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" How great the joy to view the scene,
The yellow strand — the ocean green —
The sparkling wave— the swelling sail,
That spreads to catch the favouring gale !"
Poetical Sketcfws of Scarborough.
PUBLISHED BY JOHN COLE, LIBRARY, NEW-
And by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, London.
It is the laudable custom of the inhabitants of
Scarborough to clean up their houses just before
the commencement of each season, which opera-
tion is denominated " thorough cleaning:" and in
order to be on a par with them in the " thorough
clean" of literature, we have given our Guide a
revise and reprint, and most respectfully submit
it to the inspection of the visitants of this romantic
watering-place, hoping the contents will prove
useful and attractive — as they describe scenes
" which, daily viewed,
Please daily, and whose novelty survives
Long knowledge, and the scrutiny of years."
HISTORY OF SCARBOROUGH.
. " Here earth and sea,
Mingling their charms majestically rude,
With pleasing wonder strike the pensive eye
Of contemplation, and exalt the mind."
Scarborough is situated in the recess of a beautiful bay,
on the borders of the German Ocean, in a position nearly
central between Flamborough-Head and Whitby. This
part of the coast, almost forty miles in extent, is bold,
varied, and rocky, with many points of considerable ele-
vation. The line is undulating, indented with sandy bays
formed by the action of the sea, where the land is of loose
The town rises from the shore in the form of an am-
phitheatre, and has a romantic appearance on the con-
cave slope of it's semicircular bay. It is laved at the foot
by the waves, and much admired for it's varied beauties.
There is no authentic account in history of the founda-
tion of Scarborough, though it may reasonably be pre-
sumed that it had as early an origin as most of the places
bordering on the German ocean ; and, notwithstanding the
omission of it's name in Doomsday-book, we have histo-
rical proof of it's existence previously to the Norman Con-
quest. The building of the castle by William, Earl of
Albermarle, in the year 1136, is the first evidence of it's
emerging from its previous state of obscurity. The grant
of a Charter of Incorporation of Henry II., in the year
1181, is a convincing proof that it must then have been a
place of some importance.
The following account of it, is extracted from the Iti-
nerary of Leland : —
" Scardeburg Toune though it be privilegid, yet it
semith to be yn Pickering Lithe, for the Castelle of Scar-
deburgh is countid of the jurisdiction of Pickering, and the
shore from Scardeburgh to the very point of Philaw-Bridge*
by the Se about vj miles from Scardeburgh toward Brid-
lington is of Pickering Lith jurisdiction. Scardeburgh
where it is not defendid by the Warth and the Se is
waulled a little with ston, but most with ditches and walls
of yerth. In the toune to entre by land be but 2 gates :
• Fi ley-Bridge.
Newburgh Gate, meately good, and Aldeburgh Gate, very
base. The Toune, stondith hole* on a slaty clife; and'
shoith very fair to the Se side. Ther is but one Parothe
Chircht in the Town, of our Lady, joyning almost to the
Castelle : it is very faire and isled on the sides and
cross isled, and hath 3 auncient Towres for belles with
Pyramides on them : whereof t Toures be at the west end
of the Chirch, and one in the middle of the cross isle.
There is a great chapelle by side by the Newborow Gate."
The town of Scarborough was anciently confined within
narrow limits. Some of the foundations of it's ancient
walls are yet remaining, and may be traced with sufficient
accuracy ; from which it is evident, that the Old Town did
not extend westward beyond the situation of the present
* Wholly. t St. Mary's.
-" Thou hast seen Mount Atlas :
Whilst storms and tempests thunder on Its brow,
And oceans break their billows at its feet,
It stands unmov'd, and glories in its height."
This Castle was built in the reign of King Stephen, about
the year 1136, by William le Gros, Earl of Albermarle
and Holderness, a nobleman of Norman extraction, who,
having extensive demesnes in this part of Yorkshire and
in Holderness, obtained permission of the King to erect a
fortress upon the sea-coast.
Ancient historians have been liberal in their praises of
this Castle. William of Newburg, a Monkish historian,
who wrote about A. D. 1190, has given the following de-
scription of it : —
" A rock of wonderful height and bignesse, and inac-
cessible by reason of steepe cragges almost on every side,
stands into the sea, which quite surrounds it, but in one
place, where a narrow slip of land gives access to it on the
west. It has on the top, a pleasant plain, grassy and spa-
cious, of about sixty acre9 or upward*, and a little well of
frtesh water springing from a rock in it. In the very entry,
which puts one to some pains to get up, stands a stately
tower ; and beneath the entry, the city begins, spreading
it's two sides south and north, and carrying it's front
westward, where it is fortified with a wall : but on the
east is fenced by that rock, where the Castle stands ; and,
lastly, on both sides by the sea. William, sumamed le
Gros, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, observing this
place to be fitly situated for building a Castle on, increased
the natural strength of it by a very costly work, having
inclosed all the plain upon the rock with a wall, and built
a Tower in the entrance. But this being decayed and
fallen by the weight of too much age, King Henry II.
commanded a great and brave Castle to be built upon the
same spot. For he had now reduced the Nobility of
England, who during the loose reign of King Stephen had
impaired the revenues of the crown ; but especially this
William of Albemarle, who lorded it over all these parts,
and kept this place as his own."
The promontory on which the ruins of the ancient Castle
are situated, is bounded on three sides by the German
* The present area of the Castle-yard does not exceed 19 acres
5 perches. There is, therefore, probably some mistake in New-
burgh's description. The ancient accounts of acres are generally
Young and Bird, in their " Geological Survey of the Yorkshire
Coast," are also of opinion that there is a mistake in Newburgh's
account, and that this lofty promontory " has not undergone any
material change during the last six centuries."
ocean, and elevated more than three hundred feet above
the level of the sea, presenting to the north, the east, and
the south, a vast sweep of craggy perpendicular rocks,
Within the castle-walls rises a stately tower, majestic
even in ruin. This tower, which has been the Keep, is a
square Norman building, ninety feet high, and has former-
ly had an embattled parapet. The walls are about twelve
feet thick, cased with squared stones ; and the mortar hav-
ing been mixed, according to the custom of the ancients, in a
fluid state, has become more durable than even the stone of
the building. There appears to have been three Btories or
very lofty rooms, one over another, each room between
twenty and thirty feet high, and ten yards square within
the walls, with recesses. The remains of a very large
fire-place are visible in the lower apartment. The subter-
raneous room, or dungeon, is nearly filled up with stones
and earth. The different stories have been vaulted, and
divided by strong arches ; and private passages are visible
* The following extract of a letter to the compiler, will show
in what estimation this modern Bain is held by strangers: "Scar-
borough is exactly suited to one who loves to look back into the
splendour of former times, and who enjoys the sports of nature ,
there is a fine field in the romantic cliffs of that much-frequented
bathing-place. I never enjoyed myself so much as when ram-
bling amongst the dangerous paths on the hill next to the sea,
whereon is situated the Castle (by-the-by this reminds me, that
if you could procure forme a half-crown of Charles I., struck
»t Scarborough, I should be glad to have it)."
in some of the intervals of the casing of the walls. Th»
windows have semicircular arches, supported by round
pillars, and are larger than usual in such buildings, being
six feet deep and three feet broad.
In turning from the mouldering remains of antiquity, the
eye is relieved, and the mind exhilarated by the charms of
the surrounding prospect. The diversified scenes of the
adjacent country ; the romantic appearance of the town ;
the sands enlivened by various objects, and the unbounded
view of the ocean, form collectively an assemblage beau-
tiful beyond conception.
" What does not fade i The tower, that long hath stood
The crush of thunder and the warring winds,
Shook by the slow but sure destroyer Time,
Now hangs in doubtful ruins o'er it's base :
And flinty pyramids, and walls of brass
Descend the Babylonian spires are sunk ;
Achaia, Rome, and Egypt moulder down.—
Time shakes the stable tyranny of thrones,
And tottering empires crush by their own weight :
This huge rotundity we tread, grows old j
And all those worlds that roll around the sun :---
The snn itself shall die ; and ancient night
Again involve the desolate abyss."
The following are the observations of a Geologist :
Few situations on the eastern shores of England enjoy so
fine a prospect of grand and beautiful nature as Scar-
borough. From the Castle hill, which stands lofty and
alone, a variety of noble objects present themselves on
every side ; high and shadowy moorlands on the north,
bold hills with abrupt faces to the west, and rocky cliffs
stretching southward as far as the eye can reach, all
combine in one grand panorama. Perhaps the most strik-
ing feature is the range of chalk hills which sweep round
from Wilton Beacon, skirt the south side of the vale of
Pickering to the sea near Speeton, and running thence to
Flamborough, majestically breast the tempestuous ocean.
Scarborough presents to those fond of sketching, an
imposing object in its Castle, which is worthy of the exer-
cise of the pencil of the disciple of a Wouvermanns or a
There were formerly here four Convents, four Churches,
and two Hospitals ; viz. Convent of the Cistercians, of the
Franciscan or Grey Friars, of the Dominican or Black
Friars, and of the Carmelite or White Friars. The Church
of St Nicholas, St. Thomas the Martyr, (with the two
Hospitals, their appendages, of the same name) and the
Churches of the Holy Sepulchre, and St. Mary*.
The Corporation of Scarborough consists of two Bailiffs,
two Coroners, four Chamberlains, and thirty-six Common
Council. — It's charter is dated 22d November, 1356, 30th
The election of Representatives to serve in Parliament
for the Borough, is vested exclusively in the Corporation,
* The ancient view of the town of Scarborough, in the reign of
Richard III., from a drawing in the British Museum, lately pub-
lished by the Proprietor of this work, shows the situation of these
by a decision of the House of Commons ; an account of the
grounds of which determination may be seen in Hinder-
well's History of Scarborough.
The Arms of the Borough bear the marks of great anti-
quity. A Ship of the rudest form, a Watch-tower, and a
Star appear on the Common Seal. It's registry in the
Herald's Office is without date, and it is there classed
among the most ancient. The Bailiffs' Seal of Office is a
Ship only, of a very antique form, with two Towers on the
deck, and a smaller one at the top of the mast.
The maritime situation of Scarborough, and the diversity
of soil and aspect in the vicinity, afford an ample field for
the investigations of the naturalist. The neighbouring
heights produce several of the rare alpine plants ; and the
woods near Hackness, a variety of species peculiar to the
north : beside these, the shores and the extensive rocks
on the coast furnish a long list of marine plants and other
natural productions, a catalogue of which (drawn up by
W. Travis, Esq. of Scarborough) is appended to Hinder-
well's History. For a Treatise on the Minerals and Fossils
of the Coast, the reader is referred to the Rev. F. Kendall's
Descriptive Catalogue*, in an 8vo. volume, embellished
with coloured plates, now out of print, and consequently
scarce. Mr. J. Phillips, Lecturer on Geology, who has
been for some time resident in Scarborough, has expressed
* Published by subscription, in 1816, 8vo. 21s. There were a
few copies with extra plates from Sowerby's Mineralogy, at 42s,
his intention of compiling a new Catalogue ; which, from
his peculiar study in this branch of natural history, would
no doubt prove highly valuable.
Scarborough, though in possession of a convenient
port, has a restricted commerce. The vicinity of sterile
moors, and a neighbouring district far from populous,
without any water communication with the interior coun-
try, present formidable impediments to the spirit of enter-
prize. Shipping, and it's dependencies, are the principal
branches in which the inhabitants are most generally in-
terested. Ship-building forms an important object of em-
ployment, and is a great source of emolument ; but it is
precarious, and subject to sudden fluctuations.
The only manufactures in the place are those imme-
diately connected with shipping. There are two of cordage,
and one of sail-cloth. The markets are twice in the week,
viz. on Thursday and Saturday. They are abundantly sup-
plied with excellent provisions of every kind.
The commerce of the port is principally confined to ex-
ports of Corn, Butter in firkins, Hams, Bacon, and Salt-
Fish ; and imports of Coals from Newcastle and Sunder-
land ; Timber, Deal, Flax, and Iron from the Baltic ;
Brandy and Geneva from Holland ; Wine from Portugal,
via Hull ; and Groceries from London.
There is no deficiency of sympathetic attention to the
miseries of the lower orders of the community in Scar-
borough. Frequent collections are made for the poor, par-
ticularly in the winters ; and, though a few instances of a
penurious disposition may occur, yet there is in general a
distinguished liberality of spirit.
The establishments of Charitable Institutions have, also,
been laudably encouraged ; and it is hoped, that such as
are calculated for the improvement of the morals of the
rising generation will ever flourish.
THE AMICABLE SOCIETY,
consisting of more than 200 Members, for clothing and
educating the Children of the Poor of Scarborough, is a
very useful institution. It was founded in the year 1729,
by the late Robert North, Esq., a gentleman of exemplary
piety and benevolence, and is under the government of a
President, four Trustees, and four Wardens, annually
elected. The Fund for its annual support arises from
weekly subscriptions of the Members, collections made in
Church*, and other voluntary donations.
The children thus clothed, and now in the schools, are
. * Two Charity Sermons are preached in the summer for the
benefit of the Children.
Experience has proved the utility of this establishment,
in preserving the children from the contagion of vicious ex-
amples, and leading them into the paths of holiness and so-
cial duty. Instead of becoming victims of profligacy, and
pests to the community, many of them have filled useful
occupations in life with credit and advantage. Several, by
means of the rudiments of their education at this semi-
nary, have attained a competent knowledge of Navigation,
which has qualified them for mates and commanders of
vessels. These have, eventually, become the patrons of
the institution, and benefactors to succeeding generations.
Others have fought the naval battles of their country, and,
by their bravery, contributed to it's security and independ-
ence. Whether, therefore, it be considered in a moral or
in a political light, it deserves a generous patronage.
THE SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL.
was erected in the year 1752, by the Ship-Owners of Scar-
borough, for the use of aged and decayed seamen, their wi-
dows, and children. It is a neat commodious building, in
an airy situation, to the north of the town. The fund for
it's maintenance arises from the contribution of sixpence
per month, paid by the owner of every ship belonging to the
port of Scarborough, for each person on board, during the
time the ship is at sea, or in actual service. It is under
the direction of a President and Trustees, annually elected,
and is subordinate to the Trinity-House, Deptford-Strond.
SEA-BATHING INFIRMARY. ->j
To the establishment of a general Sea-Bathing Infir-
mary at Margate in 1796, for the use of the diseased poor,
we may refer the institution of a similarly praise-worthy
institution at Scarborough in the year 1811, of which the
Archbishop of York, and the Duke of Leeds, are Patrons ;
and the Duchess of Leeds, and Lady Grantham, Patronesses ;
Earl Fitzwilliam, President ; and I^ord Middleton ; G. A. H.
Cavendish, M. P. ; tlie Members for the County of York,
for the time being ; the Bailiffs for the Borough of Scar-
borough, for the time being ; the Lord Mayor of York, for
the time being ; Sir George Cayley, Bart. ; Sir Francis Lindley
Wood, Bart. ; G. G. V. Vernon, Esq. M. P. ; Robert Chalonei;
Esq. M. P. ; Walter Fawkes, Esq. ; William Joseph Denison,
Esq. M. P. ; George Johnstone, Esq ; and The Rev. Arch-
deacon Wrangham, M. A. F. R, S. Vice-Presidents. — Trea-
surers, Messrs. Woodall c\ Co. ; Physician, Dr. Thompson ; } ,
Secretary, Mr. Thornton.
" The Baths have been established in the lower town
in order both to remove unpleasing objects from the public
eye, and to consult economy as well in the purchase of the
site, as in the procuring of water from the sea. The advan-
tages, which have already accrued to the institution, fully
justify the anticipations of it's most sanguine supporters,
and place it on a level with the most useful of public
" Subscriptions are received at the Bank of Messrs.
Woodall & Co. in> Scarborough, or by their Correspondents
(Sir Peter Pole, Bart., and Co., &c.) in London, and in the
principal towns in the county.
" N. B. — Subscription-Books are left at the Public-
Rooms ; and it is hoped, that the Nobility and Gentry
visiting Scarborough will not think it too much to give
half-a-crown each to this useful institution."
" In old Bethesda's holy wave,
Jndea's halt were borne to lave :
With eye up-turning, weak and wan,
Lay on it's brink th* expectant man j
And ever, as th' Eternal King
Sent healing on an angel's wing,
Raptured he caught the rustling sound,
And health and gladness gush'd around.
But till the angel stirr'd the tide,
The wondrous virtue was denied ;
Like vulgar stream it's flow, unbless'd,
No salutary power possess'd.
O ye.! whi , on the ocean strand,
In youthful grace and joyance stand ;
Ye, " compass'd in an angel's frame,"
Whom love's fond votaries ' angels' name ;
Be your's to prove your heavenly birth ;
O bless, while ye adorn the earth !
Your bounty still can bid the wave
Resume it's potency to save.
The fish Market is upon the sands near the harbour ;
and, in a plentiful season, there is a great variety ; viz.
turbot, holibut, cod, ling, skate, codlings, haddocks, whit-
ings, herrings, dabs, plaise, soles, gurnards, coal-fish, lob-
sters, and crabs.
The population of Scarborough, according to the last
census, is 8188. i; ., ' , ■ nii l ,t m i nhfw .+ w* r— "* ^A
The following account of the customs and amusements \^/ ^
of this long-established watering-place in the year 1733, is
extracted from a Tour published in that year ; and may,
perhaps, prove amusing to the readers of this Sketch : —
" The town is populous (containing, by computation,
about 2000 families), and well built ; the houses, for the
most part, uniform, neat, and commodious. The streets
also are most of them very spacious ; so that coaches pass
and repass without any difficulty or inconvenience. The
lodgings are very reasonable, and well furnished, there
being here an upholsterer from London. A shower of
rain puts no stop to the diversions of the place ; for you
have chairs from London, which ply in the principal parts
of the town : the High-street is called Newborough, out of
which runs another up to the Long Room, which stands
toward the end of the town, on the top of a cliff, whence
by a gradual descent you go down to the Spaw. This is a
noble spacious building, sixty-two feet long, thirty wide,
and sixteen high. The situation, being so lofty, commands a
prospect over the sea, and you may sit in the windows and
see the ships sailing at several leagues distance. Here are
balls every evening, -when the room is illuminated like ■■
Court Assembly (and indeed, for the great number of noble
personages present, may very justly be called so.) Gen-
tlemen (only) pay for dancing one shilling each. On one
side of the room is a Music Gallery, and at the lower end
are kept a Pharo-Bank, a Hazard-Table, and Fair-Chance ;
and, in the side-rooms, tables for such of the company as
are inclined to play at cards : below, you have Billiard
Tables . It is kept by Mr. Vipont, Master of the Long-Room
at Hampstead. There is no Ordinary here ; but Gentlemen
may have any thing dressed in the most elegant manner ,
the house being provided with cooks from London. Every
thing is conducted in the politest manner by Vipont, who
is a perfect master of his business. Gentlemen and Ladies
subscribe here, likewise, five shillings.
" There are several Ordinaries in the town, the principal
of which are, the New Inn, the New Globe, the Black-
smiths' Arms, the Crown and Sceptre, and the Old Globe.
" The company dine commonly about two, and have ten
or a dozen dishes, one of which is generally rabbits, which
you have here in the utmost perfection. Their mutton is,
I think, at least equal to Banstead-Downs ; and the near-
ness of this town to the sea, supplies them with plenty of
the finest fish at very reasonable rates ; and for poultry,
they have a poulterer who finds it worth his while coming
from London every summer. It is usual to drink a glass of
Spaw-water mixed with your wine at dinner. Persons of
all ranks, Gentlemen and Ladies together, sit down without
distinction, each pjaying their club, which is one. shillings
after which they collect round the company for wine, &c.
(called the extraordinary) which is generally about one
shilling more. This last used formerly to be paid by the
gentlemen only ; but that complaisant custom is now laid
aside, and the ladies are brought in to pay an equal share
of the whole reckoning. This method of ordinaries is vastly
commodious for strangers, and affords an opportunity of
being acquainted with the company.
" In the afternoon are plays acted*, to which most of the
gentry in town resort : Kerregan is now here with his com-
pany, and (allowing for scenes and decorations) they per-
form several plays very well. After the play is over, it is
customary to go to the Long-Room again, where they
dance or play till about nine, and then sup in company
" Gentlemen appear in all places without their swords ;
not through an apprehension of danger from the intoxicat-
ing nature of the Spaw-water, but from a polite declaration,
that in places of public resort, all distinctions ought to be
lost in a general complaisance."
The following account, from the York Chronicle, describes
the effects of the strong gale of October 12, 1824: —
" Scarborough, Oct. 12. — Scarborough has been visited
with tremendously stormy weather, of high wind and con-
tinued rain, from Sunday evening last, till this period
* The present Theatre is situated in Tanner-street.
(Tuesday,) and yet prevails. The shipwrecks on our coast
in the immediate vicinity of Scarborough, we lament to ob-
serve, have been very numerous. A vessel was dashed to
pieces, during the violence of the storm, about midnight,
and every soul on board perished : the body of a female
was this morning washed on shore. Another ship was
seen to approach our cliffs, against which she in a few mo-
ments dashed, and the crew were obliged to take to their
boats, which, owing to the fury of the element, were imme-
diately upset ; but through the praise-worthy exertions of
the life-boatmen, they were all fortunately saved. A sloop
was seen to sink yesterday near the castle promontory."
, THE CHURCH OF SAINT MARY.
" The gazing seaman here entranced stands,
Whilst fair unfolding from her concave slope,
He Scarborough views. The sandy pediment,
First gently raised above the watery plain,
Embraces wide the waves ; the lower domes
Next lift their heads ; then swiftly roof o'er roof,
With many a weary step, the streets arise
Testudinous, till half o'ercome the cliff,
A swelling fabric dear to heaven aspires,
Majestic even in rnin."
The ancient church of St. Mary is most picturesquely
situated upon a considerable eminence, near to the Castle,
but does not display any marks of fine or elaborate archi-
tecture ; it's grey and irregular appearance, however,
it's supposed former use as the church of the monastery, the
tower-like ruins at it's eastern-end, in conjunction with
it's elevated situation, the church-yard crowded with
tombs, and the view of the sea and the sands obtained
thence, all conspire to render it one of the most interest-
ing of situations.
The following description of this ancient edifice is
extracted from Hinderwell's History : —
" This sacred building, venerable for it's antiquity, has
much the appearance of a conventual Church, and was
formerly a very spacious and magnificient edifice, con-
siderably surpassing its present extent. The ruins, yet
standing, at the eastern part of the church-yard, the dis-
membered appearance of the western end of the church'
the subterraneous arches extending to the west, and the
great quantity of foundation stones discovered in the new
burial ground contiguous to it, are sufficient proofs that it
is, in the present state, only a small part of a va9t edifice
which may have formed the Cistercian Abbey and the
Church, founded by King Edward II. and suppressed
in the reign of Henry V.
" It appears by Leland's ' Itinerary,' that previously to
the Reformation, it was a very noble building, adorned
with three handsome towers ; two of which were at the
western end, and one was over the centre of the transept.
There was also a grand arch of gothic architecture in the
Choir, the ruins of which were visible a few years ago,
but have since been taken down. The centre (or transept,
tower having been greatly shaken during the siege of the
Castle in 1644, fell in October, 1659, and considerably
injured a great part of the nave of the Church. The pre-
sent steeple, which now singularly stands at the eastern
end, was erected upon the ruins, and occupies the place
of the ancient transept tower. The southern part of the
building attached to the nave seems to have, in some
degree, escaped the injury sustained by the other parts ;
as some of the remains of the chantries are still visible
under the arches adjoining the south aisle. These arches
are three in number, and have formed the separate chan-
tries*, which in the days of superstition were founded by
our ancestors, as places of prayer for the souls of the de-
" One of these chantries was founded in the reign of
Richard II. and endowed with five houses and five acres
'.' The Bailiffs of Scarborough also erected one, which
they dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and endowed it with
five pounds per annum.
" Robert Golan d erected one to the honour of St. James,
which he endowed with five pounds per annum.
" Robert Rillington founded another, endowed with
three pounds per annum.
• In these chantries, are basous for holy-water, surmounted by
" Many ancient benefactions were made to this Church
by the pious inhabitants of the town.
*' Aylmar de Cliff-land gave liberally to St. Mary's
altar, with money for oblations, and three priests to
officiate. — A toft was bestowed by Osbert de Hansard. — A
great house on the rock was given by Walter, son of Gun-
ner, and money by his brother Richard. — Some land, on
the Cliff, was granted by William de Harton ; and another
parcel, in the town, by Thomas Hardin.
" Galfrid de Lutton, and Galfrid de Groom, gave lands
to this Church, and also to Kirkstall Abbey*, and Keld-
" Emera, a beautiful and religious virgin, the daugh-
ter of Robert de Filey, in the year 1219, was a liberal be-
nefactress. — And there appears a long list of inhabitants, too
tedious to recite, who were very bountiful to the Church.
" During the siege of Scarborough Castle, by Sir John
Meldrum, a lodgment was made by his troops in this
then extensive church. It's lofty towers, within a very
small distance from the castle-gate, enabled them greatly
to annoy the defenders : they drew several pieces of
artillery into the church by night, formed a masqued bat-
tery, and at length opened their fire upon the castle,
through the church windows ; those especially, which were
on the east side and choir ; the besieged returned their
fire in so hot and well-directed a manner, as soon obliged
the enemy to abandon their post, but the building suffered
« Near Leeds, now a ruin.
" The desolation which this venerable edifice sustained,
during this siege of the Castle, and by the subsequent fall
of the transept tower, reduced it to a state of ruin ; and the
inhabitants had suffered such a variety of misfortunes by
a succession of calamitous events, that they were under
the necessity of having recourse to a Brief, in the 12th
Charles II. (1660) to enable them to rebuild it.
" By the assistance of this Brief, and other contribu-
tions, part of the body of St. Mary's Church, and the
tower (as it now stands) were rebuilt in 1669, on the
foundation and ruins of the old fabric.
" The ancient burial-ground, surrounding the Church,
being much crowded, the Corporation purchased a piece
of ground contiguous to the west, which was consecrated
" St. Mary's Church is the sole place of religious wor-
ship in Scarborough, where Divine Service is performed
according to the ceremonies of the church of England *:
but there are other places of worship, belonging to Dissen-
ters of different denominations, viz. Independents, in St. Se-
pulchre-street ; Baptists, in West-Gate ; Quakers, near
Cook's Row; and Roman Catholics, in West«Gate. The
Methodists have also a Meeting-house in Church-street.
" There are, in the Church, several marble monuments
of elegant workmanship, but of modern date. It is also
» A grant from government has been lately obtained for the
erection of a new church.
ornamented with a handsome organ, erected in 1762, and
the fronts of the galleries are inscribed with the benefac-
tions which have been made to the poor. Among the most
memorable of these, is the following by Sir John Lawson,
a celebrated naval commander of the last century : — Sir
John Lawson, by his will, gave one hundred pounds ; the
interest thereof, six pounds per annum, to be paid by the
Corporation yearly, on St. Thomas's day, to the poor of
" Public worship is performed here twice on the Sun-
day, and once on Wednesday and Friday, during the wit-
ter ; and in the summer daily. Two sermons are delivered
on the Sunday, and one on Wednesday. The communion
is administered monthly, and the occasional duty is very
considerable. By an early attendance, seats may easily
be - obtained on application to the pew-door openers. Ser-
vice in the morning begins at a quarter before eleven,
o'clock, and in the afternoon at a quarter after three.
The Rev. John Kirk, M. A.
The Rev. J. Skelton.
•' Dissenters' Chapel, commonly called Presbyterian or
Independent, was first erected in the year 1703, whereof
the Rev. William Hannay became minister, and con-
tinued until the year 1725. He was succeeded by the
Rev. William Whitaker, who regularly officiated until
the year 1773, when through age and infirmities he was
under the necessity of declining the ministry. At that
period, the Rev. Samuel Bottomley was invited to suc-
ceed him, the congregation then consisting of about
thirty stated hearers, and the communicants of about
half that number. The novelty, zeal, or ability of the
preacher, greatly increased the congregation ; so that, in
the year 1774, it was found necessary to rebuild and en-
large the place of worship, since which period a farther
extension has taken place in the chapel. Public worship
is performed five times in the week, viz. three times on
the Lord's Day ; and on Tuesday and Thursday evenings :
and the communion is administered once in two months.
" The Baptist Chapel was built in the year 1776. The
Rev. William Hague was the first minister, and may in-
deed be called the founder of the Baptists in Scarborough,
as there were none of that denomination in this place pre-
vious to his first ministry, which was in the year 1766,
in a room near the sands. The Rev. Sir. Foster is the
present minister. The times of public worship are thrice
on the Sabbath-day ; and once on the Monday, Wed-
nesday, and Friday evenings. The communion is ad-
" The Methodists first assembled at Scarborough in
the year 1757, when they suffered great opposition and
persecution ; but they are now permitted to attend their
place of divine worship without interruption. Their
times of public meeting are, twice on Sunday ; and on
the evenings of Monday and Thursday. A Missionary
Prayer-Meeting is held at each of the above-mentioned
Chapels in the evenings of the first Monday of each
" The Quakers date their establishment here from
the time of the imprisonment of George Fox, their
founder, in Scarborough Castle. Their times of meet-
ing are twice on the Sunday, and once on the Wed-
On the 25th of November, 1821, the sect, called the
Primitive Methodists, opened a Chapel in St. Sepulchre-
Tire Spaw Scakbro
" Scarborough boasts
A double portion of the healing strength
In her fam'd Spaw, that treasures all it's stores,
Where yonder roof, erected on the waves,
Grotesquely lurks beneath the pendent cliff."'
" The Spaw-house is pleasantly situated on the sea-shore,
at the foot of the cliffs, a little to the south of the town.
This building was raised to it's present form in the year
1739. The first cistern for collecting the waters was built
" These mineral waters have supported their fame nearly
two centuries. Dr. Wittie writes that the discovery of their
virtues was owing to the following accidental circum-
stance : —
" Mrs. Farrow, an intelligent lady, who lived at Scarbo-
rough about the year 1620, sometimes walked along the
shore ; and observing the stones over which the water
passed to have received a russet colour, and finding it to
have an acid taste, different from the common springs, and
to receive a purple tincture from galls, thought it probably
might have a medical property ; and having therefore made
an experiment herself, and persuaded others to do the same,
it was found to be efficacious in some complaints, and be-
came the usual physic of the inhabitants. It was after-
wards in great reputation with the citizens of York, and the
gentry of the county ; and at length was so generally re-
commended, that several persons of quality came from a
great distance to drink it ; preferring it before all the others
they had formerly frequented, even the Italian, French, and
German Spaws *."
A superintendant (called the Governor) of the Spaw, ap-
pointed by the Corporation, attends to receive the subscrip-
tions and to preserve order. The following is a copy of
the last Regulations, relative to the Subscriptions, &c.
dated June 10, 1822 :—
" The Nobility and Gentry are respectfully informed,
* Dr Wittie on Scarborough waters.
that the Subscriptions to the Waters, Use of the Rooms, and
Walks of the Spaw, is either by the Week, or for the Sea-
son ; viz. each Subscriber, 2s. 6d. per Week, or 7s. 6d. for
the Season ; or a Family Subscription, 7s. 6d. per Week,
or 1/. Is. for the Season. The Water-servers are entitled
to one-half of the weekly Subscriptions, and one-third part
of the Subscriptions for the Season. As the whole of the
Subscriptions are now rented by the Governor under the
sanction of the Bailiffs and Corporation, it is requested that
\ / no Lady or Gentleman will send for, or drink, the waters,
without subscribing_as above. The Subscription to the
Newspapers, 2s. per Week, or 5s. for the Season, is entirely
optional, and a separate Concern.
" In the month of December, 1737, the staith of the Spaw,
composed of a large body of stone bound by timber, as a
fence against the sea for the security of the Spaw-house, in a
most extraordinary manner gave way. A great mass of the
cliff, containing near an acre of pasture- land, with the
cattle grazing upon it, sunk perpendicularly several yards.
As the ground sunk, the earth or sand under the cliff rose
on the north and south sides of the staith, out of its natural
position, above 100 yards in length ; and was in some
places six, and in others seven, yards above it's former le-
vel. The Spaw-wells ascended with the earth or sand ; but
so soon as the latter began to rise, the water ceased running
into the wells, and for a time seemed to be lost.
" The ground thus risen was 26 yards broad ; and the
staith, notwithstanding it's immense weight, (computed at
<463 tons,) rose entire 12 feet higher than its former po-
sition, and was forced forward to the sea about 20 yards.
" The springs of mineral-waters were, by diligent search,
afterwards recovered ; and the staith being repaired, the
Spaw continued in gTeat reputation.
" The celebrated Dicky Dickinson, an original charac-
ter, was at the above period the Governor of the Spaw. His
person was, in the highest degree, deformed ; but he pos-
sessed an uncommon brilliancy of wit, and considerable in-
" The annexed lines were composed in honour of the vi-
vacity of his talents :
" Samos unenvled boasts her JEsop gone,
And France may glory in her late Scarron,
While England has a living Dickinson."
The following is the account of the Wells, compiled by
Dr. Belcombe, formerly resident in Scarborough : —
" The first well on descending the steps is the chalybeate
water, sometimes called the North-well ; and near it the
salt or South- well. From both wells the water is perfectly
clear, of a bluish cast, sometimes sparkling; has not a very
disagreeable taste, or the least unpleasant smell. Although
the North-well has been called the chalybeate, it is found
• As Dickv was once sitting on his bench at the Spaw, a lady
placed herself near him, and said, jokingly, I think I should like
you for a husband : indeed, replied this original character, I
should not like you for a wife. Why ? said she. Because you
are too much like our clock. How is that f Too forward.
not to hold much more iron in solution than the other ; but
containing much less vitriolated magnesia, it's taste is
stronger, or more inky. The taste of the North-well water
rs brisk, and not disagreeably saline. When suffered to
stand in an open vessel exposed to the sun, or in a warm
room, the sides of the vessel are soon covered with air-
bubbles, and the water becomes somewhat turbid : in a
day or two, it deposits a little yellow or orange-coloured
sediment. The water then grows clear again ; and if suf-
fered to stand lightly covered for some weeks, a thin skim
or pellicle forms upon the surface, and under it a number of
beautiful crystals, which on the least motion fall to the bot-
tom. Phenomena nearly similar may be observed in the
North-well water, except that few or no crystals form by
this spontaneous evaporation. These crystals are vitrio-
jated magnesia. It is said that the waters from both wells,
on being kept for some time corked, will become foetid ;
and, on being again exposed to the air, will recover it's
" Much of the orange-colour sediment is observed in all
the channels near the Spaw ; and it sometimes comes down
the pipes, which conduct the water, in considerable quanti-
ties : this the water-servers call the coming down of the
mineral. It is chiefly carbonate of iron and carbonate of lime.
The temperature of these springs varies very little ; which
is considered as a proof that they rise at a considerable
depth in the earth. The thermometer generally stands at
45 deg. in the North-well water, when it is at 32 deg. (or
freezing) in the open air. In the South-well water, it is
commonly half a degree higher. I have seldom seen it
more than 46 deg. or 46 deg. 5 min. even in summer. The
specific gravity of the South- well water is 10038,06 ; of the
North-well water, 10033,23 ; of the sea-water, 10270,54 ;
distilled water being considered as 10000.
" From remote ages mineral waters have been considered
as very efficacious medicines in almost all those diseases
which have not yielded to the use of other remedies, and
not unfrequently as instances of God's peculiar goodness
to his creatures ; consequently, their effects have been
esteemed miraculous. So prone is human nature to super-
stition, and so apt to attribute to the partial interposition of
the Deity the effect of general laws which it's finite reason
does not comprehend ! Scepticism commonly succeeds su-
perstition ; and, accordingly, it is now the mode with some
physicians to regard mineral waters as remedies of little
" The surprising advances which Chemistry has made
within a very few years, by enabling men to ascertain with
accuracy the contents of mineral waters, has (it is true) also
enabled them to judge more correctly of their probable
effects, and consequently rendered them less liable than
formerly to imposition from supposed cures, which may have
been the effects of other unnoticed circumstances ; but until
they can explain more satisfactorily than at present the way
in which medicines act, they ought not to descry the valu-
able effects which experience informs us are frequently
produced by small quantities of mineral substances diffused
through large portions of pure water. Chemistry has, also
enabled them to imitate the mineral waters with consider-
able success ; but it has been found extremely difficult to
make the waters as agreeable and pure as at the fountain.
" The general effect of the South -well water, when drank
in a sufficient quantity, is to act gently upon the bowels and
kidneys, and sometimes on both, but without harassing
or fatiguing; on the contrary, it strengthens and exhila-
rates. It is serviceable in debility and relaxations of the sto-
mach, in nervous disorders, scurvy, struma or swelled glands,
chlorosis, and particular weaknesses. I have found it very
useful in a variety of chronic complaints, attended by habi-
tual costiveness. These complaints are often accompanied by
some degree of jaundice, or are frequently subsequent to it, to
a sedentary life, to long-continued and ■painful affections of the
mind, to long and tedious illness, to agues, to residence in hot cli-
mates, and sometimes to intemperance. In such cases,
I have known a small glass of this water, repeated
every day for some time, produce the most desired and
permanent effect ; even when very powerful medicines
have not been found to answer, or only to afford temporary
relief. Most commonly, however, two, three, or even
four half pints, taken at proper intervals, and repeated
daily, are required; although no very great constipation
may have preceded.
" Some diseases of the stomach, as I have already ob-
served, are much relieved by this water, others are in-
creased by it's use ; especially all those proceeding from
long continued intemperance : but the sickness arising
from occasional excess is often wonderfully relieved by a
glass or two of this water. It sometimes affords relief in
the gravel, as well as in several pains of the loins, -whose
seat seems to be in the kidneys, although they are gene-
rally called rheumatic. Disorders commonly comprehended
under the appellation of scurvy, as pimples, red face, eruption*
in various parts of the body ; roughness of the skin, or scurf,
&c. are often cured by a long continued use of the South-well
water. Some remarkable instances of this kind have come
to my knowledge, both of the inhabitants of the town, and
of strangers. In these disorders as much water should be
drank daily, at proper intervals, as will produce some sen-
sible effect upon the bowels : sometimes a single glass, even
of the smallest size, will be sufficient; but when three or
four half pints are not found to answer, it is better to add a
little Scarborough salt, or drink a glass of sea-water, than
to increase the quantity.
" The Chalybeate, or North-well, water has little or no
opening property. It braces, and generally passes off by
urine. Hence it is preferable, in most of those complaints
in which the bowels will not bear the South-well water. In
all cases of general weakness and relaxation, it's virtues are
acknowledged ; and I observe that the water-servers gene-
rally recommend it to the delicate of their own sex, and I
believe with good success. This water is however apt to
heat, and sometimes sits heavy. This may be prevented
by the means hereafter mentioned, or by taking a glass of
the South-well water at the same time.
" The North-well water is peculiarly useful in a variety
of nervous cases, particularly those consequent to confine-
ment, dissipation, and a town-life, where the bowels require
no assistance. It is, likewise, serviceable in those very nu-
merous cases which occur to females at that time of life,
when the growth seems disproportionate to the strength.
This complaint is mostly distinguished by a ■pale complexion,
depraved appetite, weariness and pains in the limbs, palpita-
" To reap any material advantage, these waters must
be drank at the fountain : for as their virtues in some
measure depend upon an elastic fluid or gas, which quickly
escapes from the water, they must necessarily lose some of
their properties by being transported to any distance. This
circumstance, although of importance, is not much at-
tended to, except by a few who have already experienced
the advantage of it. The custom, therefore, of sending for
the water to the Lodging-houses ought as much as possible
to be avoided ; more particularly as some exercise should
be taken between each glass, to assist it's effect.
" Jn all cases, where the patient is able, walking is pre-
ferable to every other exercise ; next, riding on horseback ;
and, last of all, in the carriage. The best time for drinking
the waters is before breakfast ; but some persons cannot
bear the coolness of these waters fasting ; in which case
they may conveniently be drank about two hours after
breakfast. When they sit heavy, or when the stomach is
delicate, they are sometimes drank a little warm. By this
practice their virtues are diminished. The addition of a
tea-spoonful of brandy, tincture of cardamoms, or ether, &c.
is preferable. The dose cannot be ascertained but by
" Those who bathe and drink the water the same day, 'i
generally bathe first. And this seems a proper precaution,
in particular for such as are delicate, who ought indeed
rather to bathe and drink the waters on alternate days.
Those who are robust will sometimes drink the waters on the
same day, both before and after bathing. Every year, how-
ever, gives some instance, that both bathing and drinking
the waters are practised incautiously ; often in diseases in
which they are improper."
The late William Hutton, F.S. A., in his " Tour to Scar-
borough," notices the great benefits which the drinking of
these waters and bathing effected upon his daughter, in the
following words : —
" My daughter's complaint was a nervous asthma of
some standing, from taking cold. We visited Scarborough
as the last resort. She stayed eleven weeks, rode on horse-
back every day, bathed every second, and drank the water
three times each day.
" About four weeks elapsed before any change was ap-
parent, when her breathing, activity; and strength, began
gradually to return, and' nature seemed approaching to-
ward hei 1 former tone ; and, though not perfect, I have
hopes that it will tend to preserve that life which I value
more than my own."
The following, from the York Chronicle, may here be
appropriately introduced :
" Scarborough, Feb. 8, 1825. — Some of the highest and
strongest tides that have been experienced at Scarborough
for these fifty years, occurred there on Thursday and Friday
evenings hast, marking their progress with desolation to
vessels on the stocks, and to the projecting erection which
guarded the Spaw ; which it has dilapidated in a deplorable
manner, washing away the stones of immense weight which
hounded that receptacle of health, and carrying them and
the platform, " shivering in their playful spray," to a con-
siderable distance. The shore on Friday morning pre-
sented an aweful spectacle of the spoils of vessels, bathing-
machines, and the wreck (but not total) of the Spaw. Like
some other calamities, we hope it will ultimately prove
beneficial to the elegance of this fashionable place, in the
ornamental improvements which may take place in the new
erection of the despoiled portion of this nobly situated plat-
THE TOWN HALL
is a commodious building in Long-Room Street, where the
sessions are held, and all business connected with the town
transacted. In the Council-room is a fine portrait, by J.
Jackson, R. A. of Mr. Bartholomew Johnson, of Scar-
borough, a highly-respected musical character, who com-
plcted his 100th year, on the 3d October, 1810. This
event, so highly interesting to all who knew him, was cele-
brated by a Jubilee dinner, and musical performances, at
the Freemasons' Hall in Scarborough. The selections of
vocal music were well adapted to the occasion ; and his
musical friends here, assisted by the principal choristers
from York Cathedral, afforded the company much gratifi-
cation. About ten o'clock at night the good old man bore
a part in a quartet, by performing on the violoncello the
bass to a minuet, which he himself composed upwards of
sixty years ago. Several poetical compositions, from the
classical pens of the Rev. Archdeacon Wrangham, Thomas
Hinderwell, Esq. &c. were sung and recited with great
situated in Tanner-Street, has been lately newly painted
and tastefully embellished, and presents a coupd'ceil at once
chaste and effective. The boxes, unlike those in the gene-
rality of Theatres, are not separated by partitions, but
freely displayed in one elevated open space. It's boards
have been graced by the acting of some of the most popular
of the London performers. The late Mr. Stephen Kemble
possessed the Theatre for a series of years, and occasion-
ally enacted some of his most celebrated characters t. It
« For a full account of this Jubilee, see The Gentlemari's Mag.
vol. 80, p. 2.
t In Cunningham's (the pastoral poet) Poems, appears a Pro-
usually opens about the middle of July, and closes in
October. The prices of admission are — Boxes, 3s. ; Pit, 2*. ;
and Gallery, Is. There are two fashionable nights in the
course of each week;
Ttlfc usual for visitants shortly after their arrival to sub-
ribe to the Rooms, the Spaw, and Libraries, and take a
course of the exhilarations which they respectively afford.
Early morning is appropriated for bathing and drinking
the waters, mid-day for walking the sands, shopping,
lounging at the libraries, or taking one of the drives in the
romantic environs. After dinner a general muster is ap-
parent on the Cliff and Spaw terraces, Beach, and different
parts of the town and Castle-hill ; or the Theatre is visited,
the lecture attended, the assembly graced.
The Sea and the Spaw generally afford engagements
which engross the first attention, and fill up the earlier part
of each morning ; for to bathe, and drink the waters, are
mostly recommended before breakfast. The beautiful form
of Scarborough Beach, is at an early hour enlivened by the
confused but entertaining dispersion of bathing machines,
Scattered on it's verge, while the sun slopes it's early
logue, spoken at Scarborough : as the author was an actor, we
may presume he, at that period, figured on the Scarborough stage.
beams upon them, as they are drawn to and from the
sea. There are about forty commodious bathing-machines,
which belong to different proprietors. Two women attend
each lady who bathes, as guides ; and one man, every gen-
tleman who requires it. A boy attends with a horse, to
draw the machine to and from the water ; which is drawn
to any depth the bather pleases. The regular price for
bathing is oae shilling each time.
TRAVIS'S BATHS ON THE CLIFF.
This establishment was originally opened in 1798 ; since
which time, it has undergone several improvements : in
1822 it was rebuilt, and the interior fitted up with every
attention to comfort and elegance. The Baths aro in
Wood or Marble, and are varied as to form, being adapt-
ed either for plunging, or for the erect or horizontal posi-
tion. They admit of every variety of temperature, and are
supplied every tide with the the purest sea-water. Here
likewise are Shower-baths and warm pumping on an improved
principle, affording every degree of force and temperature.
A room is also fitted up for Steam and Vapour Baths ; and
no expense has been spared to render the establishment
equal to any in the kingdom.
These Baths are delightfully situated in the New Road,
at the bottom of Huntriss'-Row, combining in that situa-
tion as much as possible, privacy with convenience, to-
gether with the advantage of receiving with facility, a con-
stant supply of the purest Sea Wateb, from the southern
shore. The interior of the Baths is constructed on a plan
entirely new, the rooms are elegantly fitted up, and the
apparatus on the most philosophical principles. One of
the Baths has been constructed for bathing in the erect or
sitting position, for those who are not able to bear the
There has also lately been erected an elegant little build-
ing contiguous to the original edifice, containing a plunge
Bath, of size sufficient to admit of all the advantages of Sea-
bathing ; intended chiefly for those who, from delicacy of
constitution or other causes, are prevented from bathing in
the open sea. Also, an additional Shower-bath upon an
improved principle, by which the height, force, rapid suc-
cession, or number of showers, may be readily adapted to
each particular case. In the fitting-up of these Baths
no expense has been spared either with regard to orna-
ment or utility.
WARM AND SHOWER BATHS, NEAR THE PIERS,
These Baths possess exclusive advantages ; they are sup-
plied with water of the purest quality, pumped immediately
from the Sea, at a situation remote from the drains and other
impurities of the town ; and advantage is constantly taken of
flowing tides to obtain it of the greatest possible strength
A Warm Bath, 2*. 6d. and 6rf. the attendant. — A
Shower Bath, Is. 6d. and 6d. the attendant.
CHAMPLEY'S NEW BATHS,
situated in Mr. Cockerill's Garden, central between the
Cliff and Brunswick Terrace, constructed on a plan entirely
new, in which privacy and elegance are combined, and on
a scale of magnitude hitherto unattempted in Scarborough.
One suite of rooms appropriated for the use of Ladies,
and another for that of Gentlemen. Orders received at
the Baths, and by J. Champley, Chemist, &c. at his shop,
opposite the New Inn, Newborough- Street.
Medical Men. — Dr. Thompson, without the Gates ; Dr.
Harland, Messrs. Travis and Dunn, Newborough-Street ;
Mr. Weddell, Queen-Street ; Mr. Willis, Merchants r -Row.
After breakfast, the usual avocations of all public places
here also succeed in their turn as fancy may lead, or conve-
nience direct. Morning parties for country rides, sally forth
with their gay and lively trains, in pursuit of health or amuse-
ment j returning for the most part, gratified by a compe-
tent share of both. When the tide permits, about noon, as
many as wish to enjoy, to the utmost, every breeze of sea
air, parade the sandy beach, and compose one of the most
cheerful medleys. The warmest conception would perhaps
be inadequate to the beauty and the liveliness which the
sands then display. Splendid chariots, towering phaetons,
and parties on horseback, vary the scene : thus, each
pursues the most eligible or convenient method of enjoying
the salutary exhalation, and takes sea water in at every
breath. Added to this, is a rich assemblage of freed objects ;
the semi-circle of a sloping town, and all its motley-coloured
houses, church, and castle, which spread out an uncom-
monly fine back-ground ; while the sea opens to the S. E. a
boundless expanse, sometimes adorned by passing fleets,
or many a sail of straggling ships, coasting along : the eye
seems never tired with such a view ; which it is as difficult to
describe justly, as to quit without reluctance. The usual
dinner-hour at Scarborough is four : about seven, the cliff-
promenade, the beach, and plantation-walk, are thronged
with groups of pedestrians.
There scarcely can be two sea rides so near each other,
as the north sands, and those below Scarborough cliff,
more agreeably contrasted. We would much recommend
the north sands, to those unable, or disinclined to mix in the
gay morning throng, when they take the sea air.
The Assembly Rooms, at Bonner's Hotel, in Long-Room
Street, are commodious and well adapted for the purpose ;
but the company who resort here appear to prefer other
amusements to dancing, consequently our assemblies are
but thinly attended. The company at Mrs. Hodgens's Board-
ing House frequently " trip it on the light fantastic toe," in
an evening, when other modes of entertainment fail of suc-
cess. While on this subject, we cannot resist the opportunity
of recommending to notice a custom, which we regret is al-
most peculiar to the city of Lincoln, which is, the frequent
holding of subscription meetings, under the name of chari-
table assemblies. When any inhabitant, of good character,
is overtaken by sudden misfortune, any respectable widow
burdened with a number of children, or aged man incapable
of providing for his own support ; some leading lady or
gentleman steps forward, and solicits, by public invitation,
the company of the charitable at an assembly for the
benefit of the sufferer. Every repectable individual thinks
himself bound in honour to attend, and, on entering the
room, gives what he pleases to the patroness or patron of the
meeting, who collects the subscriptions. The generous soli-
citors are considered as treasurers, paying out of the fund
the expenses of the assembly, and presenting the overplus
in such periodical sums as they think proper, to the object
of that evening's charity. The subscription is always suffi-
ciently large to relieve the distressed persons. Eight or
nine of these assemblies are sometimes made in a year, and
produce a sum, (thus voluntarily given to objects who,
otherwise, must either have been starved, or at least solely
supported by their respective parishes) at the average of
almost four hundred per annum * ."
* Those who wish for farther information on the subject, are
referred to the History of Lincoln, published by the proprietor of
The following valuable Observations are Extracts from a very
useful little book, entitled " The Perambulator's Guide
to the Scarborough Sands," for which we are indebted
to Mr. John Bleckly, of York.
It should be observed, that as the time of high water as
well as the height of the tide is varying every day, your
arrangements both for walking and riding upon the sand,
as well as for bathing or igoing upon the sea, should all of
them in some sort be regulated by it. Thus, if you propose
to walk to the Nab * before dinner, you should take a day
when it is high water between seven and eight o'clock,
and commence your walk about ten, after which there will
be three hours of falling tide, and three hours after that of
rising water, in which you may return upon the same walk-
This rule will apply to the North as well as to the South
Sands, and indeed ought to be uniformly observed when-
ever you propose to take a long walk by the sea-side ; more
especially on the approach of evening. On every occa-
sion of this sort, you should take care that the time of high
water be not earlier than one, nor later than three o'clock
in the afternoon ; for under either of these circumstances
it will not be low water sooner than from six to eight,
which will always leave you in possession of good walking
ground, and a broad field view under the shadows of the
* The Nab is a point projecting into the Sea, about a mile from
the Spaw, in the direct road to Carneliau Bay.
evening, ere the curtain of night closes upon all the sur T
rounding objects. It may be proper in this plaoe to state,
that two days after the new and the full moon, when the
tides are at the highest, they fall as much below, as they
rise above their ordinary places, and that consequently the
run of water is accelerated and increased as much as the
difference between high and low-water mark at the neap
and at the spring tides. This circumstance is mentioned
that strangers may not only be upon their guard, but avail
themselves of every opportunity to inspect the coast, and
behold, under all the advantages of light and shade, the
The next subject which presses upon your notice, is the
alternately tranquil and agitated state of the sea, arising
solely from the influence of the tide ; for it will be found,
when there is but little wind, that the waters are in a state
of equilibrium for about an hour, at the period of both high
and low water; and that as the tide begins gradually to
recede or advance, the pouting Upper soon becomes a
restless wave. This circumstance will naturally suggest
to those who intend to bathe, and are not very partial to a
boisterous sea, that their convenience and their comfort
may be easily consulted, and that the fears and the tears
of children in particular, may be greatly abated. It is also
deserving the attention of all who intend to bathe, that a
rising water is always to be preferred, and if within an
hour or two of high water, the better. The first part of
these observations are equally applicable to those who in-
tend to go upon the sea ; and if attended to, may be made
productive of high gratification and benefit to many, who
would otherwise never dare to venture upon the unstable
element ; but, for the convenience of such, it should be
remembered, that with a serene sky, as soon as the tide is
half flood, or within three hours of high water, the waves
will gradually subside into a perfect calm. The parties
may then take an excursion for an hour or two upon smooth
water, and return with the natural impulse of a flowing
tide. To those who are indifferent to this consideration,
to say no more of it, it would always be a matter of conve-
nience and sound policy to go to sea within an hour or two
before or after low water, according to the length of time
they purpose to stay out, ever bearing in mind, that it is
easier to return with than against the tide. These remarks
will also be serviceable to those who are fond of Fishing,
where they are provided with good tackle, plenty of fresh
bait, and a full supply of patience : clear water is not
always .the most favourable for the diversion, although
smooth water is more agreeable to inland fishermen.
You should observe that proper bait of some kinds is
only to be obtained at low water, and that it is always
safest to be your own maTketman, to prevent disappoint-
ment at the time of embarkation. The best chance of suc-
cess in fishing from the Pier-head is to commence about
two hours after low water, and if the wind be favourable,
the fish in the season, on their way into the harbour, will
bite vefy freely.
THE TOWN NEWS-ROOM AND LIBRARY
are situated on the verge of the cliff, at the bottom of King-
Street. Strangers, as well as residents, have access to the
news-room ; the subscription for the season being 10s. 6d.
The library is a permanent one, and being established as
well by gentlemen in the country, as those in the town, has
received the appellation of The Agricultural Library. A
room for billiards is also attached to this building.
The governor of the Spaw takes in newspapers at his
rooms on the Spaw terrace ; one of which rooms is devoted
to the use of the ladies, and the other to the gentlemen.
The subscription is 5s. per month. There is too a Sub-
scription News-Room at Cole's Library.
Those visitants who wish to receive papers at their lodg-
ings, may have them ordered on application at the Libraries.
Besides this general library, a society for periodical
Literature has been formed at Cole's, bookseller, in which
almost every Magazine and Review which issues from the
press, is taken.
Amongst the curiosities of the town, independently of
it's own bold and varied charms, may be mentioned the
Museums of Thomas Hinderwell, Esq., and Mr. Bean ; the
latter of which is particularly rich in British shells, form-
ing one of the most complete collections in the kingdom.
The Proprietors will readily show their respective Museums
to Visitants, on being properly introduced.
Minerals and Fossils are pretty plentifully strewed over
this coast, and the search for them forms many a morning's
amusement*. There is an interesting page or two on this
subject in " Prose by a Poet."
The following observations on a vrustaceous animal, found
by Mr. Dunn in the Castle-hill, in grey earth, contempo-
raneous with Oxford clay, beneath calcareous grit, were
•made by Mr. J. Phillips, Geologist :
" The first specimen with entire arms which has fallen
under my notice ; and the first hitherto discovered in the
Oxford clay formation.
" As far as I know, the lowest stratum in which crusta-
ceous animals have been found, is the inferior oolite ; they
are not scarce in the superior strata, particularly in the
London clay. A few more of these discoveries will shew
that such animals have existed during the formation of all
the intermediate rocks."
* Parties who wish to devote much time to these excursions,
may be supplied with a Guide to direct them to the best situations,
an application at Cole's Library.
" If you for reading feel inclin'd,
A store of books to suit your mind
At Cole's deposit'ry you will find."
This prominent and conspicuous building is situated at the
upper end of Newborough*, at the corner of Tanner-Street,
» An interior view is given in the " Poetical Sketches of Scar-
borough," accompanied by the following lines :---
fronting Long-Room Street, and projecting considerably
beyond the opposite side of Tanner-Street, commands a
pleasing view down Newborough, which is handsome, wide,
and well built, " striking the traveller with an agreeable
idea of comfort and improvement. It's ground plat, on a
gradual descent, is nearly a thousand feet in length, and
mostly about fifty wide. The houses have a modern and
cheerful air, and are chiefly built of brick. A very excel-
lent pavement, about nine feet wide, on each side, most
usefully adorns the whole." »The second opening on the
left, exhibits Queen Street, which is wide and handsome,
chiefly occupied by genteel families.
From the Library, which is considerably elevated, an
extensive view not only of the town, but also of the Castle,
" Now Literature no more appals,
Immur'd 'midst gloom of cloistered walls,
But with a winning grace unbends
To treat us all like common friends 5
And readily her store supplies,
To make men good, and great, and wise.
Fair History unfolds her page,
To spread the truths of every age ;
Records the deeds by heroes done,
How well they end, how well begun ;
Remove the mark of vice and fraud,
And what is truly great applaud.
And in life's tide, by careful fate,
The mind la made to circulate.
Just so each watering-place supplies
It'i Circulating Libraries."
may be enjoyed, which here forms an interesting back-
ground to the scene. This building was formerly used as
a Coffee-House, by which name it is now well known by
many of it's visitors, as well as by the inhabitants.
One of it's Masters, who was a person of great humour
and ingenuity, having been often solicited by the company
who frequented his house, to introduce Bristol Water to
his table, substituted the Castle Water in it's place. The
deception was carried on with great dexterity. The wax
upon the corks bore the impression of the Bristol seal. A
fresh importation was pretended to be made every season,
warranted from the Fountain-head ; and the Connoisseurs
pronounced it genuine. But the ingenuity of the contriver
failed him in an unguarded hour. He had, in a convivial
partv, taken too much wine, and in the confusion of an
intoxicated moment, the Bristol seal was applied to a bottle
of Sherry, which was hastily sent up to the table, even
before the wax had time to cool. This unlucky circum-
stance occasioned a discovery ; and the master of the
Coffee-house not only received a severe reprimand for the
imposition, but was obliged ever after, as it's reputation
was established, to suppjyjthe water grath, ....
In " A Journey from London to Scarborough," performed
in 1733, the following occurs respecting this house : —
"In the High-Street, over against the Long- Room Street,
is the Coffee-house, to which gentlemen subscribe half-a-
crown, and have the use of pen, ink, and paper, for tu«
It was first opened as a Library and Bookseller's Shop,
in the year 1811, in which business it has continued to the
present period, but with a change of occupants.
The collection of Books here appropriated for circulation
is numerous, and consists of several valuable works in
History, Voyages, Travels, and Biography, as well as an
extensive assemblage of light summer-reading in Novels,
Romances, and Tales*. The Printing business is also
carried on upon these premises.
Although Printing was not introduced so early here as at
some of the neighbouring towns t, it may not prove uninter-
esting to mention the time when the first press was erected
at Scarborough, in the words of the celebrated Tliomas Gent,
who was the person that fixed the apparatus.
C" I beg leave to mention here, as a memorial, that a
Printing-Office was first set up by me in Scarborough, about
June 16, 1734, in a house in Mr. Bland's Lane, formerly
called his Cliff ; a most pleasant situation, leading to the
/-—— * Prom the " Journey" before mentioned, we extract the
v • A Catalogue of the Books which compose this collection, has
lately been published, and an Addenda, confining the newest
works, has just made it's appearance.
t The first production of the Yoik Press was the Pica of the
Cathedral Church, by Hugh Goes ; (1509,) who is said by Herbert
to have printed, at Beverley, a broadside, — being a wood-cut of a
man on horseback, with a spear in his right hand, and tbe arms
of France in his left. — Home's Bibliog.
following, as being descriptive of the Customs practised at
the Library at that period : —
" In the Long- Room Street is the Bookseller's Shop ;
where Ladies an d Gentlemen subscribe five shillings, for
which they have the use of any Books during the season,
and take them home to their lodgings. Here are also
raffles for books ; if the persons who win do not like their
books, they have the choice of any others of the same
The notice of Private Libraries will here appropriately
appear : the most celebrated one in the neighbourhood of
Scarborough, is that of Mr. Archdeacon Wrangham, at
Hunmanby ; but Scarborough itself possesses a few desirable
Collections, in which are several emblazoned first editions
of works on Heraldry, an unique Tussbr, and many other
The Office is situated on Palace-Hill, at the bottom of
Newborough-Street. The Post arrives at half-past six
every morning, and goes out at half-past one ; no letters
out on Friday for London, and none received thence on
* It appears that the proprietors of this establishment were
Ccesar Ward and Richard Chandler, who were London Booksellers
and Publishers, at the Ship, between the Temple Gates, Fleet-
Steam-Packets. The City of Edinburgh and the James
Watt call off the port regularly to London on Thursday
morning, to Edinburgh on Thursday afternoon.
Information respecting the Packets from Scarborough to
London, may be had on application to Mr. Marflitt, or Mr.
The Carriers to York are Thomas Burniston, who lives
near the gates, and Sarah Craggs, at the bottom of New-
borough ; they both start at twelve o'clock on Mondays and
The Carrier to Hull is John Bell, Cross-Street, who starts
on Mondays and Thursdays, at nine o'clock in the morning,
and returns on Wednesday, at five in the afternoon, and
on Saturday at nine in the morning.
Carriers to Whitby ; John Bell, and John Annan,
Long-Room Street, on Sundays and Thursdays.
Carrier to Bridlington ; Porter Owston, starts at nine
o'clock in the morning from the Star Inn, on Tuesdays and
Horses are let out by Mark Dove, and by William
Peacock, in Queen-Street ; by Thomas Wilson, and by
Jonathan Major, Newborough-Street ; Thomas Glaves,
and Mr. Marshall, Tanner-Street ; Joseph Holmes, Mer-
chants'-Row ; and Matthew Beecroft, without the gates.
Mark Dove has also two Landaus, one drawn by two black
Ponies with long tails, the other by two beautiful bays.
The latter Landau has a false head for the fore part, to
join to the hind part, which keeps it entirely free from rain.
William Peacock also lets Landaus and Pony Carriages ;
and William Donkin, a poor blind man in Hall's-Square,
has an elegant Pony Carriage for hire.
Donkies conveniently caparisoned, and Pony- Carriages,
will be found in waiting at the foot of the Terrace every
day, and may be engaged by the hour.
In 1821 was built a Life-Boat upon Mr. Greathead's
plan at Scarborough. Donations for keeping it in repair,
&c. are received at the Libraries.
A Humane Society for the recovery of persons in a state
of suspended animation from drowning, &c. has been lately
formed at Scarborough ; subscriptions for the support of
which, are, also, received at the Libraries.
A Lancasterian School has lately been opened, and to it
subscriptions will be thankfully received.
Drawing Masters. — Mr. Baynes, jun. portrait and
animal painter, has a small exhibition of pictures, &c. at
his rooms in Newborough-Street, and teaches Drawing ; as
does Mr. Hartley in Huntriss' Row, and Mr. Stubbs in
Long- Room Street. Drawings are let out from Cole's
Music Master. — Mr. Hartley.
French Masters. — Mons. de Laube and Mr. Hornsey.
Dancing Masters usually attend during the season.
Bankers. — Messrs. Woodall and Co., Queen-Street.
Piano-Fortes are let out by Mr. Wilson, Music-seller,
Long- Room Street ; Mr. Cracknell, Cliff; Mr. Hartley,
56 SCARBOROUGH 1 .
I Junt rigs' Row ; Mrs. Ainswortk, Newborough-Slreet ; an*
Mr. Linwood, Merchants'-Row.
The following Coaches set off from the Bell bin : —
The Royal York Mail Coach, every Monday, Wednes-
day, Friday, and Saturday afternoon, at half past one
The Leeds True Blue Coach, every morning at eight
o'clock, from the Bell and Bull Inns, alternate weeks.
The Wellington Hull Coach, every day (Sundays ex-
cepted) by way of Bridlington and Driffield, at half-past
The Whitby Diligence, every Sunday and Wednesday,
at eight o'clock.
The Royal Union to York and Leeds, starts at seven in
the morning ; on Monday and Tuesday from the Nag's
Head, Wednesday and Thursday from the London Inn,
and Friday and Saturday from the George Inn.
The Highflyer for York and Leeds starts at a quarter
before ten every morning ; on Saturday and Monday from
the Talbot, Tuesday and Wednesday from the New Inn,
Thursday and Friday from the Plough Inn.
The following from the Plough Inn : —
The British Queen Hull Coach every morning at seven
The Prince Blucher Post Coach, for York and Leeds,
every morning at seven o'clock.
The Express to Hull, at seven in the morning, from the
The last season was a brilliant one ; and when that is
the case, we must pronounce Scarborough a most delightful
residence : it's situation is noble, gTand, and romantic ;
it's beauties innumerable ; it's vicinity picturesque and
varied ; it's advantages, in short, are very great. Several
improvements have taken place since last year, and, in
addition to the Edinburgh Packets, one now plies be-
tween Hull and Scarborough * ; besides which, is a new
Coach to that place, and many alterations are yet in con-
templation. But, in spite of these successes, we must
confess that there is now much more crying in Scarborough
than there was last year : some, perhaps, will know how
to account for this strange inconsistency.
Lodgings. — The Cliff lodgings hold the first place in
point of situation and other advantages : the new houses of
Mr. Edmond, Mr. Hopper, and Mr. Cowling, on Bland's
Cliff; of Mr. Cooper, near the News-Room Steps ; Ma-
rine House, at the foot of the steps ; and those on Bruns-
wick-Terrace and Albion- Place, also boast their sea pros-
pects ; nor must the two commodious houses lately erected
by Mr. Bean, near Dr. Harland's Baths, be omitted, or
Mulgrave Place, near the Church. They are in genera 1
clean, airy, and furnished in good style. The Cliff-houses,
&c. are usually engaged by the month ; but there is a
» In 10 hours. Fore-Cabin, 8s. ; BeBt Cabin, 12*.
customary charge of 12s. per week for each, room, in
different parts of the town ; linen is furnished, but the
washing is an extra charge.
Mrs. Hodgens, and Miss Robinson, in Huntriss'-Row ;
Mr. Peter Brown, in Newborough- Street ; Miss Banks, in
Merchants'-Row ; Mr. Cooper, on the Sands ; and Mr.
Thompson, in Tanner-Street, are Directors of Boarding-
houses, and furnish a daily table for the accommodation
of their respective lodgers. Besides these, there are Ordi-
naries at the different Inns, from which, or from the Board-
ing-houses, dinners are sent to all parts of the town, at
varied rates, according to the articles ordered ; the lowest
charge being 2s.
Mr. Dormer's Hotel is delightfully situated in Long-
Room Street, commanding a fine view of the ocean ; and
Mr. Houson's (formerly the Bull Inn) is at the top of
Newborough-Street ; both which afford first-rate accom-
The Bell Inn, Bland's Cliff; the Blacksmith's Arms,
Queen-Street: both of these are posting-houses, besides
Mr. Coates's, Huntriss'-Row. Other respectable Inns are
as follow : Talbot Inn, Queen-Street ; New Inn, London
Inn, Nag's-head, Newborough-Street; Plough Inn, Tanner-
Street, and many others of respectability.
The following Observations from " A Tour to Scar-
borough, in 1803," by W. Hutton, F.A.S.S., will afford
farther information : —
" The accommodations we found were of three sorts;
to take a furnished house, if a family arrived, which may
be done from six to ten guineas a week ; or, take apart-
ments in a family, and find food and servants yourself;
or board and lodge in a family at a stated price. We
chose the last. The terms were twenty-five shillings a
week each, for my daughter and me, exclusive of tea and
liquor, and ten shillings each for a bed. The servant half,
or seventeen shillings and sixpence, and the same sum for
the horse, including corn."
The markets for butchers' meat and poultry are on Thurs-
days and Saturdays : the first by far the most considerable.
Yet during the summer, meat is slaughtered six days in
the week. Compared with neighbouring markets, that of
Scarborough is not a dear one. It has been long famous
for it's excellent moor-mutton. Poultry and vegetables,
especially potatoes, are here abundant.
There is a traditionary report that the old Market-place
was situated to the north, behind the covered ropery, near
St. Mary's Church ; and the great Blue Stone, which is
to be seen there, is said to have been the place where pub-
lic bargains were ratified and discharged. The stone is
Basalt, of nearly the same quality as the remarkable Whin-
dyke on the high moors. It was probably found in the di-
luvial matter which abounds on this coast.
The market was kept upon the sands in the reign of Ed-
ward VI. It has also been held in other parts of the
town ; the remains of a very ancient Market-cross are still
standing: "it clearly appears," writes Hutton, " that it
was once a grand piece of architecture, of Saxon make, a
thousand years old, and that Scarborough is a very ancient
The following observations on this Cross are by the His-
torian of Wakefield : —
" Scarborough, 4th July, 1825."
" Mr. Cole,
" Dear Sir,
" I am sorry to differ from the late venerable historian
of Birmingham, respecting the ancient Pillar or Obelisk in
Church-Street ; but, after a minute examination, I think T
may confidently affirm, that it never ' was a grand piece of
architecture,' as he states. Some old inhabitants informed
me, that it formerly stood in the centre of the Street, but
was removed to it's present situation at the angle to make
room for carriages to pass. To me it is evident, that the
round stone forming the base, was originally the uppermost
step of the Market Cross, and that this Cross becoming
dilapidated, the lower steps were removed, whilst a
crocketed pinnacle, probably from the ruins of the Church,
was inserted in this uppermost step, to supply the place of
the former shaft, which time or injury had taken away. It
is well known that a stone of any kind, so long as it is a
■sufficiently visible object, served to distinguish the- place
where Markets were or had been held, — for instance, the
block of Basalt near St. Mary's : and I am myself ac-
quainted with several Market-places, where the original
Cross has been supplied by blocks or pillars, totally differ-
ing from it, as in the present case. My opinion therefore
is, that the Pillar you wished me to examine, never formed
part of the original Cross, but was substituted for it at it's
decay, either from ruins in the present Church-yard, or
from the one formerly on the Cliff."
" I am, dear Sir,
" Your's very truly,
" J. L. Sisson."
It may prove interesting to give the origin of the phrase :
" Scarborough warning ; a word and a blow, but the blow
" In the reign of Queen Mary, Mr. Thomas Stafford,
son of Lord Stafford, obtained possession of Scarborough
Castle by the following stratagem :
" Having previously arranged his plan of taking the
"Castle by surprise, he disguised his troop in the habit of
peasants and countrymen, and came to Scarborough on a
market-day, under the most unsuspicious appearances. He
gained an easy admittance into the Castle, and strolled
about with a careless air, apparently to gratify his curio-
sity. About thirty of his men also entered without the
least suspicion, and embracing a favourable opportunity,
instantly secured the different centinels , took possession of
the gate, and admitted their remaining companions, who,
under the exterior garb of countrymen, had concealed
arms. But the triumph of Mr. Stafford was of transient
duration, and the success of his enterprise was eventually
the cause of his death. He had retained the possession
only three days, when the Earl of Westmoreland, with a
considerable force, recovered it without loss. — Mr. Staf-
ford, Capt. Saunders, and three other of the leaders, were
taken prisoners, conducted to London, and confined in the
Tower. They were afterwards arraigned, condemned, and
WALKS IN THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF
The field for exercise at Scarborough will be found suffi-
<aently ample, and the walks or rides of a pleasingly varied
description. After the most heavy rains, the Beach is in
a few minutes dry and fit for a place of promenade. The
plantation, which consists of the several varieties of trees
and shrubs, which form a shade to the tastefully laid walks,
is situated near the sands, and is liberally thrown open to
the public by the corporation. Varied and interesting views
may be obtained from several openings, and particularly
from the eminence called the Grove-head, which is at the
extremity of the Plantation-Walk, in the immediate en-
virons of Scarborough, at the back of a fine piece of water,
which from hence appears an effective object. Imme-
diately before us, on the descent of the hill, called Grove-
head, (on the smooth surface of which are benches, capa-
ble of accommodating a numerous party) a plantation of
thriving young oaks presents itself. Through this is
cut a winding path, leading to the before-mentioned piece
of water, which is encompassed with a bank, admirably
adapted for promenading ; being adorned by a plantation,
which in a few years will render this a charming shade in
the meridian heat of the Scarborough season. At the foot
of this lake appears a retreat, called Mill-Cottage, re-
cently erected, the very picture of rural neatness and
elegance ; in front is seen a pleasing plot of garden
ground, and when a few more years shall have fled, we
may hope to find it embosomed in verdant foliage. To the
right of the buildings connected with the Mill, appears a
delightful opening through the path of the valley, affording
a view of old ocean's bed, where
• " Ride the ships
In that enchanting bay, with streamers curl'd,
And panting sails, that, whiten'd by the sun,
Between the hills, the eye is conducted along the dark
blue waves, until they seem to unite with the similarly
coloured clouds. The Light-house, raising it's whitened
tower, is a conspicuous object. To the left arise those
" Lofty tow'rs that, lusty still In age,
Display their scarry fronts to distant leagues,"
" the Citadel, and it's hoary walls," which present an ef-
fective back-ground to the landscape.
At the foot of Grove-head falls a small cascade, and be-
hind, a lofty eminence, called Mount- Oliver, overlooks the
town. It is thus called from a mistaken notion, that
Cromwell erected batteries here against the Castle, during
the siege, in 1644-5. It is au indisputable historical fact,
that Cromwell was never present at this siege.
" Those who have ascended this mount, since the in-
closure in 1797, will not th/nk that in grandeur of
prospect it can easily be exceeded. The roads are judi-
ciously laid out, and intersect each other in the most con-
venient manner. The ascents are gradual, seldom exceed-
ing a rise of seven feet in a hundred, so that in a few
minutes .the traveller is conveyed by a good road, thirty
feet wide, to a delightful terrace elevated six hundred feet
above the sea. Hence there is a view of the Ocean (bound-
ed by the horizon) the Coast, the Castle-hill, the Town,
the Harbour, and extensive Piers. To the westward, the
vale of Pickering, and a vast extent of country in all it's
charming diversity of landscape, exhibit scenes of a very
picturesque nature. As a ride, it possesses every thing
desirable ; and the coolness and freshness of the air, at
Buch an elevation, give a sense of lightness and comfort
not easily described. From this eminence, Falsgrave, one
mile west from Scarborough, is prominently conspicuous."
Passing the water-fall, the stranger is conducted, by a.
path leading along " rural hedge-rows," to the " well-
protected lanes" which terminate at the last-named village,
whence a gravelled walk is continued on the side of the
York road to Scarborough. Or, a return over the fields will
present several romantic views of the town, from the hills
enclosing the valley on which the foot-path is formed ; and
to this succeeds another, called Barrow-cliff- Plantation, the
property of John Woodall, Esq. the walk to which may be
pleasantly taken over the fields from Tanner-Street. The
situation is most inviting, and finely adapted for the purpose.
One side of the Cliff is planted with various ornamental trees
and shrubs suited to it's soil, amongst which happily occur
several of ancient growth, which afford an agreeable and
tasteful contrast, and through the valley runs a brook, which
forms a fine natural embellishment to the scene. The walks
are numerous and pleasingly varied by many ornamental de-
vices ; and fully worthy of a visit is
" this hill
And all it's walks of tributary trees. —
When gathered in one scene, they ask the skill
Of Poussin's beauty-breathing hand to fill
The fancy of a stranger."
The proprietor of this last-mentioned Plantation has
lateiy designed a walk, which is proposed to be made up
the Cliff, near the Waterfall at the foot of the Terrace, and
proceed over the fields to the Spaw, which has been want-
ed ever since the discovery of these celebrated mineral wa-
ters, as, when the tide is up, the progress of the drinkers
of these salubrious springs is intercepted.
WALK ON THE CLIFF-TERRACE.
This is one of the finest natural places of promenade in
the kingdom, if we take into consideration it's extent, it's
elevation, and the grand and varied prospects it affords.
" Throned on thy cliffs, how proudly thou
Survey^st the varied scene below !
In curve exact thy mansions bending,
And to the watery marge descending i
Upon that marge, in modest state,
Hygeia throwing wide her gate
(A better Cytherea she,
Risen newly from the ambient sea)
To indigent infirmity ;
Thy temple, castle, double mote,
Port, Spaw ; and circling round the whole,
Of beauty and of strength the zone.
The ocean's azure girdle thrown !"
Or, to use the words of an ancient Poet,
** For to behold, it was ane glore to se
The stablit windig, and the calmyt see,
The soft seasoun, the firmament serreue,
The loune illumined air, and firth amene;
K iritis, castelis, and ilke fair cityes,
Stude paynit, every fane, tower and stage,
Upon the plain ground, by thare own umbrage !"
This terrace is a most fascinating place during the height
of our season, when filled with company : " it is not possi-
ble to draw for the eye a more agreeable picture.*' It has
been expressed that this spot would prove a suitable situa-
tion for a Saloon, but it forms of itself the most delightful
natural Saloon that could be conceived, whose canopy is
the blue expanse, and it's confines the waters of the vast
deep. Still a Saloon, Pump-room, or some building of
that description, is yet a desideratum at Scarborough ; and
an appropriate spot has been pointed out at the head of the
water-fall, at the foot of the Cliff, which would command
a view of the Ocean, Castle-Promontory, and it's venera-
ble ruins : we wish it carried into effect.
On pacing over this Cliff one is naturally led to reflect
on objects which formerly occupied the situation. Here
stood the Church of St. Nicholas, which was, according to
the historian of Scarborough, erected so early as the reign
of Henry II. " There are not any vestiges of it to be dis-
covered, as the land has, in the course of ages, considerably
wasted away *. In the year 1786, the entire skeleton of a
human body of large stature was found in the Cliff ; the
teeth were regular, and in great preservation, which is
something remarkable, as it might probably have lain there
ever since the dissolution of religious houses in the year 1539.
• It is remarkable that an elevation of it should not have been
given in the ancient view of Scarborough, made in the reign of
Richard III. as there appears to have been some remains of it,
when Gent published his View of the town, about 1734.
A tombstone was also found here, without any inscription,
though there was a cross, &c. cut upon it, in the rudest
sculpture. Several human bones in a regular position were
also discovered in 1791 ; and, in 1810, a copper-plate ap-
pertaining to a tomb-stone. The Hospital, dedicated to
St. Nicholas, was contiguous to this Church."
Much praise is certainly due to the corporation for their
late spirited improvements here : each succeeding year
adds something to the gracefulness of the Cliff; during the
last spring the plantation of another portion of it has been
effected, and it's base protected by raised stone-work,
which, in conjunction with Mr. Henderson's similar spirit
of improvement, will form an agreeable promenade when
the tide is up.
At a short distance from the Cliff-benches,
THE SHOP OF MR. CRACKNELL
presents itself, filled with marine productions, viz. shells of
every degree of brilliance and beauty of pencilling, the
pebbles of the coast, besides others of foreign production ;
and among the works of art must be mentioned his valua-
ble assemblage of coins and medals, carvings, Oriental
china, as well as the ingeniously devised articles, in the
same line, of our own manufacture, with a great variety of
other curiosities : the interior affords a view of the ocean,
and is delightfully situated for the display of these works of
A WALK TO MR. CRAWFORD'S SHOP ON
The contents of Mr. Crawford's shop-window form a
Museum. The great variety and exquisite beauty of the
shells here exhibited is "passing wonderful!" and if a
jeu-de-mots may be allowed, to stand and minutely inspect
them will raise your feelings to the highest pitch of admira-
tion, and prompt you to exclaim with the poet,
Who can paint like nature?
Can Imagination boast, amid her gay creation,
Hues like these ?
Here in a single shell appear, at least in colours, " beryl
and emerald, amethyst and peai!,and while the image of
the sun is diffused upon them, present a flood of indescriba-
The situation of the shop too is as rural as can be con-
ceived, which certainly harmonizes with the articles ex-
hibited. It is rather a novel situation for a shop to be
rurally placed, but so this certainly is ; it stands at the
corner of a pleasant garden, whence a view of the majestic
main is obtained, and is shaded by aged trees, that add a
verdure and life to the scene, which no words can describe.
Near too, are Mr. Travis's Baths, which characterise the
place, and assimilate with the marine productions' offered
for sale. -
A shop for the sale of Derbyshire Spar ornaments, fossils,
foreign birds of beautiful plumage, &c. has just been opened
Mr. Browne, in Long-Room Street, polishes agates and
fossils with his powerful machine at Scalby-Mill ; he also
deals largely in jet ornaments. Mr. Carter's shop in the
same street, is known by his show-board, with the word
" Curiosities" in large characters exhibited thereon.
The shops in Newborough have also a display of rich
goods in their several branches.
Mr. Smith, the celebrated geologist, has often pointed
out the practicability of a carriage-road being formed at the
Castle-dykes, by which means a communication would be
effected with both the North and South Sands, and a
beautiful drive secured from the Spaw up the New Road
by the New Church, crossing the York Road and running
through the Bull-Lane, past the Seaman's Hospital to St.
Mary's Church, which would embrace one of the most
picturesque views in the county ; then descending by an
easy slope, under the bridge at the Castle foot to the North
Sands, and return by Peasholme. Although a carriage-
road might be formed at a moderate expence, yet a bridle
road or footpath might be first attempted, for the North
Sands are now only accessible by Peasholme. The majes-
tic features of the Castle-rocks form so grand an object
on the North Beach, that it is really surprising, among
the many beautiful walks in this neighbourhood, one has
never been formed here, since the sliding-ground alone
would make an excellent terrace.
A WALK FROM SCARBOROUGH TO MR.
PEARSON'S SUBSCRIPTION GARDENS,
The first object from Scarborough which strikes the eye
after passing the delightful Terrace of Brunswick and Al-
bion-Place, is " Belle- Vue House, the residence of John
Bell, Esq. ; aptly so named, as occupying one of the finest
of situations for mixed and beautiful prospect." Continu-
ing our walk along a well-gravelled and safely-defended
path by the side of the York road, we shortly reach the
village of Falsgrave, which is about one mile distant from
Scarborough. " It is certainly of great antiquity," writes
the Historian of Scarborough, " and previously to the con-
quest (1066) was part of the demesne of Tosti, Count
of Northumberland." Proceeding along the village street,
we arrive at the shop of the Statuary, described in an ani-
mated style in the work, entitled, " Prose by a Poet," and
shortly after reach the Subscription Gardens of Mr. Pear-
son, which are at the extremity of the village, in a retired
situation : the house retreats from the village-street, form-
ing before it a pleasing green : the road leading to it is
designated by the School-House, known by presenting at
jt's top, a bell, with the word Falsgrave underneath ; and
having altogether the appearance of a chapel. At the end
of Mr. Pearson's house is a genteel stone-canopied gate-
way, conducting into these gardens, which are open to the
public at a subscription of two shillings and sixpence for
the summer season, which entitles one person to walk in
them any hour in the day ; and fire shillings presents the
same privilege to a family. Non -subscribers pay one
shilling each time, and are allowed to gather and eat fruit.
The grounds abound with strawberries, choice gooseberries,
&c. and several rustic summer-houses afford pleasant
situations for resting to eat the fruit, or in which to drink
tea, presenting at the same time an attractive view of Scar-
borough Castle and the North Sands, with Belle-Vue
House in the nearer prospect. The view from these gardens
of that bold object Oliver's Mount, is very interesting : and
on quitting them, just before entering the embowered al-
cove, a most delightful view, composed of hill, valley, and
woodland scenery, presents itself, which has been pro-
nounced too beautiful and complicated for the artist to at-
tempt faithfully to delineate.
The walk beyond the village of Falsgrave as far as to
Stepney-House, is delightful ; the footpath is considerably
elevated above the carriage-road, and is very firm. Its
boundary consists of " a bank of earth, (on the ridge of
which grows a quickset-hedge,) with hundreds, perhaps
thousands, of the sloughs or cores of the horns of oxen
thrust into the face of it, the root-ends, with fragments of
the scull-bones, being turned outwards."
THE MERE TEA-GARDENS, HARWOOD DALE,
AND FISHING THERE.
The Mere Tea Gardens, about two miles from Scar-
borough, are now much frequented by those fond of rural
excursions. The house is picturesquely situated on a con-
siderable elevation, at the side of the Mere, a fine piece
of water, abounding with fish, belonging to the corporation,
who, on application, will grant leave to those who wish
to fish there. The best place for angling is said to be down
the Derwent from Hurwood Dale, a delightful valley, at a
short distance from Hackness. Harwood Dale itself is
highly deserving of a visit.
THE QUAKER'S RETREAT.
A picturesque situation, called, ' The Quaker's Retreat,'
consisting of his rural cottage and a rustic summer-house on
the edge of the cliff, overlooking the sea, a short distance
from the Spaw, round which are beds of fragrant flowers,
is much visited. " I have seen him in a morning at
labour in his garden," remarks an observer, who has kindly
permitted us to extract from his MSS. " and in an after-
noon at the town with a small basket of flowers, crying,
' Buy my Beauties ;' and thus on a bit of ground that one
might suppose would be scarcely sufficient to keep a mouse,
he contrives to make a living. A proof of what care and
industry can effect."
A WALK TO CARN ELIAN BAY.
" At last Carnelian Bay they tread,
With all it's myriad treasures spread;
Gems of all kinds— red, white, square, round,
A new Golconda above ground."
Poet. Sketches of Seurboro''.
A walk to Carnelian Bay* usually gives rise to much
mirth among parties clambering over rocky cliffs on their
progress to this small but picturesque spot : nor does this
portion of the excursion constitute it's chief delight ; as the
search for Carnelians or other pebbles occupies and amuses
some hours, and the return may be varied by proceeding
along the Bridlington road, which will be less fatiguing
than over the sands. Visitants, indeed, may order their
carriages to be in waiting there, as we conceive the tour of
the rocks will afford sufficient exercise for the day. Pai-
ticular enquiries should be made respecting the suitable
time, as visitants are sometimes intercepted in returning
by the influx of the tide,
Cayton-Cliff Mill is situated on the margin of Car-
nelian Bay. Another mode of proceeding to this place is
by engaging a pleasure-boat for the voyage. There is a
regular charge by the hour, or for the voyage.
» The following, connected with this place, was published in
1812, " The Minstrel, an Elegy; written after visiting Carne-
Cloughton-VVyke, about five miles north from Scar-
borough, presents some strikingly grand scenery to inland
visitants ; and when the tide suits, there is good fishing,
either from the boat or shore. The same may be said of
llarbum-Wyke, which has exercised the able pencil of Mr.
ENVIRONS OF SCARBOROUGH.
Scarborough is the centre and source of attraction to a
great variety of picturesque and majestic scenes both of
nature and art. The man of taste, fixing his residence
there a whole season, may find abundance of matter to
gratify his curiosity throughout that period by visiting
objects contained within a circle of 25 miles round that ro-
mantic watering-place ; and, as being in its immediate
vicinity, we will commence our descriptions with
which " is a romantic village, celebrated for the beauty of
it's scenery ; and is therefore visited by all persons of taste
and fashion who resort to Scarborough, from which it is
about six miles distant. The road conducting to it may be
taken through the villages of East and West Ayton, which
are pleasantly situated on the opposite banks of the river
Derwent. The Derwent, after winding in a confined cur-
rent through the valley from Hackness, here displays a
broader stream. On the slope of a pleasant field to the
north of West Aylon, stands the ruin of an ancient build-
ing, once the fortified residence of the family of the Eures
or Evers, who possessed large demesnes in these parts, and
in the neighbourhood of Malton.
" The village of East-Ayton * is celebrated for its charm-
ing valley, through which, is a delightful ride to Hackness.
The lofty hills which embosom this valley, rise almost per-
pendicularly, clothed with pendant woods of various foliage ;
and the river Derwent, overhung with branching shrubs
and spiry alders, meanders in its silvery course through the
vale. About a mile up the valley the road winds into
Raincliff, where there is another change of sylvan scenery,
which covers the north-west declivity of Seamer-moor. A
lane, to the left, leads to Hackness, through the village of
Evertey on the verdant slope of the opposite hill. This is
one of the most pleasant rides from Scarborough to Hack-
ness ; and the scene may be diversified by returning along
the carriage-road which descends the hill at Hay-Brow.
From the summit of this hill there is a delightful view of
the Sea and Scarborough Castle. The subjacent country,
with the picturesque village of Scalby, form a beautiful
. » Five miles from Scarborough, and four thence down the valley
to Hackness. Those who would like to walk down the vale might
proceed by the mail from Scarborough, at half-past one, P.M. as
far as Ayton, and reach Hackness to dinner : they will find a good
Inn and accomodations at the Johnstone Arms. A return by
Scalby and Newby (the distance in which line being only six
miles) will give a pleasing variation to the excursion.
" Hackness is situated in a pleasant valley, embosomed
by surrounding hills, adorned with trees of the richest
foliage. The hills are lofty, and finely variegated, differ-
ing from each other as well in shape as in ornament. The
prospects at Hackness have a charming variety ; the hand
of nature having not only enriched them with a profusion
of sylvan embellishments, but also moulded them into such
different forms and projections, as are at once picturesque
and beautiful. The road winds irregularly through the
valley, presenting at every turn a change of scenery, and
the view is sometimes improved by springs of water burst-
ing from the sides of the hills in natural cascades, or falling
in gentle murmurs."
" To this delightful solitude, Lady Hilda, the pious and
illustrious foundress of Whitby Abbey, retreated in the
evening of life, to pass her days, in sacred retirement and
meditation. The site of the monastic cell, built by Lady
Hilda, is supposed to have been where the old mansion-
house at present stands."
The Church is a pleasing rural edifice, embosomed in
verdant foliage, having, on a low tower, aspire, than which
no other kind of erection could be more happily chosen for
it's peculiar situation, as it forms, when viewed through the
openings of the woods, a most interesting object ; particu-
larly in conjunction with the mansion-house. The interior
of the church bears evident marks of antiquity, and has been
attached to the monastery of Lady Hilda. " The ancient
oak-stalls of the monks, in the choir, still remain, nearly in
their original state." It is the receptacle of a fine piece of
statuary by Chantrey, thus inscribed : " With the purest sen-
timents of conjugal affection, this monument is erected by
an afflicted husband, to the memory of Margaret Anne
Johnstone, his beloved wife, who died on the 20th day of
June 1819, in the 24th year of her age. The charms of her
person and the sweetness of her manners were graced by
the observance of every christian virtue. She was the
eldest daughter of Sir R. V. B. Johnstone, of Hackness, in
the county of York, Bart, by Dame Margaret, his wife :
and was married on the 28th day of October, 1815, to
George Johnstone, Esq. To them were born two daugh-
ters ; the eldest providence was pleased to recal, the
youngest remains to solace her father in his afflictions."
There are a few other inscriptions to the memory of the
Hobbys, who formerly possessed the manor. The canopy
over the font, and a pair of curiously embellished candle-
sticks at the altar, are worthy of inspection. In the church
library are several valuable ecclesiastical works, and we
think a " Bibliotheca Parochialis de Hackness " would not
On entering Hackness from Scalby, an elegant arched
entrance bespeaks the approach to the village, the view
through which, as it gradually unfolds itself, backed by
that uncommonly bold, fine hill near the Church, crowned
with wood of varied foliage, when tinged with the soft glow
of an evening's sun, produces an effect beyond description
The gateway itself is an appropriate and pleasing de-
sign, and is covered with a great variety of ornamental
shrubs, which are pendent over it's sides, and would form
a most interesting subject for the artist.
On the right of this gateway appears the elegant Man-
sion-house * of the proprietor of the lordship, Sir John
Vanden Bempde Johnstone, Bart, which was erected by
Sir Richard Johnstone, the father of the present owner.
Some very striking improvements have been made in the
grounds contiguous to the mansion since last summer, in
the enlargement of the sheet of water in front of the house,
the conducting of a rivulet round the woods which environ
the park, the embellishment of the sides of the carriage-road,
by plantations, the erection of a New Lodge, and other ef-
fective alterations. A few more such changes will contri-
bute toward rendering Hackness, Fairy Land, and this
sweet vale, a place of enchantment. Mason has celebrated
it in his drama, Argentile and Curan :
Sewold. — And where shall I await thee ?
Curan.— My best Sewold,
Thou knowest when we did quit our anchor'd barks,
We crossed a pleasant valley, rather say
A nest of sister rales, o'erhung with hills
Of varied form and foliage ; ev'ry vale
Had it's own proper brook, the which it hugg'd
In it's green breast, as if it fear'd to lose
» Mr. Wilson, of Scarborough, has published a view of the
House and Church.
The treasur'd crystal. You might mark the course
Of this cool rill more by the ear than eye,
For tho' they oft would to the gun unfold
Their silver as they passed, 'twas quickly lost ;
And ever did they murmur. On the verge
Of one of these clear streams there stood a cell
. G'ergrown with moss and ivy ; near to which,
On a fall'n trunk that bridg'd the little brook,
A hermit sat. Of him we ask'd the name
Of that sweet valley, and he call'd it Hakenrss.
" The high ground between Scarborough and Ayton,
called Seamer-moor, and the moora which extend westward
to Lockton and Saltergate, present many interesting ob-
jects to the eye of the antiquarian ; particularly camps,
trenches, houses, upright stones, and foundations of ancient
British dwellings. These hills are also interesting to the
naturalist, from their peculiar form ; being all flat on the
top, with steep but smooth declivities on their northern
fronts, descending at the same angle. Some of these hills
are stretched out in oblong ridges, which when their ends
are presented to the spectator, have the appearance of
haystacks. This is particularly the case with Langdale
End, and Blakey Topping ; to which we may add Oliver's
Mount, near Scarborough*."
About the midway between Scarborough and Bridlington,
is well built and pleasantly situated, being surrounded by
* Young's Picture of Whitby.
6,00G acres of fertile land, and adorned by a considerable
quantity of ornamental wood, chiefly growing on an ele-
vated site, called the Castle-hill, where are still to be
traced the foundations of an ancient fortress. From this
place the ground slopes, with a regular and almost imper-
ceptible descent, toward the beautiful and picturesque Bay
In the Parish-church is a sumptuous monument, com-
memorating those of the Osbaldeston family, who died in
the eighteenth century. Over the central arches of the
church are emblazoned, in eleven distinct shields, the armo-
rial bearings subscribed with the names of the ancient lords
of the place. The vicarage -house, which stands near
the church, of both which we give a representation, has
been greatly improved and embellished by the present in-
cumbent, the Rev. Archdeacon Wrangham, M.A. F.R.S.
The interior contains a valuable collection of books in dif-
ferent languages ; the Proprietor being a member of the
RoxbuTghe Club. A Private Catalogue of the Library is
now printing under his own inspection, rich in notes, ob-
servations, and extracts, from which the publisher of this
work has been permitted to draw up a brochure of the
most curious books in the folio and quarto English classes.
The most valuable work is an unique copy of an edition of
the Romance of Arthur, printed by Wynkyn de Worde,
" in Flete-Strete, at y e sygne of sonne. In the yere of our
lord god, M.CCCCCxxir. the xviii daye of November."
The following have been acquired since the " Bibliogra-
phical and Descriptive Tour from Scarborough to the
Library of a Philobiblist," was published :■ —
Folio. — Brydges' (Sir Egerton) Atavia Regue. Consisting of
sixty copies only, printed for private use.
Quarto. — Schooten's Account of his Discovery of the Straits
ofLeMaire. A Latin Tract. Cuts. Very rare.
The Hon. Miss Grimston's History of Goiham-
bury, with Engravings. Unpublished. The
whole, both text and illustrations, in litho-
Sisson's Parish Church, Wakefield, L p. Proof
plates on India paper ... Wakefield, 1 824.
Octavo. — Barbier's Famous Game of Chesse-play, by
Saul. Cuts. 1640
Brydges' Polyanthea Librorum Vetustiorum.
■ Cimelia ......< Ibid.
— — Valerianus De Literatorum Infelicitate.
N.B. Of each of these three volumes only 75 copieswere
Catalogue (with names and prices) of Sir M. M.
Sykes' Library, in three parts.
Cole's Bibliographical, &c. Tour. Coloured paper,
illustrated Searbro', 1824.
Only two copies so coloured.
Conybeare's Octavian, Emperor of Rome, abridged
from a MS. in the Bodleian Library.
" Printed only for private distribution."
Cruden (Alex.) on the Superlapsarian Scheme
Grace, .Memoirs of the family of, &c. &c. Unpub-
lished, pt 1823
Hey, (the late Dr. John) on the Writings of St.
Paul. Unpublished Buckingham, 1811
Home's (T. H.) Memoir of Bp. Beveridge. Only
S'ucopies so printed 1824
Irby's and Mangles' Travels in Egypt, &c. Map,
" Printed only for private distribution."
Madden on the Encouragement of Learning in
Dublin College, &c. Dublin, 1732, 1733
Pope's Temple of Fame, and Messiah, in Latin
Verse, by Gahagan 1748
" Done sfoice his confinement in one of the cells in
N. B. This unfortunate Scholar, who had previously
translated the Essay on Criticism, anil edited
Brindley's Classics, was hanged for filing gold
money ! Vide MS. note.
Lord Grenville'sNugas Metrics, 4to. Oxford, 1824.
" Printed for private distribution."
Les neuf Preux, nouvellement imprime a Paris,
6. 1, folio, with a singular initial L and Colo-
phon • Mich, le i\oir' 1507
a small fishing town, eight miles south from Scarborough,
is much visited by the frequenters of that ancient watering-
place, and is upon the banks of a spacious bay, which,
with the assistance of art, would make an excellent har-
bour. The shore is circular, and the sands are beautifully
smooth, firm, and extensive. The Cliffs, to the eastward,
are lofty, and curiously indented, resembling the spires of a
Cathedral ; but, to the westward, they decline considerably
from their elevation, until they join those at Speeton. Filey
is singularly situated in the North and East-Ridings of
Yorkshire ; the church being in the former, and the town
in the latter. The beach is convenient for sea-bathing, and
there is a spring of mineral water, a mile to the north of
the church, which contains a little iron, sea salt in con-
siderable quantity, Epsom salt, and calcareous earth.
" At the eastern extremity of the sands, an extraordinary
ridge or natural mole of rocks, called Filey-Bridge, projects
nearly half a mile into the sea, and is a great protection to
the bay in tempestuous weather. At high-water, the rocks
are overflowed ; but when the tide is low, there is a
passage along them to the outer extremity, whence is a
fine view of Flamborough-Head and Scarborough Castle.
In stormy weather, the sea breaks with great violence
against these rocks, and the breach of the foaming waves is
frequently seen from Scarborough. The fishery at Filey is
prosecuted with great spirit and success."
The Cliffs of Flamborough, about twenty mile6 distant
from Scarborough, are well worth inspecting : " they are
of amazing grandeur and a tremendous height, from one
hundred to a hundred and fifty yards perpendicular. They
are composed of a mouldering limestone rock, of a snowy
whiteness, covered and adorned with an astonishing num-
ber of birds, remarkable for the variety and brilliancy
of their plumage. From the latter end of April to the
beginning of August, myriads resort thither, to build their
pensile nests, and trust their eggs and tender offspring to
the exposed and dangerous security of broken rocks, and
" At the foot of the Cliffs, are some extensive Caverns,
formed either by the restless turbulence of the ocean, gra-
dually and imperceptibly excavating the solid rock, or by
some unknown cause of distant origin. There are three,
which exceed the others in extent and curiosity. The
principal is Robin Lyth's Hole, which surpasses the rest
in extent of dimensions. It has two openings, one commu-
nicating with the land, the other with the sea. The for-
mer is low and narrow, giving solemn admission into the
cavern, which, at the first entrance, is surrounded with a
tenebriose gloom ; but the darkness gradually dispersing,
the magnificence becomes unfolded, and excites the admi-
ration of the exploring stranger. The floor is a solid rock,
formed into broad steps of an easy descent, and the stones,
at the sides, are curiously variegated. The roof is finely
arched, and nearly fifty feet high at the centre. The many
projecting ledges and fragments of suspended rocks, joined
to the great elevation, give it an awful, and, at the
same time, a majestic appearance ; and when looking up-
wards to survey the lofty arch, and reflect upon the
superincumbent mass sustained by it, there is a difficulty in
suppressing those ideas of danger which intrude upon such
Near Flamborough is situated the celebrated Light-
House, which, from it's elevated situation, may be seen at
a great distance. The interior may be viewed on appli-
From Flamborough, an excursion to the church of Brid-
lington should be made, which presents interesting speci-
mens of the architecture of various periods ; for a minute
description of which, and several antiquities connected
with this edifice, we refer our readers to Mr. Thompson's
valuable Historical Sketches of Bridlington.
In the church-yard at Rudston, a village five miles west
from Bridlington, " is an obelisk* highly worthy the atten-
tion of the antiquary." It consists of one entire and im-,
mensely large stone, of itself a curiosity ; the erection of
which has been ascribed to the Druids, the Romans, &c. ;
* A lithographic view of this obelisk has been lately published
by J. Cole.
and as no description can present an adequate idea of its
magnitude and effects, combined with the adjacent scenery,
we earnestly recommend a visit to the original, which is a
venerable object of antiquity.
«» ROBIN HOOD'S BAY
is a small fishing town, thirteen miles north from Scar-
borough*, and is frequently visited by strangers, on account
of the alum-works in its vicinity. The road to it is stony
and uneven, over a dreary barren moor, and the hill at
Stoupe-brow t is impracticable for a carriage. On descend-
ing this hill, from the moor to the sands at Robin Hood's
Bay, the road passes the alum-works, where the curiosity
of the traveller is gratified with a view of those immense
mountains of alum-stone from which the salt is extracted ;
and the interior works are worthy of observation.
' ' The road from the alum- works to the village of Robin
Hood's Bay, is along the sandy beach, close under a high,
steep cliff, to which the sea flows as the tide advances,
and the passage is unsafe, except there be a spacious area
of the sand uncovered by the water, or the tide be reced-
* Between Scarborough and Robin Hood's Bay are only two
villages; Burniston four miles, and Cloughton five miles from
Scarborough. There is nothing worthy of note at these places,
except a quarry of freestone at the latter, from whence the Ca»tle
of Scarborough is said to have been built,
t About two miles from Eobin Hood's Bay.
" The Sea-coast northward from Scarborough is craggy,
wild, and terrific, bending inward as far as the River Tees,
and by its winding, forming this bay, nearly a mile in
breadth. The sands here, are firm and level ; but the
shore, at a little distance from the Cliff, is rocky ; and there
is only a narrow passage from the sea, where the fishing
boats can land in safety.
" The village consists of the habitations of fishermen,
and once made a grotesque appearance, the houses being
strangely scattered over the face of a steep cliff, and some
of them hanging in an awful manner on the projecting
ledges of the precipice ; but this place has lately sustained
a great alteration by the falling of the cliff ; in consequence
of which, the projecting houses and the pavement of the
principal street as far as the fronts of the houses on the
opposite side, are ruined, and a new road has been made
from the landing-place through the interior part of the town.
The village derives its name from that famous outlaw,
At about the distance of seven miles from this fishing-
place is situated the town of
the most interesting objects in which place are the
venerable ruins of its Abbey, and the Museum of " the
Literary and Philosophical Society," which is open from
eleven to one o'clock on Tuesday and Thursday in every
week. " The moat interesting article lately purchased
is the Fossil Crocodile, discovered in the Cliff, near Salt-
wick. The existence of the crocodile among the large
animals imbedded in the alum-shale, had not hitherto been
satisfactorily ascertained : but this specimen establishes
the fact beyond all doubt."
The Rev. G. Young, of Whitby, has published a valua-
ble " Picture of Whitby and its Environs."
The pier at this place is worthy of examination, being a
massive one of wrought stone.
A delightful ride by the sea-side, of three miles in extent,
may be taken from Whitby to Lyth, by Sandsend ; but it
should never be undertaken by strangers without full infor-
mation from persons residing upon the spot, of the practi-
cability of completing it in easy time. The author of
" the Perambulator's Guide to the Scarborough Sands"
was once crossing this place in the company of a gentleman
of London, who, unconscious of the difference between
driving on wet or loose sand and on hard road, very soon
knocked up a fine horse and brought him to a stand still,
before he had got half way over it.
which is eighteen miles westward from Scarborough, lies
in the road to Kirkby Moor-side and Duncombe Park, and
was formerly the chief town of the district, and once sent
two members to parliament. The situation is upon a
pleasant eminence. The castle at present is in a very
ruinous state ; but not many years since, some of the towers
had wooden floors entire, and doors to the dungeons. The
castle-hill commands a charming view of the vale of Pick-
ering, which is celebrated for its fertility. The following
ancient description of the country from Scarborough to
Pickering, from Leland's Itinerary, may prove useful.
" From Scardeburgh to Aiton three miles, where coming
over Derwent, I saw a Manor-place * sometime belonging
to a knight called Aiton ; but now to the best of the Yevers
(Evers). At this manor-place is a tower or pile. Thence
to Brunston (Brompton) three or four miles, and three
miles more to Wileton, where is a manor-place with a
tower belonging to Cholmeley. Cholmeley hath a house
at Rollesby. Thence to Pykering ; and most of the ground
from Scardeburgh to Pykering was by bill and dale plenti-
ful of corn and grass."
is a market town situated near the River Rye. It was
originally called Kirkby, and received the additional epithet
Moorside, from its situation on the side of Blackmoor. It is
distant from Scarborough about twenty-six miles. Kirkby
* A View is given in «• the Portfolio" published by Sherwood
Moorside and Helmsley (including Duncombe Park) were
part of the extensive possessions of Villiers, Duke of Buck-
ingham, who was killed by Felton.
The manner of the death of the succeeding Duke, who,
" by an unbounded extravagance and dissipation wasted
the immense inheritance of his family, and died in extrem e
want and misery April 15th, 1687," is well known from the
muse of Pope ; which has given celebrity to his dying
scenes, and depicted his condition and that of his dwelling,
in the following energetic lines :
«' In the worst inn's worst room, with mat balf-bung,
The floors of plaster, and the walls of dung,
On once a flock-bed, but repalr'd with straw,
With tape-ty'd curtains never meant to draw,
The George and Garter dangling from that bed,
Where tawdry yellow strove with dirty red,
Great Villiers lies, — alas ! how changed from him,
That life of pleasure, and that soul of whim !
Gallant and gay in Clifdeu's proud alcove,
The bower of wanton Shrewsbury and love ;
Or just as gay at council, in a ring
Of mimic statesmen, and their merry King.
No wit to flatter left of all his store.
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more.
There, victor of his health, of fortune, friends,
And fame, this lord of useless thousands ends."
The following is a copy of the register :
1687. April 17th. Gorges vilaus Lord dooke of bookingham."
The copy of a letter from the Earl of Arran, afterward
Duke of Hamilton, to a friend, appeared in the Whitehall
paper in 1784, saying " that the Earl passing through
Kirkby Moorside, attended (accidentally) the Duke's last
moments ; — that he died April 1.5th, 1687, (aged 60) and
having no person to direct his funeral, and the Earl being
obliged to pursue his journey, he engaged Gibson
Esq., (a gentleman of fortune at Welburne, near Kirkby
Moorside) to see him decently interred."
The house * in which this unfortunate nobleman expired
is situated in the Market-place ; being at present occupied
by Mr. Cole. During the summer-season it is much visited
by the curious.
" There is no tradition here of the house in which the Duke
of Buckingham died ever having been an Inn, and from it's
present appearance it must at that time have been, except-
ing one, the best house in the town. It is built in the
ancient style, with projecting wings. The length of the
front is 16 yards : and whatever improvements may have
been made in the house since that time, the shell of it
remains as it was. The room in which the Duke died is
on the second floor in front of the house, and is the best
lodging room in it. The boards are fir, which were there
at the time of his decease. Many years after his death a
seal was found in a crevice, in the room in which he ex-
pired, having the Buckingham arms on it, which is supposed
• A view of this building has lately made it's appearance in
Svo. Published by J. Cole, Scarborough.
to have been his ; and is now in the posssssion of Mr.
The following pathetic letter, written by the Duke in his
last illness, shows that he sincerely repented of the actions
of his past life.
" From the Younger Villiers, Duke of Buckingham,
on his death-bed, to Dr. W .
" Dear Doctor,
ft I always looked upon you to be a person of true
virtue, and know you to have a sound understanding ; for,
however I may have acted in opposition to the principles of
religion, or the dictates of reason, I can honestly assure
you, I have always had the highest veneration for both.
The world and I shake hands ; for I dare affirm, we are
heartily weary of each other. O, what a prodigal have I
been of that most valuable of all possessions, Time ! I have
squandered it away with a profusion unparalleled ; and
now, when the enjoyment of a few days would be worth the
world, I cannot flatter myself with the prospect of half a
dozen hours. How despicable, my dear friend, is that
man who never prays to his God but in the time of dis-
tress ! In what manner can he supplicate that Omnipotent
Being, in. his afflictions, whom in the time of his prosperity,
-he never remembered with reverence 1
" Do not brand me with infidelity, when I tell you, that
I am almost ashamed to ofl'er up my petitions at the throne
of Grace, or to implore that divine mercy in the next
•world, which I have so scandalously abused in this.
" Shall ingratitude to man be looked upon as the blackest
of crimes, and not ingratitude to God 1
" Shall an insult offered to the king be looked upon in
the most offensive light, and yet no notice taken when
the King of kings is treated with indignity and disre-
" The companions of my former libertinism would scarcely
believe their eyes, were you to show this epistle. They
would laugh at me as a dreaming enthusiast, or pity me
as a timorous wretch, who was shocked at the appearance
of futurity ; but whoever laughs at me for being right, or
pities me for being sensible of my errors, is more entitled
to my compassion than resentment. A future state may
well enough strike terror into any man who has not acted
well in this life ; and he must have an uncommon share of
courage indeed, who does not shrink at the presence of
God. The apprehensions of death will soon bring the
most profligate to a proper use of his understanding. To
what a situation am I now reduced ! Is this odious little hut
a suitable lodging for a Prince 1 Is this anxiety of mind be-
coming the character of a Christian? From my rank, I
might have expected affluence to wait upon my life ; from
religion and understanding, peace to smile upon my end :
instead of which, I am afflicted with poverty, and haunted
with remorse, despised by my country, and, I fear, for-
saken by my God.
" There is nothing so dangerous as extraordinary abilities.
I cannot be accused of vanity now, by being sensible that I
was once possessed of uncommon qualifications, especially
as I sincerely regret that I ever had them. My rank in
life made these accomplishments still more conspicuous,
and, fascinated by the general applause which they pro-
cured, I never considered the proper means by which they
should be displayed. Hence, to procure a smile from a
blockhead whom I despised, I have frequently treated the
virtues with disrespect ; and sported with the holy name
of Heaven, to obtain a laugh from a parcel of fools, who
were entitled to nothing but contempt.
" Your men of wit generally look upon themselves as
discharged from the duties of religion, and confine the doc-
trines of the gospel to meaner understandings. It is a
sort of derogation, in their opinion, to comply with the
rules of Christianity ; and they reckon that man possessed
of a narrow genius, who studies to be good.
" What a pity that the holy writings are not made the
criterion of true judgment ; or that any person should pass
for a fine gentleman in this world, but he that appears soli-
citous about his happiness in the next !
" I am forsaken by all my acquaintance, utterly neglected
by the friend of my bosom, and the dependants on my
bounty ; but no matter ! I am not fit to converse with the
former, and have no ability to serve the latter. Let me
not, however, be wholly cast off by the good. Favour me
with a visit as soon as possible. Writing to you gives ma
some ease, especially on a subject I could talk of for
'* I am of opinion this is the last visit I shall ever solicit
from you ; my distemper is powerful : come and pray for
the departing spirit of the poor unhappy —
On the road from Kirkby Moorside to Helmsley, and
Duncombe Park, is tbe celebrated
of the discovery of which, we extract the following from
Young and Bird's " Geological Survey of the Yorkshire
" The labourers at the quarry of stone for repairing roads
at Kirkdale, having removed the alluvium from above a
fresh piece of the rock, in the north part of the quarry, and
wrought this rock downwards for a few feet, discovered, in
July 1821, a cavern running horizontally from the slope of
the bank eastward, and then making a turn to the north
" The operation of the workmen laid open that part of
the cave which extended from the bank to the remarkable
turn now mentioned, a distance of forty-six feet. The
aperture towards the slope was nearly square, being about
two feet each way ; but it became considerably wider to-
wards the turn, and a little higher. The stratum forming
the floor was flat and unbroken, and was thickly covered
with bones and teeth, not lying in distinct skeletons, but
strewed about in the greatest confusion, and mixed with a
soft marly earth, apparently resulting from the decompo-
sition of bones. The bones had scarcely any appearance
of being water-worn ; a few of them were tolerably entire,
but the greater part consisted of broken fragments of leg
bones, thigh bones, jaw bones, &c. ; and many of them
were greatly decomposed, being nearly in the state of
phosphate of lime, and ready to crumble into powder.
The teeth were found, partly in the fragments of jaws, and
partly detached. The quantity of bones, in this part of
the cavern, was reckoned to exceed a cart load. The roof
and sides of the cavern were, in many places, incrusted
with stalactites, masses of which were also mixed with
the bones *."
At a short distance from this cave, is Kirkdalb Church,
situated in a fine romantic valley, and celebrated for a
dial, bearing a very ancient inscription f.
the property of C. S. Duncombe, Esq. is an ancient market-
town, in a pleasant situation, on the banks of the river
Rye, six miles from Kirkby Moorside. The cultivated part
of, the country contiguous to it is fertile, and abounds with
* Professor Buckland, P. G. S. has published a very interesting
volume on the subject of this cavern, and the remains found in it.
t S*.e a description of Duncombe Park, Rievaux Abbey, &c.
price 2s. 6d. and Eastmead's Hixtoria Ricvallensis, 8vo.
venerable woods ; but, at a distance, the- barren moors ap-
pear in view.
The remains of the castle are grand and imposing, con-
sisting of a lofty tower ; and some other detached broken
parts, with a noble gateway, situated upon an eminence
surrounded with a double moat. This tower, in conjunction
with the rich woodland scenery around, forms a prominent
and most interesting object from the exquisite terrace be-
longing to Duncombe Park.
Visitants will find excellent accommodations at the New
Inn, at Helmsley, from which place the road * is usually
a stately vestige of antiquity, situated in a pleasant vale,
about three miles from Duncombe Park. The ruins yet stand-
ing, are noble, and prove the abbey to have been of great
extent. The situation is not to be surpassed in picturesque
beauty. At a little distance from the abbey, are the gar-
* Parties generally take their vehicle to the Abbey, whence they
walk to Duncombe Park along the fine terrace, called the Bank
Top, which is near the Abbey ruins, and return through the Park
to Helmsley, in which course the ruins of the Castle will meet
the eye, and call for minute examination. Those who can spare
time, should contrive to devote two days to the excursion , sleep,
ing the first night at Kirkby Moorside, or at Helmsley, and pro-
ceeding the next morning to inspect those majestic and enchant-
dener's apartments, whence there is a steep and winding
path ascending to a charming terrace, which overlooks the
ruins, and commands the most beautiful and diversified
prospects. At one end is an elegant pavilion ornamented
with paintings ; at the other a handsome circular temple,
whence appears an extensive valley richly adorneu witn
wood and water. The north side of the terrace is defend-
ed by a thick plantation of firs, and the slopes are covered
with a variety of trees and shrubs. Indeed the scenery is
altogether beyond description fascinating.
the seat of C. S. Duncombe, Esq. is about two miles from
Helmsley. The house is a fine building designed by Sir
John Vanbrugh. In the JtiaJl, a noble room, sixty feet long
and forty wide, surrounded with fourteen large Corinthian
pillars of stone, is that invaluable piece of sculpture, the
Dog of Alcibiades, the performance of the celebrated Myron,
and the celebrated statue of the Discobolus, which is es-
teemed the first statue in England. The saloon has, in
spirit with the laudable fashion of the times, lately been
converted into a library. The collection of paintings, though
not very numerous, is extremely capital and choice.
We must not fail to notice to the traveller, that By land
Abbey, an interesting ruin, is only about four miles from
the seat of the Earl of Carlisle, six miles to the west of
Malton *, (which place is distant twenty-two miles from
Scarborough,) stands upon a beautiful eminence in view of
the York road, and is esteemed one of the noblest mansions
in this county. It was built from a design of Sir John
Vanbrugh. The large and princely collection of antique
busts, statues, marbles, urns, and paintings, with which
this mansion is enriched, affords a high gratification to the
admirers of the fine arts, while the liberality of the noble
proprietor entitles him to the praise and gratitude of the
public, for allowing them to participate of the pleasures
arising from such a repository of taste.
An enumeration of the whole of the paintings here would
be too extensive for insertion : a selection only will, there-
fore, be introduced. The three of greatest reputation,
formed a part of the Orleans collection. The most cele-
brated picture is that of the Three Maries, by Annibal Ca-
In this astonishing effort of art all the excellencies of
painting are united. With respect to the reputed value of
* The York Coach might be taken in the morning at seven for
Malton, where at the Talbot Inn are good accommodations, and
there would be sufficient time to inspect the house, and return to
Malton to meet the coach about three p. m. for Scarborough.
this extraordinary performance, it has been alledged that
the court of Spain proposed to cover it with louis-d'ors, and
that this would have amounted to eight thousand. The
following lines were composed on seeing a lady burst into
tears, upon contemplating this exquisite performance.
" The veil * withdrawn, in plenitude of art,
The tragic subject storm'd the Christian heart j
Still, as she bow'd with reverential awe
O'er the dead author of the living law,
And view'd the anguish of contrasted woes,
Congenial sorrows in her breast arose :
Rooted she stood, i ntranc'd in speechless grief,
Pure as her love, | nd strong as her belief;
Her bosom glow'd, her heart refus'd to beat,
'Till gushing tears allay'd the fervent heat :
Such hallow'd tears as saints and angels shed.
When from the cross, redemption rear'd her head ;
Tears sooth'd by hope, which now maturely beam'd,
A Saviour martyr'd— -but a world redeem'd."
The following must be particularly noticed :
The Entombing if Christ — Ludovico Caracci; The Finding
of Moses — Dim Diego Velasquez; Adoration of our Saviour by
the Wise Men — M abuse ; The Portrait of Snyders — Vandyck ;
Herodias with the Head of John the Baptist in a Charger —
Rubens; The Circumcision — Giovanni Bellani ; Isaac going to
be sacrificed — Rembrandt; Saint John the Evangelist — Do-
menichino ; Portrait of Omni — Sir Joshua Reynolds.
* The picture is shaded by a curtain.
The Park is enriched with several ornamental buildings,
viz. a Mausoleum, an Ionic Temple, a stately Obelisk, &c.
A view of this mansion from a drawing by J. Jackson,
R. A. has lately been published.
Take Scarborough and its environs in conjunction, and
there will be found " Scenes worthy of the pen of Virgil, or
the pencil of Loiraine."
J. COLE, PRINTER, SCARBOROUGH.
Infirmary .... 13
Lines on, 14
Baths, Travis's 39
near the Piers ...40
Blue stone 59
Charitable Institutions.. 11
Church, St. Mary's 18
Cloughton Wyke 75
Customs of Scarborough, 38
in 1733 ...15
Drawing, Music, Dancing,
French, &c. Masters . . 55
Duncombe Park 100
, P " se
Excursions upon the Sea,
observations on 46
Flamborough Cliffs .... 86
Helmsley . 98
Horses to be let 54
Kirkby Moorside 91
Kirkdale Cavern 97
Libraries ..... .47, 50, 53
Lodgings 57, 59
Minerals and Fossils . . 48
Mount Oliver • 64, 80
Museums 47, 89
Pianofortes for hire • • • • 55
Rievaux Abbey 99
Robin Hood's Bay 88
Tide, high and strong, of
Feb. 3 and 4, 1825 ..36
Observations on . . 44
— News-Room and
Walks in the immediate Vi-
cinity of Scarborough, 62
on the Cliff-terrace, 66
to Mr. Cracknell's
to Mr. Crawford's, ib.
Mr. Pearson's Gar-
Carnelian Bay, 74
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