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^ 



^ V 



^ 



v.^ 



4. 



•i 



■ t 



f 



COLLECTANEA 



D E 



REBUS HIBERNICIS. 



VOL. n. 



CONTAtNlNO 



No. V. Of the Utcraturc I No. VIIL An Effay on the 

^ i-k« In'IV XI^*.:^,. :n AnfSnntrv nf thfi Iri(k 



fsS the Irifh Nation in 
Heatheniih Hmes. 

No. VI. An Effay on the 
Study of Iri(h Antiqui- 
ties. 

No. VII, Draidifin reTived. I 



Antiqoity of tJie Irifh 
Language. 

IX. The Hiftory and 
Antiquities of Irifh* 
town and Kilkeany. 



WITH COPPER PLATES. 



i^a^>aM« 



DUBLIN: 



LUKE WHITE. 



lf|DCC,IiXZXTI. 



CONTENTS 



OF VOL. II. 

No. V. I. Of the Literature of the Iriih Nation ia 
Heatheniih Times, - - Page 3 

2. Fragment of the Brehon Laws, - 6 

3. GaveL-Law of the Iri£h explained, - 30 

4. Literature of the Lriih after the Eftablifhment of 
Chriftianity, r - - - - 41 

5* An Liquirj into the firft Inhabitants of Ireland, hf 
Lieut. Col. Charles Vallancey, - - 56 

No. VI. I. An Efiay on the Study of Irifh Antiqui- 
ties, - - - - 83 

2. Diflertation on the Round Towers, - 117 

3. Memoirs of Dunamafe and Shean-Caftle, in the 
Queen's County, by Edward Ledwich, L. L. B. 145 

No. Vn. I. Druidifm revived, r - 161 

2. Of the Origin and Language of the Iriih, and of 
the Learning of the Druids, by William Beau- 
ford, A.M. r - - 218 

^ No. Vni. I. An Eflay on the Antiquity of the Irifh 
N Language, by Lieut. Col. Charles Vallancey, 252 

^ 2. Remarks on the Eflay, - - . 33^ 



s No. IX. The Hiftory and Antiquities of Iriihtown 
Q and Kilkenny, by Edward Ledwich, L. L. B. 34$) 



CoJleSlanea de Rebus Hibernicis. 



NUMBER V. 



Of the LiTskATu&fi of the Irish Nation in 
HBATifEMisH Times. 

Translation of a Fragment of the Brshon 
Laws; or rather, z Glossary of the Brehon 
Terms. 

The Gatel Law of die antient Irish 

Of the Literature of the Irish after the EftaUUh- 
meatof Christianity. 

An ENqjjiRX into the First Inhabitants of 
Ireland. 

The Whole intended as an Essay towards (iimilfaing fome 
lAght for future EvopiaiBS into the Origin, Laws, 
and MAaNBRt of the Ancibmt Uish. 



By Lieut. Cojl. CHARLES VALLANCEY. 



DUBLIN: 
f-UKE WHITE. 



MiDCCyLXXXVMt 



/ Y 



TC O IM" E. 



RtOHTHHOKO^It ABLE 








N, 



^ ' 



AND 






ONE OF HIS MAJESTY'S MOST HONOURABLE 
PRIVY COUJfpJtt^ ^1^, lElEXANa 



SIR, 

It )^- 90 ibjttery^ ^t aia&iincontefled truth 
to aver, that you have been moft emi- 
nciitly ufefui to this kingdom, in encourag- 
ing the fine arts and manufadures. The 
extenfive fhare of literature and difcerning 
judgment you enjoy, would not permit the 
curious monuments of Irifh antiquity to 
pafs unnoticed ; at your own private expence 
very able artiAs have been employed to 
make fuch a CoUeftion of Drawings of thefe 
Monuments as give infinite pleafure to every 
Jlover of antiquity to behold. Permit me. 
Sir, to join the public voice, in hoping, that 

B a th© 



DEDICATION. 

the fame fpirit which has led you to this 
expence and trouble, may induce you to a 
publication of thi$ Colicdion of Drawings^ 
"which have juftly entitled you to be re- 
corded as.the Re0orer of Irifti Antiquities ; 
and I requeft that you will be plfcaicd to ac- 
cept of this Dedication of the Firft Number 
of the Second Votuniei of the Coi^Ll^ctANEA 
DB Rebus-Hibernicis from, 



S I R, 

Your moft obedient. 






moft humble Servant, 



CHARLES VALLANCEY. 



■ ^ I » 












t I 



ik^ ~ -* 



OP THE 



LITERATURE 



Of X H X 



IRISH NATION 



t N 



HEATHENISH TIMES, 



A 



MONGST all the proofs that can be ex* 
hibited of the exiftencc of letters and learning in 
pagan times, no one can be fo much depended 
on, as the producing of certain works, that 
were really written by pagan authors, and 
which exifted before St. Patrick's arrival in this 
ifland : Such a proof would doubtlefs folve the 
queftion propofed, in a decifive manner. The 
dans or poems given us by Keating to atteft the 
hiflories of remote times, far from aflifling us on 
the occafion, rather have appeared to many as 
proofs againft us, becaufe the words, the ftyle, and 
the very poetic drefs of thefe poems, ftiow them 
to be of modem, date and invention. Moil of that 
hiftorian^s poetic quotations regarding the Belgian 
and Daman colonies, the Ha fml^ &c. are taken 
from poems that, by the hook of Lecan, are attri- 
buted 



6 LITERATURE of the IRISH 

buted to Ecoha o Floin, who was a chriftian poet. 
From the difcovery of thi» truth, which neither 
Keating nor any or our literati did take proper 
care to explain, the enemies of our anticpiities 
cried up vidory, faying that thefe aniient fafts 
had only modern writers for their firft inventors ; 
but let them proceed with lefs precipitation, and 
confider the true nature of things. The Irifti ChriC- 
tians when they began to compofe verfes, after the 
manner of the deihhi or dim direchy which of all 
others exifting in either our, or any other language 
I am acquainted with, was the moft compendious, 
and for this reafon the moft proper for writing 
hiftory, laid themfelves otit for recording the fadts 
of remote antiquity, as well as chronology, &c. 
in fuch kind of verfes. And thus the Chriftians 
had in jtn abridged manner laid before them die 
lives and memorable anions of the princes, the 
yearH of tbeir mgn, • &c. and hence Keating or 
^ny oth(5r writer m^y very fccurdy cite ofle of thefe 
antient Chr;iftian poets, for attefting fads belonging 
to beatheniih tixnes, juft as he might cite the fame 
poet for att^mg fk£la beloioging to the A%rian,' 
Median,. P^riian, or Roman empires; the princi- 
pal revolutions of all which ftates have been often 
faithfully recorded by thefe Iriih poets, and many 
are to be met with in the parchment manufciipOff 
ftill exiili4g. The truth is, it wad much eaiier to 
cite a y^sf^ of four lines, each line ocmnfting anly 
of eight fyliables, wherein three or ftwr fads may 
be recorded, dian to have the trodble of citing an 
old pajSage in profe, fuch as. it was before Ckrif- 
tianity^ which oa account of its obfcarity and 

uncouth 



it» HEATHENISH TIMES. 7 

tmcouth drefs, muft become difagrecabfe to the 
modern reader, who fought for elegancy of ftyle, 
plain language ^d pleafure in his reading. - And 
hence, as it would be highly ccmtradiftOry to all 
good rcafon, for a man to conclude, that a fafit 
or revolution, happening in any of the afore&id 
great empires, had for its only authority an Irifh 
Chriftian poet, becaufe fach a fa(S or revolution 
was really defcribed by him, fo in like manner it 
is repugnant to good fenfe, that a Ghriftian poet 
ihould be affigned as the only author for hiSts 
which happened in headieniih times, becaufe 
tbefe fads are recorded in his verfes I the reafon 
be records in his poetry the fz&s relating to thofe 
empires of the world, is^ becaufe hie read the his- 
tory of them, and underftood the language where^ 
in the fa6b were contained, and by a like reaibn 
doth he record in veife, the fads regarding his 
own countiy, becaufe he is well acquaiated with 
the hiftory of it, and underftands his native lan- 
guage toperfeSion. 

In my humble opinion the verfes of fuch poets 
deferve the greateft credit, fincetheylay before us 
the moft abfurd relations and ridiculous tenets of. 
our pagan anceftors, as well as the moft certain 
aikl well conne<^ed points of their dodlrine and 
hiftory. This could not proceed from a want 6f 
cfifcemmeiit and good fenfe in them, fince they 
fliow by other writings, they were well acquainted 
with foreign hiftory, poetry andoratory, and con- 
fequently had as good a right as we have to diftin- 
gmih between palpable error and truth, or plauii- 
bility ; and iince they relate thefe palpable errors 
and fabulous ftory, it appears, their true motive 

fof 



$ LITERATURE or THB IRISH 

for fo doing was to hand down thefe accountSji 
juft as they found them in our pagan hiftory, with 
iincerity and candour. The Ghriftian religion de- 
rives one advantage from their fidelity viz. that 
we can by that means take a retrograde view of 
pagan blindnefs and mifery. 

Having thus offered my thoughts in vindication 
of thefe verfes,' which I fnppofeto have been com- 
polcd by Ghriftian poets, celebrated in their times> 
(for I kaiow what little dependance ought to be had 
on the vcrfification of our modern bards) I fhall 
now proceed to give fome clear proofs of our 
having had the ufe of letters before Chriflianity . 
The pioof I fpeak of is the exhibition of a frag- 
mcntof a Code of Laws, which, I think,; every ju- 
dicious reader, whof. is ve^fed in Irilh antiquities^ 
wfll judge to have been the produft of very remote 
times, much higher tUaloithc fifth or fixth centuries. 
This fragment contains twelve folios, and begins 
at folio fixty-four, the fixty-three preceding were 
mifling ; and here I nmft beg the reader to remark, 
the .difiereace between the letter of the law and the 
expHcaiioH of the faid law. I maintain the fii'ft is of 
pagan inflitution,. and that the fecond is the work 
of one or many Ghriftian Jurifconfuhs, who inter- 
preted thia law, and applied it to particular cafes, 
according to the intention of the Glffiftianlegiflator. 
This coUedion was partly madfe in the time of 
Bond mac Aodamac Anmrcchy who was a Ghriftian 
prince, by Ceandfaela mac Aillily called I fuppofe 
.CeandfiieLinaf)glmna\ and partly hy Aid// who 
lived after Cea^idfae/a's time, (on the environs of 
Tara) aad after the time, of Icing Cortnac, for he 

• was 



IN HEATHENISH TIMES. 



* 



was cotemporarjr with Carbre IJffeachair fon of 
Cormac. Neverthelefs the work is attributed ta 
Cormac, as it was begun by him and ended in the 
reign of his fon (krbre ; fo that the Irifh lawyers 
who compiled and delivered this code of laws^ 
were Aici/I who lived in the reigns of Cormac and . 
of his fon Carbre, and Ceandfaelafon of AilJ/l, who 
flouriftied in the reign of DonaJ fon of Hugh mac 
Ainrmrech. No doubt but that thefe laws were 
collefiledby the order of thofe Irifh princes, juft as 
we know the Roman emperor JuJHnian I. who 
had the Roman laws collected, by the care and 
labour of ten able Jurifconfults, diredied in chief 
by the celebrated Trebonianus^ calling this collec- 
tion the JuJHnian Code ; he alfo caufed the fcattered 
decifions of his judges and magiftrates, reduced to 
the number of fifty, to be called digejia or pan- 
deda, to all which he added his four books of in- 
ftitutes, which are an abridgment of the text of all 
the Roman laws ; and laftly he publilhed his own 
laws which he called novel/a ; this compilationhas 
procured for that emperor an immortal name* 

Our Irilh Chriftian legiflators took the fame me- 
thod with the Chriftian Jurifconfult Trebonianus 
and his iUuftrious afliftahts eaiWcdanteceJ/bres or pro- 
feflbrs and interpieters, for in the preface to the 
Panded<B^ they are ftiled T«f y«/M»» t^nmXH^ I mean 
'Tbeophilus and Dorotheus, who explained not only 
the laws of the Chriftian emperors from the year 
527> v^rhen Jujlinian fucceeded his uncle JuJHn in 
the empire, up to thereign of CmftantmeXht Great, 
but alfo to the times of Julius and Auguftus Cafar. 
They evenintroduce the laws of the fenate and the 

Bebijm 



to FRAGMENT OJf THE , 

Kebijcita or deciiiona of the popular tiribunes^ an^ 
ibmetimes the laws of the twelve tables^ all 
which were of pagan.mftitatioD, though direfted 
and compiled by a Chiiftian emperor and Chrif- 
tian Jurifconfults. 

Tbefe Irifli princes, feeing th<?laws of the Irifh 
natioa difperfed in many pieces, thought it ex- 
pedient, both for the public order and oeconomy 
of the ftate, and for the fafety and comfort of each 
individual, to unite them all together in one code. 

The FRAGMENT begins by the invocation of 
the name of God thus, in ainm DE Jo ; juft like 
the Juftinian code, which begins in norrnne I). 
n&firi Jeju Gbriji; and the firft folio contains an 
hiftorical prelude to the law, as I have juft now' 
obferved, viz. 

Locc don liubarfa The place where this 
Daire lubran, agus aim- book was^ written wa^ 
ier, do aimier Doninall Derry in the times of 
mac Aeda mac Ainmi- DonaLfonof Aod, fonof 
rech, acus pearfa do, Ainmirec, by thepcrfon 
Ceandfaelamac Aillila. called Ceandfaela Ton of 

Aillila. 
. This Donal, fon of Aod, fuccceded his brothei 
Coiialen who died in 605 ; he was cotcmporary 
with Fingin mac Aod, king of Munfter, who in 
604 Succeeded Amalgamac EaBna;ihe faid Donal 
according to our annals flew Seachnaffach, fon of 
Garvari king of Tirowen, who oppofed him in 607. 

Carbre LiSeachar fucceeded his father Cormac 
in 279, bis father dying of Ihe bone of a falmon 
which ftnck in his throat ; in 260, he fought the 
battles of Bear Loehlein, Lunerick and Greine,and 

alfo 



BR EH ON LAWS. " 



alfo of Ardfeart ; he is faid alfo to have killed ia 
lingle combat, in this year, twelve Lagenian 
prinoes, or Galamh Aenfir, and was ksmlflied by 
the Ultonians the year following, and was not 
able to recover the royal feat of Eman for four 
years, when at length he was vi£i6r, and banifh- 
ed the Ultonians into the ifle of Man. 

ThenfoUows this ancientverfeinpraifeof Donal : 
Ife in f:a ar nad bufid This is the man who 
ar arCongal in a gae ; proved viftorious, de- 
feating Gongal in battle : 
Re Domhnal in a firinde Who tiTily fellby the 
uair buaid madm ar in : fword of Donal : 
An firen rias anfiren. Voi! he coniqtiered him in 
Ife in f :° ar nad buaid. a pitched battle, and the 

faidiful prince flew the 
imfaithful. 
Suibne geilt do dul re He was the man who yet 
geltacht. i. ar facaib. was vidlor t)ver Suibne 

the geilt who became 
crazy. 
Do laidib & do fgelaib He left after him many 
agaiifiti each o finille. poems and ftorles for the 

nfe and entertainment of 
pofterity. 
It is then related of him that he was educated at 
Tuam Dercain> at the meeting of three roads, 
centrical to the houfes of three fuad or virtuofi, 
ynz. a genealogift, a poet, and a fai leigind ; his 
capacity and memory are praifed^ and concludes, 
that whatever he learned by day from his three 
teachers, he carefully wrote down at night in cailc 
Ihdbar, a chalk book. 

Accord'*^ 



ift FRAGMENT QFTHE 

According to Tigemacli, CiDfaela, ftiled by 
himjapens, died in the year 679. 

Then follows concerning Ciorauic and Carbre 
Liffeachair his fon, and fhe hillory of Cormac's 
being blinded is mentioned thus : 

Ceallach fon of Cormac ravi(hed a Lagenian 
lady of quality, daughter to Solar Ion of Artcorb, 
in her father's houfe at Rath Aedba in Leinfter ; 
fome time after Aongus Gaibuaibnech pafiing 
through Connaught, went into the houfe of a wo- 
man of the free ftate of Luigne, and forcibly drank 
milk there ro cait bainde in ar eigin ; upon which 
flie told him, he had better revenge himfelf on 
Ceallach for violating his brother Solar's honour, 
than infringe on the liberty of that ftate; which 
reproach made fo deep an impreflion on the mind 
of Aongus, that he immediately went home, put 
on his armour, and after the letting of the fun, 
met Corma^ and his fon Ceallach, when at one 
blow he put Ceallach to death, and with his armed 
elbow ftruck Cormac blind ; but the famous Aicil 
performed a cure for his eye. 

It is then related that Coritiac's part of this 
book is arafeftr & na blai, but that Cinfaela's part 
is the reft of the book. 

Then the perfon of Cinfaela is commended in 

verfe thus : 

ba perfa aireda tra Cin- A moft illuftrious perfo- 

faela mac Ailila nage indeed was Cinfaela ] 

fon of Aillil 
iar nafg olltaid ifim cath Who after fubduing the 
he do rigne duil rofga- Ultonians in battle, conv 
dach, pofed folios of chiming 

poetry. 

It 



B R E H O N LAWS. 13 

It is then mentioned that the Lsitiajuum licet is 
in Iriih called detTnm dilmain\ that its Wire6l figni- 
'fication is called by him buna airs ; th^ coiichen 
means common, diles proper, and ruidles etrtire, 
fafe and found; that there are eight common terms 
of the laws called ocht nernmlle coitchena^ viz, 

INETO or FOGARCAILE, 
LANFRAC or COMRAILE, 
LEATHFRAC Of TMANFOT, 
AITHGIN or IN IMDEITHBIR, 
TORBA, 

Slan, 

dsithbtr torba, 

VODLATDSYtJ. 

The reft of this folio is effaced* 

The next page begins a kind of exordium to 
the work thus, a/lach on aihairjhr Ebha & toltnugad 
doEbbafria^ i. e. the ferpent prefented the forbid- 
den fniit lo Eve, and Eveconfented to receive it. 
Imarbasy is the prohibition of a legiflator. Comjugud 
do Adam fiia Jlatarta umcoimde^ i. e. Eve delivered 
it to Adam in difobedience to the Trinity ; and 
hence it is plain, fays the author, that when a man 
knows a criine in virtue of the law eftablilhed, 
though' lie Be ignorant of the penalty enjoined by 
it, he mdy be punifhed according to the full mear 
fjre ; is ai Jiff is folios Uasfs in cinaidac duine gen 
. coroibfs na hiru, con adhainfs lanfrachy and hence 
by a greatfef i%ht, when the crime or fault is 
known and the penalty too, there is no matter for 
deception, ni damna mtallaidl ' 

EtGE RIAN iTGEN, NO CilN RIA CINAID, a 

crime for a crime; means if a man commits a 

crime 



H F R A, G M E N T Q F THE 

Ciioae h« u to buffer for it, and then tHe law ceafes, 
but Jjii&Jkr for eai;aQ)ple called Joit/s tmrgtech^ can 
226vor bav^ the benefit of tliis law, becade his 
pvBiilhsnent will have up^ end ganfofa coin, \ and this 
may be callje4 i^ ^gw /«* that is, aftpr the pu- 
niihmfSk the crime remains imputable ; the fame 
may be faid of Eve for having eat of the forbid- 
den fniit, tomailt torad in craind ungairie. 

EisLiR ^ODLA EIT6ID. Cia ler no cia lin der- 
nalaib fodeilitear afieitgen comforlea^an in cintaid; 
i. e. how many fold and how extenfive i^ the crime 
and how many ways it can be diftingiiifhed. 

NiHANDSusoN, means that wM^V^^ ^ ^PP^ by 
advice has the fame force with the. %&, itjfelf> 

AcEATHATRj < W> I>OJJt.ISCX 4l$^' AIIISAM C£A- 
T^XJLWA pONAvKUItl^ A,IRMHX* 1^^ DUifiber 

ibur excels aU other numl^xprs on accQimt of the 
dem^iitS) of the four cardinal ppii^ts^ and for many 
other re^fons, fi> that the pnx>f of ^ur perfbos is 
beyond difpute; the interpretatipn is in l^atinrthus, 
qjaaterndis prsec^ellit omnibus nu^^eris i^ i^lla; \p e^ 
thp univ^rfe (a). 

. CblJUlAITS, 



ii ' » 



{a) Here we may tdcc, QOttjce* that tjjc; Irjfli glofTary 
Adopts the allegttHc'al fftetliod of reafdhing, ^^hereof the 
-fhj»aic philofo^erfli wi3re> ^CT^tiaeipll^iuL f^uutkt the 
^tQic has left as a treatif^ oi^ atlesoricsdl^ iAterpt^Uit.ioQs, from 
which, and from his ftudj of Platonic philofop^y, he is 
dlodght to have betrow;*dJ\is method of aHcgoriatiAg ffeveral 
Aa%ges of holy writ, ^e Porphyrii||i|p;id So^M^uip Hift. 
Ecclcf. lib. 6. ch. IQ. Many of the Djripkiv? fathers fell 
iilto the feme mctnod ; i'. lren*as i%afons much" after the 
fame manner of our IrilKmaii on the ttamber of four evan- 
gcI^iU { he-fays, '' tber£ oiuft be four goipels, and no more, 
from the four winds and four corners of the earth." As 
that kind of reaibniog was acceptable to the lestrned Gem* 

tilci, 



BREHON LAWS. 15 

CoMjLAiTB) meftiDs the corporal prefenoe of a 
perfon, which is to be known by jthe five fenlcs 
{ceadfiui euirp no 5 Jkmjih) that agree and join to- 
gether in the perpetration of a cnme ; it may regard 
die witnefi wbofe bare recital that he heard the 
£aft will not faflSce- The book of Sufantuih ad- 
vertises uft of this neceffaiy precaution. The f©- 
crecy of the fadl fhould alfo be attended to {cleifhfi 
an maid) and which of the two contending parties 
did firft inake his declaration {coir aanrnd don loA- 
bvd mo ro aijhed aPtu$.) 

ACASAK70T> or AMBI DAIT» Of AINAOLACH 

VAiT^ means that an ignorant man, who is like a 
beafty fhould not be permitted to atteft any thing, 
for thus fayeth Eearmuyan mac Echlan. 
bid each cafaitebusilbit All people aflc what is the 
isbrechtciamtiagaitoig fignification of ^/; it is 

a riddle commonly pro- 
pofed to youth, 
coria de ata lot faiteach I fay that^ fignifies fen- 
agtts anf hot anfaitech. fible and anfboiy fooliih, 

nonfenfical. 

TpKBA or ToiRB£o, mcaus the fei^etnce of a 

ju(^e which exempts the criminal frpm fimher ap- 

prehenfions, iafiter h^ has paid the fine. Some ai« 

^ of opinion it means {tmr) confufion or fhame, or 

^Ife terror to hiqi who does not fatisfy the damages 

he 

tiles, for whofe inftrodiion they wrote, it is no wonder if our 
Chriftian do^prs frequently adopted it. S, Aufiin to prove 
f hac Chrift was to^ have twelve apoftiesi ufes a very fimilar 
argument^ for fayfr he, '^ the gofpel was to be preached in 
the four comers of the world in the name of the Trinity^ 
and three times four makes twelve." 



FRAGMENT OF THE 

he has done ; tairage don beo ris na hi6bir feic 
iar ndenam fogla. 

AcAsssBA, i. e. Uais bso^ or happy is he who 
fufifers a lols unjuftly ; it is applii^ thus : BleiTed 
is the man who feeks no conipenfation from his 
ofienderSy and blefled is he who fatisfies after 
having done the damage, icas iar denamfogla. 
And it is alfo nfed^o fignify the complete number 
of witnefles, required by law for certain crimes ; 
for example, in cafes of murder or robbery (fagld) 
the number four is required, yet in fome cafes, 
two may be fofiipent, and this particularly in. the 
cafes of ctgencomtMe^ and t^ha. 

Of the fiat coMpairte and carad^ from the fourth 
Divifion, which comes under the term of Etotn. 

Cl AN AV^IAND NA CINA SIN, Or FODAIL 

ANAMAND ciNAiD. What is the true name of 
the crime, ifi cin and ih gtdmugad^ it is aw, which 
conlifk in the aft, though «« be an etgen. Thgre 
are four divilions of etgeriy and ten etgens. 

Nl HANDSA ON FAILL, Ot D9 FAIRGEAND 
AFAILL SMEACHT HEATHA OTHRUSA* meaUS 

that if a man be woimded in the body through 
malice, the aggreifor muil get the wound healed 
{asfailldogan an totbrus do denam.) 

£isLEis or AiLSE LEASA, mcaus a crime com- 
mitted with a full and malicious intent ; from^j 
leis or from ai//e leafa. 

Elonas is the knowledge of the thing done or 
doing, whereby a perfon receives a wound or da- 
mage. 

Anfis 



BREHONLAWS. 17 

Anfis means ignorance ; fuch, for example, as 
the blind cajk^ (dall urchur) viz. over a houfe, not 
knowing who is on the other fide ; through a wood 
wlien in foil leaf; and through a field of ftanding 
corn ; thefe are the three dall urchuir : tar tic fo 
fuide ; dat fdfo duiik ; tar govt airbha. 

Imrajchnk means one out of his natural fenfeSj 
fear rcchta in ecofe diljig. i . ime do merad akhne. 
TiJCAiu or TOOAiRM, fignifies a procefs in l^w. 
TuRTAiT or TOiRTEiT, is a place where the 
trefpafs is done. 

T1DRADU8, is a perfe^l proof of the faS, called 
cm na himana. 

FocHuiN, is a crime committed in anger or 
paflkm. 

AcAis, is the proximity of the place. 
AoH, is the aft or perpetration of murder. 
DsAKAiDy Ss debate, eacl][ debate is to be 
weighed according to the cin or crime, and the 
penalty proportioned thereunto. A com/Umug amail 
as eemtechfa do reir ccir la gac cin* 

Teora fodla fogla,- that is fogail is three 
fold, aad may be eoramhted in three manners, viz. 
hy the heart, by the tongue, and by the aft itfelf j 
to thofe Gorrelpofid the three terms, ift. Elguin, 
when it regards tcmrmte and determines the fpecies. 
2d. Anfot^ when it determines the fpecies and is 
referred to comraite. 3d. Tmfiedy when it regards 
neither the genu3 nor the fpecies, but is applied to 
Torba. 

£lQ9TN rOlt, FBRO AGUS TS VUIRRE FKRQ FRI 

^tQuiK, vi^. Elgim is over ferg zsM^f^rg is undiej: 

JSlguin ; kn vniho\A Elgmt there is nerer anger. 

Vol. II. C and 



i8 FRAGMENT OF THE 

and all anger is Elguin ; for a man doth many 
things through Elguin which are not of anger, and 
does nothing through anger which is not of Elguin^ 
therefore Elguin is a more extenfive term than anger 
or ferg (b). Ni can elgym k fitg is gad^ ferg is 
etguin ; do gena duine moran ire elguin nod bijtrgy 
agus ni digne triferg ni na bi helguin ; is fcirleitbe 
elguin inn ferg dejide. # 

AnFOT for EsPA. K lUlRRS FOI £sBA AnFOT» 

i. e. atijot is greater than or over ej^a^ or onjct is in- 
ferior to ejba. The "word jimrre is the comparative 
degree oifo ox Jo under, and correfponds wilh the 
Latin word i?iferius from ittfray and means here lefs 
extenlive in its fignification and import, or appli- 
cable to fewer principles and cafes. The kind of 
argument above mentioned is alfo u£edthus: every 
ejpa is a^fbiy but every at^af is not ej^a; for a mail 
performs many a£lions through anfi^t which are not 
ej?ay^ therefore anfot is. more extenfive than ejba. , 
ToisciPE FOR ToREA, Toifcide is more ex« 
tenfive than Torba, and the fame kind of reafoning 
is made ufe of. N. B. Toifcide is the will, defire, 
or inclination* Ni can toifcide is torba, & gach 
torba is toifcide; uaii* do genead duine moran tria 
toifcide na bi torba, agus ni digne tria torba na bi 
toifcide j; is forleite toifcide defin ina torba.. 

No 



{b) This reafbnine isatrne phiToibphicaJ argument of aB 
antecedent and conlequent, called in philofophy Enthymima 
the antecedent whereof is clearly demonftrated. This d'rf- 
tindion between th^e terms, together witb the nuiay others 
equally difcernible in this fragment^ proves that the Irifli. 
.legiflator was accurately verfed in the phiTofophy of the 
great Ariftotle, accordwg to whom fuch temx are ftiled 
termini magis ct f^inus eommuaet,. 



B R,E H O N L A W S/ 19 

No FRFTHAIU TORBA. t. FIR TNDSAIGE DO IN 
BAILR iMBITH AO DKNAM GNIM TORB ; mCailS 

one who aififts a fecond perfon to commit a crime 
againft law, and fuch a perfon is to make fatis- 
fadion in the one^third of the damage and pe- 
nalty ; a Aljedo conuice afrian ; the fame is to hold 
good if having it in his power to hinder the prin- 
cipal aggreffor's efcape when condemned or judg- 
ment pafied, and he does not hinder it ; fome 
think it only means a perfon who without any 
aiiiilant infringes the law. In a marginal note it 
18 mentioned, thsLtfrhaig fignifies any lingle man 
who commits a crime againft the law, having 
another perfon to countenance and fupport him 
therein ; to AA^hich it is added, that if the firft 
perfon be acquitted and obliged to pay no eric or 
pecuniary fine, the frhui/aige or affiftant will 
thereby be alfo eicempted frbm paying one-third. 
* TxoRA poi>LA vo&tA^ Fo^a is thtee-fold, 
viz. hygne cinel cinetach & Jubalter ; hyeimJis 
meant fpecies, and hygrie genus; there is zgne 
in comr catty in tafoi^ intdrbaj ^d in tea/bay but 
they are all fpecies deriving under ifgum, which 
is more extenlive than any of them, and the ge- 
nus of all : ag oHfeagad don etguin ; neverthelefe it 
derives itfelf tmder the fcmrjogla, and thefe again 
derive under the twelve divifions of etguin, fo 
that the genus is under its genu3 as a fubaltemum. 

Bra, means the judge or breheaman. 

CiD DscHRUiTHs, is a term lignifying, where 
is the criminal i 

Mtss A, means the dead body of a perfon ; the 
ic or fine muft be paid when it is found without 

G 2 modosx 



ap. FRAGMENT OF THE 

nation {cenfeoi i2;i/f^i&) and this is the fine and the 
nuQoer thereof, y\z. three cumalas are to be paid 
^S^sx the term of thirty daY&» which are granted 
free ; (^o which by a partijcular grace twenty-five 
dap ino-remay be added) ; the whole to be paid 
Qut oif the region p? territory whereia the dead 
body is fouiid. Cai/ca hui(ie ice. i. tria x ma eiftdeic 
i X ^ai^e XX it fasrdajm air XXV laite aicent^ i uidc ice^ 
na heneclanjin eric if nefa {c). 

Here ends the part called ar nafefer or the ex- 
plication of the t^Tl^, and immediajtely follows^ 
the pai:t ei^lled ar. ^<z blai^ (or on the fedion? of 
law* called blai% ai^d do aU belong to the l^gifla^ 
timi of Cormac and his fon Carbre !(jiffeachair. 

. BlA BLAP FIACliN IIt|tG? V^- IcAOWk^ p}f a^ 

dead body in a jbi^efp^w pjaqe, be the boijy cwer- 
^4 or lincpvered^ pr hid^'^ i?fi^bjeft to tjbis law* 
The fame holds gppd if thie l^dy p^ covered 9 ver 
or h^dder^, thpugh jEwnd in a fre<mcptpd. jj^a^e ; it 
alio takes, jd^ce until fycjbL.tioieaft thegiwlty fferft» 
owns the crigiie, pr ^util. ttlfe proved agwift hw 
acqotdipg tp l^^Wj, ov ufltil legal compenfalioA be 
mad/e bj^ hiin, Afld if the ^y h^th periChed in ^ 
treiic^ c^r in wat^rV proyi4ed it be not a biddejpL 
4yk,e, '^d! m a Ip.ftelQjU^ pi?ce, thei^ i^^np ptber 
er-lQ pK ^ft^e tp tje P^tid but tha,t of* bare i^ian- 
' flaughteiv 

« 

• (t?) Xhw t9 an a%brevmd(>n oT cumaby and* & cumal is 
three cows. H^. Wt tfii^i ia^i* great afiiaty. witjx die Le- 
vitical law,, wlvere ^t j; cgijiDaanded tli9Jt if ^jxj^rfpji was 
fcmicl flaia;* artdk was not Iknown wh'o h^d fljitn him, tb^t 
an heifer^ which had not been wrought with, (hoold ba fob- 
ftitvtc^if^Jt^K piafc^ <jf tV Ki^^iWper | ^^e jvidg«|ftiall 
ineai]are unto &^ c tu& round ^out, apcLtnat city next ta 
ae.flain'ftHitt^d the heifer. BeuL xxi. r> 2,5. So our 
JUAi kBi^ ^7s» die eric of regioa ia aefa, neareft or next. 



B R F H O N L A Vr S. if< 

llaughter* Ifi aitfade 2ln doine tsadhe sL AensLtA an 
ditrtm & gaa corp do fblach L a deoaxn itit duin^ 
lb inctichlea & corp do folach &: na go .nadmatii 
inti do rigne hi no co i:u£Ur ar do reir dlige no im 
dcnam tuarafdal & cianatsfat an colam i claid no 
in uiigd ach narab air daigin dicealta, ni fil aclit 
eiric marbta na msL an; 

C 3 Hert; 

*^* Th^ Editor is happy to inforfti Lis correfpbndent C. 
thkt in the MSS. of Tnaicy College, Dublin clai's ^ tab. t. 
Ko. 5. he has fotMid the retttaining part of ihtf ^/ii/ ; /iJ^ 
book berias th«s» /.^c i^;r //9^«r fo Axili irahe .Teji^Hr, 7 
Mmfir £ aimjir C^irpri Lifftachair mac Cqrmac 7. ptarfa do 
C^rmucs i* e. The place where this book was written wsis 
Aiciit near Tara, in the time of Carbre Liffeachair mac Cor- 
mac, and the perfon Cormac. Then follows the hiftory of 
Ccallach mac Cormac thus, Ceailach M^Cormac having 
hj force taken away the daughter of Sorar mac Artcairb, 
Aongus Gabhuaidach who was an Arigh-eachta, and at 
that time in the territory of Luighne, revenging fome in^ 
juftice done to his tribe, by chance went into the houfe of 
a woman of that tefritory, and forcibly took from her ibme 
milk and curds : It would be more becoming you, fays th% 
woman* to take reve&ge on Ceailach M'Cormac , in your 
niece's caoie, than to rob me of 'my provi lions. Difdain- 
ing to relent this language on the woman, he made dife^« 
ly towards lar^, where he arrived after fun-fet. Now 
there was a law prohibiting any perfon coming arnoed into 
Tara after fnn-fet, (b he went in unarmed, and taking 
down Cormac's fpear from the pUce where ic huug in the 
hall of Tara, he killed Ceailach M'Cormac on the fpot, 
and drawing back the fpear with great force, the ferrol at 
the end ftruck out Cormac's eye and wounded the rea^aire 
orjudg€.of Tara in the back, of which he died. Then Cor- 
mac was fent to Aicill hard by Tara, to be cured f upon 
which the fovercignty of Ireland was^ conferred oA Carbre 
Liffeachair, the fon of Cormac, according to the eftabliihed 
law, that no king having a corporeal bleiuilb can reign in 
Ireland. It is then added, that Tara was fo lituated it 
could be feen from Aicili; but Aicill could not be feen from 
Taua ; and then begins the Eitge, one fo){o of which 'ib 
W2lhting. The reader muft notice that in this preffice Aicill 
if defcribed at the name of a place $ in the fragtnent above- 
meAcioned Al^Hl isfaidfo.bo a Jurifconfult ; this mi^ 
proceed from the place being fo called after the perfon. 



a» FRAGMENT OF THE 

Here ends the Fragment, fo that all the reft of 
the blai are wanting, and all that part compofed 
by Cinfaela and promulgated by Donal mac Aeda 
mac Aimirech king of Ulfter. 

The impartial reader, after perufing this ex- 
trafl, will eafily fee that my diftindion between 
the text of the law, and the explication of the 
text, is well grounded ; that the former is of a 
much higher antiquity than the Chriftian era, 
though the latter was really the compofition of a 
Chriftian. Thie ftyle of the text is extremdiy an- 
cient, and the language admitted of many expo- 
iitions, even from a writer wEofetime feems to ap- 
proach within a centuiy or two at the moft of St. 
Patrick's, He fpmetimes gi ves many and oppofitq 
fenfes to the fame term, and at other times cites the 
authority of the ancients in order to explain him- 
felf. In a^^'ord, every chara*Sler difceraible in the 
text, demonftrates its antiquity, and proves it is 
truly and genuinely the work of the Pagan Jurif- 
confult and pf the Pagan Iriih princes to whom it 
is attributed ; which being duly proved, moft po- 
fitively evinces the ufq of letters at leaft long be- 
fore the epoch of Chriftianity in this ifland. 

I do hot recoiled to have met any where A^ith 
the words cai/c iuibar^ achalk book ; it feems to de- 
note that Cormac ufed tablets, co\'^ered with fome 
certain kind of matter, fit to fmqoth the furfaces, 
and to render them fit to infcribe, what he thought 
proper on them. The word cailc indeed means 
cbaiky but it may alio denote parchment rendered 
white by chalk. The true fenfe requires to b^ 
cleared up by other paftages in our Iriih monu* 
ments, and for this reafon I leave it to the better 

judgment 



BR EH ON LAWS. ij 

judgment and literary refearches of our antiqua- 
rians. Now as the laws regarding manflaughter 
form the firft part of the fedtion called na hlai^ and 
that the explication of the terms ferved only for a 
preparation to that part, I fhall take notice of fome 
curious and ufefuldrcumftances tending to illuftrate 
thofe laws. The Eric or fine for manflaughter fpe- 
cified in the above fragment, did not regard the 
perfon who committed the fafl, but was payable 
to the provincial king, from the petty Jiate or prin- 
cipality wherein the body of a man or woman was 
found dead, unl^fs the chief of that ilate had the 
particular privilege and faculty of ha vinghis people 
exempted from fuch a fine; which indeed w as one 
of the moft confiderable immunities a provincial 
king could beftow on a chief of his province. 
There was a di&rence oWerved in the infliflion of 
this fine, for if the £aft was proved to be wilful 
murder, the fine was rigorous, if involuntary, it 
was lefs rigorous, and in both cafes proportioned 
to the dignity or bafenefs of the deceafed perfon's 
condition. And although the aggreffor did fufier 
the penalty which the law inflidied, the diftrift or 
ftate whererein the crime was perpetrated, was not 
thereby exempted in the leaft degree from paying 
the fine- This rigour obliged the natives of any 
diftrid to be careful and vigilant in preferving each 
others lives, as well as of ftrangers, left they fhould 
fuffer through the malice and wickednefs of others. 
And certain it is, that many misfortunes which we 
fee happen daily amongft us, may be efficacioufly 
prevented by fuch means; the natives of a diftrift 
having it often in their power to obviate them. It 

was 



24 FRAGMENT OF THE 

was for that reafon, without doubt, our Irffh legiC- 
labors ena<fied fuich laws; I do ivot remember to 
have feen any example of the kind of puni£hnieiit> 
which thefe laws infii^iad on a man guilty of mur- 
der ; they all regarded the ftate or region wheite- 
in the fafts were committed ; except one in the 
Liber. Lecanu^, where it is mentioned a perfon was 
filled {qm^ti cumalas (twenty-one cows) for hav* 
irig wounded an ecclefiaftic in the arm ; and I hav^ 
read, that the anceftor of O'Mora, lord of the 
country, now called Queen's county, by a Ipecial 
grace, had his ftate exempted from paying Eric 
or fine, to the king of Leinftei, in cafe of murder 
or manflaughtcr happening in any part thereof. 

We muft obfei've that the Irilh fines are mdftly 
fpecified by paying mrnaias^ which word accord- 
ing to its diodem acceptance, fince the Chriftian 
^ra, means oidy diree cows ; but I have fome- 
where met with that erpreffion regarding Pag^n 
times, wherein it denoted men or women flaves, 
guilty of crimes defei-ving death, which were de* 
Uvered up as a part of die Erk^ to be facrificed to 
the manes of the ^eceafed. 

So mudi has been foid, and to the purpofe, in 
the preceding numbers of this Golleflanea (p. 392) 
of the unjuft and fevere afperfionof Sir John Davis, 
on the ancient Brehon Laws of Ireland, I Ihall 
defift entering into an argument that has been al- 
ready fo Well handled ; as we are informed thatthe 
moft complete colleftion now extant of the Brehon 
Laws wasin tkedukeof Cbandois' library, but not 
perfe£t, and that tweiity-eight volumes of thefe 
la w8^ formerly » that libraiy, • are tiow 4n Ae 

poffeflion 



BRSHON LAWS. «$ 

p<sfle&m of Sir Jobn Sebright, SatL whofaas iii- 

dulged the atzithor of the €olleAanea vn^ tw^ yt^ 

Imnes ; all lovers of antiquity fliouid be y^rf d^- 

iirovis to have dean copies of thole volumes taken 

off and publifbed. Thefe ^would rtry piobably 

ferve to throw fome fuither lights, not only oti the 

ftate oonftitution, the manners and genius of oia 

anceilors, but alfo on the veryorigin of the natives* 

In the Eflay on the AnttquOy of the Itfh Lang9tagi% 

addreffed to the Literati of £urope, the aUthot 

gives us a fpecimen of a code of laws compofed 

by Sean Ion of Aigki, in the time of Fergus mac 

Leid, king of Ulfter twenty-fix years before the 

birth of Ghrift ; it is called Seancbas nwr^ or the 

great antiquity. The exhibition of fuch a fragment 

would evidendy prove the point in qudiion, if 

the ftyle did not ftiow it to be of a later compo*- 

fition ; and hence I am apt to think, that the ex* 

plication of the text was written by fome Chrill 

tian, but that the texts or principal heads, to 

whichfuch explicatory gloffes belong, were of that 

author. For certain it is, that the faid fpecimen 

is not delivered in more obfcure and obfolete 

terms and ftile, than the terms I have copied 

from Carbre Liflfeachair's code, as above fpecified. 

The fpecimen given us is taken out of the body 

of that code, and regards landed properties, that 

were fequeftered from the male line, in favour of 

females, to whom they had been ceded, by way of 

marriage portion or dowry. The ftatute feys, 

ttiat fuch an aiTignation is invalid, and is to be 

reformed according to the re^itude of jullice ; it is 

land delivered (fays that old author) againft the 

right 



^6 FRAGMENT OP THE 

right of aiamily, add twelve tongties or Juriicoii<» 
fults are of more weight to fupport the right of die 
male line^ than one tongue or one Jurifconfult 
that would reftore it to the females ; meaning, 
that there is twelve to one in favour of the male 
right. The fpecimen runs thus: Tir do beiri 
coibchi mna, nad bi maith, nad uidnaidet a folta 
coire. Tir do bcir dar braigit fine, aratreiffu in 
da tengaid dec diathintud. Oldas in toen tenga 
doafend. And then follows, Gach fuidir cona- 
tothcus techta niica cinaid a meic ; which words 
are the conclufionof the foregoing part of the fta- 
tute. The firft words are an axiom of the law, 
^uivalent to the Latin axiom regarding proper- 
ty, viz. resclanua Domino fuo. The Irilh literal- 
ly meani^ every profit claims a return to the right 
Gxvnep^ and, the reft ferve for a conclufion, viz. a 
fin or male /uttered, you /hall pay no fine for the faulty 
m(ean.ing, that^is right and jultice favour you, the 
law Ihall not puniQi but proteft you. 

The following words are the text of a new law 

on the fame fubjeiSVi viz. nachai nachaiarmui nach 

aindui nach ; ^nd the enfuing part to the end is an 

explication ot this Very old text which may be 

thus interpreted: Of ike proximity of bloody tbatper-^ 

fin is tojuffer the legal pemlties to whofe ejlaie theJiU- 

ttned cattle belong ; for the property of the furniture 

does not belong to him, exc^t only in the cafe o/*etgin, 

nor can he enjoy the rights if the finis offspring when 

tiie male line is mt extinS ; but the /aid per/on may 

^ poffejs thejheep which are fattened on the ejlaie^ ; if be 

goes beyond this, hemujlpayafinefor his fault, andbear 

the burden of bis trejpafs. The words ru» thus : 

a comoceus 



BREHON LAWS. »7 

a cofnoceus fine nacti a cinaid fadeifin flathair idm- 
biatha ife iccafs a cinaid. Air ni lais dire a feoit 
achd colabhin aithgena na ma ni, gaib dire ameic 
nai naca dibad na ceraicc nacha matbair flaith ar 
ambiatha ifii nodbetr, agus iccas a chinaid agus 
follobg acinta. Here the fpecimen ends ; it is 
hoped the author of that effay, will oblige us with 
a publicadon of the whole law, and every other 
fragment of the like kind in his pdBTeflion. 

By the above fpecimen, the heads whereof appear 
to be compiled by a pagan author, and ordained 
or digffted by the perfon to whom it is attributed, 
the truth of the exiftence of letters in Ireland before 
Chriftianity, is probably demonftrated. But this is 
not the only advantage the author feems defirous 
of pointing to, by this feledion of that code, for it 
alfo gives us a clear and pofitive law, according to 
which all landed properties were to be vefted in the 
male line, with an exprefs exclulion of females 
even in the cafe of dowry or portion, and unlefs 
the male offspring of the family were extinft. 
This law was univerfal amongft the old Irifti in 
primitive times^ from the fceptre to •the plough- 
fliare, from the king to the lowed condition of men j 
who pofieffed landed property ; it was univerfally 
received as a national maxim, flowing from the 
particular genius and fpirit that charafterifed the 
natives, and from the political circumilances in 
which they found themfelves fituated, relatively to 
their neighbours, as well as from their own com- 
mon views and public interefts. 

Thus that national and ftate maxim originally 
eft»blifhed among the Franks, after their firft fettle- 

- • 

ments 



AS F R A, G M E N T O F THE 

xMUtfl: in Oaul, ;by ^hich all female fadica were 
eluded ffom- any Harare in the inheritances, which 
-they caUed Salic lands^ was not only the tefult of 
their militarygeQiufty but aKb a oeceffary meafiire 
-of puUiceJcpediency, for extemtiDg their conquefts 
On the ruins of the Roman empire. Yet it fhould 
inO^ be ^ged that the Fraitks were either the firft, 
or the only nation that adopted it ; no, for it was 
certainly common to other nations that carefully 
obferved it, with regard to all landed tenures of a 
like ori^nal conftitution with the Salic laiuk. 

We have good authority to fay, that a great part 
cftbem w^re the^fame individual latids (hift had 
been fee apart by the Roman emperors, pat tictdatly 
by Alexander Severus, in the ye^ofChrift 2^2, 
as penfionary livings^ called mliiary benefices,, and 
appropriated to thofe officers who were charged 
with the defence of certain provinces. Now ^ 
the right of the proprietors was conditional, and 
depended on perfonal military fcrvice, ^/imo/w 
were naturally excluded from any fharc in them. 
The Franks being poiTeffed of thefe according as 
they fell vacant, under their king Clovis and his 
Ions, the Salic laws made no change in their tenure, 
but left them ilill fubjed to the obligation of miH- 
tary fervice. Hence that exprefs claufe of erclud- 
ing women and their race, from (l^arii^ in thofe 
ilate or Salic lands, fo fundamental in the French 
conftitution, took its firft rife. A«d in effcA iince 
the very Crown and its royal landed properties, 
were the firft and principal Salic fief, a female 
fucceffion with regard to the Crown, muft be highly 

inconfiftenc 



BREHONLAWS^ 2^ 

ioconfiftent with tbe Tundameintal maxims of the 
Frendh ftate. 

According to the tesmte of oor Infh hiw$, aU 
females were exchided hom hairing any ihase ift 
the chief adminiftratioii of asfl'airs, as well witb 
regard to 4[he gommaoeni: s£ .the whole JdngidDiiv 
. as to its petty ilatas and iolbrior principalities ; .for 
no other reaiiua^ witiio^ doubt, than that thdk 
fiates ieqniDedniil3tar7ierTiae>£s)ii which thefema3e 
fez was difquahfied by nature./ In efib^l tbcgr 
fouad tljenifelves Situated ' among difietent tsSbes 
of people, whofe principal reprefentatives mere 
ibmefames amfakifXBS, and.ux^uft eoaugh to en- 
croach COL their kiaded properties;' the feHe^iy 
of being eft^emed more powerfol and mm especl 
in war dian their nMghboura, joined do tfaieir in- 
terefts ajid tibc ajdvanccment of their xeSpe^ve 
trials^ oft^ jdeten^oined l3ie& ttien to iJiStmh the 
pubiie quiets and endeavor to laife themfid.'V68[ om 
tibierainsia£>9ther&. Hen€££(24k>mxiapdJlkal.n&» 
ceffifcf in iifveffbrandDt or &pt, lo tdiiife wH foe 
their chief and leaders, eaen of Iu«>wn valour and 
^a^xtrieoiie, ttftighftidiieirbattlesfuclcQB&Tsd^v, lusd.to 
defend i^mrl^afied pippertieaagainft aiQ iniraders^ 
And bditfe fih^iinaaBimsftf eidudsng woeum from 
inheriting jbift^btfi properties wasvaa&ic^^ amongft 
the ancient Irilh, as amongft ihe Franks, or anjr 
otlner ft&pki'i Md to tibe.l^nds of. all l3ie petty 
fta^ies did abbliflttly Aod ixKfifpenfkbly exclode 
women. Innnci^jiiifiTitingitheo^^ fi>. the fame law 
gr^htfiHy bcmme grneslal^ a»A defcendsdto tfaie 
hinf& d^oomiw^KHk Q§ land pjoopnc^cufs. i 

The 



30 FRAGMIKT OF TH£ 

The above Irilh fpecimoi defcribes the injufticc 
of alienating the lands from the male line, in fa^ 
vour of women, 1^ the ezpreffive term of tir do 
BEiR DAR BRAiGiv PiME. At this day wben a; 
man encroaches on any lands, and take^it to farm^ 
by nndeHband dealing and unknown terms^ doghlac 
jt tar mobraigidcf orelie, as gniamh fU th tin fe mo^ 
tbalamb do gbhca ibar wo bhraghaid amach f by. 
which it would appear, that when the male line of 
one family was eztinA^ die eftate was to devolve 
on the fept or fney and became the property of 
their males« . \, 

Tlie fame law was obferved by other £u£OpeflU3D 
nations ; the Goths and Vandals excluded womea 
from fucceeding to the throne. We have a very 
remarkable inftance of this, in the hiftofy of 
Anudafoniha^ daughter to the famous Theodoric,. 
(and mother of Athelrk) king of the Oftiogoths^ 
This priricefs, whofe bright genius^ and eminent 
' Imcwledge of the Greek and Latin tongues will 

always do her ihemory honour, was neverthelefs 
difqualified to reign after the death of her fon, 
on account of her fez, and married Theodatus, 
with a view to exercife all regal power under 
^ his name, in which however ihe fi^uod herfelf 

&tally miftaken in 534/ See Caffiodor* var. lib. 
10. ■."•' • 

The Roman empire and the Imperial Ctown 
excluded women from ever inherkiDg-it. Thus 
when Atilla king of the Huns^ iumamed the 
fcourge of God, demanded in marriage ttonoria 
filler to Valentinian III«* with a view^of (baring 

in 



B R E H O N LAWS. 31 

in the empire, by virtue of her right, the emperor 
anfwered, that even 4fl cafe he were married to 
Honoiia, he could derive no right from her, in- 
afffluch as women had none to the empire. Neque 
impertum Hcnoria deberi; virorum enim non rmdie- 
rum Ratnanum in^rium effe. See Prifcus Rhetor. 
Duchefne, torn. i. p. 223. 

The Iriih in primitive times were not only at- 
tentive in obferving ftri^y the above law, in 
favour of the male line, from a political and n€ce£. 
faSy principle, but they alfo obferved diftributive 
juftice, in fharing equitably ^vith the males of 
their refpedtive families. They ftiewed particular 
honour to their chiefs, and thefe in return did not 
defpife their inferiors, in the diftribution of goods. 
The heads of families confidered that the fupport 
of their friends and relations in time of war, 
was abfolutely nebeffary, both for repelling the 
power of their enennes and advancing their mill* 
tary conquefts and therefore they judged that the 
Jan£tion of rewards and a fair and honeft partition 
of landed properties, which were often the fruit 
of their common valour, was the moft firm and 
efficacious cement of union, that could fubfiit 
between the prince and his relations. Hence the 
very nature of thefe military tenures rendered them 
capable of being divided and fubdivided between 
the males of the firft proprietors, and hence the 
law of Ravelling them took its rife, and was as 
univerfally obferved in this kingdom, as the very 
law of excluding tbe female lex from any fhare in 
them^ has been proved to be. . 

This 



j» Q A y I I4 t A w, 

Thi^ gs^v^lling fettlem^ni tbe Iriih called GAB- 
HALTUS CINE, or GARHAJL CINE, Hterally 
meaning famii,y-8«tti.|e,mbnt; from whence 
the Englifli formed the terin gay jij^kind. Gar-t 
KAX.TUS or GABHAiJL, prouQiunced GAVAix, in 
Irifh fignifies any landed fetlleioent, lately acquired 
by conquefi, by inheritance, or by contradl ; but 
iu etymologycal mi^aQiag is co^ruast. Thus 
by the words UABHAit i«a gabhala is under* 
jlood the book of Conquefts ; and ia the Iriih 
hifioryof Thomond called Caithreim ToirdeaU 
bbaigt defcribing the bloody waxa carried on ber 
tween the O'Briens of Thomond and thofe of Arra, 
iQ the thin^^enth cenmiy^ the fettlement or eftate 
which the latter poifdfed themfelves of in the counr 
try of Arra, is qajl^ gabhawus^ 

The Franks oKerved the fume kw of dividing 
th^ tenmes called S^iq lands. Abbe Du Bos fliows 
^ renark?ble inAance of that truth ) bt quom for 
h]§ voucher the celebrated Bodiw»> citing the 
teibunentaiy a£l of a gentleman ojf Gujieime, 
whereby the father divides between bis ibn^ tbe 
Salic or feodal lands oi which he was proprietor. 
And in the fai^ place, this author obferves, that 
hi all a{q]iearance thofe military beaadices were the 
true origin of the landed prpp^ti^^ called Fi«r# 
NOBUt, or tenure^ in military fe/vice. 

The Apglo-Saxpns alfi> obferved this coftofn ; 
it is well known they divided their landed interefts 
between the polleflbir's child? es»9 which they eaSled 
in their language gif^-axtKiki, a wcN^d nearly 
£milar in found and ia meaiupg tp 4^ Iiiih term 

QA|>HA1L-CINS. 

The 



EXPLAINED. 3a 

ITie Welfh, who are the remains of the old 
Britons, in like manner obferved this law, at all 
times, ttxadUyin the fame manner as the Iriih, and 
continued fo to do until the thirty-fecond year of 
Henry the Eighth's reign. See War. Aniiq. Hib. 
e. 8. Davis Hift. relat. p. %o. 

It is then no way furprifing, that the chief 
Strongbonian families, exclulive of thofe con- 
fined within the £ngliih pale about Dublin, ob- 
ferved the fame old cuftom at their firft fettling in 
this kingdom. The Fit2SG£ralds, the Barrys^ 
the Burks, &c. &c. were as obfervant of it as the 
Irifli; and whether they derived it from the pradice 
of their anceftors the Franco-Normans and Wetib, 
who rdigioally obferved it, as I have fhow«, or 
whether they conformed themfelves to it, as they 
did to the other cufiomary laws of this nation, 
carUin it is, that they did ftiiftly fdtow k. This 
has been a difputed point; but to put it beyond a 
doubt, I will here traoilate a pafTage from a book 
called L&tiar Irfe claime I Maokhonnaire\ whicli 
treats particularly of fome Gavels made in three 
difier^t branches of the O^Brien race ; and then 
foUows this Gavel belonging to the Burksof Caftle- 
oonnel and Brittas. 

It b^^ins by relating, that the baron of Caftle- ' 
coonel was cotemporary vrfth the genealogift; the 
faid baron was Tiboid fbn of Tfboid, ion of 
William, fon of Edmond, fon of William, fon of 
' Richard, fon of Walter, fon of Richard, foil of 
Edmond, fon of Richard firft earl of Ulfter, called ' 
larla rea, foq of WHHam og, fon of William 
Vol* II. D Concur. 



54 GAVEL LAW, 

* 1 

Congur; This red earl was gencraliijimo to Edward 
L in Ireland, England, Scotland, and Gafcony. 

Walter Burk, baron of Caftleconning, now call- 
ed Caftleconnel, third diredldefcendant from Rich* 
ard de Burgo earl of Ulfter, divides bis eftate be- 
tween his three lon& Richard, £dinond,and Tpbiasu 
Richard firit larla ma or red earl,fon to William 
og, fon of William Congur. 

Walter gave^io thefc three fons, whom he had 
by his wife daughter to Mac William, mieqnal por- 
tions of land, viz, to the eldeft fon Richard^ who 
i^ itiled heir, he gave the four plow-lands of Tiu- 
bridaron,CaiUeconaing and the fix plow-lands that 
are its annexes^ two plow-lands of Ballylafgy, four 
}dow-lands of Cahircinlis^ and four plow-lands of 
Gluain Mauiagaxn in Clan Richard ; which in all 
make twenty plowland^; he had befides {da {heath- 
ranK^an dsag) twelve quarters^ of the lands of Gala. 

He gave his fecond foa Edmond four plow-lands 
of Diiirt labrais, the four plowJands of Garran i 
ciava iituate in Aoftri muighe, making in all for 
him eight plow-lands^ 

To his third fon Tobiaa or Theobald he gave 
the four plow-lands of Brittas^ two plowlands of 
Rath Siurtan, and a plow-land of- Canig Ciptail^ 
and he was. to receive a mark every year as rent 
out of the two free plowJands of l^altylafky. 
Marg cmfajkti mhlifun a dha Sheiftrk baera an bhmU 
• loifgtbe. 

It was indeed reafonable and juft that Richaxd 
the eldeft fon Ihould be more generoufly dealt 
with than his brothers, not only by virtue of his 
birth-rank, but becaufe he had many children ; 

for 



EXPLAINED. 3; 

for by his firft wife, daughter of Macnamara^ he 
had John and Waltei ; by his fecond wife Catha-> 
riue Fitzgerald, daughter of the knight of the 
Glin, he had Richard, Ulie and Thomas ; and 
by Elizabeth Butler, daughter of Mac Phiarais, he 
had Tobias and Ulic the yoiinger, without men* 
tiouing the female offspring. 

Richard the red earl was ftiled earl of Ulfter, in 
right of his mother Mora, only daughter and heir- 
els of Hugo de Lacey earl of Ulfter ; his fecond 
fon Edmond married Slany 0*Brien, daughter of 
Turlogh O'Brien, lord of Thomond. Edmond^s 
eldeft brother John de Burgo was anceftor to the 
carls of Clan-Ricard. 

It may now be objeftcd that thefe examples of 
the cxiftence of the law of Gavel kind only regards 
the Iriih in the tkne of Chriftianity, and is no way 
pertinent to the defign of this eflay, which fhopM 
principally tehd to illuftrate the laws, cuftoms, 
manners and literature of the pagan Irifh. My 
anfwer is, that the introduction and eflablifhment 
of .the ChriiHan religion amongft us did not change, 
or meddle in the political or civil laws of the 
nation, that were juil in themfelves, and adapted 
%o the genius of the people ; it only re£tified what 
was vicious or imjuft in them, and fquared them 
to the interior law of confcience, and the didates 
of good reafbn, fecurely direded by the gofpel. 
Hence the converiion of a people to Chriftianity 
did not zffeSt their political principles of govern-^ 
ment, nbr caufe the leaft alteration in their civil 
^tutes, 1^%en thefe were equitable. And fince no 
ibrtof injuiUce was fuffezedby the Gavel law^ but 

D 3, Oft 



3(5 G A V E ir LAW, 

on the contrary, all parlies had thek rights main- 
tained for them by its tenure, confequently it muft 
be fuppofed that.k was an aAcient fundamentaf 
maxim of tli€ Irifli nation. I am confident that 
the Irifh will find it enacted amougft their laws, ia 
the literary refearches into antiquity; and hence I 
may conclude with a certain degree of plaufibility, 
that altbQugh no proofs taken from authentic writ- 
ings of pagan times could be now exhibited, never- 
thelefs a fimple perfpedlive of the examples above 
cited, will fafficiently evince its having exifted in 
this kingdom long before St. Patricks 

Nor are we deftitute of proofs to clear up thiS' 
difficulty. I ihall take no iK)tice of the diviiions^ 
which certain Iri(h princes made of the kingdom^ 
between their children^ atepocfaas very diflant from 
Chriftianity, as mentioned by Keating and 0'Fla<- 
herty , becaufe they are efieemed fabulous authors. 
I fhall point out a very lingular gavel, from the 
Liber Lecanus ; it is made by the famous Niai,, 
furnamed of the nine hoftages, who diftributed hi« 
eftates, cAUd^ eric bunai/, between his fons, ip the 
Allowing manner, vie. ift, tp Eogan he gave the 
lands of Oileach ox Oileach tiir, called Tyronei i^r 
to Conalgulban he garve from Loi^h Foyle to the 
ftrand of Neothaile eaftwards; 3d,, to Eergus the 
lands intervening between botli, thus expreifed 
cehtarde 7 bai fe cehtar nai^. whfch words feem tQ 
xn^an, that he was to bav f his alternative in the 
gOTernment, with his two now mentioned brothers^ 
judicet leSof) 4th, to Conal he gave the territory 
of Breag, fituated in the prpviiKre of Meath ; 5th, 
to Carbre, who was xko^finfear or eldeft of hi$ (bus, 

he 



*. ^ 



EXPLAINED. 37 

he gave the north parts of his demeOaes ; 6th, to 
his brother Feachra, the territories near the fea, 
firom E^frua to Salmon's leap to Rind i fiachrach in 
CSonrvaught; 7th, to Maine he gave from Cfuachan 
fead,(or the woodof Cruachan) fituated in i Brlaia 
Connaught to Lough Ribh on the Shannon, and he 
conftituted him high^rottdor of all Ireland^ tugdo 
Ard-comairce Mirin uile; 8 th, to Laogaire, furnamed 
garb, he gave the lands and government of Tara, 
Jhtlarmas Teatnra ; 9th, to jEnna llcrothach (or of 
many Ihapes) and to his brother Laogaire beg (oj 
the little) he gave from Lough Aidnin iii Meath to 
the north -weft"; 10th, to Flacha he gave Uifnech 
mor in Meath, in the very centre of Ireland- 

Upon all thefe differentfpecimensof Irifti <Javels, 
ieveral obfcrvations do naturally occur. Firft, that 
either the fathers or thefeniors of families generally 
obferved an equitable and fometimes an equal por- 
tion of fliares-between the males of the faid families, 
whereof we fee perfefil examples in the preceding 
gavels. Secondly, that the natural fern had their 
equal Ihares, as vrell as the fons bom in lavv^ful 
wedlock; from both which circumftances, we have 
reafon to conclude, that this cuftom was grounded 
on the patriarchal or primitive law of nature, and 
confequendy derived from a principle of a more 
ancient eftabliftiment than the laws of Ghriftian 
princes, whereby bajlards are excluded from fuc- 
ceeding to the family eftate, while the legitimate 
children are living. Thus according to the fame 
primitive law^ Jacob's fons by the handmaids of his 
wives Leah and Rachel, are ranked amongll the 
b0ds of th^ twelve tribes oflfratl, upon a level in 

point 



$8 gav«l law, 

point of landed property, with the fons of his lawful 
wives, and their defcendants entitled to enjoy their 
ihares of the land of prornife, as well as thofe 
fprung from the other cluldren of that patriarch, 
k It is alfo remarkable, that it was generally the 
fenior, and not the divtSt heir in lineal defcent from 
4he common ftock, who was qualified to make this 
gavel, becaufe he waa the chief proprietor ; of this 
we fee a clear inftance in the Cuanagh gavel made 
by Conor mor (yfirien, whofe coufin-german Tur- 
logh fon of Thady, furnamed Anchomraic (the 
fighter) was. the dired heir, .this Thady being the 
elder brother of Mortogh father to Conor mor. 
Notwithftanding we fee that Conor, by his right of 
feniority, was chief of the family, proprietor of its 
landed eftates, and folely qualified to make the 
gavel ; the text runs thus : Tug an Conchur morfa 
leaih na codacb ranna fearainn rainig e fan do dbk 
mhac Taidg an chomhraic air a mbcith na Jinjior braitb-^ 
rech aige; he explains this matter folly by the fol- 
lowing words, dob ogc an Muirtbeartacb fo atbair 
(Chonohubhair mbcir na Taidbg an cbomhrak. 

Another obfervation, equally curious, may be 
noticed, viz. that though the chief or fenior flints 
himfdf to a bare equality of (hare with every other 
male of the family, yet he referves the chief pro- 
perty of the eftate as veiled in himfelf during his 
life, by fubjeding all the other fliarcs to a chief 
rent, wlxich was to be paid him in an himibk and 
dutiful manner. This was doubtlefs flight and in- 
confiderable, neverthelefs it was a fufficient mark 
both of his authority Over thein, and of their de- 
pendency on him, as their chief lord; in a word, 

the 



EXPLAINED. 39 

the equality of ihares» (bowed a real banmiunily of 
goods between the membera of the family, and the 
referved chief rent, both fecured the refped due to 
the fenior, and declared the property of the eftate 
to be veiled in him alone. Hence what Strabo 
applies tothe AJiatk Iberians was equally applicable 
to the Iri/h nation in former times. Hi omnia ftr 
fBomlias communia habent ; fed is imperai et rem ha^ 
bft quijenior efi. 

I^ow as the refer ve of chief rent on the gavelled 
lands, not only efiabliihed the fway, and influence 
of the chief lord, or head of the family, over all the 
Qiemhe.rs of Xhe tribe, and likewife fecured for him 
a reverlion fA jthe eftate when the a£hial tenants 
either forfeited or died without ilfue; fo this cuftom 
va$ not, and could not be then attended with any 
Qonfequence^ (b deftru£Uve of the Jplendor of a fa-^ 
mily, as it muil be in oiu: days. In ancient times 
Jthe dignity of achief did not depend on pecuniary 
ceveimes ; it confiiled in his power and influence 
.over the tribe he governed, in the afiiuence of pro- 
vifions he had for his houihold^ and in the number 
.of fighting men he owld command to vindicate his 
lights, to aflSil his friends, or to enlarge his con- 
quefts. Aivl as to the fplendor of the tribe in 
genera), it cppiiAcd in jthetr numbers, in the full 
and peaceable enjoyment of their rights, and in 
tjbeir capacity of fiimiihing their family chie& with 
iheir different fuppl^es. 

In fine, the Gavd cuflom, as it was obferved by 
the ancient Irifh, appears to have been perfedly 
reconcileable with thie exigencies of the flate, and 
with the d^ity of any chieftain, were he even a 

ibvereign 



4# G A V E L i A W, 

foveMga pci&tt. Asd whjr not ? fixus^ it tra« 
gromxled on die law of tuitate aikl rMlb&, the law 
of diftdbiiti^re jscftice and equky; and fince it was 
zdaptsd to timet and drcutnfta&ces of politkai 
gotenmieat) in wbidi it could not be produiSive 
ci anyconfbqpoQiiKsimrjiididal to public or ptivalse 
economy; it fecared their premgadves to die 
eldefiy and their birthrights to the younger bno- 
thers of a family, far from qualifying the latter, 
ill any caiual .circumfiances, to ufurp thj^ natural 
lights tf the iogcmiar* 

I flatter myfelf the Mader will now be Convinced 
of the utyuft epithets ^barbarous undurtMil, which 
have bom thrown on the laws and manners of the 
'ancient Irifli; fbt to ufe t^e words of an honour- 
able and vfsry learned autiM>r, ''the old aSts of a 
fiate, are ilnt only the beft xnateriak for a hiftory, 
but *itey are iikewife ftipng defcriptions of t^ 
naimecsof the times/' Ahd X am for ry this hpt 
naurable gentleman {e) ftmuld fuffer himfelf to be 
mifled io aocmch with ref|>cd tothe Iriib, as to de^ 
elate his opinio)^ latdy in a very learned aflinnbly, 
that ''the kings of Ireland, even fo late as the reign 
of Richard 11. iaem to have been as little civdiaed 
as the Jhvages of Nm^ Ameriiar The hcmcmr- 
able gendemon indeed gMsmded his authority on a 
writer, who knew as much of the manners'of the 
jpieOf^Ie of Ireland) as he did of thofe of Otaheit-e. 
With as much propriety he might i^ote a writer of 

the 

i^y Ifon. Daiaek Barrniyom, iq a paper read before t&v 

Society oi antiquariaxK[« Loixtoo* on March 14, v^^i^m^ 
prmred in the third toltime ot Archacblog. p. 75. Thfc 
aatluoTity lie mentions is Froifiarty 1. 3. p. 204. 



''-r 



EXPLAINED. 4t 

die hji (Xfihrryy to prove th^ Iriih of thm age to 
hxvt been pogans; under the Brehm'iaws; ikmg 
like wildbeajs of the woods; drinkers of the bhfod^f 
itnintais; md eaters of Y€Rv jlejb (f). Bat at the 
very period this honourabk and learned gentleman 
b pleafed to denominate them ravages, we beg 
leave to prove, from as good authority, that the 
Irifti were a civilized, mercantile people, and re- 
nowned for their mannfaftnrfes in a countiy where 
arts and fdences had been long eftablilhed. 

Similamente paffamo en IRLANDA, 

La qual fra noi e degna de fama 

Pfcr le nobile faie che d manda. 

Quella gente ben che moftta felvaggia 
E per 11 monti la contrada accierba 
Non de meno le dolcie ad cui lafaggia. 
Dita mundi, componuto per Fazio di Gluberti 
de Fizenza. Capitulo 26. Printed 1474. 

The 

(/) Lucas De I.inda, Defcriptio Qrbis. Amfterdam 1665. 
p. 385. Mores Hibernorum noftri temporis. Baptizatis in- 
fanubus notninaimponunt profana — niatriinoniacontrahunt» 
non de praefenti, fed de fiuuro, ideo facile divortiuiii ad- 
mittanry ubi tine negotio maritixs aliaoi <[ucBrit uxorem et 
muUer alterum maritutn— filveftres Irlandi in genua procum- 
bant» cum noviiunium fpedlant — frumentum pro equis* 
quorum tngentem gerunt curam, fervant— urgente nimium 
facBc etiam crudas carnes comedunt-^vaccas fanguinem co- 
agulatum butyro fuperfunduac, et Jta comedunt. Adhsec 
Anglo- Hlberni adeo ab antiquis illis Hibernis funt feperati 
ut colonorum omnium uliimus qui in Anglica provincia ha- 
bitat, filiam fuam, vel nobillflimo Hibernorum prtncipi in 
marrlmonium non daret.— Tales vero lites xdimare folent 
certi homines quos Brebpnios appellant, qui tarn jurfl civilis, 
ooam Britaunici ignorantes funt, judicantque folum ex 
oomefticis confuetudinibus, qus ufu et frequentia adtuum 
receptac funt. — Infylvis et montanisVelut ferae oberrent locis 
— quod iliorum fpc6lac eruditionem, ilia valde exigua eft. 
Medicos ihi hxreditas, non dodrina facit* fatifque k dodos 
putant, fi illud Hippociatis, an ionga vita brevis vtzxtzxe 
queant 



41 GAVEL LAW, EXPLAINED. 

The author accordmg to fome was prior to 
Dante. Crefcimbini thioks he fiourifhod about 

1370- 

In art Jaie in the did. ddla Crufca, there is 
quoted an ancient romance, caiSltdquattrecontey in 
which the hero give^ a gown offaia dlrlanda to his 
nufireft. 

G' manda in line 3. imdoubtedly marks an cftab- 
lifiied trade and not an accidental intercourfe; and 
in the Brehon laws prior to this time, we find a tax 
upon Italian wine, and on the ihells of the great 
cocoa nuts, brought from Italy, to be made into 
drinking cups. The Brehon laws are faid to have 
been annulled at a parliament held at Kilkenny, 
in the government of L. D. of Clarence, who 
landed in 1365. 



OF 



OF THE 



LITERATURE 



or TJis 



I R I S H, 



A P T S R THE 



ESTABLISHMENT 



O 9 



CHRISTIANITY. 



N 



Q man underftood the languages of thefe 
iflands better than Mr. Lhwyd^ and no man has 
done more juftice to the purity of the Ibemo- 
Celtic or Irifh dialed. This learned antiquarian 
averSy that he had feen and perufed an ancient Irifh 
vocabulary in manufcript, wherein the letter P was 
not comprehended. No Irifh manufcripts flUl ex- 
tant, or even in Mr* Lhwyd's time, can with any 
well grounded authority, be efleemed of higher 
antiquity, than the beginning of the ninth century, , 
or at mofl the end of the eighth, although it mufl 
be allowed,that fome poetical fragments regarding 
hiflory and genealogy, compofed by authors who 

lived 



44 LITERATURE of the IRISH 

lived before the eightK century, have been copied 
by the annalifts of fucceeding ages, and by them 
tranfmitted down to ws ; jiet we muft candidly 
own, that manufcripts of the ninth century are 
exceeding rare ; but fince Mr- Lhwyd, whofe can- 
dour was not inferior to his erudition, does not 
give his opinioa of the antiquity of his manu- 
fqrq* vocabulary, ladvance its date high enough, 
when I fuppofe it to have been written in the 
tenth century ; and if the letter P were then ufcd, 
it is beyond all doubt, that it may be found in it, 
as well as all the other letters of the IrUh alpha- 
bet. , Hence we may conclude with fall affurance, 
that the Irifti did not receive the letter P for writ- 
ing their own language, before the tenth century, 
if they adopted it even fo early ; the plain confe- 
quence of which is/ that till then, they received 
and made ufe of no more than fifteen letters, for 
writing their language. 

llie (paring ufe the Iriih have made of the letler 
P, even fince they adopted it, and'their carein Tub- 
Rituting the letter B in its place, plainly fliows, 
they looked upon them as charaders of the fame 
oigan. This obfervation carries far greater weight, 
when we confider this fubftitution to take place, 
even.in wordscvidently borrowed from the Latin, 
whenein theletter P always was the dominant cha- 
racter ; as in the Irilh words deifciobal a, difciple, 
db/Hiil an apoftle. Now it is clpar to every perfon, 
that thefe two words unknown to the Irifti before 
their converfion to Chriftianity, were written with 
tfhe letter P and never with B, the fbrmcr of Latin 

ongm 



AFT£R CHRISTIAN I']^T. 4$ 

origiB di/c^fis, ainl ibe la4ter cS a Greek deriv»- 
tioB was always wrut^ ap^Johs iu that ton^c> asd 
afofiolm in the Lalia. It ia evid^at froio aaajT 
examples which might be quofed» that the Gxedb 
and Romans had not been seccurate etx^ogh. to ^ii- 
tinguilh between thefe two chara<^ecs^ until thek 
languages threw off tlie antique dxefs of barfaarilrn» 
and bocanie poliihed and re&oed by a fucceffioEidf 
great poets and orators capable of refiniog the)a£b- 
guage^ whil^ they reformed the literary tafte cf 
their countrymen. And it is a ioMwn faifi;^ that 
the Dutch and Flemings^ suotd leveral provincialiAsf 
ou the c€»itiDent,do notdiftin&ly and inconfoledly 
pronounce tb<fe two chara^rs to diis very day. 
I may alio add, that in the otd Rimic alphabet 
called by Olaus Wormins, alphabeium Rtadenm 
Gothorum veiuJHJfimum^ no other difference is to fae 
feen betwew B and P, except that the fame cha- 
ra^er is pun£^uated twice to point out P» though 
in the Runic alphabet of Vulphila (firft bifhop of 
the Wigoths) to be feen in Olaus Wormius's Ruuic 
literature^ both thefe charadters are as differfmrt as 
any other letters of that alphabet. It is needleis to 
^uote examples where the Iiifii have generally futv 
ilituted the letter B ioilead of P» in thefe words, 
wherein the latter letter is now made ufe of without 
any diiEcully, fince many examples of k are to be 
met with, in almoft every page of die vellmn 
manufcripls. Yet I have not feen any manufcri^rts, 
ia which the letter did not fbmetimes occur, (iome 
folios of the Brehon laws ezoqpted) although lefe 
frequently than in the Irifli writings of later times, 
ib that the hi^er we mount up^ the antiquity of 

the 



46 LITERATURe of the IRISH 

the manufcripts is more difcemaUe^by the litde ufe 
made of P. Indeed it is fcarcely at sUI to beibund 
in the Iiifh fragments, dted here and there, from 
thefirftpreachersof thegolpeland their immediate 
fucceffor^ confequently before the introdu£don of 
Latin literature in this iflancL the letter P was not 
fo much as known; or if they obferved any dif- 
ference between it and £, they thought fo clofe an 
afiinity reigned between the organic powers ot 
both, as that the charaflters proper for exprefling 
the one, might equally ferve for founding the other; 
leaving it always to the judicious reader's under- 
Handing and experience to make the difcemment, 
%id to diftinguifh by his articulation, what was 
yet undetermined for want of a diftindl character; 
hence in fome of our modem grammars the P ii> 
called B beg i. e. B foft. 

To the above remarks I (hall acyoin the follow- 
ing obfervation, as curious in itielf, as pertinent to 
the prefent difcufiioni; The Irifh monuments which 
dther coniuming time, or the extravagant zeal of 
parties, have permitted to reach our times, chiefly 
ooniift of literal tranflations and comments on the 
old or new teftaments, commonly concluding with 
the recital of Ibme miracle, or the lives of the faints 
and martyrs ; and there is fcarce any voluminous 
piece of veUum manufcripts, which does not alfo 
comprehend fome few diflertations on medicine, 
and are for the moft part literal ti*anflations of 
Hippocrates and Galen, the two moft celebrated 
phyficians whom antiquity can boaft of. In all 
thcie compofitions, we find Latin texts and quota- 
tions very faithfully dted,* not only from the 

Pentateuch, 



AFTER CHRISTIANITY. 47 

Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Evangelifis^ 
moftly according to the ancient vulgate or Italic 
verfion, but aUb from the original Greek of the two 
famous parents of medicine above-mentioned. I 
have alfo in my poffeflion a very fair copy of iSr/Ax- 
tms de Nigris in Almanforem^ beautifully written oa 
vellum. Now it is remarkable, that although the 
letter P be often ufed in the orthograpiiy of thefe 
authors, yet in the quotations it is generally omitted^ 
and the letter B fubftituted in its room, by our 
IrUh fcriveners. This muft have been done with 
knowledge and defign,, and clearly demonftrat^^ 
that the Iriih did not receive or ufe it earlier than 
^bout the ninth or beginning of the tenth century ; 
for it is unqueftionably true, that feveral of thofe 
manufcripts are not more ancient than that epochs 
as may be eafily difcovered by the novelty of the 
Ayle and other charafkers. 

There is another inftance regarding this charaSer 
worthy of notice, as it ftands coeval with Chrifl 
tianity itfelf in Ireland, and feems to fumifh us 
with a fubfidiary proof of the ufe of letters having 
been fubftituted in Ireland before that period. All 
readers of ecclefiaftic hiftory are no ftrangers to the 
religious veneration and folemnity paid by all 
Chriftians, to the feftival of Eajkr^ both in the 
Greek and Latin churches, but particularly by 
thofe who were to be employed in the converfion of 
infidels« Great debates have arifen concerning the 
day of its celebration in an early period ; it may be 
fuppofed the miiEonaries into Ireland, who firft 
delivered the divine word to the pagans of this 
country, did not fail, as ufual, to infpire into the 

hearts 



48 LITERATURE at THe IRISH 

beairte of their comverts, the looft profound venew 
caticn poffi^bk foi' this^ great folemnity, calling it 
acccMrdiog to the pra^e of the oriental and occir 
dental churches by the name of PASCH A, which 
iff(xd was always retained by the Chaldeans, the 
Greeks and tkue Latins, to lignify that auguft 
ieftival. 

It is not to be doubted but theie preachers and 
tSmrfucceSbrs werefcrupuloufly zealousinteaching 
the Irifli converts the true orthc^raphy and pro- 
nunciation of this word pafcha, yet they never d^ 
receive that word int6 their language, but rejeded 
And threw olBf the ioitial P, and took another cha^ 
ra^er of a quite different oi^an, that is to fay C, f^ 
as to found caifi; and cajca^ a^a in the oblique in^, 
flexions ; though it is well known to any period 
IkUled in the Irifli language, idaaxpajca BJud/Hi/ga 
or faifgy or even the change of P into B, fo as tQ 
found it baijg or ba/ga, are as agreeable to the Irifh 
ponunciation as it now is in its extraordinary 
change. A charader of fo different an organ, ^ 
is the palaite from the lips, would make us incline 
to think, that the letter P not being u&d at all by 
the pagan Iriih,the miflionaries adopted C as a dbar 
radier moft frequendy ufed amongft them, and 
confequently the firft preachers of Chriftianity in 
Ijneland, found their pagan difciples iq poffeihon of 
this letter C, as well as of the other letters neceifary 
for exprefling their language artjknilately. 

It is a certain truth, that the Irifli had at all times 
in their language, the fame organic founds which 
ai:^ now appropriated to the Latin thara^ers, tog!S- 
ther with other organic powers pf fpeech> not to he 

found 



AFT^* CHRlStlAMlTt. 4^ 

found i!l the Latin tongue, for which confequentty 
the Romans had no charafters, though fome of 
them are to be met with in the Greek and other 
European diale<£ls ; but fince they laid afide their 
own ancient cha rafters, and adopted the Roman 
alplpibet, they Hill retained fuch a veneration for 
their old liters, ad never to admit any of the 
Roman tharadlers, which were not found in their 
primitive alphabet, even* when they wrote Latin 
words, wherein fuch charaders were ufed at alj[ 
limes. 

Thud in all words biegun of ended by X, inftead 
of writing that firople charafter, they never chofe 
to reprefent it, otherwife than by employing two of 
the Roman chara6lers, viz. gs ores, a trouble they 
certainly might have faved themfelves, at leaft in 
writing the Latin, had they not rejefted it as an 
exotic charafter, and not exifiing in their ancitnt 
alphabet \ if this was not the true motive, I candidly 
acknowledge, the cafe feems to me a patadox ; 
for if thelriflihadno letters before the introdudiion 
of the Latin alphabet, what could be their motive 
conftantly to rejeft fome fimple charafters, and 
fubftitute two different letters in their ftead, efpe- 
cially in writing a foreign tongue, to which all fuch 
charaders were equally proper and fitting ; and if 
all letters were equally new and exotic to them, 
certainly all had an equal right to be preferved by 
them ? Yet did they admit X as a numeral. 

Thid is not the onlyanftance I find of the fame 
economy being praflifed by the Irifh writera of^ 
ancient tiqies, for, when occafion offered of writing 
V confonant fo natural to the Latin, they always 

Vol. JL ^ E rej«acd 



50 LITERATURE oi the IRISH 

rgedled tbis chara6ler, and fubftituted in its place 
bh or mh^ and more ancieudy b orm^ with a point 
or dafh, to determine the found and value of the 
Latin v confouant; their reafon muft undoubtedly 
have hfo^iiy either that; that fimple ch^a£ler v w» 
never ufed in their own alphabet, or elfe, ths^he 
Jrilh language had no fuch found as v confonant in 
their dialed^ which is fo far from being the cafe^ 
that it OCCURS notinore frequently in the Latin, of 
any other living or dead language whatfoever^r 
infomuchthatiican, and does aflually lake place 
in all w©f ds beginning wkh either- B ©r M. in ordei? 
to form the inflexions, and is ealily diftinguiihed 
by the ikUful reader, to whom the affixing a point 
or daih, aa was fomet^ies pradifed by &e ancients, 
wkl be unneceQary, aoid much more fo, die ad^ 
joining oP the afpirate H, fo as to make it bb or 
mh, by which thefe ftrcHig labial elements are meta^- 
morphofed into afpirated, or whiftling cfaaiaders^ 
If I may ufe ^ expreffion, after .the example of 
the learned DefbroiTes, in his ingenilDUB^ work oa 
the mechanical forma^n of languages; 

Now as this coiidud of the fivft Iriih. converts,, 
with regard to certain letters of the Latifi alphabet,. 
Ceems drredly oppofiCe to alt good economy,. 
whereas by receiving a few moreof them, cfpecially 
the V confonanf, w©iild have fpared them cxpence 
of time and labour and vellum, objc As not ua^ 
Worthy their care, fo their conftancy m adhering tD 
fo injudicious a pra<rtice, affords almoil a proof 
■and argument in favour of the prejucUces of their 
fiDrmer education and letters,.whereof they intended 

to* 



AFTER CHRISTIANITY. s^ 

to leave us^ cl^ar vefliges, even on its very ruins 
ig)' 1 his quality of preferving old cuftoms and 
ufages is fo innate of old^ in Iriftimen, that no 
nation can pretend to it with more juftice, innova- 
tion being at all times diametrically oppoiite to 
their genius. 

If the old Irifti had no letters, no alphabet of 
their own fafliion, with a peculiar manner of em- 
ploying them, for expreffing the organic founds of 
their language, and for preferving the original 
ftrudure of their words, an art wherein all tine 
orthography confifts, it is apparent from the very 
nature of things, that they could never have 
thought of ufing the labial letter M with the 
ai{nrate H fubjoined to it, to render the found of 
the Latin v confonaut. 

At a time when all the languages of Europe 
were poUflied and refined, fo as to become new 
and perfect languages, happy for the literati, the 
Irifli had neither relifti or leifure to think of fuch a 

£ 2 reform, 

(gyXiui learned anttqnarian Thomas Heame has feleded 
a Roman infeription, which clearly proires that we ko^w not 
what power (be ancrent Romans gave to feveral letters. 

Haod alker atque apu4 Rooaanos B fsepiffime idem valebat 
quod V ut illis ezplorattffimum eft qm.io monamentis vetitfiit 
Terfantur, inde icerte in hac infcriptione ap«df abrettum ; 

AGA THEMER 

CO.IVGI BENE 

BIBENTI QVE VI 

XIT ANN XXXII p XXVIII. 
kiktmH aihil alkid fignifi^at quam Tiventi, quamvis corre^io 
immediate feqvens VIXIT dabtam relinquere videator, aA 
de bibace, an de fobrie et parce vitam ^^enti intelligi 
debeac. See this teamed antiquarian on more examples of 
this Iwnd in his preface to Guil. Neubrigends Chronica. 
And here we muft obferve that Bieo'n thr Celtic reot dT the 
Latin vivo. 



ci LITERATURE OP THE IRISH 

reform, fo as to lofe the radical words and ortho- 
graphy. In the reign of Elizabeth, or at moll in 
the time of Hen. VIII. the Irifti, like all other 
languages of Europe, began to take a new drefe; 
but no fooner was this attempted by the natives, 
than the EngliQi reformers took fteps to extirpate 
its traces in Ireland, which has been the chief rea- 
fon of Its jetaiiiing its Celtic purity and orthogra- 
phy ; the Iiiih at ihat time being bent in oppofi- 
tion to preftTve it, had no leifure to continue that 
refinement, which would probably have difguifed 
its radical Celtic!: ftrudture, fo as to be fuch as we 
fee the Welfh dialedl at this day. 

This proceeding of the Englifh reformers, far 
from being conformable to good fenfe, and towards 
obtaining the intended purport and end of theii- 
defigns,was in efied diametrically opposite to both. 
For in order to perfuade any people into a new 
opinion and a new form of worfliip, it revolts all 
reafon, to think that the method of efie6iing it 
fhould be exhorting them in a foreign language ; 
for in that cafe, they mufl firfl have had the trouble 
of teaching them this new language, or wait until 
-the people firft rcjeded their own diale£l, which 
^W9& as elegant and as proper as the language of 
• the reforming miniHers at that time, to exprcfs all 
the thoughts of man's heart, and to convince the 
hearers of any truth whatfoevcr, in either a literary 
or a religious matter. And this blindneis of the 
reformers with regard to their uniformly praying 
aiid preaching in Engiifh, has been afcribed to a 
Articular providence of God in favour of the 
T{.oinan Catholic religion, and to the holy prayers 

and 



AFTER CHRISTI ANIT Yv 



S3 



and interccffion of the Virgin Mary, as well as to 
that of St. Patrick and his fellow labourers in this 
country. 

Now, as to the abfblute orders and- command 
which, it is faid, had been impofed on the primitive 
Irifti converts, by their fpiritual guides and fupe- 
riors, to lay afide the ufe of their antient pagan cha- 
racters ; I am far from thinking it was altogether 
founded on the notion of fome preachers of the 
gofpel, mentioned by the author of the Irifh hillori- 
cai library after Verelius,by which they reprefented 
thofe charafters as if they had really been the hand- 
writing of the Devil. This opinion certainly docs 
not want for authority in the Irifli antiquities, for 
in the Liber Lecanus it is exprefsly faid, in a very 
ancient pece of profe fpeaking of the literature of 
the Damans (who preceded the Miiefians by 200 
years), that they compofed dans or verfes, which 
were for that reafon preferved carefully, until fuch 
time as the Chriftian faith was preached in Ireland; 
but that they were then dicurtach, exterminated, 
bccaufe they were the invention of the devil 

I ftiall give the text at large in its antique attire, 
and add thereto the reafon of this ancient writers 
faying, " that it is manifeft from hiflory contained 
in thefeflbwj or poems, <hat they were of diabolical 
itivenrion.** Ar da tainic creidim ni ro dkhurthe na 
dona Jin ar it maiihe 7 rd dernai deaman maith^-^^is 
fit las ajfhfebaib T as a naigedaib nau do dedmhntib na 
fidgmghe do TuOtb d. daman. From this ancient text 
it feems to follow that this Danian colony, which 
farniflied druids, poets, harpers, and handicrafts 
of Bumy profcffions, whofe names are recorded, 

muft 



1 



54 LITERATURE op thb IRISH 

muft buve had fome kind of characters to write 
tb«fe dans in, dsough I own it does not follow as a 
neceflary confeqoenc^e, but a probable one ; for as 
they contained the fonn of pagan worfhip, and 
were for this reafon attributed to devils by the 
Cbriitian miifionaries, fo the great care thefe pagan* 
druidshad in prefervug them» muft very naturally 
have led them on to find out certain charaders, 
which might ezprefs their meaning, in order to be 
read with more eafe by the druidiih priefts, and 
delivered to the people with greater confidence 
and fecurity ; as no traces of thefe dans have been 
handed down to pofterity, probably they were 
exterminated foon after Chriftianity. 

It is evident, the author of the book of Lecan, 
who lived long after the epoch of Chriftianity, had 
no fort of view of doing honour to this colony of 
people, but was rather inclined tad^preciate their 
real merit, fo his afcribing to them excellent verfes 
before the Chriftian era in Ireland, is a pretty 
ftrong proof, that the ufe of letters was well known 
before that dme ; for the text fays, that until the 
coming of the Jahb^ thefe dans were not bani/bed by 
reafon ofthdr goodnefo ; it is impofiible to conceive 
how thefe excdlent verfes could be prefervcd by 
the help of oral tradition only, to the time of St. 
Patrick s arrival j or how could the new converts 
deftroy or exurpate them, imlefs they had been 
committed to writing. 

The compilers of the Liber LeBanus, from whence; 
this extradl was made^ were of the tribe of people 
called Qan Firbi/fy who wer^ hereditaiy antiqva* 
rians, not of the tribe cilU4d 1 fiachrath^Aidime hi 

Ae 



AFTER CHRlSTlAKtTY. 55 

the county of Galway, as I have fomeM^hefe ]?ea<i» 
whereof O Heney wa8 chief lord, and OShaghaeffey 
Dynaft, but of the tiibe of I fiachrach Muaidh, of 
which O Doude was chic^; this I gather out of the 
liber Lecanus, where it is often fald, (hat th^ 
derived tinder O Doude> whom they acknowledge 
as th^ir lord and matter. The j^ader muft undeiv 
Aand, that thefe antiquarians only tranfcribed their 
v(duminoi]8 pieces of hiftory and genealogy out of 
other writings, without the Icaft difcernment ot 
<riticifm, and in the drefe wherein they found them 
recorded, infomuch that tl>e ftyle ufed in relating 
fads near their own times, is as different from that 
made nfe of for recording the deeds of remote 
antiquity, as our modern Engliih diflfers from that 
fpoken in the days of Hen. IV, and V. in England. 
This defeat of ciitiqal examination in them, 
p^x>duces a double advantage to us, ift, we have 
a view of the jnianners of thie ancient Irifti, %d, 
we are fully inftru<Sed in the ftyle and language. 
By the firft, WiC are enabled to pafe a right judg- 
ment on thofe ancient times ; and thus when we 
find notions ferioufly delivered for truths,- that are 
Dotorioufiy incompatible with the firft principles 
of Chriftianity, and are known to be the tenets 
of pagan perfuafion, then no realbnable caufe of 
doubt remains for us to concludie, that fuch writ- 
ings are of pagan times. 

This truth can be exemplified in a moft ftiiking 
]nftance,{rom theLiberLecanns, wherein the pag^n 
fyftem of the tranfrmgraium of fouls is gravely exhi- 
bited Many authors affirm, that the do6^rine of 
ifi^emffychojis firft taught in £gypt, and thence 

introduci^ 



5tf LITERATURE or thq IRISH 

introduced into Greece by Pythagoras, was by his 
difciples communicated to the Italians, and not 
unknown in Gaul to thq druid^ ^d pagan do£lors(, 
I have not met with any other paflage in Irifii 
antiquities, that evidently points out the metemp- 
iychofis, as a known tenet of religious perfuaficm ; 
although it is very probable, that not only thi% 
but many other tenets belonging to pagan times, 
may be as yet found in the old Iy\Rx ^<^ll)iins, \( 
duly examined by men jpf letter^. 

Whether Pythagoras was the firft author of th? 
dodrine of metempfychpfis in Greece, or not, 
and the firft propagator of it in Italy, wherein hp 
held his fchool, called the Italic fphpol, it is afiert- 
ed as an undoubted faA by many authors, th^t 
his dodrine was taught and underflpod in Gaul, 
and well known to the dniids of that and the 
neighbouring countries* 

In this book it is recorded, that no doubt can be 
raifed concerning the poftdiluvian invafion of 
Ireland,, fince Tua/t fon of CairiJ, who was bom of 
the wife of Murdoch Mundmgy • afferted it ; for he 
lived in Kc/air^s time in the form of a man ; then 
for 300 years in the form of a deer ; after for 200 
years in the fhape of ^ wild boar ; then 300 years 
in the.ihape of a bird; an^ laftly 100 years in the 
Aiape of a falmon; which being caught by a 
fifherman, was made a prefent of to the cjuee^ of 
Ireland, on accoimt of its rare beauty, and (he 
upon eating it, immediately conceived and bi oug^it 
forth the famous Tuan tnae Cairil, who related the 
truth of ^^rV expedition into Ireland, and alfo 

informed 



AFTER CHRISTI ANITT, 57 

informed them of the invafions of the Firbolgs and 
Danians. 

From this quotation and literal tranflation two 
confequences may be drawn ; firft, that the Irifli 
did anciently believe the tranfmigration of fouU 
from one being into another, they ftill retaining 
the powers of reminifcence and knowledge, during 
all the different times of their infufion into tfaofe 
bodies ; fecondly, that the writer of fuch a piece 
was truly a pagofij and as a necefiary corollary, 
that the Irifh pagans knew letters and writing. 

Thus Pythagoras pretended he knew and re- 
membered in what bodies his foul refided, before 
be was ftyled Pythagoras ; firft, he was Cethalidus, 
the fuppofed fon of Mercury; next, he became 
Eupl^irbiiSy who was flain by Menelaus at the fiegc 
of Troy ; afterwards, he was Hermatmus'i then he 
became a filherman of Delos by name Pyrrbus ; 
and at laft he became Pythagoras ; and he alfo 
affirmed, that he well remembered all thefe dif- 
ferent tranfmigrations ; that he fuffered in Hell, 
and faw others fuflfer Ixkewife. Let it be remem- 
bered, that this ma«, ,by the clear light of reafon, 
difcovered that nfeful demonilration,of the fquare 
of the hypothenufc being equal to the fum of the 
two I'quares, &c. &c. which proved as- ufeful in 
mathematical fqlutjons, ^s it was agreeable to this 
great philofoplier. 



AN 



AN 



B N d tJ I R 



INTO THE 



FIRST INHABITANTS 



P F 



IRELAND. 



I 



T is t\& opinion of many learned Iriflimen, that 
Ibftie colony of the oriental people, who wor- 
ftipped Betus, or Baal as the Chaldseans exprefs it, 
gave its firft inhabitants to this ifland. In all pro- 
bability they were no other than the indigenae of 
the L^cid of Promife, the Chanaanitks; who 
having been difpofTefled byjofhua, and the people 
of Ifrael, made vaft emigrations into the iflands of 
the Mediterranean fea, and planted themfelves not 
only in thofe iflands, but alfo on the maritime 
eoafts and regions of that fea. • 

Inftead of Chanaanites they then took the name 
of PhenicianSy not from their dwelling at Tyn^ 
Sidon^ and the comitry near the Red Sea <PMn»«^, or 
by allufion to the traffick of purple garments, or 
from the palm trees 4>m»i»k as different etymologifts 
will have it ; but rather from the Phenici&n word 

BSK-ANAK, 



AN EN QJJ I R.T, far. 59 

BSN-ANAX, the diildien or tribe of Amax, liie 
Anakites being the principal tribe of the wholes 
agreeable to the Irifh tribes MaoMahon, Mac* 
Caithy, &c Although it muft be owned, that 
the emergency of their affairs had firfl ODmpelled 
the Phenicians to engage in naval expeditions, 
they however derived great advantages from Aat 
neceflity. ^hey excelled all nations of the XJni« 
verfe in failing and traffick, and made uleful dif- 
coveries of iflaods in the European feas, the Me^ 
diterranean, in Egypt, Greece, Spain, &c. beforp 
then uninhabited. 

Ben-Anak, literally means the fons of giants or 
heroes, which is certainly the iignification tile Iriih 
gave the word fens and feins ; hence to this day 
FBiNXAO ox FEiNZG is ufed in old records and 
fongs to deikHe a champion, a hero, or a giant. 
The author of a learned work on the primitive 
elements of languages blames the great Bochart, 
for not having underftood the word Phenicians, to 
be of the fame import with the Chaldsean word 
Chanaanite^ for as Ghanaanite fignified a merchant 
or negotiant in that language, from the Chaldaean 
radix Cbanaany a merchailt, fo doth fherddoH mean 
the fame thing in Greek, fays this author, for psm 
and PHEN means money^ traifick, ufury, thus 
PHENTMiM doth alfo denote riches, or jew^s, and 
FANUs in latin is ufury. He means to flrengthen 
his opinion, by laying, that thofe of Syria and Pa- 
lefiine were the firft merchants. The Ifraelites 
trafficked in fpices and perfumes in the times d[ 
the patriarch Jacob, that is, after the year of the' 
creation 2300. All this would as diredUy prove 

that 



6o AN ENQ^UIRT INTO THE 

that the Ifmaelites in particular, and the other trad<- 
ing people of Syria, fhould bee ailed Ghanaanites^ 
with as much propriety as the people of Chanaan. 
He oppofes the fame learned author's opinion, diat 
the Phenicians abandoned their old name of Cha- 
naanites, on account of the infamy they were 
fubjedl to, through the curfe pronounced againft 
their progenitor Chanaan ; the reaibu he gives for 
thiscorreclionis as infufficieut as the above, witnefs, 
fays he, the Ghanaanean women mentioned in 
Matthew xv and xxii, who came from the environs 
of Tyre and Sidon, This proves nothing ; for the 
evangelifts without doubt mentioned her extraftion 
from Ghanaanites, as they had been accufed by 
God, and particular orders given by him for their 
utter extirpation, that fo the office d our Redeemer 
may be more confpicuous, while he defpifed not the 
afflifled offspringof an accurfed people; fo that this 
is not the language of a Phcnician writer, but of a 
Chriftian evangelift. Some interpreters think, fhe 
was called Ghanaanean from a town fituated in 
Phenicia, bordering on the lands allotted to the 
tribe of Afer, which was called Cana, whereof 
there is alfo mention made in Jolhua, ch. xix, where 
it is erprefly faid, that the boundaries of the tribe 
of Afer were Abran, Rohgb, Hamon and Gana, 
unto the great Si don. If this interpretation be 
true, his argument becomes void ; St. Mark calls 
this woman a Syrophenician, either becaufe the 
Syrians at different periods incorporated with the 
Phenicians, or elfe to diftinguilh them from the 
Garthaginian, who were fometimes called Libyo- 

pheoicians. 

The 



FIRST INHABITANrS OF IRELAND. 6t 

The word anak which means a giant or hero> 
feems to be the radix of the Greek anax, genitive 
anaxtos, the ufual term for a king; the feptuagint 
interpreters tranflate mblech and melchi, a king, 
into anax, anakta, or anaf^a ; this however was 
not its true and proper meaning, it firft imported 
a faviour or defender, and as this was the true 
office of a fovereign, and the motive for creating 
him was to defend and prote£l a people or kindred 
from deftniAion or oppreffion, fo it was not imr 
natural it ihould become the firft appellative of a 
king. Homer calls Agamemnon and others by 
this name ; Jupiter is ftiled anax of gods and men; 
nevertheleis the inferior gods are ftiled anaktes to 
fignify defenders or faviours. Afty-anax was a 
title the Trojans gave Scamandrius the fon of 
Hedor, which according to Homer's interpretation, 
meant a defender of the city. See Iliad, vi. 399. 
Now the Irifh word anac or anaik, means ^o;^, 
(kfind ; thus we fay anaic Jinn a Tbiama, fiwe^ 
prated us, Lord; anacal means protection, alfo 
the fafe^uard of a prince, and anac c/an, fome- 
times writLea eneaclani is the term in the Brehoa 
laws, for the tribute paid by the claji or tribe, to 
the chief, for his proteflion. 

The obfcure traditional accoimts pr^ferved in 
the old Irifh itaanufcripts, and renewed by Keating 
and others, that the anceftors of the firft inhabi<^ 
tants of Ireland, firft fettled in Crete and other 
iflands of the Mediterranean fea, as alfo in £gypt» 
Greece, Spain, &c. do apparently point out to 
the reader, the ftate and progrefs of the I^xnidans, 
afterih^rexpulfion under the condud of Cadmus. 

who 



6z AN ENQUIRY INTO TH£ 

vrbo built Tbebes, and poflefled a great part 
Greece^ together with the iflands of the £gean fea. 
Tbe3r alio ihow us the coiiqudU of that other 
Phenician general Hercules^ who built Carthage, 
iettled in Spain, and erefied the pillars of his name 
at the entrance of the ftrei^ts of Gibraltar. 

Befides thefe general obfcure remarks, we hav« 
fpedal and plain reafons to think, the Phenicians 
were the foft inhabitants of Ireland. The moil 
ancient Iriih dialedl is called biarla na FxiNs,or 
BASCMA MA FxNZ, which means the dialed of the 
Fenians, the tongne of the Fenians. The inventor 
of their le^rs and one of themoil ancient progenia 
tOFsof the Ir]£h,colemporary, as it is fnppoied, with 
KrMBRoo ar Bslu^ is called Fhjcmicjs a Farsa, 
which is nothing moie than Phenician Farfa, or 
Farfa the Phenickn. The word Pheine, Fene, 
and Feine, is ind^d more like to the word PCENI 
which meant the Otrihaginians, andideaeted nor- 
thing lefs than Pheniqiaxis> than it is to Phenicians ; 
and as that was the term the CanhagiarU affiled 
to be calld by, in order to preferve the generical 
name of their firil progenitors;* fo it may be con^ 
jarred, that the Irifh preferred th^ fame term to 
denote their firil progenitors the Carthagians or 
Phenians. It is certain, the truth cannot be fo 
wen fuppoited on the part of the IrUh, they were 
too diftantly fituated from each other, and the time 
(of their ieparation too remote to be obierved but 
inanobfeure manner; whereas the contiguous 
fituationof Tyre and Carthage, made the renewal 
of their frieniUhip no way difficult ; ineffiiA, we 
find a ftrift and iniriolable «mkm to have alwaya 

fubiiiled 



FIRST INHABITANTS OF IRELAND. 63 

&bfifted between the Pheaicians and Garthagiia- 
ans. Heiodotos tells us, that when Catabj^ies 
meant to wage war with the Carthaginians^ he was 
forced to deiift from that undertaking, hy reaion of 
a firm declaration made bjr his cbblen HieniciaA 
foldiers, that they would not fight againft their 
countrymen ; again, we cead that when Tyte was 
befieged by Alexander the Great, the Carthagini- 
ans received the wives and children of the 1 yrians 
into their city, with the tendernefs of the moft af- 
feflionate parents ; we alfo zead, that the great 
Annibal, after being obliged to fly from his un- 
grateful country, and an his way to AntipcbuB 
kmg of Syria, he was received wkh open arms ia 
Tyre, and all honours due to a general of Us 
great reputation, cordially paid him. 

The huge piles of ftones, ereded from time im«- 
memorial, in feveral parts of Ireland, with immenfe 
coverings, raifed in due order, afe doubtleft of 
pagan and remote times, and pais with fome ibr 
draidical alurs, have the gei^ncal name of lb aba 
MA FxiMs to this very day ^ thefe words plainly 
fignify the beds of the Pheni or Carthaginians ; 
the Irifh warriocsof ancient times aie called Fjuns 
or F&iNG, andFsiNTG at this day figuifies, for that 
reafbn, any brave warlike man. 

In the inveftigation of the true origin df any 
country, great attention is always due to the argu> 
ment that fhows it received its firft name, from 
another ancient people, or from their language, 
efpecially when other probable argumaits are pixv 
duced to ftrengthen the fame opinion. The firft 
and moft ancient name in Ireland known to 

foreigners^ 



64 AN ENQUIRY INTO THE 

£3reigners» and avowed by the natives was Hi^ 
DjCRNiA and IkRtIsuk. Now the word Hibernia id 
the Phenician tongue, fignifies wxstxiln island^^ 
heingcompouBdedof H iBEn^which implies wefiem^ 
and of NAE an ifland ; a very proper name indeed 
for Ireland^ as it is the mod weftern ifflaud of the 
European feas. This name was fo highly efteemed 
by the writers of old Icifh chronicles, that in de» 
fcribing the martial exploits of their principal war* 
xiors and princes, they afiefled gready to com-' 
pliment thefe, with the tide of champions of the 
weftem ifle, or princes of the weftern ifland of 
Emrope; thus Curaidhs oilraim iarthaik, 
and Oilran iartharagh ma Heoirpe, are 
honourable terms we meet with in every page of 
the old vellum writir^s* As to the fecond name 
of Ireland, its etymon can be traced in the Irilh 
dialed, without th^ help of the Phenician or any 
t>thertongue,alth(Highit be identically the fame with 
thelignificationafligned toHibemia; it is a complex 
of the Iriftx prepoiition iar or ier which means^ 
aflety bebindj and confequently the we/t^ according 
to the oriental and' Irifh manner, beginning at tlje 
eaft in front, as iar fin after that ; iar Mumhan 
weft Munfter, and maoi or aoi an ifland, as aoi 
Choluim, the ifland of Columba ; fo as to mean 
weftern iflaCnd. It muft be obferved, that n ferves 
often in Irifti for an expletive letter, in order to 
render the found more harmonious, and to avoid a 
hiatus, which is frequently obferved in the Greeic 
and Latin ; thus we add n to the words, or gold^ 
AiRGiD filver, ATHAR father, by faying go nor agus 
{o nairgid, with gold and with iilver, ar nathaic, 

ouc 



FIRST INHABITANTS OF IRELAND. 6$ 

^ttr fiitfaers &c. &c. I am indined to think, that 
N was c»ly an expletive dement in the Phenidan 
HAS an iflaad, efpecidiiy as the Hebrew woid ax iar 
an ifland, for n is often inferted as expletive in 
the beginning, middle, and end of Hebrew words i 
thus ScHALMsi tnmquil, in the plural, from 
scHALAH to be tranquil; and to phacao he has 
vifited, they add n twice, and fay ntphicadnou 
we have been vifited, and miphicadthsn you 
have been vifited, &c. &c. 

In fa£^ the cuftonu of the oriental B^ioos, fo 
tau&lj followed bere ia primitive times and ilill 
continoed, are plaufible proofs that (ome em^rat- 
ing cokNiy of thefe people muft have fettled in 
Irdand, which, without doubt, can be no other 
tban the ofispring of the Phenidan^ fettled by 
Tynan Hercuks in Spain. I prqpofe to enlarge 
hereafter on thefe cuftoms and manners of the 
people of Ireland, in a diftina effay, and fliall 
now only notice a few which are in vogue am<»Qgft 
OS, as alfo with them, fo that the reader may be 
enabled to judge how far they may be depended 
upon; and if I ihotild hereafter make it appear, 
that the names of the di&rent illands of the- Ma-. 
diterranean, as well as the countries borderag on 
that fca, which had beenoccupied by the Phenidan 
emptors, were originally, if not identically, of 
the fame literal fignificsltaon and forceinthe Ibcmo- 
Catic or Irilh language, wi^h the very fijift names 
given thofe countries by the Phenicians, under the 
command of Cadmus and Hercules ; I am cow.- 
vioced this d^comifance will indtne Ae reader to 
bdieve, that the firft inhabitants of Iiel^d were a 

y®*- ^' F tribe^ 



fltlic* lie twJits of jftft PlMweia«s^ 

IRaie JHfti call tte «iOtt^/0f Ifcy ^Bfilrl^ife !» 
|ff€i0f Belufi> and the fiitft ^s^r^f Mpy /la ^l-tt9ft 
>«r. ij;t$ 4ay of Beli^s's fife ; tfeey;fl^ ;th(? we of t^p 
|[#pfNoy€mberpi(icbe-Sfewifc«R(«o^^^ 
.|loai¥?ed ee owiia) qx the. j^v^ igf S^fl|«U J^gh WA^ 
the Carthaginian nam^^ jfa/R S«a, 'Mr. ^^^i^i^ 
tfcys, be Qopied an.<^!lriih:gl^ai5y,?wl;ere it was 
tnei*i«ned that the I^^wWf we«e>14fi}d'ip l^t 
two fokflw fiaes in every jrear,5tbro«g^ jwfe<^.^ 
{oui^lboted bea^s were. Anvrnt . as a pn^inra^^ 
aig»inftc9»tig}9us.difteixipert. -JVlr. iMartbr iftiis 
iiftory, of the w^miflea^ of §co(ibs4 w1h,# ^9fS^ 
j)eQpled b ytbe ancient Itiih^ obfefv«, tb^li^a 
^f ilygi waed Bqlw pr Sfilkifts* whi?b feejniaj jfeiftipp 
^n the Aflyr^ Qpct gei a|i^ jw0l«^ly^«iw^s 
jpagan deity CQ¥pes tt^e Se^ts ^oroiof £elH9> ;<Sbe 
.firftdayof May, teving j«s ^ ii^e ^ro© ifee 
.^9?i pc36^fed ^ jtfce.droids.:^ t^dfe ]Aefi> lof 
i^^slinguilhing all the &r« in dbeipariflijun^ f^be 
tytbes were paid, nA upon payme&tti^ Aeoj, die 
/fires were kindled ia e^ch /ft0uiy,.andi[M;v€ar:lall 
»t]pen. In thofe di^^comii^iiefl.the aiithpr, joiale- 
hjBto^ were•bw^til)etw1een two fire$; lieooe^^iidieii 
t)^ w<K}14:e2q[n(ef$,am i^ a.^at^rti^, 

^4fS^y:^y!:iekJ^Mlcn^^f^^^ iniilidir 

la^S^age ith«y)«iffft|f«tbtt^iodirjdharlhkM fihv^I, 

Tb^U'AiJMXliirf^^ .feitliieifire 

. . ' men. 



FIRST I>tHAB|TAN9r^ OF l^h^UfD. -67 

men, women snd children, for the- fame- ireafon 
pafs through or leap over the facred fixes, and the 
cattle are driven through the flames olf the bumii^g 
ilraw, 9n the firft of May- Jii fome partj^ as the 
counties of Waterford and Kilkenay, the brides, 
married fince the laft May-day, are CQmp^Ued jto 
fumilh the young people with a ball covert with 
gold lace and another covered with filver lace, 
finely adorned with filver taflils ; the priqe pf thefe 
ibmet;ipes amoxmts to two .guineas; thefe balls, 
the fymbols of the Sun and Moon, are ^uipend^^d 
in a hoop ornamented with flowers, which hoop 
reprefents the circular path of Belns or the Sun ; 
sax^ in this manner, they walk in procefiion from 
houfe to houfe. On the ^ve of St* John another 
bonfire is lighted univeif ally through the.kingdom; 
on this night every family extinguifhes the fire, 
which muft be relighted f rom.the bon^re; a lighted 
ftick is alfo thrown with iplemnity into the cabbage 
garden, to caufe the ropts to grow, ai^d the young 
people fun through ppe another with lighted flicks 
in their hands. This is not a pagan cuftom, but 
h^dcd down from the firft eftablimment of Chrit 
tianity on the continent ; for though the council 
of Elvira abolHbed the cuftom of moft of the pagan 
fires, which had continued fome centuries aCter 
Chriftianity ; the illumination of the eve of St, 
John the Baptift ftill continued, the tradition of 
which is coeval with the prediction he made of 
Jefus Chrift ; which fire St. Bernard notices to his 
lratei:nity, was become fo univerfally pradifed in 
his timp, that it was even obferved among fhe 
3aj;aceiis and Turk^. See Homil. in {^& loan. Bapt. 

^ % Some 



69 AN ENQUikt INTO THE 

Some Mountains m Ulfter (UIl bear the name 
of Bel-tine ; but in the fouthern part of the king- 
dom the name Inore frfequcntly occurs. At the 
foot of Knocmaoldown mountain, near Clogheen 
in CO. of Tipperary, is Logh Bbeal br Plus's Lake ; 
on the Moanmhullagh mountains, not far diftant 
from this lake, is Bam na Bhcal a mullach, i. e. the 
Gap of Belus on the fummit ; the ufual falutation 
o( the common people was Bel de dhuit^ the God 
Belus to you j the meaning of which not being un- 
derftood by the prefent race, they now fay Balo 
Dhna dbtdt, which they interpret thus, a mark from 
God to you ;. bal fignifying a fpot or blemifh, a. 
very improper term for a falutation ; this is pecu- 
liar to the counties of Waterford and Kilkenny. 

The month of May was indeed the moft proper 
feafon of the year to acknowledge the beneficent 
favours of Belus or the Sun ; as the month of No- 
vember was, to acknowledge their gratitude to 
the fame deity ; becaufe in May, that great planet 
begins to beautify the face of the earth, to nourifh 
its decayed plants and vegetables, and to put life 
and warmth into its animd beings; and in Novem- 
ber the harvcft and the vintage is gathered into 
the barn. Hence of all created objefts, that planet 
deferved moft to be noticed and loved by rational 
fublunary beings, becaufe its benign infhience 
produced them health of body, and an acceptable 
profpefl of nourifhment. And hence it was, with- 
out doubt, that almoft every pagan nation adored 
this beautiful planet as the parent of nature, imder 
different names and appellations ; a religion, which 
as Mr. Young obferves in his Revelafi^t, p. 35. 

took 



FlRSr INHABITANTS OF IRELAND. 69 

took its ri£ in Cbaldea, was foon carried into 
Egypt, and from thence to Greece ; it fpread itfelf 
alio to the moil diftant parts of the world, and 
infe6ied not only the eaflern but the weftem 
Scythians and Tartars, but the Mexicans too, for 
the Spaniaids found it there. (See Gage's new 
Survey of the Weft Indies, ch. 12.) Even the 
defcendants of Shem, wliofe pofterity preferved 
the memory of the true God for a longer time 
than thofe of Ham or Japhet, at length transferred 
their homage to the Sun and Moon. (Photius ex 
Ctefia. C^Curt. 1. 8. c* 9. Philoft. 1. 3. ch. 35.) 

The ancient praclice of adoring the Sun by the 
fymbol of fire, was firft introduced into the world 
by Nimbrod^ otherwife called Baal or Belus, which 
in the Hebrew, Syriac and Pheniclan, literally 
meant lord, or mafter. Belus is juftly conlidered 
by the learned to be the firft who withdrew a con-r 
fiderable number of people, employed by him in 
building Babylon, from the true worihip of God 
to the fpurious adoration of the Sun by fire. 
This idolatrous mode of worihip foon overipread 
the earth, the Chanaanites or Phenidans obferved 
it in the fame manner with the pagan Irilh. We 
read in the fourth book of Kings, that they ferved 
Baal, and religioufly pafled their fonsand daughters 
through his fire, in which they were imitated by 
the idolatrous Ifraelites. We alfo read in the fame 
book, that Achar kingof Ifraelisblamedfor having 
religioufly pafled his fon through the facred pagan 
fire; and it 'may be inferred from the faid paffage 
that many Ifraelitiih kings provoked God, by the 
fame idolatrous pradice. 

The 









70 AN ENQUIRY INTO THE 

TRieippillative of Nembrod given alfo to Belu*, 
ivhidiaccorditig to Ifidorus literally fignifies tyrant 
(Nembrod tyrannum fignificat. Etym. 1. 17.) can 
more naturally and more conformably to ancient 
rtiytholbgy,^ be inveftigatcd and cleared up in the 
Infti language. It is a complex of «^m heaven^ 
and i7-a/captivity,irifomuch that both words jcnned 
together by way of attribute to Belus grandfon of 
Chato, plainly fignify captivator of heaven, or 
Cdli captivatori or Calorum expugnaior.' The Greek 
and Latin poets who defcribe the war of the giants 
againft the gOds, ufe no fttonger expreflion la 
paiiit the iiifblence of the former, than Ccelos exfug^ 
nare 'bolebant. Homer in hfe firft Iliad kitroduce^ 
Venus, who reminds Jupiter of her fervices; by 
havitig delivered him from his captivity and dhains,, 
through herinfluenceonthegiantBriareus. Bfefideff 
tTife argutoisnt, ft further a{Jpears from the joint 
authority of ^feveral learned commentators on the 
firft trok erf Genelis, that Belus had not the epithet 
Nembi'od or Nimbrod given him, until the time 
of his i'lfiplotis undertaking in building the tower,, 
whichbroughtdown upon him and his accomplices- 
the iminedlatse veiigeance of God, not only by the 
total demOllfhriient 6f tHat edkice, but alfd by a 
multiplication of the fifft language into feveral 
diilefts, that weVe all undcrftbod by the three fons^ 
of Koah. (ffidor. locofupra citato-) Now if we 
conftdet ^felbs ^fter thiiitijlirious undertdkirlgi and 
his fefclttflfen oif fo many tbotifand people inta 
fifoktryati'd rebellion againft God, we will readily 
COticiod^-Ire tv*as the 01^ perfon living, thai moft 

di^fetved 



FIRST INHABITANT^ OF IRELAND. 71 

deferved the attriljute of Nertibrod or H^aVen- 
Gjlptivator. 

If the Phenicians came from Spain ttf Ireland, it 
is probable they firft planted themfelves in the 
fotithem parts of the ifland ; accbrdingly I find 
fome plaulible reafons to think their chief fettle- 
ment maft have been in a large diftrid of the 
county of Cork, which comprehends the entir6 
barony of Fermoy and thehalfbaronV of Condons. 
This diftrift was anciently called MAGtt-FfitN£, 
literally meaning the plains of the Phenians, 
Ph^^nio-magus ; the inhabitants were always 
called Fear A Maigh Fkine, afterwards the word 
Pheine was left out, as inaking the name too 
tedious, ancionly a part of the compound prefer ved 
ty the moderns, who to this day call it Fear a- 
maigh, in Engllln Fermoy- 

The Liber Lecaiius calls the inhabitants Ftbl 
M AGH FjBtNE ; the author or cfariipiler of the annals 
of Iilnisfalleri, at the yiear of Chrift 254, mentions 
that FiachaMuillethan,proi?incialking of Munfter, 
bellowed tliis country called Magh-Feine to the 
telebratcd druid Mogruth; but the author of th^ 
t Jlfter book, ha the Liber Lecanus, is more exafl; he 
mentions that in confideration of thisdruid's advicd 
and influence Over Cormac fon of Con of the btin- 
dred battles, !d gtve hoffages £0 fiacha MiiiHethah, 
after Cormac^ iigrial defeat at the battle of Dun 
Claire, the Mbihonian priiice gave hini arid hi* 
pofterity for ever, the lands called Maghinac 
Neirce, which was afterwards called D'al-Mbg- 
ruith, and formed only a part of IVifaghJeinej u 
runs thus in verfc : 

Do 



7a AN ENQ^UIRY INTO THE 

Do breat dofom iar tikdlin; as lin cath do bacEi 

Saor dilfe Muighe mic Keircaoi; do isdachloia 

CO bf atbl 

He granted bim after the return out of fbe 

field of battle the freehold property of Magb 

mac Nerce, for him and his race perpetually. 

Betides the affinity^ or rather fimilarily of names, 

there are ftill to be difcovered in the fame difl:ri£t^ 

other plain monuments of Chanaamticor Phenician 

fafhion, fuch as are defcribed by Dom Calmet in 
his learned comments on the pentateuch ; I mean, 

large pillars of mde ftone perpendicularly ereAed 
either feparately, or joined with others in fquares 
and circles, whereof fome are placed as fupporters 
to flat ilones of a furprifing magnitude, either in 
aninclinedor horizontal pofition. TheChanaanftic 
altars which the people of God were commanded 
to demolifh, feem to have been of this kind bf 
firu£lure» (Deut. 7* 5. Exod. 23, 24.) It is indeed 
remarkable, that on the (ummit of many high 
places round thecountry of Ma gh-Phxi NE, we find 
heaps of ftones joined together, with a huge flone 
on the top as a plat-form, whereon, it is probably 
the builders immolated their viAims, and lighted 
their lacred fires in honc^ir of Belus* Thefe without 
doubt were of the lame nature with the high places 
of the^children of Chanaan or the Phenicians, who 
communicated the ufe of them to the rebellious 
Jews, for which they are fo frequently and fa 
feverely iiq>rimanded by Almighty God. 

The mod remarkable monument of Phenician 
t^e in this part of the ifland, is to be feen on the 
load leading from Fermoy to Glanwoith, fituatedt 

in 



FIRST INHABITANTS OF IRELAND. 73 

in a plain or even cotmtry. . Smith in his hiftoty 
of the county of Cork, voL 2. p. 409, has given 
a very imperfeft drawing and defcription of this 
work ; he fays it is called by the country people 
Laba-cally or Hag*s bed, that the people fay it 
belonged to a giantefs ; and he concludes with his 
opinion, that it is the tomb of one of the ancient 
kings of Fermoy, and was*ere6led in the ages of 
Chriftianity ; this laft wife conjefture, he acknow- 
ledges, arifes from its lying eajl and wefi. 

The ingenious and learned antiquary, governor 
Pownal, has favoured us with an Accurate drawing 
and defpription of another Phenician monument or 
fepulchral taphos, at New-Grange, near Drogheda, 
and of the Phenician infcription on one of the 
ftones. See Archseolog. Soc. Antiq. Lond. vol. 2. 
If the Tynan Hercules, or any of the prmcipal 
defcendants of the Phenician colony he brought 
with him to Spain and the European iiles, were 
leaders of the firft people that inhabited this 
ifland ; the folemn worfhip and facrifices perform- 
ed by them, may have been very agreeable to the 
pure patriarchal religion. And as Tyre, wheieof 
Hercules was founder according to Herodotus, is 
mentioned in fcripture as a well fortified city in 
Joihua'stime ; and it feems alfo probable, that all 
the Chanaanites had not as yet fallen into idolatry, 
but that many of them ftill worihipped the true 
GSod ; {o we may conclude, that Hercules . may 
poflibly have been a worfliipper of the true God^ 
as well as Abimelech king of Gerar and his fub- 
je£b, who were alfo Chanaaneans or Phenidans. 
Hie purity of oar Phenician's worfliip gains more 

advantage, 



.^4 AN BJiqUIRY JNTP THE 

,/^va^it?ge, if we allow him to Jiave been cotem- 
jppraiy with Abraham, Ifeacj or Jacob, as Dr. 

'. ^keley prfitfcads ; pr as the authors of the Univer- 

. fa'l iiiftory affirm,' (aying, tha.t tyflw Hercules 
A3«ri(hed Ipng before the Jewi% law, publilhed 

; -l^'Mofes. •^,. §tukdey ^ Stoftehenge- I3n. 

jffiy^". vol. I, .p. 3J3-:°<^« "^O 
' .But.thpugh>the .wprft4pof God was aduJteratQd, 

jg4 «ven i^latry ftfbiftituted in its room, «ev<pr- 
thelefs it is certain, the folemnity and exterior 
]^a^ of facFJfice mjght ftill have been retained 
.nune.and waformaWe to the patriarchal religion. 
Xcannot clofe this fhort eflay better than with 
. dip fi^owing rem?iifla. No womwi's name is more 
. .^mmon in' Ireland, among the old n;»uves, tlian 
*hat which-w^ D\4q's pwper Puwc or Phemcian 
aajae, accp^^g :tp Sphnus and others; I mean 
■JEWWA, ft wpr(l,y'fe^t:the old Iri{b,.accordmg,to 
.the genius pf their language, bavc<pntrailed;mt«» 
£1.18, as th$y,baye the mafculine^name Daw.us 
4ato Dairk. The names of the.thtee great nyers 
: StAHNPN, SuiR and NoiR,. are. alio of onefi^al 
ta^i Seanan, or as it is now pKjnounoedSbawwB, 
:m8»BS literally the old river or water; m Af,^ic, 
' /», is old, Wtas, and am a fpypm, fpnng, or 
ibur^'e, fons. 5wr was an ^aftjjrn name,, adfu- 
.-t««»^*ir.BflChartPhal. c. 8. Nau- kom Na/jr 

•iuvius. Idem. . 

Bela. Punice et Ambice Forti^fluo Mves abipr- 

• ieidair. Hence Bffa-Mfi^ now Belfaft, a dan- 

: serous harbour in the nor^ of Ireland ; >/«/. 

ly^ceOftium, the mouth of ahaven; foalfothe 

,teaad in Cofli ^^Pm^^X Um9^ ^^^^ 



M ^ * * 



FIRST INHABITANTS OF IRELAND. 7 j 

Middleton river, was anciently called bela-fearfad ; 
hence the north and fouth bulls of the bay of 
Dublin, &c. &c. 

In a future number, I will produce fuch proofs 
and veftiges of an Iberian or Spanifh colony an- 
ciently fettled in Ireland, as may be reafonably- 
prefumed of fome weight, in the eyes of an impar- 
tial reader, to fupport the old tradition of our 
bards and antiquarians on that head, in conjunction 
with, and in confirmation of Mr. Lhwyd's argu- 
ment on the fame fubje6l. Some of thefe veftiges 
of a Spanifh colony in Ireland, have been already 
touched on by other writers, fuch as Mr. Gambden, 
who thinks to find the Lucenfii and Qmcanioi Spain, 
in the Luceni and Conganiy which Ptolemy places in 
the fouth-wefl of Ireland, facing Spain. The 
marks and veftiges I have to offer, appear more 
plain, more natural, and more flriking. 



FINIS. 



•*'>^. 



»•♦ 






An 



S A V Y 



ON THE 



STUD? 



O F 



IRISH ANTIQJUITIES. 



By EDWARD LEDWICH, L.L.B. 

ViCAB. of Agkaboe in the QtrsEK's County. 



A N 



E 



ON T H « 



STUDY 



OF 



IRISH ANTIQUITIES. 



NATIONAL antiquities have always en- 
gaged the attention of every learned and 
polilhed people. The inquiries of (a) 
Pfammitichus into the original language, whatever 
truth may be in the anecdote, (hows that fuch 
diiquifitions were not imufual in former times, nor 
b the flouri{hing periods of antient empires. 

Qgeitions involving national honour naturally 
J^fe the flame of patriotifm in every breaft, and 
produce contefts between kingdoms concerning 
ftcir antiquities. Intemperate zeal led to the fabri- 
cation of fictitious annals, and the wild {b) delufions 
of romantic hiftory, Thefe exeelfes created a 

G 2 contempt 

(«) Herod. Euterpe. 

W *A{i«)k( •» Kcu fr^Mt ZikwtMii v^wiM. Apollon. Argon. 
«^. f. M an early inftance of what is alledged. To whick 
J«7 be added, wiial is faid of the Atbeniati Autodhonoi in 
Pivftnias, Corinth, pag. no. edit. Sylburgij. Much more, 
<o ihe fame purpofe, oii^ht be produced. 



84 ONTHESTUDYOF 

contempt of the learning, the cuftoms and man- 
ners of remote times. When civilisation was per- 
fedled, and found knowledge and juft criticifra 
enabled mankind to form proper difcriminations, 
reafon foon recovered her equilibrium ; a calm 
review of thefe fubjedts fucceeded, and the progrefe 
of mankind from barbarifm to civility, through all 
the fubordinate details of the arts and fciences, 
became, as it c?er will be, the objei^ of manly 
and rational inveftigation ; and as a favpurite ftudy, 
which it is at this day, found univerfal countenance 
and encouragements 

It was the love of glory and of his country, 
traits the mod conf^xcuous in the chara£lor of 
king Henry VIII. that didated to him the ap- 
pointment of (c) Leland to the office of Royal 
Antiquary. The confequence was happily (jecijivf, 
in collefting a (d) body of men of real learnioi^ and 
preferving from impending deftruftion, innunle^ 
rable and valuable literary monuments. Mttch 
more might have been done, did not an undefined 
fyftem of government, the pride of feudal gian- 
deur, the intrufions of popular importance and 
religious heats, difturb the reigns of queen Elizabeth 
and her fucceffors: thefe excited groundlds jca- 
loufies of their fubjed^s, and made them apprehend 
{e) danger from the examination of a worm-eaten 
miflal or a muity charter. Thefe political terror 
vanifhed at the Revolution, but it was not before, 
the accefTion of the illuftrious houfe pf Brunfvnck, 

that 

(c) Biographia Britannica, article, Leland. 
(J) Ibid, article, Agard. 
(f) Ibid, article, Spelaian. 



IR!S^ ANt^IQJJltlES. 85 

that antiquities^ with every ufeful and ornamental 
blanch of knowledge, received regal patronage. 
It was in the rdgn of king George 11. th« 
the fodety of antiquaries of London was incor- 
porated. ' 

To the ailimated exertions of individuals^ and 
the munificent protection of a few noblemen and 
gentlemen, is England indebted for that great . 
body of antient records and documents to be 
found in the Britifh mufeum, and in the other 
puUic and private libraries of that kingdom. Un« 
fortunately for Ireland, the (ame fervice w&s not 
rendered to her by any of her fons, csicept in a 
partial degree. A prey to the mercilefa ravaged of 
the O&nen 4 plundered by the (f) Englifti adventu- 
rers; convulfedand torn by domeilic broils; fh^ 
fliared every viciffitude of humj^n mifery, and pre* 
ferved frdall remains of that piety and learning 
which made her the mart of literature and the admi* 
ration of Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries. 

To retain the natives in their faith, the eccle- 
fiafiics, of the Romifh profeflion, colledted and 
pubiiifaed the lives of their {g) faints and coHaterat 
hiftorical pieces. In thefe, and in the fubfequent 
defence of them, many points of national antiquities 
were difcufled and afcertained. Manufcripts were 
ibarcbed for and carefully examined, copies of 
tfiem imtltiplied, and a foundation was laid for the 

elegant 

(f) Sec Giraldw Cainibrcnlis, Expug. lib. 2. cap. 35. who 
Tpeaks of the actions of bis countrjinen, with indignant 
Varmtb. 

(g) Religion of the anrient IriAi b^priamre U(hfr, ra t\% 
«piaic. 



86 ON THE STUDY OF' 

W 

elegant fuperftrudture reared by Sir James Ware. 
It is not eafy to determine, whether he merits moft 
praife for the perspicuous divifion of his work, or 
for the accuracy and extent with which be treats it. 
The whole evinces a natural turn for fuch ftudies, 
and an eminent difplay of abilities and erudition. 

Yet ftill it murt be confidered as an infant 
undertaking, and very far from exhaiifting the 
various topics it comprehends. Neither the genius 
or induftry of any one man is adequate to the 
thorough elucidation rf the antiquities of a country ; 
the additions to Carabden and Ware prove this. 
. The talents of mankind are fo different, and fuc- 
cefs is fo likely to attend that purfuit to which na- 
ture prompts, that we are furc of information and 
entertainment, where ingenuity and erudition unite 
in handling a fmgle fubjedt. To encourage fuch 
exertions, and to coUedt the fcattered rays of 
fcience, focicties have been formed throughout 
Europe. Ireland has had her phyfico-billorical and 
antiquarian focielies : under the aufpices of tlie 
firft, the hiftories of the counties of Down, Water- 
ford, Cork and Kerry have appeared ; and under 
that of the latter, the excellent produdtions of 
lieutenant colonel Charles Vallancey. Thefe blof- 
ibms gave enlivening hopes, but a fetal languor 
has hitherto blafled the faireft fruit of Iridi litera- 
ture ; it is as yet a ftranger to the cheering beams 
of public or private protedlion. While every nation 
of Europe is polilhing its antiquities, and maldng 
new difcoveries, Ireland abounding in learned 
men and in curiofities of every kind, remains to 
tbe naturaliU and antiic^uarian a terra incognita, a 

regioH 



ikiSh ANTIQUltlKS. ' 87: 

region unexplored. A few fparks of patriotic ar- 
dour are alone wanting to (how its latent treafures, 
and elevate it to a rank it ha^ always juftly claimed^ 
but never enjoyed. Undifmayed by this retro- 
ipeft, the gentlemen aflbciated in the prefent work 
arc happy in contemplating a tafte and fpirit now 
prevalent, very different from thofe of former ages. 
They obfcrve with what avidity the foreign antt- 
quarign refearcheS are read ; nor can they pay their 
countrymen fo ill a compliment, or betray fuch 
diffidence of themfelves, as to imagine, that their 
labours will be paffed over with indifference or 
ftcgleft. 

As it has fallen to the lot of the writer to vindi-^ 
cate the ftudies of his brethren, and to addrefs the 
public on this occafion, he humbly begs their in- 
dulgence to the following pages, defigned to ftiow 
what has and may be done towards the illufh-ation 
of Irifh antiquities ; and which, for greater clears 
ncfs, are thrown under diftinft titles. 

BREHON LAWS. 

Barred from every intercourfe with the natives by* 
Ihc moft penal ftatutes, the Englifh knew but. little 
of their jurifprudence and municipal regulations 9 
every rtiention of their laws iiS, confequently, iri 
terms of deteftation. As forfeitures were no part 
of the Brehonic inftitutes, the Eitglifh, who were' 
conftantly enriching tliemfclves by the delinquen- 
cies of the natives, without doubt, reprobated a 
fyllem fo unfavourable to their fchemes, arid with- 
MA minutely examining, pronounced it a lewd 

cuftom. 



U ON THE ST.UDY QfFi 

cuftom. The notices concerning it| in our wfitcrSi 
ace £^w and general CampioB, wbc& work ap- 
peared in 1370, tells us : (A) " Other lawyers the 
Iriih have, liable to certain, families^ which, after 
the cuik)m of the country, determine and judge 
caufes. TheCb confider of wrongs offered and 
received among their neighbours -, be it murder, 
or felony^ or trefpais, all is redeemed by compo* 
filion. The Breighoon^ fo they call this kind of 
lawyer, fitteth him down on a bank, the lords and 
gentlemen at variance round bhn/' To this Stani- 
hurft, writirigin 1584, adds, (i) "That theya-c 
intirely unacquainted with the Englifli, the canon 
and civil laws : that ^ir deterixMnations are found- 
ed on no ibtid rules, but on precedents (andified 
by time and uTage,, and that thefe are kept pro- 
fiaund fecrets, whereby they acquire admiration and 
preferve their influence.'" {k) Sir James Ware, in 
1654, allows them fome (kill in the canon and 
civil law, and confirms what is &id of their decrees 

being 

(*) Pag. *9- 

(j) Uruntus ad tales lites xftimandas quibufdam arbilris, 

^uos iUi Br«honios appellant. Ifti funr ex una famiiia pro- 

i^ininad, inteliigentiam juris Britannici non habcnt, civilla 

eriam ac pontifRialfs inipericiinini. Retinent foluoiodo do- 

meftica pfephifaiatii, ufu & diuturnitate corroborata, ^orum 

animadveruone^ artem aliquam ex rebus 6£tis commen- 

fitiifque confltttam peperecunt, quam nullo modo divnigari 

patitlntur> fed libimetip(is» Telurt abftrufa atque abdiia 

mjfteria a €onimunrhoniinwii (i&nfu vemotiOkna, earn refeT- 

vant. Atque ob vanani banc recondita: cognitionis opinionem^ 

eorum nomen ab- imperita plebicula (quae citius oftentatione 

quara vera (imp! ioi rate capicur) valde celebratur. Pag. 37. 

See what is faid of the Brehon O'Briflao, Colletlanea^ 

No. II. pag. 1 59. 

(/) £k i>raefcrrptia et confuetudioibus quibufdam Hiber* 

licis fe dicigebaiit. Antiq. cap.. 8^ pag. 4a. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. 89 

being Conformable to nati(mal cuftomsand pre- 
fciiptidns. In another place this author fiiys, 
(/) " I am informed there arc, at thia day ex- 
tanti many volumes, in which the laws of fome 
of the anticnt kings of Ireland, before the arri- 
val of the Englifh, are written in the Irifli lan- 
guage. Thcfe without doubt are very ufeful for 
the difcovery of the form of government among 
the antient Irifh, and deferve a thorough fcarch.'' 
This with a few particulars more is all that thofe 
writers knew, or thought proper to communicate 
of our civil polity ; and how meagre an account it 
is, every one may eafily judge. It was referved 
for the learned pen of colonel Vallancey to do 
juftice to fo curious* and interefting a fubjedt. 
With a knowledge of the Irifh language to which 
few have arrived, he was enabled to read, and 
was fedulotis in procuring the moft antient MSS. 
Hence he has given fuch a view of our legal infti- 
tutfons in the third and fourth numbers of this 
Colle<Slanea, as frees us from the charge of barba* 
rifm, and our Brehons from that of ignorance j 
and he has proved by an extraft of confiderable 
length, that the latter condudted themfelves, in 
their juridical decifions by rules, neither capricious, 
uncertain or oppreffive. 

We have only to lament, that other indifpei)- 
fable avocations interrupted his labours, and de- 
prived the public of larger fpccimens of his erudi-< 
tion. However it will be fome partial confolation 
to inform them, that he lias promifed his aid to 

this 

(t) Aniiquiiies of Ireland, chap. ii. pag. 69* 



90 ON THE STUDY OF 

this fociety, and the world may cxpeft to fee fome 
feledl pieces frorti his rich ftore. This favour, 
with that of permitting us to take the title of his 
work, muft always claim our warmell acknow- 
ledgements. 

DRUIDIC LITERATURE. 

Mr. Whitaker, who has written admirably on 
many parts of Britifli Antiquities, ftudioufly omits 
treating of the Druids, or their learning. That 
he confidered it a barren or exhaufted fubjedt, 
the following brief obfervations fufficiently evi- 
dence. " All the various combinations, fays (m) he, 
of the Noachidae at Babel muft have carried a re- 
guUr alphabet away with them, to the places of 
their various difperfions. This moft of them af- 
terwards forgot The Gauls in particular, had 
affuredly loft the ufe of their original alphabet, 
and in the days of Csfar had adopted the Grecian 
from the neighbouring Greeks of Marfeilles. The 
Britons alfo had forgot the knowledge of their ori- 
ginal charadersj and in the days of Tiberius had 
borrowed the Roman alphabet from the neighbour- 
ing Romans of Gaul. We find the moft nor- 
therly ftates of Caledonia, a little after the vidloriee 
of Velpafian and the conquefts of Agricola, poffeft 
of an alphabet, and the celebrated Offian, in the 
third century, making ufe of the Roman charac- 
ters for his poems. From the ftiore of Caledonia 

letter 



s 



(m) Hiftor/ of MaDchefter, book T. chap. lo. pag. 371, 
37a. of the fdition in ^uano. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. 91 

letters muft have been foon wafted • over into Ire- 
land. A comiaual intercoiirfe was maintained be- 
twixt the inliabitants . of the two countries v and 
Ireland muft certainly have received an alphabet 
before the period which is conftantly affigncd for 
the introdudion of it, even one or two centuries, 
at leaft, before the days of St. Patrick. And the 
Cornilh, the Welfh, the Scotch and the Irilh lan- 
guages have, from that period to the prefent, in- 
variably ufed the charadters of the Romans in 
writing/* 

Our antiquarians endeavour, with unavailing 
pains, to prove, that the prefent Irifh elements 
have not the leaft refemblance to the Greek or 
Roman : whereas it is manifeft they are the cor- 
rupt latin letters of the fixth century, as given in 
Bemard^s 20th, 21ft, and 2 2d tables improved by 
the learned Dodtor Morton. So far Mr. Whitaker's 
alTertion is indifputable. The period of their in- 
trodu<5tion feeras like wife accurately ftated. We 
have the authority of («) Caefar for the Druids 
ufing the Greek letters in fecular concerns. Five 
hundred and forty-three years before the chriftian 
era, according to the Samaritan chronology, the 
Phocean colony arrived at Marfeilles. Grecian 
manners foon produced a wonderful change in the 
country and its inhabitants. The Gauls foon laid 
afide their barbarifm, built cities and applied 
to agriculture: — ut non Graeciam in Galliam 
cmigrafle, fed Gallia in Graeciam tranflata videre- 
tur, fays (0) Juftin. Whether the Druids ufed 

the 

(n) Lib. 6. 

(0 Lib. 43. cap. 4, Cicer. pro Flacco- 



^4 ONTHESTUDYOF 

the Greek langiiage, or the letters albne^ a point 
very much agitated among the {p) learned, we 
may allow them to be acquainted with tht Oredc 
alphabet at an early age. 

But this knowledge of the Gifeek and Roman 
elements, by no means fuperfeded or extinguish- 
ed the ufe of their more antient ones among the 
Druids : the latter were religioufly preferved, and 
carefully handed down from the remoteft ages to 
a late period, and may be ranked among the aN 
phabets of the Noachidae hinted at by Mr,. Whit- 
aker. The difcovery of thefe claaients, after an 
oblivion of many centuries, is certainly the moft 
curious, valuable and ufeful in the compafs of n)o- 
dern literature ; and is due to the fagadty and 
perfeverance of an ingenious aflbciatc. Private 
firiendfliip, in this inftance, has operated publio 
advantage. An^dous to promote the fuccels of 
a work which the writer warmly efpoufed, Mb 
learned man freely furrendercd the fruits of his 
labour, and cOnfented to their publication ; without 
anticipating that event, it may be j>roper to gratify 
the antiquarian with a few particulars- 
He has given from manufcripts, ftone-croflfes, 
(epulcbral and monumental infcriptions, all accu- 
rately noted and delineated, the Bobeloth letters, 
and fhown their order, charadter, power and name. 
The latter he has decompbfed, and by the judici- 
ous ufe of etymology, difcovercd their eaftem ori- 
gination, and clearly pointed out the progrefe of 

letters 

(pj Burtoo. Grxc. ling. hift« pag. 19. and Che auihors 
cited by him. Scldes. Janus, pag. as. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. ^ 

letters from pidhires to fymbols. This Bobeloth 
was the vulgar character of the Druids, and fa- 
vours of tht ear^eft antiquity ■ but th^ had ano- 
ther character called Ogham, appropriated to Aeir 
hierogrammatic writings ; this has hitherto been 
cfteemed nothing but cyphers, or unmeanmg floui- 
lifhcs ; but he has confuted this notion from let^ 
terod remains. The utility of this difcavery will 
be very extonfive, as it enabtes us to unfetd an* 
tient knowledge wrapped up in unknown letters. 

h is really furprtfing, that no one had turned 
his thoughts this way and enquired sAm Dn»die 
{earning, of which confiderable.fpecitncnB are ex- 
tant» particularly at New-Grange, in the ooonty of 
Meatb» and on the crofles at Caftjedermot, in 
the county of Kildare. Ware does not fo moch 
as mention the Bobeloth, and of tho (^ Ogham, 
hfi dryly fays, the anticnts writ their fecrets in it 
Mr. O'Connor aHb paflfos it over } 0*Flaherty 
and Harris remind ut, that the Ififli had a cha* 
faster called Bobeloth. (r) Colonel Vaittancey^^ 
yAiok penetration nothing can ^fcape, is moM 
explicit and to the purpofe. Jbdeed it cannot b^ 
thwgbt firange that writers prepofieflfed in fkvouv 
of the antiquity and originality of the prefent Irifh 
elements, (hould not trouble theniCelves in fearch* 
tng after others. 

MODES 



(f) Antiqnit. cap. a. p. id. 

(r) Grammar, pag. 2. ** The Bechlui-AiioA was th« an- 
tient order, and continued U> to be tHl chriftianit/ was 
thoroughly propagated ii) Ireland. Tbfs ord«r was altered 
when th« language began to be mixed in Greece." Reo^aiaii 
fff }aphj8Cy peg* 404. How ignorant of the matter) 



94 ON THE STUDY OF 



MODES OF INTERMENT. 

The various modes of fepulture praftifed by our 
anceftors form a pleafmg and extenfive department 
in our antiquities. Sir James Ware has (a) treated 
it fuperficially. ; but (b) Mr. Harris, with inde- 
fatigable induftry, has made many valuable addi- 
tions. The following remarks are given to excite 
attention, and as a fpecimen of what hereafter may 
be executed on a lai-ger fcale. 

First Epoch. Wormius has made a triple 
divifion of the modes of interment ; it is certainly 
not accurate, but whatever contributes to tbrow a 
confufed fubjedl into order has its ufe,. and muft 
elucidate it. Cremation he fpeaks of firft. Bunfmg 
the body after death was univerfally prevalent in 
Europe in the earliell ages. It was (c) confefledly 
fo in Ireland. . There is a very concife, but ob- 
jedionabte, manner of accounting f6r this and other 
oriental cuftoms^ by faying, they were introduced 
by Phenician colonies or Carthaginian traders. We 
can, in the prefent inftance, recur to other and 
more fatisfaAory evidence. 

Odin, the great legiflator and deity of the 
northern nations, arrived in Europe, with his Afiatic 
poths, (d) twenty-four years before the chriftian era ; 

hi;$ 

{a) Antiquit. cap. 3;^. pag. 34.8. 

(jt) Edition ofWare, pag. 140. 

(r) Harris's Ware, fupra. Pomp. Mela, &c. 
, (d) In cujus texnpora incidii Odinus, Afiatica Imniigra* 
tionisy faflse anno 24 ante natuui Chriiluai^^ antefignaou^* 
Qrymoi^ Amg. Jon. lib. |. cap. 4. 



_ T" 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. .95 

his laws refpedting funeral (blemnities, here follow : 
(e) The bcklies of the dead with their goods are to 
be burnt, and the people admoniihed, that the 
Gods will receive thofe facrifices with more diftin- 
'^iflied favour, in proportion to their value and 
quantity. Great tun;iuli or.barrows are to be raifed 
over chiefs, and large flpnes. to be iiet up for thofe 
who performed illuftrioqs actions. His own body 
was burnt, and with it much gold and filver. (f) 
Odin'? country was Geof gi^ on the ' confines of 
Perfia, where the Sabean^ inftitutes, fBll preferved 
by the Brachmans, were in.uie ; fome of the prin- 
cipal of their tenets were the adoration of the fun, 
the burning of their children and their dead. - 

The celebrity pf this leader, ddfied by liis 
countrymen, the actions and conquefts of his heroic 
Afs, and the bellowing the alphabeftc elements 
on a rude people, were motive$ fufficient to excite 
admiration and eftablifh his Jaws.. They were 
adopted in part of Germany, in Siveden, Den- 
mark and Norway, and muft have foon found 
their way to the Britifh ifles, where numerous 
veftiges of cremation ftiU remain. This hypothecs 
is not deftitute of authority- Yet we * may with 
confidence afcend higher, and fay, that Sabeifm 

was 

[e) Ille Wodcnus^ Icgcin ^c moriuis, una cum eoruni 
bonit combtrendis tulit, xnonuitque> ut eo magis honorific^ 
a Dili acciperentur, quo plura bdna comburerehtur. Man- 
davit etiam, ut optimatibus magnos tumulos in memoriam 
erigerent, atque ut eorum fepulchris, qui egregia patref- 
feoty magnos lapides fuperponerent. Woden jSigtuni obiit, 
xnagnoque honore, cum multo auro et argento, crematu$ 
eft. Mefleo. ex chron. antiq. Sueogothico. Sturloion to 
tnc fame Purpofe. 

(f^ Warion's Hlftorj of Epglifli Po^trj, diiT. i. 



96 ON THESTITDY OF 

vnB predominant in ths Eaft (b arly as the days 
of Abrahon)^ and was carried by the primeval 
colonics of Europe to di^ir various {ettlem^ts ; it 
is therefore no groimdieis' conjedture to derive {g) 
many Druidic ufages front tH'is fource ; tiiey are 
plainly of eaftem ori^nation, let their tranfit into 
the weftern world be fetil^ as it may. Our 
Cromleac, oaken groves^ upright (lones and coped 
cairns refer to omntal fuperftition i nor would the 
writer have heikated to fay the; fame of -our Round 
Towers in the enfuing difiertalion,' was there any 
proof of our acquamtatice wi^ ardiite€^ufe in tl^ 
ages antecedent to tho& affigned for the^r ereflion. 
Odin might then have done no more than give a 
new fandion to pra£tioes< long before introduced. 

In Worn^usls age of cremation, the body re- 
duced to aOiea was piac€i)d in an urn and laid in 
the earft, over whid) a (A) conical mound was 
raifed, juftfuf&cient to indicate what was under it. 
The um is always of baked clay, and #ie mould* 
ings round the ifim often (liow bodi tafte and defign. 
Whatever we may conceive of the batbarifm of 
ihofe a^es, they were by no means to f ude and ig-- 
norant as is generally imagined ; we have (/*> daf* 
fical authority that the Celts ufed earthen difhes at 
their tables, and pottery feems to have been wdl 
underflood. Ware, Harris, Molyneux and Smith 
give numberlefs infiances of cremation amoag: US| 
and others daily occur. 

SscoKB 

(g) Warton, fapra. 

(k) Rudieres ex foia terra in rotunditatem & conum coo* 
gefta. Worm. Monum. Danic. 
(f) Strab. lib. 4. 155. Atb^n. I>iepDofop. lib. 4. cap. ts. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. 

Second Epoch. This Wormlus calls the age 
of hiUocks ; when grandeur and more laboured 
fepulchres were formed^ of confiderable {k) height 
ftiid furrounded with rows of flones. If the laws 
of Odin were obferved, the pradices of the firft 
and fecond epochas were the fame. Wormius 
grounds the dittindlion on the bodies being con« 
figncd to the earth whole in the latter, which had 
it been regular, rnade a material difference; but 
flceletons and urns full of burnt bones are fre- 
quently found in the fame cemetery, which proves 
the impoifibility of defining the duration of a 
cuiion?, when it is fluctuating and about to give 
way to a new one. The time when burning was 
exchanged for burying in Ireland, was, according 
to our hiAorians, in the reign of Eochadh, fourteen 
years before Chrift. There is reafon to believe^ 
cremation was not difufed for many years after^ 
as Pomponius Mela, who lived in the firft century 
of Chriitianityy tell us the Druids ufed ^both modes 
of interment. So that probably not before the 
full eftaUifliment of the Chrillian religion in this 
iile did cremation intirely ceafe. It was again rCf- 
vived during the domination of the Oilmen here, 
in the ninth and tenth centuries, who were then 
pagans. On account of this lad circumftance, it 
is no eafy matter to oicertain the date of thofe 
monuments. 

H The 

(i) Arcosfii ec terrain exaggerando ufque dum in juftam 
monticuli infurgerent alcitudinein.— Eciaiii tumulos ipfot 
tarn in apice quani circa cafim vifeudse niagnitudinis cinxere 
iaxts.— Secunda setas, qii4 cadavera integra ec non cremata 
CDiD fuisornaxnentis io circulo ex graodionbus confer Uium, 
iocabanr. Worm, fupra. 



5< ON THE STUDY OF 

The old oriental cufiom becoming unfiiftiionabic 
in this fecond epoch, a liew ftyle in the conftruc- 
tion of fepulchres and difpofing of the body, beg$n« 
While f rematbn continued, an elegant campani- 
form hoi low artificially made in the earth, as the 
barrows at Stonehenge are, and covered by a light 
tumulus, feemed a fuitable receptacle for an urn 
and its cineritious contents. This was the idea of 
the Romans, as appears by their (/) Columbaria. 
Vaft coacervations of clay and (tones were efteemed 
proper and graceful for the new mode. The 
tombs of the greateft leaders at firft were humble, 
but in procefs of time, fays (m) Wormius, ,morc 
labour was bellowed on them. 

The fplendour of perfonal valour, of great ex- 
ploits and extenfive conquefts, will ever give a 
brilliancy to the memory of illuftrious princes^ 
and create a profound veneration for them. Odin 
gave the names of his twelve (») deified com* 
panions talis children, to perpetuate this fuper* 
natural refpefk. From thefe the northern kings 
(o) traced their pedigree. Divine honours were 
paid to them, and the places of their interment 
became places of worlhip. The monftrous obis- 
liiks, that compofe the tomb of Harold Hylcde* 
tand at Leire in Seland, have an altar*{lone, under 
which he lies, and on which the people annually 

. f)erfbm3ed 



(/) Viaggiana, pag. iij. 

{m) JEavliis progrefltiy plus operse in magnatnm tumnlls 
pofitum videtur. Supra. 

(xr) Sturlsefon. 

(0) De quo (Wodeno) omnium fere barbaroruni gentium 
f egivm genus lineam trahit.^ Guil. Malioelb. 



IRISM ANtlC^tfiTIES. > $J 

performed (p) (acrifices. Wormius, Mr. Pennant^ 
the Compte de Caylus, and every other intelligent 
writer, allow thefe ftone circles to be fepulchrali 
and that they certainly are fepulcHral appears from a 
human body being found under each upright ftone^ 
in fome circles lately opened in Connaught. So that 
after all that has been written on Stonehenge, it 
may be the fepulture of Hengift and the Anglo^ 
Saxon chiefs ; the firft being burled under the altar^ 
and the others under the trilithons. 

Thefe ftone circles thus dedicated to religious 
ufes, their application to other folemn purpofes 
ca/ily followed. Here kings were elefted and in- 
augurated, and courts of juftice and fmgle combats 
were held. We had formerly in our {q) churches, 
plays, feafts, courls-leet and mufters, and at 
prefent our kings are anointed there, all remains 
of ancient ufages. As thofe pyramidal and per- 
pendicular pillars (r) had epitaphs expreffing the 
name and rank of the deceafed, (b Chriftians imi-^ 
tatcd fuch examples by their grave-ftones and 
tombs. Wormius, the two Magni, Saxo Grara- 
maticus, and the northern writers, conftantly and 

H z invariably 



(p) Quotannis facra peragantur. Worm. In the Lara- 
rmins^ the Romans preferved the aihes and pidures of their 
aoceftors \irUh their houfhold Gods. Sed qutim a prima, 
origine intra foas quifque xdes defofla cadavera haberent ^ 
node Lares in fingulis sedibus coleodi religio perfuafit, in 
Larario* in quo prz(cr deorum penatiumt etiam infignium 
tirortim quas venerareniur^ effidtas imagines habebant. 
Alei. ab Alexand. lib. 6. 

{q) Canons of the church of Ireland, A. D. 1634. Canon 

{r) Grandei <:ippo8 patriis titefis notatos impofiicrunt. 
Wprm* 



ioa ON THE STUDY OF 

mvariably refer to thofc lettered tnonunlcnts for 
the dttertninition of many important points in 
their hiftory and antiqniticB, and with great juftice; 
for our antient ftone crofles, which are ^he earlicft 
fubfiitutes for the heathen upright Honea^ oontfun 
many curious^ authentic^ yet hitherto Unnoticed 
memoriale* So that credit is due to what Caml> 
den reports, of a tin plate, infcribed with lettei% 
being found at Stonehenge ; as alTo to what Speed 
mentions, of an cngravement in Danifh chara^s 
exifting on great ftoi^s at Exmore m Deyon* 
Did antiquarians, at home and abroad, careftiUy 
examine thofe fione circles^ ibmething wot A the 
kbour might be difcovered. 

The rule given by Worrtwus, (j) of generals 
and duefs being buried within a iingle, double ot 
triple row of pillars may be partly true ; but wc 
know they were alfo eredted as monuments of 
Tidlortes, and he gives in^nGes q£ this in his work 
. fo often quoted » 

The cam as well as the flone pillar came fifom 
the eaft, aiid Rowlands^ Harria and others are 
right in averting it. Some are furrounded at the 
bafe with circles of flones^ and fome round the 
top i others have a circlet of fmaller earns on the 
• fiimmit of larger ones. As they did not require 
lb much of exertion as of perfeverance, ilones 
every where abounding^ there are a great number 
and variety of them. Tbefe jules, fays Mr. Peifc- 

nanty 

(sy Et lis qui una vel multiplici faxorum ferie circa btfim 
cinguntur extrrcituum impcFaloribus^ aiiifque aiagnaixbat 
dicati Gredttniup. Wofoi.. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. ^tfl 

cant, may juftly be fuppofed to have been pro 
portioned ia fi^ to the rank of the perfoHt or lo 
his popularity ; the people of a whole diftridt 
dcmbled to (hew their xt{jpcSL to the deqeafed, 
and by an adive bonoviring of his memory^ foon 
accumalated heaps, equal to thofe that ailonifli us 
at this day. Many of thena have alters, $11 of , 
Aem were places of wor(hip. Jn theCb too, in- 
icriptioas have been found ; witnefs that valuable 
one at New-Grange, foon to W laid before the 
public. 

As fione girctes and cams diftinguiihed this 
iecond epoch, fo did high mounts ; thefe the (/) 
Daneis raifed over their kings and heroes, when 
fiones were not convenient. The earlieft of thefe 
OieBtioned in our billory, are thofe of (u) Eogan and 
Fncehus, ot% the plains of Mogleoe, in the King'i 
County, A. P. iBo: The tradition concerning 
them is {o unintern:^t6d, dmt it would be worth 
while to have thein opened ; tixeir contents mt^t 
f^mOk matter pf ^^uriofity aad u(<^. 

Third Epoch \ w^ that of ChriiUanlty ^ when 
Ibe body was incloM in a farcopbagus or wooden ' 
o^ffia and iaterr ed« 

MONASTICON 

(/) Sctepdum autem, quod Dani propter defedtcrin faxo- 
'Ml p^TftOHdcf ac obdifccM eztmere i&inime poiucrint^ in 
ilMmoriam regum et herouni fuorum ex terra coacervata 
ingentem JDoIem^ montis inftar, eminentem erigere folebant. 
liocjebreg. Comm. 

(«) Extant ad hue eo loci duo coJles, <qu€riin] alter Euge- 
flit, alter Frxchi Hifpani, ibidem occi/i, corpus fepultum 
1r«iiiur jcontezifie. O'Flah. Og}'g. pag. 316. 



jfti ONTHESTUDYpF 



MONASTICON HIBERNICUM. 

In a country where the clergy were as numcr 
rous as (s) all the other claffcs of men, and thofe 
(or the moll part Monks, an account of their or- 
ders and their various cftablifliments includes no 
fmall (hare of the general hiftory of the nation. 
About the middle of the fourth century Mona- 
chifm was introduced into Italy, and quickly 
fpread through the Weft. The (/) biographers of 
St. Patrick tell us, he learned monadic difcipline 
under Martin bilhop of Tours ; a prelate who 
had no lefs than two {u) thoufand Monks in a mo- 
naftery contiguous to his cathedral. Our apoftle 
ftudied this feihionable profcffion for many years 
among the Italian afcetics, and his predilection for 
lit wais confpicuous when he formed the IiKh 
church. In fucceeding centuries thefe foundations 
multiplied amazingly, fo that at the reformation, 
there were five hundred and twenty -nine monaf- 
teries and nunneries in this kingdom. 

The Monafticon Hibernicum, the writings of 
Ware, Allemande and others, are too fhort to 
give fatisfaftion .on fo ample a fubjeft. Doftor 
King archbifhop of Dublin, who knew the value 
of it, did not think it beneath his attention to 
piake large (tp) compilations from original records 

for 



(j) Nicolfon's Irifli Hid, Library, pref. pag. i^ 

(/) Apud Uflier. Primord. cap. i6. 

(u) Sulp. Sever. Epid ad B&lTul. 

(w) Thev are now in the library of the Dublin Socictv. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. wy 

for its further illuftration -; and Sir James Ware has 
left a large volume of inquifitions, reciting the 
grants and poffeflions of the principal abbies, 
taken from the public offices. The coUeding and 
digefting thefe documents, .and prociuing other 
materials have employed for forae years, the lei- 
fare hours of a reverend clergyman and an alTo- 
date. An extraordinary ikill in our antiquitiest 
and an eminence in every branch of polite learn- 
ing, recommended him to the patronage of his 
late excellent diocelan, dodor Pococke, fuccef- 
lively bi(hop of Offory and of Meath : than whom 
a better judge of merit, or a more generous pro- 
tedor of it, our hierarchy has not produced. 

Sir William Dugdale and Mr. Dodfworth ac- 
quired immortal fame by the Englilh Monafticon. 
The civil, military And ecclefiaiiical hlftory of 
Britain has derived, as bifhop Nicolfon remarks, 
vaft advantages from it : fcarce a family of any 
antiquity or property, but find themfelves intereft- 
cd in it. The fame would be the cafe in Ireland, 
did public fpirit encourage a fimilar undertaking. 
Both the BritiQi and Jrilb libraries fupply^ abun- 
dant matter. All that can be offered, under the 
prefent circumftances, are (hort annals and ex- 
tradls from charters, which will form part of this 
Colledanea. 

I" ^753> dodor Thomas Burke, late titular bi- 
Ihop.of Offory, was appointed hiftoriojgrapher of 
the Dominican order in Ireland, and in 1762, be 
produced bis 

HIBERNIA 



t04 ON THE STUDY OF 



HIBERNIA DOMINICANA; 

Sive Hiftoria ProvinciaK Hiberniap Ordinis Pr«- 
dicatorum, ex antiquis manufcriptis, probatis auc- 
toribus. Uteris originalibus nunquam antehac imr 
preffis, inftrumentis aulhenticis et archivis, alU 
ifquc invidlae fidei monumentis deprompta. In 
qua, nedum omnia, quae ad memoratam attinent 
provinciam, ct Gaenobia ejus, tarn intra quam ex- 
tra regnum Hiberniae conftituta Oi^^^JJeAis fingu- 
lorum fiindatorum gencalogiis) atquc alumnos ipr 
fins, feu dignitatc epifcopali, feu munere provin-^ 
ciali, feu iibronim vulgatione, feu martyrio, pub- 
licave virtutis opitiione claros^ fuccinfte diftiriAc- 
que exhibentur. Sed etiam plura regulares genc- 
ratim fumptos, clerunlque fs^ularem, necnqn ct 
res civiles Hibernise, atque etiam Magna^ Brttan- 
niae fpeftantia, ,iparfim appofiteque, adje^s in? 
fuper notis opportunis, ii)feruntur^ et iij pcf (picuo 
prdine coliocantur. ^ 

After fo large a title-page it is only neceflary to 
obferve, that it bears marks of confiderable learn- 
ing and induftry. It was printed in Kilkenny un- 
der his own infpcftion, though the title mention) 
Cologn in Germany, in 1772, he pubfilhed an 
appendix to this work. The particular notice ta- 
ken of this book is, to recommend it as a pattera 
for other religious communities to imitate j and a$ 
one eafy and obvious mean towards pcrfefting our 
Monafticon. Were the original charters and de- 
fcriptions of the abbies, (fome of them beautiful 
and well prefervcd) given, his work had been 

complete. 



IRISH ANTIQUITIES. 105 

complete. As the firft edition has been long {met 
jfoid off, and the book become very fcarce, an 
abridgement of it, freed from extraneous matter, 
will form the fubjed of fome future number. 



ARCHITECTURE. 

The buildings of the antient Irifti were the fame 
as thofe of every uncivilized people ; confifting of 
materials the flighted and the eafieft to be procured. 
-Sir James Ware and his followers have fully llated 
this evidence, and there dropt the fubjeft, leaving 
an impreflion upon the reader, as if there were no 
other Itrudures in Ireland but ftraw-built cottages* 
This among other things has countenanced that 
idea of barbarifm, fb conftantly inculcated in books 
Df| geography and travels ; and is, in reality, as 
glaring a fellhood as any to be found in fuch inju-* 
dicious, flimly and wretched produdtions. It is 
certainly not amiis to recur to the^earliefl ufages of 
nations, but why flop there ? Is it not as pleafing 
an inveftigation, to trace the progrefe of know- 
ledge from its fimpleft exertions to its mod refin- 
ed energies ? The different ftages of architc£lurc 
mark, in dccifive cliarafters, the date of civility : 
nor is there one topic, in the amiquities of a king- 
dom, produftive of more elegant eutertainment, 
or more ufefiil information. 

In the enfuing differtation, the dyle of our an- 
tient habitations, and the dawnings of its improve- 
n^t are given froni apparently indifputable au- 
thority. 



io6 ON THE STUDY OF' 

thorily. As it was intended there to proceed but 
to a certain period, the further profecution of the 
fubjeft is referved to " a tra£t — On the civile tniU- 
iary and eccUfiafiical architeSure of the Irijb^ from 
the earlieft ages — which will foon appear in a fubfe- 
quent number of the Colleftanea, illuftrated with 
drawings ; in that traft will be an account of our 
buildings without cement ; our monadic cells and 
cryptical receflesj our ftone- roofed churches; as 
Cormac's ' at Cafhel, St. Doulagh's, Glendaloch, 
Saul abbey and Portaferry. Specimens of every 
variety of the Gothic ftyle will be exhibited, and 
many particulars relative to our civil and military 
ftrudtures collefted. The writer alfo introduces, 
as collateral to the foregoing, the hiftory of our 
Stone-Crofles, and an inquiry, whether our antient 
churches refembled the Greek temples. A para- 
dox is alfo folved, of a nation warmly cuhivating 
the arts and fciences,- and yet negledting arcliitcc- 
ture; which was the cafe of Ireland in certain ages. 
This will be followed by the — hiftory and antiqui- 
ties of Glendalock, and its Seven Churches^ in the 
county of ff^icklow ; — wherein many of the fadts and 
obfervations, in the preceding treaties, will be fur- 
ther elucidated and confirmed. 

The knowledge of perfpeAive and a tafte for 
drawing, fo generally diffufed at prefent, have 
refcued many unheeded and mouldering objects 
from total decay, and enriched every colledion 
with beautiful fpecimens of our antient buildings. 

ECCLE- 



IRISH ANT IQJJITIES. 107 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

A conne£ted hiftory of the introdudion and pro- 
pagation of Chriftianity in this ifland, is a defidera- 
tum long complained of, yet no attempt has been 
made to fupply the defedl. The fixteentb and fe- 
ventecnth chapters of archbilhop Ulher's antiquities 
of the Britifti churches, and his difcourfe on the re- 
ligion of the antient Irilh, are the only things to 
be found in our ecclefiaftical bibliotheque deferv- 
ing notice on this head. Of the firft our prelate 
Q3eaks with truth and modelly, and candidly. (^) 
confefles his inferting much frivolous, doubtful 
and fome falfe matter ; (bowing at the fame time, 
that ibme advantages may arife from each of thefe. 
His difcourfe is extremely valuable, but far from 
being complete. The abbe Ma Geoghagan*s pom- 
pous performance is a tiflue of incredible fidlions 
and legendary tales, with fcarce an inftance of 
judgment or feleftion. 

It is peculiarly unfortunate for Ireland, that flic 
>?lio illuminated the weftern hemifphere with the 
radiance of divine truths, and Is therefore repre- 
fcnted by Aldhelm, in the year 650, as a {^y) pa- 

radife 

{x) In noftra autcm hac ex omni fcriptorum gencrc pro- 
ini'tcii6 congefta farraginc, &c. Prxfat. ad Aniiquit. Britan. 
Eccies. ' 

(jr) Quanivis cnim prxdidlum Hiberniae rus, difccdtium 
epnlans veroafifque (ut ita dizenm) patcuofa numeroficaie 
ledonim, quemadmodum poli ,cardines aftriferis micantium 
orneptur vibraminibus (iderum. Aldhei. cpill. ad Eahfrid. 
apud Ufhcr. S/Jlog. pag. 40. 



»o8 ON THE STUDY OF 

radire or new laAeal circle brightened by innume- 
rable ftars of learning; (hould want a native writer 
to record her celebrity in thofe times, and do jus- 
tice to the purity of her faith. It is a work of la- 
bour, but full of curiofity and inilru^kbn : fuch 
a work we are happy in announcing to be al- 
ready finiftied by an aflbciate, under the title of — 
Anecdotes of ecclefiafiical hifiorj : or a view of the 
doHrine and SfcipUne of the church of Ireland^ from the 
f^th to the thirteenth century. 

Until this compofition can conveniently appear 
in the Colleftanea, the following extradt will give 
fome idea of its execution. 

" Joceline informs us, that St. Patrick ordained 
three hundred and fifty bifhops for the Irifti church : 
Nennius (ays, three hundred and fixty-five. The 
appointment of fuch a number hath hitherto beea 
efteemed abfolutely falfe, or inexplicable ^ becaufe 
writers too frequently take their notions from what 
they fee, without being at the pains to examine 
antient ufeges. Thus bifhop Lloyd (z) imagines, 
that befides thirty biOiops which St. Patrick confecra- 
ted for the principal fees, he made as many fufFrg- 
gans as there were rural deaneries, fuppofing each 
to contain eight or nine parilh churches, But there 
is no more connexion between rural deaneries and 
our antient fees, than there is between the {a) days 
of the year, and St. Patrick's biOiops, {h) 0*Hal- 

ioraa 

(s^ On church governmeiit, pag;. 9a. 

{a) It feetnc, fajs the writer laft cited, that when th« 
authors of thofe times wer« fet upon the pin of multtfrffinf* 
they u&d to fay, that things were as many as the da/s of 

the year. Hence Nennius wakes them 36j;. 
iff) Introdufiion to the hiftory of Ireland. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. 109 

loran thinks our apofile might ordain ninety-iix bi- 
(hops, and as, many of thefe might have died dur- 
ing his long life, and fo many fucceeded in their 
room, as comj^eted the number above. 

All this is mere conjedture : the folutipn of the 
difficulty ariies from confidering the (late and prac- 
tices of the early cbriftian church. From Clemens 
Romanua we learn, that in his time, the epifcopal 
order was very numerous -, every {c) city, village, 
and region had a bifhop ; many cities had two and 
Ibme more. Thus, (d) Alexander and NarcilTus 
were biffiops of Jerufalem together ; Paulinus and 
Miletus of Ant ioch ; Theoddius and Agapetus of 
Synada, and Valerius and Auguftine of Hippo. 
The cuftom for a city to have but one bifliop, was 
firft begun in Alexandria, as Epiphanius remarks. 
So much had the chorepifcopi or village-bilhops 
increafed, that it became neceflary to reftrain their 
number, wtuch was done in the Laodicean coun* 
cil, in A. D. 367, and before in the Antiochean. 

In the fourth century, St. Bafil writes to Ann 
philochius, bifhop of Iconium, that he did not ap« 
prove of his multiplying bilhops, as thereby the 
dignity went into contempt : it would be better^ 
adds he, to choofe fome man worthy a biHioprick^ 
who ouglit takfi priefis to his affiftance^ than divide 

a (mail 

(c) %£h» x*^ "^ waOm, Epift* ad Corinth. Salmas. de 
Priuiatu. Burcaard. Jib. i. cap. 125. Do&ot Hamaiond 
fays, x*^* fignifies a province. Vindication of cpifcopacy» 
pag. 154, and from that inters they were not fo numerous : 
but it will be feen from the nature of the epifcopal office, 
and the cuftom of the oriental churchy that his conclu6oflr 

ts not juft. 
(J) Eafeb. Socr&t. and PofidoD. vir. Aoguft. cap. 8. 



iio ON THE STtJDV 01? 

a fmall diftri<fl into many fees. Thefe oriental 
praftices were clofely- followed by St. Patrick. If 
is not infifted on, that the number he is laid to 
have ordained, is accurate, but great as it is, it 
will not appear incredible. 

By the fifty-eighth Neo-Caefarean canon, made • 
in A. D. 315, the adminiftration of the facraments 
were in a great meafure, confined to the bilhops 
and chorepifcopi ; and in {e) TertuUian it is ex- 
prefsly declared, that prelbyters had not the liberty 
of baptizing without the bifhop's permiflion ; or of 
'preaching in fome churches, as Socrates affures us. 
Leo, in his ninety-fecond epiftle, dcfires Maximus, 
bifliop of Antioch, to hinder monks and laymen 
.from preaching, which was folely the bi(hop*s of- 
fice. In England, by the third of archbifhop 
Cuthbert's canons in A. D. 747, the bifliop is en- 
joined to vifit his parifli once a year, and preach 
the word of God which it rarely hears. Thefe laft 
words refer as well to the paucity of clergymen 
then, as to the reftriftion of this duty to the bifhop. 
Similar canons may be found in the legatine coun- 
cil of Cealchy the, in A. D. 785, and in Odo*s, in 
A. D. 945. 

The great offices of religion being thus confined 
to the bifliops and their fuffragans, and that by 
the difcipline of the eaftern and wellem churches ; 
we cannot be furprifed at their increafe, or at the 

number 

{e) Dandi baptirmum jus babet fummus facerdos, qui eft 
epifcopusy dein preibyteri & diaconi, non tamen fine epif- 
CQpi authoritate, De baptifmo, cap. 17. And much earlier 
Ignatius: M«)Wf X^^^ imcsavv r%v^%ivn* Epifl.' ad Sm vrn. 
See the feventh conititution of the council of Seville, A. £>. 
619, which is full to thefe points. 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. iii 

number ordained by St. Patrick : the (/) eftablifli- 
ment and extenfion of Chriftianity dejDended on it. 
Another inftance of the Orient alifm of our church, 
and corroborative of what is advanced, is the pow- 
er exercifed By our prelates and primates in or- 
daining bifhops and erefting fees. By the canons 
of the African code, collected in A. D. 419, me- 
tropolitans and primates were invefted with fuch 
power. St. Bernard, in his life of Malachy arch- 
bifliop of Armagh, complains : " that bifhops mul- 
tiplied according to the will of the metropolitan ; 
that one fee was not contented with one bifliop, 
but almoft every church had a feparate one." Lan- 
franc to the lame purpofe (g) fays, " in villages and 
towns were many bifliops, and as (A) Anfelm adds, 
made without a title, or alignment of any particular 
place." Here was another fruitful fource for mul- 
tiplying the epifcopal order. Ordination without a 
title was common in the call, and was prohibited 
by the Antiochean, Ancyran and other canons." 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

• 

It would much exceed the limits of this eflay, 
to enumerate the various heads of Irifti antiquities^ 
which will receive illuftration in the courfe of this 
work. Coins, infcriptions and fepulchral monu- 
ments 

( f) The learned Mr. Johnfon (Clergyman's Vade Mecum, 
▼ol. 2, pag. 188) is very much puzzled at an expreflion of 
Aurelius, bi(hop of Carthage, who fays :— We have fre- 
<lucDtly and almoft every Sunday, biifaops to be ordained— • 
hut the explanation is now given. 

Ig) Epift. ad TirdeWac. Apud Uflier, Syllog, 

i^) Epift. ad Muriardach. Uiher» fupra. 



iia - ON THE STUDY OF 

xnents will not l>e forgotten; nor the learnings 
cuftoms and manners of the natives in every age. 
As a fpecimeu of the latter, the writer bega. leave 
to offer the following mifcellaneous obfervations« 

G&EBK Lang u age . Virgil, our countryman, 
was one of eight (i) Iriih biOiops, who undertook, 
agreeaUe to the devotion of the times, a journey 
to the Holy-land. In France he was appointed to 
a fee, by pope Stephen and king Pepin. The 
latter detained him in his family for two years, 
to pro6t by his unccmimon erudition and piety. 
He, was afterwards promoted to the biflioprick of 
Saltzburg, by Otilo, duke of Bavaria, wherein he 
remained to die time of his death in the year 785. 
) We are tokl he concealed his rank for finne time, 
and had with him a bilhop, named Dobdan, a 
Greek, who followed him from Ireland. I (hould 
wonder, fays Uflier, at a Grecian's going from 
Ireland, did I not know, that at Trim in Meath is 
a church called the Greek church, at this day, 
A. D. 1632. The learned primate has thrown no 
further light on this matter, but it will not appear 
extraordinary when we confidcr, that {k) Johannes 
Scotus Erigena, fome years after, gave the cleared 
demonflration of his proficiency in this language 
by his tranflation of Dionyfius Areopagita, which 
he dedicated to Charles the Bald, king of France. 

If it be afked, wher6 Johannes acquired this 
knowledge, the letter of Anaflafms concerning this 

tranflation 

(f) Uflier. S/llog. pag. 131. 

(i) Poflemus etiam his addere virum loagc do^ifGmum^ 
Johannem Erigenam Scotum, id eft, Hibernigenam e Scotid 
onuin hoc enim nomine Celebris oiiin Hiberoia. Burton. 
Hift. Grec. ling. pag. 53, 



IRISH ANTIQJJITIES. «a 

truflation fof^lies the wxjR, unequivocal proof that 
it was la Irdand. It is wonderful^ iays tbLs (/) 
author, with aU the aSedatioa of Italian |)olitenels» 
how a barbarian placed in the end of the world, and 
removed from the converfation jq^ the learned and 
the knowledge of the Greek tongue^ could under- 
fiand fudi things, or tranflate them into another 
language j Thefe difrefpedful expreffionts ibow him 
ignorant of the ilate of letters beyond the bounds of 
Rome, and betray an illiberal mind, Ainworthy the 
librarian of the Ron»an church. He complains, that 
he adhorcd too cbfe to the origmal, and thereby 
rendered a difficult fubjedt more unintelligible. To 
our Johannes we are alio indebted for a valuable 
tnidt of about fifty pages in odavo — De difierentiis 
et focielatibus Graeci Latinique verbi — extradted 
from a larger work of (m) Macrobiusi uid coUe£led 
for his own private inflru6lion» He treats laigely 
of the Greek tenfes^ of defective verbs and riie forms 
€( woidfi^ and his graGftmatical ikill in both tongujea 
is very conffMcuous^ He (if) onuts many Uungs 
advanced by Macrobius withoiit fuffident authority^ 
and infects 6thers li^n bett^. 

This inflance of Johannes will juftify us hi 
%iiig» that had time and war fpared our fettered 
monuments^ tfiis ifle abne would havie redeemed 
the reputation of tiiofe ages now denominated <lark 

VoL.IL I and. 

(0 Uftier, fupra, pag. 65. 

(«) Explicit defbriatio de t^iro Ambrdfii Macrdbii Theb« 
dofii, qQftin Johanoes carpferat ad difcendas Grzcoruni 
Yerborum reguias. Macrob. Oper. pag. 579. Edit. I^ontani, 
iJ97. Uih. Syllog. pag. lac. 

(n) Muka not praeteriQinfle pcrfpexerit.— -Quzdaui tanien 
infcratmusy quae aobn ex proportione alionun veridaiiiia 
&cn ?ir« (uat. pag. i^z. 



114 ON THE STUDY OF 

and obfcure. Inftead of the paltry and difgracrful 
ipecimens of our literature giveA by Colgan and 
others, we fliould then behold works of real genius 
and confummate learning, of profound philofophy 
and corredl criticifm. 

Brogues worn with hay in them. At 
this day the pradtice is univerfal for the natives to 
have their brogues fluffed with hay or ftraw, without 
being able to affign any reafon for the cuftom : the 
following is offered both as curious and fatisfadlory, 
Linnaeus tells (p) us, the Laplanders, through their 
long and cold winters keep abroad with their herds 
of Rhen-deer : that they never experience kibes, 
or other efFefts of intenfe frofts, by means of this 
precaution. In fummer they cut and dry the 
flender-eared, broad-leaved cyperus grafs, carex 
veficaria; this they comb and rub in their hands, 
and then place it in their fhoes fo as to cover their 
feet and legs ; their (hoes are made of the fkiij of 
the Rhen-deer, the hairy part turned inward ; they 
have no ftockings, their breeches are of the larac 
Ikin and come down to their ankles. This grafs 
keeps off the cold in winter, and in fummer pre- 
vents the efFedl:s of perfpiration. 

In like manner, an {p) eye-witnefs informs us, 
that the Englifti, when they firft fettled in America, 
ufed the baflard calamus aromaticus to keep their 
feet warm. The antient brogue was made of raw, 
or half-tanned leather, of .qne intif e piece, and ga- 
thered round the foot by a thong -, fuch an one was 
found in the year 1770, at Aghaboe, in a bog 

fcvw 

(0) Apud StilliDgfleet's traQs, pag. 138. 

(^) Joflelyn'sNew England rarities, pag. 53. 



IRISH ANTIQUITIES. tig 

fcven feet below the furfkce. The fole being thin, 
the fluffing prevented injury from flones or flumps 
•f trees, befides keeping the foot warm ; but that o 
it (hould be ufed now, when the (bles of brogues 
are flrong and impervious to wet, can only be ac- 
counted for, from that extraordinary retention of 
old cuftoms for which mankind are remarkable. ' 

Cr E A G H T s . The manners and cufloms of rude 
nations are nearly the fame in all parts and all ages 
of the world. The Scythians, according to {q) 
Herodotus and Juflin, had neither houfes nor fixed 
fcttlcments; they wandered through die country 
with their flocks and herds. Their wives, their 
children and little fiirniture they carried in carts or 
waggons, covered with (kins. They were ftrangers 
to agnculture. Thefe manners were realized in our 
Creaghts, and that fo late as in the laft century, as 
appears by this entry in counfellor Harris's collec- 
tions, now in the library of the Dublin Society. 

" Orders by the general aflembly of confederate 
Catholics, at Kilkenny, the 12th of Nov. 1647, 

Whereas feveral peribns of the province of 
Ulfler, and other parts of this kingdom, with their 
cattle and families, go in great multitudes through 
feveral parts of the feveral provinces of this king- 
dom ; being, as they alledge, neceflltated for the 
&fety of their lives and fortunes, to leave their 
fonner dwellings and habitations, and where, by 
their daily rat^ing^ they have very much prejudiced 
Several counties^ in deftroying the grafs, com and 
other goods of the inhabitants there, which hath 
occafioned, that feveral counties and places are 

I 2 quite 

(7) Lib. 4. Juftin, lib. 2. cap. %. 



i|i6 ON THE STUDY, «tc, 

q^te 4efeAed gnd ivafted^ and the (aid KqrrMghti 
ftYoid the coBtfibuttion wUdi falls due upon ihxa, 
o It is therefore far the future redreia bf fueh mlf^ 
dbidSi didttght fit, that the lord geqeral of Ulfter, 
calling to bis affiflanoe fuch other peribos of tha 
faid province aa (hall be fit^ (hall inquire and find 
out, and return to the fupreme counml now to be 
efiab&flied, the head KeyriaghtB of the faid pro- 
vmcei of Ulfter, within the feveral provineea of 
teinfter^ Munller and Connaught, and what num- 
bers of cattle tach of them hath. Upon retura 
whereof, ahd exanailnitions bty the toi^ncfl^ of tht 
lands graded m ttte f^vbral (kmnlieB^ Which are fet 
for county charges oitly) or whieh firfe wafted lidd 
ytdd nd county dlargee, to aiftgn unto the fiud 
Keyria^ts, or or unto federal of them togethei^ 
(o much of the wdfte lands in th^ lei^al prdYtncaft 
Ibr theit haytati<!»r^^ and their pttying county 
charges for the iame, is others df the &id couotieB 
will d0) wh4re ifaey ttrc to refide, till xhc^ may re- 
turn to thar fotm^r habitations^ Ktid qot to arinc^^ 
^eir neighbourti, Or any of the q[uarterq ttf* ^e 
t:oiifederate Gutbolicsi at their peril 

Prihted at Kilk^iny, 1647/* 
The encampments of thefe Creaghts are ftill t^ 
be feen in many parts df the kingdom ; one of 
them is on Knockacolla Hill, near Caftldtown, ik^ 
the Queen's county. Nuitift'ous burrows^ or botes 
wber^ they placed their pots, appear, a3 is prac- 
tifed at fail's. In their journies tkey fiiarried ^4fb 
the rdident natives^ and we may XHct ihe remains 
of them in that county, in the names of Mac 
X)owcl| Mac ponnel;» Sinclair, and the like. 



» ; 



DISSERTATION 



ON TH ]& 



ROUND TOWERS 



I N 



IRELAND 



By EDWARD LEDWICH, L.L.R 

Vicar of Aghabob in the Qusbn'i County. 



DiSSERTATiON 



ON T H It 



ROUND TOWERS 



IK 



I R E L A M D* 




M O N G the many curiofities pf nature 
and art, with which this kingdom remark* 
ably abound^, not one of them merits a 
more particular atti^Ation than the numerous, flen- 
dcr round towers eVcry where found ; and which, 
from the obfcurity of their origin, and the uncer- 
tainty of their ufe* have opened to men of leifure 
and erudition, a fpacious field for hypothefis and 
conje£lure4 

It is worth remarking, that men blindly devot^ 
ed to fyftems too often deal unfairly by the au-. 
thors to whom they are mod indebted ; they felcdt. 
fuch parts as make for their argument ; in thefe no 
error or imperfedion appears ; but thofe that con- 
travene their favourite notions dre reprobated as 
undeferving the lead regard ; not confidering, that 
by invalidating the credibility and authority of a 

writer 



izo A DISSERTATION on the 

writer in any inllance, they muft defeat the pur- 
pofe for which they adduce him. Giraklus Cam- 
brenfis hath remarkably experienced this treat- 
ment } in fome cafes^ his te^mony is allfdged as 
decifive, when in others he is faid to be fabulous 
and prejudiced ^ yet if we allow for the age in 
which he lived j the prevalence of romantic fidir 
oq ; the low Ikte of learning and criticifm, with a 
tin^re of pQribnal vanity i^ wc ihall fee hi(n 
throughout his works, a man of excellent talents, 
and well verfed in the varbus departments of fd- 
ence (hen known and cultivated. His coming to 
this kingdom at different times, with his continu- 
ance in il, muft give a degree of credit tQ his re- 
lations not lightly to be regarded, nor rejected 
without fufficient reafon. 

*^ The Jrifii nation, fitys (^ this writer,, is inllof- 
pitabte, Rving on the produce of their cattle, mad 
leading a Kfc but little fuperior to them ; nor have 
they emerged from the paftoral Hate. As th^ pro^ 
grefs of human (bciety is to advance from woods 
to open fieidd, and from the latter to towns, this 
nation de(pi(ihg agriculture, inattentive to dvit 
wealth and regardkfs of kw^ f|>end their Uvea in 
woods and paftures/^ — Thefe remarks are juft, and 
evince the fine philofophical turn of the authdr ; 
they are exadkly the fame ideas which make a con- 
fpicuous figure in one of the iketches of (jb) lord 
Eaims. The Irifh had quitted th^ hunter, and ad- 
vanced 

{4) Eft atttam gef»s hax:^ geiu iohofyita ; gens ex beftils 
fplmq, &c. Topog. Hiberii/ 
(t) Skctcb a. book i. 



ROUND TOYTEBtS i» IRELAND. «« 

vwoed to th« ihepherdditte^ the fecpod fiage in 
the emiisation of matridnd ; but thdr mumor^ 
were little altered •» their feed, their domeitica^o^. 
and every other cireumfUnce (howed, that thf U* 
bertyt the ferocity and antamed nature of tenants 
of the £brcfi» were br from being reclmmedt and 
ftill ferther from fubmitting to the falatary ref- 
tratnts of kgal inAttutions. Their but little. (^) af- 
ihding civil wealthy (which includes the ornament-^ 
al artSy) refulted from their want of foreign trade^ 
home manofadture^ and great towns. % 

X^Qimbrcnfis proceeds: — ** The (i) different kinds 
^^etal with which the deeper veins abound^ 
through an idle diijpo&tion are ndther dug for any 
ule, or turned to any account. For gold, which 
they covet to have in abundance^ is Imported 
among them by Ofimen merchants* They havQ 
HP roanufaSures of liaeo^ woollw, or other l^ind9< 
Sunk in indolence and floth, they eft^em it theif 
Ui^kA: fattft not to liUx)ur, and their groatefi ric^ 
to eruqy their libtf ty.***— This and the former cita^ 
ism acf»pd i. there are aii union and harmony of 
purts^ whieh ihow the pemsil of the painter waa 
guided by truth \t% the great outline, k is fcarcely 
poffible to conceive, as it would be very prepof* 
teroua to afiert, that the writer rather indulged a 
licentious fancy on this occafion, than reprefented 
livmg manners ; the njoft perverfc nationality muft 
Uoih to.aibrt it. 

The 

(0 Civiles gtiitfts panim nSbiSftns, Cambreos. ftipra. 

(J) Metaliontm quoque diveKoruni genera quii^us venae 
fettoriom interiorei, ejufdecn ociofitatis vitio» ncc ad ufuni 
prodeonty nee proficiai^t* CaipbrQos. fupra* 



liz A DISSERTATION on *hb 

' The gold imported by the Oftmen was ufcd bf 
the natives for perfonal ornaments. They bdield 
thefe Grangers decorated with this (hining metaiy 
worked into {e) bracelets, rings and other garni-' 
tares, as badges of nobility, and rewards of va- 
lour, and they were eager to adorn themfclves in 
like manner. Coined money was not (/) com- 
mon in the tenth century among the northern na- 
tions, and out of the EngUfli pale the Irilh' had 
very little. 

Even fo late as the year 1331, it appears by 
{g) record, that fines or law-mul6ts were ordered 
to be paid no longer in cattle but in money ; and 
in 1399, the prince of Leinftcr's horfe was valued 
at four hundred cows. The gentleman who at- 
tended king Richard II. in his expedition hither at 
this time, adds : — (A) For in that country they bar- 
ter by exchange, and one commodity for another, 
and not ' for ready money. — If then permutation 
was in ufe in 1399, the Iri(h were furely not more 
improved in 1185, when Cambrenfis was here 
and examined the country ! So Aat we may give 
fiill credit to his narration in this refpeft, notwith* 
Handing what our antiquarians tell us of the vail 
treafures of our monarchs. 

Cambrenfis 

{e) Sax. Gramma t. paiT. Bartholin, de Armillis vetenim. 
Some of thefc Armillae, and of different fizes, were found 
a few years ago in a Danifh rath at CartoWDy Queen's 
County, by Daniel Kane, a labouring man. 

f/J Ilia vero tempeftate (deventh century) nulla erac m 
terra moneta, fed rebus res commutantes vetuftilfimo more, 
mercebantur. Krantz. Wandal. iib. 3. p. 70. 

ig) Quod de cetero, fines de vaccis pro redemptione non 
capiantur fed denarii. Prynnc on the 4th Inftit. $ £dw. III. 

{h) Apud Harris's Hibern. pag. S3- 



ROUND TOWERS iK IRELAND. 125 

Cambrenfis having (hown, that the dawnings of 
commerce among the Iriih originated from their 
intercourfe with the Oftmen, intimates alfo other 
arts, with which thofe foreigners brought them ac* 
quainted, and particularly that moil ufefui one of 
maibnry. The Celtic nations did not know (/) the 
ufe c^ lime or cements, and the reafon is obvious ; 
they were in a rude and difperfed flate, without 
fixed habitations or domeflic improvements ; and 
timber abounded for every purpofe. In America 
moil of the public and private buildings are of 
wood, as well as the fmall fortreffes in remote 
parts. It was the fcarcity of timber, and the dan- 
ger of wooden houfes from fire in populous towns, 
that made mankind turn their attention to more 
durable materials, and borrow the arts of more ci- 
vilized nations. 

This neceiSty had not operated in favour of Iri(h 
ardiite£ture at this time, nor for fome ages after 
the i^rrival of the Oilmen ; who at firil introduced 
themielves here as traders, if we believe Cambren- 
fis, but more probably as (k) pirates, infefling and 
trading alternately along the coalls of the kingdom, 
as circumflances offered. This was in the year 
795. Succefs allured others to fimilar enterprizes. 
Finding the country open and fertile, and the in- 
habitants in no fituation to oppofe large bodies, 
they attempted the conquell of them. England, 
Scotland and (/) France had felt the force of the 

northern 

(f) Ne uementonim quidem apud illos ufus. Tacit. Germ. 
cap. 16. 

(i) Warzi Antiq. pag. lai. 

(/) On. commence i. parler des Normands, des Anglois, 
des Danoisy &c. Charlemagne previr avec douleur les ra** 
vages. Heoauk Hid. de France^ pag. 68. A. D. 807. 



124 ^ DISSERTATION on rnM 

tioriliffrn piowefi. The ihort (m) hmces 6# Ae 
kUh, tiudr flings i^nd darts vftxt UUnuitGfaed widi 
die Daniih habergeon^ their Ihdlds, lai^ ascea ani 
long fwordsii no wonder if tlfi^ fuceumbed to 
filch enemifis. To this (uperiority of their betnf 
dad in inail» our (n) hi&mana afcrilie the vidsoiiea 
of the Saxons over the ScQts and Pifts. Theft 
incidental fadts are addidoaally illuAvadve of ow 
incivility la thofe ages. 

Turgefiis, the Danifh chief, having in the year 
S40, fubdued this ifland, examined it round, and 
at proper fialions eredted {0) caftles and fortfefl^ 
throughout it. Hence it is, feys {p) CambrcnfiB, 
that we fee at this day ah infinite number (^bi** 
trcnchments, very high, round, and many of them 
triple i alio walled caftles now (A. D. Eit5) in 
gCKxi prefervation, though empty and deferted ( 
the remans and traces pf former times. For the 
Iriih, continues he, build no caftles § woods ftrve 

tften 

(m\ Tribes fameQ utunhir (Hibet^i) igrmoriim gesAHbuf | 
tanceU non lon^is & jaculis binis. L%pidc9 qtio<)ue pueilLartisf 
cum «lia deftoerint, keftibus. 19 eonfii^ii damnoSffinis pne 
alia genu, proioptiuf 'k ezpedituia ad maflnpi llftbeoU Vin 
bellicofi, Danico mon^ undique ferro veftiti, ^Iji loriP; 
loBgif, aiii lamtnis ferreis arte conitztis» dypeis quoque 
retundip* et ruWlp circidarirer feno mnaitis. Q^mkmnwL 
fup. cap. 21. 

X») Curnque hoftes pilis ct lanceis pugnar^nt, Anglofaxones 
vero fecvribui gladiifque loAgis rigidiffime deqertarent, ne- 
quiverunt Pi^ae & Scod pondua t^ntum perfarre, i^ fii^ 
faluti fu« confulucrunt. Langhorn. Chron. pa^ 7. 

(•) Totam undique terrain, locis idoneis incaftcllavit. 
Cambrens. fup. 

(f) Unde foffata iiifoita» alta flimis, ntinda queque ac 
pleraque tnplicia. Caftella ctiam murata, et adbuc ineegra, 
vacua tamcn ct deferia, ex rtliqutis iUit et antiquitatis 
veftigiif^ multa r^^ia^ Ctmbreaa. fup. cap. 37. 



ROUND TOWERS w IRELAND. U5 

them for fortificattioas^ atid the morafles for ei|» 
to^enchments. Thefe accounts, our author tell^ us, 
he learned from ln(h writers, and he himfelf, who 
was well aoquainted with the Dani(h (bttlements at 
DubliB» Wat^rford and LAmerick, aad with the 
DanUh dargy, many of whom poiOfefied high dig- 
nities in the church, foggefted nothing to contra** 
difk theoi. Our own writers oomplain : — (j) That 
being enftanchifed from tiie tyranny of Turgefius, 
we refigned eurfel^^es to eafe and unmafculine 
la^inefe; neglefled navigation and fleets, which 
abne could fectire us from frefh attacks *, and wer^ 
fo (W blinded as to flight all the Dani(h fortiBca^- 
iKHiSy making none in their ftead, ndt even in thfe 
iea-ports. — 

Gambreafis, in the preceding extract, accarately 
diffingiufiies rtie different forts of Daniih foftrefles 4 
4bme wem of day, others of lime and ilone. The 
feflkum was generally a conical rifing ground ^ 
tiie &tR intrenchment was made round the vertex, 
and the earth thrown down the hill ; tMs fwelled 
ks drcUF^ference add etilarged its bafe. By work- 
ing thus, die ditches were eafier made, and the 
valla or ramparts became higher and more pre* 
dpitous. The caftella murata being of lime and 
dene are mentioned in contradifiinftion to the 
foflata $ and from die former being called (r) »^ 

Inr 



I! 



V) Walfli'« Prefpcd, pag. 51. 

(r) Cbmque refponfum, nidos eorum ubique deftruendos, 
fi jam foTtt nidifKrafleiit, de Caftellin NorwagteDftum hoQ 
inr(r|>retaDtes. Cambrens. fup. cap. 42. EH'ewbere-^CivitatCf 
foflatis & muris opiime cinxerant: dill preferving the di<^ 
tindion. Thefe oefls were the circular towers hereaf^ef 
noticed hf Maq»herfoiL 



ii6 A DISSERTATION oif the 

•by the natives, they muft have been high circular 
buildings, if any connexion was meant between 
the two ideas. In the erection of thefe forts, Tur- 
gefius confulted prudence and the paucity of his 
troops, as by them he could extend his communi- 
cations to a great diftance, and yet be fure againft 
the confequences of infurredtions. 

The evidence now produced of the uncivilized 
ftate of the Irifh, of their ignorance of the me- 
chanic arts and the introduction of malbnry by the 
Oilmen, muft be allowed to have great force ; but 
it will receive an higher degree of certainty, if it 
fliould be confirmed, as to the laft particular, by 
both Irilh and Englifli writers. Mr. O'Connor (j) in- 
forms us ; " that the buildings of the ancient Scots 
were for ufe folely and not for oftentation. They 
built their houfes of timber^ as feveral nations of 
Europe have done until very lately, and as fomc 
do at this day. They did not conceive, that real 
magnificence confifted in rearing heaps of ftone, 
artfully difpofcd and clofely cemented ; or that real 
grandeur received any diminution fi-om the humility 
of its habitation. The firft in worthy accompUlh- 
ments was generally ele<Sted to the dignity of ma- 
giftrature, whether royal or dynaftal. In fuch a 
country durable or fuperb ftruftures could not well 
take place, as the poffeffion was temporary (6 was 
the building. And fo far did inveterate cuftom 
prevail among the people, that even after their 
reception of Chriftianity, they could not be induced 
to build their churches and monafteries of more 

durable 

(/) Biflertations, pag. 104, |d edit. 



ROUND TOWERS in IRELAND. izj 

durable materials than their own habitations. The 
exceptions are very few, and the church of St. 
Kianan, built in the fixth century, is the firfi inftance 
of any ftone-work ereded in this kingdom. They 
had no cities or towns in the earlier ages. In a 
country where the inhabitants have but few me- 
chanical arts ; where they draw moft of their neceC- 
fanes from the foil they cultivate, and where pre- 
cious metals are not made equivalents, or figns of 
national wealth, there can .be few or no cities. In 
their wars with the Englifti they were at laft obliged 
to avail tliemfelves of the arts of their enemies, by 
eredling caftles and other ftrong holds. This gave 
rife to ftone-buildings in Leinfter, Munfter and 
Connaught, and foon after in Ulfter. The northern 
bards inveighed bitterly againft this innovation, 
and reprefented it as a fignal that the nation was 
ripening for foreign fubjeftion. *' Let us, faid one 
of them, pull down thofe fortreffcs of the infidious 
jcncmy, and ceafe working for them, by ere<5ting 
any of our own 5 their ftratagems will afluredly 
wreft them out of our hands. Our anceftors 
trufted intirely to their perfonal valour, and thought 
the ftone-hou/cs of the Galls a difgrace to courage." 
Every line of this citation goes to confirm the au- 
thority of Cambrenfis. Let us hear (/) fir John 
Davis, a candid and intelligent obferver. 

" Though the Irifiiry be a nation of great anti- 
quity, and wanted neither wit nor valour; and 
though they have received the Chriftian faith above 
fzoo years fince, and were lovers of poetry, 

mufick, 

(/) Hilb>rical ReUti9iM. 



it% A DISSERTATION ok the 

midick, and all lands of Ibamtf^ ind weit pof* 
fefled of a land m all things neceflary for the civU 
life of man, yet, which ts ftrange lo be rdated, 
they did nerer build any houfes of biick or ftone, 
feme few poor religious boufes excepted, before 
the rdgn of king Henry 11. though tiiey were lords 
cf the ifte many hundrdi 3rears before and fince Ae 
conqueft attempted by the EnglUh. Albeit, whea 
they faw us bmld caftles upon -their borders, tiiey 
Mve oniy in imitation of us, ere^ed fame few pttea 
for the captains of the country. Yet I dare boldly 
iay, that never any particular perfon, either before 
or fince, did build any (lone of fafick houfe for his 
private habitation, but fuch as have lately obtained 
cftates according to the courfe of the law of Eng- 
knd. Neither did any cf them in all this tin^, 
plant any garden or orchard, fettle villages or 
towns, or make toy provifion for pofterity. — 

" There is at this day, fays Sir William Petty in 
Ins Political Anatomy oi Ireland, nt> riionument or 
real argument, that when the Irifli w«re firft in- 
vaded by Henry II. Aey had any fion^ lipujb^ dt 
Mj any money, any foreign trade, nor any learn- 
ing but the legend of the faihts, pfaltcrs, miflals, 
rituals i nor geometry, aftronomy, anatomy, arcM- 
tedture, enginfeery, painting, carving, nor any kind 
of manufedture, nor the leaft ufe of navigation^ 
nor the art military." Doftor Campbell, in his 
Political (tf) Silrvey of the South of Ireland, pofitively 
afferts, that what is reported by bards and others of 
the magnificent palace of Teamor cannot be true, 

for 

(if) Letter ^th. 



ROUND TOWERS in IRELAND. lap 

for the' hill of Taragh itfelf is evidence enough to 
prove^ that there never could have been a con- 
fiderable houfe of lime and ftone upon it. 

Having cvidled the Irifti of any pretenfions to 
works of lime and Hone, the Oftmen, who pof- 
feiTed this country for above a century and a liaif, 
appear to have firft introduced them. On their 
convcrfion to Chriftianity in the {w) beginning of 
the tenth century, they exprefled the moft fervent 
and lively zeal for it, in founding churches, mona- 
fteries and religious ftruftures j and fo confpicuous 
and fincere were their lives, that at the Englifh 
invafion they filled with reputation both bifhopricks 
and abbies. From the proofs before ailed ged, it 
is evident that our ecclefiaftical buildings were of 
wood, and therefore not calculated for bells, the 
common and ufeful appendage of fuch flrudlures. 
The campaniljc or belfry in England was dittindt 
from the church, as we learn from the Monafticon, 
and in Ireland it was the Round Tower. The 
following coincidences will confirm this opinion* 
" The era of the invention of bells, fays (x) Mr. 
Bentham, is fomewhat obfcure; fome traces of 
them may be difcovered in our monafteries (y) 
even in the feventh century. Yet I believe one 
may venture to aflert, that fuch large ones as re- 
quired diftinft buildings for their fupport, do not 
appear to have been in ufe among us until the 

Vol. II. K tenth 

(tt) Warxi Antiq. p. 13?, places it in 948, but it waj 
ctrlier. 

(x) Antiquities of Ely, pag. 29, 

(j) On croir, que Tufagc dans nos eglifes n'ont eft pas 
tnterieur an lixieme fiecle ; il y etoit etablic en 61^ 
Eocjdoped. s^rticlc, Ciocbe. 



I30 A DISSERTATION on the 

tenth century, about the middle of which, w6 find 
fcveral of our churches furnilhed with them by the 
munificence of our kings ; but they were not very 
common in that age." 

About the middle of the eighth .century, pope 
Stephen III. built a (z) tower on the church of 
St. Peter at Rome, and placed in it three bells; 
and yet fuch towers were not common in France 
and the Weft at a much later period, as appears 
from an antient (a) writer, whofe exprelllons leave 
no doubt, that they were feparate buildings from 
the church and their eredtion very unufual. About 
the end of the ninth century (A. D. 874) the (i) 
Greek church adopted bells from the Venetians \ 
their belfry alfo {c) was diftinft from the church. 
The Turks who imitated the Chriftians in many of 
their religious pradtices, did the feme in this of the 
tower, and by it they formed their (d) minarets. 
In the beginning of the eighth century the Saracens 
ieitled in Spain, and in the next age, the northern 
rovers, by us called Oflmen and by the conti- 
nental people Normans, began to be formidable, 
to commit depredations and to eilablifli fettlements 
on the French and Spanilb coafls a& well as in 

Ireland* 

(z) Du Cange, voce Campana. 

(a) !n ejus qua que iVonte, prt^pe <ua!'uas majoris ecclefiae^ 
(^c quadratis ec niaximis faxis, niirlRcam qua? vulgo CaxDpa.* 
liariuin nuncupatur» erexit. Du Cange, lupra. 

{h) Sabellic. Ennead. 9, lib. i. 

(c) Ko^nrayo^ov-^xAmTQi »7toy ra(»f. Du Cnnge fupra. 

(d) Quo inagis ifta proclauiatio (Ezan) longius exaudiatur. 
In turrini quandaai pyrainidalcni (M6nar) e lapide au( latcr^ 
conftrodlaui, quo Mofchese adjacet, afccndiiur. Smith de 
morib. Turcar. pag. 33. This is cxa^I/ the ides of obf 
towers. 



ROUND TOWERS ik IRELAND. 131 

Ireland. In thefe expeditions they muft have fcen 
the Chriftian and Saracenic belfries, and brought 
back the ideas of them on their return •, why then 
it may be afked are they not found in England ? 

England in the feventh century commenced an 
clegmt ftyle of building in her principal churches 
and monaftic foundations, under the patronage of 
Wilfrid, Bifcopius and others. They were followed 
by feveral other prelates and abbots in proportion 
to their power and opulence. In the year 935, 
their tafte was fo much improved, that (e) crols- 
ailes and high towers were addfcd to religious 
edifices. But the round tower, which was a 
Danifh work, could not find place in England, 
becaufe the domination of thefe nortlierns was not 
cftablifhed there until half a century after the intro- 
duftion of crofs-aiies ; by which time the Anglo- 
Saxon ftyle was going into difufe, and almoft funk 
in the Gothic or Norman. Had the Danes reared 
their towers before thofe elegant ftruAures, the 
mcaneft peafant would have ridiculed the attempt. 
But in Ireland the cafe was totally different ; our 
churches were of wood, and as mean as pofTible ; 
a bell was wanting (which they could not admit) 
to colledt people to divine worfhip, who were 
generally fettled in the vicinity of the church ; and 
it alfo fcrved to give an alarm in times of danger. 
Cambrenfis calls them ccclefiaflical towers, which 
fixes their appropriation, as the Irilh do (f) Cloghad, 
or belfries. 

K 2 That 

(0 Bentharn, fupra. 

ffj Molyn^ux on Danifh Mounts, 



i^z A DISSERTATION on the 

That they are Danirti works their rotund figure 
manifeftly evinces j this was the (g) form of their 
camps and fortifications, of their barrows and ftone 
circles, and of their antient habitations ftill exifting. 
** It is unqueftionably certain, fays (/) the learned 
Dr. Macpherfon, that the oldeft forts on the weftern 
and northern coafts of Scotland, were erefted by 
die barbarians of the northern Europe. All the 
Norwegian towers in the Ebudes were of a circular 
form ; the old fquare caftles there are of a much 
later date." — Tlie opinion of a (k) refpedable native 
writer deferves notice ; " It is moft certain, that 
lliofe high, round, narrow towers of ftone, built 
cylinder- wife, whereof Cambrenfis fpeaks, were 
never known or built in Ireland, as indeed no 
more were any caftles, houfes, or even churches of 
ftone, at leaft in the north of Ireland, before the 
year of Chrift 838, when the heathen Danes pof- 
feffing a great part of that country, built them in 
fcveral places, to ferve as watch-towers againft the 
natives. Though ere long the Danes being ex- 
pulfed, the Chriftian Irifti turned them to another, 
and much better, becaufe an holy ufe, tliat is to 
fteeple- houfes or bell-fries ; from which latter ufe 
made of them it is, that ever fince to this prefeiit, 
they are called in Irifli cloghteachs^ that is, bell- 
fries or bell-houfes; doc or clog fignifying a bell, 
and teach a houfe in that language." 

In 

(^} Cadra autem hxc Temper rotunda. Spelman. Tit. 
jtlfred. pag. 58. 

{b) dl. Magn. ct Ol. Worm. Mor. Dan. 
(r) Critical Differ tat ions, pag. 293. 
(i) W'alili's Profpc^a, pag. 416, 4 17- 



ROUND TOWERS ik IRELAND. X32 

In an antient Irifh manufcript (fays the (/) hifto- 
rian of the county of Cork) containing fome annals 
of Munfter, there is nnention made of the building 
the tower of Kincth in this county, about the year 
loif, foon after the celebrated battle of ClantarfFe. 
This is too late a period to make it the era of their 
general ereftion by at leaft a century ; but it does 
not weaken the probability of both Danes and na- 
tives continuing the pradtice of building fuch ftruc* 
tures until nearly the time of the Norman invafion, 
that is, until an improved tafte in architedure took 
place, which was about that time. Mr. Brereton • 
imagines, (tw) thefc towers to be places from 
whence the people were called to worlhip by the 
found of fome wind inftrument. This notion arofe 
from an iron trumpet being found in one of them ; 
if this circumftance be really true, it is a new proof 
of their being Danift^works, though the inference 
deduced may be doubtfuL The author laft cited 
afferts, that thefe towers preceded the ufe of bells 
in Ireland; this is conjedture without the leaft 
proof; bells were ufed in the ceremonies («) of 
religion as early as the fifth century, and thefe 
towers were conftrudled about the tenth. 

Whether there are any round towers in Denmark 
or Norway is not pofitively decided ; we have no 
evidence of accurate inquiries being made after 
them ; for curforj' queftions put to ignorant natives, 
or the reports of fuperfidal obfervers will never 

determine 



(/) Smith's Hift. of Coric, vol. 2. pag, 4.09. 
(m) Archaeoloji«, ptihliflied bviht Sovitfi)' of Antiquariis, 
London, vol. 2« pag. 3o. 
(«) See the auihurs cited by Du Cangc, voce Cairpana. 



134 A DISSERTATION on the 

determine the point. Mr. Paireant (^) tells us, 
that while he lay in the found of Jona in the He* 
brides, two gentlemen from the Ifle of MulJ, and 
who had pofleflions there, feemed to know nothing 
of that aftonilhing curiofity, the Bafaltig ifle of 
StafFa. If fuch was the want of attention and in* 
formation in perfons of property, and to fo extra- 
ordinary a rarity in their vidnity^ we may well 
fuppofe the round towers, if any there be abroad, 
are as indifferently paffed over. Nor is it lefe re- 
markable, that until at mercurial (p) traveller enu- 
, merated thofe in this kingdom, they had been 
before but flightly noticed by our hiftorians, topo' 
graphers and antiquaries, though more than forty 
c( them, and thofe well prefcrved, ftill remain. 
The fame may be faid of the Swedi(h antiquities, 
which were but imperfeclly known until Dahlberg 
lately exhibited many of them in hie Suecia Hodicraa 
ct Antiqua. 

But the late reception of Chriftianlty will very 
well account for the want of ro-und towers, or 
other antient monuments of religion, in northern 
Europe. The Normans, Danes, Swedes and their 
neighbours did not embrace (^) the dodtrine of 
redemption until the twelfth century. At that time 
the more fouthern nations were tolerably civili2ed; 
fumptuous edifices dedicated to facred ufes, were 
common among them, the antient being mouldered 
into ruins, or funk iqto oblivion \ even had they 

furvived, 

[o) Tcur in Scotland. 
(/') Twifs's Tour in Ireland, 177$. 
(f) Spanheim. Epift. Hift. Ecclcs. p. 444-r-3ox— Joa. 
W. Malmcfb. pag. 69. 



ROUND TOWERS m IRELAND. 13. 

farvived, no one would dream of making then:j 
models of imitation. 

After all, thefe ftrudtures might have been pe- 
culiar to Ireland, and Cambrenfis intimates as much 
when he fays, they were built patrio more^ after 
the fafliion of the country. The circular Norwe- 
gian towers, mentioned above by Dr. Macpherfbn, 
might have fuggefled the idea of them, and their 
appropriation to religious purpofes arofe fropi the 
ftatc of Chriftianity then in this kingdom. When 
once they were adopted, they foon were muU 
tiplied. 

Mr. Pennant, fpeaking of the Soottith round 
towers, fays they could not be intended for belfries, 
becaufe they ate placed near the fteeples of churcliea, 
infinitely more commodious for that end. This 
fuppofes the fieeples and round towers to be coeval, 
which la not the cafe ; our anceilors, whatever niay 
be thought of them at this day, were incapable of 
commiitting fuch a folecifm in airchitedture. Though 
the tower was ufed as a belfry, yet this by no 
means fuperceded the neceiTity of ileeples on ftone-- 
buildings of later conffaudion ; fuch ftrudVures, 
being generally in the form of a crofs, had a fteeple 
raifed on its interfcdlion. Thus in the cemetery of 
the cathedral of Sf. Canice, Killcpnny, there is 
a beautiful round toWcr^ yet the fymmetry of the 
cathedral, which is Gothic, required a (leepie, and 
it has one. Wherever we find a round tower, we 
may be certain the church contiguous to it is of 
early antiquity, and not later than the eleventh 
century. 

A learhed 



136 A DISSERTATION on the 

A learned (r) antiquary is of opinion, that thefe 
towers y^ere ereded by the Phenicians or Carthagi- 
nians in their trading voyages hither -, feme paffages 
in antient authors feem to countenance this conjec- 
ture. Diodorus Siculus, {s) difcourfing of the 
Hyperboreans who inhabited an ifland oppofitc the 
Celtic region, fa,y8: ^* The trees there beai* fruit 
twice every year. The fabulous chronicle records, 
that Latona was born in that country ; hence the in- 
liabitants adore Apollo, whofe praifes they arc con- 
tinually chanting. In the ifle is a noble foreft, 
dedicated to this deity, a temple alfo of zfpheric<d 
figure, filled with prefents, and a city facred to the 
fame God 5 the greateft part of the people arc 
muficians, they play on the harp in his temple, and 
fing hymns to his praife." 

This defcription is plainly the work of fancy ; 
the author is not to be cenfured, when he himfeif 
intimates a fufpicion of his authority. 

Neither are they the Pyratheia of the Perfians, a 
notion lately taken up on the authority of Mr. 
Hanway (/), who in his travels into Perfia, found 
round towers in the country of the Gaurs, or wor- 
(hipperi of fire. Mr. Hanway barely mentions 
their exiftenc^ without reafoning on, or deducing 
any inference fi-om it. In the year 634, the Sara- 
cens conquered Perfia, and placed ox\ its throne a 
monarch of their own. Their zeal in eftablilhing 
their religiqn, wherever their arms extended, to 

the 



(r) F^lciil. Col. Vallancey. GoIlt6ianca, No. a> pag« ^^ 

(3) Lib. a pag. 91. 
/) Travels iiiio PcrSa, part 2. chap. 43. 



ROUND TOWERS in IRELAND. 137 

the exclufion of all others is fully (u) afcertained, 
and thefe towers are remains of their Minarets. It 
is very foreign from the Turkifli or Mahometan 
religion to fuffer monuments of heterodoxy to 
remain, as the Chriflian temples have fadly expe^ 
rienced; much lefs would they fhow marks of 
favour to a contemptible fedt. But this opinion is 
groundlefs for another reafon, which is, tliat the 
Gaurs do not worftiip fire, as Tavemier afTerts; 
the refpeA they have for that element is only com- 
memorative of fome fervices, it is fuppofed to have 
done their prophet. 

But an examination of the antient Pyrajtheia will 
fet this matter in the cleareft light. ** Strabo (w) 
informs us, that they were inclofures of great com- 
pais ; in the middle were altars, and on them the 
Magi prcfervcd much alhes and a perpetual fire/ 
Can we from thefe . words conclude that they were 
buildings of lime and ftone, and of the altitude of 
our round towers? As to their being Phenidan 
works, we know thefe people derived much of 
their religion from (at) Egypt ; it is therefore to be 
prefumed, that their temples refembled thofe of the 
latter, which confided of four (y) parts, and of 
confiderable extent, and not refembling, in any 
inftance, our round towers, as the learned reader 
will perdeive by recurring to the paflage cited in 
^he margin. 

The 



(ir) Modern Uolvcrfal Hiftory, paffim. 

(w) Lib. 17. 

[x) Kircher. Ocdip. iEgyptiac. torn. i. pag. 2|6. 

If) AAii^Ttn, n^TilAflMcr, UfofOit i^ I Nfl»^. Sirab. lib, 1 7, 

V^i. 805. 



ij8 A DISSERTATION ow the 

The opinion acijiriefced in fof fome years^ is,ttat 
of the late rcvferend dean Richardfon, and fisice 
adopted and improved by Mr. Harris, in his edition 
of Sir James Ware's antiquities. This fuppofes 
our towers to be the refidence of anachorite jnonks, 
and imitations of the eadern pillars ; and is founded 
on the account Evugrius gives of Simeon Stylitcs, 
which, to avoid ambiguity, it may be proper to 
(z) extraa : '' The fabrick of Simeon*a churdi 
rcprcfeftts the form of a crofe, beautified with pot* 
ttcoes of four fides ; oppofitc thefe are placed pillars* 
curioufly made of poliflied ftone, whereon the roof 
is gracefiilly raifed to an height. In the midft of 
thefe porticoes is an open courts wroi]^ht wiA 
much art, in which court iknds the pillar^ forty 
cubits faighv tvfaereon that incarnate angel upon 
earth (Simeon) led a celeftial life/' It muft requlit 
a warm .imagination to point out tlie fimilarity 
between this pillar and our tower. The one was 
folid, the other hollow ; the otie was fquare, and the 
othdr circular* 

The ardli incliiforii ergaftulum (a) of Harri^i 
was a monaftic cell or hermitage. Raderus^ on 
whom he much depends, fays, {h) ** The houfe cf 
the rcclufe ought to be of ftone ; the length and 
breadth twelve feet; with three windows, one 

facing 

(«) Lib. I. cap. 14. Not ^avIng the original convenient. 
1 make ufc of Hanmer's tranflation. 

(a) Ware's Antiquities, pag. 134, 

(I) Inclufa, id eft, donjus Inclufi^ debet efle lapidea, lon- 
gltudo et latitudo in 12 pedes abeat ; rres fencftras, unani 
contra chorum, per quam corpus Chnfti accipiat ; alteram 
in oppofico, per quam vit'tuni recipiat; lertiam unde Juccai 
habeat, quae femper debet efle claufa vitro vel cornu. Rader. 
in Savar. San£t. 



ROUND TOWERS ik IRELAND. 139 

fadng the choir, through whioh he naay receive the 
body of Cbrift y the other oppofite, through which 
food is conveyed to Urn v and the third for the ad*- 
iBiilion of light ; the latter to Jbe always covered 
widi gla{s or horn." This alfo was very difTerent 
from our round tower. Mr. Harris fpeaking of 
Donchad O Brien, abbot of Clannaacnois, who 
(hut himfelf up in one of ihefe cells, fays : " I will 
not take upon me to affirm, that it was in one 
of thefe towers at Clonmacuois he was inclofed.*' 
—Here was a fine opportunity of proving his by- 
potheiis was it capable of it. Mr. Harris ihould 
liave (hown from hiftory, or other monuments, that 
tbefe round towers were the receptacles of anacho- 
rites, and not to have begged thequeftion; but 
not a word of this is to be found in any record^ 
either in print or manufcript ; all he is able to pro- 
duce is the names of twenty five afcetics, in the 
fpace of 503 years. The annals of Ulfter and of 
the four mailers, from whence he takes them^ only 
mention : — " Kellach anachoreta floruit, A. D. 8a 8. 
Conlach anachoreta fbruit, A. D. 862, &c." this 
furely hath no reference to, nor doth it prove them 
to have been inhabitants of the round towers. Thus 
dellitute of every foundation, it is a(loni(hing how 
implicitly and unrefervedly this reverie hath been 
embraced What Lucretius obferves of the wonders 
of nature is as applicable to literary paradoxes (c) : 
Nil adeo magnum, nee tarn mirabile quicquam 
Principio, quod non minuant mirarier omnes 
PauUtim, 

We* 

{4) Lib« 2. iin. 1027. 



140 A DISSERTATION ok the 

We are told by Mr. Smith {d) that he once be- 
lieved thofe towers to be the retreats of anachorites ; 
but from new information, derived from an Irifli 
manufcript, he now thinks they were places of 
penance. The penitent mounted on the higheft 
loft, performed there a probation of feme days ; 
in like manner he proceeded to the next ftage, and 
fo downwards until he finifhed his religious courfe, 
when he was received at the door of the tower, 
(which faced the weftern door of the church) by the 
clergy and people. And he credits this notion, as 
it coincides with the general pofition of the doors of 
thefe towers, which are always to the eaft ; but the 
pofition is pofitively otherwife, as will prcfently be 
feen in thofe of Abernethy and Brechin, nor is any 
general rule obferved .in placing the doors, as he 
muft have known from examining many of them 
in the counties he defcribes. It was therefore very 
difingennous to facrifice his veracity in fupport of a 
groundlefs hypothecs, and an anonymous manu- 
fcript, efpecially as he himfelf fupplies the ftrongeft 
proof of their original defignation in (e) another 
work, where he remarks, that the round tower of 
Ardmore had been ufed for a belfry, there being 
towards the top, not only four windows to let out 
the found, but alfo three pieces of oak, fliU remain- 
ing, on which the bell was hung. And Mr, Pen- 
nant informs us, the tower of Brechin is ufed for a 
belfry; as is that of Rofcrea. This evidence 
feems decifive ; it is truth confirmed by immemo- 
rial ufage, and triumphing over learned whims. 

The 

(</) Hlftory of the county of Cork, vol. s. pag. 407, 
(<) Hiftory of the county ot Watctford, pag, 71. 



ROUND TOWERS in IRELAND. 

V 

The profound filence of archbifliop Uftier and 
of Lynch, Roth, Ward, Colgan, O Flaherty and* 
Conor, men, who have fucccfsfuUy elucidated 
Irilh antiquities, is a negative argument againil 
the numerous fyftems before noticed, not eafily 
to be anfwered. 

With the utmoft diffidence of himfelf and pro- 
found refpedt for the learned, the writer of thefe 
pages does not think the aggregate of his in- 
duftions incontrovertible, nor the folution of this 
difficult problem pcrfeftly fatisfaftory j he offers 
them as the refult of much inquiry, and the con- 
viftion of his own mind on this obfcure fubjedt. ' 

The following is a lift of fuch round towers 
in Ireland as have come within the author's know-- 
kdge ; it is much larger than any hitherto exhi- 
bited, and yet he is convinced there are many 
more. 



141 



Aghagower, 


Dublin, 


Antrim, 


Dyfart, 


Ardfert, 


Ferbane ; two. 


Ardmore, 


Fertagh, 


Ballagh, 


Glendalochi two. 


Cailtree Ifle^ 


Kells, 


Cafhell, 


Kilcullen, 


Caftledermot, 


Kildare, 


Qondalkin, 


IQlkenny, 


Clonnaacnois, 


Killala, 


Cloyne, 


Kilmacduagh, 


Dcvenilh, 


Kilree, 


Downpatrick, 


Lulk, 


Drumboe, 


Mahera^ 


Drumlane, 


Monafterboice, 




Newcallle, 



14^ A DISSERTATION on the 

Newcaftle^ nqar Faxfait, • iSigo; two, 
Oughterard, Swords, 

Ram ifle, Timahoe, 

Rattoo, Tulloherin, 

Rofcrea, Turlogh, 

Scattery, Weft Carbury. 

Scotland being nearly in the fituation of Ireland 
as to the invafions and fettlement of the Oftmen, 
we accordingly find two towers there, of which 
Mr. Gordon gives (f) the following defcription, 
applicable, with little variation, to ihofe in this 
ifland. 

" I went diredly, fays he, to Abernethy, the 
ancient capital of the Piftifh nation, about four miles 
from Perth, to fee if I could find any remain* of the 
Pidls hereabout ; but could difcover nothing except 
a ftately hollow fwllar without a ftair-cafe ; fo that 
when I entered within and looked upward, I could 
fcarce forbear imagining myfelf at the bottom of a 
deep draw-well. It has only one door or entrance, 
facing the north, fomewhat above the bafis, the 
height of which is eight foot and a half, and the 
/ breadth from jam to jam, two and a half. Towards 
the top are four windows, which have ferved for the 
admiflion of light ; they are equidiftant, and five foot 
nine inches in height, and two foot two inches in 
breadth, and each is fupported by two fmall pillars. 
At the bottom are two rows of ftones^ projefting 
from beneath, which ferved for a bafis or pedeftal. 
The whole height of the pillar is feventy-five foot^ 
and confifts of fixty-four rows, or regular courfes of 
hewn ftone. .The external circumference at the bafe 

is 

(f) Itinerar. Septentrional, pag. 164. 



ROUND TOWERS in IRELAND. 143 

is forty-eight foot, but diminifties fomewhat towards 
the top, and the thicknefs of the wall is three foot 
and a half. This is by the inhabitants hereabouts 
called the round fteeple of Abernethy, and is fup- 
pofcd to be the only remains of Piftifli work in 
ibefe parts.** 

Of another tower he thus fpeaks : " In my 
journey northward, I found a fteeple at Brechin, 
differing little in fhape from that at Abernethy, 
only it was larger and covered at the top -, for its 
height from the bafe to the cornice is eighty- five 
foot, and from thence to the vane fifteen, in all 
one hundred j it confifts of fixty regular courfes of 
ilone ; the external circumference thereof is forty- 
feveii foot, and the thicknefs of the wall three foot 
eight inches. However this has no pedeftal like the 
other, but feems to ftioot out of the ground like a 
tree J it has a door fronting the fouth ; the height and 
breadth of which differ little from Abernethy ; only 
upon it are evidences fufficient to demonftrate that 
it was a Chriftian work, for over the top of the door 
is the figure of our Saviour on the crofs, with two 
little images or ftatues towards the middle. 

** This fteeple has a low fpiral roof of ftone, 
with three or four windows above the cornice, and 
on the top thereof is placed a vane. It has no ftair- 
cafc within, any more than the other, but the inha- 
bitants of both towns afcend to the top by ladders. 
The vulgar notion of thefe is, that they are PiAifli, 
and I fhould eafily have refted in that opinion, had 
I not been fince that time afTured, that fome of the 
like monuments are to be feen in Ireland, where 

the Rfts never were fettled*'' 

MEMOIRS 



MEMOIRS 



O F 



DUNAMASE 



AND 






SHEAN CASTLE, 



IN THE 



Q^U E E N'« COUNT Y; 



voL.n. 



I I 



MEMOIRS 



O F 



DUNAMASE 



AND 



SHEAN CASTLE, 



IN the earlier ages of fociety, the wants of 
mankind and their provocations to injuries 
fecm to have been few; and yet ambition and 
jcaloufy too frequently called forth the ferocity of 
untamed nature and the" exertions of brutal force ; 
difturbed the favage inhabitants of the wildemefs, 
and compelled them to feek fecurity on {a) emi- 
nences, and in places of difficult accefs ; to inclofe 
an area with a ditch ; or form an abatis of trees. 
Convenience and emergency pointed out thefe 
different modes of defence, and this kingdom is 
fall of thofe antient fortrcfles. Separated from ♦^o 
dmn of neighbouring hills, and precipitous on all 
fides, except ^o the fouth-weft, Dunamafe offered 
a iafe afylum to the firft pofleflbr ; and if any 

L 2 reliance 



{a) See Oefar's account of thofe antient Forts» and Plat. 
it Leg. 



148 MEMOIRS OF 

reliance is to be placed on its (b) name^ it was ^ 
place of ftrength in the rcmotaft times. 

D6n na maes in Celtic is — The Fort of the 
Plain. — The plain, is the Great-Heath of Mary- 
borough, lying to the.north^eaft of the Diin ; a flat 
of confiderable extent. Ptolemy makes Dunum 
an inland Irifh town, but (c) Cambden places it in 
Ulfter, and fays it is Downpatrick. Ware (</) 
believes the Britifh antiquary hath affigned it an 
improper fituation, which fuppofition of Ware's, 
Harris doth not contradidt. But the latter writers 
are certainly miftaken; for Dunamafe, from ihc 
narrownefs of its circumference, never could coth 
tain but a few cabbins, and in records it is con- 
ftantly mentioned as a fortrefs ; whereas Down- 
patrick, as Cambden rightly obferves, was a very 
old town, an epifcopal fee, and memorable on othei 
accounts ; befidps, Ptolemy's information was very 
imperfedt as to the interior of the ifland, but tole- 
rably accurate as to what refpefts the fea-coaft. 

" We are (e) told, but upon apocryphal authority, 
^hat the remarkable building iiear Maryborough, 

in 

(h) D^n na maes, tliehill of the plain, and metaphoricailj, 
the fort. Maes is M^gh in Iriih. Luid. Adverfar. pag. 271. 
The records in Birniingham tower call it Duneoiafke ; Sir 
John Davis, Duamafe ; Ware, Duneniaufe ; and Baron 
Finglas, with ftill greater propriety, Dunnamaufe; all ccrr 
ruptions of its Celtic originHJ. Dun-mow, or Dun-magh is 
the fame. The French call fuch hills, Dunes, and the 
Putch, Duynen. Ut aggeribus arenarum illic copiofis, quod 
punas vocitant, fere cosequaretiir, Annal. Berijn. A. D. 83S, 

(c) In ipfius iilhmo Dunum floruit, cujus meminit etiam, 
fed non fuo loco Ptolou.aus, nunc Down, vetuftae fane mc- 
. inorlac oppidum, fedes epifcopalis, &c. Brifanri. pag. 707. 

(</) Cambdenus quaii fub alio fole locat, et Dunum vult 
cfle in agro Dunenfi. Warsci Antiq. pag. 51. 

((f) 0*Halloran's Hiftory of Ireland, vol. 1. pag. 267. 



bUNAMASE AND SHEAN CASTLfe. 149 

in the Queen*s County, vulgarly called Dunamafcj 
was originally conftruftcd by I-iaigfeach, a cele- 
brated hero, and from him called — D(in uY Laig- 
ftach, or the fortrefs of Laigfeach.** It is not eafy 
to develope the writer's meaning in this palfage ; 
having, probably, never feen this ifolated rock, or 
only viewed it at a diftance, he imagined it the work 
of art ; for the buildings on it are no more remarkable 
than fimilarones of lime and ftone; his ignorance 
ftlfo of the antient Irifh language niakes him pro- 
duce a very inapt and inadequate etymology ; the 
vulgar appellation, as he is pleafed to ftyle it^ 
preferves a ftrong refemblance of the Celtic original j 
and leads us to its primitive defignation. 

Mr. Pennant, in his tour in Scotland, faw, near 
Struan, a Danilh fortification on the top of a rock ; 
about a furlong diflant, was another large fortified 
rock 5 thefe fortrefles, he adds, are univerfally called, 
in the Erfe, Duns. There are two D6ns in the 
Queen's County, and the fame in every circum- 
ftance as the Scottilh ones ; this of Dunamafe, the 
other at Clopokc, about five miles diftant. They 
are conoid hills of limeftone, exhibiting a very An- 
gular appearance, and not only tenable by a fmalL 
garrifon, but before the ufe of artillery, almoft 
impregnable. 

On the fubmiflion of tlie Iriih chiefs to Idng 
Henry the Second, the Englilh government par- 
celled out the country among the adventuiers, as 
the only means to extend and retain its conquefts* 
la the fragment of hiftory given us by (f) Maurice 

Regan, 

(f) Harris*^ Hibcrnica, pag 41. 



tso M E M O I R S O F 

Regan, the names of the dtftri£^s and of fhc 
grantees are preferved ; but the former are fo antU 
quated as to b6 inexpltcable ; however it is pro* 
bable, that Dunamafe was included in ^obd ^ 
Clahul's portion, which contained all the land be- 
tween Aghaboe and Leighlin. 

Perrhod, kingof Leinfter, ntarrying his daughter 
Eva to Strongbow carl of Pembroke^ on his dc- 
ceafe made him his univerial heir; whereby the 
earl inherited the {g) prpvince of Leiniler, and 
was afterwards enfeoffed of it by Henry H. He 
died in 1176, and left an only daughter, Ifabd, 
efpoufed to William Marfhall, earl of Pembroke ^ 
by her he had five ibns,^ who fucceeded to his great 
d^ates in Leinfter ; Anfelm, the fourth, died the 30 
Hen. HI. A. D. 1245, ^F^^ which his pdTeilkms 
gavelled among his five fitters. *^ She, who married 
William de Bruce, lord of Brecknock, had, fays 
(A) baron Finglas, the manor of Dunncmaufe in 
Leix, with other certainc londes in the county of 
Kildare." 

From thefe words we may infer, that Ehinamafe 
•was early made a (i) manor by the Pembroke 
family. A capita! manors as defcribed by {k} 
' Bradon, liad fubordinate and appendant to it, 
many cafiles, villages and hamlets, that owed it 
Mts and iervices -, tUs was the cafe with Duna- 
mafe, 

{g) Davis's Relatloni, pag. 85 — 96, et fer« pafilai. 

(h) Harris's Hibcmica, litpra. 

(i) Maneiiun.— vulgo accipiiTir pro prsecipua ftudi domtf, 
Du Cange, voce Maneriuni 

(k) Poterit etiam efle per fe nianerium capitale, et plures 
fillas et plures hainletas, quafi Tub uno capiie sut domimo. 
Lib. 4. tra£l. 1. cap. 31. i 3. 



DUNAMASE awd SHEAN CASTLE. 151 

mafe, as we fhall prefently fee. Finglas, by men- 
tioning Dunamaie alone, intimates that it was the 
chief rcfidence or manfion of the family in thofc 
parts ; and agreeable to this idea and its importance. 
Sir John pavis calls it — the principal honfe of Lord 
Mortimer in Leix. 

As it bounded the Englilh pale on the weft, a 
ftrong caftle was built there to protedt the vicinity ; 
it was the refidence of the (/) fenefchal^ who repre- 
fented the lord ; and the feat of military authority 
and civil jurifdi£lion ; here all the incidents of the . 
feudal fyftem were difcharged, and hither the 
tenants reforted for juftice and proteftion. The 
precife time of erefting this caftle cannot be afcer- 
taincd, but it may be conjedlurcd to have been, 
about the beginning of Henry IH's reign, in the 
year 1 2 1 6 -, for nearly at the fame time, the caftle 
of Ley, eight miles diftant, was ercfted by the 
b^trons rf Ophaly, on the banks of the Barrow ; a 
ftradlnre, in the thitcknefs and height of its walls, 
its vaults and difpofition of rooms, and its general 
ftyle of building, refembling the former. 

As the lord Paramount was bound by the feudal 
conftitution to provide the ftate, on every occafion, 
with a certain number of foldiers ; to anfwer fuch 
emergencies, and to ftxure his property againft the 

in(brredlions 

(/) Davis fupra, pag. 96. Ficra rhm, in part, defcriLrji 
J>»s office :— Cuiifis ttnere inanerioruin, et c!e fubtraftionibus* 
confaecudiniim, ferviciorum, rcddiiuuni, feft. ad cur. mercat. 
uioiendin. Domini, cr ad vilus frank pleg. aliaruaique librr- 
Uturii Doiiilijo ptrilnentiii.T) int^iiliat. Lib. 2. csip. 66. 
Thefc ncceiTarily brought a concourle of pecple to Duna- 
0*3^?, and made a caftle, ilroiig works, and armed, men in* 
dilpenfablc. 



iSt MEMOIRS OF 

infurreftions of the natives ; he eilabiiflied around 

his capital panfion a military tenantry, who held 

by knight's fervice, and were always (m) prepared 

for war. This gave rife to the numerous calUes 

that furround Dunamafe; as Dyiart, Palace^ Shean, 

Moret, Ballymanus, Coolbanagher, Ballybrittas^ 
Kilmarter and Ballyknockin. 

Nor were the other concomitants of baronial 
magnificence wanting to Dunamafe. About it lay 
the demefne and other tenemental lands; the 
Great-Heath was the lord'is wafle and common to 
the manors, and the cafile was crouded with armed 
men, the terror of the neighbourhood^ and the 
bulwark of the pale. Such was the (Uuation of 
Dunamafe for many years. While the Britilh 
fettlers preserved their original manners, the fickle- 
nefs of the Icifh, and their pronenefs to refiftance 
were efFedually curbed; but when the pride of 
power, without any of the virtue that acquired it, 
was only found amoi^ them ; when corruptions 
had degraded their national chara^er,. they then 
became contemptible to thofe who formerly dreaded 
them, and inilead of mailers became fuitors for 
protedlion. 

" Taking advantage, fays Sir John Davis, of tliofc 
w^ak timcs> the Irifh ufurped thofe feigniories that 
were in poflenion of the Englifli ; fetting up a 
perpetual claim to thofe great lordfhips, they were 
employed by the Englifh noblemen for their pro- 

tedtion, 

(m) One of the laws of Edward the Confcffor i$: — 
Debent univcrfi liberi homines, fecunciuin fuum fcedum, et 
fecundum tenementa fua, arma habere, et iiln femper, prompts 
i9nfer*u{ire^ ad tuitioneiii regni, ct fcrviciuiu Doniinorum 
i»Ocuni» Lambatdy 155. 



DUNAMASE akd SHEAN CASTLE. 153 

tedUon, but feized them as their inheritance when 
opportunity offered. Thus about the end of Ed- ^ 
ward IPs reign, A. D. 1325, Lyfagh O More, 
the antient proprietary of Lcix, being intrufted by 
lord Mortimer, who had married lord Brecknock's 
only daughter, with the care and protedlion of his 
cftates ; aifumed the name of O More, took eight 
caftles in one evening, deftroyed Duamafe (Duna* 
mafe), and recovered that whole country •, de fervo 
Dominus, de fubjedto Princeps affeftus, faiih Friar 
Clynn in his annals." Such is the account given by 
Davis, corroborating what hath been advanced 
concerning Dunamafe and its caftles. 

In the year 1329, under the government of Sir 
John Darcy, Dunamafe and other caftles were 
recovered from the Irifh; but fuch at that time 
was the debility of the Englifh adminiftration in 
this kingdom, that there was very little fecurity for 
property againft the rapacity of the firft invader. 
The O Mores again feized on Dunamafe, about 
the 1 8th of Edward the Third, but were difpofrelTed 
in two years after ; for by a («) plea-roll of tlie 
20th of Edward the Third it appears, that Connel 
OMoreof Leix, who after rebellion had fubmittcd 
himfelf at Athy to Walter Berminghatn, Jufticiaiy 
of Ireland, acknowledged that he held his manor 
of Bellet and other his lands in Lqx, of Roger 
Mortimer, as of his manor of Donmaflce (Duna- 
mafe). 

In -the year 1398, the fame Mortimer, carl of 
March and Ulfter and loid of Dunamafe, being 

IV.uicnant 

{n) Apud Harri*'s Hiberiiica, pag. 74. 



15+ M E M O I R S O F 

neutcnant of Ireland, had his paternal caftlc repsire^, 
and hs works enlarged ;'it is probable he would 
have vifited his cflates in Lcix, had he not been 
unfortunately (lain in an engagement with the 
O Byrnes, at Kdls in Offory, the twentieth of July 
this year. 

Very little remarkable is recorded of Dunamafe 
for feme fuccceding centuries, but its change of 
maimers in the perpetual convulfions which this 
nation experienced. In the reign of the cider 
James, this wKh the other fortreffes of (he kingdom 
was put into a defenfible flate. It was found, that 
the conflruiflion of caftles and ftrong houfes, were 
the only certain means of fecuring the allegiance of 
the natives, and the pofleffions of the Englifh. 
Hence in the fpace of thirteen years, from the flight 
of Tyrone and Tyrconnel in 1606 to 161 9, (the 
time (0) Pynnar made his furvey) there were buih in 
the fix efcheated counties of Ulfter, one hundred 
and eighty-feven cailles with bawns, nineteen with- 
out bawns, and forty-two bawns without caftles. 
'j/ Under the adminiftration of the earl of Strafford, 
t i as Borlafe acquaints us, many new caftles were 
-^- built and the old repaired 1 amid this attention, 
Dunamafe was not neglcfled, as we (hall now fee. 
In the beginning of the Irifli rebellion, the in- 
furgents fecured Maryborough, Dunamafe, Carlow 
and other ftrong holds. The earl of Ormond ar- 
riving at Athy from Dublin, in April 1 642, detached 
parlies to the relief of thofe fortrefles. Of one of 
ihefe detachments Sir Richard Cox thus fpeaks in 

his 

(a) Hibernjci, fupta. 




DUNAMASE am© SHEAN CASTLE. 155 

bis Hiftory of bdand : ^ Sir Charley Cootc going 
to £ir, viras to pafs a caufeway vAach the rebels had 
brok^i up^ aod had cail up a dhdi at the end of it ; 
but Coote made thirty of his diagoofns alight, and 
in perfon led them on, and beat off the Iriih with 
the flaughter of forty rebels and their captain ; and 
thai rebeYed the caftles of Bir, Burcas and Knock- 
namafe) (Dunandafe)." 

On the retreat of Ormond, thefe forts (p) fub- 
mitted to general Preflon, but were re-taken by the 
long's forces, and contiuued in their pofleilion until 
the year 1 646, when Owen Roe O Neil entered the 
Q2;eeQ*s county, coaunitting every a£t of outrage 
and cruelty; he (q). took Dyfiurt, Maryborough, 
CuUenbrack, Sheehen alias Dfiden, Bealaroyn, 
Caillereban, Sea Dunamafe within a finall mile of 
Dyfart cfid not efcape. 

In 1648, O Neil offered to furrender bis garriibns 
in the Qieen's county to colonel Jones, and to lay 
down his arms, provided he and the confederate 
catholics might have the privileges oonfirmed tp 
than whkh they enjoyed in the r«gn of king 
Jaracs ; but this was not accepted ^ the next year 
lord Caftlehaven drove ONeil out of the county. 

In July 1650, Mary.horough, Dimamafe, and 
the ue'^bouriog forts furrendered to the colonels 
Heufon and Reynolds ; Dunamafe was blown up 
and efTeftnally difmantled, as were the reft. 

Let us now proceed to a defcription of this an- 
tient fortrefs : — The entrance is S. W. and faces 
the road to Stradbally; here was the barbican, 

which 

(/) Caftlchavcn's Memoirs. 

{q) Defiderata Curios. Hibem. pag. So6. 



156 M E M O I R S O P 

which ferved for a watch-tower, and was joined td 
the ditch by a draw-bridge. On each fide of th6 
barbican were ditches, as far as the hill was ac- 
ceifible, and the (r) outward ballium was flanked 
with two towers or baftionsj the firft gateway is 
feven feet wide, and the wails fix feet thick ; it has a 
{s) machicolation over it, for pouring down melted 
lead or fcalding water -, the wall of this ballium is a 
parapet, crenellated, and to the N. E. is twenty 
feet high, with long chii\ks and oillet holes. The 
diftance between tower and tower is one hundred 
and feventy-four feet. 

Between the outward and inward ballia is a 
length of one hundred feet ^ the gate of the latter 
is placed in a tower, and over it was a guard-room; 
in the thicknefs of the walls are fide paifages ad- 
mitting but one perfon at a time, and he by no 
means corpulent. From this fecond tower begins 
the parapet wall that furrounds the fummit of the 
hill ; its circumference is 1086 feet ; the area is not 
perfeftly circular, though nearly fo, as far as the 
projections and inequalities of the rock will admit; 
fo that Its diameter at top is 362 feet. The hill 
is naturally an elliptical conoid; in fome parts, 
from its bafe to its vertex, it meafures 200 feet. 

The inner wall, at proper diftances, had towers ; 
the foundations ftill appear ; on the liinimit of the 
hill flood the keep or donjon 5 fome, and not im- 

probablyj 

(r) BaHium is the (pace immediately within the otittfr 
wall. 

(j) Machicolations are fmall done projections, fopported 
by brackets, having open intervals^at bottom, or a kind oS 
grates for the ufes mentioned. 



DUNAMASE akd SHEAN CASTLE. 

probably, have fuppofed this to be the chapel ; it 
18 call and weft, and the caftem window intire. 
It was this appropriation to a reli^ous ufe, that 
perhaps, flopped the fury of the fanatic deftroyers 
of this building, and left it untouched. Contiguous 
to this was a dwelling houfe, feventy-two feet long 
and twenty -one wide ; on this were platforms and 
embattled parapets, from whence the garrifon 
might fee and command the exterior works. The 
houfe was divided into apartments, and vaults ran 
under the whole. To the N. W. was a well of 
excellent water ; and on the weft was, what tra- 
dition calls, a prifon ; but it feems to have been a 
poftern. The naked rock appears on the N. E. 
fide, and the approach to the other parts was diffi- 
cult and dangert)us. When whole and complete 
it was a beautiful model of military architedture, 
and even at this day prefents the curious vifitant 
with noble ruins of its former grandeur. 

Small filver coins, belonging to the early Irifli 
{Kinces, have been found at Dunamafe ; there is 
one in the colledlion of the Rev. Mervyn Archdall, 
rcdlor of Attier- Attanagh, in the diocefe of Oflbry, 
that is a great curiofity j it is the fize of a filver 
four-pence, but thinner ; on the face is this epi- 
griphc — Re Morrah, King O Mora, or O More ; 
and on the reverfe is, Na Dunegh, or rather 
Dunadh, of the Fort ; expreffing the place of coinage, 
^nd the refidence of the chief. The letters are the 
antient Ogham croabh characters, and the fame 
with thofe that appear on the coins of O Toole, 
found at Glendaloch in the county of Wicklow. 
This coin was ttruck in the eleventh century -, for, 

fubrcquent 



15» MEMOIRS OP 

fubfequent tx> the Normaa iovafion, the native 
Iriih princes coined no money^ though before diat 
period the practice was common. ' 

SHEAN CASTLE, 

As we before obferved, was a manor dependent 
on Dunaniafe, and buik not many years pofterior 
to it. The name is varioufly written. In a record 
of the zo Richard JI: A. D. 1397, it is Sion ; artd 
in a (/) tradt relative to the Iriih rebellion, it is 
Sheehan ; but as the moft antient name generally 
approaches neareft the true one, fo ^loi) in Iriih 
expreiTes its expofure to all the viciffitudes of wea- 
ther, it Handing on an high eminence and uri- 
flieltered. 

In an account of the caftles in the Queen's county 
in 1 61 5, it is called Shi an; and on the banks of 
the Blackwater near Lifmore, in the county of 
Waterford, is a Shian cattle; but the (u) writer 
who gives this information offers nothing in expla- 
nation of the" appellation. 

It has efcaped the notice of our antiquaries, that 
, the Englifti on their fettlement here, gave Saxonic 
names to places, which have pafled with the in- 
curious for Irifli ones, and therefore their etymology 
is in vain fouglit for in the latter language ; thus the 
name of the third cantred of the barony of "DflTory, 
in the Queen's county, is Upperwoods •, intimating 
its forcfts mounted on its lofty mountains. The 
^ parilb, 

(/) Defiderat. Curios. Hib. fupra. 

fu) Su]ith\s Hiftory of the County of Waterford, pag. 61?. 



' DUNAMASE and SHEAN CASTLE. 159 

parUh, which comprehends the whole caatred, is 
called OfFerelane, corrupted from Oferly ng, which in 
Saxon means fuperior, and is fy nonymous to Upper- 
'woods. Shean might originally have been Sien, 
the Saxon Scoo, the pupil or fight of the eye, it 
bearing tHs analogy to Dunamafe. The Englifh 
fpoke almoft pure Saxon in the reign of Henry II. 
wUch ^?e8 caunteuahce to the preceding conjee* 
ture. 

SSiean caftle is fituated on one of thofe high 
conical hills, which are (o common in its vicinity. 
Though' not remarkable for its magnitude, it was a 
place qS confiderable flrength ; the declivities round . 
it being fteep and eafily defended. By the (w) 
record before cited, .it appears, that Sir Robert 
PrcftoKi in the year 1 397, held by the law of Eng^ 
land, the inheritance of Margaret his late wife the 
manor of Sion in Liex, of Roger Mortimer, as of 
his manor of Dunmafke (Dunamafe) ; it (bared the 
revolutions of the latter in the fubfequent periods 
of Wftoty ; but being neither £0 ftrong or tenable 
it efcaped demolition, and continued for centuries 
in its prifline Hate, until it came into poifeflion of 
its prefent occupier, the reverend dodtor Charles 
Coote, dean of Kilfenora. 

He has revived Shean with new fplendor, and 
added at a vaft expence, fuch embellifhrnents to 
its fine fituation, as make it both an ornament to 
the country and a delightful refidence. 

(v;) Tennit per legem Anglise de hsreditate Margarita. 
nuper uzoris fux, manerium de Sion in Leix, de Rogero de 
Mortuomariy lit dc manerio fuo de Donmalkc. Hibernica, 

pas- 74- 

FINIS, 



speedily will be Fublifhed, 

ColleSianea de Rebus Hibernkh* 



NUMBER VII. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED; 

-OR, 

A Discourse on the Letters, Learkikg, and 
Religion of the HIBERNIAN DRUIDS. 

Jlluftrated by nsmeroiu exifting, jet hitherto unobfcTred, 

MOROMBNTS. 



By WILLIAM BEAUFORD, M.A; 

SOCIET. ANTIQ:.'HIB. SOC. 



Colle&anea de Rebus Hibernicis, 



NUMBER VII. 



CONTAINlNOi 

I. Druidism Revived : or, a Dissertation oq 
the Characters and Modes of Writing ufed 
by the Irish in their Pagan State, and after their 
Conversion tp Christianity. 

U. Of the Origin and Language of the Irish ; and 
cf the Lsarnino of th^ Druids. . . 



By WILLIAM BEAUFORD, A.M. 
societ. antiq^ hib. ^oc. 

■ 

ILLUSTRATED WITH COPPER-PLATES. 



DUBLIN: 

PRINTED'BV R. M A R C H B A N K, 

VKINTER TO THE ANTIQJJARIAN SOCIETY, 

AND SOLD BY L. L, FLIN, CASTLE-STREET. 



M,DCC^LXXXI. 



/ 



TO 



Sir ROBERT STAPLES, Bart. 



THIS 



SEVENTH NUMBER 



OF THE 



COLLECTANEA 



PE 



REBUS HIBERNICIS, 



IS INSCRIBED, 



Br BIS MOST OBBPIBHT 



AHD HVMBI.B SBRVAHT, 



ynUAAM BEAUFORD, 



. ^ 



•• «. * 



* * 



JL 



. ■» 



DRUIDISM REVIVED : 

O R, A 

DISSERTATION 

■ 

O N T H E 

mm 

I 

CHARACTERS and MODES 



o F 



WRITING 

USED BY THE - 

I R I 3 H 

IN THEIR PAGAN STATE, AND AFTER THEIR 
CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY. 

IT has been much controverted in the Republic 
of Letters^ whether the ancient inhabitants of 
Ireland,^ before their converfion to the Chriftian 
faith, had the ufe of Letters, or any means of 
communicating their thoughts in writing. If we 
give credit to their antiquaries and hiftorians, no 
people cultivated learning with fo much affiduity, 
and that at a period when the Greeks and Romans 
remained in a ftate of barbarifm. According to 
them (a\ the art of writing was known in this ifland 
as early as the tenth century before the Chriftian 
Vol. II. M era ; 

I 

(«) O Flaherty, Keating, Toland, Harris, &c, • 



i6% DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

era % for it. is aflerted^ that OUainMlah a king of 
Ireland, about the year of the world 3236, in- 
ffituted the eonvention of Taragh in the county of 
Meath^ as a college or fociety to infpeft geneatc^es, 
cbronides and hiftories; whatevef paffed their 
fcrutiny was inferted in a book or regiller, called 
the pfalter of Taragh^ which for feveral ages was 
confidered as the grand repofitory of the ardiives 
of the kingdom. This convention however appears^ 
to have been the firft^ which publicly cultivated 
this excellent art ; for it is acknowledged that writing 
was not in general ufe, and the kiifa did not commit 
their poems and laws to writing till near 700 years 
after, that is, in the r^ign of M'Neffan king of 
Ulfter. ' 

Notwithftanding the drcumftantial account givea 

hy the antiquaries ^nd hiftorians of the middle and 

fetter ageSf relative to the fearning and: dvUifntifiQ 

of the antient In(h> the learned in gencrd have 

l^een much divided on this head ; as the teftimonies 

hitherto gvcn, have rather been pofitive aflertbnci^ 

unfupported by proofs and matters of fadt^ than 

real hiftories. For though they have made frequent 

, mention of feveral fpecies of letters and alphabets^ 

made ufe of by the pagan inhabitanta of this ifland, 

yet they have given very few fpeciraens of the 

eharaders, and none before their converfion to the 

Chriftian faith. And though they'ahb make ftc- 

q^uent mention of ancient writings or records^ from 

which their more modern hiftories are fuppofed to^ 

ht taken, few if any of thefe records have come 

down to our time. To obviate, in fome meafiire, 

^ drcumitance wluch mig^it call in queftion the 

« , authenticity 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. t6$ 

authenticity of their hiftorical tranfadtions, they 
have aliedged, that in the ravages committed by 
the Danes in the ninth century, the greater part of 
the books and chronicles were defiroyed, and the 
few remaining, during their conteft with the Englilh, 
and the civil wars which rent this unhappy country 
for near 800 years, were either deftroyed or carried 
by the clergy to the continent; but, though dili- 
gent enquiry has been made by feveral learned 
perfons, in Spain, Denmark and other countries, 
ilo fuch writings have hitherto been found. Evea 
the moil authentic Irifh records, which have in 
any degree come within the verge of the cmphre 
of letters, as the annals of Ulfter, Innisfail, Tiger- 
nach, and the pfalter of Caftiel, all of which were 
written about the tenth, eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, begin at the fifth and conclude with the 
tenth, without making the leaft mention of the 
pagan ftate of the Irilh •, if there had at the time of 
compiling thefe works been any records relative to 
that period, or any remarkable tradition handed 
down by the bards, we may rcafonably fappofc 
they would have mentioned it ; but'their filcnce on 
this head may ferve in a great nieafure, not only 
Id confirm us in the opinion of the learned in 
general, that the ancient inhabitants of Ireland had 
not the ufe of letters prior to their converfion to 
the Chrifiian faith, and that the firft alphabet this 
ifland ever faw was that of the Latins of the middle 
ages, introduced by St. Patrick, or fome other of 
the Chrillian raiflionaries, but alfo the affcrtions of 
moft of the Greek and Latin writers, as Strabo, 
Diodorus Siculus, Caefar, Pliny and others. Thefc 

M z writers 



x64 DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

writers, fo far from confidering the Irifli of theTr 
times a civilized and learned people in general,, 
efteem them a favage and ignorant race ; though 
Ireland, in thofe periods,, mud have been well 
known to them^ both by reafdn of the trade which 
the Romans carried on with it, and their remarning 
fo many years in Britain* Strabo is the firft writer 
of antiquity, who treats with any degree of precifioa 
of the manners of the old Iriih v his account differs 
in no refpedk from thofe we have at prefent, relative 
to the favage tribes of Indians who perambulate 
the wilds of A^merica v nay, in fome of his relations 
(i), he not only afferts they were in a barbaroas 
i^ate, but much more ib than tlie Britons : and 
ncientions feveral of their manners, which would be 
fufficient to degrade the niofl ferocious favages {c\ 
Nor is the teftimony of Diodorus Siculus (jt) more 
favourable than that of Strabo ; they werfe in the 
days of this writer, fb far fron bring civilized by 
long poflefHon of letters and a conftant cultivatiorr 
of arts and fclences, that they were thought to feed 
on human bodies ; a circumilance poUtively afierted 
by St Jerom, who fays that in his younger days, 
having an occafion to make a voyage into Gaul, 
he there iaw the Scots or Irifh, a people of Britain, 
eat human flelb, though there were found, (ays he, j 
lai their forefts, great herds of fwine and other 
cattle (fV Even the account given by Pomponius 
Mela, is extremely unfavourable to a civilization 
arifing from a long poffeffioa of letters } he calls 

them 

(j) Strabo, lib. %. 

(r) Strabo, lib. 4. 

(//) Diod. Sicu. iib. ^ 

(«) MieronyiD. adv. Jovia* Hb. 2* p* 55- 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. . 165 

ftem a race of men, unpolifhed, barbarous and 
ignorant of every virtue (f). Nor were they much 
improved, if we can credit Julius Solinus, about 
the third century {g). Thcfe authorities appear 
fafficient to overthrow intireiy the pretenfion of the 
Jrifh hiftorlans, relative to the learned ftate of their 
pagan ancettors \z& the Britons who, according to 
Strabo, reforted to'Rome (A) could not be ignorant 
of the internal ftate of this iflarwi ; and frcMn whom 
we may reafonably conclude both Strabo and 
Mela obtained their information concerning the 
Irifti. And in the days of Tacitus, the ports of 
Ireland were well known (/) ; confequently, that 
j;:elebrated hiftorian could not be ignorant of the 
real charafter ' of its. inhabitants. But Solinus had 
a better opportunity than either Strabo, Mela, or 
Tacitus, of obtaining information on this fobjedt ; 
as in his time, Britain had been a province of the 
empire at leaft 200 years. ' Some communication 
muft have been maintained between the two iflands 
during that period, and confequently the Romans 
covdd not have remained ignorant of the manners 
and cuftoms of the inhabitants of Ireland. 

Sir James Ware, the moft juftly elteemed of 
all the Irifli antiquaries, and ever zealous for the 
honour of his country, gives not the leaft credit to 
the pretenfions of the Irifh to an.alphabet, before 
tjhelr converfion to Chriftianity ; and Nennius feems 

to 

{f) Pomp. Mela, lib. 4. 

^^).Solious. 36. 

{b) 'ArrHr«u<U< wi| ^^mic %yk^ h P«ytfi. Sxrabo, ^ib. 4 

fjr) Tacitus viL As^*c. ^4. 



l66 ' DRUID ISM REVIVED. 

to affert, that the ufe of letters was firft tau^t the 
Irirti. by St. Patrick (*). 

In the ignorance of letters howevert if this wa^ 
really the cafe^ the Irirti were in no worfe predica- 
ment than their neighbours, the Britons and Gauls, 
For moil of the Roman writers, as Capfar (/)| 
Tacitus, Strabo and others ponfiantly maintain, 
that neilhe/ the Gauls, Britons nor Celtes in general 
were acquainted with letters \ but on the contrary, 
committed their poems, laws and religious tenets 
to memory only \ fo that it required of thofe who 
entered into the druidic orders, the labour of forac 
years to attain their learning and do(^rine, to any 
degree of perfeftion. Being accuftomed to no 
other bufinefs but arms and the cli^ce, they efteemed 
It mean and ignoble either to read or write. Eliaa 
from Androtion hj^s preferved a remarkable paiTage 
on this fubjeft ^ " There was not, fays he, among 
the ancient Thracians, any one who underi^od 
the ufe of letters \ and that in general, all the bar- 
barians eftablirtied in Europe, looked upon tbo 
knowledge of letters as the moft mean and ftxaroeful 
thing in the world. An opinion alfo maintained 
by the barbarians of Afia.*' (iff) 

Seeing 

% 

ijt) Sanftus Tatricius fcripfir Abietoria 36$ et eo tmplivs 
■uinero. Neno. 99.. 

(/) Neque fks efle exidimant ea Uteris mandare^ id mihi 
duabus de cau^s inftitoifS videotur ; quod neque in vulgus 
difciplinam efferri velint ; neque eos qui difcuat. Uteris con- 
iifosy minus meiiiorise dudere^ quod fere plerifque accidit, 
ut prxfidio literarum diligentiaih in perdifcendo ac memontm 
remittant. Czfar, 6. 14. 

wn^t^it 0U<7%tr0» 2iNu, fiWrf«< o» w B m gi» w»i iMtrnvc Bu^mfth 

i*«W^r. Liian. V. H. 8. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. t«} 

Seeing therefore the mod refpedlabie authorities, 
ancient and moderQi agree in excluding not only 
the Irifh^ but all the Celtic tribes in general from 
an eariy knowledge of letters^ it may be thought 
prefumptuous to attempt the eftablifhment of a v 
contrary opinion. But we ought not to be deterred 
by the authority of great names, however refpedl- 
able, firom fearching after truth ^ for though thoi^ 
whom we have quoted and many others, have 
declaimed againft the 4ife of letters among the 
aboriginal inhabitants of Europe, yet there are 
feveral who h^ve maintained the contrary. Laertius 
in lus life of Arifiotle, and in his difcourfe on phi- 
lotbpby,, fays, that the Greeks had the original of 
their theology, and the mod fublime parts of theit 
philoibphy firom the druids of the Celtes (»). And 
J. Magnus aflerts ((?), that the northern inhabitants 
of Europe had the art of exprefTing things by 
writiDg, long before the Latins invented letters; 
and that the aboriginals of Italy, whom the Romans 
expcHed on' their fettlemenl therein, though rude^ 
had the knowledge of letter^ and taught them to 
Iheir conquerors. Even the Goths in a very early 
period, engraved cbara^^s or letters^ on large 

fiones, 

In) Ap. Lt€ft, <i« yit. Philo. cap. I, • 

{o) IpCos aquiloivares oninino caruifle fcriptonbus rerum 4 
{e magnifice geftaruin, cum longe ante inventas literas La- 
lioas, et antequam carmenta ex Grsecia ad oftia T/beris, 
et {Lomanuin folum cum Evandro perveoiint^ expuliifque 
aboriginijbus gencem illam rudem mores et literas docuifler« 
Gotbi fuas literas foabuerint, cujus rei iDdicium pracilant 
eziniic magnitudinis fa^a ; qux literarum formis infculpta 
pcrfoailere poifint, quod ante univerfale diiavium. vcl paulo 
poft gigantea vircute ibi ere^a fuifltat^ J. MagQus, lib. f« 
Hift. Sue. Qtp. 7. 



|68 DRUIDISM REVIvteD. 

ftones, which ihe later inhabitants believe were 
placed there before the univerfal deluge, or after 
that event, were creded by giants, AMb Lin- 
debrogius in his commentaries relates, that Cadmus 
introduced among the Greeks, letters which refcm- 
bled thofe of the Galathians and the Mseoiiicii, 
which letters were the fame as thofe of the Phoe- 
nicians ; from whence he concludes, that before the 
time of Cadmus, letters, philofophy, poetry, theo^ 
logy and laws were amongft the Gauls, Germans 
ip) and mod other inhabitants of ancient Europe, 
Even Caefar, though he aiferts that neither the 
druids of the Gauls or Britons committed their 
dodrine to writing* yet acknowledges, that the 
merchants on the fca-coafts wrote their common 
affairs in letters, nearly refembling thofe of the 
Greeks (q). This affertion of Caefar, tiiough by 
fome critics fuppofed to be introduced into the 
text by fome commentator or tranfcriber, feems 
. to be confirmed by Tacitus, who relates that 
among the Rhetii in Germany, feveral monuments 
and tumuli were to be found in his time, inferibed 
with letters not unlike the Greek (r). And Strabo 
informs us, that the Gauls and Britons wrote their 
letters, contrads, accompts and whatever related 
to public bufmefs and civil life, in Greek cHarac- 
> lets (s). But the druids would never confent that 

they 

(p) Shedius de dts German, lib. %• cap. i8. 

^'^) In reliquis fere rebus, publicif privatifque rationibui, 
(Graecis) literis utuntur. Caefar. 6. 14. 

(r) Monamenta er lumulos quofdaai Graecis Uteris iti^ 
fcripcos in confinio Germanise Rheriaeque adhuc exiftere. 
Tacitus in L. de mor. Germ. 

{s) ContraAus Graced oracioae fcribunt. StrabO| lib. 4. 



DRUIDiSM REVIVED. 169 

«they (hould commit to writing their laws and hiC- 
tory, much lefs the tenets of their rcUgton, taking 
all poffible care to conceal thofe matters from the 
people. 

From thefe teftimonies it appears probable, that 
the Celtic, Sarmatic and Scythic clans, which 
reiided in the forefis and wilds of uncultivated 
Europe, as well as the Egyptians and Phoenicians ; 
had the art of expreilmg their thoughts by means 
eidier of characters or letters, at a very early 
period ; and the aflertion of the Iri(h antiquaries, as 
before quoted, refpedting the learning of the an- . 
cient inha}>itants of this country, though in a date 
of nature, may not intirely be void of truth ; for 
ihe faculties of the human mind, in all ages and 
nations, are nearly the fame, and a date dF bar- 
barilm (for barbarous the ancient inhabitants of all 
parts of Europe, before their commerce with the 
Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans, undoubtedly 
were) doth not exclude reflection and abftra£t 
ideas, from whence arife philo(bphy and the polite 
arts. 

Egypt is at this time univerfally conCdered, by 
the learned, to have been the fource from whence 
fprang that light of knowledge and learning, which 
Ihone with fuch diftinguilhed luftre in the Greek 
and iloman empires ; fo as to furnifh the Phoeni • 
cian traders with letters and learning, fufficient not 
only to enable them to become the greatelt naviga- 
tor^ at that time in the world, and thereby to be 
the means of propagating thefe ufeful arts to the 
remoteft nations ; a circumftance, as we (hall fee 
ijx t^e fequel, was really the cafe > for though from 

tbp 



^o pRUIDISM REVIVED. 

die quotations and authorities before redted, tfier9 
is the greateft probability, that the inhabitants of 
the we&ra parts of Europe bad the knowledge o£ 
letters long before the Romans were much ac- 
quainted with them, yet we are not to infer, that 
they had fuch knowledge, prior to the era, when 
the Phoenicians by eltablifhing colonies on the. 
wefte^n coal^ of Iberia, Gaul, and building of 
Carthage, had rcxtended thet^r wmmerce to Gaul, 
£elgiufn and the Britifh iiles, about 250 years 
J>efore the tirth of Chtifi, and zoo before the 
Romans wer^ nwch acquainted either witfi Britain 
orGau)« 

During this commerce it can fearce be doubted, 
that there might be eftablifhed on the different 
coafts, factories for the greater convenience of 
trading with the natives for (kins, furs, tin and 
fuch other commodities, as the refpefkive countries 
then produced, and thereby introduce amon^ their 
philofophers the knowledge of letters ; before which 
period it is probable, they were intirely ignorant 
of fuch alphabetic elements. Thefe authorities, 
from ibme of the moft refpeifted names of anti*- 
quity, are extreniely favourable to the general 
tenor of the Irifti hiftories ; which relate, that the 
ancient inhabitants of this ifle, not only received 
their letters, but alio feveral of their religious .cere- 
monies from the Milefians; Hfho are fuppded 
to be a colony of Phoenicians or Carthaginians, 
from the weftern coafts of Spain, in a very yixly 
period. 

Though the Irifh chronicles, efpecially thofe of 
tbe latter ages, are very circumfiantial on this 

fubjeft, 



PRUIDISM REVIVED. vjt 

fubjcft^ yet as they hav^ not produced any au- 
thentic authorities, or living proofs to corroborate 
their affextions, their hiftories hitherto have been 
confidercd by the learned in general, little better 
than ingenious fables, the invention of dark and 
illiterate ages. They do indeed, in feveral places, 
(pecify the names and order of their ancient pagan 
ktters, but have not given the characters them- 
felvM, having in their fiead inferted the Latin let* ^ 
ters of the fifth and (ixth centuries ; to which they 
have not only given the names of their pagan, 
but have alfo annexed feveral fanciful interpreta- 
tions, that have not the le^ll foundation in truth, 
but arofe intirely from the imagination of the 
refpedlive writers.. Notwithftanding therefore the 
probability, from the authorities before quoted, 
that the Phoenician and Punic traders did introduce 
letters both into Ireland and Britain, yet the truth 
mud ever remain involved in darknefs and obfcu- 
rity, and a doubt muil ever hang on the alfertions 
relative to the learned Hate of the pagan Irifh, if 
Vfc were not in poffelfion of living evidence, from 
feveral monuments of antiquity, ftUJ remaining in 
different parts of the kingdom \ fome of which 
evidently owe their exiftcnce to ag^ prior by 
{bme centuries, to the eftablifhment of Clviftianity 
in Ireland. The infcriptions found on tihefe monu-- 
ments confirm, beyond the power of confutatiout 
the aflertions of the Iri(h antiquaries, refpeding the 
literature of the pagan inhaWtants of this country. - 
By thefe we are impowered to afferl, that the 
Irifh druids had not only tKe method of cominitting 
tb^ir 4o£trinc and learning to writing, but that 



1)4 DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

the charaftcrs and letters made ufe of for this pur- 
pofe, bear not only a great affinity to thofe of the 
ancient Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Egyptians, 
but in feveral inttances are exaftly the fame j a$ 
may be feen on comparing them with the charaftcrs 
and infcriptions on the Bembine and RamefTsean 
tables. By thefe alfo it appears, that the Hibernian 
druids, like the Egyptian priefts, made ufe of both 
hieroglyphic and alphabetic charafters. Their 
letters alfo, like thofe of the ancient Egyptians, 
were of two fpecies that is, facred and prophane ; 
the prophane were thofe ufed in the common oc- 
currences of life, public contraflts, ordinances of 
ftate, poems, &c. and mentioned by antiquaries 
under the denomination of the Boheloth charaHers^ 
and were the fame or nearly fo, whh thofe of the 
Punic and Phoenician. The facred were thofe 
mentioned under the name of Ogham and Ogham 
Croabh ; thefe letters were mixed with fymbols and 
hieroglyphics, in their hiero-gramrpatic writings, 
or thofe which treated of their religion, philofophy 
and laws. 

The method of defcribing the human thoughts 
by the reprefentatlon of the feveral objedts of 
nature, fcems to have been the firft effort of the 
mind towards tranfmitting the knowledge of paft 
tranfadtione to pofterity. At what period therefore 
this invention took its rife is impoffible to determine \ 
!t probably was during the infant ftatc of fociety, 
as the pfadtice of writing by means of piftures and 
fymbols was univerfal, not only among all the 
nations of antiauity, but even fuch among the 
Jipodern who are in their firft ftages of civilization ; 

for 



DRUIDISMREVIVED. m 

for not only the ancient Egyptians, Ethiopians, 
Libyans, Indoftans, Chinefe, Perfians, Medcs, Phoe- 
nicians, Syrians, lonians, Scythians, Sarmats and 
Celtes (/) ufed hieroglyphics, but the ancient Mex- 
icans, before their commerce with the Europeans, 
and even the wandering tribes of North America, 
to this day draw on the bark of trees, in (ymbolic 
and hieroglyphic characters, their obfervations oa 
places and things. From the univcrfality therefore 
of this method of depiAing the human thoughts, 
there is fome probability, that it took its rife in 
ages prior to the univerfal deluge, though the pro- 
grefe which the antediluvians made therein muft 
ever remain an impenetrable fecret. The rude 
refemblance of men, trees, animals, &c. on rocks 
and {Ibnes feem, from an ancient tradition, to tiave 
been the firft books in which mankind in the moft 
early periods, tranfmhted the knowledge of paft 
events to future ages («). But the method of de- 
fcribing only fubftantives or things, to exprefs the 
cUfferent afFeftions of the mind, being extremely 
imperfect, as human ideas were enlarged by the 
advancement of the arts of civil life, the philofo- 
phers, prieils and legiflators of the different nations, 
foacid it neceffary to invent other characters to 
cxpreis the abftradt ideas and relative qualities; 
from whence arofe the fevetal fpecies of fymbolic 
writing in univerfal ufe, through every ftage of the 
Chinefe, Perfian and Egyptian empires. But as 
fymbols required greater efforts of the mind than 

barely 

(/) Herodotus, Clem. Alex. Strom, lib. 5. p. 567. Olacs 
Magnus, lib. 1. cap. 2. 

{u] Herodotas> J. Magnuf„ Tacitus, &c.. 



174 DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

barely hieroglyphics or pictures, they probably 
were not the invention of barbarous nations, but 
that all the middle and weftern countries of the 
ancient world were indebted for them to the 
E^ptiansi at leatt all thofe which have hitherto 
been difcovered, belonging to the aboriginal inha- 
bitants of Europe, are found in the Rameffaean, 
Bembine, and otljer iablee of Egyptian infcriptions. 

The Irifh fymbols, hitherto difcovered, are by 
no means numerous, though fev^al more, moft 
proboUy^ -rnxj. be brought to. light, by .a diligent 
fearch into fuch monument* of antiquityl, yet un- 
explored in feveraf parts of Ireland ; fome might 
alio very probably be found in Britain^ if not in 
France, Spain, Germany and other couiftriee pof- 
feffed by the aboriginal inhabitants t at lead, it 
would be worth the labour of the le4rned, in 
different parts of Europe, to make the tr]|(aL 

Of fuch Hibernian druidic iymbols as l»ve come 
to our knowledge, we have attempted an explana- * 
tion, according to the beft authorities^ ia the order 
• df the annexed table. \ 

No. I, 2, .3 and 4 . j 
Are the traces of fpiral lines found on-ftones in 
the tumulus of New-Grange in the cjounty of 
Meath. . Thefe lines^ppear to be the repr^fcntation 
of ferpents coilled up, and probably werp fymbols 
of the Pivine Being ; for ierpents we are aifured 
by Pliny, Tacitus and others, w.ere held' in great 
veneration by not only the Gauls arid.Celtes in 
general, but alfo by the Sarmatae, Scythae and 
every other people inhabiting ancient Europe. 
Even this veneration proceeded fo Ux as to induce 

the 



ild. 2. 



M-f 



TABZIt I. 

Druu&c Symlxrls. 



K." 


C/?/7ract^r, 


JTf 


(yi<iracler. 


1 


@ 


s 


o 


9. 


# 


9 


A 


5 


^ 


la 


/ 


4 


^f' 


11 


t. 


3 


® 


n 


^ 


6 





13 


n 


7 




H 


CD 



r 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. tjg 

the people to pay them divine honours ^ and 
Gaguinns fays, that the Lithuanians and Samo* 
githians retained ferpents as their penates or houfhold 
gods ; the Egyptians alfo ufed a ferpent as a fym« 
bolic reprcfentation of the Divine Nature and Eter- 
nal Wifdom (w) i indeed all authors, iacred and 
prophane, agree in' afcribing to the ferpent the fym- 
botic reprefentation of wifdom and eternity, through- 
out all nations of antiquity. Even Mofes^ in bis 
relation of the fall of man^ feems to infmuate fome* 
thing myfterious in the fagacity df this reptile ; and 
St. Paul alludes thereto, where be (ays, be as wife 
iufcrpems. The ancients underfiood, undoubtpdiy 
much better than the moderns, the real difpofition 
of the brute creation ; whilil the modems are ex- 
ploring the different fpecies of animal organization, 
the ancients turned fheir thoughts towards thdr 
dtfpofitions and mental pro{>erties. The druids of 
the Celte^ feem to have been as well verfed in this 
fcience as any of their cotemporaries ^ fince they 
invented a fiory of the ferpents and their egg, aa 
an allegory, in which they involved the creation of 
the world and the origin of things, according to 
Pliny, who has preferved in his natural hiftory 
thia curious fpecimen of Celtic theology {m) ; from 
whence we may juftly conclude, that the fpiral 
lines found in the tumulus of New-Grange, on a 
cromleach near Dundalk, and on feveral Britifh 
coins, are reprefentations of ferpents and fymbota 
of the Divine Being. A circumftance confirnied 
by Quintus Curtius, who (ays, tlie temple of Jupiter 

Ammon 

(w) Herodotus, Warburton's Divine LegatioB** 
(jr) Plin. lib. v(^ cap. it. 



fje DRUIDISM REVIVEl^. 

Ammon had a rude ftone, whereon was drawn a 
fpiral line, the fymbol of the Deity. And the 
cuftom aiilong the Greeks and Romans of fumifh- 
ing the meffenger of the Gods, Mercury, with a 
caduceus of twifted ferpents, as an emblem of his 
divine commiflion, feems to be derived from this 
ancient fymbol. 

No. 5. 
la alfo found in the tumulus at New-Grange, 
' and, ^s it bears a great refemblance to the cha- 
ra£ter or fymbol ufed by the Egyptians to reprcfent 
their goddefe Ifis, when confidered as the earth or 
paiflive principle of nature, it is very probable, that 
by the druids it was taken in the fame fenfe. The 
Egyptians in their myfteries maintained, that every 
thing owed its exiftence to two principles, the one 
a£tive and the other paffive ; the active principle 
they underftood to be fire, which vivifies and 
nourifhes the productions of nature Cy)^ and the 
paffive the earth, which brings them forth, as the 
great mother. The firft they called Apis or Ofiris, 
or the male principle, and the fecond Ifis, or the 
female principle. By a conjundtion of thefe, after 
the manner of animal procreatbn, not only the 
Egyptians but the Thracians, Samothracians, PIx»- 
nicians, Carthaginians and Celtes (z) believed every 
produAion was brought forth and nourifhed. 
Whence Hefiod relates, that gods and men are 

the 



(yJ Warburton's Divine Legation. Ramfcj's Mythology 
of the Ancients. Herodotus. 

(«) Hiftoire de$ Celtes, torn. a. liv. 3. chap. 6. 



DRtriDfsM Revived. 177 

theiflue of the marriage of heaven and earth (tf). 
The drukliS dittmguifhed the aftive principle or 
fire by the rtame of //>, /fo, or /«// and tentateSy 
\\m is, the He or tnttrculine principle, who by ita 
aftion on the earth, M^hom they confidered the 
Mother of Nature, caufea it to produce the feveral 
fpecies of animals and vegetables. The earth there- 
fore was the paflTive principle, which in this cafei ' 
they frequently called ops or opis^ fitnn the Celtic 
op to cry out, from whence opcigh a crier, alluding 
to the cries of a mother in labour ; the earth being 
fuppofed to labour, in bringing forth her various 
produdions, as a woman in child-birth {b) ; whence 
we may reafonably conclude, that the Egyptian 
Ofiris, the Celtic Die, Tis or Teut were the fame^ 
and fignified the univerfal fpirit or aftive principle^ 
which the ancients undcrllood to be fire; alfo the 
Egyptian Ifis, the Greek Ceres, and the Celtic Ops 
were of the fame import, and reprefehtcd the earth 
or nature In general. The charadker therefore we 
are now fpeaking of, as it bears fo great a refem- 
blancc to thofe in the Bcmbine tables reprefenting 
the earth or nature, undoubtedly among the druids 
was of the fame fignification. It feems alfo to 
have been retained by the ancient Irifh, long after 
their converfion to Chriftianity, in the form of 
No. 6, to reprefent Jefus Chrift the Saviour of th<J 
World ; in which fenfe it ftands on all the Irilh coins. 
Vol. II. N No- 

(n) Deonim gentis tcnerandiinj (Mofac) imprimis celebranc 
carmiaibus, quos ab exordio ttllus et latum cslum genuc-^ 
rent, quinque ex bis prognati funt, dii datores bonoruoi. 
Hcfiod Theag. p. 44 

(b) Rhea katinis Ops. Aufon. Idyll. 12. p. 114. Nam 
O^tf icrfa eft. Seivius ad /i^^ncid, 1. 325. 



178 DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

No. 7, 

Is a fort of Trellis-work found on one of the 
tabernacles at the mount of New-Grange, and on 
fevera! ftones and crolfes both in Ireland and 
Britain. Trellis-work or fmall lozenges} amongft the 
ancient Britains, Germans and indeed all the abo- 
riginals of Europe,/ fignified fate, providence, 
chance, or fortune. It feems to have been derived 
from a fpecies of divination ufed by the Scythic 
and Celtic tribes, confifting of long quadrangular 
pieces of wood taken from fruit trees ; thefe pieces 
Had fevera! fymbolic charafters engraven on them, 
when, being in the aft of divining, they were 
thro>^n acrols ^ as the feveral characters fell and 
anfwered to each other, the aufpices were taken (c). 
Thefe pieces of wood called by the Scythae run-Jichs 
and by the Irilh ogham croabh^ that is, the ftaves and 
furrows of wifdom, were retained many centuries 
after the eftablidiment of Chriiilianity, and their 
pofition in divining frequently drawn on croffes 
and the walls of churches, as emblems of the 
Divine Providence ; nay, the divination itfelf was 
retained in fome parts of England to the prefent 
century (^). 

No. 8, 

Is a Circle found on feveral Irifh coins. The drcle 
among the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, 
&c. generally reprefented the Sun and fometimes 

the 

(r) Tacitus Mor. Germ. 37. Verftegan's ReftitutioD of 
decayed Intelligence. 

(//)-The Scytb«, during their pagan (late, writing on fuch 
fquare pieces of \vood, called them buckdobs; whence the 
German uanne at prefent for letters is buckftab. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. 17^ 

the World ie). With the Celtic druids it atfo 
. reprefented the Sun, and with a dot in the centre^ 
the whole Univerfe. The ancient Irifli retained it 
during the middle ages as the fymboi of a country, 
and with a point in the centre, for the whole 
kingdom, or Ireland in general (f). 

No. 9, / 

Is found on two ftone croffes at Caftle^dermot 
. in the county of Kildare, and there feems to ftand 
as a fymboi reprefenting a ghoft or fpirit; hhas 
the power of B in the Bobeloth alphabet, and ia 
there called Boibel or the chief ipirit. The Egyp- 
tians ufcd fuch a charader to reprefent a hawk, < 
which was their fymboi for the foul, called Baietb, 
becaufe the human foul by them was fuppofed to 
refide in the heart {g). 

No. 10, 

Is found on two ftone croffes at Caftle-dermot, and 
there ftands for a perfon. The Egyptians ufed this 
character as the reprefentation of a perfon or ipan 
in general, as may be feen in the Rameffaean and 
Bembine tables ; it is alfo ftill ufed in the fame 
fcnfe by the Indians of North- America (A). 

No- II, 

Is the reprefentation of an arrow, and is found on 
feveral Irilh and Britifti coins. The arrow among 
the Egyptians and Arabs was the fymboi of hunt- ' 
ing ; in which fenfe it probably ftood among the 

N 2 Celtcs, 

(#) Warburton's divine Legation. 

(/J Oy literam, nominibus pradigunt optimates Hiberou 
Camden. 

(g) Warburton's divine Legation. 

(b) RaynaPs European Sectlemenls 19 tbe Indiesi vol. 3, 
Carver's Travels, &c. 



ito DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

Celte^ and is placed on the coins of thdr 
to exprefs their abilities in the chace. 

No. 12, 

Is alfo found on feveral coins both Britifb and 
Irifh; fuch a character is found in the Bembine 
tables reprefenting a ihieid, and was the fymboi of 
a commander in war ; in which fenfe it feems to 
have been ufed by the Celtes in general. 

No. 1 3, 

Is found on feveral Iri(h coins ; fuch a character is 
found in a number of Egyptian infcriptions, where 
it fe the fymboi for a king, judge or governor 5 in 
which fenfe it feems to have been ufed by the 
ancient lri(b. 

No. 14, 

Is found in the tumulus at New-Grange, arni 
probably is the fymboi of a houfe or habitation. 
The Egyptians ufed a charadber nearly refembling 
this in the fame fenfe, as may be feen on one of 
the obelifks of Cleopatra. 

In the explanation of Numbers i^ 2, 3 and 4 of 
the above fymbols, it may be objected, that there 
being no ferpents in Ireland, the Irifh druids could 
not have taken that reptile as the fymboi of the 
Divine Being ; but we ought to confider that the 
Cehic religion was not confined to any particular 
country, but maintained by alt the aboriginal inha- 
bitants of Europe j being the religion not only of 
Ihc ancient Irifh, but of the ancient Britons, Gauls, 
Cimbri, Celto-Iberians, Italians and Thracians ^ it 
likewife laid the foundation of that of the Greeks 
and Romans. 

By 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. iSi 

By the few chara^ers hitherto difcovered it is 
extremely probable, that the weftern Celtic tribes 
as well as the Irifli received their fymboU from the 
Carthaginian and Phoenician traders -, though pof* 
fibly they might have had feme fort of hieroglyphic 
writing in an earlier period ; however, it is more 
than probable^ that the ufe of letters was not 
known among them long before the Punic met; 
chants vifited their coails. 

* 

The invention of letters or alphabetic charadkers 
have by (bme been placed prior to that of hiero- 
glyphics and fymbolsj but if we confider, that 
they were the laft effort of the human mind, in 
order to accomplifh an effedtual method of tranf- 
mitting the ideas to future ages, we (hall be inclined 
to place their difcovery in much later periods. If 
they had been the invention of the antediluvians^ 
or of equal Handing with hieroglyphics, as fom^ 
learned perfons have imagined, all the nations of 
the earth would moft probably have been conver- 
fiint with them, whereas the contrary is fufficientLy 
evinced. All the focieiies of mankind, in the dif- 
ferent periods of time, at a certain ftage of civili- 
zation, had the method of expreffing their thoughts 
by hieroglyphics if not fymbols ; but letters were 
confined among the ancients as among the moderns, 
to not only a particular, but in a great meafure 
thrf very fame part of the globs. The only nations 
of antiquity who underf\ood this divine art, were 
the Egyptians, the Libyans, the Ethiopians, the 
Arabians, the Indoftans, the Medes, the Perfians, 
the Syrians, the Hebrews, the Phoenicians, the 
Celtas, the weflern Scythse, the Grteks and Romans; 

compre- 



iH DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

comprehending the prefent Europe,, the north and 
north-eaft parts of Africa, and the fouth and weftem 
parts of Afia j the only part, of the world at this 
day which have the knowledge of alphabet charac- 
ters, except the European colonies in America and 
Africa, within the laft century. 

Egypt therefore^ as (he was the parent of the 
fcveral arts and fciences which illuminated the an- 
cient world, probably gave birth to letters j a dr- 
cumftance not only confirmed by the affertion of 
feveral of the Greek and Latin writers (/), but 
further evinced from the remarkable fimilarity be- 
tween all the alphabets of antiquity ; for the letters 
contained in the ancient Ethiopic, Arabic, Mala- 
barian, Chaldaic, Samaritan, Phoenician, Punic, 
Etrufcan, Cuphic, Greek and Runic alphabets (how 
(evident figns of being derived from one aommon 
origin ; and feveral of them, in each alphabet, are 
adtually found as fymbols and hieroglyphics, not 
only in the RamefTaean and Bembiiie tables, l^ut in 
feveral infcriptions difcovered in the pyramids. 
To the Egyptians therefore are we indebted for 
the invention of letters, which they took from thejr 
hieroglyphic and fymbolic charaders ; but the time 
they made this important difcovery cannot be 
determined ; it was probably in a very early 
period ;. for Mofes, who was (killed in all the 
learning and wifdom of the Egyptians, wrote in 
alphabetic charafters, which he undoubtedly ob- 
tained from thence, though they have been long 
fmceloft-, the prefent Hebrew letters not being 

the 

(f) Dps Vignols Chfon. tome a. Arundel tables. 



DtlUIDISM REVIVED. 183 

the fame in which the Pentateuch was originally 
written. But in whatever period Egypt made a 
difcovery fo beneficial to the human race in general, 
it fcems to have been the fource from which lettere 
proceeded in three diftinft channels through th? 
ancient world. The firft, taking a northern courfe, 
watered the weftern parts of Afia, and the eaftern, 
fouthern and midland parts of Europe. The 
fecond proceeding weftward, enlightened the north- 
cm parts of Africa, and in procefs of time, in 
conjundtion with the firil, the weftern coafts of 
Europe j whilft the third, being thrown in a fouth 
and eaft direction, furni(hed the Ethiopians, Ara- 
bians and Indians, with the ineftimable art. The 
Egyptian letters, efpecially during the middle ages 
of their empire, confifted of three fpecies, that is 
the literal, the epiflolary and hiero-gramraatit. 
In the firft were written their fdentific works, 33 
philofophy and laws; in the fecond, their common 
occurrences of life, and in the third, their religious 
fubjedts {k). The feveral people who vifited that 
country, having been inftrudled in thefe methods 
rf writing by the priefts, introduced them into 
their own ; where they not only were retained for 
the aforefaid purpofes, but from them and the fym- 
bolic charaAers new alphabets were formed, in 
which the feveral fpecies of the Egyptian letters 
were found, caufing thereby the letters of the 
. feveral nations, though derived from a common 
origin, to be materially different from each other. 

Mofes may be confidered the father of the 
northern branch, and the firft who brought letters 

into 

{k) Warbunon's ditrine Legation. 



IH DRUIPISM REVIVED. 

into the weftcrn parts of Afia, tl>ougb they foem 
to have made no confiderable progrefs for fome 
lime, being qoniined to the Jewi(b nation. It .was 
not until about the fourteenth gentury before the 
Chriftian era, when the Canaanites, who fled bom 
Jolhua and retireci into Egypt, had been expelled 
that country by Amofts, and fettled in Phcenicc, 
that we n>ay date the generol introdu^ion of lettcis 
into the weftern parts of Afi« (/) ; from Pbocnice 
they proceeded to the Syrians, lonians and Modes, 
snd were probably thofc charafters mentioned by 
Pliny, under the name of eternal letters, being the 
foundation of tlie Pbo&nician, Samaritan, loiuan 
, find Chaldaic alphabets. In the beginning of the 
eleventh century before Chrift, the 'Phoenicians and 
jSyiians, flying under the condudk of Cadmus and 
pther captains from David, introduced letters into 
Greece and ^he adjacent countries (m) ; about three 
hundred years after Cadmus had thus introduced 
letters^ mufic and poetry among the Greeks, the 
JVfedes revolting from the Aflyrians, numbers were 
obliged to feek an asylum in the fouthern and mid- 
land parts of Europe, where they were known for 
feveral ages by the name of Sarmatse or Sar-^Mads, 
that is defcendants of the Mcdes (») ; thefe people, 
w1k> liad obtained the ufe of letters about four 
hundred years before their fettlement in Europe, 
probably introduced them among the Celtic and 
Scy tliic tribes of the middle regions ; where after 

undergoing 

(/) Newton's Chronology. 
(m) Ibid. 

(w) They were fo called hy the' Hebrews. Pezron'^ 
^ntu|uities of Nations. Hilloifc des C^^lu^i torn. |. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. 185 

undergoing feverid <^nge« and alterations by the 
Teveral clans, laid the foundation of the Runic 
alphabet, and the feveral fpecies of letters ufed by 
the Goths and Saxons, before their converfion to 
tlie Chriftian faith, mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus 
and other writers on the antiquities of the northern 
nations. In the mean time, the Cadmasan letters 
being fomewhat altered by the Felafgians and^thcr 
abwiginalfl of the country (0), were by the lonians 
and Fhoceans, on their eftabliihment of the colonies 
of Etruiia and MaiElia, about the forty-fifth 
olympiad, introduced into Italy, thereby laying 
th^ foundation of the Etrufcan, Maflilian and 
lUuettc alphabets (p) ; for which reafon Csfar and 
Tadtus obferve, that the Gauk and Rhaets of 
their times, had letters refembUng the Greeks ; and 
PKny afierts, that it was the received opnion that 
all tbfl European nations had their letters from the 
lonians (q). 

The third branch, from the great fourcc of learn- 
ing proceeding weftward, fettled in the northern 
parts of Africa among the Lybians; where in 
procefs of time, an alphabet was formed fomewhat 
difierent from any of the others ; the charaftcrs 
belonging to this alphabet are Ml preferved in 

fome 

(5) Diod. Slcul. 1. 3. 140. 

(/) See note (f) and (r), page l68. 
(^) Genriumconfenrus laciius primus omniufn conrpIra?it» 
ut ioAucD Uteris uterentur. Piin. I. 7. 57. Strabo, 1. 4. 

idi. 

The Romans appear to have received the Ionian letters 
from the Etrufcans, about the 400th year of their city, and 
3S4 before Cbrift, as in their 391 ft year, they had the 
cultom of placing a nail in the capiiol, to afccrtain the 
Dumber of years from the foundation of Rome. LiV. I. 7* 3. 



i86 DRUIDISM REVIVED- 

fome antique infcriptions, found in Sicily, men- 
tioned by Mr. Brydone in his Tour through that 
ifland, and there called the Chaldaic ; they are not 
Chaldaic but the ancient Libyan (r). The Phoeni- 
cians, on their eftabli(hment at Carthage under 
Dido, mixed their letters with the Libyan, whence 
the Punic alphabets were in feveral inftances dif- 
ferent from the ancient Phoenician, and nearly the 
fame as the Maffilian, which had obtained feveral 
I-ibyan letters, from their commerce with thcfe 
people. From the Maffilians the Gauls received 
their letters, which on the eftabliftirftent of the 
Chriftian religion, being mixed with the Etrufcan, 
laid the foundation' of the Latin alphabets of the 
middle ages. On the conqueft of Spain by the 
, Carthaginians, the compound Punic alphabet was 
introduced into that country ; where it feems to have 
taken place in the commercial affairs of the ancient 
Iberians, which probably was the fame as the Li- 
byan, and that mentioned by Strabo, who fays (s\ 
' that the priefts of the Iberians had the art of writing 
very early. From Spain, letters probably were 
introduced, by means of the Iberian and Gallic 
merchants, fome few years before the birth of 
Chrift, into the Britifti ifles. 

For, from the afferiions of Strabo, Ptolemy and 
others, there is the greatett probability that Ireland 
was not unknown to the Phoenician merchants (bon 
after the conqueft of Spain by the Carthaginians ; 
but what fettlement they made therein we have not 

any 

(r) The language of ihefe infcriptions appcari to be the 
Punic or Phcenician. 
(j) Strabo, L 3. 1^9. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED; 1*7 

any authentrc information ; as the benefit of trade 
with this ifland, at that time, could not be great, 
confifting only of ikins and filh, they probably 
made only temporary and occafional vifits, whilft 
Britain remained their chief place of rendezvous, 
by reafon of its tin, a commodity in much requeft 
with the fouthepi nations of antiquity. Britain 
therefore may be confidered as the grand faftory 
of thefe traders in this part of the world, and where 
they bad the greateft opportunity of introducing 
letters, arms, commerce and religion among the 
natives ^ which improvements might be in fucceed- 
ing ages brought into this country by the Briti(h 
colonies, who fled from the terror of the Roman 
arms •, if they were not introduced by the Gallic 
and Iberian merchants, who, on the conquell of 
Sf)ain and Gaul by the Romans, carried on an . 
cxtenfive trade to Ireland fome few years before 
the Chrifiian era, as we are aifured by Tacitus ; 
who ailerts, that in his time the ports of Ireland 
were better known to foreign merchants than thofe 
of Britain (/). In fome of the mod ancient Irifli 
poems, the arrival 6f thefe ftrangers on the Hiber- 
nian coails is frequently mentioned, to whom fub- 
fequent writers have attributed the introdudtion of 
letters and feveral other arts of civil life ; in confe- 
quence of which, they aifert, that the firft grammar 
of the Irifti tongue was written fome few years 
before the birth of Chrift by Forchern, who in the 
compilation, ufed the Bobeloth charafter, which 
they elleem the mod ancient form of letters ufed 

in 

(/) Tacitus ?it, A^rig, 



l8t DRUID ISM REVIVED. 

in Ireland {u). The names and order of thefe letters 
have been preferved by the latter writers, elpedally 
hy Ceanfaolidh, an author of the ferenth century, 
who is fatd to have trsuifcribed and illuftrated 
V Forchern^s gramtniaf; ; but whether Ceanfaolidh in 
hb tranfcdpt made. uie.of Farcbtra's characters, or 
tbofe of the Latins then in general nfe throughout 
the ifland, we are not informed ; but which ever 
might have been ufed fof this pnrpofe, the form of 
the Bobeloth characters have undoubtedly been loft 
for feverat centuries, as none of the writers of the 
ktier ages gjve the leaft fp^cimen of thera. 

As little iatisfaCtion therefore as the bare names 
and order of letters muft be, without thfc characters 
themfelves, yet they have been the means of fupply- 
ing the dtk&. and negligence of former antiquaries ; 
and have enabled us, from a number of antient 
infcriptions found in different parte of the kingdom, 
and firom fomc MSS. to give the Bobeloth characters 
complete, as far at lealt as concerns the alphabet, 
in the annexed table. 

By this table it appears, that the ancient Bobeloth 
characters of the Irirti were all fymbols, and bear 
A great affinity to the Phoenician and Punic, as will 
be fully (hown in the examination of eadi particular 
letter. 

The name of the firft is Infibel or hM^ whidi ra 
tlie old Celtic, Irifh and Punic tongues fignifies the 
chief fpirit or ghoft, from boj boi or boe a ghoft or 
apparition, and bd a chief or lord j from whence 
Bd or Baal in the Canaanitifh, and Beat in the 

"^ rlrifli, 

(tf) O Flaherty, Keating^ &c. 



Vol.i. 



T^4BLE IT. 



/use 



BOBELOTH 




C/iuraitrr 


Fewer 


JVam^ 


K 


n 


Bm/^el 


J. 


z 


Zot/i 


X 


F 


JF'ora/in 


•-V. 


s 


SaAu 


• 


JV 


^eu^a//(m 


H 


IT 


[/iri/i 


^ 


n 


• 2?ail^/!ot/A 


4- 


T 


lei/m^n 


S. 


c 


Cool - 


• 


cc 


Ca/7^ 


iSL 


ji 


Afmna 


r 


G 


6^a/h 


A/ 


^9 


^Nfeun/ir 


T 


J 


s/dra , 


>o 


n 


Jiralen 


^ 


A 


Acal^ 


X 


o 


Cse 


■v 


r 


Ura , 


3 


£ 


£su 




ui 

m 


J'aickun 


m- ^^ ' 


# 


lo 


O ^ot ^ 



y r-l-j 1 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. it^ 

Iiiib, the genertl name araong the Cartiiag^niatia 
for God. Thi; charafter was ufed by the Egyptians 
as the reprefentation of a hawk and the fy mbol for 
the foul^ as we have before obferved ; and as a B^ ia 
found on a ftone cro& at Caftle-dermbt. 

The fecond letter of the Bobeloth alphabet haa 
the power of L, and is called losk ; which was of the 
fame import in the Phoenician and Punic tongues, as 
k in the Celtic, and lot in Irifh, which fignifies li^t, 
the day, and foraetimes figuratively the fun (•»). 
The Egyptians as well as the Thracians and Celteas 
in general, reprefented.the fun or light by a fingie 
pillar (x) ; that of the Egyptians was in the fame 
form as this letter, as appears from the RamefTaBan 
tables. This charafter is found as an L on one of 
the crofies at Callle-dermot, and in the Libyan 
alphabet. 

The third letter is called fbram and has thiB 
power of F* Foran or furan fignifies in the andeol 
Cdtic^ a cunning and fkilful man in any art or 
fciencc, figuratively a (harper or thief. This letter ' 
has great affinity to the Punic P, and as fuch ia 
found on one of the crofles at Caftle-dermot. 

The fourth letter is /aha^ and has the power of S* 
Salia^ in the old Celtic and Punic, fignifies a wave, 
from fal to leap (yX by rcafon waves are cooftantly 
in motion; whence figuratively the fca. The 
Egyi^iana and Arabs ufed this character for water, 
atKl is the iame as the Phoenician S placed in a 

different 



(ho} Hiftoire des CeUcs. ClTdi fur te Un^u4 Ccldqu^. 
(x) Pezron on rhe Antiquuies of Nations. 
(jj Pesroii on t4atiotis« 



ipoi DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

different direftion ; and as fuch is found on a cro(s 
at Caftle-dermot and in fomc ancient MSS. 

The fifth letter is called neigadon and has the 
power of N. Neigadon in the ancient Phoenician, 
if not in the Celtic, fignifies a ruler or governor. 
This diaradter was ufcd by the Egyptians as the 
reprefentation of an eagle, and the fymbol for a 
king, as may be feen on the Bembine tables, and 
is only the Phoenician N inverted. This letter is 
found on a crofs at Caftle-dermot, where with fomc 
additional ftrokes, it is become a contradion for 
laim or lain the hand. 

9 

The fixth is called uiria^ and has the power of 
H. Uiria in the Phoenician language fignifies a 
fervant or flave ; what relation the charadter has to 
that name doth not appear, but it is evidently de* 
rived from the Phoenician H, to which it has a 
great affinity, wanting only the tranfvcrfe lines. 
The Phoenician H bears fome refemblance to a 
chair inverted ; whether the Egyptians ufed a chair 
as the fymbol of flavery is not certain. This letter 
is found in an infcription at Fre(hford in the county 
of Kilkenny. 

The feventh has the power of D, and is called 
Daibhoith or Dhaibhaith^ that is, the wifdom of God; 
from the Punic and Egyptian Dfu God and baeith 
afoul, fpirit or. wifdom. The char after reprefents 
a ferpent, which we have obferved before, was the 
fymbol of the Divine Nature ; it is the Libyan D, 
which was afterwards introduced into the Latin 
alphabets of the middle ages with fome alterations. 
This letter is found on a ftone at Dunbrody Abby, 
and on feveral Britilh coins, which are evidently 

older 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. i^ 

older than the introdudtion of Chriftianity into that 
ifle. 

The eighth has the power of T, and is called 
tcilmon or teilmen^ that is, the ftone of power, from 
men^ in the Libyan and old Celtic, a ftone, and teil 
or tal of power (z). The Libyans and all the 
Celtes, Phoenicians and Egyptians ufed large up« 
right fl:on<^s as the fimulacres of God and fire ^ 
whence this charadter is, in the Beithluifnon alphabet, 
called tienne or fire. This charadter nearly refem- 
bles the Punic T, and is found on a crofs at 
Caftle-dermot. 

The ninth has the power of C, and is called cm^ . 
which in the Phoenician tongue fignifies a hand, to 
which the charadter has a great refemblance ; the 
two upper lines reprefenting the fingers and thumb, 
and the other, part of the arm. The Hebrews 
called their Cj caph or the hollow of the hand. 
This letter is found on a crofs at Caftle-dermot and 
is only the Phoenician C inverted. 

The tenth is called cailep^ and has the power of 
CCy which is in Irifh pronounced nearly like G 
hard in Engli(h. Cailep fignifies a double hand, 
and is only two cms joined together. The cha- 
radter nearly refembles the Etrufcan K reverfed, 
and is the fame as the Runic. It is found on a 
crofs at Caftle-dermot, where it is a contradtion for 
cajb or a foot. 

The eleventh is called moiria^ and has the power 
of M. Moira or mora fignifies a fhip, from mm' in 
the Celtic, which is the fca. This character is the 

fame 

(s) Pezron's Antiquities. 



154 DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

fame as the andetit Canaanttifh and libyaii M 
reverfed, as is found in an infcription in Sicily •, it is 
alfo found in ihe tumulus at Ncw^range, and on 
a ftone at Dunbro^y Abby. 

The twelfth ha« the power of G, and is called 
gAth or gt^k^ which in the old Irifli, Cehic and 
Phoenician fignifics a fword or battlc-ax. The 
charader is evidently the ancient battle-ax, and the 
fame as the Greek jf^ww/war, and nearly refcmbles the 
Punic G, wMch was the Saracenic Gh. This cha- 
raiker is found in fome ancient MSS, where it is a 
contradion for gagh or fpear. 

The thirteenth is called i^oifnar^ and hath the 
power of Ng, which in the Irifli has the fame found 
as the digantma of the Greeks. Ngointat oir nganw itt 
the old Celtic and Phoenician fignifies an anchor or 
brace ; it is the Etrufcan N, and is found on a crofi 
at Caftle-dermot, where it is an N. 

The fourteenth is called idrUy and has the power 
of J. It is not certain what idra figrtifies in the 
Pho&nicitrt, but the chatadter is evidently the J or 
Y of thofe people, and was found at the rums of a 
church near A thy, and alfo on a tomb-ftone at 
Ca&le-dermot, which appears to be as old as the 
tenth century. 

The fifteenth has the power of R, and is called 
ruiben^ that is, the round head ; from the old Cekic 
rui or rotd^ round ; and ben or pen^ a head ; to 
which the charafter has fome refemblance, and is 
evidently the Phoenician R, and might be the fame 
as the ancient Hebrew R, as the more modem 
Hebrew letter of this power is called refch^ which 
alfo fignifies a head. The character appears among 

the 



l^RUID ISM REVIVED. 153 

« 

^be Egyptians to have been a fymbol, as it fre* 
quently occurs in the Bembine tables and Florentine 
obelifk. As an R, it is found on a tomb at Caftlc- 
dermot, and in an infcription in the old cathedral 
of Down. 

The fixteenth is called acab^ and has the power 
of A. Acab or agabh in the old Phcenician and 
Punic iignifies a plough, in which fenfe and that 
of agriculture, this charafter ftands on the Rame{^ 
isean tables. It is the character from whence is 
derived the Etrufcan and Roman A, and is found 
in fome Irifh MSS. as a contraction for Ar. 

The feventeenth is called ofe;^ and has the power 
of O. The charafter is the fame as the Phcenidan 
O, and as a fymbol is found in the Bembine 
tables; it is alfo found in feveral irifh MSS. joined 
with an N, arid is a contraction for NO. 

The eighteenth has the power of U, and is called 
ura^ which iii the Phoenician fignifies a ram, to the 
head of which animal the charaAer has Ibmp re(em« 
blance ; among the Egyptians it was. the fymhol for 
the (pring and paftoral lifcr As an U, it is found 
in fome manufcripts mixed with the Latin Hibernian 
characters. 

The rtinetecnth has the power of an E, and is called 
efn^ Which fignifits in the Phoenician the beafts of 
thefbreft in general i in which fenfc and that of 
huntings the character placed in a different direction^ 
fiands in the Bembine tables. It is evidently de* 
rived from the Phoenician and Etrufcan Es, and is 
found in feveral MSS. of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. _ 

Vol. H. O The 



f^ DRtrjDISM REVIVED. 

The twentieth has the power of I, and is called 
iachhtty which fignifi^s a ladder or ftepa i the Egyp- 
tians. Ujfed thi^ character to reprefent a icalli^ 
ladder, and the fymbol for a iiege and .architedtuit 
in general; as is ken in the Rameflkan tables, 
The charade is the old Phoenician and Etrufcan L 
which wa£ preferved in the Britifh Latin alphabet 
until tb& laft oentuiy. It is probable this charader 
Idooged to the ancient pagan Britilh a^abet, if 
sot to that of iJie Saxon. 

Thefc are all the letters given by Antiquaries, 
as belonging to the Bobeloth alphabet, and are 
evidently derive^ frona the Phoenician or Punic, 
and were probably the commercial tetters of thofc 
people. The order of the Bobeloth alphabet differs 
&ideed ntaterially from all thofe of antiquity, ex* 
eept the ancient Libyan, between which and the 
Boibeloth ther^e is a remarkable conformity ^ efpe- 
eiadly io the vowels, which in both, are placed at 
Ihe end, cooatiatry fo the orientals, Greeks,. Latins 
andl Etruibuis. This alphabet was probably the 
&me as the ancient BritiOi, mentioned but ooc 
Reified by the learned Mr» Whitaker,^ in his hiflnry 
of Manchefter ; and appears to be the vulgar one 
iifed b}^ the Hibernian druids in their common 
occurrences of life; who horn them, after the 
maaner of the. ancient Egyptians, Phcenidans^, 
.Gartbaginiana, Libyans and indeed by all the 
fearned nations of antiquity, invented feveral 4^cics 
of (acred charaders to be ufed witli their fymbols 
in their hiero-grammatic writings ; in order to pre- 
vent their being read either by thofe of the lower 

claitesy 



DRUlbiSM REVIVEEf. i^ff 

ckflcs, or by fuch bf thfe people who underftooa 
the ufe of letters. 

Thefe facred charaftets hare been niuch fpokciil 
of by antiquaries, unddr the denomination of Ogham. 
O Flaherty and Harris, in the fecond tolumc of his 
edition of Ware, hav6 given feveraf fpeciracns of 
them ; and Sir James Ware delates, that he had a 
book written in them on parchment. Thefe charac- 
ters they afleft were of three fpecies, that is, the 
Ogham Croabb, the Oghanri Beith, and the Ogham 
Coll or Colt, and Were iifed by the druids in the 
time of paganifm ; alfo by the kings on their coins. 
Sec. after the eftablifhment of the Chriftian religion 
in the country. They have however been looked 
up6n by the learned m g^rreral in no other light than 
cyphers, invented by the riionks of the latter ages; 
and probably would not have merited any further 
confideration, if they were not aftually found ott 
fever^l ancient coms^ dug tip in (avtral parts of the 
ktngdoitii and in feme of the infcriptions at New^ 
Grange. By thdfe it appears, that the ancient 
Ogham confitted only of two fpecies, that is, thd 
Oghai^ and Ogham Groabh. 

The Ogham was the fecred alphabetic charadlert 
of the druids, fo called from the Punic word Ochuih 
or^Hogbam,' which fignifies wifdom; by reafoil 
that all the wifdom of the druids was written, irt 
thefe charadters. The names of the letters of the 
O^ham alphabet have been loft for fevefal ages, 
but the charafters themfelves are preferred in fortle 
of the infcriptions in the tumulus at New-Grange^ 
in the old cathedral of Down, on one of the croflcs 
at Gaflle^dernAot, and on fcveral Britifh coins. 

O 2 They 



i$6 DRUID ISM REVIVED. 

They fecm fo be the charafters from whence, la 
the middle ages, the Chriftian clergy invented a 
new alphabet, which they .ufed in ccclefiaftical 
affairs, known in after ages by the name of church 
text. The Ogham ch3ra(£kQr5, a? 4cgwa rudely on 
ftones we tettTe given in table j. 

The Ogham Groabh 'charadlers were all upright 

. lines, and appear to be derived from upright ttones, 

the conitant fimiilacres of God and fire amongft 

• aU nations of antiquity. They were called Ogham 
Croabh, or the furrows of wifdom, from the Punic 

' ogham wifdom, and the Celtic croabh a "furrow, and 
not as has been interpreted by the monks of the 
latter ages, xhtfecret branch. 

As the Ogham and Ogham Croabh are words of 
foreign extradtion, probably the charaAers under 
thefe denominations were not the invention of the 
Hibernian druids, but the fecred charadters of the 
Punic, Phoenician and Egyptian priefts, if not of 
all the heathen priefts of antiquity ; for Herodotus 
afTures us, that the Greeks and lonians wrote in^ 
:chara6ters compofed intirety of right lines; and 
they are aftually found in feveral Egyptian infcri|> 
lions. The Goths alfo wrote in ftraight lines called 
by them run-rhets or furrows of wifdom. ' 

From the druidic Ogham Croabh, thie Irilh of 
|lie middle and latter ages invented feveral others. 
The firft is found on the ancient Irifti coins,* and 
feems to be derived from the flicks of divination, 
mentioned in the explanation of the fcvcnth fymbol, 
which were fomelimes called the divine-branches ; 
from whence the writers of the latter ages have 
imagined e^ham croabh fignified the fecret^branch. 

The 






roi.a 



TABLE m. 

OaJiams. 



/i.J)6^ 



(?o/i4zrrt C/i^zracTers, 



€ir $ 4 / j^ c j^ 



Oykam CroadA C/in/actO's , 



L 



J)rui\:fic. 



i 

111 

Hi 

iiii 



o. /. d. n^. 

e,s ,c .r. 



OnCozns, 



I 

II 

III 
lill 

IIII 



c.s . c\ /v. 



Given fry O JTlaAerty, Morns kc. 



» - U'i ii > m i ' ll in. 



^in i . ii m. ' /";"!'""'"" ' y^/>y 
////'//y/. i n 



h. d. t. c f. 



J oi 
-^ lUl 

JL ia. 



^. ^5- 



O ^^• 
^ ui. 



. £ 



1W.2 



TABLE m 



M97 



C^ara£t^r 



Pmi'fA JVarne 



J 

u 

A- ^ 
I > 



a; 



/TL-.yi 



Z 

JV 
F 

S 
D 
T 

C 

M 

G 

I* 

H 

A 

O 
U 

E 

I 

s/i 

cr.yr 
or 

ch 

CO 

-dha 



Bath 

JOuzs 

JViuin orNbm 

Sut7 

Diiir 

Tinne 

Co U or Colt 

3fuim 

(rart 

Jiuis 
A dim 

On 
Ubc 

JSactha 

Joda 



J- 



CUTTl 
TtO 

lis 

a^A, efAkc 

con 

/lis 



i* 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. 197 

The power of this Ogham appears to be taken 
from the Latin alphabet, but in the order of the 
Bobeloth ; which in fome meafure evinces, that it 
was formed after the introdudion of Chriftianity into 
the ifle. 

The fecond is that given by Harris in his fecond 
volume of Ware, and (hows the foundation of the 
others, especially the laft ^ and was undoubtedly 
formed from the Hibernian Latin ch^after^, in 
the order of the BobeJoth ; the diphthongs of this 
Ogham feem to have belonged originally to the 
Bobeloth alphabet. 

Thefei are the principal, if ndt all the alphabetic 
charadlers, known to the ancient pagan inhabitants 
of this ifle, fome contraftigns excepted ; for we ' 
Ihall not fpeak here of the Ogham Beith and* 
Ogham Coll, they being only cyphers, invented in 
the latter ages ; thofe who are defirous of confulting 
them, may fee them explained in the fecond volume 
of Harris's Ware. It will not however be im^ 
proper to take notice of another alphabet, men- 
tioned by feveral antiquaries under the name of the 
Bcithluifnon, and which they afTert was the fecond 
pagan Alphabet, and contained only feventeen 
letters ; the names of thefe letters they have given, 
but not any of the eharafters, inftcad of which, as 
in the Bobeloth, they have annexed the Latin cha- 
raiflers of the middle ages. On diligent enquiry, 
we have been able only to difcover the Bcithluifnon" ' 
characters on two ttone croffes at Caftle-dermot 
in the county of Eldare, though an ancient crofs 
at Sletty in the Queen's county appears to have 
been inf(iribed with them, but now too much de- 
faced 



?5« DRUIQISM HJBVIVED. 

faced by time tq ht cjecyphercd. By thefe it apr 
pears, that the Heithluifpon owfss its origin to th^ 
monks of the middle ages^ who cprnpofed it from the 
Hebrew, Greek and Arabic alphabet^, as an Abraxas 
or fecret chara(5ter wherein to write their charms 
and incantations; for the ancient inhabitants of 
Europe, in their pagan fiate, were much given to 
thefe fpccies of magip j and after their converfion 
to the Chriftian faith, retained an unconquerable 
pafEon, not only for thefe, but for a number of their 
oth^r heathen fuperttitions. . Even though the 
canons frequently condemned fuch practices, yet 
the very clergy in the middle ages, made no fcruple 
pf felling to the people c^arnt^s aqd taiifmans 
written in unknown characters. The Saxons, 
Germans and others of the Scythst uf^d their 
Runic characters for this purpofe, which on the 
introduAion of the Latin had become obfol^te ^ 
but the Irifli Hill retaining their Bohelotb charsjCters 
intermixed with the Latin in their common .occur- 
TPnces of life, ha4 not this refource ; they werp 
therefore obliged to invent n^w ones •, for this pur- 
po(e the oriental alphabets fupplied them with eyay 
neceffary material, for, by taking fome of the 
characters from one alphabet, and fome from ano- 
ther, and new modelling them, according to th^if 
minds, they compofed a fet of letters really inex- 
plicable to the body of the people, and indeed to 
any one not initiated into their n^yftcries. We 
muft not expcdl therefore much conformity in the 
Beithluifnon, between the names and characters. 
Beiih is evidently a corruption fronpi the Hebrew 
j^r/A, and is pnly that lette? deprived of its head ; 



DRUID ISM REVIVED. f$f 

litis is only the Latin and Tufcan L, and ieems 

derived from the Arabic &W; nuin is the Arabic 

nun ; fearm is the Bobebth fordmn^ only adapted to 

the more modem orthography ; Juil or fml- is only 

a corruption from the Bobeloth falm^ the chara^er 

is the Arabic Ze reverfed ; iuir is evidently taken \ 

from the Hebrew ddeth ; //ii»^, which in IriHi fig* 

nifies fire, reprefents the dmidic fymboi for that ' 

element, and is the fame as the Bobeloth teilmon^ 

which we have (hown before (ignified the fame 

thing ; ^ C9U or colt feems to be an arbitrary name; 

the character is derived from the Latin and Tufcaa 

Cs ; fminij both in name and charadler, is evidently 

derived from the Arabic mim or mem ; gort feems 

to be an arbitrary name, the character is evidently 

derived from the Het«"ew gimd or Arabic gaini 

pofh is probably arbitrary both in name and cha- 

lader ; ruis appears to be derived from the Arabic 

re or Hebrew refi ; aiJim is evidently derived from 

die Arabic elim or elfy on is derived firom the 

Arabic un or ain ; ux appears to be arbitrary, the 

chanufler is from the Tufcan U ; eaSha feems to 

be from the Arabic el^\ joda is evidently derived 

firom the Hebrew yod or Greek iota. 

Thefe are the letters which antiquaries have 
given, as belonging to the Beithluifnon charadters ; 
for H as an afpirate, was made by a point placed 
over the afpirated letter, as was done in the modern 
Irifti ; feventeen letters therefore are fufficient to 
cxprefs every found in the Irifli tongue, though 
the Latin alphabet, which the Chriftian miflionaries 
introduced into Ireland in the fifth century and 
wbicb became the vulgar character throughout the 

ifland. 



«oo DRUIDISM REVIVED.. 

ifland, even down to the feventeenth, conftantly 
retained twenty. 

During the fourth, fifth and fixth centuries, thq 
priefis, who were (ent to propagate the Chriffiaa 
faith amongfl the northern inhabitants of Europe, 
carried with them not only the Latin tongue but 
alfb the letters ufed during thofe periods, in Italy 
and other fouthern countries; which charafters 
were evidently derived from the ancient Etrufcan 
mixed with the Punic and Libyan •, and which, in 
procefs of time, laid the foundations of mod of the 
alphabets ufed in the f^veral countries of Europe 
during the middle ages, as the Iriih, Saxon, German 
and Gallic. 

The letters therefore ufed by the Irifli, both 
in their manufcripts and printed btooks, down to 
the laft century, were the Latin charafters, intro* 
duced by St. Patrick or fome other of the Chriftian 
miffionaries, and were the fame as thofe ufed through 
the greateft part of Europe during the middle ages ; 
.for which reafon Nennius aflerts, that the Irifh were 
taught their Abieloria by St. Patrick (a) ; an affer- 
tion from which Bolandus, Ware and Innes, fup- 
ported by the authority of Tirechan, a writer of 
the feventh cen;tury, have imagined, that the ancient 
Irilh had not the ufe of letters prior to their ac- 
quaintance with the light of the gofpel(^). But 
thefe learned antiquaries ought to have confidered, 

that 

(a) San^us Patricius fcrip^it Abietoria.365, et 60 amplius 
numero. Ncnniiw 59, 

(^) Unde conftat opinor, AbictorUfignificarealphabetum, 
iivc clcmcnta qu9 fcripfu et docuit Sanftus Emriciu«. War. 
dc fcript. Hibern. I z. 



DRUID ISM REVIVED. aoi 

that as the Greek alphabet was called alphaheta^ 
from the three firtt letters, and the ancient Irilh 
Bobeloth from the two firft, fo was the Latin of the 
middle ages frequently called abietoria or abicetoria^ 
from b^ginnin^ with ab c (vide. the fifth table). 
Though iheChriftian Hibernian chara<Slers are evi- 
dently derived from the Latin, yet they have been 
cruelly diilorted and mangled in their order and 
names by the monks of the latter ages, who having 
loft the form of their Bobeloth and Bethluifnon, 
applied their names to the Abiqetoria, which they 
put in the order of thofe ancient charafters ; but 
even not content with thus disfiguring them, in 
order to give them the greater appearance of an- 
tiquity, hearing from forae lof their poems and 
chronicles that the ancient Irifli wrote upon wood 
and the bark of trees, imagined their letters bore the 
names of trees ; in confequence of which they have 
interpreted the names of the Bethluifnon to fignify 
ib many trees, though they have no fuch fignifica- 
tion in any language upon earth; from whence 
^o, Bobeloth has been interpreted the Wooden 
Row ; an.inftance of the ignorance and impofitioa 
oi the nionks and antiquaries of the latter ages. 

Seeing the Irifti and Britons not only before thdir 
lX)nverfion to the Chriftian faith, but even before 
their commerce with the Romans, had the method 
of expreffing theijr - thoughts by means of letters 
^nd charafters, in common with the other aboriginal 
inhabitants of Europe ; how are we to reconcile 
fuch improvements with the aflertions of the Roman 
fiiftorians, who have conilantly maintained, tliat 
|}oi)e pf the barbarians of Europe had the ufe of 

% letters 



*02 DRUID ISM REVIVED. 

ktters, as we have before quoted ? This fceming 
difficulty however, will in a great meafure be 
overcome, if we confider that not only letters but 
all knowledge whatever, among the ancient inha- 
bitants of Europe, was intirely confined to a fet 
of people diftinguiflied by the name of druids; 
thefe, fo fer from communicating their knowledge 
and learning to the people in general, took all 
poffiblc cTare to conceal them ; alledging, that 
neither confbience nor religion permitted the laity 
to read, and that the memory would be greatly 
impaired if they began to commit their thoughts to 
writing, for no perfon would be at the trouble 
of learning by heart what they could find in every 
book (r) ; befides their inflrudlions being only for 
thofe initiated into the myfteries of the laws and 
religion of the country, they ought to be held in- 
tirely fecret, and that it would be really a facrilcge 
to commit them to public writing, becaufe after 
that it would be impoffible to prevent their dodtrine 
from falling into the hands of ftrangers. So great 
an efFedt had this artful infinuation on the minds of 
the people, that for feveral years after their com- 
merce with the Greeks and Romans, nay after 
their converfion to the Chriftian fahh, they were fo 
far from receiving the knowledge of letters with that 
avidity their utility deferved, that they conftantly 
neglected and even refufed to become acquainted 

with 

(r) Ncque fas cfle exiftimant ea literis mandare . : . . 
, . . id mihi duabus de caufis inftituifle videntur f quod 
neqiie in vulgDS difciplinam cfferri velint ; neque cos qoi 
diicuot, literis coDfifos, minus memorix ftuderc, quod fere 
plerifque accidit, ut praefidio litcrarum diiigeniiam in per*- 
difpcndo ac nicmoriam reuiitiant. C«far. 1. 6. 14. 






DRUIDISM REVIVED. 3105 

with them (d). The body of the people therefore^ 
throughout all the Celtic and Scythic tribes^ were 
undoubtedly involved in the grofleft ignorance; 
being accuilomed to hear thdr laws and hifiory 
fung extempore by their bards, they coqld not be 
perfuaded to receive the facred truths of the gofpel 
by any other pneans. Wherefore in the ninth 
century^ when Louis le Debonnaire had a mind to 
give the iacred writings to the Saxons, he was 
obliged to employ a poet of that nation to tranflate 
both the old and new tefiament into Teutonic verfe 
(0 ; alfo Otfridus havipg undertaken in the fame 
age to tranflate the four evangelifts into the Gothic 
or German tongue, was obliged to publiih them in 
verfe. Even the Anglo-Saxons neither knew how 
to read, or would be at the trouble of learning, 
but contented themfelves with getting by heart the 
&cred books, provide they were put into verfe 
that they might iing them (f). Whence as in the 
time of paganifm, all knowledge and learning were 
centered in the breads of the druids, fo after the 
eilablifliment of Chriftianity in the northern pro- 
vinces of Europe, every fpccies of erudition was 
lodged in the hands of the clergy, and immured 
within the walls of cloifters ; in confequence thereof, 
through all parts of Europe during the middle ages, 
the monks became the clerks and fcriveners in 
every public bufmefs \ no will could be drawn, no 
donation or privilege granted, or any other public? 
fL6t paflfed without their affiftance. 



From 



(//) Hiftoire des Celtes, torn. |. chap* lo. 
(f) Du Chefne Rer. Franc, torn. a. p. 3269 
f/D Hiftoii'e des Celteii ^om« 1. chap. ip. 



ft04 DRUIDISM revived; 

From thtfe circumftances we cannot be furprized, 
that the Greek and Roman writers fliould aflfert that 
none of the Celtes had the ufe of letters ; for though 
the druids committed the principal tenets of their 
religion, philofophy and laws to writing, yet as 
they took all poflible care to conceal the books in 
which thefe fubjeds were written, not only from 
Arangers but even from their own people, the 
~ ancients had no means of becoming acquainted 
with the dnudic writings. 

On what materials therefore the druids wrote, or 
what were the form of their books, we have not 
the leaft authentic information ; but as paper was 
, not invented till the eleventh century (^), nor 
parchment known in the north of Europe until the 
Romans had introduced it, it bould not have been 
on thefe fubibinces. Tacitus &ys, that the ancient 
Germans wrote on monuments of (lone (A) ; and 
fculptured ilones are mentioned in the poems of 
Offian. The IriOi antiquaries aflfert, that their 
druids wrote on tables of wood and the bark of 
trees with an iron ftile (/) ; a circumftance far from 
being improbable. 

The method of writing on wooden tables is 
undoubtedly very ancient, it was praftifed by the 
Egyptians and Phoenicians ;' and we are affured by 
Plutarch, that the laws which Solon gave to the 
Athenians, in the courfe of the forty-fixth olympiad, 

were 



(;^) Robcrtfon's Hlft. of Charles V. 
(tj) Tacitus de Mor. Germ. 

(/) O Flahcrtj's Ogygia. Kcaiing^s Hift, Harris's Wart, 
vol. %. 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. tof 

were engraven on tables of wood (k). • Even the 
prefent Brahmins of India continue to write their 
prayers and fcveral other fubjedks relative to their 
religion^ on thin plates of wood j and the greater 
part of the aboHginal inhabitants of North America 
to this day, draw their plans and hieroglyphic 
writings on the bark of birch; from whence we 
can fcarce have a doubt, that the Celtic druids in 
general as well as the Irifli wrote on thefe materials. 
The form of the-Scythic wooden books was that 
of a fiquare prifm, about * a foot in length, having 
the ebarafters engraven op the four fides ; but thofe 
df the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Irifti we're 
thiti oblong pieces, on which the charadters were 
written with an iron ftile after the manner of the 
Carthaginians, Egyptians and Phoenicians, that is 
from the left to the right, and from the right to the 
left alternately, as is . evinced from the infcriptions 
at New-Grange an#ftom feveralMSS. This method 
of writing was called by the Greeks bouftrophedon 
orthe plowed ridges, as it refembled the courfe of 
the' furrows of the plough ; the Irifli called it ciom^ 
fk €it€\ or the head of the ridge, and cor fa chafan^ 
or the reapers path (/). The Hibernian Chrittian 
clergy frequently wrote in the cionnfa cite down to 
the fourteehth century, though fomewhat altered 
from, the ancient ; they only ufing it in the clofe of 
a fentence, wUlft' the ancients ufed it almoft in 
f^tty other line, writing from the left to the right, 

and 

{k) PItttarcb. in Solone. Des Vignol, torn. a. p. 830, and 
Soloois leges, ligneis axibus infcriptx. Suidas in Solone, 
torn. 3. p. 345. 

(/) Col. Vailancey's Eflay on the Antiquity of ibc Iriili 
language. 



ao6 DRtriPISM REVIVEEt. 

and right to thtleft indiffef^i&tly. Befidos this ai« 
tdrnate method of writing, the druidd appeicr to have 
frequently written thdr fyoKbol* like the Egyptians 
and Chinefe, in perpendicular ]lnes from the fop 
to ^ bottom { and it is probable, that the Ogham 
Croabh was frequently >vritten in this macfner. 

Though the ancient inhabitants 0f Ireltod un-> 
doubtedly received the knowledge of letters dther 
from the Punic or Iberian traders, fome few years 
before the Chrifttan era, yet jknowledge was not 
univerfal throughout the ifland for fome centuries 
after. It vras not until the middle of the fecood 
century thit the Hibernhin di^uids commitled their 
poerns^ laws and philofop^- to Writing; when 
Conor mor or Connachar NPNeflan^ calted by the 
Irifli hiftorians Fedliifnid and OllMmfodlah, that is; 
the wife and learned man, was by the CaS or 
Tuiath de Danans eteded king of the northern ptfts 
of Ireland in A. D. .1644 THtsf) great prince, who 
wias of the dtuidic order, obfeifving the imperfedtion 
of the l^wfi' and hift<^ies by beidg ifetained in the 
memory only^ revived the celebrated oonventioii 
ofTai^v fo muchfpofceft pf.by the Irifliai^i- 
qiiariel, af^d which hafd beetr origi^aUy iafiituted 
^Qtut the middle c^ thb &ft century for the aflem- 
My of the' fktest In this conventiony all poetic 
coxxipt^^Titi^ns relative to hiftory and lawa^ compofed 
by any of the druidic order,r were rented before 
the ge^ral aCembly of the ^hiefis^ dmids^and 
bards ; fuch as received their approbation were 
committed to writing and carefully taught the 
youths . in the feveral academies throughout the 
Hland, over which the druids prefided. The WH 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. 507 

of Taraghf on vfhidx the convention . was held 
l^nerally every year^ was called .Laberagh or the 
ipeaking place, from whence Ptolomy in his geo* 
graphic defcription of this ifland, calls it Laberus. 
The books alio, or rather plates, on which thefe 
Gompofitions were written, were denominated Uab^ 
huiruibh or fpeakers^ whence Uabhuir in the Irtfh 
tongue fignifies a book to this day v though from 
this period we may date the general commitment 
of the druidic learning to writing, we mull under- 
iland the public ufe of it amooglt the whole druidic 
order only ; for their hiftories, philofophy and teneta 
of religion, were certainly written near 200 years 
earlier, though not communicated to the lower 
dafies, except .by tradition. 

By the general eftablifhmentofthe art of writing, 
by authority, among all orders of the Hibernian 
druids, we may reafonabiy conclude, that the 
druidic books were confiderably encreafed from the 
fecond century, and were numerous on the intro- 
dudion of Chriftianity ; yet none of their work^ 
have come to us, nor even to the eighth century ; 
ib indefatigable were the firil Chrillian miflionaries 
ia dedroying every monument of heathen fuper- 
flition. Though we ought not to attribute the 
.entire defirudtion of the druidic literature to the 
2eal of thofc who propagated tlie facred trutlis of 
the gofpel among our heathen anceilors ; much is 
owing to the druids themfelves, who on embracing 
the new religion conftantly deftroyed fuch of their 
hiero-grammatic writings as treated of their old ^ 
(o that from the eameft delire of one party to keep 
tfadx do^ine an eternal fecretk and the zeal of the 

> ' » • 

t other 



aof I)RUIDISM REVIVED. 

other in abolilhing every trace of idolatry, thcrt 
-were probably no druidic writings remaining ill 
Irelarid after the firft fifty years from the preaching 
of St. Patrick, who is faid to have burned tw6 
hundred of them in one pile ; an event, near five 
hundred years after the time that we may reafon- 
ably fuppofe letters were introduced into this ifland, 
• and more than feven hundred from the time that 
the druids firft fet foot therein. 

The lofe of the druidic books may probably ht 
regretted by the curious, and in feveralinftances 
perhaps, would havetbeen of real utility, yet they 
might not give us the information we expcft. 
The hiero-grammatic writings, or thofe which con- 
tained the principles of their religion and philofophy, 
were chiefly written in fyrhbols ; a method though 
nfeful to thofe who were matters of the fubjedl, iti 
order to refrelh the memory, yet would be almoft 
inexplicable to thofe not initiated into the myfterici. 
Tbeir laws andhittoric poems, being wrote in literary 
charaftcrs, would be the only part of their erudition 
of ufe to the moderns j thefe not being on religious 
fubjefts, efcaped the fury of the zealots, and re- 
mained either in the minds of the people or pre- 
fervcd in the Latin charadters, feveral ages after the 
druidic order was no more, and many have found 
their way down almoft to our own time. It was 
from the hiftoric poems of the druids and andent 
bards, that O Flaherty and Keating compofed their 
ancient hiftory of Ireland, not indeed immediately 
from the poems themfelves, but from comjrilations 
of them, made about the fourteenth century. 
But if thefe injudicious hiftorians had obtained the 

originaf 



DRUlbi^M REVIVED. So^f 

original pieces in the hand writing of the fefpeiStive 
Authors, they would have found them vefy inade- 
quate to fuch a work, much more fo, after paffing 
through the mtttilating hands of Ignorant monks, 
i>ards and fileas ; for all the poems, not only of 
the ancient Irtfti but of the Celtesiiigeneral, tholigH 
treating on hiftoric fubjefts, were ' rather detached 
relations of particular battles And Expeditions of 
the chiefs of fingle fepts or clans, than regular hif- 
tories of a nation ; befides, not mentioning any 
fixed or known era from whence to date the tranf- 
tiftions, or fpecifying the time when any event 
happened, they are very improper materials froni 
wMch to deduce a regular and fucciridt hiftory ; of 
which circumttance, the molt ancient arid refpefted 
Irifh hiftorians, as Cormac, king and bilhop of 
Cafhel^ who wrote the pfalter of Gafhel irt the 
^ginning of the tenth century, and Tighernach 
^ho wrote the Irifti annals in the eleventh, feem to 
be fo well aware, that they begin their hiftories iri 
tiie fifth age, without taking the leaft notice of any 
tranfadlion prior to that period ; though there miift 
have been a number of ancient druidic poems re* 
maining in thofe times in different pans of the king- 
dom 5 from whence we may juftly conclude, that 
notwithftanding the Irifh Druids had the ufe of letters 
at leaft as early as the middle of Xh€ firft century 
before Chrift, and really committed their doftrine to - 
writings yet through the imperfedtion of their hiftoric 
Conipoflf ions, little dependance is to be-had on* any 
tranfadtions relative to the affairs of Ireland prior to 
the fixth century, when th^Chriftian clergy began to 
tum their thoughts towards recording hiftoric events. 
Vol. II. P Having 



sio DRUIDISM REVIVED. 

Having in the preceding pages treated at brge 
of the fisveral fymbolic and alphabetic chara^n 
\kkd by Ae ancient inhabitants of thU ifle, we (hail 
iKyw proceed to the expl/^mtion of tbofe andent 
mfcriptions found on - feTeial- moAWHeiRa of an- 
tiquity, ftiU remaining in the king(ionEi, and which 
led ufr to the above diicoveries* 



INSCRIPTIONS AT NEW^RANGE. 

,1 

The moft andent infcriptions no^ v^mmg is 
Ireland, if not in theib. parts pf Eurc^pe, are w* 
doubtedly thofe focmd in the tumirlus ht mouot of 
New-Grange near Di:ogheda in the^ county of 
Meath. Ttus curious remnant of anti^iity, wtidl 
appears to have been a fepulchre anc^ temple, we 
fliaU defer giving a patttcuiar deicriplion o^, until 
we treat fally oi^ the temples and fepdjkiiral monu- 
ments of the ancient kifli, IS a^ubfequent Number 
of this Coiteftanea ; confining pur^lvds here to the 
explanation of the feveral inlibrip^ons ifound m the 
cave Of dome^ fkuated in the. centre cjf the mount 

No. I. * ' i 

The infcription contained in No. k, confifls of 
a fpiral line oil one of the upright flonts compofii^ 
tiie light fide of the gallery; land reprefents the 
Supreme Being or a£Vive principle. I 

No. z. ; 

Is found on another ftone on the j (ame fide of 
the gallery 9 and is written in the fymbolic and 
ancient Ogham Crpabh charaA^s. i The three 
fynibois reprefent the Supreme Being, or firft caufe ; 

-.. ; . ... but 



?W.2. 



TABLE r 



A 



.2JO 



^dir^/i?rui A^iAa^el. 


1 

CA(7raz:t^r Power 

1 


1 1 


^4 


J 


Aw 


l>^ 


i9 


Bai 


i:c< 


c 


Cm 


bb 


^ 


Da/ 


Z e 


A' 


>^ 


Ff 


i^ 


A'/r 


55 


6^ 


Bff/ui 


Tf^ 


^ 


Au^/i 


J7t 


7 


JTi 


^^ 


Z. 


Ea 


^n? 


il/ 


E?n ' 


hi?^ 


7V^ 


En 


o 


^ 





T>p 


i* 


I'm 


l^T^ 


i? 


Aiir 


^rr 


J* 


Efs 


c^ 


7* 


Tai 


AXw^ 


u 


He 


^ 


y 


Ye 


Z 


^. 


Zenu/' 


TV 


la 




49 


ao 




1 


ea 





K^, !. 



DSmniC JNSCRIFTIONS 
Jl New- Grange. 




DRUIDISM REVIVED. itt 

% 
\ 

but being repeated three times, (how them to 
figriJfy the great eternal (J)irit, The Ogham is 
evidently written in the Cionn fa eite, from the 
right to the left and ffom the left (6 the right, fig- 
nifying a i, that is, to thi lU^ for i in old Iriflx 
and Celtic fignifies He or the mafculine gender, 
whence this infcriptiOn is 3l? him toho is the Uviverfat 
Spirit. 

No. 3, i 

Is found on xht front of the covering ftone of the 
caft tabernacle, and is written m fymbolic cha- 
rafters, fignifying the Houfe of Gdd. It is remark- 
able that all the ancient altars found in Ireland, and 
now diflrnguiftied by the name of Ctomleachs or 
floping ftones, vftxe, originally called ^othal or the 
Houfe of God ; and they feem to be of the fame 
ipecics as thofe mentioned in the book of Genefis, 
called by the Hebrews Bethel^ which has the fame 
fignification as the Irifti Eothal. The tabernacles 
in the mount of New-Grange have an cxaft con- 
formity to the Cromleachs, found in different parts 
of the kingdom. 

No. 4, 

Is found on the fouth fide of the eaft tabernacle, 
written in the Ogham and fymbolic charafters. 
The (ymbol is that reprefenting the earth and 
univerfal nature, and with the Ogham which is 
writteti from the left to the right; makes amtrr thi 
Opj, that is, to the great mother Ops^ or to the great 
mother Nature. 

No. 5, 

Is found on the front ftone of the north tabernacle; 
nd reprcfents chance, fate or providence. 

P 2 No. 



DRUIDiSM REVIVED, 

No. 6, 

Is found on the north Hone of the weft tabernacle 
written in the Ogham, Bobeloth and Ogham Croayi 
charafters, from the left to the right ; the fiift 
charadler being an Ogham CE, the fecond a. Bobe- 
loth M, and the others in the Ogham Croabh are 
G, U, H, making Oetiguhf Oett^tk, that is, the 
fepulchre of the hero («). 

No. 7, 
• Is found on a ftone on the left of the gallery, is 
written in the Ogham, from right to left, ternunat- 
ingin the Cionnfa eiie, being a/ar, ddm^ ^f^that 
is, men, oxen, fwiiie; probably fpecifying tlie feveral 
fpecies of vi<5lims iacrificed at tlus temj^, ui 
bonbur of univerfal nature, providence and the 
manes of the hero interred within, and to whom 
the diree laBemacIes appear to have been dedicated, 
and wlach wwe the principal obje^ cf wwlhip 
among ^1 the Celtic tribes. 

At wha^ time this tumulus was erected cannot 
bcafcertairwd j it probably was not long before the 
art of writing became univerfal in the ifland, as all 
the different fpecies are contained in the infcriptions j 
tf it was not ereiSled by the founder of the con- 
vention of Tara^ himlelf, as a temple and fepul- 
chre for.his family, towards the clofe of the fecond 
century; it was however conftantly diftinguifhed 
by the name of Oenguh or Oengus, viz. the tomb of 
the chiefe or heroes, by the body of the people i 
and we find it mentioned in the Chronicon Sco- 
torum, 

(«) dtm or oiti (ignilies a hollov or dome, figurativelj 4 
loiub or fepulchie, and gui or gutb a coaiuitader or duef. 



4 



t 

t 
I 

t 



r 

» 
» 



M 



k 

t 



I 



DRUID ISM REVIVED. fit^ 

torum, with the grove whi^iwrowKicd it, by the 
name of Fiodh Aongufa^ or the grove of Aongiis, 
or rather the grove of the feptrichre of the heroes ;' 
though feveral perfons have imagined, that a chief 
of the name of Aongus or Oengus was interrjed 
here. 

Aongus or Oengus was the name of the diftri<3: 
adjacent to this monument, and which was alfo 
called Magh-Breaffaii or the plain of the noble 
(hades ; the chiefs of which, as cuftomary amor|g 
the ancifcnt Irifh, took the name of Aongus fropi 
their diftrift, which in procefs of time became! a 
family and hereditary name. 

Infcriptions, as curious as thofe of New-Grange, 
are fourtd on two ftone crofles, in the church -yard 
of Caftle-deraiot in the county of Kildare. Thefe 
infcriptions ar? written in the Bobeloth, Bethluifnon* 
Ogham,i Ogham Croabh and Symbolic charaden^,. 
mixed. 

: No. 8/ 

Reprefents the front of one, nbw ftanding oil 
the north fide of the church, but appears to have' 
been placed originally at the weit entrance -of the 
old church, as the capital belonging thereto now - 
lies not far from the door. In the head comparti- 
ment, written in the Bethluifnon and Bobeloth 
cfaaradters, is cianlaeh or the place of the head ; iii 
the center, in the Bethluifnon only, is crioghlouh at 
the place of the heart In the compartment on the 
right ami, in the Bethluifnon, is laim deas or the 
right band ; on the left arm is cUs laim or the left 
hand; the charafter for laim is the Bobeloth N, 
with a line under it, fo that it has fome refemblance' 

to 



4i4 DRUIDISM REVIVED, 

to a hand and arm ^ this contraftion for a hand is 
alfo found in fome MSS. The upper dompartment 
of the (haft, contains in the Beihluifnon, a mbhan * 
i^us corpj th^t is, the reins and body ; the q in corp 
18 of the Ogham Croabh. In the fecond compart- 
ment is braghan chajb^ or the thighs and feet ', the 
latter a in braghan is placed by miftake of the 
fculptor near the ch ; the /is df the ' Abicetoria. 
The lower compartment coptaiqs fymbolic cha- 
ra<Jters ; the three upper ones reprefent a ghoft or 
fpirit, as we have Ihown in the explanation of the 
fymbols; three of them being placed together 
Cgnify the Almighty Spirit pr Holy Ghoft; the 
three lewer characters are fymbols of perfons; 
lybence the compartment contains, three perfons 
Tjnited in one Almighty Spirit, or the Holy Trinity. 

No. g, 

Reprefents the back of No, 8. The head coco- 
partment contains fymbolic charafters, exprefling 
the Trinity, under which is eian or the head. 

The center contains, croigheafh or the dwelling 
of the heart. 

The compartment on the left arm cpntalns cks 
or the left. 

That on the right contains dhcas qr the right, the 
/ is of the Abicetoria, 

The three compartments oii the (haft reprefent 
the Trinity. 

No. lo, 

Reprefents the right fide of the (haft of a fnt^all 
ftone crois, oppofite the fouth door of the old church. 

The upper compartment contzms fuich ra doman \ 
the chara&er for dohum is a fymboi, or rather con- 
tradlion for a perfon, found alfo in feveral MSS. 

Tlie 



DRUIDISM REVIVED. *I5 

The fecond conttins i o bq/ah peacadha uile ; the 
charadera for peacadha and uUe are found in fome 
MSS. of the middle ages. 

The tUrd contains i o biackroH. 

The fourth h brieanuis. 

Which words according to the more modern 
orthography are, feuch ro dom an £ chock bife^k 
peacadha uile I chock biacrau loi breitheanms^ viz. 
Behold the very perfon, he who died for the fina 
of all^ he who will come again at die day of judg^ 
ment. 

No. If, 

Reprefents the front of No. lo. The upper 
compartment, written in the Bobeloth and Ogham 
charafters, contains bai-ie or bkimi cupam i, drini^ 
of this cup. The character for cupmn is a kind of 
Ueroglyphic found in feveral MSS. of the mid<;lle 
ages. 

The fecond compartment contains, in the Betbr 
linfhon charaflers, buiig agus carta or the bowels and 
fkin, which feems to be an error of the fculptor^ 
it probably was defigned for builg agus C9rp^ that is» 
the bowels and body. 

The third contains braghagk or the thighs. 

And the fourth, in the Bobeloth charaders* 
contains contradkions for da chaik or the two feet. 

No. I a, I 

Reprefents the left fide of Numbers 9 and 10. 
The three compartments contain fymbolic charac- 
ters expreiling the Trinity^ The arms and head 
of this crofs, now broken off, ferve for a neigh- 
bouring tomb-ftone; they were not cemented to 
the fliaft by mortar when in their proper place^ 

but 



iSiiB DRU I DISM REVIVED. 

but made faft by means of a . mortice, after the 
manner of the Greeks and Romans in the fliafts of 
their columns; the infcriptions on them are the 
fame as thofe on the front of the northern crofs, 
therefore need not be repeated. 

The charadters on thefc croiTes are all in creux, 
and from two to four inches in length, though now 
fo much worn by time, that the true form of 
feveral can with difficulty be traced ; they appear 
to haye fupplied the place of an image, and pro- 
bably at the time of their ereftion were not undcr- 
ilood by the people, but were intended as Abraxas 
pr Chaldaic figna, which contained fortie hiddea 
myftery, and which the devotees efteemed effi- 
cacious either in the remiffion of their fins or in the 
cure of Ibme bodily infirmity. The firft Chriilians, 
we have obferved, like their pagan anceftor^, were 
much given to charms and incantations, particularly 
in Abraxas wrote in charadters, underftood only by 
thofe whole bufinefs it was to decypher them. The 
Saxons and Germans ufed for this purpofe the an- 
cient Runic, yyhich on the introdudtioh of the 
JL.atin had become obfolete, and therefore not un- 
derftood by the people. To fuch a degree of 
infatuation were the people arrived for charms and 
Talifmaqs in the ninth and tenth centuries, that the 
Runic letters in which they were generally written, 
were in a council held at Toledo in 1115, forbid 
to be ufed ; and the Germans laid them afide in 
TOO I, by the perfuafion of the pope and of Sifirid a 
Pritifh bifliop («). The promifcuous manner in 

whid^ 

(fi) VVormii Hift, Run. chap. z3. 



DRUIDISM revived: iif 

Mrhich the charaflere on thefe crofles are placed^ 
was not peculiar to the ancient Irifli, but appears • 
to he the general method ufed by all die Chriftian 
clergy during the middle ages, in their infcriptions 
and talifmans, probably to render them more in- 
explicable ; for feveral infcriptions have been found 
at Conftantinople, written in this manner, in the 
Greek letters intermixed with the Qialdaic figna, 
refembling in feveral inftances the (:hara£ters on the 
croffes at Caftle-dermot (m). As fome of thefe 
infcriptions are evidently of the tenth century, we 
may reafonably conclude thofe on the croffes are 
not much older ; indeed every part of the building, 
cfpecially the tower and ornaments, (how them to 
be of that period. 

From thefe t:roffes we may obferve, that the 
Bobeloth chara£ters and feveral of the druidic 
fymljols were not irturely lofi in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries, though it is probable that the 
clergy had long neglected to ufe them in their 
writings; they appear however to have been retained 
in the minds of the people, which they mixed 
with the Latin charadkers in their public infcriptions 
down to the fifteenth century. And the ancient 
pagan Saxon charadters are yet, in a great meafure, 
retained by the common .people, of England, which 
they ufe as brands and marks for the parifhes 
and hundreds, though their power and fignificatioa 
have long fmce been loft. 



(•) Vide Diflcrt. Imp. Conftantlnopolitanorum, feu dc la- 
ferioris aevi vel impeni^ uti vocant, Numifmaiibus. Dufrefne. 
Sloif. torn. J. 



OF TH8 

ORIGIN AND LANGUACB 

OP THB 

I R IS H, 

4VD0» THI, 

LEARNING 

r T H B 

D R U IDS. 

TO d^vdope from obfcurity the primeval coIo* 
nization of Europe is an arduous under- 
taking. ImperfeA hints and mutilated records are 
(ufpicious guides in the wide ocean of remote times; 
and yet even thefe afford fome clue to the lagacious 
inquirer, and no improbable conjeftures have been 
formed on Ais fubjedt. In the opinion of fome 
learned men, Europe received its firft colonics from 
three diftin£t bodies of emigrants, that is, the in- 
habitantfi of the weft and fbuth from one, thofe of 
the eaft from another, and thofe of the north and 
midland parts from a tWrd. From whence we may 
reafonably infer, that ancient Europe received its 
inhabitants after the univerfal deluge, like mod 
other countries, at different periods and from 
different races of men ; as is conformable to the 

tefiimony 



ORIGIN AMD LANGUAGE, &c. «ij| 

tcftlmony of moft of the ancients i who conftantly 
confidered the univerfal inhalxtante of the feveral 
countries of uncultivated Europe as of three diftindt 
races, that is^ the Celt^, the Sartnato^, and the 
Scythae. 

The Celtae, from fa'cred as well as prophanc 
writers, appear to have been the firft of the human 
race who repienifhed with inhabitants the wilds 
of Europe, after the deftruftion of the old world 
by water. They were frequently called by the 
Greeks and Romans, Calts, Gauls, Gallatae, Celtae 
and Cimbri ; according to the different dialedts of 
the Celtic or Gomerian tongue fpokcn by thefe 
"people, who originally inhabited or rather peram^ 
bulated all the countries of ancient Europe, from 
Pontus Euxinus to the Cherfonefus, and from the 
Viftula to the pillars of Hercules; comprehending 
the prefent Germany, Poland, Hungary, Italyt 
Spain, Portugal, France and the Britilb ifles. They 
generally diftinguifhed themfelves by the name of 
Calt, Cuilt and Cael, that is woodlanders, froni 
inhabiting woods and forefts ; for Cale and ChiUc^ 
in the Gomerian tongue iighify a wood, and 
from thence undoubtedly is deriyed the Latia 
Ccha and the Greek ^eltoi^ names, which have 
ever diftinguUhed the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Europe among the ancients. 

The fecond colony which contributed to the 
population of ancient Europe, appear to be the 
Sarmatae; who were apparently defcendcd from 
the ancient inhabitants of Perfia, Media and thofe 
countries now appertaining to Afia-minor, and lying 
))etween the Euxine and Cafpian fea, the ancient 

Phrygia, 



ito ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE of the IRISH, 

Phrygia, Armenia and Iberia. Thefe people were 
' called by the Greeks, Phoenicians and Hebrews, 
Sar-madae, that is, defccndants of the Medes. 
They probably made their jfirft eftablilhment in 
Europe on their revolt from the Aflyrians; about ' 
746 years before the Chriftlan era, where in procefs 
of time, they inhabited that tradt of country com- 
prehending the prefent Hungary, Bohemia, Poland 
and the greaieft part of Turkey, the ancient 
Sartnatia Europea. 

The third European colony was the Scythae, a 
people defcended frbm the Scythae of Afia ; who 
in former ages, inhabited all the country at prefent 
diftinguidied by Great Tartary and Ruffia, the 
ancient Scythia AJiatica. They were called Scythe 
by the Greeks, from their unfettled mode oi life, 
and are fuppofed to have made their way into 
Europe either round by the gulphs of Finland and 
Bothnia into the ancient Scandinavia, from whence, 
in procefe of time, they overflowed the middle 
regions by Jutland and the Danifli ifles, or acrofs 
the Viftula by the fouthern coafts of the Baltic (p). 

From thefe three people who were feperate and 
diftindl races, and as different in their language, 
religion, manners and cuftoms as a barbarous ftate, 
(common to all) could admit, not only ancient but 
modern Europe is indebted for its inhabitants; 
for from the Celtae are defcended the greater part 
of the prefent inhabitants of Ireland, Wales and 
the weftern parts of Scotland, with the body of the 

prefent 

[p) The Scythians probabl7 made their firft migration into 
Europe about 635 years before Chrift, in the period when 
their fouthern brethern invaded ihe Mcdes and Afl/rians, 
JJewion's Chronology. 



AND LEARNING op the DRUIDS. Xi^ 

prefent French, Spaniards and Italians, as aUb 
numbers of the Swifs and Germans. From the 
Sarmatae are dcfcended the greater part of the 
inhabitants of Bohemia, Hungary, Bucharia, Scla- 
vonia, Poland and the greater part of Turkey ; , 
and from the Scythse are defcended the Swedes, 
Danes, Germans and Englifh, with the eafiern 
Scotch and numbers of the RufTians, alfo feveral 
of the French, Swifs, Spaniards and Italians ; from 
the irruptions of the Goths, Vandals and Franks 
in the third and fourth centuries, who were different 
tribes of thofe people. 

At what time the Celtes, as the aboriginal inha-* ' 
bitants, had planted colonies in the feveral European 
countries, and from thence croiTed the fea to the 
Britiih iiks, we have no certain information^ It is 
certain from the moft ancient and authentic Iri(h 
hiftorians, as Cormac and Tighernach, who make 
not the lead mention of thofe fables, (which during 
the latter ages have difgraced the Hibernian hiftoric 
page) that the ancient inhabitants of this ifland 
derived their origin from thofe of Britain. The 
time therefore, in which Britain received its original 
inhabitants will, in fome meafure> determine that 
of Ireland. The Celtic tribes who, in a very early 
period, rather perambulated than inhabited the 
wilds of ancient Europe^ were probably neither 
flrong nor numerous ; but wandered from place to 
place, as the convenience of pafturage for their 
flocks, hunting and other circumftances might 
admit, and therefore cannot be fuppofed to have 
committed themfelves to the hazards of the fea in 
fearch of new habitations, until obliged thereto by 

fome 



izz ORIGIN AKD LANGUAGE or thb IRISH, 

fome remarkable incident. Richard of Cirencefter, 
who wrote about the clofe of the thirteenth century, 
thinks, that the aboriginal inhabitants of Britain 
arrived in that iftand about the year of the woild 
3000 (y). But the moll eariy tranfadtion we have 
of the barbarians of ancient Europe is that men- 
tioned^ by Livy, concerning the firft migration of 
the Gauls acrofs the Aljps, in the reign of Tarcpiin 
the elder, about 600 years before the birth of 
Chrift (r). What could induce thefc people witfi 
innumerable armies to undertake fuch a difficult 
and laborious journey we are no where informed ; 
it was probably occafioned by the irruption of the 
Scythic and Sarmatic tribes, who about the begin- 
ning of the feventh Century before the Chriftian 
era, paflied their colonies from the banks of the • 
Danube and Viftula towards the middle regions of 
Europe, and thereby obliged the original Cehic 
inhabitants, in a fliort time, to rdlnquifli their 
native feats, and feek in foreign climes that peace 
and tranquility they could no longer find in their 
own. Some therefore, who refided in the fouthern 
parts of Germany and Gaul, crofled the Alps, 
whilft thofc whormhabited the weftern coafts, being 
perhaps fomewhat enured to a naval life, took 
refuge in Britain, whofe virgm fieUs afforded them 
ample means of fubfiflance and retirement. From 

this 

V 

(^) A. M. 3000 circa bsec tempera cuham et faabitatam 
primum Britanniam arbitrantnr nonoulli. Ricbard, p. 50. 

(r) trallos eos qui oppugnaverunt Clufium non fuifle qui 
primi Alpes tranfierint, fatii coaftati Ducentis quippe annis 
antequam Clunum oppcgnarent urbem Roiuaxn caperenc, in 
Italiam Galli tranfcenderunt. 

Dt tranfitu in Italiam Gallorum bxc accepiaiU5. Prifco 
Tarquinis Romse regnantc. Li?, i. $. c. 33. 



AND LEARNING op the DRUIDS* %%f 

this period^ md not earlier^ may we re^onably 
place the arriyal of the abori^inl inhabitants df 
Britain ; from which we cannot fuppofe they re*- 
moved to Ireland, till a drcumitance fimiUur to 
that which obliged their anceftoni to ^t their 
original feats on the contineiit^ forced them to the 
wefiern extremities of Europe. The moft ancient 
colony mentioned in the Irifh annals is that of the 
Fd: Boigac, faki to have tranfinigrated &om fome 
part of Britain m an esfrly period. Richard of Ciren* 
ceiler thinks they were Britons, who retired into 
this iiland on the arrival of the Beigae, about ^$0 
years before the Chrit^m era, where in procefs of 
time, they, came to be called Scots (i). That 
the aboriginal inhabitants of Ireland retired froni 
Britain into X\ia ifland on the arrival of the BelgoSp 
h extremely probable, but the Fir Botgae from the 
poems of Offian and ibme of the moll ancient 
Irifli bards, do not ap]9ear to have been the original 
inhabitants of this country ; whoever thefe were, 
they feem, as Oflfian expnreffes, to have arrived in 
the dark periods before the light of (bng arofe, and 
were probably the aboriginal Gael of Britain, wh6 
having retired into the northern parts of that ifland^ 
on the arrival of the Belg^, croifed over from the 
Mull of Galloway and Cantire into the northern 
pairts of Ireland ^ where they came to be diliin^ 
^iftied, by the foothem Hibernian writers, by the 
name of Tuath de Danans, or northern people, 
aad who have ingenionfly deprived them of their 

birthright 

(/) A. M. 3650. circa hate tempore in Hiberniani commi- 
^rarunt, ejedtis i, Bclgis, Brittones, ibique fedes poAierunty 
ex illo tempore Scotti appeUati. Richard, p. 50. 



ii24 ORIGIN AJip LANGUAGE of the IRISH, 

birthright, making them a fubfequent colony to the 
Fir Bolgae. The Fir Bolgse, (b much fpoken of by 
the ancient Irifli hiflorians, appear to have been of 
the fecond migration from Britain, and defcendants 
of the ancient Silures, >vbo inhabited the couritry 
on the north and fouth fides of the Severn, and 
who, on the arrival of the Belgae under Divitiacus 
retired into Ireland, and eftabliHied a colony on 
the fouth and call fides of the Shannon mouth, 
about eighty ycar;5 before the driflian era, as is 
particularly mentioned by Offian (/), who fays, 
the Bolgae under the conduct of Lathmon chief of 
Lumon (n), came from Cluba or the crooked bay, 
in Innifhona an ifland beyond the waves, and 
fettled in Culbin or the leifer crooked bay ; thefe 
people do not appear however to have diilin* 
guiihed themfelves by the name of Bolgac, but of 
Momonii or children of the wave, from coming 
. over fea; and Momonienfis or Mumhan the fouthem 
part of Ireland, has been ever thus denominated 
by the ancient Irifti writers. 

Thus were the north and fouth parts of Ireland 
peopled by two grand migrations from Britain, and 
the other parts alfo received from that ifland fub- 
fequent colonies, who fled from the terror of the 
Roman arms; for Tacitus obferves, that in the 
. time of Auguflus, migrations from Britain to lie* 
lahd were frequent ; and we may add, in much 
later periods, efpecially on the arrival of the Saxons 
in the fifth century. Whence we may infer, the 
intirc population of this country from Britain was 
completed in the fpace of 800 years. 

As 

(/) Temora, b. 7. 

(tf) Lumon the Luentum of Ptolonif. 



ANb LEARNING op tnt DRUIDS. ^ig 

m 

As the firft Inhabitants of Irdand derived their 
origin from tbofe of Britain, they generally like 
them, diftinguiftcd themfclves, from the rcmoteft 
periods^ by the name of Gael or Gadhil. It is 
true, they frequently ufed other appellations, arifing 
from their (itnation and mode of life; as, their 
country Eirinn or weftern ifland, and themfelvei 
Eirinnach or weftern people; but tlie name by • 
Vfhich they were beft known to foreigners, during 
the middle ages, was that of Scoti and their country 
Scotia; as we are affured by CUudian, Ifidore, 
Bede, Nenhius, and moft other writers of thofe 
periods. As the Scots are not mentioned in hiftory 
until about the middle of the fourth century, when 
in conjunction with the Pidts they invaded the 
Roman Provinces in Britain, feveral have concluded 
they muft have been a new people at that time, 
in thcfe parts; indeed who they were and from 
whence they derived their origin has been a fub- 
jedl of much controverfy in the learned world. 
Some, from the affertions of Radulphus de Diceto, 
(«?) Relnerus and others have imagined them Scy ths, 
from Scandinavia ; others again have maintained * 
that the ancient inhabitants of Ireland were called 
Scots, from dwelling in a country covered with 
clouds and mifts ; the Irilh antiquaries themfelves 
generally derive them, from Spain, Carthage, Phoe- 
nicia or Egypt. But without enumerating all the 
wild extravagant ftories, of different authors, relative 
to this fubjecl, we (hall only obferve, that the 
words Cithae, Cite, Cuite and Scyth in the ancient 

Vol. II. CL Celtic 

(«tf) Diceto wrote in 118$ and fa^s, E regione quadam 
^ux dicitur Scjthia, diciiar Scita, Sciuus, Scotus^ &c. 



«,a6 ORIGIN akd LANGUAGE o? tHE IRISM^ 

Celtic txmgue, fignifies a mmdeter ; from whence^ 
Scilhs, Scitae, Sctiita^ and Scots a race of vrm^ 
defers^ or who have no fixed liai:ntatipiK About 
the beginning of the fourth century the anctent 
Jrifli, m wicker boats covered with fkina called 
curraghs, tnfdRed the eoafls of Britaan, then belong;- 
ing to the Romans. Thefe boats being made 
narrow at tlte ends, like an Indian canoe, obtamedl 
among the Romans and Latins of the middle ages, 
the name of Sagittarii or Darters (x), from the fwiff 
manner in which they iaited, and tlie mariners 
^ho navigated them were generally difiinguifhed 
by the names of Scttitae or Scythae, fhiit is, wan- 
derers, from their roving from place to pkce in 
fearch of plunder ; whence the Hibernian pyialea 
were in general by the Romans called Scoti^ wtikb 
during the middte ages, came to be appfied to aK 
fhe inhabitants of this country, and the idand in 
confequence thereof obtained the name of Sootku 
kichard of Grencefter ^jeabing of the maritime 
tribes of Ireland as given by Piolemy and ofhan, 
obferves, that all the interior parts of the ifland 
were inhabited by the Scots, though he doth not 
feem to know from whence they obtained that 
name -, but as the Hibernian pyrates had obtained 

{jr) Dofreihe^s GloTs. torn. ). tinder tht words fiigkit 
tod Sa^itcaria. From whence all foiall boats or barks which 
were iharp at the ends obtained, during the middle ages» 
the name of fagittaria throughout Europe ; and their nati- 
gators were denominated fagitt^iri^runi and fcutarius, from 
the Celtic7ri//iia wanderer ; whence any foldkcrs who made 
defuitory expeditions were calledi fcutii and-fcmarii, the 
general vulgar name for any efquire, captain or military 
fyfficer in the eleventh century. See %ib aiKkr die wi»rd^ 
fcutuoi^ fcacRriua» fcatarii^ ^c. 



AKD LEARNING op the DRUIDS. ii? 

from the Romans the name of Scoti, from their 

pyraticai courfe of life, ib the internal inhabitants 

towards the clofe of the middle age obtained that 

appellation from the Britons, by realbn of their dd* 

hering to the perambulatory and paftoral life of their 

anceftors, feveral centuries after the Britons had 

reoeiv^d agriculture, and other arts of civil life, 

bat wen after the maritime coafts of their own' 

oouatry, by the commerce of foreign merchants^ 

had obtaioed permanent habitations; a circumilance 

in a great mea(ure confirmed by the aflertion of 

St. Remard, who ipeaking of the iirft ilone houfe 

or cattie in Ireknd, ere£ted in 1 135 by Malachias 

O Morgair archbiffaop of Armagh, introduces a 

aative of the oonntry, thus addrefiing that prelate : 

** What vronderful work is this ? Why this inotva* 

tion ki our country ? We are Scois and not Gauls^ 

wiiat tieceiSty have we for fooh durable edifices ?'' 

by vrhich intimaling, that aa they had no fixed 

place of refidetiee like the Britons, Gaols and 

SuooM, fudi bufldtings were tmnecefiary, as wdl 

BB expeiifive. Nay^ even ib iate as the ierenteenth 

century, we find afber the rebellion 4n 1 644, feyend 

meandering clans of the natives, lander the detnomi^ 

natiMi of creaghs or herdirnen, overrunning the 

comiVFf with fhetr numerous flocks, fo much to the 

prejudice cf the Engli(h fettlers, that they were 

G^tiged to be reftrained by public authorky. From 

theie cipcumftanoes it is apparent, that the ancient 

ir^habilants <$f Ireland obtained the name of Scota 

dnring the middle age^, from their occupation and 

fnode of life, wliich they retained until agricukurc, 

^e arts <^ ctv'd Irfe and increaie of population, * 

Q^^ about 



a?S-r ORIGIN an5 LANGUAGE at the IRISH, 

about the tenth century, had in fome meafure con- 
fined their refidence to particular fpots; an aj^l- 
lation, which, from their fettlen:>cnt and coramerce 
with North Britain, they have cooimnnicated Xo 
that intire diftrift of Britain. 

Seeing therefore all the ancient inhabitants of 
this country derived their origin from Britain, and 
confequently were of Celtic extradion, we may rca- 
fonably infer that their language was a dialed of 
that tongue, fpoken by all the aboriginal inhabitants 
of Europe. The Celtic language was undoubtedly 
one of the original tongues, formed at the confoficn 
of Babel, and a dialed of thofe fpoken by the 
Hebrews, Phoenicians, lonians, Egyptians and 
Libyans, as is agreeable to the aflertion of Herodotus 
and other ancient writers. That tlic Irilb, Hebrew 
and Punic languages were different dialedts of the 
fame tongue has been proved, beyond the powcf 
of confutation, by that learned antiquary CoL 
Vallancey, in his effay on the antiquity of the Iri(h 
language. What was the ftate of the Celtic tongue, 
on the arrival of the Britifti cofonies in Ireland, c^- 
not poifibly be afcertained v it moft probably at that 
period had been much altered from its original flate^ 
as well by time as by the mixture of other languages, 
radically different therefrom. The Scythae and 
Sarmat£, had long before this period, extended 
their tribes towards the weftern confines of Europet 
and thereby introduced a proportion of their - re* 
fpedtive languages among the original Celtic. The 
Belgic, Cimbric and weftern Gallic had been 
.mixed with the Scythic ; and the Helvetic, Rhetic 
and fouthern Gallic with tlie Sarmatic. The 

Britift 



AND LEARNING op the DRUIDS. jta^ 

Britifh perhaps was at that time the only pure 
diale<^ remaining of this ancient mother tongue ; 
their anceftors arriving in that ifland, not only 
before the arts of civil life had made any re-mark- 
able progrcfe, but alfo before the Scythae had 
made any confiderable connexions with the Celtes ; 
they probably therefore retained, during their fe- 
queftered ftate, the purity of their language, at 
kaft till diey tranfmigrated to Ii eland, excepting 
thofe alterations caufed by time and other latent 
circumftances ; for which reafon, the original Hi- 
bernian colonies, proceeding not only from different 
parts of Britain, but in different periods, their 
language could not be exadly fimilar ; whence we 
may infer, that the language fpoken by the ancient 
inhabitants of this ifle, confifted in the early ages, 
as at prefent, of feveral dialefts, agreeable to the 
afiertions of antiquaries. The firft and oldeft was 
that ipoken by the Gael in the northern parts, the 
iecond that fpoken by the Momonii in the fouth 
and weft, and the third that fpoken by the fub- 
fequent Britiih colonies who fettled in this ifland 
from the firft to the fifth century after the Chriftian 
era ; this laft dialefl: was probably more altered 
from the original tongue than either of the other, 
as (everal of thefe fettlers were of the Belgic and 
Cimbric race, who had taken poffelTion of the fouth 
of Britain prior to the arrival of Caefar ; and the . 
other, thofe Britons who had in fome meafure cor- 
rupted their' language by their [commerce with the 
Romans. What efFeft the fettlement of foreigners, 
from other parts of the world, had on the language 
§1 different periods, cannot be cafily afccrtained ; 

it • 



^S^ ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE of rm n^SH, 

.♦ it is evident from the tffcrtions of Strabo, Dyonifius, 
C^tfar, Tacitus and Pliny, that a Gcxi£d<raUe 
commerce was carried on with Ireland and Britain 
by the Punic, Iberian and Gallic merchants, from 
the firfl: century antecedent to the Cbriitian era, 
to the clofc of the fecond fubfequent to it. From 
which commerce, tlie Hibernian druids obtained 
the ufe o£ letters, and perhaps feveral tenets of 
their religion and pbilofophy i but what fettlemeot 
thefe traders made in the ifland, or what alteratioa 
was caufed in the language in confequence thereof^ 
we are intirely ignorant; they being occaiionaUy 
mentioned in feveral of the mod andent Iriih 
poems, have laid the foundation whereon the barda 
and monks of the latter ages have built the 6tbulou& 
iyftem of the Milefian tale ; they alio maintain^ 
that from this period, the written Iriih language 
was called Bear la Fenc or the Pl^oenician tongue (y)^ 
But if the Bearla Fene was really nfed by the ancient 
inhabitants of Ireland, it muA have fignifred tho 
learning and not the language of the Phoenicians {z). 
It is poffible, the druids might have dil^nguifhed 
their literary knowledge by that name, but even 
this is doubtful. Whatever quantity of the Pha^ 
niclan tongne was in thofe periods introduced by 
the merchants into either Ireland or Britain by the 
factories which they eftablilhed, it could not have 
.made any confiderable alteration in the generml 
language of the cpuntry, 9s the Celtic and Punic 

toi^ues, 

fy) See Col. Vallancey'f Eflay on the Antiquii/ of ibc 
Iiilh Language, Keating, Ike. 

(») Bf^ or har in the old Celtic iignified eloquence, 
jrhence hforla learned eloquence or w/itten knowledge j 
from wfaicb iemla in the more modern Iriih fignifies fpeech. 



AKb LEARNING o>tHE DRUIDS. l^i 

toBgues, in thefe periods, were not widely different « 
nor could the Infix language huve undergone any 
innovations of confequence, by the piracies which 
the inhabitants carried on along the coafts of Gaul 
and Britain^ from the middle of the third to the clofc 
of the fixth century j much more might have been 
expeffced from the Latin on the inh-odudlion of 
Chriftianity -^ but fo cautious were the ancient Irifli 
of admitting exotic terms into their language, that 
though the clergy conftantly wrote in the Latin 
tongue, few words of that language are, even at 
this day 9 to be found in the Iriib. The firit inno- 
vation made in this language was that of the 
Scythic, introduced by the Danes from the nintU 
to the twelfth century ; that language being rad'^ 
cally different from the Celtic, caufed a fmaU 
alteration in the Irilh on the fea-coafts, but doth 
not feem to have penetrated into the internal parts* 
The only foreign language, which appears to have 
made any confiderable alteration in the Irifh tongue 
was the Englifti ; thefe people, being for feveraj 
centuries fettled in the heart of the country, and 
intermarrying with the natives, a great quantity of 
EngUfh and Saxon words are to be found in the 
modem Iriih ^ but the greateft alteration caufed ux 
this, and indeed in every other tongue, is that pro^ 
diuced by time* The conftant changing of thp 
original lignification of fome words, the perpetual 
flu£tuation of the pronunciation, mull make the 
loxiguage of any country at feveral periods appear 
very different, and to which the Hibernian barda 
of the latter ag^s contributed not a little in their 
ras, by admitting into their compofitions words 

of 



43* ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE of the IRISH, 

t)f various and dubious fignifications. To trace ^ 
the Irifli language through its feveral ftages, would 
far exceed the limits of this effay •, we hope to fee 
it more fully treated on in a fubfequent number of 
this work, by the learned gentleman, who forae 
few years fince favoured the public with an eflfay 
on the anti<}liity of the Irifh language; he being 
the only perfon, perhaps in Europe at this time, 
capable of treating the fubjedl with propriety. 

The Irifh language, notwithftanding the feveral 
alterations which it muft have undergone by time, 
and other circumftances, is, with the Erfe and 
Welch, the only genuine remains at this day of that 
iiniverfal tongue Ipoken by all the aboriginal Inlia- 
bitants of Europe, and from which proceeded not 
only the Greek and Roman languages (^), but the 
foundation of the modern Italian, Swifs, French 
and Spanilh, with much of the Dutch and German ; 
and though at this time little underftood or fpoken, 
except by the natives, and even by them in a very 
corrupt manner, appears, to have been when in its 
titmoft purity, a bold and mafculine language j not 
confifting of a number of words, but extremely 
cxpreflive, and when properly fpoken, had an har- 
monious and beautiful cadence, rendering it proper 
for pofetic compofition. It is much to be lamented, 
that the ftudy of the Celtic tongue in fome of 
its branches, was not cultivated by the learned 
fome centuries fince, when the knowledge of it yet 
remained not only in Britain but in feveral countries 
on the continent ; as thereby a great part of the 
{indent hirtory of the European nations niighthavc 

been 

(a) Pezron od the Antiquity of Nations. 



AKD LEARNING op the DRtTlDS. S3$ 

been preferved, as alfo much of the Celt jc learnings 
now eternally buried in oblivion. But by confining' 
their lludies to the Greek and l^atin languages, the 
learned indeed obtained a competent knowledge of 
thofe people, but loft all remembrance of their 
own. It is fincerdy to be wilbed however, that 
ibme of the univerfities of Britain or Ireland^ would 
encourage the ftudy of the Irtfti or Erfe language^ 
even in this late period^ as fcveral fubjedls migh^ 
by that means be expUuned, which appear now in^ 
explicable. 

From a negledt of the cultivation of the Celtio 
tongue, with the feveral characters in which' it was 
anciently written, all knowledge of the arts and 
fciences, cultivated by ' our heathen anceftors, has 
been intirely loft ; the only fragments now remain-^ 
iog of them lie fcattered in the works of the Greek 
and Roman writers v forhe few excepted, wUch 
have been tranfmitted by tradition. Therefore to 
fee this fubje6t treated ' "here in a circumftantial 
manner, cannot be expected ; nor indeed is it poCn 
fible, from the few lights relative thereto which we 
are able to obtain. 

We have obferved that all knowledge among the 
ancient inhabitants of thefe ifles was confined to a 
clafs of men called druids, Thefe people, whom 
we may confider as the body of the learned, were 
of difierent orders; to each of which, the cuhivalion 
of a particular art and fcience was appropriated ; 
and as the whole clafs was held in the moft honour- 
able eftimation, none but thofe of noble parentage 
coiikl be initiated into their rayfteries ; all the Celtic 
^bes in general, after the manner of the ancient 

Greeks, 



H^a^ ORIQIN AHTf LANGUAOB w th^ IRJSH, 

Qre^H;^ fileeming il igrioble to mfirud^any of the. 
plebeua orders in the liberal ^rts and feieiKsos (^)• 
The dumciic orders^ cqafifted oi two prindpal 
daSea^ tb^t is, the Jkr^d and pr^p/ume. The 
prcphane or lowefi or d^r was denominated hhardag/i 
or ^jrejp^> that is, learo^ men {e) v to tlvs clafe 
appertained the iludy of oratory^ UAory, laws, 
poetry- Slid muftc(^). For inflru&mg youth in. 
tbofe fdences, (chooia were eftabliibod in gropes 
and cave$ in different parts of the ifland, as ia 
agreeable to the affertions of the Irifti antiquaries (r). 
One of thefe academies is mentioned by QdTian to 
be in UUIer, others were at Qogher, Ardma^a^ 
Taragh, &c. and in general alt the celebrated 
fchoolsy elkbltftied in Ireland by ihe ChriftUin 
clergy in the fifth coitnry, were ere^ed on. tho 
/ rains of the druidic academies. The couife in 

&de feminaries, beiide&the.ooQ&mt ufe of arnr^a^ 
was ift.oratory, 2d muiic, $6. poetry, and 4.tli 
Kftory (f)i HI eadi of tfaefe, as they advaocod^ 
the itndeats took their d^;rees according to the 
bent of their ifaidies; thofe who proMed Ofity 
mufic, obtained the name of dtharad^h ot eUffopha \ 
{£) thofe who profeflTed hiftoric poetry* and mufic 
obtained the title of hluttdL \ and thofe who iludted 
only poetry, containing their laws, obtained the 
title of hrehom or judges. The divfmluif b^ng 

only 
• ' • 

{b) Cx&r. com. I. fi. SchcdiQs de dis .Ccrai. - 
(c) Camden. Col. Vallanccy. 
(</) Lucian. Lexiph. Jul. Server!. 
{e) Pomp. Mei. I. 5. c. i. p. 73. O Flaherty, Ketiin^» %c. 
(f) Neceflaria orationuiQ frequent lf£Uo» bo^tQ Qrdiuc 
prinio pQgtas deind* hiftoricos. Serv, 4. - '* 

{^) Otmden. 



km LEARNING of the pRUIDS- a^f 

tmly inibDineivtal muficians, wore of the loweft 
order, and atteodtots on the khards at the couna 
of the heroes, places of devotion and field of 
battle (A). The bkards properly fo called, were 
not only compofers of the feveral fpecies of poetry 
and mufic, but the heralds, aid de camps, and 
Gonftant attendants on the chiefs in battle, marching 
at the head of their armies, accompanied by the 
eiar/acha^ clad in white flowing robes and beards, 
jfinging fome martial ftr^n to the harp (/) ^ whence 
Qiiian compares them to the ^^ moving foam on 
the dark ridge of the wave {k) 9* they alfo (ang 
the requiem of fuch aa fell in battle, without which, 
and the funeral rites, the CeUes like the Greeks 
believed the manes of their heroes could not be 
happy. The bards were held in great refped by 
the people, and their perfons held iacred even by 
enemies (/), for which reafon they were fometimes 
called ullagh or the (acred order. After the ellablifh" 
ment of Chriftianity, and the druidic order was in a 
great meafure aboliihed, the bards were dill retained, 
though not in their original fplendour and confe* 
quence ; they feem alfo to have altered their n^mes. 
The bhard^^h being called Jbeanchagh or genealo* 
gifts, and the clarfachaj citharados or harpers, in 
which capacity they were retained in the family of 
the chiefs, down to the fixteenth century. 

The facred order was compofed of thofe pro- 
perly termed druids, or as they were anciently 

denominated 

(h) OfTun's Poems. 

(r) Plin. 1. 16. cap. 44. Demoft. ortt. Clemens. Alcxtnd. 
paedag. cap. lo* Diod. Sicui. Paufan. 
(k) Badle of Lumon. 
{I) Pocnis of Ofiian, 



13« ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE op the IRISH, 

denominated trudhi or turduliy that is, diviners and 
interpreters of the Gods (m). Their ftudies were 
confined to theology and the fublimc fciences, and 
confiilcd like the bhards of feveral degrees or 
orders; that is, the drudhicydeigh^ the drudhibhaitkei^h^ 
Ihedrudhicerglios and the /amodhH: 

The drudhicydeigh (n) or the interpreters of the 
Gods of the forefts, refided in the facred groves in 
caves, or in the trunk of an hollow oak; they 
divined by the motion of the leaves of trees, by the 
blowing of the wind, and by long fquare flips of 
wood taken from feveral trees. Their particular 
. fttidics were botany and phyfic. 

• The drudhibhaitheigh ((?), or as they were called 
by the Latin writers, vates zxiA ubates^ were the 
lacrificers^ and divined by the entrails and flowing of 
tiic blood ofthe viftims at the time of facrifice (p). 

• The drudhicerglios (q) prefided over the manes 
and tombs of heroes, they were the dreamers, and 
divined by dreams and tifions of the night (r). 

• The famodhti or /amothai^ that is, the wifdom of 
the gods, were ofthe highefl- degree ofthe druidic 
order; they cultivated the ftudy of theology, aftro- 
nomy, and moral and natural philofophy, and 
divined by -the afpedl of the fun, moon and ftars, 

by 

- («) Schedius de Dis Germ. p. 256, 258. The Irift 
called them drudbidiigb^ that is» diviners. 

{n) DruSi^deigh ngnifies diviners by the oaken groves. 
Perron's Antiquities. 

(0) Druidbibbaitbeigb lignifies diviners by beads, 

{p) Diod. Sicul. I. 5. Strabo, 1. 4. . 

{q) H. Boethius, 1. 2. calls this order corruptly durcergl!osi 
DrudbicergUos fignifies the diviners by the grey or greei 
caves. 

(r) Poems of OfEan. 



AND LEARNING o* the DRUIDS. 43^ 

by meteors, by liie colour and figure of the clouds^ 
the blowing of the Mrind, and the flame and fmoke 
of fire (j). 

No perfon could be admitted into the draidic 
order, until he had taken his feveral degrees in that 
of the bards ; but as the order was facred and 
related to the divinity, the tenets of which, were 
kept an eternal fecrct from the people, every druid, 
on being admitted, was obliged to fwear by the 
circle of the Sun, the irregular Moon, the Stars 
and all the Hofts of Heaven, that he would not 
divulge what was taught him, but retain it in 
memory only (/) ; nor were they permitted, in the 
public fongs, either facred or prophane, to mention 
any of the fublime tenets of their religion and phi* 
lofbphy ; for which reafon perhaps, we do not find 
mention of the worlhip of a divinity in the poems 
of OfTian. The cuftom of enjoining fecrecy to the 
pupils of the druids was not peculiar to them, the 
ancient Greeks had the fiime, for we find Hippo- 
crates fwore his pupils on being admitted under bis 
tuition (u). 

Ap the bards were chofen into the academies 
firom the moft (lately and beautiful of the noble 
youths, fo the druids were eledked from the talleft 
and mod leamed of the bards ; for which reafon^ 
it was not fufficient that they had taken the feveral 
degrees belonging to tlie bards, they muft be re- 
markable 

(5) Strabo, 1. 4. Diod. Siculus, 1. 5. 

(/) Omnes qui incideriot, adjuropeF fenim folis circuluni» 
inaequales lunse curfus, reliquoruroqae fidcruin vires .et 
fignifenim circulum, ut ii> reconditis h«c habeant, nee in- 
do^tis aut profanis communicent, fed prseceptoris memoret 
fior. Vettius. Valens. Antiocheoes, 1. 7. 

(tt) Schcdiut de Dis Germ. cap. t6. p« ^'99* 



i^t OktGtt^ AND LANGUAGE or the IRISH, 

iMrtaible for tlidr ftrength find graccfoliKft of 
peKbn ; wherefore, when two <:ompetitors arefe 
whofe mental and corporeal acconipIi(hnieats Were 
tteariy equal, ttie decifion was left to the ftte of 
trms, l>y fingle combat (^). The time neoefikry 
lo obtain the feveral degrees in the fi^KX)Is of the 
bards was ten or twelve yearis, and in thoiTe of the 
dntidft nearly as long; whence, between twenty 
and thirty years clofe application watt i^({fiii«d id 
obtain the degree rf a fomotheei {k). 

In fpeaking of the fev^al fpeciea of bsarmng 
cultivated by thefe heathen philofbphers, we (hatt. 
only mention here the iecc^r,r that is, oraiory, 
poetry, mufic, phytic, coftnography, agronomy 
and ethios, referving the theological to be fpofeen 
of more ftilly hereafter. To fpei^ with cafe and 
eloquence in public stflembFies, was efteemed the 
greatcft ornament in the circle of druidic Ihemtnre, 
«od as this was the moft efiedtual method of laying 
a true feundation for poetic and mufical compo- 
ihion^ no pains wtrc omitted to ground the ymmg 
pupils in oratory and elocution, on their entrance 
into the academies. To find a barbarous and un- 
civilized nation, ctdtivating with aflidaity, «i brandi 
•of Utemture ieldom attained in perfe6^n by the 
ttiott refined and pdifhed focieties, may at firft 
appear fomewbat eictraordinary ; but we ou^ to 
oonfider, that trae doquenoe is not confined to soy 
particular ftate of fociety. The harangues of an 
Indian facheih at the head of his tribe, has often 
more energy than is to be £Dund in the moft learned 

aiTcmblies » 

(w) SchediusdtDiaGcrm.ptf. 255. Afon. l.i. Li't. iS. 
(x) Ccf. QOOK U 6» Pomp. Mtta^ K 5. c a. |>. 73. 



. / aSd learning 0^ 'rut DRUIDS. 4^9 

•flcmblies ; and the orations of Demoflhenes are 
more to be admired than thofe dcKvered in a more 
improved fiate of the Grecian empire* In the early 
fiages of fociety the paffions alone are confuited^ 
in the later the reafim. Man living in micuitivBted 
deferts, and fupported by the chace^ h&s few ab- 
ftrafk ideas ; reafoning therefore, from a kmg train 
of connected fubjedts would be loft on faini) be 
would neither have patience to attend to the con^ 
dufion nor underfland the ai^ument. Whence ' 
the drtiidic oratory was intirdy calculated to work 
on the paffions, confifting of energetic cxpreffions 
and flroDg metaphors, as is evinced through every 
ipedes of ttieir poetic compoiitiotis. 

To judge of the Cdtic poetry by the few remaittf 
to be found at this time in Ireiand» would be im>- 
proper; none of tbe compofitions of this kind 
appear older than the fourteenth century ; fome of 
•them indeed are taken from much earlier pr(xluc* 
tionsy but fo mutilated by the latar bards, as to 
tiave little refemblance to the originals. The oaly 
^nuine remdn^ of the old druidic poetry are in 
the works of Oifian, to be found in the highlands 
of Scotfatnd ; true and elegant tranflations of the 
^caler part of the productions of tlHS noble heathm 
bard, \^o flouri(b:d about the dofe of the third 
century, have been given to the public fome years 
lince, by Mn M'Pherfim. From thefe poems it is 
apparent, that the Celtic poetry confided of feveral 
.^secies, as the degiac, the lyric, heroic, epic and 
dramatic, as has been conftantly afferted by the 
IriHi antiquaries and feveral of the ancients (y). 

The 

{jj Fabric!! Bibl. Lat. p. 74. Prudtnt, tpotheoC V. »96. 
Soiio. 25. p. 134. 



^4^ ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE o^ ^he IRISH, 

The elegiac was intirely confined to funeral 
obfequies and other ferious fubjefts. 

The lyric contained their love ibnnets, paftoral 
pieces, &c. 

The heroic, under which fpecies we may com- 
prehend the epic and in fome inftances the 'drarn- 
atic, contained the poems relative to their hiftory and 
adlions of their chiefs j beautiful fpecimens of this 
compofition are given in the works of Oflian ; they 
were performed generally at the feafts of the nobles^ 
affembiies of the ftate, on the eve of battle, the ob- 
taining of vidtory, and indeed on every other 
public occafion (z) ; their performance, when cir- 
cumftances admitted, was grand and noble ; the 
chiefs being feated in the opeti air during the night, 
with torch light, in a circle, on mounds of turf or 
fkins of wild beafls; the bards (landing in the 
centre, recited the narrative JDart, in a kind of re* ' 
citative accompanied by tlie harp ; after which, the 
lyric part was fung in full chorus, after the manner 
of the Greeks, in which were frequently introduced 
lymphonies of pure inftrumental mufic by the 
clar&cha, Handing on' the outer circumference of 
the circle {a) ; fo that perhaps there was not a more 
auguft and noble fpedacle, than to hear the recital 
of an elegant hiftoric production, at the geaeral 
aflfembly of the ftates, when the moft eminent bards 
throughout the realm were collected ; there bnng 
the greateft probability that they far furpafled, ia 
noble fentiment, beautiful expreilion and true 

melody, 

(e) Amm. Matrcell. I. ly, c. 13. p. 146. Diodor. SicuU 
I. 5. 212. Liv. 42. 60, aad tbe Poems of OfliaiQ. 
[a) Poems of Oflba. 



AND LEARNING of ths DRUlDd. HH 

melody, all the modern compofitions of operas and 
oratooM, efpedally after the efiabliihment of the 
conVetrtion of Taragh. To that celebrated infti- 
tJMoQ, which probably was erected in imitation of 
thofe of the aij^ient Iberians, mentioned by Strabo^ 
(*) the Celtic poetry in thefe iflands feems to have 
been indebted, for that elegance and refinement 
which we find in the worics of Oifian. For about 
the middle of the third century, as; appears front 
Offian and' Hector Boethius, Fingall or Fynnan^ 
called by the Irifh Fin mac Comhal and great 
grand(bn of Connor mor, infiituted a like convention 
at Selma in Scotland {c) ; fo that the f)dems of 
Offian may be confidered as the mod corredk fpe- 
cimens of the Celtic poetry, being compofed in the 
raoft learned and refined period of antiquity. 
After the eftablifliment of Chriftianity, and the dru* 
kfic order was ncgleded, their poetry fuffered con- 
fiderable diminutions, er[)ecialty thehiftoric, though 
the lyric retained its perfection feveral centuries 
after, and fome compofitions of that fpecies are 
fiill to be found in Ireland and in the highlands of 
Scotland, excellent in their kind. 

As all, or moft of the Celtic poetry was fet to 
tnulic, the Irifti antiquaries have faid much relative 
fo their ancient mufical compofition; but how 
much it exceeded, or came Ihort of the modern. 
Cannot perhaps be determined, it not being certain, 
that any of the druidic mufic has been handed down 
to us. The national mufic, found at this day both in 
Ireland and the highlands of Scotland, has great 
Vol. II. R originality, 

(A) Srrabo. I. J. p. 139. 

{c) OlFian, Songs of Selma, H. Bo€thiu», L 2. 



%^Z . ORIGIN ANb LANGUAGE oi> tut IRISH, 

onginality, and is far from wanting merit, being of 
a plaintive ftiie, but exceedingly cxpreffivc, and 
well adapted to the genius of the people. Whether 
' the druidic mufic refembled arty of thefe ij,jipi 
certain ; there is found in fome of the remote parti 
of the ifles of Scotland, mufic of a noble fimple 
nature^ exceedingljr expreflive, and bearing evi^ 
dent marks of great antiquity ; it is faid to be fome 
of the mufic to which the poenos of Offian were 
originally fet, if fo, the Hibernian and Britiflx 
druids cultivated mufic widi the fame fuccefe they 
did poetry ; fome al(b of the Irifh airs appear to be 
very old ; and if they are not fome of theremains, 
are at ieaft in imitation of their ancient mufic. 
We mull not expedt however, that the Hiberniaa 
Celtic mufic contained pieces in the various parts of 
harmonic compofition ; its merits like that of Ae 
ancient Greeks, depended intirety on melody, and 
even in this, of no great latitude ; the fcak exceed- 
ing little more than a fingle o£tave in the diatonic^ 
the chromatic was entirely unknown. Tins defeft 
however in the druidic mufical fcale did not pre- 
vent their having pieces in the feveral fpecies of 
melodious compofition; as the penferofo, allegro, 
martial, &c. The penferofo, called by them 
gemtraidheacht {d) or forrowful, was ufed in the 
Tequiem of the dead, and on other folemn occa- 
fions (<?). The allegro called langotmdheacht or 
delightful was ufed in their dances, and generally 
adapted to their lyric compofitions. The amarofo^ 

called 

{d) O Conor, p. 68. 

(/) Whence the funeral poems were cHltdgeiman or (ar- 
rowtul (iitiies^ a name which th'^y have preierved to this 



Airb LEARNING op the DRUIDS. ft4| 

cdilcd Juaniraidheachf or repofmg, was adapted to 
their love fonnets, and other fubjefts where plain- * 
tive foftnefs was required. The martial, called 
golhraidheacht^ was ufed in war ; to this (pecies alfcf 
the heroic parts of their hiftoric poems were fet, 
and was frequently performed on inftruments, in 
their hunting matches. From the poems of OITian 
it appears, that the only mufical inflrument3 known 
in the early ages to the BritiQi and Hibernian Celtes^ 
were the harp and horn. The harp, called clarfachi 
was nearly of the fame form as thofe ufed at prefent 
by the Weigh and Irifh, only inttead of having 
firings of gut as in the former, or wire as in the latter, 
was Itrung with thongs of leather (/), and feldom 
contained more tlian eight or ten firings. The 
harp appears to be the original infirument among 
all nations of antiquity, it being in general ufe not 
only among all the Celtes, but alfo among the He- 
brews, Greeks and Sarmatae. The horn was only 
ufed in war and the chace, and was no other than the 
common bugle-horn, ftill retained by the common 
people, and our modern huntfmen. Several of 
the ancients aflert, tliat the Hebrews and Gaultf 
were acquainted with the organ \ that this noble 
mufical infirument, in its prefent form, was known 
to the nations of antiquity, is not in the lejrfl pro- 
bable i it is certainly of modern invention. The 
Hebrew word huggahy which has been generally 
tranflated organ, fignifies any tubical infirument, 
founded by wind, or in general a pipe. The Irifh 
antiquaries relate, that the ancient inhabitants of 
this country, during the middle ageSj ufed twa 

R z fpecics 

(f) Gambrenlls. 



N. 



&44 ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE of the IKlSfi, 

fpccies of wind inftruments, called ^M/f and adhtr- 
caidhciitfl\ Jinie figmfies a tube or pipe,, and was 
probably the eonrmon pipe ; adharcaidkciuitii^^^ 
a colleflfon of pipfes joined together, and appears 
to be ndf other than the bag-pipes, fo much ufed ia 
Ireland at prefent ; as neither of thefc inftniments 
feem to have been known in this ifknd in the day& 
of Offian, they pwobably were introdux:ed by the 
foreign merchants about the fourth or fifth cen- 
tury, and feem- to be of Galiic or Iberian origin, and 
io be thofe mentioned by the Latin writers^ undcif 
.fhc denomination of organs {g\ As to the trumpet 
and drum, rnentioned by Cambrenfe, they were: 
of Scythic origin, and introduced by the Danes. 

Poetry and mulic appear to have been the 
fciences, cultivated with the greateil fuccefe by the 
-druids ; tliough their knowledge in> cofmogra]^ 
and aftronomy was not defpicaWfe, confidering their 
mode of Mfe, and their total want of inllrument^ 
proper to make experiments and obfervations. Their 
ideas relative to the origin of things were neatly the 
feme as thofe of the Egyptian priefts and Perfian 
magi 5 they maintained* that the world was eternal, 
and engendered by fire, which they conficfered the 
aftive principle of nature (A> ; that the principle 
eppofite to fire, and conftantly"at variance with it, 
was water ; which two principles^ after contending^ 
together for fome time, would alternately fuccecd, 
firft water and then: fire -r that during the dominion 

of 

{g) The bag-pipes hy the Latins of the middle ages wt» 
feequently called the travelling organ. Dufrcfne's Glofs^ 
torn. J. 

^y Juftin. X. Scrabo. h^ p. v^. 



AV© LEARNING op th^ DRUIDS; a4j 

* of fke, a total chaqge (hould take place in the 
univerfCy and the earth and all things contained 
therein would, by that aftive principle be diiTolved, 
but in a (bort time be renewed in great fplendor, and 
men refide wkh the gods(/). The fyftem of the 
univerfe and a plurality of worlds, at tlus time 
jrcceivcd by the learned in philofophy, and thought 
to be the difcoverics of the latter ages, was not 
only maintained by the Celtic druids but by th^ 
Egyptian ftfiefts, and indeed by moft of the phi- 
lofophers of remote antiquity (k) j they even appear 
to have had the method of calculating eclipTes, and 
other afpeds of the planets (/). Diodorns Siculus 
{m) fays, that in an ifland weft of the Celtes, the 
druids brought the fun and moon near them; 
vfhence feveral have conjedlured that tetefcopes 
were aot unknown in thofe early periods -, but this, 
certainly was not the cafe, the invention of optic 
inflruments undoubtedly belongs to the moderns. 
The expreffion of Diodorus, of bringing the fun and 
moon near them, probably fignifies, to be well 
acqusunted with their motions, and feems to refer 
to the calculation of eclipfes -, which certainly was " 
not performed. by aftronomical tables as at prefent, 
hut by cycles of nineteen years i a method, though 
not corred to an hour and fometimes a day, yet 
was fufficient for thefe ancient philofophers ; it 
esicreafed their confcquence with the people. They 
appear alfo to have formed the ftars into confiella- 

tions^ 



(0 Sfrabo. I. 4. p. 197. (^) Herodotus. 

(/) Amm. Marcell. 1. 14. c. 9. {«) Diod. SiC I. 6# 

9. {jt) Tcinorg, book 7. 



t46 ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE op the^ IRISH, 

tions, efpecially thofe of the northern hemifphere j 
but how far they fucceeded in this, it is not poffible 
to determine, though fome of their names are men- 
tioned by Oifian. 

In their chronology, called by them chranog (o), 
they Calculated time by the night, beginning at 
funfet, according to the general pradlice of anti- 
quity j their feafons were generally regulated by 
the moon, after the manner of the Egyptian 
priefts, and their years by the fun, whence the 
ancient Irilh for a year is bealahte (p). 

In mathematical knowledge they feem to have 
been extremely defeftive, it not being certain what 
method they had of numerating and performing 
arithmetical calculations. They appear to have 
been acquainted with fome geometrical figures, as 
the circle, triangle, fquare, and polygon (^), but 
the external form of thefe bodies, probably termi- 
nated their geometrical knowledge ; indeed living 
in an' uncultivated country, and leading an un- 
fcttled life, they were not under the ncccflSty of 
cultivating geometry like the Egyptians. In ana- 
tomy, they appear to have had a fuperficial know- 
ledge of the muicles, veins and nerves, as they 
frequently divined by them in their facrifices (r). 
In fyrgery they generally applied herbs to wounds 
and fradtures ; indeed vegetables compofed the 
whole of their materia medica, and they applied 
them in all phyfical cafes, both internal and external, 

thougl^ 

(o) O Brien*s DlQionarv^ 

(f>) Caef. Com. I. 6. Tacit, mor. Germ. 

(q) Avcntin." 1. i . Ifidor, Qlofs. 

(t) Tacit. I. 14. 



AND LEARNING OF THE DRUIDS. 24Y 

though the generality of xiifeafes were attempted 
to be cured by charms and incantations. 

Their morality confifted of fhort fentences or 
proverbs, which they obliged the people to retain 
in their memories ; the principal of which were, to 
fear the gods, do no ill, and ftudy to be valiant (/). 

But the fcience to which the druids paid the 
greateft attention was that of divination, to be 
perfedt mafter of which, was thought to be un- 
attainable by any one perfon ; wherefore it was 
divided into claffcs, that each druid might apply to 
the cultivation of feme particular branch, whence 
the feveral orders of the druids were denominated 
from the fpecies of .divination they profeflcd. 

The fublime parts of their philofophy and theo- 
logy were firft taught their pupils in the fchools of 
the bards under fiftion and allegory (/), after the 
majnner of the orientals and all remote nations of 
antiquity, but were not explained until their ad- 
miffion into the druid order. 

To this concife account of the druidic learning, 
it may not be improper to mention the fyftem of 
education given by them to the people ; referving 
a more circumftantial explanation of their erudition, 
till we fully treat of the religion, poetry, mufic, 
archite<Sure, army, njavy, cuftoms and manners 
of the ancient pagan Irifh, under difiind heads. 

The Celtic nations have ever been looked on by 
the Greeks and Romans as an ignorant and bar- 
barous people ; the lower orders undoubtedly were (p, 
\y\ii this certainly was not the cafe with the noblefs. 

Tbero 

(f) Diogenes Laeru prosm. p. 4. 
(/) Ibid. p. 4. 



%4B ORIGIN AND LANGUAGE or rut IRISH, 

There was perhaps no nation of antiquity, where 
the education of the young nobility, was fo much 
attended to aa among the ancient Irifli ; they were 
not only initiated early into the ufe of arms, but 
conftantly went through a regular courfe of oratory, 
hiitory, poetry and mufic, in the academies of the 
bards •, from whence, if they thought proper, they 
were.admitted into the druidic order, and initiated into 
all their myilic rites ; for which reafon we find that 
feveral of the ancient Irifli kings were not only bards 
but druids. Even the fair fex were not negledled, 
and the ancient Hibernian ladies received an edu- 
cation, according to their mode of life, equal, if not 
fuperior, to that of the modems. The young ladies 
in the early ages, fo far from being put under the 
care of foreign tutoreffes collefted from the lower 
people, without education, fentiment and often 
without principle, were committed to the care of 
druids, who paid conftant attention to their mental 
and corporeal accomplifliments («) ; whilft mufic, 
' eloquence and poetry cmbellifbed their minds, the 
cxercife of the chace, archery and throwing the 
lance, ferved to give their bodies health, vigour 
and beauty, the conftant chafaderiftics of the 
Celtic kdies ; even the line did not terminate here, 
thofe who attained to perfedion the learning of the 
bards, on application, were admitted into the 
druidic order (w), and initiated into all the fublime 
tenets of their religion and philofophy, where they 
became the priefteffes in feveral modes of their 

wor(bip> 

(u) Poems of Oflian, Colgan. Adt. Sanft Probus. I. *• 
cap. 14. 

(^) Poems of Oi&ao; 



AND LEARNING op the DRUIDS. 24^ 

worfliip, and were often chofen in preference to 

the druids themfdves, in drawing prefages from 

the blood and entrails of the vidtima offered in ,^ 

fecrifice (x). 

On the eftablifliTnent of the Qiriftian religion, 
and the druidic order being aboltlhed, the Hiber- 
nian fyftem of education as well as learning fuffered 
confideraWe alterations. For the feveral Sciences 
being clothed in a foreign language, few, except 
thofe intended for the priefthood, would be at the 
trouble of cultivating knowledge of fuch difficult 
accefs; efpecially, as it was different from that 
they had been accuftomed to. • In confequence, the 
education of the laity, and even the noWefs, were 
not much attended to •, and after the arrival of the 
Englilh, the wars attendin^the conftant firuggle 
for liberty, for near 400 years, fo far perverted 
the mind from literary purfuits, that in the fifteenth 
century, few of the Irifh nobility, could either 
icad or write (y). 

(x) Rclig. dc$*G?uIs. Poems of Offisui. 
\j) Cox*« Hift. of Ireland. 



F I N I a 



speedily will be Publiihed, 

ColkSianea de Rebus JJibernicis* 



NUMBER VIII. 



CONTAINING,- 

I. Ad Essay on the Antiqjjit^ (^ the Irish Lan- 
guage; being a Collation of the Iriih v^ith the 
Punic Language. With a Preface, proving Ireland 
to be the Thule of the Ancients. Addreffed to the 
Literati of Europe. — To which is added : A Correfiion 
of the Miftakes of Mr. Lhwyd in reading the an- 
cient Irifh Manufcript Lives of the Patriarchs ; and 
of thofe comniitted by Mr. Baretti in his Collation 
of the Irifl) with the Bifcayan Language. — The Secowi 
Edition, with confiderable Corredions and Additions.— 
By Lieut. CoLXharles Vallahcey, Antiq. Hib. 
Soc, 

n. Remarks on Lieut. Col. Vallancey's Essay^ 
addrefled to the Printer of ^ the London Chronicle, 



r 



In the Pre/sy andfpeedihf mil be Publifbedy 



G R A M M A R 



OF TH B 



I B E R N O-C E L T I C, 



OR 



IRISH LANGUAGE. 



TJkeSxcoKp C01TIOH with mwy Ai>9iyiOK«» 



TO WHICH i« PupriKeo^ 



AN 

ESS A Y 

oir TBB 

CELTIC LANGUAGE; 



Shewing the Importance of the Iberko-Celtic 
Dialedy to the Students in Claflics^ Hiftory^ &c. 



ColkStanea de Rebus Hibernicis> 



NUMBER VIII. 



CONTAINING, 

I. An Essay on the Aktiqjjity of the Irish Lan. 
guage; being a Collation of the Irish with the 
Punic Language. With a Preface, proving 
Ireland to be the Thule of the Ancients. 
Addrefled to the Literati of Europe. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

A Corre6tion of the Miftakes of Mr. Lhwyd in reading the 
ancient Iriih Manufciipt Lives of the Patriarchs; And 
of thofe committed bj Mr. Baretti in his Collation of the 
Iriih with the Biicajan Language. 

THE SECOND EDITION, 
With cow8XBimABi.B Corexctiohi and Additxovi 

By Lieut. Col. CHARLES VALLANCEY, L.L.D. 

£T SOCIET. ANTIQs. HIB. SOC, 

AND, 

IL Remarks on the Essay on the Antiqjjity of 
the Irish Language. Addrefled to the Printer of 
the London Chronicle in the Year 1772. 



DUBLIN: 

PRINTED BY R. M A R C H B A N 1C» 
raiNTBR TO THE A N T I QJT A R 1 A N SOCIETY, 

AND SOLD BY L. L. FLIN. CASTLE-STREET. 



M,DCC,LXXXI. 



Advertifement. 



THE Essay on the Antiquitt of the 
Irish Language pubUfhed in the 
Year 1772 being out of print, and much in- 
quired after, the Author befiowed part of his 
leifure in correding and making additions to 
it ; but being called upon to attend the fer-. 
vice of his country at this critical period, he 
left his papers in the hands of a friend to 
di^fe of as he (hould think proper. On 
confulting fome learned and judicious friends, 
they agreed that the EfTay thus revifed and 
improved would be a moft acceptable pre- 
lent to the curious ; in compliance with this 
determination, the Editor now prefents it 
to the Public as the Eighth Number of 
the Collectanea be Rebus Hibernicis, 
hoping that the unavoidable abfence of the 
Author will be admitted as an excufe for 
any errors that may appear in it. 



• r 



.4 • « 



• • 



PREFACE. 



IRELAND, properly fo called, was probably 
the firft of the Britilh ifles that got the Name of 
Thule, as being the firft the Carthaginians met 
\9\lh fleering their courfc northward, when they 
departed from Cape Finellre the northern head-land 
of Spain. And this ifland fecms to be the fame 
faid by Ariftotle to have been difcovered by the 
Carthaginians, Lib. de mirabil. aufcuhat. where he 
fays, " extra columnas Herculis aiunt in mari a 
Carthaginenfibus infulara fertilem inventam, ut 
quae tam fylvarum copia, quam fluminibus navi- 
gationi idoncis abundet, cum reliquis fruflibus 
floreat vehementer, diftans a continente plurimum 
dierum itinere, &c." 

Bochart confirms this by what he obferves that 
the ancient, writer Antonius Diogenes (who wrote 
twenty-four books of the ftrange things related of 
Thule, not long after the time of Alexander the 
Great) had his hiftory from certain tables of cyprefs 
wood digged at Tyrus out of the tombs of Mantima 
and Dercelis, wlio had gone from Tyrus to Thule, 
and had remained fome lime there. 

The fituation of Thule has been much contro- 
verted ; yet all agree it was fome place towards . 
the north, with refped to the fiift difcovercrs, and. 
Vol. II. a many 



PREFACE. 

many make it to be one of the Britifti ides. THi 
agrees perfedly with the fituation of Ireland, for 
the Carthaginians in failing from Cadiz having once 
cleared Cape St. Vincent,, had Ireland ia a dired 
northern courfe before them. 

The ancients feem moftly to agree, that ThuFe 
was one of thofe iflands that are called Britilh. 
Strabo, one of the moft ancient and beft geogra- 
phers extant^ fpeaks thus ; Py theas Maflilienfis lays, 
it is about Thule, the furtheil north of all' the 
Eritilh ifles. Yet he himfelf maketh it nearer than 
Py theas did : But I think^ fays he, that northern 
bojind to be much nearer to the fouth ; for they 
who furvey that part of the globe, can give no 
account beyond Ireland, an ifle which lies not fat 
towards the north, before Britain; Inhabited by 
wild people almoft ftarved with cold -, there, there- 
fore, I am of opinion the utmoft bound is to be 
placed ; fo that in his opinion, that wluch he calt 
Ireland muft be Thule {a). 
Catullus is of the fame mindl 

Sive trans altas 
Graditur Alpes, 
Csfaris vifens 
Monumenta magni,. 
Gallicum Rhenum, 
Horribilefque et 
Ultimos Britannos. 
Whether he o'er the Alps his way purfile 
The mighty Ca&far's monuments to view,' 
As Gallic Rhine and Britons that excel 
fe fiercenefs, who on the earth's limits dvrelH 

Serve* 

(tf)^ Gamd. Br. p. 1407^' 



PREFACE; 

I 

Serves iturum Caefarem in ultimos orbis 
Britannos. Hor. (b). 

Preferve thou Caefar fafe, we thee implore, 
feound to the world's remoteft Britonis fhore. 

Caeriilus haud aliter cum dimicat iricola Thulesi 
Agmina falcifero circumvenit adla covina. 

SiLicus Italicus. 

As Thule's blue inhabitants (brround 

Their foes with chariots hoofc'd; and them confound. 

Pliny placed Thule among the Britidi ifles, and 
Tacitus (c) fays, when the Roman navy failed 
about Britain, dcfpefta eft ct Thule, ** they faw 
Thule alfo.*' ' 

Statins ad Claud. Uxorem^ defcribes Thule tc^ 
the weftward of Britain. 

*r— et fe gelidas irem manfuras ad Ardtas, 



Vcl fuper Hefperiae vada caligantia Thules. 

If in the cold north I go to aWde, 

Or on dark feas which weftern THule hide. 

Although the Rortians never were in Irelana^ 
yet Statins, with the liberty of a poet, has certainly 
brought them there in this verfe, apparently fdr the 
honour of having them in Thiile. 

^ tu difce patrem, quantufque nigraritem 

Fludtibus occiduis, fcffoque Hyperione Thuleil 
Intrarit, mandata gerens; 

Learn, from thy fight, how glorious he was^ 
When he did with the fenate*s order pafi 

a 2 0*ct 

(^) Lib; I. od. 35. (0 Vita Agrlc. fupra. 



1 



PREFACE 

O'er to dark Thule, in that ocean, weft. 
Where Phcebus gives his weary horfcs reft (/)* 

Qu. Where could he condud them wefiward' 
from Britain, but to Thule— to Ireland. 

Sir R. Sibbald explains the tranfmarinae Gentes 
or Scotornm a Qrcio, k e. the Scots from the 
iiorth-:vreti and beyond the feas, mentioned by 
Bede, to be Scots and Pight^^ becaufe, ikysfaCr 
Ireland cannot foe faid to lie to the north-weft of 
the Roman province. I do affirm the Scoti or 
northern Irifh, from whom all expeditions pztki 
into Albion^ lie due north-weft of the Romao- 
province. 

, Ireland was ever antiently remarkable for learn- 
ing, it was the infula fandlorum. Stephanus By- 
zantinus fays, ^e'pnk, iincm^ ir tf «%0th «^ h^iuSi, 
Upon which words Hdftenius thus remarks, i"^ 
iila infula eft, quae hodie Hibernia dicitur. ArUi£>- 

teles de Mundo : £*» «f tSmuuZ y% fun vS^w paytr^ «r 

Ocemo infula dtue Jita Junt, yiam maxitne^ quas Bri- 
umnicas apellant^ Albion et lerna : de hac vide plan 
apud Audr. Schottum lib. i-i. Obfervat. cap. acx 
Fefto Avieno in- ora maritima Hibernia vocatur 
facra infula. Quod quam aliam ob caufam fcccrit 
nunc non fuccurrit, nifi quod ♦ i V legerit pro fi^. 
T^ idnKlr, i'c^Mti»5 tfc Ai^Mffi^. Et fssminiuum f*^u quod 
apud Orpheum legitur Argon, v. 1179. tul{ f 

Feftus 

(il) Camd. fupra. 

^ I'f^iuc. Sacerdos. Augur a Flutarcho ve^itur Tc^itorpro 
tltffU»i T9,' viftima, facrificia. 

(e) Holden. in Stepb. ByjAnK, de urb. p. 144.- 



PREFACE. 

Fcftos Avicnus lived in the fourth center))?^ 
4!berc&ffe this was not named the holy ifland after 
St. Paitrick*s ccmverfion, as fome think, for he did 
not arrive here till the beginning, of the fifth cen- 
tury ; this muft therefore be the ifland facred t© 
ApoUo (that is to Baal} of which Diodorus Siculus 
crakes particular mention. See p. a^ i . 

Thus, Aragrimus Jonas defcribes Thule (f) : 

■ penetravit ad Indos, 

Ingeniumque jpotens ultima Thule colit. 

His eloquence did reach the utmoft Indies, 
And powerfirf wii enlightened fartheft Thule. 

And then he adds ; from whence it may fairly be 
inferred, that eitlier Britain or (as Pliny will have 
it) fome iffand of Britain was the ultima Thule ; 
yet Sibbaid will interpret fome jfiand of Brilam to 
be Britain Vtfelt 

Again, *^ In the hiftory of the kings of Norway, 
^ it is faid that king Magnus, in an expedition to the 
Orcades, . Hebrides, Scotland and Britain, touched 
al(b at the ifland of Thule and fubdued it." Here 
Scotland, Britain and Thule are very plainly 
diffinguiffaed. 

Wernerus Ralwingus fays, in the time of pope 
Linus arofe the Scottifli nation of Pifts and Hiber- 
nians in Albion, which is a part of England ; that 
is,, a nation of Ftds and Hibernians arofe in Albion 
a part of England. As plain and intcrUgible as 
this is, Sibbaid will have Hibernia to be part of 
Scotland. 

Strabo always mentions Thule and Britain as 
the Britifli ifles. Speaking of Pytheas's blunders, 

he 

/y]^ Specimen Ifland. hid. p. 2. p. \2o. 



P R E P A G E. 

Quod Pytheas Maflilienfis, cum viliis fit Philofo* 
phus eflc, in defcriptione Thules ac Britannia, 
inendacinimus deprehenditur. 

And thus an anonymous author (g) in the life of 
St. Cadrac, extra Aed ex membranis monaiterii S. 
Huberti in Ardenna, fpeaking of the migration of 
the Irirti, fays, " Padolus igitur Afiae fluvius 
Choriam Lydiamque regiones dividit, fuper quem 
Chorifchon urbem manus antiqua fundavit ; cujus 
incola lingua, et cultu nationem Graeci multimodi 
laboris negotiis ferviebant, &c. — itque Uliricos ex- 
cuntes fludtus, inter Balearesinfulas deve^fti ebufura 
Hifpanicum intraverunt. Nee multo poll per 
Gaditanas undas occidentale pelagus ingrefli, ap- 
pulfi funt, rupibus quae vifus'hominum altitudinc 
excedentes, antiqui erroris fama, columpae Herculis 
diftae fuerunt. Hinc illius Africo vento exurgentc 
poft immenfa pericula in Tyle vcl Thulc ultimam 
detorqucntur. 

Some derive the name Thule from the Arabic 
word Tuky which fignifies afar off, and think it 
was in allufion to t^is the poets ufually called it 
uhinta Thule. Bochart derives it from a Phoenidaa 
word fignifying darknefs. But the >yords Thual 
and Thuathal in the Irifli and probably in the 
tunic language fignified the north, as alfo the left 
hand^ agreeable to the oriental manner of naming 
Jhe cardinal points with refpedk to their looking 
towards the eaft in their devotions. Thus thfe 
north part of Munfter, in old manufcripts is called 
^huatfial'Mhumhdn qr Thuafh-Mkumhany in Engllfli 

Thomond^ 

CiJ Colg. p. 495. col. I. ^ 



PREFACE. 

Thamondj and the fouth part of the fame province 
IS named Deas-Mkumhan^ in Englifli Defmond. So 
alfo the northern province of Ireland retains the 
word ^hual to this day, in Coigt ^husUk & corruptc 
Coige Ulla (the th being an hiatus) in Englifli 
Ulfter. See the Irilh names of the cardinal Points 
more fuUy explained at page 269 of the following 
Eflay. 

To what I have already faid I will adjoin the 
opinion of a gentleman who has made many curious 
rcfearches into the antiquities of Great Britain. 
*' The Thule of the ancients feems moft clearly to 
have been Ireland, from the manner in which 
Statics addrefles a poem to Crifpinus, whofe father 
had carried the emperor's commands to Thule^ 

• tu difce patrem, quantufque nigrantem 

Fludlibus occiduisy fcjjoque Hyperiene Thulen 
Intravit mandata gerens. 

It (hould alfo feem, from other parts of the fame 
poem, that this general had crolTed from Scotland 
to the north of Ireland or Thule : 

Quod fi te magno XtWw^ franata parcnti 
Accipiat, quantum ferus exultabit Araxes f 
Quanta Caledonios attoUet gloria campos ? 
Cum tibi longaevus referet trucis incola terras. 
Hie fuetus dare jura parens, hoc cefpite turmas 
AfFari ; nitidas fpeciilas, caftellaque longe. 
Afpicis ? ille dedit cinxitque hsec msenia fofla. 

Statius, v. 14. 

Grifpinus's father, therefore, muft have refided 
(bmc time in Scotland, from whence he went to 
Thule or Ireland ; for the Hebrides (the only land to 
the weft except Ireland) could not have been of fuffi- 

ci?nt 



F R E F A C E. 

cient eonfeqiienec; for the er^peiPDr'a comHiiffioa^ or 
ih€ fortifications aliuded to i befrcte, itiat vhe ex- 
pFdlloii oS feffo^f Hyferme unplics, that tba lan<| 
lay c^ficktably to llie w^jftw^ (A> 

Althopg^ Ireland be the firil Tbdlt di&^v^red 
by the Carthaginians^ fityrs Sir Robert Sibbdd, 
fcX it is not thaJt; Th,qle in vrhich the Romans weie 
and made conquell of j for it is certain they never 
were in Irelaiad, ptoperly fo called. The H^efti^ 
that is the Highlanders were oallcd Hy^emiy fays he, 
as being a colony fronn: Ireland. Yet Strafaa fitys,. 
Qui lermn-Britanniam Yiderunt, nihil de ^fhuif 
dkuRt (^). But feeing Scotland has thfyfe wkhki 
herfelf who. a[:e able to trace her ori^nal firan the 
higheft antiquity, I will onfy point out tlie&iuitaift 
from whence I caa coaceVve the^ tf utha m^ ta be 
drawn, and offer fome rhing;^ whicb I would hav^ 
them diligently to confide^ &f in thish pomt I 
profefs rpyfejf a feeptick. 

Firft therefore of their fJriginal, sMid ^ken of tho 
place from whence they were ti$n(phmted into 
Ireland. For it is plain, that out of Ireland (aii 
ifland peopled by the Britons) they canfje over into 
Britain ; and that they were feated in Ireland whei> 
they firft became known to writers by that name« 

So Claudian fpeaking of their inroads into Britain ^ 
' totam cum Scotus Hibemeiti, ♦ 
Movit et infellD fpuna^vit remige. Thetis. 
Wlien Scots came thund'ring from the Irifli fhores 
And th' ocean trembled ftruck with hoftite oars. 

In 

(/j) See ThepofTibilitr of upproaclioir the notth pok dif^ 
cuifedy in page 62 oF Mifceilanies by the hon. Oaincs 1^^ 

ringfon. London 17U1. Quarto. 

(/> Lib. I. p. ^6, * lernqiq 



PREFACE. 

Ut another place^ 
Seolionir» eumuloB flevU gladaii& Hibesne. * 
And frotefi heland moan'd the crowding htap^. 
Of mtirthemi Scots (*). 

The firft inhabitants of Ireland can[^ from Bfilaifi, 
Ireland was ii^biled by Scots. Paulus Orofius. 
IHr. I . cap. a. He is an author of the fifth century. 

GUdas whO' mufi have peFfe<5tly known that 
country, affures us, that in the 6th century the 
nets atMi the Scotfr iofaiabited Iieiaind. Bafnage 
Hift. Eeclef. (/). This tefiiirxmy of Gildas is con* 
finned m ouir aatient topography. 

h was a received opinion in the ttflcie of Pro^ 
pcrtios, who Kved under Augufhis CaeTar, that the 
bifii were defended &om the Scythi^ns^ witjieifi 
that vcrfc, lib. 4. e^ 3, 

' Hibernique Getae^ pidoqtie Britannia cur ru. 
When^! it appears that the Iri(h were defcend^ 
firom the Geta^ (Goftbs) a branch of the Scythians, 
the comnion origin of all the Celtic tsibes whp 
inhajbtted Europe. 

Scytgt itf quarta state n>undi obtinuerii^ Hiber^ 
niam, fey* U(ber {m). 

Bntones m tertia naundi aetate in Britanniain, 
Scott ia quarta venecuot in Hlbernianv. Huqtingdbn, 

bb. f . 

Hence il appears that the Scoti were a colony of 
ttas Scyt« ; that tb^ ^ere the iaxm people, ai«) 
even preferved ai^^d bore the (anaie name with tWe 
fiher^Mrion of one letter only, the « ibr the^^ owing 

to 

1^ Icrne. {i) Camd. Brit. p. cxliv. 

^I) Vol. I. p. 7^7. (i»> Prim. p. 73 fr. 



PREFACE.. 

to the difference of pronunciation, Scoytay Scou^ 
Scoti for Scyta ; and it is not improbable that the 
word Celta is likewife a corruption of Scyta^ in • 
procefs of time probably called Schelta or Skeha^ 
.Kelta or Ceha. 

Ferociffimi Gallorum funt, qui fub feptcntrionem 
habitant et Scythae vicini funt ; dicunt ex iis non- 
nuUos antropophagos elfe, ficut Britannos qui Irin 
inhabitant. 

Galatae qui ad feptcntrionem vergunt et Scytiae 
vicini funt, ferociffimi funt ; eorum nonnullos dicunt 
hominibus vefci, ut Britannos qui Irim inhabitant 

Diodorus Siculus (») fuppofes, as a thing known 
and out of difpute, that the inhabitants of Ireland 
were Britoiis, and confequently defcended from 
the Gauls, Galatae, Skeltae or Celts. 

Buchanan {o) confirms the Irifli hiftory, that 
numbers of Spaniards fled to Ireland, beir^ much 
difquieted in their own country by the Carthaginians 
and Romans, and that all the north fide of Spain 
was poflefled by Gallic colonies. He contradidks 
Tacitus, who fays, the weft fide of Albium was 
poffefled immediately by Spaniards, but that they 
came from Ireland \ for, fays he, alt our annals 
relate that the Scots pafled more than once out of 
Ireland into Albium •, firft of all under Fergufius 
fon of Ferchard. And Eecje's account of the 
Scythians coming to Ireland by diftrefs of weather 
correfponds with our Irifli hiftory. 

At what period th^fe Spaniards or mixtUFc 
of Spaniards and Carthaginians emigrated firom 

Spain 

(») Lib. 5. p. 214. edit. H. Steph. 1559. 
(o) Edit. Edinb. Vol. i. p. 6|. 



PREFACE. 

{Spain to Ireland is varioufly related by Irifh 
liiAorians. 

Keating from various authors fixes this emigradon 
from Spain at the 280th year after Pharaoh 
periflied in the Red Sea to 1000 years before 
Chrift; but it is moft probable it was about the 
time of Afdrubal's defeat in Spain by Scipio and 
his brother Cneius, that is about 216 years before 
Chrift ; for at that time the Carthaginians were npt 
only repulfed in Spain but in Africa, and the 
Balearic iflands likewife ; and many of the cantons 
of Spain at this time threw off the Carthaginian 
yoke and fubmitted to the Roman power* Some 
of the Iriih hiftorians agree in this period. 

Here it muft not be forgotten, that all agree 
that Milefius, who headed this colony from Spain, 
was only fo named on this expedition from mil a 
champion, and diat his proper name was Gallamk^ 
I. e. the white hand, and this method of naming 
became common, as red hand, withered hand, Src. 

The old name of Leinfter was GalJiain^ that is, 
the country of the Galls ; many places yet retain 
the name as Dun-na-Gall (Donnegal), Fian-fM-^Gall 
(Fingal), Port-m-Gall (Gallorum portus) Galway, 
pr Gallamhain^ i. e. amnis Gallorum, ^uamdalhalan 
pow Tuam, with many others. 

In travelling through Ireland we frequently meet 
.with mounts or raths, the repofitorics of the illuftrious 
dead. In two very remarkable paffages of the Iliad 
the poet intimates, that this was the pradkice both of 
the antient Greeks and Phoenicians, and their manner 
pf burying their dead, particularly of their herpes 

and 



F R B F A C E 

and emtfteiit naefi, of whidft the moniutnent cf Patn>* 
clus in the 23d book of the Iliad, and that of HcQioi 
lA the ktft, af e refnaj^kai^ iRikiicc& See aUb Vtrgil's 
Mndd lib. I u &e. Luam's Phar&lia, lib. 8. Et 
regnvsn cinere& extrutSko monte quicfcunt. The 
In£h had aUb the cdtitfAon Idtter and the O^am ; 
and that they were bothi in ufe at om and the &me 
lime ifi evident ftomr this paiage in the antient book 
of Bftlliiiiote, £bk 14&. Fiaehra Mac Eaeha Mui^ 
iohea^ion (Righ Eirin) do gfxmn fan gcatb ro (hroin 
ibc Mnineachaibb L Gcasnce« A, ecc dm gonaibh 
iar tteacbr gp Hui-mac-uaia Mdhe,. lociadb a leacfat 
& vo lai^ a^ffheaft for au faibh^ a Aims O^hakn ; 
i. e. Fiacre (an of £adlia Moymedon wafii mortaliy 
wovtuded at the bofttle of Caaiiry^ whercia be was 
vidlonom ^ainft the Mononoidna. On Mis vetum 
ito Hy-mac-utttf in Mealji^ he dkd of biB vmmiufe. 
H'm funeralf kadit ws& eidSsed^ and on Jnss^ tomb 
waa 'ynktibcjA host name m the Ogam ehatadter* 
K.B. The battle of Caoiiiy was fioogbt A. I>. 5801 
Tlidt the Latin language waa 'm later ages the 
eenmnofi diakdt. of the Airk^aas aa weft aa tba 
PuQjcv. we leaim from St Augnffine^ who &ys be 
learned the Lalin rn A&iea; vUer Uandimenro' ntr* 
irkum: and the iianie author alfa notifies the decay 
of the Punic language ia another part of his works^ 
via. de vet bta Apoftoli, " Provcrbinni' noturn eft 
Puiiicum quod qukkm Latinc vobis dtcaaiy qicm 
Ptinice non onmes noiiis»" St Hierome alfe 
writing to a young noble Roman lady called De^- 
fnetrksy being in Afiricav %s, ^ Stridor Punicse 
Kngos procacia txbi fefcennina cantabit" — "-^ the 

janring 



? R E J A C fi. 

jarring Iconic language ftail fing tltcc bawdy I5mgj 
at thy wedding.'* From l!hefe authorititcs we may 
conclude, the Latm language arid the Roman 
letter were common even in Carthage in ihe time 
of Plautus, and l!hat the Punic fpcech given hy 
rfiat author in his comedy of the PoeniAis, was 
written in riie Roman letter. 

The poiitivc affeitions of all the friftr Wftorians^ 
that their anceftors received the ufe of letters 
direftly from the Phoenicians, and the concurrence 
of them alt in affirming that feveral colonies from 
Africa fettled in Ireland, induced the author of the 
following effay, who had made the antient and 
modern language of Ireland his peculiar Itudy for 
fome years pall, to compare the Phoenician dialeft 
or Bearla Feni of the !ri(h with the Punic or lan- 
guage of the Carthaginians. 

The affinity of the language, worlhip and man- 
ners of the Carthaginians, with thofe of the ancient 
Irifli appeared fo very ftrong, be communicated 
his difcoverics from time to time to fome gentlemea 
well jfkilled in the antiquities of Ireland, and df the 
eaftern nations ; their approbation of this rude 
flcetch induced the author to offer it to the confi- 
deration of thofe who have greater abilities and 
more leifure to profecute fuch a work. 

Well knowing the ridiculous light moft etymolo 
gifts are held in, the author has trod with all poffible 
caution in this very remote path of antiquity. The 
arbitrary liberties taken by fome etymologifts have 
juftly drawn on them the cenfure of the learned. 
Their general rule of the commutation of letters 
has often led many aftray, and caufed them to lofe 

fight 



P ft E F A G Bi 

light of the radical word and its primitive fenfe i 
thus for example, the word adder may by an ety- 
mologill unacquainted with the Englifh language 
be turned to otier^ for the a and o being both 
broad vowels are commutable, and the word may 
be written odder ^ the d being alfb commutable 
with /, the word may be formed to ouer^ an animal 
of a very different fpecies from the primitive word 
adder. 

Monfieur Bullet in his Memoirs de la Langue 
Celtique, has been guilty of the fame error, in lis 
etymon of the Britilh names of rivers, towns, &c. 
as is obferved by the ingenious tranflator of Mr. 
Mallet's northern antiquities (p) ; and the learned 
Lhwyd has in my humble opinion fucceeded little 
better in his collation of the Irifh language with the 
Bifcayan or Bafque; between which I do aver 
there is no affinity, but between the Irifti and the 
Punic I think I may affirm there is a greater affinity, 
than between the Irifli and any other ancient lan- 
guage whatever. 

Many learned men are of opinion that the 
Hebrew charaders now ufed by the Jews were firit 
invented by Ezra. Scaliger is fo much convinced 
of this, he reproaches every one who is not of the 
fame opinion ; in his epiftol. ad Thompfonum &t 
Ubertum, he affirms, Grsecas literas a Phoenicibus 
natas quibus omnes olim et Canana^i et Hebraei ufi 
funt, adhucque Samaritani utuntur; neqiie alias 
in ufu fuilfe a temporibus Mofis ad excidium 
templi. Nam eae, quibus Judaei hodie libros, et 
omnia afta fua fcribunt, nuperae et novitiae funt, ex^ 

Syriaefa 

W Preface^ p. 14. 



PREFACE. 

Syriactk depravatas, illae autem ex Samarkams; 
quod cum luce clarus fit, tamen quidam femidoftiy 
femitheologi, et ut fignatii^ loquar, femihomines 
non (oliim Jud^cas lit eras vere Hebraicas efle 
prifcas audent dejerare, fed etiam impios putant, 
atque adeo vocant, qui aliter fentiunt^ miferam 
vero dodlorum et priorum hominum conditioneniy 
fi dodtrinae et pietatis fux, non alios teftes baberent^ 
quam afinos. 

Grotius, Bochart, Morinus, Voflius agree with 
Scaliger, and of the antients Hieronymus and 
Eufebius are of the fame opinion. Certum eft, 
iays Hieronymus, Efdram fcribam^ legifque doc- 
torem,po(l captamHieorofolyman et inftaurationem 
templi fub Zorobabel, alias literas comperiife^ 
quibus nunc utimur, ciltm ad illud ufque tempus^ 
idem Samaritanorum et Hebraeorum charadteros 
fuerint. And Eufebius fays, affirmatur Efdra di* 
vinas fcripturas memoriter condidiiTe, et ut Sama* 
ritanis ncm mifcerentur literis, Judaicas commutaiTe. 
Scaliger further obferves, he had feen coin of the 
Hebrews with infcriptions in the Samaritan charac- 
ters. Siclos quotidie circumferii qui fub regibus 
Judae in ufu fuerunt, quibus eadem literas incifie 
funt qua& in fcriptis Samaritanorum leguntur, fine 
uila aut exigua mutatione. Yet Angelus Rocca 
confirms what Diodorus Siculus fays^ (q). that the 
Phoenicians received their letters from the Syrians. 

With the authority already quoted,, we may 
venture to affirm, that the priniitive Phoenician 

letters 

fioAoiTH TcSk EXT^i^i wofoih^Minu Syri quidem liteuruDi in- 
ventores luni» ab iilis autcui Plioenices difcentes GrsecU' 
tiadideruiit. 



? R fi P A C E. 

letters were die fame as the ^tortjent SatAaritan. 
Thtft fbe antient Spaniards had Tarious ai^iafbetB 
and varioos languages, fee Strabo, lib. 3. ipeaftang 
xfE the Twdetani, ''* Hi inter Hifjianitt popsrlos, 
Apiemia ptttantur excellefe, et litemram itudtiB 
tituntuf et memorandec vetuilatifi volumina lMibe»t 
]9oemata, icges quoque Terfibus <x)n(criptas -ex kjt 
finnoram inflibtiS) Qt aiunt. Csteri autem Bitpanc 
ufum habent literarum non uno quidem igbneitf 
neque una iHis lii^a eft* — ^UtOntur et TCKqui 
Hifpani grammatica non urtius otnties genena^ 
tjnippe nc eodem <jmdem fernwrne. 

That the prefisnt Irifh chara<fVer (\mpcopcAy 
called the Roman Saxon) was formerly vifhA m 
Spain, fee t^ie antient MSS. copied in Aldretes 
origin de la lingifia CafteHana, <ii. 18. 

Pftey^cwf ec ompef bj*. - 

Prefcius et omnipotens Dens, lite. &c. 
And that the Punic letter differed from the Greeks 
fee Juftin. lib. 20. in fin. " Fadofenatus oonfulto^ 
ne quis poftea Carthaginenfis, aut literis Grscis, 
aut Grarco fermoni ftuderet, ne aut loqui cum 
liofte, aut fcribere fine interprete poffet.^ 

It matters not in the prefent treatife, whether we 
acknowledge the Irilh to be a Cekic, Poeno-Celtic, 
or Scytho-Cehic dialed; they all were originally 
the fame ; at the time of riiis ifland being firft 
peopled^ they were identically the fame, as may 
be proved from language, cuftoms and manners. 
I refer the reader to the Obfcrvationes Sacraj of the 
learned Campegius Vitringa, who publiflied his 
works in quarto at Leovardia in 1 689. His feventh 
chapter is entitled dc Pedis, Scythis, horumque 

progenic. 



PREFACE. 

progenies populis fcptentrionalcs regiones incolcn- 
tibus^ difleritur, eorumque linguarum conveniently 
inutua iiiter fe» et origo ex una Hebraea lingu4 
oftenditur. Proferuntur etiam ad finem exempla 
modorum loquendi integrorunx, qui Hebraeis ac 
Bel^s communes funt. I mean not, fays he, 
to fpeak of the jperfians fo denominated by 
Xenophon, but of ihat more ancient people under 
the name of cihvt gnailim^ gailim^ as we find them 
in facred hiftory. 'E^wfowi*, whofe moft powerful 
king was known in the age of Abraham, under 
the name of Cedorlaomer, apud Mofen. 1. 1. c. 14. 
Strabo mentions the Elymaei, inhabiting between 
Media and Melbpotamia, 1. 15. Thwo, H •n? T^vtrt^i mt 
Bo&AAWMKr Sec. Scc. i. c^ Sufidi ca pars Babylonia 
proxima eft, quas quondam Sitacena, pofiea ApoU 
lionatis, eft dida : Ambabus a feptentrione orientem 
verfus Elymasi imminent, et Paratacxni, latrones, 
et aljperis montibus freti. 

Symmachus and Procopius prove thefe Elymasi 
to be Scythians -,' Herodotus that they were neigh- 
bours to the Medes ; and Bochart diat they were 
the anceftors of the Peirfians. 

I^t us now collate the ojd Perfic words with the 
Iri(h, as we find them in BriiTonius de regno 
Feriarum, 1. 11. p. ZT9* 

wn cheresy H. folf Perfic ; crian, criay gria^ grian^ 

Irifti. 

vr\ decy ieccmy P. deichy Ir. 

tmf jbacy rex, P. feadhy Ir. potens. 

T^D -ma nar-malchay amnem regium. D^y^-malaciy 
$iqua,regia. 

Vol. II. c Stircfty 



PREFACE. 

Suri^H, furenay next in power to the king. 
Zofimus 5 ab Ebneo n» Jari vel y» far^ princq^s. 
h\(h/a&r sxid foots a burgefs, a noble ; from whence 
the Engliih Sir, and the French Mon-Sieur. 

Gottrgamely P. a cancel's hovel; M^nona^ Heb. 
i. e. goHy locnm obtedum ; Ir. gati^ feptus, an in^ 
clofed i^aoe ; gan-ailj a hovel, i. e. incloCed with 
Hone and covered •, ganaihgantuil^ a camel's hovel ; 
hodie gam-f a hovel. 

Hefychius fays, that a^^'ik imi lUfam is called 
ffwiftH, inquiror ; this is eafily derived from the 
Hebrew . wn daras^ inquirere ; Iri(h dearOf make 
particular enquiry or notioe ; M^e a proper name 
of the feme (ignification with the Perfian Darius^ 
Strabo ikys Dareis^ Darius^ Doriaues^ diSct only in 
their termination. Reland tbini|:s it is derived 
from the Perfian dara^ lord or mafier; or darab^ 
i. e. in the water, becauf^, as they pretend, Darius 
was expofed by his mother on the river Tigris. 
But after ail, is not the name Darius derived from 
the Celric 6t{i;< dair^ an oak, the moft Qrong and 
majeftic of all trees ? . 

The celebrated Boxhomius has' this remarkable 
paflage from Strabo (r), " Sicut notas veifus fep- 
tentrioncm gentes uno prius nomine Scythx, vcl 
Nomades (ut ab Homero) appeliabantur, ac poftea 
temporis cognitis regionibus occiduis Cdtas, Iberi, 
aut mixto nomine Ceitiberi ac Celto-Scythae did 
ceperunt, cum prius ob tgnorantiam fingolas 
gentes imo omnes nomine afficirentur.** Therefore 
^11 the nations which migrated northwards were 

called 

(r) L. I. p. 22. 



PREFACE. 

called Scythe. Thus these were the Afiatic Scy* 
thians and the Eur opejan Scythians. 

The learned Mr. Selden alfo fays (s\ " A<i hiinc 
certe modnm qui occidemem inhabitabant ple- 
ramque omnes gei>eratim Celtasy qui auftrum 
^thiopes, qui ultra Syriam Indi, qui Boreacn 
Scythae veteribus dicebantar. Quae in fobulis de 
Syro rege, atque alia hujus nominis etyma confulto 
praeterimus. Hoc fane nos acquiefcendum daximus» 

It may be thought prefumptuous ia.any one to 
attempt an EiTay of this kind after fuch learned 
orientalilts as Selden, Bochart, Voflius, Sec. who 
have all treated of the Punic language ; yet the 
opinion of that learned body of men who compofed 
die Royal Academy of Infcriptions and Belles 
Lettres at Paris, ^ves room to think that an Iriflv> 
man bat Httle (killed in the Hebrew has an equal 
light to an attempt of this kind ; take their own 
words. 

" . Plufieurs favans, & entre autres M. Bochart 
dans fon Phaleg, ontentrepris de prouver que le 
langue Phenicienne etoit la meme que I'Hebraique, 
& que la Punique ou celle de Carthage etoit aufli 
la meme. U y a c^rtaineraent une grand oon- 
formite, mais elle n'eft pas telle qu'oii puiffe dire 
que ces langues fuiflent les memes ; car la peine 
que Scaliger, Saumaife, Petit, Bckihart, & d'autres 
ont eue ^ expliquer la (bene Punique du Ptenulus 
de Plaute, en eft une preuve au(ri bien que Tobfcu- 
rite dcs medailles & quelques infcriptions Puniqites, 
qui n'ont pu jufq'a preicnt etre liies^ & encore 

mains 

(j) De Dis S}T. proicg. p. 5. 



PREFACE. 

moins expliquees par le» favans, quoique Ics carac* 
eres de la plupart fbiient tres nets & tres bied 
confervez (/)". 

With the greateft deference this fmall treatife is 
oflFered to the confideration of the learned, and in 
particular to thofe Irifli antiquaries {killed in the 
Bearla Feni or Phoenician dialeft of their own 
country, in which language their moft antient 
records and codes of laws are written. * 

If an affinity of the Irifti language with the 
Punid be allowed, this difcovery will throw gr&t 
lights on the darker periods of the Heathen Irifli 
hiftory. It will (how, that though the details be 
fabulous, the foundation is laid in truth. It will 
. demonftrate the early ufe of letters in this ifland, 
becaufe nothing but that ufe could preferve the 
leaft affinity from the flourifhing era of Carthage to 
the prefent,^ a fpwce of more than 2300 years. It 
will account for the Iri(h affuming to themfelves 
the names of Feni or Fenicians, which they have 
retained through all ages. It will with the &me 
certainty account for their giving the name, of 
Bearla Feni (the Phoenician tongue) to one of thdr 
native dialeds. In fine, it will (how, that when 
they adopted the Phoenician Syntax, they confined 
their language to oriental orthography, while it 
harmonized itfelf out of it^ primitive confonantat 
Celtic harihnefs, by the fuppreifion of many radical 
letters in the pronunciation of words. 

Ex plane ratione Phoenicum vocem a Gra^cis 
fuilTe puto ad inilar Hebraicarum pjy ni Pheni-Anak, 

ac 

(0 Mem. de racadem. torn. 3. p. 30. 



PREFACE. 

ac fi filios Anac vel Anaceos dixeris. Redtius 
quidem fcripferit Bene-Anak; fed Graeci Beth 
HebraEum paflim ita emoUhmt, ut cum Sophmem 
dicit Jofcphus pro Soba. Ut jam nemo mirctur 
quod nos et Phoenices, et Punicos et Poenos pro 
iifdem habeamus {u). 

Or are we to be furprifed at the affertions of the 
Irifti Seanachies, of the Milefians or.Phenians finding 
themfelves underftood by the natives at the time 
of their landing ; for the antient Gauls, who al(b 
colonized this country as well as Britain, fpoke the 
(ame Phenian dialeft. * Non eft tamen quod quif- 
quam putet Poenis et Gallrs aut eandem fuiffe 
linguam aut fola dialedo diverfam. Ita enim 
afferit Polybius de Autarito Gallo, Punice loqui didi- 
cerai Imgo militia ufu (w). Conftat igitur Gallos et 
Poenos, et fi propter commercia vel communia 
bcUa, vel, quod fufpicamur potius, propter vetuftam 
aliquam Phoenicura coloniam in Gallias deduftam, 
alii ab aliis muha vocabula mutuati fmt. 



(u) Bocb. geog. facr. p. 362. 
(w) Id. p. 758. 



AN 



A N 



ESSAY 



ON T H I 



A N T I <;i^U I T Y 



O^ T if B 



IRISH LANGUAGE. 



_ • 

IT has been generally thought, that the Iritb 
language, is ^ compounci of the Qeltic, and old 
Spaaifti, or Bafque ; whoever will take the pains to 
compare either of thefe languages with the ancieat 
maoufciipts of the IriHi, will (bon be convinced, 
that the Irifti partakes not the leaft of the Bifcayan. 

.On a collation of the Jtrifh with the Celfic^ Punic, 
Phoenician and Hebrew languages, the ftrongeft 
affinity, (nay a perfect identity in very many words) 
will appear ; it may therefore be deemed a Punic- 
-Celtic compound ; and the following EiTay will 
prove this to be fomewhat more than a bare con- 
Jc£lure. 

The Irifli is confequently the moft copious lan- 
guage extant ; as from the Hebrew proceeded the 
Phoenician, from the Phoenician, Carthaginian or 
Pmiic, was derived the ^olian, Dorian and EtruG 
can, and from thefe, was formed the Latin ; the 

Vol. 1L S Irilh 



252 Ak essay oU the antiquity 

. Irilh is therefore a language of the utmoft im- 
portance, and moft defirable to be acquired by 
antiquaries and etymolo^fts. 

The Irifli hifftorians da all agree, that they re- 
ceived their letters from the Phoenicians, and that 
their language was called bearla Fine or the Fenician 
dialedt, of which their ancient manufcripts bear 
fufficient tcftimony. 

Keating (a), and M*Curtin in their general hif- 
tories of Ireland, and the M*Firbifs*s (authors of the 
Liber Lecanus), all confirn> the arrival of the 
Fomhoraicc*s or African pirates in Ireland at feveral- 
periods : that they introduced the art of building 
v^ifh ftone and lime, aftronomy, &c. that they 
adored certain flars fuppofed to have power from 
the God of the Sea, either to guide or miflead the 
(hips: that at length they over-ran the country, 
and made a complete conquelt, drove out the 
Nemedians, and laid the ifliand under tribute 
Spencer, who bears as hard on the Irilh, and with 
arguments futile as Macpherlbn's, allows, that they 
received the ufe of letters from the Phoenicians, and 
pofitively aflerts, that a colony of Africans fettled 
in the weftern part of Ireland, Orofius and even 
fome modern authors, have gone fo far as to deny 
the ufe of letters to the Carthaginians, before the 
Romans conquered that republic, and as a proof of 
this they quote many infcriptions in Roman charac- 
ters from varbus places in Africa, 

It 



(fl^ KcatingV Hift, Ireland, Dublin edit. p. i8, 19. CoK- 
fcftanea Lib. Lecan. p. r, 2, 3. M'Currin's Antiq. of Ireland, 
T* 39- fencer, p. 1546. 



bF tHK IRISH LANGUAGE. t5J 

It is true, the Carthaginians adopted the Romati 
letter in the firft Punic war, which charadter it is 
very probable they brought with them to Ireland^ 
as no infcription has been found in this ifland in the 
Phoenician letter. It is evident from the order of 
the alphabet and from the figure of the letters in 
the ancient manufcripts, that the Irifli did not re- 
ceive the ufe of letters, or the alphabet from St. 
Patrick; nay, that faint in his own life declares 
that Fiech, poet laureat to Laogaire at the time of 
his arrival, found fo little alteration in the charac- 
ter that he read the Latin gofpels in fourteen days, 
in two months after he embraced Ghriftianity, and 
ahb compofed an ode in praife of that faint. 

Of the Roman Saxon capital letters, the Irifli 
ufe but three, all the others bear a very great re- 
femblance to the primitive Hebrew and Phoenician, 
as given us by Scaliger and Poftellus ; and in the 
Chaldaic charadlers given us by the latter, are to be 
found, all thofe ufed by the ancient Irifli, bearing 
the fame figure and power. 

Pliny fays (i), the Romans held the Carthaginian 
writings on agricuhure and botany, in fo great 
cfteem, that after the facking of Carthage, they 
ordered twenty-eight volumes on thefe fubjedts^ 
the work of Mago or Magon, to be tranflated into 
the Latin language ; and that Q^Septimius tranf- 
lated the hiftory of the Trojan war from the Punic 
into the Latin. Again, that author (c) mention^ 
the memoirs of Hanno's voyage to the W. <:oaft 
of Africa, being tranflated into Latin by order of" 

S ^ the 

(*) L i8. c. 4. (0 ^- a. c 67. 



« I 



454 An essay on tite ANTIQIJITY 

the fenate, the original of which was a long timtf 

prcferved with great care in the public library. 

Almoft aR the Carthaginian manuferipCS were 

committed to the flames, and the hiftory of \\m 

brave and learned people, has been written by 

their moft tetter enemies, the Greeks and Romans ; 

in this too they refemble the IrBh («/) : — Qiand 

l^orriblc deibord des Arabs et Sarrafins fut faift 

iors que ies Scrfmatiques, qui laiflerent \c pontife de 

Bagadeth, paflTerent en Afriqoe, fcs roys Mrfio- 

metiftes fcipcnt brufler tous Ies li«res des Africains, 

afiin que par la le£ture d'iceux iis ne fe re«K>ita(rent 

de la religion de ieur alcoran, et amfi l^ignorafice a 

cause la roine de ce people iadis taut g^tit, ridie, 

courtois et fcavant, lequel ^n eftime auoir eu aux 

fiecles paflez des diaraderes de lettres a I^sy pro- 

pres, Cirees et extraiftes des >chata^res des lettres 

des Qiananeens, Syrians, et. Phoeniciens iu(ques a 

ce que ies Remains s^en firent fetgneuts Idquek y 

introduirent, conuzie di£t*e{l, ks eharafteres dc 
kurs lettres Latines. 

From Pliny <0 we learn, that the Carthaginians 
were the firft that traded by fea ; and that tbey had 
great j(kill in the art of buildii>g, whidi tfa^ ix^ 
herited from the Tyrians, Sec tWe raocc fotiy 
under the article of Hercules. 

Herodotus fays (fX the FhoeniciARs were of a 
jmoll happy geni4.is : arithmetic and agronomy 
^ther took their rife with them, or were bro^|bt 

(fi) C. Duret Bonrb. IL de I'Origine dtsLangues dc cca 
Univ. p. 39J. 

(f) L. 71. c. s6. Univ. Hift. 8vo. vol. a. p. 538. 
(fj L. J. c. 58. 



w THE IRISH LANGUAGE. igS^ 

by them to great perfcftion- From themr thofe 
ejccellerrt finences flowed into Greece together with 
their letters. 

The Fhoenkians traded to all the known part» 
of the wo^kl^, in which were included the Britifb 
ifles, commonly underftoodi hy the name of the 
Cqfiterides {g). 

They had two kinds of ftiips, called ik}gali aqd 
(/) argo (k}y the firft moved only by the wind> and 
were chiefty defigned for trade, the laft moved by 
wind and oajs, and were ffaips of war. Gaultis 
gemiB navigii pene rotmdiim. 

Their firll fettlement in Sp^a was at the iitand 
of Gadiz or Cadiz, where they met with a friendly 
reception from the inhsbitants, therefore Hercules 
edited it (/) Cadiz. 

Polybiiui (m) infonw us, that the Carthsigiiiians 
were the firft foreign nation ttje Romans entered 
into an alliance- with, out of their own continent; 
that a treaty of commerce and navigation was con* 
firmed between them as early as tiie confulihip of 
iSrutus, which treaty was engraved on a marble 
pillar $ and that thi& infcriptioa was dlicovered fo 
foon after as the fecond Punic war, when not a . 
Roman was to be found who could read it. Such 
an alteration had the Latin tongue fuflfered in to 
(hort a fpace J 

I arpi not of Galateushis opinion, that the Punique 
tongue was utterly extinguilhcd by the Ronrans. 

(Galit* 

fg) Hn«t. Hift. d« la Nav. des Anc. p. $8, 

(A) Wiih'gal^ a gale of wind. 

(f) y^rg/tf champions, warriori ; ar^^dh to plunder. 

\k) Feftus, p. 162. 

(/} Iridi codas ^ friendihip. 

{m) L. 3. c. 23. 



%}6 An essay on the ANTIQUITY 

(Galat. de Situ. Japyg. p. 98.) Nor can I agrees 
^ith the whims and fancieis of fome learned men, 
that it was the vulgar Arabic fpoken in Africa at 
this day. (See Gefncr, in Mithridat. in Ling. Afric. 
et Arab. Roccha de dialed in Ling.' Arab. 
^ofiellus de Ling, i z. in Lipg. Arab. Maf. in Gr. 
Syriaca, Bibliand. de ratione Linguar. Schindler, 
Lex. Pcntaglotto in voce mp. Mart. Galeott. de 
dodr. promifcua, cap. 6. and many others. 

For it is well known the Poeni were of another 
.offspring and not of Arabian race, and that it is 
not yet 1000 years, fmce that tongue was brought 
hy the Arabians into Africa. 

And as certain alfo it is, that the remnants of the 
Africans progeny, as Leo Africanus hath recorded^ 
have a different language from the Arabic. The 
Punic tongue, without doubt, was the Canaanitifh 
or old Hebrew language,'fomewhat altered from the 
.original pronunciation, as ufually befalls all colo* 
nifts planted amongft ilrangers. That Carthage 
and divers other cities of Africa (of which Pliny 
nameth Utica and Leptis as the principal) were colo- 
nies of die Phoenicians, namely of the Tynans, is 
not only acknowledged by Strabo, Mela, Livy, 
Pliny and many others, but alfo the very names of 
Foeni and Punici being but variations of the name i 
Phcenicii import fo much, and laftly their language 
confirms it. For Hierome writing, that their 
language was grown fomewbat different from the 
Phoenician tongue, doth manifeftly declare, it had 
been the fame. Now the Phoenicians were Canaan- 
|tes, pf whofe merchandizing we read fo much in 

ancjen^ 



OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. ifiT 

arident hiftorics, and whofe name ca^wa Canaim 
(Irifh Canaithe) fignifieth merchants. 

For, the very fame nation that the Grecians 
called Phcenicians (♦o{w«0 and the Romans in imi- 
tation of that name Paws and Putucos^ for the 
exceeding ftore of good palms wherewith that 
country abounded, in fo much that in monuments 
of antiquity the palm tree is obfervcd for the enfign 
of Phoenicia ; the fame nation I fay called them- 
felves, and by the Ifraelites their next neighbours 
were called Canaanites. 

And, that they were indeed no other, I am able 
eafily to prove. For firft, the fame woman that in 
Matthew xv. 22. is named a Canaanite, is in Mark 
vii. 26. called a Syro-Phcenician. Secondly, where 
mention is made in Jolhua of the Idngs of Canaan, 
they are in the feptuagint tranflation named 
ftwn^iK nw ^wim- Thirdly, to put* it out of all quef- 
tion, all that coaft from Sidon to Azah (that was 
Gazah) near to Gerar, is regiftered by Mofes, Gen. 
X. I p. to have been poffeffcd by the pofterity of 

Chanaan. 

Herodotus fays, the language of the Phoenicians 
was a dialed of the Hebrew ; it was that of the 
Canaanites. Their letters or charafters were the 
feme, or very like the Samaritan charafters (»). 

The Plwenician language being a dialedt of the 

Hebrew, and the Poeni or Carthaginians having 

been originally Phcenicians, it is undeniable their 

firft language muft have been Phoenician. How- 
ever 

(«) See Doaor Shaw's remarks on the Showiah language, 
aiicl Mr. Jones's on the Shilhsc, in the cffa/ on ihe Celtic 
language prefixed to the Irilh Grammar, pag. u, &C. of 
^e fecopd edition^ 



Jt58 An essay on the ANTIQJJITY 

ever ScaUgcr fays {o\ thtt the Pucuc in fome 
refpedts deviated from the Hebrew and PhcemclaQ 9 
which, confidering hour diftant the Carthaginians 
were from thdr motiier country FbGemcta^ afid 
the people they were ificorpofarted among^ ii^ not 
to be wondered at ; it is much more wonderful tbit 
they (houkl retain fo much of their original tongue. 
Thefeus Ambrofius (p) had ieen fame Pank 
writings ; he gives two alphabets, one of wlneh he 
calls the original charader of the Phceniciana^ the 
other the Phoenician-Ionic : whether this author 
had ever feen a grammar of thdr language, I 
cannot (ay ^ but be gives us the dectenfion of a 
noun fttbftantive, which Co perfectly agrees with tbe 
Irifti, I (ball here prefent it to the reader *' Variai 
^* atque differentes eOe Puniccvtim, Carthaginen- 
^^ fium, five Arabicorutn elcmcntorum fprmas, it^ 
<^ clarum efle fufpicor, ut pjobatione nod fit opos ; 
♦* fufit quippe mihi plus quam triginta libromm 
*• capita, turn parva, turn magna, et volumine duo 
f* qusfe explicata ad quinquafere brachiorum long^ 
" tudinem fe cxtendunt, &c." 

Ex. Gr. 
Punic. I;i(b. ' 

Nom. a dar the houfc N. an dae the houfe 



Gen. 


mit ta dar 




G« meud na dae (the bignefs 

of the houfe 


Dat. 


la dar 




D. la dae with or to the houfe 


Ace. 


a dar 




A. an dae the houfe 


Voc. 


ya dar 




V. a dae O houfe 


Abl. 


ifadar 




Ab. fadae with or by the 

houfe. 

It 


(o) Ad Ubert. p. 


36?. 


(/^J, In his Appendix. 



Of THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 1159 

II is very remarkable^ that all the Irifb grammar 
riana ancient and modern, have followed this me^ 
tfiod q( expreifing the gemtive, by the fubftantive 
mtnd prefixed aa in the extn^ile above. 
. In the dative, la in old manuTcripts is equal to 
Jma or dvn^ as Idghias Cmoin la German^ u e. Ugk 
Cofumes ad Gernumum, vita. S. Patricii. Fiacb apu4 
Colganum. 

In the plural, dor k turned into diar^ by the 
addition of the vowel /| the fame rute fubliilB ia 
the Iri(h language* 

Selden and Scaliger are the firft who endeavoured 
in eameft to fettle the Punic language; As for 
Petit and Bochart they have been much more 
oopious on this head ; however there is ftUl room 
enough left &r any learned man to exerdfe Us wit 
imd talents on this fubje£k. 

M. Mains, profeiTor of the Greek and Oriental 
languages in the Ludovician univerfky of Gieflen, 
(g) publifhed a (mall piece in 1718, wherein he 
proves, that the prefent language of the Maltefe 
contains a great deal of the old Punic He was 
fuppKcd with the materials for tMs tradt by father 
James Staniflaus John Baptift Ribier dc Gattis, a 
miffionary Jeiuit, and native of Malta, who died 
at Oxford in 1736. One of the authors of the 
Univerfiil Hiftory knew this father Riluer. He 
confirmed to this perfon by word of mouth, every 
particular he had communicated to Maius, and 
added ibme others ; to wit, that he had carefully 
^examined moft of the.oriental words in the Maltefe 

tongue^ 

{^) J. H. Nfalus ia fpec. ling. PunJc. in hod. Melitens* 



i6d An essay om the ANTICiUITY 

tongue, and found that they approached much nearer 
the Hebrew, and Chaldee, than the Arabic (r) ; 
that the natives had a fort of tradition, that they 
were defcended from the Carthaginians, &c. &c. 
Some fmall manufcripts relating to the prcfent 
fubje<a, he left in the hands of the perfon above 
mentioned. 

If this fmall treatife (hould fall into the hands of 
the perfon now in pioffeffion of the above papers, 
and he will be pleafed to communicate a copy of 
them, direaed to the committee of Irilh antiquaries 
at the Dublin Society's houfe, in Grafton-ftreet, 
. Dublin, the favour will be moft gratefully acknow- 
ledged, and thp expence of tranfcribing repaid. . 
Andrew Theuet fays (^), the language of the old 
inhabitants of the ifland of Malta favours ftrongly 
of the ancient Punic or Carthaginian language, and 
that an ancient marble was difcovered in Malta 
with thefe words, Eloi Effetha et CumL 

And in another place he adds, " The Maltefi; 
have always preferved the Morelque and African 
language, not that as fpoken this day by the 
Moors, but the dialeft forrherly fpoken by the 
inhabitants of Carthage, and as a proof, the 
" Maltcfe underftand fome of the verfes in Plautus, 
" which are in the Carthaginian language. 

Quintus Hoeduus in a letter to his friend Soj^us, 
dated Malta 20 Jan. 1533, has ihefe words, 
" Noftra haec Melita infula eft Millib. 60. Mari 
" fatis periculofo ab Sicilia disjundta Africam verfua 
^^ Funics quondam ditionis quae et ipfa adliuc 

Aphroruni 






' 44 



(tr) Un. Hift. vol. 17. 8vo. p. 298. note, 
i^f) Cofmog. i. c. 19* 



AC 

44 



OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. a6i 

^^ Aphrorum lingua utitur ; et nonuUse etiamnum 
^^ Punicis litteris infcriptas ftellac iapidae extant; 
^ figura et appofitis quibufdam pundhilis, prope 
" accedunt ad Hebraeas. Atque ut fcias aut nihil 
" aut minimum differe a vetere, qucxi nunc habet 
^^ Idioma Hannonis cujufdam Faeni apud Plautum^ 
** Aviccnnx, hujufque fimilium punica verba 
plurima intelligunt Melitenfes, tametfi fermo is 
fit qui litteris Latinis exprimi bene non potefl 
multo minus o^ aliquo enunciari, nifi fuae gentis. 
Ejufdem quoque funt linguae verba ilia in Evan* 
gelio Eloi tffta Qitm. Nunc ficuli juris eft ac 
" maris." 

G. Pictro Francefco Agius de Solandis, published 
a treatife della Lingua Punica prefentemente ufata da 
Mahefi^ &c. &c. to which he added a Punica- 
Maltefe didionary \ from this book, the author of 
this cflay has taken the following Punic words, 
omitting fuch only as Agius declares to be purely 
Hebrew or Arabic, To thefe arc annexed fuch 
Irifli words as correfpond thereto in letter and 
fenfe. 

It will be neceffary firft to (how the reafon why 
the orthography in fome do not fo clofely corref- 
pond, although the pronunciation and meaning do, 
and this is beft exprefled from the author's own 
words. 

Conofco invero eflere alquanto malagevole im- 
prefa il favellare della lingua Punica*Maltefe, e 
^' I'andarne a riceercare I'origine* non avendone 
pure prefentemente il proprio alfabeto, quale per 
i^ altro non le manco in ahri tempi. 

'' Ci6 



44 
44 
44 
44 



4(. 



€1 

•4 



t6t Am ESTSAY oh the ANTIQpiTY 

^ Cii non oftatite andano al fiwite, da cui c ori- 
^^ ginata qne&i iSivelia, ufafta ibb. a ink> parera 
^ nelie Bole di Malta, Gozo, c Pantdlareav ritrovo 
^ die molti Scrifttori accrecfitati, anno data il pro- 
^ prb giwinia fenza pero proTaib. Fra €fatSi 
^^ chi crcdclella fola Araba, cht Carthagkiefe, chi 
^ Ebrea^ dn Fenicia, dii Greca, chi Punica, chi 
^ Samaritana, e chi finabnente Siriaca. Quanti 
^ pxsfXai fopia una ibla lingm .^ De^ noftr? appieno 
immo parlonne, degli St|rani€ii (blafmente Gio. 
Jhfig9 M^&^ cdebre ptofeflbre delle Kngue 
Ortentaii' in JefTa, dimolW in t6ie D^rfazme^ 
con proue ed autorita valcvoU, effere kt noftra 

•^ Kngiia prbpriamenle fiunica.- ^La lingua Pu- 

^ nica oertamente venne prontinaiata anticamente 
coUagorgia, e ne rel^a pnovato in quel piccot 
monumento, che la SajM pyima di Plauto d ha 
•* kfciato col carattere Latino.** 

All etymoiogiits agree that where the letter and 
the fenfe conre^nd in any two languages, they 
muft be identically the fame \ before we proceed to 
the collation it may not be improper to advcrtife 
the young ctymologift, that in mofi languages the 
letter d is commutablc with / ; * with p ; c witli g ; 
hkj mh with v confonant ; that the broad vowels 
4^ ^^ tu are indifferently written one for the other, 
as alfo the fmall vowels r, and i, are often fubfti- 
tuted one for the other ; that in the Irifh language 
an adventitious d with an hiatus, or dh^ is often 
introduced in fyllables, where two or more vowels 
arc conneded : this liberty was taken by the Iiifli 
poets of the ninth and tenth centuries, to make up 
the juft metre, ahhough the dh is not allowed to 
(Jfevi^e the fy liable?. 

Pumoi 



or rae IRISH LANGUA<5E. 



«^S 



Punica Ikifeltere. 

Samim^ (/) Ahs Heavem. 

fima, am aflennblT. 

£i»i/, Sidoniorum fen Phoc'* 
ntcum, et Behes Kartagi- 
nienfium nmrnms nomen 
eft: ut Bft ChsldeortM 
Satumus. 

Mai bkr iq, G«d btefs y&ifi 

iva yaUt, a •cnrfe. 



hmmin, tr\Aj. 

nra ! intcrjeSt«. 

j»ri»» the end or fummit. 

ortap^ liquido, molk^^ifi^o^ 
foft, flabby* 



taghda^ bSL^v^di ilrife. 
^47/iW;, an B€6Vn, aUb tt i»l»ry* 

4Bg placiu a momiiifiem. 



tfifli. 

jrf/f, nriglAy» otntirpotent 

Jilt'dhe pznates^ 

Samh, the Sun^ fambra^ 

fummer. 
famhadhf a congregation. 
£r/, £17/, £^«/, the chief 

Deity of the ancient Irilh* 



■» 



J. 



Zfftf {pro eatta Lhwyd)iWr« 
dhuii^ may you repent* 
God forgive you. 

yobbadh {pronounced iva) U 
j/i/a, may -Aixikh corat 
from the Almighty. 

ism ann, that"s tr^e^ i^ridy* 

kfr/TJ^/ an interjedbifQii. 

orda, Wgh/lijraghty. 

tfrrf, a hiH. 

vnairff foft. — Mr/ i^ afiiaffiix 
• of the Arsibic, Signifying 
thcf ovcrfiowiflg «♦ a c!ver> 
hence artap may imply 
ooze, flabj mffe'— from 
tap, the IriQi fap^kr^ 
t9pary tohar, a well or 
fpring. 

iagh, a contefft> a ^gt^ts. 

baNacbtf the "wraltof a gv^^€» 
a fnonufRent. 



(/) Phllo "Bybllus ex Sancliorniathone Beyretio tSto? 9s^ 

Ki^^Oc^yS £ivt h ma^' &My6Y, riunc detiin putaJbanrt toium 
ccbli <ioini»«tn, E^etumin Vocantes, quod eft Fhcsnicibuf 
doininus CGeli, Zeus Grsecorum. Bayerus, p. 69. 



^64 



An essay on the ANTIQIJITY 

Punica Maltefe. Iri(h. 



bandla, a cord^ a fwing, a 
meafure. 



han-^gham-mii the Ton of my 
uncle. 



gbamt, an aunt. 

b^rqarqara^ or cafatt bercar^ 
ftfriVjinM^ka il piu vicino 
Citta Valitta^ i. e. bil 
aPtica ; berquara Augufta, 

: grande^ L e. antico Au- 
gullo Villagio di Malta. 

bin or bin, a Ton. 

bm ti muthof figlio de la 
. morte. 

* 

bir, a well, a Fountain. 
buOf of bva, to drink. 
biniit, young women. 
abu/ voce amroirativa I 



cballa^ or cballi, to forfake^ 

to abandon. 
cball, fliarp. 
(bafiTf to pardon. 



^jif/t, fufpenfion. 

bandla and landal, a certain 
meafure ufed in thefoutb, 
fomewhat more tliaif half 
a yard, by which coarfe 
linens are fold in the mar-i 
kets under the name of 
bandal cloth. 

bannHmhf a handle, a cubit 
in meafurement. 

ban is a fon» as in the com- 
pound. 

banfiotby a fon-in^law. 

bantOy is alfo a^ niece. 

gian, a woman. 

ingiOHf a daughter. 

barracbas, auguft, great 
power — overplus. 

baf'^atbar, {cabar) anauguft 
city. 

ban or bar, as banfcoth, a 
fon-in-law. 

mugbaim, to be ptit to death. 

ttadb, to grieve. 

bani teadb mugba* 

bior, bir, a fountain, a well. 

buadh, food, ibba, to drink. 

bmm-itte, woman's age. 

aboJ the war cry of the an- 
cient Irifli — now a com- 
mon interjeSion of admi' 
ration. 

caillidh, to lofe^ to deftroy. 

fiala, to feparate. 

calg, a prick, a (ling. 

cabbar, help, ai&(tance, re- 
lief. 

for, prote^ion, defence. 

ibePa, 



OP THB IRISH 

Punica Malteft. 

chiles, folution, refolution, 
determination. 

€iacirf meandring, fcatter- 
ing. 

iajra, trefles^ or locks of 
h^ir. 

daqqoj an a£t or deed. 

dar, a houfe, and impro- 
perly written (fay$ our 
author) dars, 

iar il binatf a nunnery, a 
houfe for young women. 

Jar, dir, deflre^ v/UL 



gboghl (armentum) a herd 

of cattle. 
fart, an ox, bull or cow. 



fahbalf a fptteful expreflion, 
glfo derifion. 

fabbaly a flail fed ox. 
Thus we call a libertine 
fahhal, and to a harlot^ 
we commonly cry, 

ha^a or haqar. 



harra, befides^ cut of. 

lafcy below, at the bottoni. 
tabu, to empty, to make 

void. 
bedui^ a countryman. 
tilt, a houfe. 



LANGUAGE. 
IriOi. 

ctil, fenfe, reafon; do cbur a 
cceilf to demonftrate. 

aaracadb, wandering, ftray- 
ing. 

fraigh, a bufli of hair. 

diaedahy a law. 

dars, a habitation ; doi, a 
houfe; ricgb-dbae, a pa- 
lace. 

dSi or daras na bom, a nun- 
nery. (See the word ben, 
O Brien's diftionary.) 

deoir, will, pleafure. (Lh wyd, 
at the word voluntasw) 

deoir dior, a proper incli- 
nation. 

giogail, to follow dofc, to 

herd. 
/oarb, an ox, or cow ; mart, 
the fame ; og-wart, an 
heifer. 
fala, fpite, malice. 

fail, a ftye, a fiall ; OisfaU 
muici, a pig-dye. 



baecain and boccar are terms 
of reproach in Irifh, fully 
anfwering the idea of the 
Punic word. 

barr, over and above, be- 
fides, the end. 

bas, the bafe or bottom. 

batbamb, (pronounced buhu) 
to cancel, to blot out. 

bodacb, a ruftic, a clown. 

bathy hoitb, a cottage, hut, 
or booth. 

ba-al. 



7,6$ 



3166 An fefiSAY k^ the ANTIQUITY 

Punica Maltefe. Iriftl. 

iehai, domtis Det. htb-oll, domus Dei. 

tit t iem, domus pants. both-Ian, domns fatietts. 

inn. Mood, kindred. dmmhf .kindred^ confaAgui- 

nity- 
dor^s, fmit. foradh, fruit. 

feithb, to open> to difcovcr, fiiiheaf to overlook^ to give 

attention. 
€mma, but. ambt but, even, dllfe. 

ingkarre, impofition* ^incbe^i, an imppftor. 

aincheara, Hnpoikion. 
t^/ma, hear me^ hearken. tifd miy tiear me, liften to 

me, mere property iifd 
Item. 
far, over, beycnad, totranf- for, e^er, beyond ; finnmi, 

port from place to p4ace. a journey. 
farac, mirtfe, coalblatidn. forc^fmrca, advice, confola* 

tion. 
f6i^, -entertainment, >hG%U 
tality. 
ffg'iu, poiverftil, purflaht. feadhmaciifotetUt, pOfwetM. 

feadb'Cuaitb, an extenfive 
country, (dominions.)! 
filfla, a Tock in the Tea, on ftik-fia, an arrant 4)ad fow* 
the Maltefe coaft, fo reign, a bad «iafter. 
called becaufe, formato 
delta natura aggutfa di 
Pape nella forma. 
fuq, the fummit, high above. fa-'UaAiar, upon the fummit. 
gha-dtra, ftanding water, ^cor^fl, thefea-; ;*-aftr/m, 

morihy ground, fltilh. water without paflage. 

ghain, the face, from, the- cainji^ the face or countc- 

eyesi naiice. 

gbana, to Hng. canaiff), cvanM&f (pronoonc- 

€i\ga7ia) tofmg^ degluin^ 
yj he (ings. 
aghniq, rich, profperous. <jjfAiw^^r<7r A, fortunate, pros- 
perous. 
gb-arma, [^nty of com. armhar, or strhhar^ com. 

aga-armhar, plenty of cor n- 
gba-qal, fenfible, reafbnable. go^ciill, fenfible, reafonable^ 

^. gh^-aqqs. 



• ;' 



bi^ TkE- IRISH LANGUAGfi. 

Punica Malrefe. Iriih. 



2&7 



j^ha-aqqa^ t term ufed to 
mortify a ftrumpet. I 
believe (fays our author) 
from accoy a famous har- 
lot in our hiftory. 

gbaz-^el, diftindion^ com- 
prehenfion. 



gberq^ tyhoides cocci ncus 
tuberofus, fea blubber, 
fea fpunge. 

gbufciat a place in Malta, 
but properly a forcerer, a 
conjurer. 

glbuf to give, to prefcnt. 

leckarty a gift. 

hbablay corn. 

hhadir^ to a^fllft at a wedding. 

bbai^ to live. 

bbaiOf life. 

bh-alleitu, releasM, aban- 
doned. 

bhamif hot. 

hbamria, reddilh earth, 
alfo 

bbam-riai ah afs, 

I believe (fays our author) 
from his dun colour. 

Jj^h-apasy a prifon for (laves. 



i^aqtm^ a m^n in power, a 
captain. 
Vol. II. - T 



^iabhair, a harlot, a flriim- 
pet. 

dgOy addition^ an augmenta* 
tive. 

giabhaif-aga^ a very whore. 

ceafny geafoy to fee plainly 
and diftindly ; the Arabic 
affix ily anfwers to the 
Irifli prefix con^ as ad 
cen-aas, I diftinguiihed, 
or faw plainly. 

gearg, a blubber, botch, or 
bile, any tubulous body; 

gU'fighe ; gu a lie— ^^A/ si 

demon, a familiar fpirit } 

geafay forcery. 
geibhadh^ to obtain, to get. 
tilacay a gift. 
arbhary corn. 

adharadhy to join together* 
beatha^ to live. 
beathoy life. 
dealuightbif Veleaied, di« 

vorced, feparated. 
timiy heat, (Lhwyd.' vid. 

Calor.) 
ic/m, earth ; rwy (ky toloured; 
ruadby red. 
uim ruoy red earth. 
aimhreidbi, obdinacy, ftrife ; 

This word feems more 

analogous to the qualities 

of this bead. 
adbblaSy a garrifon; abasf^ 

a great man's houfe; 

adhbhoy a dungeon. 
acmhiiiny potent, able ; tfiV'^ 

ginif to plunder or fpoil. 

batiTif 



a6g Ak essay on the ANTIQyiTY 

Punica Maltefe. Irifh. 

hatttiy knawledge. ^/Vii/, knowledge; aitbnif\9 

know« 
hazir^ an entrance, or fore- a/aidb, to reft> or flop. 

court to a palace. 
hhabar, news> novelty. aibra, ^(petch; abarffpc^ 

tbou. 
abranny bad news. 
bbdntenay pity, (voca fenicia) anaoidhin^ pity, eompaffion ; 

is anaoidbin Auitf woe 

unto thee^ 

iajfu^ old age. ^oifi^ old age. 

ieqerduy ruin, deftru^ion^ /^^-^r^/^, ruinous {IragmentS) 

, (Lhwyd. ad voc. Ruina.) 

iaf-cefcy fhri veiled with age^ aois-caifeac, wrinkled witb 

age. 
j'detTjf the hand, the nfl. dorn, the fift. 
itqattOf iwifted. atbcafda, twifted. 

itzahhar, to expand. atbjsarradb, to ftretch, to 

expand. 
iadirif a prolongation of ciirde, delay ; do cburfi air 
time. fairdef he prolonged the 

time. 
iafary to bind to a per- caitbfiS, mutk, ought , 
formance. (oportet) an imperfonal 

compulfive verb. 
f comb'/arran, to keep by 

^ compulfion. 

gbana, to Ting. canadb, tp fing. 

tares, cruel, mercilefs. ^ruas, rigour. 

ia/ma, a gap, a chink, a ca/naS, fplit-wood, chips. 

feparation. 
ifim, to divide, to bend. ca/amf to wind, to turn, to 

bend. 
|j- VI, flrong, valiant, robuft. catb-fbir, warriors. 
^k-aurOf a place in Malta; agiathar^agiare^xutht^tik* 
Jignifica pomnte, the wefl. ahbor, Hebrew, afterius, 

the wefl. 



It 






OF THE IJ^ISH LANGUACJE. »e^ 

. It is to be wlftied we had the pure Punic names 
6f the four cardinal points, as the Irifh language 
differs from all others in this particular ; although the 
manner of expreffion agrees perfcAly with the old 
Hebraical or fcriptural. Firft, Th6 Hebrew word 
Janiih properly fignifies the right hand (i/), and 
Benjamittj i. e. filius dextra, is alfo written to imply 
the South {w) ; becaufe the Hebrews in their prayers 
to God always faced the Eaft, and thdrefore being 
confidered in that pofition, their right hind was 
next to the South. Jamin eft mundi Phgo Auftralis^ 
ttt qua Oritfttem afpicientibus^ orantium modo dextrd 

eft. Dav. Lex. This form is alfo peculiar to 

tlie Irifh nation and language, for the word deds 
properly means the right hand, as najbuidhe ar deas 
. iaimh Diy fitting at the right hand of God, and deas 
is ahb the only word to exprefs the South. 

Secondly, The Hebrew word ftnol^ which pro- 
perly figaifies the left hand (x), is ufed for the fame 
reafon to imply the North (y)j and is the fame ia 
Irifti ; for thuaidh is properly the left hand, as 
ttuuhallach^ a left-handed or undextrous man, is 
the only proper word, viz. tuath and tuag to point 
out the North. 

Thudly, The Hebrew word achor^ which pro- 
perly fignifies behind (z), is commonly ufed to 
imply the Weft (a), and the Irilh word iar figni- 
fying behind or after, is the proper word to exprefs 
the Weft. 

T 2 Fourthly, 



(n) Jercm. tx. 24. (aw) Job xxiii. 9 Pf. Ixxxix. 4. 

(^jc) Gen. xxiv. 49. xlviii, 14. (y) Job xxili. 9. 

(s) Gen. ix. 28. 2d Sam. x. 9. (a) Joih. ix. &2* 

Job xxiii. 3. 



tT<> Ait ESSAY ok tae ANTIQpITY 

Fourthly, The Hebrew word cedem^ which natu- 
rally means before, or the fore part (Jb\ is ufed to 
fignify the Eaft (c). In the fame manner the Iri(h 
words oir and mrthear^^ whence the Latin orieps and 
wtus^ are the proper words in this language to fig^ 
nify the Eaft or the rifing Sun; and tWs word 
oirthear alfo fignifies tlie beginning or fore part, as 
iarthar alfo means the end or Mndmoft part of any 
thing, — as in this example, O oirthear go hiarthar a 
mje^ from the beginning to the end of his age. 

The Irifti ftill retain one of the PhoBnician names 

of the cardinal points, viz. hadhb^ which the didtio- 

, nary writers tranflate the North, but it is evidenriy 

the Chaldean and Phoenician iia badhy \. e. pofterius, 

implying the Weft. 



PuDica Maltefe. 

i'fcuir^ to feparate the hull 
from the gram — ehaff^ 
alfo bran. 

Imlh the.nighe. 

tuguriot cafaruftica, avHe^ 
a wretched but, a cabin. 

mirgiarTf or megiarrj two 
places in Malta, fo called 
becaufe near the fea^ihore^ 

rnitta^ a certain tax on 
any vendible commodity. 
The word is totally Pu- 
nic, and has been nfed 
time innmembrial by the 
Punic people of SieiPy, 
Malta and Gozo. 



Irifli. 

€aiih^ chtfff; ftaradb, Tepa^ 
ration. 

daiKe^ the night. (Lhwyd. 

Nox.) 
Uagbf a houfe ; mr^ moM^ 

clay. 
teagh-uire^ a houfe of clay^ 
muir-giarff cfofe to the k%* 



nuafioy taxed; it is nfed in 
that fenfe in all the old 
Irifh law books, and in 
the new tedament, Luke, 
ch. it. V. r. an Jombam 
vite (h mbios. 



{b) Pfalffi, Iv. a^. 



(r) Num. xxiii. Ifa. xk 



OF TH£ IRISH 

Piiiiica Maltefe. 

mar'amma, a country edi* 
fice. 

fena & 1 (parola Fcnici) the 
/nin i feafons, a year. 
famaf the heavens^ (voce 

Punica). 
febm^ a portion, a (har^ 
fciehhy un uffizio decorofe, 
con cui ft gloriano i litte- 
rati^ Ogniori, principi e 
governadori delle Citta. 
fara9 tocombatf to fight. 



JUlurCf an eel. 

fabbta^ wafted^ deilroyed. 

lemhi^ a vefTel for working 
or ftamping dough with 
the feet. 

Uvi & hmf to bend, or 
wring. 

Utiy « grand proceflioa. 

hqmai a bit of bread, a 
morfeh ' 

marhatf (anello^aring) Voce 
de Feniciy dt cui il Sal- 
maiio, e Boceardo, par- 
lano prefib il MaJ0| da 
CUI nacque marhuX legato. 
Brbit^ legare (to bind) 
norhm ligaoio. 



LANGUAGE. 

IriOi. 

m6r*ttmaghi a building or 
dwelling in the plains or 
country. 

fioHy the weather, the feafont . 

foinifiif the feafons. 

famhf the fun. 

feimhf a fmall portion, (ingle. 
fgeitb, chofen, feleded. 
fciy fcia^ to beautify, to 
adorn. 

Jkragbtif conqueft, vidory. 
Jarugba^ to overcome, to 

refcue. 
fiUoUi (Armoric6) eels. 
facbadbf to fack, to deftroy. 
JagbaiStbe, deAroyed. 
liim, leaping, jumping, 

(lamping ; bif bia, food* 

iubba, to bend, or twift. 

Utbf folemn pomp; iaitb, 

a crowd. 
Ugbda, an allowance. 

mear, a finger, and bearf, 
an ornament or clothing ; 
as ms'bhearif worn on 
the legs, 1. e. ftockings ; 
ttann-lf hearty worn on the 
head, i. e. a hat ; thefe 
compounds are very com- 
mon 'in the Iri(h ; fo 
mear-bheartj worn on the 
firiger, i. e. a ring.. 



47 « 



ma 



|i7i 



An essay on the ANTIQUITY 

Punica Maltefe. IrUh. 



ma-fraf e difficile ritrovare 

, un terroine proprio ad ef- 
primare quefta vQce^ ma 
piuttefto per abbeliimento 
di chi e dilletante della 
propria favella» nc altro 
iignifica, fe non Ji e, it fo, 
fay you fo ? 

medd, magnitude, prolonga- 
tion. 

merif to contradid^to thwart. 

meut, death. 

muty il Majo fcrive muto, 
nomine confecravit mor- 
tuumyCumPhoenices mor- 
tem & Plutoneni vocat. 

ml-alit, a ball of wool. 



mnariay fefiivata di S. Petro 
e Paolo apoftoli, il fuo 
{ignificato mnlto differ 
rifce dall fua etimologia. 
Minor che prefTo i 
Turchi, fono quelle torri 
altiffime, attacate alle loro 
JVlofchee, illuminate nelle 
fefte priocipali del loro 
falfopropheto Maometta, 
c Mnaria vuol dire illmni' 
nazUfUy facendoTi da per 
tut to in quefto giorno de' 
Santi Apofloli, donde nac- 
que mnara la lucerna, che 
e il candellire dell baiTa 
gente. 

tfafciar^ to cut off, to ex- 
clude. 



ma tOf if fo ; mar ata, if fo, 
ma ta raidh, if fo fa id. 
mature^ foon, fpeedily. 
ma-trathf if in due time. 
ma-atraidhi If he faid. 



mtidy bignefs, magnitude, 

mearaighs tq mi(lake> to err. 
miatb, decay* (death.) 
mudha, dying, periibing. 
mtathadhy to die. 
mudhay mutba, dying. 

mbl'Qlla, (Munfter dialed) 
combed wool, made up 
in a ball. 

moighe^iar is a word in the 
Bearlafem or Phoenician 
dialed of. the IriCh, no( 
yet explained in any 
didionary. Dr. O'Brieo 
t r^anflates motgbianearftar 
do cbonairc an la fQ\ 
Happy is the man that 

. faw this day. — It there- 
fore means feftivity, bap- 
pinefsj rejoicing, and an- 
fwers to the Maltefe 
mnaria. 



ap-aradhf feparatipn. 
eifcidby tolopofF, to exclude. 
B^xam. eifcis agdonna dbioh^ 

i. e. their heads Ihall be 

cut off. 

icby 



OP THE IRISH 

Punica Maltefe* 

tf£hf a nun. 

iafchar, good tidings^ 

iofidf cafedy holy, undefiled. 

f'tf/, fpccch. 

qatOy the bread, the bofom. 

qaloy the fail of a (hip. 

N. B. This is the Cartha- 
. ginian name of thofe (hips 
moved by wind only, to 
diftinguiib them from 
ihips of war, worked both 
by wind and oars. 

qarab, an approaching. 

qaita, a ftick, club, or fpear. 

Voce dc Fenice. 
qabir & cabir, a grandee, a 

nobleman. 



qi*ilpj hounds. 



ra, fight. 

rahhoy plenty, cncrcafe. 
r'^asy a headland, a pro- 
montory. 
riebhy wind. 

r*aqha, a cavalcade. 



Jabaq^ (Irong, valiant. 
Jaffaq^ ferene. 
sfaffaqy obferving, careful, 
frugal. 



LANGUAGE. 

Irifli. 

9ghy anaaid; a virgin. 
ba-fcealf good tidings. 
fdcarbhuigy z confeiTion. 
i-g/?, 'undefiled, chafte. 
agall, fpeech. 
gail€, the ftomach. 
gal, a gale of windi 






gara, near, at hand. 
gar-abf not clofe. - 
gath, a fpear or javelin. 

cairbre, the name of feveral 
Irifti princes; foalfoC^^^- 
riherty one of the kings of 
France. Cairhte alfo fig* 
nifies a territory. 

cti-ealb^a, a pack of hounds, 
i. e. hounds in herd, or 
drove. 

ughy an egg ; orcay eggs. 

abhra (avra) ; romhra ; ra* 
dharcy fight. 

rabbacy fruitful, plentiful. 

itrosy a headland ; rofs has 
the fame meaning. 

atiabh, wind. (Lhwyd. Ven- 
tus) 

This is a compound of the 
Irifh eacy a horfe, a word 
ftill ufed at Conftantino- 
ple ; ar^eicy upon horfes. 

fab d£ fahagy able, ftrong. 

Jluvacy ferene, calm, mild. 

fabballachy careful, fparing. 



It 



|k7f An essay pn thb ANTIQyiTY 

It is evident, that iti this catalogue of word; 
given by Agius, as Punic, many are purely Arabic, 
and fome are Hebrew. The difference in ortho- 
graphy between thcfe Maltefe words and the Irifh 
words correfponding thereto i$ eafily accounted for ^ 
the Maltefe ufe the Arabic charadter, and the diflS- 
culty the author found in tranfcribing them into 
the Roman letter, has already been fliown in his 
own words. TI12 author of tl)is cflay, has fre- 
quently converfcd with the various nations of the 
Mediterranean Sea, particularly with the Africans, 
and from his own experience can teftify that every 
nation of Europe, would differ in the orthography 
of the fame word, particularly in the guttered and 
afpirated confpnants j the Irilh would be the moft 
fimilar to the original African dialed. Quintilian 
pbferves, in his time they were rnuch embarraflTcd 
how to tranfcribe the ancient Latin, having iolt the 
power of feveral letters ; and Claudius and Origen 
fay the fai^ie. 

pf the PII PUNIGI, or CARTHAGINIAN 

DEITIES. 

THE knowledge we have of the Carthaginian 
inariner of worfhip, is derived from the Greek and 
Roman writers (d)y who have affixed the names of 
iheir own Gods to thofe of the Carthaginians, This 
has rendered their accounts and obfervations on this 
head more imperfedt and lefs valuable. 

It 

(</) Herod. Poljb. Diod. Sic. Liv. Quint. Cart, alii^, 
roulii. 



_J 



OF T»E IRISH LANGUAGE. ^75 

It is therefore impoffible to come to an exa£fc 
knowledge of the Carthaginian Gods, from what 
is delivered of them by the Greek and Roman 
authors/ 

The chief Deity of the Carthaginians was Baal^ 
BeaJy or BcU the Sun, to whom they offered human 
Jacrifi{:es. The chief Deity of the Heathen Irifh 
was Bealy the Sun, to whom alfo they offered 
human facrifices. The Irifh fworc by the Sun, 
Moon, Stars, and the Wind : *' Omnes, qui inci- 
derint, adjuro per facrum Solis circulum, in aequales 
Lumg curfiis, reliquorumque^ifr«»> vires et Jigni^ 
ferumcirculum^ ut in reconditis haec habeant, nee 
indo(flis aut profanis communicent, fed praecep^oria 
memores fmt eique honorem retribuant. Dii jam 
difti faodte jurantibus dent quae velintj pejeranti- 
bus contraria." Attrologus autem hie Vettius 
Valens eft Antiochenus et in proemio, Lib., 7. 
a»9o^4r/«, inferwit. Seldcn. de Dis Syr. (e) 

The facrifice of beafts was. at length fubfKtuted 
among the Carthaginians, the fame cuitom we 
leam from the ancient Irifh hiitoriatis, prevailed in 
this country. The month of May is to this day ' 
named Mi BeaJ teinne^ i. e. the month of Bcal's fire ; 
and the firfi day of May is called la Beal teinne^ i. e. 
tlie day of Beal's fire. Thefc fires were lighteci ori 
the fummits pf bills,, in honour of the Sun -, many 
bills in Ireland ftill retain the name of Cnoc-greme^ 
\. e. the hill of the Sun ; and on all thefe are to be 
feen the ruins of druidical altars. 

On that day the druids drove all tbe^cattle through 
th^ fires, to preferve them from diforders the en- 

futng 

{') Prol. p. 35. 



276 Am essay on the ANTIQIJITY 

fuing year ; this pagan cuftom is ftill obferved ia 
Munller and Connaught, where the meaneft cot- 
tager worth a cow and a whifp of ftraw pradtifes 
the fame on the firit day of May, and with the 
fame fuperftitious ideas. The third day of May is 
alfo at this day named treas lafamh-ra^ or the third 
day of the Sun's quarter. On this day e^ch bride 
married within the year makes up a large ball 
covered with gold or filver tiflue, (in rcfemblance 
of the Deity) and prcfents it to the young un-r 
married men of the neighbourhood, who having 
previoufly made a circular garland of hoops, &c. 
(to reprefent the zodiac) come to the bride's houfe 
to fetch this reprefentation of that planet. To fuch 
a pitch is this fuperftitious ceremony carried, I have 
known in the county of Waterford a ball to have 
coft a poor peafant two guineas. The old Irifh 
name of the year, is Bealamy now corrupted into 
Bliadhain^ i. e. the circle of Belus^ of of the Sun. 

The Carthaginians did not reprefent BeaU as they 
had him before their eyes daily in all his glory; 
they made their addreffes immediately to him ac* 
cording to the ancient rite. No idol of Beat is ever 
mentioned by the ancient Irifli hlftorians, or was 
any ever found fince Chriftianity was introduced. 
Had they rcprefented their chief Deity by any 
image, St. Patrick would have taken particular 
notice of it. Bal in the Punic language fignified 
power, knowledge ; bale in Irifli fignifies the fame % 
and bal^ is a man of erudition. 

BaaUfamhain was another Punic appellative of 
his Deity ; BeaUfamham in Irifli fignifies Beal the 
planet of the Sun \ for an is a planet, and famh ia 

thQ 



. OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. ^77 

the Sun ; thus we fay lu-an the Moon, i. e. the fmall 
.planet; r^-<j« altar; and/awAr^isIriftiforfummcr, 
i. e. the Sun's quarter ; fo alfo dia-ra daily, &c. tlie 
word ra fignifying a quarter or divifion of time. 

Sam-minj vel famhmim^ vel famhaiu^ la /oinhmm 
vel lafamhm'n^. is alfo to this time the name of tho 
firft day of November or AHliallow-tidc, the 
vigil of which is called oidch^ Jbamhna agreeable to 
the idiom of the language, and corruptly ee owna. 
♦On what day this feftival of the Sun was obferved 
is not noticed, but at th^ change of the heathen to 
the Chrifiian kaldndar was judicioufly fixed at the 
eve of AH Souls. 

jSamk^ as I have aheady (hown, is the Sun, and 

- Mcni is an appellative of the fame . Deity : " But 

ye arc they that forget my holy mountain, that 

prepare a table for Gad^ and that furnifli the drink*- 

offering unto Mm(f)'^ The. Seventy tranflatc 

• this thu^, iToifi^yTic rv ^|uo»2tf r^i^t xo) vAi^pvptk tS t^ 

f^fM, wliich pafiage St. Jerom has fully explained 
to have been miftaken by t^e Seventy, and it (hould 

^ have been **; .Parentcs fortune. (Gad) menfam; et 
implentes dsmoni (Meni) mixtam potionem j" for 

. as St. Jerom and feveral others agree, gad fignifies 
fortune, or rather good fortune, and in this fenfe it 
is ufed in the 30th chap. Genefis, v. 11. and is / 

further confirmed by Seldeii in his Diis Syris. 
Here then, is a full confirmation of the Origin of 
the Irifti cad-druidhea£l or necromancy, handed 
down to .us by the cuftom ftill retained of burning 

nuts 

^/^ Ifa. \xy. %if. 



278 An essay on the ANTIQPITY 

nuts and (hells to tell fortunes on this evening, and 
of the apples and hbations of ale (to Meni) joined 
to the ceremony of the fame evening. 

Origen in his commentaries on St. John, re- 
buked the Jews for the worfhip they paid to 
'fu»» xm <nxm» to Meni and to the Moon. , Meni there- 
fore is manifeflly the Sun. The Avord meni^ which 
produces the Greek pv comes from the Hebrew 
root mD meftj which fignifies to number *, and be- 
caufe the motion of the Sun ferves to meafure 
time, the Syrians added tMs a]^llative to Samh ; 
and becaufe the Moon ferves us for the fame pur- 
pofe, the Greeks called her alfo Mii»ii ; hence alfo 
the ^gyptiians gzvt the name Menfxo thdr God 
Orus (which was the Sun) ; hence ajfo the Greek 
f^mu and the Latin menfes, and the Englifh months, 
L e. the fpace of tirtie meafured by Meni or the Sun ; 
and firom the fame root comes the ^olick tumt^^ 
from whence the Latin tnanes which were the 
,Genii, according to Servius. Manes genios didt, 
quos cum vita fortimur (g). 

Thofe paffages in Jerenjiah (A), where he com- 
plains fo bitterly againft the fiiperftition of the Jews, 
of making cakes for the queen of Heaven, -&c. 
bear a great affinity with this of Ifaiah. 

Camden gives us feveral ancient infcriptions of 
altars, found in England, dedicated to Belus • ho 
fuch infcriptions or idols have ever been found in 
this ifland ; feveral mountains retain his name, as 
Sliabh Bal'teinney i. e. the mountain of Baal's fire; 
gnd fome towns hand down to us the fcite of 

his 

(f) ^neid, v. 743. {h) vii. i8. apd xliv. 1718, 19. 



OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 279 

his temples, as Bal-ti-mm'e^ i. e., the great houfo of 
Belus^ Bal-u-na-glai/e (Baltinglafs), the houfe of 
Belus*s necromancy. Sec. &c. Semiram in Belo 
fanum in arce Babylonias condidiflfe his verbis fcribit 
Periegetes f^rw i^f^ «^«v» b6^, id eft magnam do* 
mum extruxit Belo. Selden, pag. 1 64. 

But the pagan cufioms of the common people dill 
retained in the country, are the moft valuable monu^^ 
ments of antiquity. 

Now as the ancients at this feftival did eat the fa« 
crifices of the dead, to ufe the pfalmift's words, where 
could the primitive Chriftians have fixed this day ' 
fo properly as on the eve of AH Souls ? 
. Ut mittam nunc Irlandos feu incolas Hibemise^ 
qui, referente audore de llatibus imperiorum dt 
Hybemia, p. 44, fe mettent ^ genoux en voyant 
la Lune nouvelle et difent en parlant i. Lune, go 
faga tu me mur tu fuaras f^^^-^laifie nous aufi fains 
que tu nous as trouve — ita nos (alvos degere iinas, 
ficuti nos invenifti, &c. Vid. de PEftat du Roy 
d*£fpagne, p. 236, ubi dicitur, quod, plufieurs 
adoront le Soleil et la Lune, recogncuflans toute fois 
tin feill Dieu, Createur de toutes chofe. Sec. (/) 

This cuftom is ftill preferved, and every peafant 
in Ireland on feeing the new Moon croiTes himfelf 
and fays, flan fuar tu Jin agui flan aS^aga tu fin^ 
whole you find us and whole leave us. 

Moft of the ancient places of druidical worftiip in 
Ireland retain the name of the God Baal, and Magh-^ 
adhair or the field of wordiip \ as Glanrtnagh-adludr^ 

now 



(/) And. Bcycri ad J. Sfelden. de Dis Syris f/niagnxii*^ 
afii<lic. proI« ad cap/ ^ p. %9f. 



28o An essay on *he antiquity 

now Glan-mire^ four miles north of Cork, and neaf 
the fame place is Bed'atha'tnagh-aihair^ \. e. the 
plain of Baal's field of worlhip, where the druidical 
altar yet remains. See O'Brien's di^ionary at the 
word magh. Several places alfo retain the name of 
the Moon, or places allocated to the particular wor-^ 
Ihip of that planet } as Atha4uM^ Athlone ; Lot^h- 
Re^ a part of the river Shannon not far diftant, 
and a town of the fame name at the fide of a lough 
in the county of Galway. 

Sf^i^^'^i Grian^ the name of the Sun in Irifli, was 
latinifed into GrynauSy which was a claffical epithet 
of Apollo ; and in Camden we meet with an in- 
fcription apolliki granno. It is true this had 
been fet up by a Roman, but this might have been 
done in compliment to the tutelar deity of the 
nation he governed. This epithet of Grynaeus for 
Apollo we find in Virgil {k) : 

His tibi Grynsei nemoris dicatur origo 

Ne quis fit lucus, qua fe plus jadet Apollo. 
Again (/) : 

Sed nunc Italiam magnam Grynaeus Apollo 

Italiam Lyciae juffere capefferc fortes : 

Hie amor, haec patria eft. 

Grynium, fays Strabo, was a town in iEolia, 
where was a temjrfe of Apollo and an Oracle. 
And the Greeks being ignorant of the Celtic deriva- 
tion of Grynaeus, have formed according to their 
cuftom, a fabulous hiftory for Grynaeus, that he 
was the Sun, Eupopborinus, &c. 



Vcteri 



W Eel. 6. (/) ^n. 4. I. 345. 



J 

OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE- 3>t 

Vctcri fane infcripto (axo ct apud Confejanos in 
NovciHpopulonia repcrto ita legitUr 

MINERVA 
BELISAM^ 
CVALERIUS 
MONUM. 
Haut cuiquam conftaret opinor, quid aliud Belifam^ 
hie denotet. Minerva autcm, Junonis, Veneris, 
Lunae nomina funt ita, cum ad Afiaticos Dcoa 
rcfpcxcris, confufa, ut qui Mnervam Bciifamam, 
Junoncm Belifamam, Venercm aut Lunam dixerit, 
idem Temper ipfum dixerit. An Littori Britanniae 
occidentalioris (Lancallrenfem agrum dico) aeftua- 
rium illud BowmfjM Ptolemaeo didlum, ab banc Dea 
apud vicinos culta, fic foerit nuncupatum, qogitent 
quorum intereft. 

Apollo was the principal God of the pagan Irifh, 
and from the harp's being facred to him we may 
difcern the rea(bn why that inftrument is the enfign 
armorial of Ireland. 

Diodorus Siculus gives an account of a northern 
ifland, about the bignefs of Sicily, fituated over 
againft the Ccltae, as being fruitful and pleafant 
and dedicated to Apollo, to whom round temples 
and large groves were facred, wherein the priefts 
chaunted to their harps the praifes of their God, 
Every particular of this is very applicable to 
Ireland. 

The lail Sunday of the fummer quarter is called 
by the Iriih domhna crom^ and is obferved with 
fcveral druidical fuperftitions to this day. Some have 
thought crom was a pagan deity, but we (hall prove 
lliat it was another d$iy confecrated to particular 

worfhip> 



^tt Ak essay Gti THE ANTIQIJITY 

wbrlhip, and to the punifliment of the guilty, by 
the fcntence and execution of the druidd.. Crtmt^ 
In the modern Irifli, implies bending or bowing 
the body -, 60 Cjion) jioy 6o» io6c(lj he bowed down 
to the idol. Chrom^ in the Bohemian language, 
fignifies a temple, church, or place of worfliip. 
Crtm^li^ or crom-kac^ is the name given by all 
Celtic nations to the druidical altars, yet remaining 
in many places in Ireland, Scotland, and England ; 
we alfo find cromthear the old Irifh name for a 
prieft, perhaps particularly from bis office on this 
day ; the root of this word in all the eaftern dialers 
implies worlhip. In Arabic ana reverere, honorarc. 
So in Matthew xv. v. 4, it is the word ufed to de- 
note reverence and honour to your parents. With 
the Talmudilts it implies a fynagoguc, gymnafium, 
fchola; fee Schindler. n»^DnD cremlith^ in the 
Chaldaic, implies a public place of worfliip, the 
fiindum fandtorum, which the common people 
were not to approach. Locus communis et publicus 
fed inacceffus, qui publice tranfiri, vel non folet, 
vel non poteft. Buxtorf. And this I take to be the 
origin of the Irilh crom-liag and cromUac^ from 
xxh luch^ a table of itone ; m^ cann cherem luch^ a 
confecrated ftone ; hence lac and laac in old Saxoa 
is a facrifice. But oin cherem^ in the Hebrew, 
Chaldaic and Arabic, fignifies anathemati fiibjicere, 
Deo dicare, morti adducere, excommunicare ; and ' 
this day I fancy is in remembrance of the annual 
excommunication and punifliment of the people^ 
by the druids, from whence many have conjcftured 
they offered human facrifices. In old manufcripts 
we find frequent mention of the crom-crua^ or bloody 



OF THE IKtSH LANGUAGE. aSj[ 

crom, (from cruy blood) fo called from the punirti- 
ment inflided on this day. This was alfo praftifed 
by the antient Jev«rs, as we learn from Relandus, 
p. r 1 7. (bat query, at what fwfon of tlie year ?) 
^ decernebat hoc Synedrium de rebud majoris mo- 
mcmi tarn polhicis quam facris, privatis quam 
publi'cis, et pafenas capi tales leis irfogatas, haeauicm 
quatuor fuere aptid Judagos, lapidatio, combuflio, 
decollatio et ftrangulatlo, et excommunicatio, cujiis 
fpecies levior ma* etlam Hnott^ didla fuit, gravior cb*»ri ^ 
cherem. 

The pagan Irifh were ftrangers to any other 
idolatrous worfhip, than what their anceftors brought 
from the Affyrians, rtamely, that of the Sun, Moon 
and Smrs ; all were included in the general name 
of ji}mm or pmnim, which to tWsday is the appel- 
lation of Ihie ftarry conftellations ; and' this word 
explains that paflage in the fecond book of Kings, 
V. I S. " In tiiis thing the Lord pardon thy fer- 
** vant, that when my matter goeth into the houfe 
" of Rimmon to worfhip there, and he leaneth on 
** my hand, and I bow myfelf in the houfe of 
•* Rimmon'' &c. This Rimmon "was certainly a 
Syrian idol fay fome, but Mr. Hutchinfon very 
properly conjectures that it coUeftively expreffes 
the fixt Stars ; but all others before liim have been 
much at a lofs, as the word in Hebrew po*^ Rimmon 
fignifies a pomegranate, both fruit and tree j which 
name I conjedlure was given that fruit from the 
beautiful ftar formed on the top, like the apex of 
an apple. The Cim-ceafla or Northern bear feems 
to have been the peculiar wordiip of the pagan Irifli ; 
when the Fomorii or Phoenicians landed in Ireland 

Vol. II U they 



»l4. Ak essay oh the antiquity 

they facrificcd to the Stars which had guided them ; 
Ihefe could be no other than thofe of the North pole, 
viz. cdm-cjted ;' hence the word pocU fignifies both 
an ofTering and the ]!4orth ; and it appears as if the 
word cgdtett was alfo derived from the Hebrew 
nMvn chataay facrificium •, fee Ezra, xlv. %p to 
which was added ctfm, to bow, bend cm: adore. 
Although I have applied this to the North pole, it 
is certain an orientalift would apply the Hebrew 
rmn nvwn Chama Chataa to fignify literally the fecri- 
ficc of the Sun, for, as I noticed, m the preceding 
page Chama is SoL This is again fully explained 
by St. Stephen in his argument with the Jews, (as 
mentioned by Ste.Luke) to be the God Rintmrn^ as I 
have already defcribed. Sec A6ts of the Apoftlies, 
vii. 43. *' Yea^ ye took up the tabernacle of 
*' Moloch, and the Star of your God Remphmy 
** figures which ye made to worfliip them." This 
is evidently no more than the tabernacle of the Sun 
and Planets ; for mole or mdoc in Irifli fignifies fire, 
which they worlhipped as a type of the Sun, and 
Remphan or Remman fignified the inferior planets. 
Again, this Remphan is called Kiun by Amos, 
▼. z6. " You have borne the tabernacle of your 
** God Moloch and Kiun^ your images, and the 
•* ftar of your Gods whom ye have made.* Now 
Rimmon was the Syrian name, and Remphan and 
Kiun the name given to the fame deity by the 
Moabites. This pafTage has put the mterprelcrs on 
the rack, becaufe of the difference between the 
Hebrew text and that of the Septuagint. St. Jerom 
explains this to be Lucifer or Saturn only. [Scldcn, 
Grotius and ThomaffinJ Now ATwn, or as the 

Perfians 



OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE; ^H 

Per Hans name it, Kaivan^ is the name of the pUnet 
Saturn, becaufe he has many fatellites to light him,' 
and his belt alfo is compofed of many more ; now 
Kaivan is the fame as the Iberno-Cehic Ctfiteccn or 
caivauy fignifying a throng or cluiler^ and is thid 
day ufed for a rout or throng of people, and there- 
"fore applicable to the Deity they worlhipped under 
the name of Rimmoftj Rinnim^ Rempham and Kuin^ 
that is, the heavenly hoft together ; all which returns 
again to Baal^ Belus^ and Rimmin. 

The Irifh druids caufed all fires to be extin- 
guiftied throughout the kingdom on the eve of 
May day, and every houfe was obliged to light hiff 
lire from the arch-druid's holy fire, kindled on fome 
cicvated.place, for which they paid a tribute to the . 
druid. This exadtly correfponds with Dr. Hydc*s 
defcription of the Parfi or Guebri, defcendants of 
the ancient Perfians, who have, fays he, an annual 
Hre in the temple, from whence they kindle all the 
fires in their houfes, which are previoufly extin- 
guifhed, which makes a part of the revenues of 
their priefts \ and this was undoubtedly the ufe of 
the round to\/ers, fo frequently to be met with in 
Ireland, and which were certainly of Phoenician 
conftrudtion. 

I will here hazard a conjefture. I find hm gadul 
to fignify mc^nus \ I find alfo that the oriental nations 
at length fo named the tower of Babylon, &c. m^ijo 
tnagudaluthy turres ab amplitudine didae. Bochart. 
p. 42. Geog. Sacn Gad^ i. e. gaduU turns • may 
not our Irilh name cloghad for the round towers 
built in Ireland, which apparently were of Phoe- 
nician workman(hip, be derived from this word 

U 2 gaiU 



1#8€ An essay ok t«e ANTIQUITY 

gad^ and clcgh a (lone. It muft be allowed that dug 
is a bell, and hence thefe towers have been thought 
to have been belfries ; but we have many places 
called cl<^h^ i. e. (axutn. 

Agaitty the dnitds called every ptace of worfhip* 
cloghadj alluding to the circles of ftones they ufually 
fct up in thofe places ; there is therefore no pofitive 
authority to fey thefe cloghads or towers were ufed 
as beHHea only, or that they took their name from 
that ufe. 

There £fre many reafons which induce me to 
believe, that the druids of the Britifh iflanda main- 
fained their reKgicMi in its purity, much longer thark 
Ihf" upon the continent. They all of them had 
f etained fo much of the original doftrine^ as inclined 
them to diftinguifh their errors, and enabled them 
fo fee the great conformity there was between 
fheir ancient tenets and the precepts of the golpcl^ 
^ich they nniverfally entertainedv They believed 
the Deity to be irtfinite and ornniprefent, and 
thought it ridrctrlous to imagine, that he M^iom the 
Heavfen of Heavens cannot contatn, fhould be 
circumfcribed within the narrow limits of a roof; 
and for the perpetual eftabliflirtient and fiipport of 
the fcvenlh day^ they were wont to dedicate the 
tenth of aH their fubftance {m\ 

Again. The chiefs of their refpeftive families 
were their priefts and princes, yet all acknowledged 
one fupertor in the facred office. Hence in the 
- Fhoenician and Hebrew inp kaken is a prieft, and in 
Irilh cmac \t a lord, ac being, an adjundt termina- 
tion 

{jrt) Cooke on the Pairiar. and Druidic Fclig. p. 6^. 



OF THE IRI5H LANGUAGE. SXf 

ticm in die Celtic, cou-ac brdly, by the Irifli pdcls 
written codhn-ac. 

Ccdum^ Col was the moft antient of the GodSt 
and had for one of his children I'ime. named Saturn. 
It is no hard thing to guefs why Calum. is faid to be 
the firfi of the Gods, and ihe father c^ Saturn or 
Chronus, fince it is evident that the motions of the 
Heavens naake and meafure the duration of time; 
h2 ccd^ all, perfedt ; ^*b an holacauil, a facrifice. 

Chronus.^ acqording to fome, was another name 
oiBeal\ but we will fhow hereafter that Chronus 
was an appellative of Saturn. Chron figiiiiieG in 
Iriih time, and Cbroneg a circle, i. e. the orbit of 
the Sun. 

♦* Here, fay the authors of the Univerfal Hiftory^ 
we have three Baals^ who are faid to have beea 
pace mcH'tal men ^ which might fairly induce one to 
think, that the learned are miflaken in Happening 
the Phoenician God Baal in general to be the Sun.'* 
It is evident From the foregoing explanation, that 
they were only different appellatives fignificant of 
the fame God, the Sun. 

Baal^ Balj Beel^ Bel. " San Hieronymo junta 
dellos mudio, i de fu origen, i aviendo del Ret 
B^by i iu hiftoria proiigue. Quam Bdus, primus 
Rex AiTyriorvim, ut fupra diximus : Quos conflat 
Satarnum, quern et Solem dicunt, Junonemque 
coluiife : quas numina etiam apud A&os poftea culta 
funt. Unde ct lingua Punica Bal, deus dicitur. 
Apud Affyrios autem Bel dicitur qiwtdam facro- 
rum ratione et Saturnus et Sol." 



The 



%tZ An essay ok the ANTIOyiTY 

The chief if not the only deities of the heathen 
Jrifh were '^jiidr)^ Col, and CecCcc, which fignifies 
the Sun, Moon and Stars ; though it appears that 
they worfhipped the Wind alfo ; for to fwear by the 
Wind was a common oath. ]^fticcn is to this day 
Irilh for the Sun, and cam ceatca for the Bear or 
Seven Stars which roll about the Pole ; this word 
;s Phoenician and is derived from nno cimah (Pleiades 
the Seven Stars) and a3|D cocabh (Stella alfo Merr 
curius) plur. cocauth^ alfo non Cham^ Sol, the Siin. 
Scindler, p. 827. 

To tbofe who do not trace the origin of the 
antient Celtes and their language from the Orientals^ 
it is matter of wonder how the wor(hip of Baal 
ihould be known to the Iberno-Celts or Irifli. The 
name of Beat or Baal which fignifies dominus or 
dominator, was firft the name of the true God ; 
and after the AfTyrians, 'Chaidaeans and Phoenicians 
had conveyed this (acred name to the Sun, whom 
they adored as their chief deity, the Lord com- 
manded the people of Ifrael to call him no more 
Baal\ as in Hofea, ch. ii. v. 16. " And it (hall be 

in that day, that thou (halt call me I(hi, and 

fhalt call me no more Baali" So alio they 
called tl>e Moon rrw^ afchera^ i. e. regina Cceli ; 
** et ut Sol refpedtu LunaeBaal dicitur, quod re(J3edlu 
Lunae fit inftar domini, qui de fuo decore et fplen- 
idore uxori fuae communicat ; fie etiam Li^na vocatur 
Afchera^ quod nomen eft f^minini generis quafi 
Ula fit faemina Solis, quia illius defiderio tenetur* 
Hibernice Eafca^ vel Eafga et Rc.^ Bal mhaith a*/ 
^nd Bal dhia dhuit^ the good Bal and the God Bal 

tq 






<•.•/ 



OT THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 2% 

to you, are to this day common falutations in 
Munfter, and particularly about Waterford. 

Hercules was the protedlor of Tyre and Carthage ; 
Africus and Bufebius prove bis Cartbaginian name 
was Archies, u e. fay they, ftrong, robuft. Bochart 
(») derives bis name from the Hebrew word ercol 
fmewy. Aichill in Iri(h fignifies ilrong, robuft ; and 
hence Achilles. Thus alfo with us aicillidhe means 
&n aftive, dextrous man. May we not conjec- 
ture that bur great weftem promontory <16nU, 
Aichil, and the iflands of Aichil, were the Herculis 
promontorium of the Phoenicians. Pliny {o) calls 
Hercules Midacritus^ but his Phoenician name was 
Archies ; he was indeed named Mil-car-thus at 
Carthage, as being the'peculiar Deity and protedor 
of that city {p.) He was a great navigator, and th6 
firft that brought lead from the CaflSterides or Briti(h 
iflands ; he was called Melec-cartha, i. e. king of the 
city, fays Bochart: Mil-cathair in Iriib, is the 
champion of the city. Pliny {q) calls him cor- 
ruptly Midacritus. Sir Ifaac Newton rejedts this 
notion, and derives his name from his having been 
the founder of Carteia in Spain \ but Hefychius 
fays, the AmathuHans called Hercules by the name 
of Malic. 

Next to Hercules was JoUaus. Voffius and Pau- 
fanias defcribe the ceremonies paid to this Deity. 
The Carthaginians fuppofed him nearly related to 
Hercules ; tliat he helped to deftroy the Hydra, and 
tliat he was called JoUaus, becaufe when he had 
lived to a very great age, he was changed into a 

youl'i. 

(if) Phaleg. {o) Plin. I. 7. cap. 56. 

(/) Univ. Hift. Svo. vol. a. p. 338. (f) L. 71. cap. 56. 



Am essay on thi? ANTIQJJITY 

youth. Jol in Irifli is tp chai>j^e, and aos is agc> 
the compound n>^k^s yol-aos. 

Aefculapius or Aifculapm was the God of phyfical 
knowledge j his jemple was built on a high rock, 
where all his healing miracle? were performed, and 
from thence he took his nam^. Aijci in Irifli is to 
heal, and fcealp is a rock. Servius calls him aKo 
Poeni'geWy becaufe, fays he, horn of a Carthaginian 
woman ; Poeni-gdne, in Irifti^ i^ the offspring of a 
Carthaginian. 

Syria or Dea Syria were Gods not d^fcribed by 
any author with certainty ; probably they were the 
fea-nymphs, for /uire is Irift; for fca-nymphs. 
Keatiijg in his anticnt hiftory of Ireland, defcribes 
t\it Juire playing round tlje (hips. of the Mlcfian? 
^n their piaifage to Ireland. 

Ores or Kercs was worfhipped as the Moon^ 
Oo in Irifti fignifies clouds, v^ipours; and Rg is 
Jhe Moon, which compounded forms Ceore. She 
was alfo named Ceoleftis and j^ioUUis^ and was in- 
voked in droughts in order to obtain jfam : " ipfa 
virgo Ceoleflis pluviarum poUicitatrix." Tertullian. 
(/) CeO'leis'tctfi^ in Iri(h, figoifics dropping, mifts^ 
or rain. Mr. Rollin thinks this Deity was the fame 
Queen of Heaven, to whom the Jewifti womei^ 
burnt incenle, poured out drink-offerings, and made 
cakes for her with their own liands,— :Ut faciant pla- 
centas reginai Coeli. The children gathered the 
wood, the fathers kindled the fire, and the women 
kneaded the dough, to make eakes for the Queen of 
Heaven. Jeremiah, vii. 1 8. This pagan cuftom is 
preferved in Ireland on the eve of St. Bridget, 

and 

(r) iVpol. c. 23. 




^ THB IRISH LANGUAGE. 2^ 

And -which was probably tranfpofcd to St. Bridget!s 
icvc, from the feftival of a famed poetefs of the faijae 
name^ in the time of paganifm. In an antient 
gloffary now before rae, (he is thus defcribed : 
JBrig^id ban fhileadh inghan an Dagha ; bean dhe 
Eirinni i. e. Brigit a poa:efs, tlie daughter of 
Dagha ; a goddefs of Ireland. On St. Bridget's 
eve every farmer's wife, in Ireland makes ^ cake 
called bairin-breacy the neighbours are invited, the 
madder of ale aad the pipe go round, and the 
evening co^cUides with mirth and feflivity. 

Tfllus^ the earth, was alio worfhipped by the 
Carthaginians. T^Uur^ tella^ telamh is Irifli for earth. 

Uranuf was their God over lapd and water. Uk ^ ' 
in Irilh is land, and/i« water. " Uiran, Urania 
IBem'met (Diodorus) tanquam urbes Carpafi^ 
vicinflp, ctyua Cabula? vclVigia alibi non reperi/* 
Eochart <x). 

They worfliipped the Moon under the name of 
jiJbtSrethy and the women gave up their bodies to 
the men in her temples for hire ^ ai^rfocht in IriQi 
is leachery, lewd, laicivbus pranks. AQitoreth or 
Afiarte, i^ys Bochart, ^^ eadem quae lo muta:l;a 
in bovem, est mater Phoenicium; tamcn Afli- 
toreth vulgp pro Venere fumitur. nipw» aftarach^ 
ardcre libidine, Rom. i. 17. i Pet. iv. 4. fiajfm% 
9Uf«^iof v^^ pr^omai i^/M^. Veneris fpon&lis aqua feilra- 
chus amabilis, pro z<re<MO( iegerim Br$«i#o(. Vid. Bo* 
chart (/). 

At Byhlos AJbtoreth was worihipped ia a temple 
j^ the Ferns oi Adonii^ and the^e fuch women 4s 

wpuld 

i') P«E- 37I- f^o- W ^- 370- 



559* An essay on the ANTIQIJITY 

would not conform lo the ftaving their heads, at 
the annual time of lamenting Adonisj were bound 
to prc^itute their bodies one intire day for hire, and 
the money thus earned was prefented to the God- 
defs. Admis^ Qftris^ and Adonojiris or ^hafmaz^ 
all center in one obje<5t, and IJis had a temple at 
By bios where they worfliipped the heath which con- 
cealed Offiris's coffin : this Bybiian IJs^ fay the au- 
thors of the Univerfal Hiftory, muft have been 
AJiarte or AJbtoreth. " Inde, fays Selden (»), Ala- 
gabalus (quem Heliogabalum etiam depravati ve- 
teres efferebant^ nos Alagabalum magis dicendum 
fuiflfe in capite de Belo adftruimus) nimirum Sol 
ipfe Pyramidis fpecie colebatur Syris; Venus pikp 
feu quadratifam Arabibus, uti etiam Paphius alibique, 
et feptem columns ere£tae funt ritu prifco apud 
Laconas tefte Paufania (erantiumJleUarum figna). — 
Prophetae ejus " a mane ulque ad meridiem invo- 
caverunt nomen Baal, dicentes, O Baal exaudi nos,'' 
Mof. ^gyp. More. Neboch. 1. i. c. 58. (w) So we 
' end as we begun with Baalim and Aftoreth. 

" Ilios tummodo Syros jam vocamus Deos — 
cujus modi agnofcas licet Belum feu Baalim^ AJiartem 
five AJbtarothj Dc^on^ Dammutz^ &c.'* {x) 

*' And the children of Ifracl did evil in the C^t 
" of the Lord, and ferved Baalim and AJbtarotk, 
** and the Gods of Syria, and the Gods of Zidon/* 
&c. Judg. X. 6. 

Saturn was the God of bread-corn, becaule he 
taught men to till the earth : He is often reprefcnlcd 
on Punic medals by an ear of wheat : He was alio 

called 

(i#) Prolog, p. 5a. (w) Id. p. $6. 

(^) Selden de Dis S/ris. Prolegom. cap. «. 



OP THE IRISH LANGlfAGE. ig^ 

called Chranusi though fome, as we have before 
obferved, think Ckronus and Baal were the (ame. 
Sat^ in Irifh, is abundance, and aran is bread ^ 
which compounded makes Satfiaran. 

The God Neptune^ fay the authors of the Uni- 
verfal Hiftory, was the Punic Scyphus^ from fcyph 
a rock : I think thefe learned authors miftaken, for 
we have already proved fcealp was Punicc a rock ; 
fcif or fcib is Irifli for a (hip, and Neptune was the 
God of the fea ; but the name Neptune is plainly 
derived fi-om the Iriih Nimh a Deity, and ton the 
waves of the fea. 

Mercury is reprcfcnted as a fwift mefienger of 
the Gods, and being an humble iervant of theirs, 
lays Bochart (y)^ was called by the Carthaginians 
yljjumes, Affumhal^ in Irifti, is very humble, moft 
humble, but the ^olic name Mercury is derived 
ftoni three IrUh words, viz. Mer aAive, cu a grey- 
hound, and ri running. May not this be the reafbn 
that he was ibmetimes reprefented with a Dog's 
head? Rowland (z) fays he was fo called from 
rnarc a horfe, and ri running. 

Tbey had a certain God of antiquity named 
P'ataSj called by the Greeks Pateeci and Patakoi^ 
the etymon of wHch words have confufed many 
of the learned. 

Some, from the ignorance of the Grecian au- 
thors, have thought it was an ape, from tHe affinity 
pf the Greek word pithekos an ape. Monfieur 
Morin, agrees with Scaliger, and both think it 
fliDuld be read Fatas ; tl)e letter P with an hiatus ^ 

being 

(y) Pfcaleg. (») Mon. Ant. 



^^4 As ESSAY on the AtlTIQJJITY 

being equal to /"; they therefore afcdbe tlus diyinit^ 
to l^uicm, the fopreme Hetty df the Egyptiaiw, 
remark^ihle fcr his fliiU and knowledge. Faibas in 
Iri(h figniiies Jk'rll, knowledge, and alfi> divine 
poetry. But M. Bullet very juftly derives Patakoi 
Stom the Celtic pat^ "vel 'mt^ yd bad^ a boat, a 
ikifT; to which may he added iihat oichi fignifies 
chansons; and ibenoe Bad-oiihi or Patakoi may 
figntfy ratoi champions or ikil^ mariners. 

Hefychiiis and Snidas will hav^ thefe Pataci to 
Jaave been placed in the poops of the ibips ; and 
Herodotus compares them to pygmies : if they 
wece the .futelar Gods of fea&ring men, and carried 
^dhont £>r prdedion from difafiers at fea, the 
ctdElom fecms to be fiill preferved by the Spaniards, 
who at ihis day carry to fea with them little images 
of their iaints, that they may ftand theif friends in 
diftrefs i thefe are Chriflian PatflBci : why (hould m^ 
wonder at the Carthaginians or Phoeracians i 

They fuipended certain fiones to their necks 
called baiyii^ as preferyativ^s of the body agatnll 
danger. Bith Irifh for lifisu uik dXi^ whole, com- 
pleat \ bitkuiie : " thefe flones, fays Bochart (^), 
** were alfo called abdir^ probably from aband or 
^ thendus^ Hebrew words for a rowd (lone ;" ab 
a prieft in IriQi and dior the law ; fo that I ftiould 
tranflate it a fomething worn by the law of the 
prielis, (if Bochart be right.) P6rn means in Irifh a 
round flone, and abd6rn Would mean, the round 
ftone of the priefts. 

The biftiop of Cork, in his letter (*) to the 
Jloyal Society in London, has ftrangely confufed 

the 
• W Phaleg. (^) Phil. Tr. N0.47U 



OT T«is IRISH LANGUAGE. i$$ 

• 

the Baituha with the Ettk-aJ^ in his dcfctiption of the 
druidicai monufncntt in Ireland. W^e have already ' 
fhtown that Beitk-alj both m Hfebrew and Irifh 
fignifies the Houfe of God j the biftiop therefore 
thinks it w^s one of thefe monftrorrs nntev^n ftoires 
forming the dnridical teniptes, which Rhea gave 
to Saturn to fwallow inftead of a child, becaufe it 
was called by the Greeks baituhs. Jfelychhis is 
alfo as much millaken in the etymon of the ioftylij 
which he fays was covered with a woollen garment j 
from the Greek Word baite. 

Birt St, Auftin feys, the Carthaginian Deities in 
general were called abdire ; and the priefts wh» 
afltfted at their facrifices euc-aSu : now ab in Irilh 
cxprefles a Deity alfo, and adhra is to worfhip : 
thus dbadhra the worfhip of the Deity -, fo eugadh is 
to die in Irilh, and eugadhra means to die in the 
Sacrifice, or worfhip* 

^han^ fays Pezron, was the RcXic name of the 
Snn, and fignifies fire and water j it is true, tith or 
teth is heat in Hfti, and an rs water, but we have 
already explained, that an in the Iri(h and Punic 
fignifies a planet, fo "fhhan or 7'etkan is the planet 
of heat ; thus alfo greadh is to fcorch, ^ndgreadhan 
or gri-an is the Iriih common appellative for the 
San, i. e. the fcorching Planet. 

The fire of the ftars feems to have been hi> 
noured in the perfon of Jupiter, called in Greek 
z^o^ and in Phoenician tstr^ Chaniy both names being 
derived from heat and fire (r). 



loh- 



(jc) Dsnet's di6t. of anti^. ad verb, igni». 



296 Am essay on the ANTIQJJITY 

loh'pater Jupiter, was efteemed the father of aH 
fruits ; ioh is Irilh for the fruit of beafi, plant, or 
tree, and p^ as hair ^ u e. priomh at hairy firll, or 
chief, father. The Etrufcan name of Jupiter was 
aa+R«ivi, (iup'ter) i. e. iu-primus atar\ and thus 
primus atar was contra£ted to p, atar^ all from the 
Phoenician priomh athair^ firft father; hence the 
Greek pater ^ znd - pateros -^ Lat. pater ^ Bifc. aita-^ 
Gothic atta ; Theffal. atta ; Perfic, padder^ &c. . 

It is plain (fays Adrian Reland de nomine Je- 
hovah, Utrecht 1707) that the Latins formed the 
name of tlieir God Jupiter, whom they called 
Jovis, from the name Jehovah or Jehovih. 

It however is very uncertain, whether or no the 
Latins borrowed their Jovis of the Hebrew \ fince 
Varro derives it from the Latin verb juvare^ to aid 
or aflift (i). 

The pagan Irifti never admitted the modem 
Deities of the Greeks or Romans into their worfliip ; 
even to the days of St. Patrick their worfhip was 
pure Aflyrian, and confided of the heavenly hoft 
alone, as I have defer! bed elfe where. 

Curetes were the keepers of Jupiter, remarkable 
for valour, as well as for Ikill in aftronomy : curaithe 
in Irifh is champions. Thus /Eolus the God of the 
winds was fo called from his knowledge in aftronomy 
and the winds; in lx\(\igaoith is the wind, and eolas is 
knowledge, htnccgaoth-eolas into aeolus. ** Memoiis 
tradidit Ifacius, ^olum hominem fuiffe aftronomiae 
peritilSmum, et illam fcientiam prscipue exercuiffe 
quae pertinet ad naturam ventorum, ut prodeffet 

navigantibus.. 

{J) Supp. du journ. dcs Sea vans. Juin 1709. torn. 44^ 



OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE- Z9l 

navigantibus. Praedicebat igitur ct qu« 

mari futura cflet tempeftas (e). Bochart thinks the 
derivation of this name is from the Hebrew hxt aol^ 
\t\gaaoU tempeftais. Indeed the Ceiti never had 
thefe Greek and Roman Deities, for they were 
deified from the Celtic fables by the Greeks ; I mean 
moft of them, for as we learn from the Stoic Cor- 
nutus or Phurnutus they borrowed from various 

nations, T« J^ voXXa^ km VQwdUL^ vi^ 9ifl^ yiyonMu wa^ tm« 

a vop Ayyvwno^i km KiXtok, km Atfivn, mm ^^s km tqk aV«4< 

iOiwn, cap. 17. i. e. among the many and various 
fables which the ancient Greeks had about the 
Gods, fome were derived from Mages, fome from 
-Egyptians, fome from the Celti or Gauls, and 
others from the Africans and Phrygians, &c. 
Will not this flop the laughter of the claflic gentry, 
at my deriving the names of Apollo, Mars, Mer- 
cury, Venus, Jupiter, &c. from the Celtic, whofe 
virtues and powers are not to be explained in the 
compofition of their names in any other language. 

Venus is derived from bean or bhean^ pronounced 
-tw«, or vean a woman. But to return to thfe Car- 
thaginians. 

Phi^tia ox fidites were public feafts at Carthage, 

where the elders inftrufted their youths. Irilh 

fijify fithify and feathair, a teacher or dodor, and 

Juuihaithe^ relating, telling, inftrudting, as fi.Uhaid 

a bhasy they relate his death. 

Badoxbadliby the wind, and fome think parti- 
cularly the North wind \ it is alfo faid to be a bean- 

{e) Natal. Com. mitolog. \. 8. cap< la 



ft9« Ai^ fiSSAt OK tHU ANTfQpITY 

j^A?, or familiar f^irit, f^hich is fuppofed to belong 
to particular families : this word appears to be of 
Afiatic toot, for in the prefect Perfic language bad 
Is not oniy wind, but aifo the name of the genius or 
deity, who, like the iEol'us of the Greeks, prefides 
over winds ; he has the fuperintetidance of the z lA 
day of the month, which is cotlfecratted to this 
fpirit and called by his name (f). 

The fnprcme magiftrates of Carthagfe \^ere catted 
foj^tes (g)j becaufc men in great pbwer ; fofar in 
Irifli is powerful, ftrong, valiant, plnrsl fo/ataitk. 
They are csMcii foffiteSj' fays Selden (A), from the 
Hebrew fouffiteniy judices fonat. So in compound 
Irilh words fignifies an aptnefs, or facility in doing, 
alfo excellency ; thus fofither means moft capable 
of teaching, or governing, and is moft applicable 
to the fupreme magiftrate. 

Barach. *^ SL Hieronyrao en la vlda de S. Halk* 
lion dize, que lbs Saracenos falian a encontrar a el 
fancfto con fus mugeres i hijos, et fubraittentes colla 
el voce Syra Barach inclamantes ; id eft Benedidl:. 
Barach i Benedic, eadem eft Hcbraeis fignificatio, 
a quorum lingua non folum Syram fed Chaldaeam 
quoque, Arabicum, et ^thiopicam deraonftra- 
mus (/).'* In Irifli bar a learned man, barrachas 
fupreme excellency, great fway, and barraighhm is 
a mitre. 

The name of Carthage was Carthago from its 
fituation by the fea-fide, fays C. Duret ; caiJuiir is 

Irilh 

(I) See Richardfon's Perfic. Lex. p. ?i8. 

U) Liv. 

(h) De Dis Syr. c. i , 

(0 Ant. de Efpan. Africa. Aldrete, lib. 2. p. 187. 



dF tH£ IRISH LANGUAGBi a^sf 

Irifli foi' a city^ and go is the fea. According to 
Rocbart and VoiTius it waa called Caihanb and Ci-^ 
tharAremnaci^ nieaning fhe'ncw aXy .-^atbardo and 
OukardreOfmad In Iri(h fignifies the good city^ for 
door da and dreannad^ means good. 

Howel explaing this mxat much better, he (ays 
Carthage was built at three feveral times j the firft 
foundation confifted of €t>thm^ I e. the port or 
harbour ; in Irifh, cum is an harbour or port^ and 
c$thadhrM is a noble fupport. Megara was a part 
of the town built next^ and in refpe^ to cothon was 
called Kartha adatfh ag^h^ or hadtha^ that is^ fays 
he, the new buildings, or the additional town ; ia 
]ri(h, agadih^ or adxuh^ is an addition, and thus 
€ahair-adath fignifies the new added city. 

Theantient name of Carthage, as given by Dido^ 
was Bofra^ or as fome have it Byrja ; Bofra they 
&y means a royal fort. Borrfa in Irifli is noble^ 
royal, magnificent, and rath (pronounced rd) is a 
fort ; thus Borrfa-riUh^ is a royal fortrefs. Byrfa^ 
according to fome, (ignifies plenty of water ; bior 
in Iri(h is a fpring or fountain, (hence tobair a well» 
alfo Birr the name of many towns abounding with 
iprings) and fa is an augmentative article, fo biorfy 
implies plenty of water. 

The names of the Carthaginians, fays Bocbart, 
had commonly fome particular meaning, thus AnnQ 
iignified gracious, bountiful: the proper name 
Etmo frequently occurs in the Irifli hittory, but Am 
ia Iriih fignifies plenty of riches, a comu-copia » 
said adds, the lame author. Dido means amiable, 
^vcll- beloved ; and Sophonijba^ one who keeps her 
hulband's fecrets faithfully : in irifh Ml is excelfirc 
Vol. II. X lover 



joo Aw ESSAY OK MB A^t^fTIOplTY 

love, dide gratitude, ziy^ ,diUo:m>^ amia&lc, ^ 
finm-eajba\2M&it^Ti&&^ Oiucb addl£kd to vanity. 

Adshui*.Rielaadt in hU imfeelhiniesy ttnoks tbe^ 
(Mirts mfty be derived from tbe Hebrew ivi^cluA^^ 
chabirim^ to unllr or conjobr as nsuch as to fay the 
Qntted deities^ Here again ia a proof of the affinity 
of die Iri(h kmgmge to the Hebrew, for cabr^ is 
to coigoicr or imife togedieri cabar a jun£tion^ He 
mfifis that cabir^ as well as the root c(^ar^ is always 
tifed to exprefs the quanibty or nnihitude, and ncrer 
to exprefs the greatneis or grandeur ^ he owns that 
m the Arabic it do» nseaxt grand, gi^eaty but denies 
the w(^d having any foch meamng in the Hebrew, 
s and leaves Jt to others- whether it may not alfo be 
derived fioEii the Hebrew keiirmy bwied, de^ 
leeafed. See. 

The Carthaginiana had certain undifiinguilhed 
Deities caHed Gtbiri^ a land of Penates or houlhokl 
Gods, who were fuppc^d te preiide over every 
action of their lives, and whom diey occafionally 
invoked for tbnr help. Cabasr in Iriih fignifies 
help, affidance, and cah'a is a target or ihield. 
Yet Seiden {k) feems to think Cex^/W fignified Venus: 
5^. Saracenorum C^ar five CuBar a Syria feu Baby- 
Ionia Venere alia non erat. ; fed commmre iis, qm 
tarn vicini eranty numen. Otbar enim ip& Verms 
(qus et Luna Dea) effe cmfebatur.*' And this is 
not his opinion only (/), ^' Ad FJeracIii Imperatoria 
fempora Saraceni idolis decM funt. Ludfermn 
adopabant et Vinerem quam Cabar fna n<xninani 
f Kngoar. 

: (k) Synti-2. p. ir. 

(/) Euchemius Zygabeenus in Pftnoplia. Catacbefi Sara* 
'ceaonmuv 



ot THE IRISH LANGUAGE. i^fi 

lingua. CabarsMXtmMagnaminterprtititVLr." Again 
— -Catachefi Saracenorum. " Anathematizo eos 
qui matutinum fidus Luclferum et Venerem adorant^ 
quam Arabum lingua Chabar^ qood Mi^num (igni- 
ficat, nominant. Scd vero (w) minime diverfa 
fentias Luciferum ct Veniruth numina.*" But, lays 
Bochart, tbefe Gods were called Diofcuire^ high^ 
mighty, puiiTant. Dtfar is Iri(h for fierce, valiant, 
mighty ; but is not this word more properly derived 
from di a God, as having, curam the care ; diaf^ 
curantj the God who had the particular care of them, 
as the Penates were fuppofed to hav^, , 

Polybius (») has tranfmitted to us a treaty of a 
peace concluded between Philip fon of Demetrius 
king of Macedon, and the Carthaginians, in which 
their intimate perfuafion that the Gods aiTifted and 
prelided over human affairs, and particularly over 
folemn treaties made in their name and prefence, is 
ifaongly difplayed. ** This treaty was concluded 
m the prefence of Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, &c. in 
the prdcnce of the Daemon of the Carthaginians ; 
of Hercules, lolaus. Sec. &c.** — It is very remark- 
able that this cuftom prevailed in Ireland after 
Chriffianity, even down to queen Elizabeth's reign, 
in all folemn contradls, bonds, deeds, &c. I have 
icen many fentences of the Brehon laws, and other 
deeds and contradts, as late as the lime here men- 
tioned, all of which conclude thus, abhfiddhnaijt^ 
dia air ttus^ f A. j B. &c. i. e. in the prefence of, 
C5od firft, and of A. and of B. &c. 

Marmol fays, near the fpot where Carthage once 
flood, the Chriftians have ercftcd a tower, on a 

X 2 rock 

(j») Scld. Synt. i. p. 21. (i») Lib. 7. p. 699. 






#Wt Aft ESSAY o* Trii AMTIQUITV 

rock which the Africans call al menare ; which ht 
interprets le roque de Maftinace. jflmionafre is in 
iriih the fiiamelefs rock, and wonderfully agrees 
with thia Jtilthor^s explanation of the Africiart 
almenare. 

NuUibI pitires reperiesPunleaquam apxidPlauttinl 
in Pasnufe ; 
which lines^ feys Bbchart, (^) are partly Purtic and 
partly Lybiee, for they ufed both languages, as we 
may learn from Virgil : 

Q^ippe domufh teniet ambtguann^ Tynafi)ue 
bilingues.' 
Add from' Stlius : 

Di(cintos inter Li&ycos$ popidb(que bifingues. 
And from Claudian : 

ToUite Maflylaa frau^es^ renaovete biKngues in- 
fidias: 

AH whidi; with great deference toEocbart, does 
in my opinion prove no more than that the Punie 
language was a compound of the Ly biai> ; net that 
the Carthaginians (poke fometimes a fentience in 
one, and (bmetime^ in another ; that would be a 
inoft ridiculous fuppofition indeed := and I befieve 
no inftanee can be given of people fpeaktng fuch a ' 
dialed. 

The following Punic fpeecb of Plaatus will on 
eonfideration be found to have as great or greater 
affinity witfcthe ancient Irifli, or bearle Ferd^ i. e. the 
Phcenician dialedt, than with the Hebrew, and as 
Ivith as few alterations of the text as are to be found 
in Boeharty Petit, Patreus, Paufanias, Voflius, Src. 

I have 

(p) Phaleg. p. 699; 



-Of THE IRISH LANGUAGE. ^0| 

I have now before me fevcral editions of PlautUB 5 
each of them vary confiderably in this fpeech. 

The cnrioiifi and learned reader who would con* 
fult the variotis copies of Platitus, will fifld a cata- 
logue of 143 commentators on this author, in the 
edition publilhcd by Gronovius, at Xcyden, in 
1665. 

The fecoiid edition, in 14^2, is to be found in 
4he library of Trinity College, Diiblin, from which 
the Punic fpeech is traniciibed, together with the 
Latin tranflation. We have not fufficient ajuthority, 
from any of the edttorsi, to fay whetliei" Plant us 
i3(ed the Phoenician or the Roman diara£ters in 
Ibis Specdi : We know it was written during the 
iboocid Punic war, and the Roman letter was ufed 
ta. Cdrthage as ear4y as the end of the firft Punic 
war. 

Erom the flawing confeifion of Gronoviua, we 
fiuiy judge what interpolations and omiiGons have 
been comn^itted in- this fpeech by ignorant traiv* 
icribers; ^^ PunicaK hacc fcripto erant fine pun£tis 
vocaUbis; ut et Heb»a five Phoenicia omnia; 
fibraiii veto vocalee pro iagenii, et eruditionis fuse 
modulo fubftituemnt, falfo 6epius quam fadlum 
vellem ;*' but he does not fay he had feen the ma- 
nuibipt) nor does he tell us from what authority he 
a>nje^re6 that this fpeech was written in Phce* 
Tuctan €hai:a£ker&. 

*. In the French edition of Plautus by M. de 
Limiers, bebas ^dded.the following note to this play. 
^* Ixs dix lignes qu'il prononce (Hanno) en langue 
Punique ou Phenicienne, n*aiant jamais eie ecrites 
|iu*en car adlfires Latins, et par 4^s Igens qui ne les 

> . ijntendoipnt 



S04 An essay on the ANTIQUITY 

eatendolent pas, U aurok ete difficile d'ea penetrer 
1^ veritable Sens. 

And although, f^ys Dr. Brerewood (p ), that 
Punique fpeech in Plautus, which is the only con* 
tinned fpeech of that language, that to my kno«r-f 
}edge remaineth extant in any author, have no 
fuch great convenience with the Hebrew tongue 4 
yet I afTure myfelf the faults and corruptions that 
have crept into it by many tranfcriptions, to have 
been the caufe of fo great difference, by reafim. 
.whereof, it is much changed from what It was at 
iiril, when Plautus writ it, about 1 800 years ago, 

" L^s Carthaginois, obfcrv^s the learned M. Huet^ 
Cq) auroient pu apprendre des Africains I'uikge de 
la rime. Dans ce&ters Puniques que Plitute ^ inferet 
dans (on Penule^ Seldcn (r) a cru avoir trouv^ 
une rime ^ntre le premier et le fecoqd vers, ftous 
nvoir poufle plus loin fa recherche, fuppo&nt le 
refte femblable. Mais ceux qui oat anstomUe cw 
vers plus curieufement, n*y ont{rien apper^u de teL 

Had this fpeech been the only remains of the 
^unic dialed, the author would not have attempted 
this collation, perfuaded from the above tefiioxmyt 
that we have not in our pdOfeffion the (peedi of 
Hanno the Carthaginian, but of the various train 
fcribers of Plautus ; nay Plautus himfelf aiTures us» 
' he founded his comedy on a Greek tragedy of 

Achilles Ariflocles ; and it may be conjeAured by 
the dialogue in the next fcene, between Milj^o 
and Agaraitoclts, that he (Plautus) did not uader- 

lland 

{pj Enquiries touching the divcrfit/ of laoguagca, p. 57. 
(f) Hueciana, p. 189. - ' ' * 

(r) Seldea de Dis S/r. Prol. c. 2« 



OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. cpS 

ftand the Fume langu^ge^ more tljact Milphio^ 
whom heliai choifeii as the ifiterpreter.' ' 

The great af&nity fbuad in mariy words, ^ay 
whde lines and fentences of this (peech, between 
the Punic and iHmc; Iti^'(bearlafem) ftrengthcned 
and fupported by the collation in the fotmer pages, 
urged the author to attempt an Irifli tranfcript, and 
from thence to mal(:e a free tranflation into the 
Engliih ; how far he has fuceeeded^ mull be left to 
the impartial critic. 1 

From Gronov I us*s Edition we give the Argu- 
ment and the D&aM atis P£it-soHiC. 

Quidam adoiotcens Carthaginienfia furtun furreptus, 
avehitur Calydonia in £toliam, et ibi venditur 
V feni ctvi. Hie adoptavit ilium, et moriens reli- 
c|uit hacredem. Amabat adolofeins puellam 
popularem et cognatam: patrui enim ea filia 
erai; quod/ipTe neftiehat, nam^prtedones ruri 
deprehenfas duas purvulas filias h)i)U8, una cum 
nutrice abdudjtas lenoni Calydonb vendiderant 
in AnaAorlo, quod nomen loci, et oppidi fiiit 
in Acarnania* ' Cum nihil -deqai adolpfcens a 
icoone de (bis amoribus impetrare poflett ufus - 
fervi fui copfifio^ inficbas fecit lenoni, ut/ilLe furti 
jcnanifefti condemnaretur. Interea indicium fit, 
puellas efle Carthagmienfes ingenuas: <t pater 
iUarum (Hanno) qui.ubique gentium jpfasquae- 
rebat, advenit, et eas asgnofcit ; et major^ni notu 
miptum fiat frjitri?' filio. 



Dramatis 



go6 Aw ESSAY OK THt. ANTIQyiTY 

DRAMATIS PERSON^. 

AgaraftQclcs, Adolofcens Carthag. 

Milptuo, Scrvus. - 

Adelphaiium, 7^, . 

> Meretriccs, 

Anteraftilis, ) ' ' ' 

Lycus, Leno. 

Anthemomdes, * Miles. 

Hannq, Pocnu?. 

Giddcncnw nutri?, &c. j^c 

ACTUS OyiNTI SCENA PRIMA. 



From the Editioci pf Mocbnigus. 

^arvijii i^itdie zt Junii Joanne Mocmiigo Principe 
jucundijjimo et Duee Foelicifimo. In the Lihrary of 
Trimty CollegCj Dublin. T. T. Z. 4. 

Nythatemm ualon uth fi corathillima oomfytli 
Chim lach chunyth mumys tyal mydhibarn hntTchi 
Lipho canct hyth bynuthii ad sedin bynuthii. 
Bymarob fyllo homalonlm uby mifyrtholio 
Bythlym mothym nodothli uelcdianti dafmadion 
Yflidelcbcm thyfd yth chylys chon. them lipbul 
Uth. bynitn yfdibur thyofto cutU nu Agoraftocles 
Ythe maneth ihy chirik lycoth fith nafo 
Bynni id chil luhili gubulin lafibit thym 
}3odyaIyt hcrayn nyn nuys lyra monchot lufim 

Exanoliia 



OP THiB IRISH LANGUAGE. 307 

£xanolim uolanus fuccuratim miftim ^tticum efTe 
Concubitum a bello cutin beant laiacant chon^ 

enus es 
Huiec filic panefle athidmafcon ?S^m i^dub€rtp 

felono buthume. 
Celtiim comucro lucni, at enim auofo uber hcnt 

hyach Ariltoclem 
£t te fe aneche na(p£telia elicos alemus duberter 

mi comps uefpti 
Aodeanec li£tor bodes iufium limnimcolus;. 

jF^orx^ the fame in Latin. 

Deoa 4c9^ue veneror, qui .l;ianc urbem colunt ut 

quod de mea re 
Hue ycneri te venerim. meafque ut gnatas ct mei 

fratris filium 
Reperif em. efiritis : id voftram fidem quae mihi 

furreptac funt. 
Et fratris filium. ^ui mihi ante bac hofpes antim^das . 

fuit ' 
Eum feciflfe ^unt : fibi quod fapiundum &it ej^s 

fifium 
Hie praedicant efle Agoroftocjem. Deunj hofpi- 

,talepi ac tcflcram 
Mecum fero. in hifce habitare mQnfiratuft regi* 

onit)US. 
Hos percontabor, qui hue egre^uintuj: foraj. 

Bocbart (j) thinks thefe lines of Plautus are 
partly Punic and partly Libyan: the fix laft l^e 



does 



(f) Phtleg. cb. 2. 






|oS An essay on t»b ANTIQPITY 

<locs not attcanpt to tranfcribe or tranflate^ but 
conjcdhircs that they arc a repetition of the ten 
iirft, in the Lybian language ; the ten firft he 
fays are Punic, and he thus tranicribes them in 
the Hebrew : 

Na eth eljonim veeljonoth fechorath ii^Inecu^ 20th 
Chi malachai jitthemu : maflia middabarehen ifld. 
Lephurcanath elh beni eth jad udi ubenothui 
Berua fob fellahem eljonim ubimefuratebem. 
Beterem moth anoth othi helech Antidamarchon 
Is fejada li ; Beram tippd eth chele fechinatim 

leophel 
Eth ben amis dibbur tham nocot nave Agorailocles 
Otheim anuthi hu chior fceli choc : 20th nofe 
Binni ed chi io haelie gebulim lafeboth tham 
Bo di all thcra inna^ Hinno, efal immancar Ip 

fcm. 

Which lines Bochart thus tranllates into Latin. 

■ 

' Rogo Dcos et Deas qui hanc tegionem tuentur 
Ut confilia mca compleantur^ Profpenun fit. ex 

dudtu corum negotium meum. 
Ad liberationem fiiii mei manu praedonis, et filia- 

rum mearum 
Dii per fpiritum multum qui eftis in ipfis, et per 

providentiam fuam 
Ante obitum diveriari apud me folebat Antidamar- 

chus, 

yir mihi familiaris ; fed is eorum coetibus jundlus 
t% quorum habitatio ett in caligine. 

Filium 



t)F THY IRISH I.ANGUAGE. ^§ 

Filium ejus confians iama eft ibi fiiufle fedem 

AgontftDclem (noimne) 
Sigiilum hofpitii md eft tabula fculpta, cujus fculp- 

turn eft Deus meus : id fero. ' 
Indicavit mihi teftis eiim halntare 'm his fioibuf. 
Venit aliquis per portam banc ; Ecceeum; rogabo 

nunquid tioveiit nomen (Agoraftodis;) 



Wc 



p9 As ESSAY 6m ink A^^TlQyiTY 

1 . .... . • r , 

Wc will now collate tbi^ &ecch with tliie bifli. 

" :-' • 'ftAUTtTS.* 

Nyth al o nim ua lohuth Kcoratbiili ine com fytfa (/) 
Chilli tich-<^«uiy(h imim ys t jal nfiydhi barii im fchi. 

N'iaith all.o'mmh uatU looniriihcl "fecruidhfe tne cbm fith. 
Omnipotent much dreaded Deity of this country! aflfwage 

my troubled raindf 
Chin^i la^h chuinigh I muini is toil^ mipcht beiridh iar 

mo fcith 
(thou) the fupport of feeble {u) captives ! being now ezi- 
haufted with fatigue, of thy irpe will guide me to my 
children. 

PjLAUTUS- 

Lipho can ethyth by mitbii ad «dan bbuthii 
Byr nar ob fyllo homal o nim I ubymis ifyrthoho. 

Irish. 
Liomhtha can ati bt mijtche ad &dan beannaithe, 
O let my prayers be perfedly acceptable in thy iight, 
Bior nar o^ filadh umhal ; o nimh I ibhim a frotha t 
An inexhauftible fountain to the humble ; O Deity I let 
fot drink of its dreams ! 

PLAUTtIS, 



(/) We haye a remarkable Trilli poem written id the 131}! 
century, beginning nauch in the fame manner. 



*^ Athair chaidh choimfidh neimhe 
({/) Captives ^ bis daughters. 



i> 



o¥ Trie iFitdH LAN6uAdE. ' fi^ 



Irish virhum vetlt. 
{io) O all ntnih (i) n'iaith^ lonnakh, (2) usth ! ibcinidfaiif 

ittecomiith 
O mighty Deity of this country^ powerful^ terrible I quiet 

me with reft. 
Chuinigh lach (3) chimithe ; is toil, muini beiridh (4) 

miocht, 
A fopport of weak captives ; be thy will to inftrud (oie) 

to obtain my children, 
lar mo fcith (5) 
After my &tigiie« 



(5) Gin ati liomtha (7) mitche bi beantiaithe ad eadao, (8) 
Let it come to pafs, that my eameft prayers be blefled 

before thee, 
Bior nar ob filadh mrihal; O Nimhl ibhim a frotha^ 
A fountain denied not to drop to the humble ; O Deity 

that I may drink of its ftreams. 

Irish 

^fv) See Lhwyd and O HrWs Di&ionaries for tlefe words : 

(l) iati^ land* territory, as iaii machaci^ a part of the 
county of Waterford* 

(a) uasb^ dread, terrible. Lb. O Br. 

(3) cimet cimiib^ timeaJb^ prifoners, cimim^ to eo(ta?e. OBr. 

(4) mbd^ children, mioch, my children. O Br. 

(5) Mtrique terraque ufqne quaque qusericat. Plaut. 
Prolog, lin. ro$. 

(6) con aJi^ let it fo happen. Old Parchments. 

(7) itcbe^ a petition, requed ; Homiba^ pronounced bm^a. 
OBr. 

(8) W* eaJan^ in thy face, eaJan^ the front of any thing. 



L 



•Mi Ak BfiSAT OH THf lANTIQpiTY 

Plautus. 
Byth lym mo thym oodothii nel ech an H daifc machon 
Yt i de kbrim thyfe lyth chy lys chon temlyph ula 

Irish. 
Beith liom I mo tbime nodaithe^ nid ach an d datfic mac 

coinne 
Foriake me cot I my earned define b now difcloiedt which 

is only that of recovering my daoghlers ; 
Is i de leabhraim tafach leith^ chi lis oon teampluibh utta 
Thi9 was my fervent prayer, lamenting their misfortunes 

in thy facivd temples. 



PLAOTUS. 



• OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 31^ 

Irish virbum vsrh. 
Beith Uomi mo (i) thime (2) nodatthe, niel ach an ti (3) 
Be with me ! ray fears being dildofed^ I have no other 

intention but 
'{4) daiiicy maeoinne. (5) 
of recovering my daughters. 

(6) tafach a (7) leith, is i de leabhraim» (8) chi lis (9) 
this particular requeft^ was what I made^ bewailing their 

misfortunes, 
con (10) uUa teampluibh. 
in (thy) facred temples. 

Irish 

(1) /lOT, time, fear, dread* O Br. alio pride, cftimation. 

(2) nocdaipbif Sc mda nzkeif open, difclofed. OBr. 

(j) it defign, inteorion. Lb. Jo ratiadar or tif they in- 
tended. Nehem. iv. 7. nocb do bbi or ii lamb do cbur^ who 
defigned to lay hands. Eft. vi. a. 

(4) aiJioCf reftitution : aifiocadb to reftore. Lh. OBr. 

(;.) mac cbmnne daughters ; macoamb^ a yontbt a girl. OBr. 

(6) /^/^c craving* alfo exhortation. Lh. OBr. 

(7) a leitb^ diftindt, particular, ibid. 

(8) a'y to lament ; a mbacain na ciy lament not young men.' 
OBr. 

(9) Ax, cyiU mifchicf. O Br. 

(10) ulia^ a place of devotion. OBr. 



'3H Ak ESSAY ON tHE ANTIQJJITY 

Plautus. 
Uth bynim ys diburt hyno ocuthnu Agoraftocles 
Ythe man eth ihychirfae lycoth fith na(a« 

Irish. 
Uch bin nim i is de beart inn a ccomhnuithe Agoraflocleal 
O bounteous Deity ! it is reported here dw^lteth Ago*- 

i^aftocles I 
liche mana ith a chtfhirfi ; leicceath fith no(a ! 
Should my requeft app^r juftf here let my difquretudes 

ceafe I 

Plautpsi 
Buint id chillu iii guby lim la fi bithym 
Bo dyalytber aynnyn myily mono chetl us im. 

Irish. 
Buaine na iad cheile ile : gabb liom an U fo bithim' I 
Let them be ho longer concealed ; O that I may this day 

find my daughters ! 
Bo dileachtach nionath u'lfle^ - mon cothoil us im 
they will be fatheilefs, and preys to the worft of men^ 

unlefs it be thy pleafure I (faould find them. 



Plautus. 



or. THB IRISH LANGUAGE. 315 

litiBH Virtum tferh, 
Vth Mil nim t is 4e beart inn^ accomdnfiitl^ Ajgorttftoclei 
O fweet Deity I it is faid in this place, dwells Agoraflocles 
(i) mana itche a chithirfi f2) ith; Mik (j) feioc6ath 

fith. 
if the caufe of my requeft ihould feem to you to be juft; 

now grant (tne) {>eace. 



na cheile tad (4) buaine (5) ile; gabh lioin(6) bithm' an 

lafoi 
do not conceiil them for ever; O.tbat I may find my 

daughters this day I 
dileachtach bo niooath a'ifle ; raona codchoU t 

being orphans, they will be the prey of the very dregs of 

men ; unkfi it be thy will 
(7) us im 
(to give) tydings about them. 

To obviate the cenfure of the modern IrifhmaR 
we have quoted the authors where the obfolete words 
ia the foregdng fpeech ofi Hanno are to be found. 

« 

(i) mana^ a caufe or occafion. O Br. 

(2) idb or itb^ good, juft. Lh. O Br. 

(3) leicctadb or Uigeadb^ to permit. O Br. 

(4) tuaine, perpetuity, contiauance. OBr. 

(5) S^^^ a diverfity, a difference, partially. OBr. 

(6) \iiihe, females , belonging to the female fez. O Br. 
Hanno here prays they may not be partially concealed, i. e. 
that he may difcover his nephew, Agoraftocles» as well 
as his daughters, and then breaks out with the following 
<jaculation, refpe^ing his daughters particularly. 

(7} utt news, tydings. OBr. 

Vol. II. Y all 



3i6 An essay ok the ANTIQUITY 

Plautus. 
Ec anoltm ao lanus fuccur rattm mifti atticum efle 
Con cubittt nubel lo cutin bean da la cant chona enufcs. 

Irish. 
Ece all o nim uath lonnaitbe I focair-ratai mitcbe aiti^iofife 
But mighty and terrible Deity, look down upoq met 

fulfil the prayers I now offer unto thee. 
Con cuibet meabail le cuta bean^ tlait le catnt con inifis, 
without effeminate deceit or rage, but with the utmoft 
humility, I have reprefented my unforttinate fituatioo. 

Plautus. 
Hute cfi lee pan effe, athi dm as cop alem in dubart felo 

no buth ume 
Celt um CO mu cro lueni ! ateni nuuo fuber r benthyadi 

Agorafloclenu 

\ Irish. 
Huch I -caifi leicc plan effe athi dam^ as con ailim in 

dubirt felo 
C%h I the negleft of this petition will be dei^th to me I let 

no fecret difappointment 
no buth ume 
befall me. 
Celt uairo c'a mocro luani I athini me an fubha ar 

beanuath Agoraftocles. 
Hide not froni me the children of my loins I and grant me 

the pleafure of recovering Agoraftocles* 



PtAUTUS. 



OP rue IRISH LANGUAGE. 317 



Irish vtrbum virb$. 
ail o nim lonnaithe, uath Reel (i) ratai focatr. mitche (i) 

aiticimfe. 
O great Deity powerful, terrible. Behold (me) t profper 

with fuccefs my petition I a(k. 
(3) Con cuibet (4) meabail le cuta (5) bean ; le tlait 

c'aint inifis con (6) 
Without deceitful fraud or effeminate rage ; with humble 

fpeech I have told ny meaning. 



Hucb! (7) leicc caiii as con ailim, pian efle (8) aith (9} 

dhamhna bioth 
Alas I the n^lefi of the caufe I have fet before thee, 

would be the pains of death to me, let me not 
tiatm an feile dobart (10) 
meet any fecret raifchief. 
Celt (11) c'a uaim (la) cro mo luant; aithia me an 

fubha ( 1 3) beanuath 
Hide not from me the children of my loins ; and grant me 

the pleafure of recovering 
ar Agoraftocles. (14) 
Agoraftocles. 

Y a Ece 

(i ) rathm^ to mtke profperous. Lh. O Br. ficmr^ piofperity, 
reflexive, (z) aitkbim, to pray or entreat, ibid. (3) con 
pro gant old MSS. (4) cuibbety fraud, cheat* (5) cutba, 
rage, furv. (6) con^ .fenfe, meaning. O Br. (7) teicc^ 
neglea. O'Br. (8) f/, death. Lh. OBr. (9) aitb^ auick, 
fudden. Lh. (to) Mard mifchief. O Br, (iiVrrv, 
children. Dkbu go lum erg, i. c. go Hon clamt. Lh. (12) cba 
for »/, old MSS ; frequently ufed by the old Irifli at this day; 
AS, €ba deanan^ I will not do it. (13) beanugbadb^ to recover. 
^9 bhtanfe or tiomlant he recovered the whole. Lb« ( 1 4) His 
siephew. 



SiS Am essay ok Ihe ANTIQyiTY 

Plautus. 
Ex te fe ancchc na fodelia eli cos alem aa dubert ar mi 

compsy , 
Uefptis Add eanec lib tor bo definffum lim nim co lus. 

Irish. 
Ece te fo a Neach na foichle uile cos ailim as dubairt ; 
Behold O Deity^ tbefe are the only joys I eameftly pray for ) 
ar me compais, 
take compai&on on me, 
is bidis Aodh eineac lie Tor, ba defiughim ie m6 nimh co 

lus. 
and grateful fires en flone tpwera^ wiU I ordain to Ua^ 

to Heaven. 



ACTUS 



or TKf IRISH I^AN^UAOC, sf^ 



Irish virbum vtrho. 
£ce a (i) Neach eie fo uile cos m fekUe (^ ailim at 

(3) dubairt ; 
behold J O Deity, this is e^ery confideratioa' j^f joy, I 

earnefUy pray for ; 
ar me (4) compais, 
take pity on me 
• is bidfs (5) eineac (6) Aodh ar (7) lie tor ba ddiughim co 

lus 
and there fliall be gratefbl fires on fione towers^ nvhich I 

will prepare to bum 
le mo ninth. 
to my Deity. 

(i) mack^ i. e. neamtacb, a heavenly ipirit. O Br. 
(a) iuUm^ to pray or intreat. Lh. O Br. 

(3) dubairt f an carneft prayer. O Br. 

(4) cbompmsj compai&on, pity; OBr. 

(5) fineachp bountiful, liberal. O Br. 

(6) jfodb, fire. Lh. O Br. 

(7) /iV, Iricf, a ftone ; Oac, a great ftone. O Br. 



ACTUS 



1*0 Ak essay om the ANTIQpITY 



ACTUS QJJINTI SCENA SECUNDA. 

A<S0RASTOCL£8. MiLPHlO. HaNKO. 

Mi LP. It Dibo hofce, atque appellabo Punic^; 

XJL St refpondebunt, Punic^ pergam loqui : 
Si Don : turn ad horum mores linguam vertero. 
Qaid ais tu? ecquid adhuc commeminifti Punic^ } 

Ag» Nihil adepoh nam qui fcire potui^ die mibi, 
Qsii iUtnc fexennts perierim Karthaginc ? 

Hah. Prd Di immortales ! plurimt ad hunc modum 
Periere pueri liberi Karthagioe. 

MuL. Qpidaistu? Ag. Quid vis? Mil. Vin* ap- 
pellem hunc Punice? Ac. An fcis? Mil. NuUus me 
eft hodie Poenus Punidr. 

Ac.- Adi atque appelia, quid velif, quid venentj 
Qui Ht quojattS) unde fit : ne parferis. 

Mil. AvoI quojatis eftis ? am quo ex oppido ? 

Han. Hanno Muthumballe bi Cbaedreanech. 

irijb. 

Hanno Muthumbal bi Chathar dreannad. . 

I am Hanno Muthumbal dwelling at Carthage. 

Chathar dnatmad, fignifies the good city ; we bave alreadj 

(hown from gopd authority, that it was alfo called 
, Cathar agaS. See the word Carthage. 
Lambinus reads this paflage thus ; Hanno Mutbum BalU 

biccha edre amch. 
Reinefius has it thus ; Mutbum taHs bin chadre anab. 
Which he tranilates, Deum vel Dominum Averni, Ditein» 

feu Plutonem : Mutb id eft Pluto Phoenicibus* feu 
. domicilium mortis. 
That mutb in the Punic and mmtb in the Irtlby i^nifies 

(death, deftrudion, decay, &-C. we have fhown in the 

preceding collation of the Punica Maltefe words with the 

Irift 



ot TkE IRISH LANGUAGE. 3Z1 

Irifli ; but that Muibumkil was Ponied a proper naiACi 
is evident from a Punic medal now in the choice cabinet 
of the earl of Chaiiemont, round the exergue of which 
is the word MVTHVMBALLVS^ and on the reverie^ 
the city of Carthage> with fome Phoenician chara&ers. — 
This is alfo a ftrong proof of the early introduSion of 
the Roman letters among the Carthaginians, and a 
fufficient reafon, in my opinion, that no other charadert 
have been found in ufe amongft the antient Iriih than 
^the old Roman or Etnifcan, except the contradions 
which are to be found in the Chaldean, Coptic, &c. 

Ac. Qyid ait ? Mil. Hannonem fefe ait Karthagine 
Carthaginienfem MuthumbalHs (ilium. 

Han. Jvo. Mil. Salutat. Han« Dcnni. 
Mil. Doni volt tibi dare hinc nefcio quid^ audin* 
poUioerier ? 

Avo I doimi ! 

Alas I moft ui^fortunate that I am. 
^j/tf, pronounced dfv#, ^^ddmaiSe, thecompar.of A«tf, 
unfortunate, are interje£tions common arooi^ the 
Iri(h to this day. 
Ag. Saluta hunc rurfus Punicd verbis meis. 
Mil. Jvo donni! hie mihi tibi inquit verbis fuls. 
Hak. Me bar bocca I 

Irijb. 
a ma babachtl O my fweet youth, (meaning his 
nephew.) « 

Mil. Iftuc tibi fit potius quam mihi. Ac. Quid ait ? 
Mil. Miferam efle prsedicat buccam (ibi 

Fortafle medicos nos efle arbitrarier. 
Ag. Si ita eft. Nega efle, nqlo ego errare hofpitem« 
Mil. Audi tu rufen nuco iftam. Ag. Sic volo, 
Profefid vera cundif huic expedirier. 
Roga, nunquid opus (it ? Mil. Tu qui Zonam non habes 
Qi|id in banc veniftis urbem, aut quid quaeritb? 

Hak. 



3^«. An essay w thb-ANTIQJJITY 

Han, Mt^hurfiif Ao. Qgid»!tl Hak; Mmit 
Mamta f- 

Mb tfeuirfe I ' > Mo baiie cklonna ! 
O my grief i Mf ferioiir is of long ftandkig* 

Ag. Q9«d Tenit; \ 
Mil. Non audis ? mures Africanos prrdicat 

In poinpam hidts dare fe irelk wAitibuft. 
Han. LoicA kg tiatumim limiHscbit. 

Iri/b. 
, Lruach; le cheaimaigbiin iiora miodtt. 

At any price I woald purchafe my chlldrmv 
Mil. Ligulas canalts ait fe adv^JSTe et nuces : 
Nunc orat, operam ut des (ibi^ ut ea veoeant. 
< Ac. Mercator credo eft. Hah. Is Mm ar utnam* 

Irijb. 
Is am ar uinaeaai \ 
This is tlur time for refekition f 

Ag. Qsidcft? 
Han. Palum srga diSfba I 
IriJb. ''"'*'" 
Ba Horn earga dea^. 
I mil fubmit to the didates of Heaveo. 

Ag, Milphio^ ^uid nunc ait. 
. Mil. Palas vendundas fibi ait & mergas datas^ 
Ut bortuni fodiat, atque ut frumencum metat. 
Ad mefllm credo miflfus hie quldem tuam. 
Ag« Q}iid iftoc ad me? Mil* Certiorem te efl^ voluiy 

Ne quid clam furtive accepiflfe cenfeas* 
Han. Afa phanmumfuearabinu 

me fulaim \ focaraidhaoi ; 

that I may here &wSx my fatiguie{ and that I may now be 
atieft! 

Mx^. hemJ caue fia fcceris 
Qgod hie te orat. Ag . Quid ait ? aut quid orat ^ cxpedi. 

Mil. 



(IF run IRISH LANGUAGE. ^3 

Mtl. Sab cnitim lUi Jobcas feefe fappoaif jtcpie m 
Lapides imponi multos* ut fefe nec^. 
Han. Gmm j6il Bdfanum ar ajtau 

Irijh. 
Gun& bil Bal-famen 'ar « fon I 
O that the good BaUfiNniMin may favor tfaeml 
BaUiamhan^ i e. Beat tibeSiui, as cxpla'niBd befope at 
the word Bal. 

Ag« (^pdait? 
Mil. Non Hercle nunc quidem quicquaiin fi:^o. 
Han. At ut (bias nunc, de hinc latipe jam ioqti^r. 

&c. &c. 

In the THIRD SCENE of the fifth act of* 
Plautup, where the plot begins to o]pen, are two 
more lines of the Pfanic language, and bearing 4i 
greater affinity with the old Irifh than any of the 
former. In this Scene the old Nurfe recoll^dls 
Hanno. . 

GiDD£N£ME,MiLPHio, Hanno, Agorastocles. 

GiD. Quispultat? Mil. Qui te proximus eft. Gid. 
Q^id vis ? Mil. Eho» 
Noviftin' tu illunc tunicatum hominem, qui fiet. 

Gid. Nam quern ego afpicio ? pro fupreme Jupplter, 
herus meus hie quidem eft 
Mearum alumnarum pater^; Hanno Carthaginenfis. 
Mil. Ecce autem mala, praBftigiator hie quidem 
Poenus probus eft 
Perduxit omnis ad fuam fententiam. Gip. O mi here 

falve Hanno, 
Inrperatuflime mihi, tuifque filius, faWe atque eo 
Mirari noli, neque me contempCarier^ -Cogiibfein' Gid- 
denemen 

Ancillam 



> 

3*4 Ak essay 61* *rfB AWTIQyiTY 

Andllam tuam ? Pox^ Novi^ fed ubi fimt mee gnatae ? 
id fcire ezpeto. 
Ago. Apud fledem Veneris. P6£. Q]»id ibi fachint 

die mihi ? 
Ago* Jpbr^JiJia {x) hodie Vederi^ eft feftus dies« 
Oratum ierunt deam, uC 
6ibt eflet propikia. GiD. Pol fati» fcio impetrarant^ 

quando hict hie 
Adeft. Ago. Eo an hujus funt illse filing. Gti>. Ita uf 

prflcdicas. 
Tua pietas nobis plan^ auxiUo fuit. Cum hue advenifti 

hodie in ipfo 
Tenspore. Namque hodie earum routarcntur nomina. 
* Faeerentque indignum genere quacftum c«rpore. 
PoE. Handone filli hanun bene fiUi in mufttne. 
j^dnbo^e yilli hdDum (y) bene, ^\\\y lu {%) muf ntje 
Whenever Venus proves kind, or grants a favour^ ihe 
grants it linked or chained with misfortunes. 
GiD. Meipfi & en efte dum & a lam na eeftin um. 
COeifj 7 tJCn eifzn im 7 {a) tiltinm i\<i ccij^cin <ii?) {b). 
Hear me^ and judge, and do not too baftily queftion me 
(about this furprize). 

The 



(*) The AphroSJia were celebrated in honour of Venus 
at CTprus and other places. Here they who would be in- 
itiatedy gave a piece of money to Venus* as to a proilicute, 
and received prefeuts from her. Abbe Banier. 

(y) Bene^ Celtic, from whence Venus. 

(z) This is a compound of muis and tine; muis a frown- 
ingy contraf^edy menacing brow, tine^ link of a chain. 

(tf) <(l<[1Jb idam^ out of hand, o(F-hand, indifcrimi* 
nately. 

{p) ^no un) .1. o\L 

Cei|*C11>nn). to queftiooy to doubt, to be afraid. 





OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 325 

The following fpecimen of the Bcarla Feni or 
nioenician diale£t of this country is extradted from 
ancient law books now in the author's poffeflion ; 
the language will appear much more foreign to the 
vulgar Irifti of this day than the Punic fpcech of 
Hanno. 

£ictra£t from the Sehanchas mor or the Great Anti- 
quity^ being a code of laws compofed by Sean the 
ion of Aigid in the time of Fergus Mac Leid king 
of Ulfter, 26 years before the birth of Chrift. 

" Tir do beir ioxbchi mna nad bi maith naduid- 
naidet a folta coire. 

Tir do bdr dar braiglt fine aratreifTu indatengaid 
dec diathintud. Oldas intoentenga doafcud. 

Gach futdir conatothcus techta. Niicca cinaid a 
mdc. Nachai nachaiarmui nach aindui nach a 
comoccusfine. Nach acinaid fadeifin flathair id- 
mbtatha ife iccafs acinaid. Airnilais dire afeoit 
achd colauin aithgena nama nigaib dire ameic nai 
naca dibad naceraicc nacha mathair flaith aram- 
biatha ifS qodbeir, agus iccas achinaid agus foUoing 
adnta/* 

The following fpecimen is extradled from another 
ancient manufcript on vellum in the author^ poifef- 
fion. This manufcript, as alfo that from whence 
the foregoing is taken, bears the name of Edward 
Liiwyd on feveral leaves, and from the following 
paflage given by that author at the end of his pre- 
face to bis Irifli dictionary, it is evident thefe manu^ 
fcripts did once belong to the collection of that 
great antiquary. 

Mr. 



326 An essay om the ANTIQyiTY 

• Mr. Lhwyd has done great injuftice to the ori- 
ginal, as he did not underftand our {c) Gonnfa&ti 
or Cor fa cha/an^ i. e. the Benfiropff^don of the Jnik j 
and has confequently made a ilrange j amble of un- 
connected words. 

Mr. Lhwyd prefaces this paflage in thefe words : 
** Ar an adhbhair gur nach lanchloidhte an dhulth- 
aobh lin, cuirim an fo Ihios Siompladha eigetn as 
leabhruibh Ghaoidheilg ro aofda. Mas eidh* lets aon 
Leughthoir fa nEirin no Halbuin a heidirmhin- 
iughadh : ataim far dhulchannach coimhfhreagradh 
dfagail ids. Do thairng me iad cboin^hpb^art biidh 
feidir learn amach as fean mheanHrui^ibh % Mbaile 
ath cliatb." i. e. *^ As the ibUowiog pages ar^ not 
in print, I have here ^ven an e^i[aiiE^l9 of very 
ancient Iri(h out of certain old books. . {f any 
reader in Ireland or Scotlai^d is able t<> explaio Jt, I 
earnefiiy requeft his correfpo^idence. I drew thefe 
examples as exad as I opioid from p}d parf;hmeiits 
in Dublin.*' 

The 

• 

{c) Oonnfaeite {eitin or ertrigh) figaides the hva'd of t 
ridge, and Cor fa cbafan means the reaper^s path ; the/ aic 
commonly denoted in ancient manufcripts by this mark^^ 
or this ^, which imp^^, that a ionics ce iiniAe/', ud that 
the reader is to go to the next line, from the end of which 
he is to I4irn to the Cionnfaeite, Wheflher the ancient IriA 
returned from^right to Is-ft 9^ the.Phpsaicians djd*, does Q9l 
appear from any manufcripts that have fallen io the author's 
way, or whether the Carthaginians did, has not occurred 
to his reading We know <h< Gnecians pm^UTed ske 
iwftro^hedon^ which thej learned from ihc PhflBakiaoi. 
Paufanias, lib. $. 3ao. mentions an iofcriptioo written in this 
laaimer on a monument dedicated toOiympius by Cypfehts; 
And Suidas r-emxtrks^ the Jaws »f Solpn ^er^ writtep.ni \\^ 
» fame manner on the Axones and Cyrbes. {r is cemarkabie 
that the interpretation oi Boufiropbedon^ and oiCiotinfdeiUH 
«Stremely iimilar, both meaning the ridges of a plowed field, 
which arc returned from right to left, and from left to right. 



*> THB IRISH LANGUAGE. szj 

The E:ttra£t according to Lhwyd. 

P^c 250. Buidin inrighan. i. rabacca oc cift«' 
eachd fri fin atsfi: don reilg aitt iriubhe iacob ag 
ingrai csrach conep — fris coti&db dochafnumh 
nabeanr an frifm innc^l cinnus do de nuinnfi ol 
lacop ifm fo olii. i. marbhtha le tuime ann olamr 

The Extrad from the Original. 
-— jCsin, 7 ro eirigh reimpi iar ndul do cbach 
Buid in righan. 1 . rebecca oc eiftcachd fris in athaefc 
don tfeikCy aitt iraibhe iacop ag inguiri caerach. 
Oep^ fris, cotifad do chofnumh na beanneachdan fria 
fin mac aUe. Cinnus do denuinn fin ol iacop ^ ife fo 
6l fi. I . marbhthar latfk meannan ol a ^ 7 fuinntir 
lat 7 tabair do. Ocus do fuaid d'iceann meannain 
f6t laimh, ariri^r&u, ar is finnfad^ lamha itCiu. 
Do gni iacop in nisin, 7 fiiladaigh in meannain, 7 
betrid lais inbrochan, 7 atnaigh dia atair. Ocus aSEc 
ris ; caith infeire ol ui. A mic ol ifac, is moc do 
rochdais on tfeilcc indiu feach ga la riamh, mas for 
fir atai. In ceud tfeilcc for andeachus is fuirre fuaras 
adbair f*re 7 b^chain deitfiu ; ife fin dom fiic co 
moch. Na hapuir breg ol fe, oir is tufa iacop 7 ^ 
tu ie(au. Is deaim cam n^ aiberainn gai atag ol fc. 
Sin uait do laimh ol ifac, co feafam inn tu iefau. 
Sinis uadh a laimh d6, 7 tf^icinn mininn impi. 
Geibidh ifac in laimh. is fota atai oc imrifin fiiom 
ar iacob, ar is me iafau. Atnaigh ifaac oc lamuch — 
na laimhe 7 ad bT Is i laimh iefau ol ifaac, 7 is 
guth iacob. &c. &c. 

The two firfi lines of which muft be read thus. 
Buid In righan. i. rebecca oc eiftcachd fris in 
athaiefc fin, 7 ro eirigh reimpi iar ndul chach don 
Ifeilcc, aitt iraibhe iacop, &c. &c. 

Tbe 



328 Am essay on the ANTIQyiTY 

The Translation, (d). 

The Queen, viz. Rebecca, hearing this difcourfc, 
after the people were gone to hunt, (he (Iraightway 
arofe, and went to Jacob where he was tending his 
flieep. She told him he (hould receive the blelfing 
inftead of the other fon. How (hall I do that, quoth 
Jacob ; do this, fays (he ; viz. kill a kid, and dre(s 
it and give it to him, and I will fow the (kin of the 
kid upon thy hands to refemble £(au, for the hands 
of Efau are hairy. Jacob did fo, and drefled the 
kid and brought with him the pottage and prefented 
it to his father; and he (aid to Mm, eat- this mds, 
O fon, fays Ifaac, you are returned this day from 
hunting earlier than any former day, if you tell the 
truth. At the firlt-hunt 1 quickly found wheicwith 
to make you a mefs of pottage, and that is the 
reafon, fays Jacob, I returned fo foon. Teii not a 
lie, (ays he, for thou art Jacob, and thou art not 
Efau. Truly, replied he, I would not tell a lie 
before thee. Stretch forth thy hands, fays Ifaac, 
that 1 may know thou art Efau. He ftretched forth 
his hands to hitp with the (kin of the kid about 

them; 



fd) Potior O Brien has quoted this valuable manafcript 
frequent]/ in his Irifh dictionary as a ftandard of the BearU 
feni or Phosnician dialed of the ancient Irifh ; fee the words 
fualacbti^db^ fpirff Uc. in his di^ionary. 

p Brien ^alls this the fpeckled hook, or UM>ar hrt^t oi 
Mac Eogan, properly Mac Aodbagan. Keating and bilhop 
Nicolfon mention leahkar breac of Mac Eoghan as a valiuble 
chronicle pf the Irifli hiftor/, and this nianufcript before us 
contains only the lives of the patriarchs and Mofcs, fo that 
probably there are two manufcripts of ;he fiame author under 
the fame name : this is fuppofed to be a copy of tbe OSi! 
TeftameDt brought to Ireland either by St. KientD* St. Ailln^ 
St. Decbn or St Ibar, the precurforn of St. Patric|c. 



OP THB IRISH LANGUAGE. s*9 

thems ITaac took the hand. Thou art long fuf^ 
picious of me, fays Jacob; I am £(au, liaac 
feeling the hand faid, this is the hand of Efau, and 
it is the voice of Jacob, &c. &c. Vide GeneGsi 
chap. 27. 

Mr. Lhwyd has extracted the following paflage 
from the fame book, and with greater miftakes than 
IB the former. 

Do rias umro iacop iarfm go atair, feifinrotid dha 
imdha exam a doiafau. i . diabrathriarbh 7 an bifidh 
ficairdine bhunuidh 7 a mbrathairfi iarfin ite ann (b 
na hafgadha. i. 200 caerach 7 200 gabhar 7 xxx 
camhal 7 xl bo. 20. reiti, 20 tarbh ocech nt dx. 
Da. c. coera xx boc da. c. ngabur tre ginn ngort ix 
rdthi rad cenlochd xl bo reithi bale. Fiche tarbh 
nach taraill tonn 7 xxxngall xx ai&n aluinnoU oeii9 
XX oiceach ann. MUogh (hidha ia(au fut. o iacop 
cembrigh a brecc. febh adcuadus duibhi ar fir ife fin 
alUn na. c. da. c. coerrc. tzc. 

Here follows the Extradt taken exactly firom.ths 

Original. 

— : -^Cluic alga / 

Po rias umro iacop iarfin go atair feifin ro tid- 
dha imdha exa^a doia(aiu i. dia brath ar b7' doib 

tfidh 7 i 
c^rd ne bhunuidh 7 ambrathairfi iarfin. Ite ann fo na 
hafgadha. i. 200. caer* 7 200 gab" 7. xxx camaiil 7 

XL. bo. 
XO reithL xx tarbh ocech, ut dr- 

Da. c. caera. xx. boc, 

da. c. ngabhur tre gnim ngart. 

XX . 



tjo Am essay o» the ANTIQyiTY 

. XX reithi rad ceiUochd, 
xl bo reithi bale. 
' Fiche tarbh taraiU toiin, 
7 XXX eamhall ngall, (i) 
XX afTan aliunn oil, 
ocus XX oieeach ann. 
Hillogh Ihidha iafau fut 
o iacop cen brigha brdcc. 
febh ad euadhas datbh iar fir 
is e fin allin na. c. 

Da. c. caera. Sec. 

Mr. Lhwyd having confounded the verfe with 
the profe, and having negledted the Cionn fa eite^ 
has rendered tMs paffage entirely obfcure: The 
laft Tme, Da. c. caera^ is a repetition of the firft fine 
of the verfe ; this method was obferved by all the 
ancient poets of Ireland to fhow the copy was 
. complete. 

The Translation. 

Therefore after Jacob had been with his father, 
he prefented divers gifts to Efau his brother, as the 
pledge of his brotherly peace and friendfhip thence- 
forward ; Thefe are the- gifts ; viz. 200 ewes, and 
200 fhe-goats, and 30 camels, and 40 cows •, 20 
rams, 20 young bulls, as the poet has (aid. 

Two hundred ewes, xx he-goats 

Two hundred flie-goats, he generoufly beilow'd. 

XX rams without Biult he gave, 

XL kine, which proudly herd together. 

Twenty 

(e) CalL lac, Latk^, niili j old g^ofTarj n my pofltfiioo. 
Gall is alfo tranflalcd milk in M*Naghton's didlionary in cbc 
.<;o!icgc-iibrary. 



I . ■ < I ^ 



» 1 'f 



Twenty bulls with ortffy hid<»> 

Arid xxx. camels^mng nulk* 
XX .v«iy &ir (beHafjTcSy 

And XX coks along wj|[i ;th^m. . 

Thefe were the peac^^offerings to ESMy * 
• f^Tom Jacob moft fineerely given ; 
For having wandered from the truth. 
Thefe are the numbers of the hundreds (given). (/^ 

By the Arabian humerals ufed in the manufcript, 
we may nearly afcertain the time it was written : 
the figures are not Arabic, nor fo old as thofe 
given us by Jo. dc facro Bofco, nor are -they the 
.^htient Saxon, but they are all our modern iigurcs 
improved from the Arabian. Dr. Waliis is 6f 
Opmibn, contrary to J. Gerard Voflius and father 
M^biilpn, that the ufe of figures in thefe' European 
parts, was as old at leflfft.asthetimeofHermannus 
Co/itralflus, who lived about the year of our Lord 
1050 ; and he vouches an old mantle* tree at 
Helmdon in Nprthamptonftiire with this date, 
A^ D*. M^ 133. that is, 11 33. ' 

Mr. LufFkin aft6twatrds produced an infcription 
from Colchefter of the date of 1090. 

Dr. Harris, in his hiftory of Kent, gives the date 
on a window at Prefton thus, II02, and obferves 
that the ^gures ufed at prefent were firft generally 
made ufe of about 1 1 20. 

The poem quoted by our author is bf much 
greater antiquity \ the Rpman numerals only being 
ufed. 

Vol. 11. . Z It 

ff) Vide Genef. zxxii. 1 3. 



$31 An ESSAY OK THB ANTIQUITY 

It is not probable diat the Irifh recdved the ufe of 
figures diredly from the Spaniards ; as all mter- 
courfe with that nation was llopped, long before 
figures were improved by them into their prefent 
form. • Profeflbr Wallis thinks they came fiiil from 
the Perfians or Indians to the Amlxans, and from 
them to the Mooss, and fo to the Spaniards. This 
was the opinion of John Gerard Vodlus^ John 
. Greaves, hifhop Beveridge and many others. 

Jeoflf. Keating mentions an arvcient chronicle of 
Irilh aflfairs written by Mac Aodhagain^ entitled 
the Leabhar BreaCj which he (ays was then 30b 
years old; Keating finilhed bis hiilory in 1625; 
we may therefore conclude this MS. to be part of 
the &me Leabhar Breac or fpectded book of Mac 
Eogain^ who died in the year 1325. 

It cannot be properly called a very ancient MS. 
as Mr. Lhwyd terms it in the (hort preface to his 
quotations ; but it is a ftrong proof that the Irifli 
lai^age of this day is totally different in (enie and 
orthography, to that dialedt fpoken 4Q0 years ago. 
The abufes which have been admitted into this 
language by the liberties taken by the modem 
poets^ (hall be the fubjeft of another work* 

We have already taken notice, that on com- 
paring the Bafcongada or Bifcayan language with 
the Irifh, there does not appear the leafi affinity. 
The author . of this cffay has carefully perufed the 
Bifcayan grammar written by Larramendi, oikI 
could not perceive the leaft affinity between that 
language and the Irifb, even in thofe parts of 
fpeech, which generally bear (bme affinity 



OF THE IRISH LANGUAOB. dSi 

twmi.two dide6ts formed on the &me radical 
language. 

Mr. Baretti^ in the fourth volume of his journey 
fiom London to Genoa, has taken upon him to (ay 
the faipe, and has given the Pater Nofler in the 
Bifcayaii and inliifli; the former varieis fo much 
from that given by (g) Wilkins^ (A) Megeferiu^ 
(/) Reuterus, and the (k) anonymous publi(her of 
the jLord'^ Prayer in one hundred languagcis \ and 
the Irifh given by Mr. Baretti is fo mutilated, tfiat 
the author of thefe (beets could not pals it by 
unnoticed. The reader is here jarefented with 
Mr. Baretti's Bifcayan and Iri(h in one column^ 
and in the qppotiXt with the Bifdayail from the 
above named authors, to . which Is added the 
proper Irifh, 

Baretti. W ilklns. Mtgi^erius. Renter. 

I 

« 

Pater Nojier qui es in caUs faniiificetuf nomeH imni. 

I , I 

Bifcayan. Bifcayan. 

Gure Alta ceruetant za- GureAitaceruetanaice- 

renaerabilbedifainduqui na fan£tifica bedi lure 

zure iccna. icena. 

Iri(h. Proper Iri(h« 

Ar Nahir ata ere neave Ar n Athatr ata ar neamh, 

guh neavfiar thanem. naomthar hainm. 

Z z Advenit 

ig) Wiikins in Op. Anglico. do lingua Phil. p. 435. 
(^h) H. Megifcriu* in Spec. 50 lineu. 
(r) J. Reocerus Livon. in Torat. Dom. 40 lingu. 
{^k) Oratio Domin. London 1700. 



t34 Ah E«SA:T ok ♦hb AHTIQJJITY 

Battttk ■ WBUeitfs.libgiftc Rmter. 

.2 

Advenitrezhum tuum. 

ft . , 2 . 

• • • .11 

Kfcayan. Bifcayaa. 

Ethor bedi tMte, CFrefuma £^ hoz bedi bure jechuim. 
ktfh. ; i^roperlrUb. ' 

/jii^ voluntas tmficui in c'ald'M in terra/ 



»» 



Bifcayan. Bilcayanl 



Eguin bedi xmt boroi^ £giua bedi hire' vozoiir- 

datea ceruam bezala lur- datea'cervan be. cala lur* 

ream ere. rean ere. 

- * * Iiifti. . Proper IrHh. 

Gu nahium de heil ar Deuntar do thoil ar an 

dallugh marr thainter ere ttalamh mar do mtbcar 

neave. arneamb. 

4 ■ 

PdHefn n^fum quotidkmum^ da nobis hodie. 

-4 " 4 

Bifcayan* BlfcaydUL 

I guzu egoa gure ega- Guie eguneco ogiua iguc 

Beco og wa, cgun. 

Iriftiv Proper Ififli; 

Thourdune nughe ar Ar naran leathamh^tab- 

naran leahule. ' bair dhuiiin a niu. 



Et 



i 

i 



oB,,TiiB 'I Hi4-SH LANGUAGE. . S36 

; B^retti. Wilktns. M^ifbn Reuter. 

Et Jimittt nobis debits nofira^ 

5 S 

Bifcayaa. Bifcayan. 

Eta. barkhua detz^^utzu Eta quitta j|ctragae guie 
gure corrac. cozrac. 

frUh. Proper frilh. 

Moughune are veig^ ^V^ maitb dhuinn af 

bhfiacba* 

Sicut tt nos Smittitms iebitoribus mjku. 

6 6 
Biicayan. Bifcayan. . 

Guc gure gana zordun Nola gucre gttrc coz* 

direnei barkhateem de- duney quittatzen baitra 

ruztegim bezala. vegu. 

Irilh, Proper Irifli. 

Marvoughimon yare Mar mhaithmidne dar 

vieghuna fane. bhfi&itheamhnuibh fein. 

7 
Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. 

7 7 

Bifcayan. Bifcayan. 

Eta ezgattzatzula utz Eta quitta zalafar eraci* 

tentamendutan crorcera. tenta tentatione tan. 

Irifli. Proper Irifli. 

I^a {eaghfliine a caghue. Agus na leig finn a 

ccathughadh. 



Sei 



336 An essay on the ANTlQyiT^Y, &c. 

Barettl. Wilkins. Megifer. Reuter. 

8 

Sed libera ttos a malo. Amen. 

8 8 

Bifcayan. Bifcayan. 

Aitciticbeguiragaitzatzu Baima delibiza gaitzac 

gaicetic. Halabiz. gaich totic. 

Irifli. Proper Irifti, 

Agh cere fticn onululkt. Achd faor inn o olc 
baighmarron(/)aheama, biodh mar fin; id e/f^ 
Amen. Amen. 



(!) a bearna if xxM^ ihould be written, n tbigbtmnm^ 
id cit, 43 Lord. ^ 



REMARKS 



R E MARKS 



O N T H E 



ESSAY ON THE ANTIdUITY 



O F T HE 



IRISH LANGUAGE, 



ADDRESSED TO THE 



PRINTER OF THE LONDON CHRONICLE, 

r- 

IN THE YEAR i]^«« 



S I R, 

IN the prcfent Century foaic ufeful refearches 
have been made into European antiquities, and 
the fubjeft having fallen under the direction of a 
higher principle than bare curiofity, much may be 
iexpe£ted from future inveftigations. Relatively 
to our own northern nations, the ends propofcd, 
gnd the means purfued, are now admirably fuited 
to each other ; to learn, as much as can be known 
of their ancient hiftory, it has been judicioully con- 
certed to rejc^ in the lump, every modern hypo- 
thelis, generally containing fewer deformities, but 
certainly fewer truths than the ancient documents 
they are brought to demolifh. It was deemed 
proper aUb| to try the fwoUen panegyrics of ancient 

bards^ 



338 REMARKS on an ESSAY ok the 

bards, and the federal iiwe€tive» of ancieat fira«« 
gers, by* fhe d^fccs of probability on^ one fide; 
and the means of information on the other; to 
•"Weigh at the fame tinie flie credibility of the fedk^ 
in which both agree, and inveftigate the reafon 
why oia ^>mWy, Who couid hot aft in concert, 
happened to agree fo well. It was further found 
expedient to try the prctenfiohs of domeftic hifto- 
rians, by getting acquainted with the languages^ 
in which thdy ccfriveyed their infdrraatibns i d 
drudgery not to be borne, were it not rewarded 
by real knowledge; by infallible fignatures of the 
defefts, and grammatical incongruities, which 
poiht out at once an unlettered and barbarous 
nation, or thofe elegancies of expreffion and com- 
modious texture of wbrds which declare a civilised 
one. On thefe principles, aflbciattons for the ftudy 
of our northern antiquities have been efiiUi(hed in 
feveral European kingdoms, and within the prcfent 
year the fpirit lias Happily tnigrsited into Irelan^. 
The Dublin Sociejy, (now fo celebrated in Europe 
iiave appoint ed zJcleB committee of their own Body 
to irifpedt into the ancient ftate of literature and 
arts in Ireland, and Mr. Vallancey one of the 
learned members of that committee, has already 
given the pubfic a fpecimen of his abilities, in an 
Rjfay on the Lijb Langut^e ; it is a new and great 
accefl;on to European literature, and without any 
doubt the forerunner of a greater. To trace 
languages to their fountain heads; to point out 
the Areams they have mingled with in their defcent 
to our own times, and mark the changes they 
Underwent, in their feveral ftages of improvement 

ancl 



i 



ANnriQyiTY o t^H« irish i^^nguaqe. 339 

tfldicsritaptioti iav^o arduous • ta(k moft certainly « 
Few nati^iia can aSbrd fufficient materials fgr fuch 
W inVcitigabon ; fm writerahave fkillienovgh to 
aooen^liiodiite fudi, inateriab to the purpofes of 
ufeful iaformatkm. • The learned pains of moli 
pWWbgte fervodonly to cover their ignorance of 
particfilats which. ailone Hiould enfure fuccefa to 
<heir . initjuiries. They have furfdtec} the world 
with .^JyftiOlogics unfupported by probability, with 
graa)ii)ati0al ,wnc<it8 \inat]tetidi^d witjviational ana- 
logy^jknd with l^pothpf;sjcofltrad^ed, by ancient 
refu>rds^ and intidoii(fible had no Aicli records 
exifted. .Front): thokafnftdG^ropiudB^canus down 
to tfa^ itigdnioiia toanilat^ftr of Ofljan they have done 
nothing elfe. The difplay of their cruditioq*^ 
boveoveri ebuld not infipofe long, but it has created 
a difgufi, which nothing, but the taking up this 
furbje<!t on the prinoiples< laid down by the learned 
Lhwyd and recoraniended by . the great Leibnitz, 
could remove. On fuqh principles, now adopted 
by Mr. Vallancey, languages : may b? traced to , 
their true fources; nauph-Jbght fnay be ^rown 9a 
the antiquities of nations^ and, a rule berag forxQ4 
through this medium, for feparating the true fro(^ 
the faife in old traditions, the fum of our. inquiriea 
rtiuft.centcr in knowledge. The era of the culti- 
vatioh of letters JOMiytbfl «{certained with fome 
truth, among any people who have pretcnfions to 
an early civilization ; or at leaft fuch a ftate of it, 
as may intitlc their early Kftory to any degree of . 
attention. 

Fortunately, no countries in Europe can fiirnifli 
better materials for the knowledge attainable from 

antient 



H0 REMARKS ok av ESSAY ok rnt^ 

dntient languages, tban our own ifles idf Britant 
and Ireland. Allowing for the altemtiohs una- 
voidably made by ttme^ the Celtic, as antient a 
language as any in the wcvld, ia to tins day ver- 
nacular in Wales. To ttrnt language the Greeka 
have been indebted for a great number of fignifi- 
cant terms, witli which they have enriched their 
own ; and tlie Romans have adopted a ftiil greater 
number. The introduction of it into Britain pre^ 
cedes all memory of things in Europe by letters i 
and it forms, (o to fpeak, a moft autiientic infcrip- 
tion of itfelf, fo legible to all notions, as to inform 
us with precifion, that a people exift flill in a 
comer of Europe, who have furvived all revo-^ 
lutions, and have hitherto baffled every effort for 
fubduing them to a dereii€ticm dE their own Ian* 
guage. 

Ireland planted ori^nally by Britifti colonies did 
not efcape like the parent nation. The Gomera^, 
or primaeval Celtic, was, no doubt, the current 
language in both ifles for many ages ; but in pro- 
cefs of time, a new mixed language (wherein 
(fideed the Celtic terms bore the greater part) 
prevailed over the old. A colony from the con- 
tinent, partly Celts, partly Plioenicians invaded 
and fubdued Ireland, long known before to the 
latter people, the firft and beft navigators in the 
world. The moft antient Iri(h Fileas have re- 
corded this revolution, their (ucceflbrs, from a 
vanity common to all nations, have antedated it ; 
but the tradition itfelf has been invariably prderved 
through all ages; and we ihall fee bow Mr. 

Vallancey 



ANTIQJJITY OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 341 

Vallanccy in a few pages has fumilhed us with an 
irrefragable proof of its authenticity. 

By collating the language in the old books of 
Ireland, with the Gomeraeg now fpoke in Wales^ 
that learned gentleman found a thorough identity 
of fignification in a great number of words, but 
po analogy of fyntax in the texture of thofe 
tongues. From this difference of conftruftion, a^ 
well as the ufe of numberlefs words in Irifh, not to 
be found in Welch books or gloflaries; he dis- 
covered that he mufl (cek further for the original 
of the former language. His knowledge of the 
oriental tongues opened a furc path for him. On 
collating the Irifh with the remains of the antient 
Punic now fpoke in the ifland of Malta, and the 
fpccimen of the fame language preferved in the 
Poenulus of Plautus, he found fo perfcdt an identity 
in the fignification of many words, and fuch an 
affinity of conflrudtion in the phrafeology (fo far as 
it could be picked from the corrupt copies of the 
Punic in Plautus) as (hows to a demonftration, 
that the colony who imported this mixed language 
into Ireland^ had early intercourfes with the Phoe- 
nicians. 

Here, as in other inftance$, Ae antient Iri(h 
traditions refleA back on Mr. Vallancey*s difcovery 
the illuflration they rc;ccive from it. They tcrni 
the Irifh a Berk Tcibidhe^ i. c. a mixed language, 
and they denominate one of its dialers, a Beth 
Fcne^ or the Phoenian dialedk ; they inform us alfo 
that the ancelbrs of the Irifh natbn (when on 
the Continent) learne<J the ufe of letters from a 
celebrated Phcnius, from whom they took the 
■^ "^ patronimic 



3^ REMARKS on an ESSAy otf rmf 

patmnimic appcllatioa of JPl^eni or Ph^t)i<^i^« 
Thefe traditions infonn us^ furtfieiv that tbofe oon- 
tioental anceftors fojoumed 49f' fe^^ral geaera^ns 
in Getluige (the Getulia .o£^ the Romans), and in 
this account, ftripped of .its poetical garb,, we find 
the original of the name of Gaedhil, which with 
that of Phetii the Iriih retamed through all ages. 
They tell .us moreover, that the Gaedils nugrated 
firom Getluige into Spain i and thence, after a con* 
fiderable time,, into Ireland. 

Let thefe reports be paraUeled with foreign 
traditions univerfally credited. . The latter inform 
tis that the Phenician$ were the firft inllru^ors 
of the Europeans in navrg^tton and letters ; that 
one of th^c cpbnies pl^fited iii Carthage, arofe to 
a mighty ; republic, conquered feveral maritime 
provinces : in Lybia aiv4 S^parn^ and according to 
the policy, of tbe early s»gei|, tranfplanted con- 
quered tribes from one country to another. Thefe 
truths confirm in a great degree, the certainty of 
the Irifl): trjiditions relatively to thofe migrations 
fromtiybia td $pain. They account for the in- 
trodu6ti<^n'. of letters by a great Phenius, as the 
Greeks account for their receiving in like manner 
the Mfe of letterSj from the brother of another great 
Phenix or Phenkian^ whom they call Cadmus. 
We find in this parallel of ancient reports, how 
thefe Getnii, or Lybian fulycds of Carthage, n^xed 
M'ith Celtiberians pr (a) Scylho- Celts in Spain; bow 

llic 
♦ 

(ii) I fay Scrtli«-Cdts • a» the Scythian*, a roving people 
>n nil agfs, have mixed with the norrhcm Celts of Spain, 
^iltui halicii«, a. Spaniard by feirth, conftffcs tke fa^, and 

the 



/INTIQyiTY M <rH& JRISH lMiQ€AGE. 943 

the two people inoorpor^ed iato on&i IbbMeiaBder, 
Punic oiafters, a naixcd -language vrc|s ffbordieot <^ 
the Celtic and Punic ; and laftly .btn^JafiMHo rcaa- 
uruifion. of tiic CaribdgiDian governrii0iiitv(aft the 
lime -probably whenitheCbaideans m^r^^rim'Spaifn, 
ttccoT^ng to Jofephos a|kd 'Oiher 'lanotems 590 
yekrs before our SaViDtir)',TiumErillynfie rpeoptc .df 
SpaiA ited For Ihefterlntio >Irdanti,' ^ i^thisr ihan 
iubmit^o fervitude frotn nevldllnattets, 

Mucb -darkhds/ no dotbt; fpri^adB. itiblf ovdr 
iheearru^r periods ^tif Lybian and iSpaniAi e(!air&; 
^. <la:ric|t'pretedd to dlfpd the dot^ which r<s(t 
vponihcffn; it ia enou^ 'if in c6nfirofttfiAg a few 
Ibrttgn M^ith a fewdomefiic tradttioas, we can 
ciiXd^ ^'{bmt ti^ith«,' and^hpfe w$ have mentioned 
are important. Thvoiigh^t^. Vattincey^s leaitned 
t«feii-ch09, we diiborvei- why a diak^ cK the sfrifh 
lan^okgei-is to thia^lay csilleA Btria Etnt or the 
-Fh|snk:iafrf ; and in but^ ^cient tradhionei^e haoe 
fiil^ -a -^afon* why th6 vulgar dtaled ! is caUed 
^G^^iJbfi^^ iliftead ^ driving it firomm fingleGaedal 
whcM' fable' hafi Miade the grandfon of Phmius: 
W^ dkcdrer alfe, 'th& mfoli why the hatihnefe ^f 
th6'<^t!(3, 4b grating tb <he ears of the 6M R<^man6, 
• haH 4^«ft kid iddt • fdr an harmonious orietital 

■ 

ctfd«6^e*;' arid in iihe, wti^r the cOnfohadlal roots 

♦ ' * of 

. ifre miitiife of Gdts and Sc/thUns tn ^ver^l other couo- 
ir'ies,, wai the more common, from ihe little difference m 

- tbdr tiinguages» till tbey 'kave ({^Ih ihto varidos and dif- 
•fotdi^ot d)^le6la in laiier ag.cs. I mjcntiOR^his oniy,to inicy- 
ducc-ihe tradition Of the Irifti wherein they pretend "a 
^ftfiwt'frdtn a famotii Eber-6cot ; that i$, from a li Iberian 
Sfcyihiftii;.' h accoitnis for the pamt'of Scots; as ih^ Lyhmn 
ji^uue^ oCGaedhal and rhenius account for 'the appeilatiosu» 
Caecftils and Phcni. 



1 



544 REMARKS on ak ESSAY ok fui 

of moft Cdtic words hava (for the fake of etymon 
logy) been preferved in writing, but fupprefled in 
dae pronunciation. 

At what time (bever a colony of lettered Grangers 
migrated from a Punic province into Ireland^ we 
are not at : liberty to pronounce gratuitoufly that 
they immediately degenerated into favages. Tiie 
defcription of ibrne old Greek and l^tin writers 
are of no great weig^K in this cafe. They received 
their intelligence from nwiners, who had but jull 
fidetity enough to aver that the climate of Ireland 
was of all others the mofl Iiorrid ; and philolbphy 
enough to report, that the natives knew no diftinc- 
tion of right and wrong. Such accounts equally 
true, may well go together, ^ and dignify the pages 
of ibme modern declaimera. 

Thlt bar.barifm however prevailed in Ireland 
in fome periods cannot be denied; their tumul- 
tuary government infers it, though it never pre* 
vailed in kind or degree, equal to what might 
be natuially expected. Cuftoms controlled their 
barbarifm, particularly the . admirable edablifli* 
ment of the order of FiJfaSt that is, of colleges 
of pbtloTophers, who devoted; themfelves to abftrad 
fiudies, who Ukewife had la rigfit td vot?^ in thdr 
national aflembbes, and whofe:diiirij(^6 in theheat 
pf the moft cruel domeflic confiids were left un- 
touched, as £> many facred places of refuge, for 
the cultivation of human knowledge. It was the 
cuftom of ail ages and times, while the fhadow of 
monarchy remained in the kingdom. Their Ian* 
guage likewife is a living proof of the influence 
and induftry of the Fileas, as it includes the 

elegance^ 



ANTIOyrrY op t hb IRISH language. 545 

el<^imoe» the oq^ioufiitrst the varigtiot»« and con- 
Ycrfions which none : but a thinking and free people 
can ufe^ and which barbarians can never attain 
to; as it contiMns alio tlie figns ofthofe mixed 
modes and technical t^rms of art, which no en* 
lightened people can want. It is eafy to account 
for the prefervation of a language under fuch regu* 
lations as I have heje flightly mentioned. Through 
the want of fuch regulations, letters have been 
defpifed in the Gaul now called France, though not 
abfolutdy in the iincient Gaul, wlach extended 
from the Elbe to the pillars of Herculfs ; the like 
contempt of letters is remarkable v( the Thraosins^ 
in the vei^ confines of Greece ^ and even among 
Chriftian nations we . iind, from the fifth to the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, fuch a flight put « 
upon letters in mod European counties, that even 
the prime nobility knew not how to write or read. 
That Ireland fared better is certain. Its CeUo-Punic 
could not be pnefcrvcd . without the ijife of letters; 
believer it might be fomewhat altered in the coucfe 
of ages, it could not certainly be . adulterated, in 
an iflahd feldom diftnrbed by foreign, invafions till 
the ninth century. 

Thb language imjluded two prindpol i^le^s, 
the Gnath Bheria and the Berh, Fene^ u e. the 
Common and the Phentan : the latter Tike the 
Mandarin language of the Chinefcy was known 
only to the learned : tlie fcience of jurifprudence 
was committed to this diale«a peculiarly, under 
the patronage of Concovar Mac Ncfle king of 
Ulfter, who reformed the order of the Fileas, and 
ilouriihed in the firft century. This jurifprudence 

under 



346 REMARK^S ^ ah iESySti'Y x^k n>Ht 

under the title of Bfeatha Mmki pr judgment's iof 
. Heaven, wa6 cultivated Vi^tth remafrkabte induftry 
under Cormac O Quin kit^ df' Treiand in the third 
century, and it continued to beejctendedand com-^ 
mented upon under his fUc^^eflbrs, tilt the end of 
■the ninth century ; many of thofe trafVs, and fomc 
of them of the eariieft date,' are ftilbexta^it in our 
* EngKih and lTi(h' librarieis ; nor <was the. knowledge 
'of the'Pheniah dialeft negledtediiti irekiad, nilUhc 
reign of Ghdrles 11. ; the laft fchool for the ftudy^of 
* it was -kept f n- the county of j Tippferary^ 'under ^tbe 
' profelTorfhif) of 'Boethiu&Mac Egan in the reign of 
Charles 1/ and it was in that fenoinary that the .cele- 
brated DUfiiid Mac Firbis got hist knowledge; of it, 
and clofed the line of Phehian Learnbg..' AmtUig 
' feverai old triads of Phenian jurdrprud<bae»;tbfire 
are (bme itranfcripts of it in Mac Firbis's. Dikrn hiuid 
writings and I am well infotani that tbiey faai^e 
- lately been put into the handb of Mr. VdltAOPey, 
by Sir John Seabright, Bart, and that be $a /OQW 
engaged in collecting and tranflating .the fro^ 
fragments of thefe laws left ia thisxxxiatry ; B.vffA 
which cahnot fail of being, as acceptable ;tP ^ 
public as was the publication of the Welch law$;of 
Howel Dba. Pity it islndeedf tf ;not a jeproach 
to the kingdom, that fo valuable, a part of vERCijent 
learning (hould furvive the* dxmiefiic conliifiDQS of 
many centuries, and b^ loft inourowapeacseable 
times! The recovery of it is. certainly one of ihc 
great'defiderata of the prefentage. 

Why the eariieft hiftorical accounts of the. Iri/h 
have been long defpifed by the Jearned, w^s partly 
owing. to a natural notion^ that To very remotes 

people 



/ 



ANTIQyiTY OP THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 54^ 

people conld fere no better in the cultivation of 
literature than the other northern nations. 

It was only on the publication of Sr Wkae 
Netvton*s Chtondogy, that a trial was made whether 
thehr traditiom, ftrippedf of the poetical and mar- 
vellous, could be«^ the new light which that great 
man has poured on* European anti^iftties. The 
trial focceeded beyond expe6tation, and I refer for 
the many proofs on tWs ftfbjeft, t6 the learned 
«utbcrf of the Rtmdms rf Japhetk ^ I will only ob- 
ferve, by the way, how very remarkable it is, that 
Sir Ifaac Newton, whofe work has been fo fevercly 
attacked by fome critics, fliduld after his death, 
find props to fome parts of his fyftem, in the very 
traditions which he judged of no value ; and which, 
in truth, \\t rieveir thought worthy of the fmalleft 
examination. 

On the whole Mr. Vallancey has poured ftiU 
more day light on this fubjeft; and his Effay on the 
Irijb Language is highly worthy of the' attention of 
the learned of Europe, to whom it is infcribed. He 
has made his fiudy of this and other ancient lan- 
guages fubfervient to the hiftory of arts and civil 
fociety in their earlicft periods, and in the fraall 
pamphlet before me, ftrengthened Us principal 
argument by fhowing the conforrtiity of the an- 
cient Irifti theology, with that of the Phenicians. 
What he has now publiflied is, evidently, only a 
bare delineation of a future pidture, on which he is 
(we may fuppofe) at prefent laying the ftrongeft 
colouring : and to the want of the lights he 
ftruck out, we fliould attribute fome miftakes of 

Vol. II, A a Dr. 



■348 REMARKS on am ESSAY, &c. 

Dr. Paribns and of the writer of the Differtasims 
on Irijb Hiftoryy in fome matters they have advanced 
relatively to the Irifh language. 

To conclude ; I do not advance that Mr. Val- 
lancey has committed no miftakes himfelf in fome 
parts of his collation^ particularly in compound 
wordsy and even in a few that are leis complex ; 
it is enough that he is right in the greater number^ 
and that he hath the merit of exciting the leamed 
of thefe iflands to cultivate the fertile field he has 
thrown open to them. . 

I am, Sir, 

Your humble fervant, 

CELTICUS. 



I 



F I ^^ I s. 



Speedily will be PubKfhed, 

ColleSianea de Rebus Hibernicis. 



NUMBER IX, 



CONTAINIKG, 



THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



O F 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY: 

From Original Records and Authentic 

Documents. 

illustrated with coppbr-plates. 
By EDWARD LEDWICH, L.L.B. 

Vicar of Aohabob in the Queen's County^ and 

SociET. ANTiq^ HiB. Soc. 



^ 



<' 



p • ' • 



* • • 



• . . 



r 



-» ' 
/» 



l^itECTioKS fbr pladng the Plates. 



PUn of Kilkenaj to face the title 

Market Crofj - - pag« 44^ 

St. John's Abbey - - 53« 

The DomiDican Abbey - $54 



ERRATA. 

(OccafiMed by the Author'a diftance from the Preft.) 

Page 3$Ot note (/t) for CbrfjMf, read Connm. 

35 1^ note (^ for 1085 anJ^ read i#8$ tt. 

3549 the notet (h) and («) have changed places. 

35S, line 3a, for at a kng read ai tbt bug. 

36a, 1. I7» (ot ReSmm Tend RuSurn. 

36;, 1. 29> for vMii read WHY. 

377, 1. 15, iorfwr/^ten read ituer^yfivt. 

381, 1. 12, for Coirt read Cairc. 

385 » note (/), at the end add : " There li fome con- 
fi^oa in writers refpefting the name of this 
benefa6tor» not now ealily to be reconciled. 

388* 1. I9f after Sjdne;^ place a comma. 

390, note (k)f for fage at read ^ge 379. 

39S» 1. *f fof «WM,^^ rca<l lueriffint. 

4'3» 1- »4».fof irw/it read hreujtt, 

4$79 !• i» for f&^MlUont read nudalUMs, 

463* I. a, for mfmidu mac9njugi mroremt read infandum 
c^njugt mcerortM, 

5o;^9 I. iiy for /iii ji read x&o/ //• 









^ 



iV 1 . • ' 



I « 



* * . I . 4 • 



I • I 



) I • >■ 



r 



J 



THE 



A N T 1 Q^U I T I E S 



OF 



IRISHTOWN 



AKD 



KILKENNY. 



^- 



SECT. I. 

THE moft probable fyftcm of the colonization 
of this ifle is to be found in the (a) hiftory of 
Manchefter : it cuts off thcffc excentric wanderings 

of Keating, O Flaherty, and their followers ; is 
iimple and confident in its parts and conflruftion ^ 
and not deftitute of internal and external evidence; 
and if certainty in fuch matters was attainable, it 
ieems to approach near it. Difgufted with a per- 
petual round of incredible fidlions, the diifgrace of 
our antient annals, the mind gladly repofes in fome 
fbber relation ; and though it may be fuppofed that 
novelty has its influence on this occafion, it will be 
found to be rational. 

Vol. IL B b This 

00 Vol. t. and ihehiftorv of the Britons aiT^rtccl. 



S50 THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

This learned and ingenious antiquary informs 
- us, that about three hundred and fifty years before 
the Chriffian aera, the Britons, invaded and dif- 
poffefled by the Belgee frgna the cpntiiv^t, fled 
hither and firft inhabited this ifland. That in two 
hundred and fifty years after, a fecond migration 
and from the fame caufes, happened: thelattor 
incorporated with the former, and both people 
were called by their countrymen who temaiaed in 
]|feritain, Scuites and %ots, that 1$, Wi&ndercrs or 
refugees. 

That in fubfequent ages, the Britilh BelgaCi 
yielding to the Roman power under Vefpafian, 
with the Durotriges and Damnonii, retreated to 
this kingdom, and were known by thp naqies dl 
Fir-bolg and Fir-damnon. He then proceeds to 
point out with as much precifion as can be expedtcd 
from the imperfedt hints of furviving memorials, 
the ttation and fettlement of each colony. The 
central regions, particularly the King's and Queen** 
counties, with thofe of Kilkenny and Tippervy, 
are affigned to the Scots : their capital towns were 
Rheba and Ibernia : the (b) latter fituated to the 
eaft of the river Shannon. This river is lefs than 
thirty miles from Kilkenny, and by placing Irifti- 
town to the eaft ward of it, we are almoft certain it 
was the antient Ibernia; at leail it approaches 
nearer the fituation of. the old Scottilh capital than 
any other place to be found in the topography of 
thofe parts. Had Mr. Whi taker been acquainted 
with the name of this town, as it is Hill preferved 

(t) Ibernia altera, fita ad orientale Seni flttminis kittts. 
Ricard. Coriaeas. cap* S. §. 16. 



IRHSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 351 

by the natives, lie would not have hefitated to 
prohounce on the identity of Ibernia and Irilhtown. 
It is called (c) Bally-gael-Ioch, literally tlie town 
of the Gael, or antient Irirti. The ctymolojgy of 
this compound carries us back to the remoteft 
times ; it is purely Celtic, and expreflive of the 
high antiquity of the place. 

The firft fcttlement of the Gael feems to have 
been on the low ground, along the margin (rf) of 
the Nore ; the higher land, extending from the fitc 
of the cathedral to the caftle, was covered with 
wood^ and from this circumftance had a Celtic 
name, and was called Coil or Kyle-kcn-ui, the 
wooded head or bill near the river, and by the na- 
tives (f) Cillcahnigh or Kilkenny. From the record 
gked in the laft note we find, tliat there was a 
imall village always, where Kilkenny now ftands^ 
dfftindt from Irifhtown, but of little confequencc 
before the arrival of the Normans. 

Harris (f) diflikcs the preceding derivation, bd- 
caufc it overthrows the popular opinion, which 
deduces Kilkenny from St. Canice or Kenny, to 

Bb 2 whom 

(c) Whirtker's .genuine hiftory, fupra, pag. 113, who is 
copious on ihe Gael 5 ocb is a relative adjective. 

(//) The Celtic nations were fond of fuch fituatiocs : 
Uc tons, ut neiTHJs, ut campps placuir, fe/s Tacitus, 
German. And Caefar : pleiuraque (ylvaruin ac fluminuni 
p«tulit propinqni tares. Comment, lil^. 6. Hence the names 
of fo many towns and villages ending in fizld, wood, borne 
and water. Cluver. Germ. Aniiq. cap. 13. An oblervation 
cxiretoel/ applicable to our prefcnr purpoie. 

(r) Cillcannigh feu Kilkennia fuccenfa, annis 1085 and 

1114. Colgan. Trias, pag. 633. In Mr. Pennant's tour in 

Wales, we find a Kilkcn of the fanae import with ours, 

Pag. 4ii- Did it impend over a large river as our city 

doe.*;* it would have had the other addition to its name. 

(yi^ Apud Ware's Antiquities, pag. 41. 



554 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

whom the Cathedral there is dedicated. Uflicr (g) 
alfo acquiefces in this vulgar and groundlefs notion* 
We have numberlefs inftances of the monks, in 
dark ages, pcrfonifying rivers and places like the 
heathen mythologilts. Thus they have made of 
the river Shannon or Senus (A), St. Senanus, and 
of the town of Down or Dunum, St. Dunus, and 
of Kilkenny, St. Kenny. In Wales (/) we find 
traces of the fame praftice -, and Colgan's lives of 
the Irifh faints will fupply many firpilar ones. 

But according to the legend, Kilkenny got its 
name upon removing thither from Aghaboe the 
ftirine of St. Canice, in the year 1200. Ahtecedeat 
to this epoch, Kilkenny muft have had fome appel- 
lation ; what it was we are not told ; but we arc 
certain it was Kilkenny, from what is already 
advanced, and of which the following is an addi- 
tional proof. In the annals, at the end of the 
Englilh edition of Ware, under the year 1192, 
being eight years before the removal of the fhrioe, 
k is recorded, that the Englifh were fettled m 
Kilkenny, and the foundation of the caftle, fdB 
remaining, was then laid. But the legend itfcS 
fpeaks, more powerfully than any argurrient, the 
weaknefs and abfurdity of deriving from fudi 
materials any hiftoric fad. 

" (k) This towne is named Kilkennie from a 
holie and learned abbat, called Kanicus, born is 

tte 

Cg) Kilkennia — quotl nomcn ecdefiam, feu fanuni Canki 
den'Jtat. Priiiiord. pag. 957. 

(6) Lbudii Aoverlar. fob. lin. Baxter! Gloffar. pag. ayi. 

(f) Uilier, lupra pafllai. 

(k) Sianihurft apud Hollitiflied, pag. 27. * Cave rcmtife 
ef ihetie works : Certe augh nugaclfliausy fidis, inept'J- 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 35J 

the countie of Kilkcnnie, or as it is in fome bookes 
recorded, in Connaght* This prelat being in his 
fuckling yeres foftered through the providence of 
God with the milk of a cow, and baptized and 
bilhoped by one Luracus, thereto by God's efpeciall 
appointment deputed, grew in tradt of time to 
fuch devotion and learning as he was reputed of all 
men to be, as well a mirrour q{ the one, as a 
paragon of the other ^ whereof he gave fufficient 
conjefture in his minoritie. For being turned to 
the keepinge of (heepe, and his fellow Iheepheards 
whollie yeildinge themfelves, like lu(ki(h vaga- 
bonds, to flough and flugifhnefle, yet ftill would 
he finde himfelf occupied in framing, with ofiars 
and twigs, little wooden churches, and in fafliining 
the furnitures thereto appertyninge. Being ftept 
further in yeres he made his repair into England, 
when cloiftering himfelf in an abbaie, whejeof one 
named Doftus (Docus) was abbat, he was whollie 
wedded to his boo^c and to devotion. Wherin 
he continued fo painfull and diligent, as beinge on 
a certaine time penning a ferious matter, and not 
havinge drawne the fourthe vocale, the abbaie bell 
tingd to aflemble the covent to fome fpirituall ex- 
ercife, to whjch he fo battened, as he left the letter 
icmicirclewifc unfiniflied, untill he returned back 
to his bookc. Soon after beioge^promoted to eccle- , 
iiaitical orders, he travelled by the confent of his 

monks 

gnii^uc n&rrationlbus refertiiTioium, qux non fine immenf} 
Ohriftianz religionis fcandnlo legi, §)uUo minus defcndi 
poAnt. Hift. Lirerar. Sec. 13. pag. 654. See Melch. Can. 
«Je locts theolog. lib. 1 1. cap. 16. Marian, de advent. S.Jacob. 
ff> Hifpan. cap. 1. Si fandtus Canacus nihil eft* quod fane 
flibcft fufpicariy (ays Baxter, voce Macoiicuui. 



354 THE ANTIQJJPTIES Off 

monks to Rome -, and in Itaiie he gave fadi nam- 
fefie proof of his piety, as to this date, in ftmifi 
part» thereof, he is highlic renowned." 

A. D. 1172. In fome anonymous annals^ in the 
poflefiion of Cd Vallancey, we find' Doaald 
O Brien, king of Thompnd, this year proclaimed 
a hofting to Kilkeni\y ; he was joined by Connor 
Mac Ragbry, and the forces of Weff Connaug^ 
The Galls or Normans hearing of this, retreated 
to Waterford, leaving the caftle of iiilkenny. Ate 
their departure the towa w^ demoUthed^ acid the 
country wafted. 

From this, document we leani) aa well as frca 
Maurice Regan's account of the Engltfh invafioa, 
that as the £ngli(h advanced in the redufiiQftof 
the ifland, they fecured their conqucfie by the {/) 
eredion of ftrong ca&les. Amoi^ many othM 
^ this time built, v^as this of Kilkenny, but bf 
whom we haye not been able to difcoveifi W 
H was probably by Strongbow. On ths afriVai <rf 
H^nry II. the eighteenth <rf Oftober ^.172, 4e 
ki(h chieftains were intimidated -, they fiiibmttid 
an^ fwore allegiance y but oq his return to £fig;}aDd 
the next year, they reAicned courage and wi* 
verfally rebelled. Hence in Qn) other annals, uodfi 
tlie year 1173, we are told^ that Donakl OBncQ 
jetraded his ohcdienC© to Henry^ broke dowa ik 
paftle of KUkenpy, and de^Aioyed the Ec^lA 
Settlements. 

Notwilb- 



(/) Soft the dztc of fome of tbofe in Hanincr's cbroalcki 
pae. i6t. 

(w) Apud Archbifliop King'* GjJleilioiw, pag. 587^ la 
potilfllon of the DiiUia Societ/. 



IRISHTOWN AND KPLKENNY. 3BS 

Notwhhflianding thefe Abtlces, ftrong internal 
evidence of the prior antiquity of Irifhtown, befides 
that before adctoced^ exills in the («) charter of 
William Marfhall, earl of Pembrolte, to theA\i- 
gaflinian abbey of St. John in Kilkenny ; it is dated 
A. D. 1 220. In thid mehrion is made of two 
bridges, four churches, with milts, orchards, cede- 
fiaftical tythes arid obvemions in Irifhtown ; ail 
marks o( a k>ng fettled community ; whereds the 
ftate of the new town appears, from the fame 
riscord, quite recent; we can difcover in it but 
the earl's caftle, one church, and a few burgage 
tenements* 

Irifhtown always enjoyed very antient prefcrip- 
tive righiB : its holding markets and fi;nding mem- 
bers to parliament are anxmg the other privileges 
of the corporation. A cloCe (o) roll of the 51 
Edw. Ill: A. 0. 1376, forbids the fovereign, 
provoil and commonalty of IGlkenny to obftrudt 
the iale of vi^ihials in the market of Iriflitown, or 
within the crofs, under pretence of cuftom for 
murage. And leaft the ample grants made to 
Kilkenny might be interpreted fo as to include 
IriHitown, the corporate body of the latter fecured 
their. antSenf rights by letters patent of the 15 
£dw. ly. A. D. 1474- Thefe renew to them the 
privilege of holding a market ; and provide, that a 
pcfrtdeve bechofen every aift of September, or 
St. Matthew's day, and be fworn into office on 
the nth of October following, being St: Canice's 

day. 

The 

(n) Appendix I. (0) Appendix IL • 



I 
I 



SS^ THE ANTIQJUflTIES OF 

The portrieve*s prifon was at Troy's gate, 
Whenever the mayor of Kilkenny came within 
Watergate he dropt down the point of the city 
fword, to tt\ow he claimed no pre-eminence within 
the borough. Bilhop Cantwell obtained from (p) 
Jien.'VIl. (1 confirmation of the former grants to 
Irifhtown. The ftile of portrieve was afterwards 
changed; for on the I2th of Odobcr 1618, the 
following entry appears in the corporation books ; 
^' Thomas Tobin de Legerath, alias Leyrath, elei5lus 
& juratus praepofitus." But tlie old title was again 
revived, and pontinqe^ at prefent. At the fame 
time porters were appointe4 for Green's gate, 
Troy's gate, and Dcari*s gate to colle<a the tolls; 
and alfo appraifers for meat. The portrieve was* 
to feize provifions brought to niarket, and expofed 
to fale-on Sundays. A feaft was folemnly held in 
the borough on St. John the Baptifi's day. The 
adventuriers and foldiers of 1649 deprived the 
corporation of a large eftate, which Aey never 
Recovered. 

The (q) following notices are curious, and worth 
ihferting;. 

Corporation of Irifhtown, i5thDecemfaier) ^557* 

By an order of the court made by the Portrieve^ 
Burgeffes and Commons of Irifhtown, the 7th 
of January 1537, H wasorderec^, that the fol- 

lowingj 

(p) Ware's Bifliops, pag. a 15. 

U) They arc to be found in the firft yolomc of the 
Colit^anea de Rebus Hibernicis ^ but as many readen 
may not hayc that work, it was (bought proper to giyt 
them here.' * * 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY, ^57 

lowing prices (hould be paid within the faid 
Corporation, for making the underneath parti« 
culars, vi;z. 

A qi\ilted dublet with a new Fafhioned bellire to 
be cut, to be made for one fhilling fterling. 

The pair (r) of gally-eniflics to be made for 
eight pence. 

The pair of new fa(hioned clofe hofe, fixpence. 

The .woman's Iri(h coat, doublc-feamed, being 
not wrought with filk, feven pence. 

Every unce of filk to be wrought upon a 
woman's coat for nine pence, 

The offender to forfeit two fhillings. 

Anno 1564, This year happened the great 
flood, when divers men and women were drowned, 
and St. John's bridge and caftle fell down. 

Anno 1565. A bye iaw in the corporation of 
Irifhtown : that no inhabitant dwelling within the 
Mitre-land, being a free-man or woman, wear na 
apparel but after the Englifh fafhion •, nor no 
woman wear caps upon pain of forfeiture ; and 
that every burgefs (hall go in his cloak, excepting 
W. Dullany, Teig Lowry, R. Wale, 

At a Doer hundred held ihfi 8th pf Jai^uary, 

It is enaded by the J^Teqt of the Portrieye, Bur. 
gefles and Commons, that whereas great inconve- 
niences have happened, and wafte and fcarcity of 
yittles, to the great impoverifhment of many of 
fhis (:orpQration \ who though their abilitie coul4 
pot afford the like charge, ye^ pride and com-r 

parifon, 

(r) GalUencch is the Engiifliman's ihir^ 



55S THE AxHTlQlSlTlESi OF 

jpEUtffbiiv vptko ihookfc make the great€ft oboer at 
dnKGhmg> of wkmuqh after diild*birthv bath' B^en 
the utter undoing of many, as we daily fee. For 
to avoid ll)e tike gio& enoirhfiity imd harm^ lie it 
eoaded, thai! no man or woitiatv ihati: come here- 
aft^i» Xo any chrilleain^ o£ cbikifetr, or cfaurcIHng 
cf women thought a bed, but the goflbbs fee the 
time bding^- fathers stndr mothers^ brbtbers' and 
S&titi, Qpoa p»n of forty (hiUitigB,. IriAi; ta be 
kvied and taken of the owner ci t\rr houfe, ib 
H>akm® the feaft^oUee quoties^, to be divided, one 
half to the portrieve and fpiCi Atod it fhatt be 
lawful for any that fpieth' fiich mea> and^ womea 
coming, from the feaft, to take away their hats or 
loUs and mantles,, and the fame to fbr&it v and to 
take away the- midwife's roll and mamie, that 
gpetb to warn the people; And the pari(h pdefi 
IbftU have none in bis company but his clerk. 
Serjeants apppinted to execute* this fiatute, 

Thomafi Foore,. Rowry Dooly» 

StaitOnsft writing in? 1577, %^ • '' Kilkennie^ 
ibD faeft iiplatidi(h« t6w»n, or as tbey teorme it, the 
properefi drie towne in Irelaad, is paired into the 
highe towue, and the Jrifh towne. The Irifli 
tdwne clakneth a cofpcHration apait Yrom the highe 
lowne, wherby^ great fatJtidns grew dailic between 
the inhabitants; Trcie it is, that thfe'Irilh toWne is 
ibe ancieiltcr^ and was called the old Kilkennie, 
being under the blfhot^' hi^ beck^ as they are; or 
ought to be' at this prefent.**' 

The- Biitts are a part of Irifhtown, where the: 
irfiahitants cxcraifednhemfelves^ at a long bow j to 
^icb' they were obliged by feveral Irilh ftatutes. 

That 



IRISHTOWKP ANI> KILKENNY. S39 

That of the 5 Edw. IV. A. D. 1464, recites: 
** That every Englilhman, and Irifhman that dwell 
with Engliflimais and. fpeak EngKfli, that be be* 
twixt fixteen and fixty in age, (hall have an Englifh 
bow of his own leng.tb^ and one filbncle, aft the 
leaft, betwixt the necks ; with twelve ibafts of th« 
length of three quartern o£ the fiandard ^ the bows 
of ewe, wyche-liaffel, awburne„ or other reafooable 
tree, according to their power ; the (bafts in. the 
(ame manner^ on. pain of two pence per n^ondu'* 
Again : *^ In every Englifh. town in this land„ the 
conftable (hall ordain.oqe pair of butts for (hoQtiiig> 
^nd that every man betweeQ fixteen and fixty (kfH 
ixmfier at the butt% and (hoot up and down^ 
three tinaes» every &all day, under psiia of an baif 
penqy per day/' The poetry of the tiipofr ia^ full of 
thefe ideas. 

(^} The butts are (ett, the (hpoting& iiude», 

And th^re will be great rqyakic ^ 

And i ai^ fworn iota my bille, 

Thither to bring, my lof d Percic 
The bu^ts v^re (^ \J^_ mas where thi& Butts^ croft 
np»vr %ads. The pedelkl and (haft of tfai^ aoft 
only now remain* Not far firon the, croA w^ 
the Bullrring^ where ouc a^ceftors divei^ed thQUir 
(elves ytith an(\thei: fayouilte amulenfient. 

l*} Perm's. r^U^iifs^ W)k ». pfg. a^i* 



SB<?T. 



$6o THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 



SECT, IL 

IT is aflcrted in the (/) life of Hugh Rufus, fccond 
bifhop of Oflbry, that he granted a great part of 
the city of Kilkenny to William Earl Marflial, 
referving to himfelf and his fucceflbrs a chiefry of 
an ounce of gold, Notwithftanding the authority 
now cited, there are certainly fome miftakes in this 
account. It fuppofes two things j either that the 
biihop had a paramount right to the foil prior to 
the Englirti invafion, which however does not ap- 
pear, or there was fome diftinft exemption in his 
favour when thofe conquerors feized and colonized 
the country -, which is equally deilitute of foua-^ 
dation. 

For Richard Strongbow had all his acquifitions 
in L,einfter given in (u) perpetuity to hini by 
Jicnry II. with the refervation of the maritime 
towns. Thcfe grants of his father were confirmed 
•by king John to Wijliam Earl Marftial, who mar- 
ried Ifabella, Stroqgbow's daughter. Both held 
Leinfter in cafrite, invefted with, and exercifmg 
abfolute regal jurifdidiion and prerogative. Waj 
he not enfeoffed himfelf in this ample manner^ 
William ' could never make the grants he did to 
St. John's priory ; the (^) tqnour of which expreffes 
9 fuperiprity but little favouring of epifcopal deriva-? 

Vion. 

(i) Wasc's Bifhops, pag. 403. 

{u) Davis's hiilorical Relations, pag. 61. 

i'uj) Habeanc ec teneant orones donationes, conceOione$ 
tt CO n firm at ion es praediAas,.ia liberaQ), puram et perpetual^ 
fl/moGnam. Appendix I. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 361 

tion. Stanihurft indeed has fomething which feems 
to countenance what is here contcfted : *' The 
highe towne was builded by the EngHfti after the 
conqucft, and had a parcel of the Irifhtdwne therto 
united by the biftiop his grant, made unto the 
founders upon their earneft requeft." From the 
inaccurate and unfuj^rted manner in which this 
tradition (for it is no more) is expreflcd, we may 
rank it with thofc numerous monldfli fidions, that 
aim at exalting the fpiritual above the civil power. 
The original charter of incorporation given by 
William Earl Marfhall probably does not exift : 
Cox (;() fays it was granted in 1223 ; but an ex-^ 
emplification of it appears in an infpeximus of the 
3 Edw. III. A. D. 1328. It (y) recites, that the 
earl who was lord of all Leinfier, had in his life time 
granted to the fovereign, burgeffes and commonalty 
of Kilkenny, for the time being, various Uberties 

and 



(jr) Hift. of Ireland. Hanroer fays ft was dated the fixth 
of April, and witneflcd hy Thomas Fitz Antony, Walter 
Purcell, William Grace, Haman Grace, Amnar Grace and 
others. Chronicle, pag. 17 v The Walfhes and Cantwellt 
came over with Fitz Stephen, and fettled about Kilkenny. 

(y) Edvardus Dei gratia, rex Angliae, Dominus Hibernlac, 
dux Aquitanix, omnib»s balliris et minillrib omnium villa'rum 
«t viUatorum Lagenix, et cxtcris qiiibulcunque de iifdein 
partibus, falutem. Supplicavit nobis fuperior et communitas 
de Kilkenny, quod cum Willielmus, nuper comes marefcaliut 
ct Pembrochiae (tempore quo idem comes exivterat dominus 
totivs terrae Lagenias) concefferit burv;enfibus et communitati 
▼illse prxdiflae, qui pro tempore fuerint, diverfas Hbertaies, 
inter quas, videlicet, quo ipfo in perpetuum per totam 
Lageniam terram et poteftatem fuam, tarn in villa quam 
alibi, eflent quieti de theulonio, ladagio, pontagio, et de 
OfDnibos aliis confuetudinibus quibufcunque ; quara quidem 
chartam infpeximus, &c« tefle Johanne Darcy, jufliciari* 
noitro Hiberniae, apud Kilkenny, 8 die Julii, annoque rcgni 
aoftri tertio. Per billam ipfius juiliciarii. Hanmer fupra. 



^ , THE A^NTKivUlTOES OF 

And imfl^unitks, ^wfaich tfae^ tune to enjoy (or ev«r 
•throughout liwnftcr^ as well its in the town. P»- 
tkulai'ly, Ihot they fiiould %ie iree from toll, laft^e, 
'Or payment far weighmjg goock, firorti pontage .aod 
all other cufioms what foe ver. Tliefe exfctnpttons 
were pov^erfal inddcement^ibr people to fettle m a 
-oty fo mueh favoured ; and Ae rearl by thus de^ 
|7rivijEkg himfelf of coniklcrable revenues, evinced 
ius wifttes to ycgjgBtn&x h. No wdnder tf we (hall 
find it incseafing »q»d}y in extdnt, in .papulation 
and riches ; afnd feleded by the great aflferrrWies of 
:ftc natioH, *bove any other place, for its hippfy 
lempemtiire, its ample convenances and undlf- 
torbed iecurky, aisd as the propereft plsx:^ Sor 
jioldifiig their fneetingis. This excellent nobleman^ 
'equ^ly accomplt(hed in the arts of peace and war, 
^Redbum ((&)' ihtis charaderi^es in his epitaph ; 
Swn quem 6aturnum (ibi feniit Hibernia, Solera 
Anglia, Mercurium Normannia, Gallia Martem. 
In 1195, a fpacious and noble cafile was begun 
In Kilkenny en the fite of that deftroyed by the 
irifti in 1173. The fituatioh, in a military view 
•was moft eligible ; the ground was originally a 
conoid ; the elliptical fide abrupt and precipitous, 
with the rapid Nore running at its bafe; there the 
natural rampart was faced with a wall of folid 
maCbnry, forty feet high; the other parts were 
defended by baftions, courtins, towers and out- 
works ; and on the fummit the-caftle was ereifted. 
The area thus inclofed, beikles furnifhing accom« 
W^atidns for the earl and his domelVics, contained 

ca&ms 

(«) CambdeD in Pcxnbrokefhire. 



IRJSHTOWN ANP KILKENNY. jfif 

caferns fpr a &taag gsuriibn with their cqu^panMts. 
The carl, in bis charter to St. John's priory, pro* 
vides, that if he be abfent the monks of that boufe 
(hall ferve his c^ftle-chapel, and receive the emolu-* 
naents from thence arifmg ; but if he be reiideiit» 
then his own domeftic chi^plains fhall attend. -In 
the fame record, his bams lying beyond the bridge 
^e inentioned, with every other circuniftance indi- 
cating a regular houlhold and court, 

Gilbert Clare, earl of Glqcel^ aikd Henetbrd, 
marrying ^fabella, one of ^ daughters and co* 
betreflcs of William, earl maribal, -receive as bqr 
dower the county of Kilkeauy. . Hcf e^temled the 
privileges of the coiporation by the foHowing 
charter redted (fl) by Hammer. ^ To our (tsieizkA 
of Kilkenny, and to our treaTvurer of the iam^ 
greeting. Know y^, that for the comnaon poofit ' 
pf the towa of Kilkenoy» of our fpeciai favour, w« 
bave granted to our loving bucgefles of the Said 
town, that none (hall fell vidtuals there, but fuch 
as (hall be prized by the officers of faid town, &c/* 
Prrfage, by {b) Blacfcitene, is mentioned as equiva- 
lent to butlerage, or a duty on wine ; befides this, 
it had a more general acceptation, and meant thofe 
duties which every Caltellan had a right to receive 
fJDr commodities brought for fale to fairs and mar^ 
kets within the precinfts of his caftle. Of this, our 
antient regal charters, our old hidorians and the 
monatlicon fupply many proofs. Thefe duties the 
carl of Gloccfter transferred to the citizens. 

By 



(a) Pag. I7«. 

(^) Commentaries, vol. i. pag. 314. 



3^4 THE ANTIQUITIES OP 

By marriage, Kilkenny came into the antient 
and noble family of Le Dcfpcncer; Hugh Lc 
Defpenccr marrying Eleanor, fifter and coheir of 
Gilbert, earl of Gloccfter. Hugh le Defpenfcr, a 
defcendant of the preceding, married Alice, daugh- 
ter of Sir John de Holhum, lord of Hotfaum in 
Yorkftiire, and poflTeffed of other great properties 
there and in different counties in (c) England, con- 
ferred on his anceftor by the conqueror, immediately 
after the battle of Haftings. This Hugh (d) by 
deeds dated the fourth and twelfth of September, 
1391, being the 15 Rich. 11. conveyed the caftic 
of Kilkenny and its (e) dependencies to James, 
carl of Ormond; which earl, in 1386, had built 
the caftle of Dunfert (now called Danesfort) men- 
tionedin the laft note. 

Among the families attached to the earl marflialf 
and early planted in Kilkenny, that of Grace feem^ 
to have been very refpedable. William, Hamaa 

and 

(c) In the 8 £dw» 1h John de Hoihtim had fummons to. 
parliament j and in the following reign, he had charters of 
free warren granted him, for his lordfhips of Horbum, 
Craoimewyke and Byrfay in the county of York ; and for bis 
manors of Scorelburg, V/ynthorp, Lokynton and Cruncewyke 
in the faid county ^ for his manor of Bondby in Lincolofhire, 
and Fyfehide in Eilex* Dugdale's Baronage, pag 91. vol. 2« 
From this family the prefeht lord bimop of OfTory is 
defcended. 

(//) Carte's life of Ormond, introduftion, pag. 36. 

(e) Thefe comprehended ; the caftle of Kilkepny, with 
the mills ; the borough of Rofbargon, with the mills; the 
manors of Dunfert ard Kildermoy j the ferjeancy of Ovcrk | 
all his tenements in Kalian ie Hill ; ;^.33 i$s. 3V. in Kalian 
, and ihe advowfon of the church ; with ail the lands, tene* 
menis, advowfons and knight's fees in Noverk, Rofbargon, 
JLoeherai), Killagh, Rofman, filid, Knoftofre, the new towa 
of Terpoint, Kiilamery, Arderefton, Lyfdonf/, Kilfeckamm-* 
liuaFand Tbolleoabroge. Carte fupra. 



iRl^HTOWH AND KlLKfiMMY. 36^^' 

rfhd Arnhar Grace fubfcribie as witnelTes his charter ^ 
to the cfty i ind thre^ years tefore, Wifliaih and 
i^aman atteft his charter to St. John's.. William 
crefted a caflfe in the city ; this old building, fome 
yeirs ago, V^as pilllcd down, and a court-houFe and* 
prifon, cfedted on itiS fite at the expcnce of the 
iioilnty ; hfere are held the affizes and feffiohs for the 
county ; it is in Coal-market, and ftill called Grace's 
oM' caftle. The earl gave them' large pbffefliohs,' 
and an extenfive tradt of country, known by the 
Aame of Grace's parifli. Mamiain Grace's pofterity 
fettled in the' codnty (f) of Wexford, and other 
branches (g) at Bally linch, at Carney and Leighan . 
m the tfoiinty of Tippcrary. In 1560, one of 
them wasf baron of Cburtiftown, and lies interred' 
ih the cathedral. ... 

The internal police of Kilk'erihy beirig^ fixed on' 
1 folid bafis by the ^preceding grants and charters; 
and the profperity of its citizens fecured and ex- 
tended by m^ny privrlegfes and' immunities, it foon 
Attained a prime ertiinence anton'g the central towns . 
6f the kingd6m; In 1 294; Richkrd,' (A> earl of 
Ulfter Was taken prifoner by lord Jbhn'Fitz Thomas, 
ind k^pt in'lVold Until the feall of pope Gregory -, 
he was then fet at liberty by th& king's cbunciT 
iffembled in parliarHeritat Kilkenhy . Thfe jealoufies' 
And compfetittonS anAbng the Irilh nobility per- 
petually excited violent feuds ahd dbmeftic ditTen-^ 
tions. Thfe I'uling pbwert of goverrirtent wad 
^eak/ and inadequate to rcftrain" their enornuties. 

Vol. 11. Cc^ and' 

fff Annals at the cndof Cambden, under ihe year t^oi^- 
(/) Hibcrn. Ooniioic. paij. 2~o. 
(^) Annals fvprz. 



S&S THE ANTIQjaiTIES OF 

and excefies. Lord Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald layingi 
claim to feme lands belonging to the earl of Ulfter * 
in Connaugbt, endeavoured to pofieis himfelf of 
them by an stfmed- force ;: the earl oppofed bim^ 
but with ill fuccefsy for he was taken and im- 
prifoned, as above hinted, in the barons ftrong' 
caftle of Ley, on the banks of the Barrow, in the 
Queen's county. 

Mr. Selden and Mr. Prynne aflfert that parlia- 
ments did not cxift at the time here menticmed^ 
but the contrary feeras well eftablifhed from (i). 
what others have coUedked on ttes fubjeft. They 
were, as to conftituent members, not numerous ; 
becaufe the great lords were enfeoffed of the whole 
kingdom ; alienatic^s were then unknown, »id die 
boroughs but few, fo that the reprefentatives wece* 
necefTarily confined to a fmall number ; and fuch 
affemblies wefe in reality raAer Polilh diets -than 
BritiOi parliaments. Multitudes of retainers fbl- 
bwed their lords to thofe n>eetii^s; turbulence 
and fadlion difturbed tlieir deliberations, and the 
public were rather amufed than benefitted by 
them i however, the magnificence, prodigality and 
numbers difplayed on thofe occafions could not but 
very much enrich the inhabitants of Kilkenny. 

The next parliament held in Kilkenny was in 
the 3 Edw. II. 1309; its adls are to be found ia 
the feveral {k) editions of our ftatutes ; but there . 
are others ftill extant in the black book of Chiift 

churchy 



(x) Ware's Antiquities by Harris, vol. i. pag. 79, ct fcq. 
(k) Statutes of Ireland by Bolton, Dublin i6zi. Vefey's 
Statutes. Harris's iViSS. penes Societ. Dublin, voi, 2. pag.. 



IRISHTOWK AND Kltl^EMNY. 367 

■ 

church, Dublin, and gjvpn to the public by (/) Dr. 
^ Leland. One claufe ordains, " that the EnglifJi 
hero (hall conform in garb and in the cut of their 
bair t0 the fafhion of their countrymen in England ; 
whoever afFea;ed that of the Irifh w^ to be treated 
as fuch I their lands and chatties to be feized and 
their pcrfods imprifoned." Here is clearly di(clQfe4 
the beginning degeneracy of the Briti(l> colonies. 
Unreftraincd by the who^efon^e feverity of wife 
laws, and plunged in a perpetual round of violence 
end rapine, they foon loft that manlinefs of fenti- 
iBcnt and propriety of conduft which they brought 
with them into the ifland \ they infenfibly contradted 
a familiarity with, and a fondaefs for th^ diffipated 
manners of the natives ; they adopted their vices» 
and degenerated fo far as to affume their dreis, and 
* looked on the long glibbs of this uncivilized people 
as their boaft and ornament. 

Sir John Wogan, a Welflbman, animated with 
a love of antient Britilh virtue, beheld with grief 
and indignation the falling off of his countrymen, 
and exerted his utmofl efforts to prevent the con- 
tagion from fpreading- To give the higheft fandtion 
to thefe laws, and to imprefs them on the people, 
Maurice Maccarwell, archbilbop of Cafhel, affifted 
by other prelates, denounced anathemas againft 
the infringers of them in the cathedral church of 
St. Canice, in the prefence of Wogan, and many 
of the nobility. In 131 7, lord Roger Mortimer, 
jufticiary of Ireland, and the hilh nobility met at 

Cc 2 Kilkenny 

(/) Hift. of Ireland, vol. i.pag. zS3,aS4- Compare Ware's 
9i{hops. pag. 476. wbcre we n.ay obfcrvc greai inaccuracy 
in 4ates« 



3<8 THE AN-TIOUltlES OF 

Klkenny to confider how they might oppofe Edward 
Bruce. • 

The annals before quoted, under the year 1326, 
tell us of a parliament held in Kilkenny at Whit- 
fontide, at which the earl of Ulfter and other lords 
alfifted, who were fumptuoufly entertained by the 
faid earl ; but that lie foon after died. Cox (m) lays it 
doth not appear what was then done, except order- 
ing five thoufand quarters of wheat into Aquitiuirfbr 
the king's ufe. To throw fome light on the obfcu- 
iity of the annaRft we may obferve, that Edward 
Bruce, towards the end of Edward the Second's 
rtign, headed the Scottiih invafion of this kingdonr*. 
and fprcad terror and defolation wherever he came; 
the northern and middle counties were over-ran, 
and he penetrated through (k) Oflbry in his way to 
Munfter ; private animofrties were forgotten in the 
general diflrefs, and the rancour of rivalry gave 
way to the more imminent terrors of public danger ; 
foreign enemies and domeitic infurredtions called 
for unanimity and vigorous exertions. A fubju- 
gation to Scottiih power or Irifti tyranny was 
equally alarming to, and dreaded by the Engltfb ; 
if the latter fucceeded, difpoffeflion- and expulfion 
were the gentleft treatment to be expedted ; if the 
former, every thing was to be dreaded from the 
Cruelty of ferocious conquerors; Connefted by 
one common intereft, and eager- to make one 
effort to check the career of a Iriumf^iant enemy, 
the Englifh lords affembledat Klkenny, where an. 
army 

(«) Hift. of Ireland, vol. i. 

(li) Some veftigM of ihi» invafion yet remain. Near 
Aghaboe is an old roriilica.iion, vulgarly called Seotfrath; 
Btti properly Scottifwftiih, or ihe Seois walls or forticls. 



mi SH TOWN AND KILKENNY. JS9 

"array of thirty thoufand men was collefted, and a 
♦ prodigious number of irregulars, who cluttered tO'- 
gcthcr on the general alarm. The earl of Ulfter^ 
though married to the After of Robert, king of 
Scotland, faw the danger that awaited him if his 
relation was vidkorious ; and therefore came to the 
parliament j was the foremoft in urging vigorous 
meafures, and made his hofpitality the inftrument 
of his patriotifm. 

The next year^ i327» prefents us with relations 
of broils among the nobility. Lord Arnold Poer, 
lord Maurice Fitz Thomas and Idrd Maurice Butler, 
with, armed forces, plundered and wafted each 
rthers lands. The earl of Ktldare, then lord juftice, 
^nd others of the king's council, at a parliament ir 
Kilkenny, appointed a day for all parties to anfwer 
thefe outrages. Butler and Fitz Thomas demanded 
the k]ng*s charter of peace, and the council took 
until the month of Eafter to confider of it. 

The following year <e>) gives a firightful pidlure 
of the effedts of fuperftition and ecclefiaftical 
tyranny. Take the nanation in the words of the 
author : " Richard Ledrede, biftiop of Offory, 
cited dame Alice Ketyll to anfwer for her heretical 
'opinbns, and forced her to appear in perfon before 
4fim ; and being examined for forcery, it was found, 
that (he had ufed it. Among other inftances this 
^as difcovered, that a certain fpirit (Daemon In- 
cubus) called Robin Artyflba, lay with her, and 
that (he offered nine red cocks at a certain ftone 
-bridge where four highways met^ alfo, that fhe 

fwept 

^ (0 fCambdcn fays it was ia 1323, but Pryimc in t^z%. -^ 



37t3 THE ANTIQJUlTlEg OF 

fwcpt the ftreers of Kilkentiy with betfoms, betweeti 
complin and corfewj and in fwefeping the filth 
towards the houfc of William Utlaw her fon^ (he ' 
was heftrd to Wi(h by way of conjuring — ^Let all iht 
wealth of Kilkenny flow to this boufe." 

•' The accomplices of this Alice, itt th^ wretcbed 
pt^£&ceBy were Penel of Meth, and Bafilia the 
flaugHter of this PeneL Alice was found gmlty; 
and fined by the bilhop, and forced to abjure her 
forcery and witchcraft ; but being again ccHivifled 
df thfe fame pradiccs, (he made hfer efcape witii the 
faid Bafilia ; but Penel was burnt at Kilfcenayt ^ui4 
lat her death declared, that William abovc&id de- 
fetved death as well as flie, and that for a year 
and a day he wore the devil*s girdle aljout his bare 
body." 

" Hereupon the faid bilhop ordered William to 
be Apprehended ^nd impt^ned in the caftle of Kil- 
kenny f<5r eight or ninfe weeks j and gave orders, 
that two men fhoi>ld attend him, but ftat Ihey 
Ihould not eit or drink with him, and that they 
ihould not fpeak to hhn abo^ onci a day. At 
length he was fet at liberty by the help of the hftd 
Arnold Poer, fetiefchal of the county of Kilkenny ; 
and he gave a great fum of money to the feid 
Arnold to imprifott the bifhop; accordin^y he 
kept the bifliop in prifon about three months." 

" Among the goods of ARce, they found a 
wafer (hoftia) with the devil's name upon it^ and a 
certain box of ointment, With which flie dfed to 
daub a certain piece of Wood, called k cowltree, 
after which (he and her accomplices rid upon it 
round the worid, without hiut or hindrance. Thcfe 

things 



HUISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 5r» 

4hings being notorious, Alice was cite^d again to 
appear at Dublin before the dean of St. Patrick^ 
having forac hopes of favour given her. 5he made 
'her appearance and demanded a day to aafwcr, 
having given fuiicient bail as v^as thought; but 
fhe appeared not, for by theadTicc of ber fonand 
•others unknown, (he hid herfelf in a certain village 
until tb^ wind would fervc for England, and llhen 
flic failed over t but it is not known whither the 
went." 

. " WiUiam Utlaw being found on the trial and 
-CQflfeflton of Penel (who was condemned to be 
burnt) to havei>ecn ocm(entpr.g to his modier in her 
Sorcery and witchcraft, the biftiop caufed him to be 
arretted by tlie king's writ, and put in prifon j yet 
he was fet at liberty again by t!he interceffion of the 
lords, upon coiidmon, that he (hould trover St. 
Mary's diurch m Kalfcenny wi(h lead, and do oth^r 
aits of charity within a certain day ; and that if he 
-did not perform them punftuatly, he (hould be m 
idle fame date as wlien firit taken by the king's 
wtit.** Further particulars may be feen in Ware's 
^fe of bilhop Ledred. 

A. D. ig29. (p) The lord Thomas Botiller 
marched fit>m Kilkeany with a great army into tiie 
country of (y) Ardnorwith ; where he fought with 
the brd Thomas and William Mageoghagan, and 
ivas 4here ikilled, to the great lofs of Ireland, and 
ij^iA him Ae k>rd John dc Ledewich, Roger and 
Thomas Ledewich. 

In 



tf^) Cambden's Anaals. 

(f) Ardo^rcher io the county of VVcflmeaih. 









L 



3JS . THE ANTIQJJITIIS OF 

In 1330, Roger Utlaw, prior of Kilmainhai^, 
and lieutenant of the kingdom under Darcy, held 
'a parliament in Kilkenny/ in which were prcfeni 
Alexander archhiftiop of Dublin, James earl of 
Ormond, Walter Berniingham and Walter de 
Burgo. An army was collefted, and it matched 
to drive Bricn O Brien oiit of Urfcuffs near Cafhel. 
This O 5rien was chieftain of Thomond, and was 
appointed leader of a violent iDfurredtion of the 
natives at this time. "^ ' \ 

* Anthony Lucy (r) in 1331, appointed a jxurlia- 

meht to meet at Dublin on the Uta*s of St. John 

* ' . ' 

the baptift. Many of the principal nobiUty abfented 
>i ^ themfelves; a practice but joo common. The 
paucity of members obliged Lucy to adjourn to 
•Kilkenny. In the interini, Lycy had either threat- 
ened the abfentees oh the fcore of thdr allegiance, 
or had abfolutely taken fome fleps to vindicate his 
own and his matter's authority ;• for we find that 
the lord Thomas Fitz Maurice and the earl of Kil- 
dare appeared, and fubmitted to ther king's grace 
and mercy J they Syeje pardoned, but the laft 
was obliged to fwear on the holy eyahgelifis and 
the rejics of the faintg to obferye his allegiance and 
to keep the peace. Defhiond, Mandeville, Walter 
de Burgo and his brothler, Williani and Walter 
)Serniingham were feized> and William Berming;- 
ham executed for fecretly favouring the Iri(h rebels. 
' The city, iit 1 334, had certain {s) tolls granted 
it, for pavage, for feven years. 

* The annals of Ireland, under the year 134*1 
inform uis of the precarious ftate of the kingdom, 

ana 

c 
. • ( 

ir) Coz> pag. III. {s) Appendix III. 



IRISHTOWN ANDKILKENKY. g7j 

»nd the danger of its being diflevcred from Eng* 
land. (/) The king revoked all thofe gifts and 
grants that by him or his father had been conferred^ 
by any means, upon any perfons whatfocver ia 
Ireland, were they liberties, lands or ^ther goods. 
For which revoca]?ion great difcontent and difplea- 
fure aroie in the land of Ireland, which was at the 
point to be loft for ever out of the king of England's 
hands. Hereupon, by thj? king's council, there 
^iras ordained a general parliament in the month of 
Oftober ; before which time there never was knowa 
fo notable a divifion between thofe that were Eng- 
lifli by birth and Engtifli by blood. 

The mayors of the king's cities in the feme land, 
together with all the better fort of the noWlity and 
gentry, with one confent, upon mature deliberwioa 
and council had, among other their conclufions, de- 
creed and. appointed a common parliament at Kil- 
kenny in November, to the utility and profit of both 
the king and the lan4> ^^hout alking any council v 
at all of Sir John Morris, the lord juftice, or the 
king's officers aforefkid in that behalf ; neither the 
lord juftice or the king's minifters in any wife 
prefucQed to poine to the fame parliament in Kil- 
kenny. 

The elders therefore of the land, together with 
the antients and mayors of the cities agreed and 
ordained, as touching folemn ambafiadors to bp 
fent With all fpeeS to the king of England, and to 
complain of his minil^ers in Ireland, as touching 
their unequal and unjuft regiment of the fame ^ 
' and 

(;) Prjnnc on the 4th inftitytc. ' , 



07* THE ANTIQJLTITIES OF 

and ihaH from theocefortfa they neither could, nor 
ivould endure the resitn of Ireland to be raled by 
his mimfters, 9B it had wont to be ; and particularly 
they made complaint of the aforefiud miniiters by 
way of thbfe queiffiotis. 

ImprittMs^ how a land fiiii of wans codd be 
governed by Urn dwt was unlkillfiil in war f 

Setoadly, how a itUmiter or officer of the king 
Should iin.a ibort tim^ ^ow to fo much wealth ? 

Thirdly,, how it came to pa&^ that the king 
wa8 never the richer for Ireland ? 
,. The title of thefe petkioais, with the king's an- 
fwers, appears thus in a clofe roll of the 1 6 Edw. lil : 

^' L^ petidons quenfeunt feurent batliez a nodre 
feigneurle roy de France ^ Dengleterre, par freie 
Johan Larch, priour del hofpital feint Joban de 
Jerufalem en Irlande, et Mobs* Thomas Wogaa 
envciezau roy en meflage, par ksppehtz, conntes^ 
barons et la commune de la terre Dirlaunde^ ove 
autres articles queur le roy par lavifement de fom 
confeil ad ordeine. Qie les petidons feorent 
<iiHgealRient examinez et r^iponduz parleconfei 
ide roy» ct les rdfponfes efcriptes feveralteent apres 
<:hercun petition. £t puis le toy oyz et etendutz 
les dites peticions et refponfcs fi facorda, et com- 
>nanda que ies dites refponfes ove les dites articles 
fcttemt tenus et meintenuz en touz poin£z liir lea 
^inesxontenuz en ycdies." 

The pctitioncars coraplaiaed of the mal-admini- 
ibmtion of the governors «od other officers ; but the 
cafpittl grievance was the refumption of thdr lands. 
The king's anfwers were mild and fatisfaftory, and 
a ftorm, that portended the convulfion and difunion 

of 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENKY. ifs 

of the kingdom, b\tv over, without Any material 
injiify but tht alarm it created. 

(«) At a parliament held iti Kilkenny in 1 347, 
it vrae agreed to grant a fubfidy for ths Irilh vrara, 
of Iwo (hillingi for every cirrUcue isF land, and 
of two IbillingE in the poiuid to be paid by vrtty 
perfon whoik fortune tttnountcd to fix pounds, 
^w) Ridph Kelly, archbiflMp of Cafhd, concaving 
Une to be an inft-iAgcmcat 'df the imaiuRtticB of the 
<:horch, fummoned hU fuifragans and clergy to 
sneet it Tippettut *° deliberate on this new law } 
whet) they dectwcd it unlawful as to x\iem i that 
*rcry beneficed dei^man futHnitting to H, and 
contributing t« the fiAfidy, fiiould be rendcretl 
incapable of promotion wittnn ^e province. This 
Bit did not go unnoticed •, an Information, at the 
Am of the king, was exhibited J^mft the arch- 
HAi^, nid Ir was ikialdled in the futn ^ a thouftad 
pounds. 

In («) i349t ^ osumy of Ktltefttiy rtHTed 
twelve hoffes and meh, bcAh com^etdy covetvd 
with wail, tliefe wei* heairy teferttiy> at twelve 
pence a day : fiaty hobeUcrs, an light tidrie, at fiwu- 
pehoe a day t and two hundred iftfefttt-y at three 
f^rtMngs a day, amounting in the whole to tw^ 
hundifed and feventy-two -nSen. For ftpport < 
thefe a fubfidy was granted and levied. 

In 1356, Sir Thomas Rokcby (y), lordjuffic* 

convened a parliament to Kilkenny, wherein nwt 

, go* 

(u) LeUnd, vol. I. pag. jio- 
(to) W»re'. Bifhop^ P»g- 478- 
(.r) Cox. p»g. 114. 
(j) AppcodJi IV. 



^ THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

good laws paflfed for fettling the internal govern^ 
ment of the kingdom, and reclaiming the degene- 
rate Englifh. And in 1 367, the celebrated flatute 
of Kilkenny was enaded by a parliament ia Aat 
city, held before Lionel dukis c^ Clarence. Tins 
affembly was the moft fplendid and numerous that 
ever before met here on fuch an occafion. (z) Be- 
fides domeflic r^ulations, the principal obJe£t of 
this famous law was, to prevent the Englifh from 
degenerating into Irifti ; and therefore every inter- 
courfe between them was interdided ; the Brehoa 
' -law , was forbidden, and that of England alone 
allowed. It is remarkable, that this ftatute an- 
nexes the higheft (^i) penalties to the adoption of 
the Irilh apparel, wtuch certainly was an inferiour 
ipecies of criminality, and could arife only from an 
inordinate prediledion of the EngliQi in favour of 
their own drefs, which is thus defcribed : " (jb) The 
commons were befotted in excels of apparel, in 
wide (urcoats reaching to their loins ; fome in a 
garment reaching to their heels, clofe before and 
ilrulting out on the fides, fo that on the back they 
make men feem women, and this they call by a 
jidiculous name, gown ; their hoods are little, tied 
^nder the chin, and buttoned like the women's i 
^their lirriplpes' reach to their heels, all jagged ; they 

have 

R 

(z) Leland fupra gives a fumraar^ of this ftatute, to 
,wktch we refer the reader. 

{a) The bifhops of Dublin, Cafhel, Tuam, Lifmore* 
Wa'ierford, Oflbry, Killaloe, Leighiin and Clojne were 
prefent, and fulminated anathemas againft the tranfgreflbrs 
jof this law. 

(^) The author of Eufogium apud Cambden's remains, 
pag. 20. See this extrad explained in 8tr;utt's Antiquities, 
yol 2. ^ag. 14, &c. 



* « 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 

have another weed of filk which they call a paltock ; 
their hofe are pied, or of two colours or more, with 
latdiets, which they call harlots, and tie to their 
paltocks without any breeches ; their girdles are of 
gold and (liver, fome worth twenty marks ; their 
fliocs and pattens are fnouted and pecked more 
than a finger long, crooking upwards, which they 
call crackowes, refembling the devil's claws, which 
are foftericd to the knees with chains of gold and 
filver." 

Thus gaudily attired, we need not wonder if 
the Englifh beheld the Irifli mantles, iheir trowfers', 
glibbs, crommeals, their barreds and br(^cs, not 
only with contempt but abliorrcncej but when 
they confidered the fourteen yards of yellow linen, 
worn by the natives, by way of fhirts and fmocka, 
they execrated fuch anti-cbriitian cuftoms, and 
concaved it impoffible for a fingle good quality to 
fubfift under fuch clothing. 

A. D. 1 365. By (c) a deed dated the 40 Edw. Tih 
Adam Cantwdl grants to Robert le Marchal and 
Ifabella Cantwell his wife, all his meffuages, rertts 
and tenements in his holdings in Irefton (IriJhtown), 
in the Green near Kilkenny. The witneffea are, 
Thomas Lynan, provoft of Irifhtown, and others. 

At a parliament held in (rf) Kilkenny in 1370, a 
fubfidy of three tiioufand pounds was granted for 
the Irifh war^ and in a fubfequent fcffion two 
thoufand more. On the fourth of May, 1374. (<■), fM, 
Sir William Windfor^ lord lieutenant, was fworn 1 1 j 
inlft' . • 

(r) King's Collea. pag. 212: 

(J) Clauf. 47 Edw. 111. memb. 3^, 

(*) Cox, paj, 13,1. 




178 THE ANTtCtUItlES OP 

iftto the government, in Kilkenny. He undertook 
the charge of the tdngdom.fQr the annual fum of 
j^. 1 1 2 1 5 6s. %d. and obtained art order from the 
Idng and council, that abfeotees (hould repair home^ 
or find fi^cient men in their room to defend Umr 
^(Utes. 

The next parliament in KiUcenny was in the 
year 1 376, for th^ purpofe of granling the kii^ a 
fubfidy for his for^n wars \ but this not provii^ 
effeftualf writs were iflued in the 49th and 501b of 
Edw. IIL for ieoding repreff^tattv^ to England, 
from each county and town. That to the county 
rf Kilkenny is thus ; (f) ♦* Confiwtile h^tvc dirir 
^tur fen^fcallo libertatis Kilkenni# et vi^ecoo^itt 
crooeae ibidem, fub eadem datd. Tenor retonn 
brevia prasdiAi fequitur in hsee verba : Alex^er 
cpifcopus OlToiienfifi, et Ga|&idus Forilal, elcdi 
funt per fenefcallum lib^tatia Kilkennis et vice* 
comitem croceae ibidem, ac magnates et communes 
cjufdem comitati^/' But this return being of one 
ecclefiafticai perfon, contrary to the kiiig^s orders, 
and the county giving no powers to aflent tp a 
fubfidy, or the impofition of taxes, a new writ waa 
lent, and William Cotterell of Kenlis or Kelts was 
joined whh Forftal. Here the fenefchal of the 
county and the (heriflf of the crofe or church-lands 
nfade the return \ who thefe officers were will heft 
appear from the words of Sir John Davis. ^^ Tbefe 
abfolute palatines (fpeaking of the nobility) who 
^had whole counties, made barons and knights, did 
exercife high juftice in all points within their territo- 
ries ^ eredted courts for criminal and civil caufes 

and 

(/) LeUnd, vol. i. appendix. 



IKISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 579 

and for their owa rcvenucst in the fame form as 
the king's courts were eftabliibed in Dublin } mgdei 
their own juc^es, fenefchals^ (heriffs, coroners and 
efcheators. So the king's writ did not run in thofe 
counties, but only in the church-lands belonging, 
to the fame, which were called the Croft, whereia 
the king made a (herifF-, and fo ia each of thefe 
counties palatines there were two (henfifs^ one (^ 
the Liberty and another of the Croft.** 

Let us now attend the writ to the city : ^^ Con^ 
fimile breve diri^tur fuperiori et praepofito villas de 
Kilkenny, £ec. And the return was ; Robertas 
Flode et Johannes Ledred ele£ti funt per fuperiorem,, 
praepofitum et burgenfes villas Kilkennis, ad tranf- 
iretandum vecfus dominum regem in Anglia, Scc.*^ 

Here the writ expreftly mentions the officers q| 
tile corporation to be the ibveieign and provoft. 
The powers of each were antiently diftiat^; the: 

fir ^ (S) ^^ i^g^9 ^^ ^ 1^ reibrt, of matters 
within bis jurisdiAion ; he defended the rights of 
the city and its inhabitants, and executed othei; 
official ads. The provofi was an inferior judge ^ 
he infpedted the markets and farmed the tolls. 
Kilkenny, in this record is called villa, a towa^ 
at this time, 1376, there were but four cities ia 
Ireland, Dublin, Waterford, Cork and Limerick ^ 
and five towns, Drogheda, Kilkenny, Rofs, Wex- 
ford and Youghall ; nor doth it appear from thia 
document, that the reprefentatives exceeded one 
hundred, which,, confidering the narrownefs of the 

pale, were £ufiicient for the £nglilh colonics. 

The 

Q) Du Cange, voce prscpofiiuc. 



SS(S tHE AMTIQJJitlES OF 

The year before^ that is in 1375, {k) letters^ 
patent ifiued, granting to the corporation, for the 
fpace of feven years, very cdnfiderablc tolTs, for 
the repairs of the walls, bridges atid pavements* 
belonging to it ; they were drawn iTp in Kilkenny,' 
as the date of them proves ; and as they feem to' 
include the whole trade of the city a^ this fime, it 
rhay be pleafing to the inquifitive t6 take notice of 
a few curious particulars. We (hall afrange them* 
uoder the following helads : 

MEASURES AND WEIGMTa 

The Cranocus, or (/) Cronnog in Irifli, was g* 
bafket or hamper for holding corn, lined with the 
Ikin of a beaft, and fuppofed to hold the produce 
of feveriteen (heaves of corn, and to be equal to a 
Brillol barrel. This was a renfinant of remote' 
ages, and an effort of unpolilhed fociety towards a 
juft determinatioti of tKeir rights. A ftandard for* 
raeafuring different kinds of grain, and thereby 
cttimating their value in permutation, would natu- 
rally be among the firft contrivances of mankind, 
and a bafket of twigs lined with a* (kin was the 
moft obvious and ready expedient for this purpofc. 
Such is the attachmeitr of mde people to' their' 
antient cuftoms and manners, that it is' after a long 
lapfe of years they can be induced to lay themf 
afide, and adopt thofe that are more convenient 
and ufeful. From what is now faid, we are not 
to conclude, that the citizens of Kilkenny were in 
a more uncivilized ft ate thart their contemporaries v 

they 

W Appendix V. («)• Ward's Antiq. p|ig* a^j: 



IKISHTOWN AND KILKEInINY. " $9% 

4hey were equal to any of them in the luxuries of 
diving and drefs. 

The dolltim, chane and lagena were uncertain 
tneafureS) and the weights ufed were pounds and 
ilones. 

Summagium, or fagmegium, or fauma (J) feems 
to have been a car or cart load, and in this record 
is contradiitingui(hed from onus, which was an 
horfe load . 

GRAIN. 

.Moft fpecies are enumerated, as wheat, malt, 
corcyr, coire or oats^ and iymal^ -femalum, feagol 
or rye. 

MEAT, FISH, &c. 

Good living and an attention to perfonal orna- 
ments were the prevailing pailions of this reign. 
</) A law was made to prohibit fervants from 
•eating flefh meat and fifh but once a day ^ nor was 
any man, under one hundred pounds a year^ 
to wear gold, filvcr or filk in his clothes. In a 
place abounding with all the luxuries and fuper- 
fluities of life, and unawed by fumptuary reftric- 
lions, the inhabitants of Kilkenny, no doubt, in- 
dulged themfelves to the utmoft of their defires. 
Accordingly the tolls on iheep, goats, pigs and 
bacon are low; and thofe on herrings, fea-Hfh, 
ialmon and lampreys but a farthing. Leek feed 
and onions are rated as articles of confiderable coit- 

VoL. IL D d , furaption ; 

(k) Du Caoge in ? oce. Kennet's pftrochial Aniiquitlcty 
glofiar/. 

(0 i7 £dw. III. Engliib ftatutc. 



$U THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

fempt'ioa I the Narman families bad not forgotten 
' the porredla, porree, or leek foup of their country- 
Rien, nor did tbey want fpccies, or fpices to itupfove 
It. Noplace in Europe affords accooimodalions 
for the table fuperiour to Kilkenny at this day. 
Wooden dUhee and plates are mentioned ^ it is 
extraordinary if any others were ufed that they 
were not {etdown. A toll was paid on ore and 
copper; the former mu{t have been pewter, and botk 
were^ not improbably , for making domeitic utenfik 

HOUSES 

In Kilkenny bebnging to people of better faftuon 
were (hingled and clap-boarded, as is now the 
cafe in America and the Weft- Indies ; both forts 
of covering sat fp^ified. The vindows were 
fitted up with coloured or wUte gla& ; the glafi 
was in finall panes, as they are here eftimated by 
the hundred ; ftaioing glais was an art long kaown 
and pra£tiiedy as was giaw3g with (tn) lead ; with 
- this glafs bi(hop Ledred, about iixty years be&it| 
adorned the eafl window of the cath^al, as will 
be hereafter noticed. , The common people ufed 
ru(h candles, but others had lamps,, as the oil for 
them is here mentioned, (n) Tapiftry or chaluns 
adorned their rooms. 

DRESS, 

As we before obferved, wias ftudioufly cultivated 
in thoie times, h here confilk of various articles. 

The 

(«r) Feneftras-«*^riiiiul plumbo ac vitro compadliB tabula 
ferroque comiezts inchmt. Leo. Oftions. lib. 3. cap. a7> 
He writ about 1115. 

(if) Du Cajige in voce. 



IRISttTOWN AND KILKENNY: j»| 

Th^ g^ntiy had their Engtifb, or foreign linentf.. 
The quantity fufficient for an Irifli (hirt or fmeick^ 
by the reccHrai^ wa& twenty ells^ or twenty five; 
yaxds i this fettas incredibie, and yet ae fa4t ig 
Vetter aicertoiaed, Fynes Moryic^^sf), w^io^^nl, 
in 1588, fays : ^^ Their Airts m aw me^erj^ 
before the. IbA rebeUion, were made of ibmcrtwcaty 
or thirty ells, folded in wrinkles, and Goloui^d-with 
fafFron,** To the fame purpofe (j>) Canipioa: 
** Linen (hirts the rich do wear for wantonnefs and 
bravery, with wide hanging fleeves plaited •, thirty- 
yards are little enough for one of them :* and the 
28 Hen. VIII. forbids^ ftbove feVen yards of cloth 
to be in any fhirt or fmock. 

There ts a warni^ difpute m the. rod book (q) of 
KTilkenny^ in the 6 Hen. VII. between the gloverf 
and (hoemakers^ about the rig^t of raaking girdles 
and all manner of girdles v which is at once a colla* 
teral ppoof of the loofe garments worn in this age, 
and how profitable in<:on{ec|iience was the empby^o 
roent here contended for. The dch had alfa their 
whole clothe extremely fine, that had paifed the 
ainage ; for £b pannum iiUegnim dc Afi(a may be 
interpreted ; al(b their cIoUi of gold^ their bodkins 
or tiflTues^ their filks^ and taffates. 

Very few wouid exped to find, even in this 
century^ fuoh mercery in an Irifh town, it being 
more fuited to fome regal city or the imperial refi^- 
dence. We are not to forget, that tlie firequcnt 
^oncourfe of the nobility to this place, befides tho 
tafte of the times^ wae the obvious caufe for intro- 

Dd 2 ducing 



t 



(0) Itinerary, fol. p. i8o. (rf Hift. pag. i8. 

(^) Apud La&Q's MSS. 



384 THE ANTlQjLJITIES OF 

4ucing thefe commcxjiti^cs, The pGorer fort had 
their lri(h fiuffs, called falewyche and wyrfled^ their 
canvas lii^en^ their phallaogs and mantles -, felt caps 
^e alio mentioned. This d^l would have beeii 
ittller, and the reader (hould have been prefented 
vdtli a tranflation of the record itfel^ were there 
not fome articles which the writer did not under- 
ftandy nor Were they to be found in any fjicSSforf 
fie had an opportunity of corifulting. 



SECT. HL 



IN 1365, Liotiel duke of Clarence landed m 
Irelaiid. During his government a parliament was 
^eld at Kilkenny, where the antient Brehon laws 
^re faid to have been annvdled (r). 

\ye have remarked, that about 1 390^ the earl 
of Ornaond pufchafed the caftle of Kilkenny frorn 
the heirs of Earl Marflial, firom which time he 
modly refided in it. In the reign of Richard IL 
being lord juftice, he and the council made in 
Kilkenny an order for the repair and ward of calces 
by their o>yners j the ncglcft of which was.aniong 
the other reafoas that iriduced the Irifli ' to rcvol^ 
and brought many inconveniencies and dangers or| 
the Englifh. 

In 1 399> king Richard made an expedition into 
Ireland ; he was attended by a powerful army, and 
g riumcrons body of the Britifh nobility. He 

landec) 

(r) Coile^anea^ yol. a. pag. 49. 



J 



iRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 3«i 

landed at Waterford^ and marched to Kilkenny, 
where he halted for fourteen days« 

^^ In the yere 1400, fays Stanihurfi, Robert 
Talbot, a wortbie gentleman inclofed with walls 
the better part of the towne, by which it was 
greatly fortified." This (hort notice^ with the year 
c^ Ms death 1415 (s\ is all that k handed down of 
this eminent bene&dtor to the city ; neither his 
motives for fuch an expenfive undertaking, nof 
the particular inducements for fo well-judged a 
liberality are hinted at. The following remarks 
may perhaps tend to elucidate this tranfadtion. 

Petronilla^ lifter of James the feeond earl of 

Ormond, in 1340 married Gilbert Talbot, an^ 

eeftbr to the earl of Shrewibury. This Gilbert and 

laa ion Richard remarkably fignalized themfelves 

in the wars of £dward III. (/) Richard feeing how 

open and defenoelefs Kilkenny waa on ev^ry fide^ 

and willing to (how his refpe£t for his uncle, who 

a few years before had purchafed it, and the more 

to attach the townfmen to the family, furrounded 

the eity with a ftrong wall, (u) It began at the 

earl's pld ftables, not far from tbd cafile gate, and 

maldng si femiei/cular fweep, or nearly fb, ran 

acrofs the end of Coal market, and took in the 

t^rancifcan abbey ; the Nore fecured it to the 

northward, fo that tbe new town was quite in^ 

dofed. 

Tbomaa 

(s) A. D. 1415. Obiil Rob. Talbot nobiliy, qni fubttibias 
Kilkenniac muro circunidedit. £x Rot. turr. BermiDgham. 

(0 He is Called Richa/d by Efurke, Hibern. Doit^inic. 
pag. 205, and not Robert as bj Stanihtirft. Cambden faHa 
into tbc fame miftake. 

(m) Carte, fspra. The wall may be accaraitcly traced ia 
tbe plan. 



$«5 Ytt£ ANTKiUITIES OF 

Thomas ^earl €f Lancdfter in 140S, tfter ttm 
feaft of St. Hilary, fammoMd a (w) patiiaraeMt 
to Kilkenny, iti order to bave a tf^^c ^nted. 

<x) A: D. 1419.' T^he crtizens weve <grMI^ 
tolls for- mirage, pavage, &c. *• 

In 1 420, the clergy of (y)O(Coty -paid t fvibfidy 
<yf z/. o^. 11^. and the 4:omifni>nii , of 4(Iilkeniiy 
18/. 5s. lid. * 

During the .unhappy feuds- hetm^en theiiMife 
jf^f Yotk (ind Lacicaller, thei^^nrond finni^ii^feMtt 
'Very fevetely ; in 14^62, anteal^l isif kMs h0.fife:^mfi 
executed for being a York^ and 'Kitkeimy /1M^ 
^oitly after taken and pliinddred by Defsiond 
•who efpoufed the other party. 
• Tirlagh O Brien X^O, 'lord of IDhdRiond tiid^ in 
-1499, great contefts whH Sif Piers Butter 4bwk 
preys and the bounds of 4ands, *iAich ^aiCfSdrdhig^o 
4he<:uflom of Ifae tknes ended 4n^ a battJe* Tfie 
inhabitants ef Kilkenny itiarched 4d\tt \ii aid of "die 
Sutters, but they were di^fh^ed and th^r fovereigft 
fflaift. .. . ; • v.: 

Ware tinder the year 1 518, weittions a tiiavofi df 
Kilkenny, who be wa€ we baVe mrt difcoveM^^ 
4he great palatines granted this •and jnferiour 4i^ 
uitiee, but they were barely nominal, conferring 
»one of the privileges of the peerage. 

(a) A. D. iSS^y the lord dewrty^rey came tb 
Kilkenny, and the next day the parliament fitt 
. there ; from thence it adjourned to Caftiell. 

Piers 

(au) Anoals, fupra. Appendix VI. wh^rc libeny » gU^wed 
the citizens to trade with|the rebjrls. 
(x) Appendix 'VII. 

(z) Cox, pag. 195. 
(a) Cox, pag. 247. 



IRtSHTOWN AND KILI^EKNY. -s'T 

PiiisfS or VtttVj dart of OrtTHXid, wbo died the 
twenty-fiatth of Augtfll 1539, mdrriccl Margaret 
¥'tU Gerald, daughter of the ead of Kikiace^ a kdy 
of moli aoiiabk qualities-^ this nobte and exceUcnt 
pair endcai^oured to enrich Kitkenny by mtroducing 
manufadaree into it. For this p^rpofe, they 
brought out of Ftanderd and the neighbouring 
proirincesy ai;tificer89 whom they employed and 
csicouraged at Kilkenny (i)^ iti working tapeftry, 
diaper, tvukey carpets, cuftiions, ^cfomeof which, 
fer many years, remained in the femily ; nor is ?t 
ii^prdbabb, btit that the tapefiry at prefent in tlife 
cffft)e may b^ the work of thofe Flemings. If the 
fiory of Decius is theirs, we muA ooneeive very 
higjhfy of their inge^iucy, tafte and exeeutton. 
Sua the pmaB were |do un^ttlled, and the nation 
not civilized enough to give encouragement to the 
degant arta and worka o^. ftncy. 

(r) This c^v\j every y^r for the laft knight in 
Lcri^Y »tvnsd to a chamber in St. Canice's church- 
yard^ called (d) Ps^radife, and there devote himfelf 
to prayer and aUnfgiving, and returned to his own 
houfe on Bailer eve. Me was not aihamed of the 
duties of religion ; he was confcious that from the 
practice of them new fplendour was derived to his 

family and high rank: 

A.D. 

(i) CvtCp. fupra. W^re fayi, ihc carl hy.h\i^ coun^cf^'* 
advice hired apd placed the polvmiiary, Sind other flcilful 
•rtiiktr* in Kilkenny. AnnaU 15J9. Polymita, yeftis njohii 
variifque coloribus Blis et liciis contexta et varifgfiU. Pa 
Cangc in voce. 

(fj Carte, fupra. 

(//) Atrium ante ccclefiani, quod nos, Romana qopOie- 
tudine, (^aradifum dicimus. Leo. Marfic. lib. j. cap. a6. 
apud Lindenbrog. Cod. leg. aniiq. et Du Cange in voce. 



Sn THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

A.D* 1540. Sir William Brereton, marflialof 
Ireland, died at Kilkenny, aa Coir tells us. 

In 1552 (e)y John Bale, ihe celebrated catalogue 
writer, was bifltiop of Oflbry •, be xompofed man j 
religious dramatk pieces ^ two of whichr a tragedy 
called God^s promifes, and a comedy, intttled die 
preaching of John Baptift,. were adted by youi^ 
men at the Market crefs in Kilkenny, on a Sunday* 

Baron Finglas, reporting the fiate of Ireland in 
his bceviate, at this time, bears honourable teffi- 
mony of the cultivated manners of the county of 
Kilkenny : ^^ The counties of Kilkienny and Tippe- 
. rary, fays he, wear the Engliih habit, and keep the 
Englifti order and rule, and the king's laws were 
obeyed here within thefe fifty-one years % and there 
dwelled di^vers knights, eiquires and gentlemen^ 
who ufe the JEnglifb habit." 

The Butlers and Defmonds,. o&nded at fome 
proceedings of the deputy, S'u- Henry Sydney flew 
to arms in 15^8^ and committed many outrages. 
Sir Peter Carew was fent to oppofe them^ which 
he did with fuccels, and poffefled himielf of KiK 
kenny* Fitzmaurice, brother to Definond, invefted 
the town, but the fpirited condudt of the garriibn 
and citizens foon obl'^ed him^ to withdraw ; how- 
ever (f)j in refentment he plundered the (mailer 
tpwns and villages, and particularly robbed old 
Fulco Quiverford (Comerford) of Callan of zooo/. 
m money, plate, hou&old fluff, corn and cattle ; 
Qiiiverford had been fervant ta three earls of 
Ormonde 

Rory 

(e) Biographia Britaonica, Article Bale. 
ffJ Cox, pag. 334. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 3«^ 

R<M7 Qgc OMore, in 15^6, made his fub- 
miffion in the cburdi of Kilkenny, before the lord 
deputy and the earl of Ormond. 

The following year the lord deputy (g} held a 
ieffions in Kilkenny, when feveral perfons, both of 
the city aad county, were difcovered to be abettor*' 
of Rory Oge, but the poprifh juries could oot be 
induced to find the bills of indidtment, althougk 
the parties confeffed the fadt v they were therefore 
l>ound in recognizance to appear in the cafile 
chamber in Dublin, to anfwer the contempt. 

Sr William Drmy, lord prcfidcnt of Munfter,r 
came to the c^eputy at Kilkenny, and complained, 
that Defmond kept together an unruly rabble^ and 
bdog fent for, refufed to attend the prefidenl. 
Defmond, being cited before the deputy, imme- 
diately appeared, and excufed his not waiting on 
the prefident, becaufe he was his inveterate enemy. 
Thirty-iix criminals were executed in Kilkeimy 
this year. % 

In 1579, Sir William Pelham, Icwrd jufticc, made 
las pR)greis towards Munfter, and coming to Kih 
kenny he thei:^ kept feifions, a^d ordered Edmond 
Mac Nial (A), an arcb-traytor and other malefadois 
to be executed-, after which be reconciled the carl of 
Ormond and the lord of Upper OiTory, each giving 
bonds for the reftitution of preys. 

Fynes Moryibn, writing about the year 1588^, 
iays; ** Kilkenny, giving name to a county, is a 
pleafant town, the chief of the towns within land^ 
memorable for the civility of the in|iabitants» for 

the 

ii) Cox, pag. 351. 

(A) Ware's Aoaiils. Coz, pag- 360* 



190 THE ANTIQUlYtEff 0^-. 

fbe hufbamknants labour afid tfce pl^&nt (/> on 
chards.** Cambden, in the okl edition of -i 5901 
repeats part of tWs account: "^ Munkipmm eft 
nkidun], ekgans, copiofum, H inter mediterranea 
Imijus infda^ iacile primum. ' DVyidk^H' fn oppklufn 
Hibernicum et Anglkwn.* What he feys of* its 
name from 6t. Carjice, of the- Enelifh town being 
<onfti ufted* by Ralph, the thtrd eari of €3iefter, 
and its caftt^f by the Butkfsv are^ as' we have 
iben, aflertkxiswi^put preef and contradidlfed t^ 
hiftory. > , 

Quden EKaabetb, in the Axtccntft year of her 
rdgn; A. D. 1575, granted a charter to KSBccnny, 
^bich as it aod <hat of her fucceffor* king Jannes are 
in the hands of «nany perfot^, I (haH but touch on. 

By tki^ ^ ftite of the corporation fa, • 

TPhC SoVfcRfelCN^ BtJR^ESSESandCoMMCNAt-Ty. 

•All their aetient privileges ^re^ confirmed. 
. They nitty have a meifchatit gild^^ other gjids. 

The burgeffes are permitted to. difpofe of thcSr 
tenements or a;ktn Iheir fitmtion. 
- The foveri^n took cognizance 6f breaches of 
«Aie peace, ahd tbe (*) provbft prefided in Ae 
iiandred court,^ ahd tried dvrl aftions.^ 

To draw a (Wdrd, or flteki, (cultellum) in a 
Ijoarr^l, was puni(hab4e by tbe fine of hstlf a mark. 

There was to be ^ piUory (eolliftrigfum) and 
tumbrel, for the puntfliment of offenders. 

The burgefles were exempted from milkary 
•duty, and free- from cuftoms throughout the Queen's 
dominions, as the burgeffes of <}loccficr were. 

Thofe 

(f) The account of the citj's cftatQ, in 4628, fall/ cjm- 
nrms this fa£t. 

{^) This will cxplaihpage ai, before. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKSKNY. ^ 

Thofe who fii^eFe^ ^ir tenemmts to go to 
^decay in4h6 ^own^- orom to b^ diilraiiied until they 
rebuilt or repaired them. 

■ A ckik was to iM chdfen fi-om the buk^gefles ; 
hewcafftaTecei^»ex)f ibe tecxi cf Kilkdfiny twenty 
(hillings, and of the town ten Shillings* . The 
laudable and faithful fervice;$ pf CheciftiEeRfi, and 
thofe lately performed are mentiomsdidis juft leafons 
for particular favours. This aliodeB to doeir con- 
duct under Sir Peter Carew it| 1568. 

They were to have a common fed, and the 
fovereign to be a juftice of peace, ooioner and 
elcheator in the town^ m die fiune aiafde manner 
as the (bvereign of RoiTpoi^ «cir New JRicift^ 

A. D. 1594, on St. Georgpe's 4lay^ thete was 
a great cavalcade in Kilkepny^ whrathe lords 
rode in their places, as Cox infprms ok > 

A. D. 1660. The. earl of Prmond forced the 
great rebel Redmond Burk spd liifi fiotbwers into 
the river Nore, where feyieoty of ihem were 
drowned, and particularl]^ John Burk.. Redmond 
tiras fgm After token aoil tteoited </) at Kilkenny. 

Mr. Nichol9i& J,^il^;|oii . was appointed hy the 
.^ty Hidir ngwt to ^94iett:ar;new cfaartnrin Dublin, 

The charter of James I. was made in .i&sp* 

if f e^iM9 tlKit KUk^any 1¥as ^1 fitoatied to repel 

^ li\Q\ f^lielfi, fin4 i^f^ perfonafid emiasnt for* 

vices i;R {his ntCpe^^, mi ^r^fiwe he xrce^tes it 'a 

CITY by th^ ftik pf the 

Mayor, Aldermen, and CoMMoiffCbuNQiL^lBcc. 

The 

(/) Cox,*pag. 433, ♦ LafFan'f MSS. 



3^ THE ANTIQJJITIES O^ 

The Mayor to be chofisn yearly, on the Moruhjr 
after the feaft of St. John the baptift 5 and Thomas 
Ley to be firft Mayor. 
The Aldermen not to exceed eighteen, and 
Robert Rothe, aftervrard^ Sir Robert Rothe, 
Arthur Shee, 
Richard Raggett 
Elias Shee, 
Thomas Archer, 
Patrick Ardicr, 
Luke Shee, 

Edward Rodie, ^ 

John Rothe Fitz EHeroe^ 
Nidiolas Langton, - • •.. --'^ j 

Edward Shee, 
Walter Lawlefs^ 
Thomas Ley, 
' David R<>the^ 
Walter Archer, 
Michael Cowley, 
Thomas Shee, and 

William Shee to be the firft Aldermen, mi 
Robert Rothe to be Recorder. 
The burgeffes and commons of Klkenny to be 
accounted as citizens, and to admit others to thek 
freedom. 

Two citizens to be iheriffs, Waltet Ryan aitd 
Thomas Pembrock, the firft ) thefe to be annually 
chofen, the monday next after Midfummer ; thdr 
eledtion to be certified into the Exchec^uer, and 
they to hold courts. 

Four or five ferjeants are allowed, and a fword 
permitted to be borne before the mayor. 

The 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. $^$ 

' The mayor and recorder may have deputies, 
who are to be jufiices of the peace, and clerks of 
4he market. 

Half die forfeitures of treafons and felonies is 
given to the city v tfaey were allowed three fairs 
annually, and tluree markets weekly. 

The gild permitted to be eftablilhed in Kilkenny 
receives fbme illuilration from Mr. Laffan*s papers, 
from whence we (hall extract fome curious particu- 
lars ; previouily obferving, that gilds or fraternities 
were very early efiabli(hed in corporate towns for 
the advantage of the citizens. They were to pur- 
chafe jevery foreign commo<£ty from the maker 
and importer at an under rate, and their own they 
were to fdl at the higheft prices. Each perfon was 
confined to Us own trade, and heavy penalties 
were annexed to the violation of thefe rules. The 
red and gild boo^ wherever extant, are full of 
thefe impolitic reftrifkions; a few inflances may 
fuffice z 

i« Whoever (hall buy goods for foreign merchants, 
• or employ foreigners* money for little or no gain, 

(hall be fined 5/. currency, toties quoties. 

2. No firange merchant to open any ware in any 
houfe within the franchifes, under pain of 405. 

3. No inhabitant or freeman to receive any money 
beforehand, to buy hides, fells, frize mantles, 
or wool, under the penalty of 3/. 

4. A pewterer of Briftol permitted, on paying 
five (hilUngs, to fdl his pewter ' to freemen of 
Kilkenny, he having made the gild the firll 
offer. 

5. The fame to a glafs-bottle man. 

^ Thefe 



J94 THE ANTIQlU^^ITIES OP 

Thefe and hufnberlefc other exanifyhs (heir us, 
^hat Mrrow views meit tfken entertained of trafte» 
and how imperfedly the principles of it Ivece mr 
def^Dod. Were the DobteftzbriBrsconfiitiBd to their 
native ftreams^ and precluded, fi^om admixmre wiA 
other waters, ^t (faonld be depcivted of all the 
ufefut dnd oKriiHiei^tal ady^mtages attendant on 
iueh G0RJiifl)£tiGki9k la IHit matmeir si ftee and <££»• 
cumbered <SQii9tfnerce carries With it weaMr tkbeoevcr 
it flows, bu^ ddggpd- wtlfa tgfylvQklBSf. is of litde 
importance. 

Befides th^ foregoing^ the ^ gBd of metdaairis 
had mo^peli^ed the piovidiog for fiwevals^ as 
appears by the report oi Jdm Gerwn, of the ci^ 
of Kilkenny > ddernaafi ; Jdhn Arcfadeldii' fcDtor, 
and James Roane of the faid city, nlerdistms, aad 
freemen of the nniercNttifc^gHdv appdnted to regih 
hte the future difpo&l elf the wa± tapecs^ black 
hangingsi and hearfe do^ bebtigingto £nd gttd. 

1. They find that in former times when the ^M 
wanted wax, two of the U)dy;vividre niaminated fay 
the haU to afiefi on the members, as ecpially as 
they couid, wliat fums were neceflfary; two cd- 
lectons were impowei^ed to difiraki' defimifiers^ the 
money, when levied, was kid out in the pnrcliafe 
of wax for the ufe of the ^Id. 

2. One ot two of the gili were affigned to be 
keeper or keepers of the tapetsi, war, candkf&rks, 
heiaffe cloth and hangingpE^ ; thefe were not ta be 
given out without the coftftnt of the mjafier, or 
three 0^ fotur memb^trs of the gild. 

3- That 

{m) Apud LaflFan's MSS. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 395 

3. That at the funecal of every alderman, or 
raalfer of^tl^egiki, thpre was fpent ufually thrco 
pounds I the fame when any akiermaa's or mailer's 
wife died; or eveiy fireman, two pounds tea 
(hiUing^ ; what was expeQdc4 over and above was 
to be returned in wax, and payment far making^ 
the tapers. 

4. Whoever gpt the tapers, hearfe doth, candle* 
Sticks or hangings were to leave fufficient pledges 
until they were redored, and payment miade for 
the tapers, and for the overplus wax condimed* 

5. From fuch as were not free of the gUd^ the 
keepers were to receive fatisfadtion fix tapers, Sic^ 
as in their difcretion they thought fit ; a regular 
account was to be kept ; the leceipts to be ftated 
thrice annually, and three pounds per centum to 
be deduded for making faid tapers* 

From thefe particulars we may conclude, that 
funeral obfequies were performed moftly in the 
night, it was certainly the practice of the early (n) 
Chriftians to prepare entertainments before the in* 
terment of the deceafed,, and to conduct the corpie 
to the grave with wax tapers i it is ilill retained in 
Roman Catholic countries. 

BulUbeating was a favourite > amufement with 
our anceftors. By the (0) red hcxk of Kilkenny 
we are informed, that in that city was a Lord op 
Bull- RING. There are ftatutes for leffening the 

expences 

(») Tranflata eft cpifcopomnn manibus, et cervicem fereiro 
fubjicentibusy cum stlii pontiHce^ lanipadea cereofque pr^s- 
ferrent. Hrerdn. epift. ad.Euftacb. For feafts on ihofc occa- 
fions, fte Auguftin. de hitur. ct avar. cap. 6. Ainbros. de 
jejun. cap. 17. They carried tapers in tbe day ; iiioles ce- 
reoriHn, K)ie ftil^enre, acceadi. Hicron. advers. Vigilant. 

(p) Laffan's MSS. 



S^ THE ANTIQJUITIES OF 

. expcacesof his banquet, and an order for John 
Fitz Lewis to pay thirteen pounds on being dif- 
charged from this oiHce. He was afterwards called 
the mayor of bull-ring. The diredtion of this fport 
. Was, in moft confiderable towns, committed to the 
care of fome reputable batchelor, who was abie to 
contribute to the expences attendant on it; the 
^U tmKilkenny fupplied the reft ; a certain fum 
was allowed for his banquet, and he had his (heriffs ; 
his eledtion was annual by the citizens^ and during 
his office he was Guardian of the batchelors, and 
en their marriage was entertained by them, fo that 
he paifed his time in feflivity and good diear. As 
commerce and manufactures increafed, this aiiiufe- 
ment was difcontinued ; time became too valuable 
to be wafted on fuch paftimes, and after the revo- 
*lution, they ceafed every where. 

In i6oi, Kilkenny (p) was the refidence of the 
lord prefident Mountjoy. On {q) the acceffion of 
the elder James, the Roman catholics rofc every 
where, and endeavoured to ftiake off thofe cocrdvc 
laws with which parliament had thought proper to 
(hackle them (r). In 1603, the religious of dns 
communion were not lefs precipitate and violent in 
Kilkenny than their brethren in other places. Ed- 
mond Raughter, a Dominican, headed a fe(£tion 
in that city j broke open the Black Abbey, whidi 

had 

f/^) Cox, pag. 442. 

(q) Secuto veluci interregnoper mortem EUzabethac, cum 
nondum fatis confkaret dc fucceUoris mente <]uoad reli^ioDcoi^ 
nonnullx ciyltates et oppida, quad poftlimioio, vendicaoc 
ecclefias ufui catholico. £t in his Canicopolitani monafteriuui 
ordinis Praedicatorum e tribunali reftituuot in facrariuai* 
Quo eorum fa6to, ordines regni ofFenduntur, eofque perfc^ 
qiiuntur. Analcd. dc reb. Hib. pag. 537. 

ir) Cox. pag. 17. 



mtfihtowN aKd Kilkenny. .$97 

*liad &r fome time been otpd as a court-houl^; 
}3ulled down the Keats, eretfted aa altar^ forced 
the keys of his houfc froln one Mr. Bifliop^ >^ho 
lived in part of the abbey, and gave poffeflion of 
the whole to the friars j though by a^fl of parliament 
it was turned to a lay-fee, and by legal convey* 
ances became the property of other men ; but thofe 
difturbapc^s were foon qiidled by the aftivity of 
lord Mountjoy, who writ the following letter to the 
chipf raagiftrate of Kilkenny. It is prefer ved in 
Fynes Moryfon. 

** To the Sovereign of Kilkenny." 

" After my hearty commendations 5 I fiave re* 
ccivcd your letters of the 25lh and 26th of this . 
month, and am glad to underiiand thereby, that 
you are fonrtewhat conforrtiable to my. directions j 
being willing to have caufe to interpret your adtions 
to the beft. But though I mean not to fearch int6 
your confciences, yet i muft needs take knowledge 
of the publick breach of his majefty's laws ; and 
whereas you let me underiiand, that the inhabitants 
arc wilMng to withdraw themfelves for their fpiritual 
cxercife to privity, contented only with the ufe of the 
Minors(the Francifcan) abbey : That being a publick 
place, I cannot but take notice thereof, and marvel 
how you dare prefume to difpofe at your pleafure of 
the abbey, or any thing belonging to his majefty ; 
and therefore again charge you upon your allegiance 
to forbear any publick exercife of that religion, pro- 
hibited by the laws of this realm; and fully to 
reform thefe diforders, according to my diredlions, 
upon your extreme peril. 

From Dublin, this 27 th of April, i6o3.'* 

Vol- II. Ec The 



'B$l THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

The (s) Rent charge of theantient common revcnod 
of the city of Kilkenny by the' year. 

A. D. i6a8. 

/. s. (L 
Mr. Richard Lawlefs, for the room over 

the High Town gate,, three (hillings 

Irifti - - -030 

The caftle over the Freren (Friars) gate 018 
Edmond Archer, for the vault over Kil- 

berry tower - - 008 

Robert Archer, for the roonis over St. 

James's gate - - 0134 

Mr. David Roth, for the rooms over 
* Walkin's gfite - 0.08 

Mr. Richard Roth for the rooms over St. 

Patrick's gate - - o 10 

Mr. William Shee, for the caftle near 

Caftle gate - - 068 

James Brinn, for the rooms over the Eaft 
I gate of St. John's - 004 

Mr. Michael Archer, for two bayes near 

the faid Eaft gate - -050 

Edmond Loghnan's affigns for two bayes 

there - - 050 

Walter Cantwell, affignee to Stephen 

Daniel, for four bayes - o 10 o 

John Shee, for four bayes - o 10 a 

Walter Ryan's affigns, for two- bayes 

there - - 030 

The 



(j) Laifan's MSS. This curious document will point ost 
tlie extent of the city at this time« and iheHtuation of oiajij 
buildings now no more. 



IRlSHtOWN AND KILKENNY. 

The incroachment upon the town ditch at St. John's, 
and the rent due for the fame. 

Robert Courfcy*s affigns, for an in- 
croachment upon the town ditch in his 
garden - - o a o 

Walter Leix, for ditto - 008 

Mr. Michael Cowley, for a houfe, late 
Edmond Daniel's - - o 1 1 o 

Waher Lei jc, for a flip over the water near 
his houfe - - 050 

The heirs of Edmond Grace, for a houfe 
in St. John's ftreet - *. 190 

Robert Langton's affigns, for a houfe 14 o 

Michael Archer, for the rooms over St* 

John's caftle - - 050 

Patrick Shee, for the roonis over St- 

John's flip - - 004 

Peter Roth Fitz John, for a houfe and 
garden near the great orchard in the 
Eaft fide thereof - 020 

Mr. Patrick Archer, for the kill-houfe and 

garden by the Caflle gate - 020 

Peirce Archer, for the corner houfe at 

Caftle ftreet - - 040 

The faid Peirce for the next houfe to. the 

fame - - - 120 

Henry Arclier for a houfe at Crocker's 

crofs - - 040 

Mic. Archer, affignee to John Brenan, 
for four cooples, parcel of David Pern- 
brockVfarm in Walkin ftreet - o 17 o 
Eeale Barkly, for a mefluage north fide 

Walkin llreet -.080 

a 

Ee 2 Patrick 



40<^ THE ANTIQjLJITIES OF 

/. s. i. 

Patrick Sychap, his ailigns, for four cooples o lo S 
John Dcneagh, his affigns, for a cooplc 028 
William Fit? Thomas, his affigns, for two 

cooples - - 088 

Tho. St. Leger, affignee to Walter Rag- 
get, for four cooples - 017a 
Kate Fitzharries affigns, fo? two cooples 088 
Richard Roth, for two cooples - 08$ 
Thomas Archer*s affigns, for a mefluage 

in Walkin ftreet - - i o o 

WaherCantwell, for GeofFry Roth's houfe o 12 o 

William Kelly, for a (hop under the 

Tholfel - • O 10 o 

John Hacket, for a ftone houfe at die 

entry of St. James's ftreet - P * 3 4 

Edward Cleer, for a meiTuage at the 

Arkwell - - 008 

Peter iSie^ for the corner (hop - 006 
James Shee's affigns, for the flip at John 

Barry'is new houfe - 002 

Thomas Archer's affigns, for land at the 

north end of the old Tholfel - o o 5 
]kichard Roth, for the rooms over the 

flip in his houfe - - o i o 

Williani Shee, for his houfe m Low lane 013 o 
Richard Brophy'is affigns, for a meflTuage 

near )enkin*s mill - 068 

tTo the matter and company of Ihoc- 

makers, for licence for tanning ^34 

Patrick Archer,^ for half the tythes of 

Querryboy - - 014 

Thomas Archer, for half the tythes of 

Qaerr^boy - . 014 

Richard 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4^K 

I. s. d. 
RichardTroy,fora garden near the Green 026 
iThomas Archer's affigns, for the Standart 

Garden - - 014 

Walter Shee, for Downing's Inch ^ 3 o 

Michael Marfhall, for a garden at the Lakfe o z <S 
James Atchcr, for a garden at Mill ttreet o r o 
John Byrn*8 affigns, for an acre of land 02 ^ 
Patndk Synnott, for Gibb's Inch ♦ o 10 

John Roth V\u Edvi^ard, for jour acr^ 

of land near Loughboy - 0170 

Thomas Ley's aftigns, for the North caflle 
.^ at the Magdalens «- o 14 o 

Thomas Archer*6 affigng, for the next 
.' houfe to the (aid calUe - o 1 1 o 

Edward Roth's affigns, for a houfe next 

the fame, a parcel of the town ditch, 

and an acre of land * 086 

Johii Culien, for a houfe and acre of land, 

rent free dufing hi$ life 
Ed mend Tehan, for the next houfe 040 

Edward Langton*6 afligns, for a void 

place near the Poor-houfe - 020 

Adam Shee's allignf, for a void room 
. n^ar the Poor-houfe - 050 

Thomas Ley*s affigns, for a houfe and 

land near the fame • 050 

Walter Cleer and James Cleer*s children, 

for a houfe and land - 0160 

J^avld Mery, for a mefluage and land in 

the Magdalens - - 0134 

J'atrick Morres, for a mefluage and land 

where. Patrick Lannon dwelt - 104 
Juucas Slice's affigns, for the next mefluage o 16 o 

Edwaid 



'4^\ THE ANT I. QJJI TIES OF 

/. S. ds 

jpldward Shee's affigns, for a ineffuage 

next the Port, and for land - o i.i 8 
. ]Lucas Sbee's afligns, fqr the Black cafile 

of the Magdalens r 0184 

^dward Shee's aiTigns, for the next £irm, 

fofm^rly Seix's - 080 

iGillopatrick 3ycban, for the next houfe 

and land 7 - o i^ q 

Nicholas Langton, for the next f^rm and 

land - • Q IQ Q 

Patrick GormeU's affigns^ for a nieiTuage 

and land - - Q 10 o 

Patrick Fitz James's afligns, for Patrick 

M^ry and William Reardon's roefluage o 7 J 
Edward L^ngton's aifigns^ for tw^o acres 

of the Magdalen's land - . O 3 o 

Nicholas Langton, for Ann WaUh'-s mef- 

fuage .p • Q S o 

V Patrick Synnot, for the (hop under the 

Oldjholfel - - Q 10 o 

Afligns of Patrick Murphy and John 

Archer, for licence for tanning 068 

Richard Roth, for licence for tanning 014 
James Sjiee, for licence for tanning 014 

Jafper Shee's afligns, for a garden near . 

the houfe - - o i? 

The bailiff, receiver of the revenues 
belonging to St. John's Abbey, 
his charge. 

James Langton's heirs, for a meffuage 
• near St. John's bridge - o 16 o 

Heirs 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 40^ 

L s. d. 
Heirs of Walter Daaiel^ for the next 

houfe and garden - 0160 

James Shee, for the next houfe and garden o i6 o 
Executors of Pat. Fitz James, for the next 

houfe and garden - - 0134 

Walter Shee; for two meffuages and two 

gardens there - . - ^ 5 4 

Tho. Shee Fitz Edmond, for next houfe 

and garden at Tomyn hill - . o 10 o 

John Helen, for a houfe jiext the hofpital, 

and garden of the common, without 

St. John's gate - - 168 

Edmond Ryan, for the prior's chambers 020 
Peirce Roth Fitz Edward, for the vault, 

the great kitchen and garden - 068 
Nicholas Aftekin, for two chambers in the 
; clpyfl^r of St. John's, and an orchard 

near the cloy fter - - 100 

Nicholas Wall's affigns, for Sir. David's , 

orchard - - . o 18 o 

William Shee, for a houfe in John ftreet, 

formerly David Kearney's - 2 10 o 

Walter Cleer, for the cart gate, caftle, 

and out ftall in St. John's cloyfter o 20 
Pat. Fitz James's affigns, for two mef- ' 

fuages next the hofpital - 000 

George Langton's affigns, for the bake- 

houfe at St. John's and the Prior's 

fires - .-020 

The laid affigns, for the chapter-houfe 

withiQ the cloyfter - - 070 

The 



404 TH£A>4TIQJJITIES0P 

Th^ rooms from the entry of St. John's Abbey 
towards the quter St. John's gate. 

h s. iL 
Tohn Hpertj for the gomer (hop near the 

entry, and four other cooples - lo o 
Wat Cantwell, aflignee to Stephen Da- 
niel, for four bayes therts - o lO o 
Edmond Laghn^n, for two bayes there o 5 q 
Walter Ryan, aflignee, for two baye$ there Q 3 6 
Michael Archer, for three cooples o 5 q 
Wat. Cantwell, for a houfe, turret and 
clofe in St. John's ftrcet • 013 4 

The fouth fide of the Abbey. 

Afligns of James Bime, for a houle an({ 

garden r - 1^8 

pdmoi^d Ryan, for a houfe * ^^54 

NicholasAltekin, forhishoufehiStJohn^ o 10 
Afligns of Patrick Fitz James, fear a mef- 

iuage - - o if o 

Simon Seix, for a mefluage and garden 016 o 
Thomas Shee, aflignee of Sir Richard 

Shee, for a houfe in St. Johi> ftrcet zoo 

Houfes in the High Town. 

Thomas Ley's afligns, for 9 houfe near 

the Old tholfel • - o 6 Q 

TThomas St. Lcger-s executors, for his 

houfe • - o la Q 

James Axdi^r Filz Martin, for his lioufe 070 
Edmond Ryan, for the Prior's orchard 160 
George Shee, for the vpper orchard ^ '4 o 

The 



JRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. j^f 

7'he, gardens beginning at St. Midiael's g^te, and 
thqice to Tonoiya'a biU roi^ld tQ St John's gate. 

/. s. d. 
Robert Shee, for the clover houfe snd 

garden - - O 6 9 

Walter Cleer, for the great croft o 1 3 9 
Pat. Morchan*s afHgns, for a garden north 

of the fetne - - 040 

Oeoffry Roth's aflSghs, for a garden p 1 (5 a 
Edm. Ryan, for a garden at Tomyn hill 040 

Pat. Morchan*s affigils, for two gardens 4 o 
John Seix, for the corner garden in the 

S. W. end of St. John's gate - O 6 9 

(Seorge Comerford's afligns, for the corner O x Q 
Kic. Aftekin, for a garden called Syrman's 

ha^es - - o |6 6 

The quarter Sd^th the way lidding 
from St. John's gate to the Green. 

Nicholas Loghnan's afligns, for a garden Q 2 I 
Owner Mc. Donaghoe's affigns, for a 

garden - - 068 

Patrick MQry,63rDavid Kearney's garden 020 
John Roth Fitz John, for a garden 038 

From the Magdalen's to St. John's gate. 

'^ho. Ley's afligns, for the Magdaleq's 

mills * • 600 

iUch. Langton, for a garden befide the 

nrills - - o 3 o 

The infirmary garden, being ly. 4^. 
allowed by the corporation to the hof- 
pital, Richard Troy tenant - 080 
•* * Pat 



3fo6 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

/. J. d. 
Pat. Morchan'saiSgDs, for the next garden 028 
Edmond Archer, for three ^dens in the 

High hayes - - o 13 o 

Said Edmond, for Sinnett's church yard, 

garden and croft - - 060 

Henry Shec's J^fligns, for two gardens 090 
£dv(rard Cleer, for a garden at die Black 

mill - - 040 

Walter Daniel, for a garden -048 

lliphard Lawlefs, for the fweet pond o 4. o 
Chriftopher Shee, for the Prior's meadow 080 
^Arru Archer, for the third pert of the 

' demefne of St. John - 200 

Robert Cleer, for a quarter of faiddemefnc 100 
Wlliam Shee, for a third of the demefnes 200 
Geo. Langton's affigns, for the Prior's 

wood, Roa(hferian, Bannaghcarragh 

and the cherry croft - 1120 

James Kivan, for the parfon's manfe land 

of Comer «- - ^ '3 4 

Michael Cowley, for his tlrirA part of 

Brownftown - - 300 

Michael Ragget,:for two acres of land 

at Ardlkreddan - - 080 

Mr. David Roth, for three parts of Drake- 
land ' 0- - 900 
John Roth Fitz Edward, for the fourth 

part of Drakeland - 300 

David Roth, for the round meadow 040 

Richard Cieer, for a meadow befides 

Robert's hill - - 028 

Simon Whyte'saffigns,- for the lands of 

Tromer, county Wexford - o 14. o 

Walter 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 40^ 

/. s. d. 

Walter Talbot, for the lands of Brittas, 
Polring alias Mdnng, PaUygarum, 
and five, acfes in Bally fampTon 14 ^6 8 

Nicholas Roth's affigns, for a mefluage 

iaRofe - - 014 

James Fitzbariiesy foi: the p^rfonage o( 

?U){s. - - - J20 o o 

Marcus Shee^ for land in Cattereli's boly 409 

Patrick Murphy, for the parfon*s part pf . 

MoycuUy - r 400 

Thomas Garrett, for the parfon's part of 
the manfe land of Skirk - 0130 

John Dooly and Robert Murphy, for the 
manfe land of Jerpdnt r 2134 

George St. Leger, for the parfon's part 
of the manfe land of Tabbrit - 1300 

Edward Langton's affigns, for the Levy- 
apre - - i o o 

Robert Hacket, &r a garden near St. 

•. John^s gate - - - 016 

Gburfey 's :hdrs, for the houfe next the end 

of St. John's bridge - - o 4 Q 

John Balkorville, for the parfonage of 

Sfcirk, except manfe land • 2234 

David Roth, for Rathleigh - 168 

John Kivan, for the manfe land of Dun- 
fart - r 068 

John Seix, for the parfonage of Jenkins- 
town - - 3 ^ ' 

Richard Langton^ for a part of the de- 
mefnes t ' o 16 p 

The 



468* THE ANTIQJLJITIES OF 

The charge of the Fryer-bailifF for Michaelmas 
1633, and Ealter 1^34, Robert Shce, Efij; 
mayor, Edmond Mclreyne, batltff, beginning 
at the Black freren gate^ and about the prednd 
of the Black fryari^. 

h 5. JL 

Patrick Murphjr, for the orchard ntar the 
Black freren gate - - 068 

He*ry Mayjftwaiing, for tfje room in the 
north ilde 6f the Bla<k freren fteeple, 
and tjie upper rooms of the fteefrie ^34 

Ditto, for the boufe called the king*b 
chamber, the cloyfter, the ktll^KHife, 
Sir Richard CantwelPg dhamber^ 8rc. j( 4 4 

Pitto; for the room near the chop-houfe 030 

£dward Clinton's aifigns to Mr. Lutatf 
Shee, for an orchard witKn the Freren, 
and a meiTm^ and g^dea in the old 

• Freren ftreet - - o 1 7 O 

Ditto, aflignee to Annd Walfii, fi>r a honfe 
and ^rden in the Freren ftreet * O 1 3 m 

Pat. Dowfy, for a meffoagCy gcorden and 

orchard near the wall • o 1 a o 

Richard Roth, four bayes of a houfe, eaii 
fide of Freren ftreet - o 16 o 

Peter Roth, for the kill-fcoafc and garden 
near the choir - -* o 16 8 

Ed^yard Clinton, for the two next houfes 080 

The inner Freren ftreet. 
John Loghftan, for Ws houfe. - I i O 

John Loghnan, for the' houfe next the 

*>"dge - . o 10 o 

James Dobbin, for Ks houfe * o 5 o 

Peter 



IRJSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. .4<|j| 

/. s. d. 
Peter Roth^ for a room in Freren firect 

and moiety of the garden at ^lack 

freren gate - - o \q o 

Edmond Treny, for a houfe^ Inner Freren 

ftreet - - 080 

Oliver Roth, for half an orchard and half 

a mefluage there - - o 13 o 

Robert Roth, for the iame - Q 1 3 o 

Patrick GafTney, for half a mefHiage 

S. fide of Freren fireet - 100 

Peter Roth, for a houfe and garden there o 13' o 
Mic. Power, for a houfe on the north fide o 14 o 
John Hpen Fltz Robert, for a houfe and 

garden next to Troy's g^te - q 10 o 
Redmond Savadge, for the comer houfe 

before Troy's gate - 080 

William Kelly, for a houfe fouth fide 100 
Robert Murphy, for two mefluagps next 

the fame - - 100 

Pat. Gaffney, &r a houfe and garden near 

the High Town gate - o 13 o 

Within the High Town gate. 

Walter Shee, for the houfe next the High 

Town gate on the weft fide - 080 
Richard Lawle(s, his houfe - 060 

Jenkin Roth, for a houfe in a lane leading 

to the Gray Friars - 074 

Patrick GafFney, for a mefluage 054 

Peter Roth, for a void room in the Gray 

Freren park - - 0134 

Richard Roth, for a chamber and void 

room in the cloifter there - i o o 

Peter 



^to THE ANtlQJJitlES OI? 

/. s. JL 

Peter Roth, for the kill-houfe and mef- 

fuage next the choir - o 1 6 o 

Patrick" Murphy, for a houfe in the Gray 

Freren park * - t z % 

Patrick Murphy, for a ftone houfe near 

the Freren gate - o 1 7 4 

Robert Archer, for the rooms over the 
^ chapter houfe, fteeple and body of the 

abbey there - - 034 

Margaret Murphy, for the Gray Freren 

park - - I <2> o 

"ttenry Archer, for a houfe and orchard 

W. St. Francis's wall - 100 

Richard Savadge, his houfe. - 030 

George Shee, his houfe - 0184 

.Thomas Ley, for the houfe and flipnear 

the New Quay - - 068 

Robert Archer, for a houfe and garden N 

of St. James's ftVeet - 0120 

Thomas Shee Fitz Michael, for a houfe 

at the Market Crofs - 068 

David Roth, for two houfes near our 

Lady's churchyard iViIe - 018 

Joan Power, for a houfe and garden in 

Bowce'slane - - 068 

William Archer, for a houfe at Crocker's 

crofs, weft of Patrick ftreet -.060 
Heirs of Lettice Wal(h, for a houfe E. fide 

of Patrick ftreet - - 060 

Richard Fitz Nicholas, for a meffuage o 10 o 
Thomas Ragget, for a meffuage there 080 

Gardens 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4i3| 

Gardens and Outlands. 

George Shee, for a parcel of land called 

Biihop's lane - * 080 

Said Shee, for a garden called Hay hill 040 
Peter Roth, for the Gray Freren Inches 213 o 
Peter Roth Fitz Edward, for gardens near 

Black Freren gate - 068 

Said Roth, for two or three gardens o 7 q 

Henry Maynwaring, for a garden at 

.Killberry tower - - 0160 

Sir Cyprian Horsfall, for a parcel of 

meadow near St. Canice's* well 060 

Edmond Grace*s ailigns, for a garden, 

comer St. Roch's churchyard 068 

RobertMurphy, affigneeto ThomasGeat, 

for a garden - - 010 

Peter Roth, affignee to William Roth, 

foi' a garden - * - 068 

Daniel Martin, affignee to Clement Shee^ 

for a garden - -040 

Phillip Roth, for a garden there - 068 
^Walter Ryan's affigns, for three acres of 

furze at the Booths - 070 

John Hoyne, for two acres of land and 

two acres of meadow at KildriiTe 046 

Richard Roth, for a meadow at Couiri(h 016 
John Shee, for Farren-brock, Chepple 

and Lifnaftinfy - - 1368 

Robert Shee, for the moiety of Ardragh i o o 

Henry Archer, for the moiety - 100 

James Shortal, for Ballynolan - o 10 o 

Robert Shee, for two acres of meadow 

at Aldernwood - - 010 

James 



^ijt ttlE ANTlOjIItlES dP 

/. s. I 

Jam^ Ailekin, for two acres of meadow 
at Coolboycan * -040 

Richard Roth^ fbr an acre of wood and 

certain lartde at.Keatingftowa o o 10 

The rent iffuing ovit of Boothltown 01* 4 

Nicholas Aftckin, for a meadow at Coolis- 
hill - - 054 



••-M*i 



SECT. IV. 

IN i6i5>, ttibop Wbeekr prefei^tcd a flfltc of 
the biihpprick of OfTory to the king, in wluch he 
fets forth) that the m$inor suid k>rd(lup of Kilkenny 
was be&re and at the conqueft bebo^ng to the 
biihops of Oflbry, with Wge Ubeities both of 
freedoms and other privileges thereunto belongings 
all which in the ficknefs of the late bi(hop were by 
a new charter granted unto Kilkenny (whereby h 
was incorporated a city) united and made of the 
county of the (aid city, to the great prejudice of tbe 
prefent and future bifhops (^)* 

In 1 636, the lord deputy Wcntworth^ afterwards 
earl of Strafford^ vifited Kilkenny^ when (b) tlie 
mayor of the city thus addreffed him : 

" Right noble Lord, 
The general applaufe of heaven, the joyfol ac- 
clamations of Ireland, and pleafant paftimes of tlie 

muhitudes 

(a) Ware's MSS. vol. 75. (h) LaflFan'3 MSS. 



The total of the City's annual revenue a^.aj I 17 11 , 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 413 

multitudes of Kilkenny, the true anticnt feat of 
£ngli(h warriors, loyal always to thdr kings and 
crowns, fuit with the dignity of you her renowned 
viceroy, lord Thomas Went worth. Be pleaftd 
then afliidft your tritimphs, .to vouchfafe her and 
me leave to feed our unfatisficd eyes with the 
longed-for afpedt of Ireland's parent^ proteAor and 
reliever ; to run this day upon fome of the pleafmg 
cflfefts of your government^ with admiration of 
thofe natural and intelleftual parts of yours, which 
like fo many ftars in conjunction, with the glorious 
fun of England, fit inftniments and fortunate 
organs! to illuminate with their influences the 
Ixcath of a faithful people. 

Witncfe your witdom, prompt to overflip no 
way, no tneans to reform the abufes, root out the 
vices and remove the annoyances; witnefs your 
induftry, watchful not only of the common, but 
of the private welfare of each deferving fubjeft. 
His majefty beftowing you on us as a good, necef- 
fery for all ; and arming your defigns with fuch 
means, as beft conduce to the maintenance of the 
eftates in ftcurity, againft all wrongful intruders. 
The king of kings intruding into your hands, for 
our behoof, the heart and bounty of the great 
Charles, to increafe more the flouriftiing ftate of 
this kingdom, in ftrength, wealth and civility. 

Thefe were the fcope of fo many wholefome 
laws and ftatutcs, voted in the laft parliament ; of 
fo many provifions of ftate, regulating the difor- 
ders rf human fociety, daily iffuing from your 
Solomon-like prefcience ; in which and by which, 
'wc, in this your garden of Ireland, fmell the gracious 

Vol. 11. Ff flowers 



4H THE ANTIQjLritlES OP 

flowers of your government, enjoy the felicity rf 
your plantations, and feed our hearts with the 
fatiety of prcfent, and hope of future improve- 
ment V fo that no place, no degree, no fex over all 
this plcafant paradife, but is partaker of your com- 
fortable influence ; even thofe choaked up in the 
midll of the darketi prifons, acknowledge the dm- 
(hine of your provident care, and receiving new 
life and relief from your hands, cry out— Long 
live our life, our relief, noble Wentworth! — 

The widows and orphans oppreffed find you a 
propitious patron ; the nobility, a mirrour of honour 
and worth; the warlike^ a town of arms, and 
flower of martial difcipline ; the ecclefiaftical dig« 
nitaries, their reformer, their advancer; and aU 
acknowledge you to be the true receptacle of virtue, 
and other the beft attributes of perfedlion. 
: To abbreviate my difcourfe, left oSenfive to 
your much honoured ears,, deign me the favour, 
that while the fufTrages of fo many proviixcses and 
cities ) the acclamations of the, common peoplej 
the general applaufe of Ireland, and approbation 
of your gracious leige and fovereign fo concentric 
meet with the celebration of thofe your matchlds 
endowments, I may, right honourable, revolve 
into our firft. principles of your honour and worthy 
and rifing on the wings of adorned eloquence, to 
force to the mount and zenith of your beft merits, 
to flutter after you with the beft wifhes of all my 
citizens, by redoubling in your prefence and abfence 
the oracle of God, my. king and country, that we 
have juft caufe, and that we muft honour 

THOMAS wentworth;' 

But 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 415 

But little worth recording happened in Kilkenny 
until that memorable aera in the annals of Ireland, 
the breaking ont of the Grand Rebellion in 164 1. 
The eaufcs leading to this dire event, and the tianf- 
a£tions confcquent thereon, have been minutely 
detailed by many writers. In 1641, and for a few 
years fucceeding, this eity was ahernately the feat of 
bulineis and tumult j in 1 64 1 , lord Mountgarrct (c) 
with the mayor and aldermen flood by, with three 
hundred citizens armed, while every proteftant was 
plundered \ and in 164a, the Confederate Catholics, 
as they ftyled themfelvcs, met in Kilkenny^ 

It was abfolutely (d) necelfary, that the rebels 
fbould have the form of art authority eftablilhed 
among them, to make the orders of fuperiours: 
obeyed, and prevent that confufion and thofe mif- 
chiefs which always attend competitions for power, 
and uncertainty in the right to command ; this was 
done in the general aflembly of deputies from all 
the |>rovinces in the kingdom, which met the 24th 
of 0£tober 1642 at Kilkenny. 

The firft aft, after their meeting, was to proteft, 
that they did not mean that aflembly to be a par- 
liament ; confefling, that the calling, proroguing 
and diiTolving that great body was an infeparable 
incident to the crown, upon which they would not 
encroach : but it was only a meeting to confult of 
an order for their own affairs, until his majefty's 
wifdom had fettled the prefent troubles. They 
formed it, however, according to ilie plan of a 
parliament, confifting of two houfes ; in the one 
of which fat the eftatc fpiritual, compofed of bilhops 

F f 2 and 

(c) Cox, pag. 73. (</) Carte, fupra. 



4i6 THE ANTrOJJITIES OF 

9 

and prelates, together with the temporal lords, and 
in the other the deputies of the counties and towni| 
as the eltate of the commons, by themfelvcs. 

The meeting was at the houfe of Mr. Robert 
Shee, fon of Sir Richard Shee, now Mr. LangfoRfs 
in Coal market ; the lords, prelates and comnioDfi 
all in one room ; Mr. Patrick Darcy, bare-headed 
upon a ftoo!, reprefenting all or fome of the judges 
and mafters of chancery that ufed to fit in parlia- 
ment upon wool-facks ; Mr. Nicholas Plunbt 
reprcfented the fpeaker of the houfe of commoosi 
and both lords and commons addreflfed their (peedi 
to him ; the lords had an upper room, which ferved 
them as a place of recefs, for private confultation, 
and when they had taken their refolutions, the fame 
were delivered to the commons by Mr. Darcy. 

The clergy, who were not qualified by tbdr 
titular fees or abbies to fit in the houfe of brds, ract 
in an houfe called the convocation, where it wis 
reported among the laity, that they only handled 
matters of ty the and fettling church poflTeffions ; in 
which points fo little deference was paid to thdr 
debates, and their proceedings were treated with ib 
much contempt by the lay-impropriators and gen- 
tlemen, that the provincial of the Auguftins was 
hiffed out of the houfe, for threatenrag to wipe off 
the diift from his feet and thofe of his friars, and to 
bend his courfe beyond the feas, if the pofleflioos 
of his order were not reftored. 

For the rule of their government they profeffcd 
to receive Magna Charta, and the common and 
ftatute law of England, in all. points, not contrary 
to the Roman Catholic religion, or inconfittent with 

the 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4»? 

the liberty of Ireland. Several judicatories were 
cftablifhed for the admlniftration of jutticc, and the 
riegulation of all affairs; each county h^d its council, 
confiding of one or two deputies out of each 
barony, and where there was no barony, of twelve 
perfons chofen by the county in general, with 
^powers to decide all niatters cognizable by juftices 
c^f the peace, pleas of the crown, fuits for debts 
;and perfonal adtions, and to reftore pofleilions 
fifurped fince the war; to name all the county 
,o(6cerd, except the high-flieriff, who was to be 
chofen by the fuprenie council out rf three, which 
rthe council of the county were to recommend. 
From thefe lay an appeal to the provincial councils, 
which confifted of two deputies out of each county, 
and were to meet four times a year, or oftener, if 
there was occafion, to cjcamine the judgments of 
the county councils, to decide all fuits like judges 
of aflize, to eftabliflh recent pofledions, but not to 
meddle with other fuits about lands, e^.cept in cafes 
of dower. 

From thefe there lay a further appeal to the 

fupreme council of twenty-four perfons, chofen by 

the general aflemWyt of which twelve were to be 

,<?onftamly reftdent in Kilkenny, :or wherever elfe 

fthey (hould judge it to be moft expedient, with 

fcqual yoioes, but two-tWrds to conclude the reft ; 

,0Cyer fewer tban^nine to. fit in council, and (even 

ito .concur m tb^ fanone opinion ^ out of thefe twenty* 

four a prefident was to be named by the aflfembly, 

jgLXid was to be always one of the twelve refident, 

and in cafe of death", ficknefs or abfence, the other 

refidents, 



4i8 THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

refidents, out of the twenty four, were to chufe t 
prefident. 

The council was veiled with power over aD 
generals, military officers and civil magifirates, who 
were to obey their orders, and fend duly an account 
of their aftions and proceedings ; to determine all 
matters left undecided by ihe general aflerobly, 
their afts to be of force until refcinded by the next 
affembly : to command and punifh all commandos 
of forces, magiftrates and all others, of what rank 
and condition foever ; to hear and judge all capit2l 
and criminal caufes (except titles to lands) and to 
do all kind of afts for promoting the comnaoo 
caufe of the confederacy^ and the good of tbt 
kingdom, and relating to the fupport and maIlag^ 
nient of the war. 

(0 On the firft of November, they appointed 
Lord Caftlehaven, Richard Martin, 

Lord Gormanftown, Feigh O Flin, 

Dodtor Fenneil, Richard Beling, 

Col. Dermot O Brien, Adam Cufack, 
Sir Lucas Dillon, James Mc Donel, 

Sir Phelim O Neil, Patrick Crelley, 

Thomas Burke, Rory Maguire^ 

Patrick Darcy, and the lawyers, a committee, wto 
drew up the preceding form of government ^ and 
on the fourth, the prelates enjoined the priefls to 
adminifter an oath of aflbciation to thdr parifhioncfSi 
and take their fubfcriptions ; and on the fburteeoth 
t|iey named their fupreme council, 

Lore 

(0 Cox, pag. ia6. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 415 

Lord Viscount MoyNxc arret, Prefidcnt. 
For Leinller. For Connaught. 

Archbilhop of Dublin, Archbifhop of Tuam, 

Lord Vif. Gormanftown, Lord Vifcount Mayo, 

Lord Vif. Mountgarret, Bilhop of Clonfert, 

Nicholas Plunkct, Sir Lucas Dillon, 

Richard Beling, Patrick Darcy, 

James Cufack. Jetfrey Brown. 

For Muntler. For Ulfter. 

Lord Vifcount Roche, Archbifhop of Armagh, 
Sir Daniel O Brien, Biftiop of Down, 

Edmond Fitzmorres, Phillip 6 Reilly, 

Podtor Fennel, Col. Mac Mahon, 

Robert Lambert, Ever Magennis, 

George Comyn. Tirlagh O Neil, 

They ufed a feal (/]), which is thus defcribed ; It 
had a long crofs in the center, on the right fide of 
it was a crown, and on the left an harp, with a 
dove above the crofs, and a flaming heart under it ^ 
and round it was this infcriptiorif 
*♦ Pro Deo, pro Rege ^t p^trisi Hibernia, unanimis.** 
The cqndudt of the war is no part of our prefcnt 
concern, but we muft remark^ that the Francifcans, 
Dominicans, Carmeiitesi and Jefuits now claimed 
their antient poiTeflf^ons, and were generally re- 
inflated i for oa? of the principal ohjefts (k this 
war was, th$ re-eflablifbment of thofe orders, and 
the Romifh hierarchy -, that this point was accom- 
pliihed, we learn from a letter written by the con- 
federates in 1644 to the pope; wherein among 
other enumerations of their. good fortune (g)^ they 

exultingly 



f) Borlafe's Irifti Rebcttlon, pag. 97. They coined mone^\ 
} BurkCi Hibern. Domioic. Append, pag. 876. 



^ 



420 THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

exultingly obferve : ** Jam Deus optimus aiaximus 
catholico ritu palam colitur ; dum cathedrales 
pleraequc fuis ^ntiiVibus ; pajrochiales parochis ; 
reIigio£3rum multa casnobia propriis gaudent alum- 



nis." 



And in 1 645, when the catholics had poflefled 
themfelves of almoft all the churches in the king- 
. dom, one of their articles with the earl of Gla- 
morgan was, that they ihould retain the churches, 
which they, de fefto, held. A printing prefs wa& 
iet up in Kilkenny, at whidi all the ftatc papers 
were printed : Dodor Burke, in his hiftory of the 
Dominican order, refers to many of them ; and it 
feems large colledtions of them exift in the Irifli 
(eminaries at Rome. 

The kingdom, after more than three years of 
anarchy and defolation, exhibited a difmal ipedacle 
of religious tyranny and conTufion, and gladly 
repofed itfejf in the arms of peace. Articles for 
this purpofe were figned by the marquis of Ormond 
lind the confederates -, but the happy profpcA of 
concord was difturbed by that reftlcfs and ambitious 
ccclefiaftic, Rinuccini, the pope's nuncio ; he came 
in a frigate of 2 2 guns, and landed in Kerry the 
twenty-fecond of Oftober 1645, with twenty-fix 
Italians in his cortege ; he brought 2000 muflcetSt 
4000 bandaleers, 2000. fwords, 500 pair of piftols, 
10,000 pounds of gunpowder j and from anoAer 
frigate were landed fix defks and trunks of Spanifh 
gold ; with thefe he haftened to fCilkenny, and on 
the nineteenth of November had his audience in 
the caftle, gnd declared the reafons of tfis coming, 
yrhich were 

I. To 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4ZI 

1. To€tlabli(h.tbe Roman ca&oHc religion. 

2. To prefervc their liberties, and 

3. To ferve their prince and fovereign, which 
laft he ^xprefled with (A) fingular cmphafis, thus : 

" Et fereniflimo veftro principi meipfum devpyco.'* 
He faid high tnaf^ in the cathedral of St. Ca^iice 
on the thirtieth of November, being St. Andrew's 
day. 

The nuncio reprobated the peace, and was joined 
.by many biflhops, particularly by JDavid Roth of 
Off9ry, who laid the city and fuburbs of Kilkeni;iy 
under the following interdict. 

" Whereas (/) we have in publick and private 
meetings, at feveral times, declared to the fuprerac 
council and others whom it might concern, that it 
was and is unlawful and againfi confcience, the 
implying j)erjury (as it hath been by the fpccial adt 
of the congregation at Waterford) to both common- 
wealths, fpiritual and tenrvporal, to do or concur to 
any adl tending to the approbation or countenancing 
ihe publication of this unlawful and mifchievous 
jpeace. To dangerous (as it is now articled) to bot^ 
cbmmonwealth^ fpiritual and temporal. An4 
whereas notwithftanding our deciacation, ye^ the 
declaration of the whole clergy of the kingdoni to 
the contrary, the fupreme council and the com- 
miffionershaveadlually proceeded to the publican 
lion, yea and forcing it upon the city, by terror 
and threats, rather than by any free confcnt or 
defire of the people. 

Wc 

(b) A pamphlet containing intercepted tetters, 164s, 
tO' Borlafc, pag. 163. Whoprcfcrvcs maD7 papers printed 
in Kilkenny. . 



^zz T H E A N T I QJJ I T I E S OF 

We having duly confidercd and taken it to heart, 
as it becometh us, how enormous this fa6t is, and 
appears in catholics, even againil God himlelf, and 
what ^ publick contempt of the holy church it ap- 
peareth, bcfidc the evil it is likely to draw upon 
this poor kingdom ; after a mature deliberation 
and confent of our clergy, in deteftation of this 
heinoi|3 and fcandalous difobedience of the fuprerae 
council, and others who adhered to them, in matter 
of confcience to the holy church, and in haired oF 
fo fmful and abominable an a£t, do by thefe pre^ 
fents, according to the prefcription of the feaed 
canons, pronounce and command henceforth a 
general ceifation of divine offices, throughout all 
the city and fubiirbs of Kilkenny, in all churches, 
monafteries and houfes in them whatfoever, 

C3iven at our palace of Nqva Curia, 

Signed, 
1 8th of Aug. 1 646. DAVID OSSORIEJ^SIS.' 
The general afTembly of confederate catholics 
met in Kilkenny, the tenth of January 1647, and 
took the former oath of aflbciation with (bme new 
(:laufes. We will here give the (k) names of the 
reprefentaClvc^ of the lords and commons. 

Spiritual Peers. 
Hugh O Reiley, archbilhop of Armagh, 
Thonias Walfl^, archbilhop of Dublin, 
Patrick Comcrford, bifhop of Waterford and 

Lifmore, 
John Burk, bilhop of Clonfert, 
John O Mollony, bifliop of Killaloe, 
Richard Conell, bifhop of Ardfcrt, 

Emcr 

(/-} Burke, Hibern^ Dominic, pag. 884. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY, 423 

Emer Matthews, biihop of Ciogher^ 
Nicholas French, bifliop of Ferns, 
Edmond O Dcmpfey, bifhop of Leighlin, 
Edmund O Duyer, bifhop of Limerick, 
Arthur Magennis, biftiop of Down and Connor, 

Temporal Peers. 

Alexander Mac Donnel, e?irl of Antrim, 
Chrirtopher Plunfcet, earl of Fingal, 
Maurice Roche, vifcouat Fermoy, 
Richard Butler, vifcount Mountgarrct, 
Theobald Dillon, vifcount Collellogallen, 
John Netterville, vifcount Nettervilie, 
Donat Macarthy, vifcount Muflcery, 
Pierce Buller, vifcount Ikerrin, 
Lewis O Dempfey, vifcount Clanmalicr, 
Edward Butler, vifcount Galmoy, 
Francis Bermingham, baron of Athenry, 
Bryan Fitzpatrick, barbn of Upper Offory, 
Oliver Plunket, baron of Louth, 
William Burk, baron of Caftle-connel. 

Commons, 

John Allen of Allenftown, Geoffry Baron of ClonmcH, 

Patrick Archer of Kilkenny, Gerald Barry of Lifgriffin, 

Walter Archer of Kilkenny, Peicr Bath Filx Robert, lata 
dement A(h of Elliflown, of Dublin, 

Patrick Babe of Drumikyne, Peter Bath of Kilkenny, . 

John Baggot of Baggots- Robert B^th of Clanturk, 

town, Robert Bath, late of Dublin, 

Walter Bs^nal of Dun- John Bellew of Lisfranny, 

leckny, Richard Belling of Tyrrels- 
George Barnwall of Kings* town, 

town, Chriftopher Bermingham of 
Henry Barnwall of Caftle Corballis, 

Rickard, Edward Bermingham of 
J^m^s Barnwall, Curraghton, 

John 






T HE A N T I QUI T I E S OF 



JoIla Bermin^iani of GaU 

way, 
William BermrDgham of 

Parfonftown, 
Bryan Birneof Ballynacorr, 
Srjao Biroe of Rodine, 
James Birne of Ballyaccide, 
John Birne of Ballyglan, 
Francis Blake of Galway, 
Domintck Bodkm qf Gal- 



way, 



Job» Brennan of Cloyne- 

finloghy 
Hogh Brin of Corrinon^ 
Edward Browne of Gal way, 
Gcoffry Browne of Gal way, 
SylvelUf Browne of Dublin, 
Patrick Bryan of Lifmayne, 
John. Burk of Caftle Caroe, 
Richard Burk of Drum- 

ruift, 
Richard Burk ofShillewly, 
Theobald Burk of Buoly- 

burk, 
VKck Burk ctf Olinjk, 
William Burk of PoUards- 

lown, 
Sdniund BuHer of Idough, 
James Butler of Swyneone, 
Jahn Butler of Foulftefs-^ 

town. 
Pierce Butler of Banefeagh, 
<PJerce Butler ^of Barrow* 

mouiit, 
•Pierce Btitter of Cahir, 
Walter Bmler of-PauMlown, 
^kHinell Carve of AUobar- 

nayre, 
Arthur Cheevers ef Bally- 

ftftio, 
Peter Clinton of Dollyflown, 



AnthcmyColckw^fffRath- 

clir, 
Edward ;Comerfbrd of 

Callan, 
George Comyrtof Limerick, 
Andrew Cowley Kilkcanny, 
Walter Cruife of Arlonan, 
James Cufack of Kilkenny, 
Patrick Darcyof Gal way, 
BamabasE)empfey of Clone- 

hork, 
Nicholas Dcvereux of Bally- 

mager, 
Robert DevereuK of Bally ♦ 

fiiannon, 
Edmond Dillon of Streaois* 

town, 
Jatocs Dillon of Cbne- 

gaffel, 
John Dillon of Streamdown, 
Lucas Dillon of Loughglin, 
Allen Donnell of Montagh, 
Michael Dormer of Rofs, 
Walter Dougan of Caftfe- 

tOWBf 

Lawrence Dowdall of Ath- 

lumney, 
James Doyle of Carrig, 
Terence Doyne of Kil- 

kenan, 
Patrick Duffeof Roffpatrick, 
Richard Everard of Eve- 

rard^s caftle, 
Stephen Fallon of Athlooe, 
William Fallon of MiU- 

town, 
GeoflFry Faantng of Glean* 

agall, 
Patrick* Fanning of Lime- 

rick, 

^Ger«U 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 



4^5 



Gerald FenneU oF Bally- 

griffin, 
Jfohn Finghfs of WaUpels- 

town, 
Chriftopher FitzgtraU of 

Coynelunan^ 
Edmoiid' Fitzgerald of Bal- 

lymartyr, 
£dinomi Fitzgerald of 

Brounsfordy 
Gerald If itzgerald of Clon- 

yad, 
Gerald Fitzgerald of Ti- 

mogaey 
Henry Fitzgerald of Ti- 

croghan, 
Luke Fitzgerald of Ti- 

croghafly v 
Mathew Fitzgerald of Go- 

binftown, 
Maurice Fitzgerald of Al- 

lone» 
Htcholas Fitzgerald of Mar- 

mayne^ 
Pierce Fitzgerald of Bally- 

fhannon, 
Thomas Fitzgerald of Bon- 

neysford) 
Mark Fitzharrts of Clogh- 

inotfdy, 
NicboiasFitzharriaof Kofs, 
Edmond Fitzmaurice of 

Tyoburry, 
Gerald Fitzmaurice of 

Goby, 
Florence Fitzpatrick of 

LifduDvearneyy 
Philip Plattifoury of Dre- 

manftown, 
Thomas Fleming of Cab« 

ragh, 
Fiagher Flin of BallUagha, 



Chfiftopher French of Grf- 

way, 
Janies French of Galway, 
Mark Furlong of Wexlbr^ 
John Garvey of Lehoo§| 
Charles Gilmore, 
John Goold of Cork, 
Patrick Gough of Kiimanl- 

hane, 
John Hadlbr of Keppctt, 
John Haly of Limerick, 
Nicholas Haly of Towryne, 
Robert Hartpole, 
Nicholas Hay of Wexford, 
Charles Hcncfly of Ca- 

tcrgyn, 
ThomasHeynesofFeathard, 
Daniel Higgins of Limerick, 
William Hoare of Coi^, 
William Hoare of Uarrk* 

toWh, 
Chriftopher Hollywood of 

Tartane, 
Alexander Hope of BaUy^ 

macfearagh, 
John Hope of Mactinftowflj 
Matthew Hore of Duiv- 

garvan, 
Maurice Hurley of Kilduffe, 
Edmond Kealy of Gowran, 
William Kealy of Gowran^ 
Daniel Keefe of Dromagh, 
Eneas Kinily of Ballyne^ 

carrigy, 
Patrick Kerwan of Galway^ 
John Lacy of BrufF, 
Denis Lalor of Ballywov, 
William Langlon of Kil- 
kenny, 
Martin Lynch of Galway^ 
Nicholas Lynch of Galway^ 
Robuck Lynch of Galway, 

Nicholas 



^z6 



THE Antiquities op 



Nicholas Mac Alpin of Moy, 
Hugh Mac Cartan of Lor- 

glinc. 
Charles Mc. Garthy Riagh, 
Dermot McCarthy of Cant- 

wyrk, 
Thady Mac Garthy of Kil- 

fallyway^ 
James Mac Donnelj of MuflF, 
Charles Mc Geoghegan of 

Dromore, 
Conly Mc Geoghegan of 

Donore, 
Edurard Mc Geoghegan of 

Tyrotorine^ 
Richard Mc Geoghegan of 

Moycalhell) 
Daniel Macnemara of 

Dowhe^ 
John Macnemara of Moy^ 

riorfky, 
Arthur Magennis of Bally- 

naferney, ^ 

Connell Magennis of Lif* 

natiemy, 
Daniel Magennis of Glafca^ 
Ever Magennis of CaAle- 

wellan» 
Hugh Magennis of lllani* 

moyle, 
Anthony Martin of Gal wayi 
koger More of Ballynakill, 
Roger Nangle of Glynmore, 
Patrick Netterville of Bel- 

gart, 
Richard Nettervillct 
Pierce Nugent of Bally ne- 

curr, 
Thady O Body, 
Tirlogh O Boyle of Bally- 
more^ 



Connor O Bryen of Ballj* 

nacody, - 
Dermot O Brytn of Dro-» 

more, 
Callaghan O Callaghan . of 

Cattle Mc AuliflF, 
Donat O Callaghan of Clon- 

meene, 
Daniel O Gavanagh of 

Cloynmulbihi 
Murtagh O Cavanagh of 

Garryhill, 
Daniel O Connor of Qgel-( 

leane, 
Thady O Connor Roc of 

Bailynafad, 
Thady O Connor Sligo^ 
Hugh O Donnell of Rii^ 

malton^ 
Edward O Dowde of Por- 

terllown, 
Thady O Dowde of Rof* 

burr» 
Philip O Dwyer of Dun^ 

drum, 
Daniel O Farrell of Ennif- 

cortby, 
Fergus O Farrell of Blean^ 

vohlr, 
Francis O Farrell of Moate^ 
Thady O Hanly of Col«- 

raoe, 
James O Kearney of Bally- 

luflsey, 
Daniel O Kelly of Colen- 

geere, 
John O Kelly of Corbeg, 
Patrick O Komelty of Dun- 

gannon, 
Henry O Neil of Kilbeg, 
Phelim O Neil of Morlcy, 

Turlogh 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 



427 



Turlogh O Neil of Ard- 

gonell, 
Francis O Ronane of Kil- 
kenny, 
Hugh O Rourke of Coona- 

renea, 
Thomas O Ryan of Doone, 
Dermot O ShaughneflTy of 

Gort, 
OSullevan-MoreofDowne- 

kyrane, 
Daniel O Sullevan of Cul- 

magort, 
Nicholas Plunket of Belrath, 
David Poore of Cloncfliore, 
John Power of Kilmacdan, 
Jaraes Prendergaft of Tul- 

lovellane, 
James Predon of Gormans- 

town, 
Robert Preflon of Gormans* 

town, 
Thomas Prefton, 
Robert Purcell of Curry, 
Charles Reynolde of James- 
town, 
Edward Rice of Dingle, 
David Roche of Glanore, 
John Roche of Caftletown, 
Redmond Roche of Cahir- 

dowgan, 
Hugh Rochfort of Tagonan, 
John Rochfort of Kilbride, 
George RufTel of Rath- 

molin, 
Chriftopher St. Lawrence of 

Crucctown, 

Spiritual Peers 
Temporal Peers 
Commons 



Nicholas Sankey of Bally- 

tarkin, 
Edward Shee of Kilkenny, 
Robert Shee Fitz William 

of Kilkenny, 
.Walter Shee of Trim, 
Bartholemew Stackpole of 

Limerick 9 
Richard Stafford Fitx Ri- 
chard of Wexford, 
Richard Strange of Rocks* 

well caille^ 
WilliamSutton of Ballcroge^ 
Robert Talbot of CalUe 

Talbot, 
Thomas Tyrrell of Kilbride, 
Richard Wadding ot Bally- 

cogly, 
Thomas Wadding of Wa«- 

terford, 
John Walfli of Ballybe- 

chayne, 
John WaHh of Waterford, 
Alexander Warren of 

Church town, 
Edmund Warren, late of 

Dublin, 
William Warren of Cafliel- 

town, 
James Weldon of Newry, 
John White of Clonmell, 
Nicholas Wogan of Rath- 

coffy, 
Francis Wolverfton of New- 
town, 
William Young of Ca(hel, 

II 
14 

226 

Total 251 



Notwith- 



4aA THE ANTIQJJfTlES OF 

Notwithftanding the effort a of the wifer and 
more moderate part, the confederates found it imr 
poflible to cttablilh a permanent form of govern- 
ment ; diforder reigned in their councils, the people 
caught die contagion, and every day was marked 
vrith fome dangerous tumuk. The friars took an 
adlive part. In 1 64S, Paul King (/), a Franci&an 
and a zealous nuncionifi, formed a party among 
^e deluded inhabitants of Kilkenny to betray the 
city and the fuprcrae council into the hands of 
Rinuccini and O Neil, which however did not 
fucceed. («) The next year Rednsond Carrcxi, 
commii&ry general of the Recoile£ts, being at Kil- 
kenny and fiding with the loyal catholics againft 
the nuncio and his adherents^ and endeavouring to 
remove one Brennan and other feditious friars from 
the city, was put in danger of his life, had not the 
carl of Caitlehaven arrived with fome friends, in 
the very inftant of time to fave him. On this (»> 
occafion, thoufands of men and women in the duik 
of the evenings being coUedted by feven or ei^ 
furious Francifcans of the nuncio^s party, and 
being worked up to madnefs by their lies, at- 
tempted to force into St. Francis's abbey, and to 
murder Caron, John Barnwall reader of cfiviiuty, 
Anthony Geamon guardian of Dundalk, James 
Fitzfimon guardian of Multifernan, Patrick Plunket 
confeflbr to the poor Clares of AtHlorie, and Peter 
Walfli reader of divinity in that convent, although 
this Walfli, . in 1 646, had faved' both mayor and 

aldamen 

(/) Ware's writers, pag. 141. 

(m) Ware fupra, pag. 145. 

(19) Walfh's bid. of the remonftraoce> pag. 587. 



IRISHTO.WN AND KILKENNY. 429 

aldermen from being hanged, and the city from 
being plundered by Owen O Neil. 

The parfiament of England, turning their atten- 
tion to the diftrafted ftate of Ireland, fent over, in 
the perfon of Oliver Cromwell, a lord lieutenant 
who was able to corredt its diforders. 

On the twenty-third of March 1 650, Cromwell 
came before Kilkenny, on the fide of the black 
quarry, and fent this fumtnons that evening (p) : 

*' Gentlemen, 

My coming hither is to endeavour, if God 
pleafeth, the rcdudlion of the city of Kilkenny 
and your obedience to the ftate of England. For 
the unheard of maffacre of the innocent Englilh, 
God hath begun to judge you with his fore plague^ 
fo will be follow you, until he dcttroy you, if you 
repent 'not. Your caufe hath been already judged 
in England upon them who did abett your evils, 
what may the principals then expeft ? By this free 
dealing, you fee I intice you to a compliance v 
you may have terms; may lave your lives, libertiea 
and efiates, according ^o what will be fitting for 
me to^grant^ and you to receive. If you chufe for 
the worfe, blame yourfelves. In confidence of 
the gracious bleffings and prefence of God with 
bis owii cau£b, which this is by many teftimonies^ 
I iball hope for a godd iifue upon my endeavours ^ 
expeding a return from you, I reft your fervant, 

O. CROMWELL.'^ 
To the Governor, Mayor, &c, 

Vol. IL G g To 

CO Borlafe IriOi Rebellion. 






430 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

To this Sir Walter Butler anfwered : 

" Sir, 
Your letter I have received, and in anTwer 
thereof, I am <»mTnanded to maintain this city for 
his majefty, which, by the power of God, I am 
refolved to do, fo I reft. Sir, 

Your fervant, 

^ WALTER BUTLER," 
Kilkenny, 23d March, 1 650. 

Lord Caftlehaven had appointed Sir Walter 
Butler, governor of the city, with two hundred 
horfe and a thoufand foot, but they were Kduced 
by the plague to three hundred. This drcumflanoe 
^romwell hints at. On the 24th, he furrounded 
the place, and in the evemng atten^pted to pofle& 
himfelf of Iriflitown, but wns beaten <^ aad forced 
to retire ; tus cannon began between five and fix 
o'clock on the 25th, to bather the .«nd cf the mar- 
quis of Ormond*8 ftablea, between the caftle gite 
and the rampart, and having continued firicig uotH 
twelve, he aflaulted- the. fareadbi; his mea weie 
twice beaten off, and couki not be perfiiaded to 
make a third attack; the breach was repaired,. and 
Cromwell was on the pxint of railing the fi^e, 
when the mayor and townfincn invited him to ftay, 
and aiTured him they would receive him into ^ 
city s upon this he . appointdd a party to fet i^jon 
IriOitown in the evening, which was manned fay 
fome of the citizens, the beft part of the garriibn 
being employed about the breach ^ the dtizeits 
immediately deferted their pofts, without ftriking 
a ftroke, and Cromwell taking poflefiionof the 

cathedral 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 43? 

catbfidral and the other parts of Irifhtown, lodged 
there that night. 

On the •27th he began to break the wall of the 
Francifcan abbey, near th?. river fide, with pick- 
axes, to make way fox hi8 horfe and foot to enter ; 
that pqft being alfp guarded by townfmen only» 
tb^y began to forftke it, wh^n the governor gave 
orders to a party of horfe to alight and leading 
ibera on, beat otF the, ei^err^y, and killed moft of 
thofe that were near the. wall, and pi;t an end to 
their :qfforts there ^ ^t the fame tiipe ar> attempt was 
XT^ade to burn the gate on St. Jolin's bridge* b^t 
there the ejiemy were lik^vrife repylfed >vith the 
lofs of ma9y officers an^ foldicrs. 

Next day Cromwell was joined by Iretori with 
j[50ofre(h men, and Sir Walter Butler, confidering 
the weaknefs of the garrifon, few in number and 
thgfe worn out for want of reft by continual watch* 
.iqg; and hop^Iefa Qf relief, determined to execute 
Iprd Caftlebaven's orders j which were, that if they 
were not telieved by ftven o'clock the day before, 
he ftiould ^ot, ibr any punctilio of honour, expofe 
the townpnen tp be naaffacred, but make as good 
conditions -as he could, by a timely furrender. A. 
parley was beaten, a ceiTation agreed on ^t. twelve 
o'clock the next day, when the town and caftle 
were xicliv^red .up on the following conditipns ; 

ARTICLES 
Of agreement between the commifltoners ap- 
pointed by his ex^^U^ncy, the lord Cromwell, 
lord lieutenant general of Ireland, for and on 
behalf of his excellency of the one part, and 
thofe appointed comraiflioners by tb^ refpeAive 

G g* 2 governor 



4yi THE ANT IQJLII TIES OF 

governor of the city and caftle of KiUiBony, of 
the other part, March 28th, 1650. 

■ 

' I. That the refpeftive governor of the city of 
Kilkenny (hall deliver up to his excellency the lord 
• Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Irehtnd, for the ufe 
of the ftate of England, the (aid city and cafllet 
with all arms, ammunition and provifions of public 
ftores therein, without embezzlement, except what 
k hereafter exceptcdj at or before nine of the 
clock to-morrow 'morning. 

II. That all the inhabitants of the feid city of 
Kilkenny, and all others therein, (hall be defended 
in their perfons, goods and eftates from the violence 
of the foldiers ; and that fuch as (hall de(ire to re- 
move thence elfewhere, (hall have liberty (b to do» 
with their goods, within three months after the date 
of thefe articles. 

III. That the (aid governor with all the oflScen 
and (bidiers under his command in the (aid dt; 
and caAfe, and all others^ who (hall be fb pleafed, 
Ihall march away at, or before nine of the clock 
to-morrow morning, with their bag and baggage : 
the officers and their attendants ^ith their hories 
and arms, not exceeding one hundred and fifty 
horfcs i and their foot (bldiers to march out of the 
town, two miles diftant with their arms, and with 
their drums beating, colours flying, matches lighted ^ 
and then and there to deliver up the faid arms to 
foch as (hall be appointed for receivirtg tfiem, 
except an hundred mulkets and an hundred pikes 
allowed them for their defence againft the tones, 

IV. That the faid officers and (bldiers fhall have 
fiom his excellency a (afe conduift^ fix miles from 

the 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 43S 

the city of Kilkenny ; and from thence a pafe, to 
be in force for fix days, they marching at leaft 
ten nules each day, and doing no prejudice, to 
quarters. 

V. That the city xX Kilkenny (hall pay 2000/. 
as. a gratuity to his excellency's army: whereof a 
1000/. to be paid on the 30th of this month, and 
the other on the firft day of May, to fuch as (hall 
be by his excellency appointed. That major 
Comerford and Mr. Edward Roth fhall remain 
faoftages, under the power of his excellency for 
the performance of faid articles, on the part of the 
faid city and garrifon of Kilkenny. 

And iailly, for the performance of all and An- 
gular the faid articles, both parlies have hereunto 
interchangeably put: their hands, the day and year 
above written. 

O. Cromwell. 
Edward Cowly, John Comerford, 
Edward Roth, David Turnball. 

Sir Walter Butler and the officers when they 
marched out were .complimented by Cromwell, 
who faid : " That they were gallant fellows : that 
he had loft more men in ftorming that place, than 
he had in taking Drogheda, and that he fhould 
have gone without it, had it not been for the 
treacher)' of the townfmen." 

Cromwell appointed col. Axtel Cp)^ governor, 
with a confiderable garrifon. The plague raging* 
in Dublin, Ireton, in 1654, wintered in (y) Kil- 
kenny i and the next year, Fleetwood, on his 

arrival 

(p) Borlafe, pag. Z55. (f) Borlafe, pag. 28a. 






434 T H E A N T I QJU I T I E S OF 

arrival (r), took up his refideiice in this city, for 
the fame reafon. 

On the 4th Oftober, 1652, a high commiifioa 
court was held in Kilkenny before juftice Donclian, 
juilice Cooke and commilfary Reynolds. 

On the reftoration of Charles IL Kilkenny rc- 
fumed and exercifed its chartered rights^ and every 
thing wore a tranquil appearance. In 1 666^ Eng- 
land being engaged in a war with Hc^land, that 
were fixiy-nine Dutch ptifoners fent to Rilkcnn)' 
from (j) Watcrford and other fea-ports, for grctta 
fecurity. 

In 1672, Nicliolas (/) Lc^hnan petitioned the 
privy council of Ireland in behalf of himfelf and 
other citi2enfi of Kilkenny, and dated, that in a 
fmall aflembly of aldermen and common-coundl- 
men, a refolution was made of charging each pcrlbn 
who Itood in the market with commodities, three 
halfpence every time, for murage, parage, ta. 
The petitioner alledged, that the cuftoms and du- 
ties of the market, amounting to above one hundred 
pounds per annum, were appropriated to thefe ufcs» 
and were fufficient to repair the ftreets, walls and 
bridges. Eefides, that the corporation was endowed 
by royal grants, \yith tliree intire abbies, with thdf 
lands and livings, and feveral rich impropriations, 
to the value of four or five hundred pounds yearly» 
but that thefe revenues were funk very mudi by 
embezzlement. 

He therefore prayed that the dilbefles taken in 
purfuance of the above refolution may be reftorcd. 

Oa 

(r) Bcrlafe, pag. jqz. (*) L^HTan's MSS. 

(/) Uft>n*$ MSS. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 
Qn tlus petitioB, the lord lieuteaant and council 
made this order : 

" 3d Jan. 1673. 

We require the mayor and aldermen of IGlkenny 

within mentioned, by themfelves or their agents 

fufliiciemly inflrufted and authorized, to appear and 

anfwer the within complaint. 

Effex, 

Ja. Armachanus, 
Mich. Dublin. Can. 
Donegall, 
OBryen, 
Tlwmond, 
Herbert, 
Cba. Meredyth, 
Hen. Ford." 
- This put an end to this illegal imporition. 
King James II. when he was new chartering the 
different corporate towns in the kingdom, to anfwer 
Ws wretched views, did not forget Kilkenny. TTw 
corporation, before the year 1687, confifted of 
feven companies, but by the new charter they 
were reduced to five. The (a) cxpence of this 
charter was 260/. but 305/. were raifcd. There 
were now to be twenty-four aldermen, befides the 
mayor, two (herifFs and a cliamberlain with thirty- 
fix burgeflTes, a recorder and town clerk, who was 
aifo prothwiotary and clerk of the peace and 
crown. 

Jdtm 



43^ 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF 



John Roth, Mayor. 
.Aldermen. 

Richard Vifc. Mount- 
garret, 

John Grace, efq; 

Edward Roth, merchant, 

Marmadukc Shee Fitz- 
Richard, efq; 

David Roth, efq^ 

Edmond Shee, e(q; 

Walter Lawlefs, efq; 

James Bryan, efq; 

Nicholas Shee, efq; 

Thomas Butler, gent. 

Henry Archer, efq; 

Valentine Smith, gent. 

Michael Roth, gent. 

John Hay dock, apothe- 
cary, 

Francis Rowlidge, gent, 

William Archer, merch. 

Thomas Young, vintper, 

John Archdekin, merch. 

Samuel Philips, gent. 

John Shee, merch. 

John Nowlan, merch. 

James Rafter, gent. 

Jofhua Helfham, gent. 

Michael Bryan, gent. 
Sheriffs. 

Luke Shee, merch. 

John Archdekin, junior, 
merch. 



Chamberlaik. 
Peter Archdekin, merdi. 

BURGESS&S. 

Robert Knarelhorou^, 

merch. 
Janjes St. L^ger, merch. 
William Kimherly, en- 

fign, 

William Badge, genL 

Thomas Cookefey , gent. 

Griffith Williams, gar- 
dener, 

John Garnett, baker, 

John Murphy, gent. 

G^ofFry St. Leger, gent. 

Mark Knarefborough, 
merch. 

William Shee, gent. 

John Ley, gent. 

Bernard Shee, gent. 

Matthew Roth, merch. 

Thomas DufFe, merch. 

Peter Archdekin, merch. 

Peter Shee, merch. 

Michael Forftall, gent. 

John Wall, merch. 

Luke Cufack, merch. 

Robert Roth, gent. 

John Donphy, merch. 

Martin Smith, merch. 

Edward Caddow, merch. 

Nicholas Ley, merch. 

Edw. Fitzgerald, merch. 

Nic 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 



437 



David Fanning, mcrch, 

Robert Dixon, 
Recorder. 

James Lawlefs, Town 
Clerk, Prothono- 
TARY, and Clerk 
of the Peace and 
Crown (w); 

WithaSwoRD bearer^ 
aMACE BEARER, and 

NINE AtTORNIES. 



Nic. Langton, merch. 

Patrick Caddow, merch. 

Ifaac Muktns, merch. 

Thomafi Philips, tanner, 

Peter Shce Fitz Pierce, 
merch. 

James Archer, merch. 

Robert Garret, gent. 

Marcus Shec Fit? Tho- 
mas, merch. 

George Birch, gent. 

A Rent Roll (x) of the revenues payable to the 
corporation of I^ilkenny for the year 1688. 

Duke of Ormond, one year's chief rent 40 o 
Alderman John Nowlan, for the reftory 

of Jerpoint - - 3Q o 

Henry Bradidi, for the reftory of Claragh 22 jQ 
Thomas Lawlefs, for the rcdlory of Min- 

kully r. - IQ 

Capt. St. George and Mr. Goare, for the 

redtory of Tubrid - 15 

Bahhazar Cramer, for the reftory of 

Kilmodun • " 7 

AiEgns of Bartholomew Connor, for the 

redtory of Skirk - 10 

Sir Henry Wemys, for the redtory of 

Danesfort - - 15 

Alderman Burrel's exeaitors, for part of 

Walldn's green t o 



d. 

Q 
O 

o 



P o 



Q Q 



O Q 



o o 



10 o 

Aid. 

(ou) This lift was taken from the patent rolls of the high 
court of Chancery. Vide Harris's life of king Williain, 
app. page viii. 
• <*) Laffan*s MSS. 



43t ^ THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

L s. d. 

Aid. ConncPs excctrtots, for hifl hokKt^ 

m Gla.ndoync - - 400 

JatHCS Bryim, for the reftory of Jeridns- 

town - ^ V 1 o o 

Sir William Evans, for the reAory of 

St.John^s - - 2600 

The famC) for KUderry meadows - o 10 © 
The fame, for chappel - 20 o o 

Jonas Wheeler, for Magdalane's land 15 00 
William Den, for the third . part of 

Brownftown - -25^ 

Sif William Evans, for Drakeland ^ 900 
C^t Warden's executors, for Lifnefonchhi 2tr o o 
Sir Richard Bulkeley, for part of the 

Dominican abbey - 2 io o 

jofias Haydocke, for Prior's orchard i c o 

Afllgns of Aid. Connor, for his hold- 
ings in the Tholfel « 400 
Executors of Mr. Tobin, for his pent- 

boufe - - 150 

Affigns of Cath. Evans, for her holding 

in llie Francifcan abbey - 200 

Francis Bradifli, for part of the Domi- 
nican lands - - - I o o 
Afligns of Aid. Connor, for his holding 

in St. John's - - 700 

Aid, Rowlidge, (ex part of St. John"* 

demefnes - - 2 15 o 

Luke Dormer, for the redtory of New 

Ro(s. - - 14 o o 

Duke of Ormond, for lands in St. John's 1 o o 
Affigns of Mr. Hogg, for Artsgregane 012 o 
William Jones, for Watergate - o 10 o 

Mr. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 459 

A s. d. 
Mr. Barry, for his five foote in the ftreet 05 o 
Affigns of Mr. Synnot, for part of the 

Dominican demefne - o 15 o 

Myles Goodin, for the Black abbey gate- 

houfe - - 0,50 

Alderman Philips,- for his holding 'm St. 

John's - - 100 

Afligns of Aid. Connor, for an incroach- 

ment in the ttreet - 050 

Mr. Toovey's penthoufe , - • . P . 5 ® 
Samuel Booth, for part of St. James's 

green - . - 1 10 o 

Afligns of Aid. Goodin, for part of the 

man fe lands of Minkully - 126 

Patrick Murphy, for land near Troy's 

gate - - . o 13 4 

Charles WooUey, for his holding o lo o 

Alderman Connel, for lands in Green 

ftreet - - 150 

William Jackfon, for a wafte in St 

Kyran's well - - o lO o 

Richard Nun, for the lands of Bally- 
" garvey - - 500 

• Alderman Cookfey, for his leafe in St. 

James's ftreet - - 0100 

Mr. Tozier, for St. John's gate and his 

incroachment in High ftreet - ^90^ 
Archdeacoii Dryfdall, for his holding in # 

James's ftreet - - i q o 

James Dowdall, for a wafte in Walkin 

ftreet - - o a 6 

Nicholas White, for the lands of Thromer, 

CO. Wexford - - p 10 © ' 

Mr. 



440 T H E A N T I QJJ I T I E S OF 

/. s. a, 

Mr. Badge, for a wafte in St. John's o i o 
Alderman Helftiam, for his holdings q 1 3 4 
Peter Grace and William Grace, for 

twoftalls - - ' 2 o o 

Edward Duberly, for the fixth ftall 100 

James Murphy and Thomas Brchon, for 

the feventh and eighth flails - 200 
For other flails - .700 

The total of the City's annual revenue £.$13 ^^ ? 

In 1 689 a (y) militia was forme4 in JCilk^^ny, 
The mayor, John Archdekin, Captain, 

- - Lieutenant. 

Serjeants. Corporals. 

Nicholas CraniflDorough, Edward Fitzgerald^ 
- • John Lee, Michael Langton, 

Thomas Mayher, . . Patrick Condon. 
Patrick Hickey, 
With one hundred and twenty one private men. 

(z) The fubfidies levied off the inhabitants were 
very confiderable. The number of houfes now in 
the city and fuburbs according to the collc6kor*s 
return : 

In St. Mary '5 parifli 241 

In St. John's . - 94 

In St. Patrick's - 2Q 

In St. Canice'5 • 152 

507 
Allowing eight perfons to an houfe, there were 
Ihen but 4056 fouls in Kilkenny. By the hearth- 
books 

. OJ Laffan's MSS. fs) Laffan's MSS. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 

books of 1777, an inten'al of but eighty-eight 
years, it appears there were then 2274 houfes^ 
which eftimating as before, makes 18,192 fouls, or 
an increafe of 14,1 36 perfons. Such are the happy 
effefts of domeftic peace, the regular adminiftra- 
tbn ;of juftice, and the eftabliftiment of trade and 
manufadures. 

This year, 1689 {a}y the corporation petitioned 
king James, that by his proclamation having 
ordered coals to be fold at nine pence per barrel, 
lieutenant Walffi and* James Mergh in difobediencc 
thereof, being overfeers of Idough colliery, pre- 
vented coals from coming to the city, and thereby 
enhanced their price, although- the city was obliged 
to find fewd for colonel Thomas Butler's regiment 
rf foot and two troops of lord Galmoy's horfe, and 
thercfbrc prayed redrefs. 

• From Mr. Laffan's coUeftion of MSS. we learn, 
fliat John Archdefcin was eletfted mayor of Kilkenny 
by fhe popilh party in 1689, but was difplaced 
ttte ' feventeenth of July 1 690, after the glorious 
▼idtory at the Boyne. He petitioned the corpora- 
ttori for his year's falary, which was 1 00/. and that 
for nine months and twenty-four days, he had 
received but 75/. i8j. 6d. Among his dilburfe- 
ments the following are remarkable. 

I. s, d: 

For fait to tire miJitia of Dublin, by con- 

fent of an affemb!y at the Old tholfel 030. 

For candles to ford Tyrconnel and the 
French general after the route of the 
Ooyne - • 08a 

Paid 



44 * 



{a) Laffan's MSS. 



44» THE ANTIQJUITIES OF 

L s. JL 

Paid Patrick Mc. Moran for fhoeing coL 
Sheldon's horfes, he helping to keep 
the city frpn? plunder after the route 050 
For iron for ftioeing lord TyrconiJicl's 

horfes ' - ^ i 14 O 

Paid men and women for carrying corn 
. to the mill ; for w-ant of horfes, to get 
fomc grow^. to make bread far the 
running army after the route - 9 3 o 
Paid N icholas Murphy /or feyen ^f caffe9 
of mutton,, given to the guar^?, that 
came iwith lord Tyrcoanel , - i . ^ * 

For iron delivered to Thomas Bs^rry, for 
^ mending the iojcks of the city gate, 

after the rgu^e pf the Bpyue - 1160 
He alfo charges the board of ordip^nce 25 14 3 
for mounting, ^ven iron fakers, . th^ dianfieier of 
each three inches and a half, their length frotp 4be 
baie ring to the mu|zle feven feet and a balf| 
three were mounted on field carriages, and four 
on truckles ^ four were placed on the half cnopo^ 
of the city walls, and Uiree a^out the caiUe of 
Kilkenny. ... 

1690. In July king James's army on quittirig 
the town extorted a good fum 4^1 money from the 
inhabitants, to preferve the town frcn plunder. 
On the nineteenth of the fame month, king .William 
was fplendidly entertained by the duke at his 
caftle, which had been preferved by count Lauzun 
from being pillaged {b). 



July 



{h) Harris's life of king William, pgg. 281. 



IRI6HT0WN AND KILKENNY. 443 

July 24, 1690, the if) following juftices of the 
peace were appointed to receive their arms and 
fubmiflion from fuch as fubmitted to his majefiy^ts 
declaratbn, in the city and county of Kilkenny4 

Sheriff, for tfie time beings 

Richard Coote, E(q; 

Sir Henry Wemys, Knight. 

Sir William Evans, Knight: . 

Balthazar Cramer, 

Samuel Booth, 

John Baxter^ 

Agmond. Cufie,. 

Chriftopher.'Hewctfon, ECqcs. 
Monfieur Motraye, an ingenious foreigner, who 
piub&(hed his travels at the Hague in 17 30, and 
a ihort time before vifited Kilkenny, gives the 
following candid and tundfome account of the 
city, and of thofe particulars that . engaged his 
attention {J). ^ Kilkenny, a large t^wn aad capital 
of the^ ^unty of the farjic n^me, i$ one of the 
be$ built in the province of Leinller ) its ltreet$ 
are jxived with marble^ of which they have many 
quarries in the neighbourhood. The churcbef 
are in the Gothic (Hie of building) the cathe- 
dral is the handfomeft and is fituated on a fmall 
height, near it is a lofty [round] tower; there 
are fcvcral towers of that kind in Ireland, they 
are very ancient, and are fuppofed to be the 
wprk of the Danes;,! did not meet any of them 
in England, though the Danes were in pofleflion 
of that kingdom alfo; it is not agreed on to 

[ what 

• • • 

(c) Harrif's life of king William. App. pag. Ixt. 
id): See pag. 472, &c. of the edition in French. 



444 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF . 

. I 

what ufe they were dellined $ .fome think they 
were watch towers to obfervc the enemy^ others 
that they were belfries, becaufe they arc raoftly 
found near the ancient churches ; fbme I was 
told are above a hundred feet high and of only ten 
or twelve feet diameter, the walls are but three 
feet thick ; no flairs remain within thefe towers, 
nor any traces to (how that they evef had any i a 
ladder is requifite to reach the entrance, which is 
about ten or twelve feet from the ground. At 
Clondalkin, four miles from Dublin, , 1 faw a tower 
very like this, it is eighty-four feet high, and more 
than two hundred paces diflant from the churcL 
At Swords, fix miles from Dublin, is one feventy- 
^ two feet in height ending in a point. At fi>roe 
diflance from the cathedral of Kilkenny are conii- 
derable ruins of a monaftery, nbw converted into 
a barrack, and the church into a flable ; the fleeple 
of it is pretty entire. 

This town was noted for having in it feveral 
religious houfes. According to hiftory, no Idng- 
dom more abounded in tHem thai} Ireland, in 
proportion to its extent ; the greateft number were 
of regular canons of ^St. Auguftin, they alone 
ha.d more houfes than all the other orders put 
together, they poffeffed moft of the chapters of 
the cathedrals; one of the great prerogatives of 
that order was, that two of their abbots and dght 
of their priors fat in parliament, as peers of the 
irealm. 

The market-place of the Crofs, fo called from 

. ' a marble crofs which is ftill ftanding in the center 

of it, is a long and broad fireet, adorned with 

many 



» :\ 



IRISHTOWN AND KltKENNY. . 44^ 

inany gocxi houfes, in this ftreet the tholfel is- 
i"emarkablc, though frnaU H is very neat ; the crofs 
. is lofty, ratfed on a round {e) pecfcital with fix (f) 
Heps, th^ arnj5 of it arc broken pff, bi^t tlie fhaft 19 
itdornjed with gogd figure^ ip r^liaf, arijt weJl prff^- 
ierved. 

The priqucip^l ornanDient of th? Xow^ is th? 
d^ifce of Ormo/ld'$ palace, i^ wa$ a ^>'uilc}ing pf bip 
^ncellbrs i ibme jemain^ of the .anttent <:ai{le ftilj[ 
appear^ which Ibpw that it was one of the ftrorigeft 
of its time j tl^ date rebuilt i^ m^grtificently ixi 
. the modern ftik a little befon? his retreat, byt lb/? 
^feftde was riot fiailTied, iK)r does it appear that It: 
^er will, being now fp ;ieg|e<5ted ih-^x ^ fair|' 
^mes in every where j it is inhabited only by tl)? . 
gardener ;a{)d bis f^^iaaijy, who ba>rdly tat^ gare pf 
|)is owa apartn^eai ; and a$ to the gi^rden^^ I^^Pf 
^p only what ijs ufipfut, fvich as t|i^ fx^it tr^e^ 
y^igietables, &q. )^ evieo ft<flfer$ the grf f; to grow 
In fo0ie parts^ tlioiigh for np pfber Vijfe t>ui^ thf 
gra^zing of cattle. 

This paUcje is h/eauttfuUy CriM^ti^ 011 ^n ^eHiif- 
Aenjce, at the 6?ot ojT wbi^h r»^nS t.^f N^tfre, 'afticf 
having waihed the piark dnd tjijs town ; tb^s riv^ 
iruii^ berre w^lb r^ipidity oyer i^rid wd granrel, pnrf 
jfcs fo cliear, tli^t it is on^ of ite three thing? of whiqlii 
h is faid K'lkenny boafts; water without pi^id^ 
mr without fog and fire without frnoke ; in fa<5t; 
the air is p\ire and clear, and Ac coals' whichf 
arjc iraifed ;n the n'^glit^ourbood flSV^r fwote?/' 

(^) Square. J77 F«rc. 



'44« THE ANTIQJLTITIES 01? 

The MARKET CROSS. 

The frequency of robbery and theft in remote 
. and uncivilized ages, induced the neceffity of fell- 
' ing commodities in public fairs and markets, and 
producing vouchers for them. Market-croffes were 
invented to expedite bufineft, and they anfwered a 
fpiritual and civil purpofe. The clergy in their 
proceffions always flopped where they were, and 
laid mats : they were adorned with fculptures of 
angels and holy men, and thereby attradcd the 
notice and devotion of the multitude. Thus (anc- 
lified, they alfo ferved a civil ufe, by the feUcr 
looking on them and fwearing, that what he was 
difpofing of was either honeftly come by, or good 
in its kind, and this fupplied the place of a voucher. 
So general was this praftice, that no oath is b 
common among the Irifh, as fweaiing by the crdk 

The market crofs of Kilkenny continued an onu- 
iment to the city until the year 177 1, when it was 
taken down, but a drawing was made of it about 
ten years before, which is now in the coUeiftion of 
the rev. Mr. Archdall ; we here give an engraving 
of it, the date mccc appears on it, and alfo that 
it had five fteps. Motraye fays, tlie arms were 
broken, but the (haft remained, adorned wiih 
beautiful figures. 

CASTLE of KILKENNY 

Is now in a better ftate than when viewed bv 
Motray*. The entrance into it is from the parade, 
and leads to the back of the houfe, the front facing 
the river. In the court-yard are the foundations 

of 



IftlSHTOWN. AND KILKENNY. A4t 

of the buildings mentioned by Motraye, and oppo- 
fite the door of thc^houfe, is a clock placed in an 
old tower. 

On entering the houfe, we turn on the left hand 
into the dining parlour j it is ill-proportioned, as are 
all the other rooms ; convenience and elegance are 
confulted in none of them. That the duke of 
Ormonddid not build the whole, the different 
additions and improvements demonftrate. It is 
impoffible to conceive fo meanly of his grace*s 
talk and judgment, as to imagine he could adopt 
fuch irregularities and ^ifproportions in any plan 
offered to him, much l^fs would he have negledtcd 
fuitabl? bed chambers, which are abfolutely not to 
be found here. To compenfate for thefe defedts, 
the curious vifitant may contemplate many por- 
traits of the various branches of this truly antient 
and noble family. Led by an ignorant Ciceroni 
and unfurnifhed with a catalogue, the reader muft 
pardon whatever errors he may find in the follow- 
ing detail of the pictures. 

Dining Parlour^ 

Earl of Arran, by Sir Peter Lely. 
Earl of Offory, father of lord Arran. 
Emilia de Naffati, countefs of Offory. 
Dutchefs of Richmond, by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 
Two beauties of the court of king Charles II. 
Dutchefs of Devonrtiire, daughter to the firlt duke 

of Ormond. 
Countefs of Chefterfield, her fitter. 
Dutchefs of Beaufort and Somerfet. 
Two young children of the family. 

Hb 2 Brsak« 



44$ THE AMTIQJLJiriES OF 

Breakfast or Tapistrv Rpom. 

From the ^k asd irregular figuce of this roooi^ 
it appears to have been one of the old towet s : 
und we dtfcover the thicknefe cf the walls, whkii is 
very great. The tairiflr>\ admirablj executed, con- 
tadQ6 ibe hiftory of Decius^ the colours freih and 
lively. In thia room ure 

Th^ firft duke of Ormond, a full length. 

The fecond dutches of Ormonde 
Ov^er the chimney 

A (bepi)erd and tii;o iambs. 
A faandibinfe gla& IvrfUte and ^k mimidings and 
i^ adorii this room. 

The Alcove or Presence Cha mber. 

Tl;us room is alijb hung with tapefiry^ repre^Qting 
the four &aionS| but inferior in defign asid €S9- 
:^ution to the foregoing. The paintings i^re 

The Ml duke of Ormond* 

Lady Thuriea. 

Herodias with the head of St, Johp in a ^h%r^. 

A madona and child^ from Corregio, by C^Io 
. Dolci. 

Lord Arran, 

Royal family, by Vandyke. 

Charles lid^s /queen, by the fajne. 

A portrait. unknoW'Q-. 
A landfcape. 

In this chamber is a eheft finely jap^oaed, Sb^ 
to be the duke of Ormond's travelling ehcft ; and 
a pier glafs, and under i^ a table inlaid njitjh vfuriatas 
marbles. 

Sall 



IRISHTOWN ftNt) KILKENNY. ^4^ 

Ball Room tOr Gallery, 

This gallery is of great length, but unfinifhed, 
>iior does proper care ieem to be taken of the 
"Valuable works it contains, in it.^re tb^ 

Head of lord Strafford. 

King Charles I. and his^ueei^ 

King Charles IL 

King James tl. 

C^een Mar^. 

Queen Anne. 

Firft duke of Orftioi^« 

Earl of Ofibry, his fon« 

Dutcheft of Kenty all whole lengthsi. 

Admiral Jenkin, in black. 

Lord Clanricarde. 

Mary Magdalen, almoft naked.* 

Fourteen portrdts unknown. 

Six battle-pieces, reprefenting the engagements 
in the Dutch wdr, in wMcb lord Offbry was 
prefertf. 

Mrs. Btjtleil's Drsssikg Room 
3s fmall, but handfomely fitted up. There are 
« japanned cabinet^ and a commode of oUve inlaid 
4Uid divided at top with lines of hoUy» The paiat^ 
ings are, 

Ceres and Autnmnvs. 

Twp of the beauties of king Charles's court. 

Two flower pieces. 

Lail dutchefs of Ormond. 

Lady Amelia Butler. 
A very fmall clofet called, a boudeur, with a 
Jlibrary in it. 

Lady 



'^^ THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

• * 

Lady Anne Butler's Drbssing Room, 
fe a fmall oiftagon, in one of the towers. Here 
are fome miniature paintings, particularly one of 
the earl of Wandesford, lady Anne's fadier, and 
his counieft. 

A fmall chamber organ/ 

Two Chinefe mandarins, &c. 

We 'pafi through a long corridore to the bed 
chambers, which are -but indifferent. 

Lady Anne's Bed Chamber 
Is hung with tapeftry, made by nuns ; the figures 
are Chinefe and grotefque, the bed civtains the 
fame, but neither figures pr colours good. 

The Chapel. 

Mr. and Mrs. Butler continue Roman catholics, 
and have this fmall room for a chapel. The altar 
is of wood, and in the center is a (lone covered 
"^ith coarfe canvas, and called the holy ilon^ ; it is 
an oblong of about eight inches by four, with aa 
infcription in old Gothig letters, of fome text. At 
firft fight it was judged a reliqije,' but on fartlicr 
confideration, it was found, thaf by the firft canon 
made by (g) archbilhop Corny n in 1186, k is 
ordered, '' that altars be made of ftone ; and if a 
ftone of fufRcient fize cannot be got, then a iquare, 
intire and polifhed one be fixed in the middle of 
the altar, where Chrifl's body is confecrated ; of a 
compafs broad enough to contain five croflTes, and 
to bear the foot of the largclt chalice." This fuf- 
ficiently explains the reafon of the fipne being 
inlaid in the altar. 

• Th«t 

(i) Ware's Bljhops, pog. 316. 






IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. I^S^ 

There is a tabernacle for the elements, with a 
tnadona over it ; and in an inner rcx^m, aconfeifioa 
obair. 

Evidence Chamber 

Contains a great number of family papers. Mr, 
Carte, while he was employied in compiling the life 
q( the great duke of Ormond, had an order from 
the earl of Arran, to examine and take away whatr 
ever papers were ufeful to him ; and accordingly 
he feleded a great many, and brought them on-r 
three Irifli cars — as he expreffes it, to Dublin, 
Mr. Butler informed the writer, that they were 
fent back, and lepofited in this chamber* Mr,. 
Carte moreover raeations a number of flewardsj 
accounts ; thefe if carefully examined might give 
us as good a view of antient manners, as the earl 
of Northumberland's hpufliold book, communicated 
to the public by dean Percy; but from the fmall 
number that the dean printed, he muft be equally 
curious and fortunate that caij obtain a copy of it. 
It would be worthy the noble pofleflbr to have 
thofe antient documents arranged, titled, and their 
contents expreflcd : ^valuable materials might be* 
found to illullrate the hiilory of the kingdom, in 
which the houfe of Ormond bore fo illultrious a 
part, and in particular of the city and county of 
Kilkenny. 

The front of the houfe lies nearly S. W. looking 
towards St, Jphn's bridge. Before the front is a 
lawn edged with flowers and (hnibs: this lawn 
With its wall forms a rampart next the river : nt 
ibc foot of this wall, a walk of about eight feet in 

breadth 



THE A^JTIQJUITIJES OF 

breadth has bedn uken off fhe river ; H is called 
the mall^ and here the itlti^ens reerealte themfelves^ 
while the Nore roll^ by : a river Jhu5 recorded m 
Spenfer's Faery Qyeen (A). 

** Thcxiext theftubburne Neure, whofe waters grey. 
By fidr Kilkenny and Rofponte bord.*' 

Sir James Ware mentions bifbop CatitwdT^ 
reWildtng th(i great bridge of Kilkenny^ tbrown 
down by ^ inundation ibout the year 1447 ^ it 
alfo appears that St. John's bridge fell down by a 
jgreat ilood in the year 1564. See page 357. 

On iSunday the fecond of October 1763, abottt 
(gigbt o'<tlock in the morning^ a moft unufual flood 
iind inundation poured down upon the city and 
e<5uAty of Kilkenny, from twenty-four hours of 
incefTant rain/ Green's bridge near the cathe* 
drdl fell, but no life was loft. On St. Jdbn's bridge 
dbove an hundred perfons were ftandmg ; but it 
toeing reported, that a cabbin was fiiiling down the 
^ver without finking^ 'mdft of them hafiened to 
lt>ehold the fight ; fourteen men and women how- 
ever Unfortunately remained, the bridge fell, and 
itfiey were inftanjly fwallowed up in the torrent. 
For two days there was no communication betweta 
the people on each fide the river ; boats cotild not 
ply : in moll low fituations the water rofe to clerea 
and in fome to fifteen feet in height. 

From bilhop Pococke's papers, in the cpHbnpal 
palace, the loiles fuftained are thus diSmated : 



St 



(^} 6. 4. cant. zi. ft. 4}. 



IRISHTOWK ANJb KILICENNY. m 

Bt* John's bridge ,•• 2785 5 6 

jpf eta's brid|pe - - tS%B B o 

j^enncf'fi bridge ^ - 'P59 4 ^ 

Tlx>auil\own bridge ^ r ^^ 16 o 

CafUccomer brid|g;e - « }^^9 t ^ 

Ennifteagtie « - 4^$ 9 ^ 

10584 la i 

][a the city, loiTes ' • - 4p^ o (^ 

By poor jonder 40J. ^5^9 Q 

pi St Canice^ lofTes • 430 la 4 

Poor as before . - 41 12 4 

£.tisSt 14 4 

^or St. John's and Green's bridges, /. s. d. 

the parliannient granted - 54 ^ 7 ^ o 

iBy a tax on the county -. 4567 q o 
^arl of Northumberland, lord lieu- 

teiiant, gave - - 200 o o 
Polledtions in the neig;hbouring 

churches - - 273 O o 



** 



jf. 10857 O 6 

— - . i_ _ 

St. John's bridge has been fince rebuilt with 
.three tight elegant arches^ as has atfo Green's bridge 
with equal beauty and deganCe. 



SECT. V. 

ABOUT the year 1^33, Hugh Mapiltdn, whofe 
fte was then at Aghaboe in Upper Offory, began 
tlie foundation of the cathedral church in Kilkenny. 

Such 



454 THE ANTIQJJ.ITIES OF 

jSuch is the account in the annals at the end of Ware,' 
However, this writer ia his account of the bilhops 
of Oflbry^ mentions (but as a report, of wfaidi, 
it is to be fuppofed, be could procure no evkteoce) 
that Felix O DuUany or I>elan7 laid the foundation 
of the cathedral in 1 1 80. It is very extraordinary^ 
if the church was at all begun by Dullany, no 
progrefs Aould be made in it for fevcnty-cight 
years after. On the other hand, we cannot con- 
liftently with truth and biftory place the rudiments 
of the church fo late as Mapilton, becaufe there 
are indifputable proofs of there being biihops of 
this fee during the above interval. 

So that the fadl is probably this: — ^Dullany 
erefted an oratory near the round tower as the 
foundation of an epifcopal church : Hugh Rufiis 
purfued the fame idea with more vigour, being an 
EngliJh monk, and elefted perhaps through the 
intereft of the earl of Pembroke ; and MapUtoQ 
and St. Leger might have perfected thefe begin- 
nings. There are fomc. diftinguiftiing marks in 
tiie ftyle of this building, that feem to countenance 
the preceding conjectures. St. Leger died towards 
il}e end of Edward I's reign, when the charaifler 
(/) of ecclefiaftical architefture was, th« immoderate 
length of the eaftern and wefterq windows, taking" 
up the breadth of the nave and rifing as high as 
tlie vaulting, and thefe ornamented with coloured 
glafs. The windows of our cathedral are in this 
flyle, but at prefent (hortened ; however the eye 
quickly difcovers and traces the barbarous change. 
A large pile like this, and where every exertion 

was 
(0 Bentbam's Antiquities of EI7. 



IRJSHTOVVN AND KILKENNY. 455 

M^as clogged with innumerable difficulties amid ths 
turbulence of conqued and infurredtion, could not 
foon be completed. We have no memorials of its 
progrefs, and are therefore left to form an opinion 
from circumftances. 

Bi(hop Ledred, in 1318, fitted up the windows^ 
and particularly the eaftern one in fo elegant a 
ipanner, and adorned with fuch elegant workman* 
ftiip, as left it without a rival in the kingdom. 
This will appear by no means exaggeiated, when 
we are {k) informed, that Rinuccini, who came 
from the natal foil of the fine arts, was fq much 
ftruck with its beauty, that he offered the large 
fum of 700/. for it, and efteemed it to be no mean 
ornament for Rome itfelf, whither he defigned to 
fend it. Bpt neither the high rank of the (/) prince 
of Firmo, nor the plenitude of power with wbicl^ 
he was in veiled, nor the dittreffes of the times, 
could prevail on the titular prelate, David Roth, 
or the chapter to comply with the nuncio's wiflies* 
The eaftern window contained the hiftory of Chrift 
from his birth to his afcenfion. The other windows 
V/ere enriched with feveral emblems. In 1650, 

th;s 

(k) Ware's bifliop« of Oflbrjr. 

(/) Johannes Baprifta Rinuccini, was 9 rob bi (hop and prince 
of Finno in Jtaly. The hiftory of his Irilh le^aiion, replete 
with interefting particulars, is at prefent in MS, in the 
library of the marquis Rinuccini, at Florence, from which 
Rurke hath extradled ojuch refpedling the iranfadlions of the 
confederate catholics at Kilkenny. Suppleni. Hib. Doroiu. 
pafs. Sif Thomas Coke, carl of Leicefter, brought a iranl- 
cript of this valuable manufcripl from Florence, which was 
in his elegant library at liolkham in Norfolk. See an inquiry 
Joto the ftare which king Charles I. had in the tranfadlon* 
of the earl of Glamorgan. London 1756. 8vo. wrote by 
Thomas Birch, D. D. Preface, page 4. 



45^ THE A^yrI(lulTlES OF 

this cxquifiw pece'of art was demolilhcd with 

ether curious monuments of former times. What 

^ragmtots remained were carefully coHeSed by 

bi(hop Pdcocke, and placed in two ovals over the 

weftern door. 

(m) The fabrick is conftruflted in the Gothic 

fafte, and iii the form of a crols. The length 

from caft to weft, in the clear, is 2z6 feet, and 

<he breadth of the crols from north fo fouth is UJ, 

being perhaps the largeft church in the Idngdom, 

except St. Patrick's and Chrift church, Dublin, and 

in the beauty of its nave it excells both. It has 

fwo lateral and a center aile, which yield an ad- 

jThirable profped. The Roof of the nave is fup* 

ported by five pillars and a pilaffer of black maxbit 

<:>n each fide, upon which are formed five Bcat 

jdrches. Each lateral aile is enlightened by fouJ 

windows below, and the center aife by five above j 

^hey are in the (hape of quaterfoils. The ficepk 

^s low but broad, taking up the fpace of thirty- fcvcft 

feet 5 it is fupported by four maffy columns of black 

marble, and its floor refts on a great number of 

fpringers, arifing from the columns ; they fpread 

over the vaulting, and are each divided into a fraall 

moulding like beads. The pillars in this dimdi 

i^cre about fixty or feventy years fincc vrfntcned by 

dn abfurd and ignorant oeconomiil. There are 

four entrances : one at the weft end, two in the 

nave oppofite each other, and one at the end of tf)^ 

north tranfept. The feats of the choir and gallery 

are of oak, ^arnifhed, the whole plain but r^ 

markably neat. Tlie compafs-ceil'mg is adorned 

with 

(w) Ware's bifliops, fupra. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 45^ 

wUh firet-work, %ad has many mcxliiUonSy and u| 
the pentcr a groupe of foli^c, fcftwns and che^ 
rubuns ^ nor is it 4eAitut^ of ^n .e4eg90t fet of 
orgHD^. Ax the e^d of the Jfouth fi^n^t and 
fronting the north door, is a very n«t cwfiftory 
court, erefted by biJhop Pococfcea to the »ftof 
^hich ijs the chapter houfe, it is n«at and lightfomci 
over the chimney is th^ foJlowi^g ickgant mA 
rx^c^ ki&riptioi) : 

HANC 

BA5ILICAM 

, VETUSTATE 

tABASCfiNTEM 

IlESTITUERUNT 

ORNARUNT 

OSSORIEN5ES 

ANNO 

UDCCL^llL 

In <be iMnb ttmkf^ » St. Mary's chapel : faesr 

*idr parochial viear erf* St. Canice formedy oflBdated* 

Ntfir tbia chapel waa wctbcr apanoient, whcvaa 

matt iieaped many Aone moaoments : tutie wore 

jrefixed in die naye and the la;teral aiks by the care 

of bifhop Pococke, who to bis other excelleat quov 

fificatioRB added that of a learned lomiqaary. On 

ibe oulfide, roxand the church, runs a cegulv 

iiattlement, aa^d ajt the weft end are two iiviaU ipires. 

The towers and turrete (e), iays Mr. Beafthamy 

hisikt by the Normans in liie fiffft eea^ury after thek 

arrival, were covered with placfomno, with battle^ 

meats or plain parapet walls. One oi th« earlieft 

(n) ^uprar pag* 40; 



4^Jf tHE Al^tlQUlTlES'Ol' 

fplres, that of old St. Pauls, was finiflied in the 
year 1222, with timber and covered with lead. 

The tower of St. Canice's is notfinifhed : it has 
no fpire, thougii fufficiently flrong to bear one; 
and it continues in much the fanie ftate it was left 
in at its firft ercftion. 

We (hall now mention fueh bifhops as were 
beaefadtors to the cathedral. 

Bifhop Ledred, let his condu^Sl be what it may 
in other matters, zealoufly promoted the intereft of 
his church. His predeceffors lived remote from 
the cathedral, which at the fame time that it was 
improper, was the caufe of many eicefles anKM^ 
the numerous clergy attached to it : 4ie therefore 
refolved to build an epifcopal hduCc. King Ed- 
ward III. granted him (p) the fite of three churches, 
St. Nicholas, St. James and St. Bridget, near the 
cathedral^ on paying twenty (hillings for this pur- 
pofe i he alfo ufed the ftones and materials in thoiL 
To appeafe thefe tutelar faints, and to atone for 
his facrilege, he founded an altar in his palace and 
dedicated it to them. He alfo granted to the dean 
and chapter of St. Canice the church of Drumdelgy, 
alias Thornback. 

£i(hop Snell beflowed on his church (bme rich 
prefents, as gloves, pontifical fandais, a iilken 
caphin, interwoven with gold fpots, and a mitre 
adorned with precious ftones. Such donations 
were then highly meritorious, and the (p) virtues 
of them efteemed very great. 

Bifhop Barry, in 1428, built a targe cafUe and 
hall at his manor of Bi(hop's lough. He endowed 

the 

(0) Ware, fupra. 

O; Duran^i. Ration. Divin. Offic, Lib. 3. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. ' 45!^ 

the vicars of the common hall near St. Canice with 
four marks of filver, chief rent, out of the lands 
of Marlhall's in the parilh of St, MauL 

Eifhop Baron, in 1527, rebuilt and repaired the 
bifliop's manor houfe, at Newcourt, and gave the 
vicars choral all the tythes and oblations of the 
Black or Dominican abbey, then lately diffolved, a 
paftoral HafT of filver, and a marble table for the 
altar. 

Bifhop Hacket built the arch of the belfry of 
fquared marble. 

BiOiop Williams, a prelate of diftinguiflied piety 
and fufferings, expended 1400/. in repairing the 
cathedral. The bells being carried away in the 
rebellion, be put up one that cofi him 144/. He 
Isud out on the chancel 300/. and on the belfry 40/. 

In 1675, bifhop Parry gave a ring of bells, fix 
in number, weighing feventy hundred, two quar- 
ters and five pounds ; they coft 246/. i^s. loi. ; 
befides he gave 1 o/. to buy plate. 

KHiop Otway railed in the communion table, 
and covered it with a rich cloth. On the twenty- 
fourth of July, 1684, he prefented to the dean 
and chapter 363 ounces of plate gilt, for which he 
j)aid 116/. 1 3 J. 4^. It formerly belonged to 
Chrift church, Dublin. 

Dodtor Pooley, deanofOflbry, and after bifhop 
.of Raphoe, gave 120/. towards raifing the fteeple, 
.and to repair the towers. He alfo beftovved a large 
filver gilt bafon, weighing fixty-one ounces. 

But this cathedral owes its prcfervation to bifhop 
Pococke. When he came to the fee of Offory the 
church was in the moft ruinous con4itit>n, being 

totally 



I % 



460 THE ANTlQUfTJEg OF • 

totally iKgteded l^ b'« pr^pccfforf . It* gaUeciie^ 
were deoaying : its roof tumbliog down : its qociiii- 
ments brokea and fcattered about ; and a for 
years rouft have bebck} this yeperabte fabric with* 
icarccly one ftpn^ upon feotb«^. With Aat Urto 
of rdigjioa wd decepcy, vrbidi ftrongiy marked 
.hi$ cbarai^) h^ ;seak)i}Gy ^ .aboi^t its j<epani£km : 
be warioly foliptied fi^bferiptV^^ : purcbflfed every 
neceffary material at the beft rate ; in peiibn fiipet- 
intended the wprJm>en, and tb^t oHm firom four 
o*clock in the morning : beautified and idor oed it 
tbr^Higboul;, ^pd left 4 tDeRorki of bus piety emd 
r^ard.fiM: bis (epifogii^al oboreb, which the city of 
Kilkenny i^r^d tb^ dioc^ pf Oflory ^x\l gaUdbaOf 
«erne(nbef.-«^Qt«t (be mmec of the ijifafi:nbei$ 
lUi^ 01) a mairble tablet jo ^$ sonb triii&pt ; fte 
cQpy of it toHUQdiatei^ n^ ^ a^opuni of die 
ropHumeits. 

ThQ epifodpial refideQce ivhich iidyiaiits ihe 
dral being originaliy very fqsdll, wsi BS^eh a 

pro^d t>y bJA^p Jaha P^iyi.- at tiic rxpisiias of 

Th^ bithopa Vff^ and HiartSoji^ foithcf ioi- 
prov^ thf^ pal^kce ^ but f>iftfip £fi$ c^ade it a nuidU 
more iQpo(iQiodi(>w babiiatioii, by the adcfioon of 
four apartments and a nobl^ ^bir-cafe, expeodinif 

iHx it jn biitijiitogs #Qd cfAifr iaiproT^sncttts 1956^ 
ibpugb bis focoe0pr y/i^ eb^ieged only with Ihe fuoi 
of ;[4PQ/. ^ In tb0 fiudy^ ov«r the ehiooiiey-faiecey 
are the arn^ pf pricgiate Bmkts, \m patron. 

Biihpp Podgfoa v^ry ja^dably be^ the pDafiice 
of cbtj^Qg ai^ io&rtfif^ the cbpiffifters* itt the 
biihop'p wpweet 

MONU- 



] 



iRlSHtOWdf AND I$lLRtMl4Y. 4St 

Monuments and inscriptions 

IN THE CATHEDRAL. 

6» the foilth fide cf the high altar. 

D. O. M. 

Sacrum. 

jtiluftriilimiii ae nobiliflimus domlnus ^icarduS 

Butler, 
Vicccomes de Motintgarret, bafro de Kells, &C; 
1^^ anti(}tiii)ifnid pr'rm^risfe in Hibernia 
nobtfitatrs firmiliis oriundus ; utpote 
Petri Btrtfer, Ormoniat eft Offoriae cx)mitls, ac 
Margaretaef Frtar Gerald filiae comitis de Kil- 
daria, pronepos. 

Vir religione in Deum, pietafe in pa- 
ttiahi, fidcfitate in f^gem, pace belbque con- 
fpiouus, de regc, regnb et eccJefia dei, pro qui- 
bus foTtiter periculofrs et maxtme turbatis 
teraporfbris ftetit, optiriic mcrittfs : felicis 
ac faecnndafe prolis parens : fibi, majoribusr 
ac pofteris hoc momimentirnt pie pofuit,* 
memoriani fui mmqtiaW iipx6rituram reJiquit. 
{q) Obi!!iHe . . . Afl»K> t6 . .- 
I>efan£i:e ac rioblKflfrmaft vicecoWitunfi de 
Moimtgarret famiRaef bene precafe, vifator \ 



irt<*i 



Oii thi right tf the dm going into $he chmceL 

fetercd to the memory of Richard PocJOcke, L.L.D. 

Who from the archdeaconry of Dublin 

Was j*6moted to this fee mocclvi 

And tranflated to th^ of Mcath w6cclxv 

Inhere ht died Sept. 1 5th in the fame year. 

VoL.IL li He 

{q) He died hi 1651. Lodge, v. 2. pug. 261. 



4tSa THE ANTIQJJITIE5 OF 

He difcharged every duty of the paftoral and epil- 

copal office 

With prudence, vigUance, and fidelity ; 

Adorning his ftation 

With unfhaken integrity of heart and purity of 

conduft; 
Attentive to the intereft of reli^on. 
He caufed feveral parochial churches to be rebuilt, 

Within this diocefs* 
He promoted and liberally contributed to the repair 
And embelliftiment of this cathedral churdi, 
Then unhappily falling into decay. 
A zealous encourag.cr of every Bfeful publick wok 
Efpecially the linen manufadkure. 
He bequeathed a very confiderable I^cy, 
To the governors of the incorporated fociety, 
For promoting the united interefts of iaduftry and 

charity, 
Within this borough of St. Canice *. 

X}n the left of the door going into the chancel 

Sub hoc raarmore 
^lauditur Anna Cox quod mortale fuit, Jacob! 
O Brien, filii comitis nuperi de Inchequin, fife- 
qua Michaell Cox, epifcopo Offorienfi, anno i745» 
matrimonio junda, codcm anno, aetatis fua 23» 
fatall puerperto abrcpta eft, prius enixa Bm» 
.Quantae jacSura ! quantillum Solamen ! Ilia ncmpc 
tarn corporis quam animi dotibus a natura ditata 
dignaque iifdem dilciplina libcralitcr inftituta, non 
minus ianfte quam eleganter vitam exegit. 

^* Bidiop Pocockc is buried at Ardbraccan in the cow.? 
of Meath. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4^5 

Ingens defiderium parcntibus, cognatis, amicis ; 
infandu mcEconjugi mrorem, fmgitlifque fingularum 
virtututn exemplar opimum, rcliquit, Contera- 
plare, le6tor, humanae fa:licitatis caducam fortem, 
et adverfus inopinos et mUerrimos cafus (nuUabi 
prseclarius monendus) antmum bene munitum et 
cre<5lum para. 

This elegant monument is of white marble^ 
from which rifes a (haft, on which is the arms of 
the deceafed. Piety, a whole length, holds a book 
in one hand, and reclines her head on the other, 
which leafis on an urn* The whole is well con- 
ceived and executed by Scheemaker. 

Hie jacent 
Adam Cottrcl, Jacob*. Cottrel, RicardS Lawle« 

ct Walter'. Lawles cu ej\ uxore. Letitia Courcy, 
quoda burges*. ville Kilkenie ac doni de Talbot's 
inche. QL Walter', obiit z die mes'. decbr'. a*, d^ 
1 550, quoru aiab' ppciet. De'. ae. 

Hie jacet Ricard' Lawles, fill* et hacres didli 
Walteri, q* obiit 6 die mes» 0£tob. a** dni 1 506. 

Hie jacet Jacobus Lawles, frater et haeres Ricardi 

Lawles, filii et hsredis Walteri Lawles, qui obiit 

ultimo die julii A. D. 1562. cuj' aie'ppiciet. Deiis. 

ct Adam Lawles qui obiit 20 die Ot\, 1 600, et 

Laetilia Shec uxor ejus, quae obiit 5 die Oft. i5]6. 

Credo q*^ red? me' vivit, et 1 noviffi^ 

die de tifa furreftur'. fu, et 1 carne meo 

videbo Deu, falvatorem meum, que vifur* 

fum ego ipfe, et non alius, et ocuU mei 

Tpefturi fut. 

li 2 HlG 



4H THE ANTIQJTITIES OF 

Hie jacct 
Patricius Kerin, quod^ ville Kilkenie burgefis, tpr 
bbiit 5 die mefis Feb. 1581. Et Joanna Nowkn 
uxor ej* quae obiit 5 die raenfis Dec*, 1 575. 

Hie jacet 
PetTUs Graunt^— canonieus, Oxoniae alumnus" ct 
vicari* de Balletarfne, q^ obiit die 23** menfis 
Februarii a** d' 1509. Cuj* ajae piciet Deus. Amen. 



Hie jacet 
Jacob' Sentteger de Ballefennon, q* obiit primo die 
Feb. 1597, et Egidia Tobcn ej' uxor, q obiit 2* 
die, menfis Novembris 1570.. Et Patricius Sent- 
leger, fili" fecudus eorum, qui obiit 2 1 die menfis 
F?b. 1607, ct Margaret Shee ej' uxor quae oUit . • 
die. menfis. ..... 



I.H. S. _ 

Hie jaeSt Thomas Power, qui obiit anno dni i5i9> 
€t Margeria Pynfon uxor ejus, et Johannes Power, 
iilius et h^res difti Thoraae, cii fua uxore Joanna 
Sa>vadge, q* obierunt A. D. 1550. Ricardus 
Power, ej. Johais filius et heres, quondam bur- 
g^enfis yille Hibernice Kilkertie, qui Ricardus olait 

* 27 die menfis Maii, A. D. 1583. Et Ifabella Roth, 

• uxor iilius, que obiit . . . die . . . menfis . . . • 
annpdomini 15 

Herelyeth 
ThQ body of pap.. Robert; Barton, late of the- 
Honourable col. Henry Harrifon's regiment, who 
departed this life the 5th day of November, 1723* 
in the 6^ year of his ag«. 

Hie 



IRlSHTOWtsr AND K:ILKENNY. 46"^ 

Hie fepiiltus eft 
StahdifiuS Hartftonge, Armiger, filiufe riatii tertius 
JStandifti Hartftonge, baroneiti, et Scaccatii rfegrs 
^baronis. In agro Norfolcienfi ariundus, qui in hac 
^ivitate recordatori^, et in palatinalu Tipparerienli 
. -cuftodis rotulorum muheribusdiu et praeclare func- 
tus, obrtt pritno calendarufn Junii, ^nn6 MdCCIV. 
CharilTimo fratri pofuit Jdhanftds ep1fcdf)it6 Oiro- 
Ti^fifis, felicem et ipfe refurredioaehi fub h6t olirh 
ttifLiMott ctpc(Xixtx\rti$. , 



•*«MAJMi^lk 



'Htt-efyeth 
'TJie bod^ of Mr. Rictiifd DnigMy ^6 dipaifted 

this life April 4th, 1708. 

■■ ■ ■ ■ ., ■ 

Hit facet 

Thomas Otway, Offoricnfls epifcopusy qui obik 

fexto die Martii 1 69 ^ -^, etftti^ fuae 77. 

He lies near the: #eft door. 

Here lyeth 
The body of Charl<» Sandford of Sajidfordfcourt, 
^fi^u&re, who departed thk life the 4t'h of I^.- 1:701 . 

Hicjacet 
Johannes Maroh, quodam civi^atis Kilkennias bum 
gefis, q* obiit 23 die Deobri* f6oi. Et Margareu 
Riane uxor ejus» qiSc' obiit ^ die Jan'"* 1609. 



^Mirf«i*^M^ 



Qui clari fuerant filii, fpefque alma parcntum 
Bourcheri Carolus^ Fredericu^ut Philipus. 
OSk intHDsrtura ftrnul i^&ili^ nunc comnntt! in^iia, 
^orte puer juvenis, virque fenexque cadit.- 

Quorum alter obiit rj die Scptembris, 1574- 

Alter viii die Martii, a° 1587. 

Hl€ 



'^-"nmrn 



466 THE ANTIQJJITJES OF 

Hie jacet Edmudus Purfell 
Capitancus turbariSiU. co^tis Ormonic, q^ obiit 
4 die Novebris, ano Donl, 1 509. pt Etlena Gm 
VUK>r ejus a® dni (5QO4 



■ *■!' 



Hie jacet 
^agr. Johcs Coughlandc, quoda caneellarius 06* 
cecllcj q* obiit 19* die mefis Martii, a^ dni 1508. 
fro cujus anima cuilibet dlcenu Pater et A^ 
ccduntur a vc^erando patre, P^vid^ epifcopo Offo- 
ricnfi, 40 dies Tn^ulg. 

Quiiquis eris qui tranfieris, fta, perlege^ pbra ; 
Swm quod eris, foer^mque quqd c$, pro me, prccor 
ora. 

t .... 1 566, et Letitia Walchc uxor ej* q obiit . . . 
die • • . m^fis . . . a«. d^ 1560. 



■ — » w 



« • • • . ace 
Rofiae Ruu, aniraae propicietur Ds. 

■ II I ■ ■ ■ 11 ■■ M il I _ H 

Hcrelyeth 
The body of the Rev. Henry Des Mynicr% A.M. 
prebendary of Killamory, &c. who departed this 
life the 28th day of November, ia the year of W 
Lord 1759, aged 68 years. 

Herelyeth 
The body of Richard Longe, who departed tbii 
life the 1 8th of April i ^90, 

E4inond Brcnan, Robert Rinighan, Edward Rinig 
Jian, 1615. 



* I 



Hi 



lUlfiHTOW-N AND KILKENNY^ 4^ 

Hic jacct 
Dons Willrtis -CarleH quoda archidiacon'. Mid*, et 
reftor de Yochil, ac ccclefiar. Dubl. Cafs*. Ofs, Pern*. 

Clon*. et Corkag*. canonicus cujUs aie 

ppicietur Dcus. Amcp. 



>i< Hie jacet - . - 
Helena, filia Edvardi, ctyus ais propicictur Deus 
in vitam aeternam. Amen. • • 



I « 



• . • . here lies 
John Sprice, burgcs, qui obiit die .... and his 
wife Joane Kencde, quae obiit . . . die 



•*»i 



Hie jacet 
Petrus Butteler, Comes Ornjonie et Ofe*, q* obiit 

26 die Augufti, A. D. 1539- Et Margareta Fitzr 

gerald, eomitiiTa, uxor ej' q'obiit 9 (£e Augufii. 

Hie jacet 
Corpus Thomae Hill, hujus ceclefiae decani, et 
S. S. theologix apud Cantabrigienfes dofltoris. Obii}: 
pimo die Nov. 1673. 

^ Hic jacet 
Dns, Simon Dunyng, quonda precentor iftius 
eccle. qui obiit In fefto beatse Maris Magdalene^ 

ARo dnim 1434. 



Here lycth William O Dowly. 

Hic jacet 
Thomas Pembroek, quoda. burges villa Kilkennie 
q* obiit lodie Septcmhris A. D. • . • 
• • . . brock fill*, didli Thome, qui obiit 14 die 

o£tobris a. d. ]5^i, 

.• ck 



^ THE ANTIQUITIES O^ 

. . . . ck filius didi David qna cum 
.... a Ragget et Catharma Archer. 
• 4 . • omasobiit 25 januarua6i6 
^* . • . unus primorum vicecomimni 



• . 4 • unice Alicia Ragget q ahiit 2 1 

• ... 85 Katlwrina Arcb^r olnij; 

, ... us Alius didti Thome Pembrock 

;. • . . Joanna Ra^ct UKor <ii£ti 

■ . I M i l I ■ II J I I tl.ll ■< 

D. O. M. 

Revdus Jacobus Shee, Gulielmi fenatoris in faac 
Kilkennienfi civitate, bene, prudenter et felidter 
idefundii, ter prxtoris officio, filius. Divini cultus 
et animarum zelo^ reliquifque guas verum Da 
facerdot^em decent^ virtutibus oonfpicuus. Prae- 
t>endarius de Tafcof&a, yicarius dc Claragh, ecclefias 
cathedralis Sti Oinici provides procurator et vicar 
riorum communis aula? induftrius prpvifor: inter 
alia pietatis opera, monumentum hoc fibi, fuoque 
germano fratri R. D. Joanni Shee, praebendario de 
Mayne, parochiae Sti Joannis evangeliftac Kilkenniae 
vicario, fieri fecit. 

Obiit D. Jacpbus die Z9 menfo Apriiis anno Dnj 
1648. Obiit etiam D. Joannes die , , . menfis , . , 
anno Dni 

^ternam illls requiem, ecclefia^ Dei paceni, 

Et tranquillitatcm precare, viator ! 

Una parens faufta fratrcs quos protulit alvo, 

Una facerdotea continet urna duos. 






Hie 



. * 



IRISHTOWM AND KILKENNY. 46, 

facob' SchortaU dns de Balylarkan et de Balykif 
q* bic tuba fieri fecit a**. drrT 1507. ct Katharina 
Whytc uxor cfj^. q®, u. ct paretum albs cuilibet 

diccti oraoe dnic"*. et fal2 agS 'ccdfit. 80 dies Tdulg. 

Hicjacct 
Hone(i;us «c difcretus vir donrintis Nicbolau^ 
Motyng quoodam cancelkrius iftius ecclefia et 
redlor de Kilderienfi, qui obiit 13 (iie nienfi$ 
februarii 1563. Cujus animae propitietur Deus, 
Amen JtGis. 



9^ 



Hie jacet 
iGulielm\ Donoghpu qooda bqrgSs ville de Iri(h- 
towne jiixta KilkenS. q^ obiit 1 3 die novebris a**. 6K 
1597, Et Cath^rina Moni ej*. uxor, q^obirt . 



»— ^"f^ i im < I ■ ! ■ 



Hie jacet 
Illuftris. et nobilis. Da. Ellana Butler, nobiliffTmi 
DI Petri Butler, Orsaoniae comitis filia, et uxor 
quda pia clariflimi Domini Donaldi O Brien, Tu- 
'inundi» comitis, q dbSk % die Julii, 1597. 

*< I I » . I i n 

j>. a M. 

PaUiciu^ Muipliy* cxvis* fenator, ct quondam praetor 
JCilkeqieftfe : vii; p^udcn?*. probus, pms : paupernnj 
.et; pupiUoKum merito p^r^ns.; n:K)rtalitatLS dum 
• VkV^ret qy^o^or. Sibir charifiiniae uxori fuae, Ana- 
iUtisc Fhela% matrons IciSiffimae et optima : nur 
iHQrolk necnon orudita^ prplis matri : filio ac haeredi 
fuo Ricardo Murphy, omnibus multum charo, vice- 
comitis muncre Kilkeniae, fumma cum laude fundo, 

abatis 



47P THE ANTIQJLJITIES OF 

isetatls flore prasrepto : ^us uxori Eli& Rothe, 
liberis zt pofteris moumentum hoc pofuit. Obit 
Patridus 3 die menfis Martii 1648. Anafiatiafick 
Februariiy 1646^ Ricardus 8 die Junii, 164A. 
£lUa ..... die menfis ,.,.,. 

Exaltans humiles Deus» hie extolle fepultos, 
Qgi fiierant humiles Temper amore tui. 
Qgi reqmem, vitam» iblamen, dona, fidtitcm 
Pauperibu3 dederant: his miferere^ Deus, Amen! 

Epitaphium. 
Junxit amor vivsysj yno mora jangit amantes 
Marmore, non moritur qui bene vixit amoTf 
Chrifii verus, amor, poft mortem vivit et addir, 
^temae vitas gaudia connubii. 

Requiefcant in pace 
Joannes Mucphy ; filius prj^^Sd Rlcaidi, 16 Nov. 
A. D. 1690. Maria Tobin uxor Joannis 17 ]^ 
1690-1. Biarnabas Murphy filius Joannis, ti 
Junii 1741. Maria Shce, ejus uxor obiit 3 Nov. 
1737. 



1 1 I I i< i i ■ 



D. O. M. 

Ad pietatis et mortalit^ti^ memoriam clariflimus«^ 
nobiliiTimus dominus D. Edmund us BlandivHIe, 
cques auratus, D. de Blanchvillftownc, Kilmo^^ 
mucke, &c. ac nobiiiffima D. Elizabetha Builfli, 
uxor pientiffima, perilluftri domino GiraldoBUncb- 
vilie filio chariflimo primogenitd, viro optitiK), iflJ" 
malura morte praerepto, fiH, liberis poftcriiFK 
fuis monumentum hoc erexerunt, menfe Augufli> 
1647. Giraldus obiit 21 Feb. 1646. EdmimdiB 
ft.. Eli^abetha 

Rcquicfcfflf 



I^ISHTPWN AND 1C:ILKEMNY, 471 

Requiefcaot in pace. Amen. 
Epitaphium. 
Qui p^tri in terns fuccedere debuit haeres, 
la tumulo huic haeres cogitur elTe pater. 
Eftorieds primus, moriens poftremus et idem eft^ 
Ortu pofterior, interituque prior. 
Mors hacc mira facit, mutat quadrata rotundts, 
Mpr^ fe^a quae ! quantum ! fic rapit ante pattern, 
Et gnatum virtute fenem, juvenemque diebus 
Gnatum Blanchveliae fpem columemque domiis^ 
Sed quoniam fera mors, vitaoi fine labe caducam 
Abllulit, aetemum dat diadema Deus. 

Edmud' Butler c^* . , . die mes Tulii, Ao. Dni. . • • 
4g» uxor q^obiit lo 

Will* Vale quoda , . , ecclcfiae, qui obiit 21 
jJiem? . , , . . 1571. 

Hie jacet 
Jacob" Purcell, filius Philippi de Foukerath, cf 
pbiit II die mefis o£i-. a"?. d!« 1552. £t Joanna 
Shortals uxor ej\ que obiit • . die . . . me% 
fi.^. d'. 15. . ♦ • Quor* aiab*. ppicietur Deus. 

Am5. Jefu. 

Letatus fum in tns quas dida funt mihi, in donpium 
Domini ibimua. 

Credo q^ red^ptor meus vivit, ct I noviffimo die 
de terra furredlur^ fu, ct 1 came niea videbo deii, 
falvatore meu, que vifurus fii ego ipfe et no ali% et 
pcculi mei Hpedturi fut.. Sufccpit dcu Ifrael pueruni 
fuum recordatus mifericordiae fuse. 



mm»^ 



m 



47« THE ANTICLUITIES OF 

ttic jslcdt 
Corpus Dianae WdOdkfe, qu* obiit 13 die Jan, 
A". D*. 1604. 



■4ai ■ * "'if 



D. O. M. 

Et 
Memori^ Davidis epifcdpi OSbActtfi^y qui 
hanc ecddiacti cartiedralem Sto Canico 
facram •* priltitio dccori reftltttit, h±Tt&m 
cxrrtdc vapfliana." Anno Drti 164^. 

Ortu&cun^ta ftios repetuftt, matremquc reqinruftt; 

Et redit ad nihilum quod fuit ^tttt mhiK 

This monument is near the conilftottal court; 
and was defaced through the ill-judged zeal of 
bifliop Parry, for fome words in the infcription 
jefleding on proteftantiftn ;. the words are betweeft 
inverted commas, and fupplied from tradition. 

The monument y& of black marble ; a iedgo-, 
^nfifting of a cavetto and ovolo with their liils^ 
fervci for the bafe of the -whole ; upon v^hidi is a 
frieze adorned with foliage- At each eftd is •a 
plain field, defigned fof C€»ta of arms, biit they 
^are left btank,- Over each tad of the frieac fprii^ 
a butment, upon which flood originally two Coldoifis 
of the Corinthiaa order, bat> paw taken' away, and 
the entablature is at prefent fupportedl by two 
piaWv pitaftera, whicb Ikodr betend the 06kiian& 
iBetween tbefe ptlafters are two itnpofts^ oa whidi 
an arch reUs in forr^ of > gate, or &t niche, and 
that which reprefents tbd gale is te tables upoa 
which is the infcription. 

Over the corner of- the left impoft is cut the 
^^ies of St. Ki^r^n^ witl^ a tnitre on his bead, a 

jcro^ier 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY, 4^^ 

crozier in his hand an4 his name underneath. He 
IS the principal patroti of the dioccfe of Oflbry^ 
and its firtt Wfhop, accoi^ding to the legends The 
pilaftetfs fupport an eDtaUaturq, compofed of an 
architrave, frieze and cornice : the frieze is adorned 
with rofes. Over the entablature is another table* 
on which is cut the reprefentatiou of ow Saviour 
on the crofs, and on each fide a woman .Weeping^r 
From each fide of tlus table iprings a fcroU, which 
rcfts upon the extremities of the entablature, and 
over the taUe is a large ovolo, which ferves for a 
coniicQ to it : on each fide of the ovolo is a Uoelt 
QT cub^> adorned with flowers ; between winch is 
another tabic archwifc, and upon this is fixed the 
paternal coat of arms of the Roths, being a ilag 
trippant gules, leaning againft a tree vert. Over 
this coat hangs a- canopy with firings pendant^ 
terminating with fringed knots. Upon the top of 
Ihe arch ftands a fraall pedeftal, which crowns the ' 
whc^e nwnument, upon the dye of which is— 
h H. S. The arms and images (hew the remains 
of gilding and painting, and the whole was exe- 
cuted with uncommon abilities by an Italian ecclo* 
fiaftic, as tradition reports. 



m t > I I p« 



ki piam 
Mcmoriam Johannis Bufhop quondam regiiiri, 
hujus diaecefeos, avi fuj^ et Edvardi Bulhopi, pra&- 
bendarii de Killamery, patrls fcri, in hac ecclcfia 
calhedrali fibi fuifq •, pofteria hoc poCuit Walierua 
Bu(hop, 12 Juuii^ 1 677- 

Bic jacet 
Nob^^ df. Edmund' Butler, vicecomes de Mount- 
garret, q» obiit 20 die Dee^ 1571. 



E_ 



474 THE ANTICLUITIES OF 

Reverendus Sfepbanus Vaughan^ hujus eccIeG^e 
thefaurarius, in ^ro Avonenfi natus, Oxoniac edu- 
aatus, vitam banc tranfitortam Kilkenbe finivit, 
%%^ Aprilis 171 1, ac gloriofem cxpedtans refiirrcc- 
tionem, fubtus jacct tumulatus. 

Alicia Vaughan al* Lloyd, uxor ejus dnriffitxn 
pofuit. 

Here iyeth 
The body of Mrs. Frances Foulkcs, alias Whit^ 
daughter to Gryffilh White of Henllaa in Pctn- 
brockefhire, eiquire^ who beingf^ twice maixkd, 
iirfi to major Francis Bolton, afterwards to Bar- 
tholomew Foulkes, efi); died the X5th day of 
November 1685, in the year of her age 52. 

Here Iyeth 
The body of Mrs. Mary Stoughton, wife to Mri 
Anthony Stoughton of the city of Dublin, gentle- 
man, and daughter to the right woHhipfui Henry 
Maynwaringe, of the city of Kilkenny, efi]uire, 
and one of the mailers of his majefiy's high couit 
of Chancery in Ireland ; who died in childbed of 
her third child, named Henry, the 3d day of 
January, i ^lii^ and are both here intombed toge^ 
thcf. 

Epitaph. 
A vertuous mother and her new-born fon, 
■ Farted here meet, and end where they begun. 
She from her bearing bed, he from the womb, 
Exchanged their living graves for this dead tomb. 
. This pile and epitaph fecm vainly fpent, 
Goodnels rears her a furer monument. 

No 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 475 

No curious hand can cut, no laboring head 
Bring more to pratfe her than the life (he led. 
Bemoan that readeft, and live well as (he^ 
So (hall thou want nor tomb nor elogy. 

Mole fub hac tegitur, lector, digniilima conjux^ 

Dans proli vitam^ perdidit ip(a fuam. 

Quam (i forma^ favor popufi^ ilirps, res fatis ampla. 

Si pudor, ingenium, fi juvenile decus. 

Si quid in humanis quanquam fervaret in cvum^ 

Mortis ab incurfu, ibfpes et ilia foret. 

Parte tamen meliore (hi famaque fuperftes^ 

Qua licet sterno nomine viva viget. 

Venetabili viro 
Gulielpio Johnfon, decano ecclefise Sti Canid, 
a vo materno fuo et patri fuo Thoms Wale, ejufdem 
eccle(iae thefaurarb, necnon fibi fuifque pofteris^ 
monument um hoc pofuit Robertus Wale, thefau* 
rarius. 0£l. 14, A. D. 1624. 

Quae pigra cadavera pridem 

Tumulis putrefadta jacebant, 

Volucres rapicntur in auras, 

Animas comitata priorcs. 

Hinc maxima cura fepulchris 

Impenditur, hinc refbtutos 
• Honor ultimus accepit artus, 

Et fiineris ambitus ornat. 

Sint ut fua proemia laudi ; 

Jonfoni gloria fplendet 

Omnem vulgata per orbem -, 

Candore nitentia claro. 

Practendere Kntea, mos eft 

Afperfa myrrha Sabteo, 

Corpus 



47^ tHE ANtlQJUritlES OF 

Corpus medtcamine feryat 
Q^dnam tibi ikca cavs^ ? 
Quid pukhra volant monunaetita ? 
Resy Cpxst^ nifi credimr Wlit 
Non morlua fed daia QxaaoQ^ 
Jam fex lufira fqbinde 
Prudens, gravi^^ integer ^vd 
Divina volumina pandit. 
Oulielmus JobnfbOy decaoua cccieto ca^iedsiSt 
Sti Canici Kilkeniae, qui Wigornii natusy CaoUH 
brigis educatus, obiit KAlkcniae . « . die idw^CXiobRf 
1681. 

Hie pietate parens daudl cbssdunttbr in urna, 
Chriflicolab, ChriAi inutiere^ forte pares: 
Sorte pari fic morte mori cooeeifit JduUf 
AS^ffBKxXjfit poki vivere focte part. 



tm 



Hicjaoessi 
Anton* Bouc et Mana Gald 



Hie jacet 
Gulielmus Kyvane, Robert! filiuSj quotidaai dm- 
tatis Kilkeniae, vFr difcretus, qui iibi^ chartffidiab 
iixori fuae Elizabethae Bray, liberis ac pofteris hoc 
inonumentum fieri fecit. 16^4.7. Obiit Gulielmus 
4 . . . Obiit etiam uxor ejus Elizabctha . . • 
die menfis .... anno 



. . . nie burg?, q'. obiit ... die mfc*. : : 

ct Elina . . • uxor ej*. q. oMit 30 dfe mefis 
marcii 1579 

ouli quod, mercator burgfsnfis vifie 

Hibemicanc Klkenie q^ obiit 8 die . . , 

f fl !■■■ ■ I 1^1 

In 



In obitttc* 
tVobak ac modeftn timodkini muliefls Mir§«fetM 
Woltt, oaloris Jdhannb Ndmoy y Kelly^ feocdrofi 
CoM€hlknfis, obiit a^ Maii^ a"*, d*. 1 6^3. 
IpHus maritt fuueb r e hexalticon. 
Grata Deo* delcdb tord, dlleifta marito^ 
Moribus et vita hie cirfta, fcpulta jacet 
IlHus iTigintum mgenunm, pictafqae fidefcjue 
Dona flicre fuo dos fatis ampla viro. 
Quanquam jure (bo fua corpora t^rra* repofcatj 
*f ariti vix digna eft hofpite terra tartlctx^ 

>i< Hie facet 
Johes Talbot, cuj* aS ppi cet ^G£ 



1 Vi,Ai 



Hicjacct 
Gcorgi* Savadgc fiTi*' Georgii Savadge, q'* villc 
Kilkenie burges* qui obiit a'', d'. 1^00. Hie jacet 
Margareta Savadge. 

Eloquio clarus, virtute fideque Jacobus, 
Coelum mente RaBrfaiis, hoc tiabet ofla folum. 

Jaco'bus- Clams, 
ftdtoriofarius et reddr ecclcfie D. Johannis^ diaScefr* 
Oflforlertlis . . . , . Vir b9nu$ et bcnignu% 
vcrecundus vifu, moribus modeftus, eloquio diicortis^ 
a pucro in virtutijjus cxercitus, Dep devotus, ho- 
minibus amabili% et omnibus bonorum operuot 
e^ccmpKs prseolaru9. Obiit anno 1643, 14 Nov. 

fub anroram cum ma^lmo piorum hominUni ludu. 

♦ » 

Hicjaccnr 
Johannes Gras, miles ac baro de Courtiftown, et 
Onorina Bttfnacb hsI' ej* a*'. d»; 156^, dte-mfet . . . 

Vol.. II. ■ * K k HIc 



47« THE ANTIQJJITIES OP 

Hic jacet 
Reverend' pater Nlcbolaus WaUhe, quondam Ofsf 
- Jcpufi^ qui obiitdie mcs* Dec. 17, A**. D*. 1585. 
He is interred on the (buth fide of the great aUe. 

Turris fortis mihi Deus. 
Spiritus amborum coeli verfatur in aula» 
Infra nunc quorum corpora terra capit : 

Hic jacet 

Gulielmus Kelly, Quondam civitatis Kilkeniae bur- 

genfis, qui obiit 27 menfis Maii, anno dom. 1644. 

Et uxor ejus chara Margareta Phelan, quae obtit 

2 die Oft*, anno dom. 1635. 

MifereSmini mei, miferemini mei^ laltem 
V08 amici, quia manus Domini tefigit 
rtie. Job. 19. 

>}< Hic jacet 
Petrus Bolgcr, qui obiit 8 die feptcbr* 1601, et 
uxor ej* Joanna WaKhe, quae obiit 29 die Janoarii 
1608. 



Hic jacet 
Ricardus Clovan quondam burgenfis viile Kalkenie, 
qui obiit i"". die Jan. 1609, et Elena Rothe, ejfs 
uxor que obiit • . • . 



ii* 



Hic jacet 
Gulielmus Hollechan de civitate Kilkenie burgenfis 
qui obiif i die Januarii 1609. Et Morona Madicr 
ejus uxor que obiit . , . . 

Hic jacet 
Dns Johes de Karlell quondam c&ncellaiius < • • 
Dublin ac ecclefiarum Fern .... canonicos. 

Hic 



tRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 47i» 

Hie jacet 4 

kichardus Deane, nuper epifcopus Oflbrienfis, qui 
bbiit 20 die menfis Feb. anno domino 1612. 
He lies near the bi(hop*s throne. 

Hulc monutnento . 
Subtus adjacet quod venerabiliiim hujus ecdefue 
decani ac capituU beneficio reliquiis fui fuorumque 
inhumandis conditorium habet NicHolaua Corrnickc 
Kilkennienfis, A. D. 1723. 

Beatam iliis refutreAionem^ ledtor, apprecare. 

11*' "' * 

Hie jacet . 
Thomas Karrone, q* obiit 26 die riies* Julii i5iCJ| 

cuju*. alii propidetur Deus. Amen. 

■ . ' ■ ' - ■ 

Hie jacet 

Dionyfius Kely, cu uxore ej* Morinaj a^. di. i5li* 

■f , 

Hie jacet 
Thomas &iyadge^ quod"" burgenfis . • • • ^ 

Nieholaa Schee • i * uxor ejus q obiit . • i die. 
menfis a^ d\ 15 . . . 

Ricardus CantwelL ^ 



• . • CaniciKilkenis qui obiit 26 die mes' Sepi 

V. d\ 1512 cuj*, ale propicietur Deus. 

» I ^ — - 

Hie requiefeit 
^ £litebctfia Barlow, Jonafi Wheeler Oflbrienfis ^pif- 
copi filia, Radulphi Barlow, arehidiaconi Midtnfia 
conjux, que ex puerperio obiit 3 Decembris. 



mmm 



K k 2 Hie 



4»o THE ANTIQJLJITIES OF 

Hie jacet 
Dons Johannes Cantwell, quc^ prentpc iflSua ecdie, 
q* obiit 1 8 die m5s% novSbxis a', d^ 1531. Cuf. 
ate ppicictur De*. amen. 

_ _ Hkj^crt 

Dm Johe^ Nleiew the&urajri*. ifti'. eccle. ^. dtikt . . . 
• h^ ^ Ofe*. oibu^ dicetib^. dioi Sea et fUuto 
^agl'tco i> a^ pdi€ti pretoris tocies q^ cics ^ccffit 40 

dies idulgetie. 



i***ia 



. . HicjacctDonal^BrinetMargarctaSccrlock. 



i«*ii««i 



Pray 
For John BreAin, carpenter, who dy^h tlio 8th 
day of 8ber 1646, and brs wife Anne ny Glaolow, 
dead the 



• • 



Omnibs orave dica cu talutaoe Aglica p aiafas 

re^edi patris. Ds vid Dtt gri ep (^. ac min Thne 

Myobel utrh^^ jiUEia baecahrii off . . . 
Cafs**. CGclcfiar. Canic^; q'. h'. jpcef 
Hakked^bTges viU« Kilkenie^ Aoetibs tode q*dei 
400 dies Idulgeiisc *tcd5t% 

Hie jacft N^cholaus Hakked hsg'^. villc KUkoue 
fill*, ct heres p&ti Thome Hakked q*. obiit • . de 
mes*. . . anno 1500^ ^ , , 

£t Margat^la Axchec uxor, tjuijdc. Ni^hobi ^ ci^ 
Z^ die aprilis a^. D'. is^S. q*ro '«J^ £pr q pkk P * 



TTic 



JRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4li 

T%e fi>rc|going infci^ionB trs taken fir^nr a 
MSS. drawn up for the uTe of bUhop Pococke, hf 
^hti O P^laa "in 1763 \ k is now in the epilcqpal 
palace, being beftowed by the Rey. Mervyn 
Archdall, Tester of Attar^gh and Agharaey^ to 
bilhop Newcome, fer the uTe of the bi/hopa of 
Offiftry in fiiceefiion. 

We mutt not omit the monument of Thomal^ 
earl of Ormond and Oflbry, formerly in the cathe* 
dral, bat deftroyed by the uferpers, of ^hich Mr. 
Walpole gives the following note from Vert ue^MBS. 

^* In Jufie i6t4, I bargained with Sir Walter 
Butler for to make a tomb for the earl of OrmbnA, 
and to fet it up in Ireland ; for the which I had well 
paid mft 1 OOl iti hand, and 300/. mof e when the 
work was fet up at Kilkenny/' Extract from the 
paiichet-booic of Nioholaa Stone, ftatu^ry (z). 

Jl monument lately ereRed — 

. Here lie interred^ the remains of the Rev. t>o^6r 

Robert Moflfom, 
Of the univerfity of Trinity college, Dublin. 
Formerly fenior fellow, and divinity profeflbr. 
Afterwards for the fpa^ of 46 years, of this cathe- 
dral, refident dean. A pattern of true piety, and a 
friend to all mankiad. He died a faithful fcrvant of 
Chrift, on the 8th day of Feb. O. S. 1 747, agei %o. 
Here alfo lia the remains of bis fon 
Thomas Moffom, efq. 
Qf the city of Kilkenny, alderman. He died 
univerfally acluiowlcdged a Ready friend and good 
rnan; on the i^th day of Aug. 1,77, aged 56 
years. This monument is eredled by his executrix 

wcording to his diredions. 

Bilhop 

(z) Anecdotes of paioting* vol. 2. pag. 26. 



4M THE ANTIQJLJITIES OF 

Bifliop Horsfall is buried in the church, with a 
monumental fbne laid flat on the^bor. 

Bifliop Williams is interred on the Ibuth fide of 
(he chancel. 

Bifliop Mapilton near St. Mary^s chapel. 

Btfliop St. Leger near Mapilton. 

Bifliop Ledred on the north fide of th^ Ug^ 
, tlt^r. 
. Biihop Hacket before the altar. 

Bifliop O (iedian in a chapel at the welt end of 
the cathedral. 

Bifliop Gafney in ^ chapel on the porth fide of 
the choir. 

On a nuf^bh tablet m the tmth tramfepi. 

Benefkftors 
For adorning the cathedral of St. Canice, 1 756. 

Dr. Pococl^e, biflipp J. Alcock, prcb. 10 

of Oflbry 109 Earl of CMTory 20 

t)e^n and Chapter of Earl of Wandcsford it 

St. Cai^ice 25% Lord Vifcoqnt Mount- 

John Lewis, dean 30 garret 20 

Dr. Dawfpn, chantor 1 5 Lord VifcountCbarle- 
R. Cocking, chan- mount 14 

cellor 10 Lord Vifc. Aflibrook 20 

j. Stannard, trcafurir 10 Friendly Brothers, 
R. Stewart, preb. lo Kilkenny lo 

W. Connel, prcb. 19 Sir William Evans 
Dr. Sandford, preb. 1 5 Morre^, Bt. 10 

Wm.Cockburn, preb. 20 Eland Moflbm, cftj; to 

f^. Watts, preb. 19 Thomas Waite, cfiji lO 



IRI8HT0WN AND KILKENNY. 



4«3 



Clergy of the Djocefe. 

GtuncM* 

M. Vefey, A.M. lO 
Ralph Hawtrcy, A.M. lo 

J. Price, A. M. ip 
Mcrvyn ArchdgU, 

A. M. 2Q 

Arthur Webb, A.M. lo 

J. MJUca, A. M. 5 

John Waring, A« M. lO 

W. Watts, A. M. 9 

W. AuiVm, L.L.B. 5 

T. Collier, A. M. 5 

R. L)oyd 5 

H.Candler, A»M. 10 

C. Jackfon, A. M. 10 
R. Connel, L. L. R. 3 

D. CufFe^ A. M. 5 
Dr. Fell 5 
T.. Pack, A.M. 5 
P. Sone, A. M. 5 
J. Vefey, A. M, 5 
T. Qindler, A. B, 10 



Gainiit. 

Patrick Wemys, elq^ 10 
J. Agar,erqi Gowran 10 
Hercules Langrilhe, 

ciq, 5 

T* A. efq; 14 

G. Bifhopp, eftji 5 

Rq. VicarS| eiq; 2 

C. Doyle, cfq; 5 
Redmond Morres^efq^ 5 

Tho. Tenifon, efijj 5 

Mrs. Archbold 5 

Mrs. Popocke, feji. 10 

Mrs. Pococke, jun. 5 

Edw. Brereton, efq; 5 
Dr. Macaulay^ vicar 

general 5 

R. Dawfbn, e% 10 

Dr. FJewetfon 10 

^, MolTpm . 10 

Antony Blunt, efq; 10 

N. Marten, A. M. 20 

T. Burton, A. M. 20 

Hugh Waring, cfq; 5 



The names of the bilhops of Offory, with the dates 

of their fucpefl|on. 



1 pdnald OFogarty fucceede4 

2 JFelix O DuUany 

3 Hugh Rufus 

4 Peter Mancfin 

5 William of Kilkenny 

6 Walter de Bracljcll ^ 



A.D. 

1178 

I202 
IZ18 

12*9 
1232 

7 Gcffrjr 



4l4 THE ANTJOPITIES Q1P 

^ A.D. 

7 Gcffiry of Turrill^ * - ' 1^44 

8 Hugh 4e Mapilton - 1251 

9 Hugh 3d. , - 1257 

10 Geffry ISt Lcger t 1260 

1 1 Roger df ^Vcxford - 1 287 

12 Mchacl of Exeter - 1289 
^ 3 William Fite John r 1 302 

14 Ridiard Lcdred - 131* 

15 John of Tatenale - 1360 

16 Alexander Battcot - * 1371 

1 7 Richard Northalia - 1 386 

1 8 Thomas PcvercU • 1 397 

19 John Griffin - 1398 

20 John Waltam - 1399 

21 Roger of Appleby r 14OQ 

22 JohnYoIcan - 1 404 

23 Thomas Snell * 1405 
^4 Patrick Raggcc^ - 1417 

25 Dennis ODea - 1421 

26 Thomas Barry • 1428 
a 7 David Hacket - 1466 

28 John O Median . - 1479 

29 Oliver Cant wMl - -1488 

30 Milo BarQn •: . - 1527 

31 John Bala r - 1552 

32 Jphri Thonery - - 1553 
3^ Chriftopher Gafney - 1565 

34 Nicholas Walfh - 1577 

35 John Horsfail - • 15^6 

36 Richard Deanc - 1609 

37 Jonas Wheeler - 161 3 

38 Griffith Williama '- 1641 



39 ]^ 



JRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 4!^ 

A.D. 

39 John P^rry - - / 1672 

40 Benjamin Parry * 1677 

41 Micb»cl Ward - - 1678 
4Z Thoroa^Otway • 1679 

43 John Hartftqjige - i^9S ^ 

44 ^ur Thomw Vcfcy, Barf. J714 

45 Edward Tcnmfoij r 1731 

46 Charles Eftc - r 1735 

47 Anthoijy Dojq3ing r 1741 

48 Michael Qox - r 1 743 

49 Edward Maurice - 1754 

50 Richard Pocog^e • j 756 

51 Charles Dogdfon r 1765 

52 WilliarD Newpomc - 1775 

53 Jghn Hotham - - *775 
For the honour of the fee of Oflfory we muft 

obfervc, that twoof it3 bifliops were lords jufticea ^ 
lour lords chancellors ; three lord treafurers 1 two 
trandated to archbifhopricks ; one an ambaflgdoc j 
and one chancellor of the exchequer. 



SECT, 'VJ. 

THE chapter of St. Canice i^ coiUpored of 
twelve mefnl>erfr: the dean, chantor, chancellor, 
treafurer, archdeacon, |ind the* prebendaries of 
Blackrath, Aghmr, Mayne, Killamery, Tafcoffin, 
|CilmaTiagh and Cloiieamary ; one mcnety of Ti(- 
coffin belongs to liit c^iantcr, the other to the 
archdeacon^ by a dafeiitive fentence of archbtfhop 
Margetfon, the 19th day of Nov. 1662. 

The 



4^ THE ANTIQJLJITIES OF 

The (a) dean for the time being, was antiently 
lord of the manor of the glebe, which coniained 
all the inhabitants round the cathedral ; and before 
1640, had a fenefchal who held courts leet and 
courts baron. The deanery is at the S. E, fide of 
the cathedraL Dean Hill, about 1671, expiended 
1 60/i upon it J but it becoming quite ruinotis, Ac 
prefent dean (Mr. Lewis) rebi^ik it and made it a 
neat and commodious habitation, with a handfome 
garden adjoining. In the boufe is a half length of 
the bcaiftiful unfortunate Mary, with this infcrip- 
tion: ♦' Maria Scotorum regina aetaUs fuse, 18. 
Johannes Medina, cqucs, pinxit.*^ 

A head of cardinal Wolfey. 

The chantor had a manfe houfe aqd ^rden, 
ruined in the wars, on the fouth fide of the cathe- 
dral, mearing on the ea(l \;?ith ;he dean's garden 
. and houfe. 

The chancellor had formerly an houfe in Iriih- 
tow'n, buitt on his orchard. The orchard mears 
on the W. with the ftreet leading to Troy's gate ; 
on the E. with the Norc ; on the N. with the lands 
of the vicar's choral, and on the S. with the lands 
of Tafcoffin and the river Br^gagh, runmng by the 
city walk A ftone tan-houfe by the Nore fide 
belonged to the chancellor, and James Toovcy, 
malfter, pofleffcd p?rt of the prch^xl, ruined k 
the wars. 

The treafurer'a manfe houfe mears on the W. 
ynih the river Nore, on the S. with the iricais 
choral's houfe, and the chancellor's tan-houie (for- 
jnerly Murphy's now Webb's) on the E. with the 

ftreet 

(«) From bi/hop Qtwaj's fifiution book, MS. io the 

palace, dated 1672. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 487 

fireet leading from the Butts to Troy's gate, on 
the N. with the houfe that was aldermaa Connei*s. 
. The archdeacon's manie houfe is S. of St. CanicQt 
together with a fmall garden S. of the houfe, 
ruinous. The archdeacon vifits the diocefe froni 
the 30th Sept. to the 3d Feb. 

The houfe of the prebendary of Killamery is now 
converted into an alms-houfe, on the W, of the 
cathedral, adjoining to the antient fchool-boufe of 
fhe diocefe i the garden to it llill belongs to tl^c 
prebendary. 

- The manfe houfe of the prebendary of Tafeoffifi 
meare4 op ^e E, with the chancellor's orchard^ on 
the W. with IJling-ftreet, on the N. with the chan- 
cellor's orchard, and on the $. with the vicar's 
houfp. 

The dearj and (jx of the chapter n?ake a quorum. 
Thus hf from bidiop Otway's vifitation book. 
To this valuable document we are alfo indebted 
for the following accpuijt of the 

VICARS CHORAL. 
They are a very antient corporation, by the 
iiyle of the vicars choral and perpetuals of the 
common hall, near the cathedral. They were 
liberally endowed by bilhop St. Leger, who gave 
them his manfe and lodging, the redory of Kil- 
caflii, and a revepi^ de manubrinnio or manu- 
brennio, which. feems to be a portion of ground 
com, and one mark annually, payable by the 
. abbot of Doufke, out of the lands oif Scomberioway 
or Strornkerlavin. The manfe aqd lodging here 
mentioned were the common hall at^d dependant 
buildings, and the palace and place pf itfidence 



4ttl THE ANTIQMUfTfES OF 

of the biibops of OfTory before the pslaces of 
Aghonr aftd Dorog^ were ere£^d» fiilhop Hftckct 
bcAow^d on them the ^phorch of Balljrfaur, and 
bitbop Cantwell that of St. MmU and bifliop 
Theticry aj:^nte4 foiir choirhiers. 

In i 540, John AUeq (i) lord ChatioeBor, Geofige 
Bfowne aicbbiihop of Dublin^ and William Bra* 
ba^on Ireafurcr of IrelafKi> were nocnhu^ed by 
Hen. Vill. commiifioncrs for ecdefiaftical caufea 
ihcoQgbout the kingdom. Some differences having 
ariien between dean Cleere and the vicars^ the cociit 
miffioners vifited the hojufe, when its andent coliilH 
tiition and rules were reviewed, and (bnte new 
legciiations etUblifhed. From a perufai of the 
record we may obferve, th%t the inftkution waa 
originally monadic, or favoured very much of it. 
Thewr different cells or apartments -, their commoa 
ittlU their reading after meals; their filence at 
tMhcr timea 5 their not fuffcring any man or maid 
fcrvant in the college ; their attending eadi other^ 
with no liati^ioQ of n^itrimony or femilies, are 
fifong proofs of monkilh difciplit^ ; nor did Heary % 
CooTuniflioners make alterations in thefe pArticidara ^ 
they are retained in the antient fiatuies of our uni- 
verfity anc| other collegiate bodies, as faeft calcu- 
lated for femir^aries of learning. 

Before the rehellioq of i^^f, the corpomtion of 
vicars confiited of the dean'% chantor's, chancellor^ 
and trcafiirer's vicara, and the archdeacon's and 
pre\)endaries of Aghour, Mayne and Blacknith'ls 
Viipendiaries, and four choiriilers ^ two of the latter 

were 

(i) MS. Otwaj, fuj>ra. Appendix VIII. 



1R13HT0WN ANt> KILKENNY, 4% 

Vrere ftipendiartea of the dean and chapter, at\d 
two were maintamed by the houfe. 

On a vacancy of a ftal! in the common-haH, the 
dignitaries and prebendaries made their prefehtatioa 
to the dean of a perfon for the place. He was 
examitied by the dean as to his Kfe and morals, 
by the chantor as to his (kill in linging, and by the 
chancellor as td his learning ^ and being approved 
of, he was inftituted by the dean or fub-dean as 
vicar choral. None were vicars of the hall before 
they were priefts, though they adtually lived in 
the hall and were maintained by the houfe. On a 
vacancy, the fenior choirifter was prefented by the 
patron of the Hall, and was thereupon made and 
called, liipMidiafy of fuch a Hall, until fit to be 
ordained pncfi^ and then he was inftalled vicar: 
but during his being ftipendtaiy « he had as large a 
ftipend as any of the vicars ; fi>. that the difference 
between a vicaf and ftipendiary was this j the vicar 
was a piieft' and was beneficed in tlie diocefe at 
large, but the ftipendiary was a layman, and had a 
fupport from the houfe. 

By the aniient fbundation, the dean, bilhop and 
archbifhop/ for juft caufes, might remove a vicar. 
The vicars were to attend the choir, and fcrre the 
csflffces of the houfe alternately. The occonomift 
waa to be chofen by the vicars, and to ftate tes 
accounts to them weekly, and to the dean twice 
a year. The church of Kilkefy was annesed to 
the trcafurerlhip of the houfe. Whatever Ais parifh 
might have formerly produced, we (c) are told 
' biftiop Tennifcn left 40/. per annum tooneWRchad 

Stephcnfbn, 

(c) Ware's Bifhopf, pag. 433. 



Befidca the foregoing, tliey had 65 2 o ex- 
perided by their purveyor for their table ; and 
they kept for their own ufe, the tythe corn of the 
parifh of St. Canice, which amounted to 297 
barrels. From this (late of their revenue, with 
their other endowments^ we may judge how well 
able they were to keep hofpitality ^ but the eniising 
troubles deprived them of their income, and left 
but a fcanty fupport for three vicars. In 1677, 
the duke of Ormond took from them the town and 
lands of Park, as part of his forty-nine arrears i 
and which in 1 679, were worth 40/. per annum^ 
His grace alfo withheld the chiefries of many 
houfes in and about Kaikenny, their property 1 
and in the town of Callan, they had houfes worth 
6L •js. a yean Biihop Parry paOfed patents for the 
lands of Racanigan and St. Maul's^ part of their 

eilate. 



49c* tHE. A^IXrOjUlTlES OF 

Stephenfoni a deacon, during his life, to catheclze 
the children of papifls in that parilh, it bdng a 
wild and mountainous part of the diocefe of Oflbry . 
In 163d, the vicars and Aipendiaries had the 
following fums divided among them, as tlieir 
annual (lipends. 

Dean's vicat ^ * i ^ Zi 

Chantofs • -. 3 6 7J 

Chancellor's - 340 

Treafiirer's - - I % ^ 

Archdeacoil's ftipcndiary 33 7f- 

Prebendary's of Blackrath 2i 18 o 

— of Aghour - ^ 6 6f 

ofMayne -303 

^4 17 4i 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY- 4^ 

eflatCy and worth annually 8/. referving to them 
only fifteen fhillings. . 

The LIBRARY 

Is fituatcd at the N. W. end of thd chdrchyard. 
The following account of it, and of bifliop Williams's 
alms houfe is extra&ed from a memorial of the 
dean and chapter of St. Canice, prefented to Dn 
King, archbifhop of Dublin, and Dr. Hartfionge^ 
bilhop of Offory, 31ft May 171a, and is in MS. 
in the palace. 

•• We the dean and chapter, being appointed 
by your lordfliip*s order and the confent of the 
rev. Mr. W. to infpcdt the cafe of the widows 
alms-houfe, founded by bifliop Williams, asalfo 
the cafe of the library founded by bifliop Otway, 
and to receive and examine the furviving executoh 
accounts, and to report what was neceifary to be 
done to preferve thefe charities and benefactions, 
from being intirely funk and defeated, do reprefent 
the following date of fadts. 

Bifliop Williams, by his will, left the lands of 
Fcrmoy, then fet to col. Wheeler for 40/. per ann. 
for the maintenance of eight poor widows in an 
alms-houfe that he had bmlt in his life time. He 
made Mr. W. and archdeacon Dryfdale his execu* 
tors, who fold faid land to Jonah Wheeler of 
Grenan, E(q; for 400/. which is now worth lOoZ. 
per ann. though they had, in our o[Mnion, no 
power fo to do. The faid 4CX)/. is fo far from being 
fecured, that there is great hazard of its being loii 
Mr. W. endeavours to clear himfelf by faying, 
that Mr. Dryfdale fold the land without his know- 
ledge, *and that bifliop Williams promifed Col. 

Oliver 



4# t^g Aj^tlQUlTtES OP 

ORvcr Wfceder , fether of JbfiA, oft the paynMt 
of 400/. to make over the fee fimpte of tfed eftite 
to him. To tfcis we anfWef ^ that Mr. W. cannot 
l^ ^4itorani qf the tmAi^fiiian^ uojniHjr aiibrlb^d as 
the Cole qA of Mr. Dr][fckie» a»Mr. W. has doof. 
of iHe ipoocy ia his bands i md if the bifhop ce&- * 
fidered kioifelf aft under obligalbR lo col. Wheeler, 
he never vrould have made an, ablblute devife ta 
the poor widows, 

Bifhop Otway, by his will, made Dr. Ryder 
biihop of Killaloe, and faid Mr. W. his executors, 
and kft all hi^ efi^dlis, except ^7/. in legacies, u 
be difpofed of to diaritabie ufes^ and particularly 
ipakes this bcqueil mid devifc : — ^' Item, I gpve 
txvy books and 200A in money, and more if need* 
Jul,, for the beginning a library for the cathedcal 
church of St. C^anice,^ for the uie o^ the dcrgy 
about it i defiring the dean and chapter of St 

. Canice to grant for that ufe, the upper fiory of tfai 
old fchool-houfe, joining the ahns-boufe throug^oo^ 
ibr t()e flooring; of wliich with (iibfiaiiti^ tirabcr 
iod boards i roofing and dating it ^ for d^ka and 
(belvey and chains for every particular book ; fisT 

. windows^ window (huts, doors and chimney to 
b^ built in it,. I appoint lOo/. owing me by bill by 
AgniPAd. Cufie of Caftleinpb^ Efq; as likewilc 
pfL lOf. of Spani(h. and other fordgn gold, be it 
loor^ or. le{a, now la the hands of George ThomtDa» 
ai by U& aptes now^ in my cullody appeareth. And 
if the two laid fums (hall not be fufficient ta the 
aforelaid purpofes^ that: the eitecutox (hall take to 
JUV^ of the. caili in his hands» as (ball fiiiilh it. 
TlvsX would, have doM as (bon as poflibla after 

nay 



iHlSritOWN ANEi KILKENNY. 453 

hiy deceafe. Iteni, I will that the funi of 100/. 
be laid out to purchafe lo/. a year in houfes or 
lands ; 5/. thereof (hall be for the library-keeperj 
^hom I would have to be one of tile vicars of St. 
Canice (but always chofen by the prefcnt bifliop) 
and the other 5/. to be laid out in coals for weekly 
fires to be made in the library to preferve the 
books." 

" We find that the executors built the library as it 
now ftands, with an upper and lower ftory, whereas 
they were obliged to build only an upper ftory : 
but having a dilcretionary power in difpofing of ihs 
bilhop'S efFedls to publick benefadlions, and pious 
ufes, they found it Convenient fo to do i in order 
that the Idwer ftdiy (hould be a convenient habita- 
tion fbr the library-keeper, and a chamber for the 
preaching dignitaries and prebendaries to lodge in; 
in the week of their attendance In the cathedral : 
nor can Mr. W. apply the reft of the biftiop's ejEFefts^ 
as he gives oiit he v^ill, to his private ufe, as be is 
but under executor, and can reap no benefit but 
by his legacy of 50/. 

** We obferve further, that Mr. W. hath not yet 
chaihcd the books, nor made the purchafe of 10/ 
nor hath he paid the library •keeper, who was at great 
expences, as appears by the following award : — 

^* Whereas there did arife feveral controVcrlies 
ilnd difFeiertces between the rev. Gyles Clarke and 
the rcV. Mr. W. on NVhich there is a fiiit now de- 
pending in the chariccry of her majefty's court of 
exchequer commenced by faid Clarke againft faid 
W. as furviving elcecutbr of the late biftjop of 
Offory. And whereas by mutual confent of both 
Vol. II. L 1 parties, 



491 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

parties^ aU tbe matters and claims in difpiAe m 
referred to the final arbitremcnt of Ridiard Connd 
of the city of Kilkenny, Efq; on behalf of Clark^ 
and to Richard Uniacke of the fan>e, Rtc^ oa 
behalf of W. and that John Waring ihould b« 
umpire. Said Connel and Uniacke not agreeii^ 
now I John Waring as umpire, do order (aid W, 
by the firft of Feb. next, to pay faid Clarke the 
funi of 45/. for nine years falary due, from the 
26ih of July 1694. I do further order the iaid 
W. to pay the faid Clarke the fum of 30/. for fix 
years coals. I do order the faicJ W. to p>ay the 
(aid Clarke the fum of 10/. annually, the firft pay- 
ment to be made the 26th of July, 1703^ and I 
do order 100/. to be placed in the hands of Jc^ 
lord bifhop of Oflbry, in trult, to purchafe lot 
per annum. 

" Mr. W. denied complying, becaufe the umpi- 
rage was not made according to the niceties of lav. 
The dean and chapter fet forth, that at the trieoniil 
vifitation, 17 July 1706, he promifedthe archbUbop 
to account on oath, which however he did not." 

What further was done, the writer, at prefent, 
knows not. The room is handfome, and ihe books 
are in preflfes and on (helves, and under it is a com. 
fortable dwelling for the librarian. 
. Birtiop Maurice, by his will, dated the 6th Jan. 
1 756, makes the following bequefis :— 

" I leave my printed books to the library 
founded by bifhop Otway, at Kilkenny ; all Uut 
are now ai Dunmore, as well as tbofe that are now 
at Kilkenny, together with ten double cafes of ooe 
form, made of Danzick oak, now in ,niy lihtar} 

at 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 455 

at Dunmore. Provided a fair catalogue be made 
of the books, and fecurity given by the librarian to 
^C^cjbibit them once every year, or oftner if occafion, 
to two perfons appointed by the bifhpp, in bis own 
jprcjTence if convenient. Provided likevvife, that an 
oath be taken by the l*brarian, not to embezzle, 
deface or lend any book out of the library, but to 
give due attendance to fuch clergymen and gentle- 
ipen as may be diipofed to read there, from fix 
o'clock in the morning, to the tolling of the bell 
for rnorniqg prayers at the cathedral of St. Canice, 
Kilkenny. 

** And for his attendance and care of thofc 

bqofcs, I bequeath to the librarian and his fucceffbrs, 

appointed ^y the bilhop, 20/. a year to be paid out 

of my (Cftate at Millowji in the county of Kilkenny. 

And if it (hall happen that this legacy Ihall be 

found not to anfwcr the purpofe intended, I im- 

power the bifliop of Oflbry for the time being, with 

the confent of the dean and chapter of St. Canice, 

to fell the books, and apply their price together 

with .the faid (alary of the librarian towards raifing 

or sidoraiijig the imperfedl fteeple of their cathedral. 

And whcpreas a knowledge andpradtice of books \^ 

Ticqqifite .to r^nge tbem To as they may be readily 

foundf I defirc ray good friend, doctor Lawfon, 

iesyor fellow ,and fii:ft librarian of Trinity college 

.near ©ithlin^ to lend his hand, to tranfport, lodge 

and .place tl^em to advantage : for which trouble 

I bequeath to him the filver candleflick, now in 

mv ftudy, and 20/. to buy him a mourning ring.** 

Xbey were aqcgfdingly placed in the library : but 

LI a ihe;r 



496 THE ANTIQjaiTIES OF 

their utility is very little, if any, as there is m 
catalogue at prefent. 

The following reflections on the origin of puMc 
and diocefan libraries may, perhaps, amufc the 
reader, after the foregoing tedious details: they 
are conneded with the fubjedl now under con- 
fideration, and have therefore fomc Gbim to the 
reader's indulgence. 

Tlie refinennent of nianners; the progrcft of 
Kteratare, artd the moftintereftingcircumftancesin 
the rife and fall of empires are intimately united 
with an inquiry into the antiquity and ufe of pubfid 
libraries. Scarcely liad a.iiation emerged from 
barbaiifm and joined rn civil fociety, but letters 
became neceflary. The rudiments of pofitivc la^ 
were to be colleded ; alliances with neighbouring 
powers to be afcertained, and the experience, tk 
improvements and tranfadions of every year to 
be recorded. In colledlions of national archives 
are to be traced the earlieft veftigcs of publid 
libraries. 

The failpturcd rock and rude fong fcrved tie 
erratic inhabitants of the forett to keep alive tfe 
remcrabcance of their atchievements i tourgethcffl 
to heroic deeds and animate them in the conffid- 
to define the lirtiits of their property, and t!ic 
extent of their conquelts. But, in more cultivated 
periods, tradition was found a precarious arbiter of 
human affairs : authentic documents were to te 
recurred to : publick treaties were to be produced, 
and war or peace awaited their evidence. 

If learning had not been of divine origin, it was 

confecrated by the hands that firft poliftied airf 

improved 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 497 

improved it. The facerdotal order (d) among ihe 

Jews, the Chaldeans and Egyptians devoted their 

time to its cultivation, it was the employment of 

their lives. Precluded by publick munificence from 

every attention to fecular concerns, it was then 

their indifpenfable duty : their labours abundantly 

recompenced their fellow-citizens, and did honour 

to themfelves. 'The Babylonians erefted the nobleft 

monument the world ever faw, in a {e) body of 

celeflial obfervations far 700 years. With fuch 

matured geniufTes, and with fuch aftonifliing per- 

fcverance, to what perfedtion muft they not have 

brought every other fcience •, and what admirable 

treafuics of eallern wifdom maft not their libraries 

have contained ? Thefe are the ages called fabulous 

and heroic : — heroic they certainly were, if the 

nobleft produdtions of the * human underftanding 

merit that epithet : and they are no farther fabulous, 

than being involved in the dark veil of antiquity, 

and (f) rendered contemptible by the abortive 

fuperfetations of numerous Greek fciolifts. It wa$ 

at the period of their greateft glory and empire 

that thofe exertions of genius and of induftry arc 

recorded. 

" (g) When the arts and iciences, fays an ele- 
gant writer, con^e to perfedtion in any ftkte, firora 
that moment they naturally, or rather neceflarily 
dfecline." At this moment of perfcdlion, publick 

libraries 

(//) Jofeph. contra ^pion. Malach. cHap. 2. 7. Deut. 31. 
z6' z Mace. ii. 13. 

(*) Plin. lib. 7. cap. $6. 

{/J See ihe learned Bryant's aoalyfis of antieni cnjrtho- 
logy, paff. 

fgj Hume's EfTays, fol. i. p- $>• 



498 THE A N T 1 CLU t T I E S O F 

Kbraiies were eftablirtied in Egypt, in Greece eA 
Rome. The obfcrvaiion i6, perhaps, nevir^ the 
fa£t 16 (ndifptitable and the detail carious. 

Read the account of the fepulchfe of Ofmandyas, 
king of fegypt, which for defign, magnificence and 
execution, required, in the ojjinion of an exceiient 
(A) judge, the combined efforts of hurtian ingenuity: 
and yet its principal ornament was the &cred library 
contiguous to it. We may eflimate the progic^ 
of the Egyptians in literature as well as in media*' 
nics and the fine arts, from the infcription on Aa 
library, which was (/) 

y ■ ' ■■ >Ft;y ?j I (troiiov — 

^ Medicatdrium animae 

From (k) thence Thales, Pythagoras, Plato and 
Herodotus derived thofe richftreams which fertilized 
and highly improved Grecian philofophy and Gre- 
cian hiftory. 

Pififtratus, riotwithftanding the dark (hade thrown 
over his chdrafter by turbulent demagogue^ and 
prejudiced writers, was an amiable and acown- 
plifhed (/) prince. His love of learning was coa- 

(picuousi 

[b) It ^%i an ftftonidiing building, As defcribed hj Di> 
dorus Siculus, lib. i. and required more ex ten five a.bii:ti:st9 
tompiete than the pyra<fiids. Si paulo penirios confident 
favi Kirch er« aulim fandd aifirmare, hofce fuanoi togeaii 
homines, uri nihil eos humanarum fcientiarum latnit, ka 
earuoi ope bunianis quoque operibus majora ^faedttifTe, ma 
y^l in una tabri^a efformanda oaines anes et fcieaiias pb^i- 
fam et matheniaticam confpirafle videam. In Turr. BabcL 
jib. a. fee. 3. cap. 3. 

(1) D'odor. Sic. fupra. St. Bafil alludes to this, when Ik 
fa js : — Tif »^?f*^o» it/^Icw* t« Vt^^^nifuvn f ayii n y. And Pb* 
{eippn ;-— Yfvxif W^et MprfXimr r^ ^^^o^tfifrm* 

(k) Lg^tant. dc lapient. ver. Jib. 4. cap. 2. 

(/) So I call him mftead pf tjranti his ufatl ftdditioB. 
Gatakeri Cmp. pag. 8. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 499 

ipicucnis, m colleftmg Homer's poems and ercdting 
the firil publkk library in (m) Greece. Soloiv, his 
kinfman, had perfected the Athenian legiflation : 
the city of Athens was extenfive a^id beautiful, 
^nd the ftrength of the fiate fo eonfidefaWer as 
enabled it, in a few years after, to cope witli the 
unired force of the Perfian empHre. 

The tafte for collefting books was not confined 
to Athens alone ; it was extended over Greece, as 
we learn from («) Athenaeus; who mentions the 
libraries of Polycrates the Samian ; Nicocrates the 
Cyprian ; Euclides the Athenian ^ Euripides the 
poet, and Ariftotle ihe philofopher. Like the bee 
tliat reits upon and examines every flower, but 
extrafts thofe fwects alone that are proper for 
honey, fo is the man in fearch of erudition amid a 
number of books : this comparifon of Ifocrates 
very fully conveys an idea of the multiplicity of 
books in Athens at this time, and is the finctt eulo- 
gitim on their admirers. 

Attalus and Ptolemy Philadelphus founded their 
libraries at Pergamus and Alexandria in the moil 
flourlfhing fituation of their affairs. It was not 
^ imtU after the conqueft of Macedon by Emilias 
PauluSy and the Pontic expedition of Lucullus^ 
that thofe conquerors, worthy the virtuous days of 
the republick, eilabliflied colledtions of books at 
Rome. As yet there was no publlck library in that 
capital : Auguftus completed one in imitation of 

the 

(m) Aul. Gell. No^. Attic, lib. 6. cap. 17. 

(/t) Deipnoinph. lib i. 

(a) '0<vi( yo^rif fAt^rmf i^w/xiv, &c. a mod beautiful Hmiif , 
comparing (be afliduity ana leleftion of a nian of learning, to 
the lame qualities in the bee. Oiac. ad Demonic, iub tinem. 



5op THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

the Egyptian. Ovid tells us^ that below was 4 
portico, in which was the temple of Juno : and 
above it the books were depofited, and contiguous 
to it was the theatre pf Marcellus. 

We now fee, if any thing can mark decifivdj 
the |iouri(bing eras of antient empires, it is the 
eredion of publick libraries. In the infency of 
learning, books were few. in Greece, the fubjcQs 
pf poetry, oratory and the abftradted fcienccs were 
monopolized by Homer, Sophocles, Demofthcncs, 
Euclid and Arifiotje (p), Defpairirig to equal 
them, fubfequent writers cqntented theriifclvcs with 
reducing that into an art, which before had been 
the offspring pf genius ^nd pf nature. New com- 
pofitions appeared, which depended on penetraiioD, 
pn induftry, much reading, mature refledion and 
pradtical obfervations : each a fruitful (burce for 
multiplying books and fprrii(hing libraries. By 
this time the t^ftp of the nation . was fixed ; its 
mapners polifhed j its civilization perfedl, and its 
power at the height. At this period Vitmvius (j) 
direds publick libraries to be built, a^ contributing 
to national fplendour and magnificence : but the; 
ferved other impprtant purpofes; they arrcfted 
learning in hs flight, and ftemmed the incroacfaing 
torrents of ignorance and barbarifm. 

From the faint gliipmerings of hiftory we find 
they had this effe£t in Chaldea and Egypt : for 

tbqfe 

(p) Among other fine obfcrvation^ of Vellelus Patercnloi 
this is 16 opr purpoTc : *' El ut primo ad c6Dre()opncio$, qa^ 
' pnores ducimus, accendimur : ita, ubi atic prieteriri, avt 
j^quari eos pcife defperavimus* (ludiuoi cuoi fpe feoefcit ; tt 
quod afTequi non poted, fequi deiinit, et» vel occiipat«a| 
relinquens maieriam, quxrit noTam." Lib. i. 
(f) Lib. 6. c^p. 1^. 



IRiSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 591 

thofe nations, even when Grecian literature was at 
its fummity preferved the reputation of their former 
wifdom. The fame is obfervabic of Greece, whid} 
notwithfianding its being defpoiled of its libraries by 
^he Romans, could not be totally deprived of 
books*, they were too numerous to fuffer the 
people to fall into grofe ignorance. A general 
diffufion of learriing gave them a fuperiority over 
their conquerors and m^de them in their moft 
deprefled ftate their equals in fcieqce. (r) Ireland 
exhibited the fame flriking fadl: the Danifh tyranny i 
pf 200 years was not able to eKtinguifli learning iji 
that ifland, the multiplicity of literary compofitions 
prevented it. So that an Englilh writer fays of his 
father whh great truth : 

Exemplo patrum, commotus amore legendt 
Ivit ad Hibernos, ibphia mirabili claros. 
Nurtured from youth in learning's mazy (lore 
He fought, for wifdqm fam'd, Hibernians (hore. 

The Roman genius did not produce books with 
the rapidity of the Grecian j nofr do we read of 
libraries in their colonies and fettlements; they 
were moftly (s) confined to the capital: fo that 
when the inundations of barbarians overturned the 
empire, and Rome was taken and her libraries 
jdeftroyed, learning, almoft inftantly, became ex- 

Jina. 

It was before obfcrved, that the moft facred 
places were the repofitojies of hodks. Thus Mofcs, 

when 

(0 As yf\\\ be fecn in ibe hidcry of the church of Ireland 
jn ihc clcvcnlh'ccniur)', hy the editor of this Number. 

(0 P/ the conftitutioDs of Valeniinian and TbeodpGus it 
js very plain, that Rome was the chief univcrfuy of thtf 
empire. Cod. Theodoiu Lb. 14. lit. 19. I 1. A. P. 379, 



Syz THE ANTIOUITIE&OF 

v?licn the book of the law was perfefted, ordered 
ft to be placed by the fide of the ark of the cove- 
nant : and Judas Maccabeus, imitating the er- 
ample of Nehemiah, buitt a library in the temple, 
ftnd coUefted there the books of the prophets and 
ihe epiftks of the Kings. The Chriffians followed 
fiidi patterns. In the third century, Alexander 
biftiop of Jcrufalem founded a library in that city: 
it was for the ufe of the clergy : out of this library 
feys {t) Ettfebius, we ourfetveshave gathered matter 
for the fwbjed now in hand -, this is, for his cccle- 
ftaftical hiftory. And St. Auguftin bequeaAed tts 
colleftion of books to his church of Hippo. 

Such then is the origin of Diocefan libraries : 
an inlVitution, which, if properly conduced, would 
prefervc to the clergy that pre-eminence in litera- 
ture, by which, in all ages they have claimed 
rcfpeft,.and frequently admiration. Ignorance in 
the fecred order is a fure prognoftic of the decay 
of religion and; the corruption of morality. ** My 
.{u) people are deflroyed for lack of knowledge : 
becaufe tliou bafl rejeded knowledge, I will alio 
rejeft thee, that thou (halt be no prieft to me. 
The (w) prieft's lips fliould keep knowledge, and 

flic people fhould feefc the kw at hi^ mouth.*' 

Waat 

(/) Hifl. Ecc. lib. 6. cap. 20. Pamphilus founded a 
Kbr«i7 ifr ibe chuFch of Csefarca In'Palcftuic j coilc^ed all 
tlie eccltfiadical writers, and Hanicribed with his own hard 
the works ofOrigcn : it was there Jerom found his ezegefis 
pn thre twelve pr< phtts. De Scriptor. cap. 7 J. This was 
in 294. Cavil hifl. littr^.r. pa^. 76. See more in Buigbam's 
antiquities of rbc Chriftian church. Book 8. chap. 7. 

(//) Hofca, iv. 6. 

(*iu) Malathi» ii. 7. The Levliical priefthood was bound 
to indrud the people in the iaw, Deut. zxziii. 10. Levii. x. 

11. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 50^ 

Want of books is a fore evH, not only to ftudtous 
fticn, but it damps the! warmth of the beft difpofed 
and mod eager after information. A flender fup- 
port and remote fettlcment too frequently induce a 
languor, fatal to a profcffion, which requires every 
aid. Thofe pious and good men who have formed 
Dioceian libraries did all in their (x) power to ob-^ 
viate thofe complaints. Yet the following catalogue 
evinces how little has been done in this way, and, 
from the principle before laid down, demonftratca 
how far removed we are from perfedion in the arta 
and fciences. 

In 1 692 Bifliop Otway founded a library at St. 
Canice, Kilkenny. 

1698 Archbilhop Marfh at St. Sepulchres, 
Dublin. 

1 720 Biftiop Browne at Cork. 

1726 Archbifhop King at Derry* 

1737 Biihop Poller at Raphoe^ 

And our prefeht excellent and publtck-fptrited 
primate, has formed a noble foundation at Ar->> 
magh. 

If there are more, they have not come to die 
writer's knowledge. The anecdotes of the Oflbriari 
iibtary will warn us to avoid a cajxtal error in fuch 
efiablt{hments^ tbdt cf making them poflhumous 

works. 

II, and the cities of the Lcvitcs were college! difperfed 
among ihe^ tribes. Suilingfleet's Eccies. cafes, pag. 77. 
, edit. 8vo. 

(x) Godwin fpeafcine of archhifhop Matthew, whocrefled 
ft piiblick library at Briftol, fays :— •• Opus, hercle, egregium, 
quodque pltires otinam imiterencur, cum, pne libroruin in* 
opia, plurimi tenuioris fortis iiiiniftri tanquam falcibus deili* 
Tuti, a fegete Dominica demetenda faepeoumero derineaiiiur.*' 
De PrapfuU Angl. pag. 90* edit. ida. 



594 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

workg. When ihey are not begun and finifhed in 
the founder's life time, their defign is fruftrated, and 
this difappointfltient is attended with fraud, perjury 
^nd injulVice. Archbifliop Marfli and the prcfent 
primate have cfFedually prevented fuch confe- 
qucnccs, by regulating whilft living every matter 
relative to their noble foundations, and confirming 
it by parliamentary fandtion. 

The appointment of a peribn to the office of 
librarian is often not well confidered. In the 
antient Roman church he was called (y) chancellor, 
and his (z) itation was moft hnportant and rcfpcft- 
^ble. On the eredlion of cathedrals he was the 
firft or fecond dignitary of the chapter : examined 
the candidates for orders : took care of the library, 
the fervice books, and did all the literary bufineis 
of his body. The llatutes of the churches of Litch- 
field and London, in the {a) monafticon, are full 
to thofe points. We may afcend to much earlier 
times, and mention men of thehlgheftaccomplifti- 
nients, who were librarians : {b) as Demetriu$ 
Phalercus, Callimachus, ApoUonius and Varro, 
An ignorant librarian is a contradiction in terms : 
he fbould be a perfon of abilities, who could dired 
the younger clergy in their ftudies, and aflift poffibly 
the more mature : he would be beloved as a parent 
an^ reverenced as a mailer : the timidity of infant 

genius 

(y) T)u Cange, in voce. 
' {z) Uc vix vci bonum jadicetur» qqod RomanI cancelltrii 

prius nun fueric e;iaaiina(um judicio, ihoderatuni coofilio* 
lludio roboratuni tt cor.firinatum ajutorio. St. Bcraardi 
ipift. 313. 

(tf) Ttxji. 3. pag. z\. 339. 

lb) Hotiin^er. Bibhoih. quodrlpari. pag. 79, 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 50^ 

genius would receive countenance and aid from 
him, and the moll poliftied produftions wotild be 
improved by his perufal. 

It would exceed the limits of this little cxcuriion 
to be more minute : the creating a fund by a fmall 
annual fubfcription for purchafmg books : the Iend*< 
ing books under certain regulations, and the exciting 
emulation among the clergy, are objeds very dc- 
fcrving of notice. 

We fliall now proceed with a lift of the deans of 
St. Canice, and the dates of their fucceilion. 

DEANS. A.D. 

1 Henry Pembroke 

2 Roger dc Wexford 

3 Adam Trillock 

4 Thomas Archer 

5 John Strange 

6 Edmund Comerford 

7 James Cleerc 

8 Thomas Lancaller (c) 

9 William Johnfon 

10 David Cleere 

1 1 Richard Deane 
I z John Tod 

1 3 Abfalom Gcthinge 

14 Jcnkin Mayos 

15 Barnabas Boulger 

16 Edward Warren 

1 7 Thomas Ledfhame 

1 8 Daniel Neylan, D. D. 

1 9 Jofeph Teate 



»245 


1269 


»347 


1469 


i47i 


1502 


1504 


^550 


>559 


158a 


1603 


i6io 


1616 


1620 


1630 


1661 


1666 , 


1667 


zo Thomas 



(e) He held ibU tieanery with the fee of Kildare. 



^o6 THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

ao Thomas Hiil - • 1676 

ZM Benjamin Parry * 1673 

22 John Pooley - - 1675 

23 Robert Moifom, D. D. i7aj 

24 Robert Watts, D. p. - 1747 

25 John Lewi$y A. M. 

ROUND TOWER. 

There is a beautifui one and of great height 
ftanding at the fouth fide of the cathedral. Wc 
have profcfledly treated of thofe cvrious ftrudiuocs 
in the fixth number of this Colledtanea, to wHdi 
we beg leave to refei; the reader. 

SCHOOL HOUSE. 

•' In the wefte of the church-yard of late (d)^ 
(ays Stanihurft, have been founded a grammar- 
fchoole by the right honorable Pefirce or Peter 
Butler, erle of Ormond and Offorie, and by his 
wife the counteflfe of Ormond, the tady Marguet 
Fitz Gerald, fifter to Gerald Fitz Gerald^ the crlc 
of Krldare that laft was. 

Out 

(//) Apud Hollingftied, fupra. In another work he fafs: 
Extat in hoc oppido Tchoia exrrvfla opibus clariflimi, yiri, 
, Petri Butleri, Orniondise et Ofibrix comitis, «t uxoris ejus 
quae Nfar^rita Giralda vocabatur. Fxmina full fpe^aiifiiint ; 
non modo fumma geneiis nobilltatc, i^^ipp^e comitis Kiidaroe 
fi)in» fed rcruni eiiam prudencia fupra roQlr^brem capium, 
prsedita. Hie ludum aperuic noftra actate, P«t4?us-Wbiiiis, 
cujus io lotam renipublicani fumnm conftanl ^werita. Ex 
itiius eiiaiii fchola, tanquam ex equo Troico, hooiines lite- 
ratilTiini reipubllcac in lucem j)rodicr^nt. Quos jego hie 
Whitecs, «.iuos Qiicnierfordos, quos Walftieos, quos Wa« 
cfingos, .quos Doruicros, quos Sheihos, quos Garveos« qttos 
BufitTos, quos Archeros, quos Sirongos, quos Lumbardos, 
r?[ccl:entes ingenio ei do^iina viros, commemorare po- 
tuifTem $ qui prioiis temporihus a!tatis in ejus difciplinam fe 
tradiderani. Stanihurft. de reb. in Hib. ge&is, pag. aj. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY, s^ 

Out of which fchoolc have fprouted fuch proper 
impes, through the painfull diligence and iabour- 
fome induftrie- of that famous lettered man, Mr* 
Peter White, fometime fellow of Oriel college i« 
Oxford, and (choolemafter in Kilkennie (as gene- 
rallie the whole weale publicke of keland, and 
efpeciallie the fouthern parts of that iiland, are 
greatly thereby furthered). 

This gentleman^s method of training up youth 
was rare and fingular \ framing the eduqation ^- 
cording to the fcholar's veine : if he found him frec» 
he would bridle him ^like a wife Ifocrates from liis 
booke i if he perceived him him to be dull, be 
would fpur him forward ; if he underftood he was 
the worfe for beating, he would win him with 
rewards. Finallie, by interlafmg ftudie with re- 
creation, forrow with mirth, pain with pleafure, 
fowernefle with fweetnelfe, roughnefTe with raild- 
neffe, he had fo good fucceffe in fchooling his 
pupils, as in good foolh, I may boldlie bide by it, 
that in the realme of Ireland was no grammar 
ibhool (b good, in England, I am aflured, none 
better. And becaufe it was my happie hap (God 
and my parents be thanked) to have been one of 
his crue, I take it to fiande with my dutie, fith I 
may not Itretch mine abilitie in requiting his good 
turns, yet to manifeft my good will in remembering 
his pains. And certes, I will acknowledge myfelf 
fo much bound, and beholden to him and his, as 
for his fake I reverence the meaneft ftone cemented 
in the walls of that famous fchoolc." 

In 1 670, Dr. Edward Jones, afterwards bifliop 

of Cloyne, was mafter of this fchool ^ as was 

^ Dr. 



Soi tkE AMTICidltiES OF 

Dr. Henry Ryder in 1680, who was promoted td 
the fee of Killaloe. 

The i8ih of March, 1684, the duke of Ormbnd 
granted a new charter to the college in Kilkenny, 
of a certain houfe in John's ftreet, with the adjaccrit 
park, for a; fchool-houfc : and the reftories and 
tythes of Donoghmofre,' KeHs, Wollen grange, Jer- 
point and Kilmocar, in the county of Kilkenny; 
and the pari(hcs of Bruor and Templemorc, and 
Religmurry in the county of Tipf)crary. Tbcfe 
w^re given in truft to Richard Coote, Elq*, and 
Sir Henry Wemyes, lent, to pay the maftcr 140/. 
per annum. The following are the ftatutes from 
the original record in the college. 

'* Statutes, orders and conftitatidns made, ap- 
pointed and ordained by the right noble James 
duke, marquis and earl of Ormond, earl of OflforJ 
and Brecknock, baron of Arklow and Lanthony, 
lord of the lordlhip and liberties of Tipperary, 
chancellor of the univerfities of Oxford and Dublin, 
chief butler of Ireland, lord lieutenant general and 
general governor of Ireland, lord lieutenant of tbe 
counties of Somerfet, the cities of Bath, Briftol 
and Wells, one of thci lords of his majcfty'5 mofl 
honourable privy council of his iiiajefty's kingdoms 
of ,£ngland, Scotland and Ireland, fteward of his 
majeily's houfehold, and Weftminfter^ and knight 
of the mod noble order of the garter, founder rf 
the grammar fchool at Kilkenny in th6 kingdom of 
Ireland, for the due government, managing and 
improvement of the faid fchool ; March the i8tb, 
in the year of our Lord, 1684. 

lfnprimi% 



larSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 5<^ 

ImpraniSy it i^ oonfiifated and ordained, tliat 
there ihall be for ever a mafter refident, who fliall 
be at ieaft a mafter of aits here in Ireland, or of 
«ie of the imiverfitieg in England : alfo of good 
fife and reputation, well Ikilled in humanity and 
grammar learning; loyal and orthodox ; who (hall 
take the oath of sjllegiancc and fiipremacy, and 
conform to the doctrine and difcipline of the church 
JsB Ireland, as. it is by law^, now eftablifticd ; and 
liuA Edward Hmton, dodtor ia divinity, be hereby 
coafim^ in the place and office of maAer of the 
find icbool. 

IL That the mafier Ifaali be nominated and 
cfaoTen by the duke of Ormond, his grace, patron 
and governor, and the heirs male of his body that 
Aatl fiieceiTively be dukes of Ormond, patrons 
and governors of the faid fchooi, within the fpace 
of three nnoHtbs next after every vacancy : who by 
writing undi^r the hand and feal of the refpe^ive 
governor, being reconnmiended to the victors, and 
6y them examined and approved, as able and fuf- 
ficient both for religion, learning and manners; 
upen certificate of' iuch examination and approba* 
tton of tfce vii5k)r& to the governor (hown, the faid 
peribn (b approved, fliall'by a deed under the hand 
andfeal of the governor be fettled- and confirmed 
as mafter of the faid fchooll But if the* governor 
flialf negled to nominate according to the time 
prefixed, or (ball chilfe fuch as- are not qualified 
fuitably to thcfe ftatutess that then it (hall be lawfnl 
for the vifitors, after notice firlt given to the go- 
vemor, and no redve& within three months after 
fuch notice, to elett and prefcnt pro ilia vice, any 
Vol.. II. M m oth^r 



Sio THE ANTIQJUITIES OF 

other perfoiit whom in their coniciences, ihcy floB 
judge to be well qualified for the place. And db 
that upon failure of iflue male of the body of dK 
faid James duke of Ormond, the provofl, felloM 
and fcholars of Trinity college Dublin^ and tber 
fucceflbrs (hall from thenceforth for ever afterwanb 
be patrons and governors of the faid i<^ooL 

IIL That the mafter fhall conftantly inhabit and 
reiide at the houfe belonging to the (aid £chool, »d 
in perfon attend the duties of. his place : which ce 
to inftruft the fcholars in reli^on, virtue and learn- 
ing : in the Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages; 
as alfo in oratory and poetry ; according to the befl 
method which he and the viiitors (hall judge mofi 
effeAual to promote knowledge and learning : and 
that being in health he (hall never be abfent he 
above thirty fchool days in one whole ycar^ vrUdi 
Ihall begin on the 25th of March ^ nor above a 
fortnight at any one time, unlefi upon eoiergencies 
th^ vifitors (hall give him leave, being firft latis6ed, 
that his place (hall be well and fufEciently difchargpd 
in his abfence. 

IV. That there (hall always be an u(her belong- 
ing to the (aid fchool, to be nominated, cfao(en aad 
removed by the mafter : who (hall have lus Jki, 
lodging and maintenance in the fchdoi-booic^ st 
his allowance. A (ingle man well-fldlled a 
grammar learning, of good credit for parts aad 
manners, a batchelor of arts at the leaft in one of 
the univerfities of England or Ireland : and he (baO 
conftantly attend and affift in- the duties of ihc 
fchool, in fuch manner and method, as the maficr 
ftiall appoint. 

V- Th: 



rmshToWN and Kilkenny* ' s^v 

Vi That neither fnaftef nor ulher (hall take upon 
ifaem any other charge^ ofiice or employment^ 
which the vifitors fhail judge inconfiftent with, or 
prejudicial to the due managing and improvement^ 
of the faid fchool : but (hall conftantly attend and 
difcharge their rcfpcdive duties, and never be both 
of them out of the fchool at fchool times. 

'VI. That the fcholars to be admitted into tha 
fiud fchool (hall be plainly and decently habited. 
And fuch as (hall have Brft read their accidence, 
and arc fit to enter upon grammar learping ; and 
(hall * fubmit to the order, method and correction , 
of the faid fehool. 

VIL That the children of all filch as ate attend- 
ing in the ferviee of the duke of Ormond, (hall at 
ill times be admitted to the privileges and benefits 
of faid fchool gratis. 

Villi That if any wcU-difpofed perfons (hall out 
of charity pay for the tabling of fuch ingenious 
and orderly lads, as (hall by the vifitors be recom- 
mended to the mafter, as bbje6ls of charity, he 
(hall admits and as they continue modell and diU^ 
gent, teach them gratis^ 

IX. That if his grace, the duke, or otheif pious 
betiefadors (hall hereafter make any grants or 
allowances for the maintenance of any number 6f 
fcholars, they (hall be taught and entered afterwards 
in Trinity college, Dublin j if they prove fit. The 
mailer (hall then be exprefsly obliged to teach thofe- 
tinder the name of Ormond fcholars, according to 
his bell (kill and induftry, gratis. 

X. That it (hall be lawful for the maftcr to 
demand and receive of all other fcholars according 

Mm 2 to 



lis ,THE AKTIQJJITIES OF 

to the r^.te^ s^nd u(age^ of Xh^ moil reoiailQiUe 
fchools in Dubrui9 for boarding and £cfaoolisg, 
thofe childr^ excepted^ whofe parents are, or it 
the time of ih^ir birth werp inhabitants of the ^ 

■^ pf Kilkenny, or in the liberties thereof & who flul 
pay but half price. 

XL Thjat if the mafter know3 any of the fidboho 

. to be uodef any inifeiCtious or oSenfive difibafe or 
diftemper : or that any infeflioufi difeafe be in the 
houfe where they table, he (hall, for fecurity of Ik 
reft, di^harge fucfa from fchool till the danger be 
over. 

XII. That every ftubborn and refnuStory kd, 
Vrho (hall re^jfe to fuhrtiit to the ocders and cor- 
rcdlion of t^ie faid (chppl, (hall by the mafter be 

. forthwith, difmiflfed from^tjip fakjl (ijiool, not to be 
re-admitted without due fubinigion tq exempfauy 
pupi(hment : and qpoa hi9 fi^CQa4 offence cf the 
iame kind, tp be difcharged and expelial for evo^. 
An<i in this number are reckoned fuch aa Ihall oftr 
tp jk^ut out the rQafter or ufher : but the mafier floB 
give, ^en^ leave tp biwk up eight dajrs befcie 
Chri.ftmas, and three days befof e Eafter aiv) Wlgt- 



Xljfl: TIjat the. ipa(tj5r (ball m^^ dilisnt in- 
quiry u^fipi fucl> as (haJl k^^K Wt, d^oe or aay 
vi;ay ^^^k the defks, forms^ w^ll^ and.vfindawscf 
t)ie fchool^ Qr any parts pf the hpu(e» or trees ia 
thef meadow, and (hall alv^ays infli^ opefi and ex- 
emplary puni(hment on all fuch oflfeaders, 

XIV. That from the beginning of Nlarch la ibe 
middle of September, the fchq)ars (hall be and con- 
tinue in fchool from ii^ of thc^clock ii) tl^c moyming 

tiiJ 



titt el^eh i ind alt the reft of thd yeiP fifom fiven^ 
oi* as iBon as the gatte of fhe city aife bpin : and iti 
the afternoon from orte to five : the afterhooiis of 
thlirfdays and faturdays excepted, whtch ihall be 
always allowed for recreation : and that the mafter 
Ihall grant ftb pfey-diys; ijtcept to fach id Ihall 
pay down ten (hiliings into the tnaider's hands, to 
Be by hira immediately difpofcd of to the moft 
indigent and defervihg lads of his fchool. 

XV. That the niafter (hall take fpecial care of 
the fch&Iars of his own family, to ihilrufk them 
bv hiis good example at all times; as well sui by 
oecaiional diredlions : iaind (hall have the prayers 
0^ the church of England and Ireland read to 
them bbth morning and evening in ibme con* 
Veiiieht place of thfe hou(fe : and in the fchool, the 
prayers feen and approved by the loM bifhop of 
Oflbry^ iteiU conftantly and duly be ufed in the 
{kht ihdnner and form, as they are at the date of 
thefe prefents. 

XVI. That from the beginning of March to the 
middle of September, all the fcholafs (hall be in 
the icboot upon fundays, by eight in the morning, 
to be ttiftrui^ed in the church catecihirm; and 
itfterwaittls (hall ait^ the ma^ and afhef to the 
cbtirdi, in comely atid decent mannfer. And from 
^ middle of September to iVlarch, they (hall ftay 
at fchbol until haif an hour paft eleven upon 
fiEiurdays, that they may be taught the; fame 
c^ecfasfm. 

XVII. That Edward Hinton, matter of the (aid 
fchdolt ^nd the mafler for the time being, (hall 
inhstbit, pd(re& and enjoy to hiA own proper ufe ^ . 

and 



^14 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

find emolunieot, the fGhooUhoafe, with the coorti 
outhoufes and gardens the|:eimto belongiag *, as 
alfo the meadow adjoining, comn^oniy called Ae 
pigcon-houfe meadow : proyicjed the fcholars be 
allowed at Jeifure times to take thdr recreatioa 
therein ^ and th^t the trees, ir} the faid meadow, be 
carefully preferved and imprpved. 

XVIII. TM the matter fhall prpyide a la^ ' 
regiller, wherein the i^ames, qualities ^nd ages of 
all fuch children as (hall, from time to time, be 
admitted iqtp the fyxd fchpoli (h^U be re^ftercd 
and entered ; ^s alfp* the time of their departuR'^ 
what clafs they were in, and to what pl^ce of em- 
ploy men t they go. pkewife a c$italogue of all 
fuch goods, liandards and utenfils, as do or ihaS 
belong to the faid fchpol-l^oufe, piit-boufes, gaidcil 
and meadow, 

XIX. That the mfifter (hall receive for h^ UixtJ 
the fum of 140/. per annuni, of good and lawfiii 
money of and in England, by even and equil 
portions; oncjnoiety pf it at the 25tb of Marcfa» 
and the other September the apth, or witfaia a 
fortnight after egch of thpfe feafia i to be paid caor 
itantly in the fcboo^-houfb, ^^ithput any 4daJcatioc> 
put of tythes fettled by the (^d duke for paymeat 
thereof: except bis grape or Us heirs flmll fettk 
fome particular lands for the payment of the fiU 
falary, and which (hall be of % fu)l valup to di^ 
charge it yearly. Aqd upon the mailer's dettdi, or 
removal, his falafry pro rata fliall become due to 
him tp be paid till tliat very day. 

XX. That the mailer fhall keep and maintm 
(he fchool^houfe, fchool and out-oSices in confine 

good 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. SH 

good and fuffident rtpsLir : nor (hall it be lawful to 
make any alterations therein without the approbation 
of the vUitors. 

XXI. That Thofns^s, lord bifhop of Oflbry, 
Ntociflus, lord bifhop of Leighltn and Ferns, and 
Robert Huntingdon^ D. D. provoft of Trinity 
colkge^ Dublin^ while they live in this kingdom ; 
Md the biflidps of CXfory^ Leighlin and Perns, and 
the provoft of the college for the time being, be 
nominated and appointed vifitors of the faid fchool : 
and that they, or the majority of them (for it is the 
greater number of them fliU that is meant by the 
vifitors) (hall yearly at, or upon the Jaft thurfday 
10 Junctor oftener if they Ihall fee occaiion, pub- 
lickly vifit (aid fchool, between the hours of eight 
and twelve ini the morning: where and when they 
flmU firft cauffe the flatuteg to be read,* audibly and 
difliri£tly by one of the. fchoUrs ; and afterwards 
proceed to examine the proficiency of the fcholars, 
and bfquire after any breach of the ftatutes, and 
after the behaviour of the mafter-, the fufficiency 
and mahners of the uiher; the aifthors that are 
rfad4 ithe methods, uiages and cirflcms of the 
fchooi i iztid if they (halt judge any alterations or 
axneqdmetits requifite in any of thefe, they (hall 
e3cp0e& it ttf the matter under their hands and feals ; 
who! by virtue of thefe lUtutes is readily to comply 
iMHnh.dicir advice, for the better inipcovement of 
tfee fittd fi:hodl. And when there fhali be founda* 
turn fcbolars, they Ihall by the vifitors be diofeti, 
ai;dcrdiag:to their hierita for the univerfity. / 

XXIL That on tiie faid vifitation day after 
d^txtr.f. wbiph the mafter is to provide (bberly and 

decently I 



5*6 THE ANT1QJJITIE« OF 

decently. Mid tbwirds it ihafl hsrc freely gbea 
hint a f^t btick ycfttif^ out of his grace's next puk: 
the vifitors then prefcnt, (hall take a ^ctr of the 
fchool-lioufe and out^houfe;s, the garden^ meadow 
and trees thereni ^ atid if they find oecsfion, (liaB 
fpecify In writing all thofe repairs aad dmendiHefttSi 
with the manner how, and the Vune vfhsa Aey 
judge thefn expediei>t to be niada if the mailer 
Ihall be negligent herein, the viikors fliali 6gtvSj 
the Tame to the governor of the (aid kbooU «!» 
forthwUh fhati order tliofe diings to be done bf 
£^le workmen, and that they /be paid out cf the 
falary next due to the maAen 

XXIIL That if it (ha^l appear to the iwfitars, 
th^t the uiher is infuffic^cnt dr ibandaloua, and fi> is 
fi^iified to the niafter under ihox hands and feabi 
if tbe madkc Qkali retiife to i;enek>ve Ac iaid uflier, 
and chuft ainsDiher Aati^babiy f)ualified; or if the 
i-p^iler. (hall negiedt fuch ahsratidns xBui waacoi- 
mmt^ as the viTitors ihftU; have jiidged fit to be 
m^^i dther in the manneifs 06 hioijfelf or his iifheTf 
thr authorsr to be re^d, . or iihe method^ cufinms or 
n)^nagenient of the fatd Bboql'; or if the mafier 
(hould forbear to difiphaijge .'himfetf or his oifaer 
from rqch oflicea or eooploymentQ, as the 'vifitxsa 
havejiidged inconfi(lei7t:Qr.prepidtd8lto the dsfi 
nianagement of the fabd fchdol : or fiialt alter their 
houfe without their con&nt | the viiHors (hall, under 
their hands and feals, adsroniih tbs m^fler a fecond 
time of hig faid negted;^ : irid \f for the fpace of 
three months after fuch (ecx>n4 admonrtion tbe 
niafter (hall be convidked, either by notoriety of 
f$£iy or t)ie te%noq.y of t\rq ^ the nioft credible 

witnefles 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 517 

vltticflea of fuph obftmal^ neg^d^^ Opoa informal 
^ thereof by the vifiiorc, UDcter tfaetr hands and 
Ms g^ven to the patnxi or governor^ be (bail 
escpell and remove the fiiid mailer firom ail dutiea 
$nd beoefits of the £ud Cchool^ fchool^Jioule, &Ct 
and fhall nominate and cbufe another in his ftetd^ 
wcof^ing to the qualifications aforefind* ' 

X^IV. That if any doubt or obje<Etion (ball 
bftppen concerning the true purport, intent and 
nMan)ng of thefe ftatutes, or any thing in tliem 
contained, fuch interpretation aa the: vifttors flialt 
<gree in, and fignify uoder their hands and feals^ 
(bUl be binding and dedfiye to aU |>arliea con- 
cerned* 

* 

Laftly, in tefiimoriy that all and fingiular the 
^bove (lafutes, orders and confiitutiODs were ratH 
fi^, eftablilbed and confinned to fdrnmenqd audi 
be in force from tt» 2.5th day of Maircb in the year 
of our Lordv 1685, the £|td Jamesi duke of Qr« 
jnond the founder of the faid fghool, has this prefent 
1 8th of March, in the year of our Lord, 1694, 
her$t<> M his hand ^^nd feat at his mqefty's cafUer of 
©ubBn.'* 

But; this foundation foon wtot to decay for the 
feafo^ contained in the fc^bwing account of the 
tell^ of Kjikenny, eittradted from Mr. Harris*i 
(f> Iffe of king William^ 

** King James, after his arrival in Dublin, pro* 
(ecuted bis fcherae (the eilablifhmtnt of popery) 
to a fuller eifed. An. inibmce of vrtncbmay be 
givqn in his proceedings in relation to the pUUick 
fchool of JOlkenny^ founded and endowed by the 

piety 

W Pag- »33- 



^x8 THE ANTIQUtTrES OF 

pkty of thte firflr duke of Ormcnil; who fettled 
there a pfoteftant fchoolraaftcr, Dr. Edward KRnton, 
a learned and confcientidus Eugltfhman, who eft- 
ciated in it with great induftry and fucccfs ; wttch 
1 mention with gratitude, becaufe to him I am 
indebted for'rfi^ early educatidli. 

^* As the^apprehenfions 6f Tytctonnel's fcvcrc g^- 
wrnmeht bad drivel ntim'bttps of proteftants out 
of the Wttgdom, fo Dr: Hintbn, among the reft, 
fled for fafety to his native country. King James 
laid hold of the* opportunity to pervert that fchool 
from its primitive ihltitution. The grandfon and 
heir of the founder had wriy joined Idng William, 
and was attainted in the parliament held this year 
in Dublin, aod^ oonfcquently the eftate among 
others, out of which the revenues of this (cbool 
HTued, was declared forfeitedi The fchbolmafttr 
was gone, and though not mentioned in the a£i of 
attainder, yet one fcratcb of the attomey^genendls 
(Nangle) pen fupplied that c)efe£t| and la the 
charter dectared hi m attA^fttecf* 

^ King Jam^ therefore by a charter dated the 2 ift 
of February, 1689, upon the ruins of this &bool 
erected and endowed a royal college : confiding of 
a redor v eight profellbrs and two fpholars ki die 
name <^ more ; to be called the ibyal college of 
St. Canice, Kilkenny, pf the foundation of king 
Jan^es. ^ ' 

^^ It appearahy the charter, that William Datoo, 
D. D. and others in conjunction with him, had for 
ieveral years, taught fchool in the city of Kilkenny, 
with great - diligence ; for it was the ^licy of 
Tyrconnel to ercdt fchools pf Jefqits, as was done 
_ through 






iRiSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 519 

t))rough England^ in oppofiUon to th^ proteftant 
legal fchoolrB^lier^, whom by affro|ite.aQ4 Ul-utage^ 
and under tlie couotenan^ of ^ cruel admini- 
ftration, they fooa drave away. And this was the 
caufe of Dr. Hintpn's abdication, whidi king 
Janiec now jiaid hold op to ere^ his royal college * 
2fid it waa done as the. faid charter aliedges^ at the 
petitioq of th^ faid Datoo %nd his fellow labourers; 
of the ^tholip hittkop of Oflory, and all the clergy 
of tfaat diocefe, as well as of the mayor» aldermen 
and burgeffes iof the iaid city. After Dr. Hipton 
was driven awjayy Tyrconnel converted th^ fchool* 
houfe into, dn hofpital ; and fo it continued qntil the 
new foundation/* 

This account given by Mr. Harris is very well 
illufirated by Mr. Lagan's valuable papers. . One 
of them contains : t^ Articles conclus du oonfenter 
mmt unanime des regents des ecoles de Kilkenny, 
fous le protection de rillullriffime et rcyerendiflinift 

r^veique d'Oflory V andfigned 

Edvardus Tonnery,. philofophiae profeflbr* 

Jacobus Cleary^ ihetorices profefTor. 

Guilielmus Felap, lit. human. profefTor* 

Fran Barnwall, tertii ordinis profelfor. 

Johannes Meagher^ quartae claflis praleflfor. 
The patholic bifhop of Oflbry, at this time, was 
doClcr James Phelan, who ^ave the following 
rules to this college 

*♦ Rules to be ob&rved by the profeflbrs of my 
lord biihop of Oflbry's collqge, in Kilkenny : given 

by his lordfhip. 

The teachers of colleges are to know^ that piety 
is the chief thing they, ought tp teach : and all other. 

things 



5w> tHfi Ai^tKLliitrfis o^ 

things thdt ari tai>ght M^ liotlfing hat ibeiUts M 
attain tti^t e»d : ami thetdbrd piety k to bi& tiiugiit 
l>y WDj^d alid Sample on atl ocd^ons lA general, 
" and partieutiirly in xht foltoWihg ^itercifts. 

L The t'efActera are to gef n^ half an hour, at 
k^ befof e the boarders i ind (pind at leaft half 
an h^ar in mental pr^yei' t^fheir in the room 
vhere tht boardets cojim fb VocbA prayer ^ and to 
remain \htr6 limil the bbairddirs come^ that tli^ 
may fee fo gobd an ^xim|}le to imitate, "ttis 
beitig very eafy and ben^£^ial to ohe oug^ Vb 
feke^o it, or be cold or negligent t6 appear vnih 
thd reft^ if he were not very fick. And to be 
notably remifs in this exercife is a fault M^heieof the 
ok^dinary « to l>e informed. When the boarders 
cqme, tbofe that fa^ve liot xht breyialry to fiy, 
cxifjai to fay the prayers With the fdiobus^ and 
l^ve them gbod example^ by often g^nng to con^ 
feffion and communion. Thb itaentai prayer may 
be omitted the play-days^ ind diadc to homr later 
on holy (by s and fundays. 

IL The teathers are to ftew all exa€tne(s and 
regularity in their e^^erci&i v g<^ng exadlly U> thdr 
ieveral fchoola at the i&mis moment ; and aUb pre- 
ctfely toother ftom fchool : to be gentle ahd cour- 
teous to the fehokrs ^ efpedially when they prc^ofe 
any ditfieultie3 : but they are to keep always thd^ 
diltance ; never ihewing 4ny weakneis, lig^nelS| 
padfiodi fcvtrrllity^ or anj/ mctviiity that the fchokus 
may take notice o£ Xo iScti gravity before them, 
more than if the teachers were apart : for there 
tbey niay g^ve themfelves full lafitiide : but never 
to make ^ fdiolars their conotadep by (amiliaarity 

that 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. s» 

that denotes equality and makes felbws : as laqgh* 
ing, cbattingt fdaying together, and fuch other 
ftiKuHaritics wherein tiff Scholars may dilcover any 
V^katfs in the mafiers, or diminifli their cft^em 
for them : no man being fitter to teach and perfiiade 
than he who is well pofieifed of his auditors €fi»em« 
Ili Tho^ that preiide at the fcholars fiudies, aie 
to be odrefiil and exa<ft (herein, y^ft the (cholacs 
Ihould k>(e their time. U any of the makers be 
obUged to abfent himfelf M^hen his tux^n is to be 
prcfent, he muft pray fome other teacher to ^pfif 
his place : for no teacher ought to pretend to be 
exempt, upon the account of having much to lludy^ 
from what is common to all the teachers : whereas 
there is none but may take . that pretext ; and if 
the fcfaolars be n^le^ed but one hour a ds^, it 
will give them an occalion of idkn^fs, and taking 
of liberty. 

|V. As for the teachers conversion, it ought to 

be very firatemal and lovely i Qonfulting and ad- 

vifing one another: and though we think fit, that 

for the. equality of the p^iQS and endeavouisof the 

teachers, the profit alfa ought to be equally partici* 

pated; y^t we think it moft expedient that the 

youngei; teachers Ihould be very fubmifTive to tfie 

^Ider ones, e^ecialty to the Prefer, who r^cefenta 

qm perfon these in the curate's ajbfen^ : for it wese 

iiery impnident, tliat every teacher .(^^d be 

mafter of every thing, and no order or fuborcUna- 

tton observed contrary tp the repeated: culiom in 

all colleges in the world, where there are feveral 

degrees of dignity, or at leaft, one that rules all 

thj reft. Neither ought the Prefea to be over 

imperious 



52i THE ANTiCiUITlES Of 

imperious: to thd teachers, but advife fraternaS} 
with them^ and ftiive to pleaie them, as far as 
reafon and the common good foffer h. To be 
impartial in any competitbn or difference that any 
arife among the teachers themfelve^ or amoi^ 
them and the fcholars : and to accommodate vidi- 
out noife all thofe little debates, with prudence and 
juftice : (driving always publickly to turn the blaode 
on the fcholars ; but blaming with authority, and 
advifing privately any of the teachers that may do 
amiffl^ 

Neither ought any teacher to take it ill, or pre^ 
t^nd, or give out that he will not fuffer fuch repii- 
mands upon account of all the teachers being cxfd 
for matter of g^n : for that is another ni^cr. 
Nay, it ia not to beexpedted but. there may be 
ibme teachers, who in procefs of time, tiioog^ oot 
now, that may defer ve not only to be kept in fub- 
miifion^ but alfo to be turned. out for bti^oos 
humours^ cabals, or extravagant fcandaloua ways; 
which may bring more prejudice to the place, tbaa 
their prefence can bring profit. And the Prefefi's 
confcience, as alfo the other members, who tender 
God*8 fervice and the good of the college, are l^ 
iponfible before God for fuch diforders, if tbey 
firive not to hinder them by their own authorial 
or if need be, by giving us timely notice. So every 
one ought to be watchful on all occaiions of th 
fcholars, fervants and houfehold affairs, &c when 
they fee any thing ^ife, or that may be reformed, 
to give notice thereof to him, whofe charge it is to 
look after it/ 

But 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. jtj 

But the gbrious vidory of the Boyoe di4)erfed 
thofe vain conceits and reinftated crery thing* 

By the attainder of the duke of Ormonde the 24th 
of June i7J5» the right of prefem^on to the 
icbool lapfed to die provoft and felbvvs of Trinity 
college, Did>lin ; and is fiill vefted in them. The 
iinaflera fince the charter were, 

Edward Uinton, D. D. in 1 684. 

Dodor Andrews. He refigned in December, 

Edward Lewis, A.M. appointed in 1715^ - 

Thomas Hewetfon, L.L^D. 1743. 

Richard Pack, A. M. 1 7 76. 

JohnEUifon, D.D. 1781.. 

The folbwing eminent men. were educated in 
this fchool ; as appears from the regiftry. 

1685. Richard Baldwin, provoft of Trinity 
college, Dublin. 

f $874 Richard Coote, afterwards brd baron of 
Colooa^y, the duke of Ormond's truftee for the 
i^hool. 

1699. Thomas Prior, the celebrated patriot 

1 7cx>. George Berkeley, the no lefs celebrated 
and excellent biftiop of Cloyne. 
, 1704. Walter Harris, a learned antiquary. 

1704. Michael Cox^ archbiftiop of C^^^U* 

1 709. Earl of Inchiquin. 

1743. Lord vifcbunt do Vefci. 

•1745. Right hon. John Beresford. 

1748. Sir Robert Staples, Bart. 

1752. Hugh Carleton, Efq; foUcitor general. 
Befides a great number of the nobility and gentry. 
This fchool has had a fucceflfion of eminent mailers ; 

has. 



haspcodaood men of great, iearaingy aod is^Uy 
dieemcd the fifft febool Sot' the educatioa of youth 
10 this lungdom. 

]^ a return of the ichoolrtiafter, Mr. Lewisi 
November the 16th, 1716^ the tyiheiafipiopdalwl 
ta the fi:bool vmt let and pcodu^cd as follows : 

Parifhes of Bn|or and Templcmore &t 
to Kb. John Garden for * 76 o 

Farifhes of Kelis, Donoghmore and KiU 
moca^, CO4 Kalkeitay> to JVAr. Ridnsdi 
Power for -- . «* yz o o 

Parifh of Kells to Ml. Patncfc W^Mk, 
Mr. William Belcher, Toby Den, 
James Archdeki(ii» Anhur . Itiani, 
Thomas Dyer and Wilfiam^ Tudker, 
for ^ - 2$ o 6 

Farifh of Donoghmore to Toby PAWcell, 
for - • 17 10 o 

PanA of Kilmocar to Mark RtkHnns, foe tS xa o 
In Mar(h*s library, Dublin, was a book of poeios, 

intitied Sacri Lufiu^ by thb young gernkmea of the 

college- of Kilkenny ; but not- now to be found 

there. In the feme library were, ** GonJStutions 

made m a provincial meeting at Kilkenny, A. D. 

1 6i 4.** This MS; alfo is ftblen from ite place. 

HOSPITALS.: 

We are told by Mr. Carte^ thsit the carl of 
-Ormond who died the 22d Nov. 1614, by Eis laft 
will appointed an hofpital to be built by Sir NicboUs 
Walflii in a wafte place near the old tholfel of Kil- 
kenny^ to be endowed out of the profits of his 



iRlSttTOWN AND KILKENNY. ^H 

firrms and the leafts of fpirttiiaities from th€ crown, 
vddcd by z deed doted tlie 1 64h Jan. 1613^ to ftid 
WaUb and other fcoflees ; and d^jfefked that Walter 
Battler, or other perfon ftcoccdir^ to the«aridom, 
Hiould pj^ocure it to be incorporated by tlie nanre 
of ' The hofpital of our bidfed StivioUr of Kil- 
kenny/ and that his faid nephew (tiould give to 
iflid corporation the impropriate re&ory of Dfomin*- 
berrain, in the county of Tlpperaty^ being pmrtel 
of the dMbtved naonaftery of Kells in the county 
of KiHienny, and the imfiropnation of thte reAory 
of Gfonyn, alias Bewly, with the advbwfon of the 
church. 

Thia Walter BiHler, as Mr. L^gc in^ his peerage 
informa ua« wfta the 1 1 th eari of Orincmd, he pro* * 

cured the charter with a licence of mdrfimin-^ xkted 
the 1 6th May, 1631^ by the name of The nwfler, 
brethren and |iftera^ofoui"raott holy .Saviour, Jefua 
Chrift. This hofpital is in Coal Market^ and fup- 
ported fay the family who firib foundsd ih 

SHEE's HOSPITAL. 

W^ are obBged to Mr, Laffatf s ptfprfft for thft 
following accfount of- thfe hofpitaU 

Sir Richard Shee, km, a-feout 1 6t^, foMnAdd arid 
endowed an hbfpital in the cVty, called JdftiS's 
ho^taiK Twelve pdor petfons, iim\q and fimkle,- 
were fupported in it, and had eachtH^futii of 40^. 
annually p^d to them. Sir I^iehftrd hadprdvld^i 
fha« in cafe the allocated reVeftufe ^Va* by arty 
rflcanS' flopped, then an equivalent w6s to bi'dii^ 
burfdd from his eftate. 

Vol. IL Na In 



5r 



.•» 



• 



5^6 THE A NT I QJU I TIES OF 

In 1685, the poor of this hofpital petitiono! 
. Dr. James Phclan, titular bifhop of Offory, tOvia" 
quire inlo the naaUpradices of Mr. Edmund Shee, 
who afTumed tlie mafter(hip of this hofpital, and 
whom they reprefcated as paying but 7A 1 25. to 
the community, detaimng and converting the re- 
mainder to hfts own ufe y befides keeping four of 
the chambers vacant, and this for fome years, 
whereby he defrauded the charity of above 200/. 
They ftate, that fo far from the revenue failing, 
they could get 25/. per ana. paid for it, and city- 
fccurity. The bifliop wrote to the mailer, warned 
him of the horrible fin of cheating the poor, but 
fecommendcd at the fame lime a fcinfwoman of his 
to a place in the hofpital. The mailer returned an 
anfwer, which is here given, and is curious for the 
reaibning and particulars it contains. 

** Kilkenny, 8th June, 1 685. 
** Rev. Lord, 

*' I received yours of this inilaat, and am very 

fory that I cannot comply with your lordfliip's 

requill this tyme; as concerning your kinfwoman; 

for I doe affure you the howfe is full, and noe 

place vaquent : and as for Fra. Theobald Arclier, 

ihere is noe place fi;om him, but a- chamber that 

belongs to the matter, where no pintion beloogS) 

and which I have turned to other ufes, which is 

ufefuU to the howfe. And if there beene annjf 

complaynt made of me unto your lordftiip, it is 

more tlian I defcrve, for I doe alfure you^ I have 

piayd them all, in generall, though I am not as 

yet repaid. It is true, there was one of them that 

dyed lately "before her pention was. dew, and 

bequeatcd 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. s%J 

bequeated/it to her dougter, and as 1 humbly cofi- 
ceave, it is neythcr contionable nor equitable, that 
anny boddie^ who depends uppon the charitie of 
pious ufes, fliout have the power to reft it ta 
worldly ufes, and this I leave to anny religious 
order to judge of, that •your lordfhip thinks fit ; 
and aTfor my fowls favetie I prefer it before all the 
trefieurs in the world, and doe hope I fhall take a^ 
great care towards my fowle, as any of my prede- 
ceflbrs ever did. This being all, I reft your lord- 
(hip's faithful! and obedient fervant, 

EDMOND SHEE." 
This hofpital is in Rofe Inn Street. 

There is an hofpital in St. Ganice's church-yard, 
adjoining the library, for a few poor indigent 
perfons. 

Biftiop Vefey maintained a charity fchool in the 
city, for forty poor children^ until he found it did 
not anfwer his wiflies, as Mr. Harris in his editiont 
ef Ware's bilhops informs us. , 

The charter fchool without the city is endowed 
by the corporation of Kilkenny wiih twenty acres 
of land, plantation meafure ; together with the 
feftorial ty thes thereof ; and a rent charge of thirty 
pounds for ever. It contains forty boys. Some 
fmall donations have been made to it. 



S E C T. VII. 

« 

AUGUSTlNlAN ABBEY. 

THE oldeft monaftic foundation in Kilkenny is 
the priory, hofpital or abbey of St. John the cvan- 

Nn 2 g^lift^ 



528 THE ANTIQ^UITIE8 OP 

gelifl, whofe charter, in the Momfiicon, is dfttecB 
A. D. 1 220. It recites, that William Mvfhall the 
elder, earl of Pembroke, for the fakation of Ins (bad 
:ind thoie of his predqceflford and fuccdTors, gives to 
God and Str John, a piece of ground at the head 
of the fmall bridge of Kilkienny, between the fmall 
ftream* of water and the road that leads to Lougb- 
mederan. From this fituatioa we may cooclude^ 
tfut the monks defigncd to eredk their buU^og 
nearer tlie bridge thaa it now is : the frface was 
infulated by thp i^ream before mentiooed, as the 
ground at the back of the King's Arms is at tUs 
day, and which feems a remnant ofjdu$ antient 
aquedudV, as it is called; 

The earl grants them the parifh beyond the 
bridge to the eaft, and bordering on the bn<^;e^ 
which was St. Mads ; and the ecclefiafiical revenue 
cf his land of Dunfert ; this i» now called Danes- 
fort, but improperly, for the name Dontert or 
Dunfert, appears in very antient records. He 
beftows on them the tenths of his mills, fifheries, 
orchards and doveccftes in Kilkenny, and aUb land 
at the head of the greater bridge, where they for- 
merly began their convent. He gives the rents of 
his burgage-tencments in the new town, the cimrch 
of the new town, wliich muft be St. Mary's, and 
that of Hagaman, and the intire benefice of the 
old town, in tenths, "oblations and obventiona. 
Do not^ thefe words clearly imply A ftrong doubl 
of the catlicdral not having as yet made any con- 
fiderable progrefs from its foundation, or if it had, 
that its chaptier, revenues and jurifdiiStion were not 
fettled ? the grant of toiius benefi<;ii voteris viflae^ 

admits 



i 



miSHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 5^9 

'ttdnrhs of no qualification, it is dccifive in its import. 
Had there been a cathedral in Iriihtown endowed 
with antient revenues, he never would have wrefted 
-them from it for his new priory. Tlie words alfe 
militate ftrongly againil the claim of Hugh Rufus, 
as if he was lord paramount of Irif^town, whefi 
the contrary is here evident Bilbop Fitjr Jcdm 
appropriated to them the church of Clara^i, rtf- 
iefving an annual penfion of twenty fhiUings to the 
vicars choral. 

.In 1645, when, the monadic ordets were every 
•where repairing their lioiifes, the Aiiguttinmns, to 
whofla this abbey originaUy bebhged, ertdeavoured 
to poiitfs themfelves of it \ but tlie Jefuits inter- 
pofed a claim^ and it was confirnitd to tlicm by 
Rinuccini, the nuncio. From a MS. of Mr. Laffan 
we have this tran&dtion autbent'fcated. 

" Whereas we the mayor, aldermen and bur- 
geffesx)f the city of Kilkenny Imye of late granted 
our certificate to the rev* fathers the Jefuits, con- 
iirming unto them, as mtich as in us, and as law 
permits, a certain grtot or donation pafled unto 
them in the year 1645, of the monaftcry of St. 
John the evangelift in th^ city, by the rev. father 
Thomas Roth, prior in commendam thereof; and 
litving fmce confidered the manifeft inconveniendes 
the (aid city, and the fevcral tenants deriving under 
a late leafe from our predeceffors are like to lie 
under, have for that rea&n entered into a further 
fcrutiny of the faid Jefuits' title, and we find, that 
they can produce nether grant, leafe or any thing 
like fi-om us or out predecefTors of the faid mo- 
mfteiy, either in 1641, or fince^ but the faid 

grant 



53P THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

grant from the faid father Roth, cohfirmed by th« 
pope's nuncio, then refiding in this city. 

" We therefore confidering the invalidity of the 
&id grant, fo ai^ to diveft us of our right, and the 
obligatioq on us to maintain the leafe made by our 
predeceflbrs, do hereby revoke and annul the faid 
certificate, until the faid Jefuits do produce a legal 
title from us or our predcceffors : on fight whereof 
we will freely and unanimoufly Join in a further 
grant thereof to them, ftiil referving the chapel and 
garden of the poor CapucWns, which they have 
improved on the meaneft and craggieft fpot about 
this city, to our admiration and edification. Befides 
which fpot, we humbly conceive, that there arc 
fufficient room and apartments for the Jefuits. 
In witnefs that this is our lafl refolution 
and pleafure, we have hereunto fub- 
fcribed our names this i8lh day 
of March, 1689.'^ 
From this document we find, that the Jefuits liad 
prevailed on Roth to furrender the abb,ey to them : 
that the city, though they had made leafcs of it, 
yet divefted themfelves of their right, and that in 
' 1645, the nuncio conficmed thefe illegal proceed- 

ings. On his return to Italy, he wrote to the general 
pf the Jefuits, and moft unclerically mentions this 
a£t of injuftice done through prediledion of the 
order. 

" (a) Si contenti voflra paternita revercndiflima, 
che jo fi aflecuri di non aver mai veduto, e forfe 
lion letto una fimile novita, la quale accrefe la fua 
forfa dal faperfi per tulto il regno, che jo nd 

medefimo 

(a) Hibern. Dominic, fupra. App. 915. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 53! 

Tncdefimo punto per fervire alia compagnia avcvo 
termintito racquifto della chiefa abbaziale di S. 
Giovanni di Kilkemiia per quei padri, noh oltanli 
tutte leoppofizioni dci canonici regohri." — (Jf} None 
need wonder, fays Walfh, to fee among ihofe ap- 
provers of the nancio, the whole college, or pro- 
fefled hoiife of the Jefuits then at Kilkenny. The 
members of this fociety refident in the city, were 

(r) Henry Plunket, William St. Leger, 

Robert Bath, WlUam DiUon, 

Chriftophcr Maurice, Jolin Ufher. 

Whereas ihe Auguftiniaris in the kingdom, ac- 
cording to this author, did not exceed fixty or 
eighty : the Jefiiits were more numerous ; being 
bufy, enterprizing and of great influence. 

In 1432, {dy John Fleming, bifliopof Leighlin, 
.was canon of St. John's, and in 1500, (e) James 
5hortal was prior of it. The annals of it are fre- 
quently mentioned, and were in the Chandois (f) 
colledion. The codex Kilkennienfis fo frequently 
cited by Colgan, and reprobated by Bollandus^ 
was the produdfion of this raonaftcry. 

Great part of this abbey was demoHflied to 

-make room for a foot barrack ; however its ruins 

xieciare its former (plendour. For about fifty four 

feet of the fouth fide of the choir it feems to be 

trtnipft one window. The caftern window is abottt 

V fixteen feet wide and forty high ; it is divided by 

delicate ftone mullions. The following monumental 

infcriptions ftill. remaia amid the ruins. . 

D. Michael. 

(*) Supra. Pref. pag. 45. (r) Wallh, pag. a. 

l<i) Ware's Bifliops, pag. 495. {e) Ware, lupra, pag. 41 J. 

(/) Nicolfoii'a UiOsL Hilt Library, pag. 36. 8vo. 



» 



« 



^32 THE ANTIQUITIES OF 

X>. Michael Cowley 
beqarcba et jvirifconfyltysf, d^e. ^t >ixor ^us D. 
^no^u^ i(oth» hie requiefcitQt in a^i;iuun» ut 
iQperamus^ hinc j^equiem uans&Ken4& ubi quod cor- 
4:uptibUe eft iacprrupVion.Qin in^uet ; ute^ue^moru; 
J5iWi4it kgi ; m^rqvie mprtuuis cQmmmw Coivit 
4ebitupi fif^ura^. Hapc viverc oibi fj^fiit ^€ir«> . • . 
i^e mpR^^ «... coelo itle c^e^pit \|ivef€ anep • • . . . 

£pitaphiu[n 
Hie virtute animi et generofo fiemmato qlaru% 
Couleum triftis qoas capit urna tegit. 
Fallor, coeleftesi melior pars incoUt arcee, 
'iioc t^^ntum cineres (iebile marmor babet. 
;Hic potuit juris difcordes (plvcce nodos^ 
Sed nequiit durap folverc jura ne(:ifi^ 
O homo vive Deo coijoqtfe eperaro, fi^tiis» 
Sola ofiaoet virtus, ciaetera ^lortis eruat* 
Qijpd alii, lc(^or, tibi mortoQ objfeqiiiiKn, 

Re<juiefl? pr^cjwe et yate. 



p. Johwma Furecll 

Abb. Ece quiobitt 

lie Ue8 Eccumbeot at full lengthy in ^ habit of 
a tej^^Ur canon, with a tmie im bl^ hcsd.; tke 

whole t$ of bUck marble. 

Clofc by i5 anotlK^r figure, one of the ftmc 
&ni)lj aa tli^ >yord Furccll fhews ^ be l^in arcomir; 
a. bf it counts over ^^$ (boulder, ffQiri wlitdi cfepnds 
^ fword. T{jp frame of tbis rnqnuroeiit ia orna- 
lOeodbed with baflb. relievos of Chrift and his apoftles^ 
each with their different emblcnis. 

Hie 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 533 

Ificjacct 

Edvardus Langton, hujua civltatis major et buigenr 
ii4» et Superior villa&Kilkeniuoc^ 9t Selena Archer, 
^us ttxor^ qui obierunt g^ die Maii^ <57^ et 
jiich^rdus Langton. 



^m^ 



Memento 
Homo quod pufio es, et in pufionem revertem^ 
Neale CuUen^ ollizen of IGlkenny, built this monuf 
ment for }m dearly beloved wife £U>£b Langion, 
deceafed^ the 4th of October 1646, his father 
John Cutlen, his mother Ellen Seiic» temielf m4 
family. • 

My virtue death feems to ovcrfway 
My virtue's fruit by deed will nc*ere decay. 

There are a few other monuments bec^e, but all 
(if&ccd aod iUegil^ie. 

DOMINICAN ABBEY, 

Otherwifc called the Black abbey, from the 
colour of the garqnents worn by the monks of this 
order, was founded in Irifhtown, by William 
f»rl Marflial the younger, about 1^25, and dedi- 
cated to the blcffed Trinity. Bifhop Hugh a 
Dominican, and who died in 1259, made many 
donations to the monatteryi among others, he 
bellowed on it St, Canice's wel] and an aquedufk, 
and releafed a chief rent arifmg from two mefTuages 
in Frier-llreet ^ and was interred in the high church 
pear the altar, 

Bi(hop Cantwell was alfo of this order ; and on 
l^promotioiibe ilill >rore the habit^ agreeable to the 

(Iccrec 



534 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

decree of the 8th Conftantinopolitan (g) conncil, 
and was buried in this abbey. 

The fite of this monaftcry was granted at the 
reformation to the corporation of the city. Part of 
the building was made a (hire-houfe, as is mentioned 
in the charter of the elder James. Some chapters of 
the order were held here in 1 643, when the whole 
was repaired. It had a (A) houfe for novices, fituated 
to. the north-weft, on the river Nore, about two 
miles above the city, and called now Thc^nback. 

The windows and arches are rather fup^rioor to 
Xhofe of St. John"^ ; the various mouldings that 
adorn them, are beautiful fpecimens of the Gothic 
tafte, and for elegance and lightnefs nothing caa^ 
exceed its two towers. 

It muft occur to every one, that this is a very 
indiflferent account of this foundation. Dr, Burke^ 
a learned Dominican, and titular bifhop of Oflbry, 
and for many years refident in Kilkenny, and who 
>yas particularly intereftcd in the inquiry, declares, 
that except the few foregoing notices, (/) he could 
procure nothing more frpm printed books, MSS. 
monuments, or the information of the member^ 
after the utmoft diligence and application. This 
ingenuous confeflion atonqe deteds the impoCtiom 
of writers, wlio have obtruded on the world, as 
jnehioiials carried out of Ireland in tinges of con- 
'fiifion, the. lives of faints, and other hillorical 

coUe^tbns ; 

• • * 

(g) Prseterea monacbi qui vita et doArina ut cpifcopi 
-crcentur nieruerint, non mutent habitus velhfque rationeni 
,4>b novam dignitatein. Caranzs Sumin. Concil. pag. 767, 

(l>) H'xbQrn. Dominic, pag. ao6. 

{i) Supra, pag, ao6. 






o 



I 

5 



> 

B 



s 

B 
2 



7 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 535 

/coUcdlions ; when, in rcanty, they are the genuine 
manufadture of ihe fcminary clergy of Douay, 
iGhent, Lovaia and other places ; and if we may 
form an opinion of th^m from BoUandus, they 
are of po greater ellimation than the dreams of 
Annius of Viterbo, apd fimilar impoftors. 

The Dominicans ia 1437, obtained two parts of 
Ihetythesof (*) Motbil, as appears by the record. 

FRANCISCAN ABBEY. 

We have every reafon to place the foundation of 
this abbey, previous to the year 1230. *> For in 
the chore of the friers-preachers, fays Stanihurft, 
William Marlhal, carl pf Pembroke, was buried, 
who departed this life in the yere 1231. Richard, 
brother to William, to whom the inheritance de- 
fcended, within three yeres after deceafed at Kil* 
kennie, beinge wounded to death in a field in the 
heath of Kildare, in the year 1234, the twelfc of 
April, and was intoomed with his brother, accord- 
- ^ng to the bid epitaph heere mentioned :— - 

Hie comes eft pofitus, Ricardus vulnere foffus : 

Cujus fub fofla Kilkenia continet offa." 

Hanraer (k) fays, he was killed by the O Connors, 
and buried in the Black abbey. He adds, that l^is 
tomb with thefe of eighteen knights ii^.at came over 
at the conqueft, were at the fuppreffion of the mo- 
jiaftery, defaced, and by the inhabitants turned to 
their private ufes, making fwine-troughs of fome ^ 
fo that there remained but one, on which the pic- 
ture of a knight was pourtrayed, bearing a (hield 
about his neck, with the Cantwell's arms infculpted: 

this 

[k) Appendix K. 



^S6 THE ANTIQjaiTIfiS OF 

Ihtffl the pe6pte CBWRyMr m Currj {l\ or the Kiugjk 
Ml the Cum^ 
Jobfi Cl]^mi of tiU& cohveiiti writes 
ftoil ificamatum lApTis de virgine nattun 
An&is KiiUemA tribttt trig^ntii dueertlfc. 
In priiM menfii Aprilb^ Kilikriebfiis 
i Pugm die ftbbati fittt in triflltift hSA^ 

Acddennt iiallapagiitt comiti mafifisiHo. 
Speedy fpeaidng of this traniadtion, infbnns as, 
^^ his body wa3 buried in Kilkenny, (whkfa plea- 
iiintly fttaated towiie our foveraigne king Jiroo 
ereAed into a city) wHere bimfelf in Us life hid 
iq>pointed. Some fina^l tokens of thta ^neat name 
wre yet ( i£i I ) reiteining. For hi (he eaft window 
of the abbey church o^ St John the Baptift, and in 
the abbey of St. Domrnii^ the antient anboiKS 
ci Marelhai, lord of Ktlkenny, are yet extant- 
Luke Wadding (faews(/yr), that Matt. Pan and 
Du Ghefne (») agree in making hin^ to have been 
interred m the FratK^ifcain abto^. 

This motkB&Ktj ibon grew to codfidenibte, im 
in the year 1067, a provincial chapter was hdd 
there, as Clynn infbraia us. In 1321 the great 
altar was confecrated ^ it was a marble u&le of 
prodigions lenjgth and braidth. 

In 1 53 1, Nicholas Wdifcd, biihop of Water- 
fbrd^ cdnfecrated the new cemetery without the 
church, on a friday, being the fcafi of St. C»fii. 

la 

(/; Properly, Kidire In Curracli, cqucs in Ptaho, memaiog 
eati Ricbard wfa<» WH fi&lti ^ the ciimigli, or pkiii. 

{«) Annaies Minorum, ad ann. 1234, pag, 470, 47l# 
In) Pag. 403. Du Chcfnc Hift. d Anglct. pag. 543. 



IRI&HTOWN. AND KILKENNY. sst 

In I547f on the firfi. Ainday in Adv^nt^ afira- 
ternity or gild wm initit«ittd for building a bdfry 
and r^iring the church* In the (acne year on 
Palm fundayt be»ng the annunciatm of the Vifgin 
Mary^. IfabeUa Pakner waa bmied in tine: ocarmak^ 
Sha luid rehmlt the forepart of the choir. Thus 

The mgm^y and its , offices wene of great ex-t 
%onX% reaplmg from the ibieet and city walls to the 
fiver. The windows and towers are in&riour .to 
90^. ?9rt ia made a borie barrack. Near the 
nMrg^n.ef the river and within theprecinf^aof ikfi; 
abbeyjs A fptingofpure limpid water^ cslied.St; 
Fifancia' we(j, aiyl was hen^fow famous, for roira*? 
cuk>us cures ; it i3 inebofed^ ^ ftiU prefecvea.foisia 
d^rce pf credit. About a mile fipom the town was 
i^grmge belonging to the fathers: kt Waddiog^a 
tinne it wM in the poOeflliPii of John, fen of Sir 
Ri$:bard Shee. A ceittwy before,.on tbeXupprefiioii 
9f reljg^ifs ho»(e^ ^.ewpcKd^n pwdiafeel.£n>ia 

the crown tlas abbey and ita desacfiMs. 

ST. MARY'S CHURCH. 

In the charter to St» John's priory, this church 
feems to be deferihed by The church in the new 
town. We have fcen under the year 1 3^8, that 
William Utlaw was fentenced to cover its roof with 
lead. And in Clynn's annals is the folloi;^ng 
xiotice. •♦ A, D. 1 343^ A new betfry was eredted 
for the church of St. Mary, Kilfccnny.*^ The fcl* 
lowing claufe in queen Elizabeth's charter to the 
city, relates to the provifion of wax K^ts for the 
cliurch and the image of the Virgin Mary. 

i* Item, 



SS9 THE ANTIQJJITIES OF 

" Item, quia divtrfa tenemcntk in ilia vilk di 
Kilkenny ab antiquo tempore onerentur, tam illu- 
roinare coram imagine virginis gloriofae Marine vilte 
prasdifbe, quam ad emendandam ecclefiam pne* 
didtam -, procuratores feu clientes ad redditus iUos^ 
et jura ievanda fi negligentes fuerint, qiKxi fe- 
vientes vel burgenfes^ villas namiare poflint pro 
redditus et jura praedifta, fine caliimpnia.** 

The old church was much larger than the preieof 
one, which is contracted on the antient fite. It is 
in the form of a crofs, neat and elegant ; with t 
good organ. In 1689, Marcus {0) Stafford, clerk, 
^nd one of the vicars choral of Chrift cbordi 
Dublin, made oath before a magifbrate, that he 
was credibly informed, and did, from a knowlec^ 
of the fa£t for eighteen years before^ believe, tbt 
the curacy of St. Mary's was in the prefentatioa of 
the mayor and citizens of Kilkenny. The motives 
for this aifadavit we are not told, or the fiep^s takea 
in confequence* At prdent the church is in the 
patronage of the bi(hop» 

The following are the mofl remarkable momt^ 
ments. 

Spiculurti mortis. 

Ortus ad interitum ere£tis progreffibus, urgiet 
Mortalefique rapit mortis vis nefcia vinci, 
Nefcia confilio, voto, vel voce moveri. 
Imperii, elpquii, rationis, acuminis, artia 
£t fophiae tranfcendit opem, eredtoque lacerto 
Spicula contorquet gravis inclementia lethi. 
Cujus ad imperium quicquid fpirabile mundl 
Machina complexu fovet,'expirare necelTe eft. 

Speculiaa 

(0) Apud UfFan's MSS. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 539 

Speculum mortalium. 
Sifte gradum, qui tranrgrcderis, cordate viator ; 
Inque fepulchrali hoc (peculo drcumfpice clari 
Ora viri, genio ingenioque, et moribus orbi 
Brittonico lumen ; cujus facundia vocis 
Kt facundia gravi fenfu, cenfuque facultas : 
Non contemnenda pictas, doftrina favorque : 
Magnus'tum mentifque vigor, dum vita vigeret. 
Nunc tenet orbatum cultu brevi urna cadaver. 



Johannes Nafhus 
Humanae firagilitatis confcius, chariifims uxori, 
Eleonorae Rothae ct iiberis, adhuc vivens pofuit. 
A. X. 16(7. Quibus ut aeternam- requiem preceris, 
tum finis memor enixe rogat, Obiit horicftus hie 
ct cordatus civis, 3 1 die Mail menfis, falutis hu- 
manae. A. 1643/ 

Jacobus Archdeacon 
Mercator, et hujus urbis Kilkennienfis burgenfisj 
hoc fibi et uxori Catharinae Woodloke, ct pofteiis 
fuis vivus raonumentum pofuit. Fato celTit illci 

.... obiit haec .... die mcnfis 

Epitapliium. > 

Haec mihi, qua condar, feralis conditur urna ; 
Et tibi quern parili forte fepulchra manent. 
Quisquis cs, extindkos vermis praedabitur artus ; 
Et quae me primum te quoque fata premcnt. 
Ut rcdle vivas mortis memor efto ; fepulius 

-ffiternum ut poflis vivere : difce mori. 1636. 

.■^■^^^■■— "^^~» •"."^^■"" 

Hie jacet 
Johannes Rothus, Petri filius, civis practorius civi- 

tatis Kilkeniae, qui facellum hoc cum monumcnto 

fepulchrali 



54<^ tMB AKTIQJJIT1ES OF 

fepulchrali pro (^i \x%oie libefi^vre ac pofteris fits 
fieri feciU ^vuia fiilutts i6f&. Jpfevero ncm ttm 
obiit qiMPl a}Mit, 3 ( c&e, menfis Januarii, A. D. 
1620. bfecnon Eofo Arcbeira chariifiina «rius oonj^ 
quae vicellit magb. qoam dccdEt, die mcofis 8*. 
anno Donsu 16 ... . 

Qg^uixie aAunnbtis propntietiir DeuL 

Syi:nbolum. ialutis. 
Ortus quaeque fuos redolent 4uumantia primos. 
£t redit in cinerera q<iiod :&nt ante cinis. 
McnsTuperaa nutic avet opes • . . imas 
Meoape £11 menxttem ^fviSbHos tirna.fainL 
Aftt^ediviTB oUtn qiiandaurnarefbderit oflk 
JundlA ftuiauS) Dous O £uiit» ut^iin petaab 

ST. MML OR MAULA. 

The church .dedicated to this latnt is of gretf 
antiqiHty^ aodi poiotfid out in. St. Jphnli chnfEr^ as 
fyiog on cbe ctA- fide of du river. It is a fufiidBol 
i^logy* for introdDcing iegendsry namtiMis.iii 
accounts of. antient foundations . to Iky^ that &- 
quently none others are to be found ; this is the 
cafe atpreTent 

' The fex of this faint is doubtful : if it was dedi* 
catod to S€.;M»V we are (f) told he was nephew 
and diCeipis of St. Patncfc, and by him placai ovec 
the fee of Ardagb in 456^ wheoe he prcfided ibr 
more than, thirty years and died the 5th of 
February, 487. The profeflcd writers of the fives 
of iaints ftretch the beiicf of the credulous very 

far, 

(rt Ware's Bifliops. 



IRISHTOWN AND itlLKENflY. 54^ 

far, when they rtlatc with fuch minute ejtaftnefi 
nhauthenticated events. The following tale de- 
ferves as little credit. 

*' (q) About the fame time that St. Kcnnic's' 
church was bijilt, a church was eredted over againft 
the town, upon the eaft fide of the Nore, in honour 
of St. Maula, the mother of St, Kenny, whofe 
memory is continued in Kilkenny by her plague 
that fell upon them thus : There was a j^lagu'e in 
the towne, and fuch as died thereof, being bound 
with wythes upon tlic bcere,* were buried in St. 
Maula's clniroh-y ard ; after that the infection ceafed, 
women arid makls went tnither to dance, and in- 
fiead of naptdns aitd handkerchiefs' to keep thent 
together in flietr round, it is fafd, fhey took thofe 
Wythes to ferve thcrr purpbfe, 

" It is generally conceived th^ Maufa vjras angry 
for profaning her church-yard, and with the wythes ' 
infedied the dancer^ fo, that fhortly after man, 
woriiari atid cfiiM died in Kilkenny." — We here fee 
a natural efFeft fuf>erftitioufly and ignorantly afcribecf 
to another caufe. 

EMINBNt MEN. 

i^ilkenny hilh pfoduted fome eminent men, 
natives of it. 

Wllfiam de Kilkenny 
Was archdeacon (r) of Coventry and t"he king's 
thaihceflor. tie was elefted by the convent off 
Ely, biflioji of that fee, in 1 254. See more in 
Bent ham's antiq'^'itieS of tTiat church*. 

Vol. H. O o Srmoit 

(f) Hanmer*^ chronicle. 

(r) M. Fan's, pag. 7C9 Matt. Weftiu. 



I 



542 THE ANTICLUiriES Of 

Simon de Kilkenny 
Was canon (i) • of Ktldare, and appointed to tba!' 
fee in ^258. 

William of Kilkenny, 
But called (/) William of Jerpoint, for being » 
monk of the Ciftertian abbey there, was made 
bifhop of Cork in 1 266. 

Cleere, 

I fuppofe James Cleere before mentioned, pro- 
ceeded mafler of arts in Oxford, was after made 
srpoftolic jHothonotary and dean of St. Canice. 

Stanihurft fupplies us witH the following lift : 

Robert Joife, a good humanift. There hath bcca 
a Roth, vicar of St. John's, prettily learned. 

Elias ShethorShea, fometimes fcholar of Oxford, 
a gentleman of pailing good wit, a pleafmg con- 
ceited companion, full of mirth without gall He 
wrote in Englifli divers fonnets. 

Michael Sheth, was mailer of arts. 

John Thonery^ 
Batchelor of divinity, was, in 1553, advanced by 
queen Mary to the fee of Offory. He impovcrilhcd 
Us church by alienating to Sir Richard Shee the 
lordlhips of Bifliops-court and Freinllon. 

William Daniel 
Was one of the three fir ft fcholars of Trinity college, 
Dublin, under queen Elizabeth's charter. He wasj 
confccrated archbifhop of Tuam in 1609, ov< 
which he prefided 19 years; he tranflated tbc| 
common prayer and new teftament into IriOi. 

Sebaftiaal 

W Ware's Bifliops, pag. 38 5. (/) Ware fupra, pag. 555. 



IRISHTOWN AND KILKENNY. 543 

Sebaftian Shortall, 
Otherwife called Stephen Shortall, became a Cifter- 
tian monk in the monaftery of Nucale in Gallicia, 
in Spain : he was a man of ibme learning, and 
died titular abbot of Beftive in the county of Meatb 
in 1639. 

Earl of Offory. 
An account of him may be ktn in the Biographta 
Britannica. . 

David Rolh 
Was titular bifhop of Oflbry ; a man of great eru- 
dition, and well {killed in our national antiquities^ 
as primate Ufher tefiifies in his primordia Ecc« 
Britann. 

William Salenger, 
Or St. Leger, entered the fociety of Jefuits at 
Tournay in i6zi. We find him in Kilkenny 
during the rebellion, but he was not fuperiour of 
that order, as (u) Harris aflerts. Sotwel fays he was 
redor collegii Kilkenniae, this was, the fchool in the 
church-yard. On the fettlement of the kingdom he 
retired to Spain and was made principal of the Iri(h 
college at CompoRella, where he died in 1665. 

Richard Archdekin 
Was of the fame order, and entered the fociety at 
Mechlin, in 164a. He taught phibfophy and 
^ivinity at Louvain, and died at Antwerp in 1690. 

The writer cannot conclude this work without 
cxprefling his warmeft acknowledgements to the 
rev. Mr. Archdall for his friendly aid in the courfe 
of it J a perfeft knowledge of the antiquities of 

O o 2 this 

(w) Writers, pag. 144. 



544 THE ANTIQJJITIES, &c. 

this country, joined to a liberality of fentiment^ 
which ever diftinguiflies the polifhed fcholar, ena- 
bled him to make many valuable communications. 
To Mr. James LafFan of Kilkenny he is indebted 
for the perufal of a great number of curious MSS. 
without which the foregoing pages had been very 
defeftive. * 



•w 



\ 



appendix; 



APPENDIX 



OF ORIGINAL RECORDS. 



^A^^L^ ^.S ^^^^k ^^L ^k ^^^ 

No. I. Page S55. 

m 

Prioratus five hofpital. Sli. Johannis cvang. dc 
Kilkenn. fundat. circa ann. 1220. 

WILL. Marefchallus^ comes Pembrochiae, &c. 
concefli B. Johanni evang. locum qucndam 
ad caput parvi poniis de Kilken. fc. inter dudluna 
minoris aquae et viam quae ducit ad Loghmadharan 
ab horreis meis, et 16 acras de terra libera ex eadem 
parte aquae illius, cum pertinentiis, ad conftruendum 
ibidem domum^ religionis, ia honorem Dei et Sti. 
Johannis, et ad fuftentationem pauperum et indi* 
gentium. Concefli etiam, totam parochiam ultra 
pontem de Kilkenn. verfus orientem et adjacentem 
eidem ponto cum pertinentiiSy abfque omni retine- 
raento. Etiam beneficium ecclefiaAicum totlus 
terrs meae de Donfert, quantum fc. inde ad pa- 
tronum pertinet; et beneficium ecclefiafticum totius 
terrae me de Loghmadheran eodem modo cum om- 
nibus pertinentiis, tam in dectmis, quam oblatio- 
nibus et obventionibus. Et omnes«decimas loolen-t 
dinorum, pifcariarum^ pomarioruni, et cotumbario* 
rum meorum de Kilkenn. 

Volo etiam et concedo, quod praedi^Sli fratres 
de&rviant capella caftri mei dc Kilkenn. et inde 

babeant 



546 APPENDIX. 

habeant omnes obvenliones et oblaiiones fi ego 
abfens fuero vci haeredes mei; fia aiuem, tunc 
domtnici capellani mei oblatioaes ex ea provenientca 
percipient. 

CoQceffi etiam locum quendam ad caput magnt 
pontisy ubi primitus domus eorum inchoata fiiit, 
reddendo de eodem loco mihi et bsredibus meis 
annuatim tres folidos pro omnibus fervitiis* Et 
quod habeant et poffideant pacifice omnes redditus 
burgagiorum quae eis ii^ villa de Kilkenn. data fue- 
runt et danda, falvo feryitio meo, et falvis omnibus 
quas juris mei funt. Praeterea conceffi ecclefiam 
de Haghamon et ecclefiam de Nova villa, et totum 
beneficium Veteris villas cum omnibus pertincntiis 
ad eafdem ecclefias fpedantibus. Prsterea. dec|- 
mas molendinorumm^rum et fenorum meorum in 
parochii^ praediftarum ecclefiarum. 

Infupcr, triginta marcas argenti de decima red- 
ditus mei aflifi in Hibemia perdpiendas in per* 
petuum ad fcaccarium meum de Kilkennia. £t 
praeter haec, unara carrucatam terras cum pertincn- 
tiis, viz. illam quam Thomas Drake confuevit 
tenere juxta Kilkenniarn, quietatna ab omnibus 
fcrvitils, &c. 

Monaflicon Anglic, vol, 2- pag. 1042. 



No. II. Page S5S'. 

Re* fuperiori et praepofito et communitati villae 
de Kilkenny, falutem. Monflravit nobis vcnerabilis 
pater, Alexander cpifcopus Oflbrienfxs, ut cum 



APPENDIX. 547 

ripfe omnia temporalia fua tcneat de nobis in capite,; 

apfeque.quoddam mercatum in -villa fua del Irifh- 

ton juxta Kilkeniam^ quae eft parccUa diftorum 

.temporalium, viz. die Mercurii fingulis feptimani?, 

obtineat. Et licet idem epifcopus ct praedeceirorefi 

fui nuper •epifcopi loci praedidki, mercatum fiium 

praedidtum, ut praediftum eft, et libertaiem fuam 

infra Croceam cpifcopatAs praedidli, libere el abfque 

cuftumis aliquibiis pro muragio diftae villae de Kil* 

Jccnnia, de rebus venalibus ad diftum mercatum* 

vel infra libertatem prsediftam venientibus, abfqiie 

.aflenfti et voluntate praedidli epifcopi et praedeceC- 

forum .fiioriim foivcndis a tempore fundationis ec- 

clefiae ipfius epifcopi Sti. Canici de Kilkennia habere 

.confueverunt. Vos tamen quafdam literas nollras 

patentee ad certas cuftomas pro muragio diftae 

-villae de' Kilkennia, -de rebus venalibus ad eandem 

villanri de Kilkennia et infra Croc^m praedidam 

venientibus, percipiendas abfque confenfu five no- 

iitia di^i epifcopi impetraftis, et cuftumas hujus- 

modi de rebus venalibus ad di£tum mercatum et 

infra libertatem ipfius epifcopi praedi6lam venienti- 

hus praetextu di£tarum literarum noftrarum minus 

jufte percepilVis, et indies percipere non dcfiftis, in 

ipfius epifcopi ac Qcclefiae fuae praediclae grave prae» 

judicium^ didtique mercati ac libcrtaiis fuae prai'- 

^didlae pcrturbatbnem et retraftionem manifeftas, ' 

ut dicitur ; fuper quo nobis fupplicavit fibi reme- 

dium adhibere ^ et quia per quend^m inquifitioneni 

x:oram fratre Willielmo Tany, priore holpitalis Stk 

Johannis Jerufalem in Hibernia, canccllario noilro, 

^bidem c^pt^m^ et in cancellarium noilram Hi* 

bernlae 

i 



54? APPENDIX. 

bemise rcmanentem ell compertum, quod dift» 
villa del Irilhton eft parcella didtoriun temporalium: 
cj quod idem epifcopps et prqedecefforps fui prae- 
difti mercatum praediftum una cum libertate pr«- 
difta in forma praedida habere confueyerunt. No- 
Icntes proinde, quod pra^fatg epifcopo in ea parte 
praetextu didtarunj literarum nollrarum aliqualltur 
praejudicetur, yobis et cuilibet veftrum mandamus, 
quod prqptextu didtarum noftrarum literarum de 
di(fla villa del Irifhton, rnercatu aijt libertate prsBr 
didis, vel de cuftumis aliquibus pro munigio di&st 
villae de KilK^nnia de rebus venalibus addidhim 
mercatum, vel ir>fra libertatem praedidam venicn- 
t'lbus, abfque aflenfu et voluntate ipfius epifcopi de 
cetero c^piendis. Vps autem ajiquem veftruna 
nullatcnus intromitt^tis fub periculo incumbente. 

Tefte J^cobo de Botiller, comite de Ormond 
julViciario noflp apud Dublin 28 die Januarii, anno 
regni nortri 51. 

Rot, cancejl. Hiber. 51. Edw. III. 1376, 
No. 76 in dorfo. 



No. III. Page 372. 

Praepofitus, ballivi et probi homines villae de 
Kilkennia habent pavagium ad villam fuam pavien- 
dam per feptem annos fub data, apud Dublin, 25 
die Novembris, anno 8 Edw. III. 1334. 

Ex rotul. turr. Bermingh. pat. 8 E. IIL 

p. I. No. 106. 

> 

ic-.. . _ 



APPENDIX, 149 



No. ly. Page 375. 

ilex omnibus ad quQs,'8tc. falutem. Cum com- 
munitas comitati^s noftri de Kilkennia nobis in Tub- 
iidium guerrae -noftrae filper Hibernfcos partium 
Lageniap h<^.es poftros, P51 adjutorb, cxpugnandos, 
fua fpontanea voluntate nobis conceflcrint duodeci/n 
homines ad irma, cum tot equis coopertis, quolibet 
,eorum capiente per diem duodecim denarios ; et 
fexaginta hobelarios, . quolibet eorum capiente per 
diem, quatuor dqiarios ; ft d.upentes pedites, quo- 
libet eorum capiente pe^ diem tres obolos, vadiis 
ipTius communitatis fuftineri per quoddam certum 
tempus in corpitiva julliciarii noftri Hiberniae, di£ta 
guerra durante, moraturos, prout inter ipfos jufliciar 
rmm et communitatum erat concordatum. Aflig- 
navimus diledos nobis Wiilielmum Lye et Thomam 
Moygne i^ cantredas de Ofgellan et Ognentoy : 
Ricardum Foreftal/st Walterum Sillame in cantreda 
de SylercWjr ; Ad^mum Tonibrige, Gilbertum 
Synnichc et Jphannem Herberd in cantredis do 
Odoch etGalmoy, ^d didum fubfidium conjundim 
et divifim afli^endum, levandum et colligendum i 
et dilefto .confanguineo nofiro Jacobo de Botiller^ 
comitt de Qrmond, ft hominibus quos idem comes 
r&tineat in guerra praedifta (dum tamen ad nu« 
merum hominum ad arma, hobelariorum et pedi* 
tupi prasdidtorum attingat eofdem holies guerrando) 
per indenturam inter eos, modo debito conficien- 
dam, liberandum. ]£( idee vobis. mandamus, quod 
i'tfciem Willielmo, Thomse, Ricaido^ Waltero, 
Adae, Gilber^p et Johanni) tanquam afieflbribus 

ct 



S5<^ 



appendix: 

ct coUe£toribus fvbfidii praedidti, pareatis et in- 
tendalis, Damus autem afleiToribus et coUedb- 
ribus prsediais, tenore prsefentium in mandatiSy 
quod circa piisemifla cum omni feftinatione et d£- 
gentia &dmt et exequantur informa praedi<5ta. 
In cujusy &C. telle Aln^arico.Juiticiario apud 
Triflledermot, 26^ die Novcm. 

Per ipfum jufficiariipi et concilium. 
Ex rot. Turr. Bcrnj. pat ;is Edw. III. No. 53, 



No. V. Page 3.80. 

{Lex dileftts iibi fuperiori et communitatl yills 
de Kilkennia, &c. falutem. Sciatis quod nos ibr- 
tificationem et reparationcm viite veftrae, vdiris 
exigent! bus roeritis, affeduofede&leranteS) de gratia 
xioftra fpeciali conjceifimus, et licentiam dedimiK 
vobis^ in auxiliym murorum, paviamenti et pontis 
ejufdem vills emendandorum et reparaadonun, 
quod vos et pofteri veftri per vofmet aut deputandos 
la vobis capere poilitis, et habere a decinio ^ 
I)ecembns jam proxime fututo, ufique ad finem 
feptem axinorqrn extunp^ proxime (ecpientum 
plenaric complendorum, de rebus venalibus ad ean- 
dem villam vcnientil?us^ feu de eadem cau(a ve- 
niendi tranflentibus, five per eandem viilam per 
luiam lucam circumquaque^ tarn in Crocea quam 
in libertate ibidem venientibus, confuetudines fub- 
fciiptas. 

Vir do. cpiolibet cranoco cujufcunque gpncrb, 
^ladiy brafei^ fikinaD etfalis venali, unum obolum. 
J}fi^ quolibet cranocQ waicjc Yenal| d\|os denartos. 

De 



A P P E N p I X. S5l 

De quoUbet crancxx) de cq^cyr ct fymal venali, 
unum denarium^ De quolibet cranocQ tanni ve- 
nali, unum quadrantern. De duodecim cranocis 
quorurncunque carborum venalibus, unum . dena* 
num. De duodecioi crapocis calcic venalibus^ 
unum oboluxn. De quolibet eqi(o, vel equat 
hobino, bov/e vel v^icca venali, unum denarium, 
De decern ovibus, capris vel porcis venalibus, unum 
denarium. De quihque venalibus baconibus unum 
iobolum. De duodecim velleribus lanitis venalibus, 
unum obolum, De quolibet corio equi vel equae^ 
hobini, bovis vel vaccae, frifco, falito vel tannato 
venali, unum quadrantem. De qualibet centena 
pallium agnorum, capriolorum, leporum, vulpium^ 
catarorum ct Iquirrellorum venali, unum obolum. 
De qualibet centena peUium omhiunr llhetarum. 
caprarum, ^eporum^.biflanun, damorum vel da- 
inarum venali, unum denarium. De qualibet mola 
molendini venali, unum dei^arium. iDe duabii^ 
• molis manualibus venalibus, imum quadrantem. 
De quolibet magno facco lanae venali, quatuor 
denarios. De qualibet ma(a allecis venali, ununi 
quadrantem. De vi^inti groffis pifcilnis venalibus^ 
unum obolum. De quolibet fummagio aequi pifci unji . 
venali, unum denarium. De quolibet onere [xfciutn. 
maris venali, unum quadrantem. De qentunj 
anguillis groflis aquae dulcls venalibus, unum dena- 
rium. De quolibet falmone venali, unum quad- 
rantem. De qualibet lampreda venali, ununf 
quadrantem. De quolibet dolio vini et cinerunj 
venali, quatuor denarios. De quolibet fummagiq 
mellis venali, unum denarium. De quoliljet fum- 
magio ctnerum venali, unum denarium. De quo- 
libet fummagio pannorum venalium, unujm obolum. 

De 



5S% APPENDIX. 

De quolibet panno integro de afEfHi venalip unom 
denarium. De viginti ulnis panni Hibernid^ (ak- 
wyche et wyrftede, venalibus, unum obdum. 
• De viginti uhiis linei tell Anglid vcl tranCnariiBi 
venalibus, unum obolum. De. vl^nti ulnis de 
canenis venallibus, unum quadrantcm. De decern 
capellis de feltro venalibus, Unum obolum. Dc 
quolibet tapeto vel chalon venali, unum quad- 
rantem* De quolibet panno aureo venali, unum 
denarium. De quolibet panno de ferico vel teo- 
dildno venali, unum obolum. De quolibet cajxte 
findonis venali, unum obolum. De quolibet &1- 
finga Hibemica venali, unum quadrantem. De 
«luolibet fummagio pannorum, vel aliarucn renim 
venalium^ unum obolum. De qualibet benda faii 
venali, uriuni obolum., De centum gaddis afceii 
venanbus, unum obolum, De centum libris dc 
pice, vel rofino venalibus, unum obolum. Dc 
centum Jibris feminis porri venaFibus, unum doa- 
rium. De duabus milliaribus ceparum venalibus, 
unam quadrantem. De o^o chane Talis venalibusi 
iinum quadrantem. De centum parvis bordts re- 
rialibus unum quadrantem. De centum roagi^ 
bordis venalibus, unum denarium. De quolibet 
milliari fcindularum groflarum venali, unum dena- 
rium. De quolibet milliari fdndularum minutarom 
unum obolum. De quolibet milliari clavorum 
venalium, unum obolum, De quolibet centeni 
ferrorum adequos, et clutorum ad care£tas venal, 
linum obolum. De qualibet nova dfta, vel arclave- 
nali, unum quadrantem. De quolibet milliari dit 
corum et platellorum ligneorum venali unum qua- 
drantem. De qualibet duodena de cordwane, 
eorneys, et bafyne venali, unum obolum. Dc 

qualibet 



APPENDIX. « ssi 

• 

qualibet ccntcna oris et cupri vcnali, duos denarios. 
Dc qualibet centena de fcalpyn et pifcis auri venali, 
unum dcnarium. De decern petris cannabi et lini 
venalibus^ unum denarium. De decern lagenis 
olei lampadarum venalibus, unum obolum. De 
qualibet centena de vitro colorato venali, unum 
denarium. De qualibet centena de vitro albo 
venali, unum obolum. De duabus foKdatis cujas- 
cunque generis ipecierum venalibus, unum obolum. 
De qualibet centena de amcro de pondere venati, 
unum denarium. De qualibet duodena panni 
Anglici vel tfanfmarini venali, unum denarium. Et 
de quolibet mcrcimonio valoris duorum folidorum^ 
unde hie non fit mentio venali unum quadrantem.. 
Et ideo vobis mandamus, quod confuetudines 
prxdiftes de rebus venalibus praedi£tis, in forma 
prasdid^a capiatis et hftbeatis, ufque ad finem ter- 
mini pra^idti ; completo autem termino ilio, con>- 
fuetudines praediflae pemtus cefient et delcantur. 
Ita Temper, quod denarii inde provenientes circa 
muragium^ pavagium et pontagium villae praedii^ae 
ct non alibi, fideliter expendantur. Volumus enim 
quod in fine cujuslibet annt, durante termino prae- 
dii^o, computus inde coram venerabili patre epis- 
copo Offorienfi, qui pro tcnjpore fiiit et Roberto 
de la Ffireigne milite, vel altero eorum, et non ad 
icaccarium noilrum Hiberniae^ de anno in' annum 
fideliter per vos reddatun 

In cujus, &c. tefte Williekno Tanny, Guberna- 

tore« apud Kilkenniam, primo die JuUi, anno 

regni 49. 

Per pethioncm de concilio. 
Ex rot. turr. Berm. pat. 49 Edw. IIJ. Na 1 25, intua 
A.D. 1375. 



554 A P P E N D I Xf. 



No. VL Page 386. 

Kctf &c. omnibus ad quos, &c. falutera. Sup- 
plicarant nobis fuperior, praepofitus ct commaoitas 
villae dc Kiikennia^ ut cum villa praedidla in maichos 
fuerit afFefTa, et diverfk Hibernicis inimicis noftri^ 
ac aliis rtbellibus, malefadtoribus^ fdombus et r/^ 
lagatis Lagenis, Momoniac et Conactse undiqae 
circumvallata : idcmque fuperior, praepofitus d 
communitas non habeant unde veaire valeant fecure 
omnimodo exemptione et venditione viftualium, et 
aliarum par varum rerum et mercandizanim fbaium, 
•quae praefalis inimicis et rebellibus ad CTitandum 
eorum malitiam necelTario vendere et dare opx- 
tebit ; et adhuc indies, vt compeliantibus aut alias 
di^ villa foret per didos inimico? et rebelles {jpo- 
liata, deilrudla et omnino defdata et relxdta, quod 
abfit. Velimus, prsemiiSs coniideratis, et quod 
eadem villa major extat relevamen et confortanicfl 
quorumcunque miniftrdhim, fokiariorum et aliorum 
fidelium noftrorum, per terram noftram Hibcn^ 
laborantium, quod ipii vidtualia et mercaudiias 
cum diftis inimicis et rebellibus, tempore pads d 
trugarum, emere, vendere et mercandizare tim 
infra villam praedi£him quam extra in partitns 
vicinis, abfque impetitione nolbra haoredum fca 
miniilrorum nofirorum quorumcunque, licentiam 
gratiofe concedere. 

Nos de avifamento et aflenfu charifllnu filii noftri, 
Thomas dc Lancaftre fenefchalli Anglis, locum 
noftrum tenentis in terra noftra Hibernian ic 
aliorum de concilio noftro prauniifa advertantitHD, 

dc 



APPENDIX. SS5 

de gratia nofira fpeciali conceflim,us et licenttatrt 
dediiAus prsefato fuperiori, prspofito et commu- 
nitati, quod ipfi et eornm quilibet de caetero, uique 
ad finem trium annorum ex ni^nc proxime fequen* 
tium, plenarie complendorum, omnimoda hujus* 
modi vifkualia et mercandizas fuas (equis et arma- 
turis duntaxat exceptis) tarn tempore pacis quam 
trugarum, diebus mercati, tarn in villa praedidVa 
quam in aliis villis Anglicis mercatoriis comitatilis 
Kilkenniae, eidem vicinis, didtis inimicis et rebellibus 
nollris vendere ; et de eis emere et cum eis mer- 
candizare, abfque impetitione aut occafione noftri> 
aut minifirorum noArorum quorumcun^e^ aliquo 
ftatuto, five ordinatione inde in contrarium fastis 
non obflantibus. 

Ita femper, quod hujuTmodi vidlualia et mercan- 
dizae in foris di£tarum villarum, et diebus foralibus 
et non alibi, emantur et vendantun 

In cujus veiy bcc. telle praefato locum noftrum 
tenente, apud Trym^ 20<^ die Feb. anno 
regni nofiri quarto. 

Per petittonem, &c. 
Ex rot. turr. Bcrm. pat, 4 Hen. IV. No. laS^ intufl^ 

A. D. 1402, 

No.Vn. Page 386. 

Rex omnibus ad quos, &:c. &lutem. Sciatis quod 
nos confiderantes grandes cuftus, quod diledii ligei 
noftri fuperior et communes vills de Kilkennisv 
habent et fuftinent, necnon robcrias^ cxtortiones- 
et oppreffioncs, quae iis per Hibernlcos inimicos et 
Anglicos rebelles noftros (w£\» exiftunt ^ ac etian^ 

alia 



55S A P P E N D I X. 

alia onera jmpofita, qux di6U villa et patria circuG> 
quaque foldariis npfbris ibidem, que extendunt ad 
dueentas marcas quolibet qiiaterno aniA m reOften^ 
tiam fuperblae et rnalitiam didorum inimicoruin et 
rebellium dc die in diem fupportant : et quod diSj 
villa auxilium et confortatnen com^tatus Kilkenniz*, 
et aliorum ligeorum noftrorum di<ftae villae reparan- 
tiurii in omnibus agendis fuis cootm eofiiemKf 
bemicos et rebdles exiftat : Ob quod prsfati fuf»- 
rior et communes in tantum depauperati font, quod 
non poffiht reparare vel eraendare defeftus rou- 
romm, pontium et pavimentorum diftx villa 
abfque relevamine noftro ;• qi>i wero mures, pontes 
et paviamenta pro majori parte proftemftntur, et 
pro defedtu culluum, in periculum cadeodi ad 
terram exiftunt. 

Nos de gratia noftra fpeciali, de aflenfu venei«^ 
bills in Chrifto patris Richardi arcfaieplfcopi DubiiOf 
deputati, diledi et fidelis noflri Johannis Talbot de 
Holomlhire Chi valer, locum noftrum tencntis lens 
noitracf Hiberniae, et concilii tK)ilrif in eadem tenSf 
in falvationenii dift^ villae et patrias drcumquaquc, 
dedimus et conceflimus eidem fuperiori et commiH 
nibus, certas cuftumas de quibufcunque meraui(fi& 
vcnalibus ad didlam villam veniemibus, fccunduri 
formam et efFeftumXiterarum pateniiuta cteriftw 
domini et patris noftri, Hcnrici quatti nuper rcjs 
Anglian eis data> viceflimi o<fUvi Januarii, aww 
regni ejufdem patris noftri iccundo, ut dicitur, 
ftjdtarum: Habendum et percipiendum cuftumas 
pradidlas hucufque ad fifiem %\ annorum plenaric 
cjomplendorum, 

• Volefitci 



APPENDIX- s$f 

Volent<^ infuper, quod x:ompottis inde coram 
tnobis et hasredibus nollris et ontniftris, duobus bur* 
.genfibus ejufdem villas, per fv^periorem et coni'- 
fflunes ejufdem villse, pro tempore exiftentes, acF 
:1loc fingulis annis digendis, et non coram nobi^ 
ieu hasredibus iioltris, aut miaiftris quiburcunqne* 
de anno in annum iideliter xeddatur. Provifo 
femper^^uodtcuftomx prsdiAse circa rbparationem^ 
.et emendationem murorum, pontium et pavia- 
jnemortjm pra;didtorum cxpendantur^ et compteto" 
termino prasdido pemtus ipfe ceffeat et deieantur. 
In cujus, Stc. tefte pF$£&to deputato apud 
Trym, 20^ die Septcmbris. 

Per petitioncm. See. 
£x rot. turr. Berm. pat. 7 Hen. V. No. la, intus. 

A. D. 141^. 



No.Vni Page 489. 

Johannes Allea armigei, cancellarius domini 
regis terrae fuas Hibemias, Georgius, miferatione' 
^ivina Dublin, archiepifcopus, Hiberniae primas, et 
"Will. Brabalbn Ann, fub-the(aurariu$ fupremi do- 
mmi regis in t^ra fua Hybernia prasdi^a (et ejuA 
•dem invi^tiflSmi in Chrifio priacipis et domini noftri 
dom. Henrici 8vi, Dei gratia, Ang. et Franci» 
regis, fidd defenlbris et domini Hyberniar, et 
fupremi capitis ecclefiarum Anglicanarum et Hiber^ 
nicarum poil Deum in terns) commiflarii et legati 
^pedales et generales in ecclefiafticis caufis et fua^ 
ccclefi^ juxiididtione, per totam Hibcrniam legitime 
conftituti et deputati. 

VouU. Pp Univerfi^ 



455 APPENDIX, 

Univerfis et iingulis Chriiti fidelibus ad quonim 
potitiatn pr^ntcs literap pcrvenerint, et illi vd 
illisy qu£ feu potius infra fcriptum tangit, (eu tan* 
gere potuit quomodoUbct in futuruniy ialutecn in 
domino iempitemo, atqNie prsfeptibus fidem ad^ 
bibeamus indubiam. 

Cupientes finem irqponi ne plus uHira modom 
graventur laboribus et expenlis; praefertim nunc 
de juribus ecclefiaflicis aut ecclefialVicarum per- 
ibnarum ft^tu, aut etian^ ecclefiaftica jiiri{di£U<xie 
icontenditur : de quibus diutius ab(que animanim 
ct rcrum periculo et jadtura decertari noii potcft ; 
ea propter in caufa, et quaeftione aliquamdiu veo- 
tilata, inter difpretum virum dom. Jacobum Cleere, 
dec. ecc. Off. et vicarios perpetuos et chorales cooh 
munis aulas coUegii cathedralis ecclefias Sti Canid^ 
villas Kilkenn. et praefertim propter eorundem vica- 
porum de et fuper jurisdidione decani, et fiata 
vicariorum ipforuiiiy auditis ,allegationibus Juris et 
fafti (faltem quibus uti valebant in Hac parte) confi 
fit nobis lites minuere et a laboribus relevare fub- 
jeflos, tam de confenfu praedidti in Chrifto patris 
dom. Mlonis epif. Offor. quam fubjedonim, * duxi- 
jxius ftatuere et ordinare in hunc, qui fequltur, 
modum, perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturum. 

Imprimis, quod vacantc ftallo, aliquis vicarius 
choralis, cujus nominatio ad aliquem de dignatori- 
bus et prasbcndariis diftas ecclefiae cathed. de jure 
feu confuetudine fpedtat, prasfentatur decano exa* 
minandiim, fl moribus et boneftate approbatus 
fiierlt, ipfum commendabit prascentori, de fua peritia 
\n cantu, et cancellario de fua literatura exami- 
fiandum ; ouibus omnibus fufficienter imbutus ad* 

mittew 



A P P fi fl t) 1 X. 5^ 

fiuttetUf per dec^num, in vicarium choralem, juxfa 
mcxlum in antiqua fundatione, traditum. Eo 
femper falvo, quod pcrpctui vicarii communis aulas? 
Icgittmas exceptiones coram decano op{x>nant, quas 
fi viderit ▼erifimiies, admittet, eifqiie difFcrat^ 
quantum dc jure poterit et dcbebit. Et cafu quo 
hujusmodi exceptiones coram decano per dolum 
vel excogitatam maliciam opponuntur (ipfis fpretis 
et negatis) nominatus et prasfentatus, fi habifis 
iQotibus, cantu et Iheratura, ut praenHttitur, ex- 
pcrtus fuerit, nihilominus admittiltur. 

Item, quod decanus, epifcopus vel archiepUcopusr 
juxta formam prasnominatam, culpis, deledtis^ 
criminibus praenominatorum vicariorum expofcen- 
tibus, ipfos aut ipforum quemlibet, (trina monitione ' 

prsvia) removere vakant, aut ipfos, aut fpforumi 
quemlibet cenfura eccleC compefcere, fimaluerint^. 
ut in antiqua fundatione. 

Item, quilibet vicariorum debet fervire choro, et 
fe non abfentare abfque licentia decant, feu ejus 
vicarii, fine rationabili caufa; et debet modum et 
formam legendi quotidie in mcnfarti, bibliam, aiit 
alias facras literas fervare, ut confuetuda inokvit in 
ipfo colkgio. 

Item, quod didi vicarii chorales in aula foveant 
hofpifalitalem quotidk : et in menfam aut filentiuml 
teneant, aut finita kftione, laudabile et boneftum 
colloquiuni habcraiit. Et fimili niodo fikntiuni 
feneant, aut contemplalioni vacant in dormitorio,, 
ab hora oftava in node ufque horam quintam in 
mane. Et quilibet eorum dorrrlire debet in didVa 
dormitorio, nifi ex rationabili caufa de licentia de- 
cani feu ejus vicarii habuerit alibi dormiendiy (i 

Pp a - fucrit 



|«> A P f E N t) f X 

fami prope didtum cdlegium, per flatium mm 
milliaris. 

Item, quod didtorum vicarrornm quiiiBet, excepta 
decani vicario, debet gerere omnia offida didr 
domus fticceilive ^ ita tamen quod uno eodemque 
teirikpore non fit nifi unus ofBciarius omnimn et (irh 
gulorum offidorum, et ille non inducat vel coo- 
ducat fervum, andllam vel muUerem^. fine Hcesti^ 
yicarii decani et ejus confratrum^ 

Item, quod eorum aliquis fit perfonaliter pav^ 
chialis ut inolevit. 

item, quod ifte procurator five offidarius domos 
^ligiatuf de communi confenfu et aflenfii ipbnm 
I i^cariorum, et quod fit unus illorum vi<:aiionm 

pra^idse communis aulas, et quod qqolibet aooo 
ab illifi vicariis eligatur, et ob negligentiam tplcnia, 
potefias ipTum eligendi devolvatur ad decaoua, 
cum afliftentia Taltem fenior urn de capitulo. 

^tem, quodnullus eligatur nifi unus vicariwum 
praedi^o officio, etquod ifte procurator five offida- 
rius teneatur reddere rationem feu computum ipfe 
vicariis fingulis bebdomadis, et decano bis in-anna 

Item, quod fi aliquis didtorum vicariorum in fw> 
minifterio feu diyino officio ad quod, de fundatioftc 
tenetar, negligens etculpabilis repertus fuerit, pR> 
parva offenfa mul<^atur in quatuor denariis, e^& 
tunc monitus fecundo deliqyerit in & denariis, d 
tertio monitus fi denuo deliquerit in iz deaartf: 
medietatem muldorum hujul'modi ad uius decaiH, 
«i aliam medietatem in communem utilitatem ditu 
coUegii converti volumus. 

Item, ordinamus, quod fundatio et alia fcripta 
ct munimenta d\&x coUegji conicirvonda una cuov 

eoruadeo^ 



A P J B Pr D 1 X £«t 

eorandem (igiilo communi, ponentur et cuftodrentur 
fatva et fecur^.infira diAum coU^tum di£t£ ecc. 
cathed. in una cifla'five fcrinio (ah tribus fens, et una 
ckms ejufdem ciflib vel fermii refa»utedt ftfe cuftodia 
decani vicani, iriia in cuftodiib vtcarii pratoentoris,' 
<t tertia in cu(k>d»a vic^rii canccildcil diifhe ecc. et 
4i£ka ci|ta live i^riKuum ntun^udn} ajiomtur nifi der 
confenTur <t airefira di^rum vioadorum et partis 
jnsyoris ca^eror»m viciinorum* £t quod htlla par» 
.r^dkmim conced^w ^Ucui peribnae oltca quhqoe 
a^nps^ nifi ad hoe a^epeficrit aflenfus decatn. 

£jt tndsrea pttswiSm non ob&rntibua^ ek oertifi 
vatio^feHlvbus eai^fia nos moveodbus^ et prmfertim 
pro^utititate ^<%i colle^ volumus quod ^fioholftlls 
Biyi^ondi^^ ew^^faw. pvo termino tmnn biuuh 
ifOm fequentiym tt\t taiKj^am (»x)curalQr )iit &per- 
vi^r et provyhi db5tt collegia ita quodreddk compu* 
turn di^6 vicartsde fiii adouriiftratioQe fefnei quafi- 
.bet feptiRMn% et dieoatio bi» in amio, ut fiipm 
.di^um eit. ' 

Ordinamua ia^iper, ^ood fruAus» reddltu» et pro* 
▼entus ecc. de Kilkefy f emaneant fmgutis anttia ad 
the&uraj^ium duSli colieg^i^ et reparatiofies Aiifi'- 
dorum e^ufiJem, aliaqpe cofnmuma otiera pto utili- 
tate coiiegu Aipportanda de sumo in cyfta feu fcrioia 
pcxdido ^ ita quod aulla pars pecuniae exinde 
proreniens dilbiboatur, nifi de confenfu decani 
vicarii, et msyoris partis vicariorum ejuldem coU^i 
pro tempore exiftentium. 

In quorum onEmtum et fingidorum prarniifTorum 

fidem et teilimonium figillum quo uUmur ad cau- 

iaa ecc. praefentibas duximus appoiimdufn. Datutti 

Kilkenniae 8"" die Aprilis (&£ti dom..i^9 triceffimo 

primo. A. D. 1540. 

No» 



56a ft. P P E N D I X, 

, . ?^o. IX. Page 5^5. 

Rex omnibus ad quos, £cc. (aiutem. Supptkal- 

' runt nobis' ditedtt nobis prior et conventus fiatrma 

praBdicatorunxKilkennise, ut cum ipfi continuofirrt 

oratorcs pro ftatu noftro^ et pro anirtabus nobilium 

progenitcjrum noftrorum, quondam regum Angliac, 

&c. Et fcipfoS hon poffunt ftrftinere ex deemofy- 

: njs vtllsKilkennia^ neque coniitatus Kilkennis, eo 

quod didus comitatus eft tam per rebeiles noftros 

: quara Hibeniicos iriimicos deftruftus et devaftato. 

Volumus, prxmiffiis confideratis, eo praetexta 
cum eis agere gratiefe, nos fupplicationi fus pn^ 
di£t£ annuentes, de aiTenfu veneratNlis in Ouiflo 
-patrts, Ricatdi archjepifo^Di Dubiin. juftidarii noibi 
terrse noftrx HibcrniaB, et confilii noftri in cadcm 
terra hoftra* per manucaptionem Johannis Nau)^ 
- de Trym et Thomae Clopham de Navane, concdfr 
mus iifdem priori et conventui, duas partes, om- 
nium decimarum, obiationum, commoditatura, ct 
' *proficuDrum quorumcunquc rcftoriae ecclefiae * 
Mothil in coftiltatu praedifto, in manibus noflrii 
certis de caufis, exiftentes. Habendum et tenendum 
didlas duas partes, quandiu in manibus noftris pi«- 
diftis contigeriht remanere. Reddendo inck per 
annum ad (caccarium noftrum Hibemiapftodcna- 
rios ad fefta Sti. Nfichaeiis et Fafchas per aequale 
portiones. 

In cujus, &c. tefte prarfato jufficiario noftro 
apud Dublin 25* die Julii. 
Ex turr. Berm. pat 15 Hen. VL No. 11. ifl^s. 

A. D. 1437, 

END OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



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