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:•' \' 





O £ 


VOL. in. 


No. X. A Continuation of 
the Brehon Laws. 

Of the Round Towers* 

Account of the Ship-temple 
near Pundalk. 

Refledions on the HiStory 
of Ireland. 

A Letter from Curio» 

No. XL . The ancient To- 
pogra{^y of Ireland. 

Ofaferradons on Irifli Anti- 

No. XII. ESkf on Irifli 

Defcription of the Banquet^ 
ing-hall of Tarn* 

Kifi of Salutation. 

The ancient Hiftory of Ire^ 
land vindicated. 

Obfenradons on the an- 
cient Topography of Ire- 

A fecond Letter from Curio* 




THE N' v.- VC^'~"' 

PL'ULr.;--., >,t-/- 

T.'.i t-f- 


• !-• • 



No. X. I. A Continuation of the Brehon Laws, 

Page I 

2. The Chineie Language collated with the Iriih, 127 

3* And the Japonefe, - - 161 

4. Of the Round Towers, by Lieut. G>1. Charles 
Vallancey, - - - - 191 

5. An Account of the Ship-temple near Dundalk, by 
Governor Pownall ; with Remarks thereon by Lieut. 
CoL Vallancey, - - - 197 

6. RefleAions on the Hiftory of Ireland, by Charles 
CConor, Efq. - - - 211 

7. A Letter from Curio, with an Explanation of the 
Sn^er Inftrument engraved in No. II. of the firft 
Volume, - - - - 246 

No. XI. 1. The ancient Topography of Ireland, by 
l^illiam Beauford, A. M. - - 249 

2. Ob(ervatbns on Irifh Antiquities, with a particu- 
lar Application of them to the Ship-temple near 
Dundalk, by Edward Ledwich, L. L. B. 427 

No. Xn. I. An Eflay on the Irifh Feftival Oidhche 
Shamhna, the All Hallow-Eve of the modem 
Irift, 443 

2. On the Gule of Augufl, called La Tat, the 
Lammas-Day of the modem Irifh^ - 468 

3. JDefcription of the Banqueting Hall of Tamar, or 
Tars^ - - - - 512 

4. Eifs 


4. Kifs of Salutation, &c. - « Page 543 

5. Condufion. The aiicient Hiftory of trelaad vin- 
dicated, &c. by CoL Charles Vallancey, - 553 

6. Obfervations on the Heathen !Staie and ancient 
Topography of Ireland, by Charles CConor, Efq. 


7. A Second Letter firom Curio - * 676 


T O 




y o K 






B Y 




line 3d from bottonii for Canon read Saxon, 
law 8i,y3r fluidhir read fuidhir. h 

line 1 1 for Scythians read Scythias. 

Do. — 3, for Kamuc read Kalmuc. 

145, -. 19, for dupreme read fupreme. 

159, ^ 3 from bottomi for achon read cochon. 

168, — 6, for Rcimt Riogha read Reim-riogha. 





I R E L A N D. 


r. T 'A 21 M O A 


JilT '1 ^' 

y W A J ;r c) H -i " 

.<.', \1 ^.•. A 


1 PRESUME not to think that I have given a pro- 
per tranflation of the Laws of the ancient Irilh« 
Ignorant of law terms in the EngliHi language, I 
have found it difficult in many places to exprefs the 
fenfeof the original without circumlocution. A 
literal tranflation has been attempted from the frag- 
ments, which confift of fingle flieets of vellumf 
bound up without order, fo that frequently a law, 
evidently fome centuries more modern than the 
preceding, follows in this colle<5tion. 

From thefe fragments it will appear, we have 
hitherto had no juft idea of the andent Irifh. Some 
of their Laws feem to be a counterpart of thofe of 
the Gotbs and Vandds^ particularly what relates to 
the law of fucceffion called Tbattiftry. Some are 
evidently built on thofe of the Germans, as re- 
corded by Tacitus, and others refemble thofe of 
the Perfians, Gentoos, and the Oriental nations. 

Mr. Richardfon, author of the Perfic and Ara- 
bic diAionary, and many other learned works, 
acknowledges that he was much aftoniOied to find 
Arabic tecbmcally lifcd the code of Getuoo Laws. 

My aftoniihment was much greater to find Arab. 
and Perjic terms in the Irijb laws : and without 
the afiiiftance of Mr. Richardfon's dictionary I 
could have made no progrefs in this work. The 
Irilh and Walfli lexicons were of little ufe, as will 
B z appear 



appear by the technical terms^ titles of honour^ &c. 
&c. collated with the Arabic and Perfu in the fol- 
lowing pages. 

Pride of Bloody with the Iridi, contributed to 
the prcfcrvation of writing and traditional hiftory: 
the word cxprefling a code of laws, fignifies alfo 
genealogy, viz. Seanachas. Genealogy has therefore 
been cultivated with fingular attention, and is a 
ftudy fo intimately connedkcd with hiftorical know- 
ledge, that it is impoffible to arrive at any profi- 
ciency in the one, without being verfed in the other : 
Mr. Richardfon makes the fame obfervation of the 

The Jaw terms of the Irifh correfpond furprif- 
ingly with the Arabic and Pcrfic; fuch among 
others are the following: Soirceal and Simgd in 
Irifli is a feudal tenure in Perfic Siyurgbal. Bedac 
a fief ; the king's land, the king's high way; in 
Perfic Beluk is a fief; Caitbcbe^ lands given on 
condition of tribute; in AraUc Keiiat^ receiving 
lands from a chief. Airdneac and Atbcbaras a fief; 
in Arabic akabezet. Stmiaine lands held on pay- 
ment of tribute in cattle; in Arabic Zaym a feudal 
chief; Ziyamet a fief. Thefe and many other 
technical terms do not exift in the ancient Britifti 
language ; from what people did the Iri(h adopt 
them.^ From feveral of the lives of the Irifti 
faints, it appears they early vifited Afia; and their 
corrcfpondence with the Afiatick churches is fur- 
ther evident, not only from their following the 
Eaftern church, in the time of celebrating Eafter 
(and not the Roman, as may be feen in Bcde and 
Uiher) bi!t aKo from the names of the fcftivals. 



uhich are taken from the Eailern church. The 
antiquity of thefc laws is certainly prior to this, 
and it cannot be fuppofed thefe faints would intro- 
duce the Afiatick names for magick, forcery, divi- 
nation, &c. the pra^ice of which was fo common 
with die Heathen Irifti. 

The publication of fuch of the Breathamhan or 
Brehon laws of Ireland as have fallen into my 
hands, has been delayed in hopes of obtaining a 
fuificient number of manufcripts, fo as to digeft 
them under proper heads or chapters. Sir John 
Sebright has the greateft coUcdlion of tliefe manu- 
fcripts ; from the two firft volumes I have tran- 
fcribed the moft part of what is in my pofleflion. 
Sir John has generoufly beftowed this great coUec-? 
tion of Irilh manufcripts, containing 28 volumes 
to the college of Dublin j much time may yet 
elapfe before they are depofited in the library of 
our Univerfity, and being prefled by my learned 
friends to communicate thofc laws, leifure has per- 
mitted me to tranflate, they are here offered to the 

As many technical terms contained in thefe laws, 
are not to be found in the printed Lexicons of the 
Iri(h language, it will not be improper to explain 
them in this preface, to which I have annexed fuch 
obfervations as have occurred to me in the perufal 
of other languages, particularly the Oriental. 

By collating the technical terms in the Iri(h 
laws, with the Oriental dialeds, I may be accufed 
of yielding too much to the ancient hiftpriaiis of 
Ireland. It i^ now the general voice to condemn 
thefe writings as fabulous, and to deprive the Irifti 



of their Femus Farji^ and their favourite Afiatick 
origin. I (hall beg the readers patience to lillen to 
what others have faid on the emigration of Eaftern 
nations. Mr. Richardfon is a learned modern au- 
thor^well (killed in Oriental hiftories and languages ; 
let his own words be my defence. 

** The great Officina gentium^ whence fuch my- 
riads of barbarians have at different periods poured 
into the more cultivated regions of the Earth, ap- 
pears» with every probability, to have been Tar- 
tary: though our greateft writers, following Jar- 
fumdez^ the Gothic abridger of Cq/podoms^ have 
looked into Scandinavia and the northern parts of 
Germany for thofe bodies of fierce warriors, who, 
in the early ages of Chriftianity, overturned the 
government^ and changed the manners of Europe. 
The Tartars* Scythians, or Turanians (under 
which general names the hiftorians of different na- 
tions have comprehended the inhabitants of that 
immenfe traft, ftretching from g^"" to 130^ Eaft 
long. ; and from about 39^ to 80® North, lat.) 
have from the oldeft times been remarked for a 
roving, irregular, martial life. People whofe 
riches centered in cattle, who wandered for pafture 
from diftrift to diftrift, could in confequence have 
no attachment to a fpot. That amor patria^ fo con- 
fpicuous in the Hottentot» in the Laplander, and 
in the wild inhabitant of every barren rock, has 
never been difcovered in men of this defcription. 
Attached to his tribe, and glorying in an extenfive 
line of anceftors, the natale folum is to the Tartar 
an objeft of the moft perfedt indifference, and to 
abandon it in the company of his friends, a cir- 



oimftance rather of choice «ths^n regrtt* T^bef^ 
great outlines have accordingly marked the ^peraf 
tions of this extraordinary people ftopx the ^o^ 
ancient times. Without thofe reftr^ints on rps^trir- 
mony, which are found in -more civilized com- 
munities, their numbers had natu^Uy a prQic}ig}r 
ous increafe ; and as they defpifed thciide^ of cul- 
tivating the ground, the (amis extfsnt of coum^ 
which could have makitained thcHiifinds «f hulbandt 
men, was found often infuffici«nt fpr huj^dreda pf 
roaming paftors. Emigration^ alone could reo^ 
dy this inconvenience. A ce^brated warrior ;had 
only to proclaim^ therefor^ hijs intention ,of * iot 
vading ibme neighbouring i]tate or more dift^i^t* 
country. He was immediately joined by the chiefs, 
of many hords. Chance, oftener than derf^Uf 
might fliape their courfe, to the South, to the North, 
to the Eaft, to the Weft, for every quarter .c^i^h^ 
globe has, at different times been the theatre; Qf 
Tartar eftablifhment or, plunder. The and^> 
annals of the Perfians (ire eutireiy employed: 49 « 
commemorating their tiumerous: wars with thtt 
Turanians beyond the Gihon ; Chin^tand Hit^i^ 
tan have often felt their fury. Whilfl: JttkgfZ 
Khan, and Tamerlane, at the head of their bold 
and hardy fubjefts, approached nearer to univerfal 
monarchy than any conquerors of ancieni or mo- 
dern times. 

That the WEST muft have been the objeft of 
TARTAR invafion as well as the Eaft and South, 
there can be little ground to queftion ; thefe people 
poflefs, as we may obferve, the whole interior al- 
moft of the Afiatic and European continent. In 

a con- 

Tin PR E F A C E. 

A cortftant llate- of a6kion and re-adlion, hiftofy in- 
forms tis, that they have burft repeatedly upon 
ev€tyadjaeeiit- country. Like fubferraneous va- 
pours/ when rarified beyond a certain degree, they 
Irive "at times Acquired a great expanfiV-e force, and 
ttie violence of the explofion in one parr, would 
be generally in the ratio of the refiftance in others. 
Ift'^ vigour of ^he Roman and Perfian powers, 
they were 6ften repulfed from their frontiers, but 
they would not always return. Without fuccefs, 
without plunder^ that would have been an indelli- 
l)ledifgrace. They might then have ftruck to the 
Weft or to the N<^h, where, finding countries 
more thinly peopled ; and the few inhabitants not 
only ftrangers to the att of war, but unproteAed 
byfbrtified towns ; the oppofidon they might en- 
GOunter» would in general be infufiicient to check 
their progrefs.. Yet meeting with no rich fpoils in 
thefe countries, which could give a fplendor to their 
expedition among their countrymen, they would 
often be induced rather to fettle in their conquefts 
thah to go back ; and as there would be fufficient 
territory for the invaders and the invaded, enmity 
would foon give way to intermarriages and focial 
intercourfe. The old inhabitants would adopt by 
degrees fome of the manners and beliefs of the 
eaftern ftrangers ; and thefe, in return, falling in 
with habits and ideas peculiar to the original people, 
a few generations would naturally incorporate them, 
and form in time thofe various nations, known by 
the names of Gotbs^ Vandals^ Lombards^ Franks^ 
whofe roaming, rapacious, Tartar genius, became 
afterwards confpicuous, in the deftrudtion of the 



Koman empire. No folid objedliony it may here 
be obfervcd^ againft thofe ancient Tartar invafions, 
can be built, upon the filence of hiflory ; as this 
fiknce is the natural confequence of the. unlettered 
manners both of the conquerors and the van- 
quiflKd ; and whilft the fbocics were too remote to 
be felt in the more civilized ftates of Europe, we 
cannot hope to find them in their annals. Tartary, 
China or Tonqueen, may poffibly, even in the 
prefent times, be the theatre of mighty revoluti- 
ons unknown in Europe ; and it is a moft un- 
doubted fadt, that Jengiz Khan, who fubdued al- 
moft every country in the world to the eaftward of 
Euphrates, was dead many years before the acci- 
dental curiofity of Marco Paolo, who vifited the 
court of his grandfon Coblai Khan, in the year 
1260, made Europe acquainted either with him or 
his dominions. 

From the refearches and oi»nions of many north- 
ern antiquaries, th^ Scandinavian Gotbs are difco- 
vered to have been early compofed of two diftindt 
bodies of people, the firft Aborigines ; the other 
ftrangcrs ; who are faid to have poflefled a degree, 
of refinement, civilization, and fcience, far fupe- 
rior to the older inhabitants. Frequent allufions 
are made to their ASIATIC ORIGIN. Their 
dreft, their manners, their language, being in 
general diftinguifhed. by fome epithet deicriptive of 
I'jperior elegance. It may poflibly be objeded, 
that Refinement and a Tartar are ideas extremely 
repugnant, yet every thing of this kind is merely 
comparative, and the more favage inhabitant of 
the North, who never till then knew a luxury of 




drefs higher than the (kin of an animal which he 
had killed, may eafily be fuppofed to have admired 
whatever was, even in a fmall degree^ fuperior to 
his own. But, in fadt, the drefs and equipage of 
the Tartar chiefs have ever been, in general, un- 
commonly fptendid, and few drcumftanccs feem 
to have been lefs attended to by fomc of our great- 
cft writers, than a proper diftin£tion between the 
ruder and the more poliihed people who fill the 
immenfe extent of Tartary. Men totally diffimtlar 
are grouped together, under one indifcriminate 
character, merely beotufe they are known in Eu- 
rope by one general name ; whilft^ among their nu* 
merous nations, a difference of charaAer may pre- 
vail, not inferior perhaps to that which marks an 
Englilhman from a Frenchman, a Hollander from 
a Porcuguefe. 

Every obfervation on the habits of thofe roving, 
daring people, ftrikingly difplays their love of li- 
berty, and their fimilitude of charader with the old 
Gothic nations. Their averfion to culture, their 
paftoral life, their idlenefs, their eagernefs for 
pluflder, and martial excurfion, with many 
cufioms and btliefs^ clearly Eqflern^ form all toge- 
ther a chain of internal proofs, ftronger, perhaps, 
than diredl hiftorical aflertions. By many Nor- 
thern writers they are actually diftinguifhed from 
thamore ancient inhabitants of. Scandinavia^ by the 
epithet of Orientals \ and nothing can furely ap- 
proach nearer in refemblance than the original nor- 
thern invaders of the Roman ftates, and thofe in- 
undations, imfnediately from Tartary^ who, under 
the names of j4lans^ and Huns^ led by the famous 



AtiSla and other bold chiefs, ovenvhelmed the Em- 
pire towards the clofe of the fourth century, and 
gave a final blow to the chains of Roman fervitude. 

The Feudal fyftem (Mr. Richardfon yet fpeaks) 
whidi was introduced and diffufed over Europe by 
the amquerors of the Roman^power, produced, in 
a civil light, an alteration in laws, government, 
and habits, no lefs important than the difmember- 
ment of the empire by their arms. Our greatcft 
lawyers, hiftorians, and antiquaries, whofe obje£fc 
has been lefs to trace its origin than to mark its in- 
fluence, have uniformly attributed this great foun- 
dation of the jurifprudence of modern Europe, to 
the military policy of the northern nations ; and 
feem in general, rather to have confidered it ad a 
confequence of their fituation, after their conquefts, 
than as exifling, previous to their irruptions. It 
appears not only to have formed, however, their 
great fyftem of policy before the grand invafion, 
but to have flouriftied in the Eq/i^ with much vi- 
gour, in very early times. 

In Perfia, Tartary, India, and other eaftern coun- ' 
tries, the whole detail of government, from the 
moft ancient accounts, down to the prcfcnt hpur, 
can hardly be defined by any other defcription. 
We obfervc, in general, one great king, to whom 
a number of fubordinate princes pay homage^ and 
tribute: all deviation from this fyftem Teeming 
merely temporary and accidental. 

The rife and progrefs of the feudal fyftem in 
Europe is marked, it was an exotic plant, and it 
has, of oonfequence, engaged the attention of our 
ableft antiquaries. But in the EAST it is indige- 


nous, univerfal, and immemorial : andiheeaftern 
hiftorians have never dreamt of inveftigating its 
fource, any more than the origin of regal govern- 
ment. Both have long been to them equally fami- 
liar, and the firft extcnfivc monarchy gave proba- 
bly a beginning to the Brft dependence of feudal 

Every thing in the hiftorics of the Tartarian 
princes* is indeed complesiily feudal. Before their 
great expeditions, we find them ifiuing orders for 
the attendance of their great vaflals, with their 
contingents of troops. And we alfo obferve a con* 
JUttitional parliament or meeting of eftates, who, 
amongft other privileges, claimed that of trying 
great offenders. Differution on the Languages, Lite- 
rature, and Manners of Eaftern Nations, p. 29, &c. 

Mr. Richardfon publifhed his Diflertation in 
1777 i in the following year Monf. Anquetil Du- 
perron obliged the world with his hegijlation Qrien- 
tale. Had thefe gentlemen ftudied to have given 
the piAure of the Irilh Brehon Laws, they could 
. not have done it to greater perfeAion ; and the 
pains they have taken to free the eaftern nations 
from barbarifm and defpotifm^ by proving thefc 
people to have had a written law, time immemo- 
rial, reflects honour on their humanity. At this 
prefent time, that great luminary of eaftern learn- 
ing, Mr. IFiUiam Jones ^ has in the prefs, TheMibo- 
metan law of fuccejjion to the properly of inteftates^ in 
Arabick^ taken from an ancient MS with a verbal 
tranflation and notes. This work will throw new 
lights on the hiftory of the eaftern people. 

Had the Irilh received their feudal fyftem from 
the northern nations, they would moft certainly 


PREFACE. xiii 

lave adopted the technical terms of the people 
from whom they received them. On the contrary 
wc find every term flies up to the fountain head, 
viz. the Arabic or Perfic, which feems te indicate 
that feme colonies from the eaft, have fettled in 
Ireland^ at a remote period ; the ancient language 
of the people differing from all their neighbours, 
and having fo great an ai&nity with the Perfic and 
Arahicv ftrengthens this conjecture. 

The Brehon laws of the ancient Irifli have been 
pafied over in (hameful filence by their hiftorians v 
they have' been barely meniioncd, but never tran- 
flated or quoted. The late ardibifhop Uflier fpeaks 
of them in his Difcdurfe Jbewit^ wbcn and ixm far 
tbc Imperial Laws were received by the old Irijb(a). The 
Irilh, faya he, never received the Imperial Law^ but 
ufed ftiU their own Brebon-Law^ which confifted 
partly of the Ordinances enaftcd by their kings 
and chief governors, whereof there are large v(h 
hones yet extant in their own language. Yet the 
Brebons, in giving of judgment, were aiTifted by 
certain fcholars, who bad learned many rules of the 
civil and canon law, rather by tradition than by 
reading} as by Sir John Davics is reported f^^. Al- 

faj Printed in the Colleftanea Cunofa* Oxford, 1 781. 
VoL i. p. ^1. 

ft) This report of Sir John Davtes, arifcs from this cir- 
cumftaoce. Every F/Um or royal poet, was obliged to team 
by heart, the Breatha neimbf or Brehon law, in order to afiift 
the memory of the judge. The Filca always attended the 
judgc-ia court, and on being called on, was obliged to repeat 
tbc law referred to. In the Seacbt ngraldh FiUa^ or academic 



though for thetr fkill in the canon law, Hannibal 
Roflclli, the Calabrian, giveth unto them this tcfti- 
mony *' Olim bomnes illius Regionis phrimum intende* 
bant Juri Ptmtificio^ eranfgue optimi Canonj/tge (cj^ 

At the head of one of the vohimes in Sir John 
Sebright*s coUedlion is the following note. 

As for old Irilh Manufcript^ I Thady Roddy, of 
Crofsfield, in the county of Leitrim, and province 
of Connaught, Efq; have many Irifli books of 
phylofophyi law, romances, poetry, genealogies^ 
phyfick, mathematicks, &c. and as ancient as any 
in Ireland. My honoured friend Rc^er O'Flaherty 
loft a curious volume of mathematicks laft war in 
Galway, which I lent him. Some of the faid books 
vferc written Anno Cbrifti 1 5, in the reign of Ferogb 
Fion Feagbtu^b^ who reigned then; fome it^ the 
reign of Cairbre Liffeacbar^ who began his reiga, 
Ann. Chr* 268 s fome in the reign of Cormac mac 
Art^ Ann. Chr. 227. 

As for Walfti manufcripts, I faw none, except 
18 letters in my cuftody, before the war of i6S8^ 
being letters from the kings of Ireland to the prin* 
ces of Wales, and from the faid princes to our 
kings and nobility, upon feveral occafions. I have 
30 books of our law, although my honoured friend 


rules for the edacation of a Fiieaf it is cxprefsly faid, that id 
the 4th year of his ftudy, he Avail repeat, in the prefence of 
the king and nobles, the Breath neimh or Brehon laws', and 
fifty poems of his own compofition, or he (hould not be en- 
titled to the degree of Cana. — MSS vet. 

(c) RofTel. Comm. in Mercur. Herm. IriGnegift, Paemandr. 
9l Afcelp. torn. 5. p. 125. edit. colm. 


Sir Ridiard Cox was once of opiniont that our law 
was arbitrary, and not fixed or written, till I fatis- 
ficd him to the contrary* in fummer 1699, by 
fliewing him fome of the old law books. We find 
fome of our laws ordained by Olim Fadig or OUam 
FadUoj king of Ireland, who began his re'^n, 
A. M. 3M3, before Chrift, 1316, according to 
our calculation of 5199 from Adam to Chrift, and 
ibconfintied and augmented, as caufes required, in 
the reigns of fucceeding kings to the Englifh inva- 
fion, Ann. Chr^ 1169. 



Adh«^ agh. ach^ath. 

This word 14 written^ith^r way, and implies the 
law human and divin^!^^ ^ is pronounced Awe: it 
is the root of the German Ewa^ the. Saxon Jc^ 
and the Northern Edda : it is the root of the 
Latin augeo^ auSlus^ auHoritas : augeo^ tft emm 
verhtm /acrorum. (Ainfworth.) Compounded 
with eqfioir a defender, it formed the Latin Au^ 
gnfius. Sanaius &? reverentius eft nomen Augufti^ 
Flor. 1 4. c. la. Auguftus idem erat ac SanOhis. 
Dio. Caflt 1. s^. Sanilum Augufiumque. Onftan- 
Uus fempcr Angles. Qcy Compounded with the 
Celtic m7, i. e. cftabliflied, it formed the Latin 
/2r/^, with iodb^ i. e. worthy i meet, proper : 
it forms Jodach^ Judtacb^ a Judge; Judiacbt^ 




Juidicacbt^ Judgment ; from whence the Latin 
Judex^ Judicium {Jodb was alfo the infignia of 
office of a Judge, viz. a gold chain worn round 

the neck.) It is the fame as the Perfic agbajb^ 

recorded. Tek Perficc, zv^yekk or iek Arabice, a 
law. lekyn^ Arab, the true faith. Adhha in the 
Turkifti, the day of facrificc at Mecca. ..Ayac.^ 
a .Divan or Council in the Turkifb. 
In the Irifli it forms ban-acbt^ a bleffing } mal-acb$^ 
a curfe. Draoi-acbt^ Druidifm^ i. e. the religion 
. or law of the Draoi or Magi : it is the Arabic 
akudd^ a rule, mode, law ; abd^ a compadt, con- 
trad, obligation, an oath, a vow, faith, fecu* 
rity, a mandate, honour, refpcft, elleem, plight- 
ing faith i abdet^ an obligation ^ adet aad^ cuf- 

tom, mode, rite. And laftly, it forms the 

Englifti awe^ faitb^ &c. 


This word is derive^ from the Perfic Tcrligb or 
hrligb^ a royal maiiiJatri : it is the fame in the 
Arabic and Tartar lii^uages. 
/tr Adailgne. // 

The military .law, compounded of adb and o//- 
gean or tilgncy noble ; Arabic^, agbknta^ fuperior, 
conquering; Perljcc, alagb^ ulugb^ great, pow- 


Arab, bcdt^ manifeft; Perf. Payende^ a royal de- 
ploma i bandy a code, a book. . 


The old law, a name given alfo to the Lex MoC, 
the Arabic betaricky i. c. Patriarchi. 


PREFACE. xvii 


The law human and divine, hence Alcoran^ or 
the great or holy law of the Mahometans. 

Conradh, Coingiall. 

Covenants between man and man. 

Cadaigh, i. e. Cagaidh, i. e. Coir. 
The law from the Oriental Cadij a judge. 
Arab. Kydet^ a rule, regulation. 

Coinreacta, Coindire, Coindleacht. 

The law of Dogs, Lex canum Fenaticorum^ from 
Con, a hound or dog of Qx)rt- 


From deachd or diachd, pious, holy, and adb^ 
the law. 


From dligb^ perfect, excellent ; and adb the law^. 


From deafmm^ to corredl. Jafadey with the an- 
cient Indians, north of Indoftan, is a municipal 
law, (un Code familkj which they fay they re- 
ceived from Turk, fon of Japhet. See the 
learned work of Monf. Duperron, in his Legifla- 
tion Orientale, Amfterdam, 1778, 4to. • 
Perf. Jafdj a royal mandate. 


Of Din and Sheanacas. 

Arab, din^ faith,.religion, cuftom, judgment, go- 

Ternment, &c. See Seanacas. 


In the Arabic derr^ a benefit, a good a£t. 


This word fignifies juft, meet, proper, duty, 

pfEce ; in Arabic, delal is a manifeftation, a he- 

C raid. 

xviu PREFACE. 

raid, a public crycr ; dehJet^ an Expofitor ; a 
guide ; delil'i a direftor, a demonftration •, dow^ 
ktlu^ in Perfic, moft iliuftrious, happy, 


Implies force, violence, compulfion ; and alfo 
lawful, rightful, jufi; igamet in Arabic, is to 
eilablilh } and agawim^ tribes, nations. 


Signifies a law^ age, and foundation ; foras-feafa 

is a hiftory 5 foras-focal an expofitor or etyniolo- 

gicon ; in Arabic, faryz is aged, diftinA fpeech, 


Av2Lb.febn\ a canon, a rule, an index, fyllabus. 


This is the name of the moft ancient code of 
laws, exifting in the Irilh ^ it has been explained 
by fome Irifii writers by fine-cuisj the caufe of 
the tribes, but Dp53 Finicas in Chaldaic is Tabula^ 
Codex^ a table or code of laws. 

Leagh, i. e, al-agh. 

The great law, hence the Latin Lex. 

Irs. Iris. 

Perfic and Tartar iaza^ a law a code. 

Naidhm. Nairn. 

Perfice, nami^ a diploma, fpeculum, hiftory, as 
Sbab-namc^ the mirror or hiftory of kings; naantj 
Hebr. good ; naaniy the fame in Arabic ; hence 
the Irifli naomb^ a faint. 


Arab. Muhazyr. Pleading before a judge. Mes^ 
important bufinefs. 




Perf. muzd^ joyful tidings. 
Arab, meftmn^ a canon or rule ; mufnudy a king, 
an afylum, a prop or fupport; mes-rua^ pre-* 
icribed by law* 

Pcrf. ra», fpeaking, explaining^ pleading. 
Riaghal, i. e. Ri-agh-al. 

To govern by the holy law, a rule or govern- 
ment ; Latin, Regtda. 
Reachd. Reacht 

Compounded of re and acbt^ \. e. according to law; 
Lat. Rcllum ; or from the Arabic rebk^ a good 
work i rebekj tranfgreflion of the law ; reka^ cfta- 
blifhing peace. 
Seanacas, Sanacas, Seanchus. 

This ancient word for the laws of Ireland, has 
much perplexed the Irifh Antiquaries and Ety-* 
mologifts. Cormucy Arch]|Piop of Caihel, in the 
loth century, thinks it a Ceannfbocbras^ or change 
of Letters, and thai it (hould be written Fmeacas. 
1 have (hewn this laft word to be Chaldaic, fig-' 
nifying a table or code of laws. A commenta- 
Xoft of 2L fr^ment of thefe laws has thus ex- 
plained Seanacas. ** It implies, (fays he) every 
*' ancient caufe \ Seancas quafii Senex cuftodia^ i. e. 
" the regiftry of ancient matters, i. e. Jenfus 
** cafiigans^ the fenfe of adjufiing every proper 
" thing in a proper manner : xhtxtiox^/eancus is 
" a term for every true fdence, as for inftance 
^^ gcnealagieSf axid genejSsj which is y^r^nmr, tho'a 
^ book of laws. The prime laws of Ireland 
C a " were 


** were called Feineacus^ perhaps from Fcitte-^ 

** cbm-^fbiosy u c. the way of knowing the 

** tribes of Ireland, for Iriihmen are called Fenii^ 

" from Fefu'us For/aiJb. The laws of Ireland 

*' always bore the names o^Fineacas and Seanacas"^ 

In the Cantabrian or Bafcuenza dialeft, the name 

of the old teftament is Cintiacoa^ and the LeK Dei 

is jain-coaren^ (in Irifti Sbean-coiran.) The old 

Teftament in Irifli is named Beterclacb and Beter^ 

lacby from the Arabic Betarik^ i. e. Patriarchs. 

In Arabic, Seni and Sonna is the law of Mobamed^ 

the Alcoran \ keza is the decree, office and fent- 

ence of a judge ; kyfas the law of retaliation ; 

^^5^juftice, equity; confequently/rw-/6j!^oryJr«/- 

keza^ is of the fame fignification as the Irifh 

Seanacas. Senba in Arabic, and Sean in Irifti, 

fignify old, of long continuance ; but feeing the 

* language of the ancient Irifti has fo great affinity 

with the Arabic, I am of opinion that Seancas 

is of the fame orig||i with the Arabic Seni. In 

the Perfic San is law, right, cuftom — confequently 

Seanacas and Fineacas are both proper names for 

the ancient laws of Ireland. 

Tora. Tara. 

Chaldaice Tbora^ a law ; hence Tara, in Meath, 
where the ancient Irifti held their triennial aflcm- 
blies for the confideration and amendment of 
their laws ; it was alfo named Teagb-mor^ Tagb- 
mar J and Tambar^ i. c. the great houfc, the pa-, 
lace, being the refidence of the kings. Arab. 
Tekbt^ the Royal Refidence. 


Lex talionis. Arab, tar^ far. 



Toic TeaGa. 

Per. tocbrd^ togbra^ royal diplomas. 
Arab, tamkyf^ appeal to the fovcreign, as the foun- 
tain of the liw ; Tawksaj the royal fignet ; alfo 
judgment, opinion ^ Tck^ a diligent enquiry. 
Per. Takeiy cuftora, manner, &c. 

A J. U D G E. 


i. c. Agb the law, and ^re a chief. 

Bearra, Beart, Breith, Breithamh, Breith^am- 
han. Barn, Buadhlann, Bualan. 
Arabicd barr^ beneficent, learhed j bu/enUi high, 
fupretoe; M«, to try, to examine; buliyan^ evi- 
dence, to call for evidence; barr^ juft, lawful; 
Perficd, beroTj a promoter of p«ace ; beriri^ high, 
fublime ; bern^ pern^ good, upright ; barej. nfioft 
worthy ; perwdhi^ a judge, the fentence of a 
judge; Turcice, bath. 

Buadhlan, Bualan. 

Arab. buUy honour ; /a», full ; Bub^ the fun, the 
fenfitive foul. 

Ceada, Cadach.- 

Arabjce, Gutr^ he judged ; JSTA/wi^r^, a judge. 
Vtr^ct, Kbtdiauj a benevolent man, a lord. 
Bafc. Ccadoya^ a judge. 
Turcice, Cadi^ Cadbi^ z judge. 


Hcb. dan^ a judge. 

Syr. din^ he judged. Bafq. diny juft, right. 


xxii PREFACE. 

Arab. Jaim^ a judge. 

\ith. farag. Ax^h.afrag. 

i. e. brdibeamb^ vet. ghfs. (hmmic 

Arab, fekibi Spanifh, j^agw\ 

PiXTh.fettab^ a judge. 

Turcicd, Fetfa^ the Mufti's alliftant ; Foujdar^zn 

ofiicer of Indoftan, who takes cogmzance of 

criminal matters. 

Arab, mejbawer^ fenator; meflr/ekct^ feniors ^ 

fnuflnr^ a fenator ; wczir^ a vizer ; wczi^ a guar- 
Ollamh re Lagb. 

Sclavon. Mi/ao^ a dodor of hws. 

Arab, ylm^ learned. The Arabic jSLm^ God, 

fignifies omnifcience. 

Arab. Seis^ a governor, a public executioner. 
Racbtaire, Reachtaire, Reachtmaon 

Compounded of rescbt^ law, and mre^ a chief, 

and maor^ a governor, diredor, &c. 

German and Teuton, recbter^ ricbier-^ Greek, 


Scift, Seifti. 

Arab, fais^ feis^ a governor, a publick executi- 
Sclavon. y»//^, the law. 


PREFACE. xxiii 


Compounded of fur or faor^ which in all the 
Oriental tongues fignifies great, prince, &cc. and 
of aib the law. 

Tocaire, Toidairc. 

From toic^ law, judgment, and mre^ a chief. 
See toic^ teaOa^ under LAW. 
Arabice, Tekfit^ invefted with the robe. 

I'awkil^ a lieutenant, a deputy. 

Tmoekkur^ refpe^ed, honoured. 

Tawk^ power. 


TTic judges Bailiff; Arab. Ba/gbak^ a governor, 
a prsfedt. 


Signifies a judge, any regulator of afiairs. 
Arab. ram. judgment ; rai\ a rajah of the Eaft; 
rat\ to judge, to determine ; rejrejj sl man with- 
out judgment. 


Achd, acht, anacht. 
See acbt. 

Breath, Breith, Breithamhnas. 

See Breitb^ under the word JUDGE. 


The code of laws ; Perf. Barname^ an edidt, for- 
mula, canon, a bafis or foundation, a rule, regu- 
lation i Perttanc^ fentencc of a judge. 


xxiv PREFACE. 


Perf. bajb^ (fiat) be it fo ; bqfulcb^ an anfwcr. 
Arab, befs^ publiflied, declared ; baffbekb^ an an- 
fwer 5 fott;aw, judgment ; bezul^ bezla^ goodcoun- 
fel; baz^ refloration, exculpation ^ bezJ^ fludy, 
care, clofe attention. 

Cas, Cilkis, Cios. 

Arab, kyft^ juftice, a pair of fcales , kyfas^ law 
of retaliation ; hfa^ the fentence of a judge^ 
fate, deftiny. 

Codhaidh, cadhaigh, caghaidh. 
See cada, a judge. 


hxzb.dyety the law of retaliation, an expiatory 
mul6t for murder, made by Mahomet's grand- 
father ; it was then fixed at ten camels. 

Coigeart. • 
' i. e. coig'ceartj ceart^ juft j coig^ council; Lat. 

Dinn. ' 

Perf dinunet^ judgment ; dinur^ the day of judg- 


I know not if Eidir here fignifies a ftate prifoner 
on his tryal, or eidir ^ between ; as eidir gUeo^ 
would then fignify a complaint between two 

Arab, gbelow^ a Breach of the law, rebellion ; 
gbeletj an error ; gbell^ a crime ; gela^ kela^ guard- 
ing, as God does man ; kelouy a tryal. 
VctCgeJe^ a complaint brought before a judge; 
gbelij, an explanation.' 



Fiorfraghidh. • 

FromjSor, truth, andfngj a judge^ 
Fughall, Fuigiall, Forroghall. 

Arab, farygb^ abiblved, difcbarged ; fugbam^ a 

a compbdnt ; fukebaydo£\oto{ law tfukeb^ learned 

in the laws. 

From Meifi^ a judge ; meas^ is alfo to tax. 

Arab. majUs^ a tribunal, in Irifli meas-lis. 
Riar, Riara. 

See Riarai, a judge. 

Arab, reja^ an anfwer, reftitution ; rar^ dilclof* 


Arab. Rifalety the mandate of a judge, the gift 

of prophecy. 

See Racbtaire^ a judge. 



Arab. Kawbed. 


Biolaid. See Piolaid. 
Cuirt Cheartais. 

i, e. the Court of Juftice. 


xxvui PREFACE. 

Cuireailte. ' 

Compounded of Cuirc a body of warriors, and 

ail noble. 

Arab. Kourlite^ a general meeting of the flates. 



Suidbe cuert^ literally fignifies a fitting, the court 

of feffions; hence the Gorfedd of the WaMh, 

i. e. Coir-fuidhe. 

Sclavonice, Palac od Sudac. 

From FU$box FUitb a printe. 



Perf. bazjb^ and %", tribute, taxes, revenue ; 

hence the Iri(h bafcac^ a bailiff, a collector of the 

revenue. See it under judge. 
Caraidhc, Caraghe. 

Chald. Caraga tributum, cenfus capitalis. 

Arab, carga cxaAio -, kburaj tributum- 
Cain, Canach. 

Chald. cbanona ; Heb. canas^ canity coUegit. 
Cios, Ciolcain. 

Heb. cesy kes, mekes^ an affeffed tribute ; Arab. 
gizia^ gaza ; Perf. the royal treafure ; hence the 
French acct/e^ and Englifti exa/c^^ Arab, ke/as 
lex talionis. 


PREFACE. xxix 


A royal treafury, pronounced ktfiei kifteoir a 
treafurrer; hence quefior and qtutftor the ar- 
my treafurer of the Romans*, Heb. ctfa^ hefa^ 
a royal throne ; kis a purfe. 


A corruption of Cios; Perf. kuzit a pole tax; 

huzudy a tribute inipofed by conquerors. 

Perf. keh^. 

A tribute, and alfo a fine for trefpafs; Arab. 

ketaa price of ranlbm ; kmoed lex talionis. 
Coir, Coire. 

Arab, kburqj^ tribute, tax, revenue ; kberj^ the 

fame -, gbur^ the mulet for (bedding blood. 
Ciontire, Cintire. 

From coin and tire^ the land, country, region^ 

a tribute. 

Of nnr, a gribe, and meas. See meas. 

Arab, gberam^ gbcramet^ a fine for blood(hed« 

Implies a tenth part, a tythe. 

A mulct paid for not marrying. 

Arab, bedaya^ gifts, prefents; bidd^ liberal; 

hudd^ an offering; ada^ payment, fatisfadtion ; 

PciCulamal^ idreri, a tribute. 


P R E* F A C E, 


Chald. farh. 

Earc, Eiric. 

Perf. arijby this word particulary means mulct 
for man (laughter, and fo docs the Irifli Eirce. 
Perf. iari^ tax, revenue. 
Sclav, barac^ harac farrina^ tributum Zaririae. 
Turk, biirai 


This rather means a frce-wUI offering ; Arab. 


Chald. 177^; Syr. tnasj contributio; Arab. w«ifr- 
ejl^lf a colleAor of the revenue ; maoij a debt 
fought after; Bafq. gamte-maitza^ tributum fa- 
miliae % in Irifli Cinte meq/ia. 


The fevercft of fines. 

Arab, melun^ excommunicated ; \ li^/c^/iv, ac- 
cufed, guilty; maw/, giving away ones pro- 
perty ; meyelan^ refpeft to fuperiors. 



Arab. bela. 

Of bla and acb. See acb under LAW. 

Of bla^ acby and ard^ excellent^ hence the 

Greek a-xmi, the Spanifh placarie^ and French 

placard'^ Sdav. vlqfl^ oblaji. 


PREFACE: xxxi 

Deachta, Deachracht 

See thefe words under law ; hence the Jecre- 
turn of tke Latins. 


Turdcc fetfa^ — apply to the Mufti to have his 
fetfa or decree. Le^flation, Oricntale, p. ^9. 

Olar, Oldas. 

The fiat of the judge. See thefe words ^ ex- 
plained under Secretay of fiate. 


Aidhnim, aighnim, aghnaidhfam. 

To plead. 

An advocate, a pleader; Perf. aghajen^ learned 

men; great lords. 

Aghnas, aighneas. Pleadings. 
Perf. agabaniden^ agabidcn^ to inform, to announce^ 
to certify, to indicate \ ada eloquence ; Irifh mm to 
do, to make. Perf. agbai^ notice, anunciation. 
Arab, agbna^ fpeaking for another, fupplying his 


Eineac, Bineacas, Bineaclan. 

A fine or tribute paid by the feud or vaflal for 

his protedlion, for permiflion to fettle under him. 

Arab, anak^ inak^ fafety, fecurity, protection. 

The fame as Eineac; Arab, dcrb^ protedlion; 

Perf. dni^ a fixed habitation. 


xxxii PREFACE. 


Arab. Sdkai^ foreign ; fdkin^ quiet, firm, fixed, 

an inhabitant i Sukbur^ whatever is done from 


Arab, mubebbet^ friendlhip, benevolence. 
Mac Faofma. 

Sons of Feudatifts under protection of the Fla. 

Arab.yjrz^j, taking refiigc; FtxCfawz^ refuge, 

freedom, fafety. 



Aire, airigh, aireach, arar. 

Arab. Arba, noble tribes, chiefs ; Araknety aras \ 
Iraky a chief, prince, foldier; Herar^ of noble 
birth; ayaty a prince; for/, worthy; erik^ a 
throne ; arek^ root, origin, ftock, moll worthy; 
oryky of noble blood. Bafq. Erregue. 
The Irifh had nine degrees of nobles, viz. 

I Aireac-foirgill, 

z Aireac-nreifu, 

3 Aireac-ard, 

4 Aireac-defa, 

5 Bo-aireac, this is the Boyard or noble. ^ 

of Walachia, ard and aireac arC:, 
the fame. Sec Ard. 

6 Oc-aireac, / 

7 Triath, 

8 Airec Trithar, :^ 

9 Ri. 

Mr. Shaw, 

PREFACE. xxxiii 

Mr. Shaw has omitted the Triatb and the Aireac 

Triatbar. In an ancient glolTary, it is faid^ Oe- 

nac n'Airc Trcithar, i, biadh, 7. edadi logh-, 

mhur: cluimh, 7. coilceadh 5 brannuibh, 7. fith- 

chcalla; Eich 7 carbaid: miolcoin, 7. eifreachta, 

i e. the magnificence of an Airec Triath, con- 

confiils in good living and rich apparel, feather 

beds and quilts, chefs boards and t^gammon ta* 

blesy horfes and chariots, in hounds and in the 

number of orphans he maintains. Arab, biftk^ 

W,profperity, wealth, munificence; brannuibb^ 

rather means the men s gon a branmibb dcadj 

mth his ivory Chefs-men. 

Arab, atik^ atat. 

Cbinefc Me^ the king or hero at Chefs. 

^ Oigh. 
Heb. agab^ mouere bellum. Perf agba^ a lord, a 
prince, a ruler; Kalm-mogal, Aca. Turc. -^a. 

\ anach. 

'^^ab. anak. 


Hcb. adoni. 
S^oIUil, ull. 

Hcb. el^ magnus, potens, Deus, tdl^ robur. 

Arab. /i/AGod, hence cdibet^ the fun j /////, lords. 

Pcrf. Pir ; Arab. Bebr^ Behrai, fit for the admi- 
'^^ration of publick affairs. 

D Ban- 

xxav PREFACE. 


A queen ; Perf. banu, a princefs. 

Pcrf. beruiz^ baruiz^ i. e. vi£torious ; beras^ per- 


Perf. Parjbek^ honourable, brave, bold. 

Pruigh, Brui. 

The Brui was the lowed rank of nobility ; 
lands were afligned by the king for the fupport 
of the Bruigh's houfe, into which he was obliged 
to receive and entertain all travellers, as is fully 
exprefled in the laws. 

Arab, burj^ hofpitality, eating and drinking plen- 
tifully i burji Jberefy the higheft degree of nobi- 

Perf. berkb^ abundance, power, authority ; alfo 
a low price put on provifion by cdift of the ma- 
giftrate. Burkendam^ a carnival. 

Bal, Fal. 

Perf. Fal. Phoenice, Bd. 

Arab, fad^ nobility, grace, excellence 5 IVali^ 

the fame. 

Borom, Boromh^ 

A king, monarch. • This title was taken by the 
great Brietty monarch of Ireland^ in the i ith cen- 

Perf. Bebraniy a king, a fword. The name of 
feveral kings of Perfia, and of other kingdoms 
in the Eaft • corrupted by the Greeks into that of 
Varanes^ See Richardfon*s Perfic Dictionary at 


PREFACE. xxxr 

Caibhir, Caitb. 

Pcrf. Kabin Keiya^ a vicegerent. 

A Queen. Arab, K^n. 
Car, Coraidh, Curadh. 

Pcrf. Gerr^ power; kurube^ head, chief. 

Arab. Kir^ a lord. Greek Ku^iif . 

Perf. Kutbuda. 

Per. Kbudawend^ a king, a lord. 

i. c. Charles, Warlike. Arab. Kyfal^ a battle ; 

kenal^ a foldier. 

Arab. Kenrif a defender, Kubun^ a prieft. 

Perf. Kundawcrj a hero \ Kenek^ a cock. 
Ceaxm, Keann, Conn. 

A&si, the title of the Eaftern princes. 

Heb. idon. Arab. din. 

Signifies not only a king, a lord, but alfo his 

people, his country ; 'it is alfo a name of God, 

of adoration ; hence Eile ui Fhogurta, and Eile 

ui Chearabhail in the county of 'Tipperary ; 

Choc Eile the hiU of adoration. Arab. Ebl^ a 
lord, mailer, people, fpoufe, family, pious, God. 

I Chinefe, Fo. Arab, fowj^ a body of troops ; 
I fmok^ fuperiority ; faty^^ a conqueror. 

D 2 Mai, 

xxxvi PREFACE. 

Mai, Male. 

Heb. mclk. Arab, mulkj a king. 

Fal, Flath. 

Arab, wali^ noble ; fclib^ vidVorious. 


Arab. Mar^ a lord. 

Neimh, Ncimhid, Naomhid. 

Nobles : it alfo figmfies holy, bright. Heaven \ 
and frequently occurs in the laws in thefe mean- 
ings ; hence Breitb neimb^ the title of the Brehon 
Laws we are proceeding to. Arab, namus^ law, 
dignity; naymma^ haiU excellent; numan^ the 
Jiaroe of the kings of Hyra, in Arabia, i. e. of 
blood royal. Perf. namK illuftrious, namebdiui^ 
immenfe ; numud^ a guide, auguil ; name^ a hif- 
tory, work, writing, mirror, fpeculum, hence 
nami^ a title to moft books in the Perfic lan- 
guage, as Sbab namc^ the hiftory or fpeculum 
of kings, &c. Nenuxzy prayers: it is alfo ap- 
plied to the mafs of the Chriftians in Perfia. 
N. B. Nemed is the name of the Scythian leader, 
famous in Irifli hiftory, for colonizing this coun- 
try* 630 years after the flood. 

Ri, Righ, Rac. 

King ; Copticd, Rys. Heb. Recbtis^ rich, pow- 
' erful. 

Arab. Rik^ power; Rojf^ a proteftor; Rqjab^ 
title of honour of the Hindou princes ; RaaSy 
noWe; Rstt^ a prince. 


A king ; Heb. Rojb^ a prince, a head. 



Ruirc, Ruidhre. 

Perf. Rad^ great, powerful 


Perf. Gober of a noble family ; Al Gobery the great 
Mogul, Sbab /ilium. 

A Queen. 

Scaghlan, Seighy Seigbion, Seic. 

Perf Sikendcr^ Alexander, two princes of this 
napie are much celebrated in the Eaft/ The 
conquells of Alexander are celebrated in many 
Perfian, Arabic, and TurkiQi hiftories, under 
the titles of Sikender nami, i. c. ihc book of 
Alexander; Aineb JJkendfri^ i. c. the mirror of 
Alexander, &c. &c. 
Arab. Sbekib^ a prince ; fekba^ munificent, pringe- 

Perf. Seky terror, hence our Irilh Seagblan^ full 
of terror ; Sbebnl^ a viceroy ; Tegbyr^ a king. 
Schor, Sabh, Suidh. 

Hence Ufcor^ one of the ancient famous military 
heroes of Ireland, from whom the hill of Ufgar 
in the county of Limerick. 
Arab. Sharif ^ noble. 

Perf. Sbaby a king, a (bvereign, an Emperor, a 
prince, a monarch. N. B. The king at the game 
of Chefs was called Scbor in Irilh, and Sbab in 

Arab. Subeb^ lord, governor, chief. 
Perf. Sbabbaz^ royal, noble, brave, Sbapour^ a 
king of Perfia, called by the Romans Sapores ; 
Sbcbiy a king -, Seidi^ a lord ; Tefir^ an emperor. 


xxxviii PREFACE, 


Arab. Saur^ a prince. 


Arab. Tuwan^ power, valour. 

Perf. I'uwana^ omnipotent ; hence the Peruvian 

^onus^ the fun ; Ton the moon^ which alfo im- 
' plies fovereignty. See preface to the Japonefe 

language, in this number of th^ CoUedtanea. 

Perf. Tkr, head, chief; Tir, magnificent^ clc- 


Arab. Turkban. 
Tiema, Tigheama. 

Heb. STe^r^wi, Tironia. 
Tore, Torcan. 

Arab. Turkban. 

Tri^tha, Triathar. 

Perf. Turaj^ conquering; Teratur noble; 7r^, 


Arab. Turtur^ a king's officer ; Teref^ noble. 

Armenice, ST/r, valde. Graced x«r^. 
Tuis, Taofeac, Tuifeach. 

This is a very ancient word. 

Chin. Tyf, TcbL 

Kalmuc Mongul, Tai(b'u 

Tar. Tjcbaufcbs. 

Moldav. Walach. Cbau/cbs. 

Turc. 7ifcbabi^ Patlfcbabij or Padijbay king, em- 

Arab. 74^/, noble. 


PREFACE. xxxix 

Perf. Tajdar^ a kingi hence Tiz/, an Arabian^ 
hence the family of Mac^an-Taois^ written Mac 


The prefiimptive and apparent heir to the Prince. 
The word originally fignifies fecood, as in this 
example, is giorra ro mbair an ced tanaeftt dan le^ 
dradbjinj na an ced toifinaCy i. e. the fecond hun- 
dred champions were fooner killed than the firft 
hundred. Chaldaice, Tanain^ Secundus. 


Noble. Arab. Azz^ Wcza ; JVazia^ a king, a 


Amhra, Amhragh. 
Arab Amtra^ umera. 
Fcr(.Emrugb — Tawer^ victorious. 


A lord ; Arab, jirfib^ the royal throne -, aryz^ no- 
ble, rich. 

Aghach, agfal. 

Hcb. agqfiesj praefeftus. See jigba. 

Ainmeneach, aimneacfa. 
Arab. Hammami^ heroic. 
Vcrf. Humaiun^ royal, fortunate. 


Of ardy and btmaiun. Perf. ardavan^ the name 
of feveral princes of ancient Perfia^ Media^ In-- 
dia^ fuppofed to be the Artabcaius of the Greeks. 




Of ardy and acbta^ or acbda^ viftory. 
Ard, art. 

Heb. ard. Perf. ard^ illuftrious, mod excellent, 
omnipotent ; hence in Irifli Art^ God ; hence 
Sagadbarty Sagart^ a prieft, from the Hebrew 
and chald, Sagad^ to adore, to worfliip, and ar/, 
God : From this compound is formed the Greek 
and Latin Sacerdos. Ird and Ard^ was the ngme 
of the angel fuppofed by the ancient Perfians to 
prefide over religion. Hyde Relig. Vet. Perf. 
p. 265. 
Afcath, afcari. 

Arab, afkir an army j afkery a foldier. 
Aiion, afin, ofin. 

Arab. AJin^ of 'illuftrious defcent, hence q/ion 
in Irifli a crown, a diadem. This is the title of 
the famous OJ/ian, 
Buadhaire, Buadharg. 

A champion, a vidorious hero, from buadb^ 
vidtory, and«'/'<? a chief, or arg plundering, &c. 
Perf. hebader^ a foldier, champion, hero, a che- 
valier, knight, horfeman. Bebader forms part 
of the titles of honour conferred by the great 
Mogul, and other Eaftern potentates upon the 
Nabobs and other great men, bearing fome rc- 
femblance to the European title of military 
knighthood, as, Omdatu tmumalik^ eftenbaru* 
Vmulk^ kumru'd' dowla Mobammed Kban^ Bebader^ 
i. c. the pillar of Empires, the glory of the 
kingdom, the full moon of the ftate, Mahom- 
med Khan, the Brave. 


preface; xU 

Ballardach. See Ball. 

Of barr^ and ambuil^ i. e. fimilis. See Barr. 

Arab. Bebnes^ ftrong, a lyon. 

Pcrf. Bibin excellent, bin the fame, ban a lord ; 

of good blood. 

A gendcwoman ; madam, 

A lady. Perf BamisL princcfs. See Ticrna. 
Brian, Briar. 

Of Bri ftrength, and dn^ nr, in him, on him ; 

hence the Latin Briarius^ and the family name 

Bricn in the province of Munfter. 

Perf Bii^ Bari, God, omnipotent, true : Berin, 

high .in dignity: Barej^ beft, moft worthy. 
Buarg, buadharg. 

From buadb vidlorious. Arab. Babir^ viflorious. 
Berofar^ nobles. Perf. pur^ bur^ a king in Hin- 

dofian, whence the name of king PortiSj who 

was defeated by Alexander. 

Arab. Kadyr. 

A foldier, a knight. Arab. Kiyanet a proteSor. 

Sclav. Knetx. Perf. Nacbt. 
Cing, king. 

Arab. Ktngbal a hero. 

Pcrf. Dar a lord, Dara a fovereign. See Scatb. 

Dereji^ honourable. 


xlfv PRE t ^A^ C E. 

Nodh, Nothac, Nois, Nafadh, Neafa. 

Arab. Na/yb a faithful minifter; nn/yr a de- 
fender; »^'/2' profperous. 
Perf. Nazj beneficent; nnji imperial dignity; 
nadiret incomparable. 

Natha, Nathan. 

Arab. Neta^ noble, illuftrious. 

Nuall, Nuallan, Naill, Neill. 

Arab. Niyu warlike, al great ; nal liberal, neil ob- 
taining, conquering; i»^//> acquiring good. 


Arab. Erakbinet^ princes, chiefs. 

Perf. Ardejbir^ the Artaxerxes of the Greeks. 



Arab. ^V^i/, dignity, glory. 


Perf. Serkar a chiefs a fuperintendant. 

Seal, Sgal. 

Arab. Sykal^ horfemanftiip. See MarcfcaL 
Sbawkel infantry;. Sbekbel a youtli, which is alio 
the meaning of the Irifli/oZ; cbebl a chief. 

A lady; Arab. S^idet^ a lady; Perf.^///,. my 


Siphte, Sibhte. 

Arab. Zubte Mahomet, the firftof men; Siba^ 




Pcrf. Sipaby an armyy cavalry ; Jipabi^ military, 
chief of a town j Jipeban^ a king ; fipebhed^ 
emperor, general •, fipehdari^ commander of an 

Moldavian and Valachian, zaptzi. 

Arab. Turkban^ a prince ; catb in Iri(h, is a bat* 
tie, a warrior \ Arab. Kaw warlike. 

P L E B S. 


Perf. Berezgan fervants, the common people. 

Arab. badi. 

Perf. kbydemetkar a fervant. 

Kburdrmufd^ trifles ; Kbud-rui^ ill-difpofed, rude. 

Atzb.Kutrcff worthlefs. 

Arab. Dejajf Dejr. 
Gramfgar, Gamfgar. 

Perf. Gumer^ a peafant ; Gbumkufar^ aflbciates, 

Tur, Tair, Tuirean. 

Arab. Ttirr. 

A tribe.' Arab. PcrC Tehar. 

E M B A S- 

xlvi PREFACE, 



Arab. Tebligb^ fending letters of compliments ; 
Tebjiktj ceremonies, compliments. 



Arab, amoiie^ made dear, refolved, prepared, 

Turc. Emim Pbetva^ the truftee of Phetva 
has the keeping of the law papers given by the 
Mufti's clerk ; thefe he firft collects, confidcrs 
them and fometimes advifes or fuggefts to the 
Jkfo/// what ought to be anfwered, who at length 
decides the whole matter in one word otur^ fo 
let it be ; or olmaz^ it muft not be; in IriJh ohar^ 
ol-das. See the 30th Law in the following pages. 



See Fo^ under titles of honour. 

From Run^ and Gmbblm to write. 
Runcleireach, Ruinreathoir. 

From Run a fervant, and Ckireac o, clerk. 

Perf. Riiywane veiling, hiding, Arab. R^in feal- 

ing up, concealing. 


PREFACE. xlvii 

Dodlor O'Brien has miftaken the meaning of the 
word Rim in Olaus Wormius De Uteratttra Runica. 
According to the Doftor the rutue or writing of 
the Gothic Heathen priefls is derived from the 
Irifli Run^ a fecret^or myftery. Wormius cer- 
tainly knew that girunu in the Saxon Tongue 
was myftery^ Anglo-Sax gerwzty and Gothicc 
runoj myfterium; he certainly underfiood his 
own language^ and he would alfo have found it 
in the Gothic diftionary. But this did not fatif- 
fy Wormius, and with great reafon, for there , 
was no myftery or hieroglyphic intended by the 
priefts, who expofcd their writings on monu- 
ments which dill exift. 

The Gothic run^ a letter or charadter, is derived 
from the Arabic nma a found, becaufe fuch cha- 
racters conveyed the found of the voice by nam- 
ing them. The Arabic run implies more efpe- 
ciaJiy a mufical found, and runnm is fongs, 
hymns ; from whence the Irifti ran and oran a 
fong, and from this root is alfo the Irifh mine a 
ftreak, a mark, or fignature, exprcffive of a par- , 
ticular found or meaning. 


" Pofadh. 

** Corrupted frbm Bofadb^ fays Dr. O'Brien, in 
** his Didlbnary, is the only word in the Iri(h 
" language to fignify marriage. The Spaniards 
** have no other word to fignjfy the conjugal con- 
" tradl but cafamiento^ which literally means 

** boufing. 

Iviiix PREFACE. 

'^ boujing^ or taking a feparate houfe to raife a 
*^ family, efta cafada^ fhe is houfed or married, 
*' from cafa^ a houfe. But the Irilh word bafadb 
** or pofadb^ fignifying the conjugal contrad, is 
*' borrowed in a more natural way from a mate- 
•' rial ceremony that is in the a£tual exhibition of 
^^ the dowry, which confided in nothing elfe but 
** cattle, and more efpecially cows, bwes iSfrctna- 
^^ tumeqiaim^^% Tacitus fays of German portions; 
^^ fo in Irifti, hojadb is to be endowed with cows, 
** from Bo^ a cow. The word Sprl^ i. e. cattle. 

*' is the only word to fignify a woman's marriage 
** portion. The men of quality amongft the old 
^* Irifh never required a marriage portion with their 
** wives, but rather fettled fuch a dowry upon 
** them, as was fufficient maintenance for life, in 
** cafe of widowhood ; and this was the cuftom 
" of the German nobles and of the Franks. 
Pofda, Pofga. 
" Married, joined in wedlock. Thus the Doc* 
*' tor." 

It is not ^obable that a people, defcended in a 
diredt Hne from a nation which contefted its an- 
tiquity and knowledge with the Egyptians; a 
people who fpeak the mofl ancient language of 
the Univerfe, replete with fcientific terms, 
ihould adopt a name for a mod facred ceremony, 
from a few cows given accidentally as a wife's 
portion. I fay accidentally, for the Dodtor allows 
the rich required no portion with their wives ; 
then what was the name, fignifying marriage, 
with the rich ? 


PREFACE. xlix 

Whoever reads Tacitus with care, or will turn 
to the learned Dr. Gilbert Stuart's Fiew of Society 
in Europe (where he will find the fenfe of Tacitus 
more fully explained than in any other author) 
will be convinced that in remote times, no por- 
tion was given with the wife : And the following 
Laws of the ancient Irifh ddfldfe the fame. It 
is true, in later days, a portion was demanded 
and given i but fuch laws relating thereto, are 
evidendy of modern date. 
The name of the conjugal ceremony with the an- 
cient Irifh was Bod^ Bad^ or Bud^ a word which 
now indecently, fignifies the mmbnm Firile\ 
hence the Spanifh Bodas^ Boda^ a wedding ; the 
etymology not known. See Covarvj and the Spa* 
nifti Lexicographer Pinedas. Bad was the name 
of the angel, fuppofed by the ancient Pcrfians 
to prefide over wedlock. ** Viccffimus fecundus 
dies eft Bad^ idem qui Indo — Perfis et Gilolen- 
iibus vocacur Gbuad^ fee Govjody qui Famulus rS, 
Qmrdad. Cumque Bad^ fignificet Fenium^ hoc 
cenletur nomen Angcli qui praeeft Fentis^ atque • 

Cbunubio et Matrimmo et condudui omnium re- 
rum qu« fiunt hoc die. Hyde Relig. Vet. Perf. 
p. 264.'' From the old Perfic Gbiiad is derived 
the Irilh Oidbe^ chaftity, and the vulgar CotdMs^ 
the fudendtm nmliebre. 

Pofadb and Pojh are derived from the Perfic puyus^ 
a bride, derived from piywejl^ joined together, 
attached, conneded, from the wtih puyweflen^ to 
bilidi A wife in Perfic is Sabybet^ Sabye^ Sabybety 
from whence the Irifh Seite, Seiteacb, Seitche, a 
wife. Thus it is evident Pofadb (wedlock) has 
E no 


no more to fay to Cows than to Bears. The Per- 
fian Piyk^ a bridegroom, has given the Irifti vul- 
gar name bioc for the membrum virile : tbefe tranfi- 
tions are common in all languages: from the 
Irifli bri^ fortis, ftrong, ^nd bicb or pos^ is formed 
the word Priafiis. 

Nuar or Nuafb&i^ is another Irilh word for mar- 
riage ; Perfice, newa. 

Doiftor O'Brien has committed the fame miftake 
in the Spanifh language, here he is more excufa- 
ble; Pinedas, the Spanifh Lexio^rapher, had 
deceived him by the following explanation : 
Cafa^ a houfe, a family, and immediately follows 
cajada^ a wife, cafdda^ the original or the rife of 
a family; cajametuar^* to marry; cafamiento^ a 
wedding; which are all marked as of unknown 
etymology. Cafada and Cafamento have here no 
more to fay to a bouje^ than fofda had to covos. 
Ceas or Keas \s an original word in the Irilh and 
Spanifli languages, fignifying Wedlock; the 
Doctor had iranflated aitbceas or aitbkeaSy a harlot. 
I allow it is the modern vulgar fignification of 
the word, as Ceis or Keis is of the pudendum 
muliebre; Arab, keza^ kefs^ keis (coitus); but 
in the old dialedl, and in the following laws, 
ditceas is explained to be a wife ; ait is theprepo- 
fite article, the fame as the Arabic a//, implying 
repetition; and ceis^ keis^ fignifying copulation, 
both in Iridi and Arabic, the Doctor and others 
have miftaken the word; but ait here is the 
inflexion of atb the law, and correfponds to the 
Spanifh miento^ that is cafa^ nuptials; miento^ 
vowed of fworn at the mon or holy altar. Ceas- 



(Ut or ce^ in Irifli, a wife (or woman attached to 
one man) is the root of the Latin C}fiitas ; as 
pofta oxpujbti in the Perfic is the name of Gany- 
meies^ a Lteitin name, compofed of two Irifli^or 
Celtic words, fignifying the fame, ^^pujbtiy viz. 
profufion of love. 

The Irifli Keas^^iiA the Spanifli Cafa are of the 
like conftrudtion and fignification with the Arab. 
Kbafeki^ a fuliana; the Perfic cbefn^ nuptials, 
from the verb cbefpiden^ to adhere, to fow, to 
](m together ; but this word did not convey the 
fame honourable idea zspujbti in the Oriental dia- 
lers; it fometimes implied luft» hence Cbegba^ is 
in Perfic a frog ; cbucbUj a fpiarrow ; from whence a 
very vulgar Irifti word is derived, jl&^ (Le. coitus) 
Arab. Zekbkb ; Kbejaa^ in Arabic, implying the 
enjoyment of a woman either in wedlock or not, it 
was ncceflary to diftinguifli the honourable and 
lawful ceremony of wedlock, from the refult of 
psffion. The Irifti prefixecj atb^ i. e. the law, 
the holy law. The .Iberian Celts fuffixed mienta 
or manta^ derived from man^ the altar at which 
the vow was made. Man^ mun^ or mon^ is the 
tall upright ftone always to ht found on the out- 
fide of, and. near to the druidical circular Tem- 
ples: it was the Juba or pulpit were the priefts 
ftood to explain the laws, human and divine. 
This ftone was originally the altar of the almighty 
God ; it was the Eben S^ed, or lapis adorationis 
of the Hebrews ; it was at firfl the munay amuna^ 
or amna of the Chaldeans, which, as Buxtorf 
rightly tranflates, "wzsfides^ religio^ guts Deum colit^ 
complcOiiur et reveretur^ it was alfo the mana-^ 
E 2 Heb. 


Heb: mem ; Cboid * ei manna ; Arab, the obla- 
tion or gift at the altaf : at length it was the ido- 
lutrous Cbam-fHun^ or Solaria^ or images of the 
•Sun 5 and hence the idolatrous Jews worfhipped 
t'he material Heavens under the name Mani. 
Man gives name to many places in this kingdom, 
where druidioal Temples are always to be found, 
as Sleev-na-Man mountain; Mon na Veil or 
Blietl or Mon na Bhcil a muUac mountain ; Mon- 
uathor Monooth, Man-ava, Mangartort, &c. 8cc. 
It is theotigidi of Mona or Anglef^; of the Illc 
tS' Man ; and of the won^ i. e. Sanfius^ of the Ja- 
ponefe ; and is probably the fame as. the fttunnoo- 
fcgw of the Bramins; in Irift maHt^kgbi^ i.e. 
Druids. SeeHolwelVsIndoftan, Vol. z. I propofe 
to treat this fubjeft fully in a future iun!nber. 
From the Irilh AiMos^ is derived the fiaicuanza 
EztaydCj wedlock ; and from pofla^ the Sclavo- 
fi\c posjau. Ncdb^ Niidb^ in Iriib, is acontraia, a 
knot, a league, i hdnce Nmib-Or ot Nodbcor^ 
(pronounced N^uiicor) is a bride. or bridegroom, 
•bijt Nuscy matrimony, is from the Arabic mkab-^ 
HUtipo/ia is a Hlftrried^^cbople, and this is the TUiptie 
or nt^tUs of th^ LatiA, and not &om nubenio^ as 
Voflius thinks. Cadfa appellationisexeo^ quod 
fpoh&, curti ad Inaritum dcdncttexuv^/aaemfiameo 
nuberety hoc eft ^eiaret* iRifum teroeitis ! Curia tius 
is indeed neardr the fcnfe of the origin of this word, 
but equally diftant from rhe letter ; nuptias a novum 
et paShmi Cornificius thought the word derived 
from novus et peto quia nmapetmttir ^^onjugia. How 
abfurd are all thefe Ety mologifts, proceeding from 
their ignorance df that language whkii was the 


PREFACE, liii 

motlier of the Greek and of die Latin. I (ball 
not take up the reader's time in their whimfical 
Etyma of the word matrimmum ; tmdn or tmine is 
an original Irifli word figmfy'mg carnal coptdafion -, 
it is fo ufed at this day with the prepofition ar^ 
for example, cuajb ji or mm^ xx dul fiar ynuifty 
(he went a whoring ; and in the following laws, 
the commentator explains thuint hrjftriopac^. a har- 
lot. Muin lignifying copulation^ it was nccef&ry 
to diftinguiih the lawful union of the man and 
woman from the unlawful, and therefore as the 
joming of hands at the altar was the principal 
part of the ceremony^ matb a hand, was pre- 
fixed to or nrniny which compound fbmis fnatbar- 
mmn^ from whence the Latin ntafrimonium -^ 
hence the Irf(h word muinteofi muintcry a tribe, 
a clan, a family ; that is, fays the Royal Kfhop 
Curmac Mc^CuUinan in his ancient Glc^ry now 
before me, muin tor^ i. e^ torrac mutn^ the fruit 
of wedlock. Muinjiol is another Irilh word for 
a £unily, compounded of muin^ and Jiol feed, 
iflue ; fo likewife lamb-nodbj or kmb-nuadb^ is a 
married couple, from lamb the hana, &c. nodb 
or nuadb^ a compact, covenant, &c. &c. 
htzb. tnun-yZf libidine exardens, viraut mulier, 

munij fperma genitale, 

mun-berij^ rem habens cum puella, 

m«;^/, generation, progeny, 

munfus^ born, 

munkubj a lawful fpoufe^ 

munakydy marriage, 

munzcm^ joined, contrafted, &c. &c. 



Dr. O'Brien forgot himfelf ftrangely, in aflert- 
ing ih^X/pre is xhoonly word in the Irifli language 
to fignify a woman's marriage jportion ; the 
reader is requefted to turn to the word crodb in 
hislrifh diftionary, it is there explained, a dowry ^ 
or voife^s fortiori^ cattle^ cows \ crodb fignifies the 
profit or produce of the cows, and not the ani- 
mal; /pre sind crodb fignify riches and wealth 
of every kind. There are many other words to 
exprefs a marriage portion, all which the Do^or 
has inferted in his dictionary, as, 
Crodh, feartcrodh, lancrodh, bacrodh, croid- 
heachd, coibhce, libheadhan, libhearn, diob- 
hadh, tochra, fprd, nual, nadhm. 
Chald. catbobab implies a dowry, but it alfo fig- 
nifies itiftrufnentum dotis^ Utera coturadus matrimo- 
nialisy from catbab fcriptum. 
Nadonia^ Nadaz^ are words alfo for a dowry. 
Perf. Kabin^ a dowry, a portion -, fepar wealth, 
. houfehold furniture. 
Arab. Sebr^ z^br^ a writing, a dowry, zihrij de- 
coration of jewels; febr z. form, mode, writing; 
Jipebr fortune ; Jbebr a. gift, conjuga^ duty ; htba^ 
nibilay tiiama^ dos, a dowry. 
From thefe words the above Irifh compounds 
are derived to exprefs a dowry or marriage por- 
tion. • 


Soyez feul, et arriver par quclqu* accident chez 
un peuple inconnu ; fi vous voyez une piece de 
mnmye^ comptez que vbus etes arrivd chez un 
peuple police. - E/prit des Loi}^^ lib. i8. c. 16. 



The Irifh had the ufe of money from the earlieft 

accounts of their hiftory. In the laws that have 

hitherto fallen into my poffeffion, money is de- 

fcribed by weight; the /creabal o( gold, and the 

fcTcabaloi filver is mentioned in feveral places; 

thefe were flamped with certain marks to aicertain 

their value by weight. The religion of the 

Druids forbid the introdu£tion of images into 

their ceremonies, and probably for this reafon 

their coin or money did not bear the heads of 

Ithetr kings;. the golden and filver ornaments 

which have been found in our bogs, bear evident 

proof of the ability of the ancient Irilh to have 

made fuch a coin ; I can only attribute the want 

of it to the reafons above mentioned. Sir James 

Ware gives a plate of feveral coins, he thought 

might be Irifh, but the epigraph was (b defaced 

it was conjedture only. 

Screabal or fgreabal^ fays O'Brien, was an an- 
nual tribute of three pence enjoined on every 
inhabitant of Munfter by their king Aongus^ fon 
of Nadfrey^ to be paid to faint Patrick; the 
word alfo fignifies a favour or prefent given by 
new married people. Irifb DiHionary. 
Screaball in a very ancient gloiTary is thus de- 
. fcribed : puingene^ u e. fgreaball meidbe inbbicbe : 
a/e Jin fgreaball nan Gaoidbeal^ i. e. oiffing^ i. c. 
Puingene or fcreaball, of fmall weight ; this is the 
fgreaball of the IriJh, i. e. an offing ; Puingene 
is a penny in the modern dialed, and probably 
the oblation alludes to the tribute above men- 
tioned ; but fcreabal certainly implies a piece of 
money with a mark to notify its weight or value ; 



fcredb0n^ or Jcriham^ is to fcratch, fcrape^ or 
furroWy from whence y?mi a writing, and the 
VaSiXXiJcribo. See note to No. 2 in the laws, 
Seidy fedy & feody are words frequently to be 
met with in the laws, exprefling the value of 
]and, of apparel, and of «nuldls and fines ; the 
commentators have explained this word hy cows 
and Jedy in the Irifh Lexicons is a milch-cow, or 
cow in profit, Arab, we-jiet. Scd & /eod alfo 
fignify wealth, jewels, &c, therefore I conjefture 
that Jed was alfo a piece of money ; in the Ara- 
h\c jedd is riches, jtiyid every thing excellent ; 
feidi is brafs or copper, and faidef is an offering 
or oblation. 

Fang or Faing was another name for the /grca- 
baly either of gold or filver, it was the iame as 
the oiffing. Fang (fays O'Brien) an ancient Irifh 
coin ; Fangy faing^ i. e. fgreaball oir no airgid* 
old glofs. Vti(. fanh a VitAgtyfenn money, riches. 



i. e. filver; hence the Latin argentum. 

i. e. ballan beg imbitis coic uingi oir ; i. e. a fmall 

ball weighing five ounces of gold. 
Cim, Kim. 

i. c. filver. Perf. Sim money, a dollar, an ingot. 
Cis, Kis. 

i. e. tribute, rent, &c. 
Ccarb, Kearb. 

i. e. filver. Arab. Gbcreb^ filver. 




i. c. fiampt filver ; clodb is damped ; hence cur 
or clodb 15 to pHnt a book or to mint mo- 

Or clodh bhuaike. 

1. e. gold ftamped, buaihe is ilruck ; in Arabic 
X«6z/ is uncoined money, probably th^root of 
the IrHh ctod^ and the vulgar keher^ i. e. money. 

Cron bhualte 6r. Cron bhualtc airged. Cron 
bhualte pra$. 
That is, a fign or mark (crtm) ftruck upon gold, 
filver, orbrafe. 


A word I know not the meaning of; in my old 
Gloilary it is explained by ass^ probably the as 
of PDny, a coin, ten of which made the dena- 
rium. Lairhe is a balance or fcales for weigh- 
ing money, meadb tbonuds oir no airgid.. 

Mona, Munadh, Munadan. • 
Heb. monah, miiieh. 


A coiner or maker of money. 
Several of the Spanifli names for particular coins 
are common in Ireland, at what time they a* 
dopted them I am ignorant, but it is worth re* 
marking, that fuch names arc evidently of Irifli 
derivation, and cannot be derived from the mo-* 
dera Spanifh, as far as I can difcover ; fuch are 
Railre, Piaftrin, a [billing, or two rials ; Riali, 
lixpence ; Tuiftiain, a groat ; Pti^re and Piaftariftj 
appears to be derived from the Irifti IHofartria^ or 
triatby i. e. the king's piece; Piofa tiei^M the 
fame. Perf. pejbez^ any fmall money* 



Patacun a dollar, from the Flemilh Patag* 
. Tuiftuin, from tuis, the head, or tuis the jewel 
or precious value, and Tonn, the King. 
Riati, from lU king« and ail will pleafure. 
Piftole will alfo imply ph/a toll^ i. e. a piece with 
aheadftampt onit. 

Feorling is a farthing, and cianog^ kianog was a 
fmall coin as the word denotes, which paiTed for 
half a farthing. 

Thefe are certainly modern names, and in the 
9th century when the Danes obliged ithc Irifli 
heads of families to pay the annual tribute, we 
find it expreffed in the annals by the words uinge 
oir^ \. e. ounces of gold ; this is the cruel tri- 
bute named by the Irifti CibsSron^ or Nofe Tax, 
becaufe the Danes threatened to flit their nofes 
in cafe of non-payment. 

I am therefore of opinion the ancient Irilh had no 
minted or coined money, but pieces of gold 
and filver damped or fcratched with- a mark, to 
denote the value and weight, fuch as are current 
at this day in Spain and Portugal. 
The Hebrew vford Jbekel fignified to weigh, and 
alfo a coin of gold or filver from its weight. 
The lx\(h /creabal was probably a weight alfo ; 
as we have the vfovd/cruple fignifying a certain 
weight; and I may be miftaken in deriving this 
word from fcreabam to fcratch. It has been 
ftrongly contended by Conringius and Sperlingius 
that the ancient Jews had no coined money, no 
pecuniafignata. The Hebrew words Jbekel de- 
notes weight ; cafapb denotes palenefsof colour, 
and filvcr, like the Irifh airgid^ cios, cearb ; Ca- 


Japb cx:curs frequently in the bible, Gen. 13. 2. 
2o. 16. 2 Kings, 12.7. in the laft it exprefsly 
iay s, " Jebobajb fcdd unto the piefts^ now therefore 
receive no more money of your acquaintance^* which 
the vulgate tranflates pecunia argentum^ «CY^'c'*'* 
Sperlingius infills this word cqfi^b muft here like* 
wife be underilood pro pondere Jolvendo^ and not 

That the ancient Irifti had the art of fujing me- 
tals Is evident from the monuments of antiquity 
daily difcovered, but more evident from the 
name Breotbma^ Braitbne^ or Bruitbneoir a fmcl- 
tcr, a refiner of metals, i. e. fays my ancient 
Glo0arift, fear bbios ag bearbbadb^ no lag leagbadb 
n9 or tineadbj oir^ argid^ &c. i. e. a man who 
has the art of fmelting, refining or diflblving 
gold, filver, &c. &c. (let it here be noted that 
tineadb to fufe, is the root of the Englifti word 
//>r, i. e. a metal eafily fiifed) ^^ois a hot fire. 
It will not be foreign to our fubjcdt in this place 
to mention another art of fujion^ well known to 
the ancient Irifli, I mean the art of making glafs* 
The Irilh name for glqfs is glaine^ or gloine^ a 
word the author of the Gaelic antiquities wifhes 
to derive fron;) gleo and tineadh^ i. e. to fufe in a 
hot fire ; in this cafe thp compound would be 
written gkotbine or gloitbine^ which certainly 
would pronounce nearly the fame as glomes but 
the word is always written gbine. Dn Johnfon 
derives the word glafs from the Saxon gUs^ 
and the Dutch glas^ as Pezron imagines from 
the ^ritidi and Irifli glas^ which fignifies 
green, plear ; the Dodtor obferves, that in Erfe 
kknn is gla(s^ and alio clean •, true the word glan 



in Er(b and Irifli figniiies Mclean ^ but not clear. 
The Hebrew word gks to look fmooth andglofly, 
comes nearer the fenfe of our word glafs. 
There is every reafon to think the Irifti word glo- 
inne is an original. ^Klonfieur Michael has 
proved that the ancient Jews had the art of mak- 
ing glafs ; and in the third chapter of Ifai. and 
23d yerfe, the word gUnim occurs, which Mon- 
tanus tranflates looking glafles, and the vulgate 
gla[fes\ glinim is the plural number in the He- 
brew, confequenlly gUn is the fame word with 
the Irifhgloine. 

The word porcelana (ignifylng china or earthen 
ware, was given to that manufafture by the 
Portugueze ; porcekma^ fays Larramendi (in his 
Bafcuence diftionary) is a word borrowed from 
the CantabriansorBafe; called by them brocela- 
na \ which he explains by broceh^ i. e. trabaxo, 
i. e. work, and lana^ i. e. cario a carriage ; hence 
lays he porcelana fignifies with the Spaniards end 
Portugueze either china ware or a porringer. 
This inconfiftent author (who frequently tells us 
this, and this word is of my own invention) at 
the word vidrio^ i. e. glafs, gives a name in 
the Ba/c, fynonimous to the Irilh, viz. beira-quia^ 
that is, in the Irifh breo-caoi^ fufed in the fire; 
caoi-oir^ caoi-ariain^ is hot liquid gold or iron. 
The Portugueze porcelana is evidently the Irifh 

. breo-ghine^ or breo-cloine^ i. e. glafs fufed by firr; 
This art rauft have been very early difcovered ; 
every fire made on the fea fhore with tlie fji- 

line weeds dried and fcattered about, muft have 
produced a vitrification ; and to fuch an acci- 

P R E F A C E. Ixi 

deot PUny attributes the difcovery of this art in 
the River Btlus^ or the Rivus Pagida. See 
fiochart's Hieroapic. p. 723. The Ba/c^ word 
qui^ or ^iar^ very frequently occurs in the 
Irifli compounds, as in caor-gbcal^ red-hot, caor- 
tbuin^ quickfilver, caor^tbeinc^ a 6rcbrand, caor- 
tintigbe^ a thunderbolt, &c. &c. 
To return to our fubje^. Sir James Ware and 
bifbop Nicolibn have treated on the coins and 
money of Ireland; Mr. Skvoon collected what 
they had written, and enlarged the work \^ith 
the figures an(ji defcriptions of many coins in his 
poileffion f. From his Eflay I (hall extrad ^hat 
he has laid on the ancient money of Ireland. 

" Although we cannot trace out the firfi in- 
** vention of money in Ireland, yet it cannot 
** be denied that rt was i^n ufe here long before the 
*' arrival of the Danes, or Norwegians. The 
" Irifh word Monadb (aX as well as the other 
" appellative words, ufed (with little variation in 


f Tkit valuable colleAion of coid«« medalsi fofiils^ Sec. 
came into the poiTcfiion of Mr. Simon'i fon, at prefent a mer- 
chant in this city ^ who not having the paffion of his father 
for antiquities, -offered them for falc at a very low priqe— A 
puEchafer could not he found in Ireland j they were fold to 
a foreigner and taken out of the country ! 

(a) Monadh^ ^ecttnia^ Money. Lluyd's Irifli DiSionary. 
The Irifli Airgead^ ufed at prefent for the Englifh word 
money, originally and properly fignJfics Argcntum^ filvcr ; 
and was not probably made ufe of to defign money, until the 
ufe of filvcr coins was introduced into Ireland, when in all 
likelihood, fuch money was called by way of diftindion from 
iron or copper jjwney, Monadh tta Argead^ and in proccfs of 
time for trcrity fake, jUrgead^ for money of filvcr. 


" the pronunciation) in moft of the ancient and 
** modern languages to fignify money, feem to 
*^ be derived from one and the fam6 origin, the 
^' Hebrew Monah, or Mineh (b)^ the namt both 
*' of a weight, and of a kind of money, worth a 
•'hundred Denarii (c): the Mineh of gold bc- 
" ing worth a hundred (hekels. Befides thist 
*' we find in the Irilh many mercantile and other 
*' words derived from the Hebrew, which, as 
*' they (hew the antiquity of the Irilh, and its 
*^ affinity to that mother tongue, denote like wife 
*' the early ufe of trade, and of money in Ire- 
" land ; into which, no doubt, it was introduce 
" ed as foon as inhabited, or at leaft frequented 
" by other trading nations ; the country aflfbrd- 
" ing gold, filver, and other metals (d)f which 
" perhaps were foon difcovered by the firft in- 
*' habitants. 

^:^J^ *^ ^^ fi"^ ^^^^ ^^ ^'^^ ^^^&^ o^ Tighernmhais 

" Mac Fallamhuin (e)^ the tenth monarch of 
" the Milefian race, gold ore was difcovered, 
*' and refined at Fothart, near the river LifFey, 
" in the county of Wicklow, where gold, fil- 

Cb) Mma eft nomen ponderis et monetse habentis centum 
denariosy et centum iiclos auri. Schlndler's Lexicon-Pen* 

(c) The Denarius denier, according to Greaves and Ar- 
buthnot, weighed 62 grains, and would be worth of our 
prefent money, about 7 | ^. 

(dj — — — — ftannique fodinas 

£t puri Argenti venas, quas terra refoflls 
Vifceribus manes imos vifura recludjt. 

Hadrianus Junius in Ware's Antiqtnt. 
(ej O Flaherty's Ogygia, Lond. 1685. p. 195, 

301 1. 


*' vcr, copper, lead and iron, have of late years 
*' been found out. And a mint is faid to have 
*^ been eredked, and filver money firft coined in 
*' Ireland, in the time of Eadna-Deargh, at 3482. 
" Airgead-Rofs, (A. M. 3351) fo named from 
** Airgid filver, or money (f). From this obfcr- 
" vation that filver-money was then firft ftruck,* 
*' we may rcafonably conclude that money of 
** forae kind or other, whether of iron or cop- 
** per, was in ufe before that time ; and indeed 
'* we find that in the reign of Scdnscus-Innardh, 3453 
** the foldiers wages were paid in money, wheat, 
"and tloathesf^^. *Tis alfo very .probable 
" that this ifland was known to the Phoenicians, 
" who ufed to refort to Britain for tin, which no 
"doubt was likewife found in Ireland ("AJ; 
" though thofe mines feem to have been loft for 
" fome ages paft. But moft certain it is, that 
*' this country was famous, in the beginning of 
the Roman empire; for Tacitus, fpeaking 


(f) Ogygia, p. 249. (g) Ibid, p. 248. 

(g) Ibid, p. 248. 

(h) At a great council held at Drogheda on Friday before 
the feaft of St. Andrew, (29 Hen. VI.) before Jamc^ Earl 
of Ormond, deputy to Richard duke of York lord lieutenant 
of Ireland; it was ena£ted{cap. 14*) » that licence be granted 
to Sir Chriftopher St. Lawrence, lord of Howth, to fearch 
for a mine within the feigniory of Howth, as well for tin as 
lead ore, and to apply the profits thereof to his own ufe for 
three years, yielding 6/. 8^. a year if the mine be found. 
(cap. 17}. As Richard Ingram miner and liner has at his 
great charge found out divers mines of filyer, lead, Iron, 
coal, &c* which would caufe great relief to the inhabitants 
of Ifcland if they were wrought ; it is therefore enadled, &c. 
-Rolls-office, Dublin. 


*^ comparatively of Britain and Ireland, fays of 
** the latter, that it was better known by its 
*• trade and commerce, by its eafy refort, and 
*^ the goodnefs of its harbours, than the firft (i)- 
^ And when the Roman arms had reached Spain, 
*^Gaul, and Germany, abundance of people 
" muft have retired out of thofe countries into 
** this, and brought with them what riches they 
^ could fave, together with their trade, arts and 
" fciences ; for which rcafon, the Romans h^d 
^ a coveting eye on Ireland, which, fays Ta- 
**citusfitj, being fituated exaftly between 
** Spain and Britain, lies very convenient for 
" the French fea, and would have united the 
" ftrong members of the empire with great ad- 
** vantage; and A gricola thought it could have 
** been conquered, and kept in fubjeftion with 
^ one legion and fome few auxiliaries. 

** There muft indeed have been a great deal 
*^ of wealth and treafure in Ireland, to have al- 
" lured the Oftmen and Nordmen to invade it 
** fo often, and at laft to engage them to fctdc in 
** it. It was not for the fake of provifions, or of 
^^ fame cattle, that chey made fuoh repeated at- 
^^ tempts on tbii country ^ no, as thofe pec^e 
" enriched themfdvcs by their pyracies, money 
** was what they moft fought for. For as the J^ua- 
" S^g9L cxprejDfes it (l)^ they ufcd to enter intso 


(i) Mdiiu aditus portufquc per commercia et negottatorep 
cogntti. Tacitus m Vita Agricol^, p. 159. £dlu El^ev. 


(kj Ut fupra. 

{I J Societatem fub juramento inieniDt, pimticam cxerccn- 



P R E F A C fi. Ixr 

*^ partnerftiips upon oath, to exercife their pyra-* 
** des, whereby they honourably (m) acquired 
'* plenty of money. And Sturlefonius (n) fays 
*' that after their expeditions they ufed to biing 
** home fo much money, which, they had taken 
** from the merchants and hulbandmen, that 
** thofe who faw thefe riches, admired how fo 
** much gold could be colledled together in thofe 
" northern countries. 

** It appears from Saxo Grammaticus (o)^ that 
thofe py rates, under the condud of Hacco 
and Starchater, having invaded Ireland, at- 
" tacked and routed the Irifh, and killed their 
** king Huglet, Jfound in his treafury in Dublin 
** fuch a vaft quantity of money, " that every 
•* man had as much as he could w i{h or defire ; 
** fo as they needed not to fall out among them- 
felvcs for the partition, fince there was fo much 
for each Man's (hare, as he could conveniently 
*• carry away. (pX' 

** The Prince, here called Huglet, was pro- 

" bably Aodh VHL king or monarch of Ire- 

F " land, 

tcs, qua pccuniain iibi honorificeqii9sfiverunt. Thomas Bar- 
tholiausy de Antiq. Dan. p. 457. Hafuiae 1689. 

(m) Pyracy was then looked upon as honourable ; the 
king and lordi of Denmark being often concerned in thofe 
expeditions. Ibid. cap. ii. & ix. 

(«) Piraticam fufceperunt, deque prasdonibns, qui agrico- 
las et mcrcatorcs fpoliaverunt, magnas pecunia* egerunt, et 
omnes qui hac videbant admirati funt, in fcptcntrionallbus 
terns tantum aun collegium eflc.— Ibid. p. 458. 

(f) Saxo Grammat. Hift. Dan. lib. 6. Tho. Barthol. p, 

{p) Holliogfhedy vol. 2. p. 57. . 



" land, fuVnamed Finn-Liath ; and of Aodh 
" or Hugh and Liath, a foreigner fuch as our 
*' hiftorian was, might very well, inftead of 
** Hugo-Liath, have called him Hugo-Leth, or 
" Hughlet, in Latin Hugletus. This admitted, 
*' ihe fadl muft have happened in the year 879, 
** which is the time affigned by O'Flahcrty (q) 
** for the death of this prince, though he doth 
*' not fay that he was either attacked or killed by 
** the Danes ; but that his fon and fucceffor Neil- 
" Glundubh was by them killed in a battle near 
" Dublin in 919, according to the annals of 
** Dungalls^r^. The fame author owns, that 
** the Danes and Norwegians made fevcral ir- 
** ruptions into Ireland in the reign of Aodh V. 
" furnamed Oirnigh, in the years 788, 807, 
•' 812, and 815 CjJ. 

" We find, infeveralof ourhiftorians, raen- 
** tion made of gold and filver being paid by the 
•' ounce. Thus in the annals of Ulfter (t) ai 
' " An. 1004, we find that Brian Boruma, king 
** of Ireland, offered twenty ounce? of gold on 
*' the altar of St. Patrick, in the cathedral church 
'* of Armagh. That Tirdelvac 0*Conor, king 
** of Ireland, Afu 11 52, having obtained a 
" great vidory over the people of Munfter, re- 
" ceived for the ranfom of their leader fixty 
" ounces of gold. That An. 1157, Maurice 

" O'Loughlin, 

(7) Ogyg*a> P- 433- 

(r) Ibid. p. 434. (/) Ibid. p. 433. 

(/) Ware's Antiq. Edit. 1704, p. 70, and by Harris, p. 


" 0*Loughlin, king of Ireland, upon the dedi-^ 
** cation of the church of Mellifont, gave like- 
** wife fixty ounces of gold to the monks of that 
** houfe ; to whom Donat 0*Carrol^ king of 


Ergal, founder of that church, gave alfo fixty 
ounces of gold; and Dervorgilla, wife of Tierna 
" 0*Ruark, as manyf«J. That An. 1161^ 
" Flahertach 0*Brolcan, Comorban of Columb- 
" kill, having vifited the diocefs of Offory, there 
** were colledted there for him among the pco- 
** pie four hundred and twenty ounces of pure 
** filver (16). And in a Latin manufcript copy of 
** the Gofpels (x)^ we find this marginal note, 
** that Moriertagh 0*LoughHn, king of Ireland, 
** granted a parcel of land to the monaftery of 
" Ardbraccan in perpetuity, at a yearly rent of 
" three ounces of gold. From all which, fome 
** have imagined, that there was no money 
" ftruck in Ireland, before the arrival of the 
*^ Englifti. But probably thefe were particular 
" cafes ; the gold and filver offered to churches 
" might be for chalices, and other holy utenfils 
" or ornaments; and great payments were no 
" doubt made by weight : So William the Con- 
** queror allowed Edward Atheling a pound 
*' weight of filver ev^y day (y). And by rea- 
** fon perhaps of the lightnefs of fome of the 
Fa . •'then 

(«) Ware's Antiq. p. 70. 

(•w) MS. annals of abby Boyle. Trin. Coll. DubSn. 

(x) MSS*. college library, Dublin. 

{j) Speed's hift. of England, p. 504* 

kviii PREFACE. 

" then current money, people chofe to receive it 
" adfcaliimy by weiglit (%). It appears for cer- 
*' tain from a letter of Lancfranc archbiihop of 
*' Canterbury to Tirlagh, king of Ireland, An. 
'* 1074, that money was then current in this 
** kingdom, fince the bifhops ufed to confer holy 
** orders for money, which evil cuftom he ad- 
" jures him to reform (a^ 

** I have, I fear, been too long in endeavouring 

" to prove the early ufe of money and of mints 

** in Ireland ; I (hall therefore only add that Keat- 

** '\^%(h) tells us, that mints were erefted at Ar- 

" magh and Calhel about the time of St- Patrick's 

** entering upon his apoftlelhip (in the fifth cen- 

** tury) and that money was there coined for the 

** fervice of the ftate. Another author (c) fays 

** likewifc, that Tirlagh 0*Conor, king of Ire- 

** land, ereded a mint and had filver money 

" ftruck at Clonmacnoife \ and that he bequeath- 

" edto the clergy of that place five hundred and 

** forty ounces of gold, and forty marks of 

" filver. 

** Whether the monarch of Ireland only, or 
'• each petty king in his province or territory, 

" did 

(z) Among many examples, I fhall give one : An. 1248, 
Hen. III. the money was fo fhamefully clipped, that an or- 
der was ifluedbut, enjoining, that it fhould be taken only by 
weight, and that no pieces fhould pafs, but' fuch at were 
round. Matt. Paris. Annales de Waverly. 

fa) Ware ut fupra. 
h) Kcating's Hi ft. p. 327. 
{c) Cambrenfii Everfus, p. 85. 


** did artiime the power of ftriking money, doth 
*' not clearly appear from ancient hiftory : But 
*Vif the coins in my firft plate, taken from Sir 
*' James Ware and Cambden, be Irifh, and 
** Mr. Walker's notes on them admitted to be 
** juft, we may well fuppofe that each prince in / 
** his kingdom, in imitation of the Anglo- 
** Saxon kings in England, ftruck money of 
** bis own/' 

Addenda to page xx. 

Seannacas is alfo an Oriental word, fignifying the 
Law, as is fully explained by Millius in his difler- 
tation on Mohammedifm ; Sonna^ in Arabic, im- 
plies the Law or Alcoran in ufe among the anci- 
ent Arabs, Tartars and Moguls; it is yet in 
great efteem with certain fefts of the Mohamme- 
dans, and is faid to contain fome religious tenets 
omitted in the Alcoran. The word Sonna in Arabic, 
like Sean in Iriih, fignifies alfo converfalion^ talk^ 
preaching', hence Sean-mor is a fermon, and Sean- 
nacas^ the great Law ; Sean-focal a proverb, or 
wife fpeech, &c. &c. " Praeter Alcoranum fumma 
audkoritate apud Mohammedanos, liber eft, quern 
(alfonna) Sonnam appellant, quo Mohammedis in- 
ftituta et difta in Alcorano non memorata conti- 
nentur, orali traditidne propagata olim, et tandem 
in iilum librum conjefta. Vocabulum Sonna prae- 
cipue (ignificare viam^ converfationem^ docet Ebno'I 
.Athir; quoties autem in lege occurrat, omne id 
denotare exiftimat, quod Propheta Mohammed vel 



praeceperit vel vctuerit In Alcoranoomiflfum, (a) Ita 
quoque Ebno'l Kafiajus aliique. Tiircae in fummo 
pretio liabent ilium librum, Tartari itidem, Arabes 
et Indiani in Mogulis imperio, unde Populus Son/ue 
atque affenfus^ Sonnitae vocantur: rejiciunt autem 
PerfcB, five Alifcbii^ a quibufdam Karaei vocati. 
Miliius de Mohammedifmo, p. 54. 

(a) Radix (Sonna) fiveprimaria hujus vocis fignificatio eft 
vhf five converfatio* Venim fi ad LEGEM transfertur, ea 
denotatur qulcquid pr^tcepit Propheta aut vctusty aut ad quod 
invitavit dido vel hStOf ex iis de quibus non locutui eft Al* 
coranus, adeoque, inter probationes legales nuxnerantur liber 
et Sonna : id eft Alcoranus, et dida fadaque Mohammedis. 
£b. Kaflaitts; vide etiam Pocockji. Specim. Hift. Arab, 
p. 299. 


O R, 



I R E L A N D. 

This Fragment is copied from an ancient MSS. in 
Trinity College, DUBLIN. Clafs E. Tab. 3. 

N. B. Comm. (lands for Commentator ; thefe frag- 
ments abound in comments of various readers. 

1^ The firft part of this Law la wanting. 


Icathcathach atairfci, od- 
cathach macathach aidce 
ar ata andlig na feine bu- 
achailloc each ceatn fride 
fceo aidce, as de ata cond 
bo a buachaill imban fo- 
illfe ambdth ambuailaid 
fo iadad anaidce ; mad 
mucaafeis afoil anaidce, 
madbabi imbodaingean 
eich icuibreach techta 
nona ninde^ cairig in a 


half fine in the day time, 
full fine (if trefpafs) done 
in the night, for the cow- 
herd muft watch the cat- 
tle night and day ; the 
owner of the cattle is to 
caufe his cows to be 
bawned (i. e. inclofed) 
at nights, if there are 
fwine they are to be ftied 
at nights, if horfes they 
are to be fettered, if 
flieep they arc to be 




Ata dono crcc cor.- 
randa cinta fii tret 7 ag 
conrarda ciridta fri heth, 
oircc bis a!is no af^ithce, 
lingeas eirlim an gore 
faithce, ia di fa tri fa 
ceathair anaen laiihc ni 
ling, iin. in trcr, s. ac- 
neirlim conranad chinta 
iarum inde, ag dono 
conranna cinaid fri hed 
forngid gcalcas targeilt 
nindric no tar ime nin- 

I. Caircaide inime in- 
dric mad cora tri liag tri 
tra'gtca Iciiheaddadornn 
deg dla hairde mad clas 
tri i/aightlie a leuhead 
tis lar nichtar tri tiighte 
a leithead na maighne a 
curtar in mur 7 tri rrigh- 
the anairdein muir, mad 
nochtaile gebaidh fide fri 
dam fcuithe, ni dicead 
fcuithe ara dluithc 7 di 
chet dam ara hairde 7 a 
daingnc da dornn X dia 
hairde tri buncar indi 


TrcfpaiTesr of f'Aine 
are a!!ke d'.\ ;ded through 
the uh:Ie herd or ftock 
of cat;le, i^na if peitcd 
pigs Irap ir:o raw**do*As 
or corn fields twice, 
thrice or four times a 
day, either Cngly or in 
company, the trefpafs 
fliall be levied each time, 
equal to that of a whole 

I. What are thedimen- 
fions of the fences of a 
(a) bawn by law ? The 

ditch mufl: be three feet 
w ide and three deep, the 
wall three feet broad and 
twelve hands high of 
ftone work ; and as it 
will be then expofed, it 
is to be raifed with fod 
and brambles inter- 
woven to the height of 
twelve. hands more, witl* 
three fet-ofFs or retreats, 
fo that at the top it (hall 
be broad enough to re- 

fa J The bawn was a fpacc or area round the dwelling, m- 
clofcd with a fence, either to keep the cattle fafe by night 
from morodcrsi or to milk them in by day. 



bunchor for a hichtar 7 
aratle indi air a tnedon 7 
araile fair iar nuachtur 
CO rugud each cuaille iar 
nuachtur 7 lamcur doib 
conach urfaema in ta- 
1am 7 tri bcimcanua fair 
da archa trigh coruige 
deilnordanitca da cuaille 
tri duirnd fot in chuaille 
uafa anamain 7 cir drai- 
gain fair* diambe fair is 
diihfogail ar ceal° ifam- 
ne cidh induirime it airdc 
7 dluithe 7 indrueus. 

2. Smacht peaia chu- 
irre 7 circe 7 peata ois, 
7 peata mic tire, 7 peata 
feineoin, 7 peata fm- 
daigh, tairgille nairib itc 
indfin a caithche. 

ccivc a (lake, to be driv- 
en firmly into the fod ; 
the Hakes are to rife three 
hands above all, and 
brambles to be woven 
between them, when 
done in this manner it is 
a daingean or ftrong hold 
for cattle. 

2. Fines are to be le- 
vied for treffpafles com- 
mitted by petted herns, 
petted fowls, petted 
deer, petted wolves, 
petted hawks, and pet- 
ted foxes (b). 

(3) The commentator adds, two Screabal to be paid for 
eTcry trefpaff committed by thefe animals. I am at a lofs to 
determine what this Screabal was ; Mc'Curtin and O'Brien 
lay it was of the value of three pence, and was an annual tri- 
bute paid by each inhabitant to St. Patrick '^ fcreahal bhathah 
is alfo tranflated fees for baptifjr , fcreahal alfo means a pre- 
fcnt given by. new married people ; in fome of the notes it 
is ^t^ fcreahal dor^ and fcreahal dairgid^ u e. fcruples of 
gold and of filver. I find fcreahal vtsls likewife a fmall mca- 
furc of corn, ^nd fcrupului in Du Cange is menfura agraria. 
Sec in the Technical Terms, CO IN. MONEY. 




3. Car ciafa cathach 
fo fich ciifritirincoinicaid 
beirid chin conloin, cid 
ill afogain,buaine inton- 
luain itat 7 talam dara 
eifc 7 a teora heimeide 
nidi onluain a haimeid 
do im 7 a haimeid do 
gruth 7 a heimeid do 
taos ina dire toifcead ca- 
chaes drecht, conach 
inntaibh do neach faifead 
it dire 7 aithg. 

4. Smachta comic^ 
heaf^ caide coland acht 
la colaind afeich feritaib 
no airceand ite coland 

5. Mbrugricht. cia ro 
neipidar racht mbroga 
fon ar na horr neach brog 
a comicaid, ar ni bia 
fidh a tire, ar nach orba 
av nach ara ar nach aitre- 
aba ara tair gealla each 
ara ceat" for each naile 
for each tairfce for each 


3. What are the fines 
on trefpaffes committed 
by dogs fuffered to wan- 
der over the , country ? 
They (hall pay fines e- 
qual to the damages 
done ; and whoever (hall 
keep greyhounds, (hall 
pay for any wafte made 
by them on butter, curds, 
or dough ; that is to fay, 
equal reftitution, 

4. Fines (hall alfo be 
levied for wounds made 
by thefe animals, if they 
attack any per fon, whe- 
ther they are wounded 
in the body or the head. 

5. Bruigh laws (r). 
whoever trefpafles on the 
lands of Bruigh's, tho* 
thetrefpaffer (hould have 
neither lands or dwellings 
they (hall be obliged to 
give fatisfactory pledges 
for every trefpafs com- 
mitted by his cattle in 
breaking through his 

(c) N. B. The Bruigh was a public innbolder fupported 
by the chief of every diftrifl for Uic accommodation of tra- 



6. Caircaidc tair (ce* ta- 
gacht tar fdlb no tar adi 
tairfce dona dul tar rod 
dul tar gbind na be fnam 
doib, tairfce tar fag ne- 

N a 


7. Os airm imbiad do 
comarba treabar imeafart 
cid do gnitear fri heifeart 
gaibead imme conimcua 
as muna be treabad in 
forais lais, gaibtear a fine 
comogasdo, conimcua a 
deire, no con tardad fer 
dilfi, CO ceann mbliadna 
mad fer dilfe do bera a 
fine^ imfean ceachtair in 
da comarba ognime 7 do 
bad comaiream ind 7 do 
airgealla each diaraile as 


6. What other tref- 
paffes on fences? Croff- 
ing out of the road, 
clambering over ditches 
intp peoples lands^ 
fwimming or fording 
rivers into the fame^ 
whereby contentions a- 

7. Where joint part* 
ners in land are at vari- 
ance, reftitution (hall be 
made by the trefpafler, 
unlefs he is the chief of 
a clan^ and then reftitu- 
tion (hall be taken from 
his tribe, if the trefpafs 
is not paid in the fpace 
of one year, either in hay, 
grafs, &c. if the tribe be 
compelled to pay the tref- 
pafs, the joint partners 
(hall number their cattle, 
and each give fufficicnt 
fecurity in proportion. 

TcIlerSy he was alfo a noble. See Brebon Lawti No. 4, of 
tke collefkanea, p. 19. See alfo No. 35, of tbefe lawg. 
Bruigh in the modem Irifli denotes a wealthy farmer. 
Bmghean formerly fignified a palace or royal feat, from 
Bniigh hofpitality. See Titles of Honour, JKlings, Pripces, 


B R E H O N^L A W S 


8. Os ma do ti eifeart 
CO treab lais anechtar, 
teid do chum a fine fo 
longad CO ceand mbl. 
7 ni dia treabane fo righ 
ina lir 7 is dileas douilc. 


8. If the chief of a 
tribe trefpaflfes on that of 
another, the offender ihall 
become a common tribef- 
man to that tribe, and 
(hall remain fo for one 
year, and fhall not be a 
chief for any king in the 
country, and (hall take 
his property with him. 

g. Ruiriuddona, rith 
ta teora fealba no ceit- 
heora fealba od cathaig 
and fin, arus ag in fol* 
lugh, ruirid raite dono 
rith tar tri haireann tre- 
ora fealbha, is ruiriud 7 
is follugh muna imge 

9. Ruiriud is the crime 
of breaking over the 
lands of three or four 
different proprietors; this 
is Ruiriud or great tref- 
pafs unlefs (bme rea- 
fonable excuf^ can be 

Comm. Sucb as the 

abfence of the Herd/- 


10. Caircaide analrce- 
and teora fairge. umcor 
flefcaig is eifide bund- 
(aighe acomfad and fin 
don tricht leath inindruic 
imme im rod im fean 
each bes fui 7 anall im- 

10. What are the laws 
relating to fea coafts ? 
The fpace of the caft of 
a dart (hall be left from 
high water mark along 
the fea fide for. a road, 
which is to be inclofed 

O F I 


foilingead ime indruic 
atarru famr. 

R E L A N D. 

by two banks, one next 
the fea and one next the 

N. B. I'bU coaft road is 
ftillto befeen in many 
places J and is called 
Brien Boireamb's road. 


II. Cair cia meid 
fmachta fil a comiceas. 
ado fmacht ime 7 ceathra 
gen mo ta caithe, ca meid 
caithe fil a comicheas, 
teora caithe aile 7 caithe 
ceathra 7 duine caithe. 

12. Caircadiad duine 
caithe. i. beim feda, ei- 
dir aire feada 7 aithar 
feada 7 fogla feada 7 lo- 
fa feada. 

13. Airigh feada. i. 
dair, coll, cuileand, ibar, 
Jundus oghtach {d) a ball 
u. s. andire each ae, bo 

1 1 . How many fines 
of this kind ? two, one 
on men and one on cat* 
tie. How many kinds 
of trefpafles ? three, viz. 
breaking of banks, waftc 
made by men, and wafte 
made by cattle. 

12. What are the tim- 
ber trefpafles ? cutting 
down trees and taking 
them away ; as airigh 
timber, athar timber, 
fogla timber, and lofa 

13. Airigh timber^ ZTQ^ 
oak, hazle, holly, yew, 
Indian pine, & apple ; 
five cows penalty for cut- 

(i) Jundus oghtach» i. e. Indian oghtach, the commenta- 
tor explains by crand giuisf the pine tree, the word is not in 
our Lexicons; in the Indian language ogbneghtit a pine tree, 
t word very fimilar to the In(h oghtach. 



buin beime, colpach ina 
ngablaib^ dairt ina crae* 

ting down thefe trees ; 
yearling cow calves for 
cutting the limbs; and 
heifers for cutting the 

The Commentator adds^ 
that for the limbs 8 
fcreaball may be ta- 
ken^ and for the 
branches ^fcreaball. 

14. Athar feada. fernn 
fail, fceith, caertand, 
beithe, leamidha, boan- 
dire each ae, dart ina 

14. Atbar Wood^ are al- 
dar, willow, hawthorn, 
quickbeam, birch, elm ; 
a cow for each tree, a 
heifer for the branches. 

1 5- Fogla feada. drai- 
gean, trom, feorus, fin- 
coll crithach, caithne 
crandfir, dairt andire 

15. Fogla woodf are 
black thorn, elder, fpin- 
dle-trec, white hazel, af- 
pen; thefe are the woods 
on which the law gives 
trefpafs, viz. a heifer for 

The Commentator adds^ 
6 fcreabd Jball be 
counted equal reftitu^^ 





1 6, Loiafeada. raith^ 
rait, aiteand, dris, fraech, 
eideand gileach fpin curai 
andire cachal. (c) 

17. Aurba tire dona, 
idu na caithe. dartaig atri 
cualli, cona nindteach* 
dart in cuic, colp ana 
uiii cuic, s. ana do X 7 
aithf la each na 7 beith 
fo dnaid na bernadh co 
ceand mbL 


16. Lqfawood (or fire 
wood) fernc, furze, bri- 
er, heath, ivy, reeds^ 
thornbufh ; a fine on 

Tbe Commentator noti^ 
ces^ tbc lauo does nof 
declare this fine 'y but 
be adds^ it mcq be 
from zto 2 fcreaball^ 
in proportion to tb$ 
quantity ftokn. 

17. Fines for breaking 
fences. For making a 
breach the breadth of 
3 (lakes, a young bull 
heifer; for the breadth 
of 5 (lakes, a full grown 
bull heifer; for one of 
8 (lakes broad, a good 
heifer; for that of la 
(lakes, 5 cows ; this re- 
llitutiontobe paid within 
the fpace of one year. 

(e) In the Uraceipt or Primmer of the bards, bjCinfaela, 
one of the moft ancient manufcripti of the Iriih, the trees 
are claiTed in the following manner. 

Airigh wood. Dair, Coll, Cuillin, Abhul, Uindfin, Ibhur, 

Athaig wood. Feam, Sail, Beithe^ Leomh, Sce^ Crithacb» 




1 8. There are cer- 
tain lands not to be in- 
clofed ; as lands for the 
hofting of an army, and 
for foraging the troops 
of the Flaith or prince. 


1 8. Ata orba nad 
aclaidead, aurba neignc 
ria flogh, ria Ion lonaib, 
ria flaitaib. 

19. Ata aurba ceana 
nad aclaidead, aurba 
nimfeadna faire muilind 
no durr thige no mein- 
bra ^ faire duin rig ad 
comarcar uile arus fean 
fafach r no liancur gach 
guidhe urba ria collaib 
ria nailaicraib duntar each 

20. Comicheach don, 
bis it da dir dlig lani- 
mirce bid fcifear umpu 
triar o firtire 7 araile ofir 
imirce, U feoit anain 7 
atain raadichmairc acht 

19- There are lands 
left open for mill-wrights 
to work on, or for car- 
penters whilft conftruft- 
ing a houfe; the royai 
carpenters are priviledged 
to dwell in the woods, 
according to the Seana- 
chas Law. Lands af- 
figned and clofed foe 
burial places are not to 
be opened, but by con- 
fent of the proprietors. 

20. Comicheach, 1. e. 
aliens defiring to emi- 
grate, are to be attended 
by fix perfons, three 
from the owner of the 
land, and three from the 

Fodhlawood. Draighcan, Trom, Feoruis, Crannfir, Fcith- 

lend, Fidhad, FindcholL 
Lofa wood. Aittcn, Fraoch, Gilcach, Raid, Lcacla, i.e. 

And in a note i$ explained Ai'lra, 1. c. Giuis, 1. c. Ochtack, 


aincigne ni had"" liadkar 


cricha ocomliachtaib feab 
facrtcatt rpodaig mairc 
mbrugfalte coma comol 
aiiheam gaibcas tuinighc 
maldon tealt medon ach 

tribe of the emigrator; 
5 cows are to be paid 
down if he emigrates by 
his own defire, be he free 
or bondman or bruigh ; 
if any Ileal away pri- 
vately^ their chattels 
may be feized on, as 
they have no inhe- 

21. Tcallach tararta. 21. Teallach tararta, 
c. tcair adh na techta tu- is an inheritance or law- 
mrghe, teallach da dech- ful poffeffion, which has 
mad cian ramar, ad do paid tythes (tenths) time 
coiflcadtmnidhc. out of mind, the law 

gives firm footing to 
fuch pofleifion. 

Z2. Atait uii fealba 
la na gaibt" athg na beir 
ceathra ina teair it fir 
indo loingad, toich do 
ix)ing atobach 7 a teall: 
dun cen feilb. ceall gen 
faitche, tir forfa mbai 
fodlaig baifleach bo air 
inuirmis mara ma beir 
ceathra ura comol cis 
Neimid tir daranda Flath 
adeat" poll icurtar lia. 

az. There are 7 pro- 
perties pay no fine on 
emigration; lands which 
have been taken by force 
inconqueft; families of 
houfes without lands ; 
corban landsj lands of ex- 
pelled morodcrs ; where 
there has been a mur- 
rain amongft the cattle j 
when the neimid or prince 
has been fatisfied for the 



rent of fuch lands divid- 
ed between Flalihs after 
conqueil ; lands affigned 
for dreiling vi£hials, 
where holes are dug and 
fiones fixed for that pur- 

23. Tochomaig Cian- 
nachat dan bruige. da ai 
and (in famaigas, do 
luidh tar feart a ced tell~ 
bach for fine a forcomall 
imana iarum ar feinea* 
chas CO hocht la iuidnige 
fiadnaise ban a cetealt 
nad reanad a. c. rufa 
ceachrumad la atharach 
ifead techta each ban- 
teallaig do luid iarum dia 
ceandadaig condiablad 
airoie atharach lofad cria* 
thar ceartfhuine cuairt 
'faigeasacomnaid'Ia fear 
f'geall fiadnaife is iar 
amathrach dian da freag" 
daig dlig ceath ruimthe 
a. c. dlig aile amdon ach 
tul fuigheall an deiga* 

2 J. Ciannachat ena^- 
ed the cian bruige (fine 
to the boufe) and or- 
dained two fheep fliould 
be i paid for any perfon 
trefpafling on the lands 
of a cedtellach (firJUn- 
berhar) and the tribe was 
anfwerable for this fine. 
She doubled the fine if 
not paid in 8 days, fecu* 
rity for which was to be 
brought to the wife of 
the cedteallach: if this 
fine was not paid it was 
doubled again* and fb 
on to 8 fheep ; and thefe 
were the legal property 
of the wife of a cedteal- 
lach. This fine may be 
exchanged for lofads, 
fieves, kneading troughs, 
or an entertainment at 
the houfe. One man 


fliall be pledged as fecu-* 
rity of thefe fines (of 2, 
4f and 8 fliecp.) 
Comm. Cinnacbat was 
daughter of CohIa 
tnac Fddbg^ fan of 
OMl Ollmb, be 
adds J . one man or 
tbree women Jball 
pledge tbemfehes for 
tbe payment of tbefe 
Ced tcallach and 
ced muintir frequently 
occur in thefe laws ; the 
Lexicons give noafIifi« 
ance in the explanation 
of thefe terms. Teallach 
and muintir, fignify fa* 
mily; ccdoin the Scla- 
vonic tongue is a fon, 
filius,' natus ; I believe 
ced teallach implies old 
inheritors, 1. e. born on 
the land. 



8z B R E H O 


23. Tochomaig Clan- 
nachat cian bruige. da ai 
and (In famaigas, do 
luidh tar feart a ced telt 
bach for fine a forcomall 
imana iarum ar fcinea- 
chas CO hocht la iuidnige 
fiadnaise ban a cetealt 
nad reanad a. c. rufa 
ceathrumad la atharach 
ifcad techta each ban- 
teallaig do luid iarum dia 
ceandadaig condiablad 
air me atharach lofad cria* 
that ceartfhuine cuairt 
'faigeas acomnaid" la fear 
f'geall fiadnaife is iar 
amathrach dian da freag" 
daig dlig ceath ruimthe 
a. c. dlig aile amdon ach 
tul fuigheall an deiga* 


rent of fuch lands divid- 
ed between Flaiths after 
conqueft ; lands afligned 
for dreiTmg viduals, 
where holes are dug and 
ftones fixed for that pur- 

25. Ciannachat ena<5t* 
ed the cian bruige (fine 
to the boufe) and or- 
dained two iheep (hould 
be V paid for any perfon 
trefpafling on the lands 
of a cedtellach (firjlinr 
heritor) and the tribe was 
anfwerable for this fine. 
She doubled the fine if 
not paid in 8 days^ fecu- 
rity for which was to be 
brought to the wife of 
the cedteallach: if this 
fine was not paid it was 
doubled againi and fo 
on to 8 (heep ; and thefe 
were the legal property 
of the wife of a cedteal- 
lach. This fine may be 
exchanged for lofads, 
fieves, kneading troughs, 
or an entertainment at 
the houfe. One man 



ihall be pledged as fecu-* 
rity of thefe fines (of z, 
4» and 8 fliecp.) 

Comm. Gnnacbat was 
datigbter of CohIa 
mac Faidbg^ Jhn of 
OUoll Ollmb, be 
adds^ one man or 
tbree women Jball 
pledge tbemfejves for 
tbe payment of tbefc 
Ced tcallach and 
ced muintir frequently 
occur in thefe laws ; the 
Lexicons give no affift«* 
ance in the explafaatioh 
of thefe terms. Tealhch 
and muintir, fignify fa- 
mily; ccdoin the Scla- 
vonic tongue is a fon, 
fiiius,' natus ; I believe 
ced teallach implies old 
inheritors, i. e. born on 
the land. 





24. Beart^td Senca cci- 
.brethach bantdlach ar 
ferteallath comdar fcrba 
fumcbla f" iigruaide iar 

Conam. . Co ro im- 

agruddibiar mbreitb 
M claeH bf^$h. i . iar 
claen hreithib. 

25. Hie Saiteig a fi- 
tinde a firbreath&ib ifi 
conmidtdar bantealtach 
tx^mdar fearba falgutde 
for a gruaidaib iar &r 

Coinfn, Saibri^ hf^en 

Dn fiach alaim lea- 
'thaer.dealba fi adnaif€ 
indruic foircis dlig 
cuice do dlig dianad 
be Feineachas muna be 
feineachaisf tellais iar fui- 
diu imidraind in dech- 
maid lui heich ailius 
fcurtair faer fealba deige 
fer fiad" lat randta cof- 
mailis treifi do dlig dia- 
, nad be feineachas muna 
be feineacas tellais iar 


24. When Senca form- 
ed his code he diftin- 
guifhed between male 
and female property, left 
hq (hould fufFer that 
judgment all Brchons 
were punifhcd with for 
partiality; in having a 
large wen grow out of 
the cheek. 

25. «Si«*r/f eftablifhed 
thefe fines in equity, and 
thus j&ved her father 
from this judgment of 
the wen on his cheek. 

Comm. Saibrig was tbc 
daughter of this Senca. 

Two horfes paid 
down before witneflcs 
entitled to half freedom 
of pofleflion. 5 were 
formerly impofed, unlefs 
it was a land inheritance 
already under tytbes. 4 
horfes were afterwards 
allowed, and two or three 
witneflcs required. After- 
wards the law required 
8 horfes from a tribe, 
and three refponfible wil- 

O F I. R E IL> a: N: D. 



fuidiu andigeand dech- 
mad ocht neich aikas im 
treib tonima titige fer 
Badan lat do gradaib 
fdne ranata cofniailis tul 
fuigheall uadaib diaad be 
feineachas^ rnuoad be :fe^ - 
incachr tectha tuinidhe 
itogdo airgfean cofeis co- 
nodog CO tein cooaitreib 
CO torutme ceath^ acht tir 
Cuind c. cdraig no mitel- 
gad mbruga noeh is nei- - 
mead i(a fin tdt (b do 
bongar each featb. ' 

26. Crui tire do teal- > 
lach inaenan inain in- 
oightear afetaib dorifitar 
mad la buar buir ciimal 
afe flandr.munabfo feilb 
techta tir gen cundgen 
coibne dilfi buair b^ ain 

nri&s. Thefe fines hive 
been iin poled arbitrarily 
aftdaeJ^pifeaforO, lanlcfson 
inheritances h^^ixWy de- 
fcending, tk^nihi^ Jogb 
(fine) was fixed, except 
in the country of Ccftfiy 
where he permitted 
Bt^tiigHs: to wade fiich 
lands^as had beto-forced 
froni the pofleftor. 


z6 Crui ticeisthelaw 
regulating that ruftics 
ftiattfree themretv^s by 
giving COWS; if they are 
Boairec's their freedom 
(hall be rated at 6 cows, 
except the land be by 
law exempted from tri- 

27. Tmnid<^ raitaigh a 
triun fealba co dil . no 
derofc teilgead artreife 
munab Jais fobraid co- 
tein conaicreib co flacha 
^diche ite feich faithche 

27. Such pofleflions 
m^y be taxed to a- third 
of the *ftock, if raoi-ei ^hc 
tax nrray be rejected ; but 
if tliey refift the lawful 
tax by force^ they (hall 


86 B R E H O 

fir tellaig indligaig cii- 
thear fet flaindte forgu 
na nuile digu fet fomaine 
la cofnam condeitbbire 
fir be (a haigrianJ 

; 2i. Ataittcoraaimfea- 
ra infeagaire f it«:b ta 1? i ! 
athgabhaii eidechm tel-* 
lach indlig comrug gen 
cura bel no gati elod 
cundlif go tuaithe go 
breitheaman nad beir fi- 
acha each ae. 

29. Tofach befcna for 

N. B. Tiw M in the rm,- 

In ti do beir na techta 
feilb afe doron co fiacaib 
taige inti creanas centeol 
gen taigi conglainecuibfe 
dileas dofuide dia 7 


forfeit a milch cow ; Eve- 
ry chief has a right to a 
dry cow from each, or at 
leaft an heifer. The man 
who owns the land may 
legally defend the cattle 
for the owner of them. 

28. There are three 
cafes where pofleffion is 
' 'l|cg«l, retaking of land 
without giving foreties ; 
without application to 
the chief or Brehon ; 
without .having fatisfied 
the legal debts that were 
upon it. 

!^9' 7h: J^pftninjr of 
peace; it feems to denote 
a. diftin<Sti9n between 
tl^oft laws ena<^ed in 
time of paganifm, and 
thofe eftablilhcd fince 

Whoever pofleffes a 
thing ftolen fbtll pay the 
fine of the thief from 
whom he received it, if 
the thief cannot be 



duine diam flan acubus 
bid flan aanum. 

30. Eimide dono dia- 
nad forgcallt^ ara feifear 
coir comnadma ara ruice 
fiream (aigte faer faigaid 
inmeafam cor comadais 
each anaicaidcear ara taeb 
tanais ar ni feadar na- 
darligtear la do gres daig 
fine 7 firgtallna na maith- 
ri oiltreas ara atri ro fui- 
gid do imfothaig cor. 

Comm. Eimide^ i. e. 
tbe Stste Secretotj. 

found ; for whoever has 
a clean confcience with 
God and man will not be 
guilty of fuch a crime. 

30 The Eimide is to 
clofe all matters on wit- 
ncfles having proved the 
covenant. Surety of e- 
qual value is not fuffici- 
cnt fecurity for a tanaift 
according to old ftatutes; 
tribefmen therefore (hall 
give two witnefles or 
fureties, and one of the 
mother's foftercrs, thefe 
three (hall be deemed 
proper fecurity. 

31. Ni nais uma na 
hairgead na hor acht 
f ~ mal ni nais buarbach 
india fomeach lais na 
biad ba ninais tir for im- 
rum ach munas fotha 
fealb ni nais edach for 
nach nocht muna torma 
tlacht ife grcithe cento- 
rad do gnid ro coub7Tte 
meafra ad gella acumung 
do each. 

3 1 . No man is bound to 
pay brafs, filver or gold 
but a king ; cows are not 
to be expcdted from a 
man who has none, or 
land from a man who has 
no inheritance, or clothes 
from a naked man ; a dif- 
tin ft ion of circumftances 
muft be made in adjudg- 
ing fines and penalties. 

8« B R E H O N 


32. Ni mac bradas 
finntiga fine fri fcxlfrith 
ineafa nmnab neafa fir^ 
coibneas mathair athair 


3Z. A fon does not 
deprive the tribe o£ land 
unlefs , he is the next 
eldeft of the mother, by 
the father who owned 
the land. 

33. Horba mathair 
mur coirche a mic of- 
laithaib a ard tliimna. 

^3. Mother's lands 
(dowries) are fecured for 
the Tons by the will of 
the Flaith, as by Coir. 
(See Coar explained at 
N° 75)- 

34. Do aific aleath im 
do cumfine fiiigrian a- 
leath anaill afir brethaib. 
fil skfeola fodlaigtear fine 
o cirt cobrainne. nis tic 
do c? comfocais acht ct 
orba in boaireach da uii 
cumal comarda orba bia- 
tach in boaireach orba 
for fet nim faebair as da- 
ranar leith dire. 

34. One half of the 
inheritance is reftored to 
the tribe,* and the other 
divided legally. The 
feed of his fle(h ijb^ards 
included^ fays the com- 
mentator) partake of this 
divifion with the tribe. 
14 cumals (42 cows) en- 
titles a Boairec to bia- 
tach lands; but lands 
that have been purchafed 
are not fubjeft to this 




35. Slan fatrgfe in- 
brogad in bruidrechta. 
in graide. tire Gomdidan 
coimitheach ni direanar 
iar mo bi bliadain acht 
be(aib fodiru^ba ar nach 
cnead be flan re meafaib 
is dkaingean la. 

36. Srcach fen dlig 
cacha criche condealg in 
un is di coindeig each 
crich is and berar each 
digeand co Righ. 

37. Ni Righ lais^ na 
biad geill inglafaib dona 
tabarchis Flatha dona eir- 
enedar feich cana in tan 
geibius in Righ in ama- 
ma fo is and doi anar dire 
Righ gen gac gen eaf- 
brat gen eis indrucus fri 

S5. Bruighs being an 
order of men appointed 
for the entertainment of 
travellers, they fliall not 
be taxed for the fpace of 
one year ; and as their 
lands are beftowed them, 
the produce of his land 
is to be taxed after that 
time, by the old ftatutes.* 

36. When an ancient 
inheritance is in difpute, 
the cafe muft be brought 
before the king. 

Comm. UnJe/s it can be 
fettkdto the Satisfac- 
tion of the parties by 
the Br ebon or Judge. 

37. He is not a king 
who cannot demand hof- 
tages; who cannot com- 
mand tributes from 
Flaiths; who cannot re- 
cover fines for trefpafles. 
When he can do thefe 
things without oppreff- 
ing his nobles and plebei- 
ans, without doing injuf- 
tice to bis people, or fuf- 
fering others to do the 
fame, then he is truly a 




38. Atait uii Bad- 
naife for gellad gae- 
cach Righ. fenad do fo- 
dadh afa nairlifi cenfir 
cen dlig*^* dide aire, inge 
road tar cert maidm ca- 
tba fair nuna ina flait* 
hius difce mblechta mil- 
'ead meafa feol neatha 
iteuii mbeo caindle and 
fo forofnad gae each 

39. leora gua ata mo- 
am do fich dia for each 
tuaith. full learn gu nad- 
raa forgeall gu fia9e gu 
breath ar fochraic. 


38. Seven things bear 
wjtnefs of a king's im- 
proper condudt : an un- 
lawful oppofition in the 
fenate ; an overftraining 
of the law ; an overthrow 
in battle ; a dearth ; bar* 
renefs in cows^ blight 
of fruit; blight of feed 
in the ground. Thefe 
are as 7 lighted candles 
to expofe the mifgovern- 
ment of a king. 

N. B. ms is Be the 
coronation oatb of the 
emperor of Mexico^ 
v)bo^ was required to 
fwear that during bis 
reign tbeyjbotddbave 
feafonable rains \ that 
no inundations of ri- 
vers ^ ftenlity of foiU 
or malignant influ- 
ences oftbefunjbould 
bappen. See De So- 
lis*s Hiftory of the 
Conqueft of Mex- 
co, book 3, p. 94. 

39. Three capital 
crimes are adjudged the 
common people : break- 
ing the earned of fure- 
ties; breaking an oath 




40. Atait iiti nadm 
nad fcadad ciad roiicar 
dear mi|d for a flaith mac 
for a athair manach for 
a abaid ulach for araile 
mad anaenar ar fo fuaf- 
laiceflaith 7 fine 7 eaclas 
each fochar 7 each nocar 
fo cerdcar for ameamra 
acht ni for congrad ar 
ate ateora nadmand afpa 
innfin nai(caidtear IJ cor 
for achaib fine ar do im- 
tai flaith 7 fine 7 eacla* 
each cor natohnalgt ar 
dlegar doibfium na be 
lobtaigh cor ardiam bad 
lobtaigh feon cor ifand 
intinntatfom cum ame- 

41. Atait ill nadman- 
da la nadroithead ni anaic- 
aidt^digaib do log eneach 
eireach no feagad naid 
foraeach finntar f ^. ur- 
forcra, naid corufa gaide 
lagad aige gin ingada fa 
de(in forcraid coibche 
fri eachlaid aratait da 

before witneflfes ; giving 
falfe evidence. • 

40. There are four 
duties to be indifpenfa- 
bly complied with^ the 
ruftic to his flaith -, the 
fon to his father; the 
monk to the abbot ; to 
be amenable to the laws 
of the flaith, the tribe, 
and the Church. There 
are three covenants to be 
ftriftly obferved by the 
mod indigent, a cove- 
nant with the members 
of the church ; a cove- 
nant of fervice to the 
flaith ; a covenant of 
good behaviour to the 
tribe. Thefe covenants 
to the church, the flaith, 
and the tribe are indif- 

41. There are three 
covenants which do not 
amount to a log-eineach* 
eiric or feagad ; a cove- 
nant that has been made 
known by proclamation; 
a covenant for theft 
when the thief has been 
fuflfered to efcape ; a co- 




24. BcartiidSenca cric- 
..breihach bantdlach ar 
ferteallafch comdar fbrJja 
.fuiachia f ~ agruaide iar 

Coinm. Co rv tm" 
ftuilfigii "maMgafor 
a grUo&h iar tnbreitb 
MclaeHbr^itb, i.iar 
claen hreithih. 

25. Hie Saiteig a fi- 
»inde i firbreath&ib ifi 
cbnmidtdtr bantealtach 
txiimdar fearba falgutde 
for a gruaidaib iar fir- 

Coftifn, Sail>rig hfgen 

Pa f;ach alaim lea* 
'thaer^dealba. fi adnaife 
indr^ic foircis dlig 
cuice do dlig dianad 
be Feineachas muna be 
feincachais tellais iar fui- 
diu imidraind in dech- 
maid 11 11 heich ailius 
fcurtair faer fealba deige 
fer fiad" lat randta cof- 
mailis treifi do dlig dia- 
, nad be feineachas muna 
be feineacas tellais iar 


24. When Senca form- 
ed his code he diftin- 
guifhed between male 
and female property, left 
h^ (hould fufFer that 
judgment all Brchons 
were puniflicd with for 
partiality; in having a 
large wen grow out of 
the cheek. 

25. Saibrtg eftablifhed 
thefe fines in equity, and 
thus j(^ved her father 
from this judgment of 
the wen on his cheek. 

Comm. Saibrtg was the 
daughter of this Senca. 

Two horfes paid 
down before witnefles 
entitled to half freedom 
of pofleflion. 5 were 
formerly impofed, unlcfs 
it was a land inheritance 
already under tythes. 4 
horfes were afterwards 
allowed, and two or three 
witnefTes required. After- 
wards the law required 
8 horfes from a tribe, 
and three refponfible wil- 

O F I R E L. a; N. D. 



fuidiu andigeand dech- . 
mad ochf neich aileas im 
tretb toriima trtige fisr 
fiadan lat do gradaib 
fdne ranata cofmailis tul 
fuigheall aadaib diaad be 
feineachas masad be f e^ - 
iRtach" tectha tuinidhe 
ilog do airgfean co feis co- 
nodog CO tein coDaitreib 
CO tormme ceath'*' acht tir 
Cuindc. coraig no mitel- 
gul mbruga noch is nei- - 
mead iia (in tdt (b do 
bongar each feaib. ' 

26- Crui tire do teal- > 
lach inaenan inain in- 
oightear iafetaib doriatar 
mad la buar buir ciimal 
afeflandr.munabfo feilb 
techta tir gen cundgen 
coibne dilfi buair b^ air** 

nd&s. Thefe fines hive 
been iin poled Arbitrarily 
aftdae* J^leafure, liwilefs on 
inhcriiances fciwfally de- 
fcending, th^w ih« Jogb 
(fine) was fixed, except 
in the country of Cknn^ 
where he permitted 
fimighs^ to Wafte fiich 
Unds^as bad beto forced 
fronJi the poljeftor. 

26 Crui tire is the law 
regulating that ruftics 
ftiattfree themfetvcs by 
giving COWS; if they are 
Boairec's their freedom 
(haJl be rated at 6 cows, 
except the land be by 
law' exempted from trr- 

27. Tuinidi^ raitaigh a 
triun fealba co dil no 
derofc reilgead artreife 
munab lais fobraid co* 
tein conaitrerb co flacha ^ 
fi^thche ite feich faithche 

27. Such pofleflions 
m^y be taxed to a- third 
of the^ftock, if raoi-ei the 
tax may be rejected ; but 
if tliey refift the lawful 
tax by force^ they (hall 



forfeit a milch cow ; Eve- 
ry chief has a right to a 
dry cow from each, or at 
leaft an heifer. The man 
who owns the land may 
legally defend the cattle 
for the owner of them. 

fir tellaig indligaig cli- 
thear fet flaindte forgu 
na nuiledigu fet fomaine 
la coftiam condeitbbire 
fir be (a haigrianJ 

; 2B, Ataitteoraainifiefi- 
ra infeagaifeiitetht?a/l?Ll 
athgabhail ejdechta tel-** 
lach indlif comrug gen 
cura bel no gati elod 
cundlig go tuaithe go 
breitheaman nad beir fi- 
acha each ae. 

29. Tofach befcnaifo. 

N. B. Tbis is in tbe fm^ 

In ti do beir na techta 
feilb afe doron co fiacaib 
taige inti creanas centeol 
gen taigiconglainecuibfe 
dileas dofuide dia 7 

28. There are three 
c^fcs where pofleflion is 
illegal, retaking of land 
withoM;t giving foreties ; 
without application to 
the chief or Brehon ; 
without having fatisfied 
the legal debts that were 
upon it. 

.29. Ti^i ^Sinning of 
peace; it feems to denote 
a. diftin^Stipn between 
thofe laws ena<^ed in 
time of paganifm, and 
thofe eftablilhcd fince 
i chriftianity. 

Who^Vicr pofleffes a 
thing ftolen fbiU pay the 
fine of the thief from 
whom he received it, if 
the thief cannot be 



duine diam flan acubus 
bid flan aanum. 

30. Eimide dono dia- 
nad forgeallt^ ara feifear 
coir comnadma ara ruice 
fiream (aigte faer faigaid 
inmeafam cor comadais 
each anaicaidtear ara taeb 
tanats ar ni feadar na- 
darligtear la do gres daig 
finey firgiallna na maith- 
ri oiltreas ara atri ro fui- 
gid do imfothaig cor. 

Comm. Eimide^ i. e. 
tbe State Secretatj. 

found ; for whoever has 
a clean confcience with 
God and man will not be 
guilty of fuch a crime. 

30 The Eimide is to 
clofe all matters on wit- 
nefles having proved the 
covenant. Surety of e- 
qual value is not fuffici- 
ent fecurity for a tanaifl 
according to old (latutes; 
tribefmen therefore (hall 
give two witneiles or 
fureties, and one of the 
mother's foftercrs, thefe 
three (hall be deemed 
proper fecurity. 

31. Ni nais uma na 
hairgead na hor acht 
f ^ mal ni nais buarbach 
india fomeach lais na 
biad ba ninais tir for im- 
rum ach munas fotha 
fealb ni nais edach for 
nach nocht muna torma 
tlftcht i(e greithe cento- 
rad do gnid ro coubrTte 
meafra ad gella acumung 
do each. 

3 1 . No man is bound to 
pay brafs, Clver or gold 
but a king ; cows are not 
to be expcdted from a 
man who has none, or 
land from a man who has 
no inheritance, or clothes 
from a naked man ; a dif- 
tin ft ion of circumftances 
muft be made in adjudg- 
ing Bnes and penalties. 

S» B R E H O N 

32. Ni mac bradas 
finnttga fine fri fodfrith 
ineafa munab neafa fir- 
coibneas mathair athair 



32. A fon does not 
deprive the tribe of land 
unlefs he is the next 
eldeft of the mother, by 
the father who owned 
the land. 

33* Horba mathair 
mur coirche a mic of- 
laithaib a ard thimna. 

2^. Mother's lands 
(dowries) are fecured for 
the fons by the will of 
the Flaith, as by Coir. 
(See Coar explained at 
N'> 75). 

34- Do aific aleath im 
do cumfine fingrian a- 
leath anaill afir brethaib. 
fil dfeola fodlaigtear fine 
o cirt cobrainne. nis tic 
do ct comfocais acht ct 
orba in boaireach da uii 
cumal comarda orba bia- 
tach in boaireach orba 
for fet nim faebair as da- 
ranar leith dire. 

34- One half of the 
inheritance is reftored to 
the tribe," and the other 
divided legally. The 
feed of his flefh (bqfiards 
included^ fays the com- 
mentator) partake of this 
divifion with the tribe. 
I4cumals(42 cows) en- 
titles a Boairec to bia- 
tach lands; but lands 
that have been purchafed 
are not ,fubjc<a to this 




35. Slan. fairgfe in- 
brogad in brutdrechta. 
in graid& tire comdidan 
coimitheach ni direanar 
iar mo bi bliadain ache 
befaib fochrudba ar nach 
cnead be flan re meafaib 
isdicaingean la. 

36. Sir each fen dlig 
cacba crtche condealg in 
un is di coindelg each 
okh is and berar each 
digeand co Righ. 

37. Ni Righ lai^ na 
biad geill inglafaib dona 
tabarchis Flatha dona eir- 
encdar feich cana in tan 
geibius in Righ in ama- 
ma fo is and doianar dire 
Righ gen gae gen eaf- 
brat gen eis indrucus fri 


35. Bruighs being an 
order of men appointed 
for the entertainment of 
travellers, they fliall not 
be taxed for the fpace of 
one year ; and as their 
lands are beftowed them, 
the produce of his land 
is to be taxed after that 
time, by the old fiatutes.' 

36. When an ancient 
inheritance is in difpute, 
the cafe rauft be brought 
before the king. 

Comm. UnJe/s if can be 
fettled to the Satisfac- 
tion of the parties by 
the Br ebon or Judge. 

37. He is not a king 
who cannot demand hof- 
tages; who cannot com- 
mand tributes from 
Flaiths; who cannot re- 
cover fines for trefpafles. 
When he can do thefe 
things without oppreff- 
ing his nobles and plebei- 
ans, without doing injuf- 
ticc to bis people, or fuf* 
feting others to do the 
fame, then he is truly a 




58. Atait uii Bad- 
naife for gellad gae- 
cach Righ. fenad do fo- 
dadh afa nairlifi cenfir 
cen dlig*^. dide aire, inge 
mad tar cert maidm ca- 
tha fair nuna ina flait* 
hius difce mblechta mil- 
ead meafa feol neatha 
iteuii robeocaindleand 
fo forofnad gae each 

39. leora gua ata mo- 
am do fich dia for each 
tuaith. fuilleam gu nad- 
raa forgcall gu fiaSe gu 
breath ar fochraic. 

38. Seven things bear 
wjtnefs of a king's im- 
proper conduit : an un- 
lawful oppofition in the 
fenate ; an overftraining 
of the law ; an overthrow 
in battle ; a dearth ; bar- 
renefs in cows^ blight 
of fruit; blight of feed 
in the ground. Thefe 
are as 7 lighted candles 
to expofe the mifgovern- 
ment of a Idng. 

N. B. Tbis is ike the 
coronation oath of the 
emperor of Mexico^ 
wbo^ was required to 
/wear that during bis 
reign they Jbotdd have 
feafonable rains \ that 
no inundations of ri- 
vers^ Jienlity of foil^ 
or malignant influ- 
ences oftbefunfbould 
happen. SeeDeSo- 
lis's Hiftory of the 
Conqueft of Mex- 
co, book 3, p. 94. 

l^. Three capital 
crimes are adjudged the 
common people : break- 
ing the earned of fure- 
ties; breaking an oath 





40. Atait iiii nadm 
nad feadad ciad roifcar 
dear mud for a flaith mac 
for a athair manach for 
a abaid ulach for araile 
mad anaenar ar fo fuaf- 
laice flaith 7 fine 7 eaclas 
each (bchar 7 each nocar 
fo cerdcar for ameamra 
acht ni for congrad ar 
ate ateura nadmand afpa 
innfin naifcaidtear I? cor 
for achaib fine ar do im- 
tai flaith 7 fine 7 eaclas 
each cor natoltnalgt ar 
dlegar doibdum na be 
lobtaigh cor ardiam bad 
lobtaigh feon cor ifand 
intinntatfom cum ame- 

41. Atmt ill nadman- 
da la nadroithead ni anaic- 
aidt^ digatb do log eneach 
eireach no feagad naid 
forneach finntar f ". ur- 
forcra« nai3 corufa gaide 
lagad aige gin ingada fa 
defin forcraid coibche 
fri eachlaid aratait da 

before witnefTes ; giving 
falfe evidence. - 

40. There arc four 
duties to be indifpenfa- 
bly complied with, the 
ruftic to his flaith -, the 
fon to his father; the 
monk to the abbot ; to 
be amenable to the laws 
of the flaith, the tribe, 
and the Church. There 
are three covenants to be 
ftriftly obferved by the 
nioft indigent, a cove- 
nant with the members 
of the church ; a cove- 
nant of fervice to the 
flaith; a covenant of 
good behaviour to the 
tribe. Thefe covenants 
TO the church, the flaith, 
and the tribe arc indif- 

41. There are three 
covenants which do not 
amount to a log-eineach, 
eiric or feagad ; a cove- 
nant that has been made 
known by proclamation; 
a covenant for theft 
when the thief has been 
fufFered to cfcape ; a co- 




achlaid cor la, bean fris 
tabar coibche naidnai- 
g€ad fer do beir coibche 
mor fribaidfig fornafcara 
dilfi ara ate cuir innfin 
nad roithead co trian ro 
fuidigeadh aniubartaib 
cor la. Acht urgartha 
cor la ni dileas ni gen • 
airillnidh ar nach craide 
is eaflan iniaid acoibche 
dlig flan craide a feir 
breitheamnus acht uais 
no urccairt no egmacbt. 

42. Ataittri tond nai3 
naifcatdt l~a, diceanglad 
a feic eamna, bean fri 
tabar coibche indichligh 
feach a athair mad ar 
dicheall anathair afath^ 
aenden in coibche fm 
cor fo cerdcor feach aga 
fine ada cora do beith' 
oga cor faefma fo cerdcor 
feoch fine nurnaige ara 


venant of female dowry 
when challenged; there 
are two challenges of this 
kind, when a woman 
gives land to man for 
adulterous communicati- 
on, or when a man ^ves 
land to the woman for 
the fame, the furcties on 
fuch occafior] not extend* 
ing to a third perfon, the 
lawjuftly breaks them; 
but thefe proclamations 
muft be made in form, 
and the man (hall be de- 
clared to have been in- 
firm, and not in a pro- 
per ftate to have made a 
grant of that kind. 

42. There are three 
covenants not binding 
by the old ftatutes, and 
which are null and of no 
efFedt: a covenant of 
dowry made to a woman 
without the father's con- 
fent, for the dowry was 
the father's property ; a 
covenant made with the 
Flaith for his proteftion 


O F I 

te danadn>and inn fo 
diceanglada ieicheamna 

nadad cora donadmaid'^. 

R E L A N D. 

without the confent of 
the whole tribe j a cove- 
naot exafted by the 
Flaith without confent 
of the tribe. Thefe co- . 
venants are void in law. 


43. Atait uii nurd- 
luide fine ar do longad 
each fine ite uii nilaidte 
dolaiead o fctaib 70 feal- 
baib, foirgeall o fiadaib 
arach for da^nadmaim 
tuinide for dagrathaib 
afdad Ian log legad creice 
cenurgaire aitai diu fo 
taeb ccal^ coingilt fri 

44. Atait iii tire la a- 
da dilfiu cin ni tardaidt" 
a logh ar tndeatl andilfe 
condate tri decmainge in 
domain adintud tir acam- 
bi flaith do dilf^ tir a- 
cambi eaclais do dilfi tir 
acambi connfinedodilfe. 

43. There are feven 
fines to which the cattle 
and lands of each tribe 
are fubjeft 5 furetics be- 
fore proper witnefles^co- , 
venants by fureties; pof* 
feffionsheld from fupe- 
rior Raths } detaining the 
logh or fine ; fuffering 
moroding on the chief 
knowingly ; moroding 
on church property 4 
breaking covenants with 
the Flaith. 

44. There are three 
kinds of landed property 
that do not give the logh 
of their cattle: Land the 
real property of the 
Flaith; land immediate* 
ly belonging^ to the 
diurch; land properly 
and really belonging to 
the tribe. 




45. Atait iii. tire aile 
nadatufa for feinaib na 
breithamnaib do tinn- 
toghy tir dianairbiatar 
flaithy giatograid com-, 
harba do, munrodligtear 
atgifeac co treabair, tir 
do berar do eaclais ar 
anmain nadfacaib eaflan 
acraidhe, acht mad iar- 
tain la comarba, tir dia 
toirgtear ando ratar ina 
log do tindud na dentar 
ac neach 7 ata acuingid 
diubarta 7 tatrgt afeoid 
le afearaind fein 7 ni 
geib achuingid diubarta 
is dileas in fann do tica- 

46. Atait Hi. deirg mi- 
rinda nadetufa ambelaib 
cacha Flatha na fadbad 
luibar na feine anailad 
bo cona timtach fri fo- 


45. There are three 
other landed properties 
neither the Tribes or 
Brehons can avert froni 
their proper ufe : Lands 
afligned for the menfal 
of the chief, or can the 
fucceflbr difpenfe with 
this homage from the 
tribe ; lands afligned to 
the church for the foul's 
fake, fComm. adds^ the 

fuccejfor may claim it^ 
but not in the Jick tnoffs 
life tifne)% lands given 
inftead of a %*fliall not 
be exchanged; and if 
any one defires to quit 
his holding^ or is expell- 
ed, let the emigrator be 
offered his portion of 
property, but the expclK 
ed man has no right to 
any part of the landed 

46. There are three 
things difiicult to be fet- 
tled regarding the Flath 
which have been handed 
down by report only, and 



inaine naenaigh gabail 
aicidan tar duthracht, Ian 
eric in ccilc 7 ogh nair- 
l}id o comarbaib arusdo 
fuidiu conameas la ni* 
dofli uii cumala chumal 
as do Flaith ni dofli uii 
leathcumla leath cumal 
as do Flaith ni dofli iii. 
cumala iii. s. as do Flaith 
ni dofli cumal s. as do 
Flaith mad ni bes luga 
confoglaigtear ariaraibh 
feine arrc^rt Padric in- 
na hindfa fo ar na con- 
rabad la firu Eirind if- 
iaith in Righ Laegaire 
MacNeill do can 7 do 
each eaclais arid tanfol- 
taig and fo uile. 


are not to be found in the 
old ilatutes: Stopping 
cows of a poor peafant 
ar fairs if he does not 
pay the duthrach or fair- 
tax; in cafes of full 
Eiric for the murder of a 
wife or young fl:udents, 
where the law demands 
7 cumals, the Flath 
claims i cumal, where 
3 cumals is the fine he 
demands half a cumal^ 
when one cumal he 
claims a heifer, where 
the crime be lefs he 
obliges the tribe to com- 
pound. At Patrick's ar- 
rival in this Ifland, at the 
requeft of the men of 
Ireland, in the reign of 
king Laegaire Mc^Ndll, 
he fliewed the evil ten* 
dency of all thefe to the 
people and to the church. 

47.Cislir tairgfm ca- 47. What was then 

cha fine, connar do la- offered to each tribe, that 

braidtar eaclais rofu- they ftiould have a Flaith 

igaidt" Flaith for do tu- to fpeak for them in the 

igaid tear. church meetings. The 

^6 B R E H 


48. Atait iii. cuir tind* 
tai mac beo ath"" ima a- 
thair nach airmead lui- 
bair na feine doairingaire 
a tindtog f '. go fetas tu- 
ailing gill de fri bas, do 
fannad agrian techta do 
fannad ni rod imbi dibeo 
dil 7 marb dil do fannad 
connach bi ni fris nder- 
na a bethu. 

49. Ni techta an fine 
dith arfine arusca moch' 
ta tuillean afeibe fcadar 
imcaire feibe na feagar 
imtellach mboaireach acli 
iii haidche bede cora la 
thuaith 7 cenel cona nur- 
kind techta tuifeach each 
fine ara nithead feib 7 

Comm. Infl^ TO dih" if 
Jun 7 ma ta bruigb is 



Comm. adds in brei- 

theam and in eacl", in 

judgment and cburcb a/- 

femBlks^ \. c. in the civil 

and ecclejit^ic trials. 

48. There are three 
things required of a fon 
by all the books of the 
tribe laws, without varia- 
tion on the part of the 
fon : viz. at the death of 
a father to free his law- 
ful inheritance ; to fulfil 
the law and his father's 
will relating to his bre- 
thern; to provide for 
each, that no one wanta 
a maintenance. 

49. No ufurper (hall 
force himfelf on a tribe, 
on the eleftion of a chief § 
but th^ chief of kin of 
every tribe Ihall affemblc 
at the houfe of a Boair- 
eacby and remain three 
nights in the election of 
the proper chief, doing 
all things for the beft 
and peace of the people. 

Comm. On the death 
of a Flaitb^ or any 

OF 1 R fi L A Jl D. 


iir 7 comaSuir imda 
duldo lucbt na tmitbe 
uik go tecb in bmigb 
conna landaimb la ca 
/. dib 7 ab*j J= la y 
teora btruidcbi an' ac 
denamb comairle cia 
gabait ijin JTs 7 gu^ 
robe gabait rnii dana 
ducir in fimVnus 7 
gttral mac fiatba 7 
gur{A ua air aile 7 
go rabat na tri con- 
taifme aige 7 gurab 
rndric gin gait cen 

50. Fallach each fine 
fris ambai micora ma da 
feallas dar faer fairgfe ni 
fanntar ni feacha fine 
o becaib connoraib co- 
ruigc abad fine conarfaf- 
tar lin fiadan ach 
tall muire feth flatha 7 
for comal chis flatha 
icain aicillne no thorc 
neochraide no boin gab- 
hala no molt corufa fine 

fucb dauji tbt'pHopk 
of that di/ina JbaU 
ajfmble at tbe boufe 
of a BiUigb, and 
fhall remdn 3 daijs 
and 3 nigbl$^ with 
their attendants^ in 
conftdtation of tbe 
- ekilion^ and fhall 
ele£l tbe proper beir^ 
wbofe father and 
grandfather has been 
a Flailh^ hid three 
royal palaces^ and 
governed himfelf 
without injury or 
hurt to his fid?- 

50. It is lawful to 
plunder on the open f:a, 
but no tribe is to covet 
the property of another, 
from the loweft to the 
higheft ; on being accuf- 
ed of plunder they (hall 
produce witneffes that 
they were taken at open 
fea, out of the Flaith's 
dominions. They (hall 
pay the Flaiths rents and 






arus^do ro dil tine fris 
nangfiibt athgabail na- 
thai na giallna acht toir- 
feat anatihga treifi cid be 
imdi roib re dfinn fine 
is do an fuiglib airechta 
fuigeall Tmpu, 

51. Feab aindir be 
cafna, doranidhar fetaib 
oige dia rubla fo fuiriftar 
ach ro pennead anilpe- 
a<^a cia rob iar nilar 



Do reir an-- 

taxes, without oppofi- 
tion, In fwine, horfes, 
milch cows, or wethers, 
and are forbidden to take 
back pledges or cove- 
nants ; ' if theff crimes 
be committed by the /«- 
fne (Tribe) the Airech 
fliall put the law in force 
on them. 

N. B. The different fine 
or tribes^ are ex- 
plained in a fubje^ 
quent law^ and the 
various tribes. 

51. A woman con- 
vidted of obtaining 
wealth from youth for 
the crime of whoredom, 
(hall be deprived of the 
wealth fo obtained, and 
do penance. 

Comm. According 
to the beinoujnefs of 
berjins. Ancarat^ 
in an ancient Glof- 
fary^ is explained 
tojignify the ruks 
of certain patron 




52. Cifne ill Icaca ro- 
baid nad fuaflaici dlig 
na fuigeall na fafach 
na fir naicnig, ei- 
birt nemda foraniada 
comfcribeann' deo da, 
chis comdidean fri triar 
fen dligead forrfaide 
fine fen cuimne, co- 
boirifc ui beatha adfui- 
tear faire atarras. 


52. What are the 
three fundamental lef- 
fons to be taught to all 
ranks ? The holy facri- 
fice which has been writ- 
ten by the will of God ; 
tribute, which the anti- 
en t laws prefcribe, or 
tradition haseftablilhed; 
the regeneration of life 
by water. 

53. Cifne iii haimfa 
inad apail a torad ar each 
flaith combe dithle, ith> 
(comm arbha) 7 blicht 
(lacht) 7 meas (na cail- 
leadh) taithmeach nud- 
burta faerad fuidre fuaf- 
lugad X mad fuaflucad 
do mogaib. 

53. What are the 
three feafonablc offerings 
from a Flaith? Corn, 
milk, and fruit ; the free 
feuds redeem thefe ofier- 
ings by free gifts, the 
flkves by tythes. 

54. Atait iii tedmanna 
adaandfum tecaid inbith. 
nuna do tiachtain. ar ci- 
niuii do chur. duine ba 
dia tiaditain. 

54. There are three 
dreadful things happen 
in this life : famine, civil 
wars, death. 



lOo 6 R E H O 


SB* Atait iii frithcr 
nodaicad f^. conned do 
breitheamnaib : ar na 
rugadh gubreath ^ almf- 
anao each dtcach^ torad 
nemfoirgeall. gua no gu 
fiad ituaitb. 



55. There are three 
(pecial things to be ob- 
ferved by Brehons -, Not 
to give falfe judgment ; 
to give alms without ex- 
pectation of requital i to 
reject falfe witneflfes. 

56 * Cain berad melr- 
dreacha alanamnus imu- 
ine do ciallathar loghnei- 
neach incelad bainfe(a in 
taigi tairfine toranna 
mbruighe infaig orba la 
mac doirdie is brecbt 
ccroithne mac muinc an- 
faim each ndoirche each 
ina comfogail in manur 
coillead lanamnus ince- 
lad ruca cacha baitfaigc 
ataige la fine raathar mac 
baitfide, do roig Ic im- 
breathai& aicnigh 7 cu- 
ibfe 7 fcrebt" 7 la fine 
mathar mac baidfaidc. 

56. Married men 
guilty of whoredom 
ftiall pay the hgb eineacb 
(muia) i for baftards 
are not to be ftoleo on 
the tribes, they arc the 
fons of darknefsy and 
have no right to wreft 
their landed property 
from them ; every har- 
lot ftolen into a tribe, 
can only be the mother 
of a baftard ^ and it is 
impoffible for fuch a wo- 
man to declare the real 
father or the child, for 
in the opinion of every 
Brehon and man of let- 
ters, flic can be only 
termed the mother of a 




57. Cis ne iii mic na 
gaibead urtechta mac cu- 
malli mac mucfaide mac 
biride cid fu dera fon 
aris indfa mc cumaili i 
flaithius arid cutruma 
ado ailcbe fria in athair 
arus coramac raucfaide 
fo chis ni hufa bach bri- 


57. What are the 
three defcendants not 
entitled to rank? The 
fens of women flaves, 
the fons of men flavcs, 
the Tons of idle brawling 
women; the fons of 
women flaves are exclu- 
ded the rank of Flaith, 
let their claim be what 
what it may on the fa- 
ther's fide, for the fons 
of flaves fliould always 
be under tribute, and it 
Is not proper the fons of 
harlots fliould ever be 

58. Baidfeach each lies 
taige no each ben deair- 
aigalanamnus oen deith- 
bire ar nifaig atairBne 
fine cen to cuirid no cin 
\ogfaefma no gin fir fo 
gerrta no coimpta noime. 

59. Guach each bra- 
thum aenlus 7 taige it 
comfeich la, ingad is 
uige ataige is merrlle 

58. Poor and naked 
women are to be avoid- 
ed in marriage by the 
tribes-men ; women not 
worthy of being endow- 
ed, not worthy of the 
fife or proteftion; or of 
the comforts of life. 

^g. According to old 
ftatutes, theft and mo- 
roding are efteemed 
equal crimes, for mo- 

I02 B R E H O 


inmerlle itlan feich ar 
doran each alaimnige ara 
laim 7 atheangid ara 
gnim 7 acubus dia fafar 
flan brethaib feancha la 
it comarda an eiric aen- 
lus 7 taige. 

6o. Atait iiii faba tua- 
ithe no do des fruithidar 
imbecaib. Ri gu breath- 
ach ; eafpoc tuis leadach ; 
filid diubartach ; airec 
cifindric ; dlegar do each 
Righ firinde, dieagar 
do each eafpoc andgus ; 
dieagar do each Filid 
neamdulb airtce airce- 
dail; dieagar do each 
aireach indrucus ar na 
doige amaa ni dle^ar 
doibh dire. 

6i. Smith fer finntiu, 
fen fer findthiu ni fuith 
muna fuafdar ni techta 
afinniiu fo da fith fo da 
clai fodaderga foda tlean 
for do tuigaidt an fine 7 
mi coraibh. Ni tuailing 



roding is theft, and a 
thief is to make reftitu- 
tion ; therefore theft and 
moroding, are equal 
crimes, and the Eiric 

60. There are four 
pefts to fociety, when 
they fo happen : A king 
given to falfe judgment ; 
a bilhop inclined to vice ; 
a falacious flattering 
poet J an unfaithful 
airic. Every king is 
bound to bejuft; every 
bifliop to be pure ; eve- 
ry poet to be fincere and 
open ; every airiacb to be 
faithful, and upright, 
and not cxpofed to the 
fines or punilhment of 
the law. 

61. Proper tribefmen 
are diftinguiftied and 
known. Senior tribef- 
men are not to be ex- 
pelled unlefs they have 
been guilty of great 
crimes, fuch as litigiouf- 




breitheamnacht la na 
fiaftar tellach 7 coroi- 
cheas mbruigreachta co 
fiacaib cacha ceathra 7 
duine caithib 7 duine 
chintaib a teail fo tech- 
tughadh ifcad dofli dilfi 
nairme ateall fo leadh 
toirfin ifead dofli tri feota 
fo imcumas naith^. 

Comm. Bo'*j fam 7 

62. Fer tailge accath"" 
anathbothar, aceile no ar 
do aiceand do fli l^ich 
fiach fri himcumus nath- 
gabala aratba athgabala 
la, do fli, f. ina focfal no 
ina fuaflocad athgabail 
fuaflaidler ar toirifean 
acomong la firife do fli 
leith fiacha. 

nefs, afiaults on their 
neighbours, murder, and 
fuch like crimes; they 
are not then entitled to 
the benefit of the law, 
unlefs they have con- 
formed to the Bruigh 
law \ have paid all tref- 
pafles of men and cat- 
tle ; they are forbidden 
to take up arms, or 
combine privately in re- 
fiftance under the penal- 
ty of three cows. 

Comm. /I cow J a 
Jiripper^ and a heif- 

62. If men drive their 
cattle to trefpafs on bare 
grafs (/« ivinter feafon 
adds the Commentator) 
is half trefpafs, and re- 
ftitution accordingly by 
the Seanacas ; and the re- 
demption of the cattle 
ftiall be-paid xnfeadsy or 


B R E H Q 


63. Talgud do cea- 
tbra imbuailiug do ceilc 
do ilifet ina muin, ar ni 
mo dulc do gniac oldaa 
do maith, acht na maith 
nach dich mairc. 

64* Fer idaig ceathra 
ticeile ina fer diguin adrc 
iii feoto am bid aceath^ 
fo defin adnagad iod. 

65. Fer do tleann a 
ceathra a faitbci indi- 
guin a ceile as rean iii fe- 
Ota la fer aithg ataib no 
airceand inti na bi fer 
feraid a log a reir Breith^ 
eaman 7 afrean iii feota 
jpd a reir breithcafi. 



63. If they drive cat- 
tle into a bawn where 
winter fodder is depofit^ 
edy a cow is to be de- 
manded for trefpafs ; for 
they do much mifchief 
in wafting and confum* 
ing hay. 

64. If a man permits 
his cattle to enter a 
ftrange bawn with the 
cattle of his neighhpur, 
he (hall forfeit 3 cows, 
ts if they had been 
driven in by himfelf. 

65. If a man permits 
his cattle to mix with his 
neighbours, and enter 
his meadows, where is 
hay or grafs, he ftiall for- 
feit 3 cows, or pay rc- 
ftitution ; if he has no 
hay, he (hall be fined by 
the Brehon, not exceed- 
ing 3 cows. 




66. Dileas fcr foirfc i 
tealt fealba na be dileas 
nac naen i tcallach fealba 
acht fear foirfe caiti in 
fer do na gellaid feoit 7 
faidbrige ififaidbri caich 
i tellach fealba dilfi a 

66. Every man muft- 
take poffefSon of land 
openly, and no property 
can be pofleffed but with 
the knowledge of all 
parties, and when he 
has paid his cattle or o- 
ther riches for land, it is 
then lawful for him to 
defend it by force of 

67. The rights of the 

church were eftabliftied 

in Ireland by Patrick, by 

the confent of the 

Flaiths or Princes. 

Comm. Laogaire^ Core 

6? Darict Patrick^ 

Benin 6? Carmach 


68. Tal no flifeam 68. This was a chip 

llancraid leafdar baduirnd of the old tree. 3 Ua was 

tre lia inothar no fir nai- the ^ft at the altar as a 

rifmc fri haltoir, no fir facrifice to Heaven. Pa- 

(tf) In the old book of Balymote, p. 167, is a catalogue 
of the more eminent Fileas, or authors of the early ages^ 
whick begins thus : ** Nine perfons were concerned in the 
•* Seanacas'fftor hearla FeinCf viz. 3 Kings, 3 learned Fileas, 
** and 3 holy men. The 3 Kings were Laogaire, Core, 
** Daire. The 3 Fileas, R06, Dubthac, Feargus. The 
•« 3 holy men, Patrick, Bcneoin, and Cairfeac." 

67. Ini tochta imfir 
fear foichlide corab do 
noud nenKirong corofut- 
dis dar Padraeg fir fer 
n Eirind anoiaib flatha a 
comcet fadaib eacal. 




fogearrta no compta 
naime, ate ind fin fira 
rofuidit Padraeg do gleod 
fer n'Erind iflaith in righ- 
Laegaire Mc'Neill inos 
fer n Eirind. 

69. Ciflir dia ro fui- 
dighe comdire ta. Ged. 
corr. caiiin. cai leach ca- 
nait comdire is, nihice 
n^ichae aithg araile. 


trick ordained this on the 
Irifh in the reign of Lao-- 
gaire mac Neill, as he 
found it an eftablifii- 
ed cuftom among the 
Irifti (b). 

Comm. Mary good 

books explain tbis^ 

fucb as the long book 

of LeigbUn. (Lea- 

bair fata Leglinde.) 

69. What was accept- 
ed from the vulgar: 
Geefe, herns, kittens^ 
cocks, whelps, were e- 
qually offered according 
to the SeanacaSf or old 

70. Crim feam fiadu- 
bulldia ro techtaidt greas 
for nideoin admad acerd- 
ca Vnad anaith (i. gradh 
flatha) bleith amuilleand 
bleitli alamhbroin dich- 
mairc bleith for libroin 
dean am cleib denam 
cleiihe lafcad luife lofcad 
guaile toba tire claide 
mianna tochar puirt imirt 

70. Flaiths of their 
generofity beftow wild 
apple-trees to fmiths for 
anvil-blocks i and 10 mill- 
wrights for cogs and han- 
dles to querns ; for mak- 
ing baikets and wattles ; 
for burning weeds and 
lighting coals ; for togh- 
ers to houfes (/. e. hurdles 
over bogs) for the game 

{b) Lia, in Arabic leyah^ is a whke bull 5 the CommcR- 
tator here explains this word a fpeckled calf. 




gUitli for rot epe cacha 

feada acht fid neimead 

no degfidh im feadain 

in damaib fo imrim nac 

tJeafdair imrim eich ach 

tri heoclia conoifcead dire 

each righ each capfcoib 

each fuadh no nae co 

lin feafa iffide condaile 

comdire friu dul tar chiil 

dul tar dun urba int> na 

fert airech glanad raite 

cofcradh aile cain dorn 

cliath corns aeaig lir- 

claide tairis. 

71. Corns indbir. atu 
forgain forcraid fomelta 
for coin fuafclucad ath- 
gabala a forrgabail aga* 

of (c) gliatb on the roads ; 
thefe are cut out of every 
wood except holy woods* 
The horfes of kings and 
bifliops make good all 
damages for breaking 
through the fences of a 
church or dun, or de- 
ft roying the tomb of an 
Airecb^ to be determined 
by an Umpire, and, they 
muft afterwards be fet- 

71. River Laws. It is 
forbidden to fifh in ri- 
vers, or to deftroy birds 
on them, without leave 

{c) gliath — This word is now obfolete. I believe it iig- 
niiies the game of burly ^ now called camant ; in ^tr^ic ghaluk 
is a pUy ball and gkuite a round ftick, a rolling pin ; gliath 
may therefore fignify a hurling bat or a goff club — gliath in 
Irifh is fkirmifli, fighting hand to hand ; ghclh in Arabic the 
fame. All the puerile games and manly exercifes mentioned 
by Nieuhbur in his voyages into Arabia, are common with 
the Irifti ; fuch as the games of five ftones, pitching the 
ftonc, the bar, &c. &c. the ^crn or hand mill for grinding 
com, of which he gives a plate and defcription as of gteat 
curtofity, is in ufe in Ireland at this day in many places. In 
Pcrfic Kemane is any thing arched, as the bow of a fiddle, 
Sec. in Irifh caman, is the batt or hurling club, which is al- 
fo arched. 




bail edechta a focfal 
afaichthe afcoir dia di- 
dean fuaflucad. coim- 
deadh farcuibreach for 
cocha derged comraig 
nadfornast cui breach fir 
na do turguid imeafor- 
gain oca teiigi-ar fuili na- 
dligead othrus urgabail 
innacen ameablugad for- 
craid nimana for ceath 
IS aire conaimeas na 
comdire feo icuic fetaib 
ar na hernigt inarimbec 
7 ar na beth ni gen eiric 
7'arnhimirBa neach na 
be hai. Ar do*imarna 
Fadraeg na tiafdais na 
comdire feo tara ni do- 
tuirmifeam afiir naicnid 
7 coibfe 7 fcrebtir andul 
gan ni is mo arate com- 
dire and fo ro fuigeaftir 
t'adraeg anos fer nerinn 
iar creideam cuig fed co- 
naimeas in each dire do 
fund la haithgin. 

72. Cis lir cain it na 
bi imaclaid la cona do 
ro dilfib do each dib 
ce3na friaraile. Ciahim^ 
irba each dib friaraile ni 

firft obtained, whoever 
is caught in this trefpafs, 
ihali reftore what they 
have taken ; and if their 
horfc^ (hall break into 
meadows, they (hall be 
detained until redeemed^ 
All horfes let loofe in 
open grounds (hall be 
long-fettered to prevent 
difputes, and if any quar- 
rel (hall arife to the fpill- 
ing of blood, in this 
caufe Eiric (hall be de- 
manded. At the com- 
ing of Patrick thefe fines 
were fettled in true wif- 
dom; and Patrick agreed 
to them, as he found 
they had been before e- 
ftabliOied in Ireland ; 
five cows he allowed to 
be the full reftitution for 
each of thefe trefpafles. 

72. What are the de- 
grees of confanguinity 
or ties, between perfons, 
where reftitution is made 
by fading only, or fub- 



tuille acht aithf cotrofcad 
no himcim iar trofcad na 
hapad. Mac 7 a athair. 
Ingean 7 a Mathair. 
Dalta 7 aide. Ingean 
7 a buime. Mac 7 a 
maithre. mad oige ma- 
magaire Flaith 7 aceilc. 
£acr7 a manaig. fuaidre 
bith comaideadan cis 7 
afli Righ 7 anathig orr- 
tha, cumai (i. daera) 7 
aflaithe, techta adaltra* 
cha iar na hurnaTd no 
aidite dia finaib fria Bru 
cedmuindter acus a ceile 
do rair ngairead intan do 
nic fatna him aclaide feo. 
is and do nic fad na du- 
ba digeanna cenail gen 
fafach cen dicetal na 
berrdar afiraicnald na 
fcrbct na fafaigh ar ro 
fuigideadh n^ cana fo 
otofach domain codiaig 
cen imaclaid. 

73. Cis lir ro fuidi- 
gead ro dilfe cacha tu* 
aithe ada comdilfe da 
each 7 recbt hae aite 


mitting to the chaftife- 
ment of the Abbot after 
fading. This kind of 
reftitu don fubfifts accord- 
ing to the Seanacas or 
old law, between the fon 
and the father \ the 
daughter and her mo- 
ther \ the daughters and 
fons of a Flaith and his 
wife ; between the church 
and its monk's; the feuds 
and the Flaith j the king 
and his chief warriors ; 
the bond families and the 
Flaith, except in cafes of 
adultery which extend 
to the tribes of the firfl 
families and their wives, 
which law muft be fub- 
mittcd to without re- 
ferve; the mod learned 
men and writers and all 
holy men have ordained 
thefe fines from the be- 
ginning of the world to 
this day, and for ever. 

73. What are the pri- 
vileges allowed to native 
Ruftics ? To cut wild 
crab trees for handles of 




Crim altda mainandach 
each uifce biadi foibirt 
cacha frotha lortudh 
aidche do crinach each 
fid gen trenugud ful- 
acht cacha chaille cnuas 
each feada arad cacha 
fedna crand fedna collna 
cranngill atharguib luith- 
eaeh laime da achlais bi* 
rer and treige nurcomail 
damna fondflfa damna 
looinida fiad cacha feda 
adaig eadarba condeith-- 
hire feam cacha trachta 
dulifg cacha cairgc torad 
each trethain ala cairrge 
each fid cen criniughad 
imbleith forlig aenach 
naiditaa dul aneathar 
imirt fithcille lige aireach 
faland tige briugad dirind 
uas each flabrad forch- 
imig adaig eatarba in- 

fifhing fpears, for river 
fifhingi to burn brufh- 
\¥ood in the night for 
drefling of fifh ; to cut 
fmall branches of white 
hazels for yokes or fuch 
tackle as will twift for 
the plough, and for 
hoops and chuinftaves ; 
they are free to the pro- 
duce of woods border- 
ing on the fea, to fea- 
wreck, dulilk, and to 
every eatable thrown up 
by the fea on the (here 
and rocks, but in col- 
lefting thcfe, they muft 
go quietly and peaceably 
from place to pkee by 
fea. They are alfo al- 
lowed to play the game 
of chefs in the houfe of 
an Aireach, and to have 
fait in the houfe of a 
Bruigh : On leaving the 
(hore, the boats muft 
be chained and locked. 

74. Fuaflaice each ru- 74. It is noble and ge- 

grad for fna heatha ai- nerous to forgive little 

ditiu as ingaib fir fithiu trefpafles committed by 

fuaflaict go comlabra fir humble rultics i the 

O F I R E L A N D. in 


fealba feoit indilfigar ftrong (hould not (hew 

airgfe na Haiti diu eudail their ftrength over the 

na tranlide neirt. weak. 

End of the Fragment of the Brehon 'Laws in 
the MSS. of Trinity College. 

The following are from the MSS. in the poffefGon 
of Sir John Sebright, Bart. 

At the beginning of this Fragment is the following 
remark, part of which I have inferted in the 
Preface relating to the Brehon Laws: 

As for the Forts called Danes Forts, it is a vulgar 
error, for thofe Forts called Raths, were entrench- 
ments made by the Irifh about their houfes, for we 
had no ftone houfes in Ireland till after St. Patrick's 
coming, A. Chrifti 432, the 5th of the Reign of 
Laogary McNeill, and then we began to build 
churches of ftene ; fo that all our kings, gentry, 
&c. had fuch Raths about their houfes, wiinefs 
Tara Raths, where the Kings of Ireland hved. 
Rath Crpgan, Sec. &c. Sec. 

Thadeus Roddy. 

tt? The Reader will find Mr. Roddy's aflertion 
of the Raths confirmed in the following Laws. 





75. Cis I fala foriadat 
dilfe ca afelba, asna tin- 
tuither cidiupart. 


75. What is Fal, 
granted to landed pro- 
perty i on taking pof- 
feflion or on quitting the 
concerns (d) ? 

Fal granted to a man 
to become one of a tribe, 
fubjefts him to pay tri- 
bute of all his property, 
of cattle grazing, of 
fruit, of corn, &c. and 
all increafe of (lock is 
from thenceforth fubje£t 
to tribute. 

Fal is granted to the 
man whopurchafesland, 
and offers the value a- 
greed on, but cannot 
get poffcffion. 

fd) Fal implies a king or chief, but here fignifies certaia 
royal privileges conditionally granted the Tenant, on hit 
fettling under a Flaith or Chief. Pai and PhaJ in the Per- 
fian and Turkiih language is a guardian, and the word is 
often joined with Schal, which fignifies a king : it is fome- 
times corruptly written Padp PSaJ, and forms Padifchal^ a 
title given to the great kings of the eaft. See the Turki/h 
Lexicon, at the word Pad* 

Fal fine hicas a cait- 
hche coronicchar fa ca 
fet ronicca conafumuine 
natet inairmidi fer gleth 
n^mes naith intire cid 
maith acht ni rocclanna 
a lam fa deiiTin fir afa- 

Fal fir chrenas im- 
becc luaig do forcid arro 
fera arro fertar fris na 


Comm. a cafe. Ftrand 
do recq/iar duine and 
fo^ 7 aia acacra a di- 
tdfortaand'j do aire end 
in duine ro cendaig in 
ferand after and fein 
do oris 7 afeoit do- 
fum-jmbail leiffuim 
^bt adiuhairt ma ta 
trebaire a dilfi uili ar 
iiii. buairib xx* meni- 
uil dilfi atrian ar iiii, 
buarib xict 7 ada trin 
ax maid J isfcdjein. 


Com. Here it is /up- 


Fal naud barta imbelu 
^fel nemed, fal do tire 
ranne do flaith iar ne- 

Fal fir fofuiditar dag 
liadinand . coforathaib 7 
ibidh fiadnaib aris ann 

(?) A Tcrbal fal, is the protection which a noble gives to 
a mftic on fetdiag under him ; and when about to quit hia 
cUef) he fays, I demand my liberty and the cattle I gave for 
ny proteftion % and he fhall not leave the chiefs land until he 
u btitficd I this is alfo called FaU 


pfed tbai land ts 
fold to a man 
by agreement y and 
tbe bolder tvill not 
give pojfefion^ hit 
offers to return tbe 
value and keep bis 
land'y if tbe pur- 
cbafer bas paid down 
tbe value be may 
force tbe otber to quity 
if not \ miijl be depo- 
fited in 24 bours^ 
and the remaning I in 
ten more^ ivbicb en- 
titles bim to Faly i, e, 
be is to claim tbe in- 
terpofition of tbe 
Fal given verbally by 
an Uafalnemedor Flaith, 
muft be obferved when 
any Ruflics quit his ter- 
ritories (e}. 

Fal is granted to a 
man who fettles under a 
Rath, for fervice and la- 


B R E H O N 


do toet fual fo trebuire 

in tan dona thongaiter furety for his orderly be 


bour; and has given 

cuir dar enech fer. 

Fal anfuitchiffa ifle 
fede tintaitc aiter iartain 

75. At 111 tire fris na 
contobir mc sa Rath ua 
fiadhnaife la. na dilfe is 
go airechta anaftud di- 
gaib diiogainech aireach 
no dofegat. 

Tir fomaicc dona ta- 
bair log cla do ba fine 
ar nitechta conn' na ciall 
foinc intan nafcair inn 
inan ifin ecnaircc. 

haviour, in conforming 
to the laws of the Tribe, 
and for payment of 
Enecb (f). 

Fal is granted to mi- 
nors who have property, 
until they are of age, 

75 There are three ca- 
fes of lands under the 
protedlion of Raths or 
tribes, to be reftored to 
the proper male line ac- 
cording to Seanchas or 
Old Law, where the lo- 
gheineach has been ex- 
aded contrary to law. 

Lands of minors 
feized for the payment of 
the Logh, which is con- 
trary to the law till the 
minors are of proper 
age to govern their own 

(f) The Encch or Logh cincach as explained hereafter, 
18 a tribute given by the tenants to the chief for fettling un- 
der his prote6tion ; Enachy emenda^ Scoth^ vel fatisfaiiio qu^ 
daiur alicuipro aliquo deliSio feu injuria ; — occurrit in Regiani. 
Majeftatem, L. 2. C. 12. This is called Eineclann in thcfc 
Laws, and is the fame as Eiric or rcftitmtion for murder, 
theft, &c. in many places. 



Tir do beir icoibchi 
mna nad bi maith na- 
duidnaidet afoita coire. 

Tir do beir dar braigit 
finearaireufu inda ten- 
gaid dec diathintud ol- 
das intoen tenga do af- , 

Comm. Totbcbus is 
fnejju ifencbas and fa 
tocbus duiri 7 do- 

Land given in dowry 
to women which has 
been alienated from the 
male line by efFed of 
the Coir (^). 

Land unlawfully 
Wrefted by force from 
another of the fame , 
Tribe, this (hall be re- 
ftored by the judgment 
of 12 tongues (voices) 
but one diflentient 
tongue (voice) (hall re- 
tain it. 

Comm. ^bis was a 
cruel and unj lift law 
oftbe ancient Sy and 
rendered property 

{l) The Coir cxiftcd in the time of Sir Hen. Piers : it it 
explained in his hiftory of the county of Weflmeath. pp. 117^ 
118. Sec CoUeftanea de Rebus Hibcrnicis, No. i. Vol. I. 
" Every town land is grazed in common -; fo one who is 
not acquainted with them, would think, that they plowed in 
common too; for it it ufual with them to have 10 or 12 
plows at once going in one fmall field ; neverthelefs every one 
hath tillage diftin^l. He then dcfcribes the method of dividing 
the land to be plowed in lots, and proceeds when the 
fquabble about diriding is over, they as often fall by the 
can again about joining together or coupling to the plow, 
forfometimeB two, three or more will join together to plow. 
This they call Coir or Coar> which may import an equal man^ 
fush amtbtr as myfelf^ and with little alteration of the found 

I a ma J 

ii6 B R E H O N L A W S 


76. Cach fuidir (b) 76. Every Feud, or 
conatothcus techta ni Feudift, thai has no le- 
icca cinaid a meic nachal gal poffeflion, no wealth 

may fignify help, neht or jufticc." — In this they arc alfo of- 
ten very litigious — mit in cafe of difagreement, their cuftomt 
hath provided for them, that with confidence they may come 
before their landlord and demand from him their Coar or equal 
man, or helper to plow, which they count the landlord 
bound to provide for them, and if he cannot, he it obliged 
to aflift hii% himfelf. — ^This, fays Sir Hen. is called Bearded 
Owen's law ; he was one of their Brchons. If Sir Henry had 
not preferved this woixl and its explanation, in the 17th cen* 
tury, I fhould have been at a lofs. It is evident that when 
the Iriih feudift had no property in land, but held from the 
Chief, that a Das or Dowr, at the death of the widow, 
might have been confounded and loft in the Coir or divifion 
of the groond ; but this law obliges the tribes to watch over 
this part of the chiefs land. There is a Caftle on the banks 
of the Suire called Tighe gan Coir, and vulgarly Ticancur, 
i. e. the hoiife not fubjed to the Coar. Tacitus dcfcribes 
this Law among the Germans. De Mor. Germ. C. 26. Agri 
pro numero cultorum, &c. The members of a German na- 
tion, fays Tacitus, cultivate, by turns, for its ufe, an extent 
of land, correfponding to their number, which is then par- 
celled out to individuals, in proportion to their dignity. 
Thefe divifioDs are the more eafily afcertained, as the plains 
of Germany are extenfive ; and though they annually occupy 

a new 

{h) Fuidhir in the Iriih Lexicons is tranflated a hireling or 
attendant ; it appears to be the radix of the Englifh Feud or 
Feudift a vaflal or villain, and to be derived from the Hibemo- 
Celtic ya^i glebe, foil, from whence the LaXxtifodio to turn 
up the earth, to dig ; French y^»/r. In an ancient gloflkry 
in my pofleilion, it is derived fromy^ imder, daer protec- 
tion ; Arabice derh. I find the words foer^ fuidir and daer- 
fuidir in the laws, which exprefsly means the free feud and 
the bond feud. 

OF IRELANp., 117 


nachai armui nach ain- nor Hock of ^3 own, 

dui nacha comoccus fine pays no trefj3affe& of his 

nach a cinaid fadeifm fonorof his neareft akin, 

flaith idmbiatha ife ic- The Flaith who viftuals 

caisacinaid air nilais dire or fupports him, pays 

a fecit acht colauin aith* all fines for his thefts, in 

a new piece of ground, tbcy are pot exhaufted in territory. 
This pafiage, fays the learned Dr. Stuart, abounds in in- 
ftru6lion the moll important. It informs us, that the Ger- 
man had no private property in land, and that it was his 
tnbe which allowed him annually for his fupport a propor- 
tion of territory. That the property of the land was in- 
Tcfted in the tribe, and that the lands dealt out to individu- 
als returned to the public, after they had reaped the fruits 
of them ; that to be entitled to a partition of land from iiis 
nation, was the diftindlion of a citizen, and that in confe- 
quence of this partition he becanie bound to' attend to its 
defence and to its glory $ with thcfe ideas and with 
this pradice, the Germans ipade CQnquefts. In con- 
formity therefore, with their ancient manners, when a 
fcttlement i^^as made in a province of the empire, the pro- 
perty of the land belonged to the vidlorious nation, and the 
brave laid daim to their poflefiions. A tra£l of ground was 
oiarkcd out for the Sovereign ; ?ind to the inferior orders of 
men^ diviiions correfponding to their importan(;e were al- 
lotted. View of Society in Europe, 4>. 24. 

The word Coir or Coar, or Carr, fignifies lot, chance, 
fortune ; and Cranncar, is a lot drawn by flicks of different 
lengths, in the manner the Arabs pretend to divine at this 
day : And this was the method followed by the Irifh in the 
divifions of the ground ; thus the longed flick had fuch a lot 
(which had been previoufly marked out) the next longefl 

another lot, and fo on. A number of thefe Coirr's or 

Carr's made a Csr or Circle, which perhaps gave name to 
the prefent Circles of Germany, and to the Canon Circ znd 
EngHfli S£ir^9 unlcfs we may derive the word from the Cir 
•r Circle round the aitar flone, of which in another place. 




gena Yiama ni gaib dire 
amc nai naca dibad na 
ceraicc nacha inathar. 
flaith arambiatha iili nod 
beir 7 iccas achinaid 7 
, folloing acinta. 

Fuidir laiis mbiat. u.' 
treba dia ceniul fadeifia 
is tualaing tonicca a 
chinta 7 araruib iatba a 
Flaith is lafuide dire a fe-r 
oit acht trian do flaith. 

Fui^ir iu^S cin comf9- 
gois manib* u. treba aigi 
dathoirithin. i. u, Raith- 
chedach 7 manib aigen 
flaith beid. 

Comm. Is tad na ?/. 
treba i. teacbmor^ 
7 botbacb'] foilmucc^ 
7 lias cereacb^ 7 has 

77, Log (i) encch 
fuidre ma doer fuitiir can 
mittir ainchaib a Flatha 

an equal refiitution on- 
ly. He fhall not receive 
Eiric for his fon, or bo^ 
dily Eiric for his mother. 
The Flaith who fupports 
him pays all fines and 

A Feud having five 
treba (or that has pro- 
perty) fiiall pay fines and 
trefpalTes, and (hall give 
one third of his profits 
towards viflualing the 
Flaith. ; 

A Feud is not liable to 
fines and trefpaffes for 
his next of kin, unlefs 
he hasthefe 5 tfcba, i. e. 
a Rathchedach, and vic- 
tuals hi$ Flaith- 

Tbefe.areibefive treba, 
i. e. nagreat houfe^ 
2. an Ox'ftall^ 3. a 
boufe^ 5. a Cdf- 

77. The Logh tribute 
of a Feud, if a bond feud 
is one fourth of his ftock 

(/) Encch IS a tribute, fine, muia, &c. I take logh 
encch to be the fame as the Locatio of our ancient tenures, 
u e« a contraft by which land is let or demifcd. 



cethramthu ,a dire ales 
alethfaide diamnai, ar 
cacht rccht ta acht oen- 
triar is leth log aenech 
diamnait ferfon cenfelb 
cen thothchus las mbi 
ban comarba ainchuib 
amna dire narfide 7 fer 
inetet torn amna larcrich 
direnar ainchuib amna 7 
cuglas direnarfi de ain-* 
chauib amna 7 ifi iccas 
a dnta madiarnu urnad- 
maim no aititen dia ^^ 

78. Is tualaing na teo- 
ra ranna Co imoicheda 
cora ccle connatatmeife 
recce nacrecce fech am- 
na acht ni forcongrat. 

79. Log nainech each 
fuidire acht doerfuidir 
direnar afalethothchus al- 
leth naill is na Flatha 7 
nech iccas a cinta. 

to the Flaith^ and one 
eighth to- the Flaith*s 
wife ; if he has no Fiaith 
but a Dowager, the ufual 
tribute muft be paid to 
her; and if any man 
fettles under a dowager, 
he (hall pay the ufual 
tributes, and alfo all fea- 
faring men under her, 
not having a Fiaith over 
them; and if they 
were nurfed or brought 
up by the. tribe, fhc 
(hall pay all their fines 
and trefpades. 

of men may make co- 
venants with the tribes, 
for they are not under 
the immediate controul 
of the Dowager. 

79, The tribute of e- 
very Feud, the bond- 
feud excepted, is half 
of hisilock to the Fiaith, 
but he is not to pay the 
feuds, fines, and tref* 



80, Atait feacht ftiidi' 
ta fuidir fofcuil a aithrib 
fuidir dedlaid frifine co- 
nail fuire each fuidir acht 
teora fuidre adadurem 
dib. I. 

Fuidhir goible, no fuid- 

hir crui. 
Fuidhir gola. 

Fuidhir flan. 
Fuidhir faer. 

Fuidhir cinad a muir* 
Fuidhir accu fed. 
Fuidhir griain. 

8 1. Is meifi fuidhir 
griain imfcartha fri flatha 
acht do airfena a fdba 
do da acht ni forgaba 
cinaid for flatha do aif- 
bena an gaibes o flatha 
met laiget bis citir fod 7 
indngnam beirid aen tri- 
an facaib da trian la Ha- 
tha ol cena, 



80. According to old 
Law there are 7 kinds of 
feuds who quit their na- 
tive tribes to feek pro- 
tedtion.of a Flaith, and 
thefe may be mixed with 
the free tribes as convc- 
nientf viz. 

Who have been guilty 
of blood-ftied. 

Who have loft their land 
by wars. 

Who have fled for debt. 

Who have forfeited co- 


Who have weahh. ' 

Who have land. 

N. B. neje explanati- 
ons are by the Com- 

8 1 . The fluidbir griain 
may fcparate from his 
Flaith when he pleafes, 
but muft pay the proper 
fine, by producing his 
ftock, one third of 
which he (hall take with 
him, and the remaining 
two thirds are the pro- 
perty of the Flaith. 




82. Do eftethar meth 
cacha fuidre for cuic fe* 
tataib 7 ifled da do dotr 
do ar a auccu ar a chain 
arachairde ar arechtnge 
ar a dire acethra ar a 
dond 7 ar a meifce. 

83. Cair ciflear fini 
toaithe 7 cid inct arfca- 
rat itc fine cacha tuaithc, 
Geilfine, Deirfinc, Jar- 
fine, Indfinc, Deirgfine, 
Dubfine, Fine taccuir, 
Glasfine, Ingenar me- 
raib, Duafine.; ifam 
diba finntedaib. • 

Geilfine coccuicer ifi 
aide gaibes dibad each 
cind comacuis dineoch 
diba uaid. , 

Deirfine cononbor ni 
huaide cobraind 
folin cenn gomopas. 

larfine cotriferraib 
dec ni beride acht ce- 
thram thain dichin na 
fomane diorbu nafaetur. 

S2. The fine or mul£t 
of a Feud is five cows, 
and thefe (hall be given 
for his fettlement, for 
his tribute, for his pro* 
tedtion, for his law-fuits, 
for his cattle trefpafles, 
foe his venery, and for 

83. Of the names of 
fine or tribes in every dif- 
trift, viz. -Geilfine, 
Deirfine, larfine, Ind- 
fine^ Deirgfine, Dub- 
fine, Fine taccuir, Glaf- 
fine, Ingenar meraib, 
Duafine; thefe are the 
Fines or tribes. 

Geilfine are thofe who 
have no inheritance, and 
accept of a portion from 
the next *of kin ; this 
tribe may confift of five 

Deirfine are next of 
kin to the lawful heirs; 
their number is limitted 
to nine. 

larfine may confift of 
13 men, they are to give 
one fourth of cattle and 

12Z B R E H O 


Infine co feacht firu 
dec conranna cadeifin 
finteda dineoch diba 
uaide amal befchoir dii- 
thaig duine otha feniflan 
fcarait finntetha. 


Inline confift of 17 
men ; when any of 
thefc die, the property 
may be divided as if na- 
tive tribes ; all above this 
number to be fcattered 
through the Tribes. 

Deirgfine iffede crueis Deirgfine are fuch as 
nidiba huaide ni cobran- have been guilty of 
naide finntea ifleach co- murder, they (hall not be 
moccuis. admitted till the muldt 

or reftitution has been 

Dubfine iflede dom- 
beair fir noilleg na fintar 
imbi fir foanfir ni cobra- 
naide finthea condatuice 
fir^caire no cranncuir is 
iarum conranna cerfi- 
faimthain fri indfine. 

Fine taccuir iffede 
toraberat cuir bel afoei- 
fahi ni cobrannaide da 
finnteda acht ni ifuifedar 
cuir. bel. 

Dub6ne are fuch as 
have been guilty of theft, 
they (hall not be receiv- 
ed whilft accufation lies 
againft them, or entitled 
to cor or cranchur (lee 
Law '75) thefe may be 
divided through the Ind- 

Fine tacqair are thofc 
who fettle under condi- 
tion of the coir bel (i. e. 
coir o bealaib.) They for- 
feit protection if they do 
not comply with the coir 




Glasfine mic mna dit- 
fini bearas do Albanach 
ni gaibfaide acbt orba 
mad no duthrachta ded- 
laid fri fine. 

Comm. Gabdr tar 
glas nofairge — bearas bean 
don fine d^albanacb. 

Ingen ar meruib ifu- 
ide dodindnaig cluais do 
cluaisdo comceniuil ded* 
laid fri fine connranna- 
fide finnteda on med ad« 
daimtber ifine. 

Comm. Gelfbis indfir 
feo do gblefbis ind- 
fbir ele. 

Duthagfine ni cobran- 
naidc eitir ifl&n diba fin- 
tedaib finte fuidir cota 
fille fodail fon enmuin 
molgethar mac fri a a- 
thair 7 ni ren intathair 

(i) In a hand writing different from the Commeotator^s, is 
the following remark : The writer of this note is Aodhgan 
and he is repairing this very old MS. at the mill of Duna- 
daighnc, the place of his abode, and making very unikilful 
remarks on thcfc old Laws, in the year of our Lord ;575. 


Comm. Tbefe are mao- 
faefma fettling under a 
"Verbal promife of tbe 
Math (k). 

Glasfine are the fons 
of women of Scotch 
defcent ; they fhall have 
land only, and may be 
divided through the 

Comm. ^befe are 
brought from beyond 
fea^ born of women 
of a Scotch tribe. 

Ingen ar meruib, are 
brawling, idle, tattling 
women, related to the 
tribes; they muft be 
divided through the 

Comm. Flying from 
one man to another. 

Duthagfine do not di- 
vide their property on 
the death of any of the 
tribe, but itafcends to 
fuch feud next in blood 
as have raifed themfdvcs 



ni iecb michu fech aa 
iccfa iarmu fech indue. 

jS4.Fofgu each fine fop- 
cuchuad fallfciucbte cea- 
troiD each muio arailid 
each rath afomuine co- 
kok ernnair do fognam- 

Ahui diuinn cofaelas 
turanau tafcuru nimcbo- 
inaid Airedi madiamaa* 
niad mbrogtbair dinaro- 
fat ramatu tabar doib 
ditohus fodling foiagud 
fele furired co failce cen- 
duine dicill ditreib taraf- 
tar diamiar naurfocni 
techta dlega'it fiur foeru 
manip centola tinfcgra 
riain ruircer. 

9$. Ga lin Raith do 
cuiilin. fine rath, me- 
rath J iar rath; foer rath ; 
rath doboing; comracc 
rath ; naidlle rathirraith ; 
rathicuit find choracb; 

from a ruftic ftaie, and 
defcepds iroci father to 
fbo, and fo on to the 
grandfon^ and great- 

84. The Forgu (firtbo- 
ga) or chofen head or chief 
of every tribe or fine, 
may leave the tribe when 
he pleafes, and is enti- 
tled to fuch fiock of the 
Rath as (hall be adjudg- 
ed him for his fervices. 

The Aireach or diief of 
a country when he af- 
fembles the Fine in bo- 
dies for bis own defence, 
Ihall give them recom- 
pencc for their trouble ; 
each head oS zfine (hall 
provide fufficient for bis 
maintenance, and after 
a vidtory or routing it is 
forbidden to plunder, un- 
lefs it be previoufly or- 
dered, as a reward. 

85. Of the number 
of Raths ; they are thus 
named. Fine rath ; Me- 
rath; Yarrath; Soer rath ; 
Rath doboing : Comracc 
rathj N^dlle rath-irr- 




forgurath ; airifs mefe 
each a athcuir no roigthi 
laime dia rath. 

aith J Rathicuit find 
rach ; Forgu rath : the 
ftock given to thefe 
jaths may be retaken 
- (by the chief) at plea- 

Thcfc Names are thui explained by the Commentator. 

Finne rath. 

belonging to eftabhlhed 



Merath, \ 

new fettlers. 

Yar rath. 

compofed of the follow- 

ers of a Flath. 

Saer rath» 

made free by the 

Flath (I). 

Rath doboing, 

have forced themfelves 

on a Flath and over- 


whelmed the native 


Cotnracc rath, 

who have withftood an 

aflault and defended 

the Rath. 

Naicille rath-irraith. 

fedied under a Fiaith 

and paid fines and 


Rath icuitrid chorach. 

entertain the Fiaith and 

enlarge their holdings 

by new covenants. 

Forgu rath faer rath. 

chofcn by the Flath to 

be free Raths. 

(/) Rath is pronounced Rah. In Arabic Reha is an indc- 
pendant tribe ; it is alfo an area of ground Mrith a rifing ixt 
the center.— This i» much the* figure of the Iri(h Raths or 

116 B R E H O N 


86. Nach Rath fris 
nafcar iar neccaib flatha 
ni tormaig log nenach 
manitairce fomuine. 

87. Iren cangaeth. 
maiih each beannad bid- 
ruth genmnaide : each 
mace beifgor diathair : 
each' manach befgor dia 
eelas nindar banar uaide. 
cia dofneemai foreofnam 
ami tuidmenat cuir nc- 
med ar infamlaiter ne- 
med fri befu carpait nach 
tuidme tonuidmenar do 
is uaihfuaflucud uad. 

LAWS; &c. 

86. No Rath (hall 
have the fine of location 
iriCreafed at ihe death of 
a Flath, unlefs the (lock 
is inercafcd in propor- 

87. Hear the words 
of wifdom ; good ia the 
woman who loves with- 
out lull ; good is the fon 
who is amenable to his 
father ; and the monk to 
his church, he will not 
be expelled with (hame. 
Who ever rcfufes to 
make fatisfadlion for his 
fins increafes his guilt 
againft Heaven, for 
Heaven is like a chariot 
on wheels, the more the 
refinance, the farther it 
flies from you. 

(To be continued in a future Number J 




I R I S H. 





R I S H. 

1 HE Chinefe, it is faid^ began to improve let- 
ters from the carlieft times of their Monarchy, at 
leaft from the reigns of Yao and Chum» who lived 
Yipwards of azoo years before Chrift. It is a com- 
mon opinion, and univerfally received by thofe 
who have inveftigated the origin of a people of 
filch unqueftiohable antiquity, that the fons of Noah 
were difperfed over the Eaftern parts of Afia, and 
that there were fome of them who penetrated into 
China, a few ages after the deluge, and there laid 
thcfirft foundation of the oldeft monarchy we 
know in the world. 

It is not to be denied, that thefe firft 
founders, inftrufted from a tradition not very re- 
mote from its fource, in the greatnefs and power 
of the fir^ being J taught their pofterity to honour 
this fovereign Lord of the Univerfe, and to live 
agreeably to the principles of that Law of Nature 

K he 


he had engraven on their hearts. Their claffical 
books, fome of them written even in the time of the 
two Emperors juft named, leave no room ta doubt 
of it. Among thele books there are five that they call 
the Kink, ancj for which they have an extreme 
veneration. Though thefe books contain only the 
fundamental Laws of the ftate, and do not di- 
redtly meddle with religion, their authors intention 
having been to fecure the peace and tranquility of 
the Empire ; yet they are very proper to inform us 
what was the religion of that ancient people, fmce 
we are told in every page that in oi:der to compafs 
( that peace and tranquility, two things were necef- 
fary;to beobferved, the duties of religion and the 
rules of a good government. It appears through 
the whole, that the firft objeft of their worfhip 
Vas one Beings the fupreme Lord and Sovereign 
Principle of all things, whom they honoured under 
the name of Cbang-ti^ that is, Supreme Ernperoi,, 
or Tietty which in their language is of the fame im- 
. port, Tien^ fay the interpreters of thefe books, is 
xht Spirit who prejides over Heaven -jii'is true, the 
fame word often fignifies among the Chinefe, the 
material Heavens; and now fmce Atheifm has 
been for fome ages introduced among their literati, 
it is reftrided to that fenfe ; but in their ancient 
books they underflood by it the Lord of Heaven^ the 
Sovereign of the li^orld. In them there is -mention 
upon all occafions of the providence of Tien^ of the 
chaftifements he"inflidts upon the bad Emperors, 
and of the rewards he difpenfes to the good. * They 
likewife reprefent him as one who is flexible to 
vows and prayers, appeafed by facrifices, and who 



diverts thofe calamities that threaten the Empire ; 
with a thoufand other things which can agree to none 
but an intelligent being. The reader is referred to 
the Extracts which Father Du Halde has taken from 
thcfe ancient books, in the fecond volume of his 
Hiflory of China, and what he farther fays in the 
beginning of the third, & to Banier's Mythology, 
Tom. I. p. 130. 

There is not only a great conformity between 
this Kink of the Chinefe and the Brehon Laws of 
the ancient Irifh, but the name of the fuprenie 
Being is alfo the fame. Ti, is the appellation of 
the great God in all the old Irilh writings, and 7/' 
mor^ i. e. 7/, God, fpirit, will, defign, intention, 
and fftor great, is the modern name of the fupreme 
Deity. See Shaw's Lexicon. Tiarna is the name 
for a prince, a lord, and alfo of God. Teinn^ 
Teann is ftrength, power, and alfo fire. Eampat 
2X[deampaid was the altar ftone, and tieampal form- 
ed the word Teampal a church, and the Latin Tem* 
plum. It is certain, that in thefe antient books^ 
proofs are to be found of tlie knowledge the^ Chi- 
nefe had of the fupreme Being, and of the religi- 
ous worfhip they have paid him for a long feries of 
ages ; it is no lefs certain that no footfteps are there 
to be fcen of an idolatrous worfhip. But tliis will 
appear lefs furprifing when we confider; ift. That 
Idolatry fpread itlelf through the world but flowly, 
and ftep by ftep ; and that having probably taken 
its rife in A{i}Tia, as Eufebius atledges, where there 
was not even the appearance of an Idol till long 
after Beks^ or according to others in Pbanicia or 
in Eff/pt^ it could not have rfiade its way fo foon 
K a into 


into China, a nation that has ever been fequeftcred 
from others, artd feparated by the great Indies from 
t!ie center of Idolatry. 

2jly, That there was alway&inChinaafupreme 
Court, or Court of Rites to take care of the aifTairs 
of Religionf which with the utmoft exadnefs kept 
a watchful eye over the principal objedt. Thus it 
Was no eafy matter to introduce new laws and new 
ceremonies among a people fo much attached to 
their antient traditions. Befides, as the Chinefe 
have always been accullomed to write their Hiftory 
with great care, and have hiftorians coteroporary 
with all the, fadls they relate ; they would never 
have failed to take notice of what innovations had 
happened in religion, as they have done at great 
length, when the idol Fo and his wordiip were in- 

Such was the eftablifhed religion of Qiina, and 
fuch nearly was the eftablifhed religion of the an- 
cient Irifli Druids : like the ancient Chiriefe, they 
never worlh pped any animal ; like them they had 
no carved or engraven images ; like them they be- 
Jieved in the Metcmpfycbojis, as a proof of the foul's 
exiftence after death ; and in this religion the Chi- 
nefe continued till the time of Confucius^ who hav- 
ing often repealed, that it was in the ff^cfttbey would 
find the Holy One^ they fent ambafladors into the 
Indies in queft of him ; thefe tranfportcd into Qnna 
the idol Fo^ together with the fuperftitions and 
Atheifm of that.fecft. 



The learned and ingenious anchor of Rscbercbes 
Pbdofopbiqites fur ks Egyptiens et ks Cbinois^ (a) has 
very clearly demonftrated from the worlhip, cuf- 
tums and ceremonies of the Chinefe, that they did 
not proceed from the Egyptians, but from the Scy- 
thians^ The collation of the Chinefe language with 
the Irilh or Ibcrno'CeltO' Scythian dialcft, will con- 
firm MonC Paw's aflertions. And with this 
author,' I am of opinion that they had not the ufe 
of Letters fe early as is pretended, for they feem to 
have loft their ancient Orthc^raphy ; from the pe- 
riihable materials their ancient books were com* 
pofed of^ it is impoffible, they could exifl many 
years as Monf. Paw has proved, and to this 
\ok I attribute, the prefent defed of the Chinefe 
language, viz. the omiffion of the letter R, and 
the termination of almoft every word with a vowel. 
The Irilh lofe the force of moft terminating con- 
fonants* but ftill preferve them in the writing, and 
that thefe confonants were in the roots of the words 
originally, is evident by comparing the Irilh Radices 
with the Hebrew. 

The prefervation of thefe confonants not founded 
in the Irifli diale£t, appears to be the llrongeft ar- 
gument for the eariy ufe of letters among the Irifh. 
The fimilttude of the IrUh language with all the 
Oriental dialers is aftonifhing; but particularly 
with the Arabic^ Perfic and Tartarian : and if the 
M Brttijb was once the fame language, the Br i tains 
muft have loft their dialed, becaufe fuch Words are 


(a) Monf. Paw, 2 Tom. 8vo. a Berlin, 1773. He is the 
author alfo of Rechercfaes fur lea Americaina ; a work re- 
plete with knowledge, leajming and difcernment. 




pot to be found in their Lexicons; but the more 
probable reafon of this firailitude is, that the Iri(l| 
language has been enriched with colonies of 
Oriental nations, from Spain and Africa^ agreeabls 
to the traditions of their moft ancient Seanacbies or 

The following vocables of the Chinefe Lan- 
gW^ge are e^tradted from the L^xi^ons of Bayer 
anjJ FpurniQnt : the roots or keys fas they call 
theni are only 2^14 in number; but the language 
as fpokep, they fay confifts of 1500 words, and 
the^ charai^ersi a^e 80,000 in number, to which 
thpy are daily iri^k^ng additions, as,_they improve 
in knowledge i^. for Monf.P. has plainly proved 
they a!re as yet but a very ignorant people, not- 
Withljanding the pornpous accounts given of 
them by the Miflionaries; and tlut the beft of 
the jnanufaftures brought from China to Europe^ 
are made in Japan, and exported fxom thence to 
China. . 

The manner of wjitiogufed by Uiis people muft 
at length become fo obfcure, that if ev^c arts and^ brougl^t to p^rfeOiQP among th^m, it 
will be impoffible to cootioue thq ufe of: it, or for 
poft^rity to read it. Vox exanlpie, if they would 
yfrntjom^ meubaveMle^a 'wild'beqfi ; t^hey make the 
chara<fter whicbexpreiresjf>^m/,to this they add the 
ch2|r^(^^r exprefling aimm^ thcjn th-^t of the verb to 
kiU\ aiOd, bfjlly, that of a mld:hf&fl^ all which are 
united in oae figure, without any other diftindtion. 

The. authors of the Univerfal Hiftory thusex- 
prefs thpmfelves concerning the Chinefe. 

That the defcendants ojf Jqpbet peopled China 
as well as fartary^^ we fee no reafon to doubt, tho' 



when they firft arrived in that Country, we cannot 
pretend to fay. That a confiderable part of it 
muft have been uncultivated, even in the year 637 
preceding Chrrift, when the Scythians^ under the con- 
duct of Maydes firft made an irruption into upper 
Afia, has been clearly evinced (b). That the lan- 
guage of the QnHefe was pretty nearly related to 
the Hebrew^ and the other tongues which the learn- 
ed confider as dialefts of it, notwithftanding what 
has been advanced to the contrary, we own o\ir- 
felves inclined to believe. Tbontqffintis^ Majfonius^ 
Rudbechus^ and Pfelfferus^ feem to have proved* 
this almoft to demonftratibn ; though Mr. Bayer 
does not come fo teadtly into their opinion. 

It is true a great number of words in the prefent 
Cbinefe feem not deducible either from the Hebrew 
or any other language ; but then thefemay b- con- 
fidered as an acceffion to the primaeval terms ufed in 
Cbinaj which were exceeding few, and undoubted- 
ly favoured of the primitive tongue, Thefe au- 
thors then proceed to examine y?i;r« roots, which, 
they fay, theChinefe confidcr as the firft and moft 
fimpleof any in; their language. Seven Roots in 
a language! Univerfal Hiffory, 8vo. London, 
1748", vol. 20. 

Treating of the origin of thfe Tartars aiiH Mo- 
guls, thefe learned authors obferve, that the .prOf . 
geny of Magogs Mijbecb and Tubals planted both- 


(^)Mdnf. Paw prom that raoft of the interior part* 
9LXt uncultiyated and uninhabited, at thia day, except the 
borders of the Riveri and of thp gireat Canals* lUcherchcp 



the Scythians^ and confequenily ihe country of the 
ancient Moguls and Tartars. I have fhewn the fimi- 
larity of the ' Kiimnc-Mongiil language with the Irijb^ 
in an EfTay on the Cehlc Language prefixed to the 
fecond edition of the Iri(h Grammar^ and fliall in 
this place take notice^ that the Irifh name for a 
bow or crofs-bow, is crann-tubbcul^ i. e. the bough 
orftick of TiibaL See all the Irilh Lexicons. 

Thefe obfervations will lead me to difcufs this 
fubjedt further, in a futi'.rc work. I (hall now pro- 
ceed to the collatioa of the Cninefe and Japohefe 
Languages with the Irifh, which I flatter rayfclf 
will confirm what I have frequendy advanced, viz. 
that the purity and antiquity of the Iri(h Language 
is ineftimable in tlie refearches into the Hiftory and 
antiquity of n^t:ons, and merits the attention of 
the learned, as Leibnitz, Lhuyd and many others^ 
have obferved. 

Collation of the Irijb with the Cbinefe and Japonefe 

It muft be obferved that the Chinefe from a vici- 
ous pronunciation^ have rejefted the found of the 
letters B, D, R, X, Z, and have changed thefe 
into P, T, L, S, S. The commutations of 
thefe letters is common in many European dialedls, 
yet none have abfolutely rejefted them. See 
Lhuyd's Compar. Vocab. 

The Orthography of the Chinefe words, in the 
Roman letter, varies much according to the nati* 
onal dialed of the tranfcriber ; for example, fuch » 
words as Bayer Avrites with 9, Ludovicus writes 
with tb\ cb with tcb-^ Fourmont with //^^. 



f (hall here follow Bayer. 

Non inutile erit fcirc, quern in modum Lufitani 
ct Hifpani base pronunciant. Lufitanicum et Hif- 
paxiicum fcribendi modum utcumqiiefequamur. 

An^ Dn efFeruntur pronunciatioiie inter utramque 
vocalem media, ficettamao etau, ut fit fonus ail- 
quis medius- 

f Hifpanico more efFertur. Ludovicus fcripfit 
tba^ pro^. 

C ante^et / ut apud Germanos et plerofque alios, 
ezceptis Italis. 

cb ut apud Italos c ante e et i> et apud Germa- 
nos fere ut tfch. Ludovicus (cripfit tcba pro cba. 

g ante ^ et i ut dfcb^ adfpiratione in gutture for- 
mata, in fine g eft durum. 

y et i ante confonantem et vocalem aliam, eo- 
dem fere modo ut de g diximus, efFeruntur: fed 
ore magis claufo et fibilante, iicyue fere utgue. 

ku et qu non difFerunt. 

n ante g tamquam unica litera pronunciatur. 

m in fine ut ng ore aperto, ut g liquidus expri- 

ie cum pun£to ut gallicum u fed ut fibbilum 

X xitfcb Germanicum. 

h fortitcr efFertur dura afpiratione ut proximo 
abfit a k. 
Signa quinque tonorum in hoc exemplo dari folent. 


Ya, flupor, gaige, gair, gairige, gean. 

Ya, excellens, gar, gaoine, gur, gaifg^* 

Ya,ya, anfer, ge. 

Ya, mutusy gaoi, taoi, to. 

Y4y denSf , feag, fia<ul> kia*cu], 

^ The 




The Reader muft obfervc, that in the Irifli^ the 
ternainating confonants are not founded, when af- 
pirated with the letter Zr; which makes the found 
of many words the (ame as in the Chincfe; thefe 
terminating Gpnfonants being Radices in the Hebrew^ 
Arabic and itifti, give great room to conje<Sture 
that the ufe of letters among the Chinefc, is not of 
fo ancient a date as they have aflerted, I mean of 
the letters or charadlers now in ufe in China: ; for 
according to Cuper and fP^iltzcn^ they had a differ- 
ent charafter a thoufand years ago ; a mirror of 
fteel was dug up at Vergatur in Siberia, wfth an 
infcription round the margin in Chincfe charaAers 
as it [was fiippofcd, which none of the Chincfe 
Litterati could read; they pretended to give a tran- 
flation, but it was conjefture only ; and faid the 
mirror was written in acharafter ufed inChlna about 
1806 years ago. See the 'account and figures in 
Lettres de Monf, Cuper ^ p. 20. The chatadters refem- 
ble the Irifli Ogbam^ given in the laft Edition of the 
Wfti grammar, and are probably thearifieiit Scythian. 

ybe Cbinefe langu^e collated with tbe^ trijb^ or 

Iberno-Celt(hScytbic Diaka. . 



qtaej-a Houfe, 


que, a hedge. 


curti a tree. 

gdrt, ceift, (eoirt,- bark). 

te, a houfc of recreation, 

ti ; teach. 

quia, :to walky » - ' • 



Dun, dunadh, daingean. 

tung, a billow. 


toa, a hot Cful, : 

teo, ward^i. dbig, fire. 

lang, a'raffn^. 

-lonn, ftrougi luinn, a 





C U I N B S £. 


tay ktL Thcfe words or charadters, fays Men- 

melius, are not the name of an emperor 

but of his title, i. e. principium rerum. 

Tai or Taidhe ku in !ri(h, will exprefs 

principium Hereu^. 

bonie, a monk, a her- bainze, entertainment. 

mit, whokeeps open 
houfe for tfavellers. 

\Lucn, quen, rcfpedt, 

kive, conneiStiony 

foe, (this rool betokens 
wet, nioifture.) 

chu, the chiaTaifter be- 
tokening command. 

xcn, the hand, greet- 
ing, (alutat^on. 

fu, learned J it is^ialfo 
Status et dignitas 
ma^idavini : nefcio 
c]^ in monAmen- 
to Sinico ^^plicetur 
Plebs, vir vulgaris, 
(fays B^cr) ut apud 
Menzeluini in Lex- 




foi and fo, the fame in 
Irifh as in foal, fual, 

fola, blood. 

foid, wet turf, 

foinfi, wells, fprings. 

foarge, fairge, the fea, 
&c. &c. 

fuidh, fui, calth, cu, as 
in cu-cullam, cu-^on- 
nor, &c. 

fonnas, greeting, (bak- 
ing by the hand. 

fuidh, faoi, noble, 

by the following Irifti 
word, we may fup- 
pofe Menzelius is 
right, for fiuihean^ 
fuihean, plebs, the 




fOy aloldier, fuoithresc, i. e. fuoai- 

teach, a feldier. 

9U9 it is, heis, ie, ife. 

hia, ooder, behind, iar, lia. 

xi, a temple, cfaurdif pa- fiib, the old name of the 
Jaoe, dnuchofCaflieiwad 

Sitb-dnim; fithbbe, 
a city. 

£uit czpiatioD, fan-leac, the floae of 

Expiation, thename 
of the Dniidical al- 
tars in Ireland, with 
a top ftone in an 
inclined pofition ; 
hence probably the 
lri(h fan and the 
Latin fanum, a 
churcfa;,^-i/!Air and 
cram-JeaCj are fyno- 
lumous words for 
this altar; hence 
Fhanephorus, i. e. 
ibiis iacerdos, quia 
fim/al. See Sac 
cbeus^ ch. 69^ de 
cxpiaiioms dtaris 
rim. Arab. Perf. 
>^nr«j, a Pharos. 

guei, fear, dread, agb, fear. 

guidhe, prayer, entreaty, 
gubha,bemoaning,a fiiif- 



tu^ country, land, tuatb. 

yo, cruel, dora. 

ngan, fortune, profpe- gaoine. 


yeu, yeus, the right deas, yas, dcafuith. 


90, 91, the left handy cli, fo, awkward 


dzy, the fouth, deas: 

fy, thf weft, fiar, iar. 

turn, theeaft, tarn, tuaim, oir. 

pe, the north, teth» badhbh. 

nan, the fouth, noin. 

There cannot be a ftronger fimilitude in any two 
languages than in thefe names of the cardinal 
points of the compafs. The Irilh, after the man- 
ner of the Hebrews and all oriental nations, name 
thefe points, with refpeft to the fituation of the 
perfon looking to the Eaft ; thu^ Oir^ is before 
or in front ; tuaim Is the fame ; it fignifies alfo the 
face or front ; ( tuaim ^ i. e. idan^ u e. agbaidb^ (oU* 
glo/s. (f tbe Irijb language) tuachioU moving 
round againlt the fun ; deas is the right hand, and 
tbe South ; JioTy behind, in rear, and the Weft ; 
/«^, is the left hand, and the North; tetb (te) 
and badbbb^ or bav^ are alfo names for the North. 
Hence the northern Chinefe, to fignify they were the 
iirft inhabitants of China, call the Southern Chinefe 
ftm-dzy^ Barbarians, or Sotith-men. See ^ef-^ 
tiones PetropoKtana de nominibus Imperii Sinarum^ p. 
35. Gottingae, 1770. 




It has been obfcrved by fome Irifh writers that 
^Eirin, the. name of Ireland could not be derived 
ixomjiar or tar the Weft. Thefe authors did not 
know that aeron or icrcuH in Hebrew implies fVeft- 
ward^ the fame as the Phoenician' Ibcr-nae^ at 
Weflern Ifland. 


^im, a key> 

hu, a wolf, 

yum, glory, 

chum, menfura, 

guei, honoured majefty, 
min, to engrave. 

lie, fcries, order, 
kin, a commander, a 


ting, the clafp of a lock, 
tongue of a buckle, 

faoil-chu (faoil, treache- 

daimh, dia-yaimh, the 
glory of God. 

tomadh, to meafure ; 
cumha, a veffel. 

gur, guimh. 

minn, mann« 

mindreach, an engraved 

dreac, an image, is the . 
root of the word 
man-dreac, or man- 

miun, a letter of the 
alphabeit, becaufe 
engraved in the 
bark of the anci- 

lai, laine, laidhne. 

cionn, ceann* 




kin» to inhabit, dwell, 
teu, the head, , 

mien, foundation of a 

niu, a woman, 

yven, hiven, a deep 
abyfs; the material 
heavens for fim fig- 
niBes excellent- 

van, dead, 

van, without (fin^) 

kam, great> drynefs, 

yen, fpcech, 

kien, a crime, a fault. 


tuatm^ the face, /4/>, ^»/>, 
tuas^ the head^ the 
top; hence iua^ a 
noble, and ta, u e. 
mulean^ an owl or 
the great headed 

meln to dig; hence mine, 

nae, a woman, naing,a 

duvaigbin^ dovasn^ an a- 
byfs; wtfv, heaven; 
fta-eavnus^ heaven, 
i. e. flaitheamhnus, 
fla, noble, great, 

bann, bano» death, 

fan, gan. 

cam-lofithe, burnt up, 
parched with heat ; 
cuime, hard, pro- 
bably this is the 
root of the Irifh 
caoinufiy the mur- 
rain among catde, 
proceeding from 
great droughts. 

caint, hean-mor, i. e. 
Ihean-mor, great 

cionn, cionta.. 




kuon, amitre^ a crown, cean-beirt> a helmet, a 

chu, reft, cafe, fua, fuamh; hence, fuan, 

found fleep. 
kiun, a (bldier, cuathan, kethrain, (bl- 

kua^ qua, a certain di- cuar^ i. e. draoidheacht, 
vination by lots> (oldglofs.) Sorcery 

or Druidic know- 
cuigt a fecret art» 
cuarcumaifgna draoithe, 
the magical circle 
of the Druids, 
cu-ard-thofaight the 
great Druidical 
crann-cuir, a divination 
by twiggs or (licks, 
cuivrionn, forcery ; rainn 
is alfo forcery. 
film, breath, wind> feidhm, afigh. 

fu, to die, fab, death, 

para, chief leader of ar- fithbhe, fithmhe. 

kua, the penalty of cumal; the common 
man-flaughter, word' is £/>/>, which 

' rather implieis a tri- 

bute; in Sclavoni- 
an baraci in Turkito 
guei, a circle, about, cuar, cuairt. 
round about^ 



ge, the fun, theday, grith, the fun; ce» the 

night ; gerait, the 
heavens,, i. e. ait 
(the place of) ger^ 
(the fun.) 

yve, themoon, gabhar (gavar) i. e. 

folus, gan timdhi- 
bhe, i. e. gan loigh- 
diughadhy a light 
without a blaze, 

kin, a hat, bonnet» &c< ccanti-^fg, ceann-bheirt* 

cuQ), to reverence, to cam. 

leo, weakneis, decay of leon^ 

xam, dupreme, a man- feitnh, rich, honourable^ 
darine, a bonza, learned in the law 5 

fairah-feler, a coun- 

cam, a palace, fambh, i.e. teaghmaith^ 

(oldglofs.) ciom, a 
ftone building. 

gin, a man, mankind, gein^ duine. 

ho, fire, aoth, doigh. 

yum, eternity, gomhnuigh^. 

yu, monumentum tern- uibhal ; ^uare f 

lim, to teach, lamas, learned ; luam, 

. an abbot, ' an in- 

&Q, pious, charity, caoin, kin*ealta. 



fo, to overcome. fo, a prince, a conquer- 

or; £u>i, fubjugat- 

tay, an age ; fosculumy a taidhe, taiteog, a mo- 
fpace of time. ment ; taithmhead^ 

a record, a monu- 
ment or memorial. 

hy 90, to make, iaor, a workman, ope- 


ye, night, cd, ge, oidhche (e pro- 

^ien, a great man, a man feine, fscinb, fan^ i.e. 

to be refpe£ted. ri frigheadh, (oU 

xia, goodnefsy fo, faine. fita, firian. 

fU) fummus regni fena- fuidh, (aoi. 

die, him, that, fe. 

kiu, to go about, to cuadh, cuairt. 

leao, a cabin, a hovel, laithreach, leath^taice, a 

houfe proped up. 
kirn, to bend, to bow cam, to worlhip, to 

one's felf; cem, a adore. 

kiv^n, a dog, cuib, cuivin» cuan. 

ngao, proud, g^g* gptlia. 

fum, wages, hire, fath, fathan, fonnfa, 

hired foldiers. 
fu, a mafler, fo. 

chucn, to promulgate, cuadhan, i. e. innifinn, 




C H I N B 8 B. 

jr It I 6 H» 

iiara, an image or like- 

ffunh, iamhlachd. 


chuen, a torrent, a ri- 

cuan, a river's mouth, a 


port i fummaine. 

roaring waves j 

fcheineadh, a tor* 


xu, a tree. 

fuibh, the fap ot a tree. 

CAibhas, a tree. 

nge, the countenance» 

an aghaidh. . 

the forehead. 


lin, fall, collefted. 


teu, fighting, quarrelling 



among friends. 

yo, a found, a voice. 

caoine, fing^ng. 

zui, water. 


ciam, afpear. 

iaaibag, a (harp pointed 


feamfa, a hail 


fceimhle, fgeimhle, a 

fkirmifli with fpear- 



K joy. 

lua, luath^gair. 

turn, winter. 


chi, ftirps familis, 


ful, flow,, late. 


rao, a knife, a hatchet. 


kim, integer, opus to- 

cim, kim. 


lie, the law. 


xao, virtue, fuperior. 





C H I K E4S E. 


cum, a bow, etarmaad 

cuim, afemictrcle ; cum. 

arcum pertinentiay 

a combat with bows 

and arrows; cume. 

a coat of mail. 

nic, (fcad. 

nas, death. 

ki, invited. 


chi, qui, quae, quod. , 

ci, cii. 

5U, a fon. 

lao, old age, to reve-' 

liath, grey-headed i Kth, 

rence, to worftiip/ 

of old ; lith, a fo- 

lemn feftival. 

can, oppofite, againft,* 

a ceann, ceanntradha. 

cuon, to fell or buy,- • 


9ai, learning. 

fui, faoi. 

yun, in , the fingular 

aon, ceann. 

number, * 

nieu, an ox, bull or cow, 

Ian, noir. 

nao,' to be angry. 

ainine, angen 

kie, felicity. 


kieu, a mountain, ca- 



u, five. 


chi, quiet,' peace, reft. 


chuan, quen, a river, a 



tien, land, country. 


ki, a hog, orfow. 


tarn, an altar. 

taim, a fepulchre. 

fa, a great city, ^ 

fo-lis; lis, a fort- 

tarn, pride, 


quon, a mandarine,* 

keann, keann cuire, an 

officer over a band 

of foldiers. 




kc, a trader, a mer- 
kia, ahoiife, 
roe, wheat, 
cbeu, afmallcity, 
chu, a moufe, 

fnu» mother. 

hiun, the elder brother, 

90, the foot, 

kia, a cup, 

xeu, good, 

geu, a vomit, 

keu, all, 

vo, a houie, 

fuj a man, 

gin-fen, the root ginfen, 
quafi homini fimilis 
radix, eft enim man- 
, dragorae forma, 

tun, chaos, 

lieu, to flow, to pro- 




man. ^ 

cathair, caer. 

luchu, fujridb^ nimble, 
aftive; hence the 
French /ouris. 

ma, mathair, mother; 
athair, father. 
N. B. Aibar is to 
cleave to, to em- 
brace, to twine a- 
about, as atharlus, 
ground-ivy; i. c. 
the twining plant. 

aidhne, achne, aine. 


cuac. ' 

gein-fin i fear fean, i. e. 
homini fimiiis. 


lia, a flo6d i liah, pro- 
mulgated, news, 



haiy the fea, ai-gein ; hence ocean ; 

aithbhe, the ebb of the fca. 

kiam, an arm of the Tea, camus. 

fun, any (bining matter, foinionn. 

min, a river, ^ mein, a harbour } aman, 

a river. 

muen, full, muadhan. 

chi, tfchi, ftirps fami- aofac, tuis, tuifcac. 

lu, a road^ a way, jour- lua, the foot, the adtion 
ncy, of walking, haften- 

ing along. 

heu, after, afterwards, hiai, i.e. an dhiagh. 

kie, and, keo. 

fan, contrarius, fan. 

chuen, arms, warlike, ciia, martial ; funn, for- 
tified; funn caif- 
le^n, a fortified 

gin, the point or edge ginn. 
of a plow-fliare, 

chin, piety, cineal. 

5ai, a wound, a thruft, faith. 

ko, arms, co,co-croth, a target; co- 

drum, arms^ wea- 

chai, fafting, caith-cachfa, hunger. 

cacht, a faft. 
cargus. Lent, the fafting 

\\o\y a fortified city, choi. 

9en, a (heepfold, fion, fiona, a confine- 




kiven, parents, kindreds cine, kine, kaovneas» 


511, a fon, fo, a youth ; foi-fior, the 

a colt ; fcoth, a fon. 

pai, falutation, cither in baigh, love, fricndfliip; 
fpcech or writing, phaihe, failte, the 

Irifti falutation. 

chen, weak, infirm, feang. 

hiao, to worihip, adore, iodh, a facrifice; iodh- 
to obey, bcirt, the feme 5 

altori iodhan, holy 
altar; aoraaodhra, , 
to worfliip, to a- 
dore; aodhradhdon 
Righ, obedience to 
the king. 

9icu, auturfin, futh, fine weather j faotb, 

the harveft feafon. 

kicn, to elevate, cionn* elevation. 

guei, becaufe, although, gur, ge, gd-go. 

ye, ad regionum nomina ibh. 

chu, to divide, cuid, divifion. 

rim, promotio dodtorum cam. 
ad aulicorum, 

yu, the top or fummit, udh, uas, uan. 

tien, true hiftory, teann, truth ; tiomna, the 


fo a fon, fo*j ^f ^^^ ^^^^ womb. 

xoa, a broom, a comb, Icuab, a broom j cir, a 





(iao, to cook, to boil, 
puen, fundamcntuni) 

mi, rice, 
lin, a coUeftion of trees, 

lui, a harrow. 

cha, a fork, 
cim, war, 

bieu, corruption, putrid. 

fern, life, youth, 
teu, a meafure, 
kin, diligently, 
xue, prophet. 

uc, a fwine, 

tien, ti, an emperor, a 

tien, heaven, that is, 
the fpirit who pre- 
fides over heaven ; 
hence the ti-ampai- 
flly the great altar of 


fath, cooked viftuals, 

min, meal, flour. 

lion, a gathering or col- 

kliath, a harrow; lui, 
branches of trees, 
to harrow with. 

lath, a thmft with any 

cime, captives ; fam- 
hadh, aflembling 

buireadh, corrupt mat- 
ter i buidhe, a 
plague ; buinne, an 

famh, active, lively. 

tomhas, a meafure. 


fuaitheantais, a prophe- 
cy ; fur, invcftiga- 

rucht, muc. 

tonn, a king. 

tiarna, a lord ; ti, God. 

ti-mor, the great ti, or 
the fupreme being, 
God; this is the 
Beil'ti-morj or great 
fpirit of fiaal, whofe 




7/; from whence the 
Celtic tiampul^ and 
the Latin, tempJum. 
.. Ampaiy eampai or 
eampaidby was the 
fione altar of facri- 
ficetoTi; Thefe al- 
tars being always in 
excel/is^ the Greeks 
from thence formed 
their ompbi-el and /i/- 
ompbi or Olympus. 
See Mr. Bryant's 
learned obfervations 
on this word. Ann- 
ent Mythology, Vol, 

tan, a region, 

lum, a dragon, a fer- 

kieu, a flower, 

lii precious, valuable, 

fum, honorari a Rege 
primum involuerum 

9uon, color papaveris 

mo, the end or extre- 

mo, fruit, 

yen, foft, fweetf 

to, univerfal, 


grcfit altar was at 
the town of Balti- 
more, in the coun- 
ty of Cork ; fo alfo 
Beil-ti-an-gleas or 
the pure undefiled 
fpirit of Baal, from 
whence Baltinglafs, 
in the county of 


leoman, a lyon, a dra* 

lua, lith. 
fo, fom, honour, efteera j 

follam, a cover. 

fugh, fughan, purple. 


meas, muadh, ripe. 






tneot to judge^ to cod- 

man lao^ favi^esy L e. 

ken, evident, 
kan, the trank of a tree, 
fan, to Ihine, 
fu, domtnus, 
diu, a hero, 
kiun, a prince, 
gu, underfianding, 

lie, a purging medicine, 
chu, dominus, 
van), to die, 
him, happy, favour, 

li, ceremony, 

cbo, to pray to befeech, 

fo, fortuna, 

fo, the firft letter in fo- 

cyam, felicity, 
keu, a dog, 
leu, a prop, 
lo, food, 
fu, a facrifice, 
fu, a fenator, 
chi, quiet, reft, . 

I JL I S H. 

tuinigb, a judge; tuin- 
neamb, death; tu- 
inge, an oath ad- 
mifufbred before a 

modb, luc 

ceaoa, behold. 

oonnas, connadh. 



fuadh, cua, caith. 

cionn, ceann. 

guth, fpeedi. 

guag, a fellow of no 

fc£f a purge or vomit, 
amhra, aimbeann, iom* 

li, lil, lith. 
foir, foirim. 
fo. . 
fo, the head. 



leath, leathtaice. 




fuidh, fuadhnas* 




ko, to worfiiip, 

chc, palilalia, tcrmi- 

kiao, learning, wifdom^ 
chi, todeiift, 

guei, to join together^ 

xani a mountain, 
fui, a year, 

lam, domicilium^ 
ki, the air, 
ngai, tolove^ 
lin, covetous, 
vom, finis, 
tan, reddifi], 
cheu, a (hip, 
CO, a bone, 

chao, early in the 

hoei, the time of new 
moon, obfcurity^ 

kien, Ifee^ 

lo, a rib. 


laomhdha, proftrated. 

keadal, keadhfadh. 

fith, fioth, fit-fit, leave 

guth, a vowel, quafi 
junxit in unum. 


faoghaU an age, a cer- 
tain fpace of time. 



gean^ love. 

lionn, leann. 



fud, fchiid. 

coth, fle(h. 

moch, i. e. am ocaidhf 
the time for work, 

oidhche, the night. 


lo fcems to be the root 
of all words ex- 
prefling the parts 
of the body, as 
long, the bread; 
lorg, the thigh; 



lois, the hand ; lo- 
thac, finews, veins, 
&c. &:c. 
fienfcm, firftborn, fionfior, feine. 

xui, water, fuir, uifce. 

9hao9 a multitude, faith. 

ku, a caufe, a reafon, cus. 
kia, a burthen, a load, kial, kuaU 
kirn, dm, I a(k or pray, gim, guidhira, 
yam, a (heep, uan, a lamb- 

gin, to recolleft, to re- cinim, cuimhnighim. 

cim 90, I pray you be guidhim fuidhthe, 

kai, oportebat, kaithear, 

kan, to drink, kanac, water, liquid. 

pai, proftration. baic i. crom. 

•^heuye, dies et nox ce dhia. 

una fimul, 
9hin, to prognofticate fine, weather. 

weather, clnneam huin, ominous 

prognoftications of the 
to, fecret, to, dumb, fjent. 

fiun, to vifit, fiona, to idle away time. 

fon, to chat, to talk to- 
nan, the foul, anm. 

pu, beans, peafe, pon, ponelne. 

gao, to laugh, gaire. 

miao, fupreme, excel- muadh, maor. 




ma, a horfe, 

tu, a hare, 

(ic, a concubiae. 

mo, moft high, 
^eu, I go, I run, 
nien, a year, 
cbu, a jewel, 
cheg, tchcg, a houfe, 
kua, a melon, 
guQ| honourable, to 

to, the helm of a (hip, 
niao, ki, hvan, avis, mo- 
dus volandi. 

ki, a hen, 

min, a command, a ma- 

ku, a goat. 




fi, feminine, fiteog, the 
fame ; nua-coin- 
feac, fiurcach, a 

mo, monn. 

fuibhal, cuadh. 

eang, neang. 



kuamar, mor great. 

guaire, this was the name 
of feveral IriQi prin- 
ces; the termina- 
tion aire is a chief; 
gubeamidhim, to 
govern, i. e. nid* 
him, to adt; gu 
bearr, the part of an 
honourable judge. 


namham, fnamham, to 
a bird; ci, ce, a 
goofe; fciathan, a 



ku, a dog, a hound; 
gour, i. e. gabhar, 
a goat. 


^^^^^SB. IRISH 

fay, colours, c,i^ jy^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

I . &c. fait, colour, 

lean,, nee. learn, taftelefs, infipid. 

tay, a bench, theatre, ti, teach, taidhleac. as in 

throne, a featofdig- Eo,tan taklel 

^* Owen the glorious 

r^^ ^ ■ . . *nd honourable. 

Po£r°°L "^'^ P<»°««=.8°ld foil. Plate 

P;._9^ fine <™.. goHg^aicrf^pre- 

ven theev.. aoue ornaments, 

yen. the eye, ^.^han, aedh,r%*r*;is 

the bird named dn, 
from quicknefs of 

cheu to invite to a po- cua;n,'fuiJ'hinge,chearful 

. '^"°"V over a glafi. the head, mionn. 

?an, praife, commcnda- (5an, fann. 

Che hum, red, fkinne, purple. 

. ^ <anarc, red orpttnent. 

hoa, to write, pingue odh, the point of the 
'"^"■» ftylus with which 

the ancients wrote $ 
odh, mufick and 
mufical notes, 
tao ye, legum dominc, taich, judex. 

aye, ODomine. 
ngan, ancnclofure, ganar. 

lao, an old womap, Ijath, old. 



juen, longevity, . cian, gian. 

miaoy the roaufoleum mias, an altar, a tumu- 
<tf a king, lus. 

The ancient Chinefe begun their reckoning of 
time from the night i the ancient Irifh and Scythi- 
ans did the fame. 

Thft ancient Chinefe divided the year into four 
quarters or feafons, and named the months from 
the beginning, middle and end of each qparter ; 
the ancient Iri(h did the fame. See tbefe explain- 
ed in the firft Edition of the Irifti Grammar. 

The Chinefe named the 1 2 months of the year 
from certain animals; the ancient Irifh did the 
iame, and from the operations of the feafon in 

The Chinefe name the Zodiac, kum ge^ the 
houfe of the Sun ; the Iri(h name is Grian-Jiadij the 
flopping places of the Sun : they call it alfo Grian-crios^ 
and Griam-bcacbt ; i. e. the belt or ring of the fun. 

The Chinefe facrificed horfes, oxen, Iheep, 
d<^s, fowl and hogs (c) ; the ancient Irilh did the 
£ime, as appears by the preceding laws. 

The Chinefe mode of burying their princes, was 
fim'dar to that of the ancient Iri(h. Du Halde 
gives an exaggerated defcription of the monument 
of Schi-chuan-di, ercded on the top of the moun* 

tain , 

(c) Les differentet filtes de 1' annee conftituent fix genres 
nommes vulgairement Pao-chiy ceft a dire le beufy le cheval, 
la brebisy Ic chien, la poule & enfin le achon, dont le fang 
code a grand flots on I'honneur de tous les Dicux Chinolfe. 
Rccherches Pbiiof* torn. i. p. 220. 


U^n c :* Ly, vnx,* '-'.. J>::c*ir ^xicilj w;d; our 
Infh Carzis^ czc?*pr:.'g the -lic cf q jic'iiLvcr, and 
the ^ '.dtn bids &.r'-jz thrro>3» whidi he iays 
was in the fabttcrzz^cczs part — feci £i.tbcr Da Halde 
has exaggerated in ina::;*' ccber parts of Lis Hiftory 
of Chira. 

The Chzztxc divide dieir Maadaxines or Xobles 
mtopciai^; the anciex:! Irilh dirided dieir Nobles 
or Aireac&s ict^ 9 cl^flea. 

The Crloeie oD&rve the Equinoxes and SoUiioes, 
asre!^ous fclu-nnitiea, at which time tfaey offer 
£MjiSccSy AND the anciem Irifli did the fame. 






I R I S H. 

yqwwpyv<¥ * y'^p<pvyy<p4>gvy^ 



' Jy 






R I S H. 

1 H E Ifland of Japon was probably firfl peopled 
from China; but the Japonefe having traded with 
the Manchou Tartars, and fettled thefe people in 
the ifland, they are now a di(lin£t nation from the 
Chinefe, and have a language peculiar to thdhi- 
felves. This language is probably for the moft part 
that of the Manchou Tartars, who were of Scy- 
thian origin, as were alfo the tribes of the Huns, 
Alans, Avares, Turks, Moguls and Parians (a). 
The authors of the Univerfal Hiftory, place a 
branch of* the Huns alfo, in the fartheft part of 
Afia, under the name of Cunadani or Canadant\ fo 
called from Conad^ their habitation near the city. 
Hence fay they we find a city in upper Hungary, 
built by their defcendants, denominated Cbonadj the 
inhabitants of which, and thofe of the neighbour- 
ing diilrift, ftill retain the name of Cbonadi or Cu- 
naib\ From thefe Hornius believes the natives of 
M 2 Canada^ 

{a) Univ. Hlft. vol. 20, p. i68* 


CdKjd'i^ in North America, to have deduced their 
oiigin and denoraination. 

Tiiis is no certain evidence of the migration of 
th';; Huns into the new world, for Comud is an ori- 
ginal word for a fettled abode or dwelling, and is 
the only word now ufed by the Irifti. They write 
it Combnaidbe and Conaidb^ and thefe words exprefs 
both a dwelling, and to be at quiet, or to reft. In 
Arabic, Canlox Kanc^ is alfo a houfe ; and Conaidb- 
didne and Conaidb-dae^ in the Irifli, implies men 
fettled or dwelling in one place, ^ diftindlion pro- 
perly made between them and the Nomades or wan- 

When the Europeans firft came among the Ca- 
nadians of North America, they were told that 
Chinefe and Japonefe (hips had been there before 
them: And -^jg^ii fays, that Chinefe (hips had been 
wrecked in the Mare del Nord^ above Florida. 

To prove the Japonefe fettlements in America, 
the authors of the Univerfal Hiftory, feleA a few 
words common to both people, viz. 

Cbiapa^ a river, province and lake in Mexico, 
Kejapan^ in the ifland of Trinidada. 
ToniUj in Japonefe, the fun, moon, ftars, go- 
vernors, kings, princes, 
Tonaj the moon. 

Thefe words are not thus written by Father 
D. Cullado^ who publifhcd the Japonefe Lexicon 
in 1632, from which the following collecftion is 
made; 7/>«, is the Heavens, but it is explained in 
a very different manner, namely the dwelling of 
the great Spirit or God 7/, as has been defcribed 



ia the Chinefe. Tona^ the moont may be derived 
from the Iberno-Scythic tonuadh^ glittering; but 
fom was a common title given to Irifli princes. 
See Titles of Honour in the preceding pages. 
Motezumej or Motazaiuma^ is the common appella- 
tion or title of the emperors of Mexico and of 
Japon ; but T'aoi/e^ ^^f^y Taoifeac and 7avifeamb^ 
are words in ail the old languages, as well as the 
Irifh, to exprefs a chief or prince ; it is alfo written 
ywi, and in the Chinefe contrafted to ?)?; Mo is 
great; thus Motazuma^ is the great chief or emperor; 
thus in Irifh Ruire is a champion ; and Ruirmefatn^ a 
degree of nobility. 

The learned author of the Recbercbes Pbilqfophiques 
fur Ics Americains thinks he has made a difcovery in 
the Hiftory of Japon (b). ** I fuppofe, fays he, 
the Tartar Lamas or the Mongah^ have in a very' 
remote time, conquered Japon, and carried their 
manners and religion to thefe iflands, having efta- 
blilhed a Grand Prieft, fubjetl to the Dala Lama of 
Thibet. The ecclefiaftic fovereign of Japon, which 
our travellers name fometimes Fo^ and fometimes 
Dari^ has under him many bilhops, who are called 
KucbeSy and by fome modern authors Cnb6\ the 
Portugueze write the nanie Dairi and Dairb. The 
Pricfthood is much humbled by the preponderating 
faftion of the Japonefe tyrants, and is now become 
an empty title without power. 

This fettlement of the Tartar Lamas in Japon 
will appear in a (Ironger light, if we confider that 
Xaca is the principal divinity .of the modern Japo- 
nefe and of the. Lama. 1 do not recolledt any 

{h) Tom. 2d* p. 363. 



hiftorian who has made thefe obfervations before, 
which may ferve to illuftrate the hiftory of Japon/* 

With fubmiifion to this learned author, the au- 
thors of the Univerfal Hiftory had eftabliflied the 
fad before. 

Strabkuberg has given another name for the 
principal Deity of the Monguls^ viz. Borr-cbeann^ 
which is an old word in Irifti and Wckh, fignify 
ing Lord, mailer (c)^ Xoca^ or Saca was alfo the 
name of the great God with the Scythians^ it is 
now written by the Irifh Seaibar. 

Dairi is a proper name with the Iriih, (ignifying 
greats excellent^ learned ; dru^ or dam in the Perfic, 
16 a good man, and is the root of the Irifti Draoi^ 
or Drus^ a Druid or Magus ; it was alio the name 
of a Celtic King, as Covarrurias the Spanifti Hifto- 
rian informs us, in his Te/oro^ or repofitory of an- 
cient cuftoms. ^* Druidas, ciertos facerdoies de 
^^ Francia antiguos eftimados en mucho, y dichos 
^^ afTi fegun la opinion de algunas del nombro del 
" quarto Rey de los Celtos dicha Druy*' Cobasy 
Cuibais^ Cutbj do alfo betoken the Head, Su- 
preme, or Holy, in the Irifti Language. 

From the affinity of words in ancient languages 
no folid bafis can be formed, for the conftrudlion 
of hiftory. The language of Japhet and his de* 
fcendants was the univerfal tongue ; it is moft won- 
derfully preferved in the Irifti, and with the affift- 
ance of this language, the hiftorian will be enabled 


{c) See the Mongul language collated with tbe Inih* in 
the Eflay on the Celtic language, in the preface of iny Iriffi 
GrBn[>mary 2d. edition, and Boxhorniui de Lingua Galfica, 
at the word mii 

CaLLATPKBi WitH -atMEP. I.Riai* 1^1 

to un&^d the* origin, ofi pQoptejJ Miirlhft felQlk^ejit 
of Gc^nics. ia tfic, vatBitt54»(|sv^>4he pjfjt yif<y:^ 
The eaBphnatiosK o£ thQi?EtVib^ifl^.tn^^>'b|y .^ 
Inlh languages has been mf^i^^ in 9& i^^j^i^RQf 
Itghii in a fuiure oumbqr^. tilv5.fubjjQa^n^^l[%ll^ 
more fully- explained, andrths i^gi?^^^^ .^he L^ 
mas xifWl be(bewo to bay^ n[)i|i(^c9»9&£ticfQ«.»fub 
that erf ibe ami^m linlb. 

Tbe au^rs of tb^ Uuiyer.fel Hiftpry^ ypry 
juftly obferye, ^at the.dodlnne^oC the Brf^chipia? 
or Braborins^ i? related by (jiflrqOTt.aut|]i9ra^^>»(ithf 
variety, riotea&to h^ tieconfiledi the oQCi^iQa.^ 
which ha$ hec© mom ow\^j& t? i|i^ re)ator.> wj^m 
of IkiH wjii:?^^. langjaage, thsnltO; the. ^e^^vedgf jEf 

of tkfi tir^^m^a^' rl^kt (m^^^ 

ne^l. of nU ite w^rl^s of thp jrpijEppaiiieVi^wjj^ 
fof a feria of .y^aw have, impofed' wpon tl^,.)^QlJ4 
by their piibKcationb; :...':; r^dT 

Monfieur ^ \m veiiy le»rMdH' cppfu^j^ i?iwar 
romantic fterie$! of thefe xxwdhl^.pcd^ntM4pih^ 
Ibcitfi^s PMcfcfb^s^ Tbekf!WOt.4flg$arft^.K^t , 
riom^ afxiffo «oliimtnK2)ais,,thatiit>will,^qmrf^^^ 
years^ tapurge'-the x^hoil^ot^iiitit eff^tg^mp^^^ 
disrSi. "-' '•• ■ - •:■ .^ ix*...i:.} 

In none of their workar. have thbycaqi>pf(?d-t^j^ . 
fckes more . thaft in the ^ Hiftony of P<xm\; rthfty 
tdi as, the Peruvians eelebpata fh^ fem toej, fd^ifii^ 
with a grand feaft called Raj^mi.i the ^rindpaK patt 
of the ceremony confiflls irt^«^tittg bcead^i wdnich 
they call canton oxcaneu. This Cancu is made^'by / 
virgins deyoie4 to the wovlfiip of P^ncb^.€kihac^ 
or the Suh\ antf A'cofta tells- <i6> *^' their* accounts 
-::.''•• ■.;.'• 'he 


las-cxAild nor miiDrtbe age of die woiid more than 
ipx>years I N<)w ^br ancient Iri(h named the fum- 
mer ]iol^ce, Rffmn^^J&mj RdmoMi that is a be- 
grnning,' as tlie> conceived rise Sun then began bis 
anntkf *courfe;/te>fi alfo fig^nified aferies; hence 
i?irV«, Riogboy the chronology' of Kings. They 
named the day of the Soiitice Cm-dr^ or Caom- 
kir^ that is, can head, kir circye, to fignify the 
Son was then at the head, or beginning of the cir- 
cle; a day' they celebrated with fires in honour cf 
JBaalat Panga Sacnbasy that is, the ghlmlar fun \ 
fires are ftill made all over Ire&nd, in ho- 
nour of Sr/Jofin, whofe feftival falls oh this 
^ay. Rhnmifty Was* the Irifli folemn^feftrvalof all 
tfe heavenly h6ft~' probably on this da/. " Seethis 
'wofd djfplained in the Eflay on the Aintiquity of 
^e Irifli Language. .Collectanea, Noi 8, vol* S* 

The crab being a remarkable animal for w'aHc^ 
Tn^ backward, none could more properly defcribe 
ih^i jpkce in the Heavens at which^ as one of the 
hani^r^iof the Sun^ cdurfe, whea he vas arrived, 
hf^^k'gah to ^o batkward, and to defoerid |>bliquely ; 
Hcnceifhe Latin mmtCancer for ajcr^b, qThe Irifti 
named this fifh prtain^ that is, the door of the 
rinfgi'^s. they did the. year bltadbaift^ corrupted, 
ifoth £eilrai\ or the ring of Be/w, Trogb-ain^ 
the rifrfig of the Sirt, &c. &g. The Chinefe name 
the. 2todiac.tew^d5,.i.*e; the houfe of the Sun, a 
ifamae fwnilar iqpQr(/Hn%\ the firft fign in it, viz. the 

crab/-' .• * , 

. »^Wl,(it will philofopfeefs (ay to t^his identity of 
names and cujIg^jos between the ancient Irifli and thje 
Peruvians ? Will ihe modern hiftorians ftill con- 


fine the peopling of this Ifland to the third century ? 
Let them recoiled what f^arenius faith/*^rrj/&»d!ri« e^ 
fepientripnalis AMSRtCiC partem olim adbejiffe Hibbr- 
Ki iE.** He gueflfed it to be more likely thai the north- 
cm part dc America (hould in old times have joined^ 
or come near to Ireland. Within the (pace of thefe 
lad ten years, a bank of fand has been difcovcred 
which extends from the Weft of Ireland to the 
brinks ot Newfoundland \ this gives great reafon 
to think Varenius had good grounds for his conjec- 
ture. I cannot avoid noticing in this place that in 
the Iriflj Language Du-Culedonu or Dur-Cakdom^ 
exprefles the ikwd or waters of Caledonia, or the 
Scotch Sea;, hence Bertius in his Breviarium fpeaks 
as a certain truth that Deu Caledonia or the flood faid 
to have been in ^bejjfaly^ ftioyld have been placed 
in the Scotch fea. 

Mr. Aftle of London,, a very diligent enquirer 
into remote antiquity, has obligingly fumilhed roe 
with an ancient MS. in Irifti, on Aftronomy ; I pro- 
pofe at leifure to favour the public with a tranflation 
and obfervations on this MS. it is the Ptolemaic fyf- 
tcm explained. The Iri(h call thefalllices by another 
name, viz. Grianfiad \, that is the flopping place 
of the Sun ; .the Zodiac is named Grian-crios^ the 
belt or circle of the Sun. The learned reader will 
rccollcift the Granneus Apollo^ and the city of Gry- 
neim of the ancients ; and that the Latin Solftitium 
is of the fame conftrudion as Grian-ftat. 

Doctor 0*Bricn at the word RatUi% .or as it is pro- 
nounced Raba^ a quarter of a year or three months, 
makes the following obfervation i — ** This word 
carries ail the appearance of being corrupted and 




changed from its true radical formationt hiitbe fasnc 
manner that the word Bhadbaifty et» yeart hadi been 
corrupted from Bel-ainy i. e. the drele of Bd or of 
the Sun ; Lat. Annus ; I am therefore inclined to 
<think that this word Raba> is only a corrupt wndng 
of Arcba or Arc ; Lat. Arcus. Becaufe iu) the fpace 
of three calendar months, the Sun rims over an 
^arch» which makes the fourth part of the entire 
fobr circle. We find an affinity between the bi(h 
appellatives of ail other parts of time, and the 
l4itin or Greek or fome other ancient langus^e \ 
thus diet or de the Irifli for da;/s has a ve*'y near affir 
nity with the Latin dies ; and k or /oy pkir* Isdona 
and laetbe or laottbe^ another Irifh won! figiufying 
the day, has a plain affinity with liottj in the Greek 
compound .genetb-Uon^ nataKs dies, and la or h^ 
bears alfo an anaiggy with the Latin Lux^ fire. It 
follows then that the word Ratba^v\i^ m its pro- 
per writiitg, find an affinity in the Latin or Greek, 
which I do not fee how it conld, without regarding 
it as a corruption of the Irifh word arcba^ Latin 

In this manner have the modern Lexioographers^ 
and advocates for their mother tongue, depreciated 
the very ancient language of Ireland, by attempt- 
ing to derive every Irifli word from the Greek or 
Latin ; not confidering that this was a lan^iage re^^ 
plete and full, before the Greeks oi Romans had 
a nartie. ' 

Ratbo^y or Raba is the Arabic Rajoy a quartet of 
the Heavens. La at lo ^ day, rr^y be derived 
from the Hebrew Laofy the accufative of aor a day, 
as in Genefis, vocabat laor diem\ or from the Cop- 
tic ky plur. liUbaisb. 



O'Brien is right in his derivation of SeUam;, a 
year; but he pafles over another very ancient 
word for that ffw:c of time, vii. itmtbotneadb^ cri- 
dcutly compounded of the Hebrew itm a day, and 
timtad, numeraiion, i. e. the numbering of the 
days. La^ lo^ laoi, all exprefs a day, but not the- 
fpace of time coroprehcttdcd in the day which 
coropofed the ancient calculation, for they counted 
from the fun fet^ or the night ^ hence Akw means 
the light ; in Arabic layib bright, fplendid \ elyaum 
to day. Lub-laitb^ in lri(h is foleain feftivals ^ this 
word occurs often in the OFd Laws j the Commen- 
tators have explained it by Caifc agus nodbh^y i. e. 
Eqfier and Cbnftmas\ but it w^$ the Druidlcal name 
for all Iblemn falls and feafts, and is the fame as 
the Arabic Leta beating on the breajEt,* Lebit 
anointing with oil, L/ii&w/ divinity. Iq the Arabic 
we find Udat the piur. of lida^ birth days; but 
this is certainly from lidet generation, bringing 
forth; the fame as the Irifh lida^ or laide ; the An*- 
glo-SazoQ n[K>nth called //e^, has led the learned 
Monf. Gibelin aftray. See Effay on the Celtic 
langaage, p, 149. 

The Irifli termination ainxn Bliadbain sl year, or 
as we tranflate it, the ring of Belus^ is from the 
Arabic ana^ circles or trads of the Heavenly bo- 
dies- . 

I (hall conclude this (hort preface with the words 
of Dr. Huchinfon, late Bifhop of Down and Con- 
nor; ** to prove tliat Ireland was peopled from . 
\cry ancient tioics, whether its hiftory be known 
or not, we . need only refer to the language^ the 
many cuftams^ the alpbabet^ &c. &c. of the inhabi- 




tants. *'And bifhop Lhydj in the preface to his Hlf- 
torical account of Church Government in Great 
Britain and Ireland, fays; " 1 do not fpeak here 
of the ancient Scots that live in Ireland^ who, no 
doubt, have fome remains of very antient true bif- 
lory ; our bufmefs is with them that live in the ifle 
of Britain^ the Albanian Scots'*. . 

7be Japonic Language collated witb tbe Irijb\ 


aicanai, to agree^ to hold 

cumi, affedtion, 
cumi no xu, brotherly 

voyaco, of one family, 
camurifoquanb acrown> 

cava, cafa^ back of a 
. 'tree* 

icarafu* ^a crane* a crow* 



cuma» cumanach. 
cuma na foth. 


camurra, wreathed, 
twifted, the fame 
as atar^ from 
whence the Tiara. 

fo-caran* fo-cuanna> a 
royal diadem. 

cas, cafadh> binding 

corr, any bird of the 
crane kind. 

corr-afaidh> would im- 
ply a bird that 
does not migrate. 

corr-aftiar, a cormo- 
rant; the EngUlh 



name is from the 
Celtic corr-tnuirean^ 
i. e. a fca-corr. 

mionichi, to-morrow, noidhiche, the night. 

mi-noidhiche, after this 
ari, thick, ramhar. 

curuxime, to crucify, to crocham. 

furudona, morofe, fearrdhan. 

qendon, foit, injuftice, ceandon, donas, fot. 

fuxeri,fuxi, toliedowm foisi foifite, reft. 

to reft, 

curi, a kitchen, cocuire, [a Cook, 

quantai, nan, t^umi* a cionta, a faiilt, a crime ; 

fault, a crime,*a fin, nionadh, plunder- 

ing, robbing, 

ton-iocu yocu, earneft tonn-eochair. 

defire, diochur. 

faxiri, to run, to haften, feachfaithear, they ftiall 


curuma, a cart, a car- carr, carbad. 

x\agt3 curac, a boat. 

cagami,crooked,curved, cafama, camoga. 

daiju, dcdmum capita- deachaidh. 


jigo nigo, ddnceps, doigh go doigh. 

faga,- teeth, feag, fiacal. 

go, qinen, inori, in- cinim» to pray* to in- 
treating, befeeching, treat. 




J A P O N E S E. 

jiazu, tjuzu, a kind of 
beads ufed at devo 



curai, dignity, power, 
taixo, a chief, diix, 
tera, a church. 

taca funda, a public 


6r caon-duthraft, 
devotion; ora, praj- 
ingi anora, reve* 

is tranflat^d in the 
Irifli Lexicons, a 
jewel ; it is alfo a 
beginning; incenfe, 
frankincenfe : But 
the mafs-book i$ 
called pur-iuisj the 
derivation of which 
feejois to be in this 
word iuis^ meaning 
beads, or certain 
marks for the repe- 
tition of prayers. 
In the Arabic, %/»«» 
is a form of pray- 
^ er. In the Perfic, 
bezar fignifies beads 
for faying prayer^, 
on counting of 
which they repeat 
the attributes of 

cur, curaidh, champions, 


toir, of or belonging to 
a church. 

toir, confecrated ground. 

toic, fanearad, a pro* 
claimed law. 



J A POtN-E S E. 



deacbta bannadha, the 


cai, to buy, to obtain. 


taixut, yicqi, togo. 

teachdm, to go, teadita, a 

meflengeri (tecchi 


in the Sclavonic, to 


riacu, an epilogue. 


san, an epitaph^ 

£tnafi, greeting, know- 

ledge, (oJdglo/s.) 

zoyacu, a naaie. 

jeac, a horfe. 

&gh-eac tfae» femak 



guki*tef Ivadea and 



fito-nari, a&kennaphro- 

phita<-naire ; this is 41 


very extraordinary 

compound; the two 

words exprels in 

Irifti, the priyitics 

of both fexes. 

tOt aod. 

ceeo, neo. 

ivarc, etymoi^gy^ 


nanbsUiy Europe, 

foca, on the outfide. 

amoch, amach. 

luane, ai>ean, ' 

meann, wheat, food. 


beacht, a ' multitude $ 

beacan, a mu(h-^ 

room, from its 

quick and plentiful 

growth i bacthinas, 




t^tiqi, to approach^ 
taca, a hawk. 

gai, bun, accurately, 
t9unii, to apply, to ad- 
fu, fuyui, (harp, four, 
fa, the edge of a fword, 
fan, a needle, a fpit, &c. 
qiyona, intelligeot, acu- 

coieta, abura,fat, greafy. 

facari coto, adinventio. 

tachi foi, approach, 
camaye, to adorn, 
faixi, to worlhip, 

vaqi maie, to confider 

coriu xt, to ere£t, to 



a fuffeit, and in 
many other com- 

tucbam, tudbdiam. 

tacan, a fea hawk or 
martin, from tacair, 

go, bun ; gp boon. 


fuibh, fcarv. 



cuini, cionnadh, kun. 

caitec^ butter; buir- 
eadh, flime, gore, 

faghaidh coudh ; hence 
faigh, a prophet; 
faigha-draochd, di- 
vination ; codach. 

teach an fo. 


fcacam, to proflrate; 
feis, a folenanity. 

machtadh maith. 

cuir fuas (literally to put 
up) is the vulgar 
expreffion; butco- 

xicUf equal in ntimber^ 
doy, equal in dignityt 



ra did antiently im- 
ply a building or 
palace, asCeann-co^ 
ra, i. e. the palace 
of Brian Boireamh ; 
Cora finn, Finn's 
palace) Innis-cora^ 
and many others, 
fcach,^ alternately. 
doch, an indigene^ 
dothchamhuil, of a good 

doigh, a man of confi*^ 

ceo, mill, vapour ; cao- 
can, an eddy of air ^ 
gao, wind, 
an tfathar. 
cron, min. 
deo, deilm ; irr, iris, an 

daingean, but now ap- 
plied to a ftrong 
hold, a fort, 
cuirim, tofughadh, ac- 
tion ) tafgalre, a 
cearb, filver ; caorthuin, 

quick lime, 
uas tiocfa. 
tiocfa, diocfa. 
racadh, ruaig. 


caje, iir. 

fora, the atmofphere, 
cane, cana mono, metal, 
dai, iiai, agCt a man's 

dengi, a fields an inclo- 


t^ucuri^ todoy to aA, 

xiroi, white, 

U22U tacai, moft high, 

tacafa, altitude, 

aruqi, ariqi, to walk^ to 





J A P O N E S E. 

gurui, mono, a fooliih 

xita, ximi, chun, a 


gan, a duck, 
guefu, guerre, a maid- 
fervant, a hand-maid, 

icari, an anchor, 
cuchi nava, a ferpent, 

baho, breath, life, 
chicuxo, a beaft, an ani- 


goirrige, man full of 

feitche, a wife. 

coinne, a wife. 

caoin (keen) mild, gen- 
tle, friendly. 

cinid, a relation. 

fion, an union. 

ganra, a goofe. 

gearait, gerais. 

gairfe, guirfeach ; the laft 
isufedinthe Armo- 
ric for the Virgin 
Mary. — Secthecol- 
lation of the Lord's 
prayer in the effay 
on the Cehic lan- 
guage, prefixed to 
the laft edition of 
; the Irifli grammar. 


nimh or niv, a ferpent; 

guafachd niv, the dange- 
rous ferpent ; 

cucht nimh, the painted 
or variegated fer- 


feac, as in feacbo, a 

feacloc, a park. 



J A P O N £ 8 E« 

toxi, a year, 

yubigune, a ring, 

afiru, agoofe, 

coao ami mucaxi, of 

fachi, a bee, 
niji, the rainbow. 

gufocu, yoroi, to arm, 
to be in arms, 

tage, a prop, fupport, 
xira, a top, peck, or 


feighdhe, wild beads ; 

ceifeog, young of any 

tocht, tucht, a meafured 
fpace of time. 

badhgan, badhg. 

faire, watchful, §^4ere. 




nafg, a ring. . 

nafcaire, a furety, a co- 
venant. §luiere. 

gas, gafogac, armed 
heroes ; 

gafra, a band of troops ; 

gaifce, a hero, a warrior; 
this is the radix of 
theGeffi, andGef- 
fitae, of the Ger- 
mans and Gauls. 

gaias, Heb.^ • 

gaifa, Syr. > an army. 

gais, Arab, j 

aire, a chief a warrior ; 

oireagha, the fame ; 

go aire, fpear-men. 

taca, taic. 

cirin; hence cirain the 
creft, or comb of a 

N 2 




aqi, autumn, 

guai bun, good fame, 
mioga, good fortune, 

qafo, felicity, 

moja, xigai, a carcafs, 

ten, heaven, 

banfui, a feaft, a meal, 
yumexi, a fet meal, 

cami, hair, 

fumi, to be hot, to 

fibarri, a calendar, an 


earrac, fpring, earr the 

guth bonn. 

mio-aghor, bad fortune. 

mo-aghor, good fortune. 



feacadh, decayed, parch- 
ed up ; 

feghuinidh, dead men, 
mortally wounded. 

this word has been ex- 
plained in the Chi- 


itheadh mithifi, meal 


fuineadham, to boil. 

fomofac, auguft, the hot 

fomhar, the harveft. 

barr, in Irifli, is the ca- 
lendar of the Ro- 
mans ; hence ceann^ 
barry January, &c. 
from whence the 
Latin Oftober, No-' 
vember. See this| 
fully explained in, 




cut;u, (hoes, flippers, 
ata, tacana, warm, hot, 

qincan, bald, 
raflbcu, a candle. 

yo, night. 

yaguiu, a goat^ 

inu, adog9 

cobe, the head, 

torio, a prince, 

nicu, flefli, 

xifaii a caufe or motive^ 

fofo, quick^ active , 

cagui, a key. 

I R ][ s H. 

the Eflay on the 
Celtic, p. 142, 143, 

gufeir, hofe, 

foirtchi, a flioe. 

teith, leagham, to warm. 

teith tan, the fun. 

kinnfhionn, kiam can. 

rufog, the candle ufed 
by the peafants, 
made by dipping a 
rufh intoitallow. 

rufg, is alfo light, the 
eye, &c. 

eo, dark. 

oiche, night 

ceo, a fog. 

gour, gabhar. 

gione, gibhne, cun. 

cab, cob. 

tor, airi. 



fuiri, fothaire, an a(ftive 
. fellow. 

eocar, ti key. 

cugaire, rugaire, the 
bar of a door, 
guxi, a chief, a leader, gaifqe, gus, as ingufm- 

har^ valiant, power* j 
fuL ^ 




coraxiy tochaftLfe, 
mono, a family, 
cutan, grief, raging mad 

with grief, 
nan, a figure, a rc- 

foxi, yonger fons, 
foreo, elder fons, 
moqe, afon, 
fino, a blaze. 

fana, a flower, 
CO, CO chi, here, 
fatto, the law, 
minor], the holy law. 

daimio, nobility, mag- 

zaimocu, timber 

cuji, ftrife, 
fava, a mother, 
caca, a matron, 
fan, the centre. 






nearnaim, to liken. 

foifior, folar. 

finnfior, rearai. 


faithin, faith, heat; 

fan-leac, the altar of the 
fun, ^«nif 

fionn fgoch. 

fo, go fo, CO fo. 

faite» knowledge; fca- 
tarlach, the old law 5 
feite, taking care 
of, keeping in or- 

daimh, a learned man.^ 

daimheach, a companion 
of equal rank. 

righ damhna, prefump- 
ive heir to the 



fadhbh, a widow, 

fonnfa, the circumfe- 


1 83 


iza, a phyfidan. 

mafaxi, xizai, xiqio, fo- 
guto^ death. 

bioxiy dead, 
ca, mouldy, hoary, 
fefe, muliebria, 
nhotai, female, 
vonna, a woman, 
michi vonna, a virgin 
me gia, my wife, 
t^ubone, a harlot. 


k\y a fly. 

jaco, mofs, 

fiqi mono, a certain 
mufical inllrument, 

qire, a part, a fragment, 


ic, a cure, a remedy; 
hence uilc-ica, all- 
heal ; mifsletoe, 
«l^« ixos, in the 

madhas, a trance. 

has, death ; nas, etfeach, 


ceo, tachd. 


naoithi, bearing children. 

bean, vean. 

mo c6. 

teifebean, feifebean. 


faithirleog, a fwallow, 

faoilean, the gulU 

feidhan, flight. 

fithean, a bird's quill. 

from thefe and many o- 
iher compounds, it 
appears that/// was 
an original word 
for flying. 

moin-teac, caoineac. 

feat, and feacht, is mu- 
fick, harmony s 
fonn, a tune. 

ciara, this is in the com- 
pound , ciaraidhe, 
i. e. the county of 



Kerry; in Ceirt, 
arag ; ceirt-mhe6d- 
han, the centre, or 
middle part ; cuir- 
tir, and Eunuch, 
&c. &c. 
denqoraiden, lighten- teinteac ceo toran. 

ing and thunder^ 
ixizuye, the bottom, iachdar, ifioial. 

faico, foundation, toifeach, tus, 

qezzune, the fpur of a greafucha. 

qeavaxe, a cock-fightf comraoh caoitleach* 
qemaru, a cock-fighter, comhra, 
cori, ice, froft, oighre* 

guefai, men of infa* guthfir. 

mous charadlersf 
ninguen^ mankind, naoidh-gein. 

catana, a fword, gathan, a fmall fpear. 

dan, a degree in litera* dana. 

qoinin, a woman with coinne, coint, coinin. 

i|edamono, aherd, .cdad, trend; 

caidean, caibhdan ^ 
iomain, a drove, 
gacu monjo, gymnafia, coicht muineadh. 

cocbar muineadh, 
giunin, an inhabitant, conaidh, 
tate, a fpear a halbard, tath, (laughter ; 

gatb| a fpear. 




rci, a little bell, - 
fanya, afield, a plain, 

gioy ahead, 
TO, a prifon, 
ivare, acaufe or matter, 
feya, a cellar or under- 
xocubutf food, 
iqe, a ciflcrn, 
to, quick, foon, 
zaixo, a dty, 
cobai, red, 

yen, love, friendlhip, 
nen r^, no of old, 
tno, a wild boar, 
notamai, a term ufed in 


the king, &c. 
chacugan xi, to call to 

fuqi, a plough, 
uru, moie-uru, to burn, 
go bun, well, 
nomi, to drink, 

qiifo, a teller of good 


reataire, the clerk, the 
ringer of the belU 

feannaidhe, ground 
wherein corn may 
y be fown. 

adhbhar, avar. 
faoi, below. 

fath coth beatha. 

aicean, a cauldron. 


feife, a fettlement. 

curbh, I. buidh i^us 

gean> love, 
nunn re, 

nodh, noble, 
nodhac, nobility. 

tar, cugin, fo, come here 

to us. 

go bonn. 
nim, a fmall quantity of 

cifire, a ftory teller, ^ 




fucuro, bur&y fo-coire. 

xigai, a carcafSy figh, a goblin ; feich, a 


mecura, momocu, blind, muca, dark^ gloomy. 

faccazuqi, a jug, chalice, fojdheac. 

cofa cazzuqi, a little jug^ cpfa (bidbeac. 

xufocu, a foot, cos, a foot, feafadh to 

ftand on the feet. 

cafhicara, feet, coidthe. 

monriu monpa, religion, monn, as will be hereaf- 
ter explained ; it is 
the amuna of the 
Chaldeans. See 
fo, triath. 
conaidh, a permanent 

fettlement or dwell- 

cuing, a king. 

c4c, cornice, kaub. 


agh, an ox. 


goice, fcofFed at, ^u^e. 

coibhce, a dowry. 

tuama, uagh, uaghan. 

fuireadh, to prepare ; 

air, plowed. 

nae, a man or woman ; 

nian, a daughter ; 

naoi-nin, man's image. 

vo tcivo, a king, 
cuni, a kingdom, 

coie, fun, dung, 

uxi, a cow, 

tcu, foque, vapour, 

goqe, a widow, 

qan, a fepulchre, 
fori, to dig, to plow, 

nhonin, a woman, 



ani, the cldeft brother, aine, aged, honourable. 

tanaift, the heir apparent 
to a prince, 
taro, the youngeft bro- taire, obfcure, bgfc. 

fitai, the front, in front, fiathnaife, in prefence ; 

hence fiathnaifeadh, 
bearing witnefs. 
cumo, a cloud, dluim, gruam. 

kummul (Welfli). 
curume, a nutj comhthra, cuauinne, 

crauen (Arraorice). 
fon, primitive, original, bun, bun-aidheae. 
daigi, the earth, the domhan, domhghan. 


iigaxi, the Eaft, 

cuchi, the mouth, 
cuchi, the face, 
manaco, an eye, 
riogan eyes, 
qlrai, to hate. 

icon, hatred. 

moro, many, 

daig, is fire. 

feige, feici, i. follus (old 
glofs.) light J feic, 
fight, light; i.rad- 

feafcor, the Weft. 

guifeac, an aperture. 

gnuis, eaccofg. 

rofg, rofgan. 

grain, hatred, creachra, 
toftigmatize; coiri, 
to defpife, to teize, 
to vex. 

eacconn, rage, fury; 

eccnac, reproof;. 

eicean, violence. 





moro mdro, all^ 
tamago, an egg, 

tachi, a palace^ a houfe^ 

yacata, a nobleman's 

jur acu, cuden rotacu, 
a royal palace, 

mixe, a tavern or tip- 
ling houfe, 

gitaiy care, diligence^ 
biocu, infirm, 
biqja^ lame, 
taibio, very infirm, 

xita, downwards^ 

tcqi, an enemy. 


mor mhor. 

ugh, an egg; tarn, 
round, lumpy, &c. 
teach, a houfe. 
teach, athach, (Slu^e). 


meifce, mifce, is drunk- 
enefs in the modern 
Irifh ; melkir in 
Arabic, and meifte 
in Perfic ; the root 
is certainly in the 
Hebrew; it occurs 
in Eftber, ch. 7. v. 
I, 2. The king 
(Ahafuerus) faid to 
Efther, on the fe- 
cond day of meijbti 
jin^ >yhich M>nta- 
nus has properly 
trandated convivium 

gaoth, I. glic {oldghfs.) 



fitheadh, inclining; 
fios, downwards, 
taichre, a battle. 




tocuxin, I underftand, tuicfin, underftanding.' 

fuqi, to blow, fogaoth, a blaft, a gen- 

tle gale. 

fui, to fuck, fugh» from futh, juice. 

ixi, a Honey oiceas, free-ftone. 

bin, a lagena, a flagon, bian, the old name of 

the hide of an ani- 
mal made to hold 
liquor in ; bian is a 
pelt or (kin. 

fogue, a hole, paigear, faigear. 

ari, an ant, aire, care, attention, in- 

genuity. ^Uitre. 

bireina,beautiful, come- bredha Ceirean Welfli.) 




^^^.- ,.,.:i ,.. 

*U'u» iir.i'l 





/ ;j»r. 





,\)'u. ii;/.'l 


. / jJ»r 


Round Tower in BuSgaria . fa^e ip ■. 

■ *: -' '■ 

End view of the Ship -Temple . 



O F 


1 HE reverend Mr. Ledwich, in his diiTertation 
on the round towers, has coUedied much mattef 
concerning them and their ufe fmce the times of 
chriftianity; but I am of opinioa, that.thefe towers 
are of a more ancient date than he alloWs, and' 
that they are of Scythian origin, and I anil con- 
firmed in this opinion from the difcoveries of fouie 
modern travellers, who have defcribed thefe ex- 
traordinary buildings. In the Hi/ioire de decouver^ 
tcs dans la Ruffie et la Perfe^ in two volumes, 
8vo, printed at Berlin, 1779, there is an account 
of many of thefe towers ftill remaining on the 
continent, .and defcribed by the inhabitants as the 
work of very remote times, and like thelrifh tow- 
ers a{^6d to the ufe pf public worfliip. 

I (hall here tranfcribe the paifage, containing 
a defcription of one of thefe towers, to which is 
added a drawing, alfo copied from the Berlin edi- . 

O « The 


" The village of Bulgari was the famous city 
** of Brjaechinof, the ancient capital of Bulgaria ; 
** as no defcription had been given of the ruins of 
** this placd, MciTrs. Pallas and Lepechin were 
" induced to vifit it. 

" The village of Bulgari is built on the ruins of 
-" the ancient city; it is (ituated on^an eminence^ 
' ^ bordering on a marfliy ground overgrown with 
" buflies and thickets. It is furprifmg that fo con- 
^ fiderable and well peopled city as this muft once 
^ have been, fllould be conftrudted in a fituation, 
^ which could not be fupplied with water ; they 
^* are now obliged to fink wells or pits in the 
" marfh, and this is their only refourcc. 

*^ Th^yiver Wolga is 9 werfts diftant in a right 
** line,^ attid a§ the ground flopes from the village 
" to the river, it is hot probable the features of na- 
" ture could be fo changed, as to have once al- 
*• lowed its cdurfe to have run by the city. 

** The^ village contains about 100 good houfes ; 
" it was? feized by the crown with other church- 
** lands. On the fouth is a plain, furroundcd 
** with refinous trees, or evergreens, interfperfcd 
** with birch ; this plain at prcfcnt covered with 
** fertile fields, "was once the efplanade of the ci- 
** ty ; it rs yet furrounded with a rampart ind 
"' ditch, which once formed an irregular half ovaf, 
^'^at leaft fix werfts in circumference.'* 

" Moft of the veftigcs^ pf the ancient buildings 
**"are within the rampart; among others are the 
*' ruins of a convent with an inciofed.area, which 
"at. prefcnt contains a handfome ftone-built 
" church, and fome wooden houfes. 


O F t R E L A N D. 195 

" The moft remarkable of thcfe ancient build- 
" ings is a tower, Mifgir or Midfgir^ conftruded 
" of cut ftone, extremely well wrought ; it is a 
"little more than twelve toifes high (about 75 
" feet.) Its proportions arc nearly reprefented ia 
'" the figure annexed; it is ivell prefervcd, and is 
" afcended by a circulsir flair-cafe of 72 fteps, * 
" each meafuring exadly 12 inches, French mea- 
** fare in the rife ; the ftair-cafe is in perfeft re- 
"pair, and the roof is covered with wood; 
"withinfide is an infcription in modern Ara« 

" The totirer ftands^in the north-eaff angle of a 
" wall of an irregular fquare form, which appears 
" by its* great thickncfe to have been part of a 
" fortrefs, or probably of a grand mofque. On 
" the weft fide of the tower is the ruins of a Tarta- 
" nan oratory which is entirely vaulted ; it has 
" been repaired, and is now a chapel dedicated 
" to Saint Nicholas-'* 

From this deifcriptibri, and from the drawing, 
It is evident the oratory is in the foundation of the 
tower, and that the entrance to the upper part of 
the tower muft be over the vault of the oratory, 
which makes the likenefs to our towers much 
ftronger ; it is to be wiftied thefe curious travel- 
lers had copied the Arabic infcription. 

It is to be obferved the name given to thefe 
towers is mifgir or midfgir ; a word I trahflate^r^- 
clrcleoxjire-tower^ hence the Pcrfian word mudjkiry 
one who continually praifcs God ; muzki^ making 
the holy fire burn bright; in Arabic medkyn is 
fmoaking incenfej perfuming with burning 
O 2 . odours J 


odours ; and mudakis^ is the dance of the Magi 
round the holy fire. 

The ancient hiftorians of Ireland, relate, that 
Nemedius the Scythian^ brought with him to Ire- 
land a chief druid named Midghe^ who taught the 
inhabitants the ufe oifire ; I beg leave to put ano- 
ther conftru&ion on this paflage : I think it de- 
notes that Midghe taught tiiem the worihip of the 
divinity by fire. Midhe and Midhghe in Irifti im- 
plies JighU afpeft, and confequently lights fire^ 
It is faid in Irifh hiftory, that it was the facred 
fire which was worihipped on their altars that gave 
the name to Midhe now the county oi Meatkj 
which from its centrical fituation, was the union 
of their religion and the feat of judgment. But 
Midhe and Meath are two different words. Meatb 
in the oriental languages means a plain country, 
fuch is Meath compared to moft other counties in 
Ireland. Incola olim Maiatas &f Ccdedoneos dijiin£li 
eranty i. e. Campe/ires £ff Montanos. Mautb in 
Arabic is terra expanfa^ in Hebrew Maes^ from 
whence probably our Dun^na-Maes in the Queen's 
County; that is a hill {landing in a plain country^ 

A N 

A N 


O F T H E 






T O 




B Y 


A N- 

A C C O, U N T 

O F T.H E\ 

: r . 


SIR, . . ..Jjine 22dy 1781.^ 

F. . .!.:... .;;•:;; . . ': ... ' rj; v ) . ! 
ROM tlvr.-firft t^e that; J faw the drawing, 

ubich Mr. Wright gives in. his Lputfiiana of the 

ruin called by him, Faghs'Tfa -^i^j^gb^f^ortb^^one 

night*! %vorkj an4 TCfd his agqouflft, I have always 

confidered " this, mo/l wicom^wn^ ^fxfl^ buildings*^ 

as he palls it, .33. one of. tl)c ;JnicA. jiingular and 

curious pieces of •an^iqui^y..yljLkh reinai^ i'^'.^.^Y 

part of Europe, being, wh^^it is r5;prefentcd, a 

temple in the.lh;^ pf aifhipVhulk, it maybe 

faid to bexmique. , . f [ 

Mxp Wright V ajccount Jsr.JbftiVtPajifient and 

general;^accoimt w&ifh,:by obliging 

means, I have. obtaine4 .frpru: Mn Pcrangcr is 

accurate, compfehcxiding ^d dif^crning ^ ivfith 

great judgment, all; thqfpcfifici: particulars witji 

the idea of it, he has alio accompanied and expl^n- 

ed this by three . mafterly drawings^ the firft a 

ground plan,, the fccond a fide yiew, an4 ^1^ 

other a portrait view of the end. 

A breach 


A a breach 15 feet kvel with the ground. 
B a breach 1 1 feet, two or three feet high. 
C a large ftonc (hewing the ancient form. 

Sec thc^platf- 

From this account I am enabled to form, and 
take the liberty to prefent through your hands to 
the antiquarian focicty of Dublin my conjectures 
on the fubje£t of this curious antiquity. 

The commerce, occupancy, and various inha- 
bitancy, w^ch JtHe ancieAt / ftate' pf Ireland has 
been under and experienced, leaves to conjefturc 
two lines of inveftigation which it may purfuc in 
examination of the many remnants of antiquity 
that are every day newly difcovered in it, * 

The, one leads to thofe circumftances and flatc 
of things >fcHich mky be fujjpoTed to exift in it, 
while the Phdckiiiansand CarihagiMans h^d their 
iritercourfc there J »thc other to Ithofc, which 
accbmpanici -tW bc^iupimcy and inhabitancy of 
the Gtti&kr, Guihi^' ur(2is they called themfelvcs) 
Vikandresj the fea rovers and pirates who in the 
cairlieft times came f 6 Ireland from the Bsfltic and 
the coafts of the North Sea; -. ' . 

' If the antiquai*;^ is indincdtq fuppofe this 
curious ruin to have been one of the Arkite- 
Temples y which the people of the caft, perhaps 
the navigators in particular, were fuppofed to 
have built in the form of a fhip, ffiiould wifli to 
perfuade Mr. Bryant to give to your focicty his 
opinion upon it. He is deep in thefe Arkite 
myfteries, * as he -is in every point of ancient 
'literature ; and I will try to tempt him by fending 
the drawings and defcription to him. 

- In 


In the mean time, I will purfae the other line 
as more confonant to my own opinion. 

I have in another place and on another occafion, 
proved that thcfc Viffs^ or Fiils as the Weifli 
caUed them, or P/df?/, Piaones^ Vicingij fcf nath 
nes^ as the Romans in different fituations pro- 
nounced the liame ; or Tibeinders^ and Viiengerij 
as the word is written in their bwii runic nibnu* 
ments ; made very early incurfions to, and even 
invaiions of I)-^land, and were found in Scotland 
as having been fettled there in a (late of govern- 
ment and eftablifhment. They governed- part of 
this country, then called Calidonia, as they did 
various other parts where they made eflablifh- 
ments. by reguli, or vicc-ro^s, pr fuffered them 
to be governed by their own kings as fubfidiary^ 
and called tfaem therefore Scots-konung. Thefe 
ViftiB or Rdte were the firfl: people W^O-^|£hecked 
the career of the Roman Eagle, fo far^aS'even to 
oblige the Romans to buiid works of defehcc 
againit the recoil of this northern valour. 

Thcfc people came from a country and were of 
a race, who paid divine honors to the form of a 
fliip as the fimbol, idol, or rathef as the temple 
of the divinity whoiti they worfhipped. Tacitus 
is willing to fuppofe this divinity to be Ifis, and the 
fimbol to reprefent thejhip oflfts : yet he cannot 
but expreis his doubt at the fame time in thefc 
words, " Unde Caufa & Origo perigrino Sacro 
" parum comperij nifi lignum ipfum^ in modtfin 
" LIBURN£ fguratuniy decet advedam religto- 





Upon this paflagc Monficur TAbbe dc Tontenu 
in his two learned difcourfes, by feveral very 
ingenious conjectures^ endeavours to prove how 
and in what way thi^ Religio was brought from 
^gypt to thefe northern parts of Germany. Being 
taught by Caefar in his (a) Ck)mmentaries, that 
thefe people knew not even by bearfay of any 
other Gods thai> their own (to which . however 
according to the- Roman cuftom, he is pleafedto 
give the Roman names Sol, Vulcanus, Luna,) 
I cannot fubfcribe to thefe far-fetched myfteries. 
Thefe people had metaphyfical religious fiaibles 
of their own refpefliig the various manifeftations 
of the divine powers, amongft other inventions 
they fuppofed the gods called ASES to have a 
Ihip^ which the iViiw made for them, .in which 
they failed — ^to this -ihip they gave the. name (h) 
SKIDB(li?^NER.., {cY Naqi feceruntlSkidblad- 
'" nerum',8c dederunt Frcjero, hae'c adco magna 
*' eft ut par fit omnibus ;Aris, & qui4em':armatis, 
" ferandis; velifque ^xplicatis ftatim ventura 
*^ nanfcifcitur fecundum, quocunque fit abitura : 
*' cum yero navigandijm non fit, adeo multis 
^' conftatpartibus, ut complicata in pera includi 
" pofSt". In like manner whci> Tor oi. Thor is 

' 4cfcribed 

(/?) Dconun numero cos folos ducunt quof ccrnunt, & 
quorum opibus apcrte juvantur ; Solum, Vulcanum, & 
Lunam. Reliquos nifamd quidem accitfcruni. Beli : Gall. 
i. 6. J 21. 

(b) Skidbladncr cavitas cochlearis. 

John ihre's Dift. 
(r) Edda. 
. Opera & ftudio Johannis Goranfon* 


dcfcribcd as going a fifliing for the great ferpcnt 
Midgardy' he borrowed thejkiffoixht giant Eymer. 
Reading this we need not go in fearch of the 
vanities of foreign idpUfervice, we need go no 
further than thefc peoples own notions . for this 
fimbolic and myfterious fliip. If their religious 
faith taught them to believe, that the gods them- 
felvcs chofe this kind of veKicle, and that the 
miniftring gods, or priefts^ of the intclle£tual 
worlds prepared fuch for them j what form of 
Umple could be more conform to thefe divine 
myftenes^ or become a . more prbper fimbol of 
riie dwelling of the gods, to whicjh their prefence 
might .be invoked, than thatof dfhip ?, I believe 
thiis to' be the original and genuine meaning of 
the idol or temple^ the fimbol' of the prefence, 
under which Tacitus found the ..Suevl adoring 
their divinity, which finding io he in the form of 
^ Ihip^ he {\ippofed to be,, as I.faid, the fl^ipof 
Ifis* My conjcfture therefore (j^nd. which with all 
diffidence I fubmit to the learning of your 
fociety,) is that this Ship^Tempk i^ the Simbol of the 
facred Skidbladner^ built by the Nanj, and which 
therefore I fiiould call a Narttc-Temple founded and 
built on the inftitution of thofe myfteries in 
Ireland, when firft thefe northern people efta- 
blifhed themfclves there. The traditional name 
(corrupted as the pronunciation, and nonfenficalas 
the tranHator's name fecms to me) confirms me 
in this opifiion'. Mr. Wright gives the name as 
follows, Faghs tia ain eighe; Mr. Beranger Fas 
nabion eidhche. One of thefe muft be wrong, 



and the lafl: has various readings, as Fas nahin 
doidbche and Faas na bane eugbe^ The fuppofcd 
real pronunciation which Mr. Beranger had from j 
the Irifli teacher, I fufpeft to be a tranflation back 
into Irifli, of the nonfenfical name — Tbe one 
nigbfs workj to be the reformed correftion of 
this teacher as ufual with other great claflical 
criticks. I take ihh ^^hole to be a corruption of 
fomething which ftal' reference to very high anti- 
quity, to the Nanic injliiution oftbefe Sbip-Templesy 
expreffive of (as Tacitus under another idea 
cxpreffes it) advedla religionis. If I knew enough 
of the ancient Celtic language to enable '.mc to 
analyfe this corruption, I fhould be Iccl to a 
fecond conjefture, and read the name as follows* 
r Strength J^ 
The < or > of the Nani founded this. 
Q Power 3 
With, great refpeft, which I beg to prefent, to 
your focxety, I have the honor to be. 

Sir, Tour moil Obedient and 

Humble Servant, 






O K 


B Y 


1 HE Irifli hiftorians do not allow that the Pi£U 
had any footing in this iiland, at their firft emi- 
gration from Scythia ; they affert, that the Lifh 
expelled them forthwith, to Scotland. Beda and 
Florilegus agree in ,this part of the Irifh hiftory. 
It is true, Fordun brings the Pids back to Ireland, 
bcmg driven from Britain, but this is contradided 
by the learned Ufher, ** in Norvegiam, Daniamiq[ue, 
" non ut Fordunus fcripfit in Hiberniam conceff* 
« iflc." — ^A confiderable fpace of time elapfed from 
the firft appearance of the Fids, to the arrival of 
the Danj^s and Norwegians. If the Pi£ts, (mixed 
with thefc nations) preferved the tenets of their 
ancient religion at the time of the invafion of 



Ireland by the Danes, Mr. PownaH's conjeaurc 
, may be right ; and if they built one fliip-templc: 
in this ifland, they certainly did tnany others. Let 
tis hear what Beda and Florilegns have faid on 
the arrival of the Pids. 

Contigit gcntem Pidorum de Scythia, ut per- 
hibent, longis navibus non multis Oceanum in-« 
greffam, circumagentc flatu yentornm extra fines 
omncs Britannias Hiberniam perveniffe, ejufque 
feptentriohales oras intraffe ; atque iriventa ibi 
gente Scotorum, fibi quoquc in partibus illius 

fedes petiffe, nee impetrare potuiffe. ^Ad banc 

ergo ufque pervenientes navigio Pifti (ut diximus) 
peticpunt in ea fibi quoque fedes & habitationeni 
donari. Refpondebant Scoti, quia non ambos 
eos capcret infula, fed poffumus (inquiunt) falubrc 
Yobis dare confilium, quid agcre valeatis. Novimus 
infulam effe aliam non procul a noftra contra 
ortum folis, quam faep^ lucidioribus diebus de 
longe afpicere folemus. Hanc adire fi vultis, ha- 
bitabilem vobis facere valeatis ; vel fi qui rcftitc- 
rint, nobis auxiliariis utimini. Itaque petentes 
Brittaniam Pifti, habitare per feptentrionales infula 
partes caeperunt. Nam auftrina Britones occu- 
paverantr Cumque uxores Pifti non habentes 
peterunt a Scotis ; ea foliim conditione dare con- 
fenferunt, ut ubi res veniret in dubium, magis dc 
fseminea regum profapia quam de mafculina 
Regem fibi eligerent ; quod ufque hodie apud 
Pidos conftat effe fervatum. 



Britannia poft Britons 8r Pi£tos tertiam Scot- 
orum nationem in Pidorum parte recepit ; quia 
Duce Reuda dc Hibcrnia progreffi, vel amicitia- 
vel ferro (ibimet inter eas fedes, quas hadeniis 
habent, vindicarunt. A quo videlicet duce ufque 
hodie Dal-Reudini vocantur ; nam lingua eorum 
dal partem iignificat. (a J 

Florilegus fay^, 

Contig^t tempore Vefpafiani gentem Piftormn 
de Scythia navigaflc : & flatu ventorum oras 
boreales Hiberniac ingreffi fuiit ; ubi in multitu- 
dine copiosa Scottos invenerunt. Nam ciim terra 
ilia ambas gentes fuftinere non potuit, miferunt 
Scotti Pidos ad feptcntrionalem partem Brittannia, 
opem contra adverfarios promittentcs. , Tempore 
Vefpafiani Caefaris, apud Britones regnantc Mario 
filio Arviragi, Rodericus rex Pidtorum coepit 
Albaniam devaftare.. 

Britannia Chronicus anonym, in Primordia XJJheri. 
Tempore Vefpafiani, gens Pidorum de Scythia per 
Oceanum Britanniam ingrefTa^ regnante apud 
Britannos Mario filio Arviragi: cujus rex Rodericus 
Albaniam devaftavit : quem Marius rex Britonum 
proelio interfecit juxta Lugiibaliam, qu2& eft nunc 
Karliol : & populo dcvido qui cum Rbderico 

(a) Beda^ lib. i. cap. i. 




venerat borcalem partem Albanias quse KadieneHst 
dicitur ad habitandum dedit« IIU vero lutoribu^ 
carentes, cum de natioae Britonum habere non 
poflent, transfretantes Hiberniam fibi Hibemi-» 
eiifium fiUas copularunt ; eo tamen pado, ut 
ianguis matemies in fucceffionibus pracferatur^ 

From the plan of this building, named by Mr. 
Wright, the Ship-Temple, (from its refemblance to 
the hulk of a fliip) it is evident the ftrufture vms 
not intended fbr a dwelling y there are no crofs 
walls, fire-places, or chimneys. The inhabitants 
call it fis na heun vidhcbe or the growth of one 
night ; it is the name for a mufliroom : the Irifh 
Islnguage is not fo fterilc to apply a term of vege- 
tation to a building. Fas fignifies the growth of 
trees, roots, &c. Faghi na can eigbcj given by Mr. 
Wright, has no meaning: and as we have not yet 
met with the true orthography, all our explanations 
muft be conje&uraL Naoi is a fhip, and fagbas 
na heun Naoi, by a forced conftrudion, may imply 
the remains of the onlyjhip. Fagbcas or Faighcas 
is an obfclete word, explained in an ancient glpf- 
fary, by faigbleann, i. e. alcaing, i. e. ait accuirtbear 
fciatba acus airm an gaifgidh, i. e. an armoury, or 
place where the warriors depofited their fhields 
and arms. Faigbcas na Niadb would fignify the 
armoury of the nobles. Fogbcas is an inn, or 
houfe of entertainment, and Fogbcas na Naoidh^ 
would imply the caravanfera or houfe of entertain- 
ment of the Naoids. Thcfc were an order of 



monks belonging to the Druids ; they were divided 
into Saor-Naoidh^ and Daor-Naoidb^ or free Naoid 
and bond Naoid. The firft were of noble defcent, 
and kept open houfe for the accommodation of 
ftrangers and travellers, like the Bonzes of China ; 
hence, NaoUth in the modern Irifh, fignifies an hof- 
pitable man, and Teach^Naoidh^ a houfe of hofpita- 
lity. The Daor-Naoidh were plebeians', who had 
been guilty of fome tranfgreffion of the law, and not 
bcihg able to pay the mulft or eiricy were configned 
in bondage to the Druids ; they were taught to 
fabricate talifmans, vafes, beads of glafs, &c. 
hence the gloinne-naoidr^ or glonne-naidr of the 
Wellh ; Naoidr fignifying alfo a ferpent, gave rife 
to the fable of the ferpent's egg ; a ftory im- 
pofcd on P4iny. 

All thefe names read nearly the fame, and to 
the modem vulgar Iriih, may readily be corrupted 
to/oj na heun oidhche^ or the growth of one night. 

C. V. 



O N T H E 





ADDKltll* TO 



CHARLES CyCONOR, Esq. soc. anti^. hib. soc. 
P 2 


THE {^€ts expofed in the following elTayy have been tak^ 
chiefly from the Leabhar Gabhala, or Book of Conquefl^ 
the Compilations of Balimote ; Extra^s from the Pfalt^ 
of CafheU and Book of Glendaloch in the (ame Work 
the Annals of Tigemach, of lunis- Fallen and of the foij 
Mafters ; with Extrads from the Lecan records : The w 
thor ba9 ^Ifp availed himfelf of fome antient documen^ 
collede4 by the late Mr. O'Flaherty. This general notiq 
is given at once, to fave the trouble of frequent margin^ 
references to manufcripts, which are very feldom confultcd 
^nd are very difficult to be come 4t« 


O N T H E 




1 HAVE ventured to throw together the follow- 
ing ftriSures on a fubjea much agitated in feme 
late publications ; I make no apology for addreffing 
them to you, as you formed the plan, and have 
taken the lead, in a body of Collectanea^ for c. 

throwing a fuller light than has hitherto appeared 
on the antient ftate of this country, heathen and 
chriftian ; this you have done with the laudable 
view of adding to the flock of knowledge ob- 
tainable from hiftory; and of difcovering, whe* , 
ther any part of fuch knowledge could be 
augmented from the polity and manners of a 
people fcqueftered here in Ireland for many ages> 
and cut oflF from any fcientific commerce with 
Ac more enlightened nations of Greece and 
Rome. A circumftance fo apparently negative 
of any civilization in this ifland, till introduced 
with the gofpel, did not difcoarage you, or 
induce you, as it has others, to pronounce ar* 
'bitrarily, that all hiftorical notices from the native 



SenachicSy anterior to the fifth century, have been 
little better than crude mventions, committed to 
writing on the reception of chriftianity, when 
the mind fhould be rather prepared for reje£dng 
the errors of antient time, and for adopting every 
truth, that could be made fubfervient to the 
caufe of true religion ; and when, in fdd, the 
miffionary who had molt fuccels in propagating 
that religion, had himfelf affifted in clearing the 
antient hiftory of this illand from the fables in 
which it was enveloped. — ^Unfatisfied with mere 
opinion, you confidered, philofophically, that 
this retired nation of Ireland might, probably, in 
its heathen ftate, receive the elements of know- 
ledge from a fource different from that, which 
ibooer or tater, poured the flreams of fcience 
through the other Celtic regions of the North, 
You made the trial, and you fucceeded happily. 
You coUeded, and confronted, the evidences 
foreign and domeflic, which regarded this fubje^ 
and found »He which depofed (o effedually, for 
the early cultivation of literature in Ireland, as to 
overturn, at once, the minute accounts of foreign 
writers, who receiving all their informations ^on 
truft, or drawing conchifions from conjecture, 
have in general terms repreiented the inhabitants, 
as the mod ignorant of barbarians, and a diigrace 
to humanity. In your learned refearches on oar 
antient language, you have exhibited proofs more 
authentic than the oldeft infcriptions on marble 
or metal, that it had been formed among a 
cultivated people. Copious and energetic, regu- 


lar and harmonious, it muft take a confiderabld 
time, as all languages have taken, to arrive at 
thegrammaticai degree of perfe£kioait clofcd with* 
Its terms for thole abftraft ideas and mixed 
modes, which a civilized people only can invent^ 
and which barbarians neither want nor ufe^ 
demonftrate that this language arrived at its 
daflical flandard before the introdudion oi chri£« 
tianity, when Grecian and Roman terms, were 
iirft taught in Ireland by the chriftian miffionaries. 
Rich in their own ftores, the natives borrowed 
but few figns of compound ideas from the 
learned languages ; a (ingular circumftance in the 
hiftory of this country, while the continental 
nations of the North, were indebted to the 
Greeks and Romans for thc^e technical terms^ 
which mark the change from barbarifm to 

On the difperiion from the plains of Shinaar^ 
the miraculous confu(ion pf tongues, did not 
produce as yau have well obferved, an oblivion 
of the figns of ideas formerly in ufe, but a 
change in their fyntaxes only. Thofe figns were 
few in number, and confined t6 the few wants 
dF the primaeval fpeakers: They became the 
ground cm "vdiich all antient languages have been 
conftru&ed, before the invention of new terms, 
or ^ corruption of the old, in a long courfe of 
time ; in me inftance, the improvement of arts, 
required new figns, in the otber^ dialed were 
muittptied, and every tongue remained long in a 
flux and anomalous (late. It is only through the 



ufe of letters, and long ftudy, that any language 
can be brought to the grammatical perfedion it 
is nearly capable of; for heteroclites arc unavoid- 
able, even in the beft. To attain energy and 
copioufnefs, much muft depend on the form of 
civil government, and on the manners of the 
people, the fecurity of the one from foreign 
conqueft, and the tendency of the other, to bring 
men forward by popular arts, and in particular 
by that of /peaking. Under fuch circumftances 
has the language of Ireland been formed, and 
evidently it could not in early times, be formed 
under any other. By comparing fome compofi- 
tions of the fifth century, with others down to 
the feventecnth, we found, the fame fyntax re- 
tained through all, with little variation, except 
fuch' as muft unavoidably happen in a courfe of 
fo many revolutions, and in a feries of fo many 

How the Heathen inhabitants of Ireland could 
obtain the elements 6f literature, and improve 
them into knowledge earlier than other northern 
people . can be accounted for : Thofe elements 
were imported from Spain, a country whofe 
Celtic inhabitants were initiated in arts and 
letters, by the Phoenicians who fettled among 
them. Whether over-crowded by numbers, or 
cthcrwifc made uneafy at home, a colony of 
Scytho-Celts, failed from that country to Ireland, 
and eftabliftied themfelves in it. Among other 
appellations, they gave themfelves the name of 
Phaiiiy and very probably a tribe of Phenians, 



or Phoenicians joined in their expedition. We 
now call them Milefians, and that people have 
invariably, from age to age, recorded themfelves 
to be of Spanifli cxtraftion. No faft of remote 
antiquity comes attended with better proofs than 
ihisy and you, fir, have produced one* of the 
ftrorigeft. The great nurnliw of Phoenician or 
Punic terms you difcbvered in the Iberno-Celtic, 
or Irifli language, lead us diredly to the fource 
from whence; they were derived ; They fhew'an 
intimate communication with the Phoenicians, and 
the knowledge of letters— confcquently, in the 
countries where that people made lafting eftablifli- 
ments. It was from the Phoenicians that the 
lonians learned the art of writing, and in this 
art the Grecians and antient Spaniards had the 
fame mafters, their letters were originally but 
fixtcen in all ; and it is remarkable that the 
Milcfian Irifli had no greater number, till the 
chriftian Miflionaries made known to them the, 
additional cyphers. 

Though thcfe evidences fupport the faft, that 
a colony from Spain eftabliflied itfelf in Ireland, 
yet the time of its arrival cannot be fixed by ajiy 
cxaft chronology. The antiquaries who make it 
coeval with the age of Cyrus the great, (a) arc 
probably neareft to the truth. It anfwers be{t to 
the period when the Celtic dialefts of the weflcrn 
countries of Europe, varied fo little as to be ftill 
intelligible to the feveral tribes who inhabited 
them ; for we find it recorded, that thofe new 


(a) About 540 years before thf birth of CHRIST. 


comers from Spain could convcrfe with the 
Belgians and Danans they found in Ireland, with* 
out the help of interpreters. It was only after 
quitting the roving ft^tc, for fixed abodes, and in 
the progrefs of civilization, that thc^e dialeds 
were gradually converted into diftind . tongues, 
intelligible only in the countries of their formation, 
and this facility of convcrfing without interpreters, 
has very probably continued in flie weft, till be- 
tween three or four hundred years anterior to the 
Chriftian aera. The Milefians, the introducers of 
the Phoenician letters into Ireland, gave the law 
in fpeech, as well as in civil government, to its 
old inhabitants, and the Ibemo-Celtic or Iriih 
language, was probably formed in the courfe of 
three or four centuries ; it muft have been, doubtlefs, 
in proportion to the improvements made in litera- 
ture?, and the poetic art; for all our carliefl; compo- 
fitions were delivered in verfe, and nothing contri- 
butes more to the perfe&ion of a language, than the 
(treating every fubjcd in the harmony of numbers. 
Falfe chronology, doth not aflfed facts. Whe- 
thcT the commerce of the anticnt Riaenicians, 
with the Britifh ifles, commenced five hundred 
yciirs before our vulgar aera, or in 3 later 
pen'od ; certain it is, that fuch a commerce had 
for a confiderablc time fubfifted; and wc may 
be affured, that thofe Phoenicians, availed them- 
felve:? of the Celtcs of Spain, as interpreters be- 
tween them and thofe of Britain, for carrying it 
on. In the courfe of this traffic,^ we difcovcr, 
that a tribe of the Spanifli Celtes actually fettled 
in Britain, by the name of Brigans or Brigantes : 



But though initiated in Phoenician literature, they 
were not fulBcicntly powerful for giving the law 
in language in the greater ifle, as their brethcrn 
the Milefians did, in the leffer. In forming the 
Gymraeg, the prefent language of Wales, the old 
Britifh dialcfts prevailed over any imported by 
Grangers ; in time, a regular and vigorous tongue 
was formed ; but it differs entirely in Syntax, 
from the Ibcmo-Cekic or Irilh tongue : both, in- 
deed, may be eafily traced to the fame original ; 
to the primeeval language of Europe, firft fplitting 
into diale&s, and lailly ending in two tongues, as 
different in conftruftion, as the modern Englifli 
is from the modern German ; two languages which 
may with equal facility be traced to the antient 
Teutonic. Thefe fafts, have not been fufficiently 
attended to by antiquaries.— An identity of terms 
in two tongues, of .different conftru6lion, doth 
not infer the defcent of one from the other. 

Ignorance of our language, and of the docu- 
ments (till preferved in it, induced fome modem 
antiquaries in their refearches to confidcr both 
as ufelefs ; difgufted alfo with fome late pub- 
lications on this fubjed, (either defeftive in matter, 
or injudicious in the fcledUon) thefe moderns 
have rejeSed as crude fables, whatever we have 
recorded of the times antecedent to Chriftianity. 
In this idea, (which excludes any ufeful knowledge 
of our country in its heathen ftate,) one ftiould 
think, that they would leave the great blank as 
they found it j but that was not the cafe. The 
fufpofed void, they have laboured to fill up with 
hypothefes of their own, grafted on a few fcraps 



from antient authors, and explained in the fenfc 
that each hypothefis required; In To extenfivc a 
field to range in, imagination has been very pro- 
duftivc ; ridiculous etymologies have ftept in to 
its aid, and in the variety of fchemes, not one 
agrees virith the other, except in the ncceffary 
poQf ion, that no colony from Spain ever fettled in 
Ireland, and that in confequence, no letters were 
knov/n to the i* inhabitants during their heathen 
ftatc : but arbitrary pofitions are. eafily laid down^ 
and like the hypothefes which they generate, are 
fatisfaftory only to thofe who frame them, or to 
carelefs readers who perufe them without exami- 
nation. V 

Certain it is, that without the notices left us 
in the antient language of Ireland, wd fhould know 
nothing, or next to nothing, of its heathen hiftory. 
Our earlieft accounts, like thofe of the Grecians, 
are mixed with fables, but fome of thofe fables are 
grounded on fads ; and difficult as it is, to ftrip oflF 
the fanciful garb which Poetry has thrown over 
the Earlieft events in Europe, yet fome critics have 
attempted it, and fome have had good fuccefs in 
the attempt. The more antient traditions of Ire- 
land, fhould undergo a like inveftigation, for the 
reparation of the true from the falfe, as far as 
it can be done ; and fome fafts preferved in the 
fables of Ireland, would probably have remained in 
their native obfcurity, had not the chronological 
refearches of Sir Ifaac Newton, affifted us, (though 
unintentionally to that great man) in fhewing, 
that fome of the earlieft reports of our Irifli bards, 
are not groundlefs. They arc fafts, indeed, which 



relate to continental, not to our infular antiquities, 
and are the more remarkable on that account. 
Our Niuly SrUj Afru^ Tat^ and Ogamarij corrcfpond 
cxaftlv, with the JViV, Sihor^ Ofthor^ Thoth and 
Ogmttts of Sir Ifaac. In the Irifli traditions, as in . 
thofc of Greece, they are celebrated as heroes who 
performed mighty exploits in Egypt, Spain and 
other countries ; and whether thofe names be- 
longed to a fingle prince,, who multiplied his 
appellations with his conqueft's (as the great author 
judges,) or referred to different conquerors, is not 
material to our prefent purpofe : but it is highly 
obfcrvable, that this correfpondence in names and 
fafts, this coincidef^ce in the traditions of remote 
nations, who held no communication with each 
other/ could not happen by mere accident. To 
Newton, who dripped off the Poetic veil, we owe 
the difcovery, and the light he has caft on our 
oldeft reports, is remarkably rcflefted back on his 
own fyftem. 

Thefc traces of things, which pafled on the 
great theatres of the continent, fhcw that the 
people ivho retained them,' were a colony from 
that continent ; and the Punic terms, which you 
have difcovered in their language, fhew that Spain 
was the country they arrived from, and fo their 
own accounts affirm invariably. They were Iberian 
Scytho-Celtes, who once mixed with the Phoe- 
nicians, or their Carthaginian pofterity. In Ireland 
they took various denominations : they called 
themfelves Gaedhil, or (as we pronounce it) Gasil, 
very prorcr!^\ in memory of their Celtic origin. 
With *r!i!'?,t copriety, they took the name of 



Scuit or Scots, to commemorate their Scythian 
cxtraftion ; Celts and Scythians having intermixed 
with each other in Spain, as in Gaul and other 
Celtic regions. They alfo had the name of Clan- 
Breogain (which we Latinize Brigantcs) as 
the defcendants of a celebrated Breogan, who 
they fay, held the government of Brigantia, or 
Brigantium, in Spaiil. They mention likcwife 
among their anceftors, a celebrated Pheniusy who 
firft inftrufted mankind in the knowledge of 
letters; a fable, which has its ufe, in ftiewing 
that the colony which arrived in Ireland from the 
continent, had their rudiments of literature from 
the Phoenicians. Such notices, combined with 
feveral others, which I here omit, demonftrate the 
fettlement of a Spanifh or Celtiberian people in 
Ireland, and that in an early period of time. The 
defcent of the Romans or antient Latins, from a 
colony of fugitive Trojans, cannot be fo well 

At the period of the Milefian expedition into 
Ireland, arts were yet in their infancy. The new 
comers were employed chiefly in making room 
for themfelves, in an ifland covered with immenfe 
forefts. The cultivation of the land was prior to 
that of the mind, and it took fome time before a 
monarch, emphatically furnamed • Ollam Fodhla^ 
cftabliihed a College in Teamor for the education 
of the principal families of the kingdom, under the 
direftion of an order of men called Ollamhs and 
Bleas. Of that monarch's regulations, both in his 
legiflative and literary capacities, we have but a 


* u e. The InftruSor of Ireland. 


ilender account. It doth not appear, that his Infti* 
tutcs had much influence, through the diforderly 
reigns of his fucceffors, down to the elevation of 
Kimbaoth (a prince of his pofterity) to the throne 
of Ireland ; this Kimbaoth flouriihed fix genera- 
tions before the Chriftian aera. He is celebrated for 
hk buildings in Eamania, and the fchools he 
cftaWiflied for educating the principal families of 
his kingdom in arts, arms and literature. From 
his time, Tigernach with other antiquaries, date 
our more exaft hiftorical notices, pronouncing the 
former to be uncertain. A reform in the civil 
government, fucceeded to the regulations made 
in Eamania. In a convention of the ftates, Hugony 
furaamed the Great, (an Heremonian prince edu- 
cated under Kimbaoth, and Macha his queen) 
was raifed to the throne ; and by a folemn law, 
it was enafted, that the regal fucceffion Ihould 
for the future, be continued by hereditary right 
in his family.. Pretenders from the other royal 
femilics, were by the fame law excluded ; but no 
regard being paid to primogeniture in this con- 
mtution, it was of ihort duration. The excluded 
lamilics forced their way to the throne by bloody 
cc^cfts with the Hugonians, and with one another, 
till a. new reform was made in the beginning of 
the iirft century under Eochy Feyloch. But the 
radical defeds of an eledive government, flill 
remained. The Belgian tqbes, difcontented with 
their Milefjan matters, rebelled againft them, and 
fct up a monarch of their own. In a fecond re- 
WHon, they baniflicd the royal Hugonian race 
Hito North Bqtain, and the kingdom laid in 





ruins, was expofed lo all the miferics of civil u^r 
and famine. 

Thus ended the fccond period of Irifh hiftorjl, 
commencing with the legal elevation of Hugony 
the Great, to regal power, and ending with the 
ufurpation of Elim the fon of Conra ; the whole 
time, marks a rohuft, but fickly cpnftitution, in 
the treatment of which, remedies proved but too 
. often, new difeafes ; fome kings were rather in- 
troduced by faftions, than eleded by the national 
voice ; their titles were difputed, their power 
. was limited, and their end was tragical ; . others 
proved able princes, and gave the nation rcpofe 
during their adminiftration. In the confufion of 
the times, and frequency of revolutions, we arc 
not to wonder that the reigns of kings were ill 
regiftered; or that contenders for royalty, who 
were faluted kings by their feveral parties, fhould 
by future fcnachies be enrolled in the lift of legi- 
timate monarchs. In a word, it is from the fuc- 
ceffion of Feradach the Juft, and the great revolu- 
tion foon after under Tuathal the acceptable, 
that we can date exaftnefs in our Heathen hiftory- 
Undoubtedly, fome events of antecedent times 
bear ftrong marks of authenticity ; fome princes 
appear with luftre, but they appear like ftar^ of 
magnitude in a clouded night. 

Thus it was. Sir, in our ifland, as in ajl other 
Pagan countries ; our earlieft tranfa&ions were 
delivered in the fongs of the bards, and in our firft 
written accounts, the heroic and marvellous pre- 
vailed ; yet fome truths have been preferved, even 
in that ftate of things. The lights of genuine 



hiftory came on gradually, in proportion to the 
progrefs made in civilization and literature. In 
the northern countries of Europe this progrefs 
was extremely flow, and it is highly remarkable 
that in Ireland, and in Ireland alone, we firfl 
meet with Celtic hiftory in Celtic language ; and 
that, long before the natives had any acquaint- 
ance with the learning of Greece or Rome. 

The Tuathalian era, the moft exaft in our 
heathen annals, commenced with the year of 
Chrift 130. In a full convention of the ftates the 
old Hugonian confl:itution was renewed with 
great improvements; the fine province of 
Meath, extending from the Shannon to the eafl:ern 
fea, was taken from the other provinces, and 
erefted into a domain for every future monarch 
of the ifle ; as a fupport to the regal dignity, 
independent of the provincial tribute formerly 
lU paid and often withheld, in the tumults of 
civil contention. In the fame convention, the 
regal fucceflion was eftablifhed in the family of 
Tuathal Soley, fanftioned by the moft binding 
teft that the Druids could frame, or that their 
religion could afford ; conformably to this law, 
ten monarchs of Tuathal's line, from father to fon, 
mounted the throne of Ireland, and the interrup- 
tions which ambition or difcontent gave to this 
conftitution, were but of fliort continuance. During 
the whole period, which takes in three hundred 
years, a right of fucceflion by primogeniture, 
appears to have been eftabliflied, as none but 
elder fons affumed the reins of government ; it 
muft • be obferved however, that during two 
Q^ minorities. 



minorities, the Tuathalian law was difpenfed \vi 
in the fucceffion of Conary 11. A. D. 212, aiid c| 
Crimhan in 366. Such fucceffions were not corl 
fidered as violations of the Tuathalian conftitutioij 
and on the demife of each of thofe princes, thi 
legitimate inheritor immediately afccnded tin 
throne of his anceftors. 

It was during this period of three hundred 
years, antecedent to chriftianity, that the regula 
tions antiently begun in leamor and Eamani; 
were re-eftabliflied and extended. Foreign alii 
ances were renewed, and in particular with th^ 
Cruthenians of North-Britain, among whom out 
Carbry-Riada (the fon of Conary 11.) found aij 
eftablifhment for his colony of Scots, the firft thai 
migrated from Ireland to Britain. Both nations 
(Scots and Pi£ls united) warred againft the 
Romans, and the Scots of the mother countn 
entered into alliances with the Saxons, before the 
latter had obtained any footing in Britain. 

Should thefe outlines be filled up hereafter hf 
the pencil of ability, the hiftory of Ireland, evenl 
in its heathen (late, will afford matter for inftruc- 
tion ; the national manners excited to the em- 
ployment, and the form of government required 
the full exercife of the mental faculties. It was 
however a ftate of things attended with difadvan- 
tages, as well as benefits; A conftitution wherein 
the three orders of legiflation were never fuffici- 
ently poized, concealed maladies of fatal opcra- 
tion* The executive power was weak, and our 
ableft monarchs, leldom had authority enough to 
controul, or power fufEcient to fubduc the oppo- 

fiti crj 


fition of provincial princes, who took the lead in 
the arillocratical order, and often fet themfelves 
up, rather as rivals than fubjefts to the firft 
magiftrate of the ftate. 

Affairs aflumed a better afpefl: under the cele- 
brated monarch Corbmac O^Cuinn, and moft of 
his fucceffors. The court of Teamor Appeared in 
all the fplendor that could be derived from the 
local manners, and local regulations of a fequef- 
tered people. Science was improved ; the fuper- 
ftitions of Druidifm were examined and expofcd ; 
the truths of natural religion were ftudied and 
propagated ; new laws were promulgated, and 
the increafe of knowledge, proved an increafe of 
power to every wife adminiftration. In this ftate 
the nation flourifhed and profpered, and the 
people became known and celebrated in Europe, 
by the name of SCOTS, an appellation they 
always bore at home. At this period, they 
meafured their arms with thofe of Rome, firft in 
Britain and afterwards in Gaul. At length they 
embraced the true religion, and in no country 
did the gofpcl make a more rapid progrefs than 
in theirs ; a circumftance, which alone points 
them out to us a thinking and rational people, and 
confirms the obfcrvation of ecclefiaftical hiftorians, 
t'lat chriftianity made its quicker and more lafting 
cftablifliments among cultivated nations. 

You fee. Sir, that I have reduced the forego^^ 
ing obfervations on our heathen hiftory under 
three heads ; Firft, The expedition of the Mile- 
fians from Spain to Ireland ; Secondly, The 
building of Eamania, and the Hugoman civil 
C^2 reform. 


reform, about two hundred years before the 
chriftian era; -.and Thirdly, The new conftitution 
under Tuathal the acceptable^ A. D. 130. — ^Thc 
commencement and duration of the firft period, 
cannot be fixed with any exaSnefs ; the regal 
and genealogical lifts can be but little depended 
upon, and the accounts tranfmitted by the bards 
in that infancy of hiftory, are by Tigernach with 
other antiquaries, pronounced uncertain. Under 
the fecond period from the reign of Hugony the 
great, fafts were recorded with a greater atten- 
tion to truth ; the monarch Eochy Feyloch made 
a change in the form of civil government ; laws 
were committed to writing under Corcovar Mac 
Neffa, king of Ulfter ; and other incidents, co- 
eval with the firft chriftian celitury, are evidences 
of the gradual improvement made in government 
and literature. The third period commencing 
with the political regulations under Tuathal the '^ 
acceptable^ continued for three hundred years. 
The documents ftill preferved of thofe three 
heathen ages, bear all the fignatures of authentic 
hiftory ; they accurately mark the feveral invafi- 
ons of the civil conftitution, and the fpeedy 
punifhment of the invaders. 

My troubling you. Sir, in particular, with thefc 
hints, in the loofe form of a letter, can be juftified 
for a reafon already affigned ; but I confefs that 
they are thrown out chiefly, with the view of 
recalling others from fome grofs miftakes on this 
fubjeft, which no wrong information can cxcufe, 
while better can be procured, from a critical 
examination of the antient fads, ftill almoft 



buried in our old language. Such miftakes pub- 
liflicd in the Colledanea, muft in a high degree 
fruftrate your defign of extracting as much as can 
be extraftcd from thefe fources. 

It pains me that a gentleman, I much efteem, 
fliould rejeO: thefe fources of intelligence for any 
modern hypothefis. In the hiftory of Kilkenny, 
publifhed in the ninth number of the Colledaneuj 
the reverend author adopts the fyftem of the 
learned Mr. Whitaker of Manchefter, who af- 
firms, that " about three hundred and fifty years 
" before the chriftian era, the Britons invaded 
" and difpoffefled by the Belgae, from the conti- 
" nent, fled hither and firft inhabited this ifland. 
" That in two hundred and fifty years after, a 
" fecond migration, and from the fame caufes, 
" happened ; the latter incorporated with the 
" former, and both people were called by their 
" countrymen (their brethem) who remained in 
" Britain, Scuites and Stots, that is, wanderers 
" or refugees." Here, Sir, are feveral aflertions 
crowded into a few lines, and as they ftand in 
contradiction to all the hiftorlcal documents of 
the nation, they refer to, they fhould come fup- 
ported, at Icaft, with fome plaufible proofs ;- but 
the fhadow of a proof is not oflFcred. 

Indeed uone was offered by the inventor of the 
talc J the whole is an arbitrary fcheme of an 
obfcure monk of a dark age, a retailer of 
Geofiry of Monmouth's fables, and a writer 
flighted by Camden, Uflier, and our bed anti- 
quaries of the feventeenth century. How fo ex- 
cellent an antiquary, as Mr. Whitaker, fliould in 




our own time give any credit to the unauthorized 
affertions of the monk of Cirencefter, is amazing ; 
and it is equally fo, that he who fo ably dcted^^d 
the falfities, and expofcd the inconfiftencies, cf 
a late declaimer on this fubjeft fhould adopt for 
authentic fa£ts feveral relations in the poems attri- 
butcd to OSSIAN. In other parts of his hiflory 
Mr, Whitaker has acquitted himfelf admirably ; 
a mafter of elegant compofition, happy in his 
rcfcarches and judicious in his re3edions, he 
has thrown lights, which have not appeared before, 
on the earlier periods of Britifh antiquities ; but 
aifurcdly, any detached'part of his hillorical fabric 
reared on the foundations of monk Richard and 
Mr. Mac Pherfon's OSian, cannot (land. 

Conduced by his monaftic guide, Mr. Whit- 
aker is led aftray in his topography of Ireland ; 
and on this fubjeft I muft obferve, that foreign 
writers knew but little of the internal ftatc of this 
ifland, till after the jpeception of chriftianity 
among its inhabitants. I'he Egyptian geographer, 
Ptolemy, could know but little of it certainly, 
and that little from hearfay or from feafaring men 
who made fomc flay on our coafts ; and what 
kind of informers fuch men were, we may judge 
from the erroneous accounts., of our firft European 
voyagers to India and other remote regions of 
Alia. In fa % Ptolemy gives us but few genuine 
•names of tribes and diftridts, and he omits fuch 
as were moft celebrated at the time of his writing; 
other names thrown in arbitrarily, I fuppofe, by 
interpolators, have not the common roots of the 
Celtic language to countenance their infertion. 



For the antient topography of Ireland it is but 
reafonabie that we fhould refer to the materials 
furniffied by our native documents ; in the com- 
pilations of Lecan, in thofe of Balymote, and in 
the book of Glendaloch, we have an accurate 
recital of moll of the tribes, who inhabited Ireland 
in the geographer Ptolemy*s own time ; a copy 
of it (in the hand-writing of the celebrated anti- 
quary Duald Mac Firbis) is now in the choice 
colleftion of a worthy nobleman, the earl of 
Roden, and another is jn my hands. 

In the parts of Ireland defcribed by Mr. 
Led\*ich, Mr. Whitaker's miftakes from the monk 
Richard are acquicfced in, as good information. 
The central regions are affigned to the Scots, and 
the other diflrids are fuppofed to be occupied by 
fwarms of Britifh Belga^ with the Durotriges and 
Damnonii, who fled hither from the Roman pow- 
er in the reign of Vefpafiah. Of this emigration 
from Britain to Ireland not a fyllable is offered in 
proof; and indeed none can be olTered. All 
our native Senachies have been unanimous in 
aflerting, that the Scots had extenfive territories, 
in Munfter, Leinfler, Meath and Ulfter, not only 
in Vefp^fian's time, but for many ages before ; 
they were the leading people, and their princes 
had by long prefcription, the civil government of 
the whole ifland under their power, in the form 
of monarchy. 

The Belgians from South Britain, and the 
Danans from the northern parts of that ifland, 
were in poflTeflTion of Ireland, long before the 
arrival of the Scots or Milcfians from Spain. 



the time of Vefpafiaii, the remains of thofe olc 
inhabitants were the more numerous part of the] 
nation, and their fuccefsful rebellion at the cloft| 
of the firft century, appears to have been pro 
voked by hard treatment from their Milefiai 
mafters. But their fecond rebellion, A. D. 126 
was ruinous, and yet had the confequences o 
ending in a better conftitution of government 
than the people had before enjoyed. 

From the elevation of Tuathal the accepiabk. 
to the throne of Teamofr A. D, 130, the chicl 
power of the Belgians was confined to the province 
of Connaught, under* fome celebrated provincial 
kings of their own race ; but their civil oeconomy 
was utterly diflfolved in the fourth century, by the 
Irifli monarch Mar/^^A Tireach^ who feized on that| 
province, and left the government of it to his 
pofterity, who held it in an uninterrupted fucccf- 
iion, through a period of more than nine hundred 
years. Such accounts, tranfmitted invariably from 
age to age, deferve credit ; thofe of the monk of 
Cirenceftcr deferve none. 

The capital tow^ns of the Scots are faid to be 
Rheba and Ibernia; but in no antient document 
of Ireland, are any fuch towns mentioned, and 
undoubtedly, no towns under thefe denominations, 
ever exifted. Thofe of chief note in Vefpafian's 
time were Teamor, the royal feat of the Irifli 
monarch's in Mcath, and Eamhain or Eamania, 
the capital of the provincial king's of Ulfter. 
Thefe indeed, were towns of great celebrity j and 
yet Ptolemy makes no mention of them. 



Thefe preliminary miftakes in the hiftory of 
Kilkenny lead to others. Mr. Ledwich thinks, 
that Baile-Gaedhlach (not Bally-Gael-loch) or. 
Iriflitown of Kilkenny, was the Ibernia of monk 
Richard. But it is well known, that the Latin 
name of Ibernia was impofed on the whole ifland 
by foreign writers, and did not belong to any 
village in it ; and the term Gaedhalach^ is not a 
compound but an adjeftive from Gaedhal, or 
Gaeal as we pronounce it, to avoid the confonantal 
harfhnefs, or radical letters in this and many 
other words in our Iberno-Celtic. Thus we derive 
Hibemicus from Hibernia, and Scoticus from 

This learned gentleman derives Kilkenjiy from 
a fuppofed compound, Coily or Kyle-ken-ui^ the 
wooded head or hill near the river! — ^Never was 
etymology put more on the rack, yet no torture 
can wring from it the intelligence required. The 
original and tranjlaiion^ are equally groundlefs, 
aud the more inexcufable, as the learned writer 
had, or might have, true and incontrovertible 
information on this fubjeft from our antient 

The Irifh name of Kilkenny is CilUChainnigb^ 
and it means literally^ the cell or oratory of 
Cainneach^ the firft abbot of Achabo in the fixlh 
century; as an ecclefiaftic revered for the holi- 
nefs of his life, feveral other Kills, befide this of 
Oflbry, were dedicated to his name and memory, 
and particularly, that of Kilkenny in Weftmeath, 
now diftinguiflied by the appellation of Kilkenny 
Weft, This is the fad. In afferting it, Primate 




Uflicr has followed the current of all our antient 
annals, and the charge made to that great anti- 
quary, as adopting herein a vulgar and groundlefs 
notion, is not juft. 

" We have numberlefs inftanccs of the Monks 
" in dark ages (Aiys Mr. Ledwich) perfonifying- 
*' rivers and places, like the heathen mythologies. " 
A charge of this nature conveying a contemptuous 
idea of the Irifli clergy in the earlier ages of the 
Irifli church, fhould furcly come fupported with 
the proper proofs ; certain I am, that thofe pro- 
duced, are moft unhappily felefted ; they (land in 
contradiftion to hiftory and chronology. 

Notwithilanding the authority of all our antient 
documents, we arc told that the Irifli monks have 
made of the river Shannon or Senus, St. Senanus, 
and of Down or Duhum St. Dunus, and of Kil- 
kenny St. Kenny! Senan a celebrated abbot of 
the fixth century, undoubtedly fixed his monaf- 
tery in the ifland of Cathay (now Scattery) fur- 
rounded by the Shannon ; but that great river 
bore the name of Shannon or Senus many ages 
before the Abbot Senan was born; even Ptolemy 
himfelf, who flouriflied in the fecond century, fet j- 
it down in his map. —That Down or Down-Patrick 
is made of St. Dunus, is a notion equally fanciful, 
as no fuch perfon as a St. Dunus can be found 
either in our kalcndars or annals ; in faft, the names 
of Kilkenny, Kill-Senan and Down-Patrick were 
impofcd in the fir ft ages of the Irifli church. 

The ftate of Chriftianity in Ireland from the 
fifth to the ninth century, is of all inquiries into 
the liiilory of this country, the moft important, 



r: t only from the nature of the fubjeflr, but from 
h efieds, through the labours of Irifh ecclcfiaftics 
in foreign countries as well as in their native land. 
At home, thipy fupportcd and inftrufted Chriftian 
; rinces and youths, who fled hither from perfecu-^ 
tier. ; and abroad, they had fuccefs in converting 
the perfecutors, I mean the Pagan barbarians, 
who feized on the weftern provinces of the Roman 
cr.pire, Amidil the fierceft domeftic hoftilitics, 
the diftrids of the Irifli monks were free from any 
Yiolation, and under that fecurity Ireland, as Dean 
Pridcaux has obferved, became the prime feat of 
learning in Chriftendom. In no age, even the 
darkeft, can a fingle inftance be produced, that 
Iriih monks have perfonified rivers and places^ 
like the heathen mythologifts. 

To point out the miftakes of my reverend friend 
on th^ fubjefl: of our antiquities, will, I truft, give 
him no pain, as I am confident that right informa- 
tion muft be acceptable to every philofophic mind. 
now return to the more pleafmg office, that of 
joining the public in approbation of the other and 
far greater parts of his hiftory of Kilkenny ; his 
matter is well feleSed, and many of his obferva- 
vations are highly judicious. 

Before I conclude, I requeft your attention to a 
few remarks on the learned Mr, Beauford*s trafts 
(in the fevcnth nuinbcr of the ColleSlancaJ on the 
theology, origin and language of the heathen 

On the general fubjeft of Celtic druidifm, he 
writes judicioufly from Greek and Roman docu- 
i^cnts. Like other modes of religion, it undoubt- 



cdly took various forms in various countries arLcl 
ages, but of tliofe which it received from time to 
time, in our own ifland, we have now but few 
notices. It certainly had its fource in the religioni 
#of nature and patriarchal worlhip; but the ftreaii> 
corrupted as it flowed, ! 

In your profound inveftigations relative to oui^ 
Irifh Ogham, and our antient charadlers literal 
and fymbolical, you have opened a path, and a 
fecure one, for further difcoveries on the ftate of 
learning in Ireland, antecedent to the intro- 
dudion of G^eek and Roman literature in the 
fifth century. In that path, Mr. Beauford trod; 
with fuccefs, and brought additional proofs to 
yours, that the elements of our heathen literature 
were derived from the Phoenicians, or their Car- 
thaginian pofterity. 

Initiated thus in the rudiments of knowledge, 
it might well be expeded that a people long fe- 
queftered in a remote ifland, and long undifturbed 
by foreign conquefl:, might make fome confi- 
derable progrefs in intelledual improvements, 
and leave pofterity fome fatisfaclory account of 
themfelves. But according to Mr. Beauford, this 
was not the cafe ; of the infignificancy of their 
literature to any hiftorical purpofc, he is far from 
fpeaking doubtfully ; he affirms pofitivcly, that 
" little depcndance can be had on any tranfaflions 
" relative to the affairs of Ireland, prior to the fixth 
" century ; and adds, " The moft antient and re- 
fpecbed hiftorians, as Cormac, king and archbifhop ; 
of Cafliel in the beginning of the tenth century, 
audTigcrnach who wrote the Irifh annals in the elc- j 



vcnth, begin their hiftories, in the fifth age, with- 
out taking the leaji notice of any tranfaftions prior 
to that period!— Thcfe are great miftakes, and 
they involve greater. 

Some extrafts from the pfalter of Cafhel, I have 
perufcd in the compilations of Balimote. The 
learned archbifhop begins with the fettlement of the 
Scots in Ireland under Heremon and Heber ; he 
does not indeed point out the precife time of their 
arrival from Spain ; but from the number of gene- 
rations fet down by him in the genealogy of his 
own family, he fhews that they muft have arrived 
fcveral ages before the Chriftian era. 

Through your indulgence. Sir, I had the ufe of 
the annals of Tigernach for fome months. Far 
from rejefting the tranfaftions prior to the Chriftian 
period, as Mr. Beauford aflerts, he commences 
with the building of Eamania fix generations be- 
fore the incarnation of our Saviour ; he gives us 
the fucceffion of the Eamanian kings to Concovar 
Mac Ncffa, under whofe patronage Irifli laws were 
firft committed to writing. The learned abbot 
alfo makes mention of fuch Heathen monarchs 
and princes, as made the moft confpicuous figure 
in hiftory during this early period, as well as in 
the times which fucceeded. His acountj, it is 
true, arc fliort, and appear to be a chronological 
index to a larger work, compiled by himfelf, or 
fome others who went before him. 

You have laid me under equal obligations by 
putting the annals of Inisfallen (erroneoufly called 
thofe of Inisfail) into my hands. They commence 
with the time of Qliol Qlom^ the celebrated heathen 




king of the two Munflers, who died a hundred and 
feventy-two years before the Arrival of St. Patrick. 

Angus, the learned Culdee, wrote his Pfalter-na- 
rann two hundred years before king Cormac began 
the Ffalter of Cafliel. Tliat writer aifo mentions 
the fettlement under the fons of Milefius ; places 
the Heberian Scots in the fouth, and the Here- 
monian Scots in the north, and relates that 
Heremon was the firft of the Scottish monarchs. 
Writing about the year 800, he doubtlefs had 
good documents before him, but they have not 
reached our times ; of all Angus's works, I have 
met with no part except the abftrad I have here 
quoted from Sir James Ware. 

In the long continuance of tlie wars with the 
Norman ravagers in this ifland, our larger works 
on civil and ecclefiaftical fubjefts have been dcf- 
troye^, with the monaftries wherein they were de- 
pofited. It is, undoubtedly, a lofs to literature, 
which can never be repaired. But fome remains 
of our hiftorical wreck have been prefervcd, which 
are fufficient to fliew us diftindly the more 
eminent charaders in church and ftate* They un- 
fold the political vices which arofe from the form 
of government under the Hy-Niall race, through 
a period of fix hundred years ; the domeftic vir- 
tues, public and private, which counterafted 
thofe vices ; the cultivation of fcience before the 
commencement of the Norman devafiations ; the 
edifying conduct of the clergy, the freedom 
enjoyed within their diftrifts ; the immunities and 
endowments of the Fileas and Orfidies ; the con- 
ftant attention to the arts of poetry and mufic ; 



arts of political ufe, in foftening the mind to wor- 
thyfcclings, and in checking its ferocity, amidft the 
ficrceft rage of party contentions. For cafting light, 
I fay, on that ftate of things, we ftill have fome 
good materials, though pofiibly, mod may not out- 
live the prcfent generation, through a difguft to 
examine them, or to learn the language in which 
they arc conveyed. 

On thefe documents Mr. Beauford has pronoun- 
ced a very fevere fentence, without any fair trial, 
or indeed without any trial at all, and an incon- 
fillency which he charges on our old writers, arc 
not theirs, but his own. The Irifli chronologers 
(as he advances) put a long diftance of time be- 
tween Olamh-Fodhla andConar Mac Neflan [Con- - 
covar Mac Neffa] yet in the following page he re- 
prcfents the Irifli Hiftorians, as making that mo- 
narch and Concovar Mac NelTa one and the fame . 
perfon ; and he charges them further with identi- 
fying thofe princes with Fedlimidh the legiflator, 
who died A. D. 174.— How unfair, and how , 
carelefs ! The Irifli fenachies are unanimous in 
recording that the names mentioned, belonged to 
three diftinck princes, and npt to one alone ; 
Concovar Mac Ncfla, king of Ulfter died A. D, 
48, and Fedlimidh the legiflator, monarch of the 
whole ifland, died one hundred and twenty fix 
years after him. 

The rcjeftion of our domefl:ic* accounts, without 
perufmg them, cannot be well excufed, and the 
lefs fo, as the internal fliatc of this remote ifland 
in ancient times, could be but very partially 
known to foreign writers, who had all their infor- 



mation from hcar-fay evidence. It is a flaw 
which certainly was known hardly in any mcafurc 
to a late writer, who in the name of Offian, gavd 
us fome well fabricated novels, raifed on the tales^j 
which to this day amufe the common people ii^ 
Ireland and in the highlands of Scotland, and re-l 
late chiefly, to Fin Mac Cumhal and his Fenian! 
heroes, who aded under the great monarch Cor- 
mac o'Cuinn, to whom that Fin was a fon-in-law.| 
The antient ftate of Ireland, I fay, could be but 
little known to this novelift, and doubtlefs the ob- 
fcurc monk of Cirencefter was equally ignorant; 
yet fuch are ;the authors preferred by Mr. Beau- 
ford to all our old documents, and hence many 
miftakes of his, which at prefent I forbear noticing. 
I will only in his own words give you the fum of 
his aflirmations on this fubjed ; ift. That little 
^ dependance is to be had on any tranfaftions relative 

to the aflFairs of Ireland prior to the fixth century." 
2d. "That the ancient inhabitants of Ireland obtain- 
ed the name of Scots during the middle ages, from 
their (wandering)'occupation, and mode of life which 
they retained until agriculture, the arts of civil life 
and encreafe of population about the tenth century, 
had in fome meafure, confined their rcfidence to par- 
ticular fpots." Surely, Sir, there is nothing in 
this defcription of an ancient nation, to claim at- 
tention, or invite curiofity ; it creates difguft, it 
can convey no inftruftion. 

But the defcription, I dare afErm, is not juft, 
and I hope that in the foregoing pages I have af- 
forded fome proofs of a different ftate of things, 
and particularly from the commencement of the 



Tuathalian conftitution, and end of the Belgic and 
Attacotic wars in the fecond century. 

Before that time we find the Scots long ftation- 
aryin fixed fettlements ; the Hcberians in Mun- 
fter, the Heremonians in Leinfter, and the Ru- 
, dricians in Ulfter. In the perufal of what we 
hare left of that people in their own language, 
and particularly from the Tuathalian sera to the 
deceafe of Malachy 11. (a period of near nine 
hundred years) we find a body politic, robuft and 
vigorous, in the care of men who often refifted, 
and too often fed, the diftempers to which it was 
incident. It was a government of freemen, who 
never were happy enough to fet proper limits to 
freedom, they therefore were deftitute of proper 
fccurity. In that ftate, we meet with examples 
of political virtues and vices, which, by turns, 
adorn and difgrace this people, till the feeds of 
diffolution fowed in the infancy of their conftitu- 
tion, came to full maturity in the tenth century, 
at the very period when, according to Mr. Beau- 
ford, they ceafed to be flragling barbarians and, 
infome meafure^ confined their refidence to parti- 
cular fpots. 

I do not deny, but am ever ready to acknow- 
ledge Mr. Beauford's merit in his ingenious 
explications of our antient infcriptions, literal 
and fymbolical. They conftituted a part of our 
local learning in heathen times ; but of their ufe 
or improvement to hiftorical or intelleSual pur- 
pofes, he appears entirely difBdent. 

Before I conclude a letter which I fear you may 
think already too long, I muft obferve that how- 

R ever 

; ^^li iAt'.;:^ v^t ::rrL: i::d tlrr n^ic: in dme, 

*' "V Vi ♦'"'*' -r- #- ' >-'• 'V**-^ •■'^ — ^_ T^-^ \;. -^-^ ^ ~ — 1^ ~~~< '*^- 

V: \./. S 1 \j'c^':'t r '.• r-'c ^.',z ilftinr'-i^'^g between 
i:.' ;,, }/ J lot f,:r.t: rtr:irkLb'-c revolutions in 
';'r '.r:r,: ':rt ':r.v/ :d u:, to dlfrovcr a few wlio 

'lie 1' .r:.':d ^.Ir. O'naherty ha? cniployed 

r .'" 'I !'.!>%"r to f. r^i^rt the authenricitv cf Gii'a- 
f ' ' ; / :/•. 1:1 m .a..-: *::i mcnarch?. He could not 
iii: '}.' , \,vc not?'.:!, t:*.:t the commencement of the 
'•'i^ fi'n n.ori'drchy, v i.- coir.c: Jert with the reign 
iA lloU,i::on in the trait ; anJ hmce his curtailing 
t'.'r nu!f:!:cr of V'^ar*. ^.r re: .riis aligned by Gilla- 
O/Ciir^n to Irifii ;r.':!i?.r,;!:5, and hence his amputa- 



tions of genealogical gertcrations, to make the 
whole correfpondent with his own fyftem ; for they 
by no means correfpond with the courfc of nature, 
notwithftanding all his care that they Ihould. His 
dates, however, from the reign of Feradach the 
Juft, A. D. 95, are exaft, and thence to the preach- 
ing of the gofpel, his chronology is moft accu- 

It was. Sir, in this, as in all other Euro- 
pean countries ; hiftory had its night of darknefs, 
but in fome, it was a darknefs vifible. In ours, 
fome objefts are feen diftindly even in that ftate ; 
the dawn of light comes on gradually from the 
time of Kimbaoth ; and full day opens on the 
elevation of Tuathal the acceptable to the throne 
of Teamor. 

In fuch a courfe of things, it is no wonder that 
Gilla-Coeman and many other of our old antiqua- 
ries have fallen into miftakes and anachronifms ; 
to their earlicft reports Mr. O 'Flaherty gave too 
much credit, and to their later accounts, fir James 
Ware gave too little. That learned gentleman 
did not underftand our language, nor had he any 
good interpreter to explain the documents it con- 
tained, till a few months before his death, when 
he called in the celebrated antiquary Duald Mac 
Plrbifs to his affiftance. 

la fome effays of mine on this fubjed, I have 
fallen into miftakes ; fome you have kindly pointed 
out to me, and I have retracted. On pcrufing 
the annals of Tigernach and other documents in 
the compilations of Balimote, I have retracted 
R .2 more. 



more, and on the detcftion of any miftake in this 
prefent effay, I (hall retraft again ; Nil enim pof- 
fumus contra veritatenu You, Sir, have done great 
fervice in this walk of learning ; and by fhewing, 
though indiredly^ how far fome writers have ftray- 
ed out of it, you not only guard others from 
treading in their paths, but open to them fuch as 
they may fecurely follow. You began with tracing 
our old language to its Celtic fource ; You mark- 
ed the terms, and difcovered the conftrudion, it 
partly received, through an early commerce with 
the Phoenicians ; and it being compofed from few- 
er Celtic dialeds than any other tongue among the 
continental Celts, it involves at this day the pu- 
reft remains of the primaeval language of Europe. 
From its copioufnefs and energy you have found 
it amply fitted for the purpofes of a thinking peo- 
ple, who were long at leifure for the cultivation of 
their -intelleftual powers : and poffefTed of that 
fad, you have fet on foot the enquiry whether the 
fpeakers of that language left any ufeful memorials 
in it, relative to their artSj their manners, their 
civil inflitutes and the revolutions all muft have 
undergone, through the viciflitudes of improvement 
and decline, in a fucccffion of ages. Your plan 
was rational, and the acquifition of knowledge 
was the end you propofed to yourfelf in forming 
it, and fonie knowledge it is hoped will be gained 
from your own labour, and that of others on this 
fubjeft. - Man, to know him well, fliould be view- 
ed on every ftage of life, not fo much indeed 
through the uniform habits of barbarifm, as 

# through 


through the diverfities of aftion in civil affociation, 
under the dircQ:ion of local religions, local man- 
ners, and local fituations. The hiftory of this 
iiland is that of a people who remained ma^y ages 
in a fecluded ftate ; it expofes to our view, a free 
and warlike nation, generally divided by parties 
and exhibiting many examples of the abufe of li- 
berty, as well under the Tuathalian conftitution, as 
in that which followed in the times of chriftianity 
under the Hy-Niall race. In too many inftances we 
find the people preyed upon, and employed to fupport 
parties ; tyrannical themfelves when at the fummit 
of power, and when ftripped of that power, juftly 
punifhed by opponents equally tyrannical. Such 
examples exhibit falutaryleflbns to nations (till free, 
but yet tardy in removing exceffes, which fooner or 
later muft end unhappily. The cure of evils arifing 
out of liberty itfelf is, no doubt, difficult ; it can 
hardly, however, continue fo in times enlightened 
by philofophy, and inflrufted by former as well as 
recent; fufferings. In Ireland this cure has been 
applied, and has fucceeded happily. Under the auf- 
pices of our prefent Moft Gracious Sovereign, we 
have obtained civil, religious and commercial li- 
berty in full meafure ; and England, your native 
country. Sir, affifted us in obtaining IT. A glo- 
rious epocha ! commencing with unanimity in one 
creed of politics and in a profeffion of civil faith a- 
bundantly fufficicnt for every purpofe of political 
falvation. — With a revolution fo happy, fo opera- 
tive on the minds, as well as the conditions of all 
our people, I fliall conclude my remarks. 




Pardon, Sir, my detaining you, fo long, on the 
fubjed of antient times j you will ever find me 

Your very grateful, 

Bclinagar, and obedient fervant, 

Sept. 3*/, 1782. 



With a further Explanation of the filvcr Inftrument 
engraved and defcribed in No. II. of the firft Volume 
of this CoUe^lanea. 

To Lieut. Col, VALLANCEY. 
S I R. 

1 H E within arc two drawings of the filver in- 
ftrument defcribed in the lid. No. of your 
CoUedanea de Rebus Hibernicis, fig. 2. and in 
return to the queries therein propofed to Curio, 
I have the honor to make the following anfwers. 

It weighs 40Z. i2dwt. • The fpear (or tongue 
which is wanting) had been foldered into the focli- 
ct of the moveable globe H. (See your plate. J 

* By the drawings wlilch tlic writer of this letter has 
obligingly inclofedy it appears that the longcfl diameter of the 
oval is about three inches and half, and that the bofles are 
ornamented exaftly in the manner of thofc given in fig. 1. 
of plate I. p. 207 of No. 2, of this Colledlanea. 



And now. Sir, give me leave to offer you fomc 
conjedures with regard to the ufe of thefe inftru- 
mcnts, as they are called, in that defcription. 

It is by all our antiquaries allowed, that the 
habits of our ancient kings, princes and nobles of 
Ireland, were a clofe veft, long trows or breeches 
down to the ankle, and a long loofe robe over all, 
that reached to the ground, which was brought 
over the (houlders and faftencd on the bread by a 
clafp, a buckle or broche. For example of which 
I may refer to many ancient monuments of our 
Irifli princes, ftill extant, but particularly to that 
of the Mac Grane*s, in the ruined abbey of 
Sligo ; a family long extinft, but heretofore 
princes of Bannagh in Lower Donegall. On the 
front of the tomb are feveral fculptures, amongfl 
which is a king habited as before, his robe fattened 
with a broche of the fame form as in the drawings. 
An eminent goldfmith in Dublin informed me 
that he has feen feveral of thofc inftruments of pure 
gold, and fomc of them of fine brafs ; which might 
lead one to fuppofe that thefe difierent metals 
were affixt by fumptuary laws for the ufe or wear 
of t!ie different claffes or ranks of nobles. 

Thishint purfued further might tend to prove, what 
has been byfome imagined, from a perfect fimilarity 
in feveral cuftoms, that the Irifh are a branch of 
the Hebrew nation ; and for this one to the prcP^nt 
purpofe, I muft refer you to an old book from 
whence maybe had great information — I mean the 
Bible. See the firft book of Maccabees, chap. 1 4th 


-248 CURlO'sLETTER. 

and verfe 44th. 

" And that it Ihould be lawful for none of the 
" people or priefts to break «iny of thefe things or 
** to gainfay his (Simon's) words, or to gather an 
'* affembly of the people without him, or to be 
** cloathed in purple, or wear a buckle of goW^ 

It is highly probable, that this inftrument, or 
broche, was made about the time of the introduc- 
tion of chriftianity into this ifland, from the very 
rude crofles on the nobs ; which nobs on the other 
fide are intended (by the artift) to reprefent acorns 
(or the cones of pines) which were druidic fym- 
bols ; by this duplicity the temporifing wearer 
might attend the inftruftions of the faint, or affift 
at the myftick rites in the facred grove, as would 
bed fuit his purpofe. 

I am, Sir, 

With great efteem for your learned labours. 

Your moft obedient, humble, 

(tho' unknown) fervant, 

December 17th, 

W. M. 
L G. 

t^ The further correfpondence of the learned writer of the 
above letter, will be eftcemed a particular favour. 


li^NUMERABLB and almoll unfurmountable dif- 
ficulties attend the- elucidation of the ancient Topo- 
graphy of Ireland ; little or no information relative 
to this fubje£t is to be obtained from our foreign 
and not much from oqr donieftic writers, Ptolemy, 
in the beginning of the fecond century, is the only 
writer of antiquity who treats with any degree of 
preciiion on the Geography of ancient Ireland ; but 
even his information, drawn principally from Ma- 
rinus Tyrius, doth not extend beyond the maritime 
regions, the internal divifion being in a great mea- 
fure unknown to the Romans in his time ; though 
from their refidence in Britain for near 300 years, 
they muft in the end have obtained a competent 
knowledge of its internal ftate-, and Richard of 
Circnocfter, from them, has colleftcd feveral notices, 
which have thrown much light on this dark and in- 
tricate fubjeift, though the projedion of his map is 
extremely erroneous. As to Marinus Tyrius, from 
whom Ptolemy received his informations relative to 
Voi.III.No.XI, B the 

the Britifli ifles, it is not certain in what period he 
wrote, or from whom h^ obtained his information; 
though from feveral circumftances there is the great- 
eft probability that he derived it from cither the 
Britifli or Roman navigators, as the names given 
by Ptolemy to the people and places arc evidently of 
the Cimbric dialedl of the Celtic tongue, and not 
the Gaelic; and though much mutilated by pafling 
through the Greek and Latin languages, they yet 
retain convincing proofs pf their Celtic origin. 

If we confider the infant ftate of Geography not 
only in the time of Ptolemy but in much later peri- 
ods, and the imperfed inftruments ufed in taking 
obfervations; the almoft total ignorance of longi- 
tude, with the want of the magnetic needle, without 
which there is no poifibility of taking the bearings 
and diredtions at fea with any degree of truth ; we 
(hall have much greater reafon to be furprized, that 
they were able to make any geographical charts, 
than to wonder at the imperfcdl ones they have left 
us. It was not until towards the clofe of the 15th 
century, that the fcience of Geography received any 
confiderable improvements and a proper method of 
delineating maps was difcovered; Richard ofCiren- 
cefter therefore, who wrote towards the clofe of the 
' X4th century, has committed great errors in hie 
map of the Britifli ifles, cfpecially in that of 



Ireland, by reafon of its iituation at fome 
diftance from the weftern confines of Europe, re- 
mained unknown to the Greeks and Romans until a 
very late period ; there is fome probability^ that the 
Phoenicians during their trade to Britain were not 
ignorant either of its fituation or internal ftate ; but 
thefe people, fo far from acquainting the world 
with the difcoveries obtained by means of their ex- 
tenfive commerce, took all poffible care to conceal 
them. Whence the commerce of the ancients, weft 
oftheStreighis of Gibraltar, centered intirely in the 
hands of the Phoenicians and Tyrians and their colonies 
on the coafls of Iberia,* whilft the reft of the world v/^fl 
excluded not only from the benefits accruing there- 
from, but alfo in a great mcafure from the know- 
ledge of thofe countries whic!i fupplied ^thofc mer- 
chants of antiquity with feveral articles of lucrative 
traffic. From thefe circumftances we ought not to be 
furprized that the relations given by the writers of 
antiquity relative to the ancient ftate of Ireland 
ftould, in feveral inftances, be not only imperfedt but 

During the middle ages, foreign writers ap- 
pear to be extremely ignorant of the internal ftate of 
5his illand. Even the natives have, in all periods, been 
very remifs in tranfmitting to pofterity the feveral 

♦ Strabo, L. 3, c. 175. 

B a divifions 


dlvifions of their country. They do indeed, in 
different parts of their ancient hiftory and antiqui- 
ties, mention a number of names relative to the an- 
cient Topography, but feldom fpecify the fituation 
of the diftrifts to which they belonged. To enter 
fully into this bufmefs it will be neceflary to confider, 
in fome meafure, the fpecies of government and 
the nature of the tenures in ufe among the Iberno 
Celtic tribes, from the remoteft periods. 

We have, in another place,* obferved, that the 

original inhabitants of Ireland in general derived their 

origin from Britain and were of the Celtic race, con- 

^ fequently their laws and government were radically 

the fame as the other aborigines of Europe. 

Wh^n mankind for their mutual fupport and pro- 
teftion were obliged to affociate together, they found 
it neceffiiry for the welfare of fociety, to eftablifh 
fome regular form of government. Whence we find 
that not only the ancient inhabitants of Ireland, but 
all the Celtes from the remoteft periods, in every part 
of their dominions, were divided into a number of 
fmall communities or clans, each governed by its pro- 
per chief andf in a great meafure, independent of 
each other. In thefe communities, every individual 
Mras free and independent, there being a ftate of equa- 

♦ Collcftanca, Nq, j, 



lity through the whole, and the authority which a 
chief had over his fellows was delegated to him by 
eleflion, and was not derived as has been erroneouf- 
ly fuppofcd from hereditary fucceflion. For heredi- 
tary poffeflion and fanguinary right, did not take 
place among the Celtic and Scythic clans until, by 
the introduftion of commerce, the arts of civil 
life had made fome progrefs ; but each fept had 
rather perambulated than inhabited their refpeftive 
diftridls, fubfifting intirely on the chace and the 
fruits of the foreft. On the increafe of popula- 
tion and the introduction of agriculture, thefe 
wandering tribes were under the neceflity of 
confining themfelves to certain permanent dif- 
trifts : which diftridls were generic denomina- 
ted either from their fituation or quality of the 
foil, and from which alfo the inhabitants ob- 
tained their colledive appellation. Whence in the 
mofl ancient Irifh poems and hiftories, we fre- 
quently find Ckn and Sliogbi added to the name 
of a country, to fignify the inhabitants j as Clan 
CiiHeMj Sliogbi Breogbain, and Sliogbt Gae j wherefore 
the children and race of any divifion were the 
invariable names by which the ancient Hibernian 
fepts were diftinguifhcd from the rertioteft antiquity, 
and pot as frequently afferted, the children and 
defendants of their refpedive leaders. On the 
eftablirtiment of any colony, the entire diftri<fl 
was divided among the principal warriors accord- 

' ing 


ing to their fehiority, each having abfolute autho- 
rity in his refpeclive diftridt, paying only a cer- 
tain tribute or acknowledgement to the eldeft 
captain of the race, as king or governor of the 
whole colony. The divifions appertaining to the 
feveral captains, called in the Irifli tongue, Con- 
nair Airecb-ard^ and by the Latin writers Dynaft, 
were generally denominated ceantreds, or chief 
divifions, at prefent diftingu:(hed by the name of 
baronies. Each cantred was again divided into a 
number of fmaller portions from 5^0 to 1500 
acres; each called Balkbetagbs^ or townlands, 
and were the inheritance, of the family of the 
dynafts devolving to them by the laws of gavel- 
kind : * tint is, the inheritance appertaining to 
any dynafl was unalienable, and on his demife, 
was equally divided among his fons, both legiti- 
mate and illegitimate, to the intire exclufion of 
the daughters; thefe again were fubdivided in 
like manner on the demife of their proprietors, 
fo that it frequently happened, that a dynaft who 
by his feniority had 'a right to be eleftcd chief 
of bis diftrid, was in pofleflion of a very fmall 
patrimony- ,When a dynaft died without if- 
fue, his property was divided amongft his ncareft 
relations ; on which account not only the magni- 
tude and boundaries of the Balkbetagbs were 

♦ Coll^aanea, No, 3, and %. Ware's Ant. 


changed, but alfo the^ lefler divifions denominated 
%*/, or habitations, containing from 40 to lOo 
acres, and cultivated in common by a certain num- 
ber of peafants refiding thereon, w«re changed alfo.* 

The chiefs of every diftridt were eleded from 
the elder branch of the dynai^s; and the kings 
of the principalities from the fenior chief of the 
fubordinate diftridls, who, on their advancement 
to the dignity, obtained the name of the dif- 
trift or clan over which they prefided ^ it being 
an univerfai cuftom amongft all the Celtic tribes, ' 
to denominate the noblefle, with their other ap- 
pellations, from the place of their refidence; a 
cuftom in fome meafure yet retained in the 
Highlands of Scotland. The variety of names 
ufed by the ancient Irilh ^ have occaiioned great, 
confufion in their hiftory ; for before the loth 
century, firnames were not hereditary, and prior 
to the cftablilhment of the Chriftiain religion in 
this country no Perfon was diftinguiftied by one 
permanent jiomination. It is true, during their 
Pagan ftate, every child at his birth received a 
name generally from ipme imaginary divinity un- 
der whofe protection it was fuppofed to be; but 
this name was feldom retained longer than the 
ftate of infancy, from which period it w:as ge- 

* CoIIeAanea, No. 2 and 3. 



nerally changed for otlieirs, arifing from fomc per- 
fedion or imperfeflion of the body^ the difpofi- 
tion and qualities of the mind, atchievemcnts in 
war, or the chac^, the place of birth, rcfidence, 
&c. fo that it frequently happened, that the fame 
perfon was diftinguifhed by feveral appellations: 
our ancient hiftorians, not properly attending 
to this, have committed great errors in relating 
the tranfaftions of early periods, by aflerting the fame 
adlibn to be perfoirmed by feveral different people 
which in reality was performed by one only, there- 
by throwing their hiftory and antiquities into toodif- 
tant a period. A fimHaf error hai? alfo been com- 
milted by n6t fully confidering the digmtafy names 
of the chiefs, Who^ on their eledioff to the go- 
vernment, conftantly detained the name apper- 
taining to the dan * over whoni they prefidcd, 
or rather that of the diftrid. Thefe dignitary 
names becoming in thfe loth century hereditary 
and family diftinftions, created new tffficulties to 
the genealogifts of th6 latter ages : * for diftrifts 
having the fame denomination whofe chiefs in 
confequence bare the' likte names, have conftantly 
been derived from the fame family, though in 
reality, they had not the leaft affinity; thus the 
O'Kelleys of Caelan in' the county of Kildare, 
thofe of Conlan in the County dF Wlcklow, and 
thofe of Caellagh in the County of Gallway, are 
fuppofcd to be different branches of the fame 

family j 

hwily i whereas they evidently obtained their 
rcfpeftive names from ancient chiefs of the a- 
bove diftridts, independent of every other confi- 
deration. The O'Conors alio, though defcended 
from the ancient chiefs of different fepts, are 
univerfally confidered as of the fame race. It is 
true, from the different departments oi govern- 
ment being held in the fenior line, it was necef- 
fary to keep exaft genealogical accounts, which 
during the latter ages, have been greatly mutila- 
ted and mifreprefented. 

Thb number of kingdoms, or principalities, 
wbofe chiefs obtained the name of Rtogb or king, 
were frequently variable, depending on the number 
of fubordinate fepts which any chief held in vaffal- 
lage ; though the ancient kingdoms, were generally 
regulated by the number of the original co* 

MARciANusHERACLfiOTA, fpcakiug of Ireland, 
fays it contained the provinces or principalities, 
governed by their refpeftive kings, comprehend- 
ing 184 canthreds, each under the dominion of 
Its proper dynaft or fubordinate chief.* Whether 
this number be corred or not, is uncertain, the 
names and fimation of the refpedtive diflridls 

♦ Ware's Antiquitici. 



being not fpecified. However in the middle ages, 
we find the ifland divided into the following 
kingdoms or principalities. 

I Midhne 
% Hy Faillia 

3 Breffiny 

4 Angallia 

5 Orgall or Tyrone 

6 Eirgall or Tyrconnal 

7 Dalriada 

8 Ulladh 

9 Ele 

10 Hy CinfiUagh 
ii Offery 

12 Cafiol 

13 AraorOrmond 

14 Decies 

15 Limrick 

16 Cierighe 

17 Thomond 

18 Conaght 

19 Cork 

20 CaSlIagh 

21 Gaellen or CacJlan. 

Thefe, according to our antiquaries, were in a very- 
early period united in a kind of pentarchy, com- 
prehending the five monarchies of Meath, Leinfter, 
Munfter, Conaght and Ulfter. Though the Irifti 
hiftorians have been circumftantial on this form of 
government, yet they have given us very impcr- 
fed ideas relative to its origin and conftitution. In 
order therefore to place this fubjedt in a confpicuous 
point of view, it will be neceflary in fome meafurc 
to confider the original colonization of the ifland; 
as the monarchs derived their dignity from being 
the chiefs of the eldeft fepts of the refpeftive mo- 



We have in a former place obferved that the an- 
cient inliabitants of Ireland in general derived their 
origin from the Celtic tribes of Britain.* The 
Nemethae, as Aborigines, having from thence ta- 
ken polfeflion of the ifland about 700 years before 
the Chriftian -Slra, gave place to the Bolgae, who to- 
Vizards the middle of the 4th century before Chrift, 
fettled in the county of Meath under the conduct 
of Hugony or Learmon ; from whence, in proccfs of 
time, they inhabited every part of the prefent pro- 
vince of Leinfter, diftinguiflied by them by the 
name of Heremon^ or wefterij country; and them- 
felves, in confequence thereof, Heremoniu or weft- 
em people.f This diftridt was, for feveral ages, 
governed by the chief of the eldeft fept or 
tribe of the Eolgae inhabiting the prefent coun- 
ty of Eaft Meath; in confequence of his feni- 
ority, he was not only denominated king of the 
Heremoniiy but monarch of the whole ifland, and 
from him all the fubfequent kings of Meath 
and Monarchs of All Ireland were obliged to derive 
their origin to obtain the dignity. Heremon^ the 
ancient and original feat of the Bolgic in Ireland, 
remained under the government of its paternal 
kings, defendants of Hugony or Learmon, until 
the beginning of the fccond century, when it was 

* Collcftahca, No. 7. 

t Sec the Word« Bolgae and Ncmcthc in this Effay. 


divided into two diftlnft provinces by T'uatbal 
Teacbtmarj under the denomination of northern and 
foutliern Heretnon. The northern was diftinguifhed 
by the name of Tuatbal Teackmor^ or the northern 
divifion of the great diftridt ; comprehending the 
prcfcnt counties of Eaft and Weft Mcath ; the 
fouthern divifion comprehending, in the early ages 
the prefent counties of Kildare, Kilkenny, Car- 
low and the King and Queen's counties, was for 
fome ages under the government of the chiefs 
of Hy Fallia, but afterwards was ufurped by the 
Chieftains of Hy Laoighis, and towards the clofe 
of the middle ages, by the chiefs of Moragh, (the 
prefent county of Wexford) who were denomina- 
ted kings of Leinfier at the arrival of the Eng- 
lifti.* On the firft migration of the Bolgae, num- 
bers of the Nemetba were conftrained to retire into 
the fouthern parts of the ifland, where they were 
joined by fubfequent colonies of the Bolgse from 
Britain, who frequently denominated themfelves 
Iberii or Hiberii^ that is, the moft weftcrn people ; 
the fenior chiefs of whom were the M'c Carthys, 
hereditary chieftains of Orcalugihe^ and kings of the 
Dergtenii, or South Munfter; thefe chieftains from 
their feniority, were in the early ages, denominated 
monarchs of all Munfter though that dignity 

* Sec under the Words Hcrcmonii, Hy Laoighis and Mor- 



was frequently obtained by the chiefs of the dif- 
trid about Ca(hel, and towards the clofe of the 
middle ages by the kings of Thomond, the pre- 
fent county of Clare. Which chiefs, in the per- 
fon of Brien Boromh, by their military abili- 
ties, obtained not only the monarchy of Munflert 
but that of the whole ifland. 

Though the Bolgae, under the denomination of 
tterii^ had obtained the government of the fouth* 
era divifion of Ireland, yet the Nemetba or Momonii^ 
the Aboriginal inhabitants, invariably denominated 
it Mmon^ or the Maternal Country, by reafon of 
it being principally inhabited by the Motnonii or 
Aborigines: whence by all the Irif!i writers we 
find this diftridt is called Mumban^ or Aboriginal 
Country, from which is derived its prefent name 
of Munfter^ that is the land of the Momonii, On 
the arrival of the Caledonian colonies, fome few 
years before the birth of Chrift, Eogba^b Failo^b^ 
or O'Fdy^ chieftain or king of the ancient Hj 
FaUia^ retired acrofs the Shannon with numbers 
of his people, and eftablifhed a government in the 
prefent county of Rofcommon, which afterwards 
was extended into the counties of Gallway, Mayo 
stnd Sligoe, under the general denomination of 
Qlnemacbt or Conmacbtne^ viz. the chief tribe, and 
Hy Omeir^ or the diftridt of the principal weft- 
ern inhabitants i whence the defcendaiits of G'Faly^ 



as monarchs of this part of the ifland, obtained 
the name of O'Conor, and their country that of 
Connagbt^ which it retains to this day.* 

The northern parts of the. ifland, comprehend- 
ing the prefent province of Ulfter, anciently de- 
nominated Tbuatb allad^ or the northern habitation 
of the Bolgae, was ereded into feveral governments 
in a very early period; the fenior of which was 
that of Onel Eogban^ comprehending the prefent 
county of Tyrone, eftablifhed foon after the firft 
arrival of the Bolgae. The chiefs of Cinel Eoghan 
were efteemed monarchs of Ulfter, until the 4th 
century, when one of the fons of O'Niall, the king 
of the ancient Hy Fallia or the northern part of 
Hermonia, having conquered the Rudricians the 
ancient inhabitants of Cinel Eoghan, eftablifhed. a 
government in that diftrift, which, in proccfs of 
time, extended over all the northern tribes ; 
whence the O'Nialls were .during the latter ages 
denominated Monarchs of Ulfter; a dignity which 
they maintained to the I5thcentury.f 

Thus was ancient Ireland, agreeable to the af- 
fertions of its antiquaries and hiftoriaas, divided 
by the Bolgae into five monarchies, which monarchs 

• O'Conor's Diffcrt. 

t 0*Conor*8 Diffcrt. Keating. 

, derived 


derived their, dignity from being chiefs of the 
elder tribes in each diftridt. However, this dig- 
nity, appears in a number of inftances to have 
beea rather a title of honour than power, for the 
monarchs had little authority beyond the limits of 
their own fepts; and the tribute which they fre- 
quently demanded from the feveral kings of the 
principalities was feldom paid. Even the fepts^ 
appcrtaininjg to their refpeftive provinces, frequent- 
ly rebelled or joined the parties in open war 
againft them ; fo little authority had thefe nomi- 
nal monarchs, at all times, to reftrain their fub- 
jcds within the limits of their duty. The truth 
is, there was never any provincial king elefted 
and formally inftituted ; fi^om their feniority, the 
chiefs or kings of the oldeft fept of each pro- 
vince had a right to the upper place at the afTembly 
of the flates ; and when his abilities were con- 
fpicuous, he was frequently elefted general of the 
armies in time of imminent danger ; and alfo to be 
in fome meafure a check on the depredations fre- 
quently committed by one fept on another ; as well 
as to ailemble the Hates of the province, in order 
to enadt fuch laws and ordinances as might be 
neccflary for the public welfare. In other refpefts 
he feems not to have had much authority, except 
fuch as was delegated to him from time to time by 
the people. 



In the faipe manner, the hereditary Chieftains 
of Meath, as kings of the eldeft tribe of the 
original cplony of the Bolgae, were denominated mo- 
narchs of the whole ifland i but whatever authority 
they might have had in the early periods as fucb, 
their power during the middle ages, was much 
confined, being reduced within the limits of their 
own diftrids, except when their martial or men- 
tal abilities called them to the confidence of the 
other kings, and they in confequence thereof were 
eledted commanders of the armies^ or prefidents of 
the general affembly of the ftates. 

The only dignity hereditary among the ancient 
Irilh, and alfo with all the Celtic tribes, was the 
kings of the feveral principalities ; they were cle^^ed 
from the eldeft dynafts or chiefs of the cantrcds, 
and were folemnly inaugurated according to the 
cuftom of the tribe. On their advancement to the 
kingly dignity or captainftip of the fept, they im- 
mediately adopted the general name of the tribe or 
people over whom they reigned, in the fame man- 
ner as the dynafts did that of their feveral di- 

An account of the different principalities and their 
fubordinate dift rifts, with feveral other fubjcfts re- 
lative to the antiquities of Ireland; will be given in 
the enfuing pages; and their etymology deduced 


from pure celtic roots j but innumerable difficulties 
occur in the explanation of tlie ancient Topography, 
arifing principally froni. the fluftuatmg ftate of the 
onhography of the Irifli tongue, and the various 
fjgnifications which the Tame word fnsquenlly ad- 
mits. A, ao, oi, ei, and o are of^en ufed in the 
Iiilh language for each* otlierV atto i, ui^ and u. 
Eh, th, ihh, gh, and ch^.^freqliemly exprefs the 
fame found, aticl wh^n pficed^nF the itiiddlc of words, 
between vowels; have 'n&t ii\j fednd of their bwn, 
but only tehgtWert'tlife fyllkble,' ' and *efe- introduced 
by thfe p6i6t$ ^. 'the'^gr(!atc^ fiarffiohy of their- verfifi- 
caiion. iThti^ ?5V Zfy, ^ ri^-Tf'Ebcbadl^' J£<^hay. 'aixl 
Ihb^ h£V<i' tfce'tan!i"e' ^ii^^- bcirigtKke the fttogli(h<&, 
open-, ioghdn '^^^^xt^o\\xi&'^^ 
Oma. Q and^'C are^titqueiifly' written' for ^each 
other,! and C invafialjly^tiasVthe' power of the 
Engiilhfc.- M and' N'are fonietimes ufed for each 
other, ^$,M^an idx,,N^i{fte(i^h'an^ ^niNeineibie fox 
Jima, .,AliQ ,fihj. g^l anddhj at t)ie end of words. 
•Jn order .therefore to, oblain the true etymology of 
Irifli woxdf it^s^A?cefliiry. tg.jsjtt^nd tp. the,, found and 
not..ta,ih^i.or)tiojgraphyvv.for the words G«, Can, 
Gan^ Eiefi^.:Caefi and G«, have nearly .the .fame 
foundy anfj.tenify a head or phief ; alfo ^J?,c, \bbeith 
and B(^li ^re Rrgnounced Bo and are the appfellati- 
ons fox ^ , beaft or ox in the Irifli Upguage. A 
nuniber, pf wor^s have difFererit fignificatibns,; arid 
fome of ihem diametrically oppofite to each other ; 
Vol." ri Mo. XI. C thus 



and quality of the refpeAive. diftridts ; and where 
fcvcial interpretations were admitted that which wan 
rooft confonant to the nature, qualities and fituation 
of the diviflons was given for the true one. The in- 
tricacy of the fubjeft, the difficulty of obtaining the 
real root and fignification from a vicious orthogra^ 
phy, have, probably, caufed fomc errors in the tran* 
iktion of a few names, but we hope they are not 
numerous ; the fubjedt however has not been treated 
in the ample manner it is capable of,' the feveral 
cantrcds and lefTer difirids have in general been 
omitted through want of proper information, fo that 
thiseiiay can only be confidered as the oudines of a 
plan to be finifhed by a more able hand. 





^ ^ 




O F 


QBHAN-MORE, or the great river. A 
fmall river rifing in the upper lake of Glenda- 
loch in the county of Wicklow ; from whence 
taking a S, E. courfe through a glen, formerly 
covered with wood, it falls into the fea at Arklow. 
The river Black-water, or Broad-water in the county 
of Waterford, is named by Ptolemy Daurona, 

. but by Necham Abhan-morc. 

ACHAD-BHOE, Agabhoc, or Aghavoe, that is 
the field of Oxen,* formerly an open plain or 
favannah in Oflbry, and in the Queen's county. 
In this place St. Canice, the fon of Laidec, an 
eminent poet, towards the clofe of the 6th centu- 
ry, founded a monaftcry, in which he died on the 
1 1 th of Oftober sgg or 600. Near the fcite of this 
monaftery about the year 1052 a church was built, 
and the Ihrine of St. Canice placed therein. On 

^ ^rom Achad or Agkad, a field or open place and Bhoe 

274 A C H 

which the 'epifcopal See of Oflbry was tranflaied 
from Saigre in Ely O'Carrol to this place; where 
it continued until about the end of the reign of 
Henry the II. when by Felix O'DuIlany, bi(hop 
of Oflbry, it was tranflated to Kilkenny. From a 
plain in the center of dark and thick woods, 
Achad-bhoeon account of its ecclefiaftical founda- 
tions became a city and was endowed with feveral 
privileges, and even was no i neon fiderable town at 
the clofe of the laft century ; but the only remains 
now vifible are the church and the ruins of a Domi- 
nican abby founded by one of the Mac-Gilla Pa- 
druicfi, ancient chiefs and anceftors of the prefent 
earl of Oflbry. There is here alfo an old fquare 
fort, which feems to have been ereded about the 
14th century.* 
ACHAD-CHAON, or Achad-Conair, that is, 
the principal field or place, nov/ known by the 
name of Achonry, from jicbad-cbon-re^f that is the 
chief place of the king or bi(hop. St. Finian bi(h- 
op of Clonard, founded a church here about the 
year 530, the fcite was granted by a dynaft of the 
ancient diftri<5t of Luigny, the barony of Leney, in 
the county of Sligo. This church and monaftcry 
were afterwards given by the founder to St. Cruim- 
thir Nathy, who v\ as made bilhop thereof and of 
the neighbouring diftrift of Luigny ; whence the 
biftiopsof Achonry, in the ancient Irifh annals, are 
generally called bifhpps of Luigny. This bifliop- 

* Hams' Ware. 

f Achad^ -^g^y ^ ficl^ or place, and Cha^rty Con^ Cain^ and 
Cin^ a head or chief, Ke^ Rhi or Rboigh, a king, prince o; 


A I G 275 

ric remained a diftri<fl diocefe until the year 1607, 
when it was united to that of Killala.* 

ACHAD-FOBHAIR, now Aghagower, a plain 
near Mount Aichle in the ancient Hy-Malia, com- 
prehending the prefent barony of Moriflc in the 
county of Mayo. In this place St. Patrick found' 
eda church and placed St. Senach-one of his difci- 
pies over it, iq confequence of which it continued 
an epifcopal fee for feveral years, but was at length 
united to that of Tuam and is now only a parifh 
church, and the head of a rural deanery.f 

ACHII^INSULAE, i. e. Eagles iflands, two 
iflands in Clew bay on the weftern coaft of the 
county of Mayo ; they are not mentioned by either 
Ptolemy or Richard, aijd appear to have obtained 
their names from the great relbrt of eagles riiither. 

ACHONRY, near the river Owenmore, and fif- 
teen miles S. W. of Sligo. See Achad-Chaon. 

ADROS, an ifland in the Irifh fea mentioned by 
Ptolemy, and . called by him Mri Deferta ; J by 
Pliny cormptly written Andros ; by others Edri, 
and by Richard of Cirencefter Edria. Ware takes 
it for Beg-eri, one of the Saltees on the coaft of 
Wexford. Adros feems a corruption from the 
Britilh word Adar^ which fignifies birds ; whence 
Inis-Adar, Birds Ifland in old Saxon, Birds Eye, or 
the Ifle of Birds. It is now vulgarly denominated 
Ireland's Eye, and is fituated north of the hill of 
Hoath, the Ben-Hadar of the ancients. 

AIGHLE, fee Aileach. 

• Harris* Ware, vol. i. p. 6$%. 
f Harris*' Ware, vol. i. p. 17, 

276 A N G 

AILEACH, or Ailich Neid, Oilcach Neid and 
Aighle, that is, the Eagle's Neft. A rath or caftle 
of the O^Neill*s in the barony of Inifowen, three 
miles north of Dcrry, the royal palace of Tyrcon- 
nal. This rath, which is yet remaining, is aflcrted 
to have been eredted by the great Hy Fallia or Hy 
Naillia ancient chief of Hy Fallia, on his fettle- 
ment in the north of Ireland in the fourth century. 
This ancient palace which probably ot)tarned the 
appellation of Eagle's Neft from the height of its 
ramparts, is of the fame conftruftion as thofe mo- 
numents of antiquity commonly calted Danifh forts, 
and was laid in ruins by Mortogh mor O'Brien in 
iioi.* See Tura. 

AILICH NEID, fee Cromla. 

AINE CLIACH, or Eoganacht Aine Cliach, 
that is the diftridl of the country on the river of 
fifhing wiers. This diftrift was fituated on the 
Shannon, and contained the prefcnt county of Li- 
raeficlc The chief of which was Hy Ciaruigh, or 
CKiarwick, ' defcendcd from Feidhlem, fon of 
Nadfry king of Munftcr.f See-aiach. .• 

AIRTHER, fteOirtrher.' 

ALNECMACHT; fee Olnegmacht. 

ANDRUIM, fee Dalnaruidhe. 

ANGALIA, or Aonaly, corrupted from An 
Gadhilagh, or the woody country, a diftri(ft com- 
prehending the ancient north Teffia and the pre- 
fcnt county of Longford. The chiefs of this dif- 
tridl were formerly denominated Hy Ferghael or 

• Harris' Ware. vol. i.p. 18: O'Conor's DiflcrtatioM. Col- 
leftanca, No. 4. p. 552. 
• t Collcdtanca, No. 3. p. 377. 

A 'O N 277 

the prince of the men of Ghael, by corruption 
O'Feral. The defcendants of this ancient family 
was in pofleffion of the north, weft and fouth parts 
of the county of Longford on the commencement 
of the laft century, but were difpoffefled of the 
caflern parts by the Englifh fettlers the Tuitesand 
Delamercs.* Annaly was alfo called Conmacne. 

AOIBH CAISIN, or the territory of Little Cas in 
Thomond. See Dal-Cas. 

AOIBH LIATHAIN, or the diftridof the level 
watry country ,t called alfo Cmcalialmhuin, or the 
chief diftri<5t of the country on the water ; J being 
part of the ancient diftridt cajled by the Irilh anti- 
quaries Dcrgtenacb and Orcaduibbne^ and by Ptole- 
my foodie \ all of which have nearly the fame figni- 
fication as Aoibh Liathain, which fee under the re- 
fpedtive names. The chiefs of this diftridt from 
Aiobh Liathain obtained the name of Hy Lehane, 
or chief of the watry plain, from whence O'Lehane, 
a branch of which family obtained the appellation 
of O'Anamhchadha. They were difpofleiled by 
the Barries ; whence their counuy was denomina- 
ted Barrymore, now a barony in the county of 

AONACH, a word derived from Shambana^ 2l 
hcath<!i goddefs of Ireland, and pronounced for- 
merly Aona, but now corruptly Aina. On the 
feftivalsof this divinity the fairs of the ancient 

* Harris* Ware. vol. i.p. 13. O'Conor's Orteh'us. 

f Aoibh^ «/> hyf a diftridi: and liathain^ or lean^ from lea^ a 
plain and ain water. 

X Cin a head or chief, ea or ou water, and talmhuin earth of 

f Collcftanca, No. 3. p. 372. O'Conor's Ortelius. 

a78 A R D 

Irifh were held ; from whence Aonacb or jiina came 
to fignify in the modern Irifh language, a fair or 
place of traffic. 

AON ACH, or the Mart or place of traffic, an 
ancient town in tower Ormond, and capital of the 
ancient diftridt of Eoganacht Aine Cliach. Near 
this town, now Nainagh or Neriagh in the coun- 
ty of Tippeaary, Brien fon of Mahon Menevy 
O'Brien in 1370 obtained a complete vidory over 
his uncle Turlogh, affifted by the Englilh forces 
under the command of the earl of Defmond. From 
which battle he obtained the firname of Biien Ca- 
tha an Aonaig, or Brien of the battle of Nenagh.* 

ARD> an ancient diftrid in the N. W. part of 
the county of Tipperary, comprehending original- 
ly both upper and lower Ormond, being generally 
denominated Eogan Ara^ or the diftrift of Ara ; 
whofe ancient chiefs were called from thence Egan 
Ara or Owen Ara, and fometimes Mac Egan, 
whofe defcendants were in poffeffion of the nor- 
thern parts of lower Ormond in the beginning of 
the laft century ; but the fouthern or upper Or- 
mond, in an early period appertained to another 
branch of the fame family, called Hy Dun Eogan or 
the chief of the hilly or upper diftrid, by corrup- 
tion 0*Donnegan. In the fame manner ihe chiefs 
of lower Ormond were called Hy Magh Eogan or 
chief of the plain diftridt, by corruption Mac Ea- 
gan. O'Donnegj^n was difpoflefled of his territory 
in 1 3 1 8, by the Aefcendants of Brien Rua, king 
• of Thomond ; who from thence were called O'Bri- 

. ens of Ara, and who remained in poffeffion of the^ 
greater part of it in the beginning of the laft century- 

* CoUeaaneai No. 4. p. 62?f 

A R D 279 

>/rjfeems to bea cgrriiption from Airiher, Oirther 
or Artha, and Ar which fignifies the eaft or eaft- 
ern. Whence this diftrift, in confequence of its 
eaftern fituation on the Shannon, was frequently 
denominated Eoganacht Ara Mhumhan, or the 
eaftern diftridt of Munfter, and by corruption Or- 
mond.* See Dalnaruidhe. 

ARDAGH, one of the inoft ancient churches in 
Ireland, fituated in the ancient Angalia and coun- 
ty of Longford. St. Maell, a difciple of St. Pa- 
trick and his fifters fon, is faid to have been placed 
over this church before the year 454, as bilhopand 
abbot. From which time this fee was governed by 
its own bifliops until 1692, when it was united to 
that of Kilmore, from which it is now disjointed, 
and held in ^ommendam by the archbilhops of 
Tuam^ Ardagh, fo denominated from its elevated 
fituation, has at prefent neither chapter nor pre- 
bendary, and the only remains of the cathedral is 
part of a' wall buUt with large ftones, which from 
its prefent appearance muft hiave been when entire 
a very fmall building. 

ARDFERT, or Hy-ferte, that is the height or 
place of miracles. An ancient epifcopal fee, in 
the barony of Clanmaurice, not far from Tralee 
and county of Kerry. This birtioprick is faid to 
have been founded by St. Ert, about the middle 
of the fixth century, and was fucceffively govern- 
ed by its own bilhops'to the year 1663, when it 
was united to the fee of Limerick. 

^RDM AGH, now Armagh ; an ancient ecclefi- 
aftical city and the metropolitan fee of all Ireland. It 

• CollcAanca, No. 3. p. 375. O'Conor's map, 

28o A R D 

Was founded by St. Patrick about the year 444 or 
44 5, on a hill or rifing ground, granted by Daire, 
a chief of the adjacent country. Th>3 like moft 
other of the primitive Hibernian churches, being 
coufirudtcd of wattles, obtained at the firft the 
name of Druim-failec, or the cell or church 
of willows.* Though in after ages, on ac- 
count of its elevated fituation it has been denomi- 
nated Ardmagh, or the great high-place or field. 
On the eflablilhment of the chriftian religion in this 
country, Ardmagh, from the eminent learning and 
fanftity of its prelates and abbots, became a confi- 
derable city, and a celebrated fchool or univerfity, 
which during the middle ages was not only much 
reforted to by the natives, but alfo by the Anglo- 
Saxon youths from Britain. In confequence of 
which it was greatly augmented, enriched, and a 
number of ample privileges granted to it for the 
better fupport of its ecclefiaftical Dignity. But in 
the year 670 and 687, it was nearly confumed by 
fire ; and on the arrival of the Danes was fre- 
quently plundered by thefe pirates, its inhabitants 
put to the fword, and the greater part of its ^xx)ks 
and records taken away and deftroyed ; an irrepa- 
rable lofs to the ecclefiaftical and civil hiftory and 
antiquities of Ireland. During thefe calamities 
the cathedral church being alfo often deftroyed, 
and as frequently repaired, was in the year 1262 
pr 1263, rebuilt nearly in its prefent form by Pa- 
trick O^Scanlan, then archbifhop, whofe fucceflbr, 
Nicholas Mac Molilla added to it feveral rich gifts 

* From Drum or Druim a cave or cell and Saileog a willow, 
igU Druim Saileog has been falfcly Interpreted the height of 
ws. Druim properly ^gnifica a hollow hill or dome. 


A R G 28r 

and emoluments. Since whofe time Ardmagh has 
maintained its dignity as the metropolitan fee of 
all Ireland, but never regained its antient honour 
as a feat of the mufes. It is much to be wiflied 
however that an univerfity or academy was efta- 
bliftied in that part of the kingdom, as it could 
not fail of being of the greateft public utility. 

ARDMORE, or the great height; an ancient 
Epifcopal » See, in the barony of the Decies and 
county of Waterford on the eaft fide of the bay 
of Youghall, now a fmall village, f 

ARDSRATH, now Ardftragh, in the barony of 
Strabane, or the high rath, called alfo Rathlure or 
the rath on the water. A rath or fort on the river 
Derg, near which was founded the primitive 
church of the epifcopal See of Derry, dedicated to 
St. Luroch, from this place it was tranflated to 
Maghere and from thence to Derry. St. Eugene 
is faid to have founded the church of Ardfrath in 
the 6th. century, and died the ^d^ of Auguft 6f 8. 
There is no Catalogue extent of the bifliops of 
Ardfrath. * 

ARGETROSS, or Argiodrofs, i. e. the filver 
.mine on the water. • An ancient copper mine in 
mountains near the river Norc, whence filver was 
extradted; and according to antiquaries, money 
was firft coined in Ireland by Enius Ruber. Ar- 
giodrofs was in Lower Oflbry,^ on the river Nore, 
and is fuppofed to be the modern village of Rath- . 
beagh, within five miles of Kilkenny, and three 
of Ballyragget. 

f Harrift's Ware, vol. i. p. 21.. 
♦ Harris's Ware, vol. i. p. 286. 
t Harris's Ware, vol, 2. p. 204. 

282 A T H 

ARGITA, the ancient name of a river or lougti 
in the North of Ireland .mentioned by Ptolemy, 
and thought by fome to be I^ough Swilly; by 
others the river Ban, which proceeds from Lough 
Neagh. The word feems to be a corruption from 
the Britilh Ergid^ or Ergit^ which fignifies an 
aeftuarium or projedtion of water into the land ; 
litterally the mouth or opening of the land ; and 
and therefore may be any bay- § But Richard of 
Cirencefter tliinks it is Lough Swilly, which is by 
no means improbable, as the form of that bay 
agrees pcrfeftly with the fignification of the word. 

ARMAGH ^ fee Ardmagh. 

ARRAN, the North ifleof 5 fee Venifnia. 

ARRAN-MORE, the largeft of the fouth \{ks 
of Arran on the coaft of Galway. Here feveral 
of the antient Irifli faints were buried, whence 
the idand obtained the name of Arrannanoim^. 
The inhabitants are ftill perfuaded, that in a clear 
day they can fee from this coaft Hy Brafail, or 
the inchanted ifland, the paradife of the pagan 
IriQi ; and concerning which they relate a number 
of romantic ftories. 

ATHA, an ancient city in Connaght ; Atha 
fignifies an habitation near a broad (hallow water or 
ford, and is called by the Irifh antiquaries Atbacb 
and Attathach or Attabhach, that is the great ha- 
bitation near the (hallow water. It was alfo de- 
nominated Cromchin and Croghan, antiently 
called Drum-Druid, at prefent RatlvCrayhan, 
and is fituated near Elphin in the county of 
Rofcommon. The Iri(h annals mention a rath or 
fort being eredted here by Eochy Feylogh, or 
Eoghagh Feghlogh, in the time of Auguftus 

$ Baxter. 

ATT (^83 

Caerar- Atha was alfo by the Irifh called Crogban^ 
from its fituation near a hiJl, and Cromcbin in con- 
iequence of a facred druidic cave in the adjacent 
mountain dedicated to fate or providence^ which 
in old Iriih and Briti(h was called Crom. Whence 
w^ find Cairbar In the Irifh annals denominated 
Cairbre Cromchin, or chief of Cromchin, and his 
fon v/ho was born liere, from the place of his 
birth is named Luig Attathach# that is the lake of 
the habitation on the (hallow water. [| The only 
remains of this famous ancient city^ where once 
Cathmor, the friend of ftrangers exercifcd his un- 
bounded hofpitality, are the celebrated Rath, 
before fpoken of, the Naafteaghan where the 
ftates of Connaght affembled, and the facred cave« 
6qc Croghan, Drum Druid, and Moma. 


ATHENRY; reeBealatha. 

ATH MAIGHNE, or the plain or the fhallow 
water,; a place in the county Weft-Meath but 
. where uncertain^ It is howevier diftinguilhed by a 
bloody battle fought there between Turlough 
O'Brien king of Munfter and Turlogh O'Conor 
king of Connaght in 1152; when O'Conor was 
entirely defeated wich the lofs of nine chiefs and 
goo common men. Aih Maighne was probably 
a little to the north of Lough Derrevarragh, in 
the parifti of Maina» and half barony of Fore. 

ATHSCULL ; fee Coalan. 

ATTATHACHj fee Atha. 

AUSOBA, the anticnt name of a riv^r in the 
weft of Connaght mentioned by Ptolemy, and 
fuppofed by Ware to be the river Galvia, in Gal- 

y O Conor^s DifT. p. i8o. Colkft. No. 4. p. 41 5# 

284 A U T 

way ; but by Camden and Baxter Lough Corbes. 
It is indeed extremely difficult to afcertain its exaft 
fituation, the wond Aufoba fignifies an Oeftuarium, 
being derived fronrj the Britifh Autfc ^ba^ or in an- 
cient Iri(h Aufc obbd, a projedtion of ^^'5ate^, con- 
fequently a bay or gulph. Richard of Cireitcefter 
makes it Clew Bay in the county of Mayo, but as 
it was a place frequented by foreign merchants, 
the bay of Galway (eems the mofl; probable place. 

AUSONA, the fame ad Aufoba, fo called by 
Ware and feme others. 

AUSTRINUM, a Promontory in -the weft of 
Ireland, mentioned by Richard of Cirencefter ; it 
fignifies a head prqjedting in the watfer, it is the 
fame as the Notium of Ptolemy which fee. 

AUTERiE, an . "ancient city tnentione<| by 
Ptolemy as the capital of the Autcni;'ai1d by 
Richard of Cirencefter. corruptly written Anterimi. 
The domeftic writers do not^makc theieaft menti- 
on of fuch a city ; but as the word fignifies an ha- 
bitation on the weftern water, there is the great- 
eft probability, that it was a place Ibmcwhere on 
the bay of Galway, which the natives, during 
their commerce with the Gallic, Iberian and Ro- 
man merchants, reforted for the benefit of traf- 
fic ; if it was not the ancient town of Galway hfelf. 

AUTERII, a people of ancient Ireland nicnti- 
oned by Ptolemy and thought by fome to be the 
inhabitants of the counties of Galway atid Rofcom- 
mon ; but Ptolemy doth not appejtr xb have bten 
in the leaft acquainted with the imernalp^rts of 
this ifland ; the Auterii therefore moft probably in- 
habited the fea coafts. The word Auterii is evi- 
dently a corruption from the Celtic Aubb ox Aitb 

B B A 285 

itater, and Eireigb weftcrtt' |)eoplc, fignifyirig 
therefore the weftern people . on the water, under 
this conCderation the Auteirij muft iiave .been the 
ancient inhabitants of the weftern coails of the 
counties of Galway and Mayo, that is from the 
north of the bay of Galway to Dunfine Head, com- 
prehending the ancient dillridt of Muriag, called 
frequently Hy Moruifge or the diftrift on the 
waters of the fea, yet'retaincd in the barony ofMo- 
riflc in the county of Mayo, The ancient Murifg 
or Moruifg, the Auterij of Ptolemy, we find in 
the commencement of the middle ages containing 
the difb-ids of Tir-Amalgaid^ Hy MaUa and Jar or 
Eir-CsftmacnCi Which fee under the refpeftive 
names. This defcription agrees yith the account 
which Mr. Whitaker gives in his hiftory of Man- 


B ALLY-EO ; Bally, a town and eo a grave j a» 
ancient name for Slane. * Sec Ferta-fir-feic. . 

BALLY-LEAN-CLIATH, fee Leari-cliath. 

BALTIMORE, fee Bealtimor. 

BARRAGH, fee Breba. 

BARROW river, fee Breba. 

BEALLAGH-MORE, or the great rath or ha- 
bitation. A rath on a lake in the county of Weft- 
Meath, the fame as Bregmuin, which fee. 

HEAL ATHA^ or the place of Beal on the wa- 
ter; now'Athenry in the county of Galway, de-' 
ftroyed in 1133 by Conor O'Brien, f 

• Annal. annon. MS. , t Collet. No. 4. pi s66i 
Vol. III. No. XI. D' 

&S6 S B A 

BEALLAGH-MORE, Vide fupra. 

BEALTlMOItE, or the great habitation of 
Beal, a fandtuary of the Drutds in the ancient dif- 
trift of Lcim Con in the.xtelttrf Carbury, aiit^ 
county of Cork, now Baltimore. 

BEAL-TINNBi dr Bears Fire; theiacred fires 
that were lighted on rocks, mountslins, cairns of 
ftdhe and altars in honour of Beaf or the fan, on 
the vernal equinox, firft of May, fummer folffice, 
firft of Auguft and the eve of the firft of Novem- 
ber, by the Arch Druids in their fcveral diftrifts. 
Alfo a fpecies of altars compofed of a large flat Hone 
placed horizontally on feveial upright rock flones, 
on which fires were burned on the above ihen- 
tioned days by the feveral orders of Drutds $ which 
fires were taken from the facred eternal fires prc- 
ferved by the veftal virgins. A number of thcfc 
altars are ftill remaining in different parts of Ire- j 
lattdy fituated either on hills or plains^ and during | 
the time of facrifice were encompafled three ftvet^ 
times by ttie votaries adorned with garlands, ling- 
ing hymns in honour of ApoUo or Beal, and throw- 
ing into the fire^ at proper intervals, fieOi^ fruits, 
flowers and aromatic herbs $ frorn the colour of 
the flame and fmoak arifing therefrom the Druid, 
who prefided over the ceremony^ drfcw i^rcfagcs 
relative to the fubjeft enquired into^y the vota- 
ries. Some of the BeaMinnes contift only of im« 
menfe fock ftones raifed about fix mdies above 
the ground by others placed under thetn« Hiftoiit 
des Celtes, Jurieu's critical faift. of the church 
vol. ii. Colieftahea, No. 5. 

BEAL-TINNE-GLAS, or the fire of Bears 
myfteries^ the hill of Baltinglars in the county of 

B E A 287 

Wickbw whereon fires were lighted, on the firft 
of May and fir ft of Auguft, in honour of the fun 
by the Druids ; it was the gr^nd Beai-tinne of the 
fouthern ftates of Leinftei ; there are ftill remaining 
in its neighbourhbbd a number of Druidic altars 
and other monuments of heathen fuperftition, 
BBARLA FENE, or the noble or learned lan- 
guage, the polite and learned dialedt of the an- 
cient Irifh tongue, being that fpoken by the no- 
ble0e and Dhiids, and diilinguiihed by its fofinefs 
from the Ca6lic, or that fpoken by the common 
people, which was remarkable for its harlhnefs and 
gutteral founds. The pronunciation of the Bearh 
fene depended principally on the power of the 
vowels, whilft the Bsarh Cailic retained the gut- 
teral founds of the confonants for which the prirt- 
tipal dialeds of the Celtic torigue were remark- 
able. This reformation in the Hiberno-Celtic lan- 
guage wa£{ owing to the bards in their poetical 
tompofitions in order to liarmonize the verfifica- 
tion, and iince the extirpation of the bards and 
difcontinoance of the language is nearly loll, the 
Irifti knguage fpolcen at this day by the common 
p6op4e is tbe Gaelic dialed and retains all its origi- 
nal har(hne&. 

The claffic dialeft of the ancient Irifli language 
being denominated by the bards Bearla Ferte^ feve- 
ral modern antiquaries have thought it fignified . 
the Phoenician language, introduced by thofe peo- 
ple during their commerce with the Britifh iflesi 
The ancient Celtic, Hebrew^ Phoenician and Pu- 
nic languages had undoubtedly a great affinity with 
and were only* different dialefts of tb^ feme ori- 

488 6 E R 

ginal tongue fpoken by the whole world before 
the confufion of Babel, as has been ' fully evinced 
by A learned antiquary in his cflay on the anti- 
quity of the Iriih latiguage ; but Bearia Fene 
cannot fignify the Phoenician language as has been 
fhewn under the words Fene and Phoenician. 

BEGERI, or the little land m the water, an ifl- 
land on the coaft of Wexford, where St. Ibarus 
had a monaftery and fchool.* 

BEL A-FEARSAD, from Beallagh, s, town, and 
Far/ad the mouth of a river or harbour, the anci- 
ent name of the harbour and town of Belfaft $ Bca- 
la is the fine rath at Drumboe, being 2526 
feet in circumference, called the Giant's Ring f 

BEN-GOLBAN, or Ben-CaeUban, that is, the 
head or hill of the woody country ; a famous 
mountain in the barony of Carbry and county of 
Sligo, near which the Nagnata of Ptolemy is fup- 
pofed to be fituated I It is now called Benvoliben, 
and is four miles N. of Sligo^ and two from the 

BEN-HEDAR, or Ben-Adar, that is, the birds 
promontory ; from Ben a head or promontory, and 
Hedar or Adar birds \ the prefent Hill of Hoath. 
Celebrated for having Dun-criomthan eredled on 
it, the royal palace or rath of Criomthan, chief or 
king of that diftridt; and who made feveral fuc- 
cefsful defcents on the coalls of Britain againft the 
\ Romans, in the time of Agricola.§ 

BENVOLIBEN, fee Ben Golban. 

BERVA, fee Breba, 

• Ware., t Collea. No. 5. % 0'Conor»8 Diff. p» 177- 
S O'Conor's Diff. Intr.p. 13. 

B O L 289 

BHURRIN, fee Burrin, 

BLADHMA SLIABH, a range of mountains 
between the King and Queen's Counties, and 
which in ancient times was one of the boundaries 
q( Munfter on the Leinfter fide- Bkdbma is 
evidently conrupted from Beal-di-fnai v/hence Sli- 
abh Beal di mai is the mountain of the worHiip, 
or necromancy of Beal's day* There is ftill re- 
maining in thefe mountains a large pyramid of 
white ftones, the true fimulacre of the fun-fire 
among all the Celtic nations. 

BO AND, fecBuvinda. 

BOIRCE, or the magnificent Place j the palace 
of the kings of Ullagh or Down, and probably 
the Rath of Dunum or Down-pat rick. 

BOLGiE, or Fir Bolgae, a people mentioned 
in the Irifh annals to have been the mod ancient 
inhabitants of this country, and who are fuppofed 
to have tranfmigrated from Britain in a very early 
period. As thefe people are in the moft ancient 
Irifti poems and chronicles univerfally diftinguifhed 
by the name of Fir Bolgae, Siol mBolgae, and 
Slioght mBealidh ; the learned have been much 
divided refpedting the derivation of the word 
Bolga, a name, by which the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of Ireland, have ever been diftinguilbed* 
Some think they were Belgians, who fetkd here 
about the time that their brethern made their firft 
dcfcent on Britain ; others aflert, they were deno- 
minated Bolgae, or Archers, from Bolg a quiver j 
whilft others maintain, -they were fo called, from 
Bol a poet, whence Bolgae a race of poets or 
learned people. There is thp greateft probability 
they were-Eelgians, and derived their name from 
the objcdk of their faith. The principal* objeft 
pf adoration amongft all the ancient inhabitants 

^Qo B O L 

of Europe, was the Sun, which they denomi- 
nated Baal, Beal, Bal or Bol, viz. the great Lord \ 
and All, QU, Uu, Ual or Haul, that is the all 
powerful Being, on which account ail the Cdtic 
tribes denominated themfelves Balga, fiolgi^ Bea- 
k)gh or Ollabfa, Ullagh and Haqilin \ according 
to their feveral dialects ; words which literally 
fignify Belgians or the worlhippera of BeaL 
Whence in the mofi ancient Iriflh poems we find 
them diftinguiihed by Siol mBoIga^ and Slioght 
mBealidh, or Slioght Miieadh, that is the race of 
the worfhippers of Beal. An aq:>peiibtion that a$ 
univer&lly diftingtsiAed the afldent inhaixtants 
of £urope, as that of Chriiliatis doth the preicnt. 
The Belgians or Bolgae thereof, pho firft pcplenilh- 
^ this ifland wkh inhabitants ./after the deluge, 
were ancient Britons of Celtic origin^ and Beal- 
gian faith. 

There appears to have been two grand migrations 
from Britain under this denominatioii. The firft, 
from the Irifti poems yet prefcrved in the Lcab- 
har Leacan, feem to hive arrived under the pon- 
du<a of Hugony, about 330 years before the 
chriftian sera, on the firft Belgic invafion of Britain. 
This colony perhaps was by no means numerous 
until joined by fubfequenit ones from the (ame 
yjand i which though continually arriving, were 
not of any confiderable magnitude, until that 
under the conduft of Dela Mac I-oich, or the 
prince of the mariners. This adveqturous leader 
was chief of LumorHi the Luentum of Ptolemy 
now Lhannid in (buth Wales^' and <^ the race fof 
the ancient Silures, who originally inhabited the 
' iiorthern and fouthern banka of the Severn, and 
who had retired from the more fou^em parts, on 

B O h «pr 

the firft arrival <jf the Bfelg« frota the cofitinent 
They prob^y tranfoiigratec} to Ireland, about {he 
time of itb$ airiviil of Diviaticus in ^ritaip) or loo 
years befoi:e the birth of Chrift ; thougf} ft is pof- 
fibie, they might have arrived foqiewhfit earlier, 
or 150 yejarspjriqj: to the Chriftian off a. TJiey 
appear to hf^vf; eftablifli^ their origin^} .feule^^ent 
on the ib)jjther9 banks of tj^e Sh^^Rno.a^ fr:om 
whence, tn prpceCs pf ti|>i|e,in oonJMndtion jyjih fub-^ 
fcquent polpnifis, they e/ct^ttded tl^r feulements 
pver thefouth of Ireland, forming one people vi^ith 
the Ah^rigintes i whob^drfaiefofe tl^s period ta^en 
poiTdfion of the middle aod northern pzxts of the 
Ulaod. We mull not how<ever fuppofe, that the 
Bel^c inhabitants of Irelaxid, thus augmented % 
were v^ry nmperous ; it js eviici^t from the frag-^ 
ments of feveral IrUb poems ftUl remaining, that, 
though the entire ijGbiQd m^s .divided among their 
diSqrem tribes, yet th^y rather pe.ran)bMiated«tba9 
inhabited their feveral diftrtdbi until th^ arrival 
of other Celtic colonies frogi the north of Britain, 
under the denomination of UJlagh aod Tu4th de 
Panans ; which fee*. 

Though ail the ancient inhabitants of Ireland may 
juftly be denominated Fir Bdga or Belgians, yet dur- 
ing the middle ages, the word Bolga by the poets 
and hiftorians was ufed to (ignify the inhabitants of 
Conaught fo denominated from OUne maght, or 
the trib^ of Seal or OIl^ whence Er SoJgagb that 
is the men of OUnemaght. Wherefore when any 
of the ancient chiefs of this diftrift obtained the 
title of monarchs of the whole ifland, the hifto- 
rians iiayc affertcd that *cy yrerc of the race of 

^ Richard of C&«o^qr, p. jp. Keatiog. O'Conor^t 
Difleru & Baxter't GIqA; l^ritf ia ^elgv* 

nsz i R E 

the Fir Boigs,' to diftinguilh them from thctfe of 
the Heremonn, Heberii land Ernai. But when 
thfe Bolgac is mentioned in the Irifli poems and hif- 
rories iii contradidlion-'to the Milefians, they fig- 
> nify the plebeians or herdfmen, frop Bol horned 
cattle^' whence Bt>l^ or Bajga a herdfman 'or keeper 
of horhed cattle; by reafon, that this fpecies of 
animals was dedicated tbBeal or Bol. - 
iForfurtber parric«larsof the Bolgae, fee MOMONII, 
REAN. ■ '>'-::\A .' 

BOREUM, a promontory in the north of 
Ireland mehtiontd bV Ptoleniy. • Bofeum figni- 
■ fies northern, wliencef^Borelirm Promontorium is 
the northern Promfdntory'; it is now called the 
North Cape or Horh*head, and is fituated in the 
norfli'of the county of Doncgall. 

BOYNE river; fee^^Bilvinda, 

BREAGH, Bhreaghj IJreg, Brigh, firugh, Bruigh 
and Eerg, an habitation of a rioblefle^ and figni- 
fies either 'a rath or laos. 

BREBA/ from Breoghl-Abha, or the forked 
river; the northern branch ofthe Ablian Breoghan, 
called alfo Berva the ancient name of the river 
Barrow. In the. latter ages it obtained the name 
of Barragh, or bq^odajry river; being for feme 
centuries the boundary, between, the Englifh pale 
and the Iri(h fepts. 

BRfiDAGH, or Bredagh Abhan, that is, the 
hilly or mountanequs river, a fmall river that rifes 
in a mountain betv^jeen Lough Foyle and Lough 
Swilly in the barony of Inis Owen and county of 
Donegall. After a ftiort S. E. courfe it falls into 
Lough^f oyle; near this, St. Patrtck founded the 

B R E ^g^ 

church of Domnach Bile in the middle, of the 
fifth century. 

BREFINE, Brefne or Breghane, that isj the 
country of the little hills; called alfo Hy Re 
Leigh, or the diftrift of the coi^ntry of the king ; 
the chiefs of which were the O'Reilyes. The fub- 
ordinate diftridts of this country were Hy Flath 
ean eoghan, or the diftridt of the chief of the 
country on the water ; the Dynaft of which was 
OTlanegan ; with Hy Ru-arc, Hy Bredagh, Hy 
Corcigh, Hy Cabhan or Hy Re-leigh, Magh Cier- 
nan, Magh GauroU, and Hy Scr-ui-don, each go- 
verned by their refpeftlve chiefs. O'Ruarc, Q'Brady, 
O'Corry, 0*Sheridan, Mc. Kiernan and Mc. Gau- 
roU, mod of whom were in poffeflion of their 
eftates at the beginning of the laft century. 
Brefinc is noy called the county of Cavan, though 
formerly it took in Leitrim, and part of Annaly. 

BREGI A or Bregmuin, that is, the place . or 
plain of the habitarion. A plain extending round 
the royal palace of Tara, called alfo Magh Bregh ; 
it extended as far as Trim and Dulcek. 

BREOGHAIN, an ancient diflrid containing 
the intire county of Waterford, fo denominated 
from lying on the river Braghan or Brigus; the 
inhabitants of this diftrid were frequendy called 
Slioght Breoghain or the race dwelling on the 
forked river, and were the Brigantes of Ptofemy, 
their country was bounded on the eaft by Abhan 
Braghan, on the north by the Sure, on the weft by 
the Black- water, and on the fouth by the, fciu 
Their moft ancient chiefs were denominates) Hy 
Breoghan and O'Breoghan, whence by corruption 
0'3rain, which the gcnealogifts of the latter ages 
have made defcend from tho O'Briens of Tho- 

994 B R I 

mond, vAicrchy they have confounded one race 
with the other. The Hy Breoghans were difpof- 
feded of the fouth parts of their country by Aon- 
gusat thi^headof the clan of theDefii; who had 
bcLcn cxpellcd'thc county of Mcath by Cormac mac 
Art in 278. From that time the fouthern parts of 
this ancient diftri^ wa$ in the poifeifion of the 
chiefs of the Defii. But the northern remained 
under. the' government of its native princes until 
the arrival of the Englifla, when the greater part 
of the country was divided among the Boyles, 
^herlocks. Poors, Aylwards, Daltons* Waddings, 
i^. feudatory tenants to Henry II. who* after the 
general diilribution of the kingdom among his 
followers, referved to himfelf all the Country from 
Cork to Waterford. The ancient princes however 
flill retained a psft which they held by grant from 
the Englilh monarphs ; and we find an 0*Brien in 
^he tenure of a coniiderable landed property in 
this county at the cooimencement of the lafl cen- 
tury ; but whether defcended from the Hy Ere- 
oghans or O'Briens of Thpmond, ks not certain. 
The Slioght Breoghan was cabled dto by iKe 
ancient Irifli writers ^oght Lqg^ch, of the race 
on the 'vater which feem to be the (^m^ as the 
JLuc^ni of Ptolemy, * though others place the 
Lucem or Lucenii along Dingle bay in tjie cpi^i^ty 
of Kerry. 


BRIG ANTES, fee Brigus and Breophaio. 

BRIGANTIA, a town mentioned by Richard 
ofCirenccfter, andfuppbfed the capital of the Bri- 

♦ Smiths CO. Wtt^rftm}. O'Coikmt'^ DHfcrt. p, l^8. 

B R I 29S 

gant<:s of Ptolemy. Prcybably a place fomcwhere 
near the mouth of the Brigus, where the natives 
aflemblcd to traffic with foreigners ; perhaps tlje 
prefcnt city of Waterford . 
BRIGH^THAIGH, or Brigh Mac Thaidghc, 
that is the habitation of Mc Thaigh, in Meath. 
Here Gelafius biOiop of Ardma^ held a Synod iqi 

BRIGUS, the ancient name of a river oieotL- 
oned by Ptolemy in ^c foutfa of In^nd, and gfir 
ncrally thought to be the Barrow, but here feems 
to be a final! error ; the Brigus of PtQleiny did not 
properly bekfhg to the Borrow, but to the main- 
.clsannei of the thcee rivers, the Barrow, Norc and 
^iire, which unitinjg; near Bjoksmd Waterford, 
were from thence to the fea diftinguifh^d by the 
^fxpent bxfh by the geiieral name of Brepgjban AV 
faan or forked river, and from whence Pioiemy 
undoubtedly obtained his name of fifig^as. The 
three branches Barrow, More and Sure, anciendy 
the Sure, Peoros and Breba vere^(|uaUy uoknown 
to tbiB ancient geographer^ who obtakied his 
infi)rmatioa from the fiDneign flnerchante, who only 
Tifited (the fea coafis« The people inhabiting near 
the mouth and fouthern braodh of this river^ were 
I^ the natives denominate as we have befoiie ob^ 
ferved, Siiogbt Bneoghan or the race on the forked 
rivtf } whonde Ptolemy calls them by cocruption, 
Srigames. The real iignificattoa of the -word, 
Brigantes, not being known to riae writers of the 
middle and latter ages have catifed innumerable 
conjetSbmes V Richard of ipiiiencefler thinks they 
w^re Britons who lAed from the terror of the Ro- 
man arms about 50 years after tibe birth of Chrin:, 

ti96 B R U 

That they were colonies from Britain is evident, 
but they certainly arrived much earlier than the 
time fpecified, at lead the major part. 

BRIGUS, miftaken by Camden, Wari and 
fome others for Brigantia, and thought to be Leigh* 
lin on the Barrow in the county of Carlow j but 
no fych place exifted in the early ages. . - ' 

BRUGHNA-BOYNE, a Cemetery of the an- 
cient kings of Ireland, now Trim. 

BRUGHRIGH, that is the habitation of the 
king; the feat of the kingsof Cairbre Aubbdha, 
now Kenry in the county of Limerick ; and ap- 
pears to be the Regia Altera of Ptfikmy, Here Au- 
lifF-mor 0*Donaghiie king of Cairbre Aobhdha 
was ilain by Mortogh O'Brien in 1 165; now called 

BRUIGHEN DA DARG, or the habitation of 
the two caves. Called alfo Teacb n'aoi droma Rmtbe^ 
that is the houfe of the chief or elder, in. the Rath 
of the hollow mount. This Rath contained the 
royalpalace of Taragh, fo much fpokpn of by the 
Iriib poets and antiquaries ; and was fiiuated in 
view, artd not far from the Hill of Taragh, where- 
on the States aflemblcd. Conar the fqn ofTren- 
mor, called by the Irifli hittorians Conar-mor, and 
chief of a colony of Caledonians, whpiettled in 

* this country about the birth of Chrift,'. originally 
built the palace of Taragh ; called the habitation 
or Rath of the caves, from containing feveral caves 
under the platform. . By fonje accident the royal 
palace fituatcd ia the rath, was burned to the 
ground, in the fefi year of its ejection ; but was 
immediately repaired iand improv:ed, by Conar, 
y;ho r^fided in ic feyaal years. This king how- 

6 R U 297 

ever having expelled Ankle, one of his Caledonian 
captains into the Ifle of Man, made him fo much 
his enemy, that feme time after, he returned with 
fln army, took Tara by furprize and fet fire to 
the palace ; in the flames of which Conar periflied. 
From this time it remained in ruins for feveral 
years, during the conteft between the Caledonian 
and Belgian fepts. It was howevef at length re-^ 
built in great fplendor, and fo continued for a 
number of years after ; during the frequent wafs it 
fuflfered feveral conflagrations, and was finally de* 
ftroyed by Brien Boromh, in 995, near a thoufand 
years after its firft ere<5tioa. The rath of this ce- 
lebrated palace, is yet remaining, under which, 
tradition fays, there are a number of caves. The 
royal apartments and other buildings, fituated 
within the ramparts, were conftrufted of wattles 
or wicker work^ fupported by whited pillars form- 
ed of the trunks of trees, .and whofe walls were li- 
ned with mats, made of fine rulhes. The num- 
ber and dimenfions of the principal buildings com- 
pofmg the palace of Teamor or Tafagh^ during 
the middle ages, have been given by the Irifli an- 
tiquaries ; but who have in general confounded them 
with the Naoifteaghan on the hill of Taragh where 
the States ai&mbled. The buildings of the pa- 
lace, confifted of the Teach Miodhcuharta, or 
chief court, where the princes were entertainedy 
and four other large houfes, for the lodging of the 
nobles and royal family ; all fituated round the foot 
of the rampart after the manner of the ancient 
Greeks, in the conftruftionof their villas. Keat- 
ing has given a pompous defer iption of the great 
court, apparentfy raoich- exaggerated j according; 
to hrm, it was 30a feet long, 40 feet high, and 

29^ C A E 

60 feet br6ad. If fUch were the dimenfibn^, it 
muft have been an open court furro\inded widi the 
royal apartments , a circumftance indeed extremely 
probable, as we know open courts, were cuftomary 
among the ancient Greeks. In the middle of the 
court was ere£led the throne, whereon {he monarch 
fat ; the kings of Munfter with the provinicial de- 
puties on his left hand, thofe of Ulfter on the right, 
the king of Leinfter in front, and the kjng of 
Conaught behilKl ; they being after the liianner 
of the Pagan timesj feated circularly round the 
throne f. 

BURRIN, Bhurrin or Bhorrin, that is, the dif^ 
tant or external country ; a barony in the County 
of Clare, on the fouth of the bay of Galway, de- 
nominated alfo formerly Hy Loch*lean, or the dif- 
trid on the waters of the fea ; the chiefs whereof 
were called O'Loghlin, or O'Laghlin ; fome of 
whom remained in poiTeffion, at the commencement 
of the laft . cehtury. — In this diftridt were the 
Canganij of Ptolemy. 

BUVINDA, or Bubinda, the ancienf name of 
a river memioned by Ptolemy, and thought to be 
the Boyne. The word Bnvinda feems to be derived 
from the Cimbric-Britifh words, BuSen-dav^ that 
is the dear rapid water ; whence called by the Irilh 
Boand or SoUind^ by corruption the Boyne. 

< AELANI or Gafeni, the ancient inhabitants 
of Caelan, They were a branch of the Scotii j 

t O'ConorVDiffert. p. 129. 135. and IntroduAion p. la. 
Collcftanca No. 3. p. J77. No. 4. p. 518. 585. 

C A I tgp 

but diiring xht middle ages were tributary eifheir 
to the chicft of Cuolan or Hy Falgia. Sec Oalan* 

CAIRBRE-AOBHDHA, or the diftrid on the 
water; from Cairbre a di(tri6t» and A^bbdba waters; 
the prefent barony of Kenry in the county of 
Limerick. This country was alfo denominated 
Hy Dun na bhan, or the hilly diftrrdl on the river? 
the ancient chiefs whereof were called Hy Don- 
navan, or O* Donovan, that is the chiefs of the hilly 
country on the river *. The principal place wa* 
Brughrigh, the Rigia altera of Ptolemy. See 
Brughrigh and Rigia. 

CAIRN, or a heap of Clones } large niounds of 
ftones found in different parts of Ireland, atrd in- 
deed in mod countries of Eurbpe. They werd 
the fepulchres of the ancient Cehi<: heroes, efpecially 
of celebrated commanders of armied^y an^ founders 
of colonies. On thefe nibunds facrifices were 
offered in honour of the Earth or univcrfel Mature 
on the eve of the firft of November, from whence 
they were denominated HacbgOj or temples of' 
Vefta by the Irifli, but Andate by the ancient 
Britons. Spoils and prifoners taken in war were 
alfo frequently lacrificed on them in order to ap- 
peafe the manes of the departed worthies, after 
the mantier of the ancient Nkxican^. Here was 
exercifed a fpecies of divination denominated, the 
0^, in order to confult the fpirits of ancient times' 
relative to future events- 

As repofitaries of the dead^ they were frequently 
called Mogh ad air^ or Mqgb air €m fu^h^ that is 
temples, fandiiaries, or cairns of Mogb or Sodorn^ 
the genius who prefided over human affairs^ and 

• CollcA. No. 3, p, 37f. 

Soo CAN 

and the tnanes of the dead ; whence the RomanI 
called tbeni temples of Mercury and fan(5luaries of 
Saturn, on which fires v/ere occafionally lighted in 
honour of the fun and earth. 
According to the Irifh antiquaries^ thefe Cairns 
were the moft ancient fepulchres of the old Irilh, 
the principal perfon was interred or his urn placed 
in a cave ordome in the centre of the mount, and 
in the early ages was accompanied by his wife and 
. neareft friends, who were inclofed alive with hint 
in the tomb ; for which reafon we frequently find 
in opening thefe tumuli, human bones uncovered 
on the floor of the vault, whilft the urn containing 
the afhes of the hero lies interred under the taber- 

This barbarous cuftom, however, was flpt length' 
abolilhed, and the friends, relations and defcend- 
ants of the deceafcd chief were interred under the 
upright ftones encircling the bafeof the monument. 
A number of thefe Tumuli arc ftill remaining in 
Ireland, particularly Cairn ^ngus at New Gr^^e 
in the countyof Eaft Meath, dim ban near Newry, 
Cairn Dare near Kildare, Cairn Cluin. — And a 
fine one on the banks of the LifTey, about ten miles 
from Dublin. — See Tlachgo, and Mogh-adair. * 
CANCOR A, or the chief refidence ; a rath or 
callle near Killaloe, the palace of the ancient kings 
of Thomond, built by Brien Boromh. It waside- 
ftroyed by O'Neill and his Uhonians in noi. The 
only remains now vifible of this ancient royal palace 
are the ramparts and fo(r6 of the rath* 

♦ Mc. Curtin*8 Antiq. Hiftoire dcs Celtes. Juricu's Cnticrf 
Hift* of the Church, and^ CoUedanea No. 5 and 6. 

C A R 301 

CANGANiE INSULiE, metitioned by Richard 
oFCirenccfter, the prefent fouth ifles of Arran on 
the coafts of Burrin ; the Canganij of Ptolemy. 

CANGANIJ, or Ganganii, a people inhabiting 
the weftcrn parts of the county of Clare, menti- 
oned by Ptolemy. Canganij or Ceanganij are 
evidently defied from Cean a head or promon- 
tory, and Can external ; whence* Canganij the 
people of the external promontory 5 They were 
the ancient inhabitants of the prefent barony of 
Burrin, in the county of Clare; Burrin having 
nearly the fame fignification asCanganii, which 

CARAN, fee Goran. 

CARMEN, or the inclofed place, from car i 
round enclofure and men a place ; whence Cather* 
men the place of the city. This place was the 
capital of the ancient Coulan, and tlie Naafteighan 
where the Hates of the fouthern parts of Leinfter 
met. It was fituated on a gentle floping hill about 
five miles eaft of Athy in the county of Kildare,' 
now diftingutfhed by the moat of MuUaraaft, or 
the moat of decapitation ; from the murder of a 
number of Irifh gentlemen by feveral Englifh ad- 
venturers in the fixteefith century. The hill of 
Carmen ^xaAly refembles that of Tara in th^ 
<x>unty of Meath ; iifuing originally from the bo- 
hm of a thick wood, of an oblate, conical figure,- 
about a mile irt diameter at the bafe; from the fum- 
mit, whiiah is nearly three quarters of a mile in 
length, the feveral counties of fouth Leinfter may 
befcenj there are yet remaining on it the Rath 
and Laois in which the chieffi encamped ; alfo the 
Labcreigh or Areop.\gus, confifling of fixteen co- 
nical mounds of earth in a circle of 68 feet in diar 

Vot. BL No. XI. E 

id CAR 

meter, on which the chiefs fat m council. Near 
this place was fought the celebrated battle of Car- 
men towards the clofe of the third century, between 
the people of fouth Leinfter, and Carmac Cas 
king of Munfter*. The field where this battle was 
fought is about three miles from Carmen, and two 
from Athy j at this day numbers of the bodies of 
the flain are frequently dug up about a foot below 
the prefent furface, and in the feveral dire£tions 
in which they fell. 
CARRAN-FEARAIDHE, or the hill or rock 
of the men of the water, now Knock*Aine, in 
the county of Limerick. At or near this place^ a 
bloody battle was fough) between the princes of 
Conaugbt and Dioma king of Munfter ; in which 
the former were entinely defeated, and five chiefs 
and four thoufand oiScers and foldiers left dead on 
the field f. 
CARRICKASTICKEN, fee Cierricnaoitea- 

CARRICKFERGUS, fee Dunfobarky. 
CARRIGOGINNIOL, or Carrie ui cinniol, that 
is the rock of the diftridt of the chief tribe, called 
alfo Pobal Brien, or the people of firien. Donogh 
Cairbreach O'Brien in 1211 received from John 
' king of England patents for the eftate of Carrigo- 
ginniol, in the county of Limerick, at the yearly 
rent of fixty marks. The earls of Defmond af- 
terwards became lords of this diftridt J. 
CARSIOL, or the habitation on the rock, firom 
car or carric a rock, znAJiol a race or habitation j 

♦ Colka. No. 4. p. 4«7- O'Conor's Diff. p. 177. 
t Coiled. No. 4. p. 444, 
X CoUedt. No. 4* p. 624^ 

CAR 303 

hb^ Cartiel. The rock of Cadiel was originally a 
dun or caftle of the ancient chiefs of Eoganacht- 
Caifil^ or Magh-Ffeimen, called from their habita- 
tation on this ifolated rock, Hy Dun na tnoi^ or 
chier of the hill of the plain, by corruption O'Don- 
nohue ; in later ages tHey were diftinguiOied by 
the name of Cartheigh, or inhabitatitS of the rock, 
whence dfcfcended the Mac Carthics hereditary 
thicfs of this diftrift. However, fome years be- 
fore the eftablifliment of chriftianity in this coun- 
try, Caihel became the royal feat of the itidnarchs 
of Munfter, in which ftate it appears to have con- 
tinued until the commencement of the tenth cen- 
tury ; when Cormac Mac Culinan, being king of 
Caflicl and bilhop of Emly, ereifted on the fcite 
of the old palace an elegant chapel, and remov- 
ed thither the epifcopal fee from Emly, making it 
the metropolitan fee of all Munfter; Which cha- 
pel of of Cormac was repaired, and a fynod held 
in it in the year 11 34. But Donald O'Brien in 
the reign of Henry II. built a new church from the 
foundation^ and converted Cormac's chapel into 
achapter-houfe, and made confiderable grants of 
land to the fee; which his fon Donat augmented 
with other benefadions ; King John alfo adding 
(bmethihg to the revenue, confirmed the donations 
of Donat in 1x15. About the year 1415 the church 
built by Cormac and Donald O'Brien and dedicat- 
ed to St. Patrick, beinig through age, in a ruinous 
ftate, was repaired by Richard 0*Hedian, archbi- 
fliop of Caftiel, who alfo built a hall for the vicars 
choral, and endowed it with lands. From this 
time the cathedral of Cafliel was made ufe of as 
the metropolitan church of Munfter, until about 
the year 1750, when it was (hamefuUy given up to 
E 2 

304 CAT' 

ruin, — and in which (late it now lies ; dodor Ar- 
thur Price was then archbifhop *. 

CAS, feeGa. 

CASIOL IRRA, or weft Cafhel, fix miles fouth 
of Sligo, where a biflioprick was eredted by St. 
Bron in thebeginingof thefixthcenturyf. 

CATHAIGH INIS, or Inis-cathay, denominat- 
ed alfo Inis Gatha, or Inis Ga \ that is the ifland 
in the fea, it being fituated in the mouth of the 
Shannon, between the counties of Clare and Kerry, 
St. Patrick founded a monailery here and plac- 
ed over it St. Senan j It became afterwards a 
bifhoprick, and was united to that of Limerick in 
1188 or 1 1 90. The monaftery was frequently 
plundered by the Danes. It is now called Inis- 
Scattery J. 

C ATHERLOCH, or the city on the lake ; now 
the town of Carlow. Here king John ereded a 
caftle for the proteftion of the Englilh colonies, 
the ruins of which are yet vifible* It was taken 
by one of the Cavanaghs, named Donald Mc. Art 
who ftiled himielf Mc. M urrough^ king of Leinfter 
in the twentieth year of Richard II. in his pof- 
feffion it remained fome time §. 

CATHERLOUGH county, or the county of 
Carlow, comprehending the ancient diftridts of 
Hy Cabhanagh and Hy Drone, being the northern 
part of the principality of Hy Cinfiolagh* It was 
made a county by king John about laio, 

• CoUea. No. 5. p. 375 Harm'a.Warc, v.p. i. ^6^ 
+ Harris's Ware v. 1. p. 464. 
I Ufticrp. 454. Harris's Warcfol. i. p. 502. 
§ Ware's Annals. 

CIA 305 

CAUCIJ, an ancient people of Ireland, placed 
by Richard of Cirencefter in the county of Dublinj 
on the banks of the LifFey, and in the northern 
parts of the county of Wicklow. The word, Cau- 
cij, is evidently derived from the ancient Britifh, 
Chic Is, that is the high diftrift between the rivers ; 
whence the ancient Germans, inhabiting the coun- 
try betwen the Elb and Wefer, are called by Pto- 
lemy Chaucii Majores, and thofc dwelling between 
the Wefer and the Emfe, were denominated Chaucii 
Minorts. The Caucij of Ireland therefor undoubt- 
edly were the ancient inhabitants of the mountai- 
. nous country lying between the rivers Barrow and 
Norc, called by the ancient Irifli Hy Bre/)gbain 
Gabbran^ or the diftrift of the high country between 
the forks. The chiefs of which were denominat- 
ed Hy Breghnan, by corruption O'Brenan, fome 
<2i whom were in pofleffion of that country at the 
commencement of the laft century*. 

CBRRIGIA, or the rocky country, the prefent 
county of Kerry, from Cerrig or Carrie a rock. 

CHILL, fee CiU and KiLj 

ClARUIDHE,or the rocky diftrid on the water, 
from ciar or cer, a rock, and uidbe or ui dba, a 
diitri£t on the water*, the prefent barony of 
Iragbt in the county of Kerry, on the fouthern 
banks of the Shannon, and from which is derived 
Cerrigia and Kerry, The chiefs of this country 
were called Hy Cain air Ciaruiuhe, that is the 
chief of the weftern diftritfl of the rocky country ; 
by contradlion O'Conor Kerry ; whofe defcen- 
dants were in pofleffion of their ancient patrimony 
in the beginning of the laft century. This dif- 

♦ O'CoDQr's Orteliui« 

5<^ C I N 

tria was fometimes denominated Garuidbe Luacbra, 
or the rocky diftria on the great lake or water,* 
and Feor m Flointiy that is the people of the chief 
or leader *. 

called Carrickafticken, that is the rock or hill of the 
affembly of the elders ; the Maiftean of the ancient 
inhabitants of the county of Louth, the Voluniii 
of Ptolemy. It is fuuated near Dundalk, in 
fcveral hills or mounds compofing the Leaberagh or 
Areopagus, urns containing theaflies of the old 
chiefs have been found ; but the principal rath has 
been in part deftroyed f. 
CILL-AICB, that is the full grown wood, or 
ftrong church. A place in the county of Meath 
deftroycd by Callaghan, a king of fouth Munfter 
in 939 J. 
CILL MAC PUAGH, or the church of Mc. 
Duagh i a church and l>i(hoprick in the county of 
Galway, foqnded in the middle of the fixth cen- 
tury by St. Colman, fon of Duagh, defcende4 
from the ancient chiefs of Tir-malgaid. The bi- 
fjioprick of Cillmacduagh was united to that of 
Clonfert in 1602 §. 
CINEAL EOGHEAN, or Cean all Eaghain, 
from Cean tbuatb oU Eagh an^ prononunced Connd 
Owen or the principal divifion of the northern 
county of the on or Bolga; an ancient diftrid in 
the province of Ulfter comprehending originally 
the prefent counties of Tyrone, Armagh, Done- 
gall, and part of the county of Derry, being 

* Collca. No. 3. p. 379. 

f Wright's Louthiana. 

j Colled. No. 4. p. 462. 

§ Harris's Warci ▼• i. p. 6349 and 648. 

C L A 307 

the ancient divifions oF Eirj^all and Orgalh It was 
the firft fettlement of the Bolga in the North a- 
bout 300 years before Chrift, the chiefs of which 
were denominated Conncl or Connar, until the 
fourth century, when one of the fons of O'Nial 
the great principal king of Hy Faillia took poffef- 
fion.of the eaftern part, or Orgall; whilft the wef- 
tern or Eirgall remained under the dominion of 
its native princes, which from them was called 
in the latter ages Tir Connaly or the country of Con- 
nal, comprehending the prefent county of Donegall. 
Qnel Eagbem being thus confined to the counties of 
Denry, Tyrone and Armagh, continued un- 
der the dominion of the O'Nials fome time after 
the arrival of the £ngli(h, but at length was 
reduced to the prefent county of Tyrone, being 
called Tir Owen^ or the land of Owen, from whenct 
Tyrone is derived *. 

CINEALFEARMAIC, or the chief diftria of 
the fons of men ; a country in the ancient Tho- 
mond and county i( Clare; the ancient chiefs 
thereof were the O'Deas. 

CINEALTALMHUIM, fee Aoibh Liathain. 

CINNEICH, or the chief place, therefidence of 
Dermod Mc. Carthy, near Bandon, deftroycd in 
1 1 50 by Mortogh O'Brien. 

CLANN-CUILEAN, or the race or children 
of the corner on the water ; called b1(6 Hy na 
il4&r, or the diftri^ of the fea; the chiefs of which 
were denominated Mac na Mor aois^ or the fon of 
the elders of the fea, by contra^ion Mac Nama- 
ras; fome of whom were in pofleffion of this 
country, fituated in the S. E. part of the county 

♦ Keatiog. O'Conor^i Diff. HamVs Ware, vpl, i, 

3o8 C L O 

of Gare on the Shannon, at the commencement 
of the laft century. It was alio part of Dail Gais, 
which fee *. 

CLANRICARD, fee Hy Fiacria aidne. 

CLOGHADH, or Cloghdy the Hiberno^eltic 
name of thofe flender round towers at this day 
found in feveral parts of Ireland. The word is 
derived from the old Iri(h Tlacbgo from Tlacbt the 
earth or univerfe. The Druidic temples of Vefta 
in which were kept the facred or eternal fire,' were 
called Tlacbgo or temples of Cybele, being of the 
fame conftrudibn with the Pyratbea of the ancient 
Perfians, and the Cbammia of the Phoenicians and 
Carthaginians, fome of which are ftill remaining 
in Perfia and Bulgaria. The Hibernian Druids 
erefted thefe temples in their fandluaries, as is 
evident from the ruins of feveral ftill remaining in 
different p)artsof the kingdom, particularly at Bal- 
ly naflicbh in the county of Kilkenny, Navan near 
Armagh, &c. They wgre conftrudted of rock 
ftone without cement, and were of the fame di- 
ameter with thofe towers now remaining, but to 
what altitude they were carried is not certain ; little 
more than the foundations being now vifible. 
After the eftablifhmcnt of chriftianity in Ireland, a- 
monga number of Druic fuperftitions, the facrec} 
or eternal fires were preferved for f.veral centu- 
ries, and the Thcbgo by the chriftian clergy remov- 
ed from the fontluaries of paganifm to thofe of the 
true faith, and became appurtenances to churches 
and monafteries, though ftill retaining their ancient 
denomination of Tlacbgo or temples of Vefta. On 
the abolition of thefe fires, about the twelfth cen- 

♦ Colled. No, 4. p. 602. 

C L O 309 

tury,'and the introdudtton of bells, the Tiacbgo were 
in general converted into belfries, whence the mo- 
dern name for a bell in Irilh is clogby from being 
placed in the Tiacbgo or veilal temples. As thefe 
round towers are neither found in Britain or the 
European continent, they were mod probably in- 
troduced into this iiland by the Perfian Magi or 
Gaurs, who in the time of Conftantine the Great 
ran over the world, carrying in their hands cenfors 
containing the holy fire ; afcerting their God 
(hould deftroy all other Gods, whica in fome mea- 
fure they efFedted by lighting fires under them, 
thereby burning thofe of wood and melting thofe 
of metal. In this period the chriflian religion had 
made confiderable progrefs in the fouthern and 
wcflern parts of Europe, but in Ireland druidic fu- 
perftition remaining in its original purity, whofe 
tenets not being widely different from thofe of 
the Gaurs, thefe pagan philofophers found a ready 
affent to their dodlrines; whence Pyratheias or 
veilal towers became univerfal throughout the 
ifland, in the place of the ancient Tiacbgo^ which 
we have (hewn under that word were mounts of 
ilone containing the remains of their ancient lie- 
roes, and on which fires were occafionally lighted 
from the facred vaults at the times of facrifice. 
The Clcgbadb now remaining in Ireland were alj 
ere(5ked by the chriftian clergy, and are none of 
them older probably than the beginning of the 
feventh century, nor none of a later date than 
the clofe of the eleventh, though evidently deriv- 
ed from ftrudtures of a fimilar nature ufed by the 
pagan priefts; they were however continued as 
belfries to the clofe of the fourteenth century, for 
whiqh reafop a belfry in the Irifh language is 

gio C L O 

termed Oogbadb^ from being originally temples of 
Tlacbt. (See Tlachgo and Gadalians.) * 
CLOGHER, or the place of the ftone ; fitaatcd 
on the river Launy in the county of Tyrone. 
This place during the times of paganifm was a drui- 
dic fanftuary ; in which was kept a ftone of divi- 
nadon called the golden done \ and which accord- 
ing to the regifter of Clogher, the IXevil pro- 
nounced jugling anfwers, like the oracles of Apollo 
Pythius. Several antiquaries have thought the 
ftone of Clogher to have been the fame with the 
celebrated Lee Fail, fo much fpoken of by the an- 
cient Irifh writers. But from being denominated 
the golden ftone, it appears to have been a gem 
of a yellow colour, and probably was of the fame 
fpecies as that mentioned by Pliny, and called 
Ananchites ; by which the Greeks, Romans and 
all the Aborigines of Europe divined ; refcmbling 
the Urim and Thummin of the Hebrews f. Here 
alio was fituated the royal feat of the ancieat 
kings of Ergal, near which St. Macarrin, in 490, 
by order of St. Patrick, founded a monaftery and 
biftioprick. In 1041 the church of Clogher was 
rebuilt and dedicated to the memory of St. Macar- 
tin ; fince which time it has received feveral alte- 
rations and improvements by fucceeding bifliops, 
efpecially by Mathew Mc. Catafaid, who in 1295, 
rebuilt the cathedral, eredted other buildings, and 
granted feveral valuable donations to it. The fee 
of Louth was united to this biflioprick about the 
middle of the eleventh century J, together with 

* Ware Ant. Dufrcnc'a Gloff. torn. 3. Jurjcu's critical Hift. 
of the Church. voL a. 
t Plinj, L 37. 11. t HamVs Ware, v. 1. p. 175. 

C L O 311 

the deaneries of Drogheda, Athirdee ar^d Dun- 
dalk. See Regia. 

CLOJARD, an ancient monaftery and bifho- 
prick near the river Boyne in the county of Meath, 
founded by St. Finian in 520, who eftabliftied a 
fchool in his monaftery of Clonard^ celebrated for 
producing feveral learned nien. The biflioprick 
of Clonard, with thofe of Trim, Ardbraccan, 
Donfliaghlin, Slane and Foure, were confolidated 
before the year 115Z, and united to that of"^ 
Meath about the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury*. Clonard feems to be the fame place as 
Cluainiaraid, which fee. 

CLONFERT, that is the holy retirement ; fitu- 
ated near the Shannon. An abbey, church and bi- 
flioprick was founded here in 558, by St. Bren- 
dan, who was interred in his own . church in 
May 577. During the middle age? this church 
was celebrated for its feven altars, and the well 
front fuppofed to have been ereded by John bi-^ 
fliop of Clonfert, about 1270, is ftill beautiful. 
The biflioprick of Chillmacduagh was united to- 
this fee in i6o2f. 

CLONMACNOIS, or Cluainmacnois, that is 
the retirement or refting place of the fons of the 
chiefs, on account of its being the cemitery or 
burying place of a number of the ancient Irifli 
chriftian kings ; it is fituated on a rifing ground on 
the eaftern bank of the Shannon, between the 
confines of the King's county and the county of 
Weft Meath, and was anciently denominated 
Druim Tipraid or Druim Tipraic, that is the 

• Hams's Ware, v. i, p. 135, 

f Harris's Ware, v. i. p. 637. 648. 

312 C L U 

church of the nobles, or the church in the centre, 
it being fuppofed to (land in the centre of Ireland. 
^ An abbey was founded here in 548 by St. Ki- 
aran, which abbey church was converted into a 
cathedral, and to which in procefs of time nine 
other churches were added by the kings and petty 
princes of ^he country, as places of fepulture ; 
all eredted in one inclofure of about two Irifh 
acres. The bifhoprick of Clonmacnois was united 
to that of Meath in 1568, by authority of parli- 
ament. Since which time the churches, epifcopal 
palace and other buildings have been fuffered to 
decay, being at prefent little better than a heap 
of ruins, entombing a number of the fepul- 
chres of the nobility and bifhops, containing in* 
. fcriptions in the Latin, Hebrew and Irifh lan- 

CLOPOKE, fee Dun-cluin-poiic. 

CLOYNE, fee Cluain-vamah. 

GLUAINAINEACH, or the bountiful retire- 
ment, a church or monaftery in the Queen's 
county deftroyed in g^g by C^Uaghan king of 
fouth Munftcr. The word is derived from C7«- 
a/>f, Qojn^ Chin or Clone^ a fequellered place, and 
aineacb or eineacb^ bountiful or liberal f. It was 
called alfo Cluain-ednach. 

CLUAINIRAIRD, or the retirement on the 
weftern height, a religious houfe, deftroyed by 
Caliaghan in 939. See Clonard. 

CLUAINRAMHAD, or the retirement of the 
royal heir ; near ^Ennis, built by Donogh Cair- 

* Harris's Ware, ▼. p. 165. 
+ Collc^l. No. 4. p, 4.62, 

C O A 315 

breach O'Brien prince of Thomond, on being ex- 
pelled Limerick by theEngUni in 1256 *. 
CLUAIN.VAMAH, now Cloyne in the county 
of Cork. Here a church was eredted and a bi- 
(hoprick founded by St. Colman, who died on the 
4th of November, 604. The bifhoprick of Clu- 
ain-vamah, which fignifies the fequeftered cave or 
habitation, was united to that of Cork in 1430, 
which union continued until the nth of No* 
vember 1638, when George Synge, D. D. was 
confecrated bilbop of Cloyne. From that time, 
Cioyne has been governed by its own prelates ; it 
is iituated about fifteen miles from Corlcfj in the 
barony of Iitiokilly. 
CLUNES, fee Kilmore. 

CNAMHCHOILL, or the eminent wood, now 
called Knawhill between Cafliell and Sulchoid, and 
celebrated on account of a vi(f\ory obtained over 
the Danes by Brien Boromh in 968 J. 
COALAN, Caclan, or Galen, an ancient diC 
tridk inLeinfter, containing the county of Kildarc 
with part of Wicklow and Carlow, being bound- 
ed on the eaft by the Widow mountains ; on the 
fouth and weft by the river Barrow v and on the 
north by the Liffey^ and part of the bog of Allen. 
It was called Caelan or Galen, that is the woody 
country, being in the early ages alraoft one con- 
tinued wood. The name is yet retained in Kilcul- 
Ian, corrupted from Kill-coalan or Kill-caelan^ 
The chiefs of this country were Hy Caglan or Mc. 
Kelly, whofe principal refidence was at Rath- 
aois-Cael, now corruptly called Rathafcul, or the 

• CollcA. No. 4. p. 595. t Harris's Ware, y. i. p. 547^ 
% CoHea. Ho. 4. p. 481. 

314 C O I 

moat of Afcul, about three miles N. E. of Athy. 
This family of the ©'Kelly's is now extinft, at leaft 
they are reduced tb a very low condition, being in 
an early period difpoflfefled of their property by 
the Fitz-Gcralds, Pitz-Henrys and Keatings 

COENDRUIN, fee Fiodh-aongufa. 

COIGIDUGARIAN, or aitidh u ga rian^ that 
is the kingdom of the woody country in the fea ; 
the moft ancient Celtic name of kelandy but in 
particular applied to the counties of Fermanagh, 
Leitrfm, Meath, Dublin, Kildare, and the King 
and Queen 6 counties^ from being in the early 
ages almoil covered with immenfe forefts. 

COITEIGH, Scoiteigh, or Scottii, that is wood- 
landers, from coii a wood, whence Scoiteigh or 
Scottii in the plural, a race dwelling in a woody 
country* They were the moft ancient inhabitants 
of the middle, northern and wcftern parts of Lcin- 
fter, aud the Scotti of Richard of Girencefter, who 
thinks they were Britifh colonies, who retired into 
this country on the firft arrival of the Belgic tribes 
in Britain about 350 years before the Chriftian aera j 
for fome years they rather perambulated than in- 
habited this ifland ; that is unul the arrival of fub- 
fequcnt colonies, when they were confined to the 
interior parts and denominated Scots*. The Irifh 
writers frequently called them Hereiiionii, and af- 
fert that the Scots were the defcendants of Here- 
mon the eldeft fon of Milefms^ who fettled in this 
country. It is true in the moft ancient Irifh po- 
ems they are called, Scottagb fliogbt Heretnoneigb 
clann Melidb^ which the Monks and Bards of the 
middle and latter ages, not underftanding thd 

* Richard of Cirenoefter, pv 5a 

C O I 31$ 

ancient Celtic tongue, have tranflated the Scots of 
the race of Heremon one of the fons of Milefius ; 
whereas the true figniiication is, tbe inhabitants of 
the woodf country of the race of the wejiern people. 
Bhealgagh was the principal tribe of the Scots in the 
middle ages, and their country, comprehending the 
prefent King's County and County of Weft-Meath, 
has ever born the appellation of Hy Bhealgeigh, 
Hy Failgii, or Hy Fallan, that is, the country 
of the Bealgians, or worQiippers of Beal. It 
appears from O'Flaherty's Ogygia, that Hugony 
the great was the firft who reigned over the 
Heremonii in Ireland, about 330 years before 
Chrift, and from whom all the kings send nobles 
of Leinfter endeavoured to derive thei^ origin* 
A circumftance which nearly coincides with the 
aflertion of Richard before fpoken of, relative to 
the arrival of the Scots in Ireland about the middle 
of the fourth century before the Chriftian aera. 
Some years prior to the arrival of St. Patrick, we 
find the Scots, the ancient inhabitants of Leinfter. 
and firft of the Fir Bolg in Ireland extending their 
fettlements over all Leinfter, divided into a num- 
ber of cl^ns or petty ftates, each governed by its 
own piitemal chief, but fubordinate, in fome re- 
fpedt?", to the chief of the head clan refiding at 
Tar;i in the county of Meath. Thefe were the 
Falgii, the Colmanii or C^elmanii, the Fearmorit, 
lhi6 Teffii, the Slanti, the Dcbleanii, the Galcnii or 
Caelenii, the Moedinii, and the Elii fubje£ting to 
their dominion the Cuolanii or Menapii of Ptolemy, 
and the Morii, the Coriondii of Ptolemy, which 
fee under their refpeftive names. They alfo from 
the middle of the fecond to the beginning of the 

3x6 CON 

fifth century made feveral eftablilhments in ilic 
other provinces of Munftcr, Conaught and Ulfter, 
among the Momonii, Olnegmachts and Ultonians, 
and thereby claiming the fovcreignty of the whole 
ifland, which about the fourth century obtained the 
name of Scotia, and the inhabitants Scots. But 
the ancient inhabitants of Ireland were principally 
known to foreigners by the name of Scotii from 
their pyratical depredations during the middle ages. 
See Scotii, Heremonii, Bolgs, .Milefians, Fal- 
gii, &c. * 

COITIDH-U-GA-RIAN, fee Coigldugarian. 

COLBDI, or Coulbhdui, that is the projeaing 
corner in the water ; now Colp at the mouth of 
the Boyne. Here St. Patrick landed on his miffion 
to the ftates of Ireland affembled at Tara. f 

COLERAINE, fee Cuilrathen. 

COLM AN, an ancient name of Weft Meath j 
fee Mediolanum. 

CONAL-EACHLUATH; feelbhTornaEigcas. 

CONAL-GABHRA, or UaCaonnuill Gabhra, 
that is the upper divifion of* the chief diftrift, now 
Upper Conello in the fouthern part of the county of 
Limerick. It was alfo called En Eiragh, or the 
weftern country; the chiefs of which were the 
Mac Eneirys, who were difpoffeffed of their country 
by the earls of Defmond. X 

CONG, or the chief place, an ancient city and 
capital of the province of Conaught, fituated 
between Lough Made and Lough Corrib, in the 

* Baxter's Gloff. Brit. ©'Conor's Diffcrt. Richard of 
Circnccftcr. O* Flaherty. Collcdanea, No. 7. 

t Harris's Ware, yoI. i^ p. 13, % CoUca. No. 3, p. 377. 

C O U s^l 

County of Mayo, and Barony of Kilmainc ; now 
an inconfiderable place. 
CONMACNE, or the chief race, clan of ttibe* 
A niimt)er of the ancierit Iri(b Septs took tbid de- 
nomination ; as the 
CONMACNE, a diftria in the dounty of Lei- 
trim on thb Bhannon^ called alfo Magh^ra-n'a^^ 
or Magb-ra*nBbalU that- is the plain of the great 
or royal worfliippers of Beal ; the chiefs of which 
were corruptly called Magrannals, or Mac 
Rannals ; fome of whom were in the pofieiSon of 
the country in the beginning df the lall cen* 
CONMACNE-CUILT-OLA, dr the chief race 
of the noble warriors. Th?^ diftridt cbmprehend- 
cd part of the prefent county 6f Mayo, the prmci- 
pal refidence df the Olnegfnachts, alfo Magh- 
Nay, riid prefent* counter of Rofeommou/ The 
hereditary chiefs of this dKlri^d were the Conairs^ 
kings of all Conaugbr^ ^od whofe principal feat 
was at Crog^an. From Conmacne is derived 
Conaught the prefent name of the weftern pro- 
vince of Ireland. See Olnegmacht and Magh- 
* Nay. • . • '. ■ ' / 

Conmacne de Dunmore, the chief tribe of the princi- 
pal difiri^ of tlie dark or woody country, compre- 
hending' the north andeaftern partel of the county of 
Galway, the ancient Galehgh or Hy Cacllagh, the 
cbkfs e^ '\^}iidi were the Hy Cellaghs or O^Kcl- 
lysy a numbei? of whom were in poffeffion of the 
country at the beginning of the laft century; 
though a great part was occupied by the Englifh 

Vol. Hf. fid. xi: F 

Si8 COR 

fettlers the Bircninghams^ Burks, snd others of 
that nation *. 

de magh rian, that is, the chief tribe of the plain 
of the kings, fituated in the county of Lx>ng(brd 
near Lough Ree ^ thd faitie as Angalia which fee. 

CONMACNE IRA, fee Conmacnc-mara. 

CONMACNE-MARA, or the chief tribe on 
the great fea, comprehending the weftern parts 
of the county of Gal way dh the fea coaft; it was 
alfo called Conraacne-Ira or the chief tribe in the 
weft, and Jar Conaught, that is weft Conaught, 
likewife Hy Jartagh, or the weftern country ; the 
chiefs of which were denominated Hy Flaherty, 
or O'Flaherty, that is the chief of the, nobles of 
the weftern country ; and contained the prefent 
baronies of Morogh, Moycullen and Ballinahinch. 

CONNAIR, or Connor, that is the chief-place, 
in the diftridt of Lann-ela or the encloied plain, 
an ancient bifhoprick in the county of Down, 
founded by St. Macnifius in the beginning of the 
fixth century, and united to that of Down in 

CONNALLA, or lower Connal, in the county 
of Limerick ; it was rflfo called Thyhan or the 
north country ; the chiefs of which were the Hy 
Thyhans or O'Thyhans, called Hy Cinealagh or 
O'Kinealy andO'CoUins-, difpoffefled by theFitz- 

CORAN, or Caran, that is, the place of the 
city ; the rcfidence of the chiefs of Luigney in 
the county of Sligo. 

^ See Harris's Ware, t. i. p. 167, for all the Conmacsei. 

COR. 319 

CORCABHAISCIN, or the morafs of the har- 
bour or bay, from Corcagb a morafs, and Bbatfin^ 
a harbour narrow at the entrance ; an antient dif- 
tridt round the harbour of Cork, and from whence 
the prefent city has obtained its name. The Eng- 
li(h families fettled in this country were the Boyles 
and Barrys *. 

CORC A\^ a wet plain, marfh or morafs ^ now 
the city of Cork. 

CORCADUIBHNE, or the marfh near the wa- 
ter, the fame as Aoibh Liathain, which fee. 

CORCALUIGHE, or O^rc-cqel luigh^ that is the 
woody morafs on the water or lake ; an ancient 
diftridl in the foitth part of the county of Cork on 
the fea, containing the prefent barcfny of Carbury, 
the ancient chiefs of which were called, Magh Cor 
Teagh, or the chief of the habitation of the morafs, 
by corruption Mac Carty, by which meanf they 
have been confounded wiih the Mc. Carty's of 
Kerry. Tht lefler diftrifts of this country were 
Hy Learcigh, Hy Maghoneigh and Hy DrifcuiU 
under the dominion of their refpeftive chiefs^ 
O'Leary, O'Mahony and O'Drifcol, all dynafts 
and fubordinate chiefs to Mac Carty, king of Cor- 
caluighej who in procefs of time became ^he fo^ 
vereign of all the petty ftates in the prefent county 
of Cork, and was therefore denominated Mac 
Cart^ redgb^ br 'Mac Carty the king. ' Some of 
whofe defcendahts were in poffeffion at the com- 
mencement of thelaft century; though the Eng- 
li(h families of thei Courcied and Barries had 
eftates therein f. 

♦ Collea. No. 3. p. 378. O'Conor's Ortclius. 
f Golka. No^ 3. p, 372» O'Conox'f OrteHutd 


gao COR 

CORCUMRUADH, Corcumroc or Corcumruah, 
. derived from Cor cuim radh, or the marfh on the 
great Harbour ; a diftrIA fituated on the weftcrn 
coaft of the county of Clare, in which is the an- 
cient biHioprick of Fenebore or Kiifenoragh. In 
1317 a battle was fought here in which, were flain 
MortoghGarbh, and Teige O'Briens*. 
CORIONBIJ, an ancient people of Irehnd 
, mentioned by Ptolemy, and thought to be the 
ancient inhabitants of the prcfent county of Wex- 
ford^ The word is evidently derived from the 
ancient Britifh Corcacb (hips and oniiii waves; 
whence Coriondiii or Coriondos, navigators; the 
ancient Iri(h frequently called them Corthagbor 
boatmen, and their country Hy Moragh or the 
diftri£t of the fea ; and Feilus Avienus in his de* j 
, fcription of the Scilly ifles takes notice of I 
the inhabitants of the Britifh ifles "navjgat- | 
ing the channel in corraghs or wicker boats co- I 
vered with (kins. The antient chiefs of this dif- I 
tridl were denominated Hy Morroghs, or O'Mor- ' 
roghsy and in the latter ages Mac Morroghs. ' 
They were the chiefs of Hy Kin&lagh, a laxge di- 
flri A containing the greater part of fouth Leiniler, , 
being an union of the ancient Septs of Hy Mor- | 
ragh, Hy Cabhanagh* Hy Drone Cuala, Hy i 
Moradh, Olleraigii and Hy Breoghain Gabhran ; I 
confifting of the prefent counties of Wexford, 
Wicklow and Carlo w, with the north part of the 
county of Kilkenny and Tipperary and the fouth 
of theQiieen's county. In the Irifli hiftory we find 
the Mc. Morroghs frequently ftiled kings of Lcin- 
fterj and to them the Englifli are indebted for 

• Collea, No. 4. ;Ware* 

C R O 3^1 

t^eir firft eftabliftimcnt in this country. A branch 
of them alfo fettled in Hy,Cabhanagh, (the barony 
of IdroneMn the county of Carlow,) and who took 
the name of that diftri<fl, fome of whom are yet 
remaining and pofTeiled of confiderable property in 
that country. * 

CORTHiE, the capital of the Coriandii, or 
Morogh, now Innis-Corthy in the county of Wex- 
ford. This place has been miftaken for Carmen 
in the county of Kildare. 

CRIOCH-CUOLAN, fee Cuolan. 

CRIOCH-FUINIDH, fee Eirion. 

CROAGH.PATRICK, fee Cruachan-Achuil. 

CROGHAN, or the place of the hill. A royal 
refidence, and the capital of Conaught : the fame 
as Atha, which fee 

CROIGHAN, fecHyFalgia. 

CROM, an ancient diftridl in the County of 
Kildare, and part of the County of Dublin, being 
fituated in the bend of the river LifFey, from whence 
it was called Magh Labhia, and Ibb crom abby or 
the diftrift on the crooked water, and the here- 
ditary chiefs were denominated, Crom abb Ibb or 
chief of the diftri£k on the crooked water, corruptly 
written Crom a bboe. In the early ages this diftridl 
^tended over the greater part of Hy Allain, and 
after the arrival of the Englifh, fell to the (hare of 
Hugh de Lacey and Gilbert de Borard : but fome 
time after came into the pofleffion of the noble fa- 
mily of the Fitzgeralds, in whofe hands it ftill 
remains. This family on obtaining the above 
property,- obtained among the native inhabitants 

* 3Baxtcr^8 Gloff. Brit. 

3^2 C R O 

the original title of Crom a bboe^ or chiefs of iHq diCr 
trift on the crooked water ; a title ftill retained as 
a motto to their arms, and in former ages was the 
war-cry of the Sept, according to the cuftom of the 
old Irifli clans.* 

CROMLA or Crommal, a niountain or hill be- 
tween Lough Foyle and Lough Swilly. From 
the eaftern fide of this mountain proceeded the 
river Lubar, called by the Irifh Bredagh ; and from 
the weftern, the Lavath, near the fource of which 
on the declivity of the mountain was the cave of 
Cluna, where refided Ferad Artho, and the bard 
Condan, after the murder of Cormac Mc. Art, his 
nephew. During the middle ages, we find it de- 
i^ominated Cruachan Achuily or Mount £agle. It 
feems to have obtained the name of Mount Cromla 
or Crommal, that is the moiintain of Fate or 
Deftiny, from having an altar or cave, dedicated to 
Fate or Providence, called by the ancient inhabitants 
of thefe iflands, Crom^ whence Cromla^ a place of 
worfhip, and Crommal a place of deftiny. In the 
neighbourhood of Cromla, flood the rath or fortrefs 
of Tura, called by the Irilh writers Ailich Neid, 
celebrated by all the ancient Irifli hiflorier, a§ the 
principal refidence of the northern kings of Ulfter, 
Sec Tura, Moilena, Leana Loch and Aileach. f 

CROMLA SUABH, a mountain in the diftrifl 
of Crom,^ no\y the hill of AUain in the founty of 

CROM-LBCH, or the ftone of devotion, from 
Crom to bow down or worfliip, and Lecb a ftone. 
A name given at this day to a fpecies of Dfuidic 


Ware's Ant. Lodge's Pcerage| vol. u 
t O'Conor's Differt. p. 96. 

C R O 3«3 

altars, flill remaining in different parts gf the king- 
dom, confiding generally of an inclined rock (t^ne^ 
fupported by feveral upright ones, thereby forn^ing 
a room or apartment, in which the Druids attending 
the fcrvice of the altar, generally refided ; on which 
account they were aho denominated Botb-all^ or boufe 
oiGod^ and were nearly of the lame conftrudtion with 
thofe erected by Abraham and the patriarchs men- 
tioned by Mofes, and called Bethel^ which in the He* 
brew language is of the fame fignification as Botbalin 
Irifli. Thcfe altars were dedicated to the fupreme 
Being or iirft caufe^ called frequently Crom-al^ or the 
all-powerful B^ing ; and eredted either on plains, or 
on eminences in the centre of dark and thick woods. 
The victims facriBced on them were deer and oxen, 
whence on many of them canals are cut in the 
ftone into which the blood flowed at the time of 
facrifice, in order that divinations might be taken 
therefrom. There was no ftated period for the 
facrifice offered to Crom ; but when any perfon 
was willing to confult Fate or Providence relative 
to the future events of his own aflfairs, either in war 
or the chace, he brought the victim to the Druid, 
who from the date of the entrails and flowing of 
the blood, drew prefages relative to the fucceis or 
failure of the enterprize. After the eftablifliment 
of Polytheifm among the Celtic nations, little ado- 
ration was paid to the fupreme Being. Confucius 
is faid to have been the firft who reftored it amongft 
the eaftern people, and according to the Iri(h anti- 
quaries, it was introduced into this iflandby Tigher- 
nas about 260 years before the Chriftian xra ; but 
was violently oppofed by the Druids, who favoured 
the doftrine of polytheifm j whence Tighernas and 

3H C U I 

his followers and reported to have been deftroyed 
during the time of facrifice at Magb Sleucbta in the 
county of Leitrim. The worfliip of the true God 
however from this period gained ground in Ire- 
land, but was not univerfal until about the mid- 
dle of the third century, when Cormac king of 
* north Leinfter openly declared in favour of the 
unity of the Deity and condemned all degrees of 
Polytheifm. A circumftance which greatly con- 
tributed to the introduction of Chriftianity fome 
ages after. 

Several of the altars of Crom are yet remaining, 
nearly intire, in feveral parts of the kingdom, par- 
ticularly at Tobiri and Brown^s towns in the 
county of Carlow, and near Dundalk in the county 
of Louth* 

CRUACHAN, the fame as Croghan and Atka, 

CRUACHAN-ACHUIL, or Mount Eagle, an 
high mountain in the barony of Morifk and. 
and county of Mayo. Here St. Patrick in imita- 
tion of Chrift faftcd during lent; from whence 
this mountain lias obtained the name of Croagh 

CUAN.LEARGI, or the port on the fea, from 
Cuan a port or harbour, and Lear the fea ; the 
ancient name of the city of Waterford, the Bri- 
gantia of Richard ; corruptly called by feveral mo- 
dern writers^ PortLargit. 

CUILRATHEN, now Coleraio, a town fituat- 
cd on the river Bann in the county of Antrim, 
Cuiliathen has been tra^nflated the corner of £^ns, 

^ Keatingi Colledaneat .No. ;. 
t Baictcr's CI0&. Brit. O'HaUaraa's vaUxJu 

P A I 325 

but it is evidently derived from Cuil ratb eany that 
is, the corner of the fort on the water ^ or rather ac* 
cording to the Irirti idiom, the fort on the corner of 
the water. It probably was the fame as Raih-mor- 
muighe-line* the royal feat of the kings of Dal-* 
naruidhe, and the Rhobogdii of Ptolemy *. 
CUOLAN, or Crioch Cuolan, that is the diftria 
of the corner, being that narrow plain in the 
county of Wicklow contained between the moun- 
tains and the fea; the people were the Evoleni 
of Probus, the Menapij of Ptolemy. This coun- 
try was under the dominion of the Mac 
Mhthuils, or O'Tools, and is frequently confound- 
ed by antiquaries with Coalan or Caolan; it is 
true thefe two countries were often governed by 
i the fame chief, that is, either the 0*Tools or Mc. 
Kellys i which probably oqcafioaed the error. 


13aIBRE, or Daobh-cragh, or Ibhcragh, that 
is the weftern country on the water ; the prefent 
barony of Iveragh in the county of Kerry, and 
the fame as Ciaruidhe, which fee f . 

DAIMLEAGH, fee Domlcagh. 

DAIR-CALGAIC,or Dair Coilleagh, that is the 
woody country of Oaks, comprehending the pre- 
fent town and county of Derry, and part of the 
county of Donegal, being fituated on both fides 
of Lough Foyle ; it was the Darnij bf Ptolemy, 
The ancient chieftains of this diftridt were called 
Hy Daher-teagh, that is the chief of the habitation 

•' Harria*« Ware, v. i. p. 19. Collca. No. 4. 522, 
\ Colka. No. 4, 

326 DAL 

of oaks, by corruption O'Dogherty. They were 
difpoffefled of the fouthern parts of their country 
{ in an early period by the O'Donalls, chiefs of Dun^ 
eir Gall, and the O'Conars. 

DAIRINNE, the fame as Corcaluighe and Derg- 
tenij, which fee. 

DAL, a word evidently derived from Ttalamh, 
pronounced Dalla, the 6arth ; whence Dal a di\i- 
Con of the earth, a diftrift. Wherefore this word 
added to a name of a country fignifies a diftrid ; 
but before the proper name of a perfon it is to be 
underilood a race or tribe, efpecially wlien fuch 
names have been derived from a country. 

PALARADIA, or the diftridl of the eaftera 
country next tjie fea. From Dal or adbtd^ that is 
Dal^ a diftri(^, ar^ 0/r, oaitern and abb iii the wa- 
tery country. This diftrift coprehended the fouth 
and S. E. parts of the county of Antrim, and all 
the county of Down, during the middle ages ^ 
called alfo frequently Magh Genuifge, or the dif* 
tridl of the bays, or heads of lakes ; having the 
bays of Carlingford and Dundrum on the fouth ; 
Strangford and Carricfergi)s on the eaft, and Lough 
Neach on the N. W. The principal chiefs pf whidi 
were the Mac Gennis, fome of whom were in pof- 
feflion of this coyntry, the Damonij of Ptolemy, 
in the bieginning of the laft century, but a branch 
of the 0*Neils had taken pofFelCon of the northern 
parts in a very early period. It was divided into 
the leflcr diftrias of Jbh Each, or Ullagh, Dal 
dichu, Dal arida, and Hy huanan i which fee 
under the refpedlive words *. 

* Harris's Ware, v. 1. p. 8. O'CoDor*^ OrtcHuPi 

DAL 327 

PAL-ARIDA, from Dal-ardobha, or Dal ard- 
aubha, that is the high dillridt on the water, now 
the Ards or highlands in the county of Down, 
between the bay of Strangford and the fea. The 
ancient chiefs of this diftridl were called Magh 
Ardan, by corruption Mac Artan,' that is, the chief 
of the high country j and were difpoffeffed by the 
Savages; Some of them remained in poilefljon of 
the wellern parts at the commencement of the lalt 
century *. 

PAL-CAS, or Dal Gacs, that is the diftrift oa 
the fea. An ancient diftridt, containing all Tho- 
mond, the prefent county of Clare. The prind- 
pal chiefs of this difiridt were called Magh Gaes, 
or Mac Cas. A Ton of OUiol Olim about the be- 
ginning of the third century was eledted chief of 
this diftridt, on which he took the name of Cormac 
Cas, and greatly diftinguiflied himfelf by his mi-^ 
litary abilities. From him the fucceeding chiefs 
of DalrCas endeavoured to derive their origin. 
However this may be, it appears from the Irifli 
annals, that the chiefs of the fubordinate diftridtSf 
were frequently chofen kings of Dal-c;;as, until the 
fovereignty came into the hands of Brien Boromh, 
Jiiereditary qhief of Hy Loch-lean, now Burrin ; 
whofe defpendants enjoyed that dignity, until the 
^riy;il of the Englilh, when the de Clares obtain- 
ed a grant of the entire country ; which frop them, 
has fince obtained the denomination of Clare. 
Dal-cas was originally inhabited by a colony of 
the fecond migration of the Fir Bolgas, called 
^omoruiy whence it obtained the name of Tuath 

f Harris's Ware, r. i. 


Mumhan or north Munfter, by corruption Tho* 
mojid. Sec Mumhan, Thoraond and Clare *. 

DAL-DICHU, or Dal-decha, that is, the di- 
ftrift between the mouth of the waters or bays ; 
from Decb or TecbdXi opening, and ui waters; be- 
ing fituated in the plain and peninfula between 
the bays of Dundrum and Strangford, called alfo 
Magh-innis or the ifland of the plain* and more 
anciently Leth-Cathel, or the plain of the wood; 
now, the barony of Lecale in thecmmty of Down. 
The chiefs or dynafts of this diftrid were called 
DaWichu, or Cathel, fubjed to the Magh Gen- 
nuifge. This country is remarkable from its chief 
Dichu, being the firft convert St. Patrick made to 
the chriftian faith in the north of Ireland f . 

DAL-GAES, fecDal-cas. 

DAL-LEAGH.NUI, fee Eilc-ui^chearbhuiL 

DALMACHSCOEB, from Dal machfc oabh, or 
the diftrid of the race on the water ; gontaining 
all the country on the eaftern coail of the counties 
of Wicklow and Wexford between the mountains 
and the fca J. 

DAL-MOGRUITH, fee Fermuighe. 

DAL-N ARUIDHE, or the diftrift of the country 
on the water; containing the north part of the 
county of Aiitrim and the Robogdij of Ptolemy. 
It has been conuptly called Dalriadia; and fbme- 
tin>cs Ara or the eaftern country. During the lat- 
ter ages it frequently went by the denomination of 
An^druim, or Eg^n-druim that is the habitation on 
the waters; from whence the prefcnt name of 
Antrim. It was divided into feveral fubordinate 

* CollcA. No. 4» f Harris's Ware, V. !• p. 12. 1j. Ware 

DAL jzg ' 

divifions, the principal of which were Magh-cui- 
Ian, Hy-ara, Magh-dun-^l and Hy-fiol, whofe re- 
fpcdive chiefs were Magh-cuillan, 0*Hara, O'Dbn- 
nal and O'Shiel, fevcral of whom were in poffef- 
fion of the country in the laft century. From this 
part feveral great colonies tranfn-.igrated to Caledo- 
nia about the year 505. They were principally 
of the race of the Scots from Hy Failgia who fettled 
in the northern parts of this country, about the 
commencennent of the fifth century, under the 
conduct of Hy nFail or O'Neal the great. In con- 
fequencc of which they were denominated Scots, 
and have thereby communicated their name to 
the entire north diftridt of Britain *. See Rho- 
DALRIADIA, fee Dalnaruidhe. 
DAM-LECH, that is the houfeof ftone, a ge- 
neral name amongft the old chriffian Iri(h for their 
churches whea conftrufted of lime and ftone, to 
diftinguith them from thofe of timber and wat- 
tle6> cfpecially thofe with ftone roofs. For the 
ancient churches of Ireland, particularly thofe eredl- 
edifrom the beginning of the eighth to the clofe of 
the eleventh century, aye in a different ffilc of ar- 
chitedture from any at this day to be found erther 
in Britain or the weftern parts of Europe; and are 
evidently built in imitation of the original chriftian 
churches, in the fouthern countries, taken from the 
ancient heathen temples of the Greeks and Ro- 
mans ; and probably were introduced into this 
iflandby the Greek and Roman clergy wlv> retired 
from their native countries on the arrival of the 

♦ Colka. No. 4. O'Flahcrty. Q*Conor*i Dlffcrt, Baxter** 
GIoiT. Brit. Harris's Ware, V. i- 

530 I) A M 

. Goths Jind Vandals into the Roman empire. Tbefe 
. churches now remaining in Ireland, fuch as Cor- 
. mac*s chapel* the churches of Glendalogh, St. 
. Dulaeh*s church, and the monaftery of Mona- 
inlheigh, arc all remarkably fmall* feldom exceed- 
ing forty feet in length' and twenty in breadth, be- 
ing covered with circular (lone arches under ftone 
pediment roofs of the true Gothic pitch ; and the 
walls and arches frequently ornamented with co- 
lumns and pilafters in rude invitation of the Corin- 
thian and Doric orders. They are however in re- 
fpeft to tafte far fuperior to any eredted during the 
beginning of the latter ages, when the Gothic me-* 
thod of building was introduced from Britain. 
See Domleagh. 
DAMNIJ, an ancient people of Ireland, men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, the inhabitants of the pre- 
fent county of Down. The word is evidently 
derived from the ancient BritiHi, Davon or Daun# 
a river or bay, whence Daunij, Dunij, &c- the 
country of rivers or lakes, &c. In which fcnfc 
it anfwers to the Iriih denomination of that coun- 
try Magh Gennuifg. This w8rd being corruptly 
written in fome of the Copies of Ptolemy, Dam- 
nonioi, has given rife to the conjedures that the 
Damnij of Ptolemy was derived from Dunum the 
prefent city of Down. 
DAMNONIJ, OT Damhnonij of the Iri(h wri- 
ters, a people inhabiting tlie ancient diftrid of 
Hy-mpruifge, now the barony of Morifk in the 
county of Maya. The word feems to be a cor- 
ruption from the old Celtic and Cimbric Britifli 
Dyvneint or Duvnon^ deep water ; whence Duvhonijy 
Dabhhonij or Damhnonij, by corruption Damno-* 

fiij^ a people living on the deep water or fea^ See 
Hy-moruifge, and Auterij *. 

DAR, fee Darg. 

DARABONIS, a bay or river in the north o( 
Ireland njentioned by Richard of Cirencefter,' and 
placed by him in Lough Foyle. Darabonis is evi- 
demly derived from Dair abbon iiisy that is the 
lymptd river of the oaken gfove. It was the Lug- 
bheabhail of the ancient Iri(hy now Lough 

DARG, Dar, . Dare, a dark place, a hollow 
cave or habitation. 

DARINIS,an ifland at the mouth of the bay of 
Youghall, it fignifies the habitation in the tfland; a 
monaftery was founded here by St. Molanfid, in 
the fixth century f . 

DARJNIS^ another ifland near Wexford; a 
monaiiery was founded here by St. Nemamb, 
about the middle of the feventh century. 

DARNIJ, the ancient inhabitants of the county 
of Derry, mentioned by Ptolemy, the word figni- 
fies the inhalMtants of the oaken groves, from Dair 
an oak, and is of the fanae import as Dair^calgaic^ 
which fee. 

DEALBHNA, the prcfent barony of Dclvin, in 
the county of WeftmeathJ. There were feven 
territories of this name in Ireland. 

DEALBNA-MOR, the country of the O'Final- 
lans, afterwards of the Nugents. 

DEALBNA-BEG, the country of the O'Mael- 
chaliains, contiguous to the former, thefe two 

• 0*Coiior'» Diffcrt.p, fjg. f Harris's Ware, v. i. p. 1761. 
X Colka. No. 4. 

$3t t) E A 

make the prefent barony of Delvin in the county 
of Weftmeath. 

DEALBNA-EATHRA, Mc, Coghlan's country, 
the baroiiy of Garrycaftle in the King's county. 

DEALBHN A-IARTHAR, alfocalled Dealbhna- 
teanmoy, O'Scoluigh's country, in the antient 
territory of Meath. 

DBALBHNA-NUADHAT, the prefent ba- 

/ ronies of Athione and Moycarne in the County 

County of Galway. 

iOEALBHNA-FEADHA, between Lough Curb 
and Lough Lurgan in Tirdalochrthc prefent ba- 
rony of Moycullen in the County of Galway ^ it 
was divided into two diftrifts, Gno-more and Gno- 
bcag ; the 0*Conrys were chiefs bf Gno*beg until 
they were partly difpofled and partly made tribu- 
taries by the O'Flahertys. 

DEAS MUMHAN, fee Dcfnaond. 

DEASSIES, or fouthern people, a territory con- 
taining the greater part of the county of Water- 
ford, and is the pKfent barony of the Decies. 
According to fome Iri(h chronicles, the Deaifies 
were a colony from a people of that name inhabit- 
ing the ibuth parts of the county of Meath, near 
the county of Dublin ;. and were expeiied that 
country by Corroac Ulfiadha, or CormacMc^ Art, 
about the year 278.* 

DE ASSII, or fouthern people, a peopk Tiltftbit- 
ing in ancient times, a diftridt in x\m fou-thern parts 
of the county of Eaft Meath, on the northern 

* HarrU'«^ Ware, vol. i. p. 490.r 

D E R 323 

banks of the Liffey and Rye rivers, called Ean» or 
Magh-can^ that is the country on the water ; the 
chieftains of which were called Magh-ean, or 
Ean-guSy that is, the chief or commander of the 
diftriZt of Eani corruptly written ^ngus. A chief 
of this diftrjdt, about the year 278, having rebelled 
againft Cormac Mc. Art king of Meath and Ta- 
ragh, entered the royal palace, and flew the king's 
fon Keliacb/ On which Cormac raifed an army, 
fupprefled the rebellion, aud drove Eangus out of 
Meath, who with feveral of the Deaiii fettled in the 
county of Waterford, which bears their name to 
this day * 

DEGADES, a colony of the Scots of Leinfler, 
who fettled in the weft of the county of Kerry fome 
years before the cftabliftiment of Chriftianity, The 
word feems to be derived from De ga deas^ that is 
the diftridk on the fouth fea. f 

DERG, or Dcrg-abhan, that is the river of the 
woody morafs; a river rifingout of a lake of that 
name in the barony of TyHiugh in the county of 
Don^al^ from whence joining feveral other rivers, 
as the Mournc and Finny, it falls into Lough Foyle 
at Derry. The lake from whence this river rifes, 
is famous for having in it the ifland that con- 
tains St. Patrick's purgatory. % 

DERGTENII,: or Derg-teachneagh, that is the 
habitation of the woody morafs ; a diftridl com- 
prehending all the fouthern coafts of the county 
of Cork, including the ancient diftridts of Corca- 
duibhne,Corcabhaifin and Corcaluighne, being the 
Vodie of Ptoleray,§ 

• Smith'i Waterford. f O'Conor'a Diffcrt. 

X Hanria's Ware, vol. I. p. 286. § O'Conor's Diflcrt. 

Vol. III. No. XI/ G 

334 DOM 

DESMONp, or Dcaf-mumhan, that is South 
Munfter; a diftridt which during the latter ages 
contained the counties of Cork and Kerry, After 
the arrival of the Engllfh, it gave tide of earl to 
the family of the Fitzgeralds. Its ancient kings 
: were the Mac Cairthachs, or Mac Carthys, here- 
ditary chiefs of Corcaluighe. 

DEVA, a river mentioned by Richard to be in 
the eaftern parts of Ireland. Deva is derived from 
the Britifh Dubb-ui^ deep or black water, and is 
the bay of Carlingford. 

DIN, fee Dun. 

DINROY, or rather Dun-riogh, that is the Dun 
or Fort of the king ; a royal refidence of tlie cl>iefs 
of Corcaluighe near Rofs Carbury. * 

DOMLEAGH, or Daimleag and Damleag, that 
is the houfe of (lone, now called Duleek in the 
county of Eaft Meath. This place is celebrated for 
having in it the firft ftone church jh Irelandf, built 
by St. Kenan, in the fourth century. Which church 
the head of a bilhoprick for fcveral ages, was 
frequently plundered by the Danes, e^fpcdally in 
830, 878, 1023, 1037, 1149 and 1171, and twice 

, burned, th^t is in 1050 and H69. The bithoprick 
of Domleagh was nnited to that of Meath in the 
thirteenth century f. Sec Damlech. 

DOMNACH^BILE, or the chwch of Bile, €u 
tuated in Magh-bile in Inis-owen on the N. W, of 
Lough Foyle. This church was founded Ky Saint 
Patrick, where in after ages was eredted a nao- 

* O'Conor'fl Diffcrt, p. 179. f HRrris's Ware, vol. i. p. 138, 

D R U 3S5 

DOMNACH MOR MAGH EAN, or the great 
church of the plain of the water, A church founded 
by Saint Patrick, in a nlain on the norfh of Lough 
Ern * 

DONUM, or Dunum, an ancient city mentioned 
by Ptolemy, and thought by Cambden and fome 
others to be the prefent city of Down, from the 
dun or fort near it, and 'fontierly the refidence of 
ilie chieftains of that country ; but a number of 
tlie ancient Irifh raths or cafties were named Dons, 
Dans and Dins. See Dunum. 

DRIM, fecDruim. 

DROM, fee Druim. 

DROMORE, or a^ it was ancirtitly denominated 
Dromarragh, that is, the clttfrcb or habitation in 
the maritime country. A bifho'prick in the barony 
of Iveagh and county of Down, founded* in the fixth 
century by St, Colman, in the aricieht diftridt called 
Mocbmarragh. f 

DRUIM, Drum, Drom, Drim, Truim and Trim, 
in the ancient Irifli fignifies a conical hill with a 
cave, a hollow dome, a houfe or habitation; figu- 
ratively a church or any building the fides and 
roof of which flope in the manner of a dome. 

DRUIMXLIABH, or the church of Hurdles, 

• on account of being conftrudlcd of wicker work, 
and at prefent called Drumdive. In this place St. 
Patrick founded a church and biflioprick, though it 
is now * only a village in the barony of Carbury, 
and county of Sligo, about three miles north of the 
town of Sligo. J 

♦ Harris's Ware, vol. i. p. i8, t /Wd. vol, i. 

:|: Ibid. vol. I. p. 1 8, 
G 2 

3S6 t> U B 

DRUIM-SAILEC, or the church built with wil- 
lows. The ancient name of the cathedral of 
Ardmagh, being originally^ as moft of the primitive 
churches of Ireland were, conftruded with^ wattles 
or ^yillows wrought in the manner of wicker-work*. 

DRUM, fee Druim. 

DRUM-DRUID, a facred cave of the Druids 
near the royal rath of Croghan, dedicated to Crom 
or Providence J. , 

DUB AN A, a river, in the fouth of Ireland men- 
tioned by Richard of Cirencefter. . The word is 
evidently a corruption of Dublheana^ or the black 
or de^p water.,^ J^/is the river Lee which falls into 

„ Cork harbour. ,i,,^,-. . . 

DUBH, black, arid when applied to water, as 
rivers, takes and bays, generally fignifies deep; 
by reafon that deep waters are in; general of a dark 
colour. Dubh was alfo frequei^ly applied to fuch 
rivers as rat) through bogs and morafles ; and to 
the waters of the fea. 

DUBH-ULA, or Duthrula, that is the dark 
rufhing water, A r^ver in Conaughr. . 

DUBL ANA, one of the ancient names of Dub- 
lin, called by Ptolemy^ Eblam* Publana, whence 
Dublinura and Dublin, is evidently derived from 
Dubb'Uana^ or the place of the black harbour or 
lake, or rather the lake of the fea, the bay of Dub- 
lin being frequently fo called. (See Bally -Lcan- 
Cliath or Lean-Cliath ) 

DUBRONA, a river in the fopth of Ireland, 
mentioned by Richard, and called by Ptolemy 
Dabrona. Dubrotia^ corruptly Dabrona, is evident- 

• Harris's War«, ▼• i. p. i. J O'Coaor'a Diflert. p. 179 

DUN 337 

ly derived from Dubb ro 0na^ or tlxc great black 
water, called by the Irifh Dubh-abhan-tn6r, iand 
by the Englifh at this day the Black water ; it falls 
into the bay of YoughalL It was alfo called fre- 
quently Nemb AbbM or the divine River and Sui- 
difman or the river of fouth Munfter. 

DULEEK, fee Domleagh. 

DUN, Don^ Din. An ifolatcd hill or rock, an 
artificial mount or hill furroundcd by a ditch, 
whereon the ancient chiefs eredted their habitations. 
An elevated place, or any habitation on a hill or 

DUN-CLUIN-POIIC, or the Dun in the fc- 
queficFcd corner, now vulgarly called the dun of 
Clopoke, in the Queen's County about four miles 
fouth of Stradbally. It was a fort or eaftle of a 
branch of the family of b'More'$, ancient chief- 
tains of Leix. It confifis of an ifolated rock in 
which are fome natural caves \ on the top is a 
plain formerly furrounded by a wall compofed of 
rock (lones without cement, with a grand entrance 
from the fouth. There doth not appear ever to 
have been any building of lime and ftone eredled 
on this dun, but the feveral edifices were conftruft- 
ed intirely in the ancient Irifh Aile. That it was 
an habitation fome years before the eflablifhmenc 
of chriftianity in this ifle is extremely probable, as 
in an adjacent field is an ancient tomb with an in- 
fcription in Druidic chara£ters» fignifying Hy 
Mordha, the great king. 

DUN-CRUTHAIN, or DunJCroich-tan, that is 
the eaftle of the diftri^a of the water, and the refi- 
dence of O'Gahan chief of Hy-gaban^ or the diftrii)^ 
of the fea, containing the northern part of the ba- 

538 DUN 

rony of Colerain in the county of Derry. Here 
St, Patrick founded a church *. 

DUN-D ALEATHGLASS, or the dun or fortrefs 
of the feparated diftridt of the facred place, a rath 
near Bangor in the county of Down, where during 
the middle ages a fchooi or univerfuy was kept, but 
it was deftroyed by the Danes in 837. Tlie ruins 
of this univerfity are flill vifible in the rath of 
Donaghadee f. 

DUN-KERMNA, or the dun of the rock. A 
fortrefs of the chiefs of Corc2luidhe§, where Kin- 
fale now (lands. 

DUN-MOGHDHAIRNE, or the fortrefs of the 
plea(ant plain, deftroyed by Conor O'Brien, 

DUN-MORE, that is the (hady hill or fortrefs. 
It was the refidence of the ancient chiefs of Galeng 
or Conmacnc de Cinel-dudhain, and a royal feat of 
the O'Kclly's. It was deftroyed in 1 1 33 by Conor 
O'Brien |l. 

DUN-NA-MAES, or the fort or dun of the 
plain. An ifdated rock near Maryborough in the 
Queen's county, originally the royal refidence of 
Laoifach Hy Moradh, or the honourable 0*More, 
hereditary chieftain of the ancient diftridl oi Ihb 
Laoijbbeacb ui M^rdba^ or EH by Mora^ in the latter 
ages denominated Leix in the Queen*s county. 
Dunnamaes is faid to have been made a fortrefs 
by LaigCeach about the beginning of the third 
century, from which time it not only continued 
the paternal refidence of the chiefs of this difiriAy 

♦ Harris's Ware, v. i. p. 18. f Keating. 

$ O'Conor's Diflertat. X ColIc6L No. 4. p. 566. 
11 O'Conor's Diflcrtat. 

DUN 33^ 

but oh their connexion with the Mc. Morroghs 
chieftains of Hy Morragh, was efteemed one of 
the royal fortreffes of Hy Kinfelagh^ and frequent- 
ly was one of the feats of the kings of Leinften 
On the arrival of the Englifh it was in the pof- 
feffion of Dermot Mac Morrogh tnaol Mordha^ 
chief of Hy Kinfelagh and king of Leiitfter. This 
prince marrying his daughter Eva to Strongbow 
carl of Pembroke, it fell into the pofleHion of that 
nobleman ; whofe only daughter Ifabel, efpoufing 
William Marlhal earl of Pembroke, Dunnamaes 
with the adjacent territory came into the pofleffioil 
of the faid earl who ereded it into a county pa- 
latine and buHt oh the Dun about the year i2i6aii 
elegant caftfe. In 1325 it was taken by Ly{agh 
O'More, the ancient proprietor of this country, 
from which time it was alternately in the poffeffion 
of the Irilh and Englilh families until the year 
1650, when it was taken from the O'Mores by 
the colonels Heufon and Reynolds, and blown up 
and effedkually deftroyed. The only remains of 
this ancient caftle and Fortrefs are fome of the 
walls and gatds which are yet venerable tn their 
DUN.RIOGH, feeDinroy. 

DUN-SGINNE, fee Lifmore. 

DUN-SHAGHLIN, fee Domach Schaehlin. 

DUN-SOBARKY, or Dun Jobharchiegh,ihsit is 
the impregnable fortrefs, from Dun a fortrefs, and 
fobbar ftrong or powerful. It is now called Car- 
ricfergus or Knockfergus, that is the rock, hill or 
fort of the general, to which alfo its ancient name 

♦ Ware, eolka. No. 6. p. tl^^; 

340 E A D 

may be tranflated, fofar or ohbar^ (ignifying 

DUNUM, an ancient city or fortre(s in the 
north of Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy, and 
called by the Irifti writers Dunedb and Raib-keltar^ 
it was fituated near Downpatrick, See Donum 
and Rath-keltar. 

DUNUM, a city and capital of the Menapii 
.mentiorfed by Ptoleiny ; it was the feat of the 
chiefs of Cuolan, dnd called by the Irifh Rath- 
druim. It is ftill remaining and gives name to 
the adjacent town of Rathdrum in die county of 

DUR, or the water, an ancient river in the 
S. W. of Ireland mentioned by Ptolemy, and 
thought, by Ware and Camden, to be the bay 
of Dingle. 

DUTHULA, fee Dubh-ula. 


rLrADHNA, or Eoghna from Adh anagh^ pro- 
nounced oona, viz. the divinity of the country. 
One of the principal deities of the pagan inhabi- 
tants of Ireland, being the fame as Tlacbgo or the 
earth and univerfal nature, whofe fandtuaries were 
the fepulchres of the ancient heroes. The aflem- 
blics appertaining to this mode of worlhip were fre- 
quently denominated Teagban Eadbna^ or the af- 
femblies of the paternal divinity, whence Eadbna 
now pronounced Eana came in the modem IriOi to 
fignify an aflcmbly or fair in general. The wcfd 
became likewife a proper name, and was ufed by 
the ancient noblefle . as an honourable mark of 

. E B L 341 

difiin^ion, efpecially when applied to the fair fer^ 
it was of the lame import as mj laijf in Engtifh ; it 
' being cuftomary amongft the old Irifh to adopt the 
names of their divinities as honourable titles. Even 
at this day it is retained for a chriftian name a- 
mongft the country women^ and is generally uanf- 
lated into Englifh by the word Honour. Eadlms 
when ufed as the name of the genius of the earthy 
was confiantly of the feminine gender, and the 
fame as the Greek Ceres^ Cybele^ Pallas and D/<mm, 
the Italian OpSy the Egyptian I/iSf the Syrian ^ 
tarUy the Phoenician M^gbum^ the Briti(h Adrafle 
or AndiUe^ and the Saxon Eoftcr \ (he was alfo de- 
nominated by the Irifli Tlacbt^ Momo and ^Mbumr 
ban. See the words Tlachgo and Mhum- 

EAMHAIN, or Eamania, derived from aem- 
buim uiy that is, the potent or noble place or 
city ; an ancient royal refidence, and capital of 
Ulfter, fituated near Ardmagh. It is (aid to have 
been ori^nally founded by one of the Scotifli 
chiefs near two hundred years before the Chrifiiaa 
aera, and was deftroyed by Caibre LiSecar a prince 
of Conaught, at the beginning of the fourth cen- 
tury. Colgan fays there were fome ruins of it 
remaining in his time, probably the rath in which 
the royal palace called Croave-roigh, was eredted *. 

EAN, fee Deaffii. 

EANDRUIM, feeDalnaraidhe. 

EASROA, anciently Eajaodrucud^ or the noble 
cataract, a great waterfall on the riv^ Em famous 
for Salmon f. 

EBLANA, fee Deblana. 

• 0*Coaor'8 Diflert. ?• 176, f Hanis'i Ware, v. p. i8. 

34^ - E I L 

EBLANIJ, a people in the caft of Ireland^ 
mentioned by Ptolemy, and written in fome co- 
pies of that ancient geographer Blanii. The word 
is evidently derived from Aobb or Ebb^ a diftria, 
and Lean^ the bay of the fea, whence the diftrict 
on the bay of the fea. Tlie ancient inhabitants of 
the county of Dublin, near the bay of that 

EBLINII, from Aobh, or Ebhicaneigh, the in- 
habitants on the waters of the fea; mentioned by 
feveral of the Iri(h antiquaries as being in Mun- 
fter, probably the prefent county of Limerick. 
Though the word may alfo be derived from Ebb^ 
luirtf or the diftrift of the inland country *. 

EDRI, the fame with Adros, which (ee, 

EILE, or Hy-Leagh, that is the diftria of the 
level county. Comprehending the fouth part of 
the King's county, the weftern part of the Queen's 
county, and- the northern part of the county of 
Tipperary ; divided info three principalities^ each 
governed by its paternal chief; as : 

EILE UI BHOG AR TEAGH, or the level 
diftrid of the race of the boggy country, com- 
pehending the plain and morafles north of Cafticl; 
the chiefs of which were called Hy Bhogarteagh, 
by corruption O'Fogarty. The Englilh families of 
Butler, Purcel and Mathew were fetded in this 
country before the beginning of the lad century. 

EILE UI CHEARBHUIL, fituated in the fouth 
of the King's county, and weft of Sliabh-Bladh- 
ma mountains ; whence it obtained the name of 
Ele ui Chearbhuil, or the plain diftrid near tlie 

• O^Conor'8 Diffcrt.- 

E I R ' 343 

rock. The chiefs of this diftridt were called O'Car- 
rol, under whom was a fubordinate Dynaft named 
0*Delany, prefiding over a diftricl in the foath 
denominated Dal Leagb nui^ or the diflrift of the 
flat country *. 

EILE UI MORDHA, or Eile ui Mora, that is 
the diftrift of tlie plain in the fliady or woody 
country ; comprehending the greater part of the 
prefent Queen's county, and diftinguiftied in the 
latter ages by the name of Leix. It was bounded 
on the north and eaft by Ithe riv^r Barrow ; on the 
weft" by Sliabh-Bladhma mountains, and on the 
fouth by the river Nore and Sliabh-marragagh 
mountains. The hereditary chiefs were called Hy 
Mordha, or O'More, and fometihies Moal Mordha. 
They were the chief tribe of all the Eilys, and 
defcended from the Laighfeachs, ancient chieftains 
of Hy Leagb, which fee under that name. In cori- 
fequence of this feniority, they were frequently 
ftiled king's of Leinfter. The O'Mores remained 
in the pofleffion of the greater part of their coun- 
try until the commencement of the laft century, 
when being in rebellion, the lands were forfeited 
and diftributed amongft the EngliOi adventurers f. 

EIRCAEL, or Eargal, that is the weftern 
Gael or woodlanders ; a large diftriik in the weft 
of Ulfter, comprehending the prefent counties of 
Fermanagh and Donegal J. 

EIROIN, or Erin, that is weftern ifland. 

, The invariable name of Ireland aitiongft the ori-« 
ginal inhabitants from the remoteft periods. The 

♦ Colka. No. 3. p. 376. 
t Coiled. No. 3, 4, aod 6. Harris's Ware t.^ w 
X Harris'f Ware, v. i. 

344 E R D 

poets and hiftorians indeed frequently made ufe of 
feveral other appellations, arifmg from latent cir- 
cumftances ; as Ere and Cmcbfuinidb^ or weftern 
country ; Fiodb-InnU^ or the woody ifland ; InnU- 
E/ga^ or the noble ifland ; TetidhTuaibail^ or the 
dark habitation; arifing from its thick and im- 
menfe forefls. Inis Banboy or the ifland of the 
herds of fwine ; this country in the early periods 
being ever celebrated for containing great herds of 
thofe animals ; and Innis Bbeal^ or Innis FoA^ that 
is the ifland of Beal. But the body of the people 
conftantly denominated it Eiroin, or the weftcm 
ifland, and themfelves Erenacb^ or weftern people* 
The Britons called Ireland Tdberdan^ot the country 
beyond the weftern water ; the Greeks called it 
Overnia^ or the moft weftern country ; whence the 
Latins Hibernia of the fame import, from Bnnia^ 
and Hypper-ernia^ or the moft weftern Ifland. It 
was alfo denominated Irel(md^ or weftern land by 
the Anglo-Saxons *. 

EISGIR.RIADA, fecLeghMogh. 

ELI HY MORA, now called Leix, fee Eilc ui 

EMLEY, fee Imleach-jobhuir. 

ENACHDUNE, or Eoghnach-dun, that i^ the 
dun or fortrefs of the diftridt, or the chief for- 
trefs. A royal refidence near Tuam, the fame as 
' Dun-more y which fee. 

EN-EIRAGH, fee Conal-Gabhra. 


ERDINIJ, a people inhabiting the weftern parts 
of Ulftcr i mentioned by Ptolemy, and called by 

♦ 0'Conor*i Diflert. 

EUR 345 

Richard of Cirencefter Hardinij^ Erdinij is deriv- 
ed from Eir dutudby that is, the inhaUtants of the 
weflern hilly country, comprehending the fouth 
parts of the county of Donegall and county of Fer- 
managh. See Ernai and Rheba. 

£RB, fee Eiroin. 

ERENACH, fee Eiroin. 

ERQAL, fee Bircael and alio Venniciiii. 

ERIN, fee Eiroin. 

ERNAI, or weftern People, a name given by 
the Irifli Antiquaries to the ancient inhabitants of 
the county of Fermanagh near Lough Ern, they 
were the Erdinii of Ptolemy *. 

EUGENIANS, or the maritime people j the 
ancient inhabitants of the S. W. of Ireland on the 
coafts- of the counties of Cork and Kerry ^ and 
fometimes taken in an enlarged ienfe to fignify the 
inhabitants of all Defmond or fouth Munften 

EVOLENIi derived from Jobh leaneighy or the 
diftridt of the waters of the fea^ an ancient diflri£t 
mentioned by Ptrobus, fituated on the eaftern coaft 
of the county'of Wicklow \ the Coulan of the Irifli,, 
which fee, 

EURRUS, a people mentioned iiy IriOi antiqua^ 
ries to inhabit the weftern parts of Conaught. 
The word is evidently a corruption from Eir^'ls^ 
or the wefiem diftridt on the water, and was pfo* 
bably the weftern parts of the county of Mayo. 

• O'Conor'i Diflfert. 

346 F E A 

• F. 

Jr ANE, Fcne, Peine, Fion, Fin, or Vain, as 
it is differently written in the feveral dialetts of the 
Celtic tongue, fignified originally rooft excellent, 
eminent and diftinguifhed. Figuratively a nnark, 
boundary, end, or any thing confpicuous or ele- 
vated. When joined to matters of religion, it fig- 
nified facred, as .OHavain, the facred high prieft; 
and as white was univerfally, throughout the pagan 
world, appropriated to the divinity. Fin, Fion 
and Feine frequently fignifies in the Irifh language, 
that colour j When joined to perfons, it fignified 
either that they were of the facred or druidic order, 
or eminent for their learning and abilities in war ; 
whence Feincigh or Fenius, a wife or learned per- 
fon» and Mileadh-feine, a learned nobleman ; 
When applied to places, it either fignified that they 
were places of worfhip, or appertained to the 
Druids, as Fanus a temple or place of woHhip 
among the Romans, and Magh Feine or the fiicred 
plain, in Ireland ; When applied to waters, it either 
fignified that they were on eminences, clear, pure 
or dedicated to religion. Thefe words firequentiy 
occurring in the ancient Irifii poems and chionicles, 
have given rife to the opinion, relative to the cfta- 
blifhment of a colony of Phoenicians in this ifland, 
in an early period. But where ever, thofe words, 
Fene, Feine, 6z:c. are found in the Iriih language, 
they mud be confidered under fome of the above 

FEARMUIGHE, corrupted from Fear-magh, 
now the barony of Fermoy in the county of Cork. 
fhis diftrift was formerly the country of the Clan 

FEN 347 

Gibbons, Condons and Roches. . It was alfo in an- 
cient tinies, denominated Glean na Mbain or ALigb 
na Feiney tliat is the facred plain, or plain of the 
learned. About the year 254, Fiach Muillethan 
provincial king of Munfter, bellowed the greateft 
part of this country on the Druid Mogruth, from 
whom it obtained the name of Dal-Mogruith. The 
Druid on coming into the pofleflion of die country, 
converted it into a kind of fandtuary, and on the 
high laiid which bounds it, erefted a number of 
altars and places of worfhlp j feveral of which are 
remaining to this day. From this circumftance, 
Dal-Mogruith obtained the name of Magh Feine, 
or the facred plain, which before bore that of 
Magh Neirce. In the latter ages the inhabitants of 
Magh Feine were called Fear Magh Feine, or the 
men of the (acred plain, or Fear Magh, and by 
corruption Fer-moy *. See Magh Neirce 

FEINE, fee Fane. 

FENABORE, fee Kilfenoragh. 

FENE, fee Fane. 

FENIUSA FARSA, or Pheniufa Farfa,aPer. 
fon mentioned in the old Irilh poems and Chroni- 
cles, and fuppofed to be the firft who introduced 
letters into Ireland. From the fimilarity of the 
word Pheniufa to Phaeni, it has been frequently 
affcrted, that Feniufa Farfa was either a Phoenician or 
Carthaginian who arrived in this country in a very 
early period. But as the real fignification of Feni- 
ufa Farla, is the moft wife or learned perfon, it is 
moft probable that he was the fame withForchern, 
who is faid to have written the firft Irilh uraiceaft 

^ Harris's Ware, v. 1. p. 53. Collcft. No. 5. p. 69, 70, k No.^, 

348 FEN , 

or primer, fome few years before the birth of 
Clirift. Feniufa Farfa or Forchcrn therefore, feeros 
to have been a Britifli Druid, who had obtained 
the ufe of letters from the Punic or Iberian tra« 
ders, about the beginning of the lad century pre- 
ceding the Chrifiian sra. According to thelrifli 
annals, Eochadh Aireamh firfi introduced burying 
in this country, inftead pf burning or incbfingthe 
body in urns ; over the grave, a flat or inclined 
ftone was to be placed with the name of the per- 
fon written thereon. This tranfaftion is gene- 
rally placed in the year Of the world 395a, or ac- 
cording to the computation of Jofephus, before 
Chrift 240 ; and according to the prefent only 46 
years ; but according to the computation of St. 
Hierom, which was generally followed during the 
middle ages by the ancient Irifli Clergy, A. D. 1 1 ; 
about which time a number of the Britifh Druids 
iied into Ireland from the terror of the Roman 
arms. A number of thefe tombs are yet remain- 
ing in different parts of Ireland ; feveral of which 
are infcribed with Druidic charadters, anJ ^r this day 
are called by the natives, Leda na Peine ^ that is 
the bed or grave of the learned or noble people. 
From thefe circumftances there is the greatefl: pro- 
bability, that the celebrated Fenuifa Farfa or For- 
chern was a Britifli Druid who retired into this 
country about the time of the arrival of the Romans 
in Britain under Caefar. In fifty years from which 
time, or about the beginning of the firft century, 
the knowledge of letters had become univerfal 
among the Hibernian heathen priefts, and the cele- 
brated convention of Tara was in confequence 

F E R 349 

thereof inftituted toV/ards the middle of the fifft 

. age,* 

FEOR NA FLOINN, fee Ciariudhe. 

FEORUSj the ancient name of the rivet Nore, 
which rifes near the DevirsBit, in the county of 
Tippcrary, and falls into the Barrow, Fcorus is 
evidently derived from /ibban nFeor uis^ or the river 
of the rapid fiream, whence it was frequently called 
Abhan nFeor, and by the Englifh the.Nore; this 
river in tini4k)f floods being exceedingly rapid.f 

FERMANAGH, or the people of the diftridl 
onthewatfcr, a people inhabiting the country round 
Lough Brn, the Efdinii of Ptolemy ; this country 
called aifo Magh Guhiirr, or the pl^in of the water, 
was made a county in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; 
the ancient chiefs of which were called Magh 
Guhuir or Mac Guire, who remained in. the intire 
pofleflion of their country until the beginning ©f 
the laft century. J 

FERMOY^ fee Fearmui^c: . 

FERNUS, or Ferna, evidently derived from 
Fear nd ufs^ or men of the diftrid on the water ; as 
the ancient inhiibitaftts of Hy Morragh, the prefent 
county of Wexford j frequently were called 5 Ferna 
was the principal refidence of the ancient chiefs of 
this diftrift, and is mentioned by Ptolemy. A mo- 
naftcry and bilhoprick were founded here by St. 
Edan, dbout 598, and united to that of LeighKn in 
1600. The church of Ferns was in the middle ages 
frequently' efteemcd the metropolitan church of 
Leinfter. § 

• Colka. No. 5. . O'Conor'8 DJffcrt. M'Curtln. Keating. 
Tighcrnac. f O'Conor's Diffcrt. if O'Conor'a Diffcrt. 

j HzxrWr.yftrCj vol, I., p. 435.: ; ^ * I - 

Vol. UI. No. XL H 

FERTA FIR FEIC, derived from Fertaghfir 
bheitheach, or the graves of the herdfmen, from a 
number of thefe people being ilain here in battle, 
and buried in this place. It is now called Skoe, 
and is fituated in the county of Meath, on the 
northern bank of the river Boyue. Here Saint 
Patrick pitched his tent the night before Us arrival 
at the court of Taragh; at which* early in the 
morning he lighted up that fire, which gave fo 
much aftonifhment to the Drujids and aflembly of 
the ftates. A mooflftery and bi(hoprick were rftcr* 
wards founded in this place by St. Ere *. 

FJODH AONGUSA, or the wood orcouatiy of 
Aongus, a diftrift in the county of Weft Meath 
and barony of Rathconrach. It was in the early 
ages called Chen dnm^ or the diftrii^ of the hill or 
dome, from containing the hill of Ufoeadi* faciou$ 
£Dr being the place wbere the ancient fynods an() 
publick alTemblies were frequently held; efpeciall]^ 
that in iii2, or ijii, under Cebfus ^ichHfliop d 
Ardnaaghf. See Ufiieach. 

FIODHA RHEHE, pronounced fairy^ that ii 
Sylvan divinities, from Fiodba woods, end Bbtk 
divinitiea. The Fiodba Rbeke^ in the ancient Celot 
nfiythology were fubprdinate genii who prefided 
over tlie vegetable produ£lions of nature, and th< 
animals of the foreft. They were the fetyra ani 
^Ives of the Greeks and Romans ; the chief d 
whom was Fan or Pallas, called by the anded 
iriih Mc^h, Magh or Mabh. The notion of fairie 
fo prevalent amongft the country people at thi 
day, is the remains of this heathen fuperftition. Sq 
Nbgh, Mogh-adair and Satam. 

• Harris'i Ware^ voK t. p« i-J. + Ibid* toU f. p. 5J« 

Foe 351 

PlODH-INflS, fee Eirion. 

FIRBOLGiE, fee BoIg«. 

FIRCRABII, or Fir-na-crabii, that is the men 
or inhabitants of the diftrift, called alfo Hy Magh- 
neigh, now the county of Monaghan and part of 
the ancient Oirgael, the chiefs of which were the 
Mac Mahons*. See Hy Maghneigh and Oirgael. 

FIRTHUATHAL, or Fortiiatha, that is thd 
nien of the dark or gloomy region ; an ancient dif- 
trift comprehending the mountainous trad of coun- 
try on the weft of the county of Wicklow, called 
HyTuathal, or the gloomy region; being compofed 
of barren mountains and dark vallies. The 
ancient chiefs were called Hy Tuathal, and Mac 
Mhthuil^ by corruption O'Tool, they were alfo 
hereditary chiefs of Cuolan, during the middle 
ages, and often brou^t under their fubjeftion the 
chiefs of Caelan or Galen. This rocky diftrift was 
likewifc denominated Ciarmen or Ciermen, that is 
the place or country of rocks, corruptly written 
Carmen^ whence the mountains next the bay of 
Dublin^ are frequently in the Irifh writings called 
Siiebh Ciermen^ or the rocky mountains. As the 
O'TooIb were either by defcent or marriage of the 
fame family with the Mac Moroghs^ O'Moras and 
O'Kdlys of Caelan^ they were frequently deno- 
minated kings of Leinfter) according to their fe-^ 

FOCHMUINB-ABHAN, or the river of the low 
country ; a river rifing in the barony of Tirckerin, 
and county of Derry ; from whence taking a 
N. N. W. courfe, it falls into Lough Foyle. Saint 

• O'Gonor'8 Differt. f Harris's Ware 


25^ F O M 

Patrick rcfidcd fomc time * on ' the banks of this 

POCLUT, an ancient foreft on the weftem 

bank of the river Mayo, and diftrift of Tir-rftalgaid ; 

famous for being the fubjedt of the celebrated 

dream of Saint Patrick, before he entered on his 

• miflion to Ireland, f 

POMHORAICC, or Formaragh, that is fcamcn 
or pyrates. A- people mentioned in the andent 
Iri(b poems, and faid to have mfefted the fouthem 
coafts of Ireland during the time that the ifland was 
in pofleflion of the Nemetba. They were undoubt- 
edly the Punic traders, who firft arrived on the 
coafts of the Britifti ifles about 44a or 500 years 
before the Chriftian sera, under the conduct of 
Midaaitus, and difcovered the valuable tin mines 
of Cornwall, and which they kept for feveral years 
a fecrct from the reft of Ae world. During the 
voyages frequently made to that part of Britain, 
we may reafonably conclude thofe andent navi- 
gators, occafionally vifited the coafts of Ireland, 
and traded wkh the barbarous natives, for&ins 
and fuch other commodities as the country then 
produced ; but it doth not appear that they made 
any fettlement therein, indeed the country in thefe 
early periods, producing little, except wood, ikins 
and fi(h, could never be an object of colonization -, 
whilfi Britain, on account of its tin mines, moft 
probably was the place of genera! rendezvous, and 
where fadlorics were eftablilhed. As to the aflcrtions ' 
of feveral of the ancient poems and chronidcs, 
relative to letters, laws and commerce bdng intro- 
duced by the Milefians, who are fuppofed to be 

* Harris's Ware, voL i, p. i8. f Ibid. toL x. p. 9. 

F O M SS3 

Phoenicians and Carthaginians, they belong to a 
much later period. For it is by no means evident, 
that the Phoenicians during their commerce with 
the Britifli ifles, eiiher eftabliftied colonies or intro- 
duced their learning among the natives ; ihefe 
things being referved for the Iberian and Gallic 
merchants, about one hundred years before Chrift. 
Befides, if the Phoenicians or Carthaginians had 
made fettlements in Ireland, the pld Irifti bards 
could not have diftinguifhed them by the name of 
Poeni ; it is true thefe people were generally called 
by the Greeks ♦•j»<«if, and by the Latins Panos 
and Punicosy yet they always denominated them- 
felves Qmaim or merchants^, the Irilh therefore in 
their own language, muft either have called them 
Canuitbe merchants, or Fomboraicc feamen, and 
we find them aftually called Fomhoraicc, in all 
the old Irifli poems. Their arrival, however, as men- 
tioned by the ancient hiftorians, and compared 
with the traditions in the Irilh poems, ferve in a 
great mcafure to afpertain the time in which Ireland 
received her firft people ; for allowing the Nemetba 
to have been in pofTeflion of this iiland zoo years 
before the arrival of the Fomhoraicc, we (h^ll ob- 
tain 640 or 700 years prior to the Chriftian aera, 
for the firft colonization of Ireland by the Aborigines 
of Britain* An event which agrees perfectly with 
ancient foreign hiftory, and the natural clrcumftan- 
ces of things.* 

The firft arrival of the aboriginal Britons on the 
Hibernian coafts being about 350 years after the 
eftablifliment of the Celtic tribes in that i(land, 

♦ Keating. O'Conor's Diffcrt, Plin. L 7. c. 56. Hcrodot, 
p. 354* Strabo, p. 265. Collect. No. 8. Hift. of Manchefter* 

354 F O M 

whence the periods in which the Teveral grsmd 
migrations from Britain to Ireland were effeAed, 
will be as follows : 

bef. Chrift, 
Nemeth» as Aboriginals, - 640 

Bolga^ or Belgians, the Heremonii? 
of the poets, •> 

Heberii, or Britifti Silures, — 100 

Britons \^o fled from the terror 7 after Chrift. 

of the Roman arms, 5 50 

Britons who fled from the Saxons, 500 

Wherefore in the fpace of 11 40 yeara the colo- 
nization from Britain was compleated. 
See NemethsB, Momonii, Fomorii, Bolgae, Hebcrii, 
Herepionii, Phoenicians and Scotii. 
FOMORH, or Fomorians, that is the fea men, 
or mariners ; ■ a people mentioned in the moft 
ancient Irifh poems to have arrived in this ifland 
in a very early period j even before the eftabli/h- 
ment of the fecond colony of the Bolgx. They 
undoubtedly were foreign merchants, and perhaps 
the Punic or Iberian traders who frequently vifitcd 
the coafts of Ireland, during their commerce with 
the Britons for tin, &c. It is remarkable, though 
the foreigners who traded to Ireland from the firft 
century before to the fixth after the Chriftian sera, 
are frequently mentioned in the poems of the moft' 
ancient bards, under the names of Fomoreigb, 
Learmonii, Lathmonii, Loclimanii, &c. yet there is 
not the leaft hint given from what country they 
came, nor the nature of their commerce. From 
feveral antient Irifh poems it appears, that in the 
fecond century, feveral of the arms and utenfils 
ufed by the ancient Irifh chiefs, were of foreign 
manufadlure j yet we have not the leaft accounr^ 


from whence they obtained them. Circuniftaficcs 
which prove in a great meafure, that though the 
Carthaginians, Iberians, Gauls and Romans car- 
ried on a confiderable commerce with Ireland du- 
ring the period before fpccified, yet not any of 
them eftabliHied fadtoriea or colonies in the coun- 
try^ but only vifitcd occafionally the ports, and 
bartered with« the natives for fuch commodities as 
they had oceafion for *. See Phoenicians^ Loch- 
manii, Fomhocaice, &c. 
FORTUATHA, fee Firthuathal 


Ga, ^GAES, CAS, and Gha, Gaes or Ghae, 
fignify the fea, or a large extended piece of wa- 
ter; whence Morghai, corruptly Fearghe, the 

GABHRAN, from Gdh re an, the high habita- 
tion of the king, the capital and royal refidence of 
the kings of Oflbry. The rath of this ancient pa- 
lace ia yet remaining fituated in upper Offory and 
the Qgeen's County f. 

GADALIANS, GaJe/n or Gaoidhal, a people 
mentioned in feveral of the ancient Iri(b poems and 
chronicles, and by the writers of the latter ages and 
fuppofed to be the anceflora of the Milefians who 
are aflerted to have travelled into different parts of 
the world, prior to their efiablifbment in Ireland. 
The names Gadelij and Gaoidbih though taken 
for the &me« are probably of different fignifica- 

* O'CoBor'i J^iflbt. p, i ^i^ X^bfaar Lecan^ f CoUcQ. No. 3. 

356 GAD 

tlbns. Gaoidbel is evidently the fame as G^K/or 
Cael, and were the iflandic or marititime Celtic 
tribes eftabliftied on the weftern confines of Eu- 
rope before their migration to this ifland. Whence 
the Melidb fene jUogbt Gaoidbel of the poets figni- 
fies the learned nobles of the Celtic race^ and were 
none other than the Britifli, Gallic ^and Iberian 
druids who arrived in this country in different pe- 
riods, either with the feveral colonies, or by means 
of commerce. But Gadelii moft probably is not 
of Celtic origin, this word in the old Pcrfic or 
Median Language fignifies a tower, whence MeUJh 
fene fliogbt Gadelagb^ fignifies tl]e learned nobles of 
the tower race, and are aflerted by the ancient 
bards to have introduced into Ireland the art of 
building with lime and ftone, and other improve^ 
ments hot before known to the ancient inhabitants 
of this ifland. There is the greateft probablity that 
thefe jpeople were the'Gaurs or Perfian magi; 
amongft thofe who received them they crefted 
fchpqls or academies, in which thiey taught the 
tenets of their faith, and the feveral fublime fcien- 
ces at that time cultivated by the orientals. The 
greater part of the fouthern and weftem countries 
having in this period received the chriftian faith, 
the Gaurs found little encouragement in thefe parts 
of the. continent. But in Ireland, v?hcre the Pagan 
religioti remained almoft in its original purity and 
its tenets not being widely different from that of 
the ancient Perfians, thefe itinerant philofophers 
found a ready aflent to their doArines among the 
Hibernian druids. To them we may attribute the 
origin of thofe flender round towers at this day re-: 
mainingin feveral parts of Ireland, they being ex: 
a^lly of the fame conftrudlion with the PerCaii py^ 

GAR 357 

rathica of the middle ages, called by the Phoeni- 
cians Cbammia^ and by the magi Gadelc^ or tem- 
ples of God, but by the ancient Irilh Tlacbgo or 
temples of the univerfe, whence their prefent name 
in the Irifh language Clogbadb*. (See CloghadhJ 

GALENi fee Coalan. 

GALENG, or the woody diftrid, the ancient 
name of the prefent county of Galway ; called • 
aifo, Hy Giellagh and Conmacne Dubhain, which 

GALENf, feeCaelani. 

GALIAN, from Caclian, or the woody country^ 
an ancient diftridt in Leinfter, comprehending the 
greater part of the counties of Kildare, Carlow and 
Queen's county, containing the ancient diftrids 
of Eli ui Mordha and Caolan. In the early ages 
thisdiftridt wasalmoft one continued foreft |. (See 
Eli ui Mordha and Caelan.) . ^ 

GAMANRADII, or the government of the 
diftridl on the fca, comprehending the northern 
partof the county of Mayo, between the river Moy 
and the fea. See Tirmalgaid. 

GANGANII, fecCanganii. 

GAR MEN, or Gaermen, that is, the place or 
habitation on the fea ; it was the principal placA of 
Hy Morragh, (which fee) the Coriondii of Ptolemy. 
It hasr frequently been confounded with Carmen in 
Caelan, though feveral miles diftant. It was ei- 
ther the prefent town of Wexford or Ennifcorthy, 
though probably the former. 

♦ Juricu*8 Crit. Hiflory of the Church, vol. 2. Vallanccy^t 
pflay on the Celtic Tongue. Keating. M'Curtin's Ant. 
t O'Conor's Dlffert. % O'Conor's Differt,* 

358 G L E 

GESHIL, from Gael fiol, or the habitation of 
the race of the wood. An \ancrent refidencc of 
fome of the chiefs of Hy Falgia ; fituated in the 
diftrift of the O'Malloys and King's county. 

GLEANNAMHUIM, or Glennamhuin, that is, 
the dark or horrid valley, now Glanworth in the 
county of Cork. See Fearmuighe. 

GLENDALOCH, or the valley of the two 
lakes. A valley fituated in the rnountaineous 
. parts of the antient territory of Firtuathal in the 
county of Wicklow ; it was fo denominated from 
containing two lakes. In this valley, furronnded 
by high and almoft inacceflible mountains^ St. Ca- 
van, called alfo St. Coemgene, about the middle of 
the fixth century, founded a monailery, which in 
a (hort time from the fanftity of its founder was 
much reforted to^ and at length became a bi- 
fhoprick and a religious city. During the middle 
ages^ the city of Clendaloch, called by Hovcdon 
Epifcopatus Billagnienfis was held in great efteem 
and received feveral valuable donations and privi- 
ledges i its epifcopal Jurifdidtion extending to the 
walls of Dublin. About the middle of the twelfA 
century, on fome account or other, Glendaloch 
was much negledled by the clergy, and became In- 
llead of a holy city a den of thieves, wherefore 
cardinal Papiro in 12 14, united it to the fee of 
Dublin, which union was confirmed by king John. 
The O'Tools, chiefs of Firtuathal, however by 
the afliftance of the Pope, continued long after 
thisperiod to eledlbilhops and abbots to Glenda- 
loch, though they had neither revenues nor autho- 
rity beyond the diftridt of Tuathal ; in confequence 
of which, the city was negleAcd and fuffered to 
decay^ and was nearly a de(ert in 1497, when 

CLE 359 

Dennis White, the laft titular bifliop, furrendered 
his right in the cathedral church of St. Patrick's 
Dublin. From the ruins of this ancient city, ftill 
remaining, it appears to have been a place of 
confequence \ and to liave contained feven churches 
and religious Houfes, fmall indeed, but built in 
a neat elegant ftile m imitation of the Greek archi- 
tedture. The catliedral, the walls of which are yet 
ftanding, was dedicated to tlie famts Peter and 
Paul. South from the cathedral, ftands a fmall 
church roofed with ftone, nearly entire, and in 
feveral pans of the valley are a number of ftone 
croffes, fome of which are curioufly carved but 
without any infcriptions. In the N. W. corner of 
the cemetery belonging to the cathedral, ftands a 
round tower, 95 feet high, and 15 in diameter; 
and in the cemetery of a fmall ehurchr on the 
fouth fide of the river near the great lake, called 
the Rhefeart church, are fome tombs, infcribed with 
Iri(h infciription^, belonging to the O'Tools ancient 
chiefs of this diftridl. In a perpendicular project-' 
ing rock on the fouth fide of the great lake, thirty 
yards above the furfaceof the water, is the cele- 
brated bed of St» Coemgene, hewn out of the 
rock, capable of containing three perfons: exceed- 
ing difficult of accefs and terrible in profpedl. 
Amongft the ruins have been difcovered a number 
of ftones, curioufly carved, and containing infaip- 
tionsin the Latin, Greek and Irifh languages. As 
this city was in a valley furrounded on all fides, 
except the caft, by high, barren and inacceffible 
mountains, the artificial roads leading thereto are 
by no means the leaft curious part of the remains ; 
the principal is that leading from the market place 
jnto the county of Kildare, through Glendafon. 

36o H E B 

This road for near two miles is yet perfeft, com- 
pofed of ftones placed on their edges, making a 
firm and durable pavement of the breadth of about 
ten feet. Another road, refembling this, appears 
to have been intended to be carried over the 
mountains from Holy- Wood ; it is marked out, 
and in feveral places the materials were colle£ted, 
but the execution, from fome circumftances, was 
neglefted. From the ftyle of the buildings di (co- 
vered in the ruins of Glendaloch, they appear to 
have been erefted about the middle of the tenth 
century, and were dcfigned by foreign architefts 
on the Greek and Roman models, but the execu- 
tion falls (hort of the defign*. 
ORENARD, from Grian-ard, or the height of 
the Sun ; a town in the county of Longford, and 
formerly the refidenc^ of the chiefs pf north Teffia. 



JIEBERII, or Hiberians, that is the moft wcf- 
tern people, the ancient inhabitants of the county 
of Kerry and part of ;he county of Clare. The 
poets have fable4 that this part of the ifl^nd was 
peopled by Heber, elder brother of Heremon and 
fons of Melefms, in which they have confounded 
the Heberii with the Mhumbans^ or aboriginal in- 
habitants. Richard of Cirencefter thinks they were 
the Britifh Silures, the ancient inhabitants of Corn- 
\yall, who retired into this ifland on the arrival of 
Pivitiacus about one hundred years before Chrift • 

f Ha|Ti»'s Ware, v, i. p. 371, 

itnd who, according to Keating, landed at Inbber 
Sceinc now the mouth of the Shannon, from whence 
advancing into the country were oppofed by the' 
^ Mhumhams, the original inhabitants under the 
conduft of their queen Eire, but that heroine be- 
ing defeated at the battle of Magh Greine near 
^ _ Tralee bay, the Heberii eftabliftied themfelves ia 
" "*" the country, and probably were the firft who open-* 
'^'^ tA the mines of Ireland ; as Eadhna Dearg a king 
" r of this diftridt is faid to have coined the firft money 
r at Airgiod Rofs, about thirty years before thcf 
;' - chriftian aera*. 

^ ^' EREMONH, an ancient people inhabiting the 

* r . eaftern and middle parts of Ireland, comprehend- 

^ \ ing the prefcnt province of Leinfter \ they are faid 

f ^y the fabulifts to have defcended from Heremon^ 

Didsct- a fon of Milefius the Spaniard. Hercmon fignifies 

the weftern country, and Heremonii^ the inhabitants 

of the weftern country. They appear to have been 

Belgians, who arrived from Britain under the con- 

duft of Hugony, about the middle of the fourth 

century before the Chriftian aera; and were after-* 

wards diftinguiftied by the name of Scots, from 

, dwelling in woods. The Heremonii comprehended 

" the ancient tribes of the Falgii, Elii, Caeienii and 

' ' Morii. See Hy Falgia, Scotii, Coitii and Coigedu- 

"^' garian. 

"^^' Hernia, or the moH weftern ifland; the 


^ "^^ name given to Ireland by the Greeks and Ro- 
. ■ '^ mans. 

: ^, UI, or O, in the ancient Irifli and Celtic 
■-'tongues, fiignified a country, diftridt and tribe^r 

* Keating. Richard of Cireacefter.^ 

36i HYP 

When annexed to the names of pctConSi they 
frequently fignified a chief or lord. 

HY ALLAIN, or Hy al Lain, that is, the dif- 
trid of the great plain country, containing the 
eaftern part of the Magh Leana, at prefent diftin- 
guiHied under the denomination of the ifle of Ailin 
in the county of Kildare, in which ftands the hill 
of AUin, the mount Cromla of the ancient bards. 
The chiefs of this diflri€t were denominated Hj 

HY ANLAN, fee Otrthir. 

HY ARA, fee Dalnaruidhe. 

HY BHEALGEIGH, fee Coiteagh. 

HY BREDAGH, fee Brefine. 


HY CABHAN, fee BreHne. 

HY CABHANAGH, fee Coriandii. 

HY CAELLAGH, or the woody diftria. con- 
taining the prefent county of Galway, fee Galeng 
and Conmacne dubhain. 

HY CHEARBHUIL, fee Eli ui Chearbhuil 

HY CONAR, fee Hy Falgia. 

HY COAREIGH, fee Brefine. 

HY DA LEIGH, 7 feeHyFalgia. 

HY DAM SEIGH, \ ^ ^ 

HY DINGLE, fee Vellabori. 

HYDRISCUIL, fee Corcaluighe. 

HY DUNNABHAN. fee Cairbre aobhdha. 

HY FALGIA, or ui Faillia, derived from U jT 
Bhcailgia, that is the country of the worftiippers of 
Beal. This diftrift formerly comprehended the 
counties of Eaft and Weft Meath, Dublin, part of 
the county of Kildare, and aU the King's sonnty. 

H Y F 26$ 

The itltiabitadts appear to have been defcended 
from the inoft ancient colony of the Be^ians, 
whofe hereditary chiefs were denominated Hy 
nFaillia, by corruption O'Neal j and in whofe line, 
as defcendants of Hugony the great, of the race of 
the Heremonii, the monarchs of Ireland were to 
be elected. Some few years before the chriftian 
asra, on the arrival of feveral Caledonian colonies 
under the domination of UUagh, a number of 
the ancient Fallgii, under the condudt of Eoghagh 
Bbealogh, or Eoghagh Failoch, retired acrofs the 
Shannon and eftablifhed ^ colony at Croighani 
others with their chief retired fouthward into the 
diftridl ofCoiteigh, now the King's county . From 
which period, Hy Falgia was confined principally 
to the King's county and part of the county of 
Kildare, diftinguiflied, during the latter ages, by 
the name of the kingdom of OfFaly. About the 
beginning of the fifth century, a colony from this 
diftridk fettled in the north of Ireland, where for 
£bveral ages, it was diflinguifhed by the name of 
Hy Failia, and Tir hy nFail, by corruption Tiro- 
nel, and Tirone, that is, the land of the diftridk 
of the Fail. A circumftance that gave rife to the 
north and fouth Hy Failia fo much fpoken of by 
the Irifh hiftorians of the middle ages* South Hy 
Falia contained the fubordinate diftrifts of Hy 
Magh-loneigh, Hy Da-Leigh, Hy Mul-loigh, Hy 
Con-ar, Hy Dam-feigh, Magh-coit-lan, Magh- 
coit-eoghan, Mach-all-leigh and Hy Faliegh, whofe 
refpeftive dynafta during the latter ages were de- 
nominated O'Mafone, 0*Da1y, O'Muloy, O'Con- 
nor, O'Deinfy, Macoghlan, Mageoghagan, Ma- 
cawley and O'Faley i -ail of whom were in poflefli- 
on of their ancient patrimonies at the commence- 

364 H Y k 

rntnt of the lad century, and fevcral of their de-= 
fcendants retain con fiderable landed properties in the 
King's county to this day. All thefe Dynafts dep- 
rived their origin from Hugony the great of the 
Heremonian race, and accordingly 'were elcdled 
chieftains of Hy Fallia and monarchs of all Ireland 
in confequencc of the feniority of their tribe to 
others of the Belgian race *. 

HY^FALLIA, fee Hy-Falgia. 

HY-FERTE, fee Ardfert. 

HY-FIACRIA AIDNE, an ancient diftria in 
the county of Galway, afterwards called Clanriccard. 

HY-FIACRIJ, or. Hy-Fiachria, an ancient diA 
tridl in the county of Tyrone, on the River Derg Jw 

HY-FLATH-EAN-EOGHAN, fee Brefine. 

HY-GAIRA, fee Luighne. 

HY-HANLAN, fee Oirther. 

HY-HUANAN, fee Dalaradia. 

HY-JARTAGH, fee Conmacne-Mara. 

HY-KINSELAGH, or the diftrid of the chief 
tribe, a large ancient diftridt comprehending the 
greater part of fouth Leinfter j being an union of 
the Septs of Hy-Moragh, Coulan, Hy-Tuathal, 
Hy-Breoghan Gabhran, Eli-ui-Mora, and fbme- 
times Offory, containing the prefent counties of 
Wexford, Wicklow, Kilkenny and the fouth part 
of the Queen's County ; the principal chief of which 
was generally O'Morragh, hereditary chief of Hy- 
Moragh, and in confequence denominated king of 
Leinfter, though from the ancient Irifh hiftory it- 

♦ 0'Conor*s Diflcrt. Harris** Ware, ▼• i. 
% Harris's Ware, v, i, p. 182.- 

H 1r L 36s 

ikf>ltears^ that the chiefs of Eli-ui-Mora, Coulanand 
Tuathal according to their feniority were elefted 
chiefs of Kinfciagh, and kings of Leinfter, 
HY-LAOIGHIS, or Hy-Leagh, that is, the 
diftrld of the level country } a large ancient terri- 
tory comprehending the ancient Hy-Fallia, the 
prefent King's County, Eli-ui-Mbradh or Leix in 
the Qyeen's County, and Eli-ui-Ghearbhuil with 
part of the counties of Dublin and Kildare, con- 
taining the ancient Septs of ui-Moradh^ ui-Chearb- 
huil, ui-Dal-^leaheigh, ui-Mul-Laoighi iii-Dori, 
ui-Deamfeighj magh-Coitlan, migh-Coitebghan, 
magh-Caclldgh and ui-magh-Louinie. The fove- 
reignity of which generally was invefted in the chief 
of the eldeft Sept of ui-Moradh, who on this occa* 
lion aflumed the title of Hy-Laoighfeach, or Hy- 
Laighfeach, whofe principal place of refidence was 
at the fortrefs of. Dun-na-mais, In the Cjjjeeil's 
County, and capital of Eli-ui-Moradh. the inha- 
bitants of this diftridt were frequently denominated 
Laoighaneigh, Loinfeach or Leagenians, that is the 
inhabitants of the lev6l cbuntry, arid make a con- 
fiderable figure in the ancient IriJh hiftory, from 
whoni the prefent nariie of Lemfter is derived. The 
fouthem parts of this diftridt, during the latter part 
of the middle ages, became tributary to the chieftain 
of Hy Mdrragh, who took upon him the title of chief 
of Kinfelagh and king of Leinfter. However froni 
the Irifti annals it iippears, that the chiefs of the 
other Septs, a^fcording to their feniority, were 
elected to the regal dignity of Leinfter, that is, 
Mac Coghlan chieftain of Mac Coitlan, Mac 
Kellagh chieftain of Mac Caellagh, O'Tool ciiief- 
tain of Ui-Tuathal aad 0*Guar chieftain of Dal 
ToL.ffl. No. XI. . I 

$66 H Y R 

Mach(coeb, all of whom deemed themfelvcs Scots 
of the Heremonian race. See Coitse, Scotii, Here- 
monii, Bolgae, Coriondii and Coi^dugarian. 

HY^LEAREIGH, fee Corcaluighc. 

HY-LOCHLEAN, fee Brefine and Burrin. 

HY-MAGH-LOCKLIN, the antient name of 
Weftmeath, fee Mediolanum. 

HY-MAGH-LONEIGH, fee Hy-Falgia. 

HY-MAHONEIGH, fee Gorcaluighc. 

HY-MALIA, or Umalia, that is, the diftrift 
near the great watery plain ; an ancient divifion in 
the weft of the oo\inty of Mayo, comprehending 
the prefent barony of Moriflc, and half the barony 
ofRofs in the county of Galway, ccmtaining the 
fbuth part* of the ancient Hy-Murifg, the Auterij 
of Ptolemy. The hereditary chiefs of tWs diftrift. 
were denominated Hy-Malia, or CMaly, fome of 
whom were in poffeflion of the ibuthern parts at 
the beginning of the laft century. In this country 
Saint Patrick founded the church of Achad Fobbair, 
afterwards a bilhoprick*. Sec Auterij^ Morilk 
and Achad Fobhair. 

HY^MORAGH, or the diftrid onthefea^an 
ancient diftridl comprehending the prefent county 
of Wexford, the Coriondij of Ptolemy, Sec Cori- 

HY-MULLOIGH, fee Hy-Falgia. 

HY-MURISG, fee Hy-Malia. 

HY-NA-MOR, fee Clan Cuilean. 

HY-PAUDRUIG, fee OfragiL ' 

HY-RELEIGH, fee Brefine, 

HY-ROARE, fee Bre^ne. 

♦ Harris's Ware, t. u p. W* 

1 B E «($» 

HY-SBRUIDON, fee Brpfifleu 

HY-SIOL, fee Dalnaruidhp. 

HY-SIOL-ABHAN, fee Iberia. 

HY-TIRMALGAID, or the difttla of the land 
on the great fea ; the prefent barony of Tirawley 
in the county of Mayo } in this diftridt the wood 
Foclut flood, celebrated fo* being the fceno of the 
vifion of Saint Patrick before he undertook the mif- 
Con of Ireland. Hy-Tirmalgaid c0ntaijK<i the 
north part <?f thp wcicnt, f^ynMpffpifg, IhR Avitei^ 

HY-TUATH, feelnis-oen. 

HY-TUATH AL,. fee Firthiiaih&U ' 




I5 IBH, or iVBi fignifies a diftriA bt territory 
on the water, and frequently water only, being 
tljc fame p Aqbh or Abh the old Cehjc word for 
* any fluid fubftance j we alfb find that Aobh fre-^- 
quently in the old Irifti fighifies fire. 

lAR-CONAUGHT, fee Conmacne-mara, 

lAR-MUMHAN or weft Mdnfter, coinprehend-^ 
ins ^he prpfent copnty of Kerry, 

l^EIq, or the W0flern people of the water, they 
are mentibhed biy Ptolemy and wpre inhabitants of 
Iberia, and the foutb coalis pf the coutity of Kerry, 
^fec Ibh-eoch^cJiO There w.erp other Iberi mehti- 
oi^ed hy tie Irif^ Vriters whp inhiat>ited the norih of 
Ireland, iii the county of perry, between Lough 
jFoyle and the river Ban f. 

• Harrirt Ware, ▼. i. p. 9* f O'Conoi^i Difftrl. 


36S I M L 

IBERIA, or the weftem country on the watcfj 
an ancient diftriA mentioned by Richard of Circn- 
<efter, fituated round Bear-Haven, and was deno- 
minated by the ancient Irifti I^-Siol-Abany or the 
diftrift of the race on the river, the chiefs of which 
were called Hy*Sulabhan, by corruption O'SuUivan, 

IBERNII, fee Uterniu 

IBH, fee L 

IBH EACH, fee Dalaradia. 

IBH EOCHACH, or the diftrid on the water, 
in the S. W. part of the county of Cork, the Iberii 
of Ptolemy. 

IBH-GAISAN, fee Ive-Caifin. 

IBH.LAOISHEACH, now Leix, fee Eile-ur- 

IBH-TORNA-EIGEAS/ or the diftria of the 

mountains near the fea ; the barony of Clan-mor- 
ris in ihe county of Kerry, it was in the early agies 
. diOfingttilhed by the name of Conal Eachluatb, or 
. the Captain-ftiip of the country on the lake, 

IMLEACH-JOBHUIR, or Imelaca Ibair, deri- 
ved from Bim lacb a 3 er^ that is the land of the 
lake of the weftern diitridt \ an ancient ecclefiaftical 
city fituated about fourteen miles weft of Cafhei on 
the bofders of a lake, formerly containing upwards 
of two hundred acres, though now dry.c^ultivated 
ground. Here a church and biflioprick was found- 
ed by St. Ailbe towards the clofe of the fourth 
century, fome years before the arrival of St. Patrick. 

• On the arrival of St. Patrick arid the converfion of 

iKngus Mac Nafrick, king of Cafhel^ the church 

of Imelaca Ibair was declared the metropoliun 

' church of Munfter, in which dijgnity it continued 

feveral centuries^ until tranflated to Gaftieil where it 

I N I S69 

now remains. The city of Imelaca Ibair, now 
Emlyt was plundered by robbers in x 125, and the 
mitre of St. Ailbe burned. It was alfo deftroyed 
by fire in 11929 but was afterwards re-built and 
continued a coifTiderable town for feveral ages, even 
to the time of Henry the eighth, in whofe reign 
Thomas Hurly, bifliop of Emly, erected a college 
for fecular prieftst but the only remains, at prefent» 
of this ancient and perhaps firft eccleikftical city 
in Ireland, are the ruins of a church, fome walls^ 
a large unhewn ilone crofs, and an holy well.. 
The fee of Emly was united to that of Cafliel in 

INCHINEMEO, fee Moin-na-infeigh. 

INIS BANBA, fee Eiroin. 

INIS BHEAL, &c Eiroin. 

INIS BOFIN, or the ifland of the white Oxen 5 
an ifland on the wefiern coaft of the county of 
Mayo, where St. Colman, biihop of I^indisfern, 
with a number of Scots, and thirty Saxons founded 
a monaftery in 6769 and refided there nine years §• 

INIS CATHAY, fee Cathaigh Inif . 

INIS CLIARE, fee Inis Turk. 

INISCLOGHRAN, or the ftony ifland j an 
ifland in Lough Ree, in the Shannon ; where, 
about the beginning of the fixth century^ a monaf* 
tery was founded by St. Dermod. 

INIS CORTHY, fee Corthse. 

INIS EGHEN, fee Inis Oen. 

INIS ELGA, fee Eiroin. 

INIS END AIMB, or the jfland of the habitatioa 
in the water, an ifland in hough Ree« 

• ll^rrls's Ware, t, i, p. 490, | Wsit* 


/f^ IRA 

INIS FAIL, derived from Inis Bhcal, that is 
the ifland of Beal ; one of the ancient names of Ire- 
land, fo denominated from Beal, the principal ob- 
je6fc of adoration among the ancient inhabitants of 
the Britifh ifles. Inis Fail has been erroneoufly 
tranflated the Ifland of DdRiny, as Bedl was fome- 
times taken for Fate or Providence. 

INIS GATHAY, fee Cathaig Inis. 

INIS OEN, or Inis Eoghen, that is the diftrid of 
the ifle, comprehending the penlhfula between 
Lough Swilly and Lough Foy le.. It Was alfo called 
Hy Tuatb or teagb^ or the diftridt of the country of 
the northern habitation ; the dynaft of which was 
denominated Hy Tmtb dr fedgb^ or ffy Dnatb ertf^b^ 
by corruption O'Dogherty $ fijme of whom were 
in poflcffion at the commencement of thclaft centu- 
ry f. 

INIS SC ATTERY, fee Cathaigh Inis. 

INIS TORRE^ or high ifland, an ifland eight 
miles from the N. W. coaft of the cjounty of Done* 

INIS TURK and INfS CLl ARE, two iflands at 
the entrance of CleW bay^ on the coaft of the coun- 
ty of Mistyo, where flood a cell of the abbey of 

IRELOND, fceEiroin, 

INSOVENACH, or the habitation on the mouth 
of the bay or harbour, an ancient port in the fouth 
of Ireland, much frequented about the time of the 
arrival of the Englifh ; it appears to be the prefent 
Bear, fituated at the entrance of Kenmair river. 

IRAGHT, fee Ciaruidhe. 

+ Wai-c. P'Cbnor'ftDlffcrt. wd hh Ortcliui. 

KEN 37-1 

ISAMNUM Promontory, Portafcny cape at the 
entrance of the bay of Strangford, mentioned by 
Richard of Cirencefter. 

IVEAGH, a barony in the county of Down, fee 

IVEBLOID, the fame as Ara and Ormond, 
which fee. 

IVE CAISIN, or IBH GAIS AN, that is the 
diftriil of the maritime country j an ancient di(- 
trift in Thomond, and the eaftern part of the coun-. 
ty of Clare* . 

IVE FIOINTE, the fame as Cairbre Aodhbhe, 
which fee. 

IVERNIS, or the habitation on the weftern 
water ; an ancient city and capital of the Scots, 
as mentioned by Richard of Cirencefter i who af- 
ferts, that it was fituated on the eaftern banks of 

' the Shannon, but where is not very certain; 
though moft probably it was the prefent town of 
Banagher in the King's county i gs Banagher figni- 
fies alfo, the weftern habitation on the water, and 
is fituated in the ancient CoUidugatian^ the Scoiii 
of Richard* 



NUS, from Oan an uu^ that is the 
principal country of the water, an ancient diftridt 
in the county of Wcftmeath, fituated near the 

• CollcA.No» 4^ p. 569. 

37^ « I L 

KENRY, fee Brughrigh. 

KILDALUA, fecLoania. 

KIL©ARE, or Chille^dair, that is the wood of 
oaks. A large andent foreft, comprehending the 
middle part of tha prefent county of Kildare. In 
the center of this wood was a large plain, facrcd to 
heathen fuperftition, and at prefent called die 
Curragh of Kildare. At the extremity of this plain, 
about the commencement of the iixth century, St. 
Brigid, one of the heathen veftals, on her converfion 
to the Chriftian faith, founded with the alEftance of 
St. Conlseth, a church and monaftery, near which, 
after the manner of the Pagans, St. Brigid kept the 
facred fire in a cell, the ruins of which are ftill 
vifible. The church of Kildare was in a fhort time 
eredled into a cathedral, with epifoopal jurifdidlion, 
which dignity it retains to this day ; the cathedral^ 
however, has been for feveral years neglefted, and 
at prefent lies in ruins, little remaining befides the 
walls and a round tower. 

KILALOE, fee Loania. 

KILMACDUAGH, fee ChiUmacduagh. 

KILM ANTAN, from Ghille man tan, that is the 
wood of the narrow country ; an ancient wood in 
the diftridl of Cuolan» in which, on the fea coaft, 
ftood the Menapia of Ptolemy, now Wicklow. 

KILMORE, or the great church ; called in for- 
mer ages Clunes or Cluain, that is the fequeftered 
place ; fiiuated near Lough Ern. Here a church 
and bifhoprick were founded in the fixth century 
by St. Fedlimid, which was afterwards removed to 
an obfcure village called Triburna, where it con- 
tinued until the year 14541 when Andrew map 
Brady, bilhop of Triburna, eredtcd a church on the 

LAB 373 

Cte of that founded by St. Fedlimid to whofe me- 
mory it was dedicated, and denominated Kilmore^ 
At prefent there are neither cathedral^ chapter, nor 
canons belonging to this fee ; the fmall parifh 
church of Kilmore, contiguous to the epiftopal 
houfe, ferving for the purpofe of a cathedral.* 

KINEL-EOGHAIN, or the principal diftridi 'aij 
ancient territory, comprehending the prefent coun- 
ty of Tyro i.^ 

KNOCK- AINE, fee Carrap-fcar^idhc. 


lyABERUS, or Laberos^ an ancient city men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, and placed by him hear the 
river Boyne. Richard pf Cirtsncefter makes it the 
capital of the Voluntii. Laberus i$ evidently derived 
froni the ^neient Britiflj Lbq^ar^ whence Labberei^b^ 
a fpeaking place in the ancient Irifh language, figu- 
ratively, a place of parliament whtre the dates 
aflembled. The Laberus of Ptolemy >vas the hjll 
of Taraghi celebrated in the Irifh annals for being 
the place where fat the convention of Taragh, 
during the pagan times. This celebrated convention 
appears to have been originally inftituted by the 
Heremonian Belgians, on their firft fetdement in 
Ireland, about 350 years before the Chriftian qer^. 
During the Qontefts between the feveral Belgian 
and Caledonian fe^tlers, the dates feldom had the 
opportunity of aflembling at dated periods, until 
about the beginning of the fird century, when 
ponnar mor, called by feveral of the Irifh antiqua- 

• Hams's Ware, vol. i. p. 215, 

J7+ LEA 

tics, Concobar mac Niffdn^ by the advice of thearch- 
dtuid Caihbftd, called in fomeof the ancient poems 
Ollam Fodla, or the learned High Prieft, revived 
the inftitution. From which period the roonarchs 
of Ireland were oonftantly inaugurated on the ftone 
^ of Deftiny, crcfted on the hill near the Labhereigh, 
Until the reign of Derrtiod mac KeruaiU in 560 ; 
when the Chriftian clergy anathematized the place. 
From that time the ftates afTembled in the court of 
the palace of Taragh^ until the filial deftru£tion of 
that fortrefs by Brien Boromh, in 995. The Naaf- 
teighanand Labhereigh, where the ftates aflembled, 
are ftill vifible on the hill of Taragh. See Taragh * 

LABIUS} from abh uis^ or the diftrid of tjic river. 
A river mentioned by Richatd of Cireticefter; at 
prefent denominated the LifFeyt being a corruptioa 
from Labheigh, t,he Watery diftri£t 

LACHMANII, fee Lnchmanii. 

LAGEAN, or the level country, the fame as 
Hy Laoighis, which fee. 

LAMBAY, fee Lumni, 

LAVATH, from Labh ath, thfc (hallow water; 
a river which liTues from the weftern declivity of 
Mount Crommal, and falls into Lough Swilly. 
See Cromla. 

LEA, or the plain ; a diftrid on the river Ban 
in the county of Antrim. 
* trEABA-FEINE, that is the beds or graves of 
the nobles. A name given by the prefent inhaHt- 
ants to a fpecies of tombs appertaining to the 
Milefians, or ancient Iri(h noblefle; they confift in 
general, of immenfe rock ftones, placed on others, 

^ O'Conor*? Diflcrt. p, 13. 138* Baatcr'i Glofl: Wart. 

LEA ijs 

?ither upright, or kid flat, the coverihg ftone being 
placed fome horizontal, others inclined^ and often 
circumfcribed by a wall of loofe ftoaes. On feveral 
of thefe tombs, efpecially on thofe belonging to the 
Druids or Bards, are found infcriptions in fyn^bolic 
and alphabetic charafters, fpccifying the name and 
quality of the perfon interred. According to the 
Irifli antiquaries, this fpccies of tombs were intro- 
duced about the beginning of the third century, 
burning the dead having then been ' univerfally 
difcontinued throughout the ifland. * 


LEANA, or Leila, a lake in the north of Ire- 
land ; Leana or Lena fignifies the place of the 
waters^ and was moft probably I^ough Foyle. 

LEAN CLIATH, or the Fifliing Harbour; 
The prefent harbour of Dublin. Lean Cliath, or 
Learn Ciiath^ is derived from Lean or Learnt a 
harbour, and CJiatb' or OiM^ which literally fig- 
nifies a hurdle, or any thing made of wicker work ; 
it alfo (ignified certain wiers made of hurdles and 
placed in rivers and bays by the ancient Iri(h, for the 
purpofe of taking fifti. Whence any river or bay 
having thefe wiers placed in them, generally had 
the name of Cliath or Cliabh, added to them to 
fignify the cftabliftiment ef a fiftjery. Dublin, 
therefore, being originally built on, or near one of 
thefe harbours, Was anciently called Bally lean CUatb^ 
that is the town on the fifhing harbour, and not as 
frequently tranflated, the town built on* hurdles f. 

* Mc. Cutting Antiquitiei. Colle^iaDea, No. 5, 
t Baxter'! Gloff. Harris's. Ware, vol, |. 


LEANCORRADH^ or the harbour for boate; 
an ancient port on the Shannon near Killaloe. 

LEGH MOGH and LEGH CON, othcrwife 
written Leath Mogh and Leath Cuinn ; two an- 
cient grand divifions of Ireland made towards the 
clofe of the fecond century between Eogan More, 
furnamed Mogh Nuagad, king of Munfter, and 
Con, furnamed Ceadchathach, king of Taragh, 
ijividing the ifland into two parts by a line drawn 
from Atchliath na Mcaruidhe, now called Cla- 
rin*s bridge, near Galwsty, to the ridge of moun- 
tains denominated Eifgir Riada, on which Cluain- 
macnois and Cluainirard are fituated, and from 
thence to Dublin. The fouthern divifion was call- 
ed LeaghMogb^ or MogK's part, and the northern 
LcaghCuin or Conn's part. The intire country 
by this divjfion was divided into two governments ^ 
which by the continual contentions of the feveral 
chiefs fubfifted only fifteen years, though the names 
were retained for feveral ages after, the fouthern 
part of Ireland being frequently called Legb 
Mogh and the northern Legh Conn, down to die 
fourteenth century. 

JJBGO, w the lake, fituated either in the 
county of Rofcommon or Sligo. Lego appears 
alfo to fignify a country of lakes, and was one 
of the ancient names of the prefent county of Rof* 

LEIM CON, or the harbour of the Cape, now 

LEIM CUCHULLAN, or Leim na Con, that 
is the harbour of the principal cape or headland, . 
pr the harbour pf the c^e \ \i is po^ failed {^p 

L £ iS . I ^^^ 

Head or Cape Lean, at the mouth of the Shan- 

LEIX, fee Eilc ui Mordha. 

LENA, fee Moi Lena. 

LESSMORE, or Lips^mor, that is the great 
inclofure or habitation ; an ancient city and uni- 
vcrfity fituated on the banks of the Black water 
in the barony of the Decies, and county of Wa- 
terford. St. Carthagh, or Mochudu, in the be- 
ginning of the feventh century, founded an ab- 
bey and fchool in this place, which in a (hort 
time was much reforted to, not only by the natives, 
but alfo by the Britons and Saxons during the mid- 
dle ages. According to an andent writer of the life 
of St. Carthagh, LelTmor was in general inhabited 
by monks, half of it being an afylum into which 
no woman dare enter; confiding intirely of cells and 
monaderies^ the ruins of which with feyen churches 
are yet vifible \ a caflle was built here by king John. 
The fite of Leflraor was in the early ages denominat- 
ed Magh Sgiatb^ or the chofen field } being the 
fituation of a dun or fort of the ancient chieftains 
of the Decies, one of whom granted it to St. 
Carthagh on his expulfion from the abbey of Ra^ 
theny in Weftmeath. On becoming a univerfity, 
Magh Sgiath obtained the name of Dunfginne, or 
the fort of the Saxons, from the number of Sax- 
ons which reforted thereto, but foon after that of 
Lios-mor, or Leflmore. The biihoprick of Leflfmore 
was united to that of Watcrford in 1363, feven 
hundred and thirty years after its foundation f . 

'^ • Colka. No. 4. 
f Harris'* Ware, t. i. p. 599* 

Sjl L C 

LETHCATHEL.froro LeaCael, that it the 
wood of the jMain-, the prefent barony of Lecale 
in the c6unty of Down. See Dal Dichu. 

LETHMANNICC, fee Luchniaiiii. 

IiIBINtFS, from the old Briti(h IJvn la, the 
clear water ; a river jn the weft of Ireland menti- 
oned by f tolemy, and thought by Cambden to be 
Sligo rivpr, called by the Iri(h Slegacb, and by 
. Cambrpnfis Slicbnty. But: Rjchard of Qrenccftcr 
piakes it to he Clew Bay *, 

LIMNUS, feeLuijini. 

LiOSMORE, fee Leffmore. 

LOANIA, or the habitatidn on the wave, the 
prefent KiJaloe, or as it was anciently written 
Kill da Lua, that is the church of Lua, from Im 
or Mohia^ who about the beginning of the fixth 
century founded an abbey in this place. St.Molua 
appears to bive derived his name from Loania, 
the place of his refidence, as was cuftomary a- 
rpongft the ancient Irift. On the death of St. 
Molua, St. Flannan, his difciple and foil of the 

. chieftain of the diftrift, was cbnfecrated bifhop of 
Kill da Lua at Rome abdut the year 639 ; and 
the church endowed with confiderable eftatw by 
hi* father Theodorick. Towards the clofe of the 
twelfth century, the ancient fee of Rofcrea was 
united to that of Kilaloe. From which period 

LOCH, LOC, LUCH, Luigh, Loich; Lough, 
wordsf m the ancient Hiberno-Celtic tongue, fig- 

• Baxter's Cloffi Camden. Ware. 
t HamViWare, n p. j^. 

L O C J79 

nify a lake or a large piece of water^ and fome- 
times the Tea. 

LOCH CU AN, or the lake of the harbour ; the 
preient bay of Strangford. 

LOCH E AGHA, or Loch Neach, fo called from 
Locb a lake, and Neacb wonderful, divine, emi- 
nent or hisavenly, is by far the largeft undivided 
piece of water in Ireland, and fituated in the 
county of Antrim. Its petrifying powers are not 
inilantaneous, as feveral of the ancients have 
fuppofed, but require a long feries of ages to bring 
them to perfedlion^ and appear to be occafioned 
by a fine mud or land whidi infinuates itfelf into 
the pores of the wood, and which in procefs of 
time, becomes hard like ftone. Neacb lias been 
aflerted by (everal modern antiquaries to fignify 
a horfe, whence Loch Neach has been elegantly 
txanflated a faorfe-pond ; but Neach in the old Iri(Ti 
tongue never (igniiied a horfe > it has been fre- 
quiently indised ufed in that fenfe by feveral of 
the latter bards, as a metaf^or, though the ori^ 
ginal fignification w?s any tbtng po^k^ exceffenf (n- 

LOCH ERE, or the wcftcrn lake •, sjn ?mcicnt 
lake, where the city of Cork npw ft^nds. 

LOCH FEBHAIL, derived from Uch Bhiol, 
that is the lake of Seal ; basing facred in the times 
of HeatfaeniCm to pa^n fuperftiti6Q ; jt is at pre- 
fent called Lough Foyle, beiqg a corrpptip^ from 
Febhail or pbeal^ and is fituated in th# PPWPy of 

LOCHLANIC, fee Luchmanii. 

LOCH LEAN, 4?r the enclofed lake, frpm being 
furrounded by high mountains; the prefent lakes 

Sto L U B 

of KUlarney in the county of Kerry. Meiinius fayt 
that thefe lakes were encompafled by four 
circles of niiines ; the firft was of tin, the fecond 
of lead, the third of iron, and the fourth of cop- 
per. In the ieveral mountams, adjacent to the 
lakes, are ftill to be feen the vefiiges of the an* 
cient mines of iron^ lead and copper, but tin has 
not as yet been difcovered here. SilVer and gold 
are faid by ttie Iri(h antiquaries to have been found 
in the early ages, but this is fomewhat doubtfuli 
efpecially in any conGderable quantity, though 
fome filver probably was extracted from the lead 
ore, and fmall quantities of gokl might have been 
obtained from the yellow copper ore of Mucrufs« 
However in the neighbourhood of ^thofe lakes were 
found in the early ages as well as at prefent, peb- 
bles of feveral colours, which faking a beautiful po- 
li(h, the ancient Irlfti wore in their ears, girdles 
and in other articles of their drefi and furniture* 

LOCH NAIR, a lake in Mcatb, in which 
Turgefius was drowned f. 

LOCH NEACH, fee Loch eacha. 

LOGIA, froni the ancient Bfitifh LuguU or 
lake of fhe flowiitg waters ; figuratively, any ri- 
very bay, or harbour where the 'tide flows ; an 
sndent river in the north of Ireland nfientioned by 
Ptolemy ; thought by Baxter to be Lough Foyle, 
but by Ptolemy*s and Richard's charts, it is evi- 
dently the bay of Carrigfergus. 

LtJB AR, a river in the north of Ireland. Sec 

♦ Nexmii Hift. Britan. Ware. f Coikft. No. 4. p. 4^»- 

Luc iti 

LUCAKIj, or the people of the ixiaritime coun-^ 
try, from Luch^ a lake or the fea, and aneigb, the 
inhabitants of a country \ an andent people of Ire- 
landj mentioned by Richard of Cirenceftcr, and 
placed by him in the county of Kerry near Dingle 
bay* But Ptolemy calls them Luceni^ and they ap- 
pear to be the Lugadii of the Irifh writers ; vfhidt 
in a general (bnfe comprehended all the inhabitants 
bnthcfoutherncoaftsj from the harbour of Watcrford 
to the mouth of the Shannon ; though fometimea 
Confined to thbfe of the county of Waterford. Se^ 
Breoghain and Lugadii. 
LUCENI< fee Breoghain- 
liUCHMANII, Lochlanicc, Loch4anhach,Lach- 
maniiy and Leth-mannicc, names that frequently 
occur in the Irifh hiftories during the middle ages^ 
as a foreign people who arrived in different periods 
in this ifland. Who they ' were, and from what 
country they came, have, for fome tinle, been ^ 
fulqc£k of enquiry among the learned in antiqui- 
ties. But, without involving oUrfelved in a cloud 
of ufelefs erudition^ it will be fufficient to obferve^ 
that Lucbmanii^ Lacbmanii^ Lttbmannicc^ Locbhmnicc^ 
and Loeblamacb fignify, in the old Irifh and Celtic 
tongue^, feamen or mariners ; and are of 
the fame import as the Formorians and Ferhicb men- 
tioned in the old IriHi Poems. They derived 
their origin in reality from no particular countr)'^ 
' but were the merchants and feamen who vifited the 
coeifls of Ireland from the fecond century to the 
dofe of the ninth after the chriftian aftra, and whom 
the fcveral Irifh chiefs Trequeriily engaged to affifl 
them againfl their enemies during their ftay in thef 
Vol. III. No. XI. K 

582 L U M 

ifland. Thefe Luchmanii were of the feveral 
countries of Iberia, Gaul, Britain, Belgia and Scan- 
dinavia, all of which in different periods held oc- 
cafional commerce with Ireland *. 
LUENTUM, an ancient town or city in Britain, 
mentioned by Ptolemy. Luentum or Luentinum 
is evidently from Luen^ a harbour or bay, and 
dunum^ dittf a caftle or fortrefs; ^f/htncc LueHium 

^la^h^t^o ^^^ Luendum^ the habitation on the bay. It is now 
^L/a>u^ ^ut€^^GaX\t^ MSBBdSy or the place near the water, and 

7^^.^^^ Ca6r KeftvlL - or Caftle- town, and is fituated in 

^^^^;^/^^ orSliochtLugachmacflthy, that is, 

o^xM^^p^ fit the maritime race defcendants of the inhabitants on 
c^ CJ^^i&^ the water •, the ancient inhabitants of the prefent 
^i.^a.i^ -: — county of Waterford, called by Ptolemy Brigantes, 
and by the Irilh writers^ Slioght Breoghain^ (See 
LUG BHEATHAIL, fee Darabonisr. 
LUIGHNE, or the country of the lakes ; aft 
ancient diftrift in the fouth of the county of Sligo ; 
part of which is ftill retained in the prefent barony 
of Leyney. It was alfo denominated Hy Gmra^ 
or the diftridt of the land of waters, from contain- 
ing feveral lakes. The ancient chieftains were 
called Hy Yara, or O'Gara ; and the (ubordinate 
dynafts were O'Donogh and O'Hara, all of whom 
remained in poiTeiTion of their ancient territories at 
the beginning of the laft century. 
LUMNEACH-, the moft ancient name of the 
prefent city of Limerick. The word is derived 

• Collca. No. 4. Tacitus. Whitakcr^a Manchcftcr. 
O^Coaor'8 DifTcrt. f Baxter's GlofT. 

L U M 3J3 

from Luxm or Lkm^ a ftrand or port, and Neach 
eminent, whence Lumneach, by corruption Li- 
merick, the eminent port. Ptolemy calls it Md* 
colicum^ .which in the Cambric dialed of the Celtic 
tongue has nearly the fame fignification as Lum- 
neach. Lumneach during the firft ages of chrifti- 
anity was much frequented by foreign merchants,' 
and after the arrival of the Danes was a place 
jbf confiderable commerce until th6 twelfth century; 
It was plundered by Mahon, brother of Brien Bo- 
romh, after the battle of Sulchoid ift 970'; and 
Brien, in a future period, is faid to have exadted 
frgm the Danes of this city three hundred and 
fixty-five tuns of wine, as a' tribute : which, if 
true, (hews thecitenfive traffic carried on by thofe 
'people in that article. About the middle of th,i 
fixth centdry, St. Munchiri erefted a church and 
founded a bifhoprjck at Lumneach, which however 
was deftroyed by the Danes on their taking pof- 
fellion of this port in 853, and remaiAed in ruins 
until their converfion to the chriftian faith in the 
tenth century ; at which period the church of St. 
Munchin was rebuift and the blfhoprick reftablilh- 
ed. Donald O'Brien, about the time of the ar- 
rival of the Englilh, founded and endowed the 
cathedral ; and Donat O'Brien bifhop of Limericlc 
in the thirteenth century contributed much to the 
opulence of the fee. About the clofe of the twelfth 
century, the biflioprick of Inis-cathay was united to 
that of Limerick * ' , 

LUMNI, an ifland on the eaftern coaft of 
Ireland ; mentioned by Ptolemy, and called by 
Pliny Limnus ; Lumni or Limnus is evidently a cor^ 

^ CoUfeft; No'.* 4; Harris's Ware, ▼. i.^.^^tJ 
K z 

384 MAG 

ruption from the ancient Bricifh Lan riiii^ orintircly 
in the water ; being at fome diftance from the 
coaft. It is at prefent called Lambay, on the coaft 
of the county of Dublin *. 


JVIACOLICUM, an ancient Irifli city men- 
tioned by Ptolemy, and placed by him and Ri- 
chard of Cirencefter on the banks of the Shannon. 
The word appears to be a corruption from^ Jl£i;^- 
Oli cand^ that is the place of the principal ^arf 
or port, and was evidently therefore the dty of 
Limerick, the ancient Lumneacbi though Baxter 
endeavours to derive it from Magb CotUe can^ or the 
place of the principal wood ; whence"^ he thinks it 
may be the prefent city of Kilkenny. But Ptolemy 
was intirely ignorant of the [internal parts of this 
ifland. and none of our dcuneftic writers mention 
Kilkenny before the tenth century under any de- 
nomination whatever. 

MAGH, Mo/, Moi, Ma andMogh, in the old 
Iri(h, fignifieA a plain in general, and fometimes 
a field or open place free from wood; in which 
fenfe it was of the fame import as Savannah or 
lawn; and was by no means fynonimous to La* 
o^bis and Moan^ the firit fignifying a flat or level 
country, and the latter a bog or wet plain. 

MAGH-ADHAIR, or the field beyond the wcf- 
tern water ; A place in Thomond where the kings 
of north Munfter were inaugurated !• 

MAGH-ALL-LEIGH, fee Hy-Falgia. 

• Baxter*! Glofil f CoHeA. No. 4. 

MAG 385 

MAGH-BREG, or the field of the caftles, orfor- 
trefs i a plain round Taragh, in which was fitu- 
ated the raths or palaces of the monarchs of Ire- 
land, and of fcveral of the princes and chiefs. See 

MAGH-CAELLAGH, fecHy-Lcagh. 

MAGH-CIERNAN, fee Brefine, 


MAGH-COITLAN, fee Hy-Falgia and Hy- 

M AGH-CRU, or the field of murder^ a place 
in Conaught- Towards the clofe of the early ages, 
the ancient Irifti nobility diftinguifhed under the 
name of Milefians, by the flattery of the bards 
and other circumftances carried themfelves with 
great haijghtinefs towards the plebeians, not confi- 
dering them of the fame race, violating the chaf- 
tity of their wives and daughters with impunity, . 
and triumphing over their lives and properties ac** 
cording to their wills. The people had long groMi* 
ed under this tyranny of their chiefs without flfe 
power of rcdrcfs, as the arms were entirely lodged 
in the hands of the Milcfians, the lower orders not 
being allowed to bear any other weapons than 
flings and ftaves. However about the beginning 
of the firft century, Caibre called by hiftorians 
Cm Cmt or chief of the Scots, a herdfman in 
Conaught, having attained fome authority among 
' his brethern from the quantity of his poffeffions, 
was determined to attempt the deliverance of the 
people ; but as force could not be employed, re- 
courfe was had toftratagcm. For this purpofeCa- , 
ibre invited the principal chiefs to a grand enter- 
tainment at Magh-Cru on condition that they came 


unarmed, this term Jjeing aflentcd to, the plcbeiani 
during the feftival, fell upon the defencelefs no- 
bles and put them to death, fpaiing neither age or 
fcx. Such a maflacre fpread univerfaUonfternation 
throughout the iHand, and numbers of the Mile- 
lians fled to Britain and Gaul, whilfl others took 
refuge in unfrequented woods, leaving their raths 
or caftles tp the infurgents who ufurped the go- 
yernment pf the feVeral diftrjfts for near fifty 
years, but at length by the mediation of the Dru- 
ids, who were in the iqtereft of the Milefian race, 
an accommodation took place, on condition of the 
plebeian order receiving feveral privileges, and a 
fecurity being'given for their lives and poffeflfions, 
and thofe who had obtained any confiderable pro- 
perty in herds were entitled in feme meafure to the 
rank of Milefians. Bo that from this period wc 
may date the commencement of the emancipation 
of the old Irifh plebeian race ^. ' 

MAGH CUILAN, fee Dalnaruidhe, 

ft|AGH-DUINE, or the field or plain of the 
people, celebrated froni a battle fought there, be- 
tween Lachtna the brother of Brien Borumh 
againft O'Kloinn, about the year 953 f. 

MAGH-DUNEL; fee Dainaruidhe. 

MAGH-EAN, or the plain on the water; ^ 
plain between the river Erne and the bay of Done- 
gall. See alfo Deaflii, 

MAGH-FBMIN, derived from Magh^Bhoe- 
moin, or the plain or field pf the wet pjain for 
cattle ; comprehending all the boggy country 
round Ca(hel, v^herein the herds belonging to the 
kings of Cafhel were generally kept. 

• Keating. Leabhuir Lecan. 
t CoUcft. No. 4. p. 468. 

MAG 3S7 

MAGH-GAUROLL^ fee Brefine. 

M AGH-GENUISGE, fee Dalaradia and Damnii, 

MAGH-GUIUR, fee Fermanagh. 

MAGH-INIS, fee Dal-dichu. 

MAGH-LABHIA, or the plain of the watery 
diftrid ; being all the level country in the county 
of Dublin circunifcribed by the river LifFey. 

M AGH-LE AN A, or the plain of the level coun- 
try ; an ancient diftrift comprehending the greater 
part of the King's County, particularly that part 
denominated Hy-Allain, Hy-Fallia and Hy-Dam- 
feigh. See Hy-Fallia, Hy-Allain and Cromla. 

MAGH-NA-FEINE, fee Fearmuighel 

MAGH-NAY, w Magh-Neo, derived from 
Magb-Noadb^ that is, the inhabited plain or coun*^ 
try, comprehending the prefent county of Rofcom- 
mon, being the firft fettlement of the Belgic tribes 
in Gonaught, and in which the royal city of 
Croghan flood. See Atha. 

MAGH-RA-NALU fee Conmacne. 

MAGH.NEIRCE, fee Fearmuighc. 

MAGH-RIADA, or the tribe of the plain or 
Savannah, or rather the inhabited plain, from 
Magb a plain or open in a wood, and Riada a tribe 
or vaffals of a king or chief, figuratively the de- 
ixiefne of a chief ; The prefect heath of Marybo- 
rough in the Queen's County, the original demefne 
of the O'Mores, chiefs of Laoigbois or Leix ; in 
which was fought a memorable battle between the 
people of Munfter and thofe of Leinfter, under the 
command of Laoighois Ccan Mordha about the 
middle of the third century ; the bones of the flain 
being found at this day a few inches below th^ 

3S8 MAG 

furface of the ground on the borders of the heath * 
See Maiftean *. 

MAGH-SGIATH, fecLrifmore. 

MAGH-SLANE, Slane op the river Boync 
county of Meath f. See Ferta fir feic. 

MAGH-SLEUGHT, or Moy-Sleucht, that is 
the plain of the hoft or facrifice ; a place fuuated 
near Fenagh in the barony of Mohil, and couruy 
of Lcitrim, celebrated in the ancient Irifli poems 
for being the place where Tigernmas firft introdu- 
ced the worfliipof Crom or Fate, the principal deity 
of the Cambric Britons, which, fomefew years be- 
fore the birth of Chrift, was by their Druids intro- 
fluced into Ireland, This circumftance however fo 
difpleafed the ancient Hibernian Druids, the wor- 
Ibippers of Beal, that Tigernmas and his followers 
are (aid to have been deftroyed by lightning J. 

MAQH-TUREY, orMoy-Turey, derived from 
Magb-Toray or the high plain* There were two 
places under this name, the northern and fouthern; 
The fouthern Magh-Turey was in the county of 
GdlWay, not far from Lough -Malk, and iscele* 
brated in the Iri(h poems for being the fcenc of 
action between the Belgian and Danan or Caledo- 
nian Septs, about eighty or one hundred years 
before the chrift ian aera, in which the former were 
intircly defeated. 

The.nonhernMagh-Turey was fituated near Lough 
Arrow in the county of Rofcammon, fo denomi- 
nated from Tura an high hill or rock, being fur- 
rounded on all fides by mountains. It is celebrated 
for being the fcene of action between the Belgians 
and Fomorians on one fide, and the Danans on 

* Keatiug. f Annales Annon. 149. 

X O'Conor'8 Dlflcrt. p. 92. M^Curtin, 

MED gig 

4ht other, fomc few years before the birth of 
Chrift i in which the Belgians were again de^ 
fcated *. 

MAISTEAN, from Naajieaghariy .pronounce4 
Najfieaity that is the place of the aiTembly of the 
elders, the place where the dates of fouth Leinfter 
niet, it is the fame as Carmen/ which fee. Here 
a battle was fought about the middle pf the third 
century between the people of Munfter and thofe 
pf Leinfter under the command of Laoigbeis Caen 
Morc^ chief of Leix in the Queen's County. 
Laoigbeis according to Keating defeated the Munfter 
^rmy from the top of Maiftean to Athtrodain now 
Athy in the county of Kildare \ and purfued them 
into Leix, when the battle was renewed on the 
plains of Magb-Riada now the heath of Marybo- 
rough, where Laoigbeis obtained a fecond victory 
and drove the fugitives into their native country f . 

MAYO, cornipted from Magh Ut\ or the placp 
or field on the water; an ancient city and univer- 
(ity founded about the fixth century for the educa- 
tion of fuch of the Saxon youths as were converted 
to the chriftian faith. It was fituated a little to the 
fouth of Lough Con, in the county pf Mayo, and 
is to this day frequently called Mayo of the 
Saxons I, being celebrated for giving education to 
Alfred the great, king of England §. 

MEDINO, fee Miadhanagh. 

MEDIOLANUM, an ancient city or diftria in 
the county of Meath, thought -to be either Trim 
or Kells. The word appears to be derived from 
Madb by lanioiiy or the diftridt of the great plain of 

t P'Conor*8 Diffcrt. p. i66. 167. f Kcating's Hift. 
I Beda^, lib. 4. cap. 4. $ O'Conor's Diflert, 

fQo MIA 

the waters; and is moft probably, the prefent 
county of Weftmeath, called in former times Hy 
Magb lojcblin^ or the diftrift of the plain on the wa- 
iter ; the ancient chiefs of which were the O'Mac- 
laghlins kings of Meath, they were frequently 
cledted monarchs of Ireland during the tenth and 
eleventh centuries \ fome pf the Maclaghlins were 
in poffeffion of their ancient patrimony at the com- 
mencement of the laft century. This diftridt alfo 
in the early ages was denominated Co/man^ from 
CoiUemany or the woody country, whence the in- 
habitants obtained the name of Qan-Colman or the 
children of the woody country. 

lyiENAPIA, an ancient city mentioned by 
Ptolemy, and was the capital of the Mcnapii ; now 
Wicklow, the Euolenum of Probus. 

MENAPII, an ancient diflrid on the eaftern 
coafts of Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy. Mgna- 
pa is evidently derived from the old Britifh Mew 
ui poU^ that is, the narrow diftridt or country; 
comprehending that part of thq prefent county of 
Wicklow bet\yeen the mountains and the fea, call- 
ed by the Irifh writers Coulan^ or the narrow enclo- 
fed country. See Coulan. 

MIADHANAGH, written fometimes Medina 
and Meteno^ that js the principal or honourable 
country, the prefent county of Meath. This diftrid 
was the moft ancient fettlement of the Belgians in 
Ifeland, in confequence of which, the inhabitants 
were efteemed the eldeft and moft honourable tribe. 
From which feniority their chieftains were elected 
monarchs of lali the Beigs ; a dignity that was 
continued in the Hy nFaillian line without inter- 
ruption until the arrival of the Caledonian colonies 
under thjC name of Tuath de panan, whep Connor 

MIL 391 

laor chieftain of thefe people, obtained or rather 
.ufurped the monarchial throne, ohWgxng Ecgbacb 
Bbcidacby or Eochy Failhib, with feveral of his peo- 
ple to crofs the Shannon and eftablift themfelves 
in the prefent county of Rofcommon, where Crothar 
founded the palace 'of Aiha or Croghan. A cir- 
cumftance whicii brought on a loi)g and bloody 
war between the Belgian and Caledonian races, 
which was not finally terminated until the clofe of 
the fourth century, when the Belgian line was 
reftored in the perfon of O'Niall the great, and con- 
tinued until Brian Boromh ufurped the monarchial 
dignity by depofing Malachy O'iVlalachlin, about 
the year I GO I. 
MILEDH, a people mentioned frequently in 
the ancient Irifh poems and aflerted by the more 
modern antiquaries to have been MileGans, a fup- 
pofed people from Spain, defcended frona the anci- 
ent Carthaginians, who under the conduft of Heber 
and Hercmon, fpn? of Milefiup, a prince of that 
country, about the fourteenth century before Chrift, 
arrived in fixty (hip? on the coafts of Ireland, and 
cftabliflied a numerous colony therein. Though 
Irifh hifiorie^ and chronicles of the latter ages are 
very circumftantial on this fubjeft, yet the more 
.ancient fpeak but imperfectly concerning it. The 
truth is, the whole ftory appears to have origina- 
ted froip fome aflertions in the ancient druidic hif- 
toric poems, about the beginning of the eighth 
century. In thefe works, part of which is pre- 
fervcd, in the Leabhuir Leacan, frequent men- 
tion is made of Miledbjlhcbt Ftne and Miledb Ef- 
paine^ as ancient inhabitants of Ireland. The old 
pagan Irifti language, had in a great meafure be- 
come pbfplete in the eighth century, and a num- 

$(iz MIL 

bcr of exprcflions in the ancient poems were in that 
period not underftood. M/edb or mBealadb Fene^ 
therefore by the chriftian clergy of the middle ages, 
were interpreted Milefius the Phcenician, as it has 
fome refemblance to Milefius the Phoenician who 
fettled on the weftem coaft of Spain about the 
fourteenth century before the chriftian «ra. 
The word Mtkdb is evidently derived from 
mBeakdb^ that is, the worftiippcror dcfcendant of 
Beal, figuratively a nobleman or Druid ; Fene^ as 
we have obferved under that word, is a learned or 
wife perfon, whcnc Miledh Fene fignifics a learned 
tiobleman or Druid \ and Mikdb SUogbt Fcnc is the 
learned noble race. In the fame manner, Miledh 
Eafpainne, the fonof Golarn, under whofe conduA 
the Iberians fettled in the fouth of Ireland, is fup- 
pofed to fignify Milefius the Spaniard ; but 
Ea/p^nej Efpaine or Hefpin in the old Celtic tongue 
fjgnifiedany naked, barren or dry place i and fre- 
quently a barren rocky or mountainous xxmntry ; 
Whence Miledh Efpainne Mac Golarn^ fignifics the 
nobleman from the barren mountainous country of 
the Gael. From thisconfidcration it is evident, that 
the Milefians who have made fo confiderable a 
figure in the Iri(h annals during the latter ages 
were Britifh colonifts, who under the conduit of 
their druids and chiefs, fled from the terror of the 
Roman arms, at the commencement of the firft 
century. As to the three fons of Milefius, fo much 
fpoken of, they were no other than the different 
colonies of the Gael inhabiting the feveral parts of 
the ifland, fo denominated from their fituation, as 
Heremon the wc^rn country, Heber or the moft 
weftern countiry, &c. From the word Efpainne 
being annexed to fome of the emigrants it is proba* 

M O €r j93 

ble they came from the mountains of Wales, in the 
weftern coaft of Britain*. See Bolga, Heremoniii 
Fene, Scoiteigh and Hy-Failgia* 
MILVIGR, of the fame fignification as Miledh. 
MB-SLI ABH, or mountains of the Moon, from 
A//, Mios or Mis the moon, and Sliabh a mountain. 
There are two mountains under this denomination, 
one in the county of Antrim where St. Patrick kept 
the fwine of his mafter Milco \ the other in the 
county of Kerry near Tralce bay, where according 
to Keating Eadbna Dearg^ a king of muniler, Ues 
buried who died of the plague a (hort time after he 
had erefted the firft mint for the coinage of money 
at Airgtod Rofs. Thefe mountains are called Mis^ 
probably from an adoration paid to the moon there- 
on, by the pagan inhabitants f. 
Moan, fignifiies a bog or wet plain. 
MODONUS, derived from Mogk Dun uife^ or 
the river of the mountainous country, an ancient 
river mentioned by Ptolemy and thought by Cam- 
den to be the river Slany, in the county of 
Wicklow, as it rifes in the mountains ; though 
Baxter endeavours to derive it from the old Britilb 
M)don uifc^ or the deep river, a quality which 
certainly does not belong to the Slany unlefs it ber 
in confequence df its courfe lying through deep and 
dark valties. 
MOGH, Magh, Mabh or Moghum, from wOgh 
or mOgbim^ that is wifdom or fruitfulnefs, whence 
Magh a plain or place capable of producing the 

* CCooor's Dlflcrt. Baxter's Gloff. Keating. McCurtin, 
t Keating. Life of St* Patrick, ao<i ValliDcey't Eflay on* 
the Cekic language. 

394 Kl d G 

Vegetable produdtlons of the earth. In the old Iriitr 
and Celtic mythology the chief of the Genii who 
prefided over the various prod\i6tions of nature* 
and fignified the genial influence of ilie fun or that 
univerfal \i^ivifying fpirit which exifts throughout the 
univerfe, being fuppofed to nourilh and bring forth 
the animal and vegetable prqduftions of the earth. 
This divinity received feveral names according to 
the different departments it was fuppofed to occupy ; 
when confidered as the adive principle of nature, it 
was denominated Mogb or wifdom, being the fame 

. as the Greek Minerva or Pallas ; when the earth or 
mother of nature, it was denominated by the Irifti 
T'/acbi and Eadbna^ by the Britons Andate^ by the 
Greeks Ccres^ Cybele and l^efta^ by the Perfians 
jfftartty by the Egyptians Ifis^ by the Italians Ops^ 
by the Sam6thracians Cbm, and by the Saxons' 
l^qftar* When prefiding over the fcwrefts and chief 
of the Fiodb RJbebc^ it was denominated by the Irifli 
Mabb^ by the Greeks Dianay and by the Romans 
Pan. When confidered as the genius of Plenty, it 
was called by the Irifti Sckam ox Satbaran^ being 
the Saturn of the Greeks and Romans, and when 
taken for the influence of the folar rays, it was de- 
nominated by the Irifh Mortinne or the great or 

. good fire, being the Mercury of the Greeks and 
Romans. See TJachgo, Mogh-adair, Mabh, 
6aturn, Eadhna and Mortinne *. 

MOGH-ADAIR, or Magh-adair, that is the 
fanftuary of the wife divinity of the tombs, being 
temples or fancluaries dedicated to Mogb or Sodorti 
and the manes of heroes. They were fituatcd 

* Vallanccy*8 cffay on the Celtic language. Juricu's critical^ 
hiftory of the church, tol. ad.' 

M .6 S9S 

either on plains or hills^ biit mod generally on fruit- 
ful places in the centre of woods, and were difFer- 
eintly conftrufted. Some confided of circular areas 
furrounded with upright anomalous ftones ; in the 
centre of which was placed an altar, whereon facri- 
fices were offered, as is evident from the [remains 
of feveral ftill vifible in different parts of Ireland, 
particularly near Bruff in the county of Limerick; 
New Grange in the county of Meath, and Slidery 
Ford in the county of Down. In other places they 
confifted of circular rows of upright Hones inclofmg 
an altar and accompanied by a conical mound of 
earth or ftone, the whole circumfcribed by a ram^ 
part and ditch, as is feen at this day at Skirk in the 
Queen's County. All thefe fandtuaries were ceme- 
teries and fepulchres, the dead being interred under . 
the mound^ akar and upright Hones ; as is 
evident by humran bones or urns being conftantly 
found under fuch as have been opened. 
The facrifices performed in thefe fandluaries were 
at the time of the Bealtinnes, on the eve of war 
and return from victory. The viftims were in 
general deer, oxen and captives taken in war; the 
ceremonies ufed here being, the fame as thofe ob- 
ferved at the feftivals of Ufneach, Tailtean and 
Tlachgo in honour of the fun, moon and univerfaf 
nature. It was here as on the top of the Cairns and 
TumuU that thofe flept who confulted the manes 
of their ancefltors who wlere fuppofed to inform 
them either by dreams or vifions of circumftances 
relative to the future events of their life. Here 
alfo reforted the Druids whofe bufinefs was to 
divine by dreams and vifions of the night, the 
g^ofe of the departed being fuppofed to vifit the 

^g6 MOM 

places of their iriterment, and inform their dcfccn- 
dants of the tranfadtions of ages yet to come. 
Whence is deiivcd the notion of Speflrcs and Ap- 
paritions fo prevalent among the lower orders of 
the people at this day *• 

MOI-LENA, or the plaih or opteh country on 
the bay or gulph of the fea \ fituated in the dif- 
tridk of Inis Owen near Lough Foyle. 

MOIN^N A-INSEIGH, or the iflands of the bog, 
called by Cambrenfxs Incbinemeo^ox the divine Iflands; 
fituated about three miles from Rofcrea, in the 
county of Tipperary. In this place, formerly in 
the bofom of a large wood, a monaftery of Coli- 
dci, was founded in the tenth century ; the ruins 
of which cotififting of the priory church and two 
other churches are ftill Vifible. 

MOIN-MOR, or the gteat bog, all that mafftiy 
ground near theprefent city of Cork; being part 
of the ancient Corcaluighe and celebrated from 
being the field of battle between Mortogb O'Brien 
king of Thomond and Dermod Mac Cafthy, 
king of Defmond in 1151, when Mortogh wa« 
llain with the principal Dalotilian nobility f • 

MOM A, fecMuma. 

MOMONII, the ancient inhabitants of the pre- 
fent province of 'Munfter. The word appears to 
be derived from the old Celtic or Britifti words MiA 
a region and Mam maternal, whence Mouman or 
Momon 2l maternal or aboriginal country. This part 

* Mc. Curtm's Ant. Jurieu's critical I11& ofthe clmrcb, 
▼ol. 2. ColkAaneay No. 5. Vallaacey's Eflay oa t^t 
Celtic language. 

t CoUeft. No. 4; p. 5804 

MUM S91 

of Ireland being principally inhabited by the Nc 
mttba who retired from the Bolgac on thetr fet- 
tltracuscit 'mHeremoniiZ^ the preient Leinfter, about 
three hundred and fifty years before Chrill; 
we find in all the ancient Iriih liiftories the 
ibuthern parts of the ifland denominated Mum- 
ban or the country of the Aborigines^ and the in- 
habitants in confequence thereof called Muaxhanii 
or Momoniiy that is the Inhabitants of the country 
of the Aborigines *. See Neraethce, Bolga^ and 
MOR, the fca, or any large extenfive piece of 

water. See Virgivium mare. 
MOR-BHERGUS, fee Virgivium mare. 
MOR-WERIDH, ot JMbr GUerydk, in the old 
Britilh figniBes the wellern or lri(h fea ; at pre- 
fent denominated St. Geurge*s channel f. 
MOY, feeMagh. 

MUDHORN, 0r high land, the prcfent barony 
of Mourne in the fouth of the county of Down ; 
Here St. Jarlavh the fecond biftiop of Ardmagh 
was born. 
MULLABHCX5HAGHi or the promontory on 
the water/ or river of iflands; the prefent Miflen 
Head -, the Atiftrinum rf Ptolemy, which fee. 
MUM A, or M6lna, from the old CtKic J[^Iwn mou\ 
or the place or fanduaryof the great mother; a 
cave celebrated for Druidic myftic rites, facred to 
mother Ops, or Aonach, in which the chiefs of the 
Bolgac met on any emergency, to confult the manes 
of their heroes. It was moft probably the Dmm-^ 

* Baxter't GlolL Brit. Keating^ 
t Baxtcr'8 Gloff. 

Vol. III. No. XI. L 

598 MOM 

Druid of the Irifti writers ; fituated at Croghan, 
between Elphin and Abby Boyle. 
MUMHAN, the moft ancient name of the pro- 
vince of Munfter; derived from the old Celtic 
Mammon^ or the country of the great mother. All 
theCeltic tribes^ in general, denominated themfclvcs 
" not from their chieftains, as commonly fuppofedi 
but either from their fituation, or objedl of religion. 
The principal objefts of adoration amongft them, 
were firft, Fate, or Providence, under the names 
of Cromy Critriy or Crum. Secondly, the fun or ele- 
mentary fire, confidcred as the afitive principle of 
nature, under the names Baal^ Seal and Bol^ or 
Heulj till and 0//. Thirdly, The earth or univcrlal 
nature, confidered as the paflive prineiple, or great 
mother \ under the feveral names of Mmmai^ 
Atna^ Anuntj Anagb^ Aonagh^ Ops and SibboL Thofe 
who confidered Fate as their object of adoration, 
denominated thenifelves Crombrsij or CrMrih as 
thofe who inhabited the weilern coafts of Belgium. 
And thofe, as the aboriginal Britons, who confidered 
the fun as the principle, denominated themfelves 
Bolgs^, Bealadh and UUadh ) whilft thofe who 
thought the earth moft worthy of efleemf deno- 
minated themfelves Mamanagh, or Mamonii, that 
is, children of the earth, or great mother. Tbej 
moft andent inhabitants of the fouth of Ireland^ 
derived their origin from the ancient Silurcs, who 
inhabited the fouthern coafts of Britain, and tho' 
of the Belgian faith, principally adored Manrn^ or 
the great mother % whence they in particular, 
diftinguifhed themfelves by the name of Momonii» 
and on their atrival in Ireland gave their divifion 
the name of Moma, or Mumhan^ a name which 

N A S . 59^. 

fs llill retained in the prefent name of /Murifter, 
comprehending the counties of Waterford^Cork, 
Limerick, Tipperary, Kerry and Clare; divided, 
during the latter ages, into Defmond^ or fouth Mun- 
iler ; Ormond or eaft Munfter ; and Tbomgndi or 
north Munfter* See Bolgap, Miledh. Defmond 
and Thpmond. 

MURI, a ceicbrated Druidic academy in thci 
north of Ireland, at or near Ardmagh. . 

MUR-OLLAVAIN, or the fchool of the learned 
high.priefti a celebrated academy of, the arch* 
druid'held at Taragh; ^refted about the time of 
the cftablifliment of the convention, and which 
gave rife to thpfe of Eamania, Crqachain and 

MUSGRUIDHE, n6w the barony of Mufgry in 
the county of Cork^ in which is fituated the Muffiry 
mountains, near Macroomp, on which Mahon,^ the 
brother of Brien Boromh, was flain, at the [dace 
called Leacbt Mbagbtbambnd^ or Mahon's Grave^ 
about the year 976. J 



f, or the place of the elders 5 now Naas 
in the county of Kildarc, where the dates of 
Leinfter aflFembled during the fixth, feventh and 
eighth centuries after theNaafteighan of Carmen had 
been anathematized by the chriftian clergy. 

♦Batt^'sGloff. q^Conor'sDiffcrt. WhiUkcr*s Mawbcfter^ 


40O N E M 

NAGUATiE, derived from naGatiaegK « ^^ 
habitation on the fea ; an ancient diftrift in the 
weft of Ireland mentioned by Ptolemy,, and cot- 
ruptly written in fome of his copies Nagnai^^ it 
was called by the old Irifh Sliogbt Gae^ or the race 
on the fea ; the prefent county of Sligo. 

NEM, divine or excellent ^ the poetic name of 
the river Blackwater. 

NEMETHiE, pronounced Mmut or Nonuty 
from the old Celtic Men or Noit a country., and 
Mam or Mie maternal, whence Momse or Noms 
original people ; the aboriginal inhal^tants of Ire- 
land according to the moft ancient poems and 
hiftories. They appear to be the fame as the Par- 
tholanii and are faid to be antecedent to the BoIg£ 
being ibme of the aboriginal cfans of Britain who 
tranrmigrated to this ifland before the arts (^ dvil 
life fadd made any confiderable prc^efain the wef- 
tern parts of Europe ^ for according to the Ih(h 
bards they fubfifted entirely by the chace and on 
the fpontaneous produ£tion& of the earth. In their 
time the Fomboraicc or Punic traders arrived on the 
coaft of this ifland about five hundred years before 
the chriftian aera under the conduA of Midacritus ; 
a circumftance which in fome meafure afcertains 
the period in which Ireland firft obtained its inha* 
bitants. For allowing two hundred years from the 
arrival of the Nemetba to that of the Rmhraicc^ 
feven hundred years before Chrift will be had for the 
firft arrival of the Celtic tribes on the Hibernian 
coafts. On the arrival of the Bolgs in Leinfter^ 
the ancient Heremoma^ numbers of the Nemeths 
retired into the fouthern parts»^ which to tMsday 
bears their name in th^ prefent province of Mun- 

O I G 40f 

iler ^. See Bolgs, Momonii, Partholanii and 
nameof a promontory in the fouth of Irelandg tStnr 
tioned by Pcolemy, and thought by Camden to be 
Beer Head ; but moft probably it was Miflen Head, 
at the entrance of Dunmanus Bay. Notium is 
derived from Nodut\ or the fortrefs on the water ^ 
being a rath or caftle of fome of the lri(h chiefs 
erected for the greater convenience of traffic with 
foreign merchants; it is the Aujirinum of Richard. 

O) fee Hy. 

OBOCA, the ancient name of a river or bay 
in the eaft of Ireland, mehtioned by Ptolemy, 
thought by Camden and Richard of Cirejncefi^ir to 
be Arklow river. QlxDca is evidently derived 
from the old Britifh Aviicbj or the opening of the 
water % it moft probably therefore was the bay of 
Dublin; as the foreign merchants, from whom 
Ftolen^y received his account of thefe idands, fel- 
dom vifited « fuch obfcure rivers, as that of 

OFFALLY, fecHyFalgia. 

OIGH-MAGH, that is the plain or refid<indcof 
the champion or chief ^ now Otnagh in tbe county 
of Tyrone, "one of the ancient raths t>r caftles of 
the old chiefs oF that country. 

♦ Keating, OTlalietty, Baxter'* XMofl; Brit. PUft. 1. 7. <r. 
^6, HcroOt pi 25+* 

404. O L N 

OILEACH, a rath or palace of the O'Neals, 

three miles from Derry, the fame as Aikacb ; which 

^Tee-.'-'* • 

ORGIEL, Oriel and Uriel, derived from Oir 

Caily or the eaftern Cagl j an ancient extenfive dif- 

• tritft' comprehending the prefent counties of Louth, 

Monagnanand Ardmagh, governed by its proper 

• kih^, fubjedl fp fottic refpedsto the fuprerae mo- 
narch. The fovereigntly of this diftrift was gene- 

"tiflly jJiVefVed in the^fdmily* of the O'Carrols, he- 

• redrrd^y chieftains of'Hy Cairol. 
OIRTHER, or the eaftern country; a diftri(a 

in the fouth of the county of Ardmagh, it was aifo 
denominated Hy An-lan^ or the'' diftridl on the ri- 
ver, the hereditary chiefs of which were the Hy 
AnlaiT corruptly O'Hanlon; fomcj of whom were 
Xifii poflefIfetti()f-thelt" ftncierit patrirti'oliy at ihecom- 
f meho^meiit of 'the lafticeiitury. 
OLNEGM:ACHT, <)r Alnectnacht,' that is, the 
' habibttoph^of the chief tribe of \\\t "Belga or Bolgtt^ 
thi-'aiiiSSnt-nahie of 'Gdrtaught ; comprehending 
the prefenit^'counties of "Rofcomraon, GaJwiy, Sligo 
af?*Mr^6! <Thls protirfce-probabiy bbt4i*icd this 
• ]l)enbttlintit?clh on the rdreat of thrlBbI|aE: fixJm the 
•' Tti*^ de Datiarns,- pt'Caredonian trfces, 'on their 
arrival in Ulfler, about the commencement of the 
firft century prior to tfie.Ch>iftian«fa. It was aifo 
'^-x^Ua3rJe^^Jm1«thfie•qrCb*nrn .that is 

v:tbe jcbibf fiiace, frfem a Sept of .thatina^nste Jnha- 
'..tHtirlgorhif prefent :cdunty:x)f Rofcomrnon ; the be-' 
reditary chiefs of which were^ for. feveialag^s, 
kings of Conaught, tp whom were tributary the 
% apcibot- tfribes of : SU<^bt:,G.Ky Gfi^mmd(^^y Aforjfr, 
Galeng^ Chnmacne cuilt ola with tbeff fuSoidinatq 

O S R 403 

diftrids. The government of the Olnegmachts 
was founded by Eoghy Fealogh or Crothar, on his 
fettlement at Croghan, about the time of Auguftus 
Cxfar. See Conmacne Cuilt ola, Atha and Ciog^ 

ORMOND, fecAra. 

OSRAIGH, derived from t^x raigagh^ or the 
kingdom between the water, the prefent Oflbry, 
called 2\{6HyPau driiig^ or the diftrid of the coun- 
try between the rivers ; this diftrirt originally en- 
tending through the whole country between the 
rivers Nore and Suire ; being bounded on the 
north and eaft by the Nore, and on the weft and 
fouth by the Suire. The hereditary chiefs of which 
were denommzitd Giolla-Padruic^ or the chief of 
the country between the rivers; called alfo Mac 
Gilla Padruic, thefe princes make a confiderable 
figure in the ancient Iri(h hiftory ; and one in par- 
ticular diftinguifhed himfelf in the fervice of his 
country againft the Englifti on their firft invafion. 
In an early period they were difpoffefled of part of 
tbdr patrimony by the kings of Cafhel ; and the 
fouthern parts' were occupied by the Butlers and 
other EngHfti adventurers j but the northern re- 
mained to the original proprietors ; who on their 
conneftion with the Englilh took or changed their 
name to Fitz Patrick, whofe defendants, to this 
day, enjoy a large landed property in the domini- 
ons of their anceftors, with the title of Earl of Upper 
Oflbry. Oflbry is at prefent part in Leinfter and 
part in Munfter, being fituated in the counties pf 
Kilkenny, Tipperary and the Qiieen's county. 
During the middle ages it fometimes was tributary 
to «^ king's of Munfter and Leinfter alternately, 
gs circumftances admitted, but the chieftains coa« 

4i34 P H iE 

fl:antly derived their origin from the Heremonian 
race, and not from the Heberian. 
OVERNIA, feeEiroim 

PaRTHOLANI, the ancient inhabitants of 
Ireland, mentioned by the bards^ and (aid to havp 
been colonies prior to the arrival of the Bolgse. All 
knowledge of thefe people are loft, as well as that 
oE the Nemethae. They probably were feme of 
the' aboriginal Britons, and arrived in this ifland 
about the time of the Nemethse, that is, in the 
beginning of the fixth century, prior to the ChrifUan 
aera. Partholani feem to be derived from Bboerijs 
ian-w\ or herdfmen from beyond the great wafer j 
they being perhaps^ the firft colony which intio- 
duced cattle into this country. 

PHENE ACHUS, or the learned code ; the code 
of laws ena^ed by the convention of Taragh, atid 
written on tables bjf wood, much celebrated in 
IrHh poems. 

PHiENrCIANS,th€ inhabitants of Ph»nicc, the 
ancient Canaan ; who in an early period eftablifliec] 
colonies on the eaftern coafts of Spain, (the ancient 
J eria) and at Orthage ; and about 600 years 
before the Chriftian afcra, obtained poflellion of the 
weftern coafts of Spain. The later writers on I'st 
antiquities of Ireland, have fuppofed, from 1. .tfa/ 
exprelfions in the ancient poems and tradit^oTus, 
that conGderable colonies of thefe people in a vtry 
early period fettled themfelves in this idand. The 
^ircumftanccs which have led the learned ir o this 

P H JE 405 

opinion, is the word Pbene or Fene^ bfeing frequently 
found in the compofnibns of the ancient bards, 
and which have been fuppofed to fignify the 
Phoenicians. Phene, we have fliewn under that 
word, imports a learned or noble perfon, and can 
have no relation to either the Phoenicians or Cartha- 
ginians. Thefe people^ were indeed, frequently 
denominated Pani and Pbanices^ by the Greeks and 
Romans, though they conflantly diftinguifhed 
themfelves by the name of Canaicb^ or merchants 4 
the ancient Iriih therefore mud either have fpoken 
of them under the denomination of Canaith, mer* 
diants, or Fombcrcdcc fearrien or rovers ; and Fom- 
horaicc they are adtually called in the old traditions. 
Though there is the greateft probability tliat the 
Funic traders during their commerce with Britain, 
frequently vifited this ifland, yet wc arc intirely 
igpocant in*refpe(ft of the colonies eilabli(hed, or 
the improvements introduced into the country by 
fuchanintercourfe. At the period the Carthaginians 
(difcovered the iflands of Britain, the arts of civil 
life had made confiderabie pro^efs among the 
Phoenicians and their colonies, on the coailsof Spain 
and Africa \ cfpecially in architecture,, aflrotiomy 
and letters ( if therefore any colonies had been 
efiabliihed in Ireland, we may fuppofe fome remains 
of their buildings would have been vifible at this 
day ; but in the counties of Clare and Kerry, where, 
according to the ancient poems, the Fomhoraicc 
nioftly frequented, no veftiges of any monument 
of antiquity that can with any degree of propriety 
be attributed to the Phoenicians, are to be difcovered j 
whence we may reafonably fuppofe, thefe ancient 
iperchants only occafionally vifited the coails of 

4o6 FOR 

Ireland, and traded with the barbarous natives, for 
filh, (kins and fuch other articles of commerce, as 
tlie ifland then produced; whilft Britain, on account 
of its valuable mines of tin, remained the principal 
place of rendezvous, and where fome fmall factories 
probably were eftabliflied, for the convenience of 
trade. This trade, however, was aboHlhed, about 
the dofe of the fecond Punic war, on t||e deftnic- 
tion of Carthage, and the conqueft of Spain by the 
Romans, but was at length reftored by the Maffy- 
lians, who carried on a confiderable commeroe with 
the Britifh ifles, until the arrival of the Belgae under 
the condudt of Divitiacus, about lOO years before 
the Chriftian aera, wlicn on the conqueft of Corn- 
wall by thofe people, the ancient Silures, with the 
foreign merclmnts eftabliftied among them, were 
obliged to quit their native country, fome fledacrofe 
the Severn into South Wales, whilft others took 
refuge in the fouthern and weftern parts of Ireland, 
and were dtftinguiflied by the Irifh bards by the 
names of Heberii, Dergtenii, &c. See Heberii, 
Fomhoraicc, Breoghan and Dergtenii. 

PHENU, or the learned race ; a people men- 
tioned by the ancient bards, and by them faid to 
be the people who introduced letters into this coun- 
try. They were evidently the Druids, who en- 
grofled all knowledge amongft the ancient inhabit- 
ants of thefe iflands, and who retired in great 
numbers into Ireland, from Briton, foon after the 
arrival of the Romans *. \ 

PHENIUSA-FARSA, fee Feniufa-Farfa, 

PORTLARGI, fee Cuanleargi. 

^ O'Cpnor'a Diflert, 

RAT 407 


RaBIUS, fee Rhebius, 

RACHLIN, fee Riccina. 

RACHREA, fee Riccina, 

RAITH, fee Rath. 

RAPHOE, fee Rath-both, 

RATH, Raith and Rha, a caftle or fortrefs of 
the ancient IrHh chiefs ; confifting of an area, fur- 
rounded by a ditch and a rampart of earth, in which 
were erefted palaces and other buildings ; it figni- 
fics alfo, any habitation. 

RATH-ASCULL, fee Coalan. 

RATH-BOTH, or the Rath or village of cot- 
tages, from Ratbj a fortrefs, fenced place, or village, 
and Both or Boith a cottage ; fuuatcd near Lough 
Swilly, in the county of Donegall, and is the prefent 
town of Raphoe, Here a bilhoprick was founded 
by St, Eunan, about the middle of the fixth cen- 
tury, and a cathedral was ereded on the ruins of 
the church of St. Eunan, in the eleventh. Patrick 
Magonail, bifhop of Raphoe, built three epifcopal 
houfes in 1 360 ; and bifhop Pooley, by will, be- 
queathed jC'2oo, for repairing the cathedral ; which 
money was applied by his fucceffbr. They ftiew 
ftill the bed of St. Eunan, and within thefe few 
years, a round tower was Handing on a hill in 
which the bifhops of Raphoe kept their ftudies, 
A celebrated crofs, famous for the performance of 
miracles, flood in the cathedral, but was about 
the year 143 5^. removed to Ardmagh, by biihop 
P^GalcHor* • ' ' * ' * 

* Efarris's Ware, vol. i. 

4o8 RAT 

RATH-INBHER, or the fortrefs at the m6uth 

of the river. A caftle of the chiefs of Croich 
Coulan, at the mouth of Bray river. Here Saint 
Patrick was refufed admiflion by the Pagan inha* 
bitants on his arrival to convert them to the chrif- 
tian faith *. 

RATH-KELT AIR, or Rath-Coilletar, that is, 
the fortrefs of the woody country. It was the 
caftle and principal refidence of the chiefs of the 
Ulleigh or Ulidiii and was fituated near Down- 
patrick, in the barony of Lecale^ and county of 
Down, in the ancient diifaridt of Dal-Dichu. The 
dilches and ramparts of this ancient fortrefs are re- 
maining to this day, and occupy near two acres of 
ground. It was probably eredted by the chiefs of 
the Ulleigh on their firH eftablilhment in this coun- 
try, feme few years before the birth of Chrift. 
On the arrival of St. Patrick^ this rath was inhabi- 
ted by Keltair mac Duach, chieftain of this diftrid, 
who granted a place for the. building of a church on 
a hill called Dun, and from which Down has ob- 
tained its prefent name* The church of Down 
was made a bilhoprick by St. Cailan, about 499. 
See Dunum, Dal Dichu, Dal Riada, and I>un- 
nij t- 

RATHXEAN, or the fortrefs on the water j 
tHe caftle and refidence of the ancient chieftains 
of Ibhe-Eachach X* 

RATH-LURE, fee Ardfrath, 

* Harris's Ware, ▼ol. i. p. 12. 

t Harris's Ware, vol. i. p. 193. and Hift* Co. Dow*. 

t Collcft. No. 4. p. 569. 

R E L 409 

RATH-MOR-MUIGHE-LINE, or the great 
rath or fortrefs near the water ; the royal feat of 
the kings of Dalnaruidhe, in the county of An- 
trim, fituated on tfie river Ban, and was probably 
the Rhoboghdiu of Richard of Cirencefter, and the 
prefent Coleraine |1. 

RATH-NA NURLAN, or the fortrefs of the 
clay or boggy country ; a caftle of a dynaft on 
the plains of Cafhel, where Lorcan halted on bis 
vifit to Cormac, king and archbilhop of^Cafh- 

REGIA, or the royal refidence; an ancient city 
in the north of Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy ; 
it was evidently the prefent Cloghcr, the rath or pa* 
lace of the ancient kings of Ergall, before which, 
St. Patrick diredled Macartin to build a monafter}^ 
which afterwards became a bifhoprick. ' 

REGIA ALTERA, or the high habitation of 
the king v ^n ancient city in the fouth of Ireland^ 
mentioned by Ptolemy, and feems to be the fame 
as Brughrigh, capital of Cairbre- Aobhdha ; fee 

RELIG NA RIOGH, or the refting place of the 
kings. The fepulchre of the ancient kings of 
Conmacne Cuilt Ola, near Croghan. It confifts 
of a circular area of about two hundred feet in dia- 
meter, furroundcd with a ftone ditch greatly defa- 
ced. Several tranfverfe ditches are within the area ; 
alfo heaps of coarfe (tones piled upon each other, 
fpecifying the graves of ihe interred perfons. 
From the conilrudtion of this cemetery, it appears 

I CoHeft. No. 4. p. szz^ % Ibid No. 4* p^ 453* 

4IO R H 

to have been ereded in the latter ages of paganifm^ 
about the clofe of the firft century *. 

RHEBA, or the royal habitation; an ancient 
city mentioned by Ptolemy ; fituated according to 
Richard of direncefter, fouch of Lough Erne. - It 
was the rath of the Magh Guires, ancient chieftains 
of the county of Fermanagh, the Erdinii of Pto- 

RHEBAN, from Righ ban^ or the habitation of 
the king. A rath or caftle belonging to the 
0*Mordhas, chieftains of Eli ui Mordba \ fituated 
on the river Barrow near Athy. . The ruins of the 
rath are ftill vifible, though much defaced ; near 
which are alfo remaining the ruins of a caftle built 
in the reign cf King John, by Richard de St. Mi- 
chael, created Baron of Rheban by Marfhal earl of 
Pembroke, lord palatine of Lei nfterf. 

RHEBIUS, a lake mentioned by Richard of 
Cirencefter, and called by Ptolemy Rabins or Ra- 
bios \ derived evidently from Ro abb iii, that is, the 
great water of the river; the prefent Lough 

promontory of the race on the water, mentioned by 
Ptolemy ; now Fair Head in the county of Antrim. 

RHOBOGDIJ, a people: who inhabited the 
north of Ireland, in the county of Antrim ; men- 
tioned by Ptolemy ; Rhobogdij is evidently derived 
from the old Britifh Rbobb iiog diii^ or the race on 
the water of the fea, the Dalnaruidbe of the Irilh 
writers J. 

• O'Conor's Diffcrt. p. 129* f Ware.r 
X vBaxter's Gloff^ 

R O S 4i< 

RHOBOGDIU, an ancient city, mentioned by 
Richard ; the capital of the Rhobogdij, fituated on 
the river Ban* the fame as Raihmormuighe line, 
and Culraithen, which fee. 
RICCINA, an ifland on the northern coafts of 
the county of Antrim, mentioned by Ptolemy^ 
and called by Antoninus Riduna, and by others 
Reglina j the Rachrea and Rachlin of the Latin 
writers; all which words are derived from Ricb^ 
kdcb^ Ridb^ Rudb^ Riada^ and Reitddj a tribe or 
habitation ; and can or lean^ water ; whence the 
habitation in the water ; the prefcnt ifle of Rach- 
RIDUNA, fee Riccina. 

ROSS AILITHRI, that is, the place of pilgri- 
mage, of the water or fea } fituated on the fea 
^aft of the county of Cork, celebrated in ancient 
times for a monaftery, bifhoprick, and a famous 
fchool, founded by St. Fachnan in the beginning 
of the fixth century. This fchool was much rcfort- 

ed to during the middle ages. The bilhoprick of 

Rofs was united to that of Cork in 1586*. 
ROSCLOGHER, from Ar ofciou clogher, that 

is, the (lone building on the water ; fituated in the 

county of Leitrim on Lough-melvef . 
ROSSCREA, derived from Rofs^ a place on or 

near the water, and crea, earth, clay, or mud ; 

whence Roffcrea^ a place on the muddy water; 

figuratively any place near, a ftagnated pool or lake. 

In this place, fituated in the county of Tipperary, 

a church and bifhoprick were founded by St. 

Cronan, about the year 620. But in the twelfth 

• Harris's Ware, voU i, p. 583. f Harri8'»Waw.r 

412 SAM 

century united to Killaloe* Some remains of the 
ancient cathedral of Roflcrea may ftill befeen in the 
prcfent parilh church, particularly the weftern 
doory executed in the beautiful antique ftile of the 
ninth century ; alfo a round tower of nearly the 
fame date. 

RUDHBHEITHE ACH, or the diftrid fbr cattle j 
a place eminent for breeding cattle in Cooaughti 
deftroyed in 1 133, by Conor O'Brien f- 

RUDRICCII, froni Reuda^ a tribc^ and Ricdt\ or 
Ricoly royal or noble, vfhaio^ ReudaricoJ or RMiiri-^ 
ccit\ the noble or royal tribe ; the ancient inhabi- 
tants of the prefent county of Monaghan, and the 
fame as Mnegbin ; which feel 

RUFIN A, derived from Ruadh eanagh^ or the 
habitation of the race on the water } an ancient 
city mentioned by Richard of Cirencefter, and ca- 
pital of Ibernia ; the Inf&vcnacb of the Iridi^ and 
Uverni of Rolemy. It is not certain where this 
port or city was fituated \ but it appears either to 
have been the prefent town^of Bantry or Kio' 


Sacrum PROMONTORIUM, a cape m 

the fouth of Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy i at 
prefent denominated Carnfpre Point, in the coun- 
ty of Wexford. » 
SAMOR ABHAN, or the river on the great 
fca i the river Erne, which falls into the bay of 

t CoUeft. No. 4. P.56& 

SAT 413 

SATARN, itomfat, fullnefs, and aran, bread 
com ; in the old Celtic mythology the genius who 
prefidcd over the produdions of nature^ being the 
genial influence of the folar rays and the univerfal 
fpirit who enlightens the feverai parts of the uni-* 
verfe. This fpirit was fuppofed to be conftandy 
moving through the earth, fruftifying the vegeia* 
blc and animal produdions, and enlightening the 
minds of men i for which reafbn, the ancient 
Gauls, Britons and Irifti arofe ^uring the night to 
oflfer prayers and fupplications to this aftive divini- 
t^^ whom they frequently denominated M»f^4inne^ 
or the great or good* fire, and Mogb Rbebc^ or the 
divinity of wifdom, being the Mercury and Saturn 
of the Romans, and Minerva of the Greeks. 
The time at which thefe nodurhal devotions were 
performed, was at the crowing of the cock, that 
bird being fuppofed to be the harbinger of day or 
Aurora, as Aurora was fuppofed to be that of the 
fun, or Jupiter among the Romans, and by then\ 
den<miinated Mercury. The cock being thus con^ 
(berated to Saturn, or the generative principle of 
nature, was facrificed to him at the time of ^the ver* 
nal and autumnal equinox ; a cuftom retained in 
Ibme meafure by the country people in feverai parts 
•of Ireland to this day, who on St. Martin's eve 
kill a cock in honour of that faint, be being the pa^ 
tron faint of the hufbandmen and millers, as Satarn 
was of bread corn and plenty, amongft the old pa- 
gans. The other facrifices offered to Sitarn were 
made in conjun^ion with the fun and earth, or Beal 
andTlacbt, on theTlachgo and Bealtinnes, which 
fee. There are fome drudic fables relative to this 
divinity ftiU remaining ; particularly that menrion- 
VcKU III. No. XI. M V 

414 SCO 

ed by Demetrius in Plutarch^ who (ays^ being lent 
by the emperor to furvey the weftem ooafts of Bri- 
tain, the people told him that in a certain ifland 
the giam Briareus held Saturn bound in tbc chains of 
Jleep^ attended by a number of genii. The ifland here 
fpoken of is undoubtedly the Ifle of Man, where 
the (lory is told by the inhabitants at this day with 
little variation» and the part of the ifland where 
Saturn is fuppofed to be confined, is denominated 
Sodor. The fable has a threefold iignifkation^ viz. 
divine, moral and hiflorical. Briareus fjgnifics 
peace, calmnefs, and gentle and falubrious air, 
Satarn or Sodor fignifies plenty ; wltence the moral 
fenfe of the fable is, that plenty is produced by 
peace and a falubrious air ; or that the god of plen* 
ty will fefide among thofe people who induftrioufly 
cultivate the arts of peace. The hiflorical interpie- 
tation relates to Noah's cultivating the earth after 
the univerfal deluge, Briareus in the ancient Celtic 
tongue is of the fame fignificadon as Noab in He- 
brew, both importing peace and calmnefa; and 
the genii are the various produftions of nature, 
which were produced in great plenty in the days 
of Noah, when the world was quiet and undifhirb* 
cd by the jarring paffions of the human race *. 

SCOITEIGH, fee Coiteigh. . 

SCOTII, or Scotts, the general name of the an- 
cient Irifh amongfl foreigners during the middle 
ages. The words Scot or Scotii* Scyt, and Cithx, 
by which the ancient inhabitants of Ireland were 
diftinguiflied by foreign writers from the beginning 
of the fecond, to the clofe of the eighth century. 

* Caefar. Com. Plutarch* Jurieu*t Critical Hlftorj of the 
Church, voL II. 

SCO 415 

Cectti to have originated from two fources ; theone 
external and the other internal. The internal was 
derived from C?//, a woody country, whence 
Scoitcigh^ a race of woodlanders^ or thofe who inha- 
bit a woody country, called by the ancient Britons 
Tygwydbwyr or Scoiuu)\ whence the Scotia of the La* 
tins. The external originated from the piratical 
depredations committed by the Irifli on the coafts 
of Britain during the thirdf fourth, fifth and fixth 
centuries, in fmall boats, conftruded of the trunks 
of trees and denominated Coitiy or Cb/j, a name 
yet retained for thofe fmall flat-bottomed boats ufed 
on the rivers in feveral pans of Irelilnd, whence 
Scmeigb^ the navigators of fuch vcflels. From 
this circumflance, all fmall boats during the middle 
ages among the Latins obtained the name of Scutor 
ruty and their navigators Scutarii and Scotii ; even 
foldiers raifed in Britain to oppofe the inroads of the 
Scots or liilh were frequently denominated Scutarii^ 
whence Scutarii^ a general name for efquires and 
officers of the army during the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. From the unfetiled mode of life which 
thefe Scoitcigb led, they were alfo called Scuitagh or 
Scythac, that is, wanderers \ whence Scoiteigh or 
Scotii, and Scuitagh or Scythae were by the Latin 
writers of the^iiddle ages ufed as fynoniraous 
terms, and frequently confounded one with the 
other. Tlius the Hibernian Scots have been affert* 
ed to derive their origin from the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Scandinavia, who obtained the name of 
Scythae from their pyratical and maritime expe- 
ditions *• 

• Dufrcfnc** Gloff. torn 3, Baxter's Gloff- 

M z 

4i6 SLA 

SCYTHiE, fee Scotii. 
SEINNON, fee Sena. 

SEIN CULBIN, or the bay in the comer ; the 
bay in which the Fir Bolgce landed under the con- 
du6t of Larthon ^ it is not certain where this bay 
IS, though probably on the fouthern coafts. 
SENA, or the bay ; a bay or river mentioned 
by Ptolemy, thought to be the river Shannon, 
called by the Irifli Seinnon^ or the place of bays. 
SENA DESERT A, Defert iflands at the mouth 
of the Sena, or Shannon, mentioned by Ridiard 
of Cirencefter ; but as no fuch iflands extft, it is 
mod probable tfiey were the prefent Blafques iflcs 
off Dingle. 
SINUS AUSOB A, the bay of Galway 5 fo called 
by Richaid, it is the Aufohaoi Ptolemy, which 
SINUS MAGNUS, or the great bay •, the bay of 
Donegal, fo called by Richard of Cirencefter: 
^ SiOL MUIRIDH, or the race near the river, 
comprehending the eaftern part of Gonna^t on 
the Shannon, deftroyed in 1095 by Nfortogh rooi: 
SLAING, or Shin^ from Ifc Idn^ the open wa* 

ter ; the ancient name of the bdff of Dundrum. 
SLAING, from Slioght aen^ that is, the race or 
inhabitants on the water, now Slain on the river 
Boyne in the county of Eaft Meath. This difbift 
was the original fettlement of the Fir Bolgae or Bel* 
giana^ who tranfmigrated from Britain about 350 
years be(bre Chrift, under the conduct of Lcctrmon 
or Slmg \ they are aflerted by the ancient bards to 

* Colledk. No. 4i p«55i. 

S L E 417 

have tranfmigrated from the bay of Cluba in Inis 
Ona, now the bay of Cardigan in Wales, called by 
Ptolemy Cmgami Sinus \znd to have landed at Inbher 
Colpe, or the bay of Culbin^ now the bay of Dro« 
^ gheda in the county of Meath^ from whence they 
inprocefs of time eftablifhed colonies throughout 
the prefent province of Leinfter, denominated by 
them HeremoHy or weilem country. In thid diftridt 
are fiill remainii^ the tombs of the original chiefs 
of this race, at prefent known by the mounts or 
tumuli of New Gran Je, and which, in after ages 
became places of Druidic facrifice in honour of 
Tlacbt^ or the earth. See Ferta fir feic, Heremo* 
nii, Bolgac, Tlachgo, 8c Scotii *•) 

SLANY, fee Modonus. 

SLEGACH, fee Sligo. 

SLEIBHTE CARMEN, the Wicklow moun- 
tains. See FirthuathaL 

SLEIBHTE-COULAN, or the mountains of 
the diftrift of Cbulan ; the prefent Wicklow moun- 

SLEIBHTE MISS, There was two mountains 
in Ireland under this name« One three or four 
miles fouth of Tralee in tiie county of Kerry, and 
the other in the diftriA of Dalaradia, and the ooun* 
ty of Antrim, on which Saint Patrick kept the 
fwine of his mailer Milco. 

SLEIBTEAGH, or the houfc near the moun- 
tains. An ancient church and bilhoprick founded 
by St* Fiech in the fifth century, and afterwards 
tranilated to Leighlin. The only remains of this 
ancient bilhoprick are tlie ruinij of a fmall church 

• Keating. M*Curtm*f Antt 

4i8 T A I 

and two ftone crofles, apparently of tlic ninih cen- 
tury ; it is now called Sleny and is fuuated in the 
barony of Sleibhmarraghagh in the Qiicen's coun- 
ty, on the river Barrow, about a mile north of 

SLIABH CAOIM, or principal mountain, now 
called Sliabh Riach, between the barony of Femioy 
and County of Limerick, iaid by the annals of In- 
jiisfall to be the place where Maolmuadh and ills 
brothers waited for Mahon, king of Muniter, and 
brother of Brien Boioinh, fo put him to death. See 
Mufgruidhe *• 

SLICHNEY, feeSligo. 

gadii. • 

SLIOGHT-BREOGHAINi fee Breoghain and 

SLIOGHT-GAE, fee Naguatae. 

SULCHOID, from Sulchathy or the place of 
battle ; fituated not far from Limerick, being a 

Klain nearly furrounded by mountains, and frequent- 
J mentioned in different periods of Irifli hiftory, as 
a noted poll for the encampment of armies i in 
particular, celebrated for the viftory obtained over 
the Danes by Mahon,. king of Munfter in 968 f. 

lAILTE AN, derived from Tilk a return or re- 
volution, and Teagbdn an affembly or place of 
worlhip, whence Tilleteagban pronounced Tailtean \ 

* CoUcft. No, 4, t Ibi^- P- 479- 

TEA 419 

a place in the county of Meath, where the Druids 
facriBced in honour of the marriage of the fun and 
moon and heaven and earth, on the firft of Aqguft, 
being thfe fifth revolution of the moon from the 
vernal equinox. At this time the ftates aiTembledy 
and young people were given in marriage according 
to the cuftom of the eaftern nation? ; Games were 
alfo inftituted relembling the Olympic games of 
the Greeks, and held fifteen days before and fif- 
teen days after the firft of Auguft. The poets 
have fabled thefe games were inftituted in honour 
of TaUte daughter of Magb mor by Lugbaid lam fadbaj 
a king of Ireland ; but Tillc Magb mor is the revo- 
lution of the great divinity, and Lugbaid lamfadba 
Ri fignifies the time of puberty of the good planet 
the moon, whence this feftival was frequently de- 
nominated Lugbaid naoijican or the matrimonial 
ailembly *. 

TARAGH, fee Teamor and Bruighen da Darg. 

TEABHTHA, or the habitation of the tribe, 
an ancient name of Weftmeath f. ^ 

houfe of the elder at the rath of the cave or hollow 
mount ; th? regal houfe of the kings of Meath 
deftroyed by Brien Boromh in 995, the fame as 
Bruighen da Darg which fee t- 

TEACHTUATH AIL, fee Eiroin. 

TEAMOR, from Teagh^mor^ or the great houfe, 
and Teagb-^orragb^ or the great houfe of the king. 
The palace of the kings of Meath, and monarch s 
of Ireland, much celebrated in the ancient Irilh 

* Keating. Vallancey'a eflay on the Celtic language, p. 19* 

18, 136 & 142. 
f Colled, No 4. p. 542. i CoUcA. No. 4. p. 518* 

4to TLA 

hiftory, the place where it was ereded is now 
called Taragh, and was the fame as Bruigben da 
darg. In its neighbourhood is the hill or Naafteig- 
han, whereon the ftates affembled for feveral ages; 
that is from the beginning of the firft to the mid- 
dle of the fixth century. From which period we 
hear no more of the general convention of the 
ftates, but each province was governed by their own 
local ordinances. See Bruighen da darg, and La^ 

TEFFIA, fee Angalia. 

THOMOND, fee Mumhan. 

THYHAN, fee ConaUa. 

TIPRAIC, fee Clonemacnoife. 

TIR-CONAL, that is, the land or country of 
Connal. The word litterally fignifies the country 
of the chief tribe^ and comprehended the prefent 
county of Donegal. 


TIRONR } fee Hy-Failge, 


TIR-M ALGAID, or the land on the great fea, 
an ancient dlilrid, comprehending the barony of 
Tirawley in the county of Mayo, the fame as 
Gamanradii which fee, as alfo Auterij. 

TLACHGO, to go round, whence in the ancient 
Irifli Tldcbt figniiies the earth, by reafon of its revo- 
lution round its axis ; the word alfo was applied 
to fignify the univerfe or nature in general. Alfo 
a place in the county of Eaftmeath where the 
Druids, in time of Paganifm, facrificed on the 
tombs of their ancient heroes to xht earth or univcr- 
fal nature on the eve of the firft of November, 
called in commemoration of this feftival, Oidcb^ 

TLA ^zi 

Sbambna. According to Keating this facrifice wat 
inftitutod by Tbuatbal Teacbtmor^ and taken from 
the province of Munfter ; But this is evidently a 
iidion of the poets ; Mbumbm (ignifies, as we 
have obferved under that word^ a paternal country^ 
and here imports magna patens^ that is the great 
mother or univerfal nature, being the fame as the 
Egyptian IJis^ the Italian Ops^ the Greek Cybek 
and f^eftay the Syrian Aftarte^ and the Britifli Anr 
date. This fefiival, on which were facrificed deer 
and fwine, was called Tlacbgo^ to go round, by 
reafon of the rotundity of the earth'; whence the 
dances ufed at this folemnity by the votaries encir* 
cling the ianftuary with lighted torches were called 
^lacbtga^ yet retained infome meafure by the couti* 
try people, which dances were the origin of the 
modern French cotillons, the word Cotillon in the 
old Gallic dialed of the Celtic tongue is of the fame 
iignification as ^lacbgo in Irifli. The fanduary 
here fpoken of, in the county of Eafimeath, is (till 
remaining, being the Tumulus at New Grange near 
Drogheda, as is evident from a number of infcriptt* 
ens found thereiii and explained in a former number 
of this work. The ilates being aflembled on the 
eve of the firft of November, all crin^inals were 
tiied by the Druids on the firft of May at Ufneach, 
,and fuch as were found guilty of crimes worthy of 
death were facrificed and burnt between tw^ fires 
of Beal, lighted in honour of the objed of adorariOR 
on the fummit of the mount *. 

* Keating. Collcdanea, No. 5 and 7. Vallancty't eflay om 
the Celtic language. Baxter'^ gloflf. Brit* Jurieu't 
critical hiftory of the church, toU zi. 

42a T U A 

TLACHGO-BAN, or Cairn-Ban, that is the 
white Cairn or temple of Veda near Newry in the 
county of Down, being one hundred and eighty 
yards in circumference and ten in akitude. Ano- 
ther on the fummit of Sliabh Croabh, on the top of 
which are twenty two fmaller Cairns from five, four 
and three feet high. Alfo one at Warringfton in 
the fame county which was opened in i6i4f difco- 
vering a dome« in the centre of which, under a ta- 
bernacle, was placed an handfome urn of a brown 
colour containing burnt bonesf. 

TRIM, fee Druim. 

TRUIM, fee Druim. 

TUATH MUMHAM, fee Dalcas. 

TUATH DE DOINAN, or the northern people; 
the ancient inhabitants of Ireland, aflerted by the 
antiquaries to have been a colony from Britain, 
poflerior to the fettleraent of the Firbolgae. They 
uhdoubtedly were Caledonians, who tranfmigrated 
either from the Mull of Galloway or Can tire, about 
the commencement of the firft century before the 
Chriflian aera. The ancient Irifh bards appear 
ignorant of the leaders of the firfl colony of the 
Caledonians or Danans, as they call them ; but 
fpeak fully of the fecond, which arrived fome few 
years before Chrifl. Thefe people generally dif- 
tinguiflied tbemfelvesby the name of UUtigb^ from 
UU^ or the fun, which in their dialeft of the Celtict 
was the fame as Beal, whence UUagb^ the worihip- 
pers of Ull, and their country Ulladh or Ullin ; 
names, which to this day, diftinguiOi the north 
province of this ifland in the language of the 
natives. On the arrival of the firft of thefe Calc* 

^ llarris'i hift* county of Down« 

V E N 4Z3 

donian colonies under the conduft of OlioU Aron^ 
or the captain of the great worlhippers of UU^ 
about I lo years before Chrift, the ancient Belgian 
inhabitants retired acrofs the Shannon, and laid 
the firft foundation of the Conaught government, 
which was fully ellabliflied by Eochy Failloch, in 
the time of Auguftus Ca&far. 
TUATHAL, fee Firtuathal and Glendaloch. 




Vain, fee Fane. 

VALENTIA INSULA,dcrivedfrom5^//;zj w\ot 
the ifland of the cape in the wat^r ; the prefenc 
ifland of Valentia, at the entrance of Dingle Bay. 

VALLIS SCYTHICA, fee Vergivium mare. 

VELLABORI, derived from Bellabheri, that is* 
the inhabitants of the cape on the weilern water ; 
an ancient people mentioned by Ptolemy, who in- 
habited the peninfula between the bays of Dingle 
and Tralee, in the county of Kerry, called by the 
Irifti /fy Dingk^ or the diftrift of the peninfula. 

VENDERIUS, derived from the old Britifh 
Uind e Riu, or head of the river; a river or bay 
mentioned by Ptolemy, and thought by Camden 
to be* the bay of Carrickfergus ; -but Richard calls 
it Viderius, and thinks it to be the bay of Strangford. 

VENISNIA INSULA; derived from ren Uis ml, 
or the country in the water off the cape s an ifland 

424 U L L 

near the north cape nientioned by Richard of 
Cirencefter, and made by him to be Tory ilk; but 
it tvas more probably the north ifle of Arran, being 
oppofite to the cape Vennicnium of Ptolemy. 

VENICNII, the people inhabiting the coontry 
near the Vennicnium cape, mentioned by Ptolemy; 
comprehending the weftern coafts of the county of 
Donegal!, the ancient Ergall of the Irifh writers. 

VENNICNIUM Promontorium, a cape in the 
north weft of Ireland in the county of Donegall, 
at the entrance of Donegal! bay ; mentioned by 
Ptolemy. Fennknium Teems to b6 a corruption from 
the old Britifh Ven uic nui^ that is the cape of the 
CErftuary or bay. 

UI, fee Hy. 

VIDUA^ from the ancient Britifti Ui dauy or 
the deep river, a river or bay mentioned by Pto- 
lemy, and thought by Richard and Ware, to be 
Lough Swilly. 

VERGIVIUM-MARE, derived from Mer 
giubbib\ or the moft weftern water, that part of 
the Atlantic Ocean on the fouthern eoafts of Ire* 
land, called by the Irilh Mor Bbergus^ or the fca 
of the moft weftern water, and by Gildas Vallis 

ULLAD, the ancient n^ne of the province of 
Ulfter, the word is evidently derived from fbua^^ 
all adb than is the northern divifion of theO// or 
Bolgae pronounced Ullagh \ Ullad or Ulk^b originally 
comprehended all the prefent province of Ulfter, 
but was afterwards confined to the prefent county 
of Down; however it is to this day retained 

U S N 4Z5 

in the name of UyUr or the northern country, 
whence we find in the andent poems and chroni* 
des, the inhabitants of this dilb:i£t denominated 
Tuatb dc Danans or northern people *. See under 
the words Bolgae, and Tuath de Doinans. 

UMALIA, derived from Hj malgae or the diC> 
tri£t on the great fea, comprehending the prefent 
barony of Moriik in the county of Mayo^ and half 
the b^ony of Rofs in the county of Galway, the 
chiefs of which were the O'Maly's f* ^ome of 
whom are in poiTeilion of part of their ancient 
patrimony this day. 

VODIE) from the ancient Britifh Vydhieu w\ or 
the woodlanders on the water ^ an ancient cUftridt 
mentioned by Ptoftmy^ and called by the Iriih 
writers Dergtenii and Corcaluighe^ which fee. 

VOLUNTH, derived from Ull an teigh or the 
inhalntants of the county of UH\ an andent peo- 
ple mentioned by Ptolemy^ and called .by thelrifh 
writers UUagb^ being the prefent county of Down. 
See UUad. 

UPPER-CONELLO, fee Conal Gabhra. 

URIEL, fee Orgicl, 

USNEACH, from dis fire, and neaeh divine or 
wonderful, whence the divine fire. A mountain 
in the county of Weft Meath, on which fires were 
kindled by the Druids on the firft of May in honour 
of Beal or the fun. This was the grand Beal* 
tinne of the northern parts of Leinfter, where the 
ilates affembled and held judgment on all crimi- 

• Keating. O'Conor's Diffint. Colkaanea, No.'Sw 

t Hirrrit Ware, ▼. i. p. 17. O'Conor's Ortclius. 

426 Y D H 

nals worthy of death, and fuch as were fouild guilty, 
were burnt between two fires of Beal. Children 
and cattle aifo were purified on this day by paf&ng 
them between the fires *. 

UTERNII, from Ubh ernu\ or moft wcftern peo- 
ple ; a people mentioned by Ptolemy who inha- 
bited the (buth parts of the county of Kerry and 
weftern parts of the county of Cork ; the Iheifuj 
of R ichard of Cirenceftcr, 

UVERNI, an ancient city or port, mentioned 
by Ptolemy ; the capital of the Uternii, the Ru- 
finaE of Richard, which fee. 

Y. • 
YdHERDAN, fee Eiroin. 

♦ Keating, Vallancey*8 Eflay on the Celtic language, p. 138. 
Jurieu'i critical hiftory of the church, vol 2d. 



O N 




TO THE y* 



To THOMAS POWN A,L, Esqj F.S.A. Lond. 

B T 




s o M fi 


AD011SSSBO to 


S 1 Hi 

X H £ trouble you have taken^ in illuftratihg feme 
obfcure pacts of our antiquities, in the Archseologia ^ 
and your * late addrefs to our fociety (communicated 
througk a refpe^able member) containing ingenious 
conjeAures on our Ship Temple^ are marks of politd 
attention to the objeds of our inftitution, and meer^ 
asthey juftly deferve, our refpeft and gratitude. 

It is from fuch a friendly intercourfe and communi- 
cation of fentimentS) that light wilt be derived on the 
darkeft fubjefts: the bounds of fcience extended^ 
and the ends of literary affociations fully anfwered. 

^ CoUedanea de Ricb. Hibdr. No. X. page 199. 
Vol. in. No. XI. Vf Profound 


Profound in every branch of antiquarian knowledge, 
and poflefled of that maturity of judgment which can 
fafely fteer between the dangerous and narrow paf- 
fage that divides fidtion from reality, your letter fup- 
plies fome valuable hints towards a rational elucidation 
of our antiquities ; from thefe I (hall take the liberty 
of deducing a few obfervations, and applying them 
to the Ship Tempk near Dundalk. 

In the examination of our antient monuments, you 
have pointed out two lines of invelligation : the one 
referring to the commerce of the Phoenicians and Car- 
thaginians here ; the other to the inhabitancy of the 
Vids, who in early times, came from the (horcs of 
northern Europe and the Baltic to Ireland. However 
candour and a deference to fome learned names might 
induce you to ftate thefe two modes of enquiry, yet 
you clearly faw which claimed the preference : your 
judgment decided in favour of the latter — ** %s naoft 
" confonant to your own opinion." As that opi- 
nion, in a great meafure coincides with mine ; and as 
you have omitted the details neceffary to fupjwrt iti 
I (hall beg leave, in fome fort, to fupply that defici- 
ency, and offer, with great defFerence, fuch argu- 
ments as occur to me. 

I. When antiquity became the mark of nobility a- 
mong nations, it naturally produced pretenfions fimi- 
lar to thofe recorded of the * Egyptians and antelunar 
t Arcadians: when antiquity failed, refpedt was 
foilght for in nobility of dcfcent, and the Romans 

♦ Herod« lib- 2. 

f Orta prior Luna, de fc fi creditur ipfi, 
A magno tellus Arcade nomen habet. 

Ovid. Faft. lib. i. 



found it in their beloved ^neas and his heroic Tro- 
jans, the French in their Francus, the Britons in their 
Brute, and the Northerns in their Odin and his Afae. 

From Virgil we learn how faftiionable it was in the 
Auguftan age to advance and embellifli fuch fidi- 
tious origins: even prole^riters caught the conta- 
gion, and the grave Strabo (though perhaps it has not 
been adverted to) indulged his * fancy in fuch pleaf- 
ing delufions ; particularly in his account ofTartef- 
fus and Lilbon* The works of thofe elegant claf- 
fic writers, at all times very popular books, tinc- 
tured the ftudies of naiional jiftorians, and prodiic- 
en thofe figments, which, in moft Gouiitries, have 
vaniftied before the funfhine of reafonj hiftory and 
criticifnri, but are ftill pertinacioufly fupported by 
feme of our antiquaries. 

Had any people adopted thofd niytkojogical tales,' 
without refervc, as true hiftory^ it had been fome 
apology for our conduct : But the contrary is true : 
Livy and Saluft fpeakof the Roman traditions witK 
doubt, and f Dionyfius Hal. pofitively finds inhabi- 
tants in Italy prior to the Trojans. Neither has Stra- 
bo paffed without J cenfure, Even John Major and 
Heftor Boece, fabulous as they are^ have explicitly 
declared, that the ftory of Gadelus, and his pere- 

* In the fourth book of his Geography, and other places. 
Tacitua alfo (hould not be omitted. His — habitus cor- 
porum varii : rutilae comae, magni artud» coloi^ti wultus, &c; 
are more philofophic, but uncertain and fallacious* Vit. Agri- 

f Antiq. Rom. initio. 

i By Lipfius ; Brodaet MifcelL apud J. Grut. torn. !• 
Reimann. Geograph. Hom^r, pag. %66. 

N z gri nations 

432 A L E T T E R T O 

grinations in Egypt and Greeee were formed accord- 
ing to the cuftom of other nations, and that the 
Scots might not yield to them the palm of anti- 

11. Very different has been the conduft of our 
hiftorians and antiquaries : inilead of viewing the 
tales of bards and fenachies as the fports of imagt' 
nation, and hiftoric romances, they have firained 
every nerve to reduce them to * chronological order 
and certainty i or render them f coincident with ac- 
knowledged hiftoric events. Both fchemes, proviag 
X too much, have difappointed the expedtatioDs of 
the public, and at the fame time demonftrated, that 
every attempt of this kind is hopelefs. 

Still we are § pretled with the Hifpanian, origina- 
tion of the Irifli, as the fource from whence fprung 
our letters, learning and religion. The Spaniard^ 
muft be very infenfible not to feel the infinite obliga- 
tions they are under to the Irifh, || who have made 
** their anceftors, of all the Scythian or Celtic na- 
*' tions, the moft martial and free, the mo& huma- 
** nized by letters, and the moft converCs^nt with the 
•* Egyptians, Phoenicians and Grecians.** The fa- 
bulous I chronicles of Spain indeed vouch thefe 
things, and we may perhaps be allowed to doubt 
their authority; but where is the learned infidel 
hardy enough to withftand the evidence of the Lc- 

^ As OFIahcrty in hisOgygia. 

f As Mr. CVConor in his DiflTcrtatlons. 

% Stilliogflect's Britifh Churches, Preface. 

^ Mr. O'Conors Letter in Colle6hinea, No* X. p* an- 
and feq. 

II Mr. O'Conor's Difll p. lo. 
" f Univcrfal Hiftory-y vol. 1 7. book 4. fee. 3. edit. 8to. 



abhar Gabhala, the Pfalter of Calhel, and the books 
of Balimote and Glendaloch * confirming thofe 
chronicles ? Yet fuch is the lamentable perverfenefa 
of human nature, or the unpardonable inattention 
of hiftorians, that after all the treafures of eaftern 
wifdom thus liberally poured upon thofe Hiberians 
by fo many nations, the Roman writers reprefent 
them as not fuperiour to their neighbours in govern- 
ment, laws, learning or religion ; they mention no 
traces of long civility, or oriental refinement among 

III. Sinking under their own imbecility and the 
fuperincumbent arguments of Mr. Whitaker and 
Mr. Macpherfon, our .traditions were about to be 
configned to eternal oWivion, when they wer^ un- 
expeftedly rcleafcd from impending fate, by a dif- 
co very of the aflSnity betweetv the Hebrew ahd Cel- 
tic languofges. This wa^ eagerly caught at by the 
defenders of the old .fyftem and brought as an irre- 
fragable proof of eaftern' diefcent. The connection 
between the Cclric, Hebrew aitd Phoenician was no 
new idea : to omit many others who have fpoken of 
it, fMr. RaJph has declared: — *• that the Hioeni- 
" cian and Britifh were radically the fame, being no 
" other than diafedts of the Cehic, many words as 
^ well as cuftoms being common to both: there 
** dre fo many prooft of this fa€t, that it would be 
** as ridiculous to deny it, as it would be to believe, 
** that thofe words were coined t)y the Britons, or 
^* for them, after the Ripman invafion/' 

* Mr. O'Coiior's Letter, fupra. 
t Hiftorjr of England, vol. 3. p. 1373, * fcq. 



Our worthy member, Colonel Vallancey, wlih 
that patriotic warmth which fiiccefsfully carries him 
through the moft laborious invcftigations, gave a 
more copious * range to his examination of thofc 
ancient tongues, and difcovered an almoft pcrfcd 
identity among them. This identity carried (o im- 
pofing an appearance, as atf one time to make him 
fay : — ** that the Fom'oraig Afraic', or African pi- 
• ' rates fq often mentioned in the antient hiftory of 
^^ this country, were no other than the Phoenicians 
!* and Carthaginians." 

What motive, it piay be aflced, couid induce a 
mercantile people to attempt the conquell of a remote 
jfle, unfurniftied with patural products of value, with- 
out mines, panvifa^ures or ^rts ? Such Quixotifm 
feldoqi entefs the ch^radter of antient or modern tra- 
ders. Colonel yallanc^y niuft have gonfidered bet- 
ter of this matter, ^nd t>een convinced, that the 
Irifh trafditions y^erq not defenfible on the ground 
hq had chofen, as {le h^s omitted in the /econd 
edition of his grammar the preceding quotation in 
the frjl. I (hall not infift on the abfurdity and im- 
probability of a few rude and ignorant mariners oc- 
pafionally vifiting this ifle (for that is the utmoft that 
can be fuppofed.) Conitnunicating the . more refined 
religion, language and learning of tkeir countrymen : 
this is fuch a phenomenon as never did, or .pin 

If then there is any weight in the rcafons offered 
under the foregoing heads, the orientalirm difcover- 

* In his different numbers in the Colledanea, and his Cel- 
tic Grammar. 

t In the fird: edition of his Ibtmo-Celtic Grammar, 

■ ed 


ed in the Celtic, in our antient religion, cuftoms and 
manners muft be referred to another origin, for con- 
fonantly with reafon and hiftory they never can be de- 
duced from Spain or the Phoenicians. So that you, 
fir, had juft grounds for rrjefting this line of invef- 
ligation in explaining and clearing up our antiquities ; 
The one, which you approve of, has infinitely a 
more rational foundation, and under the difcuflion 
of your able pen feems to approach to certainty. 
This ifle was primaevally colonized from Britain, and 
occafionally admitted large bodies of Vifts and other 
northern rovers. The teftimony of Bede and Flo- 
rilegus brought by* Colonel Vallancey, allowing it 
all the weight he could wilh, will not fupercede other 
authorities and arguments proving the irruption of 
thefe Northerns at other times, and the general fpirit 
of enterprize which formed fo cflential a part of their 

But we (hall be aflced, whether, even granting 
this northern colortization, the eaftern complexion of 
the Celtic and many of our ufages can thereby be fa- 
tisfadorily refolved ? To this in general it may be 
anfwercd, that we have not documents of thofe peo- 
ple fufficiently precife or numerous to determine the 
point. Befides,!, for my part, muft think, ahhough 
in the Eaft they lodge corn in f mattamores as th« 
Ififh did in the Souterreins ; though the Orientals fct 
up heaps of ftones as memorials ; ufed parti-colour- 
cJ garments, and querns, and made cakes, fpotted 

♦ Remarks on Governor PownaFs Letter. CollcAanca. No. 
X. fupra. 

t Harmcr's Obfervations, toI. i. p. 24$.— 253. vol. 2. p, 


436 A L E T T E R T O 

with the feeds of poppy, coriander and faiTron, like 
our baran breac ; I fay though the Eaflerns and Irilh 
agree in thefe and many other cuftoois, yet there 
appears no neceflity from hence to make the one 
derivative from the other; for in both they arofc 
from the^ fiimenefs and monotony of the human in- 
telled, roufed by fimilar objedts to fenfaticm and 
reflection. In my humble opinion^ it is exceedingly 
degrading to one part of mankind to fay they could 
have no kind of knowledge without imitating that of 
another ; it is no lefs than depriving the former of 
rationality, and making them perfedt apes ^ 

Simia quam fimilis turpiflima beftia nobis. 

How eafily fuch idle whimfies are formed, take the 
following extemporaneous inilance. Some of the inha- 
bitants of the new-difcovered iflands, mentioned by 
Captain Cooke, ufe crucifixes; the hunter after ori- 
gins inftantly concludes, that Chriftianity rauft at 
fome period have been planted among them, and to 
authenticate or make it probable he tumbles over his 
library ; after a great deal of ufelefa labour, be is 
faved the mortification of utter difappointment by 
perhaps difcovcring, that the Crofs is a * Cbinefe 
letter and, both with them and the Egyptians, the 
fymbol of perfeftion and the note of the num- 
ber ten. This gives a new turn to his inquiries. 
Thefe iflands are then made to receive their inhabi* 
tants from the Eaft of Afia, and with them a fymbolic 
religion : their languages are compared, and all the 
tortures of etymology applied to make them har- 

* Saepiilime inter chara6lere8 Stnicos fignum crqcis, quod dob 
fccu* apwd JEgyptios, numcrum denarium flgnificaty eft perfec- 
tionis fymbolum. Spizel. de Literat. Chinen. p. 78. 



Your extcnfive reading will fumifh numerous ex- 
amples of fuch .learned trifling, fuch catching at 
words and diilant refemblances. 

As the frame of our mental and corporeal facuhies 
will admit but of certain determinate perceptions and 
energies, how difguifed foever by various moctificati-* 
ons, fo the cuftoms and manners of men will be thq 
fame in all countries, fubje^t to fimilar (hades of dif- 
ference, from local circumftances and degrees of 
civHity. If then this reafoning be juft, we are not to 
derive one people from another, becaufe both have 
the fame ufages^ fuch ufages, 1 think, are to be 
afcribed to a «omnK)n principle. However where 
one country is known to have colonized another^ it 
feems fair to illuftrate the pradices of both by each 
other: this, Sir, you have happily done in your 
letter to our fociety. What I Ihall now take the 
liberty to obferve in. addition to what you have 
delivered on our Ship femple^ will, if I miftake not, 
ftrengthen and conBrm what has been advanced* I 
rauft previoufly remark^ that I have not feen^ nor do 
I know what the Abb6 de Tontenu has written on 
the pal&ge of Tacitus to which you allude. 

That excellent and accorapliflied fcholar. Lord 
Kaims *, has well remarked, that the mind, agitated 
by certain paffions, is prone to beftow fenfibility upon 
things inanimate : and that the perfonification is often 
fo complete as to afford an adual convidtion of life 
and intelligence. This is the genuine fource of the 
groffer idolatry, and of that adoration of wood and 
flone which was fo general antecedent to chriftianity. 
The men, who firft trufted themfelves to the watery 

* Elements of CriticUin, vol. 2. p. 146^150. edit. 8vo. 



element in a frail veflel^ muft have done it with 
trembling and fear, and earneftly implored the aid 
and proteftion of fupematural powers. When they 
found they were delivered from danger, they afcribed 
it to their own piety : to keep this alive and to efta- 
blUh a more permanent fecurity, they introduced 
their gods into their boats, and placed their fiatues in 
the moil confpicuous part of them. The boat at 
length came to be confidered as the temple of the 
deity, and the objedt of religious veneration. Let 
us now fee whether fadts will fupport this theory. 

The Parafemon, the fign, or divinity under which 
every (hip failed is noted in the A£ts of the Apoftles, 
and in many antient authors. Thus the veflfel that 
carried Ovid to Pontus, was called the Helmet ; be- 
caufe on its head or prow, it had one, and on its 
ftern or poop, the ftatue of Minerva j 

Eft mihi fitque precor, flavae tutela Minerva^ 

Navis; & a pidta callide nomen ha bet. 
Here the tutela or ftatue is accurately diftinguifhed 
from the nomen or helmet, the emblem of Minerva. 

The * Pdtaecus of the Syrians was a nanus, or 
pigmy divinity, placed on the poop, like the Chioefe 
t Neoman, and the St. Anthony of the Portuguefe. 
But as it was thought indecent to expofe their gods 
to every viciiTrtude of weather without a covering, 
fuperftition fuggefted the propriety of a lararium, or 
chapel, and one was eredled on the J poop. 

In the downward progrefs of idolatry, the next ftep 
was to confecrate the ftiip or boat, and hold it up as 

♦ Scldcn dc Dis Syris, pag. 356. 

f Addit. Beyer, in Seldeiu fupra, pag. 332. 

J Turncb. Advcrf. lib. ig, cap, 2. 



an objeft of religious worfhip. Thus, in an antient 
calendar preferved in * Gruter, among the feftivals 
is xh^Jbfp of Jfts^ the Jhip of fHerctiks^ and the Ir&ris 
of X Amman were alfo facred. 

As fhips were now believed to be the temples of 
feme gods, and partaking of their eflence, they were 
judged to be no unfuitable cemeteries for the deceafed, 
and accordingly the dead were laid in them. Antinous, 
as appears by a paflTage of § Epiphanius, was interred 
in a boat. One of the laws of the Danifh prince, 
Frotllo, is, II that each general and officer fliould be 
burned in a pile made of his (hip. The Icelanders 
buried in a boat. Afmund would not fufFer his 
faithftil fervant to lie in the fame (kifF>\ith him, 

•* ** The room within the boat is too narrow, 

" A warrior (hould have a better place ; 

** For I can govern a boat myfclf." 
At length the Northerns ereftcd royal tombs or 
tumuli, of the fize and figure of a fl great (hip.Thefe 
tombs were afterwards temples, whither the people 
Xt annually affembled, to offer facrifice for the prof- 
perity of the nation. Ship-temples were then a part 
of the northern fuperftition, and this fuperftition, 
arifing from difordered palTions, was not confined to 
any country or climate. 

, ♦ Infcript. pag. 138. f Arrian. lib. 2. 

X Harpocrat. in AfAfutfii. § Cupcri Harpoc. pag. 14. 

II Ccnturionis vcro vel Satraps corpus rogo, propria nave 
conftrudto, funerandum conflituit. Sax. Gram. pag. 44. 

*• Ifland's Laadnamabock, five Origin. Ifland. 

t4- Regies vero tumulos ad magnitudinem & figuram cannae 
maximac navis. Step. Step, ad Sax, Gram. pag. 91. 

tt Quotannis facra pcragcrcnt pro totius gcntis incolumitate. 
Wornu Mon. Dan. 



From what has now been produced, the paflage 
of Tacitus, which be himfelf was unable to explain, 
and which has puzzled his commentators, receives 
elucidation. ** Part of the f Suevi, fays he, facrificc 
to Ifis, I have not been able to difcuver the origin of 
this foreign wor(hipf unlefs it is, that the image itfelf, 
which refembles a Liburnian boat, (hews that the 
religion was introduced from a diftant part.'* Tadtus 
was certainly informed that the Suevi worihipped 
a boat; fuch idolatry exifled in the north in the 
earliell ages : but he knew of no other people dbing 
fo but the Egyptians, who adored Ifis under that 
form. Unable to account for the worfhip of liis in 
the wilds of Germany, he hazards a conjecture: this 
conjedture, is neither received or interpreted, with 
the caution and diffidence with which he delivers it, 
by his commentators : they aflfume it as a fad, and 
fet themfelves to account for it. How was this re- 
ligion introduced, J fays one? Why from Egypt, 
by the Pontus Euxinus, near which Sefoftris planted 
colonics. Another § critic finds Tacitus contradiding 
himfelf, having before declared, that the Germans 
adored no images; this boat he makes a military 
trophy fufpended in a fanftuary. Tacitus did not 
recolledt the (acred and wonderful (hip of ^neas, 

t Pars Suevonnn 5t Ifidi facrificat. Unde caufa St on'go 
pcrcgnno facro parum comperi^ nid quod f)gi)um ipfiuDy in 
inodum Liburnx figuratum, docet adve^am Trligioacm. Gtrm* 
cap. 9. 

X Unde vcro advcdam ? Ncmpc ex iEgypto, ubi Ifis colebatur, 
per Euxinum Pontum. Huct* Demonf. Evang. p^g. 146. 

§ Pclloutier Hiil. des CelteSy pag. 296, 297. 





which Frocopius * aflfures us, was prcfervcd to his 
time without decay : this muft have been the cfFe<5t 
of fome inherent divine quality^ and confequently 
muft have been an objedt of religious refpedl : fo 
much the account implies. 

I always relinquifh traditions, efpecially when they 
carry marks of genuipe antiquity, with great reluc- 
tance. The Faghas na heun Naoi, or work of one 
night, the name of the Dundalk Ship-temple^ has a 
venerable obfcurity, fimilar to the || Fairy rocks in 
France, the Giants'-beds of thefe kingdoms, and the 
ftrata Gigantium of the Northerns. It is extremely 
agreeable to the notions of former times to afcribe 
fuch works to unknown fupernatural beings. In 
fuch cafes, the name and the thing feldom illuftcate 
each other. 

I have detained you too long with this hafty, and I 
fear, incorre£t epiftle. You have ftarted frefli game for 
Qur antiquaries, whofe inquiries will be directed after 
other Ship*temples, which, no doubt are to be found 
in different parts of this kingdom. 

I have the honour to be^ 

S I R, 

Your moll obedient and humble Servant^ 

Jan.jd, 1783. 


* Ad hcH? lignorum <)u9B <ltzi nullum aut putruit aut cariem 
oftcndity fed quafi modo fabricata ei!ct navis ad noftram aetatem, 
(fizth cent.) qi^od & ipfum miracuH fpeciem habct, manet 
iocorrupta* Lib. 4. pag. 476. Edit. Grotii^ 

R Caylos, Facueil. torn. 6. pag; 365. 

4t ^ in the Preff, aod fpeccUlf will be PuUiflleJ, 

Colledlanea de Rebus Hibernicis* 


i. An Eflay on the Irifh Feftival La Sauab, the EeOwnI 
•or Hallow Eve of the modem Iriih \ proving it to be 
the fame as the Samon and Samael of the idolatrous 
JewSy &c ; the Afuman of the Perfiacs, and the Sum- 
manus of the Romans. 

2. On the Gule of Augu(t called La Tath ; Lammas 
Day, &c« with further Illuftrations on the Round 
Towers of Ireland, and their Ufe affigned. 

3. Description of the Banqueting Hall of Tara, or 
Tamar; with a Plan of the fame, from an ancient 
Irifh vellum MSS. (hewing the Difpofition of the King's 
Houfhold at Dinner; the Names of the fever at Officers, 
and the Meat ferved to them. 

4. Conclusion. The ancient Hiftory of Ireland vm-r 
dicated ; Probability of a Colony from Scytho-Polis in 
Paledine, being brought to Ireland by the Phoenicians. 
Of the Phoenian and Thebaian Diale£b of the Irifh, 
or bearla Feni and bearla Thebidh. Names of 
Dogs from the Hebrew and Arabick. Irifh Names of 
Linen, and the Utenfils ufed in that Manufafhire, of 
Oriental Origin. The Scyth'o-Polians, famous for 
making fine Linens, &c. &c. &c. 

5* A Fragment of Sanchoniathon, wrote in the old 
Chaldee or Phoenician tongue, collated with the Iriffl, 
with a literal tranflation. 



Ireland, by CHARLES O'CONOR, Esq. 

Colledianea de Rebus Hibernicis^ 


BY C. V A L L A N C E Y, LL, D. 

mw Np^ionn^ nnn N^^jtDnn cnrpitt »nB^ »♦»}! 

InTulas maris Oceani Bntanniam tnagnam & Britanniam 
parvaniy id eft, plane Albionem & Hiberniam. 

Sbldbv. Judictuni de X Scripcor. Aoglicanis, ex Rtbb. A. B. 
Chtijt in Sphxrt Muodi. 

Verbnm addo dc Hibernia quam Phoenicibua non fuiflc 


BocBABTut. Geogr. S«crt. 

Un} r i^ A&^f ifinZif I£f NIAA. * 


llla ego fuixi Graiia olim glacialis leme 

Di£ta, et JafoDiz puppis bene cognita Nautis. . 

Hadrian. Juvioi. 

. < 

EtfanefiTzetzeshofce lotelligo, in litore Britanniss Magqatf 
Tolunt repcriri navigia ilia animabus onufta, iodcque ilia 
cum remigibus rapta, impctu unico, ad Hiberniam ad- 
pelliy tunc Scotiam itidem TOcitaUm. Atqoe hut fpe^arc 

videtur illud Claudiani 


Eft locus, eztremum qua patidit Gallia litus 
Oceani pnetentus aquisy quo fertyr UlyiTes 
Sanguine libato populum moviffe fileiituin* 
niic umbrarum tenui (Iridorc Tolantum 
Flcbilia auditur queftua, &c. 

SiLDBV. Jndic. de X Script. Aogl. p. ii$7/ 








iD O O N will be publifhed in a Ni^mber of this Coxr-r 
containing an Alphabetical Catalogue of all the Manu- 
fcripts and printed Books, that have been written or pub- 
lished on the Affairs of IRELAND, relating to the Sute, 
Church, Law, Hiftory,- Antiquities, &c. &c» as could be 
collected from publick and private Information, to the Yc^ 


By the Author of this Number. 

N. B. To the B I N D B r. 
Tiff/Aj/^c/'TARA-HALL, toheinfertedhetnjjgenp. 542 and 545. 

And the Numeral-Tables, and Plate II. hctiuecn f. 57^ 

and 577. 


PR E 'FA C E. - 

If thisuifling performance, (hall fall into the hands 
of an Hebraeift, the author expeds cenfure, for refer- 
ring the Hiberno-Scythic or Magogian Irifli fo often to 
the Arabian and Perfian || languages, when the Hebrew 
and Chaldee, lay fo open, and with more affinity to 
the Irilh in both letter and fenfc. The cenfure will 
bejufti and in reply, the author begs leave to ob- 
ferve, that the Irifli language not being allowed, or 
eftecmed, by many, to be fo pure and ancient, as 
has been affertcd by the author, it was collated with 
the Arabian, which is allowed to be a jargon of the 
Phoenician, corrupted by Mahommed and his follow* 
ers, (in order to cenfure, both the Jewifib and Cbriftian 
Religion^) and had then received many words from 
the ancient Northern dialeds. And this is a principal 
reafon that the modern Arabian is fo improper to be 
collated with the facred fcriptures, and was probably 
the caufeof the Introdtidlion of the Hebrew points, al- 
though Buxtorf places their ufe fome centuries ear- 

The Greek fcholar may think, I have made free 
with his favourite linguagej but he^muft be told that, 

II Ita tamcn, ut fadiUmc pofipt oftcndi, illud ex orlentah', 
id eft, ex Ebrao Veteri derivatum eftc ; poflent hic fufEccrc 
documcntar qu« flatim ex Periica Lingua cxhibuimus, quia & 
Perfds Scytbas fuiffc oftcndimus* (Caoapcg, Vitring, Obf. 
Stcr. p. 84.) 

VoL.ULN^XIL B the 


the fource of the old Greek and of the old Irifh, fpring 
from the fame fountain head, viz. the Phoenician, mixt 
with the Pelafgian or Scythian, for Scuthae was the 
Greek name of the Pelafgi, fignifying Nartbem Wan- 
derers^ as will be explained in the conclufion from 
Campegius Vitringa. The Pelafgi divided into two bo- 
dies under Magog and Gomer ; the former feated 
themfelves early in Aflyria, at Bethfan *, from thence 
called Scytho-polis by theGreeks, of which we (hall treat 
fully in the latter partof thiswork.From the vicinity of 
the Pelafgians to the Phoenicians and Egyptians, they 
were (bon noticed by thefe idolatrous nations, confe- 
derated with them, and joined with them in their at- 
tacks on the iflands of Elifha, and from thefe, the 
Greek language was formed. Hence it is that the 
learned Duret when he treats of the origin of the 
Greek language, b^ins thus, Dei Grecs ou Pelqf- 

•• The Pelafgi, fay the authors of the univerial 
" hiftory J, muft be allowed to have been one of the 
^^ mod ancient nations in the world, and as appears 
** from their colonies, in the earlieft times, very nu- 
•* merous and powerful. With regard to their origin, 

* Pelafgi pop. Gnecise in genere per Tariat regionies difperfii 
qui Pelafgh quafi vagabundi tefte Strab. dicuntur a Pdajgo Jo* 
vift & LariflsB filio didi. qui primi in Latium litteras docuifle fe- 
runtur. Ovid* 1. 2. de arte. (Fcrrarii Lex.) 

Hae tihi non homincm^ fedquercus crede Pglafgai. 

See iocafftf & bsle-toc the oak and mifletoe in the conduiioD. 
Scythopolh olim Methra tefte Zon. to. i. Ann. dida, qus & 
Nyfa tefte Plin. di£ta eft a ScjthiB condita. nunc Bithfan 
tefte Breitenhaebio, (Ferarii Lex.) 

f Hiftoire de rorigioe des langues deceft Uaiverf. 

X Tom. 1 6. 



•* the learned are not agreed, fome make them the 
** defcendants of Peleg, who have very probable ar- 
** guments on their fide ^ others deduce them from 
** theCanaanites and Phoenicians, and others fuppofc 
** them to have been of a Celtic original §• The E- 
** trufcans or Tyrfenians were a branch of the Pelafgi, 
** that migrated into Europe and the LydianPelafgior 
•* Etrufcans, conduded by Tyrfenus to Italy, and the 
** firft Pelafgi that inhabited Greece, were the fame 
*• people." 

From thence it would follow (if I am right in the dc* 
rivation of the Iri(h) that the antient Iriih and the an* 
tient Etrufcan Ihould have a great affinity. To this I an- 
fwer, that no two languages have a greater, and that 
if the learned Swinton, Maffeus, Gorius, &cc. had 
known the Magonian Irifh language, they would 
have found lefs difficulty in explaining the old Etruf- 
can, as ihall be (hewn in fome future number of, 
this Collectanea. 

Strabo upon the authority of Ephorus, whof be fays 
had his from Hefiod^ derives the origin and name 
Pelafgi from one Pelafgus, founder of the kingdom of 
Arcadia, and fo doesMacrobius, which is the more ap« 
parent, as the former tells us in the fame place,, that 
it was upon Hefiod's authority, that Ephorus had deri- 
ved the origin of the Pelafgi from Arcadia, as being 
defcendants of Pelafgus, for Strabo had a few lines be* 
fore, cited Ephorus, in the following words, ** Eos 
** (Pclafgos>originemab Arcadibusducentes, vitam mf- 

$ Kelt implies a fixed people, it was a name the Scythians or 
P^IaJgh gave thofe colomes that had refidcd long in a place. 
See Eflay on the Celtic language. 

B 2 . lit arm 


** litarem delegifle, (author eft Ephorus :)" to which he 
adds, that having induced many other people to ob- 
ferve the fame military inftitution^ they were all" diftin- 
guiOied by the one common name of Pclafgi. This 
explanation of the name Pelafgi, accords extremely 
well with the Magogian Irifli ; in which language, afca 
and afcatb is a foldier, (in Arab, ajker^ an army) 
plea/gam J is to conquer, and plqfca or pd-qfrn is the 
leader of an army ; thus we fay, pal-maire^ the gover- 
nor of a (hip, i. e. the rudder of a (hip. 

Now Pelafgus being only a title given to their lead- 
er, by themfelves, has ftill involved the origin of this 
hero in greater obfcurity. Sir I. Ne w ton makes him 
one of the fubjeds of the pajior kings of Egypt, made 
fugitives by Mifphragmutholis; but the learned 
Fourmont (the elder) is pofitive, the Pelafgi were 
Philliftines, and in the following pageS) we (hall prove 
they wereMagogian Scythians, long fetried in Paldline, 
having produced many authorities of the andentSi 
that they fIouri(hed at Bethfan, afterwards named by 
the Greeks Scythopolis, from their dwelling in that 
City. Potter in his Grecian antlt^uities, fays, the 
Pclalgi were Tyrhenians born, and (fpeaking of the 
building of Athens) taught the Greeks the art of build* 
ing houfes of lime and ftone, and from them, walls 
and caftles were called t»^««* Is it poffible that Potter 
could be ignorant that the Hebrew and Chaldee "no 
Tur^ was a circular building, a tower, from the origin 
of languages ? Obferve the ancient hiftory of the Irifh 
in this particular, " African feorcbampions landed in 
*^ Ireland, conquered the country, introduced their 
** language, and taught the inhabitants to build with 
'^^limc and ftone,** to build vihn^—'Round towers xxn- 
\btedly, for no other buildings were credked in Ire- 


land of lime and ftone, for many centuries after- 
wards : but thefe conquering Pelafgi, thefe ingenious 
artifts, who routed the Greeks from Elifha and built 
the city of Athens, were called Pelargi, fays Straho, 
(and after him Potter) from «x«^«i, Pelargi, ftorks, 
Im rU wUflu, for their wandering: and they. built (hips 
called mxm^y x^mxH fnH* fapud Lycoph.) naves ciconia- 
rum qffimili colore tiha^. What a jumble of nonfenfe ! 
Our Pelafgi named Athens, Pelargi, for the fame rea- 
fon that the ancient Irifh named the city of Water- 
ford Bel-lairge^ and the harbour Port-lairge^ meaning 
thereby a town built at the Qmrgeot) forks of the ri- 
ver ; this dty having been firft conftrudled at the 
forks of the rivers Suireand Barrow, as Athens was 
at the forks of the Ifys and fome other river the name 
I cannot learn. The Irilh built veflels of bark and 
called them leabar-naoi znd coirteas-nm^ and hence the 
latin LiburtiiccB turves or light (hips and the Greek 
xi^nH9h9. The Greeks dedicated this famous city to 
Minerva goddefs of wifdomand named it a'i;?*! Athenae 
becaufe in the Pelafj^an tongue, as in the Irilh, Aithnc 
is knowledge, wifdom, &c. and every ignorant pea- 
fantin Ireland, at this day, looks up to his miftrefs 
as an a'34m i. e. a woman-of fuperior knowledge. Ce- 
crops (a Pelafgian) having compleated this dty called 
it ^r»> becaufe in his language (and in Irilh, qfli) is a 
dwelling, and fo conceited were the Greeks of being 
able to liv^ above-ground, they called themfelves i«#/ 
filers in botifes, hence Terence an in ajiu venitf We 
have no other word at this day in Ireland to enquire 
if fuch a one is in his houfe or at home, but b'fbuil an 
fear afti (aftee) is the man at home? This calls to my 
mind, ar obfervation of the ingenious Mr. Hblwell, 
he fays, ** the annals of the Gentoos, give teftimony 


P R-^ E F :A C E. 

** of Alexander's invafion,' where he is recorded under 
*' the epithets of a might}' robber and murderer -^ but 
*• they make no mention of a Porus — the Greek and 
** Latin conftrudlion and xcrmmznonoi places andnames^ 
^ princesy^nd kingdom of Indoftan, faid to be conquer* 
*' ed by Alexander, bear not the leaft analogy, or idiom 
** of theGentoo language either ancient or modern." 
(Hift. of Indoftan V. 2, p. 2. 3.) We fliall find Porus 
when we collate the Irifh iand Hindoftan languages. 

Let us now purfue the uni verfal hiftory . '* The name 
Tufci given to the Etrufcans, feems to be <^ a later 
date and to have been given them by the Greeks. The 
Xkitoifrankincence^ that prevailed amongfl the Tufcans 
in after ages, probably fuggefled this appellation to 
that people." (Uni verf. Hift.) 

Now frankincence in i\\t Greek language is, aAo^ 
and A/€«r*Tif-* The Latin T^i^iw is from theGrcek ^^ mm* 
r¥^Uh u e. odorem\fatie9ub\ but the Greek is from 
the Irirti, Tu/ca^ the' nariie of camphire, frankmcef$ce^ 
and is the word now ufed for that perfume, burnt in 
the office of the Mafs. It is therefore very impro- 
' bable, that the Greeks gave this name tothe Etrufcans 
' from fb trifling i caufe ; but that the Etf ufcans named 
themfelves Tufac, which -in the Iri(h implies a hero, 
warrior, noble f. Tufcu ^ thure nomen dedu£tum 
non videri, quod r/^wm.ufus non fit antiquus: Tufci 
an Tbu/ci a Rege vox tradla. (J. Dempftri de Etru- 
ria Reg. Ch, 2.) but I take Tufci to mean forcerers^ 
as well as Tages. 

* St. Mathew Chap. 2. from the Hebrew hhwan See Mai- 
mODi in Sanhcd. c. 13. 
t See CoUeftanca No. jo. 



In the derivation of the names of nations and 
people, it (houid be confidered, by whom fuch name 
was given, by themfelves or by foreigners, there is 
reafon to think Tufci was the indigenous name. 

Etruria was divided into twelve tribes, called in the 
Tufcan language lucumonesj and each was governed by 
its own lucumo or prince, and over the whole was a 
preliding lucvmo or king. As the Etrufcans were a 
warlike nation, and fpokc at firft a language not very 
diflferent from the Hebrew or Phoenician, the word 
lucumo might poflibly have denoted a warrior or cap*- 
tain. The; Hebrew tsnS locbetn or lucbem has un- 
doubtedly fuch a fignification. (Univerf. Hift.) 

With great fubmiffion to thefe learned authors^ 
there is much difference in the appellations given to 
tbt gtruernors znd governed. Prince and people, king 
and fubjedts are very different words in all languages, 
but the Pdafgian Irifh can (hew their miftake. 

DnS lachim in the Hebrew, does fignify war^ and 
vi£htals : but nS lacb is a flrong youth (fit for war.) In 
Chaldee lacbeda valdd; in Samaritan forte, and lecbifo^tx 
bovis, leciem efca, panis. 

In Arabic, /f^familix princeps. m, lacbab pttcuffit 
gladio. Lekab a certain tribe of Arabia which in pagan 
times had never, known captivity, nor a dependance 
on kings. (Richardfon.) 

From thefe oriental roots proceed the following 
Irilh words, viz. lucbt^ lucbd a tribe, folucbt Jo-lucbd 
a profperous tribe, fiio£l pofterity or defcent, 
flucbi a free tribe \ lucbd anfwers the French j^^n/ and 
laocbd gens des armes. 

Lucbd and liacbd a multitude, the people *, hocb an 

* In the Hindoftan language hok^ in the Gentoo hgvie. 



ftdUve youth, a foldier, a champion : hence hocbra 
militia, laocb-mm a general^.a great warrior, laocb-ccis 
a princefs, a general's wife. 

f Laighn or Idcbn a fword, fpear, javelin, Ic^bmlarm a 
blade, lannfgine the blade of a knife, Imgtnt^ir the 
country of (broad) fwords : hence la^bnftir u e. Lein* 
fter, a province in Ireland, from the arms they ufed 
in combat, undc >^ftkm & xix^ubi incidit gladio, vel 
dentibus, qui inftar gladii (Caftellqs). 

L0aga^ praife, fame, renown ; an appellative com* 
mG^ to the Irifli princes, as, Lugbaidb-Imgba Mac 
mogba rtuadbat. 

Liocais^ power, fway. 

Ligmbiy an appetite. 

Laogb^ meat, veal, a calf. 

L(hligbeacbj a new milched cow, becaufe of the 
great quantity of milk fhe affords. 

Lucbmaire^ abundance of food. 

Lucbmrt^ a chief's houfe, a palace. 

Lugb^ aftive, ejcpert. 

Lucb^ a prifoner taken in war. 

Luigban^ to cut, to hack, to rend to pieces. 

Logbm-Jiubbal, a Viaticum. 

But feeing the Pelafgi or Tufci were remarkable for 
their (kill in augury, forcery, divination, &c. which 

t The kind of fword, peculiar (in the firft ufc of it) to the 
province of Gah'an, introduced by the monarch Laura, the fca- 
man, on his return from exile in Gaul, fometime before the 
chriftian xra. Of the GauU who followed hi« fortune, and caa- 
bled him to mount the Iriih throne, O'Flahcrty fayB, A iati- 
cufpldum armoruvt^ qua noftrh infuetay exteri ills intulerantt voca- 
buh Lance A lagema affcllathnm e^indefortita efi. Ogyg. p. *6a. 



art the Irifti derived from them, I beg leave to fubmit 
to the reader another interpretation of Ltuomon. 
I have elfewhere (hewed that the name fignifying 
king, prince, chief, did alfo imply prophet, augur, 
&c. lb in the Pelafgian Irifti laoc is a chief, a poet, a 
forcerer: it is written laoc, laoic, luich, and liag, 
whence liagb^ a phyfician, one who has the power of 
healing by charms. Hence the Itug or leice^ the fa- 
mous chryftal which the priefts kept to work charms 
by, and dill ufed in the Highlands of Scotland. Hence 
alfo the bird called Luic or Luicfcdrge^ (the marine 
forcerer) which Mr. Banks and Mr. Penant have de- 
fcribed. The man who lives on StafFa, (as I am in- 
formed, fays Mr. Shaw in his Irifli didtionary) fays, 
that they hatch their eggs by fitting on the ground at 
the diilance of fix inches from them, and turning their 
faces towards them, continue to repeat Gur legug day 
and night I ! ! Gut luighe^ is the falfe or lying pro- 
phet; and this was the mariners name for this 
bird, whofe approach to a ftiip at feat is ftill fuppofed 
to foretell a ftorm. 

And as ojct in the Pelafgian Irifti implies (killed in 
forcery, and tua^ a lord or chief, it is more probable 
that 7ujci is derived from Tuaofce^ and that the Ofci 
their neighbours, owe their name alfo to this deriva- 
tion. See hereafter what is faid of OSSIAN. 

** The Phoenicians and neighbouring nations, were 
" much addifted to augury and divination, as may be 
** collected from fcriptures. It is no wonder, there- 
** fore, that their defcendants, the Etrufcans, ftiould 
" have difcovered the fame difpofition. Their wri- 
" tcrs pretend, that TAGES, (whom fomc have taken 

** for 


^ for a god, others for a man, but Tully fcarce knows 
•* in what light to confider him,) was the inventor of 
^ every thing relating to augury and divination.*' 
(Univ. Hid.) 

I have coUeAed fifty words in the Irifh language 
idating to augitry and divination*^ every one of them 
are oriental, exprefling the mode of producing thefe 
abominable ans : they are, in fadt* the very identical 
Mental words written in IriQi characters, and amongft 
dicm is ti^bj divination, ti^lhoirm^ divination by 
numbers f, tuag^cbeird^ the art of divinadixi, &c. &c. 
To return to the Greek. 


* Thus Aitthis was one of the peiibni under tbe Druids, 
whofe office it was to make celeftial obfenrations, fo called, fay 
the Irifli gloilaries, firom jiin^ the fun's orbit, as before ex- 
plained in Bel-a/n, a year, and iur or eoj^ knowledge, but this 
word is evidently from the Hebrew Jt^y & JJp, cloud mon- 
gers, diviners by obfenrations made on clouds, p^y forcerefs, 
the falfe church that confulted the clouds. Bates. Hence jfi- 
mus in our modem didionaries is explained by Jorcerer. But 
Aaiiu in Virgil was king of DeUs and prieft of Apollo. 
Rex AniuB, Rex idem hominum^ PhMque facerdos* 

\ See Airm in the conclufion. The Etrufcans fay that Tages 
was born of a clod of earth that a hufbandman turned up, by 
dipping the ploughfhare deeper int* the ground than nfual. 
He immediately taught the art of divination to this hu(bandmaa 
and the reft of the Etnifcans. The moral of this fable is, that 
no profefllon in life requires a better knowledge of the prognof- 
tications of the weather, or of the revolutions of the feafons than 
hufbandry or farming. Now Tages or Teageas in Iri(h, is huf- 
bandry. Teaghafam^ to manage a farm, to follow huAandry. 
In the Sclavoniatty tegh, agriculture. Tegb^ labour, hufbandry. 
From tag/^t divination, is derived the proper Iri(h name tagae% 
or teagi or tad/fg^ i. e. a diviner. And in the old Pelafgian Iri(h 
tho/aic did certainly fignify a forcerer as well as a prince, hence 



Do6tor Parfons, fellow of the royal and antiquarian 
fociciies of London, in his Remains ofjapbit^ printed 
in 1767, has very nufterly coUcdted the opinions of 
the antient and modern authors on this fubjedl. We 
ihall trace the learned author through his work. 
** * Too much cannot be offered to the reader, of the 
Pelafgi, becaufe they will become principal evidences, 
for the truth of what we imagine to be the date of the 
cafe, with refpe£i to the origin of the languages of 
Europe : and by proving that both Celts and Scythians 
were firft Felafgians, we (hall be able to afcertain what 
is offered in a future chapter, that the Gomerians and 
Scythians or Magogians fpoke the fame language." 

*^ The Phoenicians and Egyptians beg^n very early 
to attempt fending colonies to neighbouring coun- 
tries i and as they both fprung from the fame anoef- 
tors, the fons of Ham, they muft have had much the 
fame oeconomical difpofitions to improve their com- 
mercial and pther intereils. Maritime countries feem 
to be the firft objedt of their intentions ; and where 
could they find any place fo likely to anfwer their ends 
as the ifles of Elidia or Greece, now inhabited by Pe- 
lafgians, the iflue of Gomer, and many of the defcen* 
dants of Magog." 

^' We are informed, by Strabo and Dion. Halic. that 
they fent colonies thither, and began to difturb the 

ceart'thfaighe^ forccry, witchcraft ; O'Brien's diftionary of the 
Irifh: from the Hebrew Charthumim^ compounded of Chart 
celare & tuma claudere » hence ceirt or keirt in Irifli i« the kn^ve 
of cards, that is, the juggler or forcerer. All names fignifying 
diviners, likewiie iignify chiefs, princes : thus in 2d ch. Daniel, 
we find the fons of the kings of Ifrael only, called up to Babylon 
to be inftrudled in the Chaldea art. 
* Remains of Japheti p. IQO. 



Pclafgians two generations or 60 years, before the 
wars of Troy : and from that time continued to in- 
trude, by fucceffive numbers, till they had well nigh 
replaced the original inhabitants, and had fulxliied 
the maritime parts. It was then they becanae a mix- 
ed people^ con fitting of Pelafgiaiis, Phoenicians and 
Egyptians; and from that time the aeraof the Greek 
tongue may be dated. All was Pelafgian before the 
incurfions of Phoenicians andEgyptians, and the gradu* 
al combinations of the languages of thefc with the Pe- 
lafgian begat the Greek, called afterwards the Helenian 
tongue, in complaifance to Deucalion's fon, who, at , 
his arrival there, found this language forming ; while 
the Pelafgians enjoyed their own, unchanged, in the 
other parts of Greece, Afia Minor, in the country of 
the Trojans, Scythia, and all the neighbouring iflands 
in the Mediterranean fea, and all over Thrace, •*&c. 

** It may from hence, be eafily fecn, that the peo- 
pie of all thefe countries were the fame, defcended 
from Japhet, through Gomer, Magog, and his other 
fons, and fpoke the fame language wherefoever they 
dwelt, until the incurfion mentioned into Greece, 
which was in time, called Cekic,. Gaulirti,'* &c. 

I cannot agree with the Doctor that all was Pelafgian 
before the incurfions of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, 
but that all was Pelafgian after their incurfions. The 
and fome who had dwelt in Egypt, formed this mixed 
body, called Pelafgi, headed by Cadmus. They are 
diftinguifhed in the facred writings by the name of 
Cadmonites. Canaan contained eleven fundry people, 
at leaft 2200 years before Chrift, (See Genef x. v. 
16, 17, 18.) and therefore Willet in his Hexapla, qb- 
ferve5, though the Canaanites did confift of fo many 



fundry people, they certainly fpoke all but one lan- 
guage 4 — ^and he adds, ** the Magogians were not the 
anceftors of the Goths or Germans, but were Scythians.** 
The Jewifli writers always efteemed the Etrufcans 
and Pelafgians as a mixt people. Rabblni communi 
confenfu Etruriam ^{{^b (me(k) appellant (De antiq. 
Etruriae. Anonym.) Mejk in Hebrew, and meqfc in 
Irifli, implies a mixt people ; this confirms the Do£tor*s 
aflertion of the jundlion of the Pelafgians, Phoenicians 
and Egyptians, but he brings the Magogians there too 

The Magogian-Scy thians were early blended witk 
the Canaanites, and there loft all diftindion of name ; 
but they preferved it in their route to Tartary and 
China; it was this mixed body that defcended to 
Eliflia, Africa, Spain, Britain and Ireland, (and even 
to Gaul and Germany, till driven away by the Gomer- 
ites,) forming a language as different from that of 
Gomer, as Italian is from French. 

That Cadmus was the leader of this mixed body, 
is very probable ; for if we recoiled, that Jolhua was 
ordered to write the words of the Law, upon large 
ftones on Mount Ebal, as foon as he had pafled over 
Jordan, which he accordingly did, (Deut. 23, 7. Jbfli. 
8, 30 ) literary writings muft from thence be tolerably 
well known to the Canaanites, or Phoenicians, amongft 
whom the Magogian-Scythians had fettled. 

Hence it was that Cadmus, who was a Canaanite, or 
as Herodotus airerts,aTyrian, (which is the fame thing) 
might alfo learn the art of literary writing, iince it 
was not till fome years after the paflage over Jordan 
that Jofliua was able to difpofTefs the Canaanites, and 
drive them out of the land by a total overthrow of 



their foix:es at the waters of Merom^ where the Lord 
delivered them into the band of Ifraelj wbofmote tbem and 
chafed them unto great Sidon. (Jolh. ii, 7, 8.) From 
which place, or from Tyre, it probably was that Cadmus 
with the reft of his defeated companions, took 
Shipping and fled into Greece, and carried with them 
the art of literary writing. And hence it is, that the 
Phoenicians are faid by Lucan to have been the inven- 
tors of literary writing. 

Phcenices primi, famae fi credlmus, aufi 
Manfuram rudibus vocem fignare figuris. 

Luc. 1. 3. 
But Phcenices was a name given to this mixt body by 
the Greeks ; the facred writers knew no fuch people ; 
they denominated them all Canaanites, and as I have 
ihewn before Canaan did confift of eleven different 
families or nations. Cadmus may therefore have been 
a Magogian-Scythian, and ftill very properly be called 
a Canaanite, or Phoenician. I am inclined to think 
Cadmus was a Scythian, becaufe his name is truly 
Pelafgian-Irifl], fignifying head, firft, chief, lord, fee 
Kead or Cead, firft ; Gid holy ; Keadmus or Ceadmus, 
firft of all, imprimis, in all the Irifh didtionaries. In 
Hebrew it implies an Orientalift^ but that could not 
have been a diftin<5l name in the Eaft. 

For that the Cadmonites were one of thefe colonies 
which were difpoflefled of their habitations by Jofhua, 
is plain from hence, becaufe they are particularly fpe- 
cified in the promife made by God to Abraham, wlhen 
he made a covenant with him to give him the land 
of Canaan for a poffcflion, faying. Unto thy feed have 
I given this land^ from the river of Egypt to the great 
river ^ the river Euphrates. The KeniteSf and the Knezzites^ 


P R E F A C £• 

und the C ADMONITES, and the Hiitiies. (Gen* 15, 
189 and 19. 

Diodorus accordingly fays, that Cadmus, who was 
the head of this tribe, brought the art of literary 
writing from Phoenicia into Greece ; wherefore thofe 
letters, fays he, are called Phoenician. Juft as the 
Irifh fay that Phoenius, the Scythian leader, who was 
a Fear-Saidh or Sidonian man, taught letters to their 
anceftors in Palefline. And in another place Diodorus 
fays, that Cadmus came to Rhodes, and brought with 
him the Phoenician letters : where was found an anci* 
ent vafe with this infcription, ** that Rhodes ^as 
** about to be deftroyed by Serpents:'' that is, by the He- 
vites, who were his countrymen, and accompanied 
Cadmus from Phoenicia in to Greece; the vfordHeva in 
Hebrew fignifying a Serpent. This circumftancc is 
alfo related in the IriHi hiftory of Gadelas. But, if we 
confider the whole ilory of Cadmus, (as related by the 
Grecian hiilorians,) whofe wife's name is faid to be 
Hermione, and that he raifed foldiers by fowing of 
Serpent's teeth, it will add a ftrong confirmation to 
this opinion, that Cadmus was one of thofe Phoenicians, 
who were driven out of Canaan by Jolhua, when he 
purfued them to great Sidon, For when Jofhua num- 
bered the hofts which came out againft him to battle 
in the land of Canaan, he reckons up amongft them 
the Hevite under Hermon. And now let us but fuppofe 
that Cadmus, the head of the Cadmonites, was married 
to the daughter of his unfortunate neighbour and ally 
the king of Hermon^vfhok fubjedts were called Hcvites, 
and who being driven from their country by Jolhua, 
were forced to fly into Greece, and there is an eafy 
foluiion of this mytliological ftory of the Grecian 



Cadmus. For as the denorainatbn, or name, which 
was given to the daughter of the king of HennoDi 
might probably be Hermione« and as the word He vite, 
which was the appellation of the fubjedts of the king 
of Hermon, denotes in Hebrew, one Sprung from a Ser- 
pent \ fo the Grecians made ufe of the double fignifica- 
tion of this word to graft upon it their fable of Cadmus^ 
(the hufband of Hermoine) having raifed foldiers by 
(owing of ferpents teeth. See origin of hieroglyphics 
and mythology (p. 7 1.) by the late biftiop of Cloghcr, 
to whofe writings I am indebted for this obfervation. 
To this let us add, the obfervations of the authors 
of the univerfal hiftory. " We come now to Magog, 
the fecond fon of Japhet", with regard to whofe fet- 
tlement, the learned have many different and confuP 
cd notions. Jofephus, Jerom, and moll of the fathers, 
held them to be Scythians about mountCaucafus, which 
name Bochart fuppofes was made by the Greeks out 
of Gog-hafon, fignifying Gog's-fort in Chaldee, of 
which he imagines the language of the Colchi and 
Armenians to have been a dialedt. But perhaps it is 
rather a wrong pronunciation of Cuh-Kaf, which in 
Perfian fignifies the mountain of Kaf, as the Arabs 
call it *. That this plantation adjoined upon thofc 
of Melhechand Tubal, appears from Ezekiel's making 
Gog^ king of Mjg-<?f, to reign over the other two. 
The Arabs, who have borrowed the beft part of their 
religion from the Jews, -are acquainted with Gog and 
Magogs whom they call Tajuj and Majuj^ and make 

* We (hall hereafter find Cuh-Kais in Perfian and Iriih, I'l 
the mountain of Iron oar» for which Caucafas waa remarkable. 
Pococke tells us that KafyrzA a fabulous mountain of the Arabs* 
(See Noise in Carmen Tograiy p. 71.) 



them not inhabitants of the mountain Kafox CaucafuSf 
but removed them at a great diftance, to the farther 
end of Tartary, towards the north or north-eaft. 
(See D'Herbelot) *. We are inclined to think the 
parts above mentioned between the Euxine and Ca/pian 
feas, are moft likelcly to be thofe in which Magog 
fettled. However, we can by no means omit this 
occafion of taking notice of an error, into which many 
of the modern writers have fallen, who place Magog 
in Syria. Bochart's great judgment would not fufFer 
him wholly to come into it : however, he fuppofes 
Magog himfelf gave his name to a town there. 
Dr. Wells more cautioufly fuggefts, that the name 
was long after taken from the Scythians, when they 
made an excurfion into Syria, and took the city, as 
Bethfan in Judea was alfo called after them Scytho- 
polis. But, Mr. Shuckford fixes Magog himfelf 
there, with Gomer, Tubal, Togarmah and Meftiech 
about him. What gave rife to this opinion is a paf- 
fage in Pliny, where he obferves that Bambyce, other- 
wife Hierapolis, is by the Syrians called Magog ; but 
this proves to be a palpable miftake of the tranfcriber^ 
who has written Magog inftead of Mabog, as has 
been obferved by Dr. Hyde, who wonders nobody 
had corrciSted that error in Pliny.*' 

New lights have. been thrown on the hiftory of 
Aflyria fincc thefe authors compiled the univerfal hif- 
tory : we muft therefore infill on the Magogian Scy- 
thians having been early matters of that country. 

* This 18 confirmed by my collation of the Magonian-Irifh 
with the Kalmuc-Mogul^ Tartar, Chinefe and Japonefe langua- 
ges-^here cannot be a furer guide of the Magogian colonies, 
every where to be diftinguifhed from thofe of Corner. 

C Des 


Des ef pices de Scythes err ants ^ fortis du mom Caucqfe^ 
comnencent a fe ripand/e dans ks plaines de tAffjrie. 
(Ordrc des Evenemens de THiftoirc d'Aflyria dont on 
ne peut fixer la Chronologie. Paris 1780, written 
by the learned Gibelin.) 

We are obliged now, fays the author of the Uni- 
verfal Hiftory, to fay fomething with reference to the 
defcendants of Joktan ; who, if they were not con- 
cerned in tht firji difperfion^ feem to have begun their 
migration in Peleg's life-time ; with regard to which 
patriarch, we (hall only obferve here, that it is not 
probable the Pelafgians of Greece and Italy derive 
their original from him, as fome imagine (See Cum- 
berl« on Sanchon.) but it rather appears from fcrip- 
ture, that both he and his pofterity remained in Chal- 
daea, within the lot of their great anceftor Arphaxed, 
till Terah the father of Abraham left Ur of the Chal- 
dees, to remove into the land of Canaan/' We find 
then, that this land of Canaan was the receptacle of 
every nation of the eaft \ and though thefe authors 
will not allow the Pelafgians of Greece to have migra- 
ted in the life-time of Peleg, they ftill confirm my 
conjefture, that the mixed body which did migrate 
at that period, were properly calledi Mejk^ or mixed 
people, and that they denominated themfelves Pleaf^ 
£sf Pbaoft'pleafgiy which in Irifh fignifies heroes, con- 

If we trace the hiftories of the Phoenicians and Chal- 
dseans to their origin, in the moft ancient authors, 
there appears great reason to believe they were a mix- 
ed peopk of Scythians, Canaanites and Pelafgians- 
The authors of the Uoivcrfal Hiftory, tell us, that 
it is not determined, whence Phoenice or Phoenicia 



borrowed its name. Some deriving it from one Phcc- 
nix f probably the Irilh Phaenius) others from the Greek 
Phaenix, fignifying a palm' or date, as if that tree re- 
markably abounded there. Bochart obferves that 
Phoenicia was known to the Jews by the name of the 
land of Canaan, a name he would derive from Canaan, 
and that the Phoenicians afhamed of their anceftor, 
took other names on themfelvcs, but Canaan con- 
tained eleven different headd of houfesor nations : this 
appellation could not aflfed them all. Phoenicia was 
certainly known by the name of Cbna^ and as Bochart 
obferves the Hebrew Cbanatuxi implies merchants ; (o 
we muft obferve does the Irifli cbanaidbej and this word 
is commonly ufed at this day to fignify trafBck. 
Ceanaim^ to bay or fell. Ceanai-naoitby marine mer- 
chants, traders by fea, but Ceann or Kann^ is a head, 
chief, lord. Cann-oinc^ great prophets or diviners'; 
To alfo in the Irifh language, Painidh or Pbainii is ftrong, 
valiant, and aice^ is a tribe or people, Acadb^ aca^ 
a country or region, and thefe compounded form 
Pbainaice and Pbanaca. Hence Pbcinney Pbanaidbe^ 
Flame and Ftitme^ is the name given in the ancient 
writings, to the Irifti troops. Pbaon or Faon^ is a con- 
queror. Faonbbach^ a conquered people. Fine-gal^ 
a hero. Fuanadb^ a refiner of metals. Pannaice^ march* 
kig, fojournkig. Banaigbam or Panaicam^ to lay 
waftc a country. Buin-aire^ puinire^ a foot foldier. 
A»/, proud, auflere. Banncbadb^ pbanacba^ pilla- 
ging, phandering. Ban^ pan^ light, the funj hence 
Phan^ a king; whence Faunus rex Etruriae circiter 
CL (Eufelwus) and Dion. Halicarn. fays, contigit 
CO tempore quo venit Evander, efle regem aborige- 
C z nem 


ncm Faunum, pronepotera (ut aiunt) Martis, quern 
ut genium quendam five indigetem, & facrificiis atque 
carminibus coluHt Romani. (Pronepos autem ad pro- 
avum refertur, quoniam relativa funt.) 

But tbe ftrongeft argument to prove the Pelafgi and 
Phoenlces were of the fame origin, is drawn from the 
Irifh word Phmn-bleagan or Faoin-bkafgany or pleqfgan^ 
which in my ancient gloflary is explained hyKannfacbt 
or Ceannfacbty i. e. conqueft. In this compound it ap- 
pears, that pkag and pleafg and Ceannfacbt all imply 
heroes, conquerors, and comprehends all the deriva- 
tion given to the Pelafgi, by the authors of the Uni- 
verfal Hiftory. 

And that the Phoenicians were Scythians, or allied 
with the Scy thopolians of Bethfan, I think is extreme- 
ly probable, from the author of the Book of Mac- 
cabees, book I, ch. II, V. 39. Moreover there was 
oneTryphon {T^i^0f that is, Tar-upb-ain^ the great 
forcerer) that had been of Alexander's part before, 
who feeing that all the hoft murmured againft Deme- 
trius, &c, &C. Ch. 12, V. 39. Now Tryphon went 
about to get the kingdom of Afia, and to kill Antio- 
chus the king, that he might fet the crown on his own 
head ; howbeit he was afraid that Jonathan would 
not fufFer him, and that he would fight againll him^ 
wherefore he fought a way to take Jonathan, that he 
might kill him. So he removed and came to Bethfan« 
(i. e. Scythopolis.) Then Jonathan went out to 
meet him, with forty thoufand men, chofen for the 
battle, and came to ^Bethfan. Ch. 13. v. 31, Now 
Tryphon dealt deceitfully with the young king Anti- 
ochus, and flew him ; and he reigned in his Head, and 
crowned himfelf king of Afia, and brought a great 


P R E F A C E. 

calamity upon the land. Cb. ^5. v. ii. wherefore 
(Tryphon) being purfued by king Antiochus, he fled 
unto Dora, which lieth by the fea-fide. v. 13. Then 
encamped Antiochus againft Dora having with him 
120,000 men and 8,000 horfemen, v. 37. In the 
mean time fled Tryphon by (hip unto Orthofias, v. 39, 
—but as for the king himfelf, he purfued Tryphon. 

It is evident by this hiftory 'that the Scythians did 
at this time poflcfs all that country from Scythdpolis 
or Bethfan, to Dor on the coafl: of the Mediterranean, 
near to Tyre, and by the retreat of Tryphon to Or- 
thofias, one of the moft confiderable cities of Phoeni- 
cia north of Tripolis on the coaft of the Mediterra- 
nean, it is clear, that the Scythopoliaris and Phoeni- 
cians, were one and the fame people. 

This Tryphon fome authors fuppofe to have been 
Diodotus, born in Apamea in Syria, whom Jofephus 
fays was killed in that city in the third year of the 
captivity of Demetrius. - 

By this account of Macabeus, vrt fee the Scythopo- 
lians took exactly the fame route, as the Cadmohites 
in the time of Jolhua, and the laft retreat of all thefe 
people, was to Tyre aud Sidon and from thence to 

I might here fill twenty pages at leaft from various 
authors, to prove that the Pelaf^ were of Phoenician 
or Hebrew origiiial. Squire in his enquiry into the 
origin of the Greek language, concludes thus, ** Up- 
** on the whole therefore, whether we confult the 
" hifl:ory of the Pelafgi themfelves, or thofe few au- 
•* thentic remains of their language ftill prefcrved in 
** the fcattered monuments of antiquity ; or whether, 
•* in the laft place, we examine the language fpo- 

'' ken 

P R E F A C E. 

** ken by their undoubted colonies the Italians, we 
** have on every fide, the ftrongeft andmofi conihidng 
** argiim^nfs of the great aj^niiy between the Pehi/gic and 
^^ Hebrew tongues:^ Mr. Squire pubKflied this eflay 
in 1741 ; ,and in 17^0 G. Piet. Francefco Agius de 
Soldanig, . publiflicd two cffays at Rome on the Lingua 
JPunica u(ed at this day -in Malta, with a view to ex- 
plain the^Elrufca*].' Ovvero nuovi ^locumenti^ ti qudi 
pojfono /eryire di lume.aW Antica lingua Etrufca. From 
this author's fmall didlionary oi Puma Malte/e^ I have 
Ihewn a perfect correfpondence with the Pelafgian; 
Irifh, in a pamphler^coptaining alfo a .9ollation of the 
Punic fpeech in,«ollated with the Irilh lan- 
guage. : this pamphlet ,has been re-printed in the fid 
volume "of this CoUedanca, . To. return to Dr. 
Parfons. : . . , 

Thucyd. fays, that the Pelafgians were a nurneroiB 
people, fpread fax and i>ear before the age of HeUcn 
the fon of Deucalion, and Strabo iays the fame: 
Theflaly was firft called Palafgia fays Stepb. de Urb. £jf 
Scbobon Apollon^ that the Pelafgians were a barbarous 
nation, who inhabited Theffaly and Argos; Hcfy- 
chius fays, the Pelafgians are Thcffelians and Homer 
places this people in Theffaly *." 

'* The teftimonics are innumerable that argue for 
the univerfality and antiquity of the ancient Pelafgians, 
not only in Greece, but in every country round them, 
as well iflands as on the continent : that the Thraci- 

* Adiaia Grsecias regio, quam PtoUrosus Helladen ^uoque 
Bominat Achaia alia Pcloponncfi qii« ab eodem Ptolomaeo Pro- 
pria cognominatur, Ionia, Jas h Olenus eadem vocatur a Dio- 
doroy iEgialos a Paufanta & Plinio. Incolas Peiafgos MgiaUs* 
(Orteltus.) Deucalion was a Scythian. (Bailly fur let Sciences, 
p. 256.) 



ans were inhabitants in Greece, from the very begin-? 
ning and the. people which were called the Bifaltes, 
Creftones, Edones, and particularly the Pelafgians, 
were counted Tyrrhenians, fome of whom dwelt in 
the 'ifle of Lemnos, and in the territory of Athens; 
and as the three firft of thefe were Thracians, the 
Pelafgians, who were forced away by the Phoenicians 
from the maritime places, retired to them as to their 
own friends and relations *.'* 

** But the Pelafgians returned in fome time, and 
regained a part of their ancient country, fettling 
themfeives in Peliponefus, according to Herodotus, 
and were then called Dorians, and the moft famous 
of the Lacedemonians, whom Pezron mentions as 
Celts. Strabo fays that a gr^at part of Greece, efpe- 
cially Macedonia and TheiTaly, was inhabited by the 
Barbari, particularly Thracians, lUyrians and Epiro- 
tians; and Herodotus fays, that the Macedonians 
were refufed admittance in the Olympic games, be- 
caufe they were of the Barbari." Gomer & Magog 
non lunt idem populus : Veteribus Magog funt Scy thae 

* The Pelafgi^ni Were not forced away by the Phoehiciani, 
but united with them ;. they were originally Scythians and fo 
I believe were the Phoenicians- We have the teftimony of 
Bfcrofius that the Scythians were very early diftinguifhcd for a 
lettered people. We have in another place fhewn, from the 
old Teftamenty that Nbmades did not imply, as the Greeks 
would have it. Wanderers^ Paftors, &c. for Macabeus mentions 
them as fighting men. So alfo does Xenophon. Isr^^rf xaf 
ff^fiSy (v«^E«K paftores,) tam^tfi Xenophon dixerit rir; y«/w»(. 
Ne mireris fi homo bellis afluetuSy nee urbanus, aliquem e patriis 
vocibnk adnlterat : nleo non eft quod qnis ilium Atticafe linguae 
jtidicem fumat* 

Photii Bibl. E4it# Steph* p. I J9a 

& Gomer 


& Gomcr Phryges vcl Galatae qui Phrygiara occupa- 
runt ufquc ad Halim fluvium. Bochart Geogr. Sacr. 
Ch. 38th. 

The author of the univerfal hiftory obferves, it is 
not fo eafy to find a place for Dodanim, the youngeft 
of the fonsor rather of the defcendants of Jayan; 
except we admit the change of *Id into *< r (which 
letters in Hebrew are fcarcely to be diilinguilhed) and 
call him Rodanim^ as the feptuagint have done, in 
order to fettle him in the ifland of Rhodes ; which per- 
haps is not a worfe (hift than to cxtraft the name of 
Doris and the Dorians in Peloponefus from Dodanim. 

Epirus was firft peopled by Dodanim, fon of Javan, 
fon of Japhet, at leaft by fome of his pofterity, as 
Jofephus informs us. Eufebius fays that Dodanim 
firft fettled in the ifland of Rhodes, and that fome of 
hFs defcendants paffed over to the continent and fixed 
their abode in Epirus, where they built a city, calling 
h Dodona^ from their progenitor Dodanim. If the 
opinion of Eufebius be true, the Dodonaeans were 
originally Greeks, and not Barbarians as moft of the 
antient have ftiled them. However, in procefs of 
time fcveral barbarous nations fettled among them: 
and hence they are faid by Strabo to have fpoken pro- 
mifcuoufly the language of the Greeks and Barbari- 
ans. The various nations we find mentioned by the 
moil ancient writers, as inhabiting Epirus, before 
they became one people, under the common name of 
Epirots, are theSelli, Chaones, Moloffi, Dolapes, Pa- 
ravaei, Orefti, Dry opes, Hellopes,. CEnianes and 
Pelafgi. But as to the origin of thefe different tribes, 
there is a great difagreement among authors, whofe 
various opinions it would be too tedious to relate. 

" When 



When the Greeks became a nation of fome pow- 
er, though they firft were but inconfiderable (which 
may be feen in Herodotus) they always were fo ex- 
tremely partial to themfelves, that they took every 
ftcp in their power to diftinguifh themfelves as a fupe- 
rior people, and to difgracc the neighbouring nations, 
who were all Pelafgians, though under diflferent de- 
nominations. This appears ftr6ngly in Homer's ca- 
talogue of the allies of the Trojans, who were all 
Pelalgians of feveral denominations. Thefe were 
Dardanians, Theflalians, Thracians, Peonians, 
Paphlagonians, Encfians, Myfians, Phrygians, 
Meonians, Carians, &c. and fought for the Tro- 
jans, their ancient relations and fellow Pelafgians ; 
and their enemies were the new inhabitants of Greece, 
a mixed people, who made war with them, not more 
on account of the rape of Helen, than to get poffeflion 
of the territories of Troy (which was fo well fituated 
for commanding the paffage from Europe into Afia, 
and claiming the dominion of the fea^ and to confine 
the Trojan (hips in the Porjtus Euxinus." 

^* Thefe notices, from fo many ancient authors of 
great credit with the learned, would perfuade us, 
that the Greek tongue is a mixture of Pelafgian, 
Phoenician and Egyptian languages: but if thefe were 
not fuflScient for our purpofe, we do not want many 
others, as powerful anecdotes, to prove it in the fe- 
quel. However, we are joined in this opinion by 
Pelloutier, an author of note and refpeft, who, in 
his firft volume, p. 80, rejoices that the learned 
Fourmont, the elder, a man well qualified for judg- 
ing of matters of this Idnd, is of the fame opinion, 
from whom he quotes the following paflage, fpeaking 
' of 


of a Greek lexicon compofed by him, ** I feek, fays 
;, liie origin of the Greek tongue in this work, 

:rut is, the Greek words, which are truly primi- 
•' rive, by which I reduce this language to le/s than 
** joo words, foine of which are of Thrace and other 
*' neighbouring people, and others of the Phcenicians, 
** or, in general, of oriental tongues ; all by an cafy 
*' derivation, and to be underftood by the whole 

Now, in order to prove that Homer could not be a 
ftranger'to the Pelafgian tongue, let us pay due at- 
tention to that prince of authors upon ancient mat- 
tery, Diodorus Siculus. ** I will clearly declare, 
*' (fays he,) all that the Libyan and Greek writers 
" have delivered concerning him, particularly one 
** Dionyfius, the author of a very ancient hiftorj', 
** who has treated of the tran factions of that perfonage, 
** as well as of the Amazons, Argonauts, wars of 
•* Troy, with various other things, and alfo of all 
*' that the ancient poets and hiftorians delivered con- 
** earning them : he writes, that Linus was the firft 
** inventor of mufic in Greece : that Cadmus invented 
** the Greek tongue, having brought thither letters 
** from Phoenicia, which were therefore in general 

♦ It is furpnzing tht Dodlor (hould have overlooked Dun- 
ckcl, who compofed a Lexicon Grato-CelticOf quo Graecae ct 
Germanicae Hnguoi fimulque matris Scythic*, vel Celticsc cjufquc 
fiHarum, turn & (^lunmarum aliarum linguarum convenientii 
cllenditur. A fpecimen of thi« learned wprk may be feen in the 
Sytnbulse Literarise, pars I. Bremx 17459 which contains 153 
Greek words between JB and BA<PH of Pelafgian, Magogian 
Scythian, or Phcenician original ; for there is great probability 
khcfe dialedsy were one and the fame, for the r^afons quoted 
from the facred writings* 

,, ** called 



** called Phc3enician letters, that he gave names to 
" many things ; butj becaufe the Pelafgians ufed 
" them firft, they were called Pelafgian letters," 
" Linus, therefore had defcribed the ads of that firft 
"Bacchus (Dionyfius) in Pelafgian letters, and left 
'' other fables behind him : Orpheus ufed the fame 
" letters,asdid alfo Pronapides, HOMEK'S MASTER^ 
" a moft ingenious phyfician. Moreover, ThymaeteSj 
** grandfon of Laomedon, who was cotemporary 
** with Orpheus, having travelled through many 
** parts of the world, came to the moft weftern parts 
** of Libya, as far as the ocean, even to Nyfa ; and 
^' finding that this Bacchus was brought up in that 
*^ city by the ancient inhabitants, and informing him* 
** fclf of all the tranfaftions of the Nyfeans, he com- 
** pofed his poem, which is called Phrygia, in the 
" ancient language, and with the old letters." 

From this paflage, the reader will certainly fuppofe^ 
at Icaft, that Homer muft have been verfed in the 
Pelafgian tongue and letters, fince his mafter ufed 
them. It is confeffed too, that Linus and Orpheus 
ufed the fame, as well as Thymsetes ; and, if 
Homer fludied under a mafter ufmg the Pelafgian 
letters and language, he knew no other himfelf, and 
that his works were alfo compofed in the fame ; for 
none of the famous men, now mentioned, are faid, 
by Diodorus, to have ufed any others ; nor do I be- 
lieve any others were in ufe among the moft ancient 
poets, muficians, &c. 

We muft once more interrupt the Dodor, for the 
honour of his country. Diodorus fays, that 
A7»«r (Linus) omnium primus Graecorum Rhythmos 8c 
melodiam invenerit. In Irifh Lsooi ist Loom is rhymet 



and Laine is melody, mufick; ceohlaoin a paultry 
verfifyer, who lings and plays to his rhymes. As 
to Dionyfius, fee H. Stephen's Greek edition, folio, 
printed in 1559, lib. 3. p. 140. fpeaking of the birth 
place of the great Dionyfius. LUtw^ was a name of 
Bacchus compounded of the Pelafgian or Irilh Duinc 
2l man and uas noble, well born.; Duine-uas 2l chief, 
literally a head-man : hence duine-uafal the modern 
name of a gentleman. Sir, &c. Arab, aful of a 
noble family. AJil root, archtype, prototype, ho- 
nour, &c. AiONTSiA were folemnities in honour of 
Bacchus, fome times called opyw, which words 
though fometimes applied to the myfteries of other 
gods, does more probably belong to thofe of Bacchus. 
At thefe Orgia the Greeks ran about the hills of 
Athens, defer ts and other places, wagging their 
heads, and filling the air with hideous noifes and 
yelling, crying aloud eJ*? b«»>^s \m emjc*- In Irilh 
Orgba and Orgbaon is a poetical lamentation. fSee 
Coon in the conclufion.) Becc decbne 0/aigb Jia Fdand^ 
i. e. Becc was the laft Ofaigb or forcerer of orders of 
the File or orators, or hymn-compofers, (See File, 
Ollom, &c.) Airgea is an an adtion done out of 
refpedt or regard, and bac is a br«ach, a violent at- 
tack, hacb drunkennefs, hacccdre a drunkard Bac- 
tracb the name of an Irifli druid, faid to have difco- 
vered to the monarch, from an eclipfe of the fun, 
the paffion of our Saviour, the very time it happened. 
Beacb a magical circle. Beic an outcry, a yelling. 
Beice crying out through grief. Heh: bacbab Rtw'it^ 
deflevit cum lamentatione be elevatione vocis. — 
Hence the Irifh proverb Cia tufa hbeiceas um an Rigb^ 
who are you that dare to cry out to the king. 



Gorius in his mufeum Etrufcum has the following 
pafTage relating to Honser. ** Jam ex adlatis a me in 
hoc mufco Etrufco, illuftribus monumentis, fatis con- 
ftare arbitor, Tufcos perfpedtam habuiffc Trajani belli - 
hifloriam. Et facile crediderim, Homerum, qui telle 
Strabone, ut mox fuo loco oftendam, Etruriam pera- 
gravit, perlufiravitque multi^ que narrat in Uiade &: in 
Odyflea, ab Etrufcis didicifle. S. Bochartus, vir cum 
paucis comparandus, 1. i.e. 33. Geogr. facrae, adfir- 
mat Homerum Italicas fabulas, quafcumque habet^ 
non aliunde didiciife quam ex relatione Phoenicum^ i 
quorum nonnuUi naufragum Ulyffem circa Charybdim 
nave fua exceptum, in Cretam deduxiffe leguntur.t— 
Sed quum alia multa praeter fabulas, nobis oiFerant 
edita Tufcanica monumenta, qus Iliade &c Odyffeam 
exornant; baud negandum cenfeo, ex fide etiam 
Etrufcorum, multa Homerum in fuis carminibus in- 

It is worthy of obfervation, that the fiege of Troy- 
has been written in Irifti in a very ancient dialeft, and 
is efteemed by the Irilh bards, as the greateft perfor- 
mance of their Pelafgian or Magogian anceftors. 

We now return to Dr. Parfons. 

It is not improbable, alfo, that Homer's works 
never reached Greece, till Lycurgus, in his return 
from Afia, whither he went from Crete, coUedted 
and brought them with him. Sir Ifaac Newton in 
his Ihort chronology, fays, Troy was taken 904 
years before Christ ; but it is thought to be aboyt 
46 years earlier, and by fome much longer; he alfo 
fay 9, Lycurgus brought them out of Afia 710 years 
before Christ, which was 240 years after its de-^ 



ftruflion. It is therefore, very probaUe, that the 
tranflation was not made till fome time after their 
arrival in Greece, And we find, according to Sir 
Ifaac, p. 59. that when Lycurgus was publifliing his 
laws, being old, ** Terpandcr a famous lyric poet, 
** began to flourilh ; for he imitated Orpheus, and 
** Homer, and fung Homer's verfes and his own, 
** and wrote the laws of Lycurgus in verfe, and was 
** vidor in the Pythic games in the 26 Olympiad.*' — 
By which it may be fuggefied, that Terpander had 
never feen Homer's works before Lycurgus brought 
them into Greece* and admiring them, began to imi- 
tate them himfelf ; and that very likely after the 
tranflation, or perhaps, he mightbe the tranflator^. 

*• From 

* Signor Carlo Deaina profeflbr of eloquence and belles- 
lettres in the univerfity of Turin, publifhed his cffay on the 
revolutions of literature, not many years fince. In his obferra- 
tions on the literature of the Greeks, he fays, that the 
origin of literature is fb uncertaia and obfcure, that wc mud 
coniider and revere HOMER as the father of it. Whether 
that divine poet borrowed from others, to us is unkuowny but 
extraordinary it is, that in the courfe of fo many fucceeding 
ages, there was no poet in Greece worthy to be reckoned his 
Second ; and it is amazing, that after Homer^s two capital works^ 
in which, beEdcs eftablifhing a perfeA ftandard of elocntion, the 
feeds of uuiver&l knowledge are £0 Hberally ftrewed^ fo long a 
time /hould elapfie before any piece» even of another kiad, was 
produced worthy of the like eftimation 5 for, true it is^ that 
nothing appeared for above three hundred years after Homer, 
that deferved the notice of pofterity. But when the wife laws of 
Solon began to render Athens a well governed republic, and 
the vidtories of the Athenians had introduced plenty and an ho- 
fourable cafe into their city, then, and not till then, tk^ feat, of 
letters became in a manner confined to Attica. 


** From this difcovcry of Diodorus concerning 
Homer's mafter, it is eafy to fee hisreafon for bellow- 
ing gi'cat applaufe upon the Pelafgians. He faw his 
mafter Pronopides, teaching him knowledge^ proba-* 
bly in their language and letters, and his love of 
learning infpired him with an high veneration for a 
people, of whom he was one^ and through whom the 
moft fublime literature was conveyed to him, whofe 
tafte was fo exquifite, and the enjoyment of his re- 
fined knowledge fo great, that he was tranfported to 
exprefs his gratitude to his glorious predeceilbrs, in 
the work which immortalized himfelf.** 

** There is another argument, and not a trivial one^ 
which induces me to think, that, if thefe old authors, 
mentioned by Diodorus ufed the Pelai^ian letters» 
they muft have wrote in the language of the Pelaf- 
gians only ; and that is, that as they had but 17 
letters, which were always fufficient, in every cafe, 
in their own language, they can hardly be faid to have 
wrote in Greek, which cannot be expreflfed without 
additional letters, to the amount of 24 ; and it is 
plain, that 7 more were added to the 17 primary let- 
ters, as the alterations in the Pelafgi were going on ; 
for new powers were wanting, to exprefs the mutila- 
tions and additions that gradually were introduced in* 
to the old langua'ge, which, at length, grew into a 
new one. Diodorus very pundually diftinguiflies 
between the old and the new, where he mentions 
the poem Phrygia of the Pelafgian poet ThymaBtcs 
OD Dionyfius/* 

Now, if thefe fecondary letters be omitted in the 
Greek alphabet, the remaining 1 7 are the letters of 



the Magogian, now the Irifli or Scotifh language, 
which remain invariable at this day. 

I cannot here omit one, very ftrong circuraflance in 
the Doctor's favour, concerning the alphabet. 

There is not a language in the weftern part of the 
globe, the Irifli excepted, wherein F when pointed 
(or printed with an hiatus, thus fh) lofes its found, as 
it did with the Pelafgian Greeks; Dion. Halicam. is 
the only author I have met with, that explains this 
digamma. I fliall give the Latin tranflation of Frideric. 
Sylb. — ** itaque cum Pelafgis faedus feriunt, & par- 
tem agrorum fuorum eis aflignant circa facrum lacum, 
quorum pleraque erant paluftria, difta nunc prtfco 
lingua more f^elia (i. e. •^•a/«.) Solebant enim prifci 
Graeci nominibus a vocali incipientibus praeponerc 
lyllabam •» fcriptam uno chara£tere, is erat fimilis 
r duplici (y«^^« JiTl«?f) ad redtam lineam duabus ob- 
liquis additis, ut, Fixifu, Fiy«g, F«r«K> F«w'^, & mul- 
ta fimilia. 

Now the Irifli f or F pointed, reads like the 
Greek o», for example, p ios or fhios is pronoun- 
ced av-// ; but if F is to be reftored to the found of 
V, then bh or f> is affixed \ as filitn^ to be, in all 
its inflexions is written bbfbuilim ; ex. gr. bbfbtdlfe 
(will flie) he is. But the moft extraordinary circum- 
ftance is, that the contrafted Irifli charadter for the 
particle fa is the fame as that ufed by the ancient 
Greeks for •». (fee plate 2d, fig. a.) except a fmali 
perpendicular ftroke over the top, which probably 
was lengthened and became the Greek * phi, at 
which time, perhaps was laid afide the Greek F {Vm) 
which we find after E in the 8th table of Doftor 



Bernard, entitled alphabetum Oraecum Cadmii five 
lonicum, ante Chr. 1500, averfis Uteris Phoenicum, 
e nummis Siculis (^ginenfibus) Boeotis, Atticis^ 
aliifque. I have added another Ittfh contracted cha- 
racter after Fa^ which ftands for Con^ as I find it in 
an ancient MSS under my eye. Con^ fignifies fetife, 
reafon ; /a, is a prepofite article; implying /», upon^ 
Af, under J whence facortj fometimes written facdin^ 
figr^ifies motive j eaufe, th^ reafon why : it is fb ufed 
in th^ paflage before me^ facon tug an fear ^ con-dibar-- 
tbar, diUn j that i«, ** the reafon or motive; ' that a 
** nrian beftows this gratuity called <////*/' -1 haw ne- 
ver met with^tbis charafter in the middle of a word. 
We find it tf^ beforfe a conTortati*, ind-if^I miftake 
not, the Greeks did the fame, thoUgb the 6faek au- 
thor here quotedi fays, -it was only iifed before a 
vowd. >: 

Walfihghaifk in bis Hypodigma aflerts, that, 
" Egyptfis in Mari Rubro' fubmerfis, illi qui^fuperfue- 
runt expulerunt ^ fe quend^m nobilem Scythicum, qui 
degebat apud tos," ne dominium fiiper eos invaderet ; 
expuHus IHfe cmii familia, pervenit ad Hifpaniam, 
ufei et habkivit -Sttnis inuIlW{ *et progenies ipfius fa- 
miliae nmltae TnurtipUcata'^ftriimis; & ihde venerunt 
in.HlBERNiAM/^ ' ' / 

That tKe Saxt)tis had thfcir^ertci^ and leaTrtingfVom 
Ireland is-well'attefted by good'authbrrtyl Camden 
fays, thef Sa'xbns'ih that ^^e,'^ flocked Kther, as to 
the great rifert 'of IcarriTng'j- ahd thifs is the rea{bn, 
why weffrid^'tftli fo often' iff tiur 'writers v fucb a one 
v)a5 Sent over to Ireland to be.educated. Anci this 
VoL/airhr'XHf^^ .-./I^iyr: paffage 

P R E F ' A C E. 

paflage .in the life of Sulgenus, who flourUhed 600 
years ago: 

Exemplo patrurn coiDcnotus amore legendi 
Ivit ad Hibernos^ fophia mirabile daros. 
But Yoon after, he fays, ** nor is it any won- 
der that Ireland, which for the xnoft part is now 
rude and without the glory of polite literature, 
was fo full of pious and great wits, in that age, 
&c. Now, he relates from Bede, that Egfrid, 
king of the Northumbrians, about the year 684, 
landed in Ireland and deftroyed every thing in bis 
way with &e and fword, which, fays be, put an end 
to all learning and religion. But twenty Irifli hifto- 
riana of (bai verytime^ agree in faying, that Egfirid 
landed in Eaflmeatb, and committed hoftilities fcMr a 
few days, fill the forces of the then prince were col- 
ledled ; and that he and his forces were then driven on 
board his (hips, with a g^e&t lofs'ofiixien, and did not 
attempt it; afterwards. And it is well known, that 
Ireland continued to be oiUed the Infula DoOorum & 
San£lorutn^ many centuries after that (kirmifli. 

Infula Sacra was a very andent name given to Ire- 
land, as appears from Ayienus Feftus, who flourifh- 
ed in the Joint reigha of Gratian and Theodofius, 
about the year 379, and in his poem deOris Maritwrn 
has thefe words, INSULA SACRA, ^Jtcm/vlamdix- 
ere prifci\ eamque late gens HIBERNORUM cobs. 
By pri/ci he muft mean i\y^ ancients before his time. 
And with regard to the navigations of Himilco^ 
he profefles that he himfelf;had read them in the Pu- 
nic annals. .,]'.. : V. 

Haec olim Himilco Pasnus, Oceanq fuper 
SpeiStaffe femel & probaflc retulit ; 


P R E 1? A C E. 

Haec no8 ab imis Punicorum annalibus^ 
Prolato longo tempore edidimus tibi. 

Thefe things of old on weftern fea 

Himilco fays, he tried and faw j 

From hidden Punic annals, we 

Relate^ what we from thence did draw. 
Mr. Ledwich a worthy member of our in'unruirate 
fociety of Hiberman Antiquaries*^ in his letter togover* 
Pownal on the Ship-Temple worftiip, in Ireland, has 
obferved (p. 434. No. iij ** that an identity of lan- 
*^ gu^gc carried fo impofmgan appearance, as at one 
" time to make me fay, that the Fomoraigb AfraiCy or 
" African pirates fo often mentioned in the antient 
** hiftory of Ireland, were no other than the Phoenicia 
** ans and Calrthaginians : but, that I muft have con*- 

* Confifting at prefent of the Rev. Mr. Led wicb». vicar ^f 
Aghaboe in the Queen's County ; Mr. Beauford, an ingenious 
private tutor of the fame county ; and the author of this number 
of the Collefianca. This fociety was once compofed of the moft 
refpedable men in Ireland, for learning and fortune}* 'it cbil- 
tioucd but two ycars> and in the third, it was difcover^d, tfiit 
three Guineas per annum^ was too great a fubfcription for gen- 
tlemen to beftow on refearches into Irifh antiquities. « The 
Amanutnjis continues to be paid by the author a falary of 
twenty guineas per annum, which he or fome other ihall enjoy, 
till he hat finiflied the antiquities of Ireland. From the above 
members, imuft be excepted, the right hon. W. B. Conyngham, 
who in. the midft of the real patriotic fchcmcs, this gentleman 
fleadily purfueS for the good of his. country, with eqiiai ftcadincfs 
follows the elucidation, of the antiquities of it. He has ^m - 
ployed three eminent draughtfmen to take plans and view's of 
whatever is remarkable in Ireland ; a fct are now engraving by 
the celebrated Sandby, which will foon convince the Antiquaries 
of Europe, that Ireland produces a rich mine in that liiie of 
ftudy, as yet unexplored, and worthy of their attention. 

Da " ''fidered 


" fidered better of this matter, and been convinced, 
** that the Irifli traditions were not defenfible on the 
•* ground I had chofen, as I have on)itted in the fc- 
** cond edition of my grammar, the preceding quo- 
" tation in the firft." Never was the worthy mem- 
ber more miftaken : it is the line I have followed in 
all my refearches fince that publication ; furely, our 
worthy member does not read all the labours of our 
learned fociety that are offered to the public, or he 
might have feen, that in the tenth numbar 
I was obliged to have recourfe to the Oriental langua- 
ges for the terms of the law, the ftate and the church, 
that ocdurred in that publication, for want of fuffid- 
€nt gloflfaries in the Iriih language. The learned gen- 
tleman will call them African pirates, though I (hewed 
the word Fomorigb implied marine chiefs, princes, 
tsit.' The proper word for aspirate is Fogbhidbe fairgc 
a Tea robber i the word pirate was not intended in that 
place, , by the Irifli hiftorians, but was foifted in by 
O'Connor, the vile tranflator and interpolator of 
Kcating's hiftory*. When the ancient Irifh fitted 
. ' out 

♦ The ancient Infti Seanchas fay, that Gan, Geanan, Conu- 
liig and Faovar, were African generals who drove the Nemediani 
out of Ireland. That they firft fettled at Toirinis, which was 
called Tor Conning or the tower of Conuingy from the tower he 
built there : this is the firft round tower mentioned in Iriih hifto- 
ry. That on their fird landingi finding thenifclYes too weak to 
cope with the Irifh, More returned to Africa and flrengthened 
himifclf with fixty fail of (hips, and a numerous army on board, 
and landed again at Tor Conuing. Now in Irifh Conuing im- 
plies a foreign language. See the condufion of the Prefacr. 
An arn\y of Carthaginians on board fixty fail of (hips, was not 
an aany of pirates/ as our worthy member will have it^ axki we 



out a marine cxpeditipn, the commander was named 
F(hmuir or /4rg from jiire a chief and go the fca. Naoi 
is a (hip plur. Naoitb\ hence Naoitboir failors, Argnaoi-- 
iboirroydl failors on an expedition ; but Argnaotboiris 
now corrupted to Argnoir and implies a pirate or plun- 
derer, anti Argnaim to rob or plunder ; which was 
ori^nally written Agbnoir^ from agb a conflidl ; thus 
ia the Arabic Agharet^ laying wafte an enemies coun- 
try, in Perfic Argband^ bold, warlike, intrepid.— 
Thefe references to the oriental tongues are certainly 
needlefs, fince our worthy member has di (covered 
from Ralph the hiftorian, that tbe language^ manners^ 
and offioms (^ tbe ancient Britains^ and of tbe Pbanicians 
were exaSly tbe fame. (Letter to G. Pownal, p. 433.) 
Thus, the learned labours of Bochart, Vitringa, Rhe- 
land, Selden, Leibnitz^ &c. &c. may now be fold for 
wafte paper I Pity it is, fo ufeful a difcovery had not 
been made when Dr. Davis was writing his Wel(h 
didtionary: the dodtor was a good orientalift, yet 
could not produce above 200 words that he thought 
had an affinity with the Hebrew *^ and in this lift are 

(hall hereafter (hew that thU ifland did produce much more 
valuable commodities than Great Britain at that period : it had 
tin, lead and gold. It was no Quizotifm to conquer fuch an 
ifland: but fnppofing it only had fur, was not the natu« 
ral happy foil and fcite of the ifland fufBcient to invite a conqucft 
by a paople parched up on the coail of Afnca, who had rcafon 
to expcA a good reception from their relations* 
* The Phoeniciansy or mixed body of Canaanites, including 
Magogian Scythians, were in poireflion of Britain as well as 
Ireland, till expelled by the Gomerian Celts, as Mr. Lhwyd has 
obferved ; but our worthy Member and Ralph are wrong in cal- 
ling them BritainSi meaning thereby the Cumerag or Gome- 
rian WcH^. . 




fome, that referable the Otahcite dialedt 

9 as much as 

the Britifli. Ex. gr. 












athaia» com'- 




j^s, neafg. 


qd non germinat 




macar (Tendere) 

racam f mar- 




cubhar, ka- 






mendacium " 



(ecan^chd Veritas) 












rogha, ari- 








Cadmus, Cea-^ 




fcathy fcathac 





To thefe I have added the Irifli words, to convince 
our worthy member, that he and Ralph arc quite 
right in their aflertion, and that the Pelafgian or Ma- 
gogian Irilh has not the leaft refemblance to the He- 

§ And this is the meaning of the Hebrew fopheach^ fee 

+ The Hebrew macar read from right to left ; this is not un- 
common in the old Irifh, occaiioned by their ufe of the houftnH- 
fbedofif of which I have fpoken in the grammar. We find the 
Strufcans did the iame* 



brew : the Welfh words are not picked, but taken 
in their alphabetical order. 

I hope the reader will not imagine that I mean to 
fpeak with contempt of the Wellh language; on the 
contrary, I hold the old Welflain the highcft efteem. 
The Gomerian dialed was originally the fame as the 
Magogian or Irifli, and by the mixture of the Gome* 
rians with the Magpgians in Britain, the firft have 
certainly retained fome words of the Magogian dia- 
lect, now become obfelete in the latter. But the 
Gomerians by a feries of time, and by their long 
joumies from the north of Afia through Europe, to 
Britain, (not having mixt vnxh theiAflfyrians, Phoeni- 
cians, &c. as the Magogians did,) had loft much of 
their primitive language, and confidering the many 
revolutions of Britain fince the arrival of the Gome- 
rians, it is wonderful that they have preferved their 
language fo well. It has undoubtedly fuffered a great- 
er corruption in the laft 500 years, than it had un* 
dergone before, as that learned Welfli antiquary, Mr, 
Lhwyd, has fully fet forth, in his Arcbaobgia Briton^ 
nica. And when I fpeak of the ancient Irifti, I mean 
to include under that name, the Hibernians, theErfe 
or Highlanders of Scodand, and the Manx of the Ifle 
of Man, together with the inhabitants of the Weftern 
Iflands of Scotland* They were originally Trifodi, 
as the ancient Irifh poets ftiled them, that is, three 
people of one ftock, foil or origin : they were the 
fame colony of Magogian-Scythians, Phoenicians or 
Canaanites, and Cadmonites, who came fromTyre and 
Sdon to Greece, Africa, Spain, Britain and Ireland. 
And they poffefled the two latter till driven fromBritain 
by the Gomerian Celts from Gaul and Britain, and 



now remain poflefled of Ireland, Mann, and the 
Weftern Iflands and north of Scotland or Caledonia* 
It isof littte moment to the learned world, if the Ca- 
ledonian^ poflefled their country, by the rpute of the 
main land, through Britain, as is very probable, or 
if they failed to it from the North of Ireland, or if 
fomeof thelrifli took, their route to Ireland from 
Caledonia. The two iflands were their own, and 
poflefled by them at the fame time : the emigration 
from Britain, might have been by both channels, at 
different periods, in proportion as they loil ground in 
Britain on the arrival of frefh bodies of Gomerian 
Celts from Gaul : and it is in vain to fe^ch for this 
know ledge in ancient authors. Foreign men of letters 
will fcarcely believe that a difpute of this kind, fliould 
make a breach between two people of the fame origi- 
nal ilocfc, fpeaking at this day, the iame language, 
and having the fame manners and cufloms in com* 
mon, and that this breach (hould encreafe In magni* 
tude, in proportion as the world grows more en* 

It is evident that the Greeks knew little of Ireland 
or Caledonia, but as they had the accounts from 
failors ; the old Pelafgian writings being loft* Diodo- 
rus Siculus who lived forty-five years before Chrift, 
mentions Britains inhabiting the ifland called Iris 
(Eirinn) lib. 5. And Strabo who lived feventy years 
after him calls Ireland, Britifli lerna, (1. i.) and his 
ancient abridger calls the Irifh, the Britains inbabitiug 
lerna. Thefe authorities are fufHdent to fliew that 
Britain and Ireland ^vere comprehended by them, un- 
der Goie and the fame people. Dion. Cailius, who 
lived in the third century, knew lefs of the Cale- 

j^onii ; 


donii ; be fays, ^* Caeterum Britannorum duo (ent 
^^ prefertim genera. Caledonii & Maeats^ nam cae* 
^^ terorum nomina ad hos ferd referuntur. Incolunt 
^* Maeat£ juxta cum murum qui infulam in duas 
^* partes dividit. Caledonii poll iUos funt. Poflidunt 
^^ utrique montes afperrimos, & fine aqua : itemque 
^^ campos defertosy plenofque paludibus: quodque 
^* niaenia non habent nee urbes^ agros nuUos coiunt : 
^* de praeda & venatione^ fruftibufque arborum vi- 
** vunt, nam pifces, quorum >bi maxima eft, & in« 
*^ numerabilis copia, non gufiant. Degunt in tento- 
^* his nudi & fine calceis ; umntur communibus ux- 
^^ oribus, liberofque bmnes alunt* (Epitom. Dionif. 
** Severi, ai.) 

This account of the Caledonians is as far diftant 
from truths as that of all^ the modern Greek authors, 
who have made the Irifh to be cannibals, Orpheus 
and Homer were much better acquainted with the 
fituation of thefe iflands, and the manners of the in- 
habitants. The claiB^ fcholar, whofe learning 
does not extend beyond Greek, confines his know- 
ledge of hiftory to the modern authors, and from 
them draws a pi£ture of the people ; although the 
moft impartial Greek writers have declared, that the 
Greeks received their fables, mythology and great 
part of their language from the Barbari, our modern 
writers will not be at the trouble of acquiring the lan- 
guage of thofe learned Barbarians \ yet that divine 
philofoplier Plato gives them this advice: *' the 
** Greeks have borrowed many words from the Bar- 
^^ barians; therefore if any man would endeavour to 
*• adjuft the etymologies of thofe words with the 
^ Greek language^i and not rather feek for them, in 

!• that 


^ that to which they originally hbng^ he muft needs 
be at a lofs/* 

When BerofusTthc Cbaldaean^ who flooriihed in 
die time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, declared from his 
perufal of the Chaldsean and Scythian writings^ that 
the Scythians were a karned people^ and the firft in arts 
ottdfciences ifter the flood \ he had no conception of 
ihefc people being afterwards ftiled barbari by the 
Greek and Roman writers : no more did Diodorus 
Siculus or Himerius think the Hyperboreans would 
have received the fame chara£ter^ when they were 
defcribing Abaris the Hyperborean, and Prieft of 
Ap^lh^ as one of the wifcft men that ever had con* 
▼erfed with Pythagoras, of which hereafter. 

May this addrefs to the Hibernians, Manx, and 
Caledonians, have the defired effeft, in uniting them 
in one fociety for the recovery and illuftration of thdr 
antiquities, and thereby open a new mine for the 
republic of letters. 

Our worthy member next proceeds to an ironical 
joke, on crucifi9ses being difcovered by capt^n Cooke 
amongft fome favage people, and the conclufions 
that may be drawn, by a fool, from fuch a difcovery ^ 
thefe obfervations do not merit a ferious anfwer : a 
compliment was to be paid to governor Pownal, on 
his difcovery of the Ship Temple in Ireland, and our 
worthy member was to eftablilh the faft ; his read- 
ers muft allow, he has done it in a very mqfterhf and 
fatisfaaory manner. But, a blow on Etymology we 
little expedted from that quarter : it was unmanly in 
a man, who enjoys fuch extraordinary abilities, as to 
be able, to explain the mod remote antiquities of a 
very ancient people, without underftanding a word 



of its language ; it was unmanly, I fay, in fo learned 
a nian, to aim a blow on Etymology^ at a weak mem- 
ber of ihc/ocieiy^ who after dedicating many years to 
the iludy of the Irifh language, in order to explore 
the antiquities of the country, finds himfelf fuch a 
dunce, as to be extremely unequal to the ta(k, though 
in comparing the language with the oriental^ dltbe tor- 
tures of Etymology are applied to make them bamtomze. The 
hiftory of the antiquities of Kilkenny^ by my very learned 
colleague, will ever bear record of his fuperior abilities 
in this art* : But, if our worthy member ihould think 


* It 18 a Teqr common error, ((ays Lliwyd) to endeaTonr to 
deriTe the radical words of our weftem European languages 
from the Latin or Greek, or indeed to derlTC conftantly the 
prinutiTe of any one language, from any particular tongue* 
Whatever nations were of one common origin with the Greeks 
and Latins, muft have preferved their language much better 
than them, and cenfequeatly a great many words of the lan- 
guage of the old Aborigines, the Ofci, the Lsftrigones, the 
Aufonians, (Enotrians, Umbrians, Sabines, &c. out of which 
the Latin was formed, mud have been better preferved in the 
Celtic than in the Roman language. (Comp.Vocab.p.35.) Lingua 
Etrufca, Fhrygica, and Celtica, (fays the learned Stiemholm) 
affines funt omncs ; ex une fonte derivatac. Ncc Graeca longe 
diftat. Eandem linguae Latinac originem aiferit etiam CI. G. 
J. Voffius, in praefatione ad traflatum, de vitiis firtnonisf cujus 
tamen affertionis immemor, in Lex. fuo Etymolog. bene multa 
▼ocabula infiliciter^ & inviti Minerva, trahit ex Graeca, que 
eommoJe & fine violentia due! potuerunt ex Celtica. 

The Celtic (adds Lhwyd) has been beft preferved by fuch of 
their colonies as from fituation, have been leaft fubje£i to foreign 
Invafions. Such is Ireland* 

I would aik this queition, (fays Dr. Farfons) Why do the 
greateft part of our moil modern writers, of all the academical 



proper to proceed in ironical controverfy^ it is to be 
wilhed, he will find fome other channel and forae 
other title, to convey his works to the eye of the pub- 
lic, than Collectanea de Rebus Hiberkicis. 
Controverfy mull be extremely difagreeable to our 
readers ^ as long as the public think proper to in- 
dulge my bookfeller in purchafmg the Collect a ne a* 
1 fhall proceed with the antiqitities oi Ireland \ my la- 
bours are bellowed to him, and the plates engraved 
at my expence, yet he cries out with the poet : 

^is legit bite? Nemo^ berctde nemOy vei duo^ veJnemo. 

To conclude; before our worthy member can 
drive me from my refearches into oriental literature, 
for the explanation of Irifh antiquities, he muft 

ill. That the language and cuftoms of the andent 
Welfli and of the Irifh were the fame : that it was 
ofual with people to name their country from its poll- 
lion on the globe, with refpeft to one given fpot: 
that the EcfiandlVeft Indies were fo named by the an- 
cient inhabitants of them. That Eirin (the ancient 
name of Ireland) is derived from the Wclfli Tverdon: 
that p'lnS ieroun^ is not Hebrew for Weft ward, and 
nM^**12l^ Iber-nae^ is not Phoenician for ultima babita- 

femioaries of Europe, when they are employed in fuch refearches 
as thefe, reft contented with only what is delivered by the 
Greek authors ? The anfwer is obvious. The education of the 
youth of all Europe confifts in the ftudy of the Greek and 
Latin dallies : and when they come to the higher links of thic 
chain of leaming, and are well verfed in thofe two languages, 
the ne plus prefents itfelf, and their future refearches and lucu- 
brations (bar no highsr. (Remains ofjaphet^ p. 364.) 



//(?, and that the ancient inhabitants of Ireland had 
not the vernacular names of Innis-calga, Innis-fodbU^ 
&c. &c, for their own country. 

ad. That the names of the feilivals, &c- &c. con- 
tained in this number are all to be found in the Welfh 

' 3d. That the ancient names of the mountains and 
rivers of Ireland and Britain are to be found in the 
Welfh language ; and that it was not ufual with co- 
loniils to name the features of new difcovered coun- 
tries, after thofe they refembled in their native cq^n-* 
try, or where they had long refided. 

4th. That a mixed colony of Phoenicians, Pelaf- 
gians, &rc. did not trade totheBritifli iflands: that they 
did not fettle on the weftern coaft of Africa, and 
from thence extend through the ftraights of Gibraltar 
to Hbernej K3'in> beyond which they had not one 
colony, and that the Phc3enician Hbeme^ the Hebrew* 
Jeroun (Weft ward) and the Irifh Jarnae are derived 
from the Greek okiffm^ and that Feilus Avieiius is aa 
author of jno reputation with learned men. 

5tb.' That the Hebrews and Phoenicians did not 
name the Eiaft t DH p kadim^ i. e. the fore part ; bc-^ 
fore you : the weft linN abor^ i. e. the back part; 
behind yout the fouth ^^Ib* jamin^ \. e. the right 
hand: the north SkDB? Jbeniol^ u c. the left hand ^ 
and that the Irish do not name the eaft drtbafj head* 
muSf oir^ oirjkeart^ i. e. before, in ffofit: the weft 
jorar^jafy .1. e. the back part, behind: thei fduth 
lamb'imbeadboin^ imbeaoin^ dcas^ i. e. (he right hafld : 
the north ckit^ cleid^ tuag^ Jumbcdly fumbain^ kue^ and 
every other word that can imply the left hand, an4 



fo of the reft : that the Goihcrian Celts or Wellh did 
the fame, and that thofe words are to be found in 
the Welfh language, and that the Mago^an Iri(h, 
have not techniciil terms alfo, for thefe points, that 
are only to be found in the Hebrew and Cbaldee Ian* 
guages, fuch as daram^ the meridian fun, compofed of 
dar^ over head, and oiw, time, wheiice tte 0*n 
darofn-c\\xod meridiem fonat Fhcenicibus, from which 
word Drjfmos 2>v/A«f in Boeoria, quia auftrale erat op* 
pidum. (See Bochart, &c. &c.) 

6th. That it is not neceflfary for a man to under* 
fiand the language of a people, before he writes of their 
hiftory and antiquities.^ 

Amongft many inftancesi can produce of an orien- 
tal colony arriving in Ireland, take the following : 
A catterpillar appears in Ireland in autumn, which 
the peafants call xh^codbnavtoxm : it is written codbna^ 
cogbna^ and connougb^ tlie d and g being eclipfed. 

* The fludy of antiquities is divided into various branches ; 
the firft objed which ftrikes us, as the firft in order and oatural 
pre-eminence, is the Language of a people ; in tracing whichi 
through the many changes, frequent opportunities occar of 
dlfcovering the origin of important cuftoQis and inftitutions, 
and the caufes of their denomination, in the fimple occupationa 
and amufements of rude uncultivated nature. (Burgifs on the 
ftudy of antiquities.) The extenfive influence of opinions and 
manners on language, and even of language on opinions has 
reached the mofl civilized andpolifhed ages. (Harris's Hermes.) 
•— L'hiftoife des colonies & de leur parcours fur la fur&ce de la 
terre tient de fort pres a I'hiftoire des langues. Le meilleur 
moyen de decouvrlr Porigine tPune nation eft de fuivrc <n remon- 
tant les traces de fa iangue compar6e a celles des peuples avec 
qui la tradition des faits nous i^prend que ce peuple a co quel- 
que rapport, (firefid. de Broffes.) 



This catterpillar is faid to be the only poifonous ani- 
mal in Ireland, and to effeft cows and Cwine only. 
Goedartlus in his book of infedts calls it the elephant 
catterpillar, from its ugly form and dark reddifli browa 
colour. It is as big as a man's thumb and above three 
inches long. The old Irifli, thought, the only reme- 
dies for csotle poifoned by this animal, was, to bore 
a hole in a tree, (hut up the worm therein to flarve 
and die, and to make an infuiion of the leaves and 
bark, wherewith to drench the cattle ; or, if a man 
cruih the anim^, and let the expreifed juice thereof dry 
upon his hands, the water he firft waflies in, ever af- 
ter, given to the bead to drink, cures it. This is the 
very cure the fuperftitious Arabs ufe for the bite of a 
^poifonous worm, exactly anfwering the defaiption of 
our elephant catterpillar, and its Periian name is 
Kbagyni. Dr. Molyneux made many experriments to 
prove our catterpillar was not poifonous, and we have 
of late heard no more of the connougb worm. (See 
PbU. Tranf, No. i68 J and cogbna^ now implies the 
diforder that ufually affedts horned catde. The names 
of a worm are cnumb^ cnuimbag^ hiqfdag^ P^^gt pi^t 
fi^rogba-^ and of ^ catterpillar, burris^ lu/ctuicb^ thibw^ 
bhl^ mlfag^ bolh\ how came the Irilh by the Perfian 
Kbagyne^ -which is the real poifonous worm ? again, no 
nation in the weftern world has fo m2Lny fynonima as 
the Irifti, for wriiingy books^commentson books, &c. &c. 
and fuch words as are not indigenous, from the mate* 
rials they were obliged to make ufe of in this climate, 
are adopted from the Hebrew, Arabian and Perfian 
languages, and are -not 'to .bfe found in the Welfti. 
(See Scriobam m the concIijifibiiO In one inftancc,^ 



the Iri(h language can explain the meaning of two 
words in the Hebrew, which have perplexed all com- 
mentators, and were very probably Pclalgian or Scy- 
thian words introduced by the Scythopolians into Pa- 
kfiine : I mean a^ftaPl np or the Kcri and Ketib^ the 
names of the marginal notes of the l^ble, inferted by 
the Maforas, or as fome rabbies will have it, by Ezras, 
while others abfurdly irifift, that thofe of the Penta- 
teuch were written by Mdfes. 

The Hebrxift is well acquainted with the various 
opnions of the learned on this fubjedt ; but for the ex- 
planation to fuch as are not, I (hall inftance two. 

Buxtorf inhisClavis Mafors, fays, {^, kara^ aut 
keriab^ fcriptura facra biblia, alias mekera quafi le^ram 
dicas. In Mafora com muniter pro tota fcriptura V. T. 
fumitur, quandoque pro parte majori & defitiita, a qua 
aliquis liber extmptus eft. yro^ ketib^ fcriptum 
participium forms Chaldeicas pro qua Hebraei dicunt 

Leulden de Mafora. Unde hxc voces derivantur ? 
Et quid fignificant : keri fignificat ledtum a kara voca- 
vit & vox ketib fivtcatob fignificat fcriptum. 

Our iiibernian druids always wore a key ^, like 
the law dodors of the Jews, to fhew they atone had the 
key of the {ciences^ that is, that they alone could com- 
mimicate the knowledge of the doftrinc they preach- 
ed4 The name of this key wa$ kirt or cire^ {^ndeo^ a 
peg or pin, being compounded with it, forms the- 

* Tike tgure of tki« key refembled a Cross ; tliofe of the 
Lacedsemonians and Euptians were of the fame form* Our 
worthy member before meacioned may add this note to bu 
koaical obfervatiotts on the Chinefe and Otaheite crucifixes. 


PREFACE. xli» 

modern eo-cire^ the key of a lock.) A comment, cor- 
redlion, remark or explanation of a writing was named 
kire ceo keatfa^ i. c. the key and explanation of the 
fcnfe (of the author;) thefe words are certainly cor- 
rupted from the Chaldce keriou ketib^ (keri and ketib.) 
Hence Dr. Keating who had no knowledge of the 
Hebrew language, entitles his explanation of the fer- 
vice of the mafs Eo-kire/cia nAifrionn^ the hiftorical 
key of the mafs. 

The names of church fettivals in the Irilh chrif- 
tian kalendar, are thofe ufed formerly by the 
pagan Irifh, and are all of oriental origin: but 
that is not all; the celebration of many of them is 
ftill obferved as in theEaftern countries, for example; 
the feaft of Pentecoft or Whit-Sunday, is named 
cainingaos^ caingaos^ and corruptedly cingis^ not from 
quingttageJimuSj as fome of the modern monks will 
have it, (for they had a more proper name to have 
given it in that cafe, in their own language, viz. 
caogadaos) but, fays arch-bi(hop Cormac, (who lived 
in the tenth century, and was a learned man) from 
canaing *, i. e. gaill bearla^ i. e. foreign tongues, be- 
caufe on this day the gift of tongues defcended upon the 
affiles. Now the pentecoft of the Jews is a high 
feftival obfervcid by them in memory of the promul- 

* la Syrian kandng communication focietas ; kanadjg lasnpas, 
codex, ▼otumen. Chalde* vamignan^ or canaan Mcrcurii:^ 
(Bochart.) Ai^b. kafMgbStroh talida voce., keMagHaton^ fonora 
▼ox ; kandin latnpas^ lUcerfaa ; ianang, fenrus Teniaculus ; ia- 
nangsfgf qni loqueMiH!ar Kngua ad'Artibicfim ▼ergcntez and 
hence I bcKtvc tHe ntnic of Genghiz-Khani who obliged the 
Neftoriaii priefts t6 introduce a foreign language and letter!, 
among the Mongul and Kalmuc Tartar!. 

Vol. m. N** XII. E gation 


gation of the law from mount Sinai, and alio a giving 
thanks to God for the return of the barveft^ and this 
feftival has three names in Hebrew, one of which is 
*1*":fp Tl, ^bag katTJr^ f folemnitas meffis, a day they 
obferve, la^eis cibis^ ut fcriblitis 6f libis vtfcuntur^ e6 
quod lex J turn tempo/ is ipjis data^ alba ivjiar laflis fuerit. 
(See Buxtorf in Synag. c. 20 & Leufden's Philolog. 
Hebraso. p. 275 ) The Irifh ftill keep this day as in 
times of paganlfm with loHeis cibis^ &c. and although 
it is not the feafoh of harveft in this climate, yet ac- 
cording to the cuftom of their oriental-Scythopolian 
anceflors, the breakfaft on Whitfunday is always 
compofed of cake bread, and the white liquor drank 
with it, is made of hot water poured on ie;Ar^i/^ bran^ 
which they call caingaos (or kingecfh from the day) 
and this liquor is alfo frequently made in time of 
harveft for the workmen in the field. The name of 
pentecojl in Wellh is Y degved a deygan^ Y Sy/guyn-, 
in Cornifh, pettkq/l^ confequently the Irifli borrowed 
neither the name or the mode of celejbration from 
cither : but the Manks call it hingeejb, for their lan- 

t Caingaos 9 the Pcntccoft, properly, (fayg arch-bifhop Cor- 
fu ac) caining-ceafar^ i. e. the gift of tongues at the harreft fca- 
fon; an^coegatmadh laltbi o.Caifc^ the 50th day from Eafter. 
(Cormac's Glojfary^ MSS in niy poffeifion.) Now cafair is 
a word at prcfent,fbr that brightne.f« which ifiues from rotten 
limber in a dark place, commonly called ttine gbdain^ & I am 
of opinion that ceafair in Cormac's compduod /'tfixrifff-«f a/2v 
alludes to the. cloven tongues ^ Jfh as fire^ as .the Englifh verfion 
expreflea it, and not to . the harve^, for in* agriculture, cafair 
is the furrow made by the plough ; it is -certain, that after cut* 
ting the harved, the furrows appear, but I cannot fisd any in- 
ftance, where this word im]^ies harveft. 



giiage is Irifli, and the bible and new teft^tnent 
lately printed in the Manx language^ is good Iri(h^ 
only fpelt as an Englifli-man would write Irifti, by the 
found of the voice. 

Mr. Walker thinks, that in ** Adamnan's time^ 
** A. D. 665, the Britilh and Scots language was not 
" widely different i as, fays he, it was originally the 
" fame, though fince divided into the dialedts of 
** Bretoon, Cornilh, Wel(h, Manx, Irifli and Gallic i 
" and' greatly altered by diftance of place and length 
"of time J yet the natives of the fix countries can 
" go near to underftand one another to this day^ 
** without an interpreter." (ArcbaoL Soc. Amiq, Lond. 

v. I.) 

This gentleman has committed a very great mif- 
take. The Irifli, Erfc * and Manx are one dialedl^ 


* Tri-fod, i. e. EirCf Manann agUB Atha \ u e. tri toxAt do 
beartai ac cac tir dip condenta cnaicde dip tre druidheacht, i. c* 
Tri'fodf i. c. three divlfions, viz. Irelarid, Manx and Scotland : 
i. e. thefe countries were divided into three by an a£l of druid- 
ifm. (Cormacs Glofary. Comjac was arch-bifliop of Cafliel 
in the tenth century.) May not this be the origin of the thred 
legs on the Manx coin'. 

^ Adftiit & Faunus fignatos Igne relinquend 
Italise caoiposy trifidoque cacumine rupem. 

' • Nonniis Dion. 1. 13; 

trijido li ber€ Written for trifod^^ from the Pelafgian Iri(hy3</, 
a divifion ; fid-alam^ to divide. (See the Didionary.) 

It is evident that the ancients looked On the inhabitants o^ 
Ireland, Manx and Scotland (of Bins) as one pe6ple, the Bri- 
tons are not mentioned. When it was the fafhion for nations 
to adopt patron faints^ the Irifli took Patrick, the Scots or Erfe 
ikould have taken Colum-Kill, but he was an Irifhnian ; and 

£ a though 


the Weldi, Bretoon and Cornifti another, of th?/ww 
ordinal language j it is true ; but fo disfigured by the 
three laft, for want of that recourfe to the fountain 
head the Irifti enjoyed ; that at this day, the Wel(h 
differs from the Irifh) as much as modern Greek does 
from the ancient Pelafgian Greek ; and from expe- 
rience, I know, that the Irifli, Erfe and Manx can 
underftand each other perfeftly well, for they have 
the fame language ; but they cannot underftand, or 
be underftood by; the Welfli, Bretootis, or Coraifh; 
in (hort, they not only fpeak with anotlier idima^ 
but their fyntax differs very much. The Irifli have 
always expreffed their contempt of the Wellh lan- 
guage, by calling a Welfliman, Brito-balbbj a fiut- 

though Patrick was a Scotchman^ yet Ireland having adoj^ted 
him through gratitude for the trouble he was at, in completing 
their converfion from paganifm, (for there were three or four 
chriftian miffionaries here before Patrick, and Gottfireid Enimus, 
profeiTor of Berlin, fays St. James was in Ireland,) yet the Erfe 
who have always idly contended with the Irifh^ which country 
was firfl peopled, (not which is the oldeft people, for they all 
allow they were originally one and the fame) would not, it 
feemsy take their country-man Patrick, but they fought oot 
which of the faintf had converted their Pelafgian anceftorstke 
Scythians, and finding tbat pa^ of the world fell to iajnt An- 
drew's lot, they very properly took him for their fatren faint: 
we mud not be furprized to read of fome bigotted Highlanden 
in the days of popery, having undertaken a pilgrimage to 
Achaia, where St. Andrew was crucified, as Ipme of the Spa- 
nifh or Milefian Irifh have heretofore done, to Spain, in honour 
of St. James, whofe reliquet the Spanifli writers affirm were 
brought from Jerufalem to Campoftella in Gallicia ; or probably 
it may be made out, that thofe of St. Andrew are depofited ia 


PREFACE. liii 

tcring, ftammering Britain, That the original Irijb 
did formerly inhabit Britain, is evident ; but, as 
that great Welfli antiquary Mr. Lhwyd obferves, 
** it was probably before the Gomerians or anceftors 
" of the Wellh ; for, fays he, it is manifeft that the 
^' ancient inhabitants of Ireland confided of two nor 
^^ tions ; the Guidhelians were Britons, and what 
** Nennius and others, wrote many ages fince, is 
" an unquefiionable trutb^ when they averted the 
•* Scotifh nation came out of Spain ; but the Irifli 
•* rouft have been the inhabitants of Wales, when 
" the many names of rivers aftd mountains through- 
** out that country were given, for they are idcnti- 
*' caily Irifli and not Welfli i for inftance, the word 
** ui/ce *, water, (among many others) whence fo 
*^ many rivers in Britain are named, and having 
*^ looked for it in vain in the old Loegrian Britifli, 
" ftill retained in C(Mrnwall, and Baile-Bretagne ; and 
'^ reflecting, that it was impoi&ble, had it been once in 
" the Britifli, that both tbey and te;^ fliould lofe a word 
** of fo common an ufe, and fo neceflary a fignifica- 
**tion; I could find no room to doubt, that the 
** Guidhelians or Irifli have formerly lived all over 
^^ this kingdom, and that our anceftors forced them 

* Vifce^ uifg, or uifge» from the Hebrew flpC^il *'>***f 
he made or he caufed to drink, or he gave to drink, to water, 
to moiften. PfaL 86, ▼. 9. thou ihalt make them (hi/kah) 
drink of thf river of thy pleafures, ^pjjf drink, Uquor. Ufcu- 
dama, the ancient name of Adrianople in Thrace, according 
to Ammianus ; in Irifh, uifce-daim^ the watry refidence ; for 
iaim is a houfe or habitation. Sec this nvord more fully explained 
in the fubfe^uent pages. 1 

" to 


** to Ireland*/' And in a letter to Mr. Rowlmd, 
author of Mona AntiquOf Mr. Lhwyd further fays, 
•* it fcems to me, that the Irifli have in a great mea- 
^^ fure, kept up* two languages^ the ancient Britifli 
** and the old Spanifh, which a colony of them brought 
*• from Spain ; for, tl:at there came a SPANISH 
*• COLONY into Ireland, is very manifeji^ from a 
** companion of the Irifh tongue with the modem 
** Spanilh, but efpecially with the Cantabrian or 
♦* Bafque, and this Jbould engage us to have nme 
^* regard than we ufually have, for fuch of their hifto- 
** ties, as wt cd\\ fabulous.** 

This is not the obfervation of a curfory traveller, 
but of a learned Welfliman, who ftudjed the lan- 
guage of the Irifti, collefted their mod valuable ma- 
liufcripts, (great part of which have now returned to 
my hands by the generofity of Sir J. Sebright,) form- 
ed dictionaries of the Wellh, Corniftiy Bretoon and 

* The Phoenicians mixed with Pelafgian or Magogian Irifty 
traded to Britain and Ireland, from £h'(ha or Greece, and 
taught the Greeks the way to both thefe iflands. It has beeii 
thought that Caffiterides was a Greek name given to the ScOIy 
ifltnds, fynonimous to the Phoenician Bretdnac^ but in the con- 
clufion of this work we (hall (hew, that keasf the modem Iri(h 
word for iron or tin ore, was alfo of Phoenician and Pelafgiaa 
origin, and is a^ prefent, the PerfiaB and Arabian name for 
iron ore. Thefe mixed people did certainly fettle in England and 
Ireland, and probably about the fame period^ yet the Infli 
hiftory informs us, that when the firft Pelafgian colony came 
from Elifha under Partolan, he found Ireland inhabited by a 
people, governed by oneCioca], and that they had beep here aop 
years, living by fifhingpnd fowling on the fca coaft«^t|iefc may 
lii^ve been ancient Gauls or CeltSt 


Irifli languages, and after comparing them together, 
forms the above conclufion, contrary to the wifh and 
fentiments of his WeKh countrymen. This put 
Baxter to work on a I'opographical Glojfary of Britain, 
and by admitting Irifh words, which do not exift, or 
ever did exift in the WeKh, he too, has impofed on 
the world,* at the e?cpence of the Iridi*. 
But ftill, probably, fome twittering fwallow^xW fay, this 
isnoifufficient; ftronger evidence muft be produced, to 
prove that the Pelafgi of Baeotia were the Pelafgi who 
fetded in Ireland -, I have colleded much to prove it, 
and from my common place books, here throw in as 
much as can poifibly be crowded into a preface. 

• Mr. Lhwyd's obfervations that the Irlfli did anciently inha- 
bit Britain and Ireland, is confirmed by the ancient hiftorians. 
Strabo calls Ireland, BritiHi lerna, 1. i. p. no. as his ancient 
abridger calls the Irifli, the Sri tons inhabiting Ierna, 1. 3. 

Diodorus Siculus mentions the Britons inhabiting the Idand 
called Iris, I. 5, p. 309, and arch bifhop Uiher did not gaico- 
nade when he faid, that the Roman people could not any where 
be found io anciently mentioned as lemis. (Prim.- EccleJ. 
Brittan. p. 724.^ Io fine, Ariftotle confirms (in his MirabiU 
AufcuUat.) that the Phoenicians (that is, the mixed body of Pe- 
l^^gi) Canaanites, &c. &c. of whom we have fpoken) were the 
firft who difcovered Ireland,, when they failed from Britain. 
Ireland therefore, lying fo conreniently for the Phoenicians or 
Pelafgi, and for the Grecians and Spaniards, who learned the 
way hither from the Pelafgi, it was always a place of great 
trade ; for which reafon, Tacitus fays, that its ports tvcre better 
krmssnfor tradcj and more frequented by merchants f tba^ thofe of 
Britain s melius aditus portufque, per commcrcia et negatia-« 
tores, cogniti. Vita Jgric* c. 24. 



Temmices Bseotix populus antiquillimus de quo 
pra^ter Strabonem, Nonnum & Stephanum ; Lyoh 
phron in CalTandra 

^^ Arnes veti^a ex^ripe Tmmicum du^es.'* 

And Scholialles adds, Temmicum id -eft Bso* 
torum a monte n^c^ky ; tamk and tanumk in Arabic, 
and tamacb and tuamucb in Irifh, do all fignify height, 
depth, but tamaicb in Irifli and tamukeen in Arabic 
implies inhabitants, dwellers in towns, from the IrUh 
tuam^ a city or town ; and this name the Pelalgi ap- 
plied to themfelvesj in contra-diftinftion to the origi- 
nal Greeks, who then lived in caves, tents, &c. 

About the city of Thebes, were the following 
places, the names of which Bochart has puroved were 
all of Phoenician origin, and we (hall prove were alfo 
Pelafgtan Irilh ; for the colony which Bochart purfues 
in his works, was a mixed body of Phoenicians and 

Afcra^ id eft mjy, afcera^ lucus ubi ftcriles funl 
arbores. Hefycb. a^^k^ l^i^ mm^itk, 

— — *mifcra prope lucum Heliconis in Afcra (a'«^) 
dura hyeme, ac aeftate gravi, femperque moleftia. 
A/cra or ea/cra in Iriflb, is always applied to a fterilc 
tree pr field, it is formed of /cra^ a green turf, any 
vegetating^rf^», and with the negative e forms Mfcr(h 
I e. fterile j hence the ford in the county of Galway 
called Atb-eafcra^ or the ford of the decayed vmi% 
eifcifj a ridge of barren or fandy land. 

Til'pbujiusy quafi tffMi Sfl tel-pbuSy mons ferax; 

Iri(h, tul-fa^^ a mountain abounding in pafture ; and 

tuhfafac^ a defart wild mountain. 



Thebes f Phoenicium nomcn fuit lf!in T^fcialuto 
nomen ; DDD tbemiSf liquefadtio ; etenim per earn 
fluunt'amnes duo (Afophus 8c Ifmenus) qui agruoi 
omnem urbi * fubjeftum irrigant. (Dlcaearch.) Iriih, 
teibbe^ overflowing water, difiiliing, oozing, (whence 
ieibbe^ a chymift, a phyfician,) iaamb, bilge watef 
of a (hip; tamb^ the ocean; tibramy to fpring; ubir^ 
a well, of siobby fpringing, and bir^ water. 

Efeptem Thebarum portis Oncaa nomen habent 
zbOncdy id eft ikf/iirrt;ijuxta Phaenices, cuiarameo 
loci confecraverat Cadmus ; rUM ^ab apud Syria eft 
movere bellum ; proinde pro Onca nonnulli o^yy«f 
Ongan vel Oggan fcribunt. Hefycb. d'yy, AbLm h 
BWCmi'y Irifh, agby agb^ war, batde; oig^ a hero; 
but oenac^ a protestor, • defender, a liberal, noble 
roan; oineacy niercy, liberality; oinicy a harlot; 
anacj anca^ a watch, guard, protedtorf. 

Dif'cej a well near Thebes, fo called from its 
pellucid water ; Irifh, dirac^ pellucid ; lan-diracf moft 
pellucid ; hence lough Dearc or Dearg in the county of 
Donnegall, and in the river Shannon, &c. 

* Urbs eft ad hyemandum valde incpmmoda proptu amnea 
& ventusy nire enim obruitur, & csnum habet plorimuxo. 
(Dicaarcbi Lib, fit^f E^XxJ^tf. p. 174. 

f Onca 18 a Phcenician and Arabian word, and fignifiei great 
or powerful. So Minerra was the ^yxth the great and powerful 
goddefs both of Thebes and Athens. (Jackfof^s CbronoLAiUiq^) 
Oinceadbf Irilh, to preferve ; do tbuiffeadb Cionfbaoladb la Cong* 
bai fan troid^ muna Oiweadb Cruinnmbaol if i. e. Cionfaoladh 
would have fallen in battle, by Conghal, if Cruinnmhaol had 
not proteAed him. Hence the old city oSAnaocb-dun in MayOf 
formerly a biihop's feet 


Epigranea^ fons a Phoenicibus |*11D pgrdn vel 
pbigradj didus eft ab erumpendo ; Arab, pbagara^ 
in quarta conjugaiiont^ fomem apcrtrc^m quima, 
fontem erumpere, fignificat; articulo praefi^o ex^- 
gran^ faAum Happigran^ unde Graecum i*wr»L^n^ 
tanquam ab equ6 dedudta voce, & PcrHofons cdaUi- 
nuSj hincnata fabulade fonte e terra edito equi ungu- 
la percufla. Abagraine and abagrinn are common 
names of fountains or fprings in Ireland ; the firft is 
explained by ab^ water ; graine^ Tandy, gravelly at 
bottom ; the fecond by grinn^ neat, clean, it alfo 
implies a beard, and is fometimes ufed to fignify a 
well Overgrown with long grafs at the mouth. The 
Pelafgian Irifh will alfo ftrengthen Bochart's derivatioo; 
foxfaogbar ox pbiiogra is a bubbling well, Bxidfaogbar- 
tbucaill is a whirl-pool, literally the forcer ers wdl: 
linnfoldhpbaogbar^ a ilream full of froth or bubbles. 

Aganippe eft pK MUK agan-ibba^ ad verbi^m crater 
viroris ; id eft, vindis, quia fontis crater eft 

Margine gramino patulos fuccindtus hiatus. 

Agan^ Heb, proprie eft Crater. Aganippe etiam Enip' 
pe didta eft, id eft K3N Y9 ^n-ibbe^ fons viroris. 
Vibius Sequefter qui perperam in montibus recenfct 
Aganippe Baotia ante Enippe diHa. In Irifh aganriobba^ 
pure, clear water for drink : I think the Greek agneia 
and agna^ caftus, purus, would have come nearer 
the truth. Enippe is the Irifh ain-iobba or iopba^ a 
fountain fit for drink ; fo tiobatj a well, is often 
written tipir\ aigban in Irifh, is a crater, a caul- 
dron, &c. but the word feems improperly applied to 
a Well. 



Gargapbicj fons fuit Dians facer in opaciflimo luco 
circa Plataeas ad radices Cithaeronis ; in eo fingiiur 
yiffaon Dianam vidijfe nudams IS Aiheon laccrattu eft a 
cambus, Phoenicium nomen KSITU, gargapba^ faftum 
a stxhogarapb^ quod dc torrente dicitur qui per prae^ 
caps lapius omnia avehic. Sic Judic. 5. 21. Torrens 
Kifon (garaphan) avexit eas. Garabb in Arabic, and 
garamb and garhb in Irifli, is a torrent j garbb-tkonn^ 
2l boiftcrous fea ; garbb-Jbion^ a tempeft ; garbb-ambain^ 
contradlcd to ^armbain^ a rapid river, a rough dream 5 
hence Garumna the Celtic name of the river Gartnnc^ 
but^or^ in Irifli, is cruel, fevere; hence j^-^r^-^^, the 
auel fountain, and the Greek ^/w^/^Aat. 

In Arethufa de qua pluribus cum ventum erit ad 
SicilijB Arcthufam, fola terminatio eft Graeca. Syris 
enim nHK, aritb^ eft rivas. In Irifli aritb is water ; 
it is from the Phoenician aritb^ a lake ; hence the 
lough Aritb^ now called lough Arrow in the county 
of Sligo i but I take Aretbufa to be from the Pelafgian 
Irifli ritb'OSj 2l flowing fpring, as we write ritb-bbior^ 
a flowing fountain, from whence river. 

In this manner we have made a tour through 
Pelafgian Greece, never wanting help from the Pelaf- 
gian Irifli, to elucidate the topography of Basotia, Atti- 
ca, &c. and wherever the learned Bochartus has led 
his favourite Phoenicians we have followed him, ftep 
by ftep, with equal fuccefs. We cannot quit this 
pleafing fubjedt without menrioning two ftrong cir- 
cumftances of the Pelafgian colonifts when in Ireland* 
Firft. The druids gave thc^name of Tailcan and 



Tailgan * to St. Patrick at his arrival. Secondly, Tlicy 
had made the cave of Tir-uamh-oin' or Tribhoinas 
remarkable in Ireland, as that of Trophonius in 
Basotia ; both were of Tufcan or Pelafgian origin. 

Tailgean or Tailgin or Gin-naoma, a name fup- 
pofed to have been given to St. Patrick, by the 
druids. O'Brien's Did. f 


* In the life of St. Patrick, inferted by the author of the Suti 
of the Brit\fh Church under the Romans^ we are told, the id 
liame of our faint was Magon ; that is On-magh, a forccrer of 
the magi or druids, and that pope CaleJHnus cfiangcd it to 
PhadruCf u e. pbaid prophet ruch of the Holy Ghoft, 7algan 
implies the angel or genius prefiding orer (brcerers. 

f Nam quid Prseneftis dubias, O Cynthia, fortes, 

Quid petis JEaei maenia Telegoni ? 

Cur te in Herculem deportant oppida Tibur ? 

. Propert. /. 2. Beg, 23. 
The Pelafgi were well acquainted with the myfteries of tbe 
Cabiri; by means of the Egyptians, (fays Banier) or by the 
j^rieftefTes of Dodona. As for the Telechines, they were a foit 
of wizards who traTelled the country to tell fortunes, and to at- 
traft the admiration of ;the populace, who are always apt toad- 
mire what carries an air of marvellous. {Banter*/ MjtkUg^ 
T. 2. p. 82.) As Circe lived much about the time of the Trojan 
war, 'tis credible enough that Ulyfles arrived at her palace, 
and that he adually fell in love with her. This at lead is the 
fentiment of thofe who affirm that he had a fon by her iiamed 
Telegonus. The charms of this princefs having made him oe- 
gledful of his own honour, as well as of his companions, they 
plunged themfelves into the pleafures of a voluptuous court, 
which makes Homer fay fhe had transformed them into fwiae, 
and what he adds of Mercury's giving that prince an herb named 
moly^ whereby he had evaded Circe's charms, &c. &c. perhaps 
fnoly is wild rue. {Banier^ vol. 4. p. 298.) Muii is the Inih 
pame of an herb| the druids gave as a charm ; it is called Iv 



Tailghean, i. Mleadb craibbtbeac do dbia. Ex. 
trioca Tailgeann ag pfalm gbabbail^ i. e. Tuilghean, is 
a religious champion devoted to God. Example, 30 
tailgeann J finging pfalms. Vet. MSS. Tailgbak, 
Talcan, a holy name given by thedruids to St. 
Patrick. Shaw's Irilh Didtionary. 

Bochart after proving that the Phoenicians colonized 
the ifland of Rhodes, obferves that the third name 
given to tbi^ ifland by Strabo is Telchinis, a Telcbini" 
bus infuUe incolis^ and Strabo informs us, thefe telcbinas 
"^txtfafdnatoresbcprieftigiatores^ qui fulphure admix- 
tam Stygis aquam inftillarent ad perdendum anima* * 
lia & ftirpes. See Ovid. Metam. 1. 7, fab. 11. 
Suidas calls them mali damoneSj aut homines invidi 
& fa/cinalores. And Hefychius, Telcbiftes^ fafcina- 
tores, incantatores, invidi, aut a tabe, aut a delini- 
endo didti. Bochart derives the name firom the Phoe- 
nician tt^nS, lacbas^ incantare, whence talcbis erat 
incarttator; tekbinibus Hefycbius fucceffiflc tradit Ig- 
netes \ and adds Bochart, Ignetes feu Gnetes iidem qui 
'pirui feu i^aymti^ id eft indigensB. 

This is a miftake of the learned Bochart, for in the 
Pelafgian Irifli tailgean or tailcbin^ and eagnaitbe are 
fynonimous words \ talgan or tail-nama is an augur^ 
(in Arabic tala numa.) The Irilh gan-naoma is the 
Arabic kaubin numa or ganan-numa^ a foothlayer. * 


(herb) na ntuil^ (of muL) See Lui na tnuil^ penny gnfi« 
{SAaws Irijh Di6iionary.) but in Muafter Lus muil is the Umbi- 
lica Venerxsy or Venus's Navel-wort. See gap explained in the 
next note. 

* O'Brien has twiftcd this word into gin-naomhthaf to make 
it imply a holy offspring : the original word is gan or caut and 


trii PREFACE* 

The Hibernian druids made nice dlftindlions be- 
tween the foothfayer, augur, forcercr and enchanter, 
according to the various arts they were fuppofed to 
poflefs, which are all now confufed by the didicnary 
writers and tranflated promifcuoufly. This illand 
was remarkable for divination in pagan times, it >xas 
the ifland of Anius or Anant from aimus^ a prophet ; 
it was called tore and muic^ two words unfortunately 
fignifying a boar and a hog, therefore the ifland was 
fuppofed to abound in them, yet when you are npon 
Tore mountain, or Sliabb na Musc^ the old inhabi- 
tants tell you thefe are druidical names ; thus, in 
Arabic, taurik and maukit implies an enchanter, a 
ibrcerer. The Phoenician word correfponding to 
iatcbin was taikbin or tailgcan^ and the Irifti tallbba is 

the neimsi neimid^ which the modern writers will tranflate holff 
had no more meaning than foothfayer, augur, &c« hence the 
Iri(h y^or, a noble, Arabic yiti^r, a forcerer* Irifhy^r/, a prince, 
(fail^ fate) from the Arabic y2r»/, an augur; deOf a forcercr; 
Arabic daa^ augur, &c. &c. {ogal in Irifli, a hero ; licbrew 
gahf to prophecy, preferred in the Irifh in the imperfonal 
gallafiatr^ they prophefied ; whence Galel vates Siculi (Bochait) 
and Galleotx interpretea portentorum in Sicilia appcllcbantar. 
(Cicero de Divin. 1. i.) Galleotac is compoundecl of gal and 
tata^ times, feafons ; Arab, hita ; whence we had Teil-eaU 
or ftef an augur, or obferver of the times, and the Greeks 
#iXitii, tftAuTn praeftigiatorem, magum, of the Egyptians. 
(Spencer, toI. i, p. 423.) The termination gan fometimes 
written ganan^ as the hill of Talganan or Dalganan ; i. c. the 
forccrers hiH, in the Co, Wicklow, is formed of the Arabic 
ganan (genius) and is now the name of the angel the Mahome- 
tans addrefs to obtain a knowledge of future events. £t creavit 
ganMn ex puro ignc. Vide Sural. 151 9* & CI. Ode Comment ^^ 
Angelis, Seft. 3. 



tlie fame as the Arabic tbalebs or tbalby^ * i. e. a for- 
cerer ; hence it is evident, that the Telcb-inis of Strabo 
for the name of Rhodes, is the fame as the Irifh 
Tailg-im's (or irtis ifland, /^w'^T of prophets eagnaitbe 
implies phiiofophers in Irifh, and included all ranks 
of foothfayers; yet the firft may be compounded of 
tail and the Irifh word infce^ an omen. » 

The prophets, enchanters and foothfayers of an- 
cient Ireland were known by the general name of 
Da-danan f . Before we proceed to thefe, we muft 
look back into the heroic hiftory of Greece and Ire- 

The Arcadians challenged in particular the name 
of Pelafgi, (i. e. Scythians^ from their pretended 
founder Pelafgus, who did get fuch footing in Pqlo- 
ponefus, that the whole peninfula was called Pelafgia. 
Thefe Pelafgians fpread over Attica, Theffaly and 
Epirus, and are fuppofed to have laid the foundation 
of the Dodonian oracle. Univ. Hift. \ 

Here is the origin of our Irifli Da-ianan^ miftaken 
by the Seanachies for an oriental colony-, whereas the 
words literally imply Danain prophets and augurers, 
for the Danai were the Pelafgi as we learn from 

-^gyptus as fame's loudeft voice relates 
Launched his adventurous bark, and on the coafl: 
Of Argos landed with his fifty fons. 
DanauSjthe fire of fifty daughters, leaving 
Thofe fruitful regions watered by the Nile 

* See Dr. Shaw's Travels into Africay p. 8o. 
f Arabic Danai-i^ fcience, knowledge, magic art; da^p 
forccry ; Hcb. y*l, dang^ knowledge. 


kiir PREFACE. 

Which from the fwarthy £thiop6 land, its ftreams 
Replenifhes, oft as the Hyperion melts 
Thick flakes of fnow congealed, when thro* the air 
He guides his fervid chariot, came to Argos, 
Dwelt in the Inachian city, and thro* Greece 
Ordained that tbofe who erfiwere caJl'd Felasgi^ 
Sbotild by the name of Das a i he diftinguijbed. 
(Euripides. Fragm. Archelaus. v. 4. p. 248 : Wodhill) 
Dan in Irifli fignifies learning, fcience, dana in old 
Perfic dodus (Rheland.) I'uatb i. e. Tagh i. e. Che- 
ridh i. e. Cheridh-Draoidheaft. Vet, Glofs i. e. Tuath, 
Tagh and Cheridh, i^ forcery, augury, druidical for- 
cery *. Da is alfo the art of forcery and Dan is fate, 
deftiny, Arab, daa kirdun to augur. 

♦ Tuath is the plural of Tua, lord, chief, doftor. Tnatli 
fignifies an aflembly of the ftates, a council. (See Preface to 
K<'. X.) The county of Donegal! w^s fo called from its being 
the chief refidence of the Don-na^gatUf i. e. the chief or head of 
the gai/f or sittgUrs : it was afterwards named Tir^Oim or thf 
country of the prophets, it was alfo called Tir^Cpin-eol or Tyr- 
connel, all which are fynonimous names* Every province in 
Ireland had a diftri^ allotted for the augurs, diviqcrs, &c. 
which was commonly the moft roihahtie fpot could be chofen. 
Such was Tuath-Gearg-aiftf in Co. of Clare, i.e. the diftri^ of the 
forcercrs or prophets of deftiny ; tuath^FaM'Uag in the county 
of Waterford, i. e. the diftrid of the prophets altar, &c. &c 
but the great fchool of forcerers was the counties of Done^all and 
Tyrone, no country furniflied more augurs, diviners, foothfay- 
ers, &c. than Ireland, and Joceline very juRly obferves, in hit 
life of St. Patrick, Magorum etiam, & maleficionim, atque 
arufpicum turba tanta- in fiqibus fingulis fuccreverat, quantum 
nulla in aliqua terranim regiohd hiftoria narrat. (Vita Patridi 
k joceBnb.) 


t R E F A C fi. kV 

tierodotus endeavours to explain the fabulous Greek 
account of the origin of the Dodonian oracle, and fays 
it arofe from a certain prieftefs of Thebes, carried off 
by Phoenician merchants and fold in Greccej who 
took up her refidence in the foreft of Dodona, where 
the Greeks found her, coming to gather acorns, their 
ancient food ; that (he eredted a fmall chapel at the 
foot of an oak, in honour of Jupiter and this was the 
foundation of the oracle. Bochart goes back to the 
Greek fable and thinks he has found two words itl 
the Phoenician and^ Arabian of a double meaning, one 
fignifying a pigeon the other a prieftefs. Abh6 Sallier 
takes this fable to have been built upon the double 
meaning of the word irixn^ which figniBed pigeons in 
Attica, but in the dialed of Epirus, imported old 
women. The abb6 has here got hold of a Pelafgian- 
Irifti word pbi'Ie oxfilea an augurer in holy orders and 
fynonimous to Dadanan ; (we have treated largely of* 
the PbUea in the fubfequent pages.) Servius, fays, 
the name of the old woman was Pelias, and that the 
oracle fpoke by a foft murmuring noife of a running 
fountain, at the foot of an oak. But abb6 Banier 
has difcovered that a number of brafs kettles were fuf-* 
pended near each other at this oracle, which being 
laftied with a whip, clattered one againll another and 
fo pronounced the oracle, for fays he Dodo in Hebrew 
fignifies a kettle : though he allows the minifter of th^ 
oracle, was always concealed in the hollow of an oak^ 
and there gave his refponfe ** The genius of this 


* !■ EuftathiQS and Steph. fiyzantinus, we meet with three 

different conjed^ures in regard to the derivation of the name 

Vau III. No. XIL F Dodona 


French writer in antiquity, is full as lively in inven^n 
as that of the ancient Greeks ^ Ariilotle does certainly 
fay that there were two pillars atDodona^ and upon one 
was a bafonoi brafs, and upon the other a child holdinga 
whip, withcordsmadeof brafs; whichoccafionedandfe 
when the wind drovethem againil the bafon }'* but here 
is no brafs-kettle-belis in a range tocla(h againd each 
other. The poets tell us, that the (hips of the Argo- 
nauts were made of Dodonian oak, wherefore they 
fpoke upon the fea, and pronounced oracles. We 
mull not then be furprized at the wonderful feats of 
OQr Iri(h I'miba-Dadanan^ who could raife a f<^ at fea 
whenever they faw an enemy appearing, &c &c. 

Dodona, which they fay owes its origin either to a daaghtcr of 
Jupiter and Europa, or one of the nymphs^ the daughter cf 
Oceanus ; or, laflly to a ri?er in Epirui called Dodon : but ai 
Mr. Potter obfcrves, we find the Greek authors all differ both 
as to the etymology of the name and the fcite of this oraclc« 
Ib my humble opinion Homer and Hefiod have not only agreed 
that it was not in Grcecey but in Ireland, or fome iHand at leaft 
as far weilward. 

Pelafgian Jove, XhaX far from Greece f refidca 
In cold Dodona. 

Iliad^ IT. ▼• 235V 

Heftod, whofe teftimony Strabo makes ufe of^ is yet more 

He to Dodona came, and the hallowed oak 
The feat of the Pelafgi, 

Hefiod and StrdUj K 7. 

Confequently the oracle was founded by the Pelafgi and not by 
the Greeks^ and the ancient Irifli being a colony of the Pelafgi, 
the hallowed oak might have been in Ireland. 


PREFACE. ' kvfi 

The authors of the Univerfal Hiftory obferve, that 
fome writers fay, -this oracle of Dodona was founded 
by the Pelafgians, who were the moft ancient of all 
the nations that inhabited Greece ; of this opinion is 
Strabo, being led hereunto by Homer, who 
bcftows upon the fame Jupiter, the names of Dodo- 
naeus and Pelafgicus. Strabo alfo fays, there was a 
fabulous opinion, that the oracle of Dodona was tran* 
flated out of Pelafgia, a country of Thcfl&ly, into 
Epirus, being accompanied by a great number of wo- 
men, from whom the prophetefles in after ages were 
defcended, and that from them Jupiter received the 
appellation of Pelafgicus. Here I muft remark a paf- 
fage in the works of biftiop Huet, which (hews that 
learned man's opinion of the origin of the Patni or 
Carthaginians, who we fhall have occafion to mention 
hereafter. In his hiftory of the navigation of the 
ancients, ch. 22. the biftopfaya, « the Carthaginians 
had been mafters of the fea till the time of the firft 
Punic war, by which power they had acquired part 
of Africa, Spain, Sicily, all Sardinia and its adjacent 
iflands j they infefted freely the coafts of Italy upon 
the flighteft pretences, and not any one difputed with 
them the. commerce of the Mediterranean fea, which 
they peaceably divided with the Tyrrhenians, a pnple 
of tbeir own race, and their allies. Now the Tyrrhe- 
nians were of Pclafgian origin, as we have proved in 
another place; confequently, they were all of that 
mixed body of Canaanites, Egyptians, and Magogian 
Scythians, under the general name of Phoenicians. 
I beg leave to refer the reader to my Enqtmy into jbe 
firft InbaHtants of Ireland, CoWt^. Vol.11. No.V. 

P 3 Eufebius 

Ixvili PREFACE. 

Eufebius makes the Pelafgi cotemporaries with So- 
lomon, (Chron. 1. 2.) and Huet gbferves, the Pelafgi 
were a very wandering people, and even when the 
Greeks did begin to fettle themfelves, thefe Pelafgi 
flill remained unfixed, roving about both by fea and 
land ; and this roving life made them both expert in 
navigation and powerful. Now the Lydians and 
Pelafgi, who were fo famous for their navigations, hav- 
ing given the firft rife to the Tyrrhenians, we ntcd 
not be furprized, if they likewife communicated to 
them a love for the fea. 

The fable of the Tyrrhenian failors, which Bacchus 
metamorphofed into fea monfiers and cited by Ovid^ 
(lib. 3.) confirms the antiquity of the Tyrrhenians 
and (hews that in the firft ages they applied them- 
fclves to navigation, even before the Pelafgi had efta- 
blifhed themfelves in Italy* under that name. Dion. 
Halicarn. was therefore of opinion that the commerce 
of the Tyrrhenians perfefted the Pelafgi in the naval 
art, which they would long have enjoyed, had not 
the Carthaginians deprived them of it. {Dion.Hal.Li.) 

The Irifli hiftory informs us, that Partolan (a name 
contradled from bar^ learned, and faloHy a prophet, 
a foothfayer,) a Pelafgian-Scythian, who had lived 
long in Egypt, and having defcended to Eliftia, and 
there killed his father and mother, in order to obtain 
the crown and hinder his elder brother of the fuccef- 
fion, failed from Greece with a colony and conquered 
Ireland, in which country he then found certain in- 
habitants (the BritiQi Celts, i. e. Gomerian Scythians,) 
who liad pofleifed the ifland 200 years, under the 



government, of Ciaciall*,) fiftiing and fowling upon 
the coaft, but had not cultivated the country. Parto- 
lan died and his four fons divided the kingdom be* 
tween them, and in fome years after a peftilence car- 
ried off moft of the inhabitants. About this time 
Nemed, defcended of one of the fons of Partolan, 
named Adla, who was left behind in Greece, arrived 
in Ireland f; Nemed in Irifli, and Numad in Arabic, 
is a leader, a guide. With Nemed came many 
Tuatha Dadanan, and in his reign the Africans ar- 
rived : thefe Africans were the Phccni another tribe of 
the Pelafgi : it is not furprizing then, that our Irifli 
hiftorians obferve, that thefe Africans fpoke the fame 
language as the Irifli. They conquered the^country and 
taught the inhabitants to build round towers, having 
firft landed at the ifland of Tor or Tor-inis called alfo 

* Ciadollf i. e. CVtf, a man, chllf mortal ; for our Pelaf- 
giani fuppofed themfelTes anchiall immortal ; an is prxpofite ne- 
gative, very common in the Irifh, and is probably true Pclaf- 
gian or ^trufcan, hence Homer OdyfT. 1. 8, v. 1 1 2. 

Nauteufquei Prymneufque & Ay;c<«A«( & Eretmus. 
This is the Ancktalum of Martial, fpeaking to the Jew, whofe 
God was declared to be 'immortal, 

Non credo ; jura verpe per Anchiolum^ 
a paflage that has employed all the learned commentators. See 
Cia^ Ciollf Ciall in all the Irifli didlionarics. Anchhll is a com<- 
mon ezpreffion with the old Irifli poets. 

\ Nor are there wanting fome, who out of Orpheus collefl 
thajt Jafon with his Argonauts, either landed in Ireland, or paiT- 
cd by the coaft. From whence Hadrianils Junius introducei 
him thus fpeaking to Ireland. 

Ilia ego fum Graiis olim glacialis lerne 

Pida, & Jafoniac puppis bene cognita Nautis. 

W€n' AnVi%. 



Tor Conuing from the name of the Carthaginian ge* 
neral (Conuing) and here is the firfi account we have 
of our round towers. This ifland is on the coaft of 
Donegall, and it is faid the continent is fo calledfrom 
thefe Carthaginians, viz. Dunna-gaill which implies 
diviners, learned revealers, augurers, foothfayers, 
but our Nemedian Tuatha Dadanan ha\ing been 
feated alfo in that part of Ireland before their arrival, 
I am of opinion, it was fo called before Conuing land* 
ed We are informed that the Nemedians or Irifh 
perfeiSlly underftood the language of the Fomoraich 
or Africans : this is no wonder, for the Carthaginians 
were a colony of the fame people, viz. Felaigians, 
Phoenicians, and Egyptians. Our htftory further in* 
forms us, that the Nemedians not relifhing" the yoke 
of the Carthaginians, deputed fome Tuatha Dada* 
nans to Thebes, Athens, &c. * (their old Pelafgian 
friends and kindred) for aid, btit during this cmbafly. 
More, a Carthaginian general, arrived withfixty (hips 
and a numerous army. The Dadanan being coldly 
received by the Pelafgian Greeks, fearing they would 
caufe fome commotion in the ftate, treated them 
fo ill, that they levied fome volunteers, feized on the 

♦ From whence probably Fontorc^ i. c. Fo 9 prince and mere; 
The tranflator of Keating always calls thefe Carthaginian he- 
roes^ pirates, miftaking the name Fomoraic^ Fo being a prince 
and moraic marine, yet when the Seanachas apply the fame word 
to the Danes, he then tranflates it leaders, heroes. — ^Thc old 
name of the giants caufewayin the north of Ireland is Cioch na 
Fomaraic or the ftone of the Carthaginians or fea commanders, 
[ pot pirates, as Mr. Ledwieh will have the word to imply. 



Grascian (hips and returned to Ireland, by way of 

I cannot help thinking that Euripides was acquaint- 
ed with this part of the Irifti hiftory ; his old men (di- 
viners) without a name, fo often brought into hid 
plays, and his (lory of Jocafta, in the Phoenician 
damfels, and feveral others, give great reafon to be- 
lieve that Ireland is often changed to Argos. Our 
Seanachas have carried the Tuatha Dadanan to 
Thebes during the fiege, where they performed won- 
ders, bringing the Greeks to life as often as flain in 
the fiege, till one of ihem treacheroufly imparted a 
charm to the Aflyrians to render their power invalid. 

The Tuatha Dadanan were called Om/Vi, Ainin and 
Ainius^ i. e. Soothfayers* Arab. Aenund, enchant- 


* Aimas a foothfaycr, Shaw's Irilh dictionary. Marbh tre 
Mnifte, killed by forcery. Vet. MSS. Anani i^yjf occurs in the 
7 ch. and 13 v. of Daniel in a very extraordinary manner* 
Montanus tranflates it thus. ** Videns fui in vifibnibus nodis, 
& ecce cum (Anani) nubibus Cseli, tanquam filius hominis veni- 
cns crat : The EngHfli tcrfion, — I faw in the night vifions, and 
behold one like the fon of man, came with the clouds of heaven. 
Rab. Sam. and other learned men declare this Anani, eft Ifte 
Rex MeffiaS qui eflet revelandus, de quo in MSS Chald. a Clar. 
▼iro S. Clerico. See Caftellus. 

The reader will recpllefk the explanation of Tailgan in the 
preceding pages and that Tal^ Talc or Taii implies a diviner in 
the Irifh language and in the Pelafgian Greek \ hence Delos or 
Teles the ifland of Apollo. Virgil informs us, Trojani belli 
tempore Deli regnabat. Rex Antus^ Rex idem hominum Pbabi' 
quefaoerdot. And Cynthus was Deli mpns in qu6 Latona edidit 
Apollinem, from the Irifti Cinsth and the Hebrew rlg)»in ^^^^ 
nita, produ6iioy generatio, emerfio in lucem, hence the Irifh Cin$ 
a tribe, a family. Qncath an offspring. 


Ixxii PREFACE.. 

ment, magick. Heb. ^iy anan. gnanan. augur, ha* 
riolator, ex nubibus futura bona vel mala praedicens, 
Anan in Hebrew literally implies, he covered with a 
cloud ; our Iri(h Oinin were remarkable for having the 
power of raifing a thick fog at their pleafure. Hence 
Ireland was called Ms Aftan or the ifland of prophets. 
Rabbi Jonathan obfervesfrom Aruch that the Arabians 
named a bird taer and taer-aun becaufe taer implied 
^ugurium capere exavibus, (in qua re olim erant pc- 
riti) for the fame rcafon our IriQi augurs named a bird 
«?o», ean^ HiV^ ione in Hebrew, (fays Bates) is a bird 
of fome kind, an owL Bochart fays an oftrich. 
Hence Owf/Qtfitu auguror. Qi«i«ifV augur. o/«»f J avis, 
omen. May not the p^y oinak (fuppofed to be Phoe- 
nicians) a people whether Ilhmaelites or no, (fey^ 
Bates) be thefe forcerers ? Tljey are fuppofed to be fo 
named from their bulk it is faid: but they were apof- 
tates or revolters from the true God, they were a peo- 
ple much dreaded by others it is certain, but probably 
only for their magical art ; be that as it may, thelrifh 
have adopted the word, naming a giant anacb^ fio" 

X But Hefychiiis explains Oim\^ by cf^t^ of which hereai^ept 
when we fhall fpcak of y^«^ .From the Pclafgian Irifli Oin is formed 
the Greek oenomai, (apud Eufcbium) arguracnta contra Oracu- 
la, ac contra ipfum Eufcbium. Onomacriti Sortilegi, fraudei 
circa Oracula, and from drcac an image, fpedre, vifion, and 
oin id formed the Greek i^xx^iltty miftaken by the Greeks for 
Draconem ; cum fuiffe (poetae fcripfere) cui cuflodiam Tcllus 
Oraculi mandaflct — fed nullibi in S. S. veteris Tcft. Pytho pro 
Diabolo fumitur, fic nunquam Apollo inter GraecoB, nedum 
?ipud Delphos, (Van Dale de Oraculls.) 


PREFACE. Ixxiii 

Our Da Danms being fettled in the county of Done» 
gal, the country was called Tir-oin or the country of 
Oin and they were named Trfobihoin or Treavoinj the 
tribe of Oin or forcerers. It is faid they brought with 
them from Egypt to Greece and fo to Ireland a (lone 
called Leaba-dh or the altar of deftiny, other wife Liag^ 
fail the ftone of fate, known alfo by the name of Qocb 
naCineambna^ ipto\>tx\y Kinana*^ on which the Iri(h 
and Scotti(h kings were wont to be crowned ; now in 
Weftrainfter Abbey (as Mr. Shaw fays. See Lia 
fail in his didtionary.) Fal And fail f in Irifti is fate, 
deftiny. Ireland was mmed Inis-f ail be Inis-anan the 
ifland of fate, the ifland of foothfayers. In Ferdc fal 
is an omen, in ^thiop. pbal^ in Arabic/ao/za footh- 
fayer, foul-goo an augur. Ireland was likewife called 
Inis-tnuic from the Arabic maukt a fbothfayer, it was 
in ftiort the Dadanan oracle of the weftern world. 

Our Dadanan foon eflablifhed one oracle in an 
ifland in Lough Dearc and another on Cruach 
Agallat. That on the i(land wgs as famous as the 


* Arablce Kauhln. Kundae^ a forcerer. Kauhtnon^ forcciy. 

f Hence the Falach da Flonn which Keating fays were open 
places where Fion Mac Cumhail ufcd to kindle 6re8 : the words 
literally imply Fionn's facrifice of Fal-achta or deftiny. Fal m 
Irifh and Arabic is an omen and akht in Arabic and acht in Irifh 
is an augury hence it is comnaonly joined with Draol a DoiAd 
a% Draoi-achty witchcraft, druidifm — ^Arabic akhtur guftun to 
augur, fa:d guflen and iue^ kirdun^ the fame. 

X Agalla was the ancient druidical name for an oracle, from 
agalladh to fpeak, pronounce, whence the Greek ETArrEAION; 
the Irifh adopted a word of the fame import, viz, foifgealach^ 
from fQf divine knowledge and agalach an oracle, whence its 



cave of Trophonius and was called Uamb-1 reibb-Oin^ 
the cave of the tribe of Oin ||. It afterwards received 
the name of Si. Patricks purgatory^ and the Irifli 
tnonks have franied a ftory of a certain knight narced 
Oin, from whom they fay this part of the country 
was called, who faw much more here than Paufanias 
did at the cave of Trophonius. 

diminutiTe j^r^/ a narration, zxA fgealach a narrator. Thii oracle 
of Cmach Agala feems to have been more noticed than Patrick's 
purgatory according to Jocelilie. ^ In hiijui igitur montis de 
Cmachan Aigle^ cacumine jejunarcj ac vigllare confuefcunt plu- 
rimi, opinantes fe poftea nunquam intraturos portas iofemiy 
quia hoc im{)ctratum a Domino- putant mentis & prccibui S. 
Patricit. Rcferunt etiam nonnulK, qui pernodanint ibi, fe 
tormenta graviflima fuifife paffM, quibus fe purgatos a peccatit 
putant. Unde & quidam illorum locum ilium pnrgatorium 
S. Patricii vocant. 


Fuit ergo Purgatorium S. Patricii notum & frcqucntatum 
tempore Jocelini, licet ipfe fatis fngide de eo loquatur, & 
perperam ipfuhi ftaiuit in monte de Cruachan Afgle in Connacia\ 
cum fit in llagno de Loch'Gerg Com. Dungallcnfis in Ultooia. 


Loch'Gerg was the ancient name of Loch-Deargi Gerg is i 
corruption of ^<f^rr(7^, fate, fortune, dcftiny. In another place 
Colgan quotes ah ancient author, who calls it Loch-Chrc, that 
fs Chch or the lake of the foothfaycrs ; a convincing proof it 
IVah knoWn for its miracles before Patrick's arrivd. Chert I 
have (bewri to be the Chaldee Cheruri (hariolari) and the 
Latin Hariolus is formed of the Irifti Chert or Heri and tclas art, 
khdwiedge, fcichce, Ariolus from Aire which implies not only 
a chief but alfo a diviner and eolas knowledge. 

II That is, one of the tribe or freabhi of Oin. See freal- 
hoin before. Obferve alfo that our Iri(h knight Oin entered our 
^ave through vain glory, 



Matthew Paris has preferved the origin of this cavd 
which has beea copied by Colgan* and coiieded and 
tranflated into Englifli by the Reverend Father Thomas 
Uejfmghamy profcfTor of the Iri(h feminary in Y^x&i 
and printed in that city in 1 7 1 8. 

For the fake of our readers we wifti the narration 
was fliorter, but it is fo conneftcd throughout with 
the remote antiquities of this country and of Pelafgian 
Greece, we muft trefpafs on the reader's patience at 
this time; we (hall contract it as nnuch as poiTible. 

** Sir James Ware, obferves of this den, cave, 
** oracle or purgatory, that fome have ridiculoufly 
** imagined that Ulyffes firft formed it when he dif- 
*' covered the (hades below, and adds he, I am in- 
" clined to believe that Ulyfles, as it is hiftorically 
'* related or poetically feigned by Homer, was in Ire* 
"land, one' of the Britifli iflands, or in Britain itfelf. 
** This, Circe implies in her inftru<ftions to Ulyfles^ 
*• (in Homer) in his voyage to Hell, when Ihe tells 
" hirt what wind would be happy, and the utmoft 
" weftern parts he was-to fteer to.'* 

Certain I am that Homer was well acquainted with 
the maritime geography of Ireland, which be proba- 
bly learnt from his Pelafgian mafter, and he moft 
probably from his countrymen, who had formerly co- 
lonized Ireland and held a communication with them. 
—And from thence we are aT>le to explain the Etruf- 
can or Pelafgian antiquities by the help even of our 
common lexicons. Thus Scylla in the Etrufcan an- 
tiquities is reprefented as a tall rock in the fea, fur- 
rounded by a groupe of fyrens, the guardians of the 
fea (bore. In \xv^ Senile is a high rock fplintered 


kxvi P R E F , A C E. 

from a mountain, and Sceik-go or Sceilg that is a ma- 
rine Sceile, is, the name of fuch a rock on the coaft 
of Kerry, on which was the s«ffr#f IA9 oirthe oracle 
of the fuire or fyrens, and where now ftand the ruins 
of an abbey, and near to it is the ifland of Lemnos. 
(See Smith's hift. of Kerry) Scull near Cape Clear is 
another, and many other rocks round the weftern 
coaft bear the fame name. Cbarybdis in Irilh implies 
Carb a (hip and dels to ftop or impede, and fuch pow- 
er was fuppofed by the Etrufcans and ancient Iri(h 
poets to be given to the fuire, which is the Etrufcan 
and Irifti name of the fyrens and fea nymphs. To 
the fouthward of the Sceilg is the promontory ofCean 
Tail^ or the head land of the forcerers, now the old 
head of Kinfale, where are remarkable caves, 
that iifue forth wonderful founds on the dafhing of the 
water into them. — To the fouthward of this is the 
promontory of Cuirce, Kirk, or Circe, now called 
Cork head, from whence the city of Cork in Irilh is 
alfo named Cuirce^ pronounced Kirk. Hence the 
learned Bochart obferves, ^l ex /Eoliis infulis in ter- 
ras Cauda draconis fubje£las^ putd in uhimam Tbulem. 
Verily, the uliima Tbuk of the Pelafgians, and that 
was Ireland, as I have proved in a former number of 
this work. Now /Eolus was Rex Etrufcorum (ejus 
nepos Ulyffes) habitat in infulis frequentius, undc 
^olus ventorum Rex creditur. (Dempfter de Etru^ 
ria Regali.) Thus Luna (in Etruria) which (ignifies 
a date tree, was remarkable for its wine, fo in Irilh 
Cran-Leain is the date tree, and the Irilh name for 
Ale (the fubftitute for wine) is Leann^ & Lunn, Fa- 
Jifca in Eiruria was alfo famous for its grapes, and in 


PREFACE. latvii 

Iri(h falaifc is a kind of heath with which they brew a 
bad ale, &c. &c. thefe were fubftitutes for the pro- 
duce of the country our Pelafgiah Irifti had quitted. 

To fupport the antiquity of St. Patrick's purgatory 
Sir James Ware, Joannes Camertes, father Mefling- 
hani, &c. &c. quote the following lines of Claudian 
in Rufin. lib. i. 

Eft locus extremum pandit qua Galliae littus 
Oceani praetentus aquis, quo fertur Ulyffes 
Sanguine libato populum moviile filentum* 
Illic umbrarum tenui ftridore volantum 
Flebilis auditur queftus. Simulacra colon! 
Pallida Dea profiluit, Phaebique egreffa fefenos 
Infecit radios, ululatuque aethera rupit 
Terrifico, fenfit ferale Britannica murmur, 
Et Senonum quatit arvafragor, revolutaqueTethya ^ 
Subftitit & Rhenus projedla torpuit unda. 

Thus tranflated by Father Meffingham, 

Weftward of Gaul there lies a famous Ifle 
Where mountains nod and magick fountains boU^ 
Here the Laertian hero, is faid to fpill 
The blood of bulls, fat vidlims kill 
And raife a filent race by artful fkill. 
Here rueful groans of flying (hades abound 
And whifpering noife from hollow rocks refound 
Pale ghofts to men afford a dreadful fight 
And death-like fpedtres, feem to walk by night. 

The druids named Ireland Mucinisy that is, fay 
fome, inis an ifland, muc hog ; but much was one of 
the Iriih and Ferfian names of the Aliem or great 


Ixxviii PREFACE. 

God: — Whence Euripides makes Antigone fay when re- 
ferring to this ifland 

Is this the man 
Who vowed that he the captive Theban Dames 
In flavery plunged, would to Mucene lead, 
To Lerna where the god of ocean fixecj 
His trident, whence its waters bear the name 
Of Amymone *. 

The antiquity of this purgatory, being eftabliftiedf 
and to have exifted long before St. Patrick arrived, 
we will now proceed to the monkifh tale of Oin. 

There was a certain cavalier called Oin f an Irifti- 
man, who had for many years ferved in king Stephen's 
army, the IVth king of England after the conqueft. 
This man having obtained licence from the king, 

* Lem h a remarkable lake in the north of Ireland, about 
ifirhich the Dadanan forcerers dwelt : ptobably Lerna was origi- 
nally written lema by Euripides, j^mhain is Irifh for a river 
and Am^amhain^ the fwcet or lovely river or water. Amymone 
il» (aid by the Greeks to be the daughter of Danaus, beloved by 
Neptune. KU-lamey lake, is another of the fame derivation. 
• t Colgan has the following note on Oin. A quibufdam 
OenuSy ab aliis Owen^ ab aliis Annon, fed mcndofe Tocatur. 
Proprium ei nomen vel Eogan^ id eft Eugenius, vel Oengui 
five ^pguiTiuB fuiffe videtur, haec enim nomina, ilia minime 
Htbemis famiHaria funt. Tria. Thaumat. — Oinin or Annon 
was certainly the name of the officiating augur at our Dadanann 
c^vci figniCying the great prophet, or cloud mong«r.-^£ogani 
i. e. gan^eo was the angel or genius, i. e. gan, prefiding oTer 
the majies, tombs, dens, or caves of the dead ; A i. e. a tomb, 
cave, or den — hence Eoghan was the name of the fon of Niallf 
who pofFcfled this coiintry* 


P R E F -A C E. Ixxix 

came to the north of Ireland his native country^ to 
vifu his parents. — And when he had reflcdted on the 
wickednefs of his Hfe, went to a certain biftiop and 
confefled his fins. — Oin then rcfolvcd to go into St. 
Patrick's purgatory. The bilhop related to him how 
many had periflied in that place, but Oin who never 
had feared danger, would not be diffuaded : the bi- 
(hop advifed him to take the haibit of ^ canon regulart 
but Oin refufed till he Chould have gone into the pur- 
gatory and returned. He then marched boldly through 
the cave, though alone, where he foon found himfelf 
involved In darknefs. Soon after ^ glimmering light 
appeared, which led him to a hall, in which there wa^ 
no more light than we experience in winter after fun-? 
fet. This hall had no walUj but was fupported by 
pillars and arches, he then faw ^n inclofure, into 
which having entered und fat down, fifteen men in 
white garments, (clad and (horn like monks) coming 
in, faluted him and inftrudted him how to proceed, 
when he (hould be hereafter tormented by demons in 
this cave. Qi^ being left alone, foon heard fuch a 
horrijd noife, that if all the men and all the living 
creatures on earth, in fta and air, had bellowed toge- 
ther, thf y could not have equalled it 5 and immediate-* 
ly ^n jnjipinerable multitude of demons in various 
frigb^ui ifasH;)es faluted him, and welcomed him to 
their .babijattion: they then dragged him through 
a yaft region, dark and obfcure, where blew a burn- 
ig.. w^, that pierced the body: from thence he 
c^jfsigged towards the bounds of the earth, >yhere 
^f ^ (ifes at mid-day *, and being come to the end 

*' * (Xtd^& occafu8 foli8 mifccntur in ununi. Indc L»ftrygo- 
M ibllegit CniUs habitare— ut in Arato habetur. 



of the world, they extended towards that part of the 
earth where the fun rifes at mid-night f here Oinin 
faw the firft torments of hell : men and women with 
fiery ferpents round their necks, others had vultures 
on their ftioulders, driving their bills into their breafis, 
and pulling out their hearts. From thence he was led 
to the penal field, where he faw both fexes faftened 
to the ground with red hot iron fpikes; from thence 
he was conveyed to another penal field, where he faw 
ilill more torture ; from whence he was carried to an 
iron wheel, the fpokes and fellows of which were 
armed with iron crooks fet on fire, and on them hung 
men fixed ; from thence they dragged him towards 
a certain houfe of an extraordinary breadth and the 
extremities out of fight : this was the houfe of ful- 
phurious baths, which were fa numerous and clofe^ 
that no man could walk between them, here alfo he 
faw both men and women bathing in great agonies ; 
when on a fudden they convey him to an exceeding 
high mountain, where he faw feveral with their toes 
bent, looking towards the north, and while he was 
wondering what they waited for, a whirlwind from 
the North rulhed upon, and blew Oin, devils and 
all, to the oppofite fide of the mountain, into a river 
of moft intolerable cold water : from thence he was 
dt^^ggcd towards the fouth, where he (aw a dreadful 
flame of fulphureous matter, riimg out of a deep {Ht, 
vomiting up men and fparks of fire i the demons in- 
formed him this was the entrance of hell, but a new 
legion of demons appeared and told him^ that was 
not hell, but they would (hew him the way over a 
lofty bridge, the furface of which was fo flippery, no 


P R E F A C t. Ijncxi 

Wan could fix his foot od il : the courageous Oia 
boldly fteppecj on the bridge and "found it neither 
flippery or rough, but as the demons dared not ven- 
ture on it with him, they departed, and when he had 
got clear over, he efpied the Elyfian fields: here he 
difcovcrsa beautiful palace, from whence ifTued amore 
fragrant fmell, than if all the earth Had been turned 
to fpice : the gate excelled the brightnefs of the fun j 
from whence iflued an orderly proceffion compofed of 
arch-bi(hops, bifhops, abbots^ monks, priefls, &rc. &:c; 
clothed in the very facrcd apparel they were wont 
to wear when on earth j they embraced Oin aird con- 
duced him into the gate, when a concert of raoft 
mciodious mufic ftruck up. They then conduced 
him over all the pleafant places of this new world, 
where night doth never overfliade the land : fome 
worecrowns like kings ; others carried golden palms iii 
their hands. When he had fatisfied his eyes and ears^ 
the biihops comforted him^ and afliiringhim their com- 
pany increafed and' decreafed daily^ by fome coming 
to them from the penal places, while others w«e car- 
ried away to the heavenly paradffe j they took hint 
to the top of a high mountain, and rcquefted to know 
of hrni) what colour the (ky over his head appeared 
to him to be of? Oin anfwered, that it appeared to 
be of the colour of gold in a fiery furnace : that, faid 
the venerable prelates, is the gate of paradife ; by 
that gate we are daily fed from heaven^ and you (hall 
tafte of the food : at this inflant, certain rays, like 
flames of fire covered the whole region, and fplitting 
into fmaller rays, fat upon the beads- of every one iri 
the land, and at laft on the brave chevalier Oin; 
Vol. III. N° XII. O They 

hxxii - PREFACE. 

They then told him^ he muft quit this delightful fbod^ 
and immediately return the way he came ; the pre- 
lates condufted him to the gate of paradife and (hut 
him out, from whence he returned through all the 
meanders he had travelled before^ the demons not da- 
ring to behold him or fpeak to him, till he came to 
the lad hall i here he was advifed to haften to the 
mouth of the cave, and was informed that the fun 
now began to rife in his country, and if he was not 
foon at the gate of the cave by which he entered, the 
jprior who kept the key, would look for him, and if 
he did not fee him, would defpair of his (alvation, 
lock the door and return to his convent : however, 
Oin came in time, and was received with joy into 
the prior's arms. 

Trophonius hiscav€. 

Mr. Wodhull in his notes on Eurrpides, has the 
following note. Of this Trophonius and his cave, 
which is become proverbial, Nicophorus Gregoreas, 
in his Scholia upon Synefias on Dreams, gives the 
following account. There was a certain man, named 
Trophonius, a fcer by profcffian i who, through Vaid 
glory^ entering a cave, and there hicMng himfelf, end-^ 
ed hts life: but the cave, 'tis faid, utters oracles 
to tbofe who emer and alk queftions on any fubjedt. 
The fituation is thus defcribed by Strabo in his Baeo- 
tica, p. 414. At Lebadea is the oracle of Jupiter 
Trophonius, with a paiFage into the bowels of the 
earth, which it is neoeflary for thofe who confuk the 
oracle to defcend ; it is fttuated between Helicon and 
Chaeronea near Coronea. This is alfo to be remarked, 
-that there was one fountain there called Lethe, whofe 


t* R E F A C E. 

Mfiiters were to be drank by thofe who were defccnd- 
ing, that they might forget all they had previoufly 
fcen, and another they called Mnemofund, a draught 
of which imprcffed on their memory all they were a- 
bout to behold in thofe fubterranean re^ons*. tFronl 

ION. ^ . 

♦ if ye before thcfc portals kave with fire 
Confumed xhtfalted cateif and wifli to know 
Aught from Apollo, to this altar come ; 
But enter not the temple's dread rtcefs 
'Till (heep are {acrificed« £uai?iDS9. 

Totb tem|iore ^lio niorantiir in ipfa infula (t'lifgatorii Patricii) 
i>ata per novem ipfos dies, jejunandum erit in pane & a^ua, nod 
quomodo libet, fed Una refeftione ex pane fubcinerito, yel co6i6 
io Craticula ; vcl certe farina arenacea incoda^ aqua vero lacuf^ 
tri, fed co^a Tel faltem calef&^a in cacabo, citra falem.^"^^ 
Eftque ea tis iftius aquae quamTis ftagnantis, ut quatumTis ex ea 
te Tells ingurgitare, nullum inde graTanien fentias, perinde ac 
fi ex Tena metallica fluerit, quod de aqua SpadaHa^ ex fonticuld 
acido emanante perhibent, qui earn epotarunt, abfque onere fu<il 
td ftomachi graTamine* 

(Colgan de tnodo ij Httt Purgat, PatriciL) 
Chorus in ION. 

On thee I call, O thou who in this fane 

Art ftationed : is it lawful to adTance 

Into the inmoft fanduarj's recefs 

With our bare feet? 
Sanftuary, «^mf« In(h eidid or eiditf place 6f horror; edef, 
prayers faid in the eidlt^ or caTe of purgatory. 
— Admiffi a patre fpirituali qui purgatorio prseeft, ex inftituto 
cannonicorum, ad peregrinationem faciendam, exuunt fe calce- 
os & caligas & ecclefiam quae fan£^o Patricio infcripta eft, dcTOti 
hudipedes ingrediuntur, ibique fada oratione, facros obeont cir- 
cuitus, inttorfum fepties in ipfo templo, & extrorfum totidem 
iicibas in coemiterio. {Colgan^ Hid.) 

G ^ Paufa-' 

Ixxxiv P R E F ^ A C E. 

Paufanias fays^ Trophonius was the fon of Erginus 
king of the Minyae,' or according to fome of Apollo. 
He and his brother Agamedes were celebrated archi- 
tedts and conilru£ted an edifice in which Hyrdus 
lodged h\fi treafures ; having placed a ftone in the 
wall, fo that they could remove it when tney pleafed, 
they committed frequent robberies there undifcovered: 
but upon Agamedes being caught in a fnare, Tropho- 
nius cut off his brother*s head, left he fhoufd difcovcr 
his accomplice : the murderer was foon after fwallow- 
ed up in the chafm of the earth. — This chiidifti ftory 
is a copy of what Herodotus relates fully of one of 
the kings of Egypt and two brothers who robbed his 
treafures by a like ftratagem : in (hort the Greeks 
knew not the origin of the word Trophonius, it was 
at that time concealed from them by their Pelafgian 
conquerors, and was better known in Pelafgian 
Ireland : indeed our modern monks have made out a 
much better derivation from the dievalicr Oin. 
Paufanias gives no account of the life of Trophonius 
and only tells of his death, and that the cave of 
Agamedes was in the facred grove of Labadea. 

But as Paufanias declares he had confulted this ora* 
cle and fubmttted to all its irkfome formalities, hear 
his own words. 

" The oracle was upon a mountain, within an in- 
** clofure of white ftones, upon which were crefted 
^* obeliflcs of brafs. In this inclofure was a cave of 
•* the figure of an oven cut out by art. The mouth 
•' narrow and the defctnt by a fmall ladder. When 
•* they were got down, they found another fmall 
*' cave, the entrance to which was narrow : the fup- 

•* pliant 


<' pliant proftrated himfelf on the ground, cajrying 
'* a certain compofition of honey in his hand, without 
** which he is not admitted *. He firft puts down 
" his feet into the mouth of the cave, and inftantly 
" his whole body is forcibly drawn in. They who 
" were admitted were favoured with revelations, but 
" not all in the fame manner, fome had the know- 
" ledge of futurity by vifion, others by an audible 
** voice. Having got their refponce, they canae out 
** of the cave, the fame way they went in, proftrate 
" on tlie ground, and their feet foremoft. Then the 
" fuppliant wascondufted to the chair of Mnemofynd, 
** and being there fet down, was interpreted what he 
" bad feen or heard. From that he was brought back 
" quite ftupificd and fenfelefe into the chapel of good 
^^ genius \^ till be (hould recover his fenfes: after 
*' which he was obliged to write down in a table book 
" all that he had feen or heard, which the prieftj in- 
" tcrpreted their own wciy %* There never had been 


* Hie reafon of this we (hall find prefcotly explained in the 

t Mazin;is miracuHs & virtutibus totam infulam Hiberniae 
conyertit adfid^m. £t non fiiip maximo labore, non folum 
propter obfiftentes magos, verum etiam ab agrefti^ ingenia, du^- 
raque ac perrioaqia corda HihernQrum*-r-^um Patricius etiam 
fic orationtbua ft jejuniis devotioif fiierety apparuit ei.Dominus 
JefiN Chrifiu8» dans ei Evang^Uitextuai ^ bacu]ttm-;-& Dami- 
41US San6lum fuum in locum defertum eduxit & quandamfiveam 
rUundam^ intrinCecus abfcurum» loibendit cL dlcens &c. &c. &c« 

t Nx)n multo autcm poftca, vivcntc adhnc in came ipfo S, 
Patricio, mtrabant illud antrum pLurimi zclo devotionis & paint- 
tcntiae pro peccatis ibi pcragendae ftimuUs commoti ; qui rcverfi 


kxKvi P H E F A C £• 

^' but one man who entered Trophonius's cave with* 
^* out coming bacjt again : this was a fpy fent by Dc^ 
** metrius to fee if in ihat place there was any thing 
** worth plundering. What I have written is not 
** founded on hcarfay -, I relate what I have feen hap^ 
** pen to others, and what happened to myfelf j for, 
*' to be aflured of the truth I went down into the cave 
*• and confulted the oracle. This oracle was not 
^^ heard of in Basotia. till that country being diftrefled 
^* with a great drought, they had recourfe to Apollo 
^* at Delphos, to learn from that god, by what means 
*• they might put a flop to the famine. The pricftefs 
♦* anfwered, that they were to apply thcmfelves to 
^* Trophonius whom they would find in Labadea. 
** The deputies obeyed, but not being able to find an 
^* oracle in that city, Saon the eldeft of them, fpicd 
** a fwarm of bees and obferved to what fide it turn- 
" ed. He faw that thofe bees flew towards a cave; 
followed them and then difcpvered the oracle. They 
" fay that Trophonius himfelf inftrufted him in all 
• * the ceremonies of his worftiip, and after what man-t 
^^ ner he would be honoured and ponfiiked. (Pauf^- 

teflabantur k clar^ confpeztile multos in fide vacHlantet, ibi 
multis pacnis affligt : quorum & revelationes curavit S. Patriciuf 
confer ibi if in eadem ecckjia confervari. (aad a Uttlc before he 
fays) Jam iogrefluros & aqui luftrali afperfqs in oilio fpekincxt 
quafi in traniitu ad alium orbemy & e via ad terminnm propcran- 
tea in agonia pofitos, cernere eft gementes, fufpirentes — ^igno- 
fcentes toti mundo quidqutd in fe deliquifient. — Thus Colgan : 
but he had forgot there vpere feveral ^hriilian miffionartes here 
before Phaid-ruic or Patrick (or the prophet of the Holy Ghoft.) 
Gottfrpid fays James the lefs was here. 

PREFACE, Ixxxvii 

*^ nias) §. From ihis circumftancc (fays abW Banicr) 
*' I conclude that Saon was hiipfelf the founder of 
** that oraclet which no doubt was inftituted on ac-- 
** count of the famine i have mentioned/' 

At the clofe'of the tragedy of the Phosnidan dam- 
fels, by £uripide8, CExlipus, by an order of the ora-* 
cle of Phc3ebu?, is exiled to Coloneus fane^ where Nep* 
tunis altars rife^ which Euripides fays is in Athens. 
Cualan or a country abounding in harbours, was a 
name of Ireland, according to the ancient Irift poets: 
there is (lill extant a well known tune called Cualan, 
compofed to an ancient fong in honour of Ireland* 

Mr. Wodhall obferves that the word is^^xttm oxis^^^mn 
is made ufe of by Homer and other writers to iignify 
a hill. H. Stephens in his Greek Thefaurus, adds, 
that there was a famous place in the Athenian territo- 
ries known by that name,, which was facred to Nep- 
tune, and called Mnri«f, on account of that god being 
ponfidered as the inventor of horfemanfliip. Thucy- 
dides mentions Pifander*8 holding a council at Colo* 
neus and fpeaks of its diilance from Athens as ten 

§ In the Irifb language Sean is a charm* Seanam to blefs, 
to defend from the power of tnchantments ; and this ceremony 
of the Sean way performed by our Dadanan before the fuppliant 
entered the cave, i\gain, Saith and Saithin or Sain is a fwarm 
•f bees, Sainit \% an old Iri(h word for honey, in Arabic Sen^ 
nut .' and Seang is a bottomlefs pit in Irifti, i. e. fad a-fad^ an 
unrocafiirable diftance. The reader will recollect that all thefc 
circumftances and the peftilence in Ireland at the time of the 
Dadananai returning to Greece under Saom Breac, cDmpofe a 
ftring of uniformities with the Greek account. So-oin in Irifli 
is the great prophet, or obfcryer of Times, a word that might 
CaAly be formed by a Greek pQet inXQ Saon^ 


faoc«vSi PREFACE. 

ftadia, or about a mile and quarter. Sophocles iays, 
GEldipus died and was buried there, and that in bis 
lad moments he folemniy forbad any one to approach 
his grave ; but it appears from Homer, that the body 
of tliat unfort-unatc king was,, after his death, depo- 
fitcd at Thebes with funeral honours, it being faid of 
Meciftus, father to Euryales, one of the combatanrs 
at the games with which Achilles celebrated the me- 
mory of Patroclus, ibat be went to Tbebes^ (md was 
viHorious at ibe tomb of Oed/pus, Phcen. damfels, vol. 

I. p. 243- 
CEAlipas may have been buried at Thebes, but as 

Ireland was known in ancient times by the name of 

Cualan, as I have ibewn before, it is probably this 

ifland was the placa of his exiie. 

In Euripides we alfo fiad frequent mention of the 

cave of Macra ; the fable ftys, this cave was near the 

pitadel of Athens, where Ercttheus was flain by 

Neptune, sind Creufa a daughter of that monarch 

was there raviftied by Apollo. Ion fon of Apollo, 

pried and foothfayer, is fuppofod to be lb named 

from $aft the participle of «i/*«i " who went," becaufe 

his father was told the firft perfon he fhqu'ld meet 

coming out of the oracle, waiild be his (on. It is 

more probable that Jon was fo called frqm Oin or 

Eoin * a pnophet, (ind h^nce Uptfm^ and ihe Irilh 

* *^ Ion was he called, beca6fe he £rfl his faappf father met.'^ 
(Chonis ia Ion.) <' My. abode cs this whole temple of the god, 
when (ictfp (cals up my fenies." . (ion. Euripides^) **It the 
fpot on which he died called 'Macra.'* Ibid* '* JFor him he 
hath txt ]aft fo^g d the new 4iaaye of Ion to deqote that he went 
forth and met him.*' (Okl man 4n Ion.) 



j&MW, John, the great prophet and forerunner of 
Christ ; he was alfo calkd SeoHy that is the bleifed: 
he who can defend from the power of heathen en- 
chantments, from Sean a charm, Perf, Sea holy, 
Arab. Sfiut a miracle, a myftery. 

The Pelafgian anceftors of our Hibernian Dadanan 
had eliablifhed many Macra amongft the Grecian , 
iflandfi * ; the word feems to imply an oracle, from 
ra to fpeak and piacb a prophecy^ hence the Arabic 
mau^ and maukit^ a foothfayer. Much in Iri/h figni-^ 
fies alfo, great, mighty, magnificent, and much is 
deus. There was Macra ifland in Attica; Macros 
Campus Ccele-Syriae, (Strab.) whence Muckrtis a pc- 
ninfula in Kerry, under Tore mountain. (Arab* 
Tauruk a forcerer) Macn'sj infula Cariae in mari Rhodi- 
enfi : Macris ctiam ob ejus longitutidinem di(^a eft 
Euioea Infula. (Strab. Arabice Emiyia a prophet) 
macra^ (Plin.) macralla (Ptol.) Fluv. Italia Liguria 

Thus did our Dadanan name the ifland in Lough 
^»rg> where the purgatory of St. Patrick flood, 
Macra ; and the mountains on the fouth fide, where 

* Yc fhadowy groves wher^ fportifc Pan is fcen, 
Stupendous rocks whofe pine-clad fummits wave. 

Where oft near Macn^'s darkfone care. 
Light i'pcAres, o'er the ooftfecrated green, 
Agradlo^s daughters lead the dance. 

(Chorus in Ion. Euripid.) 

This docs not agree with the dcfcription of the country near 
Athcm, but it is a Jivcly pi6lure of the fituation of our Irifh 
Macra, and w: s as Ion had a litrfc before obfcrvcd of Eubaea, 
'* '^itb the hriny deep hetiveen:^ 


xcii PREFACE. 

Neroa^b-brtac^ Arab. Neeruk^ a magidan. 

O-oa^'b Briof. Arab, and lri(h, Brioa^ forcery. 

Tagb Tagba\ Tagbj z diviner. Arab. Tagbui^ a 

CrogbraCogima^ Arabice Kmbin Kunda^ a foocbfayer. 

Goa-la^bj the altar of Goo. Arab. Goo^ augur> ^ 
Faulggo an augur. 

Goo-endeby a forcerer *. 

BMy Mac Aubneamb^ the town of the fons of Aub- 
neamh. Arab. Aufnuma^ footbfayer. 

Sceirgearg or Gearrog^ the rock of deftiny, whence 
the lake was called Lough Gearg. 

One of the iflands is named Stafubr. Arab. Subr. 
magick» SubrbaaZy a magician. Hence the town 
ci Ardjbriiy once a bifliop's fee, in DooegaU, 

Another Ms "T^afc^ ot which before. 

Near this place is a great mountain named Peift\ 
Arab. Peijbeenly a foothfeyer f- 

Another na^ied Gbaendafy Arab. Gbaendeb^Gooiendcb^ 
an augur, Chakiee IHtl. Ga^« X» niagi, augures. 
Hence MagbGeidne^ near the outlet of ix>ugh Erne. 


♦ Invenit autcift vircm peffimum nomine Fotlgo* (Vita PatriciL) 
t n^D^^Dn Sy ol he pijf^th^ Hcb, prafeftus fortibus. Bux- 
torf deperfonisfacris, in antiq. HebraBoriim, p. 90. Here alfo 
ive find CpU^pn Sy ^^ ^^ kinintf praefeftns avibus, from whence 
the Arabic kauhin and our linni or kenny^ an augur. Hence 
probably the chief town in this diflrift was named Leitir-kenn}^ 
from lloia^ a book or record, and hnni^ a prophet, or from 
Hthar^ a fplemnity, a feftival. 

\ Gadin male pro Hebroeo CZTT^^* latdam^ id eft, augurus^ 
viagij hfd, f/tagufy (Buxtorf) Quid eft *^»Q3 hetir > id eft, 
Allrologiy ( Baal Aruch. ) From t^^fe foots are derived the Irifli 
haidh^ paidh^ phaith^ faiths faigf a prophet, forcerer, druid, 


PREFACE. 3tciii 

The Gooibaritb river, not far from hence, runs from 
Daabeen mountain, into the fea north of Naran. Arab« 


and heferlagh or peterlaghf the name of* the old teftament, that u, 
the law of the prophets. I have before fhcwn, that by th« word 
hagh the Iri(h druids meant, the divine word, religion : that 
cidhe-hagb or os^bagb trere the oUe or teachers of the divine 
word, or tenets of the druidic reh'gion, hence hoghas in aid 
Pcrflc, faccrdos. (See Hyde Rch Vet. p. 1344) the Greek 
ivS«y«(, and from agh^ the divine law and «i, a teacher, the 
Greek uayttu by which words Ammianus and Strabo fignifjr 
iruids. Our hag is from the old Perfic hack fand^us, hoghas^ 
lacerdos, whence the Sclavonic hhgt deus. Of thcfe oi-hagi 
were feleded a certain number (twelve) to prefide Over eceleliar- 
ticaf courts in all matters of refigion, and thefe were named 
J ire-OS 'hagh^ from aire^ chiefs. The Ain^faigh prefided over 
a court where complaints were heard againft diviners, augurs^ 
&c. From the Pelafgian aireoihagh was formed the Greek 
Areoapagus^ a fovereign court at Athens, fo famous for its juf- 
tice, that the go is are faid to have fnbmitted to its decrees. Here 
the accufer was placed on a ftool called tS^k, that is, fay the 
gloflaries, injury ^ and the ddinqoents on that of ^aiM^ intpu* 
dence^ or according to Junius's correftion, of eeftu\ia:^ innocthct, 
(thefe wtre two goddefles, whofe temples were ere6icd in the 
Areopagus) Now aobradh or iToradh was the Pela^ian-Irifk 
name of the counfel or pleader for Xht crown ; the word implin 
to infbrmf to accufe, from aci^ inftrudion, knowledge and 
abram^ or radh^ to fpeak, relate* Aighn'tth or Ainlth wfcre the 
pleaders or counfel for the prifoner ; but the Greeks had either 
loft all knowledge of the Pelafgian foundation of this court, or 
defignedly turned it into fable, and Euripides tells us, Areopa- 
gus is derived from A^n?, Mars, and H«y»« a hill, and that MarsF 
was here tried for killing the fon of Neptune. Varro treats the 
whole as a fable, and Potter adds, the time of its inftitution bk 
uncertain. (See Aire explained in No. X, Preface, and almas ^ 
a pleading, vol. I. p. 401, of this Colle^anea;) Hence wr 
find the aoun of Areopagus^ is faid by the Greeks to be as an- 

tcW P R E F" A C £ 

Gikt'cbj an augur. Neerunk^ a magician. Aritb Pboenic^^ 
water ; and north of Gooibaritb is the mountain Sliabh 
Snatcht or Snow mountain ; and adjoining to this is 
the higheft mountain in this part, called Ara-gil or 
Ara-gal, i. e. the oracle. Heb. Betb-Kol^ which literally 
fignifies the daughter of Voice, an eccho. 

Phoen. Gelaiot^ a prophet, Gr. r«A«if . and clofc to it, 
is the bill of Achtur. Arab, akbtt^^ to augur, yikb-iurgaoy 
an augur. Roffas or Rojfes i Pcrfic. Raz^ myftery, en- 
chantment, Irllh Roffacb, 

If we travel to the adjoining country of Ins-Oin^ or 
as it is falfcly named, Innis Owen\ (i. e. the ifland of 
Owen) for it is not an ifland, but implies Ins the abode, 
fettlement, fociety, Oin of the prophets i here we find 
Carriraugb^ or the city of the prophets. Arkb. Rukc^ 
Rauke^ an enchanter* 

cTent as Cecropt die Pelafgiany and founder of Athens. Wc 
alfo find another court inferior to this, called Ephetae, inftitu- 
ted by Draco ; this appears to be the Iri(h pi-faith or aireoijaithf 
a court of augurs and diviners. Our IriHi druidr^ Mhagbi and 
faighsf were fupportcd by a deac-creas or holy tythe, from every 
houfe or family, the Greek Arcopagites^ received a maintenance 
from the publick, which they called K^mc (Lyfias in Agorau) 
^C^» K^f«(. xini ttoff «Aif. Hefychius. Now in Iriih deac^ is a 
tenth or tythe, and creas or creafan is holy, religious, pious, 
whence Creas in the modern Irifh, is a (hrine or relique, and 
implies the offenng to fuch relique* la Arabic, Kyrefit is the 
hoft, the holy wafer, among the Arabian Chnflians> (derived 
they fay, from kurzy baked bread in cake) but KyrsZf in Arabic, 
is a Jhrine. CraSf in old Irifh, al(b implies the body, head* 
one family, whence deac^cras is alfo derived by fome commen* 
tators on the Brehon Laws, as a tythe from every boufe or 
£cimily. Caraif Caraidbe^ and Caragbe^ implies alfo a tazy 
tribute, &c. derived from the Chaldec CWr^^^i, Cenfus Capitalist 
Arab, carga exaaio, Uuraj^ tributum. (No. x* Preface, p. 28.) 

PREFACE. 3ccy 

Stias now Foik the harbour of Derry. Arab, Baiti^ 
a forcerer. Faul^ an omen. Rofcaune^ Perf. Raz^ a 
myftery. Kaubin Kundae^ footWayer. 

Defart'taglhony parifh. Tagb-trin^ prophets^ forcerers^ 
in Irilh, Etrufcan and Arabic. 

Imegowj Kinegov)^ villages. Arab. Kaubingoo an augur^ 

Carfhdaagb^ the altar of the pvophets^A.tzb.KereH'daa. 

Cajbel-godifiy i. e. the ftone houfe of the augurs. 
Heb. Gadifiy Magi. 

Glan-tagber. Drum-T'^b. Tagb. Etrurcan ^ages* 
Arab. Taghut, foothfeyer. 

Glan-goo or gutb^ Arab, gao^ forcerer^ voice, oracle. 

Glan-gobbeny. Ar. gbaeb. goo-been^ a forcerer. 

Malin. Perf. Mai a necromancer, airiy forcery^ 

Porhabbas or nabbaf^ the harbour of the aub-o/s^ 
forcerers« giants, near the giants caufeway. 

Toolemoon. Arab. Tala-numa^ augur. 

Bin-gutbar or goor% the giants caufeway or oracie of 
the prophets* Arab, been-goor^ a prophet; but per- 
haps bm here means a pointed tomb. 
Kinugb. Kennie. Arab. Kaubin. Kundae^ a footb^ 
fayer; hence this part of the kingdom was named 
Tir-Kaubin-ol or Tirconaillj i. e. the country of the 
Prsefeftus Sortibus. 

Carn-falg^ the altar of. Ax^h.fatdgoo^ augur. 

Roujkie. Perf. Raz^ fpell, charm, myftery. Ke 
forcery. Arab. i?tt^/i«z diviner. Irifti /ffl^i& forcery* 

RamuJin-cq/ik. Arab. Rcmnud^ foothfayer. Retnalin^ 

Stran-tullay the toad of the, Arab. Tot^il^ inter- 
preter of dreams. 


ncvi PREFACE. 

Rc/beetrf. Perf. Rasi. Arab. Razheen^ Roodcbh^cn 
iugur ; and one hundred names niore, all fignif) ing 
the great fettlement of our Dadanian prophets. But 
I mufi not omit that in the centre of this country, 
the cloud-capt mountain of ALT OSSOIN prefides, 
and around him is the whole fcenery of OfliaQ and 
Fingaily which has been fo beautifully deicribed by 
Mr. Mac Pherion^ and to the northward of Lough 
Dearg are the mountains, caverns and lake of Finn 
or Fingall, i. e. of the Finn, the forcerer 5 and in the 
capital of the country flood De Raidb or the oracle of 
God, now Derry. De Raidh, Raidhte no Ruidhte, 
Oraculum, Plunket*s Lex. Hence the Dal ruite in the 
coumy of Antrim- 

The word 0//fM has certainly caught the reader's 
eye. We have traced him to the fountain head, from 
whence iffued the anceftors of our Hibernian hero« 
The word is Chaldasan KVtt a/a^ Senex^ Sapiens. 
(Buxtorf.) OiH^ in the fame language, is a forcerer or 
diviner, hence Afa-oin ; Afoin or O/oinj the father of 
diviners^ In the next ftage, we find him the progenitor 
of the diviners amongft the Guebres or fire-worfhippers 
of the ancient Perfians. *^ lis comptent les annees 
du monde depuis Adam, qu'ils nomment comme 
nous : mais ils donnent d'auti^noms a fes defcendans. 
lis difent que lors qu'il fut parvena a fa 30 annee, 
OUSH YN vint au monde, & ils reconnoiflent auffi 
pour un chef. (Voyages de C. LeBrun. T. a- p. 0^9) 
What ! if we fliould hereafter find fome of 0(lian*s 
heroes, amdngft the dcfcendants of the Oufchyn of 
the Guebres ! 

This is the ^m A^^Mr of Berofus, the man which 
fprung from the Red Sea, i. e« Apberin benedidus^ 

PREFACE. xcvii 

Oin, Propheta, which Goar tranflates animal ratione 
defiittuum^ but as A.bb6 Bannier obferves, this is not 
agreeable to the idea the Chaldean author had of him, 
and Apbrenon is not a Greek word ; (Mythology of 
the Ancients, vol. i. book 2. c. i .) it is a Chaldean, 
Perfic and Irifti word, implying benedidus. This 
Apbrenon is alfo called by Berofus, Oanes^ and ' by 
Helladius, Ocs. Photius, alfo tells us, he was named 
Oes and Oen. Hyginus fays that Euhannds, whofe 
name is a corruption of OaneSy came by fea into Chal- 
daea and there taught aftrology. This could be no 
other than the Perfian Oujbyn^ or Atnofs^ the father of 
the prophets, who failed up the Perfian gulph and 
landed in Cbaldaea, for that country had no other ports, 
but what were on this fea. Hence, he was faid to be 
half fifli, half man ; to retire to the fea (his (hip^ every 
night ; that he eat nothing; becaufe he took his meals 
on (hip-board ; and fo of the reft. But the Medes 
and Perfians were Scythians ; all ancient and modem 
authors agree in this point. Hence Abbd Bernier, is 
inclined to thinki that the Gauri, or Guebres, the fire- 
worlhippers of Perfia, derived their dodtrine from 
Ur or Our of Chaldaea, and that Zoroafter did not 
eftablifli Sabifm, but Magifm, which the learned Hyde 
affirms to be the eftabliihed religion of thofe Gauri, 
in the fouth of Perfia. 

Hence, then the Pelafgian-Irirti w, ofs^ high, fu- 
prerae, learned, magician; ofdoiuafaly noble. Arabic 
^, azzj moft glorious, venerable, holy. Q/i, a particu- 
lar lociety of Mahommedans. yfs-az, a fanftuary. Afil^ 
noble. Ofwiy ecchoes, i. e. the voice of fprites. AJhyakb^ 
doftors, dervifes, prelates. OftMnouil^ the prophet 

VouIILN^XII. H Samuel, 

xcviii PREFACE. 

Samuel Az-imet^ incantation, charms. ATJtf^ demoni 
Perfic. oa:.fby ozjb^ fagacioas, learned. Qz-azd 
thofe angels placed neareft the throne of God. 0/r4 
u e. Of-arruf^ forcercrs. (Irifli Of-airibh^ hence tuzir 
a vizir. Of mm the anceftor of the grand feigner. 
AJb-mul bad omens. OJbari the name of a celebrated 
forcerer, diviner, or dodtor, whofe difciples (till exift 
under the name of AQiarim. 

From thefe roots, the Infula Oilion of Homer, which 
probably was written oW«»» and not o*%m3. Hence alfo 
the Greek o*^w« Vaticinatio, o'w9%ifuif auguror. oW 
iandtitas, pietas, juftitia: the Latin Religi-ofus, 
Reiigi-onis. — From thence the Irifh, Pclafgian and 
Chaldsean, BaUoin-os and the Greek 'AiriAAtfr^t and 
the contrafted Eirufcan APVL, is our Bal.So 
from our mas and the Hebrew nabas^ is derived bar- 
najfus^ and from the Irifli Ler^ Lerg^ pious, holy. 
Larnajfos^ another Greek name for Parnailus. Hence 
likewife OflTa, a mountain in Theiuily the refidence 
of Oinin (forcerers) faid to be inhabited by Centaurs, 
that is in Irifli Oau-tar-os^ the head or chief of the 
forcerers, a word miftaken by the Greeks for giants, 
monfters, like the Irifli AubboSy Obbos^ or Abbos^ 
which was a forcerer of Aub^ ot Obb^ but nowtranf- , 
lated by our monkifli L^xiconifts, a giant. From i 
the Irifli Iris holy, pious, is the Egyptian Ofirts : j 
thus alfo Ofcum the locus Augurum in Agro Veienti, 
according to Feftus, and from the Iiifli Os with the 
prefixed augmentative fo^ is formed Sas^ divine 
knowledge and the Phoenician Zas, Zeus, and the 
Greek zti* Jupiter, derived alfo from the Irifli poi\ 
uter quafi aub^ and air or aircy a diviner, hence &/ 

PREFACE. xcix 

jiter^ Sopiter^ foftcned/by the Etrufcans to Jopiter. 
So/us an Egyptian god, Sof-bal-oi forms Sojiplis a 
god of the Eleans, and from the Iriih uam a 'cave or 
den, fal fate, and w, is derived the, Greek o>f •xi^, 
the cella or antrum of the Delphic oracle, explained 
by the Greeks and Latins very falfely by the word 
umbilicus. (See -ffifchylus in Eunienid.) Hence Uandi^ 
oin the forcerers cave near Cork, now called the'Oveny. 
Thus the Latin Antrutn is from, the Irifti Ain-tdr-uam^ 
that is the forcerers cave ; and this is the derivation 
of Antrim a town and county in Ireland, as ofs and 
ruidb from -the Ajabic ruide a forcerer, forms Ojfruidb^ 
now Oflbry, in the centre of Ireland. 

Hence every name that betqkena king, prince, 
chief, puiilant, learned, or nc^le;^ alfo implies a di- 
viner. Thus Sar yi Syriac a^prince, in Irilh Aie^rf 
Englifh Sir, in tho Arabic U a pagician, • as iSj^/r 
magick. Perfic d/w iSJy^ necrQmaricy. Sybrallalpo- 
ctry, i.e. lawful enchantment. .iSyi&r-yj?g- enchanting. 
In Irifti Air^ Aire^ Aireac^ Ain£b^ is a chief ,^ from 
Ur of Chaldea, whence Aire a fpccerer j hence the 
Latin Rex, Regis : from the ,lri(h trecA a trib^, daire 
of forcerers, is derived the Trobadours of Provence 
in France. (Ce furent ces Troubadoi^s qui reveillent 
en France la gout des Sciences au XI Siecle. Furetiere.) 
Thus Aire is a poet, and a man of fcience, for all 
knowledge was once lodged in this body of Chuldea's, 
from Ur their origin in Chaldaea, hence the common 
name Daire in Ireland and Perfia, all derived from 
the Chaldaean «r, eir or irnn ^i^i^^ fcrutari and \T\}k 
aregaz, which in i.Sam. 6- 8< means the Ark, but 
as Buxtorf obferves, eft & nomen proprium MAGL 

Ha Thus 


Thus the Irifli Upbas fbrcery is from the ChaMxan 
DSn kaphas, apprehendere^comprehendere, of which 
the Greeks have made Tttpbm and Tupbos^ 8cc &c 

From Oin^ or Ain^ and gas (the Chaldee g(^jr in 
Arabic gbataoo^ jattzoo) is formed the Irifh proper 
liame Oh^as^ written fometimes Angos^ /lon^cSi 
yioHgusj fignifying a forcerer, or divener. And here 
I mull obferve, that gc and ct does alfo imply ihe 
magick art, whence we find the name written lik^ 
wife Ainge. And as the andent tradition of Stone- 
bcnge^ in Saxon, Stan-benge^ is allowed by the andent 
Britons to be the work of Irilhmen ; and Mr. Lhwyd 
I^oying to a demonftration that the Magc^ian Irifh, 
inhabited Britain, until expelled by the Gomcrian 
Welfli, I am inclined to think that Stan-benge implies, 
not the han^ng ftones, as a very fenfible author 
lately has interpreted the word, but the ^rf» or /^ 
i.e. the territory, or Chaldaea of the forcerers, or if 
ftan be Saxon, i. c. a ftone, theti it is the ftone or 
altar of the Aonge or forcerers;' and that if any^uch 
being did exift as Heng^ll, it was a corruption cf 
Adngus and fignifie^ a forcerer. I am the more in- 
clined to think thi$ is the true derivation, as in the 
oracle near Drogheda, defcribed by Governor Pownal, 
I read the word Aongus^ or forcefer, in the Irift 
Ogbam^ or forcerer's alphabet, infcribed on one of the 
ftones. See Geafa druima Draoidheaft, in Shaw and 
O'Brien's Dictionary of the Iri(h language. 

This OuJhon, the great fadier of the prophets of 
the Perfian Guebres, or fire worftiippers, is frequent- 
ly mentioned by our Druids. Thei'e is a Idhg and 
beautiful poem written by therti on the fubjeft of 



FATE, which We may probably give to the public^ 
in a future number of this work. A few lines arc • 
here tranflated. 

Ruina SORS Temper male arcendentis eft, 

Cofrois, alti Regis olim Perfiae, 

Late &c potentis, aureis fcriptum notis^ 

LeAum hoc tiarse in nobilis faftigio eft : 

Muhi quid anni^ vita quid longitvaqucy 

Per miUe tra£la cqfuum difcritnina^ ^ ' 

Irafque milk, mille SOKTIS fluaum f 

Caput Tiara injigne calcabant pedes 


Regnumque nobis traditum a nuyoribus 

7'rademus ipji pqft futuroram in maims ^ 

Nafcuntur ilia lege SORTIS principes^. 

Nqfcentut omnes qui FUTURI Prtncipes. 

Oleas vagari extra, una SORS eft omnium* 

Gratum tibi eft quod, SORTIS eft faftidhimJ . 

SORS eft timenda illiy nihil qui jam timet 

&c. &c. &c. * 

Vis noffe SORTIS ex SqYTHIS imaginem, 
Veramque SORTI baud difcolorem imaginem? 
Pede ilia deftituta eft, penna funt manus : 
Prendenda & aliis ergo, ne mox avolet, 
Reditura nunquam, fi favere jam velit, 
Ridentis & praebere dulce fuavum. * 
Legatione nobili quondam SCYTHAE 
Juveni ilia talis pidla PELLAEO fuit. 
&c. &c. 


But to return to the fettlemcnt of the Iri(h forcerers 
in the north of Ireland. 



cii P R E F A C E. 

MaliH. from MaKneach, i, c. FtrMg^ forcercrs, 

Doacb bep-k ^^^^' ^ ^^ augur; daukus a bad 

Muc'oos^ Mountain. Mac, holy, Arab, azac a 
fpell, charm. 

Cruacb-faJla^ the prophets hill. Ir. fal an omen. 
Arab./j/omeh, fauk a forcerer, 

Rin-ard-allucb point, rin a ridge, ard high. 
Arab. ablu'Pke an augur. 

Bally-Naajb^ Vill, Heb tiaajb a pr<^het. 

Dunaneduafiy village, dun a town. Arab, acmaid 

Qan-da-bbadlagbf pari(h, CAiif tribe, da of. Arab. 
^ir//(?i& magician.. ^ 

Pbaban, parifb, D»» Pbanacby church. Hebrew 
pbcnanabj a revealer, a forcerer 

Tar-latban^ village. \t\(h Tar. Arab, and Chaldee, 
Tat'r to augur, kacban altax. 

Dun-affj church and village, ^»if a town^ Arab. 4^, 
^e?<?«, inagick. 

Dunupb, arraufy foothfayer, i. c. Aire-af and Aire 

Crenany mountamsaild barony. Chaldee and Arab. 
Karan^ a rocky country. Ain^ forcerer. 

Having now feen that the north of Ireland, was the 
great feat of our Dadanan forcerers and ominators, 
let us only obferve the confufed accounts of the Greek 
writers of the fiiuation of the orade of Dodona. 
Some will have it in Theflaly, fome in Epirus, others 
in Thefpratia, Chaonia, and Moloflia, and others fay 
that it was fo called from Dodonim the fon of Javan. 


PREFACE- cfii 

But Herodotus afcribes the origin of it to the Phoeni- 
cians, and trumps up a fiibulous ftory of a rape j to 
this let us add the words of that eminent Pclafgian 
Greek writer. Homer, and I think we may conclude^ 
he was not ignorant of its proper fituation *. 

Parent of gods and men, Pclafgian Jove 
King of Dodona, and its hallow'd grove ; 
King of Dodona, wbofe intemperate coaft 
Bleak winds infefts, and winter's chilling froft^ 
Round thy abode thy pricfts with unwafti'd feet 
Lie on the naked earthy 

Does this fituation of Dodona, correfpond with the 
climate of Greece? 

The Iri(h hiftory further informs us, that when the 
Aflyrians had defeated the Athenians in a pitched bat- 
tle, our Dadananai fearing the revenge of the Afly- 
rians, for the magick art they had praftifed, in 
bringing the dead Athenians to life, as faft as they 
were flain, left Athens and failed to Lochlon, or 
Lochlun, where they were kindly received and were 
divided between four cities, viz. Falias, GoriaSf 
Finnias and Mburias, and having flaid here fome 
time, they failed for Ireland, but were blown to the 
north of Scotland, where they continued feven years 
and then returned to Ireland. That on their lauding 
they burnt their (hips, and were oppofed by the Fir- 

* Dodona, Dodoa, or Caneunii-— its true fituation not 

(Geogr. antiqua of Dufrefnoy.) 
K. B. Here wc find our Iriih Cinuih ox CinnUf foroery. 



bolgs, who fay the poets were like wife a colony from 
Egypt^ but laft from Pelafgian Greece and were the 
defcendants of the fecond fon of Nemed, as the Da- 
nanai were of the third fon. An old author (ays, 
Tangatur firbolg an Eirin Balhftar a tang fiaiibifc^ is 
do conarcas in dornctrigbiagfgribindy Mane, Tethel 
Sc Pharbas. i. e. the Firbolg came to Ireland when 
Ballafter (Baallhaflar) was king, he, whofaw the ma- 
gic hand writing the words Affl»?, 7'etbely Pbareas^ and 
he proceeds, Cyrus ion of Darius, foon after, took 
Babylon. Now Firbolg fignifies augUrs*, fir a 


^ The ingenious and unhappy Eugene Aram, had ftudicd the 
trifh language ; in the (ball mifcellaneous tradl publiflied at the 
end of his trials he has the following obfervations. '' The 
'* Latin Vir is precifely the Iri(h fir a man : the old Irifh called 
<< a colony which fettled amongft them Fir*boIg. They were 
<< Belgae, a word latinifed from bolg, which indeed imports 
« the fame, and is the fame nuith the Greek Pelafgu" The 
learned Millius derives the name Philiflxi and Palseftini from the 
i£thiopic phalas or falai^ i. e. migravit, exulavit, ut quafi terra 
ckulum vocetur, quia Philiftaei & Ifraelitac eo commigranint ex 
JEgypto. (Diflert. de Terra Canaan, p. 129.) This may be 
the origin of the Pelafgi alfo, and in Irifh pbalam znd/aih&am Is 
to migrate, falafge% he who migrates. Aram fell into this miT- 
take from the great af&nity he acknowledges there is, between 
the Irifh y and the old Greek and Hebrew : and this author, 
adds, ^* In my Lexicon, I have fetched as much as poffible 
<* from the Iri(h| and induftriouily omitted the Britifh, left it 
<* Aiould be thought, as I know it has been fometimes, that the 
*^ Romans left us the words that bear any relation to the LAtioy 
** while this can never be objeded to the Iriih, fince the Romans 
'< never fee foot in Ireland." Another obferration of Aram's is 
worthy of remark* ** Wherever hiftory fails in accounting for 
** the extraftioQ of any people, or where it is manifeftly mifta- 

« kcD, 


man balg of letters, learning arid erudition. (See 
Scriobam in conclufion.) Fear^balg^ i. e. mailineacba^ 
or mailacbane^ vet. glolT. Mr. Shaw in his Gaulick 
lexicon, thus explains fnailacban^ viz. the young of 
fprites in Scotland called Browny, it is a good natur- 
ed being and renders good offices to favourites. — 
Thus the Rev. Mr. Shaw. 

Arab, bal^b^ reaching the higheft perfection in 
learning. Perfic bdi^b^ any vocable implying excel- 
lence, as purity, virtue. Belagbety eloquence, flu- 
ency of words. Bekgb eloquent. (Richardfon.) 

In the Sclavonian dialedt blog is an interpreter, a 
lexicon, ftrc. , 

But Ckftellus proves that the Chaldecs had an or- 
der of priefts named B^lga, ab hoc, ordo ille facer- 
dotalis, cujus obfervatores Belgitae didti: and the 
ancient Iri(h gloflfarifls fully explain our Firbolg were 
in holy orders, viz. Bolg-ceard^ i, e. Neas^ that is, 
the profeilion of a Bolg is (Neas, that is) divination, 
in Hebrew Naajb. 

In another ancient gloff. I find, bolg or builg, ex- 
plained by drucbd run^ that is, the myftery of the 
dead, |or of raifing up the dead, by which I under- 
ftand, converfing with the Manes. 

So that the Irifli fir-bolg means no more than the 
Augurs or Druids the Dadanan left behind, whefi^" 
they journeyed to Pelafgian Greece, to improtre 

** kcn» how can this cxtra£lton be more rationally inferred, and 
•• determined, or that miftakc re6tificd, than from the analog 
** cf languages ? And is not this alone fufficiently conclufive^ if 
*' nothing elfe njsas left ? (Aram's Effay towards a Lexicon on a 
a new plan.) 




thcmfclves in fome new doArine then broached, and 
fuch maftcrs of the magick art were they now become, 
the poets tell us, that on their return, they threw a 
cloud over the Firbolg for three days and nights, till 
they had made good footing on the (hore. The mean- 
ing of the whole is, that the Druids not approving of 
the new doftrine brought yi by the Dadananai op- 
pofed them, and we are told, that in the fpace of 
twenty-feven years, they had two noted battles, one 
at Mt^b Tuire-deaSy and another at Magb Tutre Tuag^ 
that is, at the plains of the fouth tower, and of the 
north tower ; but, at length they got the better of the 

The tranflator and fabulous interpolator of Keating's 
Hiftory of Ireland, has brought our Da dananai from 
Greece to Denmark and Norway, and made them in- 
ftruftors of the young Danes in the magick art. I 
have carefully perufed Keating in the original Irifli, 
and the antient poem on which he forms that part of 
his hiftory, where I find not a fy liable of Danes or 
Norwegians, but a plain defcription of Etrufca. We 
fhall give a few lines of the original poem. 

Tuatha Dadanann na fcad fuim. ait abhfuaradar foghluim* 
Rangadar a fuidhcad ilan. an draoidhead andiaigh ealun. 
lar bannul faidh fionn go faill. mic Neimidhe mhic Adhnamhota 
Dar mhac Baoth, Baothach beartach. fa laoch leothach luamth* 

Clanna Baothaigh beodha angoiK rangador fluagb niidh neart- 

lar fniomh lar ttuirfi thruim. Hon aloingfc go Loch-Liui *• 


* Lpna. Sive Ain, Hcet Ptolomzus Ainu imi ^iXim ««f«r. 
Lunam & Lunae promontorium diftinguat, aut ciyitas Luns» ut 

PREFACE. evil 

Ceithre cathracha cltt cheart. ghabfad a rcim go ro neart 
Do chuirdis comhloin gan cheas. ar flioghluim ar fhireolas. 
Falifts agu8 Gorias glan* Finiasy Mburiat na morghal 
Do mhaoidhioxnh madhmann amac. Anmanna na morchathrach* 
Morfios agua Earus-ard, Ahhras is Semi as fiorgharag 
Re nGarmann as Itiadh Icafadh. Anmanna fuadh gac faoirleafa. 
Morfios file Falias fein. Earus anGoirias maith ameim 
Semias a Mburias diogne dcas. Ahhras file-fionn Finias 
Ceithre haifgeadha leo anall. duaflibh Tuatha Dadanann, 
Cloidhiomh, cloch^ coire-cubhraidh. fleagh re hagaidh ard Curadh 
X.ia jfail a Falias aHall. do gbeifeadh fa Righ Eireann 
Cloidhiomh lamha lughaidh lutdh a Gorias rogha rochruidh 
A Finias tair fairrge abhfad. tugadh fleagh lughaidh nar lag 
A Mburias maoin adhbhal oil, cobra-mor rahic an Taghdfaa, 

habet Anaftafius Biblioth. in S. Eutychiano^ prima ac praecipu^ 
Etrurise antiquz civitas erat. Ph'n. 1. 3. 6. 5. Frimum Etruria 
oppidum Luna, portu nobile* InfeHciilime Joan Anius Viterb. 
comminifcitur Latine Lunam dici, Grxce SeUnem^ Etrufco idio- 
mate Cariaram 9 Car cnim eife Urbem, & iaram iigni&care 
L.unam \ quafi ergo idem fit ac ii dicas Urbem Lunae. 

Hence^ Berofus, calU this city Cariara, qus et Luna ; I have 
(hewn in a former numbeff that an in old Trifliy fignifies a planet, 
and Ittf fmall ; and that the moon was named Luan^ or the fmall 
planety in diftindion to the Sam-an^ or fun. Car or Cathar^ in 
Irifhy is a city ; and Re^ Rca and Rae is the moon. Th« poet 
moft judicioufly brings our Dadanai to Loch Luna, the chief 
feat of the Etrufcan forcerers and augurs. 

Hsc augurum ctiam, ac arufptcum, portentorumque interpxc- 
turn fcdes erat. (Dempfter, de Etruria Regali, 1. 4. c. 20.) 
Hasc propter placuit Tufcos de more vetuflo 
Acciri vates ; quorum qui maximus xvo 
Aruns incoluit defertae mznia Lunss, 
Fulminis edo^us motus, veuafque calentet 
Fibraram, & tnotns errantis in acre pennse. 

(M. LucAN, lib. I. Pharfal. v. 586. 
The moon was probably the arms of this city, as we find^ 
from Martial, 

Cafeui Etrufcx fignatas iiaagine Lunac. 


cvui PREFACE* 


The purport of the Tua-Dadmnans joumcy, vras la qucft of 

knowledge ; ^ 

And to feek a proper place, where they ihould imp/bve in 

Thefc holy men foon faSed to Greece. The Tons ^i Kerned ^ fon of 

Defcendants of Baoth^ from Beotsa fpmng. Thence, to the care 

of ikilful pilots. 
This Boeotian clan, like warlike heroes themfelves committed. 
And after a dangerous voyage, the (hips brought them to Z^ocb 

Luan *. 
Four cities of great fame, which bore great fway, 
Received our clan, in which they completed their ftudies* 
Spotlefs Faliast Gorias ; majeftick F'mias and Mburias^ 
For fieges famed : were the names of the four cities. 
Morfios And Earuj-ard; Ahhras; and 5'n»/a/ well (killed in mflgick 
Were the namr s of our Druids ; they lived in the reign of Gamann 

the happy. 
Morfios -WM m^dc Fife f of Fa/tat ; Earns the poet in Gorias dwr\t ; 
Samias dwelt at MburiaSf but Mhras the Fiie-fionn at Finiai^ 
At the departure of OMxDadanai^ four gifts thefe cities gave them ; 
Afword; ^ftone; 9i cup ; a ^^^r.* this lafk for feeble champions. 
The ftone oi Lia-fail j:, which declares lernaz kings from Falsa 

The fiK^ord by which they fwear, at Gorias was obtained* 


• This is called Denmark and Norway by Kcating*s tranfls- 
tor, becaufe the Irifh named the Danes Loch-ionnacA, derived as 
fome fay, from Loci the fea, and ionnughadb to dwell. Others 
fay, from Locb and Lonn^ ftrong, powerful ; others from iochp a 
lake, and lann^ full ; as coming from a country, abounding In 
lakes. See O'Brien. 

f File. See this word explained in the chapter defcribing the 
hall of Tara. ^^£j phile unde nipbla^ Arcanum^ myfteriimiy 

:j: Lia-failf or the flone of Fa! or Deftiny ; the Leaha^dea of 
the Etrufcansy from whence the city of Labadea add Labdacus 



The never-failiDg fpear §f Mhras received at FiniaSf 
And Mburias granted the great helmet of Tage*^ fons ||^ 

Here is not a word of Denmark, or of teaching the 
young Danes the magick art, as the tranflator has 
foifted in. Locbluna, or the lake of Lvfta, (lood on 
the Macra in the Etrufcan territories, and was famous 
for its port. (Strabo, 1. i . Plin. Ptolora.) 

Fahas^ is Fakfii the capital of the Fali/d in Etruria, 
(Sex. Pomp.) fuppofed to be fo named from the iin- 
cient Pelafgi or Pbelafgi^ and was a place of great an- 
tiquity. (Strab. 1. 5.) 


king of Etruria. The kings of Ireland were crowned on this 

flonei and it is faid, it made a groaning noife when the right 

heir was not eledcd king ; it is alfo faid to be now under the 

chair !n Weftminfter Abby, in which our kings are crown^ 

See Lia Fail in O'B. and Sh. diaionaries. 

§ This fpear was known by the name of Gai hulg, or the 
forcerers fpear, which was fure to deftroy the enemy. Sec 
Heating's Hiftory of the Milefians. 

II The great helmet of Tagej fons : the original is Tagbdba^ 
the dh being adventitiousy and not founded, in order to make the 
fyllables long. Tadhg or Tagh^ in Pelafgian-Irifh (ignifies a 
poet, a prophet, a prince ; it is a common name, now written 
Teague: in Perfic Tagj^ a prince, a crown. The Irifh Tagmhodhf 
8^ poem, is alfo of the fame root with the modern Perfic Cheghamet 
an ode. The Perfian ftory of the helmet of the Perfian Gian^ is 
of the fame original alfo : this was as famous in Scythian hiftory 
as that of Achilles, and was for ages preferved by the Perflans. 
Ce bouclier de Oian etait myfterieux, il eut fallu un poete comme 
Homere pour le decrire. Ce bouclier fervait, non contre les armes 
de la guerre, mais contre celles dc la Magie> L'Aftronomie 
prefidait a fa compofition. (Lettres fur I'Atlantide, par Bailly, 
p. 146.) Tagcs was the great enchanter of the Etrufcans. See 
p. X. of this Preface, 

. The 


Gorias was either Gare^ named alfo Gtre or Grcmifca^ 
the Jaft was built by the Pelafgi in Etruria, and the 
firft ftcxxl in Tarquinia in Etniria. (Strab. 1. 5.) Gra- 
vifca, Metrodorus apud Julium Solinum y»fy» vocat. 
(Dempfter de Etr. Regali,) probably miftaken for 

Famas is Fan^ or Fanum Jams in Etruria : there was 
alfo a Fards or Colonia Jtdia-Fimeftris. 

Mburias was Perus or Pcrufia^ an inland city of 
Etruria, on the Tiber. The modern Irifli commonly 
write m before b. 

The names of thefe Dadanan druids were Mmfios^ 
that is, great knowledge : Earns or Eiris-ard, that is 
chief chronologer ; Setnias that is diviner, or augurer ; 
and Abbras the FiU-fionn^ tha( is Abbras the orator, and 
martial phik>fophcr or druid. 

This charader of Abbras perfectly agrees with the 
defcription of the Hyperborean Aborts of Dtodorus and 
Himerius, called by Suidas a Scythian, not improperly, 
jbecaufe our Abbras was of Magogian-Scythian blood, 
though born of Pelafgiaa parents from Boeotia, then 
fettled in Ireland. 

There are dill fironger reafons to think that this is 
the fame Abaris, the druid or prieft of Apollo men- 
tioned by thefe Greek authors : firft, the Hyperborean 
ifland is faid to be north of Gaul, and oppofite to it : 
the fouth of Ireland may be (aid to be oppoike part of 
Gaul, as well as Britain : this Hyperborean ilknd is 
reprefented as a very temperate region, and iigura- 
tively faid to produce two harvefts a year ; this de- 
fcription does not agree with any of the British iflands, 
except Ireland, where there is a perpetual verdure 




and vegetation, owing tu the miidnefs of its (Simate, 
and the hot lime-ftone foil ; it is well known, that 
when the roads in England arc rendered impafTable 
by falls of foow, there has been no figns of (how in 

in Ireland, in the fame latitudes. ^Secondly, the 

Hyperborean ifland was frequented of old, by the 
Greeks, and in friendfliip with them : this is conBrmed 
by the antient hiftory of Ireland i they were not only 
in friendfliip with, but allied to the Pelafgi pr antient 
Greeks.— Thirdly, our Abbras yi^sfile-Jwnn^ or chief 
druid of the Dadanan expedition to Greece, and thence 
to Etruria in Italy, in queft of knowledge ; probably, 
to ^udy a new fyftem of religion; they had been in- 
formed had fprung up in thof<? parts.: — The Hyper- 
borean -/4&^^/i of Diodorus, took the Came route; he 
travelled over Greece, and from thence went to Italy, 
where he converfed with Pythagoras, with whoni he 
ftaid a confiderable time, and contraAed an mtimate 
friendfliip. (Poi phyrius in vita Pythagorae^ and lam- 
blicus 1. I.e. 28.) Our Abhras brought hpnie a new 
fyftem of religion, which was ill reliftied, by the 
Firbolgs or forcerers he had left behind in Ireland ; it 
was the caufe of a civil war, which continued twenty 
feven years, till at length the Firbolgs were difmayed 
and tlie new fyftem eftabliftied. I have ftiewH in a 
former number of this Colk^Sanea, (from an ancient 
Irifli MS) that our Irilh Drqids taught the Metemp- 
fychofis or tranfmigration of fouls : but I do not think 
this was the fyftem brought over by Abhrap. , It i^ 
faid that Pvtiiagpras introduced it into Italy, but! 
think it is cyiaent our Irifli Druids drew tHs dodlrine 
from the fame fountain head^ that the Biamina did, 




bcforft' their migration into India ; and from thcfc it 
is faid Pythagoras received his knowledge of it. It 
has been long a queftion with the ancients, and they 
are much divided in their opinions, whether the Druids 
learnt their fymboUcal^ and enigmatical method of teaching^ 
together with the doctrine of tranfmigration frtm 
Pythagoras, or that Pbilofopher had borrowed tbefe par- 
ticulars from the Druids? (See Diog. Laert. in proem. 
Seft. 6.) I (hall have occafion to treat of this, in the 
collation of the Irifh language, with that of the 
Gentoos or Hindoftans. — Fourthly, The defcription 
given of the Hyperborean Abaris^ by the orator Hime- 
rius, is very applicable to our Abhras. ** They re- 
late, fays he, that Abakis the Jage^ washy natkna 
Hypbrborean; became a Greciaij in fpeccb-j and 
refembkd a Scythian in his habit and appearance. 
Whenever be tnoved his tongue you would imagine bim to 
be fome one out of the mid/l of the academy or very 
Lyceum. (Ex Orationead Urficium apud Photium 
in Biblioth. Cod. 243.) The word abhras or abras in 
the Irifli language figniHes eloquent, a ready and 
witty anfwer, and it is derived from the the noun 
abairt fpeech, articulation, learning, politenefs; 
whence the verb abram to fay, to fpeak, to converfc. 
Again, the drefsof Abarisdefcribed by Himerius is that 
of the ancient Irifli, not of a Scythian. When, fays 
he, Abaris came to Athens ^ holding a bowy having 
a quiver hanging from his Jboulders (the reader will be 
pleafed to recoiled our Abras was osWtd file-fionn^ the 
warlike Druid or File) his body wrapt up in a bracan or 
flad^ girt about bis loins with a gilded belt^ and wearing 
trowzers reaching from the foles of his feet to bis wqfie. 


PREFACE.. cxiii 

(ibid.) Now had he been from Scythia, we fliould 
certainly have found him in ikins or furs. And, the 
charader given of Abaris by this fame Himerius, 
ftewed him qualified for the important bufinefs he 
went from Ireland to execute : be was^ fays he, af- 
fable and pkaf ant in coiroerjation \ in difpMcbing great 
affairs ^fecret and indujlrious ; quick-Jigbted in prefent exi- 
gencies ; in preventing future dangers^ circumfpe£l ; a 
fearcher after wifdom\ dejirous 9f friendship \ trufting 
indeed little to fortune ; bcrving every tbing trujled to bim 
for bis prudence. 

As to Ireland being the Hyperborean ifland, men- 
tioned by Diodorus, I think nothing can be more 
plain : he particularly mentions the frequent ufe of 
the harp there ; the worfliip of Apollo in circular 
temples ; that the city and temple were always go- 
verned by Boreades, a family, fays he, • defcended 
from Boreas; this indeed is of a complexion with his 
Hyperborean ifland being fo called/ becaufe Jituated 
more northerly than the north wind. (Lib. 2. p. 1 30. 
Borradbacb is the name with the Irilh poets for a va- 
liant chief; horr^ is great, noble, fplendid; borrcbean^ 
I have Ihewn to havejbeen the name of the great God 
in Irifli and Kalmuc Mogul ; I find it the fame in old 
WelQi, CSee Pref. to fecond Edit. Irifli Gram.) the 
word is from the Arabic fo/r, a great, haughty man ; 
hirhany 2l prince : but the druids of Ireland, in their 
magifterial capacity were called borradbas^ from borr 
and aiUf^ the law human and divine. (See Collec- 
tanea, No. X.) 

The Greeks were fo ignorant of the fituation of 
Ireland, for a feries of ages after they had driven out 

Vol. III. N^ XII. I the 

cxiv PREFACE. 

the Pelafgi, it is no wonder they ftiould name Ireland 
the Hyperborean ifland. Even Strabo, fays in his 
fecond book, the utmojl place of tunjigation^ in our timc^ 
from Gaul towards the North ^ is /aid to be Ireland^ which 
being Jituated beyond Britam^ isy by reqfon of the coH 
Viitb d^uhy inbahited^ fo that all beyond it is rtckmi 
uninhabitable. 1 therefore have no manner of doubt 
that our Abhras is che Abaris of Diodorus and Hime- 
rius, who left Etruria aad re&ded feven years in Scot- 
land, and from thence returned to Ireland y but what 
new fyftem of religion thefe Dadanai introduced, ftiaB 
be the fubjeft of anotbeif work. 

I think I can in focne meafuie account for the con- 
fufioo tha,t prevails amongft the Greek authors, rela- 
ting to the fituation of Ireland and the ifles of Scot- 
land ; it is ta be obiierved, that the fea between the 
north of Ireland and Scotland, is called by the ajicient 
IriHi nuiir cbroinn^ which I think naeans the brown or 
dun-coloured fea, owing probably to its rocky^ 
weedy bo^tonn,. Now Ojrpheus who has faid njuch 
of IreUndt calls the north fea, mare croniumy idem 
quod marc faturninum £f? oceanus feptentrjonalis. (Fer- 
rariuB.) Orpbcas having learnt from the Britiflir-Iri(h 
that this fea was called Cronium^ the Greeks fabricated 
the flory of Chrooios being enchanted in Ogygja, ao 
iflaM weft of Britain^ and this was followed by Pliny, 
Plutarch, Solinus, &c. 8cc. and this ftory took its rife 
frona the fuppofcd power of our Dadanan druids, to 
rajfe a fog by their enchantments, at pleafure. Py- 
theas who was a naval commander of Marfcilles, 
calls, this fea Mare Croniuwi alio, and if we may be- 
lieve Hei;<xlo!CuSi Pytheas failed very far towar4s the 



north. It is evident that the Greeks knew more of 
the globe in the time of Homer, than of Herodotus^ 
who was pofterior to Homer by at Icaft 400 years. 
** I cannot help laughing, fays Herodotus, at thofe 
** who pretend that the ocean flows round our c6nti- 
** nent ; no proof can be given of it. I believe, fadds 
** he elfewhere) that Homer had taken what he deli- 
*' vers about the ocean, from fome work of antiquity ; 
** but it was without comprehending any thing of the 
** matter, repeating what he had read, without well 
*^ underftanding what he had read." (Herod. 1. 4. 
& t.} From whence could Honker receive this know- 
ledge, but from bis matter, who we have (hewn was 
a Pcla%ian. 

Monfieur Gougct has made the fame obfervation ; 
** The ignorance of the European Greeks in geogra- 
" phy, fays he, was extreme in all refpefts, during 
** many ages. They do not even appear to have 
** known the difcoveries made in more antient voya- 
*' gcs, which were not abfolutely unknown to Homer : 
•* I think I have fbewn that fome very fenfible traces 
•• of them exifted rn his poems.*' (Orig of Arts and 
Sciences^ torn. 3, /. 3 J In the time of the Pelopone- 
fian war, the Lacedaemonians tranfported iheir (hips 
by !and from one fea to another, and this expedient 
was common. (Strab. I 8 J What idea can we form 
of then- marine in that age, about 430 years before 
Chrift, when compared with the Carthaginians, who, 
in the time of Ezekiel the prophet, (590 years before 
Chrift) fuppHed Tyre with tin and lead from the Bri- 
ti(h iftands? (Ezekiel^ c. 27 6? 28 J 

I ^ lam 

cxvi PREFACE. 

I am fenfible that the general voice is here againft 
me ; that it is a received opinion, that the ancient 
Irifh could only navigate the narrow feas, furroundf 
ing their ifland ; and certainly I can produce no other 
authority for the navigations they frequently perform- 
ed to Spain, Greece, Italy and Africa, than IriOi MSS. 
I apprehend this opinion has been adopted too hailily, 
from the name of a (hip in Iri(h, viz. currocby Welfh, 
curwgf mentioned by Gildas, Polyd. Virgil, Joccline, 
&c. and explained by Sir James Ware, to be a fpc- 
cies of a (hip, fuppofed to be made of wicker, cover- 
ed with hides. Bullet has fallen into the fame roif- 
take. (See Mr. Pegge on a pa(rage of Giklas, Ar- 
chxol. vol. 5* p. 274 ) But this gentleman has (hewn 
us, that curuca in Latin is the fame as nmm. It is 
certain that the Iri(h currocb of this day, for pafling 
fmall rivers, is made of wicker, covered with hides $ 
fuchmay be now found on the rivers Shannon, Boyne, 
&c. and fuch may have been ufed by the Britons. 
The word is formed of coire^ that is, any hollow vcf- 
fel, hence coire and corracan^ s, pot, a cauldron, a 
cart, &c« &c. Arabic kaure^ a pot, kur-kaure^ a 
cauldron ; but corracb aud carrcorr in old Iri(h (igni- 
fied a (hip built of flrong timbers and planks, and is 
the fame as the Arabic kurkur or kurkoor^ a large (hip. 
^ (Ricbard/oH Arab. Lex. ^ Scbindkrus.) 

The Iri(h had many names for a (hip, according to 
the fpecies of building, which I (hall here fet down, 
with the correfponding oriental names ; moll of thefe 
words are to be found in Lbwyd*s ArcbaoL Brit, under 
the word navis^ and it is to be noticed, that when this 
learned Wel(h antiquary, found Iri(h words to diftin- 


PREFACE. cxvii 

guifli every fpecies of (hip, he could only produce 
three or four common general names for a (hip in the 
Wellh, G>rni(h, or Amoric- 

Irish Names for a Ship. 


Long. This word is common to the Welfli, but is 
not to be found in the Hebrew^ Chaldee or 
Arabic ; it is alfo a (hip in the Chinefe lan- 
guage. Long batiment des Chinois: les 
bngs font aflez femblables a nos galeres. 
(f^oyage de Matelief. See alfo Furetiere's Di£l.) 
Long in Irifh is likewifeahoufe or habitation ; 
long-pbortj a palace, &c. Welfli Llong^ a 
a ftiip, a float, a bridge : vlungo^ a fliip in 
the Congo language ; ionge in the Javanefe ; 
lengier in Turkifl), an oar. From the Irifli 
Jong^ a fliip, is derived the Englifli long-boat, 
that is, the fliip's boat, and not from the 
form or figure of the boat ; fo alfo the Eng- 
lifli cock*boat, or a fmall boat, from the 
Irifli coca^ a fmall boat, derived from coca or 
cocal^ a huflc or fliell of a nut, in Arabic 

Carb^ a fliip; Chaldee, arb\. Arabic, gbraub\ carb 
in Irifli is alfo a cart, a chariot \ Coptice mar- 

Sudf Judoire^ a fliip ; Chaldee, zidaria ; me Jbttd^ a 
rower; Welfli, /i/^iiwt blubbers floating on 
the water ; Bafc.oif/-2//-ztfrra, Coptice nyfytity^ 
a fmall fliip. 

Sudbbban^ a fliip ^ Heb. and Chaldee, fepbina. 


cxviii PREFACE.. 


Efsy effts^ afhip; Hclxz/j Kx^.ajooz\ Hindoftan, 

Jjebaas ; Bafc. ont-zia^ unt-zia. 
LibhearHj a (hip, a houfe ; Chald. leburna^ lepba^ a 

fhip; Perfic, leb^ a houfe. 
Scib^ a (hip, a boat ; Arab, mur-zaub. 
Naos\ a (hip; Heb. am\ oni. N. B. iVoo/in Iri(h is 

alfo the name of Noah : naibb^ naif^ is alfo to 

fwim, to float, in Hebrew naab. 
Cuadar^ cuadas-barc \ Arab, kaudis^ a fhip. 
Cnabbrdy cptarrUj a (hip; Heb. & Chald. gnab^ 

Eatbar^ a fhip, pronounced ahar ; Coptice, bamara^ 

a (hip. 
Artbracb\ A.vah. gawruk^ a (hip. 
^or^r ; Chaldee, isfi* />^r«//i& ; Heb. baricbimy a fhip. 
Currcurr^ curracb, Avsib. kurkur^ a large fhip; Spa- 

ni(b, carraca, a great fhip^ (navio grande.*) 


* Thefe CurracKt of hides and wattles wert inTented by the 
Pelafgiansor Etrufcans, the anceftors of the Inih. Etrufconim 
ioTentum navis & ilia ex carlo & vimine, Britannoruxn ritu, feu 
Scotorum ; ex abiete, ex alno : tutela ; varia genera* (Demp- 
fier de Etruria RegaU^ /. 3. ^. 80.^ And Ifidorus gives the in- 
vention of fhips to the Lydians, who were alfo Pelafgians. Ly- 
dii prknanh navem fabricaT«nii>t9 p«lag^qu€ incerta petentes, per- 
viiim mare ufibus humanis fecerunt. (Lib. 19. c, uj and in his 
Clofiary, this author defcribed the Carb to bo of the Currach 
kind. *' Carabus, parva fcapha ex vimine & coris. Feftiu Avi' 
erjuj, lib, i. Or a maritime ^ p, 191. 

■■ fed res ad miraculuxn 

Navigiajun<Slis fempcr aptant pellrbus^ 

Corifquc nftum fs^e pircurrunt falunv 


PREFACE.. cxix 


Leafiar^ a boat, a milking can^ a veflel ; Weldr, 
Ibefter^ a (hip. 

Tbcfe were again divided into the foUbw- 
ing ciaifes. 

Ranfbbngi imgrambaCy galeir^ fculongj longftida^fudlong^ 
a row galley i Chaldee, Jhat^ a rower. 

Arglong^ miopara/ hngcreicbe^ creacblong^ a pirate (hip. 

Argnaoitb^ pirates; «/io//i5, Tailors, is the fame as the 
Clialdec Ainiutb^ r Kings, 9. v. 27. in Arabic 
ark is a mariner, andalfo name. 

Haec prima qrigcf nav^y quam aUquiaS Januip.rcifetuf^ qui nftr 
▼igio in Italiam dcvcAus. ./.!•".. 

AdIus Gcllius mentions the various fpecics of {hipping ufed 
bj the Romans, and if I mi (lake riot, the Irifh long is on^. 
L. 10. c. 25. Gauliy Corbitsfey catrdicxy' /cir^^, hi^pagitidv, 
cercurii ccloces vel ut Gneci dicunt celetesi leijAyT, oris, le- 
BUBcnli, a^oariK quaa Grsfeci \kixmx^ vocant Y^ 'f^)8^iS«^ 
profumiae vel gefeoretae vel horiol«e> (liat«t pontodes, atatise, 
hemidiflc, phafell, paroncs, myoparones, lintres, caupufis ca- 
marae, placidae, cidarum, ratariae, catafcopium. Julius F'oIIux 
dafles thctti uodcf other nirtcsf as practoria feu turrita, roftra- 
tacy tedae, coniflratse, )ibiimica&, ontrariab, caadica*^ curforiae^ 
cuftodiarSy fj^cculatorii^, tahellkris, ex^ris, fchedt«> e^^bates. 
Some were named from the tuiela^ othcn ftom cities and places 
where they were made, as Naxiurga from the iflaod Naxo, 
Cnidiurges from Cnidus, Corcyriz & Pariae, from iflands of the 
fame name. See Wolfgangus Laziusy /. 6. Comm. R, Ram. 

The Etrufcans were alfo the iiKcntbrr of the nav^sVoftrJKx ; 
antea ex profU taatum &^puppi pUgnabatuf; raftra addidit 
Pifeus, ^Tyrrhcni anchoram. (FUn% A 7.. r. 56.^ or rather as 
Foxianus obferves, Roftruni addidit Pifeus Tyrrbenus^ iiti & 




TratUongy tomlong^ mtdrn/giby longambarcy coiweaJd^ 

bratbay a coafter, a look out (hip, a guard 

(hip on the coafl. 
Brcaflo9^y fuibbarcba^ riogblongy long ard'cobblagbeorti^ 

long-adaJa^ long ad-mor-ala^ priombhngy leann- 

longy an admirars (hip, a flag (hip \ Arab. 

L6n-l(mg^J6r'longy htigjloraisy a (lore (hip. 
Ceatbarn-long^ btddbearUong^ a tranfport. 
Long cbeannaitbe, longmnirine^ a merchant (hip. 
lomcbar-tong^ aftarlongy hng-malcaireacbtay a light 

(hip for paCTage, or for making voyages of 

Fmtio^y bratbtong^ hngamiarcy a fpy (hip. 
Long brataidbcy long meirge^ long luimneacbda, a fignal 

(hip, a flag (hip. . 
Lo,f^g ciogdidby , a great war rtiip ; A^rab, (uLmli- 

Long Jb^-Mmbaidbj long .deil-cbeajlaidby a galley with 

two banks of rowers. 
Rnfgan^ a (hip made of bark, (Shaw;) fuppofcd to 

be derived from rufg^ the tark of a tree, but 

rus is timber alfo { Perfice rojbun. 
Fuireann-loingey trufgAr-hingt^ corugbadb-kinge^ the 

tackle x)f a (hip. 
Long-bbraine^ fgafur-loingey the prow.} JkihifTy the 

' poope. 
/rr, «rZir,; chr-lomg^ the deck, ^ 
Cram/i^oily^fhc maft^ (arbor navis) Heb; cfiUiii, arbor j 

Chaldee, tran^ a maft. 
Barrcbrmn-fcoily the top-raoft. 
Forgbrannrjcoil^ the fore-maft, 


PREFACE, ocxi 


larcbrannfeoily the tnizen-maft. 

&<?/, a fail i Arab.^V//. 

Luingeis^ carlaocy cabblacb^ faditb^ plody a fleet of 

fliips ; Heb. Rabb. me/aditba. 
Cadally a fea fight ; Arab. kad. 
Meillacboir^ hng-fcoir^ mairntolac^ martbidbe^ org. naoidb^ 
fairrigeoir^ cablacan^ a failor; Heb. cbebcl^ 
malacby aniuib \ Arab, mullawb^ nawte^ ark^ 
faure^ 2l failor ; Coptic^, natyjawif natyty^ a 
Long^ a (hip or houfe, being common to the Mago- 
glan Irifh and the Gomerian Welfh^ and to 
be found in the Chinefe, and not in the He- 
brew, Chaldee or Arabic languages; I 
conclude, this word is of Scythian origin. 
The Perfic lenker^ an anchor ; binje^ to roll 
from fide to fide, and /«, a veflel for do^ 
meftic ufe, have fome affinity to our long. 
Another proof of the ancient Iri(h being (killed in 
ihe art of navigation, I draw from a fragment of the 
Brehon laws in my poffeffion, where the payment or 
reward for the education of children, whilft under the 
care of the fofterers* is thus flipulated, to be paid to 
the ollamhs or profeflbrs, diftinguifliing private tui- 
tion from that of a public fchooi. The law fays, *' if 
** youth are inftrufted in the knowledge of cattle, 
** the payment (hall be, three eneaclann and a feventh ; 
" if in hufbandry and farming, three eneaclann, and 
** three fevenths ; if in mcUacbt^ i. e. gkis-aigneadb as- 
**/irarr,that is, fuperior navigation, or the beft kind of 
" fea knowledge, the payment (hall be five eneaclann, 
*^ and the fifth of an eanraaide j if in glais-aignedb 


cwcii PREFACE. 

** istaint\ i. e. the fecond or inferior navigation, two 
^^ Eneaclann and a feventh, and this low payment is 
** ordained becaufe, the pupils muft previoufly have 
^* been inftru&ed in letters^ which is the loweft edu- 
•' cation of all." 

The word meUacbt is not to be found in the com- 
mon di£tionaries.-^We have teca that Mtilacboir is a 
mariner, and in O'Brien and Shaw's dictionaries, 
nteiUiacb is traiiflated the terraqueous giobe. In 
Ch^ldee and Hebrew nSb melacb is a Tailor, (Nauta. 
See Plantavit.) In Arabic mullawb is a failor, and 
melabet the art of navigation, and our Irifh mmlacbt 
being explained by two other words fignifymg marine 
knowledge : the fenfe of it cannot be miftaken. 

Carte in bis hiftory of England, obferves, that the 
conformity of religious worfhip between the people of 
DeloG, and thcrfe of the Hyperborei, produced a very 
early correfpondence between them ; for they are 
mentioned by Herodotus, fays he, as utterly un- 
known to the Scythians, (who had no intercotirfe 
with the Britifh ifles) but much fpoken of at Delos, 
whither they ufcd to fend, from time to time, f acred 
prefents of ibeir firft fruits^ wrapped in bundles of 'wbeat 
Jiraw ; fucb as were made ufeofby /A^Thracians in their 
/acred rights andfacrifices to Diana \ and, adds Cane, 
** There is not a fatt in all antiquity, that made a 
** greater ntwfe in the world, was more univerfally 
** known, or is better atteftcd by the graveft and moft 
*' ancient authors among the Greeks, than this of the 
** fecred embaflies of the Hyperboreans to Delos; in 
** times preceding^ by an interval offome ages^ the voy- 
" ages of the Carthaginians, to the north of the 

•• ftreights 

PREFACE. cxxiii 

** (Ireights of Gibraltar, to which poffiUy the reports 
" about that people might give the occafion." 

This author having coUeAed every thing that the 
ancient Greek writers have faid of Abaris, ooncludeSy 
that he was of the Hebrides or weilern iflands of 
Scotland *; this agrees very ill with the defcription of 
the Hyperborean ifland, as being about the fizc of 
Sicilly. It is indeed worthy of notice that the Irilh 
bards have carried our Dadanans in their return from 
Greece and Italy, to the north of Scotland ; but the 
embaify of our Dadanans to thofe countries, the na- 
ture of the embaffy, and the particular mention of 
Abras as the chief, leaves no room to doubt, in my 
humble opinion, that he was from Ireland. It is in- 
deed a matter of little moment, if he was of Ireland, 
Scotland or Manx, for as I have faid before, they 
were one and the fame people, of the fame (Druldical) 
religion, and governed by the fame laws. 

It is fuppofed that Diodorus Siculus, was acquaint- 
ed with Ireland under the name of Iris Britanniae : 
this name agrees much better with the Hebrides, for 
as Carte obferves, all this tradt of ifles termed 
Hebrides, was of old called Heireis: — ^to which we 
may add the name Erfe flill retained in Scotland for 
the Irilh dialed: — in fine, thefe coafts were little 

* But be allows at the famfc time, that the ancient Greeks, 
knowing very little of the northern parts of the world, com- 
prehended the inhabitants thereof under general names : fuch 
M ufcd bows and arrows, and lived like Numades, being termed 
Scythae ; and thofe who lived further north than the particular 
nations whofe names they had heard of being all called Hyper- 


cxxiv PREFACE. 

known to their hiftorians, and Ireland may as well be 
meant by the Hyperborean ifland, as the Hebrides, 
Orkneys, or even Britain. If my pofition is right, 
of the Iri(h having poflfefled Britain and Ireland and 
the adjacent fmall iilands, till confined to the north of 
Scotland, Ireland and Manx, by the Gomerian Celts 
or Britons, (as they are now called) it is of no figni- 
fication which of thcfe was called Hyperborean by the 
ancient Greek writers. The fragment of the poem 
here produced, defcribing Abaris, and his journey, 
may have been formed in Britain, and by tradition 
have come down to the Irifh poets. 

The facred prefents fent to Delos by the Hyperbo- 
reans, we are told, were ufually accompanied by two 
young virgins, attended by five men, having the like 
facred character *. The fragment before us, makes 
no mention of fuch a fuite ; but this was not an cm- 
baffy of that nature: it was a voyage performed by 
our Dadanans in queft of knowledge, and fuch was 
the expedition of the Hyperborean Abarisof Diodorus, 
&c, Herodotus, fays, ** that the fuite of this Hy- 
** perborean embaffy, having been ill treated by the 
••Greeks, they took • afterwards another method of 
" fending their facred prefents to the temples of 
'^ Apollo and Diana, delivering them to the nation 
*• that lay neareft to them on the continent of Europe, 
•* with a requeft that they might be forwarded to thax 
" next neighbours : and thus, (fays Herodotus) they 
** were tranfmitted from one people to another, 
" through the weftern regions, till they came to the 

^ 0\jmp. Ode 3d and 8th. 

" Adriatic, 


** Adriatic, and being there put into the hands of the 
•* DODONEANS, thefirft of the Greeks that received 
** them, they were ^conveyed thence by the Melian 
** bay, Eubaea, Caryftus, Andras, and Tenos, till 
** at laft they arrived at Delos." 

I do not think the dates of Europe, in this polite 
age, could have been more civil, in forwarding a 
prcfent from Ireland to the pope or to the king of 
Naples: and if I may be allowed to criticife on 
Herodotus, I will fay, he has founded this ftory on 
the journey of our liilh Dadanans. For can it be 
fuppofed that if the Greeks had been accuftomed to 
xtz€\\z f acred p, efents of firft fruits^ to be facrificed to 
Apollo at Delos, for a (cries of years, and carried 
thither by Hyperborean Druids, that they could pof- 
fibly have been at a lofs for the real fituation of that 
ifland. It appears repugnant to common fenfe, and 
I look upon this ftory to be fabricated by the Greeks, 
from the expeditions made by the Dadanans of Ireland 
or Britain, to Greece and Etruria, as recorded in the 
ancient hiftory of Ireland. 

There is a very ftriking affinity between the lan- 
guage of the ancient Irifti and that of the * ancient 
Etrufcans, for example. . 

The Etrufcans, (fay the authors of the univerfal 
hiftory,) had feveral deities peculiar to themfelves, 

Nortia was a goddefs held in high veneration. 
Cormac archbifhop of Cafticl in the tenth century, 
tells us in his gloHary, that Neart, is Virtus in Latin, 
inde Neart, vel Saoith, Dia eigfi, i. e. Neart ^nd 
Saoith were the names of the deity of wifdom, with 


cxxn PREFACE. 

the heathen Irilh. And in the fanae gloffary we find 
NeiJ^ Neitb^ Dia Catba le Geinte Gaoidbeai^ i. e. Neicf 
or Ncit was the deity prefiding over war, with the 
heathen Irifb, and Neid nomina propria hominum a 
Fomoriis introducita, i. e. Ncid, a proper name, intro- 
duced by the Carthaginians. In another gloflary, I 
find, Natb^ ainm coiueanddona uilibb aifdihb \ \. e. Nath, 
is a common or general name for all fciences. Neid^ 
ainm gaotbe ghine^ i. eigfi^ Neid is pure wi(dom. AV 
Naifb^ I. uine Faid^ i. e. Ne Naitb^ implies the wif- 
dom of a prophet. Pain i . ainm dor an Uafal^ i. e. 
Pain, a name given to nobles. 

Ain, I. Troidbe Dia^ noTaulaCj noFeny no Mulhcb^ 
i. e. Ain, Tautac, Fen and MuUoch are the gods pre- 
fiding over battles. 

Tein. i. Ttinm. i. Tuigjiquaji Bat-tein^ vel lion. 
Tion. I. Tafacb^ i. e. Tein, Teinm and Tuigfi implies 
wildom, whence Sal-ttin the god of wifdom ; or Bal^ 
tion the chief Baal, as tion implies head, chief, begin- 
ning, fo that wifdom, fire, aether, were fynonimous 
words. I take the Falentia of the Etrufcans, to be 
our Bal-ainifb^ or god of battles, corrupted to f^alarnit. 
Pailerus in his Lexicon /Egyptio Hebraicum^ explains 
thefe deities in the following manner. 

** Nm ndW. Unum ex Mi nerve nominibus apud 
*' -ffilgyptros, ut conftat ex Platone in Timaeo, Urbis 
*' (Sais) praefesDea, iEgyptiace quidem Neit; Grsecc 
*' autcm, ut illorum fert opinio aghna." Utrum- 
que nomen ex Hcbraeo eft, eandemque retinet figniB- 
cationem fcrmonis, feu eloquentiae. Nam a5;»« anii- 
quis Gracis, Tufcis vero TINA eft a nJTI Thana, 



quo etiacn eloqui, & docere fignificatur. NEIT 
vcro eft a JDKJii ^^e Neum fermo, elocutio \ undc 
Graecis ONOMA, Latinia NOMEN. 

Arabic I'unk the fun^ tunk-purufi^ 2l v^orfhipper of 
the fun, cfrockb'tuny to fire^ fookh-tUHj to kindie^ 
an^eekb-tufiy to inflame. 

In Iridi Tine and Teine^ implies fire, teiHom is to 
diflblve, to melt. It is certainly the root of the 
£ngli(h Tin^ \. e. Oar eafily fufed, and of Tinder : 
in fome pans of England they fay tin the fire, that is 
ftir it up, make it burn. . ^yr\ Thanar in Hebrew is 
furnus. hbunar m Iridi is hell. Our Druids wor- 
(hipped the fun uiKkr the name of Bel-tine^ or Baal's 
fire, and I cannot think Pafferus right, in deriving 
the Etrufcan Tina from the Hebrew Tbam docere, 
becaufe we find in the works of the very learned 
Millius, that Peltinus was the original Hebrew name 
of Montis Garizim^ on which the idolatrous Jews had 
an altar of the fun. *' In Hebraeorum monumentis, 
hoc dc monte D13toSs> (Peltinus) referunt: id veto 
nomen montis Oanzim eile.'* Rabbi S. Japhr 
Aftoenqli obfervat. Peltinaus eft mom Garrxim^ quern 
Cutbtei Samaritani fan3uarii loco habehant. Now as the 
Jews turned their faces to J^rufalem, and the Ma- 
hommedans to Mecca, in time of devotion, fo did 
the Samaritans to Pehinaus. Oramus autem ad Do- 
minum, facie ad montem Peltinaus (Garizim) do- 
mum Dei (verfa) vefperi & mane. And the Samari- 
tans contmued this mode of worfhip in the time of 
Qur Saviour, as we find in John ch. 4. v. 20. Our 
father's worfhipped in this mountain : and ye fay, 
that in Jerufalem is the place where men ought to 


cxxviii PREFACE. 

vorfhip. (See Millius de caufis Odii. p. 431- alfo in 
Epiftolis Samaritanis Cellarii» p. 4 J Samaritani au^ 
temjam a Jofua, in eo monte (Garizim) fynagogam 
& templum extruAura fuifle contendunt. (Millius) 
£t Jofua Rex arcem extruxit in monte, qui adjacec 
finiftro lateri montis Bendedi, quique vocatur Saroa- 
ria: (chron. Samar.) Here again is our Druidical 
Sam-ary or mountain of Sam the fun ; the Baal-tiru^ 
and although many learned men have derived Garizim 
from the Arabic garaz. excidit, obfcidit, yet we find 
the Samaritan name converted into Hebrew letters 
was D*ni in bar garrzim^ but the old Arabian name 
for the fun was Kbur or gur and %ybb^ which com- 
pounded form gurzybbt and I have no doubt but this 
was the figniBcation of the Samaritan name, as we 
find Sam was for the fun and for the true God, and is 
the word ufed in Genefis, ch. !• of the Samaritan 
bible for the Hebrew yileim. And if I am not mif- 
taken the Iri(h Grian the fun is formed of Gritbam to 
fcorch, to boil, to burn, and tine fire, as we find it 
fometimes writen Gritban. Gris in Irifli is alfo intenfe 
fire, the fun, and Gris-cbill is now the Irifli word for 
the fandtuary, (See all the common Irifti lexicons.) 
Therefore the Samaritan and Hebrew bar-Garizim^ 
and the Irifli ar-gris are all fynonimous to Ar-Sam or 
Sam-ar^ to which if we add the word tan which in 
Hebrew, Samaritan, Arabic and Irifli, implies a 
country, region, diftirift, we have Sam-ar-'tan^ and 
the Latin Samaritania^ i. e. the country of the hill of 
the fun, or our Irifli Bel-tine and Etrufcan Fol-tina^ 
as written by the Larins. 


PREFACE. cxxlx 

To this we will add the following obfcrvations of 
the learned Monf. Bailly : Vous favez, Monf. que 
chez les Chinois, le mot Tien^ par lequel ils defignenc 
I'Etre fupreme, fignifie primiiivement le C/>/, & que 
le nom de Dieu des Sjamois^ viz. Som-monarkodom^ fig- 
nifie en Perfan, ciel ancien, ou ciel eternal & increc* 
Le Perfan, comme I'Hebreu, ne met point de diffe- 
rence entre ces fignifications, (Lettres a Monf. Vol* 
tcirefur les Sciences.) Here again is the Irifh Sam-man-' 
cad^ or the holy man or mon of Sam^ i. e. the Bel-teine^ 
With great propriety then, does this learned man alk 
this queilion^ ^' pourquoi les Indiens ont-ils dans la 
** plus grande veneration le Mont Pir-pen-jal, Tune 
^^ des Montagnes du Caucafe fur les frontiers du petit 
** Thibet ? ils y vont en pelerinage." — The reafon is 
evident 5 it was the Borb-ain-fuily or mountain of the 
fun's revolution, of the Magogian Scythians, the 
common anceftors of the Indians and of the Irifh. X 

NEPHTIN. Hoc nomine juxta toties citatum Plu- 
tarchumt intelligebant ^gyptii finem, veneram, & 
VICTORIAM, Irifh, tein^ force, ftrength; teann^ 
bold, powerful ; teann^ a love embrace } teannam^ to 
embrace a woman ; tanas^ dominion, government } 
naom-teinj the god of power, ftrength, vifVory ; thus 
naom^tonn^ the deity of the fea. 

MALCANDER. Nomen regis Biblii apud Plu- 
tarchum, qui uxorem habuit ASTARTEM, apud 
quos Ifis hofpitio excepta eft. Id nomen notat regem 
hominum a ^Sd, malach, regnare: unde Melecb, 
rex.: Ander vero Graecis anapqs, Tiomo, eft ab CDlif, 
Adam, rubere; unde homo, eo quod ex rubra ar- 

VoL. III. N° XII. K gilla 



gilla compadlus fit. Thus the learned Paflerius Pi(av- 

Malcy is a king in the Irifti language ; but we hdve 
feen that tnullac and tiin were the Irifh names of the 
god of battles, (or angel fuppofed to prefide over 
battles, for our druids allowed but one God, the true 
almighty and omnifcient one) and dofj daer^ a man, 

If we fucced as well on a future day, with the 
reft of the Egyptian and Tufcan deities, I flatter 
myfelf my readers will allow, that we have taken 
proper ground to proceed in our approaches towards 
an inveftigation of the ancient hiftory of Ireland, and 
that all is not fable, though at prefent obfcured in 
poetical fidtion. 

VENUS. Didtio Graecis ignota. Pau(anias tradit 
antiquis Graecis etiam fuilTe ignotum, fed ab -^geo 
e Phoenicia & Cypro in Graeciam tranflatum. Tuf- 
cis id nomen VENDRA fuit, ut conftat ex antiqua 
patera, rcdoletque originem Hebraicam ; nam mtD* 
\lj Ben-tara, filia maris ; quippe tara notat bumidir 
tateniy unde Graecis tapas Neptuni filius. 

In Irifh bean^ ban^ or bban^ (van) is a woman, 
daughter, female ; and trea^ treatban^ teatbra^ teara^ 
or deatbra^ the fea or ocean ; hence the Tufcan ven- 
dra and Irifh Ban-deara^ Venus. Ban-dru or drutb, 
19 a harlot, and by miftaking the fenfe of dru and 
dra^ probably arifes the lafcivious fables of the Greek 
and Latin poets refpcdling this goddefs. 

No people were fo celebrated for the magic art, as 
the Etrufcans ; their defcendants, the Pelafgian-Ma- 


Preface. cxxxI 

gogiah-Irifli excepted : From the Etrufcans, it was 
in part handed down to the Latins, ''and from the 
following hint in Statins, I think that the Romans 
believed in the Metempfychofis * as well afr oUr Irifh 
druids, witnefs the following lines dn augury. 

Scu quia liiutatae noftraque ab origine verfis, 
Corporibus fubiere notos. 


And Ammianus Marcelilnus fpeaks of this art, In 
terms, I believe, too myfterious for our underftand* 
ing at this day. Elementorum omnium fpiritus,. ut 
pote perennium corporum praefentiendi motu femper, 
& ubique vigens, ex his quae per difciplinas varias af- 
fedlamus^ participiat nobifcum munera divinandi 8c 
fubftantiales poteftates ritu diverfa placatae, velut ex 
perpetuis fomium venis vaticina mortalitati fupcditarit 
verba. (Lib.zi. initio.) 

This magic art was certainly praftifed before the 
law was written^ as we find in Deuteronomy, ch. i8, 
lo. it is exprefsly forbid, and the art is mentioned un- 
der a variety of names, which have been all adopted 
by the Magogian-Irifh, but not by the Corner ian- 
Welfti, and there cannot be a ftronger proof of a dif- 

* That Pythagoras took the dodrJne of the Metempfychofis 
from the Bramins, is not difputed ; yet future times cfrrorteoufly 
llilcd It Pythagorean, an egregious miilake, which could pro- 
ceed only from ignorance of its original. 

(HQl^ellU Hindojlan^ p. 26, v. i.) 
Pythagoras died 497 years befqre Chrift, aged 80, (Trufler) 
his name both in Arabic and Trifh, denotes the great forcerer, 
or diviner. 

K % ferencc 

cxxxii PREFACE. 

ference of religion between the ancient inhabitants of 
both countries 5 yet it is furprifmg, that more orien- 
tal names in rthis art did not abide with them, from 
the firft Phoenician-Pelafgian-lrilh colonies that fettled 
there, and who were to all appearance driven thence 
by the Gomerians. 

The Irifli words corrcfponding to the Hebrew, arc 
as follow. ^ 

Hebrew. Irish. 

kafam, geafam, to divine ; geafuph^a witdi, 

a forcerer. 
ounan, oinin, ainin or ainius, a forcerer. 

nabhafh, neas, a diviner, a noble, 

cheber, geabhar, a forcerer. The name 

Coarba given by the druids to St. Patrick is not 
gready different, and Baal Aruch obferves, that this 
was a Perfian name ; Perfac vocant facerdotcs fuos 
]nan, Chabirin. The Etrufcan Samothracia, is of 
Arabian origin, viz. Jtmiay natural magic, and tmrk^ 
an augur; the hxih^ox^s zxt fuamb tarragbj fomc- 
tiines written fuambain ; hence Jbatman fignifies a 
magician, at Tobal and Mofco. (LeBrun.) 

The Hebrew iadagnam or iadanani is derived from 
iadang^ he knew; it here implies a forcerer, and 
compounded with the Irifh d^a or daa^ a diviner, 
<Arab. daa^ a forcerer,) forms the Irifti Deadam. 
The old Ixifli wrote it alfo with the found of the Hev | 
brew y, dagne, i. e. diogne, i. e. draoichgne. Vet. I 
Glofs. that is, dagne is a fpecies of druidif^n : wc 
alfo find. the Chaldee JH to fignify fcientia, cognitio, 


PREFACE. cxxxiii 

fententia in 32 ch. Job, v. 10. and this in IrUhis 
dan. Caftellus. 

The verfe before mentioned runs thus : 

Deur. 1 8. and 10. v. There (hall not be found among 
you tS^ODp DDp, fkafam kaiamim) any one that 
ufcth divination; liWD, (me, ounan,) an obferver 
of clouds; B^rUO, me nahhafhj enchanter; ^{8^30, 
(me cafaf) a witch ; lan *^3n, (cheber chcber,) 
a charmer; IlTIt VHtS^, (lal aub,) a confulter of 
Aub ; ♦iyi>, (iadagnani) a knowing one* 

Caftellus interprets ^ijjn», ariolus, fciolus, futu- 
rium divinator; in the Syriac, magus, veneficus; 
in the Samaritan, omnifciens,^ (de Deo dicitur ;) in 
the ^thiop. praedixit : fo that there cannot remain a 
doubt of the proper fignification of the Irilh Dadamn^ 
Befides thefe names, our Irilh druids adopted another, 
taken by the holy prophets of God, viz. Ceadmicbt ^ 
or Cadruicbt^ in imitation of the Hebrew tTH K^*1pi 
kodefruacb^ which implies^ the infpiraiion of the Holy 
Gboft^ whereby the party was enabled to prophecy 
without apparitions or vifions. (See Godwin's Mofes 
and /iarm.) 

I bdieve no people itt the weftern world, except 
the Pelafgian Irifh jadtnitted the !n», aub, a fpecies 
of forcerers who were faid to be Jyfr^t^/**^**, or ventri- 
loquiftsv that is, qui claiifo ore loquuntur, quia vi-* 
dentur ex ventre loquL Tlic learned Selden, Feflel, 
Van Dale and many ottrcrs have written on this fub- 
je6t. The rabbi's explain aub by OWD, which is 
thought to be the Greek wvi^f, but I believe the He- 
brew /f>i&iif» here implies the fame as mb^ i. e. uter, 
for in the Iri(b language 4^ and«^/ do both imply 

cxxxiv P R •• E F A C E. 

uter\ abb alio means the entrails in general; abb- 
qftradb is to growl * inwardly, as a dog » the Enghlh 
^ and Flemifh growl feem alfo to be derived from the 
Irifh goorj a foothfayer, and ambiiil or ool^ like, fimi- 
lis \ i. e. goorool', abhac is a. tarrier, becaufe of the 
growling noife he makes in his • purfuit of game. 
That the oriental nub v/tte forcererjs, the learned 
Millius has very clearJy demonftrated ; that the Irilh 
abb were forcerers alio, is dvidchtfconi the common 
verb abh-faidbim^ to prophecy,, where faidb^^ prophet, 
is compounded with abb/t Tbefe were at the head of 
the Irifh fbrcerers, and 1 (hall hereafter fhew that there 
was ti preliding^/^ at each tower, and that the firft 
name for Chriftian, a bithop in the Irifh language, 
\vas aobb-ijl-toir^ or an aub of many towers, or places 
of worfhip , for tor not only implies a tower, but eve- 
ry thing belonging to a church f. Aobilltoir^ i.e. 
deoradbde^ i. e fer ^ i. e: E/poc^ that is, aob- 
ilhoir^ is a. holy prophet, a .biftiop. (Commentator on 
the Brebonliiws.) But efpoc wejpic is the fame as«<A- 

* The learned Spencer obfcrves, that auh or M muft be 
an Egyptian .woyd,^ and 1^, refers tQ,the Etrufcan ohhat vas Tcn- 
tricofus, which, muft be derived fipm this auh. This author's 
obfiprvatipn perfcAIy correfponds with the Irifh, in which lan- 
guage othncy ahnej uibm is a pitcher or bellyed can, and the 
Britifh and Engl^ih ^//6-^r 19 from the Ir'M puk^cuar ; cuary a 
can, or vefTel, fiuit, (uter) belly. 1 cannot ccraceivc that the 
Greek '/yrMtfff, wUcti applied to intcrj^ret auby has any connc&ion 
with the Hthi^vrpethen^ or Syxhc fiMurif a ferpent ; J^s we find that 
aub and puit'in the Pclafgian, did both imply uter, corrcfpond- 
ing to the. Greek explanation per iyp»r^/it*»^dF. 

f Hence toif-deaibhachj a proper name, now written turloch} 
it originally figttificd a toiJKcr-fcrcercr ; fee dealbka or tfaJbh, 

PREFACE. cxxxv 

puc^ for es is uter and poc or puic is a forcerer. Sec 
Lhwyd at uter. Hence the many places in Ireland 
named piiic^ phuii\ and puican ; as Glann-pbuic^ the for- 
cerer*s glinn. When chriftianity was eftabliftied, all 
thefe names were turned into ridicule ; thus draoi^ a 
druid, now implies a witch ; piiic^ a fairy ; puicin^ an 
impoftor ; puicinighe dubba^ dealers in natural magic, 
witches, &c. &c. again, aub-alloir is the name of the 
facred ftone under the chalice, in the altar of oqr mafs 
houfes, it implies the altar of aub ; eabul is certainly 
a ftone in Arabic, but has the fame derivation of our 
aubalioir^ which like many other terms admitted into 
the Irifti church, cannot be derived from any other 
language than the Hebrew, Chaldee or Arabian. 
Thus I Sam. 28, 8. Saul demands of the woman of 
Endor 211^3 *S Ni *CTDp, divina mibi qiuefo per Aub^ ' 
and afterwards adds, et asceh deke fac mihiy quern 
dico tibi\ it is then evident that the aub was to confult 
the maneSf or infernal angels. Rab. Bechai therefore 
explains aifb or obb, fpeci^s magorum ejl (^ py thorn voca- 
tur^ mortuumve elicit^ and adds, tradunt magiftri, 
Baal Aub ex brachiis & axillis eorum loqui, nam (mor- 
tuus) furgens, fedet fub brachiis ejus & loquitur: 
and Apuleius confirms, that this kind of divination 
was pradtifed by the Egyptians. *' Zachlas adeft 
** Egyptius, propheta primarius, qui mecum jam du- 
** dum grandi praemio pepigit, reducere Jpiritum^ cor-» 
** pufque illud poft liminio mortis animare." (Lib. 2. 
Metamorpb. p. 62 J Bochart and Le Moyne think 
thefc magi predi<^ed ab obb^ i. e. lerpente; 




bccaufe Hefychius explains oimA^ by or^*< *, but thcfe 
words both return to the Chaldee ounan^ and obb or 
aub^ implying a forccrer. We (hall have occafion to 
treat largely of thefe forcerers when we come to the 
Milefian hiftory of Ireland, where the poets have 
played off the whole artillery of divination, and ftiall 
therefore drop this fubjed at prefent. 

Aub, obh, being the magician or forcerer of the 
Irifti, who was fuppofed to be able to converfe with 
the dead, and perform fuch extraordinary feats by 
fpeaking from his belly, with his mouth clofed ; fo alfo 
he was fuppofed to be mafter of all learning': hence 
we have ahb-gbitir^ the name of fhe alphabet, from 
gbilirj writing; abb-litir^ the alphabet, from ////r, 
reading, writing, engraving ; {et/criobam in the con- 
clufion : and from the Hebrew or Egyptiatt aub or 
obb^ are derived the following: abb-cbey a fcholar; 
abbaCy a fprite, (Arab, hebka iAb-antur^ good luck, 
good omen ; abb-rann^ bad omen ; abb-ran^ dark, 
I e. raftf feafon of abby fprites, (Greek E»>^'ff, ri{, 

* ^if/Juf 8c »Aii7«f», (omeq) are of Magogian or Pelafgian- 
Iri(h original alfo, i. e. pbaithman ; phaith or faith ominator; 
cleidh^ myiicrium ; o'me^ ominatoris. I am much inclined to 
think that Caledonia^ or north of Scotland, is derived from 
Clidb-oin'ia^ i. e. the cpaotry of the myfterious omioators, fee- 
ing our Dadananai fettled there fo long ; yet, I acknowledge, 
the Irifli cleld^ the north, ia much againft me ; and here it will 
not be amifs to mention, that the Greek mroclydon^ which has 
fo long entertained the critics, appears to me, no more than the 
Pclafgian Irifti oir^-cUid^ eaft from the north, or a north-north- 
eaft wind, which fo much endangered St. Paul,^-of the fai»^ man^ 
we are yet %o treat in our topography of Ireland. 


P R E F AC E. cxxxvii 

Hcfychius from ^fchylus;) ahb-eil^ calumniator; 
di-abb-eil^ the devil, (Arab, ablis, iblis ;) abb-fuigbam^ 
to be aftonilhed ; abhfe^ a fprite ; ahbfeoir^ the devil, 
a gafconader, adverfary ; abbta^ ubbta^ upta^ forcery, 
witchcraft; obban^ uabban^ fear, dread, forcery ; obbnacb^ 
terrible ; uabb^ fear, dread, horror, miracle, (PerficS 
ujubh^ Arab, aajiby miracle, prodigy, wonders ;) ubb^ 
gaoiibj whirlwind, i. e. gaoitb^ or mnAoiubb or aub\ 
ubb'Uifce^ a whirlpool or water of j4ub. 

As I am of no party, have no fyftem to fupport, 
but write for information, and have produced an- 
cient and refpeftable authority for every thing here 
offered, fupported by living evidence, tbe language of 
tbe people : I think it candid to mention one great ob- 
jeftion that occurs to me, againft this attempt to elu- 
cidate the hiftory of Ireland : it is this ; the Irifli 
chriftian writers of the early ages, pofitively affert, 
that our Hibernian druids, permitted no idol wor- 
ship, no graven images ; and what feems to confirm 
this ailertion, is, that no images have ever been found 
in/)ur bogs, among the various reliques of druidifm, 
which have been difcovered. They fay, that the 
unhewn ftones capped with gold and filver, to repre- 
fent the fun and moon, furrounded with twelve others, 
to rcprefent the angels prefiding over the feafons or 
months, or by nineteen others, to reprefent the lunar 
cycte^ or by twenty-eight, to reprefent the folar 
cycle ; were the only fpecies of idolatry to be found ; 
and hitherto, experience and obfervation lead me to 
believe it, and this furround of ftones was called the 
cill or hilly from whence cill now implies a place of 
devotion^ a church ; but we meet with many Cill in 
Ireland, where no traces of a chriilian church are to 


cxxxviii PREFACE. 

be found* confequently they receive their names from 
the druidical temples which once flood in thofc places. 
The word cill is not from the Latin cc/Ia as fome have 
imagined, but from the Hebrew cbill : inter montem 
templi & atrium mulierum, erat S^n, cbiil^ five 
w^^TH^trfM^ fpatium antemurale. (Relandus Antiq. 
facrae. p. 29.) Cineres hujus vaccae colledti in tres par- 
tes dividebamur — una in S*n, cb/IIy five antemurali 
fervabatur in memoriam exulli( ni^. (Idem, p. 109.) 
The circle of ftones was called ^/r, as I have often 
mentioned, hence cir-goor or kirgaur was the name 
of the circles buih bythe augurs, and are always dif- 
tinguilhed by this name from the cabara. Cirgaur was 
the ancient name of Stcne Hcnge in England. 
Cirgaur exifts in many places in Ireland, particularly 
near lough Gaur in the County of Limerick. This 
word has been miftaken by Mr. Cookefor two Hebrew 
words, viz. *10, cu\ the chonca marina, or any round 
building, and lU, gaur^ congregatio. (Cooke s En- 
(jtiiry, p. 52.) 

The fame obfervation has been made of the Gome- 
rian Celts by the learned Adamus Bremenfis. ** Decs 
** fuos neque templis includcre, neque ulla hamani 
" oris fpecie allimilare, ex magnitudine & dignitate 
" celeftium arbitrati funt ; lucbs & nemora conftcran- 
** tes, deorumque nominibus appellantes, fecretum 
"• illud fola revereniia contemplabantur." (Hift. 
Ecclcf, c. 6t^ He then gives a drawing and defcrip- 
tion of a druidical altar in Germany, at a place called 
Erut'kawp^ and obferves, brut^ hariolari, licet 5 but 
jnodeftly exprelTes his doubts of this explanation ; this 
is die Iri(h brio^^ o, forcerer j derived of the Hebrew 

a Ruacby 


P R E F A C £• cxxxix 

3 Ruacb^ to divine by the Holy Ghoft, as before ex- 
plained : how then does this agree with Caefar's de- 
fcription of the Germans neque Druides babentj neque 
Jacrijkiis Jiudent. (Bell. Gall. lib. 6.) 

The ancient Arabs had alfo the rude upright ilone 
or pillar. Arabes Deum quidem colunt, qualem ta- 
tamen minima novi : flatua autem quam vidi, erat 
quadratus lapis. (Maximus Tyrius.) The modern 
Arabs ftill pay great veneration to this ftone. Sic ho- 
dieque Meccae m Alcahaba, lapidem nigrum colunt 
Arabes, & ob revercntiam ofculantur. (Bochart.) 
The learned Spencer, fully proves, that thefe pillars 
were the Cham-manim or Hham-manim of the 
•Egyptians. Nam Scripiura Sacra de Cham-manim 
loquitur tanquam columnis aut Aatuis excelfis, aut ia 
ahum elevatis, non tanquam fimulacris in formam 
orbicularem fabrefadis. Sic itaque naturam & for- 
mam eorum explicandam cenfeo. Chammanim Sym- 
bola quaedam erant, aut figura conica, vel pyrami- 
dali fadta, quibus idololatrae veteres ad folis & ignis 
cultum utebantur. Nam Deus ille in quo folem cole- 
bant veteres, ab ^gyptiis Ammon, ab Africanis 
Hammon, ab aliis Omanus, didus eft. — Verifimili 
itaque conjedura ducor ut fentiam, idololatras antiquos 
ad radii folaris formam, & ignis (fymboli folaris) fi- 
guram pyramidalem, ea plerunque compofuifle. — 
Non temere dubitandum eft, -ffigyptios, Solem, Lu- 
nam & Sydera impenfe coluifle. . 

Spencer derives Chamman from npH a word in the 
Hebrew and i^gyptian languages, fignifying heat, 
and the fun as the fountain of heat. (Spencer De 
Legibus Hebr. v. i.e. 25.) The latter part of the 



compound, viz. man^ fignified the emblem, and 
fometimes god : from this word man^ many of the 
hills and mountains in Ireland receive their name ; as 
Sliabh-na-man, Man-garton, Man-a-Bhcil or Man- 
avulla, &c» &c- and on the tops of all thefe, the 
Chammamin are flill to be found. 

The fcripture feems to diftinguifti the Mrorftiippcrs 
of Baal in the groves, as having no graven images. 
2 kings, c. 21. I. Manaileh did after the abomination 
of the heathen whom the lord caft out. — He built up 
again the places, he reared up altars for Baal and 
made a grove and worftiipped all the hoft of heaven 
and ferved them — he built altars in the houfe of the 
lord — he built altars. for all the hoft of heaven, in the 
two courts of the houfe of the lord, and he made his 
fon pafs through the fire, and obferved times 
and ufed enchantments and dealt with familiar fpirits 
and wizards, and he fet a graven image of the grove 
that he niiade in the houfe. 

And in Leviticus we find a diftindion made be- 
tween the graven image and the upright unwrought 
ftone. Ch. 26. i. Ye (hall make no idols, nor graven 
image, neither rear you up a ftandrng image (pillar) 
neither (hall ye fet up any image of ftone f Heb. a ftone 
piiSture) in your land, to bow down unto it. 

2 Kings, 17. 29. Howbeit every nation made gods 
of their own ; and put them in high places, which the 
Samaritans had made every nation in the city wherein 
they dwelt. — V. 30. The men of Babylon made Sue- 
coth'benoth, — the menofCuth, madeNergal, — the 
men of Hamoth, made Aftiima, — and the Avitesmade 
Nibboz, &c. ficc. fo that we find thefe idolaters clear- 



ly diftingulflied from the grove worfhippers of Baal. 
Again we find the ^gvptians very early mentioned 
as having magicians. Gen. 41. 8 And Pharoah fent 
and called for all the magicians of Egypt and the wife 
men. — V. 45. Can we find fuch a one as this is, a 
man in whom the fpirit of God is ? And he gave him 
to wife Afinath, the daughter of Potipherah, prieftof 

** Egypt (fays Mr. Hutchinfon) had priefts and 

*' they had lands aifigned them ; and 'tis likely they 

^^and the magicians were the fame, and I think the 

•' city of ON, mentioned early, was a place of wor- 

^^ (hip dedicated to this power, and that they had tow* 

"crs, as the tower of Syene and Naph, Pathros, 

" Zoan, Sin, No, Auen, Phibefeth,. Tohaphnebes ^ 

" fomc are proper names, and 'tis likely the reft were 

^^ fuch. And they had images, poles, or pillars, 

** upon the tops of the towers. And they had pillars 

** which''tis likely were fet up as memorials of fome 

" pretended atchievements of their gods, before wri- 

** ting was : whether they were only pillars, or they 

** had each the enfign of the fun, or a globe with r^ys 

** of light on the top, and fo were called images of 

'^ the light and fun, I am not certain, and thefe gods 

***were called Dungy Gods, by way of contempt." 

Mr. Hutchinfon has here exadly pourtrayed the wor- 

fliipof our Hibernian Druids, who with a knowledge 

of the true God, mixed an abominable worfhip of the 

infernal angels, and as Erafmus and Olaus Wormius 

obferve of the German Druids, gratSi quHdam cultus 

viciffitudine, cibis fumptis, hymnos facros in honor^m, 

vcri & fupremi numinis ceciniffe. 


cxili PREFACE. 

And Tacitus informs us, that the Swedes thought 
It unworthy of the ccleftial gods, to be ftiut up in 
temples, or to bear any human refemblance. ** Cae- 
terum nee cohiberi parietibus Deos, nee in ullam 
humani oris fpeciem affimilare ex magnitudine codef- 
tium arbitrantur." (De mor. Germ.) 

2 Kings, 23. 5. — And the king, (Jofiah) com- 
manded to bring forth out of the temple of the lord, 
all the veffels that were made for Baal and for the 
grove, and for all the hoft of heaven and he burnt 
them. — And he put down the idolatrous prlefts, 
>vhom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn in- 
cenfe in the high places, in the cities of Judah and in 
the high places round about Jerufalem : them alfo 
that burned incenfc unto Baal, to the fun and to the 
moon and to the planets, (Twelve Signs or Con- 
stellations) and to all the hoft of heaven. 

Deutr. 7. 5. Ye fliall deftroy their altars and teak 
down their pillars, and cut down their groves, and 
burn their graven images with fire. V. 25. Thou 
Ihalt not defirethe filver nor gold that is upon them. 

Our Dungy priefts, as Mr. Hutchefon calls them, 
(inftead of ♦jyT Danani,) our priefts of On, in the 
country of Tir-Oin, had one On, Clogh *, or ftone 


• Onn 18 rendered in the Irifli Lexicons, a ffone, but it im- 
plies a ftone pillar dedicated to the fun. We find On^ £09$ 
Aon in the old gloflaries, explained by Sam^ i. e. the fun. 
And Ong 18 a fire, a hearth, front the fires conftantfy kept 
burning in honour of Baal or the fun — ^and as the priefts of the 
fun, were admitted by unftlon, Ongadh is to anoint, whence 
9ng has various meanings as, clean, clear, healing, curing, s- 
nointing, fire, ftone, hearth, forrow, grief, a figh, gain, pro- 


pillar, remarkable for the quantity of gold, with 
which it was overlaid; this was called by way of emi- 
nence On-oir or Clogh*oir, and the place where this 
ftood, is now a bifhop's fee, known by the name, of 
Clogher : this is the common tradition, but I think 
Clogh-oir isdcrived from aire forcery, — the ruachan- 
ftone, vulgo rocking-ftone, is defcribed by Borlafe; it 
was the prophetic ftone or oracle. 

Notwithftandingall thefe authorities drawn from the 
facred writings, and the great uniformity and fimili- 
tude that reigns in all the ancient Iri(h MSS. 
between the worfliip of the ancient Irifh and that of 
the ancient Egyptians, Chaldaeans and Phoenicians^ 
I cannot prevail upon myfelf to think, that, our mixt 
colony of Pelafgian or Magogian Scythians, Phoeni- 
cians and -Egyptians, did emigrate to this country at 
fo remote a period ; and yet it is certain that the moft 
ancient idolaters built no temples^ and like our Irifh 
Dmids, chofe the tops of the higheft hills and moun- 
tains for their altars and places of wor(hip. Thus 
Herodotus tells us of the ancient Pcrfians, that^ 
" they had no images, neither did they build altars 
or temples; charging thofe with folly who did thofc 

fit, &c. frc. Hence the temple of Onias near MemphiSy built 
by pf rmiflion of Ptolemy Philametor, wbich the Greeks called 
Onv «fp«y and often Onn^f and the adjacent country av/v x^f» and 
the metropolis known alfo by the name of Heliopolis, wa». 
changed to Oy/v /Mnrpd7«A<; and then it was ludicroufly faid the 
Jews had worfhipped there an afs rh oyor^ but what is mofl ex- 
traordinary, the Gnoflics, chriftians of Judea, in the firft agct 
the churchy reprefented their god Sabaoth in the figure of sa 
afs, and a monkifh ftory was foon trumped up of Zacharias 
having feen Sabaoth in his alTaniae form !!! 

things : 

qdiv PREFACE. 

things: but that when they went to facrifice to 
Jupiter, they afcended the higheft parts of the n>oun- 
tains/' Strabo obferves likewife of them, " that 
they had neither images nor altars, but facrificed to 
the gods upon fome high place." — Thus we find 
Cyrus having had a dreajn which affured him his end 
drew near, " facrificed/- fays Xenophon** on the 
fummit of a mountain, as is the cuftom in Perfia. 
And the fame was likewife pradifed by the inhabitants 
of Pontus and Cappadocia. ( Appian de Bello Mi* 

They certainly learned this, and the planting their 
places of worfhip with trees, of the old patriarchs, 
who thought it an unfit thing to confine the infinity 
of God's majefty, and therefore made choice of 
mountains rather than other places, for the worfhip- 
ping of God, and to facrifice to him upon ; planting 
them with trees, that the awfulnefs of the (hade 
might contribute tp the raifmg their devotion, and 
render them proper folemn places for the adoration of 
the deity. But the gentiles, (modern when compar* 
cd to the Irilh Druids) though they retained moun* 
tains and groves for their public worfliip, foon cor- 
rupted their opinions which firft brought them into 
ufe. Having made the fun, nioon and ftars, objeds 
of their worfliip, they had the fairer view of their 
gods, and thought it was agreeable to their advanced 
ftation to worfliip them on the higheft afcents, and 
that their prayers and facrifices would be more avail- 
ing in thofe places, than in valleys; for, being nearer 
to their deities, they might in their opinion^ be the 
eafier heard and better obferved by them. Thus 


PREFACE. citly 

Lucian tells us, that they had in the porch of the tem- 
ple at Hierapolls which ** flood on the knob of a hill, 
Priapus's three hundred cubits high, into one of 
which a man gets up twice a year, and dwells feven 
days together in the top of the phallus, that he may 
converfe with the gods, above, arid pray for the proiP 
perity of Syria ; which prayers, (ays he, are the bet- 
ter heard by the gods for his being near at hand.** — 
This was the opinion of Lucian, but the fadt is, thefe 
pillars or round towers, were madefor^celeftial obfer- 
vations, as thofe ftill Handing in Ireland, were by 
our Druids. Tacitus was of the opinion of Lucian 9 
fpeaking of fome very high mountains^ he fays, that 
they did " maxime Caelo appropinquare, precefque 
raortalium a Deo nufquam proprius audire.'* Thifil 
led the more grofs idolaters to dedicate their mountains 
to fome particular deity. *' In the early dawn of fu- 
perftition, fays Lucian, mankind was content to con- 
fecrate their groves, mountains and plants, to fome 
particular god." — Hence it is that ^fchylus calls the 
Lydian mountain Tmolus V«' ^f^^^*^ and Philoftratus 
tells us, that the Indians called the mountain Caucafus, 
etSt'^otx^u But, we muft con fider thefe accounts are 
given us by grofs idolators, for Jamblicus tells us, 
(Se(ft/i. c. 17.) from the old books of the Egyptians, 
that they efteemed the fun, moon and ftars, only the 
feats of fuch celeftial fpirits as take care of human af- 
fairs. And the Philofophers Pythagoras, Plato, &c. 
who travelled into the Eaft in fearch of knowledge, 
were not fo abfurd as to believe that the hoft of hea- 
ven were really and abfolutely gods, but taught at 
their return, that they w^re the feats and refidence of 
VoL.IlI. N^XIL L their 

cxlvi PREFACE. 

their gods. Therefore Zeno» when he aflerts, that 
the fun, moon and ftars^ are intelligent and wife, 
fiery fire, mull be underftood to mean, that thcfe bo- 
dies, which he imagined to be oompofed of fire, were 
informed and aduated by a wife intelligent being : 
wherefore Pofidonius fays of the Stoicks, that they 
thought a fiar to be a divine body« And Philo the 
Jew, who was a great Platonizer* calls the ftars, 
*^ divine images^ and incorruptible and immortal 
fouls v" which muft be in regard of the fpirits which 
he fuppofed informed them : and Proclus calls the 
fun the king of intelledkual fire ; this makes Hamer, 
fay ** the fun from his lofty fphere all fees and hears.'* 
(Od. 12. V. 326) Agreeable to this, Anaxagoras 
was condemned by the Athenians, and fined and ba- 
nilhed, becaufe he held the fun to be nothing but a 
mere mafs of fire, and the moon a habitable earth; 
as if the denying them to be animated, was the fame 
thing as to deny them to be gods. Hence the Baal of 
the eaft andof Ireland, the fuppofed agent of theTj^iwr, 
became the Greek ZiPif, (firom.the Pelafgian ln(h /os^ 
omnifcient) and the Roman Jupiter, that they made 
to inhabit the fun : a ftrong proof of what fflly and I 
abfurd hypothefes men are capable of erecting, \rtien 
once they give way to vain fpeculations, and (cience 
falfely fo called, and what fools they become, when 
once they profefs themfelves wife ! It would be happy 
for the world, fome modern chriftians were as free 
from cenfure, as the pagan Hibernian Druids were. 

In low flat countries, they raifcd artificial alcents 
for their altars : thefe earns are innumerable over Ire- 
land, Scotland and England* Kircher is of opinion, 



that this was the ufe of the Egyptian pyramids : in 
confirmation of his opinion, he produces Abenephius 
an Arabian, who fays, ** the Egyptian priefts piled i 

up huge ftonesin the figure of a cone, or lofty pyra- 
mid, and called them, the altars of their gods.*' And 
he affirms, that the Coptites likewife called them the 
pillars and altars of the gods. 

When the Spaniards firft came into Mexico, they 
found the fame fort of places built for worfhip there. 
Gage defcribes them as their common temples; one 
of them, he fays, " was a fquare mount of earth and 
ftone, fifty fathom long every way, built upwards 
like to a pyramid of Egypt, faving that the top was not 
Iharp, but plain and flat, and ten fathoms fquare ; up-^ 
on the weft fide were fteps up to the top, that their 
priefts might turn their backs to the fun, for theit 
prayers were made towards the rifing fun." 

By'the account Gcmelli gives us of the Mexican py- 
ramkis at Teotiguacan, (which in that language, fig-' 
nifies, fays he, a place of gods^ or of ad$ration^') they 
like the Egyptian, were crefted both for fepulchres 
and the worftiip of their gods: the firft he faw was 
that of the Moon^ about fifty yards high. This Mexi- 
can word is literally Irifli, Ti-teag-uagban^ the fepul- 
chre of the houfe of the fpirit (God.) See Ti explain- 
ed in Xth Number collated with the Chinefe. 

All thefc examples are convincing proofs of the re- 
mote antiquity of the ancient inhabitants of Ireland^ 
and I flatter myfelf, the learned will agree, that the 
ancient language of the Irifh is worthy of preferva- 
tion, and is of ufe in illuftrating the facred and pro- 
' fane authors. 

La The 

cxlviii PREFACE. 

The ingenious Eugene Aram derives all this fimi- 
litudeofcuftoms, language, &c. between the Irilli 
and Britifh, from the Celtse, whofe language he fays 
was the foundation of the Greek and Latin — ** that 
Celtic which polilhed by Greece and refined by Rome, 
and which only, with dialectic difference, flowed from 
the lips of Virgil and thundered from the mouth of 
Homer.'* — I flatter myfelf to have thrown new lights 
on this curious fubjeft, and to have proved that the 
old language of thefe iflands, was originally Paleftinc- 
Scythic : it was in fadt the language of that people 
which Monfieur Bailly calls Vancicn pcuple perdu. 
O^ttres fur les Sciences and Voltaire's obfervation on 
them.) And if I may be allowed the expreflion, I 
efteem the Irifh, Erfe and Manx to be thefe very 
ancient people, and therefore they may properly be 
called Pancien peuple perdu^ retrouvie. Dans rHiftotre 
de TAftronomie ancienne, publiee Tannde derniere, 
on a parld d'un peuple ddtruit & oublie, qui a prece- 
de & eclaire les plus anciens peuples connus. On a 
dit que la lumiere des Sciences &: la philofophie fem- 
blaient 6tre defcendues du nord de TAfie, ou du moins 
avoir brillc fous le parallele de 50 degres, avant de 
s'etendre dans Tlnde & dans la Chaldde. On n'a 
point eu Tintention d'avancer des paradoxes: on a dit 
fimplcment ce que les faits ont indique. (Lettres for 
les Sciences. Preface:) 

In conformity to cuftom, I have hitherto adopted 
the term Hiberno-Celtic for the language of the an- 
cient Irilh; now the Scythians or Tartars, the pofte- 
rity of Gomer, were the realCeltse of the Greeks and 
Romans, and the Irilh Seanachies never acknowledge 


PREFACE. cxlix 

rfiemfelves to be the defcendants of Gomer, but of 
Magog: Dodor Parfons has made this obfervation; 
" It is very remarkable, fays he, that the earlieft Iri(h 
records are as clofcly conformable to fcripture, in 
the divifion of the world between the fons of 
Noah, as they are in other refpedts ; efpecially if it 
be confidered, that fcveral of them were wrote long 
before revealed religion was received in Europe, and 
others compofed and handed down by the fileas and 
bards, many centuries before the birth of Chrift, and 
committed to writing in later times: and in fuch of 
them as I have feen, not much is faid of Gomer, but 
they derive the firft inhabitants that came into Ireland, 
and indeed every other colony that afterwards invaded 
it, from Magog, the father of the Scythians. C^^- 
mmnsofjapbet^ p. i6a.) 

The doctor then concludes with faying, that tjiei 
firft inhabitants of Ireland were Magogian Scythiansi^ 
and the firft of Britain were Gomerians ; yet in the 
fubfequent part of his work, he attempts to prove 
that the languages were the fame : they wercfo, moft 
probably, whilft they remained together in Scythia,* 
but I am convinced that neither the Infh or the Welfli 
will allow that they are fo at this day, or have any ap- 
pearance of having been the fame language, at any 
time finoe their arrival in Europe. 1 flatter myfelfto 
have traced the caufe of this variation, by deriving 
the Irifti from that great body of Magogian Scythians 
who at one time over run Paleftine and mixed with 
the Phoenicians and -Egyptians,' and in the conclufion 
of this work, 1 propofe to draw ftronger proofs of my^ 
affertibns from language. 



It is certain that the Polytbeifm of the modem 
Greeks, or even of the modern ^Egyptians or Phoe- 
nicians, never were introduced into the druidical reli- 
gion of Ireland. The druids taught the worlhip of 
tfie true God ; they believed in fubordinate deities or 
angels prefiding over the aftions of mankind ; they 
1>elieved in a future*ftate of happinefs and the immor- 
tality of the foul i but they knew nothing of Apolio» 
Jupiter, Mars, &c. &c. they paid a veneration to the 
jQjn, moon and ftars, as the agents of the true God ; 
and thefc were called Cabaray tlie great ones \ TI13 
in Hebrew and Arabic, (potensO the ancient 
j£gyptians and Phoenicians did the fame, and had 
thtxx Cabirij which Pluche think§ were Ofiris, Orus 
and Ifis. (Eufebius dtpnapar. Evang. /. i . 6? Plato in 
Cratyhy &? Abbi Plucbe,) The Irifli druids held a cor- 
rcfpondence with the Greeks after they bad adopted 
Polythcifm, yet they would neVer permit fuch grofe 
idolatry into their worship : like the ancient Scythians 
their anceftor^, they were fo tenacious of their own 
laws^ cuftoms and woribip, that they punilhcd every 
perfon who made the leaft attempt to foljow thafc of 
a#iy other nation : thi.^ wds the remark, of Herodotus 
in his Mejppm. . Anacharfis> a famous Scythian phi- 
lofopher went to Athens to pay a vifit to Solon, and 
^vas greatly admired by the Greelf law-giver, f<>r.hxs 
great learning and extenfive knowledge: — but^ he- 
caufe he affedled the manners and cuftoms of the 
Greeks, when Anacharfis was ever mestioDed, the 
Scythians would anfwer they knevir . nothing of 

hirij.V * '.'^^ :'"' 


*^ Now, fays Dodtor Paifons, becaufe the Scythran 
philolbphers taught the dodrine of a futureftate, fome 
authors imagined they had it from Pythagoras j but 
we may, without doing any violence to fuchhifto- 
rians, reverfe this opinion, and a(fert that he wais 
taught by the Gomerians or Sc>thian theologifts. 
Abaris was a very famous philofopher among the Scy- 
thians ; he and Zamoixis wrote of a place of blifs af- 
ter this lifie, andif we give credit to the words of Tra- 
jan, they believed they fliould live again. Thefe and 
many other Scythian philofophers mentioned in the 
Irifti records, who flbu-riflied ftveral centuries before 
Pythagoras was thought of, had always correfpon- 
dence with the>Gomerian fages, the druids, even from 
the time of japhet ; and it is certain^ that the mod 
ancient nations had tlieir knowledge of thefe matters 
from Noah and his iflue; the purer dodfines from 
that of Japhet and Shem;-the rtic^e corrupt from that 
of Ham: fo that the Gomerian, Scythian or Mago-' 
gian, and Chafldfiean philofophers had originally the 
fame pur€ notions- of the* Deity, and did not devi- 
ate in any wife, till idolatry atid polytheifm had over- ^ 
taken them, ami caufed in many places, their divifion 
into different fedls refpetaif tly . But the affinity in the 
fyftems of the Scythians and- Gomerians in their no- 
tions of the theogeny, lafted longer ; for, when ido- 
latry had ovenaken them, the corruption affedVed 
them both alike; as they migrated wetland northweft 
upon the Contment of Europe ; biit tbe'worjbip of God 
^as untainted in Brit a m dnd Irf.lai^d tiiany ages 
after its adukeration elfeVhere.*' (Remains o/Japbet, p. 
r40.> ' ^ 

r Dodlor 



** Dodlor Burnet makes no queftion but the druids 
** were of the ancient race of wife men ; not ihc Grc- 
** clan, fays he, whom Pliny, after the oriental cx- 
** preffion^ calls the Magi of the Gauls ; — in (hort it 
^* is not an eafy matter to point out the rife and firft 
•* ages of the druidb." 

Strabo fays, the Turditani or Boetici who were the 
wifeft of the Iberians, had commentaries of antiquity, 
together with poem5, and laws written in verfe, fevc- 
ral thoufand years old. Dodlor Parfuns has proved 
thefe Iberians were Magogian Scythians ; again, (ays 
the Doftor, the Hetrurians of Italy, were, a fct of 
Philofophers, who, ag^ording to Diod. Sicul applied 
themfelves to th« ftudy of nature, efpecially the phe- 
nomena of the atmofphere, portents and prodigies ; 
befides which, they philpfophifed concerning the ori- 
gin and end of the world». ^nd the time of its duration ; 
infomuch, that upon ^very^unufual appearance in na- 
ture, they, were always confulted, ^ven by the ftate, 
as well as individuals, and their decifion was held fa- 
cred, and their advjce followed : WJio were the He- 
trurians, but 4 race defcended from the firftPBLASCi, 
who went iiito Italy after uhe flood ? And who were 
the Pelafgi, but Gomerians and Magogians from the 
ifles of £li(ha and Iberia^ whigh I have fufficiently 
proved elfewhere ? And in fine, who were thefe latter 
** Hetrufcan philofopherp, but a feledlfeft of ftudents 
^* taught by the druids, and jin time diftingui(hcd by 
•' the name Hetrufci \ but npt till after the Latin lan- 
*' guage was formed.*' (Remains ofjqpbetj p. 141 J 

Milton, an author, who was as full of learning, as 
Jie was void of illiberal prejudices, who was an enemy 


PREFACE. cliii 

to low fervility, or partial narrow fentiments, and not 
at all addidled to credulity, tells us, '* that learning 
and fciences were thought by the beft writers of an- 
tiquity, to have been flourifliing among us, andT 
** that the Pythagorean philofophy, and the wifdom 
** of Perfia had their beginning from Britain ; fo that 
** the druids of the Gomcrians, and xh^fileas of the 
*' Magogians, whether in thefe iflands or on the con- 
** tineijit, were the original fages of Europe in all t;he 
•' fciences fxom Japhet/* 

*' The druids of the continent never committed 
** their myfteries to writing, fays Doftor Parfons, but 
** taught their pupils metnoriter: whereas, thofe of 
*' Ireland and Scotland, wrote theirs* but in charadl- 
*' crs different from the common mode of writing; 
*' but thefe were well underftood by the learned men, 
*' who were in great numbers, and had not only ge- 
*^ nius, but an ardent inclination to make refearches 
•* into fcience ; and therefore they were the more rea- 
*' dy to receive the light of the gpfpel from Patrick, ef- 
** pecially as great numbers continued diffcntients, 
** all along, from the fuperftitions of the druidical fy f- 
^* tem i and it was with a general confent, and the 
** applaufe of iht learned, that this apoftle committed 
** to, the flames two hundred tradtsof the pagan myf- 
** teries.'* (Remains ofjapbet^ p. 144.) 

Thofe great antiquaries, Lhwyd, Rowland and 
Borlafe, make the fame obfervations refpeding the 
Irifti druids committing their tenets to writing, where- 
as it was death for a druid of the Gomerian race, both 
in England and Gaul. Can it then be fuppofed, that 



the religious tenets of the Hibernian druids, and of the 
Welfli, were the fame ? 

They differed alfo in another very material dr- 
cumftance: thofe of the Gomerian race had fuch 
power and afcendancy over the minds of the people» 
that even kings themfeives paid an implicit flavifh 
obedience to their dictjktes ; infomuch, tliat their ar- 
mies were brave in battle, or abjedl enough to decline 
even the moft advantageous profpefts of fuccefs, ac- 
cording to the arbitrary prognofticks of this fet of re- 
ligious tyrants j and their decifions became at laft pe- 
remptory in civil, as well as in the affairs of reli- 

But this flavilh conceflSon to the wills of the druids 
never prevailed in Ireland, notwithftanding the gene- 
ral efteem they were in with the vulgar, becaufe they 
had fchools of philbfophy, and their princes were as 
well vcrfed in the nature of things as their priells, and 
therefore fciencc gave them liberty to think for them- 
feives. Their /Af(w fupported this fpirit in the gentry, 
and their brebonsox }u6gt^ fuperintended in civil mat- 
ters; fo that the druids hiad no power in the framtog 
or adminftration of the laws. 

The learned Cooke in his enquiry into the patriar- 
chal and druidical religion, fays^ ^* Not^tolay any 
** greater ftrefs than needs, up6n the evidence of the 
*' affinity of words, with theJHebrew and Phoenician, the 
*^ multitude of altars and pillars, or temples fetupin the 
" ancientpatriarchal wayof worlhip; throoghoutENO- 


** form an argument conclufive, that an Oriental 
*' colony muft have been very early introduced.'* 



Sammes in his hiftory of Britain, brings the Phoeni- 
cians to Britain in the time of Jolhua i for, fays he, 
they were driven up into a flcnder nook of earth, too 
narrow to contain fo great and numerous a body< 
they difceded themfelves into good (hipping, to feek 
their fortunes in moft p^rts of the world, of whofe 
company Britain received a confideraWe (hare. 

Carte, author of the general hiftory of England, 
fays, it was about 450 years before Chrift, that thefe 
Phoenicians firft difcovcred the Britifh ifles; and a 
trade to thefe parts was opened by the Carthaginians, 
who about the year of Rome 307, fent Hanno and 
Hamilcar, with each a flcet^ to fail, the one fouth, 
the other northward from the Streights of Gibraltar, 
to difcorer the weftern coafts of the continent of Afri- 
ca and Europe, and the iflands that lay in the Atlan-' 
tic ocean. (P. 41.) 

Now Carthage was founded by the Tyriiafe 1259 
years before Chrift; is it probable that a nation fo 
well (killed in navigation, would refide there 8oay€ttrs 
without being acquaintied with the Atlantic ocean ? 
Bilhop FJujBt atfertB, that befiare the time of Jo(hua, 
fome colonies of Phoenicians were fettled on the coaft' 
of Africa i for the expedition of the Phoenician Her- 
cules into Aff ica, fays he», was about 300 years before 
Jiafan went to Colchis.. And it is this Hercules that 
Sanchjpni^thpn has mentioned under the name of Me- 
lecarihtts^ a^4 therefore his voyage into Africa was. 
preceding the time of .Gi^^n, cp^ernporary with; 
Sanchoniathon. So that before the time of Solomon, 
of Hyrora w)d of Hottrer^ die Phoenicians had over- 
run the greateft part oftfie coaftof the ancient world. 


clvi PREFACE. 

Be it noted that the Phoenician word Mdecart^ in Irilh 
iignifies (killed in navigation. (Set p. cxxii.) 

M. rAbb6 de Fontenu has clearly proved that the 
Phoenicians had an eftablifbed trade with Britain be- 
fore the Trojan war, 1 190 years before Chrift, (Mem. 
de LineraturCf torn. 7.^. 126.) and that this commerce 
continued for many ages; that the Carthaginians af- 
terwards took up this trade, and excluded all other 
nations from the knowledge of the fituation of Britain, 
and quotes a pafiage from Strabo, where he relates 
that the captain of a Carthaginian velTel, feeing him- 
felf followed by a Roman fleet, chofe to'fteer a faUe 
courfe, and land upon another coaft, rather than 
fhew the Romans the way to Britain ; fo jealous were 
the Carthaginians of enjoying the immenfe profits 
they got by the fine tin of the Britannic ifles*. 

Who then can doubt, fays the Abb6, but that the 
anicient Britains, after that clofe correfpondence with 
the Phoenicians and Carthagenians, for fo many ages, 
had adopted, not only the manners and cuftoms, but 
even the religion of the Phoenicians. For, this com- 
merce could not have lafted during fo great a fpace 
of time, if the Phoenicians had not great eflablifh- 
ments in thefc iflands, and the liberty of making a 
public profeflion of their religion. The Abb6 then 
proceed^ to fhew, that the Saxons borrowed from 
the Britains the worfhip of Ifis, a deity of the Phoe- 
nicianSy which the Saxons, be thinks communicated 
to the Swedes^ and here the Abb6 quotes the follow- 

* If the Carthaginians could alter their courfe at fea, at plea- 
fure, they certainly had the ufe of the compafs* See Fan-tut 
19 the concluiion of this number, 


PREFACE. civil 

ing paflages of Tacitus, ^^ fignum ipfum, Ifidis, in 
modum libernae figuratum docet advedam religio- 
nem.'* — And alfo — "pars Suevorum & Ifidi facrificat'* 
to prove that the Swedes reprefented Ifis in the form 
of a (hip. I am of opinion that Tacitus here confirms 
the Arkite worftiip, fo learnedly handled by my wor- 
thy friend Mr. Bryant, becaufe Efs and Eis in Irifli^ 
or Magogian Scythic, and ajwz. in Arabic, iignify a 
ihip : and Apuleius tells us, that the mod expreifive 
fymbol of Ifis, with the Egyptians, was a vefiel of 

To this let us add that the ancients attributed the 
invention of navigation and the art of building fliips 
to Ifis and Ofiris, and afTert, that the fliip in which 
Ofiris failed, was the firft long (hip that had been 
upon the fea, for which reafon the -Slgyptian aftro- 
nomers placed this Ihip in the celeftial conftellations : 
it is the fame, the Greeks afterwards named the con- 
ftellation of Argo ; but Eifs-aire and Arg in Irifh are 
fynonimous names for a fea commander. Some au- 
thors obferve, that if Ifis had been known to the 
Pelafgians and other ancient Greek nations, Homer 
would certainly have mentioned this deity. To this 
I reply, that Homer has fubftituted Ceres for Ifis, 
and Diodorus Sic. and Herodotus aiTure us, that 
Ceres was the fame as Ifis ; and in the Pelafgian Irifh, 
Caras^ is a Ihip of war, and confequently fynonimous 
to Eis, or Ifis ; C^ras a firft rate fliip, Shaw's Didti- 
onary of the Irifii language. Now the words Eifs, or 
Efs and Caras, being peculiar to the Irifii and not to 
be found in Wellh, Cornilh or Armpric, to fignify a 
(hip, there can be no doubt of the words being Ma- 

clviii PREFACE. 

gogian-Scythian and that they were not introdnced 
into the Goooemn Celtic, ai.d confequently the Irllh 
and Wel(h were different dialcds. 

It is therefore probable tliat the ancient Greeks and 
Romans adopted the Scythian word £//>, a ihip, for 
the goddefs of marine affairs, and accordingly dedica- 
ted to her, piftures of wrecks at fea, as Juvenal ob- 
ferves in his 12th fatyr ; juft as the Spaniards and 
Portugueze do at this day to St. Anthony ; and in 
time, this was fuppofed to be the £g)'ptian Ifis, 
Cybele or Kybele, the mother of the gods, Natura, 
&c. &c. 

Plutarch and Apuleius introduce Ifis fpeaking thus, 
Rerum natura, parens fum omnium elementorum; 
and Macrobius fays, that Ifis was nothing elfe than 
the earth and nature : but Tacitus mifguided by the 
wordEifs, tells us that the Egyptian queen Ifis, pene- 
trated into Suabia and taught the Germans to honour | 
deities, to till the ground, and fow corn, and that in 
commemoration of the fhip that had brought the 
queen from Egypt, the Germans adored her under 
the figure of a fhip. The French antiquaries go fo 
far as to fay, that the arms of the city of Paris being a 
(hip, are derived alfo from the Egyptian Ifis, and that 
the name Paris, was a Greek word, and came from 
9«(« ^lo-K, near the famous temple of Ifis, fmce we 
mufl fuppofe, fays MonfieurDanet, that a temple was 
dedicated to this goddefs, where the abbey of St. Ger- 
main now flands. But in the infcription of the co- 
lumn dedicated by the ancient Greeks or Pelafgians, * 
to the Egyptian Ifis, as related by Diodorus Sic. we 
find no record of her maritime expedition ; it runs 


PREFACE. clix 

thus: "I am Ifis, queen of Egypt, inftru6led by 
Mercury ; nobody can aboU(h what I have eftablifhed 
by my ordinances ; I am the wife of Ofiris ; I firft in- 
vented the ufe of corn ; I am the mother of king 
Horus i I (hine in the dogftar ; by me the city of 
Bubafti was founded, wherefore rejoice thou Egypt, 
rejoice, thou haft brought me up and fed me." Now 
in the Pekfgian Iriih, the word Natura is exprefled 
by aosj ais^ uis and tabacb \ the laft is from the Chaldee 
yHb, taba^ natura; — Arab. /^^; — ]Sa):{\o^, tabady\ 
whence in irilh and Arabic teibe is a phyfician, a ftu- 
dent of nature : aos in the modern Irifti is compounded 
as in dutbcasyduddds^toiceas^beas^nos^mcineas^ all Agnify- 
ing natura^^htUQtaos dana^SiTCi2L%\z\zn\leigb'eas^ aphy- 
iiciau; uu'orby death; that is, deprivation or ceSkr 
tion of nature : and as the Egyptian Cerej is derived 
from the Hebrew D*li, gheres^ i. e. maturam fpicart, 
fo in the Iri(h, caoras^ is ripe corn; fruit in clufters, 
berries; and as the Egyptian Cybele^ i. e. Deorum 
mater, is derived from the Hebrew Sin, cbebeJ^ i. c. 
parere, (as PafTerius has (hewn in his Lex. Egypt. 
Hebr.) ib in the Pelafgi^n Irilh cbobaiUe^ is pregnancy ; 
^ebilj a midwife: in Arabic, bbabila% pregnant; ke^ 
bil^ or kebiUt^ a midwife, fpeci^s, tribe, family, 
generation, progeny. Again, 

The word Re in Irilh fignifies the moon, (in He- 
brew ireabb) which joined with aos or ais^ (the fame as 
the Egyptian Ifis,) forms aifre^ which I believe is 
the ma^K, ajbre^ of the bible; a word that, (as 
Bates obferves, Crit. Hebr, p. 54.) has been falfely 
rendered into Englilh, groves^ fqr a grove could not 
grow in the houfe of the Lord, or under every green 



tree. Maachah made an image to A(hre and ManaP- 
feh a graven image of it, and fet it in the houfe of 
the lord ; which he could not do to a grove, i K. 
xiv. 23. They built them high places and pillars and 
A(hres» on every high bill and under every green 
tree. — xvi. 12. He reared up an altar for Baal, and 
Ahab made an Alhre. — xviii. 19. The prophets <rf 
Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets of 
AHire four hundred. — ^xvii. i6. And they made an 
A(hire and worfliipped all the hod of heaven and ferv- 
ed Baal. — ^xxiii. 4. Bring forth out of the temple of 
the lord, all the veflels made for Baal and for Afhre 
and for all the hoft of heaven. — 6- And he brought 
out the Alhre from the houfe of the lord, and burnt 
it, and ftampt it to fmall powder, — Therefore, fays 
Bates, it was covered with fome metal, it appears to 
have been the eafcar, or rough done, capped with 
filver, ufed by the Irifh druids to reprefent the moon, 
as that of Baal or Sam, was capped with gold to re- 
prefent the fun, — hence the Greeks and Romans rc- 
prefented the -ffilgyptian Ifis, with a half moon, hold- 
ing a fphere with her right hand and a veflel full of 
fruit with her left. Bates imagines Samel mentioned 
2 Chron. xxxiii. 7. to be the fame as His, but Samel, 
I believe is the Sam or Baal (fun) of the ancient Iri(b 
and of the Aflyrians ; Aflire being always mentioned 
with Baal, I conclude it was a reprefentation of the 
moon, named in Irifh ea/c\ eafcar, eafconn, (the Ef- 
wara of the Indians, named alfo eikendra) words very 
fimilar to eafcra or afcra, a decayed grove, derived 
from the Hebrew nitJ^K Afhera, i. e. lucus ubi fte- 
riles funt arbores, and hence the miftake of the 
Engiifh tranflators. 


P R E' F A C E. clxi 

Wc are told that the Egyptians afcribed the over- 
flowings of the Nile, to the tears that Ifis (hed for the 
death of her hufband Ofiris : this appears to be ano* 
ther fable foifted in by the Greeks, for eas^ asj and 
ea/ar in Irifh fignifies a catara£t, a cafcade, ai) over- 
flowing of water after great rains or thaws, and mod 
probably fignified no more in the ancient Egyptian. 
It is alfo worthy of notice that Suris or Syris was the 
Egyptian name of the river Nile, a name adopted by 
the Irilh in the river Suir that runs by the city of 

Syris. Nomen Nili apud-ffithiopes. Dionyf. Perieg. 
de Nilo. 

— — Syris ab ^thiopibus vocatur. 
Quanquam Plinius, lib. 5. c. 9. non totoejusdecurfui 
id nomen attribuat, fed parti tantum. Dubium in- 
terim an hoc nomen a calore Reglonis, feu potius a 
navigatione fadum fit ; nam ^^D Syr etiam» fluvia- 
tiles fcaphas fignificat, ut Exod. xvi. 3. (Paflferius) 

Sur^ is an original word, has pafled into mod 
languages of the world, (like the word Sac\ a bag) 
Ex. gr. Swi\ Swr^ water, river, fea, Wdfli— Ciwr^, 
rain, u/u^ water, Sourga^ a great river, in Tartary — 
Suerd^ milky water, Spanifli — Surgeon^ a rivulet, 
Old French — Zuf^ an inundation, Suabb^ to fwim : 
zupb^ to flow. Heb. and Chaldee — Subb^ liquid, 
Syriac — Zur^ a well, a ciftern, in the fame — Sufb^ 
liquor, Ethiop. — Suis^ to wafti, zW, to fprinkle, Arab. 
— Sur^ water. Old Perf. — Sui^ a river, Pcrf. — Sou^ wa- 
ter, Cophtic — Tzou^ the fea, Armen.— iSwi, Oti/bu^ wa- 
ter, Kalmuc Mong — Sm^ a river, Indian — Su^ water, 
Chinefe — Xu^ liquor, Japonefe — Su^ water, Tur- 
Vol. III. N^ XII. M kilh 


kifli — Sio^ the fea, a river, Swedifli — Shr^ the fca, 
Iflandic — Soo^ a lake, Finland — Saiw, a pond, Go- 
thic — Sea^ Englifh, &c. Hence the name Sirenes, 
Syrens or fea goddefles, tnay have its origin ; thongh 
others derive it from the Phoenician word &r, to 

The paffages herein quoted, relating to the philo- 
fophical terms adopted by our Hiberno-Dmids,. are 
a proof that every fralgment of Pagan antiquity con- 
tributes to the explanation of the facred fcriptures; 
fhews the origin of that fuperllition which prevailed 
amongft the moll ancient Greeks, and is an evidence 
of the tmth of the Mofaic writings; we find all the 
'mod remarkable flories contained in them, difguifed 
In fuch a manner by die Heathens, as was necenary 
for the reception and carrying on of idolatry. Let 
fuch as h^ve too haftily ftiewn a difrefpeft for the 
writings of the old Teftament, ferioufly confidcr, if 
the want of a due veneration for them, has not pro- 
peeded from the^want of underftanding them. 

The like fuccefs attends the inveiligation of any 
ancient Greek words in the Pelafgian Irifh ; for ex- 
ample Delphi, one of the raoft ancient cities of Greece, 
was rernaTkabie for its orade j ^fchylus, Euripkle*, 
Pindar, an4 many others, call this dty 'o^»^«/i?, 
and HvtfA, Omphalos and Pythio, Python or Pj'thia. 
Pindar tells a ftory of two Eagles, fcnt by Jupiter, 
one eaft and the other weft; they met here and con- 
fequendy this fpot was 'o^f *xif w yS«,, the navel ef 
the earth. Phijrnutus derives the name fronH *0/«^ 
^ divine voice. And Pytho is derived from if»#»i*, 
to interrogate^ to undcrftand. AH thefe were cer- 

PREFACE. clxiii 

tainly Pclafgian words, and are ftill prefervcd in the 
Irilh and riot to be found in the Celtic or Wellh, 
viz. Om-pbaile or Onhfaik^ is the cave or den of au- 
gury, or of fate: — Dalbbaoi Dalpbai^ is augury or 
forcery, and Puiib'xs the fame as y&^, i. e. uur^ and 
thefe were ventriloquifts, as we have defcribed alreii- 
dy. Thefe fafts fpeak for themfclves. It is alfo 
remakable that the Hyperboreans of the Greeks, 
(whom I have reafon to think, were the Magogian- 
Scythians or IrilhJ gave the firft nf#f«T*i (\n Irifh bro' 
j>baiib) or prophets to this temple of the Delphi, as 
we are told by a very antient tradition prefervcd by 
Paufanias, and that they came from beyond the feaa 
to fettle at Pamaffus. In another fragment of a 
hymn compofed at Delphi by a woman named Beoy 
mention is made of three Hyperboreans, viz. Pagafis, 
Agyeus and Olen ; the firft performed the office of 
the prophet of Apollo, and declared the fenfe of the 
oracle hi hexameter verfe. Olen is probably the fame 
as OA49 AviuH of Paufanias, and was of the Ollam of 
Ireland, of whom we (hall treat in the fubfequent 
pages. Now, Bag-ois, Agb-ois and Ollam, were 
three names given to certain ranks of the Hibernian 
Druids, expounders of the bagh or holy word, of the 
Agh or holy law and the Ollam was a philofopher, 
or expounder of the law of Nature. See the defcrip- 
tjon of the hall of Tara in this number, 

* Having thus cleared the moft ancient part of the 
hiftory of Ireland, of the fables in which it was enve- 
loped, and (hewn from good authorities, that it is 
founded on fadts; I propofe in fome future number, 
to continue thefe obfervations to the arrival of the co- 
lony from Spain, under the conduct of Milefius. 

Mz Let 

clxlv PREFACE. 

Let not the Iri(h hiftorian be difmayed at the 
accounts of the Magogian Scythians, given by the 
authors of the univerfal hiftory. They have copied 
Herodotus only, who in his firft book and c. loj, 
fays, that Idng Madyes, the Scythian, conquered 
the Medes under Cyaxares and that they were mailers 
of Afia only twenty-eight years : Cyaxares reigned 
forty years and died five hundred and ninety four 
years before Chrift. 

We have much better authority for the great anti- 
quity of the Magogian Scythians, being mailers of 
Ada and part of Egypt. Juftin in the beginning of 
his book, fpeaks of the Scythian king Tanais as co- 
temporary with Vexores king of Egypt, and in his 
fecond book, he fays, that Afia was .tributary to the 
Scythians fifteen hundred years, and that Ninus 
was the firft who freed his country from that 

Strabo 1. 15. affirms that Idanthyrfus ilk Sc)thian, 
conquered all Afia and part of Egypt. Arrian, 
declares that the Parthians were a colony of Magogian 
Scythians who left their country under Jandyfus 
who was king of Scythia in the time of Sefbfiris. 
To thefe let us add the authority of the learned 
Gebelia, who has lately publifhed a hiftory of 
Ailyria, which I have quoted in the preceding pages. 
Monfieur Boivin has proved that Vexores and 
Sefoftris were the fame perfon, and Sefoftris died 
fourteen hundred and fixteen years before Chrift. 

To the luftorian I leave the chronological part \ in 
%ht courfc of twenty years rcfjdence in this country, 

I have 

PREFACE. clxv 


I have known but one learned gentleman, acquainted 
with the ancient Irifli dialedt, and who is equal to the 
talk ; this gentleman has colledled great materials for 
this defirable work; but alas! I fear his advanced 
years and domeftic embarraffments, will not permit 
him to arrange thefc materials for the eye of the pub- 
lic, and when death (hall throw the javelin at this gen- 
tleman with his right hand, he will fnap afunder the 
lad firing of the Irifti harp with his left. If there is a 
fpark of real Milefian patriotifm left in this venerable 
ifland, this gentleman will fpeedily be enabled to end 
his days with eafe and hapjjynefs, and to complete a 
work, which will reflect honour on himfelf and on his 
native country. 

I mull now apologize to my readers for the awk- 
ward drefs in which this Preface appears ; it is ab- 
(Iradted from an abundance of materials, oolledled 
with a view to form the Ancient Hillory of Ireland. 
Fully convinced that no printer or bookfcller in Ire^ 
land would hazard the expence of the prefs on fuch a 
work, it is detailed in this manner for the perufal of 
the few, who are curious enough to purchafe the Col- 
ledlanea: and whilft this Number has been at the 
prefs, it has been notified to me by thcbookfeller,-^ 
that finding he cannot difpofe of three hundred copies 
of the CoUeftanea, and that more than two hundred 
of each of the former numbers lie on his hands ; if on 
the clofing of the third volume with this number, he 
(ball find no quicker faie, he mull decline the hazard^ 
of publication. Such is the low elleem our labours 
arc held in, or fuch is the want of curiofity in the 
readers of Ireland. 


dxvi PREFACE. 


^'be following work came to band after this preface was 
printed i it was prefented to the lib/ ary of Trinity Col- 
lege by tbe author^ and we baue made the foWrwing 
etf trails from it for tbe fatisf action of our readers. 


PREFACE. clxvii 




■ ' ' ' ' 

VJOMER, iidferh cemflirrie ac Cimraerii, nempd 
laiiori illo fignificatUj quo b^c gens, per Bofporum 
Thracium fofte Eufbpae primum iilata & folum ejuf- 
dem Pontum teAens, poftper occklentaliorem fepten- 
tribncm fehfii^ difperfa, tti^m Gallos cunftos & 
Gimbras fut> fe compleftltur. Nee audiendus eft 
Macpherfon^ qui Caledonbs a Germanis deducit. 

Magog ob graviflimad caUfas cum gente e fe drta^ 
ex Ezechieje notiffima^ 

Gog, coi^ungi debety amba? per toturri orietitem 
in huhG diem, fub ndminibtis, Yagui he Magui cele- 
berrimas, Sctamen ipfi fuae pofteritati fub iifdem tam 
parum agnitse^ ut etkm pars- cum reliquis Mahum« 
medanis diris omnibus eafdem devoveant. Esedem & 
atitiquiffimi rere funt Scythaef, ut Jofephus aliique eos 
vo€ant, non quidem Herodoteiilli, attamen incolarum 


dxviii PREFACE. 

vaftiiTimae illius intra ac extra Imaum Scytbias, haud 
fpernanda portio. 

Primitua hi quid r^iunculam Mogan, qus a B&o 
qucxiam Japheti filio Mogan, quod quidem traditio- 
nem de fumma hujus nominis antiquitate iuvoluitY 
di€ta traditur. (Oltei^ t.^ i . ^. 290 J Mofiquc Cho- 
rcaenfiMucaniavocatur^ Mediaeque tribuitur, vidcn- 
tur habitaffe, uti illi alteri Gogarenum (Strab. L 11-^ 
Mofis Chor. Gugariam, ubi nunc Karabagh eft regio 
ad auftrum Araxis ob monttum afperitatem in via. 
(Hanway.) Sed Jam primis ieculis hafce terr|S reli- 
querunt, novafque in Scythia fedes ceperunt, qui bus 
in Pfeudo-Zoroaftreis Odsjeftanas nomen, a Gogitis 
defumptum^ inhacret. 

Hifce melius colluftrandis domefticus gentis fcriptor 
fatis audoritatis adeft, Abulghafi Bayadur-Chanus, 
qui licet fuperiori demum vixerit fasculo, tamen prseter 
traditionem gentilitiam apud principes majores fuos 
conlervatam, variaque alia domeftica fubQdiailliterra- 
ti populi, quo prseter tumulos in memoriam fadii 
alicujus cdngellosy & in primis antiqua patria perti- 
nent carmina, qualia apud vicinos Bafkirios etiam in 
ufu funt, apud exteras gentes, Perfas fpeciatim, quae- 
cunque ad propofitum (bum facerent, laudabili etiam 
conquifivit induftria. De integritate vcro ejus ipfe il- 
le ingens hiatus optime teftatur, qui .antiquiflima heo- 
rica tempora in hoc opere infequitur; quam traditio- 
nis jadturam alius leviori» fidd fcriptor minima opera 
ex ingenio refarciviflet. Haud audiendus ergo eft 
Vifdelou, dum Sinenfmm narrationibus unice inliftens, 
antiquiora ilia bis incognita plane rejicit. (BAL Orient. 

V. 2- 

PREFACE., clxix 

V. z.p. 287 J quafi notitiam hujus populi ullam Sinen- 
fes habere potuerint, antequam ipforum finibus appro- 
pinquaflct ; qucxl primis demum poft Chriftum natum 
feculis Fadum videtur. 

Siftit autem nobiliflfimus au£tor in genealogia fua 
Tatarorum primum gentis Patriarcham pro more e no- 
mine fidlum Turcam unice, eodem modo, ut fe Mo- 
gol-Khanus, Tatar-Khanus, Kipzak aliique ibidem 
fiilunt, pro veris hujus ftemmatis auAoribus, tarn 
Magog utriufque populi, quam Gog Oguziorum fpc- 
ciatim cohditore, indebite fubftitum. 

Javan ; cui e 4 ex ipfo ortis genlibus jungi debent. 
I. ELISA & 2. DODANIM, cum optime fimul trac- 

Haud nego, inter primarias antiqui orbis gentes, 
hoc capite recitatas, plures occurrere, a patriarcha fuo 
fic didas uti Gomer cum. 3 ab ipfo ortis populis, aliif- 
que adhuc praeter Arphaxad, Chus & Canaan certiffi- 
me hue rcferendos, Sed certe dimidia fere pars gen- ^ 
lium harum aliunde nomen fuum accepit, inque 
his etiam illi, de quibus nunc loquimur, . Doda- 

Equidem iliam Graecorum, pro more omnibus fere 
gentibus confucto, fidtam ftemmatisTui genealogiam, 
nee flocci facio. Potius indicia Mofaica, quod huma- 
nam.fontcm, a Phcenicibus haufta, ulterius profe- 
qucnda duco, quo fadto fat pcrfpicue videbimus, e 
populo Javan,.f. Ionibu<i^ prteter Achaeos, qui Mo- 
faicoaevo recentiores iFuiffe videntur, 2 praecipue ma- 
jores exiifle populos, qui ciim materna ilia ftirpe tri- 
bus potioribus in Graeca lingua dialcdtis poft ortum de- 
dcre : nempe ELISA. f. CEoles, forte primiius circa^ 


clxx PREFACE. 

Elidem fedentes, & DODANIM. f. Dores, afperiora 
ilia montium juga, Tbeflaliam ab Epiro dirimentia, 
ab initio tenentes, ubi & Doris regio, ac Dodona 
antiquiffima urbs, ab EGYPT! A colonia primum 
fundata, noise fnnt, quarum pofterior forte Dorum 
appellationi primam dedit occafionem. 

5cio quidem illam aniiquiorum GraBCorum in Pe- 
lafgos & Hellenes diftribirionem, graves hie parere 
difRcuItates. Sed haec forte, in hie breviter prxljbem, 
quae infra aptiorem invenient locum, fie eomponi 
poterunt. Primo temfX)re Pelafgorum ncmen barbaris 
quibufdam, tqnc Graeciae illatis, proprium erat. Aft 
poft eonfaederationem Dorum quorundam Hellene 
audlore, contra illos initam, a qua focii Hellenum 
nomen fibi ftimebant ; omnes reliqui Graeci, huic 
foederi baud confentientcs, aut ab ipfis, aut quod magis 
mihi placet, apofteris demum, non convicii alicujus 
ergo, fed ut fnelius modo diftinguerentur ab Helleni- 
bus propiriis, per opppfftionem Pelafgicum nomen ac- 
ciplei^ant, fie extenfum ut ipfius Atticae etiam cives 
omnium Groecorum politiffimi, fub eodem compre- 
hejcidercjitur, qui tamen exceptis Saiticis quibuRlam 
colonis^ indubie Jones erant; 

5;. CHI '^TllVUlVf . Fieri potuit, ut horum quaedara 
pars in Macedonia, Threicffs alias coloniis potiflimum 
repleta, confedcrit. Sed tamen probabilior multo 
eorum tft opinio, qui hationem banc in<ftarmm tranf- 
ciffe, hujus Aborigines ejc c*dem ortdsTolum, in qua 
CETH -nomine fatis apprppinquantes^ poft Latini 
difti, noti funt. 

4. THARSiSH. Cum hoc antiquiflimaB proprie 
"PHOENICIAE colonial, in Boetica ante ipfas Gades 


PREFACE. clxxi 

conditae, nomcn idemque Tarteflus fit, quod Mofis 
aevo jam in proxime accolcntes Turdetanos, forte & 
in omnes univerfim Iberos, a Carthagrnienfibus ob 
tranfmarinum fitum fie primo di<flo5, tranfierat, hac 
occafione in origines totius gentis, ex qua Gallseci, 
fabulofis tamen additis circumftantiis Graccam jam 
olim fibi aflerebant originem (Juftin.) inquiramus 
paullo ulterius. 

Videtui" mihi autem haec gens eadem fere e Graecii 
in Hifpaniam via procefliffe, quam Leibnlzius ipfi olim 
ex conjedtura fagaciflima praefcripfit. 

Ante omnia vero, qui filus Ariadneus nofter erit, 
attendi velim CANTABROS, s. BISCAHNOS hoyi- 
ernos, Iberoruro pr.opaginem, fe ipfos OSCOS, fiufcal- 
dunce, vocare, ac Sertorium metropolio, quam Iberis 
condebat, a gente Ofcam, nunc HVESCA, dixifle. 
Nunc, age, pergamus. 

An jam intra Graeclae fines, ut feperatiis extiterint 
populus; baud liquet.' Videntur verb maritimo, & 
quidem brev^flimo trajedu, ihde in Italiam inferioremr 
transfufi antiquiflimo jam aevo, ureilam ideo Favorina 
Aurunci & Sicani cum PELASGIS, i. e. popula 
Chittim primi Italiam tenuiffe dicantur. Siquidem ca, 
quae viri dodi ad Feftum in vocibus:. Maefius & 
Ofcun;), adnotarunt confideres, baud nimis foHicitc 
Ofco3 ab Aufonibus alilfque hujus generis diftingui 
debere, mecum putabis, cum iidem ^vernacule Ofci 
didti, Graecis Aufones, Latinis vero plerurnque,*magia 
adhuc dcformato nomme, Aurunci didl.fint, Volfcique 
cum Sidicenis imo & ipfis Sabinis pro parte, eorun- 
dem fuerint propago. Ab iifdem pppuU? Olcorum 
nomen alio adhuc modo in illud Opicorum, ob fer- 


clndi PREFACE. 

pentum in ipforum terra muhitudinem, deflefkcbattff. 
Hie porro Rycquio Platonis locum quendam debco, 
unde ipfe quidem coUigit, Opic»s ejufdem cum Si- 
culis originis fuiffe, fed Phaenices additi, de Sicanis 
pocius Placonem loqui voluiflc decent, qui earn SiciliJC 
partem, quae Punis poftea fccifit, antiquitus tencbant, 
nee Stephani locus aliud fuadet, cum Sicanorum & 
Sicalorum facillima Temper fuerit confufio. E- 
Sicilia eofdem Ofcos porro in Africam proxirae 
diftaniem tranfiiffe, Atlantumque gentem, cui Plato 
notls locis Grascam adfcribit originem, cujufque cum 
Aufonibus cognationis fi£tum alias genealogicum 
fchema, obfcura quaedam indicia continet, condidiile 
aio. (Rycq. de prim Ital.) 

Ut nihil fublunarium rerum fiabile Temper in eodcm 
roanu (lacu, florentiflima etiam Atlantum conditio, 
poft cladem demum ab^gyptiis, ut videtur, acceptam, 
a Phuteis barbaris irfuentibus, qui an tea drca ^gypdos 
Te fines continuifle videntur, ac tandem a Phoeoicibus, 
omnia hoc circura Tibi Tubjicientibus, everTa videtur. 
Equidech notam ab Antaeo Atlantum ifto aevo R. ac 
Tingitanae urbis conditore fabulam, qui in certamine 
cum Hercule, quoties in terram prolabebatur, toties 
ab hac Tua matre novis recreacus viribus reTurgebat, 
nee antea vinci potcrat, quam Hercules ipfi elevato 
jugulumad fuffocationem uTque compreffiflct, Jic mibi 
cxplico. Antaeus hie damna a Phoenicibus advenis 
perpefla, a littore ad interiora regionis recedens, plus 
una vice refarciebat, noviTque civium Tuorum copiis 
inftru£tus, bellum reparabat, donee tandem undique 
ab eis circuncKluTus, atque fuga prohibitus, cum tota 
fuorum manu caederetur. 


PREFACE. clxxiU 

Licet autem Phoenicii maxima hue copia advenerinr, 
tamen omnibus illis perficiendis operibus quas ipfis 
adfcribuntur, minime fufficere potuerunt. Sic enim 
CADMUS, !• c. Orientalis vir, five verius populus, 
prater illud nubibus vicinum, in Atiante M. pofitum 
oppidum, centum adhuc alia ibidem condidifle diet* 
tur ; fie Tyrii trecenta alia oppida in ulteriori Oceani 
Africano littore ftruxiffe perhibentur. Praeterea eriam 
Mauroirum genti, quae iftud nomen a Gaditanis Phce- 
niciis ob fitum accepiile videtur, diverfa a vicinis Afri- 
canis, adfcribitQr origo, modo ab Indis, modo rec 
tius aliquantum a Graecis repetita. (Strab. &? Plut.) 
Hinc redle^ concludi pofTe auguror, cum nullum poflea 
Adantum in hifloria fuperfic veftigium, praeter Atlau- 
tes illos barbaros, qui Herodoti aevo circa Atlantem IVf • 
fe continebant, nee tam Atlantum noftrorum pofleri, 
quam potiusPhuteorum propago, a vicino monte no- 
men adept! videntur, integram Atlantum gentem poll 
devidtionem fuam cum Phoeniciis coloniis unum in po- 
pulum coaluifle, ac non folum oppidis illis innumeris 
implendis plurimum contulifle, fed etiam toti Mauro- 
rum genti ortum dedifle cum Phoenicibus ALIISQUE 
CANANAEIS fugiti vis fimul. Ob fimilitudinem cum 
ex adverfo fitis Iberis, lingua moribufque, forte eve- 
nit, quod ultimis Imperii Romani temporibus, Mau- 
ritania Tingitana Hifpanias aicoenfebatur, ut e Notitia 
utriufque Imperii videre licet. Eadem ut Maurorum, 
etiam Libyphaenicum in Africa propria originem puto : 
nempe ecolonis Phasniciis & Atlantibus, fub Lybyum 
appellatione minus re<5te ipfis adplicata, latitantibus. 
(Aldrcte Auiq. dc Efpana.) 


clxxW . PREFACE. 

Temput inflate at ad banc dariffimam OSCORUM 
propaginfm^ Hifpanos veteres accedam, qui ob de* 
ferta horridtflima a meridie^.poftreplecaAfricae littora, 
fat cito ex Atlantibua tranfiiflfe videntur. Hoc non 
folutn ex Mofaico teflimonio de gentis TARSHISH 
cxiftentia, fed iRde euam concludo, quod prster am- 
plifTimuin Iberorum populuin, Aquitanos etiain coq- 
diderunt, qui Galliae partes ad Rhodanum, Ligurum- 
que fines, ad Cebanm u/que irruptionem tcndfont, 
(Strab. L 3. Scylax.) imo & in ipfam BRITAN- 
NIAM tranfierant, ubi Tacitus (De P. Agr.) SILU- 
RIBUS Hifpanicam originem tribuit ; unde & hodie 
VASCONICAE. f. BISCAIINAE linguae quacdara 
cum HIBERNICO idiomate communia eile, nemicii 
itiirum videbitur. 

Inftitutum ideo OSCORUM iter, ahtequara 
Atlantcs ab AEGYPTHS erudirentur, cenfeo. Ibe- 
rorum cnim cultura Phoeniciis eft adfcribenda, ncc 
prius eft efTefla, quam poftquam magna inter veteres 
colonos novoftjue advenas prscefTerant bella. (P. 

55 ^M) 

This author dates thefc tranfadions from the year 
of the world 1656 to 1826, and before Chrift 255 j. 
We liave affigncd our reafons for thinking the Pelafgi 
Ihould have been included cum Pbaniabtts^ altifquc Car 
ffivtitis/ugiirvis. The diflindion he has made between 
the Gomerian and Magogian Scythians, is conforma- 
ble to our idea and obfervations, and alfo the affinity 
between the Bifcayan andlrifli dtaledt, which we have 
treated of at large in the preface to the iaft edition of 
the Irifh Grammar; and we make no doubt, if an- 
cient MSS in the Bifcayan language could be found, 


PREFACE. clxxv 

that we Ihould find a greater affinity, than can be 
produced in Larramendi's dictionary of the modern 

Ireland is not the only nation which has been left to 
tell its own hiftory. Palmyra and Balbec, tWo of the 
moft furprizing remains of ancient magnificence^ 
have been neglected in hiftory. We feel, (fays the 
learned, in]genious and modcft Harrtier) fomething 
of an incredulous anxiety about the accounts the fa- 
cred writers have given us of the extent of the king- 
dom and of the fame of Ifrael in the days of David 
and Solomon, whereas we find few or no traces of this 
rnighty power in prophane hiftory. The great king- 
doms of the Seleucidae and of the Ptolqmies became 
part of the dominionsof a fingle city, whofe name we 
in vain look for in hiftory. (Obforv, cnfevcralpqlf(^ds 
in [acred Hift.) 





X. Of MbaOfw Eve. 

II. Of the Gule of Aiqpifif or Lammaf Day. 

III. DffcrtptioH of the Batiquettt^iall if Tamar or Tars. 

IV. Of tbe Kifs if Salutation. 

V. Onuh^ion HiCfceUaneous. 

VI. Second Letter from Charles O'Cotur, Efq-, on tbe 

HeatbenState and Ancient Topogra^ of Ireland 




or, the Day and Month of SAMAN o£ 


Of the DEUS SUMMANUS of the 


Of the ^HDD S A M A E Lr and 'J^i^»tt^ S A* 
MAONI of the IDOLATROUS jews: 

And of the ASUMAl^ pf the ancient 


SAMHAIN, ah Saiats-Tyde, genit 
SAMHNA. OiDHCHE shamhKa, All Saints- 
Eve. O'Brien^s Irilh Diftionary. 
Samhain, All Saints-Tyde. Shaw's Didki- 

Samhaik, All Saints-Tyde. Lhwyd's Ar-^ 
chaeol. Britan* * 

Vol. III. No. XIL O tA 

♦ Samhain, fays Lbwyd, from fome modern g!oi!arifty is 
compounded of ^amh^ fummer and fbuin the end : this \% a 
falfe derivation ; Samhain could not then form Shamhna' in 
Its inflexions, but ^amha-fhuin or Smmb-fhuin : the gloffarifts 



La samhna, Hallowmas-Day. Mac Donald's 
Calick and Englifti Vocabulary. 

Mi saman, i. e. mi du, k e. naoi mi, the 
'Month of November. Vet. Glofs. 

The MI SAM an of the ancient Irifti fell on the 
month of November •, it was alfo named mi du or 
DUBH, that is, the month of mournings being the 
feafon appomted by the Druids for the folemn in- 
terceflion of the quick, for the fouls of the dead, 
or ihofe who had departed this life within the fpacc 
of the year. 

They^ taught the Pythagorean fyftcm of the 
tranfmigration of fouls ) and that Smhan or Baal- 
Satnhan at this feafon called the fouls to judgment, 
which, according to their merits or demerits ia the 
life paft, were affigned to re-enter die bodies of the 
human or brute fpecies, and to be happy or mife- 
rable during their next abode on this fublunary 
globe ; hence Samtnan was named b a ls ab, or Do- 
minus mortis, for Bal is lord, and Sab death* But 
the punifhment of the wicked, they taught, migiit 
be alleviated, by charms and magic art, and by 
facrifices made by their friends to Btd^ and prefents 
to the Druids for their interceffion. 

The lirft day of November was dedicated to 
the angel prefiding over fruits, feeds, &c. and 


wtrt ignomut of the meaning of the word. Lhwyd mtrb 
the word as taken froin Ktating ; but this author docs sol 
Attempt to explain ihe Etjmon ; he only fays, that the mill 
tia of Ireland went into winter quarters oUhcbe Sbambns gi^ 
BnUikie i i. e. from All Hallow Eve till May Day. S^mas vu 
the firft month of the winter quarter, and not the laft of x\t 
fummer quarter :— Thus Cormac, in his gloflary, faya, the 
four great fires of the Druids, were in the begionio^ of Fe- 
bruary, May, Auguft, and Noyember* 


^¥B5 therefore named la mas ubhal, that is, the 
day of the apple fruit, and being pronounced la- 
masool, the EngHQi have corrupted the name to 
LAMBSWooL, a name they give to a compofition 
made on this eve, of roafted apples, fugar and ale» 
—This feftival of the fruit, was alfo of oriental ori- 
gin, as will be explained hereafter. 

The eve of /f// hdUow^ is named in Irilh Oidhche 
Shamfmoj L e. the night or eve of Saman ; by the 
afpiration of the confonants, it is pronounced eb 
OWN A ; and the day following, was the great fef- 
tival of Saman^ to whom facrifices of black fheep 
were offered for the fouls of the departed, and the 
Druids exhibited every fpecies of charms or natu- 
ral magic the human mind could invent, to draw 
prefents from the people : The facrifice of the black 
Ihcep is recorded by VirgiL 

Poll, ubi nona fuos aurora induxerat ortus, 
Inferias Orphei lethaea papavera mittes, 
Placatam Eurydicen vituU venerabere ctei 
£t NiOR AM madtabis ovem, lucumque revifes. 

Geoi^. 1. iv. 546* 
This feftival lafted till the beginning of December, 
which was named mi nolagh C^^ or the month 
of the NEW BORN, from the Hebrew nh\i Nolah^ 
i. e. parire, to bring forth young \ from whence 
the French word noel, and the Irifh Nolagh, 
Chriftmas^day. This month was therefore a fefti- 
val of great rejoicing, as the preceding was of 
O a mourning, 

(h) The feftiTal of N^lagb fioiihed on the firft day of the 
new /ear^ or the commencement of the circle of Sam the 
fun, becaufe, the original of fpirit, heat, and light, are the 
prefervers of life; therefore, Macrobius, tbi fun^ tb$ mithw 
•ftbt rMC€ tfwgfrogeniiw»t P- *S5* 


mourning, and this rejoicing continued till the lafi 
quarter of the moon in December, when the cere- 
mony of cutting the holy misfletoe began, in pre- 
paration to the grand feftival of prefenting it, on 
the firft day of the new year. 

The ancient Perfians named this month Aiur^ 
that is, fire. Adur was the angel prefidii^ over 
that element \ in confequence of which, on the plh, 
his name day, the country blazed all around with 
flaming piles ; whilft the Magi^ by the injundlioQ 
of Zoroafter, vifited, with great foleranity, alt the 
temples of that element throughout the em}»re, 
which, upon this occaiion, were adorned and illu- 
minated in a fplendid manner. Richar^im. It 

is very probable, that the Irilh Mi ^ is a corrup- 
tion of Aibir. — The Irifti cuilom of lighting up the 
houfes in the country on the 2d of November, cer- 
tainly originates fiT>m the above folemnity of the 
Perfians ; and in ibme places, the fire or Beil*tetne 
is yet kept up. 

The primitive Qiriftians could not have placed 
the feaft of All-Souls more judidoufly, than on the 
La Samaftj or the 2d day of November ; or, that of 
the Nativity of our Bleffed Lord, at a more proper 
feafon, than in the feaft of NoUagh, or the new- 
bom ; but Childermas or Innocents-day, a feaft in- 
tended to mourn, in memory of the children of 
Bethlehem^ murdered by order of Herody was mil- 
placed in a month dedicated to joy for the new- 
born; and fo late as the year 1645, we find, the 
primitive inftitution of our Qirifiian fiitherswas for- 
gotten, and the rejoicings of the new-bom fubfii- 
tuted in its ftead ; fo hard are vulgar cuftoms to be, 
removed, as we find by the following authors. 



Feftc d^s Innocens. RejouilTance qui fe celc- 
broit k vielle et le jour de la fete de$ innocens, a 
peu-pres comme la fetp des foux, dans les cathe- 
drales & les coHegiale^. • Nmde daui^ )a plaiate 
q'uil ecrivit a G^/ceridiHn 1645 dit, qui^en certains 
monafteres de Provence on celcbrc^la fete des 'in- 
nocens avec des cerei^ionies plus extravagantes, 
que n'etbient autrefoifl^ lets folenn^tez j^t^.faux- 
Dicux. Furetiere. 

Heretofore it was the quftom, to have danqes in 
the churches on this day, wherein were, perfons 
who reprefented bifliops, /// Jbould have keen Dru-^ 
ids) by way of dcrifion, as fome fuggpft, of the 
cpifcopal dignity ; though others, witb:.more proba- 
bility, fuppofe it lo be done in honour to the inqo- 
cence of childhood. By aicanon of thecouncilof 
Cognac, held in i %66^ thtfe were expre&ly forbid* 

It has < been the o{:union of fome learned men, 
that the Baai-.Zdtub, o£;tbe idolatrouR Jews, was the 
god of flies or locufts, ^ theLXXhav« tranflated 
itDeum.MwAr, tnufcam^ ox'MiUo^^i mufcarufniverruti" 
cum. Bafnage is finguiar in fuppofing this deity to 
be Mars, or the god of battles and oftirrtis, be- 
caufe, -fays he,* the Phccnidans might readily con^ 
Vert ri«w tfabath intcJ y\i\ Zebub; the Irifh or 
•Iberno-Cellic retains both; for /^i is death, and 
alfo ftrbng, potent, valiant ; fo in Hebrew, hiy 
tfaba, fnilitta ; in Arabic, xab^ repelling by force ; 
xabitty a life-guard- man, 'and zahf^ death: but our 
Iberno-Druids retaining BaUfcA^ fynonimous to 
Saman^ rt is evident, • Baal-Zebub h Dominus 



The LXX, fpeaking of this ddty, name him 
jlfP^li J^fioW, Daenjoniim Principi, which is the ap- 
pellation given by the Jews to BaalZebub^ ot BttU 
Zcbuh^ as in St. Matthew, ch. xii. v. 14, and 
St. Luke, ch. xi. v. 15, confequently, Baal-iaman, 
Baal-Zcbub, arid Baal-Zebulo, are the fame. 

No deity of the ancients correfponds fo well with 
our Saman^ m PhttOj whom all the Heathens ac- 
knowledged as prince of hell, i. e. Inferorum Prafes\ 
Pluto is alfo derived from the Iberno Celtic, Blotac 
or Bhtacy a dweller under ground. So Beel-Ze* 
bub, in the gofpel, apxan AAiMONian, is called, 
Daemonum Maniumque Princeps ; thus in the wri- 
tings of the ancients, we frequently meet Pluio or 
Serapis defcribed as apxhn aaimonixin, fee Porphy- 
rins, apud Eufebium, \. iv. prep. Evang. c. xxiii. 
and Clemens AlelKandrinus fiiles him ketaao 
AAiMONA. i. e. magnum ilium Damoncmi thus in 
^fchylnsj Pluie and Inferorum Rex^ is befeedied 
to command the manes of Darius to retucti 

Terraque & Merquri & (tu) Rex Inferorum 

Mittite ex infcris animam in lucem. 

Sophocles in his Oedip. fiiles him ENNYzrnN aha$ 
NoSlis tenebrarum Res^. The Latins named him 
^uMMANus, expWned by Pliny, lib. ii. Hift. Nat. 
c. 52, to be Summs Manium : there is a remarkable 
infcription in Gruterus, foL IP15, where this deity 
is mentioned with Pluto ; 

Cicero makes particular mention of SummaMf^ 
but Ovid fecms to be /ignorant who be is. See 


Faft. 6. 731. Thus Cicero, cum Summanus ia. 
ftffigio Jovis optimi maximi, qui turn fidtilis, e 
cslo lAus efTet, nee uiquam ejus fimulacri caput 
mveniretur, Haurufpices in Tiberim id depulfum 
cffe dixerunt, idque invcntum ett in loco, qui eft ab 
Haurufpicibus demonftratus. De divin. 1. i* But 
this is a Druid's tale, and the ceremony of fearch- 
ing for the head in the Tiber, is ftill preferved in 
Ireland, on the feftival of Saman^ by dipping the 
head into a tub of water, to take up an apple in 
the mouth -, and by the people of the weftern iflcs 
wading into the Tea, in fearch of shony, on this 

This Pluto of the Greeks and Latins, is ex- 
plained by the Rabbi's by hwso sammael, i. e. 
Angelm improbus. Angelus Sammael improbus 
princeps eft omnium Diabolorum; and the like 
power is afcribed by the Heathens to Pluto, whom 
the Magi and Druids ftiidied to reconcile to them : 
thus Porphyrins, hos (Daemones) et maxime eorum 
Principem colunt, qui mala per magi am perpe- 

Rabbi Sim. Ben. Jachai, names thefe deities 
^JtvDv Sammaoni, i. e. Daemones, part 2, fol. 14, 
col. I. A name evidently of the fame origin of 
the Iri(b Samofn^ (b) and of the P^rfic asum an, an 


^0 TBe Hibernian Dniidsy underftood by Saman, that be- 
ing which had powtr from Albeim oc Gisd, ever the foul^ 
which they taught was iroxDortal. This is th& Hebrew Sb^^ 
mah^ orn. ShitiuAi * . 

The Hibernian Druids had five names to ezprefs the foul 
of man Bguranvely, and but one for the rational foul. Thefe 
fiire. figurative exprefTions^ are literally the fame as thofe of 
the.J^wsy fclefted from the Holy Scriptures, and as they do 



angel who prefides over the 27th day of every Fcr* 
fiaa folar months and is confidered the iame with 


nofc- occur 10 anj other Celtic languftge, the/ are here de- 
ferviag of noticci becavfe they explain our Drukiicai L0 «S«- 
man : they will be ibore fullj difcofled, when we come to 
treat on ecdefiaftic^ fubjedts. 

The rational foul was called anm^ i. e. the liriog (pirit; 
the life, from whence the Lat. ammo. 

The figurative expreffions were, 

I. Neohbas^ u e. immortality, from^a/| morulitj, death : 
neo is a prefixed negative. 

z.-kuiciy i. e, air, (pirit, xther, life. 

3. SamhoB, Samai, !• e. the likenefs of the great Ssmi or 
Sun» which, they thought, was the likened of the jMiim^ 
Heat^and light \\ the prodiicer and preferver of life | there* 
fore« Sol was fhe god pf nativity. 

4. Cdidbibc, ). e. imt^orral, continual, for ever. 

5; Ceid^ CaiJ^ i.^^/the gift of god, the divine love of God 
to man; hence C^Ui/b^^ift or CeUlambf is a naoie for the 
month of May, from the foicmnities of that feftival, to 
Samb ; it was alfo pamed CaJ-am, or the holy feafon 5 and 
Ceit-arn'oT Kit-am ^ 1. e. the alHzes, 

N or. iVif, in Herbriewi, is a fervUef letter j when pre- 
fixed, it is paffive, or a noun. The ancient Irifh had. ho P» 
th^yufed always B^^i^ an hiatus. -Al^i^.becattft it has 
a.^getative power» whereby it occaiioos the growth of 
man. HumpbreysinbisA^UgfticsofJItbenagoras, 

i^ofiaffeb Ben I/rael, from the Befejbiib Rabin ^ iAfoitns 
us, that the ancient -Jews had fivd names for the* (oil 
of man ; viz. \, Nepbejb. z.Ruacb. ^. Nejbimab, ^. KmjoL 
5. Jecbida, We will produce fome explanations of thefe 
words, according to celebrated writers, referving the greater 
part for another tiiney being foreign to the fubjeft of this 

Nepbefb^ to breathe out, refpire, take breath, the-animai 
frame, the perfon in rational creatures ; and it is applied to 
the vegetable life in plants, once id the bible ; bat it is ne- 
ver the rational foul. Lev. xxi. 2. Neither ihali he (the 



U0&DAO9 or as&abL^ tbeangd of death. Rh 
chardibn Aab. Lex. vol. i. p. .117, Murdad, in 


pried) go into %uj (mpbejhetb mutb) dead body j it is the Tital 
frame» whether alive or dead. Bates Crit. Hcb. 

Fds^ io Irifli, is to vegetate ; but neofds will imp)/ a dead 
bodfy that can vegetate n^ loader. 

Ethiop. Mtpife/h* There are two fouU in man $ thA one» 
which ia the breath or ipirit of life, (i. e. the rational foul) 
proceeding from the mouth of God, the Creator, which re- 
lates not to the elementarjr nature of man, neither doth it 
die ; the other, is the animal faculty, (that is the £enfitive 
life or (bnl) and this is compounded of the elements, and is 
iifelf mortal. Job vii. 7. Remember, that {ruch) breath 
Is my l|fe. xii. 10.' In whofe hand is the nepbejb of every 
one thi^t lives, and the breath of every flefh of man. CaK 

Nepbe/bf a^a verb, fignifies to breathe; and, as a fubftan- 
five, k% tgeni, a breather, jt frame breathed in, Hutchinfon. 

Ikfiimabj fq called, )as having the intj^lJedual faculty 
which diftinguifhea man. from all mute creatures : it is de- 
rived trom Jbatnaim^ heaven^, ^nd, therefore,' this name is ne- 
ver re^'in tfat Holy Scriptures^; as given to besfb, but to 
inanodly; Hllmfhreys^Apolog. of Atheoagoras. 

Nfjbemab^ breath, the animal that breathes ; but it is not 
appropriated to the immortal foul ; it is called, God's blaft 
and breath, Pf. xviii. 16, and 2 Sam. xxii. 16. at the (ne/bt^ 
mab) blaft of {rucb) the breath of his noltrils. Bates 

After I haTe ihew'cd the nature of man, his ftation, &c. I 
inuft fliew^ that there is a neceflity, and that it cannot be 
otherwife, hut that all the ideas we have of eflence, or powers 
of our o^n fouls as other fpirjts, nay, even of God, muft be 
taken from thofe in the air ; and, as nejbemab is taken from 
theair, in the faid condition and skGt'ion, baUtus^fatus^ which 
is the true , and. real idea of the word, it is ufed here for a 
being of an eiBcnce, not otherwife* to be defcribed, of a dif- 
ferei|t natui^^ and diftindt from the fubftance of jfiiam the 
man^ , the creature that lives, and has his powers from the 
(element of the air. Hutchlnfon's Introd. Mofes's Frin. p. 58. 



PerGcy imp\ksgruh^dcaih^^ bat he was alio one of 
the reputed guardiaos of trees, fruits, feeds, and 
herbs. Ibid. p. 1568. But murdad was alio the 
ancient Perfic name of the month of November. 
Quintus menfis in anno Gjol. (Julius) fed in anno 
vet. November^ u e. Murdady vulgo Mirdai -et 
Anirdady qui ellangelus qui prseft arboribos, fru- 
gibus, ac feminibus et Hyemali parti mndy fed Mur^ 
dad feu Mordady q. d. mortem dam^ ' fignificatur, 
ctiam angelus mortis. Hyde Relig. Vet. Pcrs. 
p. 243. Mardad eft AzxatU qui motiones fedat & 
animas a corporibus feperat, ut credunt Perianim 
Magi. Cazviniusw 

Apud quofdam veteres Judseos Vmbd Sammaet^ i. e. 
venenum Dei, exponitur angelus mortis : is tamen 
aUis eorum eft Satanas^ feu Princeps diabolorum, 
quern aiunt inequitaife ferpentem antiquum ct fe* 
duxiflfe Evam: nam Sammael tjiponiXyvc Afmodeus 
feu tentator, de quo alias didtur Sammael eft Prin- 
ceps mammas qui in calls : huic tanquam Diei Judicu 
advocato dant feu ofterunt mumss in die propitiatio- 


B7 Samb^ our Drvids onderftood the fuo, the Ilkeoeis of 
the yfibiim^ or God » hence our Satnan ; from this idea, Sif 
wudl is a likenefs^ an image^ a vition, fpedre, ghoft ( hience 
the Latin SimiUs, 

I believe* the reader will allow, that our Hibernian Dniida 
could have argued well with our medern philofopfaers oa 
this fubjca ;— he will be pleafed to recoiled, that I have 
often aiferted, and think I (hall hereafter prove, that the 
Irifh Druids were not idolaters^ had no graven images, and 
received the light of the gofpel fooper than any other religi<» 
fe6t in the wcftern world. 

In the beginning of the Samaritan Pentateuch, we read, 
in principio creavit Jfima calum & terram.— ^^^ is' fre« 
quentl/ ufed hy the modern Jews for Alnm^ Deiu.' 


iris, ne Judaeos propter peccata accufet. Hyde. 
Rcl. Vet. Pers. p. 244. See more of this deity in 

The feaft of Murdad^ the angel of the ancient 
Perfians, who prcfided over fruit, falling on the ift 
of November, is evidently the fame as our La 
meas ubhall ; and from hence is derived the cuflom 
of eating a great quantity of apples and nuts on 
this day \ and the ceremony of the La Satnan^ or 
the following day, is blended with it, being both 
kept on the vigil of the latter. 

I have not met the word Murdad in any ancient 
Irifh MSS. but as this deity prefided over herbs, and 
our Druids were great botanifis, it is not improba- 
ble that the Irifli name for agrimony, (viz. murdrad) 
to which they attributed fo many excellent virtues, 
may be a corruption of murdad^ and (o called by 
way of excellence. 

- The Phoenicians believed Pluto to be dbath» 
as we find in Philo. Bybl. ap. Eufebium, I. i. c> x. 
p. 38. *• nee muljo poft More filium ex Rhea geni- 
tum vita fundtum confecret : but, f*«0 is the He* 
brew nio muth, and the Iri(h tnuaih \ thus the Irifh < 
fay, atafe dul a tnuathf it is petrified, i. e. dead and 

Pluto was the modem name of Sammaon or Sam- 
mael: The general derivation of Pluto is from 
«?wrr»5, i. c. Riches,— diftus eft Pluto, fay the glofla- 
rifts, mre w vxmv, hoc eft a divitiis,— quae ex terrs 
cruuntur vifceribus : true ; but we (hall find the 
Greek f^^n^Xo be of Iberno-Celtic origin : We will 
now trace the hiftory of Pluto in a few words. 

Piuto, the fon of Saturn and Rhea, or Ops, was 
the youngeft of the three Titan brothers, who 



efcaped the cruelty of their father : Ifcily and Spain 
fell to his lot. Pluto retired to the extremity of 
Spain, and applied himfelf in carrying on the work- 
ing of the gold and filver mines, with which that 
country once abounded, as we learn from Pc^do- 
nius, Avienus, and many others : they even dcicribc 
hs mountains and hills to have been all of gold 
and filver, clpecially thofe near Tarteffus. Arifto- 
tlc fays, that the firft Phoenicians who landed In 
Spain, found fo great a quantity of gold and filver, 
that they made their anchors of thofe precious me^ 
lals : and the author of the book of Maccabees, 1 i. 
c. viii. fpeaking of the Romans, fays, that by the 
conqueft of Spain, they made themfelves mailers of 
the mines of gold and filven 

This, doubtlefs, obliged Pluto, who before was 
named Ag$films^ and Agejander^ (or the leader of 
men, &c,) Z)/>, &c. to fix his refidence about T'^r- 
ttjjui ; he was ikilled in mining, aiid this made him 
pafs for the god of riches, 

Bhty in Irilh, is a mine, a cave, or any fuibtcna- 
neous place, >' : : 

. Bhtac^ is a miner ^ dweller in caves. Shaw's 
Diaionary, & Vet, GJoff. ^ 

• P being mutable with B, formed the Irifti. verb 
fliuadk, to dig, to m'me, to break in pieces : metal 
.being early the ftandard of money, ^WoT^ hlaiy and 
-iiath^ fignify price, value j and from gold aqd fil- 
ver being eafily poHfticd,- we have the adjedtivc 
bhthachy as clock; tioiach^ a polifKed ftone. Hence 
.the name of Pluto, and of the Greek «?wt, richest 
and .from Tarteffus the Latin ^artarm^ hcll- 
'. Pluto continually employed labourers in the 
' mines; who were obliged to work far in the earth, 



and, in a manner, as far as hell and the gloomy 
manfions of the manes^ in fearch of hidden treafuresj 
and thus Pliny defcribes them, m fede maniumquc 
opes quitritnus^ nos ad inferos agunij 1. xxxii. c. t. 
hence he was faid to dwell in the centre of the 
earth : add to this, that they who work in the mines 
of gold and filver, commonly die there; fp was 
Pluto reckoned the king of the dead, and the very 
name he borcj viz. ades, fignified death, deftruc- 
tion ; and from the Phoenician ed or aid, exitiumj 
in the Ibemo Celtic, e ad or bag, death. 

The learned Millius, it is true, derives Pluto 
from the mb&o miphlezet, mentioned in the 
I Kings, c XV. V. xiS. the root of which is t^b, 
philets or phlets, i. e. terrendo^ as moft interpreters 
agree, but this word is better prefervcd in the Iii(h 
plei/dam or pfdeifdam^ to flaughter, to butcher, to 
iky, from phlefdar or fleifdar^ a butcher, angliccy a 
fl^er ; but miphiizet is f^^minine, and has been urell 
explained by the Rabbis, and even allowed by Mtt- 
lius to be the fame as Hecaie. 

It ddesnpt appear from any Irifli MSS. in what 
places the Druid$ offered facriiices to Soman. We 
know, thofe of the I'i-mor^ or great invifibte fpirit 
or Baat^ were performed in excel/is^ according to 
moft ancient cuftom ; and from hiftcHry we learn, 
that the Greeks and Romans, in the worftiip of 
their infernal deities, dug little trenches or pits, 
which they made ufe of, infteud of altars. Spencer, 
. b, ii. c. XV. Fabricii Bibl. Antiq. c. ix. 

Fejtus tells us, that when they facrificed to their 
celelVial gods, they did it in csdificiis a terra exdtatis^ 
in buildings exahed high above the earth \ when to 
their terreftial gods, in terra^ upon the ground ^ 
but when to the infernal, in terra afojja^ in holes or 



pits dug in the ground : and thus the (cboliaft od 
Euripides, in Phoenis, fays, diat ^■ic*' is an altar 
or building raifed with fteps to go up» upon which 
they offered (acrifices to the gods, who had their 
dwelling above ; and 'Is^'xh^ is a ditch or pt dug in 
fome elevated ground, of a certaiaiigure, but with- 
out fieps, where they (acrifice to the infismai 

Eafcar^ or Eijkiu in Irifli, is a fmall Mil, and 
many places retain this name from their fituation; 
we alfo frequently find fubterraneous buildings in 
Ireland, which are evidently of Druidical work* 
manlhip, fuch as that of New Grange near 
Drogheda, (d) which may probably have been the 
place of facrificing to Samman. This hint may lead 
our Hibernian antiquaries in fearch of the '£^x^. 

Rabbi Mofes Bar Nachman, in his notes on 
Deut. xii. 23. (e) thus defcribes this fuperffitious 
worfhip : *^ They gathered together blood for the 
devils^ their idol gods, and then they came them* 
ielves, and did eat of that blood with them, as be- 
ing the devils guefis, and invited to eat at the table 
of the devilsi and fo were joined in federal (bciety 
with them : and by this kind of communion with 
devils, they were able to prophefy and foretcl 
things to come. According to the opinion of this 
Rabbi, they thought their demons efteemed it fuch 
a favour and obligation to be treated in this man- 
ner, that they would, in the wild and open places 


(ii) See a defcription of this temple^ by the learned Go- 
vernor Pownaly vol* ii. Archseol. Soc. Ant. Lond* vol. ii. 

(e) Only be Aire that thoa eat not the blood ; for the 
blood is the life, and thou majeft not cat the life with the 


xiifhere they haunted, and which theref6re were 
made choice of for the performance of thefe fuper- 
ilitious rites, appear viiibly to them, and foretel 
them any thing they had an inclination to know. 
Thus Horace defcribes Canidia and Sagana per* 
forming thefe rites : 

Vidi egomet nigra fuccindam vadere palla, 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis, paifoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana majore ululantem, fcalpere terram 
Unguibus, et pallam divellere mordicus agnam 
Caeperunt, cnior in foifam confufus, ut inde 
Manes elicerent, animas refponfa daturas. 

Sat. 1. i. Sat. viii. 
And thus we read in i Kings, c. xviii. v. iS. that 
Baal's prophets cried aloud, and cut themfelves 
after their manner, with knives and launcets, till 
the blood came. 

The ceremony of facrificing to SamMy is thus 
defcribed in an ancient MSS. entitled, Dun-feancas^ 
or the topography of Ireland, under the word 
Magh'fleachty or the field of adoration, as the Irifli 
gloflarifls will have it ; but I (hall hereafter (hew that 
it (ignifies the wor(hip of the great God. — ** JM^A* 
•* fleachty fo called from an idol of the Iri(h, named 
** O-om-Cruaiikj a ftone capped with gold, about 
** which ftood twelve other rough ftones. Every 
^* people that conquered Ireland, (that is, every 
** colony cftablifhed in Ireland) worfhipped this 
** deity till the arrival of Patrick. They facrificed 
** the firft bom of every fpecies to this deity ; and 
" Tighemmas Mc FoUaigh^ king of Ireland, com- 
** manded {cucu) facrilices to this deity, on the 
** day of SAM AN, and that both men and women 
!* fhould wor(hip him proftrated on the ground, 

** tiU 

45? OF ALLttALLOW |£V^ 

*^ till they drew blood from their nofes, foreheads^ 
** knees, and elbows j many died with the feverity 
** of this wprftiip, and hence it was Q^ctJ, ALs;h- 
^^ fieachtr Vet. MSS. 

Cucu^ a facrifice ; in Hebrew^ Chug^ the Pafcfaal 
Lamb ; and agreeable to Mr. Hutchinibn's deicrip- 
tion of the Hebrew Chuguly or worfliipping of God 
as the Creator of the univerfe, tlus ancient word 
Cram-Cruaith^ literally implies, the temple of the 
Cruth^ i. e. Creator : This is the word itill ufed for 
the tranfubfiantiation of the hofl in the mais. 
Cromthear is a prielt ; Crom or Chram^ in the B6bc^ 
mian language, is a church or temple; Chroma^ oc 
Charma^ in the Phoenician. language, isAmuhtma^ 
execratio. Hence, fays Bochart, Charma or Harma 
Bceotise locus erat Colunmis feptus^ propter vatem 
Amphiarum hiatu terrae ibi abforptum Ira execran- 
dus, i^t fama fit neque aves illis columnis infedifle, 
neque feras herbam attigiile in intercolumnio illo 
crefcentem. See Cuirm afcaon^ in the ctmchfixm^ 

The word Cram^ has been fo much miflaken by 
tiie monkifti writers of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, it deferves further notice. In fome an- 
cient MSS. I find Crwn ufed as an attribute of 
God : the fame word occurs in the fame fenfe in 
Arabic. Cruth is a form, Ihape ; and Gruaifmr is 
the only word now ufed for God the Creator ; . it is 
probably the root of the Latin word. Cruaith is the 
genitive cafe, therefore, 0^iw-Gt«w/A impUes, the 
Lord of the Creation : it is (broetimes written Crom- 
Cruach^ perhaps, fignifying the hard and difficult 
devotion to be paid to Crom^ asdefcribed above; 
but I rather believe, it is the fault of the tran- 



The following extrafts from oriental authors^ 
will elucidate our Irifti word Crom : 

Heb. Chram. (with an Heth.) optimates ; ftonl 
whence //^rw. Bates. Crit. Heb. 

Arab. Krmy Kerim, one of the attributes of God; 
a moft religious man, a true believer. Kirofii^ 
venerable, noble. Keramt\ moft. revered. Kira-- 
met J a miracle, i, e. the work of God. 

Perf. Gawrdn^ woflhippers of fire. Keruger^ Ke* 
ruter^ an attribute of God. Flichardfon. 

And in Cafltellus, under 013 Crom or Kerem^ ixt 
the following bbfervations. 

Chaldee. Synagoga. Nomen l^pidis prfetiofi, 
Locus publicus. 

Syr. Nomen Idoli. 

Samarit. Komen Lapidis. 

^thiop. Annus. 

Arab, tlonorificatus fuif; Veneratus fuit; Vit 
crcdcns & reli^oni addidtus \ Munificentia Dei ; 
Maximus ; Majeftafe verendus thronus ; Venera- 
tio i Gloria ; Signa a viris fandtis edita •, NobJliffi« 
mus; Benedifta. 

Thefe fufficiently prove, ttiat Crom was one of 
the attributes of the great God : hence, criiitn figni- 
fies thunder-, CromLeac^ the altar of the great 
God. Magh and MUgh^ are Irilh Words, exprefs- 
ing the attributes of God ; in Hebrew, Magen, No- 
men Dei, metaphorice vocatur; i. e. Clypeus. 
Thus, tflfo the IrMh, Borr-Ceam^ God ; in Hebrew, 
Bore-ruach ; i. e. Creator venft. Amos iv. 1 3. 

On the oiDHCHE shamhna, (Ee Owna) or Vi- 
gil of SamoHj the peafants in Irelapd afTemble with 
Aicks and clubs, (the emblems of laceration) going 
fromhonfe tahoufe, colleftiog money, brcad-cakcy 

Vol. hi. No. XII. P butter. 


butter, cheefe, cggj, &c. &c. for the feaft, repeat- 
ing verfes in honour of the folemnity, demanding 
preparations for the fcltival^ in the name of 
St. Columb Kill, dcfiring them, to lay afide the 
fatted calf^ and to bring forth the black Jbeep. The 
good women are employed in making the griddle 
cake and candles ; thcfe laft^ are fent from houfe to 
houfe in the vicinity, and are lighted up on the (Sa- 
man) next day, before wluch they pray, or are fup- 
pofed to j»ay, for the departed fouls of the donor. 
Every houfe abounds in the beft viands they can 
afiford: apples and nuts are devoured in abund- 
ance ; the nut-fliells are burnt, and from the afhes, 
many flrange things are foretold: cabbages arc 
torn up by the root : hemp feed is (own by the 
maidens, and they beTicvc, that if they look back, 
they will fee the apparition of the man intended for 
their future fpoufe : they hang a fmock before the 
fire, on the clofe of the feaft, and fit up all night, 
concealed in a comer of the room, convinced that 
his apparition will come down the chimney, and 
turn the fmock; they throw a ball of yam out of 
the window, and wind it on the reel within, con- 
vinced, that if they repeat the Pater Nofter back- 
wards, and look at the ball of yarn without, they 
will then alfo fee Hsfith or apparition : (f) they dip 


(f) Si{/\vLn apparition. Si/B-lhncg^ the fame ; i.e. thcap' 
pantion of the ^ro or fpirit, fire, sther, &c.«^It is fometioifs 
written SM & Higk fw Shelh, Hcb. nates» podex, d«- 
nion. Et bjBC vox Judaeis frcquens eft in ore, nam fub fpc- 
cie amice falutaiionis obvios Chridianos in Polonia & Gcr- 
mania, farcafticft & inipld compellani Shfth wlhme i i. e. 
poiffx wlitstmonfalvf. SMh enim eft D^mon. Hinc Seih vcl 
iSf/, quafi ihcCs vcl ^(lUOjfimen ; vix. pro jihle fabftituiuui. 

Bythncr, Clav. Linguz San^. 


for apples in e. tub of water, andendeavcmr to 
iwring one up in the mouth j rthcy fufpend a cord, 
with a crpfs-flick, with apples at one point, and 
candles lighted at the other, and endeavour tc> 
catch ttie apple, wMle it is in a circular motiprigi. uv 
the mouth ; thefe, and many other fuperftitious ce^> 
remonies, the remains of Dn^jdiim,. are obfery^^pa 
this holiday, which will never be ejadiqited, while 
the mmcofSaman is permitted, tp rcpiain^ ;• 3. 

The inhabitants of &Viw/, (on?; of the- w^fterrt- 
iflands of Scotland) had an antient cuftqm tQ:fa0ri« 
fice to a fea-god, called SHONY:,.(Shamhn:a) at AH- 
haUow tide, ia the manner foUowing: ThR.wbgn 
bitants round the ifland, came tp the church, of 
St. Mulvay, having each man his provifion; along 
with him ; every family furnifhed a peck of nwlt, 
and tKs was. brewed into ale; one of their qjjn^ber 
was picked out, to wade into the fea up to the. 
middle, and, carrying a cup of ale in his hand, 
ftanding flill, in ttet pofture, ;cried out with a loud 
voice, faying, Shqny^ I give ym tfus cup (f ,(de^ 
hoping^ that you'll be fo kind^ as to fend us plenty of 
fta warey for enriehitig our ground the. enfuing yearf 
and (b threw the cup of ale into the fea. This was 
performed at night time. At his return to land, 
P 2 . / they 

Sitb-tireog^ the fame as Slgh^hrog^ a fiiirj ; hence heatti 
fighi^ plural mno'/igbe^ women fairies ; credulovny fuppofed 
by the common people, to be fo affeded to certain families, 
that they are heard to fing mournful lamentations about their 
boufes by nighti. whenever any of the family labours under 
a ficknefs, which is to end by death : bi|t, no familiis^ which 
are not of an ancient and nMefock^ (of oriental eztra^ion, he 
ihould have' faid) are believed to be honoured with tbit 
fairy privilege. O^Bricn's Dift. Hib. 


they ^\ yftht \6 'th\xtchj 'where thete was a candle 
burning' upon the'altur 5 and tlicn ftanding filcnt 
for alittle time,' one of theni gave a fignal, at 
which the candle vras^put out, and immediately all 
went to the fields, M4i*rc they fpent the remainder 
of the night, in drinkihg, dancing, and finging. 
Maftirfs WeftcSnlflands, p. 2». 

l^tom this pafTag^, it is evident,, that saman 
was efteemed the angel prefiding over the fruits dF 
tfie earth, and was the fame as murdad of the 
anti4)nt'Perfians, as before explained. 
' AdkSbrding \o Pythagoras, the number two was 
the moft unlucky ; for which reafon, our Hibernian 
Drifids fixed this fol^mnity on the 2d day of No- 
vember, or the knonth of Saman ; and, for the like 
reaibn, the Romans removed the feaft of Summa- 
nus, to the fecond nwrtth of the yearj viz. to Fe- 
bruaiy, . . ' 

bf' ALL HAL LOW EVEN; vufgo, 
HALL E'EN, as aifo, NutqJtA'cR kight. 

From the Appendix to ^ Brandt's ^ Obfervations 
on Popular Antiqifitiei*.* NeVrcaftle upon 
Tyne. :i777.' 8vb. ' * 

In the Antient Kalendar of the Church of Rome, 
fe often dted^ 1 find the following obfervation on 

the ift of Novertbier : 

Feftum ftultorum veterum hue tranllatum eft. 
The feaft of fools is removed to this day. 
Hallow E*en is the vigil of All Saints Day. 
It is cuftomary on this night, with young peo- 
ple in the North, to dive for apples, catch at them 


w|>en R^i^kon,^ one jend^ofja'lqQ^ of hanging 
beatii, '^i th?. Qthcr iqxtrcmity 9/^whi^, ijj fi[XQ|^ a 
iigMed q^pidie, >n^ thpt with^f^qr ipoij^hs,wly» hf v- 
iwg tN^J?^^^ ^i^ bchia4.theuf back^; wt^)i njiny 
Pth^ fopleries- 1 . , .y^ 1 . /.iL;:'-i - 

- Nuts .pp^^ ^PRles chiefly c:pn[ipQfo , tfie ,(^t^]ri{«a-? 

into the nre" limL doubfifeCs' had its vulgar nam^ 
of tmt-qack nigh^t. The catGhm^ at the apple 4nq 
S^dlcj^'^tieafti'jp^^^ one in mi'na pf/tfie'ap^^^^ 
game of tfie'qumtiafin, which is how alrndft forgot- 
ten, and of which a defcription may be found in 
§towe's,§i^pey 9f I^jidon /^ j^^ . ,.^j -j 
*. Mr. Pennant, ui his^jt'dur in Scotlanil, .tells us. 

that the. voupg women there determine the figup 

and fi* oFiheir hulbanfe DV ^r^ing cabba^cSoi. 

AllbaiW "^vehJ apcl'jVlflke the fenglifh',/ flihg^niits 

. ; Two hazel nuts I threwnnto the flame. 
And to each nut I gave a fweetheart*s name ; 
: ; Th^iVtkhitfae k)udisilixMinl2e,<|il£i [cxcttaxA^ 

;. Thatltv^a^flttfrtie of 'brighteft'tdldUnba5«^V'^ 
; -AH^^^^^ ntit,^^^aJthS^^^^^ .^,; 

■} ^\ ill J K'^-'lb 

. . Thn*ev;Alt/:ShaM;rvrA»Thb.Hliftory«f:?the.Pr(>- 

'thik n^^t^'Ss iakihd 0^ fu^vej^-hme V^plljin^': ^' iji. 
<*'/bietp!i^ftjf,>¥9^^ thp.ev^ ?^.thp 

...^^ firft;iQf ^^vember, a6-^i<thank%i«ing f6r the iafe 
' ^ ingfttffcrthg'fef tJfe^prbdiifcfeWf^'thc fields, ''-T^^ 
• ** I iara'/tbldV^ j?ut fi'ave iibt '{cen it,, is obferved m 

l-j'j/.J t.u... 

464 O'F kLL^4lAi;"LO'W^'^VE. 

** Sucfum^ OTd"l)tfirf^ct)untries, fiyhaving Haikm 
'* f-b^jfrrr Kndlctfctti Tome riling ground.** (g) 
" rie'tefts tlValfdV in th^^^ of his 

^vorki 'withwhie^ hefavburcd*^^^^ iri an 

Appendix to Mr. Pcnnan|;'s.Tour, that •* on Hal- 
'* Ib^'Eyen tKey'^:fif£^e';.f(^^^^^ fuperftitlous tuf- 
^* 'tortis:'* 1 wifh''^i6 jia^'glveh^'as pii'ticuUr defcrip- 
fioris'pf'th'i^mrfor gbft^^^^ account^ arcej^ccedingly 
unfartsfeiflofY ; 'Ip^noiRtjflsiiadeed't^ntafe^ not re- 
lieved or- gralifica by inet^ End of the; App)cndix 

Tbe^nipntb oC^NpUa^^ 6t r^enetdtiinL for fo 
the word iHipIfes^ ap^^ te ioVrow^^^ from the 

l^^^vmi • Ithe^cat fmival of Ej^W^ds, ip,thi 
rpontn,' iwas zho\x%'\\)4^'^qt the Iday 

lFixe(Ffer the celeBratidh ot thfe bfrth 0/ bur SayTbiif. 

*l^mea r^t'derrTKe 

nis; jnd the jrctrcating of the^ watery wgrc p^iodi- 

• *^f 

ids J VIZ. "in February, May, Au^uft, an^ Nqvimbcr : the 
Irifh have dropt the fire «f Novcmbcr/HrirB ftiuftituted can- 
dk»: ^rbe'^Vcift ftSt^^dmditxireJdf .1ltfveiri& piitt can 

icrsL from Snowdcn.-:^} ^lieve^ 

liity, was 'n6t' very ' 

Acquiaint^d 'with 

TJhcfe feftivaU ib(|JpSileir:t|>lida)fid,iit^^ntfe4»iibii(^^^ 

opiwtunity fcryes: '^^^^ ^f/tH^^^Mf ^g>Slfl^dtAjl« K»n 

naade, that the cuftoms of the ioitinjonr people^ oj Trejaijd, 

aVi^ the MSS. ftilMn ft^mg/^^frlrcrmoriop^b^^ 

pfeinmg fhe tenets of the religion of the Druids, than ihofc 

of any other people in the world, ihc Bracbnuau excepted. 


cal : the firft was fixed for the beginning of their 
mournings j fo did a very extraordinary circura- 
iUnce, point out to ^hcm precirdy.^ when to change 
the mourning, into the moft ex|rayagant mirth and 
rgoicings. The Egyptians put a letter into a bafr 
ket made of bulruQies, .and with (ceremonious in- 
cantations, . delivered it to t lie river on its reflux^ 
which carried it to the fca; and this letter, of its 
own accord, went to Byblis^ about eighty leaguds 
idiftant, where the women, who knew the time of 
Its approach, received it with the greateft revc* 
rcnce : this letter informed theqi> that Adonis was 
regenerated^ or come to life agaii); .their mpurning 
was immediatiply turned into joy, and ihe wliole 
cit^ filled with revelling and licentioufnefs, • We 
nieet with this ftory in Lucian : ** Tliere .wag," fays 
he, "ajpaik'shead brought every year frooh Egypt 
**:to By Wis, over the fca, m the fpace of feven 
^* days, thewind$ carrying it with a divine, gale> 
** that it turnetli the one way, nor to the other, 
** but comes in a ftraight palfage diredtly to JByb- 
** lis; which^ thpugji it may feem miracujousljiapr 
•* pens every y^'ar^ and did the fame wh^n. A was 
^« there;* . ^, ';".'; '"/*., .• ', ^ 

This IS the reafoh, we fo often fee on old c6in$' 
tlie DedSyriay with a head in her hand: it is fup^ 
pofed, thatlfajah (xviii. 2.),ajludeisi tq this, where 1^ 
denounces woe to tfiem who /end ambaff'adors by fe(f^ 
c^en in vejfeh . of bulrufbes ufgn the waters. The ^ 
word ^firim^ which we tranflate amhaffadorSy fignir 
fies idols i and Bochart, therefore, underltands it, of 
the head of OJiris ; which^ he fays, they fent by th^ 
power of the deviU from Egypt to Byblis : The 
LXX tranflate it by hf^T^^^ W^*i«5, as if they were 



letters that were fent to Byblis: The Irifli anti- 
quary could have informed them^ that os tris^ in 
their language, implies^ ihe holy or divine head. 
This ftpry is not unlike that publiftied not many 
years fince, in the life of St. Wenefredc, for the ufc 
of the pilgrims who vifitcd her well, and which the 
editor very gravely endeavours to perfuade us to' 
believe : it is this ; that (he annually fent St. Beuno 
a curious embroidered waiftcoat, and, wrapping it 
In a woollen clpth, caft it into her well, from 
whence it paffed down the ilream into the river, 
then into the Cea, and ^atided near the monafteiy 
where St. Beurto dwelt, at Qyw»^, near Carnarvon, 
many tt\ilei? diftarit. . > ; 

I fhall conclude thjs fubjeft Vith a paflag^ froiH 
Porphyry, becaufc, it was the fenfiment of our Hi- 
bernian Dr^id^.* - I 
' >* W^ will facrifjce,** fays he, ^ but m ? pann^f 
^^'] that is. projpfcr • bBngfng choice viftims ^th tb? 
•• choiceft or our faculties; burnitjg ind offering. 
*^ toGoD, who, as a wife man obfer^ed. Is ab/rof 
** dip, liothing fenfual : for nothifig'i^ joined to mat: 
^*^ tef, which is noti mpure ; and, therrfore, mcoij- 
♦•' grubus to a nature,* free from the contagion jb^; 
" longing to matter:. for which rea(bn, neidier 
" fpeech, which is produced by the voice, nor eve(i 
"• internal or mental language, tf it be infe<ated with 
" ^ny diforder of the mind, is project to be offered 
" to God : but we worlhip God with an unfpot- 
^ ted filence, and the moft pure thoughts' of his 
"nature." ' 

T^iefe arguments were brought by the Heathen^ 
to defend worfhrpping the images of their Godsi 
and their God^, for aught we know to the conlhiy. 



were, when on earth, though their pofterity loon fell 
into idolatry, as good fainis^ that is, as accepta- 
ble to Almighty God, and perhaps more fo, thaa 
St. Francis^ IgnatuiS'^Loybla,*. and a goeat ; niahy 
other Enthufiafts, who niake a confiderable figure 
in the Romifli Kalendar. 

V c: 

\ / I.: 

L I / .' : * • / i • t 'i J • i yt / U 

•J ." •'. v^* X i: f'. \J {} X 

» i « -^ • ■' » i » 

'•v. [ r .IT-..; 

I »rf • 

. ,,OF THE 


O «,• * '•' " 








THERE cannot be a nnore pleafmg ihidy to 
the Irilh antiquary^ than that of the ancient 
Irifft Kalcndar ; and, if a complete work of this 
land could be found, it would, doubtlefs, afibrd a 
moft curious enquiry, and lead to difcover the an- 
cient colonies that fettled in this ifland. 

The names of fome of the ancient feftivals, are 
handed down to us by the mouths of the common 
people; fuch as beil tinne, or the month of 
May; SAM AN, the month of November; nollag, 
of December*, and lughnasa, of Augufl: but the 


OF tHE GULE Oi* AUt^UStl 4% 

grca^rpart, are only tobt found in the* J>crufal of 
idle ancient MSS. 

The tkmcof tat or txth, carries us up to 
the taoftretnotc period of -antt^uhy ; it is of orien- 
tal origin^ iand, in my opinion, cftabfilhes the and- 
cnt Hiftory x)f Ireland, as givett to Us by their an- 
cient Seannadnes ot Antiquaries j I'm^an, where 
they aflert, that $rt' caftern colony fettled in tW^ 
kingdom at a very early period, and /introduced 
their language, rites, and cuftoms ; becaufe,; if thefe 
names' had' travelle:d from Gaul to Britain, ' and^ia 
on tothisifland, it may be reafonably cogcTuddl, 
that we ftiQuld find fom6 traces of them, in the hif 
torics or ariticiuities of thpfe nations, 'particularly iii 
that'of thc^Erifb^ IhelWalfh^''!^^^^^^ been mbft 
fludiou^Jp. their tefeirches a^^^^^ Bri- 

tifli antiquities'^ buti in the'cqurfe of my readingr^ 
I. have '^bt been. able to discover any >yords, 
leaft fimilar to thofe of the Iriih',' for tliis fefti^L' ^ , 
iik tat, the firft day of Auguft. Vet Glpfi. ' 
La taithe a* foghmhair, the.Daj^^ Ja^i of 

ofAugulV:'^ l^/irJ Charles O'ConoTtJfOf^'^^^ 
fbcmhusy qne.Qf the^ipoft.ancienf'i^^^^^^ 

-'(i&):!^(»^,ih*fAi;TWipfi«,an aBuiidancie; a gatk^nri^, ataf- 
veft ; hence, it is ufed, to cxprcljp'46<)atieftt»feaa, dA eotertam- 

ilti^,; airda^pJjifd ta.\l& %vlrKji^^/ifr/'^ . ^^^^ *, A04!^- * 
good or a bad '/gf. <, .^.. x ^,,i...rr' . <jj -.^ r;^^,i 
"A^,'(h)gagmm,' taw tatlrrV^r^n^^n Tn foirefta regiilbci- 
m px6'j9^a}\i.r^'t^c^'~foTb^^^ aftepgrifs ;. g^Sfii 

'Wliicb:grOwi» io autuuin, after the hay is mown. JoKuIo.t 



Lu GN A s^ the month of Auguft. 0*Bden*s Dic- 

La. LU G HN AS A, thc firft of Auguft. Idem. 

LuGN A SD, Lammas Day, Shaw's Galic Di(5. 

La LrUANiqTAiN, Lammas day^pr ift of Au- 
guft.. . Mc. Donald's palic Vocabulary. \ 

Scaliger^ in^is JErpend^tionp Temporuro, ihcws 
us, thai*! rin Tot^ or Thplhf was the firft n[K>nth of 
the Egyptians^ which cpmpaenced Qn the kialen4s of 
Auguft. We i>cecl,gQ hp Farther /or the 
of the Irifti TAT., rte^ ^ddsi, alio,. , that /^Ibetinus 
aflert^ that the'i^^y^tljaiis earned this m^^ like- 
^ife, LACNAHiR,, but tHat the Cofltick, or -^©'p- 
tiaii. words, were fo ifalfely printed in this Author, 
littledependance was to-be placed on the ortho- 
graphy • 'fed multa afiud 'ilFprh autorerii "depravatx 
legurit'ur, ' five interpretip. irvicitiai' fiyeV librariorum 
culpa, ut cum apud eupa' legitur ALKEPT'prd el- 
KupTi, &c. &c. from whence, we may Icbriclud^, 
that Ldghnahir^: and iM^hnafa^ have'" the ferae 
origin. * '' I '^ ^ ' ' 

' Th6 Egyptians, hkil alfo, a fecdnd' Neomem^ 
in March, named tat, hence, the diltinftion made 
by the |rifh, by Bid faithe a /ogham)uu\xhcX)zy^ 
Tath, in harveft. '^ .' ' ' * 

The month, tat,, in the Tabula Syfo.Graeco- 
rum of Scaliger, is named lous; I therefore con- 
tludei that Albetinus wrote Laghnajkj inttead of 
LaghmMr^ a word, ^ffer wards contra|£^ed ^y the 
Syro Graccians \o Lm^:. . ...:,... 
■ Thc Trifti gloflariilsi^ of the eleventh and twelfth 
-centuries, derive the name fi-om Lughaidh-lamh- 
fada,^ or long*handed L«^A<?/^A, A nipuarch of Ire- 
^and^ who, they .fay, pftablilhed ag/S, ofsfelrs or air 
.r...:. 1 - . femblies, 


fcmblies, to be held annually at Talton, (s) on the 
firft day of this month. It is certain, that this was a 
public day, 6r*feflival, inthi mott remote times; 
and Cormde informs us, it Was one of the four great 
fire-days of the Druids^ as we have ftie>vn in the 
preceding pages. ' • 

Tothj or Thoth^ is faid to be Co called by the 
^gyptiarts, from akingT'Ao/A; but it being the 
name of the iirft month of the year, T'A^/A became 
the name of the Epocha of the fun's calculation, Iq 

fat^ I. e. tofach, a beginning. Vet. Glofs. 

Tath^ i. e. leomhan, a lion Idem. In this month, 
fays Scaligcr, ^hotk primus neceffario caepit ab otbc 
Canicuhe (the dog ftar) fole in Uonem tranfeunte, 

novilunio : ^And here it will not be amifs to ob- 

ferve, that mi tnadadh^ or the dog month, is ano- 
ther appellation in Irilh, for the month of Auguft, 
correfponding with the canicula, or dog ftar. 

?V/>A, heat, warmth. 

Tetki% i. e. Tithan, the fun. See all the Dic- 

Taithneadh^ to thaw, melt, or fufe •, hence^ Tfwir, 

Taith^ the courfe of the fun. 

Various arc the opinions of antiquaries, of the ori- 
gin of the name of LArtHmas Day. 

Lammas, Calendia Scxtiles feu Auguftae, q. d. 
Miffa, (i. e. Dies Agnoium^ tunc enim Agri exo- 


(i) Taii'tony fignifies, the hill of augury ; hence, the Druids 
named Patrick, ftfi/^^n, that is, the great prophet. SeeO*Brien. 
The inxKlerii Irifh, have done what they could to ruin the an- 
cient language. Ib Arab, tala-numa^ an augur. See the 


kfcunt, & ID ufu menfarura eflfe definunt. Vd uc 
ex Smnero tnancx ah finglo-Sax I Uaf-nut^^ q. d 
Loaf-mais, forte quia ea die, apud Anglos, oblatio 
panmn ex tritico novo fieri iblebat. Skinner. 

Lammas Day, the firfl of Augufi,'fo called, as 
feme will have it, becaufe Iambs then grow out of 
leafen, as being toa big; — others derive it from a 
Saxon word, ^^f^m^Loaf-fnafs*^ becaufe, on that 
day, our forefathers made an offering of bread, 
made with new wheat. On tMs day^ the tenants 
who formerly held lands of the cathedral church of 
York, were bound by their tenure, to bring a hwA 
aKve into the church at hig^ mafs. Chambers^ 

Lammas Day, otherwife called, the Gult or Tult 
of Auguft, which may be a corruption of the Britilb 
gyoylAwJi^ fignifying the feftival of Auguft, or may 
come from "JWi-cula, (Qiains) that day being 
called, in I,atin, Feftura S. Petri ad Vincula!!! 

It is a ufage, in fome places, for tenants to be 
bound to bring in wheat of that year to their lord, 
on or before the Guh of Auguft. Ham. RelbU to 
fix Queries, p. 465, 

In the preceding article, I have fhewn the deri- 
vation of Lamb/wool'^ that it was the day on which 
the Druids celebrated the la^mas uhkaly or the day 
of oblation of the fruits of trees : So this day, (the 
Giile of Auguft) was dedicated to the facrifice of 
the fruits of the foil : La-ith-m as was the day of 
oblation of grain; it is pronounced La-ee-mas^ a 
word readily corrupted to Lammas : Ith^ is all 
kinds of grain, particularly wheat ; and mas^ fruit of 
all kinds, particularly the acorn, whence maft. 



CuL and cul, in the Irifti, implies, a complete 
circle, a belly awheel, an aniiiverraryr ^^r, im- 
plies, a bending, and fbmetimes a circle ; "but, in 
ipealdng of th^e mathematical circle, if is alw^ 
compounded a$ circul, a circle, 

O//, i. e. gulj i. e. carbad, a whed. Vet. Glofs. 

Culbhaire^ L e. Sabr deanmha carbaid, a wheel- 
wright. Ibid. 

C«/, a: chariot, a waggon, or any wheel-carriage. 
Do thrtig a chula^ his wheels failed. O'Brien. 

Carbad^ Cotftcy a wheel. Lhwyd at Rota: 
N. B. Carbad and Coiile, now fignify a coach or 

Cuidhalj or Cual^ a fpinning wheeL 

GwYL, a feftival. Welfti. 

GwLEDD, Epulae, Convivium. Davics* Welfti 

Gwylyr holl Saina, the Gule of All Saints. Wellh 

Gwl A^fiy the Gule of Auguft. Idem. 

Cul, or Gul, fignifying a circle, a belt, &c. was 
a term properly adapted by ihe Celts, to exprefs an 
anniverfary, feftival, or the day in the fun's annual 
courfe, affigned to particular holy days. Thefe, 
and other feftivals which were governed by the 
NeomentOj were proclaimed to the people, a week 
or more, before the appearance of the moon ; hence 
it was neceflary to calculate the motion of tb^ hea- 
venly bodies ; and this was the bufmcfs of our 
Druids : and, as they afcended the high hills, to 
have the firft obfervance of the new mootfi, fo, 
many hills and fteeples, or round towers, prefervc 
the name to this day, fignifying tlieir ufe; as Cnoc^ 

na Re^ 


na-Re^ the Hill of the Moon, in the county of 
SEgo i KiUrc, the Moon*s Steeple, &c, &c. 

We caonot explain tUs word cul, without re- 
ferring to the oriental tongues $ and, in trath, the 
Celtic language^ the Iberao-Celtic in pai^cular, is 
fo united with the Hebrew^ Aorabic, and Perfic, it 
is impollible to penetrate into the remote antiqmties 
of the Celtic natbns, without a competent Imow- 
tedge of thofe languages ^ as will appear firom the 
ftiUowing words : 


fiVa gala. This is a very general word, and has 
great variety of appKcation : to roll in whatever 
manner ; to roll down ; roll together ; roll back ^ 
roll round \ to revolve as the earth in its diumal 
and annual rnotioti ; and, as a heap of ftones rolled 
together. Galath^ orbs \ rings ^ rounds ; things that 
would eafily turn round, Vas rotunda^ round in- 
ilruments; to be rolled away, as when the (blar 
light is by the motion of the earth rdted off our 
hemifphere. As a noun, it feems a general name 
for the gifeat material heavens. As a mafs, circles, 
rings, or turning round on a centre. Derivations, 
icheel^ well. The Saxon, wealcoHy to rollj whence 
^elkin^ the heavens. Perhaps the Latin, volvo; 
whence revolvere. fVhile^ fpace, or revolution of 
time. Packhur{l*s Heb. Lex. 

Gola^ Cyclus, Cyclas. Go/, vas toncavum & 

Gala^ revelare, prophelicum verbum : inde Galei^ 
Vates Siculi : Bochart, Amoi iii. 7. Surely, the 


O R LA M MtA 1^ ^ p A Y. 475 

Lord God will do nothings hxxt (gala) hereyealeth 
his fecrct unto his ferva^it?, ihe.prpphets :— Hence, 
the Irifti verb, galaftairj thqy rcYealed. \t is alfo 
ufed as a noun, as, cuirim ann ceilJy ciall^ mll^ or, 
geill^ u e. I will reveal or declare. 

Chakd^ Hhalad^ Saeculum; htncc - BaalChaUa^ 
Dominus Sacculi, from whence Jupiter was called, 
Aldus and Aldemius : in this fenfe, alfo, the true 
God is called, Melk Hhalim^ i. e. Rex Sasculi, yel 
MundL Bochart. 

The Canaanites had. a temple to their Qod, th 
Hetpvem^ called Bfih-chagnlt^i. e. the temple ojf the 
circulatof. Jofh. xv. 6; and xviii 19. Mirlttt 
calls it, Beth-gulf i. e. the*houfe of revolution. 
Cocceius i^ys^.c/iugg fignifies motion, and that in i 
cirde :— Mariua, that jfi^/ ^prefies the inward joy 
of the tnind, by the outward geftures of tte Hbody t 
Cocceius, thiatt ^l denotes to exult, and thfe buti 
ward CixpreiTjon of joy^ by dancing, jiirbj^ihg- 
hence, the tvvQ words Rejoined in the Irifl;i, to ex- 
prefsa gdat^ a Wuiib, iicWtz. caghal^ coghla^ c4kUi€lf 
agoat^ rhamb.' -^ 

The cetcbrdtloii of the Meccha feftival, is called 
T^y the Arabiajis,. CAi(fi it fignifies, alioj the yedt^ a 
bracelet, a ring ; — in Iriih, cuig-me^ a bracelet or 

In SynAc^chugalj is a circuit, an eclipfe^ to turn 
tound; hi'Infh, cuigealj is a fpinning-wHecl, curg^ 
a. circle, .TKq' Hebrews often joined thefe words 
together; vi?. fhug-gul-,^ and then it exprefTed both 
- motions, to roU in a ciirle or fphere 4 as i Chron. 
• xvi. 31. Let the earth cftugnl^ u e. rtvolve. Cuig 
is ufed finjgly by the Irilh, to exprefs the number 

Vol. liJL;^o. XII. Q^ fivci 


five\ that is, the tips of the fingers once counted 
round : deic^ ten, is the' contradtion of da-cuig^ or 
twice five, from which number, all nations b^n a 
new count, (i) 


(i) J^rom the ejcpl|n«tioii of the Iriih glotfarifts of the 
v^ord, r»j^, five, to be fynoninaous with cji«r, or n«r, a cir- 
cle j dfic^ ten, i.e. twocuig» or circles, ^tidfghi^ twentj, 
to fignify alfo a noofe or twitting, the following conjecture 
arofe, of the ancient method of reckoning or counting : I (k> 
fuppefe h^re, an ancient Irtfii merchant trafficking with a 
ftnreigner,'<ignorant of his If hguage, and, according to asci- 
ent cui^om, feated on^the^ ground ; the iiataral wajof aiak- 
inglhe^ latter feniible o( any .number v^ to Ey^^ is, hj turn- 
ing .the pa)ms of thi? hands tWards the face, in which pcfi- 
tiort , the tips of the fingers form a circle, my, or cuar ; from 
yf1i£nice the name : Toiignify^chis number ^t once, he would 
hoUlip his band, 'and^eft^ bis fingers,! which will then 
i^if\ io nif ny V's, .aii4 hen^ce, I fnppofe, .this charader did 
ftand for &Ve : He w6;uld cqunt over the fecond hand, which 
b^would name £ citar^ or ii'0iag^ that is, two circles, which 
might -be contracted to^etor,' ten ; to fignJfy this number to a 
^orei^er^ he flight natttratty c£dfs bis axoi^ ftrdfliew bath 
hands, withiingers extended, and this c^i^Vf 4<>^ he better 
f'epifefeated;.than by the chm^er X, frpq^)vhich n^umber, all 
pationa begin anew.. Tp e^prefs twi^e ven, he might fgla^ 
or" twift both'handi abour,'ruiini{ig the 'fihgcrs of one rhrotigh 
anotKef, ikd this tt\iinber wdtilil be call©d;/^*a«, twenty, 
i. e. a twitting : From whence, /^iifif/i, and the Latin Ylgiati, 
the Tigh Would be ihe. X repcaipd* and ft op to fi%, which 
iriight |)$ >y^n X, ftnd two twifb, as tl^e Irift ejyrcffcs j viz. 
Jeic agu^ 4<^ fighi^K ."^en, and two tWift&j^bu; in the pofitibo 
of fitting*, the y6d^ tJeiog Jcept cre^t, and TThe thighs and legs 
eiofed and thrill du'r, wt)dd'1beiepieiented*y the charaabr 
L, or, in a ftanding pofttfre,^ Ae Uia ftfeichjed out, would 
form a gamma^ a figure we ftnd, in Fabl^ius, to ba?e been 
infculpcd for L; For a hundred, he nught ppint tp the head, 
which, from its orbicular form, might be ,r^rcf(fnted by O ; 
the' name of the head being ctan^ €ut\ or M»fj the Latiot 



« This attribute in a God," fays Hutchinfon, 
(Principia, p. 259.) « is to make fomething go 
** round in a circle. One of the fervices the hea- 
" thcns paid ta this attribute, was to dance or 
** move in circles : hence, the Arabians Call brace- 
** Ictsand ear-rings, which were the reprefentations 
** of this power in the annual circle, by the part 
" of the word which exprefles it ; and fo ufed the 
** fame word, C%, for the year itfelf.**— In Irifli, 
Cuigme^ a bracelet; but Qightaidh^ or Cuch-taid^ 
is the Creattn-j the Former^ the Maker. ** This, 
" continues our author, was a fervice required by 
" the law of God, to be performed at ftated times 

named die charaQer centum^ aod the Iriih ceaiL For ten 
hundred^ or a thoufand, the X repeated, and the hand on the 
mull, or crown of the head, would be reprcfented by O, aiid 
an X within the circle ^ and, from mull, the coolraaion mU, 
and the Latin miUe, and the chara^er M, which alfo refem- 
btes a man fitting, with his two legi drawn up : or this num- 
ber might be exprefled, by grafping a large lock of hair j i, c. 
a milic. 

The IrJfti, like their anceftors, the Scythopolians, have 
ever been remarkable for the making of Linen, a manufac- 
ture depending on the txz€t number of threads; it was nc« 
ceflary, therefore, they fliould CQunt the threads of yarn 
when reeled : This reckoning thus goes on with the good 
woman and her reel : a,t every twen'ty, flie made a /cor or 
notch on a ftick, hcace/t^ort : every ten fcore, makes a cut or 
centtts, i. e. tenium ^tind every twelve cuts, makes a cion mar 
or fieaftf or, as we call it, a ikain or hank : the reel is alfo 
named croi toads^ the X or crofs for reeling ; and, if I midake 
not, the Greek tuIi, is from an ancient word, way, implying, 
a circle f as well as omne^, for the Greek vca&thin^, plenllunis 
tuna, is the fame*as the Iberno-Celtic, hann-luan, from hann, 
a circle, belt, girt, or zone } and tixilor, a hundred, is our cut^ 
the head, &c. &c. 


*^ or feaft% under thefe and other wordsi in 
•* Exod. V. I. The Lamb, which was the rcprc- 
^^ fentation of this power, and was to be eat at the 
^^ pafTover, in Exod. xxiii. i8. is called Chag\ it is 
*^ fo calle/d, when it is made a facrifice in this fer- 
•' vice, in P&I. cxviii. ay.** In Irifli, Ch^-^ is t 
goat, a lamb ; and, in a very ancient Iri(h MS. 
quoted in the preceding eflay, Cucu^ is the name of 
the facrifice ordered to be offered to Saman ; and 
in all the Lexicons, coghbradhj or codh-bradhj is a 
facrificing, an offering. This may be the leafon, 
that the primitive chriftians in Ireland, changed the 
word Pai/c^ into Cai^^ ftill adhering to the word 
Chagy or Chug^ the name o^ the Lamb offering \ and 
hence, probably, Cag-aos^ lent feafon. CargnSy has 
another derivation, as will be (hewn hereafter. 

I mufl remark in this place, that the Irifh name, 
Goga, or Clugj for the round tower, may very rea- 
dily be a conlraikion of the Hebrew Cugul-, efped- 
ally, as we find one name for a tower, to be Caum^ 
or Cuiceac. See more under the word Gnceac, 

The correfponding Irilh words, are, coghar^ or- 
der, feries. Coghalj a nut ; cuagattj the round work 
of a bird's nefl (from ean^ a bird) ^ cuachag^ a pail, 
a bowl; cuag-fholt^ curled hair; cuag-ran^ around 
kernel in the flelh ; cuig-crich^ a bound, or land li- 
mit ; caght^ or cacht^ the world. 

Nergal^ the /f /?/)W of the men qf Cuth, 2 Kngs 
xvii. 30. from w^r, light, and gal^ to revolve; it 
feems to denote, the folar fire^ ox lighs^ conCdcrcd, 
as caufing the revolution of the earth. Parkhurft. 

The Rabbins fay, the idol was reprefcnted Li 
the fhape of a cock : Among the later heathcth «^e 



find the cock was fiicred to Jpolla^ or the 5ir/y *, be- 
caufe, faith Proclus, he doth invite, as it were, his 
influence, and, with fongs, congratulates lys rifing : 
or, as Paufanias^ they fay this bird is (acred to the 
fun, becaufe he proclaims his approaching return. 
So, HeU(4orus^ by a natural fen&tion of the fun's 
revohtion to us, cocks are incited to falute the God : 
i^nd, perhaps, under the name, Nergat^ they meant 
to worlhip the fun, not only for the diurnal return 
of his light upon the -earth, but alfo, for its annual 
revolution. The emblem of the cock (in Irifh, gal^ 
caoile-acj or galeae) is proper, for he is frequently 
crowing both day and night, at the time of the year 
when the days begin to lengthen. Our Iri(h word, 
nesrghi na greinCj i. e. the riiing of the fun, has a 
wonderful affinity with Nergal. Shakjpeare has re- 

Some fay, that 'gainft that (eafon comes 
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated. 
The bird of dawning fingeth all night long. 

And here it may not be amife to take notice of 
the beautiful propriety with which a cock was made 
ufe of, to awaken St. Peter from his guilt, after he 
had denied our Lord. Step. Morinus^ proves, the 
Cuihitts were of Cutha^ in Perfia, and that they wor- 
ihipped immediately the fun^ or fire^ as an em- 
blem ; therefore, Nergal could not be an idol : for 
magiifin^ or fire worfhip, and not zabiifm^ or image 
worfliip, was, at that time, the religion of that 
country, (vide Prideaux's Conncft.) as it was of the 
Drmds of Ireland. 



Gal^ revolvity cumulus, acervus lapidum, juzU 
gdy i. e. acervum, radices ejus implacabantur, fe- 
quitur'domus lapidutn, galim^ altaria — tne-gala vo- 
lumen, libros in cylendri morem, gal-gal quicqmd 
in drculum volvitur.^-Schindlerus. 

Cheled^ asvum^ tempus, mundus quaii aliquid in- 

Chol^ arena, vitrum quod fit ex peliuddis arenas 
granulis. Chald. fie Syr. Chala vitrum ; fix>m this 
root, is formed, the Irilh word cUoitu^ or ghine, for 
glafs, i^ e. chala-ihinnej vitrified iand, or fand vitri- 
fied by fire, and the Hebrew Giiny vitrum. 

Chaial^ perfcMrari, fi)fl£, caveroae, tibia, fifiub 
quafi perforata, inftrumenta mufica: &om this root^ 
the Iriih, chkurji^ a harp, i. e. chata-mjij the and* 
ent inlirument of mufick. 

Cacham^ to be wife, have wifdom, all wifdy. 

Chak^ a fiatute, a lawgiver. ^ 

C H A L D A I C. 

Gaia^ revelavit, manifellus \ Geli^ the &me. 



A. Chalid^ tempus, feculum, stas, perennis, Khsh 
ludt perennis. 
ChaJaSy elevatio, cumulus, acervus. 
ChdlaCj condidit, creavit. 
Galy revolvit. 

yH-galala^ dngulum. Schindierus. 
GhelJety harvcftf fruits, grain* 


OR, LAM MA S DAY. 4*1 

P. GhcUe^ flower: Irifh, etdl. , 

P; GhuUghuly proclaraatioii. 

A. Kylj a calile, fort, citadel ; Iri(h» killer a church. 

Kyl^ a chain, a band* 
A. KyU^ a periodical rctufn of the (ieafons. 
A. JCf/^ a calllc. 

A. JTir/f/, fcattered people aflembled together. 
P, KuMi^ P. a wheel, a reel, a fphcre. 
P. KulUy a tower, a ileeple, a bel&ey. 
A. Kylfy<$y a cell, a vaults 
P. if^/ryom^an adorer of fire;. 
P. Kalc^ a yarn reel : Irifh, cuidhal, or cual. 
A. Cacham^ philofophy. Cachmomj a family name ; 
i. e. a wife man, a teacher of wifdom^ i. e. thofe 
(killed m all the branches of .the knowledge of 
nature.. Hutchinfon, Icon, and Boaz, p. 10 ;-^ 
hence^ the Irlfli, ciOCyifAchty otkak^ inftru£tion, 
wifdooi- Cofht^ ^ hoLyxlay, a fall procUimed 
by the wife men. 
The Canaanites had a .teoipk to .their god, the 
heavem^ by the attribute above-mentbned ^ (Jos, 
XV. 6. and xviii. 19.) viz. beth-hguJe^ or chfgtde^ 
that is, the temple of the circulai<>r : Marius calls it, 
b(tk-gul„ i. e. the houfe of revobuion. Huiahmfm 
fays, they have omitted the fiift half of the 
woffd, viz. ch$^^ or ehuggu \ diat is, to be m mo- 
tion^ to dance in circle^, to go round. Cocctius 
imerprets chugy by motion, and that in^a circle ^ 
but Marius^ fays, gul^ expreffes the inward joy of 
the mind, by the outward gefture of the body ; 
and, Cocceius adds, it is the outward expreflion of 
joy, by dancing, jumping, &c. In Arabic, Chug^ 
18 the celebration of the Meccha feftival, the year, a 




ring, a bracelet. In Syriac, chugal^ a circuit, ta 
turn round. One of the fervices paid to this attri* 
bute, by the heathens, was, to dance, or move in 
circles ; (k) and, in this manner, our Irifh Druids, 
obferved the revolutions of the year, feilivals, &c 
by dancing round our round towers \ and, from the 
Syriac chugaJ^ the word clog was formed, implying, 
any orbicular form, as, the Jkullj a round tower j &c. 
Cusghalj a Spinning wheel -, cuig^ the number five, 
bccaufe, once told round the tips of the fingers of 
one hand. Cuagan^ the circular work of a bird's 
neft. Cuachy the cuckow, becaufe, of its periodical 
return. Cuige agus uaidhe^ round and about. C«j- 
crickj a bound of a country \ — hence, coig^ and 
cuig^ a province, and not from o/y, five, as our 
moderns think, for there were biit four provinces in 
Ireland. Cogh-hradhj a (acrificing, an offering. Cb- 
gadj or Chugala^ a round town ; hence, oil- de-four 
in French, a fpherical vault ; and, in this form, are 
the roofe of our round towers : Latin cokmj i. c 
faffigium templi rotundum : Irilh V«/-/>^, an oven, 
a bake-houfe. 

Galacj Gealacj and Geal^ are Irifh names for the 
moon, from the above root, galaj to revolve; 
whence, gil^ in Hebrew, a planet: (Thomals. 
p. 338.) hence, many of our hills are named, gil^ 
and gal, from the ufe made of them by the Dnuds, 


(k) This was a fervice, required by the kw of God, to be 
perforaied at dated times, or feafts, under thcfe and other 
words. The Lamb, which was the reprerentation of the 
palTover, and was to ht eaten at that feftival, is called, chagt 
Ex. xxiii. 18. It is alio fo called, when it is made a facrificc 
. in this fervice. Pf. cxviii. 27. Hutchinfon. 


for the difcovery of the neomenia^ or new moon. 
The Earl of Tyrone's Park inclofcs part of a very 
Kgh hill, called Gil-kak^ i. e. the prodaimer of the 
moon, from the Hebrew, cachim^ fare, revelare ; 
hence, the oriental aftronomers call the feven 
ipheres of the planets galgalim ; a little fphere giL 
See Icon and Boaz. p. 43. And, hence, the Irifh 
word, galac^ gaoilac^ and caileac^ a cock, i. e. the 


KuUehj a round tower ; kuUehchehj kaukh^ a tur* 
ret ; Jburuf^ fliurfutj a turret ; Tauffwofj a tower ; 
whence, our Tamar^ or Tara^ which had three tow- 
ers. Kulaufby a cock, a watchman ; heiaatj cheiaat^ 
afironomy } chookool^ an obfervator of the Aars ; 
hence, our cuiUceachj or cheakkutl^ a round tower^ 
i. c. an obfervatcM:y. 

PerC kal-ab manfio quaedam lunae. Kelant^ a 
fire hearth ^ kaiender^ wandering monks ; kel-kis^ a 
boy's top whirlmg round; guUy a cotton reel; 
gulHy a (wallow, from its periodical return ^ Atf- 
Uchij the body or difk of the fun or moon, rotun- 
dity, a round cake \ kelifa^ a church, a fynagogue; 
(hence, our Kileejbuj the name of feveral old 
churches in Ireland there is a caftle, tower, 
church, and facred grove of oak, fo called, near 
St. Lukc*s Well, between Waterford and Knock- 
topher) •, Kiluy is alfo a Perfian word for a raanifefto, 
a proclamation, a place where the Mahometans 
^atch before prayer. 

Heb. He kuU a temple. This is the root of our 
Eacal^ zzAEaca-Uos^ a church, and of the Latin and 



Greek ecclefia; but Lios is the Irifh termiaatioay 
fignifying a houfe ; for all ancient temples were in 
open places. — ^We mult alfo diftingui(h between 
Eacd-Uos and agaUUos-^ both imply churdies; but 
jigally was ori^nally an OracU\ whence, Cruach 
^galij now mount -^/jf/f, or Cruach Patrick. Sec 

Ferf. Me-Gclcj the chamber of audience ; quia iIh 
omnia rerum arcana propalantur. (ThomaiCnus). 

Heb. Chacam cam fcire, &pere, peritum efle. 
Ferf. Kaky a mafter, a preceptor » hence, the Irilh» 
ceac^ or kak^ fcience, knowledge, grammar. Uire^ 
kakty the rudiments of grammar, from lorr, 
or aire^ a magician: Thus, the Irifh Seaictaes^ 
lay, that the name of PartolarCs Druid, who firft 
came to Ireland from iEgypt and Greece, was 
named Cacchair : (for this word, fays Mc Curtin, 
implies a ikilful man) Now cach^ in Hebrew, is 
an inftrudtor, and ^vm cheruri, is hariolari, to au- 
gure. (t) 

Chaldee. ^ara nnm, doftrina, lex vel Mofis vel 
totum verbum dei. 

Hindoftan. Pungolj a revolution, anniverlary, 
New-YearVDay ; Irifh, ba$igui^ a proclaimed re- 
volution or anniverfary. 


(/) The Reader muft be fenGble, from tke few examples here 
given, of the difficulty of explaining Iriih antiqiriries; without 
a knowledge of the oriental tongues :— ^f he does- nor bear 
this lighted flambeaux in his hands, he will (himb)e trcry 
moment over the rubbifli thrown in the way by the monks 
and hidorians of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, as too 
many pretended antiquaries of Ireland have done already, to 
the difgrace of our Triumvirate S^iety of fSbernian jSntipM- 

O R L A M M A S D A Y. 485 


From the preceding oriental roots, are derived, 
the following Irifti words : 

GuJlj or gaill^ i, e. carrtha clochcj a ftone colutnn, 
or pillar, that is, one of the ancient round towers, 
(Cormac*8 Glofs. Vet.) is aire is bearor gall (fays 
Cormac) difuidiu fo bith ceata ro Juighidfeat in Eire^ 
i. c. they were fo called, gall^ by the colonifts who 
fettled firft in Ireland (m). From the Hebrew, 
gala revelare, the ancient prophets of Ireland, were 


(wi) Cormac fays, thefe pillars, columns, or rowers, were 
fo named by the firfl: fettlers in Ireland. Ga//, in the modem 
Irifli, is ft general nftme for foreigners, in particular the 
Eogliifa, but here means a tower i now ^*tJ gidal^ or gadal^ ia 
the Hebrew, is a tower. See Hutchinfon, Icon and Boaz, 
p. 49. May this not be the root of the word Gaodbal, or Ga^ 
dal, i. e. the Irifli people ? And might not the nameof G^/r- 
Ztt, their hero or leader, hare been adopted from his being 
the leade/ of a people who built towers ? Thus tor or tir, in 
Hebrew, implies a fort, as being furroundeid by a circle i 
Tinr, is alfo a pillar; a pillar-like vapour : it is alfe the orbit 
of the ftars ; hence, Momer ufes the word th^ for the ftars : 
Does not this name alfo point to the ufe of our tur or tower ? 
Tvr, /or, in Hebrew, implies, crda^ intermixed with iir^ a pa- 
lace. Tir^ in Chaldee, to divine ; from whence, the Irifli 
tirgtre^ or iairgirt^ prophecy, divination ; a word compounded 
of thr^ divination, and eir^ a circle* Mr. Hutchinfon tran- 
flates iurim^ columns of light. Icon and Boaz, p. 60. AU 
which names feem applicable to our round towers. Carr^ 
tha^ a column or pillar, is certainly the fame as the Hebrew 
catbarotb^ 2 Chron. the chapters on the heads of the co- 
lumns I for the Hebrew verb, aubir^ is to furround : as a 
noun, it implies a crown : the word, fays Packhurft, may 
properly be rendered a fphere or circle. In Perfic, Jiz-gbal^ 
is a tower, from dhst an inclofed place, a caftle, and gbaUy 
a tower. 


alio called, gqitt^ whence, the coonby of DnugailL 
(Sec Prefece). 

Cual cunnaiJj i. e. brco; do cum temeadh re 
haghaidh mairbh do lu^adhj i. e. Cul-cumuid is a 
breo^ or great fire, which (Corroac explains) was 
laid on the corps to bum it to aflies : anutaH is 
fire wood ; breo^ is a great fire ; fiooi the Hebrew 
and Arabic, beroy incendium res combufla. As a 
proper name, TaberOj Num. ii. v. 3. & vocatum eft 
nomen illius ^abera^ eo quod beta arferat in ds ig- 
nis Domini. Schindlerus. Therefore, Cud'am- 
naid^ does al(b imply, a fire lighted up on the Cmal^ 
or anniverfary, as well as a fiineral pile : and thus, 
O^rien, at the word, brco chualj a bonefire, a fune- 
ral pile i in Hebrew, brckokj pyra. Schindlerus. 

Qiil'Ccachj or cid-kak^ comipte clmccach^ a round 
tower ; as Cuilceac Cluana-umha^ the tower or ftee- 
ple of Cloyne. 0*Brien. This word, adds he, 
feems to be corrupted of ckg-theach^ that is, the 
bell-houfe. I have, had occafion before, to (hew, 
that Dr. O'Brien, had very little knowledge of the 
roots of his mother tongue, for clogy is a contradtion 
of cugd. 

CuM-kaky (n) is evidently the annunciator, in- 
ftrudtor, or proclaimer of the feftivals. See cid^ 

(n) The princes of the Tuaiba-da Danans ; viz. Eatlmr^ 
Ceaiboir^ and Teatboir^ fajs Keating, worfliipped CuiU-Keaa^ 
Grtarit and fo were nick-named, Mac Cuiil^ Mac KaS^ 
Mac Grian : cuill^ fays he, is a log of wood ; keacbt^ is a 

plough-fhare ; but grian^ is the fun : ^how abfard f 

Cuiii-kah'Gnitte, is moft evidently the annunciation of the 
fun's courfe, proclaimed at our cuiU-kak^ or round tower ; 
But cuilceach^ was not a name peculiar to the round towers, 
but to every high mountain afllgned for thefe alhonomicai 

obfenrations : 


gulj and kak, in the preceding lift of oriental and 
Irilh words. Hence, it is rather more than con- 
jefture, that our Irilh round towers, wWch Cormac 
tells us, were built by the firft people who came to 
this ifland, were the buildings from^ whence the ap- 
proaching feftivals were announced. Thefe fefti- 
vals, were generally governed by the motion of 
the heavenly bodies, and, particularly, by the Nc- 
omenta ; was it not then ncceflary, that the people 
fliould be warned of their approach ? The Druids, 
we kaow, were well (killed in aftronomy, for the 
dark ages they lived in : It is alfo, probable, that a 
certain order of the church, were allocated to this 
office ; the name of this order has not yet been dif- 
covered ; what ! if they (hould have been the cul-de^ 
or cul-da^ i. e. the revolution-prophets, (for da is a 
foothfayer) or the obfcrvers of lime, as they arc 
called in the Bible ; Ifa. ii. 6. viz. ain ; in Iri(h, 
/an-as ; which alfo fignifies a foothfayer. It muft 
be allowed, that all hiftorians are dubious of the rife 
and name of this order ; fome deriving it from c&Iidei^ 


obfervations : hence, Cuilceach, a mountain fo caHed, in the 
County of Cavan, mentioned often by the famous Dean 
S^uift^ in his Letters lo SbiriJan, under the name oi ^Iqua. 
Oar Hibernian Druids, believing in the tranfmigration of 
ibulsy named the body adn^ coln^ and f#/«a, that is, the cu!^ 
or revolution, pipe, cafe, &c. of the«itf, or anal, life, breath, 
fpirit J or of the anm, living life,' breath, fpirir, foul ; from 
vrhence, the Latin, anima, Synonimous to this, they named 
the body, «r^, cuiri^ cuirf>^ i. e. the circle or cafe of ^i, life ; 
from whence, the Latin, corpus. A dodlrine conformable to 
Pythagoras, is explicitly contained in the word colnai and 
the Rabbinical and Hutchinfonian philofophy, is compre- 
faended in cuirp. The ^uatba-da-Danan^ we have iKewn, in 
the Preface, fignificd Danian or Pelafgian foottfayeri. 


cr cuUores id^ others denying that they were of the 
clerical order, and others maldng them the cAor- 
repifcopi of Gaul and Geiniany. See Dmcaage^ 
Boetlmsj BMchammsi and ChmUa^ the p rop bet cfc 
2 Chron. ch« xxziv. v. 22. Ludolpfmsj in hB Com- 
ment on the EtUopick Hillory, g^ves a judicioiis 
account of the words we render charmer, Iboth- 
iayer, &c. bytranflating iSnaa gmherh^ t9g€ther a 
€ompMj^ i. e. cld'y and Mr. Richardfixi, in his Ara- 
bic Di^ionary, under the word kheUty refers far 
the explanation to the vfordsjklb and iffuz: Jnlb 
iigoifies crucifixion, burning, rude, ri^t, real, pa- 
tient of labour, dignity, modefly, chafiity. Ajuz^ 
has no le(s than fixty different iignifications ; amoi^ 
others, it implies, a traveller, heaven, the univerfe, 
the world, the fun, the temple of Mecca, a diriftian 
church or monaftery, hell, five particular days at 
the winter follVice, &c. &c. Many of thefe are very 
applicable to the Irilh word, cvi-de \ but Caftellus 
and Golius, in their EXAionary of the Perfic Lan- 
guage, explain Kalyud by Eventus, Res & Narra- 
tio, Belgice Aventur, the very employment I have 
afligned to the Irifti cul de. 

Another name for the round towers, is Jibheit^ 
fithbheity andjtthbhein. See O^Bricn and Shaw's 
Lexicons. In Hebrew, the word z^An, is an ob- 
fervcr, a looker-out, fpcculator fuper muro aut 
turre urbis conftitutus, ut annunciet &: videat quis 
urbem ingrediatur. Schindlerus. Mizapha^ an 
obfervatory, a place on high : Zaphitj the dfpeft or 
profpcd, as Ifa. xxi. 5. watch in the T^phit or watdi 
tower. Hutchinfon, Icon and Boaz, p. 39. In 
Arabic, zefi, is to go up on high ^ fabyhat^ ftars, 



planets ; fdhaty a fcafFold ; fahur^ the moon ; fubat^ 
a gallery, piazzo, portico \ and febth^ a track or 
quarter of the heavens. 

In Hebrew, )ib/>A, is to fhew, to point out, to fet, 
to appoint 

In Arab, feteh^ divinator quidam, Golius ; from 
v/hence the Irifti, Jithir^ a diviner, and the feer (or 
poffefled of fecond fight) of ^Scotland; y&Ayr, in 
Arab, a leamed magician ; and thefe compounded, 
form Ibothfayer in Englifti. Arab, fetch columnia 
tabernaculi. Caftellus. 

Satar^ refto ordine conftituit, praefedlusj io- 
(pedor Rei. 

Syr. fit^ fprum. 

aether, thd or fathar^ in Hebrew, a fecret, a 
hiding place, place of protection, flielter; 
PC xviii- \%. He made darknefs his (fathar) fecret 
place ; Ixxxi. 8. I anfwered thee in the (fathar) 
Iccret plabe of thunder. •* Thcfc and other texts, 
** (fays Bates, in Crit. Heb.) refer to the fiery cloud 
*' in which (Jod dwelt ;*' From whence the moft 
ancient name of God, in Irifli, (and probably the 
Dniidical name handed down to us) is Seathar. 
.See all ihe Lexicons. At Sinat\ there were thun- 
derings 9fld itghtenings, and a thick cloud upon 
the Mount; the mountain burnt with fire unto the 
midfi of heaven, with darknefs, clouds, and thick 
darknefs; and the Lord fpake out of the midft of 
the fire. Exod. xbc. 17. Deut, iv. This was the 
fecret place of thunder and of darknefe, David 
fpeaks of above ; and hencct (fays Bates) we have 
the TiBimt an4 hVftory of Satan, the fon of Caelum 
and Terra, Sec Crit. Heb. pag. 402. 



The Irilh word, Sitb-bhestj is literally, the Bah^ M 
houfe of Sifh ; which may imply, the houfe of peace, 
of pointing out the feafons, or, the houfe of adora- 
tion- Sithj particularly, expreffes every place cfta- 
blidied by the Druids in Ireland for devotion. 
Sith'drum^ was the ancient name of Cafbcl or Qujiol^ 
that is, the ^//A upon a hill : the tower of CasJU is 
thus fituated ; Caifiok implies alfo, a houfe built of 
lime and ftone. Sith^ Is pronounced See^ the / be- 
ing afpirated : I think it bids fair to be the root of 
the Latin, fedes^ and the Englifli, fee ; L e. the dio- 
ccfc of a bifhop. Ainfworth, derives the word from 
. the Greek, i^ edes. Sithbhein^ in Iriflfi, will im- 
ply the place of benediftion, of pointing out, or 
proclamation, of the anniverfary, or of the vigils, 
the evening place of prayer, and, laflly, bifm^ is 
alfo a bell, ufed by tfie Romifli church in excom- 
munication. Gur beanadh bhmlm chiarain, air. 
Chron, Scot, ad An. 1043. 

Caiceach^ the laft name I find for the round 
tower, is fupfwfed by the gloflarifts, to be com- 
pounded oicai^ a houfe, and theac.^ a houfe*, this is 
tautology with a witnefs ! The word may be com- 
pounded of r/ii, a houfe, and crac^ inftru^on, &c* 
but I rather think it (hould be written, ca^-theacy 
or caigeach^ i. e. the houfe of (blemnity, or of the 
feails or feftivals. m chag, in Hebrew, as we have 
already (hewn, is a circle, feilival, anniverfary. 
Exod. X. 9. we have a (chag) £eftival day, 
xxiii. 18. nor (ball the fat of my (chag) annual (k- 
crifice, remain till morning. The Hebrew, chag^ 
\. Is the root of the Irilh, cagaus^ a name of lent. 
Cargus^ i. e. cag^aos, the feafoaof CA^^ . Vet. Glofe. 
Cdgj is an old'EngliQi wprd for faffing, or abftaia- 


O R L AM M A S^ H AY. 491 

ing fit>m mcaA or drmk. .Oiiffi;> had tocfther d^*« 
livaiion. ' .; i n 

In Arabic^ rA^^ mnuB <iQod aimiyttfiurk iik: 
funtfiuOT* Caftfllm^ 

In Sytiacy ^Ai^i^S' feflu^ clit% £bleixinitas. 

InCfaaklee^^A^jf2i,feitiviai, apid.Rt^ obia*^ 
tio pacifica. Of thefe words^>v^ flisU; tareat largely 
in a {Uture NiinkUfrby wlddivtti.wiH appear^ tfaat 
the Irifli latiikhBed xniontal ipiroida.oKLY into iht 
cfaurclv dud which cbift to^thts/dtyi 1 ' 

Thdb tow«d. wdre certainly balfne^ in ^er^. 
agea^ and) probdnly, were not puly obfisrvatoriea^ 
bat fadfricsiooy althe time of thrir oonfirndtion^ 
It is worthy oClbbiervatbn, that ill feflmb am 
proelainied.ia the ^Mftern ataunricB frbm the topiaf 
llv' an^Ty ort dit^gbali^ or rtniad towels of thci 
mtjqkt: bells miglht alfd haVe bdm ufed by our 
Phtt4d : di€ handdxU is df a vtiry ancient conftrac^ 
tkfa ;; $kd the; Lajita name for k bdl-jinger^ Yit: 
Mnifmcv uxnh feemp to be of . Scythic origin \ aod^ 
aUa^ /mmoii vtiiiM» 4 bell TVm, m Irifli and Am«- 
bic^ianoife^.a.ttogikig-noife: tein^tmj is doubkd 
in both languagei^ to cxpreft 1^ greater itoilb: 
-buaHnH^ iillitfb; ia^ftr%^ Whsdh wasthearldent 
katide of foondrngpithebeU (f). Qil^ as we baye 
iheMtiii ia an iiiUMmr^y, a rvUnd t<:y«rer, a fie^ ; 
jyp JPcr^Cf kf$ilii b|tt hoh m Iri(h« fa a mufical nbta^ 
0^q6^ I fiibmit lipefe obfervationa to the notice 
of ihe Iriih antiquary^ and, flatter tt^jfeU, they ifi^« 
lit bi&refearchea. 

' Mar does it aj^ar, that the modern nKmea of 

tbfilc tpwersi via. fhghad^ or cl^rthiac^ fuppofisd to 

- Voj^^DLNo^XH. R. .;. figniiy 

fo) Tot parlter pelves, tot tiotinnabula dicas pulfari. 
Jttv. Sat. 6. . 


iigaify a beH-hoafe^ ors ^any iadaceraent to lixaik 
they are modem buildings. Cleg is cert^nly a 
beU ill inifa/ fo named, from cbg^ the tranatm or 
ikuU ; in which form, our firft bells were made, 
and thofe at this day ufed in €htMs ace caft ; bat 
clog^ the ikuU, owes, hs name to its orbicular fenn, 
as we have (hewn before. 

It is evident, wthatHl our cloghads have not been 
belfreys: in. maiiy there are no marks of the wall 
having been broken within for banging a bell ; nor 
are they always annexed to churches. There are 
many in the fields, where no traces of. the fbunda- 
tions of any other buildings, can be (filboTered 
round them. Had!the primitive:Cbnftians of fre- 
knd poilefled the art. of building theie.towers with 
fime.and mortar,!. it: is reafenable to tbink^ they 
would have iprefmed buildings the churcbes of the 
fame dupable materials t but we are pbfitiveiy told, 
that Dukekj or Dam-bag churchy was the firfl; ^ 
9MKi^ built with ibdi material ;' and was fi> called, 
froiti leac^ a ftone* '^Near to the cburdi, is a Dm- 
idieal monument, ^or Uac^ of eiiormous fize, to 
which, probably, it owes its name. • ' 

The iire of ^(('Druids li^ed on the CU; or 
NemnetUa of/thi four quarter 'months; was called 
Tlachtgha, ox^eiAe''^$Mhd-adki mmvse&cA from 7a/- 
Jachi-adh^ or ^9 it *was^ fay^ O^feHeh, a fire Ion- 
•died for fummoriihg all the Drtilds'to meet on the 
ift of Novembef^ to facrifice to\tfieir gods: they 
burned all the facrifice in that fire, nor was there 
any other fire to- bfe kindled fh&t night in Ireland : 
This is copied frdoi Keating,, :^n Muthor who often 
miftook the Irifti MSS. We- have fhewn the occa- 


fion of this fire on the Ltk-Saman^ in the precediqg 

J'lacJ^ha^ or 7a/£irA/-a4» was theo&me as the 
Arabic, T^fmiUawt : TehwH^ a folenan oath made 
by the Pagan Arabians before a facred fire, called 
awty or hawt. Richardfon*. This fire w^s. named 
by the Iri(h, ^h^ aodfh Mh^ snAJddy and, in the 
Lapland language, oth. From mth^ or a$hj the 
facred fire, and n^r, an ifland* the PeUf^ named 
Mount iEtna.; but aothy is alTo.a bell in Iri(h: 
and here is another opening for our bell-ringing 
etymologifts. Several hills in Ireland bear the 
name of 7'iac^ha ; alluding to thefe fires, where no 
lound tower is to be fecn» 

In Arabic, Tela and Ttdua^ is the new moon 
vhen j^i^ |ippeanng : this is another name favour- 
able to my. /ideas, of thofe.Irilh round towers, 
named TuUa^ and not confirudl^cd on a iullachf or 
bill: fuch a tower is in the county of jfGlkenny^ 
near Qowran, fituated iq a loWt pi^n country % and 
1 have feenmaiiyothers in like. fituatK>n, 

Talak, inArabic, is AiESDoaMATis. Tak in 
JEthiop. ordp, feries, worck pointing out the ufe of 
our towers : Tallakj iaAmb; fervet Deus corpus, 
.perfonam» yitam tuam. jWo^ permiifusfuit fa* 
cfificari?, hilaritas, abfolutus. Caftcllus. 

faiak^ inAiftbic^ fepulchrij inlrUh, Tlacda^B, 
.^contradkioa in both langupges, of tul tumulus^ and 
ieaclu fepulchrum : k(ic\ is ^Ifo an oblation in He- 
brew, Arabic, and Irifti. TiodHlacadhy a gift, did 
originally figpify the fame as Ittacdga^ i. e* a gift on 
the altar ; firom whence,i Jac,fZX\dlaac^ in old Saxon, 
is a fiicrifice 5 Jacan offocre, facrificare. Lochem in 
Heb. non tam pancm quam cibum fignificat j eft 
R z generate 


gencrale nomcn. Buxtorf. In Exod. xxv. 30. it 
is Jbewn-bread upon the altar. Num. xxviii, 2, my 
bread of the offering. Luch^ m Heb, a fione table : 
Ex. xxiv. t&, and Dcut. ix. 9, tables of ftonc; 
from tahk^ our ftf/%A/, or TaJla^ the palace cf the 
archieopifcopal fee of Dublin, written by the pe- 
dantic monkey TanHeachtj \. e. fepukhrum mor- 
tuorum. ' 

What fecrificei our Drmds offered at thcfe 0*4 
or 77arAr, we are ignorant of, but very probubiy, 
they confifted of he-goats aiid fet heifers. CuUbhx^ 
is an old Irifh name for a he-goat, and ^«/, or cih 
lachj a fat heifer : r«/, is a word, nathcr fignifying 
fex, gender, fpecies, or condition of body, and can 
only bear reference to the facrifice : i^hy is an ox, 
bull, or cow^ but cuUaghy a fat berfer. In Hebrew, 
ciily is meat, a feaf! ; in frifh, coh \ but thul-aij in 
Arabip, exprefsly frgtlifies, animal idtmeum maOanin 
hq^ant. 'Caflellus. 

The name, Clnan:, wds, t believe, originally givcD 
to all thefc towers': it appears to beii eontradtion 
d(c\d-lumf\ i. e. the irteturHof the mooa: ckam^ cer- 
tainly fignifiet a lawn ; iluan^ fays O^Brien, is a 
nkme given to feveifal of our biftiops fees^ as CbtoK, 
Utnha; now Cloyne ; (3nan Haiiffincach^ Ghtan Mac 
Nois, in Leinfter, ftcc.-^We meet with many 
places in this kingdom, named Ckanj tfiat are fitu- 
ated on hills, confequendy^ they did not denve their 
names from a plain, orfevel country. 

A plain, in Irifli>is exprefled by machaire, magh, 
leirg, cathan, achadh, faitche,'raitheixieid, mii^ 
neas, raodh, reidhlein j and, clogad^ can no more be 
derived fi:om Tlacfulga^ than horn from Mam. 

Le Bnm 


Le Brun delcribes a tower, in Turkey^ which 
the Turks name kifs-koLty i. e. the tower of the vir- 
gills :-^in a few pages after, he fays, t^ey call it 
kfes-^alifij i e. the caftle of the virgins. He faw, 
al(b, the tower of the pairiarch Jacobs near Beth- 
Idieni, but it was fo ruinous, he could form no idea 
of its magnitude: he gives a plate of the ruin, by 
which we may fee, it was then about twenty feet 
high, circular, and t%z£kly refembling the flate of 
many of our irifh towers. Tke kifs-koJa or virgin's 
tower, of the Turks, carries the air of oriental ror 
mance in the name : cats-caiU^ in Irifli, is, indeed, 
the virgin's tower, but 1 am inclined to think the 
name is a corruption ofcais-cusltj or of ceach-aule^ 
i. e. the tower of proclamation of anniverfaries, &c. 
See Le Brun% Voyage de Levant. Kifs^ in Ara- 
bic and Perfic, is hdy, religious. 

I mud now call in another very ancient lan- 
guage to my afliftance ; I mean, the ScJavman ; 
becaufe, in the fequel of this fufoje6t, there will be 
many references to it, as a language, which the 
learned Abbot Jablinfld has contended to be a dia* 
left of the Phoenician. ' 


KoUc'kuha^ a circle, fteeple, ring of people, mul- 
titude. « 

Koiacichf a fmall circle, cake: Koiaf^ publick 

K^kfj a round pillar ; Kblar^ a mailer builder. 

Kohfee^ a reel, a wheel ; Kolenda^ ftrena, a new 
year's gift, the hymns fung on the eve of New- 
Year's Day, Chriftmas Day, &c. 



Kolendatij canere cantiunculum ante nativha*^ 
tern Domini, &c. &c. 

Koljcj a palace; Kollifeo Amplutheatnnn; koUo^ 
a wheel. 

Kollo odfltakargaj Chorea, a circular dance. 

KoUo na nebber^ feptentrio, urfa major, Piaufiram, 

Kolhbar^ a circle ; KoUo-voz ndefe^ Sextifis, au- 
gust; Iri(h, Ckik-mhos'tnios \ Kolocep^ Calamoiia^ 
the NEEDLE, compafs, loadftone. 

KoLUDRi(A, vcVdumka ; (Ital. monada) Lat 

KoLU8BTAti,.a cloifter, monallery, college, &c 

Kako misb, meo judicio. 

Cekatit to look for, wait for, expedt. 

Chiuchjenjej learning, fenfe, reafon. 

CImjek ueom^ rerum agendarum ufu illuflris. 

The learned MonC Count de Gebefm, in his AU 
legorifs OrientaleSj Earis 1773, is profufe on the 
Etymon of the vford gule or yuk^ and indeed offers 
fuch proof, that we can no longer doubt of the true 
origin of tliis very remarkable word. Jolj fays he, 
pronounced A/b/, iu/, juJ^ grul^ hwoel^ wheels mel^ 
vol^ &c. is a primitive word, carrying with it a ge- 
neral idea of revolution and of wheel. 

JuUionij fignifies, in Arabic, the firft day of the 
year ; literally, the day of revoluiion^ or of remm (p). 
GuJI'&uS'^ in the Perfian tongue, is anniversary; 
It is appropriated to that of a king's coronation (^). 
Hiulj in Danilh and jSwedifli, wheel ; wiel^ m Flc- 
mi(h ; wheels in Englifh. 

(p) Thif was alfo the day of guil^am of the Druids^ when 
they prefented the^rW. or uiU-ice^ i. e. mifsletoe^ to the peo« 
pie. See Preface to the Irifh Grammar^ 2d Edit. 

(q) In Irifti, cuU'OQii aa anniverfary. 

/OR hiAMMAS JKAY. 497 

piles wave^ y^hicb arb contiim^Uy. ooming and go- 
ing : it is tke French A^^r th^.I^iti vo^. - . 

The folfiicfs b^ng the times when .the fiiff^te* 
turns back again, have tbe«r name fnom th^t cir;^ 
cumftance \ bence^ the Gre^ mxofi% fr4^cs^ >yhich 
fignifies return (r). 

It was the ^n^e amonglV tbe CettH they gave< the 
name iulj