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COLE's 



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" How great the joy to view the scene, 
The yellow strand — the ocean green — 
The sparkling wave— the swelling sail, 
That spreads to catch the favouring gale !" 

Poetical Sketcfws of Scarborough. 



SCARBOROUGH: 



PUBLISHED BY JOHN COLE, LIBRARY, NEW- 
BOROUGH-STREET; 

And by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, London. 

1825. 



lireface. 



It is the laudable custom of the inhabitants of 
Scarborough to clean up their houses just before 
the commencement of each season, which opera- 
tion is denominated " thorough cleaning:" and in 
order to be on a par with them in the " thorough 
clean" of literature, we have given our Guide a 
revise and reprint, and most respectfully submit 
it to the inspection of the visitants of this romantic 
watering-place, hoping the contents will prove 
useful and attractive — as they describe scenes 

" which, daily viewed, 
Please daily, and whose novelty survives 
Long knowledge, and the scrutiny of years." 



i 

A 

SKETCH 



OF THE 

HISTORY OF SCARBOROUGH. 



. " Here earth and sea, 



Mingling their charms majestically rude, 
With pleasing wonder strike the pensive eye 
Of contemplation, and exalt the mind." 

Fostbr. 



Scarborough is situated in the recess of a beautiful bay, 
on the borders of the German Ocean, in a position nearly 
central between Flamborough-Head and Whitby. This 
part of the coast, almost forty miles in extent, is bold, 
varied, and rocky, with many points of considerable ele- 
vation. The line is undulating, indented with sandy bays 
formed by the action of the sea, where the land is of loose 
texture. 



2 SCARBOROUGH. 

The town rises from the shore in the form of an am- 
phitheatre, and has a romantic appearance on the con- 
cave slope of it's semicircular bay. It is laved at the foot 
by the waves, and much admired for it's varied beauties. 

There is no authentic account in history of the founda- 
tion of Scarborough, though it may reasonably be pre- 
sumed that it had as early an origin as most of the places 
bordering on the German ocean ; and, notwithstanding the 
omission of it's name in Doomsday-book, we have histo- 
rical proof of it's existence previously to the Norman Con- 
quest. The building of the castle by William, Earl of 
Albermarle, in the year 1136, is the first evidence of it's 
emerging from its previous state of obscurity. The grant 
of a Charter of Incorporation of Henry II., in the year 
1181, is a convincing proof that it must then have been a 
place of some importance. 

The following account of it, is extracted from the Iti- 
nerary of Leland : — 

" Scardeburg Toune though it be privilegid, yet it 
semith to be yn Pickering Lithe, for the Castelle of Scar- 
deburgh is countid of the jurisdiction of Pickering, and the 
shore from Scardeburgh to the very point of Philaw-Bridge* 
by the Se about vj miles from Scardeburgh toward Brid- 
lington is of Pickering Lith jurisdiction. Scardeburgh 
where it is not defendid by the Warth and the Se is 
waulled a little with ston, but most with ditches and walls 
of yerth. In the toune to entre by land be but 2 gates : 

• Fi ley-Bridge. 
. a 



SCARBOBpilGH. 3 

Newburgh Gate, meately good, and Aldeburgh Gate, very 
base. The Toune, stondith hole* on a slaty clife; and' 
shoith very fair to the Se side. Ther is but one Parothe 
Chircht in the Town, of our Lady, joyning almost to the 
Castelle : it is very faire and isled on the sides and 
cross isled, and hath 3 auncient Towres for belles with 
Pyramides on them : whereof t Toures be at the west end 
of the Chirch, and one in the middle of the cross isle. 
There is a great chapelle by side by the Newborow Gate." 
The town of Scarborough was anciently confined within 
narrow limits. Some of the foundations of it's ancient 
walls are yet remaining, and may be traced with sufficient 
accuracy ; from which it is evident, that the Old Town did 
not extend westward beyond the situation of the present 
Market-cross. 

* Wholly. t St. Mary's. 



THE CASTLE. 



-" Thou hast seen Mount Atlas : 



Whilst storms and tempests thunder on Its brow, 
And oceans break their billows at its feet, 
It stands unmov'd, and glories in its height." 



This Castle was built in the reign of King Stephen, about 
the year 1136, by William le Gros, Earl of Albermarle 
and Holderness, a nobleman of Norman extraction, who, 
having extensive demesnes in this part of Yorkshire and 
in Holderness, obtained permission of the King to erect a 
fortress upon the sea-coast. 

Ancient historians have been liberal in their praises of 
this Castle. William of Newburg, a Monkish historian, 
who wrote about A. D. 1190, has given the following de- 
scription of it : — 

" A rock of wonderful height and bignesse, and inac- 
cessible by reason of steepe cragges almost on every side, 
stands into the sea, which quite surrounds it, but in one 
place, where a narrow slip of land gives access to it on the 
west. It has on the top, a pleasant plain, grassy and spa- 



SCARBOROUGH. 5 

cious, of about sixty acre9 or upward*, and a little well of 
frtesh water springing from a rock in it. In the very entry, 
which puts one to some pains to get up, stands a stately 
tower ; and beneath the entry, the city begins, spreading 
it's two sides south and north, and carrying it's front 
westward, where it is fortified with a wall : but on the 
east is fenced by that rock, where the Castle stands ; and, 
lastly, on both sides by the sea. William, sumamed le 
Gros, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, observing this 
place to be fitly situated for building a Castle on, increased 
the natural strength of it by a very costly work, having 
inclosed all the plain upon the rock with a wall, and built 
a Tower in the entrance. But this being decayed and 
fallen by the weight of too much age, King Henry II. 
commanded a great and brave Castle to be built upon the 
same spot. For he had now reduced the Nobility of 
England, who during the loose reign of King Stephen had 
impaired the revenues of the crown ; but especially this 
William of Albemarle, who lorded it over all these parts, 
and kept this place as his own." 

The promontory on which the ruins of the ancient Castle 
are situated, is bounded on three sides by the German 

* The present area of the Castle-yard does not exceed 19 acres 
5 perches. There is, therefore, probably some mistake in New- 
burgh's description. The ancient accounts of acres are generally 
very imperfect. 

Young and Bird, in their " Geological Survey of the Yorkshire 
Coast," are also of opinion that there is a mistake in Newburgh's 
account, and that this lofty promontory " has not undergone any 
material change during the last six centuries." 



6 SCARBOROUGH. 

ocean, and elevated more than three hundred feet above 
the level of the sea, presenting to the north, the east, and 
the south, a vast sweep of craggy perpendicular rocks, 
totally inaccessible*. 

Within the castle-walls rises a stately tower, majestic 
even in ruin. This tower, which has been the Keep, is a 
square Norman building, ninety feet high, and has former- 
ly had an embattled parapet. The walls are about twelve 
feet thick, cased with squared stones ; and the mortar hav- 
ing been mixed, according to the custom of the ancients, in a 
fluid state, has become more durable than even the stone of 
the building. There appears to have been three Btories or 
very lofty rooms, one over another, each room between 
twenty and thirty feet high, and ten yards square within 
the walls, with recesses. The remains of a very large 
fire-place are visible in the lower apartment. The subter- 
raneous room, or dungeon, is nearly filled up with stones 
and earth. The different stories have been vaulted, and 
divided by strong arches ; and private passages are visible 

* The following extract of a letter to the compiler, will show 
in what estimation this modern Bain is held by strangers: "Scar- 
borough is exactly suited to one who loves to look back into the 
splendour of former times, and who enjoys the sports of nature , 
there is a fine field in the romantic cliffs of that much-frequented 
bathing-place. I never enjoyed myself so much as when ram- 
bling amongst the dangerous paths on the hill next to the sea, 
whereon is situated the Castle (by-the-by this reminds me, that 
if you could procure forme a half-crown of Charles I., struck 
»t Scarborough, I should be glad to have it)." 



SCARBOROUGH. 7 

in some of the intervals of the casing of the walls. Th» 
windows have semicircular arches, supported by round 
pillars, and are larger than usual in such buildings, being 
six feet deep and three feet broad. 

In turning from the mouldering remains of antiquity, the 
eye is relieved, and the mind exhilarated by the charms of 
the surrounding prospect. The diversified scenes of the 
adjacent country ; the romantic appearance of the town ; 
the sands enlivened by various objects, and the unbounded 
view of the ocean, form collectively an assemblage beau- 
tiful beyond conception. 

" What does not fade i The tower, that long hath stood 
The crush of thunder and the warring winds, 
Shook by the slow but sure destroyer Time, 
Now hangs in doubtful ruins o'er it's base : 
And flinty pyramids, and walls of brass 

Descend the Babylonian spires are sunk ; 

Achaia, Rome, and Egypt moulder down.— 

Time shakes the stable tyranny of thrones, 

And tottering empires crush by their own weight : 

This huge rotundity we tread, grows old j 

And all those worlds that roll around the sun :--- 

The snn itself shall die ; and ancient night 

Again involve the desolate abyss." 

The following are the observations of a Geologist : 
Few situations on the eastern shores of England enjoy so 
fine a prospect of grand and beautiful nature as Scar- 
borough. From the Castle hill, which stands lofty and 
alone, a variety of noble objects present themselves on 



8 SCARBOROUGH. 

every side ; high and shadowy moorlands on the north, 
bold hills with abrupt faces to the west, and rocky cliffs 
stretching southward as far as the eye can reach, all 
combine in one grand panorama. Perhaps the most strik- 
ing feature is the range of chalk hills which sweep round 
from Wilton Beacon, skirt the south side of the vale of 
Pickering to the sea near Speeton, and running thence to 
Flamborough, majestically breast the tempestuous ocean. 

Scarborough presents to those fond of sketching, an 
imposing object in its Castle, which is worthy of the exer- 
cise of the pencil of the disciple of a Wouvermanns or a 
Murant. 

There were formerly here four Convents, four Churches, 
and two Hospitals ; viz. Convent of the Cistercians, of the 
Franciscan or Grey Friars, of the Dominican or Black 
Friars, and of the Carmelite or White Friars. The Church 
of St Nicholas, St. Thomas the Martyr, (with the two 
Hospitals, their appendages, of the same name) and the 
Churches of the Holy Sepulchre, and St. Mary*. 

The Corporation of Scarborough consists of two Bailiffs, 
two Coroners, four Chamberlains, and thirty-six Common 
Council. — It's charter is dated 22d November, 1356, 30th 
Edward III. 

The election of Representatives to serve in Parliament 
for the Borough, is vested exclusively in the Corporation, 

* The ancient view of the town of Scarborough, in the reign of 
Richard III., from a drawing in the British Museum, lately pub- 
lished by the Proprietor of this work, shows the situation of these 
Convents. 



SCARBOROUGH. 9 

by a decision of the House of Commons ; an account of the 
grounds of which determination may be seen in Hinder- 
well's History of Scarborough. 

The Arms of the Borough bear the marks of great anti- 
quity. A Ship of the rudest form, a Watch-tower, and a 
Star appear on the Common Seal. It's registry in the 
Herald's Office is without date, and it is there classed 
among the most ancient. The Bailiffs' Seal of Office is a 
Ship only, of a very antique form, with two Towers on the 
deck, and a smaller one at the top of the mast. 

The maritime situation of Scarborough, and the diversity 
of soil and aspect in the vicinity, afford an ample field for 
the investigations of the naturalist. The neighbouring 
heights produce several of the rare alpine plants ; and the 
woods near Hackness, a variety of species peculiar to the 
north : beside these, the shores and the extensive rocks 
on the coast furnish a long list of marine plants and other 
natural productions, a catalogue of which (drawn up by 
W. Travis, Esq. of Scarborough) is appended to Hinder- 
well's History. For a Treatise on the Minerals and Fossils 
of the Coast, the reader is referred to the Rev. F. Kendall's 
Descriptive Catalogue*, in an 8vo. volume, embellished 
with coloured plates, now out of print, and consequently 
scarce. Mr. J. Phillips, Lecturer on Geology, who has 
been for some time resident in Scarborough, has expressed 

* Published by subscription, in 1816, 8vo. 21s. There were a 
few copies with extra plates from Sowerby's Mineralogy, at 42s, 



10 SCARBOROUGH. 

his intention of compiling a new Catalogue ; which, from 
his peculiar study in this branch of natural history, would 
no doubt prove highly valuable. 

TRADE. 

Scarborough, though in possession of a convenient 
port, has a restricted commerce. The vicinity of sterile 
moors, and a neighbouring district far from populous, 
without any water communication with the interior coun- 
try, present formidable impediments to the spirit of enter- 
prize. Shipping, and it's dependencies, are the principal 
branches in which the inhabitants are most generally in- 
terested. Ship-building forms an important object of em- 
ployment, and is a great source of emolument ; but it is 
precarious, and subject to sudden fluctuations. 

The only manufactures in the place are those imme- 
diately connected with shipping. There are two of cordage, 
and one of sail-cloth. The markets are twice in the week, 
viz. on Thursday and Saturday. They are abundantly sup- 
plied with excellent provisions of every kind. 

The commerce of the port is principally confined to ex- 
ports of Corn, Butter in firkins, Hams, Bacon, and Salt- 
Fish ; and imports of Coals from Newcastle and Sunder- 
land ; Timber, Deal, Flax, and Iron from the Baltic ; 
Brandy and Geneva from Holland ; Wine from Portugal, 
via Hull ; and Groceries from London. 



SCAHBOftOUGH. 1] 

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

There is no deficiency of sympathetic attention to the 
miseries of the lower orders of the community in Scar- 
borough. Frequent collections are made for the poor, par- 
ticularly in the winters ; and, though a few instances of a 
penurious disposition may occur, yet there is in general a 
distinguished liberality of spirit. 

The establishments of Charitable Institutions have, also, 
been laudably encouraged ; and it is hoped, that such as 
are calculated for the improvement of the morals of the 
rising generation will ever flourish. 

THE AMICABLE SOCIETY, 

consisting of more than 200 Members, for clothing and 
educating the Children of the Poor of Scarborough, is a 
very useful institution. It was founded in the year 1729, 
by the late Robert North, Esq., a gentleman of exemplary 
piety and benevolence, and is under the government of a 
President, four Trustees, and four Wardens, annually 
elected. The Fund for its annual support arises from 
weekly subscriptions of the Members, collections made in 
Church*, and other voluntary donations. 

The children thus clothed, and now in the schools, are 
seventy-eight. 

. * Two Charity Sermons are preached in the summer for the 
benefit of the Children. 



12 SCARBOROUGH. 

Experience has proved the utility of this establishment, 
in preserving the children from the contagion of vicious ex- 
amples, and leading them into the paths of holiness and so- 
cial duty. Instead of becoming victims of profligacy, and 
pests to the community, many of them have filled useful 
occupations in life with credit and advantage. Several, by 
means of the rudiments of their education at this semi- 
nary, have attained a competent knowledge of Navigation, 
which has qualified them for mates and commanders of 
vessels. These have, eventually, become the patrons of 
the institution, and benefactors to succeeding generations. 
Others have fought the naval battles of their country, and, 
by their bravery, contributed to it's security and independ- 
ence. Whether, therefore, it be considered in a moral or 
in a political light, it deserves a generous patronage. 

THE SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL. 

was erected in the year 1752, by the Ship-Owners of Scar- 
borough, for the use of aged and decayed seamen, their wi- 
dows, and children. It is a neat commodious building, in 
an airy situation, to the north of the town. The fund for 
it's maintenance arises from the contribution of sixpence 
per month, paid by the owner of every ship belonging to the 
port of Scarborough, for each person on board, during the 
time the ship is at sea, or in actual service. It is under 
the direction of a President and Trustees, annually elected, 
and is subordinate to the Trinity-House, Deptford-Strond. 



SCARBOROUGH. 13 

SEA-BATHING INFIRMARY. ->j 

To the establishment of a general Sea-Bathing Infir- 
mary at Margate in 1796, for the use of the diseased poor, 
we may refer the institution of a similarly praise-worthy 
institution at Scarborough in the year 1811, of which the 
Archbishop of York, and the Duke of Leeds, are Patrons ; 
and the Duchess of Leeds, and Lady Grantham, Patronesses ; 
Earl Fitzwilliam, President ; and I^ord Middleton ; G. A. H. 
Cavendish, M. P. ; tlie Members for the County of York, 
for the time being ; the Bailiffs for the Borough of Scar- 
borough, for the time being ; the Lord Mayor of York, for 
the time being ; Sir George Cayley, Bart. ; Sir Francis Lindley 
Wood, Bart. ; G. G. V. Vernon, Esq. M. P. ; Robert Chalonei; 
Esq. M. P. ; Walter Fawkes, Esq. ; William Joseph Denison, 
Esq. M. P. ; George Johnstone, Esq ; and The Rev. Arch- 
deacon Wrangham, M. A. F. R, S. Vice-Presidents. — Trea- 
surers, Messrs. Woodall c\ Co. ; Physician, Dr. Thompson ; } , 
Secretary, Mr. Thornton. 

" The Baths have been established in the lower town 
in order both to remove unpleasing objects from the public 
eye, and to consult economy as well in the purchase of the 
site, as in the procuring of water from the sea. The advan- 
tages, which have already accrued to the institution, fully 
justify the anticipations of it's most sanguine supporters, 
and place it on a level with the most useful of public 
charities. 



14 SCARBOROUGH. 

" Subscriptions are received at the Bank of Messrs. 
Woodall & Co. in> Scarborough, or by their Correspondents 
(Sir Peter Pole, Bart., and Co., &c.) in London, and in the 
principal towns in the county. 

" N. B. — Subscription-Books are left at the Public- 
Rooms ; and it is hoped, that the Nobility and Gentry 
visiting Scarborough will not think it too much to give 
half-a-crown each to this useful institution." 

" In old Bethesda's holy wave, 
Jndea's halt were borne to lave : 
With eye up-turning, weak and wan, 
Lay on it's brink th* expectant man j 
And ever, as th' Eternal King 
Sent healing on an angel's wing, 
Raptured he caught the rustling sound, 
And health and gladness gush'd around. 

But till the angel stirr'd the tide, 
The wondrous virtue was denied ; 
Like vulgar stream it's flow, unbless'd, 
No salutary power possess'd. 

O ye.! whi , on the ocean strand, 
In youthful grace and joyance stand ; 
Ye, " compass'd in an angel's frame," 
Whom love's fond votaries ' angels' name ; 
Be your's to prove your heavenly birth ; 
O bless, while ye adorn the earth ! 
Your bounty still can bid the wave 
Resume it's potency to save. 

F. W. 



SCARBOROUGH. 15 

The fish Market is upon the sands near the harbour ; 
and, in a plentiful season, there is a great variety ; viz. 
turbot, holibut, cod, ling, skate, codlings, haddocks, whit- 
ings, herrings, dabs, plaise, soles, gurnards, coal-fish, lob- 
sters, and crabs. 

The population of Scarborough, according to the last 
census, is 8188. i; ., ' , ■ nii l ,t m i nhfw .+ w* r— "* ^A 

The following account of the customs and amusements \^/ ^ 
of this long-established watering-place in the year 1733, is 
extracted from a Tour published in that year ; and may, 
perhaps, prove amusing to the readers of this Sketch : — 

" The town is populous (containing, by computation, 
about 2000 families), and well built ; the houses, for the 
most part, uniform, neat, and commodious. The streets 
also are most of them very spacious ; so that coaches pass 
and repass without any difficulty or inconvenience. The 
lodgings are very reasonable, and well furnished, there 
being here an upholsterer from London. A shower of 
rain puts no stop to the diversions of the place ; for you 
have chairs from London, which ply in the principal parts 
of the town : the High-street is called Newborough, out of 
which runs another up to the Long Room, which stands 
toward the end of the town, on the top of a cliff, whence 
by a gradual descent you go down to the Spaw. This is a 
noble spacious building, sixty-two feet long, thirty wide, 
and sixteen high. The situation, being so lofty, commands a 
prospect over the sea, and you may sit in the windows and 
see the ships sailing at several leagues distance. Here are 



16 SCARBOROUGH. 

balls every evening, -when the room is illuminated like ■■ 
Court Assembly (and indeed, for the great number of noble 
personages present, may very justly be called so.) Gen- 
tlemen (only) pay for dancing one shilling each. On one 
side of the room is a Music Gallery, and at the lower end 
are kept a Pharo-Bank, a Hazard-Table, and Fair-Chance ; 
and, in the side-rooms, tables for such of the company as 
are inclined to play at cards : below, you have Billiard 
Tables . It is kept by Mr. Vipont, Master of the Long-Room 
at Hampstead. There is no Ordinary here ; but Gentlemen 
may have any thing dressed in the most elegant manner , 
the house being provided with cooks from London. Every 
thing is conducted in the politest manner by Vipont, who 
is a perfect master of his business. Gentlemen and Ladies 
subscribe here, likewise, five shillings. 

" There are several Ordinaries in the town, the principal 
of which are, the New Inn, the New Globe, the Black- 
smiths' Arms, the Crown and Sceptre, and the Old Globe. 

" The company dine commonly about two, and have ten 
or a dozen dishes, one of which is generally rabbits, which 
you have here in the utmost perfection. Their mutton is, 
I think, at least equal to Banstead-Downs ; and the near- 
ness of this town to the sea, supplies them with plenty of 
the finest fish at very reasonable rates ; and for poultry, 
they have a poulterer who finds it worth his while coming 
from London every summer. It is usual to drink a glass of 
Spaw-water mixed with your wine at dinner. Persons of 
all ranks, Gentlemen and Ladies together, sit down without 



SCARBOROUGH. 17 

distinction, each pjaying their club, which is one. shillings 
after which they collect round the company for wine, &c. 
(called the extraordinary) which is generally about one 
shilling more. This last used formerly to be paid by the 
gentlemen only ; but that complaisant custom is now laid 
aside, and the ladies are brought in to pay an equal share 
of the whole reckoning. This method of ordinaries is vastly 
commodious for strangers, and affords an opportunity of 
being acquainted with the company. 

" In the afternoon are plays acted*, to which most of the 
gentry in town resort : Kerregan is now here with his com- 
pany, and (allowing for scenes and decorations) they per- 
form several plays very well. After the play is over, it is 
customary to go to the Long-Room again, where they 
dance or play till about nine, and then sup in company 
again. 

" Gentlemen appear in all places without their swords ; 
not through an apprehension of danger from the intoxicat- 
ing nature of the Spaw-water, but from a polite declaration, 
that in places of public resort, all distinctions ought to be 
lost in a general complaisance." 

The following account, from the York Chronicle, describes 
the effects of the strong gale of October 12, 1824: — 

" Scarborough, Oct. 12. — Scarborough has been visited 
with tremendously stormy weather, of high wind and con- 
tinued rain, from Sunday evening last, till this period 

* The present Theatre is situated in Tanner-street. 



18 SCARBOROUGH. 

(Tuesday,) and yet prevails. The shipwrecks on our coast 
in the immediate vicinity of Scarborough, we lament to ob- 
serve, have been very numerous. A vessel was dashed to 
pieces, during the violence of the storm, about midnight, 
and every soul on board perished : the body of a female 
was this morning washed on shore. Another ship was 
seen to approach our cliffs, against which she in a few mo- 
ments dashed, and the crew were obliged to take to their 
boats, which, owing to the fury of the element, were imme- 
diately upset ; but through the praise-worthy exertions of 
the life-boatmen, they were all fortunately saved. A sloop 
was seen to sink yesterday near the castle promontory." 



, THE CHURCH OF SAINT MARY. 

" The gazing seaman here entranced stands, 
Whilst fair unfolding from her concave slope, 
He Scarborough views. The sandy pediment, 
First gently raised above the watery plain, 
Embraces wide the waves ; the lower domes 
Next lift their heads ; then swiftly roof o'er roof, 
With many a weary step, the streets arise 
Testudinous, till half o'ercome the cliff, 
A swelling fabric dear to heaven aspires, 
Majestic even in rnin." 



Foster. 



The ancient church of St. Mary is most picturesquely 
situated upon a considerable eminence, near to the Castle, 



SCARBOROUGH. 19 

but does not display any marks of fine or elaborate archi- 
tecture ; it's grey and irregular appearance, however, 
it's supposed former use as the church of the monastery, the 
tower-like ruins at it's eastern-end, in conjunction with 
it's elevated situation, the church-yard crowded with 
tombs, and the view of the sea and the sands obtained 
thence, all conspire to render it one of the most interest- 
ing of situations. 

The following description of this ancient edifice is 
extracted from Hinderwell's History : — 

" This sacred building, venerable for it's antiquity, has 
much the appearance of a conventual Church, and was 
formerly a very spacious and magnificient edifice, con- 
siderably surpassing its present extent. The ruins, yet 
standing, at the eastern part of the church-yard, the dis- 
membered appearance of the western end of the church' 
the subterraneous arches extending to the west, and the 
great quantity of foundation stones discovered in the new 
burial ground contiguous to it, are sufficient proofs that it 
is, in the present state, only a small part of a va9t edifice 
which may have formed the Cistercian Abbey and the 
Church, founded by King Edward II. and suppressed 
in the reign of Henry V. 

" It appears by Leland's ' Itinerary,' that previously to 
the Reformation, it was a very noble building, adorned 
with three handsome towers ; two of which were at the 
western end, and one was over the centre of the transept. 
There was also a grand arch of gothic architecture in the 



20 SCARBOROUGH. 

Choir, the ruins of which were visible a few years ago, 
but have since been taken down. The centre (or transept, 
tower having been greatly shaken during the siege of the 
Castle in 1644, fell in October, 1659, and considerably 
injured a great part of the nave of the Church. The pre- 
sent steeple, which now singularly stands at the eastern 
end, was erected upon the ruins, and occupies the place 
of the ancient transept tower. The southern part of the 
building attached to the nave seems to have, in some 
degree, escaped the injury sustained by the other parts ; 
as some of the remains of the chantries are still visible 
under the arches adjoining the south aisle. These arches 
are three in number, and have formed the separate chan- 
tries*, which in the days of superstition were founded by 
our ancestors, as places of prayer for the souls of the de- 
ceased. 

" One of these chantries was founded in the reign of 
Richard II. and endowed with five houses and five acres 
of land. 

'.' The Bailiffs of Scarborough also erected one, which 
they dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and endowed it with 
five pounds per annum. 

" Robert Golan d erected one to the honour of St. James, 
which he endowed with five pounds per annum. 

" Robert Rillington founded another, endowed with 
three pounds per annum. 

• In these chantries, are basous for holy-water, surmounted by 
crocketed canopies. 



SCARBOROUGH. 21 

" Many ancient benefactions were made to this Church 
by the pious inhabitants of the town. 

*' Aylmar de Cliff-land gave liberally to St. Mary's 
altar, with money for oblations, and three priests to 
officiate. — A toft was bestowed by Osbert de Hansard. — A 
great house on the rock was given by Walter, son of Gun- 
ner, and money by his brother Richard. — Some land, on 
the Cliff, was granted by William de Harton ; and another 
parcel, in the town, by Thomas Hardin. 

" Galfrid de Lutton, and Galfrid de Groom, gave lands 
to this Church, and also to Kirkstall Abbey*, and Keld- 
holme Nunnery, 

" Emera, a beautiful and religious virgin, the daugh- 
ter of Robert de Filey, in the year 1219, was a liberal be- 
nefactress. — And there appears a long list of inhabitants, too 
tedious to recite, who were very bountiful to the Church. 

" During the siege of Scarborough Castle, by Sir John 
Meldrum, a lodgment was made by his troops in this 
then extensive church. It's lofty towers, within a very 
small distance from the castle-gate, enabled them greatly 
to annoy the defenders : they drew several pieces of 
artillery into the church by night, formed a masqued bat- 
tery, and at length opened their fire upon the castle, 
through the church windows ; those especially, which were 
on the east side and choir ; the besieged returned their 
fire in so hot and well-directed a manner, as soon obliged 
the enemy to abandon their post, but the building suffered 
much. 

« Near Leeds, now a ruin. 



22 SCARBOROUGH. 

" The desolation which this venerable edifice sustained, 
during this siege of the Castle, and by the subsequent fall 
of the transept tower, reduced it to a state of ruin ; and the 
inhabitants had suffered such a variety of misfortunes by 
a succession of calamitous events, that they were under 
the necessity of having recourse to a Brief, in the 12th 
Charles II. (1660) to enable them to rebuild it. 

" By the assistance of this Brief, and other contribu- 
tions, part of the body of St. Mary's Church, and the 
tower (as it now stands) were rebuilt in 1669, on the 
foundation and ruins of the old fabric. 

" The ancient burial-ground, surrounding the Church, 
being much crowded, the Corporation purchased a piece 
of ground contiguous to the west, which was consecrated 
in 1779. 

" St. Mary's Church is the sole place of religious wor- 
ship in Scarborough, where Divine Service is performed 
according to the ceremonies of the church of England *: 
but there are other places of worship, belonging to Dissen- 
ters of different denominations, viz. Independents, in St. Se- 
pulchre-street ; Baptists, in West-Gate ; Quakers, near 
Cook's Row; and Roman Catholics, in West«Gate. The 
Methodists have also a Meeting-house in Church-street. 

" There are, in the Church, several marble monuments 
of elegant workmanship, but of modern date. It is also 

» A grant from government has been lately obtained for the 
erection of a new church. 



SCARBOROUGH. 23 

ornamented with a handsome organ, erected in 1762, and 
the fronts of the galleries are inscribed with the benefac- 
tions which have been made to the poor. Among the most 
memorable of these, is the following by Sir John Lawson, 
a celebrated naval commander of the last century : — Sir 
John Lawson, by his will, gave one hundred pounds ; the 
interest thereof, six pounds per annum, to be paid by the 
Corporation yearly, on St. Thomas's day, to the poor of 
Scarborough. 

" Public worship is performed here twice on the Sun- 
day, and once on Wednesday and Friday, during the wit- 
ter ; and in the summer daily. Two sermons are delivered 
on the Sunday, and one on Wednesday. The communion 
is administered monthly, and the occasional duty is very 
considerable. By an early attendance, seats may easily 
be - obtained on application to the pew-door openers. Ser- 
vice in the morning begins at a quarter before eleven, 
o'clock, and in the afternoon at a quarter after three. 
Vicar. 
The Rev. John Kirk, M. A. 
Curate* 
The Rev. J. Skelton. 

•' Dissenters' Chapel, commonly called Presbyterian or 
Independent, was first erected in the year 1703, whereof 
the Rev. William Hannay became minister, and con- 
tinued until the year 1725. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. William Whitaker, who regularly officiated until 
the year 1773, when through age and infirmities he was 



24 SCARBOROUGH. 

under the necessity of declining the ministry. At that 
period, the Rev. Samuel Bottomley was invited to suc- 
ceed him, the congregation then consisting of about 
thirty stated hearers, and the communicants of about 
half that number. The novelty, zeal, or ability of the 
preacher, greatly increased the congregation ; so that, in 
the year 1774, it was found necessary to rebuild and en- 
large the place of worship, since which period a farther 
extension has taken place in the chapel. Public worship 
is performed five times in the week, viz. three times on 
the Lord's Day ; and on Tuesday and Thursday evenings : 
and the communion is administered once in two months. 

" The Baptist Chapel was built in the year 1776. The 
Rev. William Hague was the first minister, and may in- 
deed be called the founder of the Baptists in Scarborough, 
as there were none of that denomination in this place pre- 
vious to his first ministry, which was in the year 1766, 
in a room near the sands. The Rev. Sir. Foster is the 
present minister. The times of public worship are thrice 
on the Sabbath-day ; and once on the Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday evenings. The communion is ad- 
ministered monthly. 

" The Methodists first assembled at Scarborough in 
the year 1757, when they suffered great opposition and 
persecution ; but they are now permitted to attend their 
place of divine worship without interruption. Their 
times of public meeting are, twice on Sunday ; and on 
the evenings of Monday and Thursday. A Missionary 



SCARBOROUOH. 25 

Prayer-Meeting is held at each of the above-mentioned 
Chapels in the evenings of the first Monday of each 

month. 

" The Quakers date their establishment here from 
the time of the imprisonment of George Fox, their 
founder, in Scarborough Castle. Their times of meet- 
ing are twice on the Sunday, and once on the Wed- 
nesday." 

On the 25th of November, 1821, the sect, called the 
Primitive Methodists, opened a Chapel in St. Sepulchre- 
street. 




Tire Spaw Scakbro 



" Scarborough boasts 



A double portion of the healing strength 
In her fam'd Spaw, that treasures all it's stores, 
Where yonder roof, erected on the waves, 
Grotesquely lurks beneath the pendent cliff."' 

Foster. 



V 



" The Spaw-house is pleasantly situated on the sea-shore, 
at the foot of the cliffs, a little to the south of the town. 
This building was raised to it's present form in the year 
1739. The first cistern for collecting the waters was built 
in 1698. 



SCARBOROUGH. 27 

" These mineral waters have supported their fame nearly 
two centuries. Dr. Wittie writes that the discovery of their 
virtues was owing to the following accidental circum- 
stance : — 

" Mrs. Farrow, an intelligent lady, who lived at Scarbo- 
rough about the year 1620, sometimes walked along the 
shore ; and observing the stones over which the water 
passed to have received a russet colour, and finding it to 
have an acid taste, different from the common springs, and 
to receive a purple tincture from galls, thought it probably 
might have a medical property ; and having therefore made 
an experiment herself, and persuaded others to do the same, 
it was found to be efficacious in some complaints, and be- 
came the usual physic of the inhabitants. It was after- 
wards in great reputation with the citizens of York, and the 
gentry of the county ; and at length was so generally re- 
commended, that several persons of quality came from a 
great distance to drink it ; preferring it before all the others 
they had formerly frequented, even the Italian, French, and 
German Spaws *." 

A superintendant (called the Governor) of the Spaw, ap- 
pointed by the Corporation, attends to receive the subscrip- 
tions and to preserve order. The following is a copy of 
the last Regulations, relative to the Subscriptions, &c. 
dated June 10, 1822 :— 

" The Nobility and Gentry are respectfully informed, 



* Dr Wittie on Scarborough waters. 



28 SCARBOROUGH. 

that the Subscriptions to the Waters, Use of the Rooms, and 
Walks of the Spaw, is either by the Week, or for the Sea- 
son ; viz. each Subscriber, 2s. 6d. per Week, or 7s. 6d. for 
the Season ; or a Family Subscription, 7s. 6d. per Week, 
or 1/. Is. for the Season. The Water-servers are entitled 
to one-half of the weekly Subscriptions, and one-third part 
of the Subscriptions for the Season. As the whole of the 
Subscriptions are now rented by the Governor under the 
sanction of the Bailiffs and Corporation, it is requested that 
\ / no Lady or Gentleman will send for, or drink, the waters, 
without subscribing_as above. The Subscription to the 
Newspapers, 2s. per Week, or 5s. for the Season, is entirely 
optional, and a separate Concern. 

" In the month of December, 1737, the staith of the Spaw, 
composed of a large body of stone bound by timber, as a 
fence against the sea for the security of the Spaw-house, in a 
most extraordinary manner gave way. A great mass of the 
cliff, containing near an acre of pasture- land, with the 
cattle grazing upon it, sunk perpendicularly several yards. 
As the ground sunk, the earth or sand under the cliff rose 
on the north and south sides of the staith, out of its natural 
position, above 100 yards in length ; and was in some 
places six, and in others seven, yards above it's former le- 
vel. The Spaw-wells ascended with the earth or sand ; but 
so soon as the latter began to rise, the water ceased running 
into the wells, and for a time seemed to be lost. 

" The ground thus risen was 26 yards broad ; and the 
staith, notwithstanding it's immense weight, (computed at 



SCARBOROUGH. 29 

<463 tons,) rose entire 12 feet higher than its former po- 
sition, and was forced forward to the sea about 20 yards. 

" The springs of mineral-waters were, by diligent search, 
afterwards recovered ; and the staith being repaired, the 
Spaw continued in gTeat reputation. 

" The celebrated Dicky Dickinson, an original charac- 
ter, was at the above period the Governor of the Spaw. His 
person was, in the highest degree, deformed ; but he pos- 
sessed an uncommon brilliancy of wit, and considerable in- 
genuity*. 

" The annexed lines were composed in honour of the vi- 
vacity of his talents : 

" Samos unenvled boasts her JEsop gone, 
And France may glory in her late Scarron, 
While England has a living Dickinson." 

The following is the account of the Wells, compiled by 
Dr. Belcombe, formerly resident in Scarborough : — 

" The first well on descending the steps is the chalybeate 
water, sometimes called the North-well ; and near it the 
salt or South- well. From both wells the water is perfectly 
clear, of a bluish cast, sometimes sparkling; has not a very 
disagreeable taste, or the least unpleasant smell. Although 
the North-well has been called the chalybeate, it is found 

• As Dickv was once sitting on his bench at the Spaw, a lady 
placed herself near him, and said, jokingly, I think I should like 
you for a husband : indeed, replied this original character, I 
should not like you for a wife. Why ? said she. Because you 
are too much like our clock. How is that f Too forward. 



30 SCARBOROUGH. 

not to hold much more iron in solution than the other ; but 
containing much less vitriolated magnesia, it's taste is 
stronger, or more inky. The taste of the North-well water 
rs brisk, and not disagreeably saline. When suffered to 
stand in an open vessel exposed to the sun, or in a warm 
room, the sides of the vessel are soon covered with air- 
bubbles, and the water becomes somewhat turbid : in a 
day or two, it deposits a little yellow or orange-coloured 
sediment. The water then grows clear again ; and if suf- 
fered to stand lightly covered for some weeks, a thin skim 
or pellicle forms upon the surface, and under it a number of 
beautiful crystals, which on the least motion fall to the bot- 
tom. Phenomena nearly similar may be observed in the 
North-well water, except that few or no crystals form by 
this spontaneous evaporation. These crystals are vitrio- 
jated magnesia. It is said that the waters from both wells, 
on being kept for some time corked, will become foetid ; 
and, on being again exposed to the air, will recover it's 
former purity. 

" Much of the orange-colour sediment is observed in all 
the channels near the Spaw ; and it sometimes comes down 
the pipes, which conduct the water, in considerable quanti- 
ties : this the water-servers call the coming down of the 
mineral. It is chiefly carbonate of iron and carbonate of lime. 
The temperature of these springs varies very little ; which 
is considered as a proof that they rise at a considerable 
depth in the earth. The thermometer generally stands at 
45 deg. in the North-well water, when it is at 32 deg. (or 



SCARBOROUGH. .11 

freezing) in the open air. In the South-well water, it is 
commonly half a degree higher. I have seldom seen it 
more than 46 deg. or 46 deg. 5 min. even in summer. The 
specific gravity of the South- well water is 10038,06 ; of the 
North-well water, 10033,23 ; of the sea-water, 10270,54 ; 
distilled water being considered as 10000. 

" From remote ages mineral waters have been considered 
as very efficacious medicines in almost all those diseases 
which have not yielded to the use of other remedies, and 
not unfrequently as instances of God's peculiar goodness 
to his creatures ; consequently, their effects have been 
esteemed miraculous. So prone is human nature to super- 
stition, and so apt to attribute to the partial interposition of 
the Deity the effect of general laws which it's finite reason 
does not comprehend ! Scepticism commonly succeeds su- 
perstition ; and, accordingly, it is now the mode with some 
physicians to regard mineral waters as remedies of little 
value. 

" The surprising advances which Chemistry has made 
within a very few years, by enabling men to ascertain with 
accuracy the contents of mineral waters, has (it is true) also 
enabled them to judge more correctly of their probable 
effects, and consequently rendered them less liable than 
formerly to imposition from supposed cures, which may have 
been the effects of other unnoticed circumstances ; but until 
they can explain more satisfactorily than at present the way 
in which medicines act, they ought not to descry the valu- 
able effects which experience informs us are frequently 



32 SCARBOROUGH. 

produced by small quantities of mineral substances diffused 
through large portions of pure water. Chemistry has, also 
enabled them to imitate the mineral waters with consider- 
able success ; but it has been found extremely difficult to 
make the waters as agreeable and pure as at the fountain. 

" The general effect of the South -well water, when drank 
in a sufficient quantity, is to act gently upon the bowels and 
kidneys, and sometimes on both, but without harassing 
or fatiguing; on the contrary, it strengthens and exhila- 
rates. It is serviceable in debility and relaxations of the sto- 
mach, in nervous disorders, scurvy, struma or swelled glands, 
chlorosis, and particular weaknesses. I have found it very 
useful in a variety of chronic complaints, attended by habi- 
tual costiveness. These complaints are often accompanied by 
some degree of jaundice, or are frequently subsequent to it, to 
a sedentary life, to long-continued and ■painful affections of the 
mind, to long and tedious illness, to agues, to residence in hot cli- 
mates, and sometimes to intemperance. In such cases, 
I have known a small glass of this water, repeated 
every day for some time, produce the most desired and 
permanent effect ; even when very powerful medicines 
have not been found to answer, or only to afford temporary 
relief. Most commonly, however, two, three, or even 
four half pints, taken at proper intervals, and repeated 
daily, are required; although no very great constipation 
may have preceded. 

" Some diseases of the stomach, as I have already ob- 
served, are much relieved by this water, others are in- 



SCARBOROUGH. 33 

creased by it's use ; especially all those proceeding from 
long continued intemperance : but the sickness arising 
from occasional excess is often wonderfully relieved by a 
glass or two of this water. It sometimes affords relief in 
the gravel, as well as in several pains of the loins, -whose 
seat seems to be in the kidneys, although they are gene- 
rally called rheumatic. Disorders commonly comprehended 
under the appellation of scurvy, as pimples, red face, eruption* 
in various parts of the body ; roughness of the skin, or scurf, 
&c. are often cured by a long continued use of the South-well 
water. Some remarkable instances of this kind have come 
to my knowledge, both of the inhabitants of the town, and 
of strangers. In these disorders as much water should be 
drank daily, at proper intervals, as will produce some sen- 
sible effect upon the bowels : sometimes a single glass, even 
of the smallest size, will be sufficient; but when three or 
four half pints are not found to answer, it is better to add a 
little Scarborough salt, or drink a glass of sea-water, than 
to increase the quantity. 

" The Chalybeate, or North-well, water has little or no 
opening property. It braces, and generally passes off by 
urine. Hence it is preferable, in most of those complaints 
in which the bowels will not bear the South-well water. In 
all cases of general weakness and relaxation, it's virtues are 
acknowledged ; and I observe that the water-servers gene- 
rally recommend it to the delicate of their own sex, and I 
believe with good success. This water is however apt to 
heat, and sometimes sits heavy. This may be prevented 



34 SCARBOROUGH. 

by the means hereafter mentioned, or by taking a glass of 
the South-well water at the same time. 

" The North-well water is peculiarly useful in a variety 
of nervous cases, particularly those consequent to confine- 
ment, dissipation, and a town-life, where the bowels require 
no assistance. It is, likewise, serviceable in those very nu- 
merous cases which occur to females at that time of life, 
when the growth seems disproportionate to the strength. 
This complaint is mostly distinguished by a ■pale complexion, 
depraved appetite, weariness and pains in the limbs, palpita- 
tions, &c. 

" To reap any material advantage, these waters must 
be drank at the fountain : for as their virtues in some 
measure depend upon an elastic fluid or gas, which quickly 
escapes from the water, they must necessarily lose some of 
their properties by being transported to any distance. This 
circumstance, although of importance, is not much at- 
tended to, except by a few who have already experienced 
the advantage of it. The custom, therefore, of sending for 
the water to the Lodging-houses ought as much as possible 
to be avoided ; more particularly as some exercise should 
be taken between each glass, to assist it's effect. 

" Jn all cases, where the patient is able, walking is pre- 
ferable to every other exercise ; next, riding on horseback ; 
and, last of all, in the carriage. The best time for drinking 
the waters is before breakfast ; but some persons cannot 
bear the coolness of these waters fasting ; in which case 
they may conveniently be drank about two hours after 



SCARBOROUGH. 35 

breakfast. When they sit heavy, or when the stomach is 
delicate, they are sometimes drank a little warm. By this 
practice their virtues are diminished. The addition of a 
tea-spoonful of brandy, tincture of cardamoms, or ether, &c. 
is preferable. The dose cannot be ascertained but by 
trial. 

" Those who bathe and drink the water the same day, 'i 
generally bathe first. And this seems a proper precaution, 
in particular for such as are delicate, who ought indeed 
rather to bathe and drink the waters on alternate days. 
Those who are robust will sometimes drink the waters on the 
same day, both before and after bathing. Every year, how- 
ever, gives some instance, that both bathing and drinking 
the waters are practised incautiously ; often in diseases in 
which they are improper." 

The late William Hutton, F.S. A., in his " Tour to Scar- 
borough," notices the great benefits which the drinking of 
these waters and bathing effected upon his daughter, in the 
following words : — 

" My daughter's complaint was a nervous asthma of 
some standing, from taking cold. We visited Scarborough 
as the last resort. She stayed eleven weeks, rode on horse- 
back every day, bathed every second, and drank the water 
three times each day. 

" About four weeks elapsed before any change was ap- 
parent, when her breathing, activity; and strength, began 
gradually to return, and' nature seemed approaching to- 
ward hei 1 former tone ; and, though not perfect, I have 



56 SCARBOROUGH. 

hopes that it will tend to preserve that life which I value 
more than my own." 

The following, from the York Chronicle, may here be 
appropriately introduced : 

" Scarborough, Feb. 8, 1825. — Some of the highest and 
strongest tides that have been experienced at Scarborough 
for these fifty years, occurred there on Thursday and Friday 
evenings hast, marking their progress with desolation to 
vessels on the stocks, and to the projecting erection which 
guarded the Spaw ; which it has dilapidated in a deplorable 
manner, washing away the stones of immense weight which 
hounded that receptacle of health, and carrying them and 
the platform, " shivering in their playful spray," to a con- 
siderable distance. The shore on Friday morning pre- 
sented an aweful spectacle of the spoils of vessels, bathing- 
machines, and the wreck (but not total) of the Spaw. Like 
some other calamities, we hope it will ultimately prove 
beneficial to the elegance of this fashionable place, in the 
ornamental improvements which may take place in the new 
erection of the despoiled portion of this nobly situated plat- 
form." 

THE TOWN HALL 

is a commodious building in Long-Room Street, where the 
sessions are held, and all business connected with the town 
transacted. In the Council-room is a fine portrait, by J. 
Jackson, R. A. of Mr. Bartholomew Johnson, of Scar- 
borough, a highly-respected musical character, who com- 



SCARBOROUGH. 37 

plcted his 100th year, on the 3d October, 1810. This 
event, so highly interesting to all who knew him, was cele- 
brated by a Jubilee dinner, and musical performances, at 
the Freemasons' Hall in Scarborough. The selections of 
vocal music were well adapted to the occasion ; and his 
musical friends here, assisted by the principal choristers 
from York Cathedral, afforded the company much gratifi- 
cation. About ten o'clock at night the good old man bore 
a part in a quartet, by performing on the violoncello the 
bass to a minuet, which he himself composed upwards of 
sixty years ago. Several poetical compositions, from the 
classical pens of the Rev. Archdeacon Wrangham, Thomas 
Hinderwell, Esq. &c. were sung and recited with great 
applause *. 

THE THEATRE, 

situated in Tanner-Street, has been lately newly painted 
and tastefully embellished, and presents a coupd'ceil at once 
chaste and effective. The boxes, unlike those in the gene- 
rality of Theatres, are not separated by partitions, but 
freely displayed in one elevated open space. It's boards 
have been graced by the acting of some of the most popular 
of the London performers. The late Mr. Stephen Kemble 
possessed the Theatre for a series of years, and occasion- 
ally enacted some of his most celebrated characters t. It 

« For a full account of this Jubilee, see The Gentlemari's Mag. 
vol. 80, p. 2. 
t In Cunningham's (the pastoral poet) Poems, appears a Pro- 



38 SCARBOROUGH. 

usually opens about the middle of July, and closes in 
October. The prices of admission are — Boxes, 3s. ; Pit, 2*. ; 
and Gallery, Is. There are two fashionable nights in the 
course of each week; 






CUSTOMS. 

Ttlfc usual for visitants shortly after their arrival to sub- 
ribe to the Rooms, the Spaw, and Libraries, and take a 
course of the exhilarations which they respectively afford. 
Early morning is appropriated for bathing and drinking 
the waters, mid-day for walking the sands, shopping, 
lounging at the libraries, or taking one of the drives in the 
romantic environs. After dinner a general muster is ap- 
parent on the Cliff and Spaw terraces, Beach, and different 
parts of the town and Castle-hill ; or the Theatre is visited, 
the lecture attended, the assembly graced. 



" 



BATHING. 



. 



The Sea and the Spaw generally afford engagements 
which engross the first attention, and fill up the earlier part 
of each morning ; for to bathe, and drink the waters, are 
mostly recommended before breakfast. The beautiful form 
of Scarborough Beach, is at an early hour enlivened by the 
confused but entertaining dispersion of bathing machines, 
Scattered on it's verge, while the sun slopes it's early 

logue, spoken at Scarborough : as the author was an actor, we 
may presume he, at that period, figured on the Scarborough stage. 



SCARBOROUGH. 89 

beams upon them, as they are drawn to and from the 
sea. There are about forty commodious bathing-machines, 
which belong to different proprietors. Two women attend 
each lady who bathes, as guides ; and one man, every gen- 
tleman who requires it. A boy attends with a horse, to 
draw the machine to and from the water ; which is drawn 
to any depth the bather pleases. The regular price for 
bathing is oae shilling each time. 

TRAVIS'S BATHS ON THE CLIFF. 

This establishment was originally opened in 1798 ; since 
which time, it has undergone several improvements : in 
1822 it was rebuilt, and the interior fitted up with every 
attention to comfort and elegance. The Baths aro in 
Wood or Marble, and are varied as to form, being adapt- 
ed either for plunging, or for the erect or horizontal posi- 
tion. They admit of every variety of temperature, and are 
supplied every tide with the the purest sea-water. Here 
likewise are Shower-baths and warm pumping on an improved 
principle, affording every degree of force and temperature. 
A room is also fitted up for Steam and Vapour Baths ; and 
no expense has been spared to render the establishment 
equal to any in the kingdom. 

HARLAND'S BATHS. 

These Baths are delightfully situated in the New Road, 
at the bottom of Huntriss'-Row, combining in that situa- 
tion as much as possible, privacy with convenience, to- 



40 SCARBOROUGH. 

gether with the advantage of receiving with facility, a con- 
stant supply of the purest Sea Wateb, from the southern 
shore. The interior of the Baths is constructed on a plan 
entirely new, the rooms are elegantly fitted up, and the 
apparatus on the most philosophical principles. One of 
the Baths has been constructed for bathing in the erect or 
sitting position, for those who are not able to bear the 
horizontal. 

There has also lately been erected an elegant little build- 
ing contiguous to the original edifice, containing a plunge 
Bath, of size sufficient to admit of all the advantages of Sea- 
bathing ; intended chiefly for those who, from delicacy of 
constitution or other causes, are prevented from bathing in 
the open sea. Also, an additional Shower-bath upon an 
improved principle, by which the height, force, rapid suc- 
cession, or number of showers, may be readily adapted to 
each particular case. In the fitting-up of these Baths 
no expense has been spared either with regard to orna- 
ment or utility. 

WARM AND SHOWER BATHS, NEAR THE PIERS, 
SCARBOROUGH. 

These Baths possess exclusive advantages ; they are sup- 
plied with water of the purest quality, pumped immediately 
from the Sea, at a situation remote from the drains and other 
impurities of the town ; and advantage is constantly taken of 
flowing tides to obtain it of the greatest possible strength 
and efficacy. 



SCARBOROUGH. 41 

Terms. 
A Warm Bath, 2*. 6d. and 6rf. the attendant. — A 
Shower Bath, Is. 6d. and 6d. the attendant. 

CHAMPLEY'S NEW BATHS, 

situated in Mr. Cockerill's Garden, central between the 
Cliff and Brunswick Terrace, constructed on a plan entirely 
new, in which privacy and elegance are combined, and on 
a scale of magnitude hitherto unattempted in Scarborough. 
One suite of rooms appropriated for the use of Ladies, 
and another for that of Gentlemen. Orders received at 
the Baths, and by J. Champley, Chemist, &c. at his shop, 
opposite the New Inn, Newborough- Street. 



Medical Men. — Dr. Thompson, without the Gates ; Dr. 
Harland, Messrs. Travis and Dunn, Newborough-Street ; 
Mr. Weddell, Queen-Street ; Mr. Willis, Merchants r -Row. 

AMUSEMENTS. 

After breakfast, the usual avocations of all public places 
here also succeed in their turn as fancy may lead, or conve- 
nience direct. Morning parties for country rides, sally forth 
with their gay and lively trains, in pursuit of health or amuse- 
ment j returning for the most part, gratified by a compe- 
tent share of both. When the tide permits, about noon, as 
many as wish to enjoy, to the utmost, every breeze of sea 
air, parade the sandy beach, and compose one of the most 



M SCARBOROUGH. 

cheerful medleys. The warmest conception would perhaps 
be inadequate to the beauty and the liveliness which the 
sands then display. Splendid chariots, towering phaetons, 
and parties on horseback, vary the scene : thus, each 
pursues the most eligible or convenient method of enjoying 
the salutary exhalation, and takes sea water in at every 
breath. Added to this, is a rich assemblage of freed objects ; 
the semi-circle of a sloping town, and all its motley-coloured 
houses, church, and castle, which spread out an uncom- 
monly fine back-ground ; while the sea opens to the S. E. a 
boundless expanse, sometimes adorned by passing fleets, 
or many a sail of straggling ships, coasting along : the eye 
seems never tired with such a view ; which it is as difficult to 
describe justly, as to quit without reluctance. The usual 
dinner-hour at Scarborough is four : about seven, the cliff- 
promenade, the beach, and plantation-walk, are thronged 
with groups of pedestrians. 

There scarcely can be two sea rides so near each other, 
as the north sands, and those below Scarborough cliff, 
more agreeably contrasted. We would much recommend 
the north sands, to those unable, or disinclined to mix in the 
gay morning throng, when they take the sea air. 

The Assembly Rooms, at Bonner's Hotel, in Long-Room 
Street, are commodious and well adapted for the purpose ; 
but the company who resort here appear to prefer other 
amusements to dancing, consequently our assemblies are 
but thinly attended. The company at Mrs. Hodgens's Board- 
ing House frequently " trip it on the light fantastic toe," in 



SCARBOROUGH. 43 

an evening, when other modes of entertainment fail of suc- 
cess. While on this subject, we cannot resist the opportunity 
of recommending to notice a custom, which we regret is al- 
most peculiar to the city of Lincoln, which is, the frequent 
holding of subscription meetings, under the name of chari- 
table assemblies. When any inhabitant, of good character, 
is overtaken by sudden misfortune, any respectable widow 
burdened with a number of children, or aged man incapable 
of providing for his own support ; some leading lady or 
gentleman steps forward, and solicits, by public invitation, 
the company of the charitable at an assembly for the 
benefit of the sufferer. Every repectable individual thinks 
himself bound in honour to attend, and, on entering the 
room, gives what he pleases to the patroness or patron of the 
meeting, who collects the subscriptions. The generous soli- 
citors are considered as treasurers, paying out of the fund 
the expenses of the assembly, and presenting the overplus 
in such periodical sums as they think proper, to the object 
of that evening's charity. The subscription is always suffi- 
ciently large to relieve the distressed persons. Eight or 
nine of these assemblies are sometimes made in a year, and 
produce a sum, (thus voluntarily given to objects who, 
otherwise, must either have been starved, or at least solely 
supported by their respective parishes) at the average of 
almost four hundred per annum * ." 

* Those who wish for farther information on the subject, are 
referred to the History of Lincoln, published by the proprietor of 
tliis work. 



44 SCARBOROUGH. 

The following valuable Observations are Extracts from a very 
useful little book, entitled " The Perambulator's Guide 
to the Scarborough Sands," for which we are indebted 
to Mr. John Bleckly, of York. 

It should be observed, that as the time of high water as 
well as the height of the tide is varying every day, your 
arrangements both for walking and riding upon the sand, 
as well as for bathing or igoing upon the sea, should all of 
them in some sort be regulated by it. Thus, if you propose 
to walk to the Nab * before dinner, you should take a day 
when it is high water between seven and eight o'clock, 
and commence your walk about ten, after which there will 
be three hours of falling tide, and three hours after that of 
rising water, in which you may return upon the same walk- 
ing ground. 

This rule will apply to the North as well as to the South 
Sands, and indeed ought to be uniformly observed when- 
ever you propose to take a long walk by the sea-side ; more 
especially on the approach of evening. On every occa- 
sion of this sort, you should take care that the time of high 
water be not earlier than one, nor later than three o'clock 
in the afternoon ; for under either of these circumstances 
it will not be low water sooner than from six to eight, 
which will always leave you in possession of good walking 
ground, and a broad field view under the shadows of the 

* The Nab is a point projecting into the Sea, about a mile from 
the Spaw, in the direct road to Carneliau Bay. 



SCARBOROUGH. 



2 



evening, ere the curtain of night closes upon all the sur T 
rounding objects. It may be proper in this plaoe to state, 
that two days after the new and the full moon, when the 
tides are at the highest, they fall as much below, as they 
rise above their ordinary places, and that consequently the 
run of water is accelerated and increased as much as the 
difference between high and low-water mark at the neap 
and at the spring tides. This circumstance is mentioned 
that strangers may not only be upon their guard, but avail 
themselves of every opportunity to inspect the coast, and 
behold, under all the advantages of light and shade, the 
splendid scenery. 

The next subject which presses upon your notice, is the 
alternately tranquil and agitated state of the sea, arising 
solely from the influence of the tide ; for it will be found, 
when there is but little wind, that the waters are in a state 
of equilibrium for about an hour, at the period of both high 
and low water; and that as the tide begins gradually to 
recede or advance, the pouting Upper soon becomes a 
restless wave. This circumstance will naturally suggest 
to those who intend to bathe, and are not very partial to a 
boisterous sea, that their convenience and their comfort 
may be easily consulted, and that the fears and the tears 
of children in particular, may be greatly abated. It is also 
deserving the attention of all who intend to bathe, that a 
rising water is always to be preferred, and if within an 
hour or two of high water, the better. The first part of 
these observations are equally applicable to those who in- 



46 SCARBOROUGH. 

tend to go upon the sea ; and if attended to, may be made 
productive of high gratification and benefit to many, who 
would otherwise never dare to venture upon the unstable 
element ; but, for the convenience of such, it should be 
remembered, that with a serene sky, as soon as the tide is 
half flood, or within three hours of high water, the waves 
will gradually subside into a perfect calm. The parties 
may then take an excursion for an hour or two upon smooth 
water, and return with the natural impulse of a flowing 
tide. To those who are indifferent to this consideration, 
to say no more of it, it would always be a matter of conve- 
nience and sound policy to go to sea within an hour or two 
before or after low water, according to the length of time 
they purpose to stay out, ever bearing in mind, that it is 
easier to return with than against the tide. These remarks 
will also be serviceable to those who are fond of Fishing, 
where they are provided with good tackle, plenty of fresh 
bait, and a full supply of patience : clear water is not 
always .the most favourable for the diversion, although 
smooth water is more agreeable to inland fishermen. 

You should observe that proper bait of some kinds is 
only to be obtained at low water, and that it is always 
safest to be your own maTketman, to prevent disappoint- 
ment at the time of embarkation. The best chance of suc- 
cess in fishing from the Pier-head is to commence about 
two hours after low water, and if the wind be favourable, 
the fish in the season, on their way into the harbour, will 
bite vefy freely. 



8CARBOROUr.il. 47 



THE TOWN NEWS-ROOM AND LIBRARY 

are situated on the verge of the cliff, at the bottom of King- 
Street. Strangers, as well as residents, have access to the 
news-room ; the subscription for the season being 10s. 6d. 
The library is a permanent one, and being established as 
well by gentlemen in the country, as those in the town, has 
received the appellation of The Agricultural Library. A 
room for billiards is also attached to this building. 

The governor of the Spaw takes in newspapers at his 
rooms on the Spaw terrace ; one of which rooms is devoted 
to the use of the ladies, and the other to the gentlemen. 
The subscription is 5s. per month. There is too a Sub- 
scription News-Room at Cole's Library. 

Those visitants who wish to receive papers at their lodg- 
ings, may have them ordered on application at the Libraries. 

Besides this general library, a society for periodical 
Literature has been formed at Cole's, bookseller, in which 
almost every Magazine and Review which issues from the 
press, is taken. 

n 

Amongst the curiosities of the town, independently of 
it's own bold and varied charms, may be mentioned the 
Museums of Thomas Hinderwell, Esq., and Mr. Bean ; the 



48 SCARBOROUGH. 

latter of which is particularly rich in British shells, form- 
ing one of the most complete collections in the kingdom. 
The Proprietors will readily show their respective Museums 
to Visitants, on being properly introduced. 

Minerals and Fossils are pretty plentifully strewed over 
this coast, and the search for them forms many a morning's 
amusement*. There is an interesting page or two on this 
subject in " Prose by a Poet." 

The following observations on a vrustaceous animal, found 
by Mr. Dunn in the Castle-hill, in grey earth, contempo- 
raneous with Oxford clay, beneath calcareous grit, were 
•made by Mr. J. Phillips, Geologist : 

" The first specimen with entire arms which has fallen 
under my notice ; and the first hitherto discovered in the 
Oxford clay formation. 

" As far as I know, the lowest stratum in which crusta- 
ceous animals have been found, is the inferior oolite ; they 
are not scarce in the superior strata, particularly in the 
London clay. A few more of these discoveries will shew 
that such animals have existed during the formation of all 
the intermediate rocks." 

* Parties who wish to devote much time to these excursions, 
may be supplied with a Guide to direct them to the best situations, 
an application at Cole's Library. 










COLE'S LIBRA. 



" If you for reading feel inclin'd, 
A store of books to suit your mind 
At Cole's deposit'ry you will find." 



Bisset. 



This prominent and conspicuous building is situated at the 
upper end of Newborough*, at the corner of Tanner-Street, 

» An interior view is given in the " Poetical Sketches of Scar- 
borough," accompanied by the following lines :--- 



50 SCARBOROUGH. 

fronting Long-Room Street, and projecting considerably 
beyond the opposite side of Tanner-Street, commands a 
pleasing view down Newborough, which is handsome, wide, 
and well built, " striking the traveller with an agreeable 
idea of comfort and improvement. It's ground plat, on a 
gradual descent, is nearly a thousand feet in length, and 
mostly about fifty wide. The houses have a modern and 
cheerful air, and are chiefly built of brick. A very excel- 
lent pavement, about nine feet wide, on each side, most 
usefully adorns the whole." »The second opening on the 
left, exhibits Queen Street, which is wide and handsome, 
chiefly occupied by genteel families. 

From the Library, which is considerably elevated, an 
extensive view not only of the town, but also of the Castle, 

" Now Literature no more appals, 
Immur'd 'midst gloom of cloistered walls, 
But with a winning grace unbends 
To treat us all like common friends 5 
And readily her store supplies, 
To make men good, and great, and wise. 
Fair History unfolds her page, 
To spread the truths of every age ; 
Records the deeds by heroes done, 
How well they end, how well begun ; 
Remove the mark of vice and fraud, 
And what is truly great applaud. 
And in life's tide, by careful fate, 
The mind la made to circulate. 
Just so each watering-place supplies 
It'i Circulating Libraries." 



SCARBOROUGH. 



51 



may be enjoyed, which here forms an interesting back- 
ground to the scene. This building was formerly used as 
a Coffee-House, by which name it is now well known by 
many of it's visitors, as well as by the inhabitants. 

One of it's Masters, who was a person of great humour 
and ingenuity, having been often solicited by the company 
who frequented his house, to introduce Bristol Water to 
his table, substituted the Castle Water in it's place. The 
deception was carried on with great dexterity. The wax 
upon the corks bore the impression of the Bristol seal. A 
fresh importation was pretended to be made every season, 
warranted from the Fountain-head ; and the Connoisseurs 
pronounced it genuine. But the ingenuity of the contriver 
failed him in an unguarded hour. He had, in a convivial 
partv, taken too much wine, and in the confusion of an 
intoxicated moment, the Bristol seal was applied to a bottle 
of Sherry, which was hastily sent up to the table, even 
before the wax had time to cool. This unlucky circum- 
stance occasioned a discovery ; and the master of the 
Coffee-house not only received a severe reprimand for the 
imposition, but was obliged ever after, as it's reputation 
was established, to suppjyjthe water grath, .... 

In " A Journey from London to Scarborough," performed 
in 1733, the following occurs respecting this house : — 

"In the High-Street, over against the Long- Room Street, 
is the Coffee-house, to which gentlemen subscribe half-a- 
crown, and have the use of pen, ink, and paper, for tu« 
season." 



■52 SCARBOROUGH. 

It was first opened as a Library and Bookseller's Shop, 
in the year 1811, in which business it has continued to the 
present period, but with a change of occupants. 

The collection of Books here appropriated for circulation 
is numerous, and consists of several valuable works in 
History, Voyages, Travels, and Biography, as well as an 
extensive assemblage of light summer-reading in Novels, 
Romances, and Tales*. The Printing business is also 
carried on upon these premises. 

Although Printing was not introduced so early here as at 
some of the neighbouring towns t, it may not prove uninter- 
esting to mention the time when the first press was erected 
at Scarborough, in the words of the celebrated Tliomas Gent, 
who was the person that fixed the apparatus. 

C" I beg leave to mention here, as a memorial, that a 
Printing-Office was first set up by me in Scarborough, about 
June 16, 1734, in a house in Mr. Bland's Lane, formerly 
called his Cliff ; a most pleasant situation, leading to the 
beautiful sands." 
/-—— * Prom the " Journey" before mentioned, we extract the 

A/ 
v • A Catalogue of the Books which compose this collection, has 

lately been published, and an Addenda, confining the newest 

works, has just made it's appearance. 

t The first production of the Yoik Press was the Pica of the 
Cathedral Church, by Hugh Goes ; (1509,) who is said by Herbert 
to have printed, at Beverley, a broadside, — being a wood-cut of a 
man on horseback, with a spear in his right hand, and tbe arms 
of France in his left. — Home's Bibliog. 



SCARBOROUGH. 53 

following, as being descriptive of the Customs practised at 
the Library at that period : — 

" In the Long- Room Street is the Bookseller's Shop ; 
where Ladies an d Gentlemen subscribe five shillings, for 
which they have the use of any Books during the season, 
and take them home to their lodgings. Here are also 
raffles for books ; if the persons who win do not like their 
books, they have the choice of any others of the same 
value*. 



The notice of Private Libraries will here appropriately 
appear : the most celebrated one in the neighbourhood of 
Scarborough, is that of Mr. Archdeacon Wrangham, at 
Hunmanby ; but Scarborough itself possesses a few desirable 
Collections, in which are several emblazoned first editions 
of works on Heraldry, an unique Tussbr, and many other 
bibliographical treasures. 

POST-OFFICE. 

The Office is situated on Palace-Hill, at the bottom of 
Newborough-Street. The Post arrives at half-past six 
every morning, and goes out at half-past one ; no letters 
out on Friday for London, and none received thence on 
Tuesdays. 

* It appears that the proprietors of this establishment were 
Ccesar Ward and Richard Chandler, who were London Booksellers 
and Publishers, at the Ship, between the Temple Gates, Fleet- 
Street. 



54 SCARBOROUGH. 

Steam-Packets. The City of Edinburgh and the James 
Watt call off the port regularly to London on Thursday 
morning, to Edinburgh on Thursday afternoon. 

Information respecting the Packets from Scarborough to 
London, may be had on application to Mr. Marflitt, or Mr. 
Edmond. 

The Carriers to York are Thomas Burniston, who lives 
near the gates, and Sarah Craggs, at the bottom of New- 
borough ; they both start at twelve o'clock on Mondays and 
Thursdays. 

The Carrier to Hull is John Bell, Cross-Street, who starts 
on Mondays and Thursdays, at nine o'clock in the morning, 
and returns on Wednesday, at five in the afternoon, and 
on Saturday at nine in the morning. 

Carriers to Whitby ; John Bell, and John Annan, 
Long-Room Street, on Sundays and Thursdays. 

Carrier to Bridlington ; Porter Owston, starts at nine 
o'clock in the morning from the Star Inn, on Tuesdays and 
Fridays. 

Horses are let out by Mark Dove, and by William 
Peacock, in Queen-Street ; by Thomas Wilson, and by 
Jonathan Major, Newborough-Street ; Thomas Glaves, 
and Mr. Marshall, Tanner-Street ; Joseph Holmes, Mer- 
chants'-Row ; and Matthew Beecroft, without the gates. 
Mark Dove has also two Landaus, one drawn by two black 
Ponies with long tails, the other by two beautiful bays. 
The latter Landau has a false head for the fore part, to 



SCARBOROUGH- 55 

join to the hind part, which keeps it entirely free from rain. 
William Peacock also lets Landaus and Pony Carriages ; 
and William Donkin, a poor blind man in Hall's-Square, 
has an elegant Pony Carriage for hire. 

Donkies conveniently caparisoned, and Pony- Carriages, 
will be found in waiting at the foot of the Terrace every 
day, and may be engaged by the hour. 

In 1821 was built a Life-Boat upon Mr. Greathead's 
plan at Scarborough. Donations for keeping it in repair, 
&c. are received at the Libraries. 

A Humane Society for the recovery of persons in a state 
of suspended animation from drowning, &c. has been lately 
formed at Scarborough ; subscriptions for the support of 
which, are, also, received at the Libraries. 

A Lancasterian School has lately been opened, and to it 
subscriptions will be thankfully received. 

Drawing Masters. — Mr. Baynes, jun. portrait and 
animal painter, has a small exhibition of pictures, &c. at 
his rooms in Newborough-Street, and teaches Drawing ; as 
does Mr. Hartley in Huntriss' Row, and Mr. Stubbs in 

Long- Room Street. Drawings are let out from Cole's 

Library. 

Music Master. — Mr. Hartley. 

French Masters. — Mons. de Laube and Mr. Hornsey. 

Dancing Masters usually attend during the season. 

Bankers. — Messrs. Woodall and Co., Queen-Street. 

Piano-Fortes are let out by Mr. Wilson, Music-seller, 
Long- Room Street ; Mr. Cracknell, Cliff; Mr. Hartley, 



56 SCARBOROUGH 1 . 

I Junt rigs' Row ; Mrs. Ainswortk, Newborough-Slreet ; an* 
Mr. Linwood, Merchants'-Row. 

The following Coaches set off from the Bell bin : — 

The Royal York Mail Coach, every Monday, Wednes- 
day, Friday, and Saturday afternoon, at half past one 
o'clock. 

The Leeds True Blue Coach, every morning at eight 
o'clock, from the Bell and Bull Inns, alternate weeks. 

The Wellington Hull Coach, every day (Sundays ex- 
cepted) by way of Bridlington and Driffield, at half-past 
six o'clock. 

The Whitby Diligence, every Sunday and Wednesday, 
at eight o'clock. 

The Royal Union to York and Leeds, starts at seven in 
the morning ; on Monday and Tuesday from the Nag's 
Head, Wednesday and Thursday from the London Inn, 
and Friday and Saturday from the George Inn. 

The Highflyer for York and Leeds starts at a quarter 
before ten every morning ; on Saturday and Monday from 
the Talbot, Tuesday and Wednesday from the New Inn, 
Thursday and Friday from the Plough Inn. 

The following from the Plough Inn : — 

The British Queen Hull Coach every morning at seven 
o'clock. 

The Prince Blucher Post Coach, for York and Leeds, 
every morning at seven o'clock. 



SCARBOROUGH. 57 

The Express to Hull, at seven in the morning, from the 
New Inn. 

The last season was a brilliant one ; and when that is 
the case, we must pronounce Scarborough a most delightful 
residence : it's situation is noble, gTand, and romantic ; 
it's beauties innumerable ; it's vicinity picturesque and 
varied ; it's advantages, in short, are very great. Several 
improvements have taken place since last year, and, in 
addition to the Edinburgh Packets, one now plies be- 
tween Hull and Scarborough * ; besides which, is a new 
Coach to that place, and many alterations are yet in con- 
templation. But, in spite of these successes, we must 
confess that there is now much more crying in Scarborough 
than there was last year : some, perhaps, will know how 
to account for this strange inconsistency. 

Lodgings. — The Cliff lodgings hold the first place in 
point of situation and other advantages : the new houses of 
Mr. Edmond, Mr. Hopper, and Mr. Cowling, on Bland's 
Cliff; of Mr. Cooper, near the News-Room Steps ; Ma- 
rine House, at the foot of the steps ; and those on Bruns- 
wick-Terrace and Albion- Place, also boast their sea pros- 
pects ; nor must the two commodious houses lately erected 
by Mr. Bean, near Dr. Harland's Baths, be omitted, or 
Mulgrave Place, near the Church. They are in genera 1 
clean, airy, and furnished in good style. The Cliff-houses, 
&c. are usually engaged by the month ; but there is a 

» In 10 hours. Fore-Cabin, 8s. ; BeBt Cabin, 12*. 



58 SCARBOROUGH. 

customary charge of 12s. per week for each, room, in 
different parts of the town ; linen is furnished, but the 
washing is an extra charge. 

Mrs. Hodgens, and Miss Robinson, in Huntriss'-Row ; 
Mr. Peter Brown, in Newborough- Street ; Miss Banks, in 
Merchants'-Row ; Mr. Cooper, on the Sands ; and Mr. 
Thompson, in Tanner-Street, are Directors of Boarding- 
houses, and furnish a daily table for the accommodation 
of their respective lodgers. Besides these, there are Ordi- 
naries at the different Inns, from which, or from the Board- 
ing-houses, dinners are sent to all parts of the town, at 
varied rates, according to the articles ordered ; the lowest 
charge being 2s. 

HOTELS. 

Mr. Dormer's Hotel is delightfully situated in Long- 
Room Street, commanding a fine view of the ocean ; and 
Mr. Houson's (formerly the Bull Inn) is at the top of 
Newborough-Street ; both which afford first-rate accom- 
modations. 

INNS. 

The Bell Inn, Bland's Cliff; the Blacksmith's Arms, 
Queen-Street: both of these are posting-houses, besides 
Mr. Coates's, Huntriss'-Row. Other respectable Inns are 
as follow : Talbot Inn, Queen-Street ; New Inn, London 
Inn, Nag's-head, Newborough-Street; Plough Inn, Tanner- 
Street, and many others of respectability. 



SCARBOROUGH. 59 

The following Observations from " A Tour to Scar- 
borough, in 1803," by W. Hutton, F.A.S.S., will afford 
farther information : — 

" The accommodations we found were of three sorts; 
to take a furnished house, if a family arrived, which may 
be done from six to ten guineas a week ; or, take apart- 
ments in a family, and find food and servants yourself; 
or board and lodge in a family at a stated price. We 
chose the last. The terms were twenty-five shillings a 
week each, for my daughter and me, exclusive of tea and 
liquor, and ten shillings each for a bed. The servant half, 
or seventeen shillings and sixpence, and the same sum for 
the horse, including corn." 

The markets for butchers' meat and poultry are on Thurs- 
days and Saturdays : the first by far the most considerable. 
Yet during the summer, meat is slaughtered six days in 
the week. Compared with neighbouring markets, that of 
Scarborough is not a dear one. It has been long famous 
for it's excellent moor-mutton. Poultry and vegetables, 
especially potatoes, are here abundant. 

There is a traditionary report that the old Market-place 
was situated to the north, behind the covered ropery, near 
St. Mary's Church ; and the great Blue Stone, which is 
to be seen there, is said to have been the place where pub- 
lic bargains were ratified and discharged. The stone is 
Basalt, of nearly the same quality as the remarkable Whin- 
dyke on the high moors. It was probably found in the di- 
luvial matter which abounds on this coast. 



60 SCARBOROUGH. 

The market was kept upon the sands in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. It has also been held in other parts of the 
town ; the remains of a very ancient Market-cross are still 
standing: "it clearly appears," writes Hutton, " that it 
was once a grand piece of architecture, of Saxon make, a 
thousand years old, and that Scarborough is a very ancient 
market town." 

The following observations on this Cross are by the His- 
torian of Wakefield : — 

" Scarborough, 4th July, 1825." 
" Mr. Cole, 

" Dear Sir, 
" I am sorry to differ from the late venerable historian 
of Birmingham, respecting the ancient Pillar or Obelisk in 
Church-Street ; but, after a minute examination, I think T 
may confidently affirm, that it never ' was a grand piece of 
architecture,' as he states. Some old inhabitants informed 
me, that it formerly stood in the centre of the Street, but 
was removed to it's present situation at the angle to make 
room for carriages to pass. To me it is evident, that the 
round stone forming the base, was originally the uppermost 
step of the Market Cross, and that this Cross becoming 
dilapidated, the lower steps were removed, whilst a 
crocketed pinnacle, probably from the ruins of the Church, 
was inserted in this uppermost step, to supply the place of 
the former shaft, which time or injury had taken away. It 
is well known that a stone of any kind, so long as it is a 



SCARBOROUGH. 61 

■sufficiently visible object, served to distinguish the- place 
where Markets were or had been held, — for instance, the 
block of Basalt near St. Mary's : and I am myself ac- 
quainted with several Market-places, where the original 
Cross has been supplied by blocks or pillars, totally differ- 
ing from it, as in the present case. My opinion therefore 
is, that the Pillar you wished me to examine, never formed 
part of the original Cross, but was substituted for it at it's 
decay, either from ruins in the present Church-yard, or 
from the one formerly on the Cliff." 

" I am, dear Sir, 

" Your's very truly, 

" J. L. Sisson." 

It may prove interesting to give the origin of the phrase : 
" Scarborough warning ; a word and a blow, but the blow 
first." 

" In the reign of Queen Mary, Mr. Thomas Stafford, 
son of Lord Stafford, obtained possession of Scarborough 
Castle by the following stratagem : 

" Having previously arranged his plan of taking the 
"Castle by surprise, he disguised his troop in the habit of 
peasants and countrymen, and came to Scarborough on a 
market-day, under the most unsuspicious appearances. He 
gained an easy admittance into the Castle, and strolled 
about with a careless air, apparently to gratify his curio- 



62 



SCATtBOROUCH. 



sity. About thirty of his men also entered without the 
least suspicion, and embracing a favourable opportunity, 
instantly secured the different centinels , took possession of 
the gate, and admitted their remaining companions, who, 
under the exterior garb of countrymen, had concealed 
arms. But the triumph of Mr. Stafford was of transient 
duration, and the success of his enterprise was eventually 
the cause of his death. He had retained the possession 
only three days, when the Earl of Westmoreland, with a 
considerable force, recovered it without loss. — Mr. Staf- 
ford, Capt. Saunders, and three other of the leaders, were 
taken prisoners, conducted to London, and confined in the 
Tower. They were afterwards arraigned, condemned, and 
executed." 



WALKS IN THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF 
SCARBOROUGH. 

The field for exercise at Scarborough will be found suffi- 
<aently ample, and the walks or rides of a pleasingly varied 
description. After the most heavy rains, the Beach is in 
a few minutes dry and fit for a place of promenade. The 
plantation, which consists of the several varieties of trees 
and shrubs, which form a shade to the tastefully laid walks, 
is situated near the sands, and is liberally thrown open to 
the public by the corporation. Varied and interesting views 
may be obtained from several openings, and particularly 
from the eminence called the Grove-head, which is at the 



SCARBOROUGH. 63 

extremity of the Plantation-Walk, in the immediate en- 
virons of Scarborough, at the back of a fine piece of water, 
which from hence appears an effective object. Imme- 
diately before us, on the descent of the hill, called Grove- 
head, (on the smooth surface of which are benches, capa- 
ble of accommodating a numerous party) a plantation of 
thriving young oaks presents itself. Through this is 
cut a winding path, leading to the before-mentioned piece 
of water, which is encompassed with a bank, admirably 
adapted for promenading ; being adorned by a plantation, 
which in a few years will render this a charming shade in 
the meridian heat of the Scarborough season. At the foot 
of this lake appears a retreat, called Mill-Cottage, re- 
cently erected, the very picture of rural neatness and 
elegance ; in front is seen a pleasing plot of garden 
ground, and when a few more years shall have fled, we 
may hope to find it embosomed in verdant foliage. To the 
right of the buildings connected with the Mill, appears a 
delightful opening through the path of the valley, affording 
a view of old ocean's bed, where 



• " Ride the ships 



In that enchanting bay, with streamers curl'd, 
And panting sails, that, whiten'd by the sun, 
Glisten afar." 

Between the hills, the eye is conducted along the dark 
blue waves, until they seem to unite with the similarly 
coloured clouds. The Light-house, raising it's whitened 
tower, is a conspicuous object. To the left arise those 



64 SCARBOROUGH. 



" Lofty tow'rs that, lusty still In age, 

Display their scarry fronts to distant leagues," 

" the Citadel, and it's hoary walls," which present an ef- 
fective back-ground to the landscape. 

At the foot of Grove-head falls a small cascade, and be- 
hind, a lofty eminence, called Mount- Oliver, overlooks the 
town. It is thus called from a mistaken notion, that 
Cromwell erected batteries here against the Castle, during 
the siege, in 1644-5. It is au indisputable historical fact, 
that Cromwell was never present at this siege. 

" Those who have ascended this mount, since the in- 
closure in 1797, will not th/nk that in grandeur of 
prospect it can easily be exceeded. The roads are judi- 
ciously laid out, and intersect each other in the most con- 
venient manner. The ascents are gradual, seldom exceed- 
ing a rise of seven feet in a hundred, so that in a few 
minutes .the traveller is conveyed by a good road, thirty 
feet wide, to a delightful terrace elevated six hundred feet 
above the sea. Hence there is a view of the Ocean (bound- 
ed by the horizon) the Coast, the Castle-hill, the Town, 
the Harbour, and extensive Piers. To the westward, the 
vale of Pickering, and a vast extent of country in all it's 
charming diversity of landscape, exhibit scenes of a very 
picturesque nature. As a ride, it possesses every thing 
desirable ; and the coolness and freshness of the air, at 
Buch an elevation, give a sense of lightness and comfort 
not easily described. From this eminence, Falsgrave, one 
mile west from Scarborough, is prominently conspicuous." 



SCARBOROUGH. 65 

Passing the water-fall, the stranger is conducted, by a. 
path leading along " rural hedge-rows," to the " well- 
protected lanes" which terminate at the last-named village, 
whence a gravelled walk is continued on the side of the 
York road to Scarborough. Or, a return over the fields will 
present several romantic views of the town, from the hills 
enclosing the valley on which the foot-path is formed ; and 
to this succeeds another, called Barrow-cliff- Plantation, the 
property of John Woodall, Esq. the walk to which may be 
pleasantly taken over the fields from Tanner-Street. The 
situation is most inviting, and finely adapted for the purpose. 
One side of the Cliff is planted with various ornamental trees 
and shrubs suited to it's soil, amongst which happily occur 
several of ancient growth, which afford an agreeable and 
tasteful contrast, and through the valley runs a brook, which 
forms a fine natural embellishment to the scene. The walks 
are numerous and pleasingly varied by many ornamental de- 
vices ; and fully worthy of a visit is 

" this hill 
And all it's walks of tributary trees. — 
When gathered in one scene, they ask the skill 
Of Poussin's beauty-breathing hand to fill 
The fancy of a stranger." 

The proprietor of this last-mentioned Plantation has 
lateiy designed a walk, which is proposed to be made up 
the Cliff, near the Waterfall at the foot of the Terrace, and 
proceed over the fields to the Spaw, which has been want- 
ed ever since the discovery of these celebrated mineral wa- 

F 



66 SCARBOROUGH. 

ters, as, when the tide is up, the progress of the drinkers 
of these salubrious springs is intercepted. 

WALK ON THE CLIFF-TERRACE. 

This is one of the finest natural places of promenade in 
the kingdom, if we take into consideration it's extent, it's 
elevation, and the grand and varied prospects it affords. 

" Throned on thy cliffs, how proudly thou 

Survey^st the varied scene below ! 

In curve exact thy mansions bending, 

And to the watery marge descending i 

Upon that marge, in modest state, 

Hygeia throwing wide her gate 

(A better Cytherea she, 

Risen newly from the ambient sea) 

To indigent infirmity ; 

Thy temple, castle, double mote, 

Port, Spaw ; and circling round the whole, 

Of beauty and of strength the zone. 

The ocean's azure girdle thrown !" 

Or, to use the words of an ancient Poet, 

** For to behold, it was ane glore to se 
The stablit windig, and the calmyt see, 
The soft seasoun, the firmament serreue, 
The loune illumined air, and firth amene; 
K iritis, castelis, and ilke fair cityes, 
Stude paynit, every fane, tower and stage, 
Upon the plain ground, by thare own umbrage !" 

OAWIN DOUGLAS. 



SCARBOROUGH. G7 

This terrace is a most fascinating place during the height 
of our season, when filled with company : " it is not possi- 
ble to draw for the eye a more agreeable picture.*' It has 
been expressed that this spot would prove a suitable situa- 
tion for a Saloon, but it forms of itself the most delightful 
natural Saloon that could be conceived, whose canopy is 
the blue expanse, and it's confines the waters of the vast 
deep. Still a Saloon, Pump-room, or some building of 
that description, is yet a desideratum at Scarborough ; and 
an appropriate spot has been pointed out at the head of the 
water-fall, at the foot of the Cliff, which would command 
a view of the Ocean, Castle-Promontory, and it's venera- 
ble ruins : we wish it carried into effect. 

On pacing over this Cliff one is naturally led to reflect 
on objects which formerly occupied the situation. Here 
stood the Church of St. Nicholas, which was, according to 
the historian of Scarborough, erected so early as the reign 
of Henry II. " There are not any vestiges of it to be dis- 
covered, as the land has, in the course of ages, considerably 
wasted away *. In the year 1786, the entire skeleton of a 
human body of large stature was found in the Cliff ; the 
teeth were regular, and in great preservation, which is 
something remarkable, as it might probably have lain there 
ever since the dissolution of religious houses in the year 1539. 

• It is remarkable that an elevation of it should not have been 
given in the ancient view of Scarborough, made in the reign of 
Richard III. as there appears to have been some remains of it, 
when Gent published his View of the town, about 1734. 



08 SCARBOROUGH. 

A tombstone was also found here, without any inscription, 
though there was a cross, &c. cut upon it, in the rudest 
sculpture. Several human bones in a regular position were 
also discovered in 1791 ; and, in 1810, a copper-plate ap- 
pertaining to a tomb-stone. The Hospital, dedicated to 
St. Nicholas, was contiguous to this Church." 

Much praise is certainly due to the corporation for their 
late spirited improvements here : each succeeding year 
adds something to the gracefulness of the Cliff; during the 
last spring the plantation of another portion of it has been 
effected, and it's base protected by raised stone-work, 
which, in conjunction with Mr. Henderson's similar spirit 
of improvement, will form an agreeable promenade when 
the tide is up. 
• 
At a short distance from the Cliff-benches, 

THE SHOP OF MR. CRACKNELL 

presents itself, filled with marine productions, viz. shells of 
every degree of brilliance and beauty of pencilling, the 
pebbles of the coast, besides others of foreign production ; 
and among the works of art must be mentioned his valua- 
ble assemblage of coins and medals, carvings, Oriental 
china, as well as the ingeniously devised articles, in the 
same line, of our own manufacture, with a great variety of 
other curiosities : the interior affords a view of the ocean, 
and is delightfully situated for the display of these works of 
virtu. 



SCARBOROUGH. 69 

A WALK TO MR. CRAWFORD'S SHOP ON 

THE CLIFF. 

- 
The contents of Mr. Crawford's shop-window form a 

Museum. The great variety and exquisite beauty of the 
shells here exhibited is "passing wonderful!" and if a 
jeu-de-mots may be allowed, to stand and minutely inspect 
them will raise your feelings to the highest pitch of admira- 
tion, and prompt you to exclaim with the poet, 

Who can paint like nature? 

Can Imagination boast, amid her gay creation, 

Hues like these ? 

Here in a single shell appear, at least in colours, " beryl 
and emerald, amethyst and peai!,and while the image of 
the sun is diffused upon them, present a flood of indescriba- 
ble lustre." 

The situation of the shop too is as rural as can be con- 
ceived, which certainly harmonizes with the articles ex- 
hibited. It is rather a novel situation for a shop to be 
rurally placed, but so this certainly is ; it stands at the 
corner of a pleasant garden, whence a view of the majestic 
main is obtained, and is shaded by aged trees, that add a 
verdure and life to the scene, which no words can describe. 
Near too, are Mr. Travis's Baths, which characterise the 
place, and assimilate with the marine productions' offered 
for sale. - 

A shop for the sale of Derbyshire Spar ornaments, fossils, 



76 SCARBOROUGH. 

foreign birds of beautiful plumage, &c. has just been opened 
in Huntriss'-Row. 

Mr. Browne, in Long-Room Street, polishes agates and 
fossils with his powerful machine at Scalby-Mill ; he also 
deals largely in jet ornaments. Mr. Carter's shop in the 
same street, is known by his show-board, with the word 
" Curiosities" in large characters exhibited thereon. 

The shops in Newborough have also a display of rich 
goods in their several branches. 

Mr. Smith, the celebrated geologist, has often pointed 
out the practicability of a carriage-road being formed at the 
Castle-dykes, by which means a communication would be 
effected with both the North and South Sands, and a 
beautiful drive secured from the Spaw up the New Road 
by the New Church, crossing the York Road and running 
through the Bull-Lane, past the Seaman's Hospital to St. 
Mary's Church, which would embrace one of the most 
picturesque views in the county ; then descending by an 
easy slope, under the bridge at the Castle foot to the North 
Sands, and return by Peasholme. Although a carriage- 
road might be formed at a moderate expence, yet a bridle 
road or footpath might be first attempted, for the North 
Sands are now only accessible by Peasholme. The majes- 
tic features of the Castle-rocks form so grand an object 
on the North Beach, that it is really surprising, among 
the many beautiful walks in this neighbourhood, one has 
never been formed here, since the sliding-ground alone 
would make an excellent terrace. 



SCARBOROUGH. 71 

A WALK FROM SCARBOROUGH TO MR. 
PEARSON'S SUBSCRIPTION GARDENS, 
FALSGRAVE. 

The first object from Scarborough which strikes the eye 
after passing the delightful Terrace of Brunswick and Al- 
bion-Place, is " Belle- Vue House, the residence of John 
Bell, Esq. ; aptly so named, as occupying one of the finest 
of situations for mixed and beautiful prospect." Continu- 
ing our walk along a well-gravelled and safely-defended 
path by the side of the York road, we shortly reach the 
village of Falsgrave, which is about one mile distant from 
Scarborough. " It is certainly of great antiquity," writes 
the Historian of Scarborough, " and previously to the con- 
quest (1066) was part of the demesne of Tosti, Count 
of Northumberland." Proceeding along the village street, 
we arrive at the shop of the Statuary, described in an ani- 
mated style in the work, entitled, " Prose by a Poet," and 
shortly after reach the Subscription Gardens of Mr. Pear- 
son, which are at the extremity of the village, in a retired 
situation : the house retreats from the village-street, form- 
ing before it a pleasing green : the road leading to it is 
designated by the School-House, known by presenting at 
jt's top, a bell, with the word Falsgrave underneath ; and 
having altogether the appearance of a chapel. At the end 
of Mr. Pearson's house is a genteel stone-canopied gate- 
way, conducting into these gardens, which are open to the 
public at a subscription of two shillings and sixpence for 



72 SCARBOROUGH. 

the summer season, which entitles one person to walk in 
them any hour in the day ; and fire shillings presents the 
same privilege to a family. Non -subscribers pay one 
shilling each time, and are allowed to gather and eat fruit. 
The grounds abound with strawberries, choice gooseberries, 
&c. and several rustic summer-houses afford pleasant 
situations for resting to eat the fruit, or in which to drink 
tea, presenting at the same time an attractive view of Scar- 
borough Castle and the North Sands, with Belle-Vue 
House in the nearer prospect. The view from these gardens 
of that bold object Oliver's Mount, is very interesting : and 
on quitting them, just before entering the embowered al- 
cove, a most delightful view, composed of hill, valley, and 
woodland scenery, presents itself, which has been pro- 
nounced too beautiful and complicated for the artist to at- 
tempt faithfully to delineate. 

The walk beyond the village of Falsgrave as far as to 
Stepney-House, is delightful ; the footpath is considerably 
elevated above the carriage-road, and is very firm. Its 
boundary consists of " a bank of earth, (on the ridge of 
which grows a quickset-hedge,) with hundreds, perhaps 
thousands, of the sloughs or cores of the horns of oxen 
thrust into the face of it, the root-ends, with fragments of 
the scull-bones, being turned outwards." 



. 



SCARBOROUGH. 17r 

THE MERE TEA-GARDENS, HARWOOD DALE, 
AND FISHING THERE. 

The Mere Tea Gardens, about two miles from Scar- 
borough, are now much frequented by those fond of rural 
excursions. The house is picturesquely situated on a con- 
siderable elevation, at the side of the Mere, a fine piece 
of water, abounding with fish, belonging to the corporation, 
who, on application, will grant leave to those who wish 
to fish there. The best place for angling is said to be down 
the Derwent from Hurwood Dale, a delightful valley, at a 
short distance from Hackness. Harwood Dale itself is 
highly deserving of a visit. 

THE QUAKER'S RETREAT. 

A picturesque situation, called, ' The Quaker's Retreat,' 
consisting of his rural cottage and a rustic summer-house on 
the edge of the cliff, overlooking the sea, a short distance 
from the Spaw, round which are beds of fragrant flowers, 
is much visited. " I have seen him in a morning at 
labour in his garden," remarks an observer, who has kindly 
permitted us to extract from his MSS. " and in an after- 
noon at the town with a small basket of flowers, crying, 
' Buy my Beauties ;' and thus on a bit of ground that one 
might suppose would be scarcely sufficient to keep a mouse, 
he contrives to make a living. A proof of what care and 
industry can effect." 

\ 



74 



SCARBOROUGH. 



A WALK TO CARN ELIAN BAY. 



" At last Carnelian Bay they tread, 
With all it's myriad treasures spread; 
Gems of all kinds— red, white, square, round, 
A new Golconda above ground." 

Poet. Sketches of Seurboro''. 



A walk to Carnelian Bay* usually gives rise to much 
mirth among parties clambering over rocky cliffs on their 
progress to this small but picturesque spot : nor does this 
portion of the excursion constitute it's chief delight ; as the 
search for Carnelians or other pebbles occupies and amuses 
some hours, and the return may be varied by proceeding 
along the Bridlington road, which will be less fatiguing 
than over the sands. Visitants, indeed, may order their 
carriages to be in waiting there, as we conceive the tour of 
the rocks will afford sufficient exercise for the day. Pai- 
ticular enquiries should be made respecting the suitable 
time, as visitants are sometimes intercepted in returning 
by the influx of the tide, 

Cayton-Cliff Mill is situated on the margin of Car- 
nelian Bay. Another mode of proceeding to this place is 
by engaging a pleasure-boat for the voyage. There is a 
regular charge by the hour, or for the voyage. 

» The following, connected with this place, was published in 
1812, " The Minstrel, an Elegy; written after visiting Carne- 
lian Bay." 



SCARBOROUGH. 



75 



Cloughton-VVyke, about five miles north from Scar- 
borough, presents some strikingly grand scenery to inland 
visitants ; and when the tide suits, there is good fishing, 
either from the boat or shore. The same may be said of 
llarbum-Wyke, which has exercised the able pencil of Mr. 
Francis Nicholson. 

ENVIRONS OF SCARBOROUGH. 

Scarborough is the centre and source of attraction to a 
great variety of picturesque and majestic scenes both of 
nature and art. The man of taste, fixing his residence 
there a whole season, may find abundance of matter to 
gratify his curiosity throughout that period by visiting 
objects contained within a circle of 25 miles round that ro- 
mantic watering-place ; and, as being in its immediate 
vicinity, we will commence our descriptions with 

HACKNESS, 

which " is a romantic village, celebrated for the beauty of 
it's scenery ; and is therefore visited by all persons of taste 
and fashion who resort to Scarborough, from which it is 
about six miles distant. The road conducting to it may be 
taken through the villages of East and West Ayton, which 
are pleasantly situated on the opposite banks of the river 
Derwent. The Derwent, after winding in a confined cur- 
rent through the valley from Hackness, here displays a 
broader stream. On the slope of a pleasant field to the 



26 SCARBOROUGH. 

north of West Aylon, stands the ruin of an ancient build- 
ing, once the fortified residence of the family of the Eures 
or Evers, who possessed large demesnes in these parts, and 
in the neighbourhood of Malton. 

" The village of East-Ayton * is celebrated for its charm- 
ing valley, through which, is a delightful ride to Hackness. 
The lofty hills which embosom this valley, rise almost per- 
pendicularly, clothed with pendant woods of various foliage ; 
and the river Derwent, overhung with branching shrubs 
and spiry alders, meanders in its silvery course through the 
vale. About a mile up the valley the road winds into 
Raincliff, where there is another change of sylvan scenery, 
which covers the north-west declivity of Seamer-moor. A 
lane, to the left, leads to Hackness, through the village of 
Evertey on the verdant slope of the opposite hill. This is 
one of the most pleasant rides from Scarborough to Hack- 
ness ; and the scene may be diversified by returning along 
the carriage-road which descends the hill at Hay-Brow. 
From the summit of this hill there is a delightful view of 
the Sea and Scarborough Castle. The subjacent country, 
with the picturesque village of Scalby, form a beautiful 
landscape." 

. » Five miles from Scarborough, and four thence down the valley 
to Hackness. Those who would like to walk down the vale might 
proceed by the mail from Scarborough, at half-past one, P.M. as 
far as Ayton, and reach Hackness to dinner : they will find a good 
Inn and accomodations at the Johnstone Arms. A return by 
Scalby and Newby (the distance in which line being only six 
miles) will give a pleasing variation to the excursion. 



SCARBOROUGH. 77 

" Hackness is situated in a pleasant valley, embosomed 
by surrounding hills, adorned with trees of the richest 
foliage. The hills are lofty, and finely variegated, differ- 
ing from each other as well in shape as in ornament. The 
prospects at Hackness have a charming variety ; the hand 
of nature having not only enriched them with a profusion 
of sylvan embellishments, but also moulded them into such 
different forms and projections, as are at once picturesque 
and beautiful. The road winds irregularly through the 
valley, presenting at every turn a change of scenery, and 
the view is sometimes improved by springs of water burst- 
ing from the sides of the hills in natural cascades, or falling 
in gentle murmurs." 

" To this delightful solitude, Lady Hilda, the pious and 
illustrious foundress of Whitby Abbey, retreated in the 
evening of life, to pass her days, in sacred retirement and 
meditation. The site of the monastic cell, built by Lady 
Hilda, is supposed to have been where the old mansion- 
house at present stands." 

The Church is a pleasing rural edifice, embosomed in 
verdant foliage, having, on a low tower, aspire, than which 
no other kind of erection could be more happily chosen for 
it's peculiar situation, as it forms, when viewed through the 
openings of the woods, a most interesting object ; particu- 
larly in conjunction with the mansion-house. The interior 
of the church bears evident marks of antiquity, and has been 
attached to the monastery of Lady Hilda. " The ancient 
oak-stalls of the monks, in the choir, still remain, nearly in 



78 SCARBOROUGH. 

their original state." It is the receptacle of a fine piece of 
statuary by Chantrey, thus inscribed : " With the purest sen- 
timents of conjugal affection, this monument is erected by 
an afflicted husband, to the memory of Margaret Anne 
Johnstone, his beloved wife, who died on the 20th day of 
June 1819, in the 24th year of her age. The charms of her 
person and the sweetness of her manners were graced by 
the observance of every christian virtue. She was the 
eldest daughter of Sir R. V. B. Johnstone, of Hackness, in 
the county of York, Bart, by Dame Margaret, his wife : 
and was married on the 28th day of October, 1815, to 
George Johnstone, Esq. To them were born two daugh- 
ters ; the eldest providence was pleased to recal, the 
youngest remains to solace her father in his afflictions." 
There are a few other inscriptions to the memory of the 
Hobbys, who formerly possessed the manor. The canopy 
over the font, and a pair of curiously embellished candle- 
sticks at the altar, are worthy of inspection. In the church 
library are several valuable ecclesiastical works, and we 
think a " Bibliotheca Parochialis de Hackness " would not 
prove uninteresting. 

On entering Hackness from Scalby, an elegant arched 
entrance bespeaks the approach to the village, the view 
through which, as it gradually unfolds itself, backed by 
that uncommonly bold, fine hill near the Church, crowned 
with wood of varied foliage, when tinged with the soft glow 
of an evening's sun, produces an effect beyond description 
luxurious. 



SCARBOROUGH. 79 

The gateway itself is an appropriate and pleasing de- 
sign, and is covered with a great variety of ornamental 
shrubs, which are pendent over it's sides, and would form 
a most interesting subject for the artist. 

On the right of this gateway appears the elegant Man- 
sion-house * of the proprietor of the lordship, Sir John 
Vanden Bempde Johnstone, Bart, which was erected by 
Sir Richard Johnstone, the father of the present owner. 

Some very striking improvements have been made in the 
grounds contiguous to the mansion since last summer, in 
the enlargement of the sheet of water in front of the house, 
the conducting of a rivulet round the woods which environ 
the park, the embellishment of the sides of the carriage-road, 
by plantations, the erection of a New Lodge, and other ef- 
fective alterations. A few more such changes will contri- 
bute toward rendering Hackness, Fairy Land, and this 
sweet vale, a place of enchantment. Mason has celebrated 
it in his drama, Argentile and Curan : 

Sewold. — And where shall I await thee ? 
Curan.— My best Sewold, 

Thou knowest when we did quit our anchor'd barks, 

We crossed a pleasant valley, rather say 

A nest of sister rales, o'erhung with hills 

Of varied form and foliage ; ev'ry vale 

Had it's own proper brook, the which it hugg'd 

In it's green breast, as if it fear'd to lose 

» Mr. Wilson, of Scarborough, has published a view of the 
House and Church. 



80 SCARBOROUGH. 

The treasur'd crystal. You might mark the course 
Of this cool rill more by the ear than eye, 
For tho' they oft would to the gun unfold 
Their silver as they passed, 'twas quickly lost ; 
And ever did they murmur. On the verge 
Of one of these clear streams there stood a cell 
. G'ergrown with moss and ivy ; near to which, 
On a fall'n trunk that bridg'd the little brook, 
A hermit sat. Of him we ask'd the name 
Of that sweet valley, and he call'd it Hakenrss. 

" The high ground between Scarborough and Ayton, 
called Seamer-moor, and the moora which extend westward 
to Lockton and Saltergate, present many interesting ob- 
jects to the eye of the antiquarian ; particularly camps, 
trenches, houses, upright stones, and foundations of ancient 
British dwellings. These hills are also interesting to the 
naturalist, from their peculiar form ; being all flat on the 
top, with steep but smooth declivities on their northern 
fronts, descending at the same angle. Some of these hills 
are stretched out in oblong ridges, which when their ends 
are presented to the spectator, have the appearance of 
haystacks. This is particularly the case with Langdale 
End, and Blakey Topping ; to which we may add Oliver's 
Mount, near Scarborough*." 

HUNMANBY, 

About the midway between Scarborough and Bridlington, 
is well built and pleasantly situated, being surrounded by 

* Young's Picture of Whitby. 



SCARBOROUGH. 81 

6,00G acres of fertile land, and adorned by a considerable 
quantity of ornamental wood, chiefly growing on an ele- 
vated site, called the Castle-hill, where are still to be 
traced the foundations of an ancient fortress. From this 
place the ground slopes, with a regular and almost imper- 
ceptible descent, toward the beautiful and picturesque Bay 
of Filey. 

In the Parish-church is a sumptuous monument, com- 
memorating those of the Osbaldeston family, who died in 
the eighteenth century. Over the central arches of the 
church are emblazoned, in eleven distinct shields, the armo- 
rial bearings subscribed with the names of the ancient lords 
of the place. The vicarage -house, which stands near 
the church, of both which we give a representation, has 
been greatly improved and embellished by the present in- 
cumbent, the Rev. Archdeacon Wrangham, M.A. F.R.S. 
The interior contains a valuable collection of books in dif- 
ferent languages ; the Proprietor being a member of the 
RoxbuTghe Club. A Private Catalogue of the Library is 
now printing under his own inspection, rich in notes, ob- 
servations, and extracts, from which the publisher of this 
work has been permitted to draw up a brochure of the 
most curious books in the folio and quarto English classes. 
The most valuable work is an unique copy of an edition of 
the Romance of Arthur, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 
" in Flete-Strete, at y e sygne of sonne. In the yere of our 
lord god, M.CCCCCxxir. the xviii daye of November." 
The following have been acquired since the " Bibliogra- 



82 SCARBOROUGH. 

phical and Descriptive Tour from Scarborough to the 
Library of a Philobiblist," was published :■ — 

Folio. — Brydges' (Sir Egerton) Atavia Regue. Consisting of 
sixty copies only, printed for private use. 
Florence, 1820. 
Quarto. — Schooten's Account of his Discovery of the Straits 
ofLeMaire. A Latin Tract. Cuts. Very rare. 
The Hon. Miss Grimston's History of Goiham- 
bury, with Engravings. Unpublished. The 
whole, both text and illustrations, in litho- 
graph. 
Sisson's Parish Church, Wakefield, L p. Proof 

plates on India paper ... Wakefield, 1 824. 

Octavo. — Barbier's Famous Game of Chesse-play, by 

Saul. Cuts. 1640 

Brydges' Polyanthea Librorum Vetustiorum. 

Genev, 1822. 

■ Cimelia ......< Ibid. 

— — Valerianus De Literatorum Infelicitate. 

Genev. 1822. 

N.B. Of each of these three volumes only 75 copieswere 
thrown off. 

Catalogue (with names and prices) of Sir M. M. 

Sykes' Library, in three parts. 
Cole's Bibliographical, &c. Tour. Coloured paper, 

illustrated Searbro', 1824. 

Only two copies so coloured. 



SCARBOROUGH. 83 

Conybeare's Octavian, Emperor of Rome, abridged 
from a MS. in the Bodleian Library. 
Oxford, 1809 
" Printed only for private distribution." 

Cruden (Alex.) on the Superlapsarian Scheme 

1736 

Grace, .Memoirs of the family of, &c. &c. Unpub- 
lished, pt 1823 

Hey, (the late Dr. John) on the Writings of St. 
Paul. Unpublished Buckingham, 1811 

Home's (T. H.) Memoir of Bp. Beveridge. Only 
S'ucopies so printed 1824 

Irby's and Mangles' Travels in Egypt, &c. Map, 

pi 1823 

" Printed only for private distribution." 

Madden on the Encouragement of Learning in 
Dublin College, &c. Dublin, 1732, 1733 

Pope's Temple of Fame, and Messiah, in Latin 
Verse, by Gahagan 1748 

" Done sfoice his confinement in one of the cells in 
Nettgfcte." 

N. B. This unfortunate Scholar, who had previously 
translated the Essay on Criticism, anil edited 
Brindley's Classics, was hanged for filing gold 
money ! Vide MS. note. 

Lord Grenville'sNugas Metrics, 4to. Oxford, 1824. 
" Printed for private distribution." 



84 



SCARBOROUGH. 



Les neuf Preux, nouvellement imprime a Paris, 
6. 1, folio, with a singular initial L and Colo- 
phon • Mich, le i\oir' 1507 




SCARBOROUGH. 85 

FILEY, 

a small fishing town, eight miles south from Scarborough, 
is much visited by the frequenters of that ancient watering- 
place, and is upon the banks of a spacious bay, which, 
with the assistance of art, would make an excellent har- 
bour. The shore is circular, and the sands are beautifully 
smooth, firm, and extensive. The Cliffs, to the eastward, 
are lofty, and curiously indented, resembling the spires of a 
Cathedral ; but, to the westward, they decline considerably 
from their elevation, until they join those at Speeton. Filey 
is singularly situated in the North and East-Ridings of 
Yorkshire ; the church being in the former, and the town 
in the latter. The beach is convenient for sea-bathing, and 
there is a spring of mineral water, a mile to the north of 
the church, which contains a little iron, sea salt in con- 
siderable quantity, Epsom salt, and calcareous earth. 

" At the eastern extremity of the sands, an extraordinary 
ridge or natural mole of rocks, called Filey-Bridge, projects 
nearly half a mile into the sea, and is a great protection to 
the bay in tempestuous weather. At high-water, the rocks 
are overflowed ; but when the tide is low, there is a 
passage along them to the outer extremity, whence is a 
fine view of Flamborough-Head and Scarborough Castle. 
In stormy weather, the sea breaks with great violence 
against these rocks, and the breach of the foaming waves is 
frequently seen from Scarborough. The fishery at Filey is 
prosecuted with great spirit and success." 



S( ARBOHOUC.ir. 



FLAMBOROUGH CLIFFS. 



The Cliffs of Flamborough, about twenty mile6 distant 
from Scarborough, are well worth inspecting : " they are 
of amazing grandeur and a tremendous height, from one 
hundred to a hundred and fifty yards perpendicular. They 
are composed of a mouldering limestone rock, of a snowy 
whiteness, covered and adorned with an astonishing num- 
ber of birds, remarkable for the variety and brilliancy 
of their plumage. From the latter end of April to the 
beginning of August, myriads resort thither, to build their 
pensile nests, and trust their eggs and tender offspring to 
the exposed and dangerous security of broken rocks, and 
projecting ledges. 

" At the foot of the Cliffs, are some extensive Caverns, 
formed either by the restless turbulence of the ocean, gra- 
dually and imperceptibly excavating the solid rock, or by 
some unknown cause of distant origin. There are three, 
which exceed the others in extent and curiosity. The 
principal is Robin Lyth's Hole, which surpasses the rest 
in extent of dimensions. It has two openings, one commu- 
nicating with the land, the other with the sea. The for- 
mer is low and narrow, giving solemn admission into the 
cavern, which, at the first entrance, is surrounded with a 
tenebriose gloom ; but the darkness gradually dispersing, 
the magnificence becomes unfolded, and excites the admi- 
ration of the exploring stranger. The floor is a solid rock, 



SCARBOROUGH. 87 

formed into broad steps of an easy descent, and the stones, 
at the sides, are curiously variegated. The roof is finely 
arched, and nearly fifty feet high at the centre. The many 
projecting ledges and fragments of suspended rocks, joined 
to the great elevation, give it an awful, and, at the 
same time, a majestic appearance ; and when looking up- 
wards to survey the lofty arch, and reflect upon the 
superincumbent mass sustained by it, there is a difficulty in 
suppressing those ideas of danger which intrude upon such 
an occasion." 

Near Flamborough is situated the celebrated Light- 
House, which, from it's elevated situation, may be seen at 
a great distance. The interior may be viewed on appli- 
cation. 

From Flamborough, an excursion to the church of Brid- 
lington should be made, which presents interesting speci- 
mens of the architecture of various periods ; for a minute 
description of which, and several antiquities connected 
with this edifice, we refer our readers to Mr. Thompson's 
valuable Historical Sketches of Bridlington. 

In the church-yard at Rudston, a village five miles west 
from Bridlington, " is an obelisk* highly worthy the atten- 
tion of the antiquary." It consists of one entire and im-, 
mensely large stone, of itself a curiosity ; the erection of 
which has been ascribed to the Druids, the Romans, &c. ; 

* A lithographic view of this obelisk has been lately published 
by J. Cole. 



88 SCARBOROUGH. 

and as no description can present an adequate idea of its 
magnitude and effects, combined with the adjacent scenery, 
we earnestly recommend a visit to the original, which is a 
venerable object of antiquity. 

«» ROBIN HOOD'S BAY 

is a small fishing town, thirteen miles north from Scar- 
borough*, and is frequently visited by strangers, on account 
of the alum-works in its vicinity. The road to it is stony 
and uneven, over a dreary barren moor, and the hill at 
Stoupe-brow t is impracticable for a carriage. On descend- 
ing this hill, from the moor to the sands at Robin Hood's 
Bay, the road passes the alum-works, where the curiosity 
of the traveller is gratified with a view of those immense 
mountains of alum-stone from which the salt is extracted ; 
and the interior works are worthy of observation. 

' ' The road from the alum- works to the village of Robin 
Hood's Bay, is along the sandy beach, close under a high, 
steep cliff, to which the sea flows as the tide advances, 
and the passage is unsafe, except there be a spacious area 
of the sand uncovered by the water, or the tide be reced- 
ing. 

* Between Scarborough and Robin Hood's Bay are only two 
villages; Burniston four miles, and Cloughton five miles from 
Scarborough. There is nothing worthy of note at these places, 
except a quarry of freestone at the latter, from whence the Ca»tle 
of Scarborough is said to have been built, 

t About two miles from Eobin Hood's Bay. 



SCARBOROUGH. 89 

" The Sea-coast northward from Scarborough is craggy, 
wild, and terrific, bending inward as far as the River Tees, 
and by its winding, forming this bay, nearly a mile in 
breadth. The sands here, are firm and level ; but the 
shore, at a little distance from the Cliff, is rocky ; and there 
is only a narrow passage from the sea, where the fishing 
boats can land in safety. 

" The village consists of the habitations of fishermen, 
and once made a grotesque appearance, the houses being 
strangely scattered over the face of a steep cliff, and some 
of them hanging in an awful manner on the projecting 
ledges of the precipice ; but this place has lately sustained 
a great alteration by the falling of the cliff ; in consequence 
of which, the projecting houses and the pavement of the 
principal street as far as the fronts of the houses on the 
opposite side, are ruined, and a new road has been made 
from the landing-place through the interior part of the town. 
The village derives its name from that famous outlaw, 
Robin Hood." 

At about the distance of seven miles from this fishing- 
place is situated the town of 



WHITBY ; 

the most interesting objects in which place are the 
venerable ruins of its Abbey, and the Museum of " the 
Literary and Philosophical Society," which is open from 
eleven to one o'clock on Tuesday and Thursday in every 



DO SCARBOROUGH. 

week. " The moat interesting article lately purchased 
is the Fossil Crocodile, discovered in the Cliff, near Salt- 
wick. The existence of the crocodile among the large 
animals imbedded in the alum-shale, had not hitherto been 
satisfactorily ascertained : but this specimen establishes 
the fact beyond all doubt." 

The Rev. G. Young, of Whitby, has published a valua- 
ble " Picture of Whitby and its Environs." 

The pier at this place is worthy of examination, being a 
massive one of wrought stone. 

A delightful ride by the sea-side, of three miles in extent, 
may be taken from Whitby to Lyth, by Sandsend ; but it 
should never be undertaken by strangers without full infor- 
mation from persons residing upon the spot, of the practi- 
cability of completing it in easy time. The author of 
" the Perambulator's Guide to the Scarborough Sands" 
was once crossing this place in the company of a gentleman 
of London, who, unconscious of the difference between 
driving on wet or loose sand and on hard road, very soon 
knocked up a fine horse and brought him to a stand still, 
before he had got half way over it. 



PICKERING, 

which is eighteen miles westward from Scarborough, lies 
in the road to Kirkby Moor-side and Duncombe Park, and 
was formerly the chief town of the district, and once sent 



.SCARBOROUGH. 91 

two members to parliament. The situation is upon a 
pleasant eminence. The castle at present is in a very 
ruinous state ; but not many years since, some of the towers 
had wooden floors entire, and doors to the dungeons. The 
castle-hill commands a charming view of the vale of Pick- 
ering, which is celebrated for its fertility. The following 
ancient description of the country from Scarborough to 
Pickering, from Leland's Itinerary, may prove useful. 

" From Scardeburgh to Aiton three miles, where coming 
over Derwent, I saw a Manor-place * sometime belonging 
to a knight called Aiton ; but now to the best of the Yevers 
(Evers). At this manor-place is a tower or pile. Thence 
to Brunston (Brompton) three or four miles, and three 
miles more to Wileton, where is a manor-place with a 
tower belonging to Cholmeley. Cholmeley hath a house 
at Rollesby. Thence to Pykering ; and most of the ground 
from Scardeburgh to Pykering was by bill and dale plenti- 
ful of corn and grass." 



K1RKBY MOORSIDE, 

is a market town situated near the River Rye. It was 
originally called Kirkby, and received the additional epithet 
Moorside, from its situation on the side of Blackmoor. It is 
distant from Scarborough about twenty-six miles. Kirkby 

* A View is given in «• the Portfolio" published by Sherwood 
and Co. 



!)2 SCARBOROUGH. 

Moorside and Helmsley (including Duncombe Park) were 
part of the extensive possessions of Villiers, Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who was killed by Felton. 

The manner of the death of the succeeding Duke, who, 
" by an unbounded extravagance and dissipation wasted 
the immense inheritance of his family, and died in extrem e 
want and misery April 15th, 1687," is well known from the 
muse of Pope ; which has given celebrity to his dying 
scenes, and depicted his condition and that of his dwelling, 
in the following energetic lines : 

«' In the worst inn's worst room, with mat balf-bung, 
The floors of plaster, and the walls of dung, 
On once a flock-bed, but repalr'd with straw, 
With tape-ty'd curtains never meant to draw, 
The George and Garter dangling from that bed, 
Where tawdry yellow strove with dirty red, 
Great Villiers lies, — alas ! how changed from him, 
That life of pleasure, and that soul of whim ! 
Gallant and gay in Clifdeu's proud alcove, 
The bower of wanton Shrewsbury and love ; 
Or just as gay at council, in a ring 
Of mimic statesmen, and their merry King. 
No wit to flatter left of all his store. 
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more. 
There, victor of his health, of fortune, friends, 
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends." 
. .. 

The following is a copy of the register : 

" Burials. 
1687. April 17th. Gorges vilaus Lord dooke of bookingham." 



SCARBOROUGH. 93 

The copy of a letter from the Earl of Arran, afterward 
Duke of Hamilton, to a friend, appeared in the Whitehall 
paper in 1784, saying " that the Earl passing through 
Kirkby Moorside, attended (accidentally) the Duke's last 
moments ; — that he died April 1.5th, 1687, (aged 60) and 
having no person to direct his funeral, and the Earl being 

obliged to pursue his journey, he engaged Gibson 

Esq., (a gentleman of fortune at Welburne, near Kirkby 
Moorside) to see him decently interred." 

The house * in which this unfortunate nobleman expired 
is situated in the Market-place ; being at present occupied 
by Mr. Cole. During the summer-season it is much visited 
by the curious. 

" There is no tradition here of the house in which the Duke 
of Buckingham died ever having been an Inn, and from it's 
present appearance it must at that time have been, except- 
ing one, the best house in the town. It is built in the 
ancient style, with projecting wings. The length of the 
front is 16 yards : and whatever improvements may have 
been made in the house since that time, the shell of it 
remains as it was. The room in which the Duke died is 
on the second floor in front of the house, and is the best 
lodging room in it. The boards are fir, which were there 
at the time of his decease. Many years after his death a 
seal was found in a crevice, in the room in which he ex- 
pired, having the Buckingham arms on it, which is supposed 

• A view of this building has lately made it's appearance in 
Svo. Published by J. Cole, Scarborough. 



94 SCARBOROUGH. 

to have been his ; and is now in the posssssion of Mr. 
William Cole." 

The following pathetic letter, written by the Duke in his 
last illness, shows that he sincerely repented of the actions 
of his past life. 

" From the Younger Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 
on his death-bed, to Dr. W . 

" Dear Doctor, 

ft I always looked upon you to be a person of true 
virtue, and know you to have a sound understanding ; for, 
however I may have acted in opposition to the principles of 
religion, or the dictates of reason, I can honestly assure 
you, I have always had the highest veneration for both. 
The world and I shake hands ; for I dare affirm, we are 
heartily weary of each other. O, what a prodigal have I 
been of that most valuable of all possessions, Time ! I have 
squandered it away with a profusion unparalleled ; and 
now, when the enjoyment of a few days would be worth the 
world, I cannot flatter myself with the prospect of half a 
dozen hours. How despicable, my dear friend, is that 
man who never prays to his God but in the time of dis- 
tress ! In what manner can he supplicate that Omnipotent 
Being, in. his afflictions, whom in the time of his prosperity, 
-he never remembered with reverence 1 

" Do not brand me with infidelity, when I tell you, that 
I am almost ashamed to ofl'er up my petitions at the throne 



SCARBOROUGH. 95 

of Grace, or to implore that divine mercy in the next 
•world, which I have so scandalously abused in this. 

" Shall ingratitude to man be looked upon as the blackest 
of crimes, and not ingratitude to God 1 

" Shall an insult offered to the king be looked upon in 
the most offensive light, and yet no notice taken when 
the King of kings is treated with indignity and disre- 
spect I 

" The companions of my former libertinism would scarcely 
believe their eyes, were you to show this epistle. They 
would laugh at me as a dreaming enthusiast, or pity me 
as a timorous wretch, who was shocked at the appearance 
of futurity ; but whoever laughs at me for being right, or 
pities me for being sensible of my errors, is more entitled 
to my compassion than resentment. A future state may 
well enough strike terror into any man who has not acted 
well in this life ; and he must have an uncommon share of 
courage indeed, who does not shrink at the presence of 
God. The apprehensions of death will soon bring the 
most profligate to a proper use of his understanding. To 
what a situation am I now reduced ! Is this odious little hut 
a suitable lodging for a Prince 1 Is this anxiety of mind be- 
coming the character of a Christian? From my rank, I 
might have expected affluence to wait upon my life ; from 
religion and understanding, peace to smile upon my end : 
instead of which, I am afflicted with poverty, and haunted 
with remorse, despised by my country, and, I fear, for- 
saken by my God. 



96 SCARBOROUGH. 

" There is nothing so dangerous as extraordinary abilities. 
I cannot be accused of vanity now, by being sensible that I 
was once possessed of uncommon qualifications, especially 
as I sincerely regret that I ever had them. My rank in 
life made these accomplishments still more conspicuous, 
and, fascinated by the general applause which they pro- 
cured, I never considered the proper means by which they 
should be displayed. Hence, to procure a smile from a 
blockhead whom I despised, I have frequently treated the 
virtues with disrespect ; and sported with the holy name 
of Heaven, to obtain a laugh from a parcel of fools, who 
were entitled to nothing but contempt. 

" Your men of wit generally look upon themselves as 
discharged from the duties of religion, and confine the doc- 
trines of the gospel to meaner understandings. It is a 
sort of derogation, in their opinion, to comply with the 
rules of Christianity ; and they reckon that man possessed 
of a narrow genius, who studies to be good. 

" What a pity that the holy writings are not made the 
criterion of true judgment ; or that any person should pass 
for a fine gentleman in this world, but he that appears soli- 
citous about his happiness in the next ! 

" I am forsaken by all my acquaintance, utterly neglected 
by the friend of my bosom, and the dependants on my 
bounty ; but no matter ! I am not fit to converse with the 
former, and have no ability to serve the latter. Let me 
not, however, be wholly cast off by the good. Favour me 
with a visit as soon as possible. Writing to you gives ma 



SCARBOROUGH. 97 

some ease, especially on a subject I could talk of for 
ever. 

'* I am of opinion this is the last visit I shall ever solicit 
from you ; my distemper is powerful : come and pray for 
the departing spirit of the poor unhappy — 

" Buckingham." 

On the road from Kirkby Moorside to Helmsley, and 
Duncombe Park, is tbe celebrated 

KIRKDALE CAVERN, 

of the discovery of which, we extract the following from 

Young and Bird's " Geological Survey of the Yorkshire 

Coast." 
" The labourers at the quarry of stone for repairing roads 

at Kirkdale, having removed the alluvium from above a 
fresh piece of the rock, in the north part of the quarry, and 
wrought this rock downwards for a few feet, discovered, in 
July 1821, a cavern running horizontally from the slope of 
the bank eastward, and then making a turn to the north 
east. 

" The operation of the workmen laid open that part of 
the cave which extended from the bank to the remarkable 
turn now mentioned, a distance of forty-six feet. The 
aperture towards the slope was nearly square, being about 
two feet each way ; but it became considerably wider to- 
wards the turn, and a little higher. The stratum forming 
the floor was flat and unbroken, and was thickly covered 



"98 SCARBOROUGH. 

with bones and teeth, not lying in distinct skeletons, but 
strewed about in the greatest confusion, and mixed with a 
soft marly earth, apparently resulting from the decompo- 
sition of bones. The bones had scarcely any appearance 
of being water-worn ; a few of them were tolerably entire, 
but the greater part consisted of broken fragments of leg 
bones, thigh bones, jaw bones, &c. ; and many of them 
were greatly decomposed, being nearly in the state of 
phosphate of lime, and ready to crumble into powder. 
The teeth were found, partly in the fragments of jaws, and 
partly detached. The quantity of bones, in this part of 
the cavern, was reckoned to exceed a cart load. The roof 
and sides of the cavern were, in many places, incrusted 
with stalactites, masses of which were also mixed with 
the bones *." 

At a short distance from this cave, is Kirkdalb Church, 
situated in a fine romantic valley, and celebrated for a 
dial, bearing a very ancient inscription f. 

HELMSLEY, 

the property of C. S. Duncombe, Esq. is an ancient market- 
town, in a pleasant situation, on the banks of the river 
Rye, six miles from Kirkby Moorside. The cultivated part 
of, the country contiguous to it is fertile, and abounds with 

* Professor Buckland, P. G. S. has published a very interesting 
volume on the subject of this cavern, and the remains found in it. 
t S*.e a description of Duncombe Park, Rievaux Abbey, &c. 
price 2s. 6d. and Eastmead's Hixtoria Ricvallensis, 8vo. 



SCARUOROUGU. 99 

venerable woods ; but, at a distance, the- barren moors ap- 
pear in view. 

The remains of the castle are grand and imposing, con- 
sisting of a lofty tower ; and some other detached broken 
parts, with a noble gateway, situated upon an eminence 
surrounded with a double moat. This tower, in conjunction 
with the rich woodland scenery around, forms a prominent 
and most interesting object from the exquisite terrace be- 
longing to Duncombe Park. 

Visitants will find excellent accommodations at the New 
Inn, at Helmsley, from which place the road * is usually 
taken to 

RIEVAUX ABBEY, 

a stately vestige of antiquity, situated in a pleasant vale, 
about three miles from Duncombe Park. The ruins yet stand- 
ing, are noble, and prove the abbey to have been of great 
extent. The situation is not to be surpassed in picturesque 
beauty. At a little distance from the abbey, are the gar- 

* Parties generally take their vehicle to the Abbey, whence they 
walk to Duncombe Park along the fine terrace, called the Bank 
Top, which is near the Abbey ruins, and return through the Park 
to Helmsley, in which course the ruins of the Castle will meet 
the eye, and call for minute examination. Those who can spare 
time, should contrive to devote two days to the excursion , sleep, 
ing the first night at Kirkby Moorside, or at Helmsley, and pro- 
ceeding the next morning to inspect those majestic and enchant- 
ing scenes. 



100 .SCARBOROUGH. 

dener's apartments, whence there is a steep and winding 
path ascending to a charming terrace, which overlooks the 
ruins, and commands the most beautiful and diversified 
prospects. At one end is an elegant pavilion ornamented 
with paintings ; at the other a handsome circular temple, 
whence appears an extensive valley richly adorneu witn 
wood and water. The north side of the terrace is defend- 
ed by a thick plantation of firs, and the slopes are covered 
with a variety of trees and shrubs. Indeed the scenery is 
altogether beyond description fascinating. 

DUNCOMBE PARK, 

the seat of C. S. Duncombe, Esq. is about two miles from 
Helmsley. The house is a fine building designed by Sir 
John Vanbrugh. In the JtiaJl, a noble room, sixty feet long 
and forty wide, surrounded with fourteen large Corinthian 
pillars of stone, is that invaluable piece of sculpture, the 
Dog of Alcibiades, the performance of the celebrated Myron, 
and the celebrated statue of the Discobolus, which is es- 
teemed the first statue in England. The saloon has, in 
spirit with the laudable fashion of the times, lately been 
converted into a library. The collection of paintings, though 
not very numerous, is extremely capital and choice. 

We must not fail to notice to the traveller, that By land 
Abbey, an interesting ruin, is only about four miles from 
Rievaux Abbey. 



.SCAKBOKOIIGH. 101 



CASTLE HOWARD, 

the seat of the Earl of Carlisle, six miles to the west of 
Malton *, (which place is distant twenty-two miles from 
Scarborough,) stands upon a beautiful eminence in view of 
the York road, and is esteemed one of the noblest mansions 
in this county. It was built from a design of Sir John 
Vanbrugh. The large and princely collection of antique 
busts, statues, marbles, urns, and paintings, with which 
this mansion is enriched, affords a high gratification to the 
admirers of the fine arts, while the liberality of the noble 
proprietor entitles him to the praise and gratitude of the 
public, for allowing them to participate of the pleasures 
arising from such a repository of taste. 

An enumeration of the whole of the paintings here would 
be too extensive for insertion : a selection only will, there- 
fore, be introduced. The three of greatest reputation, 
formed a part of the Orleans collection. The most cele- 
brated picture is that of the Three Maries, by Annibal Ca- 
racci. 

In this astonishing effort of art all the excellencies of 
painting are united. With respect to the reputed value of 

* The York Coach might be taken in the morning at seven for 
Malton, where at the Talbot Inn are good accommodations, and 
there would be sufficient time to inspect the house, and return to 
Malton to meet the coach about three p. m. for Scarborough. 



102 SCARBOROUGH. 

this extraordinary performance, it has been alledged that 
the court of Spain proposed to cover it with louis-d'ors, and 
that this would have amounted to eight thousand. The 
following lines were composed on seeing a lady burst into 
tears, upon contemplating this exquisite performance. 

" The veil * withdrawn, in plenitude of art, 
The tragic subject storm'd the Christian heart j 
Still, as she bow'd with reverential awe 
O'er the dead author of the living law, 
And view'd the anguish of contrasted woes, 
Congenial sorrows in her breast arose : 
Rooted she stood, i ntranc'd in speechless grief, 
Pure as her love, | nd strong as her belief; 
Her bosom glow'd, her heart refus'd to beat, 
'Till gushing tears allay'd the fervent heat : 
Such hallow'd tears as saints and angels shed. 
When from the cross, redemption rear'd her head ; 
Tears sooth'd by hope, which now maturely beam'd, 
A Saviour martyr'd— -but a world redeem'd." 

The following must be particularly noticed : 
The Entombing if Christ — Ludovico Caracci; The Finding 
of Moses — Dim Diego Velasquez; Adoration of our Saviour by 
the Wise Men — M abuse ; The Portrait of Snyders — Vandyck ; 
Herodias with the Head of John the Baptist in a Charger — 
Rubens; The Circumcision — Giovanni Bellani ; Isaac going to 
be sacrificed — Rembrandt; Saint John the Evangelist — Do- 
menichino ; Portrait of Omni — Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

* The picture is shaded by a curtain. 



SCARBOROUGH. 103 

The Park is enriched with several ornamental buildings, 
viz. a Mausoleum, an Ionic Temple, a stately Obelisk, &c. 

A view of this mansion from a drawing by J. Jackson, 
R. A. has lately been published. 



Take Scarborough and its environs in conjunction, and 
there will be found " Scenes worthy of the pen of Virgil, or 
the pencil of Loiraine." 



J. COLE, PRINTER, SCARBOROUGH. 



Infcrjr* 



Page 

Bathing 38,45 

Infirmary .... 13 

Lines on, 14 

Baths, Travis's 39 

Harland's .....ib. 

near the Piers ...40 

Champley's ....41 

Blue stone 59 

Boarding-houses 58 

Bridlington 87" 

Carriers 54 

Castle 4 

Howard 101 

Cayton-cliffMill 74 

Chapels 23 

Charitable Institutions.. 11 

Church, St. Mary's 18 

Cloughton Wyke 75 

Coaches 56 

Customs of Scarborough, 38 

in 1733 ...15 

Drawing, Music, Dancing, 

French, &c. Masters . . 55 

Duncombe Park 100 



, P " se 
Excursions upon the Sea, 

observations on 46 

Flamborough Cliffs .... 86 

Filey 85 

Fishing 46,73 

Hackness 75 

Harwood-dale 73 

Helmsley . 98 

Hotels 58 

Horses to be let 54 

Hunmanby 80 

Inns 58 

Kirkby Moorside 91 

Kirkdale Cavern 97 

Libraries ..... .47, 50, 53 

Lodgings 57, 59 

Market-Cross 60 

Minerals and Fossils . . 48 
Mount Oliver • 64, 80 



106 



Page 
Museums 47, 89 

News-Rooms 47 

Packets 54,57 

Pianofortes for hire • • • • 55 

Pickering 90 

Plantations 62 

Post-Office 53 

Rievaux Abbey 99 

Robin Hood's Bay 88 

Rudston 87 

Spaw 26 

Tea-houses 73 

Theatre 37 



Page 
Tide, high and strong, of 

Feb. 3 and 4, 1825 ..36 

Observations on . . 44 

Town-Hall 36 

— News-Room and 

Library 47 

Trade 10 

Walks in the immediate Vi- 
cinity of Scarborough, 62 

on the Cliff-terrace, 66 

to Mr. Cracknell's 

Shop 69 

to Mr. Crawford's, ib. 

Mr. Pearson's Gar- 
dens 71 

Carnelian Bay, 74 

Whitby 89 



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SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

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