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de rebus hibernicis 

Charles Vallancey 

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No. XIII. ThcIodhanMo- 

rain, or Breaft-piate of 

The Liath Meifidth. 
The Brazen Image. 
The Charter Horn. 
The Harp of Brien Boiromh. 
The IriQi Crown. 
The Patene Urn, &c. 
The Crotal, Corabafhas, or 

Cibbual, &c. 
The Brafs Tools. 
The Tuagh Snaighte. 
The Implements of War. 
The Puriny Seic Seona, 

Cloch Tag. 
The Cead, R^ Re. 

The Fainidh-Draoieach.— 
Tair-Faimh, Boil-Reann, 

No. XIV. A Vindication 
pf the Ancient Hiftory of 
Ireland j wherein is (hewn 

I. ThcDcfcent of its old In- 
habitants from the Phxno- 
Scythians of the Eaft. 

a. The early Skill of the 
Phmo-Scythiansy inNa- 
vigation. Arcs, and Lec« 

3. Several Accounts of the 
Ancient Irifh BarcU, au- 
thenticated from parallel 
.Hiftory, facred and pro- 
fane> &c. 





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C O N T E N .T S 


No. Xlll. The lodhan Morain, or Breaft-plate of 
Judgment, - > . Page , 

The Liath Meificith, 


- • 13 

The Brazen Image, 




The Charter Horn, 



The Harp of Brien Boiromh, 

1 .- 



The Iriflx Crown^ 



The Paterse Urn, &c. 



The Crotal, Corabafnas, or i 



: .'" "^^ 

The Brafs Tools, 






The Implements of War, 




The Purin, Scic Scpna,' Cloch Tag, 


. 64 

The Cead Rai Re, 




The Fainidh-Draoieach. 

&c. . . - - 



Mr. 0*Coner's Thhxl Letter, - - - 107 

Propofals for coUeAing Materials for publlfhing the an- 
tient and prefent State of the feveral Counties of 
Ireland, - - - - ' 141 

Letter from Dr. Macbride, - - 155 


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No. XIV. A Vindication of the anticnt Hiftoiy of 

Chap. L Genealogical Tables of the Iriih Colonies^ 

Page I 

IL The Topographical Names of Ireland, 14 

III. Expedition of Partholan^ - - 2 j 

ly. ■ of Nemed, - - 40 

y. of the Eirbolg, Fir D'Omnann, 

or Fir Galeon, - - - 129 

VI. Expedition of the Tuatha Dadann, i j i 

Vll. of Phcnius Pharla, - 254 

VIIL ofMilefius - - 291 

IX. proved from Spanifli Autho- 
rity, . . . 325 

X. Coi^cluilonj - - - 3jj| 

. XI. Of Paganifm in general. Of the Pagan 
Religion of the ahtlcnt trifli, ' - ^82 

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Hits ^ 

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Colk&anea de Rebus Hihemicis. 


BY C. V A L L A N C E Y, L.L. p. 

•« He tUkmmfwrHkm MatUr hfir§ *i hcMnth hi If is- My 

P&OT. XTiiL 13. 

GaUoraiU nomen fiijiin indhUife.,^ ; * ' '■ ' ' " ""* ' ^' "^ 

8. Bo^tfAifiie 'An^ GofTcUnl Tfter. Gaikmiiii 

• . . ... ;. -: ^f^'.^^^f y-J*- '*Mt M . .,.,: ; ..! 

Ciffitendes infiilvdeonxviiint mntesto^-^^iwfiidi t^nporibttt' H^' Plutekfef 
i Ga^bfueb-iitiSoditulb iv«rtBC; e^biittd al^ 

Qui pent dootcr q«ie licM^tfefpOadeiMtt'^iu^ Mrtnftlet i<f*^i^ J9^r^'pa^t 
tut de fiedes ibitmclc* Phedkkiu,-Mt tiee let Cartha^iud^'^^e^.^ 
cut dooD^ line connoiflauice parfidt, non feulcraent dei' mb^f^*;^ Vfes 
caiitumcB, mais auiG de la Religion Phcnidennc. Ce. Commerce m^o. 
n^anroit pa fe'iboteitf^ l^ndant tin fi long ctjjiias de temps,' ( lcs']^heiii«' 
deal n'enfleflt point en du»>et UteififKi grands etiblifleih^n^'aYec'libert^ 
&f iMkt frmfifm fMiqm Je ieai^ tUOgitiytixa; par cbns^qnetif , ne poutoit 
^tn ignorce dei natorels do polls r b "eld' vtAmt Ires TraUemblabJe ^ue ^ 
fut de CCS Infolaires, dont let 8ak6Ri te^i^iit U connbidince Si Ciilte 
d' Aftarte, c'eft-a-dire d* Ifis, par le moyci^ du commerce qu'ils ei)reat do 
toirt temps for Ics dkes des Ifies BitomM<itfe^ .. 

* Abb^'f^'I^Dfltaii), mem. dc Litter, T. 7» 

I win (end thofe that efcape of them, unto the nations, to Tarfliifh, Pul and 
Lod, that draw the bow: to Tubal and Javan, TO THE ISLES 
AFAR OFF, that have not heard my fame, neither have feen mj 
^tory, and they Audi declare my glory among the Gentiles. 

IsAiAU, Ixvi 15}. 





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On confoiidles terms' ancieas, difi^ment cloigncs du bereetn da moade; 
StBfm km fait grace dt^h, ftkipidflSr^on iTy ^otTqu^lgnbraace 3l tcae- 

Lett, fur rori^^ABf^cionces : addnfii^ 
m M. VoiUire par M. BaillyJ 

I ft fV^"*^"* •*n«^«t <pMt 1«> wftMi* it* c^ Jr lie Mtgof, de Gm &dc 
M^4(q Jcfai^&deM9tf^^lf^^ T^i^^J^ aotoricur. 

tid dMC aoos atoitf £dt k nom ik U Cbuic. 

J[.ett. fyx ^At^ai^f. ^c Pl>tOB. par M. BaiUr. 

X#es laogves bicii oomia^y Men ^todiees peinrent done reveler Torisme dec 
peu^^i^ Im W^ntc* Ici .n^. ^uUU oafc M)il6sr k tcnic des coftoail^ 
Alices 9J^iUlbMtafni|^4pk iMft«rified0 kurt^iril. 

On peut Tegarder Ics peuplesde la Grece & de Tltalic comme les deCceadans 
des Phenifiens fk dcs Pipygle^ : mmlf§ psffgk^x^ Nord* qui pnri^iant 
nRL^N^,QJ9 ds U Riii4q^,.asaic»tdaBc lUKi origm ot^moMme aircc ks 

Les pcsDples en Toiageant n'^ p^ Ghan|2 4c noa^ p| 4^4^: 21s oat 
inpoic i dcf pi|is nouTeanpL d^' w^ipsianafin^ de^ nooM fiuniUm Ac ebon. 

JLe prefcfit eft le fib dapa(f^ U luji fcij^afale: oe qtc mam lUbas de crs 
andeifu ^ms eft rhUbirf 4f •'¥^ ipn^atioas §^ An^^ue 9^ now aii9«s 
tiani^wrtc la France, rAoglctcpe 4(.i*S4)ag|ie« 

d nc font pas entreprendre it IpViur. caflercment le TOfk d^ (lantkyuU ; ce 
voile eft. di^rgi da poi^, dft Unt de fiocles, U faut tant d'cfTorU poor en 
foidetcr une'pthic ; c*eft Vicn aftez d*appercctoir quelqae chofe. 


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DireSHotu to the Binder* 

a— ', — to 

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1 HE beginning of nations, (fays our prince of 
poets, John Milton) thofe excepted of whom facred 
books have fpoken, is to this day unknown. Nor 
only the beginning, but the deeds alfo of many fuc- 
ceeding ages ; yea, periods of ages, either wholly 
unknown, or obfcured and blemiflied with fables. 
That any law or fuperftition'^ of the Druids forbad ^ 
the Britons to write their memorable deeds, I know 
not why any, out of Casfar, fhould alledge. He 
indeed faith, that their doftrine they thought not 
laiR-ful to commit to letters ; but in moft matters 
dfe, both in private and publick, among which well 
may hiftory be reckoned, they ufed the Greek 
tongue. And that the Britifh Druids, who taught 
thofc in Gaul, would be ignorant of any language 
known and ufed by their difciples, or fo frequently 
writing pther things, and fo inquifitive into higheft. 
Vol. IV. No.Xin. B would 

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would for want of recording, be ever children in the 
knowledge of times and ages, is not likely. What- 
ever might be the reafon, this we find, that of Britifli 
affairs, from the firft peopling of the ifland, to the 
coming of Julius Caefar, nothing certain, either by 
tradition, hiftory, or antient fame, hath hitherto been 
left us. That which we have of oldeft feeming, hath 
by the greater part of judicious antiquaries, been 
long rejeded as a modern fable *.'* 

Scripture, is certainly the only ftandard of all 
antient hiftory, and the touchftone by which the 
truth of it may be tried. Heathen writers, who, 
unaffifted by this, attempt to fearch into antiquity, 
have no ftay whereon to reft. Herodotus on all oc- 
qafions talks familiarly of a myriad of years before 
his time. The Greeks, fpeaking of their own coun- 
try and its inhabitants, thought it enough to fay 
that they ever were Aurtx^^ji^^ or Aborogines, and the 
antient Irifh denominated themfelves Atach-iuath f . 
In Egypt, the priefts were the poffeffors of learning, 
and intrufted with the public records. Heredotus, 
Plato and Diodorus went thither for information ; 
when they talked of the duration of their monarchy, 
the round number, the priefts generally affefted to 
fpeak in, was ten thoufand years ago. But they who 
pretended to be more exaft, told Diodorus, that 
from their firft king Ofiris to Alexander the great, 
were precifely 23,000 years. 

The Greeks ftill knew lefs : they were totally ig- 
norant of the hiftory of the elder ages and remote 

♦ Milton's Hiftory of England. 

t O Conor's Slate of Heathen IrUh, N^, XII. 

countries ; 

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countries ; therefore they made their invention fuppljf 
the want of the knowledge of fads, 

quicquid Grascia meiidax 

Audet in hiftoriis 

Yet this is the foundation of hiftory impreffed on out 
minds ^t fchool ; and With great difficuhy can we 
unfhackle ourfelves from our fchool education, when 
we come to more mature age. It is not furprizing 
that the Irifh bards and hiflorians (hould follow the 
examples of the Greeks, whofe fables are extolled to 
the fldes by our tutors : and fo Wanton have been out* 
own countrymen to miflead the world in our own 
hiftory, that Jofeph of Exeter, afterwards archbifhop 
of Bourdeaux, famous in poetry and good learnings 
under Henry 11. and Richard I. compofed a poem 
under the name of Cornelius Nepos, where he makes 
the Britons aid Hercules at the rape of Hefione, and 
Apollo to aid them in the Trojan war/' And indeed 
this critick age, (fays Selden, fpeaking of the Welfli 
Brutus) can fcarce any longer endure any nation^ 
their firft fuppofed audiors name^ not Italus to the 
Italian, not Hifpalus to the Spaniard, Scota to the 
Scot, nor Romulus to his Rome, efpecially this of 
Brutus •." 

And the very learned Gebelin expreffes himfelf 
thus, '* on eft tojours etonn^ quand on voit des 
favans auteurs s'egarer a ce point : il eft vrai que les 
Grecs eux-m8mes font de mauvais guides fur Tori* 
gin t." 

• Sclden's Kotcs on Drayton'i Polyalbiori^ 
t Hiftoria Ginle du Calendrien 

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How then are we to trace the origin of Weflern 
nations? Are we to follow the fabulous Greeks, 
Graeci profeft6, levis, inconllans, mendax, fuper- 
ftitiofa gens Temper habiti ; qui ^^r^cTra^'iolcf, veritatem 
novis fubinde figmentis ita immutarunt & pene 
obliterarunt, ut &c. &c. * Or (hall we depend on du- 
bious etymolggy, and adopt the fyflems of Bochart, 
Heydegger, Berofus Annius Viterbenfis, &c. Can it 
be proved that countries have always been named 
from chiefs, princes and' dukes, in preference to th(e 
' fituation, features, or prt>duce of the foil ? No— the 
contrary appears in ten thoufand inflances. What 
then is to b^ our guide f The fureft, is the language, 
laws^ religion and cudoms of the people, compared 
with thofeof other nations; **le langue d*une nation,'* 
fays Fourmont, " pft tojours le plus reconnoiflable 
de fes monumens ; par elle on apprend fes anti- 
quitez, on deccuvre fon origine.** 

It is by this never failing touchftone, that our 
great and impartial antiquary Lhwyd, takes upon 
him to declare, that the ««//>«/ Scots oi Jrelandj were 
diftind from the Britons of the fame kingdom ; and 
that one may obfervein Cornwall, from ih^ names 
of [^Hces, that another people once poffefled that 
country ; as one may from the names of places in 
fome parts of Walcs^ gather, that the Irijh nation 
once inliabitod there, pajticularly in Brecknockihire 
and CaerniarthenflHre f . . 

By the fame guide, I judge that the antient biftory 
of Ireland, is grounded on fad, that they 'are the 

* Delphi Pliajniciflantrt. - . ,\ ' * 

t Letter to Mr. Rowland; Meaa Antiq..p. 342^ 337. 


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immediate defcendants of the Pelafgi, and of the 
Tyrrheni, the defcendants of Atys or Atac, fon of 
Cot^'S, fon of Meon, the firft king of Lydia and 
Phrygia ; but whence the name of Atac ? from 
whom do the Irifh call thcmfelves Atach-tuath ? it 
bears the fame meaning as Pcni, and both Atac and 
Pent in the Chaldacan language imply exiles, wan- 
derers, Phoenicians. — Aiteac in Irifh alfo means a 
giant^ a ruftick perfon, agriculture, (whence Attica) 
and likewife a firft born fon. Diodorus tells us from 
Sanchon. that Ofiris left the care of tillage in Attica 
to Triptolemus, which in the Irifh means no more 
than a tiller of the ground, i. e. Treabh-talamh ; and 
Tarcon who headed the Pelafgi when driven by the 
Helenifts from Maeonia, I apprehend was fo called 
from ^STtD Tarcon, a Hebrew word, fignifying an 
exile. See Plantavit's Lexicon Synon. Heb. and 
Chaid. — ^In like manner Diodorus, after he has given 
a long detail of the genealogy of Ceres, fays it is 
only an allegory or figurative narration, for that it 
only alludes to the times, when bread corn and thofe 
fruits of the earth that are called by the fanle name 
with the goddefs, were imported into Athens. Now 
this is the deity the Phoenicians worfhipped at Beth- 
Car, and is the Irifh Ceara or Kara, of which here- 


The Oriental writers that have mentioned the 
Britannic iflands, are many. Rab. Ab. Chaija, in 
his Sphacra mundi. Abarbanel, not only calls Ire- 

B 3 land 

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land Little Britain *, but fays, that the children of 
Melk and Tubal inhabited both iflands : Melk was 
a name they gave to the Etrufcans, and Tubal in- 
habited Spain, from both which places the Irifh claim 
colonies. Abarbanel is known to be well verfed in 
antient Oriental hiftories ; he fays, that the chil- 
dren of Melk and Tubal went to dwell on the 
the banks of the Euphrates, but foon removed from 
thence, and came at length to the Great Wejlern 
JJlands. From hence may be derived the name 
Iber or Hiber, in like manner as the children of 
Abraham, from p^iffing over the Euphrates, were 
called Hebrews ; and it is remarkable, that if the 
Irifh Seannachies have impofed upon us, in the date 
when their anceftors took the name of Hiber, they 
have done it with great art and cunning, making it 
correfpond with that of the Hebrews. 

Aben Ezzra fays, (in Obadiah,) that when Jofliua 
took poiTefrion of Canaan, moft of the inhabitants 
retired to Greece, Italy, Gaul, and to fome weftem 

Sedor Olem mentions an old cuftom prevailing 
amongft the Jews of the fecond temple, of celebra- 
ting a great feaft on the 15th and i6th days of Nifan, 
for the expulfion of the Magogian Scythians from 
Beth-fan, by Maccabeus ; for, fays he, they were fo 
very powerful, that neither Jofliua, David or Solomon, 
could ever extirpate them, upon which, the Scytho- 
polians retired to Greece, and fome very far difl:ant 
wejiern countries^ with whom they always kept up a 

♦ Hence Ptolemy calls it Little Britain: Strabo, lib. i. 
p. no. Britifli lerna and his antieat Abridger, explains it by 
the Britons inhabiting lema. 


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correfpondence *. Joannes de Fordun, certainly 
hints at this part of the Scythian hiftory, where he 
fays, ** ex variis quippe veterum fcriptis cronogra- 
phorum intelligitur, quod gentes antlquiflimae natio 
Scotorum, a Graecis & iEgyptiorum reUquis, caeteris 
man rubro cum rege fubmerfis, primum casperat 
exordium f.** 

Cumberland obferves, that he believes that Lucian 
de dea Syria, points out Noah by the name of 
Deucalion Scytha : that the name of Japhet is clearly 
difcemible in the Greek 'u^t*^, and the Latin Ja- 
petus, as Ham or Cham's name is in Hanmion or 
Chemia the old name of Egypt, the land of Ham ; 
and it falleth out well, fays he, that Paufanias in his 
Corinthiaca informs us, that the Phliafians afHrm, 
that Arans among them was contemporary with 
Prometheus the fon of Japetus, and three ages (or 
one hundred years at leaft) elder than Pelafgus, the 
fon of Areas, or than ^Avr^^int at Athens. And 
Paufaniaus moreover obferves, that the Philafians 
had a very holy temple, in which there was no image^ 
either openly to be feen, or kept in fecret. So, the 
learned Dr. Baugmarten, (after proving that He- 
rodotus miftook every thing he had heard and faw 
of the Scythians) adds, " all we know of the real 
religion of the Scythians, terminates in the worfliip 
of the invifible deity : they admitted of no images, 
but, like the Magi, only made ufe of fymbols : this 
is inconteftible from their puniihing with death, 
-without refpeft of perfons, any one who was con- 
vided of image worfliip. They certainly brought 

♦ See Preface to No. XII. 

t Sclden Jud. dcx Script. Anglic. 


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three new divinities from Afia, and neither wor- 
fliipped them in images, nor dedicated to them 
temples, groves, or any thing elfe. And all the ce- 
remonies pertaining to the worfliip of thefe three 
deities^ may be comprehended in the word H AMAN, 
fignifying no more than a confecration or religious 
ufage */• 


* Baugmarten's Remarks on the Enijlifli Univ. Hift. vol. ii. 
p. 1 2 1. From this mann many of our great mountains receive their 
name. Take an old Irifh fable ftill in every one's mouth of 
Sliabh-na-Mann n;iountain. They fay it was firft inhabited by 
foreigners, who came from very diflant countries; that they 
were of both fexes, and taught the Irifh the art of O Shirisy or 
Ourisy that is, the management of Hax and hemp, of cattle, and 
of tillage. — They all wore horns according to their dignity ; the 
chief had five horns. The word Ouris, now means a meeting of 
women and girls at one houfe or barn, to card a certain quantity 
of wool, or to fpia a quantity of flax, and fometimes there are a 
hundred together. Wherever there is an Ouris, the Mann 
come invifible and aflift. When a Selferac or ploughing, by 
joint (lock of horfes, is going forward, the Mann then afTills 
in fliape of invifible horfes ; — but (add the monks) if the Ouris 
is begun on a Saturday, night after twelve o'clock, or purfued on 
the Sabbath, the Mann moll afifuredly will break the wheels, 
and fpoil the crop. Compare this llory with Cumberland's 
explanation of Sanconiatho, and we (hall find it to be his Meon 
or Ofiris, who invented weaving and ploughing, and Ofiris in 
the Chaldee was written Siran or Ciran, an old Irifh name for 
a plough. (See Ben Uz^iels Targum.) and in Irifh Ois-aireac or 
Oifarac is a chief ploughman ; and man in Heb. is a plough, 
(Aratrum) and hharajlo in Hebrew, is alfo to plough, a word 
not far diftant from our Ouris, but this word having no root in 
the Irifh, may be written 0-Shiris, the S being eclipfcd, forms 
Ohiris ; or as the vulgar pronounce it, Ouris. The Egyptian 
god Ofiris, fays Hallaway, means, " the Giver of good things," 
and is derived from the Hebrew Hafhar, to be rich. Bifhop 


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All this perfeSly correfponds with the doSrine of 
the Hibernian Druids ; the three Afiatick divinities, 
J bt:Iie\e, were Dagh, Anu and Ceara, by which 
ihcy fignified certain conftellations that influenced 
the Earth, and ail was comprized in Mann, by which 
I have always underftood they meant the invifible 
God, the all healing and all (aving power, whofe 
prefence in their Oracles, was named Logby or the 
^therial fpiritual fire. 

*' Although you may truly fay with Origen, that 
before our Saviour's time, Britain acknowledged 
not one true God, yet it came as near to what they 
fliould have done, or rather nearer, than mod of 
others, either Greek or Roman, as by notions in 
Cxfar, Strabo, Lucan and the like, difcourfmg of 
them, you may be fatisfied. For although Apollo, 
Mars, Mercury, were worftiipped among the vulgar 
Gauis, yet it appears, that the Druids invocation, 
was to One all healing or all saving power/* 
(Selden on Drayton's Polyolbion.) 

*' And long before Caefar's time, Abaris, (about 
the beginning of the Olympiads) an Hyperborean," 
is recorded for Belus's Prieft (or Apollo), among 
the utmoft Scythians, being further removed from 
Helienifm than our BritiJhJ* (Malchus Vit. Pytha- 
gorae. Seldon on Drayton.) 

This Abaris we have proved from good authority, 
was an Hibernian Druid. (See No. 1 2. Preface.) 

Cumberland ftts thefe names in a very clear light, he fays, 
*' When the Egyptians defigncd to honour OHris, under the 
name of Meon, they meant to fignify the perfon or deity that 
^ve them habitations, eftatcs, refuge, and all the benefits of a 
colony : whence the Irifh word co-mhanim, to dwell together. 


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The antiquity of the Pelafgi is equal to the times i 
of the Affyrian and Egyptian monarchies (Cumber- •: 
land). They peopled Sicyonia, or on the N. W. .. 
fide of Peleponneffus: This kingdom was firft called > 
^gialea, and Herodotus aflures, that the Greeks af- ,, 
firmed, that the people of this kingdom were called ; 
Pelafgi iEgialenfes before Danaus came into Greecet . 
and before Xuthus's time, whofe fon Jon made them be . 
called Jones.* Now the beginning of the kingdom of 
the Pelafgi -ffigialenfes, is 1313 years before the firft ' 
vulgar olympiad (Eufebius's Chronicon and Caftor*s 
table of their kings by Scaliger), — ^and Uflier fixes 
it in the year of the world 191 5, about the middle of 
the third century, after the flood. 

Paufanias exprefsly. teftifies that the people of 
Arcadia were all Pelafgi, and their country Pelafgia, 
before the time of Areas, fi-om whom the name of 
Arcadia is derived, (Pauf. Arcad. at the beginning). 
Now if we compare with him DionyfTius Halic. we 
(hall find that one Atlas, who formerly dwelt on 
Caucafus, was the firft king of Arcadia ; and Apol- 
lodorus informs us, that he was the fon of Japetus, 
and brother to Promotheus. And fince Diodorus 
affures us that the eldeft Promotheus lived in the time 
of Ofiris, whom Cumberland has proved to be Mif- 
raim, the fon of Ham, Japhets brother, we fhall 
perceive that Arcadia is intimated by thefe Greek 
writers, to be planted about the third generation 
after the flood, not long after the planting of Egypt 
by Mizraim. But, the planters of it were then 
called Pelafgi not Arcades. Dionyf. Hal. affirms 

* Herod. Polymniayp. 214. 


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tbat the Pclafgi were feated in Argos, fix generations 
before they removed into -ZEmonia, and he modelUy 
intimates^ that in many men*s opinion, they were 
^xrung out of the earth about Argos. Paufanias 
lays, that when Ceres came to Argos, Pelafgus en- 
tertained her in his houfe — ^but Ceres was Ifis, and 
DioDL. Hal. fays, that Pelafgus was the fon of Ju- 
jttter by Niobe, the daughter of Phorneus, who was 
the firft mortal woman that Jupiter embraced. 

Again, the Pelafgi are allowed by all to have pof- 
fefied Thcfprotia, where the oracle of Dodona was 
founded, and this is confeffed to be the elded in 
Greece : no matter by what means it was founded ; 
Herodotus's ftory is, that when the Phoenicians pre- 
vailed in their war in Egypt, fo greatly as to come 
to Thebes, the metropolis of upper Eg)'pt, they 
carried away captives two priefteffes, who founded 
the oracles of Jupiter Hammon in Africa, and that 
of Dodona in Threfprotia; this flory, I fay, proves 
that there were Pelafgi in Threfprotis at that time. 
Thefe fame Phoenicians or Pelafgi, built towers, and 
gaurs, or oracles, in Ireland and in Great Britain; 
but the hiflory of thefe people in that ifland is ob- 
literated ; the art of conftrufting thefe was fo well 
known in Ireland, that Merlin perfuaded king Am- 
brofe, that the ftones of Stone-henge, were brought 
to Ireland from the utmofl parts of Africa by giants 
(Atach) and from thence to England. 

Dionyf. Hal. fays, that the commerce of the 
Tyrrhenians perfefted the Pelafgi in the naval art, 
which they would have long enjoyed, had they not 
been obliged to give it up to the Carthaginians. 
If the Britifh ifles were firft difcovercd by the Car- 

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thaginians, they certainly had a right to quarrel with 
the Pelafgians for attempting a fettlement in them* ' 
And we fhall hereafter find the inhabitants of Ire- ' 
land applying to the Pelafgi to relieve them of the 
Carthaginian yoke of flavery. 

S E C T I O N in. t 

The lovers of Irifti antiquity will not think this , 
account of the Pelafgi too prolix — the ancient hif- , 
tory of this country, though blended with the fables ' 
of the Bards, correfponds with the mofl part of the 
hiftory of the Pelafgi. j 

In the preface to my laft number, I fhcwed the ^ 
miftake of Keating and the bards he had copied, in \ 
making the Firbolg and Tuath Dadanann, colonies. ' 
They were only the names of the diflferent orders 
of prie^, that arrived with the colonics. I take 
the firft to be the more antient order. 

In a very antient MSS. of the Seabright coUeftion, 
is the following paffage. Tangatar Fomharaigh 
(Afrigh) go h Eirinn, agus do chuirfcat daor-cios 
uirre. i. da trian Itha, blcachta, cloine, agus uinge 
dh6r on tfroin no ccann on chionn amac. Tanaig 
Luch-lamhfada o Chrotun na cuan, i. Eamoin 
ablach, a tir Tairge, dfhurtacht Eirinn, agus ma- 
craith fidhe Tuatha Dadanann maile fris, agus do 
dhcalbhdaois Tuath Dadanann clocaha agus crain 
na talamhan a reachtaibh daoinedh, &c. &c. * that 


* This MSS. has the name of Ed. Lhwyd, in the firft page. 
LiUr Ed. l.iiidij ex dono R. CI. V. Hen. Aldrldgc. S. T. P. 

& ^dia 

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PREFACE. adii 

i»» The African fca commanders, came to Ireland, 
and unpofcd very heavy taxes upon the inhabitants, 
viz. two thirds of the produce of the land, of their 
kinc, and of their children (for flaves^, and more- 
over one ounce of gold annually on every nofe or 
head. But Leuco— longimanus (long handed) ar- 
rived to the fupport of the Irifli ; ♦ he came from 
the harbour of Croton, or -ffimonia felix, in the 
country of Tarcon ; and with him came certain 
youthful Sorcerers, called Tuatha Dadanann, who 
had the power of metamorphafmg (tones and trees 
into fighting men, &c. &c. 

I Ihall not take up my readers time in comparing 
the fable of the latter part of this narration with 
that of the antient Greeks, but proceed to the hifto- 
rical part. 

Etrufcorum Rex Tarcon, Graecus ex Maeonia, 
primo praefedhis Tyrrheni tantum, mox ipfe rex 
&dus ; fratre Tyrrheni vel filius, civitates 1 2 
ftruxit. nomen fuum Tarquiniis indidit. Crotonoe 
habitavit. (Dempfter, Gori, &c. de Etruria Re- 

Ledos Csere viros, ledos Crotona fuperbi 
Tarcontis domus (Sil. Ital. 1. 8.) 

k iEdift Chrifti Decani. N. B. the contraaion Tairge, in the 
hittkp has been convcited by Keating to Tairglre, and then it 
mds, the land of promlfc, mftead of the country of Tarcon, — 
this was an excellent hobby<horfc for him to amble on. 

• EirinnyTn thet>rlgmal, it wm called Eire, Eiris, and Eirinn, 
amoo^ other poetical names. And this is the. Iris of Diodorus 
Skruly whtcb he iays was inhabiud by Britons. (Lib. 5. page 
209) — ^This is a ftrong confirmation of Ireland being known by 
the name of Bift^oiMsi sod Eire, at the bntc time* 


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xW PREFACE. ^pi 

See alfo Strabo Amas, 1. 5- p. 151. iEncas GaI;;2«^"^-6 
letus. Hift. Univ. 1. 4. Cato de originibus, &c. .^ iu^^xri 

ITie country about Croton was called Maeoni or**"^.. I *: 
iEmonia : there was alfo the city of Eamonia, the ^..-, ^ '^ 
Vica Ma:oni and the planum Maeoni in Etruria: thc^'^^"'^ 
lafl retains the name of la Pianura di Meana. Now"^. ^•^- 
as there was Eamonia in the inland parts, and^^^^ • 
Eamonia on the fca cafl, in which ftood Croton,:^^^ r^— 
our Irilh hiftorian mod properly diftinguiflies Cro-::^^^-^^^ : 
ton, to be the maritime Croton or Ma^onia ; Crotoniti •^'" -- x 
na cuan. i. e. of the harbours. .r-^^-«^ 

Dionyflius Hal. mentions the change of name :3ji^^=^^^ 
into Cothornia. Tempus, quo Pelafgorum res '-'*'^^^*-^ 
ca^perunt deficere, incidit in alteram ferme ante ti^ 
bellum Trojanum a^tatem; duraverunt tamen etiam >o!3? 
pene ultra ejus belli tempora : donee contrafti funt .^ 
in gentem minimam, nam prseter Crotoncm, Um 
briae civitatcm inclytam, & fi quod aliud aborigines :T ^^^^ ^ 
tenuerunt domicilium, intericrunt reliqua Pelafgo- -^ .^r^_ 
rum opida. Croton vcro, quum diu retinuiflet ve- ;.^:;^.^~ 
tcrem Rci-publicx formam : baud multo ante nof- -^.^^^ -- 
tram rctatem, & civcis mutavit & nomen. Cothor- ^^ ^,- 
nia vocitata & fada Romanorum Colonia. * .^j£^^-^ 

Herodotus fays, they fpokc a different language .^^i;^-^^ 
from the Greeks — qua lingua Pelafgi fmt ufi, pro -T^j^r^o 
ccrto adfirmare non poflum, fed ex conjeftura licet /^^oori:^ 
diccre, ejus lingucc fuifle, cujus funt hodic ii ex ,^ ^^ 
Pclafgis, qui fupra Tyrrhcnos Crotoncm urbem in- ""^ ^ 
colunt, & olim finitimi erant iis, quos nunc Dores 
vocant : tum videlicet, quum earn, quam nunc 
Theflaliotin rcgioncm adpellant, incolebant ; item 

The Cruthcnt of Ulfter were named Cethcrni. (Colgan. ) 


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cujus funt ii quoque Pelafgi qui Placiam atque 
Scylaccn condiderunt apud Hellefpontum ; & Athe- 
mcnfium contubemales fuerunt. Ex his, inquam, 
conjc^hire fada, dicere licet, Pelafgos olim barbard 
fuiffc loquutos ; nam & Crotoniatae fimul & Pla- 
ciani lingua quidem diflident a fuis quique vicinis^ 
at inter fe convcniunt, quo argumento latis aften- 
dunt, fe cam ipfam fermonis formam confervaflc^ 
quam habebannt, quum in eas regiones migrarunt. 

By the fame force of argument, I can prove the 
Pelafgi were here ; for all the antient Etrufcan or 
Pelaigian infcriptions, produced in Gori and Demp- 
ftu, can be well explained in the Irifh language, as 
(hall be (hewn in another place ; but a ftronger evi- 
dence of the arrival of this colony cannot be given, 
than the name of iElmonia or Eamania, that was 
given to the capital and royal refidence in Ulfter, 
Cniteni, to the country and people of Dalreida; 
Crutenorum & Vetiorum regio in U-Lidia vel Ul- 
tonia, (Colgan) ^monia to Inch Colum Kill, on the 
coafl of Scotland, and of ^monia, Eubonea and 
Euboaea to the Ifle of Man ; and I believe the fa- 
mous Eiremon or Heremon, from whom the Irifli 
claim defcent, fignifies an^monian chief; becaufe in 
all the antient MSS. I find the name written Eiream- 
hoin, feemingly compounded of Er, great, noble, a 
chief ; and Eamoin, of Eamonia or ^monia ; I 
think the name points out the origin of the Pelaf- 
gian Irilh from Eamonia, or as they write the name 
Eamania ; or, can we go aftray in the name of thofe 
Dodonian Priefts, that accompanied the colony, 
when we recoiled that Thata in Etrufcan, and t<tjn 
Thata in Phoenician, fignifies Torcery, magic. 

I cannot 

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I cannot here pafs over two words peculiar to 
the Irifii in this weflern part of the globe, fignifying 
a fon or defcendant of the fame flock, and to this 
day prefixed to furnames of Families. I mean MAC 
and O, both of oriental origin. In the Irifh text, 
at the beginning of this fedion we have macratth^ 
L e. youthful males. This word occurs in Genefis, 
chap. xlix. ver. 5. the Engliih verfion has it tranf- 
lated habitations ; Simon and Levi are brethren, in* 
ftruments of cruelty are in their habitations. Mon- 
tanus, dubious of the word, inferts the Hebrew in 
the Latin text, in Italicks, thus, ^^ arma iniquitatis 
eorum macharaJ*^ Rabbi Meir who lived in the time 
of the fecond temple, gives another turn to the 
whole verfe. *' By the bleffing of Jacob upon 
Simon and Levi, the weapons of vengeance are their 
Dn*mT30 (machirothim) children** " That is,*' 
fays he, *' they love weapons as their children : and 
hence,** adds he, '' no mak and ^^^jj machir is a 
fon, and the words are ufed by the inhabitants of the 
fea coafts, and in the cities on thofe coafts." I fup- 
pofe the Rabbi meant Phoenicia. OBricn fays, the Irifh 
write O, or U A, to imply a fon. The broad vowels 
being ufed promifcuoully, and dipthongs and trip- 
thongs in Irifli, having the found of monofyllables 
only, they might write ou, ua, or oua, but O is un- 
doubtedly moft proper. O implies the Soil in ex- 
cellence ; Mac, a defcendant, according to OBrien ; 
I believe he is right, for macar, in Chaldee is 
fpondere. The learned Abbe Renaudot, fays, that 
the Egyptian name OSiris, is formed of Chiri or 
Chiris, that is the SUN, suid O,. (filius,) Son, there- 

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PREFACE. xvil 

fore OCHIRIS or OSIRIS, is le jiU defolellpar ex^ 
cellcncey the fon of the Sun. And here occurs ano- 
ther old Irifli word Chris and Chreafan, i. e, holy, 
facred. Crifean, i. e. Sagart, (Vet. Glofs.) i. e. 
Crifean is the fame as Sagart, a Prieft. I take this 
name to have been given to the Druid in his holy 
office of facrificing to the fun ; it has alfo a great 
affinity to Kreejhno^ the name of a Hindoo deity. 
(Sec Halhead's grammar of the Bengal Language, 
page 20.) And according to Gori, Cerus in the 
Etrufcan Language, fignifies facred : Did we ever 
hear of a Mac-Morgan or an OGriffith ? Was O, or 
Mac, a common name with the Gauls or Welfli 
Britons? How came the Erfe and Irifh by thefe 
oriental appellations? or by the Egyptiafn Ifis the 
moon, in Irifh Eas, and Eafconn the full moon. 


The next colony recorded in the Irifli hiftory, are 
laid to be the Cruiti, or Cruitni or Peafti. " As 
a bhfhiathamhnas Eiremoin tangadur Cruitnith no 
Peafti, fluagh do thriall on Tracia go Eirinn," — 
i. e. in the reign of Eremon, the Cruiti or Cruitni or 
Pea£U, migrated from Thrace to Ireland, — to which 
Keating adds, ^ according to the Pfalter of Cafliel, 
written by Cormac, the reafon of this migration, 
'was, that Polycornus the tyrant and king of Thrace, 
rcfolved to feize upon the only daughter of Gud, a 
chief of the Peafti. Herodotus places the Paftyae and 
Crithoti in Thracia Cherfoneffus. Thrace, Samos 
and Crete, had been peopled by Phoenicians, Pelaf- 
gians and Etrufcans ; Polycrates the tyrant, (prr- 
VoL. IV. No. XIII. C bably 

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bably miflaken by Cormac for Polycornus) drove 
the Samarians to Crete, and purfued them from 
thence to different places, and at length fays Eufe- 
bius, they retired to Italy. 

The Greeks were chiefly indebted to the Thra- 
cians for the polite arts that flourifhed among them. 
Orpheus, Linus, Mufeus, Thamyris and Eumolpus, 
all Thracians, were the firft, as Euftathius informs 
us, who charmed the inhabitants of Greece with 
their eloquence and melody, and perfuaded them to 
exchange their fiercenefs for a fociable life and 
peaceful manners ; nay, great part of Greece was 
antiently peopled by Thracians. Tereus, a Thracian, 
governed at Daulis in Phocis ; from thence a body 
of Thracians paffed over to Eub^a, and poffeffed 
themfelves of that Ifland. Of the fame nation were 
the Aones, Tembices, and Hyanthians, who made 
themfelves mafters of Baeotia ; in fine, great part of 
Attica itfelf, was inhabited by Thracians. But tho' 
the Greeks knew they were fo chiefly indebted to 
them both for the peopling and polifhing of their 
country, they have with the utmoft ingratitude 
and injufticc, ftyled them Barbarians, fittpfinf^r a 
word that originally only implied foreigners, from the 
Phaenician nj<i bar, and Irifli bara, wandering, of 
another nation, dehors. * 


* There are many places la Ireland apparently named by thii 
Thracian Colony, after others in antient Thraccy fuch are, 

Thrace, Ireland. 

Antrium, Antrim, the Capital of the Peadi. 

Geloni, Gailean. 

Lygos, Leighis. 


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Thefe Pcadi or Paftyse, are not the Pifti or woad 
painted Britons, (theWelfli) defcribed by Caefar. 
They are diftinguiihed by the Scots by the name of 
Peafti, a word that founds exaftly the fame as 
Pafityse. The Thracians were remarkable for 
branding their foreheads and arms, but never paint- 
ed their bodies. Traeam^ in Irifli, is to brand with 
a hot iron, and probably was the origin of the name, 
and not from Thiras, as Bochart after Jofephus ima- 
gines ; and perhaps Thirax, mentioned Gen. x. 
a. to be the youngeft fon of Japhet, was fo called 
from inftituting the cuftom of branding.-^-^ 

— ^^embraque qui ferro gaudet pinxifie, Gelonus. 

Says Claudian. 
inde Calcdonio velata Britannia monflro 
Ferro pifta genas ; ■ 

The cuftom of fealing or branding was very anti- 
ent. God from the beginning, gave his people 

Atbyrat, Riv. 



Ulfccdama, (OB. diAionary). 


Ely, EiK. 

Bdachlem, Riv. 





Samac, about Lough Erne. 




Lifmac, Lifmac. 





And a hundred others, may be drawn from the fame fountain 
]iead,-*and in other parts, the names of many places of antient 
Etnnia are to be found. 

C 2 typical 

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typical things and adions, which he cMed Jigns ; 
and fome facraments which appear to have been 
termed feals and fignets. St, Paul calls the circum- 
cifion of Abraham, Si/eaJ of righteoufnefs, (Rom. 
iv. II.) In the fame epiftlc he exhorts, — " Grieve 
not the holy fpirit of God, whereby ye are fealed 
unto the day of redemption.'* Ifai. xlix. i6. 
*' Behold I have graven thee upon the palms of my 
hands.'* Exod. xiii. 9. " And it fliall be for zjign 
unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial be- 
tween thine eyes." But, befides thcfe public or 
ecclefiaftical feals, each man (or nation) had his pri- 
vate feal for a counterpart, or correfpondent Hiero- 
glyphic to the faid public ones ; to teftify for him, 
in all his public arts, whofe fervant and fpiritual 
child he was. This, among other facred ufages and 
rites, the firft apoftates to hcathenifm carried off 
with them, perverting and abufmg the fame, to the 
laft degree of infatuation. For, they had not only 
their figns which were kyuXfutl* t^ uin Si5r, images and 
emblems of their Gods, in their feals, drinking 
cups, military ftandards, and many other things ; 
but, they themfelves were ordinarily confecrated to 
their Gods, by burning or branding fome name, 
mark, emblem (^weifariifMf fignature) or number of 
their faid Gods, in their own flefh, on their hands, 
necks, foreheads, and other parts. Thus Ptolemy 
Philopater, was furnamed vJixxt^ ^li to q>vxxu, ximi 
xctTw^^*tp becaufe he was ftigmatized in his body 
with ivy leaves, the emblematical mark of Bacchus : 
The votaries of the Sun were marked with the nu- 

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meral letters XII. for the number 608, which was 
the Sun's number. * 

Whence alfo, the bcaft in the Revelation, is faid 
to caufe all, both fmall and great, rich and poor, 
free and bond, to receive a mark in their hand, and 
in their forehead. So idolaters in general, marked 
themfclvcs in their fkin and flefh for the devils vo- 
taries. To oppofe this abomination, God forbad 
his people to print any marks in their flefli, (Lev. 
ix. 27). So in Revelations xiv. 10. ." If any 
man worfhip the beaft and his image, and receive 
his mark in his forehead or in his hand, the fame 
AalJ drink of the wine of the wrath of God, and 
(hall be tormented with fire and brimftonc.'* 

Herodotus and Strabo, having noticed that the 
Thracians followed this cuftom to excefs, I have 
ventured my opinion, that they might have been fo 
called from iracam^ to brand, a word in the anticnt 
language, fiill preferved in the Irifh ; at the fame time 
I acknowledge, that the Hebrew words trak i"^t3, 
impcllere violenter, taruk,fxtf/,/^rr(9n expellere,^j^/> 
cxpulfio, ftna & fh.nah^ cxpellcre, ghalal expellere, 
tuathath^ expulfus ; Athak & nathak (in the ChaU 
dee,) extirpare, expellere, fcem more rationally to 
be the origins of the names given by the Hebrews 
to the Tracians, Turks, Dacii, Pseni or Phceni, Phoe- 
nicians, Gain & Gallati ; and probably to our 
Tuath-Dodonians, and our Attach-tuath and Attac- 
cotti ; for it is evident from holy writ, that all thefe 
nations or people, foon after the flood, had drawn 
the \!LTath of God upon them, and were told, that 

Halloway's Originals, PbyGcal and Tlicologlcal. 





they were to be a wandering and an expelled peo- 
ple : So were the Sacce^ whom I mentioned in my 
laft No. to be the fame as Scythac. — Sacas enim vel 
Scythaa quod idem eft, (Strabo, Bochart, &c.) 

This calls to mind a paifage in Epiphanius, in his 
Epift. ad Acac. & Paul, " from the age of Therah 
downward, Phaleg and Ragau, removed towards the 
clime of Europe, to part of Scythia, and were joined 
to thofe nations from which the Tbracians czmc.^' 
Bochart, endeavours to confute this paffage of Epi- 
phanius ; I think he has failed. But certainly this 
gave room to Grotius, Salmafius, and Stillingfleet, 
to fuppofe that Peleg was the father of the Scythians, 
who were the firft that peopled Greece, under the 
name of Pelafgoi, and fuch a wandering people 
might have been fo called with great propriety, as 
I (hall hereafter fhew, both from the oriental and 
the Irifh languages. 

Stillingflaet confirms his opinion, he thinks, by 
etymology ; I go on the fame uncertain ground. 
He fhews the affinity between the Hebrew and an- 
tient Greek, from the various dialers and pronun- 
ciations of the latter, which in the Doric comes 
neareft to the eaftern tongues y and from the re- 
mainder of thofe tongues, efpecially where the 
Pelafgians have been, which Bochart thought of 
Phoenician, but our Author will rather have of He- 
brew extradion. I have purfued the fame path^ in 
all my publications on the Irifh language, antiqui- 
ties, &c- And fo great an affinity has the old Irifh 
with the Hebrew, that my friend and correfpondent, 
J. J. Heideck, Profc:Tor of Oriental languages, 


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PREFACE. xxiii 

will not be perfuaded, but that a Jewifh colony once 
fettled in Ireland. 

The Scythians were certainly the defcendants of 
Magog, not of Phaleg. They mixed with the 
Hiosnicians of Beth-San, Tyre and Sidon. They 
conquered AlTyria, and when they loft that crown, 
fome remained in Calo-Syria, where they were 
again joined by the Phaenicians. They paffed with 
themj from thence to Crete : And it has been the 
opinion of many learned men, that the Phaenicians 
were originally from Crete. Fortunatus Scacchus, 
a Tcry learned man, in hh Arcanum, S. S. Myro- 
thec. chap. 1 7. Corethos & Pheletheos non Ifraelitas, 
fed alienigenas fuiffe.— Phocnices Cretenfium co* 
louos, CO nomine fignificart alii arbitrantur, cujus 
fententis eft Aucnor in eadem radice fna- Phas* 
nices ab Creta originem traxifle, Cretenfiumte 
cofoniam Phceniciam cxtitiffe, dicunt aliqui fobodo- 
ran pofle, ex Phacnico porto, quern infulae Cretae 
adfcriptifle ferunt Ptolemaeum in ora auftrali. 

Facit etiam ad hoc probandum illud Sophon. ^Veh. 
qui habitas funiculum maris g^ns perdHorum, i. e. 
DmD ^3 ghui or ghoi Cerethim, i. e. gens Cere- 

thim. Again in Ezech. ch. 25. Ecce ego cxten- 

dam manum meam fupcr Palseftinos, & interficiam 
intcrfedores, & perdam reliquias maritimas regionis; 
die Hebrew text reads thus, Ecce ego cxtendam 
manum meam fuper Philifthiim, & fuccidere faciam 
Cerethofi. And in this place Aquila, Thcodotius 

and Symaccbus, have retained the vrotd Cerethem 

Ki^Mp^ but fome Greek copies have K^?r*<, Gretas. 
This probably led Tacitus into the miftake of de- 

riring the ^ruv from Crete. Judseos Creta infula 


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xxiv PREFACE. 

profugos, noviffima Libysc infediffe memorant. 
(L. 5. Hift.) 

The Hebrew ♦IJ ghoi, fignifies a detefted people. 
Homo gentilis. Sic Judsei quern vis vocant, qui 
non eft de populo Ifrael, maxinie tamen Chriftianis 
hoc nomen dedere. Nam Turcas appellant lifmeelim, 
five Ifmaelitas. Etiam unum hominem nominant 
ghoi contra verum linguae ufum, & naturam voca^ 
buli ; (Buxtorf Lex. Chald.) In like manner, the 
Irifti call the Saxon? Guith-ban ; the white detefted 
people ; and Guith-ban, became at length the name 
of England : (Shaw's Irilh Did.) but their own 
people and fellow countrymen, the Scots of Britain, 
they named Eilbonnac, from Eile a tribe, bonn good, 
and aice race ; and thus I believe Eilban foon became 
the name of England, inftead of Guidhban, whence 
Albania. This I am induced to think the origin of 
the word, becaufe I obferve in the Irifh MSS. the 
Scots feated in Britain are named Albanac, and in 
truth, it is the name the Highlanders or Erie diftinr 
guifti themfelves by at this day ; whereas by Eiris, 
or Eirinn, and Eirinnach, they mean the owners of 
the foil. 

Bifhop Cumberland derives the word Pala^ftinus, 
from C^'Sfl pelas or plas, which he obferves from 
Caftle's Heptaglot. fignifies to befmear with duft 
and afhes : and therefore the proper origin of Peleus 
at the mouth of the Nile ; but he allows, that in the 
Samaritan or Ethiopic, the fatne word K^Sfl imports 
peregrinatio, migratio de loco in locum. So likewife 
Pleas, Phleas or Fleas, in the antient PelafgianJrifh, 
fignifies to wander, to which add g/joiy a people or 
nation, it forms Pclalgoi, the wandering people j the 


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very idea by which the Greeks have expreffed that 
people, quafi Pelafgoi, cranes, wanderers. The Irifh 
ftill retain the word in phleafgac or fleafgach, a 
wanderer, droller, having no fettled home, and with 
the modern Irifh, it implies a piper, fidler, or harper, 
(trolling from town to town, or from houfe to houfe. 
It is of no great importance, if this be the proper 
etymology of the Pelafgi or not ; certain it is, that 
the Irifh do preferve the remembrance of Plafg or 
Pelafgus, in their genealogies. In the Reim-rioghhre, 
orroyal calendars, in the fuppofed colony of theTuath- 
Dadananns, they make Plefl or Palefl, the fifth ge- 
neration from Noah, and Pelafg or Plafg, the fif- 
teenth ; and five generations from him, they place 
Breas, who, it is faid led the colony to Ireland. 

As 1 think it is evident, that Phoenician, Pelafgian 
and Etrufcan colonies, did fettle in Britannia magna 
and Britannia parva, or England and Ireland, I am 
naturally led to feek the etymology of the name 
Britannia, in the Irifh language. Setting afide Geoffry's 
idle flory of the Trojan Brutus, we will fhew what 
others have faid of this name. And firft, that great 
etymological luminary, Bochart ; he derives it from 
the Phoenician bar at ager, and anak ftannum, i. e. 
the field of tin j brot in the Irifh, means the borders 
of a country, from whence by tranfpofitiori of letters, 
the French border^ and Ehglifh border. I think 
Bochart was mifled by Strabo and Ptolemy, who 
iRTite it fi^tlrufuti (Brettanica) which is certainly an 
ad}e£Hve, and is defedive in fcnfe without »?«? (an 
ifland) joined to it. 

Secondly, Camden, he is certainly right Hi the 
termination rtcym (tania) which in Hebrew, Syriac, 


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Iriih, and all Oriental languages, fignifies a country 
or region ; but he is as much at a lofs what to make 
of the firft part of the word brit^ as I am of the 
latter part tannike, unlefs I derive it from tinam, to 
fufe, to melt, which is certainly the root of the 
EngUfh word tin. 

England was called Luigria by the Irifh, and by 
tlic Welfh corrupted into Lloyger ; it was fo called, 
fays Lewis, before the year of Chrift 586 j fliortly 
after which time, Lecefter, the chief city of the 
Mercians, was called Leogera ; and when they became 
Chriftians, their bifhops were called Pradules Leo- 
gerenfes. (Antient Hift. of Britain, p. 29.) 

It is allowed by all hiftorians that thefe two iflands 
were vifited by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, 
for the lead, tin and copper, with which they 
abounded. In Irifh brut and Img fignify lead ; aon 
and tan, and ria a country, hence Brutaon, Bruttan 
and Luigria, do all imply the country of lead and 
tin ; and fo much for Geoffry*s Laegrus the fon of 
Brutus. Brut in Iriih, fignifies alfo pitch, tar, or 
whatever is readily fufed, or afted on by brot^ L e, 
fire ; whence I believe the Hebrew n^flV pmt, 
lead, or any bafe metal. 

But fay the opponents of Iriih hiftory, there is no 
foundation in the annals of the Phoenicians or Car- 
thaginians, that they did fail to Ireland or England ; 
that remark k eafily anfwered. Nor are we without 
authority that they did come here. Gorijonides in 
his book de Hannibale, 1. 3. ch. 1 5, fays, that Han- 
nibal conquered the Britains, who dwell in the ocean 
fca, D>i^pW3 tS^JS^'^n n»3tDn> We have no fuch 
conqueft recorded in the hiftory of Magna Britannia, 


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but as I have (hewn, more than once, the hiftory of 
Ireland or Parva Brittannia, declares they did conquer 
this country, impofed grievous taxes on the inhabit- 
ants, vvfao were relieved by their old friends and 
allies the Pelafgians or Etrufcans, from Croton. 

Thefe iflands virere known to the Carthaginians, 
Greeks and Arabs, by the name of the fortunate 
iflands. They were the Elyfian fields of the Arabs 
and of the Greeks, Selden has written much to the 
purpofc on this fubjeft, in his X. Scriptor. Anglic. 
And Ifaac Tzetzes pofitively declares, ** in oceano 
infuia ilia Brittania, inter Brittaniam illam quae fita 
eft in occidente & Thylen quae ad orientem magis 

vergit." " Id eft,'' fays Selden, « Britannia 

magna feu Albion quam fie collocat ille inter Bri- 
tanniam alteram feu parvam, quae Hibernia eft & 
Thulen, de cujus fitu baud parum difcrepaiit cho- 
rographi turn vetcres turn recentiores ; Ilfuc alunt 
(adds Tzetzes) ctiam mortuorum animas tranfvehi^ ad 
hwK modum fcribentes ;*' to which Selden replies, " et 
lancTzetcs hofce intelligo,in litore Britanniae magnac 
tdunt reperiri navigia ilia animabus oiiufta, indequc 
ilia cum remigibus, impetu unico, ad HIBERNIAM 
adpcUi, tunc SCOTIAM itidem vocitatam. 

Juftus Lipfius is another authority. He quotes 
the following paffagc from Arlftotle. " In mari extra 
Herculis columnas, infulam defertam inventam fuiffe, 
fdva nemorofam, fluviis navigabilem, fru^bus 
uberem, multorum dierum navigatione diftantem, in 
quam crebr6 Carthaginicnfes commearim, & multi 
fcdes ctiam fixerunt ; fed veritos primores, ne nimis 
loci iJIius opes convalefcerent, & Carthaginis labc- 
rcntur, edifto cavifle & poena capitis fanxiffe, ncquis 


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R E F A C E. -r ;r 

inceps vellct." (Ariftot. in Admxran- ,. ieiL:^^ 

ch Lipfius obfervcs, " quod vcrum ^ - ^.^ 

HcjuanovarLiminfuhirum: quia rnultos'i^;^^ ::;^ 
ic inipcndit : ncv-^ue prnbahilc i.i^'tur ...... ^* 

alias vicinas, fuiiTc. Noflcr Seneca" ~ 

cdia: jMcdciv certo auch»r oft) de lis' 

videtur, pucris jam decantatuin 

vcnicnt aniijs 

eris, qui'ouj> Occaiius 

rcruni laxci, ^. liv^viis -''^ ^^'-r 

:ilus, Tiphyfcjati viosos •'-;"^ ^ "..:. 

orbcs, ncc lit terris ■ ■^" r 

Ihule. - — ^',_ 

ticii propvlc 'le liritaiinicis infulis in-:.. ^_ ^ 
Claudli j^i-'.bm Icripni. (J. Liplius, ..j *^ _j 7 

us add I he remarks of Culverius. ..; ._ r 

lino xxi, \yr[[ akcram Illain Etrufcorum . ^_ J"^^' 
los cxpediliou.m, quaui liipra memo- _.-. — ^^^ 
tanta quum !orct corum terra mi'riquc -^. ^jll. 
nqua^ciiam naYigat:i/;us extra Cv>lum- ' 3* 

n marc Ocmaxi-m aliqiinndo ir.iiltu-'J «~~ 

)rus 1. 5. I lac ivvitur ratioiu* Pliav.ices, ^'7 ^"^~ 
iltra Cohimniis oram, ciai'!n AlVicae 
L ; ingcntihus vcntoi-uni procclli.^ ad".' ^^.J" 
OcKANo tractus fuiit abrcpti. Ac per ^ 2S- 

tempeftatis jacbiti, tandem ad prccMSlam ";*- ^^ 
n'unt, natiiramque ejus ac feiicitatem, ';• ' ._ 
n, in aliorum deinde notit;am perdux- ;'-* ^ T 
Fyrrheni quoque, quum maris i'.nperio ->'~^-^- '' 
foniam eo deltinarunt, fed Carthagini- ■- "^^^L 

enfes "jS"^--^ 

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PREFACE. xxix 

enfes ilUs obftiterunt. Sed quam magnum atque 
cdebre per omnem ilium terrarum orbem, qui in 
EuTopam, Afiam & Africam diftinguitur fuerit Tyr- 
rfaenonim nomen, oftendere voluit Ariftides. (Clu- 
veriusy Ital. p. 445.) 


The remarkable piety, morality and philofophy of 
the Hibernian Druids, added to the early eftablifli- 
ment of the Orgia of the Cabiri in this ifland, caufed 
it to be named Infula Sanda ; and the fecundity of 
its foil, and temperature of the climate, gave it the 
name of the bleifed and fortunate ifland. In treating 
of the Cabiri, I fliall have frequent occafion to mention 
SaDchomatho ; and I muft here premife, that I believe 
ic Greek tranflation by Philo. Bibl. is a mere for- 
gery, worked up with Greek ideas on a Phoenician 
allegory, inifunderflood and interlopated by Philo, 
in every page. This I venture to fay from com- 
paring the Irifli hiftory of the Cabiri, with the Phoe- 
mdan, for example, why fliould Our anus ^ the Hea- 
Tcns, marry his fifter Ge the Earth, and bring forth, 
/ ill, Ilus, who is called Cronus ; 2d, Betylus ; 3d, 
I Dagon, who is Siton, or the god of corn ; and 4th, 
Atlas ; becaufe in the Irifli ftory, Aoran the plough- 
man marries Ge, or Ce the Earth, and the firft 
plowing brings forth Ilus, weeds, fl:ones, orts ; the 
lecond Biad/jtal foodj (for fome com will require but 
two plowings) but the third produces dagh^ or deagh^ 
great corps of wheat, when follows athlusy i. e. ruadh, 

Ifallowy to recover for another crop. Cronus does 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

P I 


not (ignify Time in this paflfage ; crann is a plough, 
fear crainn a plough*man. (See Shaw's £ng* Ir. Did.] 
In other places Philo has hit upon the proper fenfe j 
for ail and crortj fignily time in Irifh. 

Strabo ini. iv. p. 198, fays, " infulam eSc prope 
Britanniam in qua Cereri & Proferpinae facra fiuni 
eodem ritu quo in Samothracia ;" and this he affirnw 
from Artemidorus, who wrote under Ptolomsui 
Lathyrus, and none of the Helenick Greeks, had 
then entered Britain, as Sames has well proved in 
his Britannia antiqua illuftrata. 

The information given us by Sanchoniatho, that 
the Diofcuri and Corybantes made improvements if 
fhips and veffels, wherewith they pafled over the fca. 
(within the twoncxt generations aftertheflood, accord* 
ing to Cumberland) will evince us, that thus men migiil 
pafs early even into iflands and countries, feparatec 
by fea from each other, which muft needs help ti 
forward the difperfion of mankind into many coun* 
tries. And accordingly we find the fons of Sydjpe 
called by Sanchoniatho, Samothraces, v^ch import! 
they got into that ifland, and into Thrace, near ad< 
joining. For Herodotus fays, the ITiracians wen 
initiated according to the rites of the Cabiri, whott 
he records to have been in Samothrace, and heoei 
to have removed with the Pela/gi into Attica, aAQ 
thence into other parts of Greece, where Paufannu 
aflfures us, that their myfteries were upheld even ti 
his time. Not that Samothrace implies the Thraci^ui^ 
of Samos, but the Orgia of the Cabiri. j 

From the Irifh MSS of the Sebright colleftion, atti] 
from others in my ovm pofleffion, I have been abl 
to coUeft much of the Druidical religion. Of A 


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Cabiri, I (hall now only fpeak. The names and 
explanations of thefe Cabin appear to be all alle- 
gorical, and to have (ignified no more than an al- 
manack of the viciifitudes of the feafons, calculated 
for the operations of agriculture, from which names 
certain planets and conftellations were denominated, 
and from hence the origin of the figns of the zodiac. 
And thefe we fhall hereafrer find run through the 
Magogian line, viz. the Tartars, Arabs, Perfians, 
Juries, Mogulls, Chinefe, Japanefe, &c. &c. and 
will account for that valuable difcovery of Mr. Call, 
who found the twelve figns of the zodiac painted on 
die deling of a Pagoda, at Vardapetha, near Cape 
Comorin in the Eaft Indies, and in the fame manner 
we reprefent them *• Monf. Bailie has, in my opi- 
nion, proved very clearly that the Chaldee and 
Egyptian aftronomy, was but the debris of the fcience, 
1^ that it originated with the Scythians. Does not 
Lndan place the tranfaftions of mod of his Syrian 
deities in Scythia ; Why fend Lete or Latona to 
murder her guefts in Scythia ? 

The Irilh Cabiri I find mentioned as of both fexes; 
in fliort, they appear all inanimate, Aefar, Samh, and 
Sanhan excepted, viz. 

Aefar, i • dia i • Logh, i. e. Aefar is god ; the 
Logh, the fpiritual flame. Is not this the t¥ ^<ti\U Aty^y, 
Ik. of Zeno? Notanda igitur, & hie A«y»» vocula qua 
tsAnb in hoc generationis re utuntur, ut Senecx, 
* Caufa autem, id eft ratio, materiam format ; in- 
corporalis ratio, ingentium operum artifex,** ingen- 
tiuoiy fotius mundi, ait, incorporalis, quia mens ipfa 

* FhiloC TnmC vol. 62, Anno 1772. 


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xxxii PREFACE. 

Dei eft, & animus, ut fic dicam ignis *. This in (hort^ 
was the bafis of all Stoic philofophy, and by a per-* 
verfion of the original fenfe of the Druids, arofe all 
the nonfenfical mythology of the latter Egyptians, 
Phoenicians, Etrufcans and Greeks. 

In the laft number I derived the word aefar from 
cafar the creator. I find it fince written aefar, and 
in Shaw's Irifh Didionary Aesfhear, which pronoun- 
ces the fame ; the/ with an hiatus, does not found, 
and is thrown in by the poets, to divide the fyllables. 
Dr. Hyde in his religion of the antient Perfians, ex- 
plains the name Azer, to have fignified Abraham 
in the Zendy meaning thereby fire. Et quia Azut 
eft ignis, ideo fulmen feu fulgur-autem Mohom- 
medanus interpres hoc etiam effe ex nominibus Dei 
excelfu (p. 64.) f. . 

Ain or Aion follows iEfar, with the following ex- 
planation : \ 

Ain, 1 ; Aion, i ; Mac Seathar, i J ; Seatharan, . 
i. e. Ain or Aion, was the fon of God, and called " 

Sanchoniatho tells us, that n^mrly.^^ the firft bom, ' 

was called AiiJr, from whom proceeded rwU, and this ^' 

Aion \vas the firft that gadiered the fruits of the ^^ 

earth. '^ 


* Juft. Lipfius dc Stolcis. 

f I take this opportunity of returning thanks to my learned . 
corrcfpondent Boirimh. I acknowledge his correction in this ^ 
word ; if poifible, his letter (hall find room in this number. '^ 
J Samaritan, Sahar, i. e. Dcus. Hcb. nj^JJ* Shatai Dominus. 4 
Seathar, a name of God, fo called from feathar, ftrong, in the 
fame manner that El among the Hebrews was an appellation of ,^ 
God, from the Hebrew El, which fignifics ftrong, powerful, j^ 
O'Brien s Irifh Lexicon. ;, 

Biftiop \ 

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PREFACE. xxxiii 

Bi(hop Cumberland, to fupport a fyflem, makes 
Protogenes and Ain, two mortals, from whom pro- 
deeded Genus and Genea. Sanchon. fays no fuch 
thing ; he makes Protogonus the fame as Aion, from 
whom proceeded Genea ; but, fays the bifhop, Aion 
was the firft gatherer of the fruits of the earth, and 
of trees, confequently this was Eve, and Protogenus 
was Adam ; though he acknowledges that Aion is 
made mafculine by Philo Biblyus, rot Aldf, but, fays 
he, the tranfcriber ignorantly confidered Aion as an 
appellative, in which notion it is mafculine, and not 
as he ought to have done, as a proper name of a 
woman, in which fenfe it muft be feminine. (Re- 
marks, p. 219.) 

In the laft number, I proved Seathar to be fynoni- 
mous to Aefar, i. e. God ; now Ain in the Irifti Cabiri^ 
k placed next to ^far, and is faid to be Mac Seathar, 
the fon of God, the Aion or Aon, i. e. the firft, the 
only one ; from whence he was furnamed Satharan. 
Aion *, confequently is Adam, and he was the firft 
gatherer of the fruits of the earth, which he found 
ready fown ; and fo was Seatham or Saturn of the 
Romans, for which reafon he was reprefented with a 
fcythe in his hand, A«yitfy, « K(m»< vxi ^ctnz^tf, Heiyc. 
Dagon isCronus or Saturn of the Phcjenicians. Cronus 
here is our Creann and Dagh, for Dagon was the 
god of agriculturfe, not of time. But then where 
Stall we find Eve. Sanconiatho tells you plainly, 
from Aion proceeded Gean, by Philo written Genea; 

• Aid, Aon» Aion, honourable, praifc- worthy, rcfpcftful. 
Greek Aine, laus. (OBrjcn.) And fuch was the Irifli Chead-om, 
or Hhead om, the firft mini, i. e. Adam. 

VoL.IV.N6.Xm. ' T) but 

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xxxiv PREFACE. 

but Gean in Irifli is a woman^ fo called bccaufe flie h 
agan or geanach, that is, precious, dear, lovely, fair 
to behold ; and the Arabic verfion would have 
called her aghanet^ immerfed in love, or the effe£k 
of loving, and ghunnas^ a perfect beauty, and fuch 
was Eve ; and from Gean a woman, the Irifh very 
properly derive in-ghean a daughter ; it is fur- 
prizing the Greek word yvt'n a woman, did not 
occur to the Bifhop. 

Such appears the work of Sanchoniatho to an 
Irifli fcholar, and when we confider, that in the Irifh 
language, Seanachith is an antiquary, an hiftorian ; 
and Seanacha-nathj the art or fcience of an antiquary; 
we are almoft inclined to believe Mr. Dodwell, and 
to rejeO: Sanchoniatho as counterfeit. But furely 
Philo Byblius, Porphryry and Eufebius were better 
able to judge than any moderns : and they never 
called in queftion his being genuine. 

Here then is an ingenious Phoenician or Druidical 
ftory, literally copied from the Holy Scriptures. 
Blufli then, ye opponents of the Sacred Writings ! 
ye multipliers of Adams ! ye ftand here correfted by 
a Phoenician and a Heathen Hibernian Druid. 

Ceara, i, ainm do dhias, agus ainm don dagh, 
agus Ceara, i ; Maloith, i. e. Ceara (Ceres) is the 
name of ears of corn, and the name of a plentiful 
crop, and ceara is a flail. 

Ceara to this day is the word ufed by the Irifh, for 
heating oats in a pot, and placing them in a hole in 
the dry earth of the cabin floor, where they are 
trampled on till the hull parts from the feed. 

Ceara prefided over bread, corn and wheat. The 
Irifh fable gives her a daughter named Por4aibhean; 


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this is the Claflic Proferpina ; the propriety of the 
naiae is not to be underfloed, but in the Phoenician 
and the Irifli. Por HO is feed, race for planting or 
propagating ; Saibhean \^?ti? (avena) is oats, or fmall 
grain. Ceara, fay the Irifh poets, invented the Cearan 
or quern, i. e. the hand mill, and the cearran or 
fickle 'j but Porfaibhean, (Proferpina) invented Leite^ 
an excellent food, made of oatmeal, called ftirabout, 
from leite a ring or circle, or to move ill a circle, 
becaufe it muft be ftirred about during the operation. 
Porfaibhean, fay the Irifh fables, eftablifhed an annual 
/b/emnity named Luithre or Taithre, that is, the 
harveft-home of the o*^ten-meal, and by the latter 
name, it is now known to the poor farmers. She 
invented or difcovered alfo, the flige or large horfe 
mufcle (hell, to lift up this leite : (he was made a 
conflelladon under the name of Leithre ; thefe fhells 
fhe made into fcales for weighing the meal, and in 
this form ihe is reprefented in the zodiac. The 
Greeks robbed us of this conftellation and called it 
Litra, vibich is fynonimous to Libra. It has been 
underftood that the conftellation Libra or Litra was 
a kind of innovation ; that the Greeks were not ac- 
quainted with any fuch is certain ; yet we find them 
among the Saggittaries and Capricorns on the old 
Egyptian remains. (Hiirs Aftronom. Dici.) 

Porfaibhean is faid to have invented another mofV 
wholefome food of the hulls of oats, named Saibhean, 
pronounced faivan, and now called fowens ; a food 
well known by that name in the fuburbs of Dublin ; 
eaten with white-wine and fugar, it is .equal to the 
befl blamanche. 

D 2 It 

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xxxvi PREFACE. 

It IS very plain that Ceara is the Egyptian Ifis* 
" J^ai d'abord foup9onne que c*etoit-la le fymbole 
que portoit Tlfis Egyptienne aiix approches de Tin- 
ondation, & qu'on lui donnoit alors le nom de 
Leto ou Latone, qui eft le nom du lezatd amphibie. 
Ifis prenoit de fon cote le nom de Di-Ane *, Fabon^ 
dance & Ton mettbit en ft main la figure d'une caille, 
dont le nom fignifie ^ufi falut, fecuritS mSc^ (lav, 
les mots Latin falus & falvus en viennent, il figilifier 
auffi coutumix une caille. Quelquefois on trouve 
deux cailles aux piSs d*Ifis, pour fignifier une emigre 
fecurite. Abbd Pluche is fometimes very happy in 
his Egyptian etymologies, and fometimes much egare. 

Ceara is called Maloit dr maloid, a flail in common 
Irifh. I doubt if fhe invented this inftrument of 
hulbandry. Mai in the Hebrew is to cut, to bruife. 
The Phoenicidns had a temple to Cdr, Beth-Car, 
I Sam. 7. 1 1. Halloway derived the word from Cor, 
the caeleftial revolutions and its effefts, which are the 
chief and firft fruits in animals and plants. 

Sd^3 Carmel, Spica-plena & pinguis granis abunde 
refertur. (Ptantavit's Synon. Lexicon,) this is our 
caor^ a berry, a full grain* 

Carmel dicitur quafi t^^ 13 pulvinar plenum, 
id eft, fignificat plenam granis. Buxtorf. Chald. 
Lex. Melilaj fpica, a confricando, quafi fricatio 
confricatio ; (ibid) here is our frication invented 
by Ceara, from whence we may conjefture, Maloidy 
formerly fignified to tread the com, and now it 
means a flail, ufed for the fame purpofc. 

Bates obferves, that Carmel in the Bible, fome- 
times expreflfes a field of com, fometimes green ears; 
and fometimes ripe ears, fit to be rubbed in the 


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PREFACE. xxxvu 

hand. The green com, fays he, whilft in the pulp 
will neither threfh or rub out : and corn in the full 
ear, ju!l cut, will rub out, but not threfh. The 
green com they dried at the fire, or roafted it : and 
the fuH ripe grain in the ear, they rubbed out and 
eat with oil.— here are three ways of eating corn, 
in bread, parched, and in grain. 

AnUy matbar dias, agus mafcr deorum ; non 
mater deorum, acht ro bo maith dinno biathal fi 
dias, I . £o-anu. Vegetation, of corn gathering into 
ear, not mother of the Gods, fays the Gloflarift, 
non mater deorum, but as (he provides bread, corn, 
or food, bearing the ear— Ae was the eo— (good) — 
Anu— whence Juno with the Latins. Ana & anu 
in Irifii, fignify riches, abundance, continuance of 
fair weather, a drinking cup or horn, a cornucopia ; 
dear, beloved ; and Ann^id, a temple or church — 
AoTij excellent, noble ; Ailann, a poetical name 
of Ireland. 

Mathar and Abar, in Irifli, are fynonimous 
words, for the/fry? caufej whence, compounded with 
Jghas or Acbas fignifying, good-luck, felicity, prof- 
perity, &c. they form Matharaghas & Abarachas, 
an epidiet given by the Druids to the true God, 
thereby importing the Deity to be, the great firft 
caufe of all felicity, faith, religion, &c. &c. (See 
Agh ftilly explained in Pref. No. lo). 

From this Druidical name, is derived that ridicu- 
lous Greek myftical word ABRAXAS, fo much 
noted by the Fathers. The word was probably of 
Egyptian origin, for by the Emperor Hadrian's 
letter to Servianus, we find the primitive Chriftians 
in Ae Eaft, mixed the Gods of the Heathens with 

D 3 the 

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xxviii PREFACE. 

the Chriftian Religion, and if they had not millaken 
the fenfe of thofe words, there would have been no 
crime in adopting fo noble an epithet. JEgyptum 
(fays Hadrian) quam mihi laudabas, Serviane ca- 
riffime, totam didici levem, pendulam, & ad omnia 
famae momenta volitantem. lUi qui Serapin colunt, 
Chriftiani funt, iz devoti funt Serapi qui fe Chrifti 
Epifcopus dicunt. (Vopifcus in Vita Saturnini 

The Gnofticks, Bafilideans and Valentinians, had 
the Abraxas ; Irenaeus, Tertullian and Auguftin^ 
notice the idle fable of the Greeek letters in the 
word, compofmg the number 365, and that they 
fuppofed, there were fo many Heavens. But Mi- 
thras and Abraxis, are fynonimous words for the 
the Deity, and are to be found on the fame medals, 
often with the word I A O and A D O N A I, the 
firft (landing for JEHOVA, the laft is a Phoenician 
and Irifti word, fignifying Dominus. How then 
did Mithras make out 365 : indeed, to form Aba- 
rachas into this number they were obliged to tranf- 
pofe a letter, and to turn CH into X, and then it 
was made up in this manner, viz. « i. c 2. % 100. 
u I. g 60. ct I. «r2oo, which added together make 
up the number 365. BrafiHdes eftablifhed his doc- 
trine in Spain, and there we find the name written 
Abraffes. The Etrufcans had alfo their Abraxas ; 
he is found on their coins with Serapis, Canubis, 
&c. Our Hibernian Druids alfo prefixed the word 
CAD, i. e. Holy to A B R A, and of this, the 
Gymnofophhifts, are faid to have formed ABRA- 
CADABRA, and to have made Amulets, as a 


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I^ R K F A C E. 


1 harm againft fevers, to be worn round the neck in 
this form, viz. 

I cannot help thinking this and the number 36 ^^ 
are tricks of the later monks, becaufe, St. Jerom 
cxprefsly fays, that by Abraxas, the Baffilideans 
meant the Almighty God. Bafilides qui Omnipo- 
teiitem deum portentofo nomine appellat Abraxas, 
(i eundem fecundum Graecas literas, & annui curfus 
numerum dicit in folis circulo, contineri, quern ethnici 
Aibeodem numero aliarum literarum vocantMithram,) 
Fadier Montfaucon has given fome hundeds of draw- 
ings from the various medals ftruck with tliis word 
Abraxas ; where he is reprefented in every diftorted 
form, of half man half beaft, the imagination could 
invent. (Antiq. Vol. IV. page 357O Our Hiber- 
nian Druids, like their Scythian anceftors,| admitted 
of no images. 

•^5<, "Tij^ An or Aun was the name of an ob- 
jed of worlhip in Egypt and Canaan ; Abbe Pluche, 
takes no notice of it. Gen. xli. and 45. it is An, in 
verfe 5, it is Aun. The word, fays Bates, is 
ufed for the flrength and power of God. The 


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apoftates no doubt, meant by it, the heavens, and 
the Prophets turn the word upon them, as in Amos, 
V. ver. 5. Sr< El fhall become p^<, there was a 
Beth Aun near Beth El, Jofli. vii. ver. 2. Hof. 5th, 
the calves of Beth An. ITie On or Aun of the 
Egyptians, was in their more degenerate days, the 
city of the Sun, if we can truft the Ixx. Ezek. 30, 
and 17. The 70 were good judges, but are not 
well underftood ; tlie introdudion of foreign words 
ufed by idolatrous nations, into the Hebrew text, 
were known to the Ixx. and our Commentators 
would do well to follow their explanations. 

Hence the Ban-ana plant, worfliipped by the 
Egyptians, as the fymbol of fecundity ; hence alfo, 
the Irifti dealb-an-dea, a butterfly ; literally, the re- 
prefcntation of the goddefs Anu ; the Eg^'ptians re- 
prefcnted air, as the caufe of vegetation, by a 

Anu. I. Ith. I. lath, Anith. i. Anann. therefore 
Ith was mater deorum, likewife ^^n^n ^^^^> Chaldee 

obftetrix. >4n^n hhita. Vita. Ith, in Irilh, is 

wheat, bread corn ; and here we find Anu joined 
with Ith and Anu doubled, in Anann, a name of 
Ireland. Ith or It, is derived from the Hebrew 
nton it, et, itah, wheat. ITiis Hebrew word fays 
Bates, is ufually put under ^^^ henut, for what 
rcafon doth not appear. I put it under this root be- 
caufe it is the only corn we always bind or tie up 
with a bandage. 

We find Ith or lath, in a multitude of compounds 
in our Irifli Cabiri, as Anith, Jath nan Ann. 
Amudith, lomadith, Maloith whence maloid, (as 
before), Sughith. and many others — in our difti- 


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onaries we find Ith, com ; Itham, to eat ; Ithadias, 
an ^r of com ; Ithfen, a dray for corn ; Ithir, a 
corn-field, foil, land, country ; Amudith, the plen- 
tiful Ith ; Dearc-ith, the berry of wheat ; Sugh, 
lap, juice ; Sugith, wheat in fap. Ctefias fuppofes 
the Aflyrian Derceto, to be the fame as Dagon^ 
L e. frumentum, — it was a good guefs of Ctefias. 

Atiguftin fays, Scia, was the goddefs of new fown 
com; andSegetia when it began to fpring up, — 
Saoi or Saoidth in Irifli, is grafs, corn in blade — 
mUK Anona, cibus, pec. cquorum ut al. Viftus, 
commeatus, frumentum, tributum annuum ad an* 
nonam confervandam. * 
" Ainith, is the Anaitis of the Perfians and of the 
Copts. I But Anith or Antea was Ceres, as Mon. 
Gic^lin proves. In Orpheus, there is a hymn ad- 
dreffed to Ceres or Demeter, and one under the 
name of mother Antea. J Anaitis and Zaretis, 
Diana Perfica. (Selden.) 

This iwas the Al-Itta of the Arabians, ai being 
only a prefixed article. Gad autem feu Dea fimpli- 
dter eodem mode vocabitur, quo Herodotus alias 
ab Arabibus Venerem, Alitta appellari teftatur quod 
eft Dea, quamvis alii nomen apud Herodotem Alleh 
effe putant—quod Domina fit Regina nodis, hinc 
igitur denuo patet, Venerem eandem cum luna in 
Oriente habitam fuiffe. Millius, de Gad. p. 241. 

The Chaldaean Anedot, mentioned by Syncellus, 
feems to have the fame origin ; — and hence I think 

» Caftcllus. 

t Rcland in hin letter to Wilkin« on the Coptic. 

t Hifl. Alleg. du Calcndr. page 575. 


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xlii PREFACE. 

the Greek fable of Peleus and Telamon, both bom 
of the nymph Endcis, the daughter of Charicio, i. ۥ 
(in Irifli Ceara-clu) the renowned Ceara,— and hence 
the ruftick Roman feaft of Anna Perenna. Hence 
alfo, the Etrufcan Ammudatis. Ammudatis & 
Deus magnus, invenio Ammudatem Deum cultum : 
fed quis & a quibus ne CEdipus divinarit. * 

And the Syrian Mylitta f (or Mulita, i. e. Venus.) 
the Liis-for-oir^ and the Lusfo-iar of the Irifh, i. e. 
the light in the eaft, and the light in the weft; the Lu- 
cifer of the Greeks and Romans, but they knew 
not, as the Irifh did, that fhe is fo called, becaufe 
when fhe departs out of the funs rays on the weftem 
fide, we fee her in the morning juft before day 
break : it is in this fituation of Venus, that ftie is 
called the Morning-ftar, as in the other fhe is called 
the Evening.ftar. 

But as I have reafon to think thefe dry fubjefts 
unpleafant to my Irifli readers, I fliall give the names 
of the reft of the Cabiri in a lift, and leave to them 
to compare the names and attributes with thofe of 
other countries. They may reft aflured that the 
bafis of all the Mytliology of the Eaft and of the 
Weft, lies concealed in the philofophy of the Irifli 
Druids, and that there are fufficient monuments 
ftill left, to prove the aflertion. 

Dagh or Dagh-da, explained in No. 12. 

Lute & Lufe, bandea, i. e. a goddefs. I believe 
the Gloflarift fliould have explained this in the maf- 
culine, a God. Louthat was the name of one of 

* Dfmpfter dc Etruria Regali. 
t vD ^ili plenitude. 


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PREFACE. xliii 

tbe cdeflial powers or good angels of the Gnofticks. 
Lahat, was an epithet of the fupreme God, with 
the Phoenicians. 

Nath, I. dia an Cacht. "Nath, the God of wif« 
dom. Nath ainm coitceann don uile aifte eigfibh. 
(Vet. Gloff.) i, e. Nath Is a name common for all 
fublime compofitions, as hymns, &c. Nath. i. 
Tine. i. Tin-cofg. i, teagafg. i. e. Nath, Tine, 

lincofg, fignify teagafg, i. e. wifdom. This was 

alfo an Egyptian Deity. Urbis (Sais) praefes Dea, 
^gyptiace qiiidem Neit : Graece autem, ut illorum 
fcrt opinio a^f*. (Plato in Tim.) i. e. Minerva nam 
A^wtm antiquis Graecis, Tnfcis vero Tina. (Gori). 
But we fee Tine and Nath, are fynonimous names 
for wifdom, in the Irifh. 

Heit, dia Catha. Neit, the God of war ; ncit in 
Iri(h fignifies war. 

Neaman Dogha. i. Uibhle tenedh. i. Ceara. Sy- 
nonimous names of the fame Deity. Eiriu, Eire, 
Eirinn, For, Porfaibhean, fynonimous names. Por, 
is feed or race for planting or prppagating. Saib- 
hcan, fignifies Oats, (]^fltJ^ Avena) and Eirinn, is 
fertile foil, t-^g peri, in Heb. is fruit, corn. N. B. 
Eire, is a poetical name of Ireland, and is the Iris of 
Diodonus, inhabited, he fays, by Britons. 
Ain. Mac Seathair. i. e. Ain, the Son of God. 
Ain. I. Tauladh. i. Phan, Fen, i. Mulach, fyno- 
nimous names of the fame Deity. 

Tath. 1. Tait. i. Taithlann. i. Foghmhar. i. e. 
the Deity of the harveft. (See No. 1 2.) 

Geamhar, i. e. the Deity prefiding over corn in 
ihe bJade. ^ 


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Raidhe. i. Redbe. i. e. Sub deities of Re, the 
moon. Fauns, Rufticks, labourers in the field. 

^dh. I. iEth, I. teinne, the Deity of fire. 

Samhan. i. Samh-fhiunn, i. e. Samhan is the 
end of fummer, the clofing of the light of Sam,^ 
the Sun. (See No. 1 2.) 

Dius, I ; Congo, i ; goirbg, i ; fambolg, i ; bolg^ - 
I ; bolog, I ; comhartha, ar neamh ar clith na iiUi-5 
dideana, i. e. Dius and the following words fignify anf 
ear of com ; it is a fign in the heavens, at the left t 
of the Virgin. 

Sec the learned Dr. Hyde on the Sibylla. Ipi 
Arabic daufeh is an ear of corn ; and dufhiza is tfaie^ 
Perfico-Indian name of this conftellation ; but bene 5 
we are told the word implies Virgo. Secundum Phos* - 
nices & Chaldaeos, autumnali tempore (quando fruges - 
ad meffem maturae) praeeft fignum virginis feu puelbs 1 
fpicas in agrolegentis ; hinc, infigni Aftronomo Per&^ 
Aibumazar, in Sphaera Pers-Indica in primo figoiii 
virginis decano oritur puella cui Perficum nomen^ 
dujhiza feu virgo. Apud Arabes & Perfas hoc fignum ^ 
fynochdochice vocatum efl: Sumbul feu Sumbula, i. e. ,. 
Ipica quae tamen proprie & abfque figura, eft tamen ,1 
primaria hujus figni ftella fpicarum fafciculum Tt^^ 
praefentans, nSnt£^» fibula in Hebrew is fpica eredi. ^ 
in the modern Irilh it implies a gathering in of the j 
com, whence fabhal a barn, granary, &c. Samhbolg ', 
an ear of corn ripened by Samli the Sun. ^ 

Samhan-draoic, 1 ; Cabur, 1 ; comhceangalladh ; " 
of this hereafter. 

Cann, i ; Re Ian, i ; Luan Ian, the full moon ; ' 
hence the Kann or Diana of the Etrufcans. 


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lan, I } Ceilil, i ; GioUa, i. e. Satan^ the 

Greeks were acquainted with this deity ; but 
t find they received him into their catalogue, 
$ the more furprizing, as they acknowledge 
Phoenician origin, as we learn from Damafcitu 
feof Ifidorus. Phot. BibL Cod. 242, p. 1074. 
pius, who is worfhipped at Beryte, is neither 
I nor Egyptian, but Phoenician; for Sdyc had 
I, who were called Diofcures or Cabires. The 
ras ESMVNVS, that is to fiiy, ASKLEPIOS. 
a youth of fuch exqufite beauty, thzxAfironoes^ 
f Phoenicia, and mother of the gods, fell in 
th him, if the feWe is true. He, who took 
in attending the flocks, perceiving the goddefs 
J herfelf to him fo ftrongly, that he had no 
>f avoiding her, caftrated himfelf with a hat- 
Tie goddefe, grieved to the foul at this aftion, 

he youth Paiarij (^xm) limmt* xfiXirxo-M rh fgtfyjVkdf,^ 

iced him among the gods, that his paflion 
never be forgotten. On this account he was 
ESMVNVS by the Phoenicians, though others 
vas fo called by being the eighth fon of Sadyk; 
js in Phoenician implying that number ; how- 
is is he who carries light in the midft of dark- 

reader will find moft of thefe deities among 
oenician and Chalda:an gods mentioned by 
ray. And in Relandus, he will find Beth-Car, 
Lnath, Beth-Er, Beth-Erc, &c. &c. 
.ery at the word Oriza (rice) on the faith of 
anrd other voyagers, fays, that in India is a 
retnarkabl^ for the delicacv of its workman- 
ship ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

xlviii PREFACE. 

real power of words and mufic over ferpents, from 
conjoining or confociating them,— but the word 
exprefly means a companion, an aflfociate, company, . 
as Jud. XX. I . All the men of Ifrael were gatheifed 
together againft the city, (Chabirim) knit together . 
as one man, and Job xL 25. ufed it in the liHe . 
feufe, the Chabirim (companions) make a banquet .. 
for them. 

Bochart, Selden and Cumberland have been mif- ' 
led by Paufanias and other Greek writers, in explain- , 
ing Cabiri to fignifiy Dii potes, vel Dii magni. ,j 
Sanchoniatho tells us, from Sydyc came the Diofcuri, \- 
Cabiri, Cor)'bantes and Samothraces ; thefe firft in- T 
vented the building of a ha^uf, or a compleat (hip. ^ 

Bochart acknowledges, credebantur enim iis im- " 
buti juftiores fieri, & fandiores & in quibufcuaque 
periculis praefentiflimos habere Deos, h a naufragio ^ 
maxime eflfe prorfus immunes. On voyages they ' 
were the prefervers of (hips from (hipwreck j our . 
Druids therefore named them Di-Ofcara *, the guar- "^ 
dian angels of travellers, voyagers, &c. Hence Jafon, ^ 
Orpheus, Hercules, Caftor, Agamemnon, Ulyffes, , 
and Pollux, fought to be initiated in the Samothra- ^ 
cian rites. But what is ftill ftronger, Curra-bunnith ' 
in Irifh, implies fhip-buildcrs, for the Corybantes "^ 
were the facrificing priefts of Ceres, who was Ifis, " 

* My readers muft not he furprlzcd at finding different ex- : 
planations of the fame Phcenician words, drawn from the Irilh : 
language. As new light is tlirown on the fubjed by the more r 
iantient MSS. that have lately come to my view. Thus, in a 
former publicatioay I collated the Irifh Difcir, with the Punic '' 
Diofcuri ; but on comparing the paflage of Sanchoniatho^ with !% 
Bochart's Remarks, they evidently were the Druidical Di- ij 
Ofcara ; for Ofcara fignifics a voyager by fea or land, 


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PREFACE. xlix 

the great nayigatrixy fo called for the Iriih Efs, a 
ihip^ as I have fhewn in No. XIL 

The learned Spencer, that princeps Criticorum, in 
ho JXff. de Origine Arcae & Chenibinorum, plainly 
flicws that Cherub in Hebrew does mod properly 
imply ftrength, might, power ; but that Chabir im- 
plies y^//, and were often written one for the other* 
h is the fame in Irifh. Cairbre is the moft proper 
word anfwering to Cherub,whenceCairbreLiffeachar, 
and a hundred other princes of Ireland were fo called. 
That Samnos and Samnothracia were fo called from 
ibc rites of the Cabiri, having been eftablifhed there 
by the Pelafgi, is allowed by all authors. Bochartj 
from a paf&ge in Herodotus, conjeftures they were 
eaUed DIpTlDD Samadracos, pro morione fumitur, 
quafi Samothraces Deos, id efl: Cabiros, oris atque 
corporis babitur imitetur. We have feen a better 
derivation, in the foregoing pages. From what has 
been faid, I conclude, that the myfteries of the Cabiri, 
confided in the Arkite worfhip, fo learnedly handled 
by my worthy and Icanled friend Mr. Bryant. 

The Greeks had confounded the Saman and the 
Cabiri, which were named Amain, or the infernal 
deities, from the Coptic amenty i. e. infernum, and 
turned the name into Eumenides, i. e. the good 
minded deities j yet they always worfhipped them in 
fear and terror. From ament, came ament-dis, the 
deities of hell. The word may be found in the 
Coptic Pfalter, pfalm xvi. " Becaufe thou wilt not 
leave my foul in f ament J hell.'* Again, in Luke, 
chapr. xvi. *< And m (ament) hell, he lift up his eyes, 
being in torments ;" from this Coptic or iEgyptian 
Vol. IV. No. Xm. E word. 

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word, are derived the Irifh amain, aimhneac, dohm- 
ncac ifrein, all fignifying the infernal deep, hell, &c. 

Another name of the Irifh Cabiri, was Tromh-dhe, 
tutelary gods, fays Shaw ; but whereas the proof? 
trom, I ; caimfeacus, i, e, Socii. Vet. GlofT. Hib. 

If thefe Phoenician deities were known to the 
Welfli Britons, then we may conclude, that the Irifli 
and Welfh were one and the fame people : but if wc 
find, (as is really the cafe) that they were not known 
to the Welfh, or to the Gauls ; we mufl conclude, 
cither that the Irifh arc of another defcent, or that 
they had an early connexion with Orientalifts, who 
did not only eflablifh their religion, but their lan- 
guage in Ireland ; which I think has been fufficiently 
proved. And thefe deities may have come to them 
by the Pelafgi or Etrufci ; for, Samothracia Sacra 
Etrufcorum invent um. Dardanus eorum auftor. 
(Virgil. Gori. Dempfler.) And we find mod of the 
names of the Irifh Cabiri on the Etrufcan monuments, 
as Anu, Ithia, &c. &c. 

The Pelafgi and Etrufci, became one nation and 
people. Ncmpe Pelafgi, cum Tyrrhenis five Etruf- 
cis permixti. (Cluvcrius, Ital. p. 438.) Pelafgi, com- 
munemque cum Tyrrhenis terram incoluerunt. 
(Marcian. Heracl.) 


Before I quit this fubjeft, I mufl reply to a general 
objeftion made to the introdudion of Etrufcan co- 
lonies, to this ifland. It is known that the Etrufcans 
were a very polifhed people, of Oriental origin, and 


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remarkable for their Ikill in architefture ; where then 
are thdr buildings to be difcovered in Ireland ? 

It is certain that our Druids, and the Etrufcans, 
like all other antient idolaters, firft had no covered 
temples, but made the holy fires on the tops of 

*' Mundus univerfus eft Templum Solis/* 

(Alex, ab Alex.) 

Here they worfhipped Aefar, firft towards Samh^ the 
ftm, and next towards the facred fires, as being the 
things in which the Logh chiefly dwelt. They direded 
their worftiip to Saman and the Cabur, in caves and 
darknefs. Such I take to be the cave of New Grange, 
fo well explained by Governor Pownall. In this 
cave were three altars, correfponding to the fuppofed 
number of the Cabiri. But I have great reafon to 
think, they afterwards made their holy fires in the 
round towers, and that the building of them was in- 
troduced by the Tuath Dadanann priefts from Etru- 
ria ; becaufe we are told, that the old priefts, the 
Firbolg, oppofed the doftrine of thefe Tuath Da- 
danann ; a holy war broke out, which ended at 
length in two battles, one fought at the plains of the 
Norths tower, and the other at thofe of the South 
tower. All tliis is the exaft refemblance of the 
Perfian hiftory. They firft made the holy fires on 
the tops of hills, but Zoroaftres, finding thefe facred 
fires in the open air, were often extinguiflied by rain, 
tempefts and ftorms, he direfted that fire towers 
(hould be built, that the facred fires might be better 
prcfcrved ♦. 

• Prid^aux's Connc&ion, 8vo. vol. i, p. 30$. 

E 2 And 

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And it fo happens, that the tower of Cafhell, ad- 
joins a building called Cormac's chapel, that is of 
true antient Etrufcan architefture. The capitals of 
the pillars arc of the rude Etrufcan order ; the arch 
is femi-circular, and in fliort, there is nothing of what 
we call Gothic, in the whole building. Cormac was 
proclaimed king of Cafhel, in 902, and at the fame 
time exercifed the funftions of archbifhop of that 
See. O'Brien fays, there is fufficicnt evidence that 
he did not build this chapel, but only repaired that 
and the two churches of Lifmore. The tradition of 
the oldeft people at Cafhel, is, that it was a Heathen 
temple. A plan, elevation and feftion of this very 
curious building, fhall be given in the courfe of this 
work, when we treat of Irifli buildings in general. 

The Seanachiths, or hiilorians of Ireland, have 
recorded, that the Perfian religion thus reformed, 
wafi profefled in Ireland, E. gr. Anno mundi 281 1, 
do gabh Tighearmas M'Follamheim, M'Eitriail, 

M'Iriail faidh, M'Eircamoin, rioghacht Eirin 

oir as^ an Tighearmas fo do thionfgain iodhal adh- 
radh do dheanamh ar ttus do Crom chruaidh, 
amhuil do rin Sorq/iresy fan Greig ; i. e. in the year 
of the world 281 1, Tighearmas fon of FoUaman, fon 
of Eithriall, fon of Irial the prophet, fon of Eremon, 
fucceeded to the throne. It was this Tighermas ef- 
t^liflied the worftiip of the idol Crom Cruach, as 
Zoroaftres had done in Greece. I take this from 
Keating,, who probably ftuck in Greece, inftead of 
Perfia ; and Crom Crunch was not an idol, as I have 
explained in my laft number. 

There was a Beth-Kerem, called alfo Beth-Akke- 
rem, (Jerem. vi. i.) in Codice Nidda, xi. 7. this 


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PREFACE. liii 

place is defcribed abounding with a red fand, and 
die dreams ifluing from it were of a bloody colour ; 
this corrcfponds fo perfcdly with the fabulous ac- 
counts of our Crom-cruach, that I could not avoid 
mentioning it. 

The Greeks had the name of Zoroaftres in great 
efteem, fpeaking of him as the great mailer of all 
human and divine knowledge. Plato, Ariftotle, 
Plutarch and Porphyry, mention him with honour. 
Pydiagoras, an Etrufcan by birth, was the difciple of 
Zoroaftres ; Porphyry fays, " that by him Pythagoras 
was deanfed from the pollutions of his life pad, and 
indruded from what things virtuous perfons ought 
to be free ; and alfo learned from him the difcourfe 
concerning nature, and what are the principles of 
the univerfe;'* and lamblicus tells us, that Pythagoras 
ftudied twelve years at Babylon under Zoroadres, 
and in his converfe with the Magi, he learnt from 
tbem arithmetic, mufic, and the knowledge of divine 
things and the facred myderies pertaining thereto. 
But, Pythagoras did not bring this doftrine into 
Greece and Italy, with that purity with which he 
received it from Zoroadres. Abul-Pharagius, an 
Arabian writer, by religion a Chridian, tells us, that 
Zoroadres foretold to his Magi or Druids, the coming 
of Chrift, and that at the time of his birth, there 
(hould appear a wonderful dar, and left it in com- 
mand with them, that when that dar fhould appear, 
they fhould follow the direftions of it, and go to the 
place where he fhould be born, and there oflfer gifts 
and pay their adoration to him ; and that it was by 
this command, that the three wife men came from 
the Eaft, that is, out of Perfia, to worfliip Chrid at 
E 3 Bethlehem. 

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Kv P R E F A ,C E. 

Bethlehem. And fo far Shariftani, though a Ma- 
hommcdan writer, doth agree with him, as that he 
tells us, that Zoroaftrts foretold the coming of a 
wonderful perfon in the later times, who Ihould 
reform the world both in religion and righteoufiiefs. 
(Hiftoria Dyna^.or, p. 54. Religio Vet, Pcrfarum, 
ۥ xxxi, Prideaux's Connexion, v, i, p. 328.) 

1 mention this circumftance of Zoroallres's hiftory, 
becaufe it is very furprizing that the Irifh Seanachiths 
fhould know any thing of Zoroaftres, if they derived 
from the Britains, and from Gaul ; but more parti- 
cularly, becaufe we find in moll of the antient records, 
it is pretended that an Irilh Druid did foretell the 
coming of Chrift, And there is great probability, 
that this was borrowed from their knowledge of the 
hiftory of Zoroaftres, through the Etrufcans. 

Another ftrong circumftance of the Etrufcan co- 
lony from Croton, having arrived in Ireland, and 
mixed with the Thracian Paftyje, feems evident 
from the name of Crutheni, Cruthi, Dalaraite, Da- 
laradia, Dalradii, Dalradii, Dalrieda, being the 
common name of the fame people feated in Ulfter, 
who afterwards pafled over to Scotland, 

Pergit ad terram Cruthenorum feu Dal Rietinorum. 

(Vita Patricii a Patr. jun,) 
Dal Radii difti Crutheni. (Colgan,) 

Dalaradios — ^populos Ultonias, ex quibus oriun- 
dus fuit S. Comgallus & qui proinde cognati ejus 
ab Adamnano vocantur, eodem vocari Cruthi- 
meis. (Colgan). Here we find the Crethi or Paftyae 
of Thrace, as mentioned before 1 the name Cruthi- 
meis, fignifics Judge of the Cruthi. 


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Dalradia Regio Ultoniae, hodie Ibh-Tach. 


Dal apud Hibernos communiter ufurpatur pro 
ftirpe, • ut Dal Raidhe, (feu Dal Raite) Dal Cais, 
&c. Ibh has die fame fignification, (OBrien's Dift,) 
Ibh a country, tribe, people ; this is the Chald. 
IViJJ provincia ; confequently, Dal Raite, fignifies 
the tribe of the Rheti ; populi a Tufcia ducunt 
originem, a Rhacto Lydorum duce ita di&u (Demp- 
ftcr de Etruria Regali.) -Ibh Tach or Tagh, muft 
alfo mean the tribe or defcendants of Tages ; Etruf- 
cus divinationis per auguria inventor ; hence the 
SaJantini olim Dol-ates, (ibid.) — ^that is the Dal 
ctf At^'s. But fays Colgan, Dalradia or Arradia, 
is faid to be fo named before the arrival of Patrick, 
from a certain king or queen, named Aradius. 

Aretium, Regia C/7«/V, Rex Etrufcorum. Arre- 
tium etiam didum Etruriac urbs antiquiilima, ac 
potens. Colonia erat. Aretia Jani Uxor. (Dempfter.) 

In the Etrufcan antiquities difcovered by Inghira- 
inius, we find one mod curious, written in Etrufcan 
and Latin, on a (heet of lead, enveloped in wood 
and pitched canvas; it was written by Profperus, 
the Augur ; and runs thus. Pater meus Vefulius 
Antii Fefulani, & Accae Cecinnae filius me non 
folum Ethrufcam, fed etiam Graecam & Hebraicam 
linguam docuit ; poftea augurandi artem & ipfms 
naturae 2U"canac — igitur cum ita res fe habeant, quae 

♦ In Spantfhy Del. Arab, dal, fbmilia. Heb. ^^T ^*^J1> cx- 
tradus, n^Sn dalilh propago. — Sil, in IrHh, has the fame fig- 
nification, Heb. '^^\^ Shil. Arab Sil-filch. 

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Ivi P R E F A C £• 

apud me funt, Romanis non relinquenda decrevi — 
quare in firmiori loco & tutiori hujus arcis cornua 
mea aurea^ & omnia facra Di-Anae repofui & penates 
meos & multas fcripturas, quas omnes apud me 

CIoIoCCCXIX : ex Tranfalpenninis Coloniis 
magno exercitu comparato, Vulterram verfus venit. 

CIoIoCCCXXXIX : Crotonae concilium— Adri- 
enfes obfefQ, poftquam opem a Rhethiis promiflam 
diu fruftra expeftaffent legatos ad Vulterranum fe- 
natum mittunt, orantes, ut ipfis Colonis ignofceret, 
verum non ignofcitur : donee Adrienfes pracfeftum, 
& defeftionis duces Alco tradidiffent— qui dam- 
nati (unt. 

Thufcorum colonias hie reponit Fefulanus Cuftos 
hujus Scomellanae Arcis. 
Brigania — ^Ebodera — Ceneftiacum Caerites — Spina 

eifdem Pelafgis fabrica Fefulenfibus Cortona 


Arretini autem habent. 

Birgiam, Ogiganum, Cirtonam, Arietiam, AI- . 
benium, Ogigium, &c. Italiae habitatores funt Abo- , 
rigines, qui ex ^giptiis prodiere. Profperus Augur, 
hoc fcripfit. 

To this let us add, that the firft Etrufcan king 
after the febulous time of the Etrufcans, was Meleus. 
Rex Etrufcorum totae Italiae imperavit : he confe- 
queutly was the leader of the Pelafgian colony to 
Spina, and afterwards to Spain, where Herodotus 
finds him under the name of Melcfi -genes, and 
thinks it was Homer. — Decere eum dum juvenis 
cffet, regiones & urbeis vifere, — porro quum ex Hi- 


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fpania & Tyrrhenia in Ithacam dcvehercntur, con- 
tigit Meleli-genem occulis jam ante parum valentem, 
extreme laborare. — This fhews the origin of the 
Irifti Hiftory, and though I believe that part of the 
Irifli records not to be true in every part of the de- 
tail, there is good authority to fay, that fuch a co- 
lony did arrive from Spain ; of which I fhall treat 
in a future number. In fliort, the hiftory of the an- 
tient Pelagi and Ethrufci, is the fame as that of the 
antient Irifh. 

It is not only in hiftory, that the Irifli fhcw an 
Oriental origin, but in the arts and fciences, the 
terms, names and appropriations ; — ^for example, 
in the military line ; wtth what contempt the Irifli 
troops, called Galloglafs*s and Keams, are mention- 
ed by all Englifli writers. Words corrupted from 
Ciola-chlas, and Ceama ; but thefe are Hebrew 
names occurring many times in the facr^d fcriptures. 
Sh^ chil, Viri ftrenui. *p^n chloz miles armis ac- 
dnctus. So in Irifli Culith, Charioteers. ITlS^ 
Kiiluth, Copiae militares, Turmae militum : Amufadh, 
light troops, lying in ambufli, D^DH hamus, miles 
eques levis armaturae & expeditus ad cumim. 
Ceama, is from ]*jtpp Karuain, milites evocati, qui 
precibus folum ad militiam aflumebantur. 

The ancient Irifh had a corps called Shililah; 
they fought with fpears made of oak, pointed and 
hardened in the fire : thefe were a kind of light 
armed irregulars. In Chaldee js:nSt8^ ftiilaha is a 
miilile weapon ; telum, gladius, miflile^. (Caftelus) 
and p^gf fhelak, burnt: whence the common name 
at this day, viz. fhileelah, a ftick burned at the end, 
carried by the Peafants to defend thcmfelves. 


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Iviii P R E F A C !• 

The Spanifh narative of Pedro Teixiera, printed 
at Antwerp in 1 6 1 o, who was at Borneo in 1 600, 
and defcribing the weapons of the inhabitants, fays, 
*^ Pero lo mas comun fon Selihhe^ que fon unos 
palos toftados tan rezios para herir como el heirro." 
i, e. they fought with Seiihhes, Jlicks burned at the 
end, and were as ftout to ftrike with as if of iron. 

Heb. ]^DiSd filufin milites veterani, Triari. 

The Irifh Laineach, a fpear man, is the Hebrew 
«-jj^ lanak, whence the Latin lancea ; So Ruim- 
neach corrupte Ruibneach, a fpear man, is the 
niD*^ of the Hebrew, lancea, halta, fpeculum ; 
unde Ital. Ronca. Lat. Rumex genus teli ; all thefe, 
and many more military terms common to the He- 
brew and the Irifh, may be found in Plantavit, 
under snSo C^^N Vir belli. 

I now take my leave of the xf^f^i ithx*^ of Irifli 
hiftory, and proceed to occular demonftration of 
the Oriental manners and cuftoms this country can 
boafl of, by monuments dill exifting in the king- 
dom, which could have been introduced only by 
the Phoenicians, Pelafgians or Etrufcans ; or by the 
connexion of the Magogian Scythians with them. 

My readers, by this time, are probably convinced, 
that fome foreign colonies, from the eaftern coun- 
tries, mixed with the antient Irifh \ as a further 
proof of it, I cannot pafs over the Irilh names for 
Jhoesj words in common ufc, fo different from the 
Welfh. The mofl antient fhoes were made of bull- 
rufhes : this was firfl praftifed by the Egyptians, as 
we learn from Balduinus, — " Ad ^gyptios redeam, 
apud eos e junco, quemadmodum e papyro, ut apud 
Hifpanos e Sparto, calceos in ufu fuiffe : cum junci, 


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quorum feraciiSma eft jEgyptus, in fiincs, ftrata, 
corbcs, atque adeo calceos, non minus quam Spartum 
Hifpanicum. Spartem autem id, e quo Sparti Calcei^ 
ut & pleraque alia conficiuntur, junci fpecies eft." 
(Calceus Antiquus & Myfticus, p. 24.) 

The names for (hoes in Irifli, are bhrog, bhrogamh, 
as, gheas, foirgimh, folas} triaghim, cuarthan, coifl>- 
hcirt, galoighimh, Cuarogamh, guifeir. 

In Welfli, Efgid, kuaran, guintas, foUak, hop- 
pen, arken; — ^kuaran, is corrupted from the Iri(h 
cuarthan, i. e. cuar twifted, wound round, and the 
Egyptian and Chaldee sj^n itana, junci fpecies ; 
i. e. Calceus, fays R. Jehuda in Gemara. See alfo, 
Buxtorf, at the word, where he fays, *' his pedes 
involvebantur tamquem calceamentis, die propitia- 
tionis, quando prohibitum eft calceis incedere, fic 
ibidem mentio calceamentorum ex foliis dadyli, 
junci,'' &c. &c, from the Irifli cuarthan, the Greek 
and Latin cothurnus feem to be derived, fays 
Lhwyd, Follak is from the Irifli fol-as, compound- 
ed oifol a covering, and as a flioe j from the Cop- 
tick hefo^ Z^^P-i j^'^^^s ; whence the Irifli guifeir a 
flioe, hofe ; and the old Perfic gujh a ftioe ; and the 
modern Irifli geas-aire & geafaidh vulg6 grealaidh a 

The Irifli brogy is either from the Coptic hroia 
juncus, (broia, jonc marin, St. Ifidore nous a con- 
ferve ce mot. Bullet) or contrafted from beir wear- 
ing and gamh (jOJ goma Chaldee) juncus. So 
is coifbheirt flioes, i. e, bcirt worn, cois on the feet* 
Foirgimh, is probably two Chaldee words ^{■^^^f 
phera and {?Oi:i goma, both implying Juncus or the 


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BuUruih ; or from the Irifh/e?/r proteding, faving, 
defending, & gonuij juncus. 

Their is another Irifh word, derived from the ufc 
of the buli-rufli, not to be found in the Welfli, and 
that is Jiomon^ a rope. KiiD*D in Chaldee Simunaj 
jancus, a bull-rufh or ftrong grafs, of which ropes 
are made, fays the Lexiconifts. The only WcUh 
words for a rope in Lhwyd, under funis, are rhaf, 
tant, kord, rheiffyn. The words here collated, arc 
in fuch common ufe, that if the Welfh language 
had ever admitedthem, they could not have been loft, 
as Mr. Lhwyd juftly oberves of the Irifh word uifcCy 

T HE 5 

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O R, 

P L A T E L 

(From Keating's Hiftory of Ireland.) 

A- D. 4. i3o gabh Fearadhac Fionfachtnac, M^- 
Criomthain-Niadhnar, Mac Lughoi-Riabhndearg, do 
fiol Eireamhoin, rioghad Eirin 20 bliadhain. Nar 
Taothchaoch inghean Loic, mac Daire do Cruithin 
tnahh mathair Fearadhac, as uime do garthaoi 
Fearadhac Fachtnac de dobhrigh go raibh ceart agus 
firinne da ccoimead lo na linn an Eirinn. As na 
idmhias do bhi Moran mac Maoin an, i. e. an ceart 
Bceithon aga raibh an lodhan Moruin aige, agus do 
hhido bhuadhaibhtaice gi be do cuirfeadh fa na 
bhraghaid i re linn breitheamhnas eigcirt do dhean- 
adh, go niadhadh an lodhan go daingion timpchioU 
a braghad, agus go mbiodh ag fafgadh ara bhraghaid 
go mbearadh an bhrath choir ; agus do niodh mar 
2Q cceadhna leis an ti do tigeadh do dheanamh 
^hnaife bhreige go hadmhail na firinne dho, gon 
<mIodh(in ata feanfhocal, mar an orduigheann neach 


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an loJ/jan-Moruin, do bhcith fa bhraghaid an ti bliios 
ag deanadh fiadhnaifi a ndoigh go ndiongnadh firinne, 
agus fuar Fearadhach Fionfactnanc has a Liatruim : 
that is. 

Anno Domini 4. Fearadac Fionfadnac, fon of ' 
Criomthan-Niadnor, fon of Lugh-Riabhdearg of the ' 
line of Eireamon, was king of Ireland, and reigned 
20 years ; his mother Taothchaoch was the daughter 
of Loich, fon of Darius, a Cruthenian ; he was named ' 
Fearadac Fachtnac, becaufc of his juftice and equity ^ 
during his government. In his time lived Moran j' 
(fon of Maon) the upright judge, who had the lodhan ^ 
Morain : this ornament was worn on the bread, and :: 
if any one gave falfc fcntence, the lodhan Moriun ?. 
would clofe round the neck, till he had given the -: 
proper vcrdid ; and it would do the fame if put on r 
the breaft of a witnefs, if he was delivering falfe evi- :: 
dence. Hence it became a proverb, to threaten the : 
witnefs with the lodhan Morain, in hopes of forcing ; 
the truth from him. 2 

And in another place, Keating fays, " The famous i 
Moran (Mac Maoin) was one of the chief judges : 
of this kiniirdoni j when he fat upon the bench to ; 
adminillcr juftice, he put the miraculous lodhan- ^ 
Moruin about his neck, wjiich had that wonderful 1 
power, that if the judge pronounted an unjuft decree, ; 
the breaft-platc would inftantly contrail: itfelf, and 1 
cncompafs the neck fo clofc, that it would be im- > 
poffible to breath, but if he deUvered a juft fentence, 
it would open itfelf, and hang loofe upon his ihouU 

Where the monk found the name of this king, or , 
of his judge, does not appear. O'Flaherty makes no 


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mention of them ; however, we are obliged to 
Keating for the prefervation of the name of this cu- 
rious breaft-plate ; the ftory is evidently made out 
of the following Irifli words : 
lodh, lodhan, a chain, collar, gorget, breaft-plate. 
lodhan, fincerc, pure, undefiled. 
lodhana, pangs, torments, 
lodhadh, a ftiutting clofmg, joining. 
It is evident that the lodhan-Morain was the breaft- 
plate of judgment. That I now prefent to my readers 
is of gold, of the fize of the drawing ; it was found 
twelve feet deep in a turf bog, in the County of 
Limerick, on the eftate of Mr. Bury, and is now in 
the poflcfGon of Mrs, Bury, of Granby-Row, Dublin. 
It is made of thin plated gold, and chaced in a very 
neat and workman-like manner ; the breaft-plate is 
fingle, but the hemifpherical ornaments at the top, 
arc lined throughout with another thin plate of pure 
gold : thcfe are lefs expofed to injury when on the 
brcaft, than the lower part ; there muft have been a 
particular reafon for lining thefe circular concave 
{Hcces, which 1 think will appear hereafter ; about 
the center of each is a fmall hole in the lining, to 
receive the ring of a chain that fufpended it round 
4c neck ; and in the centers in front, are two fmall 
conical pillars of folid gold, highly poliihed. The 
diain was found and fecreted by the peafant from 
Mr. Bury. In cutting the turf, the flanq or fpade 
ftnick the middle of the ornament, and bruifed it, 
as reprefcntcd iiftthe drawing j every other part is 
The whole weighs twenty-two guineas. 


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Another was found fomc years ago in the County 
of Longford, and fold for twenty-flx guineas. 

The breaft-plate of the high prieft of the Jews, 
was named \\ffr\ chofhen, Exod. xxviii, 4. and in 
Exod. xxviii. 15. DfiG^D \\ffr\ chofhen mefhephot, 
that is the breaft-plate of judgment. The Greeks 
name it xiyff, i. e. rationale, quia ad pe£tus, rationis 
quad fedem, fuit appofitiim. 

It is very particularly defcribcd in Exodus xxviii, 
and 1 5th verfc, " Thou flialt make the breaft-plate 
of judgment with cunning work, after the manner 
of the Ephod thou (hah make it ; of gold, of blue, ' 
and of purple, and of fcarlet, and of fine twined 
linen fhalt thou make it. Four fquare fhall it be, ' 
being doubled. And thou fhalt fet in it, fettings of ^ 
ftones, even four rows of ftones, &c. And thou fhak • 
make upon the breaft plate chains at the ends, of 
wreathen work and pure gold, and two rings of gold, 
and thou fhalt put the two wreathen chains of gold ia 
the two rings, &c- and thou fhalt put in the breaft- : 
plate of judgment the URIM and the THUMMIM, 
and they fhall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth 
before the Lord. 

There is' no miftaking this defcription of the 
breaft-pkte of the Jews ; the chains excepted, it has * 
no refembl'ance to that of our Hibernian Druids. 

Looking into BuxtorPs Chaldee Lexicon, 1 found ' 
loden figmfred the breaft plate; and that Moran, did . 
the fame ; but I could no where find loden-Moran " 
compounded. The commentatorWtnny poffefTton, n 
afforded no information ; I then applied by letter i 
to R. J. J. Heidcck,Profeffor of Oriental Languages, * 
and received the following anfwer : ^ 

« Sir, ^ 

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" Sir, 

" 1 find CCran atr^n chofen hemefphot, or the 
breaft plate of judgment, named 3nT!3 3n* loden 
Moren, by Rab. Joda in Talmud Sanhedrim, p. 134* 
And in Comm. Ein Jacob, p. 1 50, it is derived from 
the imperfcfl verb B^2T^ which he fays is Moren, and 
EflffD he fays is the fame as loden, and he adds, that 
the words llrim and ITiummim have the fame fignifi- 
cation ; but Rab. Simon in Ejus: p, 135 and 151, 
more plainly lays it is Moren loden, which according 
10 Rab. Solomon larchis, is alfo loden Moran. Rab. 
Meir calls it Doen Moren. The Rab. in Talmud 
by J that the Meffias Ihall be called loden Muren. 
for he (hall be the judge, as in Ifaiah xith. Thus, 
Sir, it is very plain that the Irifti name is derived 
from the Chaldee Choflien Hemefhpot, or loden 
Muren *. 

I am, &c. 
Temple-bar, John Jos. Heideck, 

iftjuly, 1783. Prof. Ling. Oriental. 

la the Irifti language Dunn is a judge, and Maor^ 
* lord or chief. The explanation given by Buxtorf 
to Moran or Maran, fo perfeSly correiponds to 
£eating's picture of Moran, one would think the 
Mfli word had originally the fame meaning. y^Q 

* The Iri{h word is often written lodh, and I think has the 
ksK mcanvag as Urim, viz. an oracle. Hcb. ^ iad, oraculum, 
^n^phctia, as in Ezek. Hi, and xxii. And the iad of the Lord 
■u there upon me ; lad is a hand, and thus it is tranilatcd in 
ike Eagliih ; but the commentators all explain the word by 
fnfietia XDomint. 

Vol. IV. No. XIU. F Maran j 

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Maran ; Dominus dicitur autem de politico & ec- 
clefiaftico domino, id eft, doftore excellcnte, reli- 
q.uoruin fapieatium capite : qui fimul judicaiidi habet 
poteftatem. Maran de fummo, qui praeerat reliquis 
fapientibus quern etiamnum hodie communes Rabbini ' 
vocant Morenu. Inde & Chriftus vocatus fuit per * 
excelleatiam Marau. Hinc vox ifta Syra in N. T. ' 
Maranaiha Dominus venit, qua extremum anathema - 
indicabant. ^ 

All the Hebrew writers confcfs themfelves igno- ^ 
rant of the materials and of the form of Ac Urim ^' 
and Thummim. Kimchi obferves, it is no where ^ 
explained to us what were the Urim and Thummim ; * 
it is plain from the Scripture, they differed from the ^ 
ftones of the breaft plate, (in roce TK.) '^ 

Munfterus fays, what they were no mortal can telL ' 
Sirachis thinks they were gems ; and Scliindler us, ' 
that it was only an infcription or writing of the name ^ 
Jehovah, or fome other word, introduced between '? 
the linen of the breaft plate. Some aflert the words ^^ 
were written upon a plate of gold. w 

Many opinions might be colledled, but fays Rab. «• 
David, he ipoke beft, who ingenuoufly confefled, ? 
tjiat he knew not what it was. i 

That it was an inftrumcnt of divine revelation, 
18 very plain. And according to Jofephus, this a 
oKicle ccafed about 112 years before Chrift. We ^ 
learn from the Holy Scripture, that God revealed * 
himfelf chiefly by four ways ; ift, by Nebuah, i. e. . 
by vifions and apparitions ; 2d, by Ruach Hecodefli, , 
i. e. the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft ; 3d, by Urim ■' 
and Thummim ; 4th, by Beth-Kol, i. e. the daughter = 
of a voice or an echo. The Hibernian Druids pre-*- 


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tended to ehjoy the fame divine honours, calling 
than by the fame names, except the laft, which they 
termed Mac Col or the fon of a voice, i. e. an echo *. 
Tie anfwer to thefe oracles' were always delivered 
finom the Dar^ the facred oak tree. Mr. Htitchinfon 
has fiiewn, wkh a great deal of learning and judg- 
ment, that the Heathens, in fome of their facred trees, 
recognized the very tree of the knowledge of good 
and evH; and alfo, more particularly thought he faw 
frequent nieotion of it in the old Teflament, under 
die name of ^TH hadar, i. e. the refplendeftt tree; but 
wc are no way informed of what fpecies of fruit the 
Tl dar wa«. (HoUoway Orig- Phyf. & Theol.) 

The antient Britons call the oak dar and derw, 
perhaps from "Til for its durablenefs j from a con- 
traction of their dar an oak, and dewin a prophet, 
they ieem to have formed Derwiddon, the famous 
Oak Prophets called Druids, (ibid.) f 

The prophets and their aftions mentioned by 
Moles, which were before him, or which are occa- 
fionally mentioned by others after him, prove that 
there were feveral before the flood and the patriarchs, 
acd fome few others afterwards ; of whofc predic- 
tions, fome are recorded, 'till Mofcs who was like 

^ Breith-call ts tn orade in Irifh ; correfponding to the 
Ckddce JifSp nyi Bimth Kola, i. c. fiJia vocis : from the Iriflx 
Aifcacaiy the Latin Oraculum. Call-mbuin is another name of 
10 Oracle, meaning the voice of Man, i. e. Deus. 

f There cannot be a ftrongcr example of the Wclfh and Irifh 
iapguages having been the fame originally ; and of the corruption 
of the WcHh. I have cHewh^rc Acwn the derivation of Dru or 
Draoi, a Druid, the plural of which is Draoith, whence the 
Wcjfh DrwiddoD, pqrhapa with Duon in the termination. 

F 2 the 

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the great prophet, was raifed up. Ecclef. Antediluv. 
xiii. Gen. 6, and 5. dicitur fpiritus Dei difccptaffc 
cum filiis hominuni quae vox \M DUN per totam 
fcripturam fignificat publicum ofBcium in Ecclefia, 
feu predicationem qua arguimur, reprehendimur, 
difcernimus bona a malis ;* hence the Irifh Dunn, 
i. e. OUamhan a dodor, a Druid in his Oracular 

The antient Heathens, the falfe priefts to their 
falfe Elahim, performed, I think I may fay, almoft 
every individual article in the inftitution and excr- 
cife of the priefthood. And though among the mo- 
dern Heathens, fome abufcs had by ignorance and 
miftakes, crept in ; yet in the main, they retained 
many of them, and fomething aiming at thofc they 
miftook: which is another demonllration, that all 
thefe inlUtutions and typical anions, were in being 
and praftifed before the difperfion at Babel, f 

The Heathen falfe prophets, pretended their deity, 
their lights their fpirit conveyed their wills to them, 
by all the methods, by which Jehovah conveyed his 
will, or the knowledge of things paft or to come, 
to the true prophets, by oracle, by dreams, vifions, 
fpeech, &c. and imitated as far as they could, the 
true prophets in their aftions, &c. which is demon- 
ftration that oracles, prophets, and all thofe methods, 
were in being and praftifed before the difperfion at 
Babel. As it is clear, that while the effencc was 
united to a man upon earth, and the Holy Ghoft 
fupernaturally infpired the apoftles, &c. Chrift fuf- 
fered fatan, the infernal fpirits, to dwell in men, and 

♦ HutcbinfoDi Data in Chrift. p. 62. f »l>Jd- 8». 


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b? fome of their mouths to f redid, &c, and as far 
2s it was in their power to know, I think it may 
itafonably be fuppofed, while there was an oracle 
and prophets before Chrift came, the devils might 
be permitted to do what they could among the apof- 
tatcs the Heathen, in thofe points. And as when 
6c divine oracle had long ceafcd, and prophecy alfo 
ccafed with the apoftles, &c. there was no further 
pretence to oracles, prophets, &c. among the Hea- 
thens. It almoft amounts to evidence, that there 
had been fomething of that nature, and that it was 
00 longer permitted : whether this be not one of 
the caftings out of Satan defcribed under various 
names in the Revelations, may be confidercd.* 
Whether our Magogian Scythians received the ufe 
of the Jodhan Morain, whilft they remained in the 
Holy land, or if it defcended to them fince by com- 
munication with the Phoenicians, Thracians or Car- 
thaginians, I cannot determine. Certain it is, they 
imitated the Urim and Thummim in the ornament 
before us. The Jews borrowed or were permitted 
to ufe fevcral ornaments in their church, common to 
the Heathens. They alfo named them in their own 
language, fo as to correfpond as near as f>oflible with 
Ae Egyptian or Phoenician language in found, f 
Such may have been the words Urim arid Thum- 
nim, which are fuppofed by fome, to fignify light 

♦ Hutcbinfon Data in Chrift, Sec alfo, Princcrus de divi- 

t The learned Millius it of a contrary opinion : undc colHgo 
&cra gentilibas cum Ifrach'tis communia, non a gcntllibu* ad 
Lraclitas, fed ab Ifraclitis potius ad alias gcntcs manaffc. 


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and pcrfedion; but why then are the Hebrew wordt^ 
in the plural number. The 7otranflatc them by tixma^m 
t^ 'Kki^tmy 1. e. manifeftation and truth, bccaufe the 
anfwers given by this oraclt were ajays clear atid 

In Irifli, uram and urm is to refolve, aod tumam 
to enquire into diligently, and Iq to diHiiiguilh : In 
the preamble of the Seanacaffnory or great code of 
Irifli hws, (the oldeft thelriih have) are thefe words^ 
ag tumas olc on maith agus maith on olc. i. e. en? 
quiring into and didinguifliing good from evil and 
evil from good, that is, the oracle.^ — ^Thefe word ia- 
ftrong in the compound Brei-thumnas, an oracle* 
Dr. Hyde, derives the word from *nDn tbamury i^ 
crificium juge. Such feys he, was the Urim & 
Thummim^ which the Arabs call ten^ma* In Bux- 
torf's Chaldce Lex, we find cjonthamam, abfot^ 
vere, perfeci, complerL Halloway under the He- 
brew Hhartum, a magician, fays, it partakes of 
taman to hide and conceal. 1 beMeve it rather 
means to difclofe a thing hidden* Ireland, till lately, 
abounded with Tamans. I know a farmer's wifie 
in the Co. of Waterford^ that lofl: a parcel of Unea: 
flie travelled three days journey to a Taman, in the, 
Co. of Tipperary,— he confulted his Black-book^ and- 
aiTured her (he would recover the goods ; ^ t he 
robbery was proclaimed at the chapel, ofl'ering a re- 
ward, and the linen was recovered ; — ^it was not the 
money, but the Taman that recovered it. 

The learned Dr. Spencer, thinks the Phefal and 
Matfach of Micah made of the two hundred fhekels 
of filver, to have been the fame as the Urim and 


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Thimmim. * Urim, autem inftrumentum conca- 
ram decore fabricatum Theraphim antiquitus ap- 
peBatum fuiffe vidctur, - Urim & Thummim per 
apcrtum dupHcati Pedoralis latus immiffa concavum 

fllfjs medium occupafle & quia nonulli Urim 

& Thuminim voces tantum inertes lamina quadam 
aurca cxaratas, & in peftoralis arcano reconditasj 
alii ea duas tantum virtutes. 

Chrift, a Caftor tells us, they were two images, 
which being fhut up in the doubling of the Breaft- 
plate, did from thence give the oracular anfwer by 
a voice : and Dr. Spencer is alfo of this opinion. 
Dr. Pocock treats this as a conceit both abfurd and 
impious, as favouring more of heathenifm and ido- 
latry, than of the pure inftitution of a Divine 

Dr. Prideaux, thinks the words Urim and Thum- 
mim, only meant the Divine virtue znd power y given 
to the Breaft-platc in its confecration, of obtaining 
anoraculous anfwer from God. 

In Levit. viii. and 8. we find the Urim and Thum- 
mim, mentioned without the twelve ftones, viz. 
he put the breaft-plate upon him ; alfo he put in 
the breaft-plate the Urim ou Thummim. And, 
Dcut. xxxiii. and 8. Let thy Urim ou thy Thum- 
mim be with thy holy one: Here is no mention made 
of Breaft-plate or Stones. 

ITie Hebrew copulative particle \ ou, fignifies 
sr, as well as and. So that Urim & Thummim, 

* Judges, chap. xvii. 4. and 5. 


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may be fynonimous words, correfpondi 
Irifli Uraim pr (vcl) Tainmam. * 

The High Prieft was not to confult the 
any private perfon, but only for die king, 
prefident of the Sanhedrim, for the genci 
army, or for for iome other great prince 
governor in Iiracl ; and not for any privai 
but for fuch only as related to the public 
the nation, either in Church or State, 

Our Hibernian Druids never confulted 
Morain, but in the courts of julHce, or on 
ftate ; to all their decrees l/rn//;;/, i. t. xm 
dience was paid. 

In dubious cafes, or where the interel] 
Church was concerned, or the eledion oi^ 
they confulted the Liath Mkisicith, < 

* To avoid tills coDfufion, the Irilh language citH 
'ce» ke, L e» feeing that, or affixes gus^ i. e. fad, d< ceo, kco,^?;/^: from whence the Greek Km,i:9ugtL0 
ed to agus : or^ ounijlea^ i. e. and in truth, contracted 
it is remarkable that agus is only to be found in the J 
Bafc, or Cantabrian ; and in the Irifh, Erfc and M 
from oundea, is formed the German undo, the Tcutl 
^nd the Englifh and. 


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This very curious monument af antiquity^ is the pro- 
perty of T. Kavenagh, Efqj of Ballyborris, ;« 
the County o/'Carlow. 

1 T is a box, the fize of the drawing, and two inches 
deep, it is made of brafs cafed with filver : it con- 
tains a number of loofe flieets of vellum, on which 
are written extrads of the gofpel and prayers for the 
fick, in the Latin language, and in the Irilh charac- 
ter. There are alfo, fome drawings in water colours 
of the apoftles, not ill executed : thefe are fuppofcd 
to be the work of Saint Molhig, the patron of that 
part of the country. 

In the center of the lid is a large cryftal,* the 
fize of the drawing and one inch and a quarter 

thick y 

• Cnoft-al in Irilli, figniBeB a holy ftone ; and i« probably the 
true etymology of the word, and not from Kp»^, frigug, for ihc 
Oreeka could not be ignoranty that cryital was the produce of 
hot countries as well as of cold, — the beft is found in the iflaad 
of Madagafcar : — the ftrongcft cryftallizations are fornoed by 

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thick } this is the Mei/uitb : it was originally let 
through the cover, fo that the light could pafs 
through : on the back of it, there is now a foil of 
tin, moveable, evidently the work of a modem 
day- At the right hand corner at top, is another 
cryftal on a red foil ; next to it a bead of a tranf- 
fparent compofition : the ornament that ftood next 
is loft : thofe of the two left hand corners have 
been taken out, and the fockets filled with common 
glafs on a red foil. At the right hand comer at 
bottom is an oblong piece of cryftal on a red foil ; 
next it a tranfparent bead ; and laftly, an amethift- 
drop of a deep purple colour : there have been orna- 
ments at the two ends of the Meificith, which are 
alfo loft. 

The box rcprefents the Roman Thuribulum, in 
which the incenfc burnt during the facrifice. Se- 
veral drawings of thefe may be feen in Montfaucon. 

I am favoured with drawings of feveral boxes of 
this kind, fabricated fince chriftianity, being orna- 
mented with cmcifixes : this has no marks of that 
kind, and appears to be the Dmidical Liath Meifi- 
cith or Liath Fail, in which they pretended to draw 
down the Loghy the ciTence or fpirrtual fire, and pre- 
fence of Aefar, (God) whenever they confulted 
this Oracle. 

Hence the a^*?, the articulate voice or fpeech in 
man, (in its kind or degree) what the Divine 
A^«<, word, is to the eflence, viz. the Irradiaion ad 
extra of the mind or foul. The fame notion, there- 
fore, the Heathens had of their God, the f alar tight j 
and called it accordingly, by the fame name Aiy«<. 
(HoTlbway's originals, v. i. p. 222.7 With fubmif- 


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ikm to this author, the wcvrd Logos was applied by 
John in oppofition to the Druldical Logh, for Jofaat 
wrote agsttiifl Cerinthue, a converted Druid, and 
therefore very properly ufed this word ; from Logh 
is derived the Iriih and Coptic Lo, day, the light of 
die day. 

How this fire was communicated, I cannot pre- 
tend to fay, but, as it is weU known, that Cbbak 
ground up with oil, will lye an hour or more in that 
undious ftate and theft burft into an amazing 
blaze : * it is probable that the Druidd, who were 
(kilful chimyild, (for their days) could not be igna« 
rant of fo fimple an experiment. A fire lying fe 
long concealed, would afford them ample time for 
prayers sukI incantations. 

Nothing could fo well fuit the purpofe of the 
Dntids as bringing fire from oii Oil was the em- 
blem, the facrament of that complete tertue, of 
wi£iom, juftice and mercy, called Holinefe. " Myf- 
tice fic ii^etligentibus. Oleum eft ipfe Dominus, 
a quo ad nos pervenit mifericordia." | SpecinKH 
quoddam divinatis in oleo prae ommCms tefr^^ at^ 
que arborum fruftibus, veteres omnea agnoviile 
cjoanidamque excellentiam divinitus quodammodo 
in eo oleo coltocatam oftendunt. | And thus pro- 
bably the facred fires were lighted. Juftus Lipiius, 
thinks this was done by an inftrument like a fun- 

• Experiment lately made in London, before Mr. Banfc«. 
(Letter to me). 

f Clem. Alex. p. 129, 

X Scbac. Myroth. p. 224. ibtd. p. 567. SecalfoEufeb. 
Dcmonftr. £t. 1. 3. 

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ncl, colleding the rays of the fun in a point ; a thing 
impraQicable in this climate. The fire was facred, 
*' nofter ignis, aftionem divini ignis imitans quic-» 
quid materiale reperit in facrificio deftruit, Sc admota 
purificat, & a vinculis materiae folvit, ac propter na- 
turae puritatem ad Deorum conimunionem idonea 

Chriftianity took its name from the emblematical 
inftitiition of oil. The emblem was 'Qg*, oil ; the 
adlion Xvad anointing : the perfon anointed, was 
TWffQ Mefuh : thofe who anointed or ccnftituted, 
are D^ntJ^ID • The word conftantly ufed in this cafe, 
is n*C^O Mefliah, rendered anointed. Whence the 
Greek mi^*?, xur^^y the Mcflias, Ohrift. 

Mr. ODonnell, of the Barony of Innlihowen, -in- 
forms me, there was in the hands of the Rev. Mr. 
Barnard, of Fahan, a precious box, (et with ftones ; 
called in Irifh, Meefliac, a word fuppofed to be He- 
brew, and to fignify a Vow. This is ornamented with 
a crucifix and the twelve apoftles : Another is de- 
fcribed by Sir Henry Piers, in his hiftory of Weft- 
meath *, by the name of Corp nua^ that is the new 
prefence, the new body : a name given by the firft 
Chriftian mitfionaries, in oppofition to the Druidical 
Aefar, or Logh, the fpiritual light of the Godhead, 
they pretended to draw from Heaven. 

The cryftal ftone in the center, is named Liath 
Meificith ; or the Magical ftone of fpeculation. 

Liath, i. e. Lith, i- e. Seod, i. c. Liath & Lith, 
fignify a gemm. (Vet. Gloff. Hib.) 

• CeUedlaoca Vol L Wc ihall give drawings of thcfc, in the 
courfe of this work. 


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Meifi, i. e. Dealbha Sithbheara, i. e. Meifi fig- 
Bifies, magical reprefentations. (ibid). 
Meifi, a judge, fairies, ghofts, hobgoblins. (OBrien 
and Shawe.) 

Lith, folemn, feftival. (OB. & S.) Lith iai, fefti- 
Tal days. Lia fail, the fatal (lone, (ibid.) 

Leice, (corrupted of Liath-cith) a precious (lone, 
a diamond : In the highlands of Scotland, a large 
crydal of a figure fomewhat oval, which prieds kept 
to work charms by ; water poured upon it at this 
day, is given to cattle againd difeafes ; thefe (tones 
are now preferved by the olded and mod fuperdi- 
tious in the country, (Shawe). They were once 
common in Ireland : I am informed the Earl of 
Tyrone, is in pofTeflion of a very fine one. 

a/Ih» gemma, politus lapis ; hence Pbilo-lithos^ qui 
gemmas amat. (Pliny). 

Mais & Meifi, have both the fame fignification in 
Iriffi, viz. Draoidheaft, * i. e. Druidifm. Cith, is a 
vifion ; whence cim, I fee ; ocitear, feeing that. 
The correfponding Hebrew words are j^g^o mafa, 
prophetia dura, j(\f jj maza invenire, comperire ; 
in chi, revelatio ; Chald. ntn chitfeh, videre ; Arab 
khei, a phantom. 

The ufeof this donewasdriftly forbidden to the Jews 
by Mofes,in the xxvi. chap, of Lev. ye (hall make you 
no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a 
(landing image, neither (hall ye fu(Fer the done 
ITDC^D nia(hcith, to be within your dominions. 

• Every term appertaining to the tenets of the Druidi<:a1 rc- 
Hgion, 18 tran£ated draoidheachty by our modern Lexico- 

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The Vulgate and EnglKh, have miftaken the fenfey 
and tranflate this pafTage, by ^^ neither fhall ye fet 
up any image of (lone in your land." Montanus 
fays, & lapidem fpeculationis non dabitis in term 
Teftra. The LXK very properly name tfiis ftone 
xi$H 9-xcxi( ; that is gemma fpeculationis. 

Yifwif derived from a-xt^oft^ fignifies, delibero, con- 
fulto. Skopai, non fpecula tantum, fed etiam aftus 
fpeculandi denotat, (Spencer). <rxcmi, fpeculor, con- 
templor, intueor, obfcrvo animo agito. A>«««Mm» 
divinatio ex infpedione «ris. 

No words in the Greek language could more 
properly have expreffed the form and ufe of die 
the Liath MeiAcith, than KHof aifwif. The fame done 
is again forbidden in Numbers xxxiii, and 5a. 
** TTien ye (hall drive out all the inhabitants of the 
land from before you, and deftroy all their tDnVDtSfD 
Mafhciothim, tranilated ^$vtt^g by the 70, and pic- 
tures in the Englifh verfion/' It is evident from this 
paffage, tfiat Maflicith in Hebrew, is the fmgular 
number and not plural, as many of the Rabbins 
would have it. 

The LXX, The Rabbles of the apoftate Jews, 
and the Chriftian Ecclefiaftics, ''fays Hutchinfon) 
have had the management of the tranflations, and 
the handling of the Scriptures : the LXX, &c. 
have confounded the roots for their names, con- 
ftrued a word in one place one thing, in another 
place another thing, to avoid the meaning : and 
moft of the Rabbles would have their inftitutions 
to be taken from the heaiiiens, to be fufficient in 
themfelves, and have no reference to the divine in- 


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ftkutionSy xnbidk were at the beginning. * Yet he 
alloTTS, that many thmgs have been revealed azul 
recorded (ince, and many things more antient, have 
been lately difcovered. f I am afraid our author 
has pail a hafty judgment on the 70 ; for aldiough^ 
as Leufden thinks, part of the original tranjQation 
of the 70 was lofl:, and the reft made by nmch later 
attdu>FS ; I cannot help thinking the various words 
they have given for the fame word in Hebrew, was 
done with great condderation and defign. 

No pailage in the old Teft^ment has perplexed 
the Commentators more than this £bn Maihcith. 
Dodor Spencer, after reciting all that has been 
written on it by the Rabbles, concludes, that a 
man muft be a prophet rather than interpreter, to 
onderftand them ; Vatem potius quam inierpreUm 
fqftulare videatur : and the learned Dodor is of 
opinion it muft have been fomething, formed from 
an Egyptian or Syrian model. 

Some of the Rabbles thought it was a tall ftonc, 
others an Obclilk, which they worfliipped, others 
that it was a mute idol ; and others, that it was a 
tower, from whence to explore the ftars : but the 
Samaritan text, calls it ebn mithnaggedah^ that is, 
lapis indicationis aut annunciationis. Aud my late 
very worthy friend Mr. Moore, author of the Manx 
verfion, very properly names it cloch-thoit, (or hoit 
corrupte) that is the magical ftone. Poole, is not 
very diftant from the form of it, by calling it a fet- 
ftone, lapidem inclufum. 

^ Data in Chnftianity page 206. 
f Ibid, Religion of Satan, page 51, 


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zo L I A T H M E I S I G I A T H. 

But fays Millius, we muft diftinguifh between 
HD^flD mezceh, dc rudi & impoHto lapidc and the 
POtl*I3 mafhcith. Obfcurius eft vocabuluni h variis 
expofitionibus obnoxium. He then fliews where 
Onkelos, Bechai and Maimonides, have miftaken 
the meaning of the word, and quotes Manilius, who 
thought it was teiTelata pavimenta ; and concludes 
his opinion that the word Maflicuh is derived from 
nDtt^» afpicere, profpiccre- id e i, lapidem adfpe^s. 
Et mihi expofitio Ebn Mafcith, placet, lapides in- 
genio & arte ficli fz formati :— id eft opus ingenio- 
fum & artinciofiflimum ; ctiam lapides intelligam 
Magica arte parata ; which is evidently our Liath 
Mcificith, here reprefcnted. " 

The compofition of cobalt, ground with oil, muft 
fometimes have failed and, from various caufes, 
not blazie : then probably the Aefar was difpleafed ; 
and vengeance was denounced on the ftate, or per- 
fon ollering the oblation. 

This feems to be well reprefented on two an- 
tlent Etrufcan Releivos, engraved in Dcinpfter's 
Etrurlu. Tab. xxxvii. 

No. I . Rcpr ofcnts a facrifice or thurnia, for a 
bounty recievcJ. The fire blazes on the altar, one 
man is pourJng on w'ne or oil ; another holds 
a lamb ready Ibr tlx furriiice, and a third is bring- 
ing turma, or a difli of tlie fruits of the earth. An 
old man richly drefTed in a lay habit, attended by a 
domcfiick, ftands bv the altar : behind are mufi- 
ciansi,— Ail is joy. The Etrufcan Infcription is, 

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in Irlfli 

The joyful feaft for any bounty. 

No. 2. Reprefcnts an altar without fire; the 
artift has placed a fmall blaze on the ground, to 
flicw the difappointment. A woman ftands by the 
altar with a lamb in her arms, to point out the in- 
tention of the facrifice. The fame old man and his 
attendant are retiring from the altar in hafte and 
confufion. A Druidefs leans over the altar lament- 
ing and explaining the caufe of the ill omen. The 
Infcription in Etrufcan, is, 


In Irifli 

/• e. 

Returning unfuccefsful from the feftival facrifice of 
die Lamb (vowed) to Holy Ithia. 

N. B. The Etrufcan Infcripion is to be read from 
right to left. 



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1 HIS little image of brafs, is of the fize of the 
drawing ; it was found under the root of a tree, that 
was grubbed up in the County of Rofcommon ; it has 
been gilt, but the gilding is worn off in mod places. 
It is in the coUedion of the Mufeum of Trinity 

This image has the appearance of an idol ; the 
hands hold the corners of the beard, like the Etrufcan 
Silenus in Gori*s colleftion ; but, the pofition of the 
arms and feet have every appearance of its having 
been the ornament of a crucifix. 

The Irifh Druids, like their Scythian anceftors, 
permitted no image worihip. The unchifelled ftone 
was the emblem ufed by all antient nations. The 
Chinefc and Indians ftill retain this ftone, though 
their pagodas are crowded with images, and Paufanias 
declares that all the antient Greeks had no other 
ddiiblem of their deities. 


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Maximus Tyrlus fays» that before the time of 
Mahummed, the Arabians had no other \ and the 
Mater Deorum of the Romans, vf^% a black rough 
fcme. The Etrufcans claim the art of making ima- 
get ; they certainly learnt it of theiBgyptiansj but the 
Etrufcans were the firft.that formed them after nature; 
Ae -Egyptians deferve no eulogium on this account^ 
their figures are clumfy and unnatural ; thofe of the 
antient Etrufcans are as bad ; but the figures of the 
more modern artifts of that wonderful people, are 
qual to the works of the moft celebrated Grecian 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for December 1742, 
is an account of two filver images found under the 
ruins of an old tower, which had raifed various con- 
jcSures and fpeculations amongft the antiquaries. 
They were about three inches in height, reprefenting 
men in armour, wi± very high helmets on their heads, 
ffid ruffs round their necks, and ftanding on a pedeftal 
of filver, holding a fmall golden fpear in their hands. 
The accoimt is taken from the Dublin papers; the writer 
refers to Merrick's tranflation of Tryphiodorus, an 
.£gyptian (that compofed a Greek poem on the de- 
ftrudion of Troy, as a fequel to Homer's Iliad) to 
(hew that it was cuftomary with the antients, at the 
foundation of a fort or city, to confecrate fuch images 
to feme tutelar guardians, and depofit them in a fecret 
part of the building ; where he alfo inferts a judicious 
CKpofition of a difficult text of Scripture on that 

The defcription of thefe images correfponds exaftly 

wifli the Etrufcan ftatues, fee Gori's Mufeum Etruf- 

G 2 cum, 

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a4 BRA ZEN I ftLAG JL - .- 

cum, pi. 40,45, 108, 117, where the helmets are 
nearly half the height of the figures. ] 

If any gentleman in Ireland is poflefled of the^ 
images, the author of the Colledanea, will think 
himfelf greatly obliged, if he can be indulged witli 
a fight or a drawing of them. ^ I 





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rUn 5. 

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[he horn from which this drawing is made, is of 

has fucteen fides, and is mounted with brafs, 

Ferently gilt. Round the mouth piece is the 

owing infcription: ciguranfujBf flDlatian me 

€)eO graciajBf, U % L Tiguranius O Lavan * 

; fecit Deo gracias, I. H. C. that is, Tiguranius 

le me for the love of God. It was the property 

Thomas Kavanagh, £fq ; of Ballyborris, in the 

ity of Carlow, who has generoufly added it to 

CoIJege coUedion. 

The famous horn of York, is alfo of ivory, and 

[|Le ours has fixteen fides ; it is fomewhat larger 

l^ian this, and is flung with a belt ; ours is made to 

id. Drake in his antiquities of York ililes that, 

the famous horn made of an elephant's tooth, 

' which is indeed the greatefl piece of antiquity the 

* Probably O Lafian, and anceftor of the Laffao family, now 
in the County Kilkenny. 

*' church 

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^' church can exhibit, having been beftowed by ki 
*' Ulphus, the fon of Toraldus, who by reafon oi 
*' difference like to happen between his cldeft 1 
*' and his ypungeft, about his lordfliips when 
** (hould be dead, prefently took this courfe to ma 
** them equal. Without delay he went to York, a 
" taking with him the horn wherein he was wont 
♦* drink, he filled it with wine, and kneeling do* 
*' before the altar, beftowed upon God and i 
*' blefled St. Peter, all the lands and tenements * 
In antient times there are fevcral inftances of efta 
that were paffed without any writing at all, by i 
lord's delivering of fuch pledges as thefe, a fword 
a helmet, a cap, a horn, a bow, an arrow. ** Ni 
verba abfque fcripto vel charta, tantum cum dona 
gladio, vel galea vel Cornu,*' are the exprefe vrt 
of Ingulphus. Cornua notae religionis & fandk 
erant, res & perforias peculiari fanftitate donatas^ 
religiofus obfervandas indicantia. Hence Keref; 
Koran in Hebrew and Chaldee, and Cearn, Corn. 
Irifh, fignify a horn, cup, glory, majefty ; whc. 
keam, viftory ; kearn airdhe, a trophy ; keam d^ 
athletick laurel ; Jerem. ii. and iii. ** he hath cut, 
in his fierce anger all the korin (glory) of Ifrad jC 

■ addit cornua pauperi vinum. ^ 

Hence horns were ufed as marks of rclij^ 
fanftity, and of things and perfons devoted to reKg^ 
and an indication of religious obfervations : \ 
were dedicated to deities, and often hung i^K)!^ 
crcann naomhtha, or holy trees of the groves. 

Sec alfo Camden's Britannia. 

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the Egyptians in their hieroglyphics expreffcd Ifiis 
by horns, and the Etnifcans and Greeks ornamented 
their deities with horns. Dr. Spencer Ihews, that 
long before the age of Mofes, the horn was the em- 
blem of ftrength and royalty, of dignity, and excel- 
lency. Amobius fays, rivers were reprefentcd by 
homed (tatues ; and Porphyrius, that every facred 
image had its particular horns allotted them ; but 
Ac learned J. Douglas (in his Anna!. Sacr.) jjroves 
that the altars of the antient heathens were made 
entirely of horns ; miror & innumeris ftrudam de 
comibus aram. (Cydippc, Ov. Ep. 20.) whence the 
Irifli words earn an altar, camac a prieft, fiiit-ceamach 
a donation to a religious purpofe, and hence the Latin 
Cameus Apollo. Jupiter's nurfe Almathasa, (i. e. 
the Irifli Am-alt-itha or the mother nurfmg Itha) was 
reprcfcnted by a horn full of fruits and flowers, a 
cornucopia, which ftill pafles for a fymbol of plenty, 
though the phyfical rcafon and ground of the device, 
has been long fwallowed up in fable and romance, 
while nothing more was fignified by it, than that 
plenty of the rich fruits of the earth is produced by 
die operations of the horns or rays df light, and one 
name in Hebrew for that fire at the orb of the fun 
vas Vnn chriun, whence the Irifli chrian or grian, 
the fun, the folar heat, and the Latin Granneus 
Apollo ; hence alfo the Irifli Cruinne, the Mundane 

Thcre is a curious paflage in Inghiramius's Etrufcan 
antiquities, tranflated into Latin from the Etrufcan, 
Aat not only points out the origin of our Anu *, 

♦ See Preface. 


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from whence the Latins formed Diana, but (hew^ 
that the great Meufe deer was common in Italy as 
well as in Ireland, but at that diftant age, was an 
animal unknown to the Etrufcans. The infcription 
was written on lead by Profperus Fefulanus in Ul- 
terranenfi CoUegio Augurum Socius, and runs thus : 
;— " poftridie, dum foderent in loco, ubi futura erat 
porta, inventa funt Cornua Cervina immenfa magnitu-. 
iiinifj qu£ eum ad fex cubitos fepulta eifent ; vifum 
eft omnibus prodigium ; cornua Di-Anae folemni 
ritu & facris ceremoniis dicata fure ; sdificata arce, 
Mutius Maurus primus cuftos, aurea cornua eorum 
loco pofuit fuper aram, & quae inventa fuerunt fubter 
aramad trcs cubitos in temploipfmsDi-Anoe/'Thefame 
is recorded byAlcus Filaccus; and the infcription con- 
cludes with thefe words, *' demum defperata falute 
hie ea rcpofui, quae ad Di-Anam pertinent, ne eis 
Romani potirentur. Profperus Cuftos Arcis." 

Thefe horns were facred to Ana or Anu, who with 
Ith and Dagh prefided over the produce of the earth 
and waters,, and were denominated Mathar, i. e. firft 
caufe, whence the Romans formed their unknown 
gods, the Deae Matrps, that Spon takes for deified 
women, who while living, were thought to have the 
gift of prophecy ; but the Druids taught they were 
only the Adhbhan or Abhan, compounded of abhar^ 
the caufe or inftrument of fertility, ading under the 
power of jEAir (God) and hence they were deno- 
minated Aufanii. But the etymology of Anu is in 
the Irifli language fignifying a cornucopia ; a cup, 
plenty, &c. The fub-druids always carried an Anu 
with them, and it was held facred, that every fpring 
in Ireland, fliould be fupplied with a horn chained 


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to a (lone. Sir John Chardin remarks, that the der- 
vifes of the eaft always carry with them the horn of 
a goat or of an ox. 

In the third vol. of the Archaeologia of the London 
Society of Antiquaries, are the drawings of fix horns, 
and a very ingenious diflertation on the Charter 
Horn, by Mr. Pegge. The Pufey horn (there de- 
fcribed) is that of an ox, tipped with filver, and 
mounted with feet, like ours ; on the middle ring is 
this infcription in black letter. 

King Knowde geve William Pcwfe 
This Home to holde by thy Londe. 

The horn of Corpus Chrifti College Cambridge, 
is alfo that of an ox, and .mounted with feet. The 
charter horns of Carlifle cathedral, as they are im- 
properly called, are fuppofed to be the teeth of fome 
very large fifh; they were given by Hen. L to the prior 
and convent of Carlifle, with a large eftate to be 
held per quoddam cornu ebumeum. Lord Bruce's horn 
is an elephant's horn or tooth; it is a hunting horn, 
flung, and mofl elegantly ornamented. 

The Earl of Ormond's horn is remarkable. In 
his will, dated July 31ft, 151 5, he makes particular 
mention of it, as in this extract, taken by Thomas 
Aftle, Efq ; from the regifter called Holder^ in the 
Prerogative Oflfice, viz. " t Thomas Butler, Knt. 
erle of Ormond do make this my laft will and tefl:a- 
ment, &c. Item I give and devife to my dar dame 
Anne St. Leger — to my da^ dame Margt Bolin, late 
die wife of Sir Wm Bolin Knt, my manor of Newhall 
in Eflex — ^Item when my Lorde my father, whofe 


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ibul God aflbile^ left and delivered unto me a Iffte 
wbpe borne of iyory, gamifhed at both thendes vAth 
gold, and corfe thereunto of whyte fyike, barred with 
barres of gold, and atyret oi gold thereupon, which 
was myn auncetouri at fyrft time they were called to 
botwuTy and bath fyidien contynoally remained in the 
fame blode, for whych caulc my feid lorde and father 
commanded me xxpon his bleifing, that I (hould do 
my deroir to caufe it to contyuue ilill in my blode 
as far furth as that myght lye in me foo to be done 
to the honor of the fame blode. Therefore for the 
accompliftiment of my feid father's will, as farr as it 
is in me to execute the fame, I woll that my execu- 
tors dclyvcr unto Sir Tho. Boleyn, Knt. fon and heir 
apparent of my faid dar Margai ^tt^ the faid lytic white 
home and corfe, he to keep the fame to the ufc of 
thilTuc male of his body lawfully begotten. And for 
lack of fuch iflbe the faid home to remayne and be 
delyvered to Sir Geo* Seyntleger Knt. fon of my faid 
AzT Anne, and to t^e ifluc male which fucccflivcly 
fhall come of the body of the faid George. And fo 
to contynue in the iffue male of the bodies of the 
fame dame Margaret and dame Anne, as long as fliall 
fortune any fuch iffue male of the body of any of my 
faid daughters. And alls for default of iffue male of 5 
the body of any of my faid daughters, the faid b$me . 
to remaine, and to be delivered to the next iffue male 
of my faid auncetours, fo that it may contyncw ftyl 
in my blode hereafter, as long as it fhall pleafe God, 
Ivke as it hath done hytherto to the honor of the fame 

The antiquity of our horn may be judged by the 
letters I. H. C, which are either the three firft of the 


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Greek word IHCOC, or ftand for I. H. S. i. e. Jefus 

Hominum Salvator. The antient Greeks ufed c for 

/, as in that infcription, 

0£OiC aCiaC kai ETPannC. 

And this continued to the firft ages of Chriftianity, 
In the Symbolae Litterariae Opufcula of the Floren- 
tine academy, vol. iii, are defcriptions of many 
antient croffes, where c often is found for f ; indeed 
the f feems to be formed of ^ foftened as in the 
modem French and Spanifh f ; but on an infcriptian 
in the Bafilica Vaticana, erefted by Conftantine the 
great, we find both letters ufed on the fame marble, 
viz. OATAOC. HETroS, that is, Paulos, Petros, and 
on a crucifix in the fame church 

ihCotC, xpiCtoC, eEoV, tioC, Cothp» 

that is, Jefus Chriftus Dei filius Salvator. It is 
remarkable that Soter is here ufed in the fame 
fenfe as Seathar in Irifh, meaning god, ftrength, 
£iviour. The author of the effay concludes in thefe 
words, ^ Quaeri hinc coeptum eft, in ideo in 
(acris litteris inditum fit Chrifto fervatoris ^htHih 
nomen, ut conftaret Chriftum fifkitiis inter Deos, & 
homines fervatoribus nunquam non opponendum^ 
potiorque & optimo jure Dei Tmrn^n & Regis z^rifc*^ 
five Avr^^ nomen obtinere ?'* ♦ I therefore con- 
clude, this cup was made about the fifth century. 

* P. M. Pacldiuit ia the £ime toL p. 221. 





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JL H £ harp from whence this drawing was made, 
was handed to me with the following anecdote : 
•* Brien Boiromh being flain in the eighty-ninth year 
of his age, at the clofe of the moil memorable and 
renowned victory he had gained, over all the united 
powers of the Danes, on the plain of Clontarf near 
Dublin, on Good Friday, in the year of our Lord 
1014 ; his two fons by his fecond wife, viz* Teige 
and Donogh, fucceded to their father as Coregnants 
on the throne of the two Munfters (Thomond and 
Defmond.) Teig being treacheroufly flain at the in- 
ftigation of his brother Donogh, anno 1023, Donogh 
took upon himfelf the fole government of Leth- 
Mogha, and foon after became chief king of all 
Ireland ; but, after great lofles and humiliations, he 
was dethroned by his nephew Turrlogh, fon of Teig, 


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anno 1064 *. He then went to Rome to crave the 
remiifion of fins, particularly of the murder of his 
brother Teig, and carried with him the crown, harp 
and other regalia of Brien Boiromh, which he laid at 
the feet of the pope. The holy father took thefe 
prefents as a demonftration of a fiill fubmif&on of 
the kingdom of Ireland, and one of his fucceflbrs 
Adrian IV. (by name Brakfpeare and an EngUfhman) 
alledged this circumftance as one of the principal 
titles he claimed to this kingdom, in his Bull of 
transferment to King Henry II. Thefe regalia were 
depofited in the Vatican till the reign of Henry VIIL 
when the Pope fent the harp to that monarch, with 
the title of Defender of the Faith^ but kept the crown, 
which was of maflive gold. Henry fetting no value 
on the harp, gave it to the firft Earl of Clanrickard, 
in whofe family it remained till the beginning of this 
century, when it came by a lady of the De Burgh 
family, into that of Mac Mahon of Clenagh, in the 
County of Clare, after whofe death it paffed into the 
pofleffion of Counfellor Macnamara of Limerick.^* 

In 1782, it was prefented to the Right Hon. Wm. 
Conyngham, who has depofited it in the Mufeum of 
Trinity College. 

This Harp is thirty-two inches high & of extraor- 
dinary good workmanfhip : the founding board is 
of oak ; the arms of red-fally : the extremity of 
the uppermoft arm in front, is capped with filver 
extremely well wrought and chiffelled : it contains 
a large cryftal fet in filver, and under it was another 

♦ Sec Annals of Tighcrnacb. Chronicon Scotonim. Annalr 
•f IsmifUaii, and Law «f Taniftrj. CollcaaBca, yoI. 2, p. 540. 


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ftone, now loft: the buttons or ornament^ knobs 
at the fides of this arm are of filver. On the front 
ann at a^ are the arms of the O'Brien family, 
chafed in filver, viz. the bloody hand, fupportcd by 
lions : thefe are reprefented as large as the original 
in the corner of the plate at a. On the fides of 
the front arm, within two circles, are two Irifh wolf- 
dogs cut in the wood : - the holes of the founding 
board, where the ftrings entered, are neatly orna- 
mented with fcutcheons of brafs carved and gilt : — 
the large founding holes have been ornamented, 
probably with filver, as they have been the objeft 
of theft. This harp has twenty-eight keys, and as 
many ftring holes, confequcntly there were as many 
firings. The foot piece or reft is broken oflF, and 
the parts to which it was joined are very rotten. The 
whole bears evidence of an expert artift. 

In Montfaucon's ^Egyptian antiquities, • is a wo- 
man playing on a triangular harp, about the fize of 
our Irifti Harp. Polyd. Virgil, fays, the harp of 
the Hebrews, was in the form of a Greek delta a 
and had twenty-four ftrings f . The fabulous hifto- 
ry of the Chinefe informs us, that Fou-hi took the 
wood of Tong, made it hollow, and formed a Kine 
(harp or lyre, fays Gouget) of twenty-feven ftrings 
of filk ; it was three feet fix inches high : this inftru- 
ment he called Li : he took the wood of Sang, and 
made a Seh or Se (harp, lyre or guitar) of thirty- 
fix ftrings : But Niu-aua (the Eve of the Chinefe) 
made feveral inftruments of mufic. Seng and the 
boang^ ferved her to communicate with the winds. 

♦ Pompe d'Ifis, Vol. 4. f Dc invent, rer. 1. I. c. xr. 


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By the KoueWj (he united all (bunds into oue^ and 
made concord between the fun, mooa and (bure. 
She had a S^b of fifty firings, whofe found was f<^ 
affeding, it could not be borne 9 therefore (he re- 
duced them to twenty-fire. * 

Here are fo many old Irifh words (ignifying mu- 

fick, melody, harp, &c. one wouid be inclined to 

thiuky that the Chinefe had borrowed thefe terms 

from the Scythians. The antient Iriih had fcmr 

names for the Harp, and probably each was of a 

difierent confbrudion, viz. i. Clar-feh or Clarfeadu 

2« Cionar, or Cionthar. 3. Crut or Cruit. 4. 

Crabtine Cruit or Creamtine Cruit. Clar, fignifies 

a trough, a delk, a table, a board ; and &h, fighe 

and feach, is harmony, melody ; Arab, (hook, har- 

moxiious ; fo that Clarfeach implies the melodious 

tables. Cionar h evidently the Hebrew and Chaldee 

{l^^f^ Cinura unde «i»;^«. Crut is sdfo the Chal« 

dee iTVTp Kithris, imd^ Cithara, »<%« & guittara ; 

iHit the Creamhtine Crut or Cream-Crutin, by the 

name, imports the harp ufed at potations or carou- 

ials ; whence Creamh-nual a noify drunken com* 

pany, which eza£Uy correfponds with the defarip- 

tion given by Midras Rabba in Echo, of the Chaldee 

^fQm Knit or Krudn ; it is, fays he, a profane mu« 

fical inffanuBent ufed in drinking houfes and mufic 


Lomna is a cord or firing of a harp, whence 
Lomnoir^ vulgarly, a Harper. Tead, is alfo a cord 
or (bing, and tead miotalte, the fbing of a harp ; 

• Chtncfe Hiftoiy hy Lc Roux d« Hautci-Roycs, Roysfl' 


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becaufe made of wire, it is literally the Chaldee 
VIKW KDnO nietallicum netum, or wire ; hence 
Teadidhe a harper, and TeadhJoin a harp ; that is, 
the merry making ftringed inftrument, from loine, 
merriment, cheerfulnefs ; loin-dubh, a black-birdf 
i. e. the black harmonift ; loineach, a chorus, a 
highland catch, (Shawe). Arab Ian placidus- The 
Irifh Teadhloin, pronounced Tealoin or Tclin, is 
certainly the etymon of the Welfh Teylin^ a harp ; a 
word I can find no derivation of, in that language ; 
and I think, proves from whence they borrowed 
both the inftrument, ahd its name. 

The Irifh diftinguifti very plainly between the 
ftrings of the harp and thofe of the fiddle ; the laft 
they name feith or feidh, * that is 2,ftnew ; whence 
feidhlin, a fiddle ; and perhaps the Englifh fiddle, 
phiol, violin. Feith is litterally the Phoenician and 
Chaldean i^j^t) phetha, i. e. nervus ; Perfic phei. 
Feith in Irifh is alfo chord, a rope, and there is 
every reafon to think the Eaftern people made their 
firft chords of finews, as we find in the Chaldee, gid 
fignifies a finew, and gidlim & gidal, a rope : iather, 
a finew and a rope : pheth a finew, and phethil a 
a rope, &c. 

Mr. Harrington in the Archaeol. Vol. HI. and Mr. 
Evans in his dilTert. de Bardis, think that the 
Crwdd or Crwd was peculiar to the Welfh nation. 
I believe the only honour they can have, is the in- 
vention of playing on this inftrument with the bow : 
yet this feems to have been known to the Irifh alfo, 

* Hence the Latin fides, fidium ; the firings of a mufical in- 


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)r in our common Lexicons we find Cruit, a harp, 
iiddle, a crowder. Montfaucon in his (ixth Vol. 
»lle&s upwards of twenty Latin and Greek names 
r harp and lyre, and obferves that many of them 
^fied the fame inflrument. 
" The fecondkind of Britifli bards,'* fays Selden, 
art th<rfe that play on the harp or crowd : their 
ifick for the nioft ^tt came'ottt of Ireland 
th GrufKth ap Conan, prince of North Wales, 
out king Stephen's time. The Britons ifFeSed 
r mind, compofmg Dorick ; which is (hewed in 
at part of an old author (Marc. Hcmcleft.) affirm- 
g that ifitf^rttif ^iiftfi i* c- to make them gentle 
Ltnrcd, the wcftcm pdople of the world cpnftituted 
e life of mufick in their affcmblles, though the 
i/hjfrom whence they learned j were wholly for the 
.rightljr'Phrygian." • 

In an antient MSS. in 'my pefleffion, called the 
.omincc of Ccarbhall, is this paflage, ** agus ro 
oi Cearbhall an tan fm ag orphideadh d' Aofar 
unitha idir anda codhlai: i.e. and at that time 
'earball was playing on his harp to the Almighty 
^ofar (God) after his firft fleep." N. B. this paf- 
age occurred to me fmce the explanation of the 
Ctrufcan Aefar in my laft number. 


The Crown here reprefented, is copied from an 
tngraving gil^en by the tranflator of Keating in the 

* R«tharkt on Drayton^t Polyolbion, p. 1759. 

Vol. IV, No. XIII. H frontiJL 

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prince, for in all our Lexions, OBrien'i 
we find coron, crun, fleafg, cruineacan, 
for a crown; and I cannot help thinking 
was a fi£Htious name, from the Hebrew 
•103 Kater or Keter, for both Vafhti s 
were crowned with Keter Malcuth, t 
crown or diadem, or enfign of the kii 
Citaris and fillet on iu Both the vulgatc 
turn thefe words diadema ; and fome will 
in Efther, to be but the fame word fr« 
Citaris was firft made. However, the H 
pared with the profane writers, fa; 
juftifies clearly that there was a crown < 
well as a fillet for a royal enfign in Per 
or afun in Irifli, properly fignifies any re 
as a fcepter, or ftaft' of dignity, (in Arabi< 
Gr. foidis dino an tuafal Jacop Jofeph oin 
afun in a laimh. i. flat in a laimh, (Leabfa 
i. e. Straightway the noble Jacob fent his 
properly arrayed, and with a ftaflf of dig 
hand: Here afun is explained by flat 
feeptre ; and this word in Hebrew, figni 
vern. Saobhath is another Irifh word foi 
Rod, from the Hebrew ^^B^ fhebet, whi 
Virga, fceptrum tribus. 

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c^A TW, 




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E VI. 

Fig, I. AND 2. are of Gold. 


center pieces or handles are folid, and 
the ends terminate in cups. Fig. i. weighs 
three ounces eighteen penny-weights, and is in 
the College Mufeum. Fig. 2. weighed ten ounces^ 
aod was fold to a goldfmith, who informs me he 
bd melted down feveral of this form ; one weighed 
fifteen ounces : he found fome, the handle of which 
were of filver chafed with plated gold. Fig. 3. and 
4. are alfo of gold, but differ from the iirft in hav- 
i^ the circular ends Bat, and the handles or bow 
parts ornamented. Thefe are evidently fibula: the 
drcular heads paiTed through the button holes and 
by flat on the body, and the chafed or ornamented 
part was turned to the eye. In the Archseologia of 
the London focicty. Vol. II. are drawings of two 
rfthe larger inftruments, varying in the form of the 
cops, which of one, are perfectly hemifpherical. 

The late Bifhop Pococke, prefented thefe drawings 
to the Society, &c. by his memoir, we find he 


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thought thefe alfo were a fpecies of fibula. I am o 
nion,Mr. Simon, (author of the effayon the Irifti^ 
judged rightjin thinking they were ulbd in the rel 
ceremonies of the Irifn Druids. I think thej 
paterae : one of a molt delicate conftrudion, 
7. was fent to me fince the former were engi 
this, from its make, could not have been a i 
it weighs exaftly two guineas ; was found in 
on the eftate of James Cuffe, Efq ; of the co^ 
Mayo, and is now in the poffcflion of Judge H 
hitherto, nothing fupiUr to thefe inftrumeai 
been reprefented or defcribed in any book 

Fig. 5. was drawn from an urn of baked 
and of very rude workmanfbip ; it was foun 
Baalnamolt, on the mountains between CI 
and Capoquin, under a fmall tumulus, with the; 
downwards, covering fome black earth ftai 
the burnt afties of the corps, and part of 
bone and fkuU of a youth not burnt : it was 
ed to me by the Rev. Mr. Ryan, parifh 
Baalnamolt, aud is now in the mufeum of j 
College. The Irifli MSS. mention, that in-i 
Paganilm, the dead bodies of Princes and ^ 
were burnt, but that thofe of chiefs and 
were buried with their arms, &c. So that 
anticnt Etrufcans, * the Irifh ufed both md 
burial at the fame time. 

Fig. 6. Is a drawing from a vafe of brafs ; 
found in a bog t^-elvc feet deep, near the ri 
Grey Abbey, in the Ardes of the county oT"!!! 

* P. Bonarota. Epift. Tho. Coke, page 35. 

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in antique brafs vafe, a trois pieds, that much 
nbles ours, — he thinks that ferved as a prceferi* 
im and for culinary ufct alfo« 


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<^^iMT^^^>imifii>-n-*nTu?^frmiii^< in alnltn or 



PLATE Vn.---.-Fig. L 

1 S the drawing of a mufical inftrumcnt ufed in th< 
chorus of the antient Irifh : the circular plates are o 
brafs, and the brafs wire or worm part, round thi 
Ihanks, jingled, when the plates were ftruck upon b; 
the fingers. Six of thefe were found in 1781, i 
digging up part of the park of Slane, the feat of th 
Right Hon. William Conyngham ; one of them i 
in the College Mufeum. In the firft volume of th 
Academy of Cortona, are two plates of various kini 
of Etrufcan Crotolae, " inftrumenti da fonare, det 

dagli antichi Crotala." ^^ Crotola quoque di( 

fonoras fphacrulas, quae quibufdam granis interpofit 
pro quantitate fui, & fpecie metalli fonos edunt. 
(Jof. Sarilber. Policart. 1. viii. c. 12.) ITiis is the e^ 
aft defcription of our Samothracian rings, of whic 
hereafter. Crotala is an Irifh word, formed of cro 
or crut, the handj and ala to Jhakc. Cibbual h; 
the fame fignification, viz. cib the hand ; bual \ 


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ftrike; i. e. inftruments ftruck with the hand. 
Corabafhas is formed of cor mufick ; and bafoas of bes, 
exa£l^ keeping time, and nafc a r/ng, a circle, i. e. 
i. e. an inftrum^nt wherewith to mark the time in 

The antient Iriih had alfo a bafe called conun, 
vulgo cronan, a word formed of cor mufick and an 
or anw, bafe^ chorus. Chaldee ^y^^ enan ;,chorus, 
there was another named iachdar-channus, Latin 
Cantus BafTus, of all which I ihall treat fully, when 
defcribing the mufick of the antient Irifh. 

They had alfo a Cibbual or Corabas, compofed of 
many fmall platen of brafs, or of Ihingles of wood, 
faflened with a thong, that was held in one hand and 
ftruck on the palm of the other, vulgarly now called 
a clapper or rattle ; this was the antient fyftra of the 
Egyptians, named in Scripture menahnahimj agreeable 
to the Hebrew idiom, fignilying the Jhaking^aiing 
inftruments, tranflated by LXX loifilUx^ cymbals. 
David had this inftrument, among others, founded 
before the ark of the Lord, when he fetched it from 
K^eriath Jearim, 2 Sam. vi. 5. but he would not ufe 
the fame that the -Slgyptians did ; therefore as theirs 
were of brais, his are faid to be of fir, with addition 
of thin plates of fome metals *. 

Whether our Irifh Corabas may ferve to explain 
the following lines in Virgil, which Servius and 
Pierus think were altered from the original, I leave 
my readers lo judge. 

Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque aerea, 
Idaeumque nemus ■ . * ■ 

iEneid iii, v. 5. 
♦ HoUoway*8 Ori^ina^s, vol. i, p. 146; 


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The Stoc or Trhmpet, and of its ufe in our 
Round Towers. Fig* 2. 

Reprefents a brazen trumpet of the antient Irifli, 
many of them are found in our bogs. This drawing 
was made from one in the College Mufeum. They had 
various kinds of trumpets, viz. the ftoc, buabhall, 
beann, adharc, dudag, corna, gall-trompa. Stoc is 
the Chaldee 3npn takuh (buccina) with / prefixed. 
Corna the Chald. Ki"1p kama : buabhall, beann and 
adharc, from their names, betoken they were made 
of the horns of animals. Dudag, I conceive, muft 
have been a very (hrill trumpet of brafs, from its 
name, dud fignifying the tingling of the ear, whence 
the poetical compound dudaireachd the noife of horns 
and trumpets^ Gall-trompa implies the foreigners 
(Engiifli) trumpet. 

The conftruftion of the Stoc here, reprefented, is 
fmgular, the mouth hole is on the fide, and fo large^ 
no mufical note could be produced. It was a fpeaking 
trumpet, ufed on the tops of our round towers, to 
aflemble the congregation, to proclaim the new moons 
and quarters, and all other feftivals. The takuh of 
the Chaldees and Hebrews was for the fame ufe. 
Buccina incurva : ufus ejus multiplex erat; ad con- 
vocandum ccetum Ecclefiae ; ad indicandum feftum 
Sabbathi ; novilunii ; pafchatis, &c. — Artis erat bene 
pojfe injlare. (Buxtorf.) 

Virgil, Statins, Silius Ital. and many others, give 
the invention of trumpets to the Etrufcans. Tuba 
prunum a Tyrrhcnis inventa (Ifidor. L ii. Etym. c. 20.) 


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Tubam Tyrrheni primi invenerunt ; laudatoque 
Virgilio deinde addit : banc a Tyrrbenis prasdonibus 
excogitatam dicunt, cum difperfi circa maritimas oras, 
non facile ad quamque praedae occafionem voce aut 
buccina convocarentur,vento plerumqiie obftrepente. 
Hinc poftea bellicis certaminibus adbibita eft ad de- 
nuncianda (igna bellorum, ut ubi exaudiri praeco 
prae tumultu non poterat, fonitus tubae clangentis 
attlngeret, (id. i. 17.) denique dividendis vigiiiis, 
ineundo praelio, &c. &c. in all which fervices, I believe 
the fpeaking trumpet, not the mufical, muft have 
been ufed, 

Acron will give the honour of this invention to 
Dircasus, fhnn thefe lines of Horace, 

Poft hos infignis Homerus 

Dircaeufque mares animos in martia bella» 

Dircaeus, I believe, was a horn-trumpet maker, and 
took his name from the Irifli adarc, a cow's horn. 

Tbefe trumpets being found in the earns and raths, 
(fepulchres and forts) belonging originally to Irilh 
ciiiefs. Dr. Molyneux attributes th^m to the Danes, 
vith much the fame fuccefs as Dr. Plot does the 
brazen Celts found in England to the Romans. The 
figure of that given by Molyneux in his Natural 
Hiftory of Ireland, differs from this, in having two 
rings near the fmall end to fufpend it. 

The Earl of Drogheda has one, with four fmall 
brafs pins or fpikes within the mouth or greateft end, 
feemingly to hold faft a fccond joint, that probably 
terminated in the form of our modern fpeaking 


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In the fecond vol. of the Archslogia of the London 
Society, is a diflertation on the round towers of 
Ireland^ by Mr. S. Brereton, that perfeftly defcribes 
not only the ufe of thefe towers, but of the trumpets, 
his words are, *' When I lately made the tour of 
Ireland, I faw feveral of thofe buildings called Peni- 
tential towers ; not one of them had either belting or 
girting, nor the leaft fign of there having been any 
room in them, till within ten feet of the top ; that 
room had windows exadly facing the cardinal points, 
from thence downwards to the entrance, which is 
about fifteen feet above the furface of the ground^ 
only a few flits were cut, juft to give light to perfons 
going up or down flairs. Thefe towers are all built 
of (tone, and exceeding ftrong, the ftones and mortar 
remarkably good ; and in general diey are entire to 
this day, tlK)ugh many churches, near which they 
ftood, are either in ruins, or totally deftroyed.*' 

** I think them rather antient Irijhy than either Piclifh 
or Danifli ftruftures, having never heard of one like 
them in Denmark, or any other part of Europe, ex- 
ccpt in Scotland ; I faw one at Abernethy, near 
Perth, T^hich exaftly refembles thofe in Ireland. Upon 
looking into Gordon's Itinerarium Septentriomde, 
I find his opinion is, that it was the work of the Pids •; 
what reafon there is for fuch a conjefture, I do not 
fee ; I rather think we may conclude, when the IriOi 
made their incurfions into Scotland, they built the 
two towers there, after the model of fo many they 
had left behind them in Ireland. However, I deem 
their antiquity to precede the ufe of bells, caft ones 

* Of the Pcaai a Thracian colony, fee Preface. 


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at leafl, in that country ; and from their fituations 
near churchea, and having a floor and 'windows only 
at the top, I verily believe their principal ufc to have 
been to receive a perfon to call the people to worffiip 
with fome wind inftrument, which would be heard 
from a much greater diftance than fmall uncaft bells 
poflibly could : one of thefe towers at Drumifkin, is 
at this day made ufe of as a belfry. In Mahometan 
countries, the voices of their Muczini, or callers to 
prayers, who ftand for that purpofe on turrets, much 
higher than their mofques, are heard to a very great 

" TTic JEgjptians at this day, proclaim the time of 
vorfliip with fome wind inftrument ftx)m a high 
place ; which I rather take notice of here, beeaufe 
the late Bifhop Pococke often mentions the amazing 
mformity he had obfervcd between the. Irish asd 
the -Egyptians in many inftances." 

The trumpet and the horn were founded on the 
tops of the hills and of the towers, on any approach- 
ing danger ; and on the declaration of war againft a 
Dcighbonring (late ; on thie occa^on the Druid lighted 
a number of (ticks called crois-tara, at the lioLy fire, 
with thefe, the people ran from place to place, and 
followed the horns to the hills* Croiftara, ikyfi Mr. 
Shaw, in his kifh Lexicon, is a fignal to take up 
arms, by fending a burning flick from pdace to place 
with great expedition. I'his word is o£ Chaldee 
origin, inn chris, the folar fire, and ^'^[9 tara, an 
aflembly *• Gabaltara was another Irifh name of 

* Hence Taxnhar, the feat of the Irifl) monarchs, was named 
TARA, becattfe of the triennial aflembly of the flates there. 


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this ceremony, from gaba/i burning with great flai 
Whence the Phoenician and Irifh Uilegabal and 
Arabic Algabil, unum effe e Dei epithetis. (Bochi 
and the Greek Heliogabalus, the prieft of the SIl 
a word that originally had not one Greek let 
in it. 

The troops being aflcmbled together by t 
means, as foon as they came within fight of 
enemy, they fct up the war cry, the CRIOM-AB 
two words of Chaldee origin ^y^^ D1*^^n ^hirc 
ubau ; the firft fignifying bellum, internecio ; 
fecond exultare, and then rufhed on to Catha, Ct 
dee j^ninj^* S^^ J^^ xxxviii. 23. In latter 2^^ 
each tribe had their particular abuj:- but the anti 
general term, is preferved in the Leinfter family, 
the motto, CROM ABU. See Criom or Gri 
further explained iu PL XL 

Fig. 3. is the drawing of a brafs fword in my p 
feiBon ;' it is twenty-two inches long : in the Colh 
Mufeum is one about three inches longer. Many 
thefe are found in our bogs, that from which t 
drawing was made, was found with about two hi 
dred dthei^ of the lame kind, in the bog of Cull 
in county Tipperary. . The handles were of wc 
or bone, and were rotted away, the rivets only 

The weapons of the antient Irifh were all of bi 
or copper, mixed with iron and zinck ; fo w 
thofe of all other antient nations ; for although tl 
had iron, it being a metal very difficult to be 


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traded and fufed, they only mixed fuch a quantity 
with the copper as to harden it ; this metal, fays 
Montfaucon, became as hard as iron, all kinds of 
cutting tools and inftruments vftve made of it, but 
the art of tempering this mixture is now loft. 

Whete with our brazen fwords 

^ (Drayton's Polyolbion) 

The Author (fays Selden) thus teaches you to 
know that among the antients, brafs, not iron, was 
the metal moft in ufe ; their little fcythes where- 
with they cut their. herbs for inchantmcnts ; * their 
Priefts razors, plow (hares, their mufical inftru- 
ments and fuch like ; how fpeciaL this metal was, it 
ig with good warrant delivered. Nor with lefs how 
frquent in the making of fwords, fpear and armour, 
in the heroick times. As among other authorities, 
that in the encounter of Diomedes and Hedor 

-brafs rebounds from brafs. 

And Goliah had an helmet of brafs upon his head, 
and he was armed with a coat of mail, and he had 
greaves of brafs upon his legs, &c. 

Sed prius ^ris erat quam ferri cognitus ufus. 

Lucret. 1. 5. 
ce ratum quatiens Tarpeia fecurem. 

^n. xi. ver. 6$6» 
iEntaeque micant peltae, micat aereus enfis. 

^n. vii. ver. 743. 

• Sec one of thcfc, PI. X. Tig. 4. 


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The fpears of the Lufitanians, fays Strabo^ W€t< 
pointed with brafs ; the Cimbrians and Gauls hH 
braft for their weapons ; the Danes made their (hdr 
fwords, arrow points, fpur« and knives of brafs. • • . 

When iron became known, and its fuperior hand 
nefs acknowledged, it was fcarce. The Sarmatian 
had no iron in all their country, f ^fhe Germain 
had none in Tacitus's time ; and in Britain, iro! 
was very fcarce, as Caefar fays, fo that it is ho -wan 
der that antiently their weapons were mad^of bfidki 

The Caledonian heroes of O S S I A N, flioiie 4 

According to the Arundelian Marbles, iron •** 
not found out till 188 years before the war of Trd' 

Some of our brafs-fwords were fent to goveiVM 
Pownall, who has given the following accurate ih 
fcription of them in the Archaeologia, Vol. lii. pagi 
555; ^' that the fociety might have a precife-aaif 
philofophical defcription of the metal, I applied -Iti 
the maftcr of the mint ; and by his direftion. Mi 
Alchorn, his Majefty's Affay-niafter, made an ac 
curate aiTay of the metal. It appears, fays he, to b 
chiefly copper, interfperfed with particles . of irQO 
and perhaps fome zinck, but without containin 
either gold or filver : it feems probable, that tb 
metal was caft in its prefent ftate, and afterwArd 
reduced to its proper figure by filing. The iro 
might cither have been obtained with the coppc 
frcMOi the ore, or added afterwards in the fufion, 1 
give the neceffary rigidity of a weapon J but I coi 
fefe myfelf unable to determine any thing with cc 
tainty. — ^Thefe fwords are as exactly and minute! 

* Worm. Mon. Dan. 48. t Paufanias, Attic. 1. i. 

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.,,. ii I 

r r 

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:ARTHAGINIAN: thefe, therefore, by 
J of reafon, may likewife be faid to be of the 
people. It does not appear, as far as I know, 
die Romans were ever in Ireland either as 
n or merchants. The Carthaginians, or at 
the G ADIT AN I, certainly were there.'' 
diis accurate account of the Gk)vernor's, 
]i perfe&ly agrees with the Irifh hillory) I 
only add, that die Irifh name for a fword, is 
liaUi, diath & clidamh ; all oriental words, 
ifibrew ii^^ cli, rhoenicean jj^p claph, 4n 
)S!)K '^.'^^C^ fWdrd ; Cojp^ kefebih, an axe : 
oS eliabh or cliar,Ts disfived the iFrericH §laive, 
le fWcMhf klodfiw,/a fwo^d ;^ ^apd jjroTbikbly ca- 
ll the naifie of the .fwora of x^e fintiih king 
iri < The in(h had sd/b the fpj^meter or crook- 
srd, named airben ; fo chilled from its repre- 
ss the fopi of,^be a jib : I have not yet fecn 
but jdiis is c^ainly. the Thracian harpe or 
0, L~ e. brevis giadius ih'arcum curvaitiim. 

YTiiftiift T-1n(lllQ'^ 

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FIG. 1- 

1 S the bitt and headftall of a bridle, b 
it was found in the county of Rofcomu 
now in the College mufeum. The bit 
ordinary neat and curious workmanfli 
brated artift of Dublin, aflured me, tlu 
poflible to make a better joint, at this ds 
of the center of the bitt. The curb and 
of gold, but were fecreted by the peafai 
it. On the top of the headftall, an eleg 
brafs is ereded, to which a plume of 

Fig. 2. Is a brafs fpur neatly wrong 
feflion of the Rev. Mr. Archdall. 

Fig. 3. A furprizing large fpur of 
College mufeum. 

Fig. 4. A brafs fpur of the College 1 
fhape is fmgular, and by experiment, th 
have been worn low on the heel, in the 
fition here reprefented, the circular 
chamfered off within-fide, for that purp 


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Tuagh Snaighte Chip Axes. 



Represents fevcral. tools of brafs found in 
our bogs, called by the antient Irifti Tuagh-fnalghte, 
or Chip Axes, from the Ghaldee mtg tuach to ftrike, 
whence the Arabic Tufli, ah iVxe. Multitudes of 
thefe inftruments are daily dug up in Ireland. In 
this plate and the next, I have given the drawings of 
every fpecies I could collcft. Some are in the Col- 
lege mufeum, but the greateft colledkion is in the 
pofleffion of the Rev. Mr. Archdall. Some were 
itfcd with handles, part of the wood adhering ftiU to 
the bottoms of the fockets ; and thefe had loops for 
the convenience of taking them off readily to be 
ground. Thefe are all drawn of the fize of the 

Fig. I. Has a fquare focket ; this refembles fig. 
2. taken from a drawing in the chief d'Ouvre d*un 
inconu ; fome peafants digging in Normandy, 
found as many of thofe in one fpot, as loaded a 
horfe. Monf. Dela Roque, the Antiquary, was pre- 
1 2 fent. 

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'fcnt, he thinks they were 'Roman ; for, fays he, in 
his letter to Mr. Hearne, " you have juftly obferved 
thefe are neither arrow heads, or Britifh axes, or the 
heads of Roman Catapults ; they are neither Gaulijhj 
Saxon or Danifl:>^ nor yet facrificing hatchets ; and 
you juftly conclude^ that although thefe inftruments 
were not military arms, they were carried by the 
Roman foldiers for the cxprefs purpofes of afhler- 
ing and chiffeling the ftones, with which they faced 
the intrenchments of their camp/' 

Fig. 5, and 8. Are gouges or femi-circularchiffels; 
the fmall one has no loop, nor has the fmali flat 
chiflel ; thefe were for flight work, and had fuffici- 
ent holding on a wooden handle. Montfaucon, 
properly claffes all thefe with implements ufed in 
in atehiteaurc. 

Withfubmiffion to Mon. DelaRoque, Mr. Hearne 
and Dr. Plot, thefe inftruments are not Roman ; 
they are neither Gaulifh, Saxon or Daiufli, nor 
British ot Welfh ; but the manufadure of an anti- 
ent pe6ple that poffefled thefe iflands and the Con- 
tinent, long before the Romans were a nation, or 
the Wd(h arrived in Britain. For, as the ingeni- 
ous Dr. Haviland obferves, * the migration of Ac 
' Gottietites, (the anceft^ors of the Wcllh) into Europe, 
■is n6t rchwd as planting colonies, and ftirnifhiiEig 
tfiem with inhabitants, but as a warlike expeditioti, 
as an invafion and irruption. They are reprefenti^ 
as ' cbrrquerors, fubduing and driving the ■ former 
inhabitants out of their poffeffions, or where there 
was room enough, incorporating with them ; anil, 

* DiITcrt* Qo tlM peopjipg of Britaia. Archasol. V, i. 


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BRASS T a O t. St S7 

as is always ufual with conquerors, compelling them 
to obfervc their laws and ciiftoms ; to learn and 
fpeak their language, and take their name. This 
feems to Mr. Haviland, to be the cafe of Britain and 
the neighbouring continent. They were invaded 
and fubdued, and obliged to take the names of their 
conquerors, and to quit the original name of their 
family ; which, being by the filcnce of hiftory wholly 
bft, was abforbed in the appellation of Celts, Gauls, 
Germans, 8cc. who having gotten pofleffion of the 
country, afterwards afftuned the claim to be the 
aborigiries of it ; whilft thefe who were really fo^ 
might be induced to refign willingly their preten- 
fion^ to it, and to. change their names out of a va- 
nity, either of being thought the defcendants of the 
eldeft branch of Noah's eldeft fon, rather than a 
younger ; or elfc from ixnagining the appellation of 
a conquering, more honourable than of a vanquiihed 
nation And he further obferves, that Javan and 
htf &mily, came into Europe about four hundred 
years at lead, be&re the Gomei^ians began their 
90%ration ; a period fufficient ibr flocking all the 
iputhem and weftern parts of Europe with inha- 
httants; he then proves them to have migrated 
koja Thrace and Italy to Britain, agreeable to the 
antient Irilh hiftory, explained in the Preface to this 
vork. Ilicfe are the people, thefe great Welfti an- 
tiquaries Lhwyd and Rowland, difcovered by the 
umes of places to have exifted in Britain before 
the Gomerites ; and thefo ^ire the people, thruft 
by the Welfh into Mann, Irels^nd, and the Highknda 
of Scotland; deftioying their records and monu- 
xnenti of antiquity, aud leaving them to cut each 


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others throats, in the idle difpute of which nation 
dcfccnded from the other. In fliort, thefe are that 
mixture of Scythians,' Phoenicians, and ^Egyptians, 
known by the Greeks by the name of Pelafgoi, who 
gave the name of Bruttan, to Britain, becauie it 
abounded in Lead ; and of Korn bhuabhal or Cam 
Tuaval, to the promontory of Cornwal!'^ JMP^ttfc 
formed like an ox's horn ; who named fei^eniijppKl 
promontories in Ireland, fheep's-head, woil!!Sb;i8d| 
mutton-ifland, cow and calf, &c. &c. and the do 
fcendants of thefe people are now fettled in Ireland^ 
Mann or Mona, and the north of Scotland ; fpeaki 
ing their primitive language, and (till adhering ti 
feveral oriental cuftoms, unknown to the reft Hi 
the weftern world - they are the ancien peuple poi 
due of Monf. Baily. 

Dr. Borlafe defcribes many of thefe brafs inftrii 
ments found in Cornwall : he rejects the opinion^ 
their being Roman chiffels for cutting (tone, um 
?idopts Thoreflby's of their having been the heada4 
oflfenfive weapons, originally indeed of Britifh 
vention and fabrick, but jifterwards improved • 
ufed by the provincial Romans, as well as Br 
I believe the Britons did not trade with thefe' 
Herculanum, or to Carthage; at both places they;; 
found in great numbers. The Doftor piques h^ 
felf on his obfervation, that none of thefe iafta 
ments had been found at Herculanum: fmce C 
Doftor publifced his hiftory of Cornwall, theylrti 
been difcovered there ; Count de Caylus, faw 
and has given drawings of them, by which we 
convinced of their form and fize, being 
ly the fame as thofe found in thefe Iflands*'^*' 


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Mr. Lort has given a great variety of brafs 
inftruments found in Britain, in the 5th Vol. 
of the Archaeologia, he calls them Celts ; he fays, 
Dr. Borlafe faw plainly, that, as heads of offenfive 
weapons, they were too aukward to have been in- 
vented and fafliioned by Romans, and too correQ: 
and fhapely to have been the work of Britons, be- 
fore the Julian invafion. But as they had been 
often found in Roman llations, accompanied with 
Roman coins ; he fuppofes them to have been of 
Roman workmanfhip, after the old Britifh models. 
Dr. Borlafe and Mr. Lort, had feen hrafs cafes of 
thefe inftruments, which fitted them as exactly, as if 
they had been the molds in which the inftruments 
were caft. I cannot conceive why thijfc gentlemen 
hefitate to call them molds ; as a certain proof that 
they were manufadtured in Ireland, where the Ro- 
mans came not either as friends or foes, the molds 
are found in our bogs : they are of brafs alfo, mixed 
with a greater quantity of iron, or in fome manner, 
tempered much harder than the inftruments : half 
of a mold is reprefented in the next plate j it is much 
burnt by conflant cafting of the hot metal. 


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Tuagh Snaighte.- — —Clhip Axes^ 


Fig. I. 2; 3. 5. 6. 7, 8. 9. 

Represent different fohns of thfefe* Srtflr 
itiftruriicnts found in our bogs. l^ig. x^ arid*^. arc 
fihoothed at the fides, and fbrmfed' to* fit th* hknd^ 
Bciiig ufed wittibiit' h»idl6s ; tRc rcft* were h^dliSf 
with cleft flicks, part of the 'w^bbd r^maiHed ih dw 
bottom of fcv^ral fockets. Fig. 4. is a fih'all' fdcUttf,^ 
called by the Irilh a Searr^ to cut herbs, aborti^r 
mifletoe, &c. it has a double edge very (harp. 

Fig. 10. Is the half of a mold, defcnbed v&^ 
foregoing Plate. 

Fig. II. Is a chiffel of that fpecies of black ftdli!^ 
called by the French piere de touche, or touclifc 
ftone ; being ufed by the Goldfmiths for trying the 
colour of gold and filver. This is in the Colic 
mufeum, mod of the others are in pofleflion of 1 
Rev. Mr. Archdall, in whofe collection is alfo. 
Coopers adze or axe, of brafs, reprefented at the 
per corner of the plate % it has been much 
but from its form I do not think it is antique^ 
Coopers ufe the fame inilrument, in barrelling 

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Grneis Ghriom — Implements of War. 

PLATE XI. ^Fig. I. 

1 HE head of a^ javelin or dart, formed of a very 
hard black (tone, very fkilfuily wrought with a tool ;- 
it is drawn of the fize of the orijginai, in the College 
Mufeiim, and is the largeft I Have feen; fixied to %■ 
ijjcar and thrown with force, this weapon muft have 
brought more certain death than a mulkef balk 

Fig. 2. An arrow head of tRe faAie, of the fize of 
the original ; thcfe are found of the fize of one third 
of this ; the peafarits call them Elf arrows, and fre- 
quently fet them in filver, like thi« figure, and wear 
them about the neck as an amulet againft being 
aithadh or elf-(hot. The fcale wilt ffic^ the fize of 
the reft. 

Fig. 3 and 4. Brrfs (kians (fcians) knives or dag- 
gers ; the handle of 3 is broken j 4 is cafl: in one 
J)iece, the rrvets being either ornamental, or to ftop 
againft the top of the fcabbard ; ^3t8^ fcin, a knife ; 
Prov. xxiii, 2. 

Fig. 5. The brafs head of a hunting fpear, very 
{leat^ called in Irifli lalghean fealgach. 


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Fig. 6, 7, 8, 9 and lo. The brazen heads of 
Laineach-catha, or military fpears. Chaldee *]3*7 lanek, 
a fpear. Another Irilh name for thefc is Roimhne ; 
thefe were thrown at the enemy, fo named from the 
Phoenician rima, to caft, jacere, whence riDT rimahh, 
a lance, Greek hf*P^^ Arab, rumh, and Latin framea. 

Fig. II. The brafs head of a Tuagh catha, a 
general name for the war axe, from the Chaldee nHO 
tuach to ftrikc, whence the Greek thuein, the French ^ 
tuer, to wound, to kiU, and the Arabic tawur, a J 
battle-axe or halbert ; the Irifh cath a bati 
compounded with arbhar, a hoft, forms 
commonly written catharb, as if contra 
and treab, a tribe, but it is undoubtedl; 
and Phoenician K^iyDD catharba ; turmj 
is a bad tranflation of this word hy Boch 
the caterva of the Romans. Perfic ka'' 
Khefli, war ; Arabic ketal or katal a fold 
the Irifli proper name Cathal, by which tl 
Carolus, quafi Cath-areolas, expert in W2 

The Irifli had three names for the T 
or battle axe, whether they were diflfere 
or feveral names for the fame, I cannot 
lil, Tuagh deilfgiathanach, i. e. bipennis. 
deilbhealach, literally the axe that kills at 
of two roads, before and behind, having 
and is probably the pic-meallach or m 
Lochaber axe of the Erfc. The large i 
weapon, fliew it was mounted on a very 
it was an excellent weapon for the del 

As the Irifli cath, is derived from 
mrUN agioth, bellum quod ante urbem geritur, ^ 

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Of war. 


griom or criom, from the Phoenician and Etrufcan 
ND*in chcrmc, i. e. bellicofo, e lo credc un fopranome 
dato dagli Etrufci a Perfco * ; hence the Irifh grim- 
carbad, currus falcatus. Grim-cliath, hurdles ufed in 
fieges. Griamhuil, martial. Griamht, grit or greit, 
a champion ; whence the proper name Carat. 

* Bronzi de Ercolano, vol. iiy p. 133. Gori, ▼• ii, p. 247. 


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■ ■ 'I I ., i 'll t k m n. n . 

Purin,— Seic $eQna, — Cloch Tag. 

PLATE xn. 

IT is with great reludance this and the following 
plates are introduced in this work : they were refcrved 
for a complete effay on the religion, philofophy, and 
fuperftitious ceremonies of the Hibernian Druids, for 
which the Irifh MSS in my pofleffion, aftbrd ample 
materials ; a fubjed mod defirable to the literati of 

Purin was a fpecics of divination by fmall ftoncs 
or bones, in number five, fo called from the Chaldee 
*nD pur, lot, (fors) in the plural |niO purin. Either 
ch. ix. And they caft pur to confume them ; where- 
fore they called thefe days Purim. Pur, a confrigcndo, 
ex ufu Perfico, unde phors, fors & fortuna. (Plantavit.) 
This kind of divination, is known in Arabic by the 
word Makton, i. e. Ariolus, qui glareae, filicumque 
jadu vaticinatur. (Caftelus, p. 22 1 2.) It is now played 
as a game, by the youths of both fexes in Ireland. 
Niubur faw it praftifed by the boys on the banks of 
the Nile, and thought it worthy of a full defcription. 
Sec his Voyages. 


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It was named Seic Seana or Seona^ A^hen bones 
were ufed. Seie is a bone, and -fcana or fcona, di- 
vination, charms; hence feuna a charm for protec- 
tion ; feunta enchanted ; fean-aini, an order of the 
Hibernian Druids, or Diviners ; whence the Latin 
I Scnones ; Chaldee 132? (hinu. Arab, fenat, a myftery, 
I miracle ; Pcrf. fen holy. Gearog is another Irilh 
I word for Sors, and hence I believe the Calabrian 
I Zingari, (i. c. Seangearog,) Gypfies, who arc 
fuppofed to fpeak an Oriental dialeft • ; but certainly 
their name fw a bag-pipe, viz. Cormali, is the Iriih 
-cora mufic, and mala a bag ; the muficd bagr 

llie Iriih Seic Seona* (Shec Shona) was readily 
turned intojack-ftones, by an Englifli ear, by which 
name, this game is now known by the En^tiKh in 

Cloch Tag is certaihly the ftbnes of the Ettufcan 
Tages ; it has another name amongft the vulgar, viz, 
gob ftones, becaufe one part of the ceremony is, to 
convey them into the gob or mouth. 

In the memoirs of the «Etri^foan academy of Gortona, 
is the "drawing of a pifture found in Herculanum, 
reprefenting a marriage ; in the front is a forcerefs 
cafUng the five ftones : the writer of the memoir 
juftly thinks fhe is divinihg: the figure exaftly cor- 
refponds with the firft arid principal caft of the Irilh 
puiin ; all five are caft- up, and the firft catch is on 
the back of the hand, the drawing is here ctipied ; 
on the back of the hand ftands one, and the remaining 
four on the ground ; oppofite the forcerefs, is the 
matron, attentive to the fucccfs of the caft. 

• Swinburn't Travels into Sicily. 


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In the royal edition of the Anticbi Monumenti d 
Ercolano, vol. ii, is the copy of another marriage, an< 
by the fame hand, Alexandres Athenaios. Th 
attitudes of the figures differ from the former, an 
the forcerefs is calling five fmall bones, one is on tb 
back of the hand, two in the a£tion of falling, an 
two are on the ground. The author informs us, th 
Etrufcans named this kind of divination AlioiTo an 
Tallone, in Irifh Ail-afe, ftones of divination *, Tallo 
or Dall-on, has the fame meaning ; fee dallbhadha j 
the didionaries. jife^ Etrufca voce, fatum, for 
(Gori in the Eugubine Tables,) hence our J/c 
laghachdj and Ais-Tieis^ &c. &c. This had dwindle 
to a game with the Grecian women, and is defcribc 
by Julius Pollux in his Onomaftici under the nam 
of Pentalitha ; but from Valerius we may learn, i 
was a fpecies of divination j no marriage ceremon; 
was performed without confulting the Druidefs, am 
her Purin, 

Aufpices folebant nuptiis interefle. 

Juven. Sat. xi« 

The Etrufcan deities fuppofed to prefide over tho 
matrimonial ceremonies, were Pilumnus and Picun 
nus ; the firft is Latinifed from the Irifh phal or fa 
an omen, and muin oracle ; the fccond from pife, 
diviner, and muin ; but, fays Gori, when Picumm 
prefided at the marriage folemnity, he was nanw 
Pifo, probably it fhould have been pofa, the Irifh nao 
for matrimony. The Irifh Pife, is the fame as tl 
Syriac HttDfii the Chaldee ND^^B» or N^f3, pifa, piil 
piza, i. e. fors ; Gr. ^trr^ calculus, fcrupus luforii 


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Homer fays, that the princes and chiefs who demanded 

Penelope in marriage, employed themfelves before 

the door of the houfe, at playing xi<r(r«/ (Od. «.) ITie 

antient Etrufcans always were married in the ftreets 

before the door of the houfe, which was thrown open 

at the conclufion of the ceremony. The Druids of 

Ireland employed ftones on this occafion ; but on 

more ferious bufmefs, bones were employed j ^ the 

divination was then called Maitheas, that is, fay the 

glofTaries, Mait-fhios, or the fcience or knowledge of 

Maith. Chaldee DD math, pytho offium cadaverum, 

q\u nempe magiam cum illis exercet, & futura ex 

iis prasdicit» (Buxtorf.) 

N. B. Tages, was a proper name common to the 
antient Etrufcans, and to the Irifh ; as Tages an 
eminent Druid, father of'Morna, mother to the 
fsmious Fin Mac Cuil or Finn Mac Cumbail* 


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C :E A .D iR A J il 

PLATE Xffl. 

1 HESE gofdcn ornaments of the H 
'Druids, are frequently found in our bogs : the 
fcnt the moon at the firft quarter, whence t 
cead firft, rai quarter, or divifion, R^ Moon 
were carried in the hand by the Druids in i 
ligious ceremonies, particularly when in p 
to cut the facred mifsletoe, which was alv 
formed on the firft quarter of the moon's ag 
fays it was on the 6th day of her age, an 
fexta luna, quae principia menfium annorui 

This ornament is extremely well expref 
bas-relief, found at Autun, and was engi 
Auberi in his antiquities of that place. Au 
aftesjthc firft book, and part of the fecond* 
prinfed off; the work being then imperfect, 
for wafte paper ; there are very few copies 

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b€ found of what was finifhed. Montfaucon had one, 
which he thought the only complete copy in the 
world : he has copied |he engraving of the bas-relief^ 
and thus deicribes it : ■ 

" Here we fee two Dnrids ; one crowned wiA 
" leaves of oak, agreeable to Pliny's words, Druidas 
** line ea frondc nulla facra conficcre ; this is proi» 
" bably the arch Druid, having a fceptre in his hand. 
" Near him is another Druid, not crowned, holding 
" in his hand the figure of the moon, fuch as fhc 
" makes on the 6th day of her age. I think no one 
" can doubt, that thefe figures reprefent the Druids 
" proceeding on that ceremony. They were great 
" aftronomers, and as it was eflentially neceflary to 
" perform it on the fixth day of the Moon's age, an 
" aftronomical Druid here folds a crefcent, to fignify 
" that the feftival is arrived. ITiis explanation of a 
" monument, hitherto undecyphered, I cxpedt will 
" meet no contradiftion." 

So far from contradifting the Reverend Father 
and Antiquary, 1 perfedlly agree with him, and have 
copied the figure, carrying the crefcent at Fig. 2. 

The fcrupulous, awful regard, which the Druids 
pud to a few .plants, -as the Mifletoe, Samolus, and 
Sclago, which they accounted .facred, and the extra- 
vagant opinion they had of their virtues, may be 
reckoned among the grcateft abfurdities of their 
fyftem : yet in this they imitated the antient Perfians 
and Maflagetes, who thought the Mifsletoe fomething 
divine, as well as the Druids *. 

* Borlafe^s Cornwall, p. 147. Hyde, p. 249^ 255. 

Voi. IV. No. Xra. . K There 

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72 L U N E T t E. 

the handles ^re hoifes heads^ extreme 
cHted; it hid three feet, formed oft 
^hima^ ; tWo ire brokeh off; but has i 
bottoita. I conje£hi)re k was ufed, i 
burning incenfe on ihfe altar at facrific 
tainly the WoiiiLmanihip of an ekpert ar 

The uriAs defigned to contain human 
of gold, filVfet, brafs, Inarble ^r glafs^ 
ly of pottety W4!re: among Ihebarbarouc 
Were dF rude fisJ^ion, andcoaHe clay 
fAioked than buttit, fuch ^ reprefented 
Pattocllis's was <rf g6ld, • Corineus's 
but the ftern Lycurgus, toftfined the 
to the more fdbcr drefs of olive ani m; 
the dcgahfc form of our brafs urn, I a 
the Etnifean colony from CSortona, i 
the Preface. 

The handles of this Vafe, are very fi« 
of the brafs Lamp dug tip at Herculantii 
once was poffeflfed by the Ethifcans. — 
morceaux de chaincfttes tenant au>c a 
Aigles adaptees par le moyen d'une pii 
aux deux cot& de <5ette lanterne ; la 
Ton anfe en forme de col & de tete de Gh 
Ville ayant ete habitee, d^s les fiecles 
ciens, par les Ofces^ & occupee depuis p 
ques. I 

♦ IL 23. Tcr. 253. t '^"" ^* ^^''' ^ 
X Rcc. Gen. Hiftoriquc & Crit. d* Hcrculaw, 

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IFjimdh-Draoieacht — — -Tair-Faimb. 
Boil-Reann, &ۥ 


^ author, unacquainted with the language of the 
Erfe and Irifli, and with the records of that antieat 
people, was better qualified to write on the tenets, 
rites and fuperftition of the Druidical religion, than 
the late Dr. Borlafe ; to great clailical learning and 
e^enfive reading, he joined a knowledge of the 
Comifli, Welfli and Breton dialers, and his fituation 
was in the center of monuments of that wonderful 
fefi of Druids, the wifdom of the con^mon people, or 
veneration for the architefts that built them, have 
left undifturbed to this day. How infuilicient the 
langu^ige and writings of the Welfh, are to explain 
thefe iDonuments, is plainly proved from the Doi^or's 
Hiftory of the Antiquities of Cornwall. From the 
authority of Caefar, he piques himfelf, on the inftitu- 
tion of the Druids being jirji invented in Britain. 
Caefar w^s right ; Druidifin originated from ihat 
mixed colony of PhceAicians, Pelafgians, Magogian 
Scyttiiaos, £trufcans apd Thracians, we have ihewn 


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in the courfe of this work, to have formed one co- 
lony in the Britifii ifles. From them it defcended to 
the Gomerian Wclfli, who having conquered and 
expelled the primitive inhabitants to Scotland^ Ireland 
and Man, retained but the debris of that religion, 
they fo much admired in their enemies. This will 
account for the Doftor's furprize, that though the 
Welfh were of Celtic origin, in common with the 
Swedes, Germans, &c. &c. he was not able to find 
the lead traces of Druidifm in any other branches of 
the Celtic tribes. 

ITiefe primitive inhabitants, who gave a name to 
Britain, from words in their own language, fignifying 
.a country abounding in lead, and to Cornwall, be- 
caufe a promontory, in form of a cow's horn, were 
not afhamed, (like the Britons) to promulgate the 
tenets of a religion, they thought pure and undefiled. 
Like the antient Phcenicians, jSgyptians and Scy- 
thians, they acknowledged one true God, Creator of 
all things, omnifcient and omniprefent ; forbidding 
the ufe of images, they worlhipped the fun and moon, 
as the good and evil fpirits, and as the Cad-maol or 
facred minifters of Aefar, the living God; and under 
them they thought there were innumerable genii, or 
aerial beings, empowered to rule and govern all 
fublunary matters. This was the religion of the 
Phoenicians*, Scythians, &c. and this was the religion 

* Wc arc very much inclined to think the fun and moon were 
the two great objcAs of the wor(hip of the Phoenicians; 
they certainly once had a knowledge of the true God} 
their idolatry and fuperftition were borrowed of the AfTyriant, 
Babylonians and Perfians ; how far they retained, or loft, a due 
fenfe and notion of the true God, is hard to determine ; and oi 
their idols wc know nothing particular. Eng, Un. Hift.r.ii, p.333 


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grew out of that mixt body, the firft inhabitants of 
die Britifh iilands, which had in fome meafure diffufed 
itfelf with its colonies into Gaul. It was not fur- 
prizing therefore, to find the Gauls in Caefar's time, 
referring to Britain in matters of a religious nature ; 
tmt from Britain, the appeal was made at that period, 
to the heads of that order, the Welfli had thruft into 
Ireland and Mona, (ifle of Mann.) Hence, when the 
Saxons, in their turn, had conquered the Welfh, and 
driven them ^o Anglefea and Cornwall, where their 
Druids had re-eftablifhed academies and feminaries 
of learning, the conquerors declined feeking to them 
for inftrudion, but fent their youth to the foimtain 
head, to Ireland, for education. 

Bo&oT Borlafe, was furprifed at the great confor- 
mity in temples, priefts, worfhip, dodrines and divi- 
nations, between two fuch diftant people as the Britifh 
Druids and the Perfian Magi. " Whence it could 
** proceed, fays he, is very difficult to fay ; there 
" never appears to have been the leaft migration, any 
" accidental or meditated intercourfe betwixt them, 
" after the one people was fettled in Perfia, and the 
** other in Gaul and Britain ; and whether the Celts 
" (much lefs the Gauls and Britons) can ever be 
" proved to have been one and the fame people with 
" the Perfians, fince the general difperfion, (which 
" is a time too early to produce fuch a minute con- 
" formity) is much to be queftioned. This flrift 
" agreement betwixt the Perfians and the Weflem 
^* nations of Europe, was too obvious to efcape the 
^* notice of the judicious and learned Pelloutier ; 
' therefore he takes it for granted that the Celts and 
* Fcriians were one and the fame people : — but thil 

** union 

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♦^ UDioa muft have been fo early, (for we have no 

*« tracks of it in hiftory) that it can only account for 

^' an agreement in the eflentials of religion, which 

*' in the firll ages of the world were few. Ample and 

<< unadorned, and fpread into all parts, and there 

^' continued in great meafure the fame as at firiL 

^^ We had our inhabitants from Gaul, as the nearcft 

^^ part of the continent to Britain, and with the in< 

*' habitants came the Celtic language, but the Dniidi 

^^ had no being when this iiland was peopled, thcu 

^^ difcipline being invented afterwards^ as is plaii 

^' from the Germans, Danes, Swedes, and Ruffians. 

** who were branches of the Celts, and yet have nc 

^' Druids ; they were a regular order of priefts, noi 

" fetched from abroad, but inftituted and formed ai 

•' firft, either in Britain or Gaul, 2nd peculiar to tbeji 

'^ two nations 'y an order gradually faihioned anc 

^^ fhapedy partly by their own invention, and parti] 

*' from the adopted precepts of feme philofopher 

♦' they converfed with, incrcafmg in learning am 

** authority, age after age, till by its luxury in bott 

*' it attraftcd the eyes and admiration of all th 

" curious and learned. To fix the aera of their ai 

*' tiquity, would be a vain attempt, and therefoi 

" I ihall only make this general obfervation, that 

*' the Druids were really Celtic priefts, they woul 

^* have fpread with the feveral divifions of th 

*' mighty nation, and their traces would confequent 

** appear equally ftrong, and lively in every counti 

^* where the Celts fettled, but as we have no warra: 

" from hiftory to fuppofe this priefthood fettled a: 

*' ticntly any where but inGaul and Britain jihey cdiVLTn 

befo antient as they are fuppofed by the German 


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*^ TbcDf uids were probably obliged to Pythagoras for 
'^ the do£brine of tranfmigration and fome other 
<< particularly and as that great philolbpher had been 
^ a difciple either of Zoroaftres, or fome of that 
^ Perfian*8 immediate fucceifors, there can be no 
'' doubt but he was learned in all the Magian reli* 
^ gion which Zoroaftres prefided over, regulated 
^ and eftabliihed in Perfia ; it was with this Magian 
^^ religion, that our Druids maintained fo great an 
^ unifonnity. Now we can well imagine that fo 
<^ curious a traveller as Pythagoras, could be induced 
" to traverfe almoft the then known globe, in order 
^ to converfe with Brachmans and Druids* I would 
^^ only obferve, that what is faid here, is agreeable 
^^ to the general charader of that inde£sitigable phi- 
" iofopher. He firft travelled into -Sgypt to converfe 
" with their priefts ; thence into the Eaft, to hear the 
*^ firachmans,theprie{ls of India ; and it is not at all 
^ improbable, that his infatiable curiofity would not 
'^ let him reft till he had feen alfo the other extremity 
" of the world, to converfe with the Druids; gather- 
" ing every where, what he thought divine, good 
'^ and wife, and communicating the doctrines he 
" treafured up, where he found the people docile 
*' and willing to be wifer. 

** ABARIS formerly travelled from an ifland 
" oppofitc Gaul, and moft likely Britain, into Greece, 
^* and renewed the antient league of friendftiip with 
" the Delians. Now this prieft of Apollo is reported 
^* to have been very intimate with Pythagoras, who 
^ made no fcruple to communicate to him freely 
^^ (what he concealed from others in fables and 


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that it is extremely prpbable> that th^e w^e Druids 
remarkable for their learning, and ev^ antiquity, 
before the time of Pythagoras, who Uved 600 yean 
before our Saviour ; and in another place, he fays, 
]>ruid is formed of the Irifh draoth or druith» yiik 
Bxen, magi : — had the Dodor been acquainted 
with the Irifh MSS. he would have found many 
other fynonimous general names for this order, vis. 
Bolgith, Dadanann, Maghi, &c. &c. and that tbe 
Druidical Oracular Stone called L^gban^ which yet 
retains its name in Cornwall, and as he confeflfesi 
Is not to be explained in that or the WeUh dialed, is 
the Irifh Logh-onn, or flone into which the Druids 
pretended that the Logh or divine EfTence defend- 
ed, when they confultcd it as an Oracle* Nor am 
I think with the Dodor, that fuch wife and phildo* 
phic men as the Britifh Druids, did ever worfhip 
itones and Rocks, as Gods. It is true, that iu our 
modern Irifh Lexicous we find jirt a (lone; andtQ 
(ignify alfo God ; but Art, God, is a comipdoa 
of the Chaldce jfnnmg Ar-aritha unum h Dei 
nominibus apud Cabbaliflas notarice fignificant 
unum principium unitatis fuse ; principium fingula- 
ritatis fuae, viciifitudQ ejus unum: quo fignificant 
Deum effe unicum, immutabilem, & fibi femper 
■fimilem : hence 'Apdn divina potentia (Hefych,) Many 
fuch miflakes are committed through want of know- 
ledge in the antient language of thefe iflands : for 
example, thofe Porticos of great flones, in Ireland, 
formerly the Adytum to the Dabir-Granu or Oracle, 
now called the leaba or beds of Darby and Granny. 
•^t^T dabir, adytum feu Oraculum,pars templi verfus 
occafum in qua erat area & thuribulum. p;i Goren, 


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It m aoaitis laitmus. me uruias teacti 
)f the nobility, long and fecrctly, for twenty 
edier, in caves, cells and the moft biddtti 
>f woods. (Pomponios Mela.) 
T the Iriih or Britains, owed any of tfaefe 
oVIk to the Greeks, h plain frofm Stndsib, * 
tcs AMemidoras, to prove that the S^mb- 
<h^ 'irere eftablifhed (in itftthm pMype 
dh) m an ifland near Britain, eadem tifu 
\iim6ihrace. Now Artemidoros wrote hi 
5 oF Ptblemseus L^thyrus, Wfa^ aft the 
igfee, the Greeks had not navij^ed rttxo 
A cargo t>f JEgyptianattd JeMmtctittfttt- 
dd have been tmt an mdiffercfM tr^iffii[^ for 
and topper ; and the tjrreeks I believe woifld 
emeclthisa contraband trade* 
;did the Do&or read of this Commerce, 
he Greeks and theBritt^nic tiles. Orphetis, 
Dnomacritus, indeed, mentions ItteUmd, 
the learned Bochart, he learned the name 
5 of it from the lE^cenicians : the Greeks at 
\ had not failed into diefe part$. Kempe 
i IPhoenicibus. Graecis enim tnm tempori* 

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had not feen them ; erant etiam annuli incantati^ 
fcfte Clcmente Alexandrino, (Strom, i. page 399,) 
quibus ftrtura pro^icieabaHtur: tales enmt duo an- 
nuli Excefti Phociorum Tyrramii, quibus utebatur 
alhim contra alium impitfgendo, ut ex fono quid 
fibi agendum; & quid fibi obventurum effc edifccrct 
Ille tamen iniidiis oppreiTus occiitifque fuk : anndi 
namque iiii incantati, qui ipfi mortis tempus indica- 
verant, ejus vitands modum jioa docuerunt. * 


Kg- 3- 4- 5- 
Thde Ch^n-rings of the Druids, chains of know- ^ 
ledge, or chains of divination, as the words ezprefs} r 
are of brafs, hollow, and united by a flender plate r 
of brafs. They are found in our bqgs in great i 
plenty ; fome are in the College colleftlon, fame in i 
my pofleiflion, and many in the colledion of die - 
Rev. Mr. Archdall. They confift in general, of one i- 
large and tWo fmall rings :. fig, 4. reprefents one 
that probably had four fmall rings annexed to it 
Some imagine thefe reprefented the fun, moon and 
carthi and that the large ring in the center was the 
earth: .Others that they reprefcnt the Sun, 
Venus, and Mercury ; but all agree, th^t bxoc 

♦ Montfaucon, Vol. VI. page 2a6. 


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T E R A P H I M. 85 

of the planets were intended to be thus repre* 

llie Jews had fome Talifmen of this kind, as 
vc learn from Rabbi J. Karo,— figurae folis & lunae 
Sc iiderum tarn planas quam prominentes interdidas 
iint At vero, fi fiant difcendi, docendi, refque 
hibiai decerfiendi gratia^ licitae funt omnes, idque 
Jtiam prominentes, * The Thracians and lUyrians 
lad the fame mafhematico fadum. Kimchi, Selden 
md St. Auguftine, think the Teraphim which 
lachael ftole from Laban were of this kind. 

The Teraphim of the Bible, which we tranflate 
Zodsj all the Jcwifli Rabbies own to be a word 
f no Hebrew Etyoiology. The 70 tranflate it fome-^ 
imes an Oracle^ and fometimes vain idols. Some 
!iink it to be an Egyptian word and the fame with 
eraphis: but it is moft probably of Chaldef 
rigin. The name certainly palTed to images of the 
uman form : fuch was the Teraphim, Michal put 
ito David^s bed, to rcprefent him there, — that 
rhich Rachel ftole from her father Laban, was 
>mething fo fmall as to be concealed under her as 
le fat in the tent. Laban was a true believer; 
re can fcarce think he had images of the human 
yrvci. Genef. xxxi. ver. 37, they are called the 
tjlrumenfs of his temple, ver. 30. his Gods. — 
udg. xviii. ver. 5. they are confulted by the 
>anites, and a true anfiver returned from G^rf, which 
iduced them to take them away, and fet them up 
or public ufe, which they continued pofieffed of, 
▼en Under Samuel and David : furcly thefe were 

♦ In Shulcan Anich. lib. Jorc Dca. c. 141. 

VoL.IV*No.XIIL L not 

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not images. Hofea iii. vcr. 4. The children of li 
Ihall abide many days without a king, and witl 
a prince, and without a facrifice, and without 
image and without an Ephod and Teraphim. 

The Teraphims were afterwards univerfally kn< 
by the name of Talifmen, as they are to this 
all over India. The Perfians call them Telepl 
a name not unlike Teraphim. They were mad 
different metals and fizes, caft under certain 
Jiellatiom^ with figures of fome planets^ and m 
characters engraven upon theift. Such is tha 
figures 9. and 10. TTiey were to be confulted 
prayed to at certain times, under particular afp 
of the planets, from which the Jews aver, they pi 
received thai power ^ and partly from the chara^ 
engraven on them. * One Rabbi goes further, 
pretends that they gave anfwers viva voce^f 
attempts to prove it from the words of Zee 
*' the Teraphims have fpoken vain things/' chap 
ver. 2. 

Sanchoniatho, fays, that the firft idol made t( 
worfhippedandthefirft moveable Temple in Phoeni 
were made in the ninth generation: thcfe, Philo tr 
lates AfHf lif^MriiHf.NowletusconfiderthewordsofAii 
chap. V. ver. 16. But ye have borne the tabern 
of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, the^ 
of your God, which . ye made to yourfelves ;— 
this is again recorded in the Ads of the Apofl 
chap. 7. ver. 43. Yea, ye took up the tabemacl 
Moloch, and thenar of your God Remphan, /ig 
which ye made, to worfhip tliem :-— from hen 

*. KimchL f R^ ^leas. c 36. 


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one day become fuperilitlous inllrumcnts of 
y, and therefore, when he made a reformation 
family, he buried them and all their ear- 
inder an oak^ which was by Shechim. Genef. 
ver. 4* 

:ero» is of opinion the Serapis, and Talifman^ 
>f tShe fame kind ; inde Teraphim^ & Arabum 
lae ft iEgyptiorum Serapides, & AppoIIonii 
iflci, Annuli quibus fpiritus familiaris inclufus 
♦ Hottinger proves that the Syrians and 


jt 19& M. Gebelin* thinks the Greek Tclcfma is de* 
nn oSK Tfelendy a refcmblanccy a portrait ; images des 
tkat may be, for the Phoenicians and our Druids, fi- 
he Deity by a circlcy the Egyptians by a ferpent curled 
nd ; the words of Sanchoniatho in the Phoenician Ian* 
oiaed by Hatchinfon or fome other, arc, 

ho afphirm acranitha. meni arits chuia ; 

Thinilated by Hutchinfon. 
iter it a fci^ed Sphere, from it is produced a ferpent* 

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88 I O G H D R A O A C H. 

Chaldaeans had thefe Teraphim before the time of 
Abraham, and that they were of Chaldec origin j 
Et fane Uraelitas non ab ^gyptiis ut vitulum au- 
reum, fed a Cananeis & Amorrhsis accepiflfe, et in 
iEgypto intuliffe.'* What feems to confirm Berterus's 
opinion, is that paffage in xx..Exod. ver. 23, ** Yc 
fhall not make with me Gods of filvcr, neither fhall 
ye make unto you Gods of gold.*'- -here the Chaldee 
Bible has CD-£)1t!^ CD^JSIK stophenim ou Seraphim, 
i. c. wheels, circles, rings, or feraphim. Munfter 
tranflates aophanim angels; but ^q^ is a wheel, 
circle or ring, and is always ufed in Chaldee to cx- 
prefs the celeftial circles, as the zodiac, aequator, &c, 
in the fame language -)»^ Tair fignifies divination, 
fors ; whence the Irifh Tain—^gj^j-^^f^ Tairaphin 
might have been the original word, formed by the 
Hebrews into Teraphim. j^^j^ tara, in Chaldee is 
vinculum, catena, a chain. 

But what, in my humble opinion, fets this in a 
clearer light, and proves that the 5ip«^r<, were a kind 
of chain, compofed of hollow brafs rings, is a pallagc 
quoted by the learned Selden ; in his difcourfc dc 
Teraphim, he quotes the Chaldee Paraphrafts in 
thefe words, " de iis autem oracula Chaldaica ita 
praecipiunt iA^yu m^i iMltyav ^ p«>«a«v here he would 
change fekatinon to i«»i4*i, and thus tranflatcit 


Afpeir 'ha ciul d'AIIa, duile la (lara uilc fhuilmor. 

The firmament is the circle of God» the elements are there 
fufpended in all fplendor. 

N. B. ^0tS^» rQund| 11 the only word in IriihforUief 

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opcrare circa Hecaticam fphcKrulam. Hecate was cer- 
tainly a Chaldean Deity, under the name of -jpijj 
Achad, by which they fignified the Moon^ as Millius 
has well explained ;** but if the word is to be chang- 
ed, I beg leave to read it x«1h',««f, that is a chain, f 
a word formed evidently from the Chaldee py 
ghadan. Catena pretiofa, unde Hifpan. Cadena. \ 
And rfip^.tf is the fame as $^«^«A.y|, gyrus, a circle 
or ring, and this might have been written in Chal- 
^^ hy^ ntSlS^ nyn» ^* ^' Catena circulis inflatis ad 
drcumferentias : the exaft defcription of our chain 
made of hollow rings: Again, the Paraphrafts ex- 
plained this by irrrAZ an Egyptian word, corref- 
ponding with the Irifti jogh, ince, jonga, a chain. 

Bifhop Cumberland, in his remarks on Sancho- 
niatho, page 270, explains a paflage much to our 
puipofe, — ** To prevent miftakes, fays he, it muft be 
noted, that Inachus here mentioned as the fame with 
Pofidorij and father of JEgialeiis^ is about 250 years 
bdbre that Inachus who was founder of the king- 
dom of Argos. And to me it is no wonder that 
diis name, or rather title, fhould be given to feveral 
men, becaufe I believe it is derived from the eaftern 
pjj; anak, and fignifies Torquatus, a man that wore 
a chain as a badge of honour. The Anakims in 
Phoenicia long after, were called fo on the fame ac- 
■ Anak is the root of the Irifti Ince, a chain : 
vhcnce muince, a chain or collar, worn about the 

* Diflcrtatio vu de Idolo "IDR' 

\ Meurfii Gloif. Grzcum. Theodorat. Hift. Ecclcf. 1. 2. 
\ Ftantarit. Lex. Synon. Chald. Hebr. 



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(muin) neck : Incc feems to be the root of man] 
things wrought in metal as ionga, a nail ; ionaiig ai 
anvil J ingir an anchor ; ingleid a hook ; iong; 
an ingot ; and henger in old Pcrfic is a fmith ; - 
whether .Sgialeus, was fo called as the fabricator o 
wearer of our jog-eolas or chain of knowledge, aiu 
Pofidon, from our Pifa-iodan or Urim and Thum 
mim, I fhall not pretend to determine. 

In the preface to this number, I have faid, dia 
the work ofSanchoniatho, muft appear a forgery t< 
a perfon Ikilled in the Bcarla-pheni dialed of thelriil 
language : indeed, it rather appears to be the worl 
of an Irifhman, ill explained by a Greek. Moni 
faucon has given his opinion of it in the foUowinj 
words, " Fabulam putant eruditiores efle, quidquii 
Eufebius poft Philonem Bybl : refert, & Sanchonia 
thonem nunquam extitiffe. Nee defunt qui fufp 
centur ipfum Eufebium & Sanchoniathon^n^ & into 
prctem ejus confinxifle. Non puto autem banc frai 
dem poffe in Eufebium conferri, quandoquidei 
Porphyrins ab Eufebio allatus, p. 485, deSanchon 
athone loquitur ejufque aetatem adfcribit. Expe£h 
fortaffe ledor, dum quid de Sanchoniathone ejufqu 
intcrprete fentiam, expromam : meam fententiai 
paucis aperio : Sanchoniathonem puto nunquam « 
titijjey fed decernere non aufim utrum Philo Bybliu 
fefe Sanchoniathonis interpretem confinxerit, u 
fabulas proferret fuas : an vero quifpiam alius fella 
cisc auctor. Philonem Byblium ementitus fit, qucn 
quam quidam, ut diximus, nunquam extitiffe ut nc 
Sanchoniathonem putant.*' Vol. iv. page 385. 1 
fine, Aftor-ith, Derc-ith, Eag-ala-bal, & Gealach-ba 
are Irifti names for the moon j Uile-gabal, & Mc 


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-€tain an adoration to the New Moon, crolling 

'elves, faying, " fuay thou leanjc us fafe as thou 

'7und w^'* — imo ipfi Lunam ut deam adora- 

hi ^4<unsLm adorabant ut deam, alii Lunam 


a^pnofthat our Irifh Druids did not borrow 
MM of their religion from the Celts, but from 
Egyptians, Syrians or Phoenicians, take thefol- 
g^ examples. The great fpirit (God)^is ex- 
d bj the word Ti, as Ti-mor ; or Fo-Ti ; i. e. 
eat fpirit ; the prince of Spirits : it is the fame 
e Chinefe Ti ; the Phoenician ^j^q phta ; 
Egyptian ^« phta. The wicked or evil fpirit 
sied CIS£ AL ; it is the Phoenician ^^^^ He- 
^n chifel, i. e. blafphemavit.f So likewife 
ifh Mi^b and Maghan, an epithet of God, is 
ebrew f jq magon, nomen Dei, i. e. the fhield 
ekler. Eilegabal in Iriih, exprefles the rcli- 
or fed of fire worfhippers. J SlJI IiSk ^'^i- 

kOatfrnticoDy ver. 4. pa^e ^91. 

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moft different from the Eaftern original : but that 
is not the cafe ; it is the moft pure, moft like the 
original, and confequently, there muft have beea 
fome communication with the mother tongue, to 
have reftored it to its primitive roots. Again, our 
learned Author fays, *' from the Celtic fprung the 
*' antient Greek or Pelafgian, before the days of 
*' Homer and Hefiod — from the fame fprang the 
'' Latin ; the Etrufcan ; ITiTacian, Phrygian, or 
** Trojan ; the Teutonic ; the Gaulifti, which in- ^ 
" eluded the Alps, France, Paybas, Switzerland;— -^ 
*' the language of the two Britains (I fuppofe he ^ 
*' means Ireland and Britain) the Cantabrian or 
" Old Spanifli ; and the Runic. It is true, that 
*' France was at one time over-run by a Scythian 
*' people named Alani or Teifaliani, headed by 
** their king Goar ; thefe almoft fwallowed up the 
*' name of Gauls and their language; the remains of 
" thefe Scythians aftually exifted in the nth ccn- 
** tury, on the borders of Poitu and TAulnis: 
** Moft of the Gauls mixt with thefe conquerors, 
*^ and formed one people, infenfibly lofmg all traces 
*' of their origin; I fome few retained their liberty 
*' and language : ift, Thofe that fled to the extremi- 
" ty of the great Peninfula called Bretagne : 2d, 
** Thofe who dwelt in Britain, the country after- 
*' wards poffeffed by the Englifh, who forced the 
*' Gaulifh Britains to the mountains of Wales, and 
*^ to the rocks of Cornwall, oppofite to Bretagne ina 
*' France : thefe again reunited with the Bas-Bretons — 
" Thus difperfed in inacceffible mountains, an(=: 
" amongft barren rocks, their conquerors did no^ m 
" think worth ftiaring with them, this ftiadow o-^ 

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, to oppofe his fyflem of the Pelafgian and 
n languages being of Celtic origin : and as 

that fo far from 
to be of Gaulifli 
the words gall, 
to exprefs a fo- 
nt language, al- 
ih bv Glodhlag* 
e ^yfy^f] Chiluni, 

clearly that the 

I corrcfpondence 

off, fays he, by 

^rvention of fome powerful nations, but at what 

is uncertain : it might have been hiftorically 

ratively expreffed in the -Egyptian annals, by 

A N T I S, an ifland of immenfe extent, be- 

illoWed up by an earthquake, with all its in- 

its, which probably means no more than a 

or moral feparation of Britain, perhaps both, 

le continent, f The following affertion of 

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96 A I S I N. 

" iiivaded Britain, one ODIN or Wodc 
** raifed a party in Britain, to (hake off th< 
**^ of Druidifm, and to put the civil power i 
** hands of the laity. But he was fuccefsfi 
lifted by the majority, whofe attachment t 
old laws, engaged them to rejed the inno 
** WODEN and his partifans, being over- 
** ed, retired out of the land, and made their 
•* to Germany, where they obtained a fcttl 
" and preferved the Britifh manners and lar 
*' among the lefs cukivated nations, which fui 
** ed them. Woden did more ; he propaga 
*' new ideas of government, and drew the 
" north to his party ; and I have fome re 
** think that the E D D A or Icelandic recorc 
*' tain Woden's fyftem of innovation." 

F I G. 6.— Is of Brafs. 

I take it be a triangular Talifman ; one 
ftar-like ornaments is loft, i t r r a 2, Sn < 


Thin plates of gold joined together by a 
circular piece : thefe were fufpended by a 

♦ Obfopoeus, dc Oraculis Chaldaicis. 

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A I S I N. 97 

round the neck, and hung at the breaft : they may 
be /een on the Etrufcan Tagcs, and many ftatues of 
their Augurs, which Gori and Dempfter have very 
good naturedly turned into Gods and Goddeffes. 
On die external plate is a fmall loop, into which 
was fixed a flcnder golden wire, on which perched 
die Augur's favourite bird : ITie Hibernian Druids 
fixed on the Wren, an Englifli word derived from 
drean, i. e. Draoi-en, the Druids bird ; it was alfo 
named Draolen, i. e. Draoi-ol-en, the fpeaking 
bird of the Druid. Toithen is another name, fig- 
lufying die bird of Toth or Thoth. The Druids re- 
prefented this as the king of all birds, hence he was 
called by the vulgar Breas-en, king bird ; Righ- 
beag, little king ; Ri-eitile, flying king ; and laftly, 
Briocht-en, the bird of witchcraft. TThe fuperftiti- 
ous refpeft ftiewn to this little bird, gave offence to 
our firft chriftian miflionaries, and by their com- 
mands, he is dill hunted and killed by the peafants 
on Chriftmas day, and on the following (St. Ste- 
phen's day) he is carried about, hung by the leg, 
in the center of two hoops, crofling each other at 
right angles, and a proccflion made in every village, 
of men, v%'omen and children, Hnging an Irifli 
catch, importing him to be the king of all birds ; — 
hence the name of this bird in all the European 
languages, Greek Tpo^a^-, 5««Aitff. Trochilus, Bafi- 
leus ; Rex avium, Senator ; Latin, Regulus ; 
French, Roytclet, Berichot ; but why this nation 
call him boeuf de Dieu, I cannot conjedure. — 
Welfli, Brcn, king ; Teutonic, Koning vogel, king 
bird ; Dutch, Konije, little king. 

JFIG. 8. 

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100 R I N G . M O N E 

Plate XIV. was engraved and worked c 
another medal or talifnien, was put into my 
the Rev. Mr. Archdall. It is of brafs, ar 
exadly the fame as that reprefented at fig. < 
in the .14th Plate. This was alfo found in 
Thq inf^ription on one fide, is the fame a 
fig. Qy iffbioti I believe to be aftronomical.c 
llie infcription on the other fac^, is in 
as in fig I o, aud that over the fquare I: 
fame^ wiuch I read PUR, i. e. Sors : bi 
fcription imder the fquare hole, is totally 
from that under the fquare hole of fig. 
letters may be found in the various Syriac 
of Claude Duret, and Dr. Barnards tables, 
do not all exift ia any one alphabet. Th 
tion on this fisice is exa£Uy delineated in th 
ing figure; an explanation is earneftly 
from the learned. 


A fingle medal with an oriental infcrij 
ing found in any part of Ireland, would 
eftablifhed its currency ; one piece of 
might have been dropped from the pocket 
rious perfon ; but, when a fecoad is produ( 

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Hate xif. 





i^. <?. 

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I N G - M O N E Y. loi 

! firft in metal and figure, and a third is 

Dublin, of copper, with the fame infcription 

XL on one face, written apparently in the 

or Tartar charafters (which feem to have 

ned from the old Syriac); and all have the 

aders on the reverfe, which feem to be 

there is great probability, that thefe are 

medals imported to this country, by our 

la fhips. 

ot furprizing, to find a Chinefe medal with 
: infcription on it. ITie learned Kircber 
im, that infcriptions on ftone^ in Syriac 
Ion characters, interlined with Chinefe,- are 
:t with in China ; and he has. explained a 
ble one of this kind, in his Vrodromm Cop" 
m whence he thus argues, *' Ah illud for- 
luod e Syria in iEgyptum & 'iEthiopiam 
I confines regidnes tradu£be Colonias & 
LS Syrae & charaifterum fuerunt traditrices? 
argumenta quamplurima conjeCkura faflac 
tcm comprobare videntur. — Verum opera 
im faciam, fi hoc loco Syriacam infcrip* 
n iifdem charaderibus Strangelids, .iqiiibus 
ina exprefla fuit, una cum int^erpretationc 
xhibeam/' :■■. 

Gogque,Magogque aliifque exordiiie-cjundis. 
eitque Aggon tibi quot mala fata propinquant* 

Sibylla. I. ca^rm. 
lis chapter De expeditione .SlgyptiorUm feu 
um in India, China & reliquas Afi^ r tgiaocs 

J ,., : r 

♦ • '-,7 v." .- ;■ r' 

hioois a'ont qu^ine Teule monnoie dc mauyais CQiTrCy ' 
die cache ; clle offire un trou quarre dans le miliciit qai 
let. Sonarat Voy. i Lk Chine, p. 36. — 

Vi No. XIIL M I m\ift. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


I muft take this opportunity of begging Fatl: 
Keating's pardon, for faying at page a. th 
O^Flaherty had not mentioned Moran : In tf 
^gyg*2i P^^ 300, at A. D. 90, (inftead of A* D. ^ 
as Keating has it). I find Moran named, and tl 
lODHAN MORAIN or Breaft-plate c 
Judgment, there transformed into a Ring : a frd 
inftance of the miftakes ofour Irifh antiquaries. 

I now fubmit this invefligation of the antiquhic 
of Ireland to the judgment of the impartial puUu 
Senfibie as I am withal, that the nature of the ful 
je& is rather curious, than entertaining ; the litt 
xeaibn I have to anticipate any thing better than 
cool reception, or total difregard of the ntany, a 
be but a recommendation the more to the few, i 
whom a love of literature is not the lefs, for the g 
neral negled and flate of languor, in which they (i 
Jt in this kingdom. 

If in thecourfe of my refearches, I have fsdled 
etymology, I have done ho worfe than Plato, Ciccr 
VofEus,.Ifodore, Perron and Bullet, have done I 
fore me. The antient hiflory of Ireland, had be 
mifreprefented ; its monuments of antiquity une 
plored ; if my readers think, I have mifemploy 
my time and trouble ; I can only fay, that I a 
forry I ha^e not been able to offer more than a ru 
light, inflead of the torch I propofed to carry f 
them, into the dark depths of the hiflory of a remo 
and antient people ; and I am unhappy in that I c 
only fbew what I have been aiming at, andaot wb 
Ihayehit. ....,.., 

Dublin, Dccmier^ 17^3^ - 

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lew* d^HlH 

P O S T S. C R I P T. 

fbe reader will find a further HIuJirafiBn of the hollow 
brafs Ring, fig. 2, 3, 4. and of the hollow Ring* 
Chain fig. 5, Plate XIV. in the following Authors^ 


In Sonnerat's voyage to the Eaft-Indies and to 
China, Vol. L Plate 73, * is the figure of a Tadin^ 
a religious mendicant of the fed of Vichnou ; he 
is dancing and finging in honour of his Deity ; with 
one hand he beats time on a fmall tambourin, and 
with the other on a brafs Crotaly (before dcfcribed). 
On the ankle of each leg, is fixed a hollow hrafs ring^ 
in which fome round pebbles have been introduced 
to add to the mufick. The Indian name of thefe 
Rings is Cbelimbou. " Le Tadin va mendier de 
^ porte en porte en danfant & chantant les louanges 
** & les metamorphofes de Vichenou : pour s'ac- 
^ compagner, il bat d'une main fur une efpece de 
^ tambour, & quand il a fini chaque verfet il bat fur 

* Voyage aux Indes Orientalea & a la ChinCy fait par ordre 
dn Rot, depuia 1774 jufq'en 17S1. Par M. .Sonnerat. i Paris, 
1782, 3 Tom. 4to. 

Ma " un 

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c» ua plauau de empire avec une baguette qu'il tie 
*^ dans les deux premiers doigts de Tautre mai 
*^ ce plateau lui pend au deflbus du poignet, 
^ rend un fon tres-fort & tres-aigu. Sur le ch 
^^ vilie dcs pkds, il porte des anneaux de cuivi 
^ que Ton appelle Cbelimboui ces anneaux fo 
^^ creu & remplis de petits calloux rond qui fo 
** beaucoup de bruit." (Vol. I. page 258.) 

Plate 77. reprefents anotlier fed called Poutcha 
devoted to the worfliip of Manarfuami^ which is fc 
bidden by the Brahme's as being idolatrous. Tl 
fed go in groupes, commonly three togcdn 
Whilft they fing their hynms, one rings a fm 
hand bell, another beats a tambourin, and a thi 
ftrikes two hollow brafs rings together, lifting t 
right hand high above his head, and holding t 
otiber near his center. (Vol. L page 259.) 

Of the Ring-Chains, Kircher has treated larg< 
in his CEdip. -Sgypt. Theat. Ifierogl. Vol. IV. tl 
extrad is made from page 563. 

Catenarum quas ^jrat vocant, Origo. 

** Symboh Hieroglyphica uti ex omnibus rnu 
<^ dalium rcmm claflibus aflumpta fuenmt, i 
magnae quoque virtutis & efficacis, ob miram 
occiiltam cum fupramundanis caufis coimexionc 
fiiiffe, ex ^gyptiorum opinione ampl^ in h 
opere demonftratum ex omnigena eruditioneiui 
neque enim quisquam iibi perfuadeat, prim 
hujus leteraturs inflitutores temer^ & fortui 
quarumlibet obviarum rerum imagines ad iac 
fculpturae infUtutum adhibuifle, fed eas fibi ] 
potiflimum, quas longo (ludio & experientia 




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P O S T S C R I P T. 105 

<' abditis naturalium chara&eris morum iigiUia, ad 
'^ niundanas gemorum catenas magnam habere fi- 
^ jnilitudinem, proprietatem & analogiam norant, 
^ afliimendas doxerunt/' 

^* Quse quidem tanto putabantur dikaciores 
^ qoanto majorem ad mundanse alicujus Caienm nu- 

* sen choragum fimiKtudinem exprimebaiit; ut pro* 
•* inde hinc, numinum Catena j quas Syras vocant, 

* originem traxcrmt ; ad qnas omnia ea, quae five 
" in Sidereo, fire Hylseo mundo, in quadrupcdi- 
** bus, volatilibus vegetabilibus, mineralxbus, ad 
^ numen ccrta; Catena cnjufpiam praeiidem, anala- 
** giam quandam Tirtutrbus fiiis praefcfcrrc rideban- 
** tur, tanquam numini iftius Catenae tutelse com- 
" mifla, affumerunt.*' 

" Hoc pado Catena Ofiriaca, Hcrmetica, Ifiaca, 
'* Scrapica, Memphtaea, atque innumerae aliae, quas 
" in Aftrolo^a & Medecina adduximus, erant certae 
*' quaedam rerum ex diverforum mundorum ordi- 
^ nibus aiTumptarum clafTes, in quibus fingulae res, 
^ quantumvis etiam difparatse, Numinis Catenae 
" alicui prefidentis virtutes & proprietates expri- 
" mcbant.*' 

This learned author in j£gyptian antiquities 
reckons various kinds of chains from three links or 
rings, to feven : this accounts for that of five rings 
in our plate XIV. Thofe of three rings he thinks 
were dedicated to Ofiris, ITis and Ammon. 

To this we will add the explanation of Joga by 

** i»ryK cium multae afcendunt lucidos mundos 
^ infiliebtes & in quibus fummitates ires funt, fub- 
" je£him ipfis princcps, /ub hoc aliae, quae patris 

** opera 

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^^ operaintelligcntesintelligibiliafenfihilibusop 
" & corporibus rcvclerunt." (page 481.) " 
** quidem catenas tantae effccaciae .v potcftat 
** credebant, ut mox ac ihyltici eorum chara^ 
*^ juxta legum kcrarum pr8dcriptioDiem» fimul 
^ fuifient infculpti, hoc ipfo virtutem acquire) 
^^ mirandum contra oinnes adverfarum pi>tef1 
** machinationes putarent." (Kircher.) 

This accounts for the multitudes of thefe c 

being found in Ireland. . I have \n my poflefT 

filver ring for the finger j the device is one of 

ring-chains: it was found in a bog near Athloi 

[ it contains alfo fome ^Egyptian chara&ers^ 

T H I 

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¥rm Charles O'Conor, Efq ; /# 
Colonel Vallancey. 

SI R, 

Your fevourable reception of two letters of 
mine, on the Pagan ftate of Ireland^ encourages me 
to offer you a third, and I offer it with fomc confi- 
dence, as what I have written, and what I have now 
to add, will be found to receive no mean fupport 
from your own learned refearches on the origin and 
literature of the antient inhabitants of this country. 
Your knowledge on this fubjeft, was drawn from va- 
rious, but clear fourccs : mine muft be more con- 
fined, as it has been extrafted chiefly, from the 
documents flill prefcrved in our antient language. 
In the darknefs which enveloped our earliefl domef- 
tic accounts, I found fome objefts vifible, and in- 
deed diftind enough, to enhance expeftatibn, that 
thofc on which time had caft a fuller light, wouhl 
be, worthy of attention. 1 have endeavoured to 
fbow, that many fafts expofed in our more antient 

V reports. 

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io8 Mr. O * C O N O R ' s 

reports, are not the inventions of our old Bard^ 
but the remains of fome memorable tranfa£tions, 
over which poetic liccnfe had fpread a garb of fa- 
ble, in the times which preceded the more en- 
lightened periods of civilizati(>n. in kib0i]ring to 
feparate the true from the falfe, I had the exam- 
ple of many able antiquaries to juftify me, as I had 
the example of others to guard againft, who on the 
prcfent fubje£t, publiflied little elfe, befldes tfaeir 
ignorance and confidence. In the mod celebrated 
countries of Eulrofe^ a^ well as in this detached 
ifland, many important truths regarding the early 
ftate of mankind, have been obfcured in the fables 
of the poets, our firft hiftorians. It was thus even 
in Greece^ whofe old inhabitants borrowed the ele- 
ments of their knowledge, from nations they after- 
wards ftyled Barbarians. Thttr carheft acceutts 
are (hrouded in fi£tioh and mythology, and to ftrip 
off that covering, has given employment to feaie 
great names of the laft and prefent century. They 
laboured with great advantage to literature, and 
added to the fum of our knowledge. They would 
ftill add more^ had they undertaken the prefent 
fubjc^i, and prcvipufly ftruck out fbr thcmfelve^ 
the lights you have ftruck out for others, who may 
hereafter employ their abilities up6n it, to dilfcovcr 
the antient courfe of government and manners in 
Ireland^ through the fereral ftages of youth, matu- 
rity and decline* But this fubjed fhould be under- 
taken in the prefent age, before the documents we 
have left are loft, or rather before the few who can 
read and explain them, drop into the grave. 


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e of thofe materiaJs difperfed in England and 
. cannot readily be confulted. Some that I 
sen coUeding for many years are valuable $ 
fome equally valuable, put into my hands by 
'Mmmgham and yourfelf, I have (I think) 
>me good ufe. I was far from being dif- 
:d by an idea indufbrioufly propagated, that 
annals of this country, are unprodudive cf 
rudion which hiftory fliould afford, for rec- 
civil legiflation, or fecuring the juft rights of 
oals in every degree of fubordination. I was 
: obftruded by another idea, which undoubt- 
LS plaufibility to countenance it. Many fen* 
icn cannot conceive, how a nation ofijlanderiy 
£ar many ages, from intelledual intercourfes 
reece and Romfj could antecedently to the rt^ 

of Cliriilianity, tranfinit any hiilorical me- 
i of themfelves, while the other northern na- 
f Europe tranfinitted none, ^till inftruded by 
imple of their Roman conquerors. This ne- 
argument, and the great pains taken of late, 
f its fufficiency, might have weight with your- 
, on your revolving this uncommon circum- 
firft in your mind. But on tefledion, you 

think it enough, to reft upon a bare nega- 
id you found no difficulty in fuppofmg, that 
ation undifturbed through many ages, by 

invafion, might in their Pagan ftate, obtain 
tnents of arts and literature, from inftrudors 
It from thofe of Greece and Rome. On ex- 
ion, you difcovered ftrong marks of ftich an 
and they led you to conceive, that this fe- 
ed people, might in favourable conjundurcs, 


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no Mr. O^C O N O R's 

improve the rudiments of fcience they fortunately 
received ; and that once poffeffed of the means j they 
did not negleQ: the pradiccy of regifteriug the opera- 
tions of their own minds, on every fubjed that oc- 
curred to them. Examples of fuch improvements 
in other countries, and in early times might be pro- 
duced, and fatally, fome examples alfo, of a relapfe 
to the favage ftate, through conquefts and extirpa- 
tion. But fuch calamities, in the extreme, were 
never experienced in Ireland. 

On this fubjed you have been almoft fmgular in 
hitting on means of inveftigation, the mod cffedual 
.for obtaining the certainty which removes doubts, 
and filences controverfy. They are means which no 
Britifli Antiquarian, before you, the excellent Mr. 
Lluid. excepted, had the patience to employ. To 
your knowledge of the Hebrew ^ Syro-Chaldaicj and 
other oriental tongues, from which the Fhosnician 
was derived, you have with great labour, added the 
.knowledge of our own Iberno-Celtic^ as prefervcd 
in our old books ; and thus enabled to compare the 
latter with xht former jyoM could on finding in the 
language of Ireland^ a much greater number of 
Hebrew and Punic terms, than could fall in by mere 
accident, conclude that the tradition among the old 
natives, of early intercourfes between their An- 
ceflors and the Orientals, is well-grounded. You 
made the trial, and, very probably, fucceeded be- 
yond your expedation. This led you to examine 
whether the writings which contained the ivordsj 
had retained 2LDyfads alfo, which might be quoted 
as additional proofs of thofe early intercourfes. In 
this refearch likewife, you had fuccefs : Prepared by 


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no prejudice in favour of our domeftic reports, you 
have examined them with the circumfpedion, and 
with the doubts alfo, of fevere criticifm. On more 
than one capital point, you found their evidenceis 
confiftent: You found them fatisfadlory alfo, and 
the lights you received impelled you to feek for 
more. In the ancient religious rites of Ireland, you 
ibund fome that were not of Celtic, or pure Druidic 
•extra&ion, but in oriental hiftory, you immediately 
difcovered the fource, from whence thofe religious 
rites have been borrowed. 

On fuch foundations, the confronting of domeftic 
.with foreign teftimonies, muft be found ufeful. 
Some confronted by myfelf in former efTays you 
have not rejefted ; on the contrary, your fuperior 
erudition brought additional force to fome of the 
fads I have paralleled : and doubtlefs, it is not a 
little extraordinary, to find feveral reports of our 
oldeft bards, confirmed by old Greek writers*. 
though it could not appear fo, Ixit that we know, 
the reporters on one fide, could not poffibly bold any 
communication with the reporters on the other. 

By comparing the languages of nations-, you could 
trace the fpeakers of each, to their true origin. The 
language of the PImnicians, you found to have a 
clofc kindred with the Hebrew ;— — that of the an- 
ticnt Irijh to be Scytho-Celtic^ derived from the pri- 
mceval language brought into Europe by the Ccltes and 
Scythians. How, therefore, the language of Ireland, 
(a country vaftly remote from the neareft parts of 
Afia) could be mixed with a great number of orien- 
tal terms, you have accounted for- — You have proved 
from authentic hiftory, that in an early age, a fwarm 


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112 Mr. 0*C O N O R • s 

of Scythians have fettled themfelves on the cga- 
fines of PaleJHne and Phdtnicia^ where dicy had aa 
opportunity of adopting fome rites of the Hebrew 
Theology^ and of learning fome oriental Artk 
What day they made in thofe parts, bcfote iSaej 
took another flight is not known, but that ibcy su- 
grated weftward, and traverfed various regions from 
time to time, which bordered on the Mediterranean^ 
Tyrrbene^zad £gean feas, you hare fufficiently ihewn. 
lliat a party of thefie Scythian rovers fhould in the 
courfe of ages, find their way to the Britannic4/ks^ 
we need not deny, as the faA is pof&hle; and 
denial will be vain, when the izQi is proved tme. 
It will reduce ibme modem hypothefes into a heat) 
of ruins. 

Several of thefe feds extra&ed by you, fir^ from 
foreign documents, are paralleled by fimilar paflages 
in our book of Migrations. Therein we have a re- 
cital, that the leaders of the lad heathen Colony, 
who poflefTed Ireland^ were of Scythian eKtra^tioa, 
and named themfelves Kinea Scmtj i. e. defcendants 
of Scythians. That in the eaft, they learned the 
ufe of fncteen letters from a celebrated Phenius, from 
whom they took the name of Phenii or Phenicians ; 
that the defcendants of this Phenius traver£sd feve- 
ral countries, particularly, thofe bordering on tbe 
Mediterranean and Greek feas, that they failed 
through the ftraights of Hercules^ landed on the 
ifland of Gadir [Cadiz], and having failed abilg 
the weflern coafls of Spain^ fettled there among the 
Celtes of that country, and particularly ih Brigantia: 
that finally, they failed from Spain to Ireland^ where 
they have put an end to their peregrinations add 


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diiafters, and made a lafting fcttlement. I need not 
inform you, fir, that thefe accounts are fwcllcd with 
the fabulous and marvellous : It is enough that 
feme of the prmcipal fads are Supported by parallel 
rdatioas from foreign hiflory. 

Of diis origin of the Scots from Scythians^ and of 
their mixture with the Celts of Spainj and of their 
arrival in Ireland from that country, the tradition 
has been invariable. It has been invariable among 
the • Scots of Britain alfo.f Nennius the Wclfh anti- 
quary has recorded it, and the excellent Mr. Lluid,| 
has from refearches on our Celtic tongues, de- 
clared the expedition of the Scots from Spain ta 
Ireland, an indubitable fad. In my former letters 

♦ Of the expedition of the antient Scots from Sfain to Ire- 
Uutdi and of their cftablifhing colonies in future timea, in North'^ 
Britain^ aU the htftorians of the latter country have been full, 
down to the (eventeenth century. John de Fordun, He£ior 
Boethius, Bifhop Lefly, and ChanceUor Elfinfton, have been 
ananimous on this head. So conftant a tradition amongd the 
old CaUdmans was far from being rejedled by Buchannan* 
Thus be begins his fourth book, " Cum nojlne gent is hiftoriam 
aggrederemur^ paucm vijum eft fupra repetere : ca potifimum^ fUde 
a/ahUarumvanitate aheffent^ et a vetvjiis rerutn fcrtpt9rihus non 
dijmiirinim Primum omnium conftans fama efi^ quam plurima 
etiam stulkia cenfirmanti Hifpamrum multitudinem^ five a poien^ 
tiorihus domo pulfam^ Jive ahundanie fohole uftro profe^idm^ in 
Eiherniam tranfmifijje : ejufque infula loca proxima tenwjjey &c. 

\ NoviJpTHe venerunt Scott a partihus Hijpauia ad Hiberniam^ 
Km, edit. per Bertram. A. D, 1757. 
X Nitdus mnd others ^ nvrote many ages Jince^ an unqueflionahle 

tnib fttben they afferted the Scotijh nations coming out of Spain* 

See Mr. Lluid's tranflation of his letter to the Welfh, in Bifhop 

Micholfon'f Irifii Hiftorical Library, page 228. 

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114 Mr. 0*C O N O R»s 

to you, fir, I have examined thi& matter more in 6e^ 
tail, and to thofe I refer. 

I fhali now take a fhort view of our infular af- 
fairs, and begin at the commencement of the Revo- 
lution now mentioned. After fome (harp conflids^ 
the foreign invaders brought the old natives to fub- 
mit to their authority, and to a monarchical form of 
government eftablifhed, under very limited powen. 
It is remarkable, that the Scytho-Celtic dialed intro- 
duced by thofe ftrangers, was fo intelligible to the 
old Belgian and Danan inhabitants, as to require no 
interpreters between them. This fad ufeful to hif- 
tory, is of ufe in chronology alfo. In the times an- 
tecedent to the Roman conquefts in Gaul^ the feveral 
Dialefts of the Celtic, or 6cytho-Celticj underwent 
no great variations in the weft, from the (hores of 
the Baltic to the pillars of Hercules. It was only 
when nations quitted the roving ftate, for fixed fct- 
tlements and regulated government, that thofe dia- 
lers were formed into diftindt tongues of different 
fyntaxes, and that the copioufnefs and ftrength of 
each, was in proportion to the degree of improve- 
ment made in the civilization of the fpeakers. Of 
thefe Celtic tongues of different conftrudUon, only 
two remain at this day preferved in old manufcripts; 
one in Ireland, and the other in Wales ; the latter^ 
formed from the old Celtic of Gaul, and xhe former 
from that of Spain, mixed with Phoenician or Cartba-' 
ginian terms. In both, we find a community of 
Celtic words, both being certainly derived from the 
primoeval language of the greater part of £arfl/^; 
but the different fyntaxes of thofe words, prove dc- 
monftrably that the old Scots of Ireland, and old 


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mbrians of Wales y originated from different Celtic 

rhe firfl inhabitants of Ireland being fwarms 
)ftly from Britain^ fpoke the Briti/h^Celtic un- 
ubtedly ; but they fpoke it in its original fimplicity, 
d with fmall variations — confined to a few words^ 
the fpeakers were to a few ideas, it was adapted 
the rudenefs, and accommodated to the igno- 
Dce, of the earlier ages. Until the introdudion, 
rather improvement of literature, the primoeval 
iiic was a language of great fterility. It fplit firft 
to dialeds ; and when civilization and letters were 
troduccd, thofe dialeds (as I obferved before) 
;re gradually formed into different tongues. — - 
le dialed brought into Ireland by the ScotSy took 
I lead (fo to fpeak) in forming the language of 
land : But it took a long time, undoubtedly, be-« 
c it arrived at the energy, copioufnefs and bar- 
my we difcover in fome fragments of the heathen 
les, which are ftill preferved. 
hi faft, the tongues of Wales and Ireland on the 
3X)du£tion of letters, and in the firfl ftages of 
provement, were no better than the uncouth dia- 
^ of a people emerging from antient rudenefs. 
ley muft expire with the caufes that gave them 
iftence; and had they furvived in monumental 
fcriptions to this day, they would be no more in- 
lligible to us, than the Latin jargon in the days 
f ^uma Pompiliusy would be intelligible to the Ro- 
lan people in the times of Augujlus. 
bthis, and my former letters, I have been, per- 
tuips,more minute on this fubjeft of the antient 
iiinguages of Britain and Ireland, than an epiftolary 


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If6 Mr. 0<C O N £ R's 

cofrgfpoiltfncc requires. With your lcav< 
thought it proper (as another opportunity m 
HOC foaa offinr) to o^>ofe fads, to ibme late h; 
thcfes ffablifl*^ on Yery precarious authorkieSy 
rendered Yoluminous by loofe conjedures and 
tended declamations. I have been equally mu 
on ihe origin of the laft heathen colony that poflc 
kiland ; and the more, as in their pofterity, i 
became » moft diftinguifhed nation in the weft 
die name of Scots. Their arrival from a Scy 
Celtic province of Spain, as well as their deC 
from Scythians, vho travelled in an early age f 
Syria to Europe, are £aids vhich required to 1 
ilrong lights throvn on them, as the excellent w 
of the hiftory of Mancbejier^ has pronounced t 
&£U fabulous. In (hewing his miftake, I owe n 
to your affiftance. 

Though this lafl pagan Colony have arrived fn 
country long poflefled by the Phoenicians and * 
thaginians, and imported hither the elements of 
and literature ; yet it muft not be forgot, that 
alfo introduced the courfe manners (^ their Sqi 
Celtic anceftors, and that on their arrival in Ire 
they mixed with a ftill coarfer people than A 
felves. The arts in which they were initiated i 
yet in their infancy, and often negleded in 
cradle. We are told, that after the conqueft 
made of die old inhabitants, their chief occups 
confided in cutting down woods, and making r 
for themfelves in a country almoft covered over 
forefts. That they alfo employed a part of 1 
time in building of Duns, ftruSurcs of more 
ordinary convenience for the habitations of 1 


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priW:es.— This ac^rount may be teell cfedit-i 
Ithout fuch occupations, thofe New-coffiert, 
>on d^nerate into a nation of hunters and 

tearing the country of woods, flie^ that 
ire was hot neglcScd : But the fortn of go- 
it nluft prove a great impediment to the. 
nient of arts. On the demife c^ Heremmj 
iited ihejirjt kin^ of Scots ; we ineet wifli a 
le of fucceflbrs, taken occaftonsdl]^ from one 

of the four families who claimed a right 
detation. EIe£lidn beeame the foutce of 
:x)ntentions, and a monarch rather intruded, 
ofeii, was heccffitated oftefr to gcM^ehi, aiid 
nrcmed, by a faftion. Scarcely any ewahfe 
irbne 6f Tcamor, but through the blood of 
(lediate predeceffor. The conftitutioh in 
riods became a fpecies of military govern- 
We meet with princes of legiflative genius, 
ght a remedy to fo great an evil, but ob- 
by cuftbms too prevalent to be removed 
\&fj they otAj could apply palHiatives, and 
[xyrafy advantages adminiftered in a long 
nder a wife and populat prtnce. Such ad- 
j under fuch a government come but fel- 
rhe body of the people impteffed with their 
Kportance, in the frequency of eleftions, 
Dt be brought to part with a riiinous liberty, 

they could not, or would not fee the flavifli 
ince on which they held it. In the exccfs of 
emper, an Ultonion prince named Achay^ 
crily ftyled Ollam-Fodla mounted the throne, 
tntooer 6f his predeceffors : But what he 
N obtained 

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ii8 Mr. O^C O N O R's 

obtained by violence, he merited by his admirable 

He reigned long, and as one of hi« inflitutes had 
a happy effeft in tempering the manners of the peo- 
ple through the turbulent times which followed, a 
few obfervations on his conduct as a legiflator, may 
not be improper in this place.— Through an in* 
fluence which military power can never obtain, that 
martial prince prevailed in the inftitution of the 
Teamorian Fes\ an aflfembly of the ftates, to be 
held triennially, for promulgating laws, and reprcf- 
fing the crimes, which generate from civil aflbcia- 
tion, after quitting the favage flate. Of the parti- 
cular ordinances of this firfl Teamorian Senate^ we 
have very few memorials : They muft be imperfe& 
no doubt, as necefiarily conformed to the prejudices, 
and adapted to the manners, of a people emerg- 
ing from barbarifm, and perhaps ftill agitated by 
by the malevolence, which commonly fubfifts be* 
tween an old nation and its recent conquerors. In 
the convulfions attending divided interefts, and in- 
trading ambition, OUam-Fodhla, forefaw infrac- 
tions of his laws ; and in confequence, a fre- 
quent fufpeni^on of the National Fesy or fenate, 
which he inftituted : Senfible, moreover, that le- 
giflation would be hurtful from ignorance, and rui- 
nous from the partialities of a fadtion, he applied 
the bed remedy that could be devifed in fuch cir- 
cumftances. He ftudied with afliduity, and be 
brought others to (ludy the extent and proper ufes of 
the mental faculties, as preparatory means^ for ob- 
taining the ends of good government. In this idea, 
he ereded the Mur-Ollavan at Teamor^ a receptacle 


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for the order of Fileas, under whom the principal 
youth of the nation were to receive their education^ 
His own example fumiihed a rule, and his patron-^ 
age ferved as an incitement to philofophic exertion, 
in this college of the Fileas. He endowed them 
alfo, with inalienable property, and obtained immn-> 
nities for them, which fuperceded every care, but 
fuch as attended the duties of their profeflion. 

For a long time the condud of the Fileas was ir- 
reproachable. They began with fimple, but folid 
majums, fuch as fearching minds cafily difcover. 
Happily they departed not from fimplicity m the 
progrc& of their improvement, but taught what to do, 
and what to avoid, without entering into metaphy- 
fical refinements, which oftener darken than en-* 
lighten, the knowledge we (land moft in need of : 
They foon became rcfpefted by the chiefe of the na- 
tion, and their privileges, like thofe of the Druids, 
were held facred. Even in the fierceft domeftic 
hoftilities, their diftri£ts were fpared, as any viola*" 
tion of their property, or infult to their perfons, was 
attended with indelible infamy : a moft happy im- 
preffion this on the public mind, which in particular 
communities fecured the advantages of- civil fo- 
ciety, amidft the horror of domeftic warfare, and 
prevented the evils of univerfal depravity. 

Under Ollam^Fodhla^ and his fucceflbrs, the Druids 
had their feparate fanftuaries alfo, for protefting 
others, as well as their own order from political 
perfecution. As minifters of religion, their authority 
iprith the people was great, and crimes which hu* 
man laws could not reach, they in fome degree pre- 
sented, or at lealt leflened, through the fan&ions 

Na of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

lao Mr- 0*<: O N O .R» 


of future pumfluneots in a future ftate. They 
preached the rewards of virtue alfo in another life^ 
when attended with no reward in the prefent. la 
this fervicc the Druids were affifted by the Fileas ; 
the truths of natural reUgion were the lefs departed 
from, and probably the wife OUam-fodla intended 
they (hould be a check aUb, on an order of men 
who fhewed a flrong di^iition to fbengthen their 
power over the people, through the effe&ual means 
of fuperftition and ignorance. That in the progreft 
of time, gr^^ corruptions took place among the 
Druids, fome of our old aiuials inform us, and that 
they have been oppofed,. and oppofed with Ibmc 
Xuccefs, by the Fileas, we are aflur^ alfo. 

The compofitions of the Fileas, hiftorical and 
jfnoral, were delivered in poetic numbeifs, adapted to 
^e variations in die compofitions of their Orfidies, 
as the muficians were denominated. —Whatever the 
iubjed; the heroic, the mirthful, or thed<Jorous, 
■correfpondent mufic was prepared. In their pub- 
lic entertainments, in private aiTociations, in funeral 
meetings, veriie and fong in union, excited the pa£- 
fions intended to be railed. The foul was either 
fwelled to an enthufiaftic invitation of a martial an- 
ceftry, or humanized, by attending to the difhreftss 
of unfucceisfiil heroes. In no nation had the union 
of poetry and mu&c more powerful effefts, and diey 
operated to the tixnes near our own. Spenfer, die 
bed poec, and coofequently thebeil judge of poetry of 
the ibcteenth century, acknowledged the excellency 
•of our Iriih compofitions, and as to our mufic the 
diree i^ies of it were admirably fupported in 


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the prefcnt cebtory by Carokm^afine natural gemus, 
who di^d in 1738. 

The inlUtution of the pr.der cff Fileas iwas the ? efuk 
of profound reflt^^tion, undoubtedly. Whether they, 
diicovered a capital truth». or occafiQiially miftook 
error for it» in their inveftigation of the mchtak 
powers^ we may conclude froin thehr. undtftutibed' 
repo&y that their efibrts wer^ vigorous, ftind: lamofb 
Usances fucc^fuL-*^We ar^ bowevft utformed^ 
that in coorfe of time, ^y deviated fDonxtJbdkorif^ 
giaal prmcipl^. From, being. ihftru]£tbr<8r indifie* 
reatty to all paftk^ and ^lediMiffs ia dKeur.;pabUe' 
contefts, they became in<;Q|idiu^ries,: imi indehdia^ 
rics, of the worft kind, from thc^ in^ueiKc.of diek 
cloqueace; In the fu-ft century of our era;^. tkey 
were expelled, a^ nuifancies, out of fojttiof oiar^ 
provinces. Through the powc? jwd intccpofiddbt 
of Concovar Mac Nefa^ king of. yj!?^,:theyjwCfo 
reflored to their former immuniities, but piull: under 
a Bew refoinn, on t;he iirft principles of theic iaftituh 
tion, which for a confiderable tin>e ha4 a. goodic£e£b. 
In the third ceptury, during th^ reiga of the pUlo* 
fophic Cormac Qtunn^ they afilbed. that monarch in 
his conteft with the Diu^s, and edified the public 
\j their condu£k,; from i^t time down to : ^ re- 
ception of d)e gofpel, ^d. for a^ whole cejaturyafber 
that happy change to truf religion. In- the;rixth 
cfrntttry they relap&d again tp the otd eoxruptiooB. 
TVy inflamed domeflic qontentiona by virulent in* 
yedives, and inyidiou^ paaegyrijcs. Public admi* 
{dftration was infulted, 2^4 it^ mii9;akes were exag- 
gerated ; pipivatc chajraders were invaded> and die 
)i^e of fiunjliespubtiq and pryvatey was equally 


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iM Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

4eftroycd.-^A remedy was applied in the great 
Council of Drumkeat, A. D. 590. Through the in* 
terpofition of fome princes, alfifted by the celebrated 
Columb KUhj the Ftleas were again reduced to order. 

OUam-Fodfola died' zt Teaman He was fucceeded 
bydiree fons who reigned one after the dther in 
regular fuccefli(m» TTie wifdom of their adminiftra- 
tion kept a turbulent people in <[mtt ; blit the fpirit 
of their father's' goveriiment, did liot defeend to his 
grandfbns. One confpired againft a reigning uncle,' 
and ufiirped his throne. The ufurpeir fell in the 
wafraifed againft him by another of thcife grandfoiis,' 
who likewife feized oh the government of the'kihg- 
donl, avenging a father's death, and gratifying his* 
own ambition at the fame time. Thus did MUrulc 
commence, in the family which laid the foundations 
of law and of a regular civil conftitution. The third 
grandfpn of Otlafh-fcdla^ who waded to icgal power 
through the blood ofhis predeceffoi', was cut oflf in turn 
l^hisiifucceffor. The pbfterity of the XJltonian fc- 
giilator was for the prefcilt excluded from the throne 
oiTfqmon The flttr^monian line was reftored to 
its former regal aathbrity in the perfon of SiofM^ 
though advanced toagr^eat age. -' *' ' 

Thif^ revolution which brought about a change of 
family^ rhad good confeqiiehces during^ the life of a 
wife and old monarch. Btit after a rcigil of twenty 
cMie years, public peace 'iiTis diftiirbed by the am-^ 
bdiion of Rofhea^a^ prince of the-'Momonian Hcf- 
berians. He made ^r on SioHia^ killed him ill 
battle, and hj(d his viftory rewanJed by being ele- 
vated to the th]^dne of Teamor. ' TWs new revdlu- 
tion involved fat^ .co^equences. The claims of 


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fiDur families, who formerly had a right to regal fuc- 
celfion, were renved. Through a period of near 
two hundred years, the nation had hardly any re- 
pofe ; the greater part of the time was wafted in 
bloody contefts, nor have we now any documents, 
which make a proper diftinftion between the legi- 
timate monarchs of the nation, and the intruded 
monarchs of a fa£Hon. We have before us only a 
catalogue of kings, moft of whom were fet ilp, and 
acknowledged, by their feveral parties ; princes of 
whom nothing is recorded, but that they killed one 
another in battle, and obtained power from violence,, 
rather than law. Their civil diforders offer us no- 
thing but confiifion and obfcurity. 

Civil evils brought to fuch an excefs, neceflarily 
produce fooner or later a change for the better, 
hi the inftance before us a remedy was applied by 
three able and popular princes, whofe names deferve 
to be recorded. Aodb roe^ Dithorba and Kimbaotb^ 
of the XJltonian line. They fet up a fpccies of Re- 
publican monarchy of which we have, I believe, no 
example in hiftory. With the fenfe of the nation 
on their fide, they agreed to rule alternately by 
feptennial adminiftration. Kimbaoth was the laft, 
and the ableft of thofe adminiftrators. He ereftcd 
noble buildings at Eamaniay which thence forward 
became the feat of the provincial kings of Ulfter ; 
feveral of whom are much celebrated by their good 
government, and their patronage of ufcful arts. 
Kimba$tbj the founder of the Eamanian regulations, 
was fuccecded in the throne of Temtorj by Mocha j 
his queen, a moft extraordinary heroine ; who to 
the amiable qualities of her own fcx, added every 


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134 Mr, O'C O N O R'« 

m9k^\mp cadovmeAt wipch co^)d rfcoaun(»n4 
ot|iisr>.to populajrity a^d affediou. SI)€ was 
oi^y fj^malc tb^t ^e ^atiofi ever] permittied to r 
Qirer (he whole kingdom. 

Tbaf qw^ea, co^jun&ly with her hufbmid 4 
baotby i^^erved t^e Hermfmian }ipe (which bee 
ajoipll extin&) m the pprfpn of young i/^j 
They ftdopted hfm, a^d fiis natural talents rend 
him yiQph;j of the {education they gaye him. Afi 
w^rrfsd upon by Retubta ^idarg of the Mm 
}feberi{in|» eomiQ^pded her troops in perfon ag; 
that prikicp, ^nd ^Ujng la battle, ended her r 
.glorioufly. Hf r adverfary feized on her thr 
and difUnguifhed himfelf by martial afiventure 
North Britain. Hugmy^ haying arrived at full 
turity, C2|lled hini home, to defend by arms^ the 
he obtfdned by arms ; Rfochta fell in the eng 
ment with this ypui^g a^Vierfary. Hugony revei 
the death of his prote£iref$, and by a general a 
tion pf the people, was proclaimed monarch of 
whole iflan4. 

This wsis a great revolution, becaufe it was 
difdive of great a£Upns. Before I enter on 
changes made by Hugony j I fliall, with your le 
take a retrofpeck of the antecedent times from I 
mm to Kimbaotby and his adopte4 fpn. Tigern 
and other antiquaries have pronounced our acco 
of thofe times uncertain ; and thus it is doubt 
in the infancy pf all profane hiitory. Our an* 
genealogies of the four royal families of the 
lefian Ra^s^ vary fro^i each other, and are 
inaccurate, in the copies. Several generation 
foift^ ia^ to cpuntenimce the fgheme of techi 


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broi»ology» which ibme fenachies have formed^ for 
tabliihiog ^ higlfer antiquity of the Iriih monsirchy^ 
tan is confiileat with the itate of arts and civilifsa- 
m in Europe before the commencement of this 
arfian empire. Tigernach therefore, and the aati- 
laries I have mentioned, are in a genen^ YifTW, 
7y right in their judgment : yet in the obfcuritypf 
le earlier periods of our hiftory, fome chara^^rii 
^)ear with brilliancy. Amerginj oiie of the l^der9 
f the colony of Scots from 3p^> h^ been through 
il the fucceeding times, celebrated for his knowledge 
rq^ in the infancy of fcience. Uchadan of Cual^k 
as been celebrated alfo for his (kill in mctalurgy, 
ad his ereding his (melting forges on the \>^kB 
f the lifiey. In the fame early age, w^ read q£ 
!ie art of dying cloaths, in the reigp of the qip* 
^rcb Tigemmasy vfho difgraced himfelf by the ifh 
r04a^on of idplatry into the Druidic religion i 
oally, we read of Ollam-Fodbla^ confpicuous inj ^ 
articular manner, through his legiflation, and fdt^ 
ndowment, as well as regulation of the or^cr of 
ileas. Such men are vifible in the darkne(s fur* 
ounding them: like beams of fun Ihine^i ^ich 
hrough the opens of a dark (ky, enlighten di^ 
pots of ground they fall upon. 

Hugony began his reign by bringing th(s (lates of 
he nation to confem that for the futuFe,the monarchy 
hould be confined to one royal family only ; and 
hey all have bound themfelves by the moft folemn 
eligious tefts, to continue the regal authority in 
Ht^ony*j pofterity. It was feemingly a wife inftitUr 
ion in a country long torn by inteftine divifions, 
iiccafioned by the claims of feveral families to a par- 

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126 Mr. 0*C O N O R'» 

ticipation of regal power: but through the negU 
or perhaps the difficulty of eftabliflung the right 
fuccefTion by primogeniture; this conflitution 
Hugony failed in the third generation. 

The art of navigation introduced by the Phoe 
cians, and by a colony from Spain^ was not loft i 
a cpnfiderable time in Ireland^ nor exchanged : 
the wicker veffcls (of later ages) covered only w 
cow hides. With a well appointed fleet. Hug 
failed along the coafl: of Gaul^ where he landed, 2 
foon efpoufed the daughter of a Gallic prince, 
whom he had a numerous oiFspring. Thence 
failed into the Mediteranean and Tyrrhene feas, i 
from this voyage we have a proof that the pco 
of /r^Ajw^had ftill kept up intercourfes with S/ 
and with the Carthaginians y who werq matters oi 
great part of that country. Had we the detail 
Hugony^s voyages, they would doubtlefs, thr 
very confiderable, and ufeful lights, on our anti 

before Hugony*s time, Ireland was divided i 
five provinces, each governed by a prince of gi 
family and connedions, with privileges and poTi 
alfo too great,for the proper exertion of monarch 
authority, over thojTe fubordinate ftates. To remi 
this evil, Hugony had fufficient influence to diflc 
thofe provincial governments. He parcelled 
the kingdom into twenty-five diftrifts, named fi 
twenty-five of his own children he appointed 
their goverment. On thefe diftrifits the revenue 
the monarchs, were for a confiderable time cefi 
and colledlcd. 

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This change from an Oligarchical, to an Arifto- 
crarfc monarchy, had at word, a better efieft than 
:hc former conftitution ; and during Hugony^s own 
ime, it produced the good intended. On the mur- 
Icr of that great prince, by the hands of a brother, 
Mogary I^orky a younger fon of Hugony^ feized on 
he throne of Teamory in prejudice to his eldeft bro- 
ker Cobtachz A civil war was the confequence, 
ind it defcended fiitally to their pofterity. ITie na- 
ioa (Uftrefled by their contefts, fought a temporary 
•elicf, at Icaft, from recalling to the throne, the fa- 
nilics excluded, by the late law of fucceffion. Mo- 
torb (Grandfon of Reaifa Ridarg mentioned above) 
was favoured by the people in making war on Melga^ 
the reigning monarch, and had fuccefs. Oil de- 
feating and killing his fovereign again in battle, he 
\iu proclaimed monarch of the whole illand. 

Between Mocorb^s pofterity and thofe of Hugony^ 
dvil wars for dominion were continued ; and the 
people fcnfible, too late, of fighting for the heads of 
parties only, called the Ultonian Race of Ollam-Fodia 
to the throne. Ruderic^ king of Uljlcr^ by defeat- 
mg and cutting off the Hugonian reigning monarch 
Crimtban Co/gracby took the general confequence of 
filch victories. His troops led him to Teamor imme- 
diatelyj, and was there (about eighty-five years be- 
fore the chriftian era) piroclaimed king of Ireland. 

On this iaft revolution, the Hugonian fucceffion, 
atified in its * inftitution by the moft folemn, civil, 
nd reIigiQU« tefts, was utterly fufpended, and in 
ppcaraXic^'iboliflied. After Ruderic*s death the 
ovemment of the kingdom was contended for, be- 
Hreen the families of Ulfter and Munfter, through 


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128 Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

fix reigns. General ^lifn^ made way finally, fo 
the reftor^tioa of the Hugonians in the perfon o: 

Achay owed his elevation to his condu^ and coui 
rage, thrqugh his vidory over Fachtna^ the lei^mni 
Ultonian ni,onar€h ; who like his prodeccfibn 
would not outlive the lols of his dUdem \ \m fc 
in battle. His fucceflbr began his reign^ hy a fttaj 
of policy, which to us at this diitance, appe^s im 
countable^ He utterly aboliihed the Hi^onian Ai 
ftocracy, and reftored the. antient provincial ROYtm 
ments. By entering into matrimp]^^ aUiano 
with ibme of the new provincial kings^ and ftrcngtl 
ening the Degad Hugonian family in the goyenWQ 
of Munfter, he provided for the quiet ef bis oi 
reign ; and if he obtained regulations for keeiping 4 
governors of provinces, withiii bounds cqiiwo 
with monarchical authority, it is certaipth^^ they b 
no long duratipA. After the happy r^ign of his fi& 
ceiTor Conary (A. D. 60). Crmthau NfA NoF 
gained renown in his foreign expedition^ at i tUD 
-when Julius jigricola fucceeded in fubduing the Pi6 
allied at that time, with the Irijh Scots. NJotwit 
ftanding the great fuccefs qf the Roman geners^ j 
our old books inform us^ that Crimthan r^^tur-qej 
his kingdom laden with fpoils. As he kqyt I 
court at * Ben-hedar, he probably, had fottic ft 
cefs aguinil a Roman pu-ty in the neighhQ¥iPin||; i^ 
of Angjcfey^ then called Mona-dmain. 

The death, of Crimthan (A- P- 90) by a foil &a 
his horfe, was fucceedod by a revolutions wlui 

^ N^tvtbd. Pcninfiila of Howtb, nsar Dublin. 


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' ♦ 


satciicd deftraftion to the ropl lines ^rfiich go- 
led Ireland for foreral ages, llie princes of the 
ffigm Race^ endeavoured at this period, to re^ 
t the Belgians^ and other tribes oi the old Britifh 
ibtiants, to a ftate of fervitude ; a policy the 
c extraordinary, as the like was never attempted 
»re, in this or in any other northern country. 
ras intolerable to the Be'giansj who dill were 
ieflbd of a power in Lein/ier and Connaghty and in 
tbe -provinces had formed the majority of the 
pla. The weakeft parties among them, though 
pped of power, had always preferved perfonai 
»ty, and improving the opportunity for a general 
Dlt, they arofe under Carbry^ a bold and ikilfol 
kr, and fubduing all oppoiition, they feated him 
dieftone of DeftinyatTV^mc^r, and proclaimed him 
g of Ireland. After this fuccefs, Carbry reigned 
t the Iriih nation for five years, and died on his 
ow J an end which was feldom the fate of any of 
Mikfian predeceflbrs. 

M^an the fon of Carbry did not mount a throne 
kh his father obtained by an ufurpation, juftified 
the neceility of the times. By a greatnefs of 
I9 of which little men are incapable, Moran pre- 
led in difpofm^ the people to call Feradacbj fon 
the late monarch Crimthan to the throne of his 
oeftors. Feradach was not ungrateful; on his 
eflioa, he put his reftorer at the head of his coun- 
^ and between them was experienced, one of the 
ipieft reigns, recorded in Irilh hiftory. Under their 
ainiftration, a good ufe was made of the Jodhan 
7rmnn of which you give fo clear an account in 

ir learned refearches. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

130 Mn O'C O N O R's 

In a few years after the deceafe of Feredacb 
named thejujf) the body of the people, head 
the provmcial kings, hoftile to the Hugonian 
began another infurre£lion, and placed £//X 
of Ulfter on the throne of Teamor. Tuatba 
fon of Fiacha-finola^ and grandfon of Feradac 
juil, was obliged to fly into North Briton ; ^ 
he was proteded under his grandfather lung i 
Pids, 'till parties at home were formed for 
ring him to the dignity, and to more than the ] 
of his royal Anccftors. In the year 130 (as I 
noticed in my former letters) Tuathaly with a 
of forces, landed in Ireland, fubdued all his 
mies, and reigned during a period of thirty ye; 

The lights which you, fir, have from your < 
tal erudition, caf); on the origin, religion, and I 
ture of the antients of this weftem country, ii 
me to refume^ and I truft will incite others to 
inquiries into the internal (late of manners an 
vemment among its inhabitants, from the 
wherein they were obliged to truft folely, to tl 
provements they could make on the eleme 
knowledge, which you have demonftrated to t 
ported hither in an early age. I I^ve in a pa 
lar manner been attentive to the laft Pagan \ 
who took pofTeflion of this ifland, and hrou( 
old Britifli inhabitants to fubmit to their fuprei 
This colony have denominated themfelves Si 
Scots^ and in the progrefs of their power they 
known by the fame name to the Romans. 
Epocha of their arrival cannot be afcertained 
any precifion, through the inaccuracy in our 
genealogies, and through the vanity of fome 

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es alfo, who to gain a high antiquity, have made 
difUn&ion between intruders and legitimate mo- 
chs, but put them in regular fuccefTion to each' 
er, as a fon fhould fucceed to a father in a 
irfe of hereditary right. This catalogue has been 
ly rejeded by Tigernachy and other of our antiqua- 
;, from the reign of Heremon down to the Eama- 
n aera ; and of the monarchs who fucceeded to 
t era, Tigernach mentions but a few from the 
jn of Kimbaothy to the revolution under Tuathal 
acceptable. We may therefore reft fatisfied, that 
t Irifli antiquaries, who date the arrival of the 
TfSj from the time which followed the commence- 
lit of the Perfian empire under Cyrus the great, 
ne neareft to the truth. 

[n this, and in my former two letters, addrefled to 
a, fir, I have endeavoured to convey fome ufeful 
^ of the ftate of this ifland through the revolu- 
ns anterior to the fecond century of our chriftian 
L From the beginning, one monarchy was efta- 
ihed on principles abfolutely necelTary to civil 
bdation. But our government was originally de- 
^ve, through the omiilion, or perhaps the diffi- 
Ity, of putting liberty itfelf under proper legal re- 
aints. In a word, the anticnt ftate of Ireland 
ly be compared to one, by turns thriving and 
kly in his infant ftate, gathering ftrength with his 
:>wtfa, but fubjeft to convulfions, though with fome 
:ennii&ons, in his moft flourifhing ftate. The firft 
ft of this defcription regards chiefly the times an- 
ior to the fucceffion of Tuathal the acceptable, 
: fecond relates to the three ages which preceeded 
» million of faint Patric, by far the moft inftru£tive 

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ija Mr. 0*C O N O fe*8 

part of IrUh hiftofy t Of that enlightened period I 
purpofe to trouble yoti tirith a fourth letter, fliould 
yoo think this worthy of a place in the Ce/te* 

You knoW) fir, from what materials I have hot- 
rowed moft of what I have hitherto advanced, on 
the pagan ftate of Irelahd. In an advertifement pte- 
fixed to my fhrft letter, the chiefeft are enumerated, 
add fome of my deficiencies may be accounted fbf, 
through want of accefs to other valtiable documents 
fcattered in France and England j written in the an- 
tient language of this country ; intelligible but to a 
£enr, and I may fay negleded by the far greater 
number of my countrymen, moft of what is ufefbl 
in thofe manufcripts, may be foon loft to die pub- 
lic ; and the flight put upon them, has encreafed the 
numbet of wild fchemes lately publiflied, otL die 
fubjaft I have undertaken in thefe letters ; of thefe 
Shames, the author of Ossiak, and his name&ke 
Dr. Mac Pherfon have been the moft confpiotottt 
ftbricators ) but in juftice, we muft own, iStM bar 
countryman Mr. Beaufordj has pitched ti^e baf be- 
yond all our artifts in hypothetic hiftory. In repre- 
iirnting the antient Scots^ ** as an aggregate rfvagii^ 
^^ bonds J wh$ fo late as the tenth century, had in 
^ soMB M£ASUR£, confined their Refidence iofarii- 
*' cular fpots ;*' he publifhes his ignorance, and 
through the far greater part of his topography ^ 
Ireland^ he pitbliihes bis dreams, without any mafc 
of plaufible argument, to fet oflF the ignorance or the 
dreams : If indeed, it be a merit, that he cuts OBt 
the leaft labour for an adverfary, he doubdeft eft* 
joy^ iCy beyoiid any writer antient or modem* 


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o controverfy, as well as by probable fafts, to 
> in your manner of applying them, few critics 
>jecl. A\l this is well, relative to the fources 
nhich you have derived the materials of our 
t language^ the rudiments of our antient lite^^ 
9 ud .the fundamentals of our antient theo^ 
but 911 this is not enough, relative to our in^ 
. hiftoiy, from the time that the inhabitants of 
land became a detached people, excluded from 
:elledual intercourfes with the poliflied nations 
rope. The public will expeft a knowledge of 
dular.i^te, not from fufpe6ted reprefentations^ 
me, who have been born in this country, or 
from yourfelf who have been born in another ; 
om.the hiftorical matter ftill preferved in our 
x>ks, and that, in the original and fimple form^ 
a Latin or Englifh tranflation in a feparate co-» 
• This is what Mr. Burke has recommended 
; letter to you of Auguft lad. In this as in 
other inftances, the judgement of that truly 
. jnian is -decirivey and happy will thefe nations 

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C »34 3 

** done, the antient period of Irifh hiftory, \f 
^^ precedes official records, cannot be faid to fl 
" upon proper authority.'* In fatisfying this 
mand of the public, no man has been more a< 
than your worthy friend Col. Burton Cunning 
He has been equally adive in improving the mo 
ftate of his native country, in every pradicable i 
fure, and particularly, in labouring to open to i 
inexhauftible treafure long negleded, and yet i 
in our grafp, on our fea coafts, I mean our fi(h 
Of the honour done me under his roof, as wc 
under yours, I fliall ever retain a grateful memi 
I therefore need not afTure you that I am, 


Your very faithful, and 

Obliged Servant, 
Dec. 10, 1783. CH. O'C O N ( 


There cannot, in my opinion, be a ftrongcr I 
mony, of the truth of the Irifli hiftory, rela 
to the time of Hugonyy as extraded by Mr. O'Co 
in the preceding pages, than in the name of Haj 
or Ugohy JJgoine or Agairty as it is written by 
Irifh. The learned Dr. 3winton, has noticed 
name in a pafTage of Homer, and proved it to I 
Oriental origin, in fo able a manner, I fliall 
tranfcribe the Doctor's words, from page 7, of 
Dijfertatio de Lingua Etrurix Regalis Vernacula. 


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C ^is ] 

" Linguae Pelafgica & Hebraea Vel una eadeitique 
" fuere, vel parum intet fe diffimiles — Quod Phry- 
" gum & Lydorum linguam attinet, de hac vix quic- 
^ quam certi ab authoribu^ traditum invenimus ; at 
" Orientalcs plurimum redoluifle fuadent cum tefti- 
" monia fupra allata,tum ejufdemrarae,qu3e abHome- 
" ro & Hcrodoto afl'ervantur, laciniae. Quippe quum 
" Phocniccs, Pelafgi, Phryges, & Lydi vel pro parum 
" diverfis, vel pro uno eodemque habcantur populo, 
" ut ex prius' obfervatis faltem fit verifimile, aequo 
" jure colligitur Phrygum & Lydorum linguam vix 
" Jeviter e Phoenicia & Pelafgica difcrepuiffe : neque 
^ Phrygas & Lydos diverfas fuiffe nationes primitus 
" fas eft fufpicari, cum contrarium liquido evincat 
" Herodoti, Diodori — Siculi, Pindari, Paufanise, 
" Strabonis, & Plutarchi aiithoritas ; quod duximus 
" notandum, ne fidem hiftoriae hac in re negligen- 
** tius videaraur fecuti, unde propofito nos minus 
" fatisfcciffe viri dofti arbitrentur. His pofitis, ut 
" lucidior appareat Veritas, vocabula quaedam Phry- 
" giac Lydiacque originis, ad Homero & Hcrodoto 
" defumpta, jam- in medium proferemus : primus 
^ igitur Homerus in arenam defcendat, canens, 

^Hx' '£«*^*y;^«f x»X%r»T if fMucf9f "OXvfi 

"^ Loquelam duplicem hoc loco & alibi memorat 

* Poeta J alteram Diis propriam, hominibus alteram* 

* Priorem fuiffe Hellenicam vel inde patet, quod 
^ fingulas ejus voces^ quarum ufpiam meminit 
^ Pocta^ funt mere Hcllenicae j poftcriorem vero 

O 2 ** ve\ 

Digitized by CjOOQ iC 

( 136 ) 

" vel qpfiffimam Phrygiam, vel dialeftum PI 

*« quam fimillimam, ex fummo quoPhrygas traf 

** Graeci faftu & arrogantia, licet concludere 

^^ nomcn Bf^pu^ duabus voculis Hellenicis o 

*• viz. B^r & "Afmt ac forlem dcnotat, vel ftrci 

" cui neceffc eft ut AiyM* aequipolleat, cum i 

*' que robori, quo patre evafit praeftantior, ace 

** debuerit gigas, fi fides Poetgp & ejus fcholu 

** adhibenda. Nomen autem hoc ab Hcbr 

** dice deducendum quis non videt ? Verbui 

" Gaa vertit SchindJerus. i. Magnus, fpe£ 

** ftrenuus fuit, ftrenue fc geffit. 2. Intumi 

** perbiit, arrogans fuit, &c. Adjedivum igiti 

" Ga*f, vel ptKi Gai-^n, Latine fonat Jii 

*' fortisj &c. At tt in principio Hebraeis, Chi 

** Syris & Arabibus nomina verbalia formare 

" & in lingua Arabica pro articulo p Exnj 

^^ feepius ufurpari ignorat nullus, qui vel prii 

*' tigit labiis literaturum Orientalem : quam 

*' fubftaritivum wjtatt Agai«»n virum ftre 

*' fortem, &c. vel Emphatice virum robore \ 

" lentem, admodum fortem, &c. commode 

^^ defignare, ac idcirco defcriptioni Homei 

** notiori nominis Graeci Bpi«>i^ fignifica 

^^ amuilim refpondere. Sed & id nobis ei 

" madvertendum, quod duas fortitur fignific 

" verbum y8p,«'i, (cui cum voce fifUfWi arfUfli 

" tercedit neceffitudo) binis verbi pjjj^ Ga: 

^^ bus prorfus accommodatas ; nee quenquani 

** puto in Uteris Graecis mediocriter verfatui 

** reperiri nomina, quibus baud rare apud ( 

*^ iiifignitur monflrum ab Homero hie indi 

*' viz. T»f «f ft BfuifUfst quae didUs fenfibus c 

*< conv< 

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C 137 3 

** conveniunt. Nomen igitur proprium Aiy^iVp i 
" fonte Hcbraeo profluxiffc, & ad linguarum Orien- 
*^ talium normam exigendum tuto condudamus/* 

Hence the Irifh name Bri-an, Bri-air, 0*Brian, 
&c. Brie, (Heb.) filius Afer, Num, 26. 2* from 
the Hebrew |tni fortis, robuftus, firmus. 

From the fame Oriental fountain, flows the fol- 
Ibwing names in the Irifh catalogue of monarchs^ 
which whether real or fiftitious could not have been 
given or invented by Gauls or Welfli Britons ; and 
which I cannot print in Hebrew for want of type. The 
Oriental readers will know them, and to all others, 
it is a matter of indifference. 


Of the FiRBoxG Line. 

Gantiy Sean-gann^ Gannann.'] Explained in the 
foregoing by Dr. Swinton. Add, Gen-thon, nom. 
viri.Exod. 10/ r«»«w«. 2 Machab. T2th. Genubath 
fil. Adad, 3 Kings, it. 

LoiCj Laicj Luic.'] Leci fil. Scmidae, i Para. 7. 
Lacad, fubjugare. Lachem bellum. Etrufcan Luco^ 
ino. L c. magnus Loic. vel Heros. 

Agnamain/\ i. e. Pugnator (caufa) Meoni. Ag- 
ag, nomen Regis Amalec. i K. 15. Age, pater 
3emma. Aggi fil. Gad.—Hence Agamemnon. 

Brasj Breas.2 i« e. Bri-as, nobilis & fortis. Beri 
fil Supha 1 Para. 7. Beria f. Afer, Gen. 46. Berfa, 
rex Gomorrhac, Gen. 14. Brie f. Afer, Num. 26. 

Eatj Eadj Ead-lam.'} Eddo nomen viri Efdr. 8. 
Eder f. Mufi i Para. 13. Ethai nom. vir. 2 Reg. 
15. Etheel nom. v. 1. Efdrj Ethi, i Para 12. 


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[ U8 ] 
Lamad valde. Henc Arg-ead-lam, a name t^^^ 
Bards have miftaken 'for Airgid-lamh ; i. e. filn^fr 
handed, and trumped up a ftory to accord wjtb 
tljeir blunders. 

Plo/g.'] ' Explained in the Preface. 

Lar-coig."] i. c. Heros belli. Etrufcan Lar, Dux, 

Natbj Ned.'] Nahath f. Rahuel, Gen. 36. 2 Para. 
31. Noadia nom. v. 1 Efdr. 8. Nad-ab, f. Aaron, 
Exod. 6- 

Lucurg.] i. e. Laoc-arg, hcros heroum, hence 

Libofiy Liburn.'] Laban, frat. Rebeccas. Gen. 24. 
Lobana nom. v. i Efdr. 2. Lobni, f. Gerfon, Exod. 
6. Libemia, navis bellica. 

And from the fame fountain flows the Pelafgian 
Ogygesy the name of Noah ; in Irifli Oig-Uige, heros 
navium. Whence Uig-ingc, an aflemblage of fliips, 
a fleet. Ard-taoifeach Uiginge an Admiral. 
f\iy\'^y^ dag-ugith, navis Pifcatoria. {^♦jn ^^P* 
navis Piratica. Thefe and a thoufand other words 
may be produced in the Irifh language, flowing 
from the Hebrew, that never did cxift in the lan- 
guages of the Gauls and Welfli Britons. And I 
cannot bring a ftronger proof, that the Fir-bolg of 
Jreland, were not Belgians, than the few examples of 
proper names, in the above quotations. - , 


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The Author takes this Opportunity of ac- 
quainting the Public } 

1 H A T the Provoft and Fellows of Trinity CoU 
lege, Dublin ; have appropriated a very handfome 
ind fpacious room, to anfwer the purpofe of a 
PUBLIC MUSEUM; and it is hoped that 
die people of Ireland, for whofe ufe the eftablifh- 
nent is made, wilK contribute whatever may ferve 
to render it valuable or curious. Among many 
objeds of attention, the foiTils of Ireland afford a 
copious and almoft unexplored field for difcovery, 
ind thofe various inftruments of war and peace, 
bofe rich and curious ornaments of drefs which are 
rcry day found buried in our lands, prove valua- 
le memorandums of the antient (late and condi- 
on of this kingdom. 

Any information on thefe or other fubjefts of 
lis kind, with fuch circumflances of place, fitua- 
on, &c. as may give additional light, addrefled to 
ic Rev. William Hamilton, F. T. C. D. will be 


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attended to:— any accidental expence of cai 
&c. from remote parts of the kingdom, "O^ill be 
fully defrayed by tlie college : — and gentlemei 
do not wifli to deprive their family of fuch m 
of curiofity as have an intrinfic value, (hall n 
(if defired) an accenfiMiUe receipt* 


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Dcfcriptions Naturtl, <^ivil> EcclcfiaftidaJ^ Haiwi- 
cal, Chorograf^al) ^c. Witii a Table cf <^^ 
KiEs annexed 

1 HE ncccffity of fome fcheme, like what h here 
propofed, will appear to every tnaii, who relds 
Mijfonh Travels through England, Scdtland and Ire^ 
land, printed London 17 19, Theprefent State of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Londcm, 1738, attd other 
writers antient and modern : fome extrafts out of 
which have teen niade in the Preface to the antient 
ahdfrefent jlate of the County of Down, in order to 
(hew how the Irifli nation have been mifreprefented 
by writers 6f other countries ; not to mention their 
gtofs miftakes in rcfpeS of the Ecclefiaftial and 
Civil State of this Kingdom. To remove therefore, 


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Ji enable them to make proper Enquiries into ^Kztarzl 
and ether Matters relating to the feveral Coun^et 
cf Ireland, fo far as they lie in their re^eiiive 
Neighborhoods or Knowledge* 

1. A I R. 

Its (^alities for Health, with what Conftltutions it 

agrees beft.— Its (^alities for Sicknefs^ Difieafo 

Epidemical, &c. 


What is the fituation in general of any county 
with refpefl to feas, lakes, bogs, mountains, and 
the points of the heavens, viz. £• W.N. & 

Extraordioary phacnomena, as meteors, Jgnes 
fcitui, i^c. 

Experiments on mountains by Baromet^ecs. 

Tempefts, hurricanes, thunder, lightning, and. 
tScQsj and accidents from them. 

Echo's, by fimple, double, ^c. Reflexion. 

a. W A T E R. 

Their breadth, fource, progrefs, end, — whether 
4paTeUf,—ftony,— muddy,— fandy ? — Whether re- 


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146 WATER. 

markable for whitening ? Whether fubjeft t< 
dations ? 

Navigation of them, how far ? —Where 0I 
ed ?— How to be remedied ? 

Remarkables belonging to them ; as fubt 
ous paflages, cafcades, waterfalls, &c. 

With what kinds of fifh repleniihed ?- 
plenty, feafons, way of breeding, haunts, mai 
taking them, &c. 

2. Lakes. 

Their compafs,*- qualities, what foil a 

tom, — ^with what kinds of fifh replenifhed, 
whether flumps of trees, buildings, &c. a 
covered in them ? — How fupplied with wa 
whether by rivers or fprings ? 

3. Fountains. 

1. Medicinal^ and whether Saline^ difco^ 
by their tafle. — Sulphureous^ difcoverable b) 
flink, and tinging filver of a black or copf 
lour. — Vitroline^ known by their rough acic 
and turning blue with galls. — Chalybeate ^ 1 
by their turning purple, or fome fhade of ] 
or red with galls, green tea, an oak leaf, c 
auflere vegetable ? — Their kinds, qualities, ai 
tues, and their mechanical ufes, as in dying, 
What forts of earths they pafs through ? 

2. Reputed Holy Wells To whom dedic; 

When, and by what numbers vifited ? 

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3. Petrifying Springs. — What proofs of them ?— — 
Leaves, mofs, &c. petrifyed to be prefervcd, and 

5ayj-~ Difference of faltnefs in divers of them — 
How, and wfth what fort of fifh ftored ? — When firft 
vifited by herrings, pilchards, &c. — Plants, infeds, 
&c. to be found in them? — Tides, currents, whirl- 
pook, &c. 

Harbours and Creeks, — Obfervables about them. 
—Their depths, (hallows, (helves, banks, bars, &c* 
Whether clay, Ouzy, or fandy ? 

Shorcs.—What noted fifheries on them ? — How 
fumifhed with oar-weed, (hells, fand, or other ma- 
nures? — Whether kelp be burned on them, and 
in what quantities 

Promontories. — Of what (lone or foil formed? 
Whether low or bold ? — Whether hawks, eagles^ 
&c. breed in them ? — How ufeful to mariners. 

3. E A R T H or S O I L. 

The qualities in general,— whether black,— red 
— white — ^fandy — ftony — gravelly — mixed— depth 
or ihallownefs of the mold. 

Cbalk. What Mixtures in it ? 
C/tfjF. Whether fullers — ^potters — brick— pipe — 
Umber, &c. 

Medicinaly as Ochre, Iri(h (late, &c. 

Corn-land. Of what grain produdive ? FertiKty. 

• barrennefs — methods of cure, manures, &€• 

"VSHiat fort of tillage is carried on in your ncighbour- 
liood ? With what fuccefs, and in what manner ? 


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m8 earth or SQJL. 

What manu^^s are ufcd ? Xa what jproppi^tipn to the 
acre I Aa4 which apfw^s bed. 

Meadows. High or low, — greater or leiSi^r pro- 
duce.^-— Expimme&ts ia improving them-^;witb 
what manures? 

Fa^re. Whether fitted for rearing or fatteniiig, 
-p-^for butter or'cheefe ? 

Moor and Bogs. Whether red — black — Mo% ? 
How improved, or improveable ? What timber trees, 
thrive bed in them ? Trees, horns, &c. foundbmied 
in them, and at what depths ? 

What are the different divifions of l?nd a£ed, and 
the quantity reduced to acres, as nearly as poiEble. 

Mountains. Their heighth in repute, or on trial, 
either in gradual afcent, or perpendicular heighth, 
by the Toricellian tube, or any other m^od. 
Whether they extend N. or E- S. or W. If Vuka- 
noes in them? Whether profitable or barren? 
Their produd as to minerals, vegetables, ani- 
mals, &c. 

Valites. Their extent, fruitfulnefs, or barrennefs. 

Maries. Their forts, properties, colours. Whe- 
ther they yield an ebullition by immerfmg tjiem ia 
vinegar or other acids ? 


Lime-Jlone. White, Wack — grey — ..gpottecf 

Eafe or difficulty in burning. What imisi^jafecSB 

Porpbiry Marble* TJi^ quiditics-— rCQlpil^i 

— -properties. 

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Flints. Black, tranfparent, flefh-coloured, &c. 

Pebbles. Tranfparent-— red white blue—- 

bhck, &c. Whether they take a poHlh ? 

Free-Jione. The different forts. Whether fit for 
columns, door-cafes, mouldings, vafes, malt-kilns^ 
ciftems, &c. Whether it endures the weather or 
fweats ? 

Whetjlones^ Ragflones^ Milljionesy Firejiones^ Slates* 
The different forts, fizes, or colours. 

5. Stones Curious^ naturally formed. 

In Jhape. Refifembling fliell-filh.— other fifh — 
birds — ^plants — ^Parts of creatures — and their co« 
kmrs— i^mbiing artificial things, as buttons*-Aocs 
— wheds, &c. ^ 

In Colour. As Kerry-ftones — Chnftals^-'^Aftroitcs 
— Sclenites-^-Lapis Judaicus, &c. Their colours, 
fizes, figures, &c» 

6. P L A N T S. 

Woods. The kind9«*-*-^fi^t -now (landing — their 

Trees. Different fims -of the fame fpecies— un- 
common accidents attending them — remarkable m 
kmd, fize, &c. Any peculiarities belonging to 
them — What foils they thrive beft in ? What ani- 
mals or.inf^ds they produce ? To what ufc applied, 
w meat, phfyfttk, dying, &c.— Fruit-trees. 
VoL.IV.No.Xin. P Shrubs^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ISO P L A N T S, &c. 

Sbrubsy Herbs. Uncommon curious— —medi- 

Grafs. Foreign, as clover, faindfoin, ryegrali, 
lucerne, &c. and with what lands they agree beiL 

7. M I N E R A L S. 

• Silvery copper^ lead^ iron-oar^ coalsy falcj &fr. 
Obfervations on mines, as quantities, goodnefs of ore, 
how wrought, &c. Indications of mines, &c. Whe- 
ther trees thrive well or ill where they are ? Any 
preternatural colour in the leaves ? 

8. A N I M A L S. 

Birds of Paffage^ infects yffhes^ quadrupeds. Whe- 
ther unufual or extraordinary in colour, fizc, fliape, 
&c. — The ikins of curipus birds or quadrupeds to 
be flripped off, fluffed, and (communicated. 


Woollen^ Linen^'Hempen^ 'he. Where in reputation, 
or carried on with fuccefs ? In what manner ? Whe- 
ther any and what, improvjcments have been made 
therein ? If fiflieries, or falt-works are carried oim. 
in your country, in what manner, and with trhaC: 
fuccefs ? 

10. B U I L Da 

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B U I L D I N G S, &c. 



Publick. As remains of monafteries, churcheSy 
&c. towns, villages, and incidental obfervations 
on the errors in maps. 

Private. As gentlemens feats and improvements. 


Cbarify-foundatiom. Public fchools — ^libraries—- 
tifirmaries — ^hofpitals— --work-houfes — ^by whom 
bulk or endowed ? How fupported ? Are the poor 
fully employed ? If not, how to be remedied ? 

A N T I d U I T I E S. 

L What is the antient and modem name of the 
parifb^ and it8 etymology, and in what county is it 
iituatcd?' . 

n. What number of towns or villages are in it, 
lieir names, etymologies^ and fituation. 

HI. What antient manor or manfion-houfes, and 
^Y whom built ? 

IV. Are there any particular cuftoms or privi- 
e^esp or ron^irkable tenures in any of the manors 
x£ the pariih ? 

]^2 V.^Are 

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15? A ^ T I q^V I T I E S. 

V. Are there any wakes or patrons, or od 
cuftoms ufcd in the parifh, any annual proceffic 
or ambulations, and on what days of the mon 
and on what oicc^on ? 

VJ. Are there any traditions, remains, or ru 
of moiiafteries, colleges, or feminaries of leami] 
or of religious houfes ? (jive th? beft account the 

VII, Are there any croffes or obelifks in i 
parifh ? pr. ^y , infcriptipu? op ftonp or wood ? G 
an cxaft copy of them. 

Vni. Are there any Raths, Irijh or Danijhj a 
caftle§. Of pthQr pieces of antiquity, r€«uUuiig 
your parifti j yil^^i are t^cy^ and wl^at.traditip^ ^ 
there, or hiftoriGal ax:cov(ptg of them? A4d. ^ dn 
ing of th^em, if you c^jx. 

IX. Have there been any medals, coins, or oti 
pieces of antiquity, dug up in your parifh ; wh 
and by whom ; and in whofe cuflody are they ? 

X. Have there been any remarkable bat 
fought, on what fpot^ by whom, when, and w 
traditions- relating thereto ? .* — 

XL Are there any Kearns, Druidical templcj 
altars, tumuli, ftone coffiii^^ or other antieirt: bu 
places ^^ ^eafe to deici4be tliem, and add atlraw 
of each, if you can ; have any been opened : 
what difeoveries have been made therein ? 

XII. Are Acre any raults or burial places, p^ 
liar to anticnt, or other faimHies ; what ar? they, 
to whom do they belong ? 

Xni. Arc there any anticnt, pr modern rcms 
able mcmttmcnts, or grave ftones, iQ tjie chij 

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A N T I Q^U I T I E S. 153 

or chancel, &c.? Pleafe to give the infcriptions and 
arms, if any, on the fame, if worthy of notice, 
efpeciaUy if before the i6th century. 

XIV. Are there any antient manufcripts in 
the parifli, what are their contents, and in whofe 
poffi^on are they ? 


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T O 

JOHN WALSH, Efq; F. R- S. 

Accompanying two Letters from Mr. Simon to Dr. 
Macbride, concerning the Revivifcence of fomc 
SNAILS, prefervcd many Years in Mr. Simon's 
Cabinet. Read at the Royal Society^ May 5, 1 774. 


Dublin, 22 Jan. 1774. 

1 INCLOSE to you two letters, which I received 
from Mr. Stuckey Simon, concerning that extra- 
ordinary fad in Natural Hiftory, which you feemed 
to regret had not been fufficiently authenticated to be 
communicated to the public, in the Philofophical 
Tranfaftions of laft year. —The Royal Society 
are undoubtedly in the right to be extremely cau- 
tious of allowing any thing, fo very much out of 


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156 Dr. M A C B R I D E'S 

the hitherto-obferved courle of nature, as this is, to 
ap;>ear in their publications, witliout the fuUdl 

In Mr. Simon's letter of the 26th of November, 
you will plcafe to obfcrve, that -he mentions a par- 
ticular fliell, whole ihail had come out repeatedly 
four different times, in the prefence of different peo- 
ple ; each of whom have affured me that they faw 
it. That gentleman having doiie me the favour to 
diue with me, a day or two after the date of that 
letter, he brought the identical fhell (as he declared), 
in order that we might try if the fnail would again 
make its appearance. 

The company were not difappointed ; for, after 
the fliell had lain about ten minutes in a glafs of 
water that had the cold barely taken off, the fiiaO 
began to appear ; and in five minutes more we 
perceived half the body fairly puflied out from 
the cavity of the fliell. We then removed it 
into a baiin, that the fhail might have more fcope 
than it had in the glafs : and here, in a very fiiort 
time, we faw it get above the furface of the wa- 
ter, and crawl up towards the edge of the bafin. 
While it was tlms moving about, with its horns 
ereft, a fly chanced to be hovering near, and, per- 
ceiving the ftiail, darted down upon it. The httlc 
animal infliantly withdrew itfelf within the Uttdi^ 
but as quickly came forth again» when it found tbtf 
enemy had gone off. We aH4)W€d it to wand^s 
about the bafin for upwards of an hour ; when w •• 
returned it into a wide-mouth phial^ wherein Mc 
Simon had lately been ufed to keep it. He was £1 
obligix^g, as tio prcfent mc with t^ remarkable fhelM 

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L E T T r: R. 157 

and I obferved, at twelve o'clock, as I was going to 
bed, that the fnail was ilill in motion : but next 
morning, I found it in a torpid ftate, (licking to the 
fide of the glafs. 

In a few weeks after the time above-mentioned, 
1 took an opportunity of fending this fliell to Sir 
John Pringle, who (hewed it at a meeting of the 
Society ; but, as he has been pleafed to inform me^ 
fomc of the members could not bring themfelves to 
believe, but that M.. Simon muft have fufFered him- 
felf to be impofed on by his fon, who, as they ima- 
gined, fubftituted frefh (hells, for thofe which he had 
got out of the cabinet. 

When Sir John Pringle acquainted me with 
this difficulty, I wrote to Mr, Simon, and that pro- 
dttced his letter of the 4th of February. I after- 
wards alfo examined the boy myfelf ; and could 
find no reafon to believe, that he either did, or 
could impofe on his father. 

Mr. Simon is a merchant of this place of a very 
reputable charafter, and undoubted veracity. He 
fives in the heart of the city, a circumftance which 
rendered it almoft impoffible for the fon (if he had 
been fo difpofcd) to coUcft frefh (hells. The fa- 
ther of Mr. Stuckey Simon was Mr. James 
Simon, a fellow of the Royal Society ; who, being, 
a lover of Natural Hiftory, as well as an Anti- 
quarian^ made a little collefHon of foflils, which is 
ftill in the fon*s poffeffion, and contains fome arti- 
cles that arc rather uncommon. 


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158 Mr. S I M O N ' S 

Should Mr. Simon's letters be inferted in the 
Tranfadions, they will no doubt be the means of 
exciting Naturalifts to enquire into the extent of 
vitality in the lower orders of animals. 
1 am, dear Sir, your moft obedient, 
and very humble fervant, 



SIR, Dublin, 26 Nov. 1772. 

A N accident having brought to light what fome 
Naturalifts have not had an opportunity to examine 
into, and which has been a fubjeft of fome conver- 
fation amongft gentlemen to whom I have men- 
tioned it, has made me commit to writing the fim- 
ple fads, in order to put others on making fur- 
ther experiments on the fubjcft - About three 
months fmce, I was fettling fome (hells in a drawer ; 
amongft which were fome fnail-fhells. I took them 
out, and gave them to my fon (a child about ten 
years old), who was then in the room with me. 
The Saturday following, the child diverted him- 
fclf with the (hells, put them into a flower-pot, 
which he filled with water, and next morning put 
them into a bafm. Having occafion to ufe it, I ob- 
ferved the fnalls had come out of the (hells. I ex- 
amined the child. He afTured me they were the 
fame I gave him fome days before j and faid he had 

a few 

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LETTER. 159 

a few more, which he brought me. I put one of 
4cm in the water; and, in half an hour after, ob- 
ferved him put out his horns and body, which he 
moved with a flow motion, I fuppofe from weak^ 
ntk. I then informed Major Vallancey and~TDr. 
Span of this furprifuig difcovery. They did me 
Ac favour to come to my houfe the Saturday fol- 
lowing, to examine the fnails ; and, on putting 
them in water, found that only one had life which 
was diat I put in water, for he came out of his 
Ihell, and carried it on his back about the bafin. 
The reft, I fuppofe, died by being kept too long in 
water •, for, on the firft difcovery, I let them re- 
main in the water until the Monday following, 
when I poured oflF the water, the fnails being 
ftill out of their (hells, and feemingly dead. They 
lay in that ftate until Tuefday night, when I 
found they had all withdrawn into their (hells ; 
and, though I feveral times fince put them into 
water, they (hewed no figns of life. Dr. Quin 
and Dr. Rutty did me the favour, at different 
times, to examine the fnail that is living; and 
were greatly pleafed to fee him come out of his fo- 
litary habitation in which he has been confined up- 
wards of fifteen years, for fo long I can with truth 
declare he has been in my po(re(fion ; as my father 
died in January 1758, in whofe coUeftion of 
fof&is, thofe fnails were, and for what I know 
they might have been many years in his poffef- 
fion before they came into my hands. The (hells 
are fmall, and of one kind: white, ftriped with 

brown. Since this difcovery, I have kept this 

fnail in a fmall phial, with a cover with holes^ 


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]6o Mr. S I M O N ' S 

€0 fee in air; and he feems at prdeiit n 
ftroBg> and in health. I fliall be extremely gh 
if this plain acconnt I hate given ^on would indi 
gentleifteft to make fome further experiments 
this fttbjeft 

I am. Sir, 

Tour moft obedient, 

humbe fervant, 



DEAR SIR, Straid ftrcet, 4Fcb. i?"; 

I RECEIVED your letter} and fee that S 
John Pringle received the fnail fafe. You fa 
that fome gentlemen are inclined to think, my fi 
has impofed on me frefli &eU$, in the ftead 
thofe I gave him. He had no opportunity to g 
any other fltells, being at the time afid for fevei 
days after, confined to the houfe with a cold, 
am pofitive they are the fame I gave him, havh 
more of the fame fort of (hells in my cabinet, su 
nearly the fame fize. 

The nine fheils, which produced the fhaits, a 
of the fame kind as the one you feai ta Sir Jo« 


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Pringlb ; and I now fend you one of them, with 
the ihail in it, which 1 take to be dead. Having 
put it in water feveral times, it became foft ; and 
a part of it puihed out ot the {hell, but fhewed 
no other fign of life. I would have fent you a 
few more . of the (hells, but that the Bifbop of 
Derry, and fome other friends, have begged of 
me to give them a fhare. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Tour mod obedient, 

humble fervant^ 



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o r 

I R E L J N D» 


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O F 

I R E L J N Di 

I« The Dcftttt of Its Old Inhabi. 

cants fnm the Phjbho-Scy* 

TJiiAVf of the East. 
J7, The early Skill of the Phjkho- 

ScTTiiiAHi^in NavigitioDy 

ArtSy and Letters* 

• SHZWIfff 

in. Several Accounts of the Aw- 
cziMT lazsH Baeds, anthen- 
ticated from parallel Hiftoiy, 
Sacred -and Profane* 

&c. fts« Sec, Ac. 



Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Societies, of Antiquaries of 

London, Edinburgh, and Perth j Member of the Royal Irifh 

Academy, and of the Phil. Soc. of Philadelphia, Ac 

Sapieniiam omnium antiquorum ezquiret Sapiens. Ecclbs. nxix. i« 

D U B L I N t 

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K I N G, 


IS (by permission) dedicated bx 



Subject and Servant, 

DvBLXNy X Aug. 
X 7 8 6. 

Ciari&6 raiiancey^ 

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CHAP. L Gmalogical Tables tfibelrijb 

Colonies — ._ i 

— — n. 7be Topographical Names of 

Ireland — - 14 

— — in. Expedition of Partbolan 25 

ofNemed — 40 
■ of the Firbolgy Fsr 
D'Omnann or Fir Galeori 1 29 
• of the Tuatha Da-^ 



vn. - 
vin. - 

IX. - 

niflj Authority — r 325 

X. Conclufion — 335 

XL Of Paganifm in general. Of 
the Pagan Religion of the 
Ancient lr\{h — 38a 

dann r^ — i^i 

of Phenius Pharfa 254 
of Milefius 291 

* proved from Spa^ 

H i 

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kmrs h h cvrrtBei :^fmr nnhkh th Eitv wmjt plead in **«!^h,^„^^ 
his diftmiceff^M tht fftfs. 

^S^ *h f^ corrrfpond rVA/ corrtipondsi 
Zy line 1 4y yif if rtad it. 

xi, note^ fw poiletati, rtad pofteritati, 

1 8, (note m) for Tattefliis rtad Taiteflus. 

32, line 1 3, fii¥ mdft allowed ttai mufk be aHdWdii 
145, (note I) for ee reaJ{w. 
160, line laft, for Eootd read Edc^ illd^ac.. 
176, line 1 2, for aboat tmi/ about. 
101, line 2^9 for fout re^i^fdnt. 

■— ■ 24, /ir Anc^crem read Ancdtre^ <. 

■ line laft, for qu'um rW qu'un. 

- - id. for feu read fur. 
208, line 24, for tneit rW their. 
265, 3d line of ndie (r), for imvh read intcrweafe.' 
275, line 29» fir ttahsfetences road transferentes« 
305^ line 6, for, purfed read purfued. 
314, line ly^ for prohpetia read prophetia. 
333, line 1 5, for tfan ^m// tranflated. 
339, line 10, for according rva^ accordingly. 
34 5» Notes, line 2, for town read tower. 
346, line 14, /or penuriam rM</penuria, 
418, line 27, for Celebris rea^ celebres. 
434, line I, /or 1^9 read i^ov. 
447, ajier Fileagh, add Filek, in Perfic a Magi of 

470, line 1 7, for ftand read ftands. 
518, line laft, for Sudela rrtf^/ Suadela. 
541, (note K) for warmths read warms* 
544, line 2$f for urfus read ut(a. 

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I I J 

^ I N D I c A r I o a 



C H A p. I. 

IHE Irifli Hiftory opens with their defccnt 

from Magog, in two Lines ; one called the 

Fii-bolg, or Scythian Line ; the fecond, the Phe- 
aoice or Phsenician Line : to thefe is, added the 
defeent of a Colony of Dedanites, or Chaldseans 
tl&cir Allies, whom they trace to Chus. 

The FIRBOLG Line. 

-A.i"^eachta alias Tathochda 
^^^^Dum al Bramont. i. e. ce Bacche. 



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Depomis.) fd) 

- . Eafru or Ofru, was. the Father of the Ofrl 
or Parthians. Ofrou vel Ofrois cognominc 
■a viro qui ibi regnavit fuperioribus temporis 
homines qui iflic colcbant in foedcre effent 
rum. (Procopius). On which paflage, 
notes, Perfas vocat qui tunc quidem Parthi fu 
(Hift. Ofrhocna, p. 34.) 

Theod-Cyfenenfis fays, quae Ofrhoene tur 
eam antea Parthyacam fuiife di&am. — ^It 
fame thinff if called Ofrhocns Parthians or 
ans, for they were originally one people. St 
Parthos, Bactrianofque condiderunt. (Juflin) 
fequently Broum, the father of Ofru, was th< 
chus of Badria. All that part of Mefopo 
including Media and Parthia, was called O/ru 

Heathen i . e. a fire worfliipper, and not from Pagus a A 
as Dr. Johnfon has it, or from Pagus, Gens. as Salmaniu 
Baronius thinks, from the.Chriflians becoming mafters of 
ties, and the heathens dwelling iK the Villages. 

(d) Porro cum Lingua Scythica cujus propaginem r 
cognacafqoe plures efTe, infra docebimus, fecundum Ebne 
tiquiiTuna (it : fieri non }xireft, quin fub ea vicifluudine, c 
nes fubfuoc lininue, .yarice in hac remanferint, quaeLprimaei 

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Ancient Hiftory tf Ireland 5^, 

our Scythi ; Sbiruan by the Perfians and AJrMalP 

by the Arabs. (Hyde de Vet. Perf. p. 41^.) --..f 

Parthi) gens olim Scythica, tandem nigerunti 

?el tranfmigrarunt fub Medo yr iic difti a Med 

dis, propter naturam Soli, in quo confederunt,:! 

quod paludofum eft, & humile. (Stephanus in 

%^- : ■ .-.;. 

The PHEN.OICE Line, fromPHBNius..:,:^ 

BaothorBith, .1 

I^Hcnius Farfa, from whom Pharz or Pontus and!^ 

Tars, Paras or Perfia. 
^ionnuall, _ 

m«i, .; 



A^gaman or Achemon, Father of Uranus, firft. 
King of the Antlantides. See Introd. hence 
Terfia was anciendy called Achemenia. 
Emir gluin Finn, 



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&, A finikeiiM if lh& 



Gdhifi, bt Mifefti 

According to the Irifli Annals, Magog^s piX- 
feffions contained all Armenia, Pontus, and Me- 
fopotamia. His defendants, one of whom was 
Baatb,' Baoth Gt Bidi, had the Cotititfy bdhfer- 
ing on the Bofporus Thracius, from him named 
Bith'Aon^ the territory of Bith. (e) Of his Son 
Fhenius Pharfa we fhall treat in a paerti(nil^ &t^ 

Bithynia was anciently Ihftablted by tailcftis 
nations differing in manners and language, HsL 
the Bebryces, Mariandyni, Caucones, DoUidittAi^ 
Cimmarii, &c. &c. to enquire into the origfltL'df 
thefe different nations, would be both a teiA&titts 
and ufelefs taik, fay the Authors of the Univ^MU 
hiftory, and as to the beginning of this JCitrgd6<lL 
we are quite in the dark, (f ) It is one oF th^ tticm 
aAcient Kin^dotas fecdrdfed itt Afofaii^ hiftDty ; 
Afjjjidn t*11s ^s thit 40 kifigS had rtigned 111 Bi- 
thynia brfotethi ftofharis vt^ei-^ aeqtiaifatfed ^th 
Afia, confequently Bithynia muft have beeti i 
Kingdom before the IVojan War. It was knoNiHi 
by the name of Myfia, Mygdonia, Bebryc!^, Blfalp 
riandynia, and Bithynia. (g) 

(e) Aon or Aoiti, is the diminutive of Aoi, a Regioti. >f| 

(f) Un. Hift. V. lo. p. 124. 8?o. 

(g) Herodotus, p. 406.- Steph. Byzam. p. 223.— Appab^:^ 
Vol. 2. p. 296.— Schol. ApoU. L. 2. — Eufcbius p. 15. — E.-^^ 
^th. in Diooys. p. i4o.-*Solinus C. 42. 

Herodot ^ 

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Aneiem Hyhfj ^Ireland. y 

Hcradattts fays, that diofe who firfbcoitqaered 
this Coontry, came from the borders of Sirumon. 
8tepha&U9, thai h was called Bebrycia from Be- 
bryx, and Kthynia fiom Bithynus, who were 
bodi tbe Sons of Japhcr and Thrace. Solinus 
lays the fame ; but Appian calls him hlUos Bitfaus, 
by which he eertainly refers to oor Bith tr Baotb. 
Afrian lays, Aat liiynus and Bithyno^ were the 
Sons i4 Fhrneos : whereas Phenius in the Irifh 
Aftaats ii the Son of Baoch^ The River Bi$r^ 
immUy (or the Waveful- Water,) feparatcd Bithy- 
Bia frotift Paphlagonia ; the Greeks named it the 
Pc^theilttS, and there was the ifland Thynus at its 
month ; hence the Tunny Filh, a name given it, 
from its rifing and defccnding like waves, which 
probably gave the appellation of the Bior^onnis 
and Bfamd Thynus ; Chalcedon on the Bo^rus^ 
was funoos for the Pelamides or Tunny Fifli, as 
Gcttkis and Varro inform us. 

Hefiod alfo makes Phineus the father of Bithy^ 
nus and fo does Eufebius, if Salmafius conjeflures 
right, for he obferves, that Author always fubfti- 
tutcs Pbenix for Phinetis ; but Euftathius contra- 
dids them all and avers, thefe Princes were the 
Solas of Odryfes King of Thrace ; he dpes not 
mention his authority, (h) However it is evident, 
that the Greeks carried the Genealogy of Bithus, 
up to the mod remote times, and according to 
Cuftom, he was the Son of Jupiter. 

(h) Pindar. Nomcor. Od. 1 1. — Ptol. Hcpheft.— Epicharmus. 
— Pifandcr.-^Phcrccydcs as quoted by ihc Scholiaft of Appollo- 
-wm meotions Amycus and Pbyneus, as both reiffoing b Bithynia 
^u the time of the Argonautic Expedition — in fliort the Greeks 
^ran carry no hiftorical fads, beyond that Epoch. 


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8 ;. A Vtmtieation tf the 

B]r their fabulous Accounts the Bebryd inhabi- 
ted Bithynia in the time of the Argonauts ; Amy- 
ous, they fay, was King, and was flain in fingle 
combat, fome will have it by PoUux, others by 
Jafon, and others that he ^as carried home to 
Greece in Chsdns. i) 

The Bebrycians and Cimmerians were Gome- 
rites» and the Irifli Hiftory infers that the Ms^o- 
gians were routed from this Cpuntry by the Sons 
of Gomer, and fomewere conftrained atilengthto 
defcend the Euphrates, till th^y fettled at the Bor- 
ders of thePerfian and Arabia Gulphs, a^d along 
the Eaftcrn Ocean in Oman, where we (hall pre* 
fently find them under the name of Men (fOnuuij 
or Fir-jyOmanan. 

Thelie Bebryci and Cimmerii were in their turn 
driven Northward^ and pufhed up the B$lga or 
Volga ixito Germany, from whence they penetra- 
ted into GauL The Bebryci firft fled imp Cyzi- 
cus, -that is one part of the King4om of Priam: 

(i) See alfo Siliiis Italicus. L. i. V. 40. Tzetres. SchoLap. 
Lycophr. — Feftus Avienus — Steph. Byzant - Euftarhiuj, &c. 
1 cannot agree with the Marq. de S. Aubin that the Cimmerii 
were fo named from Gomer ; CluVerius, Grotiu^ Ponunus siid 
I cibnitZy have fully proved in my opinion, that the namesCim- 
merii and Cimbri, are not fynonimous with Gomer though thef 
were Gomerians. The Iriih language afibrds a derivation 
adapted to their fituation, wz^ Cummar^ a Valley, Cumma'^ 
raice^ people Hving in a Country lull of Valleys and hill% 
and I take the Arabic Kumra to have the fame fignification, 
though commonly tranflated Rtxrks tumbled from Mouncaim 
into Vallies. 

In fern is prcflas nebulis, pellenre fub umbra 
Cimmerias jacuiHe domoc, noAemque profundam 
Tartare* narrant urbis. 

SiL. Ital. L. It. 


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Andent Hifiory of Iceland. 9 

thcjr were driven entirely cut of Afia by the 

^olian Greeks under Qrejies^ fome years after the 

^sJcing of Troy. Here they mixed with fome fii- 

gtthre Trojans, and together came into Gaul, as 

^e colleft from Timagenes^ copied by Ammianus 

Marcellinus. , (^dam aiunt paucos pod excidium 

*I^tojoe (iigitantes Grsecos ubiqu^ difperfos, loca 

W (Galua) occupafle tunc vacua. — ^Hence the 

^^idition of fome of the Gauls, of their being 

^lojans, and with them the idea came into Bri^ 

tail and gave rife to the Story of Brutus, They 

^^cd in France about Narbon. Feflus Avienus 

^/s it was their Capital. 

Genfque Bebrycum prius 
Loca base tenebat : atquc Narbo civitas 
£rat ferods maximum regni caput. 

TV^c name Bath in Irifh is fyncmimous to Cutba 
OK' Saitbaj and implies a Seaman, a Navigator. It 
is remarkable that the Clailic Authors have made 
iLnoycus, the firft King of Bithynia, the Son of 
^^piune by die Nymph m^ma Melia^ that is, the 
%^€M (k). AppoHodorus calls her Bithynis, — ^and the 
Son of Amycus was Butes, — j^Jtm, ft^i^ru, ^mt^^ for 
tlie Greeks write the name variouily, and he was 
beloved by Venus ; from whom came Eryx, who 
afterwards reigned in Sicily. He and many of the 
Princes of Afia, are faid to have come to the 
AiSflance of King Priam.. In fine, the Greeks 
feem to have had fome knowledge of our Irifli 
Baith Phenius and Magog, and to have ground- 
ed n^. Melah froni whence Makh a Saiior in Irilh. See 
Vo. 14, Coll. 


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lo A VtHdicatian rf ibi 

ed their £ible on the Irifli Story^ tme or hiSti 
h maft furely appear to every impartial Reader, 
^diat this hiftory of Ireland is not the fiibricaticMS of 
illiterate Monks of the 9th and loth Centnrict; 
but diat it was the hiftory of the people from whom 
they defeended in ATia, and the tradition bron^ 
widi them into this Country. 

Nee mora : continuo Taftis cum viribus cflSect 
Ora Dares j magnoque trimmfemarmurctoHk: 
Solus qui Paridem folitus contendere contrai. * 
Idcmque ad tumulum, quo mazimus ocetohrit 

Vidorem Buten immani corpore, qui fe 
Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente ferebat, 
Perculity et Inhra moribundom eztcndit krena. 
Virg. iEndd. 5. Yd 364. 

The learned Bochart^ ^^P7 us moft of his derita- 
tions, has certainly &iled in that of Bithymi} he 
derives it from jp3 beten^ interior; whcrceit 
figttifies the womo 4s the moft interior part. The 
Geographical fituation of Bithynia will not allow 
of fuch an Etymon, two Sides of it being waAed 
by two Seas, the Bofporus and £uxine.-^We nnift 
not pafs over the City of Fr^neQus in Bithyniai 
which Stephanus informs us, and Bochartc6n« 
firms, to have been a Colony of Phaenicians.*** 
Proneftus he derives from die Syrian BirantSi 
which is the Iri(h Bronteach, or Brainteach, a 
palace.—^npdyfitT^ Pronedus Urbs Bithynise prope 
Drepanem, quam extrux^e Pbsenices. (Stepba* 
nus«) Socrates writes the word Prenetos. Cedrenua 
makes it Prainetos. Fa&um videtur nomen ex Sy ^ 

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Andm HtJMy rf Iretimd. tv 

TO «IC9f>a Buanta; (|uod pro Gaftro vd Pailaiia 
pgtbabitiunHitLpzxtphtzitks Sed ec Hebmci 
t t fg if il Bimajot Aint Arces aat Caftella (I). 
Brootctic is compounded of two Scychka if/ctds^ 
tis4 Bran Princepsy 7>«^£ DditiuS; wheiic6 
BMliAta^h a Palace. Arabic^ ^^i^i^^ Hie Royil 
Refidence. Tak an arehed Building, fih»kia robC-^ 
itig s iKAife } whence the bifh /at^ ^ a houfe^ 

SMne €if, the Perfian Writefis fay^ that Jfamm 
Vaa th^ fi^ King ^f PeHia, the nime id IriA 
figAlfiis ^i0Utng in batfk\ and fo Gapellug has 
tranfiated ic. Achaemenes ipfo intetpretey belta* 
tor bMttS (Reland de vet. Ling* Pcrf. p. io$.) 
Aghbhy^ F^ef&fft fiotat, aghim, Perfiatn^ iindc 
Perfibe. ^^beMiim et Azjemiatt et Achdmttlm, 
Romiidi A^l»menS« 

Alter Achaemenium fecludit Zetigfliatft P^ifaiU 
(Sfilfiis*) Videtur itaque <iaod apud antiques Per* 
te dSl^ iBoerit Achsemenia at didin^eretnr a 
Pardi dida Erak. Petfia a Sinu Perfico brienbi-- 
Ikuti snmd Autores alios votari folet Achacmenia 
U Ffttra Aehse(ftenH% (Hyde. Vet. ReL Perf. 

BMhart derives the name fi-otn nSf^ntt AehSttita, 
ad ve#bMfl .1^^ firateih mens ?^dem p^tait effe 
GdgHoftieA primi K6^tn Pcrfeb quern Grseci f d- 
cant Acbsemeneih. Achiman, frater prceparatus^ 
vel firater dexterge, aut frater quid f iilius Enac, 
Nunkb. 13. 

Emtr-glim Finn, Eittir glaf. &c. Arab Amr 
a g;teat m^ pi. Omlra, kai is Synonimous whence 
Ksi^rii, Kai-Eafru, &c. 

(1) Beeluin Oeog. Sacr. L. 1. C. z. 

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lA A. Vindication rf the ' 

GluHj the knee, a.generation^ gut an treat gUa^ 
to the third geners^tion ; (O'Briens and Shaw^ 
DidO. Thus Emirgluin Fmn in the Gcneategic^, 
Table (igoiiies Emir of the race of Finil : the e :2| 
preifion is truly Oriental, Gen. 30. V. 3^. C?^ 
in untojber and (he (hall bear upon my knees that 
L may alfo have children by her — et parit fuper 
(•i^'Ta) genua mea. — ^Targum. Pariat iiberos quos 
ego excipiam, greipio geftem, fofcvn & educem 
ut ; qieas. Infantes fuper genua coUocantur i nu** 
tricibus:^^ matribus, gremio tenentur & geftan- 
tur (Schindler)-rCan this be the explanatipn of 
the foUowu^g verfe^ Gen. 50. v. 23. Etiam fiUi 
ftlachir^ filii Manaffis, nati funt fuper ()i^l^ >3*Q) 
grau^rjofeph — ^Targum; Quare me exceperunt, 
cum in lucem ederer, genua obftejtricis incurva- 
taj; necaderem? 

The Iri(h word Raigb, the arm from the Ihoul- 
der to the elbow-— the thigh from the hip to the 
knee, has the lame fignification, whence Ruig^ 
peperit, (he brought forth, Raigb^ Raighle gene- 
ration ;: this is from "p^ & MIST irak and iraka^ 
femur, the thigh. £t fiUi ipforum egredientes 
femoruni eorum, L e. e femore eorudi. Cantic. 7.^ 
V. 2. — ^The fceptre (hall not depart from Judah^ 
npT a Lawgiver from his Q>ir\ Ragil) generation^ 
until (ny^u;; Shiloh (hall come. Gen. 49. V^ \o^ 
-^hilph, the Iri(h Shiol the Son, i.^e. the Mefliah... 
The Leabhar Leacain or Liber Lecanus, fays^ 
that the Genealogies of families from the deluges 
to St. Patrick's time, were written on the knees^ 
(gluinibh) and on the thighs Jorgaibh) of men^ 
and on the holy altars. (Leab. Leac. f. 14.) th^ 
meaning of which is, that the genealogies of th^ 


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Andna Hift9ry rf'Irtland. t^ 

nd collateral branches, were engraved 
s in pagan times, (m) 
[ Genealogical Table in the Irifli Hif- 
at of the Chaldaeans, called Tuatha- 
ing a colony, or tribe of Dedanites, 
with our Scuthi,'when feated on the 
l[A. As we fliall treat of this people 
the 6th chapter, we here only fliew 
\ to Chus, according to the Irifli 




















May not this be the origin of thofe aiferipdoM ^ 
d Arms of the £crufcan Figures } 



M AVindkaltisn of tbt . 

c n A p- % 



X liland. It was fo called, fays the ancu 

fable, by Nion, fon of PeUs, who difcovcred i 


A fable it certainly is, as relating to Irelau 

The Irifli hiftory favs, AdM, fon of Bith, of i 

family of Nion, firft difcoyer^ Eirinn, 300 yc: 

after the Samothracian j&oo^. See ch. 3. — ^T 

woody illand was probably pne of the ^gc 

Iflands, fuppofed to have be^sn formed by tl 


2. Crioch na Fuineach* The territory of I 
ineach, that is, fays Kfsatiiig, the neighbour! 

If the author had attended to the original, i 
would have found a full and prefer explanation 1 
the word, viz. obheith a bbfii^ncad chrioch i 
tri rann don Domhan : ipaw iFiiine agus CriocI 
Fuin Laidne Finis, i. e. fi:om being the end < 
extremity of the three divifions of the world 
FiUQrfigniiies End, Extremity, and Crioifih Coui 
try. Fuine, in Latin finis. There cannot be 
fuller or better adapted name for Ibcrnia, whic 
i^ the Fbaenician tranflation of Crioch na Fuii 


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• — » 

Ancmt Hj/lory cf Ireland. 15 

each. Fuin alfo fig&iiies the Weft, as Fuin-trath, 
Oocafus velinclinatio Solis ; it is both a Pheni- 
d^n and a Syriaa word, N^^^g phenia vefper. 
(Cbaldee). Pbenia da iuma (Syriw), i. e. the 
cad of the day. Vefpera, Pbinicha^ (Syr-) finis, 
terminus ; plaga n^uodL 

3. Ealoa ; that is, the Noble Ifland* 

Jbcre is no foundation in hiftory for this name. 
He firft diicoverers of the Britannic liles, would 
certaiidy hare given that name to Britain, by pre- 
eminence. Mod probably this name alludes to 
tfadf fettling in Elgia, or Elegia, a town and dif- 
tri^ of Aro^nia Major. 

4* Aeri or Eire, fo called, fay they, from 
ima^ the old name of Crete^ or from JEriaj that 
piut of Efypt from whence the GadeU came to 
QrHfj when $ru^ fon of Eafru^ was baiiilhed from 

£ria wasenc of the Thracian Ifles, Eirene one 
of the Iflands of the Peloponnefus ; and thprc 
were the Eirinaij feated between the mountains 
(i.Ctraunii and the river Rba in Sarmatia. No- 
ttuig more can be iatd of this derivation, than 
that the name was common to that part of . tbf 
^lobe from whence they origitially came. Aoria 
m Chaldee fignifies the Weft. .Mnw 

5. FoDHLA, fo called from the wife of Mac 
Ceacht, a King of the Tuatba JBiadjann, named 
Mac CeacAt^ or Ftatbor. 


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1 6 A Vindication rftbi 

A more eligible name cannot be gi 
•wife of a Prince who bears the name of 
Science. ODn chacam, Fodbalj or FodhL 
fies the Graces, les Vertus ; it has the fi 
ing in Arabic, fee D'Herbelot at Fadhi 
one of the learned Irifh Kings was n 
Faodbla na Fodblamay i. e. the Head of t 
ed. He was alfo called Cinn Fadhla M 
Fadbaily Les Vertus ; c*eft Ic plurier de 
i. e. Vertu ; hence Fadhel was a commoi 
the Arabians. See alfo Fodbail in D'H 

6. Banba, from the name of a third 
the Tuath Dadann, who was the wif 
ChoU, otherwife called Eathor. 

The Dadannites were Chaldeans, as 
prefently fliew ; and as they bad a fettl 
the Euphrates named Banbe, not far di 
of Babylon, our Magogians might have 
this place, as it will appear hereafter, 
mixed with thefe Dadannites, the fons o 

7. Inis Fail, or the Ifland of Deftin] 
(tone that was brought by the Dadani 

Of this ftonc we have treated in a fori 
ber of the Colleftanea, to which we 1 
fliall fhew its origin in the chapter Ti 
dann. See alfo Chap. X. 

(n) Cinn Faodhla na Fodhlama, the Chief of tl 
the earned. Cin Fadhla Mac Ollam. The Chief ol 
Sfli of tbe Sciences. Arabic alm^ ylm. Hcb. & Chald 

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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. i j 

^. Mt7c Island. When the Dadanns found 
1 the Milefians attempted to land; by their magical 
\ eochantments they threw a cloud oa the ifland, by 
H which it appeared no bigget than a hog's back.— ^ 
\ Moc is a hog. (Keatingj 



*Mue was the name of an Ifland in Fhaenida, 

and of another in the Perfian Sea ; both named 

by our Magogians^ who proceeded from the Per- 

lie Giilph, through Oman to Phaenicia : of which 

hereafter. Ut in Phsenice duae fuerunt infulae 

magm nominis, Tylus nimirum & Aradus, ita in 

mari Pcrfico Tylum & Aradum infulas Geographi 

defcribunt^ atque in iis vetufta templa in Fliasni- 

doTum modum extrudla : (Bochart, Canaan, 

p- 58q.) — ^Moch is white j whence Moc-trath, Au- 

n)ra» Ir. and *^]D Mok, Heb. Cotton. Moch is 

tie fame as raSn Alban, (white) and fignifies the 

dai^ning of the day, Aurora ; hence wakh in Pcr« 

/ic^ Aurora. — ^It is evident this name would not 

have been given to a Wefterri Ifle^ of to any of 

Aeijr weftern difcoveries ; but moft properly in 

their route Edflward to the mouth or the Perfic 

Giilph.— -Mofi& is in common ufe at this day to 

exprefs the dawn of day ; matutina lux albefccre 

cuixi primiim oritur j and Tylus was alfo called 

9. Scotia. This name is faid to be given it 
by the fons of Milefius, who named it Scotia^ 
irom their mother's name Scota, or perhaps from 
themfelves, they being originally of the Scythian 

B Rk. 

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i8 A Vindication rf the 

R -E M A R K. 

The name Scuth, we have (hewn in the Int 
duftion, lienifies a Ship, whence Scuth-aoi, & 
thi, i. e. Snip-men, mariners. 

lo. Ptolemy calls it Ivema: Solinus names 
luerna : Claudian (tiles leraa, and Euftatius V( 
na. And it is the general opinion, fays Keatb, 
that thefe Authors, not pene^y underftandiz 
the derivation of the word, vaned it accordk 
\o the particular fenfe of each. 

All thefe names proceed from the Fhaenid 
Vtyntk Aharun (m), extremus & occidentalis. 
cafus Solis. lemia or Eirin as the natives at tl 
day write it, was not only called fo with rcfpc 
to its pofition from the place of its firft difcoverei 
but aUb as being the weftemmoft of the Britam 
Ifles. Brktain being to the £afl: of Ireland, w 
by them named Alban and Albania, the Eafte 
Ifland, i. e. ^N~1^2f?h* Itaque cum in Circejo co 
ftet locum ftiifie confpicuum, & in mare pron 
nentem nominatum ab Elpenore ; credibile < 
PhaeniceS nugivendos, eodem morbo correptos qi 
Grsecorum grammaticuli qui ad fuam lingua 
omnia referunt, voluifle hunc locum ita dia n( 
a Graeco Elpenore^ fed eo quod citius ibi fdlii 

(m) pnriK aharoR, extremus^ occidentalis. nmc Ab 
poftremum occidens mde p*imD Mohanin, i. e. Mauri, qi 
poferemi vel occidentalis dicti. nMl^ilM Achernae vel perapb 
HMnn Chetnae, Pooicdy Ultima habicatio Ceme idiila ii 
dida. Hence kivt^ "Taiteflus eft Hifpanica urbi circa lai 
Avemum. Aveniier Gnecd kiff^ Punice bicfk Aharona, i. e.1 
ciu eztremus. p"V7Mn * CS'il im h'haron, mare occidenta 
Deut. xL a4« (See Bochart^ vol. L) 

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Ancient Hijiory of Ireldnd. 15 

•il»ri^aVn bUbin-^ri albcfcit Iiut matutinau Mi- 
tutina lux albefcere dicitur cum primilm oritur* 
tJiide eft quod albam vocant fermone yemaculo; 
Bochart, Canaan, p. 592. 

n. IfiERNiA, or Iber-naoi. This liame y^ 

givcli it by the toni of Mileilus, who came from 

Spain. Some fay from the riv^r Iberus in Spain i 

odfiers from Heber the foh of Mifefus : but Cormac 

iifac Cuillenan fays, it was fo called from the 

tord Eber^ which fignifies the Weft, (n) 


nrbertf cannot be a ftronger proof than this paf- 

/a.|^e in the records of Ireland^ to point out who 

r^xethe people that gave this name to Ireland 1 

it <:oixld not h^ve been the Gauls, Britons, or any 

o^^cr Ntlithdrn Natipn, we are certain, becaufe no 

ftrE^ word ezifts in any of thofe dialers as Eber to 

d^siote the Weft. Bochart allows that the Phgsr 

nxciians wercf acquainted with Ireltod, and that they 

n^tmcd it nN3"niy Iber-nae, i. e. ultima habitatio ; 

bercaufc, fays he, they knew of no place more weft- 

\ir3Jd, than a vaft Ocean. Eber in the plural makes 

pnay Ibrin, terminos & fines fignificat, and ^tt 

oi is ah liland or Country, whence aoi, and haoi^ 

in Irilh ; and if we recoiled that ]*^3*?n hilbin, and 

^•^a^M albin, imply the Eaft, Ortus & Aurora, there 

Ccrtaiilly cannot be a doubt, but thefc Iflands Were 

fo Darned with refped to their iituation of each 

other. The words are Irifli and Phaenician ; but 

(n} Eier and Eori^ or Eorp, (whence by corruption Europa) 
are Jrifh and Pbatnician words, ilgDifyin^ the weft, the excio* 
attjr i from iny orb, niy eber, and rjny orup. Occidens^ 
^^^ ciorfom. 

B a they 

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I^ was alfo called Ireoj that is the grave 
thus Keating. 


Ira or Icraa yiTl*» was certainly a 
name in the Eaftern Countries ; there w: 
(Luna aut menfis) Servus iEgyptius S< 
Jefi. 1 par. 2. — Stephanus. 

leria n**i<n*» Timor domini Jcre. 37 
Jeriho or Jeridjio, Luna, Civitas in E 
Tribu. There yas Ir-fhemefh, a City of < 
that f(pll to thd Tribe of Dan, and Ir-pec 
Tribe of Bexuamin. But as this liland 1 
known in ancient hiftory, by the Greeks 
Epithet of holu I am of opinion, both M 
Iris J fignify the holy Illand. Miich in Ir 
fipithet of the Deity ; and Ir, Ire and Iris. 
Religion. In Arabic burae^ Religioi 
muckdus is holy. 

1 3, Ana, An an, Anu or Nannu. 
name of Ireland. 

Ith Nanu, i. e. Infula Veneris feu Mat: 

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Anekni Hijiory of Ireland^ 21 


Aasi. or Anu^ and fometimes.Nana, with a psKiia* 

gogicls. N as Nathar father for Athar, &c. &c. 

vc taLsive ihewed in the laft Number, was wor* 

fiupp^ci in Ireland as Mather or prima caufa. 

She yiras the Ansa or Anaitis of the EaQ. Many 

temples were dedicated to her, among, others 

Agb^B^iib^Anaj or Agbetana, or Ecbatana, tn 

Armenia* There was Ani in Armenia (Die Het- 

belot^ ^ '^^ ''^ 'ArflUflK iipor and Anaese templum. 

(Strabo) i» e. Anaitidis Bochart Phal. p. 245. 

She >^as the Venus of feme and the Diana pf 

others (p). Qui primus erefta Veneris Anaiddis 

ftatuia^ Babylone & Sufis, & Ecbatanis, & inPer- 

^% &( Bactris, & Damafci, & Sardibus, Deam 

oflex^dit efle colendam. Anaitidi multi Dianam 

cfle voluerunt, quia, communi fano cum Deo 

|23rT Omano, id eft. Sole, colebatur; ut teftatur 

traJ^ Lib. 15. Viciffim alii Venerem cffe ma- 

lue^-ynt (q) 

dHactcrum ex loco Strabonis, in quo verfamur^ 
in cj^uo'AFfliiA Anaea vocatur, quae aliis Anaitis, re- 
ilit^ux^enda funt loca de eadem Anaitide. 2. Maf- 
cha.^ . 1. v. 13. 15. In iis enim pro'Araid^Scr^- 
tursrm. Nttr»iA. Nempe in his verbis v%f\ rir VpatkUf 
Nixi^itio vocis aflumptum ex fine praecedentis : indc 
OTt^js error latius fe propagavit ; nam & eodem 
vcK"f u legitur T*r Koir*iflti' u^S per t*? ^Ay«i«r> ut m 
Stx-abone, and ver. 1 5. t« Naitaih etiam fexu mu- 
tates. (Bochart, vol. i. p» 345.) 

Cl>) Sec Strabo. Agadiias, Lib. 2. Paufenks in Lacoiu Pl^- 
tandius in Artaxerxe. 

C^ Bochart. She b the Ani of the Thibetans ; whence one 
of rlieir xvligious feds u ^ called. (Alph. Tibetanum, Geor- 
^ p. aop. 



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A Vindicaihn tf the 

at ynA worfhipped in Ireland under the nam 
ina, Apu and Nana. Many places and river ^ 
x dedicated to her, as the Nany ix^ter, a river 
.ween Dublifi and Drogheda. 
Thefe arc the Ainm Ebirt pr Topographical 
one^ of Ireland. Ebirt j i. e. Eb4rtj or Eb-art^ 
ic defcription of the Earth, from ^^ Eba com- 
ofuit, in ordinem digeflit. ^TK arcts. Terra. X*W 
jy. Ebarts. Berofius tells us the Phxnician word 
jras Arei.* Noab t err am vocaffe Aretiam^ hence 
the Irifh arty or in for the Hebrew Arts^ hence 
alfo the An^bic and Irifli ard an4 the Latin arir^ 





Jnaeul IBJhry rf Ireland. 23 

CHAP. m. 
F -^^ftTHOLAM or Par-tola M. 

r^^^IS Chapter Keating entitles, *• (fihejirft 
\ Inhabitants rf Ireland after the Flood.*' He 
dra'^s the contepts from an ancient Poem, record- 
ed in the Pialter of C^el^ and many other MSS, 

The fubftance of the Poem is as follows. 

Adhna mac Bitha ^0 cceill 
Laoc do muintir Nm mac Peil 
Tainie an Eirin da iios 
Gur Uieann f^ar a bhfidhinis 
Rug leis Ian adhuirn da f6ar. 
Afi fin gs^bhail go grinn 
Tri chcad bliain iar ndiUn 
Is fg^al fior mur rimhim 
Fa ras Eire uile og 
No go ttainig Partolank 

i. e. 

Adhna fon of Bith, a champion of die family 
of Nin, fon of Pelus, (r) went to esqplore Eirinn, 

(r) Mm, Tcl PekgiUp the Water-man. Bithiis filins Pofi- 
doois. ^Neptuni, cognicus eiat 9pi% HcGodt tempore teOe 
Eofiatbio, p, 13, in UL «. 


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. Jo ibis it is added, that P^rtolan iipt 
Migdoxu The poem poadudes with a 1 
principal officers that accbmpanied h 
urith mem it is faid, were Biobal agus B 
Ceannuifhej u e. Biobal and Babel, twaG 
or Merchants. 


As our Irifli hiftorians would not willin 
an sera for this expedition, they have aili| 
date to twenty-two years before the birth 

I think there can be no (Joubt, but 
here mentioned, was that called by Diod 
Strabo, the Samothracian flood, which, : 
dorus, ^^ The Samothracian hiftory a 
f' have happened before any floods rec 
*' other nations. The deluge, fays he, 
** duced by the eruption of the waters, 
** firft broke through the Cyanaean ro 
*' afterwards ruflied into the Hellcfpoi 
** Euxine fea, formerly a great lake, waj 
*' much fwelled by the waters which ei 
^' that not being capacipus enough tp 
•* jthem, tbigy Qverflowed into the H< 

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Jncim Hijicry nf Ireland. 15 

'' pitalsof pillars in their nets, which prove that 
f*^ thefeai covered the ruins of their ancient towns. 
<^ It is reported that the inhabitants who efcaped, 
," fled to the more elevated lands, but the fea 
*' {till in.crea(ing they invoked the Gods, and 
« thereh>'y being delivered from their perilous fi- 
<< tuadoxm, they encompafled the places where 
« they ^Bvere preferved throughout the whole Ifl- 
<< and, aind there raifed altars, where at this day, 
« they -f^erform facrifices to their gods.*' (Diod. 
vol. 1. £ec. 2$^. 1. 5. p. 369. Wettcl.) 

As to the firft inhabitants of Samothrace, adds 

Diodor JJ1.S, there is nothing handed down to pof- 

teiity r^ljiing to them, which we may depend on. 

They.t^aui anciently a peculiar language, not un- 

derftood by any other people of Greece, whereof 

(ome ^iirords were (till ufed in the worfliip of their 

gods, "^wben Diodorus wrote his hiftory. (s) 

Out- Southern Scythi, inhabitants of Armenia, 
Jiadcxtcnded toPontus, Bythina, and Paphlagonia, 
(t; bordered on the weft by the Euxine and Hel- 
le^at. The Samothracian flood recorded by 
Diodorus, had deftroyed Eire uile^ all the Weft of 
this Country, and 300 Years it lay wafte, till Par- 
ibolan made an excurfion to thofe parts, and 

(0 The Greeks at that time were well acquainted with the 

J/Tian, or, as they called it, Phsenician language, and with the 

PeUgian, and TTiracian or Phrygian j and ihefe are the only 

nations recorded by them to have inhabited this Ifle. Tn a for- 

^'^ Work we have fliewn, that the Cabiri, Diofcuri, &c. were 

^ 'Hfli origin, and that Artemedoms mcmtions the Samothracian 

Mcred rings to have been ufed in Ireland, many of which are 

p'z^ at this day m oxa bogs. See Colleaanea de Reb. Hi- 

W No. 13. 

CO See chapter Phenius Pharia. 


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'26 A Vindication tftbe 

brought back to Armenia, a hand&lofgr 
a teftimony, that Vegetation had again taken 
after lb dreadful a Cataftrophe. 

An Iriih MSS. called the fiook of Lea< 
more particular with regard to Partolan. 
forms us, Fkrtolan arrived in Eirinn in tl 
year of the reign of Nintss ; and in the 1 8t 
of Mamyntas the nth Emperor of Aflyri: 
plague deftroyed the race of Partolan, for 1 
murdered him as well as his wife and childre 
were taking care of hi^ patrimony in Setbi 
Scythia, during his abfence, whence the i 
Partolan who was concerned in the murder r 
cd the opprobiovis name of Talomach or Telem 
Ox) Hence it appears our adventurer did nc 
his wife ax^d fiimily on this expedition. 

If we turn to tne account of the Ogygia 
Deucalioh floods, recorded by the ancients, 
feems ftrong fufpidons of their having blend 
hiftory of ^s flc^, with that of the general c 
the facred f^riptyres. 

Nothing in the antiquities of Greece is 
obfcure than the hiftory of O^ges and of th 
luge which happened in his time, fays Abb 
nier, and adds he, whether he was a Greci 
a foreigner, or at what time he lived. I 
Fourmond makes himan Amalekite, the fame 
Og, Agag, orOgog, who left his country an 
tied in Grreece. Some place this deluge in 
ca, others in Egypt, and St. Jerome thinks i 
the Red Sea : thus much is certain, fays Ba 
he was not a Native of Greece ; his name (he^ 

(u) Taolinac a parricide, Shawes Ir. Did, 

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Andifii Hiftory of Irelandf ^y 

«^^ foreigner, but of what nadofi, I cannot de-r 
caai ^^g^» ^s ^ ^^^^ ihewn in a former number 
fe / P^fh's work, is a Scythian name, compounded of 
ie J^ Og or Oig^ i. c Dux, heros, and Uige a Ship, 
DeiuaUm^ was a Scythian, the Son of Promethe* 
us : bis name bears the fame fignification as Ogy- 
«i9 viz. Deucj t^e floater, (natator) Lion of the 
Sea, and hence the name may refer to Noah. 
(^uige may hav^ been one of our Scythiaii Chiefs 
irno had led a Colony to the weft of Thrace, and 
f&erehave periflied in the Samothracian flood, be- 
hx-^ the expedition of P^rtolan took place ; This 
&>c3d was the moft ancient known to die Heathen 
irinters, as appears from Diodorus ; and according 
tc^ Salinus it was the Ogygian flood.-— Prims nor 
v^ :xn aftris inundatio terrarum, fub prifco Ogyge. 
Jt is remarkable, that the Greeks record, the 
irm.^^rriage of Ogyges with Thehe^ of Hercules with 
^ ^nftUoy and our Irifh hiftorians marry Mil^efs to 
^,^:r4iia j but Hhehe^ Erythia and Scoia^ are fynoni« 
irm.^)U5 names for a Ship ; thefe and many other cir* 
f:«ja.inftances in the hiftories of thefe heroes, tend 
tc^ ihew, the Greeks, as Monf. Bailly has proved 
1KB. bis Atlantis, owe the bafis of ail their fable to 
tbc ancient Scythians or Perfians. 

Sir I. Newton fixes this deluge 1045 before 
CIiriiL Petavus, and Banier at 1796 before 
Clirift : fome Centuries later than the period af« 
fuced by our Irifh Chronologifts. 

F^urtplan fet out from Migdon, which was the 
name of Bithynia the refidence of our Magogian 
6c]rtluans at that time. There was another Mig- 
doo feated on a River of the fame name, which 
uraters Nifibis and Uir, and dien falls into the 


Digitized by Google 

lignitication ot uie name in Hebrew and 
deliciofusy aut ornatus. 

Par was ' a common Epithet in the Eaft 
cularly in Mefopotamia, (y) Paradajb bar ( 
was tnird King of the Olrhoi, — there wei 
tbamafpates^ Parnatafpaiesy Para/manes^ I 
&c. (z) There was y*?in Tola, Son of I 
Gen. 46. I Parah 7. Jud. 10. ^tt;-*?j 
laffar. Regis Syrise, Ifai. 37. n^n Thale, 
viri, ] Para. 7. p*?*»n Tilon filius Simon, 
4. the name Tolan, or Tolam fignifies ; 
Tree ; our Didlionaries tranflate it, th 
Oak.— Perfice Talane, a fruit refcmbling a 
Arab. Talnak an Apricot. — ^The reafons < 
names we (hall treat of hereafter. 

Talmai, was one of the Sons of Anac^ 
Caleb expelled from Arba. Jofh. 1 5. Ch. 
& expulit inde Caleb tres filios Anac, viz 
Ahiman & Talmai, natos Anac. We flia 
in the Sequel, that Anac and Gaduly w( 

(x) But fays Keating, Migdon was in Greece, and in 
ner has pervened the whole of the Irifh Hiftory :- 
can be more clear, than, that the earl/ part of Irifl 
relates to the tranfadtions of their Anceftors in Armenia. 

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Ancient Hi/lory 4ff Ireland. 2 9 

peculiar Epithets of the Sons of Magog, who mix- 
ed with the Cahaanites in procels of time. 

The Poet informs us that Partolan and his pro- 
geny poflcffcd the Ifland 300 Years, when all the 
loliabitants were fwept away by a peftilence. 

Thus our Magogian Scuthi of Armenia conti- 

flucd to extend their depredations towards Wini* 

lirinn or the Weft, and to gabh^ wherever they 

rent ; gabb is the verb made ufe of in all the Irim 

MSS. it (ignifies to lay under contribution ; the 

Ifoun is Gabbailj as Gabhail Eirinn^ the Book of 

contribution, commonly called the Book of Con- 

q^v&cfts in Ireland ; this book contains the contri- 

iijfctionsof every State to the Monarch. We have 

often quoted it in the preceding Numbers of this 

yjiTGik : the word is Oriental, as vhc^^ *»:U Gabhi 

Grimela, Cameli tributa, (Bochart V. i. p. ii48). 

\t, alfo fignifies to govern, in both Hebrew and 

Irifli, hence I3i Gabhar, gubemo. Arabic^ 

guibi Colledor tributorum. 

This expedition of Partolan's, took place ac- 
cording to the Irifh Annals, a little before the 
birth of Abraham. During the life of that Patri- 
arch, we find the Scythi of Armenia making war 
on the Canaanites. The infpired penman having 
occafion to fpeak of Abraham, has recorded this 
fyOt ; and but for Abraham, we fhould probably 
not have heard of it, Genefis 14 Ch. *^ And it 
*^ came to pafs in the days of Amrapbel King of 
^* Shinaar, Ariocb King of EUafor, Cbedorlaomer 
King of Elam, and ^iddal King of the Goim ; 
ciiat thefe made war with Bera King of Sodom^ 
^d with Birjha King of Gomorrah, Sbinah 
IKing of Sodom, and with Sbemeber Kin^ of Ze- 
iDoiim, and the King of Belar^ which is Zoar, 

" —All 



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** Imote tne Kepbatms m AjMerotb Aamatm 
** the 2u%ims in Ham^ and the Emims in £ 
•* Kifiathim. And th^ Horifei in their j 
*' &/r, unto El'faran which is by the wilde 
•* — Aiid when Abrant heard that (Lot 
*^ brother was made captive, he Irlned his 
^' ed Servants, born in his own houfe, 318 
^* purined them unto Dan, and unto Hob^th 
*^ is on the left hand of Damafcus. Ai 
*' brought back alt the goods, sbid his brotbe 
*^ and his good^, tod the women alfo, an 
•* people." 

The Syriac Copy calls Tadai^ Tdril K. ( 
Colita : The Arabic verfion has JHoch Ki 
Sarian, Chadharlaomar King of Choraftai 
Thadaal King of the Nations. The laft is c 
Thargol by the LXX. and is faid to be Kihg < 

Jofcphus calls this the War of the A{fy 
who had united with the Chaldsean Dyns 
Mr. Baugmarten obferves, the conqueft of tl 
naanites by nations fo remote, mu(t be treat 
an abfurd impoifibility. 

Aquila, Symmachus and Procopius, think 

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Ancient tiifiory of Ireland. ^t 

Moiuitains 3 days journey from M aufil,) now writ- 
ten Sinjar in the Arabic, the Singara of Ptolemy, 
with him Abraham fought, as Eufebius fully 
pro¥es« At that time Auyria feems to have been 
wrefted from Ninus and to have fallen into the 
hands of the Ferfiansy as at the time of this war, 
all the neighbouring Kings were confederate with 
Chedorlaomer King of Elam. As therefore there 
could not be two monarchs in one place, Ninus 
oiiift have been excluded from AfTyria and retired 
intjo Chaldaea from whence he came, jirioc was 
^Ung of EUafar : according to Eufebius his name' 
^^^ki "AfuA* i. e. Martins feu Martialis, for ^1N 
•^vioc as the name (lands in Scripture is not a 
r^Jialdaic name, and as far as we know, has no 
ii^^nification. (Religio Vet. Perf. p. 46.) 

The Perfians were Scythians, Farfi or Pheni as 

\s^^ Ihall prove hereafter, and Aireac a Puno-Scy- 

tlzMJc name or title fynonimous to"A||ft^ : thus the 

^<^=rfic Cofrouj a title of their ancient Kings, in 

lar^ih is written Cofrachj i. e. mighty, powerful, vic- 

tc^sious, corrupted by the modern into Cofcarachd. 

SJSnofrou, ou, Cofroe, nom commune a pleufieurs 

K.«i8 de Perfc. (D'Herbelot) — Armeni dicunt 

C^JbwfreUj quod vetus Parthicum vocabulum fuiiTe 

n.c3ndubito, nam Haicana lingua nobis veterem 

E^swthicam confervavit. (Bayer, Hi(L Ofrh.) 

Shinaar or Shingara was in Mefopotamia, 
tb^n in poflef&on of the Magogian Scythians ; they 
li^rd alfo extended themfelves into Arabia and been 
feated early on the Perfian Gulph. Grotius 
briQgs Arioch from the Elifari of Arabia, menti- 
oxied by Ptolemy, and Bronchartus declares it is 
ircry uncertain where this City was. Elam was in 
^^^^bia. Elim locus in deferto trans mare ru* 


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^lijacuu King ot tne uoim dwelt, ana or 
ing of the word Goim : Gtotius and He 
of opinion it was the name of a peo] 
vince. Drufius thinks, that Mofes ii 
fignify a mixture of ftrange people, v 
was named Thadal. Symmachusj who 
maritan by birth, and muft allowed to 
well informed of the opinions of Orienta 
they were Scythians. 

Eupolemus another author of great re 
they were all Armenians^ which is fa 
were Scythians, (a) I am of opinion 
were Scythians or Armenians j feated fom 
Oman, which was the name of the Sea ( 
the Perfian Gulph, round the Eafter 
and along the Eaftern border of the B 
Arabian Gulph ; of which hereafter, 
treat of the Fir-bolg. CD^*»\3 Goim is th< 
Goi which in Hebrew, Chaldee and Iri£ 
a foreigner ; (b) — ^but I take Goim to be 
an word, here ufcd by Mofes ; viz. G 
faring people, fynonimous to Scuth-ao 

(a) Eufeb. deprzb. Evang. p. 418, cum ap 

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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 33 

people, for in Iriih Go is the Sea, and am people ; 
the Irifli Go, (the Sea) is derived from the Hebrew 
rw or rnp Goh or Koh, to colled together. (B) 
And God faid let the waters llp*> be gathered to- 
gether, hence the Chaldee W*»lp3D & •>1pG mekoi, 
Conceptaculum aquarum. The Rabbins ufe the 
votd in the plural as n^t^lpD mekoaoth, Concep- 
tacala aquarum, Lacus (c) hence am cuitb in Iri(h, 
a Canal, a ditch. NiTUl Goha is ufed in the fame 
icnfe} it fignifies Cifterna major (d) and this 
great Ciftem in 2d Chron. C. 4. V. 2. is called 
pSttO^n iin mozak. i. e. Mare fufile, and by us 
rendered the brazen Sea ; whence I think it is 
plain that Goim in Hebrew here imples the Sea : 
in Jriih Cam is the Ocean, Camus and Camog a 
bay, a fmall bay, and in Arabic Kamus, is the 
Ocean : from riii or nip as before. 

As Gp fignifies the Sea, and Got a marine peo* 
pic, fol%r, and Eugie in Irifli, imply a Ship. 
Uig'inge (many Ships) a fleet. Ard-taofac-Uiginge^ 
(the high chief of many Ships) an Admiral. Ugh^ 
ra a Sea fight. Turkifli Ghemi, a Ship. It is 
an £gyptian word : Kirchcr writes it Ogoi and 
EgcoUj (Navis.) Dr. Woidc in his Egyptian Dic- 
tionary has Got, (Navis.^ In the Chaldee, the 
word is in thefeminine gender, 2isn^TrXl\dag'Ugit/j, 
Navicula pifcatoria, from Dag a fifli, n'^ilT dagith 
Na^jtSj Scapha. Elias in Tift;bi explains K*»Jin 
dugia to be a great Ship, Navcm magnam, ex- 
plicit, ex multis remis conftantem, five triremem, 
qiiani Galeam vocant (e). Paufanias informs us, 

(c) Burtorf. 

(d) David de Pomis. 
(c) Buxtorf. 

C that 

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34 ^ Vindieaticn of the 

that the Phsenicians named the God of th< 
Ogoa^ for this was the name of Neptune at A 
in Caria, a Phsenician Colony ; hence as ] 
before obferved Oiguige, was one of the Sc 
names of Noah (f) (C). 

From the£e arguments, I conjecture that 1 
or Thiral King of the Goim was feated 
where in Oman, near Mount Seir, or the 
ments of the Canaanites. His name feems t 
port that he was a King of a maritime p( 
and from the words of Mofes, it is evident t 
alfo contributed his quota of land forces, i 
expedition. The names of thefe Princes, i 
ther reaibn to think they were Scythians. 

Amra-phel, is an Irifh title, fignifying, 
of Lords, Kjng of Kings. (See Geneal 
Tables of Magog at beginning of Chaj 
Amra is the plural of Emir, a noble, a chid 
Fal or Phal is a King, a Prince, a Lord, in i 
Amer, Emir or Omar is a prince or leader, 
plural Omra, Ommera, and Fal, fuperior. 
is a title given to all nobility of the firft n 
the Mogul Empire, (another feat of the Maj 
Scythi ;) it is alfo given to commanders of 1 
of troops : in the plural it is Onimera, that is 

(f) Inter alia Noac cognomina meritiffimd cenfetiir 
Dickenfoni Delphi Phznicizantes, p. i68. 

Atavus Coclius Phaenix Ogyges. Xenophon. 

Plures inundationesfuere. Priin»: noviincfb-Is inunda 
rannin, fub prifco Ogyge. Solinus. 

From Uige, the Chaldcscars and Jews formed WXH \ 
which Rab. Benj. p. 9. explains as R. Elias does, 
Dughioth, quae vocanrur Gnllcr... Hence I think tl 
names Ugan-mor^ the great Sailor. Dugan^ Dugh-arti^ I 

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Ancieni Hijlory. of TreIa?iJ. 35 

bobs- (g) Pf^ai OT Falj is the Chaldee ^^^1^ia PhoUha 
Magnates, (huonio di conditionc) (h) whence tli© 
Irift Fcliaghim to govern; and the diminutive 
Fkith^ a chicfi Chaldee tShn Phiat or Phalat, 
Dominus, Princcps, nomen proprium (i). Ara- 
bke Valj a noble, a prince, hence the Irilh Amra* 
pbal the chief of the Emir's (k). Cead'aruil-amraj 
liead or chief of all the Omra, was iynonimous to 
EmiraUomray or Amra-phaly and the title taken by 
Chedarloamar King of Shinaar. Aireac \% alfo a 
common title of a Prince or chief, there arc fcven 
degrees of Aireac recorded in the Irifh hiftory (!)• 
-^t is the Cantabrian or Bafquenza Erreque^ and 
the Arabic arek. Tidal or Tlral is a proper name 
w tile Iri(h, and fuch it is here recorded by Mofes : 
ie ^as I tiiink the King of Oman^ or Panchaia^ 
i. ^ . Phanic-aoiy or the Country of the Phanic or 
P^^niy of which hereafter. 

€Dman or the Sea Coaft of Idumaea, was origi- 
nal ly the fettlement of Uts of the family of Sem^ 
fro in whom all Iduraaea was called the land of t7/j, 
(an. 3 and the chief of thtfe was the King of Edom, 

C 2 that 

Cg) Niebuhr's travels in Arabia, V. 2. p. i $• 
Ch) David de Pomis. 
( i) Idem. 

Ck) The Iridi Lexiconifts have omitted the lingular Number, 
*ri<i all have inferted the plural, amra. See the Table, No. 14 
*cici 16, page 30. 

Cl) See Collc^anea No. X, and Shawes IrifK Didloniry, 
^*^V^c^ce in Irilh Aireac -rlaltay and in Arabic Erkani Dtnvlet^ 
^'linifter of State, /^ry/t of noble blood, &c. &c. 

fin) Laroentations, C. 4. V. 21. Many authors agree that, 
forne of the early defcendants of Cufh, ferried F.T-ft in rhe land 
^>OTdering on the Red Sea, moving gradually frum rhence to the 
South extremiiy of Arabia, and aSerwards by means of the eafy 


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36 A Vindication of the 

that refufed Mofes a paiTage, wherefore he pafled 
along the Shore by the Red Sea, till he had clear- 
ed the territories of Edom : " And they joumied 
" feom Mount Hor, by way of the Red Sea j to 
" compafs the land oiEdom^ (n)for the King of 
^^ Edom had faid : *^ Thou (halt not go through 
** my territories ; and he came out with much 
** people and with a ftrong hand j therefore Ifrael 
^^ turned away from him and took his paflage by 
" the Red Sea". 

From this Text of the infpired writer it is very 
clear, that Edom did not extend to the Red Sea 
in the time of Mofes, as Sir J. Newton has fuppo- 
fed : and it is as evident, that Oman was inha- 
bited by a people who gave protection to the Ifrael- 
ites, in this troublefome march round the Sea 

paflage over the Screights of Babal mandtb tranfpltnted them-- 
felves into iEthiopia. 

According to Eufebius this migration happened whilil th& 
Ifraelites were in Egypt. This pcrfedtly correfponds with Iriflx 
hiftory .* they acknowledge one Colony to have been Cufhites. 
See Chapter VI. Tuatha Dadann. And hence probably the 
Arabian Cufhites were called Abafim irom HtJutJh ^ mixtVLxt : 
this made the iSthiopians boaft of their antiquity as from Ham^ 
and of being older than the Arabians. See Ludolf, Hid. of 
^Ethiopia. And further, the Cuthites, Scuthae or Irilh aflen 
that they were feared on the Coaft of the Red Sea when Moies, 
made his paflage through it. See Chapter 8. They 'probably 
were the Troglodites of .Ethiopia, being Mariners and Fiflicr- 
men, and Strabo tells us thefe people lived on fifti : Q^^D Sa- 
caiim in Hebrew may alfo fignify Dens and Caves, as well as 
Tenrs. Some of theCataloniansand Bifcainers, the defcendants 
of thefe Cuthse in Spain, dill live in the fame manner, follow- 
ing the trade of fifliing and dwelling under Tents in the Caverns 
of, the Rocks on the Sea Coafl, of which the Author has bad 
.occular proof, 

(n) Numbers 31. V. 4. and Ch. 20. V. 14. 20. 


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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 37 

CHoaft, or Mofes would not have ventured into an ambufh; for here would have been a proper 
place for his enemies to have attacked him, with- 
out the poflibiiity of a retreat. We (hall hereafter 
iuid, that the Greek writers have placed the Scy- 
uhlans in this trad of Country (D)« For God had 
cwtlarged Japbet^ and he was to dwell in the Tents 
o/* Sem^ and Canaan was to be his Servant. The 
Canaanitcs had now fcrved the Japhetans 13 years; 
t:licre is no trace in Scripture that the Scythians 
iretained the Sovereignty after the lofs of Pentapolis^ 
"but there isftrong proofinthefequelof thishiftory, 
^hat they united with them and became one people, 
1s.nown in profane hiftory, by the name of Fbani- 
€ians, and in Scripture by the name of Car&aniies. 
It is not clear from Scripture that all the Canaanites 
owe their origin to Canaan the Son of Ham, for 
)J73S) Canaan in Hebrew is the name of Noah*s 
Grandfon and alfo a Merchant. Our Magogian 
Scythi being the firft Navigators and Merchants 
would call themfelves Ceannaith and Aonaicy that 
is. Merchants. If, lays Bates XffS2 Canaan is from 
]^3 Canaa which cannot be dUputed, then it is a 
miflake, though a common one ; that a merchant 
was named from Canaan, Grandfon of Noah and 
father of the Canaanites, becaufe the word iigni- 
fies merchandizing independent of them ; and the 
land as well as the people of Canaan, was named 
from their trading, and Job, Ifaiah and Hofea, ufe 
the word as a merchant. Bates Critica^ Hebr^a, 
p. 276. 

Thefe words ceannai-gim to buy or fell, and Aonac 

a fair, a place of traffick, are in common ufe in 

Ireland at this day. AonachTailtean, was the general 

mart of the whole Kingdom, Keating p. 359. Anacy 


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gS A VindiaOim of tie 

Atmac or £meac, iignifies alfo a Fir tiree, a tal 
ftraight tree ; a prop, pillar, fupport, a .Calumn 
and hence metaphorically, protedion ; Example 
tug ced bo in aeincac^ he gave 20 Cows for his pre 
tedion. — Whence it became an £pitbet to man 
petty princes : in Arabic anuk, a column, apillai 
a root, a caufe ; hence the Gad^li or Magogia 
Scythians, being of tall ftature, might have take 
the name of Anakim ; and for this reafon Arb 
might have called his Son pjy Anak, i. e. the Fi 
Tree, the Column, &c. Jof. 14, 15. et expuli 
inde Caleb tres ftlios Anac, Sejfaij Ahiman^ an 
Talmaij natos Anac ; here we meet three Name 
corre&onding to the Irifh, viz. Anacj Achamof 
and Tolam. 1 he Jews invented ftrangc Stories c 
tfaefe Jndkim. Benjamin Judaeus, in his itinerar 
fays, that in Damafctis^ he faw the Rib of one ( 
fhefe Anakim^ that meafured 9 fpanifli palms i 
length, and 2 in breadth ; it was prcferved in tl 
palace, and had been taken from a Sepulchre :- 
dicitur ille fuifle ex antiquiflimis regibus Anm 
nomine Abjhamaz ut ex Sepulchri illius lapide ii 
icripto eft indicatum : in quo fcriptum etiam e( 
ilium toto orbe regnaffe. The Hebrew languag 
has loft the proper fignification of the word p; 
Enac, Gigas. pL Enakim, ad omnes Gigante 
traduftum, q, d. Torquati, (JCaJi.) vel quiaj injia 
runt terrorem Statura fua, (Benjamin).) — Tt 
Syriac ^^^ys Anakia, which alio in the Samarita 
Iignifies adjuvit ; fubvenit alicui, Ramus prop; 
go, comes neareft to the fenfc of the Iriili ; tl 
Arab, nooj a fir tree is not far diftant. 

Arba the name of Anaks father, feems to poii 
out that they were Merchants or Shipmcn, fc 
Nilt^ arba in Ciialdee, is, Navis. yaih^ with 

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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 39 

in tlie termination fignifies/(?«r, whence J. CapeU 

\us thinks he was a Giant of four Cubits ; quatuor 

cabitorum datura minor fuerit, quam ut famae 

Tcfpondeat, obferves Bochart. (Geogr. Sac. L. i. 

C- I-) — ^Again, Arba in Arabic fignifies NegotU 

um J as the y is frequently written for w in many 

places of the facred Scripture, I am of opinion Andi 

and Arba imply a tall Gigantic race of Men as our 

Scythians were, and Merchants. It muft be ob- 

fervcd that Anac in Irifli docs alfo imply a man of 

i extraordinary Stature ; but when it fignifies a Gi- 

\ ant, that is, a wild ungovernable ftrong man, 

! robbing and ranfacking his neighbours ; the word 

I Fi (i. e. bad, wicked) is always pracfixed, hence in 

i our IriSi Lexicons Fianach a Giant. 

From hence I deduce pJJT^'I'in Chadre Anak^ 

in Irifli, Cadhatr Aonach^ i. e. the City of the 

^ferchant8 ; the Chadreanak or Carthage of Plau- 

tus, for in his time it was the Seat of Merchan* 

dize, and the Carthaginians gave it a proper name, 

i. c Sedes Mercatorum, for \i Anek or Bene Anak 

'lad been a proper name of the Phaenicians, as 

Boohart pretends, why did not their firft Colony 

in ZJtica take that name ? — Where they were feated 

300 Years before Carthage was built ; the reafon 

is plain, — this Cplony was not conveniently feated 

foT- traffick — they were making fettlements on the 

^CM^Ta firma, till Dido came to Africa, and built 

C^^/lre Anak. See next (Chapter. 

The Poem on the expedition of Partholan, con- 
clvides with a Lift of the principal Officers attend- 
i>^g him on the expedition, and with them, it is 
^^corded, were Biobal agus Behalf a dha Ceannui^ 
^^^, that is; Biobal and Bebal, two Merchants ; 
^^id this is the ftrft account of traffick in the Irifli 


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A FindicatiM rf the 


NemED or NiOMAD. 

NI O M A D (i. e. the leader of a multitude,) ^ 
is faid to be the Son of Achemon or Agha- « 
ipon. Son of Pamp, Son of Tath, Son of Scant, ^ 
Son of Sru, Son of Afru, Son of Bram, Son of ^ 
Aiteacht, defcended of Magog. Nemed failing - 
out of the Euxine Sea, came to Aigen, (that is, ^ 
iEgina, one of the Infulae Atticas,) from thence^:^ 
he failed to Eire, (that is, ^ria,) or Crete ; ancj^^ 
purfuing his Voyage, S. W. landed in Africa. 

Here they were inftrufled by the Africans, tc:;:::! 
build houfes and palaces ; the names of the Aki^ ^ 
can Architeds who taught them this fcience wer^ 
Rog, Robhog, Rodan, and Ruibne. They ha^ci 
feveral Skirmiflies with the Africans, and in ttie 
fourth battle Nemed was flain : from this time the 
Africans grew more troublefome, and after fcvcn 
years, Siim Breac, the Grandfon of Nemed, led 
a Colony to Greece ; this weakened the main bo. 
dy, who fufFcred great hardfhips from the natives 
of Africa, till the arrival of the Firr D'Omnann. 
Siim Breac left Greece, and feizing on the Greci- 
an fleet, failed to Spain, from whence they came 
to Ireland, and to Britain, where the poflcrity of 
this Siim Breac were fettled, when the Cruitne ar- 
rived in Scotland. The African Pyrates called 
FomlMiraigh^ harraflfed the Ncmedians in their fet- 
tlements in the Weflern Ifle, and are faid to have 
lucceeded fo far, as to have lain them under cos 
tribution in Ireland. 


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Ancient Hijiary of Ireland. 41 


Keating the compiler of the Irifli Hiftory, has 
coinmitted many egregious blunders in this Arti- 
cle : from Crete he brings them to Ireland, but 
the heft authorities carry them to Africa, to 
Oreece, to Spain; and fo to the Britanic If- 

The Punic annals refled a ftrong light on this 

remote part of our hiftory. We have {hewn in 

the introduction, that the original Periians and 

Parthians, were Scythians ; who defcending the 

Euphrates, fettled on the Perfian gulph, and from 

thence along the Sea Coaft, up the Red Sea to 

the head of it ; pofleffing a narrow fkirt of fandy 

foil, called Oman ; whence Fir D'Omann : 

here they were known by the Greeks, by the name 

of Ichthyophagi, (o) and Troglodytar, fifli eaters 

and dwellers in Caves : by the Hebrews they were 

denominated Siim and Ani'Siim D*^*^!$ QV or fhip- 

men ; the Egyptians called them Nephthyn from 

the Coptic Neph a Ship, (p) hence the DNTinSD 

Nepbtbuim of the Scriptures ; but the whole Coaft 

of Oman was called by the Arabs Al-muzun i. e. 

Terra Oman^ pars Arabiae, aliis quoque Nautaj 

Naucleri (Golius & Gigg.) This great body of 

Scythians or Perfians and Parthians, paflcd over to 

Africa, to the fupport of their Countrymen the 

Nemedians^ and eftabliftied themfelves in Numi- 

(o) Not only the inhtbitants but the animals of this Coaft are 
Icfathyophaj^ at this day, Monf. Niebuhr^ who was lately in that 
Country, iays, they feed their Cows and Afles with fifh, and the 
ground u manured with them. 

(p) It is acknowledged that the Greeb received the worfhip 
of Neptune from the Lybians. 


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42 A Vindication of the 

dia, Gsstulia & Utica, about 300 Years before 
the anival of Dido from Tyre 

Nioiiiad or Neii^cd, the leader of the Euxinc r 
Colony, was fo nauicd ftrom Niomad a multitude ; 
it is the Perfian Namadud, innumerable : And as 
the Ax2\nQhabaJh (q)or habajhut has the fame figni- 
fieation, and is fuppofed to be the root of the 
name Ahajfinia^ given to the inhabitants of -3Ethi- 
opia, that dwell near the coaft of the Red Sea ; I 
hnve no coubt but the Arabic Name, is a traniSa- 
tion of our Niomad, becauie the Abaflinians are 
fuppofed to be compofed of a mixed body of peo* 
pfe, who were conftantly croffing the Red Sea 
from Oman^ and thefe were originally Sc)thians^ 
Perfcms and Parthians. 

Nemed having performed thefe Voyages, was 
honoured foon after with the name of SUm Abreac^ 
or Dux Navium, a name which defcended to his 
Grandfon^ 6f whom hereafter. ITie Authors of the 
Univerfal Hiftory, under the article Numidians, 
obferve that Iftdore intimates that the Medes and 
Perfians in ancient times planted a colony in Nu- 
n>idia, and that Salluft more than infinuates the 
feme thing. The writer of that Article in the 
Univerfal Hiftory (r) has not done juftice to SaU 
luft, he was not of that opinion although he was 
fo informed from thie written Records of the Coun- 
try, and with that extrad Salluit has blended his 
own opinion, warped by the writings of the 
Greeks, who have alway confounded the Phasni- 

(q) Srephanr.s prius Nornxos ▼ocatos ait, ac deftide Stythat^ a 
Scyth.t He»-ci 1-? filio. (Gorop. Becan.) 

In Irllh Abinis, a herd, a flock, a mulchade ; Aibhfioch, a 
great niulrirrfie. 

(r) Late Dr. Swinton. 


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Ancient Hijhry of Ireland. 43 

cians. The words of Salluft are thefe, " As to 

*- ^hc firft inhabitants of Africa, and thofc that in 

** Aiccecding ages fettled there, and how they in- 

*' corporated, 1 (hall give a very brief account, 

« different indeed from the common one ; but, fuch 

« as was interpreted to me, out of the Punic books^ 

'' which were faid to be King HiempfaTs^ and what 

'« the people of that country take to be fadl. But^ 

*' let the Authors anfwer for the credibility of it. 

'* The original inhabitants of Africa were the Gae- 

** tulians, and the Lybians, a rough unpofiflied 

« '< people, who lived upon flefh taken in hunting, 

." or upon herbs like cattle. They were under no 

" manner of confinement from cuftom, law or 

" government, but, ftroUing about here and there, 

" rook up their lodging where the night happen^ 

" ed to overtake them. But, after Hercules died 

*^ in Spain^ as the Africans have it, his army that 

^' %vas made up of divers nations, upon the lofs 

'^ of their leader, and a buflle made by a compe- 

** tition for the command, difperfed in a fhort 

*' time. Of that number the M^^^j, the Perfiansy 

" and Armenians paffing over by (hipping into 

** ^frica^ feized upon thofe parts of it that lie up- 

" on our Sea ; but the Perjians lay more upon 

" the Ocean, (s) They niade ufe of their Ships 

" turned bottom upwards, for houfcs ; bccaitft 

** there was no wood in that country, nor had 



(^s) De fuertc, que concuerdan todos en el origen de eftas Na- 
ciones, y que vinieron defde Oriente acompanando a Hercules, 
eipccialmente los Pharujios^ de losqualeshacen tambien mencion 
I>yonifio, Ptalomeo, Eftrabon, y Eftephano, que cita para \o 
mefmo a Artemidoro. Efpana priminv. V. i. p. 252. 


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44 ^ Vindication tf the 

** they any opportunity of buying any, or barter-^ 
" ing for it with the Spaniards : a wide fca and ^ 
** language to them unknown, rendered all com ^ 
" merce imprafticable.. (t) By degrees, they b'y 
*' intermarriage mixed with the Gsetulians ; anrf 
*^ becaufe they were often fhifting about from 
*' place to place to try the goodnefs of the Soi/, 
'' they called themfclves Numidians. To this day 
*^ the cottages of the Numidians which they call 
*' Mapaliuj are of an oblong form bulging out, 
^^ like the hulls of Ships. The L/^^f^nj joined the 
** Medes and Armenians^ who lived nearer the 
** African Sea. The Getulians lie more to the 
** Torrid Zone, and thefe quickly built towns : 
** For, being divided only by a narrow Sea from 
*' Spain, they carried on a traffick there ; but 
** the Libyans by degrees altered their name, 
*' calling them in their language Mauri in&c^d oi 

" Medi. 

The grcatcft part of our Pharfai or Perfians remained in 
Spain, Pharufii quondam Perfae, Comltes fiiifle dicuntur Herco- 
J is ad Hcfperidcs tendentis. (Pliny.) 

Deinde Pharufii aliquando tendeuce ad HefperidesHercuIedi* 
res, nunc incuiti, & n'lfi quod pecore aluncur adaiodiim inopes. 

Ella dilatada relacion haceSaluftio de los fucceflbty y PoblaB- 
ones de las tres Naciones del Ezercito de Hercules, que defpties 
fie fu muerte falieron de Efpana, yen la Africa pobkron tan di- 
latadas Provincias a que oy correfponde lo que ay defde cl Reyno 
dt Tunez hafla le ultimo del Reyno deMaumiecos, defta fucr- 
rc ; las l.ybios, y Medos toda la Cofla del Mediterranco conlas 
<los Mauritanias Caefarienfe, y Sitifenfe, y parte de la Tingitana, 
y los Getulas, y Perfas la Cafla del Oceano, y en ella lorefiante 
de la Tingitana con las Dcfiertos intcriores de Zoara y Bitediilg^ 
rid. (Efpana primitiva. V. i. p. 251.) 

(t) This mufl be an obfervation of Salluft, who had fiimt 
ihat Hercules had eflabliilied a Colony at Gades before the dif- 


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r .« • 

Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 45 

'* MedL (u) But, the Perfians became in a fliort 

" time a flourifhing people. Afterwards too, the 

" NomC'Numidiansy by reafon of their vaft num- 

** bers, feparating from their parents, poffelfcd 

** theinfelves of the Country about CarfhagCj 

" which is called Numidia. After that both par- 

^' ties depending upon the mutual aiQftance of one 

" another did, by force of arms, or the fear 

" thereof, bring their neighbours under fubjedi- 

" on to them, and acquired to themfelves a migh- 

" ty name and great glory ; but efpecially thofc 

" who bordered upon our Sea, becaufe the Liby- 

*^ ans are lefs warlike than the Getulians. Fi- 

'* nally the lower part of Africa was moft of it 

^ over-run by the Numidians, and the conquered 

' people mixed with and went by the name of the 


*' Afterwards the Phaenicians, fome to leffen 
the over-great crowds at home, and others out 
of a defire of power, engaging many of the 
commonality to put themfelves under their lead- 
ing and direction, as well as others that were 
fond of novelty, built Hippo, Lcptis and other 
Cities upon the Sea Coaft. — As to Carthage I 
^ think it better to fay nothing at all of it than 

" but 

>effi(m of hit Army and tbeir return to Africa, nor was the Sea 
Xio wide, at the entrance of the Straights to Gibraltar, for Mari- 
len that had navigated from the Euxine to Gades, and returned 
to Gztulia coaflways. The Perfians that crofled over to the Oce- 
an might have been in want of timber for fome time, to con- 
ftnd boats for fuch a navigation : thofe that coafted the Medi- 
ccnanean, could not have penetrated far inland, when they re- 
tuned at ni^ht to their boats and made houfes of them. 

(«) Thw IS a miftake either of Sallufl or of the Original. 


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46 A Vindication of the' 

" but a little, becaufc I am in hade to rett 
" my proper fubjett/' (x) 

There is fo great a contradidion and in 
tency in this account given by Salluft^ v 
hardly think the whole is of that author's co: 
tion. The Punic Account of Ferfians and . 
nians forming that body of people that 
about Carthage is certainly true, for they w< 
original Phaenicians, that is, our Southern 
thians from the Red Sea ; and that thefe P( 
did fettle in Spain is confirmed by Varr 

The whole Country from the Cafpian S 
the Perfian Gulph was in their polTeffion, and 
could be no let or hindrance to their Expec 
down the Euxine Sea to Africa, or to the 
nites following the Nemedians. 

The Punic, or Numidian account of the 
nizing Africa, from the great body of Arme 
Scythians, Perfians, &c. of the borders < 
Cafpian and Euxine Seas, and of Oman feem 
confirmed by the prefent race of people in 
ing the Mountains on the back of Barbar 
tending from the ancient Carthage to the Pre 
torium Her cults near Sta Cruz. Thefe very 
ent people are named varioufly by the Moor 
Arabs, viz. Breber^ Showa^ Shilhoa^ &c 
they call themfclves Amazing^ the plural of A? 

Mauri certainly derive^ from ITXO Mahar, pretiiim ; ar 
x^'^T) Tana, mercede conducere, was formed Mauritani 
were Merchants and Navigators, from Mahar, by tranf 
we haveMerccs, Merx, Mcrcator.— Mahar or Maur, ih 
was the contracted name implying Merchant ; hence i 
Muin'g/t of Africa^ who difquieted the fettlemcnts of the 
ans in Ireland. 

(x) Bellum Jugur h. C. 20, and 21. 

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Ancient Hilary of Ireland. 47 

They are mentioned by Leo Afr. and by Dr. 
Shaw ; In a former work, I have (hewn the few 
words of their dialed given by the Dr. are Irifli* 
Mr. Geo. Haft, Danifh Conful at Algiers, has late- 
ly publifhed a more minute Account of this peo- 
ple, and an ample Vocabulary. 

He fays the general opinion is, that they are the 

remains of the old Gatvlians and Numidiavsy mix-*- 

cdwith iEgyptians, Phaenicians, -lurks, &c. Src. 

The name Breber^ he was told, derived from the 

Aloorifli bar, land^ and bcria, a ftorm — i. e. a 

Country always in troubles and war. It is more 

probably derived from Ban a Ship, Ban-ban^ 

Shipmen ; Showa feems tq be the Hebrew nnU^ 

^abha natavit, whence Sacuth i. e. 8cythi Ship- 

men, (See Introduftion) and the Ara^ barj, 

Nauta, Pirata, is very much allied to Breber. 

THcfc Breber, are called Shila and Amazing^ the 

fir/l, I think is the Ar^ic Ghilan or the Cafpian 

Sea, whence the Arabs call Galicia in Spain, Gia- 

lianij that is, a Colony from Ghilan. — Amazing^ 

Mr. Hoft thinks comes from Mazr i, e. Mizraim, 

hence he concludes they mean iEg)'ptians ; I take 

it to be the old Arabic word, Al-mazun, i. e Nau- 

tae». Naucleri. (Golius, Giggieus, in V. Oman. 

Sec Chap. 5.) 

The ancient Scythians or Perfians were feated 
on thefe Seas, and on the coaft of Oman, and 
were the navigators of the Eaft ; they were there 
not confidered as a Nation, and are always menti- 
oned in cripture by the name of Ship-men : it is 
probable that the moft wealthy formed the Canaa- 
nites^ and fixed at length in Tyre and Sidon^ fpr 
rfjcrc is no authority in Scripture, to fay they 
^cre the defccndants of Chanaan, the name im- 

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4A A rmScmbm tf the 

jjMo^ Bilerdiaiits sifo, as we hare (hewn in the 
precedii^ Qiapccr. 

Commerce and a dcfire of Conqacft to fccure 
that commerce, feems to haTC been the motive of 
the ramUings of the Omanites ; as Merchants 
and Traders ther called thcmfdrcs Aonakim or 
Enakim and Ceanamtbim : (y) and the place of 
their rendezrons was named in Irifli, Tocbra^ 
Tcgbra^ or Tugrm ; in Syriac T)J1 Tagger negod- 
arL Tagger, Negotiator, hence Graced riyjip 
Tingir, the celebrated Emporium of Africa, 
injin Tagro, P^enis, commerdum. (Bochart) 
hence Tocar or T^gar in crfd Irifh, fignifies a Pcd* 

The Sen of our Nemed was named S*iam^ a 
contradion of Si-tieama i. e. Dux Navis and the 
Son of Staim was Siim-'Breac i. e. Dux Navium, 
this was the Fhaenidan Hercules ; (z) he led the 
Nemedians to Greece to Africa and from thence to 
Spain. Geryonem a (Grxco) Hcrcule devidum 
non regnafle in Hifpania circa Gades, fed in Grs- 
cia circa Ambradam (Hecateus) : there were fere- 
ral Heroes of the name of Hercules and the Greeks 
attributed the ex]^its of all to one, but our Siim 
*Breac is the moft ancient of all. In the Sequel 
we fhall (hew that the ancient names of Hercules, 
as a Voyager (a) are refolvable into this one of 


(j) ]n(h words fignifying Merchants, Traders. 

(z^ The Sons of Neoied are (aid to be Saim, Beoan, Earco- 
lin, Simeon, I take thefe names to have been common to one 

(z) Hercules in the Irifli Hiftorj has two Charadten, that of^ 
a Navigator and that of a Philofopher ; at Hercules in Occktois^ 
icmt pan i bus, primus Philofophiam inftituit, fays Culrfmu.^ - 


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Andcnt Hi/iory of Ireland. 49 

Slim ^Breac (or Bux Navium.) Siim is the plural 
of Si a Ship, compounded with \y Es a tree, it 
forms IJli or Efs as commonly written in Irifh. 
The Chaldee word is •^S Si, which fignifies dry^ 
nefsj (ficcitasy) hence it has been tranilated a de- 
iart or wildcmefs, but Thomailin proves it to be 
derived from Es, a tree, becaufe the firft boat^ 
were made of trees* In the Chapter Milejiusj we 
iball find the Iriih hiftorians claim a fettlement oa 
the Coaft of the Red Sea, at the time Mofes 
pafled through*it, they fay, their anceftors were 
at that time entrufted with the command and care 
of the Egyptian Fleet. The divine Hiftorian makes 
no mention of thefe people, but they are recorded 
in all Jcwiih traditions. The Author of the 7 2d 
Pfalm, particularly mentions them in the 9th 
Verfe: They that dwell in thea*»*»!5 (Siim) Wil- 
demels, or Ships, (hall bow before him. — but, 
Afapb, the Author of the 74th Pfalm, has beauti- 
fully and poetically related the deflrudion of the 
Egyptians and recorded our Siim on the Coaft of 
the Red Sea. Here, Pharaoh is compared to the 
great fifh or Leviathan, which is faid to be fre- 

Hence the Romans named him Semo, and Fidius ^ the firft, from 
our Siim^ the next from Fad^ Scieiiiia ; Fiodh Woods, Lctten. 
(Sec hereafter,) In Gruter we have three infcriptions to Herculei 
under thefe Charadlers, Sbmoni, Sanco, Deo, Fidio, Sa- 
CRoii,— Sancto, Sanco, Semoni, Deo, Fidio, SacIium,— 

Sanco, Fidio, Semo-patri. Semo, Sagus, Sangus, Sanc- 

tns, idem qui Fidius, five Hercules, Vofs de Idol. p. 46. 

porabant hunc (Fidium) cfTe Sandlum a Sabina lingua, & Her- 

rnlem ab Groeca, (Varro). Propter viam fit facrincium, quod 

eft proficircendi gratia, Herculi aut Sanco, qui fcilicet idem eft 

Deus (Feftus^ hence Sego-hriga a City of Old Spain, facred to 

Hercules and I thmk Smguntum alfo derives from this Naofie. The 

iEgyptians knew him alfo by the name of «S<wi, or ^mh, and 

Sonoooudia. lamblichus. Pan. Mgy, L. z, C. j. 

D quently 

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^^ of the Leviathan in pieces and gaveft hi 
** meat to the people of Siim :'* that is, thi 
devoured by fifhes, the food of the Siim 
queftion is who were the Siim : Tlie Targ 
N*»51DW iparchia or aphrida, ' i. c. 
our *Breac or *Bareac^ whence the Greek * 
Neptune ; (c) hence the Carthiginians nan 
rica np'On Ha Barca : (See Hyde). 

It is curious to obferve all the opinions 
paflage collated by Pole, but Bochart, 
Ezra, Geierus, and Munfterus, have certa 
on the nght meaning. Nauta^ vel tranj 
Ichtbyophagi five illi ad marc Rubrum qu 
monis pertingebat Imperium, this refers 
72d pfalm, but the 74th fpeaks of a tran 
of a prior date. That the ivord is moflly u 
a ihip, is evident, from feveral other paflfa 
Scripture, as Numb. 24. 24. — ^The Siim fr 
Coaft of Chittim. — Ifai. 33. neither fhall ga 

(b) pn Tallin, Draco, Cactus, Balzna, Serpens, hinc 
Gall, un ^hm^ grandior pifcis a Ponto Euxino in roar 
incrcdibili agmine fe fe effundens (Tomaflin). 

(c) Ex Herodoto Nepnmum fciinus Libycun:i fuilTe 

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Ancieni Ill/lory of Ireland. 5 1 

pafs thereby-, Sec alfo Dan. 11. 30. Ezek. 30. 9, 
Thefe maritime pcopjc are again to be found 
in Canaan, on the Sea Coaft, near Tpi^\ here 
xhey are diftinguiOied by Jofhua (and in Kings) - 
from the Canaanites, -by the name of Marine.^pe' 
r^epwaturj, or marine folks^ i. c, yn JDIQD jN'w- 
hutb D^r : (d) this pla^e was on the Coall of the 
Mediterranean (near Tyre) in that lot, that £ott 
to the hailf tribe of Manafleh : the Canaaniies ^or 
Tjrians drawn thither for the fake of the .tnadp 
orried on by the Hafhuth Dor^ had fo well forti- 
fied it, that Jofiiua could not take it, ** hui the 
^ Can&anHes would dweUin that land — Yet it came 
*' to paft n^hen the<Ihildren of Ifrael -were -waxen 
** ftrong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute^ 
*^ but did jnot utterly drive them out.'' Jf^» 

JL g. II. 

About this time, I think, they mud alfp Inm^ 
Ccrttled at Beth/any a city at the conflux of the Jpr<- 
dan with the Lake of Oenefereth, where they alfo 
FoUoired their trade of fifhing, and perhaps came 
down the Cijhn into the Mediterranean. Beth/an wa^ 
IsjDOwa to the Oreeks, by the name of Scyth^folisj 
it: IS alfo in the half tribe of Manaffeh, (e) the 
xxdiabitants of this Gty were alfo a terror to the 
^y^HiSy having falcated Chariots, ( f ) fuch as they 

Da ufcd 

(d) la HebrcBO Jiabctur Naphoth Dor vel Naipbathdor & 
T*^cphatdor, & Dor Naphet, (igniBcat aut Dor geperationem vel 
pcre^nationem. (Bonfr^ius, Clericus, Brocardus.) 

(e) Xxt/SoflfOAir Coriarii Urbs^ from the Boats pf Hides, 
Vith which rhey navigated the Sea of Galilee. 

(f) Falcated Chan ts having been ufcd by the Welch Bri- 
tons and not by the Gauls, is one ftrong argument ufed by Dr. 
Snikcly, to prove thofe Britons VKcre Pbaenicians and not of 
GauiWi extraa. The Dr, did not know that the Scoti the 

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5 3 A Vindication tf the 

ufcd when in Europe. Jos. C. 19^ 11. " the 
** Children of Jofeph faid, the hill is not enough 
^* for us : and all the Canaanites that dwell in the 
** land of the Valley, have Chariots of Iron, both 
** they who arc of Bethfhan and her towns — and 
^^ Jofhua faid thou fhalt drive out the Canaanites 
** though they have Iron Chariots/' erant hi 
falcati currus^ qui falcibus & gladiis armati homi- 
nes & obvia quaeque fecabant & dcmolebant. 
(Pold. Bonfrerius.) 

Of the fettlemcnt of our Scythians at Bethian or 
Scythopolis, we have already treated at large in 
a former work (a), and (hall only here add, diat 
at what time they fettled in that city is uncertain; 
but as Dor or Napheth Dor^ in the fame tetritory, 
exprefsly declares it to have been a fettlement of 
maritime wanderers^ fuch as our fouthern Scythians 
were, it is not improbable, that they fettled in 
both places much about the fame time : fome of 
their defcendants remained in Scythopolis in the 
time of Judas Maccabseus, who died 161 years be- 
fore Chrift. They arc plainly diftinguiflicd from 
the reft of the Canaanites, as at peace with the 
Jews ; — " from thence they departed to Scytho- 
" polls, which lieth 600 furlongs from Jeruialem: 
" but, when the Jews that dwelt there, had tcfti- 
" fied that the Scythopolians dealt lovingh with 
" them, and entreated them kindly in the time of 
" their adverlity, they gave them thanks, defiring 

prior inhabitants of the Ifland taught the ufe of them to the Ciiu.- 
merii or Welch Britons* whom Caefar found in the Ifland. T^nK 
Charioteers of the old IriHi were famous to the arrival of ^^ 
(a) Colleaanea. No. XII. 

« th^ 

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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 53 

** them to ht friendly ftill unto them." (ad Macca- 
bees, xii. 29.) — And I think the itLfi^hw or i^^nn^^f 
of Maccabees, were the defcendants of our Oman- 
ites, removed from the Red Sea, and feated on 
the Mediterranean, near the Dorians. 

Bochart feems to think, that all the Napbthu^ 
tbim of the Scriptures were Egyptians, defcend- 
ants of Mcfraim ; in this number, he includes the 
Icthyophagi & Troglodytae of the Red Sea, with- 
out the leaft authority for fo doing : he derives 
the Hebrew ITlrtSD Nephthuah from the iEgyptian 
Neptbyny from a paflfage in Plutarch ; NE<p9uy vocant 
terrs estrema & montium abrupta, quae mare at- 
tingunt. Plutarch is fo far right in the word re- 
lating to maritime affairs ; but if the Reader will 
confute the Coptic Lexicons of Dr. Woide, or of 
La Croze or Jabloniki, he will find the word is 
derived from die Coptic Nepb a Ship, a word the 
iEgyptians borrowed from the Scythians who na- 
vigated their Niobb or Niobhith, i. e. Ships : 
hence Niobb-ian^ or Niopb-tan^ {killed in fhip*af- 
fairs, formed the name of Neptune, (b) 

Nephtin. Hoc nomine, juxta toties citatum 
Plutarchum, intelligebant ^gyptii Finem^ Venmrem^ 
fef Vi£loriam (c). Neptunus. Quid dc illo fenfe- 
rint ^gyptii, habemus ex Herodoto in Euterpe. 
** Neptuni iiomen ab initio non ufurpaflent Pc- 

(b) The Irifli write the word Niob and Naobb, orNaoibh % 
the Arabs Nahbua, as before. 

(c) This is a miftakt, Ncith or Neidh, was Vidtpry or the 
God of War: it is a name well known in Iriih hiftory — but 
Naith or Natb, is Scientia, Minerva, hence Seanacfai-Nath, 
flcilled in antiquity, formed the forged name of the Phsnician 
Sanchoniatho ; and hence the blunder of the Greeks in making 
Minerva, the Goddeis of Science and of War. 


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54 ^ VhnlicaHdft af iht 

la%»> nifr AM fencer hunc rteum in honmHT hs^ 
buifl^ntv Eum iEgyptii igitur putant tSc ; fed 
miUo^ konore profequuntur.'* C^aproptcr nomen 
HKus ^gyptiis ctiant commtioe^ cujiw ortginem 
banc fere fuiffc pirto. Sicut cnim, ut fupra dixi- 
mas, Nepbtin appetlabant cas terras partes, quae 
marc attingunt : hoc Romine Venerem mannam 
deara iritclligentes ; ita porro ex eadem ongine 
ros^ulinum nomen cffecerunt Nephfon^ ieti Neph- 
futriy quo figniBcare voluerunt Numcn illud litto* 
liibiks prx&Scm. Paflcrus, in Lexic Mgypt-iit- 

To make the God of the Sea, and the God of 
the Mariners, prefide only over the fea-(hore, was 
ata indifferent compBment to his drvrnky-Jhip : but 
in the Scythian; and Poeno^Hibemican language, 
we find the real derivation Niobl>tan^ £kiHed in 
&tp(>ixkg; fynonimous to which la SHm-^BreaCf 
*Bareac or Abreac^ u c. Dux naviunk ; wheace the 
PhaoMciam i>^*»!D*^3{^ aparha or aphrakia% which 
the Greeks, not underftanding the etymon, or re- 
folved to derive every thing from their own lan- 
guage, formed into *» -ctpx'T, i. e. Neptune, quafi 
ab initio ; a name without any meaning for a ma- 
riiK Deity, unlcfe they alluded to NoaJ^. 
. Cottformable to our Iri(h hiftory, and to the 
Ptiiic annals in SaUuft, the Breber-Afrikcr of the 
mountains of Barbary, the inhabitants of that 
country prior to the Moors, fey, that thcr were the 
remains of the old Numidians and Gretulians, and 
that they came originally from Arabia, under their 
great leader MelekAJiriki. Tliat is N*^Dn3N"D*^rf» 
Melachim Apharikia, i. e. Dux Nautarum. ** Som 
" bliver mi kaldede Brcber-Afriker^ og ere af 
" Sabseernes flamme, fom med deres Kongr Me-^ 

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Antient Hiftary tf Inland. ^^ 

^ iek-MriU ere kommc fra det lykkolige An^ea 
"ta Africa (d)." 

Synonimous to S»m Aphrakia^ was the Celtibe- 
riaii name of Hercules, viz. Endoveeeliusy cor- 
rupted from the Scythic Anaoi-do-feifilj u e. the 
iailor of the veffel^ or (hip ; a name originally Pu- 
nic, y»OSW<^'naM ana-da-phefil, natator n^vis^ 
irom TfM ana, natare, navigio vehi, whence ^3M 
ant, navis, Hibernice Naoi. ^log pefil, (vel pbe- 
fit) idem quod ^g patfal, decorticare ; hinc fa^Ni^r, 
Lat. phazehis, navis modica^ cujyfniodi olim fie- 
bant ez uno arboris trunco dolata & fculpta, vel 
etiam ex cortice, nam *7Dg» dolare, fculpere. (To- 
maffin.) (e) 

From all which it appears evident, that the voy- 
aging Hercules and JNeptune were originally one 
and the £mie perfon ; a Scythian of the Euxina 
Sea, who traverfed Afia and Africa, from whence 
he pafled into Spain, and from thence his de-- 
fcendants came to the Britannic liles. (f) 

Bocbart plainly proves that thefc Dorians camt 
to Gaul ; Dorienfes, antiquiorem fequutos Her- 
culem, Oceani locos habitaflfe confines. Locus 

(d) Travels of Mr. Hoii, Danilh Confu], to Miiroko and 
Fez. Breber is evidently our Bar- iMris. Dux Na vis. 

(e) Henct Saxon, Snacca, Navis genus, apud anciq. Danos 
SneAia, Navis velox, ab ^m, Navis, & bp Kal, vetpx— -(To- 
maflin). The name Endovicelius is on the moft ancient coins of 
Spain ; it was at length corrupted to Eadovelicus, as that 6i 
Hercules was to Gdts. See Mufeo de las Medallas defco9ocida4 
Efpan. by De Lailanofa, p. 66. 

(f) From this Slim Breac, was formed the ftory of Bebryx 
K of Spain, of his pafling into Bythinia, and there forming the 
nation called Be-brices, from whom defcended Amycus, father 
of Butts ; hence the Bebrician Hercules, fo fihfned in Grecian 
hiftory. See chap. 7. Feniufa Farfa. 



$6 A Vindicaticn of the 

eft in Marcellino ; cujus apponam ipfa verba, quia 
maxim^ ad rem faciunt. ** Ambigentes fuper 
originc prima Gallorum fcriptorcs vctcrcs, notid- 
am reliquere femiplenam : Sed poftea Timagenesj 
& diiigentius Grxcus & lingua, quae diu funt ig- 
norata coUegit ex multiplicibus libris : Cuju8 fi- 
dcm fequuti obfcuritate dimota, eadem diuinSe 
docebimus & apcrte. Aborigines primes in his rc- 
gionibus quidam vifos eflfe firmarunt, Celtas no- 
mine Regis amabilis, & matris ejus vocabulo Ga- 
latas didos : ita enim Gallus fermo Graecus appel- 
lat : alii Dorienfes antiquiorem fequutos Herculem 
Oceani locos habitafle confines (i ). This Tima- 
genes, Bochart thinks, >vas not the Milelian, but a 
Syrian mentioned by Plutarch, who extra&ed ma- 
ny hiftories from Phsenician and Syrian records ; 
to which he adds, Antiquior ille Hercules non po- 
teft alius efle ; quam Phaenicius, qui primus, imo 
folus, ufque ad Gades & Oceanum penetravit. 
Grzcos enim nemo crediderit voluifle fequi barba- 
turn ducem. Taceo quod Phaenicii asvo nulli fu- 
crc Dorienfes ; Nam Dorienfium pater. Dorus & 
Phaenicius ille Hercules pares erant aut fuppares. 
Itaque non puto haec aliter pofle conciliari, quam 
fi pro Graecis Dorienfibus, Dorienfes e Phanicia 
intelligas ex urbe maritima Dora vel Doro. 

Stephanus explains all this difficulty, he tells us, 
that the Greeks called thefe Dori of the Fh^nici- 
an coaft, Dorires & Dorienfes. Dorus, urbs Phaeni- 
ces, ut Jofephus & alii ; gentile Dorites ; Paufa- 
nias 2iutcm Dorienfes appellat. .Bochart then con- 
cludes, An hi Dorienfes Hifpaniae amni Dorio vel 

(f ) Marcellinus, 1. 1 5. c. 9. 


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jindent Hi/iory of Ireland. 57 

Durio & Aquitanisc Durano, hodic Dordonse, 
nomen feccrint, viderint peritiores. 

There can be no doubt, I think, but that the 
Don of Gaul and Spain were originally of this 
Scythian colony of the coafl of Phaenicia, and that 
they taught the Tyrians the way to Gades and to 
the Britannic liles (g). Bochart is fo clear, that 
the Phaenician Dorites fettled in Gaul, that he has 
one long chapter, to prove the ancient Gaulifh 
language was fimilar in many inftances with the 
Phoenician. Our learned author was not acquaint* 
ed with the Irifli language, or he would not only 
have found all the old Gaulic-Dorian words he there 
quotes, to have been originally Irifh, but fix hun- 
dred others that he has omitted, all correfponding 
in letter and fenfe with the Chaldee, Arabic and 
Phaenician ; but this was not the language of the 
Northern Belgae, or of Gaul in general. 

If then the Dorites from the Fhaenician coaft 
found the way to Spain and France, what was to 
hinder them from finding the two great iflands of 
Britain and Ireland. 

Let us attend to that learned Aftronomer 
Menf. Baiily, L'hiftoire ne commence qu'avec les 
cites : elle parle du fejour des hommes, & non de 

(g) Con las colonias que hemos referido de Curetet Perfaf, 
Medas, y Arinenias, y aun con otra de Dorienfes, que defpuet 
dirdmos, emprehendio Hercules fu venida a Efpana. Ya vi- 
mas eomo coda la Antiqueda lo confcfia. (Efpana priniita?a. 
iX>n. Xavicr dc la Huerta.) lorn. 1. p. 1 88. 
' Aborigines primos in his regionibus quidam viflbs efle firoia- 
runt Celtas nomine Regis amabilis, h main's ejus vocabulo Ga* 
jaitas di^os : ica enim Galkis fermo Graecus appellat. Alii Do- 
rf enfes antiquiorem fecutos Herculem Oceani locos habitalTe con* 
fines. (Amm. Marcel 1. 1 15.) 


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migraiiom and depredations. 1 he Grecian 
records, that Minos King of Crete, wiu> floi 
BLC 1406, was the firft Prince who equij 
fleet to clear the Grecian coafts smd the at 
iflcs, from the pirates, who abounded ic 
days, and were efteemed an honourable c 
advditurers. (Play fair, p. 87.) The aut] 
E^anna primitiva, is ftili more clear. Ec 
saciones Orientates que havia traido en fu c 
nia Hercules a Efpana fueron muchos morado 
la cividat de Dora, h Doro, una de las ma 
bras de la Femcia. Eftos pues accompann 
Hercules en fu expedicion a Francia, y po 
en ellas Us coftas del Oceano. AiTi ko dexo 
7imagesy y per fu autoridad lo repitio Am 

Thefe people were afterwards joined in tl 
direrranean by ^Egyptians, Copts, &c. partii 
after the routing by Nebuchadnezzar, ar 
maincd m^fters of thofe feas till the days of 
pcy, which we ftiall notice hereafter. 

There is every reafon to think this cxpcdit 
Siim Breac from the Euxine fea and laft fro 
rica* was the firft colony in Soain, becau 

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An$knP Hiji^y nf Inland. 59 

(Tarteflii») is fynonimous to Iberia^ or Eber-aoi^ 

that is, the diftant country or habitation. Scii. 

ftfr, trans, Tefs habitatio, Colonia ;. and Se'n or 

^eijh figaify Sedes, Colonia, hence Tartefs and 

* farflMts Of Tar/eh are fynonimous (i). There- 

' fore when the Tyrians were fhewn the way to that 

Country, by our Irifli or Scythian Navigators, tbej 

tranflated Tartefs into their own Language^ via. 

''^•^liy Eber-Ai, (Irifh Iber-aoi), whence the Latin 

Jhiriay but Tartefius was the firft name. Sinus 

ultra eft, in eoque Carteia Tut quidam putant) ali- 

quando Tartefius, et quam tranfvc&i ex Afiica 

^rhaenices habitant. (Pompon. Mela* 1. 2. c. 6.) 

Tarteffum Hifpanise civitatem quam nunc Tyrii 

Hiutato nomine Gaddir habent. (Prifcianus^ 1. 

S- coL 648.) Salluftius, L 2. Iliftor. apud Pk-if- 


Hie Gadir urbs eft dida Tarteflus prius. 
«■ Gadir hie eft oppidum 

Nam Punicorum lingua confeptum locuBi 
Gadir vocabat ; ipfa Tartejfus prius 
Cognominata e(l. 

(Avienus, v. 267.) (k) 

C i) Hence many places in Ireland were named Sen tierna, 
iH^ chief's fetiJcment or fear, row written Sifternagh. 

Ck) Gader and Gadcs arc different names. The ifland was 

ca.1 led Gat/if or Ga^n<, that i% t!ie Ship liland. The town was 

called Gadir, i. e. TarrefTus. Gadir in Phatnician and Irifti 

ftgtiifies an inclofure, as Avienus obferve* ; but I think it de- 

t'wcs from m^J Ghadah, tranjire, and n»j^ hir, Urhs ^ and 

l^cTice GadhW correfponds to Tartefs i. c. ultima habitatio. 

TartcfTus ultra columnas Herculeas in qua regnavit Arganthoni«> 

u» ; U'-bs autem clt ad Occaniiin magna valde. ( Hefychii 

in Oale). Cadhair, Caihair in iri/li has the fame ilgnificatioa 

as Oadir, \yi. Sepes, Anglice, a Barrow. 



6o A Vindication of tbe 

In like manner did they give the firft name to 
die iilands of Gades, or Cadiz, calling one Coi- 
inisj the Ship Ifland, and the other Artbaraoij 
the Ship lilandy whence Cotinufa and Ery- 
tbraa (I). Long or Lonn, a Ship, was another 
name of Coiini^a or Gadis. De fuerte que es la 
Erythia antigua la que oy fe llama Jfla del 
Leon (m). 

Gadir prima fretum folida fupereminet arce 
Attollitque caput geminis inferto columnis. 
Hxc Cotinufa prius fiierat fub nomine prifco, 
Tarteflumque dehinc Tyrii dixere coloni. 
Barbara quin etiam Gades banc lingua fre- 

Pasnus quippe locum Gadir vocat undique fcp- 


(Avienus Defer. Orbis. v. 6i\.) 

This, I think, muft have been the firft difcovery 
of Spain, by our Southern Scythians, Iberians, 
or Perfians, from the Euxine fea. The fecond 
vifit paid by thefe navigators to Spain was from 
the Red Sea, a voyage well known in the days of 

(I) Potto in medio fub vefperis column is 

Exrremae Gades apparent hominibus 

Infula e circumflua in fmibus Oceani. 

Ibi Phaenicum hominum genus incolunt, 

Veneranres magni Jovis filium Herculem, 

Atque banc quideui incolae fub prioribus hominibus 

Didam hodie Cot'tnufam^ vocarunc Giuies^ 

Dionys. Afcr. — - 

(m) Efpana primitiva. Don. Xavier dc la Hucrta. T. i. — 
1 94. So Jlpha was the Phznician name of Hercules and Mt, 
Chaipe, from »D^« Alphi, Navii. 

Solomo: ^= 

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Ancient Hijlory 6f Ireland. 6i 

Solomon, in whofe reign TartelTus was called by 
the Jews Tarfis (or Tarmifli, as in our tranflations 
of the Bible*) (o) 

Phaenices praecipue frequentarunt Gades & of- 
tia amnis Tarteifi, qui idem ac Theodorus & no- 
tiore nomine Baetis, ac Civitatem Tarteflum, que 
videtur fuifle Tharfis (Majanfius. Topogr. Hifpa- 
niae, p. 213.) Not to tire my readers with the 
accumulated proofs and learned quotations which 
the beft Spanifli writers have difplayed, in favour 
of this opinion, (fays the ingenious Mr. Carter, in 
his journey from Gibraltar to Malaga, v. i.p. 
64.) we (hall content ourfelves with briefly ex- 
amining, whether the fituation of this country, 
and its produds, agree with the cargo Solomon's 
fleet brought from Tarfis, and then leave the fa^s to 
fpeak for themfelves. Mr. Carter then proves that 
Spain abounded in filver and gold, in monkeys and 
peacocks, and he quotes Pliny as a proof that 
the oppofite coaft of Africa was in his days full of 
elephants; therefore a# Tarfis was fo univerlal a 
mart, it is no way furprifing that they ihould 
be fupplied with plenty of ivory from their neigh- 
bours. But in the preceding chapter we have 
ihewn from Sallufl, that the Perfian colony under 
Hercules, or Siim Breac, did adually fettle on 

(o) I could prove, fajri Huet, that Tarfliifli was likewifc t 
general name for all the Weftem coaft of Africa and Spain, and 
in particular of that coaft in the vicinitf of the mouth of the 
river Guadalquiver, a country fertile in mines of Silver ; but 
this was not fufficient for the exccifive expences of Solomon. I 
(hall undeniably efbbliih the truth, that the Cape of Good Hope 
was known often frequented and doubled in Solomon's time, «nd 
for many years after. (Navigation of the ancients by Haet, bifli- 
op of Avranches.) 


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6t A Vindicaium vf ti» 

the Goaft of Africa near the ocean, from ivhence 
probably feme -removed to Jehoda and JVf adagaf- 
car, where their delcendants are yet to be found.; 
tbe chief body remained in Africa, and their dc- 
feendants are now knoiwn by the name of fine- 
bcr, ice. 

The people of Tarfis of Tharfis in Spain, ace 
f»d to be defcended from Tiiarfis, fen of ^^van, 
fen of Japhet. Primns Tharfis iilim Javan, nepos 
Japhet, ad occidentem wnit. (Pedro de Zaragoza 
MSS.) Tharfis a <iiio IberL (Jul. Afiricmus ap^ 
Eufeb.) Thards ex quo Iberi, qui & Tyrrheni 
(Ph. Labbe.) Tharfis a quo Jberi :(£idcb. in 
Thef.) From Tharfis came the Spaniards (Chro- 
nic AUex.) ^S3nicellus in Chronogn) 
' I make no doubt but the Aborigmal Spaniards 
weve Tfaarfues. All the patriarchal names in liie 
fecred fcriptures were prophetic 4 ^nd this name 
was weU adapted to the fon of Javan, and our 
Scytbi may have accommodated the name Tar* 
feis, to Tliarfis. In Ireland there were: two tribes 
orcianns named, viz* Clanna Ba9fcani^ or thefiif* 
cayman tribe, and the other Hui ^airfi^ :(L e. 
Tharfis) or the fons of Tharfis. The. latter arc 
faid not to be Gadeiiansy but to have been the 
Aborigines of Spain, who accompanied the Oa* 
delians to Ireland. What a wonderful coincidence 
of hiftory at fo remote a period! And 1 am of 
4)pimon, thefe Tbarfues palled into Africa with 
our 'Gadelians or Breberi, after tbe breaking up 
of Hercules's army, as defcribed by Salluft. Oui 
in Africam trajecerunt, erant TherJit(B^ fays Poly- 
bius. (1. 3. p. ^87.) Or they may have been tranp 
fported thither by Siim 'Breac or Hercules, as the 
Sicaniam were to Sicily, from the river Sicanm 


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jineient Hijhry ef Ireland. 63 

in Spain, as Philiftus Tapud Diodor. 1. 5.) Taith j 
and Dionyfius affirms, they were a Spanifh people 
who £ed from the Ligures in Italy ; he means, 
fays Sir J. Newton, the Ligures, who oppofed Her- 
cules when he returned from his expedition againft 
Geryon in Spain, and endeavoured to pafs the 
Alfs out of Gaul into Italy, for Hercules that year 
got into baly and founded the city Croton. This, 
adds he, was the Egyptian Hercules who had a 
potent fleet, and in tne days of Solomon failed to 
the Straights ; he was called Ogmius by the 'Gauls, 
and Nilos by the Egyptians. (Chronol. p. 1 6 1 .) 
Sec Niulj fon of our Fenius, Chap. 7. 

Goropius ventures to affirm, that Andalufia fup- 
plied the Tyrians, Grecians, Carthaginians, and 
Romans fucceffively with more gold and filver 
than the Indies have furnifhed to Old Spam in 
thefe iauer days. From Spain moft probably was 
imported that great quantity of golden cups, in- 
gets, chains, (hields, vafes, &c. &c. that Old Ire- 
land abounded with, and which are daily found 
in the bogs of this country. 

About 100 years after Solomon, Pharaoh Ne- 

cho manned a fleet with our S^i!f OV am fiim, 

and fcnt them from the Red Sea, with orders to 

return by the Mediterranean ; in this voyage they 

fpcnt three years, not from their unflulful- 

nefs in navigation, I think, but in (topping at 

their colonies in this route, fettling fador^ and 

comptoirs. When they arrived to the mouth of 

the Streights of Gibraltar, Mr. Carter fuppofes 

they met with fome Tyrian fliips, who might tell 

tb^m they were in the Mediterranean Sea, and 

near home. This difcovcry I attribute to the infor- 

ination of the firft colony, their countrymen, uri- 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

64 A Vindication of the 

der Slim Breac (o). Mr. Carter thinks SoIomoii^%>. 
people were not fo enlightened, nor could it be cx,^^ 
pelted from them, their voyages being at leaft 
century anterior to the fcttlement of the Tyriar^^ 
at Carteia; for Solomon died 975 years befo>-^ ^ 
Chrift, and the Tyrians did not fettle at Cartel^ 
according to Bochart, till about 896 yearr befo/^ flE 
Chrift, or 840 according to Eufebius ; then, lays ^^ 
Mr. Carter, they either new-built or re-peq)led 
the city of Tarteflfus, dedicating it to their tutelar 
god Ifercules, whence it obtained the name of 
MeUarthus or Melcartbeiay fignifying the city of 
Hercules in the Phasnician tongue. 

If Mel'Cartda fignifies the city of Hercules^- 
his name muft have been M>/, for the latter pan 
of the compound muft here fignify the city ;-»Aff« 
fignifies a failor or navigator^ from TtTO Me- 
Um, Nauta, Irifli Mellach, Arab. Malah; 
doubtlefs this was converted by the Greeks 
MHAOK, the name he was known by at Athens (p^'——-* 

(p) Ariftotle does very plainly diftinguiHi tbefe colooiei 
Spain^ but like all other Greek authors ftill confbuodi our firtP^ ^ 
fettlers with the Pbxnicians or Cafuuinire?, tjc,- ^^^th; tt r- _' 
fwr/x^y fir I TflrplHaaor— thc7 fay the firft Phttnicimt (which^S 

he carefully by the word Mi) diftiuguifKes from thofe, yAAfk 3i 

in the following words he ftiles ^tUuta t<>- Ka'/o/jtrfrW TcTit — ""* 

^%if(t xft\(/Mfr« — the Phaenicians that inhabit Gadir— for thitwa— > 

after the firft Phaenicians made their fuccefsfiil voyages, 

(Ariibr. Bafil. Edit. p. 555. e^if^ou?-.) 

(q^ Hence Aff/r/ the Conftellation of Hercules, befbf« whicETli 
is that of the Harp or Lvra. Miles Septentrianale eft, notitu^^vr 
fubHercuI is nomine. The Greeks will have this harp co ha^Mse 
been made by Mercury* and the Conftellarion Miles, they hii ^ 
called Thefeus, Thamyris, Orpheus* and I know not wha^^nt. 
Thefe Conftellations received their names from the Soot fag p m 
Scythians, ages before the time of Thales* who brooghc cbcs^^nn 
•utof Egypt into Greece. 

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Anoint Hifimy tf hreUmdm 65 

Elie kamed Gebelin fiiw'plainly that the ancient 
ind original Hercules was a navigator and a phi* 
ofopher, and that all his names tended to prove 
Jiis ; yet alle^ry got fo much the better of his 
ideas, that this irovagins hero was the Sun % we 
hall redify this minake hereafter ;— pourquoi eft 
il appell^ Tbebainf fays this allegorift,— -rib^fox 
par example ^oit un mot Oriental qui fignifi- 
ok une Arcbtj un Fisj^tftf-— — mais . les Orien- 
taux faifoient voyager le foleil dans un vaifleau, 
il en etoit le pilote.*— Le Soleil, Hercule, etoit 
d<mc apell^ avec raifon dans ce fens le Tbebain^ 
c'eft a dire le Navigateur.-^Onr Irifh hiftory in- 
forms us, diat the hero Siim 'Breac^ ion of 'Staim, 
(u e. E/j-Tiama^ Dux navis, ]Tt3-^S Si-torn) fon 
of Nemed, made an expedition to Greece, and 
from thence carried oflF a number of veffels and 
barks, probably the veffels of Minos. — Our hero's 
Ibip was probably named the Sun^ or one of the 
Phocean fliips might have that appellation, and 
others were made of wicker covered with bolg or 
cow-hides ; — the name of the Sun in Irifli is Gri'- 
auy hence he is called Ogham Grianach; and 
from this circumftancc arofe the Greek fable of 
carrying off Geryon's cows. Hence Erythea is 
laid to be the daughter of Geryon ;— Erythia in* 
fula Geryonis in Oceano, fie dida ab Erythea 
Geryonis filia, ex qua & Mercurio Morax natus 
eft. (Stephanus.) (r) 

E Ni- 

(r) Hercnleshimfcif was Dftined £i7/^tr#y that is, Arthmh^ 
in Inilh, tlie Navigator — no, iky the Greeb, the name was ghrcn 
him from a temple which he had at Erythne in Achaia ; — the 
God, (ajt Paufanias, is upon a kind of ^tf^, and they fay it was 


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les) thek poets coidd not do Ids, than figm 
an expedition for him to TarteffiM, to cai 
4Kir Grwn fliq), (erOeryon) and his bdg, oi 
liide boats.r*4Ience the conf ufion of die tvc 
yons, one in Spain and one in Greece.— *1 
next diapcer, we find Siim Breac feizes c 
4irecian ithips and carries them off. Ge 
r^num in continenti fuifle circa Ambroci 

liraugbt fron Tyre into Pfasnicit by fen — it wis drawn k 
by Ji cable made of the iiair of the heads of the Erythn 
laea, Butfhxnan ancient Greek infcn'ption preferved 
proceedings of the Etmlcan academy, we find, that die 
Hercvles was alio named Erjtha. Theverfe cencaias i 
nad coackules dins ; 

Kii^if«>fnf( 'fif o;h ii to J f Xoraob <ri/ov, 
Mrfli/»ati9F f iajWi ^^yS v«ro axiipA. 

Erytha de gtnere NympbinuD boc facrari ibluai, 
AiBoris monomcmum fnb &go ooonta. 

Contiene due Terii efametri, con quattro pentametri, 
fomma una p'etra del genere di cui jnrliano, pofla dall 
Efyiha^ wtogfie ^Brc^e^ ad eflb marito fut fotto un 
Vide Sag! di Difiert. Acad. Etruf. Tom. 2. p. 116. 
From the Shin hein? named the Sun. i. e. Grian. he 1 

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Ancient Hificwy rf Ireland. 6y 

Amphtlochos, indcque Herculem boves abegiiTe*— 
Ulius pFOTincia Regi Oeiyoni nomen fuifle ; pfas 
ferdm cum Hifpanorum nemo fit, qui id nomen 
fciat regibus fuis fuifle, auc laetas in ea provincia 
boves gigni. (Arrian L. 2.) 

Hence the (lory of Euryftheus obliging the Ore* 
cian Hercules to bring back the cow»^ of Geryon 
from the coafts of Iberia. 

** It is phdn, fays the learned authof of 
Effana Primitiva, that Hercules was neither an 
Egyptian, Tyrian, or Grecian, The army he led 
to Africa, and thence to Spain, was compofed of 
Dcriimsy Medes, Armenians^ and Perfiansy i. e. 
Scyibians^ as is well attefted in hiftory. The name 
of his ihip was Apollo, or the Sun ; the Greeks 
have wrapped this up fo clofe in their mythologi* 
cal fables, it is almoll impoffible to come at the 
truth. Atheneus tells us, that Pherecides,. de- 
fcribing the Ocean, fays, that Hercules penctrat- 
cd diat quarter, like an arrow (hot from a bow. 
Sol ordered him to flop : terrified, he obeys. Sol, 
pleafed with this fubmiflion, gave him a patera or 
cup, by which he fleered his fleeds, in the dark 
nights^ through the Ocean, to return again to 
Aurora. In that cup or fcyphus Hercules failed 
to Erythrsea. But Oceanus, to vex him and try 
his ftrength, dafhed with all his might againft the 
patera. Hercules bent his bow, and diredcd a 
dart at Oceanus, which obliged him to defifl ; — 
what does this mean, but that Hercules navigated 
to Spain in a ihip named the Sun ; and being 
forced into the Ocean by a ftorm, he, by the help 
of the magnet, fleered fafe into port : hence the 
North or Cardinal-point is flill marked with a 
dart. Many authors have proved the ancients had 

E 3 the 

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68 AViruUcatimoftbi 

the ufe of the compafs : the properties of the mag- 
net were known to them ; and in honour of the 
difcoverer, it was called the Heraclean ftone, amd 
the place abounding with it was named Heraclea. 
Refert Stefichorus^ Solem in eodem poculo per 
Oceanum navigafle, quo & Hercules trajecerit. 
(Atheneus.) — See alfo Macrobius, Belonius, Sal- 
muthus, Bononius, Calieus, &c. 

^^ Hence from patera and poculum, i. e. Sey- 
phuSy we derive the word veffel^ fignifying a fhip, 
and from Scyphus we form ue word fhip. 

*' From the general conllrudion of thefe vef* 
fels with the hides of animals, come the various 
names of Bulls, Rams, Cows, given to fhips. 
Sunt Lybicae naves, quas Arietes, & Hircas : ta« 
lem navem verifimile eft, & taurum fuifle navem, 
qui Europam tranfportavit. (Jul. Pollux.) 

^^ Hence the Cows of the Sun, the Horfes of 
Achilles ; what were they but ihips ?— The Horfes 
of Hedor, loaded with corn and wine, were no 
other than vidualling flaps (s). T he leguas 

(mares) of Diomedes, which pafled from Thrac^ 
to Pdeponefus and ate human flefli, were armed 
pyrates, as Euftatius has proved. The fame were 
the horfes of Rhefus of Thrace, and the 3000 
mares of Eridhonius, defcribed by Homer. The 
celebrated horfe of Belerophontes called Pegafus 
was a fliip, as we learn from Palephatus. Belero- 
phontes Phrygius vir erat genere quidem Corin* 

(1) Hence his Phtygitn name Eiatcr^ Dommui na?is. Ekt 
navis ; (Ihre).— £<fi in Eife fignifies a horfe, he has tbereibre 
been taken (or a horfe-breaker bra modern tranflator of Homer. 
Eka is a corruption of the Irifh Uige, the Egyptian Ogoi, Chald 
Dugia ; wfien'^e the Latin HucAa and the prefent H99ka or Hu 
ker of the Iri/h. 


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Ancient Hilary <f Ireland. 6g 

diias, bonus, pulcherque fatis : hie cum navigium 
(ibi preparaflety maritima circumquaque loca de- 
praedabatun Ncmen autem navisj Pegafns eraU 
The fame, fays Palephatus, were the horfes of Pe- 
bpes, whicn the Romans often underftood in 
St literal fenfe, and their poets worked into 

^^ Fromthismixture of Mythology, Allegory, and 
Fheology, arife thofe abfurd fables of the Greeks ; 
ind wimout reading a number of authors, not ad- 
uitted at this day m our fchools, it is impolfible 
o underftand the writings of Hefiod and of Ho« 
ner. Who but an Orientalift can tell, that the 
Kip of Hercules9 called by fome the Apollo^ is th« 
ame named Leibte by Atheneus/^ 

Leibte is derived from ^rf? lahab, inflammare, 
whence nOD^ lehabat, inflammatio, an epithet of 
he Sun ; hence p^N Albon, Aurora. 

We may now readily account why all mariners 
pve the names of animals, not only to dieir fbips, 
>at to rocks and headlands or promontories; 
IS, the Stags, the Bull, Cow, Calf Rocks ; the 
)romontories of Ram-head, Dog-nofe, Sheep* 
lead. Sheep-haven, &Xt &e. &c. * 

A figurative expreflion of a fimilar nature has 
ycta ufed by the ancient hiftorians of Ireland. 
iVhen a colony of our Magogian navigators Ict^ 
:Ied in Egypt, lands were amgned them on die 
hore of the Red Sea, Hiaraoh embraced this op- 
x>rtunity of manning his fleet with them, and 
liligned to their care inge Scutha^ i. e. many 
^nOD Sacutha, natadones, or fhips. Our hifto- 
lans converted this paflage to ingean Scota^ that is, 
lis daughter Scota, and infift that our Niuly or 


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7© AVindicatim cf the 

Cadmeu^ married the daughter of the EgypdaQ 
King- (t) 

Thofc very Greeks, who have impofed on man- 
kind fo much by fable, were fenfible that the ori* 
ginal Hercules was a Scythian ; and holding thefe 
people in the light of barbarians, have forged the 
fable of Hercules being the father of that great 
nation, begotten of a monfter, half-woman, half- 
ferpent. Monf. Gebelin ftill fees an allegorical 
meaning of the Sun in this expedition of Hercules 
to Scythia. Nous les £aifion$ reparoitre fous icurs 
veritable point devue, nous en allons expUquer 
une, doiit Hercule eft egalement I'objet, qui ie 
prefente comme etant le pere des Scythes, & fur 
laquelle quelques auteurs fe font appuy6s pour 
faire defcendre reellemcnt ce peuple, de notre He- 
ros**r^It is fufficient for an allcgorift that half a 
dragon or ferpent is enveloped in the ftory ;— it is 
immediaiiely a fign of the Zodiac.— Hercules hav- 
ing made himfeu mafter of Geryon's cows^ was 
the fign of April ;— Jic arrives in the north gele be 
marfondu^ this is the Sun in the fign of Cancer in 
the month of June ; — ^he reppfes on the Lion's 
fkin ; he is then in the fign of the Lion, that is, 
July ;— on his wakening he fees only this monfter, 
half-woman, half-dragon ; half a beautiful girl, 
half a ferpent ; — this is Virgo, in Auguft ;— and 
every one knows the ferpent was anciently the fign 
of September; — by this monfter he had three 
fons, and thefe are the three laft months of the 
year ; and the eldcft was called Scytbusy and this 

(t) NIiil was made Ard tuiieicli Uig-inge, or Scutka-ifM«» 
that is, Commapder of the Fleet ; by the .ffigyp^mns named NH 
ar NiJuJ, j. e. Hercules, fays Sir J.Newton. Sec Chronolog. 


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jfndent IS/lcrf (^ Ireland. 7 1 

i.% S^^pttariiift or Noimnber x-'-^'^^ le mahrc de 
la Scythie, foit parceque dans ce terns E on^y 
acheve fes recoltes ! (u) 

In vain has the learned Eufebius exclaimed^ 

Sjircmksy S^ efemnpcteJt/^^lBjL his, fi ad reliqoa 

ciefcendere lubeat, quicquid ei» prseclara phyflolo* 

£ia fupereft fimilem in modnm facile co^u^gues, 

adeoque homines iftos impudentise jure poftulabis^ 

^122 iuram eundemque folem, ut.hoc prsKiptieie* 

Hgam, non ApoUinem. niod6^ fed etiam: Hereon 

lem & Baechum & .Sfculapium efle ftatuerunt^ 

Nam; quo modo pater idem fueric fimulque filiu^ 

ApoUo^. inquam\& jSlfculapius ? C^omodo ipfeajd 

Hjcrculsm traducatur, cum Alcmena.maire mor-* 

taH utique muUere natum ipfimet Hercuiem efle 

feteantnr F^^Quomodo Sol in fiirorem adus liberot. 

ftios iugularitr— -Nam utrumque fan^ Herculi at* 

trxbuitur. (w) 

Qfii in Taftiflimis illis antiquitatis regionibus: 
peragunt, fsepe in Hercuiem offenddnt. Ejus Ui«^ 
bores, qui vulg6 i z numerantur, ufque adeo mul- 
tiplicantur apud fcriptores Tetcres,.nt opiner plusr 
50 poiie recenferi. (x) 

An AUegorift finds a: ready clue to extricate 
faimfelf out of this labyrinth; the twelve fdeded 
labours of Hercules are the twelve %ns of the Zo^ 

(n) Moof. Gebelin has been mifled by the Greek interpreten. 
Tlieogomae Heiiodicse interpretesy Herculis nomine folarem in- 
telligunc poceftatem : Gcryoncm verd, cujus boves ab illo orbi 
t^rnmim ilktas fkbuhuinir, hjemem eile voltuit. (L. Cat}, Rho- 
^Ligjnitt Led. Amigutr. p. 1 92.) The repofe of Hercules cm the 
1 ien'tlluii, was hu the iiland of Lonn or Long, that b 
C^adis I Long is a fliip, it was the old name of Cadiz. Soehere* 
jsi-ficr — Made-Leon. 

(w) Eufebius Pracpar Evang. p. lao. 

(x). Monc&ucon. 


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j% A Vindication tf the 

diac, one for each month ; and the fiftf, taken in 
lump, are figns for the weeks, with people who 
did not reckon time bv weeks ! 

The miftake is readily fet to rights ;— a fimila- 
rity in found has caufed all this confiifion : In Irilh 
EarMulj the Index firmamcnti, is an epithet of 
the fun, and fo is Earc-Jhul or bul^ ths^ is, Ocubts 
obU. Earcy the firmament, tranflated Heaven in 
our Didionaries, is the Chaldee y^ rekia, ez- 
panfio, expanfum, Coelum. Coelum quod fuper 
tmiveifam terram expanfum, & laminae inftar di- 
du&um eft. (Schindier.) Rabb. y^pi^ rakia, orbis 
cceleftis. Nj^n"^ Iriqha, Cortina, velum-extendens 
ccelum Nj^*i'»3 ficut Cortinam. Pfalm 104. But 
unfortunately for our mythologifts, Eri^ or £yi- 
d, was alfo one of the names of the fun in Ara- 
bick, and the Phasnicians honoured that planet 
with the epithet of to"^W or-coU, illuminator om«> 
nium (y) ; thefe naches afforded a fine opening for 
a Grecian mythologift, and Hercules muft be the 
Sun, whilft m their own dialed, they wrote his 
name HptxAUr^ which they derive from Heroj Ju- 
no, and klesj glory, a ftrong teftimony that they 
knew'nothing of ms origin. This name they cer* 
tainly borrowed from the Arabs, viz. airdc-lij, i. e, 
nauta maris ; in Irifh, Arg-Liy or Aireac-Li. (z) 

The Greeks having miftaken the Tyrian Her^ 
cules, or Orcbol the Sun, for the voyaging Hicr* 

(7) Herculem Solem efle» vcl a Sole nomen ejus, idque FIhb- 
nicium ac quafi ^3fniH orchol, illuftrator omnium. Videtut— 
% Maccab. iv. 1 9, 20. oecurrit. Selden. de Diis Syr. SyniagiiL ^ 
addkam. p. 262, Bcteri. 

(z) Li, die Sea, die Ocean, Nepcune. See Ch. X. M/tho — 

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- I 

Jndent Hjfipry tf Ireland. 73 

cuksy and feeing the iEgypdans paint the Sun 
fometimes in a Ihip, at others on a crocodile, con« 
eluded that all thefe emblems belonged to our Her- 
cules. Clemens Alexandrinus underftood thefe 
emblems in the proper fenfe. L, 5. p. 566. £x 
JEgyptiis alii quidem in navigio ; sdii vero fuper 
crocodilum, folem pingunt. Significant autem, 
qaod Sol per aerem dulcem & humidum ingredi* 
cos, gignit tempus. See alfo lamblichus Pantho« 
OIL MvjjpL L, 3. C. I. p. 152. 

Our^cythian or Perfian Hercules, the Siim 
Bnac of thic prefent hiftory, was a voyager, mer- 
chant and philofopher, but moft famous for the 
iatter : Ce beros avoit ete plus cilSbre par fon ffo^ 
voir qui pwrfaforce^ fcf pour anfaire un grand 
fbilrfcpbe. (Gebelin.)— — As a navigator he was 
known to the ancient Irilh by the names of Siim 
Breac^ Dux Navium, Conductor Navium. Ma^ 
nanny Nauta, Ghaldee ^3^3^!D Monini, SalGlago, as 
the Hebrew rfTJD Melach, Nauta, Arab. Malah9 
|r|ih Mallach, from rf?D falivit. (a) 

He w^s called Carafoir^ from the Irilh Caras^ a 
firft-rate fhip, becaufe made of planks, from tznp 
karas, tabula navis, Afler. hence the firfl: naviga- 
tor, Cbryfor of Sanchoniatho, and hence the river 
Cbrjfus in Spain. 

Hie Chryfus amnis intrat ahum gurgitem. ( Avi- 
enus) In mentem mihi venit, an ei nomen dede- 

(a) The Malayans probably derive their name from this root. 
Malaicam linguam, Indis plerifqne intelledtam, & vulgo nfurpa- 
tain originem fuam debere fenint /ro«i(/rt/^ /f/2-^«rfi«i colluvio- 
ni, qui ex reglonibus fuis undequaque ed, communis artis fuae 
excTccixfae gratia confluxenint, & Malaccie urbis fundamenta po- 
fu«Tonr. (Diff. Philolog. G. Carliolenfis Amftel. p. 6.) 


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74 ATatiemAM^Ae 

K PryffirrSy za hooorcni Dumicfaii fui, qui 
icn fade C'erijkr^ k ravigatiaus parens habitus 
t, WL GL Sanrhr.nighnnf Fhxlo fdSart. (Majsui- 
■ Tcpc^- HrfraFiy, 

He v3s' caHfid £ 1* & Mil^i^ L e. Dux NaW- 
b; rrrarr the Bnmans wrote his name A^j 
cKsicii Vcfr;M so £zt they had cxHifeunded 
wizh .<i=;r cr the Tyrxai Mars, a name 
ikiiHul ^ccc *7 £=i:i. robuitas ; but our ^ag- 
li2n T«xi cazx-i vT iTH Ais*€*j homo na- 
The Sen being denominared 
by rise TTnaas* an epithet betoken. 
:c be Lia^ir^tzr ^Tmium^ die Greeks 
jrhrr, ^sr asccher name of e\Sc Scy* 
r f tiii gg iy viz. '-J -,V Horde/ J or Erkol^ L c. 
-; asd he^ce that ereat coniufion in 
LiTT if r:«= finl Hercules. ,*b 
T&e gTT'r'y S^;!!:!;^^!^ ^ike the ancient IriA, 
a s L^iJ. ZZ£ zrjidd:^! HercuJes ro have been a na- 
iqEJfcL«- xai a rcllctrcfier. On the medals of CoT' 
2a* azii cc Jr:-. rnbliicd by Florcz^ we find 
: 2. rrfr-^ffT in his hznd, betokening his na- 
i=. riTii leas, the Atlantic, Mediten^ 
HZ ; ve ice hizi aflride a dolphin: 

te r±er7. =;f bctd( ±e caduceus, and on feme 

: cS-r :r — i-'-»;rTy branch, the emblem of litc- 

::-- ^Tii by die ssodems into the Aphhf 

av cr Arrr.7^1^^ wiih which the prow of his fhip 

w:» cninfr.tei- 

As i riii'ci'rrcir, he was known to the ancient 

hA, by ii< "jry g( pf teA or Ogbma, from (|^& 

M S« 5ti= S^T^ .\id. p. 262. Elaicfaus Voc. Hebr. & 
: fe ? ■ *€ ■ ! f-an ^e ~i jr Scjti jet £iiv«2.7, wares, comino* 

a circZ^t. 

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btec^fe he t^aa the inventor of an alphas 
:d Ogham^ formed on five circles, from 
Ogh and the oriental Jiin hog, circulus. 
I. fig. I. This is called A-B-Gitar Og- 
3gham-Craobh (c), the branch Ogham ; 

Chaldaean names, viz. rU Gith, Jlrues 
a torcularis. 3lp Kribh, Valutusj hence 
I twig, bccaufe it will bend. 
ibalilUcal Sephir^tb of the Jews, begun 
rde ; mider this circle was, Sapientia, 
, Benignltas, &e. This circle is named 
ler or Ccther.—Kethcr, vel prima Sephi-i 
irculus (d), hence in Irifh ^.eithar or Ke^ 
id, a bundle of rods, and in Chaldee the 
d figniiies Virgula una ornatu caufa no- 
sey:, virgula, fuper litcras notata ;— *— « 

Gelh, Littrdt^ \r^'X Githan, CharaOmr^ 
smrum, from whence the Irifli Abgitar, 

this Ogham or Bafk, was formed the 
rham, called Ogham^Cra^bh^ confifting 
epdicular line, areprefenting the flem or 
the tree ; on each fide of which the char 
s drawn horizontally, as in Fl. I, fig. a. 
to the ancient verfe following : 

d from an ancient Irifh MSS. called die Book of 
)r. Burnet's learned Archol. Philof. C. 8. Sec alfo 


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That is, 

B one ftroke on the Rigbuband fide ; 1 
F three ; S four ; and N five. 

H one on the Left-band^ D two, &c & 
Irifh Grammar. Edit. 2d, odav.) 

This perpendicular pofition of the S 
Trunk, was altered by the modems to a 
zontal pofition, and the ftrokes or charad 
came perpendicular; but they referred 
original pofition by calling the under par 
Horizontal Line, the Rigbi-band fide, { 
upper part, the Lefuband fide. This ci 
done cmly by drawing the fcheme as in 
by which means the Alphabet was rea 
Right to Left, according to the Oriental i 
which I apprehend is the true reading c 
Ogham Inscription of ancient date. 

The Uirceacbt na Ngaois (d) or Primi 
ftrudlion of Wifdom, commonly called th 

' (d) Tlie name of the moil ancient Grammir of 
which appears to contain nothing of the original but t 

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Andent Hijltny of Ireland. 77 

* the Bards, direOs the reading from left to 
according to the examples copied from that 
Lt Fig. 3* but this is evidently the work of 
Q bards. 

lerto there has been but one Monument dif<> 
d in Ireland with the Ogham infcription at 
Mountain in the County of Clare : (See PL 

• 6.) although many are mentioned in 
ISS. no pains had been taken to difcover 

this one is a fufEcient proof of the former 
ice of the Charader ; until more are difco- 
and comparifons made, we muft fufpend 
dgment of the value of each Charader, be- 
the Book of Ballymote, the only one that 
re &en, (except the Uiraceacbt) gives many 
ous explanations of the Ogham^ which aU 
1 the powers of the Charader. (See Note 
or the accounts of the difcovery of this 

Strokes or Charaders being drawn hori- 
y, refemble the Ukim Alphabet of the Chi- 
atooduced by Fo-hi^ who according to M$nf. 
was a Scythian, (e) 


bopletiaysy the firft Chiixfe Lecten confifted of fii«i|;hc 
iriiiootally drawn parallel to one another^ and were of 
lei^dif and varioufly combined and divided. Martinius 
bmt^ and thejr both give feveral fpecimens of the moft 
anoer of writing them. Thefe L ine-Lecters were con* 
I tke Book called Yekisi or Ukim which was thought to 
r than Hu-kim, and was afcribed to Fo hi ; but no body 
ok ID ezpUin diefe lines before Ven Vang a tributary 
iioo Tears B C. Cooplet adds, before the time irf* 
ley bid knots oTLines^ inlxead of ftraight lihes for letters, 
ad alio a fort of letters like the princi of birds feet, aicri- 


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78 A ViwikuAw cf the 

One of the Alphabets in the Book of Ball] 
18 in the form of Fig. 4, which very mnch 
bles the unknown Charadjers at Pcrfepolis. 
us thought thefe Characters related to cfac 1 
but the ingenious Oebelin juftly obferves, 
is a greater reiembiance between the Irifli C 
and the Perfepolitan unknown Charaden 
both, the vaUe or power of the Letters, d< 
, on the number of Strokes, or ^rts, and ii 
the number never exceeds JiH)e : the Ogham 
rader called Amhancellj compofed of four fl 
croifed by three others, is alfo to be found c 
Perfepolitan Infcription. (f) Sec Kg. c. 

Gcbelin is followed by the learnt Monf. 
ly, who produces this fimilarity of CharaQi 
a ftrong proof, of the ancient Perfians, fa 
defcended from our Southern Scythians, (g) 
is of opinion they were numeral Charaders. 
uns £sf les autres femblent appartenir i une i 
numerifuey fondiefur GiN(i, k nombre dis dm 
la main.^* 

The Ogham ferved alfo for Mufical Noti 
which cafe, the Aicme A was only ufcd; 
Akme or Divifion contains the five Vowels 
as l. II. 111. llli. Ilill.. (land foi' A. O. U. 
Hence the Vowels were named Guj or Gvtbi 
the Voice, (Lat. Vocalis), and the Oghs^m 

bed by Kircher to the Emperor Choam HaiB. (See C 
Scientia Sinenfis. Proem. Deckr. p. 39, and 54. ft Mini 
HJft. L. I. p. 14. 

Folii taught the Chmefe to write hy Lkot er Strpkes. 
Ion's Chron. p. 434. 

(f) Gebclin. Origine de L'ecriiure. V. a. 

(g) Lettretfur rAilantidCy P*4S7* 

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Ancient ISfiatj of Ireland. 79 

€d for Miifick, was called Mogh or Modh. (h) 
IT is the Hebrew jnVi Gaha, mugire, boare, 
facnoe ITD Goha, expirare — imo & Gaha^ extol* 
re fe«— *Nam ut Hinnitus, ita & Mugitus ac Bo* 
us, cxukantium ammalium argumenta funt— 
nc CU^ deploro, gemo, mugio.— -Syriac^ Gakoj 
Bchmare, hinc 9do>ro(, Clamor, Vox, — hincwyp 
aha. Graced K«x«i<», Canto.— -hinc nviRD Mega- 
fi, Mugiens, Sonans, Gn Mi;xa(»« refono. (i) 
The general Bame of die O^am, when written 
ti the right Line was Fiodb or Eeadbj that is, 
'rees^ becaufethe tree was the emblem of Litera^ 
ire amongft the Scythians ; hence Hercules or 
iim Breac, received the name of Fidius : hence 
lui a tree, and Rus knowledge ; whence Rut" 
n the trunk. Club, tree of knowledge, was ano- 
er name of Hercules ; Rujiam Nomen propr. Viri 
Perils, Hercules. (GoUus.) 
Feadb which fignifics a Wood, Trees, &c. was 
\ expreiHve name of the Alphabet, not becaufe 
' ancients wrote on wooden Tables, before the 
ention of Parchment, but becaufe a Tree was 
emblem of literature, (k) Feadb fignifies a 
Irufh, alfo, which was the uSlgyptlan Hiero- 
)hick of Letters, if we believe Horus Apollo ; 
e 2. Fig. 6. To this they added a 5/>w, be- 
5, lays he, a Sieve was made of that Vegcta- 
But, Creatb^ or Criath in Irilh, fignifies 


Thommaflin, GlafT. Un. Heb'-. 

^pfie literXy Feadha^ i. e. S i z, antiquitus di£be fnnt ; 
pergameine ufum Tabulx er-im d betulla arbore compla- 
u Oraiwn & Taibhle Fileadh, i. e. Tabulas Philofophi- 
bint. Ogygia. p. 433. Diflert. on the hiftory of Ire- 
Mr. OXJonor. 


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lUC laiAlC AUdUUCl^ All UIC; XiAiAl O^tfllKUtt^C. 

in the .£gyptian^ or any Oriental dialect, 
them-Scytluany Irifh, or Perfian, exce; 
have given fome examples at Note K^ 
prefled our ideas* that sdl the Hierogly] 
ven by Horus Apollo, are Scythian 
iEgyptian ; and that the Work under t 
is the impofition of fome Greek Philofop 
The words of Horus Apollo (p. 

Jltt^ AlyvvltA yfttfjifialA-^AiyvmliAH yftifji/iaiok i 
if po^pflt^u^ttreoir* i 'Vipar. fnxctr i^ xoaxiov, ^ <j-x«<v/ov { 

<^omodo iEgyptias literas.— Caeteriim . 
literasj aut factum fcribam, aut finem 
jitrameniumy Cribrunty & yuncum pingi 
ivhich the Commentator adds, ^gyptii t 
& Papyro Cribra primi invenerunt. It 
probable that the iEgyptian Juncus and 
vrere the fame, and that neither were i 
the fymbol of literature, as Creat in Irifli 
a Tree, and Creat-rach a Wildemefs, 
Feadb and Creat are fynonimous. 

From Feadb or Ftodh^ a Tree, proceo 
Fodbj Knowledge, Art, Science, whicl 
Sanikreet or Brahman languages is writ 
ff and V beinp' commutable.) and from 

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Ancknt Hi/hry rf Ireland. 8 1 

Ita(ting8 in 1785, wc find the origin of this Ved 
it alfo from a Tree. 

Ledure 15. 

Of Pooroofli-ottoma, 

Kreeflina. . 

^^ The incorruptible beine is likened unto the 

tree AfwoHa^ whofe root is above^ and whofe 

branches are below, and vhofe leaves are the Veds. 

He who knoweth that, is acquainted with the 

fe€is* Its branches growing from the three GoQn 

or Quafities, whofe lefler ihoots are the objc&s of 

tKe organs of fenfe, fpread forth fome high, fome 

loi^. Hie roots which are fpread abrosul below, 

in the regions of mankind, are reftrained by ac- 

don- Its form is not ;to be found here, neither its 

beginning, nor its end, nor its likenefs. When a 

iiian hath cut down this Afwatta, whofe root is fo 

finnly fixed, with the ftrong ax of difmtereft, from 

that time that place is to be fought from whence 

there is no return for thofe who find it : and I 

make manifefl: that 'firfl Pooroojh from whom is 

produced the ancient progrclGon of all things/' 

*• There are two kinds of Pooroojh in the world, 
the one corruptible, die other incorruptible. 
There is another Pooroojh moft high, the Paramat^ 
m or fupreme foul, who inhabiteth the three regi- 
ons of the world, even the incorruptible Eejwar.'* 
This is evidently a refined Sophiftry of the 
Brahmana, on the original emblem of the .Scythian 
Tree of knowledge. — Eefwar is the Irifli Aosfhear^ 
(pronounced Eefvear)^ an attribute of the great 
Creator ; it is the Etrufcan Efar, f h in Irifh pro- 
nounces Vj thus fhead, is the Sanlkrect Ved, — 

F the 

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82 A Vindicatim rf the 

thcBrahmanickiTr^^iia, an incarnation of thel^^^ 
ity, according to their interpretation^ is the hifji 
Crifean^ holy, pure, whence Crifean a Prieft. Jji 
the fame manner the Irifli Ogh or Oigh a Circfc, 
IS the Sanikreet Tog ; and there is no tirord, fays 
Mr. Wilkins, will bear fo many interpretations as 
this. Its firft fignification is junction or union : it 
is aUb tifed for mental and bodily applicatioii : 
but in the Baghavat Geeta, it is generally ufed as 
a theological term to exprefe the application of the 
mind in fpiritual things, and the performanee of 
religions ceremonies, hence Togee a devout man." 

In the fame manner the Irifli Ogi aCirde; 
Ogby pure, clean, undefiled, holy : Oigb^ a Hero: 
Eagj wifdom^ mental application. Not only in 
this work, but in ail other tranflations and ezpla^ 
nations of the Sanflcreet or Brahmanic Philofophy 
axid Mythology, we find the words correfpond 
with the Irifli, both in letter, in fenfe, and in fome 
places the Irifli gives the explanation, as for ex- 
ample ) Gnea in the Sanflu'eet, is the objed of 
wifdom, but Gnia in Irifli, is Wifdom, Science^ 
Learning, becaufe Gnia li a tree, and fynony- 
mous to Feadh, or Ved. 

The Irifli have another Ogham, call^ Ogban 
Cmll^ that is, the Ogham of Mercury, or the Qr- 
cles of Tait. C0II9 i. e. Taitj i. e. Mercurius, &j 
the Old Gioflarifts. In Chaldee the name of Mer- 
cury ii tffm Kolis, (1) he was fo called from io 
Col. menfuravit, b^^ Colil, Circulus, Arab. KiL 
Mekil, menfura, metrum : hence Err-^CuiU in 
Irifli, illuftris Mercurius, which being confounded, 
by the Greeks, with Earrcol the Merchant, gaiv^ 
rife to the Greek fable of Hercules difputing tkv 
tripod with Apollo* 

(I) Plantavit. Lex.Hebf. 

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Ancient Hijhrj of Ireland. 83 

The Ogham Coll is not an Alphabet, as our mo- 
dem Bards have made it, but Circular Scales, for 
the due ordering of the terminating Vowels in 
Verfe, and was originally the fame widi the 
Arabic Derwyet (m) or Circles given by the learned 
Dr. Clark, in his Profodia Atabicay publifhed at 
the end of Pocock's Cafmen Tograi^ Oxford 1661. 
The Circle thus became the Emblem of Poetry. 
Circulus PMmatis Genus: Ad Anni autem fimili- 
tudinem Poematis etiam genus Circulus appellatur, 
cujuii Ariftoteles Analyfticis meminit. (Hieroglyp : 
Hori. ApoUon: p. 412.) 

We refer a more particular defcription of the 
Ogham, to a future publication, and ihall only 
dbferve, that our Scythian Hero, being the fup- 
pofed author of this menfuration Table of Verfe, 
he was called Meafavj from Meas exaft mcafure- 
ment. Cadence, whence probably fiSfr^ Mufa ; if 
not from "^yc^ Mofar, Eruditio ; hence the Greeks 
made Hercules, the Mu/agetes^ or conduAor of 
the Mufes. Abbe Le Fontenu, quotes Diodorus, 
Ifocrates, Paufanias, Ariftotle,' Dionyifius Hal. 
to prove Hercules was a man of univerfal know- 
ledge, (killed in Theology, Philofophy, Aftrono- 
my. Poetry, and the Art of Divination, and 
therefore a fit perfon to be honoured with the title 
of Mufagetes (n). 

llie Scythian or Iriih Hercules having voyaged 
into Africa, and ftudied under Egyptian Artifts, 
as our hiftory confeffes, might there have learned 
the Rudiments of Literary writing. I confcfs^ 
j am inclined to think that Nemed and his Colony, 

(ro) Hence the Iriih Draohad a bridge, an Arch, Mr Circle. 
(n) Acad. Bell. Lettr. T. 7. p. 51. 62, 

F 2 were 

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84 -^ Vindication tf tbi 

were the Phsnician Kings (Shepherds) as Africa* 
nu8 calls them, for the 6th and laft is called Ajffis 
by Manetho, and by Africanus and Eufebius, he 
is called Archies : but by Syncellus he is named 
Kertus^ which I think is a corruption of Cre^ft i. e. 
Science, another name of our Irifh Hercules* 

The Emblem or Symbol of Literature, with the 
Irifh is a Tree, (o) or a Serpent, or both : the 
Tree has been converted to a Club : Ctii/ the Irifli 
name of HercuUs^Mercurim^ fignifies a Club, and 
alfo a tree ; hence we find on all the moft anpent 
medals of Hercules, a Club, a Tree, a Serpent, 
or a Lyre, for he was Ogbani^ that is, the Harmo* 
nic Circle, the Hercules Ogmus of the Gauls ; he 
was the Rtiftam of the Perfians, becaufe ]^us in 
Irifh fignifies a tree and knowledge or Science. 

The Olive tree in Irifh called Scol-Og^ or, S|rf- 
Ogj that is, the Botrus Herculis^ or Berry-beanng 
tree of Oga^ was particularly dedicated to hin : 
hence the Greeks made that Tree facred to Miner- 
va, who in the Tyrian language was called Oga, 
not Onga, with two gamma, as we have pfro^mi 
in the introdudion i hence Scol Sgol metaphori- 
cally fignified learning, wifdom, prudence. VQp 
Sgol or Segol in Chaldee implies, proprietas, fub- 
(lantia, proprium, anditisthe Vowel of three points, 
•• , becaufe like a Botrus or clufler of Berries, lay 
the Hcl)rew' Lexiconifls. But Scol is any tree 
bearing Cluflers : Hcb bpiy^N Efhcol, botrus ; (p) 
and from the fame Root we have ^:3U; Scol & b'^SIOH 
Efcoi intelligentia, . intelligere & N^^^ Scpla the 

(o) Panicularljr the Mulberry and the Olive— Herciilc>*s 
Club wa^ of the Olive tree. 

(p) The place was called the Brook Eficot becaufe of the 
Clufteri of Grapes. Numbers Ch. i 3. V. 23. 


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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 85 

l^e. ^Qtzm £ibcol Carmen cniditum, tfir\^:f30) 
Scal-tana a Mailer of Arts, rfffsara Mefhcaloth^ 
Sdekitie. The Rabbins fa^V plainly this metaphor 
of the word Scol ; in the Talmud^ Sota and 7>* 
mura^ we hare this explanation, Quid eft Vl!32^ 
Eflicol ? (i. e. quare fie dicitur) Vtr in quo omnia 
Jknty and fueh was our Scol-Og or Irifli Hercules. 
In like manner f^\ Sith, the OKve tree, in Irifh 
Suitby iignifies a man of letters ; it is fyhonimous 
to TW Atf Dar^ fays Schihdler, which word we 
have Aewn from Hutchinfoh and the Rabbins, 
always fignified the tree of Knowledge in the Gar- 
den of Eden ; the word figftifies Splendor, Gloria, 
in ks proper fenfe, and thus H^T Sith, is derived 
frMa Vt Siu, Splendor, fulgor ; thus Caftellus, 
maices fjeMt; ^y £f-Shaman, the Olive tree, the 
PyiaKis or Cyprefs, (for it is doubtful which), to 
bet i"^ ha Dar ; multum fellor, nifi ftxo Saman 
hie idem fit quod l^n f^a Dar Lev, 23. 40. Ci- 
trw, viz. y^f) Targ, arbor deagitiofa a cujtis vel 
cortiee elicitur Oleum Av. i. & airOS (be Catub, 
ietiindum Catub) apud Nehem ; aperte hoc indi- 
cate AS. Hof. 1. 5* See Caftellus It ]JSKO Saman. 
Wttt wc have the Olive tree explained by Targ 
wfaetoee Targum, Explanation, Interptetsftioa and 
by Cdtuhy which (ignifies Writing, but what is 
mSl more, 3Mra Cattab or Kettub, is a name of 
Meifcikry, the fuppofed Author or inventor of 
JLetters. ^urO Mercurius qui Scripturae praceft. 

Gaoth is another name of Hercules in Irifli, 
becaufe the word fignifies Wifdom, prudence, 
Xietters : it fignifies alfo the Sea ; but I doubt 
much if this is the true meaning of the Word, 


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86 A Vindication of the 

for r«NT Goit in Egyptian i$ the Olive : un 
they borrowed the word from our Nemedi 
when in Africa, hence Air^acb-Gagth ^ Ejnt 
of Hercules in Irifh, of which the GreeJLS fom 

Herculem primum Oleaftri ngno cprons 
Ad Grsecos a^utem ex {lypcrboreis ufque ab \ 
cule Oles^ftri arborem tralata memorant, qui 
cantur ultra Bpr^amhabitare. (CasL Rhodigii 
XidOi. Antiqu. p. 483 : h^nce I prefume Odin t 
on him the name Gaut ; from the Sui-G 
Goeta, i^nigma : commemorare, inyepire, ace 
rere). See Ihre at Goeta (f ). 

In Montfaucon Vol. 2. p. 225, we find a S 
bol of Herctdes'Mercurius or as we ihould c:q: 
^t in irifli of Ogbam-Thoth \ it is a Tree conve 
by the Qreeks fnto a Club, with the Cadui 
at top : at bottom lye fome Sgol or Secol ; Vt 
(PI. %. Fig. I.) Montfaucon thinks them Ear. 
Corn, and that this Medal was deigned to fig 
Hercules, Miercury and Ceres ; there is no 
fcription. Scribunt Graeq Herculis clavam fi 
ex Oieaflro, quam apud Sardonidem is reper 
quinetiam depofitam in Trcezene apud Merc 
Statuam quem voxi^tofi yocant. (Lud. Ccel. S 
digini^. LedUonum Antiquarum. p. 458.) Ql 
in Olympia plantaiTe Hercules mcmoratur. 
ib.) a. a. in the figure at top are two JDin i 
rut or palm branches, to fignify that Hercules 

t Hn»4 Vif, Virtus, N^ Cogitarc HQjf Confilinm 
Githftn Charadlcr, figura literanim ru Gath Struaslignca 
refert Ibrniain cordilaris : Angl. to get by heart, to forget 
Carmen firoai OTO Cercin Vinca ; the wcHving of the bra 
one through' another. 

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Andeta Hi/iory of Ireland. 87 

the invcHtor of writing, for min fignifies Sculfifaznd 
Raxpus Pdmx. Hence Cfar^at in Iri(h, Art, Science, 
"^ writine ; and hence one of the names of Hercules 
in Irim is Chreat, hence the Greek x«p*<^<^» Atticd 
X^fA^Afi x^?^yf^9 x^f^^'^^h L^tin : Char after, pro 
Scriptura, et literis. See Prof. Bayer de Num. 
Heb.Samar. p. 22. Nota; and Buxtorf. Lex. Cald. 

P- 38- 
la the fame Author Vol. i. is a Hercules of 

Ta-rfui, with a Sierpent twilled round a pole fixed 

hk the ground; this cannot be the Hydra, fays 

•Mfontfaucon, for Hercules is not in the attitude of 

ftiriking it (PL 2. fig. 2.) It is not the Hydra, but 

tlx^ Symbol of Wifdom, and therefore property 

apgplied to our Ogba. It is very remarkable that 

^tkms Senent is the Arms of the ancient Milefian 

JnMh^ who draw their Origin from this Siim Breac. 

** Hilie Milefians from the time they firft conquer- 

*^ «d Ireland, down to the Reign of OUamh-Fod- 

^^ lila made ufe of no other Arms of diftinfUon in 

^^ their Banners than a Serpent twifted round a 

^^ Rod, after the example of their Oadelian An* 

^^ ceftors : But in this great Triennial Aflembly 

•^ at Tara, it was ordained by Law, that every 

*^ Nobleman and great Officer fhould by the 

'^ Herald)}, }iave a particular Coat of Arms aflignr 

** cd to him''. (Keating's Hid. of Ireland, large 

fol. p. i4p. 

Ixi the fecond vol. p. 224* is another Hercules, 

ft:a.zi.ding by the Scol-Og, the Olive Tree, or Tree . 

<>f flercules, the fymbol of Literature ; he holds 

isx ids left hand a fprig or branch of the fame 

tr^^, and with his right he refls on his club. (Pl« 

^ • fig. 3.) At the foot of the tree is the lyre, the 

*5ri:Tm.bol of Hercules Mufagetes, and from the 


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88 AVindicaiioaaftbe 

branches arc fufpendcd two Oghams, thi 
Craobh and the Ogham Cuul, formed 
Greeks into a crown of laurel and anothc 
Near him is an altar dedicated to Oghai. 
£giucon does not tell us where the monui 
found, but by the infcription it was Ror 
die iame chapter is another Hercules M 
quejoue afluelUment de lyre^ who adually i 
on the lyre, fays Montniucon, in a furp 
he had juft before told us, that Hercules 1 
was imported from Greece to Rome by 
who had placed him with the nine Mufei 
proper guardian of them, becaufe of 1 
ftrength. The original had no fuch idea 
the author of poetry and harmony. Th« 
or of an Ogbam Craobh chara&er, which 
in iacrcd writings, and which at the £i 
ferved for mufical notes ; and of an Ogfe 
or circular fcales of Prc^idia ; by caftinj 
on the Ogham figure, will be readily di 
the origin of the Greek mufical notes, c 
of letters (landing in all diredions, accc 
they are clafled in our Aicme — thus 


See Burnet's excellent diflertation on the 
of the ancients. In like manner, our 
notes marked the accents in vcrfification, 
I think the Arabic word A^enij which 
the true pronunciation of the vowels in 
that Language. Hence Hercules was cal 
not from Mount Ida, as Gebelin properly c 

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- Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 89 

but from jrY* ida, fcience^ knowledge, i. c. EiJ^ 

connoitrc. ^Gcbclin, p. 235. Allcgor. Orient.) 

He&ce Ead m Irifh fignifies knowledge, faience, 

poetry, muiick, andEadarmas, the art of invention. 

la like manner our Philofopher is fometimes re- 

|irefented with three apples or oranges, as having 

gathered the fruit of the philofophic tree. In this 

%ht Cedrenus underftands this fable. At Hercu- 

ies, inOcciduis terras partibus, primus Philofophiam 

inftituit. C^em mortuum ab ipfo prognati in 

X)eorum numero retulerunt. Herculem iftum 

puigunt indutum loco vefUs pelle Leonis, clavam 

icrezitem, ac tria tenentem mala^ quae fabulantur 

cum. Dracone clava occiflb abftulifle. Hoc no^ 

taz^^ eun mala, ac varia cupiditatis confilia clava, 

hoc eft Fhilofophiac ope viciffe. (Cedren. AnnaL) 

In like allegorical fenfe are the two trees of 

Oeryon or Hercules, which dropped blood and 

milk. Arbores illic etiam efle tradunt, qua: nuf* 

quam ^bi terrarum inveniuntur, appcUatas autem 

Greryonios, & duas tantum elTe. Ortse funt autem 

juac^a Sq)alchrum, quod illi Geryon ftatuerunt, 

Ipcciem ex pinu, piceaque commixtam habentes, 

fanguinem ver6 ftillare. (Philoftrat. de Vit. Ap- 

pollon. 1. 7. c. 19O 

Strabo, 1. 3. defcribes thcfe trees in a different 
xna^nner, Gaditanae vero arbori, & illud innatum 
ede traditur, quod uno frado ramo lac effluit ; 
qucsd fi radicem abfcinderis, minii humor exun- 
dat — all allegorical of the tree, the Irifli emblem 
of learning, fcience and philofophy, originally the 
fy xnbol of our learned Hercules, or Siim Breac. 

To prune the tree, or the vine, fignified to com- 
poic a hymn : to wreath the pruned branches into 
Ogham or Circles, had the fame fignification. 
Hence in Irifli Damh^ a poet, a learned man. 


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90 A Vindication of the 

Damhay a poem from the Chaldaic xycn dama, 
fuccidere, excidere. The Jews altered die firit 
letter of this word into T and wrote it "ycK Tmou^ 
which fignifies to prune the vin^, and to fing 
pfalms, or compofe hymns. Zamar putare, ms 
cidere vineam. Zemora Palmes, Surcnlus, Pro- 
pago. Mazmerqt Fakes vinitorise. Forfan c^ 
Damaj Succidere^ Excidere, D. vel Dalet, verb 
in Z, vel Zain— hinc Zatnar^ Zimmary pfidlere. 
Zemitj Zemira^ Zimra^ Gantas, Cantio. Zammer 
Chald. Cantor, Muficus. Zemaroj Cantio, Mufi- 
ca. Mizmoty Pfalmus. Attenditur in his forfim, 
quod in vocibus etiam & cantibus fmt inci6ones, 
(icut in avibus minuritiories. Apud Gallos la 
Taille in utrumque fenfum fleditur, five in Vin^ 
five in Mufica ; Hue refer Chaldaicum Mezameraid 
Pfalterium. Jerem. i. ii. i8. ubi Zain pro 
more verfo in D, fit Me-Dameraia & inde GaO. 
nunc Mandore. Nee aliud forfim eft TU»i%i\ 
Pandura, Inftrumentum Muficum: unde api ^ 
Lampridium Pandurizarej hoc inftrumento ludere^...^ 
Ab hoc Zamar fit Hifp. Zambra Saltatio Maurc^^^ 
rum, item Hifp. Zambra Fefte dcs Mores, 
Danfe, Ital. Zimara^ Jlzimarre ; GalL Simarre 
tis magnifica cantorum in publico. (ITiomalOrr-^ 
Gloir. Univ. Heb.) To which we may add, hencirrc 
tlie Irifh Damhfaj and the Englifli Dance. 

llie origin of this fymbol is to be found in Iri^^h 
documents only. The olive tree and the vine, l^a- 
cred to Siim Brcac, (the father of letters and ^^m{ 
poetry and of inufic, the inventor of the OgtuL ^an 
tables, for all thefe purpofes) was the emblem ^( 
Kterature in general. To prune the tree, to wea""^^ 
the fmall branches into Ogljam^ Crowns or Circl^=.^, 
iignifled to compofe in vcrfe, and hence each letr 

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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 91 

oiftit Ixifli alphabet was denominated from trees, 
and (o '^fct^ thofe of the Samaritan, or Hebrew, 
and th^ Chaldaic, as we Ihall prove hereafter. 

JjQ Jl^e manner the Irifh or Scythian Curm the 
vine; Siebrew Cerem forms the Latin Carmen. A 
Cfrem ^ft etiam Grac. Kp^cctw, fufpendo, ut fufpen* 
duntuK* vites: Hinc etiam Carmen^ quod primi 
verfus «omici decantati fuerint, in curru vehente 
^xiuoES.9 vitibu$ obumbratam. (Thomaflin.)— 
"Xhe origin of the fymbol was concealed to this 
leaxned Gloflarift. 

To this let us add the emblematical ufes of 
isees ^ the fcripture. Gen. a. v. 9. ^^ the Akim 
ffiode ^verj tree defirablefor the in/irument ofvifwn.^* 
L Vlbait. it was they coveted to fee or know, needs no 
^ ex{iaining, (ays Mr. Hutchinfon, for after the 
J writing of the law, wc find this was an emblematical 
^ inftitution, mentioned Nehemiah 7. v. 15. They 
^ were to live under booths covered with boughs of 
^ the emblematical tree as of Sithy the olive and 
cs boaplis of the tree ]ttu;, (Seman) 0/7, &c. This 
2=f furcly could not be the olive tree, and we know of 
k^ no other bearing oil : it mull have been the Dar^ 
5f Catbub or Morusj the emblem of literature, all 
:» derived from the tree alphabet of the ancient Scy- 
ii thians. 

{ The next figure is a Hercules playing on the 

ii!. lyre, from Count Caylus. See his antiquities, 
i^ r* !• p. 47.— The figure before mentioned from 
> Montfaucon, did not verify it to be Hercules, but 
4 J!iere the club is'tp be fecn lying by his fide. 

/ rPJ. a. fig. 4.). 

' ^nd in this admirable Antiquary's colleftion, 

v« a . pi. 88. is the true Hercules Ogmitts of Gaul, 

Jbcixx^ i terminus in' Bas relief on an urn found at 


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92 A Vindication of the 

Sijieronj a fmall town in Provence. (PI. 2 
On one fide he is wreftling with a man, 
his conquefls and his ftrength^ and two X. 
fupport^ on a Tripod, feparated the 
Deux couronnes font plac6es aupris da vai 
comme pour ranimer fon courage. This m 
been the defign of the Roman artift wh 
this groupe in Gaul ; but the original id 
an Offham Craobh and an Ogham Ci 
Hercuks is here reprefented with the 
ceus, an inftrument fnatched from oui 
and given to Hermes by the Greeks, 
confider the conftrudion of the Caduce 
fhall find in it every fymbol aj^rtaining 
hero. It is dcfcribed as producing three 
united, whence Cooke thinks it intimates ; 
perfonality in the Deity. Homer expre&ly 


Xfi/af jtff TficriiHAor. The p)lden three-leafi 

At the extremity of it was annexed a drd 
Ogham, an emblem of the Hermetic wane 
Cooke — two ferpents entwined the rod, 1 
which, fays Cooke, might reprefent the a 
which they were particularly famous, as the 
fie, eloquence, and aflronomicaliearning. 
fpeaking of the Canaanites ; but one of d 
leafl: was diftinguifhed as a feraph, by the exp 
wings — ^it is the compleat hieroglyphic 1 
mighty ones (a). The wings were added f 
whim of the Greeks, making Hermes a fwii 
fenger of the gods. The Dodor then cone 

(a) Dr. Cboke's Enquiry into the Patriarchal R 
p. 56. 

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Ancient Hift9ry of Ireland. 93 

by deriving the name Mercury from the Celtic 
Hire merchandize, and r/r, a man, viYiich is, 
igfi he, the true meaning of ys^'^ Canaan, a 
trader. Tliis may be true of Mercury as the God 
of Merchandize, but has nothing to fay to our 
onginal Caduceus. Now the rery derivation of 
the word Caduceus or Ceryciusj as originally writ^ 
ten, fiilly explains whence the word is derived. 
Cerjclum eft legatorum ornatum. Alexander ab 
imndro. • Sane nee dubium, quin latina vox h 
Graeca originem ceperit. Neque obftat, quod 

pfMifor VulgO fcribatur per ci. A XHpJxior igitur, vel 

podns ufJsiof five xeipt/xfov dixere latini Caduceum— 
Voffius — See him alfo at Caduca Oliva — but the 
Greek word is formed of the IriOi Crocj the fignum 
honoris, the horns of glory, the fame as the He-^ 
brew pp whence the Irifli Ccarn-duais or Keam- 
duais. Athletic Laurel — fo likewife Keam-Crocj 
the honorary reward for an athletic prize. 

Hence Count Caylus, the beft antiquary of this 
age, was much aftonifhed to find a Caduceus in 
the hand of Hercules. Hercule paroit avec le Ca- 
dac^e, ce que je.n*ai remarque fur aucun autre 
moaument & dont je vais me fervir pour expliquer 
•unpaflage du Ciceron : ou TOrateur Romain de- 
maiide afon amis Atticus,des Hercules — Mercures. 
JVois toujours penf^ que par cette expreflion, il 
^bit entendre des ftatues d'Hercule, (implement 
^ennin^ en gauies : mais on voit par ce monu- 
'n^ity que ces ftatues renuniffoient de plus Ics 
(vmbolcs de ces deux divinites. (b) 

Without the afliftance of Irifli documents, this 
^u(t for ever have been inexplicable to all antiqua- 

(b) Caylus Antiq. v. 2. p. 21S. ' 


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but the othef Ogham-Cuill^ or the Oeham 
i. e. Mercury. Cicero mentions a Here 
fuppofed author of the Phrygian letters 
p. 434*)- Hercules traditur ^gyptins ; i 
nut Phrygias litteras confcripfifle. 

And Cedrenus confirms our Hefcules 
been the firft eminent philofopher. At \ 
in Occiduis terra partibusj primus philofo] 
ftituit, quern mortuum ab ipfo progna 
rum humero retulerunt. (Cedr. Anna 
The learned Monf* Bailly has proved the 
Hercules originated with the Scythians. '. 
t-il pas encore Hercule dans Scythie, o« 
trouvons^ toutes les origines^ executant fes 
& port ant des bienfaits furle Caucafe, d\ 
lantes font partis, ainii que le Culte du 
ou les Perfcs prennent leur origine, & co 
mcnt de Icur hiftoire ? (Lettr» fur TAtls 

309O . , . 

Having now antici])ated what we had 

Hercides in the chapter Mythology, we 1 

the old names of Spain, to (hew that no c 

guage but the Irifh can explain them ; ^ 

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Ancient Hijiorj rf Ireland. 95 

^cient colony of Phaenicians. Strabo places thent 

^ut the river Bcetis and Tarteflus. Dutan in 

Irilh fignifies a natioii^ a people ; Dutai land, re- 

KioQf country. Dmle (ignifies a pleafant country^ 

nom dtiilam to take pleafure, and is fynonimous 

to Aikasj hence Tar^dntan^ the diftant nation ; 

far-duilej the diftant pleafant country, the Ely/tan 

Jlelds^ Hebn xfTS alasj laetari. Turditania regio 

iberis, quse etiam Bsstica vocatur circa Bstin 

i7uvium. Incolae Turditani & Turduli. (Ste-* 


The river Batisj was fo called, becaufe it divi-^ 
ded Turditania into two equal parts nearly. Bae^- 
tican nominarunt Phaenices ab amne Basti qui me-* 
diam fecat. (Bochart.) In Iri(h Beith-is, Beith- 
as, Bdth-ifce, the middle water; the river that 
divides into beithj twain. 

Ltifitania^ was fo called from its plenty of her<* 
bage, whereby fo many cattle were fed and multi-* 
plied, that the Romans invented the fable of the 
Lufitanian mares breeding by the wind. In Lufi- 
tanis juxta flumen Tagum vento equas fastus con- 
cipere multi audores prodidere, quae fabulae ex 
equarum faecunditate & gregum multitudine natae 
funt qui tanti in Callaecia & Lufitania ac tarn per- 
nices vifuntur, ut non immerito vento ipfo coa- 
cepti videantur. (Juftin. 1. 44. c. 3.) Luis or Lus 
. ia Iri(h is herbage, and Tan is region or country ; 
Luis4an therefore (ignifies the country abounding 
with herbage. Los m Irifli alfo fignifies the quick 
growth of herbage. Los^ i. e. Fas^ names extre- 
mely applicable to the foil of Lufitania. (c) 

(c) "it&f^. LAftd, from Las and Sad, humor^ a Sad^ mamma 
nber» hence Lae. Luxuria. Ital. Luflb, LulTuria i2;iD Phous, 
abiiiidare, multiplicari, augefcere— Lat. fufus, fiiyio. EiFufio 
Oall. profufion. 


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g6 A Vindication tf the 

The XMtX, dJTifion of Spain was ^arracon^ h 
. which was the city of Cantabria^ where our Irift 
hiftory profeflcdly fettled a colony, calling them- 
felvcs at this day Clanna Boo/canny or the Bifcay- 
nan tribe. Cantabria might be fo called from the 
worship particularly paid there to Cann (Irifh) the 
full moon. Cann-to^ria the city of Bona Luna. 
Aftures & vafcones in finibus Cantabriae crebo re 
bellantes, Wamba edomuit, & fuo imperio fubju- 
gavit. (d) Civitatem, quae Cartua vocabatur & 
Pampilonem ampliavit, quam Lunam vodtaviti 
Hence I think this province was called Tir-Cann, 
whence Tarracon, unlefs from the remotenefs ol 
the harbour, from Gadir, it was called Tar^Cuan, 
the diftant harbour. 

Gadir, fuppofed to be fo called from the Punic 
word fignifying an- inclofure, Sepes. In Irifli Ga- 
tair, Gaidir, Cadair<» Catair, the C being com 
mutable with G, and D with 7*; it is now written 
Cathairy and fignifies an inclofure, fuch as in- 
daily meet with in Ireland, called Ratbsy whcnc: 
Mr. Shawe in his Irifh and Erfe dictionary tranflat^ 
Cathair, a barrow, an intrenchment. 

Anas River — inter Tagum & Ba:tim mediv 
Lufitaniam a Bxtica dividit. Bochart derives 
from NDy Ana Syriacc Ovis, in irifh Uan ; but 
think all the rivers thus named in Ireland an 
Spain, were dedicated to /!nu or Na7iu^ mater dt 
orum, hence Ana — Lificy, the river that rxxx 
through Dublin. 

Ur, many places in Spain and Ireland have Lli 
name at the beginning and ending of words, fi i 
Grcgor. Majanfius de Hifpanla Pro^enic vccis XI 

(d) Wamba only rcftored k lo m ancienr naroe. 

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Ancient Uijlory of Ireland* 97 

It fignifics a low ground, whence in Ifaiah, c. 24. 

V. 15. it is ulcJ for a valley — boJie apud Vafcones 

Irura vallein fignificat. Hence in Spain Gracch« 

urris, BiNuris, Calog-urris, Es-uris, Ilac-urig, 

Lacc-urris, Ur-gallium, Ur-cefa, Ur-gSivo, &c, 

and ia Ireland Ur-gair, Ur-na-galla, Baile-Ura, 

Ur-j^ial, &c. &c. from \Jir, a valiey, a fituation 

by the low banks of a river. 

" II, begins the ancient name of many towns ia 

Spain, which makes Majanfms think, the word 

/i^Tiifies a town ; it is the Irifli and Arabic Eile^ 

which fignifies a fettlement, or colony, as Eilc- 

O^ Carroll, Eile-Uagarty, &v:. So in Spain Her- 

g^avonia, Ilerdam, Ilipa, &c« 

Of tbefc we (hall fpeak more particularly in a 
work on the ancient Topography of Ireland. 

n"o conclude — It is, I think, pretty clear from 
Strabo, that fome colony of people, remarkable 
for their Ikill in navigation and their knowledge of 
letters, difcovered Spam and fettled in it, before 
the Tyrians \ and that thefe mercantile people, be- 
ing fupplied by the firfl difcoverer* with the preci- 
ous commodities of that country, had fent out 
three, expeditions before they found out this great 
feat of wealth ; the words of Strabo will juftify 
what I here affert, and who this firll colony could 
be, but our Nemedians from the Euxine fea, and 
iailly from Africa^ I cannot dcvifc. No hiftory 
l^ys claim to the difcovery but the Iri(h, and to 
tbetn, in my opinion, it is juilly due. Strabo, 
'• 3-P- ^^Q- ^^y^^ " according to the Gaditanian 
** records (pfcfcrved it feems in the temple of 
** Hercules) being ordered by an oracle to fend a 
colony to the pillars of Hercules, thofe that were 
fcnt out, being come to the entrance of the 
G . "Straights 

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- {JC5 uciiig uiiitfvuuriiuic, liicj rviurncu 

•* being fent out zfecond time, they advan< 
•* yond the Streights to an ifland confecn 
** Hercules, fitoatc near Onobiaj a city ctf 
** where they offered facrifices, judging the 
•^ of Hercules had been fixed at this place 
*• no good omen appearing, they again r 
" honii : being fent out a third time with 
^* they landed in the ifland of Gades, and 
^* built a temple at the eaft end of the iflan 
" a city at the wefl.*' 

Nothing can be more evident, either th 
Tyrians did not find thcmfelves fufficiently 
in the two firft expeditions to force a fett 
amongft our Feinoice, or that it was fo Ion 
the pillars had been erefted, that the mem 
them had efcaped tradition. But what h; 
difcovery of the very fpot where the pillars 
to do with the gold and filver of Spain, whic 
undoubtedly were feeking ? It muft therefoi 
been for want of fufficient force that made 
return a fecoTid time. And when they had 
good their fettlcment at Gades, we find a k 
the Turditani, bold enough to contend wid 

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j^ncient Uijlory of Ireland. 99 

*' temple of Gadcs, failed thither with a powerful 

** fleet, which the Phaeiiiciiins (i. e. Tyrians) op- 

** pofcd with their long fliips, and having difputed 

*^ Mhe victory for a long time with equal fuccefs^ 

*' (aequo marte; Theron's fleet, ftruck with a pa- 

^^ jiic terror turned off on a fudden, and was con- 

** /umed by a fire from heaven. Some few of 

** the mariners who efcaped the fire, being taken 

'* up by the Phaenicians (Tyrians) declared, that 

•* ttl^r panic proceeded from their having feen 

" terrible lions (landing on the prow of the (hip, 

«c SLiid that fuddenly the (Spanifh or ) Iberian (hipt 

*«• ^vi^cre confumed by fiery rays like thofe of the 

t^ fun.** Thefc fafts related, no doubt, origi- 

1221.1 ly by the Tyrians, is a convincing proof that 

^ey were not the firft navigators to Spam ; and it 

^ec<^s ^^ comment to prove, that if the Iberians 

^er e able to equip a fleet to engage the navy of 

Tyre, they were able to lend an invading fleet to 

Great Britain and Ireland, prior to the Tyrian 

fettlement at Gades. Befides, it was of the utmoft 

impoitance to Theron to clear the feas to the 

veftwardofthefetroublefome neighbours, for, by 

^ having a port at Gades, they intercepted his com* 

J munication to the CaiTiterides. Now, as we hear 

J of xio more difturbances of this kind after fheron's 

^ defeat, it is certain, the two powers entered into 

g' aa alliance, and on this account, probably, the 

^ Ihc&vians (hewed the Tyrians the way to the CalTi- 

^ terides. 

\j^ There is a ftrong fimilarity in Irifli hiftory to 

^ this account of Theron's defeat \ it is in ihe reign 
- of Datby^ whom the Irifli hillorians place as low 
4ovn 48 Anno Domini 438. They make him the 
iait of the Pagan kings : — it runs thus, Dathi, 
G 2 i. e. Fea- 

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tainig Saignen-teineadh do nimh chuig 
gur rus marbh in righ ann, i. e. Datl 
real name was Fearadac ; when he wa^ 
Ireland (i. c, Eirin pitlM or •»N*tiy Ibc 
feflcd to the weft of the weft to Helpa or C 
certain king, called Merita^ was then I 
ftrong tower in the bofom of Helpa— 
goes on to inform us that Dathi befi< 
place, and was ftruck dead by lightnin] 
has been miftaken by fome Irifli writer 
Alps ; the place here (ignified was certs 
or Chalpe, i. e. the SWp-hill ; its origi 
was Briariusj corrupted from Bari-rosj 
the promontory of the fhip. Thus Ros-ht 
little promontory of the fliip, in the rivei 
navigable from thence for ftiips to the fe 
alfo what the Scythians firft named Coda 
Long or Arthrachj that is the Ship Ifland 
the Tyrians named •»3*?N Alpi, i. e. a i 
Erythia antigua la que oy fe llama ifla 
En veneracion de efta Heroina^ y de He 
Phenice llamaron Alpha^ fays the learnec 
vier, in his hiftory of Spain, fpeaking ol 

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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. i oi 

j^tndi fignifies an Ape, and we call it Apes-hill ; 
X/^wwis a corruption of tD^^^ Siim^ the plural of 
Sly \ flup. 

It is very remarkable that the ancient Iriih fpeak- 

ing of Spain, always ezprefs it by lar-Eorpa^ that 

is, the Weft of the Weft, or Weft of Europe. 

The Arabs and the Prophets do the fame, as we 

ihall fhew in a fubfequcnt chapter. This expreflion 

of the Lrifl), (hews plainly, when thefe name;i 

were given to Spain, their anceftors were feated 

to tbe eaftward of it, and gives great room to 

ibkkkL the aftertion we have made of their blendine 

tbe SLncient hiftory of their anceftors, when feated 

in tlie Eaft, with the hiftory of Ireland, is we}l 

foaxided. One, out of many examples, I fhall 

quote of their great navigator Ugan-morj from the 

zjarxsth of the four mafters : Anno mundi 4606. 

kr tnbeith 40 bliadbann comhlan d^Ugoine mor na 

mA Eireann agur iartha Eorba go hiomlan go muir 

fimrrianj do rocbar la Badbbhcadh^ i. c. after Ugon 

the great had been king of Eireann (tranflated 

Ireland) 40 years, and all the wefi of the weft com* 

plcatly to the Tyrrhene fea, he was killed by 

Badhbhcadh. Thefe paflages evidently mark the 

tranladion to have happened when they were feated 

1^ in Sicily or fome of the iflands of the Mediterra- 

1 nean eaftward of Spain, and not when finally fet? 

( tied in Ireland. 



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1 01 JlTindicathn tf ibe 




the defendants of the nnrent PERSIANS ^ SCYtHlAtTS 

THE African P)'rates called Fomoraigh are dm d 
tb have haraffed this colony of Ncmedians in di^|. 
XVeftrm fettlcmtnts, and to have followed flk^in 
to Ireland. 


Tomcrdigh Afrik, is a general name in Iri/h 
liiftory for the Carthaginians ; the name fignifics 
Marine Herces or Princes ; but here I take Fmo^ 
'rdigh to imply that body of Pcrfians^ who, ac- 
cording to the Punic annals given us by Sillult, 
as before recited, did not quit Africa with the 
greatbody of Nemedians, but fettled towardsthc 
ocean. Thefe people would naturally endcavottT 
to (liare the benefit of the lucrative trade carried 
on by the colony fettled at Gadi-z, : and being as cjc- 
pert mariners as their brethren, would endeavou-T 
alfo to purfue them to the Britifli ifles, from whenc « 
a more lucrative trade was cftablifhed by the Sp^- 
nifh colonifts. This conjeAure correfponds wiC-3 
the following account of thefe people, delivers 4 
to me by Maj. Tifdal, who received it from Ca[^^^« 
Logic, the Englifli conful at Morocco. 

A mam 

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Andfnt fJifiory ^ Ireland. ip^ 

^^ A manufcript of a moft ancient date is now 
XI the polTef&on of the Emperor of Morocco, de- 
ci;ibing the people of the province of Sudan in 
>outh Barbary. Their features, complexion, and 
aBguage, differ totally from thofe of any other 
>eople on that continent." 

" Although this manufcript is fo old, it corref- 
jonds exadly with the charafter of the prefent in- 
labitants of that country.*' 

*^ It relates, that a part of thefc people being 
ncc oppreflfcd by their Prince, croffed the Medi- 
rjr3nnean into Spain ; from thence they travidled 
>x:th3 and found means to provide vqffcls frooi 
>£c (bores, in which they embarked, and landed 
^n mountainous part of fome of the Britilh iflcs. 
1 -this prefent moment the people of Sudan al- 
tys fpcak their own language, (unlefs in thqr 
:^rcourfe with the Moors) and this language h^s 
^reat affinity with the Irilh and W.ellh dia- 

** Xheyarered haired, freckled, and in all re- 
^^8 a (tronger bodied, and more enterprizin^ 
ople than the Moors. Their language is called 
liloagh ; they wear a checked woollen covering, 
Lt^ on in the fame manner as the Highlanders ufu- 
ly wear the Kelt.** 

** They are the gr^ateft travellers, and mo/l 
iring people of the Morocco dominions^ and 
Midu& all the Caravans, (e) 

(c) Mrs. Logie, the Confui's ^ife, was a native of Wales, 
nd informed Maj. Tifdal . fhe undcrftood many words fpoken 
7 tliefe people, and fomecimes whole fentences. 


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I04 -^ Vindication cf the 

From tbe Travels of OHOST, DaniJIy Conful »m 
Morocco^ from 1760 to 1768, tranflatea fit^wz 
bis Works publijhed in the Danijb Language^ w^t 

Of the B R EB£ R. 

•* They who are fatisfied with conje£tures, may 
perhaps derive the primitive inhabitants of Morocr« 
CO from Cham^ fon of Noah ; becaufc one of t%ie 
provinces is to this day called Chus^ the name ©f 
Cham's fon : there is alfo a Sebta or Sabta in tbis 
country, which was the name of Chus^s (on, 
but the Moors call the defccndents of thefe o/d 
inhabitants Breber and Sblah. We (hall paTs 
over thefe and other fabulous ftories told of JV^- 
tunej Atlasj Anteusj &c. and (hall only obfcrve, 
that the inhabitants confift of various people, 
who have arrived here from the Eaft,"^t differm^ 
periods, and who, by force or intermarriages^ 
have thruft the original inhabitants to the moua— 
tains ; but at what period and in what order thi^ 
came to pafs, is not eafy to determine. Some — 
thing may be gathered from Salluji and Procopiur- 1 
which are the moft circumftantial accounts 1 hav^^ 
met with. The words of Salluft are thefe, &c=^ 

** I'hc Breber are well grown, tall and lean 
they fuffer the hair to grow long behind, anc^^ 

(i) Set this pafTaire quoted before. 

fliavc ^ 

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Ancient Hijlory of Ireland. 105 

(have the forepart to the top of their heads. A 

kind of Kefeb or Shtrbil conftitutes their drefs ; 

chcy feldom wear (hirt or breeches. They arc 

lif ht, briik and airy, and handle their fire arms 

iv^th uncommon dexterity, twirling them round in 

tb« air and catching them as they defcend : their 

a^xifkets arc fomctimcs highly ornamented with 

^1 ver and ivory to the price of fixty or eighty du- 


" They live in the mountains in great fquarc 

^^ iiildings, which commonly contains a family in 

^^^ch fide ; the building is generally provided with 

B^ lofty lower or fpirc, fometimes with two, from 

'^i^hich they defend themfelves ; and if they find 

"^e enemy too ftrong, the alarm is given from the 

tops of the towers, and inftantly they gather from 

all quarters to oppofe the enemy. They call fuch 

a boufe or barrack Tagmin or Tigniin: (g) they 

•arc built of ftone, clay, and lime. Befides theic 

buildings they have many towns, and in thefe re« 

fide the principal Jmr-garJ^ (h) 

** The name of Breber may have been given to 
this mountainous part of the country by the Arabs ^ 
in whofe language Ber fignifics country, and Burr 
or Btireutj a dcfert ; or it may come from the La- 
tin, Barbaria, or the Greek ^«pa«pof." 

>* The Breber are certainly the old inhabitants 
of the country called Morocco; probably they 
were the ancient Gatuliy who were diftingiiiflied 
from the Melons Gatu/i or Blacks that lived to- 
wards Guinea. The Gatuli fecm to have been 

(g) In Irirti Tcaglr( r Tigh, a houfc j Muht a mountain. 
(h) Amr, or Emir ia Iriih, a chief. Sec ch. 2. Amr-gar 
or Garty the head Emir or Chief. 



1^ A Vindi€0thn (f the 

Philiftiiies, Sdbaeans and j9E^yj>iians ; the aaone 
of Goliah (i) is well known among them, for tie 
children cry out to one ftrongcr than themfelvts ia 
fighting, you are a Goliah. Dapper cites Mannol, 
that the Jews of Barbary were the .firft inhabitami 
of the Eaftcrly defarts of Africa, the dcfcendanu 
of the Sabfieans, who were conducted to thi& 
fpot from Arabia felix, by their leader JVf^Zfi.jfL 
rike. (k) The Arabs pronounce it Afrikia, iut 
thofe Gaetuli who live in Tingitania, Numidia and 
Lybia, are called Breber-Xiloher.^* 

" They call tbemfclves Amazing (1) fix AflM^ 
zirg, perhaps from Mazr^ by which they m^y- 

mean jSgyptians ; the Moors call them promitcu 

oufly BreberoT Shilha. In ihort it is almoftim^ 
poffible to get a perlcft knowledge of this^pea^ 
pie ; the remote and retired fituatiofi of thcix" 
places of abode ; their zeal for their religion aad 
their enmity to.chriftians, cuts off all communiosL — 
tion with us.*' 

" The Breber have a language peculiar to them — 
felves. J. Leo calls it Tame/et inHc^d of Tdnur — 
^irgt ; it has little or no affinity with theMooriitM 
•or Arabic ; they now ufc the Arabic charaScr^ 
which they learned of theii" Mahomedan pallors-. 
But, whether this language is the old Gaetulwm ^ 
Numidian, Phasnician, Turkifli or iEgyptian, o r 

(i) Golamh or Golav, a common epithet in Ireland for a ftrongr 
man : this is no proof ot their knowledge of the fcripturcs. 

(k; KO'lCK'n^ Melach-Ipharkia, Nautae Dux, pro Mel»— 
chim, NaursR, a Salfa fic didli. (Thonialfin.) Iriili MeI!acH» 
a failor, Mil-a-Bhreac, or biim Breac, as before. Hcacrc 
Africa was known by the name o( Barca. (Hyde.) 

(J) Arab, AUMizun, Nautae. Sec before. They write rlm< 
f)ame Amazir^, 

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Anefeni Mift^ry cf Ireland. 107 

mixture of all, mud be determined by the 
arned. The following lift of words I got from 
learned Talb^ who for many years was Iman in 
"amenart, among the Breber/* 

^ By this lift it will appear, this language has 
Mittbe teaft affinity with the Moorifh. Dr. Shaw 
ifts given a few words of what he calls the Shaw^ 
x^fpoken by the Breber in the jil/gberjie moun^ 
iM ; in this lift we find banc), breads milk, 
lite, iron, barley, are nearly the fame ; but a 
ifc he calls akbam^ the nofe anfern, &c. Per- 
>m the Sba^uiah is a dialed of the Lybians and 
senicians, and the Tamazing of the old Gae- 

^ * As to the derivation of the name Mauri j it 
s been obferved, Pliny and Varro call the Per- 
os faru/ij and the Arabs name them Fars ; but 
^9 Furuft could be changed into Marufi^ and 
^ again to Mauri^ is not eafy ta determine, 
^ain, if we follow Salluft, and fuppofe Mauri 
cnes from Mediy it is full as prepofterous ; nor 
£ochart's opinion more probable, in deriving 
from the Hebrew jihur^ fignifying Weft, tho' 
Is true, the Moors call all thofe dwelling between 
flemfan and Asfi^ Morgrebi, that is Wcftern, 
id from Asfi to Nun, they arc named Sufi j and 
e Spaniards call them Algarbes^ from El-garb 

Por this Author's lift of words, fee the end of 
> chapter. 


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io8 A Findteation tf the 

From SHAWS Travels into AFRICA. 


" THE Kahyles of Africa, fays Dr. Shaw, (L:« 
his travels through Africa), from their fituatiasi 
and language, feem to be the only people of theC^ 
kingdoms who can bear any relation to the anc^^ 
ent Africans ; for it is fcarce conceivable but th^^^ 
the Carthaginians^ who poflefled all Africa, muflr 
in confequence of their many conquefts and colc^^ 
nies,^ have in fome meafure introduced their oii^^ 
language, ofwhich we have a fpecimen in Piav^^ 
tus; and a ftill greater change muft it probab]^ 
have fuflfered from the fuccemvc admiffion of tj^^ 
Romans, Vandals, &c. into their countries, 
llius much is certain, that there is no affinity ^r 
all betwixt what may be fuppofed to be the primi- 
tive words in the Showiahy (as they call this laa 

guage at prefent fpoken by the Montagnards) aocS. 
words which convey the fame meaning in the He-» 
brew and Arabic tongues." (m) 

^* There is alfo a language of the mountaineers 
in S. W. Barbary called Shillahj differing in fom^ 
words from the Showiah ; but the meaning oC^ 
thefe names I could never learn.** 

For the lift of Showiah words from Sbaw^ Se^ 
the end. 

(m) Then the Shawiab cannot be Punic, for that had a jptkJ^ 
affinirj to the Hebrew. 


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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. i 09 

From the TraveU of Mr. JEZREEL JONES intQ 
^frica^publijhedattbeendof CHAMEERLAYN's 
Oraiio Dominica. 


ampli/jlimum Virum D. Job. Chamberlaynium, 


NULLUS mereo honorem quem mihi in coin- 

^O.umcanone laboriofiiliinss sque ac utiliffimae 

^%3sOrationem Dominicarum colledionis exhibu- 

ifti ; virefquc mihi dceffe fentio, infigne hoc Poly- 

^lottum fpccimen epiftola quadam illuftrandi, 

praeprimis cum norim multos viros clariflimos fe- 

liciffimd hoc jam pcregiffe fucceflu. Tentabo ta- 

mcn (cum in magnis et voluiffe fat fit) tuis ut ob- 

fisquar imperatis, aliqua de Shilha vel Tarmazeght 

lui^ua hie apponendi, quae ut a me w^feeha in ob- 

fcuris dclitefcentc pro folita tua humanitate be- 

aijgne accipias, obnixe rogo. 

Siyerfa: linguae hujus dantur dialed! in Barba- 

ria.9 quae ante Arabicam, primariam Mauritania^, 

Tingitaniae, et Csdarienfis provinciarum linguam 

ibl obtinuere, et hodiernum inter Ailanticorum 

%Hs Dara et Riepbean montium incolas foliim ex- 

ercentun Differentia diaieftorum et fermonis^ 

inter hos et alios vicinarum provinciarum incolas, 

ea primd llatim auditu judicatur quae eft inter 


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no A Vindicaiion of the 

Wallicam et Hibcrnicam ; aft, fi fenfus vocum accu- 
rate cxaminctur, plane alium dc iis ferendum eft 
judicium. Meis auribus lingua Shilhenfis^ cum 
primiim illas rcgioncs adirem, fonum Wallicarm 
&f Hibernicarum in gutturali pronuntiatione vnm 
referebant : Sic, cum inihi dadylos offerrcnt, di- 
ccntes *' Urnz teenf^ (n) [fume dadylos] illos mc 
igne dactylos torrcre vellc credebam, cum tamcn 
ignis in lingua hac aphougho^ (o) vicino Hifpana* 
rum fuegOy lignificct. Multi montium honim in- 
colx, dentibus reclufis, fibilantem loquendo cdc* 
bant fonum : £t cum, per aliquot tempus, ii^ 

San£ta Cruce (prouti a Lufitanis, qui ante cen 

tum ct quod excedit annos, earn imperio fubjcce 

rant, appellatur) degiflem, integram provincian^^ 

et diftridum particularium focietatum hunc iibi 

landi modum afFe£lare inveni ; an ut virum 
quem clariffimum virtutumque fama percelebi 
imitarentur, an ut fefe ab aliis tribubus et pr o - - 
vinciis dlftinguerent, non conftat. 

Lingua Shilbenfis vcl Tamazeghf^ practer plani 

ties MefHe, Hahhcc, et provinciam Darae vel Dri,^^ 
in plus viginti viget provinciis rcgni Sus in Barha— — 
ria Meridionali, qux omnes lie (p) praefixum !»■ 

(n) Teeny, i. e dnSyhs^ iNe date tree. 

(o) TQgh^ f^gh^ *^^^g^^t all betoken fire; as do ftidiugatnm,^'^ 
I. do foiuga teme^ he bUzcd up the fire. It holds in all com—-* 
pounds and r.nonima, a^ Jiogha^ burning with anger ; jmt9^^^ 
boiled; fiuc-eac^ burning wi:h luft ; /J^^-ot//<^, i./bgh-mk ^ 
harvcil i. e. ihedivifTon of the year in the hot feaibn j a^igh i 
aphugh^ ripened with heat, applied to cooi, fruit, &c. henee l 
\ax\^ facus. But Funct \\\ Iriih implies cold, cbillinefs. 

(p) lat^ iath^ a diilri*^ or region, often written in Irifli wit — A 

a fingle i: — fo alfo, thh^ a tribe or clan, is frequently writte a 

in the fame manner, ^nd is alwavs prefixed, as in the foi i^ni'i^ ^ 
examples of the Shilhae, 


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Ancient Hi/iory tf trelaJid. in 

)cnt, uti inter Hebraeos fub lege : Ite Benjamin, 
\ro Benjaminitae ; Ite Hivi, pro Hivit^ ; Ite 
litti, pro Hittitae ; Ite Jebuz, pro Jebuzitse ; 
c ctiam Ite Ben Omoran ; Ite Mcfegeena ; Ite Qtta \ 
'e Achcu ; Ite Stuckey^ quae ampliffima provincia 
c multis familiis vel Ites^ urbes, villas, muro* 
ae cin£ta loca, Federts^ Agadeers^ vel Kerria vo- 
ita, inhabitantibus compofita eft. Nomina ha- 
.traculis hujus provinciae impofita magnam affini- 
t:em cum aliis linguis habent : v. g. Kerria He- 
raica vox eft pro loco Jearim, Kirriath Jearim. 
r*ope Saffy, fub 32 latitudinis gradu, datur hu- 
simodi locus Kirriath Mohamed el Gregy (q) voca- 
L«, i. c. Munimcn Mohametis Graeci. Turrim 
l^llant burje^ (r) quod idem eft ac bourgh vel 
znrougb ; caftcllum Keifarrea^ i, c. Casfaris man* 
ronem, (s) vocant. Sacpiflimd diverfitas linguas 
lujns in fono tantum conftitit, diverfimode in di- 
erfis provinciis ufitatd ; et in nonnuUis locis plu- 
imas habent voces rem eandem exprimentcs, 
Touti apud Arabcs, Royl Infan, Ben Adam i;i- 
um^ Haflan, .Lavud, Zamel ^ywww fignificat, Za^ 
'el tamcn ct Lowot (t) frequenter et in quibufdam 
Kris pro Sodomita fumuntur. Multa dantur He- 
^aea, Latina, Graeca, Punica, ac Carthaginenfia 
>cabula in lingua Shilhenfi ; e. g. Ayyel (u) in- 

C«j) Calhair Mahomed til Greigi^ i. e. the city of Mohamwi of 
5 Grecian flock, i. e. tribe. Kaer, a city. 
Ct) Burg^ a houfe ; hurg or as, a great houfc ; hruige-Jae, 
K Uime. 

(•) Caife araSy caife Un^ a caflle. 

ft) Z.«r. iinful, guilty of heinous crimes^ fornication. Sam-al^ 
pleafanc borfe. 

•^u) Ail^ beautiful, innocent ; ml-hien^ a fmal! flock of young; 
t^tim^ a pet, a darling ; eiCt, a deer, hence the Greek ellos, 
£iwn I all from the Hebrew aUUi. 


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iiz A Vindication of the 

fantem ct Tayyelt (w) fervam in Shilhcnfi ac He- 
brsea fignificaty voces tamen hae etiam pro ccrvo ct 
cerva fumuntur ; et Ayletb Sbahar ccrva matuli- 
ua in Hebrseo erat, uti in noftra bxbliorum vcrfionc 
redditur ; Zehhar^ autem» et Sbabar^ admodum 
fimiles fibi voces, horam matutinam vel tempus 
auroraft apparencis, quuni mofcharum clerid po- 
pulum ad pra:ces convocant, fignificat. Shilhenfis 
populus eundem quern Arabes, Judaei, et Hiber- 
ni habent ritum mortem amicorum deplorandi, 
vociferando (x) wiley! wiley ! wiley I wogh! 
wogh ! wogb ! wogb ! moght niootogh ! wilej ! 
wogh ! terram in ordine pulfantes, fcalpentes Yul. 
turn* et evellentes crines fuos, dicendoic;^/ vml 
woe I ivoe ! cur mortuus es ? woe ! woe ! Strcpi- 
tus fc. hie, fimul ac anima corpus reliquit, affiftcn- 
tibus vicinis per dimidium boras vel integram ho- 
ram durat; poftmodum dolorofas exclamantcs 
cantilenas interogant mortuum, cur moricndo 
eos reliquerit, optantes ut mors eos potius ex 
hac vita eripuerit, et quod ipfis cum bonis refiduis 
faciendum fit. Et, fi cognatus aliquot menfes 
pod eos vifitaverit, rcnovant lamcntationcs, ct 
iepulchra mortuorum cum amicis adeunt, qua 
(mendina) civitatem mortuorum eodem quo Judaci 
fub lege nomine appellant, Sed Hebrasi illis in re- 
gionibus degentes fcpulchrum Beitba Hyeem domum 
vel manfionem vivorum ; Shilhenfes, autem,/j//Km 

(w) TnilU, wages, one who receives wages, bence the Greek 
ielos, veftigal, and the French taille^ a rax. 

(x) BhuiU ! hhuiie ! hhuile ! och ! och ! och ! muchfm- 
chta ! hhuile ! och ! this is the Iriili cry at diis day at t fiuie- 
ral or wake, which hi Engllfli is— madnefs ! rage ! defpAirf di! 
oh f my fwollen brcaft ! defpair I oh ! teidfe muchta^ he pe- 
riiTied. This is rhe wi/jr uox of the modern Wclih, tfatfcrtfr 
miiihcfii [or %;uile net) of the ancient Irilh, and the builek^ 
the modems. 


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Afldlnt.Hlfii9y::^Jrlhnd. ;ii3 

Mikuimdini (yy Hab^ttis ebmm: rmtflis eft 

d^(2i>^*MbUllulnil'latUs^^ imi- 

rite JwMr^JMriMin6rililxn-os humesris Idbciiin- 
uttt^ 4urte IbbotibuScifiueta?. Proiixos inftitui 
!ibod<li 'de <k>nfuflcttb iir^mrurh .OUbylonica 
ift'^jj^di^il. Ipfe.cum mukisraliis Rubbinis tre- 
bat, Hebraeam linguam uhiVerfalem tiuh: tem- 
ris fuiiTe, Deumque infinitos nofle modus Om- 
p6texikHx/i fiiam c6t)^tiioli(i?i«ndi; et litigtiahi'fllam 
cf<y€rdffiiS[ii ^il(B.p|al?if^ fuB diale.ft'd? Wpct. 
4i-V'jjUe in of^niboe vemBatur artifices' etiid- 
SfibM»0pcri8 hnjuij ts^eitAttt, lippitudioe . ocu- 
rUHIV'W mbrbo gfunufali afflidos fuiffe, quof- 
ua fordoSj alios mutos/f^^^ e^e, lb iUihina 
if&m caliHnerh ttdt^ecBVipdrtfn^ut ihUflleftbiji 
Hum eonufdifle } :alu ^ffirm^bant, Deum > tbtali- 
rifaitelkidufai ac judieittar ip£)rum pjivaiie,' ftu- 
dofqu$ fiabricatores reiddifle, pro fumma illbnim 
^m tdAiim aftciidere tchtSnte* SAi' hac 
' h wtLfiSet^ Nigri ex regno Tombotob, in Bar ba- 

(7) FaUum-deeHt-^aamett-tin, i. fallann deanta far meata 
m^ an inclofurc made for the dead, literally for thofe who die 
'ficknefs, I e.a natural dcaih j fal, fail, fignifits an inclofurc 
'every kind, as a ring, a bracelet, a rampart j fail mu ice, a 
g-ftre I fail contra^ 1 . caar-lann^ a (heep-fold, and hence the 
nti(h word fold. 

(x) The author refers to that part of the ancient drcfi of the 
lAi called the Philead or Plaid, a large cloak of one piece of 
oth, wove with variegated ftripcs, the ground of which was 
snerally ted. It was the Pledoih or Paledoth of the Chaldse- 
is, fee note G. at the end of zd vol. It was alfo named in 
•ifli ^muuh^ in Arabic 5f««Mi or 5kiw, the Plaids of the High* 
Aders of Scotland. (Richardfon's Arab. Diftion.) See Lick- 
Cf in the following liflofwods. The fluff of which thefe 
illead^s are made, is called tartatty on oriental came 

H riam 

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fi ct Hcbrai lingua.'^ 

(a) Gm, ffm^ nkindredi As \xl €9im-fTiaJihi \.t^mmk 
vel htrtiih^ mieration ; cvm-dht vt]g§mJt^ die chicfof ftl 
ckuMir, t (mer in Wdiht Atigom^ a fitter in Ha 
/ktur-gm in Iri/h ; hence die coounoQ Irifli 
goman^ fociety/ from whence the Lacin eo mmitmh WBd the 
Tifh cMmumm ; Irifh cMM*ar» a corapanioo, ftom €Mr i^ 
both fi|^ifying allied in blood. 

(b) Seems to be compounded of /itt/Sr and rMi, i. e. alB 

(c) Ua^ anj male defcendaat, eorrupdf written • btl 
century ; um^ tutfai (Ambice ^i^J impliet 6A bom^ nobl] 

(d) Bat, daJa, mmna, are til common in the Irifli as m 
in the Hebrew. 

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Ancient ^/kry <f Ireland, 


/ O C A B U L A R ^Y 



. v-.t ■ . 

Fkom thi Authors bbforb mentioned. 

« ' ' 



nH£ words do not always agree in orthogra- 
ph^rj for ezamplcy Jones writes Crify for 
tfizi.SUmmq^y four; Sutbeqfi^ fix; Sa^ feven. 
lOl writes the fame words Karad^ Semusy Sadisy 
: Dr. Shaw writes Abrdm bread, Jones and 
ft fpell it jtgbroom ; the word be^s wit^i the 
:er ain^ in both, and being pointed is pro- 
inced gcitturaly as gb ; therefore thefe are the 
le words, pronounced according to the prqvia* 
1 dialects. The Orleptalift will alfo fin4 many 
irdsiM mere corruptK>ns of the Arabick, which 
ift unavoidably happen, from their long inter* 
•urfe with the Moors. 

Showiah. - 

Soume] ^'"^ 


Aran breads guirm fo$d^ 
entertainment ; whence 
Guirme aninn. Quseref ' 
H 2 

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A Vkdkatim if the 

Showiah. Irish. 

Afuie, aious, iand^ cUip* Bhos, bhus^ abbsufe^ tk 

Agais cbeefe 
Akham a boufe 
Akihecfb a b^y 

Akfoumc fiejh^meat 
Aman water 


Abel-oote afaU 
Akytb berM 
Allen theqe 

Anferne tbe nofe 

Yecfc 5^*^ 
Arica to-morrow 
Afee£;a8 a year 

palm rf tbe band 


Acaidh an babhatm 

Sotfa ^fifring^fOaHtft 
Ukemfiy nuftcb or equals 
og-meUhy Arab. Ju* 
hoofh a boy 

Aghfamb, bot teneiha 

Amhan a river^ am an 
tbe water 

Mugraidhe^/bMrT^ muir* 
eacan, muivcbu, mok» 
eadach demkmi Artbi 
raaruttib, mukawim 

BiU afool^ uall^ySZ^ 

Ag zk in tia pli^ 

Afl-fatc, bait/tones 

EiB tbe eye^ AL aft Aiabb 


Greud ajlead^ezfiiahorfe 


Aras a dweUing 

Saigheas an age 


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JwciM Hyhff ^Ireland. 




Sai a J^aee rf ftme^ fa- 
nlutnfir fe, io^day 


Eafcra rdcky ridge 


Breac-dan HiwhOiUr 

Aidhbheil tMribnf, ^^^- 


lar /Atf le;^, frtti^fiin 


Daoine^ iudtii) ihiudaH, 

Fafa^ the hair of the beadj 
the beard 

Lwf-kee milk 
i^^rcw etftotn 
k^rimmc aferpent 


^^i^a^ the earth 

^otife the heud 

clakcn there Agfin 

Hyke ^ tewo/iSfn blanket^ This is the ancient Oighe 

Jix yards long and two or Oicc of the Jrijh and 

broadj the drefs by day Erfe^ now called the 

and the covering by Plaid. 
night ; it is a lo$je but 
trouble/ome garment. 

Note. Dr. Shaw derives this word from the 
Arabic hauk or heiauk to weave, (texit). Hoft 
calls it Haiken ; they are both of the fame origin 
vidk th^ IriA Oigbe or Oice^ fignifying a web of 
dadi) or any thing woven. Another name for it 


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Ii8 A Vindtmm if the 

in Iriflitt Suanacb (a), in Arabic Smui^ a gar- 
nptcnt, cloth, t|irb^, 4ih, tiara, turned by die 
qiodera Afab^ into femma^ which fignifies a fpe- 
qes of loofe upper garn^ent of the Arabians, fome- 
what refembling the Plaid of the Highlanders of 
Scotland (b) ;; but the common Irifli name is PM' 
leadb or Fdleadbj fignifying a ^lotb ; Filleadh big 
the little cloth, i. e. the kelt^ or petticoat, part of 
the highland drefs: heince its diminitive Rtlagj a 
^awl, wrapper, little plaid (c) ; thefe ^e all muk 
of a variegated woUen (luff called tartan^ in iriiich 
the red colour is predominant: hence thcfbale^ 
dotb of the Chaldsean foldiers. See note d. ' The 
w:ord is derived from the Scythian or hUhJBkadb 
or Jlllamj to fold, to plait, to weave : in like mao- 
ner the Irifti /eblj pronounced flfolcy a veaver^f 
loom, a web of cloth, forms the Per&aai /b^nal, as 
ornament worn by the women on the neck, like 
our handkerchief or kercher ; hencq the Perfic clnh 
la, a weaver, in Irifh /eoladoir ; hence /^, a fail 
^of a Ihip), and teoladoir, fignifies a uilor aUb; 
for diftinftion, this word is now not ufed in the 
former fenfe ; and a weaver }S named Fighidoir* I 
In Anhic Jbaul^ cloth. I 

Showiah. Iris«u 

Haken tbere Ag fin 

Jiita the body Scit a bone^ feiti thefiin 

U) A Highland plaid, a fleece Shawe's Iriih Did. 

(b) Richardfon's Arab. DiU 

;e) Shawe's Dia. 

Oighe a web, was miflaken by the Greeks fin* Ogh^ . foienet^^ 
hcDoe Ogga Mmerva, or the Graces, was made to ptefide oifS^ 
weaving. See Ogham^ 'before defcribed. 


AndmalB/hry €f Ireland. 119 

Showiah. Irish. 

flh ake, Iwtus^ prudens lEs^Xz,^ prudential fapimtm 

Kabjlcah clans ^ tribes Baile a tribe^ cUatj celony^ 

kebaile tbe illufirious 
tribe or clan ; tbe latter 
word is Irijb^ Etrufcan^ 
and Cbaldaan ; baile is 
Pbanician. See Ch. IX. 


Soaagf butter^nulk 
Takflieefli agirt 

Kylah tbe Sun 

Taphoute tbe fun 

Tafta a tree 
Teg-mert a mare 

Alowdah a mare 
Ilgenoute Heaven 
Toule tbe moon 

Oluidh aflfeep (d), wbence 
olan or oUan, a fleece^ 

S\xzg a mixture of new mi& 
and butter^mili 

Tbe feminine of Akfheeih 
abe^. See it. TbeT 
pr^/Lced to/eminines^ it 
the hrijh Tc Jbe 

Keai tbe Heavens j xmidh 
from GoVLfvpremusypo^ 

An epitbetj Te-bot crTe- 
bhot, intenfe heat 

Abafta arborarius 

Eac a horfcy marc thefame^ 
TfemifUne pr^ed 

Al-oidea a female horfe 


Gile, gealach 

(d) Shawe in Ims Iriffli Dia. by miftakc calb it a 06w; 


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A WttUafiHf^k ^tktt 

Hi^uliih a fever 

Uudmis the face 

Vethra, f^^> apkfpe$ lathra mtwf; in m^ 

Tibowne ^^^/u Bonar 

Uchfat' ' Ith 

ifu^.drtid^ Sugha 

Ikcrr//e'' ' Eirig 

tot a woman^ with tH 
feminine T thamhatot 

Truit the foot 

Teileadh, tohizchj^k 


Tum-yias cpnf jff(tff b^fy 

£ad, apdan, Perfic^ adim 


giuM yqcuM. j. Jone?. 

Azgar a cow 
Awin the eye 
Aphoofe the hand 
Aram a camel 


Afcra a dry cow 

Ein, ainn 




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Andita fii/hirf $f fr(Umd. 


Eifg, as cuilUifg, eqmt 
lentus^ gnc-cifg id. 


Eafba parvum 


Arab, bur, Ir. barr. mmth 

Chodcmy a plowjacQulter Cuithe a trench made bf 

the plow 

QumfuT the npfi Chomar. an fron. See the 


Daddrii, AzMz^ father Daid, gaid 

jB^o-fcKj^ # lame mm 

BezejA muhum 
Ben a fan 

Doonit 'i 
puny ifan 3 ^^^^ 

Eemough the mouth 

£l-chottum a ring 

Eaghfon *> Heads 
Eaghph ]a Head 

£|.fummur tf ^2^/7, qipeg Seama 

Dana,dandha, don, donad 
Dona-cifadh, y^^i&i;;^ vice 

lomogh the mouthy the teeth 

Cult a periphery y CuidhaH 
a wheels £1* prep. Arab. 

Eifeachd a head 

£l-phaa afkrpenf 
Erby, god 

El-gQom^na 4 cgrd 


Earba fupreme power^ 
command^ OirbidiB ve* 
neration^ honour ; Orb- 
huid an old name of the 
Sun^ Quaere ? 





A rindfcoHcH rf the 

foci a beam 


Faill the kernel €f any foi 

or nut 

Qhx&adaj Ohoftaois days pa/f^ oU 

a^e ; gus until now 

Hemp beads Cab 

Hackem 7 a governor Agbach warlike^ braver 
Hiaickema 3 power ^ autbo-> Ar« Agha a comsnander 

Kowata power Kovad: 

%}xi^€ialock Cobhail a feeure imbfid 


Ladia a balance j /calf 4 Laide, Idte, Idthid, bence 

Mac Aodha Laide na 
lann^ a prefer name^ 
^gnifying toe adnm^ 
Jlrafor ofjuftUe 


•Crann gormas^ crann gor-< 
min^ i. e. tbe camdm 
tree ; hence the ciirmi or 
cochineal^ aninJeSga^ 
thered on tbe fig-tree^ 
which produces tbe car- 

Lor je lame 
UKmmoos Jlg'tree 

hick gums 
La2^b marble 
L^gucrga a nut 

Lezgjfrqm leagam to meb^ 
dijolve^ to drop 

Lea-fabh ajlonefawedeff^ 
Quaere ? 

Gargt bard^firm 


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AiuteH$ iS/hry if Inland. 123 

Shilha. Irish. 

IjOokcTt/uimfiM Luaigh, pUafani^ cbeetfid 

I4ckfeeas the plaid cr Leig-fds. See the mte t9 
blanket Joneses letter 

Loddam an incindiary LoigiTm, to bflame 

lAckfvLZ a garment SeelAcldecdB , 

Mifmafli ripefrtdt Mtzs fruit 

V22nz the private parts Naire 

Ogho^e an afs Ogh-iol^ long-eared 

Ourgh gold Oirghc, gold^ gilt 

Oogar a traugb^ di/hy a Uag a dijb^ Uige a Jhipj 
kneaJ^g trough 


Oghorome bread 


Ro& bonus^ pulcber 
Smia butter 

Sophy purus 
Si-en knowledge 

Shech old 

Tanutfcct a cijern 

boat^ hfcn 

Uice bence^ ucham tracee^ 
bamefs^ &c. 


See Ahram» in tbe Show* 




Searram to lock up^ Frendi 



Sheilhir, 3eifir 

Toimpbit a veffel or pit to 
hold water 


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124 ^ Viudkathn 9f ibi 

Shilha. Umvu 

Ttaxf ibe date^ree Cranntine 

Tim%eeda a cburA^ a Tiomfagadbf ^ e^agteg/^^ 
congregafiau tim 


Arcub tii fpmi orjkmm^ 
rf the body 

See Ergez in the l^ioali 


Tamazcgbt b province 

Vrgasamafty beros 
Teafer^ much 
Yglcely^r, innocent 

Yrooz goodf boneji 

Glcglc, glc }^x^pf^ 
is my lot 

Avra, ion-roiich, 4i-readi, 

From the Travels of G. Host, Danish Consul 
St Marocco. (e) 

Shilha or Breber. 
Aiur the moon Re 

Azal day 


Solus light ; fol, afol, a 
round ball thrown into 
the air in honour tf $be 

^t) Eftcrretninger om Marokos og Fes, famledc der i Ltm- 
^cne fra 1 760 til 1 768, of G. Hoft, Kongl. Majcft. uirkeltg 


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Andml^Jiory tflretmd. 




X fcwetfid tsrig 


^x a prince 

Amra, emir. See th. F 
Jab. Ftoim. Qm^ 
head^ chief 

laixtaqufien : 

T feminine prefixed 

I camel '\ 
.ajbecamel j 

See the preceding lyi 


h is the Arab, aib 


Ois-gart a ram, afcra # 
dry cew 


Arab. Air, Kulj 



\ ahead 

Agha, aighc, bigh^fupreme 





the breaji 

Aidme a gorget 



, (^ rqck^a mun» AriU Asab. adar 

n^, bread 

whence Guirme an inn. 
See before 

a ribband 

Mann a bandy meann a 
hoop J a rib 


Arab, uid ; whence the 
Irijh Udhball an apple 


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Amdaknim tbw aft itij Madaighni 



Enchar the mfe 

Emgart the throat 

Gen^ ken, torepofe 

G^MxJit down 

Agh&8Ldhfood of tbi 
See Anfcm^ before 
Arab* gurden 
Connaoi repoje 

Igna Heaven 


Materit wbatdoyoucboofe 

Matfergelt welcome 

Eagaram to ^ down 

E^LgodS atmo/j^bere 


Ca tu airead 

Maitbcas oirchiolt^ 
teous donation 

Med tekit from whence Cread as tdghit* 
came you 

Kgtlem iaikom be comes 

Gioladh go fkein be 
bouncing alonz 

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•_ au^^ 

And^ Htfiwj tflrtUmd, 


.HA W BrBB£R. 


t the Sun 

Te foigfat darting beat 


Taifo concealed f fiealcar 



Tairg that will wa herd or 
fiocky fo ois ajheepy be^ 
caufe it flocks 


Tiitligbtjplendor; wbence 
Tithin tbe Sun 

: a beard 

Tom-art tbe bu/bj Bmb or 


See Tamazeght a province 


Tain-ait water-babitatiom 



an ounce 

Taic a given quantity 


Tzod^hn wool-yam^ At. 
Juzzttt wool 





ridf^ envy 



Tailie tbe Linden tree, 
taill^ a buncb 


Arab. Trkim 


Oirghc, Ur 


Ghort, Sclavonic^ Vert: 

t is certainly a great affinity between many 
words of ttie Showiab and Shilba and of 


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the IHjhy fct the languages iM retj dUkteot ; 1 
m&A the hmeoa^ ^ken by the motmuiiie^fs 
of Africa at this day^ and that of the Irifh : the 
pronouns, inflexions pi nouns, ancf cohjagitidm 
of verbs, have tio affinity with the Iri(h, yet there 
is great reafoft to* tbiiik, the languages were Met 
the fame ; at leaft, that the ancient Scythians, or 
Perfians, were the inhabitants of that country: 
We have ftiewB that Tog-r^, the ancient name of 
Tangier^ is Irilh ; this is (ituated at one extremity 
of the mount^s ihli^bited by thefe ShilHa 6l^Bf«. 
bcr : at' tfi'e other extremity is Mount Atlas for- 
merly called Dyrim<» Extra Columnarumr freton 
procedenti, ita ut ad fmiftram fit Africa, Mom 
eft, quern Graeci Atlantem (Atlas) nominant^ bar; 
bari Dyririi; (Stfabo, L. 17.) Direin» xA Hfc 
ftgnifies imjti^biks and Ath-los^ the flkavp,; or tS^ 
nical point, and this mountain was remarkable, for 
both. Bochart derives Dyreme from' the Ais^ii^^ 
Addit^ great or niighty ; Dr. Shawefrom iteibl 
brew jD^/-0^i. fiEHith ;> neither of thefe conrefa^ 
with the defcriptjen of the ancient Geographm: 
it was flcep and inacceflible. Mons nomme Adas^ 
qui anguftus & urtdique feres eft. (Heitidbfbil) 
And then he adds, & adeo cclfus (ut fertUr )'ur cfvi 
cacumen nequeat cerni^ quod a nubibus nunquam 
Tclinquatur, ncque aeftate neqik HyfeWfe* : ^Ittln 
efle co4amnam cc*K- indigcnse aiaitti . Ablioc 
monte cogitonlintftftUr (Atlantcs fcil.) hi homines. 
This defcriptioA' of Herodotus pcrfpftly corro 
fponds with our Irijh Direme and AtKIos* 

C H A T 

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Anciem H^/hry if Inland. 129 

C H A P. V. 

The Fir Bo/g^ Fir D^Omnann^ or Fir Calcon. 

THE Records from vrhich Keating formed 
this Chapter^ Jjiform us, that thdc Scythi- 
ans were named Fir D*Omnann^ or the Men of 
Oman ; that they were called Fir-bolg and Fir* 
bolo^ l^ecaufe, do gmiis haris do bolgaib^ they made 
boats of .the hides of beafls^ and thefe boats being 
roim^, chcy were named Fir^Galeon : but Keating 
in the Sequel has followed an idle childilh Story, 
unwoxriiy of the hiftorian. 

Simon Jbreac^ Son of Sdarriy Son of Numed, 
landed in Greece : The Gredajis jealous of their 
nuttbers, as they multiplied, oppreffed them ; 
forcing them to fink deep pits {domhnan^ fignifies 
deep) and to dig clay^ and to carry it in leathern 
bags (boh is a bag or a belly or paunch, or any 
dux^fwofnout). The Numidians groaning under 
the Graecian yoke, refolved to c^uit the Country, 
and feizing upon fome Grxcian Shipping, 5000 
of them, under Simon Breac, put to Sea, and 
fulcd till they reached Ireland. 

The laft, rrince of this race, married Tailte^ 
daughter of Maghmor^ a Prince of Spain ; Ihe is 
buried in a place, called from her Tailtean at this 

The Rem Riogbre or Book of Kings, places 

l&en- arrival in Ireland A. M. 3266, but the Liber 

Le^mus fays, fome of them came in the Reign 

o£ Ballq/iery that King who faw the h^ind writing 

oxx the Wall, and from whom Cyrus ^on of Darius 

took Babylon; and that they landed in the North 

I Weft 

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1 30 A Vindkatim rf the 

Weft of Conacht, at a place called bibber Dmh. 
nan^ from thefe Ftr &Ombnann (or Men of i 



We are told that this people were csdkd Bol^ 
or B0I09 from being the . conftrufters of wicker 
boats covered with boig or hidesf . It appears to 
have been a Veflfel common to the Celts or Gome- 
rites, as well as to the Magopans or Scytfaians, 
fcated on the Euxine and Cafpian Seas. We have 
already treated of their conftrudion and ihewn 
from Herodotus,* that the Armenians came down 
the Euphrates to Babylon in this kind of Boat m 

(t) In a iimilar manner the Afiatics ptfled the Riven m ifae 
days of Mofes : viz. by Rafb buoyed up with inflated Skin. 
Quoinodo autem noaxiniot & npidifliinos fluTiot tnjeoeriDt, 
2i hodid trajiciant, in Oriente aitem habent fitdHimani per 
Rates qiise in S. Bibliis vocantur DOSTi ^m^^lt qtue cooflnt ex 
plurimis colligacis Lignis, margini applicads c^f2aA£r/cfi!Bhf ad 
nftar Veficanini. Hac arte fit ut nullus fluvius eu obilct, & mu- 
na mercium onera per Tigrim & Euphntem fiwili ncgono 
deponent^ (Hyde.) Hi^^A^a^iC vel potius K«3x«f«faaf. 
Hebraicd dicitui niCnnn b^n uhibbel Hi Raphfoda Et nnDin 
pro tTxjkSioiC 2d. Paral. a. 15. i. e. tumultuans navis geoerr, 
quarum prima inventio debetur Fhaenicibusy (Bochart Geog. 
Sacr. L. I. C. 27.) Kci?fltT«Voy tov ^^0999, oiiw^rotf /um. 
xt/pwv 0'x^^W if wAo7x trvvf^ftrff i«rAt(/(roir (Sanchoniatht n 1— 
ihe principal materials of thefe ^mm Vefleli were the M oc 
Bolg the hides that covered the timben, for a Raft of ttmben 
required no other machine to float them. Thefe Rates or Rifn 
were made of the trunb of Trees, which in the Scythian Din- 
k6t are named B»L — Boi^ truncus, unde BoU eft difEodere &i 
Bohmrk^ opus ex truncis arborum oonfedum (Ihre. Lex Suitc:* 
Goth.) So that the name was applicable to thefe Scythians, 3 
ihcy conflrudted their Veffcls, eiiher of Trees, or Wicker ccia 
vered with hides. Baol Corium bovinum (Verelius Scytho ScaO 
dicx f^x). Baelg, Saccus (id) Bulkc Onus Navis (id). 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 131 

bis time. The Gomeritcs who traced the Danube 
and the Borufthenes out of the Euxine, and the 
Bolga or Volga out of the Cafpian^ might have 
taken the name of Bolgi or Belgi, for me fame 
reafon; and carried that name with them into 
Germany and Gaul^ as they did that of Brigantes^ 
from Brigantin, a Celtic name for a Ship. This 
appears probable ; becaufe we find from Caefar, 
that the Belgij Veneti and Aqmtani^ on the Coaft 
of Gaul oppolite to Britain^ differed in their man- 
ners, cuftoms and language, from the Gauls, or 
Celtes, which would not have been the cafe, if 
the Bdgi of the Coaft had defcended from the 
Belgoe of Germany : therefore the Belgi of the 
Coaft muft have been the Fir-bolg of the Irifli. 
Laadus derives the nameBelgae, Celtas, Galatae, 
all from the Hebrew XSth^ gstum, i* & inundatus* 
Galimy hoc eft GualUy WaUi^ unde nimirum ob 
varias locorum pronundationes, Celta^ Galata^ 
Gftfn^^, £r/j^^, vocabulaprodiere: (a).theie names 
he coniines to the defcendiants of Japhet only, be- 
caofe be was faved from the flood \ why then were 
not thefe names common to Sem and Ham alfo ? 

From the words of Cseiar and from ancient 
hiftory, there appears to have been twonations ofthe 
name of Belgos^ migrated from Ada into Europe, 
and both feated at length in GauL Tlie firft, I 
take to be the Belgee of Germany who proceeded 
along the Danubey and the Volga \ who after- 
ward tobk the name of Brigantes fromBri^, a 
kind of Ship ufcd by the Celts : (See Introdu&ion) 
formed the Celtic Nation, and were the Sons of 
GmeTj who took on them the fynonimous name 

(a) I«az:us de Gentium migrat. p. 12. 

I 1 Bri- 

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Anaent Hijiory rf hreland. 133 

[agif or Fire worlhipperfi. Thus thd letfned 
rHerbdot (b). 

The Tufka call that partof j&iia miaof, on the 
^coiiM» B$li Vilqfili^ and Mirkond, in hi8 origin of 
(be Moguti and Tartars^ fays» that Gaa (Gog) 
SOi of Japhet was overcome by 7urh^ and fled to 
Ac banka of the Riveir Bulgar ) ivhere Oomer 
aaother Son of Japhet, drove him thence* That 
Tvfc had a Son csdled BtUgar (c). 

Oar Fir-bolg or Fir D*Onihnann were aUb called 
Tir Gakon bceaufe their Ve&ls were round. 
HtfodotHs defcribes them of that form (d) Vm 
Got) i* e. rounds Gaulas Phaenicibus rotundam 
fimat (e)# GsuiUs, genus navigii pend rotundam 


(b) See Citrd, Lar, Zohak« la tnodier place^ imder Ftn^ 
lUi kuned Author informs us» that the Partbians and Pcrfians 
ddiaakM from Pars-^that the Dilemltes, Cimles, and Oriental 
TMb (or Tartan;) were defcended of the Per&nf ^dutr fome 
hniim Audwn will have the Curde^ f wha tffeitnd towvrdi 
SdMlteeawp b Affyria, now called Ciri^;^) t» be of Arafacan 
yctatp and beijig feated in the Morafs of the NabathsHuu^ H 
^ months of the Euphrates and Tiffr'n^ were called Arati" 
^p^ that is do fay. Barbarian Arabs ; a nanie which is ftiU 
r^Gitf to the PMkutf . 

rnm Bolg a Ship b derived Belgion, the nomd of oao of 
juiae^ S^Sy whom Hercules (lew and Jupiter covered with 
Gtm df Stones^ 

IbrlL Scapha. Gr. B. 0/\xh (Ihre. Glafi Suiv-Godi.) An- 
[!« bilhirta eft, H ei tnife m Scyplio tanqnam navigio venfo iro- 
itft mam tnmfiido. Rudbdehius Atl. T. i. p. it. ad Sa- 
'ft. MacTX>bii. L. 5. C 21. Skep, Cymba, ab ScMitftf pel- 
e, cmdere, (Wachter,) 

[d) IntroduQion. 
(«7 HefTchius. 
ff IFeftitt Avieaos. 


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13^ AVindw»im9fUHt 

<^ Of Tarady are yerybroad^ pwportiM to tk^fx- 
*' length, and are of a vtsry partkular conftniOf^ 
*' <Hi ; the planks are natn$iled^ but Jhwfd iegeifbitri. 
^^ The Be/rettknsy a4cU QUi^aiiftkQr, ufetargerotiB^ 
f < baikets^ ^hich they caU Ktۤ^j v>ftead of hoai^ 
♦' (k) they are fmcared on the omfidc wkb pitch; 
" they are ufcful on ihallow vater, but very m, 
^' convenient for a mw not aceuftomeii to ^em, 
"^as by their roumi fornv* they arc lecry apt en 
" turn ijjL the mid-curpent.'* 

Wherever our Bolg have fettled, they kit be- 
hind them thi3 very extraordinary kind of 6oa£» 
Strabo, from Arteimdoru^, mentioo9 thia boat 
being ufed on the Red Sea by the Sabim^ anddiat 
they erofled to Ethiopia, in iMwigvui ex corio cob- 
fcAis : (1) the fame he tells, aa were ufed in SpaiiL 

Our Scythians being feated in Oinaneby Fhe- _ 
nius the Son of Bkhj Son.- of Magogs txxdton ^ 
them the name of Phenirake the tribe- or chiMrtn ^a 
of Pheniti^ Thi^ province wa& alfo namedi Pan- — 

chaia^ in wbkh was the River Sla% or Palg. 

Omaniti^ quorum fedes circa Otium aiQiiem^ ffiii jS, 
Lar eft Ptolemafi & Pbalg AralMun (»). « 'airr=: 
^^ Oqianites» fays Niehuhr> it is true, are Mafao- — 
'^ medans, but are efteemeid Ilereticks^ and diaa l - 

" wiae :" there feems to be fome. of the old Scy 

tbian blood ftilliatlieif vciAa: to which; ktii& add, 
that the Akrad or Curdes fettled in Lar^ 

their origin from Siroer Soft of CJkfraa (n) aft an 


manufrt^ure, when felted irr Bafen br Scythopolis. Sice.&I^^ - 
)e€tanca. No. i 3. 

(k) Kuffa, a panier, bafkct, &c. Such are ufed at |hit dkyi^^j 
on t!ie River Shannon, Barrowr, &c. 

(I) Lib. 16. 

(m) Bochart. 

(n) Siroes and Oiofioei, are the Srn and Afru of the Phe — -s- 

,y Google 

AnAnt^ Hyhff ^ Inland. 137 

At Kiagaf Perfia, who was awoifhipper of &e ; 
fe aad other parallel circuBayftaaoeSy that ap- 
ur ift die IrUh hiftory, will prove that the fahcb- 
18 KjAmt" of tke ancieat Perfiaa»s Psuthians and 
mcniaos,^ (ivbo were all Scy tUaas) is grafted oa 
: &me (lock with thai of the Magogian Scytht- 
\ oat Irifh;. was* imported with tbinn from the 
1» and is not the fabncatioa of the ignoraat 
nk& of the 8<bs 9th or loth Centuries. 
rbe icafned Gebelia ia hi& Hifiory of Aflyrla. 
er? esy that the Scythians probably pofleffed 
t of Arabia, ia the mofl: early period : ^^ on 
roit oplwsxt Cdlonie du Caueskfe arriver a' 1' 
toti^ebaii, a pu em fuivaat la dire£kion de eette 
doine, arriver julqu'acuiHioitfa^pes deTArabie^ 
\l les peupkr a< use ^poque qiiu echa|^e a tous 
es caiculs de philofophes" (n)v 
Clicre i& great, probability* of this iearaed Au« 
r*s: being in the right ; foe the names of many 
xa ift iAdrabia feem to be of Scythian origin^ 
example,, a rough and barren country, abound- 

with rocks uid ftonea, ia Irift is caUed Aidm 
Aidme^ and hcxuce Edom: or Idumsea, might 
e been properly fo named by them \ for it does 

appear to have received its name from Edom 
L&u, becaufe Moles tcUs us» that ^^ E&u went 
D dweft in Mount Seir which is ia £dom'' — 

paflage feeaia to poiat ouft^ that the Country 

£(> called before he went there ; and it is not 
sable that Efmij having driven^ out ihe Horites,^ 

TriA. Sni Sob of Afro, SonAfGodul. SoaofNiuI, Son 
leniusy fee p. 30. The Armenians often change an initial 
:] into Ch. h (A) Chaldaicum ad y^ Graecum ; r & H 
d. (z & t^ ad 4/ : j; fain) ad % (Mofes Choronenfis p. 3.} 
e of Afni, or Ofru, t^l«y formed Chofroe, 
) Hift. d' r Afie. p. 197, 


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138 A Vindicatim rf the 

would name the Country Edom, a name diat had 
been applied to him by his brother, as areproadi. 
Edom is a rocky barren Country, whence the 
name Arabia Petrea^ and fuch a Country & ex. 
prefled in Irifli by Aidme or Adtne } and in the 
Arabic wabd is a defert, widas a barren fpot ; nor 
was this Country named Seir from l^yv Seir 
hairy, as fome authors have aflerted, becaufe 
Efau was hairy, for Mofes exprefthr iayt, thefe 
are the Sons of Seir the Horite-^nefe are the 
children of Seir in the land of Edom ; whence 
Reiand-^i&a funt montana Seir, de nomine Sdr 
Choritac, qui ante Edomum illic habitavit (p). 
Again, Ifaac had promifed that Efau fliould dwdl 
in the fatnefs of the Earth and of the dew of hea«^ 
ven ; a defcription in no manner correfponding 
with Arabia Petrea. 

According to the Irifh hiftory this Colqpy arriv- 
ed here Anno Mundi 3266 ; that is, about 738 
years before Chrift : the Liber Lecanus fays, this 
happened in the reign of Belejis^ who is Nabo* 
naflar, and his iEra began 747 years before Chrift, 
and he died 714 before Chrift; therefore thefe 
two Chronicles fo far agree. 

This Belefis is called by fome NabulafTar, and 
by others Nanybrus. This prince befides what 
he muft have fuffcred and apprehended from the 
Scythians, who during his time prevailed in Afia, 
was in imminent danger of being blafted in his 
iu>pes by an invafion from Egypt : he was fuc- 
ceeded by his Son Nabocolaflar, that is, by the 
great Nebuchadnezzar of fcripture (q). Belefis 

^y Gen. 36/cb. 20. V. Rel. Palaftlna V i. p. 68. 
<]) Hiftorj' of the Babylonians, p. 947. 


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Atulent Hifiory of Ireland. 139 

vn% alfo a great aftrologer, and predicted to Sar« 
danapalus, that he (hould over-throw the Medes^ 
Perlians and Babylonians ; who, affifted by fome 
Arabians, intended to fubvert the Empire. Sar* 
danapalus coming to a battle with them, routed 
ihem with great flaughter and purfued them to the 
Mountains : they light a fecond and a third battle^ 
and Sardanapalus remains vidor (r). Sir J* New* 
ton places the Phoenician fettlement at Carthage, 
S83 years before Chrift ; and, fays he, prefently 
after they f^iiiled as far as to the ftraights mouth 
and beyond. The ^ra of Nabonaffar he places 
at 747 ; the invaiion of the AiTyrians by the Scy- 
thians in 635. 

Therefore the Iri(h Annalifts may be right ; and 
Others fay that another Colony of Fir D*Oman 
came in that year Cyrus took Babylon, which 
happened according to Sir J. Newton 538 years 
before Chrift ; and he places the routing of the 
Scythians and the feizing of the Aflyrian Provinces 
of Arihenta, Pontus and Cappadocia, by Cyax- 
eres, in the year 607 before Chrift (s). 

Ajs our Scythians mixed with the Tyrians or 
Canaanites, and became one people and (bared 
their fate ; there is neat reafon to think, that this 
b the firft Colony tnat fettled in Ireland, and that 
the great Milefian expedition was in the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar, of which we fliali treat in a fub- 
ilpquent Chapter. 

It is impoiTible to fix the date, when the Phaeni- 
cians firft difcovered the Brittannic Ifles. Pliny 

(r) Un. Hift. V. 4. p. 303. 8vo. 

(€) Mr. Richardfon, makes this period to be the commence- 
ggf^nz of the Kaianian or fecund D/naHy of the Perfians. See 
^^xr Chapter. 


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140 A VindUaiion cf the 

(and Bochart after him,) attributes thii difcoTery 
to the Pbaenician Hercules, and we find the firft 
of that name in Eufebius, placed in the 73djrear 
of Mofes : there were many of that name^ Wmrro 
counts no lefs than 40 : Hercules was an hooonr- 
able title, given particularly to Gumnaiidecs of 
Sea Expeditions, the name Aireac-iul in Iriib, is 
fynoinmous to Mill-efs^ or the Commander di a 
Ship, (a) However, Strabo aflurea us, that the 
Phasnicians traded to the Britannic Iflandt by tlie 
route of Cadiz, in the time of Jofhoa^ and we can 
prove that City was built to facilitate the Coflsaeree 
of the Weftem Ocean : hence I conceive its name, 
yiz. Cades J which in Irifh fignifies a Ship ; fime* 
times written Cares : in Arabic Kades, a Sbqs. — 
Eatbar-aoi in Irifh is the Ship Ifland, whence die 
Greek name of it, Ethyna. 

All myjthologifbs agree that Cadiz, was fcnnuked 
by ArclM&us^ Son of Phsenix, and accordii^ to 
Emebius, Phaenix and Jofhua were cotemporariei^ 
Now according to Irifh Hiflory, Niul or Cadmm 
was the Son of Fhenius, (b) but Sir L Newton 
thinks the Phsenicians did not reach the Britannic 
Hies tin the reign of Jehoram : ^nd although En- 
febius places the foundation of Cadiz in the time 
of Jofhua ; Strabo, on the conlrary, tells us, diat 
Cadiz on the Spanifh Coaft, and ail the Phacnician 
Colonies on the African Coafl, were fubsfeqncBt to 
the Siege of Troy, and Vclleius fuppoirting tins 
argument, places the founding of Cadiz in the 
reign of Codrus -, in fhort all Authors dilagree oa 
this Subjcd. 

(a) The Amathufians called him MmHc, which i» plaialj 
ihc Hebrew nhn Malach, Nauta, navigator. 

(b) S:c Chapter 7. 



Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland* 141 

The Carthaginians, though a Colony of the Phas- 
nicians, knew thefe iflands very late, and were 
themfelves the difcoverers, for Strabo afluresus 
that the old Phasnicians were fo jealous of this 
commerce, that they kept it a profound fecret 
from Strangers. Can we then flatter ourfelves ta 
find the exad time of fuch an eftablifliment in any 
Greek or Latin Author. 

If Himilco the Carthaginian was the firft that 
difcoTered the Britannic Ifles for his Countrymen^ 
it mull have been fubfequent to the Siege of Tyre, 
and the Expedition of Alexander, that is, about 
300 Years before Chrift, and about that time Py- 
tbeus the Aftronomer of Marfeilles is faid to have 
vifited them : yet we find no traces in Antiquity 
of a dired trade by Sea, between the Greeks and 
the Britons. The Tin trade between Marfeilles 
and Britain mentioned by Diodorus, muft have 
been carried on by Land from the Coaft of Gaul, 
imported there from Britain, and fo in 30 days 
to Marfeilles, as Strabo explains it, yet Diodorus, 
in another place, fays, that the Merchants tranf- 
ported fitrni Britain to Narbonne when that City 
was built by the Romans. 

In fine, about Eight Centuries before Chrift, 

fccms to be the period when both the Bolga or 

Bei^^y quitted Afia in their different Routs, the 

Gomeriansby land to Germany, Gaul, &c- and the 

Magogians to Perfia. Nam tametfi hi populi 

(Bulgarii, Armeniacae linguae pronunciatione BuU 

larif) non ante feptimum a Chrifto feculum in Eu- 

Top^jxi commigrabant, quin tamen fedes antiqui- 

t\is in Sarmatia circa Volgam flumen habuc- 

tint^ nulla nobis in praefcntia fubeft dubitandi 

rauOa. (c) 

(c) Mofes Chorcncnfis p. 90. Wc have fliewn from this Au- 
or rftaatthcSouchem Bolgx took the name of AkracL 


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142 A Vindication of the 

The fettlement of the Firbolg in Oman, at a h^ 
tcr period than the Irifli hiftoiy pretends to, is 
mentioned by the Author of the Chronicon Paf- 
chale^ who fays, that there were Northern Saaba 
or Scythians in the vicinity of Elam^ Chuz, and 
Shinaar, in his time. The Perfians acknowledge 
that in old times, their Empire was for fome years 
under the Scythian yoke. Bodies of thofe peo- 
ple, fays a learned author, might, in ccuife- 
quence, have natufklly enough eftabliihed them- 
felves in various parts of their new conquefts^ 
And when the Perfian Kings recovered their in« 
dependency, they might neither judge it neceflary 
nor political, to depopulate their provinces, by 
driving out colonies which, by their proper ma- 
nagement, would foon become naturalized and 
valuable fubjeds. (d) Arrian alfo mentions a re- 
gion called Scuthia, near the Perfian Gulph* D' 
Herbelot at the words Agriretb and Kijhtafby has 
given a detail of a conqueft of Perfia by the Scy- 
thians from the Oxus and Gihon* Kifhtq^ Bin 
Zou or Zab^ Was King of Perfia and of the Family 
of the Pijhdadiensy of whom we (hall fpeak in die 
next Chapter : the Perfians had another Kijhtafi 
Son of Lohorafb, in whofe time, they fay, lived 
Zerduflit or Zoroaftre, Legiflator of the Ghebra 
or Worfliippers of fire t and that it was Zoroaftre 
that obliged them to build Mejbged or fire towen, 
and to bury in Urns ; before his time the Kings A 
Perfia were either buried in Caves natural or artifi^ 
cial, or in the earth, and oyer their graves moundLs 
of Stones were made, like little hills, (e) 

(d) Richardfon's Di^. on Caftern Languages^ p. 464. 
(ei DHerbelot, p. 517. The Pifdadicri of the Perfians &_t 
the Tuach Dadanii of the Irifli,^ the tall towers of Ireland w< 

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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 143 

Mr. Brvant differs from thefe Authors, and 
docs not allow the Scythians to have had any pof- 
feflionsin or about Oman. He obferves that Jo- 
fephus calls the Country Cutba. (f ) 

I have (hewn that the Iri(h record themfelves by 
the name of C3^ni3-Np*»ny Atica Cuthim, or Ai- 
teach Gothi, corrupt^ Atacottty by which they mean, 
ancient mariners, or Shipmen, from t^m^D me 
Cutha, nslvis. (g) 

This was the reafon I fufpeded, the infpired 
penman fignified the Cutha by the word Goim^ 
in enumerating the Kings that made war on the 
Pentapolis, and that Tiddal was a Scythian^ as 
Symmachus and Eupolemus affert, and was feated 
in Omany where the Irifli hiftory place the Scythi- 
ans at a very early period, as we ihall find in the 
Chapter of me Tuatha Dadann. And it is remark- 
able, that the words ^Iji Goi and ^rtQ Cuthi, are 
both ufed by the Hebrews to exprefs a foreigner. 
^U Goi, homo gentllis. ISic Judaei quemvis vo* 
cant qui non eft de populo Ifrael, maxime tamen 
ChrifUanis hoc nomen dcdere. Etiam unum ho- 
minem nominant Goi contra verum lingus ufum 
& naturam vocabuli. Sic pro ^^'3i Goi in Deutro- 
nom. C. 7. V. 2. in aliquibus editionibus legitur 
^rtO Cut hi. (h) Jofephus therefore being a Jey 
underftood the name Goim in the literal fenfe that 
all Jews do, and called the Scythians Cutbiy as 

tHe fire towen of the dlfciples of Zerdull: and the fbrmi of bu« 
ritl here menrfooed, were pradifed by the ancient Iriih : muU 
tinides of thefe Mounts ftill remain, 
(f) Anaiyfis V. j. p. 177. 

ip See IntroduQion p. 1 8. hence I think the Chaldee \xrso 
^Utha, a Swan, a bird remarkable for fwimming, and for fail- 
ip0 ^7 ^^® ere^ion of its wings. 

^fa) Bnxtoff, Lex* Chald : ad verbum nj. 


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144 -^ Vindication ofiht 

GemileS) and fo might detcrmiiiate the Country 
they pofieflcd Cntba. (i) 

The Cuthai were Perfians^ i. e. Scythiaas, Aatca 
enim Cuthaei fueruot appellati Perls. Apertos ve- 
teres Chuthseos feu Perias. {Hettinger Axch. Or. 
6S7. Bocb. Pbal. p. 254.) 

Before we quit this < hapter, we muft remark, 
that the Iriih records ailert, there came over wiih 
the Firbolgj three families who were BOt of the 
Gadelian Kace, viz. the families ofGaUrai who 
fettled in Succain Conacht ; of Tairfi who fettled in 
Crioch o Faiige, and of Gaiksn who fettled in 
LeinAer, to which we may add that Gailaa or 
Gailiun was the ancient name of the Province of 
Leinfter. (k) 

It was not improbable, that fome Arab families 
fhoald mix with our Fir bolg when feated in 
Oman : and tfaefe three family nanies arc of Ara- 
bian origin. 

Gailan^ it is the Arabic name of a Satyr. This 
Word is alio become a proper name, particularly 
to fuch as appeared fierce and cruel : Om Gaitasi 
literally the mother of Satyrs or Demons, is the 
name of a tree called in Latin Spina JEgyptia^ or 
Acacia. The Tairfi were the Celtes of Spain. See 

(i) Some authors believe, that hy Cu(h upon tbc River GiIkhi 
i. meant only the ancient Conntry of the Scfthians upon the Am- 
es. The words Cuthci and Cutha, whence ibme have derived 
Scythse and South , are the fame as Cu(h, the Chaldees geDrra.V 
iy put the T (Tan) where the Hebrews write S (Shin,) and 
therefore fay Cuth and Cut for Cufk. Un. Hiftory, V. 1 8. \> 
254. Svo.— but thefe learned Author^ furely will not &y» ttiaa 
the Chaldees wonki have written Qt/h ior CitfA-— therefore tiMX% 
retained the original name Cutha ; and here it muft be remar&^xA 

that Ceas in the Irifh language is a Skiff, and Uairceas a fn ^' 

boat, fo that Cufli might be written for Ceu, or Ccafli, or Kc 
See p. 22, Inrrodudtzon. 

(k) keating's Englifh Edition, fbl. p. 41. 


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jlncknt Hijkry if hrtand. ^45 

Gtabbar^ a Giant, the Arabs name GiabBoTy 
what the moderft Perfians call Div i. e. Gem^ns^ 
but in the ancient Pehlavian dialed Cai i.'e; a Gi^ 
ant : (1) it alfo fignifies illuflrious, magaanimbiisl 
Heb. rD Cah. poteftas« 

Giaber a proper name amongft the MuflfuhnaMl 
Geber one of the mod celebrated of the Ahib 
Fhilofophcrs : there was alfo a Giaber, fut^amed 
Shamfeddin, vrho was an Arab of And^lufia* iiH 
Spain ; he wrote a poem on poetry and Gramitis^, 
— (D'Hcrbelot.) This name is now commonly 
pronounced Gcury in Ireland, but always written: 

Hence we may account, for the great (imilarfty 
between the Arabic and Iriih languages \ and thi9 
mixture of the Scythian with the Chaldee and 
Arabic formed that dialed called by the Iri(h 
Bearla-Pheniy or the Phenician dialed. As it ap- 
pears from feveral' circumftanccs in the eoiirfe of 
this hiftory,. and from the acknowledgment of the 
Welch Antiquaries, particularly Lhuyd^ that the 
Irifti were the inhabitants of Britain, before' the 
Gomcriftes or Walfh : this may account for the 
many Scyibo'^Arabic words, which are to be found 
in the Engtifti language at this day, the roots of 
which cannot be traced in the Welch^ Cornijhj Of 
Armoric dialeds, or in the Saxon or Norman^ but 
were moft probably adopted by the Britons, on 
their mixing with Ibme of the Pboenian-Iri/h^ who 
remained in Britain, when the great body were 
eipelled to Scot/and^ Ireland^ and Manx^ where 
tbcir defcendants ftill remain. 

Thc[ Scythae of Oman being the general mari- 
ncrs for the great powers fcated on or near the 

(1) Qii in the Pcrfic, is written Cc or Ke, in Irifti, as C*- 
AstccAt i. e. Broum, that is, Bacchus. .' ee thcfe words in D* 
2~Ierbclot. I take the Arabic proper name Giafar to be the fame. 

K Red 


1 4^ A Tmdkatim of ihi 

Red Sea, particularly the Arabians^ Egyptians 
EdomittSj Canaanites^ &c. muft have crofled the 
Indian.'. Qcean, to Opbir for Gold, Ivoryi and 
Peacocks, &c. Commodities, the Scripture in- 
forms us, were brought from thefe parts* It will 
natuFalty refult, that our Scythac muft have had 
names for thefe commodities. We (hall prove 
they had both Scythian and Indian names : tbe 
latter they could not hare acquired in their own 

The Iriih hiftory abounds vnth Anecdotes of this 
kind; and their SeanacbieSj as we have (hewn, 
worked up the traditions of the tranfa£kions of 
their ; anceftors in Armenia^ in Farthia^ Touran^ 
and Oman J as if they happened but yefterday, in 

1 he Iri(h hiftory tells us, that this Ifland once 
abounded in Gold, (Afofd or Aphos) and that 
thiere was a great fmelting houfe at a place called 
j^bq/i or Jfo/i on the River Lifbiy where Gold 
was bcarvain (bearbhain) i. e. refined : that they 
had two kinds of Gold, viz. Orbuidb (Yellow 
gold,) and OrbSn^ (White gold,) and that the 
name of the Artift who (irft purified and wrought 
this metal was Inacbadan, or tbe maker of Inach's. 
The paflage is thus exprefled in the Liber Lecanus. 
In the reign of King Tighearmas, (m) this prince 
civilized the people ; he introduced dying of 
Cloths viixYi purple J blue^ and grecn^ and to him is at- 
tributed the boilings or refining (bearvan) of gold 
(Apbofd.) — ** Inacbadan ainm an Cearda r& bearbb 
** an d^or agtu i Foarbbith (no ApbofdJ irrtbir 
" ^Laipbi ro bcarbban.*' i. e. the name of his Re- 

(m) The Tahniuras of the Perfiant. 


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Ancitni Hifiory tf Ireland^ 147 

finer vrz^ Inacbadan^ aiid he refined the Gold, 
(or Aphofd) 21 Foarvi or Apbofd^ ontheEaftSide 
ot the Laifbi^ or »River Liftey. 

Here we have the word apho^ for Gold ; (n) 
a word unknown to any of the Celtic nations. 
We knoiKT that Ireland never did produce gold, 
confeouentiy this word is exotic ; but, we know, 
that tnc Scythians inhabited the River Phqfisin 
Colchis^ where Gold did abound ; the River was 
therefore named from this precious metal, and 
Colchis was the Cbavila of Mofes, ubi aurum ejiy 
fays the infpired penman. 

Per Cbavilam intelligere Colcbidem^ (fays the 
learned Reland) propre didam quae Phajin numen 
a mertdie habet, & a feptentrione montes Scythi- 
cos^ quos varie varii nominant. — Qui enim fine 
prxjudicio vocem rtbin Cbolcb (unde addita ter- 
mixiationc/x) confert cum Th^yn Cbavila^ facile 
Tidet non adeo magnam efle inter has duas diffe-^ 
rentiam, quin longe majores admittere debeamus 
in aliis rcgionum fir urbium nominibus^ quae aut 
ab incoUa, aut ab exteris, a prima pr.onunciatione 
detorta funt — Atque ita latiffimum Scytbia fpatium 
Colchis tribuat, fic ut dicamus in ea Aurum preef* 
tantiifimura, & Smaragdos & Cry/ialhs inveniri, 
quandoquidem gencratim de Scytbia (cujus partem 
efe C^/ri&/V/a) affirmant vetercs, & aurum & reli- 
qttift Mojiy memorata ibi reperiri, & optimse qui- 
dem nata: fuifle. 

(n): The word 'is Hebrew from to phaz. confolidari § whence 

)ino MoiUfihR, confblidatuia ; quod auri optioii Epitjbetcm eit 

/iioc Phaz; Auilmi & Ouphaz^ nomen proprium loci. Jereio* 

X. T. 9. Alias Opim dicitur. forfan Ophir & Auphir, ab his 

piilvifcnlis aureis fluminum comeiL babet. Nam *l£2t Aphir, 

pulvit eft. (Tomaflin}.— 

K 2 To 

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148^ A Vindication rf the 

To this learned Author's obfervatioiUy wcconbt 
add the authority of many Ciaffic Writets to prove 
the Pbas or Phqfis (the nc9 2 Chron. 30* 15.) 
was in Scythia, and that this part of Scytfaza was 
called Armenia major, — Scythia includitur Pbaji 
flumine. (Juftin. L. 2«)— ^A^Kvora/^os'is]! ▼»» Sxi/Qiak'. 
(.Plutarch.)-— Apud illos dicuntur torrentes auram 
deferre, quod barbari excipiunt tabulis perforatis, 
& lanofis pellibus^ uude fida eft aurei vellera fa- 
bula. Strabo. Geogr. L. lo. (o) 

Phas^ or, Aphos was the Scythian name for 
Gold ; this is evident, hence the name of the Ri- 
oter of Colchis. When thefe Scythians dcfcendied 
the Euphrates, and fettled in Omanj on the Perfi- 
an Gulph, and croflfed the Indian Ocean in. pur- 
fiiic of further difcoveries, if they found any River 
affor^ng Gold or Gold duft,. they would certain- 
ly give it the fame name. Accordingly we find 
the Phat in the ifland of Taprobane, (recorded by 
Ptolemy,) and the Gold brought from tfaencc is 
named in Seripture TQ^ Aupbaz. Dan. C. io» V. 
j. Cantic. 5. V. i f . — the word is tranflated Obri* 
Ttam by Montanus and others; Taob or Ta$p ia 
iri(b and 7aph in Aitabic, fignifies the baulks of a^ 
River, (p; the Sea Sliore. Orban is a^ fjf^edes of 
Goki in Irifli ; Taoperbin will exprefs the banks or 
Shore producing Gold, and probably is the mean- 
ing, of Tdr/^r^to;!^ .* Bearvain^ wehavefeen, u<Infli 
for refined Gold, B and P are cammiitabl6 Let- 
ters,. Peurvain may alio be the ]^y^ Parvaii^ of the 
Scriptures, a Chron. 3., V. 6. where it is written 

(o) Term Gog vel Magog vrit Scjthise patixtrca CauoalVnii 
qoam Cdchi & Anneni. B^han. Here than bienveloped the 
Story of the Golden Fleece. 

(p) Ar gac aoii taobh na Banjia. Upon the Banks of Banna. 


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Ancient' Hijlory of Ireland. .149 

Parveim (q) i. e. Syra & Phsenicia flexione Par- 
^vdiin ; (Bochart.) which fome have idly imagined 
was jPeru in the new world. 

Some of thefe Colchi fettled in India^ bietwee^ 
Calcutta and the Promontory of Cory ; the Cpuntry 
is now odled Coclun. Colchi Canancina (Caftal). 
Al Cccbin urb. & Empor : Indian citer% in Or^ urbs 
Reeia fub Lufitanis inter Calecutum ad Bor. ,i9« 
& Cpry promont. ad Auftr. 36. L. (Arrian. Pto- 
lemy.) See Ferrarius. — ^They were great Voya- 
gers, favithe Irifh Records. Mor an mmrriuch 
4m trow tonn \. e. they trafficked much by S^a« 
(liber Lecanus, p. i8.) 

From Taprobane, they brought Aphofd Gold 
tSfltt Qmox Sim Silver, N)0'^D» or Cearb Arab. 
Gburb. They brought alfo Deudan Boirrcy or Deu^ 
4» Filcy Elephants Teeth, or Ivory , in Arabic 
Dundana Fil. The proper name of an Elephwt 
ill Irifli is Fily i. e. the Sagacious. Boir or Boirr 
U a word they mud have learned from the lodi- 
aA8. Elephants are not Animals of the cold Cli- 
mates, therefore they could not have a Scythian 
name for them. Barroj Elephas Indis ita dicttur, 
telle Ifodoro. (Reland de'veteri lingua Indica. p^ 
a^ 1.) Bochart derives this name from ^2 Baar^ 
a fool, homine ^ulu & bruto^ quod etymon mmime. 
eonvenit Elephantibusy quorum ingenium celebratUTy 
iays Rcland. Ut enim alia praetercam tutiiEme 
ctyfupn nominis indc ducitur unde res ipfae ortac 
Cunt. Apud Indos Voce Barro vocatur, undic & 
vox ejus barritus .dicitur, barritus pro ibnp ejus 
& ni tailor, Ebur. (Reland de Opbir« p. 1 8^0 

We are told by the Greek hiftorian, that Gold 
w^as firft wrought by Indus a King of Scythia : In- 

(q) £t texit Dciinum & Aurum Aurum 0»nD Parvaim. 


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150 A Vindicatim tf ibt 

dus may be a corruption of our Artift's name /»• 
acbadan : the word implies a maker of InacVs^ . by 
which I underdand p2y Anak or Enak, any thing 
made of Gold. 

Bifliop Cumberland in his Sanchoniaibo p. 267. 
proves Foftdon or Neptune to have been the grand- 
child of Nereus or Japhet, and from Apollodonis, 
he proves Pq/idon or Oceanus to have been the Father 
of Inacbus. And it is no wonder, fays he, that 
the title of Inacbus fliould have been ^iven to feveral 
men, becaufe I believe it is derived from p3y Anak, 
i. e. Torquatus, a man tbat wore a Chain ofgMas 
a badge of bonour : Tbe Anakims in Pbanicia kmg 
after were called fo on the fame Account. The 
learned Biihop has mitlaken the wearer of the Gol- 
den Chain, for the fabricator of it ; Anacb in 
Iriih figniiics a Merchant or one that trades in Gold 
&c. or manufactures it. 

Our Scythians being Merchants, and dealers in 
Gold diift, &c. mufl have had the knowledge of 
Letters and of Figures ; by their trafficking with 
the Indians, they probably learned the Indian Nu- 
merals, fuppofcd to have been brought by the 
Arabs into India, and fo to Spain. A plate of the 
Irifh Numerical Figures, compared with the Indi* 
an, was given in the Collectanea, No. XII. 

If all thefe proofs are not fufBcient to convince 
the readers of the truth of this very extraordinary 
hiftory of the ancient Irifh, and of the great im- 
portance of their ancient Records, in the general 
hiftory of the Weftcrn World, 1 confefs, I know 
not what can be fatisfaCtory to fuch Readers. 


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Ancient Hi/iory 4f Ireland. 1 5^ 

The TuATHA Daoann History. 

XH£ Tuatha Dadanxi, Tays Keating, were the 
pofterity of thofe who fallowed the third Son 
jimad out of Ireland, (Eirin) when the Fo- 
moraigh ^Giants) had ufiirped the Kingdom, and 
cnflaved the inhabitants. This people nlther than 
bear the heavy oppreffions of thofe Pyrates left the 
Ifland under the command of Jarbasiei Fatldh, a 
Son of Numad and fled, fome to Beeotia, and 
others to Athens, and fettled near Thebes : ,but 
the trueft account is, that they landed in Achaia. 
Here the Tuatha Dadann learned the Art^ Ne- 
cromancy and Enchantment, and became io ex- 
pert in Magical knowledge, that when the City of 
Athens was invaded by the Aifyrians, tfaefe Sor- 
cerers, by their diabolical Charms, revived the dead 
bodies of the Athenians, and brought them next 
d^j into the fields which forely vexed the Affyrl- 
ai3s. The force of their Enchantment being dii^ 
/Iroycd by the Skill of an, Aflyrian Druid, they 
B^d^ wandering from place to phice till they came 
:€> JNorwav 2nd Denmark^ where they wete much 
'C^xnired tor their {kill in Magick. 

Ilieir principal commander was Nuadbab ArgU 
^famb. The Danes being a very barbarous dttjS 
l^-i derate Nation, entertained fuch a regard fb^ 
^^ie Strangers, that they gave them fd^ur Cities 
^ inhabit, where they ercfked Schools. :'-Tlic 


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^ j;^ A Findk^^hn of fhe 

names of thcfe Cities were Falias, Gorias, Finni- 
as, and Murias. Morf hios taught in Faliasj Ari- 
as in Finniasj £nis in Gorias^ and Scmias in Mu- 

They removed from Norway and Denmark, and 
fettled in the North of Scotland, near Doiiar and 
Jar-dobhar. From the four Cities of Norway, 
they brought four great Curiofities. 

The firft was the Leug Fail, or Ua FM : dm 
$tone v!as pofleflcd of a wonderful Vhtue, for it 
would make a ftrange noife, whenever aMooarch 
^ Ireland was cro^-ned upon it. it was catted the 
fatal ^tone, and gave the name of Ink Fail to 
belaud, -i^at is, t^ Ifland of Doftiny. In whate- 
ver. Conqtfy this Stone (hould be .preferved, a 
Prince i^f the (Scythian Race (hould undoubted!} 
govern afccording io .this Verfe. 

.Cineadh ,6cuit Saor an fine, munab breag an 

M?r Leug fail, dligbid flaitfabs do 
. ^habhail, 

or, jas Hedor Boetius has tranflated 

Ni faUatjfatum, Scpti qubcunque locatam 
Jj;iyenient iapidem, regnare tencmur ibidem. 

J^<rguS"the grefit having fubdued Scotland, fort 
for this Stone, and received the Crown of ScoC- 
lanti upon it : it was prefervcd with great venei 
rtipn. in tb« Abby of Scone, till Edward the firil < 
J5PgI*p4,: C5fcrricd:it jiw^y -by violence,, and place 
it, u^der «the Coronation Chair in Wjeftminlk^ 
Allby. ;.. ... 

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Ancient H^/iory xf Irdand. 153 

The fiecemd <i:m?iofity was a Sword ; the third 
a Spear, and (he fourth, the Coire an Daghda 
jBir the Caldron of Daghda. 

The Tuatha Dadann continued Seven Years m 
Scotland, ;and then removed to Ireland. When 
ihcy came upon the Coaft, they formed a mift 
about them fox three days, and in this undifcemed 
^manner Aey marched thro* the Country, without 
■being difcovered by the Fk D'Omanann, till they 
came to a Mountain called Sliabh an larain^ when 
Acy ohallcnged the King of Ireland, (Eirinn) ei- 
Aertodeliver up the Kingdom or to come to battle* 
This audacious fummons caufed the Monarch to 
mardi againft them, but the Fir D'Omnann una- 
•Uc to withfland the Enchantments of their Ene- 
mies vene defeated with the lofs of ten thouiand 
jnen. This contention laded thirty years, for fo 
many ihe Poets reckon, between the battle of 
Sooth Muigh Tuireadh, and that of North Muigh 
Tttireadh. (r) 

Some derive the name from the defcendants ^ 

Banan, Daughter of Deal Caoith, Son of Eala- 

thou, Son of Neid : the names of thefe brothers 

were Brian, Juchor and Juchorba. This Coloay 

were called Tuatha Dadann or Dedann, as they 

were the pofterity of the three Sons of Dadan, 

wlic^werc fo expert in the black art, and the myf- 

tcry of Charms and Enchantments, that the inha- 

bit3Jits diftinguifhed them by the name of Gods, 

as appears from an old poem, wherein thefe three 

brothers are ftiled Gods. 

Others derive the name -from Tuatha a Lord, 
i>«%p Gods and Danan Poets, for they chiefly ap- 

(r) The Towers df the Magi. 


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154 ^ Vtmlicatim of the 

plied themfclves to the ftudy of poetry, and the 
Art of compofing vcrfcs. Among them were wo- 
men called Ban-tuatba. Their gods were CtdUy 
Ceacbi and Grian ; their GoddeiTes were Badbbba^ 
Macba and Marioran ; the firll was the wife of 
Cuill or Macuillj the fccond of Ceacbt or Maceacbt^ 
and the third of Grian or Magreine. 

There was alfo a God Mananan or Mann, who 
was called Oirbhfion or Oirmfion, from whom 
Lough Oinnhfion. 

The leader of this Colony in all their travels was 
Nuoifahj (Nuadhat or Nuadhar) jlirgudJambj 
that is, Nuadhar of the Silver-hand, and they pof- 
fefled the fovcreignty of Irebnd, the fpace of 197 
Years. Dagbda was one of their Kings, he dd^ 
cended from yar-baniel-faidb^ the Son of Numad. 

Luigbaidb'lambfada or Luigbbaidb the long 
handed was another of their Kings. This Prince 
firft ordained the aflembly of Tailtean in honour of 
Tailte the Daughter of Magb-mor King of SpiUD, 
and he appointed Bras-combrac^ L e. Tilts ud 
Tournaments (s) as a tribute to her memory. And 
they were obfervcd on the firft day of Auguft, a 
day which is ftill diftingui(hcd by the name of 
Lugh-nafa from this Lughaidh. (G) 

Breas or Breafal fucceedcd Nuadhar Airgiod 

Thus Keating, to which his Englifli Tranllator 
has added the Genealogy of the principal Nobilinr 
of the Tuatha Dadann, and an Account of their 
Kings, from other MSS. which he has cntireiy 
mifreprefented, except one circumftance, and thax 
is, that Nuadhat or Nuadhar fought two battles 

(s) Arab. braz. a Duel. 

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ndent W/lary of Ireland. 155 

uirreadh, and routed the Firbolgs ; 
e had his hand cut off by Eochad ; 
loft his head* 


ftcr is replete with Oriental Anec- 
ely perverted by Keating : It proves 
Dgians were feated in or about Oman, 
ceding Chapter,) and is a demonftra- 
ancient hiftory of Ireland could not 
I work of an Iriih Monk, as it was 
e could have been fo well acquainted 
hiftory : and every impartial Reader 
at opmion> by the time he has pern- 

Ri^ra^ or Royal Kalendar of Ire- 
us, that this Colony was of the &mi* 
le Son of Hanh as in the following 


12 Larcogh, * 

13 Galam, 

14 Libum, 

15 Bloflt, 

16 Cidcadh, 

17 Ned, 

18 Eathlam, 

19 Breas. 


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From Bochart wc cotte£t that Dedd 
Rbegma^ Son of CbtdSj fettled in or abou 
Rbegma urbs & fmus Arabiae in MariF 
in codem littore prope Rbegmam ad ork 
:urbs Dedan^ hodie Dadeuj medio fer^ fei 
fretum Baforae, id eft, oftiuiA Maris F 
•Omanorum fluvium Om, qui Lar eft IPto 
(Palg vcl) Phalg Geografi^i Nubienfis. 
urbe, Daden dicitur <:tiam vicina rcgio 
Barboza in defcrlptione Ormuz ; avanA i 
ojfla € un altra terra nonunata DAdene (u) 

The Reader muft obferve thatdicre 
ther Dedan, defcended of Abraham, wl 
at Dedan in Idumaea on the Mediterra 
whom the prophet Jeremiah fpeaks, C. a 
and 49* V« 8. and luzekiel mentions bot 
danim in the 27 Ch. Our Dadannites w< 
that carried the Ivory and Ebony to Tyi 
modities that could only be had by thci 
with India, and with Tartefs in Spain. 

It is furprifmg that all the modern Irifli 
ans have neglected to coUed the name 
Pagan deities : much hiftorical informatic 
he obtained from fnrh a work. Thw hi 

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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 157 

ed their own mode of worfhip : The Brah- 
India are fuppofed by Monf. Bailly to haver 
ginally of €naldasa : (v) The Tibetans are 
by Father Georgius who lived amongfl 
my years, to have been originally Scytoi- 
[ to have adopted the Chaldsan deides. 
affertions are verified in great meafure by 
tory : }n an Iriih MSS^ of the Seabtight 
»n, is a lift of the fubaltern deities of the 
[)adann« The paflage runs thus. 
{o fios Mait^ Tuatha Dadann, i. e; here 
a Lift of the Maithe of th& Tuatha Do« 

Nuadhat, Airgiod larnh^ 

Lamhfhada, i^ e. Luamh, 

d iU dathac^ i. e. Dagh-daa, 

in mac Lir, 

:h uaine, 

Ian mor, Aongas Og: Budth-Dearrg.. 

milbheoi, fons of Daghda9 

aman Son of Budh-dcarrg, 

ihar brogha na Boine, 


iifa craob dcarrg, agus Trom a bhean, 

. dead (holas, 

ach Son of Ildatha, 

?i. Son of Eogabal, 

c £asa Ruid, 

id Sidhe, (w) many Demons, 


* Bt^ahintns' (hidy the Chaldean language, all their 
PhTfick are written in that language^ (Letter from 
Mr. Holies). 

limid Sidh. Many demons, they are enumerated in 
which we refer to the Chapter on Religion. "W 
n. nUQ Cafdai Chaldxus, Divinus : nam divinandi 


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158 A Vindicathn rf tbi 

Don Oillgh, Don Crot^ Don Dulbhac, Dnc 
or Pricfts, 

The Children of Cuill, Ccacht and Griai 
Clann Tulreann big reann. i. e. Uar, Jure 

N. B. As Uar fm ainm Brian mac Tuirrioi 
agus iolomad eile nach airmhtbear funnta, L « 
Cull, Ceacht and Grian were the Clann of Utt 
Tourane and their defcendants Uar^ lurcay Iutca 
thuy and from Uar defcended Brian who wa 
named the Touran ; and many others not h^n 
enumerated (x). 


Touran or Turqueftan, thcgCountry of the Ori- 
ental Turks, an ancient and martial people, who, 
under the name of Getes, Moguls, Tartan && 
have at different times, poured in great numbcn 
into the more Wejiem and Southern Kingdomt 
Thefe are the Scythians of our ancient hiftoricti 
who invaded Perfia and the Kingdom of Ac 
Medes, but our bed hiftorians are apt to confound 
them with the Scythians of the North. (Sir Wm. 
Jones, Defer, of Afia). 

anes profitrbamur Cafdaim, i. e. Chaldan. Ea erat rutins ff% 
ris jadtancia, ut Divinos fe profiterentur. Forfan a A> QnC ft 
Sad Daexnon ; quad Dsmories & Divini. (TomtiWm), 1 dU 
from ns Ke or Ce illyftns & Sad. See d expltincd bcftit 
Scycbo-Scandic^ Seid An magica : Seidmadwr^ Magus. 

(x) The Mahoinedans borrowed the names of iheir Gconff 
Angels of the Jews ; and both Jews and Chaldaeans learned ik 
names and 6S^c% of rhofe beings from the Perfians or anciot 
ScTthians, as thef rhemfeUes confdfs in Talmud Hierxii m RflA" 
haOiana. See alfo Sales All Koran, Prel. dife. p. 71. batik 
Catalogue of Genii given us by the Tuacha Dadanns of wUd 
we ilia 1 1 treat oioreat large in the Mythology, (eemtobepl^ 
fLcuIar to rhem and to the Tibechans. 


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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 1 59 

Touran is faid to be fo named from Tur the 
Son of Feridum : D'Herbclot has confuted that 
opinion, but has not given us any other derirati- 
on. 1 SLin of opinion, ^hac on the diviflon of this 
great Empire, the Northern part, beyond the 
Oxus, was called Tua-Ran, or the Northern 
iXviiion : and here dwelt the original Perfians or 
Southern Scythians. The Perfian Hiftory (hews 
diey always' laid claim to Iran or lar-ran the Wef- 
lern Divifion : thefe are Irifh names. Afrafiab, 
King of Touran, twice invaded and poffefled Per- 
fia: it is allowed his name implies Phars-ab, the 
father of the Perfians. Sir Wm. Jones thinks it 
was a common name for the Kings of Afiatick 
Tartary, as the Grand lather of Cyrus, whom we 
commonly call Aftyages, bore the fame name. 
Hie family of Othman, who now reign at Con- 
ftaminople, are willing to be reputed defcend- 
aati of this King of Touran and are flattered with 
' Ac Epithet of Anrafiab Jah or powerful as Afrafiab* 
(Jones's Perfia, p. 44). In fine they are the de- 
iecDdants of our Irifh Phenius Pharfa, of whom 
in the proper place. Sir Wm. Jones places the 
hft Afrafiab at 65; before Chrift. 
• The Touranians in our Iriih hiftory, are fre- 
quently called Frange or Farange. The Arabs 
dwajs call thefe people Farangah, the Englifh 
tranflation of Keating in his ufual ftile, will have 
this to be France. It is to be remarked that the 
Tyrrhene Sea, in the Irifli hiftory is called Tou- 
nm : and that Hyginus makes Tyrrhenus the Son 
of Hercules, and Etruria his County : this feems 
to ftrengthen our Iri(h hiftory (Hygin. fab. 74.) 

1- The 

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i6o A Vindication ff tb$ 

The word Maiibe implies h^e, fotncdiing'/t/. 
perexceUenty beyond the reach of-morfak: itis'thc 
Arabic Majed^ fuperavit aliam gloria» & tanquam 
Bomen honos, dccus generis a majoribus ad po£- 
teres tranfmiflum : Moti, Mi'>« 'i^^o) Hefych. M^^ 
magnum Perf. Motha^ Brahmanes Mbaiatu aai 
Mathu magnum materiem : Coptic^ mout^ purum^ 

1. Mogh Nuadhat Airgid lamh, i. e» Mogb 
Nuadhat of the Silver hand or Gold hand : In ano- 
ther place we have proved thig to be Zorduft the 
iirfl (or Zoroafter), whofe Perfian name fignifies 
Gold or iilver hand» — his dodrine extended over 
all India. Maximam fuperftionum partem, quae 
Iildos, Sinas, & vicinos populos a feculis mvltii 
occxcatos tcnent ex do£trina Zoroaftres origincm 
ducere. (Eufeb. Rcnaudot. in Hi(L Patr. Alex, 
p. 44. 

2. Lugh or Lu, Lamhthada^ that is Lu the tali 
Lama : it is fometimes written Luamh and in the 
Lexicons tranflated an Abbot, llie office of La- 
ma was common to all the Southern Scytiiians.--* 
Lo-abyffi, Tibetanorum Papa. ^hiopLyhikfen 
Louk, more TibetaAorum Lou, eft Lo, Prcibyto; 
Sacerdos, Princeps, Summus. Laznam ita ha- 
beas fupremum Chatayas,. qui fedem Liiafls obd- 
nuit, (T. p. 689^ (y). Lama Rim-boiche, Tite- 
tanorum Pontifex maximus (id). 

3* Eocad ill datbac Dagh-daa ; i. e. Dia Tdb- 
ith, Dagh (bonus) the God of Nature, the Eocad 

(y) T. this Letter (lands for the Alphabetum Tibdunii^ 
piiblilhed at Rome, A. D. 1 762. by Faiher Auguft. AoKBi 



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Ancient Hi/kry rf Ireland. x6i 

(i. e. Penis fandus) of many colours. Dace Tibe- 
tanorum nefcio qucm patrem Bavanl fingunt, quo 
tempore vocabatur Sati. Quod quanta impietate 
Indi effutianty fatis admirari nequeo ; nam, fi ea 
mater eft Ifuren omniumque Deorum & ab Ente 
fupremo, ut illi folemnicur profitcntur, ^ula:^^ edi- 
ta eft ; unde in fcenam venit novus ifte Dace, 
a filia impius ob earn caufam appellatus, quod 
feipfiim a cultu Ifuren ad Vifnu honorandum ad- 
ducere aliquando ftuduerit ? Dak-po habent etiam 
Tibetani, eumque principcm & caput loci Docam 
fuper aera pofiti interpretantur. — Les Indiens ont 
le Lingam qui ajoute encore quelque chofc a Tin 
,famie du Phallus des Egyptiens & des Grecs : ils 
adorent le faux dieu Jfur fous cette figure mon- 
ilreufe & obfcene, qu'ils expofent dans les tem- 
ples, & qu'ils expofent en proceflion infuUant 
d'unc maniere horrible a la pudeur & a la credulit^ 
de la populace, (La Croze, p. 431). Pafupati 
vocant Nepallenfas Phallum feu Lingam., quadri- 
formem flavi, rubri, viridis, albique coloris : (T. 
152.) hence the epithet illdatbacj i.e. matiy colour- 
ed: — he is called Dia Teibith^ Chaldec nWtO Ta- 
baitb. Arab. Tubeatj i. e. Natura. 

4. From Dagh-daa proceeded Phrech uaine, 
L e. fettled Limen : .£gypt, Brechi or Brehi bi- 
tumen : Lutum ex terra & aqua feu argilla, & per 
apocapen, vix certe dubito quin, & haee ipfa ad 
materiam creationis fignific.andum apud iEgyptios, 
accepta fuerit : huicfiaddas^, qua in noipinum 
praefcrtim compofitione iE^yptii, ut Grscos pras- 
teream, Amonem fpritum mtellexerunt, erit Bre- 
cham feu Breham & per crafin coalefcente E in A 
Bram. — & ^3*^*13 Brica, pullities, faecundatio, 
format mundum BriaticumCabbaliftorum, mun« 

L . du^ 

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1 6 2 A Vindicat'm rf the 

dus materialis (T. 104). Sic enim Brahma cbut- 
Iltionis, e^orefcentiae & creationis materialis fpiri- 
turn principem, five potentem fonat & cerce vox 
Brechi vel Brehi tria ilia percommoda notat (id). 

And from him proceeded Bud-dean^. I think 
dearrg is a contradion of Darrioga, Rex Suprc- 
mus, which correfponds with the Chaldean 311 
Darag, Dux, an Epithet given to Budya ; Spar- 
theboe filius, qui regnavit Indiis tertius pod fiac- 
chum, Arrian. Rcr. Ind. p. 173. — (T. 104)— (z)- 

5* Scacchfa Craob dearrg. In Indiis Xaca re- 
ligio per omnes fere earum regionum populos la- 
tiilime funditur ; tempus quo Xaca vixeric, incer- 
turn efl, plures funt 9k Europceis fcriptoribus, qui 
floruifle velint Salomone in Judaea regnante ; non 
idem e(l et Xaca novus, i. e. ApoUonius Tyanc- 
us, qui floruit A. D. 6o. (T. 161). Xacam eun- 
dcm efle ac Buddum, La Crozius aliique non du- 
bitant. Xacae nominis origo a Saca Babiloniorum 
& Perfarum numine repetendo. Tibetanorum 
litera fcribitur Sacbia^ quod idem eft cum Secbia 
Sinenfium (T. 2 1 )• Les Japonois le difent ori- 

(zi Le Xaca des Japonais, le Sommona-rhutana du Pego, 
le Somniona-kodam de Siam, le Butca des Indieus, ne Ibncqu'un 
fcul & nieine perfonnage, regards ici comme un Dieu, la comme 
un legiilateur— -fi jai bien prouv^ que Butta^ TAoi^St Mtran 
ne font dgalemenc que la ineme in\'eDtcur des Sciences & des 
arts : ils'enfuivra que routes les aations dd'Afie, anciennes & mo- 
dernes n6nt eu la philofbphie & pour la religion, qu'un feol & 
meine legiflateur place a leur origine. Alora Je dirai que ce 
legiflateur unique n*a pu aller pftnotic dans TAfle, ni en mene 
teois parceque fans doute» il n'avait pas d'ailes ; ni fucceflife- 
inent parce que la vie d'un honunf ne fufvaic pas aux. voTago. 
I/exiftence Je <e pn^e mOrieur eft prouv^ par le labkan 
i|ui n off re que des debris, Aftronoinie oubli^e^ philofophie 
iiiel^e a dei abfilrditcs, phjfkjue deg6n6re6 en fables, reliffion 
f puree, mais dach^ fous tme idoltcrie groflierc. (M. BaiHjr. 
p. aoo}. 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 163 

ginaire du pais, oii il eft adore fous le nom de 
Budbu^ & de Sommona-cadam & le font naitre pen- 
dant le regne dun Empereur de la Chine, qui vi- 
Toit environ mille ans avant L C. (Bamcr. & Maf- 
char. de Rel. Japon*. T. V. p. 1 2). Foe, Fo aut 
Xachia Sinenfium Deum, tempore quo Solomon rex 
in Faleftina imperabat (T^ 45). Scia-chia illud 
effc & fcribi a Tibetanis (id)i — the termination fa 
or fo, has the fame meaning in Irifh and Hbetan, 
viz. great^ magnificent, to augment, to increafe. 
The epithet of Craob dearrg is alfo Tibetan, viz* 
Curbe, Curve & Curphi Buddiftarum aiit Ttbetan- 
lOTum, eft Cbrbicius et corrupte Cubricus, no- 
men Manes. £a tribuitur primo humani generis 
^ubematbri Regi Principi, Regi honoris decorum^ 
^lendidam, ac venerandam fignificat (T)* 

The We of SeacchiEi was Trom : (he is faid alfo 
to be the wife of Dagh. Trom in Irifli (ignifies 
pregnant^ heavy, and hence Trom-mathar a Ma- 
tron. Trom is here compoundisd of Tra and Am. 

Geoiinam ducit uxorem Xaca, viz. Tra-zimo 
k Sa-zana \ addenda eft tertia Ri-tha-khje. Tra- 
zimo mihi equidem aliud non eft quam pariens^ 
aut mittens vita mater, Drak Tibet : Drek Syr. 
gignere & parere (T. 34. 718). — hence our Tro- 
ihather — Quaere, do not thcfe names explain the 
Inlcription found in England, that has fo much 
perplexed the learned Selden ? 

R. FVS. L. M. 

(^id fibi vellet Tratnai, ne hariolari quidem au- 
las fuQi : Atqui fi Aftarte Deum fuerit Mater, 
L 2 AftartsD 

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i64 A rifidicatim rf tie 

Aftartss ut lint Dese Matres oportet (ia Diis Syrit 
Synt. 2d De Aftaroth). 

N. B. Ccarmad is another name for Scacchla: 
fo it may be Tramai Uxor Cermadi — wha feems 
to be peculiarly called upon ia this line, as prefi* 
ding over the Deae Matres. 

6. IHiearaman, Son of Budh-dearrg* Thisvras 
Paraman the founder of the Bramins : lai remar* 
qu^ que les Brames aimaient a etre appell& Para^ 
mams^ par refpeft pour la memoire de leur An- 
ceftres qui portoicnt ce nom^ (Monf. Badlly, hM. 
fur les Sciences, p. 202). Paivfanias nous dit^ 
que Mercure, le m£me que Butta on Budda uns 
des fondateurs de la do£brine des Paramenes ou 
Brames, eft: appelie Parammon ( Gebelin Hift. du 
Calendrier Pref. p. 14). 

7* Dolph dead fholas : Dolph with the ^fliininj^ 
teeth (a). This is the Salambus of the Babylo- 
nians, :iSTtN Adir-daga of the Aflyrians, — eadem 
quae &: Derceto Dea Syria & Heliapolitana. 
/ifMftfT Delepheat, quafi maris fpumam aiunt, 
tefte Hefychio, Venerem J^^oilrw vocari. Venus 
e Maris Spuma Delephat : ^gyptiis Delphav aut 
Delphat, Oxyrinchus pifcis (T. 124). — ^Eam ipfkm 
eile Derceto & Salambo. Ecce Pi-delphav plun 
num* me quoque tacente, prodit apcrt^ Grae- 
cum 1%M^T in Sing : & ex Arabico interprete 
Salaba per Epenth pe Salamba, Oxyrinchum 
apud ^gypt.— Quae vox fi a Graecis ad nativant 
dialedum transferator, hsibebimus coqtinuo Ofd^ 
rinfoi^ Ofiridis Sinum, C« M /«, Ifin fciiicet vi Ofiri- 
dis fluvida^ eaque ignea tumidam. Narrant enim 
iEgyptii, ut eft in Oedip; Kirch. T* k p, 35. 

(a) The fiHi called Dolph. — Oxyrinchus is traDflated a 
Muliccour wordpoinutodieDolphiA. 

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Jneiifa JUfhry 9f Ireland. t6$ 

Oicyrincbwn devdt^i pudendum Ofiridh a fyphone 
rt^fbtm^ tic in Kdwn prye&umy ut minim non fit^ 

Suod pifcem hunc iBgyptii, tantoperc venerari 
induerint, (T. 124)— hdnce from iht Dolphdead 
Sliolas, is formed the above moft ndicutous alle- 
gory ; a proof of the Southern Scythians having 
been that ancient people of Aiia fpoken of by 
Moq£ Bailly : Cet ancien peuple a eu des Sciences 
perfedion^es, une philotophie fublime & iage; 
mnd thk again is exemplified, by all thek names 
tnriBilag to one and the fame meaning in the Irifli 
hiigMtge*. The God of Nature, me Genitatia, 
and the Semen, the fignification of Budd, Seagh* 
&, &C, &c. Nam Ti-Sumani ^gj^tii Genitalia 
vocani & Suinonas Me»/:^2/^rwi, i.e. SemehApoU 
ini9',&utMenthatn0(7/ic« ^ >e»or TM^A^^wSanguittem 
ac genkuram Ammonis, (T. 150). 

Our account of the Maiihe^ concludes vritb a 
fliort lift of miraculous thines imported to Irdfeind 
by £he Tuatha Dadann, vhich here require fome 
ez|5!adatioh, before we proceed — the words are, 
Tngfat feoid iongontaca inghnathacha leo. i. e« 
ihef brought with them their ufual wonderful cu- 
rtomies, viz. 

1; An Leug fail. i. an cloch Ckreisdeadh, 
that is, the Stone of the Chefdim, or of Enchant- 
ment, which always decUted the true monarch 
and prevented all controverfy. 

R £ M A R K: 8. 

This is the Meifcith or Oracle defcribed in the 
13th No. of the Ck)lledanea. The Iriih Antiqua- 
ries have confounded this Stone, with another, 
fiicred to die Scythians only ; the Meifdth belong- 

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1 66 4 Vindic0fim of fbe 

edto the Chaldeans, the other Stone is pecuUvto 
Japhet's race, and is common mth the Turks and 
Tartars. It is called Carrig am Aibar or the Stone 
of the Father. This fabulous Stope is well knowq 
in the Eaft, an account of it is to be met with in 
D^erbelot, p. 890. eztra^ed from Oriental Au^ 
thors. ^* Before Japhet feparated from Noah, 
£iy they, the Patriarch bellowed to bis fym his 
bleffing, and a mo(i valuable Stone on which was 
engraved the great name cf God^ and iqftruded 
him 2^t the fame time, that in thi$ qiyfterious 
name, was comprized sdl that was eflent}^ in Re- 
ligion and in dTvine worfhip. This S(oqc the 
Arabs c^ll ffag'r al matbatj that is, the Stone of 
rain, a name cprr^iptcd from Carig am Aibar. 
The Moguls name ilGioudebtba/bj (i^ Z.^eoda 
Taofacj in Iriffi, the C|ue(tan's 3tpne }) the Perfi- 
ains call it Senkideh i. e. the Stone* It had the pow- 
er of producing rain or fai^ weather, as. Japhet 
faw agreeable tp his wiOies, and thougji by Icngtl) 
of time, it has been confumed or loft, the Tartars 
or Oriental Turks have ftones in which they fay, the fame yirtqe 9s ^e Origidal had. i And 
the moft fuperftitious amongfl: them tell you, 
that, they have been reprpduped and multiplied by 
a kind of generation from this iirft Stone, th^ )^o« 
iUi gs^ve to his Sop.'* (b) 


(b) The old Romans converted the word ^m Athar into Mus 
tialis and Manalis ; hence the Lapis Manalis^ vel Lapis NUurul 
alis^ kept in the ttfknple of Mars at Rome* withoit the Porta Ct- 
pena. In Drought! the old Romans ufed to cariy in piV)c€flion 
thb Li^t Mart'mlit to procure rain. The Romifli Chinrh conr 
▼erted this corrupted MartiaUs into a good Saint, and the Baton 
of St. Martial in the Ctnjtnnes^ has now the fame tain produchig 
power. The Catholic Roman Calendar is b good a OMBiMnt 


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Ancient Hi/hry fflhJa^d. 167 

Ilis^aridc&t from ibcr ^IbkDte eztrads^ that the 
Arabs have made the Aine coaiufion as the mo- 
^mlrifti) miftakingthe Leach Fallot the Irifii 
aadthe Zr^ F/ii/ofth^PeFiians, for the. Carig dm 
Atbar ; The Clacb na Soineana J6 confodnded with 
the Chcb na Cineamhna y the firft fignifies the 
Maifheac or Meifcith, the maonD]^ of the jews, 
forbidden Levit. 26. i; the fecond, Japhets 
fair weather Stone, and the third, the:6tahe od 

a. The fword of Nuadhat x)f the filveriian.d : 
agus ni gabhtha Cath fris§ which Was ^evec uicd 
in battle, i. e« the Sword of Z^rduft thefirfL !•!> 

3* Coire an Daghda, nacb teigheadh damh dt- 
cmdbar uadba : the Coirr, Knot or twifted Gonile 
of Da^hda,. which hecohftantly wore: They 
fought the tattle cff :Maighe tuireadh, .(of^thb 
Towers of the Magi) with 'the Fear<-bolg^' ba 
Inininfain^trocaiT rofearadh an cath fin.tatorra,) 
wkh brutal cruelty on both fides; E§ciad Mac 
Earg tras Tuighfblaitby ot Chief Commander of 
the Fir-bolgj and he cut- oflP the hand of Nuadhat, 
and at lengdi his head. In another MSS. we are 
told, that the Tuatha Danahn^ ever remarkable 
for their Sorcery and Necromancy^ made a Silver 
hand for Nuadhat, Whence his name pf Airgiod- 
lamb, or Silver handed, proh dolor ! 

To an Orientalift, acquainted with the fabubus 
hiftory of the Per/tans ^ there muft appear a ftrik- 
ing coincidence, of names ^nd fa&s, between the 

on Ovid's Fafti, that frooi thefe a Monk, has a6tually fupplied his 
books of thofe which are JoiH. Scephens, Muflard, and Middle- 
too, have only Iketcht this conformitjr of Ceremonies, but Mr. 
Bowman has proved it is univerfal in the early fuperftitions of 
the Roman Religion. (Min. Antiq. Soc. 8 Feb. 1 7;9.) 


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i68 AKndkatmH^ the \. 

Ferfian and Irifli Hiftoryv lli6 Tu^tsDadann 
are the Pi/hdadan iof the:Berfian8. Nwj^ifc^ Air- 
^aiaaifa, is the ZfrUo^ (or Gold-haii4) of the 
PerfianlL; and Eocbad Mac £arg (or the |iorie- 
man) i£ the Arj-aip (or the iUuftrioy^ Horf^inan) 
King of the Scythians,, who gave that pretended 
prophet {6 much v£xation«: 

Firft then, Tuath.zndi Pijb, (c) aj.e ^oQimoiu 
words: in ihe Chaldec^f and both fignily myflery, 
Sorcery, Prophets, &c. they are both of (he fame 
fignificatioh in the Irilh, therefore by Pijbdadann 
and Tuaiba Dadanttf (underftaAd the Dadanites, 
defceiided of Dedan, whohad ftudied'tbe Nccro* 
mantic Art, which iprung from the Cbe/dim or 

In Liber Aruch under ta !*e find t1in*ttP Tuta- 
Bagon, explained to be .the priefts or Sorcerers of 
Dagon ; in Hebrew laCO Tut is a My.(|eryy a Secret : 
(Liber ZoharCh.oy. we find Tut or |9&3 thename 
of the Chief An^l^ sdib of die MelTiab ;) vuki hence 
I derive the 9itfia;^^/i/j& worn by the Rabbins on 
their, fordieads in the Synagogues* . In Cbaldec 
NtO'^^lD Tiita is any.thiAg myfterious. (Rabbodi 
Cap. 28*) In Arabic Tawid, Averunca.. . 

Chaldee rRf Q pitzah, aperUit, interpretavit, HSO 
Sors. Mo'^sa Sors. Syriacfi^NDB praedicavit : Perfice 
pifhin guftun to predid, (Jal guftun the fame, 
whence our Lia Fail). In Irifli Pifiiogj Sorcery, 

(c) TuaiAa Heren caircanub 
dos nicfead (ithlaith nua. 
Faics Hibemia vaticinabantur 
adventunim ternpus pacb novnnil 

(Priipt Viti Patricii. Colgan p. %,) 


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And$ni Hfft^ry if Ireland. 1 69 

fortune-telfogy ponjuring^ &c. — the word is 
JMW taken ia a bad lenfe as in the Hebrew pg ma^ 
kdicere. {4) 
. As to the Iri(h Tbua or Ttui, (in the plural 
TlMba^ there cjui no doubt arile of the figni- 
fioati o n of the word, and that it is here applied to 
the Dadanmm of Cbaldaa. Symmachus and Hi- 
eronymos are explicit, as colle&ed by the learned 
Bochart. ^ Proinde ut Bacchae Tbyadesj fic Ba^ 
^^ Monii harufpices a Symmacho vocantur ^viu 
^ Dan* 2. 27.— -Hieronymusy pro arufpicibus, 
<< quod nos vertimus in Hebraso )^U habetur^ 
<< quod iblus l^ymmachus ei«V interpretatus 
« eft.'* (c) 

eottff Sacrificula Bacchi. f A|ioll.)*-^v»f qujas 
Oraeci iblent {^mwrf^^ximfHc Jlppdiare, i. e. qui exu 
anipiciunt, & ex iis ventura prasdicuxit. (f J 

in a fimner number of tliii work, my readers 
were advertifed, that the war between the Br-bclg 

(d) The Porikiif derive die name PiJhJatUm from Pijklad 
a Lawgiver* Peifh-nihaud is a Law: ^nd fo is dad in Acabic ; 
10 Irifli Dtf/A: m.Chaldee and Hebrew JTY dadi ; but there is 
no fucfa word as PtjK in die Cfaaldee, figrtifTiAg a bw, and from 
the CfaaldaeaAs we derive this Cblboy with ioaie good pretence. 
Mirkhond apd Khondemir aiTure u), d^at the 4 Dvoaftio pf 
tbe Perfians include all the Kings of Afijria, of Chaldaea, Ba-* 
byloo, MedeSy and Perfu, known to the Greeb, who like the 
Hebrews, have often taken Viceroys and Governors of the asicient 
Kings of Perfia for abfolme Monarchy becaufe they were better 
known to them than the Sovereigns were» whofe ReGdeneet were 
in Provinces very difUnt from them. 

(e) Bochart. Geogr. Sacr. L. i. C. i8.— to which he adds, 
at jam nulli (it obfcurum cur Graeci tot voces barbaras ufurpa* 
verint in Bacchi facris : ilias fcilicet ^ magMris Phsenicibus ^i- 
dicerant. Tuach in Irifh is alfo explained by phoras or fbras, 
on Explanatory revealcr, interpretor, &c. 

(f) Lexicon Grzcum ad facri apparatus inftrudionem. 
Antreip. 157a. 


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I70 A Ttndkatm tf the 

and the Tuatba Dsdann^ from every drcumftance 
that could be colleded in Iriffi Hiftory, was caiif. 
cd from Religious motives : fome innovationi at* 
tempted by the Tuatha Dadann, in which they 
fucceeded ; for this reafon, I was then of opinion 
that Bolg fignified a Prieft, as balg is atnan of eru- 
dition, (a; a further purfuft in this darit and rayf^ 
terious hiftory, has convinced me that I waa right 
with refped to the principal obje£):, the war, amd 
perceiving that the Scene lay with the Chaldean^, 
I was mifled by Buxtorf, who makes Bah a Se& 
of the Jews, Tli^ Bilga Nomen Sacerdotis cujuf- 
dam, qui ex captivitate Babylonica Hierofolymain 
rediit. Nehem. i a. 5.— cujus Se&atores difld fuc- 
runt Bilgitae : videtur & Ordo virginum facranim 
abeo fuile, de quoordine quaedam ny?!l PD. OHO 
Miriam filia Bilgse, i. e. de ordine five obfervaii- 
tia Bilgae di£la — the fignificatioi) of our Fir bo^ 
has been fuf&ciently and fatisfadloriiy ezjdained in 
the preceding pages. 

It will appear, that this war between the FirMf 
or Br D^Omany or men of Omafiy and the Tuatba 
Dadanrij is the War dcfcribed by the F^rfian Hif- 
torians, to have fubfifted between the Pifdadiaa 
Kings of Perfia, and the Touranians or Scpbtam^ 
^caufcd by Zerdufi the firft, (or Zoroailres, on 
theintrodudionof PyreaorFiretower$, like tho& 
ftill remaining in this Kingdopi,) in which attempt 
Zerduji loft his life. 

In this inyeftigadon, fo many circumftances, 
proper names &c. concur, to eftablifh the faft« 
that they have induced me to follow my Original, 

(a) Arabicd Beig wh^ce Baligh or Belch» the Citj ot 



Ancient Hijlory of Ireland. 1 7 1 

ibfi Irifh Hiftory, in the escplanation of Perfian 
names i becaiife the Irifh names appear to be the 
fimple tranflation of the Perfian, and at the fame 
jdmc, the words "Sirc to be found ip the Arabic or ^ 
Pcrfic, tiiipugh |iow become obfolete : this I hope 
will be a funicient apology for di£fering fo much 
from the learnied authors, who have gone over this 
ground bf^fore me ; it is alfo to be confidered, 
that tbefe Authors have had no other refource foe 
their inyeftigation, than the Arabs, and the 
Greeks ; the firft profeffed enemies of the Ferfe^y 
or fire worfhippers, the latter ignorant of almoll 
iall Afiatic police or religions, yet oretended to 
^noif cyf:ry thiag, which made Lucian begin one 
of h^ Satyrical pieces ags^nfl hiftqrians, with de- 
claring diat the only true propofition in his work 
ivas, ihsA itJ[hofil4 contain nothing true. (H) 

My guide in this intricate path, is more than 
language ; it is a chain of hiftoqcal events, (whe- 
ther real or ^bulous, I do pot pretend to d^ter* 
mine) which illuftrate the early part of Perfian 
hiftory, and plainly proyc, that both the Perfian 
and the Irifh or Scythian Anecdotes, muft have 
beep h^ded to us by one and the fame people. 
The diverfity and difficulty of languages, fays the 
learned Sir Willi^qi Jones, is a fad obftacle to the 
progrefs of ufefiil knowledge ; the attainment of 
them is hqweyer indifpenfably neceffary : they are 
the injirumfnts of. real learning, (b) 

To underfland the fubfequ^nt part of this Chap- 
ter, it is neceflary my readers be made acquainted 
with the Perfian hiftory of the Pijhdadians^ and 
with the Writers of the life of Zerdufl. 

(b) Addrefs to the Afiatig SiKietr. 

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lya A Vindication of the 

My hiftory of tbe Perfian Empire, layi Sir 
WilUam Jones, is extraded from fevenl AjKaddi 
Writers, and might have been confiderablj cnlar- 
larged, if all the fables and dull events, which are 
found, it mud be confeffed, in great aboadance 
m the Originals, had been tranicribed at fidi 
length. The Perfians would not readily forgive 
my prefumption, if they knew what a liberty I 
have taken with their Chronology, and how mgm 
ibw/and years I have retrenched worn the pretend- 
ed duration of their Empire. 

Frwn Richardson's Dijkrtation om tbe Ltmptaiesy 
&c. of the Eaftem Nations^ p. 47. 

** The reigning families of Perfiay prevfous Co 
*^ the Arabian conqueft, are comprehended, i^ 
*^ their hiftorians, under four dynaiUes (or fami- 
^^ lies) ; the Pijbdadiansj the KaiamaiUj the As* 
^^ kanians^ and the Sqffanians. The Perfians, l&e 
•* other people, have aflumed the privilege of i> 
** mancing on the early periods of Society. The 
^^ firft dynafty is, in confequence, embarrafled by 
" fabling, (c) Their moft ancient princes arc 
** chiefly celebrated for their vidories orcr 
'^ the Demons or Genii, called Dsves : and Ibme 
^* have reigns ailigned to them of 800 or 1000 
*^ Years. Amidft fuch fi&ions, however, there 
^^ \& apparenllyfome truth. Thofe monarchs/f«&^ 
•* bly did reign, though poetic fancy may have 
*^ afcribed to them ages and adventures, which the 

(c) Sir William Jones iays, the Perfutn biftory begios to be 
full Off abford fiiblcs in the reign of Dtiab. B. Cbrift» 424. 

•* laws 

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' AncieM Hiftory of Ireland. 1 7 j 

^* hws of nature rcjeft. We difpute not the ex- 
^ iftence of our Englifli Arthur^ though we believe 
^ not in the Giants and Magic of Geoffrey of 
^ Monmouth. The Dives may have been favage 
^ neighbours conquered by the Pijhdadian Kings, 
^ and magnified by tradition as beings of a fuper^- 
^ natural fpedes. The Gods, the Titans and the 
^ heroes ot the Greeks ; the Giants, the Savages,, 
^ and the monfters of Gothic romance, feem all 
*^ to have originated, from fimilar principles ; 
** from that wild irregularity of fancy,* and that 
** admiration of the marvellous, which, in various 
•* degrees, runs thro* the legends of every darker 
^^ pmod of the hiftory of mankind. The longe- 
^* vity, at the fame time, afcribed to this race of 
^< monarchs, may either have been founded on 
^ fome imperfed antediluvian idea, or may be r&i 
^ folved, by {\xppo^mg famUiesj inficzdof individw' 
^^ aU\ and that the Caiuniarasj the Gbem/bids^ 
^ and the Feridouns of the Eaft, were merely fuc- 
^^ ceifions of princes, bearing one common fur- 
^^ name ; like the Pharaohs, the Ptolemies or the 
** C8BfarsoftheWeft.^(d) 

*• With the fecond dynafiy, a more probable 
^ fyftem of hiftory feems to commence; yet ftill 
•* me era of Kaicobad the founder of this houfe, 
^ cannot be precifely fixed. Though hiftorians 
** differ, however, with regard to the Chronology 
^ of this prince in one point, which may lead us 
** to afcertain it with tolerable accuracy^ they ap- 
^* pear, in general, to be unanimous. Darab the 
^ younger, dethroned by Alexander,' is called the 
^^ 9th Sovereign of this line. He was affaffinated 
•• about 300 Years before Chrift. If 30 years are 

(d) O-amm in Irifti, is heac} cf the" Nobles. 

" allowed 

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176 A VimDcathH tf tbi 

no tranla£tion8 of the Gredans at this period, as 
aflerted by their writers, appear in the Irifli hifto«* 
rj : fecondly, it correfpoada fo much with the 
Perfian hiftory, that it muft' liave been bronghc 
with them from Afia, and in point of time ther^ 
is ^gr^t coincidence. 

The Iri(h Annals inform us,, that Mogb Nuad. 
hat or Nuadhar, that is, the Magus Nuadhar, wa^ 
the leader of this Colony into frrai, whidh we 
tranflate Ireland, but may hare fienified Iran of 
Perfia^ and that this event todk place, Amio 
Mundi 3303, that is, aboat 705 Years before the 
birth of our Saviour, (g) 

Mr. Ricbardfon clearly proves that the firft King 
of the fecond Dynafty, begun his reign about 600 
Years before Corifl:. Nuadar was the 8th King 
of the firft Dynafty, and there were three between 
him and Kaicobad, or the firft Ku^ of the fecond 
Dynafty, (as in the following table) : allowing 30 
years to each, and adding three times 36, or 90 to 
the former number, the Sum is 690 Years from 
the end of Nuadar's reign, which fubftracced from 
705 leaves 1 5 ; that is, about the middle of Nua- 
dar'3 Reign, he led the Piihdadian Colony into 
Perfia, or Iran, foon after which he may have mi- 
grated with the Fhamicians to Eirin, or fent oF 
a Colony with them. 

k will appear hereafter, that this Nuadhar 
Airgiodlamh, or filvcr handed, is Zerrf^ the ift, 
whoie exiftence Play fair makes about 600 years 
B. C. -, he calls him a Perfian, we contend from 
Irilh hiftory, and other corroborating drcum- 
itances, that will appear in this chapter, that he 
was of the family of Dadan^ fon of Rbegma^ fon 

• (g) Set Page 73. 


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m.« ■ -. « 

Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 


Cujh^ fon of Cham or Ham ; yet the circum- 

xu:e of Airgiodlamh's death by Eochadj (that 

the illuftrioiu horfeman,) corrcfponds in name, 

th the death of Zerdujiihc 2d, who lived about 

o, B« C. according to Playfair, and was killed 

the Scythian King Arjafp^ which is only the 
Ih Eqcbad tranflated into the Perfic language, 
s. Arj illuftrious, afp a horfe, of this hereafter. 
> The Perfians have blended the tranfadion of 
LC Zerdull with the other* 

(a) Tank was die old Arabic name for a horfe, as we colTedt 
»m Hydes notes on Abulfarag. The ancient Arabs, fays thac 
Kboty worflii|>ped thefe idols 1 IfW under the figure of a man ^ 
^Btf. nader that of a woman ; Tagouth a lion 1 Tank t horfe. 
d N^ ft vulture. Arabes aucem videntur has fomias eUcuifle 
appelhuivis horum nominum fignificatiooibus 1 and here we 
■ft obfcrve, that modh or wodh is mhodh, i. e; nahodh in 
Ih, a man; Saobha a remarkable woman, called Queen 
cfaiia« and Shevan a Miice, a fabalous fiiiry Quteen 1 and 
c or Toe, b a horfe. The terminadoa ad implies ilb^t. 



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A VmSkalMn rfibe 

Tȣ Dynasty ov the PiAEL9iAiY^ 

Accoixliiig to VisDBJLOiy and Gal aud^ from tlie 
eaqrlkft Hiftory to the Chriflian £r«. <b) 


Reigned years. fived 

I Cainamarath ^ - igoo ]^g 
13 Sbmek « - c6o 

Interregnum - 200 . 

3 Tahamuras . 30 - 

4 Qjamflud • 700 - 1000 
5. ZphakorDo^ak 1000 

6 Afridoun or? 

Feridoun 5 5^0 - 

C Cotemporary whh 

yManougcher . 120^ Pharaoh of Mofcs, 

° J according to the 

8 Noudar 

9 Afrafiab - 
10 Zab - - 




11 Guihtafp - 20 or 30 

2989 Sum of their Reigns* 

(b) Supplement to Dlierbaloc by Vifdeloa and Gtknd. 

C K^- 

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Andenl Hijbry cf Inland. 179 


years. livtcL 

1 Caicobad - lao . . ' • 

2 Caikous - 150 - 

3 Caikhofru - 60 - 

4 Lohorafp - 120 

5 Kifbcaip - 120 

6 Ardfliir or Ba- 7 

haman 5 ^ ' 

7 <i^een Homai 32 -^ 
S Dorabtheift. isor.14 

9 Dorab the 2d. ^ 

^nqucrcd by> 14 • * 
Alexander. 3 

7^0 or 742 Sum. (c) 
M 2 The 

(c) Herodotus, Xcno{>hoii, Pau&nias, Juftm, and other hif- 
torians, difFer fo remarkably, efpecially with regard to nameH 
tms^ and ads of the early kings of Perfia, that, if it was of the leaft 
HUpomuice to reconcile them, it would be impoffible. (Rich* 
ard&n's Diifert. p. 242. 

Kings of Periia according to the Gr«ekiv 

Cyaxcrcs, fon of Aftyages. Ante Chr. 610. 

E^rius the Mede. 

Cyrus. \ 


Smerdis Magus. 

Darius, fun of Hyftafpes. 




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f9c ArmSmAm^Ae 


ALESJkMU^WL hegzm bh Ragm m Ferfia, 331 before 

Thcte direr fim« added mgcdicry ODdnfire o[ 
die incerregnim of 200 yean. Bake in die whole 
4362 jean, to which add die imciiegn mny and 
Crrrmaradb mnft hare reined 4362 yean before 
die cfailftian eia ; bat, aUowni|( 30 years to a reigHy 
according to Bir. Rkfaardfoii^ and muhiplyuig 
that nnmber by 7, the Kings before Nimdar^ 
and adding the 15 be ij foppofed to have reigned 
before he led tlie Pifhdadiam into Irofty accordiiig 
to iriifa hiftacy, dien Cmmuratb begun his reign 
only 933 before ChrifL 

Gyijhtjff is proTcd by Dr. Hyde to be the Dari- 
ui Hr/iajfes of tiie Greeks, and to hare reigned 
5^9 before Chrifl ; adding 300 years to this num- 
ber for the ten preceding Kings, will bring the 
commencement of Kaiumorath's reign to 819 
years before Chrifl, which only exceed the Irifli 
Chronology by 1 1 1 years. 

Anaxsnes Locgrnaiim 
XsTTcs 2d. 

Darius tbs ba&ird. 

A^i'teriri Orhus. 


Darius Codooia&iB. 

A\tT2jAc7 ante Chr. 33c. (Sir J. Newton.) 

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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 1 8 1 

It 18 remarkable, that the fabulous reigns of the 
Pifhdadians end with Manougher, and a more 
rational account begins with Naoudar, with whofe 
life our Tuath Dadann hiftory commences, with- 
out affigning any time to him or any of the reft of 
the Dynafty : but in the third Iri(h Dynafty, that 
is, this Milejian line, we (hall find Dohac^ Tagh- 
murasj Queen Honiaiy and others, with Scythian 
names, and a regular Chronology afligned to them, 
as if they lived but yeftcrday. We fhall here col- 
late the two hiftories. I muft firft premife that 
Kai in Perfic, and Ce or £>, and Cai or Cu in 
Irifli, fignify a prince, a giant, a hero, as in Iriih, 
Ce^bacfbe^ the great, the illuftrious Bacchus. Cai- 
cuUan or Cu-cullan, the great CuUan. It is writ- 
ten Ce and Caij and it dfo fignifies a houfe, a fa- 
mily, a hufband. Kaiyan is the Perfic plural— 
hence Kai-cobad is the Greek Cyaxares, Kai-Kusj 
Darius the Mede. KaUKbofrUj Cyrus or Chof- 
roes, &c. and Cai-amra in Irifh, is King of the 

I. Kaicmerasj is allowed by all the Afiatic au- 
thors to have been firfl King of the Pifhdadians ; 

(d) before his time there was no King, they 
were all Emr*Sj independent of each other, by 
which much confufion enfued ; they therefore 
elected him Kai-omaraj i. e. head of the Amra^s. 

(e) He civilized the people, taught men to build 


(d) And it is as remarkable that he took the title and fumame 
oi Bulgfnan^ as if defcended of our Bdgii but the Perfiaos faj, 
the name is contradled of Ahulgihan^ i. e. the father of the world ; 
it is compofed, fay they, of a word which is Hebrew, Syriac 
and Arabic, and of another that is purely Periiaii, and therefore 
Kaiumarath is Adam. 

(e) Sir Wm. Jones, in his hiftory of Perlia, had inadvertently 
laid Caiumaras feems to be the K. of Elam, mentioned in Scrip- 

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IjSj a VindUathn tf the 

hoiifes, and ta Hve in villages, tonmulikdurefilks 
and cloths ; in fhon thej make him Adam^ which 
is a plain proof that the Perfians knew Kltle or 
nothing of his hiftory ; others make him ike fen 
of Aram, fen of Shem, fon of Noah, and that kt 
dwelt near Mount Ararat ; all this is afirriked to 
the Irifh Tighcrmos or Tihermas. See Art. HL 

II. Houfhang (f ) is faid to have beftrid a men* 
flrous animal, caHed Rakhjhc^ which he found ia 
the New World, being the iffue of a male Oreco- 
dile and a female Hippotamus ; this (teed fed upoa 
the flefh of ferpents arid dragons. With Aie moo- 
ter he r-educed the people of M-Mfir^ who kid 
fifties heads ; this is fuppoied to be the coaquefti) 
a people that lived on the Perficgutph, caltedhy 
the Greeks Jchthy<fph^gi^ and are the very Firb^ 
or Ftr D^ Oman J mentioned in the laft chapter, aiNl 
the fub}ugation of them by (he Tuatha Dadatm^ 
mentioned in this. The Magogian or Perfian Sey- 
thian« having been remarkable for their fifliingon 
the Cafpian and Euxine feas, on the Euphrates 
and the Tygris, and on the coaft of Oman^ or the 
Perfic gulph, the Indian fea and the Arabian gulpb. 
Oman was a narrow ftrip of country bordering zil 
thcfe, as already explained. 

turc. He corredls himfelf in the preface, and places Caiuma'^s 
about 890 before Chrift. But this obfervation confirms our ex- 
plauaiion of Caedarlomar or Cead-ar-u!e Oinra, (ignifying the 
fame as Cav-nmara, head orchief of the Emirs. Cai-omeras has 
the fame fignificarjon as Cead-ar-ule Omra, i. e. chief of chiefs. 
Cai in the Perfian fignifies a great King. Sir Wm. J. In Irilh 
Ce, CaiandCii. 

(f) This Houfliang obtained the name of Piflidad or the Le- 
giilator. Sir Wm. Jones From the romantic hiftory of thn 
Prince, it is more probable lie was fo called from Pifli and Da- 
dan, that is, (killed in the magick of the Chaldzans or Di« 


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An6em lU/kry cf Inland. F83 

Dlbni^ C2R be a ftroagcr eridence thaC the 
ana Imcw na more af the Fiflidadians thaa the 
naoic, than by beginning their rational hifto- 
J the word Jikinf^n, (or the fecoiid HypoAj^ 
unification of which is Kings. Would tb^ 
JQe firft Dynafty Law-givers and the fecond 
%f Are not all Kings in the Eaft, Law^givcn^? 
H^u/hsmg holds the place of Si^.mek in the 
adsan IXynafty^ according to fome Afiatic 
r»9 and they girts him the name of Piflidad» 
t Lsw^giver. 

. Ta^morasy fumamed Divbend^ u e. the 
AtM of the Detiiy fi^>pored to be the fon or 
Ifon of Houihang, and by fome hi& coufia 
He is the firft Periian Prince recorded to 
had a prime miniller ; he fortified the froD- 
of Perfia, and laid the foundadon of IJiacar^ 
Tkpolis^ which was fiaifhed by his fiicceflbr 
mdL Shedad, fon of Ad, a ^ing of Arabiar» 
*w to Taghmuras, fent an army ^gainft bim^ 
- the command of Dobac^ fon of Oluan^ who 
zed him, and obliged him to fly andtoaban* 
his flate to the Ufurpcr. [He firft ufcd a 
leat fuit of armour : he was called Divbend, 
: Tamer of the Giants. Sir Wm. Jones.] 
is is the Tighermas or Tihermas of the Irifh 
y, who was continually alarmed with the 
liions of the family of Hcbcr-fionn. The 
old mine was difcovered in his reign : he di- 
the people into claiTes, and obliged the qtia- 
• every perfon to be known by his garb. The 
is of a flave of one colour, the habit of a fol- 
Cwo, of the officers three, &c. (This is 
ed to Gjamfhid, fucceflfor to the Perfian 


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1 84 ^ Vindication rftie 

The Liber Lecanus concludes the reign of Tig. 
hermas, by aflerting that he flew 7000 Judi (Jevi !) 
Leab." Lecan. foK 1 4* In what part of Ireland "wctt 
the Ifraelites fixed ? Tahmurus lived B. C. 835. 
Our Tiber mas is placed at i t88 B. C. 

The Irifli Prince is faid to have died on the eve 
of the feftival of Sambna^ (g) as be was worfh^ 
ping Cram cruadb^ the fame God that Zerdt^l or 
Zoroajires adored. The Irilh Seanachies have pb- 
cedTighermas at Anno Mundi a8 1 6^ (h) about 600 
years before (Airgiodlamh, or) the firft Zcrduft 
appeared, and 700 before the fecond Zerduft. 
(The name of Zcrduft's God, was certainly Kc- 
rem Kerd, i. c* the great Creator, (i) the invifiblc 
and true God, and hence the Irifh Crom Cruadh.) 
He was fucceeded by Eochad Eadgothach, fon of 
Daire, or Darius. 

IV, Jam/hid^ (k) or Giamjhidj or rzthcr Gjm 
Sbidj his name being G/Vm, to which Shid was 
added as a furname. Shid in the Perfian lan- 
guage, fignifying the Sun ; his eyes having fuch a 
iuftre, that none could look on him in the iiace. 

(^) See Colledtanea. Na 13. 

( i) Iflz tamen idulolatriqe genres (Cejlonenfes) n6n plaoe ig- 
norunt Denm, quippe qui abeisliiigualndica agnofcicur Kemr, 
^6lor omnium rerum, C reator mundi. This is the Cniathsird 
the modern Irifh, viz. Cruathoir neamh agus tealmhan, maker 
of heaven and earth. (Vide Irifti creed,) and Hyde, p. 134. 

(k) Giamihid was a Scythian. Des que Jes Perfes ont 6ten- 
du leur empire jufq'uau pied du Caucafe, ils ne font aucontriire 
port6s vers le midi. Giamfhid a quirtd ces montagnes {lOU^d^ 
fcendre dans les plaines, ou il a fondo Perfepolis. (&i])f fur 
TAtlantick, 209.) In the courfe ofthb work, it will appear, 
that Zerdull was a Chaldaean, who reftored fire worihip in 
towers. Monf. Bailly has incontedably proved, that fire wor- 
iliip owed its origin to the Nonhern Scythians, 

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Ancient Hj/iory of Ireland. 1 85 

[t is not certain whether this prince was the fon of 
his prcdcceffor, his nephew or his grandfon. He 
divided his fubjefts into three claffes, viz. foldiers, 
buibandmen and artizans, and dire&ed that the 
Jiflfcrent degrees of people (hould be diftinguifh- 
iblc, from their garb. (I) In his time mufic and 
iftronomy were firft introduced into Pcrfia : he 
irft built granaries, and in his time wine was 
>rought into general ufe. He inftituted the Nau-^ 
tiXj i. c. the folemn obfervation of the new year, 
i^hich feflival laded fix days ; on the laft day of 
his feftival, a youth went about crying out, lam 
tl Manfur^ i. e. Auguft, my name is al Mobarekj 
.. e. the blefled. 

He gave the left hand the preference, which has 
t>een obferved at all times fince in the Eaft, fay- 
ng, it was fufHcient for the right hand to have 
he advantage of being the right, and that the 
eft (hould be expe&ed to make fome compenfa- 

Giamflied at length took it into his head that he 
vas immortal ; fent pidures of himfelf throughout 
be empire^ and ordered ihem to be worfhipped with 
iivine honours. This caufed a rebellion in the 
)rovince of Sigjijian, from whence an army march- 
ed under Dahac which defeated GjamOiid, took 
lim prifoner and put him to death, by fawing his 
)ody in two parts. 

The Iriih Luaghad lamhfadha, appoints Bras- 
romhrac, (m) or Tournaments to be held at Tail- 
:can on the firft day of Auguft, every year, a day 
ivhich is ftill diftinguifhed by the name of Lugb^ 

(I) Sec the Irifti Tighermas in the preceding article. 
(m) Sec note N. 


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i86 A ViMdicatim rf the 

nafA, in honoiir of hk name (n) Lamb ii a 
hand, and fadbam or fbadhlan is to diftinsofli, 
that is, the man wbo dijhngvifbed ibe kjft bimafwn 
iberigbt. Hejirjl introduced idolatry ^ and erefUd 
Pagan altars, though fomc have afcribcd thb to 
Tigbermas. His wife's name was failte^ who vai 
married to Duacb Dml, a great general, after Lu- 
agh's death. Luagh fignifics a bright flame, a 
d^zling light, corrcfponding to Gjemihid. Lo- 
agh is adfo an image. 

V. Dahac, Zahac, or Zoak. This monajxh 
gained the crown by the fword, and governed 
fiercely, with little regard to his fubjeds : he wau 
deeply (killed in the occult fciences, a completely 
wicked man, with a deformed body and a terrible 
countenance. The Devil having tor many yeut 
obeyed him, demanded that he might have leave 
to kifs his (boulders ; which being granted, an 
ugly ferpcnt immediately took poft in each, aad 
gnawed itfclf a den in his fle(h. A Sorcerer fug» 
gefted to him a remedy for this e\dl, viz. that of 
wa(h!ng the ulcers with warm blood of men, and 
of applying to them the brains of men newly flain* 
The Pr;<^ft^ employed all their arguments to en- 
gage him to have recourfe to the blood and braias 
of (heep ; but to no purpofc : thofc however, that 
were entnilted with the care of thefe unhappjr 
wretches ^eitined to ilaughter, often, out of mere 
pity, let them make their efcape : fo that flying to 
the mountains, t;icy there formed themfelves into 
a particular nation called the Curdes. Among 
others put to lieath for this cruel tyrant were tbe 

*'n) Nafa, a ccleb'^tron, fei^ival. Mihr'najasjk in Pwfe is 
Mi.hrxcelebratio, ftu Lauda:io, fe;i Saluiatio. Hyde 121. 


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Afuient Hi/hry rf inland. 1S7 

of a certain Bhck/mitb^ v4)ofe name was 
Gau or Gov. This man, dtiren to madnefii 
e fight of his cbtldren's blood, ran op and 
I the ftreets crying out for juftice, holding a 
cm a^on in his hand, as if it had been a 
ard. hi a (hoit time he became formidable ; 
placing Phridun^ the foa of Giamjbid at their 
t they conquered DahaCy took him prifoner^ 
xmfined him in a cave. The hiftory of Da- 
fay the authors of the Un. Hiftory, is too ab' 
as well as fabulous to be rehited ! \ 
lacb Fionn, fays the Iriik hiftory, was fon of 
hia, who had his limbs yiolently drawn afuA- 
but Dt*ach LMghreaih feized upon ^bt 
R, A^. Mund. 3480. The remedy oS the 
IS inDohak's ftory, is worked up ia the bi(h 
ly into a Ball of brains ; and diey fay, whcn- 
a champion oTercame his adverfiiry in Jmgk 
\t^ he look out his brains, and mixing them 
lime he made a round ball, which, by drying 
s fun, became exceeding folid and hard, and 
ilways produced in publick meetings as an 
arable trophy of experienced valour. Gabh 
m in Irifh is a blackfmltb, and the Gou o£ 
vra was an honourable polk, with many pri^ 
»(a); he had the charge of all the fires^ 
Qon and facred, and hence the name Gahb^ 
Gabhadb to burn, to blaze : as gabh an teine^ 
re burns ; Gabh-adhradk or Gabh-ara^ a wor- 
er of fire ; whence the Perfic and Arabic 

Sec Collea. No. XITI. The word is fpclt GM m 

and pronounced Gou ; the proper pronunciation of Gabh 

I in Perfic drjan^ Fabcr fcrarrius. H/de Rel. Vel. Perf. 

Gavianif Perf. the ftandard of Gaov lyHerbelor, 


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i88 jrsndUatianoftbe 

Gbebtj GhabTy Guebr^ and Gbavr (b). In Arabic 
Kubis is a fire ; and Mr. Richardfon, p. 1431, 
tranflatcs Gebrj one of the Magi, a prieftofthe 
vorlhippers of fire, as if from Kibr or Kubr^ no- 
bility, eminence ; — I am of opinion that Gahhu 
is the Scythian word fynonimous to the Arabic 
atajh'perefty i. e. a worfliipper of fire, and sot 
from Kiibis. (c) 

There would be a link v^anting in the chaun, if 
we could not produce a Gav or Gou in the Tua- 
tba Dadann hiftory, to correfpond with the Piib- 
dadian Gou. Goivne Gou, i. c. Goibhine Gabh, 
or the Smith Gou, is recorded in many Irifli Ro. 
mances. Gorman M^Cuilinan, has preferred the 
following fragment. " Neafcoth, — ^This is an old 
^^ ftory among the Irifh.-^Goibhne Gobh die 
^' fmith was making arms for the Tuatha Dadaim, 
" at the time of the battle of Mugh Tur (the Ma- 
** gi*s Towr). Ludaire the carpenter was inak- 
^' ing fhafts of fpears, and Credne was making 

(b) Nam hujus religionis hemincfl omnes in geoere i Ptrfit Mh 
hammedams vocirancur Ghehr h Ghavr^ Turcis Ghitur, How 
beno noftrati G(nver. £t quia iflonun hominum lingua a r^ncgm 
Perils rion Intel liginir, Mercarores ibi apud Ifpaban iMgofLtMei 
cam vocare folent h'nguam Guihricamy volente^ Jingwun noa » 
telledam; unde in Gallia Gafconica G»#M'M vocitamr ctia* 
quzvis lingua parum inielledta in genere ; h bine quoque Bohb 
Anglis fernio incong^uus feu inarriculatus, & miniu imel^gibifi^ 
dicitur Gmhrifli feu Gihherijh, Hyde Rcl. Vcl. p. 35^ 

(c; In Seguin's TheiTa Ionian coins, p. 14. there istbefigift 
of a man, with a hammer inhb left hand and a key in hisnjii 
hand; ami the infcription is KABEIROC. This, £ijsD.M- 
guin, is ce'tainiy a vulcan, cum utrique circa ignem verfeotur. 
I'he Greeks bi*'^ rowed this name for Vulcan, either from the Fe^ 
fmns or from the Magogian Scythians. Origencs contra CeHiai 
meminir ntpcr<?y y. Kr»^C''p'"v where the Gabhar are called Qdn^ 
a word not much altered from the Perfic. 

" riven; 

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• ^ ♦ 

Jncsent Hi/iory of Ireland. 189 

ivcts J they were all three moft expert work- 
icn. At this time it was reported to Gou, that 
is wife had played the wanton : he had the 
laft of a fpear in his hand ; and fnatching up 
is uir^nei/i — ceirde^ i. c. his working apron^ or 
efender from the fire-fparks, he run out, and 
irowing about him his pole and apron, he 
»und that he killed whomfoever he approach- 
i ; and whoever (hewed contempt of this pole 
id apron, were afflifted with fwellings, boils, 
id putrified blood, and would bum within as 

on fire : and in memory of this tranfa£Hon, 
le hill where the battle was fought was called 
^eiJbrScuith (d), i. e. the Apron of the Scy- 
[. The Phridoun or Fcridoun of the Pilhda- 

Dynaftv, is the Irifh Ollam Fodhla^ a prince 
rkable for his wifdom, as Olatn his hame*im- 
: in Arabic Alinij in Hebrew and Chaldaean 
ft. See Fodhla explained, before- Olamh 
Ja^ the head of the Mufcs or Graces. 
I. Naudar, Nodhr or Nuadr, was fcarce feated 
it throne when the Touranians or Scythians 
nved hopes of conquering his empire. Pa- 
^ was at that time King of Touran, dired de- 
lant of Tur, the fon of Phridun, and claimed 
ght the kingdom of PerHa. Afrqfiab his eldeft 
aifed an army to conquer Iran : the two ar- 

being oppofite to each other, a Scythian 

Nd/hy or Netfh b an apron, it (ignifies t defence, a guard. 
iifi is m Smith's apron, becaufe it defends him fiom the 
of C/cr, i. e. fire. Ceirde is a trade, a fhop, &c. In the 
: Akot u an apron, and Azur a defence. f/u/Jkir is an 
and Nujr a ddfence. In Iriih, Neas b an apron and a 
e. In Armoric, Daven/hier an apron. 


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1 90 A Vindkaiion of the 

champion whofe name was Bafmon challoiged ^^ 
of the Perfian warriors to fingle combat ; wfif^' 
was accepted by Gobadj grandfon of Gaob or OaH 
aboTC mentioned : the combat terminated ia fa. 
vour of Gaob. — ^Not long aiter^ the two armies en- 
gaged; Afraftab attacked Nuadr in his camp, 
took him prilbner, and ordered his head to be cut 
off. Some Afiacic writers make this piiiice c(s 
temporary with Joihua, and others place him 
much higher. The Scythians now remained maf. 
ters of all Perfia (e) ; at length they concluded a 
peace, and fought out the lawful heir of the houfe 
of Keiomaras, and put the crown on the head of 
Zab. Some authors pretend that Zerduft flou- 
riflied in his reign. 

Nothing can be more ftriking than the aiSiitj 
between the ilories of the Irifh Nuadhat atul tk 
Persian Nuadr or Naoudhar : The Irifli hift^re* 
prefents a religious war between the Sqrtbiasi 
and Tuatha Dadann ; the caufe is expreflcd bf 
Muigh Tuirridh^ the Magian Fire Towers : tbe 
Tuatha Dadann at length prevail Nuadhat lofcs 
his right-hand in one battle ; his countrymen, by 
art-magick, re-placed it with a filver one ; hence 
his name Airgiodltimh^ i. e. filver-handed : ia I 
fecond battle he lofes his head. He was the letd* 
er of the Tuath Dadan. 

In the Perfian hiftory Gobad (which wotd we 
have ihewn to be the root of Gbebr the fiie-iror' 
(hipper) fights in fmgle combat and kills the Scj« 
thian \ Naoudhar is at laigth routed^ and be* 
headed in prifon ; — and fome place the propbct 

(c) Afrafiab, a Tartar or Scythian King, reigned ofcrPb- 
fia filry years. Le Brun Voyage a Pcrlc Tom. a. p. 587. 


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Ancknt HiJUry df Ireland. 1 9 1 

Zerduft ijQ his reign : There were two prophets of 
diis naune ; the time of their exiftence is much 
difpnted^ as well as the identity of the perfon and 
etymology of the name, (f ) 

We find his name written in the Arabic and 
Pcrfic very differently ; as Zerduft, Zerdaft, Zer- 
riduflit^ Zarraduflit, Zaratufht, Zerdhuflit, Zerd* 
hdbt, Zardufhty Zartulht, Zeratuflit, Zarhuft, 
Zaratuihtriih, Zaratuihtra, Zertooft. Bar Bahlus 
the Syrian derives the name from Zar, gold and 
dujht (for dehujht) a kingdom, i. e. Aurum regni. 
Dr. Lord was informed by a Perfian Prieft, that 
the right pronunciation was azar-dojij i. e. ignis 
amicus : (jdofi a friend is from doji the hand ; be- 
ciufe we take our friend by the hand.) The learn- 
ed 9yde fays this is a miftake of the Perfian Prieft, 
and that the A in Azar could not have been 
4ropt ; the name he allows is difficult to be. ex- 
plained : Zer he fays is gold, or money, and 
dujbi is deformed. Pravus^ male afpeilu^ defwrmisy 
q. d. Aurum pravum ! ! quae quidem fignificatio 
noQ multum quadrat, Days the learned Do£fcor ; 
an Arabian explains it by Zerdih-dibi and zerdi- 
halti, pure gold ; fed hsc etiam non fatisfaciunt, 
Bcptiea the Dodor. 

In 1707 Le Brun converfcd with a Prieft of the 
Qmiresy by an interpreter, who told him that the 

(f ) Hcrbclot vous dira que Ics prcmicn pyr6ci connus ont 
M tmnv^ darn I'Adberbidgian, qui eft la panic la plus Sep- 
iciitricmale de I'aucienne Medie, & toiijours fur 6.t& monugnes. 
Je TOiu tl fait reroarquer que Zoroaftre (ou 2^daft) le rdlau- 
ittonr de ce cuke, fbrti aufli des montagoe;, avak iaf6r6 dani 
la v6ciB5 de defcripcions, qui portent Tinipreiote du climat de 
49^. iTuB climat plot iepteutrioiuile que le Caucaie. (Bailly, 
fur I'Atlantide, p. an.) 


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192 A Vindication of the 

name of their great prophet was Zar-Jios^ whom 
the Perfian Mahomedans miftook for Abraham. 
He told them, that he came from God ; to wUdi 
they replied. If you fpeak the truth, walk over 
fome melted gold and iilver which we will prepare ; 
and if you do this unhurt, we will • believe you 
and obey you. lliat he did fo, without recdying 
the lead: injury, and on this account he was called 
Zaer-vfteji^ vihich fignifies a perfon waflied, or 
bathed, in melted gold or filver. Une perfbnne 
lavee dans de Por ou de Targent fondu. (g) 

The leader of our Tuatha Dadann or Chaldsan 
colony, was named Airgiodlamby that is Silver- 
hand : this I take to have been Zerduil the L a 
prophet of the Perfian Piflidadian ; and Zerduft D. 
coming after (about 150 years) took the name of 
Zer-dq/i^ that is. Gold-hand, for zer in Perfian it 
gold or filver, and dq/i is a hand (h) ; and we 
have, in the fecond Dynafty of the Irifh hiflory, a 
Sior-lamh^ which name I fufped to be taken from 
Zer^o/l ; in Irifh, lamh is a hand, and deas the 
right-hand, by pre-eminence : laman is to handle; 
in Arabic and Perfic; doji is the hand, without 
diflin£tion, but lums kirdun is to handle (in Irifh 
curradh'lamb\ and in Arab, lamifeh faktun^ is alfo 
to handle, or to apply the hand ; hence I conjec- 
ture, that the Irifh lamb and deas were once com- 
mon in the Arabic and Perfic: however^ our 

^g) Vojrag. de Com. Lc Brun. T. a. p. 387. IsnocdK 
Scythian ftory of the (ilver hand as probable as any cf the Beific 
fables of this Prophet. 

(h) The Perfian fcholar may here obje6t, chat the tdjcAin 
fhuuld have been ufed and not the fubftanrive, viz. Zerfim mi' 
den, bit it is commoo in all languages to compound two fuboft- 
civej in proper names. 


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Ancieta Hifiofy of hreUnd. 1 93 

tmnflators make Sior-lamb long-handed, the fame 
u the Ferti3njtrdjbir dirax-do/i^ which the Greeks 
hare tnrned into Artaxerces Longimanu». 

la the Arabic book of Zinato' 1 Magjaiis, Zer- 
duft, it is faid, was of Paleftine, a fervant of a 
Jewiih prophet ; and that he had the art of hold- 
ing fire in his hand, without being burnt or fuf- 
fering pain ; ignem manu tenuerit &'ihanus ejus 
non rait combufta, as Hyde tranflates it :-^Might 
not'this give him the name of MetaUhand \ and fo 
by pre-iCminence Silver-hand, Gold-hajfid, &c. ?-*— 
or might not Dr. Lord be rightly informed by the 
Perliaa Pried, who (aid his name was Azar-do/ij 
diat is Fire-hand, miftaken by the Perfians, or 
corrupted to Zer-doft ?-^and as %er inPerfic i^r. 
nifies money, as well as gold, fo the Scythians 
adopted Airgiodj which fignifies money and 

There is gjood reafoh, in my opinion,. to jufped 
this Zerdufi the Firft was the Zamolxis or Zamolzis 
of the Scythians* The. name in Irifh will bear 
the lame conftrudion, as Airgiod lamb or Zerduft^ 
viz. Gim ox Sim is filver, and Lids ox Lus is a 
hand^ SimaJuis is not more didant fvomiZamoIzki 
than many other names the Greeks hav^ twifted 
from their original fignification and orthqgraphy. 

Herodotus fays, ^^ that the inhabitants aloQg 
the coafts of the Hellefpont informed: bim, that 
Zamolxis had been a 'flave to Pyfhagprasy fon of 
Mnefearchus : and that after having obtained his 
liberty, he acquired great riches, and returned 
into his own country. His principal view was to 
polifli a rude people, and make them live after the 
manner of the lonians. In order to bring this 
about, he built a ftately palace, where he regaled 

N all 

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1 94 ^ VindicatiiH ^ the 

all the inhabitants of the city by turns, infinnat- 
ing, during the repaft, th^t they who Uved as he 
did, were to be immortal.^— All the while he had 
people employed in building a chamber under* 
ground; and having fnddcnfy dilappeared, he 
concealed himfelf for three years.**— His people 
mourned for him as dead } but in the fourth year 
he (hewed himfelf again, and this pretended ni- 
racle ftruck his countrymen fo, that they believed 
all he £aid, and he was at laft deified.«^He dien 
gives a ridiculous account of the maanerthey 
laid their wants before him, by throwing i 
man up into the air and catching him on the 
points of three fpears ; — but, adds Herodotus, I 
don't believe all theie circumftances, and fure I 
am, that Za0i$/ms lived hng before PjtbagoratJ^ 
Zerdtifi made his firft appearance, fome uty, in 
Mediay others in Ecbatana ; — ^he abfented himfelf 
for fome time, and pretended he had been taken 
up to Heaven, to be inftru&ed in thofe do&ines 
he was about to deliver .^-^He retired to a cave, 
and there lived a long time, where he wrote his 
book ;*-*fo did Mahomet, and there he compofed 
his Alcoran ;-*^fo did Pythagoras, for this i^lo* 
fopher aded a part of impofture, as well as Zer« 
duft, Zoroafter, or 2^amolxis.— They who pro* 
felled this religion of Zerdaft in Lucian*s time, a» 
reck(^Aed up by him, were the Partbiansj Perfiam^ 
Ba^rianiy Atiam^ Sacans^ Med^jy and many other 
barbarous nations (i). From all thefe drcum* 
fiances I conclude, that Zamolzis and Zerduft the 
Firft were the fame perfon with our Airgiodlamh, 
and that Zerdufl: the Second may have been the 

(i) Lucian de Longaevis* 


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Ancient Hi/iery cf Ireland. 195 

fame with Zoroafler ; yet there is great room to 
think the laft was a borrowed charaden 

Our Irifh hiftorians make Airgiod iamh a Chal- 
dsean^ from which country many refpedable au- 
thors bring Zerdu/i. If we are to fuppofe the 
Greek Zoroq/irej to be the fame perfon ; which 
the learned Mr. Richardfon much doubts. As we 
ihali have occaiion to mention the opinion of this 
neat Oriental fcholar frequently, on this and other 
nibje£b, we will here fubjoin the paragraph from 
his diflertation, Se£L ad. ^^ The language fpo* 
^* ken anciently in Perfia opens a wide field for 
^* unfittisfiUlory enquiry. Dr. Hyde derives it 
'* horn that of Media ; . which is much the fame as 
** deducing one jargon of the Saxon Heptarchy 
from another. The union of thofe people, 
named by Europeans, Medes and Perjians^ is 
of fuch high antiquity, that it is loft in dark* 
ncfs : and long precedes every glimmering we 
^^ can difcover of the origin of their fpecch: 
** whatever their language was, therefore, it muft 
** have evidently been very early the fame, with 
^^ the (imple and common variation of provincial 
** idiom. But in this tongue we have no genuine 
*^ remains. We are told indeed, that it was the 
^^ langus^e in which Zoroajier promulgated his 
^^ rehgion and laws : but this advances not our 
** enquiry : for where or when did Zoroajier live ? 
** and where do the works which have been at- 
^ tributcd to him exift ? The writers both of the 
•* Eaft and Weft fpeak fo vaguely^ and differ fo 
** pwntedljy with regard to this pcrfonage, that it 
** is compleatly impofliblc to fix either the coun- 
•' try, or the period which gave him birth : 
*^ whilft Zeratujht of the Perfians bears fo little 
N « " rd'emblance 

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196 A VlnHct^m if ihi 

^ reremblaiicc to the Zaroisfter of the GredLf, 
«< that unlefs Dr^ Hyde, and other Orientaliftsy 
^ had rcfolved, at aU' events, to reconcile Ac 
^ identity of their perfcms, we flionld hare much 
^ difScttlty to difcover a fingle fimibr feature. 
^ Ihofe fragments of his fuppofed works whidi 
*^ the learned Dodror has g^en us under the tkle 
•* of the Sadder J are the wretched rhjmet oiF a 
*' modern Pi^/^ i)^Mr (Prieft) who hved iAmc 
^* three centuries ago : — ^and the pubiicatioiit of 
^' M. Anquetil du Perron (Oriental Interpreter to 
** the King of France) carry palpable matlis of 
^^ the total or partial fsibRcatian of modem times, 
** and give great weight to the opinion of Sir John 
«' Chardin, that the old <UaIea of PsrGa (except- 
** ine what remains in the prefent langiuge) h 
^ loft : that apparently no books now ezift in 
" it." 

However, as the name of Zerdufl has been 
tranflated by many into Zoraq/ler^ h contra, we 
(hall make a few quotations on this ftibjed in fup- 
port of our Irifh hiftory, and fuppofe them to have 
been the fame perfon. Our Irifh Seanachies (k) 
fay, that the Tuatha Dadanatm (of whom ^• 
giodldmb or Zerduji was their head) were defcen- 
dants of Cham. In another Irifli MS. Airpod- 
lamb is called Cat Cullan^ or the High Prieft, and 
is faid to have foretold that Niun would come ; 
that is, the MeJJiah : in another place he is called 
Draoij and foretells the coming of the Meiliah 
alfo : of all which in their order. 

(k) Or Seanachi nath, 1. e. Sanchoniatho's, or thofe verfed in 

ibe fciencc of antiquitjr. 


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Ancient Hifiory rf Ireland. 1 97 

Agathias fays, the Perfian name of Z^roa/ler 
was Zaradus^ that is, Zerduft; {plr^ H o Za^^o- 
«rf 9 «%# ZAfaXMs) that it is unccrtaki when he lived 
or promulgated his laws. The modern Perfians 
lay, that he lived under Bjfidfpes (lege Gufluafp) 
but U is not known whether this was the father 
of Darius or another of that name. But thus 
much is certain, that he was die head of the Ma- 
gian religion/ (m) 

Caffianus lays he was Cham 7 Quantum antiquac 
traditiones ferunt, Cham filius Noae. (n) 

And Poiphyrius, that he dwelt in Babylon with 
other Chaldees : he calls him Zabratus. The Iri(h 
MSS. fpeak of a Prophet Abratach, but no parti- 
culars of him are handed down to us. Trogua 
mlilb that he was King of Badbria, and warred 
with Ninus (o). Auguftme ikys the fame, (p) 

Suidas makes him a Chaldxan, and Arnobia* 
nus, an Armenian. 

In the Perlian Book called Mugj. Zcrduiht is 
Hud to be the Son of Sad yuman ; which perhaps 
was written for yemeh or yuman^ a word (igniting 
the right hand, and Sadj means a bodily defed; 
this name perfe&ly correfponds with the ftory of 
our Jirgiadlambj who loft his right hand in the 
battle dF the Fire tower, and Zerduft is faid to 
have loft his life by a Scythian piince, iq attempt- 
ing to introduce Tire towers or pyrea: but all 
agreed, that his mother's name was Dagbdu^ whoie 
Son (Sksrdttft) was named Hakimj feu viri do£ti & 

(m) Amhisis de Pcrfis. Lib. %. 

(n) CaSiaimsCollationii. Zhq, Ctp. 21. 

(o) Tn^. L. 1. 

(f) Augu^ut Dt Civk. Pci. 1. 11. C. 14.. 


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198 A Vh£mti9n tf tie 

philorophi : fz) Now Dawhda is a name wtVL known 
in the Irifh hiftory of tnc Tuatba Dadann^ feme- 
times a God, at others a Goddefs : (b) he is plar 
ced in the lift of Kings next to Airgiad lamb^ am) 
his children are faid to be numerous, amon?(t 
others is QbeachU a name correfponding to the 
Perfian and Chaidee Hakim or Chaftimj fignifyr 
ing Wifdom : the firft Grammar of the Irim Ian? 
guage is called Uire Chead na* Nghaoijhy that is, 
the beginning of Wifdom of the learned, com^ 
monly called the Philofopher's Primmer, the 
Primmer pf the Bards, &c. &c. as the Irifli Seana* 
chie$ explain it (c). 

Zcrduft was Chief Pricft of his order, he wat 
named Mog or Mogh» Philiv^ Kalivj or CaUv\ 
(plun Ka/ivany) Kai-Kaiivan^ Qiiefof the Magi. 
Danijhmandj Pharb^nd^ vel Cbradmandj Sapien- 
tes, Scientcs ; Eodem Spnfu eft Rod. And his in* 
fcrior Priefts were named Mardi-Cboda^ i. e. Vir 
Dei; Mardi'Cbodavand Vir Domini, vtlDaru^ 
i. e. Vir bonus, vel Babmatiy i. e« Bonis moribus 
praeditus. Sic quivi$ yir fpiritualis ff U infcrioni 

(a Hyde de Vet. TerT. Rclig. p. 31 2. 

(b. He is (ometimes called Rumi or Rod, Ru4ui r^ftmt^ 
ainm an Daghda, i. e. the omnifcicnt RtHid^ a name of Daghda. 
(Vet. Glofs. Hlb). Rod in Perfic, is the fame as Daru^ i. e. 
a Magus. Of the Clana Daghda we fliall treat ((^rately, hb 
children are called fAithr or Midhr^ that is, the rays of the Svd; 
and his wife's name is Gorman. 

(c) This name Nagha^i/h^ is handed down to the Iriih from 
the Perfian Kcgnjha which was a particular fe£t of the Fire- 
worfliippcrs. Nogufha ex Ghebrorum Sedlis quaedam Sc£ka eft. 
Nogufna eft Sedta Ghebronim et Mofcorum — in plerHaue 
Lexicis exponatur Ghebr feu Infidel is, fpeciatim Ignicoh.-— led 
in aliis exponitur Sabius. (Hyde from Pfeyiian^ Author^ p. 
358 ). This Se£t werd the Toutan and Ommnite Scjthians^ of 
whom we are now treating. 


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Ancient Hlftory of Inland. 199 

ordinii Saccrdos general! Epitbeto (d). This is 
the Iriih Coillius an Epithet given to St. Patrick 
(c). Ciil-dcaPrieftofGod^ CaiUeach a Nun. 
In all our Irifli MSS. Lexicons wc find Mugbj 
explained by ainm Mleas do dhididb^ i. e. a name 
lacked to God ; that is, a facred name. Philea 
or Fdeadb were men in holy orders that compoied 
hymns for the Church Service: Draoi is the 
Irifh name of a Pried pf the lower clafs, Rad-aire 
or Reat-aire, a Clergyman; (Aire, Office, funcKon) 
and Cai-Culhin or Cu Cullauy that is, the' bizb 
Prieft (or Ti^rdui^ is faid to have predided the 
coming of the Meffiah ; in thefe words I find it 
recorded in Arch Bifhop Cormac's MSS. Lexicoa. 
^* IRun^ \. e. Mac Seatbar^ ut dixit Cu Culoin^ 
*^ prophetans de Xti adventu : Nian duine tUfM^ 
^ eadhon, Mac Seatbar duine tic/ay (and adds 
** Cormac,) ip/e eft (^lofa i. t.) Jefus^ u e. Niam 
** fiall come as a man^ viz* tbe fon ofQodJhaU 
^ come as a man*\ Satbar or Seatbar (as it 
ftands]in the modern Iriih Di6tionaries), we have 
Aewn at p* 31. (Note) a is the Phasnici'an ^^W 
So^er Dominus, Deus fg), p*» ianan, excitare. Sic 


(d) Ifyde, p. 363. Hence probaUy mvrCkuIdei:, or learned 
ftidfaf in like amnner from the Irifli /Vior^ or Far/a an ff^ 
ftm€boT, a good man, Perik Parafii, punv vir^ pius, devociu;, 
is fonoed the Englifli Par/cn. (yieyTa). 

(e) Colloqnia qmedara de rebus Hibcm. in qiribat colloqueiv- 
tes imr9diic«nt«r St. Patricius Coillius & (Mams Hibemio^, 
die tide of a MSS. m the Clarendon colte^ion. 

(g) Tbe promwdation of iafa in irifli u Ee&u Jefus Chrifl^ 
f9j9 JVHerbdor, is called Wl by the MnfulfBam : Jo/hva m 
Hithmw, is uTod by the .Syrians and Aerabs to fignify a Sa?iomv 
akfid widi them is become a proper Jiame i and this oame the 
Mabonedans particulai-ly apply to Jofliua, the fuoceAor or 
.Bdofei^ and to Jefus, £m of SicadL But fbme Hebrews, 

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aoo A Ttndication of the 

ponunt ex Aruch. In eo Icgitur, Ante Solent ]t^ 
inuriy Soboles eft^omen ejus. Pfal. 7a. V 17. 
])3^V Tfiy Nirw quod "futurus eft cxcitarc, L c. 
excitaturus eft idormientes in pulvere, ideo voca- 
tur nomcn ejus (fcilicet Meffiae) py» inun,— hie % 
non eft radicale, fed formae infinitivi infervit 
Effct autem thema |*»3 Nun unde )*»3 Nin^ filius, 
foboles» Buxtorf. Chal. Lex* p. 961 (\x). 

In Sberijland a Mohammedan writer^ we have 
this remarkable paflage, thus tranflated by Dr. 
Hyde. £x eis qus praedixit Zeradufht in Libro 
Zendavefta eft, quod dixit ultimis temporibus ap- 
pariturum Hominem diflum OJhari'derbegbay qui 
mundum religione & juftitia omaturus effet (ij. 
Deinde ejus tempore appariturum etiam Petyrab 
qui rebus ejus & regno ejus moleftiam afFerret per 
viginti annos. Dr. Hyde tranflates OJhan derbegba 
homo mundi, & Petyarah Diabolus. In a former 
number we have fheWn Le Brun's account of Q^^^ 
which he le^nt from the modern Perfian Gue* 



Chalaeaos and Arabs take Joihova Ebn Noun or Jofna foo of 
Nun, CO have been a perfon raifed above human nature, and tt 
have partaken of the divine nature. This extravagant opinioa 
has been embraced by fome Mufulmans alfo, znA iht Sc/attj 
(Se6t) have adopted it in favour^of ibcir AH, The Tarikh Moa- 
tekheb, fay, that fofhova Ebn Noun was fent by God» to drive 
the Giants out of jlriha^ i. e. Jericho. That he vras cotenmo- 
rary with Nuadhar, of the piihdadian race : Of Riha or Anha 
we {hall fpeak hereafter. 

(h) Gen. 21. 23. p Nin a Son, one in a date qf fabjec- 
tion. Pfal 72. V. 17. his name \V inin (as a verb\ i. e. mall 
become a Swi before the Sun : Prov. 29. V. 21. at laft he fliali 
be p3D me Nun, more than one bred at a fon. See Bates and 

(i) Hyde, p. 383. 

(k) Ces Guebres comptent les annees du nionde depuis KAun^ 
^u'ils nominent Nomine nous : mais ils donneot dUutrct noms a 


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Andeni Hiftory. of Ireland. aoi 

It is more than probable that our Tuatha Da- 
dann brought this predifUon with them, from 
whence, the Iri(h Monks formed the ftory of Oijhm 
and F^tar or Padar, i. e. Patrick ; though all ac- 
knowledge that Oijhin lived long before that Saint, 
(at ieaft two centuries). I cannot find anv other 
name, by which Zcrduflit is faid to have caUed the 
MeJJtah in his prsdi^on. Abulpharagj tells us, 
that Zeraduflit foretold to the Perfians, the coming 
of Chrift, and ordered them to prepare Gifts for 
him; that a Virgin fhould conceive; and that a 

fcs defcendans. lis diGmt que lon*quil fiit panrenu a ia 30 
anned, tfujfun vint a.^ mond^, & ib reconnoiflent pour un 
ch^ dt famiUe^ & apres celui-ci cue pour fuccefleur Jem^JU^ 
qa'Us pretendent qui fiit leur premier Roi, & qui vecot 700 
am. Voyages de M. Le Bmn, Vol. a. p. 389.«— >See alio laft 
No. of Coi]e£tanea, Pref. p. xcvL— Icannoc fee by what aud». 
ricj Dr. Hyde tranflates Ofluuia-derbegha, by, homo mundi, 
afhina in Perfian, learned, as mana afhina, learned in mylleries. 
Hyde, it u true, followed hb original, but erery Arabian Scho- 
lar knows that darbekm^ n the other world, the everlafting 
Kingdom, Eternity : Tht prophet nnhft Kingdom ^wwU laft fir 
#<Mr, Petyar or petyarah, in Periian is afflidtion, mifery, a 
giaiit, genius, demon, a f ightful afpe^ an enemy, a name 
eafily converted to Pataric or Patrick : and we are told in Iri(h 
hiftory, that when Patrick arrived they named him Tealguin, 
or Telcfain ; which (ignifies a Demon. Thb b mod probably 
the origin of the (lory of OifKin, peculiar to the Irifh, Scots and 
}/baik% worked up by chriflian Monb into Oifhin and Patrick. 
Obferve there v^re two of thb name, viz. Patrick Rufdela and 
Patrick Aiftire, both faints. 

Les Guebres d'aujourd'hui, font de pauvres ignortns, qui oat 
perdu par la fuite des terns, & par les grands changemcns, qiu 
four arrive en Perfe, la veritable connoif&nce du Cultede leurs 
Ancecroeus, dont ib n'ont retenu que la lettre, comme les Sama- 
Ticans, on£ retenu la Pentareque. Cependant, les Guebres de 
Aotre tems (bnt eitlmables en ce qu'ils rejettent abfolumeut le 
<ulte des faux Dieux . & des Idoles, & qu'ib ne reconnoiflent 
j^u'iUQ foul Dieu. Lett, feu les Rei^. da Com. Le Bruh, 


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202 A Vifidicstim ef the 

Star fhould appear at the time of lui birtfa, and in 
the centre of the Star would be feen the figure of 
the Virgin. ** Ye therefore O, my ions, &ys Zer- 
*^ dufht, vnll fee this Star before all other people : 
'^ when it appears, go ye the way it direfb, wor- 
^ fhip the new bom, and offer your gifts, for he 
'* is the word." This Prophecy was delivered in 
Bacbara where Zerdufi dwelt. The Iriihhiftory 
informs us that a Draoi Bachrach, i. e« at Daru or 
Prieft of Bachara did prophecy and foretel the 
birth of the Mefliah: that he fhould be bom in a 
wonderful manner and fhould be barbaroufly 
murdered by the great council of his own nation. 
See Keating, p. 1 87. — and more at the dofc of 
this Chapter. 

In the Sadder of Zerdufht as given us by Dr. 
Hyde, we find the fire temple or Tower, or Houfe 
of Prayer, named Apbrinagban ; the facred feftivals 
had the fame name : The Perfians in India had a 
ftated feftival once a month. Hoc convivium fea 
hse Epuls plurali habet Tiomej!\Apbrinagb€mj L e. 
Benedidalia feu benedicendi Epulas (1), in the 
lingular number it is Aphcrin ; (m) or Affiin (n). 
In die Chaldee we find )*i)*lg^^ Aphriun, Templum. 
In Irifh Afritbgnam (o) is to blefs Cgnam or gnim 
is the verb agere vel £sicere^. The Chappel, Mats* 
houfe, or Houfe of prayer, is known at this day 
in Ireland, by no other name than Ti^A/ricn^ L c 
the houfe of benedi&ion* 

(1) Hyde, p. 269. 

(m) Do. 199, 

(n) Richardfon. 

(o) Brigit the daoghter of D^^hJa^ t Goddeft, worlMppcd 
hj the Fil^dh,^ and grett wis her ^UAgmm^ /Tiling) efteem* - 
cd ; (bondea agos ba to oior an afmh^m\ — ut m Cantico 
Canticomm ^opf ?»r fibi fecit Salomon, id eft, pnDN Shi (adu 
Salomoo. See Aldretc Andgu, de Efpana, p. 203. 


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Jnci eni Hi/lory cf Ireland. 103 

There can be no doubt of the round towers in 
irelandy havins been Fire towers ; the Ti-aifrionny 
$he houfe of benedi£tion. The Arabs call them. 
PeHtifiy i. e. a fire hearth, in Irifli Breocan. The 
conftrudion of them was well adapted to the pur- 
pofe: the door being always from 12 to 15 feet 
from the bafe, the facred fire at the bottom could 
act be molefted by the wind : it was covered by a 
Cupola at top, (p) and four fmall windows in the 
fides near the the top, let out the fmoke. The 
diameter of them is no more than fufEcient for the 
Coi-CuUme or Draoi to perform his facred office : 
his Zend or prayers were not to be heard by the 
congregation, as in the fervice, his m outh was 
.covered left he fhould breath on the holy fire, fo 
that he mumbled or muttered his words (q)« 
When he had done, he probably afcended to the 
door or to the top, and gave his Aphrin. The 
(acred fire was fed by the wood of a facred tree ; in 
Perfia the name of that tree is Haum at Magjusy 
I. e. Haum Magorum : In Irifh Om and Omna was 
Crann-naomba or facred tree : we tranflate it an 

(p) Zerduflit extruxit domiciiia ignif, & fecit ea cum cupoft 
excclfa, & ignem glidio non fodienduin— (Bundnri tn Antbj^ 
iicnce the amom qf the Scythians haagifig up <fae Sword bj the 
ficred fire, which facred fire was named Ate/h-Behram WttxzWy 
ijpM Mams^ and the Greeb thqu^ht their chief God wa^ Mars, 
whereas it figni&s a red fire, like the colour of that Planet. 
Nba licet apud Perfas ignem ciiltro am gkdio ezplorare,. ne "nvn 
ei^ inferre videantur ; uti aec apod Scythas MogoL-TacLros, qui 
eriam nolant ule inftrumentum admoveve profe ignexo. . . H/de, 

IN 355- 

(q) Hyde. Htxict Tuath-caint in IrilTi ii Gibbcrifli, 

i.^. the muttering of the Tuacha. Tuas-ck and TuR-cfaaii, 
yHxU cunning. Augury. 

(r) Hyde, 406. O'Brien's Iriili Diaionar/. 


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204 ^ VindicatiM rf the 

The Perfo-Scythi of Ireland named thefe Towers, 
Tuir-Biily or the Towers of Baal or Belu8» a 
name (acred to the Sun ; whence Bel-ain, a year, 
L e. the Circle of BeL) In Fhaifa. Gj. a Perfian 
author, we are told ibax.ArdeJbir Babek^ a Perfiaa 
King, conftrufted a certain lofty buflding which 
he named Terbali, to the £a(l ot the City of Iba» 
ragbun in Perfia, — ^alia etiam veterum temi^orum 
Poiicorum nomina in fcquentibus memorantur, 
et eorum omnium nomina hodi^ recuperare & re* 
cenfcre, eft plane impoifibile. Hyde io8. 

The (acred fire was named Hyr, in Iriih [7r, it 
was alfo named Adur^ whence the Adair of Ire* 
land, names of places where fome facred building is 
always to be found ; our modem Churches are com- 
monly annexed to thefe old fire toWcrs ; a ftrong 
argument that they were originally (acred buikU 
ings. ThePrsfedus ignis was named Hyr-bad, 
in Irifh Ur-Baidbj fcil. Ignis Sacerdos ; we now 
cranflate baid a prophet, (^a) The Urbad continu* 
ed night and day in the fire tower, and all other 
Priefts were fubjeft to him ; (b) we have the fame 
accounts in the Irifh MSS. lliis order was alfo 
named Mogb. Primus ordo antca vocabatur Mogb 
fc poftea Hyrbad. (Hyde) Mogb Mugh or Mogb 
was the name in Ireland, hence Ard-magb & 
Metropolitan See of Ireland, and all thofe old fa* 

(a) It BTtrj rcmtrfcabk that the word Bat or But in Iriik 
fignifies aMb tlit ftcrcd fire : and cbat this fhould be the Dame o( 
r£e Idol of Mkhra, or the Son in Cejion, ihtf in Perfic ftgniEcs axi 
idol of any kind. Idoloin in infuk Selan feu Ceylon contur, eo 
dem noaupe ^ndec. Et hinc quod inter Mkhnt iconifmca&, 
Dodor feligionis ieaSacerdosSelancofium lin^rua vocatur ftwiilyr 
Hyde p. 1 34. 

(b) Haltni a P^r^nn Author. Hyde 366. 

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Ancient Hijlory of hretaftd. iog 

ndbf names beginning with the Epithet Mdg^ asi 
JVf^f MathghailAna, Mig uidir, Magcana, Mig 
GioUa Riabha, Mig Raghnuil, M6gh Luigh 
MacLuchta;(c)&c. &c. and this name was borrow- 
ed of the Chaldeans, another ftrong circumftance 
from whence Zerdufi came, correfponding widi 
our Irifh traditions. Olim in Chaldxorum Curia 
horum Re&or fopremus (Jerem^ 29. 3. 13.) dice«* 
batur iO"!n Rab Mag i. e. Magbrum Pracfectus. 
Our Tuatha Dadan brought with "them the Corr 
or Cidre an Daghda^ the twKled KnottccT^irdle 
of Dagbda^ which was never to be put off. (d) 
This Girdle had four facred knots on it ; it was 
made of wool or Camels hair \ corum cingulum 
hodie eft funiculus ex lana, aut pilis cameGnis 
tortus, corpus bis cingens, & a tergo duplicando 
daofus feu connexus. Ifte autem Nodus non venit 
ill numerun nodorum qui mox recenfebuntur : 
iftud Cingulum eft ^adrinode. Si aliquis adeo 
infiauftus fit, ut Cingulum amittat, non debet ede- 
re aut bibere nee colloqui nee h loco fuo movere, 
donee aliud acceperit a Sacerdote talia pendente. 
Te) quia dum difcinilus eft, fupponitur non bene- 
oiAus & poteftati DiaboH fubje£tu8, uti & olim in 
Anelia di&um tmgirty unbleffed. £t omnes tam 
Vin quam Faeminae hodie utuntur e&dem cinAura 
ab anno setatis 1 2mo. cum praefumantur Religio- 
nis Principia intelligere. Magorum iftud Cingu- 

(c) Mugh, quafi Much. Mugh, Much, Mughfame tra 
ainmfain dileas do dhiadh. Mugh, Much, MugUainCy three 
divine names. (Cormac's Glofi*.) 
(d) See. p. 76. 
(c) H/de. p. 370. 


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zm6 A fbi £i £ i im tf the 

hxm zftiznatur fanftiffimmn, prsdpuc qu6d fit in 
fignnm obedieiitiz firid(ms ergaDcum. 

The Pcrfians all this Girdle Csmer^ that it 
curled or twilled, in Irifli Cam&r^ Ctfrng^, &;& 
and Carr or Cnrr are Syxumimous. (f ) Cu/bti i« 
another Pcrfic name ; in Iriih CUu (g) whence the 
Ceremony of rccdriag the Child into the Church 
is named Ceremonia Kujbti btjftuiu In die Siab 
noma Nejr^ is the explanation of this Girdle. '^ I 
^ am Zerduflit the prc^ihet, I am the prophet the 
^ great God fends unto you, and have brouKht 
^ this book Zendofiejla from I^radife and mis 
^ Sudra (Ca&ick) and this CuflyH (Girdle,) he 
^ gare me laying, put on this Sudra and girt this 
^* C^tfbti round your Lines that your Soul may be 
^ freed from heil, and find falvation." The &. 
dm is called Suadb by the Iriih, Suadb i. brat 
OUamhan, L c. tiie Mantle <tf an Ollam or Dodw. 
(Vet.Glofs,} (h) 

It may be laid that the few fire towers ^^<ft»"g 
in irciand, plainly evince that this fire worfliip 
was cot an cftabliflied religi(», and that they muft 

(0 Tnat Co4iT k Inlh L^ 2 Rmg or Girdle, is evidcfic fran 
CirL;:i.c Wc Cuiluiaa ; ta his Lezkon be explains Borge, baig, or 
A£:.v, 2. rnx, bocd. rartft o- rcm, bv Coirc, tiz. Bulge tinai 
do Co:re lainc: f?^^c \x fcoe a s Ccvrdu, ife dicia Cnick fiigniul 
it boes Cca^ria 9 Skbbrud mSl^ agis di ba mo amfou ianaih 
cl ciaA CeaoB cixigtre iz»hi i. e. B^igt is the name of diTen Cm 
cr nxsgs cst'ie bv in'^iocs braziers : it is fo oauied from the (am 
giveu i: rr :ae Aniic oi" whlci: cize laake a Chain, axxl dot to a- 
ccAi chi; 3U&be^ except rhe gr^nc (Irocj head (ring.) 

^g' C-is 1 twriled Lock of' hair. 

a \VSer.ct o.-i--: deities, a Nob'eman. a Man ofLeneri, 
becicfc <ii:'dr^u:>.*i -- dx ^^^n, or M^ade. 


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jfnchHt Hi/lory cf b'tiand. 107^ 

a applied to fome other ufe : to this ob-. 
[ atiifwer^ that many bare been pulled* 
id diat thefe >were onlv Cathedrals ; that 
ildmgs of wattles and Kraw» (or Corrido- 
irover the congregation^ may hate been 
ound them, and we ihall find mod of the 
rers conneded with our Cathedrals, as at 
(Uffl^llj Glandalimgh^ •&€• &c. Notan** 

quod omne Pyreum fuit Ecclefia Cathe** 
tata ad alendum Epifcopum, & Sacerdotes 
>s, (i) and like the Gbebres of India, they 
yed to Culinary fires, where a Tower wfi9 
sniently at band. See Chapter ReUgi<m* . 
s thefe, there were the Antra Mitbra^ 
» of the Sun, or of Mibr^ in Ireland : 

an Abule of the Perfic Religion, (k^ 

106. Before the time of Zerduft i ft. (or our Airgiod-. 
:t were no covered temples ; they thought the re- 
! of the Great God fliould not be confined to a temple ; 
ir Scythians ftill adhered to that Sed, and this ac- 
he mulntude of open Temples to be fouiid in Ireland 
Zerduft ad was only the reformer of the Tower 
xifition to the other, which. coft him his life. . Origi- 
univerfus eonim cultus fiebat abfque templis. ' Thus 
rphew to jifrafiah prevailed on the Touran's or Scy- 
M lome in Turqueftan or Scyihia. See DUerbclot 

ir, indie Irifti GIoflarie5» is laid to Cgnify the Raya 
I. See Cbllea. XII. Mihr in Pcrfian is die name 
I fuppofed to fuperintend the orb of the Sun. Septem- 
. is named Mihr from this Angel: and the i6thdav 
londi is alfo called Mihr : in eonfequence of whicir 
ed the horn of an Ox killed on that day» muft be loi- 
^ith extraonlinaTy anti-<lemoniacaI virtues. (Richard- 


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2o8 A VindUation pf the 

Porphyry gives a very particular defcrqddn of 
them ; he ^ys that Zoroafter retired to a natural 
Cave to contemplate on the Creator, and on Ifi- 
thras the fiaither of all : that afterwards the Perfi- 
ans made Artificial Caves, in which the Myfteries 
of Mithras were celebrated : and as thefe Caves 
were under the Earth, the water conftantly drop- 
ped through the roof, which was attributed to the 
Nymphs Naiadesj being always prefent. Hie 
Cave was dark, yet the Symbols of all ^^ues 
were difcemible in them. Porphyry then enters 
into a more minute detail, mixing the Mythology 
^ of the Greeks, and fpeaks of Saturn, Ceres, Fn>- 
% ferpine, &c. 

It muft be evident to every Reader acquainted 
with the Religion of the Perfians, who neither al- 
lowed covered temples or Images, that Porphyry, 
and Eubulus, whom he quotes, have fallelv at- 
tributed the Roman and Grecian woHhip ot Mi- 
thras, to the Perfians, whofe Religion was, in eve- 
ry refpe&, diametrically oppofite to that of the 
Greeks and Romans : in this part of their Mytho- 
logy, there is nothing in common, but the name: 
for how could the Romans borrow all tneir figures 
and compound figures of Mithras, of thil Perfians, 
who had neither Cells, Statues or Altars : The 
Gaursj the defcendants of the ancient Perfians, 
have never had any yet. 

The Romans muft have borrowed thefe Mythra- 
tic rights of that great fwarm of Pirates, (menti* 
onedp. 176.) who being an aiTemblage of Barba.^ 
rians of different nations, inhabited ail the Se^ 
Coaft round the Mediterranean. Amongft thenc\ 

wen- t 

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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 209 

Were fome of our ancient Scuthi or Seamen, ori- 
ginally Perfians, but, they confifled chiefly of 
Phrygians. ITiey were Mailers of the Mediterra- 
nean Seas, till about 678 years of Rome^ when 
Pompeius was ordered to extirpate them, which 
required xhc. united force of all the maritime pow- 
ers for dght years. (1) 

This mixture of people, jumbling together the 
Mythology of the ^Egyptians, Tyrians, Perfians, Sy- 
rians, &c. formed a Religion of the whole, import- 
ing it to the Greeks and Romans ; and hence aro-« 
fe thofe abfurdities in both, where no refem- 
blance of the Original is preferved, the name ex-* 
cepted. (pi) "• 

As a proof that the Roman Mithras is of this 
Origin, all the figures that have hitherto been 
produced of that Deity, will on examination be 
found to be in Phrygian drefs, not in Perfian : 
Phrygian or Cilician, is the fame thing, for thefe 
Pirates are fometimes called Cilicians, and Strabo 
in two places tells us, the Cilicians were of Troy, 
and every one knows the Troad was in leifer 

Porphyry therefore had not the lead authority, 
or Eubulus, whom he quotes, for making Zoro- 
after the author of the My thriaci : if by Zoroafter 
is meant the Perfian Zarduji : No myfteries could 
be more repugnant to the genius ot that philofo* 
pher, and to the religion of the ancient Perfians : 
this has been obferved by Julius Firmicius, ^ Vos, 

(I) Plutarch in Pompeio. 

(m) See Explication de div. Mon. fing. qui dnt rapport t la 
ft.etigion des ancient peuplc. 

O •* itaque. 

y Google 

210 A Vindication rf tbt 

^^ itaque, qui dicltis in his Templis rite (acrifica- 
^* ri, non Magorum ritu Perfico : cur haec Pcria- 
^^ farum facra laudatis ? Scio hoc Romano nomine 
** dignum putatis, ac Pcrfarum facris. At Pcrfa- 
** rum iegibus fcquatur/* (De Error, profan. Rc- 
Hg c. 5.) 

Therefore whenever wc read in ancient authors^ 
that the Perfians ereded flatues to deities and con- 
ftru£ted temples, wc mud underftand they /peak 
of fome nation or people furrounding the Perfians, 
^ho, adopting fome part of their religion, akered 
ai)d accommodated it to their own. And in par- 
ticular of other nations where thefe pirates had 
been, and there was very little of the then known 
world where they had not been. 

Wherever they went, their Priefts accompanied 
them ; thefe alio they named Tuatba Dadamij 
feigning they were originally Dedannites of Chal. 
dsea, as probably they were. When the Airican 
pirates prefled hard upon Ireland, the Irifb a[^lied 
to their old tolonifts at Croton in Italy : thefe came 
to their aflidancc, bringing with them certain of 
thefe Tuatha Dadann, who, by their magic, fays 
the fable, could turn flones and trees into men. 
(a) They fettled in Samothrace, in Crete, in Cy- 
prus, and when expelled the Mediterranean, 
mod probably wandered to Gaul, the Britannic 
ifies, Denmark, Scandinavia, &c. And hence 
the great fimilarity in the Pagan religion of the 
North and of the Eaft, becaufe the fundamental 

(a) See Colledt. No. XII. Heree wis the firft contsumnatioa of 
that religion they brought from the Eaft, I think there out be 
no doubt of the Chaldaeans embracing th'is opportunity of aiteni)it- 
Jng to edablifh their damnable dodlrine through the world bjr 
means of thefe fea rovers. 


,y Google 

Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 211 

principles of all Pagan religions were the fame, 
having been fixed on certain data before the dif- 
pcrfion, as we fhall (hew in a diftind chapter. 

Thefe Tuatha Dadann, though they could not 
eflfe&ually introduce image worfhip amongft the 
Scati of the Britannic ifles, did however prevail on 
them to adopt the cave worfhip of Muidhr, or 
Grian, that is, of the fun ; an inflitution entirely 
of their invention. 

Several of thefe Antra Mithrx exifl in Ireland 
and in Britain at this day : they are of a wonder- 
ful conflru&ion : fuch is that at New Grange, de- 
fcribed by Governor Pownall, in the fecond vo- 
lume of the Archaeologia, and of which a plan, 
fe&ion and view is here given. PL 3 and 4. 
Grange I take to be a corruption of Grein-tiagbj 
that is, the uagh^ cave or den of Grianj i. e. 
Mithras or the Sun. Uagh^ Coire or Goire^ figni- 
fy a cave: (b) hence that remarkable Antrum 
called Carrig'Coirej or the cave of the rock, in 
County of Waterford, near Tramore. This wias 
a natural cave : that of New Grange is artificial* 
. One fimilar to the latter was difcovered in 1778 in 
Wales, in the neighbourhood of Sir N. Bailly. (c) 
Thefe were the works of the old Scoti, prior to 
the arrival of the Cymmerigh in Britain. 

The mofl remarkable caves of this kind are in 
the iiland of Inis Muidbr^ now called Inms Murra^ 

(b) Arabic : Ghar, Aghwar, a Cave. 

(c) A very extraordinary Catacomb has been difcovered in 
the neighbourhood of Sir N. Bailly. It is a circular vault about 
ten feet diameter, and eight in height, formed of vail rude 
flones, and placed under the center of a great camedd or heap 
of ftones ; it is deemed a matter of great curioftty. (Letter to 
Aatiq. Soc. Lond. dated Borow*bill, 19th Feb. 1778.) 

O 2 and 

y Google 

212 A Vindtcatim rf tie 

and the Holy Ifland, or Ifland of Saints* It k 
aboat nine miles diftant from Sligo. (SeeH^5.) 
Here, not only the ruins of the caves are to be 
fcen, but the Clocb GreiiiCj Sun Stone, or Muidbrj 
from whence the ifland takes its name, is ftill re- 
maining in its mod pcrfcd (late, being a conical 
pillar of ftone, placed on a pedeftal, furrounded 
by a wall to preferve it from profanation. This is 
the MiJf> of the Greeks, and the Mabody of the 
Gentoos. Apud Emiifenos Solis fimulacrum 
erat grande Saxum conicum nigrum, quod jada- 
bant a Caelo fuiiTe delapfum. (Herodian.) 

Captain Pyke landed in the ifland of Elephan- 
ta, near Bombay. In the midft of a Gentoo tem- 
ple he found a low altar, on which was placed a 
large poliflied (lone of a cylindrical form, (land- 
ing on its bafe, but the top was rounded or con- 
yex. llie Gentoosj fays he, call this the ftone of 
Mabody J a name they give to the original of all 
things. And this Hieroglyphic of the Supreme 
Being is intended to (hew, that it is beyond the 
limited comprehenfion of man to form to himfelf 
any juft idea of him that made the world, for, 
they fay, no man can behold the Great God and 
live, w*hich is the reafon he cannot be reprefented 
in his proper (hape. Upon the Captain's enquiring 
the reafon of placing fuch a ftone there, and in 
that awful and folenm manner, it was anfwered, 
"^rhat this facred ftone is dedicated to the honour 
of Mabody^ who created the univerfe, and his 
name is placed under it, and therefore that ftone 
which defends the name of the great and incon- 
ceivable God from all pollution, is itfelf a holy 
memorial and monument of what cannot be de- 
fcribed \ but is not itfelf a God, yet being thas 


y Google 

Andent Hifiory .of Ireland. 213 

placed^ * though a ftone, no prophane or polluted 
man ought to touch it. 

Hence we fee the rcafon of our MfdldAr bemg 
placed in an ifland far diftant from the fhoce, and 
furround^d'by a lowwall ; of the cells of purificati- 
on within thi^ building ; and, hence the.early miili- 
onaries in Ireland, immediately ereded chappels of 
the chriftian religion in this ifland, which, no 
ddubt, were much reforted to. 

.Linfater, in his voyage to India, p. 8 1. tells 
us, that the Brahmins report, that their holy men 
in the Rajah's country, can give an account of 
thefe monuments, and that they are recorded in 
their Han/crit books. That no offerings were to 
be made at the altar of Mahoody but by thofe of 
clean and unpolluted minds. He faw one eredied 
10 - a tang bf water to prevent any unclean thing 
coming near it. At the North and South of the 
ifland ^. Elephanta, there are other Pagodas full 
of imagery, except the interior of the Mabwdj 
temples, and each has a fpring of water or a taink 
Bear it» to purify all that entered. 

This is certainly the (tone Herodian faw at 
Emifla, in Phaenicia, where, fays he, they wor- 
ih^> Heliogabalus ; but he faw no image fafliioned 
by men's hands, but only a great flone round at 
.bottom, and diminifhing towards the. top in a co- 
nic form. Our Muidhr and the Mahoody of the 
GentoOs are not conical, but only columns of 
circular bafes rounded at the tops. 

Mtudbr in Iriih, in the ancient GToffes, is writ- 
ten for Midhr^ which is explained by the Ray of 
the Sun : but the Mahoody of Captain Fyke is 
certainly corrupted froiti the Gentoo Maha-deu^ 
a. e. Magnus Deus, in Irifh Mab or Maith-dcy 
bonus deus. 


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214 -^ Vindicatim of tie 

As to' names we muft not be furprized to find 
them corrupted, if introduced by that ftrange 
mixture of pirates and their priefts heretofore dc» 
fcribed. Pliny is deceived by a defcripcion of this 
kind, primus certe omnium, obelifcoruoi ercAi- 
onem inftituit Mitres^ qui in Solis urbe regtiabat, 
fomnio iufTus — poftea et alii regum' in idida 
urbc. (d; - 

Hence Obelifks were dedicated to the Sun, by 
all nations, obeli/cum Deo Soli fpeeiaii muner€ tUdi' 
catumfuijfe. (Ammianus.) 

Chinenfes & Indi przter imagines in pagodis & 
delubris prxgrandes aliquando etiam integral rupes^ 
prsefertim fi natura in pyramidalem fwmani^ ^^g^ 
bant, in Idola formare folebant. (Maffeus.Hyde, 

Multitudes of thefe ftones are to befekiiidjii 
the Britannic ifles, to which the Britifli Dhfidds 
were (Irangers ; in general they are unwroirgjlit ; 
fuch, I think, is Rudftone Obeliik. 

The Pagan Irifli learnt from thefe TuathHTDa- 
dann, to dedicate Obelifks both to Sun and 
Moon, that is, to Moloc-bal and Eaga-bal^ tfr Do- 
minus Sol et Dominus Lunus : for Mole iii-^fli, 
(ignifies fire, and is an epithet of the Sim, *^sA 
Eag or Eac is the Moon : thefe went under the 
general name of Uile or Duile, i. e. the Eleinehts. 
Indealbha ainmann Altoir na nidhal, no Arraidit 
na Ndulae do gnitis an geinte, i. e. verbi gratia, 
figurae vSolis & Lunae, i. e. Mole agus Eag— *(Cor- 
mac Mc'Cuilenann) — that is, Indealbha is the 
name of the altar or Idol of the Elements, made 

(d) Nat, Hift. L. 36. C. 8. 


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efficient Hiftory of Ireland. 215 

by the Pagan Irifli, that is, of the Sun and Moon, 
or Mole and £ag. 

The defeription given by Herodian made Dr. 
Hyde think Elagabalus is corrupted of bn^^^^^S 
Agli-bal, feu Eglibal, i. c. deus rotundus j where- 
as £1 is Deus, and Gabal an intenfe fire, therefore 
Elagabal was a proper epithet of the Sun. We 
find the infcription in Spon and Gruter AfAi-BOAQ 
Agai Bolo ; the fecond a in Agai, has been taken 
by fome for a and corrupted into Agli ; but if we 
examine the figure in Spon, there can be no 
doubt of the true reading ; the deity is there re- 
jirefented with a moon on his (houiders, and con- 
fequently it was the Deus Lunus of the Syrians, 
whofe name in their language could not be better 
cxprefled than by J ARE-BOL, or "jja-plT, i. e. 
Lunus Dominus. See Pocock's travels, v. 2. p. 
165. D'Herbelot at Riha ; of which the Irifli re- 
tain Rcj (the Moon.) Jericho^ or the city of the 
Moon, is called RIHA by. the Arabs, and Ibme* 
times ARIHA, as ILIA-U-ARIHA, or Jerufalem 

The Irifii language clears up this matter, aiici 
ihews, that Halley and Pocock are rights For 
|le. Ire, and Eag are fynonimous names of the 
Moon, and Male o^ Mole fignifies Fire and the 
Sun. Gabal fignifies the fame, and hence El^a- 
bal was the Syrian name of the Sun alfo ; i. e. Do- 
minus ignis, (e) 

We have here given the figures of Malacbal and 
Agaibal, from Spon, pL vi. fig. i. and think there 
cannot be a doubt of their having been introduced 

(e) Eandem Pyramidis figuram vel Obelifci, videtur habuiiTe 
Elagabalus, quo nomine Sol in Syria ab Eroefenis colebatur. 

/UKIonflri ) 

y Google 

a 1 6 A Vindication rf the 

by thofe wonderful pirates, who made religion i 
cloak for their depredations, and formed a mod 
ridiculous religion for the Etrufcans, Greeks and 
Romans, under Deities, whofe names are only 
to be explained by a rcfearch into the languages 
of thofe nations that compofed that neft of ruffi- 
ans. And we flatter ourfelves, this obfcrvation 
will throw new light on the Greek, Roman, 
and Etrufcan antiquities, folving many curious 
monuments and epitaphs that could not be ac- 
counted for in any other manner. 

But ftill the obelifcal monument of the great 
Deity prevailed in the Britannic ifles, being moft 
congenial jo the ancient religion of the Scythians, 
and of the Eaftern part of the world. 

Deus Amazonum, cui omnes facra faciebant, 
nihil erat, nift lapis niger. (Apollon. Rhod. Ar- 
gon. L. 2.) 

Affyrii primi erexerunt columnam Marti^ eum- 
que inter deos colucrunt. (Chron. Alex. p. 89.) 

Veneris Paphiae fimulacrum vetuftillimum, al- 
bae Pyramidi diflimile non erat. (Max. Tyr.) 

£t eadem Specie in hodiernum ufque diem, 
^pud Indos, (imulacrum fingitur Mahadeu. (Pel. 
dclla Valle.) Jablonfki.^ 

Pyramidas atquc Obelifcos ignis naturae, Conum 
vero. Soli tributum. (Porphyrins, ap. Eufeb. pr. 


Obelifci enormitas, ut Hermatales adfirmat, 
Soli proftituta. (Tcrtullian.) 

Obelifcum Deo Soli fpeciali munere dedicatum 
fuiflfe. (Am. Marcel.) 

Nomen antiquiffimum Obelifci apud ^gytios 
fuiffe Pyramis. Etenim, Pire vel Pira, -Sgyptii 
dici So/entj tritum vulgatum eft. Deinde, Mue^ 

i. e. Splcn- 

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Anwnt Hiftory of Ireland* a 17 

I. e. Splendorem Sf radium dcfignat. Erit haquc 
Piramtie^ Radius Solis. (La Croze. Jablonfki.) 

Non pauci (Sinenfes) muta fimulacra, vcl cti- 
am informes adorant lapides ; namque ii ferm^ dii 
gci^um funt. (Maffeus. Ind. Sinens, p. 27 1 •) 

And that the Allah Acbar or Deus maximus, 
the black (lone of Mecca, was of this kind origi- 
nally, there can be no doubt. Mohammed not 
being able to get the better of the fuperftition of 
the Arabs for this (tone, converted it into a pious 
fraud : the kiffing and perambulation to this ftonc, 
annually, the proceflion round the low wall, plain- 
ly indicate it to have been a Muidhr. See 
ch. z. 

In this chapter we have fliewn the OSSIAN 
or OISIN of tht Gaodhal or Scots and Irifli, is 
of Oriental origin. He is always reprefented as a 
divine Bard, even by the moderns. Originally 
he was a prophet ; hence he was called the divine 
Oifiiin, fon of Om, or Uaim, i. e. of Terror, one 
of the emblems of the Deity. Camden calls him 
Ofshin Mac Owim. See Om, in the Hindoftan 
and Irifli collated at the conclufion (f). He was 
at iafl miftaken for Uifean, the humbled one, 
otherwile called Socraij, that is. Legion. See Oo- 
iana and Sookra^ in the Hindoftan, as before. 
The two characters have been blended and minced 
together at the pleafure of the Monks and Bards, 
till at length they have loft all idea of both. Like 
the modern Guebres, who informed Le Brun 

(f ) The Iriih, fays Camden, retain many fonnets of Fin Mac 
Huyle, Oiker Mac OsfKin, and Osihin Mac Owim. See alfo 
Mr. Hill's collcftion of the poems of Offian, p. 32, 


y Google 

ai8 A rmdicatiou cf the 

that Olfin was the fon of Adanit inftcad of Aiam, 
unlefs it be the miflake of Le Brun. 

Still fome parts of thefe modem poems preferve 
a few lines of the original fpirit. As, in the 
prayer of Oiflun, Patrick addrefles him in thefe 
words : 

Bberimfa mo dhearbha dbuU 
Olfin nan glunn 
Nacb bbuil Neamh aigfathair 
Aig Ofcar no aig Gall. . 

That is, 
I pledge my deareft hope, 
O OiOiin ! of divine defcent :— 
Neither your fether is in Heaven, 
Or Ofcar, or yet Goll. 

Hence the Old Perfians and Guebres feigned he 
was a prophet from Heaven ; and when the Chrif- 
tian writers came to be acquainted with oriental 
mythology, they miftook Oilhin for the Meffiah. 

If the ancient Irifh had not underflood Oiflun. 
to have been of divine defcent, it is not probable 
that the firft Chriftians in Ireland would have 
taken his name ; and if Oifhin had been fo zea — 
lous an oppofcr of Chriftianity, as the mode 
Poems make him, they would have detefted th< 
name, and have taken another \ yet we find 

,y Google 

Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 219 

than fix Ghriftian Divines of this name, re- 
ed by Colgan, viz. 

Offan confefs. Athrumae, 

Oflfan alter Athtrumae, 

Oflin fil. Ernani difcip. S. Munnae, 

OfBn Abb, de Cluainmor, 

OfTin m. Kellachi, 

Offin hua Lapain Archid. Dorens. 

am here fpeaking of the original Oifhin of die 
. Doubtlefs there may have been many of 
e modem times, who took that name on them- 
es ; but oriental anecdotes, ftill preferved in 
writings of the Perfians, and among the ig- 
mt Guebres, or Fire-worfliippers, point out 
origin; and f he accounts given of this pro- 
: by the Orientalifts are fuU as confufed and , 
tradidory as thofe of the Iriih Bards. 

E X P L A- 

y Google 


^he Plan of the Temple of the Monument of M 
in the JJland of Innis Mvidbr^ now Inms jl 

i^ h^ h. The walls built without mortar of large fioi 
wall from five (o ten feet thick and ten feet high. 

C. C C Cells covered with earth— -all that par 
with a light ink being earth thrown up^ fo as to make d 
in a manner fubcerraneous. Some Cells are fallen in, oel 
horrid and gloomy, having a fmall hole at the top and 
in the fide, feemingly to give air not light. They hafe 
vaulted with the fame rude (lones. 

The Cell C at die entrance is lightedjby the door, ii 
to have been the place where the -Candidate was refted 
admittance into the other Cells. 

J, J. The entrance fo narrow as fcaroe to admit a 

J. B. St. Molafes ChappeU. C St. Cblum^KilU ( 

Z>. The Altar. 

The Chappels are all built with limp an^l flone in a ra 
ncr. They are modem to the reft of the building. • 
FIG. a. 

The Muidhr furrounded by a Wall— 
FIG. 3. 

The Monument of Mahoody at the liland of Elephant 
Eaft Indies, from a drawing made by Captain Pyke. • 
chaeologia of the Antiq. Society of London. Vol. VI. 


Fig. I. The Figures of Malac-bal and Agai-bal fmt 
Fig. 2. The Mi^J^p^ qui a Sole cecidit, from Dr. Ii 

y Google 

AVindicatkrij &c. 221 

irncd Benedidin, Author of the ReligU 
aulois, and of the Explication de divers 
IS finguliers, qui ont rapport a la Reii- 
plus anciens peuples, was not a (tranger 
itinerant Chaldees or Tuatha Dadann. 

of AJlrology^ he fays, ** this Science 
origin to jnjironom^. Thofe who made 
I and movement of the Stars their profef- 
ing little or no profit thereby, transform- 
lives into AJirologers^ and availing them- 
:he weaknefs and credulity of mankind, 
(irons of looking into futurity, they turn- 

noble Science,- into tricks and impofiti- 

firft that brought this Aft into vogue, 
vere the Chaldees. Strabo remarks, that 
an Obfervatory at Babylon, where Af- 
$ were maintained, whom they called 
: fome of them made regular obfervati- 
thefe were laughed at by the reft, who 
irologersj and were permitted to leave Ba- 
nd to migrate over the world. Some 
Egypt, others to Greece, and in fine 
the world.** " From hence arofe three 
Schools of Judicial Aftrology, one of the 
themfelves, a fecond of Egyptians^ and a 
he Greeks.** (Dc L'Aftrologie Judiciele 

thefe Chaldees proceeded alfo the z6t of 
1 bv Plants ; hence all the terms of Divi- 
ed in the Irifh Language, of which hun- 

to be found in the Old MSS. and fome 
nmon Diftionaries, will be found to be 

and always afcribed to the Tuatha Da- 

y Google 

222 A Vindication of the 

dann, by which it is evident, they were originally 
the Dedannites of Chaldaa. 

Monf. Bailly hints that the ancient Bramim of 
India were Chalda&ans : it is probable they were 
thefe itinerant Tuatha Dadann, who mixed \(itk 
our Magogian Scythi, and travelled eaftward to- 
wards the Ganges and Tibet. 

In the Minutes of the Antiq. Society of Loo- 
don, dated 19 Feb. 1767, is the following £jctrad 
of a Letter from a Gentleman dated Banares 2d 
December, 1765 : it was addrefled to Mr. HoUis. 

'^ Cafhi is the Univerfity of the Bramins, fitua- 
** ted on the South Side of the Ganges, in a fine 
*' Country, 600 miles from Bengali. The Qty 
^' is large, well built, and the houfes of he^n 
" Stone. 

" The inhabitants are much more converiable 
'^ than thofe of the Province of Bengali. Among 
*' them are faid to be many men of learning, who 
^^ teach the Hanfcrit and Perfian Languages, and 
^^ what is mod extraordinary, fome who ftudy the 
^* Chaldaicj in which it feems, their Books of 
*' Phyfick are chiefly written.** 

In military Proceflions, the Perfians carried d)e 
figure or Emblem of the Sun, and never proceed- 
ed until be was above the Horizon : from thed^ 
fcription of Curtius, it appears to have been a fire 
ihewn through a Chryftal, like the Maijheac rcpre- 
fented in Xlll. Number of the CoUeflania. Orto 
Sole procedunt : & fuper Regis Tabemaculo 
(unde ab omnibus confpici poflet) Imago Solis 
chryjiallo inclufa fulgebat. 

ITie Ferfepolitan proceffion reprefcnts a 
grand Sacrifice : nulla autem Solis Icon ejufvc 
portatio ibi vifitur, fays Hyde j on a dofer mfpcc- 


y Google 

Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 223 

don probably the Maifheac may be difcovered. 
Libations are carried in very fmall patera, and to 
this ufe, I think, the fmall golden Cups found in 
Ireland ferved. See XIII. No. of the CoUedanea. 
Hsc autem Deo fiebant non Soli, ut putarent 
Grseci — (Hyde) but how does all this agree with 
Herodotus, who fays, that the Perfians had nei- 
ther Statues, Temples, or Altars, (f) They cer- 
tainly did reprefent the Sun by a Bull, with a Se- 
micircle of Rays, and fo did the Tartars and the 
Irifli. Keating, p. 283. — In thofe times they wor- 
fliipped a Golden Calf. Maoilgeann a Druid, af« 
ked Cormac to worihip Laoi ordha^ fays the Ori- 
ginal, that is, the Golden Bull : it is the Perfian 
lai a BulL I will not worOiipthe Sfgnum, my Ar- 
tificer has made, replied Cormac. Ni deann (air 
Cormac) adhrath don Ceap do rinn mo cheirid 
fcin. Ceap is a Signum, a Sign fet up in time of 
battle : it was here the Symbol of the Sun, Ceard 
is a Brazier. Tinker, worker in metals. Keating's 
tranflator calls it a Golden Calf yet makes Cormac 
reply, that he would not wor(hip a Log of Wood* 

In nummis Magni Mogul Imp. Indiae exhibetur 
Corpus Solare fuper dorfo Tauri (aut Leonis) qui 
illud eodem modo geftat. — Sic nempe pinguntur 
Signa ; adeo ut in di£to Iconifmo exhibeatur Sol 
in Signo Tauri Perfarum more defignatus. (g) (K) 

The ancient Records of Ireland aflert that the 
Iriih Pagans worfhipped no images; the rough 
unhewn Stone capped with Gold and Silver, re- 
prefented the Sun and Moon, and round thefe 
were 12 others, fhewing the number ofthefigns 
of the Zodiac, thefe were Scythic, or Touranic. 

(f) Herodotus, p. 62. 

(g) Hyde, p. 115. 


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324 '^ Vindication of the 

Images have been found ; the drawings of feme 
have been fent to me fmce the publication of mj 
lad No. ; but whether they are of Pagan or Chrif- 
tian date, 1 can form no judgment : One is here 
reprefented, which I think was Anu or Nanu. (See 
PL7.) it is of brafs, near 4 inches high ; it was found 
in the bog of Culien, County of Tippcrary, and is 
now in poiTefTion of Captain Oufley. Hyde allows 
the Perfians had a Venus. Nufquam autem reperi 
Perfas ullas alias babuijfe Jiatuas prater iilam Vene^ 
ris^ (h) exceptis Hybridis illis & hsereticis in Cap- 
padocia Perfis, quorum Strabo meminit fe vicUf. 
fe. '^ Ifti inquit didi funt nupAiQoi Ignis accenforcs, 
qui Iconolatriam cum Pyrodulia mifcuerunt." Ejus 
verba funt. '^ In Cappadocia (nam ibi eft ^Jao* 
Tribus quaedam Magorum qui Pyraethi vocantur, 
& multa Perficorum deorum Templa) non cultro, 
fed ftipite quodam ma£tant facrificia, tanquaoi 
malleo verberantes. Sunt & ni/pai^^Vft fcil Srv^i Sep- 
ta quaedam ingentia, in quorum medio eft ^v^ 
Ara feu Focus in quo Magi cinerem multum & ig* 
nem perennem fervant ; & eo quotidie ingreifi 
\m%\Aa\y accinunt (feu canunt preces fuas) fere per 
horam ante igncm Virgarum fafciculum tenentes." 
Many of thefe circular Septa are ftill exifting in 
Britain and Ireland, with the Altar in the Centre 
— in Ireland they are called Druid's Temples, 
they ihould have been named more properly the 
Temples of the Draoi or Magi. 

(h) The Periian names of Venus is Bidoucht or Biducht^ Km' 
nea ind Metra. The Iriili names are Bidhgoe, Anu, Ntnu tnd 
Mathar. The Syrian names are Nanai and Anai. TbelrHli 
foraetinies write the name Xang^ as Nang-tae^ vcl Nm^-dttf 
i. e. Dies Veneris. See Chap. Religion— The Perfian temple 
of Nunaea U mentioned 2 Maccab. Cli. i. V. 12. 



Andent Hiflmj ff Inland. 225 

f readers muft by this time have perceived a 
coincidence and affinity between the ancient 
(or Scythians) ^ the ancient Perfians* I 
raid the Irifh were Pagans, though like the 
ms they had the knowledge of the true God : 
hat all that I can fay in their behalf, or Dr. 
: in favour of the Perfisms, we mult allow, 
he vulgar at leaft, were little better than tdo- 
•— ri) In Ireland they were contaminated by 
uatha Dadann. 

)m this digreffion we return to the Dynallies, 
e we (hall offer a few more ftriking coind- 
rs of names and hiftorical relations, and then 
ed to the famous Phenian and Milefian Hif- 

^bda or the deity of fire, fucceeded Luagb 
ade. Keating caUs him Dagbdaxh^ great, 
3nly fays, he reigned 70 years in Ireland ; 
I all the Irifh MSS. we find the defendants 
is Dagbda , came to Ireland with the Tuatha 
nn. Confequently he could not have reigned 
tland. (k) 

P Dagbda 

Porphjry has quoted an oracle, which, he fitji, was pro- 
id at Delphos, of a very extraordinatj nanme: it nmr 

Chaldees and J^ws are wife m worfhipping, 
A ^clf begotten God, of all things King. 

! Chaldees were the Magi as Can be proved from Laertius ; 
*re undoubtedly the Maei of Ireland, known by the name 
W. The Perfians call tnofe Magi who were employed in 
nr ice of their God);, (fays Dion. Chryfoftom,) , but the 
I being ignorant of the meaning of the word, apply it to 
\ are uilTed in Magic, a Science unknown to the Perfians. 
Chr. Grat. Boriothus.) 
It is to be obferved, (iiiys Nfr. Bryant^) that when Colo- 

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a2& A VhdkatliMof the 

Daghda m 'Irifh hiftory is the father d many 
Children, who with himfell had the power of ap- 
pearing in fire, and of commanding it to be pre- 
fent on aH occafions. Dion Cbryfo/iom from good 
authorities rehtes what he learned of Zoroailer. 
It ix reported, fap he, that through love of wif- 
dom and jufticc, Zoroafter (or Zerduft,) with- 
drew himfeif from men, and Ured alone in a cer- 
tain mountain : that, afterwards leaving the moun- 
tain, a great fire dcfcending from above cominu- 
ally butned about him. Upon this the King and 
nobility of Ferfia came and prayed with hika to 
God, &c* (1) 

Daghdavf^% the God of the Elements (m)tfae 
Godpfprofperity, of generation, and of vegetati- 

Kbamaniy or Icheherzady fumamed Hamai^ a 
Queen of the fecond Perfian Dynafty. Some On- 
cntalifts hfycQ, no fuch Queen exifted, and the 
Tarikh Cozideh makes ' no mention of her* The 
Oriental writers fay that flie was a great Architcd, 
and adorned the city of Perfepolis : to her alfois 
attributed a multitude of fmall Pyramids, fcattered 
throughout Perlia and every where overturned by 
the Sddiers of Alexander the Great. 

About five months after her acceflion to the 
throne, ihe brought forth a Son, who the Aftrolo- 

nles went abroad and made any where a Settlenicnty they in- 
graAed upcNi their anteceJent fuftary, the fubfequent events of the 
place. And as in thofe days they cx>uld carry up the Genealo> 
gies of their princes to their very Source, it will be found diat 
the firft King m every Country, under whatever title defigped, 
was the Patriarch, the Father of Mankind* (See Pre&ce.) 

(1) Orat. Borifthen. 

(m) Colle^ea, Vol 3. p. 594. 


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Ancient Hiftory of Irelandi ^%f 

Sera declared would bring great misfortimes^ on 
le Country^ and they adiofcd, he (hould be im- 
mediately deftroycd. The tendeme& of the mo- 
ther would not permit Honuu to follow their Coim* 
fels ; (he therefore made a little wooden Ark, and 
having put the child into it^ fuflfered the veflel to 
fail down the Gihon or Oxus. It is faid, Homai 
was with Child by her father Bahaman. The 
Child was found on the Water by a Dyer who 
nurfed and educated him : He was named Darab^ 
which implies, pojfeffed or found on Water, (n) 
Toung Darab arrived at the age of maturity, de- 
termined on the profeffion of Arms, and joined the 
army then marching againft the Greeks : he was 
at length difcovered to be the Son of Homaiy who 
having reined 30 years, refigned the Diadem to 

The Surname Homai, given to the Queen^ fig-^ 
nifies a bird peculiar to the £aft, which is fuppo^ 
fed to fly conftantly in the air, and never to touch 
the ground : it is looked upon as a bird of happy 
omen, 2nd that every head it overihades will in 
time wear a Crown : it denotes a Phcenix^ a large 
royal Eagle, a Pelican, and a bird of Paradife* (o) 

Irish History. 

This ftory is told in a different manner in the 
Jrifli hiftory, viz. Anno Mundi 3559, Macbd 
Mong^ruadb obtained the Crown. In the Govern- 
ment of this Princefs the Royal Palace of Eaman 
was ere&ed. There were three Iri(h Princes who 

(n) Richardfon Diflentt. p. 54. 

(0} Richardfon Arab. Di^tionarj, at HomaL 

P a for 

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2^8 A Vindicatiart rf the 

for a long time vaged continual Wars for the Go- 
Ternment of the Ifland» 

Their names v/ere Aed Ruad^ Diatborha or 
Diarbaj and Cimbaoth (Cambyfes) : after Dircaring 
one another out with ftruggling, they came to an 
agreement, that each fhould reign fuccei&vely for 
a certain number of years. 

Aod Ruad was the firft that wore the Crown, 
and died, leaving only a daughter behind him, 
named Macha Mongruadh. Diathorba next ob- 
tained the Government, and reigned the whole 
time ; then reigned Cimbaoth his full time, and 
Aod Ruad having left no Son, Mucba Mongmadh 
claimed the throne in right of her inhentancc 
Diathorba oppofcd her, thinking himfelf next in 
fucceiTion on failure of male iflue in Aod ruadh : ia 
confequence of which, a civil war broke out. 
Soon after, their forces met, and Mocha obtained 
a compleat Viftory. The competitors of the 
Crown being apprehended, a Council was called 
to determine what fentence fhould be paffed opba 
them ; and thinking the peace of the Government 
would never be fettled, if they were permitted to 
live, they condemned them all to death. 

The Queen being of a merciful difpofition, 
interfered, and dcfired their lives might be faved. 
And being a Lover of Architedure^ (he propofed 
thcfe terms : that, inftead of Death, their punifli- 
ment (hould be, to ercck a moji Jiately Palace^ 
where the King (hould always keep his Court. 
They agreed to the Condition, and the Queen un- 
dertook to draw the plan of this Strudure which 
ihe executed with the Bodkin of her hair : be- 
caufe, fay the modern bards, Eo is a bodkin and 
viuiii the neck, whence Eaman ! ! ! 
(p) Keating, p. 1 56. 


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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. aa9 

Macba in Irifli, fignifies a Royfton crow, an 
ominous bird, an eagle, a pelican ; Mong ig the 
creft of a bird, the jmane of a horfe, &c. and 
rtiadb is red* Macha mong-ruadb is the bird 
macbaj with a red creft, and certainly implies 
the bird of Paradife, the fame as Homat m Perfici 
from hence we have the Iriih word moing-realt^ 
a comet ; literally, a ftar with a red tail, or flam- 
ing cre(L 

If fujch a perfon as Queen Homai did exift, I 
am of opinion (he adorned the city of Balch, or 
Baligh, which was alfo called Balch-Bachara, and 
fometimes only Bachara (a), which by fome Arab 
writers is faid to be fo called from Balch an Oak, 
but more probable from the Perf. Belgb^ and the 
Irifli Balg and Bocbra^ all fignifying wifdom ; and 
this is the true meaning of Eaman or Eamainft. (b) 

In Balch-Bachra, Zerduflit is laid to have pro- 
mulgated bis dodrine, and then to have^prcphe-: 
lied. of the Mefliah : conformable to this we find, 
in the Irifli MSS. he is called the Dram or Daru 
of Bacrai i* e. Dra^i Bacbracb a Prieft of Bachara. 
It is certain, (ays Keating, (from ancient MSS.) 
that Bacr^ch a Druid (Draoi Bacbrach) did pro* 
phccy and foretel, that a mofl: holy and divine 
perfon fliould be bom in a wonderful manner, 
and be barbaroufly murdered by the Great Coun^ 

(a) Sabii fculptilia colenteseadem lingua dicebantiir. Boehar^ 
quod exponicur buufrtjian \ acque ttiam «xponinir mijama aiam^ 
L e. Locos colk^onis Scientix : unde nominator urbs Avicen- 
iHB. Bichkra propter Do^orom Virorum ibi confluxum.— la 
Irifli bochadh is to argne on a learned topic» whence hocAatrg a 
logician. Smm Olamham^ i. e. Muir Olamhan^ the congregation 
of the learned : the academy of the learned. See hereefter. 

(b) Hyde, p. 153, 493. 


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230 A Vindicathn rf the 

cil of his own nation, notwithftanding his defigiL 
of €x>ming into the world was for the happinds aad^ 
fahration of the whole e^irth, and to redeem them 
from the delufion of infernal demons, (c); 

Keating's tranflator, miftaking bacbracb the ad- 
je&ive for the noun, makes it the name of the 
Draoi ; but it can be no other than Zerdi^^ irtio 
loft his life in that city, as before rdated. hi 
fomc Irifii MSS. this prophet is called Dtmn^ in 
others Iri-el Faidh^ i. e. the holy Ir the fNrophet. 
Zerdujh took on him the name of Er as we have 
flicwn before, and Dun was the Chaldacan name, 
fn Dun per totam fcripturam fignificat publicum 
ofEcium in Ecclcfia, feu prsedicationem qua argm- 
mur, reprehendiniur, difcemimus bona a nuiUs : 
hence in the Irifh Dunn, i. e. Olamb^ L e. F|^ 

From thefc proofs of the af&nitj of the Irifh 
language and hiftory, with thofe or the Chaldea 
and Ancient Perlians, there can be no doubt of 
the Irifli being (as they aiBrm) of Scythian and 
not of Cekic or Gomerian origin* They who pro- 
fefled this firc-worfhip in temples or towers, tbat 
is, the religion of Zcrduft, in Luciano's- time, u 
reckoned up by him, were the Perfians^ the Par- 
tbians, the Bailrians^ the Gbazvare/maini^ the Ari^ 
nns^ the Sacans^ and the Medes (d) ; — -lour d 
thefe nations were Scythians. Accordingly wc 
find moft of the Perfian names ©f the true God, 
of the Demons, Peri, Angels, &c# prefervcd in 
the Irifli language, yet the names ot Princes, of 

(c) Keating, p. 187. 

(d) Lucian de Longaevis. 


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Jndent Hificry^ igf Ireland* 23 « 

^ &c. are tnmik^ed iato the Scythian or 
ialed: Foroumple, 

. Persic. ' Ir!isij. 

[God Chodhia, Comhdhia 

VA Ditto JKiheach-tiema 

Ditto TVIaiin, Manann;' Arab. 

Maim bene/lcii^ Man- 
nan, benignus^ and with 
* the article a/, Deus 

^ Ditto J niflW Seathar 

e name tf the Ah* Art oneofthetumes of God 

who prejides over 


Oesiejiial Paradife^ Naemh, Neamh, Heaven^ 
Dara naem the from the Arabic num^ 
e of the Blejfed naym, delight^ joy ^ prof- 

perity^ benefits^ favours 

VLthe Angel cf death Sam^m 

hi:, qui regarde le •Dearcy i. e. deora Dd, 
TetS religieufc i. e* feeking charity for 

God* s fake. 

nan^ felon les Mages de Perfe, le meme 
ordatj I'ange de la mort, ou celui qui fe- 
:8 ames d'avec ks corps, les auteurs des pa- 
fes Chaldaiques de TEcriteure fainte le 
mt Malakadmoutaj i. e. Tan^e de la inort. 
rbelot)— — See this Irifh feltival defcribed, 
:anea, V. 3, p. 444, 


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2^2 A Vindicatwn if the 

The Irilh ddty Sanum was fuppofed to be the 
judge of departed fouls ; at his difcretion they 
were condemned to be punilhedin Itbir4n^ or 
given over to Ifrion or IfrJn^ i.e. the land or 
abode of the tin^s (e) ; or they were to reaflume a 
being on earth; The Brahman* s believe, that thofe 
that fhall worihip God from motives of future^ap- 
pinefsy (hall be indulged with their defirc in Hea- 
ven for a certain time,— but, they Jhall return i§ 
earth — they (hall alTociate with the firft organized 
Purman (f } they (hall. meet. They (hall not re- 
tain any confcioufnefs of their former (late, unfeis 
it is revealed to them by God. But thoic favoOTcd 
perfons are very few, and are dilUnguifhed by die 
names of ^ates Summcmy u. t. the acquaiatcd- with 

(e) liffs^ Ar. I'm a demon, genius, fpirit ; jan th^ fonJ | Jm 
hen Jan the name of an imaginary being, who makes a gnnt 
{igure in eajlern iabalous craditron. He i| fuppofed lol^vi^ mob 
ths Monarch of that race of creatures called by the Arabians ^m 
or Jinn^ and atfo ofthe Peri» or Fairies, both of whom ioliabited 
ithe earth before Adam's creation, but were then bani/hed lo a 
comer of t;he world called Jinniftan, for difobedience to the Sd> 
preme Being. — With thefe the Piflidadians are laid to hfie 
waged war. (Richardfon.) 

Jfrin in Iriih (ignifies hell. Be^re Chriftianity was intradneed, 
It was the name of the cruel demon thas puniflied wick^l qof* 
tils : It is literally thcj^fr-Jin^ or cruel Jin or demon of thePtr* 
iians. (See Richardfon's DifT. p. 274.) He was called Gtil-im, 
in Arab, g/iui lin or the malevolent demon. Arab, gailam a de- 
:non, omgailan the mother of demons. We now tranflate Gii- 
ling the I^vil. So we tranflate the Iri/h IthAJirm Hell : but it 
cxprefles Paradife; the lih mandon or country, C/fm of Uim, 
i. e. Paradife ; Old Perfic H^uran Paradife. Mr. RiduTdfi» 
fav5, hura-Ain is the Virein of Paradife ; hara b a ^ir^ and 
Ain is Paradile ; I have fouiewhere met Huiran an andent Fer« 
fian word for Paradife: All thefe IriHi words are cvidcndy 
Verfian, and were introduced by the Tuath-Dadann. 

\S) Purman an atom. (HolwcH.)— Irifli hunmun. 


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jincieni Hi/iory of Ireland. 233 

their former ftate ; fays Mr. Hoilwell, from the 
information of the Pundit, his inftrudor (h) ) I 
confefsy that finding fo much of the Brahman 
language and mythology to correfpond with thofi^ 
of the ancient Irifh, I am inclined to think yates 
Smmnm is the Irifh Shietigh Sbambna^ i. e. one 
favoured bv the deity Saman. 

Before tne labours of the ingenious Mr. Holwell, 
in learning the language and do^rine of the Brah- 
man't, what abfurd (lories have we been told of 
die tenets of their religion, and of their God 
Brifkb ; from whence Rtabmin a prieft, becaufe 
produced from the head of Brimh^ i. e. Wifdom ; 
(t) and of Abraham^ they have no idea. Brimh 
in the Shanfcrita language is wifdom ; the Bedang 
or commentary on the Bedas begins with a dia-* 
logne between Brimh and Narud^ u e. Reafon* 

In old Irifli Beid or Bead^ is a book, a com- 
mentary : Bed'foirimbadb^ is a commentator, i. e« 
an expoiitor of the ^^£/. 

Brwn or Briom is wifdom, whence .Srf/mffir^ a 
pedant J ^^r^isikill, knowledge, reafon (k). 

The Shanfcrita Bedang j is called Sbafier; which, 
iays Mr. Holwell, may be literally tranflated ibc 
tody rffdence. 

!.;{|i> Pwdii a learned maiiy a teacher. fHolwell.)— In In/h 
bun-dtth gr pua-dach, aa inftrudor ot wiuloiny one endowed 
'with knowledge 1 bunatam to poflefs, dath i. e. &th, wifdom, 
JBciil; poetry^ &c. - 

(i) Brahma r penecrant toutes chafeSyjOSierbelot, p. 195. 
In Iriih Briom wifdom* BTionn the head : Qriooi-mionn. 

(k) The Iriih GiolTarifts even dare to fliew the derivadon of 
the word Briom or Briomha |- Brhmha, i. e.' Brlomdha qnafi 
JMomhrdha^ i. e. priom prima, Mm fel daa^ Scientia See Pri- 
Mahdha^ Mard, &c. in Shawe^ Iriih Diaiooaiy. 


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234 -4 Vindication of the 

In old Irifh Seis or Sbeisj L e. So-£luo$ (Sophiot) 
is fcience, and Seije or Sheife^ is a dialogue, <^ 
difcourfe between learned men; the manner ii^ 
which the Bedang is written (1). 

Zerduji^ it is faid, ftudied with, the Brabmnx^ 
and mixed much of their religion with his Dwn« 
According to the Irifh MSS. Broum or Brimu wis 
the grandfon of Magog ; for his wifdom he was 
named Ce-bache or Cai-baccbe^ the illuftrious Bac- 
chus or the illuftrious Morusy L e. Arbor Safiau^ 
the Mulberry tree; (<^ which hereafter)— -he ji 
laid to have fettled in Triafb-Baiccbe or Bacbia^ 
i. e. the country or lordfhip of Bacche ; where 
moft probably the Brahmin religion had its fburcCi 

At a proper time, we (hall (hew fuch an affinity 
between the ancient Irifh and the Sbanfcrita and 
Bengalefe languages, as will leave no doubt of thdr 
having bceii one people ; or at leaft intimately con- 
neded with each other. 

To conclude, this is the hiftory of the Irifh Tm^ 
tba Dadanh and the Per(]an Pifhdadann : if there 
is any truth in either, there is certainly miich 
fable. I am of c^inion, that both thefe and die 
Cbefdimot Chaldees^ were odginally'Scythians: it 
is certain we find thefe Tuatha Dadann, named 
Geafadin in the Irifh hiftory. See chapter divina* 
tion. They may have wandered to ^/i^rrif itod 
Hinduftan^ and there eflablifhed die Brahman 
religion. I think, that no nation was called bi 
that name, and that their catalogue of kings, is 
fabulous: they, came to Ireland and Britain ia 
fmall bodies, accompanying the Pheni or Fhenici- 

(I) See Holwells difTorration on the Brahman religioa, k 
Dbwe*: hiftory of Hindoftan. 


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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 235 

(m). Some may have returned from the Eafl: 
^eflbpotamia, improved in Eaftern knowledge^ 
L have fettled in Singara^ from whence they 
Y' have migrated Weuward into Europe, and 
ried with them the name of ZiTtgariy Singarij 
L Cingari^ by winch they were known in Italy : 
: the Hebrews ftill called them Cutbim. David 
Fomis takes them for a mixed people, and EHas 
rMmmatkus thinks thefe are the Zingari of Italy* 
.Isbini Samaritanas Q^nO Cuthim vocant, eo 
ad venerunt a Cuda & adduxit Aflur de Baby'^ 
S^aj de Cutha^ de Ava^ de Aniatbj & de Srfar^ 
rm, & collocavit eos in civitatibus Samaria^ bcc* 
ct videtur mihi, dixit Elias grammadcus, tqnbd 
illis venerit populus, qui ultrb dtrdque vacatur 
Kcrra hoftiattm mendicantes, qtios Itali 'Sngbe- 
, & Zingari appellant (n). 
To fuch (troiiers or emigrators, the Hebrews 
<3 Syrians might properly give the name of 
9dim.^ When Eliffa migrateid from Tyre to 
iTthase in Africa, the Ffaxnidsms called her 
9da mxn rTl^ dadeh to migrate; whence ^the 
LCin Dido (o). The Poets took great liberties 


rm) See No. Xni. Colled. 

(n) David de Ponris, p. 92. Zingano vel Zmgaix), Peribna, 
5 VR ginindo il xnundo per gtuntare alcrni lotto il pretefto dt 
w h buoiia ventora, Lat. Proeftigmtor. (Vocabful. ^lla 
vfctw-^lt is Incredible how fsx thefe Chafdim or Dedanites 
flied themfelves ;- we find tfaeni in the&irtho-ScandicaDialeft 
der ^kalld^ idem eft et Sangart^ .Trcft 1 pbeta, idem Sacerdosl 
snlim Lex). 

(0) Kdo, ab riTT dadeh Hebreo.Sr vagar i andar de 
9, parte a otra. Aldrete Anti^. de fEffpana, p. 196. See 
Co EtTmologicum .magnum.— It is remarkable that thefe Zin* 
.xi or Oy^its of Enghnd call diemfelves Rhtmana SAsoI, 


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22lS jS TiMiB c dt k B 9f the 

with proper names,— <^Qodes Poecaafpen 
nit nomina, Tel in metro non ftantia, aut 
ea, aot dc his aliquid mutilat (p). The 
Dagon of Arach (p. 77.) — ^may ^ve been 
ken by the Copyift for Tuta Dadan, the J 
in Dadann, may have beea takea for ^ dak 
the vord dcfignedly changed to Dagon, 
zealous Jew, as thoTe of the Afiatic Oflh 
Petyarabj into Oiflun and P^itrick, by a 
Monk. Our knowledge of Oriental 1) 
it in its infancy ; in the prefent century 
we hare learned, that, the Brabmanh 
from deriving their name from Abraham^ 
have no idea of fuch a perfon ; and that infl 
being the moft grofs idobters, they would 
it die grofleft impiety to reprefent God undc 
form (q). Their ancient MSS. are become 
lete, and great attention fliould i^be given b 
learned countrymen in the Eaft, that tfa 
Moffeifs of Hinduftan, do not impofe on the 1 
by ralfe interpretations of their old books, 
Senacbies of this country have done with di< 
MSS. What information may we not expe6 

which in the Irifk language^ means, the defeeiidancs of 1 
who was the father of Dalan : but whether this ts their ii 
tation of the naaie, I am not mformcd. All Perfian No 
moft of the Chaldaeaa^ (with very few exception), when 
to aoj thii^ haring life, from their plurals in am, as 
Oanntn, Temcnen. Xenophoo mentions the ChaMw 
warlike aatioa of Armenia. The/ were great wai 
whenceche prophet Habbakuk, C. 1. V. 6.-1 will raifi 
Chaldaram that bitter and fwift nation : who go over the 1 
of the earth, to poflels dwelling pkoes whic£ belong a 
them. (See the Bifliop of Waterford's Minor praph.) 

fp) Servius. 

(q) Hoi well's Introdudlion to Dowe*! hiftory of Hindd 

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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 237 

? learned labours of Hohuelly Jones^ and Hal- 

^Dur Scythians, the fons of Magog, fon of 
;>^liet, being now mixed with the fons of Shem 
id Ham, in Chaldea, Oman, and Perfia, 
>iight proper to diftinguiih themfelves by the 
KXie of Gadul, (now written Gaodhal). By 
w^ul they meant, their great progenitor Japhet. 
Is very remarkable that Noah (hould give an 
xtbet to one of his fons and not to the re(L. 
^n the brother of Japhet ^m^^ GaduL Becaufe 
i.8 word fignifies ^eaty (magnum efle vel fieri), 
e Hebrews thought it fignified eldeft ; whereas 
!ofes names him laft : Senij Haniy and Japhet — 
ad if the eldeft wai^ diftinguifhed, why not the 
>i]ngeft ; and would not the fecond fon exped a 
-ionty in name over the third ? The LXX tranf- 
te Gadulj the elder : Heideggar, Buxtorf and 
ochart agree that the word may be ufed in that 
nfc : — the true meaning of the word is of na 
>xifequence to us, — ^Japhet was ftiled Gadul and 
IT Scythians, being defcended from him^ diltin- 
iiifhed themfelves by that name, and to this day 
ive preferved it (r). They were tall of ftature, 


(t) Sf nonimoiis to Gadu], u the Irifh Oi^^, and the Arme- 
ui Aighf noraen Gi^tis, (Ikjs RiTola), et Aigbafinach^ Ar^ 
vBi ab Aigh oriundi,-*horum gigantium erac Japtticut ille 
■^A» celebns ac fortis pracfe£tus, jaculandi peritifllmu$» arcu- 
e potens. See Mofes Cheronenfis^ L. i C. 9, 
Arab. Kiulul magnum efle— in like manner the Iriih proper 
me 7uaihal or Tool^ is the name as the Arabic Tula^ livda. 
ttjoti, whence the Englifli tail, 

CaJui^ fays Mr. Bates, (from Mar. de Cal J fignifies any 
eatnefs, or augmentation of quantity, quality, time, age, dig- 
7, riches, or any thing elfe.— >I grant it does, but it is more. 


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ajS A VindkatiM of tie 

and to this period hate been remarked for Att 
fize. Synonimous to Gadul they called themUfti 
Phainigh or Fbainic, i. e. ftrong, mtghty^ and 
this is the origin of the Phssnicians of Onum or of 
the red fea, from whence Strabo and-Herodotni 
deduce their origin. 

It appears that foon after the engi^ement our 
Gaduli had with Abraham, after the fackiagof the 
Canaanites, as before cited, they allied wtto tbcm, 
and became, as it were, one people ; iaftniffing 
them in navigation, and permitting them to ikarc 
their commerce with the Indias. 

The learned Gebelin, faw clearly^ thart t!he 
Phoenicians and Canaanites, were different people; 
he follows Sir J. Newton and thinks the firft irate 
Idumarans, whereas, they dwelt only on the bor- 
ders of Edom, viz. in Oman. Ajoutonqu'ilne^ft 
pas etonnant que les P hen idem quoique Etranpn 

freqaently applied to quantity than to quality, as GtXL ii. v. 8. 
the child enew — 26. 1 3. the man waxed great and went ior- 
ward, and grew till he became very great.— 38. 1 1. till Sbeldi 
my fon be grown. — Numb. 6. 5. fliall let grow the locks of die 
hair of hij head. And in the other fenfe it is fomecimes irfcd bj 
the Iri/h, and explained in the Gloflaries by Ea/g^i, u e. noble 
potent, mighty. Thefe Ga/iui or Giants were inpoflcffiooof 
the Brittanic Ifles when the Cimmerii or WalAi repoflefled dMD- 
felves of Britain^ (for they were the primitive inhabitants}. la 
commemoration of the expulfion of thefe Gaduli or tall meo, 
they annually burnt a Gi^niic figure of wicker, as before reb- 
tcd : from that time the Gaduli remained inhabitants of Ireland, 
Mann and the North of Scotland. The Welfh hiftorians tlb 
mention the battles they encountered with Giants in Cornwall, 
who were the fons of Gog and Magog. The Walfti antiquaries 
have likewife carefully diftinguiihed the Scythians or Magogtans 
from the Gomerites, by the name of CuiVf'/, hence HumfrtJu 
a Wel/li author, fays, Scoios Hibemqrum prolem, & ipfi & om- 
nes optiind norunt, eodcmqne nomine a noftratibus fcilicet Gui^ 
hil appcliantur. 

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Ancient Hijiory (f Inland. 239 

Hur Camufeens^ 2jent ete appelles du mcme nom^ 
»uifqu'iis etoient venus s'etabKr avec eux: nc 
bnne-t'on pas aux Anglois le nom de Bretons, 
fsoiqu'xis ne le foicnt pas d'originic, & ne confond^ 
'•4>n pas fans ceffe le nom des Gaulois avec cdai 
la Francois (s) ? 

Wc muft tor ever remain ignorant, iftheCa- 
laanites or Phsenicians diftinguifhed the Gaduli in 
heir vmtings : it is probable, the name was loft, 
except among the Scythians themfelves, as that of 
he Idumseans was, after their being fubdued by 
he Jews ; and that of the Moabites after the con- 
ijueft of Nebuchadonofor. In a letter from Suron 
dnff of Tyre to Solomon, in a fragment prcferved 
>y Eufebius from Eupolemus, the Tyrians certain- 
y makes a diftin&ion } they fay, *^ in compliance 
^ wUb your remeji we fend you eight thou/and 
rtfiwv n. ^iviKttv, Tyrians and Phaenicians (t). Stra- 
tx> calls the companions of Cadmus, fometimes 
Arabians, and fometimes Phaenicians, which fhews 
he was fenfible that they wete a mixed people. 

If the Phsenicians had been Idumaeans, as Sir 
]• Newton thinks they were, and had navigated 
the Indian Ocean, they would not with propriety 
have given the name Gadul to the Mediterranean 
fea, for it cannot be called a great fea, when com* 
pared to the Ocean ; yet this was the name given 
to it by Jofliua, Ch. 1. v. 4. ufque ad ^13n D^n 
Mare GaduL — here it is tranflated tht great fea: 
there is a probability that this fea was fo named in 
compliment to the Gadelians as being the firft navi- 
^tors, as the Perfian Gulph was named Bath-Far* 

(s) Gebelin fur Porigine des Phaeniciens. 
(t) Pnep. Evang. p. 449. 

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240 A Vindication of tie 

fa (Baahr-al-Fars) from Fhenius Farfi^ of ivhomh 
the next chapter. 

The Scythians thus fettkd in Oman, and b6 
come the traders of the Eaft, mrould naturally call 
ifaemfelyes Anakim^ from Aonac or Anac, a mer- 
chant : the Hebrews would name them XSt^T^ 
Arbim from "sys merchandize, traf&ck, and by 
the infertion of an epenthetic N comes Erenbi and 
Erembi^ the name ot a nation mentioned by Hmer 
and Strabo. Homer's Scholiaft iays, they were 
the fame with the Troglodytes^ but both he and 
Bochart allow that they might have been a branch 
of the Arabians (u). Thefe I take to be the true 
derivations of the Anakim and of Arba the fon of 
Anac, of the fcripture : Aonac^ it muft be obfen- 
ed, does likewife fignify a prince, in Iriih (v). 

And thefe Magogian Gaduli^ thefe tall Scythians, 
were known in fcripture by various names beto- 
kening, tall men, terrible to their neighbourti 
from their (lature and warlike appearances. The 
Moabites called them O^tti^ Amim (w\ by a cor- 
rupt and abominable pun&uation pronounced 
Emim ; the fingular number is Anij a word com- 
mon in the Irifh language with the fame figniika- 
tion as in the Chaldee, viz. Amb a tall man. An* 
hac(x) a dwarf, Amhas an ungovernable man, dot 
will not live in fociety ; hence the Arabic AmmA^ 
a plebeian, It alfo fignifics a community. Our 
Scythians or Omanites or Phaenicians of the red 
fca, were always the dread of the neighbouring 

(u) Strabo. L i. Horn. Odyfs. i^ V. 8j. & Schal. in loc. 
(v) Arab. Anak^ Princes, chiefs, tall men, and in the Chil- 
dee lOlM Arba fignities a trading ihip. 

(w) Deuteronomy, Ch. t. O'DK if the phiral of C3tt 
{x) AmhaCy i. e. ca-Amh,-^ca is t negative. 


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Ancient fJifiiry rf Ireland. fi4t 

{ftatset. Fond of conqueft, and by trade mer- 
cluBits, they raqiblcd through Afia, in die chdi^ac- 
ttrsiof foldicrs and traffickers ; yet were -good citi- 
feens and governed by \nfe laws.^ In their turn, 
Akj diftinguiihed fome of the Gomerites^ that did 
-not {sttle in towns and cities, by the name oiGeUt^ 
"CeiH or Keilt^ which fignifies terror, a wild man 
-orwdman, a fylveftrous perfon, and hence I think 
Ac name Celt. In like manner the word Amb 
ijgnifies >terror and a giant O^jom Amim, Emim, 
timores, aut terribiles, vel populi, (five infuta 
aciuarmn) : "Gigantes quos expulerunt Moabitae a 
Jievra ipforum, Deut. 2. In Genefm, 14. nonefk 
firopriom, fed vertendum terribiles vel horrendos, 
^uod 'fecit Chaldaicas interpres : fie etiam tranf- 
-fetudutn effe apud fiieronymus in-qussftionibus 
•filis Hebraicis dn Genelin. licet lX3c imamw 
-f lanftulerint. Puto tamen populos eflfe 'Raphaim 
4 Moubitis £mim di£bos : aliAmmonitis-vero Zmu 
xwmm^ J)eut. a. (y). ' 

There are few of my readers, even of thofe, 
-who are natives of this country, that have had an 
*e|)portttnity of fearching the ancient MSS. of their 
mother language* I conclude this chapter, with 
4tti CKplanation of fome words mentioned in the 
ffrcoeding pages, not commonly known. 

ikfA^ or Mugby or Mogbj a minifter, afervant, 
is a Meord in ancient times related only to the 
;chupch. Mugb or Hfucb^ ainm dUeas do dbidba^ 
•fhdt ijB, Mugh is properly a fa c red name ; ths is 
'tbe explanauon in many ancient Iri(h Gloflfaries. 

(7) Seephanus, Loconim defcriptio. Irilli RMaim or Reah- 
Asm, to roby to plmidery to ratifti, to overcome by drength. 

Q From 

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242 ^ Vindication rftbe 

From this Scythian word, the ancient Perfiaoi 
(originally the fame people as the Sqrthiam\ 
formed Mag ; and from the Irifh Si^-art a Priefti 
(literally a wor^ipper of God), tbev took the fiitt 
part of die compound and formed Mogu/bek : thui| 
Nim. Laud, and Nim. Sion, Perfian authors, c& 
plain Mogujhekj by Perfian words whkh fignifj 
Magufeorum Sacerdos ; i. e. Ignicolanim Saccr- 
dos ; for having loft the derivation of the word, 
they conftantly tranflate Mog, a prieft of thcFirc 
worfliippers (z). 

A nomine Mag Chaldaei feceruntJjS Mag, nude 
Graeci fonant M«y^ & hinc Arabes fonnanint fibi 
Magjus^ & fic Syri & Judari & aliae Gentes, layt 
Dr. Hyde. But I am of opinion it was a name 
common to the Chaldees, Phaenicians and Scythi- 
ans, all jfire-worihippers. The Greeks have pit- 
ferved the true original fignification of the SMhi- 
an origin. Claudius Dausquejus in notis ad Bafr 
Hum, p. 372. has MdVo^ai^, i. e Magus Dem, 
& Mc7^ 9uoi Magus Divinus. 

Chaifneac and Aifneach are Iriih words fynoni- 
mous to Magus : the Greeks converted thefe to 
^sin* Antea enim Magi a Periis appellabantor 
OJiana. (a) Suidas makes this Q^^iuifuccdbrto 
Zarduft, but as Rcland obferves, this fliould be 
Ofanes and is the Oujhan of the modem G^ men- 
tioned by Le Brun, the Oftian of Zerduft, and the 
Oijin^ and OJftan of the Irflh and Highland Scots; 
a prophet, one fcnt from God, a facred perfon. 
This word was common to the Chaldees and Fhc- 
nicians. |tnChazan,'or Hazan, Speculator, b- 

(z) See Hyde, Rellg. Vet. Pert p. 371. 

(a) Suida>. Rclandui de Vcu Ling. Pen. p. 191. 


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AfUient Miftary of Ireland. 143 

fpeftor, CuftoSy qui provifionem & curam alicujus 
rci habct : Minijier & ftridc Infpcdor, Minifter 
S^agoga% ut eft ^dituus Diaconus, qui alias 
didtur ttNDU; Shamafh, NunciusEcdefise, quidcf- 
tinmtus eft bynagogae ncceflfariis operis praeftaadis. 
Hie maximi oratione five precibus & cantu Eccle- 
fiab prscibaty prxcrat ledioni legali, docens, quod 
& quomodo legendum & fimihbus quas ad facra 
pertinebant : Unde quandomodo pro Cantore, 
IHiBcentore fumitur— & pro Miniftro in geiiere, 
de filiis Samuclis, patri diilimilibus & ad judicano 
dum ineptis — i Sam. 8» 3. — ^pro Miniftro facro- 
rum paflim ufitatiffimum. (b) The root is in the 
Iriflit aifneifim to explain^ to expound^ to interpret 
—whence Ailheach, vel Chaisneach : Cuifion, 
Wife, prudent : according to the provincial pro- 
nunciation of n which is fometimes Heth^ (bme- 
times Cheth. Another word for Magus in Irifh 
is Reat-aire ; the latter part of the compound fig* 
nifying illuftrious. In our modern Didionaries 
Riutaire is interpr^ed a Clergyman, a Minifter. 

The word is ChaTOee and Phaenidan. 
Raten idem eft quod Magus. Talmud. Sota foK 
aa. I. whence the Perfian Rad^ a prieft of the 
Guebres. (c) 

Tbefe words evidently prove, that the andent 
Irifli when in Afia, mixed with the Chaldees and 
Fhaaitcians, I here mean the Canaanites, becaufe 
X think it is clearly proved in the fequel of this 

(b) Bttxtoii Dex. Chaid. p. 730. 

(c) Hjrde. . And hence the Irifh naioes of Daghda is faid 
Co be Rfld, vel Rnad. Ruad to (eat, i. e. ainso do Dajrhda, 
i. c ifae wim iftfait Road, a naaie of Daghda. (Vet. G^s.) 
Thit Dashda bas been miftaken by the Ferfians for the nodm 

O 2 Hiftory, 

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.^44 jS Vindicalm (f tie 

iiiftoiy, that the Phsenicians were diiefly Scydii— 
ans. (d) 

We (hall hereafter treat more fully on the Rdi— - 
^ion of the andent Irifli, and of -the names i 
orders of thePriefts. 


jProm the mod efleemed Greek and Ladn Au — . 
^ors, we have (hewn, that the Parthiana^ Bac-^ 
trians, and Perfians, were originally Scythbni^^ 
confeqaently the defcendants of Magog, Son o^^ 
Japhet. We have feen from Mofes Chorsnenlm^ 
that the ancient Armenians wsere likewife Scydbi,. 
ans, loddng up to Japhet as their great progeml 
tor. From the fame Mofes, we have fliewn tfe 
dtvjfion or feparation of the Sons of Gomer and tf 
•Magog, at the borders of the Ca^ian Sea^ where 
iboth were known by the name c2f Bu^ or M^: 
That the iGomerites procee^d Normward asd 
Weft ward, pnrfuing the Bolg'or Wolga, i. c. the 
•Danube, till tboy fettled in Germany and Gad: 
That the Magogians took a contrary route, and 
purfuing the Luphrates, were known by the name 
^f Curdetj and fettled in 'Onum in Arabia (Felix, 
and in modern Perfia. We have ieen fonumy co- 
incidences and iimilarity of Anecdotes and Nain^ 
in the andent Hiftoriesof the Perfians and of the 
Iri(h, as clearly demonftrate, diey were originally 
the fame, people, fplit into nations of dmetcnt 
"names, in the revolutions of Ages, and both re« 
jtaining their ancient traditions at this day. 

(d) It is the opinioi of Monf. Bailly, that the 'Phamkkn i 
wercL origirall/ Scythians. (See Lettres fur TAtlaiuidcs.) 


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Ancient Hifiory of Ire/and, 245 

Wc muft detain our readers, a little Ipi^er on 
this fubjed, to enquire imp tke^ ^Aatick biftwy of 
thcfc pcppljC. 

Afirikcnd and Kbondemhr^ Aia)>iM Aqtbors, 

the Sqlbifi and "^Jlin of the Sail, h^ve aoUefied 

the Oriental traditions of Japheft; franthem^-we 

learn, *^ that Japhet had eight Children^ viz. 

^' Turk, Tchin, Seclab, Mameluk^ Gomari or 

^^ Keimak, Khozar, Rous, l^rzag ; tq which 

^' Ibme have added three others, viz^ Sadeflan, 

^\ Gaz, and Khalag. Much difpute has arifen 

«' about the primogeniture of thcfe, feme giving 

•• it to Turk, others to Tchin, &<;. &e. as natio- 

«< Hal partiality dictated. Jaiphet hadfor hjiB^ftare 

♦* of the habitable globe>/rflw /A^ Cafpmm Siea^ 

** /o /i6^ Eajiern extr^iity (c) and ^/ /« tht^ Nokthj 

^> (f][ and dying in a good old age, left theiS6ve- 

*• sqgnty to Turk, and thk is the Japhfi Q>^lan\ 

^* ip c.. the Son of Japhet of tije TartarSi and Orii 

<< ental Tifrks, whom they acknonwledge to b^ 

" the author of their race. 

^^ 7V^ having many talent^ and good qualities, 
*' fuperior to his brethren, was declared b^ hts 
^^ £adier, to be mailer ajo'd ibvereign of all the 
^' Countries they poflefled^ which ytcx^ already 
^^ veil peopled; and as their numbers • iaoreafed; 
^' Colonies; were fent out fr^a^ time to time, wJuch 
^' became the parents <if the greatefl:- nations; of the 
^* world. . - .1 -. ■ ■ 

^^ . Turk governed hi^ fubjeds with great wi& 
** dom and juilice. during 240 yearsi, as^ldtfour 
^^ Sons, fpmc lay fiyre, viz* ToutQip,i..&^ghel, 

(e) That IS from the Calfjatri Sea tQ China. ,:, 

(f) ScVthia iiithi & extra rmaiim, Touran, Tartaiy, &c. ao(j[ 
all tho Oriental Turfci or Tartaric 

" Baregia, 

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246 A Vindication tftbe 

^' Baregia, (Barefgia or BaTegia, alias PIr She* 
^' her) and Ilak or Imlak. 

'^ llie Laws made by Turk^ are named Iqffk 
'* and Iqffaky by the Moguls, and thefe laws were 
'^ renewed and augmented by GingbizkAan. Ail 
*^ who commit Crimes againft thefe Laws, are 
^' faid to have fallen into the lafla, ""this is their 
'^ mode of Speech,) and are punifhcd cither by 
*^ death or whipping. 

^* The poftcrity of Turk was divided into four 
^^ great tribes, as the Jewifh and Arabian^ations 
*^ nave been, fince that period : thefe tribes were 
*^ named Erlat, Gialair, Caougin, and Berlas or 
^^ Perlas, of the laft came Tamerlane, and this 
** fourth tribe was afterwards divided into twenty 
*' four others by Ogouzkhan. 

" Thefe 514 tribes were divided into Rigbt 
** wing and Left wing, called by the Mogols and 
^ Tartars Givangar and Berangar^ and though 
*' thefe two wings compofed but one nation ; by 
^^ a fundamental law of their governmdst, they 
^' were niot to mix or intermarry one with the 
^ other. 

" It muft be remarked, that Mogol and Tatar, 
•* being defcended of Turk, and having given 
•* names to two great nations of Mogols and Tar- 
** tars, thefe are both oomppehcndcd by Oriental 
*' hiftorians under the name of ^/ruit, and by this 
*^ name fome authors underftand the Kathai or 
** Northern Chinefe, or Tartars adjoining China. 
•* Tchin was the father of the Chinefe. 

*' From time immemorial fome of ihefe Turks 
^' have lived a wandering life, like thofe people 
^^ called Nomades by the Greeks, and Bedeui by 
^^ the Arabs. The Oriental Turks call them 

" Gutcbgungi 

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Ancieni Hiftory of Ireland. a^j 

^^ Gutcbgum Atrak^ and of thofe vagabond Turks, 
^' was the Turcoman Nation formed. 

« The Pcrfians and the Poet Hafez explain the 
^< word Turk to (ignify a well made young man. 

♦* Thour the Son of Feridoun, King of the 
** Fifbdadian^ was fother of the Touran (or Scy. 
*• thians.)" (g) 

Thus, the learned and mod excellent X>'Herbe- 
lot from the Authors above mentioned. " 

The true derivation of the word Turk is from 
Tark (Ir. Tore) the head, the fummit. AndTer- 
ky or Turky fignifies not only promotion, but 
cancelling in learning, becoming fuperior. Turk 
was the Epithet given to Magog on account of his 
rare talents, and of the advancement or fuperiori- 
ty over his brethren. Turk, fays Mr. Richardfon, 
fignifies a Scythian : alio the Turks, comprehend- 
ing likewife thofe numerous nations of Turks be- 
tween Khorafme and China, who all claim defcent 
firom Turk the Son of Japhet^ As thofe people 
have in general fine Countenances with lanB[e black 
eyes, the Ptrfian Poets make frequent ule of this 
word (Turkj to exprefs beautiful youth of both 
Sexes. (Arab Dift. p. 536O Turkman, a Va- 
grant Turk. (idO 

From thefe quotations, we colled the opinions 
of the Eaftern writers, of the extent of Japhct's 
Children in the Eaft. The Chief of them was 
Turk^ and he is plainlv diftinguifhed from Gomer, 
confequently he was Magog father of the Scythians. 
Tor, Torc^ and Torn^ in Irilh, fignify a Prince ; 
(in ChaWee ym Toran.)— ^(^r^ in Irifli fignifies a 
JLaw, a Royal mandate, in Perfian Tcrghun^ is a 

(g) DHcrbcIot, at Turk. 


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346 A Vh^altm of H!^ 

Royal mandate. In. Arabic Ttrekr z- head mail. 
Tore a King, a prince, Tarikb a Law. 

So much confbfion and cont.radi£lion prevaik, 
in the Arabian hiftories of the early agea^ that all 
we can learn from them is, that by traditiou the 
Tartars, Moguls, Kalmucs, and . ancient Pfetfians 
were the dcfcendants of Magog, particularly the 
people named by them Touran. 

JUtD. Magog filius Japhef. Gomer 2e Magog*, 
unde ort£ funt duac gentes Gog and Mtigog. io s3) 
h\9 Scythay qui et Magogi dicuntur. In Tarttna 
fiint r^iones Gog. and Magog, quas illi'niommant 
Jug feu 6ug & Mungug. Caftellus*. 

Syr. Mkgwg. Gcns^Scythica. 

y[^ 'Q6z nomen propr. Regis, alii» Regionis, 
viz. Afidc minori^ Ezech. 38. 2. C^^) Magogs the 

(U) Agreevblecothe Afifttic Cpibm oFcalliRg Pritfcte aAir 
Treai: riirnkme Maffog fignifksj a Pins Tree; )^gPg» np- 
men viri. Brafilium, JoTepiio Pini genus candidute &.f>|lgcrit»^ 
materieni refenens froulocam. Accedunt LXX* z, Fmv V^ 50 
^yris Sandaliim, quod fecund. Botanologos, (unilitudldfcin hatiee, 
quandam ctim Braiilio & Pino.—- — When die Arabs and Pfcifiui 
compare their MiftrcJTcs to a Pine Tree, Cyprefs or IhXm Trer^ 
fays Sir Wm. Jbnes, thefe comparifons would feein f<Mroed'tB4Nir 
idioms, but have undoubtedly a great delicacy in thein and cficd 
their minds in a peculiar manner. 

There is a b6autiful Allegory of this kiiid in the Annals of h- 
nisfallen. Ad. Anno Dom. 1314, confiftins; of a Stama of fbar 
Lines, faid to be fpolocn extempore by Tumagfa CMBritnon the 
Death of his favourite Chief Donogh O^Dea. 

Truagh an teidhm, taining thiar, rug bfts borb. 

Taoisfeach teann dainidh dhamh 
Donncha Don ; Conn is cial, cm mo chuirp 

Craobh dom cheill, an teidhm tnugh. 


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ifr thelnai: Hiflpsy of tile Tuath% SadaA F^fis^ 
le Touitnifan Scymians particulaily. laentioaed:^ 
e find aUb-a lacge part ot ancient freland nasned 
kid i wt have foea one general name fp;? fho 
cytfaians waff BdgL In the Map of Pcrfia.pul>i 
bod in Duiul's; i^laa, Wcfind a province n^med 
irs ; tothcEafiwardiSy iCetjnan^ moreEs^twaiid 

Nedbuj and tiusis: bordered' by the Province, of 
ebges, extending from the Indian Oceans td 
]u>ucah9 i^e* Scy,ihia«. Vologefus according to tho 
Aba wis King o£ Armenia. .. S)eQ beraafter. 

The Meditcrrannean from Cadiz to Mmo^sca ia 
lUed by the Irifh Muir Touran, whence the: Tynr-t 
ene Sea;. from Tyrrhemis, fays Hyginus^^^tiib $o» 

To this let ua add, the gr^t affinity \re? bavd 
ie«m in a fornVcr work,, betmreen the adcienK 
Anguage of the bifli, and thai o£ the Kalmm Mo^ 
lUr. and of the Cbinefe (i) ai^d in. my c^ihion, it 
BBounts to a dcmonflration, thai die IrimhiAxy^ 
ufbunded on truths, and is of the utmoft impo&i 
mce, to elucidate the hiftory of the Weftera Na^ 
SOBS of Europe. 

Various caufes contributed to fplit this great bo« 
y into diftindt nations. Commerce, Conquefty and 

Bite btbe lofi alau I of late 

upon the weftern Shore I 
By mtblels death and manhriog fiite 

a vaiiaofChiert no more! 
Ah I woe b me I my foundcft fienie 

and kindred friend fo true I 
Mjiuood has l^ a injuring branch 

iqy Donogh dear, io you { 

(Tranflatcd by Mr. OT,) 
(i) CoUcaanea, No. X- 


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^50 A VbulksiiM ef tbi 

above all, innovations, into their ancient eftaUtfli- 
ed Religion, by the conftruftion of Towers to 
contain their facred fire, and mixing with the Ehu 
mites, the defcendants of Elam Son of Shenu (k) 
Some of the Perfian Kings of their moft early dj- 
nafty, were confefledly Touranians or Scythians t 
in fad, they were all originally of that race : hi 
the Perfian detail of the Religious war, they ac- 
knowledge the Scripture name of Magog inflead 
of Tour or Turk. When Farq/iab or Afn^^ the 
Scythian King, (whofe name, they tranflatte, A- 
fber rf the Ferjtam^ over-run their Country in 
confequence of this innovation of the Fire tow- 
ers, they tell you, that, when they had at length 
driven him back to Touran or Scythia, north of 
the Perfian Empire, a Wall or Intrenchment was 
built between them called Sedd Japoug 'ii Mapni 
i. e. the Intrenchment of Gog and Magog. By 
^agiug and Magiug^ they mean the North and 
South people of the fame Nation, fays lyHerbe- 
lot. (1) Some Afiatick hiftorians, fays the iameAa- 
thor, carry this \^all beyond the Cafpian Sea, 
others To much towards the Eaft, as to give room 
to think it is the fame wall that feparates Chioa 
from the Mogols, 

It was evidently a divifion between the Original 
Scythians and the Mogb or Rad^ the Magi or fire 

(k) Shem being the elded Son of Noah, and in poflfeflion of thii 
Country before the Magogians fettled here, the Perfiani thouj^ 
ir would be an honour to derive themfelves from Elam i this 
mixture of Elamites and Scythians or Magogiaiu coiicribiited 
much to the enmity that ever after fubiifted between the inhabi- 
tants of Touran and Iran-^for Japhet was t9 dweii in tht Tmli •j 

(]} Majug-Magog^that part of Fxftcrn T^rtary bordering on 


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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. a$x 

wodhippers in Towers. The fame Intrenchmcnt 
is {aid to have been made in Ireland, from Drogh- 
eda, to Galway on the Weftem Ocean, it was 
named EJkir Reada^ or the Magi's divifion^ 
Tm) dividing the Kingdom of Ireland into two 
^ual parts ; the Northern half was called Leith 
Conn^ and die Southern half Leith Mogbj that is 
the Magi's portion ; and mod of the Fire towers 
of Irebind, are in the Divifion of Ldth Mogh\ or 
ofthe Magi's half.— (L) 

And therefore when Patrick arrived in Ireland^ 
to convert the inhabitants to Chriftianity, finding 
his predeceflbrs had little fucccfs, he faid, that he 
was a prophet from Neimh-lTiur, the (fire) Tow- 
er of raradife, where he was bom. 

Genair Patraic Nemthur. (n) 

His proper name was Succat. Succat a ainm hi* 
tnAbrade. (o) He faid he was come to preach 
the dodrine of the great Prophet Oijhan (the Mef- 
fiah) (p) but the Magi^ wifhing to keep up their 
anthority and religion, then decUred, if Nian i. e» 
Oifififij was come, that he, Succat^ mud be Pate* 
raby that is the Devil, (q) and from hence his 
name Patric. Other Irifh Magi declared he was 
Tailgheany Arabic^ Talyh gin, the wicked Jin or 
Demon : a name fuppofed to have been given by 
the Druids to St. Patrick, fays Shaw, (r) Succat 

(m) Read-aire, a Prieft, Shawe, O'Brien, &c. it is ths 
P«rfian Rmi^ i. e. Mtgos. 

(n) St. Fiec's Life of Patriek.— >A^«mi Heaven, ParaJife^ it it 
the Arabic name of the Ceieftial Paradife. 
(o) Idem: 
(p) See p. 200. 
(q) Seep. 180. 
(r) ShaweS and O'Brien's Dia. TJiejfar it was a holy name 
pven bj the Druids ? Telchines, mail dxmones. Suidas. 


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25^ A Vindication rf the* 

finding the fire worfhip eftabUfhed here» aad the 
idiea of their great prophet, Airgiodlamb otZerd^H 
^peaiing ia fire, caufed his djfcipleft to dccbfc 
that' he appeared ia the lame manner. Afpiciebat 
W vifu no£kis, Milcho memoratu^: & ecce Putrid* 
vs, quafi tot us igneus domum fuam ingrcdjebap 
mr, Jlamtnaque de ore ytu. & n^uribuij. oculii^ at 
auribus egrejfa ipfum cremare yidebatpn Milcho 
i{er6rComam flanunigeram a le repulit, ncc ipfum 
ullatenus tangere praevaluit : flanuna 4i&& dat 
tcorfuia divertit, & dnas filias ejus pantulasin uoo 
hQy^ quieibenteft arripiens ufque ad cinerei com* 

Patric th en explaiiis this dream to Mijcbo, i^ 
nis quern vidiftL de me exire, fidc9 eft Sanfia; 
Trinitatis, qua totus illuAror. ^«)! 

And in the Xiife of St. Patrick by his own difci- 
pie Patricius Junr. the Magi or Dr^aoi are pyti- 
cu)^l^ mentioned, if uit quidam Rex fisrox fc 
gentilis bnper^^tor in Scotia (Hibernia) Locgarno^ 
nonwiie ; cinios fedes erat, & i[ceptrum rraaleiii 
ICempria. £uc Magos & Aruffices & venehcoi k 
incantatores & nequiifimac artis inventores, habu- 
it. (t) 

From all thefe circumfiiances, it^ppeai^ thai 
the ancient Perfian nK)de of worihipping the Dei* 
ty in Fire, was the Religion of the ^ancien( Irilhi 
and that this fire was contained in thofe Towers 
now exifting in Ireland. It appears alfo that diey 
were well acquainted with the name and dodrine 
of Zcrduft the firft, and" of Zoraftcr, or Zerdutt 
the fecond. The Records ftill exifting, afford us 
ample matter to prove that the ancient Irifii adopt- 

(s) Sexta Vita Pairicii. Colgan, p. 67. 
(t) Secunda Vita J;*atr. Colgan, p. 14. 



Jtnci$nt Hifiory rf Ireland. 


ed this Religion much about the time of Zerduft 
the firft, and that at the fame time oppoiite parties 
or SeSs, fupported the RehgiDn of die Chaldqesy 
of which we inall make fome mention in the courfe 
of this Work. 

Thefe worfWppers of the Divinity in Fire-Tow- 
erSy were diftinguilhed from thofe that followed 
die ancient Touran or Scythian mode of worfhip 
on hills, by the name of lAoxh^Tlacbdga or 
Dlacbdgaj (u; a word of Phaenician or Chaldee 
Origin, n)3 Beth, domus pVidlak, (x) ardere. 
Wa^Tfto Jt»3 M1^>a np^N adaliku bnura bith 
mkadoflia. Combuflermit igne domum San&uani 
¥&L 74* 7. in Iriih Tlachad or Dlakhad benur 
%dMii'cada. NJnp'T^ dlakta incendinm. 

:(a) 4ee Kettiqg Uhi^yd, OfBrien» Shawe at Thaidgt. • 
'O^) Aiibiced4kk» fpkadiiit Lucema, Ciftelliui Thetermi- 
tmaoa If « it a conttsi^tioii .of qgAa^ holj. 


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954 ^ VhuScation rf tb$ 



Of Phenius Pharsa. 

We Jhall divide this interefiing Chapter into three 

THE great King Fenius Faria^ was the Son of 
Baoth or Bitb, defcended of Magog, (a) He 
was a prince who applied himfelf to Letters, ind 
made it his bufmefs to underftand the feveral lan- 
guages of the world. From the time of Adam to 
the general confiifion of tongues, there was but 
one univerfal language, which the ancient Chro- 
nicles of Ireland caU Gartigaran, or Garti-ghc- 

This learned prince laid the foundation of in 
Univerfity at Eodan or Eothan, as we learn fram 
thefe Lines. 

A Moigh Seanair riajin ttor ro tiotmladb an cend 

Ag Catbair Eodhan d^fhoglmm gaca billbbearladb. 

In Seanairs plains, oppoflte the Tower, was efta- 
blifhed the firft SchooL 

At the City of Eoden, to teach the various lan- 

(t) Set p. 5. 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland* 255 

rhe perfons who had the care or fuperintend* 
;e ot this School, were Fenitu Far/a King of 
thia, Gadel Son of Eatbor, a Gomerite, and 
)b Caoin Cbreatbacby from Judea, otherwife 
ned, lar Mac Neamha or Jar Ebn Ncamha. (b) 
Mion Son of Pelus, Son of Ninirod was then 
anarch of the Univcrfc. 

rhe above three eminent Linguifts firft invented 
Alphabets, which they infcribed on wood, as 
learned Cion-fbaodhla who wrote the Umre" 
acbt juftly obferved. 

Fenius Far/a continued twenty years Prefident 
this School, where he educated his youngeft 
^ Niid^ who was born there. In the 42 d year 
the reign of Nion, Femta ICing of Scythia, be- 
\ to build this School at Eodban^ and when he 
1 prelided 20 years, he return^ to Scythia, 
1 began to build feminaries of learning in his 
n Country. Gadel Son of Eathor, he ordained 

NiW the fecond. Son oi Fenius j was fent abroad 
travel, with a numerous retinue ; and when he 
ne to the borders of Egj/pU he ordered his peo* 
\ net to forget that thev were Scuthi, and that 
\y fliould ever diftinguiin themfelves by the name 
Soiith \ and it was the pofterity of Niul, that 
»re called Scythians, do Jliocbt Niul d§ gortbar 
nn Scuitb. (c) 


;b) Oboin Chreacach, in Hebrew, fignifies a Writer of Ele- 

[c) The Irifli hiftoriam here OMimuiid themfelves : In the 
ofid pan of this Chapter, it will be fbund, that Niul wai 
le time in i£gypt, when Pharaoh delighted with his grett 
litiesy beftowedon him his daughter Sc9ia^ from whom chef 
tend the mun^ Scuth a Scjchiaai Long aficr tUs, MikGos 


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ft56 A Vhutkaism €f ibe 

Phenius took on him the name of t)e(!ai, Ogai 
or Eooha^ becaofe he invented the Belh^Luisniion 
Ogham. Fenius Farfa Alj^btfta prima Hebneo- 
yum, Grsecorum, LatinoFum& fieth-Luifnion an 
Ogham Gompofuit. (Iriber Ballymote.) (d) But 
the 'Uirachea^ na Ngaois or Elements 'Of the learn- 
ed, fays it was Cathmus or Cadmus the Son of 
Genius "^ho taught Letters to the '(arre^ks. Abgi- 
tur 'Greacad dona, ni he Fenius fein arranighar 
acht Fdii^^ice full to muir atuaidh, agna Cadmus, 
is iad rannighthar Abgr Greaca : \. e. -certain Fe- 
nicians from the North Sea and Cadmus inftrufted 
the Greeks in (Letters. 

When Fenius was near the point of •death, be 
demifed his Kingdom to Nennual his dddft Sod, 
and left nothing to Niul, but the advantage m- 
4ing fh>m inftruAing the youth of the Countries ia 
the ^learned Languages. 

•From this Fenius, the Irifli were called Otr- 
Fbcni or Feni'Oic : a Feniufo Farfai^ Hibemi nomi- 
•liantut Feniu Unde apudnos Uic^Fenii (vd Femi- 
oic^ pofteri Feniij in plurali numero dicuntur ab 
illo. (e) Fenius was King of the Armenian Scndii, 
and hisRefidence was about the Bhrtantus. "Whea 
the defcendants of Niiil were expelled fVom £g7F^ 

armes in A!gypt, -and marries aaoeber iSt^a, Dtughcer of too- 
ther Pharaoh. — ^The whole is allegorical, (igmfying chat tbe^ 
^pclan Kings delivered co their Care, his Pieces, Ships, i. e 
ScuUL Niul wa^ the firft diftant Voyager, Aid {irobably in lir 
gyptian Ships, hence Gtrn SfUUA, i, «. the marine tribe nari- 

(d) See this explained Ch, X. Se6t. 2. Ooxor fiAm^ 

^r^pd ^^1^. (Diogenes Laertius.) 

(e) Colgan's TViadis Thaum, p. 5. Qi(lellus derivei noHif- 
(ria from the Syriac F\tnikia i. e. glondfusymagnifictif : hm, that 
•word wooki have been written, Painigh ki Iri£. 


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Ancient Hi/iary of Ireland. 257 

they returned to their own Country up this River, 
under the condud gf Sru^ as will be related in the 
fecond part of this Chapter. 


Salmafius obferves, that Eufebius always fubfti- 
tutes the name Phanix for Phineus ; hence we may 
fuppofe all the Greek authors have done the fame, 
except Arrian, who fays, that Bithus was the fa« 
ther of Phineus. (f ) The Irifli hiftory makes Phi- 
neus or Fenius, the Son of Bithus or Baoth, and 
Bithus^ the Greeks fay, was the Sonof Jupiten (g> 
We require na better authority for the antiquity of 
our Fenim : for, whenever the Greeks were loft in 
remote Genealogy, a God was brought in to ftop 
the gap ; and Jupiter may here have been fubftitu- 
ted for Japhet. 

Feniui is a proper name, compounded of two 
Iriflb words, viz. Fenn or Fonn^ fcience, learn* 
ing, fagacity, and aois^ which has the fame figni- 
fication. Thefe words are alfo Arabic, Fenn, 
Science, Knowledge, i&i^, the fame. Hcbn njg 
Phinna and n3^3 bhinna, Wifdom, Knowledge, 
unn hu(h the fenfes. (h) The name Fenius be- 
tokens a man of great erudition, and fuch he is re-> 
prefented to have beenw He is alfo named Farfa 

(0 Seep. 7. 

S» P-5- 
^ ) Probably the Son df Eleazor who was called ^mn 
Phenas, derived his name from this word, as the Talmud (Sanhe- 
drim C. X.) fays, that he was jn HO HN Ab bith Din, or 
head of the great Tribunal or Univerfity. 

Jofeph was called by Pharaoh n^D VIDt^ Zephanas Phana, 
t naxae apparently given him on account of his Wifdmp. 

R or 

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otnariij firom die Hebrew and Chaldrr SHD 
)iiji If J to nirfjifij to fhcv die i^aiMftg of what ii 
£ud or writ : — ^ It is iprcadiBg forth lAat vbs 
^ wrapt up befbrc Ndienu Ch. 8. V. 8. ILr tS li 
^ nu pharlfai, rxpbining and gnrii^ ScaSc^ and 
^ canfied them to undmland the reading. The 
^^ Vhmke% tic tboogfat to he named from thence, 
^ atEjcpoondenofmelaw ; as leparatifts, fayo^ 
^ thers: and from didr oftentation, enhigiK 
^ and laying open the Pfajladcries, in genenl, of 
^^ tbcfr own piety and good works, uy odioi : 
^ yet perhaps it was but the mme of the Jkmd^ 
^^ that fed, as on9 phercs was a name in de 
^ among them/* (i) Fares, Arabic^, agnomeB 
familut« NomenArboris, Caftellos. 

Arab, fariz cme who knows, or underftands 
any thing ; Jirafet^ Sagacity, Penetration, Judg- 
ment, Jirajly czpoanding, ferzj^ ikilicd in die hw, 
farixy clear diftind Speech. 

Perfic^ Ferfa^ fpcaking ; a good genius or an- 
gel; Fetzan, tvifdom. Science; ferzane, a learn- 
ed man. 

And probably the •TO perizi ^/>c{«7<i Phc- 
rizite, may owe their origin to this name. They 
mixed witn theCanaanites,(a8 ourMagogians did,} 
and are not enumerated among the Children of 
Canaan by Mofes, in Geneiis loth Ch. — The Ca- 
naanite and the Perizitc, Jofhua, Ch. ii.— A^^ 
fays the very learned Reland, Area patet latiffima 
in conjeduras, quibus non dcle£tamur, fpeaking 
of the aboye paflage in Jofhua. 

It is alfo to be remarked^ that the Arabians call 
Armenia^ Barza, and the Armenians write it Ba« 

(i) Bates, Critica Hebnea. 

riz : 

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AhiieM Mi/ldry of Ireland. 259 

Ai: iHHtit Armemah I fiiid no explanation pf this 
^ordy iii Arabic Barza and Bdraza (ignifies Exhus^ 
xMiidi fhade the learned Bocliart think this covin- 
fH tv2is fd called by the Ai^bians, becaufe there 
i(ll>ah, and his family defcended from the ark. 
^€ fihd the old Arabian name of Armenia v^as 
^barda ox Pbdrdfa^ for D or Dal with a point 
6vef it founds, ds or z : dhfal^ and from thefe va- 
Katibhs I cohje6hirc that una phars was the 
original name, from this Phenius, and that the 
other names are a -corruption of the Original. 

Pbenius Pha'rfa or Pharas, was a name analo- 
gbtis to the arduous talk he had undertaken, of 
prefiding over a feminary of learning ; the modern 
Irilh fombtimes write the name Fearfaidh^ (the d 
not founded), whence I formerly conjcftured, that 
tHey meant a Sidonian man. Faros or Foras is 
the proper orthography, agreeing with the Chaldec 
Vnk and Arabic Fery%^ hence the Irifh Foras-focatj 
the ezpoiiiider of words^ i. e. an Etymologicon ; 
aiid the IriOi hiflory I am now tranflating is entitled 
foras feas an Eirinn^ i. e. an explanation of the 
tranfadionsoftheIri(h(a), brthe hiftory of Ire- 
land explained. 

Fats is acknowledged by all Afiatick writers to 
t)C the fdther of the Partbians and Perjiansj a 
ilrong argument, that they defcended from the 
fame ftock as the ancient Irifh (b). 

R 2 "The 

(a) Ftx>m I^arfa or Pharfii, ah indrii^or, a pious devout man 
is derived "Ac Englifh word Parfon. 

Ic muft be noticed that Farfaid was very probably another 
t^ame of ttie fame perfoti^ for Fariad or Fudid in Arabic (igni- 
fies ^e ArBdr Sapiens, the MulBcrry tree, the Morus ; the arbo* 
runi.lapientifliaia morus. See a few pages further. 

(8) Perfarum nomen ab Arabico Paras, Equus derivarunt 


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26o A Vindication rf the 

" The Arabs fay, that Fars was defcended from 
" Japhet, fome fay, he was the, fon of Azar or 
** Arphaxad, fon of Sem, fon of Noah, but all 
** agree that he gave name to Peiiia, which is 
•"* called in general terms the county of Fars^ and 
" ofJgem: the ancient Perfians called it PStfS 
** and a native of it Parfi ; Pars, Parfi, PartU, 
*' are the fame words, flowing from the fame 
*' root, for th in Perfian and Turc, is pronouii- 
" ced in the fame manner that we do S (c)". 

Aboulfarage fays, that in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadclphus one named Arfhak, an Armeman, 
revolted againft the Greeks and founded the Em- 
pire of the Arfacides : we, fays he, call them Par- 
thi ; and Vologefus, one of their kings, is called 

jamdudum Viri erudlti ; (ic ut nomen Perfarum Equites 
— hodie licet & voce paras, £^a utannir, umen GKp vulgadm 
eft & mail's Perficnm : — Quid obftac imcjue, quo minus mdt- 
nius non ipfos Perfas hoc ilbi nomen dedifle, fed gentes vicinas 
— At de nomine Parthonim, quod nonnulli Perilcae originis efle 
volunt, incertioT eft difquifitio : Stephanus ait profiigos ^0>c7<> 
eo nomine appellari lingua Scythica. Sunt autem Perfoc a Sr^ 
this ortiy uti Curtius, Arrianus, Anunianus Marcellinns cndi- 
derunt; & Juftimis ante Scythico fermone Parthos ezules dici 
monueraty & fic Ifidonu Orig. IX. 2. at Suidas Uaf^ci. Uifcitt 
yxoaofTv l.Kv}xt. — Sed dicamus pocius/ quod jam alii viderunt 
Perfa? & Panhos differc, ut Aflyriam ab Atjrria, Theflaltam 
a Thettalia, Tynim a Sarra, i. c. unam eandemque Tocemeire^ 
•S in 7*, mutato. An non nos quoque a HHD habemus noftmn 
Paard ? an non (imi liter vao^am^ & Pardus Latinum a Fan coo- 
cinne derivatnr, quae vox & Turcis & Perfis, pardum nocat, mi 
Ruflis Bars, S \n D mutato } — Vix enim aliqua cum veri fpecte 
aliunde ejus vocabuli etymon petetur, & probabile eft animali« 
bus quae in Perfia frequentia funt, nomen Perficnm adhere. 
(Rcland. Diirert. de Vet. Perf. Vol. 2. p. 218). 

(c) D'Hcrbelot ar Pars, Parf. Aig, was the Armenian name 
ofj.jphcr. Vologefus is evidently Baal-Gaois, i.e. Dommns 
f hcr.iu?, gavis &f ^enn both fignify wifdom. 


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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 261 

king of Armenia. The Belogefe arc now 
f eated on the eaft of Perfia, and extend from the 
Indian Ocean to the Thouran, or ancient Scythi- 
ans. Bal-gaois in Irifh is fynonimous to Fenn-aois 
or Fenius, fignifying a man of learning, a man of 
wifdom, excelling in wifdom : FaUgaois, a prince 
of ivifdom, it bears the fame meaning in the Ar- 
menian language. 

Fenius was king of Pontus, or that country 
where the river Biortannis flows. The river Par- 
theneus of the clafTic authors divided Bithyna from 
Paphlagonia, and both thefe provinces formed 
Pontus. In this country the ancients place Pha^ 
nix or Phenicus: — Bithynia condita cfta PA^f«/r^, 
quae primum Mariandyra vocabatur, is the inter- 
pretation of a paflage in Eufebius by Hieron: 
Fhxnix Cad mi frater, a quo Phaenicem dici vo- 
lunt, Colonos deduxifle legitur in Bithyniam, fays 
Bochart : (d) we (hall prefently find that he was 
the father of Cadmus: Phsenice, nomen ortum 

2uidam eife putant, a Phsnice Agenoris Neptuni 
A Phacnice feptimus in Bithynia rcgnabat Phi- 
ncus vel Phinees, quo tempore Argonautae expedi- 
tionem fufceperent in Colchrdem : inde Agcnori- 
dem Poctx vocant, quia Agenoris filius crat 
Phaenix (g). 

Bochart fays, the Phaenicians were in that coim- 
try long before that expedition : Inter illud teni- 
pus quo colqnia Phsenicorum in Bithyniam miflfa 
eft, & Argonautorum profcftionem, intcrcedunt 

(d) Eufeb. Chron. ad num. DXCIV. Boch. Geo. Sax. L. 1. 
C. 10. 

(f) Noriff. Epoch. Syro-Maccd. Sieph. dc Urb. 

(g) Apoll. L. 2. Argonaut. 


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262 Jt Vmdkatm rf tbf 

Anoi i^o, Ulis accedo. potiusy quibus, c^verifi- 
mile non fi^t ut Fhssnicis filii^ Fbipsei^s ilrgooau- 
tprum aetatem attigcrit. 

There was alfo the ifland of Fhaeniiu^ fi> called 
fays Herodotus, firom tho(c Phpaicians that hdd 
Mariandinam, i. e. Bithynia (h). 

Fliny carries them into Thrace^ whidh is oa 
the oppofite fhore. Auri metalla & CQj^aturam 
Cadq[>us Phaenix ad Pangaum montem (i). 

Stephanus fays, Paphlagonia was ib cabled froiQ 
Paphlago the foa of Phincws, — ^w^y not jBithynia 
from ^161;^ or Baoth, father of our Fhenius Fbarfiu 

Phemus eftablifhed a lemingry of leaminff at 
Eothan or Eodhan, ppppfi^t^e to the tpwcr dF Ba- 
bylon : that is*, on the banks of the Euphrates^ in 
Meiibpotamia, within the bounds of fw ovn 
I^ii^g^dom. tio4aun and Eordan in Iiifli are i^mo- 
nimous names, fignifying excellence in Icanung ; 
they are words commonly (:opipQun4e4 with fden- 
tific terQ)3, to cxprei^ the prpfeJTors of ifts, as 
Sar-tann^ or Seir-tann, or Sar-d!an, a Doftor 
of Mufic. Tann is the Phaenician or Chaldaean 
xXyPi tannah, docere, diCcere, whence M3n tanna, 
Dodor Talmudicus, ^"DDtannui, £)odriaa^ Studi- 
um i-r^n is a Perfian word of the lame iignifica- 
tion (k). Herodotus gives an account of a fchool- 
mafter called Phenias, who in early time taught 
youth ypAfifiATOL. (Vita Homeri per Herodot.) 

In the map annexed, on the banks of the Eu- 
phrates and oppofite to Babylon, we find die 
towns of Sipphara and Naarda : tRe firfjt implies 

(h) Lib. 4. 

(k) Keating's tranflator makes this^ die city of Atbent, io ibe 
plains of Seanar I I ! 


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Ancient Hifiory rf Ireland. %6% 

the city of learnii^: N^ISD Saphera, Librorum 
peritus, Literator (I). Nard in Iri(h and Hindor- 
tanic is fcience, and at this Naarda was a mod ce- 
lebrated Academy of the Jews. wnviD Naarda 
Celebris Judaeorum Schola (m). Nard-fgol in 
Irifh iignifies an univeriity, i. e. the fcbool of 

Fenius had two fons ; the eldeft, who was to in- 
herit his crown, he called Nion^nually that is, the 
Ton of his inheritance. ]^^ Nin in Hebrew and 
Chaldce is a fon, and SrO nuhal is to inherit, it 
is applied to a ftate of inheritance which falls from 
father to the fon, and rolls down with the tide 
of time from hand to hand, and keeps defcend- 
ine (n> 

He named his youngeft fon Niul^ and gave him 
for ins portion a compleat education, the name fo 
implies : and it Gkewife fignifies the Morus or 
Mulberry tree, an emblem of knowledge with the 
Egyptians, the Irifh and other ancients : arborum 
iapientiflima morus (o).-*-Sapiens arbor morus (p). 

The Arabian authors are not determined what 
tree the Nobel was, fome call it the palm^ others 

(]) Judgres, 1 . V. II. & nomen i:i"T nehir, «itea n&D* 
rr^ Chiriach-Sephir— it wat alfo called Kiriadi-Sanna, from 
the Arabic Sanna, Lex (Iriih Seana}— eadem Urte ac Ktriath- 
Sq>hir, (Reland). The Irifli word correfponding to Se^fnr is 
Sopar or Sophar, as Sophar tobar, i. e. tobtr go niomad e^Ias, 
diat is, Sophar tobar fignifies the Tobar or Spring of much 
knowledge, the Pyerean Spring. (Vet Glof. Hib. in mj poff.) 

(m) &eph. MoriotiSy de Paradifo t^rr. & de fiocharu Scrip- 

(n) Bares Crit. Hebr. 

(o) Plinjr, L. i6. Cw ai- 

(p) Junius. 


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264 A Vindication of the 

the date tree : fome explain it bv damjby i. e. the 
tree of learning, for danijh is wifdom. 

When Ifuil came to Egypt, and made them un- 
derftand the fignification of his name, the Egypti- 
ans would certainly tranflate it into their own lan- 
guage: and confequently called him Katwh or 
Kadmis, i. e. Morus JEgyptiaca : and the fignifi- 
cation of this word in the Egyptian, is analogous 
to the names in Irifli, Arabic, and Pcrfic, for 
Kad in Egyptian is intelledus. Kadmai^ Sapien- 
tis amor. — Katmasj Sapiens infans. — Katmebor 
Kadmeh, Sapientias plenus (q). 

Here we have the Nuil of the Irifh ; the Dwim 
of the Greeks, and the Cadmus of the Phsniciam, 
concentered in one man. Nial in Irifh is not only 
a letter of the Alphabet, but alfo the fcience of 
Letters ; in Hebrew 'rnS nuhal, duxit pafcendi 

(q^ Woides -^gypt. Lex. In Irifli Kad, Cead or Read, as 
Kcadh-fadh, a fenfe, ^culr^r, opinion. Cadacb, inTentio , 
1 gennttr. 

The icripniTC famiilics innumerrbic examples of proper Mmft 
of racn^derived froai the names of tree?. VVc ihall mentio a few. 

Accos, i. e. Spina. 

Aiaion, ilex, fil Sellum, i pa^. fil Amafai : i par. 

Allon, Quercn?, pater Sepbei. 

Ela, Qucrctis pater Ofee. 

Ginah, Homis— pater TTiebni., Honus, fil. Nepthali. 

Ichaniar infula Palmse — fil. Aa^-on. 

Sarug, Palmes, vcl Ramus — fil. Jleu. 


Sinaeus, Spinofus, (}], Chanaa". 

Sufan, Lilium vel Rofa, Uxo'- Joacim. 

Thoas, Hyacinthus, fil. Nachor. 

Thamar. P::)ma vel Dadyl'is Uxor. Her. 

Vide Norn. Heb. Chald. &c. 


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Anctetit Hijiory of Ireland. 265 

jfa ut paftor grcgem. Ar *?n3*?N al nehlthc 
i^lusy per metaphor, educavit. 
In the Chaldee N33 Bacca and mn Thoth, 
nify the Moras : ND!! Baca prifci omnes, qui- 
s Arboris fpccies eft, vcl de Pruno vel Pyro, 
pon. Moderni dc Moro. Arab. & Perfic. 
D Baca eft Arbor balfamifera. (Caftellus). 
It is worthy of remark, that in the Iriih and in 
I Hebrew, moft Nouns fignifying a tree, im- 
r alfo learning, wifdom, &c. The Irifli from 
Qce, form the names of each letter in the Alpha- 
t, and fo did the Hebrews as we fhall fhew in 
J Eflay on the O^ham (r) : we (hall give a few 
aimples here, referring to the names already 

Broum, the grandfon of Magog, was alfo called 
'Bacce the illuftrious Morus, and it is faid, he 
1 BaC'iria for his lot, i. c. tria the region, of 
cce. Bacca in Chaldee is the Morus, and fo 
om in Hebrew is a precious tree, it alfo means 
philofopher ; and in Irifh Brom-aire is a wit, a 
mcd man. D^JOiTi Bromim, pretiofa: arbores. 
riniola rerum pretiofarum. Ezech. 27. 24. 
TttTi Bromihim, Ch. fiiius Philofophi. (Caf- 
lus from Pcfach. f. 49). 

Hence the Magogian Scythians adapted a fyno* 
nous name for Broum and Bacce, viz. Nbs, i. e. 

r) Each letter in the Iriih alphabet, bears the name of a 
ticular tree —the leaf is the page or column of a book— the 
t or trunk implies fcience— to prune the tree, or to wave the 
nches implies Poetry— it is the fame in the Hebrew, a re- 
rkable circumftanct unnoticed by any authors, I have read, 
ept Bifhop Louth, who explains a certain meafure in Hebrew 
try from a Verb fignifying to prune a tree. We refer parti- 
m to the Eflay on the Ogham. 


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a66 A Vindkatm rf tie 

knowledge, vildoin. Arab. No/ha Graece M«f io- 
telligibie, and from tbefe vords arofe all the bi- 
bulous names of Bacchus, viz. Dia-Nes ox Dmj. 
fiusj Bromius, &c. &c. and Baca happening to 
fignify crying and howling, both in the Orienul 
and Scythian dialers, hence all the &buIous (lo- 
ries of his howling Orgies, which correfpondiDg 
with the Greek Bromos confirmed the Poets in 
this opinion; all which fymbolical namet they 
jprobably had from the Scythians and Arabiam, 
jSacby in Irifh, alfo iignifics drunk^nnefs^ and bcnce 
he was made the God of Wine, who probably 
never planted a Vineprd or £[}ueezed a Qrape^ 

The allegory of wifdom and learning, under the 
fymbolof the tree having not been underdood, by 
four tranflators, much of the beauty of thefcrij^res 
is loft^ particularly in the prophets. Had our trapt 
lators conlulted the Talmud, they would have 
done well : thefe authors were learned Jews^ vA 
in mofl places gave a proper ezplanatioaj: fpr ex- 
ample: Aos in Irifli is a tree, and it figoifie^ 
knQwledge ; fb in Hebrew \(m As or £s a tree. 
Numb. 13. 20. when Mofes fent out to fcarcbtbe 
land, he bid them try if any XK £s were tbcre ; 
did Mofes mean a tree ? did God promife a land 
flowing with milk and honey, without a tree ? or 
could Mofes fulpeft it ? No ! The Talmudifts fay, 
fearch for the wife men, the Ats or Es, and they 
returned and faid they found the learned (Giants) 
there, the Anakim : this is the interpretation of 
thefe learned men, and mod congenial to the text 
If the Hebraeift will read the 7th Ch. Jefaiah, with 
this idea, he will fee great beauties : the learned 
(trees) men of all nations ihall acknowledge the 
Meffiah, Was Amos a gatherer of fycamore 


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AndetU Hiji^ry rf IreUnd. 967 

iruits ? a poor trade for a prophet ? No ! he was 
hegatfaerer of wifdom. Ch. 7. V. 14th (s). 

Tnis beautiful allegory in the fcriptures did not 
sfcape Mr. Bates. ^' \H Ats or Es a tree, (ays 
^ he, — ^AU the a£Hon8 of the mind are exprefied 
^ by words that ftand for, or give an idea from» 
^ fbmething fenfibie. C^ Gen. %. the irte of 
^ ktumdidge of good and evil, — the tree ei life* 
^ —And as the church is the j^arden of Ckxl, 
'* thence trees are the children of God :"r--«U the 
'* trees of the wood ihall rejoice,r-r-the trees of the 
'^ Lord are full of fap — and by the comparifoa 
^ Ezek. 31ft. and all the trees in the garden of 
^ Eden were figurative of greatnefs, ftrengthy 
^' glory, honour, &c. and other excellencies 
^ God would blefs his people with,-r^ience XVH 
y^ iets aCounfellpr, i. e. a tree, a wife man.r-ioy 
" Uz. Job's Country.— (Bates, Grit. Hebr.)-r-to 
'^ which we fiiall add that the TalmudKU are of 
^ ojunion that Job was defcended of Js^het". 

(9) In like mtnner 3/13 Cattab or Cttib» (ignifies a writpr % 
Scriba, Icripfit : it is the name of the Chaldaean Merctnyy who pre- 
nded over the fciences. Ci//a^. Mercuriiu qui icripcorxprseeft. 
na^no Cbnabith, Daaylus. Sm nehl Dadylus. mn Thotfa, 
yUnm arbor» in librit precum fumitur pro Fiagis h Moris 
rubL Buxtorf. 

Ezekiel comparing the kin^oms of the Eaft to the trees in the 
nurden of Eden» thus mentions their being conquered by the 
cingiof the Medes and Chaldacans. Behold, fays he, the Afly- 
rian was a Cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, his height was 
exalted above all the trees of the field, and under his ihadow 
dwek all great nations. — ^Not any tree in the garden of God was 
like unto hun in his beauty : omnis arbor in bono Dei non fiiit 
Gmilis ad eum in pulchritudine fua— pulchnim feci eum in muf" 
sihulime lamorum ejus: & emulatae funt eum omnes arboret 
Htdm quB (erat) in horto Dei. (Montanus). Ezek. Ch. 31. 


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268 A Vindication rf the 

The Irifli choofe for fuch names, the trees they 
called Atbair foadha or Airigh feadha^ i. e. noble 
trees. So in the Phacnician and Hebrew Adan 
a willow and Adon, a Lord, have the fame root ; 
whence the Greeks called Adonis •iT«7^(Hefych). 
Itaios, i. e. falignus. From this word Atair which 
in Irifli fignifies a father, an origin, a principal, 
ftrength, power ; in Arabic Atir^ (and with an ad- 
ventitious R. Atrar^ father. Uncle, brother), 
Bocbart thought, the Phaenicians named men from 
plants, becaufe he derives Atir from the Hebrew 
^^IJn hatfir, a plant in general :-r-ex lis (I c. 
Apulejo & Diofcoride) Africana & Punica planta* 
rum nomine' pro viribus exfculpturi & Hebrsis 
Uteris exhibituri : — hoc aggredior ut doffiores provo- 
cem ad meliord tentanda^ qtuim quod audeam bunc 
conatum mibi (uccejfurum^ (Vol. i. p. 752). Ain 
in Irifti fignifies noble, illuftrious, hence Aihar^ 
lufa^ the moll noble of herbs, ground ivy, (hedc* 
ra terreftris :)— many learned commentators are of 
opinion that the trees mentioned in Judges 9. Ver, 
13. is not a parable, but that the Oli've was the 
cognomen oiOthontel^ the fig tree of Debora, and 
the vine of Gideon : indeed the preceding verfcs 
have much the air of Scythian compofition. On 
the clcftion of a King or Chief, the elders of the 
tribes were to meet at Beitb Milidh\ the houfeof 
the princes. In Judges we are told, they met at 
the houfe of Millo^ i. e. omnes principes ad quos 
negotia publica referebantur, qui congregariin 
loco difto Beih Millo^ Gallice la maifoti de la Villi 
(Vatablus), — And the Vine faid, (hall I leave my 
wine, which chcereth kings and men — it is unfor- 
tunately rnd improperly tranflated God and man: 
D^m*?NElohim, verto deos, i. c. judiccs & eosqui 


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Ancient Hijlory of Ireland. 169 

in magiftratru funt : homines autem dicit vulgus 
promifcuum, fays the learned Drufius: Elohim 
here is the Irifh Laochy and the Etrufcan Ltuumo a 
prince^ a chief, whence MiULaoch Rex Regum 
and the Hebrew Melek. 

And Phenius called the primitive language, be- 
fore the confufion, Garti-ghearan^ i. e. the primi- 
tive language, the radical tongue : the parts of 
this compound are now become obfolete in the 
Iriih language. Gart is head^ primus chief, and 
gbearanii the Armenian gheren lingua : under fl'li 
g>rt in Caftellus, is the Arabic jartum quafi Ghar- 
tum, radix arboris & cujufque rei, ut prudentiae ; 
the Irifh root is garam to call, to fpeak, whence 
the Greek Gher-uein loqui, narrare: Perf.jcha- 
rufliidan, vocem tollere (t). 
The defcendants of this Phenius, called them- 
fclvcs Feni'oicj or Fonn-aice^ and defcending the 
Euphrates fettled in Omanj as before related, and 
from hence I conjcdlure the Phanicians of the Red 

(t) Hefiod. V. 260. Vieyra. p. 53. Unlefs we take the 
word fix)fn Gort, a Garden, and fuppofe it rcfcn to the Gberen 
or language of Eden, which the Talmudifts might ezprefs by 
TU C^rd a Grove, many trees planted together. Talmud 
ETx>bim» f. 19. 


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t/o A tiritUaOtM if the 


C H A ?• VII. P A R t. n. 

Of the Travels <f Niul into JEgypU 

THE fame of this young man's learning tekb- 
ed the ears of Pharaoh Cingris^ King of J^ 
gypt, who invited him to his country to inftraft 
me youth. Niul accepted the invitation, and Qie 
King beine delighted with his learning and bdii- 
viour, b«ftowed upon him his daughter Stotdj and 
gave him the Lands of Caper-CherofB^ that fie up- 
on the coaft of the Red Sea. He fodh after ereo- 
ed Schools at Caper^Cheroth^ where his wife wai 
delivered of a Son, who was called GaodBdll. (a) 

During his refidence at Caper-Cberothy the CmU 
dren of Ifrael attempted to free themfelves from 
the Sbvery of JSgypt, and encamped near Capef* 
Cheroth. Niul having learned frdiil Aaron, the 
diftrefTed fitu^tion they wete in, was fb >ff<^ed 
with the relation, that he offered his fiiendfliiD 
and fervice to Aaron, and furnifhed the Jevilh 
Army with Provifions. 

Niul now began to fear that the Egyptian King 
would be difpleafed at the Civility he had (hewn to 
his enemies, and having communicated his fean 
to Mofes, he propofed to Niul to accompany htm 
to the promifed land, and prevailed upon him to 
deliver up the (hipping which belonged to die 

(a) So named from Japhec Gadul —See Introdudioiu 


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Ancient Hijhry tf If eland. ij i 

f Egypt into his hands. Niul having 
\ this laft propofal, Mofes difpatched a 
men, who took poflef&on df thi: ShiAs, 
down the Red Sea. On the next day 
miraculous paffage when Pharaoh aikd 
were drowned. 

len brought his Ships to land, and fe- 
' Caper-Cherothj where he is fuppofcd td 
, as there is no further account of him. 
icceffor to the Crown of ^gypt was 
an Tzdry who, determined to revciigfc 
i the Scythians for the afliftance they had 
he Ifraelites, entered Caper Cheroth with 
fword. The Chief of the Scythians ^ 
was Sru^ great Grandfon of Niul who 
jple to the mouth of the Nile, and thetc 
g, fet fail and landed in Crete, (b) From 
' fkiled through the ^gean Sea into the 
xinus and up the Bior-tannis as far as na- 
ind then marched under the command 
Scot into the Country of their anceftor 


Icythians or Fein^icey feated on the Cbafl: 
were the firft navigators : the fame of 
in Marine Aftronomy, by which they 
lied to make long Voyages, having reach* 
Egyptian Court, it would be natural for 
Jtian monarch to invite a body of them 
1 his dominions, to inftrud bis fubjeds 

%. 4. Neitied. — s quotation from Rand, de Duceto ; 
Ha Loland 


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272 ^ Vindication of tie 

in the only art, in which thefe learned people were 


Accordingly we find thcmfeated at the Sea Port of 
Caper-Chcroth on the Red Sea, where he fumifhcd 
them with Scuth, i.. e. Ships, (jSSgyptiac^ Skeita) 
and that appears to be the Allegory of marrying his 
daughter Scota to Niul, which was the name of the 
iCgyptian Hercules, according to Ptolem. Hephatf- 

In like manner it is faid', that Hercules having 
conquered and flain Antaeus King of Mauritania, 
married his Widow Tingi^ from whom the City of 
Tiggir, or I'ingi, now Tangier, had been fo call- 
ed by Antaeus its founder : Pomp. Mela. L 3. 
Plin. L. 5. C. 1. — Plutarch, in Sertorio-^Jablon- 
flvi Panth. iEgy. L. 2, C. 7. — ^whereas we have 
(hewn from good Authority, that 77g;g-/r was fo na- 
med from the Syiiac, Phaenician and Irifli words, 
implying Merchants. — Tangier was the Emporium 
of Africa. 

The j^gyptians, on a religious account, bore a 
great avcrfion to the Sea, which they called fjfhwy 
becaufc it fwallows up their Nile, and hated Sai- 
lors fo much, that they would not fpeak to them: 
and though they were not fond of going out of their 
own country, for fear of introducing foreign cuf- 
toms, yet they were not ignorant of Sea afiairs. 
Sefoftris built a formidable navy of 400 Ships of 
war, for his expedition to the Southern Seas ; and 
alfo a very large Veffel of Cedar 280 Cubits ion;, 
gilt without, and beautified within, which he de- 
dicated to Ofiris. (c) But Sefoftris according to 
Sir I. Newton was Niul or Nilus i. c. Hercules. 

(c) Diod. Sicul. Eupolemuf. Un.Hift. 




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TheijSgyiitbns thcrdforc: only waikted S&IIdrs, 
and fuch tbo^ as had navigated fd the Eaft^ from 
-^dteivzc thd]r had, inivtiyoairly dmes, bcdught.the 
commodbies ba, Camels by the Ifthnius of Sues t 
the e(bJbliflHncnt of a port at Cf^r-C/^^My a lit- 
tfe Sebw. Si/o: ; vras. nkSfb aDovenient for this trade 
in ail rcfpefts. (d) 

Fhiioftrajiys relates tk^t a'ccfrtdin Princd named 
Erytbras vfzi mafter of tlie lied Sea, and madd!^ 
^e4sWror regulation. tWr-tbi jSgyptaahk fbouM 
to)t iflkeridiat Sea.iiriih aiiy Sfaipfc of war; ndr with 
more than ode merchant Smp>ata titne. To etadd 
vhibb, the Egyptians built ,*a-^ large Teffcl^ to fu]^ 
ply.tBc|rface:xtfman3r,'(«j^-. :. 
: JScnofae Jt^ Ijythras'tb be the fame vith ETaa df 
Edoint' we claim hini ai a Scythian of Oman: 
Aorc&dh-e in.Irifit fignificiis a Shipman, tfici wof d is 

(d j Irfce clFeQs of FhaiVoh^,! p'verttrow. were fel;; i^ ^KKp for 
m^t^ (feyifDr.Pkyfeini; fa pirod^fs of riAfe tt/dmredun- 
ckr tm :hdbd, Aiid Ac^mMf Vtk«^ «^^,-»th€ BJjfy^^ mine 
ftgaia:bMi<9e fiinifN}!. TIkt idPTs md . Soionees wcrp cuhiwited, 
Gu nevif /tmf^ to «fii/iiriOP-^.&v^l^ f ircuRiftanca coticriburcd 
to tetanit^e\meniry pro^r^'of ^M, j^g^jjtiaos^ ,in thafe CArl/ 
aMI ^fV^d no way df c(^'iq]&ftfd^tihd[^hf ir iddls but hr hkro- 
MjfpUc^- Which, tt beft w^^'^' tfhperJfM^ and doikbtfiil me-'Qtrut^ee ^va'i unhMuUio iMm, gtid ftraig^ts who went 
thither. on buiinefs were puni(^fcfiitith'4iMl^.^fl«W)r — fpccuneM 
of Aeir IktlliA Arcbirc£tnrc^fcplpnpr«f afKl Oeonetry remain, but 
(hcle dilplay . their induAty more than their 'tan:e.—( Play fair*s 
Chnkiok^, p. 65.)^ — i^fhfl Egyiris^s ky the Art of ufeg 
iltf fited ty iDMMof Stfik VrUs^ iet^edihgradeieik » th«y give tU 
hODpairiQf thiidifcolvfry 'tor 4^b-fa>iU4'OfeTf axtl sfadtfl the litiltt 
credit which is due to the greater part of rhe bift>ry ^f this PriN-* 
cefi, we fhal] prove, fays Gouget, that this difcovery cannot be 
iferiM «ar fhe Bgy|)tiam.-^TIIey certainly bom>wecl tfatf Scythi- 
an word Efs or I/stL Ship, and ctedicarod this maokim and tti 
difcovery to that Goddefs, from the affinity of name; 

;c) De Vita Apollonii, L. 3. c* 35. 

S alfo 

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ay4 ^ VimUcaiwn rf the 

alfo Armenian ; the mountaun on which the Ark 
Tcfted, is called by ihsmAortb to this day. 

Erytbia was tbe aacient name of Cadaiy now 
Gadizy both words imply a Ship in the ancient 
Iriih ; and the Rabbins: derive the name Spmiam 
Spain from N3^ Spina,^'Navis, fgo Span, Nao* 

'llie learned Niebuhr ^Ves a pleafinj^ account of 
King Erythras ; *^' he reigned, fays he^ inoneo^. 
M the Ifles of the Perfiaal.Gnlph, and ia-there bu* 
.^^ ried : but the learned do not agree in which of 
^> the Iflesr PlinvcsdfS' it Ogyrisj by whidi he 
^ feems to medSiSocretai ' M D'Anville. thinks it 
<< was Ormus ; but it appears to have been 0«rar- 
^^- /n where^earchus-faAiir his tomb, and I think it 
^ is now called iCjf^^/Nf by the Europeans/' (g) 
. But Bmy attributes tfab invention bf^Sl^ to 
K. Erythras, which feems to indicate that he was 
fo.named from Aorih a Shipt ** Nave prixnus in 
*^ jGrseciam ex ^gypto Danaus advenit ; 'ante ra- 
^^ tibus navigabatur, inventisin mari Rubro inter 
^« infulas a Kege lirytfara; (h) This 4dlUdes to a 
^' paflage in Agartacbldes^ who fays, Erythras liv- 
*' ed in an ifland, and palled to tne Continent on 
** Rafts of beams, ,fucfa as the fifhermen now ufe 
•* there, fays M. Niebuhr/' 

The facred Scriptures prove that neither tbii 
Erytbrasj or any other, was an Edomite or Idu- 
maean, that had j^ofli^flion of the Red Sea^ when 
Mofes pafled it, becaufe Edom did not then ez« 
tend to the Red Sea. 

(f ) Anibice Codas, a ]ai]ge Ship, Ch. Kid. The i 
Iri/h write the word Gra#. 

(g) Niebuhri Arabia, p. iSy. 
(h) Lib. 7. Ch. s6. 

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Ancient Hifiory ^Ireland. ays 

Kniber8C.2o. V.i4. we are told, that Mo- 
meflengers from Kadefh, unto the K. of 
-V. 2o. and the K. faid, thou fhalt not go 
And Edom came out with much people 
I a ftrong hand. Thus Edom refufed to 
el paflage through his borders, wherefore 
rned away from him* Numbers 13- V. 4. 
y journeyed from Mount Hor, by the way 
\€d Seay to compafs the Land of Edom. 
t. appears that the Canaanites did not at 
z dwell on the borders of the Red Sei^, for 
lites were then on their journey to ppfleis 
PS of their country. It appears a)fo that 
l;d extend to the Red Sea in Solomon's 
dels there is an interpolation,^ by way of 

ind his Colony were fettled at Capcr-Che* 
93. Caper in Chaldee is a town« '^U^^y oi* 
It, (pagus) and the name of the place 
nfbfes pafled t^ie; Red Sea, 'wzs€berftb. 
, 14. V. 2. Turn and encamp before Pi- 
ri&i. between Migdol i^nd the Sea ; Numb. 
\mi And they departed from before PxAa- 
and pafled through the midft of the Sea. 
ce was on the borders of ^gypt, and in 
pture is always vnritten Jn*»nn"**9 ^^ih*- 
i. e. the q/iiurft of Chiroth. Hbirofh^ 
Chirotb^ Loci^s deferti^ad quem venerunt 
Lmarc transfretemes.— (k) Piha-Chiroth. 

..Qi.iToth. (1) ; . 

ings, C. 9. V. 26. And K. Solomon made a Navy 
EKioii^geber^ whidi is befide Eloth, pn the. Shore of 
1/ m the land of Eddin.-^This was a general expreOi- 

rooTin.' Eufeb. 
irerius OromoD. 

S a Nitd 

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37^ A riMduaiim tf ilr 

Nul fuppfied the UnArr-i vs^ p^nVmM^ (m) 
and moved lower down vidi bu Sfcogipcag, kft 
Pharaoh fliouid crcis upon ibcsi m ibai narck 
round the borders of Oman cc dbt oppaBtc Goaft 
—for they were obliged to go rossd tbc boKdoi of 
£dom 28 before related. And ia fcer ycsn afar 
this event, fays the Book cf Iraraa, (aa bflh 
MSS.) the >cythian5 fled viib grett psncf Fha- 
raoh's fleet. Nilus, lays Sir I. Kcvtca, «ai the 
Egyptian Hercules, and in the days of Sfl ha on 
lailed to the ftrai|^ts, he was the Ogmi« «f Ae 
Gauls. (Chronol. p. i8i.) 

lliis is an Eaftern Story handed dova to vs k 
Hebrew and in Arabic, by the Rabbins uid Msf- 
folmans. Rabbi Siiiion, who lived c^o yeajs be- 
fore Chri/t, relates it in this manner. ** She «u 
** as Merchants Ships, that brin^ dicir food from 
^ afar : thefe are the words of Soknaod, IVor. 
" C. 31. V. i^.— Merchants Sbips^ the ]J3DJ1W 
^^ anioih Canaan^ which were on tfac Red Sn, 
*^ when Ifracl pafled 11— from tfar ibn brmifk 
'* them fo9d\ this alludes to the provilums diefe 
*^ Merchants gave to the Sons of Ifrad, who canie 
'^ from iBgypt without Store of provifionsk Da* 
^^ vid mentions thefe Ships in Pfalm lo^. V. 27. 
•* — ^There went the Ships, (that is, on the Red 
^^ Sea,) when God fcomcd at the Ltviathan^ tht 
'^ is, Pharaoh. — And becaufe thefe Cknaaa Sh^ 
^* gave Ifrael of their proviiions, God wovid not 
'^ deftroy their Ships, but with an £aft wind car* 

(m^ We leani from PtoIoiDSBas Hephxftion, riMttittfJhvfmtk 
nime of the Egyptian voyaging Hercules. Sir L NetrfOi cib 
biin to be Sefuc or Sefodris, and that he was called Nilus, fraa 
the great improvement he made to the Nile : and tfaii Nihi hefi/i 
was the Ogmius of the Gauls. (Chronology p. 181.) 

« ricd 

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AtttiM Hifiarj rf Ireland. 277 

^* ried them far down the Red Sea» and this wind 
•* was by the particular appointment of God ; To 
this Mofes refers in Exodus xv. 15. llie inha- 
bitants of Canaan, did melt away for fear, when 
they were informed by their countrymen, the 
- mariners, who law this tranfaftion of the paf- 
*« fage of the Red Sea." (n) 

R. Simon makes thefe Ships to have belonged 
to the Canaanites, — we have (hewn from good au- 
thority that Canaan^ in Hebrew, fignifies a mer- 
chant, and Canaith and Anac in the Scythian, fo 
that it is difficult to diftmguifh the meaning of the 
Scriptures in feveral places, where thefe words 

The Muflulmans that have made mention of thefe 
Ships are Mederek and the author of the Tebiian ; 
they fay, '* that when the Ifraelites had paflcd the 
** Red Sea, they were under apprehenfion that 
*' Pharaoh would crofs in SbifSj and flank them 
^ as they encamped on the oppoiite Shore of the 
'* dcfcrt ; for they knew not that he had periflied 
^^ in the waters. Therefore, God caufed the body 

(n) I ibcr Zoar, p. 87. Exod. C. 22. Prov. C. 31. V. 14. 
Vnigate. She is like the Merchants Ships, (he brin^tth her food 
fftuB afiir. Pfalm 104. V. 26. There go the Ships-- there is 
chat Leviathan who thou haft nude to play therein, thefe wait all 
Bpon thee, that thou inayeft give them their food in doe Seafoa. 

Ezod. XV. 15. Then the Dukes of Edom, fhall be amazed^ 
the nighty men of Moab, trembling ihall take hold upon tliem : 
all the inhabitants of Canaan (hall melt away. See Baumgar- 
Ben's remarks on this Verfc. Un. Hift. V. 2. 

We fliall not defend Rab. Simons explanation of thefe paOkr 
m : they are certainly forced— the Srory of the Ships and of the 
flopply of proviiioiis is fufficient for our purpofe :— it was not fa- 
bncated by an Irilli monk, no more than Caper Chnoth for Pi- 
hachiroth. From what boob did they deal thefe paflages ? from 
trtdiiioii only. 

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ayS A Vin^catian' rf the 

*^ of Pharaoh to float on the waves in fight of 
^^ their camp ; which was immediately known, 
*^ by the Steel Cuirafs he wore ; and this miracle, 
^^ of a body fo heavily loaded with Iron, floating 
^* cm the water, convinced them of the continu- 
^* ance of God's kindneis and protedion. On the 
** other hand, the Egyptians feeine their King 
*^ did not return, fald, he was gone in a Ship to 
^* fome Ifland, either to hunt or to fifli; but, 
^^ God here performed another miracle ; for the 
*^ waves threw up Pharaoh -s Corps on the Coaftof 
** ^gypt, that all his fubje&s might be Eye wtt- 
•* neffes of his death.'- 


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AncwHt Hifiary. if hthmd. tjg 

c H A E. vn. P A R T m. 

WHEN the Gadeli arrived in that part of 
Scythia^ from whence they originadly de- 
fended, yiz. Armenia, they were harrafled with 
continual wars by their kindred, the pofterity of 
NiannuaU^ the eldeft Son of Phenius Pharfa, who 
were afraid they would put in fome claim to the 
Government of the Country : their diflentiona 
continued feven years, in which time Refleoir the. 
Grandfon of Nionnuall was flain. The Children 
of ^iWthen retired to Amafan^ and after continu- 
ing there for fome time, they failed down the nar- 
row Sea (the HellefporH) that flows from the Nor- 
thern Ocean (the Euxinus.) They had been dri- 
ven upon an Ifland called Caroma in the Pontick^ 
where they flaid one year.. They were there in- 
formed by a CaikeTj or Prophet, whom they con- 
fulted, and who always attended the Gadelij that 
it was ordained, they fhould have no refting place, 
till they arrived at a certain Weftem IJli. Over- 
awed by this predidion of die Caiiery they pro- 
ceeded on their Voyage weftward, and landed at 
the Ifland of Guthia. Here fbmc fliy they continu- 
ed 150 years,and others fay 300 years, but .certain 
it is, that ibme of their pofterity inhabit thut Ifland 
at this day, from hence they moved to Spain, (o) 

(o) Phairtifii. quondam Perfs^ Cornices fuifle dicnntur Hem^Y 
lis ad Hefperides teiidentis. (Pliny.) 

Deinde Pkaruiii aliquando tendente ad Hefperides Hercnle di- 
tesy nunc inculti, & nifi quod pecore aluntur admodum inopcs« 
(Pompoa Mela.) 



%9f> A VkdifiUlm ^ tk^ 

Here it muft be underftood that Caiker Ggnl. 
fies a Draoij or Fiopucbe^ that is, a peribn of fm- 
gular Icatrniiig and vifdom, & Propbet,' that al- 
ways attended the Gadeli in their military Expedi* 

R X M A R K. 

There is nothing repugnant to comaM^n and ap» 
proved Geography in this accomUy tiLoxp^ that 
Bithyniay F^phlagonia apd ]^fiti|9y are aoflicd 
Seythisu They entered thit Country Iff thiBioF- 
tannis, the Porthenius of the andebts, tiMA di* 
vidcd Bithynia from Paphtagonia and ^Is iniotki 
Euxine. FindHftg their Countrymen, did iio€ re* 
Kfli their return, they retired to Am^irn a poft (m 
the Pontus £uxJnu€, that ther ought efcipe bf 
Sea, if hard preflRed. Amafdn lies cm cbe CoaA tK 
the JEuxine, between theRi¥ers Udlyi and Ti&tfr- 
modon^ catted by the Latins Amajia\ it was the na- 
tive ptaee c4 StrabO) and ip thjs cvMintrf it was, 
that the famous Amazons dwek. ^ " ' ' . 

Moving defcended the Hellefpoht sHid ielearedtbe 
jSgeaii Sea^ ther Aeered weftward vk fettrch ef the 
Hk»^ predicted by the Caikeir or Fiolhlche, and 
landed mG^tbia or Guthidj that i&, in Sitity : where 
Sir I. N ewtoix Affirms, JV]Ub fetffed the Sicaniaa 
Cotony, the fipft inhahitrots of Sieijy : (p) GaMb^ 
Gmtb or Gutha ih Irift Signify landis hy the Sea 
J^ide covered at high yfidXtty ^nd from which tiie 
tide retires, in Englifti, Salt-mar/hes j richfattemni 
grounds. Sruach 5r^^^i:>fr or iSrahach flgnifieslbw 
rich grounds by the River Side^ Sruamac^ abouad- 

(p) Chronol. p. i8i* 

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4ncSmt Hytify f IreUmd. sSi 

a lorn grovnds; from whence Syraoift in Si^ 
if MfftwlrirxftMiTA, Xvffltue^ Palus etiam e/i qtm 
ur Syracoy fay« Ste(>hums fpeakingof Syni« 
And this Palus was known to the Greeks 
le name of Guafa. Cluv^rius ex Plutarchi 
Cy Syracufani agri regioncm amplam & ferd- 
i'tftrei Guata^ nomine a man in mediterranea 
^£tum, Perfic GhaA, foft Ground refrcfhed 
reams. This tv^prd enters in the Arabic com- 
d Rnd-ghut. Tur^ghut, i. e. ooze, flime, 
uncotered at low water. Rud in Perfic and 
in Arabic, is a River, ghut is fat muddv land* 
Englifii tranflator of Keating makes Gnthia; 
foTulj and in two words fends our Ga^eliai( fd* 
irers from the iEgean Sea to Gothland ; and 
Veftem Ifland, he will have to be Irdbnd, a 
ge that has given a modem Author great 
I for criticifm. 
ie Hebf ew word I think is "Vi Gud. QlaUkd 

Guda the bank or border of a River, Jof« 
» V. 15. the River Jordan covered all the 
i gedothi, the low banks, the % D, and n 
re eommutable in all languages. <^ what 

the jfhuations of the Cities of Gath, of the 
icures P In Arabic and Perlic Gutabj onda 
;, fludus : ^ha^ terra molior peculiariter 
I irrigua (Caftellus.) The Valley or plain of 
le, in which is the Oty of Samarcande, Ca- 
of Tranfoxania or Oriental Scythia) is cadiied 
baij becaufe it is well watered by Canals, 
i^^ great River Cai, which overflows and re- 
es the ground. (See D'HcrbcIot at Sogde.)— 
ce the cdd name of Waterford Guata— fbrdia. 
)eRman derives Gothland^ a vetere Cambrico 
r quod infulam notat, a very proper name for 


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28a AVlndicaHmcf the " 

aa Iflandy which is commonly . in part cvefflowed 
at high ^ater^ 6r where there is a furrounding 
Slab or Strand left at low water. 

Gyttia, Caenum, proprie illud, quod poft aqua- 
rum inundationem remanet. Haud dubie enim 
af&nitatem habet cum Ang. Sax. ^te inundatio. 
Alias gus. (Ihre Lex. Suio-GothT) Gus has a 
Tcry different origin, unknown to Ihre. 

Goth-land maxima infula Maris Baltbici — haud 
paucira glebae ubertate, ita appellatum fuiffe, ere- 
dant banc infulam, tanquam bonam terrain. (Ihre.) 
. Quam Britones infulam Guoid yel. Guitbe, quod 
Latine divortium dici poteft. (Unde Ve£ta) now 
Wight. (Lelandus, Ex Chronico incerti Auth.) 

Frequent mention is made in Irifli hiftory of 
our Scuthae, or Shipmen, being often in pc^ef- 
fion of Gutbia or Sicily : — they touched there in 
their way to Spain ; anerwards in their emlgra* 
tion from Africa ( ^gsdn on their return from 
JEgypt. It will not here be improper to enquire, 
from ancient hiftory, who were the firft. inhabi- 
tants of this Ifland, and of the names of the peo- 
ple and places contained in it. The learned fio- 
chart has attempted to prove all was Phaenidan ; 
we (hall proceed on as good grouncU; in proving al) 
was Iberno-Scythian. 

Firft, of its ancient names, Sicania and Sicilia. 

Sicania, it is faid, took its name from the Su 
cani. Bochart derives this name from the Hebrew 
word pu; faken, a neighbour, and thinks they 
were fo called by the Phsenicians, becaufe they 
were adjoining them, when they fettled there. 
Proinde Sicanos a Siculis, ut quidem puto, neque 
gens neque fermo diftinxit, fed (itus & variae ut 
cvenit in eadem gente fa&iones. £t Punica voce 


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AmUnt ISJhry iff Ireland. 683 

^icamin vel Sicani didi, qui Siculbrum Pcenis 
erant proximi, quafi vicinos dixeris. Servius tcUs 
us, the Sicani were from Spain, in Lib. 8. Ma^ 
Sicani fecundum nonuUos, populi funt Hifpaniae, 
a fluvio Sicori didi : Diodorus, L. 5, fays, the moft 
accurate ancient authors declare they were indigeni. 
Veteres Siciliae incolas Sicanos indigenas efle tra- 
dunt fcriptores accuratiffimi. Timaeus fays the fame. 

Thucydides informs us the mod ancient inha- 
bitants were the Cyclopi and Lseftrygoni ; but 
from whence they came, or to what place they 
went, he is ignorant : but he thinks it is mod pro« 
'bable the Sicani were from Iberia. (Thucyd. 
Lib. 6.) 

That they were originally from Iberia^ on the 
Euxine Sea, I make no doubt ; and in the word 
Skani^ I think is perceptible, the name Scutba or 
Shipmen, by which they were always known to 
Che Orientalifts. WTHO Sacha, nawf^ \yti Ani, 

Lajirygonii feems to have much the fame origin. 
Leaftar in Irifh is a boat, or any veflfel made of 
plank, as a furkin, barrel, &c. gonai or conai, is 
a refidence or dwelling, hence Leaftargonai fig- 
nifies thofe that made their refidence chiefly in 
boats and (hips. 

The ancient Irifli were in general (hipmen, fea- 
men, or iiOiermen ; but fome of them remained 
at home to cultivate the foil, and to follow trades 
and manufadures ; thefe refidents on ihore would 
be called Cuclaibh^ the plural of Cuclai or Cu- 
claidh, which fignifies a fettlement, a refidence; 
Our Colonies would then be divided into two di* 
ftind claffes of people, one, the Leaftargonai, who 
4welt in their boats or leaftars, and the other, the 

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fl84 A VhHaUkB of tie 

C^tclmbbj vho were refident on fliore in their Co- 
cUidh or iettlcmeats ; who never went to fiea but 
on a general migratian, and had no coacem m 
the fliipping or maritime affairs. This is the cha- 
radcr of the Cyclops given by Homer, lib. 9. 
Odyff. yet they were the Tons of Neptune. 

Homcrus negat Cyclopibus uUuin cfle navium 
ufum, quarum ope fedes mutaverint* 

Naves quippe feris non funt Cydc^bus ulkc. 
Nee faber ullus adeft qui conftruat. 

As tranflated by Bocbart, Geogr. Sacr. L. i. 
C. 30. 

Paufanias fays the Fhxnicians and Lybians 
came to Sicily in one fleet ; hence Bochart de- 
rives Cyclops from mV? p^n Chek-Lelub, id A, 
Sinus Lilybetanus vd Sinus ad Lybiam: aut 
etiam "CKS^^^Vy Chek Lubim, Sinus Libum, 
quia ^•'vitLti iL aiCi;k communi claffe in infulam ve- 
nerunty ut fcribit Paufanias in Eliacis — proinde 
veteres ctiam locorum incolss, Punice (iidifuot 
homines Chek Lub, L e. Sinus Lilybsetani. Quod 
Grasd %axhuw'ffm/i*s fuo more KvicAA^tu' interprttati 
funt, quafi fic appellarentur, quod unum haberent 
oculum, eumque orbicularem : It is playing on 
the Ibemo-Scythian words caoc-loibin, L e. |^|in4 
peafantSy or huibandmen. 

Palaephatus will have it they were fo called bc- 
canfe they inhabited a round ifland, whereas Sidly 
was called by the ancient Irilh Tri-cearMC, and 
by the Greeks TfHAvpior and Triguetra by the Ro* 
mans, becaufe it was triangular. 

Thefe Leaftargonai weTre of a ftrong robuft race, 
as all our Scythi were ; hence the Tyrians called 


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Afiaent Hi/hry ^ irdand. At^ 

tfaeiift ]p^ tl*> Lan tircam^ L t. Leo mordax^ 
pla]^ng on (be tiafne Leaftatgui (S1iip-pe<»Ie)c 
the Greeks tnnftaied thi» into Lemtinij sina re* 
potted tbem to be men-eatere, like liona. 

Circa Teriam atnnem & Leontinos eampoi hi^ 
bitafle dicuntur Laeftrygon^s, immane genus ho^ 
fninum, ferino more humana came vefci felifUHi* 
Ifacius in Lycapbronem ; funt autem in Sicilia^ ut 
nugantur, qui vefcuntur humana carn^. 

Bochart proves the Cyclopes & Laeftrigones 
were <Mie and the fame people; he quotes the 
words of Thucydides before mentioned ^ and 
from the Scholi^ of Theocritus he plroves plainly 
that the Sicarii were defcended from them. 

Let us now fuppofe our Scythi reconnoitring 
tkis ifland. In failing round it, to the norths they 
eiiter the Streiehts'or Fare oJF Mef&na, famous for 
th^ rapidity of its currents atid the flowing and 
ebbing of' the fea, which is irreguhr, and fome- 
titbed ruflies in wfth fuch vfeleiite, that fhips^ end- 
ing at anchor art' in danger. At the north en- 
ttadce of this Streight, they obferve a Rock on the 
coaft of Italy, which they call Scaolah or Scalagbj 
that is, fplintered off, or diridedi fr6m the eohti- 
sebt; in like manner they iltfnlitd fimilar rodks, 
now called Siv% and Skull, on tbeS. W. coaft of 
IWlialid. On the S. fide of this viatrow g^it,- MX% 
to Sicily, tfefey find a kind of whirlpool, whidi 
they name CdM^defs, i. «; the fliip's^ impediment^ 
loir carb is a fmall (hip of boat, a coafter, (tn^ A^^ 
rab. karibj Cb: i&^y ghai4ba); iatid enquitring 
iMo the caufe of thefe diffi^tikil^s, at% informed by 
tile natives, that the ifland, being ieparated from 
the continent, left thefe impediments 5<--4ienc€ 
Ihey would name the iiland Scaolaoi or bcachan- 


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286 A TindicaAM rf tbe 

aoi, (the ifland feparated from the mam land)-* 
whence Sicilia and Sicania. This was the <q)inioa 
of. the ancients, as itf evident from Strabo, Mda» 
Virgil, and Pliny. Tranquilius Faber pretends to 
afcertain the aera of this memorable event ; that it 
was about the time the Ifraelites were delivered 
from the ^Egyptian bondage, which he coUeds 
from Euftathius, in his obfervations on Dioojfius 
Pcricgetes : 

Z ancle quoque junfla fuifle 
Dicitur Italise, donee confima pontus 
AbftuUt, & media tellurem rej^ulit unda. 
Ovid. Met. L. 15, V, 390. 

Haec loca, vi quondam & vafta convuUa ruina 
(Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetuftas) 
.. ]DifliIuiire ferunt ; cum protinus utraque tellus 
Una foret, venit ^ledio vi pontis, & undis 
Hefperium Siculo latus abfcidk, aryaque & urbei 
Litore diduda$ angufto interluit xftu. 

Virg, JEneid* L. 3^ V. 414, 

On which Scryiusr— 

Ut etiam S^luftius dicit, Italiam' ^iQlutm coo- 
jun£lam conftat fuifle, fed medium fpatium, aut 
per humilitatem obrutum eft, aut per 'anguftiaiii 
fcilTum. £t praeter Charybdim illam no^mam 
de qua diximus, aliam -defcribit (Etymologus) cir- 
ca Gades ubi^mare sibfprptum majore cum impeta 
redit. Meminit & Suidas & Strabp. . 

So that wherever our Scytbi found: a dangerous 
paflage for (hipping, there we find a Carlhdeii^ or 


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Afttlent Hi/iory. cfb-eland. 2S7 

Bochart-f&endous another on the Syrian- coaft. 
Iharibdim vocat Syriae locum ititer Apamaeam & 
Lntiocliam;' in (juo Orontes-abforptuspofl 40 
:adia ratfu^«meFgit. 

This learned man derives Scylla from ^pu Scdi 
utium, ind dharibdi8from.7S31N-*lin Chor ob- 
an, forameik ^rditionis. My readers willjiidgc 
ikich of the two explanations is mofl; agreeable to 

Sicilxa, the natne of the ifland, he derives from 
too; Sielul, i. e. perfedxo. ^.<^ia inter omncs 
dTulas quae notx erant turn temporis, facil^.: pri#- 
AS bbtinet ; or from ^TOKVi^ Efcol,. botrus, Syris 
iJD Segol & SeguK Unde eft.quod Grammatici 
fgel vocant a forma botri vocale pundum e tribns 
mdis in triangukim fic v digeflis* — Eaiplavoce 
iito Phflbnices Siciliam appellaffe^ quad botronim 

That the point i/^#/ was fo'called, from a bunchy 
e -fcadiiy aHow, tor the. name. of everyl.lctter, 
A every point, Alludes to trees or its fruit, (as 
t Ihallfliewih/aTrcatife oh. the Ogham) agrees 
Ac to the dcfcription of the alphabet by thcllrilh 
nmmarians: but here we might 'go further,. imd 
yjitwaieadi8dSkilyiromSj*(^%, the olive-tree^ i;..e; 
e Sgoi^'ihcred'n Oga, our iiercules ; the Tyrian 
ga or Min^va— for fgolin Irilh is an otivfe ; it 
aUb the moms or arbor fapiens^ both which wei'e 
;dicated to^Mertiiry and to Hercules ;-^for-:on 
e north fide of Sicily are the fmall iflands .of 
^j^Uu, that is, of Eolas (fcietice) 1 an epithet in 
Ifli of Iiercules ^ and am^gft diefe was Infiila 
erculis ; Longinis, the fhip-ifhind, &a oppbfitd 
^ which waA ^the town of Myls, i e. n^ the 
ilor, another epithet of Hercules. Sgol in Iriib 


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m AVimUeaiknaftii 

is a clufter, a bunchy % multitude ; hence the JLng^ 
liih word, a Ikull of herrings, && ; but as Sie% 
was fhiitftftl of the vine, Bochart forms ^fUD into 
N*^VtlD fegulaja, id eft, Infuhi bocrorum^ vel IQ- 
fula Uvarunu 

He ftrengthem his canje£htre from the Naaos, 
at the mourn of the river Trigidi in this ifland^ be- 
ing facred to Bacchu. vH^Ti Jffd Ain^ He* 

Aiunt etiam apud ipfos (Nasos) (]ji|;ldsrem 
quandam efle vino prscftantiam, cz f\vA oonftct 
quam ben^ fit afedtns (Bacchus) Deus erga in* 
fulam. (Diod. L. $.} £t SoUnusy Naxos iSeiiy^ 
fia prius quam Nazos dida, vel qtiod holpita Lb 
bero patri, vel quod fcrtiliUte vittum: vincat C9^ 
teras.<— Quae fit detorfit Ifidoriis Naxos iBfuIs a 
Dionyfio di&a, quafi Dionazos^ i)ttod fertilttatc fi- 
tium vincat ceteras. 

Boduirt does not (hew the deriTation of Ka»Ds ; 
I think it owes its name to our Scythi fipiiiiig 
there ezcellent aid wine, which in IriO) i^fii^i 
a corruption ironi the Arabick aHckf both widk 
fignify old wine^-^G. arid O are ahhmiiable ; 4^ 
is the Arabic word with the trarifpoficioa of oat 
letter. The Irifli An^aoi^acbeti ihd Jftuid of Old 
Wine ; from whence Nazos,:^ <tsui' oakhfAqueniiy 
the Greeks would dedicate foi deiictom a fpot to 

From the north we proceed to. the i weft ; there 
we find the iEgades Infulso, and the moft weftcnif 
called Hiera, i.e. lar-aoi, theWeftem Hlaad};^ 
and taking a tour ibuthward^ ^e ii6pt at thi 
fouthem promontory . called Odh^as, L e. tbi 
South Point, whence Odyflea & Odyfleum Pro« 


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Ancient Hi/tory cf Ireland. ^89 

Bochsurt thinks the name derived from U^T\ ha- 
das, i. e. mynus. 

In their paflfage to the Weft, they find a bay 
favourable for fiming, where the fiih depofit their 
^wn and breed; this they call lucbarai, firom 
lucbar, ipawn of fifh, and here they build a fifli- 
ing town called Hycara — -"Xioiapflb CapCapixo* x^f'^r, 
Hycara barbaricum oppidum. 

Vr\y2 P^Ti Chik-caura Sinus Pifcis, fays Bo- 
chart. Here, I think, and at Drubhan, or Dru- 
phan, i* e. the village or habitation, our Scythi 
firft fettled, and between thefe points is Sicania. 

We have no account of ^tna, the burning 
mountain, in our Irifh hiftory: it is obferved, 
that Homer did not mention it ; that great authci* 
would not have omitted fo fine an opportunity of 
exerting his poetical talents, had it burned in his 
time ; and had the expeditions of our ancient Irifh 
to this Ifland, been the fabrication of modern 
monks, they would not have had the ingenuity 
to have omitted it. 

The Caiker or Ftofache^ attended them in all 
their expeditions. The office of Caiker is often 
mentioned in the Irifh hiftory as a Prieft and Pro- 
phet, peculiarly adapted for military fervices, like 
the Sagan of the Jews. 

This pafTage and the explanation of the word 
Caiker will tend, perhaps, to explain one of the 
moft difficult texts in the holy fcriptures. I mean 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th verfes of the 5th Chap, of 
the 2nd book of Samuel. '* And David and his 
** men went to Jerufalcm, unto the Jebufitcs 
** the inhabitants of the land ; which fpake unto 
*' David, faying, except thou take away the blind 
•* and the lame^ thou fhalt not come in hither : 

** thinking David cannot come in hither". 

T " And 

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go A Vindieatwn cf the 

^^ And David faid, whofbever getteth ap to the 
^^ gutter (aquaedu£b or fewer) and fmitcth the 
*' lame and the blind that are bated of David sfoul^ 
^' he ihall be chief and captain''. 

The text has ysg aor and jno^pbiffacb^ traafla- 
ted blind and lame^ and inftead of Fhiflach, die 
Chaldce ha^ *)pn Chaier. liXl Aor fignifies to 
vratch, as well as to be blind, whence l^y Air^ 
Vigil, Angelus peq)etu6 vigilans, nunqyam ^r- 
miens : hence Aire in iriih is a chieftain, an offi- 
cer, a guard, — ^and we have Caiker and Fi^he 
fignifying the war priejh or pr^bet : thffe, pro- 
bably, were mounted on the walls of Jcnilalein 
encouraging the ibidiers and bidding defiance to 
David, and not the blind and lame ; for, why 
ihould the blind and lame be bated rf EktvitPsfitdi 
— (a) Or how could David diftinguifh the lameoMd 
the blind J from able men, whenpottcd on lofty walisl 

^pn Chaker in the Chaldee is to prasdi&, to in* 
vcftigate, to fearch into natur&i-^Scphiri haW 
Chakar npmon "CDD Libri fcrutationis^ i. c. Pkfi- 
ci^ which perfedly correfponds with the office of 
our Caicery who was not only a prieft, but an 
officer ; for, in the clofe of this part of the hiftory, 
we are told, that the principal commanders in tUi 
voyage were Ealloid^ LamhSonn^ Cing and Cdicer. 
That in their voyage to Gutbiaj they met with 
Murdbuchon (Syrens) who fung the officers to 
ileep, and would have killed them, had not Caillier 
given them a charm (b)* 

(a) And the Inhabitants of Jehus faid to David, Thoa ftak 
not come hither. — ^The fucceedii»g words of Samuel are vxj 
difficult. (Kenniort.) Difl*. p. 33. 

(b) ")3in & TDTT with a 3 inftead of p, in the Chaldce ■ 
conductor. The Iri/h, at ]ea(l the modem Inih, can make 09 
diflindtion, the C being always founded as K, and this letter 
they liave not in their alphabet. 



AndMt Hifioty rf Ireland, a^t 



f Voyage of the Milesians from Gutbla U 
in Spmriy i. c. The Spmrt^ i. e. The Ship 

I RATH A, fon of Deaghatha, was the prin- 
\ dpal commander in this voyage and condud'- 
thc Gaduli from Gufhia (Sicilly) to An Spain^ 
in. The officers under him were Oige^ Uige, 
ntan^ and Caiker. They failed from Guthia^ 
s. Sicily) leaving Catria on their left hand, and 
ping the S. Weft Coaft of Eorp (or Europe,) 
led in Spain. 

Tie pofterity of Tubal the grand fon of Japhet, 
e the inhabitants of the country at that time^ 
with them the Gadelians fought many defpe- 
engagemcnts (c). Bratha had a fon bom in 
in^ whom he called Breogan : he built the city 
Ireogan near Gruine. 

*he ramous Gallavi^ who was called Milefs and 
efpiUn (d)^ was the fon of BiUe^ fon of Breogan. 

) Tubal five Jubal« quinto geaicus Ja{>lieti filii Moe, didlus 
My &«beoquodin^Iauricaniaobierit. Adas Mauritanns, 
us Hifpanide regnuin obrinart, ut ex Lttinis aflehuit Eufe- 
& Hieronyxmis, ex HebrfKls Jofephus, & ex Chaldcis Be- 
. (Tixapha. Hift. Hifp. p. 8<. 

le SpanilK writers £17 that Tubal was called Tarfis ; that 
le was the grandfon of Japher, our Irirti hiftcrry informs us 
he fons of Tarfis accompuuicd them to Ireland and were al- 

diftinguiflied not to be of Gadelian race. 

) Ooles, the old Spanifb name of Hercules. (Da LaOono- 

•ncieot Spaniih medals). 

T % This 

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fl 9 i A Vindication cf the 

This family had almofl: made a conqueft of the 
country, and obtained fome of the principal offi- 
cers in the government. Gallamh or Mileftot 
Mile-Spain at length rcfolved to vifit his relations 
in Scythia and accordingly fitted out 30 (hips, and 
fleering for Cretey he paffed it by and afcending to 
the Euxine fea, entered the Biortannis. 

ITie King of Scythia received him kindly, made 
him chief commander of his forces and beftowed 
his daughter Seang upon him. By the continued 
courfe of his vidorics he became the darling of 
the people, which raifcd a jealoufy in the king, 
who refolvcd to crufli his greatnefe. AfiiWi in- 
formed of thisbafe detign, allembledthe Gadelian 
officers, and they came to a refolution of forcing 
their way into the palace and killing the king, 
which they immediately put in execution. They 
then retired to their flnppine, and embarking in die 
Biortanais (or Partheneus^ failed through the 
Euxine & .£geanfeas into the Mediterranean, and 
fleering for the Nile landed in -^gypt. 

When Melefms and his party landed^ tbey fent 
meffengers to Pharaoh Nedonebus the Egyptian 
king, to notify their arrival. He welcomed them 
to his Court and afligned a trad of land for the 
fupport of the Gadelian forces. 

iEgypt was at this time engaged in a defperate 
war with the Ethiopians : Pharaoh finding Milefius 
to be an expert foldier, made him general of his 
forces* Milefius engaged the Ethiopians with 
fuccefs, and at length brought them under tribute 
to the crown of ^gypt. Upon this, Pharaoh 
gave his daughter Scota in marriage, (by her he 
had two fons Heber-Ficnn and Amergin^ (c). When 

^e) We have already explained the allegory of Scoci | and 
(hewn it fignified his fleers, his (i\\^ Heberfionn and AmergiB 
he made ComRianders of the fleets. 


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Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland. 193 

Milefius arrived in ^gypt, he appointed twelve 
of the moft ingenious youths that attended him, 
to be inftruded in the fciences of iEgypt, with a 
deiign of teaching his countrvmen the trades and 
myfteries of the -Egyptians (f). 

When he had been feven years in ^gypt, 
he recollefted the remarkable praedidion ot the 
Caikerj the principal Draoi^ who had declared 
that the pofterityof G^w/^/ fliould find no reft till 
they came to a weftcm Ifland. He therefore fitted 
out fixty (hips, and failing from the Nile into the 
Mediterranean, landed in Thrace : leaving that 
foon after, he came to the weftern Ifland, viz. 
GUTHIA, which lies near a Frith or narrow fea^ 
that extends northwards. Here he dwelt fome time, 
and in this Ifland his wife was delivered of a fon, 
whom he called Calpa ; they next failed up the 
narrow feas that divide Afia from Europe, keep- 
ing Europe on their left or weftward. They 

( f) The Greek hidory informs us, that Miletum in Ionia, was 
firft colonized by Phoenicians from Crete ~that this colony was 
attacked by the PerAans and tranfplanted into Perfia— that the 
Phaenicians and Milefians joined with the Periians againft the lo* 
nians, at the battle of Mycaie, and that they were made (laves 
by the Periians, but kindly treated by Alexander : — and in the 
time of Pfamiticus a colony of Milefians fettled in Greece. The 
Sacae joined the PeHians at the battle of Marathon and broke the 
centre of the Athenians. 

The Liber Lecanus, an ancient IriHi MS. informs us, that 
one colony of the Milefians arrived in Ireland in the laft year of 
Cimbaoth or Cambaoih, (i. e. Cambyfes) fon of Ciras (i. e. Cy- 
rus)"— it then defcribes the divifions of Alexander's empire 
among his Generals, and fays, another colony arrived in Ireland 
in that very year wherein Alexander defeated Daire, i. e. Da- 
nos.^i— (Leab. Lecan. fol. 1 3). 


y Google 

ag4 A TtnScaHon ef the 

then returned to Crottm (g), or the coantry of tbe 
Crotoniy at a place called Alba^ (i. e. Albeftum) 
and voyaging from thence leaving die greater 
Brutii on their right, they came to Eraibaj (Cadis), 
keeping the S. Weft coaft (of Spain) on their right 
tin they arrived in the harbour of Biafcan^ (Bif- 
eany) (h). 


We have already (hewn the epithets MBkftmd 
Milefpain, fignify the hero of the (hip ; a naval 
commander. Mil is a champion, hero, officer, 
the fame as Mai or Male, Chatd. Np^t^aka, 
Rex. E/s and Spain fignify a ^ip, froml^Es, 
lignum ; or Ky^gb Spina or Sapina, navis mana 
3e teAa, whence ]Qo Span or Sapan, Nauta. oec 
I Kings Ch. g. 26. Ch, io« 22. £2. Ch. 29* 29. 
&c. &c. Milefpain is then fynonimous to the 
Chaldean N*»X1D 311 Rab Spania, i. c. Magi(icr 
Nautarum, Jon. Ch. i. 6. Again ffya malk^in 
Hebrew and Melach or Melacfaoir in Irifli, fignify 
a faiior : Nauta^ remex, qui mare feu aquas re- 
mo mifcet & vertit, fays Schindler. In Arabic 
Mullah is a faiior and Stifina a (hip ; the Efs of the 
Irifti, they have converted into Ajuz. The Cbal* 
dee Nifa and the Syriac Noufa^ a (hip derive from 
this root, whence rac/^ & fjJt/s-. " 

(g) The reader will recollect thtt iVJ7orNilu8, the fbo ef 
Fenius was the Hercules who founded Croton : Sir I. Newton 
calls hlin the Egyptian Hercules, (Chronol. p. i8i). See 
Ch. 4ih. 

(h) Albiftrum, oppidum Bnitionum. Ptoiem. Fenuriiw. 


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Ahcidnt IS/icty <f Inland. 295 

Tuatha mac Mileadb» 
Mtleadh longe Libearn^ 
Lords were Milefius fona» 
Milefiua of the libearn (hip, 
fiys cue of the oUeft P6et9 of the Irifh* 

Hence Hemer calls the (hip Argo «r«<n.A<iAmTx. 
ipl. fi) which £uft« explains tbus^ i k 9i<rt dat. pi. a 
Sing; •&- & fii^t cnrx effc ; why not from «r£r oimnis, 
totoSy exceUens. 

HUknry infann us^ that about 630 years before 
Chrift, Pfametticus king of -ffilgypt prcfcnfcd the 
MUrftMs witk lands on each fide the Nile^ and put 
diiUKn under their tuition* They are faid t6 
have been the firft foreigners permitted to dwell in 
j^ypC. in confideration of their placing him on 
tlic dirone, he went fo far as to compGment them 
with Ae poft: of honour, when he marched into 
SffiOj where he warred many years. This fo m* 
cei^d die Egyptians that two hundred thoufand 
of them deferted and fettled in Ethiopia. To re- 
pair this lofs he opened his ports to all flrangers, 
whom he greatly careiTed ? Thus the authors of 
the Univerfel Hiftory, from Greek authority. 
Thefe authors have noted in their general index, 
that be invited the Scythians in great numbers^ but 
in the hiftorical detail, they fay, he met them in 
Syria, and by treaties and prefents prevailed on 
them to march back again. They obferve, that 
before Pfametticus, the iBgyptian hiftory has been 
covered with an impenetrable mift^ it there begins to 
clear up a little Ci> If diefe laborious miners in 
tncieat hiftory found the records of lb enlightened 

(i) Un. Hift. Edit. 8vo. V. %. p. ft. 


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ag6 A Vindication if the 

and learned a people as the iEgypdans, to being 
mijly and only clearing up a littlcj in the feventh 
century before Chrift. Alas ! what arc we to ex- 
ped from the rude and uncultivated Scythians, 
the barbarous, unlettered Scythians according to 
thefe authors — yet Berofus formed his hiftory, 
from the books of thefe unlettered Scythians ! ! ! 
but thefe were fouthem Scythians, (from whom 
the Irifli are defcended) : and as Sir Wm. Jones 
obferves, authors ancient and modern^ make no 
diftinftion, between the northern and loQthem 

The £ngli(h tranflation of this paflage of Keat- 
ing, is grofsly perverted* Gutbia^ as ufual, is 
tranflated Gothland^ inftead of Sicily. Catria an 
Ifland at the weftern point of Sicily is called Crete. 
Croton is faid to be the P«7x / the greater Brutii 
are named Great Britain ; and Erotha or Cadis ii 
called France. For the amufement of thofe that 
underftand Irifh, we have given the original in a 
note (k). 


(k) Do trialas as fin gohoilean dan'gorithear Giula, aciGui 
bhfairge caoil theidfan Aighen ba tuaidh— agus do riDoScal 
conihnaithe an fin, gan an rug Scoca an mac d'amguirtlKtr 
Colpa— an cliamh. Triallaid as fin fan caol muir bi ciitidh 
fgiras Afica agiis Oirp le ceile : agus lamh cle ria an Oirip 

fur: Rangadar Crutin taith re raidhte Alba, agiu trialbd 

da eis fin, lamh deas riu an Breatan^mor, go rangadar EnfAf, 
agus lamh dheas riu an bhfearain gac fur bu deas, gur gtbh&d 
cuan da eis (in fan Biafgan. 

The Crotonians were invited to Ireland to extirpate the Afri- 
can Pirates. Sec Colledtanea, No. XIL From the Liber Le- 
canus, we learn, that the Crucine (called Pi6b in the Eoglifli 
tr.mdation) were banifhed by Eri mo n— therefore thefe Cruioe 
could not be the Pidb of the latter days — At length fome of 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. ^97 

The old name of Gadis was Eryfbia^ called by 
our Irifli hiftorians Erotba^ I think from Eorth or 
jtortb a (hip. We have feen before that the Rab- 
bins derive Spain from the Phoenician Spina a (hip, 
a circumftance in our favour. Bochart derives it 
from ]gtt^ Saphan^ which he tranflates a Rabbit, 
but the Saphan was a diflferent animal. 

Gades was certainly called Enthia. Ab eo la- 
tere quo Hifpaniam fpedat pambus fere 100, al- 
tera infula eft longa lii M pafs: M lata in qua prius 
oppidum Gadium fuit. Vocatur ab Ephoro &c Phi- 
liflide Erytbia: a Timaeo & Sileno Aphrodifias^ 
ab indigenis Junonis. Erythia di£ta eft, quoniam 
Tyrii ab oridne eorum orti ab Erythroeo man 
ferebantur (1). Again, Tertia Apbrodiftas^ in- 
fula quas prius Erythia inter Hifpaniam & Gades, 
fays btephanus. And Strabo, videtur Gadibus 
Erythiae nomen tribuiiTe Pherecydes : alii autem 
hoc nomine, intelligunt infulam urbi adfitam, 
unius ftadii freto divifum. 

It was in this ifland the Poets feigned Geryon to 
have dwelt, whofe herds were ftolen by Her- 

We have fhewn that the fhip of Hercules was 
called Grian^ or the Sun ; whence the fable. In 

them were allowed to fettle in Magh-brcagh and to enjojr all the 
advantages of nature unmolefted, viz gach Geis, gac Sein, gac 
Sreath, Gotha Ein, gac Mna, gac Upaidh-^tbe Cnitine on their 
part were to give themMria breas, mna buais& buai gne, & ratha 
Greine is Ea^, i. e. fruitful, (killfiil, women who excelled in 
figure and on whom (hone the profpcritj of the Sun and Moon. 
(Leab. Leacan. fol. 14). 

The chief called Cruit/meacan, {on of Loci J, was to faruifh 
women for Erimon : in this fame year he went to affift the Brea- 
tani, i. c^ the Brutii. Thefe Crotonians according to Philiftus 
and Dionyiins, were fettled in Italy by our Niul, or Nilus, who 
founded Croton. (See Newton's Chronol. p. 181. 



y Google 

%^ A VindieatiM 9fth$ 

all ancient hiftdries We find a Hercules or Milds. 
Hie firft Etrufcan Kmg (after the fiibolous times 
lays Dcmpfter) was Meleus, He led tbe Pelafgiaa 
Colofiy to Sphm in Italy, and dieneeto Sfain. He- 
rodotas mentions him ; finds him in SphtOj mder 
tbe name of Melefigtnes^ and thinks it was Htmer : 
but it was our voyaging philofopher Milg$^ or 
Hercules. By this name the Greeks aad Ronnns 
transferred him to the celeftial fpbere. Mibs Scp^ 
IcBtrionale eft, notitior fub Hercutis oosiliier (86 
Jerom. T. i . Col. 67 a*) 

Miles eft une confteibtion Se]»te»iriofiak ^sn 
connoit fous le nom d'HercuIe. (ReKgioft del 
Gaulois, T. 1. p. 40.) — ^Hence the Xjn in tbe 
celeftial fphere is placed before Miles or Hemriei; 
See C. iv. Hence the name of Malachans or Ms- 
byans of India : Malaicam linguam India plerifijie 
intelledum & vulgo ufurpatum originem faasn 
debere ferunt promiicua^ fifcatarum cc^kmoo^ 
qui ex regionibus fuis undequaque ebj comma. 
Bis artis fuse exercendae grada coafluxemiit U 
MallacctB orbis fundamenta pofoenmt.. (a) 

(a) G. arfiokB& Die Phil. Amfld. p. & 


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jfnciem Hj/lcry of Ireland. 999 


the return of Milefins to Spain, he found 
e inhabitants in moft deplorable circum- 
being ovcr-run by plundering foreigners, 
I ramackcd the whole country. Among 
ere (na Goti) the Guti, whom he over* 
fifty-four pitched battles, 
hildren of Breogan increafed in Spain to a 
IS progeny* At length there was a great 
of com and other provifions in Spain ; 
le fame time they were under fuch conti- 
rms, from the inroads of foreigners, that 
'c obliged to be perpetually in the field 
•ms, for fear of being furprized. A Conn- 
ie Chiefs was aifembled on this occafion, 
ier to what country they (hould (leer their 
After frequent confultation, Itbj a prince 
mmate learning and prudence, and of an 
ring genius, propofed to fail in fearch of 
lern Ifland, which bv an old tradition of 
^r, was to be the reixing-place of the Ga- 
Oir do bhi caidriomb agus roinn roimejin 
mn agus an Spain on tratb fa tugg Eocba 
re righ deagbnac firm mBolg : — i. e. for 
d been a great friendfhip and alliance be« 
'eland and Spain from the time of Eocha, 
Lire, the laft King of the Fir-Bolg's. It 
Tefore agreed that lib fhould go on the 


d by Google 

300 A Vindication of the 

difcovery of this Illand, and return with a report 
of particulars, (b) 

Ith landed on the northern coaft of Ireland; 
and having facrificed to the God of the Seas with 
great devotion, found the Omens not propitious. 
On enquiry, he found the three fons of Cearmada 
Miorbheoil, fon of Daghda, ruled the ifland, and 
that they were affembled at Oileach Ncid, in con- 
fequence of a difpute about the Seod or boundaries 
of their provinces, which was likely to be decided 
by thefword. (c) Ith advifed them (deanaidb an 
infiji dfollamnughadh amail as teachtaj to divide the 
government of the ifland, as the law (of the land) 
had regulated ; that, as to his part, he was but an 
adventurer, and driven there by ftrefs of weather, 
and fliould foon return. He then extolled the tem- 
perature of the climate, and the produce of the 
foil, and recommended unanimity, as the extent 
of fo fertile an illand, feemed fufEcient for all 
their wants, if equally divided between them. 

Thefe encomiums gave fome fufpicion, and the 
three Kings fearing Ith might return, and attempt 
to refcue the Ifland from them, rcfolved to put 
him to death. 1 herefore when he had depaitcd, 
in order to return to his (hip, Mac Cuill, one 
of the princes, was difpatched with a fmaU de« 

(b) By this pafFage we are to underftand, that the Milefiw 
had no communication with Ireland, fincc the time of their arri- 
val in Spain ; but that the old colonies feated in Spain had nnde 
the voyage, previous to the Miledan expedition. 

(c) Thefe were Tuatha Dadanns. Keating's trtnflator alb 
Se^ a jewel ; the word has that (ignifkration, but here metosan 
intrenchment, a boundary line ; in Arabic and PeHian, Sedd, is 
Sidd Mftgiug, the boundary of the Magogians in Tartary. 


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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 301 

lent to overtake him. Ith perceiving the 
purfuing him, drew up his men, and made 
eating fight, till he arrived at a certain ad- 
geous fpot, when facing about, a defperate 
;ement enfued, and Ith was mortally wound* 
The name of the place where this battle was 
t is called Maigh Ith, or the plains of Ith to 
ay. Ith was carried on (hip-board, where he 
Dt his wounds before they could reach the 
(h coaft, and before the fhip reached Spain 
this melancholy news, that incomparable 
I Milefpain died alfo. Ith was the fon of 
jan, grandfon of Milefpain. 


L the return of Milefius to Spain, he found 
>untry over-run with foreigners, particularly 
^1, called by the tranflator Goths. It appears 
re been the army of Gud or Gut, that is, of Ne- 
idnezzar. Gud was one of his Perfian names, 
lich they added jirz, as the Irilh do Art or 
fignifying a chief, a leader, a demagogue, 
, cftcem, veneration, honour. ** Gudarz, 
s Abou al Thabariy Mircondj and other very 
ebrated oriental hiflorians, was the name of 
; General of Lohorafb, who paffed with the 
Bfs, for a great King whom they called Ne- 
:badnezzar ; the Arabs called him Bakhtnaf- 
*; Ptolemy named him Nabonajfar, and ma- 
called him Raham. Gudarz was one of the 
sated captains the Perfians had ; he conquered 
daea, and took Jerufalem in the reign of Lo • 
'•^,and fupported many warsagainft-^r^j^, 

*' King 

y Google 

^o% A VmMeati$n rf the 

^ King of Turqueftan or Scythia."' (d) Wc (hall 
(hew prefiently, that this warlike prince puriixed 
the Tyrians into Spain ; Ith was governor of Tyre 
when Gudarz beficged it. He probably flew into 
Spain to avoid falling into the conqueror's handS| 
and hearing of Gud coming down the Lcvait, 
made the bed of his way to Ir3and« 

Ith is here faid to have been the ion of Breogaiii 
grandfon of Milefius. The vanity of the Sift 
Seanachies had formed this connexion between 
dieir anceftors and the heroic governor of Tyre 
Tlie Liber Lecanus flatly contradi&s this gene^ 
gy. At folio 119, it fays, ** the race cfhbvxn 
'* neither Milefians^ D^Omhnann's^ Bolgi^ or Ne- 
** medians J butfarfuperior to all thefe. Mac Cm 
** defcendedfrom Ith, and extended his arms to tU 
« Britannic IJles and to Gaul.*' This ftrongly 
marks the intercourfe and mixture of the Sovth- 
ern Scythians with the Tynans, 

There is great reafon to think our Ith was the 
Ith-baaly Itho-baal or Eth-baal, of the fcriptures, 
i. e. Dominus Ith ; for Baal is only an epithet in 
the Canaanitifli tongue, like Arz in the Per** 

Phaenicia being freed of the Aflfyrian yokcbj 
the death of Salmanazar, fell into the power of the 
Chaldaeans, but by what means does not appear in 
hiftory. We only learn from Berofus, that Ns- 
bopalafler, (or Gudarz) whofe reign comnuJiced 
626 years before Chrift, was mailer of JEgjf^ 
PalefUne, Phaenicia and Cado-Syria. 

(d) D'Herbeloc at Lohonlp. See alfo Vo. Hift. vol. 5, p. 


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jfment Hj/kry tf Jtdand^ ^o% 

Previous tathis^ Gadirz had curbed Afrafiab 
£mg of the Tmran Scythians, and driven 
the Omanite Scythians into Phaenicia. On the 
approach of Gudarz, they would certainly en« 
tcr Tyre with their old allies the Canaanites ; from 
thence they efcaped with them to Guthia, L e. Sy^- 
racufe, and from thence to Spain, and from Spain 
they had a conftant intcrcourfe with the Britannic 
IBet. They had long before worked the Tyrian 
fliipa, and been the carriers of the produce of 
thcfe iflands to Spain, from whence the Ganaanites 
tranfported them into Afia. 

In 586 before Chrift, Nabuchodonofor befieged 
Tyre. The Governor then was //A, or Itha-baals 
the city held out thirteen years, being taken 
in 573th bef. Chr. (e) He was a moil proud, ar- 
rogant and aiTuming prince, and even went fo far 
M torankhimfelf among the gods, which brought 
that heavy . judgment upon him of the prophet 
Ezekiel, ** Say unto the Prince of Tyrus, thus 
^ faith the Lord God, becaufe thine heart is lifted 
^ up, and thou haft faid, I am a God, I (it in the 
^ feat of God, i^ the midft of the feas, yet thou art a 
^ man and not God ; though thou fet thine heart 
'^ as the- heart of God. Behold, thou art wifer 
^^ than Darnel : there is no fecret that they can hide 

(c) Thirty-fix years after this, Babylon was taken by Cyrui. 
During this interval many narioni were to be fubducd, according 
to the predictions of fonie ancient prophets. (Jer. 25, Ezek. 32, 
kcJ) The nations thus foretold, were the Affyriam^ kUmiiet^ 
the Ih^thm natitmt^ probably . the Scyf/isans, Edom, and the 
Kiogsof the adjacent countries, Zidan v^nd Tjtre, and lad of all 
Egypt. The fcveral prophecies emitted by men infpired, oon- 
ceming the fiite of thefe kingdoms, were exa<5l]y fulBiled, as is 
•videnc in the hiftory of that periodi (Playfair's Chronolog. p. 

*' from 

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304 ^ Ttndkatm of the 

<^ from thee — with thy wifdom and with thine mi« 
^^ derftanding, thou haft gotten thee riches, and 
*^ haft gotten gold and filver in thy treafures, 
^^ and thine heart is lifted up becaufe of thine 
•* riches. Therefore, thus faith the Lord God, 
^^ becaufe thou haft fet thine heart as the heart of 
** God, behold therefore I will bring ftrangers 
^' upon thee, the ftrong men of the (Goim) nati- 
^' ons, and they ftiall draw their fwords againft the 
*' beauty of thine wifdom, and they {hall defile 
*' thy brightncfs — they fhall bring thcc down to 
*' the pit, and thou flialt die the death of them 
*' that are flain in the midft of the feas — thou 
*^ {halt die the death of the uncircumcifed, by the 
** hand of the (Goim) ftrangers." 

During the fiege moft of the Tyrians fled byfca 
with the greateft part of their efie&s, infomuch 
that when Nebachadnetfar became mafter of it, 
the prophet tells us, there was not wherewithal to 
reward his foldiers. They had been moving off 
before this, from the time of Nabapalaflar : fettling 
in Guthia or Sicily, Rhodes, and other {{lands of 
the Mediterranean, and in Spain, and probably 
in the Britannic iiles, and on the coaft of Gaul ; 
the great body appears to have gone to Spun. 
'^ Is this yuur Joyous city, (fays Ifaiah) whole an- 
" tiquity is of ancient days? Her own fleet Ihall 
" carry her afar off to fojourn/' (Ch. 13, v. 7.) 

It is the opinion of fome writers that Itb was 
killed during the fiege, as there is no further ac- 
count of him in hiftory. How then would the 
words of the prophet have been fulfilled, viz. 
*' ihoufjalt die the deaths of thofe that arejlain In 
" the midji ofthefea : thou {halt die by the hands 
*' of the Goim.' All which came to pafs accord- 

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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 305 

ig to oor Irifh records, in this part of the world, 
mere Tyres own fleet had carried her afar oE 

The mod approved Spanifh antiquaries are of 
pinion that he fled to Spain and built the city of 
fbobaal or Thobal, now called Santubes, where 
bbuchadonofor purfed him. 

Hiftorj informs us, that two years after the 
iking ot Tyre, Nabuchadonofor returned to that 
ity, and repairing the Tyrian fliips he had taken 
i the port, and conftruding others, he became 
lafter of a ftrong fleet on the Mediterranean. 
>n this intelligence, Ith might not think himfelf 
ife in Spain, well knowing the enterprizing gcni- 
s of that prince, and would therefore meditate oa 
emoving beyond the reach of his power. At 
tu8 period, I am of opinion, the great Mile/tan 
zpedition (as it is called) took place from Spain 
3 Ireland ; other parties would naturally foUbw 
rhen Nabuchadonofor reached Spain, where, it is 
lid, he did not leave onePhasnician in the whole 
ingdom, fpending no lefs than nine years in driv- 
ig them out. 

The learned Court de Gehelin has entered mi- 
lUtely on the conquelt of Spain by Nabudiadono- 
nt. (a) He calls him the firfl: known conqueror ; 
le gives us the pi&ure of population, and of the 
;reat operations of focieties in Weltem Afia at the 
ime this prince appeared. He follows him ftep by 
tep in his expeditions, and at length into Spain ; 
liews the motives that carried him there, and ob- 
erves, that many learned men had doubted of this 
xpedition of Nabuchadonofor, particularly Bo- 
imtj who for reafons not worthy of himfelf treats 

(a) Monde primitif. Tome 8. Eflai d'hiftoire genende. 

U it 

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3o6 A Vtndicatim tftbe 

it as a fable. He then (hews that the Phaenidam 
had the ufe of the compafs, and navigated to the 
Weftern ocean ; and finally combats the opponents 
to this part of hiftory, and proves the critidfiBU of 
• Bocbart, to be full of error, 

Wefhall ufe the author's words on this fubjed, 
and fubjoin fuch authorities, as will^ in oar hum- 
ble opinion, confirm his argument. 

From Court de Gebelin. 

" Ezekiel^ ch. 30, v. 5. Speaking of the con- 
'^ ^uefts of Nabuchadonofor, fays, that this prince 
" conquered Cbusj Phut^ Lud^ and ^TaWT^ 
" calJJrb^ or caUGharb, the Chub^ and the men 
^' of the « land that were in league againft him— 
" ^gypt from Migdol to Sienna. The laft coun- 
^^ tries are well known ; the queftion is to decer- 
^* mine the refl. Cbusj all the learned agree to 
'^ be Afiatic Arabia, particularly Arabia Felix: 
^' the L XX have rendered the name Chus by Per- 
^^ flans, applying it to Sufiana, called at tint daj 
'^ Cbufijian^ or the country of Chus, becanfe a 
'^ part of it was inhabited by Arabs. 

^^ Lud was Ethiopia, particularly Nubia, Im- 

^^ dering on ^gypt, as Bochart clearly proves. % 

" Pbut is inconteflably that part of Africa Weft 

" of -Sgypt, in which was Gyrene, Utica and 

" Carthage. 

^' Cbub muft have been the Mareotidis, or the 
" mountainous country between ^gypt and Ly- 
bia, at leaft there Ptolemy places the CM: 
there was a Cttba in the mountains of Dagbiftan 
in Perfia, on the borders of the Samura, It is 
evident that Coby Cub^ is the fame as Goby Gwy 




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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 307 

*• fignifying a country near the waters : hence the 
" Cub of iEgypt, the Cub of Samura^ the Cubi or 
*^ Bituriges who fettled on the Loires, and many 
*• adjacent rivers, (b) 

** The aiy Orb, Earb, Warb or Gharb, can- 
•* not therefore be any of thofe countries, and 
^^ being enumerated alter all, confequently was 
** beyond them all. 

** It will be necdlefs to repeat what the learned, 
^^ ancient or modern, have faid of the fituation of 
** this country, becaufe none have been able to 
** difcover what part was meant by it. 

•* The Lxx inftead of all the Gharb ^ write all 
•* the mixed people J ^hich IS Tiont{tn{t. In the age 
** they lived they (hould have been better ac- 
•* quainted with this country than we are ; but, 
** it is a very melancholy truth, that' the lxx or 
** their copyifts, were in general but indifferent 
•* Scholars. 

" Don Calmet and M. de Sacy, render thefe 
** words, all other people^ a tranflation as falfe as 
** ridiculous : they would have done right to have 
•* inferted the original words, all the Gharby and 
*' have declared their ignorance of what country 
** was meant. 

** Bochart faw clearly that Phut was Africa ad- 
^* joining ^gypt, and that Lud was ^Ethiopia, 
" yet he forgets himfelf, and copies thofe that 
•* tranflated cal-gharb Arabia. 

** Did not thefe authors fee that Arabia was 
'* already mentioned under the name of Chus ? 

(b) From this root! have prefumed to think, that the O^ 
Goini of theinfpired Penman, fignifies marine people, foreign 
nations, and that he alludes to the Magogian Scythians feated in 
Oman, 00 thePerfiaoGulph. 

U 2 *' and 

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3o8 A VindkaAon of the 

^' and that they deftroycd the geographical pro* 
^^ gTeflion of Ezekiel's defcription^ nvho dcfcribcs 
^' the conquefts of Nabuchadonofor, regularly, 
« from Eaft to Weft. 

^^ Certainly it was an Arabia, but not that of 
*' Afia, as we fhall fully prove* 

" 3Ty Gharb fignifies the Weft, and according 
*^ to different diale£ls, is written or pronouncdl 
" Gbarh^ Gharv^ Harbj Warbj Erbj Erab, Eu^ 
^* rop^ as different nations pronounce the lettcr 
*' y (Ain, Ghain, or Ghnain) fignifying always 
** the night, evening, fun fetting. Weft, (c) 

^^ This name confequently became general to 
** the Weftern extremities of every continent. 
^' Before the Eaftern people had failed on the Ak- 
*^ diterranean, and difcovered countries lying more 
** Weftward, they gave the name of ArMa^ or 
*' Gharb or Warby to that part of AJia^ whidi 
^* bears the name at this day, and which was then 
*' the moft Weftern country. 

^' But, when their knowledge in geography was 
*' enlarged, the Weft of Africa and of Europe, 
*' became fo many Gharv*s* 

" ITius Spain was formerly called Hejheriahjiht 
** Europeans, that is, the Weft ; and the Promon- 
^' tory of Sardinia was called £rtf^tf/i//i/;7i. He/feria 
^^ was likewife the name of Weftern Africa : thus 

(c) The Irifh write it Aorp, Eorp, Orb, Earb, Arb, as Eorp, 
Orp, &c. 1. e. Europe. £is-arbta, or Eis-earbta, evening pnj- 
crs, Vefpera ; yet I am of opinion that the Iri/h Eorp u fran 
»in)y Orep, dorfum. Exod. 3, v. 3. and i Paral. 10, v. 11. be- 
caufe the Irifh retain the oriental name of naming the Cardiml 
points, Ex. Gr. Oir, Oriens, the Eaft, fignifies in front. Dm, 
the South or the right hand— /or, and £W/, behind, the back, 
&c. is the Weft, and Tua, Tuag, Cli, kc h the North, or die 
left hand. 

« Maxi- 

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jfnciini Hi/lory of Ireland. 309 


Maximus Tyrus in his 38th difcourfe fpeaks of 
Xhc Hefpfirians oi Lybia. (d) 
** The name Gharb, and and all ihe Gharb^ 
ezift at this day^ fignifying the two fides of the 
Straights of Gibraltar. 

*• From this yys pronounced Gharbj comes 
Gbarbin, given by the Languedocians to the weft- 
em wind, and to that part of the Mediterra- 
nean bordering that province. Preceded by 
the Oriental article al it forms Algarves^ the 
moft fouthern province of Portugal : it was al- 
fo a name common to Spain and the African 

" Under the name of Algaruesj fays Father 
Chiien de la Neuville, in his Hiftory of Portu- 
^ ^&f wa3 comprehended a great number of coun- 
^* tries in Africa and Spain. Thofe on the coaft 
** of Spain extended from Cape St. Vincent to 
** the city of Almeira. All Andalufia and the 
*^ kingdom of Grenada made part of Algarves* 
^^ And under this name is contained all that part 
of Africa extending from the Ocean to Treme- 
con, that is, the kingdoms of Fez, Ceuta, and 
*^ Tangier, or all that is oppofite to Andalufia 
•* and Grenada. For this reafon the Kings of 
^ Spain ftile themfelves Kings of all the Al- 
" CARVES, and the Kings of Portugal call them- 
•* felves Kings of Algarves on this fide and be* 
** yond the Sea. 

" The CaUgharb or all the Gharb of Ezekid 
'^ was a known and ordinary denomination, per- 
** fedly coinciding with the Spanifli Algarvesy 

(d) The Hei]perians of Africa were probably our Iberians of 
Armenia ; the name Lacinifed or Hellenifed. 

" and 


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jio A Vindication of the 

** and neceflary to point out the extent of Naba- 
'* chadonofor's conquefts in Spain and Africa, (a) 

" The Journal des Savans tor April 1758 far- 
^^ nifhes another authority of Spain being called 
^' Gharb, and that the Orientalifts had many 
*' Gharbs. It is an account of an Arabian MS. 
*• named Ketab Kharidat El Adgiaib^ or Ac 
" book of the pearl of miracles, coinpofed by 
'^ Zein-eddin-omarj fon of Almoudhaflar, fumam- 
^' ed Ben-£l-Ouardi, who lived in the 1 5th cen- 
" tury. 

*' This author diftinguifties many Gbarbs, 
" among others the Gharb-al-Aufoth^ or the nud- 
*^ die Gharb; under this name, he fays, the 
" Arabs comprehended one part of Spain. He 
" mentions Gharb-al-adna-^ or the neareft Gharb, 
*' which makes part of Alexandria, Barca, and 
" Sara, or the Weftern Defert. 

" Did, then, Nabuchadonofor afbually conquer 
" the Gharb J and all the Algarvesj that is. North 
" Africa and South Spain ? — We anfwer in the 
" mod pofitive manner. Yes : — becaufe Ezckicl, 
" the Chaldaeans, Strabo, the Jews, &c. cell us 
" fo 

" The Chaldaeans, fays Strabo, Lib, 5, cx- 
" tolled Nabuchodraflar beyond Hercules ; the)' 
" fay, that having reached his columns j he tranf- 
** ported many Spaniards to Tlirace and to Pon- 
" tus, (b) 

«' The 

(a) This is a very learned and ingenious explanation of Ci/- 
9rb^ iignifying Spain : and it is very furpriiing that all the ancictt 
Iridi writen call Spain by the names of lar-EorB^ and SUtr tu 
KEorpa^ that is, the IVtft of the Wejl. Sec two quotations, chap. 
4. at the end. This name evidently was not given to Spain bj 
the Iri/h, when ihey were inhabitants of Ireland. 

(b) Megadhcnes ait, Nabucodroforum Herculc ipfo fbrtiorem 


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Ancient Hjfiory of Ireland. 31 1 

^* The Spanifh Jews of Toledo fay, that they 
were originally planted there by Nabuchodono- 
for, and that they are of the tribe of Juda, the 
other tribes having been captured before by the 
King of Nineveh. I know very well that 
the traditions of the Jews are generally ill- 
founded ; but in an age when the conqueft of 
Spain by this Prjnce is quite forgotten, how 
could they invent fuch a (lory ?-^it muft be a 
faft. We may alfo add, that thcfe Jews were 
thofe that fought refuge in Egypt, notwithftand- 
inff the exhortations of Jeremiah, and that this 
^* Pnnce found them there. How could he pu- 
** nifli them more, than by tranfporting them to 
*• Spain, where they could hold no correfpond- 
ence with thofe he had tranfplanted into Chal- 

•* The great diftance of Spain from Chaldaea 

•• may be an objedion with fome ; — to thefe I an- 

** fwcr, that they have no idea of a hero, who, 

^* from the banks of the Euphrates to the Medi- 

.*• terranean, left not an inch unconquered : — 

.^' ^gypt and ^Ethiopia alfo, fweeping all before 

•* him like a torrent, to the very extremity of 

•* Africa ; qroiSng the Mediterranean, routing the 

-*• Phamcians from their fettkmenti in Spain^ and 

•• forcing the natives to follow him to Thrace and 

" toPontus. 

fuifle, tique adverfus Lihy^m and Iberiam bellum gefliffe, iifque 
fubadis, partem eorum ad dexcrum Ponti latus in coloniain mif- 
fifle. (Abydenus apud Eufebium, Pnep. E?. c. 9.) 

imo & fimiliter Dionyllus in Periegefi fcribit-^^ Quae Prifci- 
aniu ita reddidir. 


Quern juxta terras habitant Orientis Iberes ; 
Pyrrennes quondam celfo qui monte relido, 
Hue advenerunty Hircanis bella ferentes. 




312 A Vindication tf the 



Thefe are undeniable fa&s ; they are fupport* 
ed by the prophet Ezekiel, by Strabo, and the 
Jews of Toledo : — thefe arc all original witneflcs; 
neither could copy the ftory from the other.— 
Nor is ancient hiftory without a parallel of an 
expedition full as extenfive and as rapid. The 
conquefts of Attila extended from China to 
Gaul, and to the extremity of Italy.— —This 
King run from Weft to Eaft, and from Eaft to 
Weft, without being once ftopped in his ca- 
reer. — On the other hand, Nabuchadonofor had 
a recent example before him : the Ethiopian 
Taraca, or Ihcarcon, conquered ^gypt and 
arrived in Spain. 
** To a Prince ambitious of glory and greedy 
^^ of conqueft, this was an example (oo nefli in 
" memory, too fiivourable, not to fpur him onto 
^^ imitation; but Nabuchadonofor was led by the 
^^ ftrongeft of all pailions, fbia of revenge^ tQ por- 
'^ fue the Phsnicians to the utmoft extiiemitiei. 
^* They had allied with the Afi^tics againft him; 
** — ^to punifh them for this, he befieged Tyre, 
^' where, after thirteen years fpent in (kirmiihing 
^f and the lofs of his troops, the inhabitants of the 
** city found means to efcape, and to retire hy 
^^ fea with all their riches, leaving him only the 
*' bare walls. — This called up new paffions of re- 
'' vengc ; and the only expedient left was to pur- 
" fue them in Africa and Spain : by this he was 
•' fure of enriching his army,' and of ruming't 
♦* troublefotne and powerful people; 

" This happened abouf 300 years before the 
" firft Punic war : the Carthaginians had then 
" but a precarious; exiftence ; and it is evident 
" they owed their fuccefs to the difafters of their 

** neigh- 

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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland* 313 

•* iieigfabours, particularly of Tyre their metro- 
** polis, by ^c efforts of this mighty Prince." 

Thus M. Gebeiin; — ^who in a very mafterly 
manner, has fully proved that Nabuchodonofor 
purfued the Phaenidans, ftep by ftep, from Tyre 
Co Sicily, Malta, and to Spain. — ^This progreflive 
motion of the Conqueror muft have reached the 
cara of lib in Spain, and have caufed nisw alarms; 
—he therefore took the opportunity of flying to 
the Britannic Ifles, where we find by the Iriih re- 
cords, that the prophefies of Ifaiah and of Jere- 
miah were wonderfully fulfilled. 

From the time of Nebuchadnezzar's routing 
■the Tyrians, Africans, Egyptians, Arabs, Do- 
rites, &c. thefe people affembled and compofed a 
large body of different nations, poffeffing the 
iflands and fea coafts of the Mediterranean, efta- 
blifliiQg a mixed religion wherever they went, in 
Cyprus, in Crete, in Greece, &c. &c. and at 
length became a fwarm of pirates, till driven out 
by Pompey; polTeffing the Mediterranean near 
600 years. The Grecian Oracles owe their origin 
to thofe banditti, who made religion a maik for 
their, depredations. 

Thus we daily difcover, that the hiftorlcal fads 
related in the facred fcriptures, and the punifh- 
ments pronounced againft the heathens, by the 
mouths of the holy prophets, are confirmed by 
the joint concurrence of a multitude of heathen 
authors, who never had an opportunity of read- 
ing thofe books, and cannot be fuppofed to be 
prejudiced in their favour. ITie miracles therein 
mentioned fully prove, that the perfons who 
-wrought them were commiffioned by God : and 
the completion of the feveral prophecies and pre- 


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314 ^ Vindication pf the 

didions therein contained, clearly evince their di* 
vinity : fince no created being caii, without the 
afliftance of Almighty God^ pry into the ix^nib of 
futurity, and foretel eventa feveral ages before 
they came to pafs. 

The next that has explained this pafiage of Eze- 
■kicl, is Signior Anton. Vicyra, Profeffor of Ara- 
bic in Trinity College, Dublin. ^^ Algar^€'\M{vu 
*' ab Arab. Gbarb. Scribitur etiam harb, warb, 
" garb, garv, erb, ereb, europ> quorum fignifi- 
^^ cationes funt, nox, vefpera, occidens, plaga oc- 
*' cidentalis." This learned Arabic fcholar qnbtes 
the authority of Z««-^^c/m-(7;7ttir, mentioned by 
Gebelin, and then concludes, ^' Nou ergo ' inteU 
'^ lexerunt notionem Tocis warb, apud Ezekiel, 
^^ ch. XXX. V. 5. cum illam per mifcellaneam turham 
^^ reddiderunt. Nee minus inepta eft Calmet in- 
^^ terpretatio ejufdem vocis, i. e. alios populos. 
^^ Fallitur etiam Bochartus, qui per vocem uarb 
^^ Afiaticam Arabiam intellexit, quse jam defig- 
'^ nata fuerat per vocem Cbus, illam Arabiam pe- 
** cul. vero feUcem, indicanttm. Vox \git\iT mirb 
^Vloco citato, Arabiam utique fignificat fed nou 
** Afiaticam, cujus jam memincrat propheta.^^— 
** C^am icitur nifi Hifpanam-Arabiam, feu Hif- 
*^ pania ipfa, ad quam Nabuchodonofor pervenit, 
" quamque (ut prohpetia impleretur) in ditionem 
'' redegit. Id vero totum confirmatur a Stra- 
« bone.'* (c) 

Thefe authors are fupported by Jofephus and 
Eufebius. The Spanifh hiftorian Tarapha places 
them in this order. 

(c) Specimen Crymolog. oilendens Affinit. Ling. Hifp. com 


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Ancient Hi/lory rf Ireland. 3 15 

Anno 840 ante Chr. Phaenices populi Afiatici, 
mari quod rubrum vocatur, in hoc noftrum pro- 
cifccntes, & banc incolentes regionem longin- 
uis continuo navigationibus incubuerunt. 

Anno 798 ant. adv. Chr. JEgyptii populi, fub 
uce Tarracone, pod Phsnices (referente Eufe- 
io) mare per annos 35 obcinuerunt. 

An. 764 ant. Ch. Milefii populi, per annos 28 
>are obtinuerunt, unde in Hifpania imperiumte- 
uiflfe putantur, quum ab cifdem in partibus illis^ 
er hoc tempus civitates aliquac inveniantur elTe 

Ann. 571 ant. Chr. Nabucbodonoforhujus no- 
linis fecundus, magni Nabuchadonoforis filius, 
srtiufque Chaldaeorum rex, Hifpanias ocqupat, 
efte Jofepho, & quum annis .8 regnaffct» ..domi- 
lium Hifpaniarum, ad Carthagini^nfiqm.popjulos 
ranfivit, tcfte Eufcbio. (d) . 

Laftly, The Authors of the Univjcrfal Hiftqry. 
feiides the Tyrians, ^gyptiai^s, ;a|id I%amicians, 
fay they) who obtained footing- and. dornioion in 
ipain, Eufebius mentions fevcral other nations 
irho did the fame, before.t{i^<Qming of the Car- 
haginiai^s ; .fuch as the j£gyptians a fecond time; 
—the Milefians ; next the Carians ; the Lelbians 
nd Phocians ; and lad Natfuchofl^nojbry who aban- 
koned it to the Carthaginis^s, though k is likely, 
hat, as the Spanifli writers affirm, a great part of 
hat vaft hod which he br^iught with him fettled 
here, and built e^ies and cqfttes^ isjbicb they called 
y their own or /me Cbaldee.nanifSj by ivbjcb they 
nay bejiill traced up to the origiml* (e) 

(d) Fran. Tarepha' Barcionen. De Origins ac Rebus geftis 
legimi Hifpaniae, 15$ I* 
(c) Un.Hift. Oaav. Vol i3. P. 51a. 



3 1 6 A Vindication of the 

This Ncbuchanefar of the Hebrews, the Gudarj: 
and Raham of the Perfians, the Bakhtnaffar of the 
Arabs, and the Nebuchodonofor of the Greeks, ac- 
cording to all Oriental Authors, was a General of 
Lohorafb's army and Governor of Babylon. Gu. 
darz had frequent battles with the Sqrthians of 
Touran : Lohorafb had been murdered by the 
Scythian King, as we have related, and (hewn the 
hiftory coinciding therewith in the Irilh hiftory ; 
and hereunto we (hall add another proof, in the 
collation between the Perfian and Iri(h accounts. 

Lohoralb, (or Lohor-alb,) was a cruel Prince, 
fays Mircond, and on that account was with diffi- 
culty acknowledged to be King. His cruelty 2t 
length induced his fon Gujhiajb^ or Kifhtafp, that 
IS, horfe-earedj (by the Greeks called Tw-Tflric and 
Hydafpes) to attempt to murder him. Others lay 
it was ambition prompted him to this rafli enter- 
prize. However, his attempts having been fruit- 
lefs, Gu(htafp fled to Turqueftan, or Touran, 
that is, to the Scythians, where he was well re- 
ceived by the Scythian King, whofe daughter be- 
ing enamoured with his perfon, was given to him 
in marriage, on condition that he (hould make 
war on his father Lohora(b. 

This coming to the ears of Lohora(b, he imme- 
diately fent the Royal Tage or Crown of Perfia to 
Gufhta(b, and retiring to Balkh, refigned the So- 
vereignty into his hands. He vras not long re- 
tired in Balkh, before Arjajby nephew of Farjiab^ 
King of the Oriental Scythians, befieged the 
town, took it, and put Lohondb to death. 

This ftory is told in a very different manner by 
another Arabian Author, named Kbondemir ; he 
fays, that Lohorajb always (hewed a greater love 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 3 1 y 

lis nephew than for his natural children, 
h induced Gulhtafp to retire to the Greeks, 
e King was Caifar. He continued to live in-* 
ito at the Court of this Prince, till one day 
: was a great annual aflfemblv, at which Gulh- 
was prefent. It was the cuftom for the Prin- 
I to choofe a hufband at pleafure out of this 
ibly (f ) ; the mark of her choice was by pre- 
Dg an orange, and Gufhtafb was the happy 
. . The father was much furprized, that me 
Id (hew this favour to a ftranger ; but as it 
been a long eftablifhed cuftom, he gave his 
cat, and made a law to aboliih the annual af- 
)ly. The Prince baniflied them from his fight 
a confiderable time ; at length, confented to 
lim, provided be would undertake to rid the 
\$xy of two monfters that had ravaged mod: 
of the ftate. — ^Having accompliflied this, he 
admitted to favour. Guihtafb took this op- 
unity to prevail on the Grscian to.refiife pay- 
t of the annual tribute to Lohoraft) (g). The 
ian King forthwith conceived that fuch a dar- 
proceeding could only be propofed by his fon 
htaft) ; and having been confirmed in it by his 

) The Fair of Tailten, in Irifti Hiftoiy, was an Annuni 
ably, where marriages were contradlcd. Keati'ig, p. 220. 
the Irifti ceremony of the Golden Apple or Ball, in the 
nfim. Ch. X. 

) Thii paflage ftiews the miftake of Khondemir, or the 
Ittor lyHerbelot ; for it . was Touran or Scythia on the 
\ was tributary to Iran or PeHia and not Greece. — It is to 
iferved, that, after the conqueft of Touran by Kai-kofra, 
{h the people were left to live under their own law's and 
own princes, yet they were obliged to own the fupcriority 
le noimrchs of Iran^ and to pay them a confiderable tri- 
. Un. Hift. V. 5. p. 379, 8vo. 



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31 8 A Vindication of the 

ambafladorsy he immediately prdented the crown 
of Perfia to him, and feated him in ihe royal 

Mircond fays the daughter of the Scythian King 
married to Gu(btafp was named Catabun; and, 
inftead of an orange ufed at the eledUon of a huf- 
band, he makes it a golden appte, ftudded witb 
jewels. (See conclufion of this chapter.) 

Gujhtafp being feated in the throne of PctRz^ 
and knowing the great flrength of the Touranians 
or S|:ythian8, built a wall 140 parafangs long (240 
leagues) to feparate Iran from Touran, i. e. Per- 
fia from Scythiai In this Prince's reign appeared 
Zerduft 2d, (Zoroafter) the legiflator of the Cue- 
bres or Fire-worftiippers. Guihtafp frequently 
retired to a mountain to read the book Zend^ or 
the Bible of the Fire-worfhippers, that Zerduft had 
prefcnted to him. Notwithftanding this wall, Ar- 
giafb King of Scythia found means to plunder Kho- 
rafan, to take Balkh, where Lohorafb was killed, 
and to drive Guihtafp to the mountains of Par- 
thia, where he refted in inacceflible pafies. 

Khondemir accounts for this ftep of the Scy- 
thians in this manner : Guflitafp fuflfered himfeif 
to be mifled by Zardufl: ; and not fatisfied with 
the eftablifliment of Magifm in Iran or Perfia, he 
prevailed on Guflitafp, not only to refufe the tri- 
bute or fubfidics he had been accuftomed to fur- 
nifli Arjafp, but to write to him, to endeavour to 
prevail on him to adopt this new religion ; which 
provoked Arjafp to march into Iran. — At length 
Asfcndiar^ fon of Guflitafp, drove him back to 
Scythia, and obliged the bcythians to conftruft 
firc-towers, and adopt the religion of Zarduft. 


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Ancient .Hijhry of Ireland. 319 

[isTORY correfponding with the preceding 
Persian History. 

GHAIRE, or Laohare Lorc^ was Son of • 
r; he laid claim to the government and. 
mfelf in the throne of Ireland ; he was a 
2tnt from Heremon. His mother was a 

i. e. Farganah (h), her name was Caifar 
by a daughter of the King of the Frange. 
;nifies cruel ;— he was perndioufly flain by 
:her Cpbhtaig Caolmbreagj at Didion Riogh^ 
I banks of the Barro, who alfo attempted 
ier his grandfon Maoin^ called Labbar- 
chy or the Book — Horfe-eared Prince : but 
ids conveyed him to the Frangs, fome fay 
ma^ where he was kindly received by the 
F the Frangs, (i. e. Scythians). Laohare 
:ing murthered, his brother Cobhthac Ca- 

fet the crown upon his own head : but 
ce foon overtook him, for he was at 
St upon and flain by Maoiiu 
1, or Labhar-'Loingfeacbj fucceeded him; 

called Labharj or the Book, becaufe a 

' copy of Keating has Frange, which is cenainly a cor- 
- Farganahy the name of the countries beyond the 
:. Touran or Southern Scythia)the metropolis of which 
fame name. It is fometimes called Jrui^hian and^ 
(the Didion or Dighion Riogh of our Irifh; though, 
peaking it is one of its dependencies, as well as Coba 

D'Herbelot. The Englifh Tranflator of Keating 

this to be FroKe or Armenia ^^Tzke your choice^ 
-—See EngliHi Keating, Fol. p. 162. 


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32a A Vindkathn vf the 

certain Draoi, Dru^ (i. e. Zarduft) prelented him 
with a book, and aiked. Can Loin^eacb (labbar^ 
u e.) read? it was repUed, He can; then, fays 
the Drdoiy he fliall be called Labbra'Loing/eacb(iy 
He was called Loingjeacbj that is, Horje-^ar^ be- 
cauie his ears were remarkably long. Ihis Drad 
.planted a willow-tree, which beidr afterwards cut 
down was made into a Harp for the I^ing^s Mafi- 
dan, but the inftrument would found but one 
tune, and that was. Da chhuus Cbapml or LMnra 
Laingfeacby \. e. Labhra Loingfeach has the two 
ears of a borfe. (k) 

lliis Prince was a learned and valiant man, and 
acquired fuch reputation when he commanded the 
army of the Frang's, that Moriat, the daughter of 
Scoriat, the King of Fear-more, charmed with the 
relation of his exploits, conceived a wonderful af- 
fe£Uon for him, and to difcover her paifion em* 
ployed an eminent Mufician, one Craftine^ to car-^ 
ry a letter to Frange^ with a noble prefent ofjewek^ 
and to deliver them to him as a teflimony of her 
love. Labhra was refoived to vindicate and pro- 
fecute his right to the Crown of Irinn, (u e. Iran, 
Ferfia) and when he had communicated his defign 
to fome of the principal minifters of the Frang 
Court that were his friends, and concerned for his 
intereft, they took an opportunity to prefs the 

(i) There was, ic feems, no great learning among the Per* 
fians before the time of ZarduHu (Zoroaftres) who is fuppoM 
to have flouriilied under Gufhrafp, i. e. Darius Hyftafpis. (Ud. 

(k) Zerduft is faid to hare planted a young Cyprefs, wUdi vk 
a miraculous manner grew up in one night u> be a great nee : 
this was to convince Guihtafp, or Horfe-ear, that he was a red 
pro|)hct from God. (Hyde, Rol. Pcrf. Vet.) 


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ytnclent Hi/iory of Ireland. 32 1 

Gng to affift him in the recovery of his right.— 
\!b/t King of Frangc, convinced of the juftice of 
lis caufc, complied with their requeft, and gave 
orders for a body of troops to be got ready, (and a 
Lumber of (hips ; with thefe they fet fail and land« 
d in Loch-Gorman, i. e. the harbour of Wex- 
ord). Labhra foon furprized the ufurper, and 
>at him to the fword ; on which he was proclaim- 
d King of Irinn, (i. e. Iran, Perfia) If a reafon 
lould be aiked, why this Prince chofe to fly to the 
^rmgCj and feek refuge there, rather than to any 
tiic^ country ? we are to confider, that he was 
early related by blood to the King of Frange, and 
iiere was always a ftridl alliance between Irinn 
TkiL Frange. (}) Keating, foL ed. p. 161, &c. 


One circumftance (fays Mr. Richardfon) which 
iuft' have greatly contributed to the prefervation 
f written and traditional hiftory in the E'aft, is 
ride of blood ; upon which their great men value 

(I) ATraliab or Farfiah, 9th King of the Piflidadian Dynaftf,^ 
^tt fo'inmed bccaufc he was ab father, Parfi of the Perikns.— 
o«tc» les (iMnUlet Turques qui ont fiiic du bniic dans le monde^ 
recendenc defcendre de ce grand Conqueranc. Selgiuk fonda- 
!ur do h Monarchie des Seigiocides voulaic que.l'on crAc qu*il 
»« le 34ine de fes def^rendknts, en ligne droite & mafculine : 

lc» Monafque^ Ottomans qui pr^tendant toucher aux Selgiu- 
dfli par la families d'Ogouz Khan, prennent volontiers dans 
«n titres celui d'Afrafiab, tant pour raarquer leur noblefle s 
He poor (aire eftimer leur valeur, particulierrement depuis 
a*ib one dans les dernier temps coxnpond des grauds avaotages 
nr let Perfans* 

X them- 

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3^2 A Vindkatim of the 

themfelves far beyond the proudefl: European 
grandee. Genealogy has confequently been cuU 

tivated with fingular attention. Seljuck, the 

founder of the iSeljukian dynafty of the Turks, 
claimed kindred to Afrafiab, an ancient King of 
Scythia or Touran ; — and one of the firfl cares of 
Tamerlane was, to afcertain his relationfliip to 
Jengiz Khan ; — farther it was unneceflary to go. 

I need not acquaint my Readers, how much 
the pride of blood prevails in Ireland : In the an- 
cient records before us, we find the Seanachics 
have worked up the (lories of Heber and Hcrc- 
mon with the early Dynafties of the Periians. 
They were in fad once one people ; but the dif- 
tin£tion of feparate nations was certainly made 
before their anceftors left the Eaft ; and before 
their Genealogifts venture to trace the anceftors 
of their Kings, they will do right in examining 
minutely the early hiftories of the Iranians and 
Touranians. (m) 

We have fliewn the origin of the great divifion 
between the Scythians and Perfians : that the for- 
mer were pretty much fubdued before the time of 
Raham of Nebuchadonofor : yet they had ftrengdi 
fufficient, even then, to drive Gufhtafb to Arme- 
nia, and to poffefs his kingdom ; — is it then to be 
wondered at, if Raham, in this fcene of confu- 

(m) The Lihcr LecanuK, fol. 1 3, fays, that (bme of the To- 
atha Dadann came to Ireland in the lad year of Cambiodi, 
i. e. Cambyfes fon of Cir, i. e. Cyrus, and that fooie of the 
Milefians came in the 5th year of Alexander's reign, that Alex- 
ander that fought Daire-mor, i. e. Darius Magnus; and diaifc. 
thefe Milelians brought with them an account of the dif ifioQ v^ 
Alexanders army among his Generals. Others came 10 Irdao^^ 
in that very year wherein AJexaiider defeated Daire mor. 


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Anciini Hiftory of Ireland. 323 

fion, ihould fet himfelf up as King of Babyl^i 
and do his utmoft to drive fuch powerful enemies 
as the Scythians of Omatiand Touran before him,- 
together with the Canaanites. It appears that he 
did, and at length blocked them upinTyre^ from 
whence they efcaped to Spain, and from tfaencei 
to Ireland, Brittain, and Gaul: from Brittain and 
Gaul they wcrd again driven to Ireland, the North 
of Scotland, and to Mann, where their defcend? 
ants ftill remain, having mod wonderfully pre- 
fcrved their ancient language and traditions, (n) 
The hiftory of Ireland therefore becomes of much 
confequence to the Weftern World ; and whoever 
will take the pains to collate the ancient Perfic 
and the ancient Irifli hiftory, will find many more 
ftriking coincidences, than 1 have enumerated, 
provided they have fome knowledge of both Ian« 
guages. We know very little of Afiatic hiftory as 
yet, particularly of the ancient Perfians : the dif- 
coveries we may expedt from the Afiatic Society 
of Literature, will undoubtedly one day throw 
greater lights on the hiftory I am now vindicat- 
ing ; and I flatter myfelf the Reader has feen fuf- 
ficient to wipe off the afperfion, of its having been 
the work of ignorant monks of the 6th, 7th, or 

(n) Coirpri mufc do raiidhe an Erinn a tiribh Breuin, ar m 
tan TO badh mor neart nan' Gaoidel for Brettbnac tx> randfat Al- 
bain etorra iferanda, 7 to fircach durais (die cavuic) 7 ni ba 
Lnghx no trebhdais Gaoidhil fria rauir an oir. 1 . muir an deas 
I. Coire-brecain, idir Eircnn 7 Albain. i. c. 

Cairbri mufc voyaged from Eirinn (Ireland) to Brittain ; for 
when the IriJh were more powerful than the Brittons, they di- 
vided the lands of Albania between them, and they dwelt in 
every habitation ; there is no account at what time thqy tra- 
verled. the Coire breacain, that is, the Eaftern Sea that lies be- 
tween Ireland and Albania. (Cormac M*Cuilan. Glofs.) 

X 2 8th 

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^14 ^ TtnilcatiQH rf the 

8di eenturies : If thoilt monks had miderftood 
Greek and Latht, which I much doubt, die mate* 
Tiab were not to be found in any authors in tbdic 
languages : and the Arabian and P^rfian Aufhorg 
who treat on this fubje£k, have been only in part 
Iranflated within this century : — ^In fliort, we knew 
Iktle of them before the learned and laboriooi 
D^Herbelot, who publiihed his BibUodieque On* 
cntiEde in tjj6. 


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Anc'teHt Hifiory rf h-ehnd. 325 



From Spain le Ireland^ drawn from Spani(h Autliork 

Fir ant. Tarapha Bariconen. de origine ac tibusgiJHi 
Regum Hifpania liber.^-^—yfntvftpiay 1553* 

P. II. Hyberniam item Infulam non procul ab 
Anglia, ab Ibro duce Hifpano nominatam firurtt^ 
Gui primus magna hominum congregata multitu- 
dine, earn occupavit. Sive (ut alii fentiunt) ab 
Ibero flumine Hifpaniae celeberrimp. 

Pedro Me^ia. Hift. Imp. 

SURE icis that in the days of Gurgvintiusor Gur- 
guntius King of Britain, the Chief Governor of 
Bayon, with four brethren Spaniards, two of which 
are faid to be Hiberus and Hermion, not the fona 
(as fome think) of Gathelus, but fome other per- 
haps, that were defcended of him ; who under- 
(landing that divers of the Weftern liles were emp- 
ty of iimabitants, aflfembling a great company of 
men, women, and children, embarked with the 
iame in Sixty great VeiTels, and proceeded to t;'e«- 


y Google 

326 A Tindicalim if the 

Thus it feemeth certainly, that the Spaniards of 
the north parts of Spain, inhabiting about the 
countries of Bifcaie and Gallicia, came and peo- 
pled Ireland, as both their own hiftories and the 
Britifli do wholly agree — but from whence they 
came firft, to inhabit Spain, cannot by me be 

N. B. This paflage is tranflated in Tim^s 
Store-hou/cj printed in London. 1619, and dedi- 
cated to Sir Phil. Herbert, Knt. of the Bath. 

Padre Pineda en monarq. Ecelef. L. 27. C. ta. 

Hibernia, one of the Iflands adjacent to England 
and about half its fize, is fo called, according to 
fomc, from the winter feafon, becaufeof the length 
of the winter there : Oihers fay from Hybenw a 
Spaniard, who took poflfeflion of and peopled it 
with a great number of Spaniards — others lay, 
that the inhabitants of the banks of Hybero, now 
called the Ebro, were thofe who peopled it. 

Tefora de la lingua Cajiellana por D. Seb. de Cebir^ 
ruvias. Madrid j 161 1. 

The four firfl books of the general chronicle of 
Spain, which were abridged by Florian de Campo 
in Zamora 15. 44 fol. fay, that the King Brigoof 
Spain, fent inhabitants to a great Ifland which is at 
prefent named Ireland, and formerly called Hiber- 
nia, in the neighbourhood of England, in order 
that they might take poflcflion of it and peopled it, 
and that thofe who went thither, were called Bri- 
cantes. — I remember, fays de Campo, that in a 
£orm at fea, having taken (helter in the harbourof 


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Andent Hlfiory of Ireland. 327 

Catafurde, (a) the inhabitants of that place, and 
many others of the country round, (hewed great 
(atisra£kion at feeing us (Spaniards) and took us 
by the hand in token of friendfliip, telling us, that 
they were of Spanilh extradtion. 

There were other ancient people of England, 
called Brigantes, who it is aflured were originally 
Spaniards ; they inhabited the diftrid in which now 
(lands the City of Briftol, and the town of Galez 
fronting Ireland, an Ifland very near its coafts tp 
the weft, (b) It is indifputed that from ihcfe Bri- 
gantes, after they had multiplied confiderably in 
that country, they pafled over to Ireland, and thi^ 
agrees with the records of Ireland, who, as we 
have faid, publicly avow themfelves to have been 
of Spani(h defcent. 

Hiftfdre generate d'Efpagne^ par Jean de Ferreraf 
traduite par D^Hermilly. 

D'autres Efpagnols pa(rerent en Sicile & y fixe* 
rent leur demeure, Quelques f^avans pr^tendent 
que ce pais fut anciennement appelle Sicanie du 
nom de Icur chef. 11 y eut d'autres Efpagnoles qui 
;illerent en Irelande. 

Hijioire de Portugal^ 8 torn. 1 amo. Tom. i . p* 6. 

Lorfque deux peuples fortent de la meme rource^ 
quoique dans la fuite des terns il arrive parmi eux 

(a) Waterford. Keating mentions this Author, in the hiftorjr of 
Milefiut : the Englifh tranflator has oniitted the palTage. 

(b; The words of the Spaniih author are, la ciudad de Briftol 
J la villa de Galez frontero de Irlando, ifla muj^ cercana de fui 
riberas al occidente. 

The author certainly meant Tierra de Galez, inftead of Villf 
de Galez i the fenfe would then be, in which (lands the City c^ 
Briftol, and the Country of Wales, oppoHte to Ireland. 


y Google 

328 A VindUaiion ef the 

des cbangemens confiderabLes dans leurs habit$, 
leiirs mceurs, leurs ulage^, leur langage, d^ai 
Icurs figures meme, ils confecvent toujoiirs qucU 
que trace de leur ancienne reflfemblance. 

Telle eft celle qu on trouve entre Ics IbexiaBs& 
ks Hibernlens, toux deux, {brtis des ancicns ibe- 

llie Iberians of AHa were originaily Scytiuaos, 
idivided at length into Armenians and Perfiaas: 
they are {uppo&d by fome Authors to have been 
the Iberians of Spain, tranfported there l^ Nabu- 
.cqdrofor, or .Nebuchadonofor, as we learn fxam 
a rfragment of Megafthenes ptelerved in EufeUus. 
Strabo ,has the fame remark, but as Voifiusaad 
3Qchart bblerve, Hiipanos efle colonos Iberomii 
Afia. Voflius (C. 33. de Idolol.) takes the proper 
method to prove they were one people : The Afi- 
Btick Iberians, fays he, worfliipped the HeaTcos, 
the Sun and the Moon : fo did the Iberians of 

U'be Afiatic Iberismspaid a parttoilar vmoraticm 
ito Mars, who is faid to have been a Tbracian, aa 
ancient Colony of Scythians : & Iberia ^babuitiio- 
mines, ut Strabo narrat, bellicofos & Scydunim 
more ac Sarmatarum viycntC5. 

They were in truth all Scythians, and all wor- 
shipped the Deity Mars under the fame name, viz, 
N^itAj a name well known for the God of War in 
the Irilh MSS. (c) See Chap. X. Mythology. 

(c) It is alfo worthy of remark, that the country henfeen tbc 
Euxine and Cafjpian Sea, is named Iberia and Aibania, that is the 
tad and Weft Countrj*, vh. n3j^ and \HdhH dbefc Seu lying doc 
Eaft aud Wefl of each other, in the fame manner as the two If- 
lands of Britain and Ireland, which alfo received the xiaim of 
Iberia and Albania on the fame account : the names are Irifii aod 
Ph^uician as we have (hewn in the Inirodudlion. 


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JnckfU I£fiory ^^ei^ind. ^19 

Scythas per acioacen juxarent, ut Ludanus ia£ert^ jXion tarn eo videtur [pcQzfky quo4 

acinacen crcderunt Deum ; fed quia Mertis -eflc 

fymboluin putarexit. Quare, fi Hifpani Iberum 

. Afiae fuerint propago, hiac fortafie Martis cultum 

acceperkit. Maitem quidem in Acci^ Taxracoxip 

ncnfis Hifpaniae oppido, divioos adq^ttun honores, 

teilis nobi3 Macrobius, L. i. Saturn. C. 19. Ao- 

^tani, inquit, Hifpania gens, funulacrum Martis 

-radiis ornatum maxima religione celebrant, N^on^ 

.¥ocantes« (Vofs. de Idol, ibid.) Neton is here 

'inade the accufative cafe of our Neith, fometiqies 

written Neidh. 

Varro and Pliny place the Iberians and Berfians, 
z& Colonies in Spain, but neither have defcribed t^ 
.route of dieir miration : the Irifh hiflory detail^ 
the particulars. See Ch. 4«— rit produces the l^mp 
Authority as Voilius brings, with refped to the 
lume of a deity ; and the Accitani wer>e not of 
Tanracon, but of TurdAitani the Seat of the Phae- 
nicians in Spain. Acci, Julia Gemeila, ubi ixx 
antiqua infcriptione extat integrum nomepi, Colo- 
ma Julia Gemeila Accitana, quse hodie eil Qua* 

Another fli'oi^g proof of the Spanifh Colony, jl 
^draw from die name of a very extenfive tribe fet- 
tled in the South, of Ireland, called Clanna Baoif^ 
gaine or B'tfgainey that is, the Bifcaynan Tribe. 
They make a great figure in the Annals of Irel^ind, 
in the third and fourth Centuries. There was a 
territory named Corca-Baifcinn after this tribe: 
llie celebrated Fionn Mac Cumal, or Mac Cuil, is 

(d) Mijanitui. Topogr. HKpaiibc. 


y Google 

330 A Tindicattm of the 

called Ftonn ua Baifcne^ a charafter diawn from 
the Perfian Ro/ium and Asfendyar of which in its 
proper place. 

\si the Annals of Inisfidlen belonging to Trinity 
College, is the following Note, ^^ Clanna Baifgine 
^^ i. e. Filii Bafgneorum vocabantur, Hienicix 
*' cenfendi font origines : nee etiam a primogeni- 
^^ tore quodam Baoifgne nominato ita didos exiC> 
^* timo, fed potius a Vafconibux Cantabriac (ex qtu 
*^ regione Milefium noftrum Hifpanum in banc 
^^ infulam cum fuis antiquitus tranfmigraft tia- 
*' ditum eft) nominatas & progenitas fuifle noftras 
^* ejufmodi Cobortes Bafgineas/' 

lliere was another ancient Tribe in Irdand, 
called Hui Tarfi^ that is, the Clan of Tarfi^ which 
muft be a Corruption of Tarfis, which we biTc 
(hewn from good Authority was Tarteflus. Tbde 
are faid not to have been Gadelians, but the Abo> 
rigines of Spain, who accompanied them to Ireland. 
Tarfis is faid to be the Grandfon of Japhet, whom 
others named Tubal. See Note (a) at the begin- 
ning of this Chapter. 

Finally, from Roman Hiftory we draw another 
proofof aSpanifli Colony coming to the Britannic 
Ifles in the time of Julius Caefar : it was probably 
the laft expedition from Spain to Ireland. IXon 
Caflius (e) informs us, ^^ that when Cadar came 
^* Praetor into Hifpania vetcrior, he made war on 
•* the Hermini a people of Lufitania, and in a fliort 
** time he defeated and conquered them. ITjc 
•* deftruftion of this people fo terrified their neigb* 
" hours, that they determined to leave their habi- 

(c) Edit. Stcphaod. L. 37. p. 5, &c. 

" tationi 

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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 331 

'^ tations and cities, and retire with their families 
'* ' beyond the Douro. 

** But Csefar having notice of this refolution, 
'* prevented their putting it into execution, for he 

* fell on them before they fet out on their jour- 

* ncy, defeated them and took their cities. At 
^ the fame time news came that the Hermini had 
^^ revolted, and had laid an ambufcade with an 
'* intent to cut him off in his return. Hereupon 
^* Caefar took a different route, attacked the Her^ 
'^ mini again, defeated them and drove thofe that 
^* fled into an Ifland, not far diftant from the 
^* Continent, and then manning fome barks, he 
^^ attacked them in the Ifland, but, the Hermini 
^* repulfed the Romans with great flaughter, and 
^^ forced them to retreat back to the main land. 
" This obliged Caefar to fend to Cadiz for larger 
" Ships, with which he paffed over to the Ifland, 
'• deftroyed fome of the Hermini^ and drove the 
" reft out of the Ifland. ^. 

•* The Ifland into which the Hermini fled, being 
f* reduced, Caefar ftood out to Sea with his fleet, 
" cruifed along the Coafts of the Bracari andGa/- 
" Kciaj and doubling Cape Finijierre^ hiled along 
" the northern Cgafts of Gallicia (in the bay of 
** Bifcay,) and made a defcent on the City of C^- 
** runnaj the inhabitants whereof, terrified at the 
** fight of the Roman Fleet, immediately furren- 
" dered to him.*' 

From this minute detail of Csefar's tranfadions 
in purfuing the Hermini, it is evident they did not 
attempt to land again on the Spanifli Coaft, or [to 
turn into the Bay of Bifcay, where Cjefar's fleet 
^ould have again purfued them. The Wind muft 


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^^2 A Vindkation of the 

have been Southerly, to have carried Cadar dear 
of Nerium or Cape Finifter, the direck route to Ire- 
land. We hear nothing of the Hermini in Gaul 
or in Britain, but we find the Clanna Heremon vx 
Ireland. Can there be a doubt of thcfe people 
having been the Hermini of Spain, efpedally if wc 
confioer that Caefar followed them at Sea, half the 
way from Spain to Ireland. This tribe I think wai 
originally of Armenia^ defcended from Hermm 
Son of Gelanij who defcended the Euphrates, and 
formed the Pbxnicians of the Red Sea..(f j 

Extracl of a Letter from J. Talbot Dillon, Esq. 
to the Author. 

'^ Agreeable to your deflre of communicadng 
any information that might occur in the cojixkSi 
my reading, relating to the peopling of Irehnd 
from Spain, I herewith fend you an extrad irom i 
writer ex profeflb on the Subje^, Don Francifco 
Huerfn, member of the Spanifli Academy, and 
Author of a Treatife entitled Efpana Primitha^ 
which I have lately received from Madrid j Thig 
work is in two vols. 1 2 mo (g) ; and as it may not 
be eafily obtained in Ireland, I am to rcquell your 
acceptance of it. 

The Author informs us, that after twelve ycaji 
clofe application to his fubied, he luckily difcoTer* 
ed feveral ancient Manuicripts, amongft otherSi 
the valuable Chronicle of Petrus Cadarauguftuii 
wliich he promifcs to publifh, and to give full infor- 

(f) Sec my Iri/li Grammar firft Edit. Prcfiice p. xKil 6r 
3« iiiore panicular account of the Hermini. 
{2) Printed at Madrid, 1 738. 



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AncierU Hi/iorj of tteland. 333 

how it felt into his hands, adding, it once 

ed to the celebrated Arias Montanus/' 

I the courfe of this work he means to prove, 

I ancient Colonies of Spain peopled England, 
id, and Ireland, conquered Africa, zndt 
ings to the Celtic nation ; poffeffed Sicily, 
: foundation of Rome, and extended them* 
niverfally over the Weftern Empire. 

hefe are the outlines of his great undertak- 
: vhich the writer, as far as I can pretend 
an opinion, proceeds with all the candour 
)lnefs of a judicious critick, added to the in- 
on and temper requifite to an antiquary. 

II clofe this with a tranflation of what he of- 
thc Subjeft} for this purpofe Ihavctran- 
ile Chapter. 

C H A P. Vn. P. 49. 

fis fends Colonies from Spain, who people 
d, Scotland, and Ireland, 
colonies of Tharfis increaling every day, 
tended themfelves not only over the penin- 
Spain, but to the neighbouring provinces, 
t others to Britain and to Ireland, 
the Spaniards peopled England appears un- 
lly from the people fettled there, named 
31 whom mention is made by Pliny, Soli- 
1 Ptolemy ; moreover, Tacitus, fpeaking 
I, exprefsly fays, (in vita Agr.) that the 
omplexion of the Siluri and their hair fre- 
braided, added to their (ituation oppofite 
i» gives teftimony and convidion, that the 
R>Ctians crofled. the Sea and poflcfled that 


y Google 

334 -^ Vindication of the 

Wand. The Hlftorian' Jornandes is of the fame 
opinion, concluding Scotland to have been peo- 
pled from Gaul and Spain. ** Calidoniam vero 
incolentibus rutilar comae, coq>ora magna, fed 
fluida, qui Gallis five Hifpanis, quibufque attcn- 
duntur (imiles, unde conje^avere nonnulli, quod 
ea ex his accolas ccntinuo acceperit." (Hi/L 

Of thefe Colonies of the Siluri yet remain thofc 
iilands, \vhich by alteration the Englifii name SciJ/j 
in the Virginian Ocean. 

That the Spaniards peopled England, we are 
convinced by the Brigantes of that Ifland, menti- 
oned by Tacitus, Seneca, and Ptolemv, dcrifcd 
without doubt from the Brigantes of Gaucia. 

That Ireland was peopled by Spaniards, may be 
proved from Diony/ius and Prijcian^ and by mo- 
dern writers : the natives themfelves acknowledge 
the fame, and this we (hall fpeak of hereafter. 

Petrus of Zaragofa, writes thus on this head, in 
his Chronicle An. M. 2870. Tharfis Colomas & 
claiTem mittit ad Oceanum Septentrionakm, qua; 
Albionem & Hibemiam populaverunt ; infulas mag- 
nas, & Ronianis inaccejfas. This Author aUb re- 
lates the Heber in the year of the world. 29 19, fent 
Colonies to the Septentrional Ocean, who landed 
in Ireland ; and hence probably its name Hybcr* 
nia, from their Chicftan Heber." 


y Google 

Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 335 



TH £ reader is now in pofTedion of the hiftory 
of Ireland* as colleded from ancient records 
by Keating : 1 he author of this vindication has 
made no addition to the original Keating except 
fuch paflages he had pafled over ; as in the chapter 
of the Tuatha-Dadann, becaufe that paflage is a 
proof that the Omanite Scythians were well ac- 
quainted with, and mixed with the Touranian or 
Tranfoxane Scythians, and called them by the 
Perfian name, viz. 1 ouran, and in the chapter 
Milefius, it is evident, that they knew them by 
the Arabian name alfo, viz. Frange or Farangab. 

There are many ancient records unnoticed by 
Keating, ftill worthy of being known : the hifto- 
rical events are detailed in various manners; 
names and anecdotes are interfperfed, that would 
tend CO fupport the general hiftory. If all thefe 
were coUeded and tranflated by a judicious hand, 
they might throw great lights on the ancient hif- 
toriesof the Eaft and of the Weft. 

In the courfe of this work, the reader will ob- 
fcrvc that no pofitive references have been drawn 
from Etymology ; it has only been admitted when 
accompanied with hiftorical evidences, or ancient 
authorities, or fupported by other concurrent cir- 
cumftances ; in fuch cafes, the light afforded by 
Etymology, is not to be rejeSed. 

ITie Irifli hiftory is uniform throughout: it 
bears no affinity with that of any of the Celtic na- 
tions ; it differs from that of the Walfli or Britons, 
as much as the languages of the two people do at this 


y Google 

336 A Ttndication of the 

day. It differs from that of the Goths or Teuto- 
nes in every particular. Here we hear nothing of 
Odin or his fon Skiold^ yet Odin is faid by Moiu 
Mallet, to have been the fupreme God of the Scy- 
thians ^.2i\ The Diar or priefts of Odin, do in- 
deed bear fome affinity in name with the Dfaoi of 
Ireland and the Daru of the Perjian Ghebres : and 
Oide in the Irifli fignifies a teacher, from whence 
probably Odin derived his name: but the Dior or 
Drottar of Odin, were LayLords as wdl ai 
priefts, an order of men unknown to the Pagan 

It has been eroneoufly aflerted by Lhuvd aitd 
others, that there is a real affinity between tne lan« 
guages of the Irifh and Wallh, that Aey arc in 
great part radically the fame. £«huyd has Ihewn 
that many names of places in South Britain and iki 
Wales, the meaning of which is loft in the Welch 
langtiage, can only be e3q)lained from words now 
extant in the Irifh or Erfe, and confeffes, that he 
is of opinibn the Irifh did inhabit Britain before 
the Walfh ; that they were the old original Ccta, 
and that the Gymri or Welfh, were another aiid 
different race of Celts, a branch of the Celtic 
Cimbri, who fucceeded the other and drove them 
northwaird : but this is mere conjefture. The in* 
genious and accurate tranflator of Mallet has col- 
lated fpecimens of the Pater Nofler in all the Cel- 
tic and Gothic dialefts ; and after many learned 
bbfervations on thcfe dialeds, he acknowledges, 

(a) Norrhern Antiq. p. 60. Mxllet was mifled bf the Bf- 
zanciile hiflorians who have confounded the Goths, Hunm, ftc. 
with the Scjthiansy as wt have (hewn in z fonoer put of dur 


y Google 

Ancient Hijiorj of Ireland. 337 

he cannot think the Irifli and the Walfh 
ly derived from one common Celtic ftoick ; 
aft not in the fame uniform manner as any 
branches of the Gothic : Scarce any refem- 
e appears between them, fays he, fo that if 
*amed will have them to be ftreams from one 
ion fountain, it muft be allowed, that one 
»th of them have been greatly polluted in their 
e, and received large mlets from fome other 
lel (b). The hiftory before us has fhewn, 
hey were originally arawn from one fountain 
; this was the point du partage^ (the Cafpian 
he ftreams from it flowed in dire&ions diame- 
ly oppofite, and did not unite till they met in 
Vcft of Europe (c). 

e have taken upon us to fay, that our Mago- 
Scythians were the original Phasnicians — ^it 
le aiked, where are the remains of the fine 
f the Fhaenicians to be met with in this coun* 
where are the temples, the colonades, &c. ? 
this I anfwer, that the Greeks confounded 
liacnicians with the Canaanites ; and that our 
lians were the carriers of their merchandize, 
navigators; were acknowledged as fubjeds, 
lever admitted a fhare in the government, or 
z rank of Noblefle, They had the ufe of 
s, a knowledge of aftronomy, of marine 
lomy in particular, and of navigation ; but 
no knowledge of the fine arts, their religion 
d it. If the King of Great Britain fend 

Northern Antiquities. Tranflator's pre&ce, p. xli. 
The Libsr Lecanus calls the defcendants of Fcnius, F#Mf- 
Jiriniadh. Fenicians of the Nonhera fea, (i.e. the Caf- 

Y his 

y Google 


338 ^ Vindication of the 

his Whole navy to North Atnericay v^ith orden 
never to return, would the fettlemcnts formed hj 
our admirals or captains, or by their crews, ever 
produce an elegant piece of archite&ure ; yet 
every private man on board had fecn St. P^uls, 
and ^ hitehall : coiild they form a column, or 
mould a cornice ? 

Hie Fhaenicians lent a numerous colony to 
Gaul :^—A/V here are the Tyrian or Sidonianmo- 
numents of grandeur to be found in that coun- 
' ? yet the Gauls learned the terms of ftate, a&d 
the military art from the Fhaenicians, and 
adopted them. Hence Bochart has been mlfled, to 
think that the language of the Gauls had a great 
affinity with the Tyrian, (i. e. Canaanitifh) bvt 
all thofe words, produced by Bochart, are as mudi 
Irifli as Canaanitifh; yet no language differed 
more in fyntax than the Ph^nician Irim or Berh- 
Thcni and the Canaanitifh. The Didionaries of 
the old Irifh are almoft the Di£tionaries of die 
Chaldee Arabic and old Perfic, but the grammar 
differs very widely. 

When the Scythians divided from the Perfians, 
'and fettled in Touran, they did not cultivate ar- 
chitecture and build magnificent temples as the 
Perfians did ; yet thofe Touranian Scythians were 
a lettered people, as early as their brethren of 
Perfia. The Scythians retained, as long as poffi- 
ble, the Patriarcnal mode of worfhipping the deity 
-in open air, and of facrificing to him on altars of 
flone, where the chifTel had made no impreflioxiy 
furrounded by pillars of unwrought flones. The 
Perfians adopted the worfhip of fire in towers, 
and with fword in hand obliged our Scythians their 
ancient brethren to accept of this mode of wor- 

y Google 

Ancient Hijhry cf Ireland. 339 

fliip (d). Wc accordingly find the fire tower in 
Ireland, and under the Perfian name of Aphrin. 
We find the names of the Perfian Priefts of the 
Ghebres, dill exifting in the Irifh language ; we 
imd the Perfian hiftory, (fabulous or real) to be 
Ae hiftory of the ancient Irifli : can there be more 
required ? 

But our Scythians mixed with the Chaldaeans 
and Canaanites, and from them formed a mixed 
religion ; we according find all the fuperftitious 
terms of both Chaldaeans and Canaanites, in divi- 
nation, &c. &c. exifting at this day in the Iriih 
language. We find alfo the Chaldaean names of 
•their priefts had once been common to the Irifh : 
Thefe ftiall be the fubjeft of the next chapter. — 
Were thefe terms and names common to any of 
the Celtic nations ? No ! if they can be traced in 
flife Celts or Goths, I will acknowledge myfelf to 
hajvebeen in the wrong^-andthe Irifh hiftory to 
be an impofition : but I fhall expeft fomething 
more than argument to convince me of the error : 
feme produftions of words or pafTages from the 

(d) Potto ex Shahriftani & Xenophonte & Herodoto conftat 
tain Perfas quam Scythas Sabias Solis culrores, &ignem/acrum 
lenrafle ante lempora Zonaftris. At cum ille novos rirus inllinie- 
ret, & ejus fuafu plurinia Pyraa extruens Gufhtafp, ad novos 
iftoi Titus aaiic6 invitaret vicinum t**,- Twran feu Scythise orienta- 
Ib Regem Arjafp (the Irifh Eochadh Aincheann) iftc pro vctere 
teligione Zelotes plan6 fuccenfuit, & proptercajaltenim bello 
"invadens di& Pyrca drruit, & folo a^quavit, ad tales in Religi- 
one 'inoovationes a GuHitafpe invitari renuens. Donee tandem 
cri^tor levadens Go/htafp, ea rurfus inftauravit, ut Megjdi 
(Aphrin) Hiftoricus Pcrfa in Guflafpis^ita multistradit. — A Scy- 
chis ettam feti Tartaris ignis hodie (ut & olim faabetiir facer : 
at nan pari rituum apparatu fcrvatur, Hyde, Hift. Rel. Vet. 
Serf. p. 19. 

Y 2 hiftories 

y Google 

340 ^ Vindicaiicn of the 

hiftories of the Celtic or Gothic nations^ of affinity 
with thofe in the Iri(h hiftorv. 

In comparing the IriOi hiftory with the Perfian, 
the reader is at liberty to run from end to end dl 
Keating for a parallel, I think even to the firft 
century of the chriflian aera. He has been candid 
enough to acknowledge in his preface, that he 
arranged the chronology and the reigns of iht 
kings, to the bed of his judgment, having no 

Anno Domini 27, 29, and 79, there are ibme 
curious particulars deferving notice, as they fcem 
to confirm the preceding pages, and afford us an 
opportunity of explaining the mode of the bride's 
prcfenting the golden ball before mentioned. 

'i1ie facred hiftory inform us, that Elam the fon 
of Shem was the father of the iSrft inhabitants of 
Perfia (e): they were in the Irifh phrafe die 
Alteach Tuatba^ the ancient lords of it: But 
Japhet was to dwell in the tents of Shem, and ac- 
cor Jingly cur Magogian Scythi, that is, the Far- 
thians, Perfians, Toui*anians and Omanites, dif* 
poffeflTed them of their country j dividing Perfia 

f e) Dr. Hvde rhinki the Pmrt or Pcr& were feared originally 
ro the £'• Award of the Elamites, whom he places in Mcdk. 
AntiquiflLnimi Periia: r<oinen Biblicum eft EUm qui Perfamm 
parer : iinde difcimus Perfas fuiife fih'os Elam tilii Shem. Hiac 
apud Rixtlam PerTe Annenicd vocantur Sem^iK.k, Semicx. Sed 
regio £!am (<]iue Ejymai:*) ubi primd fedein fixir, propria eft 
citerior Mediae pan, feii potius pars qiiat efl Media citerior k 
occidf ntalior. Nam Medi qui fiiii Madai hlii Japhet, fuemm 
pau!6 oriental lores : & fuamvis a Jiverfo ParemU §rii^ emJm 
iamen ufi junt Rngua, ad ^u9J forie alter ahtrum €9tgerit^ wl 
JaJum CjQKmtrcium tfUer ft hahuermt. £t his atnbobus adhnc 
orienraliorci erant Perfs proprie fie di£ti qui Provinciaiii Fkn 
aJ orientexn Medix inhabitabaut. Hid, ReJ. Vet. Perf. p. 411. 


y Google 

Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 341 

into Iran and Touran^ that is on this fide of the 
river : (Oxus or Ghihon) and on the other fide 
of the river. 

The original Parthians were Celtes^ fay the au- 
diors of the Un. Hid. becaufc Cluverius fays they 
were Scythians : they were neither Celti or Scytho- 
Celti as we have proved in the foregoing pages. 
The Parthians and Baftrians, fays Cluverius, were 
Scythians driven out of their own country by civil 

The modern Perfians are a mixture of many 
nations ; the Parfces are probably the only re- 
mains of the ancient Elamites. How long the 
Elamites were difpoflfefled of their country does not 
appear in hiftory : The prophets always fpeak of 
Perfia by its ancient name £lam. It is extremely 
probable, that when the Scythians quarrelled about 
the divifion of the couijtry, that the Elamites re- 
turned into Iran and fomented that animofity 
whichever after fubfifted between the lourahians 
and Iranians, and fplit them at length into two dif- 
xmQi nations, driving the Touranians more Eafter* 
ly into Thibet and Tartary. 

There is a palfage in the Irifli hiftory above 
mentioned that feems to refer to this : it is placed 
at A. D. 54* 

" Cairbre Cinncait, (1. c. Carbre Cathead) 
filled the throne, he was defcended from Rionoilc 
who came into Eirinn with Labhra Luingseach (t). 
He was a Fir-Bolg or Fir D'Omhnam (g) ; this 

(f) Guflufp. 

(g) He might be of theOUean Rana, the Ifland of Rina on 
the coail of Oman, whence he is faid to be defcended from 


y Google 

34^ -^ Vindication of the 

prince fixed himfelf in the government hy a. moft 
barbarous a£t. 

There was a confpiracy formed by the Aiteacb 
Tuatha (h), (the Plebeians) the common and raf- 
cally people of the kingdom to dethrone the reign* 
ing monarch and to murder the nobility. 

To accomplifli their defign, which was caitied 
on with the utmoft fecrccy, they refolved on a 
moft magnificent entertainment, which was 
three years in preparing^ and was to be celebrated 
at a place called Magh Cru in Connacht (i). 
When every thing was ready, the king, princes 
and nobility were invited and fatally accepted of 
the invitation. * 

There were three pcrfons particularly the ring, 
leaders and principally directed this confpiracy; 
their names were Monach, Buan and Cairbre 
Cinncait (k). The feafl continued for the ipiice 
of nine days in great fplendor, when the Aiteach 
Tuaithe, led on by their 'generals, fell fuddenly 
upon the royal guefts and put them to the fword 
without diftindion, except three queens, who 
were all big with child and moved the compaifioB 
of the tray tors. The queens were fent into Alhan 
(1) (Scotland; where they were delivered of fiw- 
thai Tcachmhary Tiobruide Trioch and Corbulan. 

(h) The ancient Lords of the Soil, i. e. the ElamStes. Av«bic 
j^tik Jtutl, tiie nobility. The name for Plebeians is Athtf^ 
i. e. Giants, monfters. (See the Leabar Leacan) a word diftr- 
ent in conflruc^iyn and fenl'e to Aiteac Ttuit/ia. 

( i ) Magh Cru, the blood of the Magi, or rhc murder of the 
Magi : — this alludes to the maflhcre of the Magi in 'he reign of 
Sinerdis the ufurper of the Perfian crowTi, in which Darim 
Hvftnfpi? (Gulhafp our I.oinafeach) had fo confiderable a (hare. 

(k) '['here were three perfons concenied in the death of Snier- 
di>, viz,. Orancs, G/bryas and Afpathines. 

vl) Probably Albania on the Cafpian fea was here jnteiKled. 



y Google 

Ancient Wfiory of Ireland. 343 

Elim wa3 placed on the throne by the Ajteach 
Tuatha, after the death of Cairbre Cinncait. 

Tuathal Teachtmar being now of age, was in- 
ited by his party to return to his country and to 
Oliver them out of the hands of thefe tyrants, 
lie prince unwilling to rely on the profemons of 
n unfteady people, refufed the offer, unlefs they 
irould (wear by the Sun and by the Moon to dp^ 
inx homage : this being fubmitted to, the exiled^ 
ing returned, was received by the general apcla- 
Eiauons of the people, the tyrants deftroyed andt 
Jk end put to the ufurpation. 


Here the tranflator of Keating has thrown in sui 
nterpolation of fome moment to our modern ge« 
icalogiftsi : a digreflion they will neither than^ 
lim or me for. Since I am relating the lives 0^ 
h^ Irifh monarchs, fays he, it may not be impro- 
WBI to obviajte an objc^ion thjat might be offered 
ionceming the genealogy of this pnnce ; for if it 
hould be thought furpnfmg that the Irijh vf{;iter8 
>f late ages deduce the defcent of the kinfirs either 
rem the ions of Milefius or from Lughaiahfo^ of 
th ; and likewife if it (hould fcem unaccouiitable^ 
Imt thp principal fanulies of Ireland to this day 
Iqrive their original from fome of the branches of 
bf Milefian line, without owning be 
he defcendants of any officer or foldier who came 
iver in this expedition. The ancient records of 
he kingdom, particularly the books that treat of 
he reigns and conquefts of the kings, take ex-« 
jrefs notice of the ruin and extirpation of the poile- 


y Google 

344 ^ Vindication of the 

rity of the Milefian foldicry : for in procels of time 
they degenerated into a barbarous and rebellious 
race of men, and ufed their princes in the mod 
feditious and inhuman manner ; for which turbu- 
lent and difloyal proceedings the monarchs by de- 
grees weeded them out of the kingdom ; the few 
that remained were fo vile and infamous, that the 
antiquaries never preferved their genealogies, but 
paffed them over in filence as a reproach and ion- 
dal to the Irifh nation — ^but to return to our hif- 

EHm was llain by Tuathal Teachtmar, at the 
battle of Aichle. 

A. D. 79. Tuathal Teachtmar fucceeded, when 
he had fixed himfelf in the government, he con- 
vened the Feis Teamhra or general meeting of 
Teamhar (m) confifting of the nobility, who joy- 
fully recognized his title to the crown. And as a 
farther teftimony of their loyalty, they engaged to 
continue the fucccfiion in his family for ever. 

Tuathal feparatcd a tra£k of land from each of 
the four Choige or provinces, at the place where 
they met togemer, and of thefe divifions he made 
the county of Midhe or Meath. In each pordon 
he ere^ed a palace. 

In the part taken from Munfter he built the 
Tlachtga where the facred fire was ordained to be 
kindled \ as had been the cuftom of the Brm of 
Eirinn (Ireland) upon the eve of the fcftivalof 
Samhna^ to burn Sacrifices (don Ard Dia) to the 

(m) Feis a convention, convocation, fjnod, finom whence 
lifne certain laws and regulations; it is the Arabic F#a, an 
tfieinbly, publilhing, divuiging ; whence Fnjel a decree, a de- 
hniiif c fenrence. Feijely a judge, arbitrator. 


y Google 

Ancient Hifiory of Ireland* 345 

great God (n). All other fires in the kingdom 
were extinguiihed on this night, and were relight- 
ed from this holy fire, for which every houfe paid 
a Screaball to the king of Munfter, becaufe the 
Tlachtga was conflruded in his divifion. (See 
note Moidh). 

The fecond palace was ereded in the divifion 
taken from Connacht ; here was Anmfneacbj the 
Nmfneach or contraftedly the Uifneach ; here was 
the Mordail or convention on Am Beilteinej or 
the dav of Beuls fire, i, c. the firft day of May 
amnually, when they offered iodhbhartha (iovara) 
or iomharthaj i. e. facrifices to the God BeuL At 
this Aonac or Fair, they ufually bartered goods 
and merchandize. 

On this day there were always two fires lighted 
in honour of Beul in every diftrid throughout the 
kingdom, and it was ufual to drive the cattle 

(n) This is evidently the Perfian (lory of Darius Hyflafpit 
who fucceeded the ufurper Smerdis and eftablidied the fire towa 

Tlachtga, i. e. Tlacht or Dlacht-agha, the holy fire, fiiom 
the Chaldee p^l dlak ardere. 

See the firftival of Samhna explained Colledtanea, No. 1 3.— > 
it is the Perfian feflival of Afuman^ the angel of death, and it 
now kept in Ireland on, all fouls, 

Chuig a province is the Chaldee ?in chuz. Arab, Ki/Tiur 
and Kutr. Midhe^ fays Keating, (ienifies a part or (hare, and 
therefore this territory was fo called becaufe it confifted of a por- 
tion of each Chuig^ nothing can be farther from truth. The 
fpot was chofen as the great place of facrifice. 

From 7Uuht^ I think the Irifh Tola is derived, which Ggni- 
fies a church otticer, that is, one who has the fuperintendance of 
the fire ceremony. In Arabic Tawliyet, the fuperintendency of the 
affairs of Mofques, or other re! igious foundations. (Richardfon. ) 
Arabice Tehiuil a folemn oath made among the Pagan Arabs be- 
fore a fire called Mulet. 



^6 4 VukHoftipn oftb^ 

(idir dha Bbeil teinej between tlie tvqfirttoC 
Beul, as a prefervation againll diftcmpers^ &r the 
year following. The firlt day of May (till i^etauq^ 
the name of am Beil teine^ oty l^ ^l tmu^ u Cf. 
«hc day of Beuls fijje — (o)f 

]^ £ M A R K. 

All the fires were extinguiflied except ibfi holy 
fire, from whence they were relighted, a.9d cvcxj. 
boufekeepcr paid a Screabajl (the Iiiflt traniOate it 
three pence, I kaow not how much it W92)— thi^ 
k the cuftom of the Guebrcs in India ^t this day ai; 
we learn from Dr. Hyde. Sed poftquam veteruia 
Perfarum Gens propter Mohammedaooxum op- 
pref&onem, penuriam & paupertate Ubonr^ 
pratter Decinuu^ excpgitarunt alium Saccrdotalem 
Reditum augendi modum, quern quondam Ami- 
cus nofter Safrax Avedik Armenus tfphanenfis 
melioris notae Mercator mihi retulit. fc. ^^ Ouod 
*' 24 Aprilis quotannis eft quoddam Beram Gbav* 
*^ rorum, in cujus craftino e domibus fuis foras 
^ ejiciunt omncm Ignem ; cui poftea redintegran- 
** do, de novo accendunt Lucemam apud domum 
*^ Sacerdotis fui, eo nomine ei folventes 1 00 de- 
*^ nariolos, qui faciunt 5 Abbafacos, feu 6 Solidos 
^' AngUcanos cum tribus Denariis Anglicis". — 
Dido itaque die non licebat uUum Lumen aut^gnem 
acccndere nifi in Templis — de quare extat locus 
Talmudicus in Gittiriy 17. i. — Citata cnim loca 
Ipc&ant antiqua ilia tempora quibus Ifraelitae erant 
in Captivitate inter Mca'osy qui vocantur Perjm^ 

(o) Planmvic, 2 Para, C. 30. V. 21. 


y Google 


Anciint Hijiory of Ireland. 2>A'j 

& idem Rkus ufque adbodievnum diem continua- 
tus^ eft in Lucrum & Beneficium Sacerdotum, qui 
etibm confecratas Virgas popula venduat : Hyde, 
35r.-— It wa& an ancient eftablifhed cuftom in 
^edlaand Ireland, as the Dr. explains it :— *^his is 
the fire of John's Eve. 

The Irifh antiquaries not knomng what to make 
of the obfolete word Midh or Moidh (p), a place 
of facrifice, have worked up the fliory of taking a 
part of each province, deriving Midh from mir a 
part or portion. Nothing can be more diftant 
from truth. The center of the Ifland was judici- 
oufly fixed on, for the folemnity of the great fefti- 
vais, viz. the Feis ; it was an eafy journey from 
all parts of the Ifland : hither they repaired to bar- 
ter their commodities and to facrifico to the great 
God : to pay their tributes, and to learn what 
new laws were promulgated for the better govern- 
ment of the kingdom. The place was therefore 
called Moidhy or Muidh^ or Midhj that is, the 
place of facrifice. It is the Hebrew f^iyjo Mood 
facrificium folemnitatis in dido tempore celebrari 
folitum. Veteres facrificia ftata dicebant. It is the 
Arabic Mudbeh or Muzbib, (with a Dfal), i. e. 
a place of facrifice. The Rabbinical or Chaldee 
word for Moad is ^^35 Kipur^ whence the moun- 
tain of Kipur in the county of Dublin and the 
Keper in the county of Limerick, on both of 
which the altars yet remain. There was another 

(p) Moid a Vow. Moid^gheaJladh to make afblemn vow: 
each pTDvince being obliged to furitifk a pr<»portion to the groat 
facrifices at Midh^ the Seanachies have forged the ftory of taking 
a part of each province, to furnilK a bad etymology. 

The mod ancient fire temple of the Feifians was at Nuhohur^ 
t -om whence probably Nolher in Meath North oiTeamar, 


y Google 

348 ^ VhuBcation of the 

day of general Cicrifice called Dia Taitanfogbmbar 
the day of (acrifice in hanre(t> which might alfo 
take its name from the Chaldee JVKO^il be Tatb 
facrificuim. The Nuifneacb or corruptedly the 
Uifntacb^ befpeaks itfelf ; it was the Nui/c-na^b 
or the facrifice of the horfe, an animal efteemcd 
facred to the fun, by the Egyptian, Phaenidans, 
Perfians and Scythians, llic old Germans alio 
eileemed the horfe as the mod noble vidim. t* 
T\:% flf'xexsoTaKraif iV iVtrs the Pcrfians immolatcd 
Holocaufts to the fun, fays Xenophon : — ^Eaautem 
facrificia non foli fed deo fiebant ; fed quicquid 
deo fuerint, Grxci volunt eas id feciflfe Soliy eoniia 
a^tiones perperam interpretando (q). The Ni&an 
horfes of Media were preferred by the Perfians, 
being reckoned mod beautiful ; the Connadan 
horfes were preferred by the Iriih ; but, Keating 
makes the king of C6nnacht receive horfes, in- 
(lead of giving them, at this (acrifice. 

llie Greeks and Romans, borrowed this fefti- 
val from the Scythians or Perfians ; and introdu- 
ced the moft cruel ceremonies at the Mithraic ini- 
tiations, oflering human facrifices to Midira ; 
thefe Gregor. Naz. obferves, Crudatuum & uftio- 
num quae in Mithras facris : haec funt Romano- 
rum inventa* 

It muft be obferved that though Tuathal had 
conftruded a Tlachtga or Fire Tower, yet the fa- 
crifices were made on the tops of hills, and in the 
open ain The County of Longford was anciently 
called Uifneach, from this folemnity ; there is the 
hill of Uifneach in the County of Limerick, on all 
theiie the facrifices had becn^)erformed. The Scy- 

(q) Hvdc, dc Vet. Rclig. Pcf. p. 1 ao. 


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Ancient Hj/iory of Ireland. 349 

ans abided by the old patriarchal mode of wor- 
p as long as uieir religion fubfifled : at length 
rduft introduced the tower, merely for the con- 
nience of keeping in the facred fire — ^fo when 
ivid wanted to build a temple to God, the word 
the Lord came to Nathan, faying, ^^ ^o, tell 
David my fervant, thus faith the Lord, thou 
(halt not build me an houfe to dwell in, for I 
have not dwelt in an houfe fmce the day I 
brought up Ifrael unto this day — ^wherefoever I 
have walked with all Ifrael, fpake I a word to 
any of the judges of Ifrael, whom I commanded 
to feed my people, faying, why have ye not 
bum me an houfe of Cedars/' (m) 
The Irifli Nuifc^ from whence Nuifc-na-Eicj or 
{heach is the Perfian Nu/ik^ a facriiice ; ntifik 
dunj to facriiice : it is not unlike the Chaldee 
>!0 Nucfath, hoftia, victima, whence the Greek 
U (n) P]d3 nufak, fundendo liquida, libare, 
n libabunt domino vinum, nee placebant ei (a- 
.ficia eorum. (o) Hence the Iriih Nafc or Nufc, 
X)nd, obligation, tye, a religious vow, a facri- 
c. Nafc alfo implying a circle or ring, that in- 
ument was ufed by the Irifii in all folemn trea* 
s of alliance ; as in marriages ; at the ratifica- 
»n of an alliance between princes ; it was worn 
' the Draoi and by the Brahmans, as a token of 
tir office and of the vow they had taken to be- 
>th themfelvcs to the fervice of God. Numbers 
thefe rings are daily found in our bogs of va- 

(m) 1 Chron, c. 1 7. 

(n) Plantavit. 

(o) Ofea, ch. 9. v. 6. 


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350 A Vifuiiiathn cf tie 

riotis ^iam^ters. See die 15th Nmnber of dc 

In Le Brun*€ voyage to Pertia, tbene aore the 
drawings of two Km^ on hot^feback, boldiii^ a 
large ting^ whidi facmsto exprefsati utiiance ht- 
tween the monarch -^Perifia and ibme otber piince, 
probably a Scythisoior Tounnann : tfaeir duds is 
different, which (hews iftiem to be ii»f diffeitm na- 
tions. Thde figut^ were found at Perfepolis:— 
At the fame place is the ccllebraison of a marriage 
between a king and a pvincefs— ^ey have 7ik a 
ring held between them^ See fhtz VBi. 

THE third palace ereded by tTeachtmar vas 
Tailtean, in the divifion originally belonging to 
Ul/a, i. e. Ulfter. At this place was the cekbiatcd 
^onac Tailtean^ or the Fair or Mart of Taibean, 
where the inhabitants of the ifland brought their 
children and contraded about tfaeir marriage: 
(cleamhnas agus cairdios do deanamh le ceile.!)(p) 
Hence it Was called Tallach na Coibce, thehiU of 
Dowries, and Tulach an Ceannaith, thehMl of the 
Merchants or Cananites. The young men vere 
drawn up on one fide of the green and the yomg 
wometi on the*other; the parents walked up and 

(p) Tulach na Coibce, i. c. Tulach an Ceannaith, i. e. Oe- 
nach Tailtean. (Vet. Glofs. Cormaic.) Coibce is the Anbic 
Kobin and the Hindoftanic Kabin, IX)Sy and as'Cabhan in Iriik 
is a plain or field, probably there were more than one place of 
this kind in Ireland, for Coibce muft«be "a carroption of Ko- 


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Ancient Hiftorj if Ireland. 351 

dtitrtibetwecfnthetwoalTeniblies, making matches 
between the young couples : (ag fnadhma eattara 
go pofdan)— ^hich made a humourous Poet 

Can tteacht Fear zfaraidb ban, 
Gati nma zfaraidb fir fionglan. 
Adbt each a ccadhus o a ttoig 
Anairas an ard Aonaig. (q) 

The fubftancc of which is, that men and women 
arc laid to copulate together at Tailtean, without 
approaching each other — an ounce of filver was 
paid to the King of Ulfter for each contraft. 

This might have been the method of the com- 
mon people, but we have fliewn that the princeffes 
of the Touran Scythians, from whence Hvftafpis 
took ^ wife, chofe the hufband in the following 
manner. A circle of the Candidates for the Royal 
Tavour was made in a publick place : the Prin- 
cefs, carrying a Golden Ball fet with Jewels in 
her hand, walked round the circle ; and when fhe 
came to the man of her chpice, fhe prefented the 
golden ball to him, and the marriage ceremony 
'was foon after performed. 

There is great probability, that this was the 
method at Tailtean j becaufe a cuftom flill pre- 
vails in the South of Ireland, of obliging the 
Bridegroom to produce his Golden Ball. On the 
firfl day of May annually, a number of youths of 

(q) Fmrai^ carnal copulation, jns Hiara, Cognomen Pha- 
-raoniy quoniam paflivd coivit. David Dc Pomis ac. J^IDH. 
Arab, afitar^ concubens cum puella ita ut puclla altera (Irepitum 
tndiat ! ! which is forbidden b^ the Sonna of Mahomad J I ! 
Ar«b. Fer^^ pudenda turn maris turn fkminae. 


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35^ A Vindication of the 

both fexes go round the parifli, to every coupk 
married ^vithin the year, and oblige them to give 
a ball. This is ornamented with gold or filver 
lace ; I have been aflTured, they fometimes ex- 
pended three guineas on this ornament. The balls 
are fufpended by a thread, in two hoops placed at 
right angles, decorated with feftoons of flowers : 
the hoops are faftened to the end of a long pole, 
and carried about in great folemnity^ attended 
with fmging, mufic and dancing. This cuftom 
is practifed particularly in the counties of Corke 
and Waterford. (r) See PL VIII. 

THE fourth Royal Seat ereded by Tuatha 
Teachtmar, was the Palace of Teamair^ commonly 
called Tara : it originally belonged to the pro- 
vince of Leinfter. Arabice Tamoorj a Tower. 

(n) The folemiiity of Beul was probably fixed on for thii ce- 
remony, bccaufe he was fuppofed to be the Author of Goien- 
tion. I have mentioned this ceremony in a former work, and 
then thought it was done in honour of Beul^as it was |>eriDniied 
on the 3d day of May, i. e. the third day of Mi Beil iinm^ the 
month of Beul's folemnitv. The ceremony in liooour of die 
Sun is by throwing up a ball called Sol. 

The Hill of Tailrean was named alfo Cuibche, Ceannacli, 
and Coibhchin. Tuiach na Coibhchw^ an Aonach Ttilietn. 
(Cormac M'Cuillenan. Glofs.) Cxnhhce in Irifli fignifies a dow- 
ry } but it certainly originates from the Peiiian Ktihtm^ which 
fignifies the ratification of a marriage before a Judge, and alfo a 
marriage-portion. — Hence it is evident that Taiitean derifct 
from rhe Arabic Tailte a wife. — Ceannach fignifies merchan- 
dize, (he fame as Aonac, whence the Enakim. 


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JncUnt Hilary (f Ireland. 353 

The Author oF the Book of Leacan has pre- 
ferred a pdem of Amergin's compofition, that 
confirms this conjc&ure : it not only ihews that 
Veambar was originally a tower, but that Milcadh^ 
or Milels, flgnified the Commander of a fhip, as 
I have before obferved. Amergin was a MilefiaU) 
and one of the mod ancient of the Irifh Poets« 

Aehach Righ Tcambrach 
Teamhar Tor tuathach 
Tuath mac Mileadh 
Mileadh longe Libearni 

I. f • 

Te&mar's King is nbble^ 
Teamar the Lordly Towci^ j 
Lords were Melcfms' fons, 
Milefius of the Libearn fhip» 

Long and Libcam^ in Iri(h, fignify a hbufd^ 
habitauon, ihip ; Longe for Loingoir a failor : it 
may properly be tranflated Milefius Sailor of the 
Warlike Ship ; for tt'^Tph Libernia in Chaldee is 
kians bellica» It is compounded of the Irifh Lea^ 
tar longy and naoi a fhip, to diftinguifh it from 
Gaia or roundifh veflel, and not a Lybiis ita dici^ 
as Ifidorus imagined i or from Liburni!^, Illyridis 
pernio, inter Iftriam & Dalmatiam^ as Voffius 
thought* Long is a fhip or houfe in the Chinefe 
language. The fhip Grian of our Scythian Her- 
cules was a Libearn ; his tranfports were of Bo/g 
or wattles covered with hides ; hence the flory of 
Gefyoh and his cows. Sec Ch. IV. 

In No. XIIL of the Colle^anea, we gave a 
djrawing of the great hall of Teamar or Tarah^ 

Z with 

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354 'A Vindication of the 

with the allowance of viduals to each clafs of men: 
we have (ince found another ancient MS. vhidi 
accurately defcribes this ceremony to have been 
the Great Annual Sacrifice, of which we ihall 
treat in chapter Religion. Diligent fearch ha 
been made for the ruins of this magnificent build- 
ing, but not the vedige of the foundation can be 
found, though the country is open and well laid 
down in fields. 

The fmall palace of Aichle^ faid to be in its vi- 
cinity, to which fome of the Irifti monarchs re- 
tired, (as Lohorafp did to Balkh^ when he rcfigncd 
his crown to his fon Gujhafp) remains yet to be 
difcovered. Tcamar being the place of general 
facrifice, religious men aflembled there fi-om all 
parts of the kingdom. The Monarch was to find 
beds and ?.ccommodation for all comers. Was 
not a thatched building with mud waits, accord- 
ing to the prefent mode of the country, fufficient 
for this purpofe. We know indeed it was alfo 
called Tara^ a Phaenician word, viz. VT^ Tara, 
i. e. Palatlum amplijftmum^ but this palace was cer- 
tainly built of mud 2Lndyiraw ; the fire-tower and 
the altar appear to haVe been the only ftone-buiU- 
ings, and the remains of thefe are to be found. 

The Perfic and Arabic languages point out the 
name Tamur and Tamureh, fignifying a tower. 
Kuleh has the fame fignification ; and this I take 
to be the Aikle of the Irifh Seanachies. 

Tuathal Teachtmar is faid to have been fo 
named from his courteous and gentle difpofidon: 
Tuathal is pronouhced Tuahal, and gives the &• 
mily name of O'Toolcs in Ireland. Teachtmar I 
fufpcft to be a corruption of Teahmar ; and Ttmd 
in Arabic is gentle. Tuwclct^ gentlenefs^ benig- 

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Ancient Hi/iory of Inland. 355 

nity, courtefy, humanity. Teimur is a Perfian 
family-namey tranflated Tamerlane, fo that Tua^^ 
hal Teahmar is the courteous Tamerlane. To this 
let us add, that in Perfian Tellet is a wife, and 
T^n a propofal, a ferious defign, love, affedion ; 
TeJeb^ a follower of women; and I think we can be 
at no lofs for the derivation of Tailiean^ which 
Keating tells us took its name from Tailte^ the 
wife Luaigh Lamhfada, who was buried there^ 

From allthefe circumftances it appears, that the 
ftory of Tuathal Teachtmar is wrought up with 
Perfian materials ; for at A. M. 3082, Keating 
teUs us, that Teamhar was built by OUamh Fodh- 
la : but he feemed willing to introduce as much 
of the Pagan cuftoms as he could, under one 
reign ; and in truth he has done it in a very con- 
fufed manner. 

In the fame manner he introduces the famous 
Fionn, A. D. 152. You find him again in 254^ 
with his fon Oiihin ; and in 435, Oi£in converfcs 
with St. Patrick. 

Fionn or Fiond was a common name. 

Fiond Mac Cuil, or Fiond Mac Umhal or Mac 
Cumhal, for he was entitled to all thefe names, is 
a charafter drawn from the Perfian Asfendvar, fon 
of Kifhtafb, or Gherfhafb, of the ibbulous 
Pifhdadan dynafty. He was furnamed RuU^n or 
Body of Brafs^ on acount of his great Jirength^ and 
is often alluded to as one of the greateft heroes of 
Perfia. He never reigned, being killed in his 
father's lifetime by the famous Rujlanij fo much 
celebrated in their poems and romances, as the 
Perfian Hercules, (s) See Ch. IV. 

(5) D'Herbelot. Richardfon. 

Z 2 Sonaili, 

y Google 

55^ ^ yindicatim rf th 

Soiiaili^ peaking of the counge ei SdGam^ 
fiiys, the fire of his wrath had melted the brmt 
body of Asfendyar, aftd changed the ilony hart 
i^f Sam into a heart of flefti. 

Campian afferts that Rnd^ or FiMdf was far* 
named R$ban^ (he means Rotbanj the / not foond- 
ed) but this Keating denies. la a MS. of ihe 
Seabright colle£lion 1 find him named FiamhRB* 
than J viz. FismH-Rutban Fiimd an fi^ f. e. Hati 
a lift of the Fhna^ or, Chiefs rfFumnRuibMi tUi 
can be no other than the Rukan of the Perfaia. 
He is called Fiond Mac Cml^ and his troops Ctf* 
Fiana. Cul fienifies defence, a defender, and ii 
the &me as j^ar in Asfindyar. ¥lond, or floui 
(nd founds aa fm) fignifies troopsi, an aflembly rf 
men. Fend in Perfic has the fame fignificatioa 

Fiann Erin or Fearg Feme Eirin^ a Kind of bA- 
fia in Ireland, to drfend their ccMift againft invi- 
ders, of whom Ftonn Mac Cumbml or Fh^st vu 
the commander, concerning whom many fakfes 
have been written in fuccecding ages, and OD 
which the poems of Pinn^gal and Temora are 
founded, (a) He was caHed Fismn Mae Cml. (b) 
Fearc Feine^ fignifies xhtjiijl and liberal Guards or 
defenders ; hence Fearc or Fearg is a champioa; 
hence the Feridun Farrakb of the Perfians ; the 
iuft and Uberal Feridun^ one of their Piflidadaa 
kings* (c) N. B. Hngal figmfies Fin the fordga- 

(a) Shawe's IriA Dla. 

(b) O'Brian's ditto. 

(c) Mm Vmtd fignifies the Man of Brars» Hke the Perfini Rv- 
itan. Mac Cuma)^ the Soo of the Bold or GKiragBOU \ aiiA 
this correfpoiids to die name of Asfcndyar's father, vi*. Qv- 
/haiy^ i. e. the Bold Horft. 

y Google 

Ancient Hiflmj if Jkifand. 357 

- ^ but X take Rngal to be a corruption of Fiona*- 
111 or CuL 

The epithet At ia A^'Fend^yitr^ implies hononr^ 
ignity, majefty ; it is the Irim Ea$y in Eafcop^ or 
tf/hjf a biihop 4 the Chaldee srw Achm^ Achs of 
faS) has the fame meaning. In Petfia it is either 
r or Mkba/h^ fignifying price, value : the fame in 
ifli^ as Achi^aL, an angel. Agby pro^erous, 
ilnable : hence King X»mi>niH Achfuerus or 
khafeerus* £fth. ch« i. v« i. 

Thelrlfh Fmnd or Fiannj were diftinguiflied by 
?feral names, as Dar-Fimde, lar-Ftonne^ or Tar^ 
fouM, Gul-Fionne, &c. (d) The Perfians had 
be fame ; two of them are mentioned in fcripture. 
iftbcr 9. ¥. 3- And all the a*»39Tra^nN Achs- 
>ar-phenim iielped the Jews. )^S]bn^ Gulphin, 
knnorum genus: idem qnod putamus efle, quod 
^!r^ Kulphin, Clava ; Hteris palatinis :i (G^ 
nd f (K) inter fe commutatis. Efther 9, 5. (e) 
kod in Daniel^ ch. 3, v. 2. we hare ^e Dar^ 
^Hne mentionedL Then Niebuchadnexznr^c King 
rtit togathertogethcrthc»*»33-Tr*fnK-rfri6y.Z)/jr. 
^bema^ tranAasted princes. Bochart ^inks this title 
n Daniel is Periian and not Chaldee. Entibipauca 
\ multis exempUs. Dan. 3. a. leguntur quinque 
nomina mere Perfica l«f^35m-a«^^f 
iioi'Dar-Pbenaiaj i. e. Satrafa^ tuc. (f) Da- 
rid de Pomis was better informedy Gul-Pbenia^ he 
ays, is derived from ^ Gul, tunicUf toga, and 

(d) See CblleSanea, No. X. where I have given t wrong 
nterpretation of the names, owing to the ignorance of the 
ITomaientaton whom 1 copied. 

(e) Lexicon Chaldaicum, a Scfaaaf. 
(/) Bochait Geogr. Sacr. L. i. c. 15. 

y Google 

358 A Vindication of the 

r\iS Pbenaby cuftodire, fervare. Cg) I agree with 
this author, that Phenaia fignifies troops for dc^ 
fence of a country^ or a crowned head, but I am 
inclined to think ^^ Gul fpecifies the kind of (bt- 
diers, i. e. fpcar-men or Dart-men, for Gul in 
Chaldee is a Javelin, (h) We (hall treat more 
particularly on this fubjed, under the chapter Mi- 
litary ^ and fhall only here obferve, that the Italian 
Fante^ and the French Fantajfm are derived from 
our Fiana or Fionne. Icquez fays, Fantur^ in the 
ancient languages of the North, fignified to guard, 
to flioot the bow ; the word Infantry has the iamc 
derivation in Irifh, viz. Fiana-troi^ i. c. foldicrton 
foot. See a memoir of the author printed in tbc 
Archaeologla of the Society of Antiquaries of Lon- 
don, vol. vii. p. 277. 

The feabright MSS. before mentioned gives tbis 
defcriptidn of our Fionn. " Ifi ropa Taoifmh 
*' t€cgbalij agus ro pa Cean Dcoradhj agus JmbiUy 
^' agus ceach Cciihirine la Cor mac. Conadb friujin 
** at bear at in daefcar flua^h Fianna Find.*' i.e.hc 
was a tall gigantick chief, i. e* Taoifeacb-^^tiiii 
is the Chinefe Ty?, the Kalmuc Mongul Tai/biy 

(g) Lex. Didtion. extern. Hebr. 

(h) Kull or Gull in Arabic implies tbofe nnhnn mferfmmmp 
tGr.\ nQ.ntjlicks\ a word wc have changed into GMa in Iriih, 
AS Giolla'Phadruic, Patrick's fervant, Giolla-ciiptn a cop- 
bearer, &c. 

Fiann or Phionn as a proper nameHgnifies Prince, Chief, from 
pD Pann or Phan, Angulus, Exterior, plur. Pinnim, Pinoor, 
quod & metaph. fignincat Priinores, Principes, Capita popoli, 
(ToxnafTin) ; hence Lat. Pinna angulus in muris : the Appemnt 
Mountains, &c. hence the Med. Grace. Mxvarof : Banus, Sumr 
ma dignitai in Hungaria & Servia, ab hoc Pann vcl Panan, An- 
guli, Proceres, Capita popuJi, (Tomaff. ui fupra.) 



Jncient Hiftory ef Ireland. 359 

i'artar TJhauchsyiht Turkifti Tifcbabi and the 
m Tafjhah ; Arab. Tufhy power ; Towifli, 
5th, a lion. — Teaghali^ Arabic^ Teghali^ tall. 
?Uub^ power,; tyranny,/ opprclTion. Erbabi 
Uubj fuperiors, lords, mafters.) He was- 
nn Deoradhj it fliould have been Dairidb^ a 
rion name in Ireland, forming Daire in the 
lar, fignifying power, a chief. Cheann 
? in Arabic and Perfic, Khan-Dari^ chief of 
!• (i) He was Cheann Amhus^ chief of the 
g men : (k) Ambas^ir^ vel, Ambas-Jir^ a 
courageous (Irong man. In Perfian, Amazir^ 
idaunted men. Arab, Amafil^ nobles, gran* 
Pcrf. Amaj^ butts for (hooting at with ar- 
; Emzir^ ftronger. He was Cheann ceach 
imej i. e. chief of thofe that brandifh the 
• (1) Arab, and Perf. Kbytar, a trembling 
-«*aIfo he who brandiflies it. Kbetemny bran- 
ig a fpear — of thefe he compofed a noble ar- 
alled the Fiana Find. 

le Perdan Asfcndyar is grandfon of Loho* 
; Fionn is the grandfon of Treine-mor, a 
ty monarch. Asfendyar is killed by Rojianiy 
z caufe of buhuranij an oppreifive tribute laid 
e ftate ; Fionn Mac Cuil oppofes the Boiromb^ 

Daire, 9 title of honour with the Perfians, fignifying king, 
-r^Richarcifon'i diflercation on Eaftern Langu.) 

Amhas, in the didlionaries is tranflated a wild ungovem- 
lan, a madman ; but it fignifies a foldier. The iber 
us fays, the Mileiians fpent three days in landing their 

(foldiers.) Again, when the Milefians attempted to land 
hir Sgeinc, the Tuatha Dadann, by force of magic fpel Is, 
ed twelve women, four Amas, and four Giolla. (Leabar 
n.foi, 13.) 

Hence Ceithcmcach or Keitherneach, a brave foldier. 
V» did.) 


,y Google', 

360 A YindicaHM q/ tbe 

or royal tribute^ laid on by the king of Ldaftct, 
The Leabher Leacan^ or book ofLcacan, infbrnt 
us, that Conccdcithach entering Laigbtan^ the 
Irifli name of Leinftcr, (pcriiaps the country of 
AUGhian, i. e. Touran) Eecba Mac Ere Mac Eh 
cha^ (the Arjafp of Touran) refufcd to pay the 
Borombay fought the Lagenians and dcKated 
them. Conn flew a chief named Nuadba inith hii 
own hand. — Cormac Mac Art flew no lefs dufi 
eleven kings of Laighan in forcing this Bgrmia, 
BrealaUBelach (m) refufed it to Cairbrc Ufib- 
char, and this monarch offered to decide it in 
fmgle combat. Breafal pods away to Riml Ai^bre 
where Fionn refided, who immediately drew out 
his Fiana and came to Rojbroc^ where dwelt Mo* 
lingluath, Ceallach and Braen, intimate friends of 
Fionn. Moling -s Coloquy with Fionn i< pletfing 
and romantic : Fionn tells him, he has only fiftj 
Righ Feine f generals,) and thirty Laoch (foldicn) 
under each Righ Feine ; but, that with this num- 
ber ( 1 500) he means to fight the army of Carbre 
Liffeachar, rather than fubmit to the Boromba. 

Fionn draws out his men, exercifcs them in the 
valley of Rofbroc, and then fets loofe his boundi, 
calling the place Conar Cuain. Moling difpoEs 
every thing about his houfe, in the fame order a$ 
is obferved at the royal palace of Tara : the mafic 
of the harp and pipe refounds from fide to fidCi 
Maeledan, Elidan and Edan, having confidcred 
of the Borqmhay and refolved to rejed the pay- 
ment of it, Enan put on his (SrudaidhfroUda) (n), 

(m) Breas al Balkc, Breas, the King ml Baiac of Bolkkm 
Ba£triana, where reigned Lohorafp, &c. ttn3. Rex. 

(n) SuJar is the proper word— the Msigi's mantJeii See 


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AncUnt Hi^^ tf Ireland. 361 

filkcn mantles^ faid the Afrimn^ and blefled the 
Feine. (o) 

Fimn joined his forces next day to the army of 
the Lagenian king, and marching in a body to 
Cnambros^ they there defeated Cairbre Liffeachar, 
though much fuperior in numbers, and flew 9000 
men. Cp*) 

Keating 9 blundering on this paflage, makes the 
Feine of Ireland to amount to 9000 men, and in* 
forms us that it was Su Moling prevailed on the 
monarch to take off the Boromh tax ! 

The reader may by this form fome judgment 
of the great coincidence and affinity of the Irifla 
liiftory, with that of the Perfians. 

In the lift of Fionn's troops we find, 

Aille an Tuaran, i. e. AiUe the Touranian. 

Find, ua Goibine Gou : i. e. Fiond fon of Goi- 
bine Gou, the famous blackfmith of Perfian hif- 

Finally, he is called Sogen Fiond, viz. Sogen 
I. Fiond Mac Comuil; everyone converfant in 
Oriental Hiftory knows, that Sagaa is the name 
of a city and province of Touran or Tranfoxania \ 
i. e. Southern Scythia : the Perfians have foftened 
the name to Giaganian (q), and therefore have the 
Iriih Bards very properly called him Fion*ga)l or Fion 
the foreigner, and blended the fabulous hiflory of 
Fionn ^e Touranian with aoother celebrated 

(o) A modem IriAinaai would trsmibfie Afnam^ mail i wt 
liavc (hewn it was a word peculiar to the Perfian Ma^» to ex- 
prefs the fervice in the Fire Tower, a( well as the name of a Fire 
Tower. Ti Afrionn is the name tor a cfaappel or mafc hoafc, 
at this day. 

(p) Lfiibas Leacan fol. 

(4) See lyHerbelor, at Sagan, Saganak and Saganian. 


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362 A Vindication of the 


champion named Fionn Mac Cumal; we may 
fuppofe it was a name that never died, fince the 
time of the old Scythian or Perfian As-Fcnd- 

In a Romance called The Exploits of Cuchul- 
lin, we meet with the hiftory of the overthrow of 
Cyaxares the Mede, who was defeated by the Scy. 
thians before the walls of Nin or Nineve, when 
he was befieging that place. This defeat, whidk 
happened 634 years before Chrift, put the Scy- 
thians into pofTeffion of all AfTyria, to which they 
gave Kings for 28 years : All profane hiftorians 
place them in Aflyria at that period ; and there- 
fore Jeremiah, in recounting the nations that God 
would bring againft Judsea, omits the Aflyrians; 
for thefe fouthern Scythians had always dealt well 
with the Jews, to ufe the words of Macabees. 
The Scythians had defeated the joint forces of 
Cyaxares and Nebuchadnezzar, that Nebuchado- 
hofor, Bakhtnoifar or Gudarz, who was the 
fcourge of the Jews, and as inveterate an enemy 
of our Scythians and Touranians, driving diem 
from Dor and Scythopolis into Tyre, andfiroffl 
thence to Spain, together with the I yrians. 

The Greeks tell us, that Cyaxares flew the Scy- 
thian Chiefs at a feaft, to which he had invited 
them : but the Eaftern Writers are all filent oa 
this head. It feems more probable, fays Sir WiU 
liam Jones, that the Scythians were compelled by 
force to re-pafs the Oxus into I'ouran : and, adds 
this learned Oriental Hiftorian, the Greeks make 
them retire beyond Colchis and Iberia, confound- 
ing, as ufual, the Oriental with the Northern 
Scythians ; but we need not wonder at the mif- 


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Ancient Hijiory cf Ireland. 363 

takes of fuch writers, who have made Varanes out 
rf the name Beharam. (b) 

In the fame manner have they blundered, in 
mlling the Tyrians Phaenicians, miftaking our 
3qfthian Fenoice, who dwelt on the coaft of the 
Mediterraneaa and at Scythopolis, for the Cana- 
mites ; the Sepcuagint followed the Clailic Hifto- 
tians, and hence arife fuch miftakes as are not 
tzSly reconciled ; hence alfo flows that great va- 
riety of alphabets attributed to the Phsenicians as 
Tyrians, which makes a celebrated Medal lift ex- 
claim, ** No probable alphabet or interpretation 
** has yet been given of the Punic language.'* (c) 

But, caYi any fenlible man think it poifible, that 
fuch a vaft body of viftorious Scythians could be 
mafllacred by Cyaxarcs at a fcaft, by making them 
drunk; or i^ it probable that Nebuchadnezzar 
would invite them to fettle in his dominions, as 
the authors of the Univcrfal Hiftory conjefture, 
becaufe the Babylonians had never been a match 
for flie Egyptians, till after the cxpulfion of the 
Scythians by Cyaxares. The Babylonian Prince 
was always their moft bitter enemy : he had been 
beaten by them in Touran, under their King Afra- 
fiab (i. e, father of the Farfi or Perfians) :— Xe had 
been overcome by them, when he called to his 
aid all Media under Cyaxares ; — no wonder then 
that he purfued them and the Tyrians to the ex- 
tremity of the globe, even to Spam, from whence 
he routed them, till they fled to the Britannic 

(b) Hiftory of Perfu, p. 47. 

(c) Pcrkington, EfT. on Mcd.ils, p. 127. 


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364 ^ VJndicatim of Urn 

The Irifli Romance mentioning the conqued tf 
Cyaxares and the taking of Nin^ is in the foUow* 
ing words :— Speaking of CuchuUan's march to- 
wards Nin, ^' Do fiut tri chaech oc fuidi, ag« 
^^ briftean triocha carpthi and bdach Minne m\ 
*^ as ainm na maidm fm co brath* Atanig Co* 
^ cuUan fon Achifrax conitapadh froech do cnir* 
*^ eathar for tir ; bearaid a muinter gf^Algirf 
*' comboi iiin dunad. Athfrocich is ainm in atia 
*^ fin CO brath« Is andfind nancalar cniiti cm 
^' bile Oeafruud dian orfidead, indarleolbin ba- 
^ duto fcelaib foru Cucullan.'' L e. In the vay 
to Nin, Cucuilan met three blind men, fitting k 
the road : they wenc the caufe of his breaking 50 
chariots ; the name of the place where this batdc 
was fought is Belach Ninn to this day. Then Cu- 
cuilan fell on Achifrax with furiotis wrath to driic 
him out of the country : the main body of hit 
forces fled precipitately from the fortren^*-^ 
name of the place where that battle was fought ii 
Athfroech. Then came the fweet-mouthed iarpai 
of Ofrhoe, to play on their inflrumeats, and to 
record in dory the feats of Cucuilan. 

Nin is the name of Nineve ; Nin lea Na», cpix 
a propheta Jonah ftylo Byblico vocatur Nineve, 
pro rrD"]*»3 Nin-neve, L c. Nini habitado. (d) 

Achifrax, i. e. illuftrious prince, the fame ai 
Cai-acbs-ris^ or Caiaxers, whence Cyaxares of the 
Greeks, all mere titles ; thus ^l2t;^*nM Achfuar of 
the Perfians is fometimes written '0£vaip h o^^h 
X)'.v(ifr»f vel Acfuaros, feu apud Biblicos Aom^, 
Affuerus, as the learned Hyde obferves. — ^Thus 
airp the Irifh write Gafander, the Perfians Sacan- 
dar, and the Greeks and Latins Alexander. 

(dj Hyde, Rel. Vet. Pcrf. p. 4a. 


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jfncient Hift^ry (f Ireland. 365 

It has been the wonder of ages, what became 
f diis vaft body of Scythians after this defeat* 
omc undoubtedly fled northward to Touran, 
rhere their defendants ftill remain; but none 
e-pafled the Chains of Caucafus : for ages the 
louthem Scythians or Perlians had been at war 
ridi the Normern Scythians, reprefenting them as 
)cmon8, and always refpeding them as Barba- 
ians. Others fled to Dor and the borders of the 
ylcditerranean, from whence they pafled to Si- 
ily, to Spain, and to Ireland. Others fled to 
Tyre and Scythopolis, and were at length obliged 
o take the fame route. In 634th year before 
ISirift they defeated Cyaxares before Nin; in 
>%4 they invaded Media and Lydia ; in 596 they 
wexc expelled from Afia; and in 571 Nebuchad- 
lezzar took Tyre, and gave them and the Ty- 
ians a general routing. 

Another proof of an Oriental colony in Ireland, 
nav be drawn from the gf eat affinity of the old 
[Am with the Sanfcrite or Hindoftan language, 
sardcularly In theological terms ; a flrong proof, 
a our opinion, of the Bramins deriving their 
>rigin from the Tuatha Dadann of Irifli hiftory, 
being a mixture of the Southern Scythians with 
]ic Dedanites of Chaldaea : — ^To imention a few : 


y Google 

366 A Vindication of the 

HiNDOsTAN. Irish. 

Brimha wifdom^ one of Brom wifdom^ wbetice 
the principal attri- Brumaire a Pedant^ 
butes of the Supreme Bramin a Magus 

Senafleys afet of mendi- Seannfar, alfo a chanter^ 
cant pbilofophers who Sannaa holy 
forfake all worldly ailions 

Beda a book of divinity Bed 

Shaftar the fame Sheifter, Scis 

Narud reafon Nard 

Om an emblem of the Om, Uam, Owim 

The Sancrit word implies a myftic emblem bf 
the Deity, and is forbidden to be pronounced but 
in filence. The Irifli word fignifies fear, terror, 
and is derived from the Chaldee O^M Aiam, fbr- 
midabilis, of the fame (ignification as the Cab- 
baliftical ^M egla, Irifh eagla, fear, terror. 
Hence in Hebrew £ma, Emata, terror, plur. 
Emota, Idola quafi Terricula : and in Jerem. c 
50. v. 38. Aimimy Idola, Gigantes, quafi terrific, 
Irifli Amh. Hence the divine Oifhin of the Perfi- 
fians, Guebres and Irifli, is called Mac Om. 

Oofana or Sookra, the Uifean the Fallen Angd^ 
Preceptor of Evil Spi- the humbled om^ ether' 
rits wife called Socrai qt 

Socraidhy /• e. Legion 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 



Sat a name of Brahm 
Obatar bah 

Seathar God 

Beter-leach the Old Law^ 
the Old Tejiament ; A- 
rabice Betarick a Pa^ 

The Obatar bah is written in a language now 
obfolcte : few Brahmins pretend to read it, whe- 
ther from its antiquity or being in an uncommon 
dialed of the Shanfcrite, is hard to determine. 
Obatar bah fignifies the ancient, good. 

Mohat matter Mathar 

Dewta Heaven Nuathai 

Omrah a Noble Amra 

Mucht abforbed Muchd 

Mun intelled Mein 

Krifhen one of the thou^ Krifliean holy^ a Prieji 
fand names of God^ 
from Krifh giving^ ana 

Surg heaven Soirke the celefiial light 

Gnan, Gneya, Parce- Gnatk, Gna, Phear-gnath 
gnata, wifdom, the fu- 
perintending fpirit of 

V^rt^on God of the ocean Fear-own, Fear-amhna 

Nark Hell Nearac miferahle 

Y6gmental application in Ogh, Oighc 
/piritnal things 


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368 A Tindicatim rftbe 

Hndostak. Irish. 

lAohz folly Madha 

Karma the creative qua- j^ Crora-cruath tberreet 
lity of Kriflma Deitj rf the Irifi, es 

cm2,ibJSgm/!esan imqe^ 
a Ukenejs^ kc. 

Ved learnings the Sacred Fead, fiod, fadh^ bitmg 

Vefhnoo the Deity in bii Beifcnadh, beafcna 
preferving quality 

Pavak the God ofjlre Bavac, /. e. badhbha 

Mcroo t/je Norih-pole of Mir the fummit of a ti^b 

the terrcjlrial globe^ mowitain, Mir-gbart/ir 

fabled by poets to be the Nortb-poUj fymmmm 

higheji mountain in the to -which is Mol tbe/umF 

world mitj Mulghart the mrtb 


It is very remarkable that M^roo in the San- 
crite, and Mol in the Irifli, do both fignify an 
axis; as in Irifh Mol Muilinn, the axis or beam 
that fets a mill in motion. 

Bhrecgoo one of thejlrfi' Brig Nature^ Brighid/.^e 
created beings, produc' Goddefs prefiding over 
ed from the mind of poetry^ &c. 

Gandarvs the ccleftial An Gein the holy Ones, 
Choirs^ the Gandarv Gein-do-charbhadh li&« 
of the painted chariot holy Ones $f the charity 

Garoor a bird fabled to Carour 
be of a "jacnderfulftzc 


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Jfwient Hiftary of Inland. 369 

HiNDosTAN. Irish. 

Sreeflima botfiafon Gris-mi 

The above are taken from Mr. Holwell's differ- 
aison on the Brahmins in Dowe's Hindoftan, and 
irom the Bhegvat-Geeta of Mr. Wilkins. A gen- 
Icman very well (killed in the Hindoftanic lan- 
guage is now about colle£king whatever has been 
mtten on the Sancrite ; from his knowledge and 
abours we may exped to find, more informati- 
>n. (a) In the mean time we have made a coUa- 
ion with the Irifh and Hindoftanic from the fmall 
vocabulary given of that language by the learned 
MilUus. (b) 

HiNDosTANic« Irish* 

(iMVfic prefenty arrived Ata 

Andelha blind Dall 

Alia God All 

iiXizkiJlrife Fakt 

Atfac confederacy Taovac 

Adznaha a Guardian ^^nadfaadh 

Azghjlre Daigh 

Ardzaha a requejl Seafadh 

Amtalah plenitudo TJmtola 

(a) Mr. Marfden, audior of the hiftory of Sumatra. 

(b) Diflcrt. Selca« varia. S. Litter. & Antiq. Oricntis Capita 
txpoiv p. 510. 

A a Angoer 

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Angoer a grape 
Bharteje addition 
Baarkardi ofprejjlm 
Backra a rata 
JixooSaL flattery 

Batbarah an enmy 

Baxus a gift 

BgcAol a daughter 

Bzz'p father 

Buch/o^r, burigry 

Badel a flying cloud 

Circa, fharpj four 

Charabai deflruSion 


Dhaayn magick 

Dall a journey y road 


Dafah mifcbievous 


Dijocttha vulgar J a lyar Siotta 

Derriauw thefea Treara 


An caor 
Bbc a be^goai 

Brafa, whencelinSiSsa^ i 


Bifeach iWr^^ 


Papa dominus 


Baxdh UndutaHon 



Ccas, ore 

Dan (c) 

buU, doU 




(c) Hence the Danu Dani (»n liT) of the Chaldccf. Verl 
fi&3L incftncantium. See Bux^^liLex. 


y Google 

AnciM tS/hry tf keUmcL 

37 » 





Dhoed milk 


Derwasje a door 


Dzam a church 


Degga revenge J deceit 


Biuche pairij ^rirf 




Dm a day 

Mai-den morning 

Dulath wealth 

Dual hereditary wealth 

Danab dijfoluiion 


Dhanth a tooth 



Dsjaar a tree 

Dair an oaiy Garran a 



Dsjunatje antiquity 

Seanda, Seanaois 

Dilgiric affliilion 


DoUothja multitude 


Dsjothja a denying 


Elaas ajftflance 

Lais, Luis (d) 

Farka a divifton^ boun^ Fairke a Bi/hop^sfe^^ Fai- 
dary rig aparijbj ecclefuzjli' 

cal boundaries 

(d) Hence the inftmmeflt called Lewif^ to lift great ftona 
with I >hence Luis a hand. 

A a 2 


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Frufta an Angel 
Farazie climbing 
Foci a flower 
Felachun a fling 
Faidah ufury 
Yzxzxfujift of flight 

Fearafat intelledus 
Fekr poverty 
Galbah viilorious 
Ghaoj a cow 

Ghedderria afl>epherd 
Ghaam pagm 
Garricbah mifery 
Gaal the cheek 
Goedha medulla 
Ghazi a judge 
Guffa indignation 
Gaas vegetation^ g^^fl 
Ghaftaja a defefl 

A Vindication of the 

Freafdal a Guardian Angel 
Farlacan a caft 

Hence Fearan a y«^, 
Fcorog a fquirrel^ Fi- 
oreun an eagle^ &c. &c 


Bocrac a beggar 


Agh, Garnach aflrifperj 

Shed a milch cow 
Tuam, Gragan 


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AnckM Hi/lory of Ireland. 373 



idari karrem i 
Karrem // the 

^0 Gabhancuirim 
Irijh aflive verb Cuirim. 

c a griddle 



Gauv, gabh ^ ^ 

€ Mufes 


1 a horfe-driver Gabharan 



a hujbandman 


'he knejs 


an abyfs 



Gour, Gabhar 

a horfe 

Gaife chivalry 


Bala, Tog-valah, a builder 


Eagar, Eagma 


Leacadh ) 




Ciohm prating^ Clampar 







nal^ a well 


I poet 

Cabaiftcr, a rehearfer^ a 
prattling fellow 


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Kannah afmCi wife 
Kanuna law 
Eaar labour 

Karuwa bitter 
Kafalta judicium 
Kabin a dowry 
Kauwe meat 
Kamaan a bow 

Karbat kindred 

Kolled an opening 
Katia a bandy troop 
Khaan brafs 
Koona an angle 
Laatje ajlqff 
Loo, lights fame 

Lafchkarje an army 
Loemnie a fox 
Look the people 
Laer a hog 
Loeth rapine 


Mac Koinne 

Canoin, PerfKMWL 

Keard a mecbanicy Frau 
kar labour 




Cotb, Caw 

Camin, al/b a croMthot 
or burling dub^ 

Craob, hence Crao(>4j||eiit 



Cron, Ban, copper 



Lo the day^ Loom apm^ 
Lua-carn a tdmpy Logh 
divine fire 


Leoman a lion 





y Google 

^ejiomacb Maodal 

able Mios 4 di/h 

Mathar (c) 


Mo-oUamh, i'^^ Ma<^- 

Mart male 


Ma, Math, Meas 







di mapjler 


n image 



ah an altar 
rre a prop 
\ an oration 
I a congregation Nafadh 
7 groan Anal-o&ia 

i of good fame Neoch^suiwm 
name Ainim 

rora Noir, Anojr 

(ec, Nfeder, are not German words introduced into 
language, as many have thought 1 thty all proceed 
iginal Hibernian or Scythian root Jthar^ a|i origin, 
, ftrength, power. Lord : whenc Athar, Father, Am- 
-athair, dhe woman of the Athar, the Mpt|}$r^ Qi^t- 
5on (rf the Athar, Brother | Bith-athair, the Djiugh- 
Ajiiiar} wh(ence' Biuthar and Ifiucfaat a iftef^, «c. 
traf, fathers, brothers, uncles ; alfo the xg^ qobje : 


itzed by Google 


J Vhidtcatm rfthe 

HiNDo$TAKic. Irish. 

Pifde a worm Piafd 

'PztgTimhtt a prophet Phaigh 

Pcyffa money Piofa 

Pkun the foot Bunni 

Patsjcra fTc/? Phatfiar Wejl^ Phai 

South J PhathuagMv 
N. B. Pe in Chincfc is the North-point 

Pattha a nerve Pheith 

Pohziz a fountain J Jpring Bior, Phipr-uifce j^ 

water^ Phior-tobar 



Paflaric ajiore 


Peeaar love 


Poni water 


Rachna chopping 


Raath night 


Soei tf /^m/, a needie 

Soigh a dart 

Sjoanna youth 


Sjieuwte age^ life 


Schehetki a beej Saeth Seitce^ Saith afmm 

Sucka dry Sioc 

Sonnie hearing Son found 

Sahcb a Lordy Souba a Seibte a General 


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Attdent Hijlory of Ireland. 




e bardnefs 


IX exile 





Suva„ Subhares 

ih genealo^ 

Siol, Sail-fiola 

en a week 


a road 


la youth 


18 ajbip 

Efs, Si-Efs 

Tfia, a Prince 

Suidh, Toife 


Sidh, Sith 

s green 




li the Navel 





me pot-herbs 


a obedience 

Tcite, Deidc 

\> aphjfician 



nd luna 

C2XLTL luna plena 





ifi horror 



Laid, Genea-laid, L^- 
dim to bring forthj An- 
glic^ to lay-in 


y Google 

378 Ar rm4Uatmh gf tb^ 


Taalima learning OUamh 
Tookric wattles, pannier Tocar 

Tsjckney/j/, full Tigheacht 

Tsjocleja ffing away^ Siula, Sligha 

TtpXtc walking Siulta 

Waih good Waih, Mhfluth 

Zahak foolijh Seachain 

The laft argument wc fhall produce in faronr of 
an Oriental Coloi^y fettling in Ireland^ )^ froni die 
words Clan and Baik^ bqch which (ignify. ^ coIq*- 
ny ; wc (hall dwell particularly on thefe words, bc- 
caufe they have not been admitted int» ZjBPf of dK 
Celtic dialeds. 

Clann fignifies a number of £aimilies of the iame 
tribe, dwelling together ; it is the Orieiiial f/^ 
Klan, congregationes } a word that pa2^ with 
our Scythian Hercules into Italy when be fettled 
at Croton : hence we find Amadutius, in his Lexi- 
con Vocarum Etrufcarum, p. 6^ eipkuat GkaoL 
by Natus, filius; Denapftcr wildly derives it frop* 
the river Clanus in Etruria, becaufe the word 
Clann happened to be found on an inlcd]^^ii^ dIC- 
covered near that river ; he is corre&(:4 by Am?? 
dutius, and before him by Paflerus. 

Bailie is of more extenfive (ignification : it im- 
plies a congregs^tion of mixed ttibcis ; hence it 
fignifies a town, a village, a fettlement, 2^ colony. 
The names of every fettlement of this kind in Ire- 
land, has Bailie (or Bally) prefixed : hence Bsa* 
ligbeachd, a province,*^ a diftrid, a Bailiwick. 


y Google 

AneiinrSSfi^rf rf Irelimd. 379 

t dieArabiek JB^d^ su proYince. Urbs, oppU 
^ domus : the aameof Mecca* (a) 
f. Bapt. Pqgeri has given fucb aa ample expla^ 
ioA of Baly as a PhamiciaQ word of the fame 
tification with our Baile > we ftall prefcnt the 
ier with hia remarks, taken from his Eflay Dt 
\mo aerea BaUeorum^ printed in the Symbola Litt. 
;/he/— *Florent^ vol. 4.——-" Quod unum 
:am eft, mukac fiiere toto orbe terrarum civita- 
qu^ hoc nomine didac funt, vel ab ejufiiem 
^e pattlnlum perturbatur denominationem 
epenint. Nafti prseter Macedonicam BaHam 
ielam Phaeniciae, caeterafque plurimas> qucis 
kfrica recenfuimus^ haec nobis apud. Aja£botrea. 
primo obloto occurrerunt : 

BaHata, in Mefopotamia. 
Balagea, in Arabia. 
Balatea, in Arab. 
Balifbeg^, in Armenia. 
Ballenae, inPbrygia. 
Ballera, in Hifpania. 
Balliace, in lUyrico. 
Balacri, in Oriente. 
Balangrae, in Cyrenaica. 
Balaretanus, in Africa* 
Balbura, inLycia. 
Balcea, in Teutrania. . 
Balefium, in Meflapia. 
Ballania, in Phoenicia. 
Baltia Oceani infula. 
Balfa,. in Cyrene. 
Balbia opp. Brutiorum. 
Balari, in Sardinia. 

(a) Goliui. 


y Google 

380 A Vindication rf the 

Quod vero ad Balam feu Ballam fpedat, cstenl. 
que quas recenfuimus urbes, quibus una fuiffe vi. 
detur origo nominis, iUa fi quid rt&h fentio, mi. 
nime a Grseco eft, nam baaaq jaculor, nuUam 
mibi ingerit imaginem, qus in urbium fundatione 
nomen illis eflfecerit ; nempe hxc vel a conditioner 
^el ab eorum religione, feu a loci natura, demmn 
ab auguriis petebantur. Putamur potius BeUm 
feu Balam efle a radice V?3 (Ball) mifcere feu con- 
fundere, quae notio optimc conveniebat urbitMu 
illis, quae a multorum populorum una coeuntium 
concurfu fuerunt conftitutae, ut 6menfaceretanK 
cordiae, quemadmodum omnibus par gratia refe- 
rebatur. Hanc ipfam ideam explicat nobis yoz 
medio aevo frequenter ufitata ad oppida denomi- 
nanda, quae ex multis una confluentibus incolis 
conftituta funt. Quia vero in urbium fundatione 
haec populorum commixtio lia^ accidebat, buic a 
lingua, quae omnibus tunc communis erat, inde 
nomen Ballae^ feu Balae^ fadum fuiflc exifti- 

Paffcrus has certainly given us the true meaning 
of this word ; hence in the Chaldaean language 
rpO-VQ Bol'fuph nomen proprium loci in Babylo- 
nia ubi confufus fuit fermo, which was afterwards 
named Borfoph ; whence the adage Ex quaenam 
terra es ? Fpo "TOO de Borfoph — Ne dicas mihi 
fic, fed de I^W Va Bolfuph, nam ibi confudit dcus 
labium univerfae terrae. (b) 

In like manner the Latins formed the word 
Urbs from 3iy Oreb, mixtio, mifcellanea turba, 
minus apte ergo Latini duxerant Urbs, ab Urvo, 
i* e. ab aratri curvatura circumdufti. (Tomai&n.) 

(b) Vide Bcrcs-rabba. Scd. 38. 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 381 

The word Bali never entered the Celtic dialeO: : 
at was caught at by a Welfh author, viho is cor- 
rc£led by Dr. Davies in his Welfli diftionary. (c) 
Bala^ fays he, is caput fluminis h lacu fluentis. 
The Doftor may be ri^ht with refpeft to his own 
dialed, but in the Irifh and Phxnician, it has a 
contrary meaning \ when applied to a river, it de- 
rives from another word, viz. "jia Beol^ Phan. and 
Bed, Irifh, the mouth : the embouchure of a river, the 
exit into the fea, where meeting an oppofite cur- 
rent, the water ftagnates for a while and depofits 
S-eat banks of fand, which are called Bela, and 
uU^ as Beal'feafdaj now Belfaft. Bela at the 
mouth of the Shannon: the North and South 
Bulls of Dublin harbour, (d) 

i^j/Zfignifying a town, a city, a mixture of peo- 
ple, is common to mod oriental nations, as 

Bala, a town. Tartar Dialed. 
Z-bal, a habitation. Hebrew. 
Bala, an inhabitant. Malayan. 
Bal-gafum, a town. Tartar Calmuc. 
Balagan, a houfe. Tartar- Jakut. 
Balli, a temple. Malabar. 
Palle, a village. Talenga. 

It is the Etrufcan Vola or Vela, fometimes writ- 
ten Vclia, i. e. oppidum, aut Arx. Hence Vola- 
tcrra, Volcae, Volumnius, Voltumna, Velfinium, 
Felfina, Veletras, Vclabrum, Vclia, &c. &c. See 
Amadutius, Lex. Vq^:. Etrufcarum. 

(c) Price tranflates Sa!a Pagus ; fed qua ratione hoc dicac 
aian video, ni(i exiftimat fieri a Lit. Villa. Davies. 

(d) Hence Punicd & Arabice y^3 bela eft aquse vprtez, quo 
saves ablbrbentur. Bocbart. 

C H A P. 


382 AVindk^tkn^ftbe 

C H A P. II. S E C T. L 

I. Of Paganifm in General. Generslplan f lb» 
latry^ formed before the difperfion. 

n. Of the Pagan Religion of the Ancient In^. 

IT is impol&ble to draw any Arcruments of fbe 
affinity of one pagan nation with anodicr; be- 
caufe there was evidently one general principle uni- 
verfally adopted by all pagan nations througbont 
the world. A good and a bad Genius ; a media- 
tor between ; the worfhip of :the Sun, Moon, and 
Heavenly hoft, of the Elements and of Angels diat 
prefided over the Elements, conftitutcs the Reli/^- 
on of all pagan Nations-: to whidi we may add, 
that their philofophers and priefts acknowledged 
one invifible n"^ Jah or Eflencc, that governed die 

From fome local additaments, from the namei 
of Deities, of Priefts, SacrificatOFS, and from die 
fixed Feftivals, fome idea may be formed, bat of 
thefe there muft appear an uniform Syflem, be- 
caufe the principles of all Idbtaters having been the 
fame originally, it was matter of com^aconce in 
one nation to adopt the name of the attribute of 
any Deity, in a fdreign tongue ; and when they 
did not thoroughly underitand the name, Aey 


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Jtndtnt Hijiory cf Ireland. 383 

were fo i(bre of being in the right, that they named 
the Deity, the Deus ignoius. 

If the general principles of Idolatry are the fame 
ixrith all Pagan Nations, and I think it is pretty 
!kar they are fo, it is the ftrongeft confirmation 
>f the words of the divine and infpired Mofes, 
x^hoinfotms us, that at one time after the Flood, 
dl mankind were together in one place, of one 
Speech, (and of one religion, for fo I underftand 
he Text.) And that all apoftatized from the 
True God, excepting one family, who did Heber^ 
. e. fecede from, or depart, and Pe/eg i. e. divide 
[in opinion) from the reft, and on which account, 
nankind were divided throughout the Earth. 
KThilft the aforefaid family of Heber did continue 
h Ae true faith, and in the fame place. Non du- 
^tflmdum nee diffitendum quin Eber ejufque fami- 
ia Oithodoxiam tenuerint. (a) And this agrees 
mth the opinion of moft of the Rabbins, and 
Mher learned men. Cham verb primus fuit qui 
nvenit Idola arte fabrefafta, & primus qui in mun- 
lum introduxit fervitutem alienam &c docuit ho- 
nines familiae fub cultum ignis, (b) 

Tempore Phaleghi aedificata fuiffe templa & in 
ds Principum Statuas pro diis adoratas fuifle. (c) So 
hat from the days of Cham's abominable inventi- 
m to the days of Pheleg, mankind were jarring 

(a) Hjdc, Vet. Rel. Perf. p. 55. 

(b) In L. Magghon haggiborim» i. e« Scutum fortium. Kirch. 
>belifc. Pamph. p. 1 4. — And with this opinion agrees the Ara- 
>iaii Abeoeph. Fuit autem Chaai iilius Noas & primus oftendic 
vknm Idolorum & m mimdum primus introduxit Magicas artes 
k nomen ejus Zorafter, ipfe j^Jrh fecundus, hoc eft Ignifperpe- 
Qus. Lib de facr. Hift. ^ypt. 

(c) V. Beda in Chronico. 


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384 ^ Vindication of tJie 

and quarrelling about this fsilfe religion, tiQ boM 
fixed, probably by Royal mandate, they did di« 
vide and fcatter over the earth, carrying with (hem 
one and the fame Religion. 

There muft have been fome general plan or 
fcheme of Idolatry, with refpeft both of philofo- 
phy and worfhip, agreed on in the main, amoi^ 
the heads of the heathen tribes, before their dijpn- 
Jion. (d) For, if they had gone off believen, at 
Ab. P/iffi&^fuppofes them to have done, they would 
have continued fo : Or, if after their new fettle- 
ments made, they had changed their religion or 
philofophy, it would have been impoifible for pa- 
ganifm to have retained fo many mutual lUeneJis 
and agreements, as we find it to have had in the 
main, all the world over: becaufe, the fcveral 
Colonies falling off by themfelves, (as Ab» Plud)e 
fuppofes the Egyptians to have done) each would 
have invented a religion and philofophy for them- 
felves, as unlike thofe of others, as were their fe- 
veral faces, languages, and charaders of writ- 
ing, (e) 

(d) Holloway. 

(c) The Revd. Mr. Jackfon obferves, it is the glory ind htp- 
pinefs of the ancient Chinefe, that they were entirely free frm 
Idolatry, when all the known Kingdonis of the wqM bcfido ' 
were corrupted in it. He grounds his afTertion on a palbgeof 
Martinius, that thev were not allowed to make any Image of tbe 
fupreme God, or of the miniftring Spirits. (Chronology, V. :, 
p. 416.) (Martinius, L. 1. p. 11.) We have ihewn fromu 
good authority, that they reprefented the Great God bj tk 
Mu'rp^ or Muidhr of the Irifh and Mahoody of the Gcottns— 
this was the general image or figure of the Generative facility, 
revolver, &c. it was univerfaK and part of the original Babykh 
ui(h Syllenh— >The Egyptian Obelilk was of this conflrufldon.^ 

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Ancient lllfiory of Ireland. 385 

But, we fee the fad to have been far otherwife : 
The general Outlines or Lineaments of all pagl-* 
Bifin id the world, the Egyptian and all others, 
art reducible to one or two common originals, 
which, therefore, muft have been ftruck out in 
common, by a joint confent among them, before 
ibeit grand difper/ion ; and confequcntly, the Ido- 
latry nncc found in each nation, muft have been 
prior to its fettlement as a nation ; and therefore 
the Egyptians muft have been the fame Idolaters, 
(excepting fome occafional and local additamenttf, 
tommon to all nations) before they were Egypti- 
ans, I mean before they fettled in the provinces 
about the Nile, as after ; and this in fome mea- 
furc accounts for their feftivals and names of the 
ccleftiat figns, not correfponding to their language, 
or to their meridian, but to thofe of the place they 
departed from originally, where all Idolatry took 
its rife, of which we (hall fay more, when treating 
of the AJironomy of the ancient Irifli. 

Hence, as that ingenious and learned writer on 
Paiganifm, he Baron de Sainte Croixj obferves, " in 
proportion as we look back into the firft Epocha of 
Paganifm, the number of divinities diminift)," 
that is, the principles become in general the fame. 
-^Dcs pratiques plus iimple anencent leur nouvau- 
t^,-^^n matiere de Religion, les hommes ajoutent 
tojours, & ne retranchent jamais. D'abord on y 
adora un Etre invifiblej immortal, mais alfiftant, 

It !s robe fonnd amongft all nations, and in every part of the 
Globe. ' Fohi (who was a ScTthian) taught the Chnicfe ro offer 
Sacrifices at the two Solftices, ro Xan-Ti, the Supreme Spirit. -* 
(Dtt HiMeHift. Chin. V. 3. p. 2a. 

B b &prefent 

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386 A Tindkatim rfibe 

& prefent par toot ; auquel on donna le nomde 
Ph-Ta. (f) 

It is true, the Gentiles did carry with them, at 
the difperfion, this name of the Eflence, but dm 
does not confirm Ab. Pluche's, or Sir I. Nevtoo'i 
Syftem, that they went away true believers. One 
invifible fupreme is acknowledged by all the Ho- 
thens, and it is remarkable that the original iT 
Jah is the name by which all Heathen nations ac- 
knowledged, this Eflence from one end of the 
Globe to the other. The firft Letter in the i»ord 
is ^ Jod, which is founded by all Orientalifts 7^ 
hence iT* is pronounced Tjah i. e* He who is. 

(^and les langues furent divis^es, & que la dif- 
perfion fe fit, chaque famille enporta fes myfterei, 
& ia religion, & retint prefque tous Ifs anciem ter* 
mes confacrez dans les myfteres, i. e. When tiie 
languages were divided and the difperfion took 
place, each tribe carried with them their myfteriei 
and religion, and almofi all retained the andem term 
of the/acred mjjieries. Cg) 

Hence we find n^ Tjah. He who /r, Jirfi igrfe^ 
Effence^ pronounced by the Chinefe and Japonde 
7f and Tfi. (h) The Egyptians prefixed die Arti- 
cle of their dialed to it, viz. % or Pb. and wrote k 
Phfa^ though er according to the proper force of 
their letters rather founds Pbdei. But, asacon- 

(f) Memoirs de la Relig. fecrete des anciem people. 
Ph-Ta, is the Tja, with the Egyptian Article prefixed. Tk 

divine emanation from the Father was called TU^Q Pfaidiah, I 
e. the Revelation, the word (i^iBes aperuit. 

(g) Jurieu Hift. Critique, de I'Eglife, p. 527. 

(h) Mihi videtor verifimile per fummiun impenitorem XaB|* 
Ti diclum Sinas olim Deum opiimam maximum inteJlezifle, Mi^ 
tin. Sin. Hid L. 2. p. 48. — ^This is the ^on-TVof the Irilk 


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Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 387 

Tincing proof that by this name they mean the Ef- 
fence, they have a fynonimous word for it, viz. 
noud or notify to which they fometimes prefix Phta 
as Pbta Noud. Noud is derived from the Verb 
Oi^ Effe, from whence denoi^ famus, Needcij qui 
funt, contracted to Noudj becaufe they adopted 
a plurality. The Chriftians of Egypt to take away 
the plurality, prxfix Ab, i. e. pater, and Mnoudij 
i. c. Pater qui eji^ is now the name of God with 
them, (ij The Statue of the Maker of the World 
at Tbebais was an image with an egg coming out 
of his mouth, to intimate that Jab or Pbta create 
ed it by his word. 

The Iroquois of N. America name the Effence 
Mani'TioUj i. e. the good Tjah — ^Thc Pagan Irifh 
wrote it Ti-mor i. e. the great He who is. The 
Hurons call it Soronhia-Tia^ i. e. the exifting 
Tjah. (k) The inhabitants of Paraguay about Ria 
de la Plata, name it Tiou-pa, Tou-pa, or Tu-pa ; 
Father Ruis fays it fignifies, quod eft hoCj but John 
de Lach fays it means thunder. It is undoubtedly 
the Ti'pafa of the ancient Irifli or Southern Scy- 
thians fignifying Dominus qui eft. The Mexicans, 
as Herera related, acknowledged one fovereign 
Deity, the Creator of Heaven and Earth, and next 
to him they worfhipped the Sun, Moon, Stars, 
Sea, and Earth. They kept a perpetual facred 
fire burning before the Altar of their chief Temple. 
The Mechoacan Indians, forty feven leagues from 
Mexico, had a tradition of the flood \ of one fami* 

(i) In Hke manner the Egyptian Jfis is no niore tlian the He- 
bror w^ tt^» Is Is, i. e. ipfa eft, or if we read it with vowels dad 
fcatiK%^ it it WtW* Jejhu i. e. ipia eft. 


Bb 2 ly 

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388 A Vindication of the 

ly being (kved in the Ark ; of feveral Ration te 
went out of it, and of one returning vith tbeboQ|^ 
of a tree. The Peruvian Indians owned one&^ 
reign Lord and maker of all things, to whom ihejf 
ereded a mod fumptuous temple ; and in thii ton* 
pie was their Idol the Sun, and this the boi 
adored next to the Supreme God. 

The Carabs name the great fpirit Tche-miii, 
which is the fame as the Mani-Tiou of the Ajgoop 
kins, the Mann-Ti of the pagan Irifli, and die 
Mana of the Arabs ; and the Gauls info'ibed on 
the facred tree, the word Tbau^ by which they 
meant God. The Singhali or Sclan of Ccjloi 
name it Ta-mor. It is the 

Thi-ka.of Tonquin, 
Tie-debak of Japon, 

TiJaloch 1 ^ ^ Mexicans, 

Ti-la^hpuca 3 

Tois^ or the Floridans, 

Tiu-mali or Ju-mali ot the Finnones and Eftooe^ 

Tou-pan of the Braiilians, 

Tou-lay of the Moluccans, and the 

Xi-tean of the Pagan Iriih, 

That is^ the ^ of fire, whence Titean, the; Sin, 

th^ fiery fpidt, for they never entertained a coipo* 

real idea of the Creator. 

The Latins acknowledged the unity of the EXi 
Ij^nce, his. omnipotency and omnifciency in Jo^ 
a n^me not derived from jtivo^ but from rnn^Jab* 
vah or Jehovah. Falluntur in nomine, fed dc una 

(I) Vcrelius. Lex Scytho Scand. / 

(m) Ruis. Account of Paraguay. De Lact. Ind. OeaU L 
15. 6. 2. y^ 


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Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 389 

pbtdhttt confcntiunt qui Jovem principfcin volunt. 
^ffinutius FelUO 

Ih the Greek Teftament wc have only two names 
reclaimed from the Heathens, viz. eWy and Kt^ii^ 
L t. Ood and Lord ; Kupi^ is a primarily name 
of Effitncej from Kyp^ to be or to cxift. From 
tdieAce fccondarilyi and in confcquencc, it bfecamc 
a nlme of dominion. So e.V, I think, is not from :^[oi 
to run^ as taken from the running of air and light 
ill cijtpanfion, or from the runnings or revolutions 
6f the Planets, Stars, &c. as has been imagined 
by fotne writers, but is derived from the Scythic 
ii with a Greek termination, all corrupted from 
the original "^Jl Tjab^ the He who is : if this word 
hiA not been underftood in that fenfe, the Apoftles 
trould have rejefted it : For, the Heathens placing 
the Effence in their revolution fyftem, arid wor- 
shipping the celeftial orbs in their mechanical revo- 
lutions, would have been no objeftion to the Apof- 
ttcs, feeing they thereby fignified the EJfence. 

In oppofition therefore to thefe abominable ac- 
counts of the Heathen Jirjl and chief caufe or God, 
![£HOVAH Elahim did call himfclf eminently, 
ingularly, and incomparably •^n Jah or Tjah, the 
Effence and J^in Hu, i. e. he^ or that veryj not fir ft 
or chief, but only EJfencCj and therewith as fuch 
aflerted, or claimed to himfelf, all wifdom, know- 
ledge, and power of ading with fpontaneous de- 
liionftration of his divinity, and all fovcreign rule, 
both here and there, both now and then,* at plea- 
fure ; confounding the heathen pretended God^^ 
whether in iEther, Orbs, or Elements, and 
compelling the faid pretended God to atl 
out of their courfesj and contrary to all their 
knoivn^ and fettled laws and natures^ by converting 
fome planets into Comets^ which fhould move in 


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2^o -^ Vindication of the 

Eccentric Orbs, and confound ti)€ir Revolution Sj/Uau 
And therefore the n*» tells them by the prophet 
Maiah, I AM HE. I AM the firft, I alio AM the 
laft. And our Saviour fays, it is written in your 
law, 1 faid ye are i^foi—ifhe calls them Srtiif, unto whom 
the word of i^fW came, and the Scripture cannot be 
broken : Say ye of him whom the Father has ianc* 
tified, and fent into the world, thou blafphemeft, 

l;>ecaufe I faid the Son 7 « ^ih I AM. (n) 

Another ftrong argument in favour of an univer* 
fal plan of paganifm before the difperfion, is the 
unirorm accounts, which the Heathen Natkoi 
have generally given of their firft Kings ^d Aax 
Godsy a$ the founders of their feveral Empires and 
States. Thefe, their own accounts of dieir firft 
Kings and their Gods, as charafters blended, and 
mixt in the fame perfons, tho* they do not proTC 
that their firft Gods were Men-Deities, yet do they 
give teftimony to this djcmonftration, that Idolatry 
m each country was planned out from the very 
foundation of the empire, or, from the time thai it 
became a nation. Thus the idol Bel was as old at 
Nimrod^ and Menes or OJiris as Mizraim : that is, 
the former was coeval with thjc Aflyrian ; the latter 

(n) Sr. John, C. 10. V. 24. John wrote his Gofpcl m oppo- 
iition to the vifionary dodlrine of Cerinthus^ whofe herefy mtj be 
feen in Irenxus, L i . C. 26. Cerinthus borrowed hb Dociooi 
from the Pythagoreans, :;nd both be and Philo the Jew, whow«s 
coteoiporary with Jcfu$ Chrifl, had followed that moft wicked and 
abominable pra^ice of pretending to bring down the Logh the 
image or word of God, in fire, in the Ehn Maflicitk, de]>ided in 
the 1 3th No. of the Collcdtauea — hence PHilo fays, thi Ltgm ii 
i/ie image of GoJ^ ify tjohom the njoorld nvas frame d ■ and in iimk 
ther place, •* tlu minifiring Logn are cmunonly called Angds^ h 
that follows God is mceffarily attended by t/fem,^ 


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Ancient Hificry of Ireland^ 39 1 

sdth the Egyptian nation. And it is true ; For, 
Nimrod (when he fct up the Aflyrian empire) fet 
up Bei and was confounded with him : as Mizraim 

gwhcn he founded the kingdom of Egypt) fet up 
^rii^ and was confounded with him. And the 
bifhj after all their various fettlements in the dif- 
ferent parts of the Globe, before their final refting 
in the Brittannic Iflands, bring Moc-Uill, i. e. •»VlM 
Uli the Elements, Moc-Eacht^ i. e. ^riM echad, He- 
cate L e. the Moon, and Moc-Grian, i. e. Molcj i. e. 
die Sun, into their biftory as Princes ruling in 
Ireland, and to this number they have alfo added 
Dag-da or Dagon. 

And finally, the names of the Egyptian Deities, 
are all of Chaldaean Origin, as the learned Pafferm 
has (hewn in his Lexicon JEgjptio Hebraicum in 
which he thus expreflcs himfclf, " ClalTem occu- 
pant voces, quas certo quidem fcimus ^gyptias ; 
fed illarum fignificationem nulli veterum tradide- 
runt ; fed ilium a verifimili conjedura defumentes 
inde ad originem Hebraicam non difficili labore af- 
cendimus. Cujufmodi funt Deorum nomina, quo- 
rum fignificatio, etfi nulli tradiderunt, eruitur ta* 
men ab unufcujufque natura. 

The famous Hutchinfon feems to have been 
fenfible of this fyftem. In his Effay entitled, the 
ufe of reafon recovered, by the Data in chriftianity, 
p. 81. he fays, " The antient Heathens, the falfe 
*• Priefts to their falfe Aleim, performed, I think I 
" may fay, almoft every individual article in the 
^^ inftitution, and exercife of the PrieiUiood. And 
** though among the modern Heathens, fomc abu- 
^* fes had by ignorance and miftakes crept in ; 
'* yet in the main, they retained many of them, 

** and 

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39^ ^ Ttndica^n rf the 

*^ ^d romcthing of thofc they miftook t/^bUiisdi' 
*^ monjiration that all tbofe in/Htntionst andtypUil 
^^ anions were in beings and pra£lifed before toe dif- 
" perfion at Baber. 

The names of perfons in the facred fcriptuia 
Vcre for the mod part given, either propketkal^ 
or defcriptively I fo the name Hcber or £&r, 
which fignifies a fecejjion^ departure, or, paiGog 
away from ; and Peieg^ which fignifies divijm ; 
thefe names do appear to carry in them, a prophe- 
cy and record of the grand apoftacy at Babel^ which 
happened the very year that Peleg was bom. bx 
therefore Heber*s father Salah had given him the 
name Heber or kpzr2tion propbetically with a view 
to this (Irange event ; fo did Heber give his new 
born fon the name of Peleg or divifion, defcriptvu- 
fy^ for a monumental record of the fame : and 
actually did feparate him/elf^ with his family, at 
the fame time, from all the other clans or tribes, 
dcicended from Noah, who were fallen from God. 
He made a memorial in this name, that as the faid 
tribes or clans, (though united as to their main 
fchcme or plan of philofophy and religion) might 
be fubdivided among themfelves, as to the parti- 
cular articles of the falfe Creed ; fo he, adhering 
to the one true Creeds fcrceded from them all ; 
they all going to the worihip of the heavens, pla- 
nets, elements, &c. &c. 

It has been thought that the names Heber and 
Peleg^ i. e. fcceflion or departure and divifion, 
had a view to the defcendants of Noah fimply 
breaking into colonies, and Heber in particular 
departing fome whither, to fettle a colony alfo of 
his defcendants. But, the affair in fad, as to 
Heber and Peleg^ was not fo. For they made no 


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Ancient IJijhvy of Ireland, 393 

local reparation or remove at all. — Babel where 
the grand apoftacy began, was in the province of 
CbaUea ; and when fo many others parted and 
went off into the countries round about, on fomc 
diflenfions about the minutiae of their apodatical 
creed, we find Heber and his pofterity remaining 
ftill where they were, that is, in Ur of the ChaU 
dees : So, that locally he was no Heber or remover. 
His name therefore had no rcfpeft to a local, 
but to a religious feparation. Thus Abraham after 
his being fettled in Canaan is called Abraham the 
Hebrew^ in oppofition both to the apoftates among 
whom he dwelt, and to thofe who had taken Lot 
prifoner. It muft have been liis religious name of 
diftindion and no other. 

Thefe obfervations confidered, antiquaries can- 
not walk on certain ground, in deriving one na- 
tion or colony from another, by collating their ge- 
neral principles of paganifm. The moft barbarous 
and the moft civilized Heathens have their re- 
volving deities, irradiators, he. and all worfhip the 
elements — And the learned Dr. Borlafe, while he 
wiflies to make his readers believe, that Druidifm 
fprung up like a mulhroom in Brit tain, cannot 
avoid afferting in another place, that the Druidic 
religion was a branch of the firft Eaftern Idolatry, 
which, fays he, obtained foon after the fiood: 
and was common to all the Celtic nations, and de- 
fircs to be underftood, as enquiring not into the 
antiquity of Druidifm^ that is, the principle of it, 
but into the antiquity of the order of priefts and 
philofophers called Druids, not into the principles 
of their religion, which, fays he, is certainly as 
old as the firft Idolatry (a). Had the Dodor turn- 

(a) Hift. Cornwall, p. 73. 


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394 ^ Vindication rf the 

ed his eyes to Brittania parva or Ireland, he need 
not have jumped to Perfidy or taken the pauu to 
confute l^eloutier, who contrary to aU hiftory, 
endeavours to prove that the Celtes were of Perfiim 

VL. Of the Pagan Religion of the ancient Irifi. 

To (hew what the religion of the ancient Irifli 
was noty we could wifli to compare it with tbe 
Edda of the northerns, but the Edda we are aflfured 
by fome learned Germans, is an impofition, com* 
pofed in the thirteenth century. To (hew what 
was the religion of the ancient Iri(h we with to 
compare it with the Sadder of the ancient Per- 
fians, and this we are told by a learned Orientalift, 
is the impofition of a Perlian monk written not 
three hundred years ago (b). Some modem wri- 
ters on the antiquities of this country, have formed 
an Edda of their own as we (hall have occafion to 
(hew in this fedion. 

Where we have no regubr written fyftem of 
paganifm left us, as is the cafe with that of the 
Gauls, Britons and Irifh, we can only judge of 

(b) Edda Iflandica, Eddam frivolis & ridiculis figmcntis lea* 
tere fetetur : Keyfler, p. 20. It was compofed by Snorro Suir- 
]a a lawyer of Ifland in the year 1215. Frickius, p. 70.— 
Borlafe, p. 89.- What pity that fo many letraed men as UU^ 
let, the BiHiop of Drumore, and Dr. Hyde (hould mifpead 
their time in tranflacing and commenting on the frivolout oom- 
pofuionj of inipoftors. — Sadder — Thofe fragments of his (Zonf- 
ters) fuppofed works which the learned Dr. Hyde has given IB, 
under the title of the Sadder are the wretched rhymes off t mo- 
dem Parfi Deftour (pried) who lived about three centuries ago. 
Richardfon's Diflert. on Oriental Langu. p. 1 2. 



Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 395 

iie affinity of one with the other, in cuftoms, 
priefts, &c. (for they were all orignally the fame) 
by fome local names of deities, by the feftivals 
[landed down by tradition, by the names of 
priefts, and by obfolete words and fentences, feat* 
tered up and down in ancient MSS. Thus, we 
have ihewn the fun was worihipped by all Idolaters, 
ab origine, but when we find the Iroquois of North 
America, call him the Majler of the Heavens hy 
the name Grounbiaj we may conclude thefe people, 
puad the ancient Irifh were once one fed, or peo- 
|de, becaufe the latter ftill name that planet Grian ; 
a word derived from Gor^ heat, Goor, light, Ara- 
tuce Ak khaur, a live Coal, (and not from Gy- 
ro as Cormac and other modems think), hence 
the Perfian and Irifh Gurm, heat, whence Khur, 
Khaur, ghaurut, the Sun ; of which the Irifh form- 
ed Critb another appellative of that planet, and 
thePhsenicians (they were the ancient Irifh) my^mlif^ 
as written by the Greeks. 

But Garan was the name of Belus. Fortafle 
autem nee alius, quam &/, fuerit Hercules Ro- 
manus, i. e. Kp^r^. Unde^fufpicio mihi obje^, 
Herculem Recaranum nominatum, quafi Regem 
Caranum dicas— at Verrio Flacco apud Servium 
dici Garanum vel Caranum. Caranus ver5 ad ver- 
bum idem notet ac Belus. Ut ver5 Belus & Solis 
& Regis, ita Caranus (vel Garanus) quoque utri- 
ufque fuerit nomen. See Voffius de Idol. L. 2« 
C. 15. here again Hercules is miftaken for the 
name of his fhip, i. e. Grian, the Sun. See 
Ch. IV, 

The Pagan Irifh like the Pcrfians flill preferved 
the idea of the true God ; we have fhewn in a for- 
mer work, that by Eafar or Acfar, or Efher, they 


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396 ^ Vindication tf the 

fignified the true God, and we have fbllowedfome 
learned authors in thinking the word derived from 
*1U;^ iafliar, facere, dirigere, aptare : But, when 
we confider the mixture of thcfc people with die 
Chaldecs who introduced their Resolution Deitus^ 
the Planets, &c. it appears more probable 
that Acfar or Aefliar, is the Indian or Brah- 
man Jchar^ the name of the fupreme being, 
bccaufe Immoveable : for both Irilh and Indians 
knew the Sun was fixed, and the planets 
revolved. Lcs Indes nomment l*etre fupreme 
Achar^ c'eft adire immobile^ immuablc— uncircs 
grande idee dc la Divinite; ils ont vu que tout 
les Corps en mouvement cedaient al'aftion d'unc 
puiflance fupericure. Berner, L. 3. Hift. gen, 
Tom. 38. p. 227. Bailly fur les Sciences, p. ji. 
In like manner we find Bel the name of the Stm 
with the Affyrians and with the Irifli : we find alfo 
monuments in Gaul dedicated to Belintu^ but, 
this docs not explain to us, if Bel was the dcitj 
of the Gauls, or imported by the Phamiciaas^ who 
had large colonies in Gaul ; but wkh the Iiifli at 
with the Affyrians, Bel was the principal dehf, 
infomuch, that all attempts of chriflian refornierB 
have not been able to eraf<; this name from tbe ca- 
lendar, and the month of May facred to this pla- 
net, is flill called Bei-teinne^ and the firft day ol 
May La BeiUieirine : And Bel-ain or Bliain , 1. Cr 
the an or revolution of Belus^ is the general word 
in Irifh to exprefs the year. Belteinne is the Syri- 
an and Canaanitifh name, as well as the Phsemdaft 
and Chaldiiean, the Greeks wrote it Bdathes. 

(Damafcius in Ifidor ap. Photium). llie Chaldee 
name was ]^lS-*'7y3 Baal-tin, from 97«, intenfe 
heat, red hot, fire in general, whence Ch. NT3^ 


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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 397 

T^nra a flint. Lapis a quo ignis excuti folet (c\ 
In Irifti teinne is fire : Uein teallach^ a blaze, j'^ta 
rfrnn' Tin Tahalah lumen ignis, — hence the Egyp- 
tian outeinij lumen: touoini^ illuminare. Quaere 
if \no Metan the prieft of Baal. (Paralip. 24. 
Ch. V. 17.) does not derive his name from this. 

The Chaldaeans had a temple to Baltin, which 
could not have been far from the Euphrates in 
Mefibpotamia: afcendimus iuverticem )'»n^3n'»a 
Beth Baltin, & vidimus palmas in Babylonia (Ge- 
mara Hieros). — Atquc a Beth Baltin non receffit 
ille, qui flammis extulit fed hue illuc furfum deor- 
fum agitavit, donee videat totam captivitatem 
flammis corufcantem.-~(Rafb. Hafham.) — (Light- 
foot Hors Hebr. p. 687). 

The Syrians named the fun Adad which Ma- 
crobius thinks was from AD unus : the Phsenici- 
aas called it Adonis j this is the Iriih epithet of the 
fun, viz. Aod-doHj i. e. Dominus ignis (d>, and 
the Syrian Adadj is no more than a duplication of 
Aa^r the root is ^IM aud Torris. — The Tynans 
called the fun Hercules^ diat is, according to fome 
Imraed authors V|^-'1^^}^ Heir-Coul, illuminat om^ 
act: but I think it is our Iriih epithet Aireac-^uile 
pniiice of the Elements, i. e. "j^^YMTIN prse- 
paraaa rerum omnium materia : the expreflion is 
fitU ufed by the chriftian Iri(h, as, Dia na nuile 
duild^ God of all the elements, and in the Difbio- 

(c) Pfalm, 114. 8. The Chinefe name the Heavens Tien 
and under this name they woi-fliip the Heavenly hofL 

(d) We have a right to feek the Etymology of Adonis in the 
Sqrthian. languaffo : the worfhip of Adonis was carried into 
Syria, by- D^icalion, a Scythian. (Bailly fur les Sciences), this 
learned' man is of opinion alfo that the worfhip of the fun com- 
oenced with the Scythians and was carried by them to Babylon. 


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398 A Vindication of the 

narics may be found D^uileambamj i. e. God; the 
derivation of vhicb word is Jtmrnom-Duikj the 
Ammon of ihc elements. Dui/e is from the Chal- 
dee "^VnV auli, for example : Condidit Deus infta 
orbem Lunae *7nNOV^^ gulam achad, i.e. materiam 
quandam — ruuis atque indigefta moles defignatur 
dida etiam *i^1£^ uli quod a Grsco Sxv defumptum 
putaverim — videtur autem hie indicare matzriam 
primam Elementorum. (Voffius on Maimon. de 
fiindam. Icgis, p. '^5. — ^this word grown obfoletein 
the Chaldee and Hebrew is preferved in our Dmk* 

The Pagan Irifh had another name for the fun, 
viz. Sam whence Samh-ra the divifion of the year 
when the heat of Sam is moft fenfibly felt, L c. 
Summer ; this was the Q*^{4 lihim or angel of 
fire, heat &c. of the Chaldees and Jews, he was 
alfo the Angelas elmentorum (e). Arabiae urbs eft 
Bai-Sampfa ubi Solem cultum: Bi-domus, tern- 
plum Sfli/iHr vel 5:a>>|/07 Sol. (Stephanus). 

The original religion of the Irifh, fwhowere 
Scythians and Perfians) was Sabi/my which b^^ 
in Chaldea and fpread into Scythia, Media, and 
Perfia. Sabifm was of two kinds, withimagei 
and without, llie public religion of Sabifm wai 
the worfhip of Fire. The Chaldees were priefts of 
Babylon, they were anciently called Ce-pbeni and 
Cbalybes ( f )• Ce-pheni fignifies the iUt^riaut rf- 
vo/versj from |9 pen, vertere, revolverc, whence 
Pan was Sol, i. e. the revolver. Chalybes is from 
N^p Kalay comburere, whence Caldee a wdrfliipper 

(e) Maimon. dc fund, legif. p, 43. 

^f) Ccpheni vid. Jofeph, L. 1. C. i4.^2k>iioras» L. i.t 
4. Hieron. Srephan. PI in. — Qui autem nunc Chaldxi, Qt- 
lybes olim vocabamur Dion. Apoiion. PI in. Ammiaa. 


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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 399 

►f fire. Hence the Pagan Irifti explain Phen or 
^enj by Talach and Moloch^ epithets fignifying the 
on and fire : and the facrifices were named 
Valachda or Tlada from Wp'^Vl dalika, Con- 
lagratio, diakta NrpVl the fame, whence the 
Itar near Dublin is named Dalki and from that 
Jtar, the Village and liland qf Dalky take their 

Sabifm with images was brought into Ireland by 
he Tuatha Dadanim. Sabifm without images 
M Magi/my by the Milefians who were originally 
^erfians and Phaenicians.— Magifm was at length 
eformed by Airgiodlamh^ or Zardujl who was Z«- 
^o^er ; and this was brought to Ireland by the 
alter colonies. Zarduft was a fervant of one of 
he prophets and had a knowledge of the writings 
»f Mofes, he prsedided the coming of the Meffiah 
ly the name of Nion which was well known to the 
lagan Iriih, as we have (hewn (g). 

The proximity of this Ifland to Britain, the 
[feat likenefs of the Irifh word Drui^ (the Daru 
if the Perfians) to the Britifli Derwydd has been 
be occafion of grofs miftakes. Druidifm, I mean 
hat fed of prieus called Druids, owe their name 
ad origin to the Irifh Drui. On the arrival of 
he Cjmeri in Britain, they found them there, and 
lot only admitted them into the order of Celtic 
nefts, but gave them pre-eminence. 

(g) The Periian religion was firft Magian entirely — then ca 
\ itbianifin with the additions of image worihip, and at < 

I came 
t one 
ime had got a greater multitude of followers than the Magians^ 
ben came Zoroaftres and his reformations of Magian iim and 
ec flfide the Sabians, and laftlj^ Mahoractanifm joftled them 
ntbodi.— Wife, Bodlei med, p. 218. 


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400 ^ Vindication rf tb§ 

So very little has been written on the Druidic 
religion, all that has been faid of it, is a repetitiaa 
of the fcraps Cssfar and Pliny have left us, until 
Dr. Borlafc publi(hed bis hiftory of ComwalL 
This learned author deals much in conjecture, re- 
ferring to the Pha^nicians, Perfians, Iriih, Scots, 
for a religion he attempts to prove, fprung up 
f|,ontaneoufly in Britain. For, fays he, " we had 
*' our inhabitants from Gaul and with tine inhabi- 
** tants came the C^///V language — but, the Druids 
*^ bad no being when this Ifland was peopled, 
^^ that difcipline being invented afterwards." 

The learned Dr. is right in his firft pofition, but 
the Druids had a being at the very time Bfitain 
was peopled : they flouriflicd in the £a(l, and were 
imported by tliat great body of Perfian-Scythians, 
known by the Greeks, by the name of Pbaenici* 
ans, who invaded the Brittanic Iflands, and drove 
moft of the inhabitants back to Gaul, and re- 
mained pofleiled of them, as the Welih antiqua- 
ries acknowledge, before the Cymmeri airivcd, 
who in their turn expelled the Pbanico-FerfuihSfy 
thij to Ireland and to Scotland. 

Hence that great likenefs between the Druidic re- 
ligion and that of the Perfians, which the Dr. 
could not account for. His words on this fubjefi 
mud here have a place. '^ Whence this furprizing 
conformity in temples, priefts, worlhip, doc- 
trines and divination, betwixt two fuch diftant 
nations (as the Perfians and Britons) did pro- 
ceed, it is difficult to fay ; there ne^er appears H 
have been the leajl migration^ any accidental or 
meditated intercourfe betwixt them, after the 
one people was fettled in Perfia, and the other in 


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Ancient Hifiary of Ireland. 401 

Gdul znA Britain ; and whether the Celts much 
h& the Gauls and Britains can ever be proved to 
have been one and the fame people with the Per- 
fiaiH (h) fince the general difperfion, (which is a 
time tBO early to produce fuch a minute confor- 
mity) \& much to be queftioned. This ftriA 
agreement betwixt the Perjians and Wcftern na- 
tions of Europe was too obvious to efcape the no- 
tice of the judicious Pelouiier ; therefore he takes it 

for granted that the Celtes and Perfians were one 
and the fame people, and groumls his opinion 
feemingly upon the little difference there is be- 
twixt the language, cufloms and religion of the 
two naftions.*' 

•* But,— ^his union I am afraid muft have been 
•• fo early, for nve have no trails of it in hi/lory^ 
that it can only account for an agreement in the 
cflentiak of religion, which in the iirft ages were 
few, fimple and unadorned, and fpread into all 
parts, and there continued in great meafure as at 

" firft.'— The great queftion then is, whether the 
Fer/lans and Celtt could be one nation, late 
enough in time, to have had fuch a variety of 
cuftoms, rites and doArines of the fame cad and 
turn among them, when one people, fo as that 
when they feparated and fettled, fome in Perfia 
and others in Europe^ they carried thcfe rites, 
cuftoms, and dodrines with them into their feve- 

(h) The preceding hiftory has clearly proved th^t the Celtes 
and Perfians or Scythians were no more coonedted as a people 
than the Jews and Egyptians were 1 that they had no intercourfe 
with each other fince ihey feparaoed at the point of panitior, the 
Gafpian Sea, (except thofe Scythians driven acrofs the Helle- 
^nt by Darius) and never met, till the one by a long route by 
land and the other by fea, joined again in Spain, in Gaul and 
ihc Britannic Ides, 

Cc ral 

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4oa A Vindication of the 

ral departments, whence a conftant vifibk con- 
formity enfued (i). This is a difficulty not eafily 
folvcd ; for, if the Druids were a fe£l which had 
its rife among the Britains, after the Celts vtre 
broke into Germans, Gauls, and Britains, fince 
which time it is impoffible that the PerJiansTsA 
Celts fliould have been one people without our 
knowing it. — And the great refemblance betwixt 
the Druids and the Magi^ as to their power, (kill 
in magick, colour of habit, like ways of diviDiog, 
&c. all thefe are much too modern for the time 
when the t^o nations of Celts and Perfians were 
united in one community, and mud be fetched 
from another channel, llie Pbanicians were very 
converfant with the Perfians (k) for the fake of 
Eaftern trade, and nothing is more likely than that 
the Phauiicians and after them the Greeks^ findiog 
the Druids devoted beyond all others to fuperfti- 
tion, (hould make their court to that powertul or- 
der by bringing them continual notices of Oriental 
fuperititiom, in order to promote and engrails the * 
lucrative trade, which they carried on in Britain 
for fo many ages (s). And the fame channel that 
imported the Perfian, might alfo introduce fomc 

(I) Had tills been the cafe, the conformity would havebeea 
ge:ierai berween the Perfian and all Celtic nations ; but we find 
this«-m*tv only between the Gauls, Britons, and Perfians. 

'k) The old Periuns, the Ce^Pheni^ were the PhaeniduH; 
whom the lxx iniitook far Canaanites— the old Greeks exprtGlj 
reii U5, they origin ired in Gman on the coafU of the Red fea : 
hov- the fevcnty niilW^k theft people is not eafily accounted br, 

(1) Why tlien ^'as not the great refumiation by Zaidizflit 
brought over to the Britons : and fire towers introduced dierr, 
as well as in Ireland and Scotland? this obfcrvatioo plainlr 
proves that the Cyromeri were in pofieffion of Britain, prior to 
that /ilra. 

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jhcUm Hi/ldry of Ireland. 403 

h and Egyptian rites : the Phsnicians traded 
Egypt ana had Judea at their own doors ; 
om the Phsenicians the Druids might learn 
few' Egyptian and Jewifh rites, and inter- 

them among their own : this is much more 
ble, than that the Druids fhould have had 
ivhole religion from Egypt, as fome think, 
)m the Jews, as others with as little reafon 
id." (m) 

us the learned Dodor, who had fearched all 
f^ ancient and modern, (except that^ne he 
i have fearched) and could find no other mode 
ounting for the conformity between the Per- 
id Druidic religion, than by fuppofing (and 
t ridiculous fuppofition it is) that the rhasni* 
[he means Tyrians) fhould have made reli* 
an article of trade, and that they bartered 
n and Egyptian prielts, (inftead of fait, 
cry and brazen ware) with the ancient Bri- 
for tin. It is a fuppofition that carries ab- 
y on the very face of it. 
c more learned triumvirate (authors of the 
i^phy of Ireland, and of Druidifm revived) 
lave been permitted to publifh fome of their 
\ in the Colledlanea, (a) faw t;Jiemfelves more 
gled by the Fire Towers, and other great 
rmities between the Perfian religion and the 
i religion of the Iri(h, than Dr. Borlafe was 
lis Druids. Tbefe very learned Gentlemen 

a more eafy and ready method to folve the 
ilty. By making a few fialfe quotations from 
u's Critical Hiftory of the Church, by fub- 

(m) Vide Borlafc's Cbrnwall. Ch. aa. 
(a) No. Vi VU. IX. XL 

C c ^ ftituting 

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404 ^ yipuBcatiM tf flif 

ftituting the Gauri cf Perfta for Cbaldams^ ind 
Britain and Ireland for EgypU the bu(me6 w» 
done — the careful dircharge of all hoftife words in 
the quotation, and the omcions xnterpotation of 
friendly, in their room, are h.&s that appear eri- 
dent upon the face of the extrafls following, and 
certainly give an unhappy afped of difingenuod^ 
nefs to the whole, and may feem to difcralit the 
iritegrity of the authors — but, we will refer tlic 
caufe to that prevailing bias of fyftematical preju* 
dices, to prepofleflions and weaknefles, vfaldi 
are the ground-work of all impofitions of dus 
kind. T%e reader may find the opimon of dot 
great Irifh fcholar and hiftorian €}haiies OComier, 
Efq; on thefe author's performances in the Col* 
fe&anea. No. XIL p. 675. 

In one of the Eflays above-mentioned, entided 
the Topography of Ireland j (b) at the word GiSmt/, 
i. e. a round tower, are thefe words. " As mcfe 
•* round towers are neither found in Britain or die 
** European Continent^ they were mq/i prciMj in- 
" troduced into this ifland by the Perfian Map or 
•* Gaurs, who in the time of Confiantim die 
** Great ran over the worlds carrying in their 
•* hands Cenfers containing the holy fire, aflerdng 
^ their God (hould deftroy all other Gods, nrfii^ 
•* in fome meafure they effeded by lighting fires 
•* under them, thereby burning thofe of wood, 
•* and melting thofe of metal* In this period the 
*^ Chriftian Religion had made fome progrels in 
•* the Southern and Weftcrn parts of Europe, 
^ but in Ireland, Druidic fuperftition remainmg 
** in its original purity, whofe tenets not being 

(b) Publifhed in the CoUeaanea, No. XI. V. 3. p. 309. 

" widely 

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Ancient Hi/lory rf Ireland. 405 

^' ividely different from thofeof the Gaurs, thefe 
^^ Pagan philofophers found a ready affent to 
** their dodrincs. Whence Pyratheias or Veftal 
** Towers became univerfal throughout the ifland, 
^* in the place of the ancient Tlachgo* The Cli^adh 
•* now remaining in Ireland, were all built by the 
•* Chriftian Clergy — none older than the begin- 
** ning of the 7th century, nor none of a later 
*• date than the clofe of the loth century." Ju- 
lieu's Hift. of the Church, (c) 

The Periians during the reign of Conftantine, 
Julian and Theodofius, were fo far from being 
able to migrate into Europe, that, with great di£ 
culty they kept their ground in their own coun- 
try. Sapor the I. and XL kings of Perfia, perfecu- 
ted the Chriitians in their dominions, for whom 
Cm/iantine and the fucceeding Emperors often fo- 
licited« This perfecution continued from the 
years of our Lord 336 to 421— during which time 
a great many Chriftians fled to Conjiantincple^ 
'where they were called Gaurs by the Turks ^ a name 
they give to all Infidels. At length it became a 
religious war in Perjta^ by the imprudent zeal dF 
a chriftian bifhop named Audas^ who burnt down 
one of their fire temples, which Indigenes K. of 
Perfia fentenced him to rebuild, but he refufed^ 
and this caufed' a cruel perfecution of the Chrifti- 
ans, which lafted thirty years, and in it periihed 
an incredible number ot perfons« See Jurieu, p. 

We (hall now prefent to the reader the paffage 
at length, ixom Jurieu^ that has beenfo mutilated 

(c) Thcfe authors carefully avoid referring to die page, 


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4o6 A Vindication of the 

by the Authors if the Topography ^ to fupport i 
fyftem tbey knew not how tp ere£L 

Hi/ioire Critique de FEglife. JuricUj p. 484. 

*^ Dansia Chaldee, d'ou les (imulacres OQt 
tire Icur origine, il n'y avoit pas d'autres reli^oa 
publique, que cellc du Soleil & du Feu, parccqu'ils 
etoient de la religion des Perfes^ dont ils etoicnt voi- 
fins. 11 eft vrai que dans la fuite, ils ont degcnere 
de cette purete, & ont adore publiquement ks fi- 
mulacres, beaucoup plutot, que les Perfes* de- 
pendant le Feuy rembleme du Soleil, etbit tojours 
ieur grande Divinitij jufques les demiers temS| 
comme il paroit par le recit, qui fe lit dans Ib^ 
d'une chofe arriv^e fous le Regne de Conftan&u 
C*eft que les Chaldieaks pour la ffloire du fa 
ficrtj qui etoit Ieur Dieu, le portoient par toute 
la terre, & le fiaifoint combattre avec tous les au- 
tres dieux, qu'il funpontoit infalliblement, les 
fondant s'ils etoient de metal, les calcinant, s% 
etoient de pierre, les brulant s'ils etoient de bois 
— mais en An il fut vaincu en Egypt e parlafraudc 
de Sacrificateurs, qui firent une grande ftatac con* 
facre an MA l.a ftatuc etoit vafte, & creufe & 
percee de tous cotez, mais les trous etoient refer- 
mez avec de la cire, avec 'tant d'art qu'on ne les 
vryo:r point, la ftatue etoit pleine d*eau, & fitot 
qu'clle s'echaflfa fous le feu facre des Chai.D££NS, 
la cire fe fondit, les trous s'ouvrirent, I'eau couia 
de toutes parts en abondance, & le Dieu des 
Ckaldeens fut ctoufe." 

Monf. Jurieu repeats this ftory in another part 
of his work. — *' U y a peu des gens qui n*ayent 


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Ancient Hift$ry rf Ireland. 407 

ii parler de I'hiftoire qui nous avons deja racon- 
:, *& que Ruffin et Suidas rapportent des Chal- 
CENS, qui fou I'Empire du grand Ck)NSTAHTiN9 
ulant prouver que leur Dieu etoit plus puiiTant 
le tous les dieux de la terrc, parcoururent le 
onde en portant le /^^2/, qui confumoit, ou fon- 
it tous les fimulacres des dieux, & demeuroit 
ifi vi&orieux. Mais enfin il fut opprime par la 
lude de Sacrificateurs d'Egypte, qui firent une 
ande ftatue du Nil^ toute percee mais dont les 
>us n etoicnt fermez, que de cire ; lis larempli* 
nt d'eau, St tout auflitot, que la cire fentit le 
11 du Dieu des Chaloesns, les trous s'ouvrirent, 
Teau coulant de toutes parts £teignit, & fur* 
Emta le feu. Ccia fait voir que les Chajldeens 
oroient le feu. Et comme La Chaldee etoit voi« 
Le de la Syrie & la Syrie de la Judee^ il n'eft pas 
BSole a comprendre comment les Lhammanim o^ 
^n adoroit le Feuy & le Solcil s'introduifirent dan$ 
cuke de» Juiffs idolatres." (d) 


** InChaldea, where images had their origin, 
e only public religion was the wodhip of the 
m or of Fire, becaufe they were of the fame re- 
gion of the Perfians their neighbours. It is true, 
at in procefs of time, they degenerated from 
at purity and worfhipped images publickly, much 
oner than the Perfians did. But Fire^ the em- 

(d) This monkiffi ftory, for it is no other^ is told by Suidas 
der the word Canffus ; it nay be found aifo in Du Ugnm^s 
lory of Idolatry. 


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4o8 A rm^cuHm'jrf A$ 

blem of the Sun, was alwsjs their great Ddty, lo 
the lateft time, as appears from a padOfage m i^s^ 
of an event that happened in the reign of Cwi/bm- 
tine — it is this : — ^The Ch4XD£aks, for the hmoor 
and glory of their facred Fire, which was thdr 
Grod, carried it wherever they went, and mideit 
fight all r.her Deities, which it infallibly OTcr- 
came, melting thofe made of metal, calcining diofe 
made of ftone, and burning thofc made of vood. 
But at length this Fire-God was overcome by the 
artifice of Egyptian priefts, urtio made a great 
ftatue confecrated to the Nik. 1 his (tatae was of 
an enormous fize, hollow and pierced on all fides, 
and the holes were fo artfully filled ^ith wax, dicy 
could not be perceived* The flatue bcifig 
filled with water, as fbon as the wax melted by the 
heat of the fire of the Chaldebs, the water guflied 
out on the facred Chaldean fire and extinguiflicd 
it. This is a proof that the Chaldbams worfiiip- 
Tpt^fre, and as Cbafdea is near to Syria and Syria 
to Judaaj it is no difficult matter to account how 
the Chammanim^ (in which the Fire Deity and die 
iSun were worfhipped, were introduced by the 
idolatrous Jews)." 

Our Topographical Authors to ftrcngthen their 
ill-built fyftem, refer the incautious reader for a 
proof to the third volume of Dufrtfne's Gloflarr, 
cautioufly omitting the word or page referred to. 
Now under the word Gawri^ Dufrefne lays, " Gau- 
r/, vel Gaurini^ fic a Turcis appellantur Chrijham 
ceterique omnes a fuperftitione Muhamedana afi^ 
ni, tefte Leunclavio— Nee fe (Turcas) ad Chrifti- 
anorum poftulata, quas contumeliofo nomine du- 
rinos appcllabant, velle aliquid faccrc." 



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Ancm$ Hiftory tf Inland. 409 

Afid thde wer^ the Court of Conftantinople in 
Cieiift»ntine*< reign ; it was a name given to die 
U& of Zwrdi/ifkt^ 800 years before Conilantine U-* 

Of the lame ftamp is the whole performance of 
sow learned authors, tranflating Mileadh Efpahte 
Mac Gplamj the nobleman from the barren moun- 
taias of CaeL E/fainne^ the mountains of Wales, 
|^« &c. and feveral other pafTages, beneath the 
notice of our readers. Nee alba tamen linea fig-* 
fiamus omnia^ quas produntur de Graecis. 

Dn Borlafe acknowledges that the principles of 
the Druidic religi<m were the fame with thofe of 
mdent Idolatry in general. It is only the particu- 
lar fed called Druidsy that he contends mufthavc 
snifen in Britain and been tranfport^ to Gaul, be^ 
caufe he finds no other Celtic nation had priefli 
of iJbat denomination. If then we prove that not 
pnly the ancient Irifli, but the Cj^ajuivbans and 
Persians alio, had not only the Drmds^ but the 
Bards and Vaies^ it will be a proof that tbefe orders 
did not originate in Britain, and as the Chaldeans 
did not migrate^ or the Perjians under the name 
pf Gauri or Perjians^ it will ba a proof diat the 
Britons did receive this order from tht ancient 
Irijhj who were Per/tans mixed with Ttiatha Da- 
danim of Qhaldaa^ as the foregoing hiftory has 
clearly proved. 

Alexander Polyhiftor fays that Pythagoras heard 
both the Druids and the Bracbmansj that is, the 
Daruth or Magi of the Perfians, and the Brach- 
mans of India. Dr. Borlafe thinks he travelled 
into Britain — Pythagoras tells us of his travels 
into Egypt and into India ; would he not have 
particularly mentioned his voyage to the barbarous 


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41 o A Vindication of the 

Britons or G^t/Zr, in fearch of knowledge. Druids 
exifted in the Eaft a thoufand years betore he wu 
bom. Cseterum cuilibet vel modicd perfpicari pa- 
tebit Dnridas philofophatos plus mille annis ante- 
quam cruditio Pythagoras innotuiflet in Italia, (e) 
That is 1497 years before Chrift^ for Pythagoras 
died 497 B. C. 

Mr. Whitaker aflerts that the firft inhabitatioa of 
Britain was about 1000 years before Chrift; if 
then there were Drmds 500 years before that mi- 
gratipn, Pythagoras and his prasceptor Phencjda 
muft have difcovered them in other parts of the 
globe, not in Britain, for it was not inhabited; 
— ^but, in the Eaft^ where thcfe philofophers went 
in fearch of knowledge. And they could not have 
found them among any other of the Celtic tribes, 
becaufe as Dr. Borlafe confefles, if the Celts had 
them, they would have fpread with the fevcral di- 
vilions of mat mighty nation, and their traces would 
confcquently appear equally ftrong and lively in 
every country where the Celts fettled. It is afto- 
hiflung that the Do&or (hould not have taken a 
(hort trip from the lands-end to Ireland, and bave 
made fome little enquiry in this country on this 

(c) Steph. Forcatulus de Gall Imp. & Philofop. p. 4. 


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JncUnt Hi/lory of Ireland^ 4 1 1 


Pf the Namei and Claps of the Druid Priejibood 
in Britain^ viz* 1. Uruid. 2. Bard. 3. Vates.. 

I. Druid. — ^TJiis name is fuppofcd by many to 
}>e derived from the Oreejk ifvc Drus, an oak, be- 
fcaufe of the veneration of this fed for the Oak 

The Oak was no more venerated by the Britilh 
^agai^s than by all others. In Babylon it was Ur 
cred to Baal^ whence probably the Arabic Balot, 
an Oak, Shidi ^^lut, the Royal Oak. There is a 
tradition among the Jews that the Tree of Know- 
ledge in the Garden of Eden was named TjSn hc- 
Bary and this was fuppqfed to be the Oak^ whence 
Dar in Irifh an Oak ; it alfo implies wifdom, 
whence the Perfian Daru, Vir Sapiens ; Magus : 
Dnidj vencrabilis, laudare, colere. Deri Scien* 
tificus. Daraz an Oak. Hence the ancient Irilh 
adopted a tree, as afignature of each letter of the 
alphabet ; that the Hebrews did the fame will be 
(hewn in the Eifay on the Ogham : and as Occai in 
Irifh and jiko in Egyptian fignify a Magus, I have 
often thought that the Engiifh Oak derives from 
this root, fignifying the facrcd tree, the tree of 
knowledge. In Leviticus, c. 23. v. 40. we read, 
" And ye fhall take you on the firft day, •»1D Pm, 
i. e. fruit of the tree "i^n he Dar (i. c. decoris) 
branches of the palm, and willow, &c. &c." each 
held a bundle compofed of one of each of thefe 
three forts of boughs in his right hand, and the 
fruit (or apple) in his left hand, each by the (talks. 


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412 A Vindication of the 

Here the tree is called by a high attribute •^•in ie 
Darj u c. decus^ frequently applied to God, and 
never but once where any idea is conveyed^ that is, 
lia. 14. V. 2. to ways, and rendered /0rfK£/a. (Ba» 
vidde Pomis^) rotundum quafi in fe reflexnm, & 
radiens, tortuofum, •»^1*^^a f^ebe DaHj peregrinan- 
tes, viatorcs, hue illuc euntes & redeuntes, Cir- 
cuitores, Circulatores* (Maimon) But this I 
think has another root, whence the Irifh formed 
Deora-dey pilgrims, begging priefts. SoTTrDor, 
Circulus, Corona, forms the Perflan, the Jape- 
nefe and Irifh Daire^ a king, Latin Darios, (f ) 
and in Arabic Dorj voluit, circumgyratio, and 
whether you take lin with or without the H) it b 
ftill the lame, and the tree was an emblem of 
mr in fire^ or circulation^ which did them good in 
every corporal fenfe ; if fo, the tree of knowledp 
of ^ood and evil was an emblem of the irradiatioa 
of the fun or heavens, (g j 

This tree was therefore named ia Irifli Cram 
Breitb^ that is, the tree of the Covenant, and the 
laws promulgated beneath this tree, were Breitb 
Neamatbj and therefore this tree was facred to 
Jupiter Beritb. (h) Mr. Hutchinfon thiaks it 
was the tree called JTO Berith, Cantic. c i. v. 
17. of which the beams of the houfe of Chrill, 
and the fpoufe were and that this was an emblem 
of the Circumcifion, becaufe the^ Acorn fhews die 

(f ) Fo is fynonimous to Daire in Irift, the Gune In the Ji- 
pODefe. Japoiiium omne iioraen uni quondam p«rebtt Impen- 
tori, cui tirahu f^o feu Dairi. (Maffeos Hift. Indie. 1. 12. pi. 

(g) Hutchinfon, M. fine prin. P. CCLVII. 

(b) Judg. 8. 33- And when Gideon wai dead, the dul- 
dren of Ifrael inade Baai Berith their God. 


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Ancient Hiftorj of Ireland. 413 

Glans penis naked by Circumcifion. It is rcr 
markable that the fame word in Hebrew fignifies 
an Oak and an Oatbj and that the aforefaid words 
Dar and Breith MioyxlA be ufed by the Pagan Irifh 
as a mofk folenm oath, viz, Dar mo Breithj i. e* 
the Dar or facred tree, is my covenant or judge : 
h is an expreilion ftill ufed in Ireland. 

Hence then the Oak was the facred tree ab ori- 

fine. Nihil facratius quercu majores noftri ha- 
uerc, nulla facra fine tht^ Alah (the Oak) hujus- 
arboris fronde conficere, facrificiis epulifque rite 
fub hac arborc perpetratis Deos apprecati funt,. 
(Avent. Annal. Boj. 1. 3.) 

Altars both facred and profane were inclbfed by 
groves of trees, and thefe groves confided of plan- 
tations of Oak, Ahram paffcd through the land 
unto the place of Sichem unto the Oak of Moreh ; 
and the Lord appeared unto Abram — and there he 
builded an altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto 
him, befide the oaks of Moreh. 

From this paifage I think the Britifli Druids took 
the hint of combining their Trinity in the Oak : 
if what Cromer y 1. 15. 2ind Scbedius^ P- 34^- fay is 
true. They tell us, that the Druids having pitch- 
ed upon the raoft beautiful tree, cut ofir all the 
fide branches, and then joined two of them to the 
higheft part of the trunk, fo that they extended 
themfelves on either fide like the arms of a man, 
making in the whole the (hape of a crofs. Above 
the iniertions of thefe branches and below, they 
infcribed on the bark of the tree, the word Thau^ 
by which they meant God. On the right arm was 
infcribed by the Britons and Gauls, Hefus^ on the 
left Belenusj and on the middle of the trunk Tba- 


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414 ^ VhuBcattM of the 

The word Thaa figaifitt the lettei x, the hft 
of the alphabet. 

And this was furely the cnftom of the Eaft^ im. 
to whkh John aUudes in his Revelation. C. iiL 
▼• 1 2. Him that overcometh, will I make a piDar 
in the temple of my God, and he (haD go no more 
out ; and I wfll write npon him the name of my 
God, and the name of the dty of my God, whkh 
is New Jendalem ; which cometh down cot of 
Heaven from my God; and I will write upon 
him my new name. I am the M and the x, the 
beginning and the end. (a) 

Under the Oak, Kings were inaugurated, and 
every facrcd ad was done ; So the men of Sbe^ 
cbem and the Houfe of Millo (b) made Abimdech 
King by the Oai-grave of the Pi/Iar that was by 

From this fuperftitious veneration for the Oak- 
tree, which originated in Babylon, the Jews were 
forbid to plant near the Temple ; but fo addided 
were they to idolatrous cuftoms, that, t&cy 
thought they evaded the law, by conftrufiine 
Profeucbiaj or uncovered temples, without die a- 
ties, where they planted groves and indulged their 
folly. Epipbaniusj a Jew, bred and bom in Pa- 
leftine, tells us, that the Majfaliani built themleivcs 
certain large places, like the ancient market-places, 

(a^ Ir is called Amancol in Iri/h and Amarcol ; tbe firfi I 
tliink figni6es Signmn Amoiouis, i. e. Thait. Alepfa and Tbn 
are die 6rft and laft lenen of die Hebrew alphabets, whidi weiv 
cfiecmed mtftical letters wkh die Heathein. Hence I am the 
Alfha and OwKga, 

(b) The Houfe of die Nobles: in Irifh Beidi MiUcMib: 
this ceremooT of eledion of the eldcft was afterwards pei^mned 
in the hoafe of a Bmigfa. 


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Ancient Hilary of Ireland. 415 

lich they called Profeucba ; and that the Jews 
old, as alfo the Samaritans^ had certain places 
thout the dtjj fir prayer J which thcv called Pro^ 
icbia^ appears out of the A£ts of the Apoftles, 
u xvi. vcr. 13. i — ^thefe were all planted about» 
>ugh it was unlawful to plant about the altar of 

Pbilo Judaus^ relating the barbarous outrages 
the Gentiles at Alexandria againft the Jews 
Tlline there, in the time of Caius^ fays, — Of 
ne of the Profeuchas they cut down the trees, 
lers they demoliflied to the foundations ; hence 
is that Juvenal calls the Jewifh Pried Magga 
cerdos Arboris. 

Arcanam Judaea tremens mendicat in aurem 
[nterpres legum Solymarum, magna Sacerdos 
^boris, ac fummi fida internuncia Coeli. 

The fame appears in thofe verfes of his third 
ire, where he complains that the once facred 
»vc of Pons Capenusj where Numa ufed to meet 
h the Goddefs ^geria, was then let out to 
jgarly Jews for a Profeucha, and that every 
5 muft pay rent to the people ; by which he 
ans, the woods, which formerly had been the 
citation of the Mufes, were now become dens^ 
the Jews to mutter their orizons in. 
>ceing then that the Oak-tree was facred to all 
;an nations, fince the firft eflabliibment of ido- 
y at Babylon foon after the flood ; to all the 
He nations as well as the Britons^ it is abfurd to 
ive the name of Drmd either from the Greek 
/, or the Britifh derw^ an Oak. Dr. Davies, 
lis Walfli Difkionary, is not (atisfied with this 


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4i6 A Vindkatim of tke 

derivation* Derwyddoftj Druides, i. e. Sapiarteii 
Vatcs, a XpuV quercus, vd a ttn*T darijh inteipit. 
tari, exponere. — ^Had this Lexiconift known that 
Drui in Irifh and Daru in Perfian, fignified Sa^ 
piens^ and that it was the title of a PeriSan Magn 
of the fecond order, he could not have been at a 
lofs. (c) And as a confirmation of the Irifli Ikm 
fignifying a wife man, it is always explained by 
Seanoirj a wife man, a Druid (Shaw) ; in Perfian 
2enir : the root of which is Sean^ i. e. wifilom, 
(from roa^ Shanah, meditari, ftudcrc, docerc) 
to which is often prefixed the titfe Af «g-, or M*j, 
or Muc. Muc & Muc/ainey ainm dilios do (Qiu, 
are names facred to God, i. e. arc facred naaxm. 
(Arbp. Cor mac's Gloffary.) Hence the Hercoks 
Ogmius of Gaul was called Mugafanus & Defamuj 
and our Fenius Farfa, Muc-aos^ Mucfane, Define, 
of which hereafter. — ^Hcrcules cognomento Deja- 
nus in Phsnice clarus habetur. Unde & ad nof- 
tram ufque memoriam a Cappadocibus, & Elfen- 
fibus, Defanaus adhuc dicitur. (Eufebhis in Gbitm. 
ad num. ccccxcvii.) — De-Sainej i. c. Ogbam^ 
the God of Wifdom. We find the name cor. 

(c) cnn Darat, quaefivit — hinc non iDeptd dticant Xfi^Qwr* 
ens, lune i'iiftyt conteneio;— Lat. enino Quercus oriri videmrt 
Quaero, inquiro, ut ipvf a Daras; hinc Daviiis nomen Pcrfiinin 
Regis, habct eniiii Aotp «7tr. »7o Utf^alf^i ^ffin^mc i.e. Dariuf ipad 
Perfas, eft ^udem ; re£l^, nam & hxc produnt originem n^ 
braicam, Daras, quod eft, confulere, inquircrc; vera pmdco- 
tiaf & fcientisc idigitamenta. (TonwfRn. 6k>6. Hcbr.) 

The word is alfo applied in SS. for tRofe that feck cfaeLtmf 
Jehovah, a» 2 Chron. xv. 1 1. Aad they enctrod ihn> acofnu^ 
(Ia Datxii) to feek the Jehovah Alcim of dlchr fMltn^ &c. 

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Ancienf^ Bi/iory of Ireland. 41 7 

rupted tp pofinaus^ Etefonaas, and Dorfones. (d) 

ttie Continent ; for we find a itone dug up at Wih 
iacbria^ dedicated to Magu/anus. In Zelandia 
anno q\o b xiv pago Walachriae, gui Wcftcapellae 
nomen habet, vetus repcrtus eft lapis, infcriptui 
|Ierculi Magusano. (e) . - > 

The Gauls called their Druids DruiSj i. e. Au- 
ffur, from lyrn Drufh, an expounder, interpre- 
ter }7— this name or epithet we find on an ipfcrip- 
tioii in Gruter, dug up at Metz on the IVIozelte* 
This was their office in Ireland, for they were a A 
inferior order of priefts, as in Perfia, under the 
Alagb^ Mogby or Muc\ but when they wcrfc 
adopted by the Britons, finding themfelves acf- 
mitced amongfl an ignorant people, tKey gained 
their ppint, by becoming the chief and molt pqW* 
crful order of Priefts that ever exifted, artfu|ly de- 
clining to commit any of their documents to writ- 
ing ift that country, that they might place every 
impediment in the way to the knowledge of the&r 

^Qpxxtr and fome other Welfh authors, fiodine 
in their old MSS. that Drmd and Drub did al- 

(4) Hence Seanmna, i. e. BeGubha, 1. e. Fath-bandes* that 
is, SanpiMa^ are the Mufes, from Sean, and mna the plural of 
Kan, a wonnan. In Arabic Zananui^ mufa poeranim ; tfl^word 
liai 00 derivation in the Arabic, for Zinam is an itoagjc^ mod in 
Syrian Zanuma is a rock. See Sch'ndlerus* 

(e) Voflias d: Idol. L. i. C. 35. 

D d ways 

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4i8 A VtfuScailm of the 

ways fignify wife men^ and had no dq>endance on 
the Greek Drm an oak, have fought a derivatkui 
in their own language, and made it a compound of 
iru and JTw, i. e. wifemcn ; — ^faying they were 
called Denibiddon quafi perfapientes. Druis is die 
q>ithet of their office, and is the word ufed b^ 
Moles, Dcut. ch. xviii. lo. itni i- c. DiTinus 
fcifcitans a mortuis circa futura, refponfum, evo- 
catis, ad fua corpora fpiritibus. NecromaiUttin 
exercens, (Dav. de Pomis) but this is not die ^• 
nification of the word ; — they did augur by ioA 
men*s bones and every other method that can be 
devifed ; and Mofcs in the above paflage exphim 
himfelf fully, CD*»neiTbN UHT Quaerens a mor- 
tuis. Hence Drujb became the name of a wife 
man as well as Daru. Hence Ifis and Ofiris were 
named Adras, Adris, and Idris by the Perfians. It 
was a name 'given to lliotb, to Mercury, &g 
Henoch nomen Adris & Idris ; — Ifiris & Ofirii, 
Perfis Adras — Eundemque elTe in Mgypto Thotb, 
llieutum, Adris, Hermetem, quern mJChaUsa, 
Babylonia, Perfia, Zoraftrem didum. Sic unus, 
& idem Cbamus & Mifraim in ^gypto, & Fhaeni- 
cia Thoth, Adris, in Babylonia & Chaldaea Z^r^ 
ajlres difti funt ; — a quo omnes podmodum rerum 
cceleftium notitia clari, inventionumque gloria Ce- 
lebris, in Chadaea Zoraajlresj in ^gypto & Ph«- 
nicia Thoth, Adris, Saturni Mercurii appdlati 
funt- (f ) 

The word Idris j fays D'Herbelot, is derived from 
Dersj which in Arabic fignifies fludy, meditation. 
In the Arabian hiftory of Jofeph and Zuleikha, 

<f) Kirchcr Obclifc. Pamphil, p. 31. Ex BibL Netphi- 
torn 11) . 


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Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 419 

)h invokes God by the merit of Enoch, in 

words : — I conjure you, by the learning, by 
nfdom, and by the gift of prophecy that Idris 

cerdotum genus apud Turcas ab antiquiifimis 
oribus confervatum Derwis^ & nomine & re 
IDES, (Keyfler p. 152.) — Heitor Boetbius fays^ 
were called Ducerglii in Scotland ; — I deny that 
\ ever was fuch an order of Priefls :— there 

a fet of people that hired themfelves out to fmg 
mourn over the dead, that were called Du^cu^ 
! i they fung the Caondn or Croli bas^ bat they 

neither priefts nor priefteiTcs. — Scbedius (ays 
were called Turduli and Turditani in Spain, (g) 
bedius is right, the names can be well explain- 
i Irifli, and in Chaldee, viz. •^^WT'l^^n Tairy 
c, an interpreter by the elements. ^VE)TV1 or 

Tair-doteinne, an Augur by fire ; — ^Arabic^ 
) ^air fit avis quaelibet, ut Syr. Taioro^ unde 

Teiar augurium— TlwVr, augurari paffim in 
phraftis. Vide Jonathonem, Gen. xxx. 27* and 

5, 15. (Bochart Geogr. L. a. c. 13* who 
ikes the fenfe of the Chaldean Taier in this 
;, for it is an original word, fignifying to inter- 
or explain by any method, as well as by birds^) 
lothfayers and inchanters they were, by fire 
cularly, a fuperfiition that defcended to the 

; for, among other miracles of the fire of the 
, the Rabbins tell us, that the column of 
:c from the altar always afcended in a perpen- 
iar diredion, let the wind be ever fo ilrong ; 
e all, if the oblation was acceptable ; — ^if it 
lot, it was a fad prefage, and a fign that the 

(g) Schedius, L. a. C. a* 

D d a fjpdl 

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420 A Vtndiesiim rf the 

fmell of the racrifice did not reach to God; ui 
thefe groiSy thefe blind idolatrous peopk tptit 
David as authority. Ad te ufquam pervemaifmm 
incenfi. — Sec Buxtorf on the Sacred Fice. But 
for a greater miracle of the holy fire than cfcr our 
Druids or Magi pretended to, read the firft dap. 
ter of the fecond book of Maccabees ! ! 1 

Having fhewn the proper derivation of the md 
Druid, and that the Britons borrowed bodi mmt 
and office of the ancient Irifh^ we muft not hoe 
omit to mention Mr. Toland, who, with faisvoou 
ed pedantry, promifed the worid a complete iiif* 
tory of the Druids, their dodrine, &c. &c. TUi 
Author informs us, he had coUe£bed hie infimns* 
tion from ancient IriOi poems. — The Writer of hb 
Life (and his particular friend) prefixed to lin 
Letters to Lord Molefworth, aflures us» that ht 
did not fo much as begin the work ; — and I viH 
take upon me to fay, that he had no poems or 
other MSS. that could give the principles of tfadr 
do6brine, as he pretended : the pious Chrttiaa 
Monks had taken care to' commit them to the 

In like manner Mr. Toland (peaks of die Irift 
(hbamj and of Hercules Opnius of Gaul, and pro* 
mifes a compleat treatife of the Ogham writing 
from a MS. in the college library. Such a BI& 
there is, entitled the Book of BaUjmete , and if 
Mr. Toland did ever perufe it, I am convinced 
by his arguments he did not underftand it, or be 
could not have wandered fo far from the derivs- 
tion of the Ofham^ or its inventor. He wodd 
there have found, that Fevdm Far/a is laid to be 
the inventor of the Ogham (i. e. CMV cirdesj 
and was named Occaiy or fiocha, i. e. the Philo- 


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Ancient Hilary of Ireland. 421 

fopber, and Mocb or Mucj i. e. Divinus ;«>— hence 
lie is called Ogma Grianan, or Phabean Ochusj a 
name aflumcd by our Scythian Hercules. Fenius 
^arfa alphabeta prima Hebrsorum, Graecorum^ 
Ladnorum & Beth^Luifnion an Ogham compofuit. 
Kot an a^habet called Beth Luis Nion, beginning 
witb B L N, as Mr. Toland and fome ignorant 
people imagined, and abfolutel^ did invent an al- 
rihibet by that name, (which originally were mu- 
^cal noHrs) but XSXMl TIU/? m Betb Lajhun Qg*- 
Urn (h), the Profodia, the true grammatical com- 
{Motion of verfe, drawn from fcales formed in 
tSS^ Ogbanij i. e. Circles, as he might have ieen 
in the ^id book of Balhmate^ and the learned 
reader may find (imilar fcales, in Clarke's Profrdis^ 
Arab, at the end of Pocock's Carmen Tograi^ which 
i(eales the Arabs do call by a name in their own 
language, fyiionimous to Ogbam, u e. Dirut^ 
Circles, (i) And Mr. Toland having been in- 
formed in the faid book of Balfymote^ that Fenius 
liad an epithet of Occai beftowed on him, . beca\ife 
of his philofophical knowledge, he was fo great a 
daifical fcholar, he would immediately have recoU 
fe&ed that Diogenes Laertius td\s us, that what the 

(h) ra Beth, verfus» ctnnen. 

Ymb Laihum, fenw gramniaticoruin, ftilus, idi^mt. 

From C){;hain u deri?ed the PJuenicisn iyxV QtP^ (^ die 
fem.) .1. e. Lyra, the ioihument to which the ^h^ wgs 
dianted. Ogga^ Minerva, &c. 

(i) See Chap. IV. Hence DreacAi m Irifh a poem, DncM 
4t'bnage, i «. an arch or fegmeiit of a circle; benoe atfoibe 
JCoptk Aie-^g^i-Jho^ dodrina, k Me^dnfuhat^ putUStfajiMQ- 
-nim, if^f^iU ; hence the Irifli Drtchd^ a ftonr, Dnaaiaiti^ a^ 
TrtaSaire, an hiftorian i Arabic^ Tareft, binory, becaufe all 
ancient hiftory was mttriaJlj c<nnpofed. 


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4^t A Vindication $/ the 

Gauls ciall Druids the Phxnicians named Ocbu. 

vws ^if^viSaK. And he would have rccolleded that 
Strabo, JoJTephus, Scxt. Empiric. Tarianus, Eu- 
feb. Jamblich, Athenacus, and many others^ af- 
fure us that Ochus was Phaenix, and he was alfo 
called Mocbusj m^x*),-. Mochus ille Phacnix, Phx- 
nicia lingua fcripferat res patrias. Athensus L. 3. 
See alfo Reinefius Diatriba de Lingua Punica. 
Mr. Toland was no nearer to the proper derivation 
of Ogmus than Dr. Dickenfon, who thinks be was 
Jofliua, fo called becaufe he conquered Og Kmg 
of Balban, or Ol. Rudbeck, who derives tht name 
from an old Gothick word Oggur^ i. c. powerful 
by fea. 

O fandas gentes! quibus hsec nafcuntur in 

Numina. " ■ 

But to return to our fubjcft. Mochds is the fame 
as Magh^ Perficfe Mog, Chald. jiJO Mag, undc 
Gratcc M*>or & hinc Arabes formarunt fibi Mag- 
jus. Apud aliquos rccentiorum Graeconxm I^- 
tur M&Txof. Hyde, Vet. Rel. Perf. p. 372. 

The Irifli and Phaenician Eocba or Ocbai is the 
^Egyptian acho^ i. e. Magus. 

Laertius tells us the Druids were called Sem- 
nothei, tipiiUc 1 2fft>o9*oW this is the Irifti Samnatb^ 
or the fcience of the Heavens, compounded in the 
fame manner as Seancbanath^ or the Science of 
Antiquity ; hence it became a name for a genea- 
logift, hiftorian, &c. and is the true meanmg of 
Sancboniatbo, a feigned Phacnician author, whofc 


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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 423 

works have been tranflated by Philo-Biblius. I 
have before obferved, that work carries every au- 
thority of bcinff penned by an ancient Irifh Sw- 
nachiy and we mall prefently find ftrong reafon to 
fufped it, /when we produce the hiftory 6i Anno- 
bret. Samnotbei then fignifiqs Speculators of the 
Heavens, and is the fame as the z-j^tpoin^fiir of 3an- 
choniatho. Eos illi Zopbafenim^ hoc eft, cqeli cpnr 
templatores« (ap. Eufeb. prep. Ev. p, 33.)'frprn 
XXSi fpeculator, propheta, IrUh /(^^ <n^ & 
tSfi&Hf coelum. 

In fine, there are no names, or dogiha^ of th^ 
Hiaeniciams, recorded by either Greek or Latin 
authors, that are not to be found or esEplained in 
the ancient Irifh, a ftrong collateral proof, th^ 
the Phaeniciaxis of the OW Greeks w^c not Ca- 
naanites or Tyrians, but that mixed b6dy of Per* 
fians, i. e. Scvthians, Medes, &c. whom SaUu^ 
informs you, nrom the beft authprity (k)^ the t^u- 
nic Annals, compofed the Gaetulians '"Irld Nuiiu- 
dians of Africa, the firft fettlement of the Phauu- 
cians in that country, and the fame peopje thajL 
Varro, Pliny, and Juftin bring from .thence to 
Spain, conformable to the, Ancient Hiftory of Ire- 
land. For it was only the people on the fea-coafi, 
from Sidon to Egypt, that the Greeks called Phscr 
nicians, (not the Canaanites) as Procopius ia- 
forms us : and thefe were our Scythi, as we have 
ftewn in many places. 

(k) Bell. Jog. c. TLx. 


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^14 ^ rtndlcatioh if the 

a. Of the Bardi or Barthes an<l Saronida. 

Irh'e Bardie I think, were the origihal Celtic 
pn^^s, fo called from their chatitinj; to the Dei- 
tics^ in their facred Office. 

The Britifli Druids had under and next to them, 
the Bards^ Who though inferior in rank, are &id 
to be prior in antiquity. (Boriafe. '» The name was 
iiirritten Baffb by the ancient Britons, ind is cfi- 
dently the Chaldec Dig Part or Perct. P iufd B 
bejnff doiiimutable Letters, and the finals alio T 
i!fii4 D, Bard^ Bart^ and Part are fynonimoUi 
likmcif. Bard us eft ab hiebraco Pardtj mtttatb 
Kbmdgcncis, ;^i8ochirt. Plantavit, D. de Poftd^, 
fee)— ;b^3 Parat figh?fies to iirtg, or chant, Amos 
C. '6. V. 5, Paritlm ftiper tlsLblium. Nablium 
%r^s^t1ke Chaldsean Harp or Lyre, iMc Phseniciaifls 
ciilied it "ysb Cinur, by v^hich name it was knovtn 
in'irelahclr And thus Diddbrus arid Ammiariiis 
^eCcribe the Britifli . Bards fmging to their harps. 
IBiardi Gallorum crant Po6tae & Cariiores, (PofBdo- 
iiius) tD*19 PJa^at, Cinere fuam Cantici partem. 
(Plantavit) as if fihging in concert. For Fardt^ 
fay Bates Slnd Patkhurft, rather fignifies repeating 
oyer arid dver again^ that is, the recitative part 
The Bkrds >yere the chief Priclls ^nd Prophets, 
iuperior to the Vatcs^ Qufcre the li^to vfii^ Vitetf 
Homer, i Odyfs. ^) 

The Etymologifts all draw the word Barth horn 
the Hebrew Pcrct, which fignifies particularitas : 
Acini decidui : Poretim^ modulantes ; vocibus in 
particulas quafi concifus, hence from Pherct the 
Gallic Fredons, frcdonncr. Fredenne Gallicum, 
quod Gallicc ^nte de muftque. 


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Ancient Hiflwj rf Ireland. 445 

Hint notninabantur Poets Gallorum Bardi^ 
juafi PoretiiDy modtdantesy Particttlarifantes. 

Pluriink fecuri iiidiftis carmina Bardi. (Lucan)-^ 
line Bnrdo Gall Bourdon, pro lubis orgAnorum. 

ed Daln. Rtrn ; Biaran eft Poeta antiquum, quo 
Uonemur poffe etiam hoc ultimum duci a *1N3 
Bar, clar^ & perfpictke loqui. Saxon. Bridd modu- 
la&tes. (TomaiSta; 

This word Bar is certainly the root of tlie Irifli 
Bear la Speech, Fr. Parole^ Parler^ Parlement : 
Jo Bardus may derive from Irifh Bar-dos. Dos a 
nan in holy orders. SacriBcator ; from t^w^ Dafa. 
Ude/aj herba, fruftas, he who offered the fruits ; 
)^hence bu^s^^uo^At^vat^^vaitf'^m^ Suffimentum, Sa- 
rrificium, Sacrifico, Lat. Thus, quodherbse tan- 
ruin odoratae primum incenderentur & hsc prima 
:Ueriht facrificia.—— hence alfo the Gr. Ti/crey^ Sup- 
3lico.^ — hence ^XOh dafan, Saginatus, pinguefadus 
iiit, item decineravit. incineravit, pinguedo. Cinis 
juac quomodo cohaereant, non video. (Tomaflin) 

ITiey were alfo called Saronida (Diodorus) a 
ivord corrupted from the Irifh Sar-an-donn or Sar^ 
fbqnny written alfo Searthonn^ as is explained by 
:his ancient Irifh Glofs. Searthonn^ anti bhios re Seir 
10/ re Sail an donn. i. e. Seir-an-donn, no Sail 
mdonn. i.. e. OUaman. Donn i. e. Ollav. i. e. 
Searthonn is he who chants, fmgs, or repeats 
In. Saily i. e. recititave, and is called Searan- 
lonn. Donn is the fame, Ollav i. e. r)*7{^ Doftor. 
— ^^— This is evidently the tCPr^^Ji^ Shirtana, 
)r DbSor of Mufick of the Chaldaeans, who 
roihpofed as well as chanted, (fays Buxtorf ) but 
he compofition was the office of the File ; of whom, 
X'hen treating of the Ogham. 

The'Britifh Barthes being (hoved out of their 
indent office of Chief Prieils by the admiflion of 
he Irifh Drui (or Perfian Daru) they loft much of 


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426 A Vindicatim of the 

their dignity, and became mere Poets, Heralds, 
and Chanters to the Drui. lliey were remarkable 
for an extraordinary talent of memory, and ther& 
fore were employed to teach their young difdples, 
who were chiefly to learn to remember, as their 
principal qualification in Societies, where no writ- 
ten rules were allowed. This was a law artfully 
introduced among the Celts, by the Irifh Drm^ 
whilft that order in Ireland, ufed letters both in re- 
ligious and civil matters. (Rowland. Lhwyd. &c) 
The Bards of Ireland were always mere Ballad 
Singers. They were never admitted into holy or- 
ders. Each Chief kept a Bard to repeat the heroic 
deeds of his anceflors, and to entertain him and his 
company, with the fong and the harp : (b great a 
diflfercnce was there betwixt the Pagan religion of 
the Celts and of the ancient Irifh. The compoicn 
of the facred Hymns were called File and were di- 
vided into feven Claffes, of whom hereafter. 

3. Of the Vates, or Prophets. 

ITie third order of the Britifli Druids, were na*- 
med Vates^ by the Greeks Ouateis. (Borlafc.) 

The origin of this name is preferved in the Irifli 
Baidhj and Faith^ but flronger in Faitbmr^ or 
Phaitbotr. The firfl: was written Vacdh by the Arabs, 
whence the Greek Ouateis^ hence Vaedh^ fignifying 
a prophet, became a common name to many 
perfons and authors of Arabia (D'Herbelot.) 

Baid is the Chaldaean M*13 bada^ pracdicavit. 
Nihil apud alias gentes (Hebraeas, antiquiores, 
Arabes, ^gyptios, Grsecps, omnes) ufitatius quam 
ut Saccrdotes, prophetse, divinatores, Oraculorum 


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Ancient Hi/lory cf Ireland. 427 

intcrpretes cffcnt, & refponfa Dcorum corum mi- 
nifterio redderentur. Id inoris apud Hebraeos, 
lege Mofis antiquiores obtinuiflfe probabile habea- 
tur, quod Jobus & Prophctse vocem C3^^a Badinij 
ad divinatores & oracula notanda ufurpaverint.— 
(Spencer dc Urim & Thummim p. 1 020.) 

Ch. VTH Bada, Arab Bedi praedicavit, cum 
Hebr. ^B03 Bata congruat. D*»^i Badim^ Divini, 
mendaccs. Jercm. C. 50. V. 36. p^l Badak^ divi- 
nare per accuratam inquifitioncm. Gen. 44, 5. — 

C~ int.) The Pcrfians had their Ur-bad and Mu- 
,(a) mis temporibus facerdotes vocabantur Mag 
Rad and Mubad i. e. Praeful Bad. (Hyde). Af 2/- 
bad Arabic^, a Philofopher. The Indians have 
their Budda. Apud Indos, Gymnofophiftas quorum 
fedse princeps, tefte Hieronymo contra Jovinia* 
num, Budda nuncupatur — apud Phaenices Ocbum. 
(Polyd. Virgil de invent. L. i* C. 16* — See Qox*^ 
and the Irifh Occai^ before.) 

The Irifh Faith and Faithoir is the Hebrew VID 
I%ethar, interpretus eft. folvit iEnigma. Genef. C. 
40. — TJflD Pbotber^ Conjeftor, unde Jofeph, Poter 
dicitur. & Patera^ Sacerdotes Appollinis Oracu- 
lorum interpretes. (Buxtorf. p. 666.) Hence the 
Irifh Bro-faithj i. e. the ancient prophets. The 
Scythians or Hyperboreans, fays Paufanias, gave 
the firft nfofurfti to the Temple of the Delphi, and 
they came from beyond the feas to fettle at Par- 
nafTus. See Colle£i. No. 12. pref. clxiii. Finally 
it is the Phaenician h^nSN Aphtha which the learn- 
ed Rhenford miftakes for the Egyptian Ph-Ta. See 
Velazquez Enfayo fobre les Alphabetas p. 143. 

(a) The Urbad «>f the Irifh divined by fire, i. c. Ur. the Per* 
fians-wrice it fijr-huL 


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428 A Vindication of the 

The following (lory copied from an andcnt Itiik 
MSS. will explain the office of the Bad^ and at die 
Ifame time will fhew the origin of the name of Sa» 
rah (Abraham's Wife) in Sanchoniadio viz. jtnnc- 
bret. Ihis (lory is a (landing monument that the 
ancient Irifli were the Phsnicians of the Old 
Greeks — ^I'he Fenoice or defcendants of FcnitUi 
as they called themfelves. 

AoDH-SLAma^/^ dia napair^ hfc. — L c. 

AdDH^sLAiNc (faved from the Sacrifice) vAofUm 
he fo called? (1>) 

Irish. TrakslatioIk* 

^Beah ghnofieac^h ro Diarmaid (x:) fon d 

-bhoi a:g Di-€lrmaid mac Cear-bhail ^d) had 4 

•Cear-bhail. i. Mughain ban^dfdme wife named 

iughean Condraid mac Moghain (e) dai:q;hter 

Duac, a Hairgod Rofs. of'Conci^aid 'fon df Du- 

ac, ^f Airgiod Rids, (f) 

(b) AoJ\%?[re^ but applied to the Bre of the'AlQir. Aklk 
band^a renedh i. e. Addh is the Goddcfs of fire, lipfa'cft vcAi. 

'(Archbp. Corinac) heTice<'>^#<M'-^Atiiyf faved- from the Sacrifice i* 
■€. Ifaac. 

(c) Di-aroiid, honoured of God, i. e. Abrsham. 

(d; Cearbail, (he inia^e maker, (of Belus) i. e. Tenuch fa- 
ther of Abraham. Cear IS an iitaage, and Bailrhe gcnitire of 
Bai. Orientaies narrant Terach mlfle magnatem & in fuanoi 
-favore 'apud imperacorem, quippe per t)uo 'idola psrabat cum 
profeflione efler ; unde But Terafh, IdoJorum fcoiptor fii6- 
bricator. (Hyde 63 ) 

(e) Mughan, i. e. mjbdlovcfd, i. e. Sarah Abraham's Wife, 
'whofe name was ijka^ i. e. perpulchra; Gm. I1.-29. "Hyde 
80. G/^Mischegheniyet'ofthe Arabs, a womao fatofaiwirii dbe 
native beautj of her perfon, and defpifing omamenta. 

(f) Airgiod Rofs, in Ireland ; if the Scene trat'Doe riuuged 
to this Country, we (liould have no right to daiin the Snarj. 



Ancient Hifi^ of Ireland. 


Rob' aimrit tra in 
Mugfaean fin agus ni rue 
clann don Ri. 

Ro boi Diarmaid ag 
treigen na righna de fin. to divorce the Queen on 

this account. 


Mughean was barren, 
and railed no Children^ 
to the King. 

Diarmaid was about 

On this, the Queen 
went to Finnen a Magu^ 
of Baal or Belus, ah4 
to the Eajhady (g) named 
Aedha fon of Brig^ and 
told them, fhe was bar- 

The Reataire (h) 
(Priefts) then confecrat- 
ed fome water of which 
fhe drank, and conceiv- 
ed ; and the produce of 
her womb was (Uan 
finn) a white Lamb^ 
whence (he was called 
Uanabhreit i. e. bringing 
forth a Lamb, (i) 


(jj) Edbtd i. c. na-ttTTK Ahas-bad, the Praeful of the Baid. 
This Epithet is prefixed to all places of dignity among the ancient 
Pef&ns, as in Ahafaenis Src. See Daniel, &c. 

The kifli write it Eas^ hence Eaf-pog and Eas-cop, a Biijiop 
in the modem Irifh, in Arabic Efcof. 

(h) Reat-aire, i. e. the Chief Priefts of the order of Ra4. 
Ulis temporibus Sacerdotes (Perfas) vocabantur. Mag. RmI. Mu- 
-bad. See before. 

(i,) Vm a Lamb ^ oan' Agnus. n*DV oberet, coocipiens, per- 

peneai, Bochart thinks flie was named Anobcet finm/nntinn 


Do cuaidh in Righan 
iar fin co Finnen Muig 
Bile agus co beasbad 
Aedha mac Brice agus 
c^^caoineas friu abheith 

Ro beannachfat i^a 
Reataire^ uifce di conus 
ibh digh aff, agus tor- 
rach fi dhe, is feadh rue 
don tiorrchis fm, i. e. U^ 
an/lnHj agus ainmfidh. i 
Uan aUireith. 

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A Vindication of the 

Am mairgfi dc fo, ar 
Mughain, ceithir do 
chom-peirt. Ni headh 
bhias . ann ar Finnen 
acht bi coifergudh dot 
bhroinn indi fin, inram- 
hail an uan neamh loc- 
taigh ro aodhbhertar 
Ceanin Chioniuda dacn- 

Ro bheannrxh an Re- 
atairc uifce uile dhi, 
agus ba torrach fidhe 
dhefin, agus ar an Re- 
ataire bhcrafu mac de, 
agus bidh lia Ri uadh 
for Erenn in nas o na 
macuib oile. 

Woe is mc, faid Mug- 
hain, to bring forth a 
four footed bead. Not 
fo, replied Finnen, for 
your womb is thereby 
confecrated andtheLamb 
mud be facrificed as 
yoMX firji^bamj foryoor 
Ceanin Cion-iuda^ (k) or 
purification of yourfirft* 

The Clergy bicffcd 
other water for her, ftc 
drank and conceived.— 
Say the Priefts, you 
(hall now bring forth a 
Son, and he (hall be 
King over Ireland and 
more noble than all 
other men. 

Chann Oberit i. e. ex graria conclpiens : &reftd appellanirSaTt, 
quae cdm efTet ftcilis, virtutem in conccptionem fcminis acccpit, 
etiam prster tempus aetatis quoniara 6delem credidic efle cum 
qui pt)n2ifcrat. The explanari<»n Is ingenious, and worthy a 
Chriftian, but Sanchoniatho had no fuch ideas. Mj^ Ana. ^rn> 
eft Ovif. Bochart. Geog. L. i C. 35.— Whence U-an a LAmb. 

(k) Ceanin Cion-iuda. pp Kinin. Sacrificuin poft ptrtnni 
inulieris oblatum, feu pro defundtis cuui lamento celebfamm. 
N. B. I'he iarter is diftinguiilied in Irifti bj Caoniin. CfM-wii 
the firft-born, I'D* Jehid, Ifaaci Epicbemm Gcncf. zz. V. 1— 
(Satumiis ex nympha indigena 'Ara;Cp!r noniint filiiim unigcnt- 
x\\movU% T8 TO UH^ ijtAAKv. quaiii proprercA /or^ voctbaar, 
cum bodie unigenirus a Fhaenicibus ita appellaiur. (Foiphyrius) 
Unigenicum d patre fuifTe iiiimolarum & apud Sanchoniiiriion, 
Satumus filium fuum unigenirum in hoiocauftuin oSert : here the 
Iri/h explains ic better, cion-iuda is primo geniius doc uoigenifSL 


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Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 



Maith lium or Mug- 
hain acht gur ro cam- 
haillter comhaillfither ar 
in Reataire. 

Do gni Finnen agus 
Eafpad Aedha beanna- 
chad na Righne lagus 
bcannachad in tfil ro ge- 
infeadh uaithi, agus 
atnaigh uifce don rig- 
hain agus ibbigh digh 
aff, agus beirid mac, 
agus do berar ainm do, 
Aedh flaine i. ro fla- 
naigbead e o n^ naod- 

Ro ba maith a chlcann 
ic a chinel dia eis, u 

Is berait Finnen eilc 
combadh for fan ab- 
hainn ainm Slaine ru- 
ndh Aodh conide ro ha- 
mmnighedh Aod Slaine 
agus a mhatbar ro ha- 
inmnigheadh Uanabre- 


I Ihall rejoyce, fays 
Mughain, provided what 
the Priefts have prophe- 
fied (hail come to pafs. 

Then Finnen and 
£a(bad Aedha blefied 
the Queen and the Seed 
of her loins, and giving 
her more confecrated 
water, (he drank of it 
and brought forth a Son, 
and called his name 
Aedhjlaine^ becaufe he 
was faved from the Sa- 
crifice. (1) 

His Children and Ge- 
neration were valiant 
and famous men. 

In memory of his ex- 
traordinary fcirth Finnen 
called him Aoth-flaine 
and to perpetuate the 
memory of it, the River 
Slaney was named from 
him and his mother 
was called Uanabreith 
i. c. the bringer forth of 
a Lamb. 

(1) Aodh flaine i. e. Ifaac, faved from die facrifice, becaufe 
he wtf not the firft-bom of the Womb. The whole of this Stor/ 
is ftraogof Chaldaetn Paeanifm, and could not have been invent* 
cd by any Qiriftian monks whatever. 


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43^ 4 Vinc^^tm rf the 

We (hall le^v^ the Reader to make his own ob- 
fervations on the fevere cenfure Bifhop Cumber- 
land has pafled on Bocbart for affirming Cronos of 
Sanchopiatho to be Abraham and yebid to be tbe 
epithet of Ifaac, and Anobret to be Sarah, (m) 
The whole of Philo Bib. feems to be a forgery 
from a Babylonifh work, with a Scythian title, for 
Sanchoniatbo (as the learned GebeHn obfcrrei)ii 
not the name of a man but the title of a book, 
viz. in Irifh Seancho-nathy the fcience or know- 
ledge of antiquity. Such a work our Feniot ¥ir(a 
is (aid to have compofed. Fenius i. e. arwui n 
bai Jis na farfaighi^ Oga* i. fogahai ar fbis e n 
foTail in fceul fo ilcenula in domain^ do fi^ w 
fiwearla farijean. i. farrifd focal Greacda Divm 
a dcir ceirt Latin^ \. e. Fenius learned in antiqui- 
ty, was Ogay an explorer of wifdom, he wrote the 
Genealogy of the World, he taueht the pure, (the 
golden ; language, called in Greek ^^ri/Z/, in true 
latin Divus, (n) which agrees with what Athcnaeos 


I (m) Bochan in Cai»aji» p. 790. Cumberland • 
p. 134. 

(n) Bearia farifean, the golden lan?aaee, pDTID plnnilba 
Ch. Aureum, totum aureum.^ called m iSrecK fmnfd^ 1 iiP* 
pofc the author means pp^^B'f optimus, eifXtWeoumuauk"^ 
paiTagc is -taken from the book of Ballymore. 

If this ftory is compared with that of Dr. Tayrmier, bin. p. 
^83. where he relates the creed of the modem Gann, conccm- 
ing Ihf'oham Zer-Ateucht^ it will be found, chat they both pro- 
ceed fi-om the fame fource. '* lAo autem Propheta Ekalim 
fuper flqnam fine cymba ambulante, ab eo in ipfam cecidifle 
tres feminls gemtnlis guttas ibidem deindc fcrvatas. Demn puftci 
fuper eundeiii fiuvium miliile Virginem a fe adamajtmip, qqs pri* 
mx gutrz receptioue tunc evafut^ eiTet gravida priQio wtutt, 
quem in anreceflum vocabant 0^/</rr— chat is, Shw, or afliaal- 
dar, a Sheep, a Lamb, in Iriih Olfadigr^ a 7<wng .Siicepb * Liimh. 

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Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 433 

fxji of Phaeniz or Mochu^^ Phaenicia lingua 
finipienKt res patrias-r-Cronus, in Phib» is impro- 
p^dytranflated Saturn, it fignifies a Lord, Prince, 
and iu IriiDi a high prieft, from )V Kern, (and fo 
the Siiihop acknowledges p. X39O i. e. Cearnach. 
Aqii Abraham was a very confidcrable Enur^ when 
he purfued the Scythian Kings to recover his bro- 
dier Lot, s^ we have explained in the former part 
of this Work. 

iErom the foregoing obfervations, it is plain the 
Druids of Britain and their inferior orders, were 
not of Britiih growth, but proceeded from the 
fount^ head ofaU Idolatry, Babylon. They had 
nothing^ uncommon but their local names of Dei- 
ties, and their particular veneration for the Miff- 


The Mifsletoe is a plant of the parafite kind 
growing not on the ground but on other trees, 
at the apple tree, pear tree, aJDh tree, lime, wiU 
low, elm, &c. it very rarelv grows on the Oak. 
This plant I believe is not known in the Eaft, at 
leaft, I find no Perfian name for it. The Irifh 
paid no more refpeft. to this than to other medici- 
nal plants, except, that, as the Misfletoe of the 
Oik was £ud to be the beft, it was named uiU4oca 

Hhetk iajn die. Dr. Mulieres menftruanu— & revalefcentes, ad 
' SKerdotem pro oblatboe mUTuras H^dum auc Gallidam ant C6- 

InmlMun &c. and hence the name Aftartes from die Iriih Of/, a 

Sheep^ aad Aodra^ a Shepherd^ a guardian of Sheep, for the He- 
. bmr SXnTBDf Aflarptfa, is tranllated bj the Chaldgan Pkraphr 

rxtjf Adrip which Bochan thinks is a nock ofibmif, but it fig- 

nffiet the ihcphcid or guardain of the flock. 

£e i.c. all 

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434 ^ Vfndkaihn tf tbe 

1. e. all heal, whence probably the^of the Gteeb. 
The Oak, ve have fccn, was a Tacred tree from the 
earlieft account after the flood : confequendj the 
fruity leaves, &c. were all accounted hahjr* M«v 
is the Perfian name of an Acorn ; in Inft Jlfeor, 
and I think if the Misfletoe had been knows to Ac 
Perfians, we fliould have found other itanKi for 
it in Trifli, than uileioca and ghuj that is dTAfli^ 
and vlfcous. Dr. Borlafe obferves, dist the Bri- 
tifli Druids were kept in countenance for Aeim- 
neration of the Misfletoe by the Perfiam and M^ 
fagetesy and refers to Alexander ab Alex. V. 2. ju 
743. — ^that author only fays, that they efteemed 
^cred whatever grew on the Oak tree. Berfa 8t 
Maflagetae, quicquid quemis arboribus nafoA^ 
tur, e caelo miflum putabant, and then adds our 
audior, funt qui arbitrentur, Vifco^ ouod in qaer- 
na arbore nafcebatur, nullum praefentis nomca 
acftimari — hi fuerint Druidje, quorum vana fo- 
perftitio inter mortales praecipua finfle tradimr^— 
here he alhides particularly to the Dmidt of Bn* 
tain and GauL 

Gius in Irifti alfo (ignifies the Cone bearing ffoe 
—it certainly was the Perfian Gbev^ whidi u&id| 
in the Lexicons, to be the Tamariflc tree, the 
fmall branches of the Gim were pealed by oar 
Mogb and made up in Brofna^ to be carried about 
them for the facred fire, the twigs of die Ghn 
were made up into berfam by the Perfian Magi for 
the fame purpofe— as were thofe of the Haom il 
MagjuSy and the Omna of the Iriih< (o) 

(o) Brafiia is cerminlj a oorrapdoa of betftm, bodi ioplf a 
fmall bundle, as nany as will fill the hand. 

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^ntieut Hififiry ^Ireiand. 435 

iilA FaU., or RoYAIk. 3ton£ ^ I^SLAKO; 

', ^ Dr. Borlafis has &llen into the vulgar error^ 
' ** that this (tone had a polidcal property, and by 
' <* that meana the Dnu4s of Ireland had it in their 
^ *^ pawer 6f chufing a king, whom they thought 
^ ** moft likdy to favouttheir order ; and could per- 
^^ faade the credubus pec^le that this aflfented or 
^ was fileiit as fuited bed their purpofe. That 
** the Perfians had the fame (tone, which they 
^* called ArtizoCj that pointed out the moft de- 
^* fintviiig candidate for the crown of Perfia, and 
<< iai^ired the people with proper difcemment to 
'^.cfaiifeaking'^ It is to be obferved that the 
Dr* ftfers to Ireland and Perfia, for he could hear 
of no fuch ftone among the Britons or any of the 
Celtic tribes. 

Dr< Borlaie would here iniinuate that the kings 
of Periia and of Ireland were eledive } whereas 
they were both fuccefiive or hereditary^ and that 
in the male line< In all the hiftories of Ireland 
and Perfia we find but one fabulous queen, a 
Hmai in Perfia, and a Moebamongma in Ireland : 
bodli Aames figiUfy the BirJ of Foaradife^ and their 
hiftories collated in this work, ihew them to have 
been defigjaed for the fame perfon, a fabulous 
quoen, in remote times, when there was no dif- 
tib&ion between Perfians ;ind Scythians, and when 
the Perfians and the ancient Iriih were one people. 
Toland tells us, it was on this ftone, the kings 
of Ireland ufed to be inai^urated in times of hea* 
thenifm ; he is fo far right, but, like others, he 
fisdls into the ruigar error of confounding this 
ftone, with the Clochpam-Athar^ the Lia Meifcith 

£ e a or 

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436 A Vindicatim if the 

or Chcb na Cineamhain^ the £ital ftone, or pit 
n'^^tun £bn Maflicitfay the a&w q^^w^ oi the abo- 
muiable Chaldees, which we have fully delaibed 
in the 13th No. of the Colleaanea- (a). The 
Irifh, fays Toland^ have memoirs concmuo^ 
the Lia Fail for above 2000 years, but how 
foon they begun to ufe it, or whence they had it, 
lies altogether in the dark.— This is the Liz Mx^ 
cith, which is peculiar to the Mi^ogian line ; Ori- 
ental tradition fays, it was delivered by Nodi to 
Japhet and by him to Magog ; we therefore find 
this ftone with the Tartars, Perfians, Turks, Tod- 
ranians, and all Scythic tribes, but never hear of 
it among the Celts : from the Scythians it proba* 
bly pafled to the Chaldees, who moft wicke^ ftt 
it .up as the oracle of the Elabim in oppofition to 
the breaft-plate of Aaron. 

Unfortunately this Oracular ftone bore tbe 
name of the ftone of Fate^ as well as tbe names 
above mentioned, and Fid in Irifli, Arabic and 
iEthiopic, fignifying an Omeny the Lia Fml hu 
been tranflated thcjl$ne ifdeJHf^y but. Fa/ alfo 
fignifies a king, a prince, a judge. Nn^Dl^ls- 
ha, magnatem fi^ficat. (D. de Pomis.) Hcb. 
y?g Phall judicavit. Ch. Nrfrg Phalaha a judge, 
a king, or other great perTonage. Arab, fad 
a king. — Vcd a prince. But, we find this Lia 
Fail, under another name, that clearly diftinguilh- 
es its ufe, viz. Clnh dufcay Art^ufaca^ thatiti 
the ftone of Undion : Ufca or Ufaca is findion, 
anointment, as Cur uijue ar ni^ to pour oat 
ointment on any thing: hence when kings and 

(a) Colledl. No. 13, where there is an cngniTing of the 
ftone, from ao original in the C<dlege Mufcum, 

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AncUni Hi/brf rf hiUmd. 437. 

efts were anointed, they were in authority, 
1 thence ufachd fi^fies power, authority, in 

fiune manner ^zfiuicbdj i. e. y:x) a Hebrew 
rd, could not have been explained without the 
ftance ^f the Irifh language. See preface viiL 

like manner the InV^ufaea^ or uifice or ufca^ 

it is written various ways, is derived from the 
a4dean*nD&ii(, unj-ereusi: whence Ttf^^ Sicah 
\Bi6i .Ttt ID3 nViSk Melee, ungere in regem^ 
iL ^.' 6.- jTO^tnpta CUkdq/icab lapis undionis, in 
Ih Ctoch iVufacM. )Sow AniA Irifli fi^nifying a 
ne, ' as weU as Clocb^ the naine of thu ftone of 
itmcAt, viz.- Artdufacoj niay have been cor- 
Md by Pyny into Artividi 4>i tYkt Perfians. 
From: whence it is evident that the Lia Fail^ was 
I StMt oh which the kings of Ireland were inaiui^ 
ca^ed and anointed, and if tradition may be de- 
aded on, it is now in its proper place, under the 
itr in Weftminfter Abbey, in which the kings 

Great Britvn, FraQce and Ireland arc inaugu* 


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4^8 ' AmdigaHuiqf tie 

S E G T.I ON Itt- 

iL Ofitx^inif/hofthiF^^ Irifl^, z. Qf liar 
. ' templet.. 3. (^thc deitktii^ 

u TH.{1 laws aad.religioa of a nation are die 
fare, guide to trace xhA ongUl of ^ i>e^ile, -bd wc 
nO; otbcc.sDaterskls* Siift^ .^Imre dwff U.aii uiii. 
form hiftory of a feofAcy, i^^tte^ in 4^ 9^ Im* 
guage;< from their .rfirft f^ufein^t: ^d^er.thedif. 
pcrfioa» and of thcu igigir.a4oQ9^ taadiciF final let- 
tlement^ confirmed by tile tQo(^ an^^ hiftmani; 
tixui >e find the ancient. religipOr pf t^ peo- 
ple conformable to. iheir bi^ry%, :9^/may be diGco- 
▼ered from- variotui fragoi^nt^ fcgttereflbcareaDd 
there in their anckot: MSS^ th^arp du^m^ 
ces;, in: my opiniQ*9» jjbat ampA^irtQ apofidve 
proof of the auihchlickyrf the bi&*yi: : . .. 

In the foregoing pages, we have provc4i tM 
the ancient Infii were fouthem Scythians, feated 
early on the Perfian Gulph and in Touran ; that 
they were the original Phxnicians of the ancient 
Greeks, (miflaken by the l.xx for Canaamtes) 
(b) that they were the firft navigators of the Eaft, 


(h) They were tlie mariners of the Canaanim or Tynim, 
nnd were feared along the coaft of the Red Sea and of tbc Me- 
Hice*-ranean ; and it unis the coafters thar the Greeb alied 
Phxnicians, not the inland people or Canaanites, as we lein 
from the Procopius (in Vandaliconim feciindo p. 135). 
H 'Ci^xxii'^fTiai, &c. Liieralis omnis tra6tus ab Sidone ufqne ad 
Jiniftes i^grpti, Phxnice vocabatur.— Not the Country fast the 
Coaft^ from Sidon to i9*Igypt was called Phxnice— hence even ia 


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Andiia Hi/bay cf Ireland. 439 

and the firft difcoverers of the Britaanic Ifles hj 
feafrottftfao pillars oifHerdules ; that on the Per- 
fian Gttlph and cox the banks of the Red Sea, 
Abf mixt with the Dadanhn of Chaldasa^ and af- 
terwards with the Tyrians ^ and finally, were ex- 
pelled from Tyre and/rom Spain by Nfchuchadono- 
for, from whence th^ fled, and fettled in the ma- 
ritime coafts of Gaul, in Ireland^ and Scotlahd, 
having been driven from England and Wales, by^ 
tlie Cyknmeri or ancient Britons. 
.^ We may therefore expeft to meet with the dig« 
iliumof tmpriefthood, inChaldsean, Canaanitim 
awtPerfian names. This will be found to be the 
truth, without the interference of any northern or 
Celtic natne. 

The Chiddaean ^id Canaianitiih religion were 
the feme: We (hall ther<fc»re:ditidethe/rr^/iifr9 
tmxla£lis^ viflSb ChaldasancandPerfian, 

Irijk names (kriwdfrom the CbaUee. 

Cedbmuby Cobnach ; a Frieft, a Lord, a Prince« 

Before the conftruflion of temples, there was 

so particubur order of men affigned to the exterior 

Anfvftiii's time^ he tdbyou thcoMOinlii^Mius called thenh* 
felYes ChanmU qiuii Cha n aiMer» not Phaenicianii bccaofe tliey 
came with Dido from' Tj^re, but the cojonies of Utica^^ 
who had mixed with the nitrives and formed the Gaetulians and 
Niaidlans and ATmm Nmmdkmf^ by resSon ofiMr vaft mm-' 
hf» (Rnrt Namadody imuunefaUe) were, u Sallnft tells ui,^ 
fiKHBthe.Puaic books of that country, oompofed of Medes, Per- 
fiknsy. and Banhiassy that 11 of our fouthem Scythians. And 
thefcf Per&ns came from thence to Spain, for Perfians there 
were in Spain as Varro and Pliny affirm, and from Spain to the 
Britannic llfei under the name of Phen-oice. 


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440 y^ VindicatiM tf the 

fundions of public worfliip. Each chief of a £i. 
mily oficred for himfelf and for them. Hence, 
when focieties were formed, the ki^^ or chidi 
performed the offices of Priefts, and offered (acri- 
fices for their people: but^ when focieties en- 
creafed, and the cares of government employed 
the chiefsy it was neceflaij to a|^x>int particular 
perfons to the office of prieit, who fliould have na 
other employment but the worfliip of the Deity. 

The kings or chiefs yet preferved the rijjbr of 
offering for their people, when they judged it pro- 
per, and the priefts of every order and dctree 
were dependant on their authority. The cftalwli* 
ment of priefts had taken place in Egypt when 
Jofeph arrived there : when he was raifed to dig- 
nity, he was married to Afenutb daughter of Po- 
tiphar prieft of Heliopolis. Thefe pridb were 
maintained at public expence; the king, fays 
Mofes, had given them lands, and during (even 
years faaiine, they were furniihed with com frpm 
the public granaries : Tc:t the king of Egypt pre- 
ferved the right of offering {acrifices for nimlelf 
and his people, and in that country, where all 
their particular fiindions were regmated, die 
prince was always elected in the facerdotal older. 
The Moabitesj neighbours to the Canaaniiesj had 
a particular order of perfons dedicated to the vor* 
fhip of religion, but the king did the office of pridi 
when he pleafed. Belac ung of the Moabites 
wifhing to curfe Ifrael by Balaam, offered the pre- 
paratory iacrifices, jointly with Balaam the prieft. 
' In Canaan the number of prieifts were very 
confiderabie. Elias^ in the reign of Achab^ who 
had adopted the religion of Jezabel his wife, 
daughter of the king of Sidon, caufcd 450 pridfts 


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AncUnt W/hrj of Irekmd. 441 

of Boal to be ftranglcd in one day ; all tfaefe had 
been fupported at Jezabel's expence (2 Kings^ 18, 
19). The fiicred author obferves, that befides 
thdTe priefts of Baal there were 400 others main« 
tained by her to ferve t\itfacred Groves confecra- 
ted to falfe deities. Thdfe priefts, at leaft their 
chieft, were taken by the Canaanites from the 
moft confiderable families of the country. 

blMal prieft of Aftarte is reckoned by Jofc- 
phus, according to the annals of Tyre, amoi^ the 
xings of that city and reigned 32 years. 

Skbarbasj huft)and of Elifa or Dido and uncle of 
Pmnalion kine of Tyre, was prieft of the Sun. 

Hence Codhnach in Irifh, a lord, a prieft, a 
prince. The Tynans named their priefts JsnXQ 
Cohanim, i. e. Minifters, from the verb \iX2 Co- 
han, which is found only in the conjugation Pihel, 
and fignifies to exercife a facred fun&bn, to be in- 
▼efled with fome dignity, whence the name in all 
the Oriental languages fignifies a prince. Arab. 
Kahin, Perf, Kuhen. a prieft, a chidF. The ^gyp- 
tians write it Chond, to which adding the word 
acho, the Irilh Och and the Tyrian nox»r (as 
before) we have the Irifh Codnacb with the tranfpo- 
fition of one letter. 

CoU^ fan&ity, a prieft. Japonefe Kulhes, a 

Coi/rucbam^ to confecratCi KoW Bochart and 
many others* think is a corruption of Coi^^ (c)« 

(c) Sic&pios ITD Cohen reddittir, qtuindo primarium ofSciiim 
politicQiii aut principem regis miniftrum denotat. Buxtorf 
at 3n-> 


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442. A FtHdica^on rf tie 

1 can br no means a^reciatJia^opiiiioii** vcfiad 
the word in mod ancient languages. Di&iu |st) 
Gufli> propter pietatem, & benignitatem^ & man- 
fuetudinem & lanfHtatem. Beli nomine decoratus 
iiiit quafi Deum quendam inter 
terns, quemxtaquc Perfac in mwieruna depmin 
retulerant fHyde, p» 40). k vaia the Syrian and 
Tyrian ^DH Chaii, fanftus. Ch. ^T] pietas^ bo- 
nitas, excefius boni in non promeritum, qnic- 
quid officii prxftatur alteri fine compevlatioie. 
Syr. Din Chos pius, in Piel 'tptl Cbw, espiavil^ 
pius, innocens ; or from the Hebrew iptH Cbaair 
fandificare, vel feparare aliquid propter YOtam, 
inde y^]^ Nazarcus, qui feparatus. erat a. viod & 
frequentia populi. (David de Pomisl^ 

iEthiop. Kaff. preH^yter. A^^^Mci J^ttfees,..Sirr. 
Kufity Saccrdos, Chald, ]Tn GhaBaai«*-]VImiQcr 
ct ttriOti infpe£tor. — * MiniA:er fynagonc,— ilk 
maxim^ oratione five praccibus & cantu Ecclefix 
prasibats— undequoque pro Cantore, Prsecantore 

The Iriih word Cm, fignifies ibmething more 
iacred than thefe : Coifi-ucham, (rmitra) to cm^ 
fecrate muft deriye from the Arab^ Kh^ ^Kied. 
Kba/i iurden to fandify, l^erfic^ Kijh rdigioxu 
It forms the Cantabrian cwnfoundjain^cozeoa^ dL«> 

Cam a prieft, from cam to b^d, to bow down, 
fay fome ; but it is the Turkifli and Scythian Kmm^ 
i^llis ; is eft qui Templa expurganda curat^ floireas 
& tapeta ac ftragula fternitt Alcoranos cuftoditi 

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Ancient Biftorf rf hdand. 443 

Ckmar^ ,zpndlU The author of the book of 
Itbigs aiidtluK prophet.! Ofesa^ call the pricfts of 
the G<uiti)a pn"isb Cemarim or Kemarim^ but 
t^ diftinftion. made by., the prophet Sophonia^ 
^C« i.V. 4), between th^ Kemarim and the Coba- 
i^m^ lhew« pUlinlj. i^Kat the firft were an inferior 
order to aflut^ the Cobanim in their facred f undions* 
The root of the word feems to be *1S3 Camar, 
^hich fign^ie^ to bum, to blaze \ and fome think 
i^ey :weie la..c9}led front the ardour with which 
tbey .fiiled tfaieir miniiby* Others pretend they 
were, fb mi^c4 from certain marks burnt on their 
body widji ahpt iron, perhaps the x Thau, a com- 
mon axid; axKJent cuftom in the Eaft before the 
liraelites entered the land of promife. And others 
.$biidL they were io called from their office of burn- 
ing v^o^fSe^ whUft fome thiuk they were fo called 
{rom the dark )>rown or black colbur of their 
habits. ; The learned Millius, L ^hn^, haa cleare(i 
up the KoattteCy iUud non>ea deriyari a, yadicc >Qp 
.(jS^Muar, 4mC!Bpdi(« uffit-^ncendere^ non; veroni- 
j^um fieri, iignificare,— quia idotis contihuo thiiis 
& i|i$iuqi i^cendcbant & e thucc;]|icenib res^futii- 
^fi^s^diiyiiul^aijdt^ p. Millii [Diflegt. p« 43a). . 
\:. ;Abr^haJA Bqitfol in hi^ Cpfifpogritphia, written 
.lA TS^xfi^^ , (Mwaya calls the chrltUan^ Miflionaries 
lest^tKQ .Qi^rim, on wbif^^ pr. Hyde has this 
note. li^co: Cohanim, Cbdlliap^s mii&onarios 
y^catCumarim) i. e^ Arrato^ pi^Utps, vocabulo 
Idolorum Sacrificulos fempei;; ap^ante. (Itinena 
Muadi,:p. 195). 

The Ciomar officiated to Moloch. (Spencer, 
V. i*p.3(>9.) 

The fens of God took wires of the daughters of 
taen. (Qen, C* ?). 


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444 ^ TinJUcation rf tbi 

The fons of God in the Chaldee Par. are called 
N^^VHO^ Cimoria, that is, holy men^ and favs the 
Talmud, in the Arabic they are named Al-Cbimar. 
Buztorf explains the word ^"O Gumar^ by Sacri- 
iiculusy fiicerdos gentilis & idololatricus. The 
Chomarim were the priefts of Moloch, ft^ the fun). 
Spencer, 369. 

Cramary Cruimthcar, a prieft. It is a general 
name, from the Arabic Krim or Kerhn^ a rdigioiu 
man, fearing God — ^it is alfo one of the attributes 
of God with the Arabs, and forms our Crm-Cru- 
aidj of which hereafter. In the Chaldee DI3 
Cram or Caram, Gymnafium, Schola, Studimn. 

Caimeacby i. Sagairt^ on Canmacbj L e. Coir' 
neacb is a prieft, lo named from the crown he 
wore (in h» facred office^ on Coroin bhios in a 
cionn, from the crown he wore on his head. (Vet. 
Gbfl). The Pha^cian priefts wore crowns of 
gold, Alex, ab Alezandro.— 60 did the Iriih 
priefts, they were nearly of the fliape of a half- 
moon, with a button at each horn by whidi they 
were faftened behind. See p. 70. ColleAaiiea, 
No. 13. Our Coroin is the Phacnician rOtV 
Karonah, Capitellum — ^per metaphorem pp Ka- 
ren, Radius, Splendor, comui fimilis. This » 
certainly the root of our Caimeach, to which is 
added Each or Eoch or Occ, the Magus of the 
Phaenicians, as before explained (d).