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L A further Vihmcatioii of 
the AndeDt ISitor; of Iie> 
Und. * 

n. An EQijr on the language of 

m. A Kcomd £u> J <»> the Round 

Towenof IrcIuuL 
[V. An Accoqnt of tennl O^iMB 

V. An £u>7 on the Moaej of 

the Ancknt liiih. 


MinJi uiium te cmc circa mba ct compotitSonein, mi Lnciii, 
nolo — hiheo majora quae cam. Quj're quid icriba*, non ^ocnnd- 

aodtun (SiHICA, EiMt. Iff). 






1- ( - 40 







THE applicatioD of joor L<xx)flup, 
to l^arfi the language of the people, amot^ 
whtun you are appointed to refide io a high aUd ' 
dignified ecelefiaftical ftation, metin die ptuTe 
t>( every lover of his country. 

Not being a native of Ireland^ your Lordfllip 
could have no other motive, than that of doing 
good; of hearing the complaints of the rnsaodl 
of your parilhioDers, in their vernacular tongue, 
without the interference of an interpreter, too 
often fraught, with deceit aod icnavcry. 

Your Lordfliip has fet an example, worthy of 
imitation, by every one of the fame profeffion,— 
May yon tread in the paths of the pious Bilhop 
Bedell, who, near two hundred years ago, re- 
ceived the greatcft honors, from the gentry and 
peafantry of this country, for his attachment to 
the Irtih language. He procured an Irilh tranf* 
latioQ of the Common Prayer Book, which he 



caufed to be read in his cathedral every Sanday. 
The New Tcftamcnt having been trajiflated by 
Archbifliop Daniel, he proci^cd one of the Old 
Teltamcat, which was printed at the cxpeace of 
the great Robert Boyle. In the rebcllioQ of 
1 64 1, he felt not the violence of' its cffcfts, the 
nbels having conceived a great veneration Ibr 
him } and, at hi; death, they did him unuiual 
honors; for the chief of the rebels gfUhered 
tjieir forces together, and, wkh them, accom- 
panied his body ta the grave. — Id agunt ut best 
, iitri videantur. 

I requell the honor of infcribing this volume 
. of the Collectanea de Rebus Hibrrnicis 
ta yonr Lordfliip ; and have the honor to be. 

Very refpcftfully. 
Your Lordfhip's moll humble, 
Moft obedient fcrvant, 





A further Vindication ,of the Ancient History of 
Ireland. Shewing the progress of the Aire-Coti 
to the Caspian Sea ; thence to Sogdiana, and to 
the IncUfs ; mixing there with ike Bologues ; 
. their tettlement in Scydiia.UtDynca, befyreen 
the Indus ajtd the Ganges ; Me/i; route, by- the 
sea-coast, to the borders of the Persian Gulph ; 
colonizing with the Omanians and Dedanites; 
their return to Scythia or Colchis, under the name 
if Indo- Scythians ; their expedition from thence, 
down tke Mgean Sea, to Spain, and from Spain 
to the Britannic Isles. 

CHAP. n. 

An Essay on the Language of the Gypsies of 
Bohemia, England, Sfc. Kc. ; proving it is not 
the language of Hindostan, as has been asserted 
by Grellman, but of the Indo-Scythians of Colchis. 


An Essay on the Round Towers of Ireland, 
proving they were temples to contain the sacred 
Jir# ; iheif similarity to those of the ancient Hindoos. 

a CHAP. 




An Essay on the Oghaia Tree alphabet of the 
ancient Irish, with a Plate of the Tree alphabet 
of the ancient Arabs; and another plate, explain- 
ing the Ogham alphabet of Persepolis, from a 
Persian manuscript. Several Ogham Inscriptions 
laleli/ discovered in Kerry, with plates of the same. 


An Essatf on the Money of the ancient Irish, 

With d Map of ancient India, skewing the route of 
ithe Aire-Co(f, and the situation ^ the various 
; people with sohxim th^ colonised. 



Whenever luftory flills in aceoanting 
for the exttafHod of zaj peopltt or, where it is 
numifitftly miftakcD, how can extra^n be more 
ntkffialtjr iaferrtd and determined, or that mi& 
take rcAifiod, than ft<om the analogy of Ian* 
goagc?— 4ad is not this alone fuffidently con- 
chifive, if nothing elfe wis I^ ? 

** La langue d'une nation eft toojom^ le plas 
itcranoiflable de fes monumens i par elle on a{>- 
inend fes antiqiritez, on decouvre foo origine.*** 

In exatpitiing the origin t)f nations, fays I^n- 
kerttMi, language is an iaiallible criterion ; lan- 
guage is a mcA permanent matter, and not even . 
total revolutions can change it. 

Among the various expedients, by whkh 
loanied men have tried to clear up the milt that 
bangs over the early accounts of all nations, coM 
bare been fo generally approved in theory, or fo 
fiMcdafiilly aj^lied, as that which makes identity, 
a 2 or 

• Meat. ds. Utentwe, T. VII. p. 497. 


or remarkable fimilarity of language, manners, 
and religious obfervances. Its principal founda- 
tion. Both andeat and modern critics, pro' 
ceeding on this plan, have made Tuch dedu^ons, 
from very fcanty prcmits, as almoft cfeallengc 
the certainty of ftrift demonftratiOT. 

■ In the prefent worki we have not oidy lan- 
guage, bat hillory to guide us; a hifiory,' de- 
tached in fragments here and there, -in ancient - 
manufcrtpts, negleded by the natives, or igoo-; - 
rantiy apd felfely tranflatcd into Englifli. ■ - 

*' The lovers of remote antiquity," Jays M. ; 
Roux, " fhould take the advantage of the pife- ■ 
ffat age, when they- may yet obferve the' ancient 
world in the Icanty fragments left us. ~ Thefe : 
fragments; ia proper hands, may become fo niany r 
hJftorical monumentSj^and may fcrve to point ont 
the progress of. mankind,' and of thearts^ on the' 
furface of the globe. Concealed and unkiiowHj ■ 
they cannot be formed into a fyllem j but, col- ■ 
lefted and made public, they will otic dayffll.up 
that imnicnfe void in hiftory, the learned com- ' 
plain of."* . ■ " 

. "There are fome men," iaysDoftor.JohB-' 
fon, " of jaarrow- views apd grovelKngconcep-: 
* Rem. fuT leu on^cs Giuloiiet.' 


'tioDS, wlio, without the ioftigation of perfonal 
malice, treat every new attempt as wild- and 
t^merical, and lopk vipoa every eadeavour, to 
depart from the beaten track, as the rafli effort 
of a warm imagination, or the giittering ipecula- 
ttOD of an exalted mind, that may pleafe and 
dazzle for a time, but can produce no real or 
lafting advantage. Thcfe men value themfclves 
npoa a perpetual fcepticifm ; upon believing bo« 
thing but their own fenfes ; upon calling for de- 
raonftration, which cannot poffibly be obtained ; 
and, fometimes, upon holding out againfl it, when 
it is laid before them ; upon inventing arguments 
againlt the fuccefs of any new undertaking ; and, 
^cre arguments cannot be found, upcm treating 
it with contempt and ridicule. Such have been 
the mofl formidable enemies of the great bcne- 
iaAors of the world ; for their notioas and dif- 
courfesare fo agreeable to the lazy, the envious, 
and the timorous, that they feldom fail of be- 
c(»ning popular, and dircAing the o]»nions of 
iBankind.".^-The Doftor could not have drawo 
a.morc correft plfture of a-fet of men ia this 
(^Mintry, who pretend to be judges of the hiftory 
of it, without the lead knowledge of the lan- 
guage' in vJuch it is written. In rem tarn bumf- 
/eni, tamque contemfiam. 



The Iriih and tbe Welth comidam c^ the dS' 
v^lation of their manufcripts 1^ the &ft Chrit 
tian miflkmarics, by the DaBes, Norwegiasis, and 
ethers ; but took no iKuns, at the proper kaim, 
to fecure vhat were left. 

The learned Edward XJwyd, audior of the 
^ivbaologia Britannicat fpeat the whc^ of bis 
life and foTioDe in coUe^ng MSS., both m 
Wales and in Irelaod» and intended to print Uk 
Biofl important of them. After he had ftrugglol 
v^ alm(^ infurmountable cBfficnlties for niaay 
years, he brought together upwards of one hun- 
dred and eighty- vcdumes <^ old writings, many 
of them of great value. He had l>cen promised 
admittance to fome ^ the find libraries for an- 
^ dent manufcripts in Wales ; batj when it became 
ItnowD what ferrices he intended to Wriih liter- 
ature, his ^ends forfook him, and whhdrew 
from him the patronage, whkfa they had once 
^mifed him. Books in or of ufe to the Welih 
language were not to be encouraged. Of this 
he comf^ns, when fpcakiog of one of th^ 
pfcu^o-friends.* la ftott, he met with cypo- 

* At poftea a quibofdam ma^ pfeudppoliticisi opiiMr, 
quam literads dilluafas pron^nai rCTocaiit. (Vide AnbatL 
Sriu p. a£i. col.1.) 

fidoQ di« Jilgiaced die ige, io wluch it was hit 
misfortiine to be bom. llie moft maligtiiDt 
artifices were praOifed to oUhuA faim, fo &iat he 
was Dot able to accompti& his laudable deGgn. 
He died, not iar advanced ia years, and left hit 
valuable and numeroos cdleSioa to Sir J<^ 
Seabright, in vhofe litjprjr they remained foe al- 
moft a whole centuty, inaccefiible to any tme that 
could tti^£ a proper -uTe of them, and k was 
feared they were loft for ever ; but, very fortu- 
nately, as -many of the books, as were sot fcat< 
tered about and loft, lately became the property 
of Thomas Jones, Efq. of Havod, and are lodged 
in his fuperb and valuable library. TiAs patriot 
gendeman, with that generofity wliich actuates 
hhu oD every other occafion, has put thcfe MSS. 
into ^e hands of the Editors of the Wc^ 

Not Jong after the death of Mr. Llwyd, 
another gentleman of leamtng, and apprc^atc 
abilities, the Rev. Mofes WHliams, engaged in a 
£milar enterprise, and coUeifted a number of va- 
luable MSS. Owing to the prevalence <rf the 
fame fpirit, he alfo foiled of foccefs, and was dtf- 
appointed by thofe, who had promifed him their 
patronage, ik Uft his colle^tioB <^ MSS. to 






Mr. Charles O'CcmniM-, 
claiHcal education, and 
Trace up the Aire-Cotif 
I rfour Hibernian Scott. 
: I began their hiftory 
mrces of the Itidus, or 
' were kpowD to the 
•y the name of Indo- 
which river Dionyfias 

I documents, we traced 
ft^et (the Fir Bolg.oi Ibme authors, 
sng ftandiug, that bad 
the eaflward. Some 

Mr. William Jooes, who was the father of the 
late celebrated Sir ■William Jones. This gentle- 
mao, OD his death-bet), configned the books to 
the cuftodjr of the late Eatl of Macclesfield, 
under the fingular injunction of not even fhewing' 
them to any pcrfon whatever." 

The WcHh complain, that attempts have been 
made to eradicate their langnage. The Irifh 
make a limilar complaint, both equally groundlefs. 
It was the want of that aTJisr patriae that has 
now roufed the Wellh to print their ancient do- 
cuments, under the title of Wellh Archaiology, 
of which they have favoured the public with two 
volumes ; no doubt tranflations will foon follow. 
The 5.CV. P. Roberts has already favoured us 
■with part, under the title of J Sketch of the 
Early Hi/iory of the Cymry, or Ancient Britans^ 
from the year 700 before Chrift, to A. D. 500,! 

Mr. jXlwyd's collcftion ,of the Irilh MSS. 
(tiyenty-eight volumes) was prcfentcd by the 
prefent Sir JoHn Seabri'ght to the College 
of Dublin, at the inftigation of the late Mr. 
Edmund Burke. They came through the 
hands of the author of this Vindicati(»i. During 

* See Wellh Archaiology, Vol. I; Pref. p. xii. 
\ The Archdology was priotcd io 1801, the Sketch in 

the few months they were in his poSeffion, he 
made thofe extra£h, which have heen communi- 
cated to the public from time to ' time. They 
contain the ancient laws, as well as the ancient 
hiftory of the Irifli. 

Keating^ and his tranfiator (yCenmr, were 
unequal to the tafk of hiftorians. They were 
' ignorant of oriental hiftory ; making Elriti the 
name of Iran, or Perfia, in its iargeftr extent, 
Ireland; Casar the niece, inftead of the grand- 
fon, of Noah j writing Sothiana for Sogbd'tana ; 
and palGng over in filcnce the mythology of the 
ancient Irifh, one of the flrongeft proofs of the 

I am aiked, with a tone of triumph, where 
are the ruins of the fine palaces, mentioned, ia 
the hiftory of Ireland? — the ruins of the palace 
of Tar a, of Emania, &c. &c.? — I anfwer thdc 
ignorant pretenders to hiftorica! knowledge, that 
they were all built of mud walls and timber (ex- 
cept the round towers, the facred temples of the 
perpetaal fire), and arc now in the ftatc that, 
probably, one thoufand years hence, many of 
the fine chies of the Eafl;, at this day, built of 
the fame materials, will then be. — Where are 
the ruioB of the boildiugs crcfled by the Phceni- 


cikns in Majorat Minorca, Malta, Spain, Sk,1 
Not a. veftige of tfaem remaitis, 

Erivah, the captd of the provioce of Eri- 
vatif is a lai^e dty. Tlie houfes are «f day ; 
the dtadel is capable of containing 3500 moi ; 
the ramparts are of dtf. Ramforts de btue; 
ces fortes d'owvrages (raignent plus laplw/Cf que le 
cmnm.* (Maitioicre,) 

Tabaeistam is a conllderable prorhice ; the 
builduigs in it are all of wood and reeds ^ no 
brick building is allowed, but in the palace. 
(Ebn. Haukal.) 

Zekihje is a fortlficatirai, has thirteen gates, 
all built of day, becaufe timber decays (Idem). 

The dty of NisHAPURE is of day; it ts a 
brge dty, with two conllderable fuburbs (Idem). 

Kaein, a large dtyj it has a fort, witfa 
ditdies, all of clay. 

Balkh dty, the hoofes of day (Idem). 

Nank and MfiLifTK, coofidetal^e towns, all 
of -day (Idea). 

Bokhara; the houfes are of wood; it h*^ 
iaea gates (Idem). 


* Hence Cathar, in IHIh, lignifiu a dty, becaufe it wu 
^n> Attidf, that U, fiuTounded, ciwloAd I7 nxofutt df 
mudj Caihalr-iahnhmn, » barrow of eaitb, latfeJy called 
Daaifli forts (Shawe), fiinrouaded vith a ditch and rampart. 


Sauaroaho, the oafHtal of Sigbdi the faoufet 
t^ vood and clay (Idem). 

Kmish dty is oS wood aod clay (Idem). 

LucKNOU, the cqHtal of the provmce <tf 
Oude, is very extCDlivc. The walls of the 
houfcs are chiefly mad, povercd with tbaDch. 

. (PcBDMlt.) 

Captain Symcs relates the fame of the Knina 

It may alfo be aikcd, fiace the pagao Iriii 
coald dxiSd Roaes for the round towtrs, why 
are the Ogham infcriptions on rough ubhewit 
rocks? The reafoh is, becaufe fuch kifcriptions 
were Mithratic i they allude to Mithra^ 
whofe votaries pretended that he was ffunag 
irom a rock ; and therefore the place, where the 
myfterious ccremomes were conuBuoicated to die 
initiated, was always a natural cave, or an arti- 
fidal one, compofed of unhewn flooes; fever^ 
of which exift in this country, and in Britain, the 
woik of the Aire-Coti^ when in poffcffioa of th^t 

Heoce ttuE rude obeliik was dedicated to the 
fim, that iSjtoMiTHRAS. — "ObeUfcum Deo Soli, 
j^ieciaH nmncre dedtcatum fuifle" {Amtmanu^ 
** Chiocafcs ct lodi, praeter iav^cs JB paf«(Ks 



■ et dtflobris, prjegrandcs aliquando integras rupeSf 
prsefertim fi natura in pyramidalcm formam vcr- 
gebant, in idola formare folebaot" (Maffeus, 
Hyde). *' Pyramidas atque ebelifcos ignis nature, 
Conum vcro Soli tributum" (Porphyrias ap. Eulcb), 
" Deus Amazonum, cui omDCs facra faciebant, nihil 
erat, ni6 lapis nigcr" (Apollon. Rhod.), " Et ca- 
^cia Tpecie in hodiernam ufque diem, apnd Indos, 
Cmulacram fingitiir Mahadeu" (Pctr. dclla Vallc, 
Jabloniki). — A hundred authorities more might 
be added. See Bryant cm the Petrse Ambrofise, 
Anc. Mythology, Vol. III. p. 533. 

It was not, therefore, the want of knowledge 
in wwking with tools, or of cements, that caufed 
the pagan Iriflx to conftmfl their temples of rough 
materials. The fire temple or tower was an in- 
novation, as we Ihall prove hereafter ; and, from 
the fmallnefs of its diameter, and its height, it 
required the tool and cement. 

To flicw my readers that the Aire-Coti, or 
Aileac'Cetu of Inih hiftory, were the Culht of 
faipturc and of oriental hiftory, whofe inroads 
into India, and whofe return to Scythia, i. e. 
Colchis^ and whofe travels I have det^led from 
Colchis to 5/fl/«, and laftly, to thefe Wefiem 
IJlest I ftall here repeat, for their information, 


■tfliat the great Indian hiftorian and antiquary, 
the Rev. Mr. Maurice, has faid on this fubjeft. 

"When the riiing tower of Babel was over- 
thrown (as the orientalifts report) by ftorms, 
earthquakes, and whirlwinds, commiffioncd from 
the Almighty to level the fabric of man's exor- 
bitant ambition ; and when that fierce and pre- 
famptuous race, who had engaged* in the mad 
undertaking of erefling it, were difperfed over 
the earth by the breath of God's difpleafure; 
they tamed the arm of violence, which had been 
impioufly dircfted towards Heaven itfdf, againft 
the pious line of mortals, who were its diftin- 
guiflicd iavourites uffon earth. Under Nimrod, 
their daring chief, the mighty hunter, before 
lord both of beafts and men, this defpcratC band 
of Cuihite robbers (the Giants and Titans of pro- 
fane writers), ejefted by the fignal vengeance of 
Providence from their own country of Babylon, 
fiHl fcizcd npori the dominions of Affur, the fon 
of Sbem. They then extended thcu- ravages 
towaids the beautiful region of Perfia, whprc 
£/i3OT, another fon of Sbem, reigned ; but, in this 
attempt, thofe fons of rapine met with a terrible 
rcpnlfe ; for the-virtuous ;race of Shem, indignant 
at thcfe repeated attacks from the l^fe progeny 
., of 


of Hanit laid afidc the native geotleoels that 
dtflinguiQied their line, and iumtjlig their fences, 
after many ferere engagcmcQts, and a contcft 
protraaed for a long fcries of years, fo totally 
aod finally fubjcficd their oppooeots, that, vc 
arc told in fcripture, tbey ferved^ that is, paid 
tribute, to their conquerors during twelve ytart. 
After this period, their relUeTs ambition once 
more impelled them into a£b of rebeUiim.* Bat, 
after a (ItU longer \?ar, and a ftiU more bloody . 
defeat^ their power la that part of Alia was 
tctfally broken, or rather annihilated. They 
vere driven thence into its moll remote regions, 
even into tbofe cold and gloomy "Tartarian xz- 
^ons, which, from the darknefe and fogginefs of 
the atmofphere, as wcU as their forming the ut- 
moll boundary of the earth known to the A£a- 
ticks, was anciently ccmfidercd as the abode of 
guilty and unclean fpirits, and which, in the h.- 
bulous mythcdogy of the Greeks^ was rcprefented 
as Hell itfdf. Originally weakened and divided* 
by the great colony which early emigrated under 
their great anccftor to Egypt, the remainiag pof- 

* " Ttrein yean they lerved Chtdarhioaur, and la the 
thnrtetntli Hxj rebelled." Ocd. »i. 4. Se« my VindicMiDib 
ID wbicti 1 have Ihcwo, trom SymmMhas the AlTyriaa, and 
Trom Ei^lemiu, that this prince wu a Scytliiu, 

teritf of Bam, tbtfog^ oumeroos, were not able 
to. cope wkh four powerful and combined fove- 
ragSE <^ the hoQfe of SUm j bat, rallpDg tbdr 
ftattcYcd fot-ces, they proved more than a match 
for (W un«arlike branch of that illuibioos liDe.*' 
*'■ Fur remote firom this turbulent and &n- 
gamaiy fcene, were fituated the fisrefa^iers of 
the haf^;r t^tioo> wbofe hiftory it will hereafter 
be my fsvvince to tacotd. By nature inclined 
tp peace and atnity,. zbA by long batntnde at-. 
tacbed to hi tbey neither fufpcAed, nor were 
preparf!)} for> the attack whkh the euled Ctabi 
Were meditating npcA their flouriJhing country 
and philofc^iC' race. ColIcAcd in ismuaer^Ie 
multitudes irom all the hyperborean regions be- 
yond Cauca/ust regions called from them, a> I 
have before remarked, Cutha,* Sfutie, and 
Seytbiif y one pany hovered, like a dark and. 
angry cloud, over the clifts of that vaft uonn* 
tun, whence they frequently ftretcbcd thdr 
lon^g view over the P'/g^y which they were 
hnpatient to poflefs. Anotho- party of this io- 
tttpid tribe, wbidi had taken p(^c£Bon of the 

* Cuha tad Sntha are lire fame. Jofephm calls thd 
couatiy about the Pcrfian Q^dfi^ Culba ; Arrian naiAet it 
Setuhia. — Antea eaini Cuthxi faeruDt appellati Per&. (Hot* 
dnger, Bochan.) 


XViii PftoEM.' 

trad on the weft of the Indus, in after-diflen 
called alfo from them Indo-Scythiai watted only 
the figoal from their brethren to pafs that fron- 
ifer river, and rafli opon the devoted Panjab of 
India. (Indian Antiquities, Vol. V. p. 874, &c.) 

** By a politic meafure, Cyaxdres regained, 
with great flaughter, the fole fovercignty of his 
itivaded realm ; and thus was he lislt it liberty to' 
purfue thofc projefts of vengeaace, which,- ia 
concert with Nebuchadnezzar, kiag of Babylon,' 
he afterwards manifefted, )n the dcftruflion of 
Niniveh, and the conqiieft of' Egypt, "t^e Scy- 
ihiam, thus precipitately driven 'away throngh' 
every outlet of the Median empire, endeavoured 
to obtain a fettlement in the neighboaring re- 
gions. Some of them entered into the armies of 
the king of Babylon,' and were inflrumental' to 
the fubjugation of Tyre and of Egypt; others 
Bed towards ' the coaft of the Mediterranean'^ 
•ivhence, according to the probable hypothejii of the 
indefatigable explorer of Hibernian antiquities^' 
they emigrated tcfwards the wejiern iflands of 
Europe } their very name being prefervcd- to this 
day in Scotia, or Scuihia, equally applied in an- 
cient time to Ireland z-aA Scotland." (Hiftory-of 
Hindoftan, Vol. 11. p. 226.) 


*l%e Jame learned anthor, b a Diflcrtatioii oa 
tfie IndiaQ origto of'the Druids, onjeduriag that 
the Brabmtu mingicd vith the great bodf of 
tfie Cehie tribes, who porTued their jounicj to 
the extremity of Europe, and fiDatljr eftablilhed 
the Druidy that is, Brahmin fyftem of foperftiti<Mi 
in andent Britaio, conchides in thefe words. 

** This, I contend, was the firft oriental colcmy 
fettled in thefe iflands. In the conrfe of ages, 
tlidr extenlive commerce led hidier Pbaniaan 
^lonies in queft of that tin, wluch they ex- 
changed for the fine linen and ridi gems of 
India. The Pbanicianty whofc atKcHors were 
educated in the lame orignal, fchool (Cbaldxa) 
with the Brabminsy fufiered not the ardour of 
AfiatJc fupertUtion to fubfide, but engrafted upon 
it the worlhip of the Tynan Hercules^ and other 
rites of that aQcient nation." (Indian Antiquities, 
Vol. VI. p. 247.) 

With great deference to the learned author, I 
candidly confefs, that I do not fee any thing of 
the Brahmiuical mythology mingled with that of 
the Northern nations. The Welfli antiquaries 
allow that \ht Aire-Cotit or ancient Irilb, the 
Hibemo'Indo-Scytbiamt pdldTed the illand of^ 
Britain, till driven from thence by the CyjuH. 
b Welt 


WeHh hiftory teftifies, that a part of thcfc Aire- 
Coti, viz. the Loegriaui J remaiocd io the.iiland, 
and mingled with the Cymri. From this con- 
QCxioQ, it is probable, arofe the Druid religion, 
which appears to have prefcrved part of the 
northern mythology, ioterwoveD with that of the 
ancient Irifii. It is worthy of remark that, in 
the MSS. of the ancient Britons, we do not meet 
with the names of Brahmiaical deities, as we do 
in the Irifli, We do not hear of Budb, Saca, 
Para/Bon, Diarmui, Caile, &c. &;c. &c, or of 
altars and monuments flill bearing their names, 
as in Ireland. 

I therefore conclude, that the word Druid is 
derived from the Irifii Draoi^ and the FerilaQ 
j^O rfara, both fignifying a friefi\ and that the 
Druid religion of the Britons was founded on . 
that of the ancient IrjQi, which, a& I hare Ihewa, 
vas, in great part, that of the Brahmins, in con- 
feguence of the intercourfe between them and 

'the Indo-Scpba, who were the firft inhabitants of 
thefe weftem iflands, under the name of Aire- 
Ceii, 6T Cuth'i. 

Thaf -the reader may comprehend the Htuatioa 
of theJ«)Ionies our Aire-CoH admitted into their . 

-body, viz. the Fir Bolg, or Viri Boioguej the 
■ ■ \ Fir ; 


Fir D'Omattf or Viri Omarty and the Tuatba 
Dedattt the harofpices or priefts of the Dedanites 
of Cbaldaat a map of aacient India is hereunto 

By no other means, than by an incorporation 
of this kind, could the Irifh language abound 
with Arabic, old Pcr£c, Hindooftanee, and Cbal- 
damn words. By no other means could the 
mythology and fcicnccs (particularly that of aftro- 
□omy) of the Chaldxansf have found their way 
into thefe wellem iQes ; and by no other means 
could the deities of the Brahmins have been 
recorded in Irifh MSS., together with the 
names and titles . of the officiating priells of 
Chaldaea, Feriia, &c. &c.} and, were I to add 
that the Cabiri were fo named from the Irilh 
Cabar, united or joined together, from the Chal- 
dce^Sn chabar, to unite, that affertion woul4 
be fupported by. Baal Aruch, *• Per/a vocant fa- 
cerdotej fuos pan chabirin j the Perfians call 

• To prore they were iahabitaots of thefe eaftera climMes, 
to BD orientalift) I need but meDtion, that Loeai-tar, the 
ipriog rain, is fiiniiliar in Irifli, and refer him to. the Bilh(^ 
of Rochefter's explanatioq of niv and m'lp^a in hit tOfSlk^ 
tion of Hofea, Ch. VI. p, 5., Now c. 

t An Eflay oq the Aflronomy of the ancient Irifli will 
be inleited in the fiillowia^ nunibcn of this Toluae. 

. thdr priefts CBaiiri."* And fioaUjr, by do other 
neaos could fo many Irifii words have beat 
jbaod in the Chioefe language, for the Sfres 
were a branch of the Cafhaian Saca. zn/tu leMt 
-f^fS^m XicuetMr (Scholia in Dionyf.). Faufai^as, 
feeaking of Seria, fays, (ome afiinp t^t ^CT 
arc of the Scuthic family, with a pibl^u^e oi^ ^hc 
Indie, which, fays the learned Bryant, is in every 
jart tnie. Sir "William Joacs jllpws th? Jriih 
langqage has a great affinity wit^ the Sonfcpt. 

in the preface of my ProfpeAqs I h^ve de- 
monilratedf that Britain v^ fo named .by pur 
Aire-Coti, in whofe Unguage ^ruft'iari iigniBes 
the country of tin. 

In the hft edition of Leland, Vol. IV. ip tt); 
following extrad from the Bibliotheca EUota:. ' 
" A written book of twenty leaves, fowvie in an 
bdlma JionCy kyveried with a Jione, in , digting 
for a foundation at Yvy Church ^ Sarejbyri- 
Brifania qaafi Brytaniat becaufe it was fertile of 
mines ^ metalle. Eliot will have it to be Prita- 
ma." So indeed Vciftigaa writes it, and the 
an^iqit Welfik wrote k PrytUn.'* 


* Under the deoonunwwi of CaUri, and the lUt, were 
indnded not only a let of ]>erfi>n3, who admioifterfd tq the 
goda, but the divinities^ whom they wotlhipped. (Scrabqi 
I»X. p- 7Z3)- Bat Straba knew not the difference be< . 
tween eaiar sod etiar j the firil meins an BJTociate ; the UA> 
the mighty. 


. to jhc progrtfs cif jtis worjc I Mse ^SEasH ■ 
from tj)e confflioa 9pJ0)9P* il^ lihc Jni(b hv^uj^ 
is of Ce/^fc Olivia ; aa4 J bavc ibemi* &(W CK' 
tcQfiyc fiptlatipD^ its gi^cat -cooocxJoo apd aAw^ ' 
with tbe Saafcnt, fflmU^ffneft V>A old .^^ 
/Mff. The ingenioQS and accurate traoflator «f 
Mallft has collated ipeciipeii? gf )])£ iW^ f^fif 
in all the O/Z/f .an4 pf'% -diUc^ ; andf 9^ 
many obrervations on thsfe dialers, he ackoov* 
ledges, that he cannot think the iriflj and Weljb 
equally derived trocn one conunoQ Celtic ftock; 
at lead not in the JJune Hoifomi manner as an/ 
tv9 litmichBt of ^e Goihie. Scarce any refeim 
blance appears between them, fays he ; fo thatt 
if the learned will have dicni tp be ftreams from 
one common fountain, it ontft be allowed, that 
one er lioth of them have been greatly pdluted 
ID their courfe, and r^geivcd large iplets fropi 
fome other ^aqiwl- C{*r^. p. xli.) The Irifli 
hiflory (hews, that ttKTe tit^ people did fet out 
irom one point du partage, the Cafpian Sea, and 
eadi took their route jn dire^ions diametrically 
oppofite; the Cymri xaytSimg w^fkoard-f the 
Colchian Scytha travelling eallwiird, mixing with 
tnany eaftpm QftMoa^ ^nnbodying the languaget 
of them with thdr own, thea returning to 


Cokhis and to Tyre, wheoce they found their 
way to Spain and to the Brttaimic Iflcs. No two 
languages can be more different, in con(b:u£lion 
and fyntax, than the Wcllh and the Iri{h, info, 
much that the one nation cannot converfc with 
die other. 

Take an example, in three words, irom 
XJiwyd's CDmparative Vocabulary, wherein a 
fimilarity might be expeded. 

FiSa, a dtajhtcrr Wellh, mtri. 

Cornilh, meri, much. 
Armoric, merch, ^ch. 
IrUb, htgheam,geany dear, mtgh, moM, 
' JFi&u, a fbn. Wellh. moB. 

CoToiflii tnaS. 

IriOi, mat, Iia>i,.har, arc, a, im, dw* 

Pater, a father. WelOi, TdJ, TaAgit. 

Corolfh, Tax, Sira, Tad. 

Armorici Tdi. 

Infb, Atbair, gmd, gatdtm, dad. 

Mater, a mother. Wcllh, Mam, Mamrnvt, Mtammjlh, 
. Cornilh, Mam, Dama. 
Armoric, Mam. 
' - Irifli, Malhmr, JBrimuae, Nahg, 

Nain,* It^, imme. 


* Hence Name, Jnu, Venus mater deoram, Vcou. Naiam 
doe diet VcDerit. (Connac] 


It may be fi^^ted that two. nations, betweea 
whom there muft have -been fo much intercoui£: 
as the Welfh and Irifli, moft have incotporated 
many vords from the one to the other, efpedally 
as the Wehh hiftory {hews, that a large body of 
thelrifli, named X«^r;diu, remained in Britain, 
after'the arrival of the Cymri. From that body 
the Britons borrowed the rites of the Perlian re- 
ligion, which made PeUoutler think that the Celts 
and Perfians were one and the lame people, 
DoAor Borlafe contends they were not ; for, if 
that had been the cafe, he jodicioully obferves, 
that religion wodd have fpread with the fererd 
diviGons of that mighty nation (the Celts), and 
their traces woold confe^ueotly appear equally 
ftrong and lively in every country where they 
fettled. To the ancient Irifh the Sasons attri- 
bute the Building of Stonc-Henge, and other 
great monuments in Briton, and, I believe, with 
great propriety, as fball be fliewn m the chapter 
on Aftronomy. — " Wherever fuch monuments 
are found," fays Mr. Bryant, ** we may eftcem 
them of^ the higheft antiquity. All fuch woi^s 
we generally refer to the Celts and the Druidt; 
under the ^^on of which names we Shelter 
enr&Ives, whenever we are ignorant and bewil-^ 

rtJBWttf age, pmBaWf before the' dftw* wtca tHe 
Z^Tff* or Gff/ft? wcttr fttf kflowir. t qucffion 
w ifeifcer fbert he fe t&e world! a mofluineot", 
wWcfr i* Mucfc prior ft) tfte <sdebr«el' SJo/w- 
Hfjijrt There rs* rcsifon ro tfiittk if -sras »ed6f 
by a ftjreigit colony, one of dwf firit wBicfi came 
uto' BritatQ'.* 

The SaxoiK attribured- tKs" itfo'camcnt ttf At 
irifflt; and- in- ther Ei&y on Artroaoitif »<:' Ihin' 
ifaevi that £niilar monaments, oa a fmallef Icale, 
cjsff in Ireland, adder the fame name, viz. Cear- 
Gbort the Cwr-Gaar of Sttokdy, 'which rfleans no 
mare eban the fcdrching- or heating (iiu. Hence 
tbf Sab-Car of the Fhoaiidans, and"' ■tlj-mn 
eharu-garr of the CHaidsanr. 


rihyCtJC^Ie ■ 







,-Xt was a ufoalfaykg of Mr. Charles O'Connor, 
vho was a maa oi good clailical cdocatioo, and 
.ao'eitcelteotlrilh fcboIaT] Trace uf the Aire-Coti, 
Mndjou "will find the origin tf our Hiberman Scoti, 

,Ia my hft pttblkationj, I bcgaa thcur hlllory 
/nom. the Penjabj; or the Tources of the Indus, of: 
^eort bcca^ tho-e they were kpown to the 
(Cariy . Greek hiftorians by the name of Indi>- 
.Sifytbay on the banks of which river Dionyfius 
■Per- pUceS; the ^r«-Cirf«. 

By the ai&ftaiice of Irifli documents^ we traced 
their mixing with the jBo/iJjitf/ (the Kr ^o/^.of 
.Irifh hiftory), who, according , to fome authors, 
were a race of Arabs of long ibnding, that had 
peaetrated thus ■ far to the eaftward. Some 
B think 

2 Further Vindication 

think they were ancieot Pcrfians : Mr, Wilft)rd 
judges they were Tartars. 

We Jhewed their dliance and colonizatioo 
vitb the Dedanites and O/rumitei, the Tuatba 
Dadan and Fir D'Orahan d Irifii hillory, pro- 
ceeding together^ under the name t^f Feni and 
Pboitiici, to Tyre, from whence they moved 
down the Mediterranean to Crete, Malta, &c. 
2ec. to Spijk, white others tetunied to Scythia^ 
that is, to Colchb, and foon after failed down 
the Sea of Iflands, or the £gean Sea, to Spain, 
and fi-om thence to thefe Wcftcm Iflands. The 
annexed map will Ihew the route they took. 
. The Scythian empire feems to have extended 
from Egypt to the Ganges, and horn the Per- 
£an Golf and Indian Sea to the Ganges. Hie 
cbaqodls ^ Baedins, tt^oted ki&g <X tMs 
Sc^tMan tldttiiEtion, in Iiidift, arie fattotiS iti 
entiqait^. Wte fitod kdo-^yi&ee on the Ibdas, 
Abd othet ticttatiis «f thiifti on tKc Et^^thraiaii 
Sea. ©n the bOTth they (oftcttded to ^thc 
Ca^MM). <tiHltcrt6fr, p. 32.) (^as Ihditi 
apud veteres- aj^dlaliBar, ^ra(|ae hedferote 
ftrfia cdnvtftiatit (ijeiBttitt). TWrba, S*feb 
lived abbot 1t^ A. D., ^HhOaA Us, bm aft- 
cient aathon, whofe wtitiBgH IhaVe ndt usadVcd 
tror days, ^t Itaa6>'9^thifttiS ^tled ^ Lti^ca, 
xtr CtHcHs, the prifttitive IHtkMi Af cut ScythUe, 
^en they ddRrended from Cabciftft, ahd tt> 
'tthich they rctut^cd fr<}in India. Frotn Coldiis 
tb^y &iled dowh tiie £gean Seia to Sfifthi. 


of the Ancient History of Ireland. 3 

SUius haliclts, a Spankrd by birth, who lived m 
the reign of Tiberias, conBrms the expeditioa of 
Scythians into Spain, and mixing with the Cei'- 
tiktriam. Thefe muft have been the Indo- 
ScythiaBs, from that part of Scythia called CxA- 
dos; for how could the Hypetboreao Scythian* 
bwc reached Spain ? Ff. Tar. Barkotien, Pedr» 
Mimia, Padre PimdA, Don Seb. de G«(>oruviatf 
ytan de Perrerat, ail Spaniards, and eftccmcd 
auth(»^ ; the author of the Hifioire de- Partugali 
and the Britifli Annals, tranflatcd by tite Rev. 
^ RtibErts; ^1 confirm the expedition horn 
Spaia to ktdand. 

Aa Mr; Roberts's publication may not yet 
have readied this coootry, we {hall extrad the 

*' Owrgunt' Grim-beard^ fon and fuccefTor of 
Bdi, baring failed to Llychlyn, to compel the 
king of that country to pay a tribute to him, as 
be had done to his &ther, on his return fell in 
with a fquadrdn of adventurers from Spain, who 
werti in fearch of a fettJement. Thefe he direfted 
to Iceland, where they fettled. This agrees 
very nearly with the Irifli anoals; thefe place 
tk fitft mig^i^ of the Aire Cotiy irom Spain 
to I^daady about five hundred years, before 
etrift." (Eariy Hiftory of the Cymry, or Ancient 
Britons, from 700 B. C. to A.D. 500. p. g^, 
Loirfon,, 1803.)' Sure it is, lays Pedro Mexia, 
Hat, in the days of Gurgwiniiust king of Britain, 
X great ouBp^ of aen» women, and children, 
B 2 embarked 

4 farthiT Vindication 

embarked in fixty great vcffcls, and proceeded 
from Spain to Ireland. (See the extrafts of the 
Spanifli authors in tny Vindication, p. 335-) 

Orofius places the Scythse in Spain between 
the rivers Anas and Bcetis, where Strabo and 
Ptolemy place the Turdutant, a people who, 
Strabo fays, were well acquainted with grammar, 
and had many written records of high antiquity. 
They Jlad alfo large colleAions of poetry ; and 
even their laws were dcfcribed in vcrfc, which, 
they faid, were of fix thoufand years (landing. 

I {hall now begin with the primitive fettlemeat 
of the Aire-Coti on Armenian Caucafm^ and, 
from Irifli documents, trace their movements to 
the Cafpian Sea, and thence to the Pen/abj or 
Indo-Scyt!iia ; in which it will appear, that the 
part of Iri_(h hiftory which, by falfe tranOation, 
appears mod fabulous, is confirmed by the an- 
cient hiftorians of Arabia. 

Bryant, Bailly, De Sacy, Dupuis, and moft 
other learned men, who have looked attentively 
into ancient hiftory, obferve, that men, in their 
peregrination from place to place on the globe, 
carried about with them their primitive ideas,;thc 
fables of their childhood, and the hiftory of thdr 
anccflry; retaining the names of their cffiginal 
fcttlcments, and adopting them .in the- place, 
where they took up a fixed refidence. 

And, adds Mr. Bryant, there are in every 
climate fome fliattered fragments of original hif- 
tory, fome traces of a primitive and univerfiil lan- 
guage i 


of the Ancient History of" Ireland. s 

gu'age ; and thde may be obfcrvcd in the names 
of deities, tenns of worfliip, titles of honor, 

. which prevail among nations, widely ieparated, 
and who for ages had no connexion. 

Id no hiftory is this more difcernable, than in 
the ancient hiftory of the Irifh ; relating circum- 
ftances, that occorred to their anceftors, the Per- 
iiaas, in Iran^ as having happened in Eirin, thdr 
name of Ireland. 

In their hiftory we have traced all the deities 
of the Chaldasans, ancient Perlians, and Hindus, 
names of priefts, &c. &c. .In language, we have 
flicwn fucb a conformity and refemblance, as 
could not have taken place by any political or 
commercial intercourfe. We have fhcwn and 
proved, from good authority, that they were the 
Pelafgij and that the religion of the Cabiri was 
eflablifhed by them in tbcfe iflands. 

Of Armenian Caucafus, the original feat of 

. our Scythians, and the language fpoken there, 
we knew very little, till a few years before the 
death of Catharine, late Emprefs of Rullia. la 
that ftiort traft, between the Black Sea and 
the Cafpian, if we believe travellers, the lan- 
guages were almoft innumerable ; at Diofcurias 
alone they reckoned feventy dialefls, and, ac- 
cording to fome, three hundred : but Sablier 
informs us, they are but fo many dlalef^s of the 
iame language.' 

The Romans feem to have, known very little of 

■ this country, excepting what they learnt frwa 

■ Efiai fur let langues, p. 14. 


6 further l^indiea^n 

the dBeers of ^«R^> «tio entered it from At- 
menia, foaght tbe Alhatd sod £m, and theo 
advanced in pnrfuit of Mitbri^es aa &r as tbe 
mouth of the Pbafisi whcFc he found ServiUui 
. with the Romas fieet. Tbe very naBae Mitbri- 
dates is Hibemo-jS(7thiaD. Laciaa (dc Sahat.) 
calls him Ttridaiet; is Irifli, Triadbt a kiag; 
Triadatas^ the vt^orioos varlUte kiog, and indt 
the prefix Miihrtadates.^ 

After the cftablifiurent of the Eafbtm em- 
•pire, the countries of L^nca' (Cdchis) and 
Beria were ib frequently a fubjef): of difpctte 
between the Greek en^iecors and the kings oi 
Perfn, that we might e^pe& horn the Byzantine, 
writ«3 % fuller and more carreft »:cQUOt of tfajs 

* It is laid ^ithridatM learnt tweoty.two languKSFS, diat 
be might coQverfe with bis rubjefU without an interpreter. 
Probably the dilference in fome was not greater than be^ 
tween 7irlJatu and Miliridaiet ; one rejefting the prefix Hi 
another uGog it, 
' * lifteica, whence protnUy Leit in Irelud ; at Xw* 
le^, IMS, Atiu-Ieis, Leis-pagh, now wnUen Ia'is, Leifii 
leap, Abbyteix, Lixnaw. The Irilb have no ^ in their 
language. 01 Ji KoX;^, li^ixet Zxu^cu lun; il uu Ao^u 
Ko^pjyoi. (Tzetzes b Lycoph. V. 174.} Laoifeaei, Cgai- 
fying dingers, cafters, was the old nane of the Qaeen's 
County, from laifiadh, to threw cr cafi, l« difiingnifh tkem 
from the archers. So L/ugLum, the petite of DnUini re- 
markable for the ufe of the ipear, halberd, or battle-axe y 
whence Z.iaghtaa-ii-lir, Leinfter, and Rb-Laigheaa, pn>- 
nonnced Jbbliuhean (the tribe of fpear-raeo} Dublin, the 
Eblana of Ptolevy. (See O'Srien's DiCUonirjr, at /AS tnA 

of the Aitcknt Sktftry af Xreland. t 

CsoffaSan aaHoss. Bet tb9 Owife liAftwuv (if 
wa caccept tb? eoqnrcw (>»Awtnt9> w?r? ^^ iUr 
infbrmod of tlv gtogTafrity ef t!|efe cawiti3e«« 
ud fo £ond o{ cooBprebo^u^ 4U b^rbanins 
uader the colle£tivc a^ll^^qw of SeyibiatUx 
RatUy et Tirri?, tii4t t^r rduicnw ^^c^ Dews 
ftitis&Aotj, and foniQ^iBes qwt^ visinteUigiUc. 

Sioce their ttvc vc fa^vc bad OQthii^^ ta truft 
to, bai tho repoits (^ a Ipw <»Anl ti^ycUwR, 
i^ the rcigo of dK Isfc £i^wi« of Rtt$a, 
hf vhpm Profefibr Gi^imfiaedt ww icnt &) 
.Mount Caucafus, inth orders to travcrif tb^ 
vSd r^oqs ID varioM dvcQlw*^ tp tcacc 
the riveR to the imtcn; to t^ ftftroposiic)} 
obfirrations ; to examioe tbe- Datmal biftory 
of the counby } aod to x:(^e& vtcaiuiarks of 
3^ the cSalcfts be might meet vitb, fo ai to 
fatra a genetal clafification of all the oadons 
OHDprdieDded betweca the Emhe and the 
Ct^ian Seat. 

From the refearches <tf this traveller it ap» 
pears, that there are id ttus diftrid qi country af 
leaft feren diftina nations ; each fpcakiag (as bo 
fiiys) a feparate language, viz. 

I. The Tartars. 

3. ThcAbdtas. 

. 3. The Clrcaffiana. 

4. The Oili, or Oflctj. 

5. The Kifti. 

6. tUi Lc^s. , , 

7. The Qewgians. __ 



8' Further Vindication 

"The vocabulary was compiled' of \^ordi chcfot 
by the Empreft hcrfelf,' and arc 130 in number » 
none of them are complete, and that of the 
Abchas is very defeftive, and none have fyno-. 
nima common to HA languages. At the fame 
time Profcffor Pallas -feat a copy of theiTocabu-t 
lary to-the author of this wdrk, to be rendered 
into vulgar and ctalHeal Iriih, probably with a 
mew 'to compare ' the Irijh ■ with .the Circafflan 
dialers; the Profeffor's requeft was pnnftualiy 
complied with, but nothing more has appeared 
00 that fubjeft. ' : ■ . : 

' Guldenflaedt's fpecii^ns were conununic4ted 
to fbme teamed perfoa in London, who fooii 
after printed thetB^^ffith an EngUQi traaflation, to 
whkh be. added ^Ibxcellent n^ap of the cotintrj^ 
between, the Euxine aiid Cafpian, extending 
northward to Aftracan on the Wolga.^ . ^o this 
learned vanonymons, I aiQ indel^ted for what is 
here faid of the biftory of that di(tfi^; he con? 
dades by &ying, it had not beeg always in^his 
power to exprefs, in EngUCh letters, the found 
conveyed by the original, ,be<^ufc the Rufliaa 
alphabet has ligns for fomc vowels, which w? 
cannot pronounce. 

In the hiftory of thefe people there are feveral 

particulars, as well as lan^i,iage, corr^ponding 


' Memoir of a Map of the Couatr|es compreheoded 
between the Black Sea and the Cafpiai)) with an Account of 
the Caucafian Nations, and Vocabutaries of their Langoagev 
■London, for J. Edwards, Pall MaU, 1788. ' 


of the Ancient History of Ireland. *» 

with the. aadenit Irilh or Aire Coti, which wc 
fliall notice. ' 

Of the Abchas we have little to remark, ejtccpt 
the followiog; 








See the Offi. 






Muys. Mazia 


MiaS) a inonth. — EaSt 
the mooni witi) M 
prefixed, Meaa. 


Aots, Bagooa 


Bagh, the fun, ftom 
Agh. fire. 


Atopla, TfooU 


Talamh, Tlacht. 


** The Circaihan princes feem to be of a dif- 
*• fcrent origin from their fubjefls i they arc 
" treated with a fapcrflitious reverence, which 
<* among uncivilized nations is, foldom claimed 
** but by conqueror* from the conquered people." 

Paralkl from Irj/i S^ory- 
" They lay they are deriTcd Cat was the mod honor- ' 
from 1 certain prince of the able of the Aire Coti 
name •i Kefi, who in for- tribes. Milellua, the leader 
mer times was eftabtifhed . of the colony from Spain, 
in the O'tmea. The lame wai a Dal G^ant or of 
flory of Prince K^t fubfifls the tribe of Cai. Cannae 
{^nqng the Kirsult Tartars. Cat is well tcnown in IriOi 


MileGos is made 14th in 

defcent ftom Japhet, and 



Af-Abff' Fittdieaiim 

" Tht DiiHiag lod educadon 
of a. child reiidc'' the pr*^ 
ceptor a Idnd of adopted 

" At meals the whole family 
is afltmbled, fo that h^re, 
at among the Tartars, each 
village is reckoned at a 
cenain number of kettles. 

« They ufe at prefent tho 
Arabic character. 

There are iolcriptions Od 
their tomb-ftones now on- 

'• The Orcaffians feera to 
hiTC bcea ooatpTchciided, 
vUh nnny neigUwuiog 
oattoBs, voder the a«mc f>f 
jtlam, aod laftly hy that qf 
Ki^xar, a aadoQ of Tartar 

** Their aeighbours, the Ot&t 
call thera Cafeit — the Ara- 
biaiM ufuaUy call them 
Mamkah — After the de- 
oleaGon of the Kbaxt^ em- 
^Fs thay appear t» hare 
beeo fubjed to tht Ar^naas 
u maflen of Pcrfia, and to 
tlwTarun." ■ 

Cat Clotbach )4nd. Site 
KeaUog's p^gtec t^Heba- 
The liune wiA the old Irilh. 

The June with the old Irilh: 
Luchd is a frlit or famHyt 
and a iellle. They reck- 
oned alfo by hearths or fire 
places. TeaBaci, a hearth j 
and the fame word fignifiei 
a family. This wiQ be ex- 
plained hereafter. 

We (hail prd^Dtly (hew, that 
KhaioTt or Ctfar, led the 
firfl coloay of omr Aire 
C;Ma in>|D (74««^ to the 
baaki of the Cafpian. 

Thtaftnn^heu onf compa- 
rifon of the eld IriA with 
the Arabic. (See my FrO' 
%eau3 of aa Irilh DtAio- 



of the ^luifirt Mvtvy ^ irdattd. 



•T, b» 
YmUj - 

fathsr . 


mthn ■ 




people . 









. Moi,»>< 



winitr . 


'Biggif Dwetja, Ddaga Sun 

*Mua, Mazay 


Jeen^«kn • 
*Khaoo . ■ fia . Go. 

jUhI[b» . . hill . £)ildr. 

KoM - - nlley . Cuih. 

*IUtteT • ' a noble knight Ridir^Rcaturc. 


» They are called Kt^ hj the Circaffian 
** and Tattazs( tibeir language has fbne aoalogj 
** with the Pcrfian; that of one tribe fcems even 
** to be a dialcft cf that language. — One of the 
** diftrifts is named ^Archai, Tbeir bifiary it 

'Archoti— naineafflnetf^. If tbde be thedelcendanttof 
«ar jIIm Celt at noh cw- 
not now be det«nii)c4— 
The nunc Offi it malogcnu 
to thfl Irifh Oit, s Atep. 


Fwthcr Vindication 

Cdha, Cutha, Coti, are 

words of like import. Aire 

Coti, Royal Shepherds. 




•Tfa^o . - ■ 

God . 

. Tuif-dio, creation.— 
Tuifc, oripn, fynooi- 
iDOus to jtthar and 
^rm, God. See Pro- 
fpeflui. »in, cm, tus, 



Arv . 




Maid, Maidhean, fe- 
male, virgin. 

•Men, Emiiiaet 


Moh, a man; liike/*<w, 
man, hnlband. 

*0oi, Koos, Gm 


- Guftien, to hear;^Eift, 
to hear. 

Oo.^ -■ . 

fight . 

■ Ain, eye. 

•Kalai . 

Toice - 


•Norn ... 

name '- 

' Aiam. 

•EUiat, K»y - 

cry . 

- ]^gh, gat. ,; 

•Mud - 


■ Marbh.Mort. . 

•Kbooi, Kor ■- 

fun . 

. Kearo, Cearo, fun. 

•Mcjce, Mi-yeh 

moon ■ 

■ Mi, month. 

Eahad . 

wind . 

. Bid. 


rain - 

■ Fhearain (Vearain). 

•Eehk . 

ice, hail 

1 Oicbcar,fnow. Oic-re62, 

• Bo. - 

day . 

. Ban, fun. 

•Az, Ans 

year - 

Aos, an age. An, caog. 

•Fooid . 

fea . 

. Fearg. 


. vf the AHeient Sistmry i^ Ireland. 


cUy . 





•Buyl . 

coaft - 

Bull, dnis OD die cdad. 
See Gypfcy laagwEt.- 

•Art - 

fire - 

Art, God. Arc, Tuo. 
Artjne, flinu : 


heat . 

. Teai. 

•Ooleyaoo, Arzood 


- AH, ard. . 

•Door - 

. . Hone . 

Dorn, a fmall Itooe for i 

*Khas - . . 

grafi . 

Cufk, facrcd.g<a&. - ' 

•BallM - 

tree. - 

BUe. ... - 


" The difercnt tribes of this reftlefs and tur- 
' bulent nation are generally at variance with 
' each other, and with all their neighbours. 
' Their djalc£is have no analogy with any 
y known language,- and their hiftory and origin 
' are at prefeiit utferly unknown. 

" They call themfelves Ingufhi, ^\ftU ^°d 

• Halka. They live in villages near each other, 
' are diligent hufbandmen,- and .rich in cattle." 

" Many of their villages have ^' fione tgweri 

• which now ferves them in time of war as -a 

• retreat to thch* women and children." 

Fwtkef VinSitttimi. 





•Ujralr, !>«!.■ 

- God . 

Omlle, DiiiUemlli, Coil. 

Di - - 

- Hiker . 

Daid, did. 


- motker 

STaio, naiog. 

•Ya - - 

■ Cm . 



. wife- - 



. people 

Neacb, any oee. 

•KorM, Santjr 

. held . 



. kair -, 


•&raala - 

. elbow 

Goal, Ikoolder. 

Kog, kok - 

- foor ' 



. knee - 



• kooe • 



- cry - 



- v^ • 



. force . 



-• 6111 - 


Bote, BmSi, Boon moon • 

Tbe fatker of Bodhl or 

Bou WBO regent of tke 

noon. (SirWH.>)Bef.> 


- IW . 

Sidk, fydeaeal inna. 


. wind . 

Fo, & 

*I)eh, Den - 

- day - 


*Soorey, CJorioo 

• moroiag 

Soir, oir, aurora. 

BooJfoo, Doyta: 

. nijh - 


•se,..., . 

- ««»s 

Siu, wellrraaiiitros. 


■ eartk • 

T.lacktr Aok.Lnt. 


. fn 


•Ker - - 

. d.y - 



- mouDUlo 

Braid, Braid-AIbao, tkc. 

• OfthcnaiM* 

of God we Hull treit fiUy, io oor ElEiy 

««.tlM Gypttf laaguage. 


cf the Ancient Sistoty ^ Ireland. 1 

*LMt«h - - bnidih l^lkead. 

*Toelik, Kerk - Abm - I>^H«g> catrdfr cat. 


" The country of tliis people is IndifferentJj 
" called by the Georgians Lefguiftan and D^h- 
** eftan. Ouldenllaedt has remarked, in the 
*• Xjcfguis language, ■eight different dialcfls, and 
** has claffcd their tribes ih conformity to this 
** 9bftTTation.*' ' . 

." Befidcs thefe .there are fomc other Lefguis 
*• tribes, whole diale^ Gnldenftacdt was ungblc 
** to procure. Fronj a comparilbn of thofc, which 
*"• he has obtained, it appear*, that the language 
** of the Lefgois has no liind of affinity with any 
** othcj known language, excepting only the 
*' Sampyedc, to which it has a reinott refem- 
•* Tblancc.** , , 

" Col. Gacrber, wlib wrote an accoofit o? 

** thdfc countries id l^aS, gives die foHbwIng 


' Afitording to Gaerber, there are nambers of Jews fcat- 
tered over the provinces of ShirvaD and Dagheftan ; he lays, 
\hilt they fynMt friox^Uf by kgintdwnt, <nHl tailing of 
tatth: ; mjfev tf th«m bejog eMfitofCd in trade. He aM», 
4ltt they are s tety afldCoc ctAonyi ibeir nMJm yretca^ 
'tM.- (htir fathen WeA -dnm tr<m JeroMeot into Media 
kj the Moful P^diJhal, or king of NiniTeb. 

^ ■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

16 Further Vindie&tion 

*' defcription of KubcHia. He fays, - it is arlarge 
" ftroDg town, fitusrted on a hill between, hi^h 
** mountains. Its iahabitants call - thcmiejlves 
" Franki, « (a name common in the Eaft to alt 
*' Europeans,) and relate, that their anccftors were 
*\ brought thither by fome accident, tht panicu- 
*' lars of which are now forgotten. The common 
" conjeflurc is^ that they were mariners caft away 
*' upon the coaft ; but thofe, that pretend to be • 
** better verfcd in their hiftory, tell the ftoiy - 

** this . way. The Greeks and . Genoefe,.' fay 

f they, carried on, during feveral centuries, a 
*' confiderable trade, not only on the Black Se^, • 
'* but likewife on the Cafpian, and were .cef; 
" tainly acquainted with the mines contained' in 
".thefe mpuntains, from which they' drew, bj 
*^ their trade with the inhabitants, great quan^; 
*' ties of filver, copper, and other metals. ,Iq 
*' order to worfc thefe on the fpot, they. Tent 
** hither a fiumber of workmen, to eftabljfli ma- 
" nufaftures and inftruft its inhabitants." 

" The fubfequent invaJCons of the Arab^, 
*' Turks and Monguls, during which the tpines 
'* were ^lled up, and the inanufa^res abaa- 
'* doned, prevented the ftrangers from cffefling 
*' their return, fo that they continued here, and 

■ This name bai kd nuDjr readers of ancient Irilh hiOorp 
into great miftake*. The Arab* call the countries beyond- thf 
0xu», FargMoi, corrupted to Frattge. See my Viadicatioi^ 
p. 319. It i) very probable thde i^efguis were from F^flgp 
orTouran. - . ,.:. '. 


^ of the Ancitnt History of Ireland. 1 7 

" ereded dicmfdves into a republic- What 
" renders this the more probable is, that they 
" are ilill cxccncot artifb, and make good fire- 
*' arms, as wdl rified as plain: labres, coats of 
" jmail, and rcvcra) articles in gdd and filVcr, for 
** exportation. They have, likcwifc, for dieir 
** own defence, iinall copper cannons, of three 
*' pounds calibre, call by themfelves. They coiji 
" Turkifli and Pcriian ClvCr, and even rabies, 
** which readily pafs current, becaufc they are of 

*' full weight and value. This town is con^ 

** fidered as a neutral fpot, where the ndghbour- 
*' iog princes can depoflt their treafure with 
** iafcty." (Gaerber.) 

** They eleft yeuly twelve magiftratcs, to 

'- •' whom they pay undiminiflied obedience : and, 

" as all the inhabitants are on a footing 6i ^icrfeft 

" equality, each individual is fure to have, in his 

" turn, a iharc in the government." 

The eight dialers Goldcnftaedt reduces to 
four, as in the following fpecimens. — ^We flull 
give a few examples of this extraordinary bn- 



i\trtheh t^indicaliin  

•S-S i 

g " , , . 

S " B fi-P . 

° 2 _ U,_S |5 B 

i • ^ ■ ' ' tl ' ' 

S BNQwMk^iS Am S « 
.>,.'S . 

S ^K^nSQ^ff>S^^ 













■1 ° 











^ the Aiwient Bhtory of Ireland. 


*' Georoia comprehcDds the andeat Iberia, 
** Colchis, and perhaps a part.of AJbaniai as the 
" province of Calcet, m the old Georgian lan- 
** guage,- is iaid to hate been named Albon.'' 
** They have received their prefcnt name from 
*' their attachment to St. George, the tutelary 
** fMM of thcfc countries. 

*' The whole country is fo extremely beautiful, 
** that feme fandfnl travellers baVe imagined they 
*' bad there found the fitnatioii of the g»dfca of 
*' Eden, "the hills arc covered with forefts of 
" oak, aOi, beech, chclhtits, walnuts, and elms, 
** endrcled with vines, growing pcrfeflly wildj 
*• but produdng vaft qaantities of grapes. From 
*' tbefc is aanoally made as much wise as is 
•* neceirary for the yearly confomplioii : the re- 
*• maindcr are left to rot oq the tines. Cotton 
" grows fpontaneonfly, as well as the finell 
*' Eur^an fruit trees. Rice, wheat, millet, 
*' heinp and flax, are raifed on the plaias, ahitoft 
*' withoilt culture. The vaHeys affinrd the fioeft 
" paAtintge in the worM: the rivers are fall of 
** fi&, the tnouQtafais s^tind in minerals, aad 
" ihft dimate is dclkious." 

c a '* Thoe 

*■ Caket i; the mofl eafteri province. Iberia *nd Albawa 
fignify wefterD ^d eaftero. ,We Ihall produce many exam- 
^es oFthek Dames, correlpouding to the Jiini, ia (hele parti. 


20 Further Vindication 

. " There are in Georgia conCdcrable number! 
•* of Jews, called in the language of the country 
*' Vria. Some have villages of their own, and 
"others arc mixed with the Georgian, Armenian, 
'* and Tartar inhabitants, but never with the 
** Offi." Sec note ' in the Lefguis. 

" The language is divided into three dialefts, 
*• the Carduel, the Imtctian, and the Suaneti, 
•* which appear as extraordinary as thofc of the 
'* Lefguis." 


God - Gmert; Horomti Glterbet. 

Heaven Tlah Tfafh Tfah See God In the OS. 

Father Mamma Mooma Moo - M^, a tnao. 

Mother Dedda Deeda Bee • Did, a teat. Heb. it 
dad, mamma. 

Son - Shyiliy Slooa Yezzag Sio!; race, tribe, foo. 

Daughter Kaly Ozoory Zoonah Caile, girl. 
*GirI - Kalfy Ozoory Soorag Cail-in. 
•Sun - Mzeh Bja - Meej Bagh. 
•Moon Mtwary Toota Mij - Ml, mios ; a month. 

" Of thefe fourteen dialefts of Caucafus, given 
-by Guldenftacdt, on a very improper choice of 
words, there are forty-three funilar in letter and 
fenfe to the old Irifli. Some of them arc worthy 
of notice, fuch. as Ddaga, the fun in the Circaf- 
fian, in Irifli Dagbda, correfponding to the Dagh' 
'da-rath, of the burnt chariot, or Phoebus of the 
Brahmins : the fame planet in the Ofh is named 
KhooVi in Itifli Kearo; Kearo is fynonimous to 


of the Ancient HUtorif of Ireland, 21 

D(^b-da, all derived from the Ar. and Per. 
jy^ khooTt and j'i^ kbur, or Jj'^ ibawurt all 
names of the fun. In the Antfhoug dialcft of 
the Lefguis, this planet is named Baai^ in hifh. 
Bagb, evidently an old Perfian word, as we learn 
' from Mofcs Choronenfia. " When the Pcrfiaos 
*' conquered Armenia, the mountain, on wluch 
*' they lighted the perpetual fire, was called Bagb- 
•' oven; from Bagb, fire, the/us, and Jven, a 
" mountain." (Hift. Armen. L. I. c. 74.) The 
Ferfiaos fay, that Zebai or Nimrod built Bag- 
dad, others, that Kaiiout built it,, others, liat 
Cofroes gave it to one of his wives. This princefs 
built a temple here, which flie dedicated to her 
idol, named Bag, and called the country Bag-dad, 
that is, the gift of Bag, her deity (d'HcrbcIot). — 
In the Brahminical mythology we find Babagava, 
Bahuca, Bbagiratba, all children of the fun. 
Bagb, in Irilfa, is derived frt>m jigb, fire, whence 
alfo probably Dagb and Dagbda. At Drom^t^b, 
DOW Drum-boe, in the county of Down, are ftill 
the remains of a lire tower, which once blazed in 
hoQOQT of Bagb, the fun. Drom is a contraAion 
of Dromabar, a temple, in the Zend Derintbir; 
the fame ipthe Fahlavi or old Perfian. 

From this delightful country, ancientty named 
Kartuelta, probably horn the Indo-Scythiaa 
Cear-tuiiti, the offspring of the fi6od, Irifh hif- 
tory commences with the movement of Caefar or 
Kaefar bin-og Naoi, that is, Kaefar, grandfon of 
Noah, to the banks of the Muir cron (the Browa 
f^^ Of Cafpi»n» three hundred years after the 

22 further Vindication 

flood,' where he fettled on the Eatai or plcafeot 
river» now the Wo/ga; for, proceeds Irf& Kiftarjf 
from hence he difpatched Adhna, fon of Bttba,- 
to h-an, to fee if venation had yet t^ken plice ; 
for, fays ibe hi{f:onaa, £r/n /ur n*dileann datha 
^eth at Rimmin a reaiba — Iran, after the de- 
higc, was exhaled by meajis of the retoiuticm of 
the conJieUatleni ; and, on his good report, Bar- 
Ulatt, or the illuftrious leader, Uad thnrais an 
mtir cron, o thuaigh, gus an Eirinn, croffcd (he 
Muir a6a (the Cafpian) from the north to Iran, 
vritb 3 colony. 

la lis voyage acrofs this fea he landed on the 
fouth iide, on an ifland, where he had the misfiv- 
taae to kiU hit Cu Seakc, his hunting dog, named 
Sam^tt whence he gave the name of Samar to 
tbe ifland. 
■ There is a very <:iQriou5 paffage in that old 
MSfi. diiC Liber Locaoas, which refers to Kaefar, 
and demoBflrates, that the pagan Irifli were tne- 
teiB[^7'ChoM«. The parage is printed in Lhwyd's 
ArdiBologia, Appendix; viz. ** Tuan M'Cairil, 

' Siit-Dg, la a graod-ibn, huuiogt a grand-daughter j the 
Irifh poeis adapted the latteri and falfely called her the niece 
of Noah; and, of courict provided her with ahuAaad. The 
luadN' will intile, when infermed that the poets bring her to 
XneUod before the-flood. Miar-eroK is 6id to be on the 
north of Eirin (or Iran), and, therefore, niuA be the £^3 
between Ireland and Scotland (O'Br.); whereas that f«^ 
00 account of its clearneTs, was anciently called Fearg-tadh^ttt 
or Ftarg-ioiaB, (as pTonounced,) that is, the clear fea; 
urtieace it is named by Ptolemy Man -Fir^umu inter AUno- 
tarn tt Hibemiam — teftc LbwjdOf BritaoQice FetriS. , 

of the AncUnt History (^Ireland. gj 

born of the wife of Makedw: M miduDg* aflcrtcfi 
the pc^dilurian invafioa of Eirin (^an) i for he 
lircd k Cedar's time* in the fons of a inajl» ^w^ 
&r three huadred years Id the form of « detrj 
after &r two bimdrcd years in the ihapc of a 
boar, then three huodrcd year? in the flispe of a 
bird, and, laiUy, one hundred year* ip tbc ibspe 
sf a fahooD ; which, beiog caught, was prefeitfed 
to the queen of £irip (Jraa), and ihc, upoa 
eating, it, hnmediately fooccived and b-oi^ht 
fi[»tfa Tuan M'Csiril, wbo related the truth of 
Kaefar't expedition into Eirin (Iran), aod atfo 
infornied rhem of the iorcads.of the ^c^ (Bo- 
' loguesj and Dedan (Dedaqites)." 

Thus Pythagoras pretended ha knew and re- 
membered in what bodies his ibul had rf£ded, 
befwe he was ftyled Pythagx^as. — Yot, let it be , 
remembered, that, by the dear light of roafbn, 
he difcovered 


The a^ve parage, replete with oriental names 
and circumftances, which we could have had no 
knowledge of a century ago, is, among others, 
the ftropgeft proof pf the Oriental origin of our 
Aire Ccrti. 

I. Arabian hiftorians inform us, that ^^ 
Kbazar was the grandfon of Noah, and the fixth 

at . Putther Vindkatuin 

kA of Japbetf and one of the brothers oF Turk, 
Mirkhond mentions. him in the genealogy of Gcd- 
ghis Khan, and fays, *' Khazar being fcparatcd 
*' from his brethren, who had eftatriifhcd them-- 
*' felves in different parts of the country, con- 
** taining great Tartary, arrived on the banks of 
•* the Etel, which a the Volga, and there built a 
** city, to which he gave his name ; and fowed 
** the environs with raiUel, the only grain would 
•* grow in that country. They fay he was Kie- 
*' maxar, and Kien^t^ar^ that is, peaceable, 
** charitable, and a man of few .words. The 
** country and its inhabitants, who are called 
" Khozarians, have prefcrved the name of this 
*' town : it is fituatcd to the north of the Cafpian 
*' fea, and extends from die Veiga towards the 
•' Ea/i. He alfo gave name to the Ca^ian fea, 
** which the Perfian geographers call Babr Kha- 
*' zaVy or the fea of Khazar." (D'Hcrbclot.) 

2. Ebn Hawkal, 9 Perfian traveller of the 
tenth century, c^lh it JJ^ .iJ^j*^ deriai Kha- 
zar, and gives the rcafon it' was named Muir 

<t5h, or the browp or duiky coloured fea, 

** The fea of Pars (the muir glas, or' green fea 


" IntrifliCiioiinliufir. Caoimh-cutbuc,!, gentle pteafant man. 
' jj^aJJ I j:su bahra' I'-akhzM j the"\ 
Indian or Gnea fea. f 

• . I y Riebardfon. 

J->£e^i j:^ bahra akhzur ; the Perfian t •■ 

(ir Bine fea. J 

Sinus PerGctiS, Arab, mare TVih^k; al^Achzar, i.e^ viride. 


(if the Ancient History of Ireland. K 

•• the Irilh) is of fuch dear water, that"any one 
*' may fee the white Hones at the bottoni, but 
*' the waters o£ Khazar are dark coloured." In 
another place he Tays, *' In Khazar there is a 
*' city named AJinid, which has io many orchards 
.** and gardens, that, from Dcrbcod to Scrir, the 
*' vhde country is covered with them ; many 
*' produce grapes. 

Such a foil and Qtuation might well be named 
Eatalt that is, plcafant, delightful, by the Airer 
Coti, correfponding with the Arabic Xi'l ^teU 
and J JaAC AftaJ, gaudiom cum fecuritate, boa? 
ct commoda mundi (Gol). And this name is 
corroborated by the IriCb fynonimous flo/j, plear 
fant, whence the river Rofs, that conveys thp 
Barrow into the Suir. " Nomen fluvii, in Arme- 
nia, quern Araxem Gra-ci vocaat, neque fiat 
aliud. Deque nunc eft, quam ij**jy Rft, aut 
Rus, unde Araxem feccre Grajd. E/idrefiu, ' 
pdlquam hunc Araxem defcripfit, feptimam clU 
matis partem ingreditur, et de ij"jj.j^ Nabar 
Res agit, cui Domen fit XXl Atel^ hoc eft V^ga" 

Bartolan^ or Partolao, called hts Cu fealcc^ or 
hunting-dog, famar, names evidently derived 
ixQtx the Arabic >J> fam ; fam-fam is a hunting- 
dog, cams vtnaticus (Gol.); but the word Sealetf 
which implies hunting in general, as it is sever 
done without dogs, refers to the Arabic ^^^J}>tt. 
Saliikif cenis venalicus : " Dicitur a Saluk, urbe 


Sfl Further Vindication 

yamfiB, i. c. Arabise felicis." (GoL) For this -we 
base aifo the authwity of Damir and Alftmus, 
mo tcTpcO^c authors; bat I fhonld rather 
chiak the city received its name from the fpedos 
of dogs \ftcA there. Iq tike maniicr EalUc and 
Teallae (T prefix) is a hearth, a forge, aod, fikc 
ittcidi a kettle, alfo £gnifies a /amity, becaufe 
every hearth or family paid a fire-tax to the 
charch ; all 6res being extinguished one day ia 
liie year, and relighted from the holy fire, in 
jCvcty diftrid; and this alfo we find is Arabic; 
^joii^ balaky, faber ferarius, palitor^ fetito «e-, 
mine ab HALAX'ben Amruy ben Afud, qui primus 
uirii^qu^ eperis apud Arabes dicitur futfi outer. 
{Ooi.) In like manner Gou, the femous fmith 
of Iriih and Pcrfian hiftory, implies a forge, as 
well as a froith."' 

■ If the reader will now turn to my Vindication, 
(p. 187), to the flory of Gou, the blackfinidi, 
of his heading a rebellion, and hoifting his aprc^ 
BB a ftandard of r-evok, headed by Duach (the 
Perfian Gou and Dahac), he muft be convinced 
that, fabulous as thefe parts of hiftory appear to 
be, our Aire-Coti muft have been ihe fame as 
aneienC Periians, as {ri& hiftory fets forth. 

We have now cooduAed Partolan into Iran. 
*' Between the Cafpian Sea and the Perfian,*' 
fays Bailly, " we find a nation, which, in point 


"■ Hence Goar, ruigo, a fmith ; Seang-gour, (IroIHng 
fmithp, vagabond tiokers, gypfeys, who in general follow 
that tnde. See Eflay on the Origin of the Gypfies. 


of the Ancient History of Ireland. i1 

'* of ratiqBWy, ip « Je^ft sqyal to' tlw Chincfc ; 
'* I mem tbc Ftrjamt the worfliipBers of fire 
'* md 9f tb« flip. Tbfi Perfian en^e, a»d ihe 
«^ tigu0(j»d£i0 jjf Perf^tot^, I have dcmou&ited 
*' to afcead to 3^09 years before Jefas Cbrift ; 
'* bat it is tp t%p Bf»tji of Caticgfus we -pogbt to 
''^ look for !the prigin of the Pfrfisas. 

Ferfas Scytbss fujije ofteodimus, &y$ the 
learned Campeg. Vitring*. (Obf. Sacr. p. 84. 
♦' Des efpEc© die Scythes erraats, fortis do mont 
Cavcsfe, citmnpapGat a k fcfaain; dans let 
pbines de I'^jric. ^'Evencmem de I'hiQuii^ 
d'Affyrie dbnt ,on nc feut finer la ChrimaloffeJ* 

Heace we iiiid our AirerCoti took po£e£on.fif 
Irao m all dircflionsi. ** ■ The Pcrfianfi, arh^ 
" rcfouQdcd the empire 530 years before our 
" sera, feem to have been the old Scyibs of 
*' PcrCa, ftrengtiienei by accefljons of the bidth 
^' Beythat and from the Scythian tenitories oa 
f^ the eafi of the Cdfyiaja." (Piokertoo^ p. 38.) 
On itbe eitugration of the Scythians, vaf| nunif 
bers remained in Periia, ^d were kopwn by du 
name of Pe^^ns, as at this day. HerodiStus is 
a ikBScient witpcg, that the Sq^thians did not 
ornate 6xmi ScandinaAria, but froiv prefent 
Perfla. j^ibid. p. jg.) 

Bayer, in his Chronologia Seytbua vetiUf 

(ConDai. Aqid. Petrop. V. 3.) gives the foHow- 

ing origia of tjie Scythians, agreeing per&£Hy 

nitb Itiih hiltot^. ** Ongiaem g^ntis Scy^c«, 

" ot 

28 Farther Vindication 

*' lit in compeodio dicatn, quse prolix^ a me fuat 
** explicata, flc fere informatam animo habeo. 
** Majores coram ab Caucafo Armeniae, primo 
*' Jt^rum^ poftea Orientem petiiffe, ila ut a finif- 
" tris habcrent littora Cafptic, denique flcxiffe 
« borcap(diatem, et in oricntalibus Volgffi rcgioni- 
*' bus confedifle ; hie ver6 illam condttam et dif- 
*' perfam multitudincm, mJlle annis ante Darii 
*' cxpeditiooem Scythicam." 

This pcrfcflly agrees witb Irifli hiftory, wUch 
leads F^rtolan to Soghdu, oo the cad of the Caf- 
[Man, while he was afterwards joined by others 
from Eatal. Seghdu, in Irilh, ligntfies the de- 
lightful country ; the Ferfians, and all oricatal 
writers, agree, that it is one of the moft delicious 
plains ia the world, and one of the four para- 
difes. Sophrorius Scythis addit Sogdianos et 
Sacm. (Bayer.) 

. Here, lays the Liber Lecanus (copied from a 
more andcnt MSS.), Partolan left his wife and 
falnily, ndiile he went in jfmrfuit of other con- 
quefls ; but his eldeil fon arofe, and niunlered 
his mother, and all the family, whom Partolan 
had left to take care of Ssgdiana; for which - 
reafon the fon received the opprobrious name of 
Taoimac (murdering fon) ; and, in the fixth year 
of the reign of Ninus, a plague deftroyed his 
race for this wicked aft. 

-Wc next find them in the Penjab, or the 

fburccs of the Lidus, in the Paropamifus mountains, 

to which they gave the name of their original 



of the Aiident History of Ireland. B9 

fettlement, Caucas, /. f. the mountains of' Casf 
wherj: ihcy were known by the Arabs under the 
Dame of HsHal, alid hj the Greeks, t^m t«ibon. 
Southern Scythians. 

Haital, Scytharum Indorumque genus potea- 
tia quondam celebre. (Gol. Gig. Camus) 

" Les Haitelab, que nos ancient geographes 
" appellcnt bido-Scytbaf pcupks qui habitent 
** les provinces de Candahar, \ de Tibett et de 
" Baraniolah, aprfs avoir fcctsiru Cobad pcrc dc 
*' Neufchirvan, et I'avoir retabli dans fes etats^ 
** dont il avoit £te d6pouille, voulurent fe mate' 
*' tcnir par force dans les provinces de Peribi 
** mais Noufchirvan les en chaila, ct Ics contrajg- 
** nit de repafler la montagDC de Faropami/ut, 
*' d'ou ils etoient fortis." D'HerbcJot. 

*' According. to Tzetzes, the Colchians were a 
tribe of thcfe Indo-Scythians (in Lycoph. V. 174), 
of which hereafter. 

Berofus fays, the Indo-Scythx fettled on the 
Jndus and Ganges in the fortieth year of Belus, 
the Nimrod of the fctiptures. The great affinity 
betwixt the Indo-Scythian Irifli and the Hia- 
doc^laaee, is a clear proof of their long reCdence 
in India. Not only the ,adjunas,arc the fame, as 
I. have ihewp in my ProfpeAus, but tbofe eflen- 
tial parts of fpeech* the aaxiJiuies, are the hmt. 
Cuiranif deanam, leMam, in Irifli, are kt4rna, 
denot ietiay in Hindoollanoe, and ufed in both 
languages in the fame manner -j. -^nd deaaa, -Ibf- 


$0 Puttker y indication- 

VibiA fti S^m (yedHa), httoom fiiui lUd dnn kf 

Ptelemy filaeds thdn in the P«njiib, fcBt^ dtf 
both fides the Indus ; and Didn^s ddfefibea 
tb«« by fb^r {^Sffodytnie gitt^,- Afa-Coilli for 
thcy called theiflfelveS Aire-Csii, Stki jfffeAf^ 
CMii 6l«^tng^ iH^Ie fhdpberdii ancie^ ftep- 
I^^ hoAdonib^ flicplletds. Aiteai tflEi fhd 
feiad iiJ«^)ng in the Gbatdee aUd Arabic i 
€31. pfJ-W flWit,- At. UlxXc «';*. add t_>xl£ 
«f<//e{ iM htiifit fbeOrecks called thePelifgi 
(Who fr^rt Scythians) ■Arti.c.--ft6il ab urbe 
J^berm nee ab Aihride^ fed ab f irtiC i***-? , qflod 
ra liAfiia £^«a Miijatu offtAti ttjcabdnttir 
eebck^ ■oiVuta, quaitt Toceta dum Hefychlus ex- 
plicat T» Bf^iSa. '**.;t'if'*i antiqaa cf dcftndlfca— 
Pili0 Styttodi gens fuerint--Caditi<os non 
ftlfc fed PihtJ^cos fea Se^ibicoi-^fialt conclu* 
dimus. Pehjgos Scythicam gcihtcih fbifle. Unii 
Ver& GtEecia' dttm Pels/gia appeDabatur ; ettam 
Pela/gi- apild poetas pro tioiverfa (iracorum 
fiatione pohi (blent, jlttieds dt'igiixe fuillb Pelaf' 
gkes. (Ihre. Pro6B». x*i. nxxviB.) 

In thelt dtf<£eat df tb« Iti^us, dat- Aire-Coti 
edited tfitb i?/' 5*/^^ tb« irm di^i, t^e Balegueii 
tit (h« 5^/jfA S^hDJ^i as Ac? 'i^ liaaicd iA 
t%» ifai^ of aodMt ^4^." 

In DaM'a Atks bf Pufe, vte find the piXN 

«te£b «ff ^A^, bwdfflid <% A6 e^ by that of 

i[»nmi; ^a^m doSe^itA ii NtdAii, and to the eaft 


•Publifhcd byFaden, Loudon, 1797. 

of the Ancient History 'i^ Ireland, 3i 

«tf this is the proriace tff the B-fflogis, ^ViuAkt^ 
frotn the IixiiaD oeeso M Touran ot Scylhia. 

£ba Hdnfkal, Id defcribiDg Seje/lan, a t)hivitice 
bordered by the defeat of Makfati and fhe HvS^ 
JJuTitf^ ddcribfes k |k!tipk:, living there in his tittltf, 
of tbfc Tartar or Scythian rate; " Tht KhiUJiiini 
** ii« of a T4t-t* rtce, wh6i Iti ^«V« wXto, 
*• fettled in this coutltryj Ijetteefcb JTinJoofiaa afld 
" the borders of Sejejian.—'thef rcfefflbfe (h<! 
" Tartars in perfonal appearance, and tctiitl the 
•' dttffi and cuftotns df that natiofi/' (EBb. Hiw- 
ksAt p. io7). Adjoining to theffc Were tht Bo- 
kpieit Whom Mr. WilfoM thinks of TattAi fAt^ 
alfo. Sli- Williata Jonte fboegbt thtM ArSbS. 
The Btilogtjes exM^Jcd thctltfekes to D^B) a 
TCty a&cidnt kitlgdbnij fays d'Hetb^lot. It k 
rfct^arkabici thai th^ Bblgs of Ireland wer^ (ie-> 
'j^ded of Delsj according to KeafiAg^ p. 8; 

"the Bologues were a wiM and UngdvernaWe 
taation of Arabsj 6f the tHbo of Hejdz, who we^e 
knoWil to have a difpofition for war abd flieddihg 
6f bh>od, a bye of flaaghtcr and violence^ and a 
fpirit of danger and of hatred. (Ebn. Hawkal> 
p. 39 1 1) A rice, fays Sir Williarti Jones, that have 
eobtloued^ we kndW, frrai the fiiiie of Solomon 
ta tile prt!ita( age, by no toeans favoiiraMe to thft 
6tiJtffitiotl bf arts; alid, as to feiences, we have 
no reafon to believe that they were acquainted 
wiHi wp (Ofi the Arabs. Af. Rcf.) And 
irkh^ ^ cMUxtC^f of eur Iri& -Fir Bd!g.- 
, Rcliquos 


32 Further Vindication 

Rdiqoos Arabia? finibus egrdTos Indix regioiies 
occnpaiTe. (Pococke Spec. HJf. Arab. p. 240.) 

If t]ie Bologues were Arabs, it is Dot furprifing 
td find the language of our Aire Coti fo repleK 
with Arabic as I have (hewn it to be, in my 
Profpc^lus of an IriOi Di^onary, efpecially as wc 
ihall find prefently, that they again colcxiized 
with the Fir D'Omaa, of the Muir glas, or Viri 
Omani (the Omanite Arabians) of the Green fea 
or EeriiaiJ gulf. 

'* In examining the origin of cations, language 
" is an infallible criterion; language isamofl: per- 
*' manent matter, and not even total revolutioas 
" in nations can change it." (Pinkcrtbn.) 

It mud have been from fimilitude of language, 
that Euftathius and Eufebius derived tlie Scy- 
thians from Gebel, one of the foas of yocitan, 
the original of the {lock of the Arabs; and Mr. 
Finkerton from this anthonty a0erts, it is the line 
of Sbem down to Sereg, and not of Ham or 
Japbet, who are marked as Scythians'; he adds» 
it is hilloric truth, that the Pelajgi and Hellenes 
were Scythians. 

M. Dupuis derives the Pela/gi from the JEthio. 
piansy becaufc they had the fame deities as the 
Egyptians, viz. Hercules and i*a«, or Faun. The 
Scythians of Colchis were called Ethiopians ; fo 
iiar he is right. 

The pagan Iriih had not only SSm^ the Egyp- 

tiza Htt^cs, an^ P^ft or Fbant Fan^ but mo^ 



of the Ancient Histoiy of Ireland. 33 

tof the deities of the Hiadoos, many of which 
have been frequently enumerated by me; and 
their altars flill cxifl in Ireland under their names. 
By the mode of argument ufed by Dupuis, the 
Irifli ma,y be faid to be Hindoos ; but thefc 
deities they knew, either by mixing with thofc 
people in their route from Sogdiana to the Indus, 
or, the Scythian mythology was the foundation 
of the Brahminical. 

In the preface to my Profpeilus of an iriih 
Kftionary, p. xxiii. is a lift of eighteen deities^ 
in common with the Pagan Irifli and the JBrah- 
mins. The travels of Sonnerat and Dugrandpr^^ 
in India, have difdofed two others of coniider- 
ablc liotc in Irilli mythology, viz. Seanortt and - 
JDiargy or Dirg. 

It is worthy of remark, that the two greateft 
rivers in Ireland, the Seanan (Shannon) and 
the 5«/r, aire the names of the two greateft rivers 
in India, viz. the Ganges, and the Indus, or 
Sitfdb. in ^e Hindooftanee, Ga/^ is a river^ 
and, by preeminence. Gangs, Gunga, the Ganges 
(Gildirift). Suiri m Iri(h, fignifies water, river ; 
in Chaldee and Phoenicianj nw S^r. Hence the 
Enphrates about Babylon was nam&d Stiri in 
O. Pcrfian, Siir, water ; in Syriac, Zar, wells, 
fountains j in the Zend, Zur, holy water. Hence 
in the itifh Brehoa laws, Suire agus ^hthat 
oriqk and food ; Bean-dea Suir, an aquatic god- 
dcis ; Suire, i. c. Muir-Diu-can, Suire, a finging 
deity of the fea (O'Ciery)i Suite, fca-nymphs, 
D meunaids 

34 FuriheT Tindiaition 

mermaids (O'Brien, Shaw), fuch as Dearga, of 
whom wc are going to fpcak. 

The Scanan (Shannon), in Ireland, it is faid, ; 
received its name from a holy man of that name, 
who, as report goes, was converted by St. Pa- 
trick, and made Bifliop of Catai (now Scattery). 
The name Seanan was facred. with the Pagan 
Irifh ; and fomc one, who was converted by ■ 
Patrick, and was made Bifhop of Catai, took on 
him the name, and was folded into the Calerida.r 
of Saints in after limes. 

Inis-Cathy is an ifland, £tuated towards the 
moHth of the river Shannon, between.the Co. of 
Clare and Kerry ; it was alfo called Cathai^hinis, 
and fmce named Scattry, or Scattery. Accord- 
ing to monkifli tradition, St. Patrick founded a 
monaftery here, and placed St. Senan over it. It 
is faict; to have been made an epifcopal fee at a 
very* early period, from which time, til! long 
after the Reformation, no tvoman -was ■permitted 
io'fet her foot in if. It was united to the fee" of 
Limerick about the year 1 1 90. The monaftery 
Was frequently plundered by the Banes. In the 
days of Qnttn Elizabeth this ifland contamcd 
eleven churches ; the remains of fcven," befides a 
ToUnd toweff are yet to be feen. This Is now a 
reftoiy ' in the dioccfe of Killaloe. (Seward's 
Topogr. of Ireland.)' Al 'Glendalogh, an, an- 
cient bilhop's fee, iiow united to that of Dublin, 
are fevtfn churches, and two found towers. At 
CtotunacQois are fevcn churches, and two round 

of the A ncitm- History stf Ireland. 35 

towers. In an ifland in Ixiugh Dearg, in'.^tbe 
riTcrSeanan, arc feven cburches, and a jouad 
tower J atl towers to contain the facred fire. This 
coilfiH-mity of feven churches iniift have fuc- 
ceeded lb many pagan ahars, the foundation of 
tehich, I think, tve may trace in the Brahminicai 
rellgicm. " Fire ! feven are thy faels—rfcveit 
*• thy tongues— fevefrthyholy fages— feven thy 
'* bclovjrd abodes — feven W3ys do feven facrificcrs 
" worJhip thee — thy fourc&s are feven. Fire is 
'' called in the Veda Sapfa-thitay which feems to 
" allude to feven anfecraied bearth." (Reli- 
gious Ceretnonies of the Hindus, Af. Ref. V0I.7.) 
And ftill Luther in fcripiurc. *' And God met 
** Balaam, and he fdid .unto hini, I have prepared 
"feven alt^j, and I have o^cred upon every 
. "altar a bultock aed a ram. And the Lord put 
- " wards io Bala?i»i'j mouth, and faid, tjhus thoii 
" fhidt fpeak. Surely there is nd enehantmeot 
** againft Jacob* ucither js there 4ny divinatiori 
((^lo{l Ifrael. And 3alaajn faid to Bajlk* 
' " buUd me Ijerc fcvcn ajtars." (Numbers, Kxiij.) 
*' Take a- boiliock of fe?cn yeart old— the 
" blood was to be fpriokled feven times— going 
"round Jericho feVeD rimes with feven truoj- 
" pete." (, 25.) " They brought fcven 
*' bullocks fot a 6n o^Ening." (9 Chro^. xxtK. 
fli, 44.) " Seven bfillocks for a butnt pflfcrjng,'* 
Job, Jdii. 7. . ... ,/■, . 

* <toc of the ^ names of -tfeerdangfia ym S^m^ 

" tmt Iwckirfc.' it-ran by the g»r4co of the feiot, 

D 2 *' or 


36 further Vindication 

** or penitent, Stninon. The Ganges (or Genga, 
•* the goddcfs) recdved drdcrs to follow the 
•* track of JSagmradan, who went before her ; 
•• they paiTed by the gai'dea of the penitent 
** Sartnon. The holy man, fearing the torrent 
" would wafh away his garden, reduced the 
" water to a little globule, and fwallowcd it. 
•* This did not difcouritgc Bagmradan ; he did 
•' rigorous penance in honor of Sartnon, and he 
" poured the Ganges out of his ear." (Sonncrat, 
L.iii. p. 377.) 

The Seannan of Ireland (vulgo Shannon) runs 
into the lake of Rhh (Lough Rh^a). This 
was a Titanis, or a diluviao goddcfs ; fhc was 
Diana ; the Regina undarum of Artcmidorus, 
Paufanias, and Strabo. Rhia was the mother of 
Neptune (Diodorus). After paiEng this lake, 
the Seanncn enters the lake of Derg (Lough 
Dcrg), another aquatic goddcfs j whence the 
lake is called Dearg-ait, the abode of Dcai^ 
(O'Brien). Below Lough Derg is Kill-da-loo, 
the temple of the two ahars, in honor of the two 
deities. From hence, the country on each fide 
■rtas named Limjteach^ the prcfcnt Irilh name of 
the county and city of Limerick ; h-caoc Learn- ■ 
ftain, the river that rues out of KtllarQey lake. 
LiMnatii implies a mat-itime deity. The word 
^itn is apphed to the fca by Homer (Iliad,. xiii. 
21. Odyf. iii. i.). Above thefe is w^£-/«an, or 
jitbhnej i. e. Luna renovata, for Diana or Luna 
was RheUf the moon. Lunam, eamdem' Dianam, 


of the Ancient History of Ireland. 37 

eamdcm Cererem, camdcm yunenem, camdem Pro* 
ferpinam dicunt. (Servras in Virg. Georg. L. i. 
v. 5.) Lucian fays the fame of Aftarte and 
Rhea (de Dca S-yr.); and Ri in Iriih is fynoni- 
mous to Luan, i. e. the moon. , There is na 
place in Ireland where the Cabiric deities caa be 
traced fo well as on the Shannon. 

la the travels of M. Degrandpr^, we havc^ the 
foUowiag account of the aquatic divinity, Dearg, 
or liourg. 

" The Ganges has been held in moft profound 
** veneration, ever fincc Dourga precipitated her- 
** felf into it ; at leail this is ihe tradition. This 
'* lady, they lay, was a great legillatrix. In ]&er 
'* advanced age fbe defcended into the Ganges, 
^* and now dwells in the bed of that river. In 
" confequence, the fupreme bleJEng of this life is, 
*• to bathe in the river, and to drink of its water, 
** which has the virtue of purifyiug the foul said 
'♦ body." 

" The hiftory of Deurga has given rife to a 
'* fuperflition, to which many mifcrable wretches 
'* have been the viflims. They arc pferiuaded, 
*' that every one drowned in the Ganges enjoys 
*• eternal felicity, and that they would not have 
'* been drowned, but by the will of this fecon- 
** dary deity ; therefore, inftcad of giving ailjft- 
" ancc to the unfortunate, who pcrijhes in this 
*' manner, they wifii him all happinefs, and re- 
" comnvsnd 

* To take a dip io the Shaonon is 3 vulgar adage, that 
ctnaiQiy arofe from this pagan cuflom. 

35 ■ Further Viniikalion 

^* commend to him to make no effort to fave 
** bimfelf. Dourga is held in great veneration ; . 
" her fcaft is annually celebrated in the month 
^* of Oftober ; it lafts three days, when all is 
" gaiety and mirth ; her image is enclofed in a 
** fmall niche of clay, ornamented with flowers^ 
?' bits of tinfel, and fach trumpery. During 
f* two days they pay her every refpcft and ado- 
f* ration, but on the third day the fcenc changes; 
*' they abufe her, call her whore, and expofe the 
?' naked breech to her, loading her with all man- 
'* ncr of curfes, which concludes with hoifting 
^* the figure on their flioulders, and marching in 
** proceffion to the banks of the Ganges ; with 
" hideous yells and fliouts they cafl: her into the 
*' river, and abandon her to the current. Thft 
^' meaning of this feftival is not eafily to be con- 
** ceived. My Sercar, a Brahmin, faid, that 
" Dourga's feaft was iiiftituted, not only to per- 
" petuate and honor her memory, but to attach 
" the vulgar to a devotion, the objeft of which 
" was, to fanflify the Ganges, and thereby con- 
*' fecrate bathing, &c. ; but, as fhe was not a 
" god, there was no crime in thofe ridiculous 
*' ceremonies, which taught the vulgar, that 
" Brama alone was to be worfliippcd by mor- 
^' tals. This unfatisfaftory anfwer was all I cojild 
*,' obtain. It was the only religious ceremony I 
*' had feen in India, that paffed from adoration 
*• to infuit." (Voy. dans I'Inde & au Bengale 
par Degrandpre, 1 790. T. ii. p. 63.) 

, . Captain 



mJ the Ancient History of Ireland. 3? 

Captain Turner defcribes this Poeja of Durga 
in another manner. " An effigy of Durga, in 
'* combat with Soomne Soom, the chief of the evil 
" genii, is exhibited, during this period, amidfl 
" a moft gaudy group of evil genii and auxiliary 
" gods, forming a pifture, in alto reiievo, fuffi- 
" cient to iill the breadth of a large faloon, as 
'* ihewy as brilliant colours and tinfel ornaments 
*' can make it. This effigy is removed on the 
" laft day at noon, and conveyed in proceiEon 
" to the Ganges, where Durga and her affociatcs 
*' are committed all together to the deep." 
(Turner's Account of his Embaffy to Tibet.) 

There, are two lakes and one river in Ireland 
named after Durga ; one in the county of Done- 
gal, remarkable for the purgatory of St. Patrick ; 
another through which the Seannon paiTes, in 
which is an ifland, with feven churches, and a 

" At the diflance of twelve cofe from Hah^' 
" bamo, in the Soobah of Caflimeer, is a river 
" called Pudmuity ; on its banks is an idolatrous 
•' tetnple:of ftone, dedicated to Durga." (Ayeen 
Akbery, V. ii. p. 136. J Thus, we fee, Durga 
was not confined to one river in India, more than 
in Ireland. 

" Ridetis temporibus prifcis Perfas fiuvios co- 
luiffe." Amobius was miftaken j it was the deity 
of the river, not the river, that was worlhippcd. 

The Brahmins flill offer human facrifices to 
Calec, as Gilchrift informs us ; they do the fame 


#0 Further V'indicaiion 

to Dourga, as may be coHefled from the fol-. 
lowing extraft, 

" That country can never be called civilized, 
** wbere the prieft ftaads before the altar of his 
*' idol, with his hands reeking with the blood of 
*' the newly flaughtered viftlm ; whofe laws per- 
»* mit the fon to expofe ,to the flood the being 
** who gave him birth, when opprcffed by years, 
*' and unable to labour for the fapport of his 
■** life : where the youthful widow is compelled 
*' to finifli a {hort life upon the pile of her dcr 
** ceafed hu£band, or elfe inuft fnrvive his lofs In 
" ignominy or fervitudc; where human fecrificcs 
** are offered up to appcafc the demon of de- 
** ftruftion ; and where the woman, who has 
•• been long barren, offers her firft born to her 
*' God, by cxpofing it to the birds and bcafts of 
*' prey, or fuffirtng it to be carried away by the 
" fiood ef the Ganges, Many of thefe unnatural 
<• cruelties were perpetrated' publicly, in the pre-. 
" fence of Europeans, at the laft Hindoo fcftjval, 
*' in the ifland of Sangor, in December i8oi."' 
(Mr. Newnhara, Effays by the Students of Fort 
William, Bengal. Calcutta, 1802.') 

Sootnne Soom, the chief of the evil genii, men- 
tioned by Turner, is the Saman of the pagan 
Irifli, the judge of hell, who rewarded or punithcd 
the departed by metempfychofis, according to 
their good or bad deeds in this world. The 
place of his abode may be called Saman-ait, like 
t}earg-ait- before. His feflival is ftill kept in 

. n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

t>f the Ancient Bistori^ of Ireland. 41 

Ireland on the eve of All folds y called etdbcbe 
Soman, the eve of Saman, and oidhche kmi, the 
ere of afflftion. I 'have given a full deJcription 
of this fcftiva! in my CoUcftanea, No. XII. This 
is the Afuman of the old Pcrfians, and the Taman 
and yamnaut of the Brahmins. " Afuman, felon 
«* les mages dc Pcrfe, le mSme que MorJat, 
*' I'ange de la mort, on celui qai iepare les ames 
" d'avec les corps : les anteurs dcs paraphrafes 
*' Chaldaiques de I'Ecriture funte le nc»nment 
" M(ilaia<fmoute, i. e. l*ange de la mort." (D'Her- 
bekrt.) *' The Hindoos believe that the fouls 
<* of the departed went to Jamnaut, a pagoda 
*' clofc to Puttam, to be transferred into other 
*< bodies, human or animal, according to their 
** dcfcrts." (Pennant's Hlndooftan, V. i. p. 61.) 
*' The ■wicked (fays Sonncrat) will be conduced 
*• before' Taman, the angel of death, and king of 
*' hell. This incorruptible and fevere judge will 
■*' pais fentencc, according to the crimes they 
■*' have committed in this worid." (Ch. viL) 
■ Another name for this deity, ia Irilh, is Grade- 
man, i. e. Uathtp mer rigbnae, the great judge of 
the grave (Cormac). This is the Gruteman of 
the Pcrfians, alias Sadda, angclus mortis (Hydc)> 
the fame as Afuman. 

If the Aire-Coti, the ancient inhabitants of 
thcfe weftern iflcs, were not the Southern Scy- 
thians of the Greeks, and the Ara-Cotii of tlic 
htdut, mentioned by Dionyfius P., in what mau- 
j^c^ fh,all w€ accot^Dt for the numerous deities of 

43 Further Vinditation 

the Indians being found' in the Ififti MSS. of 
fevcD hundred and eight hundred years old, 
copied from others ftill mort ancient ? Deilies of 
which we had no .knowledge amohg other fla- 
tifflis till within a century ago. When our learned 
countrymen ftudied the Indian languages, and 
bad communicated that knowledge through the 
Tranfaftions of the Society of Cakntta, which 
owes its birth to the late Sir William Jones. 

From ancient Iriih MSS. it appears that, next 
to Crem-cruagheir, or Aof&r-, the pagaii Irifh wor* 
Clipped Budh,^ and that, iroiaDaghdae, the foa of 
Budh, defccnded the Garmanniy the Gynmo- 
fophifts of the old Brachmanes. 

Budh and Daghdae ate epithets of the fun in 
Irifh J and Pol. Virgil afferts, that Budh fprung 
up among the Brachmanes^ was one of the Gar- 
manni^ and introduced the fun-ivorjhif^ and was 
fo called from Budh) the fun (fee art. Sun in 
Irifli Aftronomy). Budda, fays Sir William 
Jones, was probably an old philofophcr and Icgt- 
flator, highly revered while he lived, and fup- 
pofed after his death to prefide over the planet 
Mercury, while his father (if that be: not an 
aftronomical fable) was conceived to be regent of 
the moon. (Jones, Af. Ref. V. 3.) In the Lef- 
guis language of Caucafus, we find Beotfee, the 
moon ; in that of the Kifii of Caucafus, the 
moon is named Bute, Butoo ; which gives reafon 

P See the names lif God explained in (he Effay on the 
Gjpfie language. 


■ of the Ancient Sislorjf of Ireland. 43 

to thhdc the -Whold acCoant of Bud^ is ab aftrb< 
nomical fable, otiginated with the ScytWant of 
Caucasus. Let it aJTo be recotlt£led that, ia ' 
Iriih mythdogy, Pbearaman, the fouodcr of (be 
Brahminical religion, is the Icn of Budl^, alias 

In the Ayeeai Alcbcry, V. 2. we hate the 
foiiowing accoant of this deity." *' Bcodh, who- 
^* fiHl tanght this religiMi, has various names, 
" and, amongft others, Shai-murtf and Sdak- 
" muNy. His followers believe that, by iaean9 
*• of his good aflions, he gained Itnowledgc, and 
'* at length arrived at the ftatc of muBai^ that is, 
^* beyond which there is no tranfmlgratitni ; it 
^* ends there. His father was Rajab Siddomi, 
f* prince of Babar, and his mother, named 
** Maiat was delivered of htm through her na- 
M vel. At his birth there Ihonc forth a won- 
" derful light ; the earth trembled, and the 
*' waters of the Ganges rofc and fell in a moll 
'' aftonifhing manner. The very hour he was 
^* bom he walked feven fteps, and difcourfcd 
'* with an eloquence that the hearts of 
" his hearers. The philofophers foretold that, 
'' after twenty years and feven days, he Ihould 
^' become a monarch, but that* defpifing the 
" world, he would prefer retirement, and intro- 
** dace a new religion. In the manner^ and pre- 
" Gifely at the time foretold by the aftrologcrs, 
f it came to pafs, that he tnmed his mind from 
f^ die affairs of the world, and made choice of a 
« life 

44 Further Vindication 

" life of retirement. He gained for his followers, 
** people of Hind, the fea-pcn-ts, Hbety and Kba- 
** iai. From tus birth to this time, which is the 
** fortieth year of his Majefty's reign (Akber), 
** IS a period of a96« years. They fay he had 
** the gift of prophecy, and could change the 
** courfe of nature. He died at the age of i3o 
** years. The learned among the Perfians and 
*' Arabians call the priefts of this religion Buek- 
" Jhee, and in Tibet ihey are ftiled Lama. For 
<* a long time there have not been any traces of 
** them, excepting in Paigu, Dehnafiry, and 
« Tibet." 

Wc know nothing of Bmkjbee in the Irifii lan- 
guage } but Lttam or Laam is a priefl, an abbot, 
which plainly proves whence the Aire Coti 
brought this religion of Btidb, if they were not 
the autb<»^ of it. 

" Tlie Tibetan or Tangut is the (acred lan- 
*' g*age of the north of Afia," fays M. LanglCs; 
** in this language is the book of Boudb or 
*' Buddha, founder of Sabiifm or Ch^nmanim. 
<' The Sanfcrit contains that of Brahma, who 
" only altered the dogmas, and a^ropriated to 
*' bimfelftbe ideas of Beudb: in a word, Brahma 
*' was an heretical Btidhift or Sabian, confe- 
'* quently much faperior to Boudh." 
- That Budh was not the Odin or Wedin of 
Scandinnvia, as fome have aflerted, I refer the 
reader to Symcs's JEmhafly to Ava, p. 3QI. 

« Th9 


of the Aneimt Htatory of Ireland. 45 

" The worihip oiBudh pervaded all the Eaft," 
' ftys Ktempfer, " and I have flrong reafon to bc- 
" lieve, both from the affiaity of the name, and 
" the very nature of this religion, that its author 
*'■ and founder is the very fame perfoo, whom 
-*' the Bramins oill Budha, and believe to be the 
" cffential fpirit of Wijhnat or thch deity, who 
** made his oiath appearance io the world under 
*' this namct The Peguert call him Samana^ 
" Kbutama." (Hift. of Japan, Book IV.) 

« The religion of Tibet," fays Capt. Tomer, 
*' feems to be the fchiimatical ofepting of the 
*< religion of the Hindoos, dcrivlag its origin 
*' irom one of the followers of that iaith, a diC> 
*' dple oi Budhi who firfl broached the do&ine, 
" which now prevails over the wide extent of 
*' Tartary. It is reported to have received its 
*' earlidt admiffion iii that part of Tibet border- 
" ing uptm India, (which from hence became the 
** feat of the fovereign Lamas) to have traverfed 
<* over Mantcbieux Tartary, and to have been 
** oltimgtely diflemtnated over China and "Japan. 
*' Though it differs from the Hindoo in many of 
" Ihc outward ftams, yet it ftill leaves a very 
.** dofe affinity with the reli^n oi Brabraa, in 
** many important particulars. The principal 
** idoJ, in the tcmfJe of Tibet, is Mabamooniey 
** \.c, the great faint, the Budba cf Bengal^ who 
" is worihipped under thcfe various epithets, 
" throughout the great extent of Tartary, and 
- ** among all the natioas to the caflward of the 
**■ Berban^ooter. 


46 Furtitet Pmdicadtii ■ ' 

" BerbsmpMter. In the wide extended fpace, 
^' over which this faith prevails, the fame ol^eft 
** of veneration is acknowledged, under numerous 
^ titles ; among otho'S, he is .ftyled Godama or 
•* Gowtama, in Ofl&nj and Ava; Sataana, 8bak- 
" mutuii in Bengal and Hindooftan ; Dbermh . 
" raja and Mahamomie, in Bootan ;)nd Tibet. — - 
" Durga aod Kali, Ganeifli and Cattikeah, ai well 
*' as many other deities of the Hindoo mythology, 
" have alfo a place in their ailemblage of G^ods." 
(Embaffy to Tibet, p. $a6.) 

All thefe deities we have found in the ancient 
inanufcripts of Ireland, wrkcea eeaturies Mbrc 
our knowledge of then amoBg the Inc^QS. — 
Gan the reader poffibly donbt of theaodeut in- 
habkants o( thefe weftem ifles hansg- been the 
Aire Coti, Indo-Seythse, Feine, -or Phoinice, i. c. 
MerchaBts of the Eaft, who fi»tUd £rft in the 
Meditetraneaa, then hi Spain, 'and, laftlf , in -the 
Brilifh iflcs? 

■** Engaged ia more ioterefting purfuits,'^ ob- 
fcnres the learned Maurice, '* and vaoderiBg in 
-" more Bowery and beaten paths, the staa of 
*' poKfhed manners and fcience tai^s, miih cold 
** and averted took, from the btea^k mouo^tfoiis 
*' regions of Scythia, aed i^lely imagfnee Its 
** hiftoty as barren as the country, .^i^uing 
** upon miftalceB "pteai&et, aod dduded by parti^ 
*• and uajirit reiw^ntatioas, he <(mfider3 the 
<* irfwlc race of Tartars and Aeabt^ as » gcicrt- 
** tion of fierce and utraAaUe barbMij^, defli- 
" tutc 


of the Ancient History of Irdand. 47 

** tute of arts and culture, the decideii enemies 
*' of all fcicncc, and the refnorfclEfs deftroyers 
'* of all its records." From good and refpeftable 
authority the learned author proves the very 
icvcrfe to have been the cafe. 

Though it is certain, that Tartary, formerly 
known by the name of Scythia, peopled, the 
northern parts of Europe, it is now but thmly 
inhabited, and thofe fine provinces, where learn- 
ing and arts refid^d, are pow fcen^s of horror 
a.nd bafbarity. (Guthrie.) 

As our Av'c-Coti or Indo-ScytIiL£e fettled lang 
in Afia, tbey <QaieqBentJy;bioBght with titicra 
Oneqtal topographical namsstif-divifipns of tttor}- 
torics, feme GbaMfcatij foHie-Arabiao,' fome ffiri- 
dooftanee, atid the^foI^^^vrDg will fatisfy the teader 
in this refpeQ. 
ARA, . a tfa^t of «"Jntryj whence Jra-cliackt 

Ara^lin^ Tlpf«r-aKa, fi(c &c. &c. Ch. jnM 

ara, regie, terra. Ar. (jj^: hurS. 
■AOI, AI ; plural, AOrBH."' Aoi Mac CaiHe, 

now the barony of Imokilly,. county of Cork. 

Ch. Heb, •« aif regio, provincia; whence the 

JEAtojHa.' (MeiJc Difc. 50.) Ar. (^I aJ, 
manfionemcaperCjTelafportarc. Jiencei'^oi^b- 
X^aoghaire, a dlftrift -weft' of Mulkctry, in the 
cemrty of Corke.a, 


' * Laoghaire. Part of the Laogharians appear to m?, 
according to UMh biflory, to have reoiaiaed in pofleiEoD oF 


48 Further Vindieatum 

ABI; nuaj places begin and end with tliis name, 
thought to have referred to fomc abbey, the 
very foundations of which cannot be traced : 
itistheAr. ^1 ahu; (^_5V' "*'. country, re- 
gion, and was imported'into Spain and Por> 
tugal. (Cardofo, Dift. Geogr. Dc Soufa, 
Veftig. dc lingua Arab, em Portugal.) 

BAR, a diftrift. Bar-go^ a maritime diftrifl, 

one corner of Eagland, after the reft of the Aire Coti were 
driven to Ireland. According to Welfh hiftory, tranflated 
by Mr. Roberts, they came from Gwafgwyn or Gafcony.— 
" The three peaceable fettlers of the ifle of Briuia wercs 
•• ift. The Cytary, who came with Hu, the mighty, vb« 
** fought for a fcttlemcnt,. to be acqoired not by war or coo- 
*' qucA) but peaceably and jullly- md. The race of Llm- 
" griani, wha came from Gwafgwyo, who were defceaded 
« from the original flock of the Cymry : and, 3d. The Bry- " 
"(AoB(BritoDs)ofa common defcent with the Cymry,"(Weiih 
Triad, 5th.) " There can be no.donbt," lays Mr. Roberts, 
" but that the language of the Lloegrians was the Gaelic or 
" Irifh. It is to this colony we are to attribute the Irifli 
" names of mouotains and rivers io Britain." (Sketch of the 
Hiftory of the Cymri, p. $t.) The author then obferres, 
that « thefe Lloegrians came from the banks of the LigJr or 
*' Loire to Britain; chat the Lloegrians had a tradition, that 
*» they came originally from Fhrygia ; and, as the Cymri 
" came from thence, it might be laid they were both of the 
" £tme original flock." It appears from Keating, that one 
of the Irifli names for England was Laogair ; and one of the 
oldeft names of firitaio was T Fel Tnyi, which ii'fo fimilar 
to the old name o£ Iiai Fml, (Ireland) or the tdand of Shep' 
herds, that I make no doubt Briton was fo named by the 
Aiie Coti. A. D. 575, Niall led an army frdm Ireland 
to Fiance, and plundered the banks of the Ligur or Loire. 


of the Ancient History of Ireland, -ts 

now barony of Bargy, Co. Wexford. Bafi- 
mor, the great diftrift, Co. Corke. Bari-ruadh, 
now Barryroc, &c. &c. Probably Bara'tt'aoif 
i. e. a diflrift of the province, formed the word 
barony. Each county m Ireland is divided 
into barotiies, whence Baron, a lord of a di- 
flriA ; as Baron of the Cinque-ports. Barons 
by tenure; as the biihops of the land, by 
virtue of barcmies annexed to their bilhoprics. 
The etymology of Baron is very uncertain, 
lays Johnfon. Ar. jm bahar, an extended 

diftrift. Hindu, Bahur, country, region. 

Per. jLj boTi as Malabar, Zangucbar, Hin- 

■ duhar. 

BUN, root, ftock, origin; whence many dlftrifls 
are named, annexed to thai, of the family,' as 
Bun-Mahoa^ Bun-Lehy, Bxn-^^aidiiif Suti' 
Ratty, &c. &c. Bun, in the Pehlavi or old 
Perfian, figDifie9_/Z>r^j, race, iamily; (Groto- 
fend on the Perfepolitan infcriptions.) I de- 
clare, fays M. de Sacy, it is a long time fince 
I made out the word Poun, m this fenfe, ott 
many engravings of the Sajfanides ftones.' (Mag. 
Encyclop. N" 20. An. XI.) Hence, the Iri& 
Ban-cioi, chief rent; rent or tribute paid to 
the chief.-r-Hindooftanee, Bun, race, a&pn&g; 
Btati'Adum, mankiDd.— tr^on (obfolete) »lfo 
fignifiss a fdreft, a wildemcfs, inlriib, as Bvn- 
duff:, the Black fbreft, Co-Sligo,- — Bun-glas, 
tibe Gleefflioreft, Co. AntriiD, &c. — Hindoo- 

' -ftanecyii^j.-a wjU^meii. 



^0 Further Vindication ' 

CAOrMH-THEACHT, a county,- Sccht. 

CRITH, aliter CRIOCH, a region. (O'Brien's 
Dift.) Ch. hra cerat, regio.. Phoen. nniD 
cort, pro KID cora, regio. (Bochart.) 

COR, CORA, CURRA, diftriflj CorCumrua, 
Curra Bonn, Co. Clare. CurrO'Mairgid, 
Cora'Anna, &c. kc. Phosn. N13 cora, as 
before. Per. om-' koureh; as, Koureh-ljia- 
kar, the diftrift of Iftakar. (D'Hcrbdot and 
Ebi>HawkaI.)-^-Syriac^ Cor fignificatregbnem; 
(Gymnaf. Syriacum.) Hence Carra-reigh, 
alias Melcombe-regis, in the cotiDty oi Mayo. 


CUAI, a country. Ar. ijy kooi. See CUA. 

CARN, a province; i. e. "Cuai-ranj a divifion of 
the country.: Ar. i^Ji j&m«,-a traft. Hence 
Dun-kerin, connty Tipperary, and many 

CIORCAR, a diftrift; Corcar, the feme. 
Phoen. -13D clear; Per. jJSy**j furkar. Hcbcc, 
Corcai Baifcne, &c. Co. Corke. 

COSTI, a maritime dlftrift ; fea i^ie. Ar._ 
jjA*ol5 kefiu coaft, fhore, diftrift. 

CUICC» CUIG, a province; not becaufe Cuig 
iignifies five, and there were once five prownces 
in Ireland. Ireland was originally divided into 
two, and then imo four; from each of the. four 
a part was taken, to fopport and m^ntam the 
great feftivals and facrificcs at Tarah. Phcca. 
ain choug. Ch. nn cbeuz, . Heb. pn cbok, 
provincia. Hindooft. OBuk-ky wpmnoxxi—' 

of the Aniient History of Ireland. 5| 

T^teres appcllabast ■ extremum ItaliEe promon- 
toriara QTID pn chok cittim. ■ (]3ochart.). 

CINE, aadwitb the common prefix Macne, and 
with the fuflix Al, offspring, 

CINEAL, a tribe, flock of people. Cineal-am- 
bmlge, Cineal-aoha ; PhtED." nap kena, n:pa 
Tuekna^ grcx. Ch. njp kene, generatio. Syriac^ 
Genoa. Dicitur dc iis, qui dc nomine ejufdem 
hen et conditionis nominabantar. ' (Gynin. 
Syr.) The termination al is the Ar. tjf aly 
ofispring, poftcrity, race, progeny,' family. . 

CILL, CEALL, a temple, a fire tower, a pfacc 
of devotion, gives name to feveral diftrifls, as 

. Kfll-Canice, Kilkenny. In the Tamul lan- 
guage, Ceil; Samfcrit, Coilt a temple.—— 
" Manor Suami or Canter Coil. Canier figni- 
" fies a virgin, (Ir. Caini) ant} Coil ilgnifies a 
*' temple." The root I think is in the Chaldec 
71*70 chala, oiarc, congregatio, coetus, ccclcfia, 
coUeAio hominum. ** Suami is a deity now 
" unknown." (Sonnerat, V. I. p. 184.) Pro- 
bably the S6m of the Iriih, i. e. Hercules.- 
Manar fignifies fire. " Mijiar^ in Turkilh, 
'• fignifies a high tower attached to the 
*' mofqucs; but, in Punico Maltefe, it 6^u 
^c&fire^ illumination." (Agius, de Pun. Malt.) 
They were originally fire towers, as we fhall 
prove in the following pages. Art.- towers. 

CIORAN, a fhorc, coaO:, margin, bank, boun- 
dary. Hence lough Ciaran, a lake in Kerry, 
adjacent to the fhorc. Per. i^liJ-^ keranf 
ihoce, coaft, bank, boundary. 

E 2 .. CUA, 


Sa . ' Furiker Vindication 

GUA, a diftriA, town, village, Settlement. OiO' 
nagbtf alias EUe-nacbt, now Cannagbt, the 
fettlemcDt of Nagfat, the hm\\y and (bipendants 
of Naght; as Eile 0' Carrol, Eile O^Hagarty, 
Uc. At. (J^i ehl^ people belongrng to any 
liaiticulaf pcHbn, place, lord, mafter, fponfe, 
domeflics, family. Aoul, portion d'nnc hcn-de, 
qui comfnmd les vaJlkux relevants du memc 
noble. (Tott's Tartar.) 11 en Tore fignific 
pays, province. ("d'Herbdot.) Hence, m the 
Antiquities of Spain, we read of Ili-turga^ Ili- 
Bara, lii-pa,' kc^cc. Per. {<^ kid, tava, 
village, farm, diftrift. 

CLANN, children, tribe, the name of feveral 
territories frons Lean, a child, Luan, a fon. 
Clan Breaftl, Co. Armagh ; Clan Aoidbe buidhef 
now Clancboy, Co. Antrim j Clan Caiman, 
Co. Meath, &c. Ihe Strongbonians adopted 
the word on their fettling in Ireland; whence 
Clan Rickard, the country of the Burks, for- 

■ merly Maonmhuigh. Hindooft. coel, a clftnj 
Ian, a fon ^ louhda, to generate, tr. cl&in. 
Etiufcan, clan, fon, child; clan, natns, filiusj 
filium innnidocft Etrufca. (Amadatins Alp. 

- Vet. Etruf.) 

DAR, DAIRE, DERRI, houfes, a diftria 
Dair Colgac, the diftrift of Colgac, now Lon- 
donderry. (Ware.) Ar. juO dear, diyer, &- 
ftrifts, nianfions, houfes. Diyar Bekr, the 
country anciently called Mefopotamia. 

I)U, land, country. Du-ballo, now a barraiy, 

Co. Tippcrary} Du-na-gail, now DoncgaL 



of the Ancieni History of Ireland. 55 

Ar. o<i ^ih- Hind, du; hence Inddu^ Ind- 
du-ftan, the country of the Ind. 

EILE. See Cua. Add, ///, prifcS Hifpanorum 
linguS, oppidum fignificaviffc. (AmbroCus Mor.) 

PATH, FA, FAHA, a field, a traft, a diftrift. 
Ch. n3 pba, Hcb. riMS fhea^ vel riNS pheatb, 
TCgio, ora, plaga. In Iriflxit is often joined to 
the names of the pdnts of the compafs. 

FAL, a region ; from Tal, a king, a prince, 
Ox.'^^^ phalacb, rcgio, provinciaj n'riS/Aa/a, 
magnates. (D. de Pomis.) Ar. (^^^ fail, 
nobility; Jjj waa/, princes; iJ-Cj waa/, a 

FAIRCE, a diviHon, parifh, diocefe, epifcopal 
fee; Fmrce-ban, an uncultivated diftrift. Ar. 
(jjLo ibartt a dcfcrt; Ge Fairce, a boundaiy, 
i. e. a land-dividon; hence parocbia^ and' 
Engii{h park. Ar. '^-^■9 farkf divided, fepa* 

Biftiop Gibfon, in his Camden, V. 11. p. 73a. 
has given the drawing of a ftonc in Wales, 
called Y-maen-hir^ the chief's ftone, in Wdfii. 
The infcription, if rightly copied, is "5 fr^ ji©)bj ; 
the charafters are Irifli, and I think intended 
"for 5^ '^ix^c'h] that is, the boundary-ftone of 
the land; and muft have been ercficd when 
the Airc-Coti, or old Irifh, were in pofleffiou 
of that country. 

GARAUN, a fore(t. Ch, p^aM a^ariun^ <y\- 
Veftris. . ■ ■ -' 



54 Further Vindkation 

GEIL, a wood, a woody country. - Geilty a wild 
raan living in the woods. 

GUN, a valley full of trees and water. Ar. (J jC 
ghilf fylva, nemus, multse denfseque arborcs. 
(J. Scheid.) "tj^ ghilon, a valley full of 
trees. (Richardfoo.) Multic denfteque arbo- 
rcs, eafque alcus, et aquam contineiis valUs. 

GORI, GARRHA, GORT, . a plain, a level 
country, a garden, a field. Ar. gaur and 

■ ^our. This word, fignifying properly a plain, 
and a country lower than the furrounding, is 
given to many provinces of Afia. (d'Hcrbelot.) 
Hence Gowran, Gorey, Gort, Glin-caum, G/'A 
cagb, Glin of the Downs, &c. &c. &c. places 
well known in Ireland. Sec Stewart's Topogr, 
of Ireland. 

HI,HY,I; tribe, amily, diftria By Failge, 
HyMacuain, I Maine, I Drone, names of 
diftrj^ and baronies. I'frlon^ hell, the terri- 
tory oi.Ifrion. A^. "jA-C ifyon, the devil. A^- 

■ ^J^ hy^ familia, pars magnie tribos. And 
when th^fe tribes were brought together in 
caDimheaca^, i. e. fociety, the country was re- 
duced or divided into, caoimkeacht, a county. 
Ar.-ljj^ kaipam, conneftion, joining together, 
conftiiutiqn of any thing. 

ITH, IT, lATHi a country, traft. Itb-rofs, 

, ■ Jatb ONeachaci^ the fouth of Co. Waterford. 

/ i^ailtt the conatry of hills, the nam^ of Italy 


of the Ancient History of Ireland. ss 

in Irifli. Ar. ^ixus^ beta&i IJiadodbutee, 
Uxtitt, a country. Ch. rrn hit, a body of 

. people. , Ar. LI* haiat, cwigregati fucrunt 
inter fefc In the Shilhi, Berber, or moun- 

.: tain language, of Barbary, a people, I think, 
dcfcended from Ncmed, a leader of our Airc- 
Coti, or Indo-Scytb^, lie fignifics a country. 
Thefe Shilhi, the Arabs fay, were defcended 
from jimeleiites and Canaanites^ that the If- 
raelites had formerly driven from Palcdine 
(D'Herbclot) ; ,fo far csrr^fponding with our 
Feine ov Phoinice. In their language, he figni- 
fics a diftrift, a province ; hence lie ben Omo- 
ran, Ue Otta, lie Stuciey, lie Achai, (See my 
Vindication, where their dialed is compared 
with the Iriflj-) Hence the Benjdmitet Hiviie, 
Sec &c. of S. S. Lingua Shilheniis in plus 
viginti provindis regoi Sus in Barbaria mcri- 
' dipnali, qux omnes tii prse&cum habent, uti 
inter Hebrseos fub lege, ita Benjamin pro Ben- 

' jamitJE, iff Hivi pro Hivitse. (See Vindication, 
p. ill.) 

JBH, i tribe* a territory, when prefixed to the 
na^ej as Jbb-Eachaich^ Ibh-Laoghaire, county 
of dork; Ibh-Failge^ In Leinftcr. Sec O'Brien's 
Di^ionary, wherein he has enumerated many 
others. Ibh-hian, Lelnller, whence the Eb' 

. Iflna of Ptolemy, i. e. Dublin, capital' of Lein- 

fter,i.e. Laian-is-tir. Ch.Hcb. aMa^, pater 

und^ 3M ibbi_ tribQS, pan pc^uli,,qui ab codem 

■ P^t^c 


58 Further Vindkation 

patrc geniti craet. (Thomm). sn3 3M ihkChits, 

■■ the tribe of Chiis. Hence Evechsm, the firft 
of the kings aamed Chaldean, 2500 years 

■ before our era. 

LUCHD, a people, fyoonimoas xa.ibb. Hm- 
dooft. /«A, lo^; Ar. A-y ^ lakaha. As the , 
Scythians and Tartars reckon their tribes by 
fire-places, and kettles boiled on the fame, fo 
Luchd, in Irifli, fignlfies a kettle. See p. i o. 

MEILLIOCH, country, region, the map of the 
world, the globe of earth ; Hindooft. Mulk, 
country, region. See Cor. 

MAGH, a plaia, a level country. Magh Breagba, 
now Fingal ; Magh Druchtan, Queen's county, 
■ &c. &c. Perf. d '-« magh J a level country, 
producing (iU magh') herbs, grafs, meadows, 
Hence the Iriih hm-maigh, fattening ground, 
low champaign country, from «H, or I'om, 
pronounced eem, fat, butter. Ch. n»*Qn hema, ' 
pinguedo, five flos laflis undeyf/ butyrum, et 
"mde meionymice Butyrum. (Buxt.) 

MUINTIR, a tribe, and its poiTdTipn. Muftitir 

'" Eolas, &c. &c. Ar. ,(^U man^ family jjljO 
rfiar, country. 

MONA, a diftria ; Ch. N3D fliowa, regio. 

MUHAN, the fame. Egypt. Munban, prp- 

. NAUL, 

' Hence Teath-muhan, the north diflHft, now Thomond ; 
Oir-muban, the eaft diftriAj now Oimondt &c. &c. 

of the Ancient History of Ireland. SI 

NAtJL; the Nau! in the county of DubHn. 
Nfial'; tbe Neal in the county of Mayo. 1 
think thcfe wonis Cgnify a diftrift ; in the 
Hindooftan, Nal is a diftrift. 

POBAL, POBL, a people; prefixed to names, 
is often given to the territory they profefs. 
Hence Pabul i Ceallaehan ; Pobul i Brlain, 
tie. Ar. jJwJo '«W, people. T is com- 

' ttiutable with P, as /o//, vulgo poll, a hole 

RUTA, a herd, a tribe of people. Hula Bur- 
eaebi the tribe of the Burkes ; it is not ap- 
plied to topography. 

SLIOCHT, progenyj generation ; is- often pre- 
6xed to the name Of the tribej to denote their 
territory. Gh, nim'?© Shlochut, propagines. 
Sleaeht, and Sleaehd, the fame, as Sleacbda 
Eogain, part ofUlften 

SIOL, feed, iffue, tribe, clan. VUJ Shil, a fon, 
ft^om l^HJ JhitoUi the emblematical copulation, 
(according to Hptchinfon, Vol. vi. p. 213, 

SEBT, SEPT, a tribe, a clan. Sebi-tui/e, the 
chief and his tribe, or, the tribe and its chief. 

- It is a word of Irifli origin, fays Dr. John- 
taj,, j^yiD/ebei, tribus. " 03tt7/#fc/, a ftaff 
*' or ftick, whether fuch as magiftrates carried 
" in their hands, or common ones. Gen. 
*' ixxix. 10. The B31P Ihali not depart from 
f« Judah till Sbilfib cone. VcHe 16, as one 

. «of 


■418 Further Vindication 

" of (>DM fabii) the tribes of Ifrael. Each 

" tribe had a ftaff, ■ or was a body corporate, 

*' with a fuprcme magiftratc over them, who 

" was the firfl-bom of the trjbe." - (Bate.) 

. Each Irifh noble had his aotiquary, who cin 

. rolled the deeds of his Sept, (Mac Curtin's 

, Hift. of Ireland.) (^h. Tnin^ Di© Sebet Je- 

buda, Tribus Judae. (Buxt.) — ^This word was 

. ibrmerly ufed in topography Uke Clann }- it 

was common to the Inda-Scytbians, who fettled 

. at Colchis. '* At Dio/euHas began the country 

. " of Colchis ; its foil ^as fertile, its fruits de- 

** lidous, its linen manu(afturcs much efteemed. 

. *' This country, after being divided into' fevc- 

*' ral fmall principalities, called Sceptuehut, kW 

*'. ipto the hands of Mithridales, and, after his 

*? death, was again diftributed into many divi- 

*' fions." (Mem. of a Map of the Cafpiao 

,:,Sea.) ^ 

TOIC, land, diftrifl, territory. Ar. '^j^ tavk. 

TUATH, plain, level country. Tuatb jiodh. 

bhuidhe, the woody plains, an old name of 

part (tf the C^eens county. Ar. ^Saxl^tui^P, 

plain, l^vel ground. 

TRIATH, a trail of country, a lordfliip ; hcmce 

Ban-triath (Bantry), Fen-trtatb (Ventry^ 'fee, 

&c. Ar- 0^ ''"^^'» 2 traft of country. 

.ULLAC. pofleffion, diftrift. Ullac-Neid, in Ul- 

'. fto-. Per. aX5I uIMt a province, dominion, 

■ poffeffiopi uO.J isiiak, the iamc. From 



of the Ancient History of Irdav'd. 59 

Ailbhe, the firft biftiop that preached the gof- 
pel io Ireland, we have Imiioc Ailbhe, now 
Emiy (united to Calhel), the name of the firft 
cpifcopal fee in Munfter. 

Quod doceo, non quK operor, attendito ; 
Proderit tibi fcientia mea, crimina. non obfuQt. 
Trugiferas artores refero doflor ; 
Fniflum carpe, lignum projicito in ignem. 
(Borhaneddino AlzcrnoHchi, tranfl. by A. EcdiellenAi.) 






JL HERE is (UII a cloud hanging over the origin 
of the Gypfies, notwithftanding the labours of 
fcvera! learned men. 

GreUmarti* the laft author on this fubjcfl, enu- ' 
merates no lefs than 178, who had written before 
him, all differing in opinion. 

From hiftory, from language, I am dearly of 
opinion they are from CircaiCa, the Colchts of 
the ancients, on the Fontus Euxinus ^r Bof- 

In Cofchis affemblcd that body of Scythians, 
who held Egypt long in fubje^on. From Colchis 
departed that great body of Aire-Coti Scythians, 
who, having made the round of India, colonizing 
with Bologucs, Arabians, and Chaldeans, re- 

* See GnllmaB, aotn to the fourth chapter, p. 3xt. 

82 On the Origin and Language 

turneii in part to their mother country; and 
Tvhofe hillory I have traced to their arrival in 
thcfc Wcftcrn ides. And at Colchis returned 
that great army of Circaffian Scythians, which 
governed Egypt from the y^ar 1231 to 15171 at 
nvhich period they made ■ their retreat, under the 
command of Dowlet Gawri.** 

The old Greek writers knew little of Xh6 
Colchi, they called them Egyptians, Ethiopians, 
and what not; but Tzetzes, one of the mod 
modem of the ancient Greeks, exprefsly calls 
them Indo-Scytha, and Lazi, a name, I think, 
alluding to their being flingers: the Hibemo- 
Scythae were famous for being fpear-mcn, archers, 
and ilingers. 

The Colchi appear to have been early called 
by the name of Gas-loch, or black-hair, to di- 
ftinguifli them from their neighbours, the Ncph- 
tali, or White Huns, another Scythian nation to 

the northward. Cal-chas, in Hiberno-Scythas 

and in Chaldee, is fynonimous to CaJIoch; and 
hence, I think, the Cailuchim of Mofes, and the ' 
name Colchis.' 


^ Thia is a comrooa -name in Ireland and Arabia. Cuaire, 
Doble, great) excelleot, tbe proper name of feveral Irifli 
princes. (O'Brien.) There was a Gaarlan dynafiy in Arabia, 
which lafted but 61 years. (D'Herbelot.) iJ^J^ 
gawhure, noble, magnificent, illuftrions. See 'RichardfoD 
at Nohle. 

" Cat, the hair of the head; bdi, black; en/, black; cat. 


of the Gypsies. fiS 

This was a ufual diftinAion with the lado- 
ScythEe; ia Ireland they denominated the Nor- 
wegians Dubb-hch-lonach, or the black dwdltfrs 
on the lakes, and the Danes, Fiori'Ioch-lentiachf 
OT white dwellers on the lakes.^ 

When the Greeks underllood the meaning of 
thefe names, Calcbafi and Caftochi, is it a- wonder 
that they tranflated them by Aietori^, Ethiopians? 
The Aire-Coti fettled at Colchis, in confequoKe 
■of which it was called Cutaia and Ethiopia. 
Jerome mentions St. Andrew preaching the gofpel 
in the towns of the two Colchic rivers, the A^- 
niu and Fhafis : and calls the nation £thiopiant. 
Andreas, frater Simonis Petri, Scythis, Sogdianisi 
ct Saccis in Augufta civitate pradicavit, quae cog- 
nominatur magna: ubi elt rrmptio Apfan, et 
Phafis fluvius: illic incolunt Mthiopet interiores. 
He relates the fame circumltance of Matthias. 
Ii) aiunMibiopia, obi eft irmptio Apfari et Hypfi 
portus, prEedicavit — the port of Hyflus was near 
Colchis. By Ethiopians we are not always to 

hair. Ch, n? hi, pilofus; 'ip"? letoi, njger, eclipf!^. Yel 
I think ihefe CajlacUi wheo ihey penetrated India, were 
called White Hum, to diflinguilh tbem from the natives, . 
who were of black Jkin ; and by this appellation the Iri{h 
were koown by the Scandinavians, who called thero HvUra- 
mamaa, white men ; and Ireland they named Hvttra manna 
Imtii, the white men's land. (Fragments of Irilh hiftory 
from the Icelandic, by Proreflbr Thorkelin, ?. It. p. 65O 
They had black hair and while Ikins. 
'' O'Brien's Irilh and Englllh Diiftionary. 


64 On the Origin and Language 

andct-Aand people with woolly hair; for many 
Ethiopians had (Iraight hair, as wc learn (irom 
Herodotus, Lib. VII. c. 70.' 

The Indo-ScytbEe, or Aire-Coti, as I have 
Jhcwn in their hiflory, colonized with the Boioguet 
of the ladus, ancient Perlians, as fome thipk, or 
Arabians, as others a0ert, or Tartars, as others. 
Thefc extended themfelves along the weftern 
banks of the Sind or Indus, to the month of it, 
and were remarkable pirates on the Indian ocean, 
and robbers by land. The Bolgu f^ys I'''^ hiftory, 
were called Gallon^ becaufc of the kind of fliips 
invented by them.— — ^In Arabic (^^^ kbalien, 
navis major. 

Thefe two bodies returned coaftways, and colo- 
nized with the Ded'anites of Chaldara, and with 
the Omanites of Arabia, and with the Omana of 
PerCa.^ This great body then fplit, one party retir- 
ing to Colchis, from whence they fet out. In procefs 


« Bryant, V. III. p. i8z. 

f Omana, I'auteur du peupic de la mer Erythree, lent par 
nn double mm Ommafui, ville de la Perfide. Ce p«rt na de- 
Toit pas Stre 61oign^ de la Carminie, car Pline dit Omana, 
(juod priores celebium portum Carmani^ fecete. Ce lieu 
ftoit d'un grand traiic, felon Arrien dans le Feriple .citi. 
Piine dit, que le peuple Oman! avoient autrefois habit£ depuis 
Petra jufqu' a Charaz, Sc qu'il y aroit alors les villes d'Abe- 
famis et Soractie villes faraeufes bities par Scmirainis. A 
prefent, dit-il, ce ne font -que des defem. Quoiqu'il en 
foit, ce port de Carmanie ne fauroit Stre I'Omana d'Arabie, 
qui n'^toit pas un port mais une ville daus les teires. (Mar- 
tiniere, Dirt, Geogr.) See the map annexed. 

/ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

<pf time tbcfe failed down the Euxine, into dke 
Agean Tea, into the Meditcrraneao, to the iflands 
thereof, and then to Sp^a, and laftly to the 
Wedern iflands. The other divifion, under the 
name oS. Pboinice,, purfued their way to Tjrre, 
and from the Mgypian fort of Tyre failed down 
the Mediterranean to S{»in, and thence to the' 
Weftern iflcs. - . 

So fays Irifli hiftory, and the language of Ire- 
land, in my humble o^nion, confirms it; or how 
could it be poi&ble for the Iiiih language to con-' 
tain fo much of the Egyptian, Chaldean, Hin- 
doollanee, and Arabic, ■ as 1 have dcmonftntted in 
my Profpeflus?* 

aimVos Cqftufbi^ i. e. Colchi. Hos il Cel^w 
efle dixero, qui ab ^gypto ct Palteltina tanca 
terramm fiint intenapcdine dii&ti, vix impclrabo 
fidcm. Colchos eJTc ^gyptije originis confUos 
fama e(l inter vetereis. (Bochart.) And fo fays 
Agathias, // wasfo teforted-^-^nd the Icholiall oa 
the Pythian ode, IV. v. 376. Quia ^gyptioruu 
coloai funt Scythae, (i. e. Cdcbi,) proinde ctam 
illos aitmt atri cc^ris; for there was a-[fiut of> 
Egypt called Scythia. But Tzetzes, the moft 
moft modem of the ancient Greeks, was better 
informed j he averts they were Indo-Scythse, ami 

■ Prof^jeflus of a Diftioaary of the Iriih language, com- . 
jnred with the iChaldean, Arabic, &c. &c. In the preface 
of thii work I have ffvea a lift of ;oo word* fimiUr in Irilh 
Bod iQ Hindooflanee ; u miajr more might bf^yt beea added. 


M On the OHg^ ai0tf,n»gmge 

vare called Z«u; ca^iKA-ttu.i.i'.tMiu'^'iinr, oiun 

Tb« Sjcythtans, under the oame of Aire-Coti or 
Royal Shepherds, and ^thiopcs or blade haired,' 
bad been in poUdSon of Egypt zSb years: they 
vmn thea oUigcd to retire, having been defeated 
1^ Hahfphtagmudus, and were at lad belleged 
in the diftrift of Avaris, which they bad previoufiy 
fiartificd, by Amofit, the fon of the former king. 
Weaned out by the length of the fiege, they at 
laft eame to terms of conpofition, and agreed to 
]eavc the coontry, if they raigbt do it unmolefted. 
Tkey were permitted to depart: and accordingly 
retiredi, to the amount of two hundred and forty 
thsufimd peiitHis, fome to ChaldEea, and fome to 

Ddcys was alfo named Chavila in the Scrip- 
twes.— — " Per Chavilam iatdligere CeUhidemy 
pr^edi&unjquKPAjj/f^n flumen a nicridie habct, 
et a fepteotrione montes ScythkoSt quos varic varii 
neminaiit.-'— Qui raim -fine prsejndicio voccm n'jin 
cholcb (unde addita termiiiatione is Colchis) confcrt 
com n^n chavila^ facile videt non adeo magnam 
e& inter has duas diSerentiam, quin longc ma- 
jores admittetc debeamus in aliis regionum ct 
urbittm oofninibus, qnie aut ab iacolis^ aut ab 
eztciiGj a prima pronunciatione detorta funt.— 
Atque ita lattHimum Scythise fpatium Colchidi 
tfibpat. He ut dicamus iu ea tmrttm prs^ftaotiUl- 

* Ib Lycoph. T. 174. 


oftheGypiies. 61 

mum, et fmaragdos, et cryflallos Inveniri, quan- 
doquiclem gcncratim de Scjrthia (cujus pars eft 
, Colchis) affirmant vctercs, et aurum et rcliqui 
Mefi memonita ibi repcriri, et optimie quidctn 
tiotse fuifle.*'' 

The Pbqfis was fo named, as abounding in 
gold, by our Indo-Scythse, in which language 
fbas (ias) is gold; and aphoji, i. e. phas-aii, the 
place where the gold was wrought or finehcd. 
The gold mines in the county of Wicltlow wfire 
anciently named fas, and the place of fmeltibg 
aphofdy rs pha-z.^ aurum; rP)1X auphazf nomea 
prop. loci. — San or /on is another flame foi" gdld 
in Iriih: San-arc, auri pinguentuiil ; and htiice 
Pliny names the Fhafis, Soanes, a name he tin- . 
doubtcdiy learned of the Colchians ; Hindooflan€e, 
Jona, gold. This country abounded ip minerals 
and precious (lones, and we fhall fhew, in the 
chapter on the ancient drefs of the tri(h women, 
tliat the Hebrew names for thefe precious ftones 
are borrowed from the Indo-Scythians, and are 
yet the common names for them in Irifli. 

I have had frequent occalion to SiCvf, that our 
Mre-Coti, or Indo-Scyfhians, were fond of im- 
porting with them, wherever they weiif, the 
ilafnes of their primitive country. Suit of Sootf 
iht facred water, was given to tb£ tnjbs, and to 
d riVer in Ircl^cd. S£antion was a iasat of the 
F 3 Ga»iiu, 

> iUUiid. 

' Tintticatitnoflriflibiilory, p. 14^' 


tt Onthd Origin and Language 

Ganges, and of the Seannon or Shanmn in Ire- 
land; the peninfula .between the Indus and 
Ranges was named Colchis, and Scythia Limy- 
ijca, &C. &c.. 

Hear the refpeflable Mr. Bryant. *' We muft 
" not be furprifed, if wc meet with the fame 
*' culloms in India, or the fame names of places 
•* as arc to be found in Colchis, or the remoteft 
** parts of, Iberia. The river Indus was faid to 
" rife in mount Caucafusy fimilar to the moumaiQ 
*• in Colchis" 

** As there was a Cancafus in thefc parts, fo 
** there was a region named Colchis, which ap- 
*' pears to have been a very flourifliing and pow- 
** wiul province. . It was fituatcd at the bottom 
*' of that large ifthmus, which lies between the 
** Indus .and Ganges, and feems to have comprc- 
" headed the kingdoms, which are ftyled Madura, 
*' Tranqucbar, and Cochin."' 

*' It is remarkable that, as there was a Cau- 
** cafus and regie CoUca, as well as Colchica, ia 
•* India, fo the fame names occur among the, 
" Cuthasans, (Coti) upon the Ponlus Euxinus. 
" H^c was a rcgio Colica, as well as Colchica, 
" at the foot of mount Caucafus."" 

*• If we change the fcene, and betake ourfclves 

• " to Colchis, we ftiall meet whh Indians here too._ 

*' The city Afiervjia, upon mount Caucafus, is 


• Bryant's Mythology) V. 111. 

" Piipj, Lib. vr. c 5. 


of the Gi/psits. 69 

ftyled Indica As.fimx i^Jun mAw. — Jerom tells us, 
that St. Matthias preached the gofpel in Colchis,' 
near the river Phafis and Afparus, which country 
is called Ethiopia.— Socrates, in his Ecclefiaftical 
biftory, mentions the fame, and adds, that St. 
Bartholomew was in thofe parts; and his particti- 
lar province was India^ which India joins Cokbui 
and to the region upon the Phajis, where Mat- 
thias reiided. He calls it the innermo/i India, to 
difliinguith it from that which was not Mediterra- 
nean, but lay on the Southern ocean; and at 
fame of the fame family fettled in Iberia Hifpanitt, 
we find there toe an Indian city, rsaxts, tKH^ 

Ife«fia{» artwrioi Ilupmios. " 

" The river Indus was often called the Sindus^ 
and nations of the Cutbi wcrci called Sindi. There 
were people of this name and family in Thrac^ 
mentioned by Hefychius. 1..J01 int ©ewmt iflio,- hi^i/. ^ 
The Sindi of Thrace are an Indian nation. Some' 
would alter it to i^Ak^, Sindicum, but both terms,, 
arc of the fame purport. — He mentions, in the 
fame part of the world woXi?, z.yJHUJi Mum jnyo/imi, a 
city which was denominated the Sindic or Indian 
harbour. Herodotus fpeaks of a repo Sindica 
upon the Pontus Euxinus, oppofitc to the river 
Thermodon. This Indioi was the country of th» 
Maeotise, a Cuthite tribe." 
■'*' Egypt itfclf was io fome degree an Indie! 
nation, having received a colony of that people, 

" Stq>h. Byzant. Aliqui (Ciogui) dkebuit, ^uod eraot 
dc India. (Muratoii Scriptor.t«r. lulicar. T. XIX. p. Sgo.) 

70 On the Origin arid Language 

(thp CutU,) l^ vhoin it was named Aii or Jetitti 
HcBce If. is faid^ On^i^s i,le, »>« n ytm, that Ofir'**- 
wof an Indian by extraffierty becaqfe the Cathite 
zdigion came from tbe Tigris," thdr former &t- 

** Thas I have endeavoured to fhew, from the 
names of places and men, and particularly fronv 
various parts of ancient hiftory, that the Scythic_ 
Indians were in reality Cuthi. — Hence Hcfychiuv 
laiut i ZxiAtt." — Thus the learned Bryant. 

" The coQotry, between the Cafpian and the 
Eoxine, had the names both of India and EtJbi- 
opia; even Arachofta is called White Iiidia by 
Uidorus, and we have already mentiooed the 
Tcllow India of the Pcrfians and the Yellow 
Ihdia of the Turkifli geography. Uind^ the ao- 
dent term of India, perhaps fignifies black" _ 
fGilcJirift, Dift. of the Hindocrflau Lang. Pre- 
fe«, p. xvii.) 

Tne Co)cbi were remarkable for the roaoa.- 
fefipre of fine linen. The old names for linen in 
•Irifli are Indie and Anaet° — Anaet-buird^ a table- 
cloth. The firft I thought indicated, that they 
bonowed the art, (^ the Indians; it may have 
fignified the manufafiure of Colchis : the fecond 
k Arabic '^^Uc amet, cloth. In the Pcriplus 
nlaris ErythrEci, we find the countries abolit the 
Gapges and Hypanit were fupplied widi fine lin^, 
brooght froip Scytbia Limyrica, the country of 
oiix Aire-Coti, tbe Aracotii of Dionyfius. 

• Shaw writei it AnafK 


of l/te Gypnts. 71 

The iagtoloKs antbor of the M^p of Caueafila, 
printed at LondoQ in 17S8, thus dsfcrib» tbie 

jD««ry nbotit tbe Pontns or Bofphoros. 

" On the opi»file fide of the Bofpboras B«b 
tfafi f^n afid beaatiful ifimd of PJ^nageria, 3^ 
at a ftoall diftance to the eaftvard begin tte 

~ jnouataoDs of Caucafus, whtch extend frDm heoce 
to iho Ca^an.~Accordia^ to Sirabo, the cotm- 
tiy, exteodii^ irom Phmagoria to Cokhis, vas 
iAbabies) b^ the following peo{^. Flrft difc 
Siadit clofe to FJianagorla; tben ajoag tht fest 
6uxtt tbe Achm, Zingi, aad Henioebi^^ iff^h 
extended as far as Diofciirias, now ttgoor, adid 
belied them the Ceiveta; and Macropogones. Of 
(he two latter tribes nothing is knowb, aad of 
tbe feraier little more than that they were pirOttty 
aad tint they fupplied the Gi^ks (A (be Befpbo- 
ms with the flaves they nwde io feci* predHt^w^ 
expeditioDs. Behind Diofcorias^ in t^ lughcA 
mouDtains, Ufed the Soanes or Snani, j^rh^ 
■ tfec 

P Zochoci et HwiAchi moatana et imticntuora coludt ]4a*t 
qusc Caucali partes funt. His vita ex maritimii latfadatia 
fuit. Hanc Zochororum terrani efle arbitramuTi ex 1)04 po- 
puli exierint, ^ui nollra xtate cum libeds et uxoribus Euro* 
pam p^vagaCtur, Zingari appetlati. (^neai SyWius.) MatUl. 
BAutninSi in kit Lexic. Philologico, fub voce Zigiwi, 
adopu cfais orrgini ai well at Sylrius.— OtrococliiU|i60Hgiii. 
Heng^v-yaiKl }. G. Eccard, give the Zinjpri or GypGes a Cit- 
caiEan origin. — Ziehen, Zigier, Sikcher, or Ziocher, among 
the au'cienti, which in the eatlieft limes were Achzanii dwelt 
in the countiy now inl)abited by dw CircaSans. '{[Grelliau ' 
on the Gypflw.) " ' 

72 On the Origm and Language 

,the aocdlors of the people, who ftH) occapy the 
-lame coaatry, and retain the iamc name. Thcjr 
were then a fprmidable and nu(nm>us nati<% 
governed by a king, \rith a national coancil of 
three hundred perfcMS. They arc faid to ha?c 
.collcfted a conflderabic quantity of gold, by raeaos 
oi fleeeei which they funk in their torrents, a 
praftice from which Strabo derives the fable of 
the Golden jkece. It is reported, that this mode 
of collefling gold ftiU continued, when the Turks 
were in poffcffion c^Mingre/ia, and that the pro- 
tlnce of the Zgcnisikal^ (horfe river, the Hippus) 
was £umed at Conftantinople to certain Jews." 

It aj^Kars, that t^is is a well known praAice 
in the Eaft, for obtaining gold du(l. " At Puck- 
ely, in the foobah of Calhmear, they fprcad goat 
Jkins, with kmg hair, in the (tream of the river, 
ALfleaing them down with floaes, fo tha{ the 
water cannot move them. After two <h- three 
days they take up the ikins, and ezpofe them to 
■the fun. When they arc pcrfeftly dry, they 
fiiake them, and obtain grains of gold, (bmc of 
which will weigh three tolahs." (Ayeen Akbciy, 
v. 11. p. 136.) 

Siodi, Zangi, Zingi, are fynonimous names of 
the lame people;^ and thefe, we have ihewn, 
were Colchi or Scythians. — The Sindi fettled on 
each fide the mouth of the Danube. (Ortdins, 
'from ApoUoniDs, &c. and Flaccus, Thef. ZIV.) — 

4 Mutmiere, JX&. Geogntpk. 


of tht Gt/jm'es. *ld 

SSndi, al. Ziagit a 'psople oFSatmaHab A£d, 
d'^ling 00 the Bolfdiorus. Id' the Feriplus <^ 
Sc;k)[ tbc^ are named riri« Siati, but he -co^ 
re&s tHmfelf afierwardi as he names the hacbow 
qI thefe. peoi^e . LitJW> JUf^tUri Smdicum pertttm.'* * 
-.,, As Diolcurias, . contiaucs the author, begaa 
,the country of Colchis^ which extended as far a« 
Trebizoode. Its lituH tnanufa&ures were nudi 
efteenud, which was adduced as a proof that its 
iohabitants were of Egyptian origin." 

" The languages of Caucafus were fuppt^ed to 
be almofl: iunamerable, fincc at Dic^rias alone 
they reckoned fcyenty -dialers, and, according to 
jbme authors, three hundred. But the Gveeks 
and Romans knew little of this country."- - - - 
, . Theft were only dialefts of the lame language, 

as wc learn from Sablier. ** Autour de la uier 

Ca^enue, qq parle, a ce qu'ou dit, 60 laagoeK 
difierentes; siais ceux, qui out avance ccla, n'oot 
pas pris garde, qu'au uord et a Keft de It aer. 
Cafpienne, cc font one iofioite de hordes oa tribus 
Tartares, qui, cbacune, par la fuite des temps, 
anroDt apporte quclque changemcnt i leur 
langue, et on aura pris poor langue ce qui n'eft 
que diaiode." (SaUier, Efiai fur les Langues, 
ip. J4.) ■ 

, To ddcend to more modem times-, about the 

ynr 1200, the CircaiTians (the Colchi of the 

ancients) had got footing in Egypt fo much^ diat 


' bhrUoierci Di&, Gedgraph. 


?4 On t^ Origin «tf Language 

ttaty iW]r be frid to feEfc been MalUrs «f k. 
** Iq I J17 Sidtan Selim had drawn one his troityiM 
4giii^ Pa:£a, wkh the detenutuiioo, if not to 
con^pcr-tBe coantrj entirely, at lead to do tbem 
aii tbe mifchief he could; for whkb tafoa hk 
treartndoos army was in that year encamped near 
Ak^. Gewriy the Cinailiao Sukw in Egypc* 
whea he faesrd of this cnterprize, being fearful, 
&at after Sclim had accomptifbecl his iatoitioiis 
TefpeAiDg Pcriia, he might attack lum, fcnt vm- 
faalQuiors, to ofiet hk afiiftance againft the Per- 
fiaoa: Sclim acceded it, aad Gawri immediately 
cc^e^d his forces. As the two armies lay near . 
CKh: Otfatir, iomc Circaffians attacked and {Sun- 
dered fome loaded camels, which were going 10 
Sdim'a camp. ScDm, who looked upon this as 
vt affi^ot, ioftaatly Fcfbhredto lease the FeHi»K 
t^iict for the prdbot, and to draw his fvord 
^tffm&. his aHy> Gawri was betrayed, ^d f^lt ia 
tbe ftOioQ;^ ihofe that efcaped ficd to £ahure; 
tbtfy fie&eA a iiew king, mncd Tiufiwbey, -n^ 
was alfo defeated and taken primer. Selim was 
fo icharmed with his uodailaodiag, that he 
glta»ted him his ireedom, and intended to appoint 
hin» victroy of Egypt; however, people bcgaa 
to talk freely concerning their hopes, that when 
f^iqi Ifapuld have withdrawn, Tutnanbey, with 
the remaining Circaflians and Araluans, might be 
i^lc to drive his troops out of Egypt, and reaf. 
fiatf the CircaOians in their fomlier dominioo. 
Thcfe reports coming to Sclim's knowledge, he 
' ^ caufed 


' caufed Tuoaanbcj to be hailed under one of die 
gates of Kahire (Cairo) ; and vrth him cndttd 
the government of the Circ3i£ans is Kgypt. after 
k bad coatmued 3S6 years. By coauBand «f 
Sdim,- tbey were for iercral days left to tb« 
mercy of thebr conquerors." "^ / 

Another author, Buonavoitura Vnlcaniiw, 
mentions the routing of tUe. CircaiCanc ouiof 
Egypt in 1437* millakiiig them for Egyptiaos. 
He wrote in 1597 — ;" Ante hos 160 plus miaus 
anoos a Sultano .£gyptii icdibus fuis puUi Palsih 
tinam, Syriani, ct Afiam minorem tnendicocuBf 
i^ic pcrvagantcs« tn^e^ HcIIe^tttq, Thor^^ 
ciam. et ctnum-dajwiianai rcgiones iacrodibSi 
multltudine inundanint."' By all which itii{K 
pears, that thcfe Circaffians, who had ^bliibcd 
thcmiciTes in Egypt, had been contunuUy footad 
from their firit fettlemeittft in. the iliirteeiuh ots* 
tury-^had retired ta their native conoOT* andt 
itom time immemanal, had fettlcmcBts qa «(k^ 
Jide the mouth of the Danube. 

" The chiefs, or waywodes (of the gypScB,}^ 

as they proudly call them, were forraerj^f <d xwi, 

kinds ia Hungary. EacL petty tribe had iu>ovi 

leader; belidcs wbich^ th^ had &ur fayadc^ 


' Kantemir Gefcliichte des OfintDircheD. Reicha, ([Qpted 
hf Grellmar), p. zzi. 

' Vblcaaiiu de literis Gnamin, p. toi. Hi»Me Shltaoq 
beliered them to be Mamelukes, who were obUged to qdt 
Egypt in 1517. when the Turkilh emperor cooqaered that 
country, and pot in end the ptt;i|flu loTcniaieaL 


76 On the Origin and L&ngaage 

waywodes, of their own caftj on both (ides the 
Danube and Tcifle."' 

Is it furprifing, then, that thefe vagabonds, the 
Corra Saca, or rabble Scythians, of PcHiac and 
Irifli hiftory, ihould pafs thcmfclvcs for Egyp- 
tians, on catering Tranfylvania, Hungary, Bohe- 
mia, &C.&C.? 

The Egyptian dcfcent of thefc people is en- 
tirely deftitute of proof; the inaft poiitivc proof 
Is to be found to contradid it. Thdr language 
differs entirely from the Coptic, and their cuf- 
loms, as AbaftxTm Fritfib has remarked, are 
qothing lefs than Egyptian. They wander about 
like ftrangers in Egypt, where they form a dif- 
tinfi people, as not only Bellonius, but many 
later writers afiure us. The univerfal charader 
of this pec^le is that of fbrtune-tclling, thieving, 
and remarkable for bciag fmiths and farriers. In 
Hungary this trade is fo common among them, 
that it is a proverb, fo many gy^s^ fo many 

fmiths. To thefe occupations I think they are 
iadebted for their name. In the Indo>Scythian 
or Hibernian language Gaire is a fortune-teller; 
Ax.j^ fhour^ incantator, augur, and'Gow-airf, 
in Irifli, a matter fmith ; Seang-gaire, poor mean 
fortune-tellers ; Seang-gouain, poor mean fmiths. 
Ar.jjtjj) Zing-ghory a vagabond; Ar.JJj 

j\£. Zeng-gharf vagabond cheats. In Perfian,' 
J^jj Zengi, figoifics a &vage, a fool, a Hot- 
" Grellnun, p. 54. ^ 

' n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

of the Gypsies. 11 

teotot, a Moor, a Negro, ac Egyptian, an £thio- 
piaa \ ind hence>. I think, all the miflakes, that 
have happened about tbefe wandering Gircallians. 

MentioQ is made of them in GermaDf fo early 
as the year 1417, when they appeared id the 
vicinity of the North Sea. A year afterwards 
we find them in Switzerland. In 1422 they ap- 
peared in Italy ; but there is no certainty at what ' 
period cxafUy they firft appeared in Europe. 

From the carliell account of thefe peo{de they 
were miners and gold-wafhcrs. Pray (ays, they 
call tfacmrekes R<ma. " Ipfi cuim fc lingua ver- 
nacula Rema appellant ; hujus nomiois provinda 
ad fluvium Akarum, intra ambitum Galatise, 
Amalise, Papblagonic, ac Fonti, quinquaginta 
circiter milliarihus a ByzaatJno remota oltm fttit. 
Gens, quae cam provinciam coluit, pai£m auAcd- 
bus Ciancari, et Cigiant dicuntur. Si quid igitur 
limiUtudo nominis valet, iode ortos fufpicor. Fof- 
tea aotem quam T^nerlanes, occupata Afia 
mbore, Bajacetcm cepit, credlbile ell, gentem 
in vacia loca fparfam fiiiffe poll annum Chrifli 
1403, atque in Europam etiam venire. Certe 
primum omnium in Moldavia, Walachia, ac Hun- 
. garia, circiter annum 1417, vill funt."» 

It has been generally underflood that, by Romii 
they Ggnified any man in common, and thereftve 
they have been taken for Copta or Ethiopians, 
in whofe language pi-rome lignifies a man ; but, 
as they call thcmfclves Roma^ it is probable that 


' Pray, Annal. Regam Huogar. P. IV. L. iv- p> 173. 

78 On the Ofi'gin and Language 

the Hiberao-Indo-Scythian, Rohne, a miner, is 
Ac meaning of the word ; for mining and 
finitfaoy have been their conftaot trades, except 
that of fortune-telling and thieving. 
y " A race of Bidowecns is mentioned by D*Ar- 
neax> who live at Alexandria, in the fame manner 
mth the gypfies in France. They encamp be- 
tween the fea-beach and the walls of the city, 
tmder' tents, where men, women, children, and 
cattle, are all lodged promifcuoufly. The only 
apparel of the women is a large blue (hift j the 
men and young boys cover themfelvcs with a 
bng piece of white bonracau j but the children 
go naked in all fcafons." (Ruflell's Aleppo, 
T. i. p. 39i.^La Roquc, Voy. dans la Paleftine, 
p. 1 19.) 

' Pocock, I believe, was the firft that hinted, 
from report, that the Chingans of Syria were the 
fimc race as the gypfies of England. *' The 
Chir^ans" fays he, *' who are Iprcad almoft 
over all the world, arfe in great abundance in the 
north of Syria, and pafs for Mahometans. They 
live under tents, and fometiraes in grots under 
^und. ' They make a coarfe fort of carpet- 
work for houfings of faddles and other ofes, and, 
when they are not far from town, deal much ia 
milch cattle, and have a much better charaAer 
than their relations in Hungary, or the gypfies in 
England, who are thought by fomc to have been 
or^ioally of the fame tribe." (Pocock, Ddcrip- 


of the Gypsies. 79 

rioD of the Eaft, V. i. p. 207.) If thcjT were 
. Syrians, they did aot f^ieak Hindodtancc 

A French officer. In Hydcr AHy's ifervicc, 
ivs a hord of ftrolling vagabonds in India, who 
generally live in the woods j he calls them a kind 
of Bobemianty meaning gypfics. Grdlman fdzes 
<m this palTage to prove, that the gypfics of 
Europe are from India. His collcftion of gypfcy ■ 
words, collated with the Hindooftanec, will con- 
vince the reader of the abfurdity. The paflagc 
is as follows. 

*' Une horde d'une ej^ece de Bobemtens tres 
nombreufe dans Plnde, et dont on ne conooit 
point I'originfe, en ce qu'ils babitent les for€ts 
pour I'ordinaire, ct a qu! mSme te Tpct^\xgh Indien 
defend les lieux mur6s, parce qu*ils mangent, ^ 
' cc qu6n dit, tonte forte d'animaux, ct de reptiles, 
cut permiilion d'Ayder, qui ell au-dcflbs de pt€- 
jag£s, de fuirre Tarmac, d'y vendre du lait, du 
hois, & tout ce que Icur induftrie peut leur four- 
nir J ils fc chargerent de tranfportcr [rartie con- 
fldciablc de poudre, au moyen de Icurs petites 
charettcs trainees par des bufles, qui les fui- 
vent dans Icurs courfes & voyages continuels. 
' Afin de les facilitcr, une partic d'cntre eux hit 
airur£& d'une foldc, commc pionniers, & ils 
etoient ^ns les fjeges &'daDs la conftfu^Kon dcs 
retranchemens, &. la reparation dcs chemins, de 
la plus grande utilit^j tant pour le tranfport des 
terres„ qac pour la confeftlon dcs gabions & . 
fafcipcs.** (Hiftoire d'Ayder All-Khan, Nabob " 


80 On the Origin and Language 

Bahader, oa Nouveaux Meinoircs fur I'Inde. 
Paris, *793- V. i. p. 264.) 

This is no proof that they were gjrpfics ; the 
author only compares them to gypfics, as a body 
of lazy , ftrolling people, frcquentiug the woods. 
and bye j^c«. Martinicrc brings thera from 
Zanguebar. " Zeng ; ce mot figuifie, en Anibe> 
k pays dc Cafrerie., et les peoples, qui I'habitcnt, 
Cappellcnt auili, eo Arabe, Zengi, ct eo Pcrfaa 
Zenghi, d'ou eft d^riv€ cc mot dc Zeughibar, 
qui fignifie le pays des Zinghis, qui font propre- 
mcQt ceux, que Ics Italicns appcDeut Zingari, & 
que uous autres nous nommons Egyptiens & Bo- 
hcmiens." (Dift. Geogr.) Again ; " Le Zingie- 
tan oa le pays des Zingues eft cdui dc Haba- 
ihah, qui eft rEthiopie." (Idem.) In Ihort, 
Zeng, as I hare fbewn before, was a name given 
by the Arabians and Ferliaas to all favagc and 
barbarous nations ; and, by Cafrcr, the Arabs 
meant no more than that the Egyptians were 
■f^ kafiry that is, infidels, a term the Mahome- 
tans honour us Chriflians with. Ce font ces 
mSmes peuples, qui font appdlez Rihens, dans 
rbiftoire Saraccniquei that is, i.^^^J rahin^ 
ferrants ; aod this is the modem Irifh name for 
them in Mac Cormac's Dictionary, viz. Giefegt a 
depcDdant fervant, client. 

Captain Riohardfon, !□ the Eaft India Com- 
pany's fervicc, takes up the idea of Grellman. 
In the fcventh volume of the AGatic Refcarchcs, 
he gives as account of a " people in Hindooftan, 
" called ■ 


of the Gypsies. 81 

•* called Bazccgurs, or jugglers, players, aftofs, 
'" and by Hindoos, Nut, that is'tumbler, artful, 
*''chicat,'rafcal; Nutwa, a dancing boy. They 
*' profcis to be Modulmaos, yet employ a Brah- 
" min, fuppofed to be ikiUed in aibology^-to fix 
'* upon a name for their children. They acknow- 
'** ledge a God, and in all their hopes and fears 
" addrefs him, except when fuch addrefs might 
*' be fuppofed to interfere in Tanfyn's depart- 
" ment, a famoas mu£dan, who flourifbed in the 
" time of Ukbor, and whom they ccmlider as their 
"tutelary deity. — But, when left to themfclves, 
*' under the impreiSon of immediate or impending 
*' ill, the goddcfs KaUi generally obtains the pre- 
** fcrence. 

' " The men are remarkal^y athletic, and alio 
** nbnhle and adroit in every flight of hand, pr^> 
** tiCag juggling in all its branches. — Some of 
" them wander about as fcfts of religionifts, and, 
** calling thcmfelves Mo(^ulmea Fuqueers, live 
*' on ^e bounty of the pious. They are fufpcAed, 
'*< of being great thieves. Then: women do not 
*' attend them in the exhibition of thdr juggling 
'• tricks, but praflifc phyfic, cupping, palmiftry, 
" and marking the fkin of the Hindoo women. 
** They ^re muficians alfo, and play on an inftru- 
** ment called S'l-tar, a fpedcs of viol now much 
"-ufed in' Hiodoodan, and which, though origi- 
o *' nally, 

' The goddds CcuR wu well known- to the HibecDo- 
Indo-Scfthx. See Pie&ce to Profpcftus, and Smith's Hif-> 
toryoftheCounty of Cork, 1747. 


82 On the Origin and Language 

" vaUijt 3S its name implies, edy a three firiagtd 
*' ioftruincht} is frequently to be met with here 
'* as a foor, five, fix, nay fcrcn ftringcd rial."— 
St, in Per. and Hindooftanee, is three, and iar, 
-ftring, wire, he.' 

Captain Sichardfbn obferres, that many of 
Grellman'f vords of the HindooSaaee are very 
incorrcA; and many, as I have ahvady dilerTcd, 
are Perfiaa, and odiers not to be found in Gti- 
chrift's Drdiooary of the Hindooftaiiee. 

Tbtt hnman \iQJais are itm immotated to 
Kaleey within the precio^ of Calcutta, h be- 
fieved by toore genttenen than obc. (G^fihrSl, 
DiA. Hindooflanoe, Pre&ce, p. xxiii.) 

Le^a Caili, the altar of Calee, (tiU exifts in 
the county <£ Cahcu The inhabitants Hear it 
lay fhe was a cruel giantefs, in the days of paga- 
aifm, that devoured all the chiidren in the country. 
(Snutb's Hiffory of Corkc.) The root irf her 
name exUts in the liiih ceal or ealt death, l:^k. 

It is amofing to cead the opinion c^ antfaogrs on 

Hx gypfey laogu^c: Jofcpb' ScaJiger iutnii(bed 

VDOOavi VvlkatuBs wkh: a Ut of Kiibiain words, 


* Hcace the Irifh Si-Hm, a harpy i. t. tbree-flriaged— 
A'iitbteem Irifli^ tsmSi-gmiBat orygreaiat, direepCDce, 
af which here^ter, td the cfaspter tf the raoney of the aatdetit 
Iriflk ' g (w »«, aharp; Ckm^ar, alusp; Cimir, aim}; 
Ac fitA is Hindooftanee, the fecMd Chatdee,inu e'Mar, and 
Ac third Hetirew and PhtCDlciaB ~i\a tinur, c'mnor, which 
Jofephos feys had ten ftriogj, SaDfemAMMm. {SoDuent, 
}). 155.) Ar. <,:i^U.^= tinnarut, a harp. KBadooIi 
£etn, a hai^, ligDifies awCc in geneFtl u Iriib. 


nf the Gyysies. S3 

among vludi there are found threes Daide, £uher, 
MauroHi bread, Tag^ fire, which are likewiie 
gypfey words; therefore he infers, that Nabia is 
the gyi^es modier country. ScaHger's NomeQ'* 
datura-Egypt-Arabica fumifhed above three bnn- 
dred Words, alike in Egyptian and Irifii; there* 
fore, we might fay, the Irilh are of Egyptian 
defcent. The three words above quoted are alfo 
Iriih; Daid, father; jigb, fire, (whence A:^*, 
an epithet of the fun, and Dagb-dae, the ApttUo 
of the pagan Irifb, the Daghdaroth, the Phoebus 
of the Br^muns) ; Aria^ NarAn^ Marin, is alfo 
Irtifa for bread. Ex, gr. Tabkar dbtiin a'niugb at- 
nardn laethamhal, give ns thk day otir daily 
bread. (Pater nofter.) 

There is no ftandard for the gypfey language; 
as may be fees by caAtng the eye over the three 
following fpccimens of the Lord's Prayer, givca 
by GrellmajQ, and by comparing the hft of wwds, 
cpUefled jn England by Bryant and Marfden, by 
CoK in Hungry, and by Grelteian in Germany^ 
in the tables here annexed.* 

Tlxe Lord's Prayer, in the gypfcy language.— 
Dade! gala dela dicha mengi, Czaoreng hogodo- 
leden tavcl, ogolcdel hogoladhcm, te a felpeflz, 
trogolo anao Czarchode, ta vela mengi iztre 
kedapu, maro maadro kata agjefz igiectifzara a 
more beizeecha, mate dfame, andro vo lyata, 
enkala megula, dela enchala zimata. Scfzkefz 
kifztrio oothem banifztri, putyere fcrifzamarmc, 
a kaoa andra vccS, ale va kofz. Piho. 

2 The 


S4 On the Origin aiid Language 

. The fame,' according to an old tfaoflatiDfr.-M 
Muro Dad^' kolim aadro therbfz; ta wcltro fzor* 
tanao: ta wcltro t'hitn: ta weltri ofya, fzattliia 
aodra therolz ketbjin t' he pre p' ha: fze kogyefz 
damaode mandro agycfz; crtitza amare bezecba^ 
izar, t' bamin te ertingifzama rebezecha: mali 
zfa men' andrc bczna, nJcka men le dlbngdin 
Btanfatar, kc tiii2o t'hm hioo bar^ fzekovarK 

" Tbcfc two tranflations dMfer fo widely, (oIh 
*' lerves Greelman,) that one woald ^moft bo 
** inclined to doubt* whether they were really the 
" fame laDgaagei-yet' both taken irom Hunga* 
** nan gypfies, at diffeient periods." 

He then gives us a third fpedmea, with a Iite< 
ral tranflation in Latin, viz. 

Amaro Del fzavo hal athd opre atrdrb Cferofz; 
Nofter Deus qni n ibi (iiper in Caelo, 
avel fzinton tro nav, tc avcl tir lume, te 

veniat fanflum tuum noractr, . ut veniat tuam legnum, ut 

khergyol tri voje fzar andfo cferofz chide tc 

fiat tua voluntas IScot in caelo £cqae ut 

phe phu; dmiro mandro ogy^ufzuno d6 amfinge 

in terra; noflrmn panem qaotidianam da nobis 
tgjhh, firtine amenge imiro vitfigofz te im6n 

hodiC) remitte nobis noftrum peccatum ut nos 

tidfi crtiniha Smir^nge, pifidfcha dmen andro 

ita remitumus nolTris, ne inducas nos in 

dfchuDgalo tfafzofa, tami unkav aUen dvri indral 
penculo&m horani, led fume nos ex e 

6 dlchnngalp 


of the Gypsies. 85 

^ dlidiuDgalo till bin i lame tiri bin ezor, tc 
pericnlo tuura eft regaam tiut ell potentio, ut 
akaoo-rzejtevar. Amcq. 


Tbc obfervationof Otrokocfius is wortby of 
notice. " EtH mihi ignota eft illorum lingua, 
qeg coim quilib^t ^cilc cam ab illis poteft difcere, 
cum cxptrimqito m)hi conftct, iB iuveutute nun- 
guam me ab ipfis cxtor<}uere potu^e, ut refte et 
ordice Pater Noflcr Cigauicc recitarent, fed re- 
dtant Tel lipgu<t HuDg,arica, vel dus oatioDis, ia 
cvjus funt medio." 

It is remarkable tbat, ia whatever part of 
Europe ihcy ^re found* the uaivcrfal uamc of 
God witlf them is Dewla, Del, or fomc vord 
fimtlar. In the Hiberno-Icdo-Scythiaa it is DuiU, 
% wprd tbe Irilh leidcooilh derive frpm duiUf 
clemcDt, materia prima, ia Egyptian -fouixi dauiU'. 
Aireac Duila, the priuce of elements, is certainly 
the "jflMl TQiti area douU, or princeps omnium 
materia of the Tyrlans. 

^ the gloHary of Connac, firfl: blfhop of 
Caihcl, who was coDverted by Patrick, we find 
Ri^hnaduile^ King of the Duilc, i.e. GOD; 
and that it does npt imply elements here, I Ihall 
fhew prcfcntly. 

Adhmn do rigb lu duUe 
po dagi) bhar din u o'daone 
Lcii gach dreanii Icii gic dinci 
^eii g^c CC4II, 1^ nac ca^iiQ^c, 


On the Origin and Language 

Id eft. 

I woHIiip the Kiog of mercjr, 

Whofe fire from the mountain top aTceadi, 

In. whole power is aU mankind, 

AU panifiuneiu, aitd aU reward- 

Id the Kifli diale£l of Circailia, bordering on 
the Cuban river, the Phafis of old, we find 
Dyala fignifies God. From thefe CircaiBEiQ Tar- 
tars, I am of opinion, the gypfies originate ; and 
that what few Hindooflancc words they have, are 
derived from our Aire Coti, or lado-Scythx, who 
returned to Lazica, i. e. to Colchis, after their 
emigration to India, as fet forth in my Vindication. 
The names of God, in the Irifli language, 
would be a fufEcient proof to me, that the ancient 
Iriib were an Oriental colony, viz. 
ART, God; ParfiandPelhvi'^r/.— Succeffores 
deindc qus Art-abanus et Ti-granes, cogno* 
mme Deus, a quo fubada eft Media et Mefo- 

potamia. (Prolog, in Trog. Pomp. Hift.) 

Art, Dieu, titre d'honneur donne a plufieiirs 

- princes Arlacides, adopts auiH par les SaJIanip 

dcs. (De Sacy, Man. dc la Perfc.) — NnnM 

Arita^ imum e Dei oominibns, fignifican& unum 

principium unitatis fuse. (Plantavit.) 

AOSAR, God, pronounced Ec6r.— Hindoof- 

tanee Ealhoor, £fur, Ifwur, God, i. e. bene- 

Toleat, gradous.— In the Sanferit, Efwara^ 

meaning properly the folar fire, fays the learned 

Idauric^. (Ind. Ant. V. VI. p. 235O ^o we 



of the Gjfpsia. . SI 

may derive At^, kom Aar^ fire,, the fuo.— 
Berner fays the Huiiioo word mcaos immovc- 
ahlc} les'Indct oomitLeDt I'Etrc Su^izmc Achar, 
c'cfl a dire, immolnle, imtnuable, (L. HI. HUL 
Gen. T, XXXVIIL p. 227.)— A very grand 
idea of th^ Deity (fays BaiUy) \ they perceivi;d, 
that all bodies ia mption yielded to the adioD 
of « foperior power. (Lettres (ax Ics S c icnc ea , 
p. 51.) — Sir William Jones thinks^ that the 
Ifwara and Ifi of the Hindoos are the Oiiri< 
and Ifls of the Egyptians.— Arabic^ £^r, pcr- 
lufbans Deus. j^£l. Scheid.) — ^gyptiorum ple- 
nque id nomen pronuatiarant Oifliiri, Oifiri, 
Ulari. (Jablos&y-) — ^And in the Cfaatdee we 
find NID^M Aiftrat Jupiter. (D. de Fomis.) 
CROM, CRUIM; rrom Cruatb, Crm Crm- 
iietr, Crom Cruagheir, God. The iame God, 
fays Irifli hiftory, that Sor^r adored.— Hin- 
doo and Arabic ^y kurum, beneficence, gra- 
cious; OujAS^ khyreeut, good, gracious: 
thcfc words arc always applied to God. (Gil- 

chrift's Hind. Difl. Richardfon*s Ar. Dift.) 

Pert y^j^ kerugeTi an attribute of God. 
(Rich.) — Zoroafter, and die Hindoos, believed 
ia one fuprejoe God, the maker of all things, 
the Cram crmtbm of the Iriflj.— Z/^fli^, a 
Danifii mtffionary, gives the following tranfia- 
tion frnti the books of the Brahmins at Tran- 
quebv: *' The Being of beings is the only 
God, eternal, wd every where prcfent, who 
comprifm every thing; there is no other God 


8S On the Origin and Language 

but him."— Dc la Croze, fpealdng from the an- 
thcnity of another Danifh mii&cmary, fdys, that 
m one of their books the Hindoos thus exprcTs 
themfelvcs: " The Supreme Being is invifible, 
iocompreheDCble, immoveable, without figure 
or fhape. No one has ever fecn him: time 
never comprifcd him: his effence pervades 
every thing: all was derived from him." — 
The Hindoo religion inculcates the belief in 
one God only, without beginning, without end. 
(Crauford's Sketches.) — Hence he is named, 
in Jrifli, the great circle; fee ti. Hence, 
Cronaheart a prieft, fo called among the hea- 
then Iriib. (C. O'Connor.) Crom-leac, a 

blaze, an altar to the heathen deity Crom. (Id.) 
— Cruathy an attribute of God. (Cormac.)— 
Ch. ann cbaramt Deo devotus. Ar. ^,-S 
kerim^ a religious man fearing God. (Rich.]^^ — 
-^ Alfl allab kureem^ God. (Rich. Scheid.) 
Pfindooft. j^Y kertoTf creator. 

COMHDE, God, Lord, Matter. It is pro- 
nounced Covdh 

"COIMHDH^, God; according to feme, the 
Trinity, from comb, which anfwers to the Litin 
con. ■ (O'Brien.)- — Thcfc words have moft . 
aiTuredly no relation to the Trinity, and are 
certainly derived from the.Perfic lOi Ibodat 
and (^_5'<i:i. kheda^t God; quafi -wnn ebod 
ait <iiii per fe venit, extititque. ' Komen I)et 
omnipotenti proprium: eique *a ii^j^\zx eflen- 
tialitcT inbiiitur: obimiiiiqaam Domino, pof- 


p/" the Gypsies. 89 

feflbri, priaclpi, eximio, per accidens (CaflcU 
lus)* ^*^^ khedeu; nontcQ Dd omnipo- 
tentis, proprie magnus rex, ct vir cxinuus 
(id.), corrcfponding to the Iri(h Co?d6. 

DIA, God. Hiodooft. /)/a, gencrofity, benefit, 
mercy, God ; Perf. {jCt Dei. 

DETHABHA, God, good, generous, merciful 
God. Ar. i^^lla taebi good. 

DUILE, DUILEAMHAIN," God, from deolai, 
or dculai, gracious (O'Clcry). li\nAocXk.dyaki\ 
At. Jtilx oudil^ juft God j Ch. "jm d^aW, 
DcQS, aumeii. 

MANN, MANNAN, God. Ar. o'-^ »i^ 
nattf beneficus, largitor, abfol. Dcus CScheid). 
This word i» applied cfpecially to omnipo- 
tence (Richardfon). 

SEATHAR, SAHAR, God, Lord. Ch. -io» 
Sitar, Dominus, Samarit. Sahar, Deus; Ar. 
jLxMi Settar, an a:ttribute of God, proteftor; 
in the Hebrew, HDC Satary Sotar, Gubcrna- 
tor, moderator, executor. _ 

TI-MOR, the great drclc, God, /g/acA garila- 
facby without begianing, without end. De 
la Croze mentions, to hare feen a Hindoo 
painting of a triangle endofed in a circle, 
which was faid to be intended as an einble-> 
matical indication of the Supreme Being ; but 
obferves, that this is not a thing to worQiip, 
aod that no image is ever made of God. 
(Crauford's Sketches.) 

I confeft 

V For the mcauing of the word Amm, fef next chapur 


90 On the Origin and Language 

I coD^ Uutt I Iboukt not hefitatc to declare 
a pcq>k of oiiental cvigm, with whom fach 
names are to be finiad, for the Supreme Bcing» 
for inferior deities, prieils, &crifia», akars, &c. 
&C. tm wbaterer part of the gbbe they might be 
fitoatcd ; but, wbeo hiftcuy and language con- 
tax in the fame fimilitudc, it is, to my humble 
, <^inioa, , a poGtive proc^. In the Celtic we find 
so fach names. Lhwyd, under the Latin word 
Vfust has WeHh DyUy Comifh Deu^ Armoric 

A gypfey, in the old Irilh, is named Rajfaidbt 

that is, an aftrologer, firom their pretending to 

tell f<»tUQes by the flars ; in Arab. f^*^j reffed, 

an obferver of the flars. The fame word in Irifh 

is applied to a flroUing, rambling woman, who 

goes about as thcfe gypfies do. 

GEARROG, incantatris, is another name for 

gypfey,-from the Arab.^f^ ghour^ incaotator ; 

and {JJi^ -^ Zeng'gbouri, a vagabond fbr- 

tune-tellcr, may have been the reafon of their 

being called Zingari. 

GIOFOG, a fcrvant, client, dependant, is a 

modem name for gypfcy in Iriih, which cor- 

refponds to the Perf. ^^j rebi, a ferrant, a 

Have; Hindooit. nW, a blackguard. " Cefbnt 

" ces m^mes peuples, qui font appellez Rilxru, 

" dans I'hiftoirc Saraceniquc." (Martinicrc, 

I)i£L Geogr. ad vcrbum Zeng.) 

The preceding fpcdmcns of the Pater Nd"- 

ter, in the Gypfcy language, and the following 


■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

vocabulary of that, Jargon (for it docs not ikicrve 
,the name of a language), I believe, will convince 
the. reader that it has no Ibtodard. 

It appears to me to be formed on the ItAo' 
Scythian, that prevailed in the vicinity of Col- 
chis, and mixed, in their emigration, with Hun- 
garian, &c. &c. according to .the coqntties they 
pafled .through to the more, inward pant of 

The vocabulary is formed from the words of 
the gypfies, collcAed by Cox 'in Hungary, by 
Bryant and Marfden in England, and by Grell- 
man in Germany. 

The words marked P. are Pcifian, not Hin- 
4o(^anee, as GreUmao aff^t^.; and thof« vUfc 
a t are not to be found in Gikhrlfl's Di^tHiaiy 
of the Hindoo language. To tfaefe I have added 
the Indo>ScyUiian or Irifii. 



On the Origin and Language 





- godocoran, papinori 


. rniilan - 


. yvrow, beral csla> prabal 


• mofliee, moffio, mucU 


. jpr» - 

uAw>te . 

■ lomdafi 


■ tfcliir, djiplD - 

A^ . 

. pataj - ... 

aiAat . 

- Krj. . - 


- bwUf pnrans 

A».iai - 

r tower, tober 

Airogast r 

- ff>i"«n 


Ihspip. . 

- eoreuUi (Swinton) " 


- woodroui 

B«.gh ; 

. lai . 


- niawro, maanii mwo* malon) 


- rait, rat 

Brotker . 

-pal - 


- pafhoo, pannec 


- porcherie 


• cswJiban, Icalo. kela 


- yack - 


' cbericloe, tTchiriUij tlhirUi 


- per - 


- lavamah 


- pargee - - 


- beval. dako 


- earn - 


- morntiDBTO 


of the Gypsies. 




liowah. bao. puwan. 

htaa, hatch. 

.par. aopm. baih 

. nUr, bair. 

i»r»- i"B""- 

ing. +bowo8. ch har. bfaus 


tpawng. tsjnw. Ceo. 

tkiro. ftTchon^. cheooota 


tpotijna. acu. atnbul. joog 

; ».(.g.),«»dsOw1>)- 

tkulhaii kooharee. F.tubm 

:. .ttub. 

ftkn^ ahuDkaree. ghn. 
C -maod« (hau^ty) 


. cor&«iala. 


da]> ■ ■ 

. *Jk(akaf). 

frau. rotee. Uiana 

f Darin, Haihi, roliUea (gnddle 
•L hrtadl. 

Ttloln.ioodhii.laln.riink- > cora, gal, loadh, (Ted)i HinT. 

I h« . 

.) r.l.(ml), P.lal(™l). 

bar. bbao. bhrau 

- brabar, bnthar. 

lala - . - 

■ alt, salt. 

p««l - - . 

. piaihuniha. 

tkaulbc. poodcc 

. caili. 


- Dial. 

cheereah. taer - 

. lir, liHih, liiriib (foogto). 


I bdl,). 

bozu. P. 

■ lioib, IcaoD. 

pool. P. doara (an arch) 

dmohad (bridgt). 

dumm. P. lans 

■ daigh, deaith. 

kumaa. kumtba.,doim 

. cafliaii. 

bujjam, pace, pappiu . 


rihyGOO^IC . 

On ike (Mgin and Lavguiige 




lill, buchof ... 


bara, baro - - , . 


domoe, doroec - 

Bridle - - 

fbliringo . - . 

Birle; or con 

give, gib, arpa - ■ 

Body - - 

tnipa, tefchu 

Binbcii - 

birda, paro ... 


ttfcl . . . - 


birlin . . . . 

> Boj. 

biheiilh, kmhih 

Bitk (mt) 

botka,t>ilh> . 


tfchor . - 


gew, hahl . . . 


kelia .... 

Boy, fa child 

dchabe, tlhairo 

a Board 

pd - - 


dorl . - . . 


Idi - . - . 

BrimftoDe - 

kandim fltomelli 




nango . . . . 



Bath, water tobathe 

jaoolal eo'paDee . 



cal, lural, kiras 


Chockwaa, koro 


foroofe .... 

Cow . 

{KOre, gourioe, gurooi, kitCumi 


maccheaD, loatihka, ftema 

Coal . . - 

am, jangav, angar 


TOUgoc . . . 


tophis, eon ... 


tamo, tlhorwo, tflutbn 



U Gypsies. aS 



kebO). bed 

- b«. 

bhur. o«bU 

. b«i^«aoi(afl»f). 

f pitch. pe«t|h 

- drom. 


m. p. - 

. uUur(cori]). 

■dtb. pinda. git. luen 

. conttrwilJ. 

bhuT. bifz 

. beart. 

tJMOwr. pufoo. mirg 

- tlai, (cattle) piafil. 

rtftr.n,o<.n,.kh«.bhon«.^^^_ ^^j^^ 

I mnd-hookuT - 


foour. burah. 

tCcbali. dhatri. chhilkju 

darhee. chimbook. ankree 

an greaBD, an grisa. 

^ch. hvare 

- argfil. 

tcbalti. heea. heera. birda 


xbhokra. louoda. balok 

■ hnuhbidac. 

f mei. ttiikhta. pat 

• pal, pal-maire (a nidder). 

tfotlj. tfitka. putt« 

- dwa (a cord)* 


. IMdb. 

tgemkn. gundbnk 

• rninih. 

ghnnta. chonral^. 

anDga. khoola 

. nocbdi, calf (bald). 

choura. chtikla - 

■ Mm (a loaf). 

paoccjal (water) 

■ iMfW, batDc, gil. 

P. puneer 

■ binid (cbeefc ruonet). 

koorkee. unga. jbilum 

' cota, gona. 

angur. lok 

■ agu. 

(gbu. gae. djienoo. goroo. 
( gokhree. offr, foorbee 

\ gavnach, gach, ga, lob-gach (a 
i cow with calf). 

"biUar. bilao. moDjar. 

teleea. puthur, kaU 

. on], gull. 

koda. (red} uogaia (bot) - 

mionD gual. 

dood-dan. dood^olb 

. mucan. 

lurka. baluk- 

lorga (ofispimg), bahcb. 


On th& Origin and Language 

■ tNaLISR. 


ChiUca - 

aCrowo • 

- pcogi colah 


. boUod 


- chumbo 


. corowt bechati 


- muroallec 


- carcobaa 

to Comnund 

- Ufi.dl.cii 


- pUftouiuigiee 


• bittutheim 


- fcbhotlhoodi 


- F"" -«g. . 

. /butb - 


. bulJo - 

Cucumber - 

. boharb - 


Cbcek ■ . 

- taui. - ■ - . - 


. Ihin 


- gha, - 


Cniiaffieis - 

- fitteii - ■ 


Clay potters - 

> IcaDgii 

koOiahu ' 


of the Gypaiea. 





p. koobh.H.ctMD(Iee. 

kookra. kockat. 

t,hooddee.t,hoTbM. +t,flioiiui; 

piala. ftAaTec. f kafii 

pkuh, bochla. 

pindola. pingoora. palna. 



furmana ... 

^llamachd. nile, doroiiuoD. 

k.hat . - 

caitcac {a mat, a carpet): 

des. junDDi-bjhoom 

du, dd&. 

ffbaddel. budlee. ghna, 
1 roegh. gtuta. 

khuTee.muttee. ch.hnies 

cnutif cartu, day. 

kobee. Eram Portng. conre 


ItoIufF. P. kiiu-bundee. 

fbirka. kheera. kukree - 


i tb«fllera. bucfara. I« roo. 1 ^^^ ^_^ 
\ bachha . -J ' 

gal.,kupol - - leadi^heanD, gnt-ba (mouUi). 

khaDfee. fkaflee ' - cttlach. 

P. fliikar. uher - - fealg, fiodhao (veDifoo).' 

P. bubadoor. mirta - rideri'"' (a knight). 

fP. furdar. H. muhuat. n 
H. Senaput, Ar. umeer- V Emir a! amhra. 
ool, omura J 

I H.coill . J *^ 

-1-iihba. H- kothee - iofda (habiuiion), 

-t-kitfeb. H.kabbi[h. baanee. 
beaka. tera. bankdar - bogtaa (bent, bow). 

^'' The CircaSum noblci are divided into ancient noble knisbt*, 
Rjucra-del, and noblu of noblet. (^Ilai.) 


Oh the Origin and Language 




to Drink 

Deatb, dead 

Dark; See Night. 



to Drink - 


Dead body 

Defm, wUdemeS 

Dew ■ - " ' 




Dragon. Sec Devil. 




Dagger, fword 







Eye- , - 

bcnp, benga 

Jari«, deros, diwes, dawes 
'yacil, Ihokeli yuket 
|iancc i fee water 

peola ' - 

mobo, iniraban> moola, monlay 



adra, panee,, padee 


bouoo, georgio - 

moloo, georgio 

banro, dromo, colori 

mrafha, olh 

tallo 5 

hiretz, retOtora 





goroi diadum 



duber, adulto 




f havonri, aok, yaka, po, ana, yok, 7 
'I yatau - - ' 


of th€ Gypsiet. i 


dyt. ufiwr. pUboch. 
fdiw. H. din. dewus 
koota. kookar.' F.fug 

fag (a tntcb), ceal^ (<iog)* 

f'baine (water), o)a (dniik)i qnea 
pecDa (to drink) • "i ° ^°b'' P"''* ^^^ "* " P**" 

C of that jog). 

««.. n.jl.7. mot morduec { °"^' °"*' <^"°^ "«* 

imdhera. chbippa 
dooara. P. dar - - donu. 

dootMDa. boma. daob-muma. 
peena. gbootna. khbcbna. 

muah, oulat. 
reaght (night). 

bouna. Data 

oidhe> galo-bu. 

boD. kbttodur. kaoua 
OS. kobir. fe«. koo-baSa 
f taUaw. H. khaee 
P. battugb. bntuk. 
f tub-butter, flietlhlee. 
guddee. tu'gur. gul 

canon) ganou. 
keo, keo-bbraio. 


gul, guilin. 

- D^al, naul. 

- facan (ondittgeDt)) mianad. 
poftree. \ piutbar, dearb-piuthar, coint 

- i (female), lurgo (ofipring). 

fbethee. kuonea. 

I lurkee 
dhoro. kreei 
F. tumbur." H. dboL dboluk. 
tguna. rin. 
- duara ... dara. 
nerafla • - - deimh. 

gcbera . - . gair (deep). 

Ibkka - ' - fie. 

f awk. ank. afa. chukb. ) nuc, nuk-keph (eye-hfli}, rO' 
I n^ - • i aiiiek (bcnlatiffinnu). 

< H. B. 7>iiW bom the Pprtufnere, (OilcbiiAJ. 


On the Origin and Language 




- can,k«» 

Ever, for ever 

. fawjaw ■> 

the Eiinh - 

- £uiwee, biOiottiilo 

Eyebrows - 

- yoene, coenue 

»oEat - 

- cMIow . .- 

STc1uPs.Se4Nigbt.D4rk ntti 
Egg - - yaios, ganim 

Epfllk - ' IH 

£difice - - ker, baua 

Eotiie - - zelo 



■ miug, dad, dade, dadi - 


- pratcheely, flammus 

a Flower 

- rogee, rofee 

a Flute 

- fchoU - 


- trelh - 

Foreft, wood 

- valh - 


- yog, yag, yak, yajo 


- peroe, piro 

Fioge, - 

- valalhtee, kurzhilo, guzdo, gulh 


- pordo - - . 


- wateryam 


- - - . - .. 

to Fight 

- campan 

a Feather - 

- por, for 

Feeliog . 

.- bawlaw - . 

to Faiot 

- aTefito,jalIow • 

a Flag 

. declilo - ... 



- matchee, mailtu, mulo, uelniacra 


- laHhom . 





kawn. P. gofh 
Inbiiee. CudA, nit 


goft, Sufl»m (to licar). 
nidli^, liodh-aire. 

Ar. oogab 


khuiu bbojun, jeona 

fSDJh. fDodbea 


fm. fumoocha 

iMgfct (nightj. 

kcit, duUi-keit. 

goir(tiBbitBtioo), gtiirme (ufu). 
Oui, &i, lair. 

bap. bab. pita 

t«m. lu 

p^iool. jobua 

buoTee. baoliec 

dur. P. tiln. H. d,hak 


ag - - 

paoD, ^r. pug 

nigUe, P, uBgoollit. 
b^ura. P. poor 
mnkhec - 
hrahee - 
punkh. P. pur. 

■irbnl. k. dooibul^ k. 


gaod«. diooteea 

mike, paoa (to find). 



«ol (inufic)> haoSz (a reed), 
eagla, treat (adTerfity). 
Mac . 
i^h| dalgb. 

pre (foot), preabAm (to ki^), 
breabam (to foot). Shaw, 

• borr (complete). 

- inafrecn, muiciD. 

• Imreac (coat of mail). 

- laubaladi, lamh (hand). 

^ ) deighl, deigbl greine (the flog •( 
'} the fua, FingaPi ftaodanl). 

• di-n'oUamb, geoin.' 

itseai, (fi(b, falmon by prectni- 
nence), mai^irt (iOi^ ftt 


On the Origin and Language 


• kaeddo - 

• akiu 

- puzham, puflian 

- dernagrefch 

latflulo, wiogro 
pro " 

• aflegDC) afibtneq, (flic, tfduj. 

idivtk, modanl, dewaj dewol, div- 
la, vitfa the Turkllh gyp^t, 
dolu - . . 

• fuhaikci fiuinui Ibvoike; 
:; Rftman chil 

• pappin 

• iHuio^humbo, gawr 

- bootfe, baro - 

- borwardo - , - 

- £nepou - • 

- waJiUa, tcheUo - 

- ciur, wira • 

- dudom r • 
' ytfdanffDffi, fcedha 

- kelli>peD, ticliilliiiiiaii ' 

- ktflio . ■ 




- ccO) keo. 

• acah, Buiflhiieu. 

^I^reah (a liDrfe), dear-groab (> 
J female coh). 

beng mendowk. 

cbickiMee. ftTcbeeli 


bukhtee. H. b,lug 

Hiana, ahar 

jata. j.hooU r - 

khoolM-bund. niibund, 

btbora. poora. (complete) pmite, bruitc (M). 

- du) tiuawal. (adj.) 


- &gbar, bhfbagor. 

- leathJ'ealUi. 


]urkbec. baadce. kunea 

. i .'(X'K (0^™^)! caihne (riigia), 
I cDiDt (woman)) bean (female}. 

SkhodLdawa-inBeDgalefe duile, cord^. du. 

kaz. haul 



ga» - 

fhnlla. lookee 
bokh. bukra 
kele. notlch, 

fan, fanarc (aori pogaentDm). 

cabra, geara. 


\ dana (bold, vnpetuoiu}, Hiiid> 
', muT-dana. 

- gai (fproudDg op). 
■ caul. 

• boc. 

- dd, ckai. 

- ba,^ 


Of the Origin dud Language 



- |«r,kk . . . 


. combo, corabee, bar, dombo 


- ^« . - 


• Iharrousi ihoro, chent 


- cappeet 

M«l6 . - 

- grw.gre.Way - 

H.T, ' . . 

- mancbouro 


• ravQo, ravoos, (hw«to, tfchcToTi 

Hulbiod . 

■ roine 


- (hing 

to Hear 

- Aim - 


- bdbw, bal, pal, bolttu - 


- tattoo "- - . 


- wfti - 

Hong, - 

• bccolec - . . 


- fchi - 

an Hour • 

- yacorah - 


- pyengro . . 

Hatred - 

- hodeben 


- balo - 

Hooe, - 

- gwju, mdcho 


• fboflii . ' . 

Heart, - 

- ficfi - 


- get. - . . 

Huotaun - 

- wezheflcro 


- pral . . - 


- bharahUo 



- baoro - 


- brdrimo, podrum, werda - 


cf Ihe Gfpiiis. 10$ 

gbur. - 

. few, gurm (an inn). 

l tongree 

_p"'"™^_}pri,bri.coic. ; 

binour. kakro. 


■ laor (bead, prince}. 

kookrw - 

- kom.' 

goira. fghaffi 

- grab. 


- fiwnib 

fwurg. hdUi 

■ ncamb. 

bfantur. knotb. 

ft»g. . 

. Cnnim (to blow tbc born). 


. fblt,pboIt. 

tuput. ugia 

■ tctb. 


■ baifc (the palm). 


boot^. ffag' jurce. 

g,biun. daid 

- uair. 

kuraee. kutaee. 


- obdiac. 

fimr. buiiyl 

- - lia. , 

P. (hahed. mad 

_fmaadh (metheglm, a li<IBOr 
1 made of honey. 

f lUa. kurr 

- gearr-fhiadb. 

P. dil. mun. chit 

- dil.croilh. 

gibah ■ . 

- giobacb (itill ofholo, lagfolO. 

Iheggar . 

. Iialg»,.. 

aeub cboodree • 

- bean (a burdea). 

( bhut. kc-UuDik tlcTftMh. \ 


On the Origin and Language 




, fafhn,,tiaiht 


- £ao, wocUee, idol dew - 


- yelto.paha - ■ - 


. Wefh 




. cteiris - 


. ■ derin, khdin 


- ««.g. .- . 


- gona •- 


- prinjerdo 





• dood, mgmmli, mnmeli • 



- liecaw, fhiwawa 



- gava, geeva 



- ochano - - - - 

to Lye 

- gochoben - - 


a Lion 



- romana 



- naikedoe 


to Laugh 

- Maw, favta 


- acontenee 



- Taccaihoe 





- coofe ■. - - 



- hctrfe, hetoi 



. jea,aua 



. p«ri. . 



. buko 



- butin 


. bango - , . . 








deuw, moret 

- l«JI.(l«ad). 
■ iodbil. 

P. Jiikh. tarf . 
deep - 

- oijbrc. _ 


. ..,rijh,61. 

tUKinta ■ 

- 8l«. 

- ki.(.p»rc,l»4). 

lou. prect. mob. mi. 
f batthee. yot. chandaa. 

liUu, bunin - btf (a letteiied miOi leaned). 

jwoora. atma. bolu. heea, 
jhooth ... gain, pi. gunth. 
jhootha kuhoa. 
bagh. fiogh. 
- b<dee. banec bat - bearla, '■ 

gya-goozTa. doobunhar. 
"f buflga. fhuofee; khU-Uuluia, 

takna. nibaroa. J 

kla. bherka bacha. 
Injulee. beej. chupla. 
Tunchik. ulop. tcDce - taiUL .\l 

ftiogeri. uog, bhoree kee 
ran (a trotter, oc flunk 
f juj. dheal. joon. goom^ul rtaoL 
puttee, palo. dd - - daile> 

knl^K. P. ijigur. 
fkar. teha. dhoOB. kain - duah, Cimm. 

tafun. Uogar, b^uugtt >> l)wad>» iaog (ankle, lhaiik)> ' 


TOI On the Origin and Language 

to Lick 

. tftsniwa - - . . 

to Lie down 


MooBtra. - 

. dumbo, cumbo, hedjo 

Mulio ' 

- cala, been 


- dit,4ii 


- rome, giorgeo, mnnufch, gadzc - 

Mot,fcod - 

- nufi ■ - - . 


• tood, tod - ... 



- ereriecoG 

Mono* ■ 

. onToderos 


. milo . 

Momog . 

- leijrile .... 


- gor«,o . . . . 


' moonab, flion, fhemnt* mardcEut • 


- uto, paDJ, pofhi ■ ' ■ 

M»d : - 

- fchik - . . - 

Miro (ree Horfe) 

- graTcbai ... 


- mm, moi ... 

Memory . . 

- likeweh ... 

Moltiude ■ 

.' but,behjr ■ . . . 


- lowe - 

MilenUe - 

- tihori, ropen 

Maniase ■ 



-■ i»ck,nSk 

Nonber ■ 

' boot, ^ ... 


. nie .... 



^ the Gypsies. 103 


f+mukfetkurna. oobarna. 1 ^^ . j^^ 

X buchsiC. teigna - ' 


letoa. lugna. purna ' hidhn. 

puhar, pr - - 

ng. ragruDg(mutiC|daaciDg) 

jpa.. mama, muhtw 

ipauoofli. manookh 


-(dbtid. doodh 

buhot. biieear 

our. p^ier 

kd. bihan. 


At. fiijr. j Hiod. bhor. turke 

bri, us, aifgeir. 

ceal. bin(niulic),rinke(danciag). 

modh, raaonas (a proper oaflu^ 

mana (food). 

did (the pap or teat}. 



;. doul 



duldul. kuchar 

duldul. cbuhla. keechur. 


moooh. mookh. anuo 

foodh. chet. 

bohtat. bothao 

ptyff. - 

hcDbcD, kuthoor. 

beah. bhoDDree 

( feafdr (the crepolcle] ; trog- 
l ain (Aurora). 


cann, ealc. 


greah (horfe). 


pioJk, lua (value). 

naL naGka. 
^Dte. t,ho. adadah 
nnh, Dukh 
nya. oaween 

• cad, nead. 
- ioDga. 


On the Origin and Language 




. thulih - . . 


- hMTifM 


- tattic, rvtigin 


- pelieeda - , - 


. . tneo - - -■ 



- eofirtan, puro 


- gurab, guru, gunii 


• udoa, corat , • 


. bauro, panec 

Oniott - 

. pumm, iolipurum 


- balaDo, mako 



- boyocrot 


- mitEhe - - - 



- ralhee 


. cietlig efcochare (fee King) 

to Pray 

- moughem 


- podrom 


- line, ciioverie 

a Piece 

- jek, otter 


- gere, wormo 

a Pear 

- brolil - 

Pepper - 

- peperi - 

aFcial - 

- Ubta - 


- maog»a 


- raja . 

Foweiliil - 

- foHo - 


- pra - 


of the Gypsies. 



fi)oee. doomoohee 



jat. buruD. log 


fgeideD. tgiiUa. P. findoo 
gbar. ghench. iminka 


tinniu. purauin 
tgonu. budhcc. bji 

bol, bolio. 


Ar. booloot. 


b^injiu - 
{ooroo. beu 
indnn. nj<4>biiDwun, 
mangaa. munvia. 
int. leelc. pug-dundee. 
chitnr. roop. moont 
ttJcban. tokra. tuk 



urrizL f iirdas 


bnlee. buleia 


irifcach (religions}. 

rds, ngh. 
balach (i giant), 
drugaire (a flare). 


On the Origin and Language 






- ■ doriobb, doriove - 


- lolo 


- bar - 


- vaunuftry, yanguftry, gufderin 

to Run . 

. prafthem 


- dcom, podrom - - 

Reward - 

. pleiflerdum 

ReTpeOaUe « 

- fchoker - 


- barwello . - - 



- temm - - 

to See 

- becaffin, difcaloe - 

I raw 

- me-dlkkaha. 


. bara - 


- bauro paiwe, doeyave, fero 


. boro, ftJi; 


. chavo - 


- bakera, bakro 


- cham, kaiD, okam 


- coulee . - - 


- congrogrc, kandini momelli 

to Sing - 

- givellan, giuwawa 


- gillee, givelee 


- bar, hire 


- radchevo 


• harroW) baurOi goro, chadum 


- P"'. V^ 

Sicknefs - 

- naphilifoli 

a Spring, fountain 

- hani, folyafi 


- pan, pen 


- gudio - - - 


- "^P. rup 


' of the Gypsies. 113 


birriat - - - bhfliras, kior, 

nod. Duddee. gung. P. dureca deire(rea]; ab (water). 

Tut - - - Tuadh. 


puhar (vide Hill) - 

• bair (mount 

arfee. f angutri. back 

. tog. 

luputna. ruinana. 

dugur. rahbat. duhur 

- r^^iad. 

luhoa. fjnfiiaf 

- luacht. 

jffeLta. msftiec - 

-' muiD-treach. 

tukeu - 

■j-muluk. Or 

- 'hf. ' ■ 

dekna - 

- deacam. 

nawara. bohit. A. ghoorab naoi, baris, carbb. 
■J-dfcbil.faguT.kala.paaee.duh baine (water). 

dhounihra. lat . 

- borchaol, tur ard, barchaoL 

beta. poot. lurk - 

- lurga (progeny). 


f kam. dumun 

- femh. 

j.hool - 

. Cailee (Uaek). 

heragand. hut. 

tguweoa. luhnkoa 

- garam. 

jjiaoj. b«n.johIa.Ioree. 

punea. put. 

nonknrnec chakaraee. 

tdhoro. kij}. furoba. occa 


poal. nalee. 


cboora. chooha. bhoor 

- bior, tobair. 


: bean <(eniale). 

fnitba . t. 

- mitheac. 


On the Origin and Language 




. starrie, tferheiqe 


. fep,lap 


. woph, ihu - " • 


. chawin 


- lefco, thee 


. ficjofta - - 

Shepherd - 

- bausoringro (fee Iheep) - 


: dicken - • • ' 


. ftocnial«, fupg - 


. h^ . 


. faTanow, fowawa 

to Swear - 

. foTOChclIO 


- brrja - 


. !ooB,!oB 

Summer - 

. tattabeen - " " 


- phar.rezh 


. barrow, balu - - - 

a Storm - 

- bauTO, bOTil, accocheiKW . - 

a Saddle < 

. boditou - - - - 


. pofomifo, gree - - '- 


- kak - - - • 


. arti - 


• mulro - - - " 


- yiivc - - . - 



. acavat . - 


. acavo . • • - 


. burgau - - ■ - 


» chmabar - - ■" 


. chive, tfchib 

Thunder - 

. godiie - - 


Tears - - 

. paoee, (wa 


- teehebea r 


of the Gypsies. 


tara. tamee. aucb. hutur • 

T»%. £uip, furpi 

dnali • , i 

joota. chuDMoon - 


beg. ubhee. bibuie 

bberee-bara. palec 

fpojb. driOit 

neend. oongbace 



OUIl. lOQ 


P. lificin. pat. tufui 


andbee. jhuUiur. 

]>alaa. kathec. 

ar. kbag. 

f talad. f rykam. Ung. 

fzatN dou]. dhub. bbant. 

tdnmin. rus. taree. 

t£il. pala. 




pal, aofaaire. 
<Icacam (co lee); 


■bakh. . 
Ktb (heat). 

,- e.aaifoc? {if thisbeJ) 
- nlean. 

. J oagar (city), brujjh (town), 
C pui-uitpiiTtan(viUjtgs). 

yeb. ee . 
woh. ooi. jUi 
nugur. poor 

jwl* - - - 8«'»»('leftfi'nJpe«h); 

guroj. ^uhur - - cniim, gmim. 

A. twakt. fumy, faera. kal. ' tuft 

iDr.mfoo . . bai«(adrop). 

&iich. fugb, fut. 


On the Origin and Language 



- rook - 


. miilidi - - . . 

Tomb . - 

- bauro balfcoplattr 


• denoam, dant - - - 


. tfcbino - - - 


- pori - 


-St ... 

Teot, roof 

. tfchater, cbor 


. tfchor .... 


. lino . 

«.Tite - 

- lana ■ 



. cbant .... 


- gaK, gal, jegag 


. delvo . . . . 


■ P"^ - ■ - - 


. tfcbek . . . . 


. fchelia . - . . 

Voyage, jonrtey 

. dram .... 


- fchnt - 



■ panee,panj 


. beval, bear, balwal 

Woman, fee p. 77 

. romee, i. e. a gypfey 


. mooi . . . 


. ohamo, lab. alo . 


- porno - . . - 

» Walh 

- towamab 

to Walt - 

- iaw, parafs 

■ Wbile - 

. bauro mattabee - 


. tattoo . . ^« . 


. Hlaloe - . . - 

Window : 

. khowe .... 


of. the G^ies, 

tooth, sach, brieh 


iutewur. choniee. Ar. gnbnr cabra. 


A. fkefly. nuga, 

poDch. '^dum, 

-t'tfchik. fuwad. rooch. chat. 


- rus (wees). 

■f-tfchik-roQtee. pal. deni. 
■ftfchuri chor. tdiug 
jhecna. pQtla. f fchaoo 

dair (houfe). 
taihgi) taghad. 
uni, (heang. 
la warn, lamham. 


f gauw. gaoD. gfam. - graigeiit grunfa. 


uiQur. bel- luruDg. 

f tfchelKrin. kuoojra - coiooe (a womas}i' 

f rerkida. farungee. ~ 

fmus «j. cbulna (to journey) fiulam. 

F.f Crrka. fundhaoa. 

panee. neer 

■{■beiar. bao. bae. P. haA. 

riodee. iftrec 


bat. bucbuD. byo. barta 

dboola. cbitU. kora 

Touch n a. kbancbntt. 

roogoa. dugurma. 


tutta. tat. gorm 

feetkal. jarkai bununt. 

kbirkce. guwacbu. 

- baiae> noir* 
• bod, an&i 

- Srea-pach (barlot). 

- mud (wine of hooey). 

_ J'labhia(rpeecb),ol(liud],l>reithr, 

I (a word), 
r ealtaidhe, 



On the Origin and Ltngaage 



s Whip 

■ chliebiie 

Waggon . 

- tadon - 


- banro paoee, pleffie 


- iMllaiWD, boliboo 

• Will 

- hanilc . 


- jiv 


- lurmoo - 


- yerai 


■ kazht, lurTcht 


- pnzhum 

Watehiag • 

- ftotioella 


. gadfi . 


- Icoroben* Icugribea 



. tedao ■ 


. Tabdi, beifdi ■ 

Yetonlay - 

- cillico< 



of the Crypsits. 



Lora. ougee. 
ch,hukra. lurha. ' 
tuhur, blien 
dine - F 

hiuh, koha> baolee 
I 'f'ghmt geohoon. 
luDchwa. keent. kcet 
fmum. mad. hoornuil. 
iakeree. kathee. 
fojc. oon. roan 
-f-kfffi. kholum wale? 

tosa. luraee. nui - 


beat, beardc, bnaice. 
bual (water). 

- roin(hairofaiunuIt}- 

- cule (lo«). 

_^florc (a Taliau wamorji 
L laoehiuie lore. 

buCifltee. hardeea. peoree. 
I J buchhur. (for yeanj barfoo^ 
: t bunij. 
Knl| p«ech)h]3<dui. 


120 On the Origin and Language, !(c. 

If the reader has had the patience to compare 
thi^ lifl of words, I thiok be will agree with tnc, 
that the gyf^ies do not fpeak the Hindu language : 
he will find many th^t are perfe^y Iriih or Indo< 

Thofe words marked with t, quoted by Grcll- ■ 
man as Hindooflanee, are not to be found in 
Gilchrift's, the moft authentic and modem dic- 
tionary oF that language ; and from which I have 
added many words, that correfponded with the 
gypfey words, that were not in Grdlman's lift. 
"Where the Irifh did not correfpond a blank is 

. From all which I conclude, that the gypfics are 
Circaffian mountaineers, that have preferred the 
Indo-Scythian language that ouce prevailed io 
Colchis, fome'\vords pf which are grown obfolct*; 
in the Irifli. 



JTROiyi my firil knowledge of Irifli "hiftoiy, 
and of the mythology of the pagan Irifh, I did 
conceive, diat thefe towers were crefted to con-' 
tain the iacred fire, and I have had no rcafon to 
alter my opinion. From that hillory it appeared 
evident, that, as in ancient Perfia, fo, in andent 
Ireland, there were two fcfls of fire worfluppcrs; 
one, that lighted the fires on the tops of moun- 
tains and hills, and others in towers^ an inntf- 
vation faid to be brought about by Mogb Nuadhat^ 
or the Magut of the new law, otherwife called 
jiirgtod-iambf or, who was the Zer- 
doft: or gold hand of the Perfians, who is feid to 
have loft his life by a Touraoian Scythian, la a 
tumult rajfcd by this innovation ; fo Mogb Nuadhat 
bad' his hand cut off in the ftruggle, but one of 
the Tteatkardadatt colony, or Chaldean magi; 
fupplied the iofs with a filver or golden band. 


1 22 Of the round Towers of Ireland. 

Thefe towers were evidently named by the 
Childcans '^'<^^n aphriutif i. e. templum, a name 
that ezills at this day in Irilh for the houfe of 
pray^ or benediction, viz. Ti atfrmty a ma&* 
houfej At. t^.-f ' afrian, P. (iferin, praife, glory, 
liencdifiion, blefling. In Cantico Canticonim, 
^fu« fibi fecit galomoQ, i. e. pnQK aphriun fibi 
fecit Salomon. (Aldrete Antig. de Efpana, p. 203.) 
By the ancient Hindoos they were named CoiU, 
wheoce the Cill and Ceall of the Irilh, of which 

'Xlie pagan Irifti worfhipped Crom cruMt^ the 
fame God Sorajier adored, in fire, firft on moun- 
tains, then in caves, and laftly in towers: this fire 
worfhip, lays Irifh hiftory, was introduced by a 
certain draoi, named Midhgbet a corruption of 
Magiufcb, which in Ferfian fignifies, nailed by 
the ears, not cropt eared, as feme have imagined, 
bnt the Zoroaftrians chained it to Megiufcb or 

" I'he Brahmins kept a portion of the facred 
*' fire cooftantly and fervently glowing in cs^tSy 
'* contiaualty afcending in pure bright pyramidal 
*' flame, fed with the richeft gums; this was prior 
*' to the Pyrseia, or fire temples, which vrae 
** always round, and owed their origin, accords 
" ing to the Magi, to the zeal of Zoroofler." 
(Maurice, Ind. Ant. V. 11. p. 279.) 

This pyramidal flame fccms to have given the 

idea of the round towers, which were conical, 

* and 

' See the names of Qgd explaiaed in the Cfpkj Yocir. 
bultuyi ch. 3. p. 86, 

Of the round Towers of Ireland. 1 2S 

and ended m a point at top, both in HiadoofbiQ 
aod io Ireland, as ve ihalt ihew hereafter. 

The tower of Ireland, dedicated to Brigit, a 
jaint, vho took on her the heathen name, is one 
of the higheft in the kingdom^ — Brigit tnghean 
■De^bda, bandea, a^ to mor an afrihnam, i. e. 
Brigit, daughter of Daghda or Apollo (the 
Daghda-nith of the Brahmins) a goddcfs, and 
very great wat her Aifrim tower, ■ or houfe of 
bcncdiftion. (Connac.) 

Zcrdufbt extruxit domicitia ignis, et fecit ea 
cum cupola excclfa, et igncm gladio non fodi- 
cndam. (Bundari, an Arabian.) Hence the cuftom 
-4>f the Scythians hanging up their fwords ty the 
facred fire, which made the Greeks fay they 
worfliipped a fword for the god Man. 

Non licet apud Perfas igncm cultro aut gladio 
explorarc, ne vim ei inferre vldeantur; uti nee 
apud Scythas-Mogolo-Tartaros, qui ctiam nolunt 
- talc inftrumentum admovct'e propc ignem. (Hyd?, 
Vet. P<rf. p. 35J.) 

Agathias fays, the Periian name of Zcffoafter 
.was Zaradufl:, i. e. Zerduft, and that it is uncertain 
when he lived or promulgated his laws. The 
modem Perfians fay, that he lived under Hyfiaf- 
fet, (Gofhtafp,) but it is not known whether this 
was the father of Darius, or another of that 
Dame, But this much is certain, that he was the 
head of the Magian religicm. (Agathias de Perfis, 


A PerCan 


1 24 Of the round Towers of Ireland. 

A PcrGaa author, named Mu^, fays Zerdnft 
was the fon of Doghdu, an qjithct of the fun in 
Irifh, fignifying the god of fire. 

** The Perilansj fays Prideaux, firft made the 
holy fires on the tops of hills, but Zoroaftres, 
finding that thefe facrcd fires in the open air, were 
often extinguiflied by rain, tempefls and ftorms, 
direAcd that fire towers fhould be built, that 
the facred fires might the better be prefervcd." 

We find thefe towers ftill exift in Caacafus, 
the firft fcttlcmcnt of our Ara-Coti, particularly 
is the remainder of the tribe of Dalguij^ now 
called Ingujhi. Thofe mountains were explored 
by Guldenjiaedt, by order of Catharine ; in Vol. L 
he fays, — " They call thimfclves Ingujhi; they 
arc Chriftians. They believe in one God, whom 
they call Daili (in Irifli Duile). Many of their 
villages have a ftone tower, which now fervcs 
them, in time of war, as a retreat to their women 
and children." — Under a church in the moun- 
tains is a vault, that contains certain old books, 
which the author was prevented by the weather 
from vifiting. (Guldenftacdt, Reifc, V. I. p. 

If Zcrduft and Zoroafter was the fame per- 
fon, the learned are in doubt. The doArine of 
berth' was the fame j they confidered fire as the 
mi^ fublimc fymbol of the Deity, and they wor- 
fliipped the planets as his agents ; but they bad 
no images — none arc found in Ireland. 



0J the round Towers of Ireland. 1 25 

The Liber Lccanus, an IriQi MS., records, 
tliat Tihermas (the Tahmurus of the Perfians) 
died on the feftival of Samhan, as he was wor- 
fliipping Chrom Cruath, the fame God that 
, Sanger adored. That this was the name of 
God with the old Arabians and Perfians, has 
been fully explained in the laft chapter. 

** All we know of the real religion of the 
" Scythians," fays the icamed Dr. Baumgartent 
" terminates in the worihip of the invifible Deity. 
** They admitted of no images, but, like the Magi, 
" only made ufe of fymbols. This is incontef- 
** tible, from their punilhing with death, without 
** rcfpeft of perfons, any one who was conviftcd 
*• of image worihip: They certainly brought 
" from Afia three new divinities, and neither 
*' worihipped them in images, nor dedicated to 
** them temples, groves, or any thing clfe. And 
** all the ceremonies, pertaining to the worihip 
** of thefe three ddtics, may be comprehended 
*• in the word Haman, fignifying no more than 
** a confccration, or religious ufage." (Remarks 
on Engl. Un. Hift. V. II, p. 121.) This word 
Haman explains the Irilh Ced-amain, i. e. Beil- 
ieine (O'CIery). Ced-aman is the fame as Bet- 
teine, or the month of May, or the fires of Bclus. 
Cedy fire, from the Chaldee m? kaJa, flagrare, 
conflagrarc. Then Ced-aman may be tranflated 
the fecred fire. From Kanian comes Breith- 
amhan, the facred covenant, the title of the> an< 
cient laws of Ireland. Some authors fay that 


126 Of ihe round Towers of Ireland. 

ID Cad was the name of Bclus, fignifying the ■ 
only one. Bel, or Beil, in Irifh, figoifies fire, and 
hence Bel, the fun. DuUe-amhan, God, par- 
takes of the fame compound. See the names of 
God in the Gypfey language. 

The learned Mr. Butler, in the fecond vohimc 
of his Hora Biblica, has fummed up aU that can 
be faid of the religion of the ancient PerTians, in 
his ufual conciTc and elegant ftyle. I fhall here 
take the liberty of tranfaibing it, and alfo what 
he fays of the EdJa. 

" Among the PerCans, planetary •worjhip very 
" foon prevailed ; but, if we may believe Doftor 
" Hyde, it fliould not be confounded with ido- 
" latry. In his opinion, light was conlidered a^ 
*• the fublimeft fymbol of the Deity ; the fun 
*' and planets as his nobleft produflipn ; fire as 
" his moft powerful agent. In this view they 
*' paid them a religious reverence, but their re- 
*' verence for them did not go fo far as adora- 
*' tion. From their ufc of fire in their religious 
*' ceremonies, they acquired the name of fire 
" worfluppers. In this ftate they did not reft 
" long ; by degrees an opinion gained ground 
" among them, that the heavenly bodies were 
*' inhabited by beings endowed with intelligent 
*' power, and entitled to religious worfiiip. Thefc 
" tenets are known by the appellation oiSabai/m^ 
" or planetary worfliip.'' No hcrcfy can boaft 
" fuch 

'' At die burial of the Atai, the Indiini giro money w tha 

Brahmin, who officiates at the funeral ferrice, to intercede 


Oftht round Towers of Ireland. Ml 

** fuch ia^ antiquity^ or of lb long duration, as 
*' Sabaifm ; it ccrtaioly prevailed before Abra- 
" ham. From Sabaifm, however, a part of the 
•* Perfians kept themfelvcs free ; they wero 
" called Mayans j they were not wholly free 
** from fiiperftitioos praAices, and probably both 
** parties admitted Dualifm, or rbe do&ioe of 
** two prindples. 

** ZonKifter wa3 the reformer of the Per&in 
•* religion. The time ixt which he lived is un- 
** certain ; and fome writers have fuppofed, that 
*' more than one perf(xi of that name took an 
*' aOive part in the revolution of the PerliaD 
** creed. On thefe poiats there is a great diver- 
*' fity of opinions among the learned ; their opi- 
** nioQS may be reconciled in fcnne meafure, by 
** fuppofiog, that two celebrated perfonages ap- 
** peared in Perfia ; one the Icgiflator of Pcrfia, 
(( both in Its fpiritual and temporal concerns, 
•' about the time of Cyaxares the Firft ; the 
** other the reformer of its religion, and the 
** founder of the Magian hierarchy, under Da* 
*' rhitt fon of Hyjiafpes', that the name of the 
** fecond 

with tlie gods for tLe dea.d, and to conjure the {tarj) to torn 
away their evil influence, as well as the moon (Sonnerat). At 
thif day the vulgar mouatain-Irifh, when tliey behold the 
new inoOD, lay, Fi^ai lu mi fian, mur fitarai lu me! May 
yoa leave tne lafe, as you find me ! In another place, Son- 
nerat tells as, the Indians believe the dead go to the moon. 
(See £^, in my Irifli AftrODOniy]. Eag fignifies death, 
and the moon. 


128 Of the round Towers qflreiand. 

** fecond was Zoroq^er, and that the name of the 
•* firil is uDknown j but that there is a proba- 
<* bility of his being the Heomo of the Zcodifli 
•• book, the Hm of the Pahlavis." 

** To the former, the Zend, as it was origi- 
•* Daily compofed, may be attribated with a high 
** degree of probability. To obtain an acctirate 
" idea of it, fome notion moft be acqiured of die 
" languages accounted facred, by the prefoit 
** adherents to the ancient Perfian creed, and -of 
** the writings known, or fnppofed to exi(b in any 
'* of them. The moft ancient of thefe languages 
*' is the Zend; it was pcohzhlj a very early. cor- 
** raption of the San/crit. The Pablavi was -the 
' *5 language in general ufe among the Periiaas 'm 
** the time of Zoroafter, and continned in generat 
" ufe till the fifth and fixth centuries of die 
** Chriftian a;ra." 

" But the Perfian nation at large adhered to 
** the rcligioH of the Magi ; its natural tendency, 
** however, . was planetary worfhip ; that id- 
** fenCbly gained ground on the nation j it cor- 
*' rupted the ancient doctrine ; it gave rife to a 
*' multitude, of fcfts ; all of them profeffed to 
*• revere the name of Zoroafier, and each claimed 
** to be the only obfervcr of his do£lrine." = 

" To put an end to thefe difputes, Artaxerxet 

. •* fummoned a general meeting of the Magi. 


< Planetary worlKip exifted in Ireland. This is evident 
from the nun^rle& altars and hills, dedicated to the fun, 
moon, and planets j as Cnoc-Grian, Cooc^Lnao, &c. &c> 

Of the round Towers of Ireland. 139 

** They are faid to have amouDtcd to the num- 
*' ber of dghty thoufand ; tbey were fooa rc- 
*' duccd to forty thoufand, to four thoafand,. to 
** four hundred, and ultimately to feven. One 
*' of them drank a cup of foporiferous wine pre- 
** fcnted him by his brethren, itll into a long 
** fleep, awoke, related his conference with the 
" Deity, and announced to the king and the 
** Magi the Deity's avowal of the divine miffion 
** of Zoroajier^ and the authentidty of the Zend 
** Avejia. From that time, till its conquefts by 
*' the Mahomedans, the whole kingdom of Pcrfia 
** was faithful to the doMne of Zoroafter." 

la the preface to my ProfpcfluB of a Dic- 
tionary of the old Irilh language, compared with 
that of the Chaldxan, Arabian, and Pcrfian, I 
have fliewn the great affinity, I may fay identity, 
of the Irijh with the Zend and Pahlavi } that 
the names of the ddtics, of the good and bad 
prindples, and of the priefts, were alike in both ; 
and I have alfo enumerated the duties common 
to the pagan Irilh, and to the Br^mins. 

From the hrat ingenious author (Butler) I 
. ffaall quote his account of the £dda, to fhew what 
the pagan religion of the Irifli ivas not, 

*' It is probable," fayS Mr. Butler, " that 
*' Iceland was origiQally peopled from England, 
" or Ireland. Of its hiftory, till it was dif- 
**_covered by the Norwegfans about the middle 
•' of the ninth century, wc know very little. It 
** i$ faid that the Norwegians found in it fome 
K *' vcftiges 


laq Of the rmnd Towers of Inland. 

« iteftiges of Chriftianity.'' As Scaadioavia was 
".converted to Chriftianity about the eleventh 
1* century, it feenis to follow, that the "EM^ 
" ipythplogy muft have tfccQ imported into Icc- 
*> land before diat time. 

" As the mythology of the Scandinavians be- 

V caipc more refined, the nuipber of their deitie» 
** ipcrcafed. They affigned Odttt a wife, Iriga, 
*' the Scandinavian Venus. Twelve gods and 

V twelve i^defles, all of whow were childten 
M of Odin^ completed the celcftial family, 

** Thoft the god of thunder, was the m(^- 
" powerful ; BaJdery the god of grace and €)o^ 
*-* queoce, the ApoUo ; Lake, the god of cuq. 
*' BJng, their Mercury. He had fevcral chil- 
*• dren, and fcveral monftcrs were bom of hijji j 
** the wolf Fenrih tljc fcrpcat Megdard, and 
** Hela, or d«ith." 

" So far as the writer (Botkr) can pcrceiv^ 
** the fcene of all the ancient fongs or njcmorials, 
*' which compofe the Edda, are Danifb, Swedilh 
** or Norwegian, and never Icelandic. From 
*• this it may be itiferred, that the whole fyflem 
" of mythology, exprefled in them, was carried 
** from Scandinavia int,o Iceland ; and this is the 
*• opinion 

, ' yfe have an ucoustt in Itifh hiltory, of fome tniC- 
Conaries going from Ireland to Iceiaudi in. the fevcoth. cen- 
tury, I think. A learned ^ioftSoz of Denmark, who had 
refided fgme time in Iijcland, mentioned the name of feverai 

Irifh families to me, whom he knew there. 


Of Me mwd TVwers of Ireland. X U 

" opfnuu of Adam of Bremen, Suco Grammi- 
" ticus, and other writers of authority." 

'* Od!r« is.tbe hero of the Edda^bat the wholtt 
" of his hUtory is involved in Ikble and obfcHrity: 
*' It is a probable conjeAore, that the tribes, 
'* which he led into Scandinavia, came originally 
*f horn the countries abdut Caucafus, from the 
** north of PerCa, and that, by different irrupt 
" tions, they fucceffivdy extended tlieit- couqiite^ 
** over the Volga, the Tanais, and each fide of 
« the Baltic. It is alfo probable that, at the 
*' time of their irruption into the Scandinavian 
** coutitties, which is referred to by the Edda, 
'* the principal feat of thdr refidence was Jfepb, 
** and that Odin was their leader.'* (Horae 

If Ireland had been peopled from Scandinavia, 
as fome have idly afferted (without giving theiO- 
. felves the trouble to learn the language, by. which 
they could have read the books of the Irifli^, we 
Ihould certainly difcover fomc remnant of the 
Edda in Irilh mythology, or in the nAmes of 
holydays, many of the pa^n feAivats bof^ yet 
retained in name. And if the FiHi of die Irift 
-are the Finnisy or Fmt, as Mr. Ledwich ^erts, 
the language of Ireland would have been fimilar 
to the Fin language. // it mt; .on tho eoitbary, 
we find the following flroi^ tenufirthtf &nd 
and the Irifli. 


1 32 Of the- round Towers of Ireland. 

■ZenJ. ■ Engr^. Iri/b. ' 

Ized) A good genius - Sid. 

AMd, the office of prajrcT AifrtBR, the maJt. ■ ' 

Afpal, a herbed - . - Abfd^. 

rUibiid. Ai tu Cu UriaUja 

Herbed, an eccleliaittcal \ la Ullaihl,, Thou art the 

order - . .1 celebrated Urbud prieft of 

t the Ulfter-nKD (O'aery).* 
Gah, prayer - - ■ - Gaih. 
Ardj'a good ^ius - Art, ard. 

Onuuzd, God - - Arm,God,root,origia;feeIzed. 

The word is written O-i*;! armuzd, evidently 
compofed of arm and ized. Arm^ in IriQi, is 
God. The Pater Nofter originally began thus : 
Ar n'Arm ata ar neamh ; Our (God or) Father 
in Paradifc. It is now written Atbar, as, Ar 
n*Athar ata ar neamh. Arm and Atbar are 
fynonimous, both fignifying origo, radix, v'xz. in 
Arabic »j\ arm, »<jl arum\ Ch. Qnn arami 
Ar. JCc atr ; Ch. -iDi? atr, all fignifying ftirps, 
"origo, radix. Ahermariy the bad principle j Ah 
armuhj i. e. curfed, unbleft. 

Agaiik* .in. common with the Brahmins, the' 
pagan Iriih had. 

• Piiliu til Igucola Magus (Hyde), nhvi 'n^O ^3 Cal 
ph^fi^ Baida, oouiea cultores Baal, a Ejngs, x. ii. n^D 
phiUh, un minifh'e d'uo temple, chez lez Pbeniciens (Abbe 
Migaot). Ca, dignified, magniliceDt ; P. j^— iu: a title 
frequently applied to proper names in Irilh. Cean ciad 
tf^tfii eutt, the celebrated Cena of the hundred battles. 


Of the round Towers of Ireland. 1 38 

Brabmimtal. EngU/b. Irijb. 

Budha .... Budh. 

OoTaoa, ^J")" 1 the faUen .ngel Uiftan, alias Socrai. 
■ Soolu-a, J 

Nanka, - hell - - Narraice. 

DagbtU - - . - • DagbdBi.the fun, Apoflo. 

Dmm»,Dh.,-l . . Di»niiug Dhmod. 

ma rajab, >. 

Bbabhani - Venus - BheUun. 

Gopia, • Mdes • Gubha. 

Callee, - black goddefs Cailie. ^ 

Varaaa - Neptune - Bhraia, pron. Vrain. 

Somif prefidiag over trees Soma. 

And many otbers; for which I beg leave to refer 
the reader to the preface of the Rxjfpeftus of 
my Irifli DiAionary. 

From all which I conclude, with certainty, 
that the old Iriih, or Aire-Coti, the primitive 
inhabitants of Britain and the weftem ifles, were 
the Ar-Coti of Caucafus, and the Ara-Colii of 
Dionyiius, from the borders of the Indutt whence 
they were called Indo-Scytba \ that they there 
mixed with the Brahmins, who at that period 
built round towers for the prefcrvation of the 
holy fire, in imitatiod of which thofe in Ireland 
and Scotland were built. ' 

Mr. Pennant, fpeaking of the Polygars of the 
Circars of India, fays, " All the people of this 
** part of India are Hindoos^ and retain the fid 
" religion^ with all its fuperftition. This makes 
** the pagodas here much more numerous than 
" in any other part of the peninfula. Their form 
" tea 


134 Of the round Towers of Ireland. 

" too it different^ bring chiefly buildings of a 
** cylindrical, or round tower Jhapgy with their 
** tops rither pointed, or truncated at the futii< 
** mir, and cwnamented with ibtnething ccccfi- 
** trical, but frequently with a round ball ftodc 
" OQ -a iTpUcie; this ball feems jntended to re- 
*• prefent the Suk, an emblem pf the deity of 
" the place." (View of Hindooftan, V. II. 
p. 125.) 

. " ICht Polygars of this country value th^- 
" fclvcs highly on their ancient defcent, and 

V (iteem themfelves the fird of Hindoos next 
** itbe Brahmins." (lb.) 

*' Bel ou Baal, furnomme Nimrod, fondateur 
•• de pli;,s ancien et du pUis vaflc empire dc 
*' J'Orieot, n'etoit, de I'aveu memc des andens, 
*' qije ja divinite par excellence du Sabaifme, la 
*' puiffance fuprcjne qui avoit debrouille k chaos - 
" et forme I'univcrs. La plus grande partic des 
*' Afiatiques adoroit le Sokil fous ce 
*■' nora ;' I,e3 Mofibites, les Phosniciens et leurs 
*' nombreufes colonies, et(uent de ce nombrej et 
*}. c£ qa'il eft utile de remarquer, Diodore nous 
*' apprend que Bel etoit le yupiter des Orien- 

V ipux 't auffi ayqit jl, comme ce dernier, AJlarte^ 
" la ffieijne que "fimo pour fcmmc. Conlidere 

V copimc fonijateur de Babylone, il paya le tri- 
** hut. au quel la> oaiure a foumis tous les hom- 
*f UKs, )1 morut ■■, mais, femblable en ccia \ Her- 
« O^e, p. pour les mSmes rajfons, la mort fut 

" pQlir lui Ec commencement de fa diviaitd. On . 


Qftheround Toitters of Ireland. ' 135 

** fe mit au rang dcs Dfciix, et h ihonument qui 
** Idi ftit confao'i etdh one Tour, qai fcrrat 
** i-fa-foK de Temple et (PObfervatoire. 

"Dans I'originc, les Temples des diraiitSS 
'' Sabeifques fiarent dcs Tcurs, des Pyranudcsi 
^* it des Mootagncs." (Polythcifine AnilyfSi 

" Lefe nations les plus voifiues de I'Afie, et qii 
•* paroiffcnt etre entrees les dernieres dans I'Aine- 
*' rique, ont des temples, ou le feu ell entretcnif, 
" 8e qill ne font deftin^es qu'aux ofagcs de re- 
" ligioD. Ces tfcmples, pour la plupart, forft 
" faits en ronde^ conune retoien't ccux de VeftS, 
" dbnt la figure etoit Ic fymbolt: de la Tcrrci dii 
" du monde." (Lafitau, T.I. p. 167.) 

Fire worfhip was carried to exccfs by ihfe 
Btahmins. ** The author of the Ayeen Afebex^ 
ihforms us it was faid, that 2355 yearsi fiffc 
months, and twenty.feven days prior to the date 
of that book, a man natneii Mahakmah, who WJ{S 
famed fbr the auderity of his maimers, built in 
this fdobah a fire temple, and worihipped fii if; 
and other pious perfons, uniting thertiTelves ■*?!& 
him, performed their religious rites j and mafty, 
devoting themfelves for ^ightcoufacfs fake, tftftifc 
fhcmfcives into the flames, "the tribe of Udodh, 
dirpleafeif with the ^uitom, complaiiied agaanft k 
to (heir princft,' fetting forth, tiat many pioplc 
Were deftrbyed Iti this temple, and recomirierided 
the aboRti6n 6i4.ii worfliip' amoii^ft the KraA- 


136 0/ the routtd Towers of Ireland. 

mini, as the only means t^ abdiilung this abnfe. 
The pnoce, in confeqoence, prohibited mtai from 
ignicofy. Whereup<»i a number of the inhibitecl 
befought heaven to fend them a mighty perfon, 
to punifli the tribe of Boodh, and rc-e(lablilh the 
religion of the Brahmids. The holy fire bad 
been extiaguifhed for fome timcj but, at the 
command of God, there iflued from the temple 
a perfon under a human form, with a divine 
countenance, and carrying ia his hand a bright 
(word. This perfon, who was Dhunjy, in a fhort 
time became king, and gave a new luflrc to the 
rdigion of the Brahmins." (Ayecn Akbery,- 


By this paiTage we fee, that fire worihip in 
.temples was early introduced into the Brah- 
minical worihip; and I have no doubt but the 
old Iriffa cuftom, of cxtinguilhing all the fires in 
.Ireland twice in the year on certain fellivals, and 
of rekindling them from the fire of the chief 
Mogb at Magus of each diftriA, originated in 
the eitft>— Badh put down the horrid cullom of 
Imman ladificcs, and fubflituted that of animals, . 
as the cock, the goat, the horfe, for the expia- 
tion of fins, as will be explained hereafter, 
V A drawing of the round tower of Ardmore, in 
the county of Waterfordj is hereunto annexed. 
(Plate I. Fig. i.) The reader will judge whether, 
if Mr. Pennant bad defcribed this tower, he could 
have ufed other words, than in his defcription 
of the Indian pagodas^ or as they were then. 


Of the roiind Towers of Ireland. iS7 

called Coil, from daiana, to -bum; whence -the 
Irifli (Kill) €ill, a church, or Ceall, from. Ch. 
n'7p KalOf ardcre. 

, Hamsaji in his travels into Perfia, lays, there 
are yet. four temples of the Guebres, or worflup- 
pers of fire, who formerly inhabited .all this 
^alle. It fccmed inconliftent, that the Perlians 
fnffered thefe temples to remain unmdefted, after 
the abolition of a religion, which they now 
cftecm grofsly idolatrous ; but they are made of 
mod durable materials. Thefe edifices arc round, 
and above thirty feet diameter, raifed in height 
to a .point near one. hundred and twenty fcct.^ 
There are fevcral ancient temples of the Gusberft 
near Baku, built with ftone, fuppofed to have 
.been all dedicated to fire ; moft of . them are 
arched vauItSj-not above ten or fifteen feet high.- 
Thefe, in the Pcrfian language, arc named 
y.O deire, and f^'-*-* y*^ deira-mogban, the 
temples of the magi, or fire ' worlhippcrs. The 
.like are found in feveral parts of Ireland, parti- 
cularly in Kerry, and the weft of the county of 
Cork. The trifh fay that they were erected by 
the firft milBonaries. They have the fame ap< 
pearance withinfide as the moft ancient Romaa 
arches, and were, like them, built without. mor- 
tar. They were probably the firft edifices of 
ftone that were ercfted in Ireland, and may pof- 
;fibly challenge even the round towers, which 
ftand near feveral of our old cathedrals, as to 
f Vol. I. p. ayi. (Ibid.i..38i.) 

138 Of the round Towers of Ireland. 

point of antiqnity.i The more general name for 
dicfe bnildfflgs is Teacb-draoii the hoafe of th£ 
draoi or priefl. 

BDtj ^s Dr. Ledwich, id 634 the Saracens 
conqnered Ferlia, and thefe towers are reiaains 
of dieh" minarets: docs the very learned doflor 
know, that the Chaldaeans, Arabians, and Perfians 
had all thdr minarets; does he know that the 
word minaretj and its fynonimous colli, eual, iiU, 
(kin) ceall, all Cgnifyjtfrf, and are particularly 
applied to thcfe towers, in which the fecrcd fire - 
burned P 

There can be no doubt but that thefe fire- 
toweis began with the Chaldseans, Numbers xxii. 
41. Balak took Balaam and brought him to the 
high places. The Septuagiot underflood what thefe 
high places were, and accordingly tranllated it 
XTHAH, the column, pillar, or tower of Baal. 

Zoroafter copied the tower of the Chaldasans: 
the firft was built in Smbar^ in the dajrs of Pba- 
ieg, before Nimrod was bom. This tower was 
named Chilah, Cbdlne, and Cbatane; it flood, 
feys Benjamin, in his itinerary, 4000 paces from 
the tower of Babylon. *' Nimrod ctiam nou videtor 
ex illorum fiiiflc numero, qui turrim cxtruxcrunt, 
6.VC tunc puer fuerit, aut nondum natus. Ita lo- 
quitur rex Affyrius ; nonnc cepi regioncm quae eft 
i\rpnL Babylonem et Cbalanem, ubi ^urr/j sedificata 

B Smith's HiHoTy of Kerry, where the reader will find a 
plate of one of thele temples; it U twenty feet Iodj* ten 
broad, and twenty h!^ on the outfide to the cop of the 
arch i the walls four feet thick. (P. i9i>) 


Of the round Towers of Ireland. 1 99 

(rftf la quern locatn Bafilins, vetercm ilkiii tunim 
dtdt, qaam in campo Situir sedificanmt.— Et 
CyrillDs; ChaioTU, ubi turfis a prifcis liomniibns 
sedificat^ eft, in extremis qnodammoelo Orieotis 
partibus uhnt regioncm et terrain Babyloniorain 
fita eft. Pro Charchamis, inqutt, LXX, addentes 
de fuo, regtonem tt^ns Babyloaem interprctati 
' faaf. et Chaianem ubi sedificata eft tioris." (Bo- 
chart, G. S. p. 36.) 

** Thofe nations, fays EjMpbanius, wludl readt 
fouthward from that part of tbe world, wbcre 
the two great continents of Europe aad Afia 
incline to each other, and are connefted, were 
univerfally ftiled Scytha;, acceding to an appel- 
tation of long ftanding. Thefe were of that 
femily, who of old erefled the great towers and 
who bnik the city of Babylon.** 

Lazica or Coichis, and Fontus, the eariy fint 
of our Aire-Cbti Scythians, correfponds witill the 
defcription of Epiphanius, and in that country we 
find the remains and ruins of round towers.--- 
The dd Hindoos, whom Bailly and odiers think 
arc of Scythian defcent, prcfcrve the firnn of 
thcfc round towers in their temples, and the 
Americans, whom F. Lafitau judges to bare come 
from Afia, do the fame. 

The name is alfo preferred with the Iriffa and 
other nations; which fhews it was univerfal. In 
the Pcriian &X^S^ kelani, a fire hearth; in the 
Sanfcrit, colli, fire, a temple; Hindooftanee, cbali- 
ana, chulna, <o bum, to fet fire to; O. Gredc, 

140 Of the round Towers ^ Ireland. 

•mx^. igtiis> fire CHdych.); in the Soero-Gotfuca, 

kylla^ juaxadercignoD-f ieMjlmra; beilicb chiU 

tboy £ui£bL ecclciia; ia the Perfiaa AJ'i itdli, ^ 

tower; - idem quod minar, ^Jt«^' j'^ minar 

Nim'od, the tower of Nimrod, alt fiowiag iirom 

. the Chaldee n^p kala, ardere ; whence a tower, 

^ ia the great, Irifli diftoaary Cais-mar-breitbr, is 

named Tor-barr-caol^ from the Chaldee "lyi baar^ 

urfit, combuOit^ from barr comes biraa, as ia 

maia-bhran, a fire-bradd. 

That the original ufe of the tower was fiar ^re 

is clear, by the words ligiiif)ring a tower io moft 


The Greek mfytt, a tower, is derived from 
«{,. fire, . quia flamma; inilar in acutum teodit. 

From the Chaldee (and Irifti) niM »r, Ai.jj 
»r,' fire, with n prefix comes the Ir. tur, a tower, 
a fire; turnOy a furnace, ioirfe, a lamp, teirb, fuel, 
and the Arabic with N prefix j>i nar, nar, ignis, 
hix, fplcndori jU^ minar, locus lucis, bjL*-« 
maaret, locus lucis, caadclabmm, lanteroa, pha- 
lus, tarns; Chaldee 13 war, flame, light; niJO 
minaret, a chandelier; Hiudooftanec, turraree, 
fire; Ax.jJ^ tur, mount SinjU4 " And mount 
Sinai was altogether in a fmokc, becaufe the 
Lord defcended on it in fire^ and the fmoke 
thereof afccndcd as the fmokc of. 2 furnace. 
(Exod. xix. 18.) And the mountain (SJnai) 
burnt with fire, unto the mjdft of heaven. (Deut. 
Jv. II.) And the fight of the .glory of the Lord 


Of the roujid Towers of Irtlarid: 141 

was nke devouriog fire on the top of the mount." 
(Escod. xxiv. 17.) 

Ytomnar, light, fplcndor, comes the Irifii near, 
figniiyiag aurora, and the crowing of the code, . 
as in the fbUowing adagcj irom O'Glery's voca- 
bulary of obfolete words, viz. Eite aros a neargalt 
let the farmer or hufbandnuu rife at cock crow- 
ing. ' Near and noir fignify aurora, Sanfcrit mer: 
Neargal is certainly the "jna nargely the idol of 
the Cuthites, ' 2 Kings xvii. 30. The cock was a 
facred folar bird; Chald. xynn arhf viilicus, agri- 
cola, hortulanus; Arab. '.iJ;^^ baris, Selden 
derives nargol from -13 nor, light, fire. The Jews 
have worked up a ftrange flory from this word 
nargol, a cock.—*' In coelis proclamatur, ut ap- 
propinqoaBte die portse recludantur, ne ulli re- 
mora iojidatur. ■ Hoc audientes, galli gaUinacel in 
terra cautare inciptunt, ut homines fomno cxci- 
tentnr: it tunc dsemonum vires franguntur, no- 
cendiquepoteftate deficiuntnr. Propterea quoque 
fajHcntes hujufcemodi gratiarum aftioncm inilitu- 
erant. BenediSlus tu Domine Deut nojier^ totJut 
mundi Dominey qui gallo inielligintiam. dederh, ut 
diem '^ vo£te difcernat. (Buxt.Synag. Judaic, 
p. lao.) Ch. ^313 nargol, gallus. (Id.) Kimchi 
will have the nargol of the Cuthites to have been 
theifigurc of a hen, gallinam fylvcftrcm, 1. e. ejus 
fonnas imagiaem fuiiTe Cuthais pro idolo. It 
certaialy was in the.form of a cock in the z&. of 
crowing, or fiiluting the aurora. 



142 ^ the rauad Towers of Ireland, 

The fire tower wu not uaiiEeifilly: adqited bj^ 
the pagan Iriih, as we learn from feveral Jkir> 
luflics recorded ia Kt&oty; as with the dd Per* 
istfis; there were feJhrics, that lighted their fires 
OD the ntountaDs, luid ob fflousts. Cal^ firej is 
apfdieda like all other words fi^ifymg fire, flame, 
to an altar. Cal-a'mi the altar <^ the fun, it, the 
name of a mouotaio Iq the coimty of Clare, 
•wbcrz the altar ftill exiits, aod there is'. ^Ib an 
O^iam ii^ctxption here: this mouDtahi is^ alfi) 
kaovn by the h^dc of Alteir na gremsy the altai 
of the fuD. 

Thefe altars were originaUy ^K:loled ja drcolaz 
tem^es. The IriQi philofophera compared God 
to a circle, that has neither begiaoiag nor eodiogi 
or as thej expreJTtd it, Tofaeh gan tt^ach, a be- 
ginning withoat an end} of which in the KiTayt^ 
AiboBomy. All the temples were oval or cir> 
colar, of which I fiu^ give many e^m^: a 
drde is e^nxffed by the word circet or kirkti 
bence, to go to kirke was to go to worlhip. The 
Gothic nations borrowed this Word of the Iado> 
Scythse. ** Kyrka, kirke^ asdcs facra, tcmpJuM, 
quia fonna circulari, quum cirk citculBm notet. 
(Lipiuis, Ihre. &c.) 

iEdes facras Hdvetit hodieqae KUti dkufit, et 
etiam apod veto-es Aleraaonos eadect vocis fenaa 
occunit. Pf. 74, 9, le^ur dar hits da^^ms btHiih 
dikbo-; I. e. ibi tempJum quod &n^ ecdefia^ 



Of ike round Towers of Ireland. 1 43 

la iiilcripti<Hie fymboti Alcmanoi apud Gol- 
DAGTUM, cry dir absn kildnrtt fymbolum vetcris' 
eccldue; fiDcerioFos banc vocis bajus formaBk 
efie autumat, camqae baud diveriam ab illat qua 
iQ CckKcc argcDteo reperitur, keUk, ieliiin, quse* 
que turrim notat. — Culina, docente Fdlo, DOtavit 
locam, ubi qiula in funere comburcbantiir. — 
NoNio veto aufiorc, locum a»iium, ubi lai^bt 
ignis coletntur; et fi altius afceudinuis £br. 
nip kola, eft tomtit, cui addc "jna pruna (Ihrc)., 

In the Saxon, Cyln, a fire-place, a ftoire, 
wbcDce Lime-kiln (Johnfon). 

I believe there cumot now remain a doubt on 
the reader's mind, that the kUl, or tower, was 
to OMitain the facred fire. 

There Is a paflage in the Perfian hiftoiy, to* 
Lating f.o the cftablifhmeDt of the fire-tower, fo 
very fimilar to that recorded in Irilh hifh^, it 
muft not be here omitted, thongh detailed before 
in my Vindication. Mircond relates, that Cata- 
bun, daughter of Arjaff, or Argiajb, king o£ 
Scythia, was married to GuJbtaJ^, that is, horfe- 
eared. Gt^/<^ being feated on the throne o£ 
Perfia, and knowing the great, ftreogth of die 
Touranian Scythians, bnilt a wall to feparate 
Iran from Touran. In this prince's reign ap- 
peared Zerdufi the Second, or Zoreajier, the 
legillatOT of the Guebres, at fire wor{hippcrs. 
G.ujhtafp frequently- retired to a mountain to reiuL 
the book Zendt that Zerdafi had prefented to 
him.— Notwithftanding this wall, Ar^a/^ found 


144 Of the round Towen <^ Ireland, 

means to plunder Kborafant to take Balk, wbcre 
Lehorajbvis killed, and to drive Gujbta/p to the 
moantaios of Partbia. — Khondemir accounts for 
this ftq> of the Scythian king in this manner. 
Gnfitta^ fuffercd himfelf to be miHed by Zer- 
dall, and, not iatisficd with the cilabliflunent of . 
Mofffm in Iran or IVrfia, he prevailed on Gulh- 
tafp not only to refufe the tributes he had 1>eea 
accnftomed to fiirnllh AijaTp, but to write to en- 
deavour to prevail on him to adopt this new re- 
ligion, vbich provoked Aijafp to march into 
Touran. Asfcndiar, fon cf Guflitafp (or the 
horfc-cared), drove him back into Touran, and 
- obtiged the Scythians to adopt the religion of 
Zerduftt at the inclofiog of the facred fire in 

liifli hiftory details this in diis manner. Maein, 
alias Labiar-ioingseachf was fo named from Jab- 
tar, a book, which a certain draoi (P.jjtSiiaru, 
a prieft) had prcfented him with. — Can he read ? 
&id the prieft. It was. replied, He can. — Then, 
fays the prieft, he fliall be called Labhra-loing- 
feaeb, from lahhar, a book, acd l.oingseoch, 
horfe-eared.— — The draoi planted a tree, which, 
~vhen cut down, and made into a harp, would 
play but one tune, and that was da chluais cba- 
fuil jtr Labbra'Mngseacb, i. e. two ears of a 
hark on Labhra-loingfeach. This alludes to a 
cyprefs it is faid Zerduft plabtcd, which grew up 
into a great tree in one night, to convince Gu/b- 
ta/p that he was s real prophet from God (Hyde). 


Of the round Towers of Ireland. 145 

In the Hi^sire des decouveriei 'dant la Ruffe et 
la Perfe^ there is an account of many rouod 
towers, faid by the inhabitants to be tfac work of 
very remote times. At Bulgari,' not nine wcrfts 
diftant from" the Wolga, where our Airc-Coti 
firfl fettled under Cafair, the mod remarkable of 
the ancient buildings, fays Pallas, is a round 
tower, called Mifgir, which appears to be a cor- 
ruption of ^^O^ muzgi, Cgnifying, to make 
the holy fire bum bright (Richardfon). 

In the midft of the ' ruins of Kafimof^ on the 
Oha which falls into the Wolga, is a round and 
elevated tower, a fort of temple of flone and 
bricks, called in their language raj/ya/V (Guthrie). 

In the country of the Kifti and Ingufliti, very 
andcnt nations of Cauo^us, mbft of the vill^iges 
have a round tower. 

There are many towers in Ireland,, that by 
their names plainly indicate they were fire- 

Aoi-Beil-ioir'^ was a high d^ity in the pagw 

church. Wherever the word occurs in the 

L BreboQ 

* Aat-Btii (orr— the community of the towen of'Belu. 
Bf thit name (coatiaucs the fame law) they were fani' 
mooed to the Naai^gbau, or CiirtaiUe ; wordi explained by 
the cojiUBCOtator by Mor-dfult, or the great aJicmbly. Mar- 
SmI Drama eek, the patliameot of Dromceit, in the county 
of Derry, at w^ich Colum Cille affiled (O'Briea ad retb-). 
" Naaj wa* anciently the lefideoce of the kiogt of Lrai> 
Iter.' Here the fiat« of that province aJTembled, during tbt. 


1 i« .Of the round Toie&rs of It'daiii. 

BrehoD laws, it Is uDdcrUned by tlu camitieti« 
tator, and explained by the word Ea{b^,.iki,V 
is, Biihop. 


Drum, Drui/tti and Deire, fignify a temple, is 

Silb-druimy the cathedral church of Caflicl. 

Drufrt'fola (not/alagby the cathedtal church 
of Annagh. 

Drum-firty now DruoiD^. 

Drum-cliabb, co. Clare, where there is a fire- 

Drem-agby the temple of fire, co. Cork, in the 
parilij of Collen, or Callan. 

Czth, leTcnthi and nghtb ceaturiet, after the Naat-leigiau 
of Carnien had been ftoathematized by the Chriftian clergy." 
(Seward, Topogr. Hil>. at Naas). " Carmen, the capital 
6f the ancient Coulaa, and the Naai4eigbm, where the 
routhcTD part! of lietnflef met ; it was filualed about five 
miles eaft of Athy." (Idem at Carmeii.) Ch. rb>i n^a, 
prsefes fenatorara, a prioce ; Ar. ^ji?j Ncfi, noble, high in 
office ; cXaAJ Unhand, a convention i Keftleghund, a con- 
TCDtion of the afMti.~~CareaiUe, a meeting of the Hates ; 
Ar. / AXXjj^ KourilU, a parliament, a word of Tar- 
tar origin (Rtchardfon). Thii ii confirmed by r>'Heri>elot : 
*' Apres k mort de Tourakinah, Gainkhan fe tint one af- 
femble gjoirale, que les Moguls appellent Cariltai" It was 
certainly adopted by the Perfians, for in Caftellns (Mt>Jf aJ» 
hurahan is traollated magmu conveniai. Coold Joroandet 
rife from the grare, he would blufh, and draw his pen acroK 
his ScaiuSa OJic'ma geniiam, and agree with the learned Sir 
William Joaesy that Perfat i\ot Scandinavia, was the F^aa 


Of the round Toweri of Ireland. 1*7 

' Dram4enn, the temple of the fuDj co. Lime- 

Drum aod Deire are from the ChaMec irr dur, 
pyra ; whence we have the Irifli Dur-lacby a 
church or temple} Ferf. i^O deir, a temple of 
the Mi^''} WmAoo/St. dtoburaf a pagod; Zend, 
Derimber, a' temple j hence Deny-gritb, the 
temple of the fun, co. ■Watcrfiard ; Derry-gratb^ 
i. e. Gr;/A, diocefc of Lilmore. 

The reader is r ef erred to Seward's Topo* 
graphjr of Ireland, where he will find no lefs 
than 128 names of places, moftly church lands, 
with the prefix Drum ; in moll of which, if not 
all, pagan temples have exifted, as is evident by 
Cbriftian churches having fucceeded. Drum, 
when applied to aftronomy, and certain local 
' fituati<Mis, fignifies the-foutb', in Chaldce □ini 
darum. See Cbapt. AAnmomy. 

Fire, in Irilh, is exprcffcd by the following 

Adair. At Adair, in the county of Limerick, 
are the ruins of feveral abbeys, mdft probably 
bailt on the ruins of fo many pagan altars. 
P. jtil adber, Adher-bigian, a {wonnce of Per- 
iia, correfponding to the Media of the ancients. 
In this province they fay Caimuratb was bom, 

- who (according to fome, the Ton' of Aram, 
fon of Semt fon of Noab) eftablilhed the firft 

. djmafty of the kings of Pcrfia. In effect this 

country is very near the Gordian fountains, 

L 3 where. 

Its Of the round Toteert ^ Ireland. 

*llere, accdtrding to oneatal traditioit» tbfc ark 
of Noah rcftcd j aiid, there is great prbba- 
biHtjr, the firft monarchies of the worki owe 
HUNX origin to ttus coutttry. The Perfians 
think that the toorjhip if fire vas eftabliftied 
in thi6 ^ovioce by Zerims^t and that the 
.grett nuffiber of the Pyrea^ or places where 
the lacred Rte of the Magi was preferved, gave 
this place the naoK of Adbcr-baiglHant from 

.. whenct that of ^dbtr-btgian is com^ded; 
Adhet %ntfyrog fire in Pcrfian (D'Herbdot). 

Aiw^ Atarit Atia, and corruptc jiithie, Alan, or 
AiVin^ and Adair, arc particularly ufcd to ex- 
prefs the £re of the facrifice. Artiaae teitUf 
the fire (^ fires (O'Cloy) } a firebrand 
(O'Brien). I think the tranfiators of the Irifli 
Teftament had this word in view in the four- 
teenth chapter of die A£b, Ti 13. " Then 
the prieft of Joplter, that was before that <^, 
brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, 
and would have done facrifice with the peo* 
|>le." For garlands, the word AtiOi Is intr6- 
tlu'ceds a word which, befides &e, fignifici a 
vdit or coTcrnig, and cannot i^nify a garland. 

Atoun, in IVhIavi, according to Acquets dti 'Ptx- 
ion, was -fyoonymous whh Ader:,'' " Nom dc • 
phifienrs fcux qui fe foot iBontrea aux hommes 
fi)Dfi des forcnes particnlicFct ctdcsGcnies mftnes 
jprcfideDtaccsfetix}"^ thename of feveral fires, 

'Zend* Veda, V.I. Difc. Prel. ccccxd. 
» Zenda VetU, V. II. p. J4. 


Q/" the rtmttd Toteers of Ireland. \ <> 

' which have appeared to mcQ under partictilar 
forms, and of the Genii theinM7es,whoprcfidp 
orer thofe fires. — " From the Ferburtg Borban 
Katee (irfiich, like Ferhung yebangeerit has « 
very loBg and curious article on fire worfhip) 
it alfo appears, that the fame vord fignified a 
jErc templet *n^ the angd or gmiuf that prc- 
fided ova- it. Thus we find- that jOl 
i_-^)#jj*iJ^fl</A«"» or Azer Git/hia/p, was the 
name of a fire temple erected by Guihtafp a^ 
Balkh, and it js the name of the tagel that 
fuperjntcpded or prcfidcd over the fire."' 

Hence, I think, Ailbtie, an ancient SRri& 
in tbc county of Meath ; Jdfiitt county <^ 
Limerick j Atbne-Camet county of Weft- 
meath ; Aibneit county of Limcricfc ; Atart^ 
ftaghi' C^een's county, &c. 'St; names tCr 
taiifed from the fir^ temples, that eidftcd at, 
thofe places in pagan times. 

Art, fire, the deity of fire, fun. 

Acdbi aodb i hence Caifn-aod, an altar of ^ 
fun ; . the Carmdde of the Britons, and noj 
from the Hebrew Keren-Nedba^ a piled heap, 
as Rowland thinks. 

Atiy Ain, Ain-geal; Hindooft- dagbna, to bom. 

Asf .fife; Mias, an altar. Hebr va At,, firej 
C\[LAfa. ■ ' 

Agbf bagb, dfligbj (ioigbr Hindooft. ag^ fire; 

dagbmi to turn. Ch. pirr 4^cby plcniraqac 


■Ollleley*i Epitome of the Anc. HHt. orpcilia, p. So. 


1 50 0/tMe round Tcwera of Ireland. 

. de flammis & ignibus; and heoce, I think, 
■Mi^bf a Magutt a worihipper of fire. 

WhcD the Ferfiaas conquered Armeiiia, the 
mouataiQ, on wtucb they lighted the perpetual 
fire, was named Bagb-aven^ ffom Bagy fire* the 
fiiQ, and Jvettf a moantain (Mofcs Cboron. 
L. I. c. 74.) i hence I think Baganacb^ and 
Faganacht a fire worftupper, a pagan. 

fioii, BmtSi fire; Btdtfleach, the fire of fires, a 
great £re. Cb- DQ3 bitttt ardere, lucerci 
Ar. v_JiLJ Uak, fire. 

Breot firej Breo-cban, the houfc fire, a fire 
temple; hence Breebin in Scotland, where 
there is a round tower. Pcrf. (^* ^ jJ perkin^ 
a fire hearth, a temple of the Magi (Rich.). 

Cedudii.i\. Leaba» flame, altar (O'CIcry); 
hence Ce^umatn^ i. e. Beil-tefne, the fire of 
Bclos, the month of Miiy- Ch. rr^ iCadab, 
flagrare, conflagrare. — Se? Amaria &cred, ex- 
plained, p. 135. 

Caildnt a fire, an altar. F. AJjjkS'k^anh a fire 

Dalloct DalcOi fire. Ch. p^i dalaqt to bum. — 
Kill-dalloc church, near Coleraine. At Dalky^ 
jiear Dublin, are the remains of many pa^ 

. altars; and at Chn-d^lkin, a fire tower.— 
DoVtcbenius is thought by fome to bf the iamc 
as the fuB. 

FMt fire ; SatUbit, Vabn ; hence fan^ a temple, 

a church. Fan Lebmt, the church of St. 

Ix}buis, in the county of Cork; hence the 



Of iU round Towers of Ireland. i 5 1 

Latb faatm'i • ^ temple, s vord Vairo derives 
from fando, qudd pontifices ia facrando hnum 
faittuTj quod vocabant effari templa ; a dcriTation 
which ,V(^ps ridicules, and Aiofwortfa leaves 
as h« found it. In Arabic and Pnf. (j*yiU 
fanest apharos, a lighthoofe, a lanthom; 
P. ^ fenj, a church. See Art. 8. Sun^ 
chapter Ailronomy. 

'G«r, fire, fun ; whence surm, to varmi F. >)^ 
ptrwif warm, heated. Lough Gurj county of 
Limerick ; Curteiaet the fire of fires, county 
of Tyrone, &c. &c. ; hence Griartf the fun ; 
GraitK, a lacrifice. F. o^t^^'^^* 

Crainef a facrifice. Many places in Ireland are 
ib called, that were places of facrifice in'pagaq 
times, as. 

Gratify, near Waterford, now called Grace Dieuy 
and fevcral others, mentioned by Seward in his 
Topography of Ireland i all from the fame 
root as Griottj the fun ; ^m aiibinne tetneadb 
gom, the file c^ fires (O'Clery); a lighted 
coal, an ember (O^Brien). 

Leaba DiamM is graine^ the alt^r aifd fiicrifice 
of Diazmut, &c. &c. &c. . 

Gabbar (prsnounced gnor"), whence geber, gue- 
brtj a fire vorihipper. Gabriely Vocant Ga- 
brieUmt angelnm igaii (Maimon. de fund. leg. 
p. i6.). 

QaU fire, flame, altar. Gal-ban, ignis Solis. GaU 
ti-mr» the altar of the^ great God, is ftill 


l£Z Of the round Tvwerv »f Jrtltmd. 

ilaoding on die moantwi of Galthodr, w G«I- 
tics, county of Ts^^caxj, Cb. »*'?3 ^«li, ^tei- 
dait, ccHiiftavit. 

Lofty lo^y lafair, tlafair\ Ar. tJoi Itaxa^ a 
flame, fire ; Uilezxy, flanuDg. 'At Lufi, near 
DabliD, is a fire tower. 

Leaba^ fiarae, an altar ; as Let^a Diar^utt Leaba 
Caili, the altar of Diannut, the altar of CaHi, 
both divinities Of the Brafamias and Hindow. 
** L^aba is an altar ; it is the name of fevnal 
*' monamcDts in Ireland {fayt O'Brien), calfed 
*• by Ac common people leabthaca ns Feine, 
**. the mcwqments of the Phesi ; buttheywerc 
" prt^ieriy pi^;an altars, on which they offered 
** &£tiiiccs to their idol gods, and ore yet to 
** be fccn in different parts of IreliDd." 
Ch. 3n^ lebaby fiamma, altore; Ar. i-^ 
kbab-f Ch. lyiini iebabot, infiamnatios ao 
epithet of the fun, whence Leibte^ a name of 
Apollo.—'* Wim but ^1 oricDtalift" (iays the 
author of E^na primitiva) " can tcU, *hy 
" the JHp of Hercules was named Letbtt by 
** Athenxm, and by odters ApoHo ?" 

Hence wc have LeeAa-ne^, the hill or 
moundun of fiame, and, perhaps, Libaims, in 
Afia. — "Fama refcrt dsnnonimi iUufione inibi 
apparutffe qnotannis. ccrta die ^nicuhmf in 
modum AeU^e, qui h' Libani rertice cua in- 
petu ruebat in fol^efium ambem, et crecleblt- 
tor dTc VcQus.'^— -M£t Zofimus. " Juxta ft- 


Of the tvund Tovtrs of Ireland. l si- 

tium ttt Tictaa loca ^nis^ inftar Umpadis aut 
globi, in acre confpicitur, quotics (latutis tern- 
poribus ibi coDveotus habetar ; qui quidcra ad 
noftram «tarem uique confpeflus fuit." (Vide 
Bochart, V. I. p. 749.)— C^erc, if ftom this 
yroxA h derived Lfbadia, an ancient town of , 
Boeoria, where Hxt oracle -oi JujMter Triphonius 

LeaCf luc, 6Pe, flkiiie, ida.t fun. Rtn^ac, l q. 
Crem-Uat, an altar (O'Brien); hence Kili-na- 
4eMc, the tempk of fire, or the ftin, cowity of 
Cavan ; Lman^ fons fbtis, a fuiphmeous fpting 
fieu Dahlia. At. <^(jJ leyak, flamraa. 

Oitr^^ fire* hearth, (an. £gypt. Ons, the fun; 
Ch. pH On, Hetiopolis. 

Portt fire; Csall-phori, a cathedral, the temple 
of fire; Furfin, a tower, a turret. P- }JjJ 
•ptatix ; Hindooft. fhoart^ poartou^ fire, light. 

Teine^ fire ; Beil-teiiie, the fire of Belus. Teiae- 
athar^ the fiithcr or radix of fire, lightning. 
Ti-ieine, the god of £te; Tifattf the liin. 
Ch. j-to /m, ftdJmt ifire; At. {^ temt, a 
furnace ; P. (^^ tunit o*e that takes care 

Teirt fire ; totrbt fiiel (Cormac). IfindooflS. Kw- 
rar«, fire. 

i7r, ^fc'r, fire, Am fua. Cfr. T» ifr; -Al. jj 23f j 
whence j^ nwr. Hence I think many places 
in Ireland are named ; as Nuri, or Newry, 
from a great altar near that place, called Cam- 


IS*. 0/the round Timers of Ireland. 

Ban, or, the al^ of the itm-^-BaUy-mirty and 
fcToal others. 
UUat and with the pr^ Ttdla, and with the 

fuffix agb, Tull^b. UUa agtu cle^tu an 

naoimb Colmain, the fire-lleeple and the belfry 
of St. Calmaa. Ulia-mat, the bcofire-tax, col- 
lected on the ere of the feftival of Saman, or 
all-hollow'tide. Ur-ulah, an altar. UUa na 
teampuiU the fire of the temple ; tnmllated, by. 
Shaw* the Calvary of the church, but what 
he means I caoQQt conjc^hire. Hcace KUl- 
da-loOi the church of the two altai? (aUas Kil- 
laloo), in honor of the aquatic deities Dear^ 
and ^i, frotn whom Lough Rb£, Lough 
X)earg. Ar._^Xc aioo ; Hind, loo, flame» blaze. 

Towers ^ill Jiandingf tiat derive their Nm^t 
from tbe foreg^ng, 

Agba-gabbar, the fire of fires. 

Ballagbf i. e. Beil-agby the fire of Belus. 

Breicin, in Scotland. 

Caill-treej or Caill-iria, Cloordalkin, Cloint. 



KiB-aidt KillaloOy JSlimaabu^b. 


MeUact Metie. 



Of the round Towers of Ireland. 155 

Agb entcn into the names of Durobcrlefs places 
of divme worlbip, , from whence pariJhes are now 
called ; as Ougbler-agb, Inni/Ioun-agb, Finn-agbf 
Gilk-agbt Agh-liSf Rinnagon-agb, Kill-agb, &c. 
&C.&C.; and hundreds of church lands, rec- 
tories, and vicaragest commence with Ur, Tuliagh, 
9aA. TurJt^bj- &c. &c. ; and .many other names^ 
preferved by the CbrilUan bifliopsi like thofe of 
the fcftiTals. 

Ood, out of Ins toduIgcDce to the weaknefs of 
human -nature, permitted &e Hebrew nation to 
retain in their ritual a few of the facred fymbols 
pf their Aliatic ncighl?ours, 9.^ for.ioftance, fire; 
fandtfying the fymbol by its adoption into a 
nobler and 'para- Tyfiem of devotion. (Maurice, 
Indian Antiq. V. 6.) ; - 

I am aware fome of thefe n^mes may. be dif- 
putcd ; and I may be told tiat. jigbagnver, i. c. 
AgbagabboTj fignifies the ford. of the goat, but; 
^t would he agb-na-gabbair i -^ long as the 
tower of Agbagbabbar (or the fir^ of fires) ftands, 
I pannotaJter my opinion. 

The Indian word Paged, according tp Gil* 
chrift, is corrupted from But-kuddee. The Per- 
fian name is But-kbanu, meaning the houfe of 
idols ; Ar. c:o l>ut, an idol, an image. I rather 
think the old Irifh, Butte, a fire, and cad^ or aid, 
holy, forms the Hindooftan Bui-kudu. But is an 
image in Arabic ; in HindooAanee an image is 
named Moorut. 



156 0/the round Towers of Ireland. 

Bvt^ or Pirf, BID was the Apollo of the Chal- 
deans ; accordiag to Bochart^ M-hutto, or pater 
But, n the Apollo of the Japanefc. Ch. ODi 
iutt, lucere, fpleaderc; Ht9^Q-)3 katiat GxatiUi 
locens et ardens. ^iioi Phuim was an (^d Gre- 
ciaQ epithet of the fun and Jupiter, according to 
Hefychius, by Tome conftrued thi; autl^r of ///»• 
mnaiien ; and Buth Is a Clascal word fot the 
fun in Iriffa. Fire worlhlp originated is Chal- 
dsea, and therefore it is probable But-iudAi, a 
pagod} means the holy fire, or the facred fan ; 
for, m all their prayers, tlie Hindoos implore 
blelOngs from the fun. (Ayecn Akbery, V. 11. 
p. 294. 

That thefe towers were ufed as bellries, there 
can be no doubt ; and why they fhould not have 
been fo ufed before Chriftianity was introduced, 
I know no reaftm. Tlie lame canfe extfted, 
oamdy, that of aflembling the people to devo- 
tion. The Egyptians had bells; and the Irifli 
Ceoi (Keel)t ^ bdl, and its diminutive Keeian, a 
little bell, was certainly derived fix>m the Egyp- 
tian Kd, a bell (Kircber). 






A. HAT the ancient Irifli, or Indo-Scythiaai 
(origtnaJly Ferfhns), had a fecret or myfterions ' 
charader, as the word Ogham implies, is beyoitd 
a doubt ; and that one alphabet of this Ogham 
was ip bjrm of a dart (called by the French the 
chie at nail charader, withoot any reafon), the 
MSS. ftill exifting arc a foffidcnt proof. 

The powers of thdc characters are loli, and, 
fai the coorie of three thoti&iid years, many al- 
phabets have been invented, and nfed on monu- 
ments, very dtffimilar to the original. Every 
pridl feems to have had his own alphabet, and 
no leTs than twenty are given us as Ogham al- 
phabets, all difl^ing from each other. 

The late ingenious Mr. Aftic, in his book on 
the origin of alphabetic writing, has given a ' 
plate. Tab. 31, from an andent Irijh MS., con- 
fifting of feventcen different alphabets, and cne, 
va which the whole Romaa alpl^bet of twenty- 


15S Ogham Inscriptions. 

four letters have IrlQi Ogham marks aiGgDed— - 
an evident prcxif of its corruption ; becaufe the . 
old alphabet, like the prefciit, conCfted of no 
more than fcventeen letters. , More was never 
admitted in the Irilh alphabet, an evident proof 
that they were Phcenicians, or had letters from 

In every manufcript, treating of the Ogham, 
there is fome paHage to be found to convince us, 
that they brought this charafier from the Eaft. 
Oganiy in Irifli and Sanfcrit, figni6cs myfterious. 

In the plate of Mr. Aftle's book, before men* 
tioned, is the following pailage : ■ ' . 

Ogam uird ia toid Ins fbraa fedaib 'in 

■ Aipgit. 

Tlie lalt word is correAed in another place in 
the fame line, and properly written 21)^3^^^ 
dipgitiff-.i. cQVy^pip ai^jfir, that is, the .alpha- 
betic letters, or A B gitir. The word gitir cair 
ries us back to the place,' where we have lately 
difcovered the arrow-headed alphabet had its. be- 
ginning, viz. Chaldaa^ m the language of which 
country •^■q:i, gitir fignifies a letter of the alphabet. 
Mr. Shaw, who was not an orientalift, properly 
explains Aibgilir, i. e. Aib-litir, the alpjiabet. 
The writer of the MS. then proceeds : 

Jfe- jf tojf&cW ^c^pt <t5 reatKi wianww 

5j -Dep Jcl^a be- mtf ctc^. u 2 )« h<^c -yijsufttt 



Peusepolitaw alphabet. 



? -> 


:, t -^ 

- 1 

err -rr 


-£' <^r <', 

1 ■ 
1 I 









-MI Y« , 
- 1 T 


^ «» 

/ ty-^ 


J c/' 


trr ,^rrr 


6 > ■(> :5 6 

\^»rr X-'." ^'" ^►"' ■^-'" 
» ft 








Ogham JmeriptioTis. 1 59 

In R.otnaQ letters. Ogam uird in t'ord bis for 
na fedaib in A B gitir (or A F gitir), i. c. in fidis 
Toiflcha ar aile in A P gitir ife is toifecha fcribth, 
ag dcana manma gi deid iafcha he nufacbtar, ut 
eft in bacfigtira. That is, one kind of Ogham^ in 
order ^ was the A B gitir (tie alphabet) en trees ; 
that ijf on toifc trtet the alphabet was thus firji 
•written ; by making /crotches with the teeth of a 
fifb, as in this figure and form. Then follow 
many Ogham alphabets. 

Toife:, or Tus^ means any thing laminated, 
made thin. Oir'tuis, laminate^ gold. 

In this paflage are feveral obfolete wwds, 
which feldom occur j as anma, and Tnanmay a 
fcratch, corFcTponding with fcriebam, to write or 
fcratch, the root of the Latin fcribo. Anma^ 
with the prefix M, manma, is the Arabic Ljt 
anma, LjL« manma, the found of a pen or llylus 
in writing ; fcratching, piercing (Rich.). Somit 
qui fcriptione excitatur (Gig. Gol.). So, in the 
Hindooftance, leek, a fcratch, a fcore ; likbna, to 
write. The lall word, nufacb, is an abbreviation 
of nufacbtar, they wrote ; in Arabic i_JujJ 
nefek, the manner of writing ; '^^***'i ne/ikh, tran- 
fcribing ; in Perfian, (j^JjJ nues, writing ; 
(^_j.^ii.'»*i ^j"^^ nues fakhten, to write; all 
which carry us back to Chaldsea, in which lan- 
guage ma neus fignifies a literary charafter. 
PI. yua noufen, figurse literanim. In tlie fame 
language, gitir (in the Irifli, A, B, gitir, the al- 
.phabct) is the Ch. id; gitir, litcrae. The i in 


160 ■ Ognam Imcripiions. 

ptir, beiag a finall'vovel, requirci a fmall towcI 
to precede, 2ccording to Irifh orthogr^jr; 
tfacFefore O'Brien and Shav, in their Iriili Dic- 
tioQuies, Trrite it Al B ptir^ which Shaw ei> 
plains by Ai B liiir, the alphabet ; aod, ia the 
Egyptian, faei, fcriba. 

Agaiaj tbefe two lexiconids have Mien, and 
Ifton^ to figniFy a letter of the al[^bct ; and 
O'Clery, ia his catalogoe of obfolete words, has 
Niort, i. c. litir, a writing, correipoodiog with the 
Pcrfian i^[y Nium, fcriba, Icftio, leflura, Jcc- 
tor, doflus (Caft. Ga\). Chaldsean, pa m», 
typus, figura ; pn Tnoun, Htcra ; words alone faf- 
ficient to [u-ovc, that the Aire-Coti^ or imdent 
inhabitants of thcfc Weftem Iflce, were the ao- 
cknt Persians, apd that they mixed' with the 
Chaldeans, a« the Irilli \a^<xj fets forth. 

Again, we have, in Irifh, Reijim, a writing j 
Breifmin, a writ, a mandamus. Ar. m*uj refm, 
• canon rale; *<%; re^/ftty writiog- 
- After the invention of writing with ink (ia 
Irifli dti, dm}_; Ar. bjO deuia ; Chald, in Jik), 
the Irifh ad(^cd many other words to .exprefii 
writing, as dubh, and celt, oc khtit-f ^hcaot 
dubh-ceii (difai'keit^y the writing or foperfcriptioa 
of a letter i lamA-ceh, a manufaipt, a hand- 
writing. Arab, and Perf. jA^jO dubir, fcriba, 
Botarim ; ix^ kbatOt fcripflt, kbutt, liten. 
Perf. (^UImjO (ktbijian, a writing fchod» from 
dab, writing ; Ar. ^O dabar, fcripfit, i. q. laJLt^ 
dakat, puoais notavit, diberm Kbcr charafterc 

fStnjarltico, fcriptas in foliis palmaram ^ folitun 

chart£ : iiem fcientia rei ; fapientia (Gol.). ^ 

Before I dofe thb paragraph, the reado-'is r&< 
quefted to obferve the word nu/acbar, or nufacb' 
tar, ibey wrote, in p. 159. It carries a dear de- 
mttlAratiga of the verj early koowlcdge pi -let- 
'tcrs with our Hibento-Indo-Scytba;. In the 
Nomendatura-Egypto-Arabica of Kirdicr, .ve 
^d,ficb, fcriba;y0Ci&-ni3£iu/, hierophantes. *' Ao- 
^uum DomcD Egyptiacum, Gnece iif<>7(>a|ip(TW 
iTcfpondcos. Sacb, quomodo lo verfioni: libronim 
jcriptune Coptica, femper redditur rpar.pnrt>fc 
fcriba. Scripturas peritus lingua Egypticaum 
nabad 4efignatur wV, i. e. fepiens, iatelledu 
pdkns, dicustur igitor Afvyia.f..tan-a( qui eflent,- uC 
loquitur Julius Fumicus, Sacrarum Uterarum ft- 
riti, i.e. facA-nabai" (Jablonlky, Paath. iEgypL. 
l^kg. p. sdv.) Hence the jeacb'nab, or /acb- 
nab, of die order of pricllhood c^ the pa^ Iriih 
dergy, explained in the former part of my Via- 
dication. If thefc fcientific tenns do not bring 
convi^oD, nothing that can be offered wUl. (See 
the Egyptian Vocabulary compared , wth the 
Mh ; CoUeftanea, Vol. V. Introd. p. 49.) Cor- 
mac fays, the Seachnab was the fecond in order 
with the pagan dcrgy^ that the name was pre- 
fin^ed after Chriftianity was intrbducedj and that 
it fignificd the rank next the abbot. - 



4r«I^J^ fp-Jttn Tra^mi «f the Origin 

" tte AnibJ fey Ait •■ Ewtis (iW pMplM 
""Enoch) was the firft trho, ^er ENOfr, foft of 
^Sbts, foo of AcAUt WK^with a pent ia 
*■ tlie ufe of which EoKis aAermrds Mftrn^d 
"hfa fom, and ftid to thcm» ffijf ^^Z Aww 
**-f:fcif ye are Sahemu. His deftenduits did not 
'* code, from one generstion to aDother» to poC- 
*^fbft thff boolu of Sbth and of Edris, until 
'" dre times of Noah and cS Abkahau." 

The PerfiaDs fiijr» that Tahmuras, called 
Dbbtebend, or tamer efdemoRSj having" gained 
a complete vidoty over them, ordered a geaeial 
nz&crc. The Deevet fiicd for mercy, praoifing 
to teadi him ftnmge fecrets, and mjrjlerioiM 
IBcnccs, if he wonld fpare their fires. - He did 
fii,' and riiey taught him the art of rea^ng :md 
writing.— Tahmnras is fuppofed to have reigned 
aboifl.ifte year 835 before "Chrift. (Oriental 
CaHcAion, Vol. !■ p. 1 1 2.) 

That thefe ancient diaraAcrs arc m» now- 
imderftood, is not fbiprizing ; it has. been, and 
is the cafe with all nations. In Teixcira*s Spanifti 
Hiftory of Ferfia, we are tdd, ** t^t there 
" was not, at that time (A. D. 1590), one man 
" in Fer£a that underitood their ancient letters ; 
** for, having often feen ibnw plates t^ metal, 
*' with 


"with aodcDt inrcripdooi on litem (&ys the 
** aixhor), I nude enquiry after the mesmiog of 
" 4hem ; and men, weU verfed in ifieir aoticpit- 
, ** tics, and Tcry ftndions, told Doe, that was 
" Fart Kadeem^ after the old Miioii, and Acm- 
*< fan I fluuld find no raaa that anderftoAd it/' 
Fitrs Kadee^ figaifies aoocat Perfiu. 

Sur W. JoKs, from Ibnu Arab&aht tofomis 
s»» the Khatai. Scyttuaas (probably the Goti-'ef 
IrUh biftory) had litctary chara&rs, aod'thaf (he 
other TanarB, geacMlly fpeaking', bad not Idtt^tt. 

The Ogham writing, of . which we are tiov 
more panicufarly treating, is faid to have btto 
confined to Creatka, or Creadba (prpnounced 
Creahd), tranllated the cUr^f and miflakcnfor 
Druids ; and, it is faid, none but Druids could 
write or read the Ogham. I do maintain, with 
Mr. Pinkerton, that there never was a Oniid in 
Ireland. The pagan religion of Ireland difioed 
toto cslo from that of the Britons and Gauls. 

The Irifh Creatha (pronounced Crahd)^ plur. 
Craobht whence Ogham Craobh, the Ogham 
writing, from Creatbam^ to fcratch or write> ap- 
pears to be the Hebrew and Chaldean nil? 
JTora, the pricft, the reader in the fynagdgue. 
(Jof. i. I.) Mnp Karat fcriptura facra. Karreei, 
Zelotes, i Nip Kara^ vocare* proclamare, Unrt 
propria clafa & atta voce. Karraui^ i. e. fcrip- 
turariQS Biblictis. (Buxtorf, p. 211.) Ch. ilDDni^ 
Kmjiort fcriba, notarius ; Ir. Cua'trjlay and ■ 
Caair^Of a written book, a volume. 



' tH ^*^ Inimftimi. 

I flnfl Dot here dil{mte if Boxtorf hu gmn 
Ac p«^>er derintioQ rf the Karraii hot 1 oH 
en erery impartial raider to judge, if the aocioit 
iuhabitaiits did not come to thcfc iflaads a &f- 
iergd people from the Eaft. If they had no 
letters before the thnc ci Patrick, ai fomc authors 
have declared, how came they by all tbefc Chal- 
dean, Arabic, and Perfian tcrma for writbg, 
and for the alphahetf-DidPitrick import theft 
JticBtific termi from Rome or from Britain? — 
or, could the Irifij have borrowed ihem fr<Kii 
any European nation? Thcfc axtjhtbomfaajt 
that will not yield to the affcrtions of men who, 
ignorant oi the language of a nation, will attempt 
to write of its antiqiuties. 

That th^ ufcd and imported with them the 
Pelajgian charaftcrs is evident, from the infcrip- 
tions ftill exifting on the pagan altars of this 

The ingenious and learned Mr. Tighe, in his 
Statiftical Report of the County of Kilkenny, 
has favoured us with an infcription in thcfc cha- 

•* On the fummit of Tory-hill, called in Irifh, 

Slcish Grian,^ or the hill of the fun, is a circular 


■ Sbigi, pronaunced Sliib, fifnifiei adoradoo, tbe fame as 
Stmhd, or Skatht; u Moih path, tbe plain of adoration, 
where flood die repre&nutiva of the gre^t Godt Crtm. See 
the Daniel .of God in the Gypfey language, Ot. a. — Slah is 
from the Arabic ^L« filaf', deTOUon j Ch. nhafahch, to 
C proftrate i 

Ogham Itmri^iu. 16S . 

rpicC} eoTcred with ftones ; the larger ones have 
been taken oat, and idled down the hill, for 
the ofe of the country peo[^ There is ftill one 
laige one near the centre, and there is an a^ 
pcaiance of fmallcr ones having Hood in a circle^ 
at tl little diftance horn the heap, which is above 
fisty-five yards in drcomference ; within wbicl^ 
on the eaft fide, is a &}ne, raifed od two or three 
nnequal ones, with aa infcription fadng the we^ 
and the centre of the heap. (Sec plate A. 

** The letters are deeply and wdl cut, c^ a 
hard block of filiceous t»:ccaa; they are two 
indies high ; between each is a fpace of about 
one iadi, and a diftance between the words of 
throe inches. In Roman letters they would be, 

. ** That the Divinity was worilupped in this 
onmtry onder the name of Bbl, needs no {iroof. 
That the Divinity was worfliipped in the Biitiflt 
ifles under the name of Diondsqs, is alfo re- 
corded. That wprihip is beautifully deicribed 
by Dioayfiua the geographer, v. 570, wh{>iayi, 
that, in the weflem iflands, the wives of the il> 
luftripus Ammouians (or Amnitie, i^i^ a^Ioh), 

proibite ; the latter Irom the ChaldM •f^afilai, anre, pre> 
cant r^irho ^ial, precadonet fro Teniffione peccatonm. 
At. &Xa0 film, prayer, mol^ue, chnrcfa, bencdiAion. 
Hence, IP Irifhi narjliatit da Bbaal, that bowed not to 
Baal; O.T.-'maJkaehdm tt dhamb, if thou wilt fall dow^ 
and worlhip me. N^-T. 

1S6 Ogham IjocriptioM. 

boa tbe oppofite coaA, c^bnte^ the voribqi 
'of DioNusos with as great fervor ag tha 

" The ftone, on which this iofcr^tion is cot* 
is five feet o^e inch long, ia front ; at the back, 
i^ feet fire inches ; it ii five icct broad, wad <Hie 
f;)ot four inches thick. In front appears to ban 
been a funk place, flagged, tbe fidei divetgitig ^ 
bot it is imperfe^ The common people pay 
fome. refpe^t to this relic." 

With fubmliEon to the learned author, Bbl 
vas not the name of God with the pagan Irifli, 
but of the fuo. 

may be literally tranOated to Belus, god of fire ; 
correfponding to the common name of the,place, 
Sleigb Grw»,"the Worftup or altar of the fun. 

To return to the pafiagc quoted from Mr. 
Aftlers MSS. on the Ogham. 

What fpccics of tree the Toife is, is next to be 
cBttlidered. The preceding word, ^dii, or, as 
O'Briea and Sbawe write it, ^o(/d», means a 
Anib, from ^odh, a tree, particularly that tree, 
on tfie back of which they wrote, aad metapho- 
rically is applied to writing ; as fiedb-radby a 
:MEtcn fpeecb; fiodh-radb adfeidbm. I employ 
the written word (C. O'Connor, from £.ochi ua 
FUr). Rtidh figoifies fpeedti a^ radb, &yu^ 



CB.4M»Tni«, in the diaionriea, ii datnflttol 
llhc fiankutcenfe-tiee, from tvu, ft ?g lt w cflnf^ 
from tbe Ante 5^*^ roxw. Odorem txp-^ 
cmt, fi cLtf ys^, odorem diffiidit commota n» ; 
|tf ifMb ftntftan cmjeHtirg! en hafftmu niitH 
irUm. (Sdiolteos ia Huiri, Con. ir. $ 6o.)'~ 
Wbot pxtf it is> ibat the Iriih language has bcot 
loduld 1^ fron the learacd, ^ wan of a good 

From the Ayeea AJcbery ve lexro, dial dn 
Gti/imriiat da (fiU write oa the Gran tn^, 
** Tb6 CaihoKriaQs have a Ungtiage tf their oum^ 
** but thar bO(^ are writtea in the Shaofinl 
** toAgoe, although the charader be fometimo 
*• Cafluierian. They write diicfly upon Toeu 
*f wfaidi is the bark of a tree. It ia eafily dlfided 
** into leaves (i. e. lamma), and remaiiu perSc&. 
** for maaf jean. All aocieBt manuscripts are 
** writtieo aptm dits bark, and they make ufe o£ 
** a kind of ink, which cannot be wadied out. 
** Formerly tb^ knew only the Hindoo lirieoce^ 
** bnt^ now they ftody tht^ of other nuioos." 
(Ayeen Akbery, Vc^ IL p. 135.) This.ex^ 
pTeftly exj^as the Iri& Ttas, laminated) ani 
' GDnfirtei tbey had letters, when reiident in India. 
imdcr the name of lado-Scythae. 

Thia kmcr bark, in IrHh Leathar, or Coirit ia 
prepared by fplittiag and icrapisg it thin, to the 
facKMlth of a lath or a p^er-cutter, and is then 
ctHedy in Iriflt, Tuis, laminated, made thin, ud 
^/hif and Jlj/ean, a chip, a lath ; thus delcribed 


IM Ogham Inscr^tinU. 

m; Cormac's Qk^rf. AJial^ i. e. SBfimty gaJ 
kabhair, indlS Lat. Aflula. Jfial, or Stifean^ a 
diip, the inner bark of trees ; hence the Latm 
jlfiuldt and bcDce Leabhar^ -9 bode, l^tio, 
Hber. This land of bark paper is ftill uted vitfa 
i ftyle in India. -See the figure of a fcribe ia 
Sonnerat ; and it is remarkaUe, that Tiit^ a 
book, or inscribed bark formed into a book, it 
yet retained in the old Irifh Partus, a ma&-bo(rfc 
(Shave). Tut is comroonlj applied tn Iriik to 
gold, as Oir'tui/e, lamhiated goM ; it is the 
Ch. and Ph. QQ tat, lamina aurea (Bcxt). 
Por may be the Per. jS pur, perfcfl, full, cotii- 
plete, or the Ar.j'j bar, pious, or I^jr. o;b bar^, 
good — the good book, the pious bo(A. Ch. DD 
tat, lamina, braftea (Buxt.) ; a chip, or thia 
piece of wood (Ainfworth). 

*' Cairt, the bark or rind of a .tree. From 
this Celtic word, fays O'Brien in his Di^onaiy, 
(all is Celtic with thcfe lexicographers), the Latin 
cortex is vifibly derived j and eharta, paper," 
feems to be-more properly derived from it, tbaa 
from the Greek chaired quoniam falotatrix, or 
the Greek cbaraffh, fcalpo, efpedally as it is al- 
lowed that the ancients wrote upon the bark and 
liod of trees, before the invention of parchment. 
N. B. The Irifti word Cairt fignifie* paper, m- . 
any piece of writing, ot a book ; as t^*r, pro- 
perty lignifying the inward rind or bark of a tree, 
afed by the ancients inftead of paper, for the 


Cifihtm I n A rftins'. tea 

Umc-mSdat meass a book; and as tbcGredc 
BibUi alfo figoifies a book,, becaufc the Gredcr 
and JBgyptians; andontJy wrote upon the bark (^ 
the^gyptian tree^Bti/aif, or Ai^/u , vhkh was 
otberwife 'called Pa^nu^ pj^er." ^ ** - ScrUb^ a 
fcntcfa, a fcrape; hence yrri^uii, to write, and 
ihe Latin, ycr/iff.V (O'Brien.) 

If on? may judge from tbcdiffi^ience of ortho- 
graphy, in the fc^wing ^wonh, the Arafat had 
them from our Aire-Cotij. or Indo-Scythians; for 
\o^''kbMta Unifies decorticavh, according to 
Sebeidiusy and (jmILJ ^li^rtiUr with a ,t^. paper. 
iajs^ iCherty oDbarking. (RicbardfoD, from 

-. On the fourth line from the bottom of Mr. 
Aftle's plate, is the airow-beadol Perfepolhan cr 
Babylonian character ^, in which the Ogham is 
oftm written, and under it is the word oid. If 
this means that the' e/Ann^fty or dofic» of dus 
learned, wrotp iq this diatader, or if it ftood fix* 
oUtfi^t and refers to the o/Ai, on which the ' 
Indians write at prefent, my readers muft judg^ 
for we have no explanation. 

^\ Lcs Indicqs ecrivent avec un poin^on fur des 
Ollesj et non pas comme on I'a cru avec un ftylet 
for des forces .de certains arbrcs enduites de are 
OQ de mallic. Les Ollesiaat. tir6cs de la feuille 
d'one efpece-de patnti^^ doot Ic fruit eft conou 
dans rinde fdus'la nom de Lortgue'f ct:tte feuille 
f»t en evenuiheft ^paiflc et fecbe: lcs lames 


]» Qtikom Itueritmiu. 

bi Iri&, l^ ^(iitfei a book ; wd JUm, c» 
QiiiR, in Iiilh, » dK sane of tbe pofan-trec. 
JDMMseiii.iitf iildc^ Palm So&daf. Astfarinfii 
lunc pnferved tbe ume of die Tmb tiae, tlum 
i> DO reafoa to hy thrf have not pnlerwd thit , 
of 0/&, or Ott>, and Zji^w. 

Tlmt the Iriih wrote alfo cm leares is^ plan, 
fi«D the word fAa>, wbkfa meanb tbe leaf of a 
Itte, and the page of a book, lUce the Chatdee 
nVr dakt, folhim, pagna j Ar. ^^-^ Jo Aiify, 
fi^m diaitas, vox exotica (Gd). 

It is in vain to attempt -to read the Ogham 
charaflcrt of Ireiaod, any more than thoTe, of 
Bab^rbn and Perfqx^s, which have great refera- 
Wance to the Irilh.'^ They were chara3en con- 
fioed to a particular (tBt m the £a(t, as is erideoC 
from the title of the Irift book dt Oghams, viz. 
Vrai^akbt na Ngoii.'^raii let Arabes fe fer- 

^ The lodiuii write with a pNoud iaAmmeat, apoii OUt, 
vA not, It we beliered, with a (Ijlei on the tart of certab 
tree*, covered with wax or manic. The 0!h are taken from 
the kaf ofa kind of palra-treet the fruit of which it known 
by the noae n! tengati dii« leaf it thick and dry. Ths 
Wldta. (lanias), vbon ft]i&raWl, lh«y call Ott (SMMm}< 
b ii^ i<av fiipifiM a boak, ifMmmtw to Mtiw. 
■ * CtOK variety dc momimeni (I'acritune « cchd), <iui| chaqas 
jour, dcvienaeDt pJui nombmiz, prowe comtuen a itt rfpao- 
(fu, pendant un cercain temps, I'ulage de ces fortei dci 
leterei. (MUlin. Magaz. Encyciop. on Jonnul det Sdencei. 
M. 15. Tom.IV. {8meAD.) 

'sent de ce mot,.qoi eft tire da GfaaldaiqQc ct-da 
Syraique Ouraia et OuratOt pour JIgmfier ur 
maitre ou do&txx de U pronicrc cUilc: tell 
qu'oot 6U Edrit, Kleaber, Hermet, qui poitca( 
ies ttfres dc premier, fecoad, & tnufieme makrei 
w cbOeurs de I'uiuveriQ (D'Herbckit). A^l:^a 
Kaketf GraEDnmka di£b, tiafiatas de vo'bortHi 
coojugationibus. (Rdand, Prxf. p. 2t tnsSL 
J^Dchtridioa ftudi<^, Borbaaedia). Ar. (jm^cSa 
SOio, magoo ibidio et ^liaio ctmari ; whence, ift "^ 
hMUxy Ar4'^u4re^ a profcflbr of a cdleg^ t 
mafter of arts, a title piuelj oriental.' 

Nog^/ba ex Ghebrorum fe^tis quedam leOa 
efl. No^i^a ell 5c^ Ghebromm ct Mafca- 
rum; in plcrifqBC Lexicis expooitnr Gbeir iiev 
iofiddis, Ipeciatim fgtticola, fed ia atiis expooitor 
Saiius. (Hyde, ixaax Perfian authors, p. 358.) 

NotvithAanding frequent mcntiw is made, id 
Irifh MSS., of the afc (^ the Ogham cbanflerp 
and of certain monuments in certain placet, die i^ 
credulity of our modem antiquaries was fo great, 
as to deny its exiftence ; until a pcrfon was paid, 
by the late Mr. Coaningham, to iearch, oQ a 
monntain in the county of Clare, iot one of thctis 
monuments, mentioned in an ancient poem. The 
monument and infcripticn were at length dif- 
(^rered, and puUithsd ia. the Tranfa&icKtt of tlte 
Royal kiih Academy. Soon after, Dr, QrawR* 

' Ard. £br. inw A£r, iUnftrat dedadturt Perlicum (\jl 
Jirdj illulhU) unsnificna^ s^gaauinui (BochartJ. Mow t* 
P- '+• 


119 Ogkam Inscripliont. 

tamt fdlow of Trinity College, bang in the 
codnty of Armagh, hearing of fuch a rooDumcot 
in thofe parts, was direded to it by a pcafant, 
who laid he knew where to find the written 
fient: Dr. Young, late bifbop of Cloyae, nllted 
fhis Hone alfo, which, he fays, is a part of a 
WM-k of coofiderable labour, being a circle of 
fiones, forty>four yards in diameter, ilaiKUng in 
Ae parilh of Muila-breaey' (that is, of Hicfacred 
fire.") The monument is called the FJmt'j C^rn. 
This is alfo delcribed and engrared in the Tranf^ 
aftions of the Royal Irilh Academy, Vol. VIII. 

Since the difcovery of this mcmument in 1799, 
we heard of no Ogham monuraeius till lail year.' 
The ingenious Mr. Pclham, with the mind of a 
poet, and the eye of a painter, undertook the 
luilory anJ antiquities of the county of Kerry. 
In his refearches he met with foatteen Ogham 
infcriptions, and was fo obliging as to fend me 
'cl^;ant drawings of each, with the liberty of 
making what ufe I pleated of them. 

They arc fiithfully a^ied by the engraver, 
and arc here prefented to the public, who wait 
with' great impatience for the completion of Mr. 
Ftilham's work. 

Some of tbcfe infcriptions appear to be writ. 

ten in perpeiidicDlar columns. " It appears, by 

feveral infcriptions, nkeo from the ruins of the 


' ' UBa, fire ; and, with the oTiul prefix JiuIIa, Mi0»- 
Inae, die holy fire. See Ch. IIL p. 154. 

Ogham Inscnptiom. I7S 

palace of Periepolis, vhkii was h^HtSswa bmt- 
dred yean .before the Cbrifiian sera, .that the- 
PeHuns fometimcs wrote in perpeiidicular.. co- 
lumns, like the Chincfc. This mode- of writmg 
vaft iirfl made afe of on the ftems of trees, {MJU . 
lars, or obeliiks. (Encydop. V. I. p. 492.) See 
PHI. fig. 3. 

** The alphabet of Corea is ufcd perpendico- 
larly only, like the Tartare-Mantcbau, vhich 
Mr. Langlds, however, ia his publicatioQ at 
Paris, has changed into an horizontal alphabet, 
' and like the MongoHc and Kalmyk alphabets, 
which, with icyt deviations, are the fame as the - 
Mantchon alphabet. This perpcodtcoiar. wjiy of 
writHig was not .unknown to the .Greeks, who 
called it, as Bayer obTerrn, x>/Mi (Ufa>, and was 
ttfnal among the Syrians tcx), who, according to 
Abraham Scheleniis, wrqte in this way," (Dr. 
Hager, on the alphabet of Corea, Or, Col, 
V. III.) The annexed plate (PI. II. fig. 3.),-froni 
Count Caylus, fhews the Perfepolitan charaStcn 
were read peipeodicnlarly ; it is an amolet found 

" The Neftorian Chriftians ondonbtedly pene- 
trated as far as the north of China, and propa- 
gated the Chriftian religion dierc. They made 
ufe of the Syrian charader in writing, and it was 
this, likewife, which was €rft introduced into 
thefe coantries.— The charaAers, and mode of 
writing, of the Calmucks, Moguls, and Mand- 
feharians, arc taken frpm -the .Ujgurian, and tfa^ 


lit Ogkam Itucr^HffBS. 

again from the Sytias. Thde S^ttuis al& fltB 
cOBtJDMC, to thci day, to viitc eza£Uy as tbe 
Calmacla do, viz. Thej' b^n at tbe top, and 
Ulcasr a Hoe down .to the boOom, ^rith irbicfa tine 
dtt IctttsEs arc m contad from the top down to 
Ac bottDm oS iff. and fo tbq' coniirae to vritc 
one line after the other, at each line gcnng fa- 
iber o« to the ri^t, and carrying their writiDg 
fisxn Hntttftetht hitam. But in reading, the 
Mogds and Calmadcs, to like manner as the 
Sitdans, torn the leaf fidcwajs, and read from 
^ r^ht ta tbelsfi. This I have ieeit myfdf^ 
dHriog my Hay in tbe great de&rt pl^n bi^yood ^ 
^e Wo^, vibarc I vas intimately at^naintcd 
«iUi a gteat niuiber of Calmacki, and enquued 
niaatdj into every pntkolar rdatire to their 
religioa and learning, thdr maimers, their go^ 
venunent^ and their princes." (J. R. Forfter. , 
Hift. of Voyage* and IKIcoveries made ia the 
North. Note^p. to6.) 

Each letter of the Ogham alphabet is lumed 
after fome fpedea of tree, as Aiim, Beitb, Gertt 
&c., elm, birch, ivy, &c. ; and the letters, wfaea 
detached, rqprefcnt fo manjr trc^ 

Literamm Ter6 Chantderes ia aounaJinsa) ■ 
AKBoauuQue figuris inventt Thoth; (E1> 

"Wbimfical as this may appear, we find dw 

eideat^iifts had the lame kisd of charaQer. Mr. 

Hammer, a German, who tatdy tiaveUcd ia 

J^ and Syria, haa fanm^t to JSnglsod a. s«> 


anfcnpt, vntten in Arabic^ caatmuag xm oqifau 
bation o£ the Egypdan hieragl^pUcs, tad lam 
tnmfltted . k into EngliQi. Tbc ot%inat vat 
Akvo to a leanKd tricad of nine in London, 
«lu>OQpiedfo(nc of thea^habett; among odtaa^ 
the Egyptian and ?>«; alphabet in dio aoocaed 

To flinr how the Anfaic agrees v/'iA tbe 
Hebrew and Cbaldsan, I have added the Hcf 
brew alphabet, placed over the Arabic. It is 
remarkable, that the • jim. of the Arabic conies 
in the place of the 3 Gimei • of the Hebrew^ 
which wc pronounce hard, as G in _,Gamraa. 
This pronunciation of G foft is what the Rabbini 
call the A B jtd, order. TIk C gbain of the 
Arabs is placed among the Aipenmmerary da- 

** Ct9^ K Qiamit the ntme of a parehment 
jttVio of the'flua of a oaim}, on which, in isy^ 
i^an^tf^ Ah and Giafcs 3ad«k wrote the de& 
liny: of M«fuh]iafiiim^ It is divided into two' 
«b^K(n; ogc IpUows the wdo* of the Antbic 
«lph4bca; caUed Tdi^u ccmFaining twenty-eii^ 
letters ; the other contains but twonty-two lettcrt, 
nMigcd according to the Hdaawand ChakJpeaa 
•Ijihabftd, and tbi4 the Arabs. caU AB Ge4. 
ftit ihQeorplaaation.of all thde charade^ Ji z» 
jEtt'TCd fpr MeMdif who is to cwie at the end 
■<li'. the world." (P'HQrbelot). And for MtbttUi 
ve on^ wait for tho fi^iatiatioo of our.IriOi 
^lMR*;wd 4f Aa Ba^Iooilb and PerfepoUtaa 
charaflcrs j 


176 (^kam Inacr^iimt. 

dmaftes; tre loiowiutt the power of anyone 
diandcr. The biihi we are tdU3, were inTcnted 
by S6mi Doa Teibe ; that is, Sim, the Thebut 
chief. 5^.1131 .the name of the Egyptian Her> 
coles, and. the name of ^ deity prcfiding over 
trtet in the Itifli and Brahmmical mythology; ' 
and the Egypdan hieroglyphic, of the name of 
Thodi, was a branch in the Avowing form. 
(Kircher, Oed. Pamph.) 

Flaton dans fon Hisedre, attribue-t-dl expreile- 
neot I'lDvctitioo dcs lettres a Tbeuth I'Egyptien, 
qa'on prefumc avoir ct£ VHermes dcs Gms. 
Plafieurs anciens ont cependaot ^rm6 que Cad- 
mm lut m^me, qucnqu'il ait pa^ de Fh^nidc en ' 
Gr^ce, avoit €ti originairemcnt de Thibet en 
Egyptc (GcbcJin). . - 

The iincient Irifh credcd j^lars of (tone on 
faany occalions. Some were infcribed with 
Ogham chaiadns, to mark the CjcUs\ otheav 
were PbilUy which, we are told, die Brahmins 
erefied on the boocdarics of difbids, ' on the 
highways, and in their temples, as the fymbol of 
the vivifying J^irit, And they reprdcoted the 


* Ogham Inscriptions. 117 

■ great Ood under Ac figure of a little column of 
fton^. ^AfHe's Archasol. p. 3 ro.} Others wcfe 
lan'ftuafics, but moft- were infcribed with Ogham 
cfaaraftcrs, Sec the following plans and ele- 

Selbdris autem ^gyptius, ut aiunt, cum mu!- 
tum tcrrarunt pcragraflet, tabulis delcriptionem 
edidit mirabilis artis, quam non folum iEgyptiis, 
fed ct Scpbis impertiri dignatus eft (Euftathios 
in I^iftola Dionyfio). 

When we treat of the aftronomy of the an- 
cient Irifh, we (hall prove, from good authority, 
that the early hiftory of the moft ancieni nations 
is fittie more than the hiftory of the revoluiietu 
efthefun^ tmon^ and plaveis ; and that their gods 
were Cyclic deitie^t whofe -Dames were coinpofed 
of the (letter) numerals, making the fura total of 
the Cycle. 

" Dalian ClacBy a large ftone, whereof many 
*' were erefled, by the old Iriih, throughout all 
" Ireland, with inlcriptions in their Oghams, or 
*' occult manner of writing, not nnlike the Egyp- 
" tian hieroglyphics, which were, in like man- 
'* ner, infcribed on large ftones, on obelilts or 
" pyramids, and which could be expliuned by 
" none hut their priefts, as the Iriih Oghams 
*' were by none but fwom antiquaries, or, per- 
'* haps, their Draoi." (O'Brien's Diftionary.) 

In Hebrew, rV?3 gala. This word, fay Park- 

hurft, Lee, and others, feems allufive to the 

piotion of the earth and planets. Cormac gives 

N the 


ilS .Ogham /Hscripiions. • 

the f^ne explanation of the Irilh word gallf i.t. 
euairt't clokhct a ftoae of revolutioiisv GaMn 
has the like meaning. Clocha-iuinidhe and Car- 
ibadin are 'fynonymous, but more explanative. 
Dalian is the Arabic (Jj(^ 'dowlan, from the 
Chald. Vn doul, a. Cycle j in which language we 
have rt^a goJa, pi. p*?^: galiin,- Cycles, Revolu- 
tioas. Carthadin is well explained in the Arabic 
Car, a ftone ; i^vXi teduin, infaibing in pub- 
lic records. Ch. p*7p ilak, kalak, i. e. pN f5», a 
ftone (Bust.). Therefore Dalian cloicbe and 
GaMn cloiche point immediately to the Cyclic 
Aones ; and Clocba tmnidbe and Cartbadin 
((^4t\j' o;t:L) to ftones, on which fome 
great event is recorded. The common Iriih call 
them gawlawn fiones. Smith, in his Hillory of 
the County of Cork, has given a plan and eleva- 
tion of one, which is here infated. 


Oghcaa Inseriptw, 


* ,• ^ 

The gowlan ftands on an eminence. At the 
ftwt of the hill is a temple, dedicated to the fun, 
or the Apollo of the pagan Irilh ; it confifts of 
nine ftones in a circle, and the Lingam, Phallus^ 
or vivifying fpirit, in the center. — To this arc 
added two more temples, of like conftruflion, 
namely ; i. that of Ana-mor^ or the great Cycle, 
at;Watt!e bridge, county of Fermanagh ; 

N a' And 


Ogfiam Inso'ijitionSf 

AniT, a. that of Cam-ixtt, or -tkc altar irftiK 
fa, near Ncwry, io the county of Armagb. 


Ogham Insciiptienr^ \z\. 

The outer circle of Ana-mor contains forty- 
eight ftones, the number of the old conftellations, 
and an altar of nine ftones. The number of the 
outfide of Carn-bain cannot be afcertaincd, as 
many have been ufed ia the adjacent canal. Th? 
altar is alfo of nine ftones. 

Budb, the Phcebus or Apollo of the pagan 
Irilh, is fuppofed, in Indian mythology, to have 
had nine incarnations./ T^Jhnaw, the Apollo of 
the Brahmins, is fuppoicd to have undergone the. 
iike number of incarnations. The facred conque,, 
ufed in his. temple, lauft have oine involutions; 
of which v/c Ihall treat more at large in Art 

' I believe that feveral .diftrids in Ireland took ' 
their names from thefe motuuncntal ftones; as 
Gallinga, m Meath; Gallinga-morj now baroi^. 
of Galian, county of Mayo, &c. &c, 

" Not to lay any greater ftrefs thaa needs, 
*' upon the evidence of the affinity of words 
, *' with the Hebrew and Phcenidan, the multi- 
*' tudc of altars, pillars, and temj^es, fct up 
*' in the andent patriarchal way of worihip, 
** throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, and, 
'* the IHands, form an argumeat concIuOve, that 
*' an Oriental Colony muft have been very early 
*' introduced." (Cooke's Enquiry.^ 


' BuJha Vfu tbe nintli Aranra {or defcent. of the deity) 
■of Vdvafwata, or Sun-boro, the Noah of fctipture (Sir W, 
Jaaea, Chroa. of the HiadoosJ. . St^ U an appelUtire (^ 
iikt Cm ia hiSL mjthoHogf. 


Ogkmm hurripUfia. 


£Y H. rZLHtVM, ESQ- 

Pl. I. Fig. a, 3. '* Is a ftonc, which ftwid* 
xbout fifteen yards from the door of Kill-mcl- 
chcdcr church, one mHe from Smcrwick harbour, 
m the county of Kerry. It has Ogham charac- 
ters infcribcd on two of its corners, which -has 
led me to give two views of it, in which the 
ouirafters infcribed arc carefully and cxafily 
marked. This (tone has no appearance of having 
received injury, either from lime or accident j fo 
that it may be confidered as one of the moft 
perfeft of the Ogham infcriptions. There is a 
irbfs, cut in ftone, which appears in the view 1 . j 
and there is a large round hole cut through the 
ftonc near the top, which appears in both views. 
The flonc is of the red mountain kind. The 
drawing is by a fcalc of one inch to a foot." 

Obfervation.; — This ftone is perforated towards 
the top, about foiir feet from the ground. Such 
floncs are common in, this country ; they were 
refpefted by the followers of Btidbf and arc to 
be met with in India, as we are informed b^ IAk. 
Wilford, in Afiat. Ref. V, VI. p. 502. Per- 
forated fioQCs, lays he, arc not uncommon in 
India 5 


<)^im fennipMPB at KilbiuJIrdrr , 








C 2: C ^ 


Ogham Inscriptions. 1 83 

India; aod devout pcoj^c pafs through them, 
when the opening wili admit, iii order to be 
regenerated. If the hole be too fmall, they put 
the hand or foot through it ; and, with a fuffi- 
cien't degree of faith, it anfwers nearly the fame 

The name Melcb-eder is very near to mw 
^^D Adar-meUchf die folar fire, which was WOT- 
flapped under that name by the Sepbaruita. 
a Kings, xvii. 31. 

Ader» qui ct Adfer, quK voces ignem fignificant 
cultum a veteribus Perils; vel angelum qui ig- 
nibus praseft. (Reland, Vet. Ling. Perf.) — 'nn 
adar, honoratus, glorificatus, rotundum, quafi in 
fe reflcxum et rcdiens. Hence Bin-adar, the 
old name of the Hitl of Hoalh^ near- Dublin, 
where are the remains of a pagan altar. See 
Aod, ID article Siin^ in raj Aftrooomy.of the 
ancient Irilh. 

Itiere is no fuch faint in the IriQi kalendar 
as Mdcb'eder ; confequeutly the place took itt 
name from .the monument. 

PI. II. Fig. I. — " Is a ftonc of the green 
mountain kind, which Hands in the fame church- 
yard, about five yards from the chuKfe door, aa^ 
is infaibcd with a variety of charaflers, of which 
the drawing given is a corrcfl copy. To be cer- 
tain of getting an accurate copy of this infcrip- 
tion, I carefully made feveral .drawings of it, 
under different circumftanccs of light, which, on 
c<9iipariog with each otha, I found perfi^^y to 
cortefpood \ 


1S4 . Ogham Inscriptions, 

correfpoiid; (o that the drawing m^ be de- 
poided upOQ. I rather apprehend the fionriibed 
crofs, on the broad fide of the ftone, to have 
been cut upon it long fubfequent to the infcrip- 
tion, which has every appearance di being very 
ancient. The drawing is to a fcale of one inch 
to a foot." 

Ohfervaiion. — There are very evidently two 
kinds of charaAcTs on this ftone. One the 
Ogbaniy on each fide of a line ; the other a mn- 
□iag character, which appears to be a mixture of 
Fhcenician, Pelafgian^ and Egyptian. 

Fig. 2., are Egyptian chaiaAers, taken from 
Count Caylus, Antiq. V. I. PL'zi, 22, 33, 
S4» 26. 

Fig. 3. is the drawing of an amulet, with Per- 
fepolitan cha.ra£ters, from the fame author ; from 
which it appears, by the pofition of the humau 
figure, that thefe chju-afters were read .perpen- 
dicularly, as mentioned in the beginning of this 

Fig. 4. Part of the infcription at the Mithratic 
ca^vc of New Grange in Ireland. 

Fig. 5. are irom a roll of linen^ taken &om an 
Egyptian mutnmy; from Caylus, ,Ant. VoL V. 
PI. 26. 

Fig. 6. are Egyptian, from the lame author. 
Vol. VII. PI. 10. Vol. VI.Pl. 22.; and the dart, 
or Irilh Ogham, is from Vol. VI. PI. 4. 

The aofs was, and is ftill, a uTual ornament 

yrith the Afi^c nations. The Tcftmcnt of the 



O^iam Inscnptioi 



Ogham Inscriptions. , 185 

prieft of Horns is full of -)-• <See Caylos, VoL ; 
VI. PI;,?. , -. ., ' 

PI. III. is an Ogham infcription at Baliyfteeny, 
county of Kerry. — ■" Baliyfteeny, or, as, fome 
old p^rs in nry poffeffion" fays 'Mr. Pdham,, 
" fpell it, ,Ballyna-ftenigh, is two miles caft of, 
Dingle I irw this (lone in the year 1790; it 
vas then Handing whole in the midd c^ the vil- 
lage, but, through want of time, I omitted t^, 
take a drawing of it. It has fince been broken, 
by fire made agaioft it. The bottom (i) ftill 
ftands in its original lituation. The top (2) has 
been removed, and funk into the ground at the 
comer of a cabin. This ftone was originally, as, 
near as I can recoiled, about eight feet high. 
This is the only one of the Oghams, I have cvct, 
feen, which appears to have been cut on a flone, 
prepared for the purfwfe. This has been brought, 
into a regular form, tapering gradually from the 
bottom to the top ; the infcription is alfo much 
better cut, than any of the other. This is on a 
brown mountain ftone. The infcription evidently 
ran further up than my dra«(ing gives it ; and, 
poffibly, at the bottom, it may extend lower 

Ob/ervation. — This is evidently the Muidhr,, 
PhalltUt or Lingam of the Hindoos, as the name , 
Jleine ihews. The meaning of the word is to 
urine (miogerc). BaUfteine fignifies the urinary 
member j it is fometimes written y?«/?, & cor- 
nipti ftah ; whence to Jiale, in old Englifh, 


iSfi Ogham Inscriptions. 

applied generally to cattle. Ch. Yrwjiit,/Hihy 
mingere; pn^^H, urina. Ar. eu£^ _/w<rt5», 
penis. — The names <rf the membram virile, in" 
IriCh, arc bed, aire, naire, car, bat, earba, earbal) 
cad, all oriental, viz. ; Ch. win aria ; Ar. y. t aer ; 
o J nereh ; Ch. m3"1N erba ; Ar. S-»jJ irb ; 
ftrf. jA^= ^^r ; Ar. -^ buh, pudenda viri & 
mulieris; Hlndood. kudda. Bad, with the ancient 
FerCaDS, was the name of the angel who prellded 
over the matrimonial bed. Per. ^L> had, nomen 
atigeli qui pra°e(l connubio et matrimonio, et om- . 
nium rcrum qux fiunt hoc die (Hyde). Heb, HNO 
biah, coitus ; Pcrf. and Hind. <.^W bud, penis 
(Gilchrift). Bed-ami, pars fdum penis rclin- 
(Juitur (Ayccn' Akbery, T. 11. p. 8.). Bud is 
the tnoft vulgar and indecent word ufed in the 
Irifli of the prcfcnt day. — In like manner, the 
pudendum muliebrc, in Irifh, is pit, plot, dbeonach 
{yeenah); Ch. mS pout, pudendum. (Ifaiah, ch. 
iii. V. 17.); Hindooftanee and Sanfait, yom, 
pudendum muliebrc. 

We, have had occafion, more than once, to 
fltcw, that the pa^ Irilli had the beag-cearna, 
or the liarlot of the altar, fo common in India. 
*' There arc in India (fays Renaudot) public 
Women, called women of the idol, and the origin 
of the cudom is this. When a woman has made ' 
a vow for the purpofe of having children, if (he 
brings into the world a pretty daughter, flie car- 
ries it to the BoD, fo they call the idol they 
?dore, and leaves it with them" (the priefb) — 
" A cuftom," 

" n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)t^le 

Ogham Inter iptums. I87 

*• A cuftom," fays Mr. Chambers, " which 
cootlDues to this day in the Decafty' but it is ncK 
known among the Hindoos of Bengal, or Hin- 
dofkn Proper. They are called Tamulic Deva- 
dafu or female ilaves of .the idol ; but there is 
now no idol of the name of Bod woHhippcd 
there ; and the drcumftance, of this cuftom 
being unknown ia other parts of India, would 
lead me to fufpeft, that the Brahmins, on intro- 
ducing their -fyftem of religion into that country, 
had thought fit to retain part of a former wot- 
fljip, as being equally agreeable to thetnifelvcs, 
and their new principles." 

I mult here obfervc, that hea%, a harlot, is ia 
Arab. / g*J ba%hi\ and the proteArels of the 
harlots, "with the Brahmins, is named Bhaga- 
vadi ; and Bhed, and Bud^ in the Hindot^ancc, 
fignifies the penis or lingam. That the Chal- 
dxans had alfo the harlots of the temple, we are 
informed by the prophet Baruch. 

** The idol of Lingam, a deity fimilar to the 
Phallus of the Egyptians, is always to be found 
with the Brahmins, in the interior and moft 
facred part of the temple of Shiva. Sometimes 
it rcprcfents both the male and female parts of 
generation, and fometimcs only the former. A 
lamp is kept conftantly burning befwe it ; but, 
when the Brahniins perform their religious cere- 
* monies, 

f The Deem is the modern name of the coimcryt ox the 
eaftern banks of the Gaoges) which wai pan of Scjthia 
Umyiica, ooce iohalHted by our Airc-Coti. 


188 Ogham Imcriptidns. 

monies, and make theiF' oflcniigs, which gene- 
rally confiil of flowersj feven lamps arc lighted,- 
whidi, Dc La Cro?e, fpeaking from the infor- 
ination of the Protcftaot miifionaries, fays, ex- 
aftly rcfcmWe the candelabres of the Jews, that 
are to be feen in the triumphal arch of Titus." 

" Married women in India' wear a fmall liQ- 
gam, tied round the neck or arm. Worfhip is 
paid to Lingam, to obtain fecundity; and many 
hbXes aic told, to account for an adoration ia 
extraordinary." (Crawford's Sketches.) 

Sir William Jones obfcrves that, however ex- 
traordinary it may appear to Europeans, it never 
feems to have entered into the heads of the le- 
giSators, or people, that any thing natural could 
be offenfively obfctne ; a fingularity, which per- 
vades all their 'writings and convcrfations, but is 
no proof of depravity in their morals. (AC RcH 
Vol. I. 

'* Thofe, who dedicate thcmfclvcs to the fer- 
vice <^ Iiingam, fwcar to obferve inviolable chaf- 
tity. They do not, like the priefts of Atys, 
dq>rive themfelves. of the means of breaking 
their vows; but, were it difcovcrcd that they 
had in any way departed from them, the punifh- 
ment is death. They go naked ; but, being 
ccmlidered as fan£tificd perfons, the women ap- 
proach them without &niplc, nor is it thought 
that thdr modcfty Ihould be ofended by it. 
Hulbands, whofe wives are barren, foiidt them 
to come to their houfes, or fend their wives to 
. . worihqji. 

n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le , 

'Ogham Inscriptions. igg 

Wrihip Lingam at the tcmpfes ; and it is fup- 
pofed that the ceremonies on this occafion, if per- 
formed with proper zeal, are generally produc- 
tive of fhe defired effeft.*' 

** The 'figure "of Phallus ' was confecratcd to 
Ofirisj Dionyfus, and Bacchus, who" probably 
' were the fame. At' the feftivals of Ofuis, it was 
carried by the womtn ra Egypt, and the figure 
of the Lingam is now borne by thofc of Hindof- 
tan." (Crawford's Sketches.) 

I (hall clofc this difagreeabic fubjeft', but nc- 
'cefiary to the illufiratiou of the antiquities of this 
country, with the obfervations of the Reverend 
and learned Mr. Maarice, which will convince 
the reader, that the Phallus was ufcd in Eng- 
land, and probably introduced by bur Airc-Coti. 
*• There is an annual feftival," fays he, *' May- 
day, celebrated on the fame day in India and 
in Britain, which opens a not lefs extenfive and 
curious field for enquiry ; and, as the invcfiiga- 
, tioh mil lead to a difplay of oriental manners, 
founded on aftronomical fpeculation, I fhaH difctifs 
the fubjeft at fome length. — This feftival was 
bbferved, with ceremonies wonderfully fimilar, 
in countries fo remote as India and Britain. For, , 
although I do not recolle£l that the facetious 
Mr. Knight has taken notice of a circumftance, 
that fell fo immediately within the fphere of his 
profound lucubrations on a certain worihip, 
which he has dilcufied fo amply, yet the reader 
may reft aflured, that, on the fiift of May, when 


I so Ogham Itticriptioiu. 

the fiiD enters into the figo Taurus,'^ Eaglifiimctt 
unknowingly celebrate the Phallic fcftival of India 
and Egypt ; and he will, perhaps, be convinced 
of this, when he (hall rec^left, that the Greek 
word, fxux pballotf fignilies a pole ; and the 
fplendid decorations of golden crowns, which, 
fomewhat after the manner of the gilded falvcrs 
and tankards, fufpesded around the Englifh 
pageant, adorned the phalhSi anciently difplayed 
to public view, in the Egyptian fcftinal there 
allnded to. Far be it from me to impeach the 
Qnfullied modelly of the chafte.Britifh virgin, 
that, with her gay lover, on that happy day, 
when the fun, the bright prolific fource of gene- 
ration, with renovated vigour enters into the 
fign Taurus ; the emblem alfo, on earth, of 
vigour and fertility — far be it from me to call 
the bluih 'of &ame into her blooming cheek. 
Yet bifloric truth compels me to acquaint her, 
that, while, with her delighted lover, fhe glides 
in the mazy daoce around the May-pole, the 
elevated lymbol of the jM-oduftive energy of 
nature, fo richly bedecked with flowers and gar- 
lands, ihe performs the part, and . renovates in 
Britain the worQiip and rites of the ancient 

Mr. Pclham oblerves, that all thcfe in&riptions 

arc on rough unhewn ftones, except thofe of the 

Phallus at Ballyfteeny. The rcafon of that 


" In Irifb, Tai4ih, and Torih, i. e. Ter-at, the father ol 
geoctatioD. See Preface to my ProlpcAui. 

Ogham Inscriptiom. 1 9 1. 

having been tooled and chifleled is, that it was 
originally -painted; for, we are told that, with 
the worihip of Budh, of Fharahon (founder 
of the Brahmin religion), of Saca, ttc. &c., the 
Tuatha Dedan's imported alfothat of the Eo-Cad 
il-dathact i.e. the bonus penis, of many colours. 
Father Georgius, in his Alphabetum Tibetanunii 
p. 152, tells us, Pafupaii •vacant NtpaUenfes 
Pballum feu Lingam^ quadriformem fiavi^ rubric 
viriditt dlbtque colons. (Sec Vindication, p. 160.) 






Oghattt Inscriptioms, .193 

■ "PI. IV.—** In the north- weft corner ctf^thc old 
-church of Aghadoc, near Killaruey, is a rough. 
. ftonc, of the -brown mountaia kind> with a ijsV 
Ogbam charafkrs on it, which arc reprefeotcd 
in the drawing. The ftofie, as it now hcs, is 
.^about fevea feet in lengthy but it is probable it 
yf^i oilce longer, and flood crc£l, %s its larg^ 
end has an appearance of having been brdceo, 
and thrown down by violence into its prefeat 
fituaiion. This iofcription is po0ibly imperfeQ* 
as there is an appearance of a fcale of ftone bav- 
ing come off* from .its fmalleft end. The charac- 
ters near the middle of the ftone are three and 
a half inches long." 

Obfervation. — A^b ,and Doigb ([wononiicjjil ' 
do-e) llgoify fire ; fee Chapter II. I think there 
muft have formerly been here cither a. 'fire 
tower, or an altar, dedicated to the fire of fires, 
the Sun, 

N. B. — The remaining Ogham infcriptions, 
twelve in number, will bc^vcn in the next pan; 
of this volume. 

The only word I could, find ia MSS. «)m- 
pletely formed of Ogham cbaraftcrs, is in the 
Uraiceacht na Ngaois. It is there faid, " LJ^ SOM 
in ceadaa, is fi Aire'feadbbb: fi ro fcribtar tri 
egam WW ■ \\ / ■ i. e. The fame is called SOM"^ 
he is the angclus arborum ;' his name is written 
o ia 

.' Attend, lord of the for-efl; Soma, kiag of lietbt, and of 

flaou, tuu Jtppro;tched thee. Lord of the iorcA,-SMW* 

■ ' ' . jrahl 

19* dghirm tnsertptitns. 

ft thtei Ogham charaflers, thos ; i n I "^ ^ ~** 
iThcfc charaftcrs certainly do make Out SOM 
atccnrffiag to the diagram given in my Vindica- 
tion, Pl.t., and according to the diagram given 
■fcy Mr. Aftlc in the firft line of PI. XXXl. 

iSir William Oufcley has fevom^ us with a 
fcnribos plate of the Perfepolitan charaftcrs, cx- 
{ilained by Poian letters, from a MS. in the 
pdfeSlon (^ Lord Teionmouth. It is here 
topied 'hx the fatisia^on of the reader. See 
ft. B. It is entitled, *• Thi alphabet ef the 
Zoroi0i-'iatUy er J^re-worjhippers, which was /»• 
treduced in the latter pari ^ the reign of Gujh- 
tajp i the letters arranged according to the AB- 
jed.'* (See Oriental Colleflion, Vol. II. p. 57.) 
. Iq this t*erfcpolitaQ character, I think, the 
DumW of dart'heads in the upper line denotes 
the letter, and that the fmall collateral darts fher 
if the dart-heads axe on, above, or below, an 
imag^iary ^ftraight line ; and all below the upper 
line are for 'ornament, at the difcretion of the 

Viewing them in this light, the two firft cha- 

riSxt% correfpond widi our Ogham ; the lalt 


^Utt «M liTct Hrength, glory, fptendor, cattle, abundiint 
wealth, TirtttC) koowlcdge, and intelligence. (Prajfer of 
the BrahmiDS, Afiacic 'Rriearches, Vol. V. p. 545.} Hence 
the S^ar Setaa, i. e. tf^r nttu, the /ouataia of ktiovilt4g*t 
fo.oftea occurring ID Iriih MSS. 

.^ A ierle, ia which the Arabic lettert foUow, according 
. to their aritbrn^tal powen^ and cen^nuid to the Hebrew 


Ogham Inscriptions. 195 

docs not. There arc others that do correfpond,, 
which {hall hereafter be explaioed^ 

^ J c 

< m ^y 

Z O M. 

Sir William qbfcrvcs, this curious maDufcript 
coD&lled of thirty pages, and contained fixtjr 

In the following infcriptions it is remarkable, 
that the angles of the ftoncs have been fubflitutcd 
for the line, on which the power of the letter 

Note. « /'an is often pronounced u e id ^tfile (Joaet's 
Ferfiaa Graranur); it ii a long rowel, correrpoodiag to our 
• in Sim. EgyptioTum iennoae dicebatur Dfom, vel Sntf 
L e. Hercules (Jabloolkj). 





J.N treating of this futgcft, as on every other 
relating to the antiquities of the andent Irilh* 
we flull find many occafions to refer to the lan- 
guage, manners, and cuftoms, of the <meDtai 

Commerce was ccrt^nly firil carried on with- 
oat the ufe of money ; it vas by bartering one 
commodity for another. Ce/mas bidic^leuftet 
gives a curious account of this ancient mode of 
traffic, between the inhabitants of Axuma, once 
the metropolis of Abyfliota, and the natives of 
Barbaria, a region of Africa near the fca-coaft, 
where were gold-mines. " Every fecond jeai" 
fays be, " a caravan of merchants, to the num- 
ber of five hundred, fets out from Axuma^ to 
traffic with the barbarians for gold. They 
carry with them cAtle, fait, and iron, to barter 
for that gold. They cjcpofe their goods to the 


198 Of the Money of the Ancient Irish. 

view of the natives, who place on, or near the 
animal, ikit or iroa, one or more of the ingots, 
and then retire to a dHtance, kx they imderftood 
not each other's language. If the proprietor of the 
article thought the gold Efficient, he took it up, 
and went away, and the purchafer fccured the 
oommodity he dcfircd." 

This kind of commerce is expreffed in Irifh by 
ma/f*whencc meU-raidbim^ to accept by barter. 
Malart, barter; whence malair^ a merchant. 
Malcuireas, fele, from Ciur, a merchant. Ch. 
mo cirib, vcnditio, emptio, negociatio. Perf. 
jif iar, commerce ; and the firfl: part of the 
ctfitipound is alfo Chaldee, ^n'jd maiat, negd- 
dUtio, mertatara (Bdxt.); but the oHginal figni- 
ficatiba df the word was, barter^ or excbaiigc, of 
one cotnmcidity for another^ Hence, alfo, in 
Sanfcrit and 'Hindooftanee, mela, a fair ; in Ar. 
£ji*j Jvj ptala befetj commerce. 

"this kidd of ebmtllercc could not have laftecl 
long ; the cje muft have often been dccrivcd ; " 
the biillc of an ilrticle was not always the proptr 
cfiteriori of its wo«h. tt became abfolntely 
Bcccflary to haVe recourfe to fome general me- 
dium iti commerce, dnd that medium varied ac- 
cording to the prodbcc df the country. The 
beaiity, firmhcfl, aiid durability of itaetals, occa- 
fidiicd them to be adopted j but it was itiany 
ages before thfcy were ftaittped wi'th any impwf- 
fioa, dcfcriptivc of that" weight o/s ValUe. It was 
the cutldih of the mcrtliaiK, is in faft is tUQ '- 

or the Monti/ oftfK AncjK0Jri^ \^ 

fra&ife4 ia CbitUt %o cvry ^ {;eit»iQ pgn^ q( 
g<dd or filvcr iato tbe nwrket, apd, h^Ting prc« 
TJouidy furoifhed himfcif with prefer ioftramcats 
sod fcales, be cut ofi'f and wdgfapj out, t?e%c 
the vender of the comc^gidity he wanted, as ntwy 
pteecs as were proportioiipd to the purch^c of i;; 
The great ioconreaicDGe ajod dd^yj occ^Jipi^ 
hy this mode of trajBKkiag, fopo iQ4uc$d th^ 
merchant to briog with httn pieces of ntppcy » 
ahradjr portiooed out, of differeRt weights aiul 
value, and ftaoiped with the marks Qccdlary |9' 
dillii^uiih them. There is very great reafco) t^ 
believe, that the cfdi^ coins llnick were tifi^ 
|>oth as weights and mooey ; and, ipijecd,. ;Ihf 
drcumllance is ia part proved by the very raxs^ 
of certain of the Greek atid Roman coiof. Tk^ 
the Aaic ffiifftf, and the Roman likra, equally 
figBJfy a wdgbt, and the nonif of the Gredkj> 
{o called from weigbingt is dediive in this point. 
The jevi^fliekel was alfo a weight, as well as 9 
coia; three thouJand fiiekels, accopdiog to ^ 
huthoot, b«iig equal in weight tp (^e faiintfw 
Hlb is the oldeft coin, of whicb w aoy whfil?p 
read ; for it occurs m Genefis, ch. x«iii. y. 16,, 
and exhibits dirod evidence aguflft tho^ wt^ 
ihte the ficil coinage of mooey fo low as thp 
time of CioBfus or DaHos ; it bong duxe <*- 
preftly £iui, that Abraham weigbe4 U £fi>tyit 
fiar itundre^ fhtkelt if^fikjer^ currmt aoiiejl'viti> 
tbt merelKmt. (hbutkx, lod. M^- Vp), VU. 


^ 6f tke^Mtmey of the Aneitnt trish'. 

p. 471.)-^ A trafficker of. Cinaao ! the cbcatmg 
balances in hit baad! (HoTea. ch. xj. v. 7.) 
* ■ The primitive race of men bang flKpherds, 
asd their vealth coalUUDg in their cattle, in 
vfaidi Abraham is fatd to have beea rich ; wheb, 
ftir greater convenience, metals were ftiWlituted 
Ibr the commodity itfelf, it was Datura! for the 
reprefcntativc figo to bear imprcflcd the objefl 
which" it' reprcfented ; and thus, accordingly, the 
^lieOr coins were ftamped with the figure of -ia 
tfx ot Jheep. For proof that they aftually did 
tbil's imprefs them, we can again appeal to the 
high authority of fcripture; for there .we arc 
informed, that Jacob bought a parcel of a fields 
f>r>idred piecet of money. (Gcnefis, ch. 
xtxiii. -v. 19.) The Hebrew word, tranilated 
fieeet tfmmeyy is in the plural niD^p Kefitoth, 
"nrhich, according to the Septuagint, fignifies 
Lambs, that is, moDcy on which was damped the 
figure of a lamb ; for, in the A<^, ch. xvii. 
V. 16., it is faid,'that this bargain was made mth 
money. Add thus Bate, in his Hebrew Lencon^ 
tmngs'thc word irova tovp Kefei, whidi fignifies 
ajurance, csr^idence. *' TtQwp Kefite, fomc coin, 
or piece of money ;" of what weight or value 
^does not appear, that I know of. Gen. ch. xxxiiit 
•y. 19.,-aad Joih. ch. xxiv. v. 32.; . iat a hundred 
K^tS {pieces of money), inarg. lambs ; but there 
is no i»oof that it lignified a lamb. Job, .ch.xlii, 
V. 11.^ " Every man gave him nD^p a ^ect ef 
, ■ . ■ - ' money i" 


Ofiht ■Mohep.p/tfie.JnciHl -Jrrsh. JHJf 

-nmeyr,^' ■'and '.vsctacA, .-perhapvas' fiavifag- the 
pobHc ftaifip,' the mfttrance. mark, Vi^KtaiU'. 2s\hti 
irord fignifies ceriainlyi^id in, the Chaldec^ 
Dan. ii. 47. and iv. 34., and fo it was Jcnowttto' 
be -ftcrling, or what mighr be- rclkd. opoD." 
Parkhurft and Leigh are of the fame opinfcau: 
Rob,Akiba,in-Roshaffana, fays; " Cqm pcrAfii-' 
cjun percgrinarer,D^e/am vocabant Kefitam; Quse- 
aam inde e& utilitas ? Ut centum KefitXt dc 
quibus agitur in Lege Molls, expiicentur ceatuni: 
^prr Ja'"(f. The Greek, Onkclos, the Sjriac^ 
Arabic, and Vulgate, haTC all tranflated Ke^ta 
by lambs or fheep. " REhl tamen eft pcrfoa-* 
fiflimum Kefitam Hcbraeis nee ovem fuifle, ncc 
epium^ fed aliquod nummt genus." (Bochart.) 
And BuKtorf/ quotes the Talmud to prove, that 
the Kefita, in Africa, was a fort of money. 
' Bate has certainly bit on the right' raeaniog-of 
the word, viz. Sterling, for ib it means in Irifil. 
Riegb-ci^e (kifte), the royal mint, the rpyal 
treafury, moft [wobably marked with a lanU>< 
So (j>a£ Aiit, in Arabic, lignifies an ox, and 
inooey; Bos, nummus aureus (Golius); whkh 
plainly proves it was money, with the iignature 
of an ox upon it. ■ Again, in Irilh, Oir-kifia, h 
tranflated royal treafiire, bat certainly iinplici 
Jlerting gold. " When Homer and Hejltd fpeak 
of the value of t^fiercnt objefis* by oxen and 
Jheep, we muft not imagine that they were living 
animals, becauCe. tU/ycbiut cxprefsly Tap,, that 
- : - the 


an (IftSc Jftfwy if tit AneUnt Tris%. 

Afc AtHcaian tnouef «S5 ftampcd vidi an mj 
Flatavch tdk nc, that thu ff^obtJ had beta 
ftnick at Atheni by ThdcDs, before the war ti 
Trof." (GebeliD.) 

The ox or cow money wa$ undoubtedly car- 
rent in Irdand; for, in the foilth and weft d 
die kingdom, Botn oS tefiiuni, the eotu Of eight 
groats, is the vulgar name for faa)f-a-crova, or 
two ihUlings and eightpcnce-halfpcnny, beittg 
oqaal to two fhitlings and fixpcnce Englifh cur. 
rency, or half-a-crown. 

I am of opinion that the Kijii originated with 
the Scythians; for can we imagine that ths 
Scythians, who extended thdr conquefts to the 
Nile, and, retumiog from Egypt, employed fiftees 
ytsts in ccHiqQcring Afia, which they laid under 
tribute, and held this conqnell'and tribute, for 
iEhe fpace of fifteen hundred years, till Ninuj, the 
AflyriiUt king, found means to relieve his country 
frdm the impoll, bad no moncyi Such an army 
muft have lutd mimey, and a knowledge of arith- 
Inetical figores ; and we find that two learned an* 
thorS, Bucbera and Bryant, have given the invcn- 
ti(m of aridunetical figures to the Scythians; and 
that thofe, fonno-ly ufed in Ireland, were lat&an, 
1 have fliewn, in an cHgtaved plate, in die fifth 
volume of this CrfJeftanca. Hypnut alfo give* 
|he Scythians the invention of money. Indoi 
rcM in Scytbia argea/um frimtu invenit, fttai 
£rkbtiomus Atbenas primum gtmUt, 



of the Mdnep of ihe AiuUhi Irish. 203 

'^ The inVestion of cxmj or the fort of modi^ 
dtilcofered bj' king Indus in Seythta, muft hint 
bieen prior to the Scythiilb conqueft c£ Alla« and 
fifteen hundred years before the rdgn of Niaut, 
the beginrilng of which is commotily placed i i lo 
ycafU before the birth of Cbrift ; confeqticntly, 
the Scytlum money mis coirent id Aila 5610 
years before the Chriftian sen" (D'Ancarviilc.) 

All andent money was originally ftamped with 
the figtiatnre of cattle. Signatum eji raits pe- 
cudum ; unde et ftcunia appellata. (Plinii, N. H. 
lib. 33.) Varro alfo derives pecunia from 
pens. We have another inftaoce in the ancieDt. 
Greek money, denominated fia^, the ox. Nuto- 
riios Grxcos bovis imagine percullbsj Son Ibttiitt 
adagium &3i jvi rA^tnK. fed et ipfi munmi attti<)ai» 
qui xofoixfu; principum et erudit(»um allervaiitur, 
fatis docent (Ainfworth). 

Of the iheep-money of Rome, none has been ■ 
difcovered. Of the ox-money, there is only ont 
fpccimen, in copper, in the mufcum of St. Gene- 
vieve at Paris ; it is valued at four fout. Moot- 
faucon has engraved two in his Antiquiti £«• 
ptique. In the year 300 of Rome, the confuls, 
Sp. Tarpcius, and An. Terminus, permitted the 
niagiftratcs to impofc pectmiary punifluneots, pro- 
vided they did not exceed two oxen, and tluny 

That money paffed by weight, at the fame 

time, is proved alfo from fcripture^ Abimctrrji^. 

]aag of Guerat, gave AbnUiam one thoulaDd 



204 Of thi ifoiuy of tAe JneitfU Irish. 

pieces of lilver. That- patriarch, for die pin-' 
(iu£t of a bar^.[^ce, gave four hundred _^kels 
of lilTer, current with the merchaiits, as wc have 
ihewQ before. 

- The Greeks at length ftamped money with the 
e^tes of their god^. Phido, tyrant of Argos, 
. was the firft that prefomed to fabftitotc his own 
name and figure for that of the gods. This was 
ten centuries before the lunh of Cluift. This 
was efteemol a great ionovation, and made much 
hoife. Herodotus calls him the mod infolent of 

* Can it be fuppofed that the andent Irilh, de- 
fixnded from the Indo^cythians, living in an 
ifland abounding in gold and {ilver, fhould not 
coin numey i 

— — — ^^-— -^— flaDoique fodinu 
Et puK »genti venat, qnu tern refoffii 
Wceribw auDu imoi rifnn reclodh ; 

fays Hadrianus Junius, fpeaking of Ireland, 

Can it be fuppofed that, at a time when, 
Tacitus affufcs us, the ports of Ireland were more 
ircqucntcd than thofe of Britain, and when their 
ancient Brehon laws afccrtaib the duty on wines,' 
figs, cocoa-nuts, &c,, the value and duties of 
thefe articles were paid in cattle ? — or that a pKXff 
taylor, that had not one acre of ground, was to 
be paid in cattle for his work, as is exprefled in 
the fumptti:^ laws, tranflated in this Cf^eAanea? 


OJihe Maaa/ «J the Antitnl Irish. aSiS 

We itad, m thefc dd laws, of papnents made 
by CDinals; faorfes, flieep, by Grea-bal, Uing^rf 
Fang, and Tme. The cumal (or camel) was 
eftimated or paJTed for three cowt, or boins. Tt^ 
mi tri cumaii air ; It c<^ me nine cows (O'Brien). 
'* Ar. ^Jl -t^ ^fttel, vcl gerael Jchoud, viz. Ca.- 
melutn . Judaicum, ut aiTcrunt Damir et Abeo- 
bitar i ita Poeoos in Africa '7D3 game! appellaflc 
vel gamalin, unde ia£ta iit vox, x'f^^'"> GriecjO 
more ioflexa." (Boch.) 

*' Ar. '•—^j^ I alwark, , tam ad pecudes rcfa- 
tur, quam ad numos ; Alcamus, alwark animal 
quodvis et opes ex camelis, et nummis et aiiis i" 
and this is the word ufed by the Arabs in AQfi, 
xvii. 1 6., where it is faid, the purchafe was made 
with money. 

Grea, is a horfe; and greo-bal, ftampcd or 
marked with a horfe. It is very like in Ibund to 
the CbaldicaQ rn3 gera, obolus, nuinus (Biu$. 
Flult). Greabal is commonly tranOated a penny, 
and ieatb'greabd a halfpenny. S'greabaiy three- 
pence; an annual tribute of three-pence, paid, at 
the command of the monarch, by the provincial 
kitigs of Ireland, to Saint Patrick (Keating, 
O'Bricp, Shaw). The initial s ftands for Ji ; the 
Perf. A***. Jf, or /eh, that is, three. ' From gera 
comes gearrahf a tax or tributcj coimb-gbearrat 
a Ihare of the reckoning, vuigd, a fhot (O'Brien). 

* Ji, 1. e. Ar«, it now obMete io Irifli, yet^ is preferttd 
'm_fi-un, B hup with three ftrii>gi } b HindooA. -aad Ptfrf, 


906 Of the Mmty ^ the Anaent. Irish. 

Gear-fenit etar3:BCb-maacf, from the Gh. Ow 
yjim, pooere prethim alici^Hs rd^ At. jJf 
geraa, handfel^ csuneft-mooey (Rich.). 

Thcjgrtabal is fometimes traaflatcd one pamyf 
bat cvideotly wai three-penc£. 'The pifi-rit or 
n^al pcniay, according to Cormac, weighed feven 
f graios of wheat ; Pifiri, i. e. Crann leatban bis 
ac tmai, aen pin^nct eadbon, feacbt grains 
enatiasacda. Then the fgreabal, bang three- 
pence, weighed twenty-onrf grains ; bat the ma 
geray fedecini grana hordei pendebat — fempcr 
homo tntiet, i. e. in tres partes dividat^ obolos 
fuos (Bust.). Pirtginet or pinnine, arc tlic lame 
vord, fignifying a penny. In the Hindooftanee, 
fenn is a halfpenny, and pukka pyfa a penny. 
The Irifli fcldom write n«, preferring the N 
pdeal, or nn^al N, for the latter ; and the mo- 
dons write ng^ as is evident m the w(»d fol- 

Famo, Faino, an Irilfa coin, a thin .can of 
gold <x filTer, gdd f<»l ^ faing t^deatg tar, a 
faing of red gold {O'Brien) } do bhearadba faing 
n'dearg oir don Ea/peg, he gave a goidc^ fmig to 
the Biftopi (COery). The Chinefe have a 
coin named Fang and Fma, which is the tenth 

(■ The If^ideal, or luJa/V, ii well ddcribed by tbe wwd 
jidral, which Ggnifies a reed ; aod the fouad is compared to 
that made by the boyt, by fplittiDg a reed, or the Aem of 
iltaw or wheat, and Uowing tbieu^it. The ToAs'lMtt* 
Ac &BC nme^oT the mj/o/ N. 


Of the Money of the Ancient Irish. &n 

of an ounce (Bayer, Lex. Syr. p. 102.) j it is 
not noticed if of gold or filver. 

The Indians, fays Sonncrat, faave a fntall com 
of gold and filver, named Fanon. Thofe of gold 
are very difagreeable ; they are fo fmall, they 
arc cafily loft." 

ToiCE (toike). What mcta! lUs was made of 
does not appear. In Htndooftan, take lignifies 
money in general, as toice in Irifli does. In fomc 
parts of India, taokaa is a name for a rupee^ 
which fignifics lilvcr money. 

The Iiilh names for money in general are, 
Cearb, Cim, Cios (kees), Cepar, Piosa, 
Mal, Ana. — Cearb is the Ar. Vj^ i^^> 
filver i Cim the Ar. ^^^t*t./eemy filver ; Cies ikees) 
the Ar. &i**>S keefeh. — Cm, fays Cormac, mcacs 
filver. Agus don airgead do bheartha i m 
d'fomharaibh atroille alnmnuighdha. Cim din 
ainm each ciofa fin : Cepar do airgad ba hainm 
fritu, dicitur in na Breatbamh neimhe ; i. e. Cim 
is filver, in which money was paid formwly to 
phates for redemption, but cepar was the wiginal 
name of fuch payment in the Brchon laws. Here 
we have the Chaldsean 133 cepar^ ^wpo., lytrod, 
pecuniamm pretium redemptionis. Hence the 
moantain of Cipur m the county of Dublin, anti 
the Keper in the county of Limerick, where ex- 

' I here retura my thanks to my unknown coirefpODdent 
in the EbA Indies, for explaining the Fanaon, eegrtved in 
"the corner of PI. I. -of my ProQwftas. It is a Ffuuion rf 
Fondicherry. -; - 


fOft Of the Montif nf tite Ancient IrUh. 

-ptaticm for lias was oSerc(i> ■■ c. redemptioq. 
Cabaty feanean, Cabar, a iacried bird (O'Qery), 
■an old cock (Shaw) ; gabar, a goat, a horfe, a 
cock (O'Drien); all aDimals oficrcd for the cx- 
:piatioa of fins. '* Caufa auton cur gai/o potius 
quam alio animante utantur, hsec ell, quia vlr 
Ebraic^ ~\2i-geber appcllatur. Jam & geber pcc- 
cavcrit, geber ctiam peccati pceDam fuiMDcre de- 
bet. Quia ver6 gravior eflct poeoa, quam ut illam 
fubire pofient Judaei, gailum gallioaceum, qui 
Talmudica five Babylonica dialefto "03 geber ap- 
pellatur, &c." (BuKtorf). The Talmudifls could 
give DO belter derivation. 

PiosA, money. Pift-ri, i. e. Crann lealbatit'' 
the royal filver money (Cormap). Pcrf. Ij**>J 
pcifba ; Hiodooft. pyfiy money ; Perf. t^«*J. fe- 
.Jbizy an obolus, or any fmall money. (Rich). 
Mal, Arab, and Perf. ^JL* tnalt riches. 
Am A, riches; Ar. ,.j,a£ Ain. 
LsATHAN, the pi. oi Letbet filver, money ,; 
, Ar. t_>-TgJ lejut, filver. 

The fmalleft of value with the Irifh was the 
■■C»«Bif^- (or the churn), zfarthing\ a piece cer- 
tainly ftamped with a churn upon it. 

My reverend and learned friend, Mr. Roberts, 
fuppofes the Cjnneog to have been fo calldl 
-fix)m Cmobelifu. " Attached (fays Mr. Roberts) 


' Here we have Crann, fubfliiuted for Hi, tt king, joyai, 
.j^U iaraa, liogiu Chorofraia, imperalor. c^*f^ '*«™» 
ille ob diTitUs in OrieaEe ccl^iis* cQ^uc illc £«rai, de ^y^ 
Num. XVI. (Gol.) 


0^ the Money of the Ancieni Irish. so» 

to the Roman iaterefb, he appears to have fa- 
voured tbdr views, and to have imitated them. 
To this coDoefiioQ '^ith the Romans he perhaps 
owed his knowledge of coining money | and to 
him the only coin, that has a, name properly 
Welfh, owes its appella'ion ; that is the Ceinieg, 
or Denarius^ which, there is no great rlfque ta 
faying, was originally called Cunog, and fofteoed 
afterwards into Ceiniog. It is at Jeaft the only 
probable etymology of the name I can fbd. The 
word Ta/iio, on the reverie of bis coins, feems to 
be Gaelic (Irifh), or the dialeft of the Loegrians, 
and to fignify the mint or treafury ^ as, in Irilh, 
the word Tat/gib fignifies hoarding ; ' Taifgiodan'^ 
a florehoufe of arms, &c., armarium. h% Cuno- 
beline was king of the Icehty' the inference i%i 
certainly, that their language was the Gaelic* 
(Irifii). (Roberts's Early Hiftory of the Britons, 
p. 109.) Taifce certainly fignifies a hoard, and 
Tatfc-airm an arfenal, but I don't fee tbe'appli- 
cation tjf the word to a mint or treafury. If it is 
not the name of the coiner, or of Ac place where 
it was coined, it may be tranflatcd^c voh ; Taifce, 
vel Toifce^ voluntas hominis ; and this might 
refb- to the value given it by royal edift. • My 
Munfter friends would not readily give up the . 
Cianeeg to. the Wclfli. 

Bbs was another fpecies of copper money. It 
fignifies money in general, rent, tax, tribute. 

p Reali, 

* See Nou» p. 48 of chii Mumbw. 


tl Of the Money o} the. Ancient Irish'. 

RcALi, OT fixpenceVIs Spanlfh. Rial, a.roy!iI, 
being a piece of money worth fixpcncc, or the 
eighth part of a piece of eight (Pineda, Span. 


TuisTiuN, Testune, in Irilh, a groat, or 
fourpeDce. Tejihn is an Italian coin, in the Pope's 
dominions, worth about eighteen-peoce fterling ; 
it is alfo a Spanllh coin, fo called from Tefihn, a 
bead, the head of the Pope being (lamped on 
it (Pineda). 

' From the preceding pages it is evident, that 
the ancient Irifli had coined money ; and, from 
the feveral Indian, CKaldaean, and Ferfian names 
for coins, it is as ievident, they brought thofe 
names from the Eall. Such names tend to con* 
firm their hiftory. 

It may be a&ed, where are the cumals, and 
' grcabak, and fannons ? Are they ever dng up, or 
are they to be met with in any of the cabinets or 
mufeums ? — In reply, I afk, where are the ibeep 
and ox money of the Romans, that rich and 
powerful nation, who certMnly tranfported many 
into the countries they conquered ? They arc not 
to bf found I of the flieep money, not one — and 
of the ox money, but on^. 

That money palled by weight in Ireland is alfo 
evident. The uinge-oir^ and uinge-airgead, the 
ounce of gold and filver, is frequently mentioned 
in hiOiory, as is the eflablifhnient of royal mints 
in feveral parts of the kingdem. Tbc Cios fron, 
or nofe taix, Mis^ an vi}-ige oity . an Qimce of gold. 


Qf t)^ Money of the Ancient Irish. 2i i 

to, be paid yeartyi bv every houfe-keeper, into 
th|C panilh treaTury. "fbe Daties and Norwc- 
giaos'boad, ia their annals, of the great quantity 
of gold carried out of this country \rt thdr ftci 
quent plundcriogs ; and, in the cabinets of thofe 
nations, probably fome Irifh cdns inaj^ be found. 

An ounce of Clver, ftamped with a harp, from 
9 die elegantly cut, was once brought to me by 
a merchant, Mr. O'Brien, who lived at the cor- 
ner of Bridge-ftrcct. The houfc was pulled 
down, in order to be rebuilt, and under the old 
foundation this piece was found. , It was oblong, 
aiid wdgfaed czaAly an ounce ; it is {^obably ia 
the family Hill. We had then no public Mufeum» 
no Numarium, as cftabliflied of late years, by 
the Dublin Society, for the depolit of Irifh 

Great numbers of Arabic coins, with infcrip- 
tioos in Ct^ charafiers, are to be met with in 
Ireland. JLu iron pot full was lately dug up in 
the county of Deny ; two of them were pre- 
fentcd to the Dublin Society. 

A Cufick coin, found near Dublin, was en- 
graved in the Oriental Collection, V. II. 
of Sir William Oufely, and explained by Profcf- 
for Tychfen in his Introd. in Rem Ntimariam 
Mttbam, p. Si., copied in the third volume of 
the Oriental Collefiion. The date 296 of the 
Hejra (A. D. 908), coined at Samarcand by 
Ahmed Ben Ifmael, fecond prince of the Sama- 
nian dynally. 



SI 2 Of the Money of the Ancient Irish. 

Another was found on the fliorcs of the Bal-- 
tic ; it was dated io the year of the Hqra 1 80 
(A.D. 79S). , 
. .■ The Saracens became maAers of Spain about 
thp eighth century. It is probable thefe coins 
were introduced into this country by the intcr- 
courfe of the Irilh with Spain, and from Ireland 
to .the Baltic by the plundering Danes and 




Page 381 line 6, /arborc^Katem, read, boreapoliatm, 

■ -'■ 1 1 J, — J from bottom, for Kamao, read^ Haman. 

■ ' ■ IJOi — ia» for ulky, read, talhy. 

■ 171, at bottom, dele Note lo p. 24. 

The Arabic fcholar will find a few medial letters uTed 
for fioals, which changes not the orthography) and therefore 
pot worth corrcfiing. 

P. 5. Pcrfe vocant feccrdotes ftos |viinVj&(l>- 
'harin (Baal Aruch). 

P. 35. The votary of Mithras was obliged to ' 
undergo a fiery trial, to pafs feven times through 
the fecrcd fire, and each time to phingc himfclf 
'into cold water. The Dumber feven was deemed 
facred over ail the Eaft (Encyct. Brit, at Myf- 

• P. s^. Add TARF, a traft, a coaft ; as Clon- 
rarf^ near Dublin, rcfle Cluain Tarf. Cluaitty a 
lawn, pafture, level ground (O'Brien) ; Ar. t_^ 
'kelian, pafture ground ; Ar. k^jjJa tarf^ tragus, 
lalus. (Gol.) 

P. 171. The title of the book of Oghams is 
URAI cEAnT NA NGOis, tranflated, by O'Brien and 
Shaw, the Primer of the Bards. I think it fliould 
have been called the Grammatical RuleS of the 
learned Scribes. " Ut CD'HOTiP Soterim ben^ 


SI 4 Corrigenda et Addenda. 

noris, ipfe vide Exod. V. 1 4, 1 5. ; qnanqnam cDini, 

T. 10, pTsecedant cam its aliqui diAi ^U313 Nogqfi, 
attamen hie foil Soterim. Populi percadmitnr 
<^ penftim infcAunt, foliqae ad rcgem qacniiltur j 
etant ergo bi delegati e popnlo fuo; illi verb 
Noga^im fnmptt ex JEgyptiis, ac pto imperio 
dirigcnics opus. Unde et ipfi f^ajbm priorps 
oominantur; V. 6, 10. Dkuatar qaoqae/hterim 
qaidam h Lcvids Tupcr Levitas delegati ; i Chron. 
xxiii. 4. ubi cum judicibus conjungQUturj et 
interim tacetur ulrura fint ipfi judices, ani divcrfi 
ab iis. — Non pojfum a/pernari quod LXX. redduM 
Vfo,.,«tKH>»y«v«(. Ccrte "iBtp Jier^ vcl foter Chal- 
dai^^ fignificU lii^at-, cafqiie mulljplices (node 
foterlm). Ut hinc commodfi did potttcrJtjfffr qai 
iip^data judici^^f^/a ad fubdicos defert, et ob- 
iequi injiperat, Dubium tamen e& potcft an 
£;^pt]9rt? ar« s^tale cappvitatis E^ptiaqe.ufitat^ 
■^et" (OuffetiiB Cpnim. L. Hebr. p. 8_£it,) , Sep 
this fubjed difcuiled in the fifth volume of mf 
CollcAanca, p. 209.) 
The LXX. have certainly piopsrly tranllated 

^313 PPgOfii by y{a^f"»T(er.«y«yi((, COTieipOtldillg 

with the Iriih TV^du, or Nagoh. It is worthy of 
remark, that^ in the word Ifrai ceacbtj the He- 
brew and Chaldean cbetb n is fubflituted for cb^ 
which {hews that thofc characters were familiar 
' to the writers- of tbofe days. The Punic and 
Ellrangeki Ateph of the Chaldxans, frequently 
occur in ascient Irilh MSS. Sec CoUcftanea, 
Vol. V. p. 90. 

1 have 


Corrigenda el Addenda. 215 

I havi h&Klf tooched on the Cabiric myftcrics" 
pi^fflfed in Ireland, rdcrving them JFor a fcparatC 
trcatifc. *rh(*c arc no bodes eafting, m my 
opinion, in which they arc fo well explained, as 
iii Irifh mannfcripts. 

Hcrodotas alTcrts, that the obfcene rites df the 
Cabiri were. communicated, by the aboriginal 
Pilajgi, to the Samvthracians and Athenians 
(L. n. C. 51.); and ihefe iV^ wftre our 
jlire-Goti, or Indo-Svytha. 

We have alfo the tcftimony of Strabo, that 
ihefe Cibiric rites originated with the CoUbi, on . 
the Rialis (Oeogr. L. X. p. 47^-), the biigiiiai 
feat of onr ^re-Coti. And we have the autho- 
rity of Dloh;^i Per. v. 565., and <rf Artem' 
imu (ap. Strabo, L. IV. p. 198.), thai die 
CabiriC or Sanaihractan deities were eftabHihed 
ifi Britain ; bttodnced, without doubt, by ouf 
AirC'Cotl, wb6 poflefled that iflatid long |»ior 
to the arrival of the Cymri. We muft not, fbwe- 
fbre, be furprifcd to find the Phatlks in Itieland. 
Myfteria pbailUa mjjhriii Cabiricis per cmnem 
terramm otbem ftmt conjuti^a. (Faber on the 
Cabin, Vol. I. p. 36^.) 

Thefe myfterica went under the oanic of 
Tailte, OT Tilite^ in Irifli, and TailteagBoHj i.e. 
tempora Tai^ey like Bliagbarty a y*ar, i. c. BeB^ 
tcmpora. O. Perf. ^^\^\S' gha&an, tempora. 
(Hyde, R.V.P. p. 164.) 

TzLETA, a religious ceremony (Apul. p. 394. 

Lat. ritns ; Ainfworth, who derives it from t/ab, 


31 6 Corrigenda et Addenda. .. 

m^fieria). Again, Ts.\az, piyActja JAcni arc^a ; 
matoritas vir^nis, vsaAh ct nuptut; Hederic. Lex.. 
Grace. But the Greek was borrowed c^ the Indo*, 
Scythian THete-agbatif or Tatliean, that is, iempora 
Tmlte^ or the rcUgicHis ceremonies of the fon. On 
this day the initiated were brought out of the nu- 
ibratie eaves, and were denominated <:A(i/«B <ftbe 
fun and moon, *' Tatltean^ a place in the county 
of Meadi (fays Seward), where the, Druids facri-, 
£ced in honour of the maniage of the Sun ai>d 
Moon^ and Heaven and Earth, on the firit of 
Augufl, being the- fifth revolution of the moon, 
&om the Tcmal equinox. At this tjme the States, 
a^ibledj and young people were given in piar- 
liage, acoordiog to the cuftom of the Eqfiern, 
nations, Gaines were alfo inftituted - (refembjuig 
the Olyn^ic games of the Greeks) and held 
fifteen days before, and fifteen days after the 
fiift of Augufl. This feftival w» frequently 
dmomtnated Lughaid NaoiJtean,-Qx the. matri- 
mcHiial alTembly.'' (Topogr. of Ireland ad verb.) 
The month of Auguft was anciently named 
Xi«<&-di^, or the feftival of the fun ; andthefirll. 
of Auguft ftill bears the name of Lucb^nafat qr 
the anniverfary of Lac, the fun } Chaldaean 
names, that will hereafter be ezplaioed* when 
treating of the Cabiric myfteries. 


• p. i3.3.^Ir: Tt-mf, God (Shaw's Diift.),p 
literally, the great circle (See p. 323)^ *FhB. 
Phoenicians thus rcprefentcd the Deity, which 
they probably bcHTowed of the Indians, who 
rcprcfented God in the iame manner, as we 
learn from Dellon. — " The Indian idolaters, whom 
we call Gentiles, all agree that there is a God : 
but feme think it is the mr ; others that it is the 
fun : others, that it is boiled rice. The error of 
the laft proceeds from their belief, that rice is 
the beft prefcrvativc of life and health. But 
thefc rice wotihippers neverthelefs acknowledge 
another God, whom they call Parama-Brouma, 
which fignifies molt fublime, mod excellent ; and 
they fay the letter O is this God, or, rather, 
they reprefent him by this fymbol or hierogly- 
phic j and they believe that he, who is able to 
exprefs this letter in his lad moments, infallibly , - 
goes to heaven." (Voyage de M. Dellon, 1 amo. 

a Cologne, 1709. Sec a Review of it in Journal 
dcs Sjavaos, Sept. 1703.) 

* P. 207. Bes, Bis, i. e. Cios, money 

(O'Clery); rent, tribute (O'Brien). The cur- 
rent money in Pegu, in 1563, was the Can/a 
and B^iffa, as we learn from C^efa Frederick, a 
VeoctiaD. " The Byjfa^' fays he, " is not the 


moaej of the king, but every one may (lamp it 
that will. It is of copper and lead : when they put 
too much lead in it, no one will take them. The 
£y^ is worth, after our accompt, half a ducat, 
little more or lefs." (Voyage and Travels of 
M. Cxia Frederick, Merchant, of Venice, into 
the Eafl: Indies, 1563, in Hacluyt's Colleton 
of Voyages, Londcm, 1600. 






L ScMnl O^uiti ImciipliMu- 
' IL Aecmmt of a double Patera 

of Oold, weighed 5a Oulnea*. 
m, Account of an citraordmaiy 

Caro, ID which were Kve- 

nl (tone Coffin cootpiaing 


IV.'Eiiaj OH' the ancieal OreM 
and Oraamenti of the Irith 
Ladiei ; eiplaming Kverol 
PuMgei in [he S. S. 
v. Euay on the AMTatmmj of 
the andent Iiiib, cmnpaRd 
with that of the Chaldxuu. 


US. 10, BACK-bAHI. 





OGHAM Irucriptions continued • - 219 


Golden Implements, and Onrnments of Gdd, 
found m Ireland. — Deteription of a curunis 
golden dotihle Patera, Bracelets, AnkUts^ 
Xc. found in Ireland.— Dreea of the Irish, 
same as of the ancient Persians - - 237 


Of the Cam-gaireah, or Grme Cams 


Of the Astronomy of the ancwnt Irish 



Of the Dwxuri and Cahiri. — Cabiric orgia 
invented by the StyMfltis of Colchis, an- 
cestoTj of the Irish. — Cabiric orgia in 
Jrelandy fTwed from Artemidtrtts and 
Diom/sius Per. - - - - -419 

Cabiric or Mithratic Caves in Ireland - - 447 





Four Views of a Stone and Inscription on the Lands of , 

Ballintagarl, County of Keny. 

Diawu bj li Pelliim to a fcile of one inch to i foot. 





PI. V. " On the landi of BalliDtagart, ontf^, 
mile to the ealt of Dingle, arc the remaiDs of a' 
large tumulus, and feveral fmall graves round it. 
The tntditioD of the country is, that, at a very 
diftant period back, a great battle was fought 
here, between the Irifh and fome of their in- 
vaders, and that the llain were buried in this 
tumulus. In the 6eld, where this tumulus ftands, 
arc difperfed fix loofe Hones with Ogbam infcrip>. 
tions. N6ne of thefc ftones are {landing, for, 
being of a pebble like ftiapc, but of a very large 
iize, they have been rolled aboat the field as a 
trial of ftrength. The plate exhibits font views 
of one of thefe flones, which were neceflary to 
give a full view of the whole infcription, as it is 
cut on the edge of, the ftone round almoft the 
whole of it. This infcription is very pcrfe£l, and 
is copied with great care. The figure on the fiat 
of the (lone, I believe, is intended for a dagger, 
and not for a crofs. 

tiJi ' Opfervation. 


asd Ogham Imetiptiom. 

Ob/ervation.<— Sec the crofs explained at 
PI. IX. 

PI. VI. contains -fonr views of the fecond 
Ogham iDfcription at Ballintagart. This infcrip- 
tion is alfo very perfirft, and very diftinflly 


lour Views of a second Stone and Inscriptiarf at 


DrtWQ by H. Pelliua to a fcalc of one inch to a foot. 

Ogham Inscriptions. 

Four Fiewi of a Third Stone and Inscription at 

Dnwa )xj H. fcUiMB oa » leak of one inch to t foot. 

222 Ogham Inscriptions. 

P]. VII. " Contaius foar views of the third 
Ogham Infcriptioa at Ballintagart. Thb is the 
*noft pcrfeft anU beautiful infcription I have 
fcen. The ftone is two feet tea inches ia 
length, one foot three inches in breadth, and 
ten inches in thicknefs, fo exquisitely formed, as 
to lez^e it quite doubtful whether it is the work 
of nature, or has been Ihaped hj the hand of 
maa ; bat not the fmalleft dgn of a tool is to be 
found on it, except the infcription. It has every 
appearance of being a (lone which the inimenfe 
force of a rolling ocean has worked for a feries 
of ages into its prcfent ihape, by a colllfion 
vith other ftones^ of its own gigantic fize, oq 
fome vaft beach. This is fo beautiful and fo 
perfeA a fpecimeo of the Ogbam, that I fliall 
be tempted to fend it to Dublin, if I find it will 
not hurt the feeling, or fhock the fuperftition, 
of thofe in its neighbourhood." 

Obfervation. — I look on the figures in PI. V. 
VI. and VII. to have been all Priapus's. Ball- 
na-tfagart fignjfies the Priapus of the prlcft, 
whofc duty it was to offer facrificcs to Aofdr 
(pronounced Eefar). "Les Indieos oat le Lingam 
qui ajoute encore quelque chofe \ I'infamie du 
Phallus des Egyptieus & dcs Grecs : iis adorent 
Ic faux dieu Ifur fous cette figure monflrueufc 
& obfcene, qu'ils cxpofent dans leB temples, & 
qu'ils expofent en proceffion infultant d'une ma- 
niere horrible a la pudeur & a la credulite de la 
populace." (La Croze, p. 431.) Sec Aofar ex- 


Ogham IjiscTipHons. , 2S3 

plained, p. 86. It is now tranilated God by 
the modem IriQi lexiconifts, but in Pagan my- 
thology fignified the Sun, as we fhall prove in 
the chapter on Aftronomy., 

" After thefc (the fhepherds)," lays Manetho, 
*• came another fet of people, who were fo- 
jonrners in Egyp( EQ the reign of Amcnophis. 
Hiefe chofe then)£;lves a leader ; one who was 
a priell of Heliobolit, 9nd whofe name was 0/ar- 
fiph\ and, after be had lifted himfelf witl^ this 
body of men, he cbmged his Dame to Mo/es.'* 

Sab, in Egyptiai*, fignifics holy, facrcd ; in 
Infix fob i whence Soibh-fgetd, the facred ftory, 
is the only name for the Gqfpel. Aofar-fab, the 
&cred or holy i^en of God, is therefore f3rno- 
nimous to Saia^i^ a prieft; whence Bail-no- 
fAgartt pronout(ced Tagarti and hence, pro- 
bably, Ofttr-fipL 


Ogham Inscr^Hms. 

Pillar-Stone and Inscription^ on the Lands of Bat-' 
fintarman, County of Kerry. 

PI. VIII. *' On the laods of Ballintarman, 
nine miles eaft of Dingle, ftands a large pillar 
flone, on which is cut a crofs or a dagger, as 
in the ^rawing; and on the edge are fevcral- 
Ogham characters, which arc carefully deli- 


OgAtm lascr^tiom. , S^ . 

Dcated. as they now appear. The ftonc is very 
much worn by time, and tfae rubbing of cattle, 
which may have defaced others, fome very faint 
traces of which fccm to appear, but too faint to 
be delineated."" 

Obfervathn. — BalUnfarman fignifies the town 

' or village of the fan^uary. Tarman is appUed 
to foch places of proteflion as belonged to the 
church ; glebe land, which formerly protected 

■ and refuged people in this couatry. Hence it is 
ufed to mean proteAion. Ex. Tighim fad tbar^ 
many I come under your prote^ion. 

Tarman is compofed of Tair, to live, to exift, 
and man, or aman^ prote^ton ; Ar. wUqI inuin* 
fecurity, fafety, protcfiion. Tarman alfo figni- 
fies a boundary ftone, marking the matty or 
mouny that is, dillrifl. Egyptian, moun^ a dif< 
\nEt-f whence Tualh-muan, or north diAriA, 
now Thomond ; Ofr-muan^ eaft diftrift, now 
Ormood, as dcfcribcd in the Proem. Hebr. -iNn 
tar, a boundary mark. Jofh. xv. 9. The bor- 
der was iar, marked out from the top of the 
hill unto the fountain. Ch. INH deUnearf^ 

PI. IX. 


ate Ogham Jnscriptimt. 

Ogham Inscriptipn an the lands qf Salb/neanigA. 


Ogham Inscriptions. 227 


Ogham Inscription on the lands nf BafiyneguigA. 

\e o»e inch to ■ foot 


S8S Ogham Inscriptions. 

PL IX. " On the lands of BallfneiDigfa, at 
the very bottom of Smerwick harbour, in the 
county of Kerry, are three infcribed ftoncs, 
which, till mthin a very few years, were a>> 
Tovd with an immenfe nufe of fatidi which, bj 
a very violent ftorm, in one night was driven 
into the country, and left uncovered five io- 
fcribcd Hones, two of which have been loft, lince 
I firft faw them. The other three I have given 
drawfngs of. One has infcriptions on two of its 
edges. A, B. ; two views of this ftone are there* 
fore given. A fecond has alfo two infcribed 
angles, which are both reprefented by one view. 
The charafiers cut oa thefe tlones are very per- 
icBt and diftind, having fuffered nothing t^ 
, weather. There are feveral charaQers buried 
under the fand. A third has fomething like a 
crofs' cut on it, which the drawmg exaftJy re- 

Ballyneanigh, if a compound name, is a very 
defaiptive one indeed, fuppofing O^Bricn!s ex- 
planation of the feveral parts of it correA. Bailst 
a town or village ; nean, a wave or billow ; igb, 
a ring. For the lands, which bear that name, 
arc wafhed by the waves of Smerwick harbour ; 
and, within thefe three years, by the ftill further 
difperlios of the fand, the ruins pf many very 
ancient habitations have been difclofed, which 
are formed of the rougheft. ftones, placed to- 
gether ia the rudeft manner ; and amongft: them 
is a very remarkable circle of ftoocsi fifty feet ia 


Ogham Inscription. 829 

diameter. This circle,' or ring of flcities, bears 
no " refemblAnce to thofe circular monulneats, 
which "go under- the name of druidical temples, 
for in this the ftoaes are placed in contiguity. 
This ring of ftoues is not now more than fifty 
yards from the Ogham ftones, and ndther ajc 
" more than twenty yards from the fca." 

Ohfervationt. — My ingenious friend probably 
wrote the name from the mouths of the country 
people. Ballj-na-aon-ei^he, and BaUy'na-Ien-igby 
will both found like Ballyneanlgk. The firft will 
fignify the town of one night, alluding to its dif- 
covery by a {lorm in one night ; and the fecood 
will fignify the town of the Sun's cycle. The 
circular monument was certainly an altar, and, 
by its con{lrufiion, fimilar to that of Carti'Bainny 
or the altar of the Sun, of which a plan and ele- 
vation are given at page 1 80. 

In the fifth volume of the CoHeftanea, p. 1 76,' 
I have fliewn the origin of the Croft with_ the 
EgypHam and Tibetans. As many of my readers 
may not be in pofieflion of that volume, we {hall 
here make an extrafl. The Chaldean mark, or 
numeral ten, was an equlateral triangle, A, which 
was the fymbol of perfeSlion with the Egyptians, 
and fo intended by the Chaldaeans,* as from ten 
all nations begin a new reckoning, becaufe it Is 
the number of fingers- on both hands, which 

' Hence the triangle becirae the emblem of the Supreme 
Being with the ficahiDiDs. (See Tt-ms/-, p. S9.) 


, ISO -Ogham Inscriptions. 

were the original inftruineiits of Qumberiog. 
I^CDce 1^ kd, is the hands ^od the number ten^ 
as, from Tiaa mana^ to number, or reclton, comes 
the Iri£h main, and the Latin marttu, a haad> 
*' £t digit! decern Tunt nobis, quibui numcramus, 
et Qmnium fumma numerorum, qufe ooa poteil 
nifi in fe replicari." (Thomaffinus, p. 553.) The 
Egyptians doubled the triangle thus, ?, and 
thus, P" ; whence the letter X, for ten, that is 
per/e^foti, being the number of fingers on both 
hands; hence it ftood for ten with the Egyp- 
tians, Chinefe, Phoenicians, Romans, &c. The 
Mexicans nfe the fame figure in their fccular 
kaiendars. The Tartars form it thus, +, and 
call it lama, probaBly from iamb, in Irifti, the 
hands; and it fignified perfection. It is the 
name of the high prieji with the Tibetans ; 
whence, in Irifh, loam, or /aaw, the head of the 
church, an abbot, &c. " Ce qu'il y a de re- 
marquable, c'eft que le grand pritre des Tar- 
tares porte Ic nom dc lama, qui en languc Tar- 
tarc fignifie la croix ; et les Bogdoi qui con- 
quirent la Chine en 1 694, et qui font foOmls au 
Dalae-lama dans les chofes de la religion, oat 
tonjours des croix, fur eux, qu'ils appellent auffi 
lamas" (Voy. de la Chine par Aviil. L. III. 

•p. 194.) *' The ornaments on the palace of the 
Dalae-Lama have croffes on them." (Turner.) 

■Hence, as before obferved, p. 185, the veftment 


^ Mwus, a hand, a throw at dice; d« cnjus etymo nihil 
comper. (Ainfworth.) 


Ogham Jnscript«hK. ' 811 

of the pricft of Herut is firil of croffet. We even 
meet the cro/s on. a Pbailus. The Greeks ufed 
crc^cs on their coins, and as deities, emblems (^ 
the deus ^(generaiorf or great prototype of Bac- 
chus. ** Monetas Helena* Angufta- et inventa 
erucis anttquitus cu&s praefcns ciTc remedium 
adverfw morhum comitialem." (T. Bolius, L. 
XV. c. 12.; 311(1: Nenta Britannica, by the 
learned and .^Reverend James Donglas, p. 68.) 
The Savages,|a America count atfo by tens, and 
the Qumbet ten. is the number of perfection. 
*• Car le DO«bre de dix eft chez eux le nombre 
Ac perfe£iim^toviX(ic il etoit chez les Egyptiens, 
(pmrae 11 -eft apjourdhui ches tes Chinois." 
;(La&au, Mocu^s dcs Sauvages, T, II.) Sec 
.^Collcaanea, Vdl. V. p. i8o. 


Ogham I^serijtticiif. 

Views <^ two Stones and Inicriptions <m the lands of 
Ounagappul, Counts; of Kerry.' 

DrawD by H. Pelham, on tbc fnle of one inch to ■ foot. 

PI. X. '* At Ounagappul, on the lands of 
Miaard, five miles to the cad of Dingle, there 
is a large tumulus, twenty-two feet fquare, on 
vhich are four Acnes, two wittf .Ogham inlcrip* 
tioDS, and two without. The Hone, marked io 
the drawing \rith the letter A, is of the brown 
mountain kind, but in Ihape of the pebble, 
like fome of thofe at Balliatagart, PI. V. It is 

n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le _ 

Og/idm Inscriplidns. 233 

fixed in the earth, at the north-eaft angle of 
th'6 tumulus; the charaflers are very diilioftly 
marked oh it, but I think my drawing does not 
contain the whole infcription, as fome part ap- 
pears to be und^r the earth. The ftone, marked 
B, (lands in the center of the eaftern fide of the 
tumulus. The charafters on this ftone are but 
ihdiftinftly marked, but ihof? I have given arc 
certainly on the ftone, and probably more are 
bader ground." 

Obfervatims, — ^Thefe are evidently Phalli, like 
thofe of Ballintagart. GopaUfama is one of the 
brahminical names of the Phallus or Lingam. In 
the Circar that contains the pagodas, fimilar to 
the round towers of Ireland, (fee preceding 
ciiaptcr,) at a place called Ganjam, is a pagoda 
to the Indian Priapus, their god Gopal-fama. 
*' The obfcenc deity is reprcfcnted, both in fculp- ' 
tare and painting, in the moft filthy manner, and 
figures of males and females are reprefented to 
every variety of indecency. The fame fpecies of 
pagoda, the fame difgufting fculpture, and the 
fame reverence, is paid to Gopal-famd in places 
innumerable along this coaft: he is often carried 
in proceffion, followed by troops of virgins and 
married women, who worlhip and kifs the infignia 
of the god to deprecate fterility." (Pennant's 
Hindoftan, Vol.II.p. 128.) 


334 Ogham Imcriplions. 

PI. IX. 

Ogham Inscriplions, i!35 

iE*i. XL Tills ftone lies on Cromwell's Rock, 
oppofite iHc city oF Waterford: it was fo called 
from i iradrtion the people have, that Cromft'ell 
fat ID a ftoiic chaiv or feat there, diiring the iiegc 
of Waterford, It is about thretf feet in length,- 
aad one in breadth ; the lines are not deep, and 
the infcription probably was larger. (Mr. Petrc, 

PI. XII. This ftone ftands near the church of 

■ Caftlc-dermot, on the north-cafl: fide. It is about 

two feet high, and perforated with a hole, 

R i through 

flS6 Ogham Inseriptiom. 

iJaough ftludi 70a might thrnft yoor arm. (See 
PI. I.) It is at prefcnt atmofl covered with aet- 
tles, and fcrves as a head Hone to fome perfoa 
vho lies beneath. The infciiption is probably 
bnried in jart. (W. Hafiday del.) 






J3escriplion of a curious golden double cupped Patera, 
dug, up in the County of Galway. PI. XIjI. 

OEVERAL paterae of tilis form haycbepn.dug 
up in Irclaqd; all were of gold, and of various 
dimcnlioas. The drawing is of the fize of the 
original, and is the largeft I have fecD. It vras 
djfcovered by a peafant ia the county Qf Galway^ 
■who brought it to Mr. Sylvefter Nowlan, filver- 
finith, ia the town' of Athlone, v^io declined the 
purchafe, but made an accurate drawing of it, of 
which PI. XIII. is a copy. It was fold to Mr. Ca- 
vauagh, goldfmith of Dublin, for fifty-two guit 
ncas, its weight, who fpou after melted it. 

Mr. If owlan pcrceiyed the lips of tlie cups were 

folded down, as at a, and, by fomc fiafiures, dif- 

covered in the fold fomething reptefenting a dried 

rtifh. Ciuiollty led him to raifc op the folding, 



23S Of Golden Implements, and 

and he cxtraflcd a kiod of coarfe grafs; one 
broke in pieces, the other was taken out com* 
plete, and is dow m my poflcffion, which I have 
no doubt is Cufa grafg. 

Sir W. Jones and Mr. Wilford inform us, 
that Cufa grafs is of the genus named Poa by 
LionsE-us: that the brahmins fay this grafs derived 
its' fanftity and appellation from Cufh, the proge- 
nitor of a great Indian family; and fome fay it 
grew round the body of C({/ft himfclf, or of his 
fon Cuficha, when performing his Tapafya, or 
aft of aufterc devotion. 

in the Gloffary of Cor.aiac, who was converted 
by Patrick, and made archbiftiop of Cafliel, (in 
which we find a number of names of the brahrai- 
nical deities,) this grafs is named Cuife-cfiu, ex- 
plained by Cuife-leogh, ^Jiat is, the cuife of the 
marfo, a name correfpopding to the defcription of 
^thepoa, a meadow grafs; for one fpecics, which, 
grows in marOies, the cattle will frequently gg fo 
deep as to endanger their lives. 

The Dedanite colony that mixed with the Aire 
Coti, or Indo-ScythsE, on their return frgm the 
Sfior QT Indus, to Colchis or Scythia, were Chal- 
dfeans, accordiiig to Irilh hifloryj'and flrew their 
defcent from Cufh. (See my Vindication of Irilh 
Hiftory, p. 154.) In this chronological table 
Cufh is faid to \)e the fon of Cham, fon of Ueah, 
agreeable to Scripture; but the fons of Cljut dif- 
i(y very mqch in name, yet th? fixth is feid to 
have b.ecn a mighty hunter. - - 


Omamenls of Gold and Silver. 

Cu(h - 

. Culh 


- Fedt'. 

Havila - 

. Pdeft 

Sabtab .. 

- Ephice 

Raamab - 

-■ Uccat 

Sabtccha - 

- Sadhal 

Nimrod - 

r So-puirnacb, or, the 

mighty fauDtet. 

** Even as Nimrod, the mighty buater beibre the 
Lord." (Gencf. ch. x.) 

la th? old Perfiao, ^'j^. piraneb is a hunter. 
The word is now obfolete in the Irifh language, 
and Sealec or Sealg is generally ufed, a vco-d 
in common with the Irifh and the Arabs, (Sec 

As the Dedanite colony were Budhifts, as has 
been repeatedly Ihewn in the courfe of thisworkf 
and as we are aiTured by Mr. LangUs, that Bu4h 
was the founder of Sabiifirif and that Brahma 
only altered the dogmas, and appropriated to 
himfelf the ideas of Budb ; and Strabo informs 
us, that the woHhip of the Cabiri began on the 
banks of the Phafis in Coldiis, the original fet? 
tlement of the Aire Coti, anccftors of the an- 
cient Irifh i" I am of Qpinion, that the Brahmins 
received the fuperiUtion of the.Ci^'grals irouf 
the Aire Coti, and aUb. the lunnes qf qiany of 
their deities. 

• Heace we are able to explain the nanief Diofcnri, Tal* 
cjiioet, Aaaaet, Sec, in the IriOit aj in the Pniem of t% 
ficgnd pm. 

'JiO Of Golden Implements, and ' , 

On llie outfide of the cups of the patera, wcrq 
twelve indcDted circles, the loweft bordered with 
forty-eight pyraipids or triangles, the marks of 
water and fire. The handle was faflened to the 
cups by fevcD large pyramids, each fubdividec^ 
into foi^r others, Fig. i., reprefcnting alfo water 
and fire. 

The twelve circles may have reprefcnted the 
^twelve ugns of the Zodiac and their fphercs. 
The forty-eight pyramids corrcfpond with the 
number of the old conftellations ; and the fevcn 
triangles of the handle to that of the planets. 

Thcfe triangular fignatures have been handed 
down to us from time immemorial, as the Rev. 
Mr. Maurice has Ihewn in the Hiftory of Hin- 
d'oftan, and at this day are the chemical marks . 
for air, fire, earth, and water. See Fig. 3; 

' The ancient Perfians facrificed to the fun and 
moon; hence, I think, the double patera. In 
the ruins of Perfepolis is a monument, fuppofed 
to be a tomb of one of the ancient Pcrliaa kings 
before Cyrus. He (lands oppofite to 2 blazing 
a.1tar, and in one corner of the tablet is the fiin, 
and in the other the moon. Thus defcribed by 
Bardon, in his Coftume dcs anciens Peoples, Vol. 
III. p. 119. Pi. t. ** Voici Ic monument le plus 
confid^rable que le terns nous ait confcrv^ des 
ruines dc Perfepolis : c'cft Ic tombeau d'ua dcs 
premiers Rols de Perfc, que dcs ecrivains croient 
antericur au rcgnc meme de Cyrus. On voit 
dans la table, dont L'edi£ce eft couronn^, ud 


Ornamenls of Gold and Silver. 2tl 

fouverain priaot dcvant I'autel du dieu Mithras, 
qu' environnent le Sokil et la Lune." 

On the ftaircafe of Perfepolis is a proccffioD to 
facri£cc, in which one of the attendants carrier 
two goblets, one in each band, to make the liba^ 
tionsy " Unc efpece dc vleiix Neocorc, te- 
nant en tnain deux gobclets pour faire les ilba- 
tions." (Bardon, p. 129.) I therefore make no 
doubt of this patera, protably invented by our 
Aire Coti, being ufed to perform the double ob- 
lation to the fun and moon at one time. 

The Right Rev. Doftor Pocock prefented one 
of thefc double-headed paterse to the Society of 
Antiquaries, London, with a memoir, in which 
He obferves ; ** The form feems to promifc much 
difficulty in afcertaining its ufe. Whether it be ' 
a fpecies of fibula, or what elfe, I am utterly at 
a lofs. Many fiich, divcrflfied only by a few 
ornaments, have been found, from time to time, 
in different parts of IrcIilDd. Mr. Simon, of 
Dublin, communicated to you drawings of fcvc-^, 
ral, which came to bis knowledge; and Mr. 
Lcthieullicr, fo far back as 1731. exhibited one, 
of the cxaA (ize and fhape of mine, found that 
year in Scotland, in an urn. Mr. Simon, after 
defcribing thofe, of which he made drawings* 
and mentioning the places wbero feveral of them 
were found, and that he could receive no infor- 
mation of their ufc^ concludes '^th giving it as 
his opinion, that they were ufcd in religiout cers^ 
nwmt of the Iriih Druids, or other ptidb, but 

242 • Of Golden Imptemenls, and 

n^ as ornaments. Tlie places where they were 
fmrnd, ia grounds that were formerly bogs, ani} - 
which, before the rain and waters had fubfided, 
were probably vallics, feem to point out that 
they were ufed by the Tagan priejis ; many of 
the ancient ahars, or cromlech iloncs, that have 
been difcovered in Ireland, being in rallies, near 
fomc rivulets, as well as on high grounds. Such 
is Mr. SimoD's opinion. — The great fimilitudc, 
obfervablt between them, flicws they ferved very 
fimilar purpofes ; their chief difference depending 
ttpon thek' lize, and the wreathed or plain 
flexure of their bows ; the fizc adding only to 
their value, not to their ufc. The largeft, of 
which I now prefent a drawing, with the 
wreathed bow, weighed fifteen ounces ; the 
fooll one, found with it, but one ounce four 
penuyweights. This laft, inflead of having its 
bulb, or cup, holIoF like the others, is covered 
with z flat QvaJ plate. Thefe two v^ere found 
in Galway. Others, mentioncd*by him, were 
found on the confines of Louth and Meath, ia 
digging fome reclaimed ground, that was forr 
mcriy a bqg. That in my poffeJEon, with the 
caps, is worth about fifteen pounds fteriiug. 
Mr. Lethieullier's, Jeund in an, urn is Scotland, 
was, I fuppgfc, pretty nearly qf the fame value, 
th^ fo exaftly agree in all refpcfls. They were 
all of fine gold, withoi^t alloy." (Archieologia, 
Vol. II. 

■•,>'■-, ... . Tlie 




nnvGo Ogle 

Ornaments of Gold and Silver. 2« 

The fmalt one, with flat plates, was certainly a 
fibula; of whicli kind there are drawings in my 
Colleftaoea, N° XIII. Vol. IV. and of fevcral 
patcrfe of various fizes. 

The pagan Irifh often facrificed to the two 
great planets, the fun and moon, at the fame time. 
On the firft of Auguft was the ceremony of the 
marriage of thefe planets, of which hereafter in 
this chapter. I fuppofe this double patera was 
ufcd on that ceremony, and that Mr. Simon was 
perfeftly right in affigniqg thera to the ufe of 
religious rites, by the pagan prieils of Ireland. 



IT is impoJUble at this dldance of time to fay 
with prccifion what was the drefs of the jiire ' 
Cotiy when they firft took pofleflion of thefe 
iflands. That of the men was certainly very fimi- 
lar to that of the Highlanders at this day, fliort 
Fcrlian breeches and- the plaid. The latter I have 
proved, in a former part of this work, to have 
been the n'js palad of the Chaldasans,* mentioned 
in Nahum, tranllated by Gebelin, and the O^ 
falutt the parvum et anguflum indumentum of 
the Arabs (Golios). They wore not only the 
keh or Jhort breeches, but alfo tlie paatalooD, 
* TiD^tieo, p. 533. 


mi Of Golden Implements, and 

named brifeah-fearv by the moderns.' (5earv-% 
riiati, \. t. fearV'fraoine<tdhy \. z. br'ifeadh-fearbh^ 
O'CIery) or the ffarv-breechei. . Ovjd fays the 
Greeks had adopitcd the language and maDoers 
of the Getje, that they wore ikins of wild beafts, 
with Perfian breeches. — '• I do iiot recoUeft any 
dcfcription of Perfian breeches," fays the lively 
and ingenious Mrs. Guthrie,' *' but J. Pollux, 
profcflbr qf rhetoric at Athens, fays, that the 
Scythians \vore a kind of long pantaloqa breeches, 
reaching to their apkles, called Saravarg in Sty- 
ihia and the Taurida : the very name that they 
ftili go by in the Ukraine and lUyria." — ^Hence, , 
probably, the (J'JIj**' farwal of the Arabs.' 
Arabic^ pprro bracca eft ^-ya fir^i^l ', Talumdici 
fcribuQt 'm'S Jirwalf quod Aruch, et Aquinas, ct ' 
alii perperam ii nu beth tod, chirothecam inter- 
pretantur; id enim effe, qupd diximus, patct ex 
ufu Arabum. Ergo ex ^r\o Jirwal, i^'jllD Jir- 
<walliin, hr^ccatos fignificat : node Romanis, per 
metathefin, Silurei. li Phoenicum, qui in Britannia 
fedes lixerunt, vocati funt Jixx^tikw;, ut a reliquis 
Phoenicibus hac appcllatione diftinguerentnr, quo- 
modo pars una Galli;^ a, braccarum ufu braccata 
difla e(l" (Bqch. V. I. p. 651.) ^ut wc find a 
Perfian word ^ould have come much nearer to 
Sflursi, and that is VV^ Jhulwar, breeches, 
pantaloons ; in Irilh /uUmhear, (fuilwear), ex- 
plained by O'CIery by ton, the breech, the arfe, 

* Tour through the Taurida, p. 22. 

' Richardfon's Eoglifli Arabic Difl. Mbrttcket. 

D,gn,-.rihyG00gle ' 

Ornavients cf Gold and Silver. 2« 

tranflated by O'Brien, a wave, miftaking t5n, the 
breech, for tono, a wave, the fea. 

Herodotus mentions a nation of Scythians^ 
called Agathfrfii who wore garments ornaoicntcd 
with gold and filvcr, another named Melanchlsni-f 
who drelTed always in black. " I am in doubt^ 
fays our female traveller, whether in the Tar-; 
eomani, of the deferts of the Ca/pian, we do not 
£nd another tribe of Scythians, the A^atbyrfit 
noted by the ancients for their att^hmcnt to 
drcfs, ornamented with gold and ftlvefy fo very 
dificrent from the Nomadc Scythians. Thcfc people 
were conquered by the Calmucs, and kept in a 
kind of fcrvitude by them in the Cafpiaa deferts, 
after being difpoflefled of their ancient haunts on 
the Maotis: but the departure for China of fo 
large a part of the Calmuc or Mongul nation 
jet them at liberty: and we ice their ancient nao 
tivc tafte for gold and ftlver laced clothet revive 
with their freedom, and dininguilh them as much, 
in modem timeSj Jrom the re{l of the hordes, as 
the Agathyrfi were, in the days of Herodotus, by 
their Foment flowered or laced with gold. The 
Melanchlceoi, who dreiTed always in black, whom 
I fufpe^ to have beea a colony of yewf^ by this 
chara£tcriflic mark, not applicable to any other 
people round the Euxine, t Ihall afterwards have 
occallon to Ihew, that this iaduftrious commercial 

■ Mairm-chaik, in Irilhi % black cloalc Fairm it maiHiit 
naade tind cloak> 


iiS Of Golden Implements, and 

peofJc had found their way, at a very eariy pe- 
riod, to this very country, as well as to the ancient 
kingdom of Colchis in the neighbourhood." 

Wc mud follow this entertaining traveller a 
few lines further. " The father of hiftory," fays 
flic, " likewifc mentions the tombs of the Scythiao 
kings, at a place cal led- G^rrAf, where the Dnieper 
begins to be navigable, and gives us a curiouS 
iccount of the ceremonies praftifed at their fune- 
r^s: fuch as that their corpfcs were embalmed, 
flieir favoarite concubine, with a head cook, 
groom, footman, and meffcnger interred with' 
ihcir fovereign." 

TTic Iri(h word for a grave, vault, or cave, is 
gaireaby (O'Brien, Shaw,) vulgarly pronounced 
^arry and goury, as will be explained in the next 
chapter on the Carn-gaireah, which is certainly 
die Geirhe of Herodotus. 

Whoever has travelled in Spain, and in the 
fouth and weft parts of Ireland, mull have met 
with the black Melanchldni, while the women 
were decorated with filver lace. I have feen a 
fcm«lc peafant, in her holyday drefs, with three 
rows of filver lace round her petticoat. And as 
to the dTicl cuftom of burying the concubine 
amd fervants With the matter, our Indo-Scjthie 
dropped that cuftom, as foon as they became 
Budhifls, Budh piit an cad to the human facri- 
fice, as has been repeatedly {hewn in the couric 
of this work. I mean to confine my obfervations 
to the ornaments of the female drefs chiefly. 



Omamenti of Gold and Silver. 241 

Sir James Ware, in his Antiquities of Ireland, 
obfcrves, " that he had met with but very Qcndcr 
accoanis in his reading, concertiing the emamentt 
in afe among the ancient IriQi: he obfervcs, that 
fomc of their kings wore a crown of gold, and 
Ncnnius gives an acconnt, that their kings hong 
pearis in the'tr ears. OF the golden chain, which 
Dermod Mac Ccrbail, king o^ Ireland, ufed to 
wear about his nedc, fee the writer of the lilc of 
St. Brendan. That their great men alfo, in an- 
cient times, wore rings of gold on their fingers', 
is a matter beyond difpute." 

Since the period in which Sh James wrote; 
tfiaijy ordametits of gold and filver have bcetl 
dug up in the bogs, that may lead to a certain 
knowledge of thofe formerly in tife, fuch as 
buckles, fibulje, clafps, frontlets, bracelets, &c. 
If none of tbefe had been found, the oriental 
names of fuch ornaments, ftill existing in the Irifh 
language, arc certain proofs of the ufc of them in 
ancient times. But if he had confultcd the Englilh 
hiflorian, Speede, who publilhed his Itinerary in 
the beginning of the 1 7th century, he would have 
gained much information^ for that author informs 
us, " that in his time the Irifli women wort their - 
hair plaited in a curious manner,'' hanging down 
their backs ^nd fhoulders from under falden 

* Plaited har ,viu common to the womea of the Eaft. 
MontfaucoD, Suppl. V, II. menuoas an Ills with plaited 
hair. The PerfJao ladies wore the hair plaited aifof as we 
fliaU fiiew hereafter. 


S*8 Of Golden Iftipletkenls, and 

wreaths if ^ne- linen, rolled about their heads, 
rather Jqading the wearer than delighting the 
beholder} for as the one was moft fecmly« fo the 
other was unfightly : their necks were hung with 
chcuns and carkenets^ their arms wreathed with 
ffufl/ bracelets, and over their lidc garments the 
fliagge ragge mantle, purfled with a deep fringe 
of divers colours." 

If fuch was the attire of a female peafant in 
Speede's time, we may readily judge what that 
of a wotnan of quality was, in more ancient times, 

Aijout the fame time the Eoglifii ladies wore 
the golden ehun and cafkenet, the carkenet, I 
iiippofe, of Speede* In the eleventh or twelfth of 
Elizabeth, Maffcnger publilhcd his City Madame 
in which Luke feys to his fiftcr, who is wife to a 
wealthy merchant, 

-i ■- '' You wore 

Sattih on folemD days, a chun of gold, 

A velvet hood, rich bordert — and rometimes 

A dainty minever cap — a filvei pin, 

Headed with a pearl, worth three pence : and thus far 

You were privileg'd; no niaii envied It, 

It being for the city's bobour, that 

There (hbnld be a didinaiori made between 

The vi'& of a patrician aiid a plebeian." 

But, continues he, ever fince your tufband was 
knighted, the cafe was entirely altered ; 

" The reverend hood cut off"— your borrowed hair. 
Powdered ahd curl'd, wai by your dreffet'j art 
Formed like a cdronet, haog'd with diamoadi 



Ornaments of Gold and Silver. 349- 

And niceft orient ptark. — Your calkeoett 

That did adorn your neck, of equal value) 

Your Hungerland bands, and Spanilh quelKo rufi i - 

Great lords and Indies feafted to furvey 

Embrolder'd petticoats. "~ 

Here is no mention of turbag or bracelets, or 
of plaited, hair hanging dowib ob the back an^ 
fhotildcrs. Tbefe were Oriental ornaments, as 
We fliall find hereafter. 

The IrlQi mantle was of two forts, the Cuid at 
Chuid-arunt and the Suriud, or Falliun, The 
Cuid-arun had a hood or cap to it; this -was 
certainly the Stola Babylonica, the C&eud or 
Choud-Cboud of Ezejciel; i,r. the flhawls of the 
Eaft, which covered head and Ihoulders, ander 
the appellation of Cboud-Choud (Volney). 

The long mantle, Suriud, or Falliun, or Mai- 
lion, with a druineach, or fringe of divers colours, 
was the «3jJ burid of the Pcrfians, a ftripcd kind 
of garment of two colours (Richardfon) j and 
the p^VSM aphilion, the pallium or toga of the 
Babylonians (Buxtorf), with the Perfian S^tjjt^ 
drunuk, or dumuk, or fringe. ■ 

The whole, being of woollen manufaflure, 
went under the name of Ca/ag ; i. c. Ar. tg>**a. 
Khajf^t a woollen garment (Richardfon)". 

In fine, every part of the Irifh drefs was the 
fame, in form and name, as with the PerlaaSj 
Atabs, and Chaldeans. 

There is not a more d't&ult fubjeft to write 
on, than Uie aactetit dreifes of every nation. ' la 


SJO Of Golden Impltmenls, and 

moll of the oriental iliale^s, thtre is ho didinc- 
tion between cloth* or filk and apparel. It is 
the lame in Irifb. 
Eadachj aodachf eideah, flgotfics dt^b, apfiairl, 
raiment, armour. It is thcrmn edara o( the 
Cbaldseans, ro^ie'nomen i Ch. nov ile, to cloath; 
Ar. (j-jytil idras, a worn garment; fj'^* 
adra, coats of mail, cuiraffes of iron or ot lea- 
ther, •womer^x J^fis' (R.)- VexLj^jdS idrar, 
cloth. The Irilh rejc^cd the R, 

It. Shi (Sheof) Signifies liowi cloth, filk (hence 
it implies the fail of a mip}, a veil. It is the lame 
in Pcrlian ; tj'-*' Shaul^ cloth, a fliawl made of 
£lk, a woollen garment, &c. 

But, in Jrilh, the word eideab, or eadabt is 
fometimes joined with feme other exprelEhg the 
ofe; as etdeah cearta^ ccairdain^ or gairdaini 
f)racelets j literally, the dothiog of the wrift, or 
jfmaU part of the arm. (Perf. roO^ Kburdi, 
fmall J Khurdeba, and Khourdi dujiy the wrlft.) 
^ideah-ucbdf a breaft-plate; eidedh-muiiual^ a 
gorget ; eideah-droma, a back<piecc ; e'ldeab- 
calpay greaves. 

In like manner Culaldb is tranllated, -a fnic c^ 
clothes J but we fiid the word in Arabic, 2uji^ 
KbtUaaty ligiiifies a robe <^ hcmoor, invefted 
With a royal robe. 

The commentators on the Bible, uid all the 
Hebrew leuconifis, w as mnch at a lofs to ex- 
pliun the orQaments of the Jewi^ women, as Sir 
|. Ware was tbofe of the Irilh women. 



Ormttaaktt ^ Galtl and SHv^. ^\ 

Tbett. 19 <m W^ ia tile IrtSi, Chal(fee» »a4 
, HdKcw, the dcrivadoQ (tf which has puzzled thr 
SesdconUls of tbc three laoguages ; and that i*^ 
in Iriflt, SMi 19 Hebrew aqd Cbaldee, 'm 
Saady fignifying a jewel. Taylor obfcrvcs, ib 
his CcmcordflAce, '* chat we underftaodi to ])ttle 
tif tl^ -drog aod orQitmicots of the Hebrews, that, 
he faeUeres, no ccrtaio account cm be given of 
die ifetife of Saadt sor of tti oinaeSioQ with the 
root 1911 Saadt x. e. gradi, ppogrcdi, iBocdere^ 

Now this if ^fae voy feofe <^ S^i^ in Irifli ( 
viz. a way, a road, a marching. It figaifiei alfo 
a jewel, a precious ftoae, a favour, worldly fob- 
ilance, Ex. gr. Di bbu for ffadA jaat'acb, hqa 
erat di}nda Fcnim tomporaliiiBn. (O'Brien, front 
firogan in Vit. Brigid.) Tins appeals to me a 
wrong trasilatioo, and the true meamog it, tlut 
Brigid was not covetous of JevxU or grmmeitis^ 

FarkhmA givei a ibacge aqalanalaan of thd 
Hebrew word. " It fignifies,*' iays he, " to 
go, to proceed, to march, to move in a pompousf 
fiatdy^ manner. At a noon .fem. plur. it occurs 
in liaiah, iU. ao. . As ithefe are mentioned among 
litt pane of ^ bead'drefc^ I fufpe^t them io hc 
fame kind of oraamenti worn an the head, .dfr- 
figoed, ^ tbar waving motion^ to add a grace 
aod -di^^iity .t9 l^ir ftation, perhaps not unlike 
aim 'the Turkifh women {lill ufe; who, we are 
toId» to give their itature the.ttefl advantage, in- 
ftoad of a turban, w«ar -^ionntt of p^boar<], 

a a COVWrd 


2S2 Of Golden ImpltmentSf and 

covered with cloth of gold, or fomc handlomc 
fluff. As a noun, it means feme kind of brad' . 
let ; fo called, perhaps, ' from being loofe and 
moveable, m which it is ^ftingniflied tcKJOi 

Sate is full 33 vide from the derivatioiT. 
n^mc Saada, *' fomc ornatneot vom on the 
arm. It k mcDtitwed, among other oraanwots ' 
Wora by Women, as an ornament of- the legst 
The ^jTdi? was worn on the'arm, and theplnraj 
be-faadoth might be fb too, for ought that api- - 
pears' to ' the ctMitrary ; and might be named, 
from the work of this ornament, a fort oij^r'mg- 
work,' as the word is ufed for- a tree fpreading 
againfl the wdt." 

*' And I took the crown from his head, and 
thc/aada from his arm, and have brought them 
unto my Lord." (a Sam. i. lo.) Here the word 
evidently means a bracelet. 

Id the Chaldec, mVS faeda (Numbers, xxxl. 
50.), is tamed by per ^/rj«, i. e. chaips.. lyo 
. Vi'bT\ catena pedum. (Bdxtorf.) 

Seadf in Irift, literally means n brilliant, a 
jewel, a precious ftone, and, metaphorically, any 
oruameat woni by the nobles, any thing famp^ 
tiious and grand. Hence S^ad-ebat a treafury ; 
Siad'Combartbaj a triumphant arch, Uterally the 
iigQ (» fignatore of rkbes and fiaery ; Muin-feadt 
a coHar, 

1 T'tnr f «diBH/> cppiili(iu,coiijan£hi5, Item Amuth (Num. 
xxxi. jo.) ; jewel} of gold. SamJ^ liogi, eat-iingt, lai 
ubkts, ' 


Ornamejits ^ Gold and Silver. 252 

3 colUt, a necklace; S^ad brag^haJt a. neck- 
lace J Cluaii Siad^ an car-ring. But the origin 
(^ the word id Iriflb, Hebrew, and Cha)dee,.as a - 
jewel or precious ftone, I think, derives from 
cXa.3Um Saaidt a place an the banks of.tbe Nilf, 
where are mines oi .meriUds and precious ^ones. 
(Ebn Haukcl.) Hence the Perfian name of the 
monarch Giamjbidf or 'Jamfijtd, or rather Gjem 
Sbidt his name being G/Vm, to which Shid was 
added as a furoamc. Shtd, in the PerCan lan- 
guage, fignifying brilliant, and, metaphorically, 
the fun ', viz. O-ti^*- Sheid, the fun ; cXamI ^ 
Kbur-jheidt the fame. It was fald that the eyes 
of Gjem-Jhid had fudi a hjirsy that none couM 
,look on. him. 

The Irilh wctfd Greith is of like import, Cgm* 
fyingajewel, a precious ftone, and is applied to 
^1 ornaments of drefs. It is derived from geart, 
whitencfs, brilliancy; hence it fignifies milk, 
from the Arabic bj£ surety or gheret, whitenefs, 
brightnefs, an ornament, Aurora, a white liar in 
the forehead of a horfe ; and hence, in Arabic 
and Irilh, Crioti, the fun in its meridian fplcndor. 

The Aire Coti were fitualed on the PhaJUy 
the banks of which, as well as the hills of Coir 
(;his, abounded ia precious ftones. " Atque it^ 
latiHimum Scythia? fpatium Colchis tribuat, lie ut 
dicamus in ca aurum prEeftantiffimum, ct fmarag- 
ties et cr^aUot inveniri, quandoquidem general- 
tim de Scythia ,(cujus pars eft Colchis), af- 
^mant vetercs, et aurum et rcliqua Moll memo- 

25* Of Golden Implemenh, and 

lata ilu Kperiri, ct optittuc qpidcm iiouc faifle." 

To this let as add, that the Greek hiftoriaiu 
dl JigrcCt that g<M was firit wroag^t by /mAr/, 
a king of Seytina ; and tK aeed not be futprBed, 
that their deTcendaMs bioaght th» tft vff^ tbcun' 



Oi'H0menis of Goid attd Sibisf. igss 


In the year i$Q41, a p^alant brougiit to Dub- 
lin ten goI4cn fjiaceletS} aod a numbo: cf ii^irer 
anklets^ witti fome ingots of lilver, to be fold. 
He iaJd he' had found them in the province of 
Conn^bt, but declined naming the fpc4, fear- 
ing the ludlord would claim the royalty. He 
laid ^fo that he had found a goMeo crown, 
which he would difpofe of at another time. 

The braoel^s arc of pQpe gold, %Rd are at this 
I»-efeat time {Augufl 1804) la the p^flei&pii ^ 
Mr. Delaodre, gdd^nith, in SlumKr-row» Dub- 
lin, having purchafod HaxM for ^op/. ^tod ng- 

The ingots of filvcr are in the fgllo^ng l^app. 

fig. I. 

The anklets or perUc^'deB are of filver. Sec 
the feccHid figure. 


Of Golden IiTtplements, and 

■J^. a. 

Anklets of tlie fame kind were. dug up, Ibme 
years ago, in the bog of Cuilcn, in the cotmty of 
Tipperary, and were in the poffcffion of the Re*. 
Mr. Arraftrong of Tipperary. 

Doubts arofe in the minds of the public, if 
thcfe gold bracelets were of Iri(h workmanfliip. 
Some were of opinion that they wcr? part of the 
plunder of Seringafatam, brought cfver by fome 
private foldier, and fold as IriJh. Every gcntlCr 
plan in Dublin, who h^d been in India, was in^ 
yitcd to examine (hem ; all agrcecj that they 
were not of Indian \rorkmanfhip. 

Mr. Sylvefter Nowlan, filvcrfmith, of Athlonc, 
called on me to inform mc, that thcywere found 
in the neighbourhood of that town, nQd offered 
to him for falc, as dug up. Qn his return to 
Athlone, I wag favoured with ^ letter from him, 
^o affure me that they were found within le& 
^b^ two nuics ^ Atblonc ; that they were dug 

■ n,gn,-PrihyG00^lt' 

Ornaments of Gold and Silver. 25T 

up Caglf, oiic by one; and the anklets, and in- 
gots of filver, a few yards'dillant from the brace* 
Jets. Near the pkcc was a cave made by art, 
which Mr. Nowlan had lafpeAcd ; it conl^ed of 
feveral chambers, thirty feet by fix, and high 
enough for a man to'walk upngbt in; he had 
bcfin in three of them, and difcovered there were 
more, but the earth h4d fallen iq, and prercntcd 
further refcarch. 

.It had been reported, that they had been 
found OQ the eftate of Colonel l^ndeock, of Will* 
brook, near Athlone, to whom T applied for in- 
formation. This gentleman politely anfwered 
me, that he > had endeavoured to obtain infor- 
mation of the CXZ& fpot to no purpofc. The man 
that found them will under oo.inducciqent dt& 
cover where he found them ; but every* perfon in 
that neighbourhood is of opinion, as well as him* 
felf, that it was in an illand in the ShaaQon, 
called Hare ifland, formerly the iiland'of Indu< 
quin, his property; in which there i; 90 <^d 
church, and the remains of a pagan altar, 

I am iacliqed to think they were ibun^ in the 
Mithratic cave, mentioned by Mr. Nowlan. The 
principal hordes of treafure, both in bullion and 
-coined money among the Greeks, we know to 
have been in their temples, which were crowded 
' with prefents of immenfe value, brought by fuper* 
ftitbn from every part of Greece^ the temples 
were confidered as national banks, and* the priefls 
9^£tted as buU^rs. It was the fiune with the 


tSt Of CoUen TmplmunUt tutd 

Jem, and is ftill (ndifed by the bdUo*. (Sec 
MaariaS lad. Aatiq. V. VII.) 

Of fotir of Hkt bracdcts I made accnnic dnw- 
kgi, as reprefottal in PL XV. vni XVI. aofl 
imda: each is the omaoicot of the oppofite fide. 

The vdght of each bracckt is great, ftg. i. 
wmghs sS oz. 4 dvt. o p. — Fig. 3. wd^ 
ifon. od«t 6gii,-i-T<Fig. 3. weighs 130Z. iCidwt 
logr.— Fig. 4. weighs 330Z. tfidwtogr. — - 
K^. 5. whidi is very fiaiyar to Fig. 4- wc^hs 
Imt %ta. odwt. IS p. 

The Jevifb bncelets irere bcancr than Fig. $. 
tint Dothing equd to the w^ght d Fig. i, 3, 3, 
, « we learn iron &eripttire.-T-7** Rebecca rccciyed, 
CO her nanisgB with Ifaac, a golden car-fing of 
Jaif a fliekel wdght, and two bracdets for her 
liands of ten flidels wdgbt of g<4d; and the 
haatu brought forth jewds of filror, aod jewds 
«f gold» and xaineot, and gave tlnm to Rebecca;" 
OoD. uciv. a. Teq fludtds, aoBordiag to Ar- 
bothnot, would be about 4 ov- i^ divt. i gr. 

A drawiag of an armiUa, found io JreUod, 
Irlg. 5.) was laid before the Soctetf of Antiqua- 
tiec, Lendoa, by Btdtqi {^ocock, in 1773. The 
gioat fauiatity between k and Fig. 4, proves 
<hci£j fouod near Athlooe fo bare faeea of ibifii 
worksanfliip. The 'SiSunf dc&nba k to hat 
httvia of an ^nal £mw, as aU thoTe hougfic jt^ 
ilLr. DelaDdre ace. Ooe ci fhe fides is dclcrifaod 
CD hyva been brai&d and iedoBted ia fenDEtl 
plaoss, as if it bad ip&rcd ham a fiem .unra fip 



%. 4. 

Fi^. 3. 




—AJnAt^ ■* M----^ 


OmumeiOs tf Gfid and SHoer. 369 

the bread, or from the pommel of a fword: it 
meafured about one inch and three quarters high, 
its losgeft diameter within three inches and an 
half, its ihorteft two afid ^uce qowters.'* (Ar- 
chfeologia, V. II.) Tbele difflcnGons agree per- 
feAly ^th Mr, D^anda^ 

That the cr^ ia die fvmt ef F%. i. mxy not 
denote the weak to laivc been siade fiBceCbrif- 
tianity, I beg leave to reicr the rciuip- to the 
obferratJda oi FI. IX. Ogham iaftrrptlati. 



Of Golden Implements j and 

PLATE xvir. rig. 8. 

The Ji/mt Blatb-eordn, diadem, or ft-ontlet 
of gold, of the Irilh ladies, are frequently dug 
op. One was fouQ^ in the banks of the canal, 
and brought to me for ^e, while writing thi; 

They are of various lizes, from 7 inches dia* 
meterto 9 or ten, the outer circle, and variouHj 
ornamented. Sec PI. XVII. Fig. 6. 

In 1772, Bilhop Pocock {H^femed a drawing 
of one of thefe Aifions to the Sodety of Antiqoa- 
ria' of London, wiUi the following defcripdoD. 



Ortumeittt of Gold and Silver. 2&\ 

" A flat'piece of gold, of a lamilar or crefi»at- 
like form. It is ornamented round the borders, 
and at the extremities, with a kind of chequer 
work, executed by punching. 

" The plate, though of fo extended a depth 
and lize, weighs but i oz. 17 dwt. Many fuch 
bare becQ found in Ireland^ and among thefe 
fome are flat and |^d, others ornamented, as 
this before you, but crimpled or folded like 9 
fan, ' . . 

" From the account given me of one lately 
di^vercd, I am inclined to think,* that my own, 
and. others I have fecn, are impcrfe6L For, as 
many of thefe have the extremities quite broken 
off, there can be no dqubt that they are imper-- 
fe£t; and others again terminate ia a fine point,' 
as mine does; yet the one I allude to, which-has 
lately been difcovcred, has its extremities termi- 
cated by two flat circular plates, about the Czc of 
an half guinea. This weighs but i oz. 6 dwt. - 

<* I £nd perfons much divided in opinion con- 
cerning their ufe, and equally at a lofs to affign 
any certain period for their iotrodu^on or dtf- 
coutinuance. Some fuppofe them to have been 
ufcd as Nimbi or glories round the heads of 
laints; but a little attention to their form will 
Ihew their unaptnefs for fuch a purpofe. Others 
think them to have ^een portions of royal dia- 
dems: two of which, one placed before and one 
behind,.. compofed the Irifli crown. Of this opN 
oioD was the late Mr. Simon, who commuiucatcd 


Mt; O/GtMen Implementr, mi 

to yw a dra44Ag of obc <^ thofi; plates a few 
jtttn x^; add this opMoa 'he founded upM a 
coQcetved ftmifitude, Aippefetl to exMl betw«ea 
the projcfting rays fcefi on the ob«r«fe of the 
toias of JbOte IriBi princes, fech ra Sithric, Ethel- 
ttd, &c. and thofc [^tcs, when to tbotr folded 
Or crimpled flate. Some judge Aem to be the 
JIfim or Afit (Croin the In& Afiao plates) wortt 
by the qaeens of that country inftead of a diadem. 
The Lord Chancellor Newport, from whofe plate 
"Mr. Siitton*s drawing was made, thought them to 
fcive bctn a ktod of bret^-platet worn by oi-det 
tif one of the Kmgs of Ireland, to dtftinguiii Ac 
tiobles from die comioon people. That the Iit& 
gentry or ofScen may have cudoinarily worn 
plates of gold on fonie parts of their bo(£ct, as 
tadges of diftinftion, is no way iinprohrf>Ic. For 
In Camdra (Vol. 11. p. 1411, 1412) mention is 
nade of two, not many years ago dug up at 5«fr 
Ij^aUften, T?hich Tits fouth of DotugaHf dlfcorwrf 
Vy a method very remarkable, of trfiich he gives 
The following account. ** The Lord BShq> rf 
Derry happening to be at -dmner, there came a» 
triJh harper, and fung an -old feng to his hup. 
¥tis Lordlhtp, tiot nnderfb&drttg Irifh, was at ft 
lofe to know what the fong meant. But Ac 
lienlAuan bdag caHed in, they fbtmd by him the 
Ibbftance of it to be thisr that in fucli a place, 
namhig the verylpot, a man of gigantic ftature 
lay buried, and that OTer his breaft and l»dc 
trere ptitn t£ ptuc gold, ftc.^. Hie {dace 


drnamenis of Gold and Stk^r. isS 

Was ftp exaftly defcribed, that two pft^fons t^'Dsi 
prcfcnt Wtrc tempted to go in qeert trf tfac gc^Sefl, 
prize, vhich the hiu'per's fong had poiatetl oxk to 
them. Attet- they had dog fat /bme tiSK^, ttt^ 
foond two thin plates of gdH, exaftly of the foha 
and brgntrfs of the firflowiog cut, &c. 

"" "This paffitgc is the mdre itttsrlalSc, betttiMe 
it cdmes pretty tear the nfiumer 6f difcbvrfiftg; 
Kiilg Artbar't dead body, b^ «ie -dlttaioD of k 
&^ifK bard. The twb hoies in the iftiddl^ of 4bit 
feetn to be for the more coflventtti tytng-^ to 
Ac^m, or fome part of tbc body." ("Cftflideh.) 

2<4 Of OohUn Impiemenls, and 

' Aad Mr. Lethieuillier exhibited to the Society a 
plate of gold, found under grouud aeat Baltimore, 
in Ireland, extremely limilar to that difcovered 
from the notice of the Iriih bard's fong. Nor 
does it feom that the wearing fuch plates was 
peculiar to the Irilh; for Strahlenberg informs 
us* that round plates, or inftrumeiits of gold, or 
other metal, were worn by the Tartarian gene- 
rals on fevetal parts of the body i one on the 
breall, one on the back, and one on each 
fliouldcr." (Pocock, Archasologia, Vol. II.) 

The AifioHt or O/^m, was the frontlet of the 
ladies of quality ; the diadem^ as O'Brica and 
Shaw properly tranilate the word, in the {hape of 
BQ half-moon, with flat buttons at the extremi- 
ties, to be tied on the hinder part of the liead, 
-behind the ears. They appear to have been, of 
Chaldaan origin. Teiblebim has minutely de- 
Icribed them under the Chaldee word nnv bozat 
amtilctam, figuram argenteam, cujus fabrica ro- 
tunda inflar Luos (oiC quod pars circuli ¥acua), 
ad modum fole^e ferrea; qui calcantur equi — like 
a horfe-{hoe. Telblebius may have miftaken them 
for amulets, from the Arabic t^irt^lc azat, an 
amulet, a charm ag^nft forceries. Gori, in his 
Etrufcan Antiquities, explains Aijton to be Co- 
rona. " Aurea nobiliores defun^i omabantur }'* 
which, without doubt, was the diadem of the 
nobles when living. They were worn by the 
Perliaa and Scythian ladies. PI. XVIII. is copied 
from the Cojiume des Ferfet^ in Monf. Bardon'a 
' ' Cojime 

d/tiai^ ^^i^&n ^r itf^ i^i«*mw^«iS?&jr<7«w . H..XVII. 



Ornaments of Gold and SUver. 265 

Cojium des anctem PeupUs (C. Des Scythes, ^cj. 
Vol. in. Here vie fee the plaited hair hanging 
down the back aod Ihoulders, from under the 
Tiara or Aijiotiy and fotden wreaths of fine linen, 
as defcribcd by Spccdc, in the coftnrac of the Irifli 
women, and the necklace and chain. la the fame • 
author may be found the Phrygian military cap, 
common to the Perfians, worn by the Irifli foU 
diers on the arriTal of the Englilh- 

In N°. Xm. of my CollcAanea, I have given 
a plate of the As/ton or Lunette, with buttone for 
the head, and of the Lunette for religious x:erc< 
monies, named Cead Rat Ri, or the firll quarter 
of the moon. 

The Aifien is rcprcfented in MontfaucMi, on 
the head of the great fphinx of the Egyptian 
pyramids ; another broken on an Egyptian head. 
Vol. HI. PI. 14. A perfed one may be feen in 
the fame author, and fimilar to the iigure here 
given, 00 the bull of the apotheofis of the em* 
peror Claudius, drawn from a Roman marble. 
Sec Colleftanca, N». XIII. 



266 (if Golden Implements, and 

Lanetfie found at Headford, 1802. 

A hollow Lunette of gold, in form and fizc of 
the following drawing, was dug up at Headforct 
in 1802. Thefc were probably fufpended in dif- 
. fercnt places, and wove by the coeffurc into the 
plaited hair. 

But we need not the real ornaments to affurc 
us, that the ancient Irifh ladies were dreffcd after 
the eaftcrn manner. Every word belonging to 
their drefs is either Chaldee, Arabic, or Perfian, 
which could not poffibly have been the cafe, if 
the old Iri(h had arrived here clad in flcins of 
beafts, as an ignorant antiquary has attempted to 
make us believe. Ex. gratia. 

Coinharlha, an ornament. 
■■ -Ueiife comhartha, a bright or fliining ornament. 
. ' Nml 

OrTiainenls of Gold and Sihpr. ^ffj, 

Nuai comhartha, a woven, or noedk-worked 

Nuat^hronn, an embroidered frwitlet. 

" Child. Mmmn chomarrba, ufutpatur pro 
ligamemis varlis quce de coUo fufpcnduntur, vd 
oraatus, aoHileia, Pittada." (Buxt.) "jij noul, 

Blaih, fome part of the beadJrefs. 

Por-blatb, an ornamented blath. 

Datba-blalh, dyed or tinged blatb. 

Caide-bktbacbdf ^Hsaaieated blatb.' 

Ch. N*n'7in3 bibulla^ armilla, tiara, tegumen- 
tuu capitis, omatus. 

•Cli. 1N9 fbar, oraatus, oraare, dccorare, or- 

Ch. w-il ikuibi Hch. in dht; Ch. Mnin 
d'mtha ; Syr. and Ar, 4tiih (in Giggeio <Uu), 
colorare, tingere. 

Ch. my ^hada,, hade, OTnare, oroarc fc. 
Hence j:he Irjlb eadam^ to drefs, to attire. 

Aile, i. e. bag^h-cltuti/e, ap ear-ring. 

For-aile, an ornamented ear-ripg. 

Ar. r<=»- baly^ qofEcnaque adhibcnt roulicres 
ad ornatiim, annuUos, armillas, inaureSj torques, 
moniiia, casteraque ejufinodi. Haliya oraatum 
efle. Alhalyo monile, feu quodcunque orna- 
mentum & ractallis .conflatum, vel e lapidibus pre- 
lioiis confeftum." (Pocock, Carm. Tog. p. 8.) 

iHeb. '>'?n Aiji(, ear-rings. (Hofca, c.ii. v. 13.) 
- MmpHt For-maifey faid to be an ornan^ent of 
flrefs, but not .explained how applied. 

T 2 Ch. 


368. • Of Golden Implements, and 

Ch. rvtDD ma^if filum« Ainicnlas ex filis pur- 

Grehf embroidery ; Oir-greis, embroidery of 
gold. '' Ni hinnidcar I6n oa bia acu acht a 
bhiagadh Jolep ar a ihabirfeachtj agns Muire air 
a greie. Thcjf arc faid not to have any fufte- 
naacc or food, but what Jolcph acquired by his 
trade of carpenter, and Mary by her needle- 
work, or embroidery." (Lcab. breac, or the 
holy book.) 

N. B. Grtit and dreus are promifcuoufly ufed 
for needle-work. 

Ch. MiPiip kroufat torques, colli omamentom. 

" Ar. 4)t=^. kburfet, fewing, a Ihoe > hence 
the Irilh greafailf a fhoemaker; At.jj'^ drez^ 
futura." (G^O Ch. pnD crez, pet. n'?3 DTi3 
erom-phela^ ornamentum aureum pedum. 

Seimin, a lunula, a crefcent, from Seir^ the 
moon. See ch. Astronomy. •' Ch. DiJinriD 
Jiharonm, Lunulfp, ornamenta pretiofa, a lunari 
forma iic appellata." (Buxt.) 

Sion {Sheen), a bond, a tie, a chain. 

Seir-fin^ a girdle, a gold chain, bound round 
the Waift. 

Seir-lamhach, a hand-chain, armilla. 

Srian, a bridle, the chain of a bridle, the reins. 

Ch. K~i'<v Sbira, catena, catcnula, five ad or- 
upturn, live ad vinciendum. Monile, ornamentum 
turn brachiorutn quae Armiltse, quam pedum qux 
Perifcelit'cs vocantur, ex auro confcfla ut Ar- 
miU« fyiiaa carcme. Iiiya DID Suibejhir, cquus 
cum ■ 


Ornaments 'of Gold and Silver. 269 

cum catena. " I will put ray hook in thy ncrie, 
and my (p-iiw Jhtrin) bridle in thy lips." 
(a Kings, xix. a8.) The fame verfc appears 
again iq Ifaiah, xxxvii. 29.} in Chaldcc it means 
a hook. 

Snas, an ornament of Tome kind ; I think from 
Ar. (^Ij Zanay omarc. 

Cangan, a bracelet ; Hindooft. Kungun. 

Coru-gadh, a bracelet ; Hindooft. choora ; 
Ar. kura. The laft fyllablc is Chald. mv gbada^ 

r«w, like SSad, is tranflated a jewel by our 
modem lexiconifts. It fignifies laminated gold* 
and, under this name, comprehended fillets, Iu> 
nella;, &c. &c. " Ba Tas, -lamina, braftea ; et 
facies laminam auri puri." (Exod. xxviii. 36.) 
" Lamina erat latitudinis duorum digitorum, in 
fronte facerdotis in una aure ad alteram ligata. 
Auri braflea qux indies cffcrebantur : id cnim 
eft Syris DO tas." (Bochart.) 

FitbiU, and Fttbchioi, laminated ; " a fuit of 
armour, a corllet, helmet, ftiicld." (O'firicD.) 
That is, it fignifies any laminated metal. It is a 
Phoenician word, introduced into the S. S. ; 
fometimes rendered bracelets, fometimes thread 
or lace ; a thin plate of gold, worn by the bigh- 
prieft on bis forehead. In Genef. xsxviii. 18. 
*' Judah gave to Tamar, as a pledge, his fignct, 
his VnS pbethilt rendered bracelet, and his flaff." 
Ch. P'tos phetiloni folium fruftum auru " In 
glofiario, Arab-Lat. petalum, aurea lamina in 


270 Of Golden Implements, and 

fronte pontificis. Hxc divcrlitas arguit ^ITe 
vocabultim in lingua Chaldjea pcrcgrinum.*' 

Praiif an ornament; prah'lang^ an aaktct, pc- 
rifcelides. Ar. iji*^jf^^ peraajh, an ornament j 
SS,(j lenk, the ankle 

Treat-bragbada, a neck ornament. Ar. t'-t*^ 
iiraxy iraz^ ornament, fringe, lace, embroidery; 
a rich drcfs ornamented. 

Nafcy a collar, a chain; nafc-eir, a golden 
chain ;«a/J'^om, a nofe ring; braUnafc, a high- 
land broach (O'Brien). Ch. 70^3 naifc, omamen- 
tum fiifile aureum vel argcntcum muHebre. Nt^ca 
fnnt fila, qux faciunt opere denfo, inHar catens 
et ballcij.balteum regum. (Buxt.) Heb. ata 
nazlm^ occur? not as a verb, nor fo far as I can 
find, fays Parkhurft, in the diale^ical languages 
to the ideal meaning is uncertain, but, as a noun. 
It fignifies a pendant for the car or nofe. £zek. 
xvi. 12. I put C]?3 nazim (a jewel) in thy nofe. 
Ifai. iii. 31, nafmi-aph, nofe jewels. Gen. xxiv, 
47. I put the nafim, (the ring) nst* •?!? al-aphab^ 
in her nofe. 

The nofe rings are frequently found with other 
ornaments in Ireland. They arc of gold, and of 
the fize of the following figure 

left open, fo that they may be faftened on the 
noftril without perforation. 



Oman^nis of Gold- and Silver. 271 

Na/c is alfo appKed to the ear-riag, as we leara 
from the oM Iriih gloilarift, Cormac: " Au-nqfr 
•vel O'ttai/c bid im dua/aibh nafaorchnd; i. c. a 
ring wc»n ia the ears of the gentry. 

Muince, a collar, a torques; an ornament worn 
about the arm or neck. Muince oir fa braghadaibh 
na nuafal, i. e. golden collars worn about the 
necks of the nobles. (O'Brien.) Ch. nd>3D tnenica, 
torques j p'>31D mcutiik, menikt torques; £gypt> 
maniak'ofpe, torques. " Sufpenfa monilia collo." 

Shi (flieol), a veil, a fliawl. Egypt, foli. Perf. 
(J^ Jhaly a Ihawl made of Hlk and camel's hair. 

Ceim (keim), a veil. Ar. i^jS kenn. 

Bocan, a veil. Ar. ^yi Burka. . Ch. ppai 

ToaruUy a veil. Ar. U^IaaJ' tunnakub. 

Caloy a veil. Ar. aJf kUleb. Ch. v'jp kil/a. 

Beaht a veil. Ch. j'jo bilen. 

Culaihj a fillet, headband, haic lace. ' Ar. 
-Xfes kulah. 

Clair, i. c. Sindon, fine linen; clair-eadan, a 
fiilet for the head. Ch. "iM^'jlD collar. " Sindon, 
ornamentum muliebre, quo cingunt caput," 
(Boxt.) : 

This chapter might have been leagtheaed many 
pages, with the defcripticm and etymology of the 
various ornaments of female drcfs, but enough 
has been faid to convince the reader, that the 
andcnt Irifii brought with them the Afiatic drefs 


21« Of Golden Iviplemenlt, and 

and amaneats of their ancrfton, for they could 
not have borrowed theic names of Spaniards, 
Britons, Daoet, or Norwegians. 

Thus drcfled and oraarncnted, the yoathfid 
females of Ireland af^teared at Taila-ati, or the 
myfteries of the Son, on the firfl day of^AvgaSt 
io each yeat*, when the ceremony of the marriage 
of the Sun and Moon took place, and the females 
were expofed to enamour the fwains. I'he day 
ftill retains the name of Luc-nasa, or the aoni- 
Tcriary of the Sun, and the name of the month 
of Auguft, in Sanfcrit, is Lutee, whom they make 
&e vife of Vecfhnu, the prefcrver aqd goddcTs c^ 
plenty.^ So the Irifh poets have made this fcfttval 
named Lucaid-lamh'fada,* i. e. the fefltval of I>uc, 
the coofccrator of bands, to be the feaft of Luigh- 
lamhfada, or Luigh loagimaous, to whom they 
have given Tailte for wife, who, after his death, 
was married to Duach. This Luigh, it is &id, , 
frft introduced idolatry, though others afcribc it 
to Ughermas. If the reader will turn to my 
Vindication, p. 186, he ■will be convinced, that 
tlus is the old Perlian romance of Taghmuras and 
Dahac: but luagb^ in Irilb, Hgnifies an idol, and 
that was fufficicnt. . - 

Taihean was originally named Tailte-agban, 

the fcafon or anaiverfary of myfteries." Apulcius, 

P- 394, 

^ A word ftill preferved in die Irifli, riz. Lae-nuure, 
abundance, i. e. more plcotj. 

'Ar./eiiiiiacrifice.conrecration, devoting one for another. 

" Per. ^^\^J ghaban, tempora; hence, the Iriih 
Bli-agban, a year, the courfe of Selui. 


- Ornaments of Gold and Siher. 273 

p. 394, has ptcferved tbe {eaStaSibit mnd tao, 
o^fteria, whence the Latia ieUte^ a rcligkras ce- 
remony. " Taihean or TiHetea^an, a pbce in 
the county of Meath, vhere the Druids facrificed 
in h<xionr of the marriage of the Sun and Moon, 
and Heaven and Eartba on the fiiA of Auguft, 
beibg the fifth reroluticHi of the moon from the 
vernal equinox. At this time the ftatea afiemblcd, 
and young people were given in marriage, accord- 
ing to the ettftom ofEafiern nations. Games were 
alfo inftitiited, refembling the Olympic games of 
the Greeks, and held fifteen days before, and 
fifteen days after the firft of Auguft. This fcftival 
was ftrquently denominated Lughaid Naoi/lean, 
or the matrimonial aflembly." (Seward's Top^gr. 
of Ireland.) 

Mr. Seward has bccii mifinibrmed, in the 
explanation of the laft two words. Luch-aid 
Najieagbant is the afiembly of the ftates at the 
feflival of Z,uc, the fun: as he has very properly . 
explained Na^eagban in another place, quoted in 
this work at p. loo, figcifying, in Irifh and Ara- 
bic, an affembiy <fthe nobles orjiates. 

The name, ftill preferred by the peafants, viz. 
La-lucb-m^aj the day of the anniveriary of Lw, 
or the Sun, catries with it a full explanation, aod 
proves it to have been the Mibr-najijb of the 
Periians, i. e. Mitbra celebration feu laudatio, feu 
ialutatio. (Hyde, p. 121.) 

On this day, the pupils, initiated into the 

myfteries of Mithras, were brought out of the 



S74 Of Golden Implements, and 

cave of Grian-uaigbf the cave of the Sun, . (nav 
New Grange) ia the &me oxiBty, and not fu 
diftant, aod, with great ceremoDy, proclaimed 
Li<Hiso£ Mithras; atitle^vhich imported fb-ength 
and iatre]»d courage in the fervice of the ddty. 
They were now confecratcd to the God, and were 
Aippofed to be under his immediate prote^ioQ. 

At the arrival of the Engtifii, the Irilh 
certainly were a very different people to what I 
have reprcfentcd them. They had been fubducd 
by the northern nations, and \oDg held in fub- 
jeAion; civil wars afterwards enfued, and they 
were become, to all appearance, a barbarous 
pcojJe. That great philofopher, Voltaire, fays, 
*' be could conceive, that a nation might have been 
once very learned, very indujlrious, highly refpec- 
ioble, and, at this day, in many refpeits very igno- 
rant and contemptible, though, at the fame time^ 
that country might have many more fchoolt than 
- formerly." " 

The Romans, who knew nothing of Ireland, 
re[^efented the inhabitants as favages and cani- 
bals. The French and the £ngli(h, who knew 
ihem when they had become truly contemptible, 
exaggerated every circumllance relating to them. 
One French author tells' us, that Henry, king of 
England, led an army of Irifti to the ficge of 
Roues ; that the infantry bad one leg clad with 
Ihoe and flocking, and one leg naked. " Com- 

■■ Third Letter to Monfieur BailJf , on the AtUnudes. 


Ornaments of Geld and Silver. 275 

nient Hcnrjr roy (f Angfctcrrc avec plcfieurs 
Yrlandois aiEega la ville de Roaen, &c. Et 
avoit avecques luy Icdit roy Anglois en {a cOTi- 
paignie graod quantite d'Yrlandois : dont la plus 
grand partic alloient dc picd, un de Icnrs pieds 
cbauffe, et I'autre nud, fans avoir brayes (bras) 
et^pauvrement habillez, ayans cbacun une tar- 
gette, et petits javelots, avec gros couftcaux 
M'eftrangc fe^on. Et ccux qui alloient fur che- 
vaux, n'avoient nulles felles ; ct chcvauchoient 
tres babillement fur bons petits chevaux de iDon- 
tagne ; et eftoicnt fuj- pcncaux, aflez de parctlle 
fa9on que portoient les blatiers du pays de 
France ; toutes fois ils eftoicnt dc pauvrc et pe- 
tite deffence au regard dcs Anglois ; ct avecques 
,ce n'avoient point habillemens, dont ils peuflent 
grandement grever les Fran9ois." (Chron. dc 
Enguen de Mooftrclet, V. I. p. 368. An. Dom. 
1418,) " The Irifh" Jie obferves, "Tode well, 
without faddlcs, but ufed a kind of panoels, fuch 
as the millers carry facks of com on." Is not 
this the very faddle recommended by Marflial 
Saxe for the French cavalry ? But, fay thefc 
authors, they w^ere favages, canibals ; they made , 
drinking-cups 'of the ikulls of the enemy flain in 
battle. Do thefe authors know that their an- 
ceftors imported this barbarous cuftdm from the 
Eaft i The poKfhcd Arab and Perfian did the 
fame. Their pocms,"which we admire fo much fc*- 
their foft oriental imagery, were repeated at their 
evening converfations, when the goblet-JiuU of 


^6 Of Golden ImpUmepts, and 

their enemy* filled mth ddidons wine, vu goiti; 
round. Whilft cme Tung ; 

Bo^ bring the wine. For the feaToii of raSa is irrived ! 
Like nightingales, let us link at once Into nefti of rofei ; 
in the tueTi of the garden qaiff the goblet of wine. 

Another would rife, and repeat ; 

The plealantefl bei^erage ia the blood of onr enemies. 
The moA agreeable Ihade u thu of Tpeara. 
Ttie fword and the dagger are Aagnnt flowers. 
Our drink is the blood of our enemies ; 
Our caps th«r {kuHs." 

Let the impartial reader fuppofe this to be the 
tranilation of an Irifli poem. Would it depi^ 
the people as (avages, any more than it does the 
polilhcd lettered Arabian ? 

Herodotus informs us, that the Scythians did 
fo by the fkulls of their inveterate enemies. M. 
Renoelj on this paflage, obfervcs, that he had 
feen, brought from Bootan^ nearly the fame 
region with Oigur, ikulls that were taken out of 
temples, or places of worlhip. But it is not 
known, whether the motive to their prefervation 
was friendfliip or enmity ; it might very probably 
be the former. They were formed into drinking 
bowls, in the manner defcribcd by Herodotus. 

" See thefe tranflations, by the Rev. Mr. Hindley, and 
Sir W. Oufdeyi in the Flowers of Perfian Literature, p^ 
87, and 1731 coUcfled by Mr. Roufleaa, iSou 

Ornaments of Gold and Sth^. 2^^ 

.Antique Cariosities fomidin Ireland. 

We (hall here extra£l:, from various author^, 
an account of antique curiofities, found in the ' 
fmall bog of Cullcn, in die county of Tippcrary. 
It is to be wlfhcd that drawings had accompanied 
the following defcriptions. 

From the Arcbxologia, Vol. III., coDimaoi- 
cated by the Rev. Mr. Armftrong of Tipperary. ^ 

In digging away this bog, about fix feet deep, 
as fiir as it extended, there was nothing found 
only trunks of diiFcrcnt trees, all rotten, except 
the oak and fir, which were for the moft part 
found, and feme horns, large enough to have a 
circle of about three feet diameter defcribed on 
each palm. 

1731. In the fecond cutting was found a 
brazen veJTel, containing two gallons and a half, 
which had four legs, a broad bumped bottom, 
growing narrow to the neck, from which it was 
wider towards the brim, and weighed 19 pounds.* 

' The Scythians were remarkable for large brazen vcflels. . 
Between the river BorifthcDCs and Hypania, there is % 
place called Exajnpus (fays Herodotua), in which place 
there u a copper Tcflel, fix umes larger than a fimilar veflel 
■I the mouth of the Euxine fea, which wai caDfecrated by 
PanlaDia], fon of Cleombrotus ; it contaios about 6,400 
^lloaii and ii six inches in thicknefs. The inhabitants 
of thofe parts fay, that it was made fropi the heads of ar> 
rows or Q»ears of the Scythians; that Ariantust king of 
Scythia, being de&rous of knowing the number of his fub- 
jeAs, demanded that ercry ScythiaiT fhould, on pain of 
death, btlog him the point of an arrow or fpear. 

B78 Of Gddat ImplemeiUa, and 

J732. Three pieces of bright metal were 
fouDd, of equ^ iize and fhape, m the form of 
heaters ufcd in fmootbing, which, we^ghiag feven 
pounds and a Iialf, were fold as brafs. 

In the fame year was found a piece of, gold, 
like the fmflum of a fpheroid, lets than half a 
fmall egg, which weighed 3 ounces, 4 penny- 
weights, 7 grams. 

1738. Were found feven things of. a fliinmg 
metal, about five inches long each, two indies of 
which formed a focket of three quarters of an 
inch in diameter,' in each of which was a fliaft of 
rotten wood, about nine inches long. From' the 
focket each of them was two-edged, and tapered 
in a point; on either fide was a beard, an inch 
and half long from the point, with the edge 
turning out, fo as to have fornied a crofs. There 
were a¥o, at the fame time, and of the lame 
metal, thirteen more found, each ten inches long, 
four inches of which fonned a focket about one 
inch and three quarters in diameter at the en- 
trance of the handle, from which to the blade it 
gradually lelTened. The handles were of quar- 
tered a(h, and cacli about fix feet long, which 
feemed found, but on taking them up they fooa , 
mouldered away. The bUdes were broad on 
either fide near the ibckets, but gradually more 
acute towards the )>oiat. Thefe they jiow judge 
to have been arrows, thofc fpears ; all of thcjji 
weighed 6i pounds, and were fold as brafs. 

1739. A circular plate of beaten gold was 
found, about eight inches In diameter, which, 


Omammts of Gold and Silver. 219 

hipped np in form of a triMg^c, inclofed tbrc« 
ingbts of gold, wWoh, «bcy lay, could not weigh 
I^s than a pound. 

1743. On the brink of a hde, a thin plate of 
gold was found, in the form of an eHipfis ; the 
tranfverie diamewr two inches and a quarter 
loQg,'and the oCHijagate lefs than an inch, weigh' 
ing 18 pennyweights, 15 grains. 

1744. A poor woman found ^ fmall gold cup, 
atmoft in the form of a wine-glats, the 'handle of 
which was hollow, and ahout one inch and a half 
from the bottom to the cap, which was chafed, 
and contained -as much as a fmall thimble. Hht 
bociom was as broad ae a filVCT fijspcnce, and 
flat 'y the handle was as thick as a large goofe* 
qtiill. It weigbbd 2 1 pennyweights, i s grains. 

1745. A qiftdrangatar v^el, (rf a bright yel- 
low metal, 'ach fide of which ' was about ten 
inches long at th^hrim, and' eight int^hes from 
the brim to the bottom outfide. Five inches from 
the hrim towards the bottom was entirely £at 
both within and without', the remaining part, 
convex and concave, was femi-globolar; on tJithet 
Tide was a handle, ia the form of ihofc on com- 
mon pots. It was fald to have weighed about 
forty pounds. 

1747. In fome turf-duft, a girl found a thin 
plate ^f gold, rolled on another, which, when 
extended, was fourteen inchts long, and aboift a 
quarter of an mch broad, weighing about 13 
pennyweights. SoOfi after, a ferfant girl, found 
I ounce, 


290 Of G^den JmpUmenis, and 

I ounce, 5 pennyweights, rolled, after the fame 
maaner, id a ibd of ttuf, as ihe made the fire. 

1748. A man found a brals weapon, two feet 
feven inches long, which was two-edged, and 
tapered from the hilt to the ■poaiX. ; thefe edges 
very much refembled the fin. which fpreads out 
on both iides of an eel, from the navel to the 
top of the tail. It feemed to be call in that ibrm, 
and never whetted ; and the reft of the blades 
between both edges, was not unlike the part of 
an eel's tail between both fins, but it was not fo 
ful^ntial. It was <Mie inch three quarters broad 
near the hilt, from which it gradually grew nar- 
rower, four inches towards the ^dnt, to- one inch 
one quarter, from which to the middle it in- 
creafcd to one inch one feveath } from the mid* 
die it grew narrower, till it tonunated in an 
acute point The blade was near half an inch 
thick from the lult to the middle, from which it 
grew- lefs fubftantlal to the point.- The part 
takea for the hilt was about five inches long, 
near an inch broad in the middle, and not fo 
much near the blade, or the place of the pom- 
mel, on either fide of which it fpread out about 
one quarter of an inch ; it was about one-eighth 
of an inch thick, and in it were fix rivets, viz. 
two at one end, two in the middle, and two near 
the blade, with two more about one quarter of an 
inch from the hilt near the edges. Each rivet 
was about three quarters of an inch long, an 
. opial part of which ftood out on either fide of 
. the 


Onmments of hold a»d Silver. 28 1 

Ac hilt ; and on one of them hung a thin piecit 
of gold, which weighed 12 pennyweights, 9 

1749. A man found a circular plate of gold, 
ten inches in diameter. There was a gold wire 
inlaid round the rim; and, about three inches 
towards the centre, there was a gold twift fewed 
in and out, which was broken, becaufe of taking 
a plate about four inches diameter out of the 
large one, to which it was fewed with the twifl: ; 
£or that, which was ten inches in diameter, had a 
hole in the middle, wherein one of four inches 
would fit, and be concentric to the fiHl. This 
part of the plate, with three or four broken 
pieces, which were like the barrels of large 
quills, cut off and fplit open, and about the 
fame length, weighed 2 ounces, 2 pennyweights, 
10 grains. 

1750. A man found a fmall plate of gold, in 
the form of an equilateral triangle, each fide 
about an inch three quarters long, which he fold 
for 2/. 12*. The fame man's wife foon aftei" 
found, in a fod of turf, a piece of gold, which 
weighed 1 1 pennyweights, 1 6 grains. The famtf 
year, a fooi, cutting turf, found three rings, like 
ring-dials; one of whichhe put on the end of a 
walking-ftaff, whereon it remained, until his fa- 
ther found it was gold, and took it from him. 
He hid the other two, cannot recolieft where, 
and now they cannot be found. He fays he alfo, 
at the fame time, found a lump, in the form of a 

V large 


2^2 Of Golden Implements, and 

large egg, with a chaiii hanging from one end of 
it; which he either loflj or had it ftolea itom 

3751. A man found fiich another weapon, a3 
(h;it already defcribed under 1748, on the rivets 
of which was a plate of gold, which covered one 
lide of that wherein the rivets ftood, at the end 
of which was a thing like the pommel of a fwordj 
with three links .of a chain hanging out of it; al) 
weighed 3 ounces, 3 pennyweights, 1 1 grains. 

1752. A boy foand a piate of gold, five inches 
broad at one end, four at the other, and almoffi 
fix long, which was beautifully chafed and en- 
graved, ' It weighed 1 ounce, 20 pennyweights, 
16 grains; The goldfmith, to whom it was fold, 
faid he fuppofed it to be part of a crown. 

1753. 1'hcre was found a piece of hoUow 
brafs, in the form of a femicircle, of about three 
inches in diamctei', two inches of the periphery 
being left, from each fide of which two fimilar 
fccaiits, falling on the diameter, cut off from both 
cntls ^o much as left three quarters of an inch on 
either fide of the center, where it v.'as open, and 
near half an inch wide : but that, which repre- 
fcnts the rim, was more capacious and wider than- 
it was at the dlameier. At the oppofite extremes, 
near the periphery, were two holes, which went 
through both fides, each of them large enough 
for the rivets, which were iu the hilts before 
mentioned, and on the end of which it fitted ; 
which made fome think it was the pommel of one 



Oi'namenis of Gold and Silver. 233 

of them. It coQtained lefs than half a noggin, 
and weighed lefs than an ounce. 

1753. A man found a piece of hollow gold, 
in the form of the point of the fcabbard of a 
fmait fword, which weighed i ounce, 3 penny- 
weights, 7 grains. 

1753. A weapon was found of the feme form 
with that in 1 748^ but the metal of this was more 
refined; and a goldfmith, on trial, found there 
was fome gold in it. Clofe to the hilt, on the 
thick part, was engraved an oblong fquare, of 
about an inch long, a quarter broad, and about 
f^e-Hxtb of an inch deep, wherem was inlaid a 
piece of pewter, which juft fitted it, with four, 
channels cut in it, in each of which was laid a 
thin bit of copper, fo that they refcmblcd four 
figufts of I . The blade weighed 2 pounds, 5 

1753. There was a fmall hollow piece of brafs 
found, about two inches and an half long, of a 
cylindrical form, open at one end, and about 
three quarters of an inch in diameter: the other 
end refembled the inllrument ufed by coopers in 
cleaving twigs. 

1753. A Teflet of gold was found, much in 
the form of our chalice, except that the handle 
was curved: the cup was bulged and cracked, 
but, opened to its full capacity, would contain 
almod a pint. The handle and cup were chafed 
and engraved, and weighed 10 ounces, 12 penny- 
u 2 weights. 


a'S-l OJ Golden Implemenls, and 

weights, 23 grains: the bottom was broken off» 
and not found. 

1753. Two thia leaves of gold were found, 
folded in e^h other like children's hats, each 
about three inches diameter. The crown of one 
of them was in the form of a cone, and fmooth, 
and contained Icfs than a thimble: the crown of 
the other was broken olF; and the leaf was 
broken and cracked in many difiercnt places. 
They were fold for their weight, viz. a guinea 
and an half. 

1753. A piece of gold was found, almoft in 
the form of a large fcollop Ihell: it weighed 14^ 

1753. A man found two pieces of gold, one 
almofl: in the form of a man's thumb, and hollow 
at one end : the other was an oblong fquare, 
about three inches long, an inch broad, and aS' 
thick as a guinea: both weighed 3 ounces, 9 
pennyweights, 2 1 grains. At the fame time, he 
found a lump of coarfc brafs, which weighed 
about a pound, and feemed to have remained in 
the ladle aft«r calling fomething: at the fame 
time was found about two grains of gold twift. 

1753. A boy foimd a bit of gold, two inches 
Icoig, as tbkk as a child's finger, that feemed to 
have been cat oS a larger piece, on the edge of 
an anvil: for, from the fmall end, to where it was 
cut, it increafed in thickncfs, and weighed one 
cuncc, 7 grains, 



Orllamenls of Gold and Silver. 28fi 

1753. A nian found fomething in the form erf 
a bow, about fix inches long, which to appear- 
ance fcemed coal-black poliQied wood: it was 
very heavy, and grated like a ftone ; half of it 
was femi-circular, and very fmooth; the inlidc 
and other quaner were each flat, and form a 
right angled triangle: about an inch of its length 
was three quarters of an inch folid. On either 
end was a plate of gcdd, which covered about 
half an inch of it, quite through 'vrfiich, <mi dther 
end, went a fmall fcrew, fo as to have bound the 
plate fail to it, and faftened a chain, which hung 
between both ends. This little chain, which was 
gold, and the plates, he broke off, and fold, with- 
out weighing,- forX'2 7'- The wood is in the 
poflcffion of Mr. Damer. 

1753, Thirteen whfJc blades, of *he fame 
make and form of that found in 1748, were this 
year turned up; fomp were aboul; two feet long, 
fome lefs, and three not above fourteen inches, 
Moft of them were hacked and notched, from the 
ftrokcs of other weapons! Thofe, that were not 
fo long, were not fo broad or fubftantJal as th^ 
longefl:; for they dccreafed in all dimenfiwis, as 
well as in length, but the hilts of all were of 
equal length. There were alfo found five more, 
' fo bent, that the haodles almoft touched the 
points 1 there were alfo found forty-tbrce pieces, 
oontaining the hilts; fome more, fome lefs in pro- . 
portion, than half the lengthof the blades: and 
t.wenty.iitne of the parts with points, after -the 

386 Of Golden Implements, aft/ . 

lame manner, fomc more, fome lefs: but there 
were very few of. the pieces with poiats and hilts 
which entirely fitted each other. Mod of thefc 
things were found chiefly about the center of the 
bog, ivbere they lay very deep. 

1 760. A woman, making a fire of tnif, found 
in ouc of the.fods, which fhe broke, a thin plato 
of gold, with five fmali fquarc ingots, which 
ycighed 2 ounces, 4 pennyweights, 3 grains, 
vhich fhe fold for 4^ guineas. 

1762. A man found fomething in the form of 
a triangle, one fide of it about one inch and ^' 
quarter long, the others about two inches, with 

, feven fmall ingots of gold inclofed in it, much ia 
the form of grains, ufed in weighing gold coin, 
but thicker in proportion than a guinea, which 
he fold, without weighing, for ^.6 5/. 

1763. In digging for turf, there were found, 
ftt the bottom of the holes, (that is, on the folid 
ground,) fcveral ikulls of men, furprifingly thick 
and round. 

, 1764. A man found an uncommon piece of 
gold, larger than a French crown, which weighed 
1 ounce, 3 grains. 

1765. A man found about an handful of gold, 
in fmall bits, not much thicker than a Itraw, and 
about a quarter of an inch long. All weighed 
two ounces, fome grains. 

1767. A man, paffing by 3 ftack of turf, few a 
thin plate of gold, jotting out of one of the fods, 
which weighed 2j ounces, and 1 1 pennywcighis. 


Ornaments of Gold and Stiver. ■ 287 

1771. A boy found, in the border of the bog, 
a piece of gold, about fix iuches long, much like 
the pipe of a trumpet, hollow in the middle, 
which weighed 3 ounces, 15 pennyweights, 21 
grains. , ' 

1773. A man found, in digging the bog, a 
ikull, with two horns, fliaped like thofc of a 
Kerry fliecp, but longer. No perfon, who has 
fccn it, can tell to what bead the JkuU belonged. 

Governor Pownal gives the drawing of a gold 
ornament, found in the fame bog, 4^ inches in 
^ameter, neatly ornamented. See PI. XVI. fig. 6. 

I take this to have been the umbo of a Oiield, 
'worn as a kind of Phallus. See Ccel. Rhodiginus, 
■who cites Euftathius, Lib. IV.. cxvi. " Phallum 
etiam diqimus in galex fronte prominens orna- 
mentum, five clavi fint praelucidi, five fcuta quon- 
dam brevia admodum. 

■ In this bog was found a golden crown, weigh- 
ing fix ounces; many other ancient curiofities 
have been difcovered in it, .particularly fomc 
gorgets of gold ; for which reafon it goes by the 
name of the golden bog. (Seward's Topogr. Hib.) 

Mr, Armftrong adds, tliat he has had the;per- 
fons of tliat village (CuUen) repeatedly informed, , 
that he.would give the higheft price for any thing 
found there. Yet they carry them to Limerick 
to be fold. 

This is the general con^jlaint over the whole 

iflatid; thcfc things are found by the pcafantry, 



CSS Of Golden Implements, and 

who are perfuaded, that what they iSnd would be 
claimed as a royalty by the lord of the manor. 

It is remarkable, that thcfc antiquities were 
found under the wosd; for that was removed at 
about fix feet depth, and fome of them were 
found very deep, that is, near the natural foil on 
which the bog was fdrmed. It was apparently a 
manufaflory, firuatcd in a wood, in fi valley, for 
the convenience of fuel for fmelting. This wood 
had been blown down, and formed the bog in 
which thefe things have been found. A ftratum 
of earthy bo'g had formed on this bog, in which 
grew another wood, which, having been blown 
down like the former, had formed the upper bog 
of fix feet above it. 

This is no uncommon difcovery in this country, 
and carries the maniifaftc(ryback to a very remote 

' *' Tbat bog may fometiroes cxift beneath other 
ftrata, and at a good depth below the furface, 
appears from the following faft, which was ftated 
by the proprietor, Mr. J. Prim, who, in finking a 
pump lately near his houfe at Killrce, eight miles 
from Kilkenny, difcovcred a bog, having timber 
under if, at the depth of thirty-three feet froni 
|he furface. He found the following {h^ta ; 

1. Vegetable earth, r r 3 feet, 

2. Marie, with black ftones, - 15 

3. Yellow clay and hard gravel, 15=33 f*^^'* 
-». Bog, - - - - 10=43 f=ef- 


■ Ornaments of Gold and Silver. 289 

Beneath was a mixture of gravel with clay, ex- 
ccedingiy hard, ia which the well was made ; and 
immediately under the bog lay a large block of 
wood, a piece of which was fcnt to the Dublin 
Society, and appeared to be oak: it was ia coa- 
taft with the bog earth, or bed of black moorjr 
mould, evidently compofed of rotten vegetable . 
matter, and was well prefcrved. It is not in the 
neighbourhood of any ftream, that could have 
dcpofitcd the foil above it." (Statift. Rep. of Co. 
of Kilkenny, byWm. Tighe, Efq. 1802.) 

The late Mr. Evans, engineer, informed me, 
that in cutting the line of the Royal Canal 
through the bog of Cappagh, between Dublia 
and Kilcock, at the dillancc of twenty-fix feet, he 
met with fir trees, which apparently had been 
planted in avenues; and at this depth he found a 
lump of tallow, weighing about two hundred 
weight; that he funk fourteen feet below thele 
trees in bog, and came to a hard bottom, 09 
^hich were oak trees proftrate^. 





1; OR the following drawing aad defcription of 
one ia the county of Down, I am obliged to 
Mr. Templeloa of Bclfaft. 


' A tumulus 

392 Of the Carn-gaireah, or Grave Corns. 

" A tumulus flood in i, beautiful plain of 
twcDty acres m Mount>Stuart, parilh of Gray- 
Abbey, couuty of DowD. Exterually it bad the 
appearance of a regular heap of fmall floues, 
about jGx or eight feet high, and hollow iu the 
middle. In the ceacre of this pile, cne could 
perceive the top of "a very large and heavy ftone'. 
The heap was looked at with veneration by the 
neighbours, though not in any refpcA fupcr* 

" It remained for ages untouched. The name 
of the townland, Rodendikes, was evidently given 
by fomc Scotch fettlers in this country ; but the 
name of the townland, adjoining CoUa-na-iigher- 
na, has perhaps fome relation to the ti^mulus. 

'* This ancient monument flood in the exten- 
five and elegant improvements, begun and partly 
executed by the Right Hon. Robert Stuart, now 
Earl of Londonderry. The projeftor, thinking 
it expedient to convert the plain into a meadow, 
ordered it to be drained, and that the trenches 
ihould be filled with this rude heap of Hones. 

*' The labourers had not wrought long, be- 
fore they found a very large flag, covering a fort 
of ftone cheil, which confifled of a bottom flag, 
one at each fide, and xiuc at each end, and the 
covering or lid a little on the outfide of the box. 
In this cheft they found an urn, which was foon- 
torn to pieces by the men, from a fuppofilion 
jhat it contained hidden treafure. 

*' Several 


Of the Cam-gaireah, or Gi'tive Cams. 295 

" Several other chcfts and urns feared the 
fame fate, but, -when they found ihcy did not 
contain any thing but about a fpoonfu! of blackifli 
granulated earth, they deCfted, and prcfcrvcd 
fome of the urns. There was no appearance of 
afhes, nor of bones, nor of charcoal, in. any of 
thefc urns, but the bottom of moft of the chcfts 
were ftrewed over with fragments of bones, 
which had evidently the marks of fire npoa them, 
mixed with bits of charcoal and wood. 

*' Several' chefls contained a few quarts of 
large gravel, ftiewing the body had been burned 
upon the adjoining beach, and the allies carefully 
fwept up, and depoflted in thefe coffins. Some 
of the chefts cont^ned bones and charcoal only, 
without any mixture of gravel, which points out 
the ufe" which was made of the huge floncs, which 
arc ftill feen upon the &aftem {bore of Lougb 
Cone, efpecially as fome of them contain evident 
marks of ^e, and others have been rent, by rain 
falling on theip, or water imprudently thrown 
upon them, while very hot. 

" Thefe urns were made of the clay which 
abounds in this country, and alt falhioned upou a 
potter's wheel. Tbey feem' to have been burned, 
by making a fire round them upon a great Aone, 
for the mouth of each was very well burned, and - 
the bottom foft; they refcmbled a heart in fiiapc, 
and were all about the fatnc fizc, capable of cod- 
taining about two quarts. 

" They 


29* Of the Carn-gaireah^ or Grate Corns. 

** Tbey were tanamcntcd whh different chat 
ings, but they had neither date nor letter. Dor 
faieroglypbical figure upon them, that I couKI 
pcKcive. Each urn vas fct in a correfpondbg 

comer of its own cheft, thus w. O 

Some of the boxes did not contain any urn, but 
in the place or correfponding points there was s 
fmall heap of clay. When this was the cafe, the 
covering ftone was either too fmall, or badly 
Ihaped* fo as to allow the rain to lall within the 
chcft, and thus deftroy the urn. 

" The center cheft was larger than the reft, 
but contained neither bones, nor alhes, nor urn. 
Hiis large cheft is left Handing, with a fmaller 
cheft befide it. All the chcfls were depofited as 
in the plan. There are do chefts on the north 
fide of the cairn, which was perfcftly circular. See 

•* There are many other tumuli in Ulfter, crfa 
conftruftion very different from the above, parti- 
cularly in Ballyrogan, on the road from Belfaft to 
Newtown Ardes. Thcfc tumuli do not confift of 
a number of ftone chcfls, but. of a number of 
linlc covet of a round or elliptical fiiape, and each 
is covered with a very large flag, and the whole 
covered with canh, refembling the Barrows in 
England. In this affemblage of tumuli, I have 
feen fome ftone boxes, at leaft one, refembling 
thofe in Mount-Stuart. 

" I am 

Of the Carn-gaireah, or Grave Cams. 295 

" I am informed, that in fome of thefe very 
large urns were found, of the tize and {hape of a 
common bee-hive; of this kind is a drawing ia 
Ware's Antiquities. Thefe, when found, were 
full of fragments of burned bones. 

" On the tops of the mountains in the county 
of Antrim, called Collin'^ there arc cairus, re- 
fcmbling that In Mount-Stuart; but in two of 
thefe, which have been opened, there was only 
one ftone box, and one urn it. I fuppofc the 
cairn, on the top of the mountain in the county 
of Down, called Cairn gaur^ or gutty is one of 
the fame as thofe on the top of Collin." 

Obfervatiom. — This was certainly the fepulcbrc 
of an Jrijh chief, if Plot is right, in afferting that, 
the Saxbns and Danes never burnt their dead, at 
Icaft after they fame to England, whatever they 
might before. (Hift. of StaffordQiire, p. 405.) 

Urns have been dug up in the vicinity of 
Benares, in India, fuppofed by the Brahmins to 
have belonged to Budhijis. (Afiat. Ref. Vol. V.) 
The ancient Irith were Budhijis, as has been 
frequently demonftrated from their hiftory, ia the 
courfe of this work. " Zoroafter or Zerduft 
obliged the Persians to build mejhgid or fire 
towers, and to bury in urns: before his time, the 
kings of Perlla were either buried in caves, natu- 
ral or artificial, or in earth, and over their graves 
mounds of ftones were made, like little hills. 
(D'Herbelot, p. 507. Vindic, p. 142.) 



296 Of the Carn-gaireah, or Grave Cams. 

Hence gaireab in Irifli, and jlx ghar or . ^£—. 
^oor in Arabic, fignify a cave, a grave, a fc- 
pnlchre; corrcfponding to Cairn gaur, mentioned 
by Mr. Templeton, and the Gerrba of Hero- 
dotus, the fcpulchres of the Scythian kings. 

Colla-na-tighema, the name of the townland ia 
fvhicb ftands the cairn, Signifies the Jepulcbre of the 
thief, from coilam^ to fieep: in Cbaldee D'jn 
fhalatn. At. (J^ kal; fomnnmccpit, dormitorium 
yco fepulchrum. Dormire infepuUbro, is a beau- 
tiful metaphor in Irifh, Chaldee, Hebrew, and 
Arabic. *' Occumbere, mori, dormire cum patri- ' 
bus dicitur, qui mortuus eft ficut patrcs; dormtvit 
apnd Rabbinicos et Talmudicos, transfertur etlam 
^A^ mortis /omnium, mori. (Buxt.) 

Gaireah, now called Garry, has been given to 
the parith of Miroiy m the county of Corke, oa 
account of the great cemetery at a place called . 
Carrig-ablafti, \. e. the burial rocks, the fcpulchral 
rocks, now Carrigiliky, where the foundation of 
extenfive ruins have been difcovcrcd, with a great 
quantity of human bones: and hence fo many 
places in Ireland witTi the prefix garry, which 
does not fignlfy a garden, as Mr. Seward obfcrves 
in his Topography of Ireland, but a burying place. 
The fame are to be difcovered under the various 
Irifii names for graves, caves, caverns, which arc 
all orienCal, viz. 


V Hence cnhalion oTcoHan in Irlfli lignifies the manJragorai 
mandragorse poma efui dim erant pallorlbus, fed fomnum 

inducebant, (Salmalius ) 

Of the Cam-gaireah, or Grave Cams. 297 




- *\ umm. 

- ^ htibr^ -I3p kabar^ fcpul- 

chrum, and M112P kabura. 
. OcsJ lahud. 


Seal (SheelJ - yiMWjfteo/, of which hereafter. 

Riumiroimadhlaili Vj reem^ (J"^ rum. 

Feart, hMC8^ftflr(-")ch. n-iys Phsrt, Ar. Ov,*. 
flf A, the fire place / ^ 

of the cemetery,*)- feret, C:\-jb*. iaA-«/, Jo-il 
where there U a \ '' -* 

round tower. J ifruU 

Gaireah - ' J^ ghoTt ^-^j^^a georja^ 


Giima - - xj'r^ gbeeran. 
Cadhas, cabttt • jiS kaux. 
Caide - - acX£s kudeh. 




"1 Xw> halak, cxilium, interims. 
3 ^«J>^Jl£ olttky mors. 
- ^V^3 nn^a/, depolitus,iateritus. 
X Robka, 


2'j6 Of the Carn-gaireah, or Grave Camx. 

Rebha, atWQtthtf ^-fjj rai>a, tuBuiBS, fepol- 

chrumj whence ^T^ tarbai^ 

tumulus, fepalchrom, fc- 

pultura; hence, the Irifir 

iiobha'dirighe, the tumhtea 

of a chief, a Fojal nHgoil- 

Bocnfj.a royal fcpulchte. ■ 

. Hence, the ifle of Ten0t was named Inis-ruim, 

or the iQatid of graves, by the Aire Coti, (before 

expelled from Britain to Ireland,) and retained 

by the Bi itons. 

" In the ifle of Tenet, ft> called from the beib- 
Com cEttAcd ia it, to give noifice of-the ievaSons 
by the Danes to the continent, is a gafe or way 
into the Tea, made by the Iilhcmien, called Bat- 
iekm-gate, from ^ battle fought near it by the 
Eark Alchere and ifuda, two'Engllfli gcnerats, 
with the Danes, A. D. H53. Juft by it were 
two long banfcs, (one lafger "than the other) _ 
called by the inhMitznts Hackem-down Banks : in 
May, 1741, thefe banlts were opened by Mr. T. 
Reed, in whofc lands ifiey were, Aid in it were 
fpiind many fkulls and bones of men, women, and 
children (which, by the fmallnefs of their bones, 
fccm to be unborn): fome of thefc bones were 
found But a liltle below the furfacc; others a 
little lower, in the firm chaHt; a deep trench 
feemed to have been cut in the middle, on etch 
fide of which fecm to have been cut holes, itf an 
oblong form, into which the bodies were thruft, 


<yf the "Olfh-gdht^, or Grdik CariU. 299 

IWaa attd -litdfe i'ogtflitt': -rtfro df ifte IktiIIS *t*fe 
covered with c6ah aii3 SQlts. Tttirc Wrrc TBc*. 
wtfe fooflfl fttee boftes of-Tloifes, afld thite am* 
of very black coarfc carrft, Cftx df thelfe ^ks fi 
ki-ge as to bdid iboui "hatf a: bifflnd : Aefe, pro- 
baMy, -tccrt bd^ies df thd thicFs of ^he i)anti 
and their hditfs', whtf loft tlldif H*cs in titfs iMtfde : 
«id an 'tvidenrt df tfe Dafrc^ hiWg corit^dcrors. 
as. tfW hiftoria^'S ailfert. ■Alfefliis, Biftop « 
8t. D^ftiJ's, KdccrtiM is t^s: " Eoderri tfnrio, 853, 
Ealhere comes cum Cantdaf^e, rt Huda CuiQ!i 
SiH!^ls, cttttfa' PajHanofofti' e>tc!rtiruTn in fnfiila, 
qu* didttW, ih Sa*oilica lii^aa Teiiet, WxhriavA ^ 
Buteifl fetrirtrie kuim, ifiimdfc ct ^arttfcr bSlR^d- 
*ave*HM, it piWiirtA Ghiffiratit ViiStoriata hibtfik 
Hint, proTdngtftdt|dt d(a fr*!!'* ibfdcta ex u^riiiqW 
fcirtt ceeidtttant, et hi ac^t -iter* fuffoea'ii ftftrti 
et doAritts iffi aitfjo ibidem oitdAuerttnt."' The 
ftitftflns fetm to have: caHc^ llhis lAand by thli 
name, as a part of Rithboroogh pWrt, whiA tbij 
iaHei'fe&JfjrfA.^ (DoOgla*, NVnia, p. tio!) 

" At thK dUeWnD kfegs* of Ptf Im, frf iof to Mt- 
Si6iAt*tani(kj ■**!* feuriid itt Art* •Oizjt. Soiht 
frfcre plMed iii ti'it's, ct^ati tiitot-al or ai^tiflch)', 
iia th6 TD^iAt^ifl^ ; oH^^a' Wfci^ baified to tKi 
plftitfs, d*ir **ie^ *e#c r^fi*a ^i^«# tiF ftddt^, 
mi ife« pyrtfihidS of EgJifrt, frRifch ai^ Phe ttoribi 
bf She fcitfgs <Jf that cWintr^; ttaft/of'tftc dmacht 
kitigs tvtte pot into tthij under gi^nnd, \^^h 
X a ■ Wai 

^ Au:nija not a BritiOi word for a lepulcbre, but if InJh. 


300 Of the Cam~gaireah,.or Graoe Cams. 

V2S moft conformable .to the dodrioe of ZofO^ 
aftre." (D'Hcrbclot at Kijhtajh.) . . 

AH nhefe different modes of b^^w^ ,werc prac- 
;tUed by the ancient Iriih. 

Egypdan urns of baked cUy have been di{cO' 
vercd, ornamented with hicn^lyphics, and filled 
with mummies. (Encydop. FraD9oife.} 

A large earn in Minorca, fupporcd to be of 
Phqeniciaa work,- was opened by order of Govcr-r ' 
nor- Murray, and .a.ftonc urn found therein, 
^ttbout an infcription. 

i ** With the Bramins, the feft of Chivan (Sicb) 
^^ry the dead, thofc of Vichenoa burn them. 
Thefe believe that fire purifies theai of their fins: 
thcufe of Chiven- pretend that, being coofecrated 
to the fervicc of <TC>d, they bare no occafioa to 
pais, by fire, and diat the evil thii^gs they have 
doae will not be l^d to their charge: that it is 
fufficient to be fprinkled with holy water, which 
they ufe in abundance:*'. (Sonnerat, p. 85.) 

,*' Bifliop Pocock gives a moft curious account 
of a cairn or tumulus, opened fome years ago in 
ihe county of Weftmcath. Tlic plough, cutting 
tlirough a fandy hillock, which lay in the middle 
pf a field, turned up a flag (tone, about four feet 
long and three b^oad., Undemeaiji they difco< 
yered a grave, or rather offuary, to which this 
l^ne ferved as.a cover. Thebott^m, fides, and 
ends of the grave, were compofed «ich of a fingle 
flab. Within were depofiled the bones of a human 


C^the Carn-gaireah, or Grace Carml 301 

body, but of a fize greatly above the dommba 
proportioa of men. 

*' There was fomethlDg fingulariy curious ia 
the attire or oruamcDt of the head; for it was 
covered with an integument of clay ^ as with a cap: 
the border whereof, neatly wrought like Point or 
BrdTds lace, extended half way down the ^^re- 
hcad. Upon handling, it mouldered into dufl, 
fo that DO drawing was made of it. Entombed 
with the bones was an urn of yellow clay. Its 
contents, if there were any, arc not racQtiooed:- 
it is probable, therefore, there were nonej for 
the infide of the grave is exprdsly feid to hare 
beea free from dirt or dud: and the urn, opoa 
handling, Ml to pieces. 

" Be{ide the urn lay a ring, of no inconfiderable 
value, nor inelegant form, confidcring the high 
antiquity fome are dcfirous to aHign it. It confils 
of twenty-five table diamonds, regularly and well 
difpofed, fet in gold." (See Plate I. Archaeobg. 
V. II. p. 33.) 

" The bones were all white, as if blanched, 
but there was no figp of fire having paffed upoa 
them. This difcovery leading to a further fcarch, 
five other graves, of a fimilar conftruAion, but of 
fmaller dimenfions, having ooly human bones ia 
them, were alfo found. Thefe were diljx^ed in ' 
a regtiiar form, fo as nearly to environ the larger 
fepuldire, two being placed on each fide, sad one 
at the feet. . . 


■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

i(» 0/ tke CtfttrgaireQk, » Givoe Cant*. 

*f k bajNiniiid 9lfo, vpM^ » ftprt time aA*^ 
that five other graves, of the 1^9JN' f<W9*. WW 
difeo«i¥c4 widiin half a mik of tUis. plswf ,. npeo 
tlK laqd* of: Adarnfftwn ; but t|)(f^k. ^^ t^ 
fqimrr, costatnt:^ dqI^ bun^q boQRSi ifffl) 
tlidiq dFPHnltapces it is co^je^f«{]> diiyE qesr 
thtf place thero bfid boca aa a3ioa» in nbtl^b 
t^C chief of ooe fide, with fi» of his- princfpel^ 
fiiei»is or leaders fell, sod fiM<rfthr<«hor.pfH^* 
Th: gtawes of the a)qsmDq mea» it inw^ hp fiJdi. 
arc feldoci particularly diftiagqilhfcl on thafe 
occafipiu. Bttt, fitrdf, had thf cafe ^qco as 
hem prefuDutdt it is vety Ukely M»t othar ew< 
deoocs* uAially ^tondiog fuch evwt«». 9^ iodtr 
catiog the caufe of them, would have aj}(eiR{»- 
nied thde hooea; liich a^ fE^qs^ts of iinoft and 
c^0w weiipms: hu,t aonq fueh 41% fei(t t» 
faaird. bcQS fouo^k And it i» al&> prob^lA thM* 
had tbc& finwml pfrfms ^ik^ is butb). tha i«ttolc 
of Amr bodica* in. the inartial accoutfcnmtft ^ 
they fell, and not , merely their bosos, itroiittV 
hjDW botn ffKUced in thofe ilooo <»cktfiiws» and 
tkcxvnuite&tal circiiradluices wholly omitted, 

*^ Thve i4) hoi«c«ar« a m^oi&lt dcfignation ^ 
lionoar abfervable 19 the ^ mvd. arraitgemeeit qS 
the Carae tombs- For the rich and largec itr. 
puiclur ia occupied by the cbieflaia v aad t^^ ia 
fairoaoded and vteudtd by others, as by h»4 
faocfy giu:^. Tw>. arc adTiOKed ibnc^^ in 
{root on each fide, but fo as to keep Uto in»t 
open J 


0/the Cam-guireah, or Grave Cams. }0t 

opoD ; two on the flaak^ aod one la tfat itar. 
None are placed above, at the head of the prta- 
cipal t<unbt becaufe qodc tii<xe-wefe of fupcrtor 
or equal dignity." ^ 

" Dr. Keating tells iw, . that the ciAom of 
burying the dead, ia graves dug in the'euth, did 
not take place in belaod till A. M> 3952. { and 
that Etcbaid, furcamed Mreamh^ who tbni 
rdgned in Ireland, wjs the £rft that inffoduceil 
it For before his tiate the MileTailt and thdr 
pofterity ufed to cover their dcid, by raifiijg 
heaps of clay or Amkb over their bodies > which 
praAice this prince aboli&cd, as not ib decent 
wd {ecurc. Aod fioni this drcuntftance the Batne 
jiireamh, eK^effive of the sew cnftoito, wafe 
giveo him } for jUrtambt is Irilbi f^i£ks » 
grave." (Archasolog. V. II.) 

Mac Curtia goes further. He fays, the Mile- 
fiaos, fot &me time after their arrival in Irelaad, 
did life the Scythiiui cuftom of btwyieg dw 
nearcft friend alive, almg with the deccafed, ia^ 
raifed. a long ftooe oa aa eod, ftanding iu tbn 
fame place where they btaied the corple. That 
Eocbaidy fBrnamed Airaamb, i.c. of the p-avet^ 
made or digged the SrSi grave in IreUod, 
A. M. 39.5 a. 

As to the chronology of this ftory, I leave it 
as I found it ; but every Irifli fcholar mull know, 
that Aireamh does not fignify a grave. If a com- 
pound word, it may fignify the prince of the 
graves; Airgamb bang written for Jire-umbi 


tOi 0/lhe Cam-gaireah, or Graoe'Canu. 

vhite his other name, Eo-cmd^ vould figniiy' ^bc 
rect, or cavern fipiikbre J Sec p. 397 preceding. 
So that I look upoQ the whole to be a romantic 

The ancient fcpulchres of this coontry mufl: be 
other Irilh or Danifli. If what Plot afferts is 
true> that die Daoes did not bum the dead, then, 
wherever nms are found, the fepalcbre mafl have 
been Irilh, for the Romans were not in the 
ifland, and the Saxons catne at a period when urn 
burial -had ceafed. 

' In the Irilh we trace the terms of bnrial into 
the eaftem dialefts, as has been fccwn at p. 297; 
dnd we find alfo the Egyptian correfponding to 
the mode of .placing many bodies in the fame tu- 
mulus, as in the Cairn-gaireah of the county of 
Down, inz. 

' Tariim Suan^ the -funeral pile of Suan, the 
goddefs of flecpi is explained by Eo-teineasj- the 
fupuldire of the dead. Teineas^ i< e. ibbadh bat, 
perilhed by death (Connac.) ; tobbadh, death. 
(O'Brien and Shaw.) 13M abad^ he perifhcd, 
died. Syon, in the Brahminical mythology, is 
the goddefs of fleep. Ebn Haukal fays, " Teneis 
is' a vad pile or heap, ereded over the bodies of 
the dead, which were placed one above another 

' Several urns were fouod in fmall natural caves, be- 
tween the rocks of Sullorgiu), near Dublin. There were 
ro tuinuli over them, bat the cave covered with a Urge 
flag. The umi are in the mu&iun of the Dublin Society t 
they wert turned in a lathe, and baked. 


■ Oftfi^ Cmrn-gttireah, or Grave Cams. $05 

untit th^ formed a pile, which pile was named 
f-y^-f Terkeum ; and this mull have been done 
before the time of Mofes, on whom be peace, 
and the bldBng of God ! For, m the time of 
Mofes, according to the religion of the Egyp- 
tians, the dead were interred ; a cullom which 
Was continued by the Chriftians, and is ftJII prac- 
tifed by Mahometans." (Ebn Haukal, Geogr. 

Tarcim fttan, a dead flcep, and Suan codhalta, 
the fleep of Suan., arc both ufed metaphorically 
for death. *' Dormire in fepulchro, dormire cum 
patribm^ ' dicitur, qui mortuus eft Cent patrcs." 
(Bust.) Codhalta is the fame as col/adb, pro- 
nounced colla, derived from 0*711 cha/am, to 
fleep; and in Arab. ^JtjJ kal, dormitorium pro 
fepulchrum. Such terms and metaphors denote 
an oriental origin. 

" Cabra, within two miles of Dublin, and 
Cabra, near RathfHlaod, in the county of Down, 
are places of great antiquity," fays Mr. Seward, 
** and faid to be derived from the Cabiri (in Irifli 
Cabar^ i. e. aid or aiHftance), or the gods which 
the Corybantes, who were the priefts of the Irifli, 
as well as of the Greeks, invoked on fuddea 
emergencies. Hence Cabaragh fccms ftill to re.^ 
tain the name, from having been a feminary of 
thefe Corybantes." (Topogr. of Ireland.) That 
the Cabirte rights begun with our Aire Coti on 
the Phafis, has been jhewn, from good autho- 
rity, in the Proem to this fecond part. But, if 

9» (^ the C*mrgvri!»k, er Grm» Cwrif, 

no alun are to bo fbovd at either of the C^brv* 
tibere would be reaToa to tbftiJc th^ fqmkhras. 

SeSl (proa. SbeoCJy aad Si/^, is an Irilh word 
fior the grave, now obfokte. Hence Ce-Seal, the 
prince of the grave, Satan (Shaw, O'BricD). 
It is fomedmes vritten Cifet^, and Ci/eaL Da 
Iddar mie re Ci/eali they were, all led by Satao. 
(Hymn. Patric-). Ch. 'rro Sbhh fcpukhruni. 
RevertcDtur impii in Sbigl (Buxtorf). Heb. 
Vra fatly locus inferior. Perf. i^ kai^ a great 
liriuce, king, defender ; Ch. n3 keb. The Iri(h, 
Sbeolt xaxiSt. not be awfounded with the Hebrew 
aad Chaldee ^m Sbeol^ im Sbiol, tranilatcd 
Hell-f which, like the gra,ve, was perfoniSed t^ 
the Eailcm writers. <' Death! I will be thy 
pcflilencc. Hell! I will be thy buming>placc." 
(Hofet, c.aLiL T. 14.) 

Hear the Right Rev. Bifhop of Rochefter, 
cn this paffage in Hofca. " HeU — not the 
place where the damned are to iktkr. their tor- 
ment i but the invilible place, where the der. 
parted fouls of the deceafed remain, till the ap- 
pNOtcd time ihall come for the re-union of the 
foul and body. This is the only Hell of the Old 
Teftamem i thongh^ by an abo£s of the word, 
the pJaoe of torment is the £Ht Qotion it prefents 
to die Engliih reader. But the EoglUh word,. 
Beli, properly imports na more than the invite 
cc hidden place,, from the Saxon Helan^ to cover 
over. Im the New Tcftamcnt, wc find the word- 
HHlt in our Englifli Bibks, in tweoty.onc pa£- ^ 

C!f tig Cm<iir^Keoltt «r Giwe Qtm*. -301 

£^Qt. lo- m&e it IgnlM ^e ptaee ^imun^ 
vie- Msctliew, t. is, 29, 30-; «. aS.'^ xriiu'^.} 
^^W" tj, ft3.; Mvk, i8- 47.; Lake, an. 5. 
^ (^ 9tb<Br tvclwt, fifBf^r, the Mf^n of ^ 
pwtfd %Hnt9 ; aod lo. tbjs fcafe it, is tiled in thr 
4ipc^lc*ftCroedi " Ht defimM inta Hail.'" 0£ 
tlHK phce VQ koov Uctlci esccpt dut, to dioft 
wbo di? in the Lor4i it k a place of coMPaiLT 
AWQi 8.8ST. Not 9 Jacc^ioical parai^ of eter*. 
nal fleep and fcDfelefliicfs, but a place of bapigr 
teft' ud traa^t hope. la the prophetic imBgay 
it fs.QfteamcQticwedt. vith allkifioa 10 Ac papn-- 
1«> DdtioQs, as a dark csna h the boHcIa of the 
CftTtth SQnKtioMis it is perftaa^t a& in the. abotnt 
p8&ge. The Hebrew 'nNC Sbctl, t&e GMek 
"A^r, the Latin Orcus, and the English HeH^ ane 
vw4ft vf 4fle and tbe l«ns isqMrty ^ni^ng, 
tbe place sp^otated £qc the b^Miatkn of do. 
pv:tad' fonts, in. tbA inteirval botwcmdeaA and 
the gmsnt reftHveftioD. Thc'word: ^'MmAfauf 
dcjfer^oa t^s ptsce ai the ol^eA-o£ uoiverlal en- 
qrnry, thq dqI«iiqwd maofioo, aboA wHich aU are 
aBitioaflf iequifitivc. The Latin,^ Ctr^ttrv naauaiiL 
39 % p)«£c eaclofiid. wttbln an inpaJable iinaa- 
(^w). The Gnck -a^, and the EogliOi Htik 
defcr^ it hf the ptopeity^ of imrilUnlibr, fisr uk 
4w8g mfffc it ioduded in lihe nittuBL mcarang of 
ttMfe vorda, \a tJbv Mew Teftaacnt, Cwo wimb 

HAS a t>ed) a couch, &c. 


308 Ofikt Carn-gaireah, or Graoe Corns. 

are indifcrimiDately rmdercd, ia 'Our EngUlh 
Bible, by the word Belli 'aAk, and r)i«; the 
latter, a word of Hebrew origin, traofplantcd 
into the Greek langaage, as the appropriated 
place of the damned; which was generally fo. 
called by the Jews of the apt^lic age. This 
nfe of the word Hell, in the EngKlh New Tcfla- 
ment, has irapofed a fcnfc npoo it, quite foreign 
to its etymology, and abhorrent horn its more 
general application/ 

" The ViMp Sheol of the Old Teftamcnt, and 
the Hades of the New Teftament, is indeed Hdl, 
to which our Lord Jcfus Chrifl, according to the 
apdtolic creed, defcended. It is the Pdradife, 
to which he conveyed the foul of the repentant 

" Anctfher inaccuracy obtains in oar Englifh 
Bibles : the Hebrew Sheol being perpetually in 
the Old Teftament, and the Greek, Hades^ 
ibmetimcs, in the New Tellameot, rendered im- 
properly by the word Grave, which neither fig- 
nifies. The Hebrew word for grave is "lap 
Kabar, and the Greek i^^;. The Hebrew 
names of Hell and the grave are sever con- 
founded, nor the Greek, by the lacred writers. 
No two things, indeed, can be mcsc diftinft." 

The lame confulioa prevails in the tranflatton 
of the Iriih. Hell is properly named i-i/rien, the 
region of Ifrten, or the Devil ; not from inferniu, 
as O'Brien aflerts, but from the Arabic 'Jls 
]fron, the Devil, over which prefided Saman, 


Of the Cam^aireah, or Grave Cams. SQ9 

otherwUe Grudeman, the judge of departed fouls; 
the Toman or Jaman of the Brahmins» the 
Jifuman or Gruteman of the PerGans (fee p. 
41), the Pluto Summanus of the Romans. But 
paradifc they placed in the feventh fphere of the 
heavens ; the j^ir ard-rinnac n 'Edan-gan^ the 
fphere of the high {tarry garden of Edeoj or 
Paradife; of which in the Eflay on the Aflio* 
Domy of the ancient Iriih. Yet, in the Irifh 
apoftolic creed, Chrifl is faid to have defcoided 
into IJrion. 






Rndcribui pretiola fiiii. 

Pfailolopllia, re* Tuie udlu, olim qijideni viguic apud bubarod 
per gente* fpirlliii rcfplcndeiut polbea^ ikniiili«#l 0(*cm etiwa 
venit (Clem. Alex, i Strom.) 

\_W this fubjcft we have only fragments, and 
the language of the day, to prove, thac the an- 
cient Irifli had their knowledge of aftronomy 
from the Chaldasans, 'from that colony named 
by them Tuaiba Dedati, or the Dedamte haruf- 
pices or aftrdogers. 

From thcfe Tuatha^ in Chaldcc tfOO Thtdhat 
i. e. haru/pex, or, as Symmachos and Hierony- 
mus vrite and d^ain the word, bvm, i. e. Ba&y- 
tonii bam/pices, qnod nos vcrtimus hi Hcbraeo 
pO gazirin (Bochart), were formed the Pagan 
Irilh cltfrgy, named Seanotr^ or wife men. Pfcrf. 
j*j; Zinirt fynonimous to the Irifh Draoi; 
hi. (J^ti Derii Pcrf. Darut a, wife man, a 


312 Aitronomj; nf ike ancient Irish. 

word which has beca crroDeotdlj tranflated 
Druid. But, though this m2.j have hcca the 
root of the Celtic Drwydd, the Draoi of our 
Indo-Scythfe differed fb much iu their religious 
tenets, they fhould not be confounded with the 
Dniidt ; for, as Mr. Pinkertoa obferves, in his 
Hiftory of the Scythians, there never wot a 
Dntid in Ireland. 

That Tuatba in Irilh has the fame Cgnification 
as HQQ in Chaldee, is plain by the following 
lines, quoted and tranflated by Colgan,. in his 
Life of St. Patrick. 

Twoha Heren tarcaiotl* 
Ces nicfead fithlahh niu. 

Vatet Hibcrnix TaticioabaDiur 
AdnatBrum (ceiapin) puis norum. 

Much care had been taken, by the firi^ Chrlf- 
ttan milBonaricSa to deftroy the manufcripts of 
the pagan Irifh. Mythological, aflrological, and 
agronomical, all contributed to the conflagration.. 

If even a fragment was not to be found, the 
living language of the day, a language more than 
three thouTaod years old, is fuiHcient to prove, 
that they arc the Aire Coti (noble fliephcrds), 
or Indo-Scytha; of Dionyfius P., who, under the 
name of Pfacni and Phoinicc, came to thefe 
weftern iflee, the Ca/A/ of the learned Bryant. 

But we lay a ftronger claim for the Aire Coti 

to an early knowledge in agronomy. Caucafus, 

fram whence they originally fet out, was famed 



Aiironofity oftht ancient Irish. i\i 

for aflroaomers. Cicero acquaints os that the 
BabyloDtaos, and tho/e who contemplaied tbi 
Heavens from Cauca/Wt had a fcrics of obferva- 
tioDs, exteading back for 473,000 years; b/ 
whom, as Mr. Maurice obferves, Cicero muft 
mean the elder Ferlians, and thefe were Scjr* 
tbians, from whom the Indo-Scythx. 

" The Indo-Scyt}i3e afterwards occupied the coall 
of Syria, under the titles of Belidx, Cadmians, 
and Phoiniccs. They arc called Cufcans, Ara- 
bians, Eruthraeans, Ethiopians } but, among 
tbemfelvcSj their general patronymic was Cutbt 
and their country Cutha." (Bryant.) 

** To the Indo Scythae wc arc indebted for the 
ufe of thofe C]rpbcrs or figures, commonly termed' 
Arabian," (Bryant.) 

" Notse vulgares numeronim, nihil aliud fuat 
quam liters Scythicse. Indi eafdcm numerales 
notas habent, fed babent a Perils. Perfse autem 
ortu funt Scytbas." (Boxhomius.) 

Iq the fifth volume of the Colle^bnea de rebus 
Hibemicis, I have given a plate of numerals 
horn an Irilh Ephemeris, now in my podclCoQi 
compared with thofe of the Indians and Arabs. 
They are exa^ly the fame. 
, •* Ciaffical reading (fays Smith, in his Hiftory 
of the County of Kerry) extends itfelf, even to a 
fault, aitaongll the lower and poorer kind ia 
Kerry ; many of whom, to the taking them of 
more ufefol works, have greater knowledge id 
this way, than fome of the better fort in other 
Y places. 


314 Astronomy of the tlncUnt Irish. 

places. Neithct is tlie genins of the commonaTlf 
confined to this kind of learning afonc ; for I faw 
a p6or man, "near Black-ftones,, who had a tole- 
rable notion of catcntatiag ihc Epacts, Golden 
Number, Dominical Letter, the Moon?s 
Phases, and even Eclipses, although he had 
neiier been taught to read EngHjh." 

Confeqnently this man mud hare received bts 
knowledge from- Irifli mannfcripts. 

I had not been a *eek landed in Ireland iroin 
Gibrartar, whftc I had ftndied Hebrew and 
Chaldaic nnder Jews of varions countries and de- 
nominations, when I heard a peafant girl fay to 
a boor {landing by her, Feach an maddtn nag 
(BelK)ld the morning ftar), pointing to the planet! 
Venus, the 33 n^D maddina nag of the Chal- 
dteans ; maiddinag, the morning (lar (Shaw). 
Shortly after, being benighted with a party in 
the mountains of the weftern parts of the county 
of Cork, we loft the path, when an aged Coti 
tager undertook to be our guide. It was a fine 
ftarry night. In our way, the peafant pointing 
to the conftellation Orion, he feid, that was 
Caomai, or the armed king ; and he defcribei 
the three upright ftars to be his fpear or fceptre» 
and the three horizontal (lars he faid was bis 
fword-belt. I could not doubt of this bchig the 
nD3 Cimah of Job, which the learned CoftartJ 
afferts to be the conftellation Orion. Caomai, an 
armed man (Shaw)'; Ar. ^^j-ow kamt, armed; 
of which more hereafter," The reader niay 


AsU'onomy of the ancient Irish. .3i3. 

judge, irom this circumftaace> with wh^ eagcr- 
Defs I was impelled to {i\xij (he liiik language. 

It is a remi^rkahle circumilancc on record, that» 
whqi the reft of Europe, through ignorance or 
forgctfulncfs, had no kaqwledge of the trpc 
figure of the earth, in the eighth century, the 
rotundity and true formation of it ihould hayi: 
been taught in the Iiilh Schools, 

** Feargil, latinized into Virgilius, dcfccndcfl 
.of an ancient and honorable faniily in Ireland, 
left his native country, and palTcd over to Fran:c?« 
where be fpent two years in the court of King 
Fepin, by whom he was kindly entertained, for 
his learning, and fwectpefs of behaviour. He 
was font by the king to Otho, duke of Bavaria, 
to^ be prefcnted to the biflioprick of Saltzburg s 
and, i^cr two years ftay in that province, he 
was confccrated on the -13th of June, ^7. He 
is the author of a difcourfe on the Antipodett 
which he moll truly held, thoi^b againft the re- 
ceived opinion of the ancients, who imagined the 
earth to be a plain." (Sir J. Ware.) 

This is alfo mentionetj by Mafcon, in his HiC- 
tory of the ancient Gcrnjans ; and in Vol. XVL 
of Cafs. and Lab. Councils, is Pope Zachary'a 
toith letter, which omtains his damnation agajnlt 
this Hibernian philofopher. 

" .Virgilius, biftiop of Saltzburg, having writ- 
ten that there exilled Antipodes^ Boniface, arch- 
bilhop of Mayence, the Pope's It^tc, declared 
Y 2 him 


316 Astrotuim^ of the ancient Irish. 

him a heretic, and configned him to the flames.'' 
(D'lfrael'a CnrioC of Liter.) 

The author of the Hift Lit. de la France^ 
T. IV. p. 493., fpeaking of the tynmoy of the 
Danes in Ireland, has the foUoving pafl^ge. 
" Complurcs ctiam, qui extCmi hoitis nm aegrids 
{erreot, patiiam reliquiffc ut pacatioribos lo«^ 
viverent probatule. Ex hornm fortaffis grcgc 
cenfendus DtmgOlhu Hibermcns, qui Carolo ct 
Lndovico &ia imperantibas, phflpfophlse et As- 
TROK.UM impiimis fdectia, inter Gallos clamit." 

Thefe are undeniable aathorities of allronomy 
having been ftncKed by the ancient irifli ; and it 
is as evident, that treatifes on that fcience did 
exift about fifty years fince, when Smith and 
Harris publiflied the Hiftories of the Cotiaties of 
Cork and Down. Both mention that they had feen 
oiie in inaaofcrq)!, and in the Irifli charader, in 
the library of St. Patrick's cathedral. A ftrift 
fearch was often made, at my requcft, but no 
foch book could be foand. 

From converfations with the peaSnits of this 
country ; from fragments of Gloflarics, particu- 
larly that of Ccnmac, £rft archbifhop of Cafhd 
(faid by Sir J. Ware to have been converted by 
Patrick) } irom Dames exHUng in the modem 
printed diftiooarics ; my curiofity was raifcd to 
the faighefl: degree; becade I found all afho- 
nonucal names corrclpondcd neither with the 
Greek, Latin, German, Welfh^ nix Saxon 
tongues, but with the Cbaldxan. 


Asttvrumy of the ancient Irish. 3 11 

For eirampic, the word Nagy a ftar, Maiddtn 
Nag, the moTning ftar (Venus), is in every dic' 
ttooary, and in every pealant's mouth ; com- 
pounded of deen, or daona, to afcend ; vhence , 
Maidin, morning (the alccnfion of the fun), and 
Nagt a (lar; in Chaldee and Syr. 33 Nag, and 
M3] Naga, a liar. n3lD Medinab, oriens, from 
7131 denab, onri. Medinah Nag, ia Chaldee, is 
the Maidin Nag of the Iri{h. 

To the Gloflary of Cormac wc arc much in- 
debted for the names of many pagan deities, 
many of which are Hindoottapec and Brahmi- 
nical. Under the wprd Trsg-Aia, or children of 
the fun, he fays, uigus as geimther Ar&n rta Jin 
WGrein is in maidin. i. e. Jnd he begat Ariin, 
ibe forerunner oftbefun in the morning. This is 
evidently Arun^ of the Brahnjans, the charioteer 
of the fun. *' Cpuld Arun difpel the Ihadcs of 
night, if the Deity, with a thoufand beams, 
had not placed M}^ before the car of dityF'* 

From thcfe, a^d other paflkgcs of iike kind, I 
am convinced the Gloilary was written by Cor- 
mac, firft bilhop of Cafhel, of the fourth century, 
before his convcrlioQ, and not by Cormac, arch- 
bifliop of Calhcl, and king of Munftcr, in the 
tenth century. 

Chance at length threw into mjr hands a fmall 

treatifc of aftronoray in Iriflt. It was fcnt to mc, 

for the tranflation of certaiq paflages, by my 

ipgenious and learned friend, the late Mr. Aftle, 



jl8 Asb-onermf of the ancient Irish, 

author of the Origin of Alphabetical Writing ; 
fioce which time many other fragraents have 
(dme into my poiTeffion. 

This MS. bad been in thd bands of DoAor 
l^aifons, author of the RemaiDS of Japhetj as I 
found by the following letter between die 
flieets of the aftronomical treattfc. 

R«d L7011 senate, JuM 6, mi, 

I HAVE Jooked over your carious MS. wFtb 
great pleafure, and find it to be very valuable oil 
fcvcral accoqnts. Fird, for its antiquity, as it 
was certainly written withi» the eeniurj of the 
fonverjton of the people to Chrijiiariiiy ; for this is 
the uioft pare and ancient chara^er of the Ma- 
gogian tongue, from which the Greek and every 
Other alphabet of Europe had its rife. This 
may, perhaps, furprife the learned ; but it fliall 
pot want proper authority, when I publiih ^ 
Vor.k I now amufe myfelf with, to that purpofe^ 
which you Ihall fee ere long, if it pleafes God to 
fparc me a little while. Secondly, 'it is a treatifc 
on cormography, which has for illuftration fcvcral 
aftronomical fcheme^, laid. down according to the 
fyftem of Ptelemy \ and the whole feems to be 
founded upon his de Jtuiiciii AJirol<3gicis. 

There is an aftronomical Rotula at the begin- 
ning, with a moveable index of vellum, contain- 
ing the naoics of the figns of the zodiac and pla- 
nets, in Latipj witli the numeral Sgures ; and it 

' n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^ll;' 

Astronomy of the ancient Irish. 315 

is remarkable that ^cjr bad not quite adopted 
the Qj whidb is of-Laiia iavcntioo, except as 
ioitials, when they wrote Latin ; for Aquarius is 
fydt jicarius, notwithftanding they were vcrfed 
in the Latin tongue, from the neceffity they were 
onder of making copies of the Gofpcle, upon ac- 
count of Chrillianity ; for no more than fcvea- 
teen letters were ever ufed in the Irifli language j 
but Ib wiiting Latio they were obliged to take 
the fupetfliiouB letters of this, though they con- 
tinued to nfe their own cbara^ers. 

la one of the fchemes, the earth is put !a the 
center, and the other three elements, aca" (for 
aqua), aer, igais, round it, in different fpheres, 
and beyond the finnamentum. 

There are many other fchepies: ihewiog the 

earth, in the center, with the orbits of the fuQ 


« jlea. Out, Oigi, Ulge, Qh in Irift. *«er ; whence Cam- 
cice, the ftu Oice, romettniM Writua for Camt-aB, wh<act 
Caaoiiu, in the coDfieliatioo Ar^o. Ch, j\ff ioug. Mih. 
btgt, aqua, k^tu i «j a verb) ininiergera. Hence the miftake 
oF D'lodorus Samtu, tiz. qui ver& ad ^zanium navigant, ti 
liellam Canoium, quse ibi' equus dicitur, cuilfiim dirigunt. 
From Oige ii formed Oig-ogl, the hero of the water, 
Ogyge*. i.e. Nosh; wiUigiifgt, a fleet, &c. (C. V.f 
<*. £)ira-t'Dik fiK let Irlaadoia oat etafrifpU des Romaios 
Jes rooti qui leur font communs avec eur, lorfque cei 
mou fe retroavent dans lei laoguei de h haute A^et 
daas Ic Petfan le plos ancien et aox. lodei i Le pr^tendre 
ce feroit montrer le devouemeDt le plus aUiirde pour des 
fyftemet dtauit de.tout foademeqt ; ce feroit fe refii&r i 
t«i)te lumier«, ii WHte ButoQ.'' (Gobelin, Orig. du Lan- , 


320 Asirmomx/ of the ancient Irish. 

ancl planets rouod it, in fome of which the names 
are Latin, and Ibtne are Irifh. And it is re- 
markable, that the two or three firft vords of \ 
every article, except a few, are Latin, but the 
treatifc itfclf is Irifli/ 

I make no doubt this vas the fyflem at that 
time adapted, and joined to their own ancient 
mftronomical do6lrines, and taught in their aniver- 
fities, of which they had many. 

The £r(t words in capitals are the titles of the 
enfuing writing, as if the author had dcfigoed 
them for heads of chapters ; > for one of them has 
thefe words, Dico quod r>ccafie hujus ignis^ &c.) 
and then follows the philofophy of fire. And 
thus are written the accounts of the other ele- 
ments, and parts of the fyltem; but the firft 
chapter is the exordium or introduction to tbo 
whole book, beginning thus, Gloria Deo prin- 
cipio't to which is fubjoincd, in Irilh, Glotr do 
Dbia do tai/aei gan t^v&t which meaqs, Glory 
to God the beginning without a beginaing.' 

Then follows the chapter of the Firmament, 

and the opinions of philorophcrs, beginning with 


' We haw already ucomtted tor thu. It wu dtne for 
the coovenience of tUe Icbolars who flocked here from 

r This is a literal iraaflatloD of the Arabic, (C. V. 

iLaus DeO( qui primos efE fine ioidoi ct idtinnn fine fioci tfo, 
(Abul-Fharagii Hilloria, PraiatO 


^slranamy ef the ancient Irish. 32 1 

Dktmt Philefi^bi', and to this chapter beloogs 
the Icheme, mcDtioacd, of the four eleiucats and 

Aaotbcr chapter begins vith Cakr et Frip- 
ditas \ aod, indeed, regular chapters of each of 
the four elements, according to their arrange- 
ment in the fchedie. There arc alfo particular 
defcriptions and philofophical ditculfions upon the 
different fchemes, linear or circular, — upon feas, 
rivers, &c. which fliew the work to be a com- 
plete cofmography. 

The other leaves do not belong to this work, 
bat are fragments of a fyllem of the art of me- 
dicine, \rtiich my time will not permit me to de- 
Icribe in a particular manner. . I muft, however, 
remark, that this was alfo written within that 
ccniury, but later than the other, and that this 
was about the time that the learned men invented 
^d ulicd fo vaft a number of abbreviations, as 
render MSS. very (tifficult to be underftood. I 
know many, but not two thirds of them, and .had 
j^uch trouble ia preparing this account for you. 

- ' , I am, &c. 


I Aiall not give a full tranflation of this work, 
but extract fuch parts as will make it appear, that 
it is, as the DoAor obfcrves, Obfervations on 
Ptolemy and others, together with a fyftem 
adapted and joined to their nun ancient and 
iifirmomical doHrineti for, if it had been a 


S22 Astronomif of tke ancient Irish. 

literal traoflation of Ptolemy, or any other Grede 
author, no fueh aamcs as Sdan f(x the poles. 
Nag for a ftar, Stbal for the fun's path, G^ir and 
jfigheit for the fign Aries, Jirgbeis and Leg for 
the bull, which are att cM-ienu), — could poi&U^ 
have occurred. 

The Doftor obfenres, that the Treatifc begins 
with Gloria Deo principio, to which the Iriflb 
author has fubjcMned' da teifeach gan t^aeh, 
which means a beginning without a beginning, tt 
is au addition that merits atteution, and a [mx^ 
whence the Hibernian pbitofbpbers drew thdr 
knowledge. God the creator, the Sot rndfir 
of the Irifh, the Zeus of the Fboenidaas, was 
reprefented by a circle, a 6gure without begti^* 
ning or end. God ts- one, fay riie Brahnutus, 
creatcn' of all that is: God is like a perfeA 
fpherc, without beginning or end. (Holwell's 
Hift. Event, p. 2. and 25.) Cnefh (in IriCb 
Cnaimh, Cnaiv, i. c. the great wraged one), feys 
Plutarch, fpeaking of the Egyptians, was ^ 
good, without beginning or end. - Tlie PhomiciMS 
held tbo fame ideas,' Sancheniaiho informs us, 
Zus hu Afphira turanitba mem aritj chma^-~' 
Jupiter is » feigned fphere, from it is produced 
a ferpeat c Afplnra hu cbial ^Alha dilb lajimra 
idaJbuJma,'-rThslptisie fliews the divine Datore 
to be without beginning or cud.* 

Hence one of the old Irtib ci»thets of the fu- 
preme Deity was Ti morj or the pxat dwle.* 

* CEdip. jCgypt, ■ 7t Pier, God. (Sbaw's Irilb Dia.) 


Astronetny of the ancient Irish. 323 

7/ is a circle, Ex.- gr. kaoi Tj glas fair ifin ionad 
in ro iadh an f^rr ime ire,—^ green circle 
niM-kcd the part rf his body, od which the fer- 
peat turned itfclf. 

The ancients rcprefcnted the Deity not only 
by a circle, but by volatcs of circles. Quintus 
Cnrtios tells us, - that the temple of Jupiter 
jtmmm bad a rode ftooe, whereon was drawn a 
Jptralline^ the fymbol of the Deity. 

Such we find on the ftones m the mithratk 
cave of New Grange,* defcribed in my Vindi- 
6ition of the ancient Hiftory of Ireland.' ■ 
■ The Hibernian phi]ofophers never had any ■ 
.WKtgcof the Supreme Being. Like that peeo- 
Ifar race of Brabmans among the Kalahari, de- 
fdibed by La Croze, who boall of a divine de- 
fcent, they lay afide all idolatrons worfhip, and 
give themfclves up entirely to the moft rigorous 
xhottification,. affefl enthofiaftic ecflafy and (juietn 
ifin, and hope to refemble the divine nature, by 
putting off aU animal paifion. Xhey have /otju 
pra^icai knowledge 'of ajirotiomy^ which ihey ap- 
pear to have derived, frem the Egyptiaru, ai they 
call the Zodiac by the ancient Egyptian names. 
(lA Croze.) Fatbeir Bartholomew, who had 
read all the works of th^c Brahnums, fays, that 

^ A'corniptioaof Grina £^£, i.e. the CRTCof thefuD. 

' There ti an iDrcnption on one ftoaci which Goveroor ' 
Fownal has g^vcn in the Archzol. Vol. II. He thinks the 
chaiafters are nmnerals, partly Cadmean and partly Egyp* 
tian, by the Pboen-Maltft alphabet of Sartbelemy. 

32i Astronomy oj the ancient Irish: 

he difcbTered this fcA had no images fevcn htm- 
dred years ago. Our Aire Coti, who firft fet- 
tled in this country, had no images.' Image 
worflu'p was not mtroduced into Ireland till the 
cfiabliflunent of the Chriltian religion. 

They were difciples of Budda, They con- 
tend, that the ejfence of fences, or Supreme 
Being, wants figure, and cannot be coo^e- 
hended; that it fills all things j pdMes the 
bigheft wifdom, truth, knowledge, and purity; 
is infinitely good and merdfiil ; creates and iv^ 
ports all things, and cannot be reprefentcd by 
any image. That there are fubordioatc Gods ; 
and the fouls of brutes and men have the iamc 
origin, and being confined in one body for a 
time, pa& into another. (Enfield, Hift. Philofi 
Burnet, Arch. App.) 

This was the doctrine of the Irilh Draoi, or 
philofopbers, differing in aimed erery particular 
from the Druids of the continent, as will appear 
in many inllanccs in the firilowing Iheets. No 
images were permitted in the worQiip of the 
andent Perfians, another colony of the Indo- 
Scythje. (Diog, Laert.} 

Whether the Hibernian philofophers entered 
into the deep trigonometrical knowledge of the 
Hindoos, we have not fufficient fragments to 
afcertain. Were we to judge by the few tech- 
nical terms (till retained in the GloSaries, we 
may decide in the affirmative. Some are Chal- 
daic, as Dora^ a right Uoe j Cfa. vm dara. 



Astronomy of the ancient Irish. ' 3U5 

Dar, a fphcre, a cycle ; Ch. in douf. 

Tarbeirlt a rhomboides, fix>ni what language 
I know not. 

Soitb, a cycle ; Ch. «ailp, ixom Blip, Sbotb, 
titcuire ; whence the circular dance of the Irifli 
pagao pricfts was earned Soiib-leag ; Ch. :H leg, 
exultare. Soithh, a complete aod pcrfcft circle, 
which approaches to the Sanicreet yoyotijhf a 
name of die Surya Siddheaitay or laAer of aftro- 
nomy. Cramogba, a fine, is not vety different 
from the Sanfcreet cramajyoy a fine. GhOt a 
diord, approaches in found the Sanfcreet jya. 
Until we arc fuppHed with a Sanfcreet di^onary, 
tfacfe etymologies muft reft on bare a}nje£hire. 

We cannot here omit the words of Sir Wil- 
liam Jones : " I hope to latisfy the public, as I 
have &tisfied myfelf, that the practice of ohferv- 
ing'the ftars began, with the rudiments of dvil 
fbdety, in the country of thofe we call Cbal- 
■deans, from which it was propagated into Egypt, 
India, Greece, Italy, and Scandinavia, before the 
ragn of Sifac or Sacya^ who by conqueft fprcad 
a new fyilem of religion and philofophy from the 
Nile to the Ganges, about a thoufand years be- 
fore Chrifl: bat that Chiron and Atlas were al- 
legorical or mythological perfonages, and ought 
to bare no place in the ferious hiftory of our 
fpccies.* With the religion of the old Perfians, 
thdr philolbphy (or as much as wc know of it) 

' See Cruiia, a cycle { Cb. pS Cnu$, Cphxn. And 
Ealat, the globe, tbe aniTetTe, in Art. Cycles, 

S2€ MlronMiitf f^ the mekni Iriik. 

was intimately conncflcd; for they were affi- 
duwjs obfcrvers of the iununaticsi which tJiey 
adored and eftabliflied, according to Mobfani 
who coo&rms, in fome degree, the fi^igmeata of 
Berofus, a imrober of artificial cycles, with di(- 
■xmEt names, which feem to indicate a knowledge 
of the period in which the eqtunoxes appear tp 
revolve. They are faid to have known the moft 
wonderful powers of nature, and thence to ban; 
acquired the Bune of magicians and enchanters*':' 
(Sir W. }ones, Diff. VI. on the Pcrfians.) 

We have fliewo, firoia Cicero, that this fcirace 
-originated mtb the Babylonians on Caucaiiis, die 
cradle of the Aire Coti, or Hibcmiaa Scythian). 
(Seep. 10.) 

. The Irifli hiftcffy declares an alliance with t&efe 
-Chaldeans of Dcdan } and, from then: tide, 
Tuatba Dedan, Ch. NCHd Tuta^ which Symnut' 
-chns expktns'by bv^, i. e. Haru/^et^ diere cin- 
not be a doubt, in my opinion, that the Hibefr 
nian philofc^hers, or Draoi, were of that race. 
New proofs will arife in every page of this eOay. 

I cannot conclude this paragraph, without rc> 
fiewing my claim to Stoneheage, as the work ci 
the Aire Coti, that colony of the old Irifh tbct 
fiHt inhabited Britain ; and to Abaris, the Hy- . 
perborcan philofopher, as one of the lame colony. 

Of Stonehcngc I fhal! treat at large under the 
chapter on Cydes. As to Ab<aisy I need only fol- 
low Toland, and that great Indian antiquary Mr. 


Aslrimamf of.ihe Imcient Irish. 327 

MzDiiee, to prove, diat Abaru was of the Aire 
Coti of Britain. 

Diodwus relates, that there is an ifland to the 
north, or under the bear, beyond the Ccfcae 
(meaning Gnut), little infcrbr ia magnitude ta 
Sicily, in which the Hyperborean race (as the 
Greeks denominated all thofe nations that were 
fituat«i- north of the ftreights of Hercules') 
adca-ed Apollo as the iuprcrac deity. That in it 
was a magnificent confecntted grove, with a cir- 
adar temple, to wbidi the priefts of the ifland 
frequently rcfortcd with thpr harps, to chaunt 
4e praifcs of Ajrollo, who, for the fpace of nine- 
teen years, ufed to come and cx)nverfe with 
tiiem ; and, what , is more remarkable, they 
ould Ihew the moon very near them, and dif- 
cover therein mountains, and heaps of caverns. 
He defcribes the ifland as a fruitful and ptea&nt 
ifland, and relates, that moft of the inhabitants 
of it were priefts and fongfters. He adds, that 
they iKid a language of their own ^ and thai 
ibme Greeks had been in it, and prefentcd va- 
hiable gifts to their temple, with Greek infcri|N 
tions on ^cm ; and that one Abartt came from 
tliem to Greece, and contrajfted friendfhip with 
the Deliaiis.' He concludes with fayit^, that 

■ And as many Irifh authors dcDOminate all to the fouth 
of Che fireights, Greg, or Greciant. 

'Apollo wai called Deliiu. Hinc Delos infulai quod 

iU Deu) frxrcatUEmai fiogeietur, oempe Apollo (Bocban). 



3ZS Jitrotwmjf of the mdent Iritk. 

over their (acred town and temple, there prcfideA 
a fort of men, called Boreada, (fo deaominated 
by the Grecians of that 'day,) who were thdr 
pricfts and rulers." 

Such is the account given near aooo years ago 
of this celebrated temple, by Diodoms the Sici- 
Kan, from a writer Jiill prior in time. 

Abarit was a Scythian, an lodo-Scythian or 
Phcentdao, as all the Aire Coti inhabiting Bri- 
tain and Ireland were: be was a great otativ, a 
iharp wittcd man, as his name in Irifh declares. 
He wore a plaid and trowfcrs, as the Erie do 
now, and as the Irifli did. The orator Himerins 
&ys he was a Sepbian. ** They relate, fays Hi- 
merins, that Abaris, the &ge, was by nation an 
Hyperborean, appeared a Gredan in fpeech, and 
Tcfembled a Scythian in his habit and appearance. 
He. came to Athens, holding a bow in bis hand, 
having a quiver hung oq his Ihoulders, his body- 
wrapt np in a pkidy girt about the lohis with a 
gilded belt, and wearing trowfcrs, reaching from 
his wafte downward."— By this,' fays Toland, it 
is evident, that he was not habited like the 
(northern) Scythians, who were always covered 
with ikins: but appeared in the native garb of 
an aboriginal Scot." It was a drefs, common to 
the Aire Coti and the Chaldasan foldiers, as I 
have explained, agreeable to Gebelin's tranflation 

D.-aJbha na Diak aJiariat a/nij (Cdnnac.) i. e. they wor- 
fhipped the figure of DuiU there. See jtrt, fiio. No. Jh 
Di'Kla, the god of fire, ttu fao> 


Astronomy of the ancient Irish. 339 

from the prophet Nahum. (Vindicat. of Irifh 
hiftory, p. 532, note G.) The old Arabs a)fo 
wore the U^^Aj phalut or plaid, parvum et 
aogullum indumentum. (Gol.) 

" As to what relates to the abilities of Abaris, 
adds llimerius, he was affable and pleafant in 
converfatioD ; in difpatching great a^rs, fecret 
and indu{triou3; quick figbted in prelent exigen-^ 
cics; in preventing future dangers circumfpefl; 
a feardiec after wifdom, deflrous of friendlKipj 
trufling little to fortune, and having every thing 
traded to him for his prudence.** 

No name could better correfpond with fuch a 
chara^r^ than the Irifh compound Abaris, or 
jibar-aitf one on whom depcndance may be 
placed, for his propriety of fpeech. Ch. iNi^jr^ 
loqui cum expofitione, clar^, difertd. 

Abaris was a pried of Apollo or Baal, and, ac- 
cording to the cudom of the pagan Iridi, did 
oirfitiea don jiofar^ drike the harp to Aofar.— 
jiguj an tan Jin ag orpbideab d^ Aofar cumbad^' 
idir an da ■ codhla, and then h,e (truck his harp 
to the Lord Aofar, between his two fleeps} in 
Other words, he arofe at midnight, to chaunt with 
bis harp to Aofar, that is to Baal or Apollo. This 
paf&ge, taken from an ancient Iridi mamifcript, 
accords perfedly well with the account of Dio- 
dorus Siculus: the drels correfponds with that of 
the old Irifh and Scots, and the name Abaris 
agrees with the charadcc of this Indo-Scythian. 
To conclude, the Boreada or governors, men- 
z tioncd 


340 Jstronomt/ of the ancient Irish. 

tioDcd by Diodorust are the Borradacb or chiefs 
of the aadcnt Irilh, from Bory Bar^ fopremc, 
ahd ruadf a governor. DiarmUt Ruad rojios; 
SiannBt, the moil wife goremor. B asd M lur 
cbmniDtable in all oriental languages. MuiTeadach, 
a forereign. (Shaw.) Ch. yitnn Tneradoc, domi- 
nator, gubcmator. M et B in Oriente maame 
pcrmntabilis. (Bocb.) Hcnce,io ^Bafque, Ckrifta 
Suarot the Pope. 

The iOand of ^tain «as inhabited looo yean 
before Chrill:, according to Whitaker. This wai 
prior to the coming of the Cyraeri. The Britons 
bad not the ufc of the harp, until the time of 
Cruffith ap Conan, a 'prince of North Wales, 
abo«t King Stephm's time, as the learned Seldm 
aflerts. The Indo-Scydiae have been ercr iamoua . 
for the CUar-feaeh ac harp, the ^^d cidi of die 
Sacay by whran it vas invented or improved^ 
(D*Ancarville.) As to the Crwd or Crutt an 
mflrumcnt Mr. BarriQgton thinks was peculiar to 
the We^ laiioa, I luve QiewQ, in ^e Collec 
fanea, N", XIII. that the oip krttt, by the tefti- 
' mony of Midras Rabba, was an iafhtmient wdl 
known in Chaldsea; and the Jews redconed it a 
profane inftniment of muflc, ufed m drinking 

From ^ thefe circmallances comluned, I tfaiiik 
it is eindent, (hat the iflahd defcrHied by DiodonM 
was Britain^ then inhabited by the Jtire Coti, noA 
that Jbaru was of that nation. 



JihiiMoit^ of the ancient Irisli. 

SECT. 11. 

.Tke brigm of aftronomy h loft in the aliytt 
bF antiquity. We Icam frDrn fcripture that, id 
the very firft ^gei> ihen tliuft: have had (oTbi 
faicthdd of mcafurhig tinie. Odd told our firft 
parcQts, that the lights of the fit-miment ot 
heaven wert for figns, and fdi- ftafonsi and firf 
days, and for years. That the year, by obrer; 
Nations of the confteilations, vas divided iatd 
iiiotiths, is evident by the detail of ihe flood. 
The ark refted in the fe^ehth month. On thi 
fevcntecnth day of the month ; and in the tenth 
month, on the firft day of the month, were th(i 
tops of the moadtiuns feen. 

Yet there are amhors who are of opinion; that 
the antediluvians reckoned by lunai- months, and 
that the year conMed t^ 360 days, hftead ot 
365 days, 6 hours ; not confidering that, in ftf 
£uaU a fyitt as twenty years, the petiods of the 
feafdns would have bcciQ changed, by 5 days, 6 
hours, Multiplied by 20, cijual to 105 days. A 
^ery confiderable diange truly, which muit havd 
pat tbem on h method of ibeafuriag the true 
time. Bnt, a^ there is no feience which db^ 
peiids fo much on the length of time as aftro- 
nomy, it matt have beeb long before it arrived 
at any great petfeflioa. 

Whatever progreTs toAa had made in this 

fdeoc« before the delage, this, (ogether with 

2 a every 


342 itstronomy of the trkient Irish. 

every other monament of the arts and fdenccs, was 
fwept away from all maaktod, except Noah, aod 
a fiv of his dcfccndants. The cfieAs, which the 
confufioQ of tongues and the difperfioa of fami- 
Jics muil have produced, rendered the rctaaias 
of aftroDomical knowledge of littk ufc to the 
immediate defcendants of Noah, notwithftandiog 
the promife of God to Noah, ." that, while the 
earth remaioetb, reed-tiwc and harveft, and cold 
and beat, and fummer and winter, and day and 
night, {hall not ceafe." From wluch it is evi- 
dent, that the fcafons were not altered by the 

Ncccffity foon obliged the poftcrity of Noah to 
ftudy the conrfc of the ftars, of which we muft 
fuppofe they had feme knowledge before the- 
fiood. ' The operations of agriculture depended 
on the obfervations of the feafons. Orders in 
the affairs of civil fociety, and the dilUn Aion of the 
feafons deflined to religious folemnkies, intro- 
duced the divifioa of tunc into years, months, 

The Babylonians and Egyptians werg the &fl 
after the fiood, ia their Hull and oxiftancy in ob- 
ferving the motions of the heavenly bodies. .The 
way of lUe of the £r{l inhabitants of Chaldasa fa- 
voured the progrefs of this fcience. Tending 
their flocks was one of their chief employments ;. 
agriculture was praftifed by them in very early 
times. ■ Their coi^ntry confiftcd (for the moft 
part) 6f imoKnfe plains, covered with Cmds, 

Astronomy of the ancient Irish. 3*3 

driveQ about by the vinds, leaving no traces of 
.any road. The ftars became their ody guide on 
all joamies, which were generally performed in- 
the night tiiHe, to avoid the exceffive beat of the 

■ Hie Chaldasans have been efteemed, by all an- 
tiquity, the inventors of judicial aftrology. This 
tidiculcws ftudy obliged them to find out methods 
«F determioing Ae motions and afpefts of the 
ftars. So that <^onc«iy owes its greateft im- 
provcments to the horofcopes drawn by tbefe 
frivolous philofopfaerS} to read th? fetes of mcQ 
in ihc book of beaveit, 

And this muft have given the idea to the Jews, 
to al£gD the nature of men, according to the pHt' 
itei they were bom under. In Schab. fbl. 1 56, 
we read, that thofe, born under the fun, arc 
handfomc, generous, and open, conceding nor- 
thing ; under Venus^ rich and Ubidioous ; under 
Mercury, wife, and of good memory ; under the 
Mootii valetudinarians, and incooftast j under 
Saturn^ untapj^; iindcr yupitery juftj under 
Marst happy. 

■ Omni* per (iVro) fidera (fato divino) dc- 
creta funt, ut lint coram cis. Ecclef. vii. 16. 
aodix. I. (Buxtorf.) 

Chaldxi fcieatla ftcUaram periti omtiia aftn> 
rum motibus tribnebant, i quibus credcbant dif- 
pmfari mnadi potentias, quae conflajit ex numeric 
Forumqae proportioBibQ3< (I%ilo in libro de 



m Attrommy of ikt ancient Jvish, 

Iiiunediately ^cr the coafulkn of toDguei, ftn 
tbc dUpcdloD, wtuch W4S hi confeqiynce c^ (^ 
iutilding of the obfervator; »t Baby^loo, Go4 
prosiifes Abraham ti)at bi^ fec4 fliall be as nih- 
inerous as tbe (lars in heaven. And thus Ba- 
lauB} bjr God's expref^ orders, dedatcs, there is 
no enchantment againU Jacob^t dot any eUvioaiien 
againft Ifrael : foritheir divination was jii gcoerait 
^ the aifeSt of the coadeUatioDS ; whence the 
4i,vin»s ^e called Jiar-gasArs^ cbtid-aiongCTs, 
ic. &c 

Wiib, this afttonomical idcjy is Jofeph'$ drew^ 
(Gcnef. xxxvii.) conveyed by injagcs-c^ theyw;^ 
and. moQiK and dcveo c^dlakniy bowing dowi^ 
ta hitn (the wciftb) ; wluch the fcijptuie ex- 
plains, in the next Terfe, to £gnify h^ elevca 
b^e^hreq. Thefe conftellations, thus coupled 
^itb the iuo, atwl moon, can mean only the SigiO:, 
t^tbe Zodiaa^ ia vihole bounds, the ruo< acv) moon 
aic always^ fo^od ; aod. which 0gns, ^ well as. 
the W apd moon, haye been always, repvefented 
l^ living animals. Hence,, I think, we may con- 
clude, the fphere was known to Jofeph, tha^ is,, 
about 3[59S yei^ bcfi^rc ChrUl ; which agnes 
ivith Sir, WiEiang Jones's obfeirvaoons, oa the. lo-- 
dian zodiac, the knowledge of whidi^ he fays,, 
n^y be plainly tmc^ back at l»ft 3C!Q<^ K^avs. 
l]iiis 13- the opinio^ of Qebelin, the. Rev. Boftoc. 
Barrett, a^ ^vcral cdjjer learned. w^Sn 

Ja<;ob bade; bie 4nl<^i^[^ teaii^, ia the be«tk ^- 

keaven, what mull be the htc of them and tb^hi. 

' '■ ' - children. 


Aaeanomjf qfth€ saeient Iruh. S45 

•biidrea. '<* Itaquc hunc is modunt iat^igi pa> 
teft, quod in Jolepbi precatione a jacol^o didtur | 
legit in tabulis cqsli qu^ecumque acddcDt Tot»B et 
' filiis jrelbis, quioetiam compltcabitur quafi fiber.** 
(Origcn Comm. ia Gcncf,)* 

The Chaldsan fphere' is formed of literary 
charafters, called Cbeteb-ha-melachmt the wridng 
of angels ; and it is fiippofed by Ibme Rabbins, 
that the prophet Ifaiah (ch. xxxiv. t. 4.) points at 
this kind of writtea fcrolt ; *'Andthefae»pensflka]I 
be rolled together as a fcrdi ;" or, ratho*^ af 
the Hebrc\r would read, eomplieabuntur cali jtua 
}iber fuat. Pier. Valertanus, in his Egjptiaa 
Hieroglyphics, fpeakiag of the Rakia or heavens^ 
has thefe words ; " Ilia e^ctcnfio in modum peUis 
tanquatn Uteris iofcripta: lumioacibus, et ftdlisj 
dicitur Rakia ;" vhich, in Arabic and Irifb, i!g- 
Sf£es writing, 

The Egyptians marked the ^heres sod coorfea 
of the ftars by imvtlsi as may be ftei) ia Irenaeos. 
^nd Grotius. (Evaog. p. 3S0.) 

Jofe|&'s dream made great imprd£(»i on hU 
father and on hWcIf. (Get*, ^lii.) Jafob kca» 
to have had it always jo his mind, and to hav« 
delivered the pro^Jiecy oa the iates of h)3 hm^ 
VJth a view every where to it. Thus (Gen. xlix.), 
Reuben he compare tq vator. " Vr^abl^ 9» 
■ Tlie GhtldzKPE and du Bndumiu bad the Cmu idu5. 
T^ia lultaas believe tbat the fate of cvsiy infaoi; it wrineit 
ip its hciud by Brania ; and fonie Bijihmim aHert, that the 
aflioDS of meo are writteo in the flan, and anoosnced by 
their aff efU and morementt. 


34S jtstrmom/ of the ancient Irish, 

■vnxtx'i tbon Ihalt not excel.** And ve find in th* 

zodiac, an aquarias, wajiing Water. 

Vcrf. 4. SimeoD and Levi he couples togC? 
ther, obfenriog they arcbrethren, fimilitr to the 
Gemmi, or twin brothers j |^1T1D Matbiumia. 
TTie Sanfcrit name of Gemini, Mitbuna, moch 
refcmblcs this Chaldaean word. 
■ Verf. g, Judah is a lion: from the prey, my 
fon, thoQ art ^one up. 

' Verf. 14. Ifachar is probably Towrsj. The 
Vulgate triinfiates it a Jlreng afs^ but the Scptua- 
gint a ploaghman. Ibe afs was hameflcd to the 
plough, as we find io Ifaiah, xx.%. 34. Bores et 
afini terram colcntcs. (Vulg.) 

Verf. 1 6. Dan fliall be ttTt] tiabas,. a ferpent 
by the way, and |5^5V fefihipbeny an adder in the 
path, that biteth' the horfc's heels, and makelh 
him throw his rider. Here is Scerpiot placed 
beSdc SagtUarius riding on bis borfe. The lexi- 
conifts are at a lofs irom what root fepbipbon is 
derived: Bochart is clear it mczaX ferf em chiudm, 
which agrees well with the aukward motion of 
the fcorpion, but not with that of any of the fer- 
pent kind. The fcorpion has its fting always 
ereft, and would wound the horfe^s beds on being. 
trod 00. In the zodiac, the borfe's feet are in 
the a£t of treading on the tail of the fcorfHoa. 

Verf. 33. Jofeph is a fruitful bough: the archers 
have forely grieved him, and fliot at him: that is, 
Sagittarius. Jofeph is likened to Tirz^t with her 


AttTOrmiaf t^ the ancient iTiah. S4t 

ears of com: an elegant allegory of fai$ ch^fti^, 
^nd of his care over Egypt. 

Verf. 27. BcDJuliin fliall ravio as a wolf, Pror 
bably Capricomus, vhich oq t^e Egyptian zodiac 
is a goat> reprefcDted as led by I^, with a woIPs 
head. The wolf is one of the old forty-dght 
CcmflellatioDs, and fometimps gircQ to the cpn- 
taur, who is then called centqurm cum lupo, 

Verf. 21. Naphtali is a hiiuj ]et loofe. If 
ihould have been a ram^ playing oo the n^mc 
^^D tali, fignura cclcfte, Afies. (Bnxt.) 
• Verf. 13. Zebulan Ikall dwell at the haveq 
of the fea, and he Ihatl be for a haven for fiiips ; 
^m N2it 9ab9y teftudo. He vas compared to 
'Cancer, ^. njarine a^imaL 

This ki^owledge of ^ zodiac might have de» 
Jcended in the fanuly of Abr^baoia who ^weft iff 

Since thcfe ideas iirsre publilh^ in the Oritrh 
tal Colleaiom of Sir W. Onfely, the fubjeft ha» 
been treated with i^uich fup^or judgment an4 
abilities, by the Rpv. DoAor Banttt, of Trinity 
College, in hjs Enquiry into the Origin of the 
Ccmftcllations. . I beg leave to rder tbe reader. 
f9 that learned work. 



^Ittrvwrny •/ the amcuM Iriskx 

f)f ibe Ttfftru ef tbt Zodiac. 

Authors are at a great lofs, to what pcopTq 
to attribnte the ligiircs of animals, depi^ed oq 
ibe zodiac; not confidering, that the coaflclIaT 
lions may have been claffcd by odc nation under 
certain names, and the Bgures delineated by 
another, withoot refpcfl: to the fcafoos, Thi^ 
appears to me to l>e the faft. 

There is no climate on the globe where the 
conftellations will correfpond with the fcafonSj 
according to our ideas of them, or were they in- 
tended to correfirond. 

Abbe Piuche, perfHaded that the twelve figns 
fiad been known and ufcd in Egypt, knowing 
very well that »this arrangement docs not agree 
with the ftatc of the year in Egypt, where the 
barvejl is over long before the Virga appears, 
and that there fallsTpo rain during the figa Aquar 
riut being vlfible, and fp rf the reft, draws this 
conclufion ; that the Egyptians were not the ia- 
Tentors of the zodiac, but that they had bor- 
rowed it of an eaflern people, and that its in- 
Tcntion is of very great antiquity, .anl'erior to the 
iifperftm. The ftrae may be faidjjf the Baby- 
lonians, whofe country lies in the lame latitude 

. ■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

jtflfVmifH ^t^ aaciemt IritK 340 

ivith Egypt i yet it appan tliat the Chaldaban* 
were the authors of the celeflial chart. 

That the kiuivle<tge of the fphftre preceded 
tbe deluge, is the opimoa of many learned, 
writers. Confnlt Bruckcr, Hift. Crit. Phil. Tr. 
, VI- S^:> Maurice, iJift. Hiodoft. I. 304.} Bar-. 
rctt's £pq. iutQ the Qrigia of the Ccmftcllatioiis, 
p. 1 4.; HottiDger, Smegma Orient. p< 239. The 
Jews afcribe the difcovery of the twelve figns tq 
£noch, who was the reyepth liotp AdaOt ami 
9oeval with him. 

$ut all theie ^uthon gke no fattsfa&ory aoi 
fiCHUit of the <kpi^g the zodiac with aaimaf 

The Qreek fphere has been fuppo&d to hatu 
■ been invented by Chiron ; and Mu/aWi f o of 
the Argonauts, who, it is laid, delineated the ex- 
peditioQ, under the name Arga, amongd the 
afterifm;. But, as Mr. Richaciiion jo^Uy oI> 
ferves,*" this feems to be a fuadamental crfpr» 
into which Sir Ifaac Newton has fallen, even iq 
his own line. Canopm, the chief ftar of Argo^ 
is only 37 degrees firom the fouth pole: the 
greateft part of the conftellalion is ftill nearer to 
it. The courfe of the fuppofed voyage, froQi 
Greece to Colchis, lies between 39 and 45 dc-. 
grecs of north- latitude. A few only of the 
ieffer ftars can poiEbly be (een In the whole 
track ; whilft thofc of the firfl: magnitude, an^ 
V'luch alone are defcrviog Dottce in every allro- 
^.Diflen. on Orient. Laagoagei, p. 83. 

5SO jtstrvwmyof the ancient Irish. 

flooical obfcFration, at-e, ia thofe :|)artc> totatif 

Had Uiis ^Ivcre beea conflru^d by the At< 
gpoaati, and bad they wHhed to codimeBiorate 
the eoterprize, by pUi^iog the Jhip atilongft the 
ftan, they would certaiDly have chi^CD a conftel- 
btkn which was coafpicuous to Greece, and not 
our, the yifibla ftars of which were too minute to 
attrafl the att<Aitioa, or to be of the leaft iifc in 
die direftjon of thetf navigation. 

But ^rgo was viiibic to the Indo-Scytha>, or 
Airc>C<Hi, wheQ feated in Liff^rieot between the 
ladtu and Ganges ; the people who, I fhaU 
frove, deluded the zodiac; who, acavding tq 
Piooylias P., 

c ■ Shewed a patfi tljrough feas iinkopwo } 
And, when doubt reign'd, and dark uncertainty, 
Tiity rendered life more certain. Tbey firft viewe4 
T)K Aatry light), wA formtd them into fihtma. 

** Coeli autcm rcgio auftr^Iis ipfra hari?ontcnt 
depritnitur, et ijivcrfam fidcrpm formam exhibct j 
ila at Djodorps Samlns de Jndis narrat, qui, cutq 
ad Limyricen navigant, Taurut^ in inedio CDeIo» 
ct Pleiades ad ^ptenn^s m.edia habept ; qui ven; 
ad Jzanifim navigant, act flcUaq) Canobum, qusB 
ibi equtu djcitur, cnrfum dirigupt, ^tqoe inter c^ 
Apriciut refonat, aliaqu^ ipulta hujus qipd^ 
qarrat.'' (Mofes Choren. Geogr. p. 336.) 

The Chaldseans made tife of their atphabcticaf 
(Jiaiaftcrs fo rcprefcnt the ?Qnftcllatipns. To 


Aitrowmyof the MtcUnt Irish. _^ >51 

each letter they afligned a certam aumber of 
fmall circles they denomioated liars : thus, H had 
four ftars, bse ia each aagle ; i had one^ in the ' 
left hand corner of the upper ftroke j n, which 
was then in the form of an anchtH* reverfed, 
had two, one in the left hand fiook, and one ia 
the bottom of the peipcodicular ftrdce. l'he~ 
word ma TRAi thus written, formed this 
^K^^^t . • * • : anfwering to the conllellatioa 
Vr/a^ or the bear. The word, read from right. 
to left, according to the Hebrew and Chaldasad 
method, will be pronounced ART, which, I pre- 
fnise, was the name of the c<»if):elUtion with the 
Babylonians ; but, when the Indo-Scythse cune 
to cpnfider the celeflial globe thus written, 
the word ART fignifyiog a bear (as it does in 
Irilh), they named the conftellatioa the bear, and 
depicted it on theu- zodiac accoi^gly; and 
hence, xbc bear with a long tail. 
, ** Les figures d'hommes et d'animaux que' les 
anciens ont a^gn^ aux conftelUtions, pour dillin. 
gucr les divers groupes d'ctmlcs qui fe remarqoent 
dans le del, n'ont, comme I'ou f;ait, aucua 
rapport avcc la configuration refpeftivc de ccs 
etoiles : elles aident h memoirs." (Rouelle, 

Monlieur Rouelle would have al£gncd another 
caufe, had he been acquainted with the Irilh 

Again, the letter h having four ftars, as at< 

feady explained, and the letter v three, one ii^ 



Ssi Astronomy of the mcunf frish. 

eadi of the oppcr prants, form the pidtijlrwii, 
thus, VH . • • I : reading froin right to Icftj 
&At or HSA, and this *as uddoubtedl^ the 
name of the conftcllation; bat as^ or aii, m 
Irifli, figoifies a vaggoa, inlne, or cart^ 

The laft (tar in the plfttiftHint, in the left 
hand point of ip, is called by the Irifii N*iatbtti 
from the iiegatiTti ne, and the vcih iat&am, td 
ftun, Jigdifylng that vhlch ttims oot; bccdnfiif 
this ftar is fo near the polt, its revolation is 
fcarcety difcetnible, and for this reafoii it is called 
the polar lUi*. Buxtorf £iys, the ChaldseanS' 
c:JIed it KFTP iotBa, but gives no dtmation, cat 
further explanation, tt Is probable 'the Chal^ 
dxsas borrowed the name frotn our Indo* • 
Scythians, with whom thty had mnch connec- 
tion when they were tinitcd with the Tbatba- 
Dedans, and the negatire has been omitted;* 
But it is very extraordinary, that the Iroqabu of 
North America name this fiar iatt mufitinfiSy or 
thai which tttnu not (Lafitau). The Arabs call 
it i^J^Jtidi, or the nlthiiatc liar; whencd' 
the Wlh ftwdS, the north pole. 

Tlje cooftellation of the buH is formed bj- the' 
Chaldean celeftial djaraftcrs 3-»*n BttAT, 
which, bdng read from right to left, form &X 
Word TARB, which in Irilli fignifies A bulU 
And, having given tliis name to the confteUatlon,' 
■ the idea of reprefenting a domeftic rural fcetae 
naturally occurred to our Indo^eytha f and»' 

jiibvnonof oj tHe ancient liisk. 353 

there being claften of ftars in and about tliti 
figure, the idea was purfued. Between the let- 
ters i and M is a duller, called by the Irifli ElD, 
^tch %nifies yeung cattle. At a dUlancc above 
» is another clufter of five ftars, furroamSng ooe 
of greater magnitude. A better device for fiich 
a fbrmed duller ccnald not have been taktn, thxtt 
that aiz bm and chic^ns, and this is the name 
oftltatdufterinlrifli, viz. CEARC-EIN, -proi 
aoanced Carc-e'm, hen aod chickens. Of thefe 
the Greeks formed their Hyades and Pkiadc*. 
But 'we have other aathority for the Bcythian 
name trf" this duller. " Qnidam Tahaudiftaf 
dicnnt ; Scythx et AretMi antiquitos J'leiades 
Tocabant Cerdnat, ficut Latini VerpBas et Pull* 
dnellas^ Rurftts locDm'geQcratioDis et patriani 
l*Idadum TCtnflo vocabnlo Cerdtms Mauri vo- 
Cant, ut Diodorus m 410 Ebro." (J. Annius^ dc 
Atitiq. Etruriae, p. 349O 

*• The Indians, laoght no doubt by out fncto* 
Scyths, caB this dtiller PHlalau-axH, and Car- 
tigiey, fignifyhig the hen and diickcns." (Table* 
Aftr. da P. da Chxmp^— Afircni. Indicnne par 
Bailly. Difc. Prel. 

The Arabs name this cfafter Wssfw, ftrnticJof 
AieveAnaxama, i.e. wit fitta fiat galBna-; but 
Ibme think, by this name, they mean the bttfft 
tye, others die PAtofri (GcfiMj. They are 
ffleotioned by the author of the book of Job, 
xxxviii. 3. Et galihut fuftr p-ailoi Jhot, t. e. 
Pleiadej (Bnxtorf). Tlie modem Irilh have 


is* Astnmn^ nf the tmetetU Irisk. 

taanj names for tjiis clufler, as Trillin, the 
twioklcrs, &c. &c. 

The \nad Zodiac is not of Grecian origin^ but 
reverts aifo to the language of oar lodo-Scytfase. 
In Irilh} fadbac figntfies an eclipfe of the fan» 
Stom/edhi dark, obfcare ; and the fodbac or zo- 
diac was {o named, bccaBfff they obferred that 
' the fuD^ is always eclipfed >□ that line. Another 
name for the zodiac in Irifli is crios'griain, from 
sritu, an eclipfe, obfcure, and grian, the fun. 
Sel-crioif an eclijtfc of the fun. Arab, karz, fe 
abfcoodit, inde erij Lufitanis ecUplis folis vel 
lunse. (Golius.) 

The gcDcral name, in Irilh, for the figns of the 
zodiac, is cgmb-ardba, that is, the manfiont tftbs 
mtUaCi or of the figos. Mafoudi^ an Arabian 
author, informs us, that ^db in Arabic fignifiea 
the zodiac, and ki^m a manfitm or dwelling. 
Talla-griain, the halls, palaces, or manHons of 
the fun, is another Irifh name, fynonimous to 
comb-ardba; and Mt^oudi informs us, that the 
andent 'Arabs named the zodiac tbady and the 
modera Arabs call it burja a/umanj the houfes or 
fiations of the fun or heavens. 

•* The Hindu zodiac,*' fays Sir W, Jones, 
** was inTentcd befiDre the difpcrfion, by the fiift 
progenitors of that race. It was not borrtwed 
from Arabs or Greeks ; and, fincc the folar divi- 
fion of it in India is the fame in fubftance with 
that ufcd in Greece, we may reafonably con- 
clude," lays he, " that both Greeks and Hin- 


Aitranomy of the ancient Irish. 355 

doos received it from an older nation, who &ft 
gave names to the luminaries of heaven, and from 
whom both Greeks and Hindoos, as their fimi- 
larity in language and religion evinces, had a 
common defccnt." 

From the fafts here flated, I conclude, that 
the Chaldieans fird grouped and claficd the cob- 
ftellations (as Sir William Jones fays in another 
place) ; and that the Scythians, or rather the 
Indo-Scyths, dcpiAed the figns from Chaldseui 
words or letters, tranQated into their own laa- 
guage } for I know no other, wherein Art Hgm- 
fies a bear, and Jjb a wane, &c. &c. 

The reader is left to judge if fo -many cma- 
cidcnccs could be the work of chance. I there- 
fore conclude, with Dioayfius, that the Ind(>< 
Scyths (from whom I draw the ancient inha- 
bitants of the Britifh ifles) " jirji viewed the 
jlarry ligitty and formed them into fcbemei.** 


The Celeftial Aipbabet. 

The Chaldseans muH have had fome means of 
expreffing the conftellations on the ccleflial chart. 
This, we are are told by Rabhi Chomeri was by 
.the alphabet with ftars on the fcveral ports of 
the alphabetic chara£lers, which he calls- the cc- * 
leftiat alphabet^ Each charafter had ascertain 
A a fixed 

35fi Astroiwniy of the ancient Irish. 

fixed number of flan, in various dircAions, 
which were placed Co as to form tht; prindpStl 
ftan of the coDdcIIation. The Rabbi has like- 
■adfc given a cclcftial chart of each hemiiphcre, 
thas marked. They have been' copied by Kfr- 
dier, by BoilaVcnturus Hcpburnns, a Scotchman, 
by' P. GafiricI, in his Curiojilex inouyei ; each 
pretending to correct the otho*, till they have 
rendered the grcateft part a mafs of coirfufioa; 
but, in all, ART and ASH, or the great bear 
afid the wane, ftaiid in their proper places'. 

.Duret and Atobrofiiis have alfo given us fcvc- 
ral alphabets, the bafis of thcfe charts, under the 
'tides of cileftiat charafters, angeDc characters, 
" the alphabet of Solomon, the alphabet of Abra- 
'haiid, &c. ; all which are engraved In FI.IX. of 
the' fifth volume of niy Colleflanca, to which I 
' beg leave to refer for the prcfcnt, as wc (hall 
have occaCon to treat again of them in the courfe 
S)i this work. 

Thefe charaflcrs were, and are ftill ufed as 
nomerals, and were certainly fo ufed by the 
Brahmins, as appears by the tranflation of a San- 
fcrit verfe by. Sir "W. Jones, in his difcourfe on 
the antiquity of the iDdtan zodiac, viz. 

3»3?6i 5.3.M 4,3.5i 5.».«; S.^.'r 
i,4.3> "V4.3* 3»4» »oo; 2. a. 3»' 

** Thus have the ftars of the lunar conftdll- 
,tioiis, in order as they appear, been Dumbered 
by the wife." 



Astmnamy. of the ancient Irish. 3i7 

. Aod to, aootber place Sir WillUm Jones tells 
us, tiiat tb&Htadoos have a facred alphabet j th^ 
chani£ters compoliDg which are believed to b^vq 
been tau^ to the Brabnuns by a voice from 

" Les-IadtcQS difent, que la vie dc I'bomm^ 
eft Petite d'avance.dans la t€te de chaqueen&nt 
par Biama; d'une autre c6td, ils difcQt, que !es 
' anions des honunes foot ecrites dans Ics aftres, et 
auDonc^cs [u^- les ipouvemeos, - et les. aTpc^-dc; 
CCS aftrcs." (BmU^, p. 71.) Origan was not, 
free from this fupcrftitioo ; he declares, ** that 
hcavcD is a book filled witb characters.; the ftars 
fo maoy^figns, wbich denote the fate of taca and 
of kingdoms: to read them is above the ordinary 
capacity of men j they may attain it, and Ibme- 
timcs do." 

That thefe chara£l:ers, ufed as numeral^, ^ave 
given names to Cycles, and Cyclic deities, will be 
fliewn immediately. 

Cornelius Agrippa mentions thcfc cclcftial cha- 
ra£tcn in his book De occulta phihfi^ia. Marfiliiu 
Ficiaus gives Zoroaftres the honor of. the invent 
lion. '* Habuerunt emm Zoroaftres cjufquc 
lacerdotes peculiarem qnandam fcribendi rationeni 
a vulgari difierentem: ipfe autem Zoroaftres earn 
inftituit, - et formavit literas cum cbaraAeribus 
cceleftibus figaorum et ftellarum, 4 quo poftr 
modum iuftruAus Mercurius Trifinegiftus cant 
tradidit ^gyptiis." (In Plat, Philoph. c 29.) 

A a 2 We 


iSS Astronomy of the andent Irish. 

Wc have repeatedly fliewo, that the Irifli and 
Chaldasans named each letter of the alphabet 
after fomc tree. The Sabtednt, and doubtlefs the 
Chalda-ans, dedicated each fpecies o£ trees to 
ccrtuD ftars, planting them in thrir name^ and 
pretending that they partook of their virtnes, 
and did difconrfc with men in their flccp. (Sec 
RaK Mafc. in Moreh, and Pocock, Hift. AraK 
p. 139O From the Chaldee ^nv /atal, a plan- 
tation of trees dedicated to the ccmllcllations, 
comes the Latin _^e/^y a ftar ; in dd French, 
qflejle, and e^elle^ » plantation j whence efioiUf 
and now eioifet a ftar. 

Stellay cujus varie torquetnr etjnnon (Ainf- 
worth). The conllellations, thus written, were 
named the book of heaven; the "Semjier, the 
meriting; and hence the Perfian pj^:^ _fiiafeb, 
and the Englilh ^ar. ' 

■ Tbe oUeft diTcarmble Uoguages of FerGa were Cital- 
d^c and S^Dicrit [Sir Wm. Jones). This is one of the 
llrongefl arguroents in ferour of 911^ aflertion, that the Jrifli 
irerc of the Scythian race, for the Perfians were orlg^ntlly 
Scjthijns; and hence the great affinity between the Irifh. 
and the ChalUaic and Sanfctit. Bocbart aJfo alTerts, that 
the langHi^: of Colchis was femi-Chaldaic. 


Astrotumy o/.ihe ancieat. Irish. 3SS 


. Before we pocccd (» this fiibjed, it is ne- 
ceflary the reader (hould be acqiuunted with the 
Cbaldfeaa and Greek numerals, that is> the nu- 
meration of the Chaldxan and Greek alphabet. 

- R 

- ^. 

• 3 • 

- .1 

- -4 - 

- n 

!■ 5 - 

- 1 

. 6 • 

- 1 

' 1 - 

. n 

- 8 - 

- e 

- 9 - 

• lO • 

• 3 

- 30 - 

- h 

- 3« - 

. a 

.40 . 

- i 

.50 . 


■ 60 . 

- s 

. 70 - 

« e 

. 80 - 

• ». 

- 90 . 

- P 

100 - 

. n 

3O0 - 

- m 

309 ■ .- 

- n 

400 - 

I ■ 10 

K - 20 

A - 30 

M - 40 

N - 50 

S - 60 

^ 90» 
0.<4 9» 

p loe 

£ 2t30 

T 300 

T 400 

♦ 500 

X. Coo 

T 700 

#60 Astronomy t^ tlie ancient Irish, 

And beyond this nombcr they muft have re- 
peated fome of the charaAcrs, till they invented 
others, to which they did not give new names, 
but, adhering to the old ones, they made them 
final letters of the fatie alphabet. For ezamfde : 

"] was called the fintl 3 or eafh, tad Hood for 500 
O the final. D or mm, and Hood for - • 600 
- I the final i nun, and flood for . • • 700 
r[ the final S^, sad flood for - • - 800 
X the final r tauie, and flood for • - • 900 

To ezprds a thoufand, they recommenced with 
M, placing two points over it, M< io .ftood for 
2000, and fo on ; and this continues to be the 
Jewilh mode of numbering to this day. 

** The vcftiges of a primordial language," 
fays Mr. Maurice, " in every dialed of the an- 
cient world, are clearly traced in jhe elaborate 
work of Court de Gebdin; and though Sir 
William Jones, in one of ^s diflertations, fcems 
to doubt the exiftence of the remuns of this uni- 
verfal language, yet, in various preceding eflays, 
that great lingaift unequivocally ajfcntcd to the 
prevalence of one primiti^ tongue throughout 
the early branches of the Noachic femily } rcfin^- 
ring even the fublime inventicm of letters, and 
the origin of aflronomy itfelf ; m vhich fcience, 
it appears extremely probable, fbe celeftial aftt' 
Ttfmt were Jirji 4efiffi^ed, by the letters cf the 
alphabet^ to the children if Ham in Chaldaa." 
(Ind. Antiq. Vol. VII. p. 57a,) 


Astronomy of the ancient Irish. 86 1 

GebeliQ thinks that numerals followed Utters^ 
the original ourobcr of which he confines to 
fixtecD; the Eaflerllngs, finding thefe iofuffi* 
cient for Dumeration, added fix others ; and 
the Arabs, not finding twenty-two fufficient, 
added fix more, in all twenty-eight, for the 
greater convenience of calculatioo. 

It is plain this was not the cafe; for, if the ai- 
gina] number had been fixteen, thej^ woald have ' 
invented new names for thefc cumerals up to 
900 ; whereas fix of thefc arc only duplicates, 
bearing die fame name, but dieting in ^ore. 

I am of opinion, ^th the ingenious Mr. Aftle, 
that numerali were the parents nf ktUrSi '*- 

The Egyptian name of the Stm is «ra, imts, 
' in numerical dnraders, becaufe fo raany rerolu* 
tions made up a period (called the Phen'tx), 
which Martianus Capella, in his the iaxL, 
tells us was exprefled in three letters, making up 
the number 608. ' 

Salve Tcra Deum faciei, vultufque pateme 
O€to et Jexcemit oumeru, cui liten tnna 
Confermat Jacram pomea. cogootaea ct omen. 
(De Nuptiii PhtlolofpE, p. 43 ) 

From the Egyptian namerals, 

•. Ph - - JOO 
p. R - - loo 

H. E .. - 8 


From the Hindooftanee, phiray cycle, revolution. 

k See CoIleOaiica, Vol V. 


362 AstroHowy of the aricienl IrUK. 

Hence the Greeks, from their own numcrah* 
formed the enigmatical name of the Sun, rm:. rU 
Bacchus, Sol, (Hefych.) 

Bafinage is of oi»nioa, that the Jews and Chal- 
daeans borrowed their mode of numbering from 
the Egyptians. " They foood," lays he, " the 
nombcr 365 in the name of the river Nile." 
This is a great miftake : the name of the Nile, 
in Egyptian, is Ameiri^ i. e. color cferuleiis, and 
yard, t. c. Jiuviux ; and in the .fcriptures it is 
called nM^ iar (Woidc).- 

Neilot, in Egyptian, iigiiified a year, alTo (he 

Jitn i betfauTe the numerals, takea fVdm tUe Egyp- 

nan alphabet, fOTnuDg that word, make up the 

. number 365, the number of days of the fun's 

apparent revolutitm round the earth. ' 


The Greeks miftook; and thought they wor- 
shipped the river Kile. Dies j 65 ; ^gyptios banc 


Astronojitj/ of the ancient Irish. rses 

aotti quantitatem Voce mafr iadicaflc; Heliodor. 
1. 9. (Eulbthius). Nihil iEgyptits tanto erat in 
honore, tamquc rcligiofc colebatur atquc Nilus. 
(Ariftidcs Rhct.) 

In like manner, the numerals in Lq^oe made 
up 1825 days, or five years, which was one of 
the Egyptian cycles ; and hence the Irilh Lofca, 
vhence the Latin Li0rum. 

I. - - 30 

O . ' - Sob 

S - . 90< 

K - - ao 

O - - 70 

E - > 5 • 

1815 dayi, or 5 yeui. 

And the fifth year confiftcd of 366 days, ot 
. lather the fourth ; for they added one day be- 
twcen. the end of the fourth year and the begin- 
ning of the fifth, which method Eudoxus brought 
vith him &om Egypt to Greece. 

They worfliipped the mOon under the form of 
a catf becaufe the numerals made up 30. 

K ■ ■ xo 

A . - I 

T - - 9 

And the lunar year they called Lehnes, becaufe 
the nnmeials made ijp 360. 

L 30 


Asti-onamy of the. ancient Irish, 


Lehntii, io the Egyptian language, fignificd a 
bowl. The Egyptian- pricfts impofcd much on 
the Greeks, and concealed their knowledge un- 
der puerile erafions, which were greedily fwal- 
lowed by the wifcft of the Greek traTellers.' 
DiodOTUS Siculus tells us very gravely, that, in 
the temple of Ofiritf Ae priefts appointed thereto 
filled 560 bowU every day with milk, to jnreferve 
in memory the number of days in a lurtffr year. 
** I think," fays Sir Ifaac Newton, ** he means 
one bowl every day, in all 360, to count the 
number of days in the calendar yqir, and thereby 
to find out the dtSerence between this and the 
true folar year, to the end of which they added 
five days; and the Ifraelites brought this year 
out of Egypt." Sir Ifaac did not know that 
Neilos was their fdar year, in numerals. 


1 Le fecret, que lt> prttrts Egyptieai £toient 6ui% I'habi- 
tude d'obferver, Im cagageoU d'ailleun a repondre avec 
obfcuriti anx que&ioiu dea edraDgers, et ceux-d reDdjrenc 
a leur maniere ce qu'i]i crojoieot avoir entendn. (Cajios, 
Ant. £g]ipt. Vol. III. p. II. ' . . - 


A.\lronBm}i of the ancient Ii:ish, 165 

So Miihrak m the Chaldaic, and Mitbrat- in. 
the Greek, arc only names made up of nuinerals, 
formed from Mitbr, a cycle. (Sec Cycles, 

M n 

+o -- 

■ M 

- 40 

E n 

, 5 - 

- E 

- 5 

I 1 

10 i 

-■ I 

- lO 

TH o 

9 • 

• e 

- 9 

R 1 

200 - 

. p 

- iOD 

A H 

I . 

. A 


K p 

lOO . 

- Z 

- JOO 



The Greeks were obliged to alter two IctttTB, 
to make out the number in their numerals. 

And the furname Sabafius, in the monuments 
of Mitbras J vhich has fo much exerdfed anti- 
quaries, is DO more than a repetition of the £une 
number, in other tetters, from the Ch. 'y^Dfabb^ 
circuire ; nzajibdj a revolution. (See No. 34.) 

B 3 

A K 

S D 


And this qiithct vas given to Jupiter and to 
Baodms, figiiifyiag only a periodical deity. But 
M31D SAe, in Cbaldaic, ligiiifies ebritu, pvtator, 


Sb$ Astrmemy of the ancient Irish. 

from M3D fabat ingurptare /e; and* hence the 
Grades thought SsCai meant to drink, and ^aSa^t^ 
became the name xtf Bacchus. (Thomailin. p. 639.) 
Boolangcr properly obfervcs, that the name -Bao> 
chos (nigioated with the Scythians, in whofe Ian. 
■gaagebaceam is to cry, to howi^ and hence thdr 
howling orgies. 

The 10 £ABBO£ of the Greeks was no more 
than the numerals of the lunar year, altered froco, 
Sabafa, wth the ejaculation 10, viz. 



When the fuppllant was initiated into the 
myfteries of Sabq/ius, a ferpent^ the fymbol of 
revolution, was thrown on his breaft (Boulanger). 
The early hiftories of the mod: ancient nations 
are notbiog more than the hidory of the revolu- 
tions of the fun, moon, and planets. (Sir W. - 
Jones, Chron. Hind.) 

St. Jerom exprefsly fays that, by ABRAXAS, 

the BaiiiidiaDS meant the Almighty God-y but k 

vas:only a name of tlie SUN, from the letters ia. 

aumcrals making. up' the Dumber of , <^ys^ 



AstroTvymr/ of the ancient Ipishi 


fun's courfe. '' Bafilides, qui omnipotcntem Dcom 
ponentofo nomine appellat Abraxas^ et cuodem 
feciindam Grjecas literas, et annui curfus nnme- 
rum, dicit in circulo contineri, quern cthnici fub 
codem numcro aliarum litcrarum vocant MITH- 
RAM. Si myfticam numeromm rationem adhi- 
. beamns in ABRAXAS, proveniet inde numerus 
diemm communis anni." (£1. Schedtus, p. loi.) 
** Ahraxam eundem cffc cum Mitbra feu fole." 
(D. Hieronynl. in coram, ad Amos.) 



The ChaldEcans wrote Abrakas, -but, the ' Greek 
numerais oot correfponding, they changed the 
word to Abraxas, as they did Milbrak to 

Belt ifl ite Aflyrian dialeft, was called Pa/, or 
Pol, and, with the prefix sn ep' for -^SH epak^ 
vcttciCt rcverti, formed Eppollot whence the 
Apollo of the Romans. Bflenut m the fame 

»> CUJ. 


■AstrvoMHy of the anient Irisk^ 






B 3 

- a 

B z 



E n 

- 8 

- H 8 

Pb - 


L ^ 

- 80 

- A 30 



E n 

• S 

- E 5 



N J 


- N JO 

Li - 



■ 7» 




S » 






yanes, the Janus of the Roman's, whole haads 
were marked by the Greeks with tee, aAd 
Erkeles^ corruptly written ERAKtES ; " Aftris 
amifte, rex ignis, priaceps muudi, SOL," (Giooj- 
liacoo. L. XL.); all are names 'made dp in the 
feme myftical manner, and evidently all are of 
Chaldsean origin. 


10 - 

- T 300 


SO - 

- s 60 

£ n 

S - 

■ ^ 1 

S m 





Jstronemy e/the ancient Iriih. 

Cycles ef the Irijb Philofopbers. 

We have (hewn bcftirc^ from the authority of 
Mr. Smith, that he had fecn a poor ipaD to. 
KcTTf, that could oot read £nglt{fa, able to cal- 
culate the Epafls, Golden number, Domiaical 
'letter, Moon's phafcs and cclipfcs (fee p. 313). 
And I met a mountaineer peafant, that could not 
fpeak Englifh, who pointed, out to me the con- 
llcllation of Qrion, hy the name of CaomMy the 
no3 Cimab of Job. 

It is therefore evident, that aftronomy had 
been a favourite fctenc'e with the old Iri{h ; and 
by the terms it is as evident, that the Tuatha 
Dedan colony were Chaldaans^ and imported the 
Chaldiean terms with them. It is, Jn my opi< 
nion, one of the llrongeft proofs, that the ancient 
hiftory of Ireland is grounded on truth. . 

The fmalleft cycle of the Hibernian adrono. 
mers, was that of the apparent daily revolution of 
the fun, reckoning from fun-fet to fun-fet. 

This they named lilai, from Uladh, to turn 
round, to turn any way ; as, go ros lil, from the 
beginning of that turn or day, from thence for- 
ward ; , ro Hi ait-for-ainm dbe, they ttii-ned his 
name, i. e. they gave him a nickname j lUam, I 
purfacd clofely, through turnings and windings, 
round about. 


n,gn,-PrihyGt)Q^lt: ■ 

370 Atttmamy of the andetU ZruA. 

Lilai was at length conuptod . to la, ti, iavt, 
the aftroiKHiucal name of a <£t)r; phir. lavitui and 
laeth', -whence the Greek, genetb-Jien, a birth- 
day, and the iEthiopic latbatb, days, as in amo' 
tbatb loa latbatb, aoni ct dies. (Scalig. Emend, 
temp, p, 334.) 

By the compound la-/aera, the vigil of a holy- 
day^ it is plain that by Ja they formerly under- 
ftood the evening or night, for vigils were kept 
in the night. La-fmora now fignifies a holy-day ^ 
. but bye la/efeehtmhain, from this night a week, 
and hy /eacbt-mbaiRi a week, or fevca evenings, 
the fcnfe is better explained; ior main comes 
from the Chaldaic Nnan minba, oblatio, munus : 
eft etiam minba tempus vcTpertinum, olim &cri- 
flciis. et [H:ccibus dicatum. (Buxtorf.) 

iVoin, the fetting fun, is alfo ufcd, or rather 
mifufed like h\ naei itena, nine days ; noin realt, 
the eveaing ftar, Venus. Ar. ^ noun, occa- 
fus liderig, foils. (Gol.) 

The Hebrew lexiconifts derive ^I'j- /</, the 
night, (Ar. (J^aJ ///,) from "jV lal, to turn round, 
one turn of the globe. The root, fays Park- 
hurft, occurs not as a verb, but the idea is evi- 
dently to wind, to turn, or move round, or out 
of a rectilinear courfe ; Xphencc Q"''?^^ UUm, 
winding ftairs; fo the LXX. f^wm and Vulg. 
cecbleam. (1 Kings, vi. 8.)^— Punico Maltefe, 
iaille, night (Agius). Irifli, idailUt night, cor- 
rupted from /■ laiiU (Lhwyd), 



Attrvtioa^ qftke anciail Irish. 371 

Thi; fpace between fua-rife and fmi-fct, the 
Iriflt tcamci ai^ii bbour, da;^ ; ^eooe as iugbt 
Ms da/, iham Cb. VJ'> ;^«» laborare $ Ar.' 4ji 
jtAb^ tbe db}r. 

ijbrjj, dut dae^ Jia, tbe day ; words bctdkoa- 
ing labour, light. Gr. <^m labor j CL mi iJtiabf 
finigaed whh laboiir, languidue. Bat the IHIh 
afirDQDtncrs aad poets Ufe a Tevaricat^ exprei^ 
fion for & -dK)r,.vtz. faig^, en* /aic-^iula, a turn of 
die faoriiooii, &»ii (the Ar. v^U I •^'t» the bori- 
zco ; iioeticaUf, a day, at the end of which maa 
laid himfoKJomn, raicbe, i.e. to reft; and faeooe 
nst^t, the aight; Mi>f nW) oljuiRwrui, noK laborum 
reqoies. Gh. nna nauch^ reft, from nns naebM^ 
quiefoere, to ceafe from laboor. 

Tfac IrHh rg^bt, night, aod the Hindooftanee 
ratebj have the tame derivation, from die Chal- 
deic vn x^<t, quicfcere. ^, in Irifh, die night, 
is ptopcAj exprdTod, ifignifyiog fun-fetj it is 
irfed tgr Mofes, joined with -the word iim: tQ 
vavn the fuii was :goBe. 

But die Jciih bbeo, day, mr an bbeofot on diis 
day, moft origioaily hanc meant the ot^t, and 
was boiToaFed £rom the £gfptian pboii, tranfiaJtsd 
day ; but the Egyptians began their day at nwf. 
luji&f, from vhoah, it is faid, Hippootatcs uitro- 
doBcd that «rzy of 'reckoning into a/traaamy, and 
CcpemicBs and others followed him. This me- 
tlwd fiDnnsdy firevatlod aU overiEurope. The 
Numidians of Africa did ihc^ &me. (Bochart, 
B b Vol. I. 


3l2 yhtronoiitif of (he ancient Irish. 

Vol, I. p. 1184.) And in federal parts of Ger- 
many they (tin begin their days at fun-fetting^ 
&Qd- reckon on tjll it fets again. Spatia omma 
non numeri dicrum fed noAium definiunt (Cselar 
de GalHs). Natt, nc»c, dies emlie % Soevo-Goth. 
(Ihre.> 1 

■ The'. Jews' alfo began thcrr Nydbthemeron at 
ftm-fetting, and they divided it into twice twelve 
faoarsj as we do, reckoning twelve - for the- day, 
and twelve for the night ; fo that, their hours 
contiDually varymg with the fetting of the.itui, 
the hours of the day were loager than thofe of 
the night for one half year, and the contrary the 
Other J from whence their hours are called ^tf/n- 
porary : thofe at the time of the Eqainoxcs be* 
came eqtial, beaaofe then t^ofe of the day and 
night arc f*. ■ 

And God called tHe day QT" yom (the bnftler^ 
the- time of arflipn and labour), aod the darkaef9 
he called nV? Itia. And there was cTcning, 
and there was morniDg, 00 die firft day. (Gen- 
K 3.)' Hence /im, m Irifl), Signifies adion, mo*, 
tjon. . From raidh^ moiioa, comes hm-raidb, to, 
put in motion. Lan, lull; iomlanadbt the ac* 
tion of filKog,'&c. 

The evening and the morning made up the 
ilay. Hence, when we would cxprefs fourteen 
days, we fay a fortnight ; and the Idlb for a fort- 
ni^it clearly proves la is the night, as id ceatbar 
la dia^f fourteen nights, a fortnight. 



Asironomy of the ancient'IrisA. 373 

The Cbinefc begia their day at midnight, be- , 
caufe, they fay, the Chaos was unfolded at that 
hour, which fhews they had fome koowledge of 
the facred writings ; and Hefiod fays, that Chaos 
was the foa of Erebus and Night. 

Of ibe greater Cycles if the Irifh PUhfophers. 

• . 1. BAfe, a cycle, revolution, a month ; whence 
Gion-ia'f, or don-var, January; Faoi-bhar, ¥c- 
bruary. Hence Septem-ber, Ofto-bcr, Sic; and 
this is probably the Hindoo waft a day, Cgnify- 
Ing 2 day from hban-war, a revolution ; •warna^ 
tQ revolver phira, cyCle, devolution. See 4rh, 
p. 361, Cytles. -Hind. Efwara^ the cyclic Ifa^ 
the moon, in Irilh fu/. TXmA, bar, time, vicif- 
fitiide ; bar-baree, alternately. " Ch. h^D haroy ■ 
renovare, applied to the revolution of the moon. 
The Hebrew wbl-d 13 bar, to create, alfo to re- 
new, to form anew, though pre-exiftcnt matter, 
being ufed by. Mofes, "In'' the beginning the 
Aleim (i^"i3 bara) created,'" gave the Brahmins 
the idea of magnifying the po'wers of their god 
Brahm, by aflertiBg that he renewed 'X\\t'7ior\di 
at certain periods. They believe that the uni^ 
verfe cannot lall longer than feventy yoogs, Which 
when completed, Brahm does not only annihilate 
the whole univecfe, but even every thing dfe, as 
well as angels, fo^lls, fpirits, and infernal creatures. 
Then he reqiains in the fame ftate he was in 
■ ■ ■ ' B b 2 ■■ - before 

3l* Astronomjt of tie ancient Irish. 

before (he oeation; "bnA they iay that,, ificflic 
ku a Dlule rcfpired, theO' he breaAies again, anl 
every thing k recreated aitdb, as wcB aogrfs, aa 
fouls, and all otbef things ; bdt as for fprrits, thef 
are no more to Be tfaong'ht of. Tet, for all this, 
after fercDty yoogs more, all is annihHated agaia. 
(Marflial Ph. Tr. abriJged by Jones, Vol. V. 
part 2. p. 165.) 

This is eonfinned in the Geetgi p. 94, They,- 
«-bD are acqoainted with day toA tjight, know 
that the -day oi Brahma is a thoufand tevolations 
cf the yoQgSf and that his sight exteuieth for a 
fboufand more. As, on the coming of that day, 
all things proceed from invifibility to vifibility, 
foi on the sfproich ef that oight, thqy arc alt 
diiTolved io that wbi^ is called invifiblej cveif 
the univerfi itfelf, haviDg exifted, is again difi 
fohed^ and Row again, on the approach of 
Brahma's day, by t|ie lame orer-raling neceffity, 
it is rt-proiucid>_ 

. Brahmt the gucat One, is the fi^Feoic, cter- 
n^, BnoKMed Con—Brabmaf the firfl created 
being, by whom he made and governs the world. 
HcDCC Mr. Maorice very properly derives theie 
names -from ~i3 bar, to create, to. renew; but, 
with the Iriih philofbphers, this word implies a 
cycle, a tarn, as well as a reaewal. Hence^ in 
Irifh, nua-hhreiibj the metempfychofis, or new 
creation ; and tliis, I bericve, is the Baal-beritb 
f^ the Shechcmitcs (Judg. viii. 33.), the god of 
revolutions, or cycles, aiid Qot of porific^ion. 


Astpotvmy ^f t^ tmsunt Irish. iii 

9» ParldHuft tbinkJL IfptLj^ hw^ % oima a 
tunc ; bar-faif, the revolution, oi a ftsai bft year; 
and'probal^}' the Japonefe Fibwri, w aioiaaack, 
a cakodar, derircs from the hme soot.. The 
^ds/otu %, thai, the worli has beea thrice dci- 
Asoifetiy by a ddiig^ tf wiad, aad by aa earth- 
^q^e, and that it wit be fooa ddboyed by &c. 

The Cabcnnao Namc;lfc of the Perfiafl^ relates, 
tinat ^ Siv^rg ^itia^ or the Fh(£niz, bi^g aOced 
his a^e, replied^;. lihi» world n vcry^ aadeot, for h 
ku beea fercB' tines rcp^f niihed with heiogs dif- 
ferent kor$ maa, aad fev^ times dep^pulatetk 
T}^t t]^ »gc of Adara, or the human race, ia 
nvhich we naw xc, is to endure feven th^ulaad 
fears, making a great cycle ^ fhat hioifclf had 
£kb iwelve of thefc revohitiODs, and knev not 
Imw many, moce he had u> ^. 

The: Ja^ncfc pl^ce their god Anifda m a 
iuisie with fevea heads, ^b a fymbol of the kvBk 
f^aafdfid yeaf^ th^ world '& to kft. To fliew be 
(ft i^e god 0^ cydesk h^ is crQwqed m^ ^ golden 
ficcle of the fs^ac. 

Wcare oat ^ithoat ph^o^her;, who attempt 
ta looTie, tb^ there %ie hecn fevcra} renewals 
of this ^obe. My. P^kinfoo this ycaf putdjflied 
Jus Qtg^nic RciBaii^t gf a formcF World- 

FrQ«» n^: i<*r, to create, I think, the Pcpfisot 
fisBjncd t__5j^W iB'^i God, the' creator, and tb« 
Irilh ^uH;faB«, Godv thQ hcsd,. or chief creator. 
Sec the Fcrf. Cahan barhdi^ ^ ieafotns of coear 
tiQit,:at Gban, No. 29. 

2. Bis, 


376 Astrojmm/ of the ancient Irish. 

a. Bis, Beisy Baifc^ Bai/charm, a cjrdc. Ch. . 
p\DS'pi/uit pcriodus; Mpiy azkir, annulus. ■ Ar. 
f^jj2j} abiz, zn age ; iaiw, an annivrrfary. Pcrft 
bazif a fpherc ; bazire, a portion of a cycle, an 
hour. Ar. L«=aj bexa, Sol^ dualc abezatii duo 
dies, duo menfes (Ooi); which plainly Stews, that 
beza means a cycle. Pcrf. JLu ptyaz, an onioqi 
from its circular cwitiDgs. (See Siobal, Art. 21.) 
Ch. Q ^az; Hcb. p3 Aw, an egg, from its 
gbbular figure ; '7M Aij/a/, an onion. '• 

From Baifc comes Batfc-bhuidin, the gddcn 
cycle or number (fee Ajt. 6.); 'Ow-ifif, an 
epycycle, and the Celtic baefcl a circle, the 
ring or circumference of a "wheel. (Henri- 
Salilb.) ■ ■ ' ' -. ■ ■ : 

3. Barbhis, Beirbbh, a cycle, an anniver- 
fery (Shaw). The word appears to' be com- 
ponnded of the twafdrmer, but I find it to be 
an Egyptian word for an anniTerfary. - Scbei 
Scbemfedden Mohammed, ' in his book entitleil 
Tbe Wandering Stars^ gives a defcription of the 
curiofities of Egypt, through which he travelled 
in the fixteciith century. * He fays, ** Among 
the curious monuments of Egypt, Xcc muft placii 
the Berbis. At Dendera thtre is one, in which 
there is a dome, that has as many wiiidows as 
there arc days in ihe year ; ' each- day the fun 
makes its entry by one oF thofe windows,' and 
docs not rcturff to it till the dnniverfary of that 
day in the following year." ' - . ■• 



AstT^mmy of the ancient Irish. 311 

*' Thae arc many .w«t3s," fays thctranflator 
(Moofieur De Sacy), ** .whofc ^nificatiop I have 
not been ^ble to detcrmiae with prccilloD. Many 
appear to have been entirely unknown to our 
Icxicographers ; of thefe is the viord Berbitj 
which I thought myfclf obliged to prcferTC in 
the origiaa].'" ^MS3. of the K,iog of France's 

- In a fubfequent publication by M. De Sacy, 
vx Magaz. Eocydop. VI. Aq,a. Tom.. VI. he 
gives a differeot account (^ the Berb'is. I^? 
faySj ** Mofirizi having meiuioQed in/few word; 
the Serba of SemcQout, and that of Ikhroin, of 
this number is the Ser&a of Dcndera, which is ^ 
wonderful edifice. It has ^80 windows j*" eac^ 
dfty the fun fiiines into one of -t^eai, and the 
next day into another, until it comes to the laft ; 
then it i;cturns the contrary way tg that it com- 
jpcnced. The Berba of Ikhmin is qne of the 
greateft and mod wottderfu). T^e aqcieots coq- 
ftrufted it-for a depot of their treafnre, for they 
had a knowledge of the flood that was to deluge 
Egypt, piany ages before it Ijappcned. We 
there fee figures of kings, who governed Egypt. 
|t is built of marble, a^d has feveo doprs, painted 
pa die outQde with azure and other colours, and 
the painting is as frefh as if juft done. The 
feven doors arc named after the feven planets. 
Pn the walls are engravings of a multitude of 

■ 180 is the "f arur period, naiqed ran. (Bailly, Leu. 
toVolt. p. 213.) See Cycles, No, 8. 


378- AstrotUH^ tf the- ancient IntA. 

tignres of Tariom fbnns tni fees ; tbef fcpK- 
fented' afl ^ ideiMe; of i&e Eg^ptuDS^ tcz. 
ikhTmy, chemiftty, tatifin^?, i^fic, ^^beaonqrf 
snd scoaetiT^i tfifpo&d ^dcr embleilHtical 

ilbdoHaiiph Ipeaks <^ d^e Btrhat \>j fep«if 
01^ ; of die y^ tmildng, aqd of W ncndcfful 
inutgcs, {«flares, ftatiics, and infcripdona, bet 
&ys not a word of ^ 365 o^ of ^ j 80 via: 
dbws. (.£g7ptt coBipend. Tr. CI. Pocock, p» 
XII.) 4nd 1 bdieye M. De Sac;*!) tniriladoft^ 
would benefit by a rev9c. lite Irifli Bettttbii 
739 cerfakily bOTrowed of tlw Egypt^s wtko) 
i/Oej were m Egypt, nodcr the nftme of Ro^ 
fce p h c rJs, pr Aire-Goti. 

BsACHT, a c^le. Crron heaebtt oii^r (xk^ 
^liaghana" arjlf6id mar inihi^iat an grian tri^ 
yta da eombartbaeSj deag ; i. e, 'The cycle of ^ 
Inn; the fpace of twenty-^ight years that Ae 
fiia takes to go throiigh the twdre figns. TaC. 
iakht, a cycle. 

5. PbEHificsHE, i. e. ain naombt^t Utt Fhce^ 
' nix, a cdeflial cycle. Fhennicflie, fort eaia alua^ 
thnchbl mead iola, agus aithriftear go maircadh 
fi; f6 cbead bEaghan, agus nac bt achd aoin can 
amhaia an aim£ber fon domhan, don chinc^ 
ceadoa^ agqs do gfanid fi a nead do amutA 
deaghbhc^acb folofghthc, :^$ an tan dimreas 

giaiat, temponL (Hyde, p. 164 } 


Aiteonony o/tieaacient Iritk. 3T» 

3B gnan ai twad tre tdQcj f«ifidb fi ^, te m 
fgiathuubfa, sgus teifgufit fi ifeia aan, agus go ' 
adrghean peifk^ be^, as aa biatbredmhaa d« 
Avgdioiu bhcith oa PhcnoicflK^ efle na dhiaigfa ; 
i. c. The Ffaceoix is a bird abi^it the fize cf as 
tasf^e, and, 'v/btu ^ored to life, lives fix bua- 
'irtA yexR } and- there is but oite of the ^pedes iq 
the wevld, and {he makes her nefli vith cofabo£- 
tibic uonaticsj and, whe» Ate fun fets tb^n en 
fee, fl|« fans the Sanies yiith her wings, and 
))WB» hep£df, at)d oitf of the afhcs arifes a ^a8 
'piaggot, which becomcf aootber Pfacenn. 

pfuems Egypdn aiftrologis fymbolum (Bochart). 

Una eft qase reparat~feque ipfa relemiDat 

AIm, ^rai PbflBBica Yocwit. (Ovid, Met. XV. 392.) 

f One Qf the cbara£ter$ attributed tp the great 
fear^*' fays tt^e learned Bmianger, " was ihQ 
fbtenix, ao apoicalyptical dogma,. caTel<^ed i^ 
allegory, become by iu fable !umiitdligibl& 
|*luche dpciycs the name from the Fhoenidav 
st^ord fiiana^t to ^ in del)ght aod ^ifulaa^; 
jbut it 19 mgrc rational tq draw it from pbanakf 
pronounced fliaiutcbt which fignifies to return^ 
and this agrees better with tt^c ftpry of the 
]Phcents, which might be exprcflcd by t^heut. ? 
wheel, pr rather by $bonechy th^ which tuns 

Boulaogcr is neax the truth. Ip EgyptJaiv 

pbetiei, cyclus, ppriodus, aevum (Sc^.)f Phosn. 

}Q pbeny cyclusj Irilb, fbainic, a cycle, circle, 


38V Aslrommy 1^ the ancient Irish. 

ripg ; aa eagle, a rayeo, birds that fly io circles, 
■ as thofe birds do. Hcace the ravcD became fa* 
crcd ID the Eadera countries," and of great re- 
queft in the mitbratit myftehes, and to Apollo 
jvith the Romans. 

. Pliny fays the Phoenix lived 340 years ; ethers 
1540, and Qthers 500. Tertullian, Ambrofc, 
ZcDo, and others, cite the ftory of this bird as a 
rational argument of a re/urre£tum, whereas it is 
OQ more than 9 cycle of the Cbaldaeans, pjade up 
pf the numeral cbaraAq-s, as vc flutll Immcr 
diatcly prove. 

Mr. Maurice has Ihevn, that this period c^ 
fix hundred years, and that of nineteen, was 
^i^pwQ tp the Brahmins. Cajlni fpeaks ta rap- 
tures of this cycle, and fays, no intimation of it is 
to be found in the remaining monuments of any 
other nation, except the ancient Hebrews; anS 
that it is the fioclb period erer was invented, 
fincc it. brings out the folar year more exaftly 
than that of Hipparchus ; for in this period the 
fun and moon return to the fame fituation in the 
heavens, iq which they were at the commence- 
ment of that cycle. 

Jofephus, from the tradition of his nation, af- 
ferts it to have been known to the antediluvians^ 
and that it was their annus iKagnus. 

From whence the Irilh aftronomcrs borrowed 

this cycle docs not appear in words ; but, from 


° Hence the pricCts of Mithras were named coracica and 
lUracwatka. (Forphyr. de Abll. L. IV. p. 165.) 


Aitrtww/ of the ancient Irish- 381 

drcumftaQces, we may fiippofe, the Chaldasaa 
colony, named Tuatba Dedan^ brought it with 
ibein, bccaufe the word Pbennicjhe^ io Chaldicaa 
numerals, makes dp the name, ^z. 


And, if we add n, which alters not the pronuik 
datiou, it makes up the Egyptiaji period «ph=; 
6o%f as at p. 361. ' . 


• s 

- 80 


'. n 

- 5 


- J 

• 5" 


- J 

■ 59. 


- » 

■ 10 


■ P 

• 100 


- » 

- 300 


- n 

- ■» 


. fi 

- S 

Ani] the Coptic and Egypdaa word Pbem 
pakes up 600, 

- 500 

- P 

• 50 


iditch IS cattaioly the true awnbec;. fix As 
Ckaldscans had taotfacx^aame ^ dK nHwia^ 
viz. v^ (wEs (BBUarf)^ and tfaelc WjTgBait 
naake up die oiuobet 600. 

C . 3 find - - 500 
J. - ^ .... 30 

A - ff - - - ■ 70' 

May not this be the CaUrjoog of the Brahmins } 

The SeafgOy or cycle of 60, of the Irifh afttxi< 
Doners, 1 think* was the tenth of this great 
cycle } that is, 600, or the gre^t cycle, W9s the 
kafrt ^ 6b. For Scbn^t iays* As igrcfe t£ 
6go wu coly ehe b<^re (or nmleffied hg fisoO otf 
the fcxagenary cycle. Mr. Mainkx diMait wq 
the multiple of the Lofia (p. 3*53), or cycle of 
five, multiplied by twelye, the C^e of Jupiter, 
(hat makes the jfesagenary. 

Be that as H may, it is fuffideiK for our par- 
pofe to (hew, that the andent Iril}| h^d the 
knowledge of this cycle, and diat the Chal^ 
da-an colony, that mised .wUb the AircCoti, 
introduced it. ]t k one ftrong proc^of the tnitl^ 
of their hiftory. 

The Phgeniit of Japan is called Kirin, Karon, 
or Aabk, fignifies tte cvi^nQ^. of mpy fli% 
pets in qnc of the fJgQs of the ?»^c (IVEto 
belot), •* Quoi-quTl «i foit, Ic Phcnix n' i 6tc 
dans fon principe qu'unc image cbronique, qu'uQ 
fymbole ejcUque qot a. 6\€ pcrfonnifi^ comme tant 

' n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

Aslfmomy of the dnc'tent Irish. S83 

H^autres, et zvtqmi tafbite on a adaptc une 
Mteifc .tiree dcs opnicms ■qu'tm avoit fiir la Ba- 
(nrc des periodcs, ^H rq>r€foMoft origioaire* 
ilient. Les aodens ont cu tine mahftDde ^c en 
ofages cydiqaes qui ent donni^ lieu a bicn des 
egaremem, et i ^en -iks opfaiioDS BftrotKt^qses 
et myftcwrtifis." (ftoofemgcr.) 

■6. Ais, Eistifisi Ea/CfZ eyde'; whence £*/» 
and Et^Cf the raoen. JSiiJbheh, an epJcycJe, 
ji^m, a crown, are evidently of CbaUce origin. 
K Ej-, ^m .word, fays Parkharll, denotes 
ftrength, and h appfied to the heavens, or 'xtbett 
and to expaofe, -or heavens. Ch. pry axt, «b» 
finhis; Egypt, ee^f a remod -of tmK: hence 
^j, 4hc cydfc moon-j toc*, the moon ; Syr. 
jt/artf a crown. The Pcrfian Magi were caHcd 
O^atKf (Sdidis), that is, learned in cycles, the 
annotrticcrs oif cydcs. Ch. nsa iana, arniun- 
dare, doccre, lanainy doftdrcsj irem whence 
die Irifii 'Sartaritty a dofbr <c^ moGc (O'&icB, 
Shaw), a compound literally Cbaldaic. 

7. Baisc-Bhuidhim (pron. baifivooin), i. e. 
Vimt-oify the gdden nomber (O'Brien). Naold- 
beachday the nineteenth, the gdden number 
(Shtiw). Airt^ -mm HiMiaghafia deagy agiu fa 
dbeireadb na haimfire Jin, tig an Re nuadb ■cum 
an liu eionda, agut na laetb cionda de gavh mi: 
r.-v. A fyxcc -df inneteen years, at the end of 
which the new moon comes in the-raiae moiflh, 
and on the fame day of the month. 



384 Aitrortomy ef the ancieni Irish. 

That great la^aa aftroncupcr, Mr. Barrow^ 
conclud« his obfervatioas, on' the cycles of Ac 
Brahmins, with his opioioa^ ** that the Hindoo 
TcligioQ fpread over the whole earth ; that Stone- 
henge is one of the temples of Boodb; and that 
allronomy, aftrology, aiithmctick, holy-days, 
games, &c., may be referred to - the lame ongi- 
Dal." They -were m .troth imported by the . 
lodo-Scythse, the primitive inhabitaats of tbdc 
Weftem iilcs; and by tbcm copamumcated to the 
ontbcm oatioDs. The Indo^Scythae. refer all 
their knpwledgc in aftrooomy- ;tcf the Titatbs 
Dtdan, .a Ghaldsap colooy, that ,mix^ with. 
them in A£a ; aod to that fchopl Sir WUIiaia 
JoDes rcf<E» for all the Idcotific. jmowlcdge of 
. the Brahmins. 

Under this article, I claits lor thefe ladc 
Scyth», or Aire-Coti, the conllraftioQ of tha 
temples (called Droidic, Very improperly). 

<^ BiSCAWOOM, AbERY, .RolXDRtCH^ aiid 


BiscAfrotiri, in Cornwall. 

This, temple coDliAs of aioctecD pillars ia.a 
circle, with a keble va the center.- The aame 
correfpoads io t»z^\y ysah the: B^cbbuidbmf, or 
goldcn.cycle, I thiDk \^c o^i.tkCDO doubto^ 
^c derivation. 



jlstranomy of the ancient Irish, 

FroM Bar (Art. i. p. 373.) coffies o^air, ari 
ftbferTation, a performance cither of mind or 
body. Ch. iiy obar, facere, operari, agerc j 
Ar. jaC abar, explicavit, defl6tavit, cxaitiinavtt, 
hne fuppulavit. (Gd.) Hence al-oheron^ thtf 
ftar Sytiust that is, the calculator^ bccaufc the 
Egyptians calculated by that ftar, as the Nile 
began to fwcll at the rifiiig of that conftellatioo, 
which they named Siris. 

From obair com« the Irifli obarUinef an tphc 
Ifieris, jin ahnanack, a word compounded of obar, 
and mnsi time. Ch. may obur^ intcrcalatitf J 
n31"l3y oberuna, fnpputatio ; liber calculationumj 
tfrnbolifmorum, et omnium quEe ad dierura, mefi- 
fium, atriiorum, noviluaiorum rationem. 

Irifli; Obar'greis, embroidery j Obar-teacB^ 
houfe-building ; Obar-lionan, net-work ; Obar^ 
gloifie, a glafs-honfe. Ch. O^i^'ja -i2y ebaf 
glinim : which (hews that Obar is ufcd in Chaldcc 
as in Irifli. Ch. nart bobar, obfervator et con- 
templator fiderum (Buxt.). The name of the 
hill at the cjftreraity of the temple is Overton, 
which might readily be corrupted from the Irifli 
Obar-dun, io Chaldee hover-don, both .fignifying 
the hill if obfervation. 

This lanple is environed with ail immenfc 
rampart of. earth of an elliptic form (as all thofe 
temples, improperly called Druid's, in Ireland 
are). The firft circle of ftonei within this area 


3S6 Atti'enoimf of the ancient Irith. 

is 400 feet diameter, arid 4800 in drciinrfc- 
rcDce; The area iriclofes tweOty-two acres ; it 
confifted of ui httndred llones, redaced ia 171Z 
to forty, of wbicb only feTrateeo verc ftaadiog. 
Dofior Stok^ly calculated the total QQiBber of 
ftoncs etnploiyed ia tbis ftapendous work, with 
its avetiDes aod Overtoa ecmple, at 650. He 
£^^fes that attf^ethcr, when eotire, it repre> 
feoted the Deity by a jfvpcot aod circle ^ the 
ftaiaer FepreTcBted by the two aTetroes, Overtoa 
temple being Its head ; the tatter by the greU' 
■v&ck&t with (he vaUttfn at Abuty. 

Witfaid this great ckcic were tWo Idler, each 
cao£fting %£ two codcefeoic circle;, ^k ontcmioft 
of tlurty, the iatmnioft of twdve Aonei. The 
fbatbenmic^ of thde circular teazles iiad a fipgle 
flone in its Center ; the aorth^nnaoft a jkd^Ia^ 
fcAiBcd of three ftoncs, placed vilh an dbtnfc 
angle towards each opening to tbc north<<3ft,; 
before which lay the altar, as at Stoodieagc. 

HieQumbers 100, 60, 30, -is, arc certainly 
praiods of afirdnomical theelegy^ the. centttty, 
the fexag«iary, the thirty years, which fotaed 
the Dnikl age, the twelve £gBs of the Zodiac, 
and thennmber (^ years in which the revelatiou 
of Saturn are perfonDcd ; of whicl^ mtdci^ed 
by five, the fexagenary cycle was origiaaUy h.- 
bricated. (Maurice's lodiaa Antii^wtics, Vol. 
VI. p. 167,) 

Geoetal Tarrant, c& the rc^al engiaeerH 

vifited the fafflOBS temple a» many y«nrs fmce. 



Astronomy of theimcient.Trish. 381 

The GcQcral makes the Qnndicr of ftoaes 650. 
the ^me aa Seukcly ; but, as the gaidem, orch- 
ards, and other enclofures, had both disfigoied 
and concealed the ori^mat plan, and that nuin- - 
bcrs bad been broken for buildings, and others 
bnried, to gain ground on which they ftood* it is 
probable, that neither be nor Stukeley havebeea 
able to afcertain the exad number of ftones. The 
General makes 592 in the great drdet and. 
vtngs, and 58 in Overton temple, in all 650. I 
think the number (nigiaally was 660; 600 ia 
the enter vorks, and 60 in Overton. 

We have {hewn that the Hibernian aftnxu- 
mcrs were well acquainted with the cycle of $oq 
years (the Pbennicjbtj Art. $.), which was die 
birfre or multiple of the Seafga or fex^enary. 

It a{)|>ear8 to me, that this temple was not a 
Dracoqtia, but an aiatat reprefcnting the Fhen- 
nidhe or Ptusnir. And I do not con^ve that 
the andcnts, by Dracontiag meant a ferpcnt-Iike 
teaapic, but a cyclic temple, from the InQx lodo* 
Scythian draoc^ a cyck, in Chaldee dardc, from 
whence the Irifli drotmU a fegment of a circle, 
an arch, a t^idge of arches j a name whidi 
leads me to ' 

RoLLpaioifi, . 

A drcnlar temple, next in fiunc and magni- 
tude to Stonebenge, near Chipping Norton, in 
Oxfordflure. Camden calls it Reik-ritbi and. 


S83 Aitronomy of the ancient Irish. 

m Doomfday book, Doftor Stukcley fouad it 
wriftcn RolUti'drkh, and contends it fliould have 
been written Rhol-dnvyg, which means the 
DruitTj wbeeU or circle. (Sec draoch., No. iS.) 

■ As I claim all thefe works to have been pcr- 
foniiedby Crt;, or ancient Irifli, the Ctcthi of the 
learned and venerable Bryant, who lays the fame 
claim to them, I beg leave to look for the 
etymon of the name in the Irifli language. Dra, 
and draocbt a wheel, a circle,' a cycle ; Reattt a 
ftar, a planet, from Ch. "jyn rahal, or raal, 
tremere; Ar. «/, real, ftclla qiliedam (Caftellns). 
So, in Hebrew, 331D cocab., a flar, fo named 
.from an- Arabic 'word, fignifying, to fparkle. 
'i.f'^ssijy Kokabj res quasvis nucans, micBit 
ftdla.. (Gol).) ■ 

•' This temple has been fo deftroycd, that the 
ilumber vF fioiies it originally coatEuned cannot 
be afccrtained. It is fuppofed the number- was 
fixty, of Which tttfCnty-two only remain. I fhould 
think, if the great' circle contained fixty, there 
liras a finaUer that contained twdve, the number 
of 'figos'in'flie zodiac, which in Irifli is expreffed 
b^ ReaUdraich; thccirde or wheel of the ftars. 
The wheel was certainly an ancient emblem <^ 
the zodiac The Sun iq Irifh is named Dagb' 
dae-ratbt the Sol of- the wheel. Reta^ Soils 
orbis ufurpatur (Stephanus). Hence the wheel 
Was a feaed fymbolm India. 



Astfvnomy of the ancient Irish, 


** Hiere is reafon to think," lays Mr. Bryant, 
** that thia nKHinmcDt was ere^d by a foreign 
colony, one of the fiHt which came into this 
ifland." He means the Cuttu. '* Whererer 
fiich moauments are found," adds that author, 
*' we may efleem them of the higheft antiquity. 
All fuch works we generally refer to the ' Celts 
and the Druids i under the iknAion of whidl 
names wc {heltcr ourfclves, whenever wc are ig- 
norant and bewildered." 

Another very learned antiquary, the Rev. Mb*. 
Douglas, alfo obferves, in his Nenia Britannica ; 
** Do^r Stukelcy fees all antkiuities of this 
country with the magoiiying lens of Celtic op- 
tics, <x what the Dodor more critically ^ould 
have pr<Hiounced Belgic. For, if we are obKg^ 
to adopt the lumen ficcum of a recent writer in 
Celtic hiftorj, we are to conclude, the Celts 
were uot inferior to the Hottentots^ or any primi- 
tive lavage tribe, aod therefore unworthy the 
confideration of any learned men. Care fliould 
be takeo not to confound the Celtic with the 
Scythian tribes: the latter, a wife and fturdy 
people; the former, a puny, erring, Itupid 

The Saxon Chronicle fays, that this ibpen- 

doQs temple was built by Irifhmen ; alhiding to 

iu having been creAed by the Coti that inha- 

c c 2 bited 


SM Aatremmif of the mntient Irish. 

bited Britain before the arrival of the Gomc- 
lians, who drove tfaem to Irdand and the north 
of Scotland, the IQe of Man, &c. -, except a few 
Loegriaru^ inh^bitiag Cennral, asd from whom 
Ac; teamt cotata m^bologkal tenets, which, 
vcvked up with thcit own, fbmed what was 
crited the Druidical religiont 

DoAor Stukek^ fa^9, the ancient name of tins 
temple was Ckair Gaar, vAuch, conttarf to Hhe 
c^MiHoa <^ ^at learned Welfll lingoifti and anti- 
quaiy, Lbwyd, he traDllates the grand cboir, or 
die great cathedral. 

" At Lough-Gur, in Irekrad, arc feTefsl-Aone 
cycles, called tkuti^a) tncnHitneat&; and between 
l.)raerick and Bmff, In ^m^ vlciraty, is daoAer 
ancient place of wer&ip, coafiftiog of three cir- 
ctes <J fones, the principal about 150 feet ia 
diameten.^ CSeward's T^ogr. of Irdand.) 

."When I yiGtcd Lough-Gur, the pcatntry 
tbid me, that a great dty once ftood where the 
Ibogh now i J, tailed Cabar Gour (i. e. Heliepoiiiy% 
and offered to fliew me the tops of battlements, 
Afmntes, (teeples, &c., underwater, if Iwoald 
ventwc in a leaky cot. 

■ Catbairf jwonoanced CahoTf fignifies a city, 
and Gaor the fun. Cathaeir fignifies a cathedral ; 
Cathaoir Eafpoc^ a bifliqj's fee. ' Geor exprcflfcs 
the heat and fplendor of tte fun, from the Gh. 
Tij garr^ adarwe. Cear and Cearo arc Irifli 
names of the fun, as wiH be Ihewn m this 
chapter. . The FhocQicians had a temple, 


Astroiumy ^ fUe antunt IriiA. 3dl 

Betb'car (t Sun. vii,. ii.), vhkb Hailomy 
demc3 fi-om C«-, the ttt^al rtwlver. Bhatf 
a»v is WW of the Saafcrit eaaies ot the fiuh 
Ch. mn €lt0rat "km » Pcrf. jjisi. i^.&Mr» 
Scd; and, ia the Q/iti, one df die dialed 
of CaocafuS} Kbasre^ thie fim ; hcBCC I7f (^ 
Irift, &-e, the fun), where Abraham mya bom, 
WM aaaicd Carnr^ aod the SabiiuCk or 6am^ 
worihippen, wcat pitgrimaige to Carra (D'Heiv 
bdotat Sabi)i and hence Ceara-a^, iht altar 
of the fuQ) now caikd Oo-d^, a inouiKain ib 
the county of Mayo» called Creu^iVne, o«^ 
wUch the pagan ^car ]pct rtmaim. 

Of Stonehenge ^e Rev. Mr. D««t^ft tfaw 
fpcaks. '* The gialtiflicirf aof dedtiAM^os hem 
all autluvs, ail eottcwrin^ by the et]niioIog3r «f 
names, cuftoms, and frequent paflkgtis in laoed' 
and protane hiftay, JkeuM fisen foSacot to 
prove the early d^i^veiy if BntMt by «k SaJhrH 
coUmy tfi^gb Mii^ty, and of high claim to »• 
finemest. The fitauton of thia ruia, en a plain 
of great eicteitt, proves it to have been raiTed by 
3 cMiqueiiog anny, for templar, and, perhapit 
inaugDrating, purpoTet. Tht euifus, if aAual^ 
a curfas, as So confidered by Siukcky, fliewc the 
rdidcnce of a military people to have beca leog 
continued ui it9 ncigbbourliood-, and, perhopfr* 
slfo a IbUcd convocation K> have been htild on 
thd rpot. The foil u a proof, that m gravtt or 
trtet viert near Ue and fame inftances may per* 
ha^ be de&iced to Ihemr as well frcati its kvd 

38S Attrmomy ef ike ancient Irish. 

fituation, as indeed the oatare of the altar-ftone, 
bdog of a fubftance in no reTped adapted to Sa- 
crifices, that the rites held, whatevo* they may 
have been, were not Jacred to the worfliip of 
firC} or to the inundation of vidims. The arena 
has been proved fiifficiently capacious to contain, 
fix thoofand perfons, allowing a yard for the por- 
tira of one ; and hence the proof of a convoca- 
tion can be e(tabli(hed. This may probably be 
confidered as a fnffident argument to exclude the 
Druidtf who were probably a latter and more 
perverted feopUy from a claim to the fpot ; an4 
infer the erectors to have been of a mcn-e pure 
and fuperior order of men, well inftrufled in art, 
and their religi<Hi kis adulterated with prepos- 
terous rites." (Ncnia Britannica, p. 173.) 

*' StonehcDge forms a drcle of about 10$ feet 
diameter, from out to out ; confifling, when en> 
tire, of fixty ftones, thirty nprights, and thirty 
impofts. A lefler circle, fomewhat more than 
dght feet from the iafide of the outer one, con- 
fided of forty fttmes. The walk between thcfe 
two drdcs is three hundred feet in circumference. 
The adytum or cell is an oval, fbrmed of ten 
IhncB, and within thefe are nineteen fmaller 
ilones. At the upper end of the adytnm is an 
altar, a large fiab, of blue coarfe marble. 

** In the reign of Henry VIII. was found here 

a plate of tin, infcribed with many letters, but 

in ib firange a character, that neither Sir Thomas 

Elliott, a learned antiquary, nor Mr.Lilly, malbr 



Astronoft^ <^ the ancient Irish, IStt 

of St.' I^Kil'sfchooI* could make them out.- Thia 
{datCj to the greiit \^ of the learne<l world, was 
fooD after loll. '' / 

** Two ftone jrillars appear at the foot of the 
bank next the area, in which the buildings ftaad; 
and tbofe are anfwered by two fpherical juts at 
Hvc foot of the faid bank ; one with a lingle' biuik 
of earth about |t, and the other with a douUo 
bank, fcparated by a ditch." (MauricCi, lad. 
Antiq. Vol. VI.) 

From all thefe circumftances, and number rf 
ftones, Mr. Maurice concludes, it was an allroso- 
mical temple; in which I thick be is perfe^ljr 
right, as its name, in Irifii, declares it to be the 
Tbmple of the Sun, &e temple o( Boodb, as 
Mr. Barrow ■ rightly conjefturcd ; for SudJIfi 'm 
Irilh, is one name for the fun. 

8. FoNN, a cycle ; fonn/Oi a hoop;_^iW, a 
nog. Thismuft be the Tartar period of 180. 
years, named Van^ mentioned by Monfieur Bailly 
in his letters to Voltaire, p. 213. 

9. loM, Uimj Aim, a cycle, a period ; iom-totnabt 
a year. Chcha-tumidh^ a cyclic obclilk, on which 
the cycle was infcribcd in Ogham charaftdrs (fee 
p. 178). nan Tana, the annuQciarion of the 
(clofe of the) year, whjch was always performed 
with great ceremony. 

There is no fatisfaflory derivation, in the He-, 

brew or Chaldce Lexicons, or in the Talmuds, 

of the wmxi QV wm, tianflate^, a day : it ap-. 

pears to be-an Qrigioal word,'li));$ n:i ^dr, tw, 



n< Jstremon^ of the tmctent IriA, 

nur, meDtiooed before. "Wliat it now odled 
a. jcvt in fcriiAure, hjt die learned Goftard, 
feems, in very early times, to have been tensed 
D»n> iamimt days, i. e. a fyftem or cycle of days. 
For, when Rebecca fent her foa Jacob to Padaa 
Aiam, to avnd his l»Y)thcr ££ui*3 reCenlment, 
flie advifcth him to ftay there iamim ecbadtftit our 
tranflation fays, a few dayi. Ecbad, in the pi. 
ttbadimt never fignlfies a few ; it is properly £fs 
tinui, i, e. one fyftem of days, or one year. Be- 
fides, die abfence of a fcv days would~not have 
been ccMiiiftent with fo Icng a journey, nbr the 
occafion of it. This clearly explains the km- 
Uhua <^ the Irifh. From this root is derived the 
JEthioi»c amy^ a year ; An ^Ic ou/n, a year } 
and the Irilh Aim-Jire, a revolution of time, &om 
nyv foTt revolutio, meofura : frcxn whence the 
fimaous Chaldtean cycle Sanu, which, according 
to Berofus, conCfted of 6660 days }^ but this was 
die Sarut bafre, or tenfold Sarus. Syncellus, 
Abydenus, Al. Polyhillor, tell us, that it was a 
l>eriod of 3600 years; but Suidas, an author 
cotemporary with Synccllus, fays, the Sana was 
a period of hiAar months, amounting to eighteen 
years and a half, or 222 moons, 

FGay mentions a peiiod of 393 lunar mondu, 
which Doctor Halley thinks is &]fe reading, and 
propcTes the amendment, by making it 324 
months. Sir Ifaac Newton makes the Sarut 
' e^teen years, and fix intercalary months, which' 
agrees with Suida* ; bnt then it is not the fio^ 


JiSrofuw^ &f the aneieiU Irish. }95 

Sarat, bat tbe Sanu'bafre, or tenfold Sarus, as 
vcihalt pro^ firote the namerals of the cd^al 
aljdMbet, which iotm the word. 








- JO 




• 300 




- 6 




- 90 

180 in 6 imiDiJil. 



50 dajn. 


10. Mascaor, a cycle, Is, bf the traofpoCdoQ 
of a letter, the Chaldseao •ntno macbazor, 
cyclns, drculns, ex ntn cbazar, drcumire; 
whence Coftard derives OJiriSf that is, the 

11. MiTHis, Mithich^ Mitirt a period, fea> 
foD, cycle. Hence the Chaldaeans formed the 
word Mitbnd for the fun, and the fun's courfe 
(fee p. 365.) i Ch. and ^th. matke, periodus, 
termmns. The word is fini nfed by the AbyC- 
finian Qiriftians: ig^ verd vacant- fe CBaldaot, 
netp^fruftra: lingua Chaldaica etiam iemforibut 
yufiiniam tcs ufos fuiffe. (Nicephoros, L. IX. 
p. i9. Seal, deanend. temp. p. 338.) Heoce 
the Perfiaas fonned the word j^ mibr^ the fnn. 

13. AoHAO 


S96 Astronomy of- the anc^t IrisHt • 

13. AoNAC (proiu Eenoeb\ Jitter, ^"Wfff 
a period^ cycle,- year. Ean^la, an aanivarf^ 
day. Cb. p3j; emekt torques, hinc annus, anou- 
lus, &c. hsec enim omaia Don funt nifi circulus. 
And hcna, I thiijc, the Simurgh-ankti or Phosnix 
■ cycle, of the old Arabs and Pcrfians. ** And 
jdl the days of Enoch were 365«" (Gencf. v. 43.) 
On the apocryphal book of Emch M. De Sacy 
makes this obfervatioa ; *' II parle beaucoup des 
anges, d'Urlel, dc Gabriel, ct des autrcs : il 
parlc des divijient des jours et des temps.** (Notice 
du lAvTC d'Knoch, par De Sacy, p. 14.) And 
to Enoch the Jcwifii authcffs afcribe the dif- 
covery of the twelve iigns. Enoch was the 
feventb from Adam, and coeval with him. Hin- 
dooft. hangam, a year. 

The Irilh word eang, a year, with the prefix, 
teangt fignifies a quarter of an acre.. It is very 
extraordinary that Horapolio fhould tell as, that 
the Egyptians marked the one-fourth of an acre 
of ground to denote a year in their hieroglyphics. 

13. Tachfh-ang, Tacmh-ang, pron. Tac- 
'vangf a cycle, revolution o( ang, a year. Teacb- 
bbaidh, teacfhaidb) teacphai^ the foljiiee. Ch.. 
nSlDn tacopha, revolutio, circulus orbis, folfU- 
tium, equinof^ium, defioita Soils rev(Jutio a4 
iftos terminos, a P)1D coupb^ revolvi, circuire. The 
Irifh teacphai \s thus explained) an tan Grian 
TUX eidir dot utrde, ni as i/Ie fa la as foide% i. e.- 
when the, fun cad go neither higher nor lower; 
when the loDgeft and the ihorteft , day cc»qcs. 
■...■: ' ' So' 

Astnmotm/ of the ancient Irish. 39T 

So the Chaldasans ; . tekupbatb Tifrit asquinoc- 
tium Tifri, tekupbatb Tebath, folftilium Tcbath. 
But in GcDcf. i. 14. it is immediately applied 
to the fun; and in Exod. xxxiv. tekupbatb 
be farm, revolutio anni : hence the old Infh 
tachdmb-Jir, a month, the revolution of 6Vr. 
Ch. -riD^iar; Ar. jj^^ faburt the moon. 
(See S«r, in Ir. Aflrooomy.) 

14. Gall, a wheel, circle, cycle. Bao-giU, 
an age, period ; Sier-gal, a complete revolution, 
and with the. particula infeparabilis (as Golius 
explains F in the Arabic) Feigal, fagal, a revo- 
lution, anaiverfary, holyday, fair^day; Ban-gait 
an anniverfary; Gaii-muilUan, a mill-wheel > 

-hence the Latin vigiiia, the eve before -anj 
feaft, for the feafts were Miaiverfary. 

15. Sao-gmal, revolution, orb, life, age, the 
world i that is, the revolutionary planets. Saogbal- 
gan-faeghal, world without end ; hence the Latin 
Saculum, a derivation unknown to VoiSus, Ainf- 
worth, and Gcbelin. Ch.Vjy gali, volverc; n^a ' 
gala i the fenfe of the word feems alluJIvc to the 
motion of the earth and planets. "^Ji'^^p Segal- 
gal, orbis, rotundum, orbiculare. Whaj the 
Hebrews joined the words chug and gal, (^s 
Hutcbinfon, it exprelFed both motions, to roll ia 

a circle or fphcre. Let the earth cbugal, i.e. 
revolve (1 Chron. xvi. 31.). The Canaaaites 
h^d a temple to their god, the heavens,' by the 
attribute above mentioned (Jof. xv. 16.) i viz* 
Betb-b-guU, that is, the temple of the circnlars ; 
Marius calls it the boufe of revolution. Hindooft. 


598 Astronofmf of the andmt Irish. 

Pmt-^alt an aooivcrfiuy. Hcom the Irilh aaiae 
of a cock is £«//, figuring, tliie obferrar of the 
KvdiQtioo of the day ;. bence Noir-gaU, or Nair. 
pdlf the cock of Aurora, from nair, near, the 
Eaft, Aum^} SaOlcrit, Aeifr, Aurora.^ £iai 
ARCS A Nearqal, let the bufbwdman ttie at 
cock-crowJDg, i. e. with Aurora (O'CIery). 
^r0f, a bu(baDdmaii> from or, pkughing, huf-' 
bandrft Cbaldee, ffnH oris, hortiUanus, ^ri> 
cola ; nwnH arifia, hortornm et agronim co]- 
nmu ^r\i Nargti, the idol of the Cothitefc 
(a Kiogs, xvti. 30.) ** -And the men ef Cutb made 
Kerpd.*' Can there be aftronger proof, that 
the Cutbim of fcriptore were the CoH of Irilh hit 
tsgj, and the CutM of "BryvA ? They worlhif^>ed 
the cock as a rerolntioQary bird, fox the pagan 
reKgkm was completely aftrosomical, as Boulanger 
and Sir William Jones have obfervcd. The men 
of Babylon made Stucetb'benttb, the ceare-eht, 
the hen and chickens (i. e. the pkiadts), oS t)ic 
Irifh. (See Proem, page xv.) Among the Per- 
fianst platietary worjhip very foon prevailed* 
(Batter, Hor. Kbl.; fee p. 116.) Hence the- 
eoek was a folar bird.— We ihall here repeat the 
rtafon givea 1^ the Rabbins for diis worilup. 
** In ccelis proclamatar, nt spiH-opinquante die 
pratx recludantur, ae ulli remora injiciatur. Hoc 
andientes, galli ganidacei in terra cantare is- 
cipiunr, nt homines fomno excitentur: et nunc 
d«n<Mium vires fraDguntur, nocendiqne poteftate 
" AUhough the Itini lexiconiits all derive MhV from (Xr, 
tbe £tft, yet wc find it oiteii written tuar, nor. 

Astntiomy ef the ancient Irish. -399 

dtiSoiitttur. Frc^tcrca qvoquc iajucniKs bujufce- 
modi gratiamm aAioiiein ii^ttuaaW. BenftH^ut 
At D&mne Deta nojitry totiits mmtiH Domru, qui. 
gallo inteUi^entiam dedtrit, ut dim ^ soA 
(Ufcernat" (Buxt. Synag. Judaic, p. iso.) Sco 
more oa diis fat^e&i p^e 14U 

16. Chvio, Ciuiggtai, Oigf a period, a cpcld 
Odg-bbreith, ao aannal iacrifkc. Cuigeaif Aa 
^ndlc of a dift^> about vhich the yarn it 
vound, and twifted by the ffuiuicr. Caig-maddm, 
and Otg-madditiy Aurora, i. e. the return of the 
fun ia the call. Ch. ^3*10"^^ cjotg'-fnd^wti^ 
from eba^^ or ivi^, drcuhis, cydufi, dies idhe^ 
quod dies iefti quotaonis circnlareatnr. Ax* 
boagt a nog ; Asx^ h^^ aamts ; i<dU Abo- 
cani calebcatioi *7W brngal^ circulua, globas; 
This is probably the root of Ae San&rit yoag^ 
j^j a period, cycle, conjottAion (of j^ncts),, 
age ; jugut, wodd, nniverfe. 

17. Rath, a cycle, circle, wheel. RmtbyZ 
portion of a circle, a quarter of a yew. Bratb, 
i. e. Be-rati, for ever, cycles vithoot couot, 
cycles innumerable. Ar. Us^; reja, a quarter of 
the heavens ; a*j barhet^^ fpatium temporis 
longom. (Gol.) 

18. NiDHE, time, period. Ar. {J*^ neda^ 
time, period. 

19. An, Anjy Aim, Uine, Onn, plural Amth. 
Bli-aitty the cycle of Bel, the fun, a year. Gri- 
an, the fun, the fcorching j^et. -Ain-leogt a 
fwallow, a revolutionary bird, Utn-tat, a wind< 



400 Astronomy of the ancitnt Irish. 

lafs, i. c. the flow tctoIvct. * Uatn da bliagbatia, 
die rpace of two years. 

jtin naambag, the heaTCDly rerolutloQcr, the 
Pbcenix, asd, perhaps, the fabuloos bird of the 
Brahmins, named Auny. Lu-an^ the fmall pla- 
net or revolutioner. Onn, as applied to the cycle 
of the fun,' ligDifics the fan, fire, &c. ^gypt. 
eehtj bott, the fun ; pN |ro eohen on^ facerdos 
folis. (Ifai. Ixvi. 2.) Ar. and Perf.' i^t an, 
•jI am, fsij' ayiiiit fcafons,' revolutions. Ch, 
pV idi), tempus J piy boTiatij tcmpora obfcrvare ; 
whence the Itifh Aniut^ an aftrologer, aftrono- 
mer, and Ana-mor, the zodiac, the great circle. 
The temples, named Ana-mor, contain forty- 
aght ftones, the number of the old conAdlations, 
with a kebla of niae ftones placed near the cir- 
cumference, to rcprcfcnt B-xtdhy the fnn In its 
progrefs through the figns. Such is that at 
Ana-mor in' the county of Fermanagh. 


AstroMmy of the ancient Irish. 401 

The kebla confifted of moe floncs, to rqirelcQt 
tbe Dmth avatura, or dcfccot of Budb, the fua- 
botD, the great deity of the pagan Mfh^ vho was 
the ninth avatura of Vaia/wata, or the fan-bora 
of the Brahmins, the Noah of fcripture. So 
Yeejbiu^a,, the Apollo of the Brahmins, pail nine 
incarnations (J<mes). Vtflmu made his ninth 
^ipearance in the world under the name of 
Budba (Kjempfcr, Hiftory of Japan). The three 
firft avatars, or defcents of Vijbnu, related to the 
univerfal deluge (Jones). 3 was a facred num- 
ber in memory of the fons of, Noah (Fabcr, 
Cabiri), Hence 3 and 9 became facred numbers 
with the Brahmins and pagan Irifh. Every altar 
is fupported by 5 uprights in Ireland. The fa- 
cred conque'muft have 9 volutes, with the Brah- 
mins, &c. &c &C.1 The Ceylonefe reckon from 
this lafl avatura of Budh. See Iris, 


^ The number 3 and its multiples were myflerious with the 
ancients, and they regulated a multitude of them by the pe- 
riod of thrice three. The war of the two priocipleBt good 
and bad, waa to laft 9000 yearsi according to the Magi. 
The Annus Magnus of the Sabians was 9000 years, accord- 
ing to fome iS,ooo, and to others 36,000. The war of 
tlie Titans againft Jupiter lalled 9 years. Jupiter vifited 
Minos ereiy ninth year. The famous Grecian feUiTal, ce- 
lebrated among the Beotians in honor of Apollo, called 
Di^hnepbora, was at the end of every 9 years ; but the. firA 
element of this fyftem was 3. It is obferred by arith- 
meticians, fays Hume, that the produSs of 9 compofe air- 
Ways 9, or fome le^er produfts of 9. If you add together^ 
i^l the charaflerSf of which any of the former produfls u 

403 Astrmflmgf of tke andenl Irish. 

Tbt root of the word it j^ia, ia the Ch. ray 
bona, to retarn, to make rcrcrikm; whence* 
&ys Farklmrft, i^siiy anamekcb-, the folar firey 
w(»fliipped with Adramelech, 

HcDce Criofl>na-ain, the tevolution t^Craflnut, 
the fun ; a mountain fo called, in the csuoty of 
Clare, where the remalas of an altar itill enft. 

The Canaanites appear to hive had a temple 
mmed BetbanHb, the temple of the revolutions ^ 
and, in Jofhua, xix. 38., it is omQefled with 
tratj n^3 betbjhfms^ the temple of the fmu 

Lu-an, the mooa, from whence the Latia 
Lwuii h evidently a Chaldaran word, fignifying; 
the auy or planet of '7=30. See the Numerals, 
p. 359.' Bot hi-an does alfo l^mfy the fmatier 
planet ; and beoce, probably, the Jews Amnedi 
dte foBowtDg Uafphemoos ftory, or borrowed it 
(^ the Cuthites. " Siqoidero verb hie de LttiU 
ago, temperarc mibi nequeo, quominus egregium 
coUoqnium inter Deam et Ltaiam, ut io Talmude 
legitur, afferam ; verba Gc fc»iant : Rabbi Simeon 
fiHm Paxzai hae doeuh: /criptum exfati fcdtqsie 
Deus duo luminaria magna : fcriptum efiam efi -, 
luminare magnum', ct lumiuare panmm. Luna 
dixit ad DeuMf Domine ioiit/i mundi, an pojimt 
due regei fub un& corond imperare? Deus refpoii' 
dH, Abi et mimisre, Luita excepiU Dmine mundi, 

Gomfo&dt thos, of 19, 27, ^6, which are prodnds of 9, 
ytm nake 9, b; adding t to 8, j to 7, 3 to d. Tbu, 
3^9 is a pioduQ of 9 i and, if you, iidd %, 6, and 9, yoit 
make 18, a Uffa produft ot 9. 


Astr^MtfOf of the ancient Iriik. 403 

qma^m ojum.a verkm (tram ii hqautA fi*^* 
c» inminuererf Huic Dtus; Abi et ditt tiodtique 
n^. Luna veril, qtdnam hie homr efi^ et gtae 
d^mtiuf ^ttid atcenja nsridis cantkla frodefi? 
Dott r^^oruHtf jSiit pi^Uhu I/rael dki fuat tt 
omar fuot juxta te comftatabit. Ltma ob/mt^ id 
qiuque impo^ile ejH .> optrtet enha iilot foiftitia et 
a^dno&ia junta jhlent eomputare.f vti firibitur; 
croatque in iigna tcmpcftatibas, idicbus, et annia. 
SimpraterKt a^eeit ; Abi, et jufii de nomine tm 
^pellAbuntUTi ut yaeobtu parvus, Samiel parvus, 
Damid parviu. Sed ubi vidit Deus fi Lunam 
plaeare atn ptgi-, nee Ulias aaimitm /tdare, dixit } 

mTinM ^ruDjroiB iv ^^ msD W2n (fie enim 
habcmr is exemplaribus Venttis, iiti quoque 
dtat Rabbi Bediaz in expofitiobe fua in Ilbrum 
Numeroiwn; ver^ id m czcuq^ BafilecnCibtit 

. immatatuffl eft) hoc eft, t^rte obhtioaem frtpi^ 
tiatariam pro me^ ed gudd Lmtam imaiiniU. Ei 
bee i^tm e^ Ultid pn^er qaod Rdbhi Simeon 

JiUtu Lakit dixit, O quam diverjus eji hifass, gai 
Noviiunio effrebatnr, de qm d^ur $ '^virb TWSil 
in dbhtioDcm pro Dd peccato Cjuxta blafpbeaiaa 
Jodflonim rerfioDem), hoc cft» Deus dixit, AiS 
cut yie prcpitio^o erit pr» we, piia Lunatn ip* 
minai. <^onodo autcm hsec intclKgenda fiat* 
digladiantur later fe Rabbini. Vetcrum pneeipES 
enftimaTcrc, Solii tt Ltrnas in creatioaiS prin* 
cipio aeqtnlein foiCe fplendtxan, idra priuid dk^ 

Jedtque Deut dtu mapia Immnaria. <^9&i vctft 

flatiiB ia Dcuift Luna marmarafiet, '*ct fda fit 

D d ccdis 

n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le _ 

40* Aslronomy of the ancient Irish. 

codis reger<; veltet, a Deo immiaatam, et pmpcA 
infu^ luce priTatam eile, Deumque }o&Sic at 
fpteadorcm fuum i Sole mutuaretur ; ide6 mos 
ful^ci, magnum luminartet parvitm lumnarr,' 
qQum prills duo magna luo^naiiaaDdti&iit; Sedv 
quuQ) tantam pcenam Lana conqucreretur, Deum> 
fa^ poeottuiiTe et julliflc, ut llngulis novihmuv 
io iiii .gratiam, oblatio pro pcccat;o oficrretur..' 
Hoc tamco multi Rabbiai tamquam blafphemuin' 
rcpudiarunt, utpote qai Deum.ju(lum,;et xmms . 
pcQcati vel iniquitatis expcitem efTc, videirDt. 'In 
Tcro \tat{\xc horutn verbonim. fcoTu ioquirendo 
mult)^ diuque. laboraniQt, et voculam illam* 
'^ pfome^ vari^ expofuemnt, ui in R.Bechaz 
Tid)?tc eft." (See Job.. Buxti^fii Synagoga Ju- 
daica, -p. 3.^8.) I thick it is impc&blc fo nicked- 
an idea oiuld have entered into the mind of man, 
tf he^ had not nuHionftrucd the Scythian name- 
Zu'^nibr the mooD. L , ■ 

20* - Saobha, aN cycle; Seona Saobbaf the 
cycle; of Saturn (Sanfcnt,. Sanit the - planet - 
^iXam^i.Sa^h-di^hba, forccry by circles drawn 
oa. the floor. .(0*Br«n). Ttie Seeva of the Hin- 
doo6,, fays Mr. Mauri«, is not ooly. the tempus 
edax.rentm, bat he is alfo iht temput renovator 
rerum, all lirom. Ch. 13d /abb, circuice. .(Sec 
Sabaiius, p. 365.) 

- ai. Saosal, Siobaly a C]fcle ; Siobalna grftnCf's p&thj the;zodiac. Do rirmedar mar ^ 
da cuiddeag, donblH^ban, do reir an da comhar- a duhradar mi re 

. --. > . SiBAL 


Astronomy of the ancient Irish. 405 

SiBAL nd greine, an gacb combartba dSfb (Fragm. 
Aflron). i. c. Thus they divide the year into 
twtivc par«, according to the twelve figns of the 
fun } and, as has already been laid, the moDth 
icoordibg to the (J^'at) path of the fan in each 
iign. Ch. ^>aD fehilj femita, via i Ar. Jhubett 
Uie courfe df tfae fun : and hcbce the cDminoD 
IrHh, bl arfiuhal (bi arJbooF)^ get you gone, be 
OD'your roddj-way, circuit. ' 

I believe we are here come to the meaning «f 
the SfbiU ', for, if the word did not apply to a 
cyde» and that of the fun, vhy Qtould the mdft 
cekbrated (^ the Roman Sytnls be beloved of 
Aftlhi or nhy fatd to live a thonfand years? 
Paulaoiasfpeaks -of a Sybil of Pbanicia, \dumi 
he calls Saba i whence the learned Boolanger 
concludes, diatSyi// is only a cycle^ or f^nod^ 
fer/bni^i and that it is a period of a thoufand 
years, as Ovid gives it a life of that duration. ' 

Hence the Irifh Siebal, an onioD, betaufe, 
when cut traofverfely^ its coats and rings 're[tfc- 
fent the heaveQiy fphercs, and, ibr this reafon, 
the Egyptians and Brahmins had a venerati<Hi 
for that root, and the Chaldteanslong before 
cither, according to Alexander. (See Maurice, 
Ind. Aotiq. Vol.III. p. 531.) 

22.' CuARAN, Cufuinntf Crmntt a cyde. 
If here, globe, an tHiion; Ar. (^y> iurn, an age ; ' 
kwanot an onion ; oi^" khmt a fphere. Cfa; 
ps coram 

D d 2 33. "Casar, 

n,gn,-Pri_hyGot)'^le ■ 

40G Astronoviy eflhe ancient Irish. 

13. Casar, a period, cjidc) trtura. Gan 
tafar ditn/mdhe leruaid, vithout retnrnuig tb 
Herod. Ch. "ym thtitar, rcdirc} cbixor^ cf- 
cliis J m'ehaaar, cydni. 

^4. Cnros, i cyttfc, the fun ; Gnidri-^r^ the 
%0^ i Crioi-bacbti the cffclt) of the tu, (hi! 
iodtec (fee B^aeiHis No. 40' Sff- *ri^i «ag»- 
Itata ( At. iteri, wbis f(^. 

25. Ear, earrachy ttrir^ irh, uitih a cyde^ 
epoch. Lgabhet iHs<, Qa e^haeeHi. Ar^ ^t 
,(»r//i ^d \::*^j\ erkhafj ao epocbj a cjclc j io 
the Sanfcrk and Ocylooefe, waiv/ibi BtpJba 
■wara/ebf the epoch c^ Boodh) that K the nhiyi 
avaturt of Vi&na. (SM Nd. 19.) Cb, m* 
yiireh% Ar, «»-»A, praefcrijrto te»pore noCSfk. 
(BtuctO " Hence," fajs Coftatd, '^ ;»•«* io 
Hebre^r figaifies a mcntb, b moon; 'tthkii feeUf 
to intit&ftt^, as if «he oldeft meafure (^ time, 
takot from iJte revelation of the heavenly bo^es, 
waS: a fDcMhri" But we find that trh TOkA eMos 
6gnifies a cyde or revttlutioH, and the 4tffi^ ia the 
Saaf^^ and Itifh^ two of (he (^eft laBgnages 
ib the worM; whence We may- coticldde they' 
ftiMfured time by both pt&nets, and fboa eaffie 
16 tte IcBo«^edge hf the true'length t^ tiie yeUr. 
(See GraiM, No. 27.) 

sSt Bul^i (/rb, drachi draKh, a wh!eel> dr- 
d^, cyde, period. Duir-teae/j, a roand ceH {^ a 
lA'tWf or fflttgitu.} a round towc», a tein^, 
church. F/aitb nar db&n^ a dmrieacht i.e. k 
f ria^ who. did not fliut tbAdtiors of his places of 

^atroncmy g/" the ancient Jriak- 407 

iBorihip. ' ]?r(icbf4, a portioa of s circle,, aa 
jrcli i i. e. (fraiti-ltghat die back of a bow. Reair 
4fi*^i tbo zodiac ; whcDco RolUrtckt a drcult^' 
lUBpIi: ia Oxfcffdlhire (fee p. 388). Ch. •yn thr-, 
ciFc^as i yn darak, aj^c^m cunrat Ar.ji^ dwt 
OKqnigyratio (Gol.^ ; j^O duwarj a. (jclcj 
Ttfi' JJ^ f^uwr iifnr, thp cycle of. tl^ moon. 
(Rich.) Hence probably, ^ lom-dra, the gy. 
f^ fun «f the Airc-Coti, fortnciJ ^ehd-a, the 
god of the firroaineqts of the ftraizmins, who ^ 
&id to have v/birkd fhc f^th into ^p^tiipq, afitt 
the boar Avatar ; and Canu-dra^ the cyclic mpgp 
m biOi» perhaps fwrmed Cftatuira, t))c oifiqe c^ 
the moon whh the Brahmins. " Landed !\f jJff 
4f^i^> I tn^ kf ixfftJ V>i*b my Lfrd tiweugb 
tbf ra^s ^fmriffn ladrt^." (D,unF of ? f^h* 
fel widow, Af. lUt) , . 

.27. Qj^AiDHj 4a ephemwis, jib ^maqasjf, » 
ttWe of the r<r?oJutiDSP of (hp pl^ncfs. C^f Kpll 
^m-afbt revoJrit, (Sec in*, No. 35.) 

$8. NpiGs, a pffio4i fJ ttfffg'/p* Wth^to, 
to ^lif period, fcrf. J^ ff<w^. * perip4, 

year, the eyde pf Bcliu, the ffiQ. Per£ (^^^1/ 

ghakan, tempera. (Hy<le/:Ret. Pof. p. 164.) 

. ■ " Ca&ap 

'CIi»rl« CConjjor, in ^ fpj^giq ef my Tri(^ ^ig- 
tionary by O'Bnw. 3ut Itbigk *&ir(«.-A, ijplaceof woi;- 
(hip, dorivet from //«£, a houfe, 2d4 uri £re ; duir-tath, 
lie houfe of fire. ■ 

40(f AsUtmomy of the ancient frisk. 

*' Caban barba-y pronoonccd gbiahan bar ha; 
. the Perftans thus name the fix feafons, in whtdi 
God created the world, according to the tradhion 
of the Magi, Thcfc feafons or revolutions they 
did DOt believe followed each othei', according to 
MoTes i they have plaixd them ia diffi»tt>t 
months of the year, each of five days votk." 
(D'HerbcIot.) See bar. No. i. 

30. Easc, a cycle, the moon, the cyclic moon: 
Ch. NpTM ti^at circulus, cydns, meafis.' 

I ihall here notice but one word raorein this 
fciecce, to fliew that the ancient Irilh brought 
thdr knowledge of aftronomy with them frota 

AiNBHiH, pronounced Ainwyt the rainy fea- 
fons, the rainy planets, rainy weather' (Shaw). 
It literally fignifies a knowledge of the (hn 
(Ad.). Ar. \y\ anwa, ftars, Ikilled in the 
icienee of the ftan. (Rich.) Sale explains die 
word more to.oui: purpofe. ** jimoa" fays be, 
** fignifies the manfiims of the moon. Tlie Arabs 
obierved what change happened io tbe.air at the 
rifing and fetting of the figns, through which 
the mixin pafles every night, and at length came 
to afcribe divine power to the figos, laybg that 
the rain was from' fuch and fuch an amoa. 
(Sale's Alcoran, Prcl. Difc.) 

The foregoing preface muft have convinced 

the reader, that none of thefe fcientific terms arc 

borrowed of any weilera nation, but are pure 

Chaldaeaa ; 


Astrmiomy of the ancient Irish; 409 

ChaldseaD ; and ihcy mufl have been introduced 
by that Chaldsao coloay, that accompanied 
'thet&'to Ireland, the Tuatba-Dedaa, the bvm, as 
Symmacbos calls them, from the Ch. KQlb, t. e. 
harufiHccs Babylonlae, which is a llrong proof of 
dte truth of their ancient hiftory. 
■■ *• The Irifli language," lays Mr. Davics, 
appears to have arrived n maturity amongft the 
Japetidxy while they were yet in conlaft with 
Aranuean families, and formed a powerful tribe 
in Ajia Miner and in Thrace. It may, thcrd- 
fore, in particular inftanccs, have more fimilltude 
.or analogy to the AJiatic dialeds, than what ap- 
pears in thde branches of the Celtic that were 
matured in the toeji of Europe. ■ Thofc, who 
nfcd this language, confifted partly of Titans^ of 
Ctlto-Siytbiaru, or of thofc Japetida^ who aififted 
io-buildiDg thc-city oi Babel, ^tid mull have 
been habittiated, after the difperlion, to the 
dialers of the nations through which they palTed, 
before they joined the fociety of their bretbrem 
Tills may account ias fame injiances wherein the 
irijh arrefpends with Eajlern languages ; where 
it alfo difers from moft of the Celtic of the: 
Weljb and Bas-Bretom. I have already remarked^ 
that Irijh^ pr a congtnial dialed, once prevailed 
HI Tbrace, and wai diffufcd from thence, all thtf 
may to the ifiands of Bntain,. whilll, at the fame 
time, it branched off to the hali<>n fide of the. 
Alps. Part of this family, then, mufl: have 
reached their deftioatioD by land." 




419 Mtrmwv^ of tkt aacient Iriik- 

" A fat^t v^uch I appfebra4 has tnfififUi^ 

force, is the identity^ c^ the Irj/b aq^ Wgitieiilit 
Unguages. . The biter i« ia qfc aau^tffl, t^^, 
Vho inhabit a few Mpin^ valiies." 

*< Neither bifttuy nor traditipR eoofil'llM \\Ut 
hypotheits, that the Plfamiaiu p]aqt<4 > coiw; JJB 
the Britifh. iflaa4s. Ptolemy import^ {9309 qf Mri> 
inhabitants from E^t or PhcEnicitt, iior j(^i*^ 
irom the i'cf si, or the Aborigmei. o{ h^ fll>tive 
Si»in. There k fio hint pf any PimnUim wlfc 
pies ia tbefe iilan^s, pijomptcd by itw ».aac«f 
hiftioriauq or geogr^hers, wh<> cc^^ed thpir.tiH 
telligeacp from aftual remjirks upp^ the mca^ « 
upon the manners, ait4 from (»}QU»etttai or tfh 
fiilar traditions^ . : 

" Lat the period h^ve been <^r fp cwcb^» is 
which the Phoenicians profflrcd thwiio from tUs 
British iiUnds,. by the inftre^w/e of the nativu 
«j4& Qeltif rekthns ip Spfftn, yet it .aj^ears tfott 
the Phoenicians bad Bf> early actjuaintsooo wirik 
Britain. Before the aggrandlzomcotof Carthage. 
the power and in^cnce of ^fe Ehomictitns, 
evcQ in Spain, muH: h^ivi; bccii very diioiimtiTe 
mdccd. If the. pjjiar ef Herciriea had not 
hitherto coDllltuted thf abiolutc bQundtiy (tf 
their navigation, yet tbejr coOQc^ioii m^ tho 
exterior coaft co^y bav« .hc«i wly *{«« jf 

" juftin aflferts, that the Phflenicianfl,.whai ^teft* 
isg the city oiQiidfi, ift » UtUe ii&and, vcryooK 


ibc AoK, vera lb •nolemly i^pofed Iv^ te ■». 
tires of Spain, as to call in auxiliaries from At 
wGog cobay v£ Carnage, who, fen£ng a no- 
HMTons fleet, at well as anaj, fecoodot dipir 
opcratioDS, aod fixnred for tfaemfdvcs a ccok 
fidcrabb territoiy io the contigooas pvovincc o( 
BotCRa." (Cetbc Refearclies, |>. 135. LoodoD* 

Mr. Davies qootea Juftin and Hi. MxarieoSag 
Aa'abore paffiige. 

In, Vd. VL page 396, of Indian AntKjuiiiat 
Mr. Maurice fB;fs 3 '* Tlje geniai of GaxdlB^ 
beii^ mora martial tban tliat of Tyn, nlMv 
dt^Sk W3S ratiicr commerce than coaqueft, it it 
not improbable that the fbnoer m^ht, t^ £nc4. 
«£ arras, have eftabliSied a ftttlqeent in d^ 
CaJEterifkS) and by this means have fceared that 
Bboopoly o£ UH} which tbi Fbameiam tad 
tieir £olmia imitibHabfy njoyed f»r fevtral 

And Sir WiUiam Jones £iys ; <' The dl&overy 
of the Btitiftk ifles, hj the Tyriant, a numtioned 
}iij: Straba, Diadona, and PHt^, and pcoKred, a 
Vttll ~by the ^oesiciao motnimeats fouiid in h^ 
loHd, ii by ibe t^niiy bgtwetn the Irifij mid 
i'wiicUnguaget. Newton places this event about 
tfae 8Syi year bsforc Chrifl;, and ia the tweRtp< 
firft after the taking of Troy." 

This is the heading of a mode henuc pMm, 

ontidcA} MrifaiM di/nvertd^ [aitucd in the AppcK^ 



41 2 ^ttronomtf of tke ancient Irish. 

& to the Ltfie and WridagB of Sit WUUam 

JODCS. ■ ■ - 

. And Irifli hifbiy is yeiy explicit oa .die.i»- 
Tages and coaqudb of tiic .CarthaginiansJn.Ire* 
land, under the oamc of Africaa [Htates. 

Our Aire-Cod did certaialy iovade Tbnui^ 
for 'the uafoccessfiil eiqiedition of ZJor/ur. agaioft 
them only provoked their attacks and mquces ; 
ibch u the attack of the ChafoDcras n^ Thraoc, 
and their alliance with the Spartans, hj. i^Dch it 
vas J^freed, that tfaej-ihonid ioTade Media (that 
b, the em^Hre (^Fcrfia) by the way of the Piu^ 
^ C^cbity and the Spartans by way of Efbefm^ 
(Herod. £r. 40. and ^4.) See Rennel's H^od. 
p. III. .And, daring this alliance with the 
Spartans, they inAru^ted them in the myfteries of 
liaCalnri, which originated with them, as we 
fliaU fhev hereafter. Bat why our Aire'Cuti 
Ihould be obliged to travel by land inan Thrace, 
which was open to the Eoxtae and iEgean.feas, 
with which they were fo well acquainted, I do 
not comprehend. They were fole maftersof.the 
fhores of the EuxinCt till . the Greeks fettled 
thde about a tbodand years before Chrift, 
who were c^ten routed, and their ihips car- 
ried off, as Irifii hiflory fets forth. At 
length indeed the Greeks ccmqueied, and made 
the Scythians work at their intrenchments, 
ipakiog them dig domban^ that is, deep in dia 
fodes, and carry it up to the parapets in 


Aslronomi/ nf the attcunt IrUh. 4i3 

fo/jf, leathern bags: -wbence, fay fome of the 
Irifli poets, the names of Fir Domhatii and 
fJt- Botgi but fuch puerile ftories are to be 
■<Jefpifed. • ■ 

' M. Brigand, in his DiflertatiMi fut' les Celtes 
■Brigantts, infifts; that the Celtes from Bithynia 
penetrated mto Europe by the Tbradan Bof- 
-pbenis or the Hetl0ont. Surely the Scythiaos 
of the Euxine may be allowed the fame means ci 
reaching Sptio. 

-* What Mr . Davies fays of the fimilarity of ' the 
'Itifii with the oriental languages, and the caufe 
aiSgncd for its excellence 'ia' that rdpeA tivet 
■that of the, old Britons, is an acknowledgmeiit 
from a Wellh author, and a leaiiied man, much 
in favour of the Irifli. 

'To attribute a fimilarity of language, and te& 
■gious rites, to the trafficking of merchantj for 
-tiQ, &c. is puerile. A colony of fordgnca^ may 
have even fettled in a country, without iatro- 
'diicidg their language or their' religi(Mi,' if there 
"Was no conae£boa and intercoorfe with eadi 
other by marriages, &c., and in a manndr be- 
Coniog '6ne people. 

The Strongbomaru have been fettled in ihe 
comity of Wexford above fix hundred yearsj 
they retain the Saxon language, and have not a 
vord of Iri(h, ;dthough they mix with the na- 
tives at market thrice a week j yet, by not nor. 
Tying into Irilb families, the Saxoa language has 


414 jt^trojuimy of the ancient JriaA. 

aot advaoced a foot beyood ihv two biFonicf i« 
which they rcfide/ 

LsDguage, fays Do£ler Johnfoa, is the p«- 
digree of nations. There is no tradog the 
coiHiefltons of aoctcnt nations but by lasgoage. 
And OoQor Prjcflley informs us, that tfae lati- 
goage t^ a people is a great guide to' an hifloriatr, 
both IB ti^eing their origta, a&d iti difcovcria^ 
the flati; of many other important ^mmftinees 
belonging to them. Of all cuftoMS and faaUts, 
that of fpMiihi btm'g the mA frequently exer- 
<ifiM« it tfie.m^ cfnfimied, and leaft ]idblt ti> 
(flange. Cokwics, therefore, wilt always fpcak 
ijatt language (4^ ifeeir nwthor country^ and even 
^ prcfiortioa ^ that fbrdgn intcr«oUr& may, 
in feme meafure, be cftimatod by the degrcie 
of c^rt^ption in that language. " liingo^rum 
(COgeatio eogn^tiooig geniaqm priecipmjra ctt- 
fMSmtrnqoe argunwitam eft." (^^ogham). 
^nd the kamed Jin goet 1^11 iwthcr : he tfr 
itft(» 4iat language is to be preferred even tit tbe 
amtali'^ remote timtf, to pnwe the ori^ of a 
poopfe, particularly of a migratii^ people. What 
ot^eAion then can be made to a people, vhofe 
biftoiy I have vinditated^ and wfaofe meft ancient 
gaaaais and Iviguage confirm them to beoi 
ta ori«ual people ? 


" ''See an account of this people, and a vocabulary of 
their language, prefentsd by me to the Royal Irifh Aca- 
4«my, Vol. II. 


Ailrtnomy of the ancitni Irish. 4 ) 5 

lAd to (lid Waldeofe bDguage' being &iiilar, 
or kather identically the fame, with the Iriih, it 
it vsU iccounted fot- in Irilh hillory. Dating 
mctfiarch of Ireland (A. D. 398.)) led, a au-. 
ibctous xrftiy to Gaula and irom thence to the 
Aiptt where he was killed hy lighteqiiig, ' Ifis 
troopSt having loft their leader, fettled thwc 
The Oraiio Domimcot in the Waider^t printed b^ 
Chaodxrlafa in London ia 1700, is certuaif 
pure Irijh. the Old and New TeftAmeftt6 in 
that language, it is faid, were brought over 
by Moriand, and lodged in the library of Cain'> 
biidf^. Alifi, in his Hiftory of the Churched of: 
PiedfBimt, reports, that not only the Bible, btit 
fereral o&Ot MSS. c^ the Waldtnfis^ vwe in that 
. library. At my requefl:, a frieod made diligent 
fearch for thefe books without fucoefs, The 
difcovery of thera might lead to much ioforma- 
tion. There arc probably feveral Iijih gentle- 
raea, now at that unireriity, who might be ap- 
plied tO) but, as Sir Wiliiam Jones fays, it is a 
dnnimftaaoe equally unfortunate, that men of 
refined taftc, and the bri^teft parts, ^rc apt tO: 
look opfiQ a dofe ^plication to the ftudy of Un-. 
guagea, ju iooon^ent with thdr ^rit and ge< 

* Of the country of the Waldenfes, the iearned Gebelin 
tbus cxprdTea himfelf, " Ou regoe un idiome peu coaoiii 
et meprife des perlbnnei qui font cependant profelEoD dVcrC ' 
flgn CD fait de laognet ; . cet idiome eft k Vaidoh. (Mond.- 
Prim. T. IV. p. J. 


♦16 Astronomy of the ancient IrUh. 

fltiu. So that the fiate of letters feeon to be 
divided into two clafles ; mea c^ learniBg who 
have 00 tafte, and men of taAe \^ have no 

We fliould now |Hx>cecd with the AftFODonical 
^&Yi J bat the printer and editor haviog been 
at' niDch expenfe in the fdatcs of thU vohuKj 
and many more beiog necefiary to die' ezplana- 
tioo of the aftronomica) part, he poftpcoes the . 
publication of it to a future day. 

Nothing has been advanced, in this Vindica- 
ttoD of the ancient Hiftory of the Iriih, that has 
not been written by the Irifli hiftorians, and becn- 
proTcd ather from Greek or Arabian anthors, 
viz. Their fettlement on the Cafjuan fca ; -their 
progrefs caftward to Segdiana and to the Indus ; ■ 
thdr abode between the India and Ganger ; the 
difierent colonies with whom they mixed, viz. 
the Bolg or Bcleguei, .the Omantf and Dedam, 
in thdr retom to Colcbit or Scythia, have been, 
exhibited in a map of ancient lodia, fo per- 
fefily agreeing -with ancient documents, as, in 
my opinion, to leave no doubt of their veracity, 
and to give the lie in full to thofi:, who pretend 
that Irifli hiftwy was the work of monks of the 
dghUi, ninth, and tenth centuries, in the pro- 
grefs of this Vindication* I have produced oricn- . 
tal words, correfponding to the Irifli, as a proof 
of the hiltory ; and for this I have been accufed 
of depending too much on etymology, aUhough, 


~ Attronomy of the aruicnl Irish, 413 

at the fame time, I have quoted authority for the 
hiftorical part. The talk of aa etymologift is 
certainly a very difficult one, and, without a 
good undcrAanding of the oriental tongues, be 
will make a very poor figure. 

I ihali conclude this volume with a proof that 

our ancient Irifh, when fituatcd on the Pbqfis of 

■ Colchis, were. the authora of the Cabiric rites; 

and, as before, it fliall be proved by hiftory and 

by etymology. 





4- HERE were tliree; the god 'of vnndi an4 
fiormS} the god of voyages, and the fun, imder 
the names of Dbimal, Biosc ar, and Tauloc, 
together named Cabiri^ or omnipotent. The 
Aire-Coti Scythians were great travellers by 
Uad find fea, as we have fully explained.' The 
evil genius Dumaet, or' DeimaJ, the angel of 
4eath, who is alfo nacoed Badbbh, the god of 
winds, frequently endangered their lives by 
flonns of ,wind* overwhelming their caravans in 
the landy deferts, and wreclcing their Aiips on 
the rocky coalls. 

Man is naturally difpofed to feck the protec< 
tion of Godj fuch as he knows, or believes he 
JcDows, and to recommend btmfelf to his pro- 

Such was the origin of the Dio/curif formed 
of Dit God^ and 0/car, a traveller, a voyager ; 
whence Ofcar-hnnt a caravanfera, a houfe for 
travellers, aa bof|»t^. 0/car fignifies alfo a leap 
or bound; and hence the fobliih Greeks !□• 
s e vented 


426 Of the Dioscuri andCabiri. 

vented the leaping and dancmg m aims in tndr 
tnyftcries, and thought the Curra-bumutb, flup- 
bnilders, t. e. CorybatHes, tiocre fb named in> m 
xDfiuz'Vra ?w», bccaulc they leap as they walk ; 
and, fays Strabo, xetf gravely, becaufe the 
Corybantet or Cdbiri leap with a kind of eo-^ 
thuGafm, fre'thcDCe call'tbofe by diat name who 
zSt with frenzy. 

At Dio/curiat, on the Pontus, now called 
Jfi^our (fee. p. 71.). began the country of CoIcBU, 
and, here, we may Jhppdfe, the rttes of the 
'6ai>iri w.exe firft eftablifljed. ' ., 
' All arts an3 trades, together with the priefl- 
bobd, fays IriQi hiftory, were .confiiicd to the 
Tuatha t)edan zoioaj (the Dedanitcs of Chal- 
dasa, as explained tefore)'; and each profcffioi 
was confined to otic fine, i. e. tribe or caft, as , 
with the Brahmins and Indians. The reader wul 
iheii not be furprized to nod, that the Greeks 
miftook fliip;carpenters .and blackfmjths for 
prieTts ; not knowing how to diftinguifii between 
Talcine, the caft of (^hs, and^au^ec/n^, priefts 
of the fun, ' ,' "^^ 

Ariemidorus is my authorrty, that the ancients 
knew of the Cabiric mylleries being elliiblifiied 
in Ireland. *' There is an ifland," fays he, 
*' near Britain, in which the facred rites of Cerei 
and Proferpine are obfcrvedi' as in Samoihrace.,'^ 
(Quoted by Strabo, Lib.lV. p. 191.) On which 
Bochart obferves ; " Thcfe Iflani^ers could not 
have been inftrufled in thefe rites by the Greeks, 


Of the Dioscuri and Cabiri. 421 

ibr Jrtemiderut wrote in the age of Ptofenustu 
Latbyrm ; at which time, every fchooUbof 
knows, the Greeks had not navigated to the 
Britifli ifles, and therefore the rites of the Cabiri 
muft have been introduced 'there by the Phceni- 
ciana.*' (Gcogr. Sacr. p. 650.) " And," adds 
the fame author, " OfyAfitr,' cS- rather Onoma- 
eritusy indeed mentions Ireland, hnt he learned 
the name and Cte of il from the PhtEnidam ; the 
Greeks had not at that time failed into' thofe 
ieas. Onomacrim lived 560 years before Chrift. 
Polybius, Who lived but, 1 24 yeaK before Chrift, 
acknowledges they knew nothing of the northern 
nations. Itaque mulia potulfe illh ejfe perfpeSla 
de occ'tdentaiis ocedni 'infuHsj qua Polybius' ig- 

That the JirC'Coti mixed with the Phmiciam 
of Tyre, atld took on them the name of Phoinice 
and Ffiflf,-has been explained before. But to 
deny that the Phcenicians of TyrehaA any know- 
ledge of thcfe iflands, as the author of Celtic 
Rcfcarches has done, and to attribute the dif- 
covery of them to the Celta;, and the tin trade to 
the Afiatic nations by them through Spain, is, in 
my opinion, cutting down an oak, and fetting up 
a ftrawbcrry ; cavar un cbiodo et plantar una 

DionyliQS Per. alfb mentions the Cabiric iitcs 
being ufcd In the Britifli ifles. (Ver. 565.) 

Thefe rites commenced with our Aire-Coti of 
the Pbqfii in ColcTiis Scythica. 

E c a oi 

■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)l)'^le 

432 Of t)i£ Dioscuri and .Cabiri; 

■ hx. 

Herodotas sJSextfi, that they were comnraoi* 
rated by the abori^irtaf Pela/gi to the Samothra- 
cians zai Athenians ; which is ttje fame thing as 
fayiog they were irom Colchis, for the aboriginal 
Terra Pelajgiat extended from the Pb^^ to the 
£a*/rtft (Dion. Per. vcr. 686.) 
, The Celchiam vck great (bip^hnilders, ^s 1; 
tcmarked by Herodotus ; and tn .that art the^ 
ddcendaots omtinue to excel at this day, as the 
ingenious and lirely Mrs. Guthrie infonos us. 

Curra bunnith (Corybaatcs)^ or fiup-building, 
could not be performed without iron-work. Tal, 
in Irilh, is a fxnith, fabcT; Mac Tail, filius 
hiai (C<^n). Hence the Tekhimt of the 
Greeks, taken for gods, renowned for being the 
firil workers in iron ; they made a iickte for 
Saturn, with which he mutilated bis father Cs/ur. 
(An allegory quoted by Stiabo, L. XIV. 
j>. 654.)' 

Hjffntu lays, the Di^euri had the privilege of 
faving Tnarinerj from fiorms atfea^ conferred on 
them by Neptune. ** Ncptunum autem pari con- 
filio muneraiTe, nam dedit poteftatem naufnigis 
/aluti cfle/* (Aftron. L. XL c. aa.) And both 

* AcccffdiDj to the Anmddian marbles, iron was o^ 
found out till 188 ^ears before the war of Troy. It u 
found natiTe in Sbcna- DoAor Pallu found a maJs that 
weighed 1600 poiuids. It u alTo found satiTC in Seoe^al, 
Mexico, uid other places. 

■ n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le 

Of the timcuri and Cabin'. 423 

j^tt'a^aad Amia agr<:e ia celc^ttag tjiem as 
protcftors of feiimed. Homer and Horace ag^e, 
alfo la this. (Faber, Cabin, Vol* II. p. 224.) 
Pence tlicy Were called Jaaces, and Altaehei, 
from a Scythlad 'or Irifh' word, viz. Anac, and' 
Eineach. Anak me O 'Thigbemaf Save toe. O 
Lord. Tug ced bo in a ^ineacb. He gaye an 
liundred eow» (money ftaniped with a cow j fee 
Ch. v.)" for his proteflibQ : iii Perlian \^\S\ 
tmak, fecure, fafe, a word oi Tartar origiv^ 
(Rich.); and heiice A.'«f > fuftQS gregis (Ody^- 
IX. 440) J whence V?! a."««i( Rex, Reges, quia 
Rcgea funt P0ere!. 

And' from andither fynonimoue Irilli wofd, Phe~ 
thy or fiithisi fignifying to keep, preferye, or de-' 
ffend'j *^Ron phethit,-\. e. ron coimhi^didtj you pre- 
fcrvcd or defended'; Coimbeaii, a ward, a watch, 
cOSiody y Luthd coimbeuda, a giiard" (O'Brica); 
** fettbhf i. e. do iaifgesy to keep f^fc, taif- 
fftldan, z ftorchoufc, a keep-fafe" (O'Clery), 
cijmcs the Pataicij the reprefentation of Ditfeaf 
placed at the head of their ihips } whence the 
fafliion of putting the head or figure of Mar?, 
Jupiter, &;j;;. at the bow of our fhlps of war. 

*< The Pataici feem to li4ve beeq no other 
ibaa the Ct^lrU who, a? it abundantly ^^pcafs 
from SattchoniaihOt weri; originally Phtfnician 
dcjties. The circpmftance of their being the tute- 
farf gods of navigatioTi is noticed by Ariftophanes. 
"^^n which' the fcholiaft obfervcs, that the iai« 
tiat*i in the rayflcries qf the Qabiri were 


424 Of the liiascuri and Caiiri. 

thoiig&t to be &fe ia the midft of perils, and 
Jieiirt /rem afl tie violence if Ump^." (F^bcr, 
Cabin, VqL I, p. 159.) 

I an .much jniftakeo, if a poiat of land, at the 
aoutli of the 5«/r, in .Waterford turj^our, called 
Tbmttleac^ that ia, the k<u or attai cA the Paitict^ 
K Dot the remains of a tcinplc to ,thefe martae 
deJitios.; and, as they p^ed over J^eart dut is» 
the fca, we ^d them called l^es. Qn tfie 
coad of We:iford is TMfiar,. iflaod, and the Tuf. 
car rock, corri^tcd, I believe, fr(^ Die/car^ 

Deimbal, ' othcrwifc ^fl4^Wr.-preCded over tlje 
winds, and commanded Jlorms and fliipwrecks at 
bis pleafurfi. To protect them ^om the powers 
of this evjl deity, who was alfo t^e ange) ofi 
deatby facriQces were offered to pi-of^at^t' who 
was alfo Di-l^ar, god of the fea,. " : 

This'^'i/tY:, I)fimhal, was know;D to the Ctiaf',- 
dceaps, as lye f^d .jn Maimonjd. de fund, legis. 
■jH njTOTI Dumab-el, fpiritum ventis pr^fcaum^ 
et nomen angdi prafcftj . mortuis et moribiindls. 
(Buxt). This deity, and, no ^u^jtj t^ic reft, 
'".'■': ■were 

" The CabiHc orgU were celebrated in die night. It it 
iW thu it firft they iBc'riAcMd Childrea Df 1 cCtuin a^e, 
Irbich; io their opinion, wai »■ prefftrvatiye ajjdiiil^ die danj 
gert of the fea. '^Wh^o they became Budbyii, bumvi facri' 
4ces cealed, as I bare frequently had occaHon to repeat. 

Grasce Curetti funt appellati; alii Coryhaniet diciintnrt 
hi aiitem Larh appellahtur.' (Hyglous, Fab> I39>)' ' Pof- 
fuitnis,' fi Tide tor, fummatim aliquid it de Lar'thtit dice^ 
quoa arbttfatur- vulgus vicerum alquc iiinerwa Dtai'*^^tAtii 
lubioi). ' The oaine Larit will be hereafter explaincdi 


OJ (he Dioscuri awrf Cabin,, 425 

^crs all of Chalda^ao maDufitfhirei intnoduced. by 
the Tiiaiha-)Sefiimies.. ' ' 

' In the cafly a^es qf Chrifti^qlty, DH^hal v/is 
ftili £hc evil fpi^-it of the Irifli. Tn the life of 
Coiunf-Cille we.iind h'ltn pjenticiDed,' ?.s cxtrqfted 
by Keating. ' '." '' ' ' - 

I, -. ,.T^^SSI,ATION.-. ,, . 

- Xtte piqus CiH^i» 1»er^ Golmw-CiU«, ' . 

^ l^hetbhe.wra^ptiiefl, receia'cL the name , . /j 

Of Crioiathaa Cain,- his guardiao angel --. ■ '.^ , 

Was the njoft w^(?hfu! Achs-al.:' but U^e denioi} 
'^WhO, with-infefrial mlJice ftuQg, attkded 
• tJpQn'ihe'ftint>- to torture and rt^msotiiini,-' 
. Wai calkii 'Dt«i*i..r " '', ; . ' 

Thefe deities' "wprc fiippof^d to^refide in the 
air, tHerefor^' they piade no image? 'of ,them, no^ 
kiiowiog hqw to rcprefent an aetialbeing with- 
out fubftance t like the Ctfu'nians,' z people of 
Cafia^ vhb> Herodqlps tells us, h^d gods which' 
properly were'thofc of their fathers and of th^eir" 
country, and to thcfe they d^uly, added oth^s,' 
tafefb from thfcirneighbouring natloqs. Biifih 
procef^ of time, " being difpleafcd ■^iih thefc 
ftrange.gods, they, refotved to drive them out of 
their country, and to*^ tli's method 'to do it." 
They all armed themfelvcsj and beat the' air 
■sjolen^y with their fpcars, and jpurfued thefc- 
' . ', V ■ deities, 

1 Oamh is now writtea Taimh ; at Teimh-tin, a natural 
death t Taimh-Uatht, a burying earn. Deimhai is there- 
fore the angel of death. Saman, alias Qe^il, vii the judge 
iMT departed fouls, as explatned befdre. 


426 Cf t\t Dioscuri and Cabiri. 

dbdes, which, according to their notions, refi,ded 
m the air^. to the loouot^ins of the CalyndiatiSt 
and by this means thought they had driven thdc 
ftraogc gods from their couatty.'* 

The priefts of thefc Diofcuri might properly bc- 
named Deacbt-taikt th^t is, inftruded tQ myfte- 
ties : whence DaSylt ; they were properly called 
TaaleC'iana, i. c. jmefts cf the fait.' Ta^ec' is 
the fpn ;■ and hcoce thq coaftifioii of ttte GredES, 
miftaking Tal'dnct the call of finiths, for Tai^bc' 
itma, the pricl)s pf the fpn* l^e Tekbinetvc, 
£ud by NoDOos tQ be ibe Joiui of Nepttme. 
Diodoms &ys, they firil in^txted? filbodesy and 
were reported to be duldren of ihcjea. Neptune 
vas committed fo their care when an infant^ and 
they broi^bt him up with Cabiraf the daughter 
of Oceanm. They were allb reckoned magicians, 
and could' produce dopds and rain a^ pleaturd^ 
and are faid to have foretold a defuge. Tuele, 
as ( have (bcwn, were the ^v/ers' of. Deirnal, and' 
of the Tuatha Dedans or the.baruipices of Baby- 
lon, . who introduced or lavcntt^ this worihip 
vith OUT jiire-Cati, whep fettled. on ihc Phafa. 
AU was it) alluil(m to. Qiarine deities, which, witli 
fhe fun, formed .fbe whole of this worflup cni- 

' Thcfe priefts were alfo named fvw, ^nd coy^ 

moot, the holy ones, the iacred lervaats of the 

■" ■'" " deity; 

■ Softened \pf tbe Greek* to Ta/tu. Tta«f o "UXus 
(HdjrchiiH.) Fm, TmIk, Mtbtt, the £ui. (Coimac^ 


t^the Bioscuri md Cabiri. 42^ 

ddty; whence cotffeacam^ to make liQly, tq eon- 
fccratc. " Cabirertim facerdbs diccbatur, Kim 
kees.'* (Hcfychius.) *' JW<m/ (pron. meef), in Irifh, 
a fervant devoted to fome religious' order ; it >ras 
anciently^ out of reverence to fainis, prefixed tp 
the name c^ iheii in clirin:coing, as Mael Cpluim- 
(hille, which properly means Coiumcille's fer- 
vant.!' (O'Brien.) ^thiqpici, Mief, an offi- 
dating pried. Cad U fynonimous tp Coii, ftgni- 
iying holy, facred j and" cam Cgnifies to proftratc, 
to bow dowoin devotion ; and hence the Greeks 
and Latins wrote Ca/mUus^ Cadmllus, Cadmelusy 
. and Camillust i. c. Phcenicifi miniftcr deorum 
(fiochart). Perf. ^juS Kefs^ a pricft of the in- 
fidels (Rich.); ^thiop. Kafs^ prefbyter; Arabl 
Kufecii SjT. kujut lacerdos; Ch. ffilD Cujh^ 
Jioly ; difitur C(^, propter pi'etatem et fenftlta- 
tem (Hyde). PhcpD. >Dn cbaji^ fan&is. (Sec 
the names for priefts. Vindication, p. 438.) 

The Diofcuri ^ere alfo named Cuirith, that is, 
guards, protc£lors, fynonimous to phetict ; and 
bene? St^bo lays that, In his time, the Cvretety 
Cabirif Telcbirus, Corybantet, and Dailyli of 
Mount Jda, were different names, fignifying the 
lame men ; miftaking deities for pricfls, and 
priefts for deities j for the Greeks were ignorant 
cf the origin of this worfliip, as I have (hewn, 
from the confeffion of Herodotus ; yet in another 
place Strabo marks the difference. 

There were certainly no tnorc than tBree ddtiei 

firiginally ; viz. Dt^car, Deimalt and Tauloc (the 



■*2S Of the J^oscuri and.Cahiri. 

fipi). TertuUian f^ys.thcrc were three ;■ f* tripliq 
diverfo nomine, ^^mu., Valenteit ^ptentes ; a. 
dUUn^ioa wltHqiit.a diftercDf^:. In all the p^gai) 
myfterics, the lUn wis tlie chiet- , . 

To mention the different opinions of the an- 
cients ^ould require a volume. The author of 
the Phoronis Jays, the Cureies were. Phrygiaji 
muGciansj thea again, that the ^cr^^jn/irjr were 
Phrygians, and the Curetes .CJrc.tansJ He aflcrts, 
that they fird invented brazen weapons in Eubia ^ 
but others- fuppofed they origiually capie irora 
Ba^riOf and that t^cy ivere given by the Tlt(ms 
to Rh^, as Tervants : fom? thought them gegeneSf 
or earth-born, and fome believe4 them to \^ 
Cokhiam. The reader will find all thefe opiaions 
io Faber's Hiftory of the Cabiri, They were of 
Colchian inventloo, a religion founded by our 
Xire-Coti. ' ' , 

TTi^ Dio/curi'y as' gods of mariners, might 
be properly named, by our Aire-Coti, Cif- 
toir, Melachoir^ or . Cifii-Te, Melach-ret king 
of fliips, Jting of raarlnersi from Ctfiey a fhip, 
^alacb, a failor ; and gods of travellers by land, 
from Bal-eocbiy lords of horfes. Perf. iJijL£=a 
kijhte, a fhip ; Ar. y^tv yauk^ a horteT Hence 
Eocbae, the angel that preCded over horfcs, with 
the pagan Ir^Ih (Vind. p. 490.)- 3a«i, fays 
Hyde, was an Idol worfhipped by the Arabs ia 
the figure of a horfe. (See alfo Relandj dc Vet, 
Xing. PcrC p. 178.) 
' Qo 


Ofiht Dioscuri an4 Cabin. 429 

Od one Etrqfcan moniimcDt of Cador and. 
Pollux, wc find the infcription Kajiur Melakre, 
in Dempfter, Tab. Vll. Malach, in Irifli, is 
the Chaldxan vb'Q tnalacb ; Ar. ^.^<^ tnuUah, a 
fetlor. Gori takes this Melakre for Mekagre, 
who, according to Greek fable, fignalized him-, 
ielf in the Argonautic expedition. 

Of thefe appellations the Greeks certainly 
formed thdr Cqfipr and Pollux. On a bas-relief, 
in Mon;iaucon (Vol. I. PI. '27.), is a (hip, reprc- 
fented as arrived fafc in portj the mafter and 
^rew are facrificing to Caflor and Po1Iuj(, for 
their Jafe arrival, as the iofcriptioa fets f^fth. 

nidas, fon of Ariflogenldas, to the DioTcuri:. 
under the ihip is etxan, i. e, he hath performed 
his vow, usiSi,; or fome fuch word being un- 

la every medal of Pollux, he is accompanied- 
by a horfe. The Greeks confounded tbcfc 
deities. Ca^or and Pfillux were both made ma- 
rine deities ; and priefts and ^ods were all com-, 
prehepded yntjpr ijic fame names : which made 
Cicero fay } 4>Meu<i»i, eHam aptld Grcecos multis 
iQodis nominantur, 

Herodotus was a man of curiofity, learning, and 
experience, and had travelled through a variety 
of countries. He went to Dodona, to know who 
were the gods they wor'fliipped. 'They Inge- 
cuoufly owned, that they did not even know the - 
deities to whom they made their offerings j that 
'"'.'' they 


4Jf) Of the Diosairi and Cabiri; 

they had difling'uillied them by names atid tljcs, 
but thefe' were adveatitious, and of late date, in 
comparifon of the wbrlbtp, which was of great' 
antiquity. Herodoim theti concludes, ** that thcii: 
qatDK and origiti had always been a lecret; and 
that even the Fetafgt^ who firft introduced thcln 
9Dd tbcir rites, were equally unacquaiuted with 
thdr hiftory." 

In the hiftory add language of the defccndants 
of thofe Pela/gi, only, can (heir nimes and titks' 
be explained ; that is, in the Irifh. 

lo this language we find Acbs-al, an' angel, the 
?J(4 irnw acbas-el q( the' Phoenicians.* Many 
Irifh authors write axal^ the only word in which 
the X is ufed., En the book of Enoch it is writ- 
ttn e'|*b'x, angelus, flonicn a viro magijo expo- 
nitUr ^M mt* Acbaz-e!, poffeffio Dei (Bochart), 

The names of the Cabiric deities, as given us 
liy the Greek, ^e Jxieret, Amkerfat, aiad. 

Bochart derives the names from thh mhaxf 
poffeffio.' Axieres prd Cerere, Phccdicibus crat' 
yiK ^triM achazi-eres, poffbffio mea terra, Bt 
Acbaziut p(^effio ntca Deus. Ex Acbazi fac- 
tum Axi per fyncopen, ut in' Grsecorutn hif-r 
lOriis Oxyares ex Perfico TDmBFT* Achafueros, 

■ ^ ip tb« Heb. waA Cb. ^ l4t ''■ Thus, ^ Inlb, 
jfi-ai, angclut aquarum, an <>/}, from bis Tuppoled lagacity 
in finding (m) water in the deleru. (See Bryaot's Obf. pa 
Parages in Script, p. 19.) 


Of the Dioscuri and Cabiri. 43 1 

yd Ul alii Affitetus, Et in Hbro Enochi apocrypho 
E'fWx 9ngeli Qomen, &c. 

However difficult the explanation of thcfe 
aaincs to us, undoubtedly that great etymologift 
has miftaken the firft part of the compound. 
Wn*:! ^cbasj or rather ^bhi, is rynoQimous to ty 
fX in Hebrew, and to <3jl ard in Perlian, writ- ' 
tea fomctimes /^rt, all fignifyiog ftrength, power, 
&c. In Pafian,, we -find the proper names, 
jAm* OjI Ard'Pir^ ftrong as a lion; Ardjhir 
difa duji, the name of Ataxeraes Longimanus ; 
/trdjhir-babe^an, founder of the dynally of the 
Saffanides ; Ardavan, and Ardaban, {Iroug 
guard } names of fcvcral princes of ancient India, 
Periia, Media. (Sec Richardfon, at *^J) D and 
T are commiitable. Art is the fame as Ard, 
fignifying omnipotence : hence, .in Irifli, Art, 
God; narti power, ftrength; An, ■ znd Mac 
Arti proper nanjes. *' Arty Dieu titre d'hon- 
qeur dont}^ a plufieurs princes Arfacidesy adopts 
auifi par les Saffamdet" (Dc Sacy.) 

In confirmation of this explanation, we fmd 
many old authors ;' Nicepborus-, Conjiantinet 
Suidaiy ZonaraSf and others agree, that urTHlonK 
Achfuenis, or Ahafuerus^ the hufband of Eflbery 
in fcripturc, was Artaxerxest who was the fon of 
Xerxes ; therefore Axiot in the compound names 
of thefe deities, is fynonimous to Art, and iigni< 
fies omt)ipotent. 

Again we 6nd an Ochut, or Achus, fon of 

Artaxerxet't another of ,that name, prince of 



*3+ Of the Dioscuri and Cabiri. 

(Ccres)i Axiokerfa (Ptofcapioe), an4 Axiekerfia 
(Pluto); to whom Dion^ddrui adds a fomtb 
named Ca/tniilliu (Mercury). They believed 
that thole, initiated ta the myfteiies of thefe 
gods, obuined their vifhes ; but tbdr prieft* 
^Se^hid fo much fccrecj in thefe myfteiies, that 
it WIS cfteciited a laoilege only to pronounce 
the names of their deities. Fhxn thence it 
comci, that the andcnts content themfelTet 
merely to fpeak of the myftctics of Samotbrau, 
and of the worlhip of the gods Cabin, as a 
thing mod refpcAable and avfiil, but without 
catering into the fmallcft detail. Abb^ Pliuie 
lays, that the %wes of thefe gods, broaght frov 
Egypt into Phoenicia, and from tbence tnt? 
Greece, wore on their heads leaves and brandies, 
boms, wings, and globes, which, he fays, ap- 
peared ridiculous to thofe, who did not compre- 
hend the figqificatioa of thefe fymbols, as h:^ 
pened to Cambj/es, king of Perfia, in entering 
into the temple, fiat thefe laine 6gure5, fo Gor 
gular in appearance, reprefcDted Ofiriij I/is, and 
Htrut, ^0 Jhewed the fetple htw to fave iben- 
filvet from the ravages of water. Thus, ac- 
cording to Ruchs, all ^is myfteiy was no more 
than to teach the initiated a very Jimple and com- 
mon precaution. Origen, contra Celfm, takes the 
Cabiri for ancient Perlians, who adored the fun 

eoce with him of maij yean uatJoiUBCc, and fb he alw^ 
figud hu Dunc, Behold Gsd if "Ma toU^. (Jobi xxxri.5.) 
hx. ^AA£=a iufi;', great, illullrious \ iUnria, power. 


Of the- Bipscuri and Cabiri. 4S5 

and ffMOM. Hyde 13 not of the tame opiaioa; 
Cabiri, he iays, are Gabri, a Pcrli^a word a 
little altered; that is, from the Perfian Gabre^ or 
Cuebre, a fire wprfhippcr, - they formed CabirL ' 
The Cabiric feafts were celebrated ia Lemttot 
aad Thebes: it was faid to be a very aocieat 
feaft, even anterior to 'Jupiter,, who, they fay, 
renewed it. The Cabinet were celebrated in the 
,t)ight, and they facrificed children of a certofn aget 
as. a prefervative agaitf/i the dangers of the fea. 
The ceremony of confecratioa confided in placing 
the. initiated >a a throne, about which the ptiells 
danced.° The Infignia of Initiation was a girdle 
of purple ribbon. Attendance at the fecrifice 
of the Cabiri, was an afylum to all fuch as had 
committed murder. - The reader witt find proofs 
of all we have advanced in Mcarfius." (Ency- 
dop.) ^ . 

Nothing can be more erroneous than Doflor 
Hyde's derivation of Cabiri from Guebre. The 
derivation of the lall is now Jolt even to the 
Perfians, but prefcrved in the Irifli. Gabham is 
to burn, to kindle a fire. Gabb, pronounced 
Gou, for Gabhar^ or Gour, was the name of the 
(^cer that took care of the holy fires at Tarab 
(Sec Coileft. N". XI!.); and Gou is ihe name at 
this day for a forge, a hlackfinilh; and gouat^ 
teine fignifies to llir the fire, to make the fire 
F f burn. 

' Thefe are called Druids' chairs, in Ireland, by wir 
mbdern anti<|iiarie3, with wlxom all ti C«hic, Draidicj 
E^lgic, &c, iiz. 


♦36 Of the Dioscnriajid Cabiri. 

bum. ETcrjr KzAct o( Periian hiftory mnft re- 
colleA Goti the (oath, fSee VindkaticHi, p. 187.) 
Paufaoias fays, the jinaces were, according to 
fome authors, Cafttn, or C^^sr and PMlwty and, 
Mxordiag to ethos, (he Curettt\ bat the mc^ 
knowkig thotight they were Cabiri. " Whence 
PaD&nias doth sot fpeak as if be reSefted on 
thofe who thought thcmfclycs the moft knowing 
in this matter, but only gires this opinioD as 
moft probaUe." (Momfancon.) 
. They were originally named Cobar, or CahoTj 
and Mann, by oorAire-Coti, the founders o£ 
this worfhip, tignifying ftrong, mighty, omnipo- 
tcnt, but particularly over fca9. Hente *' Monab 
idolum vencraBantur Arabes eo CMifilio, ut plu- 
vias opportunas impctrarcnt" (Pbcock, Spec. Arab. 
92.)' -Ar. o*^ manan, omnipotent (Ridi.). 
Beneficus, Deus (Scheid). SJ^ Manat, robur, 
potcntia (Obi.)'. 2r*^ Mana, validus ct firmos 
(ibid.). v__JLL< Ma.-raf, nomen idoli Arabid 
(ibid.) Sec Mann, God, p. 8g. But the Di~ 
ofcar was Mannan*an, maun of the watos, the 
Naob toitHy the nabob of the waves, Neptune ; he 
is called Mannan'an mac Lir, the fon of the 
fca. He is defcribed by Irifh poets in the follow- 
ing manner (they having loil all idea of the an- 
cient mythology); Ceanamthe antra tnii MananUf 
a noble merchant of the jflc of Mann. Lua- 
iitaire if dech ro boi an iarihar domhuin, the beft 
t' navigator (pilot) of the weftern- world. Rofindad 
tre dechft pie ia nimbe, be was powerful in the 

Of the Dioscuri and Cabiri. 431 

heavetis. Indeoir in darat m bttb in t/oineand 
agui in doineand^ agtu an tan conrclaochh Bad 
eeachtar de ar Ri; he aiCfted in producing good 
and bad weather, conjointly with Bad^ (the god 
of wind}, and the moon. // aire fin do gairdis 
agus breadbnam dee in mora De, agus adaordis 
cor ba mac don nuiir e \ iot this reafon he is iaid 
to be the god of the feas, and mariners worship 
bim as the foa of the lea. 

This is probably the ^3D mani of the Chal- 
dteaas, fuppofed by Schindler to be Mercury; 
and the name may be derived from po mann, or 
manin, faliilago. 

The Maa*, or people of the ilk of Man, ori- 
ginally Irifh, have prefcrved an ancient poem on 
this deity, part oi which is pubJilhed in my Via- 
-dication, p. 510. 

We fee he was Z,wr,bccaufe he was Mac-lir, 
the fon of the fea ; and hence the Cabiri were 
called Manet, and Lares. " Varro fimiliter 
hjefitans, nunc efle illos" (Cabiros) " Manet, 
et ideo Maniam matrem efle cognominatam 
Lamm ; nuoc antiquorum fentctJtias fequcns lar- 
•vas efle dicit Lara, quafi quofdam geoi(», et 
ftinAoruHi apitoas mortuorum" (Argobias adv. 

In floe, neither Greeks nor Romans knew any 

thing of the origin of the worfliip of thcfe deities, 

vbich began^ as Btrabo fays, with the Scphians 

pf a of 

' Bad, PerGs aomen angdi qui przed reatis (Hyde), 

433 Of the Dtosairi and CaSiri. 

of Colchis, from tvbora, there cannot tc a 
doubt, the IriQi defcended. It is therefore in 
the language of this people the etymon of alf 
the various epithets of thcfe deities can be ex- 
plained ; alt which we firtd io very clear, as to 
confirm and ftrengthen their ancient hillory. As 
a tfiarine deity, Mann was readily adopted by 
the Indians for Noah, whom, it is thongbt, ihey 
'called Menou ; though I {hould rather dcrirc 
Menu from the Irifh Mionn, explained in Irilh 
documents by Tuifeach, the origin or indoles of 
mankindj as Noah is often eftcemed by FagaS 

Mann, fignlfying powerfal, mighty, is joined 
■with Samahf judge of hcH. Etru/ci, nt auguror, 
'Summanum vocarunt, quafi Manium Deum, Sum- 
mum Manum, i. c. bonum (Gori). 'Hence we 
find Pluto Summahus with the Romans ; yet 
they flitl are igntmint that Summan, or Saman, 
Was the: angelu's mortis, snd fynonimous to 

Baal Aruch fays, the P^rfians caHed then- 
■ priells Cabiri. *' Perfa? tocant facerdolcs faos, 
p^^tl chabiHn — in Talmud fopc vocantur face^ 
dotes Pcrfarom 0'"i3n ehabirim,, et in fingulari 
"i2n chabiTy vcl PeHJe in generc" (Buxtorf). 
" Perf* vocabant anms comarim (Irifti, ctmar, 
a prieft), i. c. facrificulos, vcl faccrdotes, O'nnn 
ehabirim, er fncrunt ifli ehabirim peffiroi, gravi- 
terque affligentes Jfraetem*'- (Baal Aruch). "\Doc- 
toribus Hebrxomm prifcis diccbatur, "i^n cbabir, 


Of the Dioscuri and Cabtri. 439 

magifter, five Raibi recent creatusj dtolo quldcin 
et dignitaic magifterii aaflus, fed Qondum. ad 
publicum docendi officium vel aptus, aut ordi- 
narie vocatus" (Buxt.). from "i^n chabar, af- 
fodare^ confociare; from which word many tbink 
the Cabiric deities took their name. Cabar, 
ftrong, mighty, powerful, is much more appli- 
cable to a deity ; and the Perfian cbabirim were 
certainly priefts of the Cabiriy for they aud the 
Aire-Coti were one people at the formation of 
this religion. 

Strabo gives a very different relatioii of the - 
Cabiri in thcfc words. " Acufilaus, an Argive. 
by binh, fays, that Camilm, the fon of Vulcan 
and Cabira, was the father of the three .Cabiri, 
and of the nymphs Cabarida. But Pberecydes- 
reckons nine Corybantes, fons of ApoHo, by 
Rytia, that dwelt in Samothracia : three Cabiri, 
and the nymphs Cabarida, children of Vulcan 
and Cabira, daughter of Preleusy who had all 
their facred mylteries, efpccially in Lemnoi and 
Imbrus, and even in the cities of the Trojans. 
Their names are rayfterious." " Sc^w holds 
it probable that the Ciirets and Corybantes arc 
the fame; appointed from their youlh for iIk: 
fcrvice of the mother of the gods, and to dance 
in. arms in their . myfleries ; and are fo called 
tt^i t5 xop-VTwra ^\,ii>, bccaufc they leap as they 
walk. ■ Homer calls xhemBetannenes ; and, be- 
caufe the Corybantes leap wiih a kind of enthu- 

rihyCtJO^If ^ 

440 Of the Dioscuri and Cahiri. 

fa{m, ire thence call thofe bjr that Dame, who 
aQ with frenzy. Some (ay that the Idai, the 
fiHl that inhabited the foot of Moont Ida, were 
called DaStyli ; for with them the foot and the 
fammit of the mouniaia had but one name, and 
all the extremities of them were confccratcd to 
the mother of the gods. Sophocles is of opinion, 
that the five firfl were men that ftund out the ufe 
ofirotif and other things ufcful in life: that they 
bad five HClers, and that it was from the number 
5, that they were called DaByli, or fingers. 
Others again give different accounts, and thereby, 
add obfcurity to obfcurtty. There is aifo as great 
a diverftty of opinion about their names, as their 
number. One of them they call Salamnus, 
others Damnaneus, Hercules, and jfcmoti. Some 
wilt have it. that they were natives of Ida, aud- 
others, that they were Grangers that came and 
fettled themfelves there. In this, however, all 

. arc agreed, that they -were the firji thta worked 
iron upon Mount Ida, They are fufpeQcd alfo of 
being impoftors, iu the fcrvice ^f the great 
mother. It is likcwife believed that the Cureta, 

■ and Corybantes were the defcendants of the Ida^n 
Da^yli j that the firft of that body, bom in the 
iHe of Crete, and an hundred in number, were 
called Idaan Daityli; that the Ctiretk, nine in 
number, dctcended from them j and that each of 
thefe Cureta had ten fons, who were aUb called 
Idaan Da^yii. Others faj ^t tlie Titani gave 


0/ the Dioicuri aifd Cabiri. 441 

the Cor^tfies to R^a^ aad that they were 
aimed raioi^ers, come from the coaotty of tb? 
Badriam: others a^n will have it that thiy: 
fame from Coichis" 

To thi^ I iDuH: add ; Sdribq afiertSj " that na-: 
der the denomiDation of Cahtri, and the likci 
were included Dot only a fct of perfons, who ad- 
miniftered fo the gods, bijt the diybities whon^ 
they worlhippcd." (See Proem to Part I. 
p. xxii.) 

" After all this loag llory," iays Mgntfaucon, 
** it appear;, that nothing certain can be builf 
upon fuch a diverfity of opinions as Strabo bai( 
given/'' (Antiq. expl. Vol. L p. 191!) 

From the explanation we have been able to 
^ve from the Irifh language, thp cla^ reader 
will fee why Di-ofcar, the god prote&or of 
voyages by fea, and of tr^veUcrs by land, the 
Naob-tenrt, the nai>ol> of the howling roaring 
waves, the Ceann-ob, the king qr chief oi the 
waten,' 'who was fiippqfcd to hare power to lay 
^ Qorms of tlie qce^n, ^ of th? £^ldy dcferts, 

• Se* Moot£)ucon'; Aiitu] Espl- Vo]. V. Fl. 1^ 

* Honce the Egy^tiau tuuned Neptmie Caaafiui a dcn- 
lu^D, I think) {ireferable to their deriving it fron the lUr 
CaiuAm, io the conltellatioo jii^B (one of the oldell of the 
forty-eight great coDAellatioos] ^ a Kar, ai Mr. Maurice t>)>- 
ferrei) that '^^^ could only fee juft fkirting the fuutbeni' 
hotizon. However, it was very yilihie to our iDdo-Scytbsi 
when exploring the fouthem world from the Indui and 
Qa^gfty va4 >° whofe language jlrj it & fltip. 


' 443 Of the Dioscuri and Cabiri.' 

yet more dangerous, nufed by the evil . dsemon 
Deimat, is fometimes rcprcfcntcd as a marine, 
and fometimes as a tcrreftrial deity, by the Gredts 
and Romans ; for he was Bal-kijie, lord of ihips, 
and Bal-eocbaf lord of horfes and camels, the 
only means of travelling. Hence wc fee Neptune 
made a horfe-breeder, and a horfc-raccr, by the 
filly Greeks and Romans. In a conteft with 
Minerva, he ftruck the earth with his trident, 
and produced a her/e. On medals we find him 
fometimes drawn in a chariot on the waves, by 
horfes with fifhes* tails^ and at others by natural 
horfes. On one he is a^ually mounted on a 
four-footed heaft, with his trident in his hand j 
at Athens he fe riding a great horfe, purfuing the 
giant Polyboitis ; on another with one foot on a 
Aool, with the trident in his hand, and by his 
fide a ftar, to fliew by what means they guided 
their {hipS from place to place. On another he 
has the haft only of the trident in his hand ; ■ but 
the artift, not having room to exprefs the forks, 
mod ingepioufly placed a crab by his fide, to de- 
note that he was a marine deity ; add this car- 
ries us back to yacob's prophecy of his fons, in 
confcquence of Jofeph's dream (p. 345.), where 
he likens Zabit/on to a fea-port, and a haven for 
fliips; playing on the word tili Zaba, a fliell- 
^, a marine ani,m^l. 

_ . .Sernuiai' 


Of the Dioscuri and Caiiri. • 443 

' Serratius Gallaus, io his Dtjirtoihnei de 
Sibylliti earumque Oraculis, 4to Amftel. 1688, 
cxplaiDS the names of Hercules MeUcartm, and 
Hercules Magufanus, to be the Dio/car^ or god 
of mariners. He combats the author of the 
Hiilorf of Zealand, who qqotes the- inforiptioQt 

M. Primut 

y. S, A- Af, 

found in the illaod of Valckeren, who will hav« 
this to be the Grecian Hercules. " Gallasas 
proves it was the Phanicittn Hercules, more an- 
cient by fix hundred years, who, according to 
Procopius, led the Phoenicians tq Egypt, when 
driven from Caoa^ by Jofhua." 

" Philqflratuij in the fecond book of the Life 
of Apolloniiis, La&antius, in the firll book of his 
Inftitutes, and many other writers, affcrt, that 
this Hercules was from Phoenicia* and that he 
travelled over mod i»rt of the globe. Appsan 
tells us, that the Phcenidans raifed a temple to 
his honor at Cadiz, and that he was from Tyre, 
ajid ^ot from Thebes, or any part of Greece. 
Butj" adds Gallseus, " if wc had no other tcf- 
timony of his being a Phoenician than his name, 
Ma^fanust it is Xuffidcnt, for the word, in the 


44* Q/" the Dioscuri and Cabiri.. 

PhceniciaD language, fignifies a voyager by fea^ a 
mariner. It is very commoa," adds be, ** ta 
give, as furoamos to the gods and heroes, th« 
names of the arts they had ioveatcd, 

** As to his comiog to ZfUlaqd, that caaaot be 
deemed extraordioary, iiace, accordJog to Dio^' 
dorm SicufuSf be built the town of Jles in Gaol} - 
and Ammianm Marcellinus tells us, that the port - 
.and ibrtrefs of Monaco viae bmit by Hercules } 
and Smd(^l aiTerts, that his fon Nemdufia built the 
city of M/mej, fo called front his name. But,'* 
fays Gallseus, ^' if he had never been in Zea- 
land, bis fame might hare been carried there by 
Gauls QT Spaniards, and the ZeaUnders might 
have chofen him fpi\ their tutelar god, as he pre* 
£ded over fcas and harbours } for which reafon 
the Latins called him Portumnus, as the Greeks 
^d PaUmott, and the Phoenicians M;x««f8©-, which 
is the fame as Meltcartus. For it is certain that 
portumnus, Palemon, and Melicartus, are fyno- 
nima, and are the lame god, who bad pnclcr his 
proteflion mariners and pilots." " 

To this author's obfervation I mpft add, that 
rnK"n'7a melach-art certainly means the god of 
mariners (fee p. 428, and 431. )> ^^^ Aireae- 
vile^ in Irifli and ChaldEean, would fignify hrd ^ 
the elemttts. But, as to Maga/anus fignifying 
a mariner, 

■ S«e A crwcpie on this utlioTt Jsarntl da S(ifa^ 


Of the Dioscuri and Cabin. 445 

a marmer, or voyager by fca, I am at a lols for 
its derivation} and always thought it derived 
from tnjD magus, and t\VB Jhana, mcditari, 
ftudere, doccrc. 




■ 'MySTERIA PHAI.I.ICA, myftftriis Gabiricis 
per omoem Kiratrutn 'orbcm ' funt cocjunfta. 
(Fabcr on the C^bi»-i, Vol. 11. p. 367.) 

pRiAPua, fi jAyfic^.confidttetur, idem eft ac 
Sol, <^ui(]ue lux primigcDia, onde vis omnis 
^eminatrix. iEgyptri, Hon nomiDC, cuib ita co- 
-tuere, ut racerdotes,-paterna facerdotia accif^etites, 
ei primum initiaDdos dk cCDfaertnt. (Diodor. 

*Sic L. I. 

Priapi initiationes, et myfteria habes, Nume- 

TOrQItl, C. XXT. 

■- . . Les Egyptiens, Its Grecs, et les Remains ont 
eu des tem[des dedi^s a Friape, foos la tnemc 
forme' que cclle da Likgam. Les Ifraelites . 
■adordirent .la m^mc figure, et lui elcv^rent des 
-ftatncs. L'ccriture laiote fions apprend qu' ^fa, 
'fils de Roboam, empccha fa m^re Maacha dc fa- 
crifier a' Priape, dont il brifa le £mulachre. Les 
yuifi-ie firent initicT} la Moabites et les Ma- 
dianites adoroient fur Ic mont Phegor. Qq 
voit la figure du Lingam en bas ■relief fiir Ic lin- 
■tcau qui entoare Ic cirque de NifmeSi de'meme 


4fS Cabirie or Mithratic Caves in Ireland, 

qae fur le portail dc nos ancienDcs eglifcs, for 
celui dc la cathcdrale de Toulou/et et dc quclques 
^glifes de Bourdeaux (Sonaerat, Voy. aux. Ind. 
Vol. I. p. 180.). Tys "JW Baal-Phegory Moa- 
bitanim idolum, Priapum die cenfet D. Hie- 

** The genius of antiquity," fays Mr, Maurice, 
*' delighted in myflery. Dark and fccret, as 
vere the fubteiraDcous vaults, and woody re- 
cedes, in which the leges of the Eaft took up 
their refidence, were the dofhwcs tbereia p«9- 
mulgated. Their theology was veikd in aUeg<»7 
and bicrogtyi^ucs ; tbdr pUIofc^hy wbs iavdved 
in a circle of fymbols. All the fublime wifdom 
of Ada, however, was conceiKrated and diffdayed 
in the Cave of Mithra, which, we have oU 
^nred from Porphyry, rept*eleQied the world, 
and contained expreiUve emblems of tbc vari<^ 
elements of n^tute." 

'* I have offered very cogent argameDts,"addB 
Mr. Maurioi, " that the excavations of Salfette 
and Elephanta were no other than ftttpenidouB 
t«nple3, in which the riteb of that deity, though 
probably under a different appellation, were.pciv 
formed. As corroborative evidence of my a£elv 
tioBJ in chat refpeA, I have given the defctiptioo 
<rf two augnil temples of thcyafl} the one of 
aftonilhing fplendor at Gnzzurat, Which was 
vifitcd by Apollonius Tyameus, in his voyage to 
India, at fo remote a period as eighteen habdireil 
years ago ; and the other, affirmed, in the Ayeeo 

Cttbiric or Mithratic Caves in Ireland. 449 

Akbery, to have been ere^d hf aa ancient 
rajafa» add not Ids remarkable for- its magmtude, 
and beautiful fcalpturc, than the former for its 
^tendor. But, fince the^cavetus io India are un- 
doabtedly of a date far anterior to the age of tho 
feccKid Zwoaftery or Zaratujbt, xrho flouriOied ia 
the reign of Darius Hyftafpcs, atid who, accord- 
ing xaVar^^yrfy Jirft of ail, va the mountain ad' 
jaccDt to Perlia, confecrated a natural cave ia 
bcHKMir of Mhhra, the father ef the univerfe ; 
aod, fince Zoroq/ier confecrated the cavern, ajier 
hit tfifit to the Brahmins of India, and when he 
hid already been inftru£ted is |hc [vofound ar- 
cana of that agronomical icience, for which they 
werC' fo (fiftinguiflied in antiquity ; there arifee, 
from this coUtftivc evidence, proof, .little Icfa 
than demonltracive, that certaia myfterious rites 
and ceremonies, congenial wuh their aAronomlcal 
and theological fpeculacions, were tnAituted, and 
edcbrated in thefe caverns, at a period prior ttf 
thofe celebrated in any of the neighbouring 

Porphyry, in his treatifc De aniro Nympbarvm^ 
treats at large of the Mithratic caves, of 
the doctrines taught, and the worihip celebrated 
in them. He obferves, that the mofl ancient of 
the human race, before they were fufficicntly 
ikilled in archite^ure to cie&- temples, confecrated 
Cells and caverns to the Deity,; and adds, that, 
wherefoever men acknowledged Mithra as the 
fupremc divinity, they performed the facred rites 


+50 Cahiric or Mithratic Caves in Ireland. 

' in caverns, llic Pyraia, or fire tempJcs,- are of 
a far later date than the periods to which Por- 
phyry alludes, and owed their origia, according 
to the Magi« to the zeal of Zoroafter to prcferve 
the facred flame, which defcended from heaven', 
from exiinfiion by the tcmpcftuous violeoce of 
Itoriris and rain." 

" In thefe caves," fays Mr. Maurice, " they 
Kept a portion of the facred fire- conftantly and 
fervently glowing. The radiant and fpotlcls 
image of ccleftial brightncfs ancj purity was never 
fuScred to be cxtingulfhed, nor even to emit a 
languid ray, but continually afcended in a pure 
bright pyramid of flame, fed with the ficbeft 
gUms, with the mod fragrant oils, and with the 
mod coftly perfumes of the Eaft." 

" We read in Eufcbius," fays Porphyry^ 
" that Zoroaflcr was the firft who, having fixed, 
upon a cavern in the mountains adjacent to 
PeHia, formed the idea of confccrating it to 
MiTHRA (the fun) ; that is to fay, having made 
in this cavern fcvcral geometrical divifions, rcprc- 
fenting the feafons, the elements, be imitated^ 
on a fmall fcale, the order and difpofitron of the 
univerfc by Miihra. After Zoroafter, it be- 
came a cuftom to confccrate caverns for the ceU' 
braiim of myi/ieries." '*-Such," lays Volncy, 
•' was the firft projeflion of the fphere. Though 
the Perfians give the honor of the invention to 
Zoroafter, it is doubtlefs due to the Egyptians." 
(Volney's Ruins, p. 397.) 



Gttirie or iiitAr«tic Caves in Irelfinf. is i 

. ^cti ari! tbi: ^onoimtal ornanaBtt on the 
Ao«a m ibc Mitiinfif caytf of Nfiw Grangt, a 
MfW wnvfttc^ cvi4cptj}r Urom Griaa Uaigb, lAe 
QVK <^ flw ^ Thf QOgraviiigs are a certain 
jirpof of the purp^fr for wbkh it vas conAroAcd, 
and iJ»at it was npt dc^e^ for n grvary, or a 
paw% %)fMchne, 4» has boea ajibrtcd hy a. great 
jM^tea^v t9 a knpivMge io Irifli anti(^ities. 
Xbefe cq^yiBgs ane eotk&id ia PL SX. 

AU» w]io bavc nfitci this cave, Jpeak .cbpo* 
lelsty of fpiral lines and opocefUric drclesJaetog 
€9*yc4 09 l^P ival^ bnt ftp .cue b^ixe his made 

♦Ka^ *^vij^9, of tbBa. 

At ;Jie «pfwr <0rn!jr, ,«i jhe right, aredieyw 
ftnd ffiw^ ; ^ds' tfaeili, tw«!i«e tri^Bgks, ofi ihc 
pgrtton ^ a OKle. iwppcfCTtijig -the jtwcUfc j(%«f 
of the zpdia^ : /b^af jil^ t}i9m> feven ipizcttgee, 
fonawd ^n tbff ffgnaef t f^ ^ ck^le, to reprcfcnt 
i^Spva fkrtfjfn .tii«fi.|bUow{)K>£gweii« fsdi 
CQPpofed .ef :fe?l5n njowejitric ekdcs, lepiefajt. 
Wg *ljf fcvtQ 3R.i*«PMfi». «• g««» flf tbcTpiwn^ 
of . pqrigcM'wil, itbrptigb nbidi, according .to 
{^IfiJJied, the Hindoos believe the traafmigrating' 
foul -is doomed to pafs j Fhicb, Jays Maitficc, 
had a direft allafipato theifcvco ptefStpf'' Jhx 
fig farcn 

^ The Brahmins fuppofe there are fygrtisw jf&ufuw or 
rpheres ; feven below, and fix above the «f^. Tbp Given 
mferior woHds are faid to be altogether in bsbited by ia in- 
finite variety, of ferpents, defcribed in enff mOaAmM figuA 


492 Cahirie ot Mithratic Caves in Ireland. 

££vco ioferiOT, faya-IrHh mythology, afc inha- 
bited by jfndrat, oc infernal deities (Shaw); 
doubtlcfs fo named from the Onderab, or abyfe 
of iotenfe dzTkocfs c£ the Brahmins (Maarice, 
Hift. Hind. Vol. L p. 52.), the Narr-aice of the 
Jnfh ; the Naraca, or abode of ferpeots, of the 
Brahmins. ' This, in Irifh, is the region .of Sarmat 
wbole feftival is ftill kept in Ireland oit the ere 
of All Saints. Saman was the jadge of departed 
fouls, the Afuman of the Perfians^ the Tama of 
the Brahmins (fee p. 41). ' 

On the left-arc three fpirals, <rf" feten volutes 
each* emanatjng from one ftem, which certainly 
deiroted a Trinity; fuch as the triple deity of 
the Hindoos, Brabma, Vt/hnou, and Seeva^ a 
triad which emanated- from a fnperior named 
Brahmi.^^'* It is God alone who crrated the 
nniverfe byhis prodnfliTe power, who ' maintains 
it by his all-preferving. power, and who will de- 
ftroy (or- regenerate) it by his deflruftive (or re- 
generative) power : fa that it is this god who is 
reprefentcd under the name of- Three Gods, 

and roanUnd that inhabrt it Bhoor-logue, the fphercS} 

gradually aktaiitig from thence, are ; 

. . I. Bobur, and the inhabiuou Bobur-Iogue. 


3. Mahurr-logtR. 
■ 4- Junneh-togue. 

5. Tapgab-loeue. 
• 6. Sntlic'Joeue. 

(Haihe*, Tttt. to Genfoo Laws, sHiv.) Tht ttiAct wffl 
rewUeft the kjea gates Oin paffed through, in the Purga- 
tory of St. Fuiick. 


Cahiric or Mithratic Caves m Ireland. 4S3 

^K} are called TRiMotrRTi." (Sonnferat, VoK 
I. p. 259.) *' Thdr indivifiblc unity in , the 
Indian Trimourti" fays Maurice, " being fo cx- 
ftfeisly fpecified, evidently proves from vhat doc- 
trine the faitinlcnt originally flowed : even from 
that moft ande&t do^ne, the perverfion of 
vhich gave to Chaldaea its three Principles, 
to MiTHRA his three Properties j and-ihcnce 
his name rpv>M&u^ which induced the Fhcenkiatl 
Taut to fabricate the celebrated mythdogical 
fymbd of the drclj, fcrpcnts, and wings." Wc 
ihall. follow this learned author a little further, a3 
h will bring us home to our Di'ofcarj or Naob- 
tenn, that is, Bhta'm, the god of voyagers, the 
nabob of the waters. ** Tavemicr," adds Mau- 
rice^ " on entering the pagoda, obferved an idol 
IB the centre of the building, fitting crofs-Iegged . 
after the Indian falhion, upon whofe head was 
placed a triple crown \ and from this four horns 
extended themfclves, the fymbols of the rays of 
glory, denoting the deity to whom the four quar- 
ters (f the world were under fuhjeSion. Ac- 
cording to the fame author, in his account «f the - 
Benares pagoda, the deity of India is faluted by 
proftrating the body /Ar^w times; and to this 
account I flutll add, that he is not only adorned 
with a triple crown, and wotfhipped by ^ triple 
lalutatioQ, but he bears in his hands a thfet- 
forked fceptre, exhibiting the exaA model, or^ 
rather, to fpeak more truly, being the undoubted 
prototype of the trident of the Greek Neptune, 
c g 2 On 

n,gn,-PrihyGt)t)'^le - 

454 Cahiric fr Mitkrali'c Cai)cs in Jreland. 

Oo that fymbol of tlic t»atorT d«ty I lieg pcr- 
itiiflion (Matrrice (peaks) to ^mic to die readcr 
a few curfory obiervatiofis. 
■ " The very «nfMisfeft(»y fcafons, givea Iflf 
mythologills for the tfiiganient <^ the trideot to 
that deity, cxbit^t very cle^cvideQce of its bcmg 
s lymbol that was bcnrowed from foiae mote as- 
cietit rnythology, and did aot aatondty or ot'tgi- 
tiatly' belong to NeptUDe. Its tiree pmtts, or 
tiiut, feme of then affirm to f^ify thed^fflxent 
qualities of the three forts oif waters tbax are 
tFpoQ the earth; as, the ytaters df the oeeaii, 
which are fiit ; the wiOen of fonntaiBs, which 
are fweet ; znd the water of ^kes and jpaadtf 
wiuch Id a degnse partakei of both. Others 
again iafift, th&t this ihnoc'ptfonged feeptre al- 
ladet 1o NeptBoe^s ibrecSoid power orer the iat 
viz. io^^tatg, t« i^sagetaad to fp^irve. Tfaefe 
realoBs are tl| mig^ tmc^oua, and amotint <to a 
ceo6^0D of their tdtal igaoranoe -of its real 
*' (t was, IB the mctfbancteot periods, the Ibcptre 
of the Ifidiaa dci^, aad inay be feeo in «be 
hands of that deity in the fotir^ plale nS iS. 
D'Hancartille's thiid ^rolame, as wdl as among 
the facred ^mbole fmlpdoroi m the Elephasiia 

Under this fyiabol of three fpirab, in-onr ease, 
are the four elemtrfhy cxprcffod by foar tnaU rir- 
des, dcitoting the power dl the triud umted^ 
over earth, >fre, «r, vMttfr j aad in the Ceotie 



Cahirie or Mithralk Cooes in IreUnd. 455 

IS ;i fqoarcv to isprdeot the Neamh'oeast^ Ac cc 
leftial aether of the lri£b-m;tbobgi{b» w^ i^' 
AKASS of the BrahmiiiG. ** Akafsy aa iav^le 
dcmenty pofleffiag the qaality of conveying 
fovmd. It produced ar^ a palpable element; 
fire, a vifi^e dement ; water^ a fiutd dement ; 
and eartbt a folid demrat." (TtanflatioQ of an 
loidiatt Saftra) 

" The Aka/s, in another part, is explatoed to 
be, a kind of celeQial dement, purci impalpable, 
aikd uarefiAiBg, m wluch the platKts move, and 
feeou tQ be of Idadred with the doflrioe of air 
rarefied into fether, maiataiaed t>y their Stoic 
piribfc^eri." (Maurice, Hift, of Hmd. Vol. I. 
p. 64-) 

** The five dcracnte, for the Hiadoos add to - 
the (bur a fiibtile ather, whkh thej call Akajh, 
and fuppofe to be the medium of found." (Hal- 
bed, Gent. Laws, xitxiv.) This is well exprcfifed 
by the undulating (Irokee round the elements in 
(3KIT figure. 

« The .Pythagoreant believe the (mrp) PYR 
to be in the centre of the uaiverfe, and the 
earth to be adther fixed nor central, but in con- 
tinual motion round the PYR." Yet, in anotlier 
place, Plutarch, fpeaking of the fame doflriae, 
faysi " Some fay the HELIUS is in the cen- 
tre of the whole." rm: It ^inro. v^t'iin Tw HAiON, See 
3 very learned differtation on the word irrp by 
G. Penn, Efq., in the Oriental Colleflions, Vol. 

' tTeambaeai, ather (Shaw); Neamh, heavenly, celeftial. 


486 Cabiric or ifitkratk Caves in Ireland. 

I. p. 343., where he produces many authorities 
to prove, that PTI^ mcani the Sun, and not 

«* The PYRRHIC dance," fays Mr. Bryant, 
was Dfigiufilly an Egyptua -dance, -praflifed hj 
the priefts, round a lai^e fire, in hrnwr (^ the- 
SUN"," whofc ortgt thry aflfcaed to^defcribe; 
and thcr^ is reafon to think, that the circular, 
dances of . the'Dervifes, in thrEaft,-4re there- 
mains of thefe ancient cuftoms.-''.,--^ /' ■ . 
UtW then is thc" origiinjf the l^afol, OT-eb- 
cular dance, oF the aodent IriQir of twhich I have 
treated fully in my Vitidication, p.. 47 5, and 
which mud bo reromed. in th^ £0ay &a the 
^ftronomy of the andent IrHh, ^vhere it *iH:"ap-_ 
accd ^lie fun m the centre 
have in this volume ihewn, 
with the rotundity of the 
pe T^crc igowant of its real 

of the left hand niche ot 
tkis Mitbrattc cave, at New Grange, is ^n ioTcrrp- 
tion, the form of which is gtrea'.ln the wopdea 
cut annexed (Ft. XXI.) \ the charafters anc irQOt' 
two to fix inches high. 

Planetflry Syftein at Ae. Mitbiatic Cave of IKew-Grangi 


Ckbiric or Mitkratic Caves in Jrelaitii, 457 



45* dahifie of Mitkratk Caves I'rf IrtUnd^ 

Governor Pownal obfcrvcs, thefe diaraftcrs 
are evidently neither Runic, Saxon^ nor Irijb. 
They have been confparcd with ^H the exemplars 
.of every northern charafter, but no traces of 
aoy iikcnefs have been fotmd b<aween them. 

The Govemca' then concludes that they are 
' phcenician numerals, and, dlittlcltig this cave had 
been originally a cemetery, (hat (he mfcription 
belonged to fome PhanUian monument formerly 
f'reitcd at the month e4 the Bojjte, about ten 
itliles didant; and that this (lone became a pectir 
XtAt means of its btiflg a ftngular injiance of the 
prefervation ef th( only Eajiern dr- Pbmnkian in- 
fcriptim found in thefe totttttries. (ArchEeol. Vol. 
II.) In this diflertation, and fcveral others, the 
Governor exprefles his belief, that a Phoeniciaa ' 
colony did fettle in the Britannic illes. 

If the reader will compare this infcription with 
(he various Phanician alphabets given by Abbe 
Barthctemy, I thjnk he will agree with me, that 
the two firfl letters are MJ, and the word may 
^d Mithrak, the Chaldjean name of Mithra. 
• The word' Babhun in Irifh, and Soohuns ia 
Sanfcrit, which Mr. Maurice properly tranflates 
Gates, figniiies the gates of a furrounding wall, 
whether circular or angular, and hence came to 
f gnify the fphcfe, or fqrround, in which fuch . 
1 gates are made, 

Babhun {bavun), a bawn (Shaw). Sonn 

eaijiean, \, c. Caijlan daingean ni ag a mbeiib, 

babhun na i'lm fM/((0'Clcry)j i. e. Smn cat/Jean: 



J^toi pt'^ Mtt/iratic Cave 
at Anna^k-do^h.^uUifi Co. ArmafA. 



Cahiric or Mttltratie Caves in Ireland. iSj 

ligoifies, a l£roQg or fortified cadle, with gates^ 
in the furrounding (fortification). The word ts 
|»ro(iotiiued havtm, • and b^ the £i)g}i(h bawrt 
(Shaw). In the rciga of Elizabeth, each Scotch 
and Englifli fettler in Ireland was obliged ta 
build a caftlc, with a Itoiim about it, with gater 
to drive the cattle in at nights, foe fecwrity 
agJi^a the IriQl (Fiilnar's Survey of Ireland), 
Ar. (,;^^W habain, the gates, a town in Arabia 
on the Pcrfian gulph (Rich). Ch. M03 babia^ 
janua, Again, Se«», a fortification; Ch. pt 
Z«a», arcaata ; Ar. \jfy-o Sawn^ a defenee. 

*' After having produced thefe paflages, rela» 
live to the tranfmigration of the fout through 
Ihe variofis fnuinal manfiofis, let \13 confider the 
Metemffychojii in a ftill ■ more exalted point ik 
Tiew ; let us trace the progrcfs of the foul np 
the grand SIDEREAI, LADDER ttf fcvco 
GATES, and through the revolving fphercs, 
which arc called in India ROOBUNS of purifi^ 
(ration." (Maurice, In^. Ant. Vol. II, p. 315.) 

But this Mithratic cave is a dsm elevated on a 
frofs, and therefore mull have been Dani{h, con^ 
ftruAcd fince CbriOianity, fays our pedagogue in 
Irilb antiquities. ^' Almofl all the Indian teni> 
ples,^* fays that learned antiquary Mr* M<^urice, 
*^ whether fabricated in the form of a CRoes, a^ 
that of Mathura and !^ares, or in any other 
fafhion, except that of the pyramid, have high 
domes iij the centre." (Ind. Ant. Vol. III. p, 
ju.) "Let not thf piety pf the believing 


4cO CabirU or Mitkratk Caves in Ireland. 

Chriftian be offended at the preceding dTertioo, 
tliat the CROSS vas <H)e of the iiiofl ufua] 
fymbols among the hieroglyphics of Egypt aod 
India; equally honoured in the Gentile and the 
Chriftian wwld." (lod. Apt. Vol, II. p, 387.) 
Sec p. 229, of thii Tolamc. 

Id what manner could three altars hare been 
Qiade, in a circular dome, to the Diofcari Triady 
but in the fomj of a crofs, the gallery of en^ 

(rancp, completing the figure °-| — ■-- — — 

This triad ccmfifted of Di-ofcar, the god <rf 
voyagers, alias Braine, and foractiraes long, a 
&!p, added to the name, as, Braine'hinge 
(CyClery); of Deimali the god of winds, and 
ef death, alias Ke'SheSl j and of Tauloc, the fun, 
wha had i;o tefs than thirty different names, as 
will be cKplaised m the Aflronomical Effay. 

Braine, pronounced Vraine, is unqueftionably 
the Varana or Neptune of the Hindoos. *' Magh- 
Bhreine, vulgo Magh-Reine, the ocean, literally, 
the plains ef Bhreine, a poetical cxpreflion ; fo 
named, I fuppofe, from fome famous fea com? 
wander (Ch, O'Connor)." Thefeaft oi water, 
of the Japonefe and Chincfe, is held on the fifth 
iJay of the moon in June ; on which day they 
run here and there, in gondolas, on the water, 

*• And thefe were the plains of Neptune's horfes with 
the Hindoos, aj we may judge by ihext jljbummeed yagg, 
«r horfe facrifice. " 7he place nihert ih'u harfi rtmaint h 
Aesrcai utaa."- [Halhed'g Laws of the GcDtoos, XX.] 


Cbiirk or Mtlkratic Caves in Ireland. 461 , 

rjspcathig and crying out Peirun, Peirun. This 
Peirun, they fey, was a rich and virtuous king, 
of a very rich and fertile iOaod. His fubjpfls, 
bciug very rich aad luxurious, became fo wicked 
and Gorrapt, that they drew down the vengeanci; 
of heaven, and the ifland was fwallowed up iq. 
die fea.. Peirun, beloved of the gods, was adt 
vifed of the cataftrophc, and favcd himfelf io a 
Jhip^ and, having retired to another counity with 
his family, he difappeared, and po oqe could tell 
■ what became of hiiq. (Kcnjpfer, Hift, Jap.>. 
What a melange of facred and profane hiftory, 
like the Mann of the Jrifl^, and Menu of the 
Indian mythology I 

We now come to the defcription of anothev 
MiTHRATic Cave, on a very different cquf 
llru£tion. It is a cave in which the votaries of 
Mithra underwent the trial of probation, 

Por the difcovery of this cave we ar^ iqdebtc4 
to the zeal and exertions of Sir Walter Sypnott, 
and the Rev. R. Allott, Dean of Raphoe.' 

On the glebe of Annagb-dpgb-mullen, in the 
parifh of Killeavy, county of Armagh, Aands a, 
very large cahn of ftones, about fixty feet in 
length,- and above twelve feet in height. About 
twenty feet from one end, two ftones appeared, 
confidcrably higher than the reft, as reprefentetl 
^n the yicw, V\. XSHI. It was fuggcfted by Sir 
W. Synnott, 

' If gentlemen, qd whole eftatei cairns are fouod, would 
be at the trouUe of opening them, they would afibrd mvdt 
nutter for the antiqaary and the hifloruii). 


<62 Cabirie m- Mifhralk Caves in Irelatul. 

W. Syuioc, ttiar, if ttut cairn was cxandaed, 
ttletc WDtttd probatdy be difeorercij fonu antrqae 
urns. The Cdita was opened abont twcoty- 
threc feet from where ibe two ftoaes rofe' abors. 
the reft : the labourers loon difcovered the liJxd 
Aafflber ia the grouad plaa (Pi. XXIL). Tbera 
appezring evideotljr to be ibuU tow Joors froia 
this into other aparitnents, it was coojeAuMd* 
that the two tall ftoiws might poffibly indicate 
the entrance into the binldmg. ^t cocks aad 
floDCS being cleared away, that were io ir^at ctf 
tbefe pyraimdal ftooes, to the bafe, to dieir gvcat' 
fsrprtzc, the baitdiog exliibited a regular ftaat^ 
xf'nh a low door of entrance ; of all which Lady 
Synoott made elegant drawings oo a krge fcalc, 
from which the Plate XXIII. is taken, delcribitig 
the view of the earn, the entrance, and feftion. 
Dean Allot, determined to prcferre this piece ©f 
;M>tiquity as tnuch as io his power, eadofed it 
wkh a ditch, and planted a mnnber of forell* 
trees roaod the whole, which have in genera^ 
t!»(ven *ery well, ncawitbffaDditjg ibdr T^ry 
expend fituation. 

llie building confifli of fonr apartments ; tho 
firft eight feet wide, and nice feet &% incbe* 
IfHig } the fccoad li^ feet fix inches wide, sad fix 
feetloog; ttie third 'fix feet two inches wide, 
^nd fix feet eight tecbes long y the fonrtb two 
feet wide, and fix fc?t long. In the front js a 
femicircular porch, of rude ftones, thirty-three 
feet in diameter j ^d a,t eight feet from the door' 
■ o£ 




Caiiric or Milhratic Cwvei in Ireland. *6S 

of entrance are two pillars^ or ^taiBt niac fret 
btgh.," oac on eadi iide. Tbc 'diambers are 
ardicd with day corfjclUng fteoes, as at New- 
Gxaogc covcncd at top with a flag about three 
feet broad; the arch fprjegs about three f«ecl 
fsiim die grcmid. Tiie roof and dooricales. ia 
Ccade pbces are deftroyod- 
. '^Doe die fDregoTOg Iboets 'vere friated off^ 
"Bean Allot iaforas ate, that, on re-fflfpe^oD (^ 
the cairn, he rfrfcryod, that this cawc of Amgh* 
ekgh-jttuikn did not extend fo the cetui^ of shx 
caim^ and ga the cfqiafite fide he obferved two 
ohdtlkt (or piaUi) cHk^ fip above the reft, as 
in the &A view, and ihiiiks thefe betpkon ^e 
otttastoeinto a feomd cave, ivhich may meet the 
extreoiity of tlie &ft, io the teoVK of the c^ra, 
FnoBi lilie Dtaa I loam ttlfii, tji«t . in the neigh- 
bondiood df this cum ibnds »n ahar* named 
Leac'Bariatt that Js, the altar of a giant lb 
nxncd, as the pcaisacs informed hiot, but whtch 
figdficscBily the ftcred or Weffed .»l6air<;pi-a)j 
fee p> 153. Aod, not far (Sfiaat. aoother altar, 
named CaSec, which fimith dcfcrib^, in Jiis 
Hiftory of the County of Cork, as the altar of a 

" Locian telU oj, that, m tfce porch of ■tte temple 41 
Hirac^lis, they had Pri^u's ihree' hundred cubits Aigfa; . 
into QQCof wbicii'iiiiDui S^. ip twic« 1 year, aad 4wdc ' 
(cKCa dayi togetk«T Bt the top of the phellut, that he i»igkt 
CODVcrTe with the godi ihtwe, and pray for the proQierity 
of Syria, as the pniyeii are better heard by the gods for 
being Bear at hind. This phaUui tnuH hare been a 

46* Cabiric or SlUhralic Caves in Ireland. 

giantefs that devoured all the children in the 
neighbourhood, correfpoading with the dcflxnc- 
tivc goddefs Calee of the Brahmins, whofe neck 
ts ornamented with a chain of hnman ikulls, de- 
fcriptive of the human facrificcs whidi were an- 
ciently offered to her in Hindoftan. (Sir Wm, 
Jones, Af. Ref. Vol. I. p. 265. "Wilkins, Hcc- 
topadcs, p. 312. Maurice, Ind. Antiq. Vol. 
XL p. 182.), Alt which tend to confirm, 
that this was a Cabiric cave, lacred to the DU 
ofeari; for the Bal-phearha of the Irifh, the 
Phallur and Priapus of the Greeks, was aUb a 
marine and an aquatic daty, the ~\VQ ^1 Baal- 
peor of the Moabites, the Peor-apis of Egypt, 
and the Priapm of Greece ; to whom, according 
to Orpheus (Hymn 10, ad Panetn), e«ii laiMfMm 
•m AA'^w W"f, ihe unwearied and fetbomiefi ocean 
it fubjeSl, and who was alfo the god of fprings 
and fountains; whence, in Irifli, Pbior-mfce^ the 
water of Pear, that is, pure fountain water, 
fpring water. Hence the Af-al, the angdus 
aquarum (the afs) of the Irifh, was the coi^t^t 
companion, of the obfcene deity, Priapus of 

Baal-Peor, idolum Moabitamm, quern nos 
Priapum .poffumus nominare (Hieron. in Ho- 
feam, L. 11. c. g.). Baal-Peor, idolum Moab, 
quem Latini Priapum vocant (Ifidtx*. Orig. L. 
VIII. p. 1025.). Hence the Irifli ^ara;, and 
the Arabic afbary coire ; furuj^ pudenda, jhsn , 
be pbirat cognomen Pbaraonis, quoniao) paffive 


Caiiric of Miihralk Canes in li-etand. 465 

coivit (D. dc Potnis). Sec the learned Bryant's 
obfervatioQS on feveral pailagcs ia fcripturc* 
p. 56. Bat OQ.this fubjcA, 
" Muho ptun quiim roltiifl«ai. 


It is probable the votary was fii'fl: placed iothc , 
furthermoft cave, where he had juft room to lie 
dowii, and was removed bj d^ees to the out- 
ward' cave. Here, I Aippofc, like the Perlkns, 
he was obliged to undergo a fiery trial, by 
paffing fcvcn times through the facred fire, and 
each time to plunge himfelf into cold water. 
Having undergone all thefe tortming trials with 
becoming patience aud fortitude, he was decided 
a proper fut^eA-for initiation. He then went 
through . two bapti/nu, which waflied from his 
foul the.ftaios he had contrafted, during ttue 
courfe of his life,. prior to iDidationj -and, hav- 
ing offi:rcd bread and •waier^ with a ccrtaiu form 
of prayer, a crown was prefented to him on the 
point of a fword," on which he was taught to 
anfwer, Mithra is my Crown. He was 
then obliged to bind bimfclf, by the mofl: folen^a 
oath, with honible. imprecations, never to divulge 
one finglc article of all that had been cominuni- 

" Small crowns of gold are often found in our bogs, fup- 
poled to have bclonj^ed to ioiaget ; tbey are roithratic 


i6« Cabiric or MUhratic Caves in Ireland. 

catcd to him io the coatfe of bis inkutd'ob 
He was tfaea broi^ht oat of the cave ioto die 
fcmicircular porch, and tlic pyrrhic dance, the 
deafol of the Irifti, began ; i. c. 'TXTi diz-zel of 
the Jews (Z. David, p. 41.), l^iiyiog the 
dance in the Jbade, luidcr the ftiade of the 
groTc; the choros of Heamba-fabafay \. c. the 
Phallic 365 echoed through the Jkics," and the 
'Tailtean ended ia praclaiming the (aodidate a 
Lion of the 3om. 

The plan of this tame fcems veU a^vopriated 
to this ceremony. 

" Notnithftafidlng the abfard geogn|^cal 
Botioas of the -HiBdoos/* isft. Mr. Maunee» 
yet iteic ia evcfy rea^ba, ftom the dofivioe of 
thc'feven Bpbvns>, or purifying fphcxes, ijvbbgli 
vfcdch they fuppofed the tranfaigrating ioxA to 
pafs^ aod from the ciftci^LAK davcb, io vhich, 
Bccordisg to the hiftorian Lucia:p, ta Us TniatMs 
ik faUaiiane, they wor&ipped the evb of the iUn ; 
to believe tbey had^ jp tfae:iqoIl' oaiily- pcriodx, 
ffijcovered ^t the -earth ia totjo. was sphsri* 
CAJL, and that the Plansts ' revolved round tie 

Here I mufl beg leave to Tthe&l the noader's 
nenory, that ffpar^t as tvifhnan, was a>n> 
deinned to death, for acting the dofkrinc of 
Antipodei:, when' all Europe tras- inwived in 
darkticfs (fee p. 31 4.)* From whence cptdd 

' Neamh, Tctwrmn (Lhirjd.O'ati?). P. O^* monad. 
(Sec p. 36s) 


Cabirk or Mithratic Caves in Ireland. 46l 

' Feargil reociTe this knowledge but from allroQO- 
mical MSS. in his oative tongne, now loft. 

I fhall conclude with a repetition of a pafTage 
frotn Sir William Jones, which may polEbly 
have forac weight with the infidels in Irifli 

•* It has been proved," fays hc^ *' by clear 
evidence, and plain reafoning, that a powerM 
monarchy was eftabliflied in frji», long brfire 
the jffyriatt, or Pijhdadi government : that it 
was in truth a Hindoo monarchy ; though, if aD;f 
chnfe to call it Cufian, Ca/dean, or ScythiOiy 
we fhall not enter into a debate on mere names t 
that it fubfifled many centuries, and that its 
faiftory has been ingrafted on that of the Hia« 
doos, who" founded the monarchies of yfyw/ifiya, 
and Indrapreflba .- that the language of the firft 
Pcrfian empire was the mother of the Sanferitt 
and confequcntly of the Zend and Parfi, as weH 
as of the Greek, Latin, and Gothic: that the 
■language of the AJfyrians was the parent of the 
Chaldak and Pahlavi; and that the primary 
Tartarian language alfo had been current jn the 
fame empire : although, as the Tartars had no 
books, or even letters, we cannot with certainty 
trace their unf oUilied and vririablc idioms. We 
H h difcover. 


4fij Cabiric or Mithratic Cav€t in Ireland. 

difcoTcr, therefore, in Perfia, at the earlieft 
dawn of hiftory, the three diftiDA races of men, 
whom we dcfcribed, on f<H-mer occafions. as pof- 
fcflbrs of India, Arabia, and Tartary ; and . 
whether they were colle^ed in Iran from diflant 
regions, or diverged from it, as from a commoQ 
ceotre, we ihat) eafily determine .by the follow- 
ing confideralioas. — Let us obfcTTC, in the fiHt 
place, the central pofition of Iratij which is 
bounded by Arabia, by Tartary, and by India, 
whitft Arabia l)es contiguous to Iran only, but is 
remote from Tartai^, and divided even from the 
fltirts of India by a conliderable gulf. No 
country,: therefore, l>ut Per/$a, feems likely to 
have fent forth its colonies to ail the kingdoms 
of. AHa. The Brahmaus could never hafe 
migrated from Ituiia to /r<in, becaufe they arc 
exprcfsiy forbidden, by. their oldeft cxifting laws, 
to leave the regiiui, which they inhabit to this 
day. The Arabs have not even a tradition of 
an emigration into FerGa before Mohammed, nor 
had they indeed any inducement to quit their 
beautiful and extenfive domains j and as to the 
Tariartf we have no trace in hiftory of their 
departure from their plains and forefts, till the 
invafion of the Medes, who, according to ctymo- 
logills, were the Tons of Madai, and even they 
were conduflcd by princes of Affyrian family. 
7'he three races, tlierefore, whom wfe already 
mentioned (aod more than three we have not 


CaHric or Mitkratic Caxt in Ireland. 4^» 

y^ found), migrated from Iran, as ftata thdr 
common country. And thus the SAXON 
CHRONICLE, I prcfurae from good authority, 
brings, the firft inhabitants of BRITAIN &om 
ARMENIA ; while a late very learned' writer, 
concludcsi^ after all his laborious rcfearcbes, that 
the GoTH^ or Scythians came. from Persia; 
and another contends, with great forces that both 
the IRISH and OLD BRtXONS proceeded fc- 
verally; from the borders of the CASPIAN : a 
coincidence of conclufions, itom di&rent media, 
by perfons wholly unconneded, which could 
fcarce have happened, if they were act p~oanded 
en/olid principles^ Wc may therefore hold this' 
propoficion firmly eftabllflied, that /r<2», onfer- 
fiay in its largeil fenfe, was the true centre of po~ 
pulation, of knev/ledge, of languages^ and of arit; 
which, inftead of travelling wcftward only, as ic 
has been fancifully fuppofcd, or eaftward, as 
might with equal reafon have been aflerted, were 
expanded in all dtreftipns to all the regions of 
the world, in which the Hindoo race had fettled 
under various denominations." 

Doftor Barton, after examining the hiftory of 
ancient nations, and comparing the languages of 
the Old and New world, concludes almoft in 
the very words of -Sir William Jones. *• Fbilo* 
fophers," fays he, ** will ultimately rcpofc in the 
belief, that Afia has been the principal founder^ 
of the human kind ; and Iran^ or ferfta, will be 
H h 3 cenfidercd 


%70 Cahrrk or Mtlhratic Caves in Ireland* 

ieonfidered as one of the cradles, from which the 
i^iecies took thdr departure to people the Tarioiis 
regions of the earth." (Tr. PhU. Soc Philadd- 
phia, Vd.VI. p, I.) 






ABARI9, % Sc^thiui, pr()l»% a h^ud SiSK - SStf 
Abery, at Otcrod in Englandi pagui tcM^te* Oe- 

fluBcd . ' . . . . 38^ 
Agatbyrfi ScyAlkai, fbnd of gcM crsBiiklAt In 

drefi . • . - - - 945 
ASHoDf a malUiDiire ; detiniiM rf tb> fiUD« Gbati 

dxaa i«l 

AifiioOf name of the fire-tower of ^toc - Wi 

Ainwy, numGon of Ae tDoM • . ^ 40)^ ' 

Air«-Coti of Irilh hiftorj, Indv^drie. - - .47 

'are the Ar-Coti of CaucaTua - - 133 

AiGoD, a diadem worn bjr Iri{fa' and Pcrfian ladiei - 2€0 

Ana-roor, pagan temple in Ireland - • • 400 

Ankletsi or PenTcefides of filler hxoA in Ireland - S5iS 
Antique curiolItiM of gold, many fooni) in die 6d£ of 

Cnllen - . - ' - - 5^ 

Alan; in SyHac, t crown - ' ^ w . 3^ 
Aftrononiif 6f aAcitnf Irift, tati^ b;^ liie t&a^^ 

colony - . - - - •' - Sll 

AArommy, MK. of, in Itiflr ■ • - ttt 

-1-^ :— ; a p«alant coUld not read EngtUhj ^atfu^ 

Iiteiecliplei . . . : . g^f 

Aftronomy ; Jacob acquainted witU the Zotfiac • ^45 

Atd, the Volga fo adierf - - - S* 

AtHi^ie; deriTadon of tftf aaiafe - - - 36 


Bul-Peor, Prlapui ■ - • - 44S 

Babhnn, or Bawn, what .... 455 

■"■' , the Boobun of the Brahmint • - it>. 

Beirbhis, cycle of Irilh aad Egyptiaaa - • 376 

Bifcawoon temple, in Cornwall, explained • - 364 

Sologues of Indi^ the Fir-Bolg of Iriih hillory - 31 

Book of heayeoi what .... 343 

Bncclets of gold, remarkable, found in Irekod " 255 

Snip, one of the Cibiii, the Varaea, or Neptane of 

the BnhiDu» ^ - - - 461 

J^tm, one of the Diofcuri ■ • - ib. 

Britain, named Broit-un by the Irilh, thM iit an 

, illand abounding in tin—etymon confiTnied - - xxii 

Bndh, io Irilh anit oriental mythology - - 43 

Bndha of Irifh hiftory, anceftor of the GaTmanai - 42 

■ I' ■--, tba fun fo naoxd • ' . • - ib. 

■ p ferlndi fite-worlhippera Wmog lltemlelTei, «nd 

puts, down human furificcB - - -' 13S 

(^aturi, ^oHhipped in Irdandj muitiOitc4 by Att^ 

midoitu tod Dionyfiu* P. -_ - - - 215 

Cabin ; ro the Perfiani called their prieih - • . 438 

V 'f 1 Hyde miftaken in the derivation of the Baine 438> 
■ -- -, worAip of, invited by anceibors of the Irilk. 

. $ee Diofcuri. 
C^>Ta, name* of placet in Irel^d, ^9^ all fi> named 

from Cabin - • - r . r S05 

Cj^ the Cbaldxan Pbcpoix cycle - - • 383 

Cani'Bain, alt^r of the fiin . ■ - - .180.' 

Cam burial, remarkable one (fee TailuroJ[, - ; . S9X 

C^r, not Noah's niece, bvt^raildfiH; . • -. .. ^, 

CauoalkMi natunu» account of - - - 7 



Ced-amaOt the holy Bk, deTivation of • • 133 

Celeftial alphabet . , ' . - 355 

Circaflian lingnage, TOcabulary of - , - - H 
Cties, aocient, of Ireland, botlt of earih and wood; 

cities of the Eaft built 'in the fame manner - xii 

Choir-Gaur, Stonehenge, e^LpIaioed - - 38S 

Church, dematioo of the word . - -' - 143 

Cock-crowing. See Nargol - - - 141 
Corybantes. See Diofcnri. 

Coti of Irifh hiftory, the Cuthi of fcriptniv - - xlr 

Cutha, Scathe, Scythia, the lame - - - xji 

Cou come from Spain to Ireland, Welih account of 3 

- 1 on the Peojab of the Indus - - - 4 

CroG, on monuments prior to Chrifliaoity - - a29 
Curailte, fame as Naifteigham, oriental words for a 

parliament - - ' - - - 145 

Cycles - - - - - - . 359 

■'■ » — ■, named from the celeftial alphabet ■ - 36l 

, of ancieiit Iriih pbilolbpbers • - > 3$9 


Dalian Cloiche, a cyclic monumeot. See Gallan. 

Dearg, an aquatic deity, goddefs of rivers, common 
to tfae Hindoos and Irifh; Lough Dearg named 
after die deity - . . - 37 

Deaflbtf the circular dance, the diz-zel of tbe Jews • 46$ 

Daties of the BrBhrninical mythology in common with 

the pagan Irifli ,- a proof of their hiftory ■ 133 

Diadem of gold found in Ireland. See Ailioa ' - ,361 

■ ■ -, lame as worn by Fer£ao9 - - 364 
Diofcuri and -Cabtri, etymon of the name - - 419 

■ II- , myfterles of, inMnted by ao- 

cellors of the* Irifli— proof of their biAory, mkI 

that th^ were the Indo-Scythge of CoMm - 490 



DioJCQri ni CabirJ, pr«tcAan of traT«lleri by Upd 

and Tea - - . . -427 

Diofcuri and Cabin, confifled of three principal 

deitiei - . . - - ib. 

Siofciiri and Cabin, niTuDderllood by tbe Greeks - 429 

Dnim, a temple . . . - . 14$ 

Duile, name of God with the Iridi and lagulhi of 

Cancafiu - - - - - 134 

Eclipfes, calculated by an Irifti pealaot, who could 

not fpeak EngUIh - - - - 314 

£dda, mythology of, never exilled in Ireland ' 130 

Fear^l, an Irifhman, bifliop of Saltzburg, condemned 

for preaching the doSrine of Antipodes - - 314 

Fire, lacredi "kept io caves by the Birnhmins - 122 

I !■ ■, — ^-, removed to round towen by Zoroafter ib. 

•— worlhip carried to excefs by U)e Brahmins - 135 

I i .1 I common on the north of the Cafpian, - 145 

Oallan cloiche, Hone monuments, with Ogham in' 
fcriptiona - - - - 

Gallan ttibpl«. . ' . - . 

Oannanni of the Iriih and <^ tbf £»A . , - 

Q4or^an language, vocabulary of - - 

a«d* name* of in Irifli - 

Gorii to this word »dd Gaireal^-t *tire,k gnve, or 
buii^-plkoe. The itpulchrei of the Scythian kings 
were at GenliB (Herodotus) - - - 

Qntitft ignorant of tbev ewo nytltolo^ • 


IMDEX, 47? 

Grodeman, the angel of death in Irilh and ferfian 

mytholoiy - • . ■ . . 41 

OypfieS) origin of - - - - - 61 

,..-»■ I, Zipgatj, etymon of the name - - 79 

— — , Pater Nofter io variom cfialefl* - - M 

, laagnage, rtcabalai-y of, cOMpUed *Wi tbt , 

HiodooftatLoe and Iiifh . • - "^ 99 

Gypfiej, mountalnceti of CircaiSa - ■- • • ISO 


Haitelahi lodo-ScythaE fo named - 
Hcrcoles laid to be one of ^e Cabin 

Indo'Scytha; fetde in Cokhis - . • ' ■ 

j Bero&s, bis tocoatt rf ^ . , ^ 

Ingots of Srer l«uadta Iniwd . ^ . ^5 
Intennent, pkcei of, thefamoin Irilh U ifr orieatll 

tongue - - - * -- ^Mf 

IdtermeDti dormhre ia lepdchre ... gog 
IrMi language, does not derire from mt eoniHaD 

Itock with the Gothic, Celtic, or Wrift - mifi 
Irifli language, CoTrelponds widi wintal langutgei 

more than any Getlic - - ' ■ . 40Q 
Jacetfs prophecy of his fons, evinces his- knowledgs 

of the zodiac ■ . . . . S4S 

Jdi^h's dream, aftronomkal . . . ib. 

raiazar ba, the CafiMUa • . . -23 

KU-da-loo, alias Killalot^ deiivation of tliC ttame . 3S 
Kiffi laa^agc, TOcabuUry «f > ^ - 13 




Laiti. the C^nri To called - • , - 437 

X^nis fanguajc, vocabulary of - - - 16 

Uiwyd'i cdle&oa of MSS. id Welilt and Icilh - nu 
, ft name of Umerick ; dcrintion of the 

Locjriat England fo called b; the Irilh - • gov 

lauD, the moon ; blalphenoni tnterpreta^Q of die 

word hj the Jews - - : - 102 

Lmctteiofgoldfiiundia Ireland - - - 2S7 


Magi, 80)000 in time of Artaxerxes, reduced to 7 139 
MaoD, one of the Cabin - - - - '436 

Maiidcript], Irillii Lhwjd'a colleSioa, came into 
' pofleffioo of the Seabright fidnily, and preTcntcd 

to the College of I?nb)in - - - x 

" ■ ■ I , were in the pofleJEon of the author ib. 

Metemplychofit, ancient Irifh believed ia • .33 

Mid{^, reOe Magiuicht Zoroafter j - 133 - 

Mbaretii fire-towers; blunder of Ledwicb - - 138 

Mithraa, etymon of the name ... 395 

Mithratic care of New Grange ; aftrononucal Ggores 

there ■ . . - . .451 

Mithratic cave of New Grange ; Pbceoician infcrip- 

tion there - . - ' - - -457 

Mithratic cave of ADnagh<logh-maltin - - 461 

Michridates, eytmon of die name • - -6 

Money of the ancient Irilh ... jQy 

• • " - * ftamped with figures rf 

. cattle originally . . . ' .' 303 

Money of the ancient IriQi. namn for; all orieuiit - aOT 
M^ecia Phallica - • ' - . . 448 



INDEX. 477 


- ■ Page 

NargftI, the idol of the Cuthiles, fenown to the Iriih 141 

Neptune, in Irini, Di-ofiuTt Braine, Manoanao - 4€0 

Nofe>riDgs - ... T - 270 


Odin, hiflory of, involved in fable - ■ - - 131 
Ogham iofcriptioDi, on rough rocka, and whjr ^ - xiii 
. inMSS. - . ' - 173 

■ ' ■ ■ ■ ■ , many difcoTCred in Kerry - 182 
' ■ ' ' -'- ■■■ I , written wkh a %Ic on Tm Ira, 
a mode of wriiing common to the Indiaiu and 

. ancient Irifh • • - . • 153. 
Ogham-tree alphabet, common to the Irilh and Atabs, 

plate of '175 

Omamencs of drcTs, names in hiSh, are Chaldzao - 367 

Ofli or OlTeti language, roc^ular^ of - - 11 

Pahliri, language of ancient FerGa . . 138 
I^rtolan, Hory of, remarkable irtl&noef, agreeing with 

the ancient hiftory of the Arabs - - 25 

Patera, double cupped, of gold, found in Ireland . 237 

Pelitp, jEthioinaM (Dupuij) - . - 3a 
Pelafg^aa charaders, nfed m Ireland; an infcription 

found . - , . . ig5 

Perfians were Scythians, mixed with Indo-Scythians . 27 

Phallus ; lee Moidr, Lingam, numument of • .' 186 
Phcenicians came to Britannic illes, aflerted by various 

author! - - . - - 411 

' " , denied by Mr. Davies ib. 

Pboenix, cycle of 600 years. See CaJa . . 381 

Plaid of old Irifh, a CbaldsBaoTefiment - - 214 

flaiietary worihjp with the aadeot Per&e . - 12<I 



lenct Loqgh SM - 36 

BalUiicl^ pig^ mppie io Ssglwdi, tifbined - 387 

Samut an Irifli ddty, known in the Eaft • .41 

— — > jadgt of departed fouti, the Afunao of the 

Eafl - - - - - - 41 

EUnon, 1 name of.the Gaogea • - - 36 

Sam, a cycle - - - - - 385 

ScandioaTia, IrelsiOd dm peopled from tt • - 131 

Scythae defcetided of Jocktin ; Cdf^M • -Si 

_.-_ admitted 00 image worflup • - 123 

—I.I, built Babytoa and the great fower • - 139 

Scythiao hiflory not as barren as the country - A6 

Siai of th£ trillt, an orflameiit, the Sud of th« 

Chaldxaat • • • - - 311 

Sept, a dan or tribe - - - - 57 

Seren, a facred Dnmher with the.Hiodoos • - 3$ 
... . , a lacred nainber wUh the pagan Iri{h and 

Shanooa river, origib of its Dame - - - 36 

— , the Cangei fo called • - - !b> 

Shiol, heU, the Sheol of fcriptuie ■ • • 306 
SintU of the eoemy, tnade gobleu by the Irilh, 

Arabs, and Perlians .... %7S 

Sqgbdiana, ancient Scythians xa; ftjntOD of the name SA 
Stonehcngc, pagan temple in EoglsniV explaioed. 

' See Choir Gaur - - . - 389 
Snir,. or Soor, the name of the Indus and Eaphratcs 

RTcrst and of a rirar io Ireland - - .33 

Sybil, a derivation of the name ; a cycle . - t^S