and the coxae black, margined with yellow. L. 1-1 1 mm. 

In moss, cow-dung, vegetable refuse, &c. ; common and generally distributed in 
Enghuid ; it sometimes occurs in great profusion ; it appeal's, however, to be rarer in 
the north and in Scotland; Ireland, near Dublin, &c. 

This species is ver}'- easily recognized by the three long outstanding 
setae on each side, Avhich are possessed by no other British species. 

T. lata, Mots. The largest of our species ; broad and subquadrate, 
convex, black, with a slight teneous reflection, thickly clothed with long 
yellow hairs ; head large and broad, eyes rather prominent, antennte 
long, slender, yellow ; thorax large, dilated behind, broadest before base, 
with somcAvhat large tubercles, arranged in rather sinuate rows, which are 
almost straight near base, posterior angles broad, produced ; scutellum 
moderate ; elytra quadrate, not narrowed behind, longer than head and 
thorax, deeply and remotely asperate ; legs rather long, clear yellow ; 
uufler-side pitchy-black, mouth and coxto yellow. L. Ij-lf mm. 



Trichopteryj-. ] CLA v ico rn ia . 119 

111 dead loaves, mos3, vogvtable and Hood refuse, hot beds!, at roots of grass, &e. ; 
very eoiimiou aud widely distributed. 

The large size, and long antennae, togeihcr with tho ([uadrate elytra 
and close sculpture of the tlioraxj will easily distinguish this, perhaps 
the commonest of our species. 

T. cantiana, IMatth, This species is very closely allied to the 
preceding, but dillVrs in having the thorax much less dilated at the sides 
and base, and by its smaller head ; the antennoe, moreover, are rather 
shorter, more robust and entirely black, and the mouth parts are pitchy- 
black ; the colour is deeper black aud the pubescence is shorter. L. 
1^-1 mm. 

In vegetable refuse, moss, &c. ; rare ; Tonbridge (WoUaston); Repton, Burton-on- 
Tieiit, where I have taken a few speciuiens in Robins Wood from refuse at the side 
of a jioud. 

T. fascicularis, Herbst. Suboval, convex, rather dull black, some 
what sparingly clothed with short pale hairs ; head moderate, eyes some- 
what prominent, antennae clear yelloAv, occasionally obscurely yellow ; 
thorax dilated behind, broadest at base, with small distinct tubercles, 
arranged in sinuate rows, interstices deeply reticulate, giving the thorax 
a dull appearance, posterior margin gently sinuate, posterior angles acute, 
produced ; scutellum rather short and broad ; elytra longer, and a little 
narrower than head and thorax, attenuated behind, asperate in thick, 
transverse sinuate rows ; abdomen considerably exserted ; legs clear 
yellow ; under-side black, with mouth and coxae yelloAV. L. 1-1 1 mm. 

lu vegetable aud haystack refuse, faggots, dead leaves, ants' nests, &c. ; not un- 
conimon and generally distributed. 

This species much resembles T. lata, but the antenna? are .shorter and 
stouter, and the elytra are more narrowed behind, and the general 
appearance is duller ; the sculpture also of the thorax is different. 

T. laetitia, Matth. Very closely allied to the preceding and very 
likely only a local race ; it differs in its conspicuously smaller size, 
smaller and more depressed thorax, and shorter aiid pitchy-black antenuie. 
T. fascicularis, however, sometimes has the antenn;E darker, and T. 
latitia occasionally has them lighter, so that the latter character can 
hardly be depended on. L. ^.— |mm. 

Robins Wood, Repton, Burton on -Trent, where I took about forty specimens in 
rubbish near the side of a pond ; Mr. Biliups has taken it near London, aud Mr. Allen 
llarker near Gloucester ; it is probably widely distributed. 

T. seminitens, Matth. Oblong oval, black, thorax very shining, 
elytra duller, convex, clothed rather sparingly with pale hairs ; head 
large, eyes large and prominent, antennae slender, rather short, piceous ; 
thorax very convex, much dilated behind, broadest at base, with rather 
large tubercles, disposed in remote sinuate rows, interspaces very shining, 
posterior angles broad and much produced ; scutellum large and broad ; 



120 CLAVicORXiA. [Tn'cJiopicii/x. 

elytra short, narrowed behind, much shorter and rather narrower thaia 
liead and thorax, rather deeply asperate in remote sinuate rows ; 
abdomen much exserted ; legs rather short, robust, dark yellow ; i;nder- 
side black, with the mouth and coxae yellow. L. vix 1 mm. 
Kare ; Suodland (Kent) ; Sherwood Forest (in faggots) ; Scotland. 

This species is allied to T. fascicularis, but differs in the greater con- 
vexity of its form, the shining surface and more remote sculpture of the 
thorax, and shorter pitchy antennae ; from T. atteiniafa it differs in its 
larger size and much greater convexity, shorter antennae, and sculpture 
of thorax. 

T. attenuata, Gill. Ovate, much narrowed behind, somewhat 
depressed, black, sparingly clothed with short pale hairs ; head large, 
eyes proniinent, antennte very long, nigro-piceous ; thorax large, very 
strongly dilated behind, Avitli rather large tubercles, irregularly arranged 
in thickly set rows, interspaces glabrous, Avith a large transverse fovea on 
each side near posterior angles, Avhich are much produced ; elytra much 
attenuated towards apex, deeply and transversely asperate ; legs robust, 
clear yellow; under-side black, with mouth and coxae yellowish. L. 
I mm. 

lu flood refuse, &e., very rare; Suodland and Egliam, Kent (Champion) ; Gunilej', 
Leicestershire (Matthews) ; Sherwood Forest, in faggots (Matthews). 

T. volans, Mots. Oblong, rather convex, deep black, thickly 
clothed with short yellow hairs ; head large, rather prominent ; antennae 
rather short, pitchy ; thorax short, not broader than elytra, with moderate 
tubercles, arranged in strongly sinuate roAVS^ interstices reticulate, pos- 
terior angles scarcely produced ; elytra rather long, not attenuate behind, 
deeply and irregularly asperate, Avith the apices almost straight, and the 
suture raised behind ; abdomen rather much exserted ; legs somewhat 
long, yellow ; under-side black, Avith the mouth, ajoex of metasternum, 
last segments of abdomen, and coxae, yellow ; posterior coxas strongly 
dilated, marked Avith a large black spot in middle. L. f-|^mm. 

Three specimens were taken about 1876 or 1877 by Mr. Champion at Avicmore, 
Scotland. 

This species somewhat resembles T. serieavs, but is larger and has 
much shorter pubescence, and differs also in its longer elytra, and the 
sculj^ture of the thorax. 

T. sericans, TIeer. Rather short and broad, someAvhat depressed, 
obscure black, not very shining, clothed Avith rather long fuscous hairs ; 
head broad, eyes not prominent ; antenna3 rather stout, black or pitchy- 
black ; thorax moderate, slightly dilated behind, broadest before base, 
Avith rather large tubercles arranged in thick, interrupted roAvs, posterior 
angles slightly produced, acute, sides very finely margined ; elytra rather 
dhort, subquadrats, deeply and closely asperate, margined ; legs, oljscurdy 



Tridu)pterijx.'\ clavicobnia. 121 

yellow, under-siilo pitcli^'-black, with mouth, coxre, raotastenaim, and 
margins of ventral segments of abdomen obscurely yellow. L. |-|^ mm. 

In vegetable refuse, grass lieaps, hot-beds, &c. ; rather local, but very abniulunt in 
some places ; London district, not coniuion, Lee ; Kingsgate ; Hastings ; Glaiivilles 
VVootton ; Weymouth; Exeter; Dean Forest; Midland districts, not uncommon, 
Birmin<rliam districts, Eepton, &c. ; Wicken Fen ; Cheshire; Lincolnshire; Hartle- 
pool; Northumberland district, rare; Scotland, Solway, Forth, Tay, and Clyde 
districts. Lvland, near Dublin. 

T. brevis, Mots. In appearance this species very mucli resembles tlie 
preceding, but differs in its smaller size, shorter and broader form, more 
jirominent eyes, shorter elytra, and deeper sculpture, and also in the fact 
that both the thoiax a-nd elytra are distinctly margined. L. |-f mm. 

In hot-beds, &e. ; very rare; Cumley, in vegetable refuse (Matthews); I once 
took two specimens in my hot-bed at Keptou, one of which has four distinct foveolate 
depressions on the thorax. 

The antennte of this species appear to vary somewhat in colour. 

T. bovina, Mots. Oval, convex, deep black, dull, clothed with 
short, pale, silky hairs ; head moderate ; eyes rather small and prominent ; 
antennae short and stout, black or pitchy-black ; thorax short, dilated 
behind, with small tubercles arranged in sinuate rows, interspaces feebly 
reticulate, posterior angles acute, scarcely produced ; scutellum large ; 
elytra rather short, oval, very clo:-ely asperate in transverse roAvs, with 
apices contracted and rounded ; abdomen rather much exserted ; legs 
clear yellow ; femora dusky ; under-side pitchy with mouth and coxte 
lighter. L. |-| mm. 

In flood refuse, dead leaves, &c., but especially in dry cow-dung ; occasionally 
taken by evening: sweciiing ; not uncommon and gener^Jly distributed throughout the 
greater part of England ; it has not, however, been recorded from the extreme north ; 
Scotland, Forth and Tay districts. 

This species is easily distinguished from T. sericans by its shape and 
finer sculpture, and especially by its shorter antennee. 

T. brevipennis, Er. 8hort and broad, convex, black, thickly 
clothed with rather long pale hairs ; head large, rather prominent ; eyes 
prominent ; antennte long, pitchy, or pitchy-testaceous ; thorax somewhat 
dilated, broadest before base, with distinct minute tubercles thickly 
arranged in rows, interspaces reticulate, plainly margined, posterior 
angles produced, acute ; elytra very short, somewhat dilated behind in 
male, thickly and deeply asperate in transverse rows, apices broad, strongly 
rounded ; abdomen rather much exserted, somewhat aciiminate ; legs 
rather long, pitchy or pitchy-testaccons, with the anterior tibiae, and the 
first joint of the anterior tarsi, strongly dilated in male ; under-side black 
Avith the mouth and apex of abdomen a little lighter, all the coxas pitchy. 
L. f— 1^ mm. 

In moss and refuse in damp places, especially in or near marshes ; local ; Shirley 
(Sharp) ; Glanviiles Wootton ; Kuowlc, near Birmingham ; Gumlcy, Lciceotershire j 
bcotlaud, Solway district. 



122 CLAVicoRNiA, [Trickojjtcri/x. 

T. K.irbii, Matth. Ovate, very convex, black, clothed with long yel- 
low pubescence ; head rather large, elongate, eyes somewhat prominent, 
antenna? long, piceous, with the basal joints paler ; thorax rather longer 
and wider than head, with the sides dilated and rounded, and rather 
contracted at base, thickly covered with mi ante tubercles, interstices 
deeply reticulate, posterior angles acute and rather more produced than 
in the allied species, sides margined ; at the base of thorax there is an 
elongate transverse fovea, gradually increasing in Avidth from the 
scutellum, which it almost reaches, to the hinder angle ; scutellum 
large ; elytra ovate, not wider than thorax, wdth the sides rounded, 
deeply and irregularly asperate ; abdomen considerably exserted, witli 
apical segment deeply tridendate ; legs long, yellow, anterior tibite 
dilated in male, all the tarsi with the basal joint dilated in male, the 
anterior pair with the first joint very short and wide, and the second 
■very large and unequally bifid ; under-side black with the mouth and 
coxae lighter. L. f mm. 

Three specimens taken by Mr. Mattliews under sedge refuse at Ranwovtli Fen, 
Norfolk. 

T. losigricornis, Mannh. Oblong, parallel, somewdiat depressed, 
black, not very shining, clothed with very short, yellowish pubescence ; 
head large and broad, eyes not prominent, antennae very long and slender, 
light pitchy, or sometimes pitchy-testaceous ; thorax rather short, quad- 
rate, scarcely dilated behind, very thickly covered with minute tubercles, 
posterior angles produced, acute, basal margin deeply sinuate ; scutellum 
rather large ; elytra rather long, oblong, parallel sided until near apex, 
finely asperate ; legs rather long and stout, yellow; male w^ith the anterior 
tibiai dilated, and the first two joints of the anterior and intermediate tarsi 
dilated, those of the anterior pair more broadly so ; under-side black 
with mouth and coxsa yellow. L. | mm. 

In hot-beds, &c., rare; Gumley, Market Harboro', &c. 

This species may be known by its oblong, parallel form, large broad 
head, very long and slender antennae, and the dilated joints of the tarsi 
in male, as well as by the sculpture. 

T. Sditliia, INIatth. Elongate, oblong, convex, griseous-brown, 
covered Avith long silky pale pubescence ; head large and wide, e^^es not 
prominent, antennae very long and slender, bright yellow ; thorax with 
the sides much rounded, widest near the middle, covered with small 
tubercles irregularly arranged, interspaces shining and deeply reticulate, 
posterior angles slightly produced ; elytra oval, much narrower than the 
thorax at shoulders, widest at middle, deeply asperate in close wavy rows ; 
legs long, slender, bright yellow. L. f mm. 

One example only of this distinct species is known ; it was taken by Mr. Wollaston 
near Tonbridge in 1871. 

T. long'ula, Matth. Elongate, rather narrow, convex, somcAvhat 



Trirhoptcri/x.'] CLAvicOKNiA. 123 

shining, black, clothed with very short yellow piihoscenf^o ; liead viitlier 
small, eyes large, prominent, antennix; moderate, rather stout, pitchy- 
Llaek ; thorax short, broadest at middle, with small tubercles arranged 
in thick strongly sinuate rows, interspaces shining, deeply reticulate, 
posterior margin almost straight, angles scarcely produced ; scutellum 
large ; elytra oblong, very convex, with the sides almost parallel, thickly, 
but not deeply, asperate ; legs yellow. L. |-1 mm. 

In liot-beds, vegetable refuse, &c. ; nire, but probably mucli more widely dis- 
tributed thuu is at pi-eseiit known j 'J'onbi idge ; Guniley, L' icestcrsliire ; Kiiowle ; 
liepton ; Lincoln ; in both the latter places I have taken it in the liot-bed in my 
garden ; Mr. Champion has also found it in Scotland. 

This species is allied to T. jnctconii.s, but ditfers in its shorter and 
narrower thorax, longer and more slender antenme, and closer and hner 
sculpture. 

T. picicornis, Jlannh. Oblong, convex, black, rather sparingly 
clothed with yellowish hairs; head laigo, antennaj moderate, pitchy- 
black, with the eighth joint somewhat incrassate ; thorax scarcely dilated 
behind, with sides rounded and margined, furnished Avith moderate 
tubercles arranged in thick, interrupted, rows, interspaces deeply reticulate, 
posterior aiigles moderately ]»roduced ; scutellum rather small ; elytra 
quadrate, slightly broader behind, Avitli sides almost parallel, moderately 
strongly asperate ; abdomen rather much exserted, apical segment tri- 
dentate; legs rather stout, obscurely yellow; basal joints of all the 
tarsi slightly dilated ; under-side black, mouth and coxae lighter. 
L. f mm. 

In rotten wood ; rare; Hastings; Knowle ; Gundey ; Sherwood Forest ; Norlbum- 
bcrland district, six specimens (Bold; ; Scotland, Forth and Tay districts (Avie- 
more, &e.). 

T. carbonaria, Matth. This species is allied to T. picicornis, but 
differs from that species in its paler and more slender antennae, of which 
the eighth joint is linear and not incraspate, and in the different sculpture 
of the thorax and elytra, the tubercles on the former being smaller, and 
the latter being deeply and very closely asperate. L. | mm. 

A single example was taken in August, 1868, by the Rev. A. Matthews in Tlioresl)y 
Park, Xottingliamsliire, by sweeping under oaks. 

T. Jansoni, Matth. Oblong, subcylindrical, subparallel, deep black, 
clothed very sparingly Avith short silvery hairs ; head short, very broad, 
antennaj rather long, pitchy-testaceous or yellow ; thorax scarcely dilated 
behind, with sides rather broadly margined, with moderate tubercles, 
arranged in irregular remote sinuate jows, interspaces very shining, 
deeply reticulate, posterior angles rather distinctly produced ; elytra 
rather long, parallel-sided until behind middle, and thence rounded to 
apex, deeply asperate in remote, transversely sinuate, rows ; legs 
moderate, clear yellow ; under-side black, with mouth, coxas, and apex 
of metasternum, yellow. L. \ mm. 



]2t CLAVICORNIA. [Trichopieryx. 

Very rare; three specimeus have been takuu by Mr. Matthews, uear Gumley, 
Leicestershire. 

T. lllontandonii, All. Oblong, convex, shining, black with the 
elytra fuscous black, rather thickly clothed with long white pubescence ; 
head large, eyes prominent, antennae long, either entirely yellow or 
slightly fuscous towards apex ; thorax moderate, slightly dilated at base, 
with moderate tubercles, which are remote and irregularly arranged, 
interspaces deeply reticulate, posterior margin strongly sinuate, angles a 
little produced ; scutellum large ; elytra oblong, almost parallel-sided, 
not narrowed behind ; legs yellow ; under-side pitchj'-black, with mouth 
and coxiB yellow, last segments of abdomen lighter. L. f-|- mm. 

In vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c., and occasionally in ants' nests ; local; London 
district, not common. Tonbridwe, Belvedere, Loughton ; Huustauton, Norfolk ; 
Kiiowle ; liepton, Burton-ou-Trent ; Northnniberland district, very rare; Scotland, 
Forth district ; it is probably generally disiributeJ. 

The oljlong shape, long and slender antennse, and distant tubercles of 
thorax will serve to distinguish the species. 

T. rivularis, All. A^ery closely allied to the preceding, but dis- 
tinguished by its more elongate form and longer thorax, and also by 
having the elytra somewhat contracted to apex ; the sculpture also is 
different, the tubercles on the thorax being rather small, and arranged 
more closely and regularly, and the posterior margin of the thorax is 
straighter. L. |-| mm. 

Mr. Matthews says that this species is not uncommon in England ; Birmingham 
district, &c. ; I feel very doubtful as to whether it can really be separated I'rom T. 

Mofitandonii. 

T. G-uerinii, All. Oblong, moderately convex, subparallel, head 
and thorax black, elytra rufo-castaneous, sparingly clothed with short 
yellow hairs ; head large, prominent ; eyes small, prominent ; antennae 
rather long, yellow ; thorax moderate, very slightly dilated behind, 
with small distinct tubercles, arranged in sinuate roAvs, interspaces 
reticulate, posterior angles slightly but plainly produced, acute ; elytra 
almost parallel-sided, rather deeply asperate in thickly set, sinuate, 
rows ; legs rather long and slender, yelloAV, with coxse and femora pitchy ; 
under-side black, with mouth parts pitchy. L. f- 1- mm. 

Very rare ; in hot-beds, &c. ; West Ham (Billups) ; Gumley ; Hunstanton, Norfolk, 
at which place I took a single specimen in August, 1879. 

T. obscoena, Woll. Oblong, elongate, strongly convex, with the 
liead and thorax black and the elytra nigro-castaneous ; allied to T. 
Gueriiiii, but differs from that species by its longer and narrower form, 
shorter and more obscurely coloured antenna?, which have a less distinct 
club, shorter and darker elytra, and deeper sculpture. L. ^-^ mm. 

This species has once been taken in faggots by Mr. Matthews in Sherwood Forest ; 
it was originally found by Mr. WoUastou iu the Canary Islands. 



Ti'icltopteri/x.'] clavicoknia. 125 

T. fuscula, ^[atth. Slmrt, qTiadratc, ratlier depressed, fuscous, 
lliifkly clothed witli long pale hairs ; head large, prominent ; eyes large ; 
antennae long ani slender, clear yellow ; thorax short, transverse, dilated 
Leliind, with rather large tubercles, arranged in thick, strongly sinuate, 
rows, interspaces shining and reticulate, sides yellowish, margined, 
posterior margin sinuate ; scutellum large ; elytra short, qiuidrate, deeply 
asperate, almost parallel-sided ; legs clear yellow ; under-side nigro- 
fuscous, with abdomen lighter, mouth and coxai yellow. L. | mm. 

In nioss; very rare ; tiiken by Mr. Matthews near Gumley. 

This species appears somewhat to resemble T. hrevis, but differs in 
its smaller thorax, longer and more slender antennae, aiul also in 
sculpture, 

T. VTaterhousii, Matth. Oblong, snbparallel, somewhat depressed, 
nigro-fuscous with the elytra testaceous, clothed with short pale hairs ; 
head large, eyes not prominent, antennae moderate, bright yellow, with 
the apical joints only slightly incrassate ; thorax short, scarcely dilated 
behind, with the sides very slightly rounded, with small distinct tubercles, 
irregularl}'' arranged in close rows, interstices slightly alutaceous, posterior 
margin yellow, angles slightly produced ; scutellum large, dull black ; 
elytra short, quadrate, slightly dilated towards apex, sides nearly straight, 
finely asperate ; abdomen fuscous, moderately exserted ; legs yellow ; 
under-side pitchy, with the metasternum and abdomen paler, mouth and 
coxte yellow. L. | mm. 

Two examples taken in Britain by Mr. Waterbouse; locality unknown. 

T. Chevrolatii, All. {pygmaia, Er.; mimda, Mots.). The smallest 
species of the genus that we possess ; short, oblong, parallel, somewhat 
depressed, black, rather shining, clothed with rather long whitish 
pubescence ; head large, eyes prominent, antennae ratlier long, entirely 
pitchy, last j(jint elongate ; thorax quadrate, scarcely dilated behind, 
with small inconspicuous tubercles; scutellum large; elytra short, 
C[uadrate, moderately asperate in transverse rows ; legs robust, clear 
ytllow, with the basal joints of all the tarsi slightly dilated ; under- 
side nigro-piceous, with the mouth, metasternum, and coxae yellow. 
L, i-| mm. 

• In vegetable refuse, 'not beds, &c. ; probably very often overlooked by reason of 
its minute size; Shirley ; Tonbridgi' ; Gumley, Leicestershire; Edgbaston and Knowie, 
Birmingham. 

This species may easily be recognized by its very small size, oblong 
and parallel form, quadrate thorax, elongate last joint of antennae, and 
very tine sculpture. 

T. suffocata, Hal, Oval, rather broad, somewhat depres'-;ed, black, 
clothed with pale pubescence ; head rather elongate and prominent, eyes 
large and prominent, antennai moderate, clear yellnw ; thorax small, 



126 CLAvrcoRNiA. [Trichnpterij.c. 

narrower tlian elytra, with small tubercles, arranged in rather thick, 
transverse, curv'ed rows, interstices not shining, scarcely dilated behind, 
posterior angles very little produced, somewhat acute, elytra rather short, 
a little contracted in front and behind, finely asperate, apices rounded ; 
abdomen much exserted, acuminate; legs yellow; under-side entirely 
black. L. 1 mm. 

Very rare ; found only by Mr. Haliday, both tlie larva and perfect insect togctlicr, 
under damp fallen leaves or stones, in tlie bed of a dried-up brook (Gleu-nu-Chatta), 
of the Shournajjh River, Cork. 

T. dispar, Matth. Eather depressed, castaneoas-brown or fuscous, 
clothed with a silvery puliescence ; head moderately large, eyes pro- 
minent, ant3iina3 long, dull yellow ; thorax short, slightly dilated behind, 
rather thickly covered with small distinct tubercles placed in curved 
rows, interstices alutaceous, posterior angles scarcely produced ; scn- 
tellum rather large ; elytra at shoulders narrower than thorax, very mu:h 
dilated towards apex in female, slightly contracted in male, closely and 
rather confusedly asperate ; abdomen somewhat attenuated and mode- 
rately exposed ; legs rather long, bright yellow ; under-side pitchy-brown 
with the mouth and coxfe yellow. L. f -^ mm. 

In mos?, especially in spring; rave; London district (Waterhouse) ; Devonshire 
(VVollaston) ; Gnmley. Leicestershire, and Oxfordshire (Matthews); Knowlc and 
Randan Woods (Blatch). 

T. asubig-ua, INIatth. Castaneoiis-brown, oblong, rather broad, very 
convex, clothed with golden pubescence ; head rather large and broad, 
eyes small, not prominent, antennye rather slender, obscurely yellow ; 
thorax broadest before base, sides very slightly rounded, with irregularly 
arranged distinct large tubercles, posterior angles slightly produced ; 
scutellum large ; elytra ol)long, rather depressed, not narrowed, or even 
slightly dilated, behind, a little contracted at base, rather deeply and 
thickly asperate; legs long and robust, clear yellow, tarsi elongate, Avith 
basal joints thickened ; abdomen moderately exserted, with apex feebly 
tridentate ; luider-side castaneous, with the last segments of the body 
lighter, the coxae and apex of metasternum yellow. L. f-|- mm. 

Under bark, &c. ; very rare ; Oxfordsliire (Matthews) ; Peckham, under bark of 
Hornbeam (Billups); it appears to be common in America. 

T. Poweri, Matth. (Chevrieri, All.). Broad, oblong, very convex, 
fusco-castaneous, clothed with golden pubescence ; head large and broad, 
eyes not prominent ; antennae rather long, pitchy-testaceous ; thorax 
rather large, slightly dilated behind, with small tubercles thickly arranged 
in interrupted rows, interstices shining, finely reticulate, posterior 
angles acute, very little produced ; scutellum large ; elytra quadrate, 
somewhat dilated behind, deeply asperate in thick transverse rows, sides 
margined, apices very broad ; legs long and stout, clear yellow, witli the 
femora dusky ; under-side pitchy, with the apical segments of the abdo- 
men, the coxiP, and metasternum, yellow. L. ^—1 mm. 



Triclwpteryx.'] clavicouxia. 1l>7 

Two specimens t;ik"ii iit Wostoii, Oxfardshii\', by Mr. ]\[iitLhe\vs, iu moss. 

T, variolosa, MuLs. {Bwocrara liiforal/^, Tlioins.). Suboval, .shiniiif^, 
convex, nigro-castaneous, or nearly black, sparingly clotlied with stout 
silvery hairs, not tuberculate, but with the whole surface impressed with 
large imnctures, variolose ; head large, elongate in front, eyes proniinent, 
aijtenu;^ long and rather slender, pitchy-testaceous ; thorax short, trans- 
verse, with sides strongly margined and rounded in front and behind, 
posterior angles acute, not produced ; scutellum large, deeply punctured ; 
elytra rather short, dilated behind, with the sides rounded and strongly 
margined, apices broad, almost straight; legs long, clear yellow, femora 
pitchy ; under-side castaneous, mouth and coxte yellow. L. f- 1- mm. 

In moss, duncT, &c. ; rare; the first Hiitish specimen was tuken by Mr. Matthews 
near Gumley, Liicestershire, February, 7tb, 1852 ; subsequently Mr. Matthews foinul 
iinotherin the same locality ; it has also occurred at Bsher, near London ; JMr. Wollas- 
ton has talven it on Dartmoor, in Devonshire, and Dr. Sharp in the New Forest 
and in Scothind, in which country he records it as rare in sheep's dung, Tay district 
(Rannoch). 

Thomson separates this species on the ground of the sculpture and 
strongly margined thorax as a new genus Bcx'ocmra ; it is true that it 
presents the only instance of true punctuation in tlie genus, but tlie 
margined thorax is found in other species, and the mouth parts, ttc, 
appear to be identical ; I have therefore followed Mr. Matthews in 
keeping it under Trichopferyx. 

SMICRUS, Matthews. 

Tliis genus contains one European species, which is distinguislied 
from Microptilhim, which has been included under it, by having the 
thorax plainly constricted behind, and also by the long ligula, and 
narrowly himinate posterior coxas ; it is extremely rare in Europe, but 
rather common in iS'ort]! and South America ; it is found in dung-heaps, 
and also iu the sandy banks of streams. 

S. filicornis, Matth. {Micrus, Matth.j. Oblong, subparallel, con- 
vex, dull black, very thickly clothed witli short yellow hairs ; head 
large, broad, minutely and closely tuberculate, antennre very long and 
slender, yellow ; thorax transverse, with sides rounded in front, and 
constricted at base, very closely and minutely tuberculate, posterior 
margin almost straight, angles acute ; scutellum large ; elytra rather 
long, with sides almost parallel, very closely and deeply asperate ; abdo- 
men rather long, with five segments exserted ; legs long, robust, clear 
yellow ; under-side pitchy-black, with mouth, coxae, and apex of meta- 
sternum clear yellow, apical segment in male broadly and deeply emar- 
ginate, with a long process in middle, armed on each side Avith an 
elongate sharp spine. L. |-1| mm. 

Very rare ; once found by Mr. Matthews in numbers on the banks of tlie Rye, 



128 CLAVicoRNiA. ISinicnts. 

Niinnington, Yoikshiiv, and al^o at Gumley, Hying; I took one specimen at Ilun- 
stantou, Norfolk, ill Augu-it, 1879, on the window of our lodgings, in company ivith 
1. Guerinii ; they probably came from a stable which was not far oft". I have lately 
found a specimen among some beetles sent me for names by the Rev. C. T. Cruttwell, 
of Denton, Harlestou, Norfolk ; it was, I believe, taken near Denton. 

»IICIlOPTII.XU»£, Matthews. 

The single European species inchided in this genus was formerly 
classed with Smicrm, but besides the differences pointeil out above, it 
lias longer elj'tra and fewer segments of the abdomen uncovered, and 
the maxillae are ditferentl}'^ formed ; it is rare on the continent, and only- 
two British examples are known, 

TH. pulchellum, All. Elongate, rather depressed, pitchy-black, 
very thickly clothed with short white pubescence ; head large, prominent, 
elongate in front, eyes large and prominent, antennre very long and 
slender, clear yellow ; thorax small, shorter than head, with sides rounded 
in front and rather strongly contracted, but not constricted, behind, with 
base incumbent on shoulders of elytra, closely and rather rugosely 
tuberculate, with an oval impression on each side near middle ; elytra 
long, dilated behind, rather deeply asperate ; legs long, robust, clear 
yellow ; under-side pitchy, with the abdomen lighter, mouth and coxaj 
clear yellow. L. f-| mm. 

Very rare ; two specimens were once taken by Mr. (1. R. VVaterhouse, but I do 
not know iu what locality. 

NZPKANBS, Thomson. 

This genus contains one European and a few American species ; from 
the other members of the tribe except ^licroj^fiJiinri, it is distinguished 
by having the thorax gradually contracted behind, not constricted as in 
tSmicrus, or simple as in the other genera ; from Microptilium it may be 
known by its much shorter elytra, which leave six segments of the body 
exposed, the laminate posterior coxse, and differently shaped maxilhe 
and ligula. 

K. Titan, Xewm. (ahhreriatdlus, Heer., Thoms. ; Elacliys ahhrei-ia- 
telius, Matth.). Oblong, subparallel, dark Avith a castaneous tinge, or 
almost black, shining, moderately convex, thickly clothed with pale 
pubcsceirce ; head large, elongate iu front, eyes large, promineut, antenna^ 
lon<T, robust, yellow ; thorax short, not longer than head, broadest behind 
middle and thence contracted to base, thickly tiiljerculate ; elytra short, 
oblong, not or scarcely longer than head and thorax, with sides nearly 
parallel, closely and deeply asperate ; legs rather long and stout, clear 
yellow ; under-side castaneous, with mouth, coxae, posterior margin of 
metasternum and last segments of abdomen, yellow. L. 4 mm. 

In cut grass, vegetable refuse, hot-beds, Sec. ; locally common ; Shirley, Darcnth 



Nephanes.'] clavicoenia. 129 

Wood, Putney, Tonbriilge ; Kingsgate ; Glanvilles Wootton ; 'Harnwood, near Glouccs- 
ter ; Birniingliam district; Nortliumberland district, very rare; not recorded from 
Scotland ; Ireland, near Dublin. 

PTILIINA. 

This tribe contains seven European genera, all of ■which, with the 
exception of Micridiiim, are represented in Britain ; they are, as a rule, 
much more easy to determine than the Trichopterygina. 

I. Thorax broadest at base ; pygidium covered. 

i. Metastcrnum not extending to the sides of the body . NossiDitTM, Er. 

ii. Metasternum reaching the sides of body . . . . EouxbtiIjIVM, MaitJi. 

II. Thorax broadest before base. 

i. Thorax at base extending over the shoulders of the 

elytra at the sides, sinuate narrowly before base, so that 

the apical margin is broader than the actual basal 

margin ACTIDITJM, Matth. 

ii. Thorax fitted to the base of elytra. 

1. Metasternum extending to the sides of the body ; 
thorax not, or only moderately sulcata. 

A. Pygidium exposed ; sculpture almost always 
tuberculate * Ptiiitut, F.r. 

B. Pygidium covered ; sculpture variolosa . . . PxENiDitTM, Er. 
2 Metasternum not exte uding to the sides of body ; 

thorax very deeply sulcate • . . . Millidium, Mots. 

PTlIiEtJBIj Erichson. 

Nineteen species of this genus are enumerated by Mr. Matthews in 
his monograph from Europe and America, but several have since been 
described ; they are distinguished by having the thorax fitted to the base 
of the elytra, the pygidium exposed, and also by the generally distinctly 
tuberculate or asperate scidpture of the thorax, by which they may, as a 
rule, be separated from the species of Adidium, which bear rather a 
strong resemblance to them in general appearance ; the species are found 
in moss, hot-beds, dead leaves, &c., or under bark, 

I. Thorax not or obsoletely channelled in middle. 

i. Thorax more or less quadrate, not constricted be- 
hind. 

1, Thorax longer than head. 

A. Thorax dilated behind; sculpture of elytra 

finer P. maegikatfm, Auhe. 

B. Thorax not dilated behind ; sculpture of elytra 

coarser P. Kunzei, Heer. 

2. Thorax shorter or almost shorter than head. 

A. Elytra scarcely broader than thorax ; sculp- 
ture of thorax fine. 

a. Form broader ; antennae thicker .... P. beeticoi,le, 'Matth. 

b. Form narrower ; antennae more slender . . P. eugflosum, ^Z/. 

* In Ptillum Salidaii, the head and thorax are foveolate-puuctate. 
VOL. III. K 



130 CLAVICORNIA. [Ftilium. 

B. Elytra cousiilerably broader than thorax ; 

sculpture of thorax rather coarse P. SPENCEI, All. 

ii. Tliorax constricted behind. 

1. Head and thorax tuberculate ; thorax with at 
most a very indistinct impression on each side at 

base P. CALEDONICPM, Sharp. 

2. Head and thorax foveolate-punctate ; thorax 
with deep lateral impressed lines reaching beyond 

middle P. Halidaii, Malth. 

TI. Thoiax plainly channelled in middle. 

i. Thorax with lateral impressed lines, which are 
parallel. 

1. Impressed lines of thorax deep ; elytra con- 
siderably dilated, rather coarsely sculptured . . P. AFFINE, Er. 

2. Impressed Hues of thorax shallow; elytra scarcely 

dilated, fiuely sculptured P. INSIGNE, Matlh. 

ii. Thorax with lateral impressed lines, which con- 
verge in front P. c^suM, Er. 

iii. Thorax with lateral impressed lines which diverge 
in front. 

1. Elytra longer ; head and general form narrower ; 

average size larger P. EXAHATTJM, All. 

2. Elytra shorter ; head and general form broader ; 

average size smaller P. mtemecophilum, AU. 

iv. Thorax with lateral impressed lines very obsolete 

or absent P. foveolatum, ^/?. 

P. Hunzei^ Heer. Oblong, rather convex, black, dull, rather thickly 
clothed with grey pubescence, closely tuberculate ; head large antl broad, 
eyes small, rather prominent, antennas rather short and stout, pitchy 
black ; thorax transverse, longer and broader than head, broadest at 
base, Avith sides slightly rounded, not channelled ; elytra oval, about one 
and a half times as long as head and thorax, deeply asperate in oblique 
rows ; legs pitchy, occasionally yellow ; under-side pitchy, with the 
abdomen lighter, and the mouth and coxa3 yellow. L. ^ mm. 

In hot-beds; locally abundant, and probably widely distributed; Ashtead, Surrey ; 
Edgbastou and Knowle ; Cheshire; Manchester; Scotland, Solway district. Ireland, 
near Dublin. 

P. brevicolle, IMatth. Short, oblong, rather depressed, fuscous- 
black, rather thickly clothed with short dark hairs ; head large, broad, 
elongate in front, eyes prominent, antenna3 very long and stout, yellow ; 
thorax very short, much shorter than head, as well as head thickly and 
finely tuberculate ; elytra oblong, rather depressed, nearly parallel-sided, 
scarcely broader than thorax, very closely covered with rather large 
tubercles ; abdomen scarcely exserted ; legs long, robust, yellow, tibiaB 
slightly dilated ; under-side pitchy-black, with mouth and coxce yellow. 
L. f mm. 

Very rare ; one specimen taken near Weston, Oxfordshire, by Rev. A. Matthews. 
This very distinct species may easily be known by its extremely small 



Fiilium.] CLAVICOKNIA. 131 

size, obloncj, doprossed, form, very large head and short thorax, M'hich is 
not chanuelled, and also by its very long antennaj and general sculpture. 

P. rugrulosum, All. (fuscum, Er.). Oblong, convex, rather narrow, 
fuscous, thickly clothed with pale pubescence, with very deep rugose 
sculpture, especially on elytra; thorax, very short, not channelled ; elytra 
narrow, not or scarcely broader than head and thorax, antenniB rather 
long and slender, pale ferruginous, legs testaceous ; this species is rather 
closely allied to P. Kunzei, but differs in its narrower form, more 
rugose sculpture, much shorter thorax, and longer and more slender 
antennoe. L. \ mm. 

Very rare ; Gumley, in moss (Matthews) ; Scotland, Tay district. 

P. Spencei, All. {anrpistatnm, Er. ; ohJoin/iim, GylL). Elongate- 
oval, rather convex, fuscous-black or black, clothed Avitli rather 
long greyish hairs ; head moderate, eyes prominent, anteuna3 moderate, 
more or less pitchy ; thorax rather short, transverse, very little broader or 
wider than head, not channelled, broadest before l)ase, with rather large, 
remote tubercles, sides and angles strongly rounded ; posterior margin 
slightly reflexed; scutellum small ; elytra rather long, oval, broader thair 
thorax, deeply asperate in transverse rows, the asperations not being very 
close ; legs pitchy ; under-side pitch}'-, Avith mouth, coxa?, and apex of 
abdomen lighter. L. f mm. 

In vegetable refuse, moss, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping; locally common ; 
Eslier, Lee, Tonbridge; Hastings; Glanvilles Wootton ; Knowle, Hcpton, Mutloik, 
and other Midland localities; Clieshire; Scotland, Solway and Dee districts; in 
Bretby Wood, Repton, I once took a large number of Tricliopterygida; under some 
refuse in a ride; these all proved to be T. ffrandicolli-t and P. Spencei; I do nob 
know whether there is any connection between these insects except similarity of 
habitat ; they are both, probably, generally distributed in England. 

P. marg-inatuin, Aube. Very closely allied to P. SjjeJicei, but dis- 
tinguished by its usually larger size, larger and wider thorax, which is 
more closely sculptured, and is widest at base, and has the posterior 
margin rather strongly reflexed ; the antennae also are more lightly 
coloured, and the sculpture of the whole body is finer. L. |-| ram. 

Rare; taken by Mr. Matthews and Mr. Crotch in the Cambridgeshire and Norfolk 
Fens, in 1868, and by Mr. Matthews at Forest Hill, Kent, in rotten leaves; also by 
Mr. Blatch in Sherwood Forest, under bark. 

P. caledonicum, Sharp. Elongate- oval, convex, rather shining, 
colour variable, usually dirty testaceous, but sometimes more or less 
fuscous, head and thorax darker than elytra ; upper surface rather thickly 
clothed with long pale hairs ; head large, eyes large and ])roniiiiont, 
antennae long and very slender, yellow ; thorax broader than, and rather 
narrower than elytra, broadest at middle, with the .sides strongly rounded 
in front, and constricted behind, without channel, but sometimes Avith an 
obsolete impression on each sido near the base, Avith rather thickly-set, 

K 2 



132 CLAVICORNIA. [Ftilium. 

moderate-sized tuLercles ; elytra eloiigate-oval, broadest at middle, mo- 
derately asperate in irregular transverse rows, interstices sliining ; legs 
slender, clear yellow ; under-side fusco-tcstaceous. L. |-| mm. 

Found in numbers by Dr. Buchanan White and Dr. Sharp under the bark of a dead 
Scotch fir at Braemar, Scotland. 

In sculpture and pubescence this species is very similar to P. Spe?tcei ; 
it is an interesting species, as connecting this latter insect and its allies 
with the abnormal P. croaticum. 

P. csesum, Er. {latum,, GylL). Rather broad, castaiieons, sparingly 
clothed Avith very short pale pubescence ; head rather large and broad ; 
antennfB rather short and stout, clear yellow ; thorax larger, longer, and 
broader than head, with the sides rounded and widened in middle and 
narrowed behind, alutaceous and not tuberculate, with a central channel 
and two impressed lines, one on each side, which converge in front, pos- 
terior angles almost right angles ; elytra rather short, dilated behind, 
closely and very finely asperate ; legs clear yellow ; under-side castaneous, 
Avith the mouth, coxte, abdomen, and posterior margin of metasternum 
yellowish. L. f mm. 

Very rare ; Cambridgeshire, six specimens (Crotch). 

P. afiine, Er, Considerably larger than the preceding species, and 
of a darker colour, being fuscous or nigro-fuscous ; it is also differently 
sculptured, the head and thorax being finely and closely tuberculate, and 
the elytra being more coarsely sculptured ; the thorax is Avidest behind 
middle, and is furnished with a central channel and a deeply impressed 
line on each side, all three being parallel ; the elytra arc more gradually 
rounded, and are Avidest about middle, instead of being Avidest behind as 
in P. ccesimi, and the antennae are pitchy, lighter at base. L. § mm. 

Very rare ; three examples have occurred at Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, by 
s\veei)ing ; I liave also received two specimens from the South of England ; it appears 
also to be found under dung. 

P. exaratum, All. (cajialicnlatwm, Er.). Elongate, convex, rather 
shining, clothed Avith short greyish silky pubescence, fuscous, very finely 
and closely tuberculate ; head rather small but elongate, much narroAver 
than thorax, antennjB clear yelloAv, club slightly thickened, last joint 
elongate ; thorax Avith sides roumled in front and contracted behind, 
broadest a little before middle, Avith a central channel, and tAvo indis- 
tinctly impressed lateral lines or impressions, which diverge in front ; 
elytra long, oval, more plainly sculptured than head and thorax ; 
abdomen slightly exserted, Avith the last segments testaceous ; legs clear 
yelloAV. L. f-| mm. 

In vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c., also in cow-dung ; not uncommon, and probably 
much more widely distributed tlian is at present known ; Tonbridge and oilier 
localities in the South and Midlands (Gumley, Knowle, &c.). 

P. myrmecopliilurji, All. {inquilinum, Er. ; v. discoideum, Till.). 



Ptiliam.'] clavicornia. 133 

Allied to tlic prcccdinj:,^ but easily distinguished by its smaller size, 
broader form, shorter elytra, and reddish or castaneous colour ; the 
sculpture is exceedingly fine, and the thorax is narrower in proportion to 
the elytra ; the antennae, also, are rather shorter, and have the last joints 
more thickened. L. | mm. 

In WQsis oi Formica rn-fa ; locally abimdant ; Chislehurst, Kcufc; Scarborough; 
Scotland, very local, Due and ]\Ioray districts. 

P. insigrne, Matth. Elongate, rufo-castaneous, clothed with short 
pale pubescence, rather finely and closely tuberculate ; head large, 
elongate in front, antennae pale yellow, short and stout, with the two 
last joints much thickened ; thorax short, with sides strongly rounded, 
and much constricted at base, with a deep central channel and a shallow 
impressed line on each side, the channel and lines being parallel; elytra 
lather long, not dilated behind ; abdomen plainly exsertcd, testaceous ; 
legs rather long, slender, pale yellow, tibiaa dilated at apex ; under- side 
entirely testaceous. L. | mm. 

Very rare ; one example has been t;ilcen by Mr. WatcrhoMse in the London district, 
and Mr. Blatcii records it as from " Knowle(?)" in lawn clippings. 

This species, like P. ajfme, has the lateral lines on thorax parallel to 
the central channel, but they are much shallower, and the insect is 
altogether smaller and narrower, and more hnely sculptured, and the 
thorax is broadest about middle. 

P. foveolatuiiHj All. {excavaium, Er. ; clandedinuvi, Hal.; 7nini- 
vimn? Herbst.). Elongate, very small, narrow, and slender, rather 
convex, rufo-castaneous or rufo-testaceous, clothed with short yellow 
liairs, strongly and closely tuberculate ; head large, almost triangular, 
very much elongate, eyes large, prominent, anteunre rather long^ pale 
yellow ; thorax not broader and scarcely longer than head, slightly rounded 
in front, and constricted behind, with a short central channel and an 
indistinct impressed line or fovea on each side diverging in front ; these 
impressed lines are sometimes very indistinct ; elytra long and linear, 
pai allel-sided until near apex ; legs pale yellow, tibiie slightly dilated at 
apex ; under-side rufo-testaceous. L. |-| mm. 

In dung-heaps, hot-beds, &c.; probably generally distributed; Kingsgatc ; Mid- 
land districts ; Korlbumberlaud district, rare; I have taken it in the greatest pi o- 
fusion in a hot-bed at Bainwood near Gloucester; when a hot-bed is freshly watered 
and closed the evaporated steam condenses in large drops on the under-surf.iee of the 
glass; various species of small beetles, especially Trithopterygidas, are perpetually 
fiyiug upwaids from the cer^tre of the bed, and these are caugiit in the drops and may 
be sometimes taken by the hundred; I obtained all my specimens of P.foveolatiun 
in this manner. 

P. Kalidaii, Matth. Elongate-oval, slender, very convex, shining, 
bright castaneous, sparingly clothed with very short pale pubescence ; 
head moderate, rather elongate, deeply impressed with foveolate punc- 
tiu-es, antennaj rather long, clear yellow ; thorax small and short, scarcely 



134: CLAVICORNIA. [PiiU2im. 

longer or broader than head, deeply foveolate-punctate, with a narrow 
central channel in front not reaching to middle, and on each side anarroAV 
impressed line converging from base to beyond middle, sides slightly 
rounded, somewhat constricted behind ; scutellum large ; elytra rather 
long, narrow, and transparent, elongate-oval, broadest before middle, 
closely and rather deeply asperate in transverse rows, somewhat narrowed 
behind ; legs rather long, clear yelloAV, tibia? slightly dilated ; under-side 
castaneous, mouth, coxa% and abdomen lighter. L. | mm. 

Very rare ; a single cxairple was taken by Mr. Matthews under bark of dead oak in 
Sherwood Forest. 

The species is very distinct, and may at once be known by the sculpture 
of the head and thorax ; it partially corresponds to T. variulusa in the 
genus Triclioptcryx. 

TUlItliimVT/K, Motschulsky. 

This genus contains one European and one American species ; the 
former of these is common in hotbeds in many parts of the country ; it 
is very smooth and shining like an elongate Ptenidium, and is easily 
distinguished Ijy the very deep longitudinal furrows on the thorax. 

m. trisiilcatum, Aube {minutissimvm, Gill). Elongate-oval, 
convex, pitchy-black or deep black, very shining, almost glabrous, very 
sparingly clothed with extremely short silvery hairs ; head moderate, alu- 
taceous, eyes small, scarcely prominent, antennae rather obscurely yellow ; 
thorax alutaceous, with sides strongly rounded, contracted behind, 
broadest behind middle, posterior angles acute, with a very deep median 
furrow and a shorter furrow on each side, diverging in front ; scutellum 
large, broad, triangular, with a deep conical fovea not reaching base, and 
a smaller oblique fovea on each side ; elytra ovate, very shining, extremely 
finely and remotely punctured, apices lighter ; abdomen slightly exserted, 
rather acute ; legs clear yellow ; under-side pitchy, with mouth, coxse, 
and last segment of abdomen clear yellow. L. | mm. 

In mos?, vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; not uncommon in some loralities ; it 
seems to be rare in the London district ; Toubiidge ; llepton, Burton-on-Ti-eut, 
(ommon, Knowle, and other Midland localities; Baruwood, Gloucester; it is not 
recorded from the North or from Scotland ; my impression is that it is very widely 
distributed, but is overlooked on account of its minute size and sluggish movements. 

ACTZBIUM, Matthews. 

This very distinct genus contains eight species, three from Europe, 
two from British Columbia, one from the Sandwich Islands, one from 
Central America, and one from New Zealand ; it is probable that many 
more will be discovered ; they are easily distinguished from Plillam by 
having the abdomen entirely covered by the elytra. 



ActidiUDl.] CLAYICOKNIA. 135 

I. Upper surface pilose, not sliiuiiig ; bead and thorax 

deeply foveolate-punctate A. coakctatum, JIal. 

11. Upper surface almost g'labrous, sliiiiiug' ; head and thorax 

very tiuely tuberculatc or alutaccous A. CONCOI-OR, Sharp. 

A. coarctatum, Hal. Linear, elongate, rather convex, dull black, 
thickly dotted with long silvery hairs ; head large, elongate, rounded in 
front, eyes small, prominent, antennte rather long, clear yellow ; thorax 
short, transverse, scarcely longer than head, with sides strongly rounded, 
marked with a large, transverse, reniform impression at base ; head and 
thorax strongly foveolate-punctate ; scutellum small ; elytra very long, 
linear, finely but distinctly and closely tuberculate, sutural angles almost 
right angles ; legs rather long and stout, clear yellow, tibiae strongly 
dilated ; under-side pitchy, with mouth and coxaj yelloAV. L. |-| mm. 

Uuder sea-weed and shingle on the coast ; also in hot-beds, &c., inland ; first taken 
in Britain on tlie coast of Irehmd by tialiday ; Walton-on-Naze (Champion) ; Kings- 
gate, in profusion in a heap of decaying sea-weed in company with Actinopteryx 
(T. Wood); I have taken it sparingly in a hot-bed at Baiuwood, near Gloucester, for 
two or three years in succession, in company with Nephanes Titan and Plilium 
fvtieolatum ; this capture is interesting, as confirming Haliday's record of having 
taken the species in a hot-bed, which was commonly supposed to have been made in 
error. 

This species appears to be distributed throughout the whole of Europe, 
and the African shore of the Mediterranean Sea. 

A. concolor, Sharp {Ptilinm concolor, Sharp). Linear and elongate, 
somewhat convex, shining, deep black, clothed with very short silvery 
hairs, so that the surface appears almost glabrous, alutaceous and scarcely 
tuberculate; head large and broad, elongate, eyes rather small, not pro- 
minent, antennae rather short and stout, pitchy-testaceous ; thorax very 
short, with sides strongly rounded and margined, and very strongly con- 
tracted behind ; scutellum small ; elytra elongate, linear, not broader 
than, and almost twice as long as, head and thorax, with sides almost 
straight, sutural angles obtuse ; legs long, pitchy-testaceous, posterior tibia? 
strongly dilated, tarsi very short ; under-side black, with mouth, coxae, 
and apex of abdomen lighter. L. | mm. 

In damp sand and shingle on the banks of rivers and streams ; very rare ; first 
taken by Dr. Sharp and Mr. Cn)tch on the banks of the Bowmout, at Yetholm, 
Nortluimberland, and subsequently by Dr. Sharp in the Solway and Tweed districts 
of Scotland ; it has also been taken by Mr. Waterbouse (to whom 1 am indebted for 
my specimen) near Kipon ; it often occurs in company with Thinobius lonffij)enni$, 
to which it bears a considerable superficial resemblance. 

EVRVPTIZiZUI^, Matthews. 

This genus was formed by Mr. Matthews to include the species 
described by Gillmeister as 2Vichopte?-i/x saxouica, and usually known as 
Ptilium saxonicnm ; it is very distinct from Ptilium by reason of its 
broader form, and by having the abdomen entirely covered by the elytra, 



13G clavicornij\. \_Eiiry2-)liliiim. 

as Avcll as by tlie thorax being broadest at base ; the species is very rave 
on the Continent, as far as it is at present known, but has been taken by 
Dr. Sliarp in some numbers in Scotland among bones and hides. 

S. saxonicum, GilL Oval, convex, fuscous, thickly clothed with 
])ale pubescence ; head broad, eyes large, not prominent, antennte yellow, 
rather long and slender; thorax large, subquadrate, with sides gently 
rounded, widest at base, very closely covered with moderate-sized 
tubercles, posterior angles right angles ; scutellum very small ; elytra 
rather long, with sides slightly rounded, completely covering abdomen, 
deeply asperate, and appearing as if reticulate, apices very broad, sutural 
angles obtuse ; legs yellow, tarsi rather short ; under-side fuscous, with 
the mouth, coxae, and apex of abdomen lighter. L. f-|- mm. 

Under bones and hides ; taken in some numbers by Dr. Sharp in the Dee and 
Solway districts of Scotland. 

KOSSS32UM, Erichson. 

This genus contains two European species and one or two from 
America ; from EurypUUum it is distinguished by its larger size, and 
oval and more convex form, and by ihe structure of the skeleton of the 
under surface of the body ; from all our other allied genera it may be 
knoAvn by having the thorax broadest at base ; its oval-convex shape and 
strong pubescence give it an appearance dilferent from the ordinary 
TrichopterjfgidfB, and at first sight it looks as if its affinities were rather 
towards certain members of the Gorylophidae. 

N. pilosellum. Marsh. {Ferraril, Eedt. ; v. hriinneum, Marsh. ; v. 
nitldulum. Marsh.). Broad and ovate, very strongly convex, castaneous, 
but variable in coloiir, the head and thorax being often darker than the 
elytra, thickly clothed with long yellow pubescence ; head short, eyes 
somewhat prominent, antennas clear yellow ; thorax large, much longer 
and broader than head, dilated behind^ widest at base, with sides 
slightly rounded, and rather plainly margined, posterior angles acute, 
not produced, remotely punctured ; elytra broadest at shoulders, semi- 
ovate, deeply punctured, Avith the interstices rugose, narrowed at apex ; 
legs rather long, clear yellow, anterior tibiae dilated at apex. L. 1-lj 
nnn. 

On rotten stumps or in damp rotten wood ; also in fungi, dead leaves, &c. ; found 
rather rarely, but locally abuiid:int ; Birili Wood and Claygate (Champion) ; Darenth 
(I'owpr) ; Lifctliugton (Power); Iluuslauton, Norfolk (Blutch) j Needwood Forest 
near Burton-ou-Trent (Gorham). 

PTSNIDZUBX, Erichson. 

This genus contains at present uj)Avards of thirty species from Europe 
and the Atlantic Islands, and from North and Central America ; they 



Ptenidium.'] 



CLAVICORNIA. 



137 



are smooth ami v'^hining insects with a harder integuiiicut than is found 
in most of the Trichoptciygido); the pygidium is always covered, and 
the sculpture is variolose ; eleven species are found in Britain which 
may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Head and thorax more or less deeply foveolato- 

puiictalc. 
i. Sculpture of elytra deeper. 

1. Form narrower and more elongate ; thorax 
broadest a little before middle ; basal fovea? absent 

(habitat on the coast in seaweed or shingle) . . P. PTTNCTATUM, Gyll. 

2. Form broader ; thorax broadest about middle ; 

basal fovoa3 well marked P. KuAATZl, Matth. 

ii. Sculpture of elytra feeble ; thorax broadest behind 
middle ; basal fovese absent or very indistinct . . P. FUSCICOENE, Er. 

II. Head and thorax almost smooth and impuuctate. 
i. Thorax with four large foveai at base. 

1. Head without large punctures near eyes ; elytra 

punctured in fine rows P. NITIDUM, Reer. 

2. Head with three large punctures near each eye ; 
elytra almost impunctate ; basal fovese very large 

aud deep P. i^tigattjjj, Gyll. 

ii. Thorax with four small foveco at base, which are 
in some cases absent. 

1. Elytra reddish-castaueous. 

A. Thorax strongly contracted just at base, 
forming an angle with the elytra. 

a. Form very broad and turgid ; thorax more 
narrowed in front ; eyes more prominent ; 

elytra rather deeply punctured .... P. TURGIDUM, Tkoins. 

b. Form narrower aud less turgid ; thorax less 
narrowed in front; elytra more shallowly 

punctured P. POEMlCETOKUil, Kr. 

13. Thorax not contracted at base, forming a 
continuous outline with elytra, which are much 
ddatcd ; basal fovese absent P. GiiESSNEUi, .Er. 

2. Elytra black. 

A. Sides of thorax strongly rounded, broadest 
between middle and base, much more narrowed 
in front than behind ; basal foveas absent or 

very minute P. evanescens, Marsh. 

B. Sides of thorax moderately rounded, broadest 

about middle. 
a. Form broader, elytra larger, with large and 

shallow confused punctures P. ATOMAKOIDES, Mots. 

h. Form narrower; elytra smaller, with rows 

of rather small and deep punctures . . . T. Wa'Nkowib'iu, Matlh. 

The species are variable as regards habitat ; some are found in hot- 
beds, dead leaves, &c., or by sweeping ; others appear to live solely in 
ants' nests, while one or two are only found on the seashore in seaweed 
or shingle, and a few occur under bark and in decaying wood. 

P. punctatum, Gyll. (littoralis, Mots., alutacea, Gill.). Elongate- 
oval, rather narrow, deep black, shining, rather sparingly clothed with 



138 CLAVicoENiA. {^Pteiddium. 

silvery hairs, entire upper surface impressed with hirge Jeep punctures, 
which are smaller and more remote on tlie head, and placed more closely 
together on the thorax than on the elytra, where they are distinctly 
arranged in longitudinal rows ; head rather small, eyes prominent, 
antennre long and slender, pitchy; thorax short, with sides rounded and 
strongly margined, hroadest at middle ; scutellum large, with a deep 
puncture on each side at base ; elytra ratlier narroAV, with sides 
moderately rounded, distinctly margined, apices very ohtuse, lighter ; 
legs long and slender, pitchy ; under-side glabrous, pitchy, with the 
mouth, coxa;, and apex of abdomen, lighter. L. |- mm. 

Umler seaweed ou the sea-coast ; sometimes iu profusion iu warm days in spring', 
flying and settling on tlie low rocks and sliingle ; locidly common; Wliitstaldo ; 
Bognor ; Kingsgate ; Shoreliam ; Littlebamptou ; Isle of \Vi>^lit, Ventuor, iu pro- 
fusion in April; Cliesil Beach; Fiilmouth; Fowey ; Plymouth; Stai-cross ; Liver- 
pool district; Northumberland and Durham district; Scotland, Clyde district; 
Ireland, near Dublin. 

P. fuscicorne, Er. {2M'.npes, Matth.). Ovate, very convex and 
shining, black, sparingly clothed with silvery hairs ; head large, im- 
pressed with two large punctures on each side, eyes large, prominent, 
antennre rather long and slender, pitchy; thorax moderate, dilated 
behind, broadest behind middle, and contracted just before base, with 
large remote punctures irregularly scattered over disc ; scutellum large 
and very broad, with a large puncture at base ; elytra rather short, 
ovate, remotely and rather feebly punctured, apex lighter ; legs long, 
pitchy, rarely yellow. L. |- mm. 

Marshy places ; in moss and at roots of grass ; local but not uncommon where it 
occurs; Lee; Caterham ; p]ltham ; Gumley, Leicestershire; Parkhurst Forest ^Isle 
of Wight), in nests of P. rufa (J. J. Walker). 

P. nitidum, Heer. (pusilhmi, Er.). The smallest of our species ; 
ovate, strongly convex, deep black, very shining, very sparingly clothed 
with extremely short silvery hairs ; head large, rather prominent, eyes 
large, prominent, antennoe yellow, with the two apical joints more or 
less fuscous ; thorax moderate, with sides strongly dilated and rounded, 
broadest a little behind middle, impunctate, with four large fovetB at 
base, and two small foveas near anterior margin ; scutellum with large 
punctures; elytra ovate, broadest near shoulders and strongly narrowed 
to apex which is lighter, finely and remotely punctured in rows ; legs 
long and slender, clear yellow ; under-side shining black with coxa3 
yellow. L. vix | mm. 

In moss, vegetable refuse, dung-heaps, &c., also by sweeping ; common and gene- 
rally distributed. 

The very small size of this species will at once distinguish it from 
our other commoner species. 

P. laevig-atum, Gyll. Closely allied to P. nitidum, but distinguished 
by its somewhat greater size, much larger head (which has three largo 



Ptenidium.'] clavicornia. 139 

punctures on each side near eye, arranged triangularly), larger eyes, and 
less rounded sides of thorax, the basal fovcre of which are larger ; the 
elytra also are more indistinctly punctured and are more narrowed 
towards apex. L. |-|- mm. 

Very rare ; Gumley, Leicestershire (in moss) ; recorded by Parfitt as very rare in 
the Exeter districts, and by Murray from Scotland, but these records are very probably 
erroneous J Ireland (Haliday). 

P. evanescens, Marsh {ajncale, Er. ; terminale, Hal.). Ovate, 
rather broad, strongly convex, black, very shining, with the apex of 
elytra broadly ruf'o-testaceous, sparingly clothed with rather long silvery 
hairs; head moderate, eyes rather large, prominent, antennae long, clear 
yellow, with the club more or less fuscous; thorax rather short, broadest 
behind middle, with four obsolete fovcte near base, sometimes scarcely 
visible, and two near anterior margin, and also a transverse impression 
near posterior angles, Avhich are obtuse; disc remotely and obsoletely 
l)unctured; scutellum moderate, with three punctures at base; elytra 
ovate, very convex, broadest a little before middle, narrowed to apex, 
Avith rows of shallow and rather remote punctures ; legs rather long, 
clear yellow, basal joints of all the tarsi slightly dilated ; under-side 
l)lack, shining, with the coxa; yellow, and the mouth, and sometimes 
abdomen, lighter. L. 1-1| mm. 

In cut grass, vegetable and haystack refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; common and generally 

distributed. 

P. atomaroides, IMots. Oblong oval, very convex and shining, 
sparingly clothed with very shoit greyish hairs, deep black, with the 
extreme apex of elytra lighter; head rather small, with four rather large 
punctures near each eye, eyes moderate, not prominent, antennas long 
and slender, clear yellow ; thorax small, transverse, broadest near 
middle, sides slightly rounded, with four obsolete impressions at base, 
disc feebly punctured ; scutellum moderate, with two impressions near 
7niddle ; elytra large and ample, obtuse-oval, broadest at middle, with 
rather large, shallow, more or less irregular punctures; legs long and 
slender, clear yellow, tDnse slightly dilated at apex. L. 1-1 1 mm. 

In flood refuse, on the banks of rivers, &c. ; local but not rare in the London 
district; Egham, Waltou-on-Thames, and VVeybridge, Surrey; Staines; bunbury ; 
Brandon, Sutfolk. 

This species is easily distinguished from P. evavescens, to Avhich it is 
allied, by its smaller head and thorax, and much longer and broader 
elytra, as well as by its sculpture. 

P. IVankowiezii, Matth. {intermedium, Wank.). This species is 
very closely allied to P. evanescens, and hardly requires a separate de- 
scription ; it may be distinguished from that species by its somewhat 
narrower form, more distinct sculpture, and rather smaller thorax, 
which has the sides less dilated, and the basal fovese more distinctly 



140 CLAVICORNIA. [Ptenidium. 

marked, and it is also less convex on the upper surface ; the colour is 
sometimes lighter. L. ^-1 mm. 

Rare ; Gumley, in veo^etable refuse ; uuder bircli bark, Scarborough (Wilkinsou) ; 
Mabberlcy, Cheshire (Chappoll) ; Northumberhmd district (Bold); ScoUaud, Forth 
district (Sharp). 

This species has been regarded as a vaiiety of P. evanescens, hut 
appears to he distinct. 

P. K.raatzii, Matth. Ovate, pitchy-hlack, very shining, very 
sparingly clothed with extremely short yellow hairs ; head moderate, 
with two or three large punctures near each eye, eyes large and pro- 
minent, antennfc long, clear yellow; thorax rather small, broadest at 
middle, sides evenly and not very strongly rounded, with four plain 
fove» at base, the interior pair much smaller than the exterior ; head 
and thorax shallowly punctured ; scutellum large, with four impressed 
punctures at base ; elytra dark rufo-piceous, often almost black, ovate, 
l)roadest before middle, distinctly punctured in rows, apex lighter; 
legs clear yellow ; under-side rufo-piceous, mouth and coxaj yellow. L. 
I mm. 

In nests of Formica fusca ; rare ; first taken by Mr. Foxcroft in Scotland, pro- 
bably near llaunocb, and subsequently found by myself in refuse taken from ants' 
nests in Buddon Wood, Leicestershire. 

This species differs from P. formicetorum by its somewhat smaller 
size, narrower form, and more distinct sculpture, and also by the usually 
darker colour of its elytra. 

P. formicetorum, Kr. Ovate, rather short, very convex, glabrous 
and shining, head and thorax black, elytra rufo-piceous, or rufo-castane- 
ous, sparingly clothed with silvery hairs ; head moderate, with two 
foveee on vertex, eyes rather small, not prominent, antennae rather short, 
clear yellow ; thorax very smooth and shining, dilated behind, broadest 
behind middle, with four minute fovese at base and two very small ones 
near anterior margin ; scutellum moderate, with three small punctures 
at base ; elytra ovate, rather short, very convex, broadest before middle, 
punctured in rows ; legs clear yellow, tarsi slightly dilated ; under-side 
rufo-piceous, with head, coxaj, and abdomen lighter. L. f-|- mm. 

In nests of Formica rufa and F. fulijinosa; local j Chatliam, Tilgate, Esher; 
Guestling, Hastings; Edgbaston ; Sutton and Knowie near Birmingham; Witliiiig- 
tou, Cheshire; Liverpool district; Northumberland district; a small, dark form 
occurs near Liverpool. 

P. turg-idum, Thorns. Very broad, turgid, and convex, dark pitchy- 
red, sparingly clothed Avith very short silvery hairs ; head rather short 
and prominent, eyes large, strongly prominent, antennae pale yellow, 
with the last two joints darker ; thorax widened behind, broadest a 
little before base, with four small fovea3 near base and two minute fovete 
near anterior margin : scutellum short and broad ; elytra rather short 



Ptenidiiim.l clavicornia. 141 

and very broad, distinctly pnnctured in rows, wini^^s 1)lack visible in 
some specimens beneath elytra ; legs long, yellow, tibice sliglitly dilated ; 
under-side rufo-piceons, mouth, coxae and abdomen lighter. L. 1-1 1- 
mm. 

In rotten wood, nsuuUy in company witli ants; rnre ; Strood, Kent (Cliampion") ; 
neiir London, 1S!]2 (\VatcrlH)u?;e) ; Cobham Park; Now Forest (Sharp and (Jorliani) ; 
Scavborongh (Wilkinson) ; Mr. Blatch bas also taken it in tlie New Forest in 
fungi. 

This species may easily be known by its obtuse and turgid shape and 
the shining pitchy-red colour of the whole Ijody. 

P. G-ressneri, Er. Entirely oval in shape, with the thorax broadest 
at base and continuous in outline with the elytra, a point which separates 
it from our other species, which all have the thorax contracted at base ; 
colour rufous or rufo-piceous ; head rather large, eyes small, antennae long, 
clear yellow; thorax short, glabrous, without l)asal fovete ; scutellum 
short and broad ; elytra broad, ovate, broadest Ijefore middle, acuminate 
behind, scarcely punctured ; wings black, usually visible underneath the 
transparent elytra ; legs long, slender, clear yellow ; under-side rufo- 
piceoiis, with head and thorax lighter, last segment of the abdomen, 
coxce, and metasternum, yellow. L. ^r-1 mm. 

In rotten wood, cbiefly in company witb F. fuUginosa ; rare; discovered by Mr. 
Blatch in June, 1883, in the New Forest in fungi ; and subsequently found by Mr. 
Goiham and Dr. Sharp in the same locality; j\Ir. Blatch has since taken it in Sher- 
wood Forest under bark. 

CORYLOPHID^. 

The members of this family are very small, oval or rounded insects, 
which approach the Trichopterygida^ in having their Avings fringed with 
long hairs ; they differ, however, in having the maxillae unilobed and the 
tarsi 4-jointed (the third joint being small, and concealed in an emargi- 
nation of the second joint), and in the fact that the wings are much 
shorter ; the maxillary palpii are also ditl'erently formed and are some- 
times very curious ; the genus Aphanocephalns, Avhich appears to be 
widely distril)uted in the East of Asia is now rightly separated l)y 
Mr. Matthews, aiid regarded as a family distinct in itself, called Pseiido- 
corylophidse ; the species of this genus have the maxillary palpi apparently 
3-lobed, and the tarsi are truly 3-jointed ; the wings, moreover, arc very 
differentl}^ formed. 

The Corylo})hida3 are universally distributed in the temperate and 
tropical regions of the world ; at present seventeen genera and more than 
150 species have been described ; the Eev. A. Matthews is at present 
engaged on a monograph of the group, which, when completed, will be 
almost as valuable a contribution to our study of the minute Coleoptera 
as his well-known " Trichopferyt/ia lUustrata;" we may, therefore, expect 
that the numl)er of species will be largely increased. 



142 CLAVicoRNiA. \^Corylophida\ 

In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History (February, 1887, 
p. 116), Mr. Matthews discusses the (question of the position of the 
family ; as it is one concerning which there has been, and still is, much 
doubt, it may be well to quote his words : — " In our present systematic 
arrangement the true Corylophid?e seem to occupy a very false position. 
From the peculiar formation of their antennte, and from their large, 
elongate, and either free or prominent anterior coxae, as well as from the 
general arrangement of the jiarts of the external skeleton of their under- 
side, it is impossible to overlook their close affinity to the Silphidoi. It 
therefore appears to me that the most natural arrangement wouli be to 
place the Corylophidte immediately before the Silphidaj. Many genera 
present an external appearance so like the Anisotomina that it is difficult 
at first to determine whether they do or do not belong to that tribe. In 
PeUinus and some others the prosternum is reduced to the smallest 
possible dimensions, as it is in Ar/athidinm, and leaves the coxal cavities 
open on both sides. Thus by placing the Corylophidse before the 
Silphidse, in proximity to the Anisotomina, a much greater harmony of 
form and anatomy would be attained than by keeping them in their 
present position or by removing them elsewhere. In the foregoing 
remarks I refer only to the true CorylophidiB. Those species which I 
propose to call PseudocorylophidiB I would retain in the position they 
now occupy near the Coccinellidaj " There are six European genera 
contained in the fanuly, of which four are represented in iJritain ; 
Artliroli])^, WolL, and MoroJiilluSy Duv. (^Gkeosoina, Woll.) are of more 
southern distribution. 

I. Thorax emargiuatc at apex ; head exposed ; aiitcmiai 

9-jouited Okthopeuus, Stej^li. 

II. Thorax semicircular, with apex rounded ; head concealed. 
i. Upper surface glabrous ; posterior angles of thorax 

slightly prolonged ; auteuua3 10-jointed CORYLOPfluS, Steph, 

ii. Upper surface pubescent. 

1. Posterior angles of thorax much prolonged ; antennas 

10-jointed Sericoderus, Steph. 

2. Posterior angles of thor.ix right angles, not pro- 
longed ; antennas 11-joiuted Sacidm, Le Contc. 

ORTHOPERUS, Stephens. 

The genus Orthoperus is made up of very minute orbicular insects, 
which, in comparison with the other members of the family, are some- 
Avhat depressed ; it is distinguished from the other Corylophidce by its 
exserted head and emarginate apex of thorax, and also by the long 
incurved anterior tibiae, and 9-jointed geniculate antennte, of which the 
fifth joint is generally much larger than the sixth. In the last European 
catalogue nine species are enumerated, of which three only have until 
recently been supposed to be found in Ih'itain. Mr. Matthews, however, 
in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for 1885, vol. xxii., p. 107, 



Orthoperus.'] clavicornia. 143 

publislied ;i monogi'ai)li on the liritish species, in -wliich he dcsciibeel two 
new species, and hrought the niinib'3r found in Biitain np to eight. 

The Lxrva and pupa of Orfhojx-rvs hrunnipcis (^72ce?/6-) are figured 
by Perris Ann. Fr. 1852, pi. xiv. ; the larva is \\ mm. in length, ovate, 
and rather broad, narrowed in front and l)ehind ; the head is small, 
of a dirty M'hite colour ; the prothorax is large, much narrowed in 
front, with a large dark divided spot; the rest of the segments are 
whitish, brownish at the sides ; there are no distinct cerci ; the whole 
body is covered with small papillae and hairs ; the pupa is white without 
any hairs or appendages, and is considerably narrowed in front, and 
almost parallel-sided l)ehind. 

I am indeltted to the kindness of Mr. Matthews for the following 
table of the species : — 

I. Colour black, 
i. Size large. 

1. Form attenuated posteriorly ....... O. Kt.tjei, Wanlr. 

2. Form oval O. brunnipes, Gt/U. 

ii. Size small ; surface elegantly alutaceous* . . . U. mdndvs, Malth. 

II. Colour castaucous or testaceous, 
i. Size larger. 

1. Surface iinpunctate, antennae very long, liriglit 

yellow 0. COETICALIS, Eedt. 

2. Surface of elytra distinctly and closely punc- 
tured, anteuna3 short, piceous O. PUNCTAtulus, Matih. 

3. Surface alutaceous, almost impunctate, antenna) 

long, bright yellow O. ATOMTJS, G^Il. 

ii. Size smaller. 

1. Surface alutaceous throughout 0. coeiaceus, jRei/. 

2. Suifacc not alutaceous ; elytra deeply punc- 
tured 0. ATOMAEius, Seer. 

O. Kluki, Wank, (hrunnipes, Crit. Cat.). Black or pitchy-black, 
short, subovate, witli the elytra somewhat attenuate behind ; antenna? 
rather long, with club pitchy ; thorax transverse, narrowed in front, con- 
tinuous in outline with elytra ; elytra with apex often lighter, very finely 
and diffusely punctured; legs piceous. L. |^-1 mm. 

In moss, vegetable refuse, &c. ; local, but not uncommon in some places ; Putney, 
Leith Hill, Cobham, Loughton, Sheerness; Barwell Feu; New Forest; Scotland, 
local, Forth and Dee districts. 

O. brunnipes, Gyll. {nee Brit. Cat ). The species that bears this 
name in the continental collections differs from 0. Klnki, as remarked by 
Mr. Matthews /. c. p. 108, in its rather smaller size^ perfectly oval form, 
which is not attenuate behind, paler legs and antennte, and especially by 
a distinct row of punctures within the basal margin of the thorax. 
L. I- mm. 

One British specimen is at present known, Avhich is in Mr. Wilkinson's 

* Immature specimens of this species are more or less castaucous. 



144 CLAVicouNiA. [Orihoperus. 

collection, now in the possession of Mr. Mason, and was probably taken 
at Scarborough. 

O. mundus, l^Iatth. Broad, rounded, slightly depressed, deep 
black, alutaceous, not shining ; head large, eyes very prominent, antennae 
rather long, yellow, M'ith the club pitchy-black and the fifth joint longer 
but not broader than the sixth. Thorax broad, widest at the base, mi- 
nutel}^ alutaceous, with three faint impressions near the base, margins pale, 
posterior angles nearly right angles. Elytra widest near middle, rather 
deeply alutaceous, marked with small equi-distant punctures arranged in 
strise, margins pale, apex much rounded and pale ; legs short, very 
slender, anterior tibia? much incurved ; under-side pitchy. L. | mm. 

This species was found rather commonly by the Rev. A. Matthews iiud his brothers 
in a small spot at Weston-on-the-Green, Oxfordshire, but has never been met with 
in any other locality. 

O. corticalis, Eedt. This is the largest of the pale castaneous 

species ; it may be known by its broadly oval form, pale castaneous 

colour, and bright yellow legs and antennas, of which the fifth joint is 

scarcely longer than the sixth ; the anterior tibiae are unusually long and 

much incurved. L. 1 mm. 

Two specimens have been taken by the Rev. A. Matthews in Sherwood Forest ; it 
has also occurred at Lcith Hill, Surrey. 

O. punctatulus, Ma^th. Oval, moderately convex, shining, cas- 
taneous, alutaceous throughout, with the elytra rather closely punctured ; 
head moderate, eyes not prominent, antennre rather short, ferriiginous, 
with the club black, sixth joint not smaller than the fifth ; tliorax small, 
indistinctly punctured, with margins yellow ; elytra long, widest near the 
middle, with apex obtuse ; legs rather large, ferruginous. L. | mm. 

One specimen taken by Mr. Matthews near Gumley, Leicestershire, is the only 
example known. 

O. atoxnus, Gyll. This species may be distinguished by its short 
oval and rather convex form, remote and almost invisible punctuatioii, 
and large yellow antennas, of which the fifth joint is much larger than 
the sixth ; legs yellow. L. -| mm. 

In vegetable and haystack refuse, &c., Leitli Hill, Surrey, Sbeerness, The Holt, 
Farnham, Weston-super-Mare; Robin's Wood, Reptou ; Ireland, near Watcrford. 
Mr. Matthews says that it is the most .'abundant of the British species ; it is probably 
widely distributed, but often overlooked, owing to its minute size ; this also is most 
likely the case with several of the other species. 

O. coriaceus, Key. This species may be known by its small size, 
oval and rather narrow shai)e, somewhat bright, though dark, castaneous 
colour, small head and thorax, large shallow punctures on elytra, robust 
yellow antennaj, and long slender legs. L. f mm. 

Found in the London district, but I do not know the locality. 



Orilwpcrus.'] clavicornia. 145 

O. atomarius, Heer. The smallest sj^ecies of tlie genus ; ovate, 
rather convex, of a pale castancous or testaceous colour, with the sides 
and apex of elytra sometimes rather darker ; sculpture distinct, although 
delicate ; the colour and minute size will at once distinguish it from all 
the other species. L. \ mm. 

Foimd abuudautly by Mr. Crotch at Devizes, and in small numbers by Professor 
Allen Harker at Gloucester ; it occurs in cellars, and feeds ou the fungus Zismidium 
cellare. Professor Harker tells me that he ouce dissected out the oesophagus of on« 
of these insects, and that he found it full of chopped mycelium ; it is found iu company 
with Atomaria nigripennis and certain species of Crt/ptophagus. 

CORVZiOPHUS, Stephens. 

Only two European species are contained in this genus, hoth of which 
are found in Britain ; the species are distinguished from Ortlwperus hy 
having the head concealed, and the thorax semicircular with apex 
rounded, and from Sericoderus and Sac.ium by having the upper surface 
glabrous ; authors differ with regard to the number of joints of the 
antennae; some mention them as 10-jointed, others as 9-jointed ; as a 
matter of fact, they appear to be really, if not apparently, 10-jointed. 

I. Colour darker ; punctuation of elytra distinct . . . C. oassidioides, iliarsA. 
II. Colour lighter; punctuation of elytra scarcely visible , C. subl^vipennis, Duv. 

C. cassidioides, INIarsh. Short oval, moderately convex, more or 
less uaiTOwed to apex, pitchy-black, with the margins of thorax and more 
or less of the apical half of the elytra reddish-testaceous ; the colour is 
variable, the thorax being sometimes entirely reddish-testaceous except 
for a dark spot on disc ; head fuscous, plainly visible beneath the trans- 
parent anterior margin of tliorax, antennae testaceous ; thorax semicircular, 
with posterior angles acute and somewhat prominent, very finely and 
diffuselj^ punctured and distinctly alutaceous ; elytra very plainly punc- 
tured towards base, almost impunctate at apex, distinctly alutaceous ; 
abdomen black, very finely pubescent ; legs entirely testaceous. L. 
•| mm. 

In vegetable refuse, decaying seaweed, nt roots of plants, &c. ; not uncommon in 
many localities in the London district and the South of England. Darenth Wood, 
Reigate, Putney, Gravesend, Sheerness ; Birchington ; Brighton ; Glanvilles Wootton ; 
Isle of Wight ; Weymouth ; Devon ; Swansea ; Wicken and Qny Fens, Canibndge ; 
Salford Priors, Evesham ; Ireland, Malahide, near Dublin ; it has not apparently been 
found in the North of England or in Scotland. 

C. sublaevlpennis, Duv. Yery like the preceding, but easily dis- 
tinguished by its lighter colour (the thorax being, as a rule, entirely 
testaceous), shorter form, and less close punctuation, which is more diffuse 
and much finer on the elytra ; the elytra are also less contracted behind. 
L. f mm. 

In vegetable refuse, flood refuse, &c. j rare ; first described as taken in Britain at 
Weymouth in the autumn of 186S by Mr. Crotch and Dr. Sharp; Mr. Matthews, 
VOL. III. L 



146 CLAVICORNIA. [Cor//f('jJ/?!S. 

however, has specimens iu bis possession taken long before tbis date. Keigate ; 
Soutbsea ; Gravescnd ; Heme Bay ; Weytnoutb ; Selsea Bill, under stones near shove. 
I believe that it bas been taken in Ireland by Haliday. 

SSRISOBSnUS, Stepliens. 

Two European species are contained in this genus ; it may easily be 
known from Corylojjhus by its pubescent upper surface, and also by its 
broad, subparallel elytra, which are subtruncate, although rounded, at 
apex; from Sacium it differs in having the posterior angles of the thorax 
acute and strongly produced. 

S. lateralis, G}'11. Kather short, broad, subovate, with the elytra 
subparallel, very gradually narrowed to apex which is broad and subtrun- 
cate ; colour testaceous or reddish-testaceous, with the head blackish, very 
distinctly apparent lieneath the transparent anterior margin of thorax ; 
upper surface clothed Avith long pale pubescence ; antennge 10-jointed ; 
thorax subtransverse, semicircular, with the posterior angles aciite and 
produced, scarcely punctured ; elytra consideral:)ly convex towards base 
and gradually depressed towards apex, very finely punctured, broader at 
base than thorax ; legs testaceous, L. § mm. 

In baystack and vegetable refuse ; local ; London district, generally distributed and 
common; Folkestone; Glauvilles Wootton ; Cheddar; Repton ; Lincoln; Ireland, 
near Waterford. 

SACIUM, Le Conte {Clt/peasfer, Latr.). 

This genus is very widely spread over the surface of the globe, and will 
probably prove to be a very numerous one. Several very interesting species 
have lately been discovered by Mr. Champion in Central America, and have 
been described by Mr. Matthews; it is distinguished by its 11-jointed 
antenna3 from all our other CorylopliidjB, and may be separated from 
Sericodenis, to Avhich it is most closely allied, by having the posterior 
angles of the thorax right angles and not produced ; eight European 
species are known, of which one only is found in Britain ; only two 
specimens, however, have hitherto been taken in this country. 

S. pusillusn, Oyll. Oblong-oval, not strongly convex, rather shin- 
ing, clothed with thick pale pubescence ; colour black with the thorax 
testaceous with fuscous disc ; the colour of the thorax is, however, vari- 
able and sometimes is pitchy-black with tAvo spots at apex, and the 
margins, yellowish-brown ; upper surface very finely punctured ; thorax 
not transverse, with the posterior angles right angles, not produced, base 
slightly produced before scutellum ; legs reddish-brown or fuscous. L. 
H-2 mm. 

Under bark ; very rare; one specimen was taken many years ago by Mr. Wollns(o:i, 
but was, 1 believe, accidentally destroyed, and a second bas been recently found on an 
oranje in Birmingham by Mr. W. G. Blatch. 



Sj>hce)-iidii'.] CLAVICORN'IA. 117 

SPH^SIIDiE. 

This family contains one genus, Spha'tius, Avhicli is closcl,7 allied to the 
Trichopteiygidffi on the one hand and the Corylophidce on the other; the 
fovm is vory small, round, convex, and glalirous ; the maxilla3 have only 
one lobe ; the antennie arc 11-jointed with a loose 3-joiuted club ; the 
intermediate and posterior coxib are distant, the tarsi are 3-jointed, and 
the abdomen is composed of three segments ; the wings are fringed with 
long hairs. 

SPHJERZUS, "Waltl. (Microsporus, KoL). 

Two species are contained in this genus, S. acaroides from Europe, and 
S. politus from California ; it will, however, probably prove to bo more 
extensive.* 

S. acaroides, Waltl, (obsidian ns, Kol.). A very minute, round, 
convex species ; black, glabrous, very shining ; thorax transverse, much 
broader at base than apex, with sides very little rounded; elytra 
broadest iu middle ; antennas yellowish in middle ; legs pitchy-brown. 
L. f mm. 

Ill marshy places, on mud, or under stones nenr water; first taken by Ecv. A. Maf- 
tlicws at Weston-on-the-Green, Oxfordsliire, in 1845, secondly by Rev. H. Mattliews 
at Gumley, Leicestershire in 1855, and subsequently in plenty in Wicken Feu, Caui- 
bridgeshire by Mr. Crotch. 

PHALACaiD^. 

This family consists of some five or six genera of ovate or sub-hemi- 
spherical convex insects, which are found iu flowers or under bark ; tlio 
species are very shining and scarcely, if at all, pubescent ; the head is 
inserted, with the eyes half hidden; the antennte are ll-ioiuted witli 
club 3-jointed; the thorax is truncate at base, margined at sides ; the 
mesosternum, which is very short, is eniarginate and receives the pro- 
longed prosternum ; the anterior coxal cavities arc open behind ; f the 
tarsi are 5-jointed. 

I. All the tarsi of equal length ; tibife without distinct apical 

spurs; last joint of maxillary palpi slender . ..... VnALACRVS, rn>/7r. 

II. Posterior tarsi longer than the anterior and intermediate 

pairs; tibiae with distinct apical spurs; last joint of 

maxillary palpi oval, 
i. Metasteruum prolonged beyond intermediate coxaj ; elytra 

with two deeper striaj near suture OlibuTJS, Er. 

ii. Metasteruum not prolonged beyond intermediate coxre ; 

elytra with one deeper stria near suture Stilbus, Seidl. 



* Since I wrote the above Mr. Matthews has icformed me that he has eight or teu 
undescribed species. 

t Thomson iu error says that they are closed (Skand. Col. i. 05). 

L 2 



1-18 CLAVICORNIA. [Phtilamis, 

PKAI.ACIIUS, Paykull. 

This genus contains about thirty or forty species which are widely 
distributed, representatives occurring in North America, Cuba, South 
America, India, Ceylon, New Caledonia, &c. ; it will probably be found 
to comprise a much larger number of species than are at present known ; 
there are about a dozen members of the genus found in Europe, of which 
five occur in Britain ; these are all shining black insects, bearing a close 
resemblance to one another, and are mostly taken by sweeping herbage. 
The species may be divided as follows, but the differences, as will be 
seen, are mainly comparative, although obvious when the insects are 
viewed side by side. 

I. Form ovate, more or less convex. 

i. Size larger; elytra with scarcely visible traces of 
punctured striae ; interstices very finely and closely 

punctured P. COHEDSCTTS, Fay^. 

ii. Size smaller ; elytra with moderately distinct although 
finely punctured stria? ; interstices much less closely 
punctured. 

1. Form rather depressed, not acuminate behind ; 

punctures of striae of elytra closer and less 
distinct. 

A. Shorter oval ; punctures of striae more delicate 

and of interstices almost obsolete P. BuiSOXTTl, Rye. 

B. Longer oval ; punctures of striae and interstices 

more distinct P. BEUNNIPES, Bris. 

2. Form very convex, subglobose, acuminate behind ; 
punctures of stria? of elytra less close and more 

distinct P. SXTBSTEIATTJS, Gyll. 

II. Form elliptical, upper surface rather depressed ; sculp- 

ture of elytra rattier distinct P. caeicis, Sturm. 

P. corruscus, Payk. Oval, broad, convex, shining-black ; head 
very finely punctured, anterior margin sinuate in male, truncate in 
female ; antennaB black, long and slender, with a slender but Aveli- 
marked club ; mandibles often projecting, terminating in a trifid point ; 
thorax very finely punctured, slightly sinuate on each side near scutelluui ; 
elytra with a distinct sutural stria which is abbreviated in front, and 
with very fine traces of other striae, interstices extremely closely and 
finely punctured ; under-side black, clothed with short greyish hairs ; 
legs black with the claws reddish-brown, sometimes entirely brownish, 
intermediate femora terminating in an obtuse tooth at apex, posterior 
femora rounded at apex ; size variable. L. l|-3 mm. 

In flowers, by sweeping, &c.; common and generally distributed throughout the 
London and southern districts, and rather common in the Midlands ; rarer further 
north: Durham district, South Shields; Scotland, local, Tweed and Solway 
districts, 

V. Hwnherti, Tourn. This variety differs from the type in the 
somewhat stronger punctuation of the elytra and in the shape of the 



Phalacrus.'] clavicoknia. 149 

elub of the antennre ; it is a small form, being ahout 17j-2t mm. in 
length ; it was introduced as a Jiew species in Ent. Monthly Mag. ix. 
37, but was afterwards abandoned as oidy a form of P. corntscnis in 
Ent. Monthly Mag. xii, 177 ; it occurs not uncommonly in the 
London district, Sheerness, Chatham, Caterham, Darenth Wood, 
"Whitstable, &c. 

P. Brisouti, Rye. Closely allied to P. corruscns, from which it 
differs in its average smaller size, its rather lighter-coloured fore-legs, 
tarsi, and antennae, the club of which is rather broader and not so long, 
and in its elytra being more obtusely rounded behind, and furnished 
with more evident, although very fine, punctured striae, tlie punctures 
of the interstices being much less close ; the apical joint of the antennas 
is conspicuously broader and shorter, and not so acuminate, but slightly 
Hexuous on the inner-side towards the apex. L. l|-2 mm. 

By sweeping iu damp places ; rare ; Rainham ; Levvisham ; Graveseud ; Sbeppy ; 
Deal. 

P. brunnipes, Bris. This species appears to be very closely allied 
to P. Brisouti from which it differs in its somewhat longer ovate form, 
and in the rather more distinct punctured stiiae of elytra ; it is also 
more convex ; the interstices of the elytra which are confusedly and 
almost obsoletely punctured in P. Brisouti are furnished with aii irre- 
gular row of punctures which are more feeble than those of the striae ; 
the species is also allied to P. subsfriatus, but differs in its lighter- 
coloured antennae and legs, its more elongate form, the more elongate 
club of its antennas, and the more obsolete and more finely punctured 
striae of its elytra. L. If -2 mm. 

By sweeping; on the banks of rivers and on the coast; rare; Lee pit (I!ve) ; 
Lymington (Sharp) ; Chatham and Sheerness (Champion and J. J. Walker). 

P. substinatus, GyU. This species is-very distinct by reason of its 
short oval, very convex subglobose form, and plainly punctured striae of 
elytra ; the elytra are somewhat acuminate behind, and the punctures of 
the striae are larger and set rather further apart than in the allied species, 
and the interstices are extremely finely punctured ; the antennae are 
blackish, with the club rather distinct and broad, the apical joint beiuf 
blunt ; the under surface is clothed with fine greyish hairs, and the last 
segment of the abdomen is furnished with blackish setae ; the legs are 
blackish, rarely brownish, with the claws lighter. L. 2 mm. 

By sweeping, &c. ; rare; Isle of Wight; New Forest; Hunstanton; Scarborough; 
Scotland, rare, Lowlands, Tweed and Solway districts. 

P. caricis, Sturm. Elliptical, only slightly convex, deep black ; 
antennae blackish, with the club moderately long but rather stout and 
distinct, last joint obtuse ; thorax short, strongly rounded at sides, base 
sinuate on each side near scutellum, very finely and obsoletely punctured. 



150 CLAVicouNiA. [Fhalacriis. 

towards sides ; elytra finely striate, Avith a rather close and regular row 
of very fine juinctures near each stria, and each interstice furnished with 
a longitudinal row of punctures Avhich are somewhat obsolete, although 
hardly smaller than those near stride ; the sutural stria is rather deep 
hehind ; under-side with short and thin greyish pubescence ; legs dark 
pitchy-brown ; the shape and sculpture will distinguish this from the 
allied species. Size variable. L. l^-Sj mm. 

By sweeping in marshy places, on Carex. &c. ; local ; Norwood ; Cowley ; Shipley, 
near Horsham ; Brandon, Sutlolk ; Norwich; Glauvilles Wootton ; Devon; Swansea; 
Horning, ^Yiekeu and Burwell Fens ; Coleshill and Knowle, near Birmingham ; not 
recorded from further north. 

OS.SSRUS, Erichson. 

This genus, taken in its widest sense, as including Sfilhus, comprises 
al)Out fifty species, which are very Avidely distributed, rei)resentativcs 
being found in North and South America, South Africa, Ceylon, &c. ; 
they are usually taken in flowers or at the roots of })lants ; thiiteen 
species of the genus Olibrus proper occur in Europe, of which seven are 
found in Britain ; the genus is distinguished from Sfilbus by having 
tlie metasternum prolonged between the intermediate coxae, and the 
posterior femora emarginate and not widened on their inferior margin. 

I. Head and thorax brown ; elytra reddish or hrowuish- 

yellow, with the suture smd outer margin brown . . 0. CORTICALIs, Fanz. 

II. Upper surface b^ack or brownish \\ith or without a 
more or less distinct metallic reflection. 

i. Length 2-2| mm. 

1. Autennse black with basal joints reddish ; upper 

surface black with a metallic green tinge ... 0. ^neus, F. 

2. Antenna; yellow or yellowish-red 

A. Colour brownish, gradually lighter towards ape.x; 

posterior angles of thorax obtuse 0, ltquidus, Er. 

B. Colour deep bi-onze black ; posterior angles of 

thorax sharp right angles, slightly produced. 

a. Form longer and narrower O. particeps, MuIs. 

b. Form shorter and broader 0. helveticus, Tourn. 

ii. Length less than 2 mm. 

1. Form broader and more convex ; upper surface 
not lighter towards apex; posterior angles of thorax 

right angles O. millefolii, rai/Jc. 

2. Form narrower and less convex ; upper surface 
lighter towards apex ; posterior angles of thorax 

obtuse 0. PYGMJiUS, Sturm. 

On corticalis, Panz. Oval, convex, shining ; elytra testaceous with 
the suture and margins brown, head and thorax brownish ; head very 
finely and obsoletely punctured ; antennae reddish-yellow ; thorax im- 
l)unctate, rather lighter at sides, posterior margin sinuate near scutellum ; 
elytra Avith tAvo distinct striie near suture, and Avith very feeble traces of 
other striiB, interstices irregularly and very finely and delicately punc- 



OlibniS.] CLAVIOOUNIA. 1">1 

tured ; legs and umlor-sido reddish-yellow; male wilhdhe second joint 
of the anterior tarsi slightly dilated. L. 21-3 nun. 

By sweeping, and sometimes by beating ; local, but ratber common in some places ; 
London flistiict, srcneinlly distributed and not uncomiuon ; Hiistiugs ; Eastbourne; 
Isle of Wisbt ; Bounieiiioutb ; (ilauvillos Wootton ; Exotor ; Swansea; lluntingdou- 
sbire ; Saudrinubam, Norfolk; Noribuniberland district, rare, iletton Hall, near 
BeU'o'rd; Scotland, very rare, Fortb district; Ireland, near Dublin; tbu species 
appears to be very rare in tbe Midland counties, if it occurs at all : 1 bave never met 
with it, and Mr/Blatch does not mention it in bis list. 

O. £eneus,F. {mvliisfricdus, Zett.). Eather long-oval, convex, liar- 
rowed behind, black with a greenish-metallic reflection, very shining ; 
head exceedingly finely punctured ; antennae black with the basal joints 
reddish (a character that will distiugu'sh it from all the other species 
except 0. miJlefoUi, which sometimes has the club dark, but i-^ a very 
much smaller and quite black insect) ; thorax sparingly and very finely, 
almost invisibly, punctured, posterior margin sinuate on each side near 
scutellum ; elytra with two distinct striae near suture, and with the other 
strice very fine but moderately distinct for a member of the genus, inter- 
stices very finely punctured ; under-side pitchy-brown with thin and fine 
greyish pubescence ; legs variable in colour, as a rule pitchy, but occa- 
sionally pitchy-reddish or even yellowish ; the apex of the elytra is 
sometimes obscurely pitchy. L. 2-2 ^ mm. 

By sweeping, in flowers, &c. ; common and generally distiibuted in tbe London 
district and th'e south, and not uncommon, allbougb somewhat local, in tbe Midlands ; 
rarer further north; Northumberland district, local and rare; ScoUand, Tweed 
district. Murray records the species as generally distributed, but Dr. Sharp has 
only met with it'iu the Cheviot district, so that Murray is probably in error, espe- 
ciailv if we consider the distribution of tlie insect in England. Ireland, near Dublin 
aud'Waterford. It appears to be attached to Matricaria chamomilla. 

O. liQuidus, Er. Oblong-ovate, pitchy-black or browish, more or 
less graduallv lighter towards apex of elytra ; head very finely punctured, 
antennae and palpi yellow or reddish-yellow ; thorax slightly rounded at 
sides, upper surface very finely punctured, posterior angles obtuse ; elytra 
with the two strice near suture distinct, and with the other stri» mode- 
rately distinct but very fine ; interstices finely punctured ; legs and 
under-side reddish-yellow ; male with the second joint of the anterior 
tarsi very slightly enlarged. L. 2-2| mm. 

By sweeping, in flowers, &c. ; local ; Loudon district, common and generally dis- 
tributed ; Harwich; Dover; New Fcrest; Bou.nemouth; Weymouth; \\ estou- 
SMper-AIave ; Tenby (common in flowers of Eitracium on the cliS^s towards 
Lydstep) ; Barmouth ; not recorded from the Midland districts, the north of England 
or Scotland. 

0. Ucolor has until recently been included in the British list, but has 
been dropped on the ground that the examples so named are merely 
large specimens of 0. liquidvs ; I have, however, a specimen from Dr. 
Power's collection which in some points agrees very well with the 



152 CLAVicoRNiA. [OUbrus. 

descriptions of 0. hlcolor ; the latter is apparently a larger and more 
ovate insect and more brightly coloured towards apex of elytra ; it is 
also less convex and less narrowed behind, and has the tAVO sutural 
striae deeper than in 0. liquidns, but the rest of the striae rather more 
distinct ; in all the other characters except the striation the specimen 
given me by Dr. Power agrees Avith this description, in the latter 
character, however, it agrees with 0. liquidus ; the occurrence of tran- 
sitional forms makes it probable that the two species are not really 
distinct. Dr. Power's specimens appear to represent 0. hicolor, var. 
Jiav'icornis of Waterhouse's catalogue, 

O. particeps, Muls. (affinis, Brit. Cat., jiec Sturm.). Oval, convex, 
glabrous, upper-side black or pitchy-black, very shining, under-side 
reddish-testaceous ; head short, eyes prominent, mouth parts yellow ; 
antennae moderately long, testaceous yellow, with the last joint rather 
long ; thorax transverse, narrowed in front, broadly emarginate at apex, 
subtruncate at base, with the posterior angles sharp right angles, somewhat 
pro iuced, almost impunctate ; elytra oval, slightly rounded at sides, a 
little narrowed towards apex, very convex, with two striae near suture 
well marked, and the other striae very fine, almost obsolete on disc, 
interstices obsoletely punctured ; legs rather short, yellowish. L. 
2-2i mm. 

By sweeping, &c. ; rave ; Boundstone ; Weybridge ; Folkestone ; Glanvilles 
Wootton. 

This species has always been regarded as 0. affinis until com- 
paratively recently ; that species, however, appears to differ from it 
slightly in being longer and less metallic ; it is, however, very closely 
related to it ; the alteration of name v\ras made by j\Ir. liye (Ent. 
Monthly Mag. ix. 38). 

O. helveticus, Tourn. Of this species I know nothing beyond the 
notice given of it by Mr: Eye (Ent. Monthly Mag. xii. 177); he says 
that a single example, taken by Mr. Champion at Caterham, in July, 
1873, had been returned to him by M. Tournier with this name, and 
that its shining black colour and rather evident elytral punctuation dis- 
tinguish it from all known British species except 0. particeps, from which 
its broader and shorter form will suffice to separate it. As the name is 
given as 0. helveticus, Tournier MS., it seems that M. Tournier described 
the species on this example, and as the allied species are so closely con- 
nected it seems to require further confirmation. In the British catalogue 
published by Mr. Matthews and myself we omitted the species, but as it 
is included by Dr. Sharp in his last catalogue, and also in the European 
catalogue of Heyden, Reitter and Weise, it appears to be best to insert 
it provisionally, although it may turn out to be only a variety of one of 
the closely allied species. 



OlibntS.'] CLAVICORNIA. 153 

O. millefolll, Payk. A small species, oval, very short and strongly 
convex, subglobose, deep black, very shining ; head very finely punc- 
tured, antennae sometimes yellow, sometimes dusky yellowish, with the 
club and sometimes the first joint brownish, palpi black ; thorax impunc- 
tate, with the base slightly sinuate on each side near scutellum, posterior 
angles right angles ; elytra with the two striae near suture well marked, 
the other striae very fine and very finely punctured, interstices extremely 
finely punctured ; under- side clothedwith thin greyish pubescence ; legs 
sometimes black, but often lighter^ and sometimes even yellowish, second 
joint of anterior tarsi considerably dilated in male. L. 1|-1|- nim. 

By sweeping ; on flowers of Achillea millefolium ; Claygate, Caterham, Lee, 
Horsell, Southend ; Brandon, Suffolk ; Horning Feu ; Kingsgate ; Devon, Exniouth. 

Examples of this species with dark antennae are very like small speci- 
mens of 0. cenens, but may be distinguished by having no greenish 
metallic tinge on the elytra, and by the more convex and shorter oval 
form which is less narrowed behind. 

O. pyg-maeus, Sturm. Elongate-oval, strongly convex, black, 
shining, usually pitchy towards apex ; antennae yellow or brownish- 
yellow ; palpi brownish-red ; thorax as in the preceding species, but 
with the posterior angles obtuse ; elytra with the two striae near suture 
distinct, and with traces of other striae, interstices extremely finely 
pnnctured ; under-side pitchy-brown, legs reddish-brown ; very closely 
allied to 0. millefolii, but distinctly more elongate and narrower, Avith 
the posterior angles of thorax not right angles, and the elytra pitchy 
towards apex. L. 1-ly mm. 

By sweeping ; not common ; Darenth Wood, Shirley, Caterham, Ashtead, Woking, 
Cobham ; Wey bridge; A&hwickeu ; Horning Fen; Wickbam and Burvvell Fensj 
Cromer; Ipswich. 

In L'Abei^e, 1885, Clavicornes, p. 13, the localities for 0. ulicis, 
Gyll., are given as " Suede, Angleterre ;" the species, however, has not 
been recognized as from England by British Entomologists ; it appears 
to be closely allied to 0. cenens, but nearly as small as 0. injgmceus, from 
which it differs in its less ovate and elongate form, and the more distinct 
metallic reflection of its elytra ; it is smaller, shorter, more convex and 
less metallic than 0. ceneus. 



STZZiBUS, Seidlitz. 

This genus has usually been included under OUhrus, but is distinguished 
by not having the metasternum prolonged beyond the intermediate coxa^, 
and by the fact that the femora are widened and rounded on their 
inferior border ; there are five European species of which three are found 
in Britain. 



154 CLAvicoiiNiA. ISlilbus. 

I. Size larger, less elongate, and more convex; pos- 

terior angles of thorax right angles. 
i. Upper surface lighter or darker brown ; becoming 
plainly lighter towards apex; elytra more nar- 
rowed towards apex S. TESTACEUS, Panz. 

[rjemlnus, 111.), 
ii. Upper surface brownish-black, obscurely lighter 

towards apex ; elytra scarcely narrowed to apex . S. ATOMAKTUS, i. 

[jjiceus, Stepli.). 

II. Size smaller, more elongate, and less convex ; pos- 

terior angles of thorax somewhat obtuse ; upper 
surface nearly black ; elytra either gradually or 
suddenly lighter before apex S. OBLONGTTS, Er. 

S. testaccus, Panz. {gemhms, 111. ; consimiUs, jMarsh). Short oval, 
convex, darker or lighter brown passing into testaceous towards apex of 
elytra ; head and thorax impunctate, antennse and mouth parts reddish- 
yellow ; thorax with the basal margin scarcely sinuate near scutellum, 
posterior angles sharp right angles ; elytra with one stria near suture 
plainly marked, and with very slight traces of other striae, interstices 
smooth and shining ; under-side reddish-brown, prosternuni behind set 
with long hairs ; legs yellowishj tarsi paler, male with the second joint 
of the anterior tarsi rather distinctly widened. L. 2-2^ mm. 

By sweeping, occasionally in haystack refuse, moss, &e. ; abundant and generally 
distributed in the London district and the South, and not uncommon in the Midlands ; 
I do not, however, know of any record further north than Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire ; 
it is not recorded from the Northumberland district or from Scotland. 

S. atomarius, L. (piceus, Steph.). Allied to the preceding but 
smaller, less convex, and more strongly rounded in front and behind, so 
that it appears more elongate and parallel-sided ; the colour also is 
different, being blackish-brown, or pitchy-black, gradually passing into 
pitchy-reddish-brown or obscure pitchy-brown at apex ; the elytra are 
considerably less narrowed behind ; the under-side is blackish-brown, with 
the last segment of abdomen and the legs reddish-brown ; the pro- 
sternum behind is set with a distinct circle of longer hairs ; the elytra 
have one stria near suture plain and very faint traces of other stria?, the 
interstices being impunctate ; occasionally examples occur with the striae 
a little more distinct. L. 1|— 2 mm. 

By sweeping; rare; Bungay and Ditchingam, Suffolk; West Ditton ; Wickcn 
Feu. 

S. oblong-US, Er. Rather smaller than the preceding, less convex 
and more elongate, and more narrowed in front and behind ; colour 
variable, often very dark pitchy- brown almost black, obscurely lighter 
towards apex, sometimes suddenly and distinctly testaceous before apex, 
and occasionally entirely reddish-yellow (these specimens, however, are 
probably more or less immature) ; the head is very xinely punctured, 
and the thorax very finely and obsolctoly punctured, with the hind 



SiiJbus.] CLAVicouNiA. 165 

margin not visibly sinuate near scutelluin, and the posterior angles a 
little obtuse, and not sharp right angles as in the two preceding species ; 
elytra Avith one stria near suture well marked, and with other very fine 
longitudinal stria?, the interstices being each furnished with a regular 
row of tine punctures, which are scarcely visible except xmder a high 
magnifying power ; under-side brownish, last segment of abdomen and 
legs reddish, or reddish-yellow ; prosternum without a circle of hairs 
behind. L. l|-lf mm. 

Marshy places ; in the stems of Ti/pha latifoUa ; local but sometimes common where 
it occurs; Snodland (Kent), Chatham, Gravesend, iSheppy, Dagenhani ; formerly 
found at Netting Hill j Birchington and Pegwell Bay ; Hastings ; Horning Fen. 

It is worthy of notice that only four species of Phalacridge are recorded 
from Scotland, and these are all local or rare in that country. 



COCCINELLIDjE. 

Of all the families of the Coleoptera theie is hardl}' any which is at 
present in a more unsatisfactory state as regards classitication than the 
Coccinellidse ; many of the recognized genera rest on what appear to be 
purely specific differences, and these not always very strong ones ; a great 
deal of labour has been spent upon the family by Crotch, Mulsant, and 
others, and lately Herr Weise in the " Bestimmungs-Tabellen der Euro- 
paischen Coleoptera " has given us a most useful monograph of the 
European species ; a complete and thorough revision, however, of all the 
exotic genera is needed before we 'can at all attain to a correct idea of 
the group. Mr. Gorham is at present studying the family and collecting 
materials, but the genera and species are so numerous that we can hardly 
expect such a work from one who is so much occupied ivith other groups. 
According to the Munich catalogue the family contains 1450 species 
belonging to 104 genera ; since the publication of the catalogue the 
increase may be roughly estimated at about ten per cent. ; of these only 
about fifty species belonging to fifteen or sixteen genera occur in Britain. 
With regard to the general distribution of the Coccinellidaj Mr. Gorham 
Avrites to me as follows :— " The distribution is very remarkable and 
different to either of the two groups just mentioned (EndomycLidte and 
Erotylidse), being, if I may call it so, more universal, every known part 
of the globe which supports any insect life having, as far as I can si)eak, 
an average number ; the genera are very badly defined ; hence my ideas 
of geographical genera seem quite upset ; Ilahjzia, for instance, has 
representatives in Europe, North and South America, China, Japan, 
India, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands; or if again we take the 
large genus Epilachna (containing 223 species), although it has an 
Eastern and a New World type very different in appearance, yet these 
cannot be separated generically without the process (which must at last 
take place) of subdivision into many genera, as there arc contingents from 



156 CLAvicORNiA, - [CoccineJli']ce. 

every part of the world, and these not very much differentiated. I 
think that a carefnl analysis of the Coccinellidee would show that they 
are a northern temperate zone family, the tropical species having rather 
the appearance of being derived, than of being autochthonous." 

The family may be known by the following characters : form convex, 
semi-globose or more rarely oblong-oval ; head usually sunk in thorax 
which is cmarginate in front ; species usually glabrous, but in some groups 
pubescent ; on this latter character Mulsant divitles the family into two 
large series, the Cf-ijmnosomides and the Trichosomides ; the nuixillse are 
bilobed, and the maxillary palpi are 4-jointed, with the last joint large 
and almost always securiform ; the antennte are moderate, short, or very 
short, inserted at the inner front margin of the eyes, with the base 
exposed or covered by a lobe of the clypeus ; thorax transverse ; meso- 
sternum short, metasternum rather large ; abdomen usually with five free 
ventral segments, but occasionally with six or seven ; the first segment is 
the longest, and is usually furnished with more or less distinct curved 
coxal lines, wliich are often made use of as generic characters ; legs 
short, more or less retractile, tarsi apparently three-jointed, but in 
reality four-jointed, the third joint being very minute and concealed in 
the lobes of the second joint ; as a rule, however, they are now considered 
and spoken of as three-jointed, as is the case with other families which 
were formerly reckoned under the old group Pseudotrimera. 

The family may be divided into two series as follows : — 

Mandibles with more than two teeth at apex . . Coccinellid^ phytophaGvE. 
Mandibles simple or bifid at apex Coccinellid^ apuidiphag^. 

COCCINELLID^ PHYTOPHAG-ffil. 

Of this series, which contains the large genus Epilaclina and a few 
other small genera, only one genus and one species are found in Britain ; 
the members of the series are, during all peiiods of their growth, plant- 
feeders, and not carnivorous, 

SUBCOCCINi:X.Z.A, Huber {Lasia, Mulsant). 

This genus contains one species wliich has been described under 
various names from different parts of Europe and the Caucasus, and from 
Algeria ; it is very variable as regards colour, no fewer than twenty- 
three forms being mentioned by Mulsant (Securipalpes, pp. 198-205). 

S. vig'intiquatuorpunctata, L. {Lasia glohosa, Schneid.). Very 
convex, almost hemispherical, not very shining, clothed Avith thick and 
very distinct greyish pubescence of a reddish or ferruginous colour, with 
black spots and patches on thorax and elytra, which are very variable, 
and are sometimes but rarely absent ; the upper surface is thickly but 
distinctly punctured ; antennae reddish-testaceous, moderately long with 



SuhcocHnclla.'] clavicornia. 157 

somewhat elongate club ; thorax short, broadest behind ; elytra some- 
what raised a little before middle; legs reddish-testaceous. L. 2^- 
3 mm. 

Sixth ventral segment subtruncate in male, somewhat rounded in 
female. 

By sweeping herbag'e in woods, lanes, &c. ; often found in moss in winter ; locally 
couiiuon ; Shirley, Micklebam, Chatham, VVbitstable, Southend, &c. ; Hastings ; 
Glanvilles Wootton ; Devon ; Swansea ; Barmouth ; Huntingdonshire ; apparently 
very rare in the Midland counties, and not recorded from the Northumberland anil 
Durham districts ; Filey, Yorkshire ; Lancaster, on Arundo phragmites ; Scotland, 
rare, Solway and Tweed districts. 

This insect is found, according to Mulsant, on Saponaria officinalis^ 
vetches, lucerne, clovers, and various other plants, and also on certain 
trees ; it gnaws the parenchyma of the leaves, and makes marks on them 
as with a four-toothed comb as might be expected from the formation of 
the mandibles ; the larva lives on the same plants ; it is yellowish, of 
somewhat elliptical shape, and more or less spinose, with a few dark 
markings, and with the last segment furnished with a small nipple-like 
anal appendage. 

COCCINELLID^ APHIDIPHAG-5;. 

The whole of the species belonging to this series are carnivorous, and 
in all their stages feed as a rule on Aphides ; they are, therefore, of the 
greatest service to the farmer and the gardener ; Coccinellidae are often 
found in swarms on and about blighted fruit-trees, and many people 
erroneously assign the blighted appearance of the trees to the beetles, the 
true state of the case being that the beetles are attracted by the abun- 
dant supply of their usual food ; in all probability no form of life, if we 
except perhaps the very lowest forms such as the bacteria, has a greater 
power of reproducing itself than the aphis ; the females are both 
oviparous and viviparous, and one connection with the male suffices for 
the production of broods for many generations ; the generations succeed 
one another very rapidly, and Reaumur calculates that one aphis may be 
the progenitor of the enormous number of 5,904,900,000 individuals 
during tbe month or six weeks of her existence ; the whole of this 
interesting question Avill be found fully discussed in Buckton's Monograph 
of British Aphides, vol. i., pp. 76, &c. ; Professor Huxley (Linn. Trans., 
vol, xxii., p. 215) makes a curious calculation, which is quoted by 
Buckton ; he shows that, assuming that an aphis weighs as little as yo^-g- 
of a grain, and that it requires a man to be very stout to weigh more than 
two million grains, the tenth brood of Aphides alone, without adding the 
products of all the generations which precede the tenth, would, if all the 
members survived the perils to which they are exposed, contain more 
ponderable substance than five hundred millions of stout men ; that is, 
more than the whole population of China. Aphides largely increase in 
sultry and cloudy woatlier ; henr-e has arisen the saying so commoii in 



15S CLAVicouxiA. [Coecin.eUidcF aphiilipha(jcp. 

many parts of the country that the dark clouds are " blight ;" if, how- 
ever, we consider their rate of increase, we shall not be surprised that in 
a few hours trees, before flourishing, become blighted. Any check on 
this plague is of course of the greatest service, and the Coccinellidss play 
a great part, especially in the larval state, in preserving the balance of 
nature. 

The larvaa of the Coccinellidas are very common objects; they are broad in front 
and narrowed beli'md, and are covered with more or less distinct spines and tubercles; 
they are variously coloured ; that of C. ^-punctata is one of the best known ; it is 
about 10 mm. in length, of an ashy-grey or"bluish-grey colour, with two yellow spots on 
the anterior part of the prothoracic segment, and with the external tubercles of the 
fourth and seventh abdominal segments yellow, the others being black ; the pupa is 
orange coloured, with a double row of black spots; before changing the larva attaches 
itself to a leaf by its last segment by means of a viscous substance which it secretes ; 
it then bends the anterior portion of the body up towards the apical po!ti<)n ; the 
tubercles then diminish in size, the hairs fall off, and the skin splits on the back and 
shrinks in a wrinkled mass to the apex of the body (v. Chapuis et Candeze, Cat. des 
Larves des Coleoperes, p. 291). 
I. Anterior coxal cavities closed behind. 

i. Clypeus not widened into a lobe at sides, eyes almost 
free in front, base of antennaj more or less exposed. 

1. Antennaj moderately long. 

A. Form more elongate and looser ; thorax broadest 

at or before middle. 

a. Claws toothed , . Hippodamia, MiiJs. 

b. Claws simple . . . , Anisosiicta, Dtip. 

B. Form less elongate, as a rule more or less 
hemispherical, thorax broadest at base, or at all 

events behind middle. 

a. S( utellum distinct. 

a*. Antennse with club rather short and 

compact, with penultimate joints trans- 
verse and truncate at apex. 

af . Prosteruum convex without carinas ; 
coxal lines of first abdominal segment 
semicircular complete Adalia, Muh, 

bf. Prosternum depressed between coxae, 
usually with two carinse ; coxal lines of 
first abdominal segment incomplete . . Coccinella, L. 
h*. Antenna; with club less compact, with the 

penultimate joints not transverse, or, if 

transverse, with the apices not truncate, 

but veith projecting angles embracing the 
succeeding joint. 

ai'. Sutural margin of elytra sinuate before 
apex, the siuuation being furnished with 
golden setoe ; head less sunk in thorax . Anatis, Muls. 

bf. Sutural margin of elytra straight; head 
more sunk in thorax. 

a|. Claws slender at base Mysia, Mnlx. 

bj. Claws broad at base Hal^zia, Muls. 

b. Scutellum very small, scarcely, if at all, 

visible MtCEASPis, Jiedt. 

2. Antcnnaj very short, I'arcly longer than the dia- 

meter of the eves. 



Cocciiiellidw apliidipharice.l clavicorma. 1."i 

A. Upper siu-fiice <^labroas IIypebaspis, Tidt. 

B. Upper surfiiee pl;iiiily pubescent vSci'MNUS, Kay. 

ii. Clypeus ;it sides extemliiii^ tar in front of the eyes, aiul 

covering' the base of the antenna). 

1. Upper surface plainly pubescent PlatynaSPIS, Tledt. 

2. Upper surface tilabrous. 

A. Anterior tibiae with a tooth on outer margin ; 

labruui scarcely visible CniLOCORTTs, Leach. 

B. Anterior tibite without tooth on outer margin ; 

labrum distinct ExocnOMUS, Redt. 

II. Anterior coxal cavities open behind ; upper surface 
pubescent ; punctuation of elytra dAuble. 
i. Punctuation of elytra iiregular; base of thora.x bor- 
dered; form subheuiisplierical Rhizobitjs, Stcph. 

ii. Large punctures of elytra arranged in rows; base of 

thorax not bordered ; form elougate-oval Cuccidula, Kug. 



KXFPOZBiklilXA, Mulsant. 

This genus contains about twenty species, which are widely distributed 
in Europe and North America ; one or two are found in Northern Asia ; 
they are, as a rule, of a more oblong and looser form than the greater 
part of the other Cocciiiellidie. H. varierjata is a very variable species, 
and some of its varieties appear to be found in Northern Africa, Senegal, 
and India, as well as in more northern climates. 

I. First joint of tarsi not dilated in male ; size 
larger; elytra orange-yellow, with a common spot 

at scutellum, and six spots on each black . . . H. TREDECIMPUNCTATA, L. 
II. First joint of anterior and intermediate tarsi 
dilated in male {Adonia, Muls. ); size sniHller; 

elytra reddish, with variable black spots on each . H. vaeikgata, Ooeze ,- 

(i7intabilis, Scriba). 

K. 13-punctata, L. (tihialis, Say.). Oblong, rather depressed ; 
head black wdth front yellow ; thorax with sides strongly rounded, black 
with the anterior and lateral borders yellow, the latter broadly so and 
usually furnished with a black spot in middle of each ; elytra yellow or 
orange-yellow, with a common spot at base of suture, which is sometimes 
Avanting, and six spots on each black ; legs black, with the tibiae and 
usually the greater part of the tarsi yellow. L. 4|-7 mm. 

Male with the first joint of the anterior tarsi slightly furrowed longi- 
tudinally, and the fifth segment of abdomen emarginate at apex. 

Marshy places, on reeds, &c., also in flood refuse; very local, and, as a rule, rare; 
Battersea (Stephens); Suffolk, in flood refuse, abundant (\V. Garneys) ; Deal; 
Hastings; near Lancaster on Arundo phragmites ; Nortlmmberland and Durham 
districts, Meldon Park, Twizell, and Durham ; Scotland, Lowlands, rare, Solway and 
Forth districts; Ireland, near Belfast and Portmarnock ; the species is found through- 
out Siberia and occurs in North America as tibialis, Say.; it is very variable as 
regards the size of tlie spots of thorax and elytra. 

K. varieg-ata, Goezc (mutaJn'b's, Scriba; Adonia midabdi--^, IMul- 



IGO CLAVICORNIA. \_Hippodanna. 

sant). Oval-oblong ; head black, with front broadly white, usoally with 
two small black spots ; thorax very transverse, with sides strongly 
rounded, broadest about middle, black, with the anterior and side margins 
white, and also with a longitudinal white line extending from the front 
margin to about middle, with a white round spot on each side, posterior 
margin plainly bordered ; elytra reddish, with a common spot at base of 
suture, and several variable black spots on each black, finely punctured ; 
legs black. L. 3-5| mm. 

Male with the first joint of the anterior tarsi oval and dilated. 

By sweeping herbage, &c. ; rather local ; London district, not uncommon, St. Mary 
Cray, Highgate, Weybridge, Mickleham, Esher, Woking, &c. ; Kingsgate ; Margate; 
Deal ; Brighton ; Swansea ; Blackpool ; Liverpool ; New Brighton ; Filey, Yorkshire ; 
not recorded, apparently, from the northern counties of England or from Scotland ; 
in England it appears not to be found far from the sea, but it occurs over all Europe 
and as far south as Senegal and Abyssinia, and also in Asia from Siberia to India. 

This species is very variable as regards the colour of the elytra ; the 
colour of the thorax, however, is usually constant, the only noticeable 
variation being the extension of the two white spots into lines meeting 
the anterior white border. 



ANISOSTXCTA, Daponchel. 

Only two or three species are at present included in this genus, which 
is closely related to the preceding, and appears only to be distinguished 
by having the tarsal claws simple and not toothed. 

A. novemdecimpunctataj L. Oblong, not very convex, of a 
yellow or somewhat orange colour with black markings ; thorax very 
transverse, with sides strongly rounded, usually furnislied with six black 
spots, which are sometimes confluent ; elytra with a common spot at 
base of suture and nine spots on each black, moderately strongly 
punctured ; legs testaceous. L. 3-4 mm. 

Marshy places, amongst reeds and aquatic plants ; loca', but common where it 
occurs ; Lee, Graveseud, Foi-est Hill, Wej-bridge, Woking, Walton, &c ; Yarmouth ; 
Birchiugton ; Hastings ; Brighton ; Devon ; South Wales ; Hertford ; Cambridge ; 
Col-'sliill and Sutton Park near Birmingham; Willington, near Burton-on-Trent ; 
Mabbeiley, Cheshire; according to Stephens it has occurred in Scotland, but it is not 
given iu Dr. Sharp's list ; the species extends across Asia to North America. 



ABAIiIA, Mulsant. 

This genus contains upwards of thirty species, which are very widely 
distributed ; the majority are found in the more northern regions of the 
world, but species have been described from Chili, Cape of Good Hope, 
Abyssinia, Madeira, Ceylon, &c. ; hitherto our list has contained two 
species only, but a new one, A. hoihvica, must now be added. 



A'lalia.] ci.AvicoKxiA. IGl 

I. Thorax with the entire base finely margined ; form h^ss 

COtlves A. OBLITEBATA, L. 

II, Thorax with the base only margined near angles ; form 

more convex. 
i. Claws short, scarcely visibly toothed ; form semiglobose ; 

colour yellow and black A. BOTaviCA, rai/k. 

ii. Cluws long, distinctly toothed ; form slightly ovate ; 

colour red and black A. BIPTINCTATA, L. 

A. obliterata, L. {M-nigrum, Gyll. ; Uuida, INIuls.). Of a dirty- 
testaceous colour, with the thorax furnished with markings towards l)asc, 
which usually coalesce and form an M ; elytra lighter at sides, darker at 
suture, and usually with two more or less defined dark bands at sides 
M-hich are often obsolete ; legs testaceous ; the elytra are occasionally 
dark brown ; the upper surface is not very convex, and somewhat finely 
punctured, and the thorax is very transverse and widest behind middle. 
L. 3|-5 mm. 

Male with the fifth ventral segment of abdomen broadly emarginate 
at apex. 

On fir-trees j not uncommon and generally distributed throughout England and 
probably Ireland ; Scotland, not common, Sohvay, Tweed, Forth and Dee districts. 

V. fenestrata, Weise. This very distinct variety is quite black 
with the apex of the elytra and a few more or less distinct spots at 
margins, and on disc of the same yellowish or yellowish-red, and the 
anterior angles of thorax someAvhat broadly whitish. 

Two specimens were taken by the Rev. Hamlet Clark, on ling, at Northampton, and 
I have found it in Sherwood Forest. 

A. bothnica, Payk. Almost circular, hemispherical, of an orange- 
yellow colour with black markings, under-side black, legs yellow or dark 
with tarsi lighter ; head black with a broad central sjjot yellow ; thorax 
yellow with various markings ; elytra with suture black and other black 
markings which differ in various specimens ; punctuation fine. L. 
3|-4 mm. 

V. criicifera, "Weise. In this variety the margins of the elytra are 
black and two large spots meet the suture at centre of disc, forming a 
rough figure of a cross ; besides these there is a common spot at base of 
suture, a spot on each elytron reaching base, two on each meeting sides, 
and two free, one in middle and one towards apex. 

The variety only has occurred in Britain, Dr. Power having taken one specimen at 
Moss Morran, Scotland. 

Ai bipunctata, L. Oval, convex; thorax black, with more or loss 
broad white borders at sides, or with anterior angles only white, or 
entirely black, often with a double white spot in middle of base ; elytra 
in the commonest form red, with one large round spot on each, but very 
variably coloured, in some specimens the red colour prevailing, while 

VOL. III. M 



1G2 CLAVicoRNiA. [Adulia. 

others arc almost entirely black with only a reddish spot at base ; punc- 
tuation rather fine ; legs and under-side black, the former occasionally 
lighter ; epimera black. L. 3-4 mm. 

On trees, shrubs, herbage, &c. ; common and generally distributed throughout the 
kingdom. 

ItXVSIA, Mulsant 

The "Mysiates " are distinguished by Mulsant from the " Halyziates " 
by having the last joint of the antennae truncate, and not obliquely cut 
off at apex, and terminating in an angle as in the latter group ; the 
character, however, is not a very plain one, and the genera Mysia and 
Halyzia are perhaps better separated by the shape of the tarsal claws ; 
the genus Mysia only contains a few species from Northern Asia, and 
North and Central America, and one from Europe. 

BI. o'blong'og'uttata, L. Oval, subhemispherical, of a light tes- 
taceous-brown or fawn colour ; thorax with broad Avhite borders, and 
usually furnished with two dark longitudinal markings, which are very 
variable in breadth and are sometimes absent ; elytra with longitudinal 
light lines and oblong spots, very finely punctured ; legs testaceous, 
sometimes partially dark. L. 5|-7 mm. 

Male Avith the sixth ventral segment of abdomen somewhat excised at 
apex, female Avith the fifth ventral segment subsinuate on each side. 

On and about firs ; not uncommon but local ; London district, widely distributed. 
Glauvilles Wootton ; New Forest ; Bournemouth ; Devon ; South Wales ; Midland 
districts ; Chat Moss ; Norwich ; Manchester ; Filey and Scarborough ; Nortbumber- 
land district; Scotland, Highlands and Lowlands, common on fir-trees, Solway, Forth, 
Tay, Dee and Moray districts ; it is probably not uncommon in Ireland. 

ANATZS, Mulsant. 

This genus is usually included under Halyzia, but is distinguished by 
having the sutural margin of the elytra sinuate before apex, and furnished 
with golden pile ; the single European species is one of the largest and 
most conspicuous of the Coccinellidse. 

A. ocellata, L. The largest of our species of CoccinellidiB ; oval, 
not very convex ; under-side black with a white spot beneath the 
anterior angles, and with the epimera of the mesosternum white ; head 
black with white markings ; thorax black with a broad white lateral 
border, the centre of which is also marked Avith black, and Avith two 
white markings at base ; elytra red with a thin black lateral margin, and 
Avith a common spot at scutellum and usually 7-9 others on each black 
surrounded Avith yelloAV, Avhich gives them an ocellate appearance ; the 
piuictuation is fine but distinct ; legs black. L. 6-8 mm. 

Male Avith the sixth ventral segment of abdomen truncate in middle 
of apex, female Avith the same segment subsinuate. 



Anatis.] clavicornia. 163 

Ou firs- local bat not uncommon; London district, generally ilistribvited ; Nor- 
wich Hastino-^ ' &c. ; Glanvilles Woottou ; Soiithanipton ; Devon ; Coleslull and 
Sntton Park irear Birminghiim ; Tamworth; Burton-on-Tront ; Lincoln ; Cliat Moss ; 
Filey Yorks. • Mincliestcr; Northumberland and Durham districts; Scotland local, 
Tweed Tay Dee and Moray districts. Ireland, near Watcrford ; I have taken both 
this species and 31. ohlongo-guttata at Filey, Yorks., by sweeping grass on the edge 
of the cliff, apparently far from any fir-trees. 

COCCINEIiIiA, Linnc. 

This genus contains a large number of species, which are very widely 
distributed ; our six British species belong to the genus Coccinella 
proper ; Weise includes in the genus the species classed by JMulsant 
under Harmonia, these being distinguished by having the mesosternuni 
emargiuate in front, whereas in Coccinella it is simple. 

I Thorax more or less variegated with white, or with 

at all events the side margins white ; legs pale . C. decempunctata, L. 

{variabilis, 111.) 

IL Thorax black with a triangular white spot at 

anterior angles; elytra yellow with black mark- 

ings; legs black .. C. HIEUOaLTPHICA, L. 

III. Thorax black with a quadrangular white spot at 

anterior angles ; legs black, 
i. Average length 4^4^ mm. 

1. Elytra reddish with a common spot at scutellum 
and five spots on each black ; form more elongate 

and less convex C. undecimpunctata, i. 

2. Elytra red with a common spot at scutellum 
and two spots on each black ; form rounder and 

more convex C. quinquepunctata, L. 

ii. Average length 6-6i mm. ; elytra red with a 
common spot at scutellum and three spots ou 
each black. 

1. Epiraen of mesosternum white, episterna ot 
' metaste-num entirely black ; anterior angles of 

thorax projecting. -. • • C. septempunctata, L. 

2. Epimera of mesosternum and apex of episterna 
of metasternum white ; anterior angles of thorax 

^-%--^^^^ "^S^MuS 

C 10-punctata, L. {variabilis, 111.). Almost hemispherical, ex- 
tremely variable as regards the colour of the upper surface under-side 
dark usually black, legs yellow ; the latter character will usually be found 
of crreat assistance in determining specimens as the allied species have the 
]e"s black : epimera of mesosternum white; the elytra are usually fur- 
nished with a transverse raised fold before apex ; femora sometimes 
dusky ; punctuation rather fine. L. 3-4 mm. 

On low plants, and also on oaks, limes, &c. ; common and generally distributed 
throughout the kingdom. 

The varieties of this insect are so numerous that it is impossible to 

M 2 



1G4 cLxWicoRN'i.v. [Coccinell". 

describe them ; most of them are mentioned by Weise, Coccinellidpe, 
pp. 32-35, and by Mulsant, Securipalpes, pp. 95-108 ; among the most 
common are those with the elytra black and furnished Avith four or five 
large yellow spots on each, or testaceous with small black spots, or black 
Avith one large triangular spot reaching margin, not far from shoulder. 

C. hierog"lyphica, L. Oval, subglobose ; thorax black with the 
anterior angles whitish in a triangular spot ; elytra yellow or reddish- 
yellow, with a longitudinal black patch at scutellum, another on each 
side, which is somewhat curved and often reaches from base to centre, 
and a black spot before apex, which is sometimes joined to the pre- 
ceding ; sometimes all the spots are divided, but some are always 
more or less oblong ; legs and epimera black ; punctuation distinct. 
L. 3-4 mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen impressed with a 
semicircular fovea. 

By sweeping heath, &c., especially beneath fir-trees; local; London district com- 
mon ; Norwich; Hastings and other localities on the South Coast ; Swansea; Chat 
Moss ; Newmarket ; Sutton Park ; Cannock Chase ; Northumberland and Durham 
districts rare; Scotland, Highlands and Lowlands, amongst heather, Solway, Tweed, 
Forth, Tay, and Dee districts ; Ireland, near Waterford. 

A black variety of this species occurs, but the i-ar. fenestrata of A. 
olliterata appears occasionally to be mistaken for it. 

C 11-punctata, L. Oval, moderately convex ; thorax black with 
the anterior angles white ; elytra red with a common spot at suture, 
and five other spots on each^ black ; these varj^ in size, but are fairly 
constant ; some, however, are occasionally very small or even absent ; 
legs black. L. 3^-4| mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen emarginate ; female 
with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen entire. 



o 



C. 5-punctata, L. Very convex, almost hemispherical ; thorax 
black with a white spot at the anterior angles which is large and con- 
spicuous on the under-surface ; elytra red, with a common spot at base 
of suture and two spots on each black ; occasionally there is also a 
minute spot at sides between base and middle ; punctuation fine and 
thick ; legs black ; epimera of mesosternum white. L. 3|-4| mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen impressed with a 
deep semicircular fovea. 

A northern species often found on the borders of streams ; Northumberland 
district, not uncommon ; Scotland, local, Solway, Tay, Dec, and Moray districts. 

C> 7-punctata, L. Convex, subhemisphcrical, very finely punc- 
tured ; thorax black with a large white spot at the anterior angles which 
is ziot conspicuous on the under-side ; anterior angles bluntly but dis- 



Coccilldla.] OLAVICOUNIA. 165 

tinctly produced ; elytra with a common spot at base of suture, and three 
other spots on each, black ; these are variable iu size ; legs and under- 
side black, epimera of mesosternum white. L. 5|-7| mm. 

Male with tlie sixth ventral segment of abdomen truncate before apex 
and furnished witli a transverse polished fovea. 

On herbage, &c. ; very commoa and generally distributed throughout the 
kingdom. 

C. distincta, Fald. (lahilis, Muls. ; magnifica, Kedt.). Yery like 
the preceding in general appearance and very easily confused wdth it ; 
it may, however, be easily distinguished by the shape of the anterior 
angles of thorax, which are much broader, more rounded, and not nearly 
so projecting ; the apex of the episterna of metasternum as well as the 
.epimera of mesosternum are white, and the sixth ventral segment of the 
male is not furnished with any impression ; in most of the specimens I 
have seen the black spots on disc are larger, but this does not appear 
to be a reliable character. L. 5|-7| mm. 

Sandy places, by sweeping heath, SiC; very local, but not uncommon where it 
occurs; Weybridge (in numbers, Power), E^her, Horsell, Farnbam ; Kingsgate; 
Whitstable ; Heme Bay ; Hastings ; Lewes, in and about ants' nests ; it is only found, 
apparently, in the Loudon and South-eastern district. 

HAXiirZIA, Mulsant. 

This genus, in its widest sense, contains considerably more than a 
hundred species which are very widely distributed ; Mulsant and Crotch 
have, however, divided it up into nineteen smaller genera, but the difl'er- 
ences are so slight that they can hardly be admitted ; several of the species 
are exceedingly variable as regards colour; important distinctions are 
drawn by Mulsant from the presence or absence and the shape of the 
plates on the first segment of the abdomen, a character of which he has 
made considerable use throughout his work on the group ; for conveni- 
ence' sake, however, these have not been here taken into account. 

L Elytra lighter or darker castaneous-brown or 

fawn-coloured with yellowish-white spots. 
i. Prosternum with two raised keels ; elytra 

with a narrow side border and with six spots 

on each H. duodecimguttata, Poda. 

ii. Prosternum without keels. 

1. Side margins very broad ; size larger; 

each elytron with eight spots .... II. SEDECliiGUTTATA, L, 

2. Side margins narrow ; size smaller. 

A. Form more convex and rounder ; each 
elytron with seven spots, the two near 
base being separate and more or less 

round H. quatuoedecimguttata, L. 

B. Form less convex and more elongate; 
each elytron with nine spots, the two 
near base being dentate and often con- 
fluent H. OCTODECIJIGtriTATA, L. 



166 CLAVICORNIA. [IlallJTiia. 

II. Elytra light yellow with black, more or less 

angular, and often confluent, spots . . . H. CONGlobata, Z. 

(quatuordecimpunciaia, L.) 

III. Elytra of a bright lemon colour with plainly 
marked, usually round, spots, seldom con- 
fluent, as a rule eleven in number on each , H. tigintidtjopunctata, L. 

K. l2-g"uttata, PoJa. (s.g. Vihidia, Muls.). Convex, hemispherical, 
of a hiteous or yellowish-testaceous colour ; thorax thickly punctured, 
with white borders, somewhat transparent in front and at sides ; elytra 
strongly and unevenly punctured with six whitish spots on each, 
narrowly margined ; under-side and legs testaceous or reddish-testaceous. 
L. 3-4 mm. 

Male with the fifth ventral segment broadly emarginate at apex. 

On firs, alders and other trees ; very rare in Britain ; Scotland, " Raehills, Rev. 
W. Little," Murray's Cat. ; Ireland, near Belfast, Haliday ; it is possible, however, 
that there may be some mistake as to these records ; the only specimen I have seen 
was a pinned one in Griesbach's collection, now in the possession of Mr. Mason ; the 
species is common in France and extends through Europe and Siberia to Japan, 
Stephens records it as taken in some numbers in 1815 and 1816 in Windsor Forest 
and near Bristol. 

K. 16-g"uttata, L. Oval, subhemispherical, moderately convex, of 
a luteous or yellowish-testaceous colour ; thorax with broad pellucid 
Avhitish lateral margins, and the anterior margin also more narrowly 
jDcllucid, very finely punctured ; elytra less strongly and unevenly 
punctured than in the preceding species, with broad pellucid margins, 
luteous with eight whitish spots on each; epimera of metasternum 
yellowish-white, the colour, however, often fading after death; legs 
yellowish-testaceous. L. 5-6 mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment emarginate in a semicircle at 
apex, and the epipleurje of the elytra more strongly dilated than in 
female. 

By beating young birches and other trees in hedges and woods ; local ; London 
district, not uncommon, Mickleham, Coombe Wood, Esher, Sheerness, Whitstable ; 
Norfolk; Hastings; Glauvilles Wootton ; Devon; Swansea; Scotland, rare, on 
birches, Sohvay, Forth, Tay, Dee, and Moray districts. 

K. 14-g"uttata, L. (s.g. Calvia, Muls.). Hemispherical, of a rufous- 
brown or castaneous colour, with the metasternum and middle of abdo- 
men black ; thorax very thickly and finely piinctured with a lunulate 
whitish side border, the spot at posterior angles being sometimes con- 
spicuous ; the anterior margin and median line are usually more or less 
Avhitish ; elytra closely, unevenly, and distinctly punctured, with seven 
whitish spots on each (arranged 1, 3, 2, 1), which are, in many cases, 
slightly ocellate, being often surrounded Avith a narrow darker border ; 
epimera of mesosternum white ; legs brownish or reddish-testaceous. 
L. 4-5 mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment subtruncate at apex. 



Halyzia.'] clavicornia. 167^ 

On young alilers and hazels, white-thorn hedges, &c. ; generally distrlhnl-cd and 
rather comuiou throughout the kingdom ; it occurs in Siberia and North America. 

K. 18-g'uttata, L. (s.g. Mt/rrha, Muls.). Oval, moderately convex, 
of a reddish-brown or castaneous colour with the under-side blackish in 
middle ; thorax finely punctured, with anterior and side margins and 
two spots at base whitish ; elytra distinctly punctured, with nine whitish 
spots on each (arranged 2, 1, 3, 2, 1), the two at base of suture being 
dentate and usually confluent, and together with the two spots at base 
of thorax forming a sort of star-shaped figure ; pro- and mesosternum 
and their side parts whitish ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. 3|^-4 mm. 

On firs ; not uncommon in England and Wales, and generally distributed ; Bold 
records it as common in the Northumberland district, but according to Dr. Sharp it 
is rare in Scotland in the Solway, Tweed, and Forth districts ; Ireland, near Belfast 
and Dublin. 

K. cong-lobata, L. (lA-pundata, L. ; conglomerata, Steph. 111.), 
Short oval, subhemispherical, under-surface black, with the epimera of 
the meso- and metasternum yellowish-white, the segments of the abdomen 
being also marked with the same colour ; thorax very finely i)unctured, 
yellow with six black spots which are usually more or less confluent ; 
elytra distinctly, but inot strongly, punctured, yellow with seven quad- 
rangular black spots on each, and the suture, as a rule, also black ; these 
are extremely variable, and almost always more or less confluent ; in our 
ordinary form three of these spots join the suture, and the two spots on 
disc behind middle join the central of these three, the whole forming a 
rough figure very like a face ; legs yellow, femora partly dark. L. 
3-4 mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment small and linear and subtruncate 
at apex. 

By sweeping herbage and*beating hazel, oak and other trees in woods and hedges j 
not uncommon in the midland and southern districts of England and in Ireland, 
but I can find no locality for the species further north than Sherwood Forest, 

K. 22-punctata, L. (s.g. Tliea, Muls.). A very conspicuous little 
species ; hemispherical ; under-side black with the epimera of the meso- 
and metasternum and the hinder portion of the episterna of metasternum 
yellowish ; upper surface of a bright lemon-yellow or sulphur colour, 
finely and not very closely punctured ; thorax with five black spots 
which are usually all separate ; elytra with eleven more or less round 
spots on each, the one at centre of side being very small, often confluent 
with the one adjacent, and sometimes absent, legs black and yellowish- 
red or yellowish. L. 2-3 mm. 

In hedges, woods, &c. ; found especially on nettles, but also on other plants ; 
generally distributed and common throughout the greater part of England, but not 
recorded from Scotland ; Ireland, near Watcrford. 



2GS CLAVicoBNiA. IMicvasjjid: 

KSZCXI.ASP:S, Eedtenbacher. 

This genus is distinguished from its allies, as is implied by its name, 
by the extremely small and almost invisible scutellum ; four or five 
species have been described from Northern Asia, Europe, and Northern 
Africa. 

M. sedecimpunctata, L. (v. l2-punctafa, L.). Hemispherical, 
under-side black with the pleurae almost wholly whitish-yellow ; upper 
surface very finely and thickly punctured, luteous or yellowish-testaceous, 
thorax with six black spots, of which the inner four are usually more 
or less confluent ; elytra with eight spots on each, four, usually separate, 
arranged in a longitudinal row near suture, and others at side of which 
the central ones are more or less confluent and form a continuous longi- 
tudinal irregular patch ; legs mostly yellow; according to Mulsant the 
labrum is black and the anterior and intermediate femora yellow, in 
male, and the labrum is yellow, and the anterior and intermediate femora 
mostly black, in female. L. 2-2 1 mm. 

Marshy places, both inland and on the coast, at roots of g:rass and by sweeping 
low plants ; local, but very common where it occurs ; generally distributed in the 
London and southern district, but not so often mot with further north ; Liverpool, 
not common ; Northumberland and Durham district, Twizell and Durham ; not 
recorded from Scotland. 

v. Potoeri, "VVeise. This variety has the upper surface or, at all 
events, the elytra unicolorous black ; it has been found in Lee pit near 
London, rarely, by Dr. Power, in whose collection there is also an 
intermediate variety. 

J2YPERASPSS, Redtenbacher, 

This genus contains more than two hundred species, of Avhicli a large 
number are found in tropical regions ; they are very widely distributed ; 
eight only occur in Europe, of which one is found in Britain ; they are 
rather closely related to Coccinella and its allies, but may be distinguished 
by the formation of the antennae. 

SZ< reppensis, llerbst. Eroad-oval, convex, obtusely rounded at 
apex, black, shining and glabrous, elytra more distinctly punctured than 
thorax ; lateral margins of thorax and a large spot at apex of each elytron, 
reddish-yellow ; male with the whole head, and the anterior margin of 
thorax narrowl}^ yellow or reddish-yellow ; the anterior legs are also 
entirely of the same colour ; in the female the head and the anterior 
femora are black ; the light spots at apex of elytra are sometimes small, 
and occasionally absent, and there is sometimes a small light reddish 
spot at shoulders. L. 2|-3| mm. 

In moss ou chalky hill-sidcf, under stones and decaying seaweed on the coast, iSic. ; 



Ilyppraspis.'] clavicornia. 109 

occ.Tsion:illy fouiul by sweepinpr umlor fir-trees ; local, iind, as a rule, rather scarce ; 
E>lier, Mickleliani, Shirley, Box Hill, ChoLliam, Shceniess ; Hastings; Seaford, 
Sussex ; Hohn Bush, Brighton ; New Forest ; Devon ; Llyfuant Valley, uear Borth, 
Cardiganshire; Barmouth; Windsor Forest; Bovvdley ; Stail'ordsliiro ; Chat Moss ; 
Withiugton, Cheshire; IScarhorongh ; Scotland, local, iimongst moss in plantations 
of larch aud fir, Sohvay, Forth, Clyde, Tay, Argyle, and Moray districts. 

SCVMNUS, Kiigelann. 

This genus is a very large and extensive one ; iipAvards of two hundred 
and fifty species have already been described, and it is probal)le that this 
is far from representing the total number ; they are small, and, as a 
rule, very inconspicuous insects, and in many cases are difficult to deter- 
mine ; they are distinguished by their plainly pubescent surface and very 
short antennse ; they are closely related to Flatynaspis, but the clypeus 
does not extend in front of the eyes as in that genus ; from IIyi)era><ins 
they may be known by the pubescence of the upper surface ; in spite of 
their small size, as Mulsant remarks, they are devourers of apliides both 
in the larval and perfect state ; the larva both of Svyvimis and riatynaqns 
is not furnished with rows of spines as is the case with most of the other 
Coccinellidee, but is covered with a Avhite substance like minute flocks 
of wool ; Reaumur was the first to observe this, and designated the larvae 
Vi^ " Herissons Nancs" or " Barhefs lJa7irs ,-" this substance is easily 
rubbed off, but the insect has tlie power of renewing it again within 
twelve hours (v. Mulsant, Securipalpes, pp. 211, 212). There are forty- 
five European species of Scymims, of which fourteen occi;r in Britain ; 
in determining the species the shape of the post-coxal foveae and the 
continuance, interruption, and direction of the raised lines surrounding 
them are very important characters, but are somewhat hard to observe 
without removing the posterior legs ; I have therefore made as little use 
of them as possible in the following table; in many of the species the 
sexes differ considerably in the coloration of the head and thorax. 

I. Posterior coxsb not very widely separated. 
i. Post-coxal fovese with raised sides incomplete. 

1. Anterior coxae widely distant; size, as a 

rule, smaller, (sg. Nephus, Muls.)* 

A. Each elytron with two orange-yellow 

spots S. PtricnELLTTs, Eerlst. 

(quadriltinulatus, 111.) 

B. Elytra unicolorous black, or furnished 

with a longitudinal reddish patch on 

each S. Redtestbacheri, Muls. 

2. Anterior coxae less distant ; size, as a rule, 

larger. {Scymnus, i. sp.) * 
A. Elytra unicolorous black. 

a. Legs dark brown, pitchy S. nigrintjs, Kug. 

* Mulsant separates the genus Nephus from Sct/wnv.s on the relative distance of 
the " abdominal plates " of the first ventral segment from the side margin. 



170 CLAVicouNiA. IScj/muus. 

b. Legs yullowibh-testaceous, base of 

femora dark S. pygm.'eus, Fourc. 

B. Elytra black, usually with one, occasion- 
ally with two, red spots on each . . . S. FRONTALIS, F. 
ii. Post-coxal fovege with raised sides complete, 
forming a more or less exact semicircle 
round posterior coxse. 

1. Elytra black, with two common horse- 

shoe-shaped whitish-yellow lines ; legs 

yellow S. AKCUiTUS, Rossi. 

2. Elytra entirely yellowish-brown or luteous, 

with margins and suture often more or 
less broadly blackish. 

A. Femora black j tibiae and tarsi usually 

reddish-brown S. sutubalis, Thunb, 

{discoideus, 111.) 

B. Legs testaceous, with tarsal claws black S. litidus, Bold. 

C. Legs entirely testaceous or reddish- 

testaceous S. TESTACETTS, Mots. 

{Muhanti, Wat.) 

3. Elytra black, with apex broadly reddish . S. h^moebhoidalis, Serbsf. 

4. Elytra entirely black, or with at most the 

extreme apex lighter. 

A. Head red; thorax with anterior and 

side margins broadly reddish-yellow in 

male S. capitatus, F. 

B. Head and thorax always black , . . . S. ateb, Kug. 
II. Posterior coxffi very widely separated ; colour 

black, unicolorous ; size very small . . . . S. minimus, Rossi. 

S. pulchellus, Herbst. (i-Iuavlatus, 111. ; s.g. Nephus, Muls.). 
Oval, moderately convex, pubescent, black, witli the labrum, antennae 
and legs, and four spots on the elytra testaceous or reddish-testaceous ; 
the anterior pair are larger, oblong, and oblique, and situated near 
shoulders, and the posterior pair, situated before apex, are smaller 
and slightly lunate ; the elytra are less finely and more deeply punc- 
tured than thorax ; legs yellow, posterior femora often darker. L. 
1|-1| mm. 

Very rare ; the species was introduced by Mr. G. R. Waterhouse in 1863 on two 
doubtful specimens from Kirby's collection ; the only authentic British example 
appears to be one taken in Kent, which is in Mr. Rye's collection. 

S. Redtenbacheri, Muls. (s.g. Nephus, Muls.). A very small 
species, of an elongate-oval shape, moderately convex, clothed with pale 
pubescence, black with an oblique band of a reddisb or reddish-yellow 
colour on each elytron ; antennas, mouth-parts and legs entirely testaceous ; 
the femora, however, .are occasionally dark ; elytra finely but somewhat 
distinctly punctured ; the size and shape of the elytral band is variable. 
L. 1-1^ mm. 

A specimen from Mr. Wilkinson's collection, now in the possession 
of Mr. Mason, was returned to me by M. Brisout in 1882 as this insect, 
and Mr. Mason subsequently found several others in the same collection 



Sci/nnuts.] clavicornia. 171 

standing unJor the name of Umhatus; they are sniaHor and more 
elongate than tlie species standing in our collections as S. Mulmnti,V\' at., 
but otherwise are extremely like that insect ; they were probably taken 
in the neiglibourhood of Scarborough. 

V. uniculor, Weise. This variety has the elytra unicolorous black ; 
it does not appear to liave occurred in Britain ; according to Mulsant it 
is the normal form. 

S. nigrinus, Kug. [morio, Payk. ; s.g. Anisoscymnus, Crotch). 
Short oval, convex, not very shining, entirely black with the exception 
of the antennae and t;irsi Avhich are lighter or darker reddish-brown ; 
pubescence fuscous ; thorax very finely, elytra less finely, punctured ; 
elytra obtusely rounded at apex, with shoulders rather strongly marked. 
L. l|-2 mm. 

Male with the fifth segment of abdomen somewhat truncate and thickly 
pubescent, female with the same segment rounded. 

On tlie Scotch fir; very local; London district, not common, Chatham, Biich 
Wood, Wcybridge ; Cannock Chase ; Kepton ; Chat Moss ; Hjkeliam, near Lincoln 
(abundant) ; Northumberland district, Gosforth and Hetton Hall, near Belford ; 
Scotland, local, Solway, Forth, Tay and Dee districts. 

S. pyg-maeus* Fourc. {ruhromaculatus, Goeze; fe7norah's, Gyll. ; s.g. 
Anisosci/mnus, Crotch). Short oval, subhemispherical, plainly pubes- 
cent, shining, black, with the labrum antennae and legs testaceous, 
femora usually dark at base in female ; in the male the head, and the 
thorax, with the exception of a black patch before scutellum, is reddish- 
yellow ; in the female these parts are entirely black ; the elytra are 
always unicolorous black ; the thorax is very transverse and finely 
punctured, and the elytra are somewhat dilated before middle and thence 
narrowed to apex, and are less finely punctured than the thorax ; the 
species is closely related to 8. capitatus, but may at once be known by 
having the abdomen and pygidium entirely black. L. l|-lf mm. 

Male with the fifth ventral segment of abdomen slightly emarginate 
at apex, female with the same segment rounded. 

Chalky and sandy places, at roots of grass and by sweeping herbage ; local ; 
London district, widely distributed and not uncommon ; Deal ; Dover ; Glanvilles 
Wootton ; Devon J Coleshill j Kuowle; Scarborough; Hartlepool; not recorded 
from Scotland. 

S. frontalis; F. (s.g. Anisoscymnufi, Crotch). The largest of the 
British species ; oval, plainly pubescent, moderately convex and rather 
shining ; elytra black with a large round spot on each before middle, 
which is sometimes variable or divided, but is usually round and 
distinct; occasionally it is wanting (F. immaculatus, Suff.); in the 
male the head and a spot at the anterior angles of thorax are yellow, 
in the female the head and thorax are entirely black ; elytra very 
closely and finely punctured ; legs yellow, femora more or less dark. 
L. '2\-'2\ mm. 



172 CLAVicoRXiA. [Scyninus. 

At roots of grass, by sweeping lieibnge, &c. ; common aud widely distributed iu 
the London and soutliern districts, aud it is also fouud iu the iSIidlands; there 
appears, however, to be no record from further north than the neighbourhood of 
Birmingham. 

S. arcuatus, Rossi (s.g. Pullus, Muls.). Oval, pubescent; tlioras 
somewhat variable in colour, yellowish-white, at all events at sides, 
finely punctured ; elytra black or brownish, having in common two 
yellowish-white horseshoe-sliaped lines, open towards the front, of 
which the lower encloses the upper, more distinctly punctured than 
thorax ; ruider-side black with prosternum and apex of abdomen reddish ; 
legs reddish-yellow. L. 1^ mm. 

Very rare ; a single specimen was taken by Jlr. Wollaston on August 24th, 
1872, by brushing very old ivy at Shenton Hall, uear Market Bosworth, Leicester- 
shire ; he had previously found the species abundant in Madeira. 

S. suturalls, Thunb. {cliscouleus, 111. ; s.g. PuUus, Muls.). Oval, 
moderately convex, clothed with somewhat coarse pale pubescence ; 
thorax as a rule pitchy with the sides often lighter, very short, finely 
punctured ; elytra rather strongly and unevenly punctured, of a reddish- 
brown or reddish-yellow colour, with the suture and the exterior margins 
more or less broadly dark ; often, however, they are almost entirely 
reddish-brown ; femora black, tibitie and tarsi fuscous, or lighter or 
darker reddish-brown. L. 1^-1^ mm. 

On the Scotch fir, amongst moss and grass beneath or near firs, &c. ; common and 
generally distributed throughout the greater part of England and Scotland ; Ireland, 
near Belfast, Portmarnock, &e. 

V. Jimhafus, Steph. (^S. limbatus, Steph.). This variety, which has 

been regarded by many authors as a separate species, differs from the 

type in its colour, which is darker ; the black colour of the suture and 

sides is more broadly marked and the reddish-brown colour is reduced to 

a larger or smaller patch on disc ; the legs are pitchy-black ; Stephens 

himself says that it may be a small and dark variety of S. discoideus. 

L. 1| mm. 

Marshy places, at roots of grass and in moss ; local ; London district, not uncom- 
mon, W;ilton-on-Thames, Horsell, Lee, Hammersmith, Norwood ; Hertford; Suffolk; 
Devon; Wicken Fen; Scarborough; Scotland, local, amongst moss, Solway and 
Tweed districts ; it probably occurs in many other localities. 

S. lividus, Bold. I have never seen this species, but, as it rests 
upon a single specimen, and as the allied species are very variable, 
it is very possible that it is not distinct ; I subjoin Eold's description 
from the catalogue of the Insects of JSTorthumberland and Durham, 
p. 109 :— 

" Suboval, convex, slightly shining, somewhat densely covered with 
short griseous pubescence, finely and evenl}^ punctured, livid-testaceous, 
the head and claws fjlack, thorax and suture obscurely fuscous. 
L. 1 mm. Smaller, more oval, much more finely and evenly punctured 



Scymtius.l CLAVicoRN'iA. !7i 

than S. (liscoidciis, to small pale examples of which it bears a superficial 
resemblance. 

I have seen only one specimen of this insect, which I took on the sea- 
banks near Hartley in April, and with which no description known to 
me fully agrees." * 

S. testaceus. Mots. [Miilsanti, Wat. ; s.g. Piillus, Muls.). Oval, 
moderately convex, yellowish-brown or reddish-yellow ; thorax short, 
strongly narroAved in i'ront, finely punctured, varialde in colour, sonic- 
times being dark only before scutellum ; elytra witli base and suture 
dark ; under-side brownish or black, with tlie apex of abdomen red- 
dish ; elytra somewhat strongly punctured, with rather broad inter- 
stices ; legs entirely testaceous ; our specimens appear to belong chiefly 
to the var. scutellaris of Mulsant, in which the head and thorax are 
entiiely, and the scutellary region, sides and suture are broadly black. 
L. 1§-1| mm. 

Marshy places, iu moss and at roots of grass, beneath decaying seaweed, &c.; 
local ; London district, not uncommon, Cateiham, Horsell, Forest Hill, Lee, Chatham, 
Sheerness, HampstoaJ, Darenth, Eslier, &c.; Folkestone; Pegwell Buy ; Hunstanton; 
Repton ; Northumberland and Durham district, on the sea-banks, not uncommon ; 
not recorded from Scotland ; Ireland, near Waterford. 

This species appears to be closely related to S. Medfei/bacheri, more so 
even than S. suturalis (discoideus), with which Thomson compares S. 
Redfenhacheri ; it is, however, broader and less elongate-oval than the 
last-named species, and has the post-coxal fove« differently shaped ; from 
S. suturalis it may be known by its uniformly testaceous legs, the 
thicker and finer punctuation of the under-side, and the colour of the 
elytra which is darker, and has the light portions redder. 

S. haemorrhoidalis, Herbst. (analis, Eossi, nee F.; s.g. Pullus, 
Muls.). Of a rather short and broad oval form, distinctly pubescent, 
black, rather shining ; head, posterior portion of elytra and apex of 
abdomen yellowish-red ; thorax finely punctured, with the anterior and 
side margins broadly reddish-yellow in male, in the female with the 
anterior margin narrowdy, and the anterior angles broadly of the same 
colour ; elytra rather strongly and unevenly piinctured ; legs entirely 
yellow. L. 1^-li mm. 

Male with the fifth ventral segment emarginate at apex and thickly 

pubescent. 

By beating hedges, sweeping herbage, &c. ; often found in moss; common and 
generally distributed in the London district and in the south; less common in the 
Midland districts, and not recorded from any of the northern counties or from 
Scotland. It has been taken at Douglas, Isle of Man. 

* Since wrifing the above I have received a note from Mr. J. J. Walker, in which 
he says that in the summer of 1S75 he took a specimen at Whitsaud B^y, Plymouth, 
which is apparently referable to this species. 



174< CLAVicoRNiA. [Scijmmis. 

S. capitatus, F. {i-ufipes, Bris.; s.g. PvUus, Muls.). Of a rather 
broader form than the preceding, with the shoulders more strongly marked, 
and with at most the very extreme apex of elytra lighter ; the thorax 
is more finely punctured, and the elytra are more closely, and evidently 
less unevenly, punctured ; the post-coxal fovefe of the first abdominal 
segment are more lengthened, and the femora are dusky instead of being 
entirely testaceous ; it somewhat resembles 8. pygmceus, but that species 
is more oval, and more narrowed in front and behind, and has the elytra 
evidently more finely punctured ; male with the whole head^ the anterior 
border of thorax narrowly, and the sides broadly, reddish-yellow ; 
female with the head except base of vertex, and the anterior angles of 
thorax, of the same colour; in the female the femora are darker than 
in the male. L. l|-lf mm. 

By beating hedges, sweeping herbage, &c. ; occasionally found in moss ; not 
nncominon in many localities ; Shirley, Forest Hill, Claygate, Lee, Faversham, 
Weybridge, &c. ; Cambridgeshire; Hants; Devon; Swansea; Yardley ; Sutton 
Park; Knowle ; Bewdley; Cannock Chase; Repton; Scarborough; Carlisle; not 
recorded from Scotland. 

S. ater, Kug. (s.g. PtcUus, Muls.). Oval, moderately convex, 
pubescent, entirely black, rather shining, with the antenna?, tibite and 
tarsi fuscous ; thorax with sides not rounded, elytra contracted from 
anterior third, distinctly punctured ; it is about the size of S. suturalis, 
but is a little shorter and more convex, besides being differently coloured ; 
from S. minimus it may be known liy its more oval form and less widely 
separated posterior coxce. L. 1-1 ^j mm. 

Sandy places ; at roots of grass, &c. ; rare ; Norwood and Shirley (Power) ; Deal 
(Champion) ; Northumberland and Durham district, sea-bauks near Blyth and 
Hartley, rare (Bold). 

S. minimus, Rossi (s.g. Pulliis, Muls.; Stethorus minimus, Weise). 
Almost hemispherical, convex, shining, black, with the labrum, antennje, 
tibia? and tarsi, and the apex of the anterior femora yellow or brownish- 
yellow ; thorax finely punctured ; elytra rather distinctly punctured ; 
posterior coxaa very widely separated, a character that seems to show that 
Weise is right in placing it in a distinct sub-genus. L. 1-1 5 mm. 

By beating dead hedges, sweeping herbage, &c. ; very local ; London district, not 
uncommon; Maidstone, Faversham, Chatham, Cobham, Belvedere, Forest Hill, 
Shirley, Direnth, Sheerness, Birch Wood, Highgate (on hops), Birdbrook (Essex), 
Cowley; Hertford; Littlington ; Holm Bush, Brighton ; apparently almost confined 
to the London and South-eastern districts ; according to Professor Bohemann it 
occurs on plants belonging to the Asclepias family ; this is closely related to the 
Apocynace(E or Periwinkle family ; it is entirely exotic, but includes the Stajpelias, 
lloyas, Stephanotis, &c., of our gardens and greenhouses. 

PIiATVNASPZS, Eedtenbacher. 
About twenty species belong to this genus ; oug only occurs in Europe 



Platynaspiti.'] clavicornia. 175 

and the remaindpr are widely distributed, representatives oocurring in 
Africa, Ceylon, China, India, the Malay Archipcdago, &c. ; they are 
related to Scijmmis in having the upper surface pubescent, but differ in 
the formation of the head. 

P. luteorubra, Goeze {villosa, Fourc). Subovate, moderately 
convex, distinctly clothed, especially at sides, with rather long yellowish 
pubescence ; punctuation fine and close but distinct, more so on elytra 
than on thorax ; colour black, each elytron with two red spots, the one 
before middle and the other near apex ; the thorax is usually bordered 
with yellow or has a triangular patch of yellow on each side, but this is 
sometimes absent ; in the male the head is usually reddish-yellow and 
in the female black, but this does not appear to hold good in all cases ; 
the legs are partly testaceous. L. 2|-3| mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen emarginate at apex, 
female with the same segment small and broadly rounded at apex. 

At roots of grass and by sweeping ; found, more frequently, under bark of firs, 
willows, &c., especially in winter; local, but not uncommon in some places ; Barnes, 
Richmond Park, Esher, Weybridge, Cliatliam (in profusion under bark of dead 
standing firs (Champion and Walker)) ; Folkestone; Deal ; Hastings; Chesil Beaeli, 
Portland; Slaipley ; Hertford; Swansea; Sherwood Forest. 

CHIIiOCOHUS, Leach. 

This genus contains about thirty species, which are very widely dis- 
tributed, more especially in tropical countries ; two only are found in 
Europe, both of which occur in Britain ; they may be distinguished liy 
their very convex and gibbose form, and by the strong lobes at the sides 
of the clypeus ; the legs are strongly retractile, and the insect, if alarmed, 
gathers itself up on the leaf on which it may be resting, and, if forced 
to drop, feigns death ; the larvye are black and liave the body furnished 
with six rows of branched spines ; they feed, according to Mulsant, on 
gall insects ; the pupa is remarkable for remaining within the split 
dried larval skin, within which it is plainly visible. 

I. Head black ; each elytron with a large round red spot ; 

size larger C. siMiiis, Sossi 

{renipustulatus, Scriba). 

II. Head red ; each elytron with a transverse interrupted 

band; size smaller C. bipttstttlattts, L. 

C. similis, Rossi (renijmsttdatvs, Scriba). Hemispherical, very 
convex, gibbose, with shoulders strongly marked, shining black, with a 
large rounded and somewhat transverse spot on middle of each orange- 
red ; abdomen reddish ; legs black ; thorax very finely, elytra finely 
but rather distinctly, punctured; the sides of the thorax are occasionally 
reddish. L. 3|-4| mm. 

Male with the fifth ventral segment of abdomen truncate at apex, 



176 CLAVicouxiA. lOJiilucnr/i-'^. 

sixth conspicuous, female with the fifth segment broadly rounded, and 
the sixth almost hidden. 

In woods, hedges, &3. ; occasionally by beating; local; not uncommon in the 
London and soutliern districts, hut rarer further north; Bristol; Swansea; Oxford- 
shire; VVicken Fen; Ilipon ; Liverpool; the only Scotch record is from the Solway 
district, " Raehills, Rev. W. Little " (Steph. 111. iv. 374). 

C. bipustulatus, L. Much smaller than the preceding and easily 
distinguished by having a narrow transverse Reddish band about the 
middle of each elytron which is formed of three spots which are usiially 
more or less confluent, but sometimes separate ; the head also is red ; 
under-side black with sides and fifth segment of abdomen reddish-yellow ; 
elytra very finely punctured on disc, rather strongly at sides ; legs 
black, with knees red. L. 2|-3| mm. 

Sandy places ; by sweeping heath, &c. ; locally common ; London district, common 
in many localities ; Hastings; Southampton ; New Forest ; Devon ; Swansea ; Sutton 
Park ; Cannock Chase ; Sherwood Forest ; York ; Chat Moss ; Liverpool ; not re- 
corded from Northumberland ; Scotland, rare, Solway and Forth districts. 



EXOCHOMUS, Eedtenbacher. 

Between twenty and thirty species are contained in this genus ; they 
are less tropical in their distribution than the preceding, although 
several have been described from Brazil, Cayenne, Madagascar, Cuba, 
&c. ; six occur in Europe, of which two have generally been regarded 
as British ; E. auritus, however, appears to be very doubtfully indi- 
genous ; the species resemble Gliilocorus at first sight, but are less con- 
vex and not gibbose, and the clypeus is, as a rule, not dilated and 
lobed at sides ; the labrum moreover is distinct, and the anterior tibiaj 
have no tooth on their outer margin. 

E. quadripustulatus, L. (i-verrucatus, F.). Moderately convex, 
subhemispherical, black, occasionally brownish or reddish-brown, shining; 
elytra with a lunulate reddish patch at shoulder and a smaller somewhat 
transverse patch of the same colour behind middle near suture ; thorax 
much narrower than elytra, very transverse, very finely punctured ; 
elytra with distinct margins, very finely punctured, more distinctly at 
sides; apex of abdomen yellowish ; legs black. L. S^— 4| mm. 

Male with the sixth ventral segment of abdomen emarginate at apex, 
disclosing seventh, female with the same segment broadly rounded. 

On white-thorn blossom, broom, low firs, &c. ; locally common ; London district, 
generally distributed ; Hustings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Devon ; Barmouth ; Coles- 
hill ; Tamworth ; Staffordshire; Chat Moss; Scarborough; Manchester; North- 
umberland and Durham district; Scotland, local, Solway, Tweed, Tay, and Moray 
districts ; it probably occurs in several parts of Ireland, 

(E. cmritus, Scriba; nigromacuJatus, Goeze. In this species the upper 
surface is black or bronze-black, with the sides of the thorax and the 



Uxochomus.'] clavicornia. 177 

legs orange yellow ; the elytra are unicolorous, without spots ; the 
abdomen is yellowish towards apex ; in the male the front part of the 
head is j-ellowish, whereas in the female it is entirely black. L, 3|— i 
mm. 

This insect is very doubtfully indigenous as British ; it is the Chilonorus 
rufipes of Stephens' Illustrations and the Ch. hcemorrhoidalis of his 
Manual ; he says of it, " I have hitherto seen two specimens only of this 
very distinct species, one of which was captured near Windsor in June, 
1816, and the other I obtained from the vicinity of Bristol" (111. iv. 
p. 375). 

XIXIZOBZUS, Stephens. 

This and the succeeding genus are distinguished from all our other 
Coccinellidfe by having the anterior coxal cavities open beliind ; there 
are about twenty species in the genus RMzohius, one of which occurs in 
Europe, and the rest have been described from Australia, the Cape of 
Good Hope, and Madeira, &c. ; it will probably be found to be a much 
more extensive genus. 

El. litura, F. Elliptical, convex, shining, clothed with distinct 
pubescence ; colour variable, entirely testaceous, or testaceous with an 
oblique dark marking on each elytron, sometimes entirely pitchy-brown 
or pitchy-black ; thorax rather finely, elytra distinctly, punctured ; legs 
testaceous, more or less dark in the darkly coloured varieties ; antennaj 
rather long and slender, terminating in a distinct club. L. 2-2^ mm. 

At roots of grass, in moss, by general sweeping, &c. ; both inland and on the 
coast ; very common throughout the whole of England from Yorkshire southwards ; 
not so common further north ; Scotland, rather scarce, Solway and Forth districts ; 
Ireland, near Waterford and Dublin, and probably common. 

COCCZDUIiA, Kugelann {Cacicula, Megerle). 

Four species are mentioned in the Munich catalogue as belonging to 
this genus, two from Europe, one from N'orth America, and one from 
Northern China ; they are oblong and somewhat depressed insects, with 
the anterior coxal cavities open behind. 

I. Elytra unicolorous red C'RV'ES, Herhst. 

II, Elytra red with black markings C. SCUTELLATA, Jlerhst. 

C. rufa, Herbst. {jpectoraVs, F.). Oblong, distinctly pubescent, 
moderately shining, of a rufous or yellowish-red colour ; antennas rather 
long, reddish-testaceous, with club darker ; thorax convex, transverse, 
with sides rather strongly rounded, finely punctured ; elytra broader at 
base than base of thorax, rather long, somewhat depressed on disc, finely 
punctured, and furnished besides Avith larger punctures which are arranged 
in more or less regular rows ; under-side red with breast and base of 
abdomen black ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. 2|-3 mm. 

VOL III. " N 



178 CLAVicoRNiA. [Coccklula. 

Male with prosternal lines distinct, female without or with obsolete 

prosternal lines. 

In marshy places, amongst reeds, at roots of grass, &c. ; very common and gene- 
rail}' distributed tlirougliout the greater part of England, but not so common in 
the north ; Scotland, not common, Solvvay and Forth districts; Ireland, near Belfast 
and Portmarnock, and probably common. 

C. scutellata, Herbst. Very like the preceding in size, shape, and 
general appearance, but easily distinguished by the fact that the elytra 
are marked with a large bluish black patch at scutellum and two others 
on each, one circular, situated near suture, just behind middle, and 
another oblong near sides, situated about middle ; sometimes these are 
confluent ; the post-coxal foveas of the first ventral segment of abdomen 
are shorter^ and are lunate instead of being semicircular, as in C. rufa. 
L. 2—3 mm. 

In marshy places, on reeds and by sweeping aquatic plants; very local; London 
district, not uncommon, Esher, Hammersmith, Gravesend, Sheerness; Birchington 
(abundant in ditches) ; Pegwell Bay ; Hastings ; Horning Fen ; Repton ; Lincoln- 
shire ; not recorded from the north of England or from Scotland. 

ENDOMYCHID^. 

This family is a somewhat extensive one ; according to the Munich 
catalogue it contains about fifty genera and upwards of four hundred 
species ; the number, however, has since been largely increased through 
the researches of the Eev. H. S. Gorham and others j the species are 
widely distributed over the surface of the globe, but are chiefly found in 
tropical countries ; in Europe the family is represented by seventeen 
genera and about sixty species ; of these only four genera, each contain- 
ing one species, are found in Britain ; one of these, Alexia, has, by 
many authors, been included under the Coccinellidae ; the following are 
some of the chief characters of the family : antennae, long, situated on 
the front, as a rule 11-jointed, the last three joints sometimes, but not 
always, forming a distinct club ; thorax margined, anterior coxal cavities 
open behind ; mesosternum short, metasternum rather long ; abdomen 
with five free segments of which the first is sometimes the longest ; legs 
much longer, as a rule, than in the Coccinellidse, tarsi plainly 4-jointed 
or apparently 3-jointed, the third joint being very small and concealed, 
as in Coccinella ; the species are, to a great extent, f ungivorous, but 
some are phytophagous ; although there are only four British species, 
yet these represent the three tribes into which the family may naturally 
be divided, Avhich may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Tarsi distinctly 4-jointed Mycetjjina. 

II. Tarsi dilated, apparently S-joiuted, the third joint being very 
minute and concealed between the lobes of the second joint. 
i. Anterior coxas contiguous, somewhat conical ; prosternum 

not produced between coxa3 DapsinA. 

ii. Anterior coxse distant, subglobose ; prosternum produced be- 
tween COXit) • ENDOMrcniNA. 



Myretccina.] clavicouxia. 179 

MYCETJEINA. 

This tribe comprises a number of small or very small insects wliich 
may be known by having the third joint of the tarsi quite distinct and 
not concealed ; some of the species are oblong or oblong-oval, and some 
almost hemispherical ; by some authors the genus Mijrmecoxenus is 
included in the tribe ; there are three British genera, which may be 
divided as follows : — 

I. Form oblong' or oblong-oval. 

i. Antenna3 10-jointed ; thorax with a strong impressed line 

on each side extending from base to beyond middle . . . Stmbiotes Redt. 

ii. Antennje 11-jointed ; tliorax witli a curved longitudinal 

line on each side extending from base to apex Mycet^a, Steph. 

II. Form rounded, subhemispherical Alexia, Steph. 

SVl^IBZOTES, Redtenbacher. 

This genus contains about half a dozen species from Europe, the 
Canary Islands and South America ; they bear a superficial resemblance 
to Cryptophagus, but may be easily recognized by the sculpture of the 
thorax. 

S. latus, Eedt. (riihir/aiosus, Heer.). Oblong-ovate, broad, ferru- 
ginous or reddish- brown with the thorax often lighter, shiny ; antennae 
rather long, reddish-testaceous, with a distinct three-jointed club, the 
first joint of Avhich is as broad as the second; head rather small, eyes 
black ; thorax twice as broad as long, about as broad in front as behind 
very finely punctured, with a strong longitudinal impression on each 
side, reaching from base to beyond middle ; elytra finely pubescent 
with fine punctured striae, interstices smooth, legs reddish-testaceous. 
L. 1| mm. 

In rotten stumps, &c. ; rare; Richmond Park, Surrey (Champion); Rei<»ate Hill 
(Saunders) ; Claygate, in fungus on elm stump (Powei) ; Clifton near Bristol 
(Gorham) ; Bungay, Suffolk (Garneys) ; in IMay, 1883, I took a series in au old 
stump at Nocton near Lincoln. 

3>IVCETH:A, Stephens. 

This genus contains one European species, and another has been de- 
scribed from the Cape of Good Hope ; they are smaller, more oval, and 
more coarsely punctured than Symbiotes, and the thorax is diflferently 
sculptured. 

IMC. hirta, Marsh {sultermnea, F. ; villosa, Beck.). Oblong-ovate, 
convex, narrowed towards apex, shining, clothed with pale coarse, some- 
what setose, pubescence ; colour lighter or darker ferruginous or reddish- 
brown ; head small ; antennaj with a distinct three-jointed club, of 
which the first joint is evidently narrower than the second; thorax 

K 2 



180 CLAVicoRNiA. [Mijcetcea. 

transverse, with sides rounded, sparingly and Bnely punctured, with a 
curved Hue on each side extending from base to apex ; elytra with 
rows of large coarse punctures ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. 1-1 j mm. 

In haystack refuse, dung-heaps, corn-bins, &c. ; often in cellars about beer drip, 
pings and in fungi in wine cellars, in company with Criiptophagus cellaris, Atomaria 
nigripennis, &c. ; generally distributed and common in the Loudon and Southern 
districts, and widely distributed in the Midlands ; not so common further north ; 
Scotland, scarce, Solway, Tweed, and Forth districts. Ireland, near Belfast, Water- 
ford, and Dublin, and probably common. The larvffi occasionally bore into wine 
corks in cellars, and may cause considerable damage. 

AZiSXZA, Stephens. 

In the Munich catalogue six species are mentioned as belonging to 
this genus, which have been described from Europe and North and South 
America ; in the catalogue, however, of Heyden, Eeitter, and Weise, 
fifteen species are described from Europe alone, of which eleven and one 
variety have lately been introduced by Eeitter ; it is probable, therefore,' 
that the genus will be found to be very extensive ; it has, by many 
authors, been included under the Coccinellidse, probably on account of 
its shape, which strongly resembles that of a small Scymnus ; it is, 
however, distinct from that family by reason of the formation of the 
tarsi. 

A. pilifera, Miill. {Sphderosoma quercus, Steph.), Subglobose, 
broadest about middle and narrowed in front and behind, of a dark 
pitchy-black colour, or more or less ferruginous, or reddish, the colour 
being somewhat variable ; uj^per surface thickly clothed with long, fine, 
more or less erect pubescence ; thorax transverse, much narrowed in 
front, exceedingly finely and hardly visibly punctured ; elytra rather 
thickly and deeply punctured ; legs reddish-testaceous ; the antennae are 
rather long, reddish-testaceous, terminated by a distinct three-jointed 
club, the joints of which are of about equal breadth. L. 1 mm. 

In faggots, fungi, moss, dead leaves, at roots of grass, &c. ; locally common ; 
London district generally distributed ; St. Peter's, Kent ; Hastings ; Devon ; Suffolk, 
on oaks (Stephens) ; Repton ; Lincoln, Langvvorth Wood, in faggots ; Northumber- 
land district, rare. Whittle Dene. 

DAPSINA. 

This tribe is separated from the Endomychina, chiefly on account of 
the formation of the prosternum, and the fact that the anterior coxjb 
are contiguous ; the ligula also is smaller and differently shaped ; it 
contains five European genera, of which one only is represented in 
Britain. 

IiVCOPBRDINA, Latreille. 

About fifteen species have been described in this genus, of which five 



Lycoperdina.'] clavicornia. 181 

occur in Europe and the othei's are found in North America, Ceylon, 
Japan, South Africa, Northern Asia, &e, ; it is probably much more ex- 
tensive than is at present known ; our single species is a curious-looking 
and conspicuous insect ; it lives exclusively in puff balls. 

Zi. bovistee, F. (immaculata, Latr.). Of a dark pitchy-brown or 
pitchy-black colour, with the base and apex of elytra and the posterior 
angles of the thorax often lighter ; head rather long, much narrower 
than thorax, with a strong longitudinal impression on front ; antennae 
long, ferruginous, gradually thickened towards apex, without club ; 
thorax about as long as broad with sides rounded in front and gradually 
contracted to base, strongly margined, anterior angles prominent, upper 
surface very iinely, scarcely visibly, punctured ; on each side there is a 
very strong longitudinal depression reaching from base to middle, and 
there is also a longitudinal depression before scutellum ; elytra convex, 
broadest about middle, much depressed towards base, and with apex 
obtusely pointed, extremely finely punctured ; legs pitchy-red, robust ; 
abdomen composed of five segments. L. 4-4^ mm. 

Male with the posterior tibias slightly, and the intermediate tibiae very 

slightly, curved. 

In pufF balls (Lycoperdon hovistce) ; very local, but generally in some numbers 
when found ; Guildford, Micklebam, Esher, Birch Wood, Kimpton, Purley Downs, 
Rusper ; Shipley near Horsham ; Hastings ; Clifton near Bristol j it has not been 
recorded from any locality further north. 

ENDOMYCHINA. 

The species belonging to this tribe are, as a rule, very 2">retty and 
conspicuous, brightly coloured, insects ; they are found either in or 
about fungi or fungoid growth ; they differ from the preceding tribe in 
the characters before mentioned. 

ENDOBIVCKUS, Panzer. 

This genus contains about half a dozen species from Europe, India, 
North America, and Japan ; three of these occur in Europe, of which 
one is found in Eritain. 

E. coccineus, L. Oblong or oblong-ovate, slightly convex, shining, 
glabrous, of a very bright red colour, with the head, a broad longitudinal 
band on thorax, and two well-marked large round spots on each elytron, 
black ; the sides of breast also are black or considerably darker than 
middle ; occasionally the dark band on thorax is indistinct or absent ; 
head small, antennae long, black, distinctly thickened towards apex ; 
thorax transverse, considerably narrower than elytra, with anterior 
angles strongly projecting, and the sides gradually narrowed in front, 
disc almost impunctate, sides strongly margined ; on each side of centre 



1S2 cLAVicoRNiA. [JEndo7mjchu8. 

fit base there is a curved impression ; elytra very finely punctured, 
broadly rounded at apex ; legs black, with tarsi pitchy-red ; abdomen 
composed of six segments, L. 5-5^ mm. 

In fungi, and in or near fungoid growth on or under bark of decaying beech, elm, 
&c. ; loc;illy common ; Sevenoaks, Lcwishani, Mickleham, J2sher, Westerham, Sbeer- 
ness ; Haiiumlt Forest; Abbey Wood; Hustings; Dartmoor, Devon; Swansea; 
Keath ; Salford Priors near Evesham; Weston-super-Mare; Ripon ; Scarborough; 
Northumberland and Durham district ; Scotland, rare, Tweed, Forth, and Tay 
districts ; it is probably widely distributed from Yorkshire southwards, although 
apparently very local in many districts. 

EEOTYLID^. 

This is a very extensive family, and contains a much larger number of 
.species than the Endomychidse, which in many respects are closely 
allied, to it ; according to the Munich catalogue about eleven hundred 
species belong to it, comprised in nearly seventy genera, but this number 
has been since largely increased, through the researches of the Eev. H. S. 
Gorh am and others; with regard to distribution both this and the suc- 
ceeding family are very poorly represented in temperate climates, and are 
chiefly characteristic of tropical countries ; in Europe only five genera are 
found, comprising about twenty species ; of these, three genera, repre- 
sented by six species, occur in Britain ; the Southern Temperate Hemi- 
sphere is more poorly represented in species of both families than the 
Northern ; Australia, for instance, as far as is at present known, contains 
only two or three species of Endomychidse and four or five Erotylidse, 
whereas IS'ew Zealand contains even less Erotylidae and no Endomychidfe ; 
in the computation of the total number of species given above the 
Languriidge, containing several hundred species, are omitted ; these 
have been, by many authors, included under the Erotylidse ; but must, 
most probably, be regarded as a separate family ; the following are some 
of the chief characters of the Erotylidse : antennae 11-jointed, inserted at 
the sides of the forehead, with the last three or four joints forming a 
distinct club ; thorax with side margins distinct, anterior coxal cavities 
closed behind ; * mesosternum moderate, metasternum rather long, ab- 
domen with five free segments which are about equal in length ; legs 
moderately long, tarsi usually 4-jointed, sometimes 5-jointed ; the 
formation of the tarsi, which are at least plainly 4-jointed, will at once 
separate the Erotylidse from the true Endomychidse, in which the third 
joint is very small, and concealed between the lobes of the second joint, 
so that they appear S-jointed ; the addition of the Mycetseina to the 
Endomychidre prevents this distinction from being universal, and it 
might perhaps be the best plan to separate that tribe, as some authors 
do, as a distinct family Mycetseidse. 

* In the LanguriidiB the coxal cavities arc open behind. 



Erotyliche.] clavicornia, 183 

The three British genera may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Tarsi distinctly 5-jointed Dacne, Latr. {Engls, Pajk.) 

II. Tarsi apparently i-joiiiteil (the fourth joint being 
very small and connate with fifth). 
i. Thorax margined at base; form oblong . . . Triplax, Pay^. 
ii. Thorax not margined at base ; form ovate . . Ctetotriplax, Crotch. 

{Triioma, ¥.). 

DACNZ:, Latreille (Enr/is, Paykull). 

This genus contains rather more than a dozen species from Europe, 
South Africa, North America, Japan, &c. ; they may he known by their 
5-jointed tarsi ; two of these occur in Britain. 

I. Thorax red D. hitmeralis, F. 

II. Thorax pitchy-black D. bufifeons, F. 

The larva of J). r;(^j-0H.9 is described and figured by Westwood (Classif., Vol. I., 
p. 147, Figs. 11, 13); it is narrow, somewhat cylindrical and scaly, with six short 
legs, and two strong short cerci at the extremity of the body, which is sparingly 
clothed with scattered hairs, except on head ; it is found in boleti iu company with 
the perfect insect. 

I>. humeralis, F. Oblong, black, shining, with the head, thorax, 
antenna?, and legs red, and a spot at each shoulder reddish-yellow ; head 
rather broad, antenna? rather short, with joints 4-8 rounded and trans- 
verse, 9-11 forming a distinct club; thorax broader than long, convex, 
finely and rather diffusely punctured ; elytra finely punctured in rows ; 
legs rather stout, tibite angularly dilated at apex. L. 2|-3 mm. 

In boleti on beech and elm trees ; rare ; Dulwich ; Westerham and Eastry, Kent ; 
Shecrness ; Wicken Fen, Cambridge ; Hunstanton, Norfolk ; Suftblk ; Bristol ; 
Llangollen ; Bretby Wood, near P^epton, Burton-on-Trent ; Needwood, Staffordshire. 

D. rufifrons, F. Very like the preceding, but easily known by its 
colour, which is black or pitchy-black, with the head, antenna?, and legs 
ferruginous, and a more or less distinct spot at shoulder reddish or 
reddish-yellow ; it is also on the average rather smaller, but there 
appears to be very little difference of structure or sculpture between the 
species : immature examples are of a lighter colour, and are sometimes 
entirely testaceous or reddish-testaceous. L. 2|-2|- mm. 

In fungoid growth on trees ; locally common ; London and Southern districts, 
generally distributed ; South Wales ; Cambridgeshire; Salford Priors ; Bretby Wood, 
near Repton ; Hunstanton, Norfolk ; Scarborough; neither of the species appears to 
ojcur in the Northern counties of England or in Scotland. 



'&* 



TRIPIiAX, Paykull. 

Upwards of fifty or sixty species are contained in this genus ; they are 
widely distributed, but a larger proportion occur iu temperate and even 
cold countries than is usually the case with genera belonging to the 
family ; thirteen are found in Europe, but six of these are assigned in 
the catalogue of Heyden, Pteitter, and Weise to the genus Ischyrus, Lac, 
which is included by them under Triplax ; the geims Isclnjms, according 



1 84 CLAvicoRXiA. {TripJax. 

to the Munich catalogue, contains about sixty species, which are entirely 
confined to North, Central, and South America, and adjacent islands ; 
three species of Triplax occur in Britain, which may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

I. Head aud abdomen red. 

i. Elytra black ; size larger T. EUSSiCA, L. 

ii. Elytra metallic, greenish-blue ; size smaller . . T. ^nea, Schall. 

II. Abdomen black j head usually black T. Lacoedaieei, Crotcli. 

T. russica, L. Oblong, very shining, head and thorax bright red, 
elytra black ; head triangular, finely and diffusely punctured, eyes black ; 
antennaj black, rather long, with second joint plainly shorter than third, 
last three joints forming a distinct club; thorax transverse, sub- 
rectangular, gradually and slightly narrowed in front, with anterior angles 
projecting, finely and not closely punctured ; elytra long, gradually con- 
tracted towards apex, with a distinct callosity at shoulders, finely 
punctured in rows, interstices feebly punctured ; breast usually black ; 
legs red, robust, tibise dilated at apex, tarsi with first three joints plainly 
dilated. L. 4|-7 mm. 

In fungoid growth on trees ; occasionally found under bark ; local ; London dis- 
trict,.rather scarce, Darenth, Mickleham, Coombe Wood, Headley Lane ; Eastry, Kent ; 
IJirdbrook, Essex ; New Forest ; Devonshire ; Bristol ; Swansea ; Cannock Chase ; 
Kotts ; Needwood ; Pvcpton j Scotland, rare, in fungi, Tay and Moray districts. 

T. aenea, Schall. Much smaller than the preceding ; head and 
thorax red, antennae black ; elytra metallic, bluish-green ; scutellum 
red ; thorax a little longer in proportion than in 2\ russica, and elytra 
with the rows of p\;nctures rather stronger ; under-side red j legs red, 
not so robust as in the preceding species. L. 2|-4| mm. 

In fungoid growth on holly and other trees; rare; Coombe Wood and 
Meldon Park (Stephens); New Forest; Needwood; Scarborough; Northumberland 
district. 

T. Eiacordairei^ Crotch {rvjicollis, Steph. ; nigriceps, Lac). Very 
closely resembling a minute example of T. russica : head as a rule black, 
but sometimes only slightly dusky at sides ; antennce blackish or pitchy, 
with base sometimes lighter; thorax bright red, with sides very slightly 
rounded, transverse, very finely and not closely punctured ; elytra black, 
with regular rows of fine punctures ; abdomen black (a character which 
will at once distinguish the species); legs lighter or darker reddish- 
testaceous. L. 2|-4i mm. 

In fungoid growth on ash and other trees ; very local aud rare ; Windsor 
(Stephens); Erith (Power); Darenth Wood (Champion); Dulwich, one example 
(T. Wood). 

CSrHTOTRIPIiAX, Crotch (Tritoma, F.). 

This genus contains about twenty species which are widely distributed, 
representatives occurring in North America,, Siberia, Japan, Borneo, West 



Cyrtotriplax.'] clavicornia. 185 

Africa, &c. ; they may be known by their ovate form, and l)y having the 
base of the thorax unmargined, as Avell as by the very long third joint of the 
antennce. The genus Cyrtotriplax was separated by Crotch from lYitoma, 
but Horn again joins them on the ground that the differences are insuffi- 
cient ; it is, however, best to adopt the name Cyrtotriplax, as Tritoma 
is now applied by many authors to Ilycetophagus. 

The larva of C. Upustulafa is described and figured by Pevris, Larves des Coleopteres, 
p. 570, fiiTs. 570 — 579 ; it is 5-6 mm. in length, rather broad, slightly narrowed in 
front and behind, of a yellowisli-wliite colour, with bands of reddisli-brown, scantily 
clothed with very short hairs, and terminated by two sliort hooks at tlie end of tlie 
anal segment, which is bifid ; the head is narrower than the prothorax, which is the 
longest of the segments ; the antennas and legs are very short; the larva lives in fungi 
in company with the perfect insect. 

C. bipustulata, F. Ovate, broadest in middle, narrowed in front 
and behind, black, shining, with a large red spot at shoulders of each 
elytron, which often nearly meet at suture and enclose a dark space 
about scutelluni : the humeral callosity is often black : sometimes the 
thorax is red ; head moderate, antennae rather short, red, with distinct 
black 3-jointed club ; thorax transverse, narrowed gradually in front, 
finely and not closely punctured ; elytra at base about as broad as base 
of thorax and continuing its outline, with regular rows of fine and closely 
set pimctures, interstices very finely punctured ; legs black, tarsi reddish, 
tibije dilated at apex, all the coxae very widely distant. L. 3-4 mm. 

In fungoid growth ou old trees and rotten stumps ; local, and, as a rule, rare ; 
London district, not uncommon in some localities, Uarenth Wood, Kichmond Park, 
Mickleham, Sanderstcad, Coombe Wood, Birch Wood; Eppiug Forest; The Holt, 
Farnham; St. Leonards Forest ; Glanvilles Wootton; New Forest; Northumberknd 
district, Dilston (G. Wailes) ; it has not been found in Scotland ; it seems strange 
that there should be no record from any locality betweea the Thames district and the 
extreme north of England. 

COLYDIID^. 

In the Munich catalogue ninety-two genera and three hundred and 
thirty-nine species are assigned to this family ; these, however, have since 
been considerably increased by the researches of Mr, Lewis, Dr. Sharp, 
and others ; in the European Catalogue of Heyden, Keitter, and Weise 
(1883), twenty-nine genera, containing about sixty species, are enu- 
merated; in Britain, however, only fifteen species, belonging to ten 
genera, have hitherto been recorded ; to these are added Mimnidius and 
LangeJandia, which appear to belong to this family rather than to the 
Histeridse and Lathridiidae, to which they have, as a rule, been respectively 
assigned. I have also, following Thomson, included ILjrmecoxenus. 
The Colydiidae may be knoAvn from the allied families by the 4-jointed 
simple tarsi and the fact that the anterior ventral segments are more or 
less connate; the anterior coxae are usually small and globular; the 
anterior coxal cavities are sometimes closed and sometimes open behind ; 
tLey are found as a rule under bark of trees, in decaying wood, or in 



186 CLAVICORNIA. \_Cuhjdiid(S. 

fungi ; they appear to be much more characteristic of tropical than of 
temperate countries, and as only a few outlying fragments of the family 
are found in Britain, no attempt need be made to discuss their classifica- 
tion ; for convenience sake they may be divided into the following tribes ; 
with regard to the characters, different authors make very contradictory 
statements ; as regards the anterior coxal cavities, for example, some 
speak of them as open behind, while others, referring to the same genera, 
say distinctly that they are closed behind ; the fact seems to be that 
some genera have them so narrowly closed, that, unless they are carefully 
examined, they appear to be open ; the same confusion also exists with 
regard to the relative length of the joints of the tarsi. Dr. Horn 
regards the Colydiina, which contain in our fauna Golydium and Aglenus, 
as distinct from the Deretaphrina, containing Teredas and Oxi/hemvs ; 
they are, however, not sufHciently distinct to be separated, and I have 
followed Dr. Sharp in including them all under the Deretaphrina. 

I. Autenna3 inserted under a distinct frontal ridge ; form more 
or less elongate or oblong. 
i. Last joint of labial palpi not acicular. 

1. Anterior coxae slightly separated ; posterior coxa} con- 

tiguous. 

A. First ventral segment of abdomen plaii.ly longer tban 

second Deretapheina. 

B. First ventral segment of abdomen about equal to 

second Synchitina. 

2. All the coxffi distant Langelandiina. 

ii. Last joint of Libial palpi very small, acicular Cerylonina. 

IL Antennaj inserted on the forehead ; form ovate Mubmidiina, 



DERETAPHRINA. 

Of this tribe four out of the five known European genera are British, 
the fifth genus Aulonium being found in Central Europe ; with tlie 
exception of Aglenus (which is local in manure-heaps, tan-pits, &c.), 
they are found under bark or in burrows of wood-boring insects, and are 
among our very rarest Coleoptera. 

I. Antennae 11-jointed, club 3-jointed. 

i. Eyes absent ; size smaller ; palpi with the last joint oblong- 
ovate, truncate at apex Aglknus, Er. 

ii. Eyes present ; size larger; palpi with the last joint sub- 

securiforra Coly'dium, Gyll. 

II. Antennae 11-jointed, club distinctly 2-jointed Teredus, Shuck. 

HI. Antenna; apparently 10-jointed with the club solid, but in- 
cluding the eleventh joint, which is visible at apex .... OxxiJiMXJS, Er. 

AGZiENUS, Erichson. 

One European species is contained in this genus, which has been 
described under different names from Britain, France, Austria, &c. ; it is 



Agletius.] cla.vicounia. 187 

a small rcddish-broAvn cylindrical insect, and is charactciized by tlie 
absence of eyes. 

• A. brunneus, Gyll. Short, cylindrical, ferruginous or reddish- 
testaceous ; head large, almost as broad as thorax, distinctly punctured ; 
antennae short, 11-jointed, Avith club 3-jointed ; thorax about as 
long as or a little longer than broad, truncate in front and behind, 
rather thickly punctured ; elytra scarcely longer than head and tliorax 
taken together, somewhat ovate, obsoletely punctured behind, more 
plainly towards base ; under-side of all the segments of thorax thickly 
and deeply punctured ; legs short, reddish-testaceous. L. 1^-2 mm. 

In mnnurc-licap?, tan-pits, refuse of corn-bins, old props in cellars, hot-beds, &c. ; 
local; Esher ; Ashford, Kent ; Cowley ; Birdbrook, Essex ; Forest Hill; Edgbustou ; 
I believe also that it lias occuxTed in Gloucestershire; it is probably often overlooked. 

COZiVDIUItl, Fabricius. 

A few species are included in this genus from North and Central 
America, Senegal, &c. ; two occur in Europe, one of which is among the 
very rarest of our British insects ; it is found only in the New Forest, 
and appears to be parasitic in the burrows of Flatypus cylindrus. 

C. elong-atum, F. Linear, very long and narrow, shining black ; 
antennae rather sliort, brownish-red, with a strong 3-jointed club, 
maxillary palpi with the last joint somewhat securiform ; head diffusely 
and sparingly punctured ; thorax much longer than broad, very slightly 
narrowed towards base, rather sparingly and finely but distinctly punc- 
tured, with a strong and deep complete central furrow, and a smaller one 
on each side, which are somewhat abbreviated in front and behind; 
elytra with the suture and four lines on each side raised, the latter more 
stiongly than the fonner, with the interstices somewhat rugose and each 
furnished with two rows of punctures ; legs brownish-red. L. 4-6 mm. 

Under bark, and in old trees, in the burrows of wood-feeding beetles ; very rare ; 
New Forest (Turner, Cliampion, &c.). 

My single specimen, which is labelled " Turner, 1862," has the head 
and thorax black and the elytra reddish-brown. 

TEREBTTS, Shuckhard. 

Two European species and one from Ceylon are contained in this 
genus ; one of these is found in Britain ; they are distinguished by their 
long cylindrical form, and the 2-jointed club of the antennae. 

T. nitidus, F. (cyJindncus, 01). Long, narrow, and cylindrical, 
shining black ] antennae ferruginous ; thorax about double as long as 
broad, as broad in front as elytra, slightly narrowed to base, with all the 
angles blunt, thickly and finely punctured; elytra parallel, rounded 



188 CLAVicoRNiA. [Teredus. 

beliind, with very finely punctured stria3, and the interstices furnished 
with very fine rows of punctures ; legs red. L. 3|-4 mm. 

Under bark of oak, &c., and in decaying stumps ; very rare ; Sherwood Forest. 
Mr. Blatch has lately taken several specimens in the old locality, 

OXYliHimuS, Erichson. 

This genus contains two European species and one from North 
America ; they occur under hark of trees, often in company with ants, 
and are of very rare occurrence. 

I. Thorax rather closely, although strongly punctured, 
with four impressions at base, of which the two outer 
ones reach scarcely one-third of the length of the 

thorax 0. CYLINDEICFS, Panz. 

II. Thorax very coarsely and not thickly punctured, 
with four impressions at base, of which the two outer 

ones reach as far as the middle of thorax . . . . O. tabiolosuS, Duft. 

O. cylindricus, Panz, Elongate, cylindrical, shining reddish- 
broAvn, thinly clothed with short upright hairs ; head sparingly and 
deeply punctured ; antennae rather short, with solid club ; thorax a little 
narrower than elytra, scarcely narrowed at base, upper surface coarsely 
and deeply and rather thickly punctured, with two small deep furrows 
above scutellum, and a longer triangular impression on each side ; elytra 
parallel, with eight rows of punctures, all strong and deep, excejDt those 
of the seventh row which are fine ; legs stout, tibiae dilated at apex. 
L. 3 mm. 

Under bark of oak; rare; New Forest, Lyndhm-st, &c. (E. Sheppard and others). 

O. variolosus, Duft. {ccesus, Er.) Yery like the preceding, but 
somewhat broader and less cylindrical, with the thorax more sparingly 
and less thickly punctured, and with the outer basal impression reaching 
as far as middle ; the punctures of the strioe of elytra are all large and 
deep, and the under-side of the thorax is more strongly punctiu:ed. 
L. 3 mm. 

Under bark, by sweeping, &c. ; very rare ; first taken at Colney Hatch, Middlesex, 
by Mr, Dossetor in 1850, and afterwards by Mr. Peleriu in 1854 at Charlton, Kent. 
Dr. Power has captured it at Mickkham and Claygate, and also at Holm Bush, 
Brighton ; it is very rare on the continent, where it was first taken by M. Dufour in 
a high mountainous district under bark of oak, and afterwards by Herr Gressner in 
Saxony in company with Formica jiiUgijiosa. 

SYNCHITINA. 

A few small European genera are contained in this tribe, of which six 
are found in Britain ; these may be separated as follows : — 

I. Antcnnro very stout without distinct club at apex, but 

forming a fusiform club almost from base .... OrthoceeuS, Lair. 

(Sarrotrium, 111.) 



Sijnc1iitina.'\ clavicornia. 189 

II. Anteuucc rather slciulcr, tcrmiuating in a distinct club 

made up of either one or two joints, 
i. Sides of thorax and elytra stron^-jy notched ; upper 
surface very scabrous ; form broader ; tibia; without 

_ apical spines _ EndoPHLGEUS, ISr. 

ii. Sides of thorax and elytra simple or slightly crenu- 
late ; upper surface not scabrous; form narrower; 
tibia3 with small fine apical spines. 

1, Autenuaj 11-jointed, club 2-jointed DiTOMA, III, 

2. Antenna} 10-joiuted, club solid. 

A. Grooves for the reception of the antennae 

wanting Stnchita, Sellw, 

B. Grooves for the reception of the antenna) dis- 
tinct CICONES, Curt. 

III. Antennae rather slender, terminating in a 4- 
jointed club (species small with facies of a Crypto- 

phagus) . . . , MtemecoxenuS, Chevr. 

0RT320CZ:ZIUS, Latreille (Sarrotrium, 111.). 

This genus contains three European species, and one from Central 
Asia ; the single species found in Britain extends over northern Europe 
and Siberia ; they may be known by the peculiar development of their 
antennae. 

O. muticus, L. {clavicornis, L. ; MrHcornis, De G-.). Greyish-black, 
clothed with very fine whitish pubescence ; head large, uneven, sub- 
quadrate, with small, prominent eyes ; antennce fusiform, very stout 
and broad, broadest in middle, joints 4-9 plainly broader than the 
remainder, pilose and set with long sette ; thorax a little narrower in 
front than behind, with the posterior angles very blunt, and the anterior 
angles projecting, with a deep broad longitudinal furrow bounded on 
each side by an indistinct raised line ; elytra with rows of deep, crenu- 
late, punctures, second, fourth, and sixth interstices strongly raised ; le^s 
rather short, tarsi setose beneath. L. 4 mm. 

Sandy places ; at roots of grass, in moss, &c. ; not uncommon, but local ; Sheerness, 
Shirley, Esher ; Lowestoft; Felixstowe; Deal; Dover; Hastings; Hayliug Island- 
New Forest ; Swansea ; Leicester ; York ; Crosby and Hightowu near Liverpool ; 
Southport ; Northumberland district, near Bamborough Castle j Scotland, maritime, 
local, Forth district. 

&N»OP»I.<E:t7S, Erichson. 

This genus contains a few species, three of which are found in Europe, 
and one has lately been described from Japan by Dr. Sharp ; as regards 
this genus, and in fact all the genera of the Colydiidae, it must be 
remembered that owmg to their retiring habits the species are perpetually 
passed over, and that consequently many of those genera that are now 
restricted to some two or three species, may ultimately be found to be 
very numerous ; the genus may be recognized by its broad form, much 
raised and scabrous surface, and the serrated sides of thorax and elytra. 



190 CLAVICORNIA. [Endojplil'JCUS. 

E. spinulosus, Latr. Oblong, rather broad, reddish-brown, Avith 
obscure dark markings, the margins being somewhat lighter, very dull, 
with short stiff setae at sides and on the various scabrous prominences 
with which the upper surface is thickly set ; head rather small, sunk in 
thorax, antennae not stout, with 2-joiuted club, the eleventh joint being 
also dilated ; thorax granulate, with anterior angles projecting and par- 
tially encircling head, sides strongly serrate, disc with irregular longi- 
tudinal ridge in centre ; elytra with rough interrupted ridges and 
prominences, two near suture being strongly defined at base, margins 
serrate, but not so strongly as in thorax ; legs rather short, ferruginous. 
L. 4-6 mm. 

Under biirk and in decaying wood, among the debris of the borings of Lepfiira 
scutellata ; very rare ; New Forest ; this species was one of Charles Turner's great 
•'finds;" I have the original specimen m my possession labelled " JNew Forest, 
March 3, 1862." 

DITOBIA, Illiger {Synchitodes, Crotch). 

With the exception of the genera TarpMus and Bothrideres this genus 
is one of the most numerous in point of species, and the most widely 
distributed of the Colydiidaa ; species have been recorded from North 
and South America, Ceylon, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Western 
Africa. Cuba, &c. ; only one has hitherto been found in Europe ; it 
is somewhat local, but not uncommon in Britain. 

The larva of D. crenata is described and figured by Ferris (Ann. Fr., 1853, p. 614, 
PI. 18, fig. 110); it is 6 mm. in length, linear and depressed, of a whitish colour, 
with a reddish tinge on some portions of the body ; the head is suborbicular, narrower 
than the prothorax ; the rest of the segments are of about equal breadth, the body 
being somewhat moniliform ; the last segment is darker at apex than the rest, and 
terminates in two rather long produced points at sides, and two shorter ones within 
these ; the legs and anteunaj are very short. The larva is found under bark of 
oaks and pines devouring the larvse of species of Tomicus. 

D. crenata, F. Elongate, parallel-sided, depressed, dull black, 
■with exceedingly fine greyish pubescence, elytra with two larger or 
smaller reddish patches on each, which sometimes cover all the elytra 
except a narrow space at suture and in middle ; head narrower than 
thorax, antennae ferruginous, with 2-jointed club ; thorax almost as 
long as broad, a little narrower at base than elytra, with all the angles 
obtuse, upper-side rugosely punctured, with two raised lines on each 
side ; elytra parallel, rounded at apex, with rows of regular punctures, 
alternate interstices slightly raised. L. 3 mm. 

Under bark of oak, beech, fir, &c. ; local, but not uncommon ; Mickleham ; Loughton ; 
Hainault ; Windsor Forest ; Tlie Holt, Farnham ; St. Leonards Forest ; New Forest ; 
very doubtful as Scottish, Forth district; " Duddingstone and South of Scotland, 
Ent. Edin. ;" if we may judge by the fact that it occurs in no intervening district, 
this record is almost certainly erroneous ; it has never been taken by Dr. Sharp or 
any other collector in Scotland that I know of. 



Sl/7ichita.] CLAVICORNIA. 191 

SVNCKXTA, Ilolhv. {Difoma, II. E. W.). 

This genus contains about fifteen species, which are very widely 
distributed, representatives being recorded from I^orth and South 
America, Africa, tlie Antilles, &c. ; three occur in Europe, of which two 
have for some time been regarded as British ; Dr. Sharp, however (Ent. 
Monthly Mag. xxii. 44), shows conclusively that we do not possess 
S. medial anensis, Avhich was introduced Avith considerable hesitation by 
Mr. Rye in the Entomologists' Annual for 1868, p. 6.5. All our 
specimens must therefore be ref eri^^d to S. juglandis, which appears to 
vary considerably both as regards colour and size. 

S. jug-landis, F. (v. olsc7ira, Eedt.). Oblong, fuscous, with the 
thorax sometimes darker than the elytra, dull ; the colour, however, is 
variable ; upper surface rather depressed ; antennas brownish-red, with 
the club lighter, apparently solid ; head much narrower than thorax, 
thickly and finely rugose ; thorax a little narrower than elytra, broader 
than long, margined, with all the angles blunt, very thickly and rugosely 
]nnictured ; elytra with regular rows of strong crenulate punctures, and 
the interstices finely wrinkled ; on each row of punctures and on each 
interstice there is a row of fine grey outstanding setae ; the colour of 
the elytra is usually fuscous, with a lighter spot at each shoulder, 
but sometimes it is unicolorous testaceous-brown ; legs ferruginous. 
L. 2-4| mm. 

Under bark of deciduous trees, in old stumps, &c. ; very rare ; New Forest (taken 
by Turner, and lately in some numbers by Mr. Gorham and Dr. Sharp); Stephens 
records it from the London district, and Haliday from near Belfast ; 1 believe that 
Mr. Crotch is said to have taken it at Tbetford, near Merton, Surrey. 

CICONES, Curtis. 

In the Munich catalogue four species only are enumerated under this 
genus, two from Europe, one from Tahiti, and one from Ceylon ; further 
species, however, have been found in Ceylon, and Dr. Sharp has lately 
described two from Japan, so that the genus is probably a numerous and 
widely distributed one ; it differs from Difoma by its solid club and 
from Syncliita by having distinct grooves for the reception of the 
antenna?. 

C. varieg-atus, Hellw. {carpini, Curt.). Oblong, rather broad 
fuscous, sometimes nearly black, clothed with more or less distinct short 
yellowish and brownish hairs, elytra irregularly variegated with yellowish 
bands ; antennae and legs reddish ; head much narrower than thorax • 
thorax about as broad as elytra, rather strongly transverse, anterior angles 
produced, posterior angles almost right angles ; disc rmeven ; elytra with 
rows of punctures, which are somewhat irregular between the interstices 
alternate interstices slightly raised ; legs short. L. .3 mm. 



192 CLAvicoRNiA. [Ciconcs, 

Under bark of beech and hornbeam ; rare ; Bromley (Kent), Chatham, Mickleham, 
Loughtou, Epphig Forest, Westerham, Farnborough ; New Forest. 

X^VRMECOXENUS, Chevrolat. 

This genus has given rise to much discussion, and its true position still 
remains in some doubt ; it has the facies of a Cryytoi^hagus, and has by 
some authors been placed near that genus, but the 4-jointed tarsi, more 
or less connate first segments of abdomen, and the fact that the anterior 
coxal cavities are closed behind, seem to jDoint to a very different position ; 
it has also been placed among the Lathridiidse and the Mycetophagidee 
and under the Endomychidos as forming a portion of the Mycetseina ; on 
the whole, however, its most natural position seems to be with the 
Synchitina, and I have therefore placed it in this tribe, although it is 
more than possible that further researches may cause it to bo very diffe- 
rently located ; the genus contains four species, which are chiefly found 
in Central and Southern Europe. 

TUl. vaporariorum, Guer. Oblong, rather depressed, somewhat 
shining, ferrugino-testaceous, with the apex of abdomen dark, clothed 
with very fine pale pubescence, and very closely but somewhat distinctly 
punctured ; head rather large, triangular, eyes black, somewhat promi- 
nent ; antennse rather short, testaceous, thickened toAvards apex, 11- 
jointed, with a gradual 4-]ointed elub ; thorax slightly transverse, with 
the sides gradually and slightly rounded in front and narrowed behind ; 
elytra broader than thorax, somewhat widest behind middle, with shoul- 
ders well marked, reddish-testaceous with the colour sometimes a little 
darker at sides, base, and apex ; pygidium not quite covered by elytra ; 
legs ferruginous. L, 1| mm. 

In dung-heaps, hot-beds, and vegetable refuse ; rare; Carshalton, Surrey (Janson); 
Dulwich (T.Wood); Weston-super-Mare (Crotch); Edgbastou and Knowle near 
Birmingham (Blatch) ; Manchester district ; Withiugton, Cheshu-e (Chappell). 

LANGELANDIINA. 

I have adopted this tribe to include the genera Langelandia, Aube, 
and Agelandia, Eeitter, which are usually included under the Lathri- 
diidse ; Herr Eeitter, however, placed them among the Colydiida^ on the 
ground that the tarsi are 4-jointed, and not 3-jointed as they have 
generally been supposed to be ; M. Belon (Annales de la Soc. Linneenne 
de Lyon, 1881, p. 199) takes very strong exception to -the view adopted 
by Herr Eeitter, and says that neither he himself, nor other entomologists 
whom he has consulted, have been able to discover more than three 
joints to the tarsi ; I have, however, had some correspondence Avith M. 
Belon on the subject, in which he says that since the publication of his 
work on the Latiiridiida3 above referred to he has seen an example of 



Lawjdandiiiia.] clavicornia. 193 

LangeJandia (Agelandtn) r/randis, ■\vliicli undoubtedly has four joints to 
the tarsi ; this species is very closely related to La7ir/dnndia anupldludnia, 
and cannot be separated far from it • if then this latter species has 
o-jointed tarsi, gre.at confusion arises as to the proper classification. M. 
Belon rather inclines to the plan of clas.'^ing the Colydiidae, and Lath- 
ridiidsa together under one family, so as to include the groups with three 
joints to the tarsi as well as those with four joints ; the only other plan 
to be adopted (if Langelandia has 3-jointed tarsi, which does not seem 
as yet to be proved with absolute certainty) is to form a separate family 
LangelandiidcB ; as, however, M. Belon observes, it appears " exorbitant 
de leur donner rang de famille ; " if, however, they are not given family 
rank, I feel certain they must be classed with the Colydiidie, as they bear 
a far greater affinity to such genera as Ditoma than to any of the Lath- 
ridiidse. 

IiANaSIiANSXA, Aube'. 

This genus contains four European species, one of which has quite 
recently been foimd in Britain ; they are characterized by having no 
e3'es, and by the fact that all the coxae are more or less distant ; they are 
usually found in rotten wood, seed potatoes, &c., buried at some distance 
underground. 

The larva of L. anophthalma is descrilicd by Pcrris (Larves des Coleopteres, p. 77) ; 
the description, however, does not quite agree witli that of a larva talieu by Mr. T. 
Wood iu compauj' with the perfect insect, and wliich I feel certain is tlie Lirva of 
Lavgelandia ; Ferris describes tlie larva as linear, but the larva before me is strongly 
strangulate in the niiddle of body, and the abdomen is widened behind and terminate:! 
in two strong pointed processes ; Ferris states that the larva is linear, and tliat the 
abdominal segments are gradually larger until the sixth, and that the ninth terminates 
in two moderately curved hooks ; the pupa appears to be distinguished by having the 
large flat head resting on the thoracic region. 

Zi. anophthalma, Aube. Elongate, subparallel, not convex, of a 
dull ferrugiucus colour; head much narrower than thorax^ uneven; 
antennse short and stout, with distinct 2-jointed club ; thorax much 
longer than broad, widest a little before apex, slightly narrowed to base, 
anterior angles produced, posterior angles obtuse, lateral margin bordered 
and more or less strongly crenulated, disc with three more or less distinct 
longitudinal keels ; elytra with the suture and two lines on each raised, 
the intervals being more or less coarsely punctured in rows ; legs ferru- 
ginous. L. 2|-3| mm. 

This species has only been recently discovered in Britain by Mr. T. Wood, who took 
it in his garden at St. Peter's, Kent, in decaying seed potatoes underground, and where 
1 had the pleasure of taking it with him last summer (ISSfi) ; the insect is extremely 
sluggish in its movemeuts, and might be easily overlooked. 

CERYLONINA. 

This tribe contains two European genera, Phi/of hermus and Cerylon, 

VOL. III. o 



194 CLAVICORNIA. [Cenjlonina. 

the former of which has the chib phiinly 2-jointed, whereas in the hitter 
it is solid ; they are small oblong or oval insects, and are distinguished 
by having the last joint of the palpi small and acicnlar, and the penulti- 
mate joint dilated ; all the coxae are widely separated ; the genns Cerylon 
alone occurs in Britain. 

CERYIiON, Latreille. 

About thirty species are contained in this genus, which are widely 
distributed throughout the world, representatives being found in ISTovth 
and South America, Ceylon, Tahiti, New Caledonia, Madagascar, &c. ; 
nine or ten species are found in Europe, of which four are British ; for 
a description of these the student is referred to a paper by myself in the 
Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol xxiii, pp. 71-76 ; the species are 
small robust insects, and live under bark of decaying trees, logs, &c. ; 
sometimes they are found in ants' nests ; the shape of the thorax differs 
considerably in the two sexes, a point that must be carefully noticed. 

The laiva of C. histeroides is described by Perris (Ann. Fr. 1853, p. 61fi) ; it is elon- 
gate, somewhat parallel, entirely white with reddish head; head depressed, antennne 
4-jointL'd, with the last joint as long as all the preceding ; protliorax longer than 
either nieso- or metathorax, both of which are longer than the abdominal segments, 
which are of equal length until the last, which is somewhat developed, and has on tlie 
back two papilte, each furnished with a longhair; it is deeply emarginate behind, and 
the lobes of the emargination appear to be tritid at apex ; tarsi short and stout, 
Sjointed ; legs ciliate. The larva, according to M. Penis, lives in the galleries 
of Hylurgus piniperda, of which it destroys the larva ; it is also found in other trees 
than pine trees, where it proljably destroys the larvaj of other wood-boring beetles. 

I. Form broader; upper surface pitchy-brown or nearly 
black. 
i. Autennse more slender ; basal impressicms of thorax 
transverse and rather shallow; thorax somewhat 

closely punctured C. histeeoides, F. 

ii. Antenufo thicker; basal impressions of thorax 
longitudinal and deep ; thorax strongly and spar- 

ingly punctured C. fagi, Bris. 

IT. Form narrower and more parallel ; upper surface nearly 
always ferruginous testaceous. 
j. Upper surface slightly convex ; sides of thorax almost 
parallel ; basal impressions of thorax distinct ; strite 

of elytra becoming evanescent towards apex . . . C. FEERTJGINEUM, <S/?e/'^*' 
ii. Upper surface much depressed ; striae of elytra reach- 

iu"- apex C. DEPLANATtrM, Gyll. 

C. histeroides, F. Dark pitchy-black, ferruginous or reddish- 
ferruginous in immature examples, not very convex ; antennse ferruginous ; 
thorax thickly and rather strongly punctured, in the male a little shorter 
than broad, and a little widened and rounded in front, so that its greatest 
breadth is before middle ; in the female it is just as long as broad, very 
slightly and almost imperceptibly narrowed in front, so that it is broadest 
at base ; elytra slightly dilated and widened at sides, rather depressed, 



Cfri/lon.] CLAVicORNiA. 195 

with distinct stria?, which are phunly punctured, and usuallj'- become 
ol)solete near apex ; interstices fiat, finely punctured in more or less 
irregular rows, legs reddish or pitchy-red. L. 2-2| mm. 

Under bark of pines, elms, oaks, and many other trees ; also in ants' nests ; common 
and generally distributed over the greater part of England and probably Ireland ; it 
is ajiparently less common further north ; Mr. Bold records it as rare from the 
Northumberland district, and Dr. Sharp says that it is local in Scotland in the Tay 
and Dee districts. Mr. Dlatch has taken a lar^e mahogany-br.)wu coloured variety 
in great profusion in Buddon Wood, Leicestershire, in nests'of Formica rnfa. 

V. longkolle, Reitt. This appears to be a form of Reitter's v. caucasicuvi 
of C. liisteroides, whicli is chiefly distinguished by its longer thorax. In 
Dr. Sharp's collection there is a specimen answering to my specimen from 
Ilerr Reitter, Avhich is labelled as " bought from Turner; " no locality, 
however, is attached. 

C. fag-i, Bris. (forticorne, Muls.). Broader and more convex than 
C. histeroldes, and with the elytra more dilated in front ; the antenn;c 
are shorter and stouter, ferruginous, with the first and last joints lighter, 
and the thorax is evidently more strongly and much more sparingly 
punctured, especially on disc, and at the base is furnished with larger 
impressions, which are oblong, and more distinct than in the precedmg 
species ; the thorax, moreover, is almost parallel-sided in the male, and 
evidently narrowed in front in the female ; the stria? of the elytra are 
rather finely punctured, and the interstices, as a rule, are almost smooth. 
L. 2-2i mm. 

Under bark and in rotten wood, especially of beech ; not common ; Chatham, 
Sevenoaks, Cobham Park, Tuickenham, St. Mary Cray, Mickleham, Tdgate, Darenth ; 
The Holt, Farnham ; Dean Forest. 

V. exeavatam, Fowler. This variety has the basal impressions of 
thorax continued nearly to the anterior margin, leaving a more or less 
defined broad raised longitudinal sj^ace in middle. 

Warlingbam, Surrey ; three or four specimens have been taken in this locality by 
Mr. W. T. Saunders ; they may possibly be identical with C.fjveolalum, Baudi, but 
I have never seen a specimen of this species; it is, moreover, ouiitted in the last 
European catalogue, and is unknown to Herr Reitter, who is the chief authority on the 
European species. 

C. ferrug-ineum, Steph. (angustatitm, Er.). Rufo-ferruginous, 
oblong, parallel- sided ; smaller and narrower than C. liisteroides, to im- 
mature specimens of which species it bears a considerable resemblance ; 
thorax rather strongly punctured, thickly at sides less thickly on disc, 
in male a little longer than broad, very slightly -widened in front, in 
female evidently longer than broad, parallel-sided, basal impressions 
distinct but not large ; elytra with sides a little rounded, with rather 
strong punctured stria? which, at sides, are more or less evanescent 
towards apex, first interstice next suture with a row of very fine punc- 
tures ; sutural stria evidently deepened at apex. L. 2-2} mm. 

o 2 



19G CLAVICORNIA. \_Certjlnn. 

Uiuler bark of all kinds of tleoitluons trees, esjiecially hoeclips ; very local, but. oe- 
casionally ahniubmt ; Chatham; Cobhain Park, Keut ; New Forest; Dean Forest; 
Cannock Chase ; Sherwood Forest ; Witbington, Chesbire, in decayed root of lime 
t)-ee ; Scotland, rare, Tay district, Aviemore. 

C. deplanatum, Gyll. Closely allied to the preceding, but rather 
smaller and more depressed, being the flattest of all the Eurupean 
species ; in the male.the thorax is evidently, although gradually, narrowed 
towards base, in the female the sides ore almost straight, in both sexes 
it is longer than broad ; the basal impressions are very small, and often 
only indicated by a very narrow fovea at base, which sometimes is almost 
absent ; this point will distinguish it from the preceding, and also from 
the continental species C. impressiun, which it much resembles ; the 
striae of the elytra are moderate and reach apex ; the sutural stria is, 
however, not deeper at apex. L. If -2 mm. 

Very rare in Britain ; I only know of two or tbree examples, taken, I believe, by 
Mr. Gorbaui in the New Forest ; Dr. Sharp's specimens from Scothiud, that st;ind 
under tbe name, appear to be only small varieties o{ Cferrugiiieum ; the species is 
found rarely in Central Europe, under bark of beech, aspen, poplar, and probably 
other deciduous trees. 

MURMIDIINA. 

In some respects this tribe appears to be related to the Histeridre, but 
it difl'ers in having the tarsi 4-jointed ; unless, therefore, we can raise the 
tribe to the rank of a family, it seems the best course to class it with the 
Colydiidse; it must be admitted, however, that it appears to be a some- 
what abnormal member of the family, and that as regards the develop- 
ment of the prostcrnal lobe it much resembles Hister and its allies ; its 
present position must, perhaps, be regarded as merely provisional. 

MURM3BIUS, Leach. 

This genus contains two species, which are found in Europe and 
America ; one of these occurs very rarely in Britain. 

"SH. ovalis, Beck {ferrugineus, Leach). Short oval, rather convex, 
shining, lighter or darker castaneous ; head narrower than tliorax ; 
antennae very short, ferruginous, with a subgiobose, apparently one- 
jointed, club ; thorax verj^ slightly narrower at base than elytra, very 
transverse, obsoletely punctured, with two abbreviated striee on each 
side, posterior angles right angles ; elytra rounded at sides and ape.x, 
with rows of rather large punctures, which become evanescent towards 
apex ; legs ferruginous, tibite somewhat arcuate. L. 1 mm. 

In dead leaves, cut grass Ac; mostly found, however, in old rice, bay, A'o. ; Mad- 
ingley Wood, Cambridgeshire, Dec. 1831 (Tower) ; Shirley, near Croydon (Champion) ; 
London, in an old truss of hay bought for packing purposes (Jansou). 



I lister Ida-. '\ clavicoknia, 197 

HISTERID^. 

This family, according to thfi Miinicli catalogue of 18G8, contains GO 
gonera and 1150 species ; since that time, however, a large number of 
species and about 20 genera have been added through the researches of 
Schmidt, Lewis, and other Coleopterists who have especially studied the 
group; as a rule tlie members of the family are conspicuous for 
their smooth shining appearance, and the total want of pubescence; some 
few genera, however, have the outer skeleton very opaque and are strongly 
sulcate ; the chief characters of the family are as follows : antennie 
short, geniculate, capable of being retracted, club distinct and com- 
pact and as a rule received into cavities of the prosternum ; thorax 
closely applied to elytra ; prosternum frequently lobed in front; coxal 
cavities open behind ; mesosterniim varialie in shape, metasternuni 
very large; elytra truncate behind, leaving the pygidium and propygidium 
uncovered; abdomen with five free ventral segments ; legs short, capable of 
being retracted closely underneath body, tarsi short and slender and in most 
genera received in grooves on the anterior face of the tibiae, usually 
5-jointed, but in one or two genera the posterior pair are 4-jointed ; 
intermediate and posterior coxpe widely separated. 

The greater number of the species are found in dung and carcases, 
but the Hololeptina, which are remarkable for their flat appearance and 
prominent head, as well as for the peculiar structure of their mandibles 
and maxillje, live under the bark of trees ; of these we possess no repre- 
sentatives, but one or two of our genera^ as Paromalus and Abrceiis, occur 
in damp rotten wood, and another, Teretrius, appears to be parasitic on 
certain wood-feeding beetles ; one or two species are found exclusively 
in ants' nests. 

The species as a rule are round or oval or more or less ol)long, rarely 
cylindrical, of a unicolorous shining black or brownish colour, sometimes 
greenish or bluish, and occasionally metallic, with more or less distinct 
striation on the elytra ; sometimes the elytra are marked with bright 
red spots or patches. 

It may perhaps be observed that there is considerable diflfcrence among 
the writers on this family as to its generic classification. 

Tlie larvffi of the HisteridsD are distinguished by the absence of ocelli, tlie soft- 
ness of their integument, the upper surface of the abdomen being often mucli wrinkled, 
the very short legs which in Ulster are not visible from above, and the broad ninth 
segment of the abdomen wliich bears two short, 2-jointed cerci ; they are furnished 
with large and powerful jiws, and are carnivorous and very voracious. Our Briliali 
genera may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Upper surface not costate (in the European species).* 
i. Prosternum lobed in front, covering under-side of head. 



* Hister costatus from Mexico has the opaque exoskeleton and costate sculpture 
of Onthophilus, but it is at present the only species known that presents this pecu- 
liarity. 



198 CLAVicoRNiA. [Hislerida. 

1. Anteuiifc insn'ted iu cavities which are anterior, 

open iu front, and more or less completely closed 
beneath by the lobe of the prosternum, which is 
strong. 

A, Club of antenns3 oval, pubescent, usually dis- 
tinctly ringed HiSTEB, L. 

B. Club of antennse obconical, without pubescence, 

solid HET.i;Bius, Er. 

2. Autenna? inserted in cavities at the middle of the 

inflexed portion of the thorax, uear the sides. 

A. Middle and posterior tibiae slender ; front tibise 

dilated. 

a. Elytra regularly and strongly striate; body 

oval ; scutelhnn conspicuous ...... Caecinops, Mars. 

b. Elytra with dorsal striae more or less obsolete ; 

body oblong ; scutellum inconspicuous . . . Pakomaltts, Er. 

B. All the tibiae dilated ; body oval Dendeophilfs, Leach. 

ii. Prosternum not lobed in front, truncate. 

1. Antennae inserted under the margin of the fore- 

head ; mandibles pi'ominent. 

A. Anterior tibia3 without distinct spines; upper 

surface very obsoletely striate at sides .... Myemetes, Marsh, 

B. Anterior tibite distinctly spined ; upper surface 

striate and more or less punctured. 

a. Foiehead with a distinct impressed stria . . Sapeintis, Er. 

b. Forehead without impressed stria .... Gnathoncus, Duv. 

2. Antennas inserted on the forehead ; mandibles 

small, not prominent. 

A. Posterior tibiaj distinctly toothed ; form sub- 
cylindrical Teeeteius, Er. 

B. Posterior tibiae not or scarcely toothed ; form 

more or less ovate. 

a. Tborax with a deep transverse furrow in 

middle PlEGADEETJS, Er. 

b. Thorax without transverse furitiw. 

a*. All the tarsi 5-joiuted ; elytra without 

marginal stria ; size larger Abr^uS, Leach. 

b*. Posterior tarsi 4-jointed ; elytra with mar- 
ginal stria, situated on epipleurae ; size 

smaller Aceittts, Lee. 

II. Upper surfiice strongly costate ; prosternum feebly 
lobed in front Onthophiitts, Leach. 

KZSTER, Linne. 

This extensive genus contains at present about three hundred and 
twenty species, which are widely distributed throughout the world, both 
in tropical and temperate regions ; about sixty of these species occur iu 
Europe, fifteen of which are found in Eritain ; two or three of these, 
however, are doubtfully indigenous ; they are found in dung, hot-beds, 
decaying fungi, or carcases, and when alarmed, retract their limbs and 
antennae and remain motionless.* 

* Hence their name, which is the primary Etruscan form of hislrio, an actor, and 
was applied to them by Liunc iu aihi.siou to their feigning death. 



Ilister.'] 



CLAVICORNIA. 



199 



H. QUADRIMACTTlATirS, L. 



H. UNICOLOR, L. 



The larva of H. unicofor is described and figured by Schiiidtc, De Metamorphosi 
Eloutheratoruui, Part ii. p. 62, Plate i. fi'j;. 1 ; it is of a dirty-whito colour with 
the corneous parts fuscous aud the coriaceous parts yellowish ; it is rather broad and 
almost parallel-sided until the ninth segment of abdomen, which is broad and bears 
two short cerci com]iosed of two joints ; the head is narrower than prothorax, with 
very powerful man(Ubles ; ocelli wanting ; antenna) sliort ; prothor;ix large, longer 
than meso- and nietathorax together, these two latter being very short ; the pro- 
thorax is deeply channelled in the centre and at sides ; the abdominal segments are 
contracted at apex and base, aud each is furnished with a row of miuute scuta ia front 
aud behind ; legs very short, not or scarcely visible from above. 

I. Thorax coarsely punctured on the under surface 
of margins ; antennal cavities not distinct ; size 
larger ; elytra with four more or less distinct red 
markings often confluent 

II. Tliorax with under surface of margins almost 

impunctato ; antennal cavities always well 
marked ; size smaller. 
i. Mesosternum emarginate in front, presternum 
rounded at base. 

1. Elytra with au outer lateral stria abbre- 
viated behind, aud an inner lateral stria 
abbreviated in front, not meeting ; three 
dorsal strljB, as a rule, eutire 

2, Elytra with a continuous outer marginal stria 

only ; four dorsal striaj, as a rule, entire. 

A. Thorax with two striaj near margins. 

a. Form long oval, subparallel ; club of 
antennaj red ; anterior tibia) with four 
teeth H, merdaeius, Hqff". 

b. Form short oval ; club of antenna) 

black-brown ; anterior tibiae with 
5-6 teeth. 

a*. Frontal stria in the form of a 
semicircle, ofteu obsolete in middle ; 
average size larger ; epipleura) not 
rugosely punctured H. CADAVEEINTTS, Hoff. 

h*. Frontal stria always entire, in the 
form of a semicircle depressed at 
vertex into an angle pointing back- 
wards ; average size smaller ; epi- 
pleura) rugosely punctured .... 

B. Thorax with one stria only near margins. 

a. Lateral stria on elytra abbreviated 
behind and usually also in front . . . 

b. Lateral stria on elytra entire, 
a*. Epipleura) smooth ; elytra with a 

large ill-defined reddish spot on each 
(rarely absent and sometimes suffused 

over the whole elytra) H. purpueascens, Rerbst. 

b*. Epipleurge punctured; elytra 

always unicolorous black, 
af. Sutural stria of elytra almost 

entire; elytra with a trace of a 

fifth dorsal stria at base;* teeth of 

front tibiie very fine H. maeginatUS, Er. 



H, strcciCOLA, Thorns. 



H, STERCOEARIUS, Ilnff. 



* lu this work the first dorsal stria of elytra is regarded as next the luai-giral 



200 CLAvicoRNiA, [Ilisien 

bf. Sutnral stria of elytra reacbing' 
only from about middle to apex ; 
tcetb of frout tibijo ratlier 
strong, 
aj. Size larger ; tborax less strong- 
ly narrowed in front ; frontal 
stria more distinctly angled in 

middle . , . , 11. neglectcs. Genu. 

bj. Size smaller ; thorax more 
strongly narrowed in front ; 
frontal stria less distinctly 

angled in middle H. cAKBONAElirs, III. 

S. Elytra without lateral stria ; thorax with 
two lateral strisc on each side, the outer 
one being sometimes visible only near 
anterior angles. 

A. Elytra black with red markings. 

a. Prosternal process emarginate at apex ; 
outer lateral stria of thorax long, 

scarcely abbreviated (H. QtrADBliVOTATUS, S'eriia.) 

b. Prosternal process not en^arginate, more 
or less pointed or rounded ; outer 

lateral stria of thorax abbreviated . . (H. SINTJATUS, III.) 

B. Elytra entirely black ; outer lateral stria 
of thorax very short, visible at anterior 

angles H. bissexstriatus, F. 

ii. Mesosternum truncate in front or slightly 
rounded, prosternum quite straight ; thorax 
with one lateral stria on each side (sub-gen. 
Atholus, Thorns.) 

1. Elytra black; anterior tibife with three 

teeth. 

A. Elytra without marginal subhumeral 

stria H. 12-STRiATrs, Sch. 

B. Elytra with a more or less distinct abbre- 
viated subhumeral stria Var. 14-STEiATrs, Gyll. 

2. Elytra with a large red spot on each towards 

apex ; anterior tibige with four teeth ... II, bimaculatus, L. 

H. Quadrimaculatus, L. Somewhat depressed, oblong-or subquad- 
rate, with sides somewhat widened and rounded in middle ; black with 
a large crescent-shaped red spot on each, which is very variable in shape, 
being often interrupted and forming four patches, and sometimes being 
absent altogether (F. cethiops, Heer) ; thorax with one entire lateral 
stria, and a much abbreviated outer stria which is sometimes obsolete ; 
elytra with no sutural stria, but with three entire dorsal striro and an 
abbreviated subhumeral stria ; pygidium much more thickly punctured 
than propygidium; anterior tibi* with three strong teeth. L. 7-11 
mm. 



stria J by some authors the stiia; arc counted from the sutural stria, luit as the striae 
near suture are usually abbreviated and often obiok-te, this metlioil of counting gives 
ri;e to much confusion. 



Ilister.l cr,AvicoKNiA. 201 

In moss, (liinjr, rarrnsos, flood refuse, &c.; ofieii under stones, ami sometimes on 
tlie wing setlliug ou white objects sueh as sails or sheets ; usually found on or near 
the coast; London district, not uuconiinon (Champion); AVhitstable, Gravcsend, 
Sheerness, Chatham ; Kerne I'ay ; I'amsgate; Deal; Southsca ; New Forest; Isle 
of Wight; as a rule it is decidedly ;i rare sjiecics, but seems at times to be found in 
abundance; Stephens (Ulust. vol. iii. p. 1-16) quotes a record by Lient. Davies in 
Loudon's Magazine as follows : " Ilis/er A-macvlatus, of which I had previously taken 
few specimens, now (1827) covered Southsea Common, so that many were crushed 
under foot at each step." 

H. unicolor, L. Short oval, almost orbicular, entirely Llack ; fore- 
head ohsoletely impressed, frontal stria entire, sinuate ; thorax convex, 
strongly narrowed in front, Avith two lateral stria?, of which the internal 
is almost entire and the external is much ahhieviated ; elytra with outer 
lateral stria abbreviated, and three dorsal strife, as a rule, entire ; sutural 
stria only reaching to about middle ; pygidium more closely punctured 
than propygidium ; legs pitchy-black, anterior tibiae considerably dilated, 
and armed with three teeth, the apical one of which is bifid, L, 8-10 
mm. 

In dung, carcases, at sap of felled trees, &c. ; general'y distributed and common in 
the London district and the south ; less common further north ; Kepton ; Bewdley ; 
Shrewsbury : Liverpool district ; Northumheiland district ; doubtlul as Scottish ; I)r. 
Sharp says that it is recorded by Murray as occasional, and by McGillivray from 
Aberdeen, but he has never seen a Scottish specimen ; Ireland, near Belfast. 

K. merdarius, TIofT. Oblong, subparallel, shining black ; club of 
antennfe reddish ; frontal stria entire ; thorax with two strong entire 
lateral striae which have the interval between them plainly punctured 
as a rule, but not always ; elytra with outer marginal stria and the next 
four dorsal striae entire, sutural stria abbreviated ; pygidium more closely 
punctured than propygidium; epipleuise finely punctured ; anterior tibiae 
with four teeth. L. 6 mm. 

In dung, vegetable refuse, &c.; rare; Forest Hill,Battersea Fiilds, Horsell, Woking ; 
A^lsham; New Forest; Wisbeach j Kottingharashire ; Herefordshire; Foreniark, 
near Repton. 

This species may be distinguished from the succeeding by its smaller 
size, subparallel form, and the denticulation of the anterior tibiae. 

H. cadaverinus, Hoff. {driola, Sahib.). Larger than the preceding, 
oval, somewhat depressed, shining black, frontal stria semicircular, entire 
or interrupted; antennae pitchy-black or broAvnish ; thorax with two 
lateral striae on each side which are usually entire ; elytra with outer 
marginal stria and the next four dorsal stria3 entire, sutural stria much 
abbreviated ; pygidium a little more closely punctured than propygidium ; 
epipleurae strongly punctured ; anterior tibiae, with five or six teeth which 
are distinctly sharper than those of the preceding species ; posterior tibiae 
rather short and broad. L. 6-9 mm. 

In dung, carcases, flood refuse, &c. ; generally distributed and common in the 
London district and the south ; less common but generally distributed further north ; 
Scotland, rare, Solway and Moray districts ; Ireland, near Belfast and Dublin, and 
probably widtly distributed. 



202 CLAVicoRNiA. [Ilister. 

H. succicola, Thorns. Allied to the preceding species, hut easily 
distinguished by the frontal stria which is always entire and biarcuate, 
and by the prosternal process not being truncate at apex, as well as by 
having the pygidium more thickly and finely punctured, and the epi- 
pleurae rugosely punctured ; the habitat also is usually diti'erent. L. 
5i-7 mm. 

In cai'ciises, putrid fungi, and at sap of trees ; local; Darenth Wood, Sovenoaks, 
Micklehain, Esher, Ashttad, Shirley, Dulwich, Birch Wood; Kuowle ; Cannock 
Chase; Bewdiey ; Sherwood Forest (in carcase); Repton ; Nortbumherland district, 
not uncommon in fungi ; Scotland, common, Lowlands and Highlands, in decaying 
vegetable matter, Solvvay and Tay districts, &c. 

H. stercorarius, Hoff. Black, shining, rather elongate and 
parallel-sided ; frontal stria entire, semicircular, slightly depressed at 
vertex ; thorax short with one lateral stria which is someAvhat remote 
from margin ; elytra rather finely striated, the lateral stria l)eing very 
short, abbreviated Ijehind, and usually also in front, the next three entire ; 
the sutural stria much abbreviated in front, sides scarcely dilated ; pygi- 
dium thickly and coarsely punctured, but not quite so coarsely as propy- 
gidium ; tibiae much dilated, anterior pair with three or four broad strong 
teeth. L. 5 mm. 

Tn dung, &c. ; rare ; Liverpool district ; recorded by Stephens as not uncommon in 
the vicinity of London, and also from Netley, Norfolk, and Swansea ; it does not, 
however, appear to havj been taken near Loudou for many years, and Stephens' record 
may be in error. 

The species may be known from the others that have but one lateral 
stria on thorax by its more parallel form, very short marginal stria of 
elytra, and the dentation of the anterior tibiae. 

H. purpurascens, Herbst. (casfanij^es, Steph.). Black, shining; 
oval, not very convex ; frontal stria entire ; thorax rather short with one 
strong lateral stria ; elytra somewhat dilated in middle, Avith a large ill- 
defined reddish or purplish patch on each ; the colour is sometimes 
dillused over the whole elytra, and very rarely the elytra are quite black 
(F. niger, Er.) ; the marginal and four dorsal striae are entire, and the 
sutural stria reaches a little beyond middle ; pygidium a little less 
strongly and thickly punctured than propygidium ; anterior tibice with 
five teeth, of which the apical one is bifid. L. 3|-4| mm. 

In moss, cut grass, vegetable refuse, bottoms of haystacks, &c. j rather common and 
generally distributed in the London district ; Deal ; Whitstablc ; Swansea ; Knowle ; 
Leicestershire; Wicken Fen; Sherwood Forest; Cheshire; Lancashire; Northum- 
bcrland district, rare ; Scotland, Lowlands, rare, in sandy places, Clyde and Moray 
districts; Ireland, near Belfast and Dublin. 

K. marg-inatus, Er. This species is distinguished from the two 
following by its smaller size and suborbicular outline, and also by having 
the marginal stria of the elytra entire and a rudiment of a fifth dorsal 



Ilisier.] clavicornia. 203 

stria at base ; the anterior tibial are furni.slicd Avith six very fine teeth, of 
"which the apical one is bifid. L. 4| mm. 

Under dead leaves, in refuse, &c. ; apparently very rare, altliougli it may be mixed 
with allied species in collections ; taken, I believe, by Mr. Waterlioase, and I have seen 
a specimen in Mr. E. Brown's collection, without locality. Gucstliun:, near Hastings 
(Butler) J Scotland, very rare, Sol way district (Sharp) ; it is very rare in France. 

K. neg'lectus, Germ. Oblong, moderately convex ; forehead even, 
frontal stria entire ; thorax short with one strong lateral stria situated at 
some distance from margin ; elytra long -svith the marginal and first three 
dorsal striae entire, the fourth reaching very nearly to base, and the 
sntnral stria not or scarcely reaching middle ; propygidium and pygi- 
diuni rather closely punctured; anterior tibiie with live or six teeth. L. 
6-6^ mm. 

In moss, carcases, vegetable and flood refuse, at roots of grass in marshy places, &c. ; 
not uncommon; Wimbledon; Harwich; Shecrness; Gravesend ; VVhitstable ; Chat- 
ham; Deal; Net ley ; Birmingliam district; Oxford; Repton ; Cheshire; Northumber- 
land district, rare ; Scotland, occasionally, Solway, Forth, and Tay districts. 

H. carbonarius, 111. {nigellatus, Germ.). More oval, and on the 
average smaller than the preceding, from which it may be easily distin- 
guished by its rounder and less oblong shape, and by the more slightly 
angled frontal stria ; the thorax also is more strongly narrowed in front, 
and the anterior tibife are furnished with four or five teeth ; the thorax 
has one marginal stria only, and the marginal and first three dorsal 
striae of elytra are entire, the sutural reaching to about middle. L. 
5-5| mm. 

In carcases, dung, haystack refuse, &c. ; common and generally distributed from 
the Midlands southwards ; rarer further north ; Scotland, scarce, Solway district ; 
Ireland, near Belfast, Dublin, Waterford, &c. 

(H. quadrinotatus, Scriba. Oval, rather convex ; black, shining ; 
thorax short, strongly narrowed in front, with two lateral striae, both 
almost entire ; elytra with a rather sniall humeral spot, and another 
oblique patch in middle of disc, red ; these are sometimes confluent ; 
lateral stria wanting, first two dorsal stride entire, third nearly entire, 
fourth and fifth and sutural strise wanting or very short and obsolete ; 
propygidium finely punctured, pygidium almost smooth ; anterior tibiae 
Avitli three rather obtuse teeth, of which the outer one is bifid. L. 6-8 
mm. 

Very doubtful as British ; a few specimens exist in our oldest collections ; Stephens 
(Illust. iii. 147) records it as " also rare ; but found iu distant parts of the kingdoui." 
Bristol and near London (Dr. Leach). 

(H. sinuatus, 111. (uncmafns, 111.). Oval, not very convex; black, 
shining ; thorax with the outer lateral stria abbreviated ; elytra Avith a 
longitudinal lunulate spot on each, which is somewhat variable in size, 
reaching from the base nearly to apex, and bending inwards towards 



20 i cLAvicoiiNiA. [Ilitifer. 

suture; first tliroe dorsal striae entire, the fourtli, fiftli, and sutural stride 
very short, obsolete ; pygidium and propygidiuni dilt'usely punctured ; 
anterior til^ire with three stout teeth, the apical one bifid. L. G-8 mm. 

lu cnrcnsrs, &v. ; very rare, ami douhtfully iiidigcnons ; Ste]iliL<ns ivcortls it from 
Dartford Ilopth, Ki iit, Uc-voiisliiic (Kingsbriiige, &c.), Swaiisen, Worcester, and Saiids- 
field, but these localities are probably, in part at least, erroneous, for the species has 
not occui-red in Britain for many years, and very few specimens are extant in old 
collections. 

££. bissexstriatus, F. {cnliginnsus, Steph.). Oval, rather depressed, 
shining black ; thorax with the external marginal stria very short, often 
onl}' visible at the anterior angles, internal stria entire ; elytra someAvhat 
dilated in middle, with the first four dorsal striae entire, fifth very 
short, sutural stria reaching to about middle ; pygidium rather more 
closely punctured than propygidiuni ; anterior tarsi Avith four teeth, nf 
Avhich the apical one is sometimes bifid. L. 4-5 mm. 

In dung, flood refuse, &c. ; as a rule, uncommon, but occ;isionalIy it occurs in pro- 
fusion ; Blackheath ; Shcerness (J. J. Walker, in great numbers) ; Southend ; Whit- 
stable ; Deal ; Netley ; !;uflblk ; the only northern record lliat 1 have seen is from 
Lancaster. 

IZ. 12-striatus, Sch. Oval, not very convex ; forehead finely 
punctured, frontal furrow entire; thorax very finely punctured with one 
lateral stria ; elytra rather short and broad, with the dorsal striae all 
entire, the fifth stria joining the sutural stria at ba?e, lateral stria 
absent; all the striai of elytra are more or less distinctly crenulated; pro- 
pygidium diffusely punctured, pygidium scarcely punctured ; anterior 
tibicB with three teeth, the apical one sometimes bifid. L, 4-4| mm. 

In dung, haystack and veget.ible refuse, &c. ; ratlier common and generally dis" 
tributed in the Midlands and the south ; not so common further north ; doubtful as 
Scottish, the only record being " llaehills, Kev. W. Little,'' Murray's Cat. ; Ireland, 
uear Belfast. 

The fact of the dorsal striae being all entire will at once distinguish 
this species. 

y. 14:-sfriatiis, Gyll. This variety, Avhich has by some authors 
been regarded as a separate species, appears only to differ from the type 
by having a more or less distinct marginal stria on the elytra. 

I have only seen one specimen of this insect, which is in Dr. Power's 
collection, and Avas taken from a heap of weeds in a garden at Merton, 
Surrey ; it is rather larger than average specimens of the type, and has 
the sutural and fifth dorsal striae somewhat interrupted ; it is very likely 
mixed Avith the type in collections. 

K. bitnaculatus, L. Oval, rather depressed ; antennae and legs 
ferruginous ; thorax short, finely punctured, foveolate at anterior angles, 
Avith a strong lateral stria ; elytra shining black Avitlr a bright red 
patch on each toAvards a})cx, often taking up half the elytra, and forming 



Uisttv.'] crAvicORNiA. 203 

a common space, leaving a large black triangle about scntellum, lateral 
stria wanting, doisal striae crenulate, either all entire, or with sutural 
stria abbreviated; propygiilium dithisely punctured, pygidiura almost 
smooth ; anterior tibiae with four teeth, of which the hindmost is often 
minute. L. 3^-4 mm. 

In duns', lint-bcils, liaystack refuse, &c. ; rnthcr common and gonorally distributed 
from the Midlands southwards ; rarer further north ; Scothiud, rare. Lowlands, Sol- 
way, Clyde, and Forth districts ; Ireland, near Dublin. 

This species and the preceding may be known from all the others by 
the structure of the mctasternum and prosternum. 

CARC;iNOFS, Marseul. 

This genus contains about thirty or forty species, of which oidy three 
are found in Europe, the remainder occurring in North, Central, and 
South America, Africa, &c. ; they may be known by having the anterior 
tibiaj only dilated, and by the fact that four or five of the dorsal striaj 
are entire ; this latter character will separate ottr species from Gnathoncas, 
■which they somewhat resemble in size and general appearance. 

I. Size smaller; frontal stria wanting; strife of elytra very 

fine C. MINIMA, Aube. 

II. Size larger; frontal stria entire; striaj of elytra coarse 

and eienulate C. 14 STRIATA, SlepTi. 

C. minima, A\ibe (cor2niscula, Mars.). Oval, round, rather convex, 
thickly punctured ; shining black or pitch-black ; antennaj and legs 
red ; frontal stria wanting ; thorax finely bordered, more strongly and 
thickly punctured at base ; elytra raised at suture, Avith four dorsal striae 
entire, fine, the others obsolete ; elytra scarcely more feebly punctured 
than thorax; anterior tibi^ dilated, with three teeth. L. 1-1| mm. 

In haystack and flood refuse, moss, &c. ; local ; London district, common and 
generally distributed; Margate ; Kingsgate; Bognor ; Hurstpierpoiut; Hastings ; New 
Forest; Hunstanton; Weymouth tat roots of grass in sandy places) ; Cliesil B>.'ach ; 
Salford Priors (in fungi on ash log) ; Repton, near Burton-ou-Trent. I know of no 
locality further north, and it has not occurred in Scotland. 

C. 14-striata, Steph. (pumiUojT^r.; Ejnerus listriafus, Steph.). 
Very much larger than the preceding, oblong-ovate, somewhat depressed ; 
shining pitchy-black or brownish ; antennae and legs ferruginous, club of 
former lighter or darker testaceous ; up|)er surface punctured, the elytra 
very finely, the thorax more coarsely especially at sides ; thorax with 
marginal stria entire ; elytra with all the dorsal striae entire, strong, and 
crenidate, sutural stria entire, straight ; anterior tibite strongly dilated, 
Avith two large teeth which are widely separated. L. 2-2|- mm. 

In rubbish, carrion, &c. ; rare; Battersea Fields (Stephens); Sherwood Forest 
(Blatch); Scarborough (Lav.son) ; Jarrow and South Shields (Bold). 



206 CLAvicoRNiA. [Paromxlufi. 

PAZlO»IAI.US, Ericlison. 

About forty species are contained in this gfenus, five of Avliich occur 
in Europe, the rest being found in various quarters of the worhl ; repre- 
sentatives occur in ]^ortli, Central, and South America, Africa, Java, 
Borneo, the Philippines, &c. ; their habitat is in rotten wood under 
bark ; they may be distinguished by their long oblong or paralhd form, 
and ]\v having the front tibiiB only dilated; in this latter ])oint they 
resemble Carcinops, from which they may at once be known by their 
shape, and also by the inconspicuous scutellum and the obsolete strise of 
elytra. 

I. Form long' oval, plainly naiTowed in front and 
behind ; male without transverse impressed line 

at base of pygidium P. FLAVICORNIS, Serhst. 

II. Form parallel ; male with impressed trans- 
verse line at base of pygidium P. parallelopipedtjs, Serhst. 

P. flavicornis, Herbst. Elongate-oval, narrowed in front and be- 
hind, rather depressed, slightly dilated in middle ; shining black, or 
pitchy-black, finely punctured ; antennae and legs reddish or ferruginous, 
club of former testaceous-yellow, or bright yellow ; thorax finely mar- 
gined j elytra with traces of strise at base and near shoulders ; pygidium 
very finely punctured ; mesosternum deeply emarginate, bounded by a 
sinuate stria, the angles of which are blunt ; anterior tibise dilated, with 
three or four inconspicuous teeth, L. l|-2 mm. 

Under bark, in damp decaying wood; local; London district, rather common, 
Hyde Park, Chatham, Cobham, Greenwich, Eichraoud Park, Coombe Wood, Wan- 
stead, Sanderstead, &c.; Ulting, Essex (where I have taken it in numbers in com- 
pany with Abrceiis globosus, &c., in an old oak stump) ; New Forest; Bristol; 
Windsor ; Colcliester ; Scarborough ; it has not been recorded from the northern 
counties or from Scotland. 

P. parallelopipedus, ITerbst. Very like the preceding, but dis- 
tinguished by its more parallel form, and longer elytra, which have tlie 
strise at base and shoulders less marked ; in both this and the preceding 
species the female has the pygidium furnished with two short con- 
verging stria3, but in this species the pygidium of the male is impressed 
with a transverse line at base, which is ^Ya\\ii\\g iw P. flavicornis ; i\ni 
antennal club as a rule is darker, and the mesosternum is bounded be- 
hind by a stria consisting of three arcs, which form sharp angles at their 
point of junction. L. l|-2i mm. 

Very rare ; I have only seen three or four specimens, and the only locality that I 
know of is "New Forest (Turner) " for Dr. Power's specimen ; Mr. Crotcli first in- 
troduced the species as British ; the insect appears to be very imperfectly known, and 
may be mixed with P.Jlaoicornis in some collections. 

HET2ERIUS, Ericlison. 
This genus contains a few species from Europe and North Africa, and 



Hetcerius.'] clavicorkia. 207 

one from ISI'orth America ; they have a pecuh'ar facies, somewhat like 
that of a large Arams, and are found in company witli ants, 

K. ferrug-ineus, 01. (sesqidconiis, Preys. ; qiiadrati/s, Kug. ; Mar- 
sctili, Schaiif.). Suhorhicular, smooth and shining, of a ligliter or darker 
reddish or reddish-testaceous colour ; forehead concave ; antennae witli 
solid, obconical, truncate club ; thorax short, widened l)ehind, with the 
sides depressed and furnished with two striae, and with a deep depres- 
sion near posterior angles ; elytra with projecting shoulders, with the 
four first dorsal strife entire, and with four or five rows of long yellow 
hairs, which are scarcely visible, if viewed from above ; legs very lar^e 
strongly and angularly dilated in middle, minutely denticulate on their 
outer side. L. 2-3 mm. 

In the nests of Formica fusca, sangtiinca, and flava ; very rare; Hio-b-mte (Jan- 
sou) ; Weybiidge (Power); Croydon (Douglas and Scott). 

DZ:NDI10PKIZ.VS, Leach. 

The species belonging to this genus are distinguished from Histcr by 
the formation of the cavities for the reception of the antennas, and from 
Caremops and Paronialus by having all the tibiae strongly dilated ; the 
prosternum is broad and rounded behind, and is received into a deep 
emargination of the mesosternum ; the genus only contains about half- 
a-dozen species from Europe and North America ; they occur under 
bark, in rotten wood, and in ants' nests, and occasionally in dead 
animals. 

I. Upper surface distinctly punctured, shiny D. punctatus, F. 

II. Upper surface without distinct punctures, dull D. pygm^ds L. 

I>. punctatus, 111. Oval, suborbicular, convex, black, shining, with 
the whole upper surface distinctly punctured ; antenna and legs ferru- 
ginous ; thorax very short, narroAvly margined ; elytra broader than 
thorax, with the two first dorsal striae entire and very marked, the third 
and fourth abbreviated l)ehind, the sutural stria absent or scarcely in- 
dicated ; anterior tibiae finely denticulate. L. 2|-3 mm. 

In dead animals, rotten wood, &c., and also in the nests of Formica fuliginosa ; 
not common; Greenwich, Coombe Wood, Mickleham, Richmond Park, Cobham' 
Hammersmith, Addington, West Wickhani ; Waltham Cross ; Norwich; Northum- 
berland district, Hctton Hall, near Belford (Bold) ; Scotland, doubtfully indigenous, 
the only record being " Under bark of trees at Cramond," Murray's Cat. I feel 
somewhat doubtful regarding Mr. Bold's record. 

D. pyg-mseus, L. {formicetorum, kwhe). Easily distinguished from 
the preceding by its dull appearance and the absence of any distinct 
punctuation ; under a high magnifying power the upper surface appears 
to be exceedingly finely punctured ; the colour is more pitchy, and the 
antennae and legs are of a brighter red colour ; elytra with very fine but 
distinct dorsal striai which are bounded by a slightly elevated line, only 



208 CLAV'ICORNIA. \_Deridrophilus. 

visible if viewed sidcwaj's ; anterior tibiaj finely and irregularly denti- 
culate. L. 2-3 mm. 

In tbe nests of i^orwjica rvfa; local; Esber, Forest Hill, Plnnisteatl, Hainpstead, 
Coombe Wood, Haiuaiilt Forest; Norfolk ; Suffolk ; Bristol; Bewdley Forest; Buddoii 
Wood, Leicester; Hopvvas Wood, Tamwortb ; Scotland, very local, Tay and Dee 
districts. 

BX-STRMBTSS, Marseul. 

This genus contains one European species, wliicli for a long time was 
associated with Saprinns ; it is, however, quite distinct from that genus 
by reason of its narrow tibia?, of which the anterior pair are very finely 
and indistinctly spinulose, and by the comparatively dull and impunc- 
tate upper surface, and also by the fact that the anterior tibice are not 
provided Avith grooves for the reception of the tarsi. 

IKE. piceus, Payk. Round, convex, pitchy-brown or ferruginous, 
smooth, comparatively dull ; forehead without stria ; thorax short, some- 
times lighter at sides ; elytra with fine striiB^ abbreviated behind, the 
subhumeral stria alone being almost entire ; tibia? not dilated. L. 2-2|- 
mm. 

lu nests of Formica rvfa ; local ; Plumstead ; Esber ; Parkburst Forest, Isle of 
Wigbt; Norivicb ; Bristol ; Biiddou Wood ; Bewdley Forest ; Tamwortb ; York; Scar- 
borougb ; Scotland, very local, Dee district. 

GNATHONCUS, Duval. 
This genus contains about a dozen species from Egypt, North America, 
Tasmania, <fcc. ; three of these are found in Europe, of which two occur 
in Britain; there is, however, considerable confusion as to our species; 
Mr. G. Lewis, who has lately done so much good work on the Histeridse, 
and to whom I am indebted for other information regarding the 
group, writes to me that he has never seen a British example of G. 
rohmdatus ; all our specimens must therefore be referred to G. naime- 
tcmsis ; the second species, G. pwnctulatus^ is by some authors considered 
merely a variety, but it appears to be distinct ; the genus is very closely 
allied to Saprinus, under which, indeed, it has been included by many 
writers ; it differs in having the frontal stria wanting, and in the fact 
that there is a considerable interval between the last two teeth of the 
anterior tibia) ; the sutural stria is distinct in front and abbreviated 
behind, and the epipleurte are furnished with three stria? instead of two 
as in Saprinus. 

I. Size larger ; form more strongly convex and rounded ; 
dorsal striaj of elytra reacbing beyond middle, tbe first 
almost reacbing apex ; npper surface more strongly and 

tbickly punctured G. NANNEtensiS, Mars. 

II. Size smaller; form less convex and rounded, witb 
more parallel sides ; dorsal stria; of elytra ceasing at 
middle, witb tbe exception of tbe first wbieb almost 
reacbes apex; upper surface more finely and diffusely 
punctured G. ruNCTULATUS, Thorns. 



Gnafhoncus.'] clavicornia. 209 

G. wasinetensis, Mars, {rotundahi?, Brit. Cat., nee Kiig.). Black, 
or pitchy-black, shining ; frontal stria wanting ; thorax entirely covered 
■svitli diifuse punctures, which are stronger and closer at sides ; elytra 
moderately strongly and thickly punctured except towards base, with 
an abbreviated marginal stria, and four dorsal striaj which reach beyond 
middle, the first almost reaching apex in many examples ; sutural stria 
distinct at base ; anterior tibia? not much dilated, with 6-8 teeth. L. 
2\-oh mm. 

In moss, birds' nests, haystack, flood, and vegetable refuse, dead birds, &c. ; local ; 
Lee; Sheeruess; Deal; Norfolk; Margate; Hastings; New Forest; Glaiivillfis 
Wootton (in stock dove nests inside hollow apple trees in old orchard) ; Swansea ; 
Cannock Cha-^e ; Cleethorpes, Luicolnshire ; Manchester ; Northumberland district, 
rare; Scotland, rare, Forth and Clyde districts ; Ireland, Portmarnoek. 

The true G. rofundatus, Kug., appears to differ from this species in 
its subparallel and depressed form, and some writers consider that 
G. nannetensis may be only a variety; the question, however, does not 
appear at present to be settled. 

Gt' punctislatus, Thoms. Closely allied to the preceding, but dis- 
tinctly smaller, and less stronglj^ convex and rounded; the antenna?, legs, 
and hinder part of the elytra are of a lighter colour ; the first dorsal stna 
of the elytra almost reaches apex, and the next three cease at middle ; 
the sutural stria is almost or entirely wanting ; the punctuation of the 
upper surface is more fine and diffuse, and the mesosternuni (which in 
the preceding species is strongly and rather thickly punctured) is very 
finely and diffusely punctured. L. lf-2| mm. 

Found under the same circumstances as the preceding ; rare ; near London 
(Janson) ; Knowle, near Birmingham (Blatch) ; Lytham, Lancashire (Chappell) ; 
these latter specimens were considered by Mr. IJye to be varieties of G. rotiindafus ; 
I received a specimen some time ago from Mr. J. J. Walker from Cleethorpes, Lin- 
colnshire. 

This species and the preceding appear to vary considerably in size 
and striation, the character of the presence or absence of the sutural 
stria being very doubtfully trustworthy ; perhaps all the three European 
species will ultimately be referred to one only. 

In the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. xxiii., p. 16, Mr. Gor- 
ham says that Gnatlionci inhabit pigeons' and other birds' nests, and 
places such as towers where owls breed, and that it would be worth 
while, if any one has the opportunity of visiting such places, to bear in 
mind the probability of our having more than one species of Histeridse 
co-existing with the birds. 



^o 



SAPHINUS, Erichson. 

This genus contains about three hundred and sixty or seventy species, 
and like Hider is very widely distributed both in the tropics and in 
VOL, III. p 



210 CLAVicoRNiA. [Sajmrius. 

temperate regions ; there are about eighty European species, of which 
eight only are found in Britain ; they closely resemble Hister in general 
appearance, and are chiefly distinguished by the fact that the presternum 
is not lobed in front ; in our species of Sister the elytra are impunctate 
or almost impunctate behind, whereas all our species of Sajirinus are 
more or less distinctly punctured from about middle to apex, and in 
many cases at the sides also ; the Saprini are found in dung or carcases, 
and like Hister retract their legs and remain motionless at the approach 
of danger. 

I, Forehead without a raised ridge, separated only by 
a deep stria from the clypeusj prosternum rather 

broad and flat. 
i. Disc of thorax impunctate ; colour black. 

1. Size larger ; elytra only punctured towards apex 

and at margins, punctuation rather diff'use . . S. NITIDUIUS, Pat/lc. 

2. Size smaller ; elytra closely and rugosely punc- 
tured v/ith a smooth space towards base tra- 
versed by fourth dorsal stria. 

A. Smooth part of elytra outside dorsal stria 
extending as far longitudinally as smooth 
part inside stria ; punctuation of elytra close 

and rugose ; sutural stria, as a rule, entire . S. ^NEUS, F. 

B. Smooth part of elytra outside stria small j 
punct\xation of elytra very close and rugose ; 
sutural stria of elytra, as a rule (but by no 

means always), interrupted S. iMMUNDtTS, Gj/Il. 

ii. Disc of thorax punctured ; colour metallic green . S. tieescens, Payk, 

II. Thorax separated from clypeus by a slightly raised 

ridge. 
i. Elytra dull, closely and rugosely punctured, with 

a common smooth round space towards base not 

traversed by fourth dorsal stria S. quadristriatits, Hoff. 

ii. Elytra punctured towards apex, with no definite 
smooth space towards base. 

1. Thorax plainly punctured at sides. 

A. Anterior tibia; strongly dilated, with four 
rather large blunt teeth (a trace of a filth 
being sometimes visible) ; elytra rather finely 
punctured, the punctuation reaching scarcely 

to middle S. METALLictrs, Serbst. 

B. Anterior tibia? slightly dilated, with six 
rather sharp and distinct teeth ; elytra rather 
strongly punctured, the punctuation reaching 

beyond middle S. eugifeons, TayJc. 

2. Thorax impunctate at sides ; anterior tibiaj 

with three large and three small teeth . . . S. maeitimus. Staph. 

S. nitidulus, Paylc, Black, shining ; the largest of our species of 
Sajrrinus, resembling in size and general appearance Hister carhonarins ; 
head rather thickly punctured ; thorax strongly punctured at sides, 
disc almost smooth, base with two or three rows of large punctures in- 
terrupted above scutelhim, anterior margin with two impressions behind 
eyes j elytra punctured at extreme margins and toAvards apex, punctua- 



Saiviuns] clavicouxia. 211 

tion somewhat diffuse ; stria3 punctured ; sutural stria often more or less 
obsolete and as a rule not joining fouftU dor.sal stria; pygidium thiekly 
punctured ; antenna? and logs black, tarsi somewhat reddish, anterior 
tibiae with 8-9 teeth. L. 4-5 i luni. 

In carcases, dun<2^, &(*. : generally distributed and common tlirongjhont England and 
Wale-!, and probably Irflund; it appears, however, to be local in Scotland, Lowlands, 
Solway and Forth districts. 

S. seneus, F. Black, shining, slightly aeneous ; forehead rather 
thickly punctured; thorax thickly {junctured at sides, and with two or 
three uninterrupted rows of larger punctures at base, disc smooth ; elytra 
closely punctured with the sides and shoulders and a common space 
towards base smooth ; this space is traversed by the fourth dorsal stria, 
and the part outside the stria reaches as far longitudinally as the part 
between this and the sutural stria ; striae punctured ; sutural stria, as a 
rule, joining fourth dorsal stria ; pygidium thickly puiu;tured ; antennae 
and legs black, anterior tibiae with 8-10 small teeth. L. 3-4 mm. 

In carcases, dung, &c. ; as a rule considered common and generally distributed 
throughout the greater part of England; it is, however, local in Scotland, in the 
Solway, Forth, and Moray districts, and is not common in some localities in Eiig- 
lanJ ; at Hunstanton, Norfolk, for instance, v/here I have found other members of 
the genus in numbers, I have never taken a specimen of S. ceneus. Ireland, mar 
Belfast and Dublin. 

S. immundus, Gyll. This species bears a considerable resemblance 
to the preceding, but may easily be distinguished by its darker and less 
metallic colour, and by the much closer punctuation of the elytra, which 
covers the whole of their upper surface except the shoulders and a space 
towards base, which is traversed by the fourth dorsal stria ; the space, 
however, outside the stria is small, and abbreviated in front and behind 
b)'' punctuation ; the sutural stria, is said l^y some authors to be separated, 
from the fourth dorsal stria, and this is given sometimes as a character, 
but in this respect the species is very variable, and X have specimens in 
which the sutural stria on one elytron joins the dorsal stria, and on the 
other is separated from it ; legs pitchy, anterior tibiae with 7-8 teeth, 
which are somewhat larger than in S. ceneus. L. 3-4 mm. 



'O^ 



In dung ; local and usually considered rare ; Deal ; Camber sand-hills, near Hastings, 
somewhat common; Wales; Southport ; Liincaster sands; Hunstanton, Norfolk, in 
numbers ; in this latter locality I have found it by far the connnonest of the genus ; 
the species appears to occur mainly on sand-hills near the coast. 

S. virescens, Payk. Shining, metallic green ; antennas black ; 
forehead, thickly punctured ; thorax distinctly punctured through- 
out, a point that will at once separate it from all our other species, 
punctuation more close at sides ; elytra rather strongly punctured over 
their whole surface except round scutellum, and at shoulders ; dorsal 
striffi extending a little bevond middle ; pygidium thickly punctured ; 

r 2 



212 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Saprinn8. 

legs black or pitcliy-black, witli tarsi more or less reddish, anterior tibise 
witli 6-7 rather blunt teeth. L. 3— i mm. 

In dung ; occasionally in flowers and on watercress, on which latter plant it has 
been found devouring tlie larvae oi PhcBclon cochlearice, to which beetle it bears a snper- 
ficial resemblance; rare; Caterham, Forest Hill; Darenth ; Maidstone; Deal; 
Folkestone; Sandwich; Sandown, Isle of Wight ; Buckden, Hunts ; Stepliens gives 
as localities Copenhagen Fields, Bittersea, Coombe Wood, VVelbeck, sea shore near 
Marsdeu, Norwich, Newmarket Heath (dead hares), and Swansea. 

S. quadristriatus, HofF. Oblong, black, sometimes with a dark 
blue or greenish reflection ; thorax closely punctured, posterior portion 
of disc smooth ; elytra very closely punctured, dull, with the shouldervS and 
a common round space towards base smooth and shining ; this space is 
bounded by the fourth dorsal stria which is fine, and there is no trace of 
any smooth space outside the stria as in 8. iminuiidus ; the other dorsal 
strife are obsolete ; anterior tibise with 6-7 teeth, of which the anterior 
three or four are the strongest. L. 3-3 1 mm. 

In dung, carcases, &c. ; rare; Barmouth; Liverpool district (common on the sand- 
hills) ; Wallasey; Southport ; Blackpool; Lancaster sands; Scotland, rare. Forth 
district (Paisley). 

S. mstallicus, Herbst. The smallest of our species; short oval, 
rather convex ; of a dark obscure green metallic colour, rarely brown ; 
thorax rugosely punctured, with the posterior part of the disc smooth ; 
elytra with well-marked crenulate striae, rather finely punctured, the 
punctuation scarcely reaching to middle ; first dorsal stria of elytra 
almost reaching apex ; legs brown or reddish, anterior tibiae strongly 
dilated, with four large blunt teeth, sometimes with a trace of a fiftli. 
L. 3|-3i mm. 

In dung, carcases, &c. ; confined to sandy places near the coast; rare; Deal; 
Camber sand-hills, Hastings, not uncommon ; Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

S. rug-ifrons, Payk. (metaUiciis, Steph.). Larger tlian the preced- 
ing, of a leather light greenish metallic coloiir or black ; antennae and legs 
pitchy-black or brownish ; thorax strongly punctured with posterior 
part of disc smooth ; elytra rather strongly punctured, the punctuation 
reaching beyond middle, anterior tibise moderately dilated, with six 
rather sharp teeth which become gradually stronger to apex and are 
usually of a lighter colour than the tibia3 ; in this and in other 
species examples occasionally occur in which the teeth are worn 
almost fiat or partially coalesce, and thus cause confusion ; fifth dorsal 
stria of elytra abbreviated. L. 3-4 mm. 

In dung, carcase", &c. ; both inland and on the coast ; local ; Southend ; Dovers- 
court; Harwich; Yarmouth; Deal; Lowestoft; Bristol; Swansea; Barmouth; 
Hunstanton ; New Forest ; Sherwood Forest ; South Shields. 

S. maritisnus, Steph. (salitilostif!, Fairm.). Larger than the 
preceding, black, occasionally brownish ; forehead smooth ; thorax 



S'(^ri7lUS.] CLAYICOKKIA. 213 

almost impiinctate except for an interrupted row of punctures close to 
base ; elytra with very strong punctured striae, strongly punctured 
from apex to beyond middle, sides iinpunctate ; ]>ygidium moderately 
strongly punctured ; anterior tibii\3 dilated, with three large and two 
or three smaller teeth. L. 3|-4:| mm. 

In dung, &c. ; widely distributed on the English coast from the Xortlimubcrland 
and Dui-ham district on the East, to Liverpool and Manchester on the West ; 
Stockton-on-Tees; Spurn Point; Hunstanton, Norfolk; Yarmouth; Harwich; 
Southend; Margate; Hastings; Southsea ; Hayling Island ; Weymouth; Port and ; 
Plymouth; Penzance; Barmouth; Isle of Man; Liverpool district; it is, how- 
ever, somewhat local, and is very rare in Scothmd, where it has occurred in the Forth 
district only. 

In a note in the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, vol. xxiii., p. 16, 
there is a reference made to a specimen of S. x>i'cscox, which Avas supposed 
to have been taken in Oxfordshire by the Rev. A. INIatthews, but 
which requires corroboration as the species appears to inhabit Egypt ; 
the specimen is superficially very like Gnathoncus punctulatus, the most 
evident distinction being a generic one, viz. that in GnatJioncus 
the prosternum in front has its marginal striae suddenly converging, 
thus being lanceolate, while in Sapriiius the same lines gradually meet, 
so tliat the ridge of the prosternum is pointed. 

TISRETRIUS, Erichson. 

This genus contains about twenty species, which are very widely 
distributed, representatives occurring in Egypt, South Africa, Madagascar, 
Peru, Guatemala, North America, &c. ; four species are found in Europe, 
one of which occurs in Britain ; they are remarkable for their cylindri- 
cal form, and have the elytra wholly punctured with very short oblique 
striae at sides which are sometimes obsolete ; they are found in wood, 
and they appear to be parasitic on certain wood-boring beetles, in the 
same way that Colydium elongatum is parasitic on l^latypus cylindrus ; 
our single species is very rare. 

T. picipes, F. Pitch-black, or dark pitchy-brown, cylindrical, 
truncate, entirely covered Avith distinct, moderately close punctuation ; 
head rather large, forehead convex, without stria or impression ; an- 
tennae ferruginous, or reddish-testaceous, inserted on the border of the 
forehead between the eyes ; thorax rather long, with an entire marginal 
stria ; elytra raised at suture, truncate at apex, with a slight impression 
on each at base, without apparent striae ; pygidium semicircular, much 
reflexed ; prosternimi emarginate behind, receiving the mesosternum, 
which is pointed ; anterior tibiae much dilated at apex, denticrdate. L. 
1|-2| mm. 

Under bark ; sometimes found on the wing or on walls ; very rare ; Forest 
Hill ; Camberwell, Peckham, Sliirley ; Stephens gives Xorwicii, Swansea, and Biistol 
as localities ; Mr. S. Stevens took a considerable number in 1878-9 from railings at 
Upper Norwood, in company with Tillus unifa^ciatus and Lyctus brunneus. 



214 CLAVicoRNiA. [Pletjadevus. 

PZiECS-ASSRUS, Ei-ichson. 

This genus contains nine or ten European species, and a few from 
Korlli and Central America, &c. ; one only is found in Eritain ; they 
inhabit rotten wood, and are sometimes found in old trees in company 
with ants ; our single species, and the majority of the others, may 
easily be known by the deep transverse furrow which appears to divide 
the thorax into two parts. 

P. dissectiis, Er. Oval, rather depressed, pitch-black, shining, 
irregularly and diffusely punctured, the punctuation being plainly hner 
on the thorax than on the elytra ; head small, antennae and legs reddish ; 
thorax rather long, divided into two equal, separately convex portions 
by a deep transverse furrow, lateral striaj very strong ; elytra dilated at 
shoulders, with two well-marked oblique strice, suture raised ; anterior 
tibiaa much dilated and spinulose at apex. L. 1-1 2 mm. 

In old decaving trees aud logs ; very rare; Hampstead (Waterhonse) ; New Forest 
(Blatch) ; Salford Priors (Biatcb) j Sherwood Forest (Matthews, Blatch, aud others) 

AB£l.^1JS, Leach. 

About sixteen or twenty species are comprised in this genus, eight 
of vhich are found in Europe, while the remainder are widely dis- 
tributed, representatives occurring in South Africa, India, Ceylon, &c. ; 
they are distinguished from Acritus, which they much resemble in 
general apjjearance, by having all the tarsi 6-jointed ; they are also, as a 
rule, of larger size ; they are found in rotten Avood, or in fungi on old 
trees and stumps. 

I. Anterior tibia) angularly dilated in middle, truncate oblique- 
ly at apex, and with a small tooth before apex A. globosus, Soff. 

II. Anterior tibiae dilated and rouuded, without tooth before 

apex A. GEANULTTM, JSr. 

A. g-lobosus, Hoff. Suborbicular, globose, of a ferruginous brown 
colour, shining, antennas and legs pitchy-red, club of former testaceous ; 
head and thorax rather finely and closely punctured, elytra somewhat 
strongly and sparingly punctured, the latter with a rather distinct 
oblique dorsal stria ; anterior tibi?e strongly dilated and angled in mid- 
dle, Avith a small tooth before apex ; mesosternum obliquely truncate 
on both sides in front, produced in middle, L. 1^-1 o mm. 

In rotteu wood of beech, ash, &c. ; local but not uncommon ; Chatham, Woking, 
Abbey Wood, Cobham Park, West Wickham, Mickleham (in nests oi Formica f idi- 
ffinosa), &c. ; Ultiug, Essex ; Windsor; Salford Priors ; Sherwood Forest ; Repton ; 
Scarborough ; Manchester ; not recorded from the extreme northern couuties of 
Euglaud ; Scotland, very rare. Forth aud Dee districts, 

A. granulum, Er. A^ery like the preceding, but distinguished by 
the closer and stronger punctuation, and by the fact that the anterior 



AbrcEUS.'] CLAVICORNIA. 215 

tiljii\3 are simply rounded and not angled, and have no small tooth before 
apex ; the prosternum and mesosternum are both thickly and strongly 
punctured ; the size also is distinctly smaller. L. 1 mm.j 

In rotten wood, &c. ; very rare; Waltbanistow, Essex (Jiiuson) ; Cambridge 
(Crotch) J Salford Priors, iu rotten ash tree (Blatch). 

ACRITUS, Leconte. 

This gejius contains upwards of forty or fifty species, of which about 
a dozen occur in Europe ; the remainder are found in North and South 
America, and two or three have been recorded from Asia Minor, Cuba, 
&c. ; one or two species have been separated off under the genus Aelefes, 
Horn, as having no visible scutellum, this part being distinct in the 
genus Acritus proper ; the members of the genus have the posterior 
tarsi 4-jointed ; our three British species may be distinguished as fol- 
lows : — 

I. Form rather long, subquadrangular ; upper surftxee 

diffusely punctured A pdnctum, Auhe. 

II. Form oval or suborbicular ; punctuation rather close. 
i. Thorax without a distinct transverse impressed line 
before scutellum ; prosternum shorter, truncate behind ; 

anterior tibiae scarcely visibly dilated at apex ... A. minutUS, Serhst. 
ii. Thorax with a distinct transverse impressed line before 
scutellum ; prosternum more elongate, slightly emar- 
ginate behind ; anterior tibiae slightly dilated at apex . A. nigeicoenis, Soff. 

A. punctum, Aube. Eatlier elongate, subquadrangular, of a dark 
brown or brownish-red colour, upper surface rather finely and diffusely 
punctured ; antennas and legs lighter or darker red ; thorax rather large, 
with sides almost parallel, without impressed line before base ; elytra 
subparallel with the suture somewhat raised, and a rather well-marked 
oblique dorsal stria ; anterior tibi^ finely denticulate and somewhat 
dilated towards apex ; prosternum emarginate, double as broad in front 
as behind, mesosternum rounded in front. L. f-lj mm. 

In vegetable refuse, &c., chiefly on the coast ; very local ; first taken on the Chesil 
Bank by Mr. Crotch and Dr. Sharp more than twenty years ago, aud lately found in 
numbers by Mr. J. J. Walker in the same locality by digging small holes as traps 
just above high-water mark on warm sunny afternoons ; it has also been taken by Mr. 
Crotch at Weston-super-Mare, aud by Mr. Walker at Hayling Island. 

A. minutus, Herbst. Oval, suborbicular, not very convex, shining 
pitch-brown, antennae brown with the club ferruginous or reddish ; 
forehead smooth, thorax thickly and very finely punctured, con- 
siderably narrowed in front, with a transverse line of punctures at base, 
but without a distinct impressed line before scutellum ; elytra finely 
and closely punctured at base, more sparingly behind, almost smooth at 
apex, with traces of rudimentary strias at base ; prosternum shorter, 
truncate behind ; anterior tibiae scarcely visibly dilated. L. f-1 mm. 



215 CLAv-icoENiA, [Acntus. 

In manure-lipaps, vegetable refuse, &o. ; common and generally disSrlbutcd from 
Yorkshire Fonthwards ; rarer further north ; somewhat doubtful as Scottish ; the 
AbrcBus nigricornis of Murray's catahigue, recorded from Ilaehills, is probably this 
specius. 

A. nigricornis, Hoff. Smaller than the preceding species, from 
which it may he known hy its finer punctuation, and the more distinctly 
impressed line hefore scutellum, but more especially hy the subquadrate or 
pentagonal form of the mesosternum, which has the marginal stria divid- 
ing at each anterior angle, and hy the more elongate prosternujp, Avhich 
is slightly emarginate behind ; the anterior tibia3 also are slightly dilated 
at apex ; the club of the antennas is variable in colour, and often scarcely 
dilfers from that of the preceding species, so that the character often 
ii.ssigned to this species of having dark antenna?, from which, in fact, it 
takes its name, is quite an untrustworthy one ; both species also often 
present traces of fine strife on elytra, which some authors affirm to be only 
present in A. nigricornis. L. f mm. 

In manure-heaps, &c. ; Crystal Palace on the windows (Wateihouse) ; Spridling- 
ton, Ijincolnshiie (V/ollaston); Repton, in fungi, very scarce (Garneys) ; the species 
iippear to be generally confused and mixed in our collections, and it must be admitted 
that the various published descriptions are in many cases unsatisfactory and eveu 
couti'adictory. 

OKTKOPKZXi'US, Leach. 

The total number of species that have been described in this genus is 
ninteen ; four of these are found in Europe, and the remainder are 
recorded from North America, India, Zanzibar, South Africa, &c. ; they 
are very remarkable for their peculiar sulcate sculpture and dull appear- 
ance ; the only other known member of the Histeridse that presents the 
same sculpture and appearance is Hister costatus from Mexico, Avhich has 
been already alluded to. Mr. George Lewis says with regard to this 
genus, " Tlie genus Onthophilus is a very interesting one, as the chitin of 
the exoskeleton is exceedingly opaque, and evidently less pure than in 
the other genera of the Histeridae ;-and although some of the species, 
such as sulcatus, are beautifully engraved above, the substructure is, as 
it were, roughly hewn, and the nieso- and metasternal plates, as well txs 
the abdominal segments, are coarsely wrought at the sutures " (Annals 
and Mag. of Nat. Hist., Sept. 188.5) : the upper surface is raised in strong 
keels, and the legs are long and slender ; the lobe of the prosternum is 
present, but is very short, so that the genus can hardly be classed with 
either the Hister or the Saprinns group. Our two British species may 
be separated as follow^s :— 

I. Thorax with five raised keels, the central one double and 
interrupted, the spaces between them being coarsely 

punctured ; size larger 0. globttlosus, 01. 

{sulcatus, F.) 
II. Thorax with six' raised keels, the spaces between them 

being longitudiualiy rugose; size smaller 0. STElATCrs, F. 



Ontlwphihts.'] claticornia, 217 

O. globulostis, 01. {sulcatus, F.). Oval, suborLieular,- Llack, sliglitly 
shining ; head small, antennse comparatively long and slender, reddish- 
brown, forehead concave ; thorax with a central keel, which is double 
and interrupted, and two others on each side, abbreviated in front, the 
interval between them being filled with large coarse punctures ; elytra 
very convex, narrowed at apex, with suture raised, and three strong keels 
on each, the intervals between these being each filled with five slightly 
raised lines, of which the central is the most distinct ; legs pitchy- 
brown, rather long and slender ; pygidium plainly punctured. L. 3-3-|- 
mm. 

In dunof, decayiug vegetable refusp,-&c. ; apparently very rare ; I have uot heard 
of its having been taken in Britain for many years ; Stephens records it from Coombe 
Wood (Surrey), Nottinghamshire, Norfolk, and Kiugsbridge (Devon). 

O. striatiis, F. Much smaller than the preceding, and easily dis- 
tinguished by having six distinct raised keels on thorax, the intervals 
between which are longitudinally wrinkled ; the space betAveen the outer- 
most keel and the margin is riigosely punctured ; each of the elytra is 
furnished with three strong raised keels, and three rather smaller ones, 
so that there appear to be six on each, and the spaces Ijetween are filled 
with small raised lines, and are remotely and coarsely punctured in single 
rows ; pygidium and propygidium Avith raised lines, closely punctured. 
L. lf-2imm. 

In dung, haystack, and vegetable refuse, birds' nests, kc. ; common and generally 
distributed in England and Scotland ; Ireland, near Dublin, Watei'ford, Belfast, &c., 
and probably common. 

MICROPEPLID^. 

The position of this family has been much disputed ; it has usually 
been placed at the end of the Staphylinidse, but seems to present but 
little afl&nity to that family ; Thomson places it between the Eyturidaj 
and the Dermestidas, which hardly seems a good position ; as a matter 
of fact the true affinities of the family are by no means known, but the 
position here assigned to it between Onthophilas on the one hand, and 
the Nitidulidee on the other (to certain members of wdiich latter family 
the species bear a considerable resemblance), seems as good a one as can 
be assigned to it in the present state of our knowledge ; the family in- 
cludes two genera, MicrojyejAus and Kalissus, the former of which has 
the thorax, elytra, and abdomen strongly costate, whereas the latter is 
smooth and not costate ; in both genera the antennae are apparently 9- 
jointed and the tarsi 3-jointed, and the anterior coxae are transverse and 
not prominent ; the second ventral segment is dilated in the middle and 
separates the hind coxae. 

SXXCROPSiPXiUS, Latreille. 
This genus contains rather more than twenty species, which arc found 



218 CLAVicoRKiA. [lUicrojjejjlus. 

in Europe, Northern Asia, Japan, and North America, and one has recently 
been described from Guatemala ; they may at once be distinguished by 
their short elytra and by the peculiar ribbed appearance of the whole 
upper surface of the body, and also by their short antennte which termi- 
nate in what appears to be a single-jointed club ; it is, however, obsoletely 
3-jointed, and therefore the antennae must be regarded as 11 -jointed, and 
notj as they are by Kraatz and other authors, as 9-jointed ; the tarsi are 
3-jointed; our species are found in haystack and vegetable refuse, by 
sweeping, &c., and occasionally in mud in marshy places ; Thomson says 
that they live almost exclusively in mud by the side of lakes and streams, 
and that he has never taken them in refuse. In the male the seventh 
ventral segment of hind body is emarginate at apex, 

I. Interstices of elytra strongly and coarsely punc- 

tured. 

i. Elytra with five longitudinal lines on each 
strongly raised (the outer ones somewhat ir- 
regular), suture less strongly raised . . . . M. poecatuS, Fayh. 

ii. Elytra with suture and four lines on each strongly 
raised. 

1. Vertex of head with one raised longitudinal 

line M. staphtlinoides, Marsh. 

2. Vertex of head with three raised longitudinal 

lines, converging in front M. maegaeit^, Duv. 

II. Interstices of elytra smooth ; tlytra with suture 

and three longitudinal lines on each strongly 

raised M. tesseeula, Curt. 

XVI. porcatus, Payk. Black, dull ; head small, strongly rugose, with 
a raised line on vertex ; antennse dark with base reddish, sometimes with 
club only dark ; thorax transverse, with sides angulated, deeply im- 
pressed, extremely finely rugose or shagreened, posterior angles sharp ; 
elytra much longer than thorax with five raised lines on each (besides 
suture), the outer ones irregular, interstices strongly punctured ; first four 
visible segments of abdomen divided into deep squares by longitudinal 
ribs ; legs lighter or darker red with femora pitchy. L. 2 mm. 

In haystack and vegetahle refuse ; local; London di:-trict not uncommon, Seven- 
oaks, Farnham, Mickleluun, Birch Wood, Forest Hill, Reigate, Claygate, &c. ; Hast- 
ings ; Gliiuvilles Wootton ; Devonshire ; Swansea ; Repton ; Nottinghamshire ; 
Liverpool; Chat Moss ; York; Carlisle; Northumberland district; Scotland, Low- 
lands, not common, Solway and Forth districts; Ii-eland, Portmarnock. 

m. staphylinoides, Marsh (ohtusus, Newm.). About the length 
of 31. porcatus, but rather narrower, pitchy-brown, often reddish, with 
the head and middle of thorax and hind body darker; the antennae and 
legs are clear testaceous ; the vertex of head is furnished with one longi- 
tudinal raised line ; the elytra have four lines on each besides the suture 
strongly raised ; the first three visible segments of the abdomen are 
divided into squares by longitudinal ribs, but the central rib is extended 
at least to the middle of the fourth ; in the male the front of the head 
is toothed. L. 2 mm. 



Micropeplus.'] clavicornia. ^19 

lu haystack refuse, mos5, fungi, etc. ; occasionally by evening sweeping ; not un- 
counnon and widely distributed throughout the kingdom. 

1*1. marg-aritae, Duv. (fiilims, Er., var.). Black, brownish-black, 
or reddish ; very closely allied to the preceding, with which it was for 
many years mixed in collections, until INIr. Gorham in 18G1 pointed out 
the differences ; its elytra are longer, and it is less parallel-sided ; the 
vertex of the head is furnished with three raised lines which converge in 
front, and the apical margin of the forehead is very sharply toothed in 
male ; the central raised ridge of the abdomen is only continued on the 
fourth visible segment as an inconspicuous tubercle. L. 2 mm. 

Found under the same circumstances as the preceding, and apparently commoner 
in England; Scotland, rare, Forth district; not recorded from Ireland, but it is 
probably common in tiiat country. 

M. tesserula, Curt. Yery much smaller than the other species, 
and easily distinguished by the smooth and impunctale interstices of the 
elytra, which are very finely shagreened ; the antennae are dark Avith the 
base red, and the legs are red ; the elytra have only three raised lines on 
each besides the suture ; only the first three visible segments of the ab- 
domen are divided by ribs, and the fourth is slightly raised in the centre ; 
the ribs, however, are not nearly so strongly marked as in the other 
species. L. Ij- 1| rnm. 

In marshy places, on mud, also by sweeping ; rare; Fen districts of Cambridge- 
shire, &c. ; Sherwood Forest (I once took a siDecimen by evening sweeping in a broad 
ride far from any water as far as I could see) ; Grange, Lancashire ; Scotland, Low- 
lands, very rare, Clyde district (Paisley, Morris Young). 

NITIDULIDiE. 

This family contains about a hundred genera, some of which comprise 
a large number of species ; they are widely distributed throughout the 
world both in temperate and tropical countries ; the position and extent 
of the family is difficult to determine ; the genera and species vary very 
much in structure and habitat, and probably several sub-families will 
eventually be divided off as separate ; there is no doubt that the Niti- 
dulidse have a connection with the Silphidse ; on the other hand, how- 
ever, through Ijys and Kliizophagns, they closely approach the 
Trogositidse ; in fact Erichson classed the latter family with the 
Nitidulida^, but they are separated off as a distinct family by the different 
plan of structure of the maxillai and tarsi. As a whole, perhaps, the 
Nitidulidffi come in best between the Histeridse, to which in many ways 
they bear a close relation, and the Trogositida? ; and if the aberrant genus 
Micropeplus is to be removed from the Staphylinidie, as seems necessary, 
to the neighbourhood of the Nitidulidse, it cannot be better placed than 
immediately after the Histeridee, as a connecting link between OntliopMlus 
and the brachypterous genera of the Nitidulidas. The chief characters 



220 CLAVICORNIA. \_N'didulid(B. 

of the family and many details regarding different genera will be found 
discussed at length in the papers by myself on " The Nitidulidse of Great 
Britain " published in the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, yoIs. xxi. 
and xxii. ; many of the characters are very variable in the different 
genera ; the antennae, however, invariably terminate in a club which is 
usually 3-jointed, but sometimes apparently solid, the eleventh joint 
being Avholly or partially enclosed in the tenth (as in Ehi':ophagus); as 
a rule the club is strong, round, and compact, but in some genera is 
rather loose, or occasionall}^ (as in Cercus) somewhat elongate and feebly 
capitate ; the anterior coxce are transverse and cylindrical ; the abdomen 
has live free ventral segments ex:cept in a few genera in Avhich a sixth 
small dorsal segment is present in the males ; the legs as a rule are 
short and stout, and sometimes strongly retractile ; the tarsi are 5-jointed 
in both sexes, except in two or three exotic tribes, and in the Ehizo- 
phagina^ in which they are heteromerous in the male ; the fourth joint is 
very small, and the first three are usually broad, and clothed on the 
under-side with fine silky hairs. 

The family may be divided into the following six tribes; — 

I. Antennae 11-jointed, terminated by a 3-jointed club; tarsi 

with an equal number of joints, similar in both sexes, ia 
the British families always pentamerous. 
i. Labium free, more or less visible. 

1. Maxillfe with two lobis; antennae with an elongate and 
feebly capitate club, abdomen with two segments 

exposed BEACHYPTERlIfA. 

2. Maxillae with one lobe ; antenuaj with a strong, round, 

compact club 

A. Thorax fitting closely to elytra and not covering their 

base. 

a. Abdomen with two segments exposed" Caepophilina. 

b. Abdomen covered, or only apex of pygidium ex- 
posed NiTIDULlNA. 

B. Thorax covering the base of elytra CycHitAMiNA. 

ii. Labrum connate with the front, suture more or less distinct. Ipina. 

II. Antennae apparently 10-jointed, with the club solid, the 
eleventh joint being merged in the tenth ; tarsi dissimilar in 

the sexes, heteromerous in the males, 5-jointed in the females . Rhizophagina, 

BRACHYPTERmA. 

The members of this tribe may be distinguished by their elongate 
club, bilobed maxillae, and very short and feeble antennal grooves, which 
are not visible below the eyes, as well as by the feebly capitate club 
of the antennas ; it contains a few genera, some of which are further 
subdivided by different authors ; our two British genera may be dis- 
tinguished as follows : — • 

I. Claws plainly toothed at base; male with a distinct extra 

anal segment Bkachypteeus, Kug. 

II. Claws not, or hardly, visibly toothed ; male with an in- 
distinct extra anal segment Cercus, Latr. 



Braclujpterus.'] clavicornia, 221 

BaACHlTPTSS-US, Kug(?lanii. 

Tliis genus, taken in its M'idest sense as including Heterostmnus, Duv., 
BracliyJeptus, Mots,, and Brachyptenis, i. sp., contains abont thirty or 
forty species, ^vhicll are widely distributed throughout the world, repre- 
sentatives occurring in the Atlantic Islands, South Africa, North an<l 
Central America, Australia, &c.; seventeen species occur in Europe, of 
which three are found in Britain ; externally they much resemble 
Meligethes, from which they may at once be known by having the last 
segments of the abdomen exposed antl not covered by the elytra. 

I. Size lai-fjcr ; elytra about one-third longer than thorax . B, GRAVIDUS, 7Z/. 
II. Size smaller ; elytra nearly twice as long as thorax. 

i. Colour ka'len black ; legs aud antennas pitchy .... B. PUBESCENS, ^r. 

ii. Colour reddish- brown ; legs and antenna) rufous . . . B. TXRtic^, Ku(j. 

S. gravidns, 111. (Caferetes pidicarlus, Gyll. ; linarke, Steph. ; 
Heterostomiis gravidns l)uv.). Convex, rather broad, of a dull black 
colour, clothed with brownish grey pubescence, upper surface very 
closely punctured ; antennae red ; thorax almost broader than elytra, 
"with sides rounded and narrowed in front, base bisinuate, posterior 
angles somewhat projecting ; scutellum large, triangular; elytra a third 
longer than thorax ; legs red, intermediate and posterior pairs often 
blackish. L. 2f-3 mm. 

Local, but not uncommon in many districts ; on the common toad-flax, ii^Kyr/fZ 
TitJgaris ; London district, r:ither common; Chatham, Micklclusm, Chobham, 
Belvedere, Shiere, Reigate ; Maidstone; Brandon, Snliblk ; Birchiiigton ; Dover; 
Deal; Folkestone; Southampton; Winchester; Porilaud ; Burwell Fen ; IVyford, 
near Eepton ; Hunstanton; Wallasey, Cheshire; Northumberland district, Hetton 
Hall, near Be. ford ; not recorded from Scotland. 

In the European catalogue of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise, B. gravidus, 
111., and B. linarke, Steph., are given as separate species ; we certainly 
do not possess more than one species of the sub-genus Heterostomus as 
British, and Erichson and other authors have always considered them 
identical. 

S< pubsscens, Er. {Catpvetes uriicce, var a., 111. ; glalcr, Newm.). 
Much smaller than the preceding ; leaden black, with legs and antennge 
pitchy ; thorax about as broad as elytra, plainly transverse, truncate in 
front and behind, rather thickly punctured, posterior angles bluntly 
rounded ; scutellum semicircular, j^^uctured ; elytra nearly twice as 
long as thorax, rather thickly punctured ; legs rather long. L. 2 mm. 

Generally distributed and common throughout the midland and southern districts 
of England, but le.^s common further north ; Scotland, rare, Solway district ; it is 
found chiefly on nettles. 

S. urticse, Kug. Very like the preceding, bnt easily distinguished 
by its reddish-brown colour, and thinner pubescence, which causes it to 
appear more shiny ; the legs and antennas are rufous ; the elytra arc 



222 CLAVICORNIA. [Brachjptenis. 

rather longer in proportion to the thorax, and the punctuation is rather 
stronger. L. 2 mm. 

Generall}^ distributed and common on nettles in flower throughout England and 
Scotland, and probably Ireland; in the midland and southern districts of England, 
however, it appears to be not quite as abundant as B. pubescens. 

CERCUS, Latrcille. 

This genus contains upwards of twenty species, which are found in 
Europe, Algeria, Siberia, and North America ; three occur in Britain, 
the first two of which differ considerably from the third, and have by 
some authors been placed under a separate genus, Aiunncvocera, Shuck. ; 
Avith regard to the small apical dorsal segment, through the supposed 
absence of which in both sexes this genus is to a great extent separated 
from the preceding, there seems to be a difference of opinion ; Erichson 
expressly says that the pygidium is simple in both sexes ; Thomson 
says, " segmento anali maris baud conspicuo ;" and Dr. Horn says of 
the Brachypterina generally (including Cercus), " the males have a small 
apical dorsal segment ;" as a rule it is very difficult to perceive the extra 
segment, but it appears to be visible in some specimens under a high 
power when the beetle is held in a certain position. 

I, Antennae long; thorax plainly transverse. 

i. Male with the second joint of the antennre strongly 

dilated, triangular ; elytra reddish-testaceous with the 

scutellary region and apex dark C. PEDICUIABIUS, L. 

ii. Male with the second joint of the antennae simple; 

elytra black with two large testaceous spots on disc. C. bipustulat0S, Pat/k. 

II. Antennae short ; thorax nearly as long as broad, 

gradually contracted from base to apex C. eufilabris, Latr. 

C. pedicularius, L. Moderately convex, clothed with very fine 
and thin greyish pubescence, reddish-testaceous, with the scutellary 
region and apex of elytra dark ; in somewhat immature specimens the 
elytra are occasionally entirely reddish-testaceous ; antennae long, second 
joint in male strongly dilated, triangular ; thorax transverse, about as 
broad at base as elytra, with sides strongly rounded, deeply and rather 
thickly punctured, posterior angles rounded ; elytra about double as long 
as thorax, rather strongly punctured ; breast blackish ; legs reddish- 
testaceous. L. H-2| mm. 

Marshy places; on Spircea ulmaria (meadow-sweet), Carex paniculata, &c. ; 
local but occasionally abundant where it occurs; London distrif^t, not common, 
Greenhithe, Aylsham, &c. ; Brandon; Maidstone; Hastings; Isle of Wight, common 
in a marshy place near Sandown in April on Carex ; Glanvilles Woottou ; Plymouth ; 
Barmouth; Bepton ; Sutton Park and Solihull near Birmingham; Chat Moss; 
Northumberland district; Scotland, very rare, Tweed and Forth districts; Ireland, 
near Dublin. 

C bipustulatuSi Paj/Jc. Very like the preceding, but not so 
strongly and rather more thickly punctured ; elytra black, with two 
large testaceous snots on disc; colour, however, very variable, sometimes 



Cercus.'] CLAVicoRNiA. 223 

entirely roddisli-iestaccous ; in douLtful cases the species may be 
distinguished by the simple second joint of the antennre of the male ; 
single female specimens of the two species are sometimes difficult to 
determine. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Marshy places ; on Spircea ulmaria, Ji^pilohiiim, Carex paniciclafa, &c. ; it has 
also occurred ill Co.•-•>^^s• burrows in Sherwood Forest; local but oecasioniilly abundant 
where it occurs ; London district, rather common, Snodhmd (Kent), Cooinbe Wood, 
Aylsham, &c. ; Ambeiley ; Maidstone ; VVingliam, near Sandwicli ; Glanvilles VVoottoii ; 
Devon; Wicken Feu, Cambridge ; Solihull, Knowle, Leamington, Repton and other 
midland localities; Noctoii, near Lincoln; Witliington, Cheshire; Manchester; 
Scarborough ; Northumberland district ; Scotland, recorded by Murray as "occasional," 
but Dr. Sharp says that he does not know of its occurrence. 

C. rufilabris, Latr. Smaller than average specimens of either of 
the two preceding, more elongate and less convex, clothed "with very 
thin and fine pubescence ; colour very variable, varying from almost 
black with mouth parts red, to entirely reddish-testaceous ; head small, 
finely and very thickly punctured, antennte short, very much shorter 
than in the preceding species ; thorax almost as long as broad at base 
where it is almost as broad as elytra, narrowed from base to apex, deeply 
and rather thickly punctured, with all the angles bluntly rounded ; 
elytra thickly and strongly punctured ; legs and mouth parts always red. 
L. l|-2 mm. 

Marshy places, on various plants, often on reeds and rushes ; common and gene- 
r lly distributed in the London district, and the southern and midland districts of 
England ; rarer further north, and not recorded from Scotland. 

Between the Brachypterina and the Carpophilina come several im- 
portant genera which are not represented in Europe, and occur almost 
solely in the tropics ; among these may be mentioned Colastus, Drachy- 
jieplus, and Conotelus, each of which contains a larger number of species, 
and the curious genera Calonecrus, Cillceus, Itlii/phenes, and Ortho- 
gramma. 

CARPOPHILINA. 

The members of tliis tribe are distinguished from the Brachypterina 
by their compact clul), unilobed maxillaj, and the very evident grooves 
for the reception of the antennae ; they are chiefly confined to the single 
genus Carjpophilus. 

CARFOPHIZiTTS, Leach. 

This genus comprises about a hundred species, which are widely dis- 
tributed throughout the world, but occur chiefly in tropical countries ; 
only seven species occur in Europe, and several of these are probably 
introduced ; three have been found in Britain. 

The larva of C. hemijjterus is described by Perris, Larvcs des Coleopteres, p. 45 ; it 
very closely resembles that of Ips quadripunctata, of which he gives a full description 
(p. 43), and chiefly differs in being rather more curved, and in having the last 
abdominal segment slightly different. 



224: CLAVicoRNiA. \_Cari)0]^hllus. 

I. Elytra spotted with yellow. 

i. Thorax narrowed io front and widened beliind ; elytra 

' scarcely longer than thorax . C. HEMIPTEstJS, L. 

ii. Thorax narrowed in front and hehind ; elytra twice as 

long as thorax C. sexpusttjlatus, F. 

II. Elytra without spots C. mutilatds, Er. 

C. hemipterus, L. {flexuosus, Payk. ; pictus, Heer). Eather stoutly 
built, short and convex, with rather thick pubescence, black or pitchy- 
black, somewhat dull, elytra with a yellow spot at shoulder, and another 
at apex which sometimes wholly, somsitimes partially^ covers their 
apical half ; head small, thickly punctured ; thorax nai-rowed in front, 
as broad at base as elytra, thickly punctured, with all the angles rounded; 
.scutellum rather large, punctured; elytra scarcely longer than thorax, 
thickly, and in the middle almost rugosely, punctured ; legs red. L. 
2i-3 mm. 

In sugar, preserved figs and otlier dried fruits, grain, and other provisions ; a 
cosmopolitan species that has been spread by commerce over a great portion of the 
world; it has occurred ill many of our large towns; Dr. Power, however, informed 
me that Turner once brought him four specimens alive, which he had taken with 
JSngis humeralis in Cossm* burrows in Dulvvich Wood ; Dr. Power bad himself taken 
Sllvanus, Trogosita, and other species usually considered as introduced and not 
indigenous, under bark in the open country, but believed that all of them had 
probably wandered from some other locality. 

(C. sexpustulatus, F. (ahbreviafvs, Taiiz.). Long and flat, narrow, 
rather shiny, very sparingly pubescent ; colour reddish-brown ; elytra 
parallel- sided, with two plain impressions on each, and three yellowish 
spots, one at shoulder, which is often obscure, a more distinct one in 
middle, and a third at apex, usually ol)scure, sometimes almost invisible ; 
the thorax is a little narrower than the elytra, and is rounded at the 
sides and narrowed in front and behind, so that it appears to be sub- 
orbicular ; the antennas are reddish-brown with blackish club, and the 
legs are red. L. 2-3 mm. 

In dried fruits, &c. ; only two or three British examples are known, and these are 
undoubtedly importations. 

C. mutilatusj Er. (hemipterus, F., nee L.). Considerably narrower 
in proportion than C. hemipterus, L., but broader than C. sexpustulatus ; 
thorax quadrate, hardly broader at base than at apex, sides very slightly 
rounded ; elytra not much longer than thorax ; head reddish, thorax 
and abdomen darker, pitchy-red, or l)lackish ; elytra rufescent, Avithout 
spots, apical angles and region round scutellum more or less broadly 
darker; legs red. L. 2-2^ mm. 

Taken in considerable numbers by the late Mr. T. R. Hardy at the bottom of old 
wheat-stacks in the neighbourhood of Manchester, and also sparingly, as he informed 
nie, in Cossus burrows in Sherwood Forest ; in Dr. Power's collectiou are two speci- 
mens which were found in corn which had probably been imported. 



Nitidiilina.'] clavicornia. 22r) 

NITIDTJLINA. 

This tribe contains tlie majority of the European genera and species 
which belong to the family, two of the genera, Epurica and Mdigethes, 
being of considerable extent in point of numbers ; its members are 
distinguished from those of the preceding tribe by having the abdomen 
entirely or almost entirely covered by the elytra, and from the Cychra- 
mina, to which they bear a close relation, by having the thorax fitting 
closely to the base of the elytra and not covering it. With the exception 
of Stelidota, Ipidia, and Xenostrongylus, all the European genera are 
represented in Britain. 

I. Prosternum depressed beliind auterior coxsd, not pro- 

duced. 
i. Antenual grooves convergent, tlie convergence varying 
in degree. 

1, All the tarsi more or less dilated ; disc of thorax 

without impressions. 

A. Labrum bilolied ; abdomen of male with an extra 

dorsal segment. 

a. Thorax widely margined. 

a*. Posterior legs approaching one another . . Epuejja, JUr. 

b*. Posterior legs considerably separated , . . Omosiphoea, liei/'er. 

b. Thorax with hardly perceptible margins . . . MiCKUaULA,* Reitier. 

B. Labrum only feebly emargiuate ; abdomen of male 

without extra segment Nitidtjia, F. 

2. Tarsi not dilated ; disc of thorax with impressions . Soronia, Er. 
ii. Anteunal grooves parallel, or nearly so. 

1. First joint of antennse very strongly dilated; man- 
dibles bifid at apex Ampuotis, Er. 

2. First joint of antenuEe moderately thickened ; man- 
dibles not bifid, but with a strong tooth about a third 

from apex Omosita, Er. 

II. Prosternum produced behind. 

i. Head without, or with very indistinct, antennal grooves; 
tarsi dilated. 

1. All the tibias simple Peia, Kirbt/. 

2. Front tibiaa simple; hinder pairs of tibiae furnished 

with spines Thalycea, Er. 

ii. Head with distinct antennal grooves. 

1. Tarsi not dilated; front tibiaj simple, produced into 

a strong point externally at apex Pocadius, Er, 

2. Tarsi all dilated; front tibias more or less strongly 

and very variably toothed externally Meligethes, Kirly. 

EPURSA, Erichson. 

This genus comprises about seventy species, Avhich are widely distri- 
buted ; the majority occur in cold and temperate regions, but represen- 
tatives have been recorded from Madagascar and South Africa, Ceylon, 
Tahiti, Chili, Java, &c. ; more than thirty are found in Europe, of which 

* Previously Micruria; cf. Wiener, Ent. Zeitung, iii. 209 (August, 1881) 
VOL. HI. Q 



-26 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Epurcea. 

sixteen occur in Britain ; many of the species are difficult to determine ; 
some of them are very distinct, so much so that they have been held to 
form separate genera ; two of these, Omosiphora and Micriirula, have 
been adopted above, and with almost as much reason a third might be 
introduced — Dadojwra, Thoms. — to include E, decemguttata and E. 
diffusa ; other species, however, come exceedingly close to one another, 
and it is almost impossible to distinguish them except by comparing 
them with authentic types ; the table, therefore, given below must be 
regarded as merely provisional ; all the species are more or less testaceous 
or reddish in colour, and the males have a distinct extra abdominal seg- 
ment ; in size aiid colour the same species is often very variable, and this 
occasions much confusion ; the members of the genus live under bark, 
at flowing sap, and in flowers, and to a certain extent they may be 
separated by their habitat ; this point, however, must not be pressed too 
far, as the flower-frequenting species (e.g. E. floreci) are occasionally 
found at sap. 

The larva of IS. ohsoleta is described and figured by Ferris, Ann. Fr. 1862, 184, 
t. 5, fF., 525-533, and by Bouche, Naturg. des Insekt, p. 188; it does not call for much 
i-ciuMrlv, being linear and somewliat depressed with a roundish head and sliort 4-jointed 
initetnise ; tlie last abdominal segment bears two diverging corneous cerci. 

I. Tibias widely dilated at apex ; intermediate coxre almost 

contiguous ; hind femora in male either furnished 

with a blunt tooth or thickened. (Dadopora, Thoms. ) 

i. Size larger (3|-4: mm.) ; spots on elytra usually well 

marked E. decemguttata, J^. 

ii. Size smaller (2^ mm.) ; spots on elytra more or less 

confluent E. difeusa, Br is. 

II. Tibia3 at most slightly dilated at apex, intermediate 

pair often sinuate in male ; intermediate coxae mode- 
rately separate ; all the femora simple in both sexes. 
{Epurcea, i. sp.) 
i. Upper- and uuder-sides entirely testaceous or rufo- 

testaceous, unicolorous ; disc of thorax not darker 

than the margins. (Occasionally these species have 

a dark spot or two towards the apex of the elytra, 

but this is usually deceptive, being caused by the 

folding of the wings against the semi-transparent 

elytra.) 

1. Species more or less oval and convex ; anterior 

margin of thorax strongly emarginate. 

A. Autennai with the last joint broader than the 

penultimate E. iESTivA, L. 

B. Antenna} with the last joint narrower than the 

penultimate. 
a. Size smaller (3 mm.); punctuation stronger . E. melina, Er. 
h. Size larger (4 mm.) ; punctuation less strong E. silacea, JE'r. 

2. Species strongly oblong ; anterior margin of thorax 

almost straight or only feebly emarginate. 

A. Punctuation extremely fine, almost obsolete . E. oblonga, Herhst. 

B. Punctuation distinct. 

a. Clul) of antennna dark; form more elongate . E. longula, ii>. 

b. Club of antcuntc concolorous ; form shorter . E. florea, Er. 



Enurcpa.] cLAVicoiJNiA. 227 

ii. Uppor-sido spotted or flecked with black, darker 
portions often ill defined ; sometimes the whole 
surface is of a dark rt'd uuicolorous colour, with disc 
of thorax darker tiiau the margins ; imder-side 
more or less dark. 

1. Sides of thorax gradually becoming wider for two- 

thirds or more of their length from apex, thuncc 
contracted to base. 

A. Thorax with a more or loss distinct angular 

sinuation at point of contraction to base. 

a. Last joint of antenna3 as broad as, or very 

slightly narrower than, the two preceding. 

a*. Margins of thorax broader ; club of antenna? 

concolorous; average size larger . . . E. DELETA, ^r. 

b*. Margins of thorax narrower ; club of an- 
teunsB more or less iufuscate ; average 
size smaller E. immunda, Er. 

b. Last joint of antennco distinctly narrower 

than the two preceding, 
a*. Colour darker ; margins of thorax and 

elytra broader ; intermediate tibia; of male 

simple E. PAKVULA, 8lurm. 

b*. Colour lighter; margins of thorax and 

elytra narrower ; intermediate tibite of 

male sinuate _ . . . E. obsoleta, F. 

B. Thoi-ax with sides evenly rounded, without a 

trace of angular sinuation at point of contrac- 
tion to base E. VARIKOATA, ilerJ,^/'. 

2. Sides of thorax strongly rounded in front and not 

contracted behind E. neglecta, Sturm. 

3. Sides of thorax almost parallel or at most very 

slightly contracted in a straight line towards 
base. 

A. Size larger ; elub of antennaj concolorous ; thorax 

a little broader at base than at apex .... E. pusilla, IJr. 

B. Sizesmaller; club of antenna; infuscate; thorax 

a little narrower at base than at apex . . . E. angustula, Er. 

E. decemg-uttata, F. Eather a large species, -which is easily 
known by its colour and thick legs ; oblong-ovate, only slightly convex, 
not very thickly punctured, thinly pubescent ; head reddish-yellow with 
forehead darker, antennai yellow, thorax with light margins, disc more 
or less broadly dark ; elytra dark with the margins and five spots on each 
testaceous, three on the margin, a long one at base, and one behind the 
middle ; under-side entirely testaceous ; legs reddish ; the elytral spots 
are usually distmct, but occasionally are somewhat confluent. L. 3^-4 



mm 



Male with the posterior tibiae excised at apex, and the posterior femora 
armed with a blunt tooth or projection. 

Found at sap of oaks, &c., but is usually connected with the burrows of Cos.ms 
Ugniperda; rare; Shirley, Coombe Wood, Addington, Birdbrook, Tonbridge ; Hast- 
ings ; New Forest ; Swansea ; Dunham Park, near Manchester. 

B. diffusa, Bris. (fuscicoUis, Steph.). Yery like the preceding, but 

Q 2 



228 CLAvicORNiA, [^Epura'a. 

much smaller, ■\vitli tlie spots on the elytra not nearly so "well marked, 
and sometimes so confluent that the elytra appear to be almost entirely 
testaceous ; the elytra are somewhat more acuminate at the extremity 
than is the case with the preceding species, but this is not a marked 
character ; in the male the posterior tibite and femora are rarely more 
than thickened. L. 2|- mm. 

At the exndino; sap of (7o5.?((.9-infected trees; rare; Addington and Shirley; Soli- 
hull, near Birmingham (Blateh) ; Dunham Park, near Manchester, in company with 
the preceding species (J. Chappell); Stretfoi'd, near Manchester, flying over a wood- 
yard (A. Restou) ; vSeotland, very rare, " a single specimen found in fungus, on an oak 
stump at Eccles," Solway district (Shai-p). 

It is probable that this species is only a small variety of E. derem- 
f/uttata, as intermediate specimens occur which have the tibiae and 
femora of the male not quite simple, and which vary both as to colour 
and size ; the var. minor, elytrls immaculatls of Waterhouse's catalogue 
must be referred to this species, the example being entirely testaceous 
with dark thorax ; the question Avill be found fully discussed by myself 
in Ent. Monthly Mag. xxi. 93, 94. 

S. eestiva, L. Ovate, lighter or darker reddish -testaceous or ferru- 
ginous, rather thickly and finely, but distinctly, punctured, with thin 
and fine pubescence ; antennt^ uuicolorous reddish-testaceous, with the 
last joint of the club large, always broader than the penultimate ; thorax 
with distinct, but not broad, margins, sides rounded and somewhat 
narrowed towards apex^ anterior margin broadly emarginate, posterior 
angles right angles ; elytra moderately convex ; legs reddish-testaceous, 
with all the tibiae simple in both sexes. L. 2-3 mm. 

In flowers, especially in hawthorn blossom in spring ; very common and generally 
distributed throughout the kingdom. Mr. J. Chappell informs me that he has ibuud 
the larva? plentifully in a nest of Bomhus liiconun, which he put into a tin, and 
Irom them reared a large number of the perfect insect in the following spring. 

There is often a dark roundish spot on each elytron in this species ; this 
is, however, mostly deceptive, and is caused by the folding of the wings, 
as above mentioned, underneath the elytra ; the specimens in which the 
spot is marked appear to be the v. hisiynata, Sturm. 

E. snelina, Er. Yery closely allied to the preceding, but easily dis- 
guished by its much stronger and less close punctuation, and the black 
or dark club of the antennae, the last joint of Avhich is narrower than 
the penultimate, and not broader, as in E. cestiva ; in many specimens 
the last joint only of the antennas is fuscous ; the species is on an ave- 
rage larger than the preceding and of a darker colour. Erichson says of 
E. vielina that the "legs in both sexes are simple." Thomson says that 
the " male has the intermediate tibiae sinuate." I have examined a numher 
of specimens, and Dr. Power kindly examined his series for me, and all 
these have the intermediate tibiae simple ; this is only one out of several 
points on which authorities arc found at variance in this genus. L. 3 
mm. 



J-Jpitraa.] clavioorkia. 229 

Bv bcatincr sall.ws, liawtliora blossom, &e., and by sweeping licrba-e ; n-t im- 
common iu son.e localities, but much ravei- tbau the V^^^'^^^if ^V^^^'^^- ^^^"'ly." .'^'f 
trict o-enerallv clistnl)ute(l, Cliathaai, Dareutb Wood, Wnnbledon, Caterluun MieUle- 
ham "Clavgate, Shirley, Duhvich ; Amberley ; Holm Hush, lin.^hton ; Hastings ; 
TewkesbuVv ; Bewdlev \ Yardley and Knowle, near Birmn.-bam ; Bretby, near Kepton ; 
Barmouth • Northumberland district, very rarej Scotland, rare, Sohvay district; 
Ireland, near Waterford. 

E. silacea, Er. Larger and less convex than either of the two pre- 
ceding species, with much wider and stronger margins to the thorax; of 
a hri °ht reddish-testaceous or luteoiis colour, unicolorous ; sides of thorax 
narro"wed in front, contracted and almost sinuate hefore posterior angles ; 
punctuation not so strong as in E. melina, but stronger than m E. 
O'sHva; antenna3 with the last joint very slightly narrower than the 
penultimate ; apex of elytra truncate ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. ^ 

nnu. 

Male with the intermediate tibice sinuate. 

Verv rare • Mr. Champion has taken it at Aviemore, Tay district, at sap of birch 
(Thomson considers it as exclusively attached to flowers); it has also occurred at 
Braemar,and in a rotten birch stump at the foot of Cross Craig near Camachgouvan, 
Kaunoch • it is recorded in McNab's Dublin list as from near Dublin, but thisis pro- 
bably in error, as very large specimens of E. astiva have sometimes been mistaken 
for this species. 

B. oblong-a, Herbst. Oblong, depressed, testaceous, extremely 
finely punctured, clothed with fine yellowish-grey pubescence ; auteniiie 
of the same colour as the rest of the body with club darker, last joint 
di'^tinctly narrower than the penultimate; thorax with the anterior 
margin almost straight, side margins very distinct especially m front, 
sides scarcely narrowed towards apex, posterior angles very marked ; 
elytra more than double as long as thorax, truncate at apex ; legs testa- 
ceous. L. 2|-3 mm. . 

Male with the intermediate tibi« slightly sinuate. 

Under bark and at sap of fir and pine, and apparently confined to these trees ; rare ; 
«:hirlev Surrey (Rye), Sutton, Stourport and Bewdlev (Blatch ; Dunham I ark, 
Manchester (Chappell); Northumberland district, Yetholm (Crotch); bc^otlaiul^ very 
rare, under bark of Scotch fir, Tweed and Dee districts (.Sharp and Champion) ; 
Ireland, near Dublin. 

B longula, Er. Very like the preceding, but distinguished by its 
stroncrer punctuation and the darker, almost black, club of its antennas ; 
from°^ florea it mav be known by having the anterior margin of the 
thorax distinctly, although slightly, emarginate, by its longer and 
narrower form, by the side border of the thorax being broader, and by 
the dark club of the antennae ; in the male the anterior tibuc are slightly 
sinuate. L. 2i-3 mm. 

On umbelliferous flowers; occasionally at sap; rare; Esher, Mickleham Tilgate 
Forest; Addington, in Co.s.«8 burrows; Nettlecomb, Somerset; rewkesbury ; 
Sherwood Forest ; Northumberland district, Gosforth ; not recorded from Scotland. 



230 cLAvicoRNiA. \_Ei)urcea, 

E. florea, Er. More ovate and sliortcr in form than tlic two pre- 
ceding, and, as a rule, of a darker reddish colour ; at fiist sight it much 
leseuibles small specimens of E. asfiva, from which it may at once he 
known by the straight or almost straight anterior margin of the thorax; 
the antennae are reddish-testaceous, nnicolorous, Avith the last joint of the 
club scarcely narrower than the two preceding ; the thorax has the sides 
narrowly bordered, and the posterior angles somewhat projecting in a 
slight tooth ; the elytra are truncate at apex. L. 2-2| mm. 

Male with the intermediate tibiae sinuate. 

Under bavk, at sap, in flowers, &c. ; ofteu by sweeping ; local, but common in some 
districts. Loudon district, common ; generally distributed also in the southern and 
iiiidlaud counties, but rarer further north ; Chat Moss, on Unibellifera? ; Liverpool ; 
Korthumborkuul district, rare. Scotland, not common, chiefly on fluwers of the 
mountain ash, SoUvay, Dee, and Moray districts; Ireland, near Waterford. 

£g. deleta, Er. Testaceous or luteous, with the suture and apex of 
elytra usually dark, the dark colour at apex often enclosing two spots ; 
the colour, however, and also the size is very variable, and unicolorous 
specimens occasionally occur ; these may be known by the shape of the 
thorax, which has the sides almost oblic[uely cut off from apex to Avithin 
a third of base, and from thence contracted with a strong sinuation ; 
antenniE unicolorous with the last joint only very slightly narrower than 
\ enultimate ; thorax plainly emarginate at apex, with, sides broadly 
margined, rather finely and thickly punctured; elytra Avith broad 
margins ; breast usually darker, sometimes blackish ; legs pale testaceous. 
L. lf-3 mm. 

Intermediate tibiae simple in both sexes. 

In fungi, at sap of felled trees, under bark, &c. ; occasionally by sweeping ; common 
and generally distributed throughout the greater part of England ; Scotland, local. 
Forth and probably other districts ; Ireland, near Waterford, and probably widely 
distributed. 

S. immunda, Er. (terminalis, Mann.). Oval^ depressed, reddish- 
testaceous or luteous, with the club of the antennae dark and the sides 
of the elytra more or less infuscate ; the antenna3 have the last three 
joints of equal breadth; the thorax is emarginate at apex, narrowly 
margined, thickly and finely punctured, sometimes dusky on disc ; the 
elytra are rather depressed, slightly rounded at apex, strongly margined, 
with thick and fine punctuation, which is rather stronger at base ; breast 
and abdomen brownish, apex of latter yellowish ; legs yellow or reddish. 
L. 3 mm. 

!Male with the intermediate tibiae sinuate. 

At sap of birch; very rare;' Scarborough (Wilkinson and Lawson) ; Scotland, 
Tay and Moray districts, Aviemore and Invercannich (Champion). 

This species is very little known, and others are perpetually made to 
do duty for it in collections ; it is perhaps best distinguished super- 
ficially by the colour ; in the specimens I have seen the apex of the 
elytra and the sides, for the greater part of their length, are suffused 



Epurcca.'] clavioornia. 231 

with dark colour, and the space of the elytra enclosed within is testaceous, 
but this does not appear to be always the case ; the thorax is contracted 
with a sinuation towards base, and is as broad as the elytra without the 
margins, which cause it to appear narrower than the elytra. From 
E. deleta, which it approaches in some points, it may be distinguished 
by its colour and the darker club of its antenna3 ; from E. obsoleta, 
with which it is most often confounded, it may be separated by its 
broader f(H-m, and by having the last joint of the anteunse about as 
broad as the penultimate, whereas in E. obsoleta it is distinctly narrower ; 
the thorax also is slightly more contracted at base than in the latter 
sjDccies. 

E. parvula, Sturm (nifomarginafa, Steph.). A very dark species, 
often almost l)lack with the margins of thorax and elytra only ferru- 
ginous ; antennae ferruginous with club brownish, last joint much 
narrower than the two penultimate ; sides of thorax almost as in 
JE. deleta, except that they are sHghtly waved and uneven, which is a 
peculiar characteristic of this species ; before the base of thorax tliero 
is a strong sinuation ; in some respects it comes close to M obsoleta, but 
may easily be distinguished from that species by its more flat shining 
appearance and dark colour, and by the more pronounced margins of 
the thorax and elytra, as well as by the shape of the thorax, and the 
fact that the intermediate tibiae of the male are simple and not sinuate. 
L. 2|-3 mm. 

In faggots ; also occasioually under bark of Scotch fir; very local ; Darentb Wood, 
faggot stacks (Cliampion) ; Wiltshire ; Herefoid ; Sherwood Forest; I have taken it 
commonly by beating faggots in Langworth Wood, near Lincoln, where I have also 
found a small variety in faggots of a species of Tilia (called " hass " by the countiy 
people) ; Scarborough ; Stretford near Manchester, Hyiug over old wood-yard (Reston) ; 
Northumberland district ; Scotland, rare, Aviemore. 

E. obsoleta, F. This is one of the most difficult species of the 
genus to determine ; variable both in size, colour, and to a certain 
extent in structure of thorax, and in consequence often confounded with 
other species ; the elytra are, as a rule, obscurely marked with dark 
patches, but occasionally the whole insect is of a reddish colour, and 
may in that case be easily confounded with other species, such as E. /fovea ; 
from the latter insect small unicolorous examples of E. obsoleta may be 
distinguished by the plain emargination of tlie anterior mai'giu of the 
thorax, and by the club of the antennaj which is dark and has the last 
joint much narrower than the two preceding ; from E. pusilla, which 
it in some cases rather closely resembles, the species may be known by 
the emargination of the anterior margin of thorax being much less pro- 
nounced, by its truncate elytra, more rounded sides and narrower margins 
of thorax, and by the dark club of its antennae ; from other allied species, 
such as E. iKircida, it may be separated by the sinuate intermediate tibiae 
of the male. L. 1^-3 mm. 



232 CLAVicoRNiA. [Epunea. 

At sap, under bnrk, in fungi, &c. ; generally distributed and common throughout 
the greater part of England and Scotland, and probably Ireland. 

E. varieg"ata, Herbst. A very distinct species of a dark rust-red 
colour^ -with transverse evenly rounded thorax, which is strongly con- 
tracted at base, the base being much narrower tlian the base of elytra ; 
the sides show no trace of sinuation, and the anterior margin is rather 
strongly emarginate ; the antennae are ferruginous with the club con- 
colorous, and the three last joints are of equal breadth ; each elytron has 
a strong blackish spot in the centre, and a smaller and more obscure one 
at apex ; the piuictuation of the upper surface is distinct, and rather 
strong ; legs red. L. 2|-3 mm. 

Intermediate tibiae simple in both sexes. 

At the exuding sap of oaks, in fungi, &c. ; very rare ; Surrey ; Scarborough ; 
Scotland, Highlands, Tay district (Avicmore). 

E. neg-lecta, Sturm. One of the most distinct species of the 
gpnus ; like E. jxiruula in colour, dark, with the head, margins of thorax 
and elytra, antennas and legs ferruginous ; punctuation of upper surface 
strong, almost rugose ; antennae concolorous with the middle joint of 
the club somewhat broader than either of the other two ; the species may 
easily be known by its very narrow thorax, which is twice as broad as 
long, rounded in front and not contracted at base, which is fully as broad 
as the base of elytra ; the elytra are narrowed towards apex. L. 2| mm. 

Intermediate tibiae simple in both sexes. 

At sap of freshly cut trees, also by beating faggot stacks in woods ; very rare ; 
Darentli Wood (Champion) ; West Wickham, Kent (Janson) ; The Holt, Farnham 
( Power) ; in Mr. Rye's collection there is an example taken many years ago, and 
obtained by him from Mr. G. R. Waterhouse. 

E. pusilla, Er. A long and rather narrow species, oblong, with 
sides subparallel ; ferruginous, with the disc of thorax generally 
darker, and with more or less cloudy dark markings usually present 
on elytra ; pale examples, however, are very common ; punctuation 
thick, moderately distinct ; antennce unicolorous, with the last joint 
narrower than the penultimate ; thorax about a third shorter than 
broad, with the anterior margin very strongly emarginate, and the 
anterior angles in consequence very prominent, sides almost parallel; 
elytra rather long, with the apex rounded. L. 3 mm. 

I\Iale with all the tibiae slightly curved, and the intermediate pair 
strongly sinuate and widened at apex. 

Under bark and at sap of various trees, especially firs ; common and generally dis- 
tributed throughout the kingdom. 

S. angrustula, Er. An elongate, linear, and parallel species, which 
may easily be known by its narrow, oblong form, long almost 
parallel-sided, subquadrate thorax, and dark rufous, sometimes almost 
black colour. I have only seen one entirely testaceous example, and 
this was evidently immature ; the species is most closely allied to 



Epiirita.'] CLAVicoRNiA. 233 

E. pusilla, from smoll examples of Avhicli it may Lc distinguished liy 
having the chih of the antenna?, or at least the second and tliird 
joints of the club blackish, and also by the fact that the thorax is a 
little wider in front than behind, the sides slightly converging to base 
in almost straight lines ; in E. j)usilla, as in almost all the other 
species of Epurcea, the posterior margin is wider than the anterior. 
L. 2-2 -J mm. 

Under bark of beech, fir, holly, itc. ; very rare ; occasionally by sweeping ; Shierc, 
near Dorking (Caprou) ; Scarborough (Wilkinson and Lawson); Sutton Park, near 
Birmingham (Bhitch) ; Chat Moss (Reston) ; Dunham Park, Manchester (Chappell) ; 
Eastham, near Liverpool (Ellis) ; Scotland, very rare, Higlilunds, Tay district, in the 
burrows of Xj/loterus lineatus in Scotch fir. 

OMOSIFHORA, Eeitter. 

This genus contains three European species, which are distinguished 
from Ejmrcea by their long legs, the posterior of which are rather 
widely separated, and by their different contour ; one of these only is 
found in Britain, and until quite recently has been classed in our 
catalogues under Ejmrcea. 

O. limbata, F. Eather short and broad, ovate, disc of thorax and 
elytra convex, margins broad ; upper surface thickly punctured ; head 
dark with the mouth parts ferruginous, antennae ferruginous with club 
usually darker, last joint narrower than the preceding ; thorax about 
twice as broad as long, contracted at base, dilated in middle, anterior 
margin broadly emarginate, dark with the broad explanate margins 
red ; elytra broadest in middle, coloured as thorax, or more usually 
with base or basal half as well as margins red ; legs long, reddish- 
testaceous, tibiai simple in both sexes. L. 2| mm. 

lu fungi, &e. ; not uncommon "and sometimes plentiful, but local ; London district, 
not uncommon, Chatham, Dartford, Sheerness, Walton-on-Thames, Sliiere, Horsell, 
Dulwich, Burnham Beeches, &c. ; Ghmvilles Wootton ; Devon ; Stourport ; Hun- 
stanton ; Repton, Burton-on-Trent (in old cabbage stump) ; Nocton, near Lincoln ; 
Northumberland district, very local ; Scotland, very rare, Solway district, found in 
flood refuse at Keltou, below Dumfries, by Mr. Lennon. According to Erichson 
this species is taken at sap, and also under fallen leaves in sunny places iu early 
spring. 

9ZXCB,UH,UXiA, Eeitter. 

This genus was formed for the reception of Epurcea melanocejihala, 
INIarsh ; the thorax has no separate side border, which gives the species 
the appearance of a Meligethes rather than an Ejmrcea, and besides this, 
its entirely different contour and certain differences in the mouth organs, 
especially the mandibles, seem to justify its sej)aration as a distinct 
genus. 

ZU. melanocephala, Marsh. Ovate, rather short and broad, 



234 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Micruiida. 

convex, thickly punctured, clothed M'ith not very fine and ratlicr thick 
pubescence ; colour variable, l)ut usually testaceous, with the thorax dark 
and the antennte and legs reddish ; antennae unicolorous with the three 
joints of the club of equal breadth ; thorax rather long, gradually con- 
tracted from base to apex, much narrower in front than behind, base as 
wide as base of elytra ; elytra rather convex, narrowly margined ; legs 
rather short and stout, the same in both sexes, intermediate tibiae with a 
row of very fine spines on their outer side. L. 2| mm. 

By beatiug and sweeping flowers and trees in blossom in early summer ; local ; 
London district, ratlier common, Cuterlmm, Mickleham, Shirley, Sevenoaks, St. 
Mary Cray, Shiere, Birch Wood, Purley Down, Loughton, &c. ; Amberley ; Dover ; 
Glanvilles Wootton ; Salford Priors, near Evesham ; Gumley, Leicestershire ; Fore- 
mark near Repton, Eurtou-on-Trcnt (wild cherry blossom) ; not recorded from any 
of the northern counties of England, but probably occurs rarely ; Scotland, very rare, 
Forth and Moray districts. 

The colour of this species is very A'ariable ; some specimens are en- 
tirely testaceous ; this rather common variety is the Nitidula affinis of 
Stephens ; a much rai-er variety, the N. hrunnea of Heer, is entirely blark 
or fuscous, with the mouth parts, antenna3, and legs testaceous ; of this 
variety I have only seen two British examples, which are in Mr. 
AVilkinson's collection, now in the possession of iNIr. Mason. 



NXTIDtriiA, Fabricius. 

About thirty species are at present comprised in this genus, which are 
very witlely distributed, as representatives occur in Europe, Siberia, and 
North America, and also in North and South Africa. Ceylon, Peru, and 
Brazil, and in the Australian region in New Zealand and New Cale- 
donia ; there are five European species, of which four are found in 
Britain ; these may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Thorax entirely black. 

i. Elytra with yellow or reddish spots ; thorax with 
anterior margin straight. 

1. Size larger ; elytra black, with one well-dtfiued 

reddish-yellow spot on each N. Bippstulata, L. 

2. Size smaller ; elytra dark, with four irregular 
reddish spots on each, which are often confluent 

and form bands N. QUAcraPDSTULATA, F. 

ii. Elytra without spots ; thorax with anterior mar- 
gin distinctly emarginate N. kupipes, L. 

II. Thorax with margins broadly yellow N. flexuosa, F. 

m. bipustulata, L. Moderately convex, of a dull IJack colour, 
each elytron with one well-defined large reddish-yellow spot on each, 
placed a little behind tlie middle ; head very thickly punctured, antenuse 
entirely black or dark red with black club ; thorax as broad behind as 
elytra, with anterior margin straight or almost straight, rather more 
narrowed in front in the female than in the male ; the punctuation also 



JVitidida.'} clavicoknia. 235 

is finer in the latter sex than in the former; elytra very finely and seime- 
Avhat rugosely punctured ; legs red ; occasionally the margins of the thorax 
and elytra are reddish-hrown, and sometimes the Avhole body-colour is 
brownisli. L. 3— 4| mm. 

Under dead birds and animals, old bones, &c. ; common and generally distributed 
throughout the kingdom. 

N. quadripustulata, F. {carnaria, SchalL), This species at first 
sight resembles in size and colouring some species of Eimnva ; the head 
and thorax are dull black, and the elytra dull black or brownish with 
four irregular light spots, which are often confluent and form bands ; the 
antennae are reddish with dark club ; thorax as broad as elytra, scarcely 
narrowed in front, finely but distinctly punctured, wath anterior margin 
straight ; legs red or ferruginous. L. 2-2| mm. 

In carcases of birds and animals, under bones, &c. ; not common ; Darenth, B!ack- 
lieath, Shirley, Weybridge, Wimbledon, Sheeruess, Chatham, Whitstable ; Coombe 
Wood; Hastings; Devon; Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

N. rufipes, L. (ohscura, F.). Entirely dull black, with very fine, 
almost invisible punctuation ; antennas red with black club ; thorax a 
little more narrowed in front in the female than in the male, about as 
broad as elytra, Avith anterior margin emarginate ; elytra very finely 
l^unctured, but a little less closely than thorax; legs red. L. 2^-4:^^ 
mm. 

Found under the same circumstances as the two preceding species; rare ; Darenth 
Wood (found in some numbers by Dr. Power) ; Eslier, Sheerness, Chatham, Graves- 
end, Ashtead; Stephens gives as localities, Norfolk, Suffolk, Devonshire, Netley, 
Glanviiles Wootton, and Swansea. 

There seems to be no good reason why the preference should be given 
to Fabricius' name for this species, as is now generally the case, as the 
insects in the Linnaean collection standing under SiljjJia nifipes are our 
Nitidula rufipes ; it is certainly true that the description given by 
Linnaeus does not accord with them, yet neither does it agree with 
Meligethes rufijies, which his insect is generally supposed to have. been. 

(N. flexuosa, F. (flavomaculata, Eossi). Head black, thorax black 
Avith margins broadly yellow, elytra black with two very variable spots 
on each, one at base, and one in middle close to suture ; the four spots 
are often confluent, and enclose a dark space round scutellum ; the 
upper surface is very finely punctured^ and is a little more shining than 
in the other species ; antenna3 rather long, yellowish Avith dark club ; 
thorax scarcely narroAved in front in male, distinctly narroAved in female, 
with anterior margin someAvhat emarginate ; legs yellow or reddish-yelloAV. 
L. 3-4| mm. 

Very rare, and doubtfully indigenous ; Scarborough (Lawson) ; sands at South 
Shields (Bold) ; in all probability imported with hides or bones ; Mr. Bold himself 
regarded his specimens as probable introductions. 



23G CLAVICORNIA. [Nifiduhc. 

The s[)eeie.s of Nitldiila vary very much in size^ as may bo seen from 
the leDgth-s above given. 

SOB,ON£A, Erichson. 

This genus at present contains only about half-a-dozcn species, three 
of which occur in Europe, and the others have been described from 
iSV)rth America, South Africa, and the Australian region; the genus, 
therefore, is widely distributed, and will probably prove to be much 
more extensive than is at present known. 

The species of Soronia and Omoslta are readily distinguished from 
all our other Nitidulidse by having the disc of the thorax distinctly im- 
pressed or wrinkled ; slight traces of impressions are visible in many 
specimens of Ej)unva ^J*arr?i?a, Amphotis, &c., but these are apparently 
abnormal, and very different from the impressions on the thorax in the 
two first-named genera ; the two British species of Soronia reseml:)le each 
other so closely and vary so much in size that it is sometimes hard to 
distinguish them. 

The larva of S. grisea is described by Perris (Larves des Coleopteres, p. 26), and 
is described and figured by Westwood, who quotes from Curtis (Classification I., 141, 
fig. 11) ; it is somewhat depressed, of a dirty white colour, with six scaly legs; the 
extremity of the body is furnished with four small horny conical appendages curved 
upwards ; each segment is also beset with several short stiff hairs, and the lateral 
margins of the abdominal segments are furnished with a small fieshy and somewhat 
conical protuberance ; on the under-side of the extremity of the body is an appendage 
which is used as a proleg. 

I. Form broader and more c.nivex ; punctuation closer ; 

average size larger S. puxctattssima, III. 

II. Form narrower and less convex ; punctuation less 

close ; average size smaller S. gkisea, L. 

S. punctatissima, 111. Somewhat convex, ferruginous or reddish- 
brown with the thorax and elytra variegated with black or dark brown 
and yellowish or reddish spots ; margins of thorax and elytra broad ; 
punctuation of upper surface ' close ; elytra with four or five rai^^ed lines 
on each which are sometimes more or less obsolete ; under-side reddish or 
reddish-brown, legs reddish. L. 3^-5 1 mm. 

At exuding sap; usually found in or near burrows of Cosszis ligniperda ; vory 
local ; Shirley and Esher in birch (Power) ; Darenth, Chatham, Coombe Wood, 
Addington, Norwood, Belvedere, Shiere ; Hastings ; Isle of Wight ; Dean Forest ; 
Repton ; Scarborough ; Liverpool district ; Dunham Park, Manchester, in oaks and 
alders (Chappell) ; Stretford, in old cherry trees (Reston) ; Northumberland district; 
Scotland, local, Tweed, Tay, Dee, and Moray districts. 

S- grisea, L. Smaller on the average than the preceding species, 
and also narrower and less convex, and more sparingly and less closely 
punctured ; in the preceding species the black markings on the elytra a 
little behind the middle are interrupted by a wavy yellowish band ; tliis 
yellowish band or fascia is succeeded by a dark band, which is inter- 



Soronia.] clavicornia. 237 

ruptetl at the suture, a space near the suture remaining testaceous ; in 
S. fjrisea these markings are just tlic same, but the hinder dark band is 
not interrupted, and^ as a rule, covers the whole sutural space ; in the 
latter species the anterior tibite are quite simple in both sexes ; in S. 
jmnctatisslma they are slightly curved in the male. L. 3-4f mm. 

Widely distributed aud rather conuiiou throughout the London, Southern, and 
]\Ii<ll:ind districts ; rarer further north ; not so often associated witli Cossiis as the 
preceding; Netting Hill, in willows not infested by Cossics (Power); Stretford, 
Manchester, under bark of old apple trees (Reston) ; connnon in aud near Cos.ins 
burrows in the above-mentioned districts; .1 have beaten it from hawthorn blossom 
near the banks of the Trent at llepton, and in Bretby Wood near the same place ; 
Scotland, scarce, Solway, Forth, and Moray districts; Ireland, near Dublin, and 
probably widely distributed. 

AMFHOTXS, Erichson. 

About half-a-dozen species are comprised in this genus, three of 
which occur in Europe, and the others are found respectively in Syria, 
North America, and Cayenne ; the genus may be at once distinguished, 
apart from differences in the mouth organs, by the very broad and 
smooth margins of the thorax and elytra, and the very greatly enlarged 
first joint of the antenna?, which, when viewed from above, gives the 
forehead the appearance of being strongly lobed ; the second joint is 
inserted beneath the lobe formed by the first, which slightly overlaps 
it, and not at the end of the first joint, as is the case Avith Oinosita and 
other genera^ which have the first joint thickened. 

A, marg-inata, Er. Convex, with very broad and distinct margins 
to thorax and elytra ; head and thorax ferruginous ; elytra dark, with 
some lighter markings, and with five distinct raised longitudinal lines 
on each ; margins of thorax and elytra of a uniform red colour ; punc- 
tuation of thorax fine and close, of elytra stronger and more diffuse ; 
legs rather stout, red. L. 4-5 mm. 

In chinks and crevices of beech and other trees near the runs of Formica full- 
ginosa ; rare; Birch Wood, Chobham, Reigate, Coombe Wood, Tilgate Forest, 
Mickleham, Horsell, Maidstone ; apparently not found except in or near the London 
district. 

OmOSXTA, Erichson. 

This genus contains about half-a-dozen species from Europe, N'orth 
America, and Abyssinia ; all the three European species occur in Britain, 
and may be distinguished as follows : — 

I. Length 4| mm.; thorax ferruginous; elytra strongly mar- 
gined . " 0. DEPEESSA, L. 

II. Length 2-3 mm. ; thorax dark, with margins somewhat 

liy;hter ; elytra very slightly margined. 
i. Thorax strongly rounded and contracted in front ; elytra 

dark with scattered reddish-yellow markings 0. COLON, L. 



238 CLAVICORNIA. [OlHOsitd. 

ii. Tliorax slightly contracted iu front ; elytra with a common 

luteous spot reaching from base to beyond middle .... 0. discoidea, J'. 

O. depressa, L. Entirely of a rust-red colour, except the head, 
scutellum, centre of thorax, and a few scattered spots on elytra, which 
are darker ; head thickly and somewhat rugosely punctured, antennae 
with the first joint thickened, club compact ; thorax thickly and finely 
punctured, with two impressions on disc behind middle, and a strong 
longitudinal furrow on each side, posterior margin very distinctly 
bisinuate ; elytra very finely, almost invisibly punctured, with strong 
margins ; legs ferruginous. L. 4i mm. 

In dry carcases, also under bones, and at sap ; rare in the south, rather common 
iu the north ; Ashtead, Surrey ; Hastings ; ,Netley ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Llan- 
gollen ; North Derbyshire; Sherwood Forest; Lancaster sands; Northumbeiland 
district ; Scotland, locally common, Lowlands and Highlands, Solway, Forth, Tay, 
Dee, Moray, and probably other districts ; Ireland, Kilruddery near Dublin, near 
Belfast, &c. 

O. colon, L. This and the next species are at once distinguished 
from the preceding by their much smaller size, different colouring, less 
close punctuation, more oblong form, and much narrower margins of 
elytra ; in fact 0. depressa might for several reasons be made a separate 
genus. 0. colon may be separated from 0. discoidca by its colour, 
which is dark, with the margins of the thorax somewhat lighter ; the 
elytra have each a rather small but distinct spot behind middle, reach- 
ing to suture, and a few other smaller light spots towards base ; the 
thorax is strongly rounded and contracted in front, so that the anterior 
margin is considerably narrower than the posterior, and the base shows 
very slight traces of sinuation. L. 2-3 mm. 

In dry carcases, haystack refuse, under old bones, &c. ; common and generally 
distributed throughout the kingdom. 

O. discoidea, F. Very like the preceding, but distinguished by 
not having the thorax much contracted in front, so that the anterior 
margin is nearly as broad as the posterior, and by the elytra having a 
common luteous or light yellowish spot reaching from base to beyond 
middle and from suture nearly to side margin ; the posterior margin of 
thorax shows hardly a trace of sinuation. L. 2-3 mm. 

Found under the same circumstances as the preceding; common and generally 
distributed throughout the greater part of England, but less common further north; 
Scotland, scarce, Solway and probably other districts; Ireland, near Belfast and 
Dublin, and probably widely distributed. 



THAZiVCRA, Erichson. 

Only two species are contained in this genus, one of which occurs in 
Europe and the other in the Australian region ; our single species is 
very rare in Britain, and has only been taken in Cossus trees or by 



Thahjcra.'] clavioornia. 239 

sweeping ; aoconling to Ericlisou its pi\)bal)Ic liabitat is uudcrgroiuul, 
as the structure of the legs seems to indicate, aud he is of opinion that 
it conies out on hot summer evenings on grass and low vegetation ; tlie 
species somewhat resembles externally Cychramus fangifola, but may 
easily be known by its compact club, and by the fact tliat the thorax 
fits closely to the elytra and does not cover their base. 

T. sericea, Sturm, (fenuda, 01. ; Strongylas fervidus, Steph.). 
Bright rust-red, shining, ovate, moderately convex, clothed with short 
silky pubescence, apex of elytra sometimes darker ; antcnnfe red, with 
dark club which is very round and compact, first joint enlarged, almost 
semicircular ; thorax fully as broad at base as elytra, rounded at sides 
and narrowed in front, anterior margin emarginate, posterior margin 
feebly bisinuate, posterior angles almost right angles liut somewhat l)lunt, 
upper surface strongly punctured ; elytra strongly punctured at base, 
more feebly at apex ; elytra and thorax closely fringed with short white 
hairs ; legs red, anterior tibiae simple, posterior pairs armed with spines 
on their external margins. L. 3-4 mm. 

At the exuding sap of CossMs-infected trees; occasionally by evening sweeping; 
rare; Bircli Wood, Shirley, Ripley, Esher, Surbiton, Micklehain, Lougbton, Bromley, 
Tilgate Forest; Eythorne ; Balconibe (Sussex); Bournemouth; Knovvle, near 
Biriniugham ; Scotland, very i-are, Moray district ; it is the same as the Strongylus 
fervidus of Stephens, and according to him occurs in fungi. 



POCADIUS, Erichson. 

This genus contains eight or nine species, two of which are found in 
Europe^ and the others have been described from North, Central, and 
South America, India, and Ceylon ; the species bear a sort of superficial 
resemblance to Thahjcra and Cychramus, but may be distinguished 
from the first by the regular rows of punctures on the elytra, which are 
separated by regular rows of yellow hairs, and from the latter by the 
compact round club of the antennae (the club in Cychrarmis being 
elongate), and the fact that the anterior tibiae are produced into a strong 
point at apex. 

P. ferrug'ineus, F. Oval, convex, shining, of a reddisli-brown 
colour, apex of elytra sometimes darker; antennas very short, light red, 
with dark club, which is very compact ; thorax very short in comparison 
with elytra, narrowed in front, posterior angles sharp, with narrow, 
though, distinct, margins, rather diffusely and obscurely punctured ; 
elytra with punctuation and pubescence as above described; legs light 
red, with all the tibiae produced into a point at apex. L. 3-4 mm. 

In decaying fungi, especially Lycoperdons ; local but rather widely distributed in 
the London, Southern, and Midland districts; rarer further north ; Northumberland 
district, rare; Scotland, rare, Tweed, Forth, aud Moray districts. 



240 GLAVICORNIA. [Pria. 

PRXA, Kirby. 

This genus at first siglit closely resembles Meliffethes, but is dis- 
tinguished by the oblong club of its antennae, by the thorax having a 
lateral stria close to the margin, and by the simple front tibiie ; it 
contains about half-a-dozen species, two of which are found in Europe, 
and the others have been described from South Africa and Madagascar, 
India and Japan ; the single British species is very widely distributed 
in Europe from England to the Caucasus district. 

P. dulcamarae, Scop, (hreviuseula, Kol.). Moderately convex, 
of a dark olive-testaceous colour, with suture of elytra, scutellura, and 
the greater part of the under-side darker ; upper surface rather thickly 
clothed with fine and short greyish pubescence ; punctuation of thorax 
fine, of elytra almost invisible ; posterior angles of thorax right angles ; 
legs yellow, anterior tibia3 simple ; under a high power, however, slight 
traces of teeth are visible on the anterior tibia3, and the posterior pairs 
are seen to be clothed with very short hairs on their margins ; antennae 
yellowish with club darker • iir the male they are rather longer than in 
the female, and the eighth joint in the former sex is enlarged laterally, 
so that the club appears to be 4-jointed in the male, and 3-jointed in 
the female ; Stephens, deceived by this, considered them to belong to 
separate genera, the female being his Meligethes dulcamarce, and the 
male his Prla ti^unccdella. L. 2 mm. 

On flowers of Solanum dulcamara; very local; London district rather corainou 
and generally distributed ; Eastbourne ; Hastings ; Brixham, Devon ; Salford Prior!=, 
Evesbam j Bewdley ; Kuowle, near Birmingham ; I know of no record from further 
north. 

SKESIiIGSTKBS, Kirb}'. 

In the Munich catalogue one hundred and nineteen species are 
enumerated as belonging to this genus ; so mariy European species have, 
however, been since described by Keitter, Brisout, &c., that the number 
found in Europe alone is now about one hundred and ten, and itpwards 
of two hundred have been in all discovered ; these are almost entirely 
confined to temperate and cold climates ; very few occur in tropical 
countries ; a small nimiber have been found in South Africa, and one 
or two are known from Ceylon, Persia, Madeira, &c. ; thirty-four species 
occur in Britain, many of which at first sight closely resemble one 
another, so much so that the genus is often regarded as one of the most 
difficult in our fauna ; the punctuation, however, and general scidpture, 
and especially the denticulation of the anterior tibia3 afi'ord such good 
characters for tliC determination of species in so many cases, that they 
are really easier to separate than many belonging to genera of much less 
extent ; a high magnifying power^ however, is necessary, and in some 
cases the difterenccs are so comparative that the species cannot be 



ILUgethes.l CLAvrcoRNiA. 241 

detcriuincd Avith accuracy imless tliey arc compared \vitli autlientic 
types ; the genus as a "vvliole is marked by the denticulate anterior 
tibise, taken in conjunction Avith the produced prosternum ; in my notes 
on the genus (Ent. ]\fonthIy Mag. xxi. p. 21. '5 — 217) I have at some 
length discussed the chief characters on which distinctions between 
species have been founded, and have especially pointed out that Reitter's 
character depending on the straightness or emargination of the anterior 
maigin of the forehead, although useful in some cases, is practically very 
inconvenient, and as regards our fauna is virtually useless. As the 
species are very numerous, and in many points closely resemble one 
another^ it will perhaps be of advantage to enumerate some of the chief 
characters to avoid repetition : — General form subquadratc, or more or 
less ovate ; upper surface with more or less distinct greyish or dark 
pubescence ; head small, triangular ; mandibles short, rather broad, but 
sharp, furnished with one or two small inconspicuous teeth near apex ; 
antennaj short, with the first joint considerably thickened, terminating in 
a compact round three-jointed club ; antennal furrows on the under-side 
of the head well marked, straight and parallel ; thorax always trans- 
verse, sometimes very strongly (as iu M. picii)es), at other times slightly 
(as in M. nanus), finely margined at sides, about as broad at base as 
elytra ; abdomen with the first free segment as long as the three 
following, which are of equal length ; fifth segment longer, with two 
rounded impressions ; last segment of abdomen and nietasternum fur- 
nished, especially in male, with varying depressions, keels, or prominences, 
Avhich often afibrd very useful characters. In size the species range 
from 1mm. to S^-mm.; as a rule they are about 2 mm. in length. 
The colour is usually black, sometimes very shiny, sometimes dull or 
leaden; several species have a bluish or greenish (occasionally a bronze 
or purple) metallic lustre ; none, however, of the British species are red 
or testaceous (like the continental M. fuscus), except a variety of M. 
rufiixs, whicJi is of a dark ferruginous colour ; a mahogany-coloured 
tinge is sometimes present on the purple varieties of M. ceneiis. Next to 
the denticulation of the anterior tibice the degree of punctuation and 
cross striation or reticulation between the punctures appears to afford the 
best determining character ; sometimes the latter takes the form of very 
fine alutaceous network covering the whole of the body, sometimes of 
coarse transverse scratches ; occasionally it is confined to the elytra, and 
is absent on the thorax ; and in one of our species {M. murinus) it is 
peculiar to the scutellum ; in some cases only very slight traces are 
visible, which are often so feeble that the interstices are, for purposes of 
subdivision, conveniently regarded as quite smooth. In all cases a com- 
pound microscope with at least a one-inch objective is required for the 
examination of this character. 

Eeitterinhis "Eevision der Europaischen Meligethes-Arten " (a Avork 
indispensable to any student of the genus) divides the genus Meligethcs 
into three sub-genera, as follows : — Meligethes, containing the bulk of the 

VOL. III. R 



2-42 CLAVicoKNTA. [Meligethes. 

species, distinguished by having simple claws not toothed at the base ; 
Odontogethes, which has the claws broader and strongly toothed at the 
base, containing the single European species 0. hehes, Er. {M. olivaceus, 
Stnrm) ; and Acanthogethes, which has the claws as in the preceding 
genus, but has the forehead deeply excised in a semicircle, and the 
anterior tibite strongly toothed, whereas in 0. hehes the anterior tibiae 
are very finely toothed, as in M. I'uftjJes, &c., and the anterior margin of 
the forehead is straight; this sub-genus contains our 31. solidus,Kxig., 
M. brevis, Sturm {pictus, Rye), and three other species. 

The species of the genus Meligethes occur on flowers ; they seem to 
be especially attached to Crucifenv, Laliafce, and Compositiv, and to the 
genus Putentilla of the Rosacece ; they are, however, found on many 
other plants. 

The British species maybe divided as follows : in all cases, however, 
a careful comparison of the detailed^ descriptions is necessary : — 

I. Tarsal claws simple. (Meligeihes, i. sp.) 

i. Anterior tibijB very finely toothed, rather more dis- 
tinctly towards apex. 

1. Colour black, with at most very slight traces of 

metallic lustre. 

A. Legs light. 

a. Species large, black, oval, or broad oblong; 
punctuation and cross stiiation of elytra form- 
ing wavy lines ; club of auteunfe dark. 

a*. Sides of thorax considerably contracted 
towards apex ; thorax very finely and in- 
distinctly punctured M. ETJFIPES, Gj/ll. 

h*. Sides of thorax only slightly contracted 
towards apex ; punctuation of thorax fine 
but distinct M. lumbaris, Sturm. 

b. Species smaller, rather narrow-oblong; punc- 
tuatiou and cross striation of elytra not form- 
ing wavy lines ; antenna) entirely light . . M. rULViPES, Bris, 

B. Logs dark ; at moat anterior tibise somewhat 

lighter. 
a. Elytra unevenly and rugosely punctured with 
strong transverse striation between punctures ; 

length under 2 mm M. SITBRTTGOSUS, Gj/U. 

h. Elytra evenly punctured with cross reticula- 
tion between punctures ; length at least 2 mm. 
a*. Punctuation weak ; cross reticulation be- 
tween punctures delicate, present on both 

thorax and elytra M. COEACINUS, Sturm. 

b*. Punctuation rather strong; cross reticu- 
lation between punctures rather coarse and 
uneven, present on elytra only M. CORTINtTS, 7?r. 

2. Colour greenish or greenish-blue, sometimes pur- 

ple, with strong metallic lustre. 
A. Punctuation close, and comparatively weak . . M. iENEUS, F. 
li. Punctuation more diffuse, and rather strong . M. vhudescens, F. 
ii. Anterior tibirc very finely toothed from a little below 
base to beyond middle, with two or more conspicuously 
stronger teeth at or close to apex. 



Afelif/etJies.'] 



CLAVICORNIA, 



243 



1. Upper surfiicc without cross strirttion or reticula- 

tion butween punctures. 
A. Bl;\ck, or with dark hrown reflection, very 
shining; punctuation strong, and not very close, 
especially on elytra. 

a. Anterior margin of forehead emarginate. 

a*. Body long-oval ; punctuation of elytra 
plaiidy stronger tlian tliat of thorax, 
af. Punctuation of elytra less diffuse ; 
metasternum of male with a tubercular 
proniiucncc ou each side of middle . , . 
bf. Punctuation of elytra more diffuse; me- 
tasternum of male simple 

b*. Body short-oval : punctuation of elytra 
not much stronger than that of tliorax 

b. Anterior margin of forehead straight. 

a*. Body short-oval ; colour shining black, 
af. Punctuation not much stronger on 

elytra than on thorax 

b-f. Punctuation much stronger on elytra 

than on thorax 

b*. Body long-oval ; shining, with dark brown 

reflection 

B. Black, moderately shining ; punctuation close 
and fine, almost the same ou elytra as on 
thorax. 

a. Male v.-ith the last abdominal segment simple . 

b. Male with the last abdominal segment fur- 
nished with a large smooth tubercle at apex . 

2. Upper surface with cross striation or reticulation 

between punctures; black, as a rule rather 
dull. 

A. Cross striation present ou elytra only ; anterior 
tibias with two stronger teeth at apex, not sepa- 
rated by smaller teeth 

B. Cross striation or reticulation present on the 

whole of the upper-side. 

a. Thorax at base wider than elytra ; anterior 
tibiae with two to five stronger teeth at apex, 
of which two or three are usually larger 
than the rest ; none, however, are very con- 
spicuous, and they are very often almost 
obsolete 

b. Thorax at base at most as wide as elytra ; 
anterior tibiae with three or four conspicuously 
stronger teeth at apex, the last but one being 

usually the largest, 
a*. Punctuation closer and weaker ; upper sur- 
face dull 

b*. Punctuation stronger ; upper surface 

shining 

iii. Anterior tibiae without conspicuously stronger teeth 
at apex ; as a rule, evenly and finely, although dis- 
tinctly, toothed for the greater part of their length, 
but often presenting irregularities, particularly as 

regards breadth of teeth. 
1. Thorax entirely smooth between punctures; elytra 

R 2 



M. DIFFICILIS, Iieer. 
M. KuNZEi, Er. 

M. MOEOStrs, Er. 

M. MEMNONIUS, Er. 
M. OCHROPTTS, Sturm. 
M. BiiUNNicoRNis,S<«r;». 



M. viDTTATTJS, Sturm. 

M. rEDICULAEITTS,-S'/Mr»J. 



M. BIDEN3, Bris. 



M. TJiiBROSUs, Sturm. 



M. INCANUS, Sturm. 
M. OVATUS, Sturm. 



214 CLA.VICORNIA. [Meh'get//es. 

with interstices smootli, or at most showing' very 
faint traces of cross striatiou; forehead with an- 
terior margin straight; colour black or leaden 
bhxck. 

A. Anterior tarsi of male strongly dihatod ; thorax 
only a quarter broader than long, at least as 

broad as elytra M. flatipes, Sturm. 

B. Anterior tarsi of male not or very sliglitly 
dilated ; thorax twice as broad as long, narrower 

than the base of elytra M. picipes, Sturm. 

2. Tliorax and elytra with fine but very distinct cross 
reticulation between punctures; foi'ehead with an- 
terior margin emarginate ; colour leaden black . . M. rotundicollis, Bris. 

3. Thorax quite smooth between punctures ; elytra 
with line, though distinct, cross reticulation ; tore- 
head with anterior margin sti'aight ; body with 

strong purple metallic reflection . M. STMPnYri, Heer. 

iv. Anterior tibia; serrate or pectinate for at least two- 
thirds from apex ; teeth often irregular, but always 
distinct and more or less strong. 

1. Upper surface very scantily pubescent, entirely 
smooth between punctures ; legs lighter or darker 

brown ; anterior tibias serrate. 

A. Anterior tibiaj dilated from above middle ; 

thorax nearly as long as broad M. NANUS, Er. 

B. Anterior tibia! not dilated from above middle ; 

thorax short, much broader than long . . . , M. seruipes, Oi/U. 

2. Upper surface very thiclvly pubescent, thorax and 
elytra smooth between punctures, scutellum only 
with strong cross striatiou ; legs black ; anterior 

tibia) more or less pectinate M. murinus, Er. 

v. Anterior tibia3 very finely toothed, but with tw^o or 
three distinct, though small, outstanding teeth, 
situated at some distance from one another, and 

separated by two or more smaller teeth. 

1. Upper surface shining black, with slight traces of 
cross striatiou between pvinctures ; anterior tibiae 
with two outstanding teeth ; legs black, anterior 

tibiffi pitchy M. LUGTTBKis, Sturm. 

2. Upper surface dull black, with plain cross reticula- 
tion ; anterior tibiaj with two outstanding teeth ; 

legs dark, anterior pair dark red. 

A. Forehead straight ; anterior tarsi of male very 

strongly dilated M. OBSCURUS, Er. 

B. Forehead emarginate; anterior tarsi of male 

not strongly dilated. 
a. Male with a small transverse keel on the last 

abdominal segment M. ERTTHROPUS, Oi/Il. 

h. Male with a very strong transverse keel on 
the last abdominal segment, divided by a 
broad semicircular excision into two divisions, 

each ending in a strong sharp tooth . . . . M, bidentatus, Bris. 
S. Upper surface shining black, with very slight 
traces of cross striatiou ; anterior tibiaa with three 
short outstanding teeth, separated from one another 
by one or two smaller teeth ; logs dark, anterior 
tibire occasionally lighter M, exilis, Sturm. 



Meligethes.] clavicornia. 245 

II. Tarsal claws toothud at base. {Acaalhogethes, 
Keitter.) 
i. Tliorax and el^ytra ratlicr coai'sely punctured ; upper 
surface sbining, usually with u red spot on each 
elytron ; anterior tarsi of male not dilated; inter- 
stices smooth M. BREVis, Sturm. 

ii. Thorax and elytra finely punctured ; upper surface 
dull, uuicolorous ; anterior tarsi of male strongly 
dilated; interstices with phiin cross striatiou . . . M. solid us, h'tij. 

DE. rufipes, Gyll. Lroad, somewhat ovate, moderately convex, 
black, rather dull; the largest of our s])ecies; easily distinguished 
fiom all the others (except M. honban'-s) by its size, taken in conjunction 
with its red. legs ; smaller specimens closely resemble M. lumharis 
(which is the var. h of M. rufipes of Gyllenhal, Ins. Suec. i. 235), but 
may l:>e separated by the shape and the finer punctuation of the thorax ; 
the first joint of the antennae in ill", rufipes is light, in M. hnnharis more 
or less dark, and in the former species the margins of the thorax are 
broader and of a reddish colour, whereas, in the latter, they are narrower 
and darker; the latter distinctions, however, although as a rule they 
hold good, are not always constant, and are apt to be misleading ; the 
anterior tibiae in M. rufipes are sublinear, and very finely denticulate 
or crenulate. L. 2|-3|^ mm. 

On flowers, especially hawthorn bloim in spring ; found also on Jianunculacefp, Ruli 
Allium, &c. ; very common and generally distributed in England and Wales as far 
north as Yorhshire, but rarer further north. Northumberland district, " apparently 
rare ■' (Bold) ; Scotland, occasional; Dr. Sharp (Scottish Nat. iii. 373) says, " This 
sjieeies is perhaps not uncommon, but no localities are recorded for it." 

There is a reddish variety of this species which has been taken at 
Hainault Forest (Power), and Highgate (Newbery) ; one of Dr. Power's 
specimens has the thorax and one elytron of the normal colour, with a 
slight greenish metallic tinge, and the other elytron of the colour of the 
variety. 

iw:. lumbaris, Sturm (rufipes, var., Gyll. et anct.). Considerably 
smaller than the average specimens of the preceding, rather shorter, 
narrower, and more oblong, with the thorax more distinctly punctured 
than elytra, first joint of antennae usually dark, and legs considerably 
stouter and of a darker colour. L. 2|-3 mm. 

On Umbelliferce, broom, nettles, hawthorn, and other flowers ; local, hut not un. 
common in many localities; London district, rather generally distributed; Bearstead 
Kent, on roses, particularly garden ones (Gorhani) ; Southgate; Loughton ; South- 
ampton, on Pulicaria dysenterica (Newbery) ; Knowle ; Repton ; Chat Moss; Norths 
umberland and Durham district, local ; Scotland, rare, Solway district. 

1«. fulvipes, Bris. (ruhripes, Muls.). Oblong-ovate, black, occasion- 
ally with a leaden reflection, with short grey pubescence ; upper surface 
very finely punctured, with distinct cross reticulation between the 
punctures ; legs and antennae light red or reddish-yellow, occasionally 



246 CLAVICORNIA. \_31eli(jetheg. 

rather darker ; anterior tibiae with very fine, almost imperceptible, teeth, 
Avhich are slightly stronger at apex. L. 2-2 j mm. 

In marshy places on VmbelUferce, Qenistce, and Criiciferse ; not common; Dartnlh 
"Wood, Diigenliam, Strood, Southend ; Hastuigs; North Devon ; Eaimouth ; A^kbam 
Bog; not recorded from the extreme northern counties of Enghmd or from Scot- 
land. 

The very plain cross reticulation between the punctures is a valuable 
character for this species ; rubbed examples, at first sight, resemble 
M.pidpes, but the longer shape and the very finely toothed anterior tibiae 
ivill at once dis'tingu.ish them. 

M. subrug-osusv Gylh A small species, ovate, rather convex, 
shining black ; antennae entirely black ; head and thorax thickly and 
finely punctured, the latter about a third broader than long, elytra 
rugosely punctured, with strong transverse striation, especially towards 
base; the froist tibise are very finely crenulate, as in M, cnrvimis, and 
are rather lighter than the rest, but all the legs are more or less pitchy- 
black or pitchy-brown. L. If mm. 

Only one British specimen of this species is known; this was taken by Dr. Sharp 
many "years ago on the banks of the Water of Ken, Galloway, Solway district ; the 
insect occurs in many parts of Europe, not uncommonly in some localities ; in Germany 
it is widely distributed, but rare ; it will probably Le found in Britain in some 
numbers. 

The peculiar rugose and Avavy sculpture, Avhich is nearest to, but 
quite distinct from, the sculpture of M. rufipes, is the chief characteristic 
of this remarkable insect, which in some points resembles at first sight 
M. serri27es. M. suMrigosns, Er., is a variety of this species of not quite 
so deep black a colour, less convex, with finer cross striation, and with 
lighter legs and antennce, according to Erichson ; Brisout, however, 
fc-ays that they are darker than the type form. 

Ti/1. coracinus, Sturm. Oblong-oval, black, rather dull, occasionally 
with a very slight greenish or bronze reflection; punctuation of elytia 
and thorax close and fine, wdth very fine cross reticulation between 
])unctures ; antennae black with the two first joints reddish-brown ; 
thorax rather variable in shape in the sexes ; legs pitchy, anterior 
tibige rather lighter, very finely denticulate, rather more distinctly to- 
wards apex ; intermediate and posterior tibias straight or almost straight 
for two-thirds from base, and from thence sharply and obliquely cut 
off to apex. L. 2 mm. 

Not rare on the Continent, according to Brisout, on flowers of Galium and Prunus 
spinosa ; very rare in Britain ; Hampstead (Waterhouse) ; Darenth Wood (Rye) ; Mr. 
Blatch records it from Wickcn Fen, Hunstanton, and Weymoutli, in horned poppy 
and other flowers ; dark examples of M. ceneus are often placed under this name in 
collections, and I have had several sent to me as this species ; mistakes seem to arise 
from the fact that 31. coracinus is said to have a greenish reflection ; it is, however, 
as a rule, so very slight, that for all practical purposes the insect may be considered 
as black. 



o 



Melic/ethfs.] CLvviconxi.v. 2-17 

1»I. corvlnus, Er. Ovate, shining Llack, convex ; punctuation of 
elytra and tlioras rather stron.i;- ; interstices of elytra filled with rather 
indistinct and coarse cross reticulation, of thorax nearly smooth ; legs 
and antennas black, tibiae somewhat thickened towards apex ; anterior 
tibiae very finely crenulated, crenulations obtuse and hardly perceptible 
even under a considerable magnifying power. L. 2| mm. 

Ou Lahiatce ; very rare; Micklehaui (Power); ow Agr aphis nutans awA Melam- 
pyrum pratense ; Caberbam, a fe.v examples (Cliuiiipion). 

"Bl. aeneus, F. (hrassicw, Scop.). Oblong or oblong-ovate, shining, 
greenish or greenish-bronze, with rather thick and fine greyish pubes- 
cence ; antennae pitchy or blackish, with the first joint dark brown 
and the second reddish- brown ; thorax half as broad again as long ; 
punctuation of upper surface rather close, Avith fine cross reticulation 
between punctures ; legs pitchy, anterior tibise lighter, very finely 
serrated. L. H-2| mm. 

V. cceruhus {31. coeruleus, Steph ). Of a blue or purple colour, with 
the elytra sometimes brownish ; pubescence very scanty. 

On various flowers, especially Cruciferre and RanunculacecB ; very commou and 
generally distributed throughout the kingdom ; the variety occurs with the type, but 
is rather rare. 

This species is very varialile, and often gives rise to mistakes. M. 
Brisout says concerning it (Synopse du genre Meligethes, p. 10), " Jn 
the South of Europe, in Algeria, and in Syria it usually occurs with 
greyer and rather longer pubescence ; the posterior angles of the thorax 
are, as a rule, right angles, but it is not uncommon to meet with ex- 
amples in Algeria and in Spain which have these angles obtuse or even 
rounded." These remarks are worth quoting, as showing the difficulties 
that the genus occasionally presents, even in usually constant characters, 
and as tending to prove that several of the species which are now on 
slight differences regarded as distinct may very likely be merely varieties 
or races of some other species. 

BfE. viridescens, F. [virescens, Thorns.). Eather long, oval, shin- 
ing, greenish-blue, sometimes entirely green, rarely blackish ; antennae 
red with club darker ; legs red, anterior tibiae very finely serrated ; punc- 
tuation rather strong, with fine cross reticulation between punctures, 
which is plainer on thorax than on elytra ; the species may be known 
from M. cenens, with which it is often found in company, by its more 
elongate and oval shape, lighter legs, and stronger punctuation. L. 2-3 



mm. 



On CrucifercB, Ranunculacecs, and other flowers ; very common and generally dis- 
tributed throughout the kingdom. 

M. difflcilis, Heer. Of rather long oval or oblong oval form, deep 
black, very shining, usually with a very slight greenish reflection ; an- 
tennae reddish-brown, with the first two joints lighter ; punctuation 



2-iS CLAVicoRNiA. [MeU(jef7ies. 

distinct, that 'of elytra; strong, evidently stronger tlian on tlioras ; an- 
terior legs yellow or reddish-yellow, jwsterior jxiirs slightly darker, Avith 
outside margins of tibiie usually dark brown, roiind&d ; anterior tibiae 
furnished at apex with, three or four rather conspicuous sharp teeth; 
male with metasternum strongly depressed, with a tubercular prominence 
on each side of the depression about the middle ; the female presents 
the same characters in a less degree. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Locally common on Lahlatcp, cspeciiilly Lamiiun album and StacTii/s si/Iuatica ; it 
iilio IS found on Si/mphi//um officiiia/c, '&c. ; Loudon district, generally di.stributcd ; 
Amljcrley ; Ihirtlebury ; llcpton ; LliuigoUen ; Staffordshire; Cliesliire ; Lincoln; 
Mancliesttn- district; not recorded from the extreme northern counties of England 
or from Scotland. 

2VI. HLunzei, Er. Yery like the preceding, but larger with the an- 
terior tibiae less strongly toothed, the punctuation of the elytra rather 
more diifuse, and the tirst three joints lighter red, instead of tAvo only ; 
the colour is black and never shows a trace of the greenish reflection 
which is often so noticeable in M. dijjicilis ; the pubescence, which is 
very scanty, is whitish instead of blackish, as in the latter species ; the 
mctasternuni of the male, which is furnished with two conspicuous 
tubercles in M. dlfficllis, is in this species simple. L. 2^ mm. 

On Limhtm album, Stack i/s si/hmt'ica, Agraphis nutans, M elampyrum pratense, 
i\ud ]\lerrHrMlis pereiinis ; rare; Chatham, Keigate, Mickleham, Caterham, Shirley, 
Horsell, E istry ; Llangollen ; Reptcn ; Cheshire; Manchester district. 

This species is by many authors considered a variety of the preceding ; 
if, however, we are to keep M. vlduatus and pedicidarius, and other 
species as distinct, we cannot but regard M. Kimzei as distinct also, if 
A\'e have regard merely to the male characters. 

M. morosus, Er. A very difficult species, concerning which there 
feems to be considerable doubt ; it comes very close to M. memno7iius, 
from which it is said to be distinguished by having the anterior margin 
of the forehead emarginate, and the punctuation not quite so strong, and 
also by having the first and second joints of the antennae reddish, instead 
of the second only ; this character, hoAvever, cannot be depended on, as 
is plain from Mr. G. E. Waterhouse's notes (Ent. Ann. 1874,. 61), 
taken at the time he examined Erichson's collection at Berlin, in wliich 
he says, "■Morosits and memnonius wqy}' mnch. alike and difficult to dis- 
liu'^uidh ; morosus, however, has rather a shorter form, and the antennre 
are pale throughout, Avhilst in vieimionivs they are dusky at base and 
apex." As regards the emargination of the forehead, on the strength of 
which Reitter places the two species in separate divisions, this author 
himself alloAvs that it is slight in M. morosus, and as M. memmmms 
has the anterior ^margin not ahvays ipiite straight, a confusion might 
easily arise. L. 2 mm. 

Ou Caltha ixdustris and Laliatcs ; rare ; I have several specimens from Ucptou 



Mdi(/cthes.] glavicornia. 249 

which have bet'u determined for me on the Continent as this species, nnd tliere appear 
to be severiil others in Mr. livc's and Dr. Power's collections ; I shoidd certainly refer 
them all to the ne.\t species, or, following M. Brisout, include J/, meiimonius nnder 
J/, morosus. 

Tfl. memnonius, Er. This and the preceding species at first sight re- 
semble small M. c/(ffici//s, but their form is short oval, and the punctuation 
is closer and less strong, although plainly stronger than that of M. p&Ucu- 
larius ; the elytra, moreover, are not much more strongly punctured than 
the thorax ; from M. ochropus they may be knoAvn by the closer punc- 
tuation and darker antenna; and legs ; the anterior tiljiae, as in all the 
species of tliis section, are very finely toothed from a little below base to 
beyond middle, and are furnished with two or more conspicuously larger 
and stronger teeth at or close to apex. L. lf-2j mm. 

On Lamlum album, Slachifs syhatica, Galeopsis unicolor, Callha pahtstris, &c ; 
local ; Loudon di.-trict, not uncommon and generally distributed ; Dover ; Worthing ; 
Hunstanton; Ilepton ; Chat Moss; it is probably more widely distributed, but 1 know 
of no loculilies further north. 

BI. ochropus, Sturm. Broad and short, oval, convex, strongly and 
dilFusely punctured ; deep black, sliining ; antennae of a liglit reddish 
colour, first two joints yellow ; punctuation of elytra very diffuse ami 
strong, much stronger than that of thorax, which is, however, distinct and 
rather deep; legs, as a rule, yellow, occasionally darker, anterior tibiae 
with three or four sharp teeth at apex, which are not so strongly deve- 
loped as in M. difjicilis ; male Avith a smooth shining tubercle on the last 
abdominal segment; one of the chief characters of this species lies in the 
outer margin of the posterior tibiie, which is not rounded, but dilated in 
almost a straight line until the lower third, where it is suddenly and 
obliquely contracted. L. 1|-2| mm. 

On LaliatcB ; rare ; Caterham, Claygate, Woking ; Rusper near Horsham and 
Eastry, on Stachi/s sylvatica (Gorham) ; New Forest. 

This species was first recorded as British by Bold from the Northum- 
berland distiict, but his specimen was really M. hrannicornis, as Avas 
also Crotch's ocJiroiJus according to Eye (Eut. Monthly Mag. vi. 282). 

Itt. brunnicornis, Sturm. About tlie size and shape of M. diffi.cilis, 
but distinguished by its rather closer punctuation, lighter antenna^, and 
legs, and the brown reflection of both thorax and elytra, the former of 
Avhicli usually has light margins ; the anterior margin of the forehead is, 
for all practical purposes, straight, and is a very useful character by 
Avhich to separate dark specimens of this species from immature ^f. 
difficlUs, in Avhich it is evidently emarginate ; it also resembles M. 
ochrojjus, but is narrower, flatter, and more finely punctured than that 
species, besides being differently coloured ; the plain grey pubescence, 
also, which is especially noticealJe in fresh specimens, is a good distin- 
guishing character ; the male has a small shining tubercle at the ex- 



250 CLAVICORNIA. [Mc'lil/cfheS. 

tremity of the last segment of the abdomen, which is wanting in 31. 
dilfjcilis. L. U-2i mm. 

Oa Laliatce, especially Lamium album and S/acJit/x sylvafica ; rather widely dis- 
tributed aud not uncommon in the Loudon and Southern districts; rarer further north ; 
Tewkesbury; Liverpool; Northumberland district, rare; not recorded from Scot- 
l.iud. 

SS. viduatus, Sturm {melcmarius, Forst.). Eather broad oval, with 
close and comparatively fine punctuation, which gives the insect a rather 
dull appearance as compared with the five preceding species ; black, 
moderately shining ; puljescence Ijlackish ; antennas dark brown with 
the first two joints red; thorax punctured much as elytra, somewhat 
narrowed in front, with the side border slightly raised ; hinder pairs of 
legs dark brown, with the tibiae somewhat obliquely cut off to wards apex, 
front legs lighter ; anterior tiltioi with two or three conspicuously stronger 
teeth at apex ; male witli the last abdominal segment simple. L. 2-2^ 
mm. 

On Lahiatce, especially Salvia praiens/s, Galeopsis tetrahit, and Mentha aqiiaiica 
(according to Brisout) ; local and usually considered rare; Caterham ; Wickeu Feu ; 
Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire; Chat Moss (on Gahopsis tetrahit, var. versicolor 
(Chappull) ; INIauchester district; it occurs commouly in Laugwortli Wood near 
Lincoln, on AJuga repfans, aud by general sweeping, and I have also taken it on 
strawberry flowers in my garden at Liacolu ; Scotland, Solway district, Thoruhill, not 
uncommon. 

3SI. pedlcularius, Gyll. (tenebrosus, Forst.). Yery like the preced- 
ing, but less convex, of somewhat larger and blunter form, with finer 
punctuation ; the thorax has somewhat more parallel sides, and the side 
border is very slightly raised ; the hinder pair of legs are said to have 
the tibia3 rounded on the outside, and not obliquely cut off as in M. 
vi hiatus, and the larger teeth at the apex of the anterior tibiae are 
weaker. The male has a large smooth tubercle at the extremity of the 
last abdominal segment, behind which there is nn inclined, smooth, 
shining space. L. 2-2j mm. 

On Labiates, especially Lamium album and Salria prafensis ; local ; Loudon district, 
not uncommon, Darenth Wood, Chatham, Caterham, Mickleham, Dorking; New 
Forest; Wicken Fen ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Exmouth ; Da\\lis.h; IJcwdley ; Lincoln 
(common on AJuga rcptans and strawbfrry llowers) ; Northumberland district, very 
rare ; not recorded from Scotland ; Ireland, near Waterford. 

I have very carefully studied these two species, and have come to tlie 
conclusion that, except on the male character^ it is impossible to separate 
them ; the male characters themselves are not always constant, so that 
it is quite possible that they may be identical ; Reitter, in a letter to me 
on the subject, says " M. 2)edicu!anus and viduatus are hardly different ;" 
the relative punctuation, size of teeth of anterior tibia3, &c., are quite 
useless characters, as they are very variable in different sj^ecimens, 

"SH. bidens, Bris. Rather like M. pedlcularius, but smaller than 



Meli'jethes.] clavicornia. 251 

that species, narrower, less convex, less shining, and nioro liiiely ])Uiic- 
tured ; antennie brownish, with the first two joints red ; thorax nearly 
double as broad as long, with the sides nearly parallel, without cross 
striation between punctures ; elytra with Aveak cross striation, which is 
more evident at the base ; legs dark brown with the anterior tibiie ferru- 
ginous ; the species is very easily distinguished by the two conspicuous 
teeth (not separated by smaller teeth) at the extreme apex of the anterior 
tibioe, which are widened towards apex. The male has the anterior tarsi 
rather strongly dilated, and the metasternnm with a rather wide and 
deep impression. L. lf-2 mm. 

Local; on Teucriitm scorodonia ; not uncommon in some places in tlie London 
district, Birch Wooil, Micklebam, Caterliam, Chatham ; Auiberley ; Littlingtou ; 
Kinc^siiown, on Scabiosa succisa ; Dover; according to Brisout it occurs near Paris on 
Trifulinm medium, 

1*1. umbrosus, Sturm. One of our largest species, in size equalling 
average specimens of if. luiiibaris ; short and broad, convex, with very 
thick and fine punctuation, Avhich gives it a dull appearance ; pubescence 
close, usuall}' grey, sometimes blackish ; upper surf ace of both thorax and 
elytra reticulate between punctures ; thorax about a third broader than 
long, wider at base than elytra ; antennae black with the two first joints 
brownish-red; anterior legs reddish-brown with tibia? lighter, posterior 
pairs pitchy ; anterior tibiaj with several more prominent teeth towards 
apex, which, however^ are not so conspicuous as in some of the allied 
species, and sometimes are very weak or almost obliterated. The male 
has a small prominence on the niestasternuni between the posterior coxi?e, 
and a little transverse keel at the extremity of the last abdominal seg- 
ment; this character, however, is very variable in different specimens; 
this sex also has the anterior tarsi strongly dilated. L. 2|-3 mm. 

On LabiatcE, Genistce, wild Cisius, Helianthemiun imlgare, and HieraciiDn ; very 
local, and as a rule rare; London district, not uncommon, Caterham, Mickleliaui, 
Ciuitham, Darenth Wood, Brasted, Sevenoaks, Shiere, Rusper, Bearstead, &,c. ; New 
Forest ; Tenby (one specimen at Lydstep, Aug. 1885) ; Scotland, Solway district. 

M. maurvs, Sturm, Avhich bas been wrongly considered a British 
species — all its supposed exponents being 31. ovahis, Sturm — comes very 
close to M. umhrosus ; in fact, it is very hard to distinguish them, as 
in punctuation, denticulation of anterior tibiae, &c., they are exceedingly 
alike ; M. maurus, however, is rather larger than M. umhrosus, with very 
slightly stronger punctuation and weaker pubescence, and with the 
posterior margin of the thorax not broader than the base of elytra ; the 
thorax is narrower with its sides more parallel ; the teeth of the anterior 
tibiae are rather stronger ; the metasternum of male is impressed, and has 
two small tubercles on the front of the impression, and the last segment 
of the abdomen is furnished with a small smooth tubercle. L. 2|-3j- 
mm. 

The species is common in France on Salvia and Mentha, and may very likely be 
found iu Britain. 



252 CLAVICORXIA. [Meligefhes. 

Tfl. incanus, Sturm. .Dull black, of n bout tlie size of M. uinhrosv.s, 
of exactly oval outline, thickly and finely punctured, witli fine cross stria- 
tion between the ])unctures, and clothed AVith fine and distinct greyish- 
brown pubescence ; antennae black or brownish, with the first two joints 
lighter ; thorax a fourth broader than long, narrowed in front, about as 
broad at base as elytra ; legs pitchy, anterior tibiae reddish-brown, dilated 
towards apex, with three or four rather strong irregular teeth near apex, 
of which the last but one is usually the most prominent ; male with the 
metasterniim broadly impressed, L. 2|-2| mm. 

Only a single specimen is known as British, which was taken by Mr. G. R. Water- 
lionse in Darenth Wood, in July, 18o9, on JSchi urn vul/jare ; it also occurs on /S'oZaH^^m 
dulcamara and species of Nepeta ; it is rather closely allied to M. ovatus, but is more 
closely punctured and duller, and the pubescence is lighter. 

Til. ovatus, Sturm {fnU'jinosu^, Er., g ). Oval, convex, shining 
black, rather thickly clothed with fine blackish pubescence; antenn;\3 
black with the first three joints red ; thorax about a fourth broader than 
long, narrowed in front, about as broad at base as base of elytra ; punc- 
tuation of upper surface close, but stronger than in the three preceding 
species ; legs stout, dark ferruginous or pitchy, anterior tibiae strongly 
dilated with three or four large teeth at apex which are very variable ; 
male with a strong tubercle at the extremity of the last segment of abdo- 
men, and with tlie anterior tarsi conspicuously dilated ; according to 
Brisout, this species may easily be distinguished from its allies by the form 
of the extremity of the elytra, the posterior margin of each being slightly 
sinuate, Avith the sutural angle a little prolonged and rounded, but this 
character in many cases apj^ears not to be very evident. L. 2-2j mm. 

On LahiatcB ; local ; London district, not unconinion and generally distributed ; 
Suftblk ; Aniberley; Nettlecomb, Somerset; Lee (North Devon); Chat Moss, on 
Aowers of Galeopsis ; banks of Bollin, Cheshire; not recorded from the midland or 
uorthern counties of England or from Scotland. 

T/£. flavipes, Sturm (flavirornis, Mill.). Black, rather shining, 
more or less oblong, somewhat thickly and finely punctured, with rather 
thick and fine greyish pubescence ; antennae yellow or yellow-red ; thorax 
at base quite as broad as elytra, only a quarter broader than long ; legs 
brownish-yellow, anterior pair lighter ; anterior tibios armed with fine 
teeth, which become gradually larger towards apex, and are variable in 
different specimens ; in fact these teeth are so much stronger in some speci- 
mens that the species might perhaps with some reason be referred to 
the preceding group ; on the whole, however, it is best placed here ; the 
anterior tarsi of the male are strongly dilated. L. l|-2 mm. 

On Laliatce, UmlelUferce, Ballota nigra, MeUlotum, Cirsliim lanceolatum, &c. ; 
locally common ; London district, common and generally distributed ; Whitstable ; 
Deal; Eastbourne; Glanvilles AVootton ; Lancaster, on broom; Northumbcrhiud 
district. 

T/l. picipes; Sturm. Short oval, rather convex, black, with a 



NeUgethes.'] Clavicornia. 253 

lo;ul(m rellection, clothed willi thick grey pubescence, rather deeply aiul 
thickly punctured ; antennte yellow-brown, with the first joints lighter; 
thorax twice as broad as long, narrower at base than base of elytra ; 
legs reddish, anterior jiair lighter ; anterior tibiie finely but ratlier 
imevenly and irrt>gularly toothed, the teeth being in some instances 
fine and sharp, in others broader and blunter, the right and left tibiio 
being occasionally diti'erent, and shoAving both these characteristics in 
the same insect; both sexes have a small excavation at the extremity of 
the last abdominal segment. L. I5-2 mm. 

On various kiuds of flowers and blossom ; common and generally distributed 
throntrhout England and Wales ; Scotland, not uncommon, Solway, Fortb, and 
probably oilier districts ; Ireland, near Waterford, and probably general. 

M. rotundicollis, Bris. Short oval, rather convex, leaden black ; 
antennse light ; thorax about half as broad again as long, broadest about 
the middle ; punctuation of thorax and elytra close, with fine but 
distinct cross reticulation betAveen punctures ; in the two preceding 
.S2)ecies the thorax is entirely smooth between punctures, and the elytra 
are either smooth or show very faint traces of cross reticulation ; legs 
reddish-yellow, anterior tibity finely denticulate. This species at iirst 
sight closely resembles M. picipcs, and is often confounded with it ; 
it is, however, readily distinguished from it liy the rounder and some- 
what dilated sides of thorax, emarginate forehead, closer punctuation, 
and also by the plain cross reticulation between the punctures of tlui 
thorax and elytra, and the finer denticulation of the anterior tibiae. 
L. If mm. 

On Genista and Trifolium medium (according to Brisout) ; Micklebam and Cater- 
liam (Champion) ; Higbgate, Horsell, and Littlington (Power) ; Brigbton. 

3M[.. symphyti, Heer. Oval, convex, short in comparison with its 
breadth, smooth and shining, with scarcely visible scanty dark pubes- 
cence ; colour violet or greenish-blue ; antenn;e light, except clul), 
which is somewhat darker ; thorax a third broader than long, more 
closely and deeply punctured than elytra, interstices quite smooth ; 
elytra rather strongly and somewhat diffusely punctured, with plain 
cross reticulation betAveen punctures ; legs yellowish or reddish-yellow, 
anterior tibiae finely, sharply, and evenly denticulate ; male with a deep 
longitudinal impression on -the hinder half of the metasternum, Avith a 
tubercle on each side, and a smaller one in the middle of the posterior 
margin. L. 2§ mm. 

On Symphytum officinale, but by no means confined to this plant ; iu fact, more of 
our British specimens have been taken on Agraphis nutans, ■An(\. it has occurred on 
Taraxacum ; rare ; Mickleham, Caterham, St. Mary Cray (Champion) ; Chatham ; 
Darenth Wood ; Shiere (Caprou) ; Henley (Power) ; Amberley (Walker) ; Bowdon, 
Manchester, on Galeohdolon lutetim (Chappcll) ; Studley Koyal, Ripou (Water- 
Louse). 

M. nanus, Er. {inarnihii, Lris.). Oblong-ovate, not very convex, 



254: CLA.VICORNIA. [MeligetJies. 

deep black, shining, with scanty pubescence ; antennge, as a rule, reddish 
or reddish-yellow, but sometimes darker ; thorax longer than in any 
other of our species, almost as long as broad ; punctuation rather strong, 
especially of elytra ; legs varying in colour from yellowish to dark 
brown ; anterior tibiae strongly dilated for at least two-thirds from apex, 
and furnished with strong irregular teeth, of which four or five at base, 
apex, and in the middle, are especially conspicuous. L. l|-2 mm. 

On Marrubkim vulgare. Erysimum aUlaria, and Salix aurita ; very rare in 
Biitain ; Putney, one specimen with dark legs and autennaj (Rye) ; Horsell, one 
specimen with light legs and autennaj (Power); Mickleham. 

This species is allied to M. serripes, but may be distinguished from it 
by its much longer thorax, stronger and less close punctuation, and also 
by the stronger and more irregular denticulation of the anterior tibia;, 
which are more dilated than in M. serripes. 

ItK. serripeS; Gyll. {qnadridens, Fijrst.). Oblong-oval, rather flat, 
shining black, occasionally with a leaden reflection, which is chiefly 
seen in fresh specimens, and is caused by the fine ashy-grey pubescence 
with which the insect is clothed ; antenuiB and legs pitchy or reddish- 
brown ; thorax half as broad again as long, about as broad behind as 
elytra, rather plainly sinuate at base ; punctuation distinct, about the 
same on thorax as elytra ; anterior tibiae armed with a row of short, 
strong, sharp teeth from a little below base to apex ; these are usually 
regular and even, but occasionally are variable, and sometimes abnormal 
specimens occur with six or seven teeth on one side and three or four 
larger ones on the other ; metasternum of male with a distinct channel 
behind. L. 1^-1 f mm. 

On EcJ/ium vulgare, Salvia pratensis, Saponaria officinalis, &c. ; not common ; 
Darenth Wood, Faversliam, Mickleham, Esher, Caterham, Dorking, Shiere, Hamp- 
stead, Chaldon (Surrey) ; Brandon, Suffolk ; Eastbourne ; Glanvilles Wootton ; 
Ci'omer, Norfolk ; Holy Island, 

This is rather a variable species, and may sometimes be confused with 
small rubbed examples of M. JIavijjes or M. jncipes ; it may, however, 
be distinguished from both by its narrower form, and the invariably 
stronccer denticulation of its anterior tibite. 

Tfl. murinus, Er. (seniculus, Er., ? ). Oblong, not very convex, 
black, clothed with thick greyish or whitish pubescence; antenna3 
black, with the second joint, nnd sometimes the next one or two, reddish- 
brown ; thorax one-third broader than long, rather thickly and finely 
punctured ; elytra rather less thickly punctured than thorax ; cross 
striation between punctures only present on scutellum ; legs black, with 
tarsi somewhat lighter; anterior tibiae armed with a row of regular 
comb-like teeth from a little below base to apex ; male with the last 
abdominal segment furnished with a very small and narrow triangular 
indentation. L. r|-2^ mm. 

On Cynoglossum and Echium vulgare; locally abundant, crpecially on and near 
the coast in the south-eastern and southern districts; it is, however, rarer further 



Meligethes.'] clxWicornia. 255 

north, auJ sildom occurs iiilaml ; C'lterliam luiil Micklchain (Cliampion) ; Eshcr ; 
Darkiug ; Repton (W. G.iriieys) ; Northumberlaud and Durlmm district, rare; 
Scotland, local, Forth district. 

V. 2)lMiiuscuhi>i, Er. This. variety of M. muriiius, wliich is considered 
a separate species by Erichson, is characterized by having the anterior 
tibite more regularly and less sharply toothed, and the entire base of 
the antennaj red ; some of the teeth in the type form almost invariably 
point downwards towards apex, while in M. planinsculus they stand out 
at right angles to the tibite, and are smaller and blunter ; the colour of 
the base of the antonnie is not a very reliable character. 

There is a specimen in Dr. Power's collection, taken at Birch Wood 
in 1865, that agrees well with types of this variety sent to me by 
Reitter. 

EI. lug-ubris, Sturm. Oval, rather convex, deep shining black, 
closely and finely punctured with the punctuation of elytra somewhat 
plainer ; on both thorax and elytra there are slight traces of cross 
striation between the punctures, which are plainer on sides of thorax ; 
pubescence scanty, greyish ; antennae pitchy-brown with second joint 
reddish, and the club black : thorax about one-third broader than lomr. 
somew^hat contracted in front ; legs black, anterior tibise pitchy-brown 
Avith two short outstanding teeth separated by two or more small teeth ; 
forehead excised with a small sharp projection in the centre of the 
emargination ; metasternum of male depressed behind with a strong 
longitudinal cariniform projection on the front of the depression ; last 
abdominal segment of naale with a little raised keel before its extremity, 
and l)ehind this a smooth depressed space ; anterior tarsi of male strongly 
dilated. 

There is a small variety of this species, which, according to Brisout, 
has less strong and deep punctuation, and in which the keel on the last 
abdominal segment of the male is often deeply divided so as to present 
the appearance of two sharp tubercles placed side by side. L. If- 
2 mm. 

V. gagaihimis, Er. This species of Erichson's is evidently nothing 
more than a variety of M. luguhris ; it is larger and more convex, wuth 
darker pubescence, and has the anterior tibiae more finely denticulate, 
but is not really specifically distinct. L. 2| mm. 

On Thymus serpyllum, Mentha, Relianthemum, Origanum, &c. ; occasionally in 
moss, in winter; very local; Loudon district, not nnconiraon, Mickleham, Caterhani, 
Shirley, Claygate, Coombe Wood, Esher, Bearstead, Buckland Hill, Chertsey, Chatham, 
Sheerness, Maidstone, &c. j Kingsdown ; Amberley ; it is apparently only tbnnd in the 
south-eastern counties. 

IVZ. obscurus, Er. (jUstincius,W. C, wee Sturm ; palmatus, Er., $ ). 
Rather broader and more oblong than M. erythropvs, which it much 
resembles; dull black, leaden, with distinct cross reticulation between 
punctures ; punctuation thick and close ; pubescence thick, greyish or 



25G CLAVicoRNiA. [Melif/eihes. 

brownish ; antennsB black, -willi tlie first or first two joints brown-red ; 
thorax abont a third broader than long ; front legs brown, posterior 
pairs black, anterior tibiae aimed with two short prominent teeth, 
separated by two or more smaller teetli. The male has the anterior 
tarsi extraordinarily developed, and often lighter in colour ; it is the 
31. j^rtbnatiis of Erichson, and for a long time has stocxl under that name 
in British collections. L. 1|— 2 mm. 

On Mentha aqualica, Ci/noglossum officinale, Teucrimn scorodonia, Linarhi 
vulgaris, Helianlhemum vulgare, &c. ; locally common; London district, rather 
common and generally distribnted ; Amberley ; Southsea ; Hastings; Niton. I»lc 
of Wight; ; Clevedon, Somerset (abundant, Sept. 1886) ; Llangollen ; Central Wales, 
Devil's Bridge, Llanlihaugel, Borth, &e. ; I know of no record from the mid- 
laud counties ; Northumberland and Durham district, rare; Scotland, rare. Forth 
district. 

The M. (Usfinctus of Waterhouse's and other British catalogues must 
be referred to this species ; the true J\[. distindus, Stui'm, has not been 
found in Britain; it appears to be very closely allied to M. ohscuriis, 
but differs in having the anterior margin of the forehead emarginate, 
and in the fact that it has no cross reticulation between the punctures 
of the upper side. 

1*T. erythropus, Gyll. (carinulatus, Furst.). A small species, variable 
in size ; rather long oval, leaden black ; punctuation thick and fine ; 
pubescence grey, fine and rather dense ; upper surface with distinct 
cross reticulation between punctures ; antenna3 brown-red, sometimes 
rather dark, sometimes quite light ; thorax about a third broader than 
long ; legs lighter or darker red or ferruginous, hinder pairs often pitchy, 
anterior tibice armed Avith two short prominent teeth separated by smaller 
teeth ; male with a small transverse keel on the last abdominal segment ; 
the species is closely allied to the preceding, but may be easily known 
by its smaller and more oval form, emarginate forehead, lighter an- 
tennce, and the male characters ; some specimens are very small. L. 
1-lf mm. 

On Selianthemum vulgare, Galeoldolon liifeum, &c. ; according to Brisout it 
occurs on PaplUonacece ; I have found it abuiulantly on Pottntilla iormentiUa ; 
local ; London district, not uncommon, Mlckleham, Caterham, Shirley, Croydon, 
Dulwich, Chertsey, Chatham, Sheppy, Darenth, Shiere, Ouildford, Highgate, Eastry, 
Bearstead, &c. ; St. Leonards; Hastings; Glanvillis Wootton ; Exeter and lustow 
(Devon); Repton ; Lincoln, common in Laugworth Wood, and sparingly on straw- 
berry flowers in my garden ; Chat Moss ; Manchester district; Northumberland and 
Durham district ; Scotland, local, Forth and Clyde districts ; Ireland, near Water- 
ford. 

M. bidentatus, Bris. Oval, rather broad and convex ; leaden 
])Iack, with ashy pubescence ; legs blackish with anterior tibiae ferru- 
ginous ; anterior tibiae with two short prominent teeth separated by two 
or more smaller teetli ; very closely ollied toil/, erntlirojnn^, but separated 
by its broader and more convex form, rather closer punctuation, thicker 



Meli'jethes.] clavicornia. 257 

tihife, and tlic fact that the male has the hist ahdominal segment fur- 
nished "with a very strong transverse keel, which is divided by a broad 
seniicircuhir excision into two divisions, each ending in a strong sharp 
tooth. L. lf-2 mm. 

Very rare ; the species was introduced as British on two specimens in Mr, 
Crotch's collection; these I have not seen, and cannot tell whetlier either of them 
was a male; both the otiier two known specimens are females, one in Mr. Rye's 
collection, and the other taken by Mr. Champion at Caterham, of which he says 
himself that it is "apparently referable to this species;" as, except on the male 
characters, the species is hardly distinct from M. erqthropun, it appears to require 
further coutii-niation, although it probably occurs in Britain, and may be found 
mixed with M. erythroims in collections. 

3>I. exilis, Sturm {nigrita, Luc). Ovate, rather convex, shining 
black, closely punctured, with very slight traces of cross striation between 
punctures ; pubescence very fine ; antennaj dark brown with black club ; 
forehead emarginate with a very small tooth in the centre of emargina- 
tion ; thorax rather long, only a quarter broader than long ; legs very 
dark, black or almost black, with the anterior tibiui pitchy ; anterior 
tibiaj with three short but distinct outstanding teeth, one above and one 
below the middle, and a tliird at apex, separated by smaller teeth, 
Male with a small curved keel on the apex of the last abdominal seg- 
ment. L. 1^-1 I nun. 

Bare; Mr. Waterhouse once took a specimen in the court-yard of the British 
Museum ; Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth (J. J. Walker) ; Braunton Burrows, near 
Instow, N. Devon, on Echium rulgare (Mason) ; Tenby, S. Wales, where I found it 
rather commonly at the end of August or beginning of September, 1885, at Lydstep, 
Penally Burrows, &c., always on Hieraciuni ; Barmouth on Tkrincia hirta (Lesser 
Hawkbit) (Wollaston) ; Isle of Man (R. P. Murray); Scotland, very rare, Solway 
district, Galloway (Sharp) ; according to Brisout it is found on PapilionacecB. It is 
cue of our smallest and most distinct species. 

SX. brevis, Sturm (Acanfhogethfs hrevis, Eeitter). Short, rather 
broad, black, with a rather leaden reflection ; antennas red, club some- 
times rather darker ; forehead strongly emarginate ; thorax about half as 
broad again as long, strongly rounded in front, slightly broader at base 
than base of elytra, with strong punctuation ; elytra unicolorous, not so 
strongly punctured as thorax ; upper surface of both thorax and elytra 
M'ithout cross reticulation between punctures ; legs red, sometimes quite 
light, sometimes darker ; anterior tibiae armed with regular distinct teeth 
for at least two-thirds from apex, the centre ones being usually the most 
prominent. L, lf-2 mm. 

V. mutahilis, iio^Qwh. (M. pkti is, 'R-^e). Eather larger; elytra with 
a red spot on each, variable in extent, L. 2-2 j mm. 

On Helianthemum vidgare ; has only occurred in Britain at Scarborough, where it 
has been taken in some numbers by Messrs. L^iwson and Wilkinson, and at 
Hartlepool, where it has recently been taken by Mr. Gardner ; the type form is 
rare ; out of a series of forty examples that I have examined, only one or two show no 
trace of a spot ; one of these, a small specimen in Dr. Power's collection, is a good 

VOL, III. S 



258 CLAVicoP.NiA. [Meh'gethes. 

example of the type form. The species is said also to be found on flowers of 
Centaurea calcitrapa (the Star Thistle), a plant which is found occasionally in some of 
the southern counties of England, but is uncommon. 

M. solidus, Sturm. Eatlier a large species; short oval, convex, 
black, rather dull, unicolorous, closely and finely punctured, with plain 
cross striation between the punctures ; antennae short, l:)lack, with 
basal joints reddish ; forehead strongly emarginate ; thorax about a 
third broader than long, with sides slightly rounded, a little broader at 
base than base of elytra ; elytra punctured as thorax ; legs stout, reddish 
or pitchy-brown, anterior tibi;e with three or four strong serrate or 
pectinate teeth at apex. L. 2| mm. 

On Keliantliemum vulgare, chiefly in chalky places ; local, but not uncommon 
where it occurs ; Caterham, Mickieham, Kenley, Esher, Darenth, Birch Wood, 
Bearstead, Shiere, Chatham, Dartford, Favershara, &c. ; Amberley ; Riddlesdowu ; 
Hastino-s ; apparently it is confined to the south-eastern counties; according to 
Brisout it occurs on Genista and Lotus. 

This species is in size and shape very like M. umhrosus, but is of a deeper 
black colour and more convex, and the anterior tarsi are differently den- 
ticulate ; the tarsal claws also are toothed at base, 

CYCHRAMmA. 

The species of this tribe ar« chiefly distinguished from the preceding 
by the fact that the thorax covers the base of the elytra instead of 
simply fitting closely to it, and by the more elongate and less compact 
club ; all the species are round or oval and convex ; the elytra cover 
nearly the whole of the abdomen, at most part of the pj'gidium being 
exposed, and the prosternum is more or less prolonged at apex ; there are 
several genera which belong to the tribe or are closely allied to it, among 
them Camptodes (containing about fifty species, chiefly from Central 
and South America), Strongylus, Lasiodadylus, &c. ; only one genus, 
however, is represented in Britain. 

CVCKRABIUS, Kugelann. 

This genus contains half-a-dozen species, four of which are found in 
Europe, one in Algeria, and one in North America ; two occur in Britain ; 
these may easily be known by the wide thorax (which overlaps but 
does not fit the base of the elytra), prominent eyes, loose dark 3- 
jointed club of antennae, simple tibiae, and almost semicircular men turn, 

I. Colour luteous or testaceous ; pubescence thick and fine ; 

punctuation closer C. ltjteus, F. 

II. Colour light ferruginous ; pubescence more scanty and 

coarser ; punctuation more dili'use and stronger . . . . C. fungicola, Reer. 

C7« luteus, F. Oval, almost round, convex, thickly and finely 



Oi/chramus.] clavicornia. 259 

punctured, clothed with thick and tine yellowish pubescence ; coluiii- 
testaceous or luteous without darker markings ; antenna3 with blackish 
club ; thorax behind about as broad as elytra, witli sides strong!}^ 
rounded ; elytra with very narrow side margins ; legs teataceous. L. 
3—4 mm. 

On flowers of whit-etliorn in spring; also iu decaying fungi; rather common and 
generally distributed in tlie London and Southern districts ; very common in the 
]\lidlands; rarer further north; Northumberland district, rare; Scotland, in fungi, 
Sohvay, Clyde, and probably other districts ; Ireland, near Dublin, and probably widely 
distributed. 

C. fung-icola, Heer. Of a somewhat light ferruginous colour, with 
a darker shade on each side of the elytra, which is more or less ill-defined, 
and sometimes disappears altogether ; pubescence longer and more 
scanty and punctuation more diffuse and stronger than in C. luteus ; it 
is also slightly longer in form, and rather more convex and shining 
than the latter species. L. 3-4 mm. 

In fungi, especially in autumn ; occasionally by sweeping ; not uncommon and 
generally' distributed throughout England and Wales; Nortliumberlaud district, 
common in fungi in woods ; Scothind, Solway and Moray, and probably other districts ; 
it is most likely widely distributed iu Ireland. 



IPIl^A. 

As we approach the end of the NitidulidiB, we come upon certain 
tribes whose position seems somewhat doubtful, but which afford an 
easy transition from one family to the next ; such tribes are the Ipiua 
and Rhizophagina, which lead into the Trogositiilas. Of the Ipina 
there are three British genera — Cryptarcha, Ips, and Pityopliagus ; the 
latter of these three has usually been classed with Ips, but is now riglitl}'- 
separated from it. Some authors insert the Cybocephalina between tlie 
Cychraraina and Ipina, but the 4- jointed tarsi and contractile body 
of Cyhoc.ephalus point to a very different }X)siticn. The Ipina aie 
characterized by having the labruni hidden, instead of free and visible 
as in the preceding families; the antennae are 11 -jointed, witli a 
somewhat loose 3-jointed club ; the prosternum is strongly produced, 
more so in Cryj^tarcha than in Ips ; the mentum is very narrow, 
usually oblong or trapezoidal ; the mandibles in Ips, especially in some 
exotic species (e.g. i/;s Japoniea), are very large and strong ; in Cryp- 
tarcha they are slender and sickle-shaped ; the labial palpi are short in 
Cryptarcha, longer and less stout in Ips ; tlie maxillary palpi are some- 
what slender ; the membranous paraglossse in Ipjs are very conspicuous ; 
the British genera may be distinguislied as follows : — 

L Anterior coxal cavities open behind. 

i. Thorax overlapping base of elytra ; elytra entirely 

covering abdomen ; body oval, upper surface pubescent. Cexptaecha, Shuck, 

s 2 



2G0 CLAVicoRNiA. ' [Ipina. 

ii. Thorax not overlapping base of elytra ; pygitUuni ex- 
posed ; body elongate, upper surface glabrous . . . IpS, F. 
II. Anterior coxal cavities narrowly closed behind; other 

characters as ia Ij^s Pityophagus, ShucJc. 

CStVPTAHCHA, Slmckard. 

This genus contains about twenty species, of which ilve occur in 
Europe ; the others have been described from Ceyh^n, Western Africa, 
and North, Central, and South America (two of the hitter having been 
found in Chili) ; our two British species are very distinct ; this is not, 
however, the case with some of the exotic species (e.g. C. camjitodoides 
and C. thalijcroides), Avhich, as their names imply, bear a close super- 
ficial resemblance to otVier divisions of the NitidulidjE. 

I. Size larger; form broad oval; thorax dark, except extreme 

margins of sides ; club of antennae dark C. strigata, i?'. 

II. Size smaller ; form long oval ; thorax with margins broadly 

testaceous ; antennae entirely reddish or reddish-brown . . . C. impeeialis, F. 

C. strig-ata, F. (lateralis, Sahib.). Of rather broad oval form, 
convex, thickly punctured, clothed with very fine pubescence, and with 
very fine outstanding setai at the sides of elytra ; colour dark, fuscous, 
■with the mouth, sides of thorax, and margins of elytra reddish, and two 
irregularly formed dentate bands on elytra yellowish or reddish-yellow ; 
antennae brownish-red with club dark ; thorax large, fully as broad 
at base as base of elytra, base sinuate, not margine<l ; legs red. L. 
3-5^ mm. 

At sap and under bark of oaks, &c., very often in connection with the burrows of 
Cossus lignix>erda ; not common ; Richmond Park, Coombe Wood, Shirley, Chuidon 
Common (Surrey), Westerham (Kent), Belvedere, Cobham Park ; Hastings ; New 
Forest ; Southampton ; Dean Forest ; Knowle, near Birmingham ; Colchester ; 
Barmouth, iu fungi; Bretby Wood, near Repton, by sweeping; Dunham Park, 
Manchester. 

C. imperlalis, F. Of more elongate form, and not so convex as the 
preceding species, and considerably smaller ; prevailing colour reddish- 
testaceous ; vertex of head, disc of thorax, and two or three very irregu- 
lar bands on elytra, dark ; antennse and legs red-brown ; it also differs 
from G. strigata in having the outstanding setse on the sides of elytra 
much more distinct. L. 3-4 mm. 

Taken under the same circumstances as and often in company with the preceding, 
but rarer ; Clandon Common, Coombe Wood, and Cobham Park ; Hastings ; 
Glanvilles Wootton; New Forest; Southampton; Knowle; Dunham Park, Man- 
chester. 

IPS, Fabricius. 

This genus, in its widest sense, contains about thirty species, whicli 
are very widely distributed, but chietly occur in the Northern llemi- 



IjfS.] CLAVICOKNIA. 261 

sphere and in temperate or cold climates ; representatives, how^cver, have 
been described from South Africa, Mexico, and Cliili ; the species are 
rather conspicuous insects, and are usually vario;4atcd \\'ith large reddish 
or yellow spots on the elytra ; they are found at sap or under bark. 

The larva of Tps] quadripunclata is described by Perris, Larves des Coleopteres, 
p. 43 ; it is almost linear, very little uarrowed at the two extremities, of a jellowisli- 
wliite colour, somewhat coriaceous, with scarcely auy pubescence ; the ninth segnicub 
of the abdomen bears two short corueous cerci aud a very short aual appendage ; tho 
larva is very probably parasitic on Hylurgus. 

I. Body oblong, more or less convex ; forehead 

smooth between antennaj. 
i. Each elytron with two yellow spots, the one at 

base formed of three confluent spots, the other 

behind middle formed of two confluent spots, 

which are occasionally separated ..... I. QTJADKiaTTTTATA, J'. 
ii. Each elytron with two simple round or oval 

reddish spots I. Quadripxtnctata, Heihsi. 

II. Body elongate, flat, parallel-sided; forehead 
with more or less distinct furrows between 

antenuce I. QTTADeipustulata, 7,. 

Z. quadrig'uttata, F. Obloiig, shining black, rather convex, elytra 
coloured as above described; occasionally the whole five spots are 
separate: this variety is the Nitidula lO-gidtcda, Oliv. ; head large, 
finely and sparingly punctured ; antennse reddish, with dark club ; thorax 
transverse, feebly narrowed in front, rather diffusely punctured; elytra witli 
l)unctuation a little closer than on disc of thorax, apex entirely rounded 
in males, pointed at suture in females ; the elytra show very weak 
traces of longitudinal striiB ; legs pitch-black with tarsi reddish. L. 
3-5 mm. 

At sap, and under bark of oak and other trees ; occasionally in fungi ; local, but 
not uncommon in several districts; New Forest; Dean Forest; Devon; Buddau 
Wood, Leicester; Needwood, Burton-on-Trent ; Sherwood Forest; Ripon ; Man- 
chester ; Northumberland district, rare ; not recorded from Scotland ; the species 
appears to be chiefly attached to the oak. 

I. quadripunctata, Herbst. Larger, more convex, and more 
strongly punctured than the preceding, and easily distinguished by the 
two simple orange-red spots on each elytron ; the apex of the elytra is 
entirely rounded in both sexes ; in the males, as a rule, the head is 
large, and the thorax somewhat broader than the elytra, so that the whole 
body appears sometimes to be gradually narrowed from the front parts to 
the apex of elytra. L. 4-6 mm. 

At sap and under bark of oak, fir, birch, and other trees ; locally common ; Wey- 
bridge, Caterham, \Valtou-on-Tluimes, Mickleham, Suubury, &c. ; New Forest ; 
Dean Forest; Needwood; Repton ; Chat Moss; Knutsford ; Manchester, under oak 
chips, where the trees have been recently cut down ; Northumberland district, nob 
uncommon ; Scotland, scarce, Sohvay, Tweed, Clyde, Tay, and Dee districts. 

I. quadripustulataj L. Elongate, flat, parallel- sided, shining 



2G2 CLAVICORNIA. [Tjx^. 

Llack ; each elytron with two orange-red spots, tlie one at base irregular, 
the other behind middle simple, round or nearly round • punctuation 
diffuse, closer on thorax than on elytra ; elytra with traces of strise ; 
apex of elytra rounded in males, produced at suture in females; antennce 
pitchy, club darker, narrower than in the preceding species and not quite 
so compact ; legs pitch-black, with tarsi lighter ; size very variable. 
L. 3-6^ mm. 

Under bark and at sap of firs and other trees ; common in Scotland under bark of 
Scotch fir both Lowlands and Highlands, Solway, Clyde, Tweed, Tay, Dee, and 
Moray districts, and probably general. Northumberland district, not rare ; it is 
apparently very rare further south, but has been recorded, perhaps in some cases in 
error, from Leicester, Hertford, Windsor, Dover, Hastings, Devon, &c. 

PITir©P2Sil.G-tJS, Shuckard. 

This genns has been separated from fy$ on the ground that the 
anterior coxal cavities ore narrowly closed behind and not open ; it also 
differs in its narrow cylindrical form ; three European species are con- 
tained in the genus, of which one is found in Britain. 

The larva, of P. ferruffineus is described and figured by Ferris, Ann. Fr., 1853, 
p. 596, pL 18, fig. 77 — 83; it is 8-9 ram. in length, linear and rather depressed, 
with the head rather large, almost subquadrate, nearly as broad as thorax ; the pre- 
vailing colour is whitish with the thorax sometimes reddish, and the last abdouiinal 
s-egmeut is ferruginous; the abdomen terminates in two short corneous cerci and a 
very small anal appendage : this larva is parasitic on llylesinus, Hulustes, and 
Et/Iohius ; the perfect insect lays its eggs in the borings made by these beetles, and 
tlie larva when hatched apparently feeds upon the larvao of its hosts ; the pupa is 
white, with a few hairs ou vertex, and sides of thorax and abdomen. 

P. ferrug-ineus, F. Elongate, convex, cylindrical, as a rule entirely 
ferrnginous, with head darker, but occasionally the apex of elytra is 
tlark ; head very thickly and rather strongly punctured ; thorax longer 
than broad, very slightly narrowed behind, thickly and strongly 
punctured; elytra moderately thickly punctured, more closely at 
apex, with punctures almost arranged in rows ; apices truncate, Avitli 
outer angles rounded ; legs rather stout, with tibiae dilated towards apex. 
L. 4-5 mm. 

Under bark and at sap of freshly cut firs ; very local; Shirley, Eshei", Weybridge, 
Woking; New Forest; Bournemouth, plentiful (Kemp- Welch); Northumberland 
aiid Durham district, common ; Scotla,ud, under bark of Scotch fir, uot uncommon, 
(Solway, Tweed, Tay, Dee, and Moray districts; it most probably occurs in many in- 
tervening districts, but 1 know of no Midland records for the species, 

RHIZOPHAGINA. 

The position of this tribe is one of considerable difficulty, and it is 
almost certain that it will eventually have to be raised to the position of 
a family ; perhaps a further study of the exotic alHed genera and 
species (of which several yet remain undescribed) is necessary before this 



Rhizojyhafjina.] clavicornia. 2G3 

is finally done, but at present the tribe certainly does not agree with 
the Nitidulidtc by reason of the heteronierous tarsi of the nude, nor 
Avith the Trogositidaj, because its members have the fourth tarsal joint 
the smallest', whereas the Trogositidse have the first joint the 
smallest; the antennse also present a great point of difference, con- 
sisting to all intents and purposes of ten joints, with a solid club ; after 
careful examination of a specimen soaked for a long time in caustic potash 
and mounted in Canada balsam, I cannot discover any real suture m 
the club, and however far we may, like Erichson, Thomson, and otliers, 
consider the ridges, which are apparent externally, as representing the 
obsolete eleventh joint of the antennae, yet the club is really 1-jonited 
and solid ; besides the extensive genus Ehlzophiu/us, only three or four 
small exotic genera (Uuraps, Mimema, and Crine) are contained m 
the tribe, but the number will in all probability be_ considerably 
increased ; several forms yet remain to be worked out in the exten- 
sive series of Nitidulida; collected by Mr. Champion in Central 
America ; one or two of these allied genera have the club distinctly 
2-joiiited. 

RHIZOFH ACS-US, Herbst. 

Upwards of forty species are comprised in this genus, which are 
almost entirely confined to temperate and cold climates ; two or three 
have been described from Tahiti, Cuba, Ceylon, &c. ; they are elongate, 
more or less depressed insects, and are found under bark _ and _at_ sap ; 
there are sixteen European species, of which ten are found in Britain. 

The larva of JR. depressus is described aud figured by Ferris, Ann. Fr., 1853, 
p 599, pi 18, fig. 84—92 ; it is 6 mm. iu leugth, rather depressed, and almost lincnr, 
except that the head is narrower than' the prothorax ; the head and prothovax are reddish, 
the ba«e of the latter being whitish, and all the succeeding segments, except the last, 
are reddish for their basal half, and whitish for their apical half; the head is long, 
almost elliptical, with two long impressions; the prothorax is much longer than the 
meso- or metathorax, and is rounded and narrowed in front ; the last scgnient is 
entirely ferru>ni'Ous, and is furnished on its upper surface with two distinct tnbercles ; 
tliis seo-ment°behind is divided into two lobes, each of which terminates in three 
strong teeth ; on the under-side is a small anal appendage, which is used, as m other 
allied species, for progression ; this larva preys upon the lavvsi of Hyjesinus and 
probably other wood-boring beetles. The larva) of many of the Nitidulidse and other 
families which frequent trees are of very great benefit to the forester; for as 
M Pen-is remarks, they are of great service in keeping within bounds the multiplica- 
tion of some of the insects that are most destructive to various forest trees. 

'i he pupa of Rhizophagus depressus is rather long and narrow, of a white colour, 
and furnished on vertex and at sides with long silky hairs j it does not, however, present 
any striking peculiarity. 

Other larvce of various species oi Rhizophaffus have been discovered, 

but they do not differ much from the one first described, except ais. 

regards the arrangement of the teeth at the end of the lobes of the 

last abdominal segment. 
I. Antenna; with club truncate , . . R. CBIBKAIUS, Gyll. 

II. AnteuuoD with club rounded at apex. 



2C4 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Rhizof)hagus. 

i. Colour testaceous or ferruginous, sometimes witli 
indications of a darker sliudc on disc of tliunix 
and elytra. 

1. Punctuation of thorax close and fiue . . . . R. DEPRESsrs, F. 

2. Punctuation of thorax more or less coarse, but 

varying in degree, 

A. Elytra depressed. 

a. Strite on elytra finely punctured ; average 

length 3 mm E. PEBFOEATTIS, Hr. 

b. Strire on elytra coarsely punctured ; average 

length 4 mm. H. parallelocoilts, JEJr. 

B. Elytra convex, cylindrical . R. fereugineus, Payk. 

ii. Prevailing colour pitchy or blackish.; base and apex 

of elytra to a greater or less extent light. 

1. Liist segment of alidomen with a plain impres- 
sion in both sexes, terminated on each bide by a 

small prominence R. NITlDtrLlTS, F. 

2. Last segment of abdomen simple R. dispae, Gyll. 

iii. Fiytra black or brownish-black, with a plainly 

defined yellow spot on each a little before apex . . R. bipusttjlatus, F. 

iv. Colour unloolorons black R. POLITUS, Hellw. 

V. Elytra blue or Lhiisb-green ; head, thorax, and 

scu'tellum shining black R CCERTJLEIPENNIS, Salilb. 

^. cribratus, Gyll. Of a dark ferruginoits colour, depressed, rather 
sliining ; head rather shorter than in most of the other species, thickly and 
strongly punctured, antennae with the club truncate, a character which 
will at once distinguish the species ; thorax about as long as broad, 
gradually narrowed behind, very coarsely and diffusely punctured ; elytra 
somewhat widened in the middle with rows of strong punctures ; under- 
side of head and sides of body strongly punctured. L. 3^ mm. 

Under bark and at roots of trees, especially oaks; not common ; Weybridge, Esher, 
Richmond Park, Reigate, Tilgate Forest, Birch Wood, Dulwich, New Fore -it ; Mount 
Bilgecumbe, Plymouth (Wollaston) ; Knowle; Robin's Wood, Repton ; Sherwood 
Forest; Studley Park, Ripon, in fungus (Waterhouse) ; Scarborough; Stretford ; 
on decayed roots of lime trees, Withington Common, near Manchester (Chappell) ; 
Hartlepool ; Northumberland district, rare, Houshel and Hartford Bridge ; Scotland, 
very rure, Solway district ; it is not recorded in Dr. Sharp's list, but I have lately 
received a specimen taken by Mr. W. D. R. Douglas at Orchardton near Castle 
Douglas under fir bark ; Ireland, Galway, locally common, and Westport (co. Mayo) 
(.1. J. Walker). 

£1,. depressus, F. Light rust-red, Avith suture of elytra usually 
darker ; body depressed ; head of male largo, about as broad as thorax, 
of female narrower ; thorax longer than broad, widest in front, thickly 
and very finely punctured ; elytra with very finely punctured strite, first 
interstice with a row of widely separated fine punctures (which is found 
also in other species), second interstice widened and irregularly punctured 
at base. L. 2-4 mm. 

Under bark of oak, fir, &c. ; somewhat local, but not uncommon, and apparently 
generally distributed thrcughout the greater part of the kingdom. 

Ti. perforates, Er. Of a light lUst-rcd or testaceous colour with the 



ti 



Rhiznphagus.'] Clavicornia. 205 

disc of thorax sometimes darker ; thorax longer than broad, widest in front, 
very slightly contracted Ix'hind, with anterior angles very plainly marked, 
"with coarse anil ditl'use punctuation ; club of antennai oval ; elytra de- 
pressed, parallel to middle and thence gradually narrowed, with rather 
"weak and comparatively finely punctured striaj ; the species may be easily 
distinguished from li. depressas, which at first sight it much resembles, 
by the much coarser punctuation of the thorax, and from H. jMrallrlocollis 
and It. ferrugineus by its average smaller size, and the more finely and 
less closely punctured stritc of elytra ; the thorax, moreover, is not quite 
as closely punctured on disc as in these two species. L. 3 mm. 

Under bark, at sap, &c. ; not common; Chatham, Shecrness, Darenth, Miclileham, 
Sliirkiy, Esher, Faruham, Parley, &e. ; Ipswich; St. Peter's, Kent (in decaying pota- 
toes, one specimen, T. Wood); Hastings; Weymouth; New Forest; Portland; 
Devon; Saltbrd Priors; Bewdley ; Sutton Park, Birmingham; Church Stretton ; 
Piuldon Wood, Lcict stershire ; Sherwood Forest ; Scothind, rare, amongst old wood, 
Solway district only ; Ireland, Galway (J. J. Walker). 

Zl> parallelocollis, Er. Larger on the average than the preceding, 
and as a rule of a darker ferruginous colour, with the disc of thorax and 
hinder half of elytra very often clouded witli blackish-brown ; head 
nearly as broad as thorax ; thorax longer than broad, widest in front, 
very slightly narrowed behind, coarsely punctured ; elytra depressed, 
especially in the nuddle, with rather strong plainly punctured stria3 ; the 
species most closely resembles R. ferruriinem, from which it may be 
know^i by its more depressed form and larger head ; occasionally 
specimens are found which are coloured almost like R. dispar ,- the latter 
species, however, is less depressed and narrower, and has the thorax 
evidently longer and less coarsely punctured. L. 3-4 mm. 

Under bark, at sap, iu fungi, &c. ; local ; Darenth Wood, Miekleham, Forest Hill, 
Esher, Shirley, Chatham ; Regent's Park, in a tree infested by Cossus ; Dean Forest ; 
Sherwood Forest ; the late Archdeacon Hey once found it in numbers iu a cemetery 
near York in a fungus (Copris comatus) in company with Alomaria fimelarii ; 
Northumberland and Durham district, not rare, on the walls and tombstones of grave- 
yards ; Scotland, rare, Solway district. It has lately been recorded as abundant iu 
France in coffins in grave-yards, buried at some depth below the ground. 

R. ferrug-ineus, Payk, Eather dark ferruginous^ iinicolorous ; head 
small, considerably narrower than thorax ; thorax longer than broad, 
scarcely narrowed behind, very strongly punctured ; elytra convex 
cylindrical, with strong and strongly punctured striae ; under-side deeply 
punctured, especially at sides ; the species may be known by its some- 
what narrow head, and convex cylindrical elytra, which are evidently 
more strongly striated and punctured than in the allied species. L. 3^- 
4| mm. 

Under hark and at sap of freshly cut firs, &c. ; somewhat local, but widely dis- 
tributed throughout England; Scotland, common, Solway, Tay, Dee, Moray, and pro- 
bably other districts; Ireland, near Dublin ; it also occurs under bark of oak near the 
burrows of Cossus lignijjerda. 

B,. nitidulus, F. Elongate, subcylindrical, head and thorax 



286 CLAvicouNiA. \_Rltizopliagus. 

brownish-red witli disc of latter darker, elytra brownisli-red or blackish 
Avith extreme side margins, apex, and basal fourth part red, the colour, 
however, being somewhat variable in extent ; head large, especially in 
male, eyes prominent ; thorax considerably longer than broad, more so in 
the male than the female, plainly punctured on disc, more finely at sides ; 
elytra with distinctly and regularly punctured stria3, sutural stria deeply 
impressed behind middle ; antennae and legs ferruginous ; last segment 
of abdomen with a distinct impression, terminated on each side by a 
small raised prominence, L. 2|-4|- mm. 

Under bark, at sap, &c. ; rare; Sutton Park, Birmingham; Hopwas Wood, Tani- 
wortli ; Cannock Chase ; Needwood ; Matlock ; Sherwood Forest ; Scotland, R ainoch 
(Power and Champion). Mr. W. G. Blatch has been more succesaful in finding this 
rare insect than any other British entomologist.* 

IS,, dispar, Gyll. Closely resembling the preceding species in colour, 
but smaller, and rather flatter, and with the colour rather more variable ; 
head large, especially in male, eyes prominent ; thorax evidently longer 
than broad, more so in the male than in the female, finely punctured at 
sides, more plainly on disc ; elytra with plainly punctured strise, sutural 
stria strongly deepened, especially behind ; antennte and legs ferruginous ; 
last segment of abdomen sim})le in both sexes ; size as in the preceding 
species very variable. L, 2-4 mm. 

Not uncommon at sappy bark of pines, poplars, &c., in the Midlands and North of 
England, and in Scothind and Ireland ; it does not, liowever, apparently occur in the 
London district or the South ; in Scotland it is sometimes found in profusion under the 
bark of conifers ; it is occasionally found in fungi on decayed trees, 

H. bipustulatus, F, (lo7ir//coUis, Gyl\., ? ). Eather flat, pitchy- 
black or brownish- black, with a plainly defined yellowish-red spot on each 
elytron a little before apex ; the shoidders also are often slightly reddish ; 
head in both sexes somewhat narrower than thorax, thickly and some- 
what finely punctured ; thorax not much longer than broad, Avith sides anel 
anterior and posterior angles slightl}^ roundtid, distinctly and not very 
closely punctured ; elytra Avith plainly and regularly punctured stria?, 
sutural stria deepened behind ; antennas and legs ferruginous; size and 
colour very variable. L. 2-3| mm. 

Under bark, at sap, &c. ; common and generally distributed throughout the king- 
dom. 

This species A^aries very much in colour, some specimens being light 
pitchy-brown, and others testaceous ; the former may easily be distin- 
guished, as the tAvo spots on the elytra are always distinct, if the ground 
colour is at all darker ; pale immature examples, hoAvever, may sometimes 
l)e confused Avith M. perforatus, but the rounded sides and angles of 
thorax, Avhicli is also more closely and less strongly punctured, and the 
more plainly punctured striae of elytra Avill serve to distinguish them. 

* Mr. Horner and Mr. Blatch have recently taken a species allied to H. nitiduhhs in 
Sherwood Forest, which appears to be undescribed. 



Rhizopha()us.'\ clavicor>'Ia. 267 

R. politus, Hclhv. Oblong, ratlier broad and flat ; colour luiicolor- 
ous black, shining ; head rather large, strongly impressed, finely punctured, 
the punctuation being diffuse in front and close behind ; thorax sulMpiad- 
rate, as long as broad, diffusely and finely punctured, with a space between 
centre and base smooth ; elytra with plainly punctured strife, which 
become evanescent towards sides and apex ; antennae and legs ferru- 
ginous. L. 3-4 mm. 

Under bark of pines, and occasionally other trcesi; rare ; Lee, Kent, one specimen by- 
sweeping (Douglas); Is'ew Forest (Cbanipion); Tiiiteru and Kooke, Moiiuioutbsbire ; 
Hartlebury, Bewdley, and Salford Piiors (Blatcli); Sberuood Forest (Blatch and 
Gorliani) ; Sti-etfortl, near Manchester (Hardy and Kestou) ; Scotland, Avicniore 
(Champion). 

B. coerulcipennis, Sahib, [ameus, Richt.; cceruleus, Waltl.). Eather 
short and broad ; head shining black, narrower than thorax, somewhat 
finely punctured, antenna?, reddish with black club ; thorax black, not 
longer than broad, narrower than elytra, with anterior and posterior 
angles rounded, rather finely and thickly punctured ; elytra blue or 
Itluish-green, metallic, with fine punctured stria?, sutural stria deej^ened 
l)ehind ; legs ferruginous with femora brownish ; under-side lighter or 
darker reddish-brown. L. 3 mm. 

One of the rarest of our British beetles; three specimens have occurred in or near 
the Lover's Walk at Matlock, Derbyshire ; they were taken by Mr. Matthews, Mr. 
Garneys, and Mr. Crotch ; the specimen obtained by the last-named gentleman Hew 
from his beard on to the window after he had returned to the hotel ; one specimen has 
also been recorded as taken by Mr. Taylor at Crosby, near Liverpool. 



TROGOSITID-a;. 

In the Munich catalogue nineteen genera and one hundred and forty- 
four species are enumerated as belonging to this family, and these have 
since been added to ; only seven genera represented by fourteen species 
are found in Europe, and three genera containing one species each in 
Britain ; we need not, therefore, discuss at any length the position of 
the family, which has by many authors been included under the Kiti- 
dulidae ; Lacordaire, however, appears to be right in separating them 
from this latter family on the ground of the structure of the maxillte and 
tarsi ; in the Nitidulida? these latter are usually 5-jointcd, with the 
fourth joint very small ; in the Trogositida? they are 5-jointed, witli the 
first joint very short, the second to the fourth moderate, and the last 
joint very long. 

Our three genera belong to two very distinct tribes, which may be 
distinguished as follows : — 



*o" 



I. Form elongate without flattened margins Teggositina. 

II. Form oval or rounded, very convex, with distinct flattened 

margins Peltina. 



2G8 CLAVICORNIA. [Trognsitina. 

TROGOSITINA. 

This tribe contains two British genera ; the species are elongate, but 
differ very mnch in appearance, Tenebrioides being rather broad and flat, 
and Nemosoma very long and narrow and cylindrical ; they are charac- 
terized by having the clypeus trisinuate or emarginate in front, and by 
having the anterior coxae entirely enclosed ; the antennte in our species 
are 11-jointed, and the last three joints form a more or less distinct 
club. 

1. Form very imrrovv and cvliudrical ; eyes rounded . . . Nemosoma, X«/r. 
II. Form elongate-oblong; eyes transverse Tknebrioides, PiW. 

KEMOSOS^A, Latreille. 

This genus contains a iQ\y species which are found in Europe and 
!N"orth America ; they occur in wood, and appear to be parasitic on species 
of llylpsinus, &c. 

The larva of N. elongatum is fully described by Erichson (Naturgesiclite der Ins. 
Deutsdi. iii. 239), and is also described and figured by Westwood (Classif. i. 146, 
fig. 12, 2) ; it is closely allied to that of Tenebrioides, but is longer, thinner, and 
more cylindrical, with less long and less numerous hairs; according to Westwood 
this larva has a very quick motion when excited, and when touched throws itself 
into various attitudes like a small Stapbylinus; unless excited its movements are slow 
like the imago; the head is flat, and in walking it is constantly in motion from side 
to side, or upwards and downwards; the larva by means of au anal proleg is able to 
move backwards or forwards. 

N. elong"atum, L. Shining black, with the basal third (or occa- 
sionally half) of elytra and a patch before apex of the same reddish- 
testaceous ; this patch varies in size, and is sometimes obsolete ; form 
very narrow, elongate, cylindrical, parallel-sided ; head as long as thorax, 
with rather long distinct punctures, and a deep frontal furrow, antennae 
reddish-testaceous with distinct 3-jointed club ; thorax much longer 
than broadj slightly narrowed behind, finely and diffusely punctured ; 
elytra two and a half times as long as thorax, finely punctured almost 
in rows, with a fine impressed line near suture ; legs reddish-testaceous. 
L. 4 mm. 

Under bark in company with Hylesinus vittatus, on which it is parasitic — especially 
in old palings ; of very rare occurrence, but sometimes locally common ; Darenth 
Wojd (Stephens) ; Sydenham (Ingall and Westwood, 1833 ; Power, 1852) ; Cliesliire, 
Whatcote, and Compton Wyuniat (Power) ; Warwickshire ; Beeston, Notts (Side- 
botham). 

TENSBHIOIDSS, Filler. 

About fifty species are contained in this genus, which are widely 
distributed, occurring in both tropical and temperate regions ; of those 
at present known a very large proportion appears to come from North 
America ; one species only is found in Eui'ope, which has been dis- 



Tenehrioides.] clavicornia. 2G9 

tributod l>y commerce over a great poiiion of the world; it has usually 
been referred to Trof/osita, 01., but as the type of Olivier's genus appears 
to be Teninochila ccerulea, the latter insect is now referred to Trogosita, 
and the name Tenehrioides is substituted for the old genus Trognsita. 

Tlie larva of T. maiiritanicus is fully described by Ericbson (Naturgosiclite dcr 
Ins. Deutsch. iii., p. 243), and is also described and figured by Westwood, Classif. 
i. l-i7 ; it is rather loug and cylindrical, narrowed towards the head, and furnished 
with long setas at sides; the head is small, jiitcliy, with short antenna?; the pro- 
thorax has a rather broad dark scutum (which appears sometimes at all events to be 
divided), and the meso- and nietathorax are both furnished with two small jiitchy 
scuta, one on each side ; the last abdominal segment is pitchy, and bears two rather 
strong conical spines ; the general colour is dirty white. 

This larva feeds upon stored grain, and sometimes does a very serious 
amount of damage in granaries ; it also attacks bread, nuts, and almonds, 
and sometimes is found in dead trees ; according to Curtis it is very 
destructive in the South of France (where it is called " Caddie "), as it 
eats the outside of the grain, and passing from one to another injures 
more than it consumes. 

T. mauritanicus, L. (carahoides, F.). Black or pitchy-black, 
sometimes pitchy-red, oblong, depressed ; head narrower than thorax, 
rather sjxaringly and strongly punctured ; antennoB with a 3-joiiited, 
but not very strongly marked, club ; thorax transverse, narrowed behind, 
strongly margined, anterior angles considerably projecting, posterior 
angles right angles forming a tooth, disc more sparingly, sides rather 
more thickly, punctured ; scutellum impunctate ; elytra with sides slightly 
rounded, with distinct striaj, which are rather obsoletely punctured, 
interstices finely punctured and irregularly striated transversely ; legs 
ferruginous. L. 6-10 mm. 

In warehouses, bakers' shops, granaries, &c. ; not uncommon and generally dis- 
tributed throughout the kingdom ; au imported species. 



PELTINA. 



The insects belonging to this tribe are oval or round and very 
convex, with a flattened margin ; in our single genus Thynndus and also 
in Pelt is the anterior coxal cavities are open behind; 2\ Hmbati/s 
closely resembles a Cassida in general appearance, and at first siglit 
appears to be as different from Nemosoma as any insect could well be. 

TK-STMAXiUS, Latreille. 

This genus contains one species from North America, and one which 
is somewhat widely distributed in Europe. 

The larva of T. ?««tfl/«.s is described and figured by Chapuis and Candcze (Les 
Larves des Coleopteres, p. 77, pi. ii., fig. 6) ; it is rather broad aud stout, D-IO niui. 



270 CLAViCoRXU. [Tliymalus. 

in length, whitish with the scutum of prothorax (which is almost entire) and the last 
segment of abdomeu blaekish-brown; the upper sui'ftice is very uneven, and the sides 
are furnished with set.T ; the greatest breadth is at the sixth or seventh segment of 
abdomen; the antenna; are 4-jointed, exceedingly short, and the legs are not visible 
from above ; tlie last abdominal segment terminates in two short stout cerci ; the 
larva lives under b;irk, and transforms itself into a pupa about April; it does nob 
ai^iJear to be certain whether it is carnivorous or not. 

T. limbatus, F. Oblong- orbicular, upper surface dark metallic red- 
disli-bronze, very shining, with flat explanate margins which are clear 
red, under-side reddish-brown ; the whole upper-side is clothed with 
thick upright yellowish hairs ; head small, antennae rather slender with 
strongly marked 3-jointed club; thorax almost semicircular, upper surface 
thickly and distinctly punctured ; elytra very convex, with shoulders 
rather plainly marked, punctured very coarsely in not very regular rows, 
interstices very finely punctured ; legs red. L. 5|-6 mm. 

Under bark ; very local and as a rule not common ; Westerham, Kent (Stephens) ; 
Hastings (Bennett); New Forest (not uncommon, both in standing dead trees and 
in fallen branches) ; Wales (Dillwyn) ; Dean Forest ; Cannock Chase ; Sherwood 
Forest; Leeds district; Northumberland district, very rare, Kavensworth (Hardy). 



MONOTOMID^. 

This family has been regarded by some authors as a tribe of the 
Lathridiidse or of the Cucujidas ; it appears, however, to be the best 
plan to regard it as distinct, as both in the formation of the antenna 
and in other characters it presents considerable points of difference from 
either of these families ; the species are elongate, more or less depressed, 
usually dull, Avith the thorax crenulate at the sides, and the elytra not 
covering the pygidium ; the antennee are inserted uiider the sides of the 
front, and are 10-jointed, or obsoletely 11-jointed, with the club solid 
or obsoletely biarticulate ; the head is large, and the mandibles short 
and robust ; the anterior coxal cavities are broadly closed behind ; the 
abdomen is composed of five free ventral segments, of which the first and 
fifth are longer; as in some of the Nitidulidae the males have a small 
extra dorsal segment ; the tarsi are 3-jointed, the third joint being elon- 
gate, and the first two being clothed beneath with long hairs ; the claws 
are simple. 

The family contains a few genera, the chief of which is Monotonia ; 
the species are small and, as a rule, obscure-looking insects, and are 
found among rubbish, under bark, in ants' nests, &c. 

ItZONOTOMA, Ilerbst. 

This genus contains about thirty or forty spccieSj which are chiefly 
confined to the northern and temperate regions of the Old and New 
Worlds ; species have, however, been described from the Canary Islands, 



Mo7wtoma.] clavicornia. 271 

Ceylon, &c. ; they are small, elongate insects, as a rule dull witli sca- 
brous sculpture, and may further be recognized by their more or less 
quadrate thorax, of Avhich the anterior angles are more or less callo.^e or 
prominent ; there are nine British species, which arc all very distinct, 
but the differences are in many cases comparative, and hard to express in 
words ; they are very slow in their movements, and occur for the most 
part in vegetable refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; tAvo of them, however, are found 
exclusively in ants' nests. 

I. Upper surface more or less coarsely scabrous. 

i. Colour, at least of head and thorax, more or less 
pitchy-black or pitchy-browu. 

1. Head obloug, not nuicli narrowed before eyes, 
which are small ; habitat in ants' nests. ( Gj/- 

rocecis, Thorns.) 

A. Thorax much longer than broad . . . . M. CONICICOLLTS, Aule'. 

B. Thorax not much longer than broad . . . M. rOEMlCETORUM, Thorns. 

2. Head triangular, much narrowed in front of 
eyes, which are larger ; habitat in vegel able 

refuse, &c. (Moiiotoma, i. sp.) 

A. Sculpture of upper surface very coarse ; 
thorax considerably narrowed in front; elytra 
short, almost ovate; impressions on forehead 

not luarked M. spinicollis, Aube. 

B. Sculpture of upper surface coarse ; thorax 
quadrate with sides straight and par;dlel ; 
elytra longer and more parallel ; impressions 

on forehead not marked M. BEEYICOLLIS, Auhe. 

C. Sculpture of upper surface coarse or mode- 
rately coarse; thorax subquadrate with sides 
slightly but evidently contracted in front ; 
elytra variable, elongate-ovate ; impressions 

on forehead very strongly marked .... M. PiciPES, Herlst. 

D. Sculpture of upper surface moderate ; 
thorax subquadrate with sides straight and 
parallel ; elytra elongate, parallel, scarcely 
wider than thorax; impressions on fore- 
head absent M. quadeicollis, Aule. 

li. Colour rufous; form parallel; thorax quadrate 
with sides parallel ; forehead with strong im- 
pressions M. EUFA, Eedt. 

II. Head and thorax finely scabrous, elytra scarcely 

scabrous ; head oblong, colour rufous M. sirB-4-POYEOLATA, Wat, 

III. Upper surface shining, not scabrous ; form small 

and linear; colour dark M. longicollis, Oijll. 

Til. conicicollis, Aube {angusticollis, auct. ; Gyrocecis angusticollis, 
Thoms.). Elongate, dull pitchy-brown or fuscous, upper surface, espe- 
cially of head and thorax, very scabrous ; head large, elongate, sub- 
oblong, with forehead not foveolate, eyes small ; antennse ferruginous ; 
thorax much longer than broad, narrowed in front, conical, with the 
anterior angles projecting in a lobe, and the sides strongly serrate, with 
two distinct fovea) towards base ; elytra with rugose strife, and with the 



272 CLAVicoRNiA. \_M(mo{oma. 

interstices furnislied -vviUi rows of short setoj ; pygidium exj)oseJ ; legs 
lather short, ferruginous. L. 2-2| mm, 

Male Avith the thorax more narrowed in front and the anterior angles 
more strongly produced, and with all the tibisc curved and produced into 
a spine at apex. 

Ill nests of Formica riifa; local, but not uncommon wlicre it occurs; Esher ; 
Plumstead; Chatham; Tilgate Forest; Hastings; Parkhurst Forest, Isle oF Wight; 
Glauvilles Wootton ; Devon ; Bewdley Forest ; Buddou Wood, [jeieestershire ; York ; 
Scarborough ; not recorded from the extreme northern counties of Eugland ; Scot- 
land, rare, Dee and Moray districts. 

Vli. formicetorum, Thorns, (angusticollis, auct. ; Gijrocecis formi- 
cetormn, Thorns.). Very like the preceding, but at once distinguished 
by its shorter thorax which is much less narrowed in front, and by its 
shorter and proportionally broader head and larger and more prominent 
eyes ; the elytra also are broader, especially at apex ; the tibiae are not 
curved, and do not terminate in a spine in the male. L. 2-2 1 mm. 

In nests of Formica rufa, and sometimes in company with the preceding ; it is, 
however, more local and less common ; Hampstead' ; Eslier ; Plumstead ; Chatliam ; 
Tilgate Forest ; Hastings ; Parkhurst Forest, Isle of Wight ; Buddon Wood, Leices- 
tershire; York; it does not occur, apparently, in the extreme northern counties of 
Eugland, or in Scotland. 

As the name angusticollis, Gyll., Iras been applied by different authors 
to both species, and Gyllenhal's description (Ins. Suec. iv., p. 634) will 
fit either insect, it seems best for convenience sake to drop it altogether; 
in all probability Gyllenhal described the two species as one ; the M. 
anf/usticollis, Gyll., of Sharp's catalogue must be referred to M. conici- 
coilis, but the M. angi'siicollis, Gyll., of the catalogue of Heyden, Reitter, 
azid Weise, is Thomson's M. formicetorum. 

1*1. spinicolliS; Aube {spinigera, Chaud.). Pitchy-black, elytra 
usually somewhat lighter, with reddish shoulders ; head large, tri- 
angular, rather strongly narrowed before eyes which are prominent ; an- 
tennaj moderately long, ferruginous ; thorax not much longer than 
broad, with sides rounded and somewhat dilated behind and evidently 
narrowed in front, anterior angles sharply produced, strongly sculptured, 
the sculpture being composed of large round variolose impressions with 
more or less raised intervals, disc with two depressions towards base; 
elytra short and broad, somewhat ovate, rather shining, with very coarse 
but rather shallow rugose sculpture ; legs ferruginous. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiie rather strongly curved and feebly emar- 
ginate towards apex, terminating in a short and not very evident spine. 

Incut grass, hot-beds, haystack refuse, &c. ; not common; Ealing, Wimbledon, 
Forest Hill, Darenth Wood, Chatham, Cowley, Maidstone, Croydon, Peckham, 
Shirley, Bishops Wood ; Kiugsgate ; Glauvilles Wootton ; Edgbaston ; Kuowle ; 
Keptou, near Burtou-ou-Treut. 



Mojiotoma.} clavicornia. 273 

The sculpture of this species will easily separate it from all the others. 

I^. brevicollis, Aubo. Of much the same colour as the precedinc^, 
but much duller, and with the front parts more scabrous ; it is, moreoveV, 
easily distinguished by its shape which is more parallel, the elytra beinc 
narrower in proportion to the thorax, and much less ovate; their sculp- 
ture, too, is less coarse and more distinct, consisting of regular rows of 
asperate punctures ; the species, however, is best known by the shape 
of the thorax which is almost quadrate with the sides quite or almost 
parallel, and the anterior angles only slightly and bluntly produced, the 
posterior ones being also evidently produced and callose ; the male 
characters are much as in the preceding. L. If -2 mm. 

Ill liaystac'k refuse, cut grass, &c. ; rare ; Gravesend, Slu^erness, Claygate, Forest 
Hill, Diirenth Wood, Maidstone, Peckliam, Shirley; Cheddar, Somerset; Kept on ; 
Wallasey, Cheshire. 

ES. picipes^ Ilerbst. Pitchy-black, or brown, sometimes with 
elytra reddish ; as a rule it is a little more shining than Ji". hrecicollis, 
but duller than M. spinicolUs ; from the former of these sjiecies it 
may moreover be distinguished by its proportionally longer, narrower, 
and less c^uadrate thorax, of which the anterior angles are more pro- 
duced, while from the latter it may be separated by having the thorax 
less contracted in front, with the anterior angles less sharply produced, 
as well as by its narrower elytra and less coarse sculpture ; from both 
these species, and also from M. quadricollis, it may be known by the 
very pronounced fovese or impressions on the forehead. L. l§-2 mm. 

In the male the anterior tibiae are slightly sinuate and curved at apex 
on their interior martiin. 

O 

In haystack and other refuse ; occasionally by sweeping ; generally distributed and 
comiuou throughout the Southern and Midland districts of England, but rarer 
further north ; Scotland, scarce, Solway, Forth, and probably other districts ; Ireland, 
Dublin and Waterford. 

Tit. quadricollis, Aube, Blackish or reddish-brown, with elytra 
sometimes lighter than thorax; smaller and narrower on the average 
than the preceding sj^ecies, and somewhat linear and parallel- sided; head 
and thorax closely sculptured, the former without impressions on fore- 
head, the latter subquadrate, with sides straight and almost parallel, 
anterior angles bluntly prominent, posterior angles scarcely prominent, 
sides hardly visibly crenulate ; elytra only slightly broader than thorax, 
rather long, with rows of asperate punctures. L. 1|^ mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiae sinuate before apex. 

In haystack refuse, dung-heaps, &c. ; not uncommon ; London district, generally 
distributed; St. Peter's, Kent; Hastings; Cheddar, Somerset; Wickeu Fen ; Edg- 
baston ; Kuowle ; Repton ; not recorded fi oiii further north than Derbyshire : Murray 
records it from near Edinburgh and Glasgow, but Dr. Sharp doubts whether the 
determination is correct ; it is probably much more widely distributed than is 
generally supposed, and it often appears to be confused with M. picipes by collectors, 
from which it may at once be known by its even forehead, which is without the 
depressions so distinct in this latter species. 

VOL. III. T 



274 CLAVicoRNiA. [Monotoma. 

M. rufa« Redt. (qiiadriwipressa, Mots. ; 1 quadrifoveolata, Aube). 
Entirely rufous, elongate, subparallel ; head triangular, strongly narrowed 
in front of eyes whicli are large and prominent, forehead with distinct 
impressions; thorax longer than broad, Avith sides parallel, rather closely 
sculptured, anterior and posterior angles moderately prominent, with 
four fovefG on disc, of which the anterior pair are often indistinct or 
absent ; elytra rather long -with rows of rather indistinct asperate punc- 
tures, interstices with very regular rows of pale set^ ; anterior tibiae of 
male only slightly sinuate before apex, and terminating in a very small 
tooth. L. H-2 mm. 

Ill haj'stack refuse, cut grass, &c. ; occasionally iu gardens, granaries, &c. ; local, 
Lut sometimes abuudaut where it occurs ; Ealing ; Lee ; Hanipstead Heath ; Cowley ; 
Slieerness; Peckham ; Eltham ; South Shields, very rare (Bold). 

M. sub-4:-foveolata, Wat. {quadrifoveolata, Aube, sec. Brit. Cat.). 
In colour this species resembles the preceding, but may at once be 
known by the shape of the head which is oblong, and scarcely con- 
tracted before the eyes which are much smaller and less prominent ; the 
thorax is broader and more quadrate, and the four impressions or foveje 
are more distinct and are often conlluent, forming two broad longitudinal 
furrows on the disc ; the sculpture of head, thorax, and elytra is finer, 
and the elytra are smoother and less dull ; the antenna) also are shorter, 
and the side border of the thorax is less marked. L. l|-2 mm. 

In haystack refuse, cut grass, &c. ; sometimes in granaries ; rare ; first taken in 
Hainault Forest by Mr, E. W. Janson ; Sheerness (Walker); Peckham (Marsh); 
Wimbledon ; Scarborough (II. Lawson) ; Scotland, Dollar (Syme, Dr. Power). 

This species forms a connecting link between the two first species of 
the genus and the remaining species, and makes it evident that Thomson's 
genus Gyrocecis cannot stand as separate ; there is great confusion re- 
garding the nomenclature of this and the preceding species in the works 
of various authors. 

M. long'icollis, Gyll. {flavipes, Kunze). Pitchy-black or brown, 
shining, elongate and linear ; head large, finely punctured, ■without evi- 
dent depressions ; thorax considerably longer than broad, shield-shaped, 
finely sculptured, with two distinct elongate foveas at base, anterior 
angles moderately prominent, posterior angles rounded ; elytra finely 
and simply punctured in rows, finely pubescent; antennae and legs 
testaceous or reddish-testaceous. L. \\ mm. 

Male with the anterior tibise slightly curved. 

In haystack refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; occasionally by sweeping ; local; Loudon dis- 
trict, not common, Sheerness, Caterham, Shirley, Dulwich ; St. Peter's, Kent; Hast- 
ings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Cheddar; Barnwood, Gloucester; Knowle; Sutton Piirk ; 
Eepton ; Mabberley, Cheshire ; Scarborough ; York ; Northumberland district; Scot- 
land, rare, Solway district. 

The small size, shining appearance, and simple sculpture will at onco 

distinguish this species froni all the others. 



LailtritUidce.] clavicorxia. 275 

LATHRIDIID^. 

This family contains a large number of small and oljscurc insects, 
which are found in various situations, but, as a rule, in various kinds of 
vegetable refuse, moss, fungi, faggots, bark, &c. ; tlie'constitutio)i of the 
family has given rise to much dispute ; the genera Langelandia, Dasy- 
cerus, Holopara?necus, and Anomiiiatns, which have been by some 
authors included in the family, are by others referred to other groups, 
and the question as regards their true position is to a certain extent 
still undecided ; others again include Myrinecoxenus and Hypoeoprus, 
both of which seem to be connected with the family by their external 
facies, but on a closer examination seem to agree more naturally witli 
other families ; the student Avho may wish to study this most interesting 
family more deeply is referred to the writings of Herr Eeitter^ and more 
especially to the valuable monograph on the "■ Famille des Latlnidiens " 
by M. Belon, to whose courtesy I am much indebted, and whose arrange- 
ment of the tribes I have, after some consideration, followed ; the genus 
concerning which I feel most doubt is Anommaius, which the Rev. A. 
Matthews, after studying the external skeleton, refers to the Colydii(hv ; 
Mr. Matthews also refers Holoparamecus to the Mycetophagidse, and in 
the catalogue published by us in 1883 these genera Avill be found 
occupying these respective positions ; as, however, we study these obscure 
families, we cannot help being struck with the impossibility of locatin,'-'- 
certain synthetic genera with any feeling of certainty, and the true posi- 
tions of several will probably be found eventually to be very different 
from those now assigned to them, as connecting forms are discovered in 
various parts of the world ; at the same time it is a much better course 
to place them provisionally than simply, as some writers have done, to 
separate them off as "■ genera incertas sedis " in a sort of appendix. 

The species belonging to the family are widely distributed throughout 
the world, and some are almost cosmopolitan ; when once introduced 
they seem to have the power of sprcilding very fast and very widely ; 
thus Laikridius nodlfer, which some forty years ago was very rare, lias 
become one of our commonest insects, and has spread to the most remote 
districts. 

The following are the chief characters of the family : — Form usually 
more or less oval, with the head and thorax narrower than elytra, Imt some- 
times parallel or even filiform ; head varying in shape but usually rather 
large in proportion, antennae 8-11-jointed, terminating in a more or less 
distinct club, mandibles not strongly developed, maxillaa with two lobes, 
maxillary palpi 4-jointed, with the last joint large ; anterior coxje conical 
and prominent, Avith the coxal cavities closed beliind ; elytra covering 
abdomen ; tarsi 3-jointed, with the last joint elongate, terminating in 
two simple claws. 

Tlie larvse of tlie Lathridiidae are elongate-oval or more or less elliptical, of n dir(v- 
wbitish colour, with the body clothed with more or less thick and variously sliipcd 

T 2 



276 CLAVicor.NiA. [LaiJiridiklce. 

hairs ; they are composed of twelve segments, of wliicli tlie tliovacic segments are 
larger than the rest, and terminate in a short anal appendage which serves to facilitate 
progression; the antennae and legs are short; the larvaj and pnpaj of LathHdlus 
minutus and Corticaria pubescens are described and figured by Perris (Ann. Fr., 1852, 
p. 574, 581, Plate xlv.) ; the larvaj closely resemble one another, but the pubescence 
is much shorter in the latter ; the pupa of Lathridius minuhis is very peculiar 
by reason of the shape of the hairs with which it is clothed, which are abruptly 
clavate at apex and pin-shaped ; the larva; probably feed on eryptogamic substances, 
the escremeut and skin of various insects, &c. 

I. Anterior coxa3 more or less separated by the prosternum (or 
where the prosternum is interrupted between the coxse,* with 

the club of antennae consisting of only two joints). 

i. Forehead even, without sculpture, or at most finely punc- 
tured ; clypeus situated on the same level with the forehead, 
from which it is separated by a simple stria Meeophtsina. 

ii. Forehead uneven, more or less strongly and rugosely sculp- 
tuied, often channelled in the middle ; clypeus separated 
from the forehead by a transverse depression, and usually 
situated on a lower level Latheidiina, 

II. Anterior coxaj contiguous; club of antennaj composed of three 

or four joints Corticaeina. 

MEROPHYSINA. 

This tribe contains several genera, of which two only, Tloloparamecus 
and Anomjiiatus, are represented in our fauna ; from the Corficarina they 
are distinguished by having the anterior coxse separated by the pro- 
sternum, and from the Lathridiina by the sculpture and form of the liead 
which is almost smooth, and has the clypeiis level with the forehead, 
and only separated from it by a simple suture ; our two genera may be 
separated as follows : — 

I. Eyes distinct ; elytra oval without striae or at most 

with a sutural stria HoLOPARAMECTTS, Curtis, 

II. Eyes wanting ; elytra parallel-sided with rows of 

strong punctures ; form linear, subcylindrical . . Akommatus, Wesmael. 

KOIaOPARAMSCUS, Curtis. 

This genus contains some twenty-five or thirty species, which are 
found in various parts of the world, both in tropical and temperate 
regions ; there is, however, considerable question as to the distinctness 
of some of them, and several appear to have been described under 
different names, as is perhaps natural, seeing that they occur very often 
in flour, and therefore, like so many of the corn and flour beetles, become 
gradually cosmopolitan. Up to January, 1883, it was suj^posed that we 
only possessed one species as British out of the eight or nine European 
species, but in the Entomologist for that month (page 2) Mr. Sidney 
OUiff described tAvo more as indigenous, viz. H. singularis Avhich he 

* This is to a certain extent the case with the genus Cariodere. 



Holo}mramccus.'] clavicornij\. 277 

regards as distinct from II. depressus, and II. cmil'irum ; II. depressus, 
however, is so very variable that the species split oif from it by various 
writers must be taken with great caution, and I have therefore preferred 
to follow the catalogue of Heyden, lieitter, and "Weise in regarding them 
as synonymous. II. caularum is, of course, very distinct, and is pro- 
bacy our commonest British species. Mr. Olliff is, however, wrong in 
assigning it to the sub-genus Calyptohiam of A^'illa. In Calyptohium the 
antennae are 9-jointed in the male and 10-jointed in the female, and not 
11-jointed in both sexes as stated in the Entomologist; //. depre.^sus is, 
therefore, a Calyj^fohium, and H. caularum a true Holoparamecus, as it 
is rightly regarded in the last European catalogue. 

I. AnteiinfD 11-jointed iu both sexes (s.g. Ilolojyara- 

mecus, i. sp. ; Tomyrium, Reitter) H. CAULAEUM, Aule. 

II. Antenna; 9-jointed in uiale, 10-jointed iu female 

(s.g. Caiyptobium, Villa) IT. DEPEESSUS, Curt. 

H. caularum, Aube {ohtusicornis. Mots.). Entirely testaceous, 
except eyes, which are black, shining, very finely and sparingly pubescent, 
and. very finely punctured ; head moderately large, rounded in front, 
eyes somewhat convex ; antcnnaj 11-jointed Avith a well-marked 2-jointed 
club, first and second joints rather laige, 3-8 subglobose, ninth trans- 
versely globose ; thorax cordiform, a little longer than, or about as long 
as, broad, with sides strongly rounded in front and strongly constricted 
behind, with four foveaj at base, of which the two central ones are rtsually 
confluent, and often form a transverse line which is deeply impressed in 
the centre ; elytra oblong-oval, very finely and irregularly punctured. 
L, 1^ mm. 

In hot-beds and decaying vegetable matter ; Witliinijton, Chesliirc, in dung-hcaps 
(J. Cliappell) ; Manchester district; Mr. Ollift' recoids a single csami)le as taken by 
Mr. Oliver Janson in July, 1869, "crawling on a whiteued wall, at the base of whicii 
was a quantity of decaying vegetable matter ;" he does not, however, give the locality ; 
Mr. Cliappell ]jas found a considerable number of dead specimens of the species, and 
has distributed several of them, with his usual liberality, under the name of S. de- 
pressus. 

IS. depressus, Curt, (^singularity, Beck ; Villce, Aube ; pojmli, Mots.; 
longipennis, Mots.). This species in general appearance very closely 
resembles the preceding, but may easily be distinguished by the fact that 
in the male the antennse are 9-jointed and in the female 10-jointed ; the 
thorax is shorter and proportionately broader and less constricted be- 
hind, and usually has a fovea on disc, and the elytra are rather more 
coarsely punctured and slightly broader with the sides straighter ; 
besides the difference in the number of the joints of the antennte, tlie 
female differs from the male in being a little larger, more elongate and 
depressed, with the eyes less convex, and the impressions at the base of 
the thorax deeper. L. 1-1| mm. 

In flour, &c. ; also oejusioually on the wing, and rarely iu hot-Lcds, &c. ; it is a 



278 GLAVicoRNiA. [Iloloj/aramecus. 

cosmopolitan species, but is very rare in British collections ; London district ; Norfolk ; 
Newcastle ; Siuidorland ; and one or two other localities ; the insect described by 
Mr. Ollitf as II. singitlaris. Beck, is said by him to differ fi-om H. depressus in 
liaving the thorax only slightly narrowed and not constricted behind, in the shape of 
the basal impressions, and in the absence of the discal fovea, and es*j)ecially in the 
minuteness of the eyes ; the last character is the only important one, but like 
the other characters, it appears to be somewhat variable, and to be partly sexual ; 
the single specimen known as British was taken by Mr. Olliff at Holmwood, 
Surrey, under a piece of wooil placed upon the remains of a hot-bed. 

It is possible that, the !N"eAVcastle and Sunderland specimens may 
lielong, like those from the Manchester and Liverpool districts, to 
H. caularum, and not to //. dejjressus ; I have not, however, had an 
opportunity of examining any of them. 

ASTOiyriaATUS, AVesmael. 

This genns has usually been classed with the Lathridiidie by reason 
of its 3-jointed tarsi and other minor points, but it corresponds 
almost entirely as regards its external skeleton Avith the Colydiidse, and 
at all events must be considered as a very strong connecting link between 
the tAvo families ; the members of the genns are usually subterranean in 
their habits, and are remarkable for the absence of eyes ; there are seven 
or eight European species. 

A. 12-striatus, Wesra. (ohsolefus, Steph. ; terricola, Wesm.). 
Oblong, linear and parallel-sided, someAvhat convex, ferruginous or 
leddish-testaceotis ; head narroAver than thorax, sparingly but distinctly 
punctured ; antennae rather stont, apparently 10- jointed, Avith the tenth 
joint forming a solid club which is almost as long as the four preceding 
joints together ; thorax large, quadrate, longer than broad, Avith the 
angles blunt, strongly and coarsely punctured ; elytra scarcely tAvice as 
long as thorax, rounded at apex and entirely covering abdomen, each 
Avith six roAvs of rather strong punctures, which become feebler toAvards 
sides ; abdomen Avith five segments, the first being as long as the 
two folloAving ; femora robust, tarsi 3-jointed Avith the third joint con- 
siderably longer than the first tAvo together. L. H-lf mm. 

Tn decaying wood and rotting seed potatoes underground ; also under stones 
half buried in damp places; occasionally in vegetable and haystack refuse, dung- 
heaps, &e. ; rare ; British Museum, several under stones at back of building 
(Waterhouse) ; Merton, Surrey (Janson) ; Sheerness (Walker); Kingsgate and St, 
Peter's, Kent (T. Wood); Esher (Power); Shirley Warren, Southampton, in putf- 
ball and under board (Gorham) ; Guuiley, Market Harborough (Matthews) ; Hertford ; 
Hull ; Northumberland district, near INIorpeth ; Ireland, Rochestowu near Dublin ; 
it has not, apparently, beeu found in Scotland. 

LATHRIDIINA. 

This tribe, according to the catalogue of Hoyden, Eeitter, and Weisc, 



LathruUina.] olavicornia. -"^ 

contains eight genera ; of these, however, Agclandia, Reittcr, cannot he 
retained, and together Avith Langelandla must he either phiced with tlio 
Colydiidje or formed into a new family ; the tribe, as far as our fauna 
is concerned, consists of the ohl genus Lafhridius, which has, however, 
been divided by Thomson into five genera; of these four arc here 
retained. 

I. Thorax with two fine longitmliual keels on disc. 

i. Club of autenua3 not abrupt ; eyes nearly touchiug 

anterior angles of thorax ; temples very small . . . LatheidiuS, Ilerhst. 
ii. Club of antenna! abrupt ; eyes considerably removed 

from anterior angles of thorax ; temples large . . . CoNINOMUS, Thorns. 

II. Thorax without longitudinal keels on disc. 

i. Upper surface more or less convex ; head shorter with 

the eyes large and the antennae situated at a little 

distance from them Enicmus, Thorns. 

ii. Upper surface depressed, elongate ; head longer, at 

least as long as broad with the eyes small and the 

antenna) inserted at a considerable distance from them. Caktoderb, Thorns. 

The genus Lafhridius, taken in its widest sense, as including the 
above genera, contains over one hundred and thirty species, the majority 
of which are found in Europe, ISTorthern Asia, and North America ; the 
genus^ however^ is widely distributed, species occurring in Ceylon, 
India, Cape of Good Hope, Havannah, the Australian region, &c. ; some 
of them are almost cosmopolitan, as they occur in substances that are 
articles of commerce ; the Lathridii are very variable in several points 
of structure, and hence considerable confusion has arisen, as may be 
known from the number of synonymous species recorded. 

Z.ATKRIDIUS, Herbst. 

The species of Lathridius proper are distinguished from the other 
genera with the exception of Coninomus by the fine longitudinal keels 
on the disc of the thorax, and from this as well as from tiie others by 
the very narrow width of the thorax in comparison Avitli that of the 
elytra ; there are two British species, L. lardarius and L. angulatus. 
L. awpistirollis, which has been usually reputed to be a rather common 
British species, appears not to be indigenous ; until recently only oiie 
or two British specimens of L. angulatus have been recorded ; this 
has been evidently owing to the fact that all our specimens in collec- 
tions have stood undoubtedly as angiisticollis ; Mr. Crotch and one or 
two other collectors have sent doubtful specimens of this insect to con- 
tinental authorities who have returned them as angulatus, and they 
have therefore been recorded as different from the series they were 
taken from, although really they were the same, and all ought to have 
been referred to angulatus. 

I. Elytra glabrous, much contracted and prolonged in a 

point behind ; size larger L- LAEDABICS, Z)e ff. 



280 CLAVicoRNiA. \_LalIiridiux. 

II. Elytra furnished with distiuct rows of fine niisod 
?ct?n. uot imicli contracted and prolonged behind ; size 
smaller . . L. Angttlatus, Mannk. 

Za> lardarius, De G. (/?m^, Mots. ; dilaticoUis, 'Mots.). Reddisli- 
testaceoiis, shining, glabrous, eyes black ; antennre testaceous, slender, 
with a gradual and not abrupt club ; head rugosely punctured with a 
distinct longitudinal furrow, about as broad, with the eyes, as thorax ; 
thorax a little longer than broad, Avith two longitudinal keels on disc, 
anterior angles produced in a moderate lobe, sides sinuate, posterior 
angles marked, punctuation rugose and uneven ; elytra convex, ova!, 
strongly pointed and produced behind, much broader at base tlian 
thorax, shoulders strongly marked, disc raised about middle, with strong- 
punctured strite wdiich become feebler towards apex ; legs reddish- 
testaceous. L. 2-3 mm. 

Male Avith the tibite curved, the anterior ones being much more 
strongly curved and finely denticulate on their inner side before their 
extremity which is furnished with a distinct tooth. 

In hot-beds, vegetable refuse, moss, &c. ; often by sweeping ; generally distributed 
and common throughout England, but app:irently becon:iing scarcer towards the 
north; Scotland, local. Forth district; Ireland, near Dublin, &c. 

Zi. ang-ulatus, Ilumm. (mir/usticoUis, Thorns, et Britt. auct., 7iec 
Humra. ; uiululatvs, Mots.). Ferruginous brown, rather shining, con- 
siderably smaller than the preceding species, Avhich in some points it 
resembles ; head and thorax rugosely punctured, the former Avith a 
distinct longitudinal furrow, the latter very narrow, longer than broad, 
with the margins irregular and the anterior angles lobed ; elytra oval, 
convex, Avitli very strongly punctured striaj and roAVS of short, fine, 
erect sette ; legs ferruginous. L. 2 mm. 

Male Avith the anterior tibiae slightly curved. 

In moss, flood and vegetable refuse, &c. ; often by beating dead hedges and by 
sweeping ; local ; London district, common and generally distributed ; Darenth 
Wood, Cliatham, Esher, Caterham, Croydon, Mickleham, Woking, Sheerness, &c. ; 
Eastbourne ; Hastings ; Midland district, rare, E.epton and one or two other localities ; 
not found further north or in Scotland ; Ireland, near Belfast. This species appears 
to be distributed throughout Europe and the Caucasus region, and to be the com- 
monest species in Germany, Austria, and Hungary. 

(Ii. ang-usticollis* Humm., ncc Thorns, This species is at once 
distinguished from the preceding by the absence of the roAvs of short 
erect setae on the elytra ; it appears to be intermediate between L. lar- 
daritis and L. avgulatus ; it is smaller than the first, and has the elytra 
obtusely rounded at apex, and besides is of a darker colour ; besides the 
absence of the elytral setos, it may be distinguished from the latter by 
its more robust form, and by having the thorax shorter, more even, and 
more visibly narroAvcd behind. L. 2 mm. 

I know of no British specimen of this insect, and it cannot, I think, 



LafJiridius.'] clavicornia. 281 

be regarded as indigenous ; tlie confusion between Uiis and the pre- 
ceding species is by no means confined to British autliors and collectors. 
M. Belon (I.e., p. 120) mentions that L. anr/ulatiis " est ovdinaiveinent 
envoyee sous le nom iX^angutiticollis, et est ainsi etie^^uetee dans la plupart 
des collections.") 

CONZNOMUS, Thomson. 

Tlie species belonging to this genus are smaller and narrower insects 
than those contained in the preceding genus, from which they arc 
further distinguished by the more abrupt club of antennis and larger 
temples, and by having the thorax strongly incised at the sides behind 
middle ; from the following genera they are separated by the raised keels 
on the thorax ; there are three British species^ of which one is probably 
nothing more than a variety. 

I. Club of antcnnffi very abrupt, S-jointed; elytra tuber- 

euhxte towards apex C nodifer, Westiv. 

II. Club of auteuiijB very abrupt, 2-joiuted ; elytra witli 
the alteruate interstices more or kss raised, but not 
tuberculate. 
i. Anterior coxae separate ; alternate interstices of elytra 

only slightly raised in ridges C. CONSTRlCTtrS, Siiinm. 

ii. Anterior coxa3 contiguous ; alteruate interstices of 

elytra plainly raised in ridges C. caeijtatuS, Gyll. 

C> nodifer, "VVestw. Somewhat elongate, black or pitchy-brown, 
occasionally ferruginous, a little shining, not pubescent ; head nearly as 
broad as thorax ; antennas ferruginous with 3-jointed club ; thorax 
longer than broad together with head rugosely sculptured, with dorsal 
keels well marked, anterior angles rounded, sides strongly incised behind 
middle ; elytra elongate oval, strongly impiessed before and at mi:ldle, 
Avith somewhat obsoletely punctured striaj, alternate interstices raised in 
keels, with the third from suture raised in a strong t\ibercle behind 
middle, and the fifth raised at apex ; legs lighter or darker ferruginous, 
tarsi lighter. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the posterior tibiae dilated and deeply emarginate on their 
inside border towards extremity. 

In vegetable refuse, moss, woodstacks, faggots, &e. ; common and generally dis- 
tributed throughout England; Scotland, Tweed, Forth, and Solway districts; 
Ireland, near Waterford : this species used to be considered rare, but has gradually 
become more and more common of late years ; in some localities it swarms ; it 
appears to be cosmopolitan, and to be identical with L. autipodum described by 
White from New Zealand in 1816 (Voy. Ereb. Terr., p. 18). 

C constrictus, Humm. Somewhat elongate, slightly convex, 
glabrous, shining, of a clear testaceous brown colour ; head oblong, 
narrower than thorax, rugosely punctured ; antenna? testaceous, rather 
slender, with 2-jointed club ; thorax about as long as broad, 
rugosely punctured, anterior angles rounded, deeply incised behind 



282 CLAVICORNIA. [_Co7im()mus. 

middle, dorsal keels not strong; elytra elongate oval witli deeply pnnc- 
tured striae, alternate interstices feebly raised, hardly costiform ; 
anterior coxae separated by the prosternal process ; legs testaceous. L. 
Ij-lf mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiae slightly curved. 

Under bark, &c. ; a doubtful species ; Mr. Rye has a single specimen without 
locality, and I have a record from Burton ; Mr. Blatch records it from Knowle near 
Birmingham (on a damp wall), and Wicken Feu (sedge refuse) ; the next species, 
however, varies very considerably, and in all probability the two species are synomy- 
nious. 

€/. carinatus, Gyll. This species is very closely allied to the pre- 
ceding and, allowing for the variation of the species generally, it can 
only be regarded as distinct on the ground of the anterior coxae being 
contiguous, the prosternal process being reduced to a very fine keel ; it 
differs also in having the thoracic keels less marked, and the intervals 
of the elytra more strongly raised ; tlic general form is a little narroAver, 
and the colour as a rule is darker ; several of these points, however, 
are very variable, and it would almost appear to be best with Reitter and 
others to consider this species a variety of C. constrictm. In the 
catalogue of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise it is not even regarded as a 
variety. L. 1|-1| mm. 

Under bark, in moss, dead leaves, &c. ; rare ; Shirley, Esher, Caterham, Mickle- 
ham, Sydenham ; Tilgate Forest jBirdbrook ; Wicken Feu ; Littlington, Cambridy:^ ; 
Glauvilles Wootton ; 8pridlington near Lincoln (taken ou the outer walls of a newly 
erected house by Mr. WoUastoa). 

ENICMVS, Thoms. 

This genus contains at present six British species ; E. consimllis, how- 
ever, cannot be retained ; they differ from those belonging to the pre- 
ceding genera by having no raised ridges on thorax, and from Cartodere 
by their shorter head and less elongate and more convex form. 

I. Prosternum not raised in a keel between the anterior 
00X03 ; elytra glabrous, rather short oval, with some- 
what strong punctured striae (s.g. Conithassa, Thoms.) E. MINUTUS, L. 

II. Prosternum raised in a keel between the anterior 
coxffi. {Enicmus, i. sp.) 

i. Antennae slender with the club not very abrupt, 
reaching beyond middle of thorax. 

1. Thorax as a rule square or very nearly as long 

as broad, never cordiform ; colour reddish- 
testaceous ; punctured striae of elytra rather 
strong E. teansveesus, 01. 

2. Thorax as a rule more or less strongly trans- 

verse ;* punctured striae of elytra fine. 
A. Upper surface black ; thorax with sides very 

slightly contracted behind E. EUGOSrrs, ITerlsf. 



* There is an extreme variety of E. rugosus which has the thorax subquadrate ; 
this may, however, be separated by the fine sculpture of the elytra. 



Enicmus.] clavicornia. 283 

B. Upper surfiice ferruginous or reddish-testa- 
ceous ; thorax witli sides strougly contracted 

belli nd E. TESTACEU3, Sleph. 

ii. AnteuurG short with the club very abrupt, hardly 
reaching the middle of thorax ; upper surface dull 
black, somewhat elongate ; elytra with fine punc- 
tured striaj E. BRETICORNIS, Mannh. 

[carhonarius, Mannh.) 

E. minutus, L. An extremely variable species, somewhat convex, 
smooth, dull, black or pitch-brown ; head narrower than eyes, rugosely 
and coarsely punctured, with a more or less distinct longitudinal furrow ; 
autennte rather slender, with somewhat gradual club, ferruginous ; 
thorax very variable both as to size and shape, anterior angles more or 
less dilated, sides slightly crenulate, subparallcl or sliglitly siiuiate, 
rugosely punctured, with one or two longitudinal furrows on disc and a 
transverse impression at base; elytra oval, rather produced at shoulders, 
Avitli margins raised, punctured striae rather strong ; legs ferruginoxis. 
L. li-2imm. 

In haystack and other refuse, moss, dung-heaps, v/oodstacks, &c. ; common and 
generally distributed throughout the kingdom. 

This species is so extremely variable that it is perpetually giving rise 
to confusion ; the followiug special varieties may be mentioned : — 

Var. a. Entirely of a ferrugino-testaceous colour ; this is often probably the result 

of immaturity. 
Far. b. Sides of thorax subparallel, anterior angles not advanced in a lobe ; thorax 

subquadrate. 
Vai: c. Thorax subcordiform, about as broad as long or slightly oblong. (L. 

assimilis, Mannh.) 
Tar. d. Thorax rather strongly transverse, with the anterior angles scarcely produced. 

(i. anthi-aciiius, Mannh.) 

This is not an uncommon variety, and is larger than the type, and 
usually of a deeper black colour. 
Far. e. Size very small. (Permidius minutissimus. Mots.) 

I have seen one or two specimens of this variety from the London 
district ; no two insects belonging to the same genus could well look less 
alike than this and the preceding variety. 

{E. consiinilis, Mannh. (Ccmifhassa consimilis, Thorns.). This species 
is alhed to E. minuhts, but the anterior angles are never advanced in 
lobes or dilated, and the thorax has only one furrow, and this almost 
obsolete, on disc ; the elytra are narrower, not very strongly striated and 
punctured, and the interstices are rather broad, smooth and flat, and 
never raised. L. 2 mm. 

Introduced as British by Mr. Crotch on the authority of two specimens in the Kev. 
A. Matthews' collection taken, I believe, in Sherwood Forest ; Mr. Matthews has 
kindly given me one of these, and it is certainly nothing more than E. brevicornis 
(carhonarius) with the thorax a little less contracted behind than in the ordinary 
form of that species ; the species, therefore, must, for the present, at all events, 
be erased from our lists.) 



284 CLAVicoRNiA. [Entcmus. 

S. transversus, 01. FerrnginoTis or Lrownish-testaccous, Avith tie 
head sometimes darker, ratlicr elongate, -glabrous, somewhat shining ; 
head rugosely punctured with distinct longitudinal furrow, eyes pro- 
minent ; antennas testaceous, moderate ; thorax rather depressed, sub- 
quadrate, or slightly transverse, narrower than elytra, with the anterior 
angles rounded and not dilated in lobes, rugosely punctured, Avilh a 
more or less distinct longitudinal dorsal furrow, which is sometimes 
divided into two, and a rather strong transverse impression before base ; 
elytra with rather strongly punctured striee, interstices smooth and even ; 
legs testaceous. L. lf-2 mm. 

Male with the anterior tibire curved. 

lu mosp, haystack refuse, dung-Leaps, &c. ; common and generally distributed 
throughout the kingdom. 

E. rug-osus, Herbst. Comparatively short and broad, slightly 
convex, glabrous, dull black, elytra a little more shining than the lioiit 
parts ; head broader than long, narrowed in front, rugosely punctured ; 
eyes very large and prominent ; antenncS and mouth parts reddish-testa- 
ceous, the former not stout ; thorax evidently transverse, rugosely punc- 
tured, with sides rounded in front and slightly contracted behind, tinely 
channelled ou centre of disc, and with a transverse impression behind ; 
elytra obsoletely striated and punctured, appearing almost smooth except 
under a high power ; interstices broad and even ; legs ferruginous. 
L. l-i— 1 1 mm. 

In rotten wood, fungi, &c. ; very rare; Loughton, Essex; Sherwood, in rotten 
wood and frass shaken from old bark (where it has been taken by the Rev. A. Jlat- 
thews and myself iu company with Eupleeti, Trichopterygidee, &c. ) ; Salford Priors 
(fungus on ash, Blatch) ; Cannock Chase (fungus on oak, Blatch) ; Aviemore, Dee 
district, Scotland, in fungus on alder (Sharp). 

The name of this species is very misleading, as it is aboitt the 
smoothest species of the genus. 

E. testaceus, Steph. (cordaticollis, Aube). Of a reddish or brownish- 
testaceous colour, rather broad and convex, glabrous and somewhat dull ; 
head broader than long, narrowed in front, coarsely and rugosely punc- 
tured, with an obsolete central channel ; antennae testaceous, slender, 
•with gradual club, eyes very large and prominent ; thorax very trans- 
verse, cordiform, with sides strongly rounded in front and narrowed 
behind, anterior angles produced but very broad and blunt, upper surface 
rugosely and coarsely punctured, with a more or less distinct central 
impression on disc and a transverse impression at base ; elytra rather 
broad oval, with margins somewhat explanate, punctured striae distinct 
but not strong at base, obsolete towards apex ; legs testaceous. L. 
l|-2 mm. 

In powdery fungus on decaying beech, birch, fir, and hornbeam ; as a rule rare, but 
occasionally locally plentiful ; Esher, Daronth, The Holt, Faniham (Power) ; E^lier, 
Peckham, and Ashteud (Champion); Chatham (Walker); Forest Hill; Cobham 



Enicmus.l olavicornia. 285 

Park ; Nunhead ; Duhvich, vcrj' commou in powdery fungus on birch (T. Wood) ; 
Strettbrd (ou t\\2 wing, Restou) ; Sherwood Forest (Blatch). 

B. brevicornis, Mannli. {carhonarlus, Mannli.). Elongate, sub- 
depressed, dull black, glaljrous ; liead and thorax rugosely punctured, 
the former with an obsolete central channel or fovea, the latter with tlie 
i;sual central and basal impressions, sides rounded in front and more or 
less strongly contracted behind, anterior angles rounded and not marked ; 
antennae very short with abrupt even club of which the second joint is 
transverse, ferruginous-red ; elytra rather long and narrow, with two 
oblique impressions before base, striee fine and finely punctured, inter- 
stices flat, broad, and even, dull, alutaceous ; legs ferruginous. L. l|-2 
mm. 

Under hark ; rare ; New Forest, first taken by Charles Turner, and subsequently 
by other collectors ; Mr. Blatch lias also taken it on Cannock Chase under birch 
bark. 

The short antennae and dull-black elongate elytra with their oblique 
impressions and fine punctuation will at once distinguish this species ; 
JE. nigosns is of the same colour, and is found under much the same 
conditions, but it has longer antennae, and its elytra are less elongate, 
and more convex^ with more obsolete punctuation and without oblique 
impressions. 

Cil.SS,T03SB,S, Thorns. 

This genus contains four British species ; they are minute insects 
with elongate head and thorax, and long parallel or subparallel elytra 
which are more or less strongly sculptured ; the antennae are inserted at 
some distance from the eyes, which are small ; one of our species is 
exceedingly abundant, but two are very rare, and perhaps are im- 
portations. 

I. Anterior half of thorax without central fovea; club 
of antcnnsB S-jointed. 

i. Head and thorax red, elytra black or brownish- 
black ; upper surface sometimes unicolorous ; 
elytra with seven or eight rows of punctures on 
each C. ruficollis, Marsh. 

ii. Colour, as a rule, uniform, testaceous or ferru- 
ginous, very rarely coloured like C. ruficollis ; 
elytra with only six rows of very strong punctures 
on each C. elongata, Curt. 

iii. Colour uniform testaceous ; form very narrow ; 

elytra with seven or eight rows of punctures on each C. FILIFOemis, Gi/ll. 
IT. Thorax with a broad round fovea 011 its anterior 

half ; club of antenn£B 2-jointed C. filum, Auhe. 

C. ruficollis, Marsh. (coUaris, Mannh., 7iamila, Mannh.). Elongate, 
slightly convex, glabrous, head and thorax red, elytra black or brownish, 
upper surface sometimes unicolorous reddish ; head longer than broad 
with obsolete rugose punctuation, eyes small ; antennas rather long and 
slender, testaceous ; thorax oblong, widest in front, narrowed behind, 



286 CLAVicoRNiA. [Cartodere. 

strongly incised behind middle, with a transverse basal impression, 
rugosely but finely sculptured ; elytra suboval, elongate, with seven or 
eight strong punctured striaa, the punctures being somewhat irregular and 
the interstices crenulate ; legs testaceous. L. 1 mm. 

In haystack and other refuse, fungi, &c, ; common and often occurring in profusion in 
the Midland and Soutliern districts ; also recorded from Scarborough and M:uicliestcr, 
but from no locality further north in England, nor from Scotland. Ireland, near 
Belfast. 

The ferruginous-red variety of this insect Avitli brownish edge to the 
elytra is the L. exilis of Mannerheim. 

C. elong-ata, Curt. Ferruginous or testaceous with the elytra 
rarely darker ; easily distinguished from the preceding species by the 
more distinct rugose sculpture of the head and thorax, and the more 
depressed and parallel-sided elytra, each of which is furnished with 
six rows of very strong punctures, which leave hardly any visible inter- 
stices ; legs testaceous ; the form of the thorax is variable, sometimes 
being more sometimes less cordiform and narrowed before base, sometimes 
plainly and sometimes scarcely visibly bordered ; it differs also con- 
siderably in length. L. I3— If mm. 

In vegetable refuse, fungi, manure-heaps, &c. ; not common ; Ashtead, Mickle- 
ham, Horsell, Shirley, Darenth Wood, Greenwich, Gravesend, Bearstead, Bishops 
Wood ; The Holt, Farnhara ; Dulwich (under faggot bark) ; Birdbrook, Essex ; Hast- 
ings ; New Forest ; Glanvilles Woottou ; Bewdley ; Knowle ; Sherwood Forest ; not 
recorded from the northern counties of England, or from Scotland or Ireland. 

C' filiformiSj Gyll. Elongate, linear, depressed, glabrous, entirely 
testaceous ; head rather long, trapezoidal, coarsely and rugosely sculp- 
tured; eyes small; antennae testaceous with rather gradual 3-jointed 
club ; thorax transverse or about as long as broad, subcordiform, with 
broad lateral margin, more or less rugosely punctured, without fovea on 
anterior half, base with a rather strong transverse impression ; elytra 
long, about as broad as thorax, parallel-sided, with seven or eight rather 
strong punctured striae on each ; the punctures, however, are much less 
strong than in the preceding species; legs testaceous. L. li mm. 

In fungi, &c. ; very rare; Exeter; the first specimens found in England are 
recorded in Parlitt's Devonshire Catalogue as " bred in a fungus shut up in a box in 
Coaver garden, J:in. 20, 1856." Scotland, very rare, Clyde district; this is the 
L. elongatus of Murray's Catalogue which was found by Mr. M. Young " devouring 
an old Greek author " in Paisley. 

C filum, Aube. At first sight this species almost exactly resembles 
the preceding, but it is at once distinguished by the round fovea on the 
anterior half of the thorax and the more slender antennae which have 
the club 2-jointed and not 3-jointed as in G. filiformis ; it is also a little 
larger on the average than this species, and has the thorax more 
strongly narrowed behind and the anterior angles a little more dilated. 
L. li-mm. 



Carfodere.] olavioornia. 287 

Very rare ; it appears to be chiefly confined to herbaria, althoup^h it occasionally 
occurs in fungi in other countries. Burton-ou-Trent (Mr. Mason's licrbariuni, in 
some small numbers); Scotland, Edinburgh (found by Professor McNab iu the 
herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens). 

CORTICAEINA. 

The members of this tribe are distinguished from the Lathridiina l)y 
liaviiig the anterior coxa) contiguous and not more or less separated l>y 
tlie prolongation of the presternum ; the thorax is, as a rule, finely 
crenulate or denticulate at the sides, and the upper surface is almost 
always pubescent ; the tribe contains several genera, of which the most 
curious and distinct is Dasyceras {which is by some authors now 
excluded from the family) ; this genus may at once be known by its 
very long capillary and verticillate-pilose antennae, and strongly angular 
thorax ; no species of this genus has yet been found in Britain, but it is 
quite possible that D. sulcatus, like Lanr/elandia, may yet be found in 
some of the southern counties of England. Two British genera are 
included in the tribe, of which one, Mdanophthalma, has only compara- 
tively recently been considered as distinct, and it has lately been further 
subdivided by Herr Reitter ; the species may be known as a rule by the 
distinct fovea at the base of the thorax ; some of them are extremely 
variable, like the species of Lathridius, and in consequence great con- 
fusion has arisen, as may be seen by glancing over a synonymous list of 
the genera, some species having six, eight, or even ten synonyms or 
named varieties assigned to them ; the members of the tribe are, as a rule^ 
found in moss, vegetable refuse, &c. 

I. Thorax with sides more or less strongly crenulate, 
with a small round fovea before base ; abdomen 
with five segments visible in female, six in male; 

form oblong, more or less elongate Coeticabia, Marsh. 

II. Thorax with bides scarcely, if at all, crenulate, with 
a largo transverse impression or fovea at base ; 
abdomen with six segments visible in both sexes ; 

form short, more or less ovate Melanophthaima, Mots. 

The genus Corticaria, in its widest sense, comprises about two hun- 
dred and fifty species, but many of these must probably be united with 
others ; they are chiefly found in Europe, Northern and Central Asia, 
and North America, but species occur in Brazil, Ceylon, India, South 
Africa, Australia, New Zealand, &c., and the genus is probably 
distributed over the greater part of the world. 

CORTICARIA, Marsham. 

Besides the differences above mentioned, this genus differs from 
Mt'lanop'tdhahna in having the metasternum longitudinally impressed, 
and the club of its ll-jointed antenna; more abrupt; the alxlomen has 



288 CLAVicoKNiA. [Coiiicaria 

five serrments visible in the female, ami in the male there is a small 
additional sixth segment, visible beneath ; the form is oblong, some- 
times cylindrical, sometimes elongate and depressed ; the thorax is always 
more or less distinctly crennlate at the sides ; there are thirty-three 
European species, of which eight are at present recognized as British ; 
in all probabilit}', however, we possess two or three more in collections, 
but the question is not yet settled, owing to the great variation of some 
species in colour, and also in structure and sculpture. 

I. Elytra without regular rows of punctures or marked 
interstices ; abdomen with the fifth ventral segment 

deeply foveate in both sexes. 
i. Thorax at its greatest breadth distinctly narrower 

than elytra ; all the joints of the club of theantennte 

evidently longer than broad ; size larger . . . . C. PTTBESCENS, G^IL 
ii. Thorax at its greatest breadth as broad or nearly as 

broad as elytra ; first two joints of the club of the 

anteunaj about as long as broad C. ceenttlata, G^ll. 

II. Elytra with regular rows of punctures, and more or 
less distinctly marked interstices ; abdomen with the 

fifth ventral segment not or not deeply foveate. 
i. Elytra with rather long and upright pubescence, 

disposed in even rows, and plainly longer on the 

alternate interstices ; elytra elongate-oval . . . . C. rULVA, Com. 
ii. Elytra with fine even recumbent pubescence with 

rows of short hairs sometimes intermingled, which, 

however, are never longer on the alternate in- 
terstices. 

1. Form elongate, cylindricab or parallel-sided, 

elytra as broad as thorax. 

A. Upper surface convex; eyes very prominent; 

elytra with rows of coarse punctures . . . . C. umbilicata, Heck 

(cylindrica, Mannh.). 

B. Upper surface depressed ; eyes not strongly 

prominent ; elytra with rows of fine punctures . C. ELONGATA, Oyll. 

2. Elytra depressed and parallel-sided much broader 
tlian thorax, which is cordiform ; punctures of 

interstices of elytra as large as those of striae . . C. OBSCTTEA, Bris. 

3. Elytra convex, oblong-oval ; thorax more or less 

cordiform. 

A. Elytra with punctured strise continued to 

apex. 

a. Elytra with rather broad smooth interstices 
furnished with distinct series of minute punc- 
tures; size larger C. DENTICUIATA, Gyll. 

b. Elytra with rather narrow interstices which 
are somewhat wrinkled, and are furnished 
with indistinct rows of smaller punctures; 

size smaller C. sereata, Faylc. 

B. Elytra with punctured stria3 evanescent behind 

middle C. fenestralis, L. 

C. pubescens, Gyll. ( punctvldfa, Marsh.). The largest of the 
British species ; colour very variable, head and thorax usually fusco- 
ferruginous, elytra pitchy with shoulders more or less broadly paler 



Coriii:aria.'\ clavicorxia, 289 

pubescence pale, distinct; somebiiaes tlio whole upper surface is pitchy 
or testaceous ; head and thorax rather strongl}'^ and diffusely punctured, 
interspaces alutaceous ; antennae testaceous, club with joints elongate; 
thorax rather short, subcordiforni, sometimes appearing almost orbicular, 
with sides strongly crenulated ; elytra ahvays wider than thorax, 
ample, with closely packed irregular rows of punctures and no marked 
interstices ; legs testaceous or reddish testaceous. L. 2|-3 mm. 

Male with the first joint of the anterior tarsi dilated, oblong, provided 
on each side with long and fine setose hairs. 

In haystack and flood refuse, decaying sea-weed, moss, &c. ; not uncommon and 
generally distributed throughout England; Scotland, Forth district, comuioii 
amongst hay and straw, and probably widely spread in other localities ; Ireland, 
Waterford and Dublin, and probably commou. 

C. crenulata, Gyll. Nigro-piceous, or brownish-testaceous, with 
the shoulders more or less broadly lighter in the darker specimens ; 
pubescence yellowish ; in sculpture this species much resembles the pre- 
ceding, but is very easily distinguished by its more orbicular thorax and 
by having the elytra and thorax of about equal or nearly equal breadtli, 
so that the general form is more parallel, and also by the shape of the 
club of the antennae, which has the first two joints about as long as 
broad ; it is also a smaller species. L. 2-2| mm. 

Male with the femora thickened, the anterior and intermediate tibioj 
somewhat produced internally towards apex, and externally obliquely 
truncate, and the first joint of the anterior tarsi dilated. 

In decaying sea- weed, haystack refuse, moss, &c. ; generally distributed throughout 
England, but commoner on the coast than inland, and rarer further north ; Scotland, 
local, maritime, Tweed, Forth, and Dee districts ; its distribution is probably the 
same in Ireland. 

C. denticulata, Gyll. In colour, size, and form, this species 
almost exactly resembles the preceding ; the thorax, however, is rather 
more narrowed behind, and the crenulations at the sides are less distinct ; 
the elytra have the shoulders more gently rounded and the apex more 
obtusely rounded ; the abdomen has the fifth ventral segment not 
deeply foveate ; the chief distinguishing character, however, lies in the 
sculpture of the elytra, which are furnished with regular deeply punc- 
tured strias, divided by narrow but distinct interstices, some of which 
are feebly carinate towards base ; they are also furnished with distinct 
rows of minute punctures ; the male differences are much the same as 
in C. crenulata, except that the anterior and intermediate tibiai are more 
angularly produced internally. L. 2-2j mm. 

In decaying sea-weed, moss, vegetable refuse, &c. ; local ; London district, common ; 
Deal; Hastings; Horning Fen ; Cambridge; Wicken Fen; Dorchester; Birmingham 
district ; Repton ; Sherwood ; Liverpool ; Manchester; Northumberland and Durham 
district ; Scotland, scarce, Solway, Tweed, and Forth districts. 

C. serrata, Payk. {laiirolUs, Mannh.). Smaller than any of tlie 

VOL. III. u 



290 CLAVICORNIA. {_Cortlcaria. 

preceding species, colour variable, usually fusco-ferrugiuous, upper 
surface clothed with fine greyish pubescence ; head not much narrower 
than thorax, eyes large and prominent ; antennge rather short, testaceous, 
with the first two joints of the club scarcely longer than broad ; thorax 
a little broader than long, with the sides rounded and more strongly and 
acutely denticulate than in the allied species, narrowed towards base, 
posterior angles with a strong crenulation ; elytra oblong-ovate, only a 
little broader than thorax at the broadest part, with regular rows of 
punctures, and moderately distinct interstices which are not carinate, 
and are somewhat wrinkled, and furnished with rows of smaller punc- 
tures ; abdomen with fifth ventral segment not deeply foveate ; legs 
rufo-testacnous. L. 1| mm. 

Male with the anterior tibife very slightly sinuate internally towards 
apex, and the first joint of the anterior tarsi a little dilated. 

In haystack and other refuse, under bark, &c. ; also in ants' nests ; not common ; 
Chatham, Esher, Forest Hill, Peckham, Cowley ; Weybridge (in neat of Formica 
rnfa); Horsell (in nest oi F.fuliginosa) ; Loughton ; Hainault Forest; Horning 
Fen; Cambridge; Reptou ; Northumberland district; Scotland, rare, Sol way and 
Tay districts. 

The.small size, and transverse thorax which has the sides strongly crenu- 
lated, together with the sculpture of the elytra, will separate this species 
from all its allies ; it most closely, perhaps, resembles C. crenuJafa, but 
that species has the thorax longer and more regularly rounded, longer 
antennae, less regularly punctured elytra, and the femora of the male 
incrassate. 

C. umbilicata, Beck (cylindrica, Mannli. ; horealis, Woll ). 
Ferruginous or ferrugino-testaceous, clothed Avith rather short and dis- 
tinct pubescence ; head large, eyes large and very prominent ; thorax 
suborbicular, about as broad as elytra, with sides evidently crenulate ; 
elytra long, parallel and cylindrical, with regular and distinct jDunctured 
strige, interstices almost impunctate ; the suture and sides of the elytra 
are sometimes more or less infuscate. L. l|-2 mm. 

In moss, &c. ; occasionally by sweeping ; very local, and as a rule scarce ; Strood, 
Kent, taken in abundance by Mr. Champion and Mr. Walker; Wimbledon; 
Shooter's Hill; Chattenden Roughs; New Forest; Northumberland and Durham 
district, not rare, sea-banks ; Scotland, very rare, Aberdeen (Professor Traill). 

C. fulva, Com. (hirfeUa, Thoms. ; flavescens, Thoms.). Kather 
elongate, about as large as C. crenulata, but rather narrower than that 
species, with the thorax cordiform, and the elytra with the shoulders 
more gently rounded and the apex less acuminate ; colour entirely tes- 
taceous, excepting the eyes, which are black ; these latter are less 
prominent than in most of the other species ; the elytra are elongate- 
ovate, evidently broader than the thorax, Avith the sculpture consisting 
of rows of large and shallow punctures, which are rather confused and 



Corticaria.] clavicornia. 291 

soDiewkat rugose ; in the male the anterior tibiae appear to 1)C gently 
bisinuate within and truncate externally at apex. L. l-|-2 mm. 

Ill vegetable refuse, &c. ; local, but probably move generally distributed tliau is 
at present known ; Loudon district ; Cowley (in cow-house); Kent; South Coast; 
Liverpool ; Manchester ; Northuuiberluud and Uurhani district. 

I have given the description of this insect, but there is considerable 
doubt and difficulty regarding the species and its allies, and it is pro- 
bable that we have two or three at least of the European species standing 
under the name of C.fulva in our collections. Continental specimens 
of 0. fulva, which have been kindly sent me by M. Brisout, have the 
thorax distinctly more transverse and less narrowed behind than is tlie 
case with many of our English specimens ; I have specimens from Dr. 
Power that agree with these, but a series in Dr. Sharp's collection stand- 
ing doubtfully under 0. fulva have the thorax about as long as broad 
and more narrowed behind ; in this respect they agree with C. impressa, 
but the sculpture of the elytra is that of O. fuloa, to the description of 
which species they answer better than the continental specimens before 
alluded to. 

I have before me two specimens from Mr. Matthews' collection which 
have been returned to me by M. Brisout as new species near linearis ; 
one of these appears to be distinct, but is broken and rather dis- 
coloured, and the other appears to me only a small and rather 
abnormal variety of C. fulva ; the thorax of many species of the 
Lathridiidse is very variable, and any person who felt so inclined 
might easily describe five or six new species on this and other 
differences out of any large series of Corticaria. 

C. obscura, Bris. (depressa, Thorns.). "This species is allied to 
C. serrata, but differs in being rather larger, of flatter and less oval 
build, larger antennal club, laterally less rounded thorax (of Avhich the 
denticulations are finer behind, and the punctuation is not quite so close), 
and less evidently pubescent but more finely punctured elytra, — the 
interstitial rows and the striae themselves being equally delicate, and 
so close that the surface seems to be very delicately transversely 
sub-strigose " (Rye, Ent. Mo. Mag. vii. 274) ; the elytra, moreover, 
appear to be rather depressed and parallel-sided ; the colour is usually 
pitchy-black, but appears to be variable. L. l|-2 mm. 

Under dry bark; Eichmond Park (Rye and Champion) ; Esher (Power). 

There is some doubt regarding this species, which Dr. Sharp omits 
from his last catalogue. 

C< elong'ata, Humm. Sublinear. depressed, testaceous, clothed with 
thick pale pubescence, which is rather longer and arranged in rows on 
the elytra ; head much narrower than thorax, forehead rather convex ; 
eyes black, prominent ; thorax evidently transverse, about as broad as 

u 2 



292 CLAVICORNIA. [Corticdrici. 

elytra, with sides very slightly narrowed behind ; elytra parallel-sided, 
Avith apex rounded, with distinct punctured stride, each interstice fur- 
nished with a row of small hairs, and a series of minute punctures ; in 
some specimens the disc of the thorax has an impression on each side ; 
in the male the anterior and middle tibiae are slightly bent inward at 
apex. L. l^^-ll mm. 

lu haystack refuse, moss, &c. ; often by sweeping; generally distributed and common 
tliroughout the greater part of England ; Scotland, not common, Forth and Solway 
districts ; Ireland, near Belfast and Waterford, and probably common. 

C. fenestralis, L. {rufula, Zett. ; Latliridius ferrugineus, Marsh.). 
Oblong, rather depressed, shining, with very short pubescence, of a 
dark chestnut-brown colour with the head black ; thorax transverse, 
obtusely quadrangular, only a little narrower than elytra, finely punc- 
tured, with the sides only slightly narrowed towards base and obsoletely 
crenulate ; elytra rather broader behind than in front, with fine punc- 
tured stria3 and very minute rows of punctures on interstices ; legs 
ferruginous ; male characters as in the preceding. L. If mm. 

In vegetable refuse, moss, &c. ; occasionally by sweeping; not common, and scarce 
where it occurs, often being found singly; Chatham, Sevenoaks, Darenth Wood, Wey- 
bridge, Ashtead, Horsell, Shirley, Croydon, Caterham, Esher, Crystal Palace (iu 
corridors) ; Sohara and Wicken Fen, Cambridge ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Manchester 
district; Scotland, rare, Solway and Dee districts; Ireland, near Dublin. 

The rather broad form (which is something like that of M. gihhosa), 
chestnut-brown colour, delicate sculpture, and rather shining appear- 
ance will serve to distinguish this very distinct species from its 
allies. Other species besides those above described have been on 
diff'erent occasions erroneously introduced as British, and have after- 
wards been dropped ; considerable confusion has also been caused by 
the descriptions of certain species described in Stephens' Illustrations 
not answering to the insects standing under the name in his collection ; 
the species, as observed above, are so variable in difierent characters 
that it would require a very careful examination of all the series in 
our collections, and a close comparison with the continental types before 
the question of the British species could be considered as settled ; it is 
probable that we possess C. linearis, and perhaps Dr. Sharp's series 
standing under fulca should be referred to C. longicoUis (a species 
that he inserts with a ? in his last catalogue), as except for their size, 
Avhich should be rather smaller, they agree very well with the descrip- 
tion of that species ; they were mostly taken by i\Ir. Shepherd from an 
old carpet in his house in Fleet Street, and may perhaps be an im- 
portation ; three or four specimens were found in old wood in Newcastle 
Street, and one came from Mr. Crotch without locality. 

MSZ1ANOPHTKAI.MA, Motschulsky. 
This genus has been further subdivided into two sub-genera as below 



MelaiiojjJdhahua.'} clavicornia. 293 

given ; it contains about ten European species, two or three of 
■\vliich are extremely variable ; four British species have hitherto been 
recognized, but I have hitcly found a fifth in Dr. Sharp's collection ; 
the club of the antennae is less abrupt than in Corticaria, and the 
metasternum is not, or scarcely, impressed longitudinally ; the form, too, 
is shorter and more oval. 

I. Thorax much narrower than elytra, with sides feebly 
rounded, and the posterior angles not produced iu a 

tooth. (Sub-gen. Melanophthalma, i. sp.) 
i. Size smaller ; thorax narrow, almost as long as broad ; 

elytra short oval, with sculpture well marked 

towards base M. GiiiBOSA, Ilerhst. 

ii. Size larger j thorax always broader than long; 

elytra oblong-oval, with sculpture shallow, and 

net marked ••.... M. teansversalts, 

V. WOLLASTONI, Wat. 

II. Thorax not much narrower than elytra, with sides 
rather strongly rounded, and the posterior angles pro- 
duced iu the form of a small tooth. (Sub-gen. Corti' 

carina, Reitter.) * 
i. Thorax not much broader than long ; sculpture of 

elytra strong ; alternate interstices of elytra raised, 

especially near suture M. SIM i LATA, Gtfll. 

ii. Thorax strongly transverse ; sculpture of elytra much 

finer; alternate interstices of elytra not, or scarcely, 
raised. 

1. Colour dark, fuscous ; elytra evidently broader in 

middle than thorax ; size larger M. FTJSCuiA, Maiinh. 

2. Colour more or less reddish or ferruginous ; elytra at 

broadest not much wider than thorax ; size smaller M. fitlvipfs, Com. 

(curta, WoU.) 

BI. g-ibbosa, Herbst. (wq^ressa, Marsh.). Tuscou?, slightly shiniug, 
clothed Avith rather thick pale pubescence, antennae and legs testaceous, 
club of former fuscous ; head nearly as broad as thorax, with eyes very 
prominent ; thorax narrow in proportion to elytra, about as long as 
broad, broadest a little before middle, with sides gradually contracted 
behind, distinctly punctured, with a curved fovea behind extending 
almost to the lateral margins ; elytra rather short oval, with the humeral 
angles well marked, with evident rows of punctured strife, and the in- 
terstices furnished with series of very fine punctures, and slightly 
rugose transversely. L. 1^-li mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiae sinuate and furnished on the inside 
with a small tooth a little before apex ; anterior tarsi with the first joint 
dilated, and the trochanters produced in a tooth. 

In moss, haystack refuse, &c, ; common and generally distributed throughout the 
kingdom. ■ 

* Some authors prefer to assign the name Corticarina to the whole genus, and tp 
drop Motschulsky's name on the ground that his genus included several species gf 
Corticaria proper, and is ill-defined. 



29-1: C'LAYicoRNiA. [^Mel'iiiopJithahna. 

Tft. transversalis, r. Wollastoni, "Wat. 31. i ranstersaUs differs 
from the preceding in being larger, with the thorax a little broader, and 
less closely piinctured, and with the fovea behind usually divided into 
two ; the punctured striae of the elytra are also finer, and the interstices 
broader and less raised ; it is a very variable insect, no less than seven 
named varieties being mentioned in the European catalogue : the variety 
w^hich we possess appears only to differ from the type in being rather 
larger and darker. L. H-2 mm. 

In haystack refuse, moss, &c., and in and among rushes on sand-hills near the sea ; 
very local ; Mabletliorpe, Lincolnshire, in which place it was first taken by Mr. 
U'olhiston, and again found by myself in abundance in August, 1881 ; Sbeernesa, 
Dareuth Wood, Chatham, Southend ; Kingsgate ; Weymouth ; Devonshire. 

IWf. fuscula, Humm. {Corticarina fuscula, Reitter). Very like M. 
(jihhosa, but at once distinguished by the shape of the thorax, which is 
liroad and not much narrower than the elytra, and has the sides strongly 
rounded, and the posterior angles armed with a minute tooth, and so 
more prominent ; the colour is fuscous as in 11. gilihosa, but is some- 
what variable ; the thorax is strongly transverse, finely punctured, and 
marked at base with a transverse fovea ; the elytra are not very strongly 
sculptured, and the interstices are narrow, and not, or scarcely, raised. 
L. 1|- mm. 

In moss, vegetable refuse, Ac; not so abundant as M.gihbosa, but common and 
generally distributed throughout the kingdom. 

1*1. similata, Gyll. Yery like the preceding, but easily dis- 
tinguished by the shape of the thorax, which is nearly as long as broad, 
and usually has three fovese at base, of Avhich the lateral ones are more 
or less obsolete ; the sculpture of the elytra is much stronger, and the 
alternate interstices are raised and somewhat carinate, especially near 
suture ; the colour of the type form is more or less ferruginous, but the 
insect varies both in this point and in size. L. l|-lf mm. 

Apparently very rare ; in Dr. Sharp's collection there is a specimen 
of the type form without locality, and another of the larger dark variety 
from Braemar ; there is also a specimen in Dr. Power's collection from 
Shirley, which appears to belong to this species, but has not the cha- 
racters so well marked as in Dr. Sharp's specimens. 

M. fulvipes, Com. {fuscipennis, Mots. ; curia, Woll.). Entirely 
ferruginous-red or reddish-brown, sometimes reddish-testaceous, with 
the elytra darker, antennae and legs testaceous, club of former as a 
rule not, or only slightly, darker ; thorax transverse, with a more or 
less obsolete fovea at base ; elytra not much wider than thorax, short 
oval or oval ; size smaljer than in the preceding species. L. 1-1 i mm. 

lu decaying sea-weed, at roots of grass, Ac, in sandy places on the coast; local, but 
c luimon where it occurs; R;unham, Slieerness, Chatham, Vi'hitstable, .Southmd; 
INiargatc, Kingsgatc, and Kent coast generally; Hastings, Brighton, Weymouth, 



MelaHO}-)lithalma.'\ clavicornia. 295 

Isle of Wight, &.C ; it does not, however, occur further north than the Loudou 
district, as far as is at present known. 

Our British form is the v. meridioncdis, Roitter; we do not appear 
to possess the type form, which is pitch-Wack, and on an average 
larger. 

CTJCUJID-a:. 

As in the case of the Colydiidas, so also in the case of this family, we 
only possess a few fragmentary genera containing altogether some sixteen 
or seventeen species, and several of these are cosmopolitan insects 
which have been introduced by commerce ; we need not, therefore, dis- 
cuss their classification ; in the Munich catalogue thirty-eight genera 
and about two hundred species are enumerated, but these have since 
been considerably increased ; by Duval and other authors the Monoto- 
mida? are included under this famil}'-, but their 3-jointed tarsi seem to 
place them in closer proximity with the Lathridiid^e. 

The following are some of the chief characters of the family: — 
AntenuEe inserted at the margin of the front, 11-jointed, sometimes 
long and slender, sometimes with the apical joints forming an indis- 
tinct club ; anterior coxal cavities open behind in the Cucujina. and 
Hyliotina, closed in the Silvanina, Hypocoprina, and Psammoechina ; 
anterior coxje small ; tarsi 5-jointed in both sexes, or with the posterior 
tarsi occasionally 4-jointed in the males. 

The species live mostly under bark, but some are found in grain, rice, sugar, &c., 
and thus have been distributed by commerce. 

This family may be divided into the following tribes : — 

I. Auterior coxal cavities open behind. 

i. First joint of antennse not strongly elongate ; tarsi 

of male 5-5-4-jointed, of female all 5-jointed . . . CucuJiNA. 

ii. First joint of antennse strongly elongate ; all the 

tarsi 5-jointed in both sexes Hyliotina, 

II. Anterior coxal cavities closed behind. 

i. First joint of tarsi short ; point of prosternum very 
narrow between anterior coxa?. 

1. Antenna? gradually thickened towards apex, with- 
out distinct club ; elytra punctate-striate ; last 

joint of maxillary palpi large PSAMMCE CHINA, 

2. Antenna) with 3-jointed club ; elytra not punc- 
tate-striate ; punctuation obsolete j last joint of 

maxillary palpi small Hyfocopeina. 

ii. Fourth joint of tarsi very small ; point of prosternum 

rather broad between anterior coxse Silvanina. 

CUCUJINA. 

This will probably be found to be a very extensive and widely 
spread tribe ; there are five European genera, of which two are found in 
Britain ; L'xmophloeus is cosmopolitan. 



2C6 CLAVICOKNIA. [Ciicuji)ia. 

I. Thorax with margins dentate, without longitudiual 

liucs ou each side ot disc Pediacus, Shuck. 

11. Thorax with margius simple, with at least oue longi- 
tudiual impressed line on each side of disc L^mophlceus, Er. 

FI^BZACUS, S-liuckard. 

This genus contains a few species from Nortli America^ the Canary 
Islands, &c. ; three are found in Europe, two of which occur very 
rarely in Britain ; they live under hark. 

The larva of P. dermestoides is described and figured by Ferris, Ann. Fr., i8G2, 
p. 190, pi. 5, fig. 535 ; it is 6 mm. long, reddith, very depressed, with long setaj at the 
sides; the head is much broi-.der than long, slightly broader than thorax, which is 
longer than meso- and nietathorax, and the first seven segments of abdomen are not 
very difiercut in length and breadth, and are narrowed iu front and behind ; tlie 
eighth segment is very long, as long as the three preceding together, with sides 
nearly straight in front, and dilated behind into a small tubercle on each side ; the 
ninth segment is long, much narrowed iu middle, and terminated iu a divergent 
fork ; this larva has been found by Ferris parasitic on the larviB of Tomkus stcno- 
yrajjhus. 

I. Thorax plainly transverse, with posterior angles form- 
ing a very distinct sharp tooth P. DERMESTOIDES, F. 

II. Thorax about as long as broad, with posterior angles 

forming a very small blunt tooth P. depressus, Herlsf. 

P. dermestoides, F. K^ddish-brown, soniCwhat shiny ; head 
short, triangular, Avith eyes very prominent, antennas rather stout, with 
3-jointed club, and Avith the seventh joint much broader than tlie 
eighth ; thorax a little narrower than elytra, transverse, usually dark 
brown or blackish Avitli tlic edges lighter, rather thickly punctured, with 
depressions on disc, sides with three or four indistinct teeth, posterior 
angles forming a rather sharp tooth ; elytra parallel, flat, depressed on 
each side of suture, very hnely and obsoletely punctured ; legs reddish- 
testaceous. L. 3-4 mm. 

Uuder bark and in chinks of freshly cut oak, beech, and hornbeam ; very rare ; 
Chatham (Walker); Loughtou, Essex, and Cobham (Power); Hainault Forest; 
New Forest ; Sherwood. 

P. depressus, Herbst. This species resembles the preceding in 
general appearance, l)ut is narrower^ and is easily distinguished by its 
longer thorax, of which the lateral teeth are more pronounced, and the 
posterior angles only form a small blunt tooth ; the colour is lighter, and 
the general appearance is more shiny ; the antennas are longer with 
the third joint plainly longer in proportion, and the legs are stouter ; 
the colour is reddish-testaceous, and the thorax is not darker as is the 
rule with the preceding species. L. 3-4 mm. 

Uuder bark of oaks, &c. ; rare; Knutsford Park and Stretford near Manchester 
f Hardy), out of chinks of very rotten oak, in a yellowish, minute fungus, like mould ; 
Dunliaui Park, Manchester, in Cossus burrows (Chappcll) ; Stretford, on the wing 



rediacus.] CLAvicORNiA. 297 

(Kustoii) ; it lias also been taken by Mr. WoUastou sparingly, among British stores, 
on board a yacht at Dartmouth. 

I.H:I»EOPHXi€Z:US, Erichson. 

This geiuis contains more than fifty species, Avliicli arevery widely 
distributed ; it is, however, impossible to discuss their distribution with 
any certainty, as some of them are almost cosmopolitan, and are carried 
irom one part of the world to another in grain, &c. ; thus L. pusillus is 
described under various names from England, France, Brazil, Surinam, 
&c. ; many, however, are found under bark, where their larva) appear 
to be parasitic on species of Tomkus, Hylesinus, &c. 

Westwood (Classific. i. 149) describes the larva of Lct;mopMceus ater 
(Cucuius Spartil) as long, narrow, and subdepressed, of a fleshy con- 
sistence and white colour, except the head and terminal joint of the 
body which are a yellowish-brown ; the thoracic segments are semi- 
transparent, so as to show the motion of the base of the legs from above ; 
when disturbed, it slightly elevates the extremity of the body, which is 
terminated by two short but rigid incurved hooks. 

Ferris (Ann. Fr. p. 618, pi. 19, 122) deseriljes and figures the larva 
of L JDufouri, which has a narrow orbicular head and the abdomen 
ventricose, or rather fusiform, being broadest in middle and narrowed in 
front and behind ; the eighth segment is long and narrow, and the ninth 
short and terminated in two rather strong short hooks; according to 
this author the larva of L. ater preys on the larva) of Hylesinus rhodu- 
dacfyltis, and that of L. demcdidis on the larva) of Tomicus Inspmus. 

I Forehead with a fine longitudinal line, trisinuate in 

front ; each elytron with a black spot • L. bimaculatus, rayJc. 

11. Forehead without longitudinal line, truncate in 

* front ; upper surface ferruginous, rarely black. ixr ,,, 

i. Thorax with two longitudinal lines on each side . . L. DTTPLICAXUS, Walll. 
ii. Thorax with one longitudinal line on each side. 

1. Posterior angles of thorax right angles or acute. 
'a. Antennse of male as long as body ; thorax not 

rounded at sides ^- pusillus, Schon. 

B Antennee of male a little more than half as long 
'as body ; thorax rounded before middle . . . L. rERRUGiNEUS, ;S/e^)/*. 

2. Posterior angles of thorax obtuse. 

A. Elytra together about twice as long as broad, 
or "less, unevenly striated; colour black, rarely 
dark ferruginous . . L. ATEE, Ol. 

B Elytra together more than double as long as 

broad, evenly striated, colour ferruginous . . . L. clematidis, JEr. 

L. bimaculatus, Fayk. {unifasdatus, Latr.). Depressed, very 
shiny bright reddish-testaceous, with a large black spot on each beinnd 
middle which nearly meet at suture ; head large, thickly punctured with 
a fine longitudinal line in middle, antenna) very long and slender; thorax 
a little shorter than broad, narrowed behind, posterior angles almost 



298 CLAVicoRNiA. [^Lcono^ililoeus. 

right angles, rather thickly and finely punctured, with one stria on each 
side ; elytra finely and olisoletely striate, interstices finely punctured ; 
legs reddish-testaceous. L. 1|-2| mm. 

Male with the head larger and the thorax more strongly narrowed 
behind. 

Under bark of oak, beccli, ami liornbeam ; rare ; Richmond Park (W. J. Saunders) ; 
Gore Court, near Bearsted (Gorham) ; Wimbledon Park (llye); Loughton, Essex ; 
Hainault Forest, under bark of hornbeam (Doughis) ; Bromley, Kent (under oak); 
New Forest. 

Xi. duplicatus, Waltl. A small narrow species, reddish-testaceous; 
head finely punctured, antennas rather stout ; thorax as long as broad, not 
much narrowed behind, posterior angles almost right angles, exceedingly 
finely punctured, with two impressed lines on each side ; elytra almost 
parallel-sided, feebly striated and punctured. L. 1|-1-| mm. 

Male with the head as broad as thorax, antennee longer, thorax more 
strongly narrowed behind, and apex of elytra truncate ; in the female 
the head is narroAver than the thorax, the antennas are shorter, the 
thorax less strongly narrowed behind, and the apex of elytra rounded ; 
these differences are found in other species. 

Under bark of beech, oak, &c, ; locp.l and usually uncommon ; Maidstone, Chatham, 
Farnborough, Coombe Wood, Balconibe, Eslier, Bromley, Horsell, Micldeham, 
Highgate ; New Forest; Holm Bush, near Brighton ; at Bromley and Esher it has 
occurred in large numbers. 

Ii. pusillus, Schon. (longicor7iis, Maiirih.). Rather larger on the 
average than the preceding species, and distinguished from it by having 
only one impressed line on each side of the thorax, and by the fact that the 
antennae of the male are almost as long as the whole body ; the elytra 
also are more plainly striated, and the general form is broader. Ij. 
1|-1| mm. 

In granaries ; imported with corn; found by Mr, Fitch at Maldon, Essex, and lately 
(1888) by Mr. C. G. Hall near Dover. 

Zi. ferrug-ineusj Steph. (tesfaceus, Payk., wee Fabr.). Reddish- 
testaceous, shining, parallel-sided, with more evident pubescence than in 
the preceding species ; head very finely and rather diffusely punctured, 
antenucB with the eighth joint shorter than the seventh ; thorax about as 
long as broad, narrowed behind, posterior angles almost right angles, 
upper surface very finely and not very thickly punctured, with one very 
fine impressed line on each side ; elytra parallel, rounded at apex, in 
both sexes covering the whole abdomen, with fine stria?, interstices 
iri'egularly punctured, the fourth raised in rather a strong keel; legs 
reddish. testaceous, femora broad. L. 2 mm. 

Male with the head broader, the antenna?, longer, and the thorax more 
strongly narrowed behind ; the outer side of the mandibles also at base is 
produced into a tooth. 



LoEiaophlcCUS.'] CLAVICORNIA. 299 

111 liaystack refuse, rarely under bark, also in granaries; perhaps introduced; 
connnoii in many localities ; London district ; Hertford ; Cambridge ; Cliat Moss ; 
Korwieli ; Hinniiigbam district; Nortliuniberhind and Durbam district; it has 
occurred in London itself, and also in Tilgate Forest, &c. 

Xi. ater, 01. {Cncujiis Spartii, Curtis), Very closely related to the 
]U'eceding, black or dark ferruginous, depressed, parallel-sided, finely 
pubescent, antennre and legs pitchy-red or red ; thorax as long as broad, 
narroAved behind, very finely punctured, with one impressed line on each 
side ; elytra closely and obsoletely striated, with the alternate interstices 
somewhat raised, sides carinate. L. 2| mm. 

Male with the head very large, the thorax more strongly narrowed 
behind, and the outer side of the mandibles produced into a tooth at 
base ; there appears only to be a slight difference in the length of the 
antennre in the sexes. 

In dead stems of broom {Spartium scoparium), &c. ; rare; Darenth Wood; 
Coombe Wood ; Wiltshire (under decayed elm -bark) ; Birmingham district, Small - 
heath, &c, (Blatch). 

Xi. clematidis, Er. Elongate, narrow, parallel-sided, ferruginous, 
with exceedingly fine and short pubescence ; head and thorax thickly 
and rugosely punctured, antennae. stout_, rather short ; thorax as broad as 
elytra, rather longer than broad, gradually narrowed behind, with a fine 
itnpressed line on each side ; elytra very long, more than double as long 
as broad, thickly, evenly, and rather deeply striated ; legs reddish-tes- 
taceous. L. 2|-3 mm. 

Male Avith the head larger than in the female. 

Li dead stems of Chmaiis viialla (Travellers' Joy); rare; Gravesend (Janson) ; 
Dartford (Champion) ; Henley (Power). 

HYLIOTINA. 

This tribe only contains two European genera, which are both very 
widely distributed in other parts of the world ; in Europe they are each 
represented by one species, which are both found in Britain, although 
very rarely. 

T. Thorax longer than broad, not serrate at sides . . . Dendeophagus, Schon. 
II. Thorax broader than long, serrate at sides .... Brontes, F. 

DENSROPKACUS^ Schonherr. 

This genus contains about a dozen species, which are very widely dis- 
tributed, representatives Tjeing found in Northern Asia and North 
America (Alaska and the Lake Superior district), as well as in Tasmania, 
NeAv Zealand, and the Philippine Islands ; the genus in its lavA-al 
state seems to be much more closely related to Bruntes than in the 
perfect condition. 



300 CLAVICOKNIA. \_Di:ndroji)haiJUS. 

The larva of Z). crenatus is described by Dr. Bucluiuaii White (Eut. Monthly Mag. 
viii. 196), and the description is discussed aud criticized by M. Perris (Larves des 
Cole'opteres, p. 60) ; it is of a pale yellowi^h-white colour, elongate, depressed, and 
parallel, with rather long antenna (which are 4-jointed according to Perris, and 
3-jointed according to White),* and long and slender legs which are terminated by 
•A single claw ; ocelli live ; mandibles tridentate at apex ; prothorax quadrate, some- 
what transverse ; last segment bearing two long cerci, anal appendage rather long 
and narrow. L. 9-10 mm. 

This larva is very active, and is said by Dr. White to feed on the 
inner layer of the bark of dead trees of the Scotch tir and larch ; it 
is, however, probably carnivorous, like so many other of the larvae of the 
Colydiidre and Cucujidae. 

"D. crenatus, Payk. Elongate, very flat, black, pitchy-black, or 
brownish, very shining; head large, uneven, diffusely punctured, eyes 
large and prominent ; antennte long, brownish-red, Avith the first joint 
elongate, second shorter than third, apical joints not thickened ; thorax a 
little longer than broad, with sides sinuate, coarsely punctured, with two 
shallow longitudinal depressions in middle ; elytra parallel-sided, very 
fiat, with fine striae, which are thickly and deeply punctured, each punc- 
ture bearing a short fine hair ; legs brown-red or ferruginous, femora 
thickened ; in the male the antennre are rather longer than in the female. 
L. Q-7 mm. 

Under bark of firs and larches ; very local ; Scotland, Tay, Dee, and Moray 
districts (liannoch, Braemar, Aviemore, &c.) ; the beetle appears, tow^ards evening, to 
come out from its hiding-place ; Rye, at all events, records the capture of a specinieu 
"coursing rapidly, towards evening, over a bare tir-log." 

BXS.ONTES, Fabricius {Hyliota, Latreille). 

About twenty species are recorded as belonging to this genus ; they 
are widely distributed, being recorded from North and South America, 
Java, Ceylon, the Australian region, &c. ; one only is found in Europe ; 
it is widely distributed over the central and northern portions of tlie 
Continent ; it is closely allied to DendropJiagus, but is easily distin- 
guished by its dull appearance and the serrate sides of the thorax, 
which is much shorter. 

The larva of £. planatus is described and figured by Perris (Ann. Fr., 1853, 
p. 621, pi. 19, fig. 127) ; it so closely resembles that of Dendrophagns that it h irdly 
needs a separate description ; it is rather smaller, and has the cerci shorter ; the 
pupa is much narrowed behind, and has the sides of the abdominal segments fur- 
nished with setigerous prominences ; the larva is active, and appears to be carnivorous, 
and to prey on the larvte of Tomicus, and on Podurse, Acari, &c. 

S. planatus, L. Elongate, very much depressed, dull black, some- 
times browiiish, thinly clothed with very short fine greyish hairs, which 

* Dr. White appears to have overlooked the basal joint, which is inconspicuous. 



Brontes.] clavicornia. 301 

are arranged in rows on tlie elytra ; liead lliicldy and somewhat rugosely 
punctured, with somewhat prominent eyes, antennae as long as the 
whole body, ferruginous, first joint very long, often lighter than the 
rest second shorter than third ; thorax transverse, narrowed behind, 
.vith the sides serrate, rugosely punctured, with two indistinct shallow 
longitudinal furrows ; elytra with shallow striae, which are feebly punc- 
tured fifth interstice strongly raised in a keel; legs ferruginous or 
reddish-testaceous; in the males the antennae are rather longer than in 
the female. L. 5 mm. 

Under bark of dead beecli-trees ; very rare ; several specimens taken by Mr. Rye 
from a standing tree near Putney ; Blackheatli (Douglas). 

V iMlens F (B. pnUeiis, F.). This variety is ycllowish-testacepus ; 
it was taken'by Mr. Rye at Putney with the type form. 

PSAMMCECHINA. 

This tribe contains two European genera, which are each represented 
bv one species ; one of -these is widely distributed m Europe ; the first 
ioint of the tarsi is short, the third long, bilobed ; the antenna arc 
<n-adually thickened towards apex, and have the first joint e ongate ; 
the anterior coxa; are contiguous, and their cavities are broadly closed 
behind, and the prosternal process is very narrow. 

PSAl^SKECHUS, Latreille. 

This "enus contains three or four species from Europe, Ceylon, and 
the Island of Mauritius ; they are found among vegetable refuse in 
damp places. 

P bipunctatus, F. Testaceous, with the head black, except 
vertex which is reddish, thorax often reddish, elytra with the suture 
behind and a spot on each black ; under-side mostly black or dark 
brown ; head thickly and strongly punctured, antenuce rather long, 
Yellow' with the two or three penultimate joints blackish or brownish ; 
thorax' half as broad as elytra, transverse, evenly and not strongly 
rounded at sides, distinctly punctured ; elytra with strong punctured 
stri£B and broad interstices in each of which is a row of very fine punc- 
tures ; legs clear yellow. L. 2| mm. 

Mar.by places, at roots of grass and in refuse; not uncommon, but local, and Hot 
fo nd in^he North of England or in Scotland ; Lee, Strood, H.gbam, HanunersmUh 
M Ses Bearsted, Wickham, Southend; Blrchington; Folkestone; Hastings; 
Cowes wTnchestei'; Southampton; Devonshire; Wicken Fen and Soham ; Coles- 
hmaiidSuUon near Birmingham (abundant in the former place at the s.des ol a 
pond). 

The V. Boudleri has the head red and the antennae entirely yellow ; 



302 CLAVICOUNIA. [rsnmmocclius. 

I am not aware if it occurs in England, but immature specimens of P. 
bipunctatus seem to come near it. 

HYPOCOPRINA. 

The position of this tribe has always been a source of great discus- 
sion, ever since the genus JIijpocojvus was first discovered ; the majority 
of authors have referred it to the CryptophagidcB, to which it certainly 
is soaiewhat closely related ; Thomson (Skand. Col. x. 353) regards it 
as intermediate between Monotoma and Mi/rmecoxenus ; Dr. Horn 
(Classification of the Coleoptera of North America, p. 140) places it as 
a tribe of the Mycetophagidoe ; on the whole, however, the position 
assigned to it by Keitter betAveen the Psammaichina and Silvanina, 
appears to be the most natural, and I have, therefore, although with 
some reserve, adopted it. 

HYPOCOPRUS, Motschulsky. 

This genus comprises two or three species from Europe and Madeira ; 
our single species is very rare, and has not been found for many years. 

H, latridioides, ]\Iots. Elongate and linear, upper surface rather 
depressed, slightly shining, with very fine and scarcely visible pubes- 
cence, pitchy-black with the antennae and legs ferruginous ; head rather 
large, subtriangular ; antennae rather long, inserted at some distance 
before eyes, ll-jointed, with the last three joints thicker, forming a 
club ; thorax longer than broad, subquadrate, with the sides not crenu- 
late ; elytra obsoletely punctured, without striae, broadly rounded at 
apex ; anterior coxae not widely separated, all the tarsi 5-jointed. L. 
l-l^ mm. 

Very rare ; under cow-dung in a sandy field at Brandon, Suifollc ; taken sparingly 
by Mr. Crotch ; it appears to be very scarce on the Continent. Thomson compares 
this puzzling species to Monotoma lovgicollis, to which insect it bears a superficial 
resemblance ; Rye says that it may be superficially described as a black specimen of 
Lissodema ^-guttata, of the size of Lathridius ruficoUis. 

SILVANINA. 

Six genera belonging to this tribe are found in Europe, three of Avhich 
are represented in Britain ; several of the species are cosmopolitan ; the 
anterior coxal cavities are broadly closed behind, and the tarsi are 5- 
jointed in both sexes, and have the fourth joint very small. 

I. Club of antennaj 4-jointed 'Navsibws, Ecdt. 

II. Club of antennae 3-jointed. 

i. Joints of club of antenna; of equal breadth SlLTANXTS, Latr. 

ii. Central joint of club of antennte broader than the other 

t„,o Catharttts, lieiche. 



Nausihius.] ci.AVicouMA. 303 

NAUSIBIUS, Redtenbacher. 

One or two species only are included in this genus ; they differ fnnn 
Silvanus by the somewhat indistinctly 4-jointed club of the antennae ; 
Westwood (Classific. i. 153) says that the larva of our species may often 
be found dead in sugar, and observed floating in tea or coffee ; it is elongate, 
depressed^ and glaljrous, with the central abdominal segments rather 
broader and the terminal segment entire. 

US. dentatus, Marsh. Fuscous-brown, elongate, subparallel, de- 
pressed, rather dull, clothed with very fine yellowish pubescence; head sulj- 
triangular, eyes large and prominent, placed close to thorax, antenna) short 
and stout with somewhat indistinct 4-joiuted club; thorax subquadrate, 
slightly narrowed behind, very little longer than broad, scarcely narrower 
than elytra, with sides furnished with six rather blunt distinct teeth ; 
elytra almost three times as long as thorax, with fine punctate striae, 
alternate interstices, especially the external ones, somewhat raised. L. 
3 mm. 

lu sugar, &c. ; an introduced species ; Loudon and other towns in different parts of 
the kingdom ; not uncommon. 

SII.VANUS, Latrcille. 

This genus contains between twenty and thirty species, which are 
widely distributed, but as in the case of La^raophloeus their original dis- 
triljution cannot be known with any certainty, as several of them are 
almost cosmopolitan, having been carried from one quarter to another by 
commerce ; the same holds good also with regard to Cafharfvs and 
Nausibius ; the habits of these genera are, however, some what of a pro- 
blem, as occasionally (as also is found in the case of Carpi philus) species 
supposed to have been imported are found by sweeping or under bark 
under circumstances that seem to prove them to be indigenous. 

The larva of Silvanus unidentattis is described and figured by Ferris, Ann. Fr., 1853, 
p. 027, pi. 19, fig. 138 ; it is of a whitish colour with the head and thorax darker, 
and calls for no particular description, being linear and subparallel with the head 
transverse ; the niuth segment of abdomen is small and narrow, and bears no cerci ; 
the larva is rather active ; the pupa has the last segment of abdomen narrow and ter- 
minated by two short cerci; Westwood (Classific. i. 153, fig. 13, 10, 11) figures 
the larva and pupa of S. surinamensis ; the larva is rather stout aud broad, and the 
pupa has the margins of the abdomen and thorax armed with short thick points. 

I. Cheeks large, and projecting behind eyes, which are re- 

moved to a distance from thorax ; sides of thorax serrate, 
anterior angles not or scarcely more produced than the 
preceding deuticulations S. SURINAMENSIS, L, 

II. Cheeks behind eyes slightly projecting in a very small 
tooth, eyes close to thorax ; sides of thorax not serrate, 
anterior angles much produced and projecting. 

i. Slightly shiny ; thorax longer than broad ; anterior 

angles produced iu a sliort point S. tjnidentatus, 01. 



sot CLAVicoRNiA, [Silcanus. 

i. Dull ; tliorax mucli longer tlijin broad; anterior angles 
produced in a very strong sharp point. 
1. Elytra depressed, about as broad as thorax, antennaj 

shorter and stouter S. BIDENTATUS, F. 

2 Elytra convex, distinctly broader than thorax, autennse 

longer and more slender S. SIMILIS, Er. 

S. surinamensis, L. (frumentarmSjY. ; sexdentatus, F.). Narrow, 
almost parallel-sided, depressed, fuscous brown, rather thickly clothed 
with fine greyish-yellow pubescence ; head a little narrower than thorax, 
rather large, narrowed in front of antennae, very thickly. and deeply punc- 
tured ; antenniB rather stout ; thorax slightly narrower than elytra, longer 
than broad, serrate at sides, with three distinct raised keels, very thickly 
punctured ; the anterior angles project in a more or less strong point, 
which is however not, or not much, more pronounced than the preceding 
denticulations ; elytra rounded at apex, with regular punctured striae, 
alternate interstices elevated ; legs ferruginous. L. 3 mm. 

In sugar, dried figs, rice, &c. ; an introduced and cosmopolitan species; London, 
Dublin, and other towns, not uncoinmon ; it is, however, occasionally fouud at a dis- 
tance from habitations. Mr. Bold remarks that in warm seasons it becomes so numerous 
in many grocers' shops in Newcastle as to be a nuisance, rendering unsightly the 
sugar and dried fruits among which it lives and breeds. Professor Westwood says 
that he has specimens from Yorkshire, Eppiug Forest, and Scotland, taken under bark 
of trees. 

S. unidentatus, F. Rather shining, reddish-yellow or brownish- 
red, Avith very short and tine yellowish pubescence ; head triangular 
narrowed before eyes, antennae with a plainer club than in the preceding 
species ; tliorax a little longer than broad, anterior angles produced in a 
distinct but not very elongate point, Avith sides not sen-ate and narrowed 
behind, together with head very thickly punctured, posterior angles den- 
ticulate ; elytra with very close punctured stiise, interstices very narrow ; 
legs ferruginous. L. 2f mm. 

Under bark of beech, oak, hornbeam, &c. ; local, but often common where it occurs; 
London district, widely distributed ; New Forest ; Exeter; Stretford, near Mauclies- 
ter (flying) ; not recorded from Scotland or Ireland ; the localities known for this 
species seem to show that it has been introduced, and has to a certain extent natural- 
ized itself. 

S. bidentatus, r. {laricis, Chevr.). Very like the preceding, but 
larger and evidently duller ; the anterior angles of thorax are produced 
into a longer, sharper, and evidently more distinct tooth ; the thorax is 
longer and narrower, and has two shallow longitudinal grooves ; the joints 
of the antennae are longer and the club is more marked, and the tibiae 
are less dilated at apex, L. 3 mm. 

Under bark; very rare; Dunham Park, Jtanchester, under bark of a large branch 
of oak which had been broken off in a gale (Cliappell) ; Newcastle, very rare (Bold) ; 
Paisley, one specimen under tir bark (?ilorris Young). 

S. similis, Er. (far/i, Guer.). Allied to >S'. vnulenicdus, but easily 



Siloanns.] clavicornia. 305 

distingiushftd by liaving the elytra much broader iu proportion to the 
thorax, which lias the anterior angles more strongly and distinctly pro- 
duced, and the posterior angles not denticulate ; the elytra also are 
slightly ovate ; the colour is usually reddish-brown, but occasionally the 
disc of the elytra is darker. L. 2| mm. 

In dead branches of the Scotch fir ; first taken by Dr. Power near Eshcr, and after- 
wards in numbers by Mr. Champion, who says " there can be no mistaking the habits 
of this species here — its only recorded British locality — although it has been stated to 
occur in sugar." Dr. Power appears also to have found the species at Cobham Park. 

CATKARTUS, Reiche. 

Four species belonging to this genus are mentioned in the last Euro- 
pean catalogue, three of which are regarded as doubtful ; the fourth also, 
C. advena, must be considered an importation, although, like >S'. Surinam- 
ensis, it has been found at some distance from habitations ; it has usually 
been classed with Silvanus, but is smaller and very different in appear- 
ance, and has the central joint of the club of antennae larger than the 
others. 

C. advena, Waltl. More convex, less parallel, and smaller than 
either of our other species belonging to the Silvanina ; reddish-testaceous 
or brownish-red, rather shiny, clothed with fine short yellowish pubes- 
cence ; head subtriangular, very finely punctured, antennae moderately 
long with the first joint of club much smaller than second, and the second 
larger than the apical joint ; thorax transversely subquadrate, with sides 
almost straight, very finely punctured, anterior angles forming a small 
blunt tooth, posterior angles right angles ; elytra long oval, with fine 
punctured striae, which become obsolete towards apex ; legs ferruginous 
or testaceous ; the insect bears a very strong resemblance to certain 
species of Cryptopliagus. L. 2 mm. 

In rice, &c. ; very rarely found out of doors ; an introduced species ; London, no< 
uncommon; I have also received it from Scotland j Mr. Waterhouse has found thret 
specimens at Wandsworth under cut grass. 

BYTURID^. 

The position of this family has been, and still is, much disputed. 
Erichson classed it with the Melyridre, Stephens with the Engidae, 
Da Yal with the Telmatophilidae, Kiesen wetter with the Mtidulidse, 
and Eedtenbacher and Lacordaire with the Dermestidfe ; others again 
place it under the Mycetophagida3, from which it appears to be separated 
by the number of tarsal joints, the closed anterior coxal cavities, and 
the toothed claws ; the 5-jointed tarsi, of which the second and third 
joints are-lobed beneath, seem to bring it into close connection with 
the Telmatophilina ; as, however. Professor Westwood observes (Classif. 
Ins. vol. i. p. 142), in its habit of frequenting flowers, and in the bilobed 
form of the third and minute size of the fourth joints of the tarsi, it 

VOL. III. X 



30G CLAVicoRNiA. [Byturidce. 

approaches the Nitidulidte ; it is here provisionally placed near the 
•Telmatophilina. 

The larva of B. fomentosus sometimes does great damage to the blossom and fruit 
of the raspberry ; it is cylindrical, depressed in front, with the head brown and the 
scuta brownish; the abdomen is terminated by two short brown cerci and a cylin- 
drical tubercle which is retractile, and is employed as a proleg ; the pupa is very 
pilose (Thorns. Skand. Col. iv. 192). 

SVTURVS, Latreille. 

Four or five species are contained in this genus, which appear to be 
confined to Europe and North America ; our two British species are 
closely allied, and have been classed together by some authors ; they 
appear, however, to be quite distinct ; they cannot be separated by 
colour, as both species present two distinct forms, the one fuscous with 
grey pubescence which has a slight greenish tinge, and the other luteous 
with yellowish pubescence, 

I. Eyes very large; pubescence coarser; elytra rather more 

strongly punctured ; average size larger B. sambitci, Scop, 

II. Byes moderate ; pubescence finer ; elytra less strongly 

punctured ; average size smaller B. tomentostjs, F. 

S. sambuci, Scop, (eeaiwiis, Thoms. ; tomentosus, Gyll.). Oljlong, 
rather convex, of a nioi'e or less obscure luteous colour with yellow 
pubescence, or fuscous with greyish pubescence which has a slight 
greenish tinge ; head closely punctured, eyes very large, antennae red, 
shorty with 3-jointed club ; thorax very transverse, thickly punctured, 
with sides rounded in front, strongly depressed towards posterior angles, 
side margins explanate ; elytra long in proportion to thorax, closely but 
distinctly punctured ; legs red or reddish-testaceous, posterior tibiae very 
finely spinulose. L. 3-4 mm. 

Male with the anterior tibise feebly sinuate on their inner margin, and 

somewhat dilated towards apex. 

Bv sweeping flowers, &c. ; somewhat local, but rather common in many localities ; 
London district, Caterham, Micldeham, Shirley, Snodland, Chatham, Darenth 
Wood, Wcsterham, Bearsted, Dulwich, &c. ; Hastings; Knowle ; Bewdley ; Llan- 
gollen ; Stretford, near Manchester ; Liverpool district on Salix pentandria and 
Caltha ijaUistris ; Northumberland district, not common. 

B. tomentosus, F. {ochraceus, Scriba). Very like the preceding, 
but on the average smaller and proportionally shorter, with the thorax 
not so transverse, and less strongly impressed towards posterior angles ; 
the margins also of the thorax are less explanate ; the elytra are more 
finely punctured, aiid the pubescence is finer ; the eyes, moreover, are 
smaller, and the posterior tibia? are scarcely spinulose ; in the male the 
anterior tibiiB are slightly sinuate internally, as in the preceding 
species. L. 3 mm. 

By sweeping flowers ; especially common on raspberry blossoms ; it also occurs on 
the niountain°ash and many Ralluuculacea^ and otlier flowers ; common and generally 
distributed throughout the^grcater part of the kingdom. 



CryptophagidcE.'] clavicounia. 307 

CRYPTOPHAGID^. 

This family contains between twenty and thirty genera, which are 
very widely distributed, but appear, as far as is at present known, to 
be mucli more characteristic of cold and temperate than of tropical 
countries ; they are, as a rule, very small and obscure insects, and may 
be known by the following characters: — Antennae inserted a little before 
or between the eyes, distant or approximate, 11-jointed, terminating 
ina 3-jointed, very rarely, 2-jointed club, thorax with the sides margined 
or denticulate ; elytra covering abdomen; abdomen composed of five 
free segments, of which the first is the largest ; anterior coxal cavities 
open behind (except in the Diphyllina) ; all the coxae more or less 
distant, the anterior pairs transverse and oval, and the posterior pairs 
more widely distant, semi-cylindrical ; upper surface more or less setose 
or pubescent, sometimes very strongly so ; tarsi 5-jointed, in some genera 
heteromerous in tlie males. 

I. Anterior coxal cavities closed behind ; antennae with a 3- 

or 2-jointed club Diphyllina. 

II. Anterior coxal cavities open behind; antennae with a 3- 
jointed club (except in Ccenoscelis, where it is apparently 

2-jointed). 
i. Tarsi 5-jointed, apparently 4-jointed, the fourth joint 
being very small and obsolete, second and third joints 

lobed Telmatophilina, 

ii. Tarsi distinctly 5-jointed in both sexes, or heteromerous 
in the male ; second and third joints not lobed. 

1. Antennae inserted at the sides of the forehead, broadly 
distant at base ; thorax with the sides usually denticu- 
late ; upper surface more or less setose Cbyptophagina. 

2. Antennae inserted on the forehead between the eyes, 
approximate at base ; thorax with the sides not denticu- 
late ; upper surface not setose Atomaeiina, 

DIPHYLLINA. 

This tribe has by most authors been placed under the Mycetophagidje, 
l)ut appears to bear a far closer relation to the Telmatophilina, which it 
resembles in the fact that its members have the tarsi 5-jointed (the 
fourth joint being very small), and more or less lobed beneath; it differs 
from the Telmatophilina in having the elytra furnished with distinct 
punctured striae, and the anterior coxal cavities closed behind ; the 
three first joints of the tarsi are feebly lobed beneath, and the first joint 
is shorter than the second, whereas in the allied tribe the third joint is 
strongly lobed, and the second feebly lobed, the first being as long as 
the second, and not lobed; the tribe contains two or three genor;i, of 
which Margimis, Leconte, is now merged with Dijilocoelus. 

I. Club of antennae 2-jointed Diphyllus, ^ffep/i. 

II. Club of antennae 3-jointcd Diplocceltjs, Guer. 

X 2 



308 CLAvicoRNiA. \_Bipliyllus. 

DZPHVIiZiUS, Stephens. 

This genus contains only two species, wliich are found in Europe and 
the Atlantic Islands : the larva of D. lunatus is described and figured 
by Perris, Ann. Fr., 1851, p. 42, t. 2, III. f. 10-lG ; it much resembles 
that of Triphyllas punctatus, but is more linear, being almost parallel- 
sided, and scarcely wider in the middle ; it is 6 mm. in length, of a 
whitish colour, Avith the head and part of the thorax reddish ; the anal 
segment is rounded at apex ; it has been met with in the fungus Sphceria 
concentrica, Pers. 

I>. lunatus, F. Oblong-ovate, slightly shining, black or fuscous 
black, with thick fuscous pubescence ; elytra with a common lunate band 
of greyish-white pubescence, which is very conspicuous ; head strongly 
punctured, antennae rather short, ferruginous, with a very distinct 
2-jointed club ; thorax not strongly transverse, finely crenulate at sides, 
strongly punctured, with a distinct raised line near margin, and another 
straighter one inside it ; elytra subparallel, with distinct punctured 
striae ; legs red. L. 2 1-3 mm. 

In the blrtck fungus and under bark of old tish-treos ; local, and, as a rule, rare ; 
Chatham, Sheerness, Coombe Wood; Netley; Isle of Wight; Plymouth; Fowey ; 
Leigh Woods, Bristol ; Salford Priors, Evesham ; Grimsby. 

DZPIiOCCEIiUS, Guerin. 

This genus contains four or five species from Europe and North 
America, one being found in Cuba ; it is distinguished from Diplujllus, 
which it much resembles in general appearance, by the 3-jointed club of 
the antennae ; our single species is very rare in Britain, and has only 
occurred in the New Forest. 

D. fag*!, Guer. Oblong-ovate, of longer and narrower form than 
DipTiijUus, clothed with yellowish-grey pubescence ; head considerably 
narrowed before eyes, thickly punctured, antennae short, ferruginous 
with 3-jointed club ; thorax transverse, distinctly punctured, with 
margins slightly crenulate, and with two raised lines before margins, 
the inner one of which is rather indistinct ; the head and thorax vary 
somewhat in colour, but are usually ferruginous-red ; elytra dark, with 
base and shoulders, and occasionally apex, more or less broadly ferru- 
ginous, rather long, paiallel-sided, with distinct punctured striae; legs 
red. L, 21-3 mm. 

Under bai-k, &c. ; s'ery rare ; New Forest ; taken in some numbers by C. Turner, 
who first captured it iu the autumn of 1867. 

TELMATOPHILINA. 

. The members of this tribe are small and obscure insects ; the single 



Tehnatoplnlijia.'] clavicornia. 309 

European genua has much the siune facics as Cnjpluphagu^, but Dr. 
Horn remarks tliat the American genus Loherus *' reseml)k's, at lirst 
sight, a small Ilalticine of the genus Crei>idudera ; " the 5-jointed, hut 
apparently 4-jointed, tarsi, of which the fourth joint is very small and 
obsolete, and the lobed second and third joints of the same will serve to 
distinguish the tribe from its allies ; the Diphyllina are by some authors 
associated with the tribe, but appear to be very distinct by reason of 
their closed anterior coxal cavities and general sculpture. 



TSZilAIATOPKIXiUS, Heer. 

This genus contains about ten or a dozen species, eight of which are 
European, and one or two are found in ISTorth America ; they resemble 
Cryptojyhagtis in general appearance, but are as a rule dark-coloured ; 
they occur chiefly in stems of water plants, such as Sj^coyanium, Typhit, 
&c. 

I. Elytra testaceous or brownish-yellow with dark mark- 
ings T. SPARGANII, Ahr, 

II. Elytra nnicolorous, usually black, occasionally 
pitchy. 
i. Thorax not or scarcely transverse ; sides sinuatf be- 
fore base; posterior angles riglit angles. 

1. Sides of thorax gradually and not strongly rounded ; 

legs red ; size larger T. CARicis, Oi. 

2. Sides of thorax strongly rounded in front, and 
plainly narrowed and sinuate behind; femora 

usually black ; size smaller T. SchoNHEBEI, Gi/fl, 

ii. Thorax distinctly transverse. 

1. Thorax about a third broader than long ; sides 

rounded to base ; posterior angles obtuse . . . T. TYPH^, Fall, 

2. Thorax twice as broad as long; sides almost 
straight, or very slightly sinuate before base ; 

posterior angles right angles T. BEEVICOLLIS, Aubi. 

T. sparg-anii, Ahr. Oblong, moderately convex, clothed with tliick 
yelloAvish pubescence ; head and thorax pitchy, the latter often reddish ; 
elytra testaceous or brownish-testaceous, with the suture and scutellary 
region, and a broad patch behind middle extending more or less along 
the side margins to apex, black ; antennae testaceous, rather slender, with 
a well-marked 3-jointed club, of which the central joint is the broadest ; 
eyes rather prominent ; thorax about as long as broad, with sides rounded 
and crenulate, sinuate just before posterior angles which are right angles, 
closely but distinctly punctured ; elytra long, very gradually narrowed 
to apex, finely punctured ; legs testaceous. L. 2-2| mm. 

In stems of Sparganium, Tifpha, &•, ; rare ; Horning Fen (Sharp and Crotch) 
Pegwell Bay, in the last week in IMay (Sliarp and Saunders) ; Cobham, Surrey 
(Stephens) ; Hythe ; Sandwich. In Dr. Sharp's collection there is a specin:en from 
Pegwell Bay which has the upper surface pitchy, with a broad testaceous band ex- 
tending along suture from near base to apex. 



310 CLAvicoRNiA. [Telmatophilus. 

T. caricis, 01. (obscurus, F.). Oblong, slightly convex, black or 
fuscous black, clothed, with very thick light pubescence Avhich gives 
the insect a greyish appearance ; antennae reddish-testaceous ; eyes 
rather prominent ; thorax about as long as broad with sides finely crenu- 
late, gradually rounded, sinuate just before base, posterior angles right 
angles, punctuation close but distinct ; elytra long, subparallel, closely 
but distinctly punctured at base, more finely towards apex ; legs and 
last segment of abdomen reddish-testaceous ; in the male the knees and 
tarsi are fuscous, the posterior femora are much thickened, the posterior 
tarsi are dilated before middle, and the last ventral segment of abdomen 
is furnished with an impressed fovea. L. 2-2| mm. 

In stems of Tt/p?ia, &c. ; frequently taken by sweeping in marshy places ; common 
and generally distributed in the Loudon, Southern, and Midland districts ; rarer 
further north ; Manchester ; Liverpool; Scarborough; not recorded from Northum- 
berland or any ot the extreme northern counties ; Scotland, Lowlands, in marshes, 
Solway and Forth districts. 

T. typhae, Fall. Very like the preceding, but much smaller, with the 
thorax evidently (although not very strongly) transverse, and the sides 
rounded distinctly to the posterior angles wliich are obtuse but plain 
(Tliomson in his description says *' angulis posticis acutiusculis ") ; 
the margins of thorax are distinctly crenulate and somcAvhat explanate, 
with a distinct line before the widened portion ; the elytra are much 
more finely punctiired than thorax ; antennae and legs reddish-tes- 
taceous, femora of latter at most slightly darker. L, l|-lf mm. 

In stems of Ti/p7i a ; occasionally in flood refuse and by sweeping; local, but some- 
times abundant where it occurs; Mickleham, Woking, Sheerness, Chatham ; Hythe ; 
Ashburnham ; Swansea (in flowers of Caltha palusiris); North Wales; Cromer; 
Cambridgeshire ; Coleshill ; Sutton Park, Birmingham ; Droitwich ; Scarborough ; 
Manchester ; Scotland, Lowlands, in marshes, Tweed district. 

T. Schbnherri, Gyll. On an average rather smaller than T. typhce, 
which species it very closely resembles ; it is, however, easily distin- 
guished by the shape of the thorax, which is about as long as 
broad, strongly rounded in front and narrowed and sinuate behind, with 
the posterior angles right angles ; the sides also are scarcely perceptibly 
crenulate, and are not explanate at sides ; the antennse (as a rule) and 
the legs are more darkly coloured, the femora being almost always 
black or pitchy-black. L. H-l| mm. 

In stems of Ttfpha, &c. ; often in company with the preceding species ; very local ; 
Sheerness (not uncommon); Deal; Horning Fen; Droitwich; Cheshire (on iS/par- 
ganium) ; not recorded from the northern counties of England or from Scotland. 

T. brevicollis, Aube. Oblcng, convex, clothed with thick and 
rather long pale pubescence, of the same colour as T, caricis, or occasion- 
ally entirely pitchy-brown ; the legs are sometimes entirely reddish- 
testaceous, but sometimes the femora are infuscate ; the species is at 
once distinguished by the shape of its thorax, which is twice as broad 



Telmatojjhilus.] clwicornia. ' 311 

as long, -with tho sides strongly rounded in front, and dilated in tlie 
middle where it is broadest, and from tlicnce almost straight in an 
oblique line, or very slightly sinuate, to posterior angles which are right 
angles ; the elytra are considerably more linely punctured than the 
thorax ; in size this species comes between 2\ caricis and T. tyijhce. L. 
2 mm. 

In stems of Typhoi, &c. ; rare; Sheerness ; Birclun<jton, near Margate; Pegwcll 
Bay; Sandwich; Hythe ; New Forest; Weston-super-Mare (where Mr. Crotch took 
the two first specimens captured in Britain). 

CRYPTOPHAGINA. 

This tribe contains a large number of species, but the arrangement 
of the genera, which are few in number, is perhaps liardly established 
with certainty. I have followed Thomson in adopting Micramde and 
Henoficus as distinct from Cryptophagus and Paramecosoma respectively ; 
the species are as a rule more or less oblong, usually of a reddish-brown 
or ferruginous colour, with the sides of the thorax, or at all events the 
anterior angles, very often denticulate ; the upper surface is strongly 
pubescent, and more or less setose ; our genera may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

I. Mesosternum deeply emarginate and foveate, re- 
ceiving the process of the prosternum ; sides of thorax 

not denticulate ; size larger Antheeophagus, Lair. 

II. Mesosternum not foveate for the reception of the 
prosternal process, which is shorter; sides of thorax 

almost always denticulate ; size smaller. 

i. Tarsi with the penultimate joint equal to the pre- 
ceding ; posterior tarsi of male 4-joiuted .... Cevptophagus, Herbst. 

ii. Tarsi with the penultimate joint abruptly shorter 
and narrower than those preceding. 

1. Thorax with the sides denticulate. 

A. All the tarsi 5-jointed in both sexes; anterior 

angles of thorax callosely reflexed Miceambe, Thorns. 

B. Male with the posterior tarsi 4-jointed ; anterior 

angles of thorax not callosely reflexed .... Henoticus, Thonis. 

2. Thorax with the sides not denticulate ; all the 

tarsi 5-jointed in both sexes Paeamecosoma, Curt. 



ANTKEROPKAGUS, Latreille. 

This genus contains about half-a-dozen species from Europe and 
North America, and one from Northern Asia ; they resemble very large 
Cryptophagi ; they appear to be usually associated with various species 
of Eombi or humble-bees, but are often found in flowers and by sweep- 
ing and beating herbage and undergrowth ; the names of our species 
are somewhat misleading, .4. j5a//^ws being by far the darkest cole ured 
of the three ; the posterior tarsi in the male are 4-jointed. 



312 CLAViooRNiA. [Antherop?ia(/u3. 

I. Upper surface clotlied with very fine and not very evi- 

dent pale pubescence. 
i. Colour light yellowish-testaceous ; nnterior tibiaj not 

produced externally at apex ; length 4-4^ mm. ... A. NIGEICOBXIS, i^. 
ii. Colour ligliter or darlser ferruginous; anterior tibiae 

produced into a moderate tooth externally at apex ; 

length 3-3| mm A. palleks, G^II. 

II. Upper surface clothed with long tomentose pubescence, 
which is especially long and distinct on the head ; an- 
terior tibiaj produced into a strong tooth externally at 

apex ; length 3J-4 mm A. silaceus, Herbst. 

IL. nig-ricornis, F. (silaceus, Gyll. and Steph. 111., nee Herbst.), 
Oblong, rather depressed, of a light yellowish-testaceous colour, some- 
times very slightly reddish, clothed with very fine yellowish pubes- 
cence ; head thickly and finely punctured ; antennae varying according 
to sex ; thorax much broader than long, rectangular, very finely 
punctured, nearly as broad at base as elytra ; elytra very finely punc- 
tured with traces of longitudinal striae. L. 4-4| mm. 

The forehead is deeply excised in the male, slightly sinuate in female ; 
in the latter sex the antennae are comparatively slender and unicolorous 
reddish-testaceous ; in the former they are very thick and stout, ferru- 
ginous or dark Avith basal and apical joints lighter ; the tibiae in the 
male are broadly black at apex, in the female at most slightly darkened ; 
the anterior tarsi of the male have the first three joints somewhat 
dilated. 

On flowers, and by sweeping herbage, &e. ; occasionally found in and about tho 
nests of jBomfii; not uncommon ; London district, generally distributed; Brandon, 
Suffolk ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; New Forest ; Midland districts, Broms- 
grove, Bewdley, Repton, &c. ; Chat Moss ; Scarborough ; Manchester district, 
general in humble-bees' nests, and also in flowers of Digitalis ; Northumberland 
(listrict, common (Mr. Bold records that he once captured a Bombus with a specimen 
firmly fixed by the mandibles to one of its hind legs) ; Scotland, in flowers, rare, 
Lowlands, Clyde and Forth districts ; Ireland, near Belfast. 

A. pallens, Gyll. Smaller than the preceding, and of a deeper 

red colour, usually more or less ferruginous ; the thorax has the sides 

a little rounded in front, and the head and thorax are more distinctly, 

although very closely, punctured ; the anterior tibiae are by most 

authors said not to be produced in a tooth externally, but this is 

incorrect, as they are certainly slightly produced, although not nearly 

as strongly so as in A. silaceus ; the sexual difi'erences are much as in 

the preceding species, except that the male is larger in proportion 

than the female, and the tibiae are scarcely darkened at apex. L. 3- 

3 1 mm. 

In and about the nests of Bomhi ; also by sweeping ; local and as a rule not 
common ; Wey bridge, Caterham, Claygate, Lee, Dareuth Wood, Birdbrook, Forest 
Hill, West Wickham ; Burnham Beeches ; Kingsgate ; Birchington ; Folkestone ; 
Dover ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Parkhurst Forest, Isle of Wight ; New Forest ; 
Southajc])ton ; Devonshire; Litllingtou ; Solihull, near Birniingham ; Repton, 



AntheropJiagus.'} clavicornu. 313 

Robin's Wood ; Chat Moss ; Stretford, near Manchester ; Northumberland district, 
generally distributed but nowhere common, Walliugton, &c. ; Scotland, rare, Solway, 
Tweed, and Forth districts; Ireland, near Dublin (Power). 

A. silaceus, Herbst., 7iec Gyll. This species most closely resembles 
A. nigricornis, but is rather smaller, and is at once distinguished from 
it by the very long tomentose pubescence, which is especially marked 
on the head, and also by having the anterior tibia produced into a 
strong tooth at apex ; the anterior angles of the thorax also are some- 
what callose, and the tibiae of the male are, apparently, less fuscous at 
apex ; the male characters appear to be much the same ; from A. 
yaJlens it may be distinguished by its lighter colour, larger size, much 
more marked pubescence, and the stronger tooth at apex of anterior 
tibise. L. 3|— i mm. 

By sweeping ; probably also associated with Bomhi ; rare ; Darenth Wood, Reigate, 
Hornsey, Caterham, Chatham, Gravesend; Ashwicken ; Deal; Folkestone; Bourne- 
mouth ; Plymouth, Whitsand Bay (J. J. Walker) ; Coleshill ; Bromsgrove ; Hun- 
stanton ; Oxfordshire ; not recorded from the northern counties of England or from 
Scotland or Ireland ; the A. silaceus of Murray's catalogue must without doubt be 
referred to A. nigricornis. 

CRVPTOPKAGUS, Herbst. 

This genus comprises about a hundred species, which chiefly occur in 
the temperate regions of the Old World, more than half of them being 
found in Europe ; the genus is, hoAvever, Avidely distributed, and will 
probably be found to consist of a mu.cli larger number of species than 
it does at present, a^ representatives have been found in South Africa, 
New Zealand, and other localities ; the members of the genus have the 
posterior tarsi 4-jointed in the male ; they are small insignificant-lookino- 
insects, usually of a reddish-brown colour, and are exceedingly closelv 
allied, so that it is very hard to determine them except by comparison 
with authentic types ; they are found in all sorts of localities, such as 
rubbish-heaps, hot-beds, cellars, and outhouses, in moss, fungi, &c. • 
many of our species are very common, but some are exceedingly rare, 
and it is hardly settled yet how many we really possess ; the tables 
given below may to a certain extent be found useful, but must be 
regarded as merely provisional, and must not be relied upon apart 
from the separate descriptions ; the species may roughly be divided into 
the following sections : — 

I. Thorax with the sides crennlate, furnished with a distinct tooth in or about 
middle. 
i. Antennae with the first joint of club nearly as broad as the following ones. 

1. Upper surface strongly and not closely punctured, with more or less distinct 
outstanding seta3 ; thorax with four smooth prominences, two at sides of 
disc and two at base. 

Section I. C bjcojwdi, sehilosus, Schmidtii, pilosus, punctipennis, 

mficornis. 



314 CLAVicoRNiA. [^Oryptophagug. 

2. Upper surface moderately strongly punctured ; thorax with the callose pro- 

minences on disc small, but usually distinct ; size large ; elytra often darker 
than thorax. 

Section II. C. popuH. 

3. Upper surface more or less finely punctured j thorax with the callose promi- 

nences on disc more or less obsolete. 

A. Thorax with a distinct basal fold before scutellum, the transverse impression 

being deep ; elytra without outstanding setae. 

Section III. G. saginatus, scanicus, hadius, urnbratus 

B. Thorax with the basal fold before scutellum absent or obsolete, the trans- 

verse impression not being deep. 

a. Elytra not setose in rows. 

Section IV. C. validus, dentatus, cylindrus, distinguendus, 
acutangulus, fumatus. 

b. Elytra setose in rows. 

Section V. G. ceUaris, qffinis. 

ii. Antennffi with the first joint of club much narrower than the succeeding 
joints. 

Section VI. G. pubescens. 

II. Thorax with the sides almost even, with a blunt lateral tooth on anterior thii-d, 
anterior angles scarcely callose. 

Section VII. G. hicolor. 



Section I. 

The six species belonging to this section are distinguished by their 
strong punctuation and the distinct callose prominences on thorax ; in 
some of them the tipper surface is very distinctly setose ; in the males the 
anterior tarsi are usually more or less dilated. 

I. Anterior tibiaj produced externally in a distinct tooth ; 

upper surface strongly setose C. LYCOPEEDI, Herhst. 

II. Anterior tibiae not produced in a tooth externally. 
i. Anterior angles of thorax callose, but not produced 
in a tooth, margins rather broad ; upper surface 
strongly setose. 

1. Size smaller ; punctuation of elytra almost in 

rows ; lateral tooth of thorax distinct . . . . C. SETULOSUS, Sturm. 

2. Size larger ; punctuation of elytra confvised ; 

lateral tooth of thorax scarcely visible . . . . C. Schmidtii, Sturm. 
ii. Anterior angles of thorax produced in a more or less 
distinct tooth, margins fine ; upper surface not so 
strongly setose. 



Crt/2^tophagus.] clavicornia. 315 

1. Upper surface unicolorous reddisli-brown. 

A. Elytra less oval, pubescence shorter, punctua- 

tion closer C. PILOSUS, Gyll. 

B. Elytra more oval, pubescence longer, punctua- 

tion coarser and not so close, especially at 

base C, PUNCTIPENNIS, Bris. 

2. Thorax reddish, elytra black with apex and 

shoulders obscurely lighter, or whole upper 

surface black C. RUFICORNIS, Steph. 



05 



C. lycoperdi, Herbst. One of the largest British species ; oblong, 
convex, of a rather dark ferruginous colour, with coarse pubescence, 
and with rows of outstanding setaj on elytra ; antenniB thick with nar- 
row club ; head and thorax strongly and deeply punctured, the latter 
transverse, with anterior angles callose and produced behind in a minute 
sharp tooth, sides with a sharp tooth just before middle, margins wide, 
disc with four callosities, transverse impression at base deep ; elytra 
less thickly and strongly punctured than thorax, the punctures becoming 
feebler towards apex ; legs ferruginous, anterior tibiae produced externally 
in a distinct tooth. L. 2-3 mm. 

In Lycoperdons, local but generally distributed throughout the Southern and Mid- 
laud counties ; rarer further north, and apparently not found in the northern counties 
of England or in Scotland ; Ireland, near Waterford. 

This and the two following species are distinguished by their coarse 
pubescence and the long setae or bristles set in even rows on the elytra. 

C. Schmidtii, Sturm. This species is compared with C. lycoperdi 
by Erichson, but is much more closely allied to C. setulusus, from 
which it may be distinguished by its rather larger size and less broad 
build, the less transverse subapical joints of the club of the antennae, 
the lesser development of the callosity of the anterior angles and the 
lateral tooth, and also by the more confused punctuation of the elytra ; 
the elytra are more contracted behind and less parallel-sided than in 
C. lycoperdi, from which species it is easily distinguished by not havinf 
the anterior tibiae produced into a tooth externally ; in the formation of 
the thorax it resembles C. saginahts, but that species is smaller and much 
more finely punctured and pubescent. L. 2|-3 jam. 

In stack refuse ; very rare ; Mr. Champion took a single specimen at Wicken Fen 
in August, 1870, and another specimen a short time afterwards in the same locality ; 
Mr. E. W. Janson had taken the same species some years before, probably at Whittlesea. 

C. setulosus, Sturm. Oblong-oval, convex, of a lighter colour 
than C. lycoperdi, and easily distinguished from that species by the 
anterior tibije being simple at apex ; antennte rather stout with the 
joints of the club not contiguous, the penultimate joints being very 
transverse ; head and thorax deeply and strongly, but thickly, punc- 
tured ; thorax very transverse with anterior angles callose but not pro- 
duced iu a tooth behind, sides with a small tooth about middle, margin.s 



316 cLAvicoRNiA. \_Crijptoph.a(jiis. 

wide, disc with four callosities, base with a distinct longitudinal fold 
before scutellum ; elytra narrowed towards apex, strongly punctured, 
the punctuation having a tendency to form rows; legs ferruginous- 
testaceous. L. 2f mm. 

In fungi, haystack and vegetable refuse, &c. ; it also occurs in the nests of humble- 
bees (Bo»»6«s Zwcorif/ii, &c.), and is sometimes taken by evening sweeping ; local; 
Eshcr, Claygate, Forest Hill, Caterham, Sheerness, Chatham, Mickleham, Faversham ; 
Deal ; Folkestone ; Devonshire ; Soham, Cambridgeshire ; Yardley, Solihull, and 
Knowle near Birmingham ; Chat Moss ; Manchester ; Northumberland and Dui-- 
ham district, common ; Scotland, common. Lowlands and Highlands ; Dr. Sharp 
(Scot. Nat. iv. 36) says that the C. lycoperdi of Murray's catalogue is no doubt this 
species. 

C. pilosus, Gyll. Smaller than either of the preceding, oblong, and 
not very convex, with the elytra not contracted towards apex as in 
C. setulosus, but shaped rather as in C. lycoperdi; from both these 
species it may be distinguished by its finer punctuation and less coarsely 
pubescent elytra ; the club of the antennae has the joints more contiguous 
than in the former, and the anterior angles of the thorax are produced in a 
more or less distinct tooth behind ; it bears a close superficial resem- 
blance to C. saginahis, but is much more strongly punctured, and has 
the lateral tooth of the thorax situated in the middle and not distinctly 
before the middle as in that species. L. 2-2| mm. 

In haystack refuse, cut grass, &c., very often in hot-beds ; common and generally 
distributed throughout England and Scotland ; Ireland, Waterford, &c., and pro- 
bably common ; this species has been considered rare, but according to my experience 
it is one of the commonest of the genus. 

C. punctipennis, Bris. A^ery closely allied to the preceding, of 
which it has by some authorities been considered a variety ; it may, 
however, be known by its more oval elytra, of which the pubescence is 
longer, and the punctuation coarser and not so close, especially at base. 
L, 2-2| mm. 

In straw-sheds, among refuse, &c. , also in haystack refuse, cut grass, &c. ; occa- 
sionally in cellars; local; Forest Hill, Richmond, Darenth, Chatham, Wandsworth, 
Sheerness, and other localities in the London district ; Sheppy ; Cambridge Fens ; 
Soham ; Knowle; Liverpool; Bidston, near Manchester; Scotland, rare. Lowlands, 
Forth d'istrict, Braid Hills, f:dinburgh (Sharp). 

C. ruficornis, Steph. A rather long and parallel-sided species, 
bearino- superficially a somewhat strong resemblance to C scanicus, dark 
specimens of which are sometimes confounded with it ; head and thorax 
pitchy-red, elytra black with shoulders and apex reddish, antennae red ; 
the colour, however, is variable, being sometimes entirely or almost 
entirely black with the antennae dark pitchy, and occasionally the 
elytra are dark pitchy-red ; the head is usually lighter than the thorax ; 
thorax not very transverse, somewhat sulx|uadrate, with the anterior 
angles callose and denticulate, and with a more or less distinct tooth 
about the middle of sides, disc with rather plain callosities ; elytra 



Oryptophagus.'] CLAvicoRNiA. 317 

deeply and rather strongly punctured, with the punctures disposed in 
lines, especially near suture ; the punctuation of head and thorax is 
rather coarse; legs pale ferruginous or reddish-testaceous. L. 2-2 1- 
mm. 

Rare; Strood, in black fungas growing on old ash-trees (Champion); Cobham 
Park ; Chertsey, under bark ( Blatch) ; Chat Moss, in fungus on birch trees (Chappell) ; 
Ockbrook, near DbM-by, in fungus on ash trees (Gorhara) ; Mount Edgecumbe, Devon 
(Wollaston); Stietford, near Manchester, flying (A. Restou). 

From C. scanicus this species may easily be distinguished by its nar- 
rower form, stronger punctuation, and less transverse and more parallel- 
sided thorax, the anterior angles of which are more plainly denticulate. 

Section II. 

This section, as here constituted, comprises the single species C. pn. 
pul% which is by some authorities classed with the species containecl in 
Section III., by others with those contained in Section IV., whereas 
others apparently consider it to be related to G. lycoperdi and its allies ; 
the best plan therefore appears to be to place it under a separate section ; 
it is exceedingly variable both as regards size and colour ; the larger and 
darker specimens are very distinct, but some of the smaller and lighter 
specimens are very apt to l>e mistaken for other species. 

C. populi, Payk. Rather elongate and parallel-sided, somewhat 
depressed, ferruginous or pitchy-red, with the elytra sometimes almost 
black on disc, clothed with rather thick and distinct yellow pubescence ; 
thorax moderately transverse, with the anterior angles strongly reflexed, 
somewhat cup-shaped, more or less distinctly denticulate behind, sides 
nearly parallel to about middle, wdiere they are produced in a distinct 
tooth, and thence plainly narrowed to apex, disc with callosities small 
but evident, basal depression plain with a more or less obsolete fold 
before scutellum ; the head and thorax are rather strongly punctured, 
and the antennae are somewhat short and stout with a narrow club ; 
elytra moderately strongly punctured at base, the punctuation becoming 
obsolete towards apex, in typical specimens dark with the base and 
lateral margins lighter ; legs ferruginous or reddish-testaceous ; size very 
variable. L. 2\-Z\ mm. 

Male with the tibi£e dilated, the posterior tibiae curved, and the 
anterior tarsi dilated. 

In hard fungus on trees, in rotten wood, by sweeping, &c. ; also in and about the 
burrows of bees' nests, especially of Colletes Daviesiana; local and usually rare, and 
apparently confined to the London and South-eastern districts; Mickleham, Ripley, 
Esher, Sydenham, Farnhani ; Margate ; Stephens records it from Norwich ; in the 
Ent. Monthly Mag. vol. xii. p. 107, Mr. Champion records the capture of this 
species in abundance at Farnhara, in and about the burrows of Colletes Daviesiana. 

The lighter form of this species with the elytra entirely ferruginous 



318 CLAVicoRNiA. \_Cri/ptophagus. 

appears to be the C. grandis of Kraatz, which has been before now in- 
troduced into our lists as a distinct species. 

Section III. 

The four species contained in this section are distinguished by having 
a longitudinal fold at base of thorax before scutellum, the transverse 
impression being deep ; the elytra are not setose, and the pubescence 
and punctuation are fine, both being more marked in G. hadius than in 
the other three species. 

I. Anterior angles of thorax scarcely reflexed, forming no 
distinct tooth behind ; upper surface very convex ; form 

almost ovate J punctuation of elytra very fine .... C. SAGINATTJS, S^wnn. 

II. Anterior angles of thorax scarcely reflexed, forming a 

blunt tooth behind ; punctuation of elytra less fine. 

i. Thorax subquadrate with sides almost parallel, usually 

darker than elytra C. umbeatus, Er. 

ii. Thorax rather strongly transverse, distinctly widened 
in middle, and thence contracted to base, usually 
lighter than elytra C. SCANicus, L. 

III. Anterior angles of thorax broadly reflexed and produced 
behind into a more or less distinct sharp tooth ; punc- 
tuation of elytra moderately strong ... . . . . C. badius, Sturm. 

C. sag-inatus, Sturm. Subovate, convex, entirely ferruginous or 
reddish-testaceous, rather thickly clothed with short depressed pubes- 
cence ; head and thorax thickly and rather deeply punctured ; antenna3 
with a moderate club ; thorax transverse, with the anterior angles cal- 
lose but scarcely reflexed, and with a distinct tooth at sides before 
middle, from which the sides are gently contracted to base; elytra 
finely punctured j legs ferruginous or reddish-testaceous. L. 2-2^ mm. 

Male with the anterior tibiae scarcely dilated, and the anterior tarsi 

slightly widened. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, fungi, &c. ; occasionally found in birds' nests J 
it often occurs in warehouses ; not uncommon and generally distributed throughout 
England ; Scotland, rare, Forth and Tay districts ; it is probably general in Ireland. 

This species rather closely resembles light specimens of C. scanicus, 
but may be distinguished by its more ovate and convex form, the less 
distinctly callose and reflexed anterior angles of thorax^ and the fact that 
the lateral tooth is situated before the middle ; in some respects it is 
related to G. pilosus; its differences from that species have been above 
referred to. 

C umbratus, Er. Oblong, slightly convex, shining, with short 
fine pubescence, nigro-fuscous at least on the under-side ; the colour of 
the upper-side is somewhat variable^ but the thorax is usually distinctly 
darker than the elytra ; thorax not very transverse, subquadrate, with 
the anterior angles scarcely reflexed and produced in a blunt angle 



OryptopJiatjns.] clavicornu. 319 

beliiud, and the lateral tooth situated in the middle of the sides ; elytra 
finely and thickly and rather regularly punctured, the punctures be- 
coming feebler at apex ; legs ferruginous. L. 1^ mm. 

IMale with the anterior tarsi dilated, anterior tibiae not dilated. 

lu haystack refuse, &c., rare ; Pliimstead ; St. Peter's, Kent ; Yardley and 
Sutton, near Birmingham ; Northumberland district ; Scothind, scarce, Forth, Tay, 
and Solway districts. 

This species may be distinguished from its allies by having at least 
the underside, and usually the greater part of the upper-side dark ; the 
thorax sometimes is black or almost black ; it may also be known by 
its less transverse and subquadrate thorax, the lateral tooth of which is 
situated in the middle of sides which are not contracted to base, and by 
having the third joint of the antennte not longer than the second ; in 
this point it is related to C. distinguendus, to which it bears a strong 
superficial resemblance ; it may, however, be distinguished from dark 
forms of that species by its shorter and more convex form, somewhat 
stronger punctuation, and the more parallel-sided thorax, which has the 
posterior angles more sharply right-angled. 

C scanicus, L. Oblong oval, not convex, thickly clothed with 
short depressed yellowish-grey pubescence ; head, thorax, and antennae 
ferruginous, elytra black or fuscous-black with the shoulders more or 
less broadly rufous, the rufous colour sometimes extending some way 
from base towards apex ; head very thickly punctured, thorax thickly 
and rather deeply punctured, with tlie sides rounded and rather strongly 
contracted behind the lateral tooth which is situated in the middle ; 
anterior angles strongly callose and produced into a blunt tooth behind ; 
elytra rather finely but very distinctly punctured, the punctuation be- 
coming obsolete towards apex ; legs ferruginous. L. 2-2 j mm. 

Male with the anterior tarsi slightly dilated. 

In haystack and other vegetable refuse ; often found in houses ; common and 
generally distributed throughout the kingdom. 

V. 'patruelis, Sturm. This variety is entirely ferruginous or reddish- 
testaceous ; it gives rise to considerable confusion, as it closely resembles 
some of the allied species from which the type form is at once dis- 
tinguished by its colour ; it may be distinguished by the shape of the 
thorax, and by having the lateral tooth situated in the centre of the 
.sides ; the sides of the thorax also are more distinctly crenulate ; the 
punctuation is stronger than in C. saginatus, which species it most closely 
resembles. 

Found under the same conditions and in company with the type, but much 
rarer. 

A variety also occurs in Avhich the elytra are rufous with the suture 
and external margin nigro-fuscous. 

The anterior angles of the thorax in this species appear to vary some- 



320 CLAVicoRxiA. \_Cryptophagus. 

what in different specimens ; this may explain the discrepancy between 
the descriptions of Erichson and Thomson, the former of whom says 
that they are produced in a bkmt tootli behind, whereas the latter ex- 
pressly says, " angulis anticis postice hand dentatis." 

C. badius, Sturm. Oblong, somewhat broad, slightly convex, 
ferruginous or rufous, clothed with rather thick and short pale pubes- 
cence ; head very thickly punctured, thorax thickly and deeply punc- 
tured ; thorax not strongly transverse with the anterior angles strongly 
reflexed and produced behind in rather a sharp tooth, lateral tooth 
situated in middle of sides, which are from thence rather strongly 
contracted to base, margins well marked, basal impression and fold 
above scutellum distinct ; elytra of a long oval shape, moderately 
strongly and very distinctly punctured towards base, more finely at 
apex ; legs ferruginous, anterior tibiae and tarsi of male scarcely widened. 
L. 2-2f mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, flood rubbish, cut grass, &c. ; one of the less 
common species. London district, generally distributed, Putney, Forest Hill, 
Dulwich, Crystal Palace (in the glass corridors of which many species of Crypto- 
phagus occur at times freely), Darenth, Lee, Gravcsend, Loughton ; Sheeniess; 
Folkestone ; Hastings ; Glanvilles Wootton ; Isle of Wight ; Knowle ; Salforcl 
Priors ; Montgomery ; Northumberland district, rare ; not recorded from Scotland or 
Ireland. 

This species bears a somewhat close resemblance to C. pilosus, from 
which it may be distinguished by its finer punctuation and the more 
silky pubescence of the elytra ; the shape of the anterior angles of the 
thorax, as well as its more distinct punctuation, will separate it from 
C. saginatus, and its proportionally shorter and broader form from C. 
dentatus and its allies. 

Section IV. 

The species belonging to this section are distinguished by having the 
transverse impression at the base of the thorax shallow and the basal 
fold before scutellum absent or obsolete ; these characters, however, are 
in some cases more or less comparative, and the fact that there appear 
to be no other more satisfactory ones serves to show the difficulty of 
dividing the genus into practically workable sections. 

I. Anterior angles callosely reflexed but not distinctly 
toothed behind. 
i. Size larger and broader ; posterior angles of thorax 

obtuse; lateral teeth situated in middle of sides . C. validus, Kr. 
ii. Size smaller and narrower; posterior angles of 
thorax right angles. 

1. Elytra shorter in proportion to thorax ; form 
less cylindrical ; lateral teeth of thorax distinct, 

situated before middle of sides C. DENTATUS, Eerbst. 

2. Elyti-a longer in proportion to thorax ; form very 
cylindrical ; lateral teeth of thorax situated a 

little behind middle of sides C. cyiindrus, Kies. 



Oryptophagus.] clavicornia. 321 

II. Anterior finErles of thorax with the callosity taking 
the form of a blniitly projecting tooth ; lateral 
teeth of thorax situated a little behind middle of 

sides C. DISTINGUENDUS, Stuftn. 

III. Anterior angles of thorax very prominent and pro- 
duced behind in a large strong tootli ; lateral teeth 

of thorax situated in middle of sides. 
i. Thorax strongly transverse; tooth of anterior 

angles hooked C. ACDTANGULUs, Oyll. 

ii. Thorax subquadrate; tooth of anterior angles 

pointed C. fumatus, Gyll. 

C. validus, Kr. This species very closely resembles a large example 
of the var. pafruelis of C. scanicus ; the thorax, however, is more rounded 
behind the middle, and has the anterior callosity less defined, and the 
elytra are longer, more parallel, more finely punctured, and more densely 
clothed with golden pubescence ; from C. sar/inafus it may be known by 
having the lateral teeth situated in the middle of sides instead of before 
middle ; the thorax is distinctly and rather deeply punctured, and the 
anterior angles are narrowdy reflexed, the callosities not being marked 
and not terminating in a tooth behind ; the elytra are closely and finely 
punctured ; the colour is entirely ferruginous or rufous, and the fine 
and close golden pubescence gives it a yellowish appearance ; it is one 
of our larger species. L. 2f-3 mm. 

In refuse, decaying herbage, &c. ; sometimes in warehouses ; very rare ; Edgbaston 
and Handsworth (Blatch) ; Scarborough (Lawson) ; Southampton (Gorham)j New- 
castle and South Shields (Bold). The specimens introduced by Mr. Rye (Knt. 
Monthly Mag. vi. 257) as C. fumatus were afterwards referred by him to this species 
(Ent. Monthly Mag. vii. 9). 

C. dentatus, Herbst. (paUidus, Sturm). Elongate, somewhat 
parallel-sided, smaller and narrower than C. scanicus, lighter or darker 
ferruginous or rufous, thickly and not very finely pubescent ; head very 
thickly punctured, antennse with the third joint a little longer than 
second ; thorax thickly punctured, subquadrate, with the anterior angles 
not strongly callose and the lateral teeth situated plainly before middle 
of sides ; elytra finely but not very thickly punctured, the punctuation 
near suture being almost in rows, and becoming finer towards apex ; 
lews ferruo-inous, male with the anterior tibicC and tarsi scarcely dilated ; 
size very variable. L. l|-2 mm. 

In haystack and other refuse, under bark, &c. ; common and generally distributed 
throughout the kingdom. 

This very common and variable species often gives rise to much 
difficulty ; it may, however, be distinguished by its parallel form and 
the small development of the callosities of the anterior angles of thorax, 
as well as by having the lateral teeth distinctly situated before the 
middle of the sides ; in this latter point it resembles C. saginaius, but 
it may easily be distinguished from that species by its subquadrate and 
almost parallel-sided thorax and quite different shape. 

VOL. III. ^ 



o 



22 CLAVicoRNiA. [CryptopJiagus. 



C. cylindrus, Kies, (pai'allelus, Bris.). Allied to the preceding 
species, but readily distinguished by its narrower and very cylindrical 
form and longer elytra, which are much more closely and finely punc- 
tured ; the lateral teeth of thorax, moreover, are situated a little 
behind the middle of side instead of evidently before middle as 
in C. dentatus ; it is one of the most distinct of our species. L. 1|^ 
mm. 

Under bark of Scotch fir ; rare ; Scotland, Highlands, Tay and Dee districts, 
Raunoch, Braemar, Aviemore, &c. 

C. disting'uendus, Sturm. A small and rather broad species, 
somewhat variable in colour, being either rufous or occasionally brownish, 
thickly clothed with fine pale pubescence ; antennse with the third joint 
equal to the second ; thorax not very transverse with the anterior 
angles not or scarcely visibly callosely reflexed, but projecting in the 
form of a blunt tooth, lateral teeth situated a little behind middle of 
sides, thickly and finely punctured ; elytra oval rather convex but 
depressed on disc, very thickly and finely punctured, the punctuation 
being occasionally slightly rugose in parts ; legs ferruginous, male with 
the anterior tibiae and tarsi slightly dilated. L. 1-1 1 mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, fungi, &c. ; not uncommon, but apparently 
Bomewhat local ; Sheerness, Lee, Maidstone, Shirley near Croydon, Dulwich ; 
Soham, Cambridgeshire ; Hastings ; Edgbaston, Sutton and Knowle, Birmingham 
district ; Scarborough ; Northumberland district, scarce but rather widely dis- 
tributed ; not recorded from Scotland or Ireland. 

The shape of the anterior angles of thorax, and the relative length 
of the second and third joints of the antennae, as well as the very fine 
punctuation, ■v\dll serve to distinguish this species from most of the 
others ; it is very closely allied to C. umbrafus, and may very easily be 
mistaken for that species ; the punctuation, however, is evidently finer, 
and the base of the thorax is not furnished with a fold before scutellum, 
which is very distinct in C. umhratus ; according to Thomson the 
thorax is shorter than this latter species, but this hardly appears to be 
correct. 

C. acutangrulus, Gyll. {Waterlioiisei, Eye). Elongate, rather 
depressed, parallel-sided ; fusco-testaceous or rufous with the head and 
thorax occasionally darker ; head and thorax very thickly punctured ; 
thorax narrower than elytra, very transverse, with the anterior angles 
strongly refiexed and produced in a large hook-shaped tooth, lateral 
tooth situated in middle of sides which are narroAved towards base ; 
elytra very long in proportion to thorax, thickly and finely punctured, 
with a fine sutural stria behind, thickly covered with short and fine 
pubescence ; legs ferruginous, anterior tarsi of male scarcely dilated. 
L. 2-21 mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, in fungi, &c. ; not uncommon, but apparently 
somewhat local, and becoming rare towards the north ; London district, generally 



Cryptophagiis.] clavicornia. 323 

distributed; Ha9tinp:s; Deal; Devonshire; Midland districts, Ivnowle, Kdj^bnston, 
Repton, &c. ; Liverpool and Manchester districts ; Northumberland and Durham 
district rather rare, Newcastle, Durham, &c. ; Scotland rare, Forth district only. 

The shape of tlie anterior angles of thorax will at once separate this 
very distinct species from all our other Cryptophagi. 

C. fumatus, Gyll. Elongate, slightly convex, testaceous, clothed 
"with fine depressed yellow pubescence ; thorax quadrate, narrower than 
the elytra, closely punctured, with the anterior angles strongly reiiexed, 
somewhat cyathiform or cup-shaped, and produced behind in a tooth, 
lateral teeth of thorax situated in middle of sides ; elytra closely and 
finely punctured, the punctuation becoming obsolete behind ; the antennae 
have the third joint half as long again as second, a point that will 
distinguish the species from many of its allies ; legs rufo-testaceous, male 
with the anterior tibiae dilated towards apex, and the anterior tarsi 
widened. L. 2|-3 mm. 

Very rare ; a pair were taken by Mr. Bold near Newcastle, and recorded by him 
in Eut. Monthly Mag. vii. 35; it has subsequently beeu taken by Mr. Blatch in 
fungi at Salford Priors, and by Mr. Gorham in a cellar at Shipley near Horsham, 
and I have records from Cowfold near Horsham and from Deal ; as mentioned above, 
the insects first introduced as this species by Mr. Rye proved to be 0. validus, 
and it is probable that confusion has arisen in some collections owing to this 
mistake. 

This species is most closely allied to C. validus in size, form of elytra, 
and colour of pubescence, but may be easily distinguished from it by 
the quadrate thorax and much more strongly developed teeth of the 
anterior angles of the thorax, which are somewhat suggestive of those of 
C. acutangulus, but are not hooked as in that species ; the shape of the 
anterior angles of thorax, the form of the elytra, and the short golden 
pubescence of these latter which is not arranged in rows, will serve to 
separate it from C. cellaris ; as Erichson remarks, in shape it much 
resembles one of the larger species of Corticaria. 

The C fumatus of Stephens' Illustrations, Mand. iii. 76, appears to 
be only C. dentatus. 

Section V. 

The two species comprised in this section are distinguished by having 
the elytra setose in rows ; this character is very plainly observable in 
newly emerged and fresh specimens ; both species are rather common 
and generally distributed. 

I. Upper surface somewhat depressed ; size larger ; third 

joint of antennae much longer than second C. CELLARIS, Scop. 

II. Upper surface convex ; size smaller ; third joint of antenna; 

scarcely longer than second C. affinis, Sturm. 

C. cellaris, Scop, (crenatus, Herbst. and Sturm). Somewhat 
elongate, ferruginous or rufo-testaceous, finely punctured, clothed with 

T 2 



324 CLAVicoENiA. {_Crijptophagus. 

tliick depressed greyish pubescence, elytra with long setose pubescence 
arranged in distinct rows ; thorax not strongly transverse, with the 
anterior angles callose, produced into a very blunt angle behind, which 
is often hardly apparent, lateral teeth distinct situated in the middle 
of sides, which are more or less plainly narrowed from middle to base ; 
elytra rather long, subparallel, but widened a little in middle, thickly 
and finely punctured, the punctuation becoming finer towards apex ; 
legs ferruginous, or testaceous, anterior tibite and tarsi of male slightly 
dilated. L. 2-2 f mm. 

In haystack and flood refuse ; also found in cellars in refuse, fungi, &c. ; occasion- 
ally taken in birds' nests ; common and generally distributed throughout the 
kingdom. 

This species is of about the same build and size as C. acutanrjtchis, 
but is at once distinguished from that species by the shape of the 
anterior angles of the thorax ; from large specimens of C. dentatus it 
may be separated by the more distinct callosity of the anterior angles 
of thorax, and by having the lateral teeth situated in middle of sides 
instead of before middle. 

C. aiBnls, Sturm. Oblong oval, convex, clothed with rather long 
greyish pubpscence, ferruginous or rufo-testaceous with the thorax 
occasionally darker than the elytra ; antennae with the third joint 
scarcely longer than second ; thorax very thickly punctured, transverse, 
with tlie anterior angles callose, reflexed, and terminating behind in a 
blunt and not very distinct tooth, lateral teeth situated in middle of 
sides, which are rather plainly narrowed behind ; elytra closely but 
'distinctly and rather strongly punctured, with pale jiubescence and 
rows of setose pubescence which are more or less distinctly marked ; 
legs ferruginous or testaceous, with the anterior tibite and tarsi slightly 
dilated in male. L. Ij-l^ mm. 

In hnystack and vegetaljle refuse, fungi, &c. ; rather common and widely dis- 
tributed throughout England ; recorded by Bold as not uncommon in the North- 
umberland and Durham district, but it appears to be rare in Scotland, and has only 
been found hitherto in the Solwny district. Mr. J. J. Walker has taken it at 
Cromer in company with Formica faliginosa. 

This species most closely resembles C. scnnicus v. patruelis, but may 
be distinguished by the set* on the elytra which are very evident under 
a high magnifying power, and also by having the anterior angles of thorax 
more plainly reflexed ; the thorax also is more deeply punctured. The 
rows of setse on the elytra are often very indistinct in rubbed specimens, 
but even in these the difference of the pubescence may very easily be 
seen if they are examined under a compound microscope. If specimens 
of C. offinis and C. scanicus v. ^;a^rMC'Z«s be placed together under a 
two-inch objective in a good light, there will be no need to compare 
them in any other way except liy pubescence ; under an c^rdinary lens 
they look very much alike 



Ortjpto^hwjUS.'] CLAVICORNIA. 325 

Section YI. 

The single species belonging to this section is easily known by having 
the first joint of the club of the antenna? very narrow, so that the club 
appears 2-jointed ; the second joint is very transverse, about as broad 
as the last, which is, however, nearly three times as long as this the 
penultimate joint ; it is a rare species in most localities. 

C. pubescens, Sturm {Japiwnims, Gyll.). Oblong oval, slightly 
convex, rather broatl, ferruginous, very closely, but rather distinctly 
punctured, clothed with short and thick depressed yellow pubescence ; 
antennae as above described ; thorax almost double as broad as long, 
almost as broad at base as base of elytra, anterior angles not very 
distinctly callose but very narrowly reflexed, sides witli a very small 
and often obsolete tooth in middle of sides ; elytra subparallel, closely 
punctured, the punctuation being stronger towards base and finer and 
slightly rugose towards apex j legs ferruginous or testaceous, tibiai 
somewhat widened towards apex in both sexes, anterior tarsi very feebly 
dilated in male. L. 2-2^ mm. 

Ill moss, haystack refuse, aud occasionally by sweeping herbage ; as a rule uu- 
comiuou; London district rather widely distributed, Mickleham, Catcrham, hsher, 
Birch Wood, Forest Hill, Chatham, Seveuoaks, Birdbrook; St, L'^ouards ; Bristol; 
Tewkesbury; Bewdley Forest; Sherwood Forest; Knowle ; Smallheath, Birming- 
ham; Repton; Scarborough; Liverpool; Manchester; Northumberland district, 
very rare, on a withered fungus at Gosforth ; Scotland, Aviemore (Champion),- 
lialmuto, Fifeshire (Power). This species has occurred on the Continent in nests of 
Yespa vulgaris aud Bomhus terrestris. 

Section Yll. 

This section contains one species, which is easily known by the even 
sides of its subquadrate thorax, by the antennte being inserted further 
in front of the eyes than in the other species, and by the second joint 
of the antennjB bemg thicker and a little longer than third ; the colour 
is variable, being sometimes entirely ferruginous or rufo-testaceous, 
while sometimes the thorax is much darker than the elytra or almost 
black. 

C. bicolor, Sturm (crenatus, Gyll. and Thorns. ; smlellatus, Newm ). 
Oblong, slightly convex, clothed with fine and short pale pubescence, 
colour as above described; thorax subquadrate with anterior angles 
scarcely callose, sides almost even ; elytra broader than thorax, finely 
but distinctly punctured ; legs ferruginous or testaceous, anterior tibue 
and tarsi slightly widened in male; the eyes are smaller, and more 
prominent in this than in the other species ; the size is variable. L. 
1-1 1 mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, not uncommon, but rather local; Sbcmicss; 



326 CLAVicoRNiA. [CryptopTictgus. 

Forest Hill; Slicppy ; Soliam, Cambridgcsliire ; Hastings; Devonshire; Sutton 
and Knowle, Birmingham; Northumberland district, rare, Long Benton, on walls 
of an outhouse; Scotland, rare, Lowlands, Solway district; Ireland, near Water- 
ford. 

The two following species require confirmation as British, as they 
rest only on one or two specimens, which may very probably have been 
importations. 

(C fuscicornis, Sturm. Allied to C. dentatus, but rather smaller and 
more cylindrical, Avith much more strongly and widely punctured elytra, 
and with the anterior angles of the thorax strongly prominent and 
terminating behind in a sharp tooth ; the lateral tooth is situated at the 
middle of the sides, which are more narrowed behind it and less strongly 
crenulated than in C. dentatus. L. 1| mm. 

A single specimen has been taken by Dr. Sharp in the London district, 
on which Mr. Eye introduced the species, remarking at the same time 
that Erichson's description does not quite agree with the specimen taken, 
which has very long pubescence ; Erichson especially says that the 
pubescence of C. fuscicornis is short; Mr. Bold records one example 
from the Northumberland district as confirmed by Rye and Kraatz. The 
C. fuscicornis of Mr. Crotch's catalogue was afterwards withdrawn by 
him, his example being only an extreme variety of C. dentatus. 

(C. siihfmnatns, Kr. This species resembles C. validus, being nearly 
as large, but narrower, especially at the thorax, the anterior callosities 
of which are more distinctly prominent. L. 2| mm. 

A single specimen has been taken by Mr. G. C. Champion in the 
London district, and Avas recorded in 1876 (Ent. Monthly Mag. xii. 178) ; 
it has not, however, occurred since. 

MICRAMBS, Thomson. 

This genus was founded by Thomson to include Erichson's Para- 
mecosoma aUetis Qi\di pilosida ; the latter of these (Skand. Col. x. 66) 
he positively identifies with the Cryptvpliarjus vini of Erichson (Insect. 
Deutsch. iii. 369) ; the male of this latter common British species 
appears to have the posterior tarsi 5-jointed and therefore must be 
separated from Cryptopliagns, and Thomson's identification would seem 
to be correct, as he says that he has examined Erichson's examples ; the 
genus appears to be very closely allied to Paramecosoma, and mainly to 
differ in the denticulation of the sides of the thorax. In the catalogue 
of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise both species are included under 
Cnjptopliagus ; the question, therefore, seems still to be considered 
somewhat doubtful ; the two species below described are exceedingly 
closely allied, and M. ahietis has been before introduced as British on 
examples of M. vini ; a specimen returned to me not long ago from 
the Continent as the former species must undoubtedly be referred to 
the latter. 



Micramhe.] clavicoknia. 327 

I. Sise smaller, pubescence longer and thicker, anterior angles 

of thorax produced into a tooth behind M. VINI, Pawz. 

II. Size larger, pubescence sliorter and less thick, anterior 
angles of thorax not produced into a tooth behind . . . M. abietis, Pai^Jc. 

BI. vlnl, Panz. {Paramecosoma pilusula, Er. ; Cryptophagus vini, 
Er. et auct.). Reddish-testaceous or light ferruginous, slightly convex, 
clothed with rather long and tJiick pale pubescence ; antennae rather 
long; head triangular, eyes black, prominent; thorax in front almost 
as broad as elytra but considerably narrowed behind, strongly transverse, 
anterior angles callosely reflexed and produced in a more or less evident 
tooth behind, sides finely serrate, posterior angles blunt, punctuation 
thick and deep ; elytra more or less oval, thickly but rather coarsely 
and deeply punctured, the punctures becoming much finer towards apex ; 
legs slender, testaceous. L. 1| mm. 

On flowers of gorse, broom, &c. ; occasionally, but not often, in vegetable refuse; 
very abundant and widely distributed throughout the kingdom. 

• IMC. abietis, Payk. Closely allied to the preceding, but distinguished 
by its rather larger size, shorter and less thick pubescence, and the fact 
that the anterior angles of the thorax are less dilated and not produced 
into a tooth behind ; the elytra also are more finely and closely punctured. 
L. 1| mm. 

On pine trees ; Micklebam (W. G. Blatch) ; Guildford (E. Capron) ; the habitat 
of this species appears to be different from that of the preceding, but, unless I am 
mistaken, I have found M. vini on low-growing firs. 



KSNOTZCUS, Thomson. 

This genus was founded by Thomson for the reception of the insect 
known as Criiptophagtis serratus, or better as Paramecosoma serrata ; 
from the latter genus it differs by having the posterior tarsi of the male 
4-jointed instead of 5-jointed ; and from the former by having the 
penultimate joint of the tarsi abruptly shorter and narrower than the 
preceding instead of equal to it as in Cryptopliagus ; in this respect it 
resembles Micramhe, from which, however, it diff'ers in not having the 
anterior angles of the thorax callosely reflexed ; it is one of our rarest 
British species. 

H. serratus, Gyll. {Cryptophagus serratus, Gyll. ; Paramecosoma 
serrata, auct.). Oblong, nigro-piceous, rather shining, clothed with long 
and rather coarse pubescence ; antennae moderately long, ferruginous, 
Avith well-marked club ; thorax a little narrower at base than elytra, 
transverse, feebly rounded at sides, anterior angles not callosely reflexed, 
posterior angles right angles, deeply and rather coarsely punctured, 
less closely on disc than on sides, side margins strongly and evenly 
serrate ; elytra subparallel, with sides slightly rounded, rather coarsely 



328 CLAVicoRNiA. [Henoftcus. 

punctured ; legs ferruginous ; the elytra are usually obscurely brownish 
towards apex ; the female appears to be rather broader than the male, 
Avhich has the sides of the elytra less rounded. L. 2 mm. 

On the male blossoms of the sallow, &c. ; very rare; London district, Forest Hill, 
one example found by Mr. Marsh crawling on a wall ; Nortliumberland district, in a 
wood near Washington, very rare (Bold) ; Scothnid, Tay district, ilanuoch, very rare 
(Sharp). 

PARAMECOSOMA, Curtis. 

This genus, as constituted in the Munich catalogue, is made up of 
the three genera Paramecosoma, Micraynlje, and Henoticus ; in its 
strict sense it appears only to contain four or five species from Europe 
and North America ; it is distinguished from Cryptopha(jus and Heno- 
ticus by having all the tarsi of the male 5-jointed, and from Micramhe 
by having the sides of the thorax not denticulate ; our single species is 
not uncommon in some localities in England, but appears to be much 
commoner in Scotland. 

P. melanocephalum, Herbst. Oblong, slightly convex, clothed 
with rather fine pale pubescence, brownish or brownish-testaceous, often 
almost reddish-testaceous, with the head and thorax black ; antennae 
long and rather slender, reddish ; thorax much narrower at base than 
elytra, a third broader than long, anterior angles simple, side margins 
well marked, not denticulate, but with two projections in middle, very 
thickly and rather deeply punctured ; elytra rather long, distinctly 
punctured almost in rows, the punctuation becoming obsolete towards 
apex ; legs slender, reddish-testaceous. L. 1| mm. 

On sallows; also in flood refuse; local; London district, rare, Chatham, Walton- 
on-Thames; Glanvilles Wootton ; Welshpool; Cromer (in company with Formica 
fuUgiiwsa) ; Solihull ; Salford Priors ; Repton (not uncommon in flood refuse) ; 
Liverpool and Manchester districts; Northumberland district, Hartford Bridge, 
Briar Dene, and on the Irthing (in tufts of grass left on the bushes by floods) ; Scot- 
land, in flood refuse on the banks of rivers, abundant as far north as the Moray 
district and probably general. 

This species may be easily known by its coloxtr, which is very bright 
when it is alive. 

ATOMARIINA. 

This tribe, like the preceding, contains a considerable number of 
species, but the genera have not been defined with certainty. Cmnoscclis, 
Tboms., seems without doubt to be distinct, but the characters assigned 
for Ancliicera, Thoms., appear to be scarcely sufficient to warrant its 
separation as a distinct genus ; the species are easily distinguished from 
the Cryptophagina by the position of the antennae, which are situated on 
the forehead between the eyes, and are approximate ; the sides of the 
thorax are more or less distinctly margined, but are never denticulate. 



Atomarwia.] clavicounia. 329 

and the upper surface is inoro or less sparsely pubescent and not setose ; 
the tarsi are 5-jointed in both sexes, except in Cienoscelis. 

I. Posterior tarsi of male 4 -join ted ; form elongate; club 

of anteunffi apparently 2-jointed C.ENOSCELIS, Thorns. 

II. All the tarsi in both sexes 5-jointed ; form oblong or 
oval ; club of antennaj distinctly 3-jointed. 
i. Form oblong or oval ; antennaj with the middle joints 
alternately longer and shorter ; upper surface more or 

_ less distinctly punctured and pubescent Atomakia, Steph. 

ii. Form oval or almost circular ; antenna with joints 
6-9 subequal ; upper surface almost smooth, scarcely 
punctured or pubescent Ephistemus, Westw. 

CHiNOSCEZiIS, Thomson. 

This genus contains one or two species which were divided off from 
Atomaria by Thomson ; they are distinguished by the 2-jointed chib 
of the autennse, and the plainly marked side-edges of thorax, and also 
by having the tibiae, especially the anterior ones, considerably dilated 
towards apex ("niistan spadlika," "almost spade-like," Thoms. Skand. 
Col. V. 267) ; our single species is rare, although it is widely distributed, 
and probably occurs in many other localities than those that have been 
recorded. 

C. ferrug-inea. Sahib, {pallida, "Woll.). Elongate, parallel-sided, 
entirely testaceous, except eyes which are black, clothed with thick pale 
pubescence, punctuation very fine ; head triangular, antemue stout with 
an apparently 2-jointed club ; thorax subquadrate with sides only slightly 
rounded, side margins strong, basal margin produced before scuoelhun, 
basal depression deep and terminated by a longitudinal stria on each 
side ; elytra rather depressed, with long pubescence set in rows, more 
finely punctured than thorax ; legs testaceous, tibia3 widened towards 
apex. L. 1| mm. 

By sweeping at twilight ; also in flood refuse, &c. ; occasionally taken in the 
runs of Formica fuliginosa ; rare; Chatham, Caterham, Claygate, Mickleliam, Bird- 
brook ; Yarmouth ; Fulbourn, near Cambridge ; Cotswold Hills, Gloucest»rshire ; 
iScarborough. 

AT03MEARIA, Stephens. 

This genus comprises a large number of very minute insects which 
vary much both in form and colour, and have been divided by Thomson 
and others into two genera and several sections ; about seventy species 
are enumerated in the INlunich catalogue, bi;t others have since been 
added ; they occur chiefly in Europe and ISTorthern Asia, but a few 
species have been found in j\ladeira and the Canary Islands, and one at 
least has been recorded from the Cape of Good Hope ; they live in moss, 
vegetable refuse, fungi, &c. ; some of the species are very hard to dis- 
tinguish, and many of them require a careful comparison with type 
specimens before they can be determined with any degree of certainty. 



330 CLAVICORNIA. [Atumaria. 

Thomson divides the genus as follows : — 

Antenuffi less distant from one another than from the eyes, 

with the fourth, sixth, and eighth joints less than those 

contiguous to them, and the first larger than the second ; 

body oblong, less convex, with the thorax not or scarcely 

transverse AxOMAEli, ;'. sp. 

Antenna; more distant from one another than from eyes ; 

body short, with the thorax gibbous in front, transverse . Anchiceea, Thorns. 

The character, however, afforded by the relative distance of the 
antennsB from one another and from eyes is very unsatisfactory , and 
practically useless, as any student will find Avho tries to separate species 
by it ; it appears, therefore, to be the best course to abandon it 
altogether, and to separate the species primarily by their general form, 
which varies from the elongate shape of Cryptophagns to the almost 
orbicular form of Epliistemiis ; for further particulars concerning the 
genus the student is referred to Mr. T. Vernon "VVollaston's excellent 
revision, published in the Transactions of the Ent. Society of London, 
vol. iv. N. S. part iii. 1857. 

The species may be divided for convenience sake into the following 
three sections : — 

I. Form elongate, parallel-sided, more or less depressed ; thorax not or only 
slightly transverse. 
II. Form oblong, shorter, more or less parallel -sided, moderately depressed ; thorax 

transverse, with posterior margin not raised in middle. 
III. Form short, more or less convex, sometimes ovate ; thorax as a rule very 
transverse but sometimes only moderately so, generally more or less gibbose in 
front, with posterior margin more or less raised in middle. 



Section I. 

The species belonging to this section are distinguished by their 
elongate, parallel, and generally subcylindrical form, which is however, 
as a rule, somewhat depressed on the upper surface ; the greater part of 
them are uncommon, but one or two (e.g. A. linearis) are occasionally 
met with in such profusion as to have been recorded as injurious to 
crops. 

I. Antenna) with the last joint narrower than the 

penultimate ; size larger A. fimetarii, Herhst. 

II. Antennaa with the last joint about as broad as 
penultimate ; size smaller. 

i. Thorax as broad or nearly as broad at base as base 
of elytra. 

1. Colour entirely yellowish-testaceous; posterior 
angles of thorax right angles; antennse long and 

stout A. DILUTA, JEr. 

2. Colour lighter or darker ferruginous, reddish, 
brown, pitchy, or fuscous, apex of elytra usually 
lighter than base ; posterior angles of thorax 
blunt or roundod. 



Atomarw.] clavicoknia. 331 

A. Transverse basal impression of thorax without 
a fold at ojK'h side. 

a. AutenuiB very short and stout; elytra 
dark, lighter towards apex, the colour not 
bein<^ well defined, and sometimes obscurely 

r A . . A. ruMATA, ir. 
marked ' 

b. Antenna) longer and less stout. 

a*. Form shorter ; elytra shorter in propor- 
tion to thorax ; antenna; moderately long 

and stout, 
af. Elytra with a well-defined light spot 
before apex; punctuation of thorax 

close a.nd strong A. Baeani. Bns. 

bf. Elytra usually lighter at apex, some- 
times almost entirely yellowish-brown, 

but without well-defined light spot, 
at. Punctuation of thorax coarser and 

moredifl-use A. momy-E^Tms, Steph. 

bt ^Punctuation of thorax close and ^ ^^,^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^,^, 

b*. Form narrower; elytra longer in pro- 
portion to thorax ; antennae elongate and 

slender, 
af. Thorax as long as broad, with punc- 
tuation very close and deep ; form quite , . „ r,,„s 

linear and parallel A. LINEARIS. Steph. 

bf. Thorax slightly transverse, with punc- 

tuation less close and finer; form less „ ,„ .^„, , i^.. * 

,. . A. ELONGATUIA, Ji/'.* 

hnear a 

B. Transverse basal impression of thorax deep, ^„^^,^. -p^ 

with a small raised fold at each side .... A. UMBEINA, Er. 
ii. Thorax considerably narrower at base than base of 

A.tSe'iarge; colour dark ; elytra convex . . . A. xongicoenis, Thorns. 
B. Size small; colour testaceous or reddish -yellow, . ,. ^^ 

sometimes brownish; elytra rather flat. . . • A. badia, iir. 

A. dlluta, Er. Entirely testaceous, rather depressed with fine and 
somewhat sparing pubescence ; antennae rather long and stout ; thorax 
almost as long a°s broad, feebly rounded at^ides pos er.or ang es nght 
angles, rather diffusely and finely punctured ; ^^y^ra elongate spaimgly 
and v^ry finely punctured; in general appearance ^^\'V^'''' ^^^'l 
exactly resembles C. ferruginea, but may at once be ^i^^^ JyJ^ ^ 
3-jointed club of antennae, the shape of the tibise, and the finer and more 
sparing punctuation and shorter pubescence. L. 1^ mm. 

Very rare; Scotland, Tweed and Forth districts, Edinburgh, Falkirk, &c. 

A. fimetaril, Herbst. Oblong, subcylindrical, pitchy-red or fuscous, 



* The thorax of A. elongahda appears to vary somewhat in breadth in proportion 
to the elvtra some specimens might be classed with A. lor,gicorms and^. ladia in 
this resp^t ;' anT it must, tbcrelre, be regarded as forming a transition towards 
them. 



332 cLAvicORNiA. [Atomaria. 

with the thorax usually darker than the elytra which are often 
brownish-red, clothed with fine pubescence ; antenn;e ferruginous, stout, 
closely approximate at base, with the first joint much developed and 
distinctly curved on the outer side, last joint plainly narrower than 
penultimate ; thorax convex as long as broad, moderately rounded at 
sides, distinctly punctured, base evenly margined, all the angles blunt 
or rounded ; elytra parallel-sided, somewhat depressed on disc, dis- 
tinctly but not . strongly punctured ; legs testaceous or reddish-brown. 
L. 2 mm. 

In moss, and in flood and vegetable refuse ; rare ; Dulwicli, Carshalton ; Repton ; 
Scai'borough ; Flamborough ; it has been taken in abundance in York Cemetery by 
the late Archdeacon Hey in a fungus, Coprimis comatus, a species usually found in 
burying-grounds. 

The large size, subcylindrical form, and convex thorax will easily 
distinguish this species. 

At fumata, Er. (wnhrhia, GylL, nee Er.). Elongate-oblong, rather 
convex, shining, with somewhat coarse and scanty pubescence, fuscous- 
black or brownish-red, lighter towards apex of elytra ; antenna very 
short and stout, ferruginous, with fifth and seventh joints transverse ; 
thorax scarcely transverse with sides slightly rounded, convex, rather 
deeply and thickly punctured, base evenly and strongly margined ; elytra 
evidently more coarsely, although not more deeply, punctured than 
thorax; legs reddish-brown or reddish, L. 1|- mm. 

By evening sweeping under fir trees ; also under bark of birch, &c. ; rare ; Mickle- 
bam (Champion) ; Caterham ; Bold recoi'ds it from Gosforth and Gibside, North- 
umberland district, as inhabiting a small yellow fungus which grows on decaying 
stumps, and as not rare ; it is not, however, quite clear whether he is referring to this 
species or to A. fiDietarii ; in fact, the latter seems most probable. 

The species is easily distinguished from all the others by its short stout 
antennae ; it somewhat resembles A. Barani, but is differently coloured 
and mvich less closely punctured. 

A. Barani, Bris. Somewhat variable in colour, but usually dark 
pitchy-brown or black with a distinct spot before apex ; light specimens, 
however, occur with the suture and apex of elytra oidy darker, and inter- 
mediate forms are found with a spot at the shonlder and an oblique livid 
stain near the apex ; the doubtful forms may be distinguished from the 
allied species by the close and at the same time strong punctuation of 
the thorax ; the antennae are moderately long, ferruginous ; the thorax 
is slightly transverse with the sides feebly rounded, convex ; the elytra 
are evidently more depressed than in A. fumata, and are coarsely punc- 
tured, the i^unctures being more diffuse and larger than those of thorax ; 
legs testaceous. L. 1| mm. 

At roots of grass, in flood refuse, &c. ; only found in marshy places ; Eltham 
(Sharp); Loe (Champion); Notting Hill, on edges of a pond (Power); it is not 
uncommon where it occurs, but is very local. 



Atomaria.] clavicornia. 333 

A. nigrlventris, S>iQ\)h. {nana, Er.). Convex, svihcylimlrical, 
shining, with somewhat coarse pubescence, fuscous with shoulders and 
apex of elytra lighter, or with thorax black and elytra entirely or 
almost entirely reddish-brown ; antenriie rather stout, ferruginous ; 
thorax not very transverse, with sides slightly rounded, dilfusely and 
deeply punctured, Ijase strongly margined, basal depression not bounded 
by longitudinal folds; elytra convex, sparingly and rather strongly 
punctured; legs ferruginous. L. \\ mm. 

In haystack and other vegetable refuse ; generally distributed throughout England ; 
common in the London district; someivhat less common further north; Scotland, nut 
common, Solway and Forth districts; Ireland (Haliday). 

A. umbrina, Er. (fuscicollis, Mannh. ; plicicollis, Makl.). Closely 
allied to the preceding, but distinguished by the structure of the thorax, 
which has the basal depression furnished with a raised longitudinal fold 
or ridge at each side; the sides and posterior angles are also more evi- 
dently margined ; the basal folds are sometimes very obscure, but the 
species may apart from them be distinguished from A. nigriveidris by its 
usually slightly larger size, and less deeply punctured surface ; legs 
reddish-yellow. L. U nim. 

In moss, dead leaves, vegetable refuse, &c. ; occasionally found in sand-pits; not 
uncommon in some places, but local ; Loudon district, generally distributed ; Glan- 
villes Wootton ; Holm Bush, Brighton ; Gloucestevshire ; Market Bosworth, Leicester- 
shire ; Cransley, Northamptonshire; Birmingham disirict ; Repton ; Mablethorpe, 
Linco'lnshire ; Chat Moss ; Northumberland district, very rare ; Scotland, not 
common, Solway, Tweed, Clyde, Forth, and Tay districts; Ireland, near Dublin, &c. 

A. Wollastoni, Sharp. At first sight this species bears a very 
close resemblance to the two preceding ; it may, however, be at once 
known from them by the very much finer and closer punctuation of the 
thorax, and the shorter and more delicate pubescence ; in this latter 
respect it somewhat resembles A. elongatula, but is less elongate, and 
has the antenna? shorter and stouter ; from A. fumata it is distin- 
guished by its finer punctuation, more delicate pubescence, and longer 
and thinner antennae; it appears to be a good and distinct species 
L. 1| mm. 

Very rare ; Scotland, Forth district ; found by Dr. Sharp on the banks of a small 
loch near Edinburgh. 

A. linearis, Stei^h. Elongate, narrow and linear^ parallel-sided, 
depressed, reddish or reddish-brown, closely and finely but distinctly 
punctured, and clothed with very short and not very thick greyish 
pubescence ; antennae and legs ferruginous ; thorax as long as broad, 
quadrate, as broad as elytra, with the base finely and evenly margined ; 
the punctuation of elytra is a little less close than that of thorax ; the 
species may at once be known by its very narrow and parallel form, 
in conjunction with the fine posterior margin of its quadrate thorax. 
L. 1^ ram. 



334 CLAVicoRNiA. [Atomaria. 

In moss, haystack refuse, &c, ; common and generally distribnted in the London 
district and the south, and occurring not uncommonly in tlic midland districts j it 
becomes, however, rarer further north, and 1 can find no record from any place 
north of the Manchester district ; Haliday records it from Ireland, but it has not yet 
been found in Scotland. It is occasionally very abundant, and has been recorded by 
Mr. Fitch as doing damage to mangold-wurzel. 

A. elongratula, Er Elongate, but not so parallel-sided as the 
preceding species ; in some specimens the base of thorax is markedly 
narrower than the base of elytra, so that it might almost be classed 
with ^. long icoimis and A. hadia ; colour fuscous-reddish or brownish- 
red with the thorax usually darker ; antennae red or ferruginous, long 
and comparatively slender ; thorax nearly as long as broad, with the 
sides moderately rounded, finely and rather closely punctured, base 
evenly and finely margined ; elytra rather convex, evidently but rather 
irregularly and not deeply punctured ; legs ferruginous, L. 1| mm. 

In refuse, &c. ; rare ; Highgate "Wood, Dulwich, Mickleham ; Coombe "Wood ; 
Hastings; "Wiltshire; Gloucestershire; "Whittlesea Mere; Cornwall; Northampton- 
shire ; Lincoln ; Bridlington and Scarborough, Yorkshire ; Scotland, very rare. Forth 
and Clyde districts ; Ireland, co. Cork, near Kanturk. 

I have a somewhat doubtful Scotch example of this species with dark 
thorax and testaceous elytra. 

A. long"icornis, Thoms. A rather large dark species, black or 
pitchy-black, with the extreme apex of elytra and shoulders occasionally 
lighter ; oblong, convex, rather shining, somewhat cylindrical, clothed 
with rather fine greyish pubescence ; antennae rather long, ferruginous 
or red with club darker, or almost black ; thorax scarcely transverse, 
evidently narrower at base than elytra, very thickly but distinctly punc- 
tured, sides slightly rounded, base evenly margined ; elytra much less 
closely punctured than thorax, punctuation distinct and somewhat irre- 
gular, shoidders well marked ; legs ferruginous, femora and sometimes 
part of tibifB pitchy. L. nearly 2 mm. 

"Very rare ; a single specimen was taken in 1866 by Mr. Crotch near Beauly, In- 
verness-shire, and another by Dr. Sharp near Ecclcs, Dumfries, on May 22nd, 1876 ; 
it has also occurred at Paisley. 

This species rather resembles a Gorticaria than an Atomaria ; it is about 
the size of A. Jimetarii, but has longer anteniaas and a less ample thorax ; 
in the structure of its antennae it resembles A. elongatula, but its elytra 
are more convex and rather more strongly punctured, and its colour is 
different. 

A. badia, Er. (alpina, Heer.). Oblong, depressed, rufo- ferruginous 
Avith thorax darker, sometimes entirely testaceous, clothed with fine 
ashy pubescence ; antennae moderate, ferruginous or testaceous, rather 
thick, club narrow ; thorax much narrower at base than base of elytra, 
almost as long as broad, very iinely and thickly but distinctly punc- 
tured, base evenly margined with a plain longitudinal depression ; 



Ato7nana.] clavicornia. 335 

elytra almost parallol-sided with sides slightly rounded, rather finely 
punctured, hut less closely than thorax ; legs lighter or darker testaceous 
or reddisli. L. U-l| mm. 

Usivilly found on Scotch flr, especially in the dead branches ; occasionally by 
sweeping- rare; Eshei- (Champion); Gravesend (Power); Dover (Hall); Dean 
Forest (Blatch); Scotland, rare. Highlands, Dee district, Braemar. 

This species is perhaps most closely allied to A. elongatida, hut is of a 
lighter colour (nearly all the specimens I have seen are more or less 
testaceous), and has broader and more strongly punctured elytra; the 
thorax, too, is narrower in proportion to the elytra, and has the basal 
depression much more marked. 

Section II. 

The two species contained in this section are distinguished from the 
preceding by their rather shorter form, and by having _ the antennae 
somewhat more removed from one another at their insertion ; from the 
following section they may be separated by their somewhat more depressed 
and less^convex form and more obtuse posterior angles of thorax ; from 
most of the species that follow they differ in not having the margin of 
the thorax raised in the middle. 

I. Autenuffi and legs black or pitchy-black A. ftjscipes, Gyll. 

II. Auteunaj reddish, legs reddish or reddish-browu .... A. peltata, Kr. 

A. fuscipes, Gyll. {concolor, Maerk). Oblong, rather shining, 
clothed with fine and short greyish pubescence, entirely black (with the 
apex of elytra sometimes obscurely brownish) ; antennae moderate, black ; 
thorax transverse, with basal and apical margins equal in breadth, sides 
rather strongly rounded, transverse basal impression continued almost to 
sides, basal margin not raised, finely and closely punctured ; elytra de- 
pressed on disc, with sides almost parallel, finely punctured ; legs black 
or pitchy-black. L. 1-1§ i^i«- 

In haystack refuse, manure-heaps, &c. ; also in heaps of sea-weed near the coast ; 
often by sweeping ; generally distributed throughout England and Scotland, but 
apparently much rarer in the counties that do not border on the sea ; in fact, it 
hardly appears to be recorded from more than one or two Midland localities. Mr. 
Huliday records it from Ireland. Mr. WoUaston mentions that he has brushed it 
" in immense profusion" from off the grass at the edges of the cliffs at Bridlington 
and Flamborough in Yorkshire. 

The totally black colour of this insect, the legs and antennae also being 
black or pitchy-black, will at once distinguish it from all its allies. 

A. peltata, Kr. Oblong, moderately shining, black or pitchy-black 
with the elytra fading off towards apex into a more or less bright chestnut 
colour, pubescence grey, fine and rather close ; anteimae ferruginous ; 
thorax transverse with sides strongly rounded and much dilated m 
middle, base truncate, with a strong transverse depression, finely mar- 



33G CLAVicoRNiA. [Atomaria. 

gined ; punctuation of thorax fine and very close, much closer than that 
of elytra ; elytra long in proportion to thorax, with the sides slightly 
rounded and somewhat strongly narrowed at apex, shoulders well marked 
usually obscurely testaceous or brownish, punctuation distinct but not 
close ; legs dark ferruginous^ base of tibia3 and tarsi lighter, sometimes 
almost entirely reddish. L. Ig- mm. 

In vegetable and haystack refuse; rare; Hampstead, Mickleham, Caterham, 
Forest Hill, Sheerness, Chatham, Strood, Birdbrook ; Suffolk ; Folkestone ; Leicester- 
shire ; Spridlington and South Ferriby, Lincolnshire ; Manchester district ; not 
recorded from Northumberland; Scotland, very rare, Clyde district. Paisley (Morris 
Young). 

The oblong depressed shape, well-marked colour, and the shape of the 
thorax, which is strongly dilated in the middle, will serve to distinguish 
this species. 

Section III. 

This section contains the largest number of species, and it is very hard 
to find any satisfactory characters by which to divide them ; some of 
them are very closely allied, and require great care in their discrimina- 
tion ; they are distinguished by having the posterior angles nearly right 
angles, by the transverse basal impression being stronger in the middle, 
and by the basal margin being almost always more or less strongly raised 
in the centre ; the form is more oval and convex than in either of the pre- 
ceding sections, and the elytra are usually more or less strongly dilated 
at sides. I believe that a useful character might be found in this and 
the preceding sections in the presence or absence of cross reticulation 
between the punctures of thorax and elytra ; this is of very great im- 
portance in the genus Meligethes, and is certainly present in some of the 
species of Atomaria, although from the small size of the insect it re- 
quires a very high magnifying power to distinguish it. I have not been 
able to find time to work the question out, but some future student of 
the group may perhaps be able to do so. 

I. Thorax truncate at base. 

i. Anterior angles of thorax more or less acute and 
prominent. 

1. Thorax bright red, elytra black or pitchy- 
black ; upper surface very shining, scantily 

pubescent. 

A. Thorax with a deep depression at base not 

bounded by a longitudinal fold on each side . A. NIGEIPENNIS, Fayk. 

B. Thorax with depression at base scarcely 

visible; form shorter and broader .... A. DIVISA, Eye. 

C. Thorax with a deep depression at base 

bounded by a fold on each side A. munda, Er , 

2. Upper surfiice lighter or darker brown or red- 

dish-brown. 
A. Size larger; thorax not very transverse; 

punctuation and pubescence more diffuse . . A. impress A, ISr, 



Atomaria.'} clavicornia. 337 

B. Size smaller; thorax very transverse; punc- 
tuation and pubescence close A. puscata, Sch. 

ii. Anterior nngles of thorax not prominent. 

1. Thorax moderately transverse, very convex ; 
upper surface, as a rule, entirely deep black, 

with at most apex of elytra obscurely lighter . A. atea, Serbst. 

2. Thorax strongly transverse; upper surface vari- 

able in colour, but never entirely deep black. 

A. Length not exceeding 1 mm. ; colour very 

variable, but with thorax usually testaceous . A. pusilla, PayJc. 

B. Length exceeding 1 mm. 

a. Colour nearly always testaceous ; thorax 

rarely darker than elytra, 
a*. Punctuation finer; form narrower and 

less convex A. atricapilla, Sieph. 

b*. Punctuation deeper ; form broader and 

more convex A. berolinensis, Kr. 

b. Elytra with base dark and apex more or 
less broadly testaceous, the colour not being 
sharply defined : punctuation of thorax very 

close, coarser and deeper, 
a*. Thorax black ; form more oblong; an- 

tennaj longer A. basalis, Er. 

h*. Thorax red ; form more ovate and 

wider; antennae shorter A. ehenana, Kr. 

C. Elytra with basal half dark and apical half 
yellowish-testaceous, the colour being very 
sharply defined; punctuation of thorax close 

but less deep A. MKSOMELAS, Serhsi. 

D. Elytra black with a large common light spot 
reaching across middle of elytra ; punctuation 

of thorax not so close A. gutta, Steph. 

II. Thorax bisinuate at base. 

i. Size larger, very convex ; upper surface entirely 

black A. GiBBTTLA, Er. (Hislopi, 

Woll.) 
ii. Size smaller ; apex of elytra reddish or brownish- 
red. 

1. Form convex, evidently narrowed in front and 

behind A. apicalis, Er. 

2. Form oblong-oval. 

A. Colour dark with apex of elytra lighter. 

a. Size larger ; upper surface more distinctly 

punctured A. analts, Er. 

b. Size smaller ; upper surface less distinctly 

punctured A. btjficornis, Marsh. 

B. Colour rufo-piceous or brownish-red with 

shoulders and apical region of elytra more or 

less broadly and clearly rufesceut .... A. tebsicoloe, Er. 



g. 



A. nigripennis, Payk. Subovate, very scantily pubescent^ shiniii^, 
head and thorax bright red, elytra black ; antennae moderately long and 
stout^ red; thorax not very strongly transverse with sides almost 
angularly rounded in middle, narrowed in front^ anterior angles very 
acute and prominent, sparingly and very finely punctured, basal truus- 

VOL. III. Z 



338 CLAVicoRNiA. [Afomana. 

verse impression rather deep without a fold on each side ; elytra rather 
strongly widened before middle, sparingly and finely punctured, black 
with extreme apex and shoulders obscurely yellowish-brown ; legs 
testaceous. L. Ig^-lf mm. 

In haystack refuse, &c. ; also in fungus in cellars ; very local and not common ; 
London district, rare, Forest Hill ; Knowie ; Birmingham ; Gloucester, taken in 
some numbers by Professor Allen Hiirker in fungus in a wine cellar in company with 
Cryptophagus and Orfhoperus atomu.i ; Burton-on-Treut ; Stretford, near Man- 
chester ; Northumberland district ; Scotland, rare, " DiJmcny Woods, near Edin- 
burgh," Murray's Cat. 

A. divisa, Rye. This species somewhat closely resembles A. 7iigri- 
pen7iis at first sight, but is very distinct from it ; the general form is 
sliorter and more oblong, and much less narrowed in front ; the antennae 
are shorter ; the thorax is longer with the sides more parallel and more 
evenly rounded, with the transverse basal depression scarcely visible ; 
the punctuation, especially of elytra, is distinctly stronger, and the 
femora are darker ; the same characters will also distinguish it from A. 
murida- it is most closely allied to A. ruhricollis, Bris., from which it 
diifers in its much shorter build, the much stronger punctuation of its 
elytra, which are less contracted behind, its black scutellum, almost 
quadrate thorax, and darker femora. L. I3 mm. 

This species rests on a single specimen in Mr. Rye's collection, locality 
unknown ; it is certainly very distinct from all our other species. 

A. munda, Er. Closely allied to A. nigripennis, but with the 
elytra usually not so deeply coloured, sometimes almost reddish ; it is 
also longer and not so broad in form ; the thorax is more closely punc- 
tured, and has the sides very slightly less straight before base ; the 
transverse impression at base is bounded by a fold on each side ; the 
elytra are a little more plainly punctured and the breast is darker. L. 
lg-l| mm. 

In haystack refuse, rubbish-heaps, cow-houses, cellars, &c. ; local ; London district, 
local but common, Sheeruess, Lee, Eghani, Forest Hill, Eslier, Croydon, Cowley, 
Ealing; Staines; Kuowle; Scarborough; Stretford, near Manchester (by sweeping) ; 
Lancaster; Northumberland district, very rare, Gosforth and CuUercoates ; not re- 
corded from Scotland ; Ireland, near Waterford (Power). 

The thorax of this species appears sometimes to be somewhat 
darkened ; this is chiefly, however, the case with old specimens that have 
not been set when fresh ; the general colour, however, is certainly not so 
briglit as in A. nigripennis. 

A. impressa, Er. One of our larger species ; oblong-oval, not very 
convex, shining, of a lighter or darker fuscous-brown colour, thorax 
usually darker, upper surface clothed with fine and scanty ashy piibes- 
cence ; antennae rather long, reddish or reddish-brown ; thorax only 
slightly transverse, narrowed in front, very feebly rounded at sides, base 



Afoman'a.] clavicoknia. 339 

with a strong transverse depression bounded by a fold on each side 
posterior angles right angles, sparingly and finely but distinctly punc- 
tured; elytra plainly and moderately strongly punctured at base, punctua- 
tion evanescent towards apex, dark, with shoulders and apex lighter ; 
legs reddifh. L. 2 mm. 

In haystack refuse ; rare ; Lee, Kent, one specimen (Sharp) ; Scarborough (R. 
Lawson); Stretfbrd, near Manchester, under refuse, banks of Mersey (Chappell) ; 
2Morthumberland district, rare, Banks of Irthing (Bold). 

A. fuscata, Sch. Oblong-oval, not very convex, varying in colour 
from dark pitchy-brown, almost black, to brownish-testaceous, clothed 
with rather fine greyish pubescence ; antennae moderately long and stout, 
ferruginous or reddish-brown ; thorax very transverse, with sides gently 
rounded, thickly and distinctly punctured, transverse basal impression 
rather deep, basal margin raised in middle, posterior angles almost right 
angles ; elytra not so closely punctured as thorax ; legs lighter or darker 
brownish or testaceous. L. IJ mm. 

In haystack refuse, manure-heaps, &c. ; rather common and generally distributed 
throughout England ; Scotland common, Solway, Forth, and Clyde districts ; Ire- 
land, Killarney and near VVaterford, and probably generally distributed. 

Owing to the great variation in colour this is often rather a puzzling 
species ; dark specimens someAvhat resemble A. atra, but that species may 
be distinguished by its broader and longer and much more convex thorax 
as well as by its deeper punctuation ; light examples are very like 
ordinary specimens of A. herolinensis, but that species has the elytra 
shorter and more convex, and the sides of the thorax less rounded and less 
dilated about middle ; the punctuation also of the thorax is not quite so 
close and strong ; it is sometimes confounded with A. apicalis, which, 
however, is quite differently shaped (being much more narrowed in front 
and. behind), and has the elytra more sparingly and strongly punctured 
and pubescent. 

A. atra, Herbst. Oval, convex, deep black, shining, clothed with 
short and fine greyish pubescence, which is ratlier scanty ; antennae 
moderately long, reddish-testaceous with club usually darker, compara- 
tively widely separated at insertion ; thorax not very transverse, nar- 
rowed in front, but with sides very slightly rounded, almost straight, 
behind, strongly convex, depressed at base, rather coarsely and deeply 
punctured ; elytra broadest before middle, rather plainly punctured to- 
wards base, obsoletely towards apex, apex usually reddish-brown ; legs 
testaceous or brownish-testaceous, femora darker. L. 1| mm. 

Damp places, by sweeping, &c. ; rai-e ; Hammersmith Marshes (one specimen, 
Waterhouse) ; Leigh, Kent (one specimen taken by Miss Shepherd on banks of Aled • 
way) ; Mickk-ham ; Cowley; The Holt, Farnham (Power) ; Hastings ; Stoke Wood, 
Devon, old fungi (this record may be in error) ; Slapton Ley, Devon, and Withingtou, 
Gloucestershire (Wollaston); Loch Gelly, Scotland (Power) ; Ireland (Haliday). 

Z 2 



340 CLAVicoRNiA. [Atoinaria. 

A. pusilla, Pajk. A very small species, whicli maj' at once Ije known 
by its minute size ; oblong-oval, subdepressed, very finely and closely 
punctured, clothed with short and fine pale pubescence ; colour very 
variable, the elytra presenting all shades from black or dark fuscous with 
extreme apex testaceous to entirely testaceous ; the thorax, however, is 
more or less rufous and usually reddish-testaceous ; antennfe moderately 
long and stout ; thorax transverse, plainly rounded at sides, basal margin 
raised before scutellum, transverse basal impression not deep ; elytra 
feebly widened in middle, subparallel, obsoletely punctured ; breast and 
usually the whole of the abdomen brownish ; legs testaceous or clear 
yellow. L. f-1 mm. 

In moss, haystack refuse, &c. ; occasionally by evening sweeping; not uncommon, 
and widely distributed thiougbout England ; Scotland, not common, Lowlands, Solway, 
Tweed, and Forth districts ; Ireland, Dublin and co. Cork, and probably generally 
distributed. 

This species, from the variety in its colour, has been separated into 
several so-called " species ; " it represents the following species of 
Stephens' 111. Brit. Ent. pp. 64, 65, 6Q : — A. fuIvicoUis, thoracica, eva- 
nescens, phwogaster, hasella, and castanea. 

A. atricapilla, Steph. (nigriceps, Er.) Oblong-ovate, entirely tes- 
taceous with the scutellary region and vertex of head usuall}!" obscurely 
darker ; the abdomen also is, as a rule, dark, but the insect is somewhat 
variable in this respect ; the breast is always black or fuscous ; antennae 
moderately long, testaceous ; thorax transverse, rather deeply and dis- 
tinctly punctured, Avith the basal margin gently raised, sides rounded ; 
elytra slightly widened in middle, with punctuation fine towards base, 
obsolete towards apex ; legs testaceous. L. 1-^- mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse generally; common and generally distributed 
throughout the kiutrdom. 

A. berolinensis, Kr. Oblong-ovate, somewhat deeply punctured, 
with the elytra and thorax separately and rather strongly convex, so 
that the line of separation between them is strongly marked if viewed 
sideways ; the colour of normal specimens is rufo-testaceous with the 
head, thorax, scutellary region and outer margin of elytra, especially 
towards shoulders, more or less infuscate ; the species is, however, more 
usually rufo-testaceous with the darker markings scarcely pronounced, 
and is sometimes entirely testaceous ; these latter specimens bear a 
close resemblance at first sight to A. airicapilla, but the larger, broader, 
and more convex form, deeper punctuation, and squarer and more largely 
developed thorax will easily distinguish them. L. 1| mm. 

In haystack and vegetable refuse, &c. ; local; London district, rather common, 
Shirley, Twickenham, West Wickliam, Lee, Sevenoaks, Sheerness, Tonbridgt- ; 
Histings ; Gosport ; The Holt, Farnham ; Gloncestarshire ; Tintern, near Monmouth ; 
Knowle; Northamptoubhire ; Kepton ; Fhimborough and Scarborough, Yorkshire; 



Atoniaria ] clavicornia. 341 

Manchester district; Nortliuuiberluiul district, couiuion ; Scotland, local, Solway, 
Forth, and Clyde districts. 

Tn the last European catalogue this species is given as a variety of 
A. atricapilla. 

A. basalis, Er. {nitidula, Heor). Ovate, convex, clothed with tine 
ashy pubescence, black with the elytra more or less rufo-testaceous to- 
Avards apex, the colour not being sharply defined ; antennas moderately 
long, reddish-testaceous, club narrow ; tliorax somewhat narrower at 
base than elytra, half as broad again as long, feebly rounded at sides, 
broadest before middle, very closely and rather deeply punctured, de- 
pressed at base, basal margin raised in middle ; elytra broadest before 
middle, closely and rather strongly punctured ; under-side black ; legs 
testaceous, femora more or less brownish. L. 1| mm. 

In vegetable refuse, &c. ; also by sweeping in marshy places, especially in and near 
osier-beds; local; London distri't, not common, Shirley near Croydon, Darenth, 
Hammersmith ; Aylsham ; Woodbastwiek ; Hastings ; Wicken Fen ; Birmingham 
district ; Stratford-on-Avon ; Repton, common by sweeping in a marshy place near 
an osier-bed in company with Crepidodera Modeeri ; Burton-ou-Trent ; not recorded 
from the northern counties ; Scotland, very rare, Forth district, Edinburgli. 

A. rhenana, Kr. {v. rhenana, Cat. H. E. W.). Closely allied to the 
preceding, but broader and more convex, with the thorax rufous and the 
testaceous colour of elytra reaching further tovvards base ; the antennai 
are rather shorter and stouter ; the thorax has the sides more strongly 
rounded and almost angularly dilated about middle, and the elytra are 
considerably broader and more widened before middle. L. 1| mm. 

Very rare ; one specimen in Mr. Rye's collection labelled Great Yarmouth ; one 
specimen in Dr. Sharp's collection from a marsh between Shoreham and Lancing ; eight 
specimens, also in Dr. Sharp's collection, from Brighton ; Mr. T. Wood has taken ten 
specimens at Bognor ; it has also been recorded from Wicken Fen ; it appears chiefly 
to be found on or near the coast. 

There appears to be some little doubt whether this insect is the true 
A. rhenana of Kraatz ; if not, it is probably a new species ; it certainly 
appears to be distinct from A. hasalis. 

A. mesomelas, Herbst. {dlmidiata, Marsh). Yery like A. hasalis, 
but more oblong, with the thorax rather narrower in proportion to elytra 
and not so closely punctured ; it may as a rule be at once distinguished 
from all the other species by its colour, the elytra being black, with the 
apical half bright yellow testaceous, the colour being sharply defined ; 
the thorax is sometimes rufous, but is usuall}' black ; the colour, how- 
ever, is variable, and is sometimes almost entirely dark ; the species may 
be distinguished by the rather strong alutaceous sculpture or cross stria- 
tion of the intervals between the punctures at base of thorax, especially 
towards the sides. L. 1| mm. 

Marshy places ; in flood refuse, at roots of grass, kc ; local, but often abundant 



342 CLAVICORNIA. [Atoiuaria. 

where it occurs ; Putney, Egliam, Sheerness, Cliatlnuu, Lee, Eltliara, Daofeubain ; 
Staines; Arundel; Hastings; Devonshire; Tenby, South Wales; Gloueestershire ; 
Norfolk, Huntiugdoushire, and Cambridgeshire Fens ; Midland districts; Yurkshire ; 
Mabberley, Cheshire (in decayed Equisetum) ; Nortluimberlund district, local, on 
rough herbage on the bed of Gosforth Lake ; Scotland, local, Forth district ; Ireland 
(Haliday). 

A. g-utta, Steph. Ovate^ convex, black, sliinhig, clothed with fine 
and sparing greyish pubescence, black, with a large common reddish spot 
reaching across elytra about the middle ; sometimes the apex also is 
lighter ; antennsemoderately long, reddish with apex darker, or ferrugin- 
ous, club narrow ; thorax very transverse and convex with sides strongly 
rounded, moderately thickly and plainly punctured, basal depressi(jn 
strong ; elytra rather broad, plainly punctured ; the punctuation, how- 
ever, of both thorax and elytra is not so thick or strong as in either of 
the three preceding species ; legs testaceous. L. 1| mm. 

lu marshy places, in flood and vegetable refuse ; local, but sometimes occurring 
in profusion ; Tottenham, Sheerness, Chatham, Egham, Walton, Maidstone, Reigate, 
Eochestcr; Birchington, near Margate; Hastings; Weymouth; Topshani, North 
Devon, under sea-weed, rare ; Wicken Fen and other fen districts, very abundant in 
some localities ; Ely ; Coleshill and Knovvle, near Birmingham ; Salford Priors ; not 
recorded from the mid-northern or northern counties, or from Scotland. 

The colour will at once separate this species from all others ; it appears 
to vary considerably in continental specimens, but to be very constant 
in the English examples, 

A. gibbula, Er. (Hlslopi, Woll.). One of our largest species ; oblong 
ovate, male apparently rather narrower than female, convex, very shin- 
ing, nearly glabrous (being very sparingly clothed with short greyish 
pubescence), entirely deep black, occasionally obscurely brownish towards 
apex of (dytra ; antennae rather stout, ferruginous ; thorax large, exceed- 
ingly convex, with a deep transverse depression behind, basal edge bi- 
sinuate and not margined, sides slightly rounded, finely and not closely 
punctured ; elytra convex, rather more finely and sparingly punctured 
than thorax, the punctures, however, being larger, broadest about middle 
and narrowed behind ; legs ferruginous, base of femora darker. L. 2 
m m . 

Beneath dung of grouse, &c. ; local and rare, but occurring in small colonies where 
found; first taken by Mr. Hislop in Perthshire ; Scarborough (R. Lawson) ; Scotland, 
very local, Clyde, Tay, and Dee districts. 

A. apicalis, Er. This species is variable as to size and to a certain 
degree as to colour, and often gives rise to considerable confusion ; it 
may, however, be known by its shape which is short, oval and convex, 
but much narrowed both in front and behind ; the punctuation also is 
stronger than in some of the allied species, but it is somewhat variable 
in this respect ; in the case of a pair taken in cop and sent me by Mr. 
Douglas, the male is evidently more strongly punctured than the female ; 



Atomana.] olavicornia. 343 

tlie colour is nigro-f uscous or deep-brown with the apex of elytra lighter, 
the colour extending more or less towards base ; antennae red ; thorax 
transverse, very closely but distinctly and rather deeply punctured ; 
elytra broader than thorax, dilated in middle, with distinct and rather 
diffuse punctuation ; legs testaceous. L. l^-H mm. 

In haystack and other refuse, hot-beds, &c. ; somewhat h)cal, but rather common 
and generally distributed throughout the southern and midland districts of England ; 
Yorkshire ; Manchester district ; Bold records it as common in the Northmnberland 
district, but it is rare in Scotland, and has only occurred hitherto in the Moray dis- 
trict ; Ireland, near Waterford. 

From A. fuscuta, which perhaps it is most often confounded with, this 
species may be distinguished by its shape, the less rounded sides and bi- 
sinuate base of thorax, and the somewhat stronger punctuation. 

A. analis, Er. {iestacca, Rteph.). Oblong-oval, slightly convex, 
clothed with fine greyish pubescence, black with the apex of elytra 
rather brightly reddish-testaceous, the colour in mature specimens not 
extending beyond posterior third ; antennae ferruginous or brownish-red ; 
thorax not strongly transverse, with sides feebly rounded, rather strongly 
and distinctly punctured, basal impression deep ; elytra elliptical, wuth 
punctuation somewhat variable, according to sex, but, as a rule, rather 
strong and distinct ; legs brownish with the tarsi and base of tibiae, and 
sometimes the whole tibiae, testaceous. L. If mm. 

In haystack refuse, manure-heaps, &c. ; rather common and generally distributed 
throughout England, although somewhat local ; Scotland, local, Forth, Clyde, and 
Dee districts. 

A. ruficornis, Marsh, {terminata, Com.). In colour and general 
appearance this species very closely resembles the preceding, but it is 
considerably smaller, and has the elytra less distinctly punctured and 
the shoulders more rounded ; the antennae also are shorter and more 
robust, and the thorax is rather more plainly produced posteriorly in 
front of the scutellum ; the colour of the antennae and legs is also, as a 
rule, lighter. L. H-IJ mm. 

In the midland and southern districts of England this species is exceedingly common 
in manure-heaps, haystack refuse, dead birds, &c. ; it appears however, to be rarer 
further north, and is not recorded from the Northumberland and Durham district 
(the specimens from the locality supposed to belong to this species having been proved 
by Mr Bold not to belong to the genus Atomana, at all); Scotland, rare, Solway, 
Tweed Forth, and Clyde districts ; Ireland, near Waterford ; it is probably distri- 
buted over the whole kingdom, except perhaps the extreme north of Scotland. 

A. versicolor, Er. {orriata, Heer). Oval, somewhat oblong, convex, 
shining, clothed with fine and rather sparing ashy pubescence, colour 
rufo-piceous, or rich brownish-red with the shoulders and apical region 
of the elytra more or less broadly and clearly rufous or rufo-testaceous, 
thorax usually darker ; antennae red, thorax not very transverse with 
sides slightly rounded, plainly bisinuate at base, diffusely and distinctly 



344 CLAVicoRKiA. lAtomartti. 

punctured ; elytra convex, plainly and diffusely punctured at base, 
obsoletely towards apex ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. If mm. 

In dung, especially of sheep; rare ; Mickleham, Shooter's Hill, Birdbrookj Dulwicli ; 
Arundel ; Launceston, Cornwall ; Barmouth ; Gloucester ; Cotswold Hills, Glouces- 
tershire, in some numbers ; Leicestershire ; Reptou ; South Ferriby and Spridling- 
ton, Lincolnshire ; Scarborough ; Scotland, rare, Sohvay and Clyde districts. 

This species is sometimes confused with A. apicalis, but is larger, less 
ovate, and less narrowed in front and behind ; it is also brighter and less 
pubescent, and as a rule more lightly coloured, and the thorax is a little 
more rounded at sides. 



EPKZSTEmVS, Westwood. 

This genus comprises about half-a-dozen species from Europe, North 
America, and the Canary Islands ; they are very minute, almost orbicular, 
insects, and are so closely allied that, although their number is so small, 
it is almost impossible to separate some of them satisfactorily, as may be 
seen from the list of synonyms given in the Munich and other cata- 
logues ; they occur in vegetable refuse, moss, at the bottoms of haystacks, 
in hot-beds, &c. ; the best position of the genus appears to be after 
Atomaria ; some authors, howeA^er, have placed them near the Aniso- 
tomidffi or Byrrhidse ; in form they most closely resemble Orthoperus ; 
three species are pi'obably British, but the question of the third species 
appears to be by no means settled, and I have therefore only given two 
in the accompanying table and added the third as a variety. 

\. L. IJ-lf mm. ; form oval, longer ; punctuation of 

elytra very diffuse and fine, but distinct E. GLOBOStrs, Waltl. 

W. L. li mm.; form globose, very broad oval, almost 
orbicular ; punctuation of elytra scarcely visible. . . E. GYEINOIDES, Marsh. 

E. g-lobosus, Waltl. {nigricJavis, Steph. ; palustris, Woll.). Oval, 
globose, comparatively elongate, pitchy or pitchy-red, almost glabrous, 
shining ; antennte moderately long, red, with distinct S-jointed club ; 
mouth parts testaceous ; thorax transverse, much narrowed in front, 
forming an almost, if not quite, continuous outline with elytra, finely 
and very diffusely punctured, posterior angles projecting ; elytra gradu- 
ally narrowed from middle to apex, with very fine and scattered but 
rather distinct punctures, interstices very feebly alutaceous under a high 
magnifying power ; legs reddish-testaceous. L. If mm. 

In haystack and other refuse, under bark, in dung, &c. ; rare ; Wimbledon, Clay- 
gate, Lee, Cowley, Charlton, Mickleham, Hammersmith ; Holm Bush, Brighton ; 
Buddon Wood, Leicestershire (under bark); Repton ; Scarborough; Cheshire; 
Manchester; Northumberland district, very rare. Long Benton; Scotland, rai'c, in 
dung, Solway and Clyde districts. 

E. g'yrinoides, Marsh, (oviihim, Er.). Broad oval, almost orbicular, 
narrowed gradually in front and behind, pitchy-red, often almost black 



Ephisf emits.'] clavicornia. 345 

Avith the apex of elytra obscurely brownish, almost glabrous, shining ; 
antennae testaceous or reddish-testaceous ; mouth parts testaceous ; thorax 
shorter than in the preceding species, posterior margin sinuate at each 
side near posterior angles which are projecting, very finely and diffusely 
punctured ; elytra broader than in ^. glohosus, and more indistinctly 
jiunctured, the punctures being hardly visible even under a high magni- 
fying power; legs testaceous. L. 1^ mm. 

In haystack refuse, moss, &c. ; common and generally distributed throughout tlie 
kingdom, but not so abundant in Scotland as in the midland and southern parts of 
England . 

V. 1 (jlohulus, Pa,yk., vere. According to Mr. Crotch the true E. 
globulus of Paykull is a smaller insect, and has the thorax simply emar- 
ginate in front instead of bisinuate, and is somewhat differently shaped ; 
there appears to be considerable doubt as to this species or variety, and 
very little is known about it as British. 

In the catalogue of Heyden, Reitter, and Weise, E. globulus and gijri)ioides are given 
as synonymous ; Mr. Cliampion records E. globulus from Shweruess, and I have 
records also from Dareuth and Stretford, Manchester ; the specimens standing under 
this species in Dr. Power's and other older collections must all be referred to E. 
gyrinoldes. 

V. dimidiatus, Sturm {confinis, Steph.). This variety has the basal 
half of the elytra reddish-testaceous or brownish-red ; it appears to be 
about as common as the type. 

V. duhia. Fowler. In Dr. Sharp's collection there are a number of 
very small specimens of an Ephistemus (length |— 1 mm.) ; as regards size 
they agree with Erichson's description of E. exiguus, which appears to be 
the only other European species now recognized as distinct except E. 
glohosus and E. gyrinoides (globulus) ; they do not, however, agree with 
Erichson's description in one or two points (e.g. the hind angles of the 
thorax wdiich are produced, and the colour of the club of the antennae 
which is light testaceous like the rest of the joints, and not pitchy), and 
cannot well be referred to E. exiguus; they differ, however, from E. 
gyrinoides in their much smaller size, rather longer form, and the slightly 
more distinct scattered punctures of elytra ; it appears the best course, 
therefore, to treat them at present as a variety of E. gyrinoides. Dr. 
Sharp had separated them from that species, but had attached no name 
to them. 

SCAPHIDIIDJE. 

The position of this family has given rise to great differences of 
opinion among various authors, and it can hardly yet be said to be 
settled ; it is usiially placed near the ScydmsEuidae and Trichopterygidae ; 
Thomson places it near the Nitidulid^e, Heyden, Reitter, and Weise be- 
tween the Corylophidte and Phalacridte, and Horn between the Sphseriidaa 
and Phalacridae, while in the Munich catalogue it is placed between the 



346 CLAVicoRNiA. [ScapMdiivlw. 

Trichopterygidae and Histeridaa ; in all probability none of these situa- 
tions are correct, and Mr. Matthews is most likely right in the position 
that he assigns to it in our catalogue of British Coleoptera, p. 27 ; after 
carefully working out the anatomy of this and allied families of the 
Clavicornia, he came to the conclusion embodied in the paragraph at the 
bottom of page 4 of the Catalogue : — *' Of all the Clavicorn series, how- 
ever, the ScaphidiidfB are the most difficult to deal with; their skeleton 
is very peculiar, and very diverse from the normal type ; the formation 
of the anterior coxal cavities is almost unique, one half being formed by 
the presternum, and the other half by the mesosternum ; in Ephistemus 
alone, as far as Ave have yet discovered, a somewhat analogous formation 
exists, and for that reason we propose to place the Scaphidiidse between 
the Cryptophagidae (ending with Ephistemus) and the Mycetophagidae ;" * 
the other chief characteristics of the family are as foUoAvs : — Form more 
or less boat-shaped, strongly contracted in front and behind, elytra trun- 
cate not covering abdomen; antennte 10 or 11- jointed, Avith the last 
five or six joints often forming a distinct club, sometimes very slender 
and capillary ; thorax margined at sides, sinuate at base, with posterior 
angles acute embracing shoulders ; elytra with a sutural and marginal 
stria ; metasternum very large ; legs slender, tarsi 5-jointed ; abdomen 
composed of six free segments, of which the first is very large, and tlie 
last not ahvays visible ; posterior coxai widely distant. 

The family contains about fifty or sixty species, Avhich are contained 
in nine or ten genera ; these are widely distributed in the Old and New 
Worlds in both tropical and temperate regions ; five genera, represented 
by ten species, occur in Europe, of Avhich two genera and four species 
are found in England ; these tAvo genera may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

1. Scutellum conspicuous ; eyes emarginate ; antennse not 

capillary SCAPHIDIUM, 01. 

II. Scutellum hidden by base of thorax ; eyes complete ; 

antennse very slender, capillary • . . Scaphisoma, LeacJi. 

SCAPKZSIUaX, Olivier. 

This genus contains about thirty species,, of which one only occurs 
in Eui-ope ; the others are found in North and South America, India, 
Ceylon, Madagascar, &c. ; they occur in fungi and rotten wood, and are 
in many cases very conspicuous and brightly coloured insects. 

S. Quadrimaculatum, 01. Oval, narrowed in front and behind, 
black, shining, glabrous, Avith each elytron marked Avitii two large red or 
orange-red spots, one at shoulder and the other before apex ; head p»ro- 
duced in front, antennse rather long, reddish, Avith a distinct 5-jointed 
chib ; thorax at base scarcely, if at all, transverse, gradually narrowed 
from base to apex, distinctly and not closely punctured, with an inter- 

* See, however, foot-note on page 7 of this volume, where it is shown tliat this 
opinion may have to be modified. 



Scapliidium.'] clavicornia. 347 

nipted row of strong punctures at base ; scutellum conspicuous ; elytra 
with the sutural stria strongly punctured and continued along base, the 
rest of the upper surface moderately and not regularly punctured ; 
abdomen partially exposed, strongly pointed; legs long, black, with tarsi 
pitchy. L. 5-6 mm. 

Male with the metasternum impressed in middle, and with the seventh 
ventral segment of abdomen consj)icuous. 

At the damp bottoms of wood-stacks, under logs, in fungoid growth, rotten 
stumps, &c. ; not uneonnnon in the London and Southern districts ; it is also found in 
the Midlands at Gloucester, Bewdley, Cannock Chase, and Sherwood Forest, &c. j 
Yorkshire ; Northumberland district, Gibsidc ; not recorded from Scotland. 

SCAPKXSOBZA, Leach. 

This genus contains about twenty small and inconspicuous species, 
several of which are very closely allied to one another ; tliey are chiefly 
found in Europe and the adjacent countries, and in North America, but 
a few have been described from Ceylon, South Africa, &c. ; they may be 
easily recognized by their long and slender capillary antennae, and by 
having the scutellum hidden by the base of the thorax. 

I. AnteuDse with eighth joint vei-j' small, barely a third as 

large as the ninth joint S. AGAKICINUM, L. 

II. Antennae with eighth joint at least half as large as the 
ninth joint. 
j. Form broader ; elytra less thickly punctured ; seventh 

joint of antennae wider than apical joints S. BOLETI, Panz, 

ii. Porm narrower ; elytra more thickly punctured ; 

seventh joint of antenuse