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From the I'mo^-ding* of the Boston Socipty of Natural History, Vol. XIII, 
iKrcmbi-r 15, 18('. 










1. On the mammals of Iowa. 

2. On the classification of the eared seals. 

3. Synopsis of the American Leporidae. 

4. Geographical variation among North American 

mammals, especially in respect to size. 

5. Sexual, individual, and geographical variation 

in Leucosticte tephrocotis. 
** 6. Geographical distrioution-of the mammalia* 

7. Synonyraatic list of the American Sciuri. 

8. On the Coatis(genus Nasua,Storr) . 

9. On the species of the genus Bassaris. 

10. List of mammals collected by Edward Palmer in 

northeastern Mexico. 

11. Preliminary list of works and papers relating to 

the mammalian orders of Cete and Sirenia. 

12. New species and a new subspecies of the 

genus Lepus. 

13. Collections of mammals made in central and 

southern Mexico. 

14. Two supposed new species of mice from Costa Hica 

and Mexico. 

15. New species of big-eared bat, of the genus 

His^iotus, from southern California. 

16. Further notes on Maximilian types of South 

American birds. 

17. Mammals from southern Texas and northeastern 


18. Mammals and birds collected in northeastern 

Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua. Mexico, on 
the Lumholtz archaeological expedition, 18 90-92. 

19. Mammals from the island of Trinidad. 

20. Further notes on Costa Rica mammals. 

21. Description of a new mouse from Lake county, Calif , 

22. New species of Georays from Costa Rica. 

From the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XIII, 
December 15, 1869. 






THE present list of the mammals of Iowa is based mainly upon 
notes gathered during three months spent in that State in the summer 
of 1867, for the purpose of collecting and studying its animals and 
plants. It seeming desirable to make the list a complete one, a few 
species have been inserted upon the authority of other authors, 1 while 
a few others are given from their known occurrence in nearly all the 
adjoining States, though not to my knowledge yet reported from this. 
The whole number enumerated is forty eight, and probably but two or 
three remain to be added to perfect the list of the indigenous mam- 
mals of the State. Attention is also called to such others as are most 
likely to occur. If three or four northern ones be found to reach the 
northern parts of the State, the whole number, including the intro- 
duced house rats and mice, may be increased to about fifty five or 
fifty six, which is a number somewhat greater than is found in any of 
the Atlantic States, excluding the marine species, the seals and 

Through the kindness of Dr. C. A. Whites, the able Director of 
the present Geological Survey of Iowa, to whom, and to his excellent 

*The works to which I am chiefly indebted are the admirable volumes of Profes- 
sor Spencer F. Baird, on the Mammals of North America, Audubon and Bach- 
man's " Quadrupeds of North America," the late Major Robert Kennicott's 
papers on the Mammals of Northern Illinois (See Patent Office Reports, Agricul- 
ture, for 1856 and 1857, and Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, 
Vol. i 1853-1854, p. 580), and Dr. F. V. Hayden's valuable article on the " Geology 
and Natural History of the Upper Missouri," published in the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society (Vol. xn, 2d series). 


assistant, Mr. Orestes H. St. John, I am greatly indebted for assist- 
ance, I was enabled to pass a considerable part of this time with 
one of his exploring parties, and to traverse large portions of nine 
counties. 1 These are situated a little to the southwest of the centre 
of the State, and embrace an area nearly sixty miles square; and to 
this region most of my special remarks refer. Large portions of this 
tract were then in a nearly primitive condition, many of its broad 
prairies being still undisturbed by the plow. Yet the hunter and the 
" first settler " had passed over it and destroyed or driven away many 
of the larger mammals. But the recent presence of these animals here 
was still fresh in the minds of the older settlers, many of whom had 
witnessed and assisted in their rapid extirpation. 

Iowa being situated in a prairie region, it necessarily differs con- 
siderably in the general character of its fauna, and especially in re- 
spect to its mammalia, from that of the wooded portion of the United 
States to the eastward, as all who have given attention to the geo- 
graphical distribution of animals must be aware. Yet we do not in 
this State fairly enter upon the so-called Middle Province of the con- 
tinent, which differs so markedly, both in faunal and floral, from the 
Eastern Province. A great change in the fauna and flora is met with, 
however, at the point of junction of the wooded and woodless regions 
of the eastern half of the continent, which in the latitude of Iowa 
occurs more than a hundred miles to the eastward of that State. At 
this point as great and as abrupt a change occurs as usually takes 
place between two contiguous faunal districts, one of which lies to 
the north or to the south of the other, or where the line of division is 
an isothermal one, separating different climatic and zoological zones. 
A few only, if any, of the species embraced in this list seem to find 
their eastern limit of distribution in this State; but, with two or three 
exceptions, they range through southern Wisconsin, Illinois, and even 
into northwestern Indiana and southern Michigan, or to the eastern 
limit of the prairies. Also, with very few exceptions, none are re- 
stricted to it in either their northward or southward range. A few of 
the more northern species, whose southern range is restricted to the 
southern border of the Alleghanian fauna, may reach the northern 
counties of Iowa, as a few essentially southern species may approach, 
or even be ibund occasionally within its southern borders. Iowa is 
hence mainly embraced within the Carolinian fauna, at least so far 
as its mammals, birds and reptiles are concerned, though generally 

1 Dallas, Guthrie, Boone, Greene, Carroll, Crawford, Sac, Calhoun and Audubon. 

heretofore supposed to belong, in great part, at least, to the Allegha- 
nian. Among the strictly prairie mammals represented, are at least 
four rodents (Spermophilus tridecem-lineatus, S. Frankl'mii, Geomys 
bursarius, ffesperomys michiganensis) , two carnivores (Canu latrans, 
Taxidea americana), and at least one insectivore (Scalops aryentalus) . 
Only one eastern species, the red squirrel (Sciurus hudsonius), ap- 
peal's to find at the prairie line its western limit, if, as some have 
supposed, it be true that this animal does not range across the conti- 
nent. 1 Hence the difference between the mammalian fauna of the 
prairies of the Upper Mississippi valley and that of the forest region 
to the eastward consists in the addition of a number of species pecu- 
liar to the prairies. 

Since all the larger species of mammalia are everywhere rapidly 
disappearing before the revolutionizing influences of civilization, and 
since great and general changes occur in the faunal and floral features 
of every country when brought under cultivation, it becomes a mat- 
ter of unusual interest to preserve as correct a record as possible of 
the primitive conditions of our own country in this respect, for com- 
parison with its subsequent altered status, as well as a history of the 
change. The natural history of Iowa is of course now far from an 
unexplored field, yet I find that no adequate record of its animals and 
plants, nor of those of the country immediately adjoining, has as yet 
been made. I have hence no hesitancy in presenting the few notes 
that follow concerning some of the mammals of this State, 


Two species of this family, from their known distribution, undoubt- 
edly occur in portions of the State, but they cannot now be, and 
probably never were, very numerous. I met, however, with no evi- 
dences of their existence, and foiled to make special inquiries concern- 
ing them. They are the following: 

1. Felis concolor Linnaeus. 2 (Panther.) 

2. Lynx rufus Rafinesque. (Bay Lynx.) 

The L. canadens-is may also occur in the northern parts of the State. 

1 See postea, p. 188. 

2 The nomenclature employed in this list is the same as that adopted by me re- 
cently in my " Catalogue of the Mammals of Massachusetts," so far as the species 
are the same. See Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. vin, 
October, 1869. 


The F. concolor, however, owing to the open character of tlie country, 
can occur only as a straggler from more wooded regions. 1 


3. Canis lupus Linn. (Common Wolf.) 

Although wolves of this species were rather common less than 
twenty years since, they are now scarce, especially in the more set- 
tled districts. They are usually termed "mountain" wolves, in dis- 
tinction from the prairie wolves. 

4. Canis latrans Say. (Prairie Wolf.) 

This species Avas formerly quite numerous, much more so even than 
the common wolf (C. lupus), but now, like that species, it is already 
in some sections nearly extirpated. I was informed that it was still 
common in the southern part of Guthrie county, where it not unfre- 
quently was destructive to the lambs. It is said to far exceed the 
common fox in boldness and cunning. In the Proceedings of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences (Vol. i, p. 188, 1842), it 
is stated that a specimen of this species, from Illinois, was presented 
to the Academy by Dr. Blanding. Mr. Kennicott states that it was 
was once common in northern Illinois. 

5. Vulpes vulgaris Fleming. 2 (Red Fox.) 

Not apparently numerous in the counties in question, particularly 
at the southward. About Wall Lake and northwards they were re- 
ported to be common . 3 

1 Since writing the above, I have received from Dr. C. A. White, in kind re- 
sponse to recent inquiries of mine concerning the species of this family found in 
Iowa, as follows : " The panther has been known within our limits but very rarely. 
The common wild cat, or bay lynx, is occasionally found, but it is considered rare 
game. I do not know that the Canada lynx has ever been seen in Iowa." 

2 For a recent discussion of the relationship of the so-called V.fulvus with the 
V. vulgaris of the Old World, see the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, No. vin, p. 159. 

3 I may here add that in Van Buren and Allegan counties in Michigan, four kinds 
of foxes are recognized by the hunters: the "cross," the " Samson," the "com- 
mon red," and the " gray." The latter is undoubtedly the southern gray fox ( V. 
virginianus), and the others different varieties of the common red fox. The 
" cross," so called, is much the rarer, and the red by far the most common. About 
one third of all taken are of the second variety, which from the very peculiar ap- 
pearance of their fur are termed " Samson " foxes. They are described as having 
a coarse, crisp, woolly fur, appearing much as though they had been singed ; hence 
their name of " Samson foxes." Their skins bring much less in market than 
those of the common red .fox, while the animal is represented as less cunning and 
m. !. easily trapped: they also have slightly different habits. I regret that I had 

6. Vulpes velox And. ami B-i-h. (S,vift Fox) 

Vulpea cinerJSO-argvUGtKS Richir.-lson, Faun. Bur. Am.. I, 98, 1820; 
nee Cants cmerctmrgcnteu* Erxleben, Syst. Re<jn. Animalis, 1777. 

An animal described to me as the "'t," which occurs here more 
or le?s frequently, is undoubtedly this species, tLou-'i I have not 
known it before reported as occurring east of the Missouri. The 
character of the country in western Iowa differs little from that of 
eastern Nebraska, where this species is well known to occur. It is 
hence not very unexpected that it should exist in portions of Iowa. 
Dr. Richardson says it ranges north to the Saskatchewan river, 
which he gives as its northern limit. 

7. Vulpes virginianus Rich. (Gray Fox.) 

Canis cinereo-argenteus et virginianus Erxleben, Syst. Reg. Anim., 
567, 1777. 

Frequent, but not especially numerous. 


8. Putorius ermineus Linn. 1 (Weasel.) 

Weasels, probably mostly of this species, were reported to me as 
common; I saw, however, but one. 

9. Putorius vulgaris Linn. (Little Weasel.) 

From its known general range, this species must also occur more or 
less frequently, especially in the northern parts of the State. 

10. Putorius lutreolus Cuvier. (Mink.) 

P. vison Gapper, and P. nigrescens Aud. and Bach.' 2 

Said to be common. The minks of the prairies are quite different 

in some respects from the more northern animal, as well as from those 

of the wooded region to the eastward. They are browner and their 

fur is much coarser and brings a much lower price in the market. 

no opportunity of examining specimens of them myself. Similar foxes, I am in- 
formed, occur in Massachusetts, where they are known to fox-hunters by the same 
singular name. This peculiar condition of the pelage is doubtless unnatural, and 
probably the result of disease, as I have in several instances seen an apparently 
similar modification of the pelage in the red squirrel (Sciurus hudsonius), which in 
one case extended through a whole litter. 

1 In the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (No. AIII, pp. 168-174, 
1869), the writer has given his reasons for believing there are but two species of 
weasel in the United States east of the Missouri, and that these are identical re- 
spectively with the P. ermineus and P. vulgaris of the Old World. 

2 In respect to the supposed distinctness of the American from the Old World 
minks, see my remarks in Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Xo. vm, p. 175. 


Experienced trappers and fur dealers at the West repeatedly informed 
me that these differences are so considerable that they can always 
readily separate the prairie skins from the forest ones, as those from 
Illinois, for example, from those taken in Michigan. They also claim 
that there are two kinds of prairie mink, as of tlwj northern mink, 
differing in size. This difference probably depends mainly upon sex 
and age, the males being much larger than the females. 

11. Lutra eanadensis Sabine. (Otter.) 

Said to be common on the Raccoon rivers, and generally more or 
less so throughout the State. 

12. Mephitis mephitica Baird. (Skunk.) 

Common, and presents the same varieties in point of color as at 
the East. 

13. Taxidea americana Waterhouse. (American Badger.) 
This species is probably nearly as numerous as formerly. Though 

rarely seen, it being nocturnal, its burrows are frequently met with. 
Its thick, heavy body and short legs render it a rather clumsy animal, 
but with stealthy, cat-like habits it combines considerable cunning. 
In the night many expert animals become its prey. It is very power- 
lul, and being armed with strong claws and teeth, is able to offer 
formidable resistance when attacked by a dog; it is, however, ex- 
tremely docile to man, allowing itself to be handled, and unless 
teased, is said to rarely offer to scratch or bite. At Rippey, in 
Greene county, I saw a half grown one in confinement that had been 
caught by a boy a few days before, and carried home by him in his 
arms. When discovered they are said to lie flat and motionless on 
the ground, and if they think they are not seen will allow a person to 
pass within a few feet of them without moving. Though generally 
regarded as a harmless animal by the farmers, the bones and wool of 
lambs have been found in their burrows. 1 

1 The Mexican Badger (Taxidea Berlandieri Baird, U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Sur. Rep., IJ, Mammals, 21, 1859; Taxidea Berlandieri Baird, Mam. N. Amer., 
2C6). described as "Similar to the T. americana [labradoria], but smaller; above 
reddish gray, with a narrow white stripe extending from the muzzle to the root 
of the tail," from skulls of Mexican specimens and the MSS. notes of Dr. Berlan- 
dier, seems to be merely the smaller southern race of the common T. americana. 
It differs from it chiefly in being a little smaller, and, according to some reports, 
lighter in color. The probability seems very great that the slight differences in 
color pointed out are merely individual differences, although the T. Berlandieri 
may constitute a more or leas well-marked climatal race. 



14. Procyon lotor Storr. (Raccoon.) 

15. Ursus arctos Linn. 1 (Bear.) 

The bear is reported to occur here, but I learned nothing of spec ial 
interest respecting it. From the character of the country it evi- 
dently cannot now be common, however numerous it may form- 
erly have been. Localities named after the bear, as Bear creeks, Bear 
groves, etc., indicate its former greater or less abundance here. 


16. 'Cervus canadensis Erxl. (American Elk.) 

Formerly numerous, but now extinct in most of the region under 
description. It is but a few years since good antlers of this species 
were common on the prairies, but through the combined action of 
two destroying agencies they are now rarely met with, and only in 
an imperfect condition. In addition to the injury done them by the 
fires that annually pass over the wild prairies, the two species of 
SpermopMus and other rodents eat them, by which animals they are 
said to be in a short time completely devoured. 

An old resident and hunter whom I met at New Jefferson, in 
Greene county, informed me that but seven years before (now nine 
years since), the elk were abundant in some parts of that county. 
Prior to this date he used to see herds nearly every day, and some- 
times several in a day, some of them of very large size. During the 
early settlement of this part of Iowa they were of great value to 
the settlers, furnishing them with an abundance of excellent food 
when there was a scarcity of swine and other meat-yielding domestic 
animals. But, as has been the case too often in the history of the 
noblest game animals of this continent, they were frequently most 
ruthlessly and improvidently destroyed. In the severer weather of 
winter they were often driven to seek shelter and food in the vicinity 
of the settlements. At such times the people, not satisfied with kill- 

1 In the eighth number of the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
the writer has shown that it is impossible to satisfactorily characterize or distin- 
guish more than a single species of land bear in the colder portion of the Northern 
Hemisphere, though it must be admitted that between the extremes of variation 
there are very great differences, more than would be required even to indicate a 
diversity of species, if the differences were constant, as they are most notably not, 
the most distinct forms gradually intergrading. 


ing enough for their present need, mercilessly engaged in an exter- 
minating butchery. Rendered bold by their extremity, the elk were 
easily dispatched with such implements as axes and corn-knives. 
For years they were so numerous that the settlers could kill them 
whenever 4 they desired to, but several severe winters and indiscrim- 
inate slaughter soon greatly reduced their numbers, and now only a 
few linger where formerly thousands lived, and these are rapidly dis- 
appearing. Their home here being chiefly the open country, they 
much sooner fall a prey to the " westward march of civilization," 
through the most merciless treatment they receive at the hands of 
the emigrant, than does the deer. 

From June to October the elk are said to be always fat and in 
excellent condition for the table. Their flesh is described as being in 
texture intermediate between beef and mutton, but superior in flavor 
to either. In March the bucks shed their horns. As the new ones 
begin to sprout they leave the herd and keep by themselves, in small 
parties of about a dozen, till their horns are fully grown and hard, 
when they begin to " run," as the hunters term it, and again join the 
herd. About the twentieth of June the females are said to bring 
forth their young. Towards autumn, when the calves have become 
large and strong, the elk begin to gather in large herds. The horns 
appear disproportionately large, especially when " in the velvet," at 
which time the main, branches are as thick as one's arm, and their 
appearance is far from pleasing. 

17. Cervus virginianus Boddaert. (Common deer.) 

More or less common, but steadily decreasing in numbers. I was 
informed that in some sections they were on the increase, owing to 
the fact that they were beginning to have a more favorable range, 
through the gradual extension of the forests, due to the protec- 
tion of the woodlands from the annual tires that formerly swept 
over the country, and which probably more than any other cause 
tended to keep the timber-tracts within their former restricted 
areas. But it does not seem that this increase of the deer can be 
more than temporary, unless stringent measures are taken to protect 
them. If exposed to the indiscriminate slaughter to which this ani- 
mal has generally been subject elsewhere, it niust certainly soon dis- 
appear, as it has already done over so large a portion of the United 
States east of the Mississippi. 

The white-tailed deer (C. leucurw), according to Dr. Hayden,* 
* Transact. Amer. Phil. Soc., Vol. xn, 2d series, p. 149. 


should be included among the mammals of Iowa, since he gives its 
range as extending eastward to the Big Sioux river and Council 
Bluffs. It Joes not, however, seem to me to be distinct from the C. 


18. Bos americanus Gmelin. (American Buffalo.) 

Now nearly exterminated in all parts of the State, though numer- 
ous in the northwestern counties at a comparatively recent date. 
Two years since I was informed that a few still remained in that sec- 
tion, and that up to that time one or more had been killed every year 
as far south as Greene county. Further north they were represented 
as being more common, but that no herds were met with south of the 
Sioux river, and rarely east of . the Missouri. Those found further 
east were only stragglers or wanderers from the herds, that in most 
cases had probably been driven off by the Indians. 


Bats of at least two species were observed flying about the groves, 
but I procured no specimens. They were not, however, numerous, 
and were mainly seen near the timber. A prairie country cannot, 
evidently, afford such animals favorable haunts ; but they will doubt- 
less increase with the further settlement of the country, when more 
or less open buildings will afford them convenient places of resort, 
The following species, from their general known distribution, doubt- 
less occur in most parts of the State. 

19. Nycticejus crepuscularis H. Allen. (Black-faced Bat.) 

20. Lasiurus noveboracensis Tomes. (Red Bat.) 

21. Lasiurus cinereus H. Allen. 1 (Hoary Bat.) 

22. Scotophiius fuseus H. Allen. (Brown Bat.) 

23. Scotophiius noctivagans H. Allen. (Silvery Bat.) 

24. Scotophiius georgianus H. Allen. (Georgia Bat.) 

25. Vespertilio subulatus Say. (Little Brown Bat.) 


During the short time I passed in this State I met with no examples 
of this family, though several species undoubtedly occur there. Of 
the long-tailed shrews, or true Sorices, among the species that may be 
* Probably not distinct from L. noveboracensis. 


looked for are Sorex platyhrinus, S. Richardsonii, S. "Haydeni" and 
S. "Hoyi." The following, from their ascertained distribution, must be 
present, specimens of the latter being in fact already known from this 

26. Sorex Cooperi Bachtnan. (Cooper's Shrew.) 

27. Blarina brevicauda Baird. (Mole Shrew.) 


28. Scalops argentatus Bachman. (Silvery Mole.) 

This species is well known to occur in the State, but it does not 
appear to DC very numerous. 

29. Condylura cristata Illiger. (Star-nosed Mole.) 

This species having been traced westward to the Mississippi, it 
doubtless occurs in eastern Iowa, but probably only as a rather rare 
species. I can find, however, no specimens of it reported from there. 
It is said to inhabit the prairies of Illinois. 1 

The Brewer's Mole (Scalops Breweri) may also be met with here, 
though it has not yet been found, so far as I am aware, west of the 
State of Ohio. 


30. Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin. (Gray Squirrel.) 

Said to be more or less numerous in the groves along the water 
courses. I saw, however, but very. few. 

31. Sciurus ludovicianus Custis. (Western Fox Squirrel.) 
Common in the same situations as the preceding species; I saw it 

much more frequently. It was, however, far less numerous than I 
found it to be in Ogle county, Illinois, or in southern Michigan, in both 
of which localities there was a much greater predominance of forest. 
In these latter localities the preceding (S. carolinensis) was also ex- 
cessively abundant, both in its black and gray colors, and in every 
intermediate stage between gray and black. The young, as I have 
already mentioned in another connection, 2 more frequently represent 
the intermediate stage, their fur presenting the annulated appearance 
mentioned by Prof. Baird as characterizing intermediate color varie- 
ties. 8 This form of S. carolinensis was more especially abundant in 
Illinois, where the greater part of the large number of specimens I 

i Kennicott, Patent Office Rep., Agr., 1857, p. 101. 

* Bulletin Mus. Comp. ZoSlogy, No. vm, p. 222. 

Mammals of Xorth America, p. 244. 


examined were of the dusky, annulate-haired type; they were also 
all young. 

32. Sciurus hudsonius Pallas. (Chickare. Red Squirrel.) 
This species does not appear to occur in the parts of Iowa I visited. 

I saw not a single specimen, and although I made extended inquiries 
respecting it, could not learn that it had ever been seen here. I also 
found it unknown in Ogle county, Illinois (one hundred miles west 
from Chicago), though said to occur sparingly in some portions of 
northern Illinois, by Mr. R. Kennicott, 1 and also in northern Mis- 
souri and central Iowa; but in respect to the latter locality I 
think he may have been mistaken. I never anywhere, however, saw 
it so numerous as I have found it to be in southern Michigan (Van 
Buren and Aliegan counties). Somewhat to the northward of Iowa, 
as in the forest region of Minnesota, it is said to be very numerous, 
and to extend thence far to the westward. Dr. Hayden says it occurs 
on the eastern side of the Black Hills, in Nebraska. 2 

33. Pteromys VOlucella Cuvier. (Flying Squirrel.) 

Not common. From its peculiar nocturnal habits this species is one 
easily overlooked. From its known range it must occur in the State. 

34. Tamias Striatus Baird. (Striped Squirrel.) 
Abundant in and near the thickets and groves. 

1 Patent Office Rep. Agriculture, 1856, p. 68. 

2 I am far from sure that either of the supposed species called Sciurus Fremonti, 
S. Richardsoni and S. Douglassi are distinct from the common S. hudsonius of the 
eastern part of the continent. The differences between them are very trivial, and 
in respect to what these are, authors are by no means unanimous. They are gen- 
erally slight variations in size, the northern and Rocky Mountain species being 
generally a little larger than the restricted S. hudsonius, but differing only as the 
representatives of a single species would be expected to under similar differences of 
habitat. There are no essential differences in color, the variation in this respect 
being in no case greater than specimens from different localities in New England 
present, as 1 have before pointed out (Bull. AIus. Comp. ZoOl., No. vm, p. 223). 
Specimens from northern Maine have just as good claims for specific distinctness 
from those of eastern Massachusetts as either of the above-named supposed 
species have to be regarded as specifically distinct from the S. hudsonius. They 
diflVr in color and in the texture of the fur, the Maine specimens in question being 
grayer, with thicker, heavier pelage, and larger in size. Those from some locali- 
ties have also a relatively shorter tail, differences precisely similar to those urged 
as distinguishing severally these supposed species, and equally great in degree. 
The habitat of S. hudsonius, then, it seems to me, really extends throughout the 
northern part of the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Intelligent trav- 
ellers and naturalists perfectly familiar with the S. hudsonius at the East, who have 
visited the region inhabited by the other supposed species, as Alaska and the 
Rocky Mountains, report that they saw nothing about the red squirrel they met 
with there, either in habits or otherwise, that led them to suspect it to be at all 
different from S. hudsanius. 


35. Spermophilus tridecem-lineatus Aud. and Bach. (Striped 
Prairie Squirrel. Striped Gopher.) 

Abundant, and to the fanners a destructive pest. Seen almost 
daily, both on the wild prairie and in the cultivated fields. They 
are active throughout the summer, and quite destructive to the young 
corn in the spring, the kernel of which they dig up, and thus destroy 
the crop. It is said, however, to be less frequently noticed during the 
summer, when the grass is high, than earlier. Their burrows run 
usually but a few inches below the surface, but sometimes extend 
horizontally for the distance of ten feet, though usually much less. 1 

36. Spermophilus Franklini Richardson. (Gray Prairie 
Squirrel. Gray Gopher.) 

Abundant, and, in proportion to its numbers, far more destructive 
than the preceding (. tridecem-lineatus). When very numerous 
they sometimes destroy acres of newly planted corn by eating the 
seed. During the spring months it is generally numerous, but after 
about the first of June is rarely observed, and all my efforts to obtain 
specimens, both in this State and in Illinois, where it is equally com- 
mon, were ineffectual. The burrows of this species run to the depth 
of three or four feet, and extend to a considerable distance. 

The Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) , so characteristic of the 
more western prairies, is not met with to the eastward of the Mis- 
souri river. Dr. Hayden says the first village he met with in as- 
cending the Missouri was about ten miles below the mouth of the 
Niobrara. 2 Mr. Cyrus Thomas erroneously includes this animal in 
his catalogue of the " Mammals of Illinois," published in Vol. iv of 
the Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural Society. 

37. Arctomys monax Gmelin. (Woodchuck. Marmot.) 
This animal appears also to be absent from western Iowa, I met 

with but a single individual who had seen it in the State. He had 
formerly lived in Davis county, in the southeastern part, where he 
informs me it occurs, as also in the adjoining counties of Missouri. 
On this authority it is included in the present list. 

38. Castor fiber Linn. (Beaver.) 

Reported to still exist on the South Raccoon river, but nearly or 
quite exterminated in most of the eastern and southern portions of 
the State. A gentleman residing in the southern part of Dallas 

1 For a very, complete account of the habits of this species, see the late Robert 
Kennicott's excellent papers on the Mammals of Illinois, in the Patent Office Re- 
ports (Agriculture) for 1856 and 1857 (1856, p. 74). 

> Transact. Amer. Phil. Soc., Vol. xit, 2d series, p. 145. 


county informed ine that when he settled there* eighteen years be- 
fore, he being one of the first settlers of the county, the beaver was 
then common there. He said it was now quite exterminated in that 
vicinity, none having been seen for a considerable period. From the 
frequent occurrence of creeks in Iowa called by the name of this 
animal, it seems probable that it was once numerous here. 

39. Geomys bursarius Richardson. (Pouched or Pocket Go- 

Exceedingly numerous everywhere, and a great pest. The farm- 
ers regard it as agriculturally the " gfeat curse of the country." In 
some localities it destroys the fruit trees, the groves planted for shade 
and the osage-orange hedges, by feeding upon their roots in winter. 
It seems to be nowhere on the decrease, as from its peculiar habits it 
is difficult to destroy. As the animal seldom appears above the sur- 
face of the ground, and only at nightj one may reside for years where 
they are numerous without seeing one. The moist and the dry por- 
tions of the prairie are alike haunted by them; and the farmer too 
often sees their unwelcome hillocks thrown up night after night in his 
garden, or within a few feet of his door. As their burrows are always 
closed, few persons know how to trap them. A few farmers have been 
successful in poisoning them with strychnine, and now and then one is 
shot. To shoot them it is necessary to open their burrows and 
watch with a gun kept in readiness to fire the instant they appear 
at the opening to close it, as they show their head only, and for 
merely an instant. The gopher will allow no light to enter its bur- 
row, and when it is broken into it hastens to repair the breach. In 
trapping them an opening is made into their galleries, through which 
a small steel trap is inserted as far as it conveniently can be with the 
hand, and the opening then partially closed. The animal hastening 
to close the opening must generally pass over the trap. Occasionally, 
however, the trap is found pushed up into the opening and firmly 
wedged there with the impacted earth, in which case it is usually un- 
sprung. The gopher is hence often credited with a degree of cun- 
ning far beyond what it possesses, the safe removal of the trap being 
purely accidental on the part of the animal. As the burrows are 
extensive, with many branches, it is impossible to tell on which side 
of the opening the occupant may be, and hence coming from the side 
opposite to that where the trap is placed, it often succeeds in closing 
the hole without being captured. 1 

1 For a detailed account of the habits of this interesting species, see Kennicott's 
papers on the Mammals of Illinois, in the Patent Office Report on Agriculture for 
1857, p. 72. 


This animal is said to be unable to swim, and that it is often 
drowned in its burrows, when they are inundated by the sudden rise 
of the prairie streams. 1 Whether or not large rivers form impassable 
barriers to it, it seems to be well substantiated that while this animal 
occurs on the Iowa side of the Mississippi and in central Illinois, or 
throughout that part of the latter State south and east of the Illinois 
river, it does not exist in that portion situated between the Illinois 
and the Mississippi. Mr. Kennicott refers to his having heard this 
reported, but he was unable to vouch for the truthfulness of the ac- 
count. When in this section of Illinois, however, I was repeatedly 
informed by competent and trustworthy observers who had resided in 
this part of the State since its first settlement, and who had traversed 
it extensively, that the pocket gopher did not exist in that portion of 
Illinois between these rivers . This fact seems the more strange when 
we remember that the gopher is common in portions of Wisconsin, be- 
ing in fact very numerous in Winnebago and Fond du Lac counties, 
as I have myself ascertained. 

The Perognathus fasciatus may well be expected to occur in south- 
western Iowa, since it is well known to exist in northeastern Kansas, 
not many miles from the Iowa border. 


40. Jaculus hudsonius Baird. (Jumping Mouse.) 
Doubtless not uncommon, since it is numerous in neighboring por- 
tions of Wisconsin and Illinois. 

41. Hesperomys leucopus Wagner. (White-footed Mouse.) 
A species I take to be this was not uncommon. From the locality 

it may be what has been recognized by Professor Baird as the H. 
sonoriensis of Le Conte, 2 described by the latter gentleman from a 
specimen from Sonora. Specimens are referred to it by Professor 
Baird from Fort Union and other localities in northwestern Dacotah, 
and from various intermediate points southward to Texas and New 
Mexico ; the H. leucopus of Richardson from the Saskatchawan being 
also referred to it, it is thus recognized as having a considerable 
range in latitude. The western limit of H. leucopus is given by Pro- 
fessor Baird as the Mississippi. As my specimens are not appreciably 
different from H. leucopus from Massachusetts, one is left to two 
alternatives ; either that of regarding the H. leucopus as ranging 
westward across the State of Iowa to the Missouri, or of considering 

i K. Kennicott. Patent Office Rep., Agriculture, 1857, p. 76. 
Mam. N. Amer., p. 474. 


//. tonoriensis as indistinguishable as a species from H. lencopus. I 
am the more inclined to the latter opinion from the almost exact resem- 
blance which authentic specimens of the former that I have examined 
bear to othej-s unquestionably of H. leucopun. Its recognized wide dis- 
tribution in latitude does not at all accord with its supposed limited 
range eastward, in a region of so uniform a character as the one now 
in question. In regard to H. sonoriemis, Professor Baird observes : 
4 This species has the general characters of the white-footed mouse 
of the eastern States ; and it is only after the comparison of extensive 
series that I have been able to detect differences which, though slight, 
are so constant and of such a character as to appear something more 
than a mere local variation. I shall, however, be obliged to indicate 
the differences rather by comparison than as absolute characters." 
As I have previously observed, 1 I believe that a considerable number 
of merely nominal species of Hesperomys have been recognized as 
valid, and in a group presenting such a wide range of variation in 
color and in the proportions of the different parts of the body as 
different representatives of even the restricted H. leucopus do, I fail 
to see the propriety of basing species on such intangible differences 
as distinguish //. sonoriensis. 

42. Hesperomys michiganensis Wagner. (Prairie White- 
footed Mouse.) 

Apparently common; several specimens taken. I made my first 
acquaintance with this species in life, in Ogle county, Illinois, where 
I found a pair in June in their nest under a flat stone at the edge of a 
cornfield. A newly born litter of young were attached to the teats 
of the female. The contrast of color between the dorsal and ventral 
areas of the body was well marked, and the line of separation along 
he sides clearly defined. 2 

The Wood Rat (Neotoma ftoridana) has been found in northwest- 
ern Kansas, about a hundred miles from the southwestern corner of 
Iowa, and judging from what is known of its distribution, it may be 
expected to occur in portions of the latter State. 

43. Arvicola riparius Ord. (Meadow Mouse.) 
Apparently common. I obtained several specimens, some of which 

are scarcely appreciably different from Massachusetts ones; others more 
resemble some obtained by me in Northern Illinois. In the latter 

1 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zo81., No. vni, p. 227. 

1 Compare with this the remarks of Mr. Kennicott and Prof. Baird in reference 
to " Afus Bairdii." Pat. Office Rep., Agr., 1866, p. 92 ; Mam. N. Amer., p. 477. 


locality I obtained young specimens in the fall that in general char- 
acters are referable to A. riparius, but which in the character of the 
fur are quite different from the ordinary type of this species at the same 
age at the East, the coat being longer and heavier; the longer hairs 
presented a more bristly appearance, many of which were hoary, thus 
giving a well-marked grizzly aspect to the pelage. In the long heavy 
coat it seems to correspond with the prairie variety mentioned by 
Prof. Baird, and to which he applied the name long ip Us, in reference 
to this peculiarity; but they differ from it in color, which may, how- 
ever, and most probably does, result from a difference in age. The 
longer and coarser pelage noticeable in the Arvicola of the prairie is 
similar to that previously referred to in this paper as characterizing 
the prairie minks. 

The two following species of Arvicola also doubtless exist, at least 
in portions of the State, as they are not uncommon in the adjoining 
State of Illinois. 

44. Arvicola austera LeConte. (Prairie Meadow Mouse.) 

45. Arvicola pinetorum LeConte. (Pine Mouse.) 

46. Fiber zibethicus Cuvier. (Muskrat.) 
Common along the streams. 


47. Lepus Sylvaticus Bachman. (Gray Rabbit.) 

Common about the groves and thickets. In respect to the distribu- 
tion of this species in Iowa, Dr. White has written me as follows: " It 
occurs all over the State, but is not common in the northwestern part. 
Indeed it is most common in the most cultivated districts, especially 
in southern and southeastern Iowa." He adds that this is the only 
species of rabbit occurring in the State, to his knowledge. 

It is probable that the Prairie Hare (L. campestris Bach.), the 
western representative of the L. americanus of the northern tier of 
States east of the Mississippi (if there is, in fact, any reason to con- 
sider them distinct), may occur in the northern part of the State. 


48. Didelphys virginiana Shaw. (Opossum.) 

From its general known distribution, this species might well be 
expected to be more or less frequent in the southern part of the State. 
Dr. White, however, informs me that it is very rare there, but that 
he saw two specimens some years since in the southeastern part. 


From the American Naturalist, Vol. V, March, 1871. 

paper on the "Eared Seals"* by Dr. Theodore Gill, published in 
the January number of the NATURALIST,! I was pleased to see that 
this accomplished zoologist found in it a few things to commend, 
nor was I surprised to find, knowing his opinions previously, that 
on a few points we still somewhat differ. I regretted to observe, 
however, that notwithstanding his accustomed accuracy, Dr. Gill 
had, in the. present article, fallen into several by no means unim- 
portant errors. He quite severely criticises my provisional differ- 
entiation of the Otariadce into two subfamily groups, and in so 
doing has not only questioned the value ascribed by me to the 
characters alleged to be distinctive of the two groups, but also the 
existence of such distinctions, at least to anything like the extent 
claimed for them. 

The distinctions given as characteristic of the two groups were 
differences in the character of the pelage, in size, form, the rela- 
tive length of the ear and the swimming membranes or toe-flaps. 
Without discussing here the taxonomic value of these distinctions, 
I propose to examine briefly whether any of them have been shown 
by Dr. Gill "to be degraded to absolute nullity." 

First, in regard to the pelage. The Oulophocince were charac- 
terized as having " thick under fur," and the Trichophocince as 
being "without under fur." As showing that this character is 
not a trenchant one, Dr. Gill cites the observation of Dr. Peters 
that the Arctocephalus antarcticus ( Otaria pusilla Peters) has very 
thin under fur, and the remark of Dr. Gray that in Zalophus loba- 
tus (Z. cinereus Gill) the young are " covered with soft fur which 
falls off when the next coat of fur is developed," both of which- 
objections I had already noticed. J To go over the ground again, 
however, I may state that since Dr. Peters wrote, it has been as- 
certained that both the Arctocephalus antarcticus and the A. 
cinereus are richly provided with under fur, so well so, at least, 
that these animals are pursued for their fur, which forms an arti- 
cle of high commercial value. The remark respecting the tem- 

* Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol. H, pp. 1-108, 1870. 

f Vol. IV, pp. 675-684. 

JBull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. II, p. 41. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., Vol. I, p. 219, March, 1868. Dr. Gray describes the 
A. cinereus as having the "under fur abundant" (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser. 
Vol. X VIII, p. 236, 1868), which remark is confirmed by a young specimen of this animal 
In the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 


porary under fur possessed by the young of Zalophus lobatus was 
made nearly half a century ago, and though often quoted since, 
has never yet been confirmed, so far at least as I have been able 
to ascertain. Since such a fact, however, would be contrary to 
analogy, to sa}~ the least, the accuracy of this observation seems 
to require confirmation. While in the hair seals the homo- 
logue of the under fur of the fur seals may be considered to exist 
in the short, stiff, crisp under hairs, which are so few as only 
to be discovered by the most careful search, at least in old males 
of Eumetopias, and apparently also in Otaria and Zalophus, 
they do not accord at all in their nature with the fine, soft, abun- 
dant, silky under fur of the fur seals. The under fur of the fur 
seals is known to vary more or less in amount with the season, 
which variations may have given rise to the observations of Dr. 
Peters cited by Dr. Gill. 

In regard to size, the hair seals were characterized as "large," 
and the fur seals as " smaller." As the representatives of Otaria 
and Eumetopias are several times larger, in respect to bulk, than 
any of the representatives of either Callorhinus or Arctocephalus, 
and the representatives of Zalophus are considerably larger than 
any of the fur seals, I fail to see that the difference in size 
"seems to be more than reduced to a mimimum and to be de- 
graded to absolute nullity." 

In regard to form, the fur seals were described by me as being 
" more slender" than the hair seals. This observation was based 
upon a comparison of the skeletons of two of the leading genera 
Eumetopias and Callorhinus and the figures arid descriptions 
of the other species. Not only are all the bones smaller in com- 
parison to their length in Callorhinus than in Eumetopias, but the 
limbs are also slenderer 1 and longer in proportion to the size of 
the body. In the comparison Dr. Gill has attempted to make, in 
his review, of the form of Eumetopias with that of Callorhinus, in 
order to determine whether there was any difference in form in the 
two groups, a singularly improper basis was adopted, namely, the 
"ratio of the skull to the length of the male skin." His rather 
obscure comparative table serves only to represent the individual 
variation in the specimens of the same species, as exaggerated in 
stuffed specimens. Had he computed^the ratio the length of 
the skull bears to that of the whole skeleton, data equally at his 
command, instead of between the skulls and skins, his table 


would have had some value as showing the variation in respect to 
this ratio that obtains between specimens of the same species. 
But the idea of determining the relative slenderness of two ani- 
mals by the number of times the length of the head is contained 
in the total length of the body, is, to say the least, a novel one to 
me, since slenderness and robustness of form usually involve, as 
is well known, the head as well as the trunk, as a little reflection 
will doubtless at once convince my reviewer. That the expression 
"'form more slender' of the former [OufopAocmce] implies a 
greater relative total length for these animals than the head alone 
would indicate," is an announcement for which I was quite unpre- 

In regard to the length of the ear in the two groups, it appears 
that Dr. Gill has also been unfortunate in his generalizations. Ac- 
cording to his quoted measurements, the ear in the longest-eared 
species of the hair seals (Eumetoj)fas) scarcely equals that of the 
shortest-eared species of the fur seals, but he seems to have for- 
gotten that the bulk of Eumetopias is several times that of the 
largest of the fur seals, so that while the ear is absolutely but 
little longer in the fur seals than in the longest-eared hair seals, it 
is relatively very much longer. 

Having said this much in regard to the validity of the charac- 
ters I gave as distinctive of these two groups, I desire to add a 
word in respect to the matter of " conservatism." Dr. Gill says, 
"In the case of doubtful species at least of those which have 
tangible characters, but the value of which may be dubious some 
naturalists refer such at once to species which they appear in their 
judgment to most resemble, while others probably most retain 
them with reserve, awaiting future information. Of the former 
school, Mr. Allen is an ardent disciple, and finding a certain 
range of variation in some know^n form, he concludes that analo- 
gous variations are only of like value." In reply to this, I will 
only say that my practice is to never reduce to a synonyme any 
species presenting " tangible characters," or even those which ap- 
pear to have such characters, or where the probability seems to be 
that it may be distinct, though not as yet properly characterized. 
When no evidence of the validity of a given species has been 
advanced, which in the light of present facts can be so considered, 
I deem it subservient to the interests of science to refer them to 
the species to which they seem evidently to belong; as in no 


other way will their true character be more likely to be eventually 
made evident ; for those authors who have recognized them as 
valid will be likely to reinvestigate the subject before submitting 
to their being dropped from our systems. All zoologists, I think, 
will admit that the tendency is to a multiplication of nominal 
species ; and all likewise know how difficult it is to eradicate a 
nominal species from our systems. Probably few naturalists now 
doubt that many currently received species rest solely on char- 
acters of individual variation, and it see'ms to me unwise to retain 
such species as are unquestionably of this character in the hope that 
through some fortunate circumstance they may be spme day proved 
valid. It seems to me impossible, in fact, that any one who has 
compared a large number of specimens of any well known species 
with each other, can resist the conviction that, as the number of 
specimens in our museums increases, the number of species will 
be greatly reduced, notwithstanding that in the mean time not a 
few really new ones may be discovered. I have myself found that 
the more common species of both the birds and mammals of east- 
ern North America of which I have examined, in many instances, 
hundreds of specimens of each vary in size, and even in propor- 
tions, in specimens from the same localit}^ and of the same sex, 
from twelve to twent}^ per cent, of their average size and form for 
that locality, and to a corresponding extent in color. Add to this 
the normal range of the geographical variation each species ex- 
hibits, which ordinarily fully equals that of the individual varia- 
tion, * and it becomes at once evident that with the custom of 
zoologists to describe species from a single specimen, and often 
an imperfect one, and their usual want of familiarity with the ex- 
tent of variation within specific limits in the common species of 
their own country, the liabilities to an undue multiplication of 
species have been, and still are, very great. This to many may be 
a matter of small moment, but to the philosophical zoologist, who 
desires to carefully investigate the varied phenomena of animal 
life, it is one of high importance. 

Having said thus much in reply to the strictures of Dr. Gill, I 
now reluctantly turn critic, and pass in review the classification of 

*See on this subject a paper in the Bulletin of tharMuseum of Comparative Zoology 
(Vol. II, pp. 186-250) entitled, "On the Individual and Geographical Variation among 
Birds, considered in Respect to its Bearing upon the Value of Certain Assumed Specific 


the eared seals proposed by this author in his above-cited paper. 
While still agreeing with him in regard to the comparatively wide 
separation of Zalophus from its nearest allies, and in regard to its 
being intermediate between the fur and other hair seals in respect 
to size, but only in this point, I am compelled to still differ with 
him in respect to its constituting a primary group coordinate with 
that of all the other eared seals. * Whilst a somewhat aberrant 
form, it seems to me to be by no means very far removed from 
Eumetopias and Otaria. ' I can, in fact, scarcely comprehend how 
it has happened that the author in question has overlooked the 
presence of a well developed sagittal crest in all the genera of 
the Otariadce except Zalophus, as he seems to have done in the 
differentiation of his two primary groups of this family. The 
supposition that he has examined only the skulls of females or 
young males of the other genera is hardly sufficient to explain this 
oversight, since figures indicating its presence in the males of the 
other genera have been long published, to say nothing of the many 
distinct allusions to it by authors. While familiar with the distinc- 
tive characters of Zalophus, he has failed to indicate them in his di- 
agnoses, the comparatively unimportant character furnished by the 
rostral outline being far less characteristic than its slender elon- 
gated muzzle and other features, which had previously been well 
pointed out by Dr. Gill, as well as by other writers. The sagittal 
crest reaches, it is true, its maximum development in.Zaloplius; 
but any one who has seen the high sagittal crest possessed by old 
males of Eumetopias Stelleri, in which as a thin solid plate it at- 
tains the height of 38 mm., or an inch and a half; and the rela- 
tively scarcely less developed sagittal crest in old males of Callo- 
rliinus ursinus ; and the figure of old male skulls of Otaria jubata, 
and some of the species of Arctocephalus, in which a high sagittal 
crest is represented ; cannot but be surprised to find in what is 
assumed to be an enumeration of "the most obvious and dis- 
tinctive characters" of the genera Callorhinus, Arctocephalm, 
Otaria and Eumetopias, a diagnosis contrasting " a sagittal groove 
from which are reflected the low ridges indicating the limits of the 
temporal muscles" in these genera, with "a solid, thin, and much 
elevated sagittal crest " in Zalophus ! The females of Callorhinus 
ursinus and Otaria jubata, and, so far as at present known, of all 

*See American Naturalist, Vol. IV, p. 681. 


the eared seals, have the "sagittal groove," etc., as above de- 
scribed, as do also the males till they have attained nearly their 
full size. The sagittal crest in the males of Eumetopias and 
Callorhinus rises at first as a double ridge on each side of the 
sagittal suture, beginning at the hinder part of the skull. It 
develops most rapidly in its posterior part, and gradually ex- 
tends anteriorly to a point opposite the orbital processes. Grad- 
ually the laminae of this double plate become soldered into one, 
uniting first posteriorly, while anteriorly the crest remains com- 
posed of two closely applied thin plates, which, in old age, be- 
come firmly united the whole length. The sagittal crest in old 
male skulls of Zalophus hence differs from the corresponding crest 
in Eumetopias and Callorhinus, only in being relatively somewhat 
higher, and in being more produced anteriorly. I am not sure, 
however, that in very aged animals even this slight difference 
would be constant. In one of the skulls of Zalophus I have seen, 
the two plates were not entirely soldered at their anterior end, 
thus indicating their development primarily as a double plate, as 
in Eumetopias and Callorhinus. The only other character given 
as separating these two groups that of the rostral profile I 
deem too trivial to require more than the incidental remark already 
given to it. 

In concluding, I may add that the deservedly high standing of 
my critic _as a naturalist seemed to demand from me, in justice to 
myself, some notice of his sweeping criticisms, especially since 
not merely the assumed value of the characters given by me as 
distinguishing what I considered to be two primary groups of the 
Otariadce were questioned, but also even the existence of such 
distinctions ; but more especially it was due to the interests of sci- 
ence that his incorrect diagnosis of one of the two groups he con- 
siders as the two primary groups of this family, should not pass 
unnoticed, since on this error was based a new classification of the 
Otariadce. Having done this, the writer will here let the subject 
rest, J. A. A. 








From the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XVII, 
February 17, 1875. 


The following synopsis of the species and varieties of American 
Leporidas is based mainly on the specimens of this group contained in 
the museum of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, but those 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge have also 
been used, as well as all accessible material from other sources. The 
present paper is an abstract of a monograph, in which the synonomy 
will be given in full, with extended tables of measurements and 
detailed descriptions. 

Analysis of the Species and Varieties. 

I. Skull much arched above; breadth one half the length; post- 
orbital processes distinct, not soldered with the skull; nasals 
of medium length, their length equal to about four-fifths of 
the width of the skull. 

A. Hind feet longer than the head. Size large. Postorbital 
processes divergent, not in contact with the skull poste- 
riorly. Pelage white in winter. 

875.1 431 [Allen- 

a. Size large. Nasals about as wide in front as behind. 

1. Ears rather shorter than the head. Pelage dusky yellowish 

gray in summer, pure white to the roots in winter. Tail 
short, black above in summer. Size very large. 

timidus var. arcticus. 

2. Ears much longer than the head. Pelage pale yellowish 

gray in summer, in winter white at the surface and base, 
and reddish in the middle. Tail long, white on both sur- 
faces. Size smaller campestris. 

b. Size medium. Nasals considerably narrower in front than 


3. Ears about equal to the length of the head . . americanus, 
' '. 3a. Pelage in summer pale cinnamon brown; in winter 

white at the surface and plumbeous at base, with 
a narrow middle band of reddish brown. 

var. americanus. 

3&, Pelage in summer cinnamon brown ; in winter white 
at the surface and plumbeous at base, with a 
broad middle band of reddish brown, which shows 
through the white of the surface, the white being 
often a mere surface wash. Fully as large, or 
rather larger than var. americanus. 

var. virginianus. 

3c. Pelage redder in summer and whiter in winter than 
in the last, and size smaller. 

var. Washingtoni. 

3d. Size of the last, with the pelage more dusky in 
summer, and in winter nearly or wholly pure white 
to the base, the middle reddish band being more or 
less obsolete var. Bairdii. 

B. Hind feet not longer than the head. Size small. Postorbital 
processes convergent, frequently (in old specimens) in con- 
tact with the skull posteriorly, but only rarely anchylosed 
with it. Pelage never white. 

4. Gray above, varied with black, and more or less tinged with 
light yellowish brown ; under parts white . . sylvaticus. 
4a. Above yellowish brown, with a tinge of reddish. 

var. sylvaticus. 

Allen.] 432 [February 17, 

46. Paler, rather smaller, with slightly larger ears, and 
rather stouter lower jaw .... var. Nuttalli. 

4c. Color nearly as in var. sylvaticus ; rather longer ears, 
more distinctly black- tipped . . var. Auduboni. 

5. Smaller than sylvaticus, with the postorbital process scarcely 

touching the skull posteriorly. Colors generally more 
finely blended, and darker. Tail very short, almost ru- 
dimentary , . . . Trowbridgei. 

6. Above gray, varied with black and pale yellow. Size of 

Trowbridgei, with the colors and sparsely clothed feet of 
palustris. Tail very short brasiliensis. 

II. Skull less convex above; breadth considerably less than half 

the length; length of nasals more than four-fifths the width of 
the skull. Ears and hind feet longer than the head. Post- 
orbital processes convergent, touching the cranium behind. 
Pelage never white. Tail long, black above, this color ex- 
tending forward on the rump. 

A. Lower jaw large, massive. 

7. Above pale yellowish gray, varied with black; below white, 

more or less tinged with fulvous callotis. 

B. Lower jaw disproportionably small, relatively smaller than 

that of any other American species of Lepus. 

8. Somewhat smaller than callotis, and more rufous above. 

calif ornicus. 

III. Postorbital process anchylosed with the skull. Hind feet short. 

Pelage never white. 

A. Width of the skull half of the length. 

9. Size medium. Tail long . . palustris. 

B. Width of the skull considerably less than half the length. 

10. Size large. Tail short aquaticus 

1. Lepus timidus var. articus. 

Lepus variabilis Pallas, Schreber, Gmelin and other early writers. 

Lepus timidus Fabricius, Faun. Groenl., 25, 1780. 

Lepus articus Leach, Ross's Voyage, II., App. 151, 1819. 

Lepus glacialis Leach, Ibid., 170. 

Lepus glacialis Sabine, Richardson, Baird, and subsequent writers 

Habitat. Arctic America, southward on the Atlantic coast to Lab- 
rador and Newfoundland ; in the interior southward to Fort Churchill, 
the northern shore of Great Slave Lake and the upper Youkon Valley. 

1876.] 433 [Allen. 

2. Lepus campestris. 

Lepus variabilis Lewis, Bartrara's Med. and Phys. Journ., II, 159, 

Lepus virginianus, var.? Harlan, Faun. Amer., 310, 1825. 

Lepus virginianus Richardson, Faun. Bor. Am., I, 224, 1829. 

Lepus campestris Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 
349, 1837. Baird, Mam. N. Am., 585, 1857. 

Lepus Townsendi Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat^Sci. Phila., VIII, 90, 

Habitat. Plains of the Saskatchewan southward to middle Kansas, 
and from Fort Riley westward to the Coast Range. 

3. Lepus americanus. 

a. var. americanus. 

Lepus americanus Erxleben, Syst. Reg. Anim., 330, 1777. (Based 
wholly on Hudson's Bay specimens.) 

Lepus americanus Baird and most modern authors. (In part only, 
this name also generally including var. virginianus.) 

Lepus hudsonius Pallas, Nov. Sp. Glires, 30, 1778. 

Lepus nanus Schreber, Saugt., II, 881, 1792. (In part only.) 

Lepus campestris Baird, Ms. (Labels and Record Books, Sm. 
Inst.) Hayden, Am. Nat., Ill, 115, 1869. 

Lepus variabilis var. Godman, Am. Nat. Hist., II, 169, 1826. (In 
part only.) 

Lepus borealis Schintz, Synopsis, II, 286, 1845. 

Habitat. From the Arctic Barren Grounds southward to Nova 
Scotia, Lake Superior, and Northern Canada, and in the interior 
throughout the wooded parts of the Hudson's Bay Territories, and 
Alaska. Replaced west of the Rocky Mountains by var. Washingfoni. 

b. var. virginianus. 

Lepus virginianus Harlan, Faun. Am., 196, 1825. (Based wholly 
on Virginia specimens.) 

Lepus americanus Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 403, 
1837. (In part only). Baird, Mam, N. Amer., 579, 1857. (In part 

Habitat. Nova Scotia to Connecticut *|on the coast, the Canadas 
and the northern parts of the northern tier of States westward to 
Minnesota, and southward in the Alleghanies to Virginia, or through- 
out the Alleghanian and Canadian Faunae. 


Allen.] 434 (February 17, 

c. var. Washington!. 

Lepus WasUngtoni Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 333, 
1855. Ibid., Mam. N. Am., 583, 1857, 

Habitat. West of the Rocky Mountains, (mainly west of the Cas- 
cade Range?) from the mouth of the Columbia northward into 
British Columbia. 

d. var. Bairdii. 

Lepus Bairdii Hayden, Am. Nat., Ill, 115, 1869. 
Habitat. The higher parts of the Rocky Mountains, southward to 
New Mexico, northward into British America. 
4. Lepus sylvaticus. 

a. var. sylvaticus. 

Lepus nanus Schreber, Saugt., IV, 881, 1792. (In part only.) 

Sylvilagus nanus Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., XX, 
221, 1867. 

Lepus americanus Desmarest, Mammalogie, II, 354, 1822. Bach- 
man, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 326, 1837. 

Lepus sylvaticus Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 403, 
1837. [bid., VIII, 78, 1839. Baird, Mam. N. Am., 579, 1857. 

Habitat. United States east of the 97th meridian, excluding those 
portions embraced in the Canadian Fauna, (Northern New England 
and the more elevated parts of Appalachian Highlands). 

b. var. Nuttalli. 

Lepus Nuttalli Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 345, 
1837. (Based on an immature specimen.) 

Lepus Bachrnani Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., VI, 103, 
1838. Ibid., Nat. Hist. Mam., II, 124, 1848. Baird, Mam. N. 
Am., 606, 1857. 

Lepus arlemisia Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, 94, 
1839. Baird, Mam. N. Am., 602, 1857. 

Habitat. United States west of the 97th meridian, excluding a 
narrow belt along the Pacific coast, and possibly southwestern Ari- 
zona and southern California. 

c. var. Auduboni. 

Lepus Auduboni Baird, Mam. N. Am., 608, 1857. 

Habitat. Southwestern Arizona, southern and Lower California. 

5. Lepus Trowbridgei. 

Lepus trowbridcjei Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 333, 
1855. Ibid., Mam. N. Am., 610, 1857. 

Habitat. West of the Sierra Nevada Range, from northern Cali- 
fornia to Cape St. Lucas. 

1876.] 435 [Allen. 

6. Lepus brasiliensis. 

Lepus brasiliensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., I., 78, 1766. Also 
of subsequent authors generally. 

Lepus taped Pallas, Nov. Sp. Glires, 30, 1778. 

Tapeti brasliensis Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Sef., XX, 
22, 1867. 

Habitat. Throughout the greater part of South America. 

7. Lepus callotis. 

Lepus callotis Wagler, Nat. Syst. Amph., 35, 1830. Baird, Mam. 
N. Am., 590, 1857. 

Lepus nigricaudatus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., I, 41, 1833. 

? " Lepus mexicanus Licht. " Kichardson, Sixth Rep. British Ass., 
(1836), 150, 158, 1837. 

Lepus [callotis var.] flavigularis Wagner, Suppl. Schreber's 
Saught., IV, 107, 1844. 

Lepus texianus Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. Mam., II, 136, 1848. Aud. 
and Bach., Quad. N. Amer., Ill, 156, pi. 133, 1853. Baird, Mam. N. 
Am., 617, 1857. 

Habitat. United States between the 97th meridian and the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, and from Northern Kansas and the Great Salt 
Lake Basin southward into Mexico. 

8.. Lepus californicus. 

Lepus californicus Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 586, 
1837. Baird, Mam. N. Am., 594, 1857. 

Lepus Richardsoni Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, 
88, 1839. 

Lepus Bennetti Gray, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, 35, pi. 14, 1844. 

Habitat. California, west of the Sierra Nevada Range, south to 
Cape St. Lucas, Lower Cal. 

9. Lepus palustris. 

Lepus palustris Baohirum. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, 194, 
336, pi. 15, 16, 1837. .Baird, Mam. N. Am., 615, 1827. 

Lepus Douglassi, var. 2 Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 
586, 1837. 

Hydrolagus palustris Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., XX, 
221, 1867. 

Habitat. South Atlantic and Gulf States. 

10. Lepus aquaticus. 

Lepus aquaticus Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VH, 319, 
pi. 22, fig. 2, 1837. Baird, Mam. N. Am., 612, 1857. 

Allen.] 436 [March 3, 

Lepus Douglassi, var. 1 Gray, Charles worth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 
586, 1837. 

Hydrolagus aquaticus Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., 
XX, 221, 1867. 

Habitat. Gulf States, south through the lowlands of Mexico to 
Central America, (Orizaba, Mex., Sumichrast, Botteri ; Tehuantepec, 
Mex., Sumichrast] Merida, Yucatan, Schott). 



F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 


By J. A. ALLEN. 


By J. A. ALLEN. 


WASHINGTON, July 1, 1876. 





Having recently had an opportunity (through the kindness of Pro- 
fessor Baird) of studying with some care the magnificent series of 
skulls of the North American Mammalia belonging to the National 
Museum (amounting often to eighty or a hundred specimens of a single 
species), I have been strongly impressed with the different degrees of 
variability exhibited by the representatives of the species and genera 
of even the same family. The variation in size, for instance, with lati- 
tude, in the Wolves and Foxes is surprisingly great, amounting in some 
species (as will be shown later) to 25 per cent, of the average size of 
the species, while in other species of the Ferae it is almost nil. Con- 
trary to the general supposition, the variation in size among represent- 
atives of the same species is not always a decrease with the decrease of 
the latitude of the locality, but is in some cases exactly the reverse, in 
some species there being a very considerable and indisputable increase 
southward. This, for instance, is very markedly true of some species of 
Felis and in Procyon lotor. Consequently, the very generally-received 
impression that in North America the species of Mammalia diminish in 
size southward, or with the decrease in the latitude (and altitude) of 
the locality, requires modification. While such is generally the case, 
the reverse of this too often occurs, with occasional instances also of a 
total absence of variation in size with locality, to be considered as form- . 
ing " the exceptions " necessary to " prove the rule". 

That there are such exceptions, both among Birds and Mammals, I 
have been long aware, and long since noticed that where there is an 
actual increase in size to the southward it occurs in species that belong 
to families or genera that are mainly developed within the tropics, there 
reaching their maximum development, both in respect to the number of 
their specific representatives, and in respect to the size to which some of 
the species attain. This fact seems also to have been observed by 

Most of the Mammals of North America belong to families, subfam- 
ilies, or geneia which have their greatest development in the temperate 
or colder poitions of the northern hemisphere, as the Cervidce, the 
Canidce, the Mustelidce, the Sciuridce (especially the subfamily Arctomy- 

* I find that Mr. Robert Ridgway, some two years since, thus referred to this point. 
In alluding to the smaller size of Mexican specimens of Catharpes mexicanns as com- 
pared with specimens from Colorado, (C. mexicanus var. compusus) he says: "As we 
find this peculiarity exactly paralleled in the Thryotharus[ludovicianus of the Atlantic 
States, may not these facts point out a law to the effect that in genera and species in 
the temperate zone the increase in size with latitude is toward the region of the highest de- 
velopment of the group ?" Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's Birds of North America, Vol. 
Ill, App., p. 503, 1874. 


inoe), the Leporidcc, the Castoridce, the Armcolince among the Mur-idce, 
the Saccomyidce, Geomyidce, etc. These rarely present an exception to 
the general law of decrease in size southward, though the variation is 
less (in fact, occasionally almost nil) in some species than in the others. 
The more marked exceptions, or those in which there is an actual 
increase in size southward, occur in those families ihat reach their 
highest development with the tropics, as the Felidce and Procyonidw. 

In some species (as I have elsewhere noticed), there probably exists a 
double decadence in size, the individual reaching its maximum dimen- 
sions where the conditions of environment are most favorable for the 
existence of the species, diminishing in size toward the northern 
(through scarcity of food and severity of climate) as well as toward the 
southern (in consequence of the enervating influence of tropical or semi- 
tropical conditions) limit of its distribution. 

In a general way, the correlation of size with geographical distribution 
may be formulated in the following propositions : 

(1) The maximum physical development of the individual is attained where 
the conditions of environment are most favorable to the life of the species. 
Species being primarily limited in their distribution by climatic conditions, 
their representatives living at or near either of ther respective latitudinal 
boundaries are more or less unfavorably affected by the influences that 
finally limit the range of the species. These influences may be the direct 
effects of too high or too low a temperature, too little or too much humidity, 
or their indirect effects acting upon the plants or other sources of food. 
Hence the size of the individual generally correlates with the abundance 
or scarcity of food. .Different species being constitutionally fitted for 
different climatic conditions, surroundings favorable to one may be very 
unfavorable to others, even of the same family or genus. Hence 

(2) The largest species of a group (genus, subfamily, or family, as the 
case may be) are found where the group to which they severally belong 
readies its highest development, or where it has what may be termed its center 
of distribution. In other words, species of a given group attain their 
maximum size where the conditions of existence for the group in ques- 
tion are the most favorable, just as the largest representatives of a spe- 
cies are found where the conditions are most favorable for the existence 
of the species. 

(3) The most " typical r or most generalized representatives of a group are 
found also near its center of distribution, outlying forms being generally more 
or less " aberrant" or specialized. Thus the Cervidce, though nearly cosmo- 
politan in their distribution, attain their greatest development, both as re- 
spects the size and the number of the species, in the temperate portions of 
the northern hemisphere. The tropical species of this group are the 
smallest of its representatives. Those of the temperate and cold-tem- 
perate regions are the largest, where, too, the species are the most nu- 
merous. Most of the species of this family also have a wide geograph- 
ical range,. and their representatives respectively present great differ- 
ences in size with locality, namely, a very marked decrease in size to 
the southward. The possession of large, branching, deciduous antlers 
forms one of the marked features of the family. These appendages at- 
tain their greatest development in the northern species, the tropical forms 
having them reduced almost to mere spikes, which in some species never 
pass beyond a rudimentary state. Beginning at the northward, we have 
first, in the subarctic and cold-temperate regions, theAlcine and Saugerine 
forms, species of the largest size, with heavy, large antlers. "Next, 
in the colder-temperate regions, come the Elaphine species, also of very 
large size, with nearly the largest antlers of any of the Cervidce. We 


next meet, in the temperate and warmer regions generally, the smaller 
Capreoline and Rusiae forms, decreasing in size southward, with a rapid 
reduction also in the size of the antlers. Finally, in the subtropical and 
tropical portions of the Old World, we meet with antlerless forms, that 
constitute the smallest species known among the Cervidce and their allies. 

The decrease in the size of the antlers southward among the different 
genera and species is also well marked among individuals of the same 
species, especially among the Cariacine deer of North America. 

The Canidce form another family, which, while having a nearly cos- 
mopolitan distribution, is most numerously represented in the temper- 
ate regions of the northern hemisphere, where also occur nearly all of 
the larger species, and where are exclusively found the true Wolves and 
Foxes. In respect to the latter, the larger species of each occur only at 
the northward, and the smaller at the southward. Thus, in North 
America, the large Gray Wolf ranges' from the arctic regions to Florida 
and Mexico, while the Coyote is not found much to the northward of 
the great campestrian region of the interior. The Common Fox ranges 
also from the subarctic districts southward to the Gulf of Mexico, while 
the smaller Gray Fox finds its northern limit near the parallel of 42, 
while a third still smaller species is confined within the warmer- 
temperate latitudes. At the extreme northward, we find, however, a 
smaller arctic form, on the extreme northern confines of the habitat of 
the family. In the Wolves and Foxes, decrease in size to the southward 
is strongly marked, being probably not exceeded in any other group, 
though perhaps nearly equaled in some of the Cariaciue Deer. 

The Ursidce, while having a wide geographical range, are confined 
mainly to the north hemisphere, throughout which they have representa- 
tives. Here again the larger species are northern, while all the warm- 
temperate and subtropical forms are small. There is also a correspond- 
ing decrease in size southward among the representatives of the several 
species. (See later portions of the paper for a somewhat detailed dis- 
cussion of the North American species.) 

The Mustelidce, while mainly confined to the northern hemisphere, 
have also representatives south of the equator. Of the Mustelines prop- 
er, all the larger species are boreal, though some of the smaller extend 
also to the arctic regions. The Wolverine, the largest of the group, is 
the most boreal ; the Fisher and the Marten, the next in size, are mainly 
confined to the subarctic and cold-temperate regions; the Mink, next in 
size, extends farther southward ; the Weasels range also into the mid- 
dle-temperate latitudes, with a single species occurring (only at consid- 
erable altitudes) under the tropics. Galictis is its single tropical repre- 
sentative, and is also the most specialized (though not the smallest) type 
of the group. The Melince and Enhydrince, each with a single American 
representative, and both boreal, are also among the largest representatives 
of the family. The Mephitince, of medium or rather small size, are strictly 
a warm-temperate and tropical group, with representatives extending 
from the northern parts of the United States southward to the southern 
parts of South America. The Lutrince have a wider range, being found 
throughout the tropics as well as in the temperate and colder regions, 
and apparently present not a very great range of geographical variation. 
The Felidce, while possessing an almost cosmopolitan range, have their 
greatest development within the tropics, where they attain their maxi- 
mum size and number of species. The single boreal genus found in 
America is one of the most specialized forms of the family. As will be 
shown later, the American representatives of this family present a 
notable exception to the general law of decrease in size toward the 
No. 4 3 


south, and confirm the law of increase in size toward the geographi- 
cal center of the group to which they belong. 

The Procyonidce are essentially a tropical family, in which regions are 
found the largest species and the greatest variety of forms. The single 
JSorth American species presents a marked increase in size southward, as 
will be fully shown later. 

The GlireSjOrRodentiajaie. found throughout the greater part of the 
world, but are represented by special groups in different regions. Being 
strictly herbivorous, they are most numerously developed in the tem- 
perate and warmer latitudes. The largest known species are tropical, 
but others of large size are more or less boreal. In the northern hem- 
isphere, the largest species is the Beaver, which formerly ranged through- 
out the temperate latitudes. Of the Muridce, the larger species are 
southern, the smaller northern ; and there is a tendency (among some 
of the species, at least) to an increase in size southward, as in some of 
the varieties of Hesperomys leucopus. The Arvicolince, on the other 
hand, are subarctic and temperate in their distribution, and markedly 
increase in size to the northward. Here, likewise, the largest species 
of the group are met with. 

The Sciuridce are also a nearly cosmopolitan group, with different 
genera and subfamilies specially characteristic of different regions. The 
Sdurince are most numerously represented in the warm -temperate and 
subtropical latitudes, where also occur the largest species. Yet some 
of those of the more northern districts show a decided tendency to 
diminution in size southward, while in others the decrease in this direc- 
tion is less marked. The Arctomyince are temperate and subarctic, and 
the largest species occur at the northward. Parry's Marmot is the most 
boreal and much the largest. Franklin's Spermophile next succeeds, and 
is one of the largest of the group. Spermophilus grammurus (with its va- 
rieties Beecheyi and Douglassi), of about the same dimension, occupies the 
elevated interior and the Pacific slope, extending, however, quite far 
southward. The smallest of the group, S. Harrisii, S. spilosoma, and 8. 
mexicana, have a more southern range. In all of these species, there is a 
marked decrease in size to the southward in their respective represent- 
atives, as there is among the species themselves. Arctomys and 
Sciuropterus are boreal genera, with their larger species and varieties 
occurring at the northward, and a northward increase in size in the 
representatives of their several forms. 

The Leporidce of America are mainly restricted to the northern conti- 
nent, their center of development as respects the number of species, 
being the United States. Here occur also nearly all of the larger forms. 
The Polar Hare, one of the largest, is strictly arctic ; three or four others 
of nearly equal size find their northern limit, with one exception, south 
of the forty-ninth parallel. The most remarkable trait of the family is 
the rather small degree of geographical variation its representatives 
present, both as respects size and coloration. The difference in size 
between the largest and smallest species is less than is often found in 
any co-ordinate group having the same number of species, and the 
species themselves present great constancy of character. There is gen- 
erally a slight decrease in size southward among individuals of the 
same species, but sometimes the difference is scarcely perceptible. In 
the most northerly but one* of the species (Lepus americanus}^ there is 
apparently a very slight decrease (certainly no increase) in size north- 

* The material at hand is too scanty to afford grounds for any satisfactory general- 
ization respecting the Polar Hare. 


With these general remarks, we will pass now to a more special exam- 
ination of geographical variation in size in several of the more common 
species of the North American Ferae, based on the abundant material 
in the National Museum. 


The common Gray Wolf of the northern hemisphere presents a range 
of individual variation in color exceeded by but few known species of 
Mammals ; gray, white, and black individuals, with various intermediate 
stages of coloration, occurring with greater or less frequency wherever 
the species abounds, several of these varieties sometimes occurring in 
the same litter. Black and white wolves seem to occur more frequently 
at some localities than others, but gray is generally nearly everywhere 
the prevailing color. Cream-colored and rufous varieties are also said 
to have a wide prevalence over some parts of the great plains of the 
interior. To what extent these variations in color are to be considered 
as geographic is not yet well established.* With such an evident tend- 
ency to variability, it is not surprising that geographical variation in 
size is displayed in this species to a marked degree. The variation in 
this respect constitutes a pretty uniform decrease in size southward, as 
shown (see the subjoined table) by the size of the skull, only fully 
adult skulls being here taken. The largest are from Fort Simpson and 
other localities in or near the Mackenzie .Biver district, six of which, 
out of a series of nine specimens, exceed 10.25 inches in length (one 
reaching 11.50 !), and the other three average above 9.50, the whole aver- 
aging 10.38. The next in size are from the region about Puget Sound, 
a series of three (the only ones in the collection), averaging nearly 
10.50. Of sixteen specimens from Forts Benton, Union, and .Randall, 
on the Upper Missouri, the average is 9.45, the extremes being 10.50 
and 8.50. Nine specimens from Forts Kearney and Harker (chiefly 
from Fort Kearney, and all pretty old) average a little larger than the 
Upper Missouri specimens, the extremes being 10.15 and 9.35. A single 
specimen from the mountains of New Mexico reaches 10.00, while the 
three most southern (from the Bio Grande and Sonora, Mexico) average 
only 8.37, being the smallest of the whole series, and averaging 2.00 
shorter than the series of nine from the Mackenzie Biver region. This 
difference is fully 25 per cent, of the average size of a series of upward 
of eighty specimens ; while the difference between the smallest (from 
Saltillo, Mexico) and the largest (from Fort Simpson) is 3.75, or nearly 
40 per cent, of the average size of the whole series ! 

* See further on color variation in this species. Ball. Mus. Coinp. Zoul., vol. i, pp. 


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The Coyote, or Prairie Wolf, the Dearest American affine ef the 
Gray Wolf, is as remarkable for its constancy of character, especially in 
respect to color, as the latter is for its variability. The individual varia- 
tions in the color of Canis latrans consist generally in the depth or in- 
tensity of the shadings of black or rufous that more or less pervade the 
pelage of certain parts of the head and body. Although considerable 
variations have been noticed in respect to the form of the skull, they 
are small in proportion to those presented by Canis lupus. It is also 
much less influenced apparently by locality. The species has, however, 
a less extended range than Canis lupus, and the specimens at command 
represent localities less widely separated than do the series of skulls of 
Canis lupus. 

Measurements of forty skulls are given below, mainly from Nebraska, 
Dakota, and Wyoming. The most distant localities are Columbia 
Eiver and Fort Tejon, California, Southern Texas, and Fort Union, 
Montana. Of this series of forty skulls, the average is 7.40; only 
two attain a length of 8.00, one of which (measuring 8.00 in length) is 
from Fort Union, and the other (8.05 inches in length) is from Fort Mas- 
sachusetts, New Mexico. Only two fall below 6.95, one of which meas- 
ures 6.65 and the other 6.50 ; the smaller being from the Coppermine 
Eiver, New Mexico, and the other from Fort Kandall, Dakota. Of 
thirteen specimens from Fort Randall, the largest measures 7.60 in length 
and the smallest 6.65, the majority (more than three-fourths) falling 
between 7.00 and 7.50, thus presenting a remarkable uniformity in size. 
Ten others from Fort Kearney average fully as large, the extremes 
being 6.95 and 7.60, while four-fifths of them fall between 7.00 and 
7.50. Three specimens from Fort Tejon, California, measure respect- 
ively 7.95, 7.60, and 7.45, or above the average of those from Dakota 
and Nebraska! Four specimens from Wyoming Territory, however, 
measure each 7.80. A single San Diego specimen measures 7.75, and 
two specimens from Southern Texas respectively 6.95 and 7.00, or but 
little below the average of northern specimens. Of four specimens 
from New Mexico, three attain or exceed 7.40, one reaching 8.05 and 
forming the lacgest of the series ; the other, with a length of only 6.50, 
forms the smallest of the series, both the largest and the smallest being 
from New Mexico. It thus appears that in Canis latrans there is com- 
paratively little decrease in size southward, instead of the southern 
averaging fully 25 per cent, smaller, as is the case in Canis lupus. The 
difference between the extremes is only 1.55, or about 20 per cent., against 
twice that amount in Canis lupus. Throwing out the two skulls that fall 
below 6.95 would reduce the difference between the extremes to 1.10, and 
the variation to only 15 per cent, of the average ! In both Canis latrans 
and Canis lupus, the width of the skull averages about one-half the length, 
ranging in Canis latrans from 0.49 to 0.52, while in Canis lupus the range 
in this proportion is from 0.48 to 0.56. 

A glance at the table shows that while the Upper Missouri specimens 
are rather younger than those from Fort Kearney, they rather exceed 
them in size, and the difference would be somewhat greater if they were 
of strictly corresponding ages. The single very large skull from New 
Mexico is also that of a verv old individual. 


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In the Common Fox of North America, we meet with a range of color- 
variation, irrespective of locality, somewhat akin to that seen in Canis 
lupus. The prevalent tendency, however, is toward melanism, which 
tendency is much more strongly developed in the colder than in the 
warmer latitudes. Frequently, individuals of the melauistic type occur 
in litters of the common variety. The varying degrees of melanism 
occurring in this species have given rise to several commercial varieties, 
which have received at the hands of naturalists systematic designations, 
and been regarded more or less generally as valid species. Generally, 
these melanistic varieties are more fully furred, with larger and heavier 
tails, than the common form. The difference in the fineness and soft- 
ness of the fur is recognized to such an extent by furriers as to greatly 
affect the price of the skins, the so called "Silver" and " Cross" furs 
being considered far more valuable than the fulvous type. 

The so-called " Cross Fox" ( Vulpes " decussatus") is more or less frequent 
as far south as Northern New England and Northern New York, and 
throughout the more elevated portions of the great Eocky Mountain 
plateau, where it constitutes a large proportion of the representatives 
of the so-called Vulpes "macrurus". More rarely, the Black or so- 
called " Silver Fox" (Vulpes u argentatus") is met with over the same 
regions, becoming frequent in the higher parts of the Eocky Mountains* 
and northward. The fulvous form seems, however, to be generally the 
more prevalent form throughout the range of the species. To the south- 
ward, it is the form exclusively met with ; but near timber-line in the 
Eocky Mountains, and throughout the "fur countries", it seems to be not 
much more frequent than the melanistic forms. 

With this tendency to great variability in color, we meet, as usual in 
such cases, a great variation in size. In the present case, the variation in 
color may be properly regarded as geographical, through an increasing 
tendency to melanism northward. The variation in size is also chiefly 
of the same character, the size uniformly increasing toward the north, 
as shown by the subjoined table of measurements. A glance at this 
table shows at once the nature of this variation. The largest specimens 
come from the Aleutian Islands and Alaska ; the smallest from Essex 
County, New York, which is the most southerly locality well represented 
in the collection. 

A series of nine skulls from Alaskan localities range in length from 
5.70 to 6.20, five out of the nine having a length of 6.00 to 6.20 (two 
6.15 and two 6.20), and give an average of 5.98. In another series of 
eighteen from the Mackenzie Eiver district (mainly from Fort Ander- 
son), the range is from 5.55 to 6.10. Only one, however, exceeds 6.00, 
and three only reach this size, the average being 5.80. These series 
consist about equally of the so-called "Silver" and common fulvous 
varieties, and, as may be seen from the table, there is no material dif- 
ference in size between the two so-called varieties. 

A third series of nine skulls, of the so-called "macrurus", chiefly from 
the Upper Missouri country (including two, however, from the Pacific 
slope), ranges from 5.40 to 6.00, with an average of 5.75. Two only 
reach 6.00, and two only fall as low as 5.50. Hence the series forms a 
third appreciable step in the southward decrease in size. Though the 
latitude is much less, the elevation of the region is much greater than 
that of the localities more to the northward. With a similar altitude, 
the decrease would have been more marked, as is proven by the series 

*See Bulletin Essex Institute, vol. vi, p. 54. 


next to be considered. A fourth series of twelve specimens, from the 
Adirondack region of New York, ranges from 5.20 to 5.68, with an aver- 
age of 5.40. Only three specimens range above 5.50, while four fall 
below 5.30. A fifth series of five skulls, from European localities, 
ranges from 5.50 to 5.70, with an average of 5.58. 

In the Alaskan series, the width ranges from 2.90 to 3.32, averaging 
3.20; in the Mackenzie Kiver district series, from 2.87 to 3.28, averag- 
ing 3.02 ; in the "macrurus" series, from 2.70 to 3.20, averaging 2.90; in 
the Adirondack series, the width ranges from 2.70 to 2.95, averaging 
2.80; in the European series, from 3.05 to 3.15, averaging 3.08. Hence 


Average width. . 

Alaskan series ... - . 


3 20 or 535 of length. 

Mackenzie River District seiies 

5 80 

3 02 or 521 of length. 

' ' Jf acruTus " series . 


2 90* or 504 of length 

5 40 

2 80 or 518 of length 

European series . ... ..... 


3. 08* or 552 of length. 

It thus appears that in the American specimens there is not only a 
well-marked southward decrease in size, but also a decrease in the rela- 
tive breadth of the skull, through the greater elongation of the facial 
portion ; also that the relative breadth is quite appreciably greater in 
the European form, as noticed long since by Professor Baird.* 

While the European Vulpes vulgaris may be considered as subspecifi- 
cally distinct from the American ( Vulpes vulgaris subsp. fulvus), through 
its widerskull, less pointed and shorter muzzle, harsher and more reddish 
fur, etc., the different so-called American " species ?; or " varieties 77 (ful- 
vu8, " decussatus", "argentatus", and "macrurus") do not have the same 
claim to subspecific recognition. The Foxes of the colder regions, it is true, 
have a fuller and softer pelage, a greater tendency to melanism, shorter 
muzzles, and are larger, yet these differences are so inconstant, especially 
the differences of color, and so insensibly intergrade, that any attempt 
at their subspecific recognition seems impracticable, the most diverse 
varieties in color occurring at the same localities and even among indi- 
viduals of the same litter.t 

*Mam. N. Amer., pp. 126, 130. 

tOn this point see Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. i, pp. 159, 160. 


Measurements of fifty-three skulls of VULPES ALOPEX et cars. 









"Kinai Alaska 

6 20 

3 03 


Kodiak, Alaska . 

6 20 

3 32 



5 90 

3 00 


Aleutian Islands ...... 

6 15 

3 25 


Yukon River 


6 15 

3 00 





6 00 

3 15 




5 70 

3 05 




5 80 

3 00 



5 70 

2 90 



Fort Liard . 

5 95 

3 14 



Peel River 

5 87 

3 10 


do . .. 

5 c5 

2 88 



Fort Good Hope 







5 90 

3 07 





2 94 



Fort Anderson 


6 10 

3 28 





3 25 





5 95 

3 00 





2 90 



5 75 

2 95 






3 00 












2 87 



do . 





. . do 


5 60 

3 00 



do . 










Wy Grain " Territory 



" ^[ctcTu/rus. ' ' 







. do 









Fort Bertnold 

5 90 

3 03 



Fort Randall Dak 





Fort Kearney IS^ebr 

5 77 

2 85 



Fort Dalles Ores 






Fort Crook Cal .. . 





Essex Couiity New York 

5 65 








5 60 



do . 






2 87 






do . 




























England . .... 











' do 

5 50 



Measurements of a series of fifteen skulls of this species (all of the 
available material) form a series grading by slight differences in length 
from 3.73, the smallest, to 4.77, the largest. The largest specimens are 
from Pennsylvania, Washington, and Virginia ; all -these exceed 4.60 in 
length. The next in size are from Southern Texas and Southern Cali- 
fornia, which range in length from 4.63 down to 4.50. Next come three 
specimens from Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico, which range from 4.40 
to 4.15. Between these and the next a series of three " littoralis ' 7 
skulls from the islands off Southern California is an interval of three- 
tenths of an inch, the three "littoralis" skulls ranging from 3.85 to 
3.75. The smallest of all, however, is a single well-matured skull from 
Merida, Yucatan, 3.73 in length, and hence smaller even than the small- 
est "littoralis" skull, its breadth being only 1.98 against a breadth of 
2.05 in the narrowest " littoralis" specimen. The localities represented 


are few and widely separated ; there being no specimens from points 
between Virginia and Southern Texas, and none between Texas and 
Tehuantepec, Mexico, nor between these two last-named localities and 
Fort Tejon, Cal. The small insular race known as "littoralis", from the 
islands off the coast of Southern California, come in between* the Te- 
huantepec specimens and the example from Merida. While there are 
no very considerable breaks in the chain, the gradation would be more 
complete if specimens could be included from other intermediate local- 
ities. The specimens at hand are sufficient to show a very great but 
still very gradual decrease in size southward, amounting to over 25 per 
cent, of the mean size. The mean of the two extremes is 4.25, with a 
difference of 1.04 ; while, with a single exception, there is a gap at no 
point of more than 0.08. 

With this rapid decrease in size may be noticed a considerable range 
of variation in breadth in specimens of nearly the same length, indicat- 
ing the existence of an unusual amount of individual variation, the 
ratio of width to length varying from 0.54 to 0.59. 

Measurements of fifteen skulls of UROCYON VIRGINIANUS. 










Var. littoralis. 

Washington DC . 


Wliite Sulphur Springs Va 

Eagle Pass Texas 

Fort Tejon' Cal 

do .... . 

Tehuantepec Mexico .. 



San Miguel Inland California 

San jSTicolas Island California 



The amount of material available for the study of variation in size 
with locality in the present species is too small to yield very satisfactory 
results. In the eight specimens of which measurements are given below, 
it will be noticed that there is a decided increase in size southward. 
Between the three skulls from northern localities (one each from ISTor th- 
em New York and Washington and Oregon Territories) and the three 
(mature) skulls from southern localities (Louisiana and the Bio Grande, 
Texas), the average difference is fully an inch, or about one-eighth of 
the mean size. 





Measurements of eight skulls of FELLS CONCOLOR. 










Essex County New York 

7 40 




Puget Sound 




7 80 

5. 15 


Eagle Pass, Texas 



Quite immature 


Rio Grande Texas 

7 50 

5 00 







Brazos River Texas 

8 50 

5 60 


Prairie Mer Rouge Louisiana ..................... 




Fourteen skulls of Felis pardalis show a most decided southward in- 
crease in size. A series of five skulls from the Lower Rio Grande aver- 
age about an inch shorter than another series of nine from Southern 
Mexico and Central America. The largest of the Rio Grande skulls has 
a length of 5.25, while the smallest of the Mexican and Central American 
series (excluding one rather young specimen) has a length of 5.20, and the 
largest a length of 6.20. The three largest (6.00 to 6.25) are from Costa 
Rica, while one other from Panama and another from Surinam are but 
little smaller. The smallest of the Eio Grande series (a rather young 
specimen) is but 4.50 in length ; the smallest of the tropical series (a 
specimen of corresponding age) 5.35. 

The difference in size with locality is thus as great in this species and 
in Felis concolor as it is in the Wolves and Foxes ; but the increase 
is in the opposite direction, to the northward in the former and to the 
southward in the latter ; the one group being a northern type, the other 
a tropical. 

Measurements of fourteen skulls of FELIS PARDALIS. 







2 ' 



Matanrioras Mexico 

4 50 


Mature b ut not very old . 






... .do 

5 05 

3 35 







5 25 

3 40 


Panama ...:.-..... .. 




Mifad^r Motion 

5 70 

3 55 


Tehuantepec Mexico 




5 85 

3 80 


Costa Rica 

6 00 


Very old. 



6 00 

3 94 




6 20 





5 35 

3 60 

Adult but not very old. 


Surinam . - . 



Very old. 


In the subjoined table are given measurements of thirty -four skulls of 
North American Lynxes, namely, seven of L.fasciatm, ten of L. rufus, 
eight of L. maculatus, and nine of L. canadensis, representing localities 
as distant from each other as Alaska and Northern Mexico on, the one 
hand, and New York and Fort Tejon, Cal., on the other. Yet the 


extremes of variation met with at single localities are as great as those 
from the most widely separated of the above-named localities ; in other 
words, no geographical variation in size is perceptible. The largest 
northern specimen (canadensis), from Peel Kiver, Arctic America, with 
a length of 5.30, a little exceeds in size the largest specimens from any 
locality south of the latitude x>f 40 ; but it in turn is slightly smaller 
than a specimen (fasciatus) from Fort Townsend, Wash., which has a 
length of 5.50, and by another of the same dimensions (rufus) from the 
Big Sioux Eiver. Eight specimens of the most southern type (L. macu- 
latus), all from Texas and the Mexican side of the Lower Rio Grande, 
differ in the average from nine specimens of the most northern type (L. 
canadensis), all from Arctic or sub- Arctic America, almost inapprecia- 
bly, the canadensis series having an average length of 5.01 and the macu- 
latus series of 5.00 ! The difference in breadth is also only about one- 
tenth of an inch, which the addition of a single specimen to either series 
might cancel. This is certainly a surprising result when it is remem- 
bered that one of the chief alleged distinctive characters of L. cana- 
densis has been its supposed larger size ! 
The average dimensions of these several series are as follows : 


Number of 



L. canadeft&is ....... 



3 52 

L fasciatus 


5 03 

3 56 

L maculatus 


5. 00 

3 40 

*L. TU/US . . . 




Mean of all f 




* The specimens placed nnder rufus are those that are so marked in the collection, being the speci 
mens so identified by Professor Baird. 

The fasciatus series is the largest, but this series happens to include 
more very old specimens than the others, and hence its higher average. 
Such a constancy of size as is here shown to prevail over an area 
embracing more than 40 degrees of latitude is probably without a par- 
allel in any other conspecific group of North American Mammals. 

The difference bet ween these hereto fore commonly -recognized " species" 
of the genus Lynx must hence be sought elsewhere than in size. The 
specific distinctness of L. canadensis, the most northern type, has been 
heretofore scarcely questioned, in consequence of its supposed larger 
size, larger limbs, longer, softer pelage, longer ear-tufts, more indis- 
tinct markings, and generally lighter or grayer color. The longer ear- 
tufts correlate with the longer, softer pelage, that always characterizes 
the boreal representatives of species having a wide latitudinal range. 
The difference in coloration is not greater than, or even so great as, that 
which obtains between fasciatus and rufus, or between fasciatus and macu- 
latus, which forms naturalists now seem disposed to refer to one 
and the same species under the name L. rufus. Maculatus, the 
most southern form, differs from the "typical" or eastern rufus in its 
shorter, coarser fur, more reddish tints, and more distinct markings. 
Its reputed range extends from the Lower Rio Grande westward across 
the continent to Southern California ; but in the National Museum col- 
lection are also specimens marked rufus from many points within this 
area, including a considerable series from Fort Tejon. The gradation 
from the " typical" rufus type into maculatus is complete and by almost 
insensible stages. 


The L. fasciatus or Columbia River race differs from rufus in its more 
uniform and darker (chestnut rather than reddish) coloration, by the 
markings on the dorsal surface and sides of the body being nearly obso- 
lete, and the fuller, softer fur, which is about as heavy and soft as in 
canadensis. We have hence, in this form, only another instance of the 
duller, darker, and more uniform coloration that characterizes the 
greater part of the Mammals (and many Birds also) from the humid, 
heavily-wooded Columbia Eiver region, as compared with their conspe- 
cific allies of the other portions of the continent. 

L. canadensis differs from these several southern races mainly as the 
northern representatives of a given species usually differ from its south- 
ern representatives, namely, in its softer and longer pelage, more heav- 
ily-clothed feet, longer ear-tufts, paler or grayer general color, and more 
indistinct markings, and especially iuatendencyto entire obsolescence of 
the markings on the lower surface of the body and inner side of the legs. 
The tail has a shorter area of black at the end, and lacks the white on the 
lower surface at the extreme tip, so constantly seen in the other forms. 
The tail is but little, if any, shorter, although the greater length and 
thickness of the fur give it that appearance. There is, however, a 
tendency to a greater length of tail to the southward. Its supposed 
greater size and larger limbs are also due almost wholly to the greater 
fullness and length of the pelage, the fresh carcass (in a specimen from 
Houltou, Me.) with the skin removed giving the same measurements 
as in L. rufus (a specimen from Colorado). 

The prior name for the group of American Lynxes is undoubtedly 
rufus of Guldenstadt (1776), which antedates by about forty years Ea- 
iinesque's names of canadensis., montanus, and floridanus (1817). The L. 
maculatus of Horsfield and Vigors (1829), which was admitted as a 
valid species by Baird, but regarded as merely a variety of rufus by 
Audubon and Bachmau, is evidently subspecifically indistinguishable 
from the true rufus of authors. L. fasciatus of Eafinesque (based on the 
tt Tiger Cat " pf Lewis and Clarke, from the Columbia Eiver region) is far 
more tangible, sufficiently so to be properly recognizable as a subspe- 
cies (Lynx rufus subsp. fasciatus). The L. canadensis of authors seems 
to have even still stronger claims for nominal recognition, though the 
differences are still clearly such as characterize geographical races. We 
hence believe its relationship to the rest of the group is better indicated 
by a name (L. rufus subsp. canadensis) indicating subspeciflc rather than- 

A single adult skull (from Sweden) of the large Lynx of the north- 
ern parts of the Old World (Lynx borealis) exceeds in size by an inch 
the largest specimens of the American Lynxes, and hence seems to indi- 
cate an animal fully one-fifth larger than even exceptionally large speci- 
mens of L. rufus. 


Measurements of thirty-four skulls O/LYNX RUFUS et vars. 








Puget Sound, Wash 

4 80 

3 45 




4 65 

3 30 



Steilacoom, Wash 

5 20 

3 60 



5 45 

3 95 



Fort TJmpqua, Wash 

3 32 




4 90 

3 50 



Shoalwater Bay, Wash 




Fort Townsend, Wash 

5 50 

3 82 


Big Sioux River 


5 50 

3 82 



4 95 

3 38 


5 10 

3 55 




4 85 

3 22 



4 90 

3 27 


Fort Tejon Cal 


4 80 

3 32 




4 go 

3 50 





4 93 

3 38 



. .do 

4 65 

3 37 








Fort Belknap Tex 

5 12 

3 72 


Eagle Pass Texas 

5 27 

3 51 



Washington County Texas 

4 72 

3 25 







5 10 

3 40 



4 go 

3 25 



Texas . - ... 

5 15 

3 57 



Prairie Mer Rouge, Louisiana 





Kinai Alaska 

4 85 

3 35 









4 75 

3 35 



Peel River 








5 30 

3 70 



Fort Simpson . T... 





Liard River 





Red River Settlement 

5 00 

3 52 



Medicine Bow Creek, Wyoming. ................... 





The present species presents another well-marked case of gradual in- 
crease in size southward. In a series of fifteen skulls from the Atlantic 
States (New York, Pennsylvania, and Georgia), only a single specimen 
exceeds 4.38 in length or 3.00 in width, the largest specimen being from 
Saint Simon's Island, Georgia. Three from Essex County, New York, 
average 4.28 ; five from Pennsylvania average 4.29 ; seven from Saint 
Simon's Island, Georgia, average 4.26 (or 4.29, excluding one very small 
one). Six specimens from the interior (Nebraska, Missouri, Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the Lower Eio Grande) average 4.49, two only falling below 
4.50^ and the largest (Eio Grande) 4.70. Three from California ("hernan- 
dezi") average 4.63, the largest reaching 4.78, with a width of 3.38. Six 
from Southern Mexico average 4.58, the largest reaching 4.73 in length, 
with a width of 3.42. Three from Costa ,Eica average 4.69, the largest 
reaching 4.85. 

In addition to the above, there is a single very aged specimen from 
Detroit, Mich., which has a length of 4.35, and two others from Alaska 
(one middle-aged, the other rather young) which measure, respectively, 
4.25 and 4.05 in length, the latter being the smallest of the whole series, 
although it contains others equally young. 

Between the three specimens from Essex County, New York, and the 
three from Costa Eica, specimens of corresponding ages and constitut- 
ing the two extremes, the average difference is nearly six-tenths (0.57) of 
an inch, or about one-seventh of the size of the northern examples. 

Besides the difference in size, there is also a considerable range of 
variation in respect to the general form of the skull in the ratio of width 
to length, in the shape, degree of concavity of the palate, in specimens 


from the same locality, the ratio of width to length varying from 0.65 
to 0.73. 

In addition to the increase in size southward, there is a tendency to 
an increase in the intensity of the colors in the same direction, with a 
stronger contrast between the light and dark markings. These differ- 
ences, taken collectively, have given rise to several nominal species, of 
which the P. hernandezi of Wagler and P. psora of Gray have become 
the most prominent. The species normally presents a considerable range 
of color- variation, tending on the one hand more or less to melanism and 
on the other to albinism. On these extreme phases of coloration have also 
been based other nominal species, as the P. obscurus of Wiegmaun and 
the P. nivea of Gray. All these names have been already placed by 
Gray, in his later notices of the group, under the head of P. lotor, but 
separated as being varietally distinct. It seems doubtful, however, 
whether even the large southern form, usually called hernandezi^ is 
really entitled to subspecin'c recognition. 

Measurements, of thirty-six slculls of PROCYON LOTOR. 




















Very old 













Very old. 




















do . .. 






2. 62 





Very old? 






























Fort Cobb Indian Ter 

4 50 

3 03 



Independence Mo 





Long Point Tex 

4 32 

2 98 



Lower Rio Grande ... 


2 90 



4 70 

3 15 


' 3224 

San Francisco Cal . . .... 

4 42 


4 78 

3 38 



California ' ..... 

4 70 

3 12 

Very old 


Mirador, Mexico 


3. 15 



Colima Mexico 

4 50 

3 33 





3. 15 



Teh uan tepee Mexico 

4 50 

2 83 







4 73 

3 42 

"Very old 


Costa Rica t 






4 78 

3 32 



4 85 

3 00 



Eighteen -skulls from the northern parts of the continent, mainly from 
Alaska, average 2.66 in length and 1.58 in width, the extremes being, 
length, 3.02 and 2.30; width, 1.90 and 1.40. Thirteen skulls from the 
highlands of Northeastern New York average 2.40 in length and 
1.34 in width, the extremes being, length, 2.60 and 2.17. Three skulls 
from Pennsylvania (undoubtedly males) average 2.49 in length and 1.48 
in width. In the northern series, the sex of the skull is given by the 
collector, whence it appears that the twelve males have an average 


length of 2.81, and tUe six females an average length of 2.48, showing a 
considerable sexual variation in size. Yet the smallest males (2.64 and 
2.63) fall below the largest female (2.68), if the skulls are all correctly 
marked. None of the other females, however, exceed 2.55, and only 
three of the males fall below 2.70. In the New York series, the sex is 
not indicated ; but, judging from the proportion of the small to the large 
skulls, the sexes are about equally represented in the two series, but in. 
the New York series there is a very gradual decline from the largest to 
the smallest. The northern series of eighteen is selected from a series 
of twenty-three ; the New York series of thirteen from a series of thirty. 
In each case only very old skulls were chosen, the immature specimens 
in each case being thrown out in order to have a fair basis for compari- 
son. The immature and middle-aged specimens greatly predominate in 
the New York series, owing, doubtless, to the species being more closely 
hunted there than in the more unsettled districts of the far north. 

Taking these two series as a basis for a general comparison, there is 
indicated a considerable decrease in size from the north southward, 
amounting to 0.26 in length and 0.24 in width, or about one-tenth of the 
average size of the New York series. A single specimen, marked 
" Brookhaven, Miss.", and another marked " Tuscaloosa, Ala. 7 ', how- 
ever, have a length respectively of 2.60 and 2.80, the former equaling the 
largest New York specimens, and the latter nearly equaling the average 
size of the males of the northern series, while a single male skull from 
Fort Randall, D. T., 2.90 in length, is the second in size of the whole 
series; one Port Yukon specimen only being larger! Other specimens 
from the Upper Missouri region, however, are much smaller, as are 
other specimens from Prairie Mer Rouge, La., indicating that the speci- 
mens above mentioned are much above the average for their respective 

No. 4 4 


Measurements of thirty-seven skulls o/PuxoRius VISON. 








, 8709 

Fort Yukon, Alaska . 









Very old. 
Old. P. " nigrescens" A. & B. 








Alaska (Kadiak) 





Xelson River 

Fort Simpson ... 


... do 

Fort Randall 

Essex County ^ew York 



do .. 


do . 


Sarauac Lake New York 

.... do 





Pennsylvania . .... 



Tuscaloosa, Ala 


The forty-six male skulls of this species, of which measurements are 
given below, are mainly from four or five localities differing widely in 
latitude. A comparison of the average size of a considerable number 
from each shows a well-marked decrease in size southward. Four skulls 
from Peel Eiver, thelargest, and also from the most northerly locality, have 
an average length of 3.39, and an average width of 2.07, the extremes 
being 3.50 and 3.35 in length and 2.12 and 2.02 in width. Nine skulls from, 
the Yukon (probably mostly from near Fort Yukon) give an average length 
of 3.34 and an average width of 1.98, the extremes being 3.55 and 3.00 
in length and 2.15 and 1.73 in width. Five skulls from Fort Good Hope 
give an average length of 3.24 and an average width of 1.95, the 
extremes in length being 3.37 and 3.15 and in width 2.05 and 1.73. Ten 
skulls from the northern shore of Lake Superior average 3.14 in length 
and 1.76 in width, the extremes in length being 2.23 and 3.02 and in width 
1.89 and 165. Eight skulls from the vicinity of Umbagog Lake, Maine 
(Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.), average 2.96 in length and 1.72 in width, the 
extremes in length being 3.10 and 2.73, and in width 1.85 and 1.50. Five 
skulls from Northeastern New York average 3.02 in length and 1.61 in 
width, the extremes being in length 3.10 and 2.92 and in width 1.68 and 
1.50. There is thus a gradual descent in the average length from 3.39 to 
3.02. and in width from 2.07 to 1.61. The largest and the smallest of the 
series are respectively 3.55 and 2.92 in length. Several fall as low as 
3.00, and an equal number attain 3.50. The difference between the 


largest and the smajlest, excluding the most extreme examples, is one- 
sixth of the dimensions of the smaller and one-seventh of the size of 
the larger. 

The sexes differ considerably in size, relatively about the same as in 
Putorius vison-j but the above generalizations are based wholly on males, 
and in each case on those of practically the same age, only specimens 
indicating mature or advanced age being used. 

The series of fully one hundred skulls of this species contained in the 
National Museum presents a considerable range of variation in details 
of structure, involving the general form of the skull, the relative size of 
different parts, and the dentition, especially the form and relative size of 
the last molar. In a former paper,*. I had occasion to notice somewhat 
in detail the variations in color our American Martens present, and 
the difficulty of finding any features of coloration that seemed to indi- 
cate more than a single American species, or that would serve to 
distinguish this even from the Martens of the Old World. Dr. J. E. 
Gray, it is true, had already called attention to the small size of the 
last molar in the American Martens as compared with the size of 
the same tooth in the Old World Martens ; but, as his observation was 
apparently based on a single American skull, and as I was at the time 
strongly impressed with the wide range of individual variation I had 
found in allied groups, even in dental characters, and also with the 
great frequency of Dr. Gray's characters failing to be distinctive, I was 
misled into supposing all the Martens might belong to a single circum- 
polar species, with several more or less strongly-marked geographical 
races. My friend Dr. Coues some months since kindly called my atten- 
tion to the validity of Dr. Gray's alleged difference in respect to the 
size and form of the last molar, which I have since had opportunity of 
testing. This character alone, however, fails to distinguish Mustela foina 
from Mustela americana, in which the last molar is alike, or so nearly so 
that it fails to 'furnish distinctive differences. .The size and general form 
of the skull in the two are also the same, the shape of the skull and the 
form of the last upper molar failing to be diagnostic. The second lower 
true molar, however, in Mustela foina presents a character (shared by all 
the Old World Martens) which serves to distinguish it from Mustela ameri- 
cana, namely, the presence of an inner cusp not found in the latter. In 
Mustela flavigula, the last molar is relatively smaller than even in Mus- 
tela americana, and of the same form. Mustela martes differs in its more 
massive dentition and in the heavier structure of the skull, but espe- 
cially in the large size of the last molar and the very great development 
of its inner portion. Hence, while the size and shape of the last upper 
molar serves to distinguish Mustela martes from Mustela americana, it 
fails as a valid distinction between Mustela americana and Mustela 
flavigula and Mustela foina. As already remarked, however, Mustela 
americana lacks the inner cusp of the second lower molar, which is pres^ 
ent in the Old World Martens, or at least possesses it only in a very 
rudimentary condition. 

* " Mammals of Massachusetts", Bull. Mus. Coinp. Zool., vol. i, pp. 161-167, Oct., 186i). 


Measurements of forty -six skulls of MUSTELA AMJEKICANA. 









Yukon River 


3 55 

2 15 




3 50 

1 85 




3 45 

1 83 




3 37 

1 82 




3 30 

1 85 


do .. .. 


3 00 

1 73 




3 28 

T fa f- 




3 28 

1 82 



Ken ai, Alaska 


3 30 

2 03 


Fort Good Hope 


3 37 

2 05 




3 25 

i qa 




3 25 

1 93 




3 25 

1 76 





3 15 

1 73 


Peel River 


3 50 

2 02 




3 37 

2 12 


.. do 


3 35 

T f t 




3 35 



Red River 


3 40 

1 Q4 


Lake Superior (north shore) 


3 23 

1 75 




3 18 

1 65 




3 15 

1 65 




3 16 

1 65 




3 15 

1 87 




3 15 

1 83 




3 15 





3 10 

1 89 




Q 1Q 




3 02 

1 QO 

Washington Territory 


3 23 

1 90 


3 15 

1 72 

R^ithpr youn ' 

do .... 

3 03 

1 55 



3 00 


1668 i 

Essex County New York 


3 10 




'3 03 

1 63 




3 00 

1 68 




2 92 

1 50 


Saranac Lake, New York 


3 03 

1 68 


Umbagog Lake, Maine . . . 


3 10 

1 85 


do . .. . 


3 00 

1 70 




3 00 

1 72 




3 00 

1 72 




3 00 

1 78 




2 00 

1 78 


do........ . 


2 92 

1 68 




2 73 

1 50 


The subjoined measurements of eleven skulls of this species (embrac- 
ing all at present available) show also a well-marked southward decrease 
in size. A fuller series would be more satisfactory, but would doubtless 
only confirm what is here indicated. Six of the specimens are from 
rather northern localities and five from rather southern localities, the 
region represented extending from the Upper Missouri southward to the 
Lower Eio Grande. The specimens composing the two series are of very 
nearly corresponding ages. The northern series (four from different 
points on the Upper Missouri, one from Iowa, and one from Oregon) 
average 5.00 in length and 3.18 in width, the extremes being, in length, 
5.22* and 4.92 (4.75 if we include one rather young example), the width 
ranging from 3.50 to 2.97. The southern series (including two or three 
from the vicinity of Matamoras, Mexico, and one each from New Mexico 
and California) averages 4.62 in length and 2.92 in width, the extremes 
being, in length, 4.75 and 4.50, and in width, 3.07 and 2.80. 

The skulls, and especially the molar teeth, in the American Badgers, 
vary considerably in different individuals, as long since pointed out by 


Professor Baird.* Southern specimens differ from northern ones not 
only in being smaller, but somewhat in color, so that the T. berlandieri 
of Professor Baird may perhaps be entitled to subspecific rank (T. amer- 
icana subsp. berlandieri), though the material at hand indicates that 
the two forms will be found to thoroughly intergrade. The chief differ- 
ences in coloration consist in the more reddish-gray tint of the southern 
form, with a decided tendency to a continuous light dorsal stripe, instead 
of this stripe being restricted to the head. 

Measurements of eleven skulls of TAXIDEA AMERICANA. 








Upper Missouri ... . . . 

5 22 

3 50 



5 12 

3 12 



4 75 

3 07 


Quisquaton, Iowa 



Fort Randall Dak 

3 25 


Upper Des Chutes, Ore" 1 


2 97 


Fort Crook Cal 


3 07 


New Mexico .. 


2 80 



2 94 



2 85 




2 94 



Specimens of this species from northern and southern localities do 
not differ materially in size; skulls from Newfoundland, Maine, Lake 
Superior, Washington, and Georgia agreeing very closely iu dimensions. 
In a series of eighteen (mainly from northern localities), nine attain or 
exceed a length of 4.25, and three reach 4.50, while two only fall as low 
as 4.00. Seven specimens from the vicinity of Lake Umbagog, Maine, 
(in Mus. Comp. Zool.) average 4.28 in length and 2.93 in width ; two of 
these reach 4.50 in length and two fall slightly below 4.00 (3.96 and 3.97). 
Two specimens from Washington, D. 0., have a length respectively of 
4.45 and 4.50; one specimen from Saint Simon's Island, Georgia, is nearly 
as large (4.32), while a Fort Cobb specimen has a length of 4.22. These 
four are the only ones from very southerly points. Four other specimens, 
from as many localities, range from 4.05 to 4.15 ; while three specimens 
from Newfoundland range from 4.03 to 4.25. While these specimens are 
top few to warrant positive conclusions as to geographical variations, 
they seem to point to a great constancy of size throughout a wide range 
of latitude. 

* U. S. and Mex. Bound. Survey. Zool., p. 21. 


Measurements of eighteen skulls of LUTRA CANADENSIS. 











2 75 








2 57 





Umbagog Lake' Maine 


3 00 


. do 


2 85 




2 90 


. do 





3 96 

2 70 


do . 

4 50 

3 00 


Lake Superior 




Fort Berthold Dak 

4 25 

2 82 


Saranac Lake, New York 




Bayfield Wis 

4 06 

2 82 


Fort Cobb, Indian Ter 



Washington DC 

4 50 

2 95 






4 32 

2 75 


The twenty-nine skulls of this species of which measurements are 
given below show a wide range of variation in size, and a decided de- 
crease southward. The localities embrace such distant points as Cali- 
fornia and the Atlantic seaboard on the one hand, and Maine and Texas 
on the other; but, with one or two exceptions, the specimens from any 
single locality are unsatisfactorily few. The specimens range in length 
from 2.60 to 3.50, and in width from 1.60 to 2.25 ! Yet there is not a 
specimen included in the series that is not so old as to have all the cra- 
nial sutures obliterated. A portion of the difference is doubtless sex- 
ual, but the specimens, unfortunately, have not the sex indicated. Ten 
of the specimens may be considered as western, coming mainly from 
Utah and California ; ten others are from Maine and Massachusetts, 
and one from Northeastern New York ; three are from Pennsylvania ; 
and of the remaining five, four are from Texas, and one from Louisiana. 
The western series of ten average 3.10 in length and 1.95 in width, 
ranging in length from 2.85 to 3.50 and in width from 1.70 to 2.25. The 
New England series of ten average 2.88 in length and 1.72 in width, 
ranging in length from 2.70 to 3.25 and in width from 1.53 to 1.85. The 
single New York specimen scarcely varies from the average of the New 
England series, while the Pennsylvania specimens fall a little below. 
The five southern specimens average 2.73 in length, or a little below the 
New England series, ranging in length from 2.60 to 290.* 

It thus appears that the western specimens are decidedly the largest 
of all, and that the northern are somewhat larger than the southern, the 
specimens compared being of corresponding ages, though of unknown 
sex, but doubtless comparable in this respect also. 

The difference in size amounts to above one-fourth the size of the 
largest specimen and above one-third the size of the smallest. Between 
the western and southern series, the average difference amounts to one- 
third of the average size of the larger series ! The western series includes 
the so-called Mephitis occidentalis of Baird, based on California speci- 
mens, and whose chief difference is merely that of larger size ; yet the 
four specimens from Ogden, Utah (Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.), considerably 

* The range in width is not fairly indicated, owing to two of the smaller specimens 
being imperfect. 


excelled in size the three from California. The southern series represents 
'the so-called M. varians of Gray and Baird. 

The unsatisfactory character of the several species of North American 
Skunks of the mephitica group, and the wide range of color- variation 
among individuals from the same locality, I have previously had occa- 
sion to notice,* and a re-examination of the subject confirms the con- 
clusions then announced, which, I am happy to find, have recently 
received the support of Dr. Coues, who has lately made a study of this 
group.t As Dr. Coues has remarked, and as the subjoined measure- 
ments show, few species of animals vary so much in size and in cranial 
characters as the present, independently even of sex and age. Some 
specimens are not only more than one-fourth larger 'than others, but 
u there is a corresponding range of variation in contour. Compared 
with an ordinary ratio of osteological variability," says Dr. Coues, " the 
discrepancies are almost on a par with those exhibited by the coloration 
of the animal when set over against the more constant markings of most 
animals." In view of this great degree of variability, however, Dr. 
Coues has ventured to describe a "new species" (M. frontata), based 
on a fossil skull from one of the bone-caves of Pennsylvania, as it seems 
to me, unadvisedly. The specimen, though that of a very aged indi- 
vidual, is scarcely" larger (see subjoined table) than the average of speci- 
.mens from the Eastern States, its chief difference from the average 
skull consisting in an abnormal tumidity of the frontal region, arising 
evidently from disease. It is a feature by no means confined to the 
present example, but is merely an extreme enlargement of the sinuses 
of the frontal region often seen in specimens of the existing animal, evi- 
dently resulting from disease. In No. 917 (Albany, N. Y.), No. 8099 (Fort 
Cobb, Ind. T.), No. 1878 (Calcasieu Pass, La.), and No. 1620 (Indianola, 
Tex.), the same tendency is strongly marked, which, in some of these 
specimens, had they attained equal age, must have resulted in a malfor- 
mation nearly or quite as great as is seen in the fossil skull in question. 

In this connection, I may add that a pretty careful examination of the 
fossil remains of Carnivora, collected by Professor Baird many years 
since from the bone-caves of Pennsylvania (of which this fossil skull of 
the Skunk forms a part), has failed to show any of them to be specifically 
different from the species now or recently living in the same region. 
Many of them are remains of individuals of large size, but not exceeding 
the dimensions of specimens of the recent animal from the same or con- 
tiguous regions. These remains include, among others, the following 
species : Lynx rufus, Urocyon virginianus, Mustela pennanti, Mustela 
americana, Putorius vison, Lutra canadensis, Mephitis mephitica (other 
specimens than the "frontata " skull), Procyon lotor, Ursus americanus, 

* See Bull. Mus. Corup. Zool., vol. i, pp. 178-181, Oct., 1869. 
t Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. of the Territories, vol. i, No. 1, pp. 7-15, 1875, 


Measurements of twenty-nine skulls of MEPHITIS MEPHITICA. 








Petalnma Cal 

3 30 

2 07 






Port Townsend Ore"" 

2 93 

1 70 


Fort Crook, Cal 



Ogden Utah 

3 12 

1 87 




Very old 


.do . 

3 10 

1 90 



2 98 



Wyominf Territory 

3 15 

2 05 


Fort Laramie 

2 96 



TJpton Me 

3 25 

Very old 



3 00 




2 87 

1 75 



2 85 

1 73 


Norway Me 

2 90 

1 75 


do .. 

2 70 




2 87 

1 78 


Massachusetts . 

2 70 




2 75 



2 72 

1 70 


Essex County, New York ............ .. 




Bone-caves Pennsylvania 

2 90 

Fossil- M frontata Couee 


Carlisle, Pa 




Chester County Pennsylvania 

2 60 

1 65 


Indianola, Tex ................. ... . .. 




Eagle Pass Tex . . 

2 60 







Matanioras Tex 

2 90 

1 90 


Calca^ieu La ....... 




In a series of seventeen rather aged skulls of Ursus arctos and its 
varieties (all but one of the specimens, being American), the largest 
specimens are from California, the great metropolis of the " Grizzlies". 
Of the eight skulls from this State, five attain a length of 14.50 or more, 
three exceeding 15.00, and one reaching 15.60, while the smallest falls 
as low as 13.25. Of five specimens from different localities in the Eocky 
Mountains, three reach or exceed 14.40, the extremes being 14.75 aud 
13.25. Of three specimens from the Arctic coast, one has a length of 
13.40, and the others respectively 12.40 and 12.35. A single specimen 
from Eussia has a length of 13.75. These I regard as being all unques- 
tionably conspecific, though perhaps referable to two or three subspe- 
cies. Whether strictly so or not, we have the fact of the culmination in 
size in the region where the Grizzlies are most abundant, namely, in 
California 5 these two facts, greatest abundance and largest size, seem- 
ing to indicate this region as presenting the most favorable conditions 
for the existence of these animals. The Eocky Mountain specimens 
average considerably smaller than the Californiau ; and though the spe- 
cies is pretty frequent here it is far less abundant than on the Pacific 
slope, especially in California and Oregon. The Franklin Bay speci- 
mens, representing the so-called '* Barren Ground Bear", and indistin- 
guishable from the true arctos of the Old World, are smaller even than 
the specimens from the Eocky Mountains. 


Measurements of seventeen skulls of URSUS ARCTOS (chiefly sulsp. HORRIBILIS). 








Sacramento, Cal 

15 60 

9 05 


Monterey, Cal 

14 05 

7 75 




16 00 

8 50 




15 40 

8 10 


Fort Tejon Cal 


13 25 

7 45 


. do 


14 75 

8 90 



14 50 

9 20 


Los ^Nogales Sonora 

14 40 

8 00 

_, t( . . ., . 


Coppermines. N. Mex 


14 50 

8 25 



Medicine Bow Mountains (eastern slope).. 

14 75 

8 50 


Big Porcupine Creek, Mont 


13 25 

7 40 


2f ebraska . . . 

13 45 

6 90 


Franklin Bay, Arctic Sea 


12 35 

7 30 



13 40 

8 65 




12 45 

7 25 




13 75 

7 53 

The question of the relationship of the large Bears of Forth America 
to those of the Old World has long been a vexed one, and is, of course, 
one not easily settled. In the present collection are thirty-three skulls, 
representing various ages, but the greater part are adult. These in- 
clude two only from the Old World, six from the Arctic coast, eleven 
from California, an'd fourteen from various localities in the Eocky Mount- 
ains, from Idaho Territory to Arizona. 

Among the American specimens are two rather easily distinguishable 
forms, one of which is the large Grizzly, or U. liorribilis of authors, from the 
western parts of the United States ; the other, the smaller so-called Bar- 
ren Ground Bear of Arctic America ; both being undoubtedly specifi- 
cally distinct from the Ursus americanus. The Barren Ground form* 
differs from the more southern Grizzly not only in its smaller size, but 
in its strong tendency to a depression of the frontal region of the skull, 
where the simple flattening of this region in the Grizzly is here often car- 
ried so far as to form a well-marked concavity as in the true arctos of 
the Old World. Sometimes, 'however, U. horribilis also presents a con- 
siderable depression between the postorbital processes, as great even as 
in average specimens of U. arctos, as is the case in No. 7401 from Mon- 
terey, Cal. The Barren Ground Bear's skull generally presents a 
more dog-like aspect, in consequence of the thickening superiorly of 
the postorbital border of the frontals, than is seen in U. liorribilis , it 
approaching in this respect to the form seen in Ursus spelceus, where this 
feature attains its highest development, resulting in the very strong 
frontal depression so characteristic of the skulls of that species. 

The dentition of U. arctos, U. richardsonij and U. horribilis presents 
no important differences, the chief difference being the relatively rather 
smaller size of the teeth in the latter. The form of the last upper molar 
is almost precisely the same in the two first named, and the differences 
presented by U. horribilis are both slight and inconstant. In U. rich- 
ardsoni, this .tooth narrows gradually, and about equally, on each side 
posteriorly, almost exactly as in U. arctos , it being widest at or near its 
extreme anterior border. While this is sometimes the case in U. horri- 
bilis, its greatest breadth is generally one-fifth the length of the tooth 
behind the anterior border, and the tooth is relatively broader posteriorly 

* Named by Captain Mayne Reid, in one of his stories, " Ursus Eichardsoni" ! 
t The Barren Ground Bear skulls in the collection are labeled with this name. 


than in the others. Specimens of U. horribilis, from the same locality, 
however, differ more among themselves in this respect than the average 
difference between U. horribilis and U. arctos. The teeth, however, 
in U. arctos are relatively larger than in U. horribilis^ the difference be- 
ing quite appreciable. The teeth of the Franklin Bay specimens ( U. 
richardsoni)) on the other hand, are of the same relative size as in the 
Old World examples of U. arctos. 

After a careful consideration of the subject, I believe the Barren 
Ground Bear of Eichardson ( U. richardsoni of Mayne Reid) to be not 
even subspecifically distinct from the true U. arctos of the Old World. 
The Grizzly, from its larger size, widely different geographical distribu- 
tion, apparently larger claws, slight differences in the dentition and in 
the'form of the frontal region of the skull, may be so regarded ( U. arctos 
subsp. horribilis), as it can hardly be doubted that it gradually passes 
into the Barren Ground form. 

The subjoined table of detailed measurements of the skulls of U. arctos 
horribilis indicates the wide range of individual variation that may be 
looked for among skulls from the same locality. These variations not 
only affect the ratio of width to length, through the greater or less 
elongation of the facial portions of the skull as compared to the rest, 
but also all the other proportions are more or less variable, including 
even the teeth themselves. Thus, two specimens from California, of 
practically the same length (15.60 and 15.40), vary in breadth from 8.10 
to 9.05, while two others vary still more, one, with a breadth of 9.20, 
having a length of only 14.50, while another, with a breadth of 8.50, has 
a length of 16.00 ! In these last, the ratio of width to length varies from 
0.53 to 0.63. In two California specimens of practically the same length 
(15.60 and 15.75), the length of the last molar varies from 1.43 to 1.58. 
In the series of California specimens alone, the length of the last molar 
varies from 1.35 to 1.66, and the width of the same from 0.67 to 0.80, the 
widest tooth being, furthermore, not the longest. As already stated, the 
last upper molar attains its greatest width near the anterior border, but 
in several specimens the width of the anterior third is nowhere greater 
than the width of the tooth at its middle $ and the same is also some- 
times true in U. richardsoni. 



aB[ora H.SK\ jo 

^ 3 

saesaooad [Bjiq 
og eiBsim jo pn9 jot.iggny uivmrivS *# ->f -^ ^^f^^^-v *? n 

8 988800 Jd 

JO paa JOTJmv t-'od^odr-' ~ t-' t-: t-: r-' t-: 5 1^ t-: to 5 o 

Bai.iBiiixBra.i9!}in jo pna 

oo>c5rf irf irf irf irf irf irf >* in irf * 

69iiBnixBau9)in jo pas 

otcotyifootcJ g? cin'rigipioi M ff5 ;TJ o* 

O G> O5 O C5 O O OS OS O OJ OS C5 QC5 C5 Qt) 

^^M oi ci n ct QJ ?i ?J ot ri ol gi c 


jgptnq o^ ^UQJJ mo.ij SJOSIOUT jaddf^ ^ 

sj^ioni o^ ^nojj caooj ejosioai a9ddi 

rf rf ri rf rf d n ri rf ri rf c* ri ci -r>' g *i 

9q^ paiqaq 9izznca jo qiptAi ^SBa^ 

S2 2 

CJ ~ M 1J SI TJ C Ci 7? C) H 

gjojgq q^pm 'sanoq \vsv^ 

'eanoq ^BB-B_JJ ! I *"! I 

saeeaoojd ^iqjo jo asa^dx^ | 

mmnmri oi si n ei c>i vi ci ti <si e* ri 

: ad TO t^ od oi oc TO od t '-o r- 1-* x t^ 

89[A'paoo [Bj 
-idtooo 01 89UB[^ix f Btaa95Ut jo png; 

* > oi 


s a - 

!> Psll j 

J9qtanu jeaiSuo 

J9qninn onSo^BQ 


Measurements of the molar teeth of UKSUS ARCTOS tt var. 

Catalogue num- 



Upper first 

Upper sec- 
ond molar. 

Upper third 













Big Porcupine Creek, Mont. 
Medicine Bow Mountains, 
Copper Mines IT Mex 















SubsD. horribilis. 

" richardsoni." 

Monterey Cal 


. . do 

Fort Tejon, Cal 



Arctic coast 





Seventeen skulls of this species, embracing all the aged ones in the 
collection, seem to indicate a slight increase in size to the southward. 
Four aged skulls from Louisiana and Florida range in length from 12.50 
to 13.10, and three others, more or less immature, would doubtless have 
attained an equal size had they lived to be as old. A Georgia specimen, 
also not full-grown, has a length of 11.15, and in old age would probably 
have considerably exceeded 12.00. The other specimens, all full-grown 
and some of them very old, range from 9.90 to 12.15, most of them fall- 
ing between 10.25 and 11.75. The largest (12.15) is from Puget Sound. 
A New York specimen comes next in size (11.90); New Mexican speci- 
mens next, the Alaskan being the smallest. This certainly points to a 
southward increase in size ; but a much larger series would, of course, 
be necessary in order to establish positively whether the increase is in 
this direction. It would seem natural to expect it to be so, since the 
Bear is a hibernating animal, and is active for a much shorter period 
in northern than in southern localities. 

It seems worthy of remark that only a small proportion of the skulls 
of Bears, and even of other Carnivora, including the Minks, Otters, and 
Martens, seen in collections, are specimens of mature age. The propor- 
tion of fully adult and very aged specimens is much greater among those 
from the unsettled parts of the continent than among those from the 
older States, owing, doubtless, to these animals being so closely hunted 
in the more settled districts that they rarely live to a very great age. 


Measurements of seventeen skulls of URSUS AMERICANUS. 



I s 








Key Biscayne, Fla 

13 10 

Very old 


Prairie Mer Rou^e La 

12 90 

7 40 


12 70 

7 45 




12 50 

7 35 




11 10 

6 10 



10 60 

5 95 

jw.i(uiie ageci. 



11 15 

6 10 

"VTidillp "atreH 


New York 

11 80 

7 35 



11 00 

7 55 


Copper Mines N. Mex ...... 

9 90 

6 07 

V Id h 



11 35 

7 05 

Do ' 



11 75 

6 85 


Henry's Lake ~Wyo 


11 40 

7 40 


Puget Sound 

12 15 

7 40 



10 20 

6 00 



10 25 

6 30 



10 07 

5 15 

The range of variation not dependent upon locality is more fully indi- 
cated in the table of detailed measurements of these skulls given below, 
but certain of the most prominent points of variation are not well shown 
by any series of measurements. Especially is this the case in respect to 
the amount of convexity different specimens present, in which individual 
variation is strongly marked. One of the most prominent distinctions of U. 
americanus as compared with U. arctos and its varieties is the great con- 
vexity of the upper outline of the skull, both antero-posteriorly and trans- 
versely. Another feature is the constriction of the facial portion, giving a 
concave outline to the nasals when viewed in profile. But there are 
exceptions, even to the first of these distinctions, one or two specimens 
occurring (especially No. 2250 from New York) in which the flattening 
of the frontal region is as marked as in average skulls of U. horribilis. 
This flattening is also well marked in Nos. 1155 and 1156, from Louisiana. 
The greatest convexity is reached in No. 3484, from Key Biscayne, Fla. ; 
this and No. 2250 (New York) presenting the two extremes in respect to 
convexity. No. 3' 94, from Georgia, has about the same degree of con- 
vexity as the Florida specimen. No. 2250 is also remarkable for the 
shortness of the facial portion of the skull, thereby imparting to it a 
greater than the usual ratio of width to length. In this specimen 
(mentioned by Professor Baird as remarkable for its ftidth*), the width 
is 0.69 of the length. In another, from Louisiana (No. 1155), it falls as 
low as 0.54 ! The average ratio of width to length is about 0.56 to 0.60. 

The teeth of U. americanus seem, in looking at them, to be relatively 
much smaller than in V. arctos, but, upon careful measurement, the 
difference is quite small, while they are of the same relative size as 
those of U. horribilis. In U. americanus, the temporal ridges pass more 
abruptly inward toward the medial line of the skull than in either U. 
horribilis or 17. arctos. 

The most important distinction presented by U. americanus is the 
form of the last upper molar. In U. americanus, the crown is widest at 
the middle, narrowing both anteriorly and posteriorly, but most rapidly 
posteriorly. The inner border is nearly straight ; the outer has a promi- 
nent medial convexity, while in U. horribilis and U. arctos both outlines 
are nearly straight and generally about equally convergent. In U. 
americanus, the anterior third of the last molar is generally narrower 

'Main. N. Amer., p. 227. 


than the middle third, though sometimes equaling it; but it is never 
wider, as it almost invariably is in U. horribilis and U. arctos. The Pu- 
get Sound specimens have the anterior third the narrowest ; in Alaskan 
specimens, it reaches its extreme width, while New York and Louisiana 
examples present the medium phase. 

The skulls of U. cinnamomeus do not seem to be in any way dis*- 
tinguishable from average skulls of U. americanus, the distinction be- 
tween them being one of color only and inconstant as characterizing any 
particular locality or region. 

The upper molar teeth of U. americanus, as shown by the subjoined 
measurements, differ considerably in size in fully adult specimens. The 
first molars range in length of crown from 0.40 to 0.52, and in the width of 
the same from 0.27 to 0.42. The second ranges in length from 0.67 to 0.78 ; 
the third from 0.94 to 1.22, and in width from 0.51 to 0.67 ! In two speci- 
mens, with the first 0.44 in length, the third in one has a length of only 
0.94 and the other 1.07 ! In another, the length of the first molar is 0.41 
and the third 1.11. In still another, with the length of the first molar 
0.43, the length of the third is 0.96. In two others, while the length 
of the first molar is 0.50 in each, the third molar in one has a length of 
1.22 and in the other 1.15. 

The largest skulls of U. americamis nearly equal in size the smaller 
skulls of U. arctos liorribilis^ and actually overlap the series from Frank- 
lin Bay and the measurements given by authors of the true arctos of 
the Old World. In view of this fact, and of the great range of individual 
variation in size, cranial and dental characters, and the unreliability of 
color as a specific character, I too hastily, in former papers,* referred all 
the American land-bears, including the U. americanus, to the U. arctos, 
which I am now convinced was a mistake; U. americanus being, I now 
believe, unquestionably specifically distinct, and the Grizzly subspecifi- 
cally separable from the U. arctos of the Old World. 

* Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. i, pp. 184-192, Oct., 1869 : Bulletin Essex Institute, 
vol. vi, pp. 46, 54, 59, 63, 1874. 



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Measurements of the molar teeth of URSUS AMERICANOS. 


} Locality. 


Upper first 


Tipper sec- 
ond molar. 

Upper third 












0. 32 





1. 11 


Pennsylvania . . 

Nulato Alaska 


Prairie Mer Rouge La 





Georgia . . 

Copper Mines N Mex 




.Number ot 






Oanis lupus 

Forts Simpson Yukon and 






Forts Benton and Union 


do . 




Forts Kearney and Harker. 










Forts Simpson Yukon and 





Do. . 

Forts Benton and Union. 

16 . 




Forts Kearney and Harker 






Rio Grande and Sonora 


do .... 





9 20 






8 75 


Do . 

Forts Kearney and Harker 








7 75 

4 05 

Canis latrans 

Fort Randall 








7 25 

3 65 








Fort Randall 


7 60 

3 80 




7 95 








Do .. 

Fort Randall 


6 65 



Fort Kearney ... 


do . .. 






7 45 


Vulpes alopex . ...... 






Var. fulvus. 


Mackenzie River District 



5 80 




Upper Missouri 


do ... 



" macTUTUs." 




5 40 

2 80 

Var. fulvus 


Europe ... 


do . 



Var. alopex. 






Var fulvus 


Mackenzie River District 


do .... 








3 20 

' ' macruT us ' ' 

Do ... 

Kst-x County New York 


. do 



Var. fulvus. 






Minimum . 




Var. alopex. 
VAT. fulvus. 




5 55 




Upper Missouri 

q .... 



" macrurus." 




5 20 


Var fulvus 


Europe . . . 

5 .... 



Var. alopex. 

Urocyon virginianus. 
Do . 

Pennsylvania, Washington 
and Virginia. 



Average .. 



Var. virginianus. 


Southern California 



4 56 

2 54 





4 20 

2 32 



Islands off" California 




Var. littoralis. 



3 75 

1 93 

Var. viryinianus. 

Do . 


4 70 

2 70 



and Virginia. 
Texas ... 

9, .. 








Number of 





. Remarks. 

Urocyon virginianus. 

Southern California 
Tehuantepec, Mexico 



Maximum . 

4 40 

2 37 

Var. virginianus. 


Islands off California... 



3 85 

2 23 


Pennsylvania Washington 


4 62 

2 56 





4 50 

2 58 



Southern California 




2 43 



Tehuantepec Mexico 



4 15 

2 25 



Islands off California 



2 05 

Felis concolor 

New York and Oregon 



7 57 

5 15 


Texas and Louisiana 



8 72 

5 4g 


New York and Oregon 


Maxim nm 

7 80 

5 25 


Texas and Louisiana 



8 75 

5 60 


New York and Oregon 


Minimal tn 




Texas and Louisiana 



8 40 

5 35 

Felis pardalis 

Matainoraa Mexico . . 


Avera r e 




Costa Rica 



5 89 

3 86 


Southern Mexico and Cen- 




Do . 

tral America. 
Matamoras Mexico 





Costa Rican 


Costa Rica . . 



4. 19 



. do 




tral America. 


Minim rj rn 




Costa Rica 

4 . .. 



Includes the 






Costa Rican 


Lynx rufus 

tral America. 






Washington and Oregon 


do ... 



" fasciatus." 

Do . 

Texas and Matamoras Mex 




" maculatus " 







Te;on. Cal.) 





Washington and Oregon 





"fascia/tits " 

Do . 

Texas and Matamoras Mex 





" macidatus " 


United States (mainly Ft. 




" TltfUS." 

Procyon lotor 

; Tejon.Cal.) 
New York Pennsylvania 


Average .. 




and Georgia. 
Southern Texas and Cali- 





Southern Mexico and Costa 


. do .... 




New York Pennsvlvania 






and Georgia. 
Southern Texas and Cali- 


do ... 






do .... 



Putorius vison 



rf 2 

Average . . 



Do .. 

New York 


cf ? 





Alaska (chiefly) 













cf 2 






New York 

Alaska (chiefly) 



cf ? 

rf 2 






Mastela americana . . 

New York 
Peel River 





Average .. 











Fort Good Hope 



. do 









Umbaox* " Lake Maine..... 











Peel River ' 












Fort Good Hope 
















Northern New York 






Peel River 



Minimum . 




Yukon River 






Fort Good Hope 










No 4 






Number of 








Umbagof Lake 



2 73 

1 50 


Northern New York 



' do '. 



Taxidea americana . . 
Do .... 

Northern localities , . . 
Southern localities 


Average .. 




Northern localities 


5 22 

3 50 


Southern localities 






Northern localities 


4 92 

2 97 


Southern localities ... 




2. 80 

Lntra canadensis 

Newfoundland anil Umba- 
gog Lake, Maine. 



Average .. 

4 37 

2 86 

Do . ... 

Newfoundland and Umba- 


4 50 


Do . 

gog Lake, Maine. 
Southern localities 




2 95 


Newfoundland and Umba- 






gog Lake, Maine. 



4 22 

2 75 

Mephitis mephitica. . 

"Western localities 
New England 


Average .. 


2. 88 



Southern localities 



2 73 


"Western localities . . . 








3 25 

1 85 

Do . 

Southern localities 






2 85 


Do . ... 

New England . . ... 








2 60 

Ursus arctos 







Rocky Mountains 



12. 07 




Arctic coast 



12. 77 





16 00 

9 20 

Do . 

Rocky Mountains 



14 75 






13 40 

8 65 




13 25 

7 45 

suosp. arctos. 


Rocky Mountains 









12 45 

7 25 

Ursus amerieanus . . . 
Do .. 

Georgia, Florida, and Lou- 
New York 



Average .. 

11 40 



New Mexico 

3 .... 



Do . 

Puget Sound and Alaska 



10 67 

6 21 


Georgia, Florida and Lou- 






New York 


11. 80 


Do . 



11 75 

7 05 


Fillet Sound and Alaska 





Do .. 


10 60 

5 95 


New Mexico 


do . 




Puget Sound and Alaska 



10 07 

5 15 



Some months since, my attention was called by Capt. Charles Beudire, 
U. S. A., to the fact of the existence of a well-marked difference in 
color between the sexes of two varieties of Leucosticte tepkrocotis, 
namely, littoralis and tephrocotis. Under date of January 28, 1876, 
Captain Beudire wrote me, " There is a good deal of difference between 
the sexes of both varieties ; so much that they can in almost every case 
be separated before dissection. The brown on the breasts of the females 
is much duller than that of the males." This statement, he added, was 
based on a series of seventy specimens of variety littoralis and on a 
series of about a dozen specimens of variety tephrocotis. Under date 
of April 18, Captain Bendire wrote me further on the subject, he in the 
mean time having sent me two lots of specimens, about two dozen 
examples in all, which seemed to fully confirm his statements. In the 
later account, in speaking of a series of eighty-five specimens of variety 
littoralis, of which the sex of each had been determined by careful dis- 
section, he says there was not a single female in the whole lot that was 
as bright as the palest-tinted males. He says further, " I have exam- 
ined over two hundred skins of variety littoralis and about thirty of va- 
riety tephrocotis. I find a constant difference, and have never yet obtained 
a female which I could not readily distinguish from a male before skin- 
ning; but, nevertheless, every*specimen was dissected, and the sex not 
guessed at." With this letter was forwarded to me by Captain Bendire a 
series of thirteen skins of variety littoralis and three of variety tephrocotis, 
which were selected impartially by himself and Lieut. George R. Bacon, 
to show the extreme ranges of variation in color in the two sexes of each 
variety. The series of variety littoralis was taken from a lot of eighty-two 
skins, and is stated to embrace two of the brightest females and several 
of the dullest males of the whole lot. Separating the series by color, 
without reference to the labels, I found, on looking at the labels, that I 
Jhad placed all the females in one series and all the males in the other. 
In the case of only one specimen was there any reason for hesitancy in 
making the separation ; but this even, 1 found on reference to the label, 
I had placed in its proper series. The general aspect of the two series 
I found was quite different, noticeably so at a considerable distance, 
through the much paler tints of the females. ." Several of the skins", 
adds Captain Bendire, " are poorly prepared ; but they will answer 
every purpose for description, and I repeat my statement that they rep- 
resent the brightest females and dullest males of the ichole lot." Lieutenant 
Bacon, who assisted in making the selection, says (writing at the same 
time) that the series sent to me was made up with great care, so as to 
show the dullest and brightest of each sex. "I have prepared", Lieu- 
tenant Bacon adds, " some eighty skins of variety littoralis, and have ibund 
no difficulty in distinguishing the sexes before skinning. I have not 


found one female as bright as the dullest male. It is my opinion that 
the same remarks apply to variety tepkrocotis." 

The above statements of Captain Bendire and Lieutenant Bacon are 
made in reference to some very positive remarks by Mr. Robert Ridg- 
way, in his recent very elaborate monograph of the genus Leucosticte, in 
respect to sexual variation among the different forms of this group. Mr. 
Ridgway says, "The American species of this genus fall into two dis- 
tinct groups", according as the sexes do or do not differ in appearance. 
In L. tephrocotis, in all its forms, there is not the slightest sexual* differ- 
ence ; but, in L. atrata and L. australis, the distinction is very marked. 7 ' * 
Under the head of L. tephrocotis var. littoralis, Mr. Ridgway further 
says, u In regard to the two sexes, as compared to one another, there is 
the same absolute similarity in appearance and size\ that exists in grisei- 
Tiiiclia and tephrocotis, many females \ being more brightly colored and 
some larger than some males. The apparently larger average of the 
dimensions of the [seven] female[sj indicated in the above measurements 
is no doubt due to the small number of specimens of the sex examined."! 

Mr. Ridgway's tables seem to indicate that the sex was known in only 
a small proportion of his specimens, namely, in fourteen (seven males and 
seven females) out of forty- eight in variety littoralis, and in about one- 
third in variety tephrocotis. As already stated, Captain Bendire's speci- 
mens, in which the sex was carefully determined by dissection, show 
.a very considerable constant sexual difference in coloration, and, as will 
be presently shown, also in size. 

Through some unfortunate inadvertence, an important error has crept 
into Mr. Ridgway's table of comparative measurements given on page 
60 (I. c.)> the measurements of the two sexes of L. tephrocotis being given 
as, male, wing, 4.21; tail, 3.12; female, wing, 4.16; tail, 3.12; thus ap- 
parently sustaining Mr. Ridgway's generalization in respect to the 
absence of difference in size in the two sexes of this form. In examin- 
ing Captain Bendire's specimens, however, 1 was struck with the appar- 
ently smaller size of the females ; and, on referring to the measurements 
recorded on his labels, this apparent difference proved to be real. I 
then turned to Mr. Ridgway.'s table of the measurements of L. tephrocotis, 
and, carefully computing the averages given by Mr. Ridgway, I met with 
quite different results, the thirty-four females giving an average length 
of wing of 4.05, and of tail of 2.97, against the 4.16 and 3.12 given by 
Mr. Ridgway, and of course giving a considerably smaller average than 
for the males, namely, 4.05 against 4.21 for the wing, and 2.97 against 
3.12 for the tail. 

The averages given in the same connection by Mr. Ridgway for the 
two sexes of L. littoralis (seven males and seven females) are borne out 
by the table of measurements on which they are based, and seem 
to indicate that there is no sexual variation in size in this form. 
Through tbe kindness of Captain Beudire, I have before me measure- 
ments (sent to me by my special request) of forty-two males and twenty-six 
females of L. littoralis, in which the wing averages respectively 4.23 
for the males and 4.05 for the females. In addition to these, seven 
males and six females, which he had previously sent me, gave 4.19 for the 
length of the wing in the male and 4.02 for the same in the female; thus 
showing that not only in coloration but also in size there is a well- 
marked sexual variation in this form as well as in tephrocotis, about the 

"'Monograph of the geiius Leucosticte," etc., Bull. U. S. Gecf.og. and Geograph. Sur- 
vey of the Territories, No. 2, second series, p. 60, May, 1375. 
T Not italicized h A1 
: Loc. cit., p. 75. 


same, in fact, as occurs in L. australis, in which and in L. atrata Mr. 
Ridgway admits it to be well marked. 

L. griseinucha is the only other American form of Leucosticte alleged 
by Mr. Ridgway to show no sexual difference in size or color. 

In respect to individual variation. Mr. Ridgway remarks as follows : 
"There is no noticeable range of individual variation among typical 
examples of any form, and it is only the transitional specimens connect- 
ing two races of one species that vary at all from the normal standard ",* 
etc. (1. c.j p. 60). "Regarding the subject of individual variation, we 
shall say little, since the immense series at our command shows that 
this is really insignificant" (I. c., p. 58). These remarks are made in 
reference to statements of mine quoted by Mr. Ridgway, in which I say 
that "it seems probable that some of the differences whereon certain 
species t of Leucosticte have been founded may be only individual varia- 
tions". This remark had reference to a series of mounted specimens in 
the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History, collected at Cen- 
tral City, Colo., by Mr. F. E. Everett. My remarks respecting these 
Mr. Ridgway also quotes (I. c., p. 55), and, without having seen them, in 
commenting on them in foot-notes, assigns them, with great positiveness, 
to his different species and varieties of Leucosticte. In poi nt of fact, there 
is a considerable range of color- variation in birds of .the same sex from 
the same localities, referable, unquestionably, to the same varieties. 
These aifect not only the intensity of the general tints, but the areas of 
dusky and ashy markings about the head, as Mr.Ridgway's own comments 
under L. littoralis sufficiently show. Whether or not such specimens 
form the mtergrading Mnks between varieties is immaterial to the point 
at issue. 

In respect to individual variation in size, it is sufficient to say that 
the length of the wing varies in males of variety littoralis from 3.90 to 4.50, 
and in the females from 3.88 to 4.25: in variety tephrocotis (see Mr. Ridg- 
way's tables), from 4.00 to 4.40 in the males, and from 3.90 to 4.30 in the 
females ; in variety, griseinucha, from 4.25 to 4.75 in the males, and from 
3.90 to 4.80 in the females! It seems a priori improbable that such 
a wide range of individual variation in size should obtain without there 
being also considerable variability in color. Such a state of things 
would certainly be an exceptional and noteworthy fact in our present 
knowledge of individual variation among birds. 

As the present forms a convenient opportunity for noticing some other 
strictures by Mr. Ridgway on some general remarks of mine respecting 
this group, I will add a few words respecting geographical variation 
among the different forms of Leucosticte. Mr. Ridgway, in commenting 
on my attempt " to show a correlation between the distinguishing char- 
acters of the different forms of this genus and the recognized general 
laws of geographical variation", in which I claim the northern forms to 
be larger, with more ash on the head, etc., says that, respecting these 
statements, "there is need of correction. There is no such variation 
from the north southward as that stated in the passage quoted, for the 
northern forms are quite as brightly colored as the most southern ones, f 
while in the gray-headed races of L. tephrocotis it is the more southern 
one (var. littoralis) which has the most gray. Thus, in this latter race 
the throat is more or less gray, frequently entirely gray ; while, in var. 
griseinucha, the whole throat is black. Var. griseinucha is also much 

* Not italicized in the original. 

t Referring, among others, to L. campestris, a form Mr. Ridgway himself docs not 
regard as even varietally distinguishable. 
t Not italicized in the original. 


brighter-colored than its southern -ally, the red being not only deeper 
and more extended, but the brown of the body is darker and richer! 
The fact that littoralis has more gray on the head than tephro- 
cotis cannot be explained by stating that the former is more northern in its 
distribution, for such is not the case, since the breeding grounds of var. 
tephrocotis are quite as far northward in the interior as those of var. lit- 
toralis is on the coast. We must, therefore, look to some other explana- 
tions of these variations than the laws of climatic modifications which 
are now recognized. The single instance of apparent correspondence 
to a general rule of geographical variation is seen in L. griseinucha of 
the Alaskan coast, which is more northern in its habitat than L. littoralis 
of the more southern Korth -Pacific coast, and is also larger in size." 
(Loc. cit., pp. 58, 59.) 

From much of the above I must beg leave to dissent, as matters of 
fact. In the first place, L. australis was one of the forms to which I 
especially referred, and which, because it has since been considered by 
him as a species rather than a variety, Mr. liidgway leaves wholly out 
of consideration in this connection. It is, however, one of the " forms of 
Leucosticle" to be considered, and is also the most southern, the smallest, 
and by far the brightest- colored* Climatologically considered, L. 
tephrocotis is the next most southern,! is the next in size (at least is not 
larger than variety littoralis}, and has the least ash on the head. The breed-' 
ing-range of L. littoralis is not "known, and this form has not yet been 
taken on the " southern part of the North-Pacific coast", unless Alaska 
can be so considered. In size, it does not appreciably differ from L. 
tephrocotis. It probably passes the summer in tte interior, to the west- 
ward of the breeding- range of L. tephrocotis, and hence under rather more 
northern climatic conditions. L. griseinucha is the most -northern and 
much the largest. Its darker colors are easily explainable on climatic 
grounds, or by " the laws of climatic modification which are now recog- 
nized ". Its darker colors simply correlate with those of the generality of 
the varietal forms of Birds and Mammals inhabiting the same region, 
remarkable for its immense annual rain-fall and great humidity of 

*L. " atrata " I have purposely omitted in this consideration. If, however, it is any- 
thing more than a melanotic phase of variety tephrocotis, it finds in that form a very near 
ally, and if entitled to specific, or even varietal, recognition, gives further proof of the 
generalization here proposed, it being much darker and smaller than tephrocotis. Mr. 
Ridgway says of atrata, " the pattern of coloration is precisely similar to that of L. 
tephrocotis, but the totally different tints (black or dusky-slate, instead of chocolate- 
brown), and the very marked difference between the sexes,* separate it at once as a distinct 
species. It may be suggested that it is a melanism of tephrocotis; but, if this were so, 
there would be no such entire uniformity of characters as is exhibited throughout the 
series of five specimens, while in tephrocoiis there is not the slightest sexual difference in 
colors."* It will be noticed from the above that one of the strong points relied upon by 
Mr. Ridgway as distinguishing atrata from tephrocotis is the supposed absence of sexual 
variation in tephrocotis, and its presence in atrata, a distinction founded on error. 

t In this view I find I am sustained by Mr. C. E. Aiken, who says, " From these facts, 
and information derived from other sources, I infer that the gray-cheeked variety 
(littoralis) is the most northern race, and that many of them do not find their way so 
far south [as Canon City, Colo.] except in severe winters. In this belief I am strength- 
ened by the fact that, of sixty birds killed in Wyoming in 1870, all but one or two were 
typical tephrocotis; that tephrocotis occupies, during the breeding season a more south- 
ern locality than the preceding ^littoralis'], and winters, regularly, in the Rocky Mount 
ains of Colorado, and even farther south; that australis inhabits the next lower section, 
breeding in Colorado, and probably extending into the British possessions, but winter- 
ing, for the most parj; especially in severe winters south of this Territory ; that 
atrata, if anywhere common, must occupy a more southern locality." (Quoted from 
Mr. Ridgway's Mon., I. c., pp. 62, 63.) 

*lS T ot italicized in the original. 


climate;* a fact that Mr. Eidgway seems for the moment to have for- 

As a further contribution to the history of Leucosticte tephrocotis, I 
append the measurements of seventy-seven specimens of varieties litto- 
rails and teplirocotis, kindly sent me by Captain Bendire. As the meas- 
urements were made by the collector from fresh specimens, and as the 
sex of each specimen was determined by actual dissection, they are of 
special interest in the present connection. 





d 1 








d 1 


d 1 


d 1 

d 1 



d 1 






d 1 













Collected by . 

Camp Harnev, Oreg 





239, 1 



Capt. Charles Bendire. 
Do. . 
Lieut. George R. Bacon. 
Capt. Charles Bendire. 
Lieut. George R. Bacon. 
Capt. Charles Bendire. 
Lieut. George R. Bacon. 
Capt. Charles Bendire. 

1871 ; Proc. Bost. Soc. 



Do ... 


Do"" """." 







' Do . . . .. .. 

Do '-.- 

* Do . . - 





Mar. 1 
Feb. 26 
Feb. 26 
Jan. 26 
Jan. 6 
Jan. 20 
Jan. 6 

Do ." 





Do > 





Do i 





Do ... 





















Do . 






Mar. 1 
Jan. 6 
Feb. 26 

vol. ii, 



"See Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoology, 

JS T at. Hist., vol. xvi, pp. 279-284, June, 1874. 










Collected by- 

Ca 'n p Haruey Oreg 

Jan 26 


4 00 


Lieut George K Bacon 


Mar 1 


6 75 

4 05 

2 88 


Mar 1 





Capt. Charles Bendirp 



6 65 

4 00 

2 65 



6 50 

4 12 

2 90 




6 60 

4 00 

2 50 





4 00 





6 50 

4 00 

2 75 




6 70 

4 00 

2 75 










6 70 

4 00 

2 90 









6 68 

3 88 

2 78 









Average of 49 males 




Average of 28 females 

6 67 

4 01 

2. 76 









Collected by 

Cainp Harney Oreg . ........... 





Lieut. George H Bacon 



6 85 

4 25 

2 85 




4. 12 









Do . 





Capt. Charles Bcntlire. 





















6 50 

4 25 





7. 18 







4 30 



Do ... 





Lieut. George R. Bacon. 


6 85 

4 25 



Do ... 





Capt. Charles Bendire. 



6 60 

4. 15 











6 70 

4 16 

2 75 



6 79 

4 24 

2 78 

Average of 6 females ... 







F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 











WASHINGTON, May 3, 1878. 




When, in 1871, I published* a few preliminary remarks concerning 
the general subject of geographical zoology, it was my intention soon to 
present more fully the facts whereon were based the few general princi- 
ples then stated. In this paper I claimed, in accordance with the views 
of Humboldt, Wagner, Dana, Agassiz, De Candolle, and others, that life 
is distributed in circum polar zones, which conform with the climatic 
zones, though not always with the parallels of the geographer. Sub- 
sequent study of the subject has confirmed the convictions then ex- 
pressed. These are directly antagonistic to the scheme of division of 
the earth's surface' into the life-regions proposed by Dr. Sclater in 1857, 
based on the distribution of birds, and since so generally adopted. 
Their wide acceptation, it seems to me, has resulted simply from the 
fact that so few have taken the trouble to sift the facts bearing upon 
the subject, or to carefully examine the basis on which Dr. Sclater's 
divisions are founded. The recent appearance of Mr. Wallace's labori- 
ous and in many respects excellent and praiseworthy workt has now 
rendered a critical presentation of the subject more necessary than be- 
fore, since, instead of seeking in the facts of geographical zoology a 
basis for a natural scheme of division, he has unhesitatingly accepted 
Dr. Sclater's ontological regions and marshalled his facts and arranged 
his work wholly in conformity with this, as I shall presently attempt to 
show, grossly misleading scheme. The source of error, as I hope to make 
evident, lies in method of treatment. Assuming apparently that the 
larger or continental land-areas are necessarily coincident with natural 
ontological regions, divisions of the earth's surface wholly incompara- 

* On the Geographical Distribution of the Birds of Eastern North America, with 
special reference to the Number and Circumscription of the Ornithological Faunae. 
<Ball. Mus. Comp. ZooL, vol. ii, No. 3, pp. 375-450. April, 1871. 

tThe Geographical Distribution of Animals. With a Study of Living and Extinct 
Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth's Surface. By Alfred Russel 
Wallace. Two vols. 8. With maps and illustrations. London, 1876. 

Bull. iv. No. 2 1 313 


ble have been contrasted, and erroneous deductions have been the 
result. In the division of the northern hemisphere into two primary 
regions, the so-called (i Nearctic" and " Pala3aretic", no account has been 
taken of the almost homogeneous character of life throughout the 
Arctic and Sub- Arctic regions, and the equally important principle of 
temperature as a powerful limiting agent, nor of the facts of the rapid 
increase of organic forms and the consequent differentiation of life from 
the Arctic regions toward the Equatorial in an ever increasing ratio 
in proportion to the extent and divergence of the principal land-areas. 
At the northward, this method of division separates, into primary life- 
regions, areas of the closest ontological resemblances, while at the 
southward these divisions each embrace faunae so unlike those of their 
northern portions respectively that the two extremes of either region 
have little in common, scarcely more than have the southern portions of 
these two regions as compared with each other. It is the neglect of the 
above-stated fundamental facts and principles that forms the fatal 
weakness of the scheme of life-regions proposed by Dr. Sclater, and so" 
widely and thoughtlessly accepted. That the facts and principles above 
alluded to are fundamental, in other words, that life is distributed in 
circumpolar zones under the controlling influence of climate and mainly 
of temperature, I propose to show by a tabular presentation of the 
facts of distribution of mammalian life in the northern hemisphere. 

One of the reasons given by Mr. Wallace for adopting Dr. Sclater's 
regions is that " it is a positive, and by no means an unimportant 
advantage to have our named regions approximately equal in size, and 
with easily defined, and therefore easily remembered, boundaries", pro- 
viding that u we do not violate any clear affinities or produce any glar- 
ing irregularities". It is further claimed that " all elaborate definitions 
of interpenetrating frontiers, as well as regions extending over three 
fourths of the land surface of the globe, and including places which are 
the antipodes of each other, would be most inconvenient, even if there 
were not such difference of opinion about them".* 

These arguments can be scarcely characterized as otherwise than 
trivial, since they imply that truth, at least to a certain degree, should 
be regarded as secondary to convenience. They further show that the 
author of these propositions has not worked out in detail the distribu- 
tion of life, species by species, over a diversified area of considerable 
extent, like, for instance, that of Eastern North America, where an in- 
terdigitation of the lesser faunal areas is one of the marked features of 
the region, as it is elsewhere wherever there is a varied topography and 
consequent inequality of climate under the same parallels of latitude. 
Again, Mr. Wallace says, 4< On two main points every system yet 
proposed, or that probably can be proposed, is open to objection ; 
they are, Istly, that the several regions are not of equal rank; 2ndly, 
that they are not equally applicable to all classes of animals. As 
to the first objection, it will be found impossible to form any three 
* Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, pp. 63, 64. 


or more regions, each of which differs from the rest in an equal degree 
or in the same manner. One will surpass all others in the possession 
of peculiar families; another will have many characteristic genera; 
while a third will be mainly distinguished by negative characters. 
There will also be found many intermediate districts, which possess 
some of the. characteristics of two well-marked regions, and a few special 
features of their own, or perhaps with none ; and it will be a difficult 
question to decide, in all cases which region should possess the doubtful 
territory, or whether it should be formed into a primary region by 

In geographical zoology, as in the genetic relation of animals, we 
find, as a rule, no strongly marked boundary -lines, and in the -life- 
regions, especially those of lesser rank, the boundaries can be given 
only approximately, owing to the intergradation of contiguous faunaB 
and flora3, contingent upon the gradual modification of climatic condi- 
tions; yet it is not hard to find boundary-lines that shall be, if not 
sharply definable, at least easy of recognition. This at least proves to 
be the case wherever the distribution of specific forms is thoroughly 
known. The first objection, " that the several regions are not of equal 
rank," forms to my mind no objection at all, since it matters little 
whether they are equal or unequal if they correctly indicate the distri- 
bution of life. 

The second objection Mr. Wallace has himself satisfactorily answered, 
in discussing the question " Which class of animals is of most importance 
in determining Zoological Regions." As Mr. Wallace here points out, and 
as must become apparent to every careful investigator of this question, 
the mammalia are pre-eminently of the greatest importance in deter- 
mining zoological regions. To summarize Mr. Wallace's argument on 
this point,t their dispersal is less dependent on fortuitous circumstances 
than that of the representatives of other classes; from their high 
organization they are less dependent upon " other groups of animals ", 
and have so much power of adaptation that they are " able to exist in 
one form or another over the whole globe", as is certainly not the case 
with two of the lower classes of vertebrates, the reptilia and amphibia. 
Their distribution and dispersal are dependent on the distribution of 
the land-areas, and are modified by such physical conditions as mount- 
ain barriers, areas of forest, and grassy or desert plateaus. Further- 
more, their geological history, as well as their geographical range, is 
better known than that of most other classes, and there is also a greater 
unanimity of opinion respecting their natural affinities and the limita- 
tion of families and genera in this class than in most others. " We 
should therefore ", says Mr. Wallace (and I heartily agree with the re- 
mark), " construct our typical or standard Zoological Eegions in the first 
place, from a consideration of the distribution of mammalia, only bring- 
ing to our aid the distribution of other groups to determine doubtful 
points. Eegions so established will be most closely in accordance icith 
* Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, p. 53. t See Geogr. Distr. Anim., vol. i, pp. 56-58. 


those long-enduring features of physical geography, on wliicli the distribution 
of all forms of life fundamentally depends;* and all discrepancies in the 
distribution of other classes of animals must be capable of being ex- 
plained, either by their exceptional means of dispersion or by special 
conditions affecting their perpetuation and increase in each locality." 
" If these considerations are well founded," he continues, " the objections 
of those who study insects or molluscs, for example, that our regions are 
not true for their departments of nature cannot be maintained. For 
they will find, that a careful consideration of the exceptional means of 
dispersal and conditions of existence of each group, will explain most 
of the divergences from the normal distribution of higher animals." t 

In the present paper I shall consequently, in my discussion of the 
zoological regions of the northern hemisphere, confine myself primarily 
to mammals. Throwing aside, for the moment, all theoretical consider- 
ations, I shall endeavor first to present the facts of the case, and then 
consider what generalizations may be legitimately drawn from them. 

A word, however, first in respect to the conformation and distribu- 
tion of the land-areas. In reference to this part of the subject I can 
hardly do better than to again quote the words of Mr. Wallace, who has 
thus forcibly presented the subject : " One great peculiarity of the dis- 
tribution of land lies in its freedom from complete isolation . . . The 
continents, indeed, resembling as they do a huge creeping plant, with 
roots at the North Pole, and the matted stems and branches of which 
cover a large part of the northern hemisphere and send three great off- 
shoots toward the South Pole, offer great facilities for the transmission 
of varied forms of animal life. There is evidence to prove that during 
the greater part of the Tertiary period the relative positions of our conti- 

* The italicizing is my own. 

t The question, Which class of animals is best fitted to form the basis of a division 
of the earth's surface into life-regions ? has a wider bearing than might be at first sup- 
posed, since the same power of adaptation to diverse climatic conditions that results 
in a wide distribution in some cases and a limited range hi others would also impart 
different degrees of ability to resist the influence of geological changes, and is hence 
related to the question, Which class forms the best index for marking geological time ? 
The relative importance of different groups as geological indices is necessarily con- 
nected with their power to resist unfavorable influences, and hence groups that suc- 
cumb most readily would give the best clue to such changes in the past. Among ver- 
tebrates the mammalia are undoubtedly, as a class, the best able to survive a wide 
range of climatic conditions. Birds are to so great a degree migratory that they are 
in great measure able to avoid seasonal extremes of climate by a change of habitat. 
Extremes that mammals readily survive prove quickly fatal to reptiles and amphibians. 

Climate, though in itself a powerful geological agent, is, of course, subject to profound 
modification due to geological causes. Any great amount of upheaval or subsidence 
of the earth's crust, or the gradual uplifting of mountain chains, must necessarily 
induce changes in the climate of the regions where such disturbances occur, the effect 
of which must extend over an area far greater than that of the disturbed district. A 
comparatively slight change of climate, either in respect to temperature or humidity, 
has a most marked influence upon vegetation, and especially upon the distribution of 
forests. The presence or absence of particular species of plants is well known to 
determine the presence or absence of many species of insects, while the distribution of 
whole families of the la.tter is determined wholly by the character of the vegetation j 


neuts and oceans did not greatly differ from their present form, and the 
former, back to the time of the Devonian formation, were never so com- 
pletely submerged as to be replaced by oceans comparable in depth with 
our Atlantic and Pacific." * " This curious fact," he says again, " of the 
almost perfect continuity of all the great masses of land, notwithstand- 
ing their extremely irregular shape and distribution, is no doubt depend- 
ent on the [geological] circumstances just alluded to; that the great 
depth of the oceans and the slowness of the process of upheaval, has 
almost always produced the new lands close to, or actually connected 
with, pre-existing lands; and this has necessarily led to a much greater 
uniformity in the distribution of organic forms, than would have pre- 
vailed had the continents been more completely isolated from each other. 
. . . the whole land is almost continuous. It consists essentially of 
only three masses : the American, the Asia- African, and the Australian. 
The two former are only separated by thirty-six miles of shallow sea at 
Behriug's Straits, so that it is possible to go from Cape Horn to Singa- 
pore or the Cape of Good Hope without ever being out of sight of land ; 
and owing to the intervention of the numerous islands of the Malay 
Archipelago the journey might be continued under the same conditions 
as far as Melbourne and Hobart Town." t The close proximity of the 
great land-masses in the Arctic regions is a fact to be kept in mind in 
any discussion of the distribution of life in the northern hemisphere, 
and also the fact that in Tertiary times the connection was almost indis- 
putably more intfmate than it is now. 

and even mammals and birds are greatly affected, and even some are mainly controlled, 
in their range by the presence or absence of forests, the distribution of which is so inti- 
mately connected with climate. The reptiles, unlike mammals and birds, are quickly 
influenced by changes of temperature, and are unable to exist in the colder parts of 
the earth. Amphibians also require a moderately warm, or at least temperate, climate, 
and though ranging beyond the true reptiles become reduced to a few types in the cold- 
temperate latitudes, beyond which they wholly disappear. Fluviatile and terrestrial 
mollusks are also exceedingly susceptible to changes in the conditions of life that affect 
but slightly either insects or vertebrates, especially the two higher classes of the latter, 
even the geological character of a country having a powerful influence upon their dis- 
tribution, as well as affecting their size and the thickness of their calcareous covering. 
While the mammalia are able to survive changes that would exterminate reptiles and 
amphibians, and are somewhat independent of the influences that govern the existence 
of many insects and mollusks, their fossil remains must give, for this reason, a less 
minute record of past geological and climatic changes than either the lower classes of 
vertebrates, the mollusca, or the insects, and afford a far less detailed record than plants. 
Among mammals sometimes the same species, and often the same genus, has a range 
extending from the Arctic regions to the warm-temperate or subtropical latitudes, thus 
showing an adaptability to varied conditions of existence not exhibited by the lower 
vertebrates, or by mollusks or plants. While their lack of exceptional means of dis- 
persal and their superiority to forces of restriction that limit many groups of animals 
render them highly useful as a standard of reference in respect to present life-regions, 
the latter necessarily detracts from their importance as a medium of geological record, 
so far at least as regards the minuter details. 

* Report of a Lecture before the Royal Geographical Society; in Geogr. Mag., vol. iv, 
August, 1877, p. 221. 

t Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, p. 37. 



As is well known, and almost universally admitted, the animal and 
plant life of the Arctic lands is nearly everywhere the same, many of the 
species having a circumpolar range, while the genera are mainly, and 
the families almost entirely, the same throughout. Especially is this the 
case with mammals. To show how gradual is the change from almost 
absolute uniformity in the Arctic regions to the ultimate diversity met 
with in the intertropical latitudes it is only necessary to divide latitud- 
inally the so-called "Nearctic" and "PalaBarctic" regions into several 
minor areas, and to tabulate and compare the genera found in each. 
Adopting as our first division the region approximately bounded south- 
ward by the isotherm of 36 F., and hence embracing the Arctic, Sub- 
Arctic, and Cold Tern perate lands of the northern hemisphere, we find that 
of the fifty-four commonly recognized genera of non-pelagic mammals 
occurring north of this boundary, five are subcosmopolitan; twenty- 
seven, or more than one half, are strictly circumpolar, being represented 
throughout the greater part of the region north of this boundary ; that 
five more are found on both shores of the Atlantic, and that five others 
are common to both shores of the Pacific. This leaves only twelve 
less than one-fourth that are peculiar to either the northern portion of 
North America or to the corresponding portion of the Old World, of 
which eight are restricted to America and four to the EuropaBO-Asiatic 
continent. These genera and their distribution are approximately shown 
in the subjoined table. 

Gtnera of mammals of the Arctic and Cold Temperate portions of the northern hemisphere (the 
region north of the mean annual of 35 F.). 




Ovis. Castor. 













Putorius. Tarandus. 







* Lutra. 









American and Asiatic. 


American and European. 





















-...- . 



* Subcosmopolitan. t ScotopTtilus of American autbors, not of Dobson. 



Tctal number of genera 54 

Subcosmopolitan 5 

Circumpolar 27 

Shores of North America and Asia 5 

Shores of North America and Europe 5 

Exclusively either American or Europa3o- Asiatic 12 

Peculiar to America 8 

-Peculiar to the Europaeo- Asiatic continent 4 

The above-given statistics show most clearly that the mammals of 
the northern third of the northern hemisphere present few generic or 
subgeneric forms that are peculiar to either North America or to the 
Europa30-Asiatic continent. In many cases, these are closely representa- 
tive forms 5 in other cases, the peculiar genera extend but a short dis- 
tance into the region, being temperate forms rather than hyperboreal. 

The close relationship of the mammalian life of the northern lands, as 
compared with the diversity met with between that of the northern and 
southern portions of the two northern continents, is further shown by a 
tabulation of the genera met with in the region intervening between the 
cold-temperate and sub-tropical zones of life, the northern and southern 
boundaries of which may be considered respectively as the isotherms of 
36 and 08 to 70 F. Rather more than one-half of the above-enu- 
merated genera extend also over a large portion of this more southern 
belt, and impart thereby a general similarity to the fades of the mam- 
malian faunas of the two regions. In addition to these, however, we find 
in North America thirty -one genera and seven subgenera that are not 
found much, if any, to the northward of the isotherm of 36 F., and 
about the same proportion of new generic and subgeneric types make 
their appearance in the corresponding region of the Old World. Turn- 
ing first to North America, we find that of these added forms one has 
so wide a distribution that it may be properly considered as subcos- 
mopolitan, being found in the corresponding region of the Europseo- 
Asiatic continent as well as far to the southward of the region under 
notice. One other occurs also in Eastern Asia and six more belong 
rather to Tropical America than to Temperate North America. Exclud- 
ing these, leaves about thirty as strictly American and twenty- two that 
are almost wholly restricted to Temperate North America ; there is, hence, 
twice as great a difference between the mammalian fauna? of the middle 
temperate region of North America and the colder portion of the same 
continent as there is between those of the colder parts of the two north- 
era continents, or the northern portions of the so-called " Nearctic " 
and "Palaaarctic Regions". But we get in Temperate North America 
not only twenty-two generic and subgeneric forms peculiar to this 
region, but a differentiation of this region into three well-marked faunal 
areas, differing more from each other than do the boreal parts of the 
New World (''Nearctic Region") from the boreal parts of the Old World 
(" Palsearctic Region"). While thirteen of the genera, or about one- 



third, have a general distribution throughout Temperate North America, 
there are four genera and one subgenus peculiar to the so-called East- 
ern Province, five genera and one subgenus mainly restricted to the 
Middle Province, and five genera and two subgenera almost wholly lim- 
ited to the geographically much smaller Western Province. In addition 
to this, there are five other genera and one subgenus common to the 
greater part of the Middle and Western Provinces that are not found in 
the Eastern.* The genera that may be regarded as characterizing the 
middle temperate region of North America and their relative distribution 
is shown in the subjoined table. 

Terrestrial genera and subgenera of Middle North America (between the mean annuals of 36 

and 68 F.), not found in the Arctic find Cold Temperate latitudes. 

[NOTE. Subgenera are enclosed in parentheses.] 

Limited to the 

Limited to the 

Limited to the 

Common to the Mid- 

Of general distribution. 


Middle Prov- 


dle and Western 






* Sigmodon. 










(Pedomys ) 





*Uyctinomus. 4 














. Scalops. 







* Chiefly tropical. 

t Occurs also in Asia. 


Total number of genera (plus 7 subgenera) 38 

Of general distribution 13 

Peculiar to the Eastern Province 5 

Peculiar to the Middle Province 6 

Peculiar to the Western Province 7 

Common to the Western and Middle Provinces, but not found in the Eastern 6 

Mainly tropical or subtropical 8 

* Mr. Wallace, in his late work (Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, p. 6), refers to the Rocky 
Mountains as forming a barrier to species, " almost all the mammals, birds, and in- 
sects " belonging to different species on the two sides of the Rocky Mountains. Noth- 
ing, so far as mammals and birds are concerned (and I am informed by good authori- 
ties that the same is true of insects), could well be further from the truth. Only in 
rare instances do the Rocky Mountains form such a barrier, the division between the 
Eastern and Middle Provinces being more than six hundred miles to the eastward of 
this range, while the boundary between the Middle and Western Provinces is formed 
by the Sierra Nevada chain. The same species, as a rule, range over the greater part 
of the great elevated interior plateau, of which the Rocky Mountains constitute the 
'axis. So far as the distribution of both birds and mammals is concerned, the presence 
or absence of forests, and the accompanying diverse climatic conditions, have far more 
to do with the limitation of habitat than the commonly so-called "Rocky Mountain 
barrier ". This is obviously due to the longitudinal direction of this supposed barrier, 
which, if trending in a latitudinal direction, would certainly form an impassable 
obstacle to very many species. 


Between the warm-temperate belt we have been considering and the 
zone next to the southward the subtropical the faunal differences are 
far greater than between the warm-temperate and colder zones. Aside 
from the few subcosmopolitan genera still present, and the few essen- 
tially tropical genera that range northward into the warmer temperate 
zone, there is little in common to the mammalian faunae of these two 
regions. At or near this boundary (the isotherm of about 68 F. say 
68 to 70 F.) several strictly tropical families first make their appear- 
ance, and tropical genera begin largely to replace those of the colder 
region to the northward. 

In respect to the Europaeo- Asiatic continent, we have already seen 
how small a proportion of the genera of mammals met with north of 
the thirty-sixth isotherm are really peculiar to this region, the number 
being less than twelve per cent., the remainder being circumpolar. Pass- 
ing, however, to the warm-temperate division of this Europa30- Asiatic 
continent, or that portion between the isotherms of 36 and 68 to 70 
F., and we meet with many genera not found to the northward. While 
many circumpolar genera still prevail, at least three-fourths of the 
whole number are here first met with. A considerable proportion (about 
one-fifth) are properly southern or subtropical, and extend far to the 
southward of the warm-temperate zone. About one-half, however, are 
peculiar to this zone, and belong to groups (families of subfamilies) espe- 
cially characteristic of the North Temperate Kealm. In adopting the 
isotherm of 70 F. as its southern boundary, we include not only the Medi- 
terranean Province (and hence Northern Africa), but all of Asia north 
of the great Himalayan cfaain, together with Northern China and the* 
Persian -Peninsula. Hence quite a number of such southern forms occur 
as Macacus, Herpestes, Genetta, Hycena, Hystrix, etc., that are more prop- 
erly members of the intertropical fauna. Owing to the great extent 
of this region, we meet with many genera peculiar to special districts, 
giving a higher proportion of peculiar forms than is met with in the 
corresponding portion (but far more limited in area) of North America. 
Of about fifty genera met with here that do not occur to the northward, 
about one-fourth may be thrown out as more properly tropical, since 
they in most cases barely enter the southern border. 

Of the remainder, fully one-half are restricted in their range wholly 
or almost wholly to this region, the rest extending far into or through- 
out the Old World tropics. There is thus more than thrice as great a 
difference between the mammalian fauna of the boreal parts of the 
Europseo- Asiatic continent and that of the warmer parts of the same con- 
tinent as between the fauna of the boreal parts of the Europseo- Asiatic 
continent and the corresponding region of North America. The differ- 
entiation is here again, as in North America, from the north southward, 
not through the rapid increase of land-area and diversity of physical 
structure, but purely from climatic conditions, through the multipli- 
cation of life in consequence of increase of temperature and means of 


subsistence. This is still more strikingly shown by a comparison of the 
fauna of the middle portion of the so-called " Palsearctic Region v with 
that of its southern border, at which point the truly tropical forms be- 
gin to appear. The genera of a zone, say two degrees in width, at these 
two points would be not only in large part different, but those of the 
southern belt would be far more numerous. 

Genera of mammals of the warm-temperate portions of the eastern hemi- 
sphere (between the isotherms of 36 and 68 to 70 F.), not occurring to 
the northward of the 36th isotherm. 

*Macacus. \Moschus. Rhinoloplius. \Nectogalg. 

Felis. \Hydropotes. *Plecotus. Spalax. 

*Genetta. \Poephagus. *Synotus. Rhizomys. 

*Herpestes. *Addax. Scotophilus. ^Siphneus. 

* Hyaena. *Oryx. Miniopterus. Meriones. 

t Xyctereutes. Damalis. *Nyctinoraus. iCricetulus. 

t Lutronectes. ^Procapra. \Scaptochiru8. \Alactaga. 

\JEluru8. t Saiga. \Scaptonyx. *Gerbillus. 

*Equus. iPantholops. \Armsorex. *Dipus. 

tCaraelus. \Budorcas. iMygale. Muscardinus. 

\Dama. \Rupicapra. Urotrichus. Eliomys. 

^Elaphodus. Nemorhsedus. \Uropsilii8. *Hystrix. 

t Lophotragus. Capra. Crocidura. 


Total number 51 

Occurring in southern portions only 13 

Peculiar to the region, and generally restricted to a limited range 24 

Of rather wide range southward . 14 

A comparison of the families represented in different portions of the 
northern hemisphere north of the isotherm of 70 F. brings into prom- 
inence some of the points already stated, without the confusion of 
detail incident to a comparison on the basis of genera, and gives also 
a more convenient standard for the next stage of comparison, namely, a 
-comparison of the fauna3 of the temperate zones with those of the tropical, 
as well as with the fauna3 of the two great land-areas of the northern 
hemisphere. Of thirty-three families of non-pelagicmammals found north 
of about the isotherm of 70 F. (68 to 70), thirteen have a nearly cos- 
mopolitan distribution, and six others are common to both the Old 
World and the New, leaving fourteen, or about one-third, peculiar to 
either North America or to Europe and Asia. Three of these are essen- 
tially subtropicopolitan or tropicopolitan, having merely straggling rep- 
resentatives north of the 68th isotherm, and five others are represented 
each by only a single species. Seven of these fourteen families (four only 
according to many systematistsj) are North American and seven European 

* Occurring in southern portions only ; chiefly tropical. 

t Peculiar to the region and mostly of restricted range. 

1 1 here admit to family rank Antilocapridce, Zapodidce, and Geomyidce, the two former 
of which are treated by Mr. Wallace as subfamilies of subcosmopolitan families, while 
the other is not commonly recognized as distinct from Saccomyidce. On the other hand, 
I refer the Cercolabidce to the ffystritidce. 


and Asiatic. One or two others barely touch, or possibly overlap slightly, 
the above-given boundary. North of the isotherm of 36 F. not more 
than two or three families are met with that are not cosmopolitan, and 
two of these have each but a single species north of this line. 

The following is a list of the families referred to above, with approxi- 
mate indications of their distribution. 

Families of non-pelagic mammals occurring north of the mean annual of 70 F. 



North American. 

Europaeo- Asiatic. 




t Antiloca-pridae. 


* Formerly occurring on the shores of the North Pacific only, but now extinct, 
t Tropical ; one species only found north of 70th isotherm. J Represented by a single species. 


Whole number / 33 

Subcosmopolitan 13 

Circumpolar (arctopolitan) G 

American (exclusively)* 7 

Europseo-Asiatic (or exclusively Old World) t 7 

In regard to the southern extension of these thirty- three -families, thir- 
teen range far into, and most of them over, the greater part of Intertropical 
America, and eighteen far into, and most of them over, the greater part 
of the intertropical portion of the Old World. 

In Intertropical America, only thirty families are represented. Of 
these, thirteen occur over much of Temperate North America, while 
eleven are subcosmopolitan, and the same number are peculiar to the 
region, while one-half of the whole do not range much beyond the 
northern tropic. Seven are semitropicopolitan, or occur also in the 
warmer parts of the Old World ; but of these, three are Chiroptera and 
another is marine. The approximate range of the families represented 
in Intertropical America is indicated in the annexed table. 

"Five only are exclusively North American, 
t Two only are exclusively " Palaearctic ". 


Families of non-pelagic mammals occurring in Intertropical America 
(between the northern and southern isotherms of 70 F.). 

[NOTE. The names of families peculiar to the region are printed in italics.] 

Cebida.'. Otariidae. Soricidas. Hystricidse. 

Mididte. Cervidse. *> *Centetidae. Leporidse. 

Felidse. *Trichechidse.t Sciuridae. Brachypodidce. 

Cauidie. *Tapiridae. Muridae. Dasypodidce. 

Mustelidas. Dicotylidce. * Octodontidas. Myrmecophagidce. 

t Procyonidae. Phyllostomidse. Dinomyidce. t Didelphyidce. 

Bassarididos. EmballonuridsB. Caviidce. 

Ccrcoleptidce. Vespertilionidae. Dasyproctidce. 


Total number 30 

Peculiar to the region 12 

Not found in temperate parts of North America 16 

Snbcosmopolitan 11 

Occurring in the warmer parts (only) of the Old World 5 

Occurring in North America (at large) 13 

Fifty families are represented in the intertropical portions of Asia and 
Africa. Of these nearly thirty do not range much beyond the Northern 
Tropic, of which about twenty-three are limited to this region. Of the 
thirty-two families occurring in the north-temperate zone (of which only 
six or seven are exclusively Europa30-Asiatic), nearly, one-half range 
over most of the indo- African tropics. The following is a list of the 
families represented in the Old World tropics, exclusive of those limited 
to Madagascar and the Australian Realm. 

Families of non-pelagic mammals occurring in the Indo- African Tropics 
(between the northern and southern isotherms of 70 F.) 

. The names of families not occurring northward of the region are printed in italics.] 



















































^Occurring in the Old World Tropics. 

t Occurring also in Extratropical America. 

t Manatidw of most authors. 

$ Also represented in Intertropical America 



Total number 50 

Peculiar (or almost wholly restricted) to the region 22 

Subcosmopolitan 13 

Represented in the American tropics (only) 4 

Occurring in the Old World north of the tropics 23 

Tropical 29 

It thus appears that only about three-fifths as many families of mam- 
mals occur in the intertropical parts of the New World as in the cor- 
responding parts of the Old World. The disproportion in the same 
direction in respect to genera and species is still greater. This is 
obviously due to the difference in size and configuration of the two 
areas. The Old World intertropical land- surface is not only several 
times greater than the American (embracing thrice as great a breadth 
longitudinally), but is differentiated into one continental (Africa), two 
large peninsular (India and China) areas, and a group of large, highly 
differentiated islands (Malay Archipelago), while the intertropical re- 
gion of America forms a single unindented region, with a single narrow 
isthmic prolongation. In the one case (America) we have a striking 
uniformity of mammalian life throughout, corresponding with the gen- 
eral uniformity of the climatic conditions characteristic of this area, 
contrasting with well-marked subdivisions in the other, and a much 
greater diversity of environing circumstances, originating geologically 
far back in the history of these several land-masses. As Mr. W r allace 
has remarked, " To those who accept the theory .of development as 
worked out by Mr. Darwin, and the views as to the general permanence 
and immense antiquity of the great continents and oceans so ably de- 
veloped by Sir Charles Lyell, it ceases to be a matter of surprise that 
the tropics of Africa, Asia, and America should differ in their produc- 
tions, but rather that they should have anything in common. Their 
similarity, not their diversity, is the fact that most frequently puzzles 

In the foregoing remarks, no reference has been made to Madagascar 
or to Australia, for the reason that they belong to distinct primary life- 
regions having little in common with the great Europaeo- Asiatic land- 
area (of which Africa, on the other hand, is an inseparable appendage), 
which, with America, form the regions to which the discussion has thus 
far been intentionally limited. As will be more fully considered later, 
the intertropical Old World area is divisible into secondary regions, 
which for the present need not enter into the questions immediately at 
issue. These are, first, Does that portion of the northern hemisphere 
north of the northern subtropical zone admit of division into two pri- 
mary life-regions, conforming in their boundaries to the configuration of 
the two great northern land-areas ? And, secondly, lu accordance with 
what principle does the life of the northern hemisphere become differ- 
entiated from the homogeneity characteristic of the northern regions 

* Geogr. Dist. Anirn., vol. i, p. 51. 


to the great diversity met with under tropical latitudes ? The funda- 
mental question which underlies the whole subject is. Is, or is not, the 
life of the globe distributed in circumpolar zones I The second is, How 
and under what influences does it become differentiated? 

To the first of these questions, I ventured some six years since,* to 
give an affirmative answer, in accordance not only with the views of 
numerous high authorities on the subject of the geographical distribu- 
tion of life, but with what seemed to me to be incontrovertibly the facts 
in the case. While this view has since received the support of other 
high authorities, it has been altogether ignored by the advocates of Dr. 
Sclater's division of the earth's surface. Mr. Wallace, who faithfully 
reflects the views of the Sclaterian school, in referring to this subject 
says : " Mr. Allen's system of ' realms' founded on climatic zones . . . 
calls for a few remarks. The author continually refers to the * law of 
the distribution of life in circumpolar zones ', as if it were one generally 
accepted and that admits of no dispute. But this supposed Maw' only 
applies to the smallest details of distribution to the range and increas- 
ing or decreasing numbers of species as we pass from north to south, or 
the reverse ; while jt has little bearing on the great features of zoologi- 
cal geography the limitation of groups of genera and families to cer- 
tain areas. It is analogous to the 4 law of adaptation* in the organiza- 
tion of animals, by which members of various groups are suited for an 
aerial, an aquatic, a desert, or an arboreal life ; are herbivorous, carniv- 
orous, or insectivorous ; are fitted to live underground, or in fresh waters, 
or on polar ice. It was once thought that these adaptive peculiarities 
were suitable foundations for a classification, that whales were fishes, 
and bats birds ; and even to this day there are naturalists who cannot 
recognize the essential diversity of structure in such groups as swifts 
and swallows, sun-birds and humming-birds, under the superficial dis- 
guise caused by adaptation to a similar mode of life. The application 
of Mr. Allen's principle leads to equally erroneous results, as may be 
well seen by considering his separation of Hhe southern third of Aus- 
tralia ' to unite it with.New Zealand as one of his secondary zoological 

Leaving Mr. Wallace's last-quoted objection for notice in another 
connection (see a foot-note beyond, under the sub-heading " Australian 
Bealm"), I unblushingly claim, in answer to the main point, that the 
geographical distribution of life is by necessity in accordance with a " law 
of adaptation", namely, of climatic adaptation ; that such a law is legiti- 
mate in this connection, and that the reference to the " superficial dis- 
guise " adapting essentially widely different organisms to similar modes 
of life is wholly irrelevant to the point at issue, a comparison of things 
that are in any true sense incomparable ; furthermore, that the "law of 
distribution of life in circumpolar zones " does apply as well in a gen- 
eral sense as to details "to groups of genera and families" as well as 

*Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 376, 1871. 
tGeogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, p. 67. 


to species. In the foregoing remarks I have had little to say respecting 
the range of species, and have tabulated merely genera and families. 
These tables clearly show that a large proportion of the mammalian 
genera and families of the northern hemisphere have a circumpolar 
range, the same genera and families occupying the Arctic and Sub-Arc- 
tic lands in both the Old World and the New, and that only a small 
per cent, of the whole number found here are peculiar to either of the 
northern land-areas ; that a large part of the genera and families met with 
in the temperate and warmer latitudes occur on the eastern continent as 
well as on the western; that again a considerable proportion of the 
genera and families met with in the warmer parts of the earth occur 
also both in the Old World and the New, while many others are well 
known to have been common to the two during the Tertiary period. It 
has been further shown that there is a greater diversity of life between 
contiguous climatic belts of the same continent than between corre- 
sponding belts of the two continents, especially north of the forty-fifth 
parallel of latitude, and that any marked faunal differentiation of the 
two continents begins only in the warm-temperate and subtropical lati- 
tudes. On each continent, the arctic, temperate, and tropical zones are 
each marked in their general fades respectively by corresponding phases 
of life. So obvious is this that we have in current use the expressions 
'* arctic life", " temperate life", and u tropical life", in recognition of cer- 
tain common features of resemblance by which each of these regions is 
distinguished as a region from the others. This is in accordance with a 
law I have termed the law "of differentiation from the north south- 
ward",* or in accordance with increase of temperature and the condi- 
tions resulting therefrom favorable to increased abundance of life. 

In this connection it may be well to recall certain general facts pre- 
viously referred to respecting the geographical relations of the lands of 
the northern hemisphere and their past history. Of first importance is 
their present close connection about the northern pole and their former 
still closer union at a comparatively recent date in their geological history; 
furthermore, that at this time of former, more intimate relationship, the 
climatic conditions of the globe were far more uniform than at present, 
a mild or warm-temperate climate prevailing where now are regions of 
perpetual ice, and that many groups of animals whose existing repre- 
sentatives are found now only in tropical or semitropical regions lived 
formerly along our present Arctic coasts. We have, hence, an easy ex- 
planation of the present distribution of such groups as Tapirs, Manatees, 
many genera of Bats, etc., in the tropics of the two hemispheres, on the 
wholly tenable assumption of a southward migration from a common 
wide-spread northern habitat, to say nothing of the numerous existing 
arctopolitan and semi-cosmopolitan genera. The former greater commu- 
nity of life in the northern hemisphere in preglacial times is further 
evinced by the wide spread occurrence there of the remains of Camels, 

* Bull. Mas. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 379. 


Elephants, Mastodons, Bhinoceroses, and Horses, which, though extinct 
in America, have living representatives in the tropies of the so-called 
"Old World", to say nothing of the evidence afforded by the remains of 
still earlier types of arctopolitan range. The succeeding epochs of cold 
caused extensive migrations of some groups and'the extinction of others; 
with the diverse climatic conditions subsequently characterizing high 
and low latitudes came the more pronounced differentiation of faunae, 
and the development, doubtless, of many new types adapted to the 
changed conditions of life the development of boreal types from a warm- 
temperate or semi-tropical stock. The accepted theories respecting the 
modification of type with change in conditions of environment changes 
necessarily due mainly to climatic influences render it certain that 
if animals are so far under the control of circumstances dependent upon 
climate, and emphatically upon temperature, as to be either exterminated 
or greatly modified by them, the same influences must govern their geo- 
graphical distribution. 

Recent discoveries respecting the mammalia inhabiting North Amer- 
ica during the Tertiary period have shown that many of the leading 
types of mammals including not only those above named, but also 
many others now found only in the eastern hemisphere, originated in 
North America, and migrated thence to Asia, Europe, and even Africa, 
either as somewhat generalized types, or after they had nearly reached 
their present degree of differentiation 5 in short, so far as mammalian 
life is concerned, that America is the "Old World" from which the 
so-called "Old World" has been mainly peopled. The present genetic 
convergence of life about the northern pole seems to show that not only 
has there been here a comparatively free intercommunication, but that 
the mammalian life now existing there has lived there for a long period 
under similar conditions of environment ; and that these conditions are 
unfavorable, in consequence of a comparatively low temperature, to rapid 
change of form or structure. 

This is shown not only by the great diversity of life met with in the 
intertropical regions, as compared with the uniformity met with in the 
semi-frigid regions (equal areas being, of course, compared), but by the 
coincident occurrence of a simple, homogeneous arctic marine fauna, 
with the low temperature over the sea-floor far to the southward of where 
such forms occur in the warmer surface and shore-waters. The intimate 
relation between temperature and the distribution of life is most forci- 
bly shown by the existence under the same parallel of latitude of diverse 
faunae not only at different elevations above the sea on mountain-slopes, 
but at different depths beneath the surface of the ocean, where the 
several faunae are characterized not only by the presence of different 
species, but by the prevalence of different genera, and even families. In 
fact, it is to me a matter of surprise that, with our present knowledge 
of the subject, any naturalist of note should assume that temperature 
has nothing to do with the circumscription of faunae, or that any law 


based on it can have " little bearing on the great features of zoological 
geography the limitation of groups of genera and families to certain 
areas ". 


The influence of temperature as a limiting agent in the distribution 
of life, as well the "law of the distribution of life in circumpolar zones", 
was fully recognized by Humboldt nearly three-fourths of a century 
ago, and later, practically if not explicitly, by Ritter, De Candolle, 
Agassiz, Wagner, Forbes, Dana, Giiuther, Meyen, Middendorff, and 
many other leading zoologists and botanists. While this law must 
incontrovertibly underlie every philosophic scheme of lief-regions, the 
number of zones to be recognized, as well as their boundaries, must in 
a measure be open to diversity of opinion. Professor Dana, in 1852, 
recognized five primary zones for marine animals, namely, a torrid, a 
north and a south temperate, and a north and a south frigid. The torrid 
and temperate were subdivided, the first into three, the others each into 
five sub zones, the two frigid being left undivided. Mr. A. Agassiz, in 
treating of the distribution of the Echini,* recognizes also five zones, a 
torrid, two temperate, and two frigid. These five primary zones prove 
to be applicable also to the mammalia, and even their subdivisions may 
be readily traced, but ape rather too detailed for practical use. Owing 
to the irregular surface of the land-areas, occasioned by elevated pla- 
teaus aud mountain-chains, these zones of distribution have of course 
a less regular breadth and trend than they preserve over the oceans. 
Their boundaries, however, approximate to the courses of the isotherms, 
by certain of which they may be considered as in a general way limited. 

In recognition of these zones, and also of the law of differentiation 
of life with the relative isolation of the principal land-areas, I proposed 
in a former paper (I. c., p. 380) a division of the land-areas into eight 
"Realms", namely: I, Arctic; II, North Temperate; III, American 
Tropical; IV, Indo- African; V, South American Temperate ; VI, Afri- 
can Temperate; VII, Antarctic; VIII, Australian. A subdivision of 
most of these primary regions was provisionally suggested, but only 
the North American was treated with any degree of detail, and this 
mainly with reference to the birds, and more especially those of its 
eastern portion. Subsequent study of the distribution of mammalian 
life over the globe has led me to modify some of the views then ex- 
pressed, especially in relation to the divisions of the Australian Realm, 
and to unite the South African Temperate with the Indo-African, as a 
division of the latter, and also to recognize Madagascar and the Masca- 
reue Islands as forming together an independent primary region, in 
accordance with the views of Sclater, Wallace, and others. Whether 
or not the Arctic and Antarctic Regions should stand as primary divi- 
sions seems also open to question. While perhaps tenable on general 

* Ihustr. Cat. Mas. Comp. Zool., No. vii, 1872, pis. A-F. 
Bull. iv. No. 2 2 


grounds, they are hardly required for the elucidation of the distribution 
of the mammalia, since they must be mainly characterized negatively. 

Beginning with the Arctic Kegion, we meet, as already shown, and as 
is almost universally admitted, a continuous homogeneous fauna, of 
considerable geographical area, but mainly characterized by what it 
lacks. Its southern boundary may be considered as the northern limit 
of forest vegetation. Continuing southward, few other than arctopoli- 
tan genera of mammals are met with north of the mean annual of 36 
F. This considerable belt hence includes what may be termed the cold- 
temperate zone. The American and Europa3O-Asiatic portions of this 
zone are only to a slight degree differentiated, while each is essentially 

Below this, non-arctopolitan genera, or those restricted to more or 
less limited areas, become more frequent, and, indeed, form a consider- 
able proportion of the genera represented. This belt occupies the 
remainder of the north-temperate zone, extending to about the mean 
isotherm of 70 F., and may be termed the warm-temperate zone. Un- 
like the cold -temperate zone, it is divisible on each continent into sev- 
eral well-marked minor regions, which are, however, more strongly 
differentiated, inter se^ in the Old World than in the New. 

The tropical zone embraces, of course, in its fullest extension, a much 
greater latitudinal breadth than the temperate, but its southern land- 
border is very irregular, its only considerable development south of the 
equator being in South America and Africa. It is also so much diver- 
sified in many parts by mountain-chains that subdivision into secondary 
zones seems less feasible than in the case with the north-temperate 
zone. A central torrid and a north and a south sub-torrid zones might, 
however, be readily made, but such a division has not been attempted 
in the present connection. A northern sub-torrid division may indeed 
be very conveniently recognized, extending from about the annual 
isotherm of 67 to that of about 74 F., and including a transitional 
region consisting of the extreme southern border of what has been 
above defined as the warm-temperate zone and the northern border of 
the tropical. 

In like manner, the distribution of life seems to warrant the recogni- 
tion, in Africa and South America, of a corresponding transitional belt 
between the two torrid and the southern warm-temperate zones. Aside 
from these divisions, the Torrid Zone admits of others of a more practi- 
cal or useful character. These become at once obvious, since they result 
from the position and configuration of its component land elements. 
The first is a primary separation into two " realms", an American and an 
Indo-African. Each of these is again divisible into several minor por- 
tions or "provinces"; but the Indo-African admits also of division into 
two " regions", an African and an Indian, which are divisions of second- 
ary rank, each having several " provinces". 

The South Temperate Zone has a very limited land-surface, consisting 


of the southern third of South America, a small portion of Southern 
Africa, and the greater portion of Australia. Extra- tropical South 
Africa is all comprised within the Warm Temperate Zone, and is so small 
in area and so intimately related, both geographically and faunally, 
with Tropical Africa, that its formal separation, while, perhaps, war- 
ranted in the abstract, is hardly practically necessary. Temperate South 
America is exceedingly irregular in its northern outline, owing to pecu- 
liarities of configuration, resulting from the presence of the great Andean 
Plateau, by means of which it extends along the western border of 
South America far northward of the southern tropic. Temperate Aus- 
tralia is clearly separable from the tropical portion of the Australian 
Realm. The South Temperate Zone hence consists of three compara- 
tively small land-areas, widely separated from each other, and conse- 
quently, as would be supposed, have little in common. 

The Antarctic Eegion has a very limited amount of land-surface, and 
the few species that compose its fauna are almost wholly either marine 
or pelagic. As previously stated, as a mammalian region it has little 

This hasty sketch shows that the differentiation of the land-surface 
of the earth into realms, regions, and minor divisions has relation not 
only to climate, but to the divergence and isolation of the different 
principal land-areas ; that at the northward, where the lands converge, 
there is no partitioning in conformity with continental areas, the tem- 
perate and colder portions of the northern hemisphere all falling into 
a single primary division, and that only the southern half is susceptible 
of divisions of the second rank. Within the tropics, on the other hand, 
the lands of the eastern and western hemispheres fall at once into dif- 
ferent primary regions, and one of these is again divisible into regions 
of second rank. Beyond the tropics, the land-surfaces are of small ex- 
tent, widely separated, and faunally have almost nothing in common. 

With these preliminary remarks, we may now pass to a detailed con- 
sideration of the several primary regions and their subdivisions. 


Whether or not an Arctic Region should be recognized as a division 
of the first rank is a question not easy to satisfactorily answer. Natur- 
alists who have made the distribution of animal life in the boreal 
regions a subject of special study very generally agree in the recogni- 
tion of a hyperboreal or circumpolar fauna, extending in some cases far 
southward over the Temperate Zone. The Arctic portion of this hyper- 
borean region has been frequently set off as a secondary division, or 
subregion,* and generally recognized as possessing many features not 

*It forms Mr. Blyth's "Arctic Subregion" (Nature, vol. iii,p. 427, March 30, 1871), 
Mr. Brown's " Circumpolar" division (Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1868, p. 337), and Dr. 
von Middendorfi's " Zirkumpolar-Fauna" (Sibirische Reise, Bd. iv, p. 910,1867). It 
also accords very nearly with Agassiz's "Arctic Realm " (Nott and Gliddon's Types 
of Mankind, 1854, p. Ix and map). 


shared by the contiguous region to the southward. For the present I 
prefer to still retain it as a division of the first rank. It is character- 
ized mainly by the paucity of its life, as compared with every region 
except the Antarctic, and by what it has not rather than by the posses- 
sion of peculiar species or groups. It wholly lacks both Amphibian and 
.Reptilian life, is almost exclusively the summer home of many birds, 
and forms the habitat of the Esquimaux, the Arctic Fox, the Polar Bear, 
the Musk Ox, the Polar Hare, the Lemmings, the Walruses, the Narwhal, 
and the White Whale, which are confined within it. It has no Chiroptera 
nor Insectivora, two or three species of Shrews, however, barely reaching 
its southern border. It shares with the cold-temperate belt the presence 
of the Moose and the Reindeer, several Pinnipeds, a number of boreal 
species of Glires, several fur-bearing Carnivora, and a considerable num- 
ber of birds. Its southern boundary may be considered as coinciding 
very nearly with the northern, limit of arboreal vegetation, and hence 
approximately with the isotherm of 32 F. Its more characteristic 
terrestrial forms range throughout its extent, none being restricted 
to either the North American or Europaeo- Asiatic continent. Hence it 
is indivisible into regions of the second and third grades (regions and 
provinces), and may be considered as embracing a single hyperborean 
assemblage of life. 


Very few writers on zoological geography have failed to recognize 
the striking resemblance the fauna of Temperate North America bears 
to that of the corresponding portion of the Old World. The resem- 
blance is less in the Avian class than among mammals, but is generally 
acknowledged as obtaining even there. Dr. Sclater, while admitting 
a strong resemblance between these areas, considered them as separable 
into two primary regions, in which view of the case he has been followed, 
among prominent writers on the subject, by Dr. Giinther, Mr. Wallace, 
Mr. Murray, and Professor Ocpe. Dr. Giinther, while provisionally 
accepting Dr. Sclater's "Nearctic w and " Palsearctic " regions, refers 
pointedly to the disagreement of the distribution of Batrachians with 
these divisions ; for in discussing the distribution of this class he says, 
" Dissimilarity and similarity of the Batracho-fauna depend upon zones. 
Palsearctic and Nearctic regions resemble each other more than any other 
third; the same is the case with Australia and South America; the 
Ethiopian region exhibits similarity with South America, as well as 
with the East Indies, but more especially with the latter."* Mr. Murray 
admits that " the boreal extremity of North America is tinged with a 
Europeo- Asiatic admixture", which he regards as "an extraneous ele- 
ment grafted upon the genuine stock, and easily eliminated from it w .t 
But in his map of " Great Mammalian Regions n the boreal parts of 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1858, p. 390. 
t Geogr. Dist. Mara., p. 312. 


both continents are similarly colored, the same color, however, extend- 
ing only to about the forty-ninth degree of north latitude in North 
America, while in Africa it descends to north latitude 18, and in Asia 
ranges from north latitude 30 to 25 ! His divisions as recognized in 
the text are still more arbitrary and unphilosophic. 

Mr. Wallace, in his discussion of zoological regions, says, " The dis- 
tinction between the characteristic forms .of life in tropical and cold 
countries is, on the whole, very strongly marked in the northern hemi- 
sphere j and to refuse to recognize this in a subdivision of the earth 
which is established for the very purpose of expressing such contrasts 
more clearly and concisely than by ordinary geographical terminology, 
would be both illogical and inconvenient. The one question then re- 
mains, whether the Nearctic region should be kept separate or whether 
it should form part of the PalaBarctic or of the Neotropical. Professor 
Huxley and Mr. Blyth advocate the former course ; Mr. Andrew Murray 
(for mammalia) and Professor Newton (for birds) think the latter would 
be more natural. No doubt," Mr. Wallace adds, u much is to be said 
for both views," but decides in favor of the separation of the two regions 
in accordance with Dr. Sclater's scheme.* 

While Mr. Blyth includes North America in his " Boreal Kegion" (as 
" 2. Neo-septentrional Sub-region"), he adds also Central America and 
the Antilles (as U 3. $"eo- meridional Sub-region"), and, still more 
strangely, the Andean Region, with Chili, Patagonia, and the Fuegian 
and Falkland Archipelagos (as "4. Andesian Sub-region").! 

Professor Huxley, in writing of the primary ontological regions of the 
globe, thus observes : " In a well known and very valuable essay on the 
Geographical Distribution of Birds, Dr. Sclater divides the surface of 
the globe primarily into an eastern and a western area, which he terms 
respectively Palccogcea and Neogcea. However, if we take into considera- 
tion not merely the minor differences on which the species and genera 
of birds and mammals are often based, but weigh the morphological 
value of groups, I think it becomes clear that the Nearctic province is 
really far more closely allied with the Palsearctic than with the Neotrop- 
ical region, and that the inhabitants of the Indian and Ethiopian 
regions are much more nearly connected with one another and with 
those of the Palsearetic region than they are with those of Australia. 
And if the frontier line is latitudinal rather than longitudinal, and di- 
vides a north world from a south world, we must speak of Arctogcca 
and Notoycm rather than of Neogsea and PalseogaBa as the primary dis- 
tributional arese. The secondary divisions, or geographical provinces, 
proposed by Dr. Sclater, answer, in great measure, to those which are 
suggested by the distribution of the A lector omorphce except that, in 
common with many other naturalists, I think it would be convenient to 
recognize a circumpolar province, as distinct from the Nearctic and 

* Geogr. Dist. Anirn., vol. i, pp. 65, 66. 
t Nature, vol. iii, p. 427, March 30, 1871. 


Palaearctic regions.'-'* Professor Huxley -thus emphatically recognizes 
a region equivalent to my North Temperate Kealm. 

Mr. Robert Brown, in writing of the distribution of the mammals of 
Greenland, also recognizes a North Temperate Region, which he divides 
into a European Temperate Province and a North American Temperate 
Province, from which he separates a Circumpolar Region, equivalent to 
the Arctic Realm above characterized^ 

Dr. Gill, in regard to fishes, recognizes an "AretogaBan" region, "em- 
bracing Europe, Northern Asia, and Northern America", as distinct on 
the one hand from the American Tropical and Transtropical Region, 
and on the other from Tropical Asia and Africa.J 

Dr. Packard, in discussing the distribution of the Phala3nid Moths, 
recognizes both an Arctic Realm and a North Temperate Realm, as here 
characterized. Referring to a previously given table of subalpine and 
circumpolar species, he says, "This table indicates how wide are the 
limits of distribution of these species, and it will be seen how import- 
ant it is to follow circumpolar and north- temperate insect-faunae around 
the globe, from continent to continent. It will be then seen how inade- 
quate must be our views regarding the geographical distribution of the 
animals and plants of our own continent, without specimens from similar 
regions in the same zones in the Old World. It will be found that for 
the study of the insect-fauna of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific coast 
we must have ample collections from the Ural and Altai Mountains and 
surrounding plateaus," etc. 

Dr. August von Pelzeln also recognized a circurnboreal region (" ark- 
tische Region"), and considers the "Nearctic" and "Palsearctic" as form- 
ing inseparable parts of a single region. He says : u Die paliiarktische 
Region scheint inir von der nearktischen nicht trennbar zu sein, son- 
dern beide diirften ein Ganzes bilden, welches man als arktische Region 
bezeichnen konnte. Ihre Zusammengehorigkeit tritt mit voller Evidenz 
in den hochnordischen Landern des alten und neuen Contineutes hervor 
und erst in niedereren Breiteu macht sich die Differenzirung geltend. 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1808, pp. 314,315. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 337, 338. 

t Says Dr. Gill : " In fine, dividing the earth into regions distinguished by general 
ichthyological peculiarities, several primary combinations maybe recognized, viz. : 1, 
an Arctogcean, embracing Europe, Northern Asia, and Northern America; 2, an Asiatic, 
embracing the tropical portions of the continent ; 3, African, limited to the region south 
and east of the Desert ; 4, an American (embracing the America par excellence dedicated 
to Amerigo Vespucci), including the tropical and transtropical portions ; and, 5, an 
Australasian. Further, of these (a) the first two [Arctogsean and Asiatic] have inti- 
mate relations to each other, and (&) the last three others among themselves ; and some 
weighty arguments may be adduced to support a division of the faunas of the globe 
into two primary regions coinciding with the two combinations alluded to (a) a Cce- 
nogcea and (&) an Eogcea, which might represent areas of derivation or gain from more 
or less distant geological epochs." Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. xv, 1875, 
pp. 254, 255. 

Monograph of Geometrid Moths, or Phalamidae, of the United States, pp. 567, 586, 


Die Vergleichung der Thierwelt beider Gontinente zeigt natnlich, dass 
die circumpolare Fauna in beiden dieselbe ist, dass in der Ifachgebirgs- 
fauna nocb bedeutendeTJebereinstimmung herrscht, dass in der iibrigen 
palao- und neoborealen Thierbevolkeruug sowohl identische Arten als 
gemeinsarn eigenthiimliche Gattungen sich finden, endlich dass selbst 
jene Typen, welche jedem Contineute eigentbiimlich sind, doch eine ge- 
wisse Uebereinstimmung hinsicbtlicb des Charakters der Fauna an sich 
tragen, so dass sie einander naher steben als Angehorigen anderer Re- 
gionen. In der neuen Welt ist eine Modification der Fauna auch durcb 
dasEindringen neotropischer Formen gegeben."* He further also calls 
attention to the similarity of life which prevailed throughout this cir- 
cumpolar region during the Quaternary period. 

It is unnecessary to cite further, from the abundant material at hand, 
the opinions of specialists in reference to the propriety of recognizing a 
North Temperate Realm, as distinguished from the tropical regions of 
the globe, and in contradistinction from a north and south line of divi- 
sion of the North Temperate Zone into two primary (" False arctic 77 and 
"Nearctic") regions. 

The chief differences between Dr. Sclater's division of the northern 
hemisphere and the present consist in setting off at the northward an 
Arctic Realm, the union of the so-called Nearctic and Palsearctic Regions 
into one circumpolar belt, and in the adoption for the same of a more 
northern limit than that proposed as the boundary of the two above- 
named Sclaterian regions. As will be shown later, the subdivisions of 
the North Temperate Realm or ("Arctogcea ") as here defined agree in 
the main with the "subregions" of Sclater and Wallace. The more 
northward location of the southern boundary of the North Temperate 
Realm in North America results in the elimination of several character- 
istic tropical types, which extend a short way only into Dr. Sclater's 
Nearctic and Palsearctic Regions, and which, when considered as mem- 
bers of these regions, give false or misleading results when the two re- 
gions are contrasted on a numerical basis, grounded on the proportion 
of peculiar types, numerous forms being thus reckoned as components 
of the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions which are properly tropical. 

In North America, the division between characteristic temperate and 
tropical forms of life approximately coincides with the isotherm of 68 
F., or -somewhere between 68 and 70 F. This line begins on the At- 
lantic coast a little below the northern boundary of Florida, and runs 
thence westward along the Gulf coast to Southern Texas, and thence 
farther westward to the Pacific, not far from the international bound- 
ary between the United States and Mexico, swerving more or less north- 
ward or southward in accordance with the configuration and elevation 
of the land-surface. It thus leaves the greater part of the peninsula of 
Florida within the American Tropical Realm, to which the fauna of its 

* Verhaudl. der K. K. Zool.-Bot, Gesell. in Wien, BU. xxv, 1876, pp. 50, 51; see also 
p. G2. 


southern half is certainly closely allied. A portion of the Mexican high- 
lands are undoubtedly to be included in the North Temperate Realm, 
but their fauna is too little known to admit of the boundary being at 
present definitely drawn. 

On the other hand, the lower portion of the Great Colorado Valley 
and the coast region of Southern California are, perhaps, better refer- 
able to the American Tropical Realm than to the North Temperate. At 
the junction of the two realms, there must be a belt of debatable or 
doubtful ground. The approximate boundary I would place near the 
northern limit of distribution of such mammalian forms as Nasua, Dicotyles, 
Manatus, Dasypus, and the tropical species of Felis (as, F. onca, F. par- 
dalis, F. eyra, and F. yaguarundi). This boundary also coincides quite 
nearly with the southern limit of distribution of the Lynxes, the Gray and 
Prairie Wolves, the Common Fox, the Mink, the Black and Grizzly Bears, 
the Wapati and Virginian Deer, the Bison, the Pronghorn, the Beaver, 
Prairie Dogs, Muskrat, the Arvicolce, and the Moles (Scalops and Condy- 
lura). Bassaris is properly tropical, although straggling considerably far- 
ther northward than the other above-mentioned forms. Florida, for con- 
venience, might be allowed to stand as a portion of the North Temperate 
Realm, although, as I have previously shown, it forms a distinct fauna, 
with strongly tropical affinities,* it having not less than twelve character- 
istically tropical genera of birds, several tropical genera of mammals 
(notably the Manatee and several Bats), and also several tropical genera 
of Reptiles and Batrachians, none of which range much, if any, to the 
northward of its southern half. 

The southern boundary of the North Temperate Realm in the Old 
World may be doubtless approximately drawn near the same isotherm 
(about the mean annuals of 68 to 70 F.). This coincides closely with 
the southern boundary of the so-called Palsearctic Region. There is* 
however, here a broader belt of debatable or transitional ground than 
in the New World, into which so many tropical forms extend that it 
becomes almost a question whether the boundary between Tropical and 
Temperate life should not be carried considerably more to the northward, 
so as to leave Mr. Wallace's " sub-regions" 2 and 4 (Mediterranean and 
Manchurian) in the Tropical Realm rather than in the North Temperate. 
Despite, however, the presence of a considerable number of tropical 
genera in these regions, the North Temperate forms still greatly pre- 
dominate. In the Western or " Mediterranean" district, for instance, we 
have species of Macacus, one of which even reaches the Spanish Penin- 
sula. Herpestes has a similar northward extension. Hyaena and Hystrix 
range not only over most of this district, but also over the greater part 
of the Manchurian, where we again find a species of Macacus, and meet 
with Semnopithecus, while Hyrax just enters the Mediterranean from the 
southward. On the western border of the Manchurian we get also Pte- 
ropine Bats, and species of Equidce, straggling remnants of the more 

* Bull. Mus. Zoo!., vol. ii, pp. 301, 392. 


northward extension of tropical life which inhabited this region dur- 
ing the middle and later portions of the Tertiary Period and in the 

Divisions of the North Temperate Realm. The North Temperate 
Eealm is primarily divisible in two directions, giving in each two re- 
gions, namely, (1) by a longitudinal division into (a) a North American 
Region and (6) a Europceo- Asiatic Region; and (2) latitudinally, into 
(a) a Cold Temperate and (&) a Warm Temperate Region. The Cold 
Temperate, if limited on both continents by the isotherm of 36 F., 
presents a nearly uniform fauna throughout, its southern limit in both 
corresponding with the natural (that is, before modified by human 
agency) southern limit of distribution of Tarandus and Alces. While 
there is at this point in North America a well-marked transition in the 
fauna, the change in Europe and Asia appears to be less marked, the* 
first important transition in the Old World being much farther south- 
ward, even as low almost as the isotherm of 60 F. Hence the divisions 
of the Temperate Realm in the Old World partake of the nature of 
temperate and subtropical rather than cold-temperate and warm-tem- 
perate. Here, in consequence of the great elevation and extent of the 
Himalayan Plateau, the northern or temperate division is greatly nar- 
rowed in Central Asia, where it becomes, according to Mr. Wallace, 
almost wholly separated info two quite widely detached regions, namely, 
the u Mediterranean " and " Mauchurian Subregions n . 

As thus divided, the temperate and subtropical divisions of the Old 
World are very strongly marked. The latter consists mainly bf North- 
ern Africa, Asia Minor, Persia, Afghanistan and Beloochistan, North- 
ern China, and Manchuria, with barely a narrow belt along the Medi- 
terranean coast of Europe and the Spanish Peninsula. As already 
stated, it is strongly tinged with tropical forms. While there is a 
general prevalence of temperate types, we meet also with the large and 
essentially tropical forms of Felis, several Monkeys, several species of 
Viverridce, Hycena, ffystrix, Equus, and other distinctively tropical or 
subtropical types. The northern or temperate division of the Europseo- 
Asiatic Region seems to constitute two well-marked provinces, the one 
Eastern or European, the other Western or Asiatic. The former cor- 
responds with Mr. Wallace's " European Subregion ", exclusive of its 
northern third; the latter with his "Siberian Subregion", exclusive 
likewise of its boreal portion. For the southern or subtropical division 
I adopt the subdivisions proposed by Mr. Wallace, with, for the present, 
the boundaries he has assigned them, namely, a Western or Mediter- 
ranean Province and an Eastern or Manchurian Province. These two 
provinces, as already noted, are quite widely separated, in conse- 
quence of the southward extension of the cold-temperate fauna over 
the Thibetan plateau to the Himalayas. The fauna of the Thibetan 
plateau is said by Mr. Blandford to be " essentially Boreal, Alpine and 
even Arctic types prevailing, the country having in many parts a cli- 


mate scarcely equalled elsewhere for intensity of cold out of the Arctic 
Regions. This high barren tableland extends from Afghanistan to Yu- 
nau 5 it comprises the drainage-areas of the Upper Indus and the Sanpu, 
and is bounded on the north in its western portion by the Kuenluen 
range, but it is less defined and its boundaries less accurately known to 
the eastward, although much light has been thrown upon the subject 
by Prejewalski's explorations".* In the " List of Mammalia known to 
inhabit the Thibetan Plateau", given by Mr. Blaudford, the only distinct- 
ively southern genus is Equus, The only peculiar genus is Poephagus, 
but the list is evidently quite incomplete, tbe only Bat given being a 
species of Plecotus, and the only Insectivore a species of "Crocidura". 
Budorcasj usually attributed to Thibet, is excluded, and several other 
genera, as Nectogale, Uropsilus, and JEluropus, currently given as pecu- 
liar to the Thibet plateau, are not mentioned. While the Thibetan plains 
belong certainly to the colder division, so many types mainly restricted 
to this region occur that the question arises whether it may not be 
proper to recognize the region as a Thibetian Province of the Temperate 

North American Region. The North American Region has been divided 
by Professor Baird into three "provinces", termed respectively "East- 
ern", "Middle", and "Western". Though not co-ordinate in point of 
differentiation with the divisions of the Europa30- Asiatic Region above 
recognized as provinces, they nevertheless possess distinctive features 
and form natural regions. They are of course far smaller in area, and 
possess a'much smaller number of genera, but have about the same pro- 
portion of peculiar generic and subgenqric types. 

In the subjoined tables an attempt is made to give lists of the genera 
of the two primary divisions of the North Temperate Realm, with 
approximate indications of their distribution in the various subdivisions 
of the two regions.! 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, pp. 632, 633. 

t In these lists, as elsewhere in the tabulated lists given in this paper, it is not 
assumed that the groups adopted as "genera" are always of co-ordinate value. The 
equation attempted is doubtless open in many cases to criticism. While the attempt 
is made to assume an intermediate position between undue conservatism and excessive 
multiplication in respect to groups assumed by different writers as " generic ", the lists 
can of course be considered only as provisional. Again, it is occasionally difficult to 
decide whether certain genera should be assigned, even in a general way, to one of the 
faunal divisions rather than to another. However defective the result, the intent has 
of course been to give a fair presentation of the facts of distribution. 


Genera of the North American Region. 
[MOTB. Tlio names of circumpolar genera are in italics ; those of genera peculiar to tho region, In 






Warra Temperate. 






















+ ? 
+ ? 

+ ? 


4- ' 
















, 4- 
















Vulpes .... 




TAXIDEA . ...... 

pjioca .... 

E time topi as 




MAZAMA . .... 







Nycticejus . ... 











Genera of the Forth American Region Continued. 




Cold Temperate. 

Warm Temperate. 






















. + 








Tamicis . .... 

Spwtnophilus ............ 



!Neotonaa . .. 


























Lctgomys . . 



Whole number of genera 72 

Peculiar to the region 23 

Circumpolar 32 

Of general distribution throughout the region _ 26 

Occurring in the Cold Temperate Subregion 47 

Occurring in the Warm Temperate Subregion 53-56 

Land genera represented in the Eastern Province 47 

Genera represented in the Middle Province 51 

Land genera represented in the Western Province 48 

Land genera restricted to the Eastern Province *6 

Genera common to the Middle and Western Provinces not represented in the 

Eastern Province 8 

Genera restricted to the Middle Province 2 

Land genera restricted to the Western Province t3 

Maritime genera restricted to the Eastern Province 5 

Maritime genera restricted to the Western Province 5 

Maritime genera occurring in both Eastern and Western Provinces 1 

Plus 5 maritime = 11. 

t Plus 5 maritime = 7. 


Europwo- Asiatic Region. The Europaeo-Asiatic Eegion embraces a far 
greater (about four times greater) area than the North American, and is 
physically much more highly diversified. It is similarly divisible into 
a Cold Temperate Subregion and a Warm Temperate Subregion, and is 
further differentiated into a number of well-marked provinces, two of 
which belong to the Cold Temperate Subregion, and three or more to 
the Warm Temperate Subregion.* 

Genera of the Europao- Asiatic Region. 

[NOTE. A few almost exclusively tropical genera, -which barely reach or doubtfully extend a short 
distance over the southern boundary of the region, are omitted as being not properly faunal elements 
of the region. 

The names of circumpolar genera are in italics ; those of genera peculiar to the region in SMALL CAPI- 




Cold Temperate. 

Warm Temper- 

Western Temper- 

"Eastern Temper- 

































-f- ' 





















* I am far from sure that what is here recognized as the " Mediterranean Province'" 
should not be subdivided, and the Easterner Persian division recognized as a "Persian 
Province". If the Eastern, Middle, and Western divisions of the North American Ee- 
gion are to be accorded the rank of " Provinces ", it may be necessary to admit, on similar 
grounds, a "Japanese Province"; but I am not at present prepared to adopt these 
divisions as "Provinces". To make the Provinces of the North American and 
EuropaBo-Asiatic Regions more nearly co-ordinate, I should prefer to unite the Middle 
and Western Provinces of the North American Region 'as forming a single Province. 
In fact, it seems doubtful whether the North American Region is differentiated into 
primary divisions that should be regarded as having co-ordinate rank with the Medi- 
terranean and Manchurian divisions of the Europseo- Asiatic Region. 


Genera of the Europceo- Asiatic Region Continued. 




Cold Temperate. 



"Western Tem- 



^ ft 












4- - 






. 4- 























... 4- 


















+ ? 













Erignaihus . .. 
























Capra .... 


Ammotratnis .... 



Khinolophus ' . 



Vespentgo , 






Erinaceus ... t 


Genera of the Europao- Axial ic Region Continued. 




Cold Temperate. 

"Warm Temper- 

Western Tem- 


i i 





+ ? 









+ ? 













% + 

+ ? 












~r ? 

+ ? 



















MftfioTies . 

























' + 














Stiurus . . 








' Levus 


Whole number of genera 

Peculiar to the region 


Of general distribution throughout the region 

Occurring in the Cold Temperate Subregion 

Occurring in the Warm Temperate Subregion 

Genera occurring in the Western Temperate (European) Province 



Genera occurring in the Eastern Temperate (Asiatic) Province 46 

Genera of the Mediterranean Province 60 

Genera of the Manchurian Province 65 

Genera common to the Eastern and Western Temperate Province 38 

Genera common to the Mediterranean and Manchurian Province 50 

Maritime genera of the Asiatic coast 8 

Maritime genera of the European coast 6 

Maritime genera common to both European and Asiatic coasts 3 

In comparing the North American Region with the Europseo-Asiatic 
Eegion, the following resemblances and differences become apparent : 1. 
The number of genera in the Europseo- Asiatic Eegiou is rather more 
than ona-fourth greater than in the North American Eegion, with conse- 
quently a smaller proportion of circumpolar genera. 2. But this differ- 
ence results almost wholly from the greater preponderance of peculiar 
types in the Southern Subregion, due evidently to the immensely greater 
extent and greater physical diversity of this portion of the Europseo- 
Asiatic Eegion as compared with the corresponding portion of the North 
American Eegiou. 3. While the colder portions of the two regions have 
each about the same number of genera, which are in great part (nearly 
two-thirds) common to the two regions, the Warm Temperate (really 
Subtropical) Subregion of the Europseo- Asiatic Eegion has a far greater 
number of genera that do not extend to the northward of it than 
has the Warm Temperate Subregion of the North American Eegion, 
while a small proportion only (chiefly arctopolitan and subtropicopoii- 
tan) are common to the two subregions. Hence, 4. The two regions 
(Europa30-Asiatic and North American) are mainly differentiated (as 
already noticed) through the presence of genera limited to their south- 
ern subregions. 


The American Tropical Eealm is approximately bounded by the 
northern and southern mean annuals of 70 P. Its northern bound- 
ary has been already indicated in denning the southern limit of the 
North Temperate Eealm, it being concurrent with the southern 
boundary of the North American Temperate Eegion. The southern 
boundary of the American Tropical /Eealm leaves the Atlantic coast 
near the thirtieth degree of south latitude, or near the southern extrem- 
ity of Brazil, but in passing from the coast sweeps rapidly northward 
till it nearly or quite reaches the Tropic of Ca.pricorn in Northeastern 
Buenos Ayresj it then bends to the southward and continues westward 
to the eastern base of the Andes. The Andean chain forms its western 
limit thence northward to Ecuador, where it crosses the Andean high- 
lands and is again deflected southward, thus including a narrow belt 
of the coast region west of the Andes in Northwestern Peru. 

As thus defined, the southern border of the American Tropical Eealm 
is nearly coincident with the southern boundary of the " Brazilian 


Region" as mapped by Mr. Wallace,* Brazil, nearly all of Paraguay, 
and Bolivia east of the Andes being included within this realm. 

Its characteristic genera include all of the American Quadrumanes 
(families Cebidce and Mididcc,=Hapalidce of most authors), all the Ameri- 
can Edentates, and nine-tenths of the American Marsupials. It is also 
the home of nearly all the American Felidce, except the Lynxes. It also 
has many peculiar genera of Glires and Chiroptera, while it almost alto- 
gether lacks the characteristic forms of mammalian life found in the 
northern temperate regions. Among the characteristic North American 
types unrepresented in the American Tropical Realm are, among Car* 
nivores, not only the Lynxes, but the true Wolves and Foxes, the Mar- 
tens, Wolverenes, Badgers, and Bears ; among Ungulates, the Prong- 
horn, the Bison, Mountain Sheep, and Mountain Goat, and several 
important genera of the Cervidce ; among Rodents, the Spermophiles, 
Marmots, Muskrat, Beaver, Pouched Eats, "Gophers" (Geomys and 
Thomomys), the numerous species QfArvicola, etc., in short almost all of 
the prominent and characteristic genera of the order except the almost 
cosmopolitan genera Lepus and Sciurus; among Insectivores, all the 
Moles and Shrews, except a few forms of the latter, which extend over 
most of the Central American Region. 

The American Tropical Realm is divisible into three regions, the 
Autillean, the Central American, and the Brazilian. The Antillean Re- 
gion includes only the West Indies and the southern extremity of Flor- 
ida. The Central American Region embraces Mexico (exclusive of the 
elevated tablelands), the whole of Central America, and the extreme 
northern parts of South America (Venezuela north of the Orinoco Basin, 
Northern and Western New Granada, and most or all of that portion of 
Ecuador west of the Andes). The Brazilian Region comprises all the 
intertropical parts of South America not embraced in the Central Amer- 
ican Region, including the whole area east of the Andes southward to 
the boundary already given. 

Central American Eegion. Of the genera occurring in the Central 
American Region (see subjoined table), only about one-ninth can be 
considered as peculiar to the region ; about one-sixth are either sub- 
cosmopolitan or tropicopolitau ; about three-fifths range also over the 
Brazilian Region, and a few over nearly all of South America ; about one- 
half extend far into North America, among which are several that are 
also common to the greater part of the North Temperate Realm, while 
about one-eleventh are also found over most of both North America 
and South America. Aside from the few peculiar genera, the fauna is 
composed largely of genera common also to the Brazilian Region, which 
find their northern limit of distribution within the Central American 
Region, plus a very large proportion that extend southward from the 
North American Temperate Region, and which find their southern limit 
of distribution within the region under consideration. . Its distinctive 

* Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. ii> map facing page 3. 
Bull. iv. No. 2 3 



feature is hence an approximately equal blending of temperate and 
tropical forms, whose respective habitats here overlap. Many of the 
northern forms do not quite reach the southern limit of the region, just 
as many of the southern forms do not quite reach its northern limit. It 
is distinguished from the North American Temperate Region by the 
preponderance of tropical life, and from the Brazilian Region by the 
copious intermingling therewith of northern forms, an element wholly 
lacking in the Brazilian Region. 

Genera of the Central American Region. 

Mainly or wholly 
restricted to the 

Ranging also over much of the Brazilian Region. 





Arc topi the cus. 
t Didelphys. 

Hanging also over much of the North 
American Temperate Region. 


Subcosmopolitan . 


Sperm ophilus. 




* Also West African. J Also nearly all of both North and South America, 
t Also warmer parts of North America. Arctopolitan. 


Whole number of genera 63 

Peculiar or mainly limited to the region , 6 

Occurring also over most of the Brazilian Eegion 40 

Occurring also over much of the North American Region 24 

Occurring also over moat of both North and South America, but not in the Old 

World .' 5 

Subcosmopolitan 8 

Tropicopolitan .--- 2 

Antillean Region. The Antillean Region differs from both the Cen- 
tral American and Brazilian most strongly in negative characters 
through what it lacks rather than in what it has although it pos- 
sesses a number of peculiar genera. The Chiroptera form two-thirds of 
the genera and not less than five-sixths of the species. Of the eight 
peculiar genera, five are Bats, the others being Solenodon (the only In- 
sectivore), Capromys, and the closely allied Plagiodonta, which together 


constitute a family peculiar to the region. Two orders Primates and 
Bruta highly characteristic of the Central American and Brazilian 
regions, are wholly absent. There are also no Ungulates, very few Car- 
nivores, and very few^ Eodents; the latter, however, are of mostly 
peculiar species, as are many of the Bats. The single Insectivore is of 
a remarkable type, which finds its nearest ally in the remote island 
of Madagascar, the ordinary Insectivores of the neighboring Central 
American and North American Eegions being wholly unrepresented. 

Genera of the Anlillean Region. 

Peculiar to the region. 

Tropical American. 

























* Hesperomys 








Brazilian Region. Of about 'ninety commonly recognized genera, a 
little less than one-third may be considered as either wholly or mainly 
restricted to the region; a little less than another third range to the 
northward over much of the Central American Eegion, and may be 
considered as characteristic of the American Tropical Eealm at large 
rather than of the Brazilian Eegion. About one-tenth of the remain- 
ing genera occur also over a large part of the Central American Eegion, 
while the remainder are divided about equally between tropicopolitan 
and cosmopolitan genera, and those that range southward over the 
South American Temperate Kealm. One genus is also East Indian and 
another African, while quite a number range throughout the temperate 
and tropical parts of both Americas, and a few others over Temperate 
South America. 

It is eminently characterized by its dozen genera of Monkeys, which, 
excepting a few that range into the Central American Eegion, are 
restricted wholly to this region j also by twelve to fifteen genera of Bats, 
which are scarcely found beyond its borders ; nearly as many genera of 
Eodents, and quite a number of peculiar genera of other groups. Neg- 
atively it is characterized by the absence of Insectivores, the great bulk 
of the northern types of Carnivores, Ungulates, and Eodents. Its sole 
affinity with the life of the North Temperate Eealm consists in the pres- 
ence of a few such wide-ranging (cosmopolitan) genera as Fells, Sciurus, 
LepuSj Vespertilio, etc., and two other genera (Procyon and Diddpliyx) 
that range far into North America. 

It is susceptible of division into several provinces, upon the detailed 

* Dr. Coues gives Hesperomys (Oryzomys) palustris as Jamaican. Hon. N. Am. Rod., 
116, foot-note. 



consideration of wbich it is not proposed at present to enter. These 
are the Upper Amazonian Province, embracing the region drained by 
the Upper Amazon and its principal tributaries (Western Brazil and 
those portions of Peru and Bolivia east of the ^ndes) ; the Lower Ama- 
zonian Province, embracing the Lower Amazonian and Orinoco Basins ; 
and the Southeast Brazilian Province, embracing Southeastern Brazil 
and Paraguay. They are characterized by the occurrence of numerous 
peculiar species rather than by peculiar genera. The genus Lagotlirix 
appears to be confined, however, to the Upper Amazonian Province, 
Chrysotlirix to the Lower Amazonian, and Brachyteles to the Southeast 
Brazilian, where occur also Icticyon, Thous, Lycolepex, etc., not found in 
the other regions, but ranging thence southward to Patagonia. 

Genera of the Brazilian Region. 

Mainly confined to the Brazilian Region. 

Lagothrix. . Pteronura. 



Eriodes. *Tapirus. 



Pithecia. Macrophyllum. 







Nyctipithecns. Saccopteryx. 



Cheropotes. Diphylla. 



Midas. Habrothrix. 


. Chironectes. 




Tropical America generally. 
































Didelphy 8 . 










Extending also over Temperate South America. 

Subcosmopolitan and tropicopolitan. 



















* Also East Indian. J Also Temperate South America, 
t Also West African. $ Also North American. 



Whole number of genera ^ 90 

Mainly restricted to the region 31 

Of general distribution throughout the American Tropical Realm 41 

Occurring alao over much o^the South American Temper.ate Realm 9 

Occurring also in the warmer parts of the North Temperate Region 6 

Tropicopolitan '. 3 

Cosmopolitan 6 


What is here termed the South American Temperate Bealin embraces 
all that portion of the South American continent and adjacent islands 
not included in the American Tropical Kealm as already defined. It 
coincides very nearly with Mr. Wallace's " South Temperate America 
or Chilian Subregion ".* Its northern limit on the Atlantic coast is 
near the thirtieth parallel. On leaving the Atlantic coast, the north- 
ern boundary passes obliquely northwestward, rising in the region of the 
Chaco Desert, to, or possibly a little beyond, the Tropic of Capricorn. 
Again descending to about the twenty-fifth parallel, it turns abruptly 
northward and eastward, along the eastern border of the Andean 
chain, nearly to the fifth degree of south latitude, near which point it 
strikes the Pacific coast. It thus embraces a large part of the great 
Andean plateau, with the neighboring coast region to the westward, 
nearly all the La Plata plains, and the region thence southward to 
Tierra del Fuego, which belongs also to this region. 

As contrasted with the Tropical Eealm to the northward, it is charac- 
terized, in respect to mammals, by the absence of all Quadrumana and 
the paucity of Edentates and Marsupials, there being neither Sloths 
nor Anteaters, while only two or three species of Opossums barely ex- 
tend over its borders ; the absence of all genera of Leaf-nosed Bats, and 
of not less than a dozen important genera of Eodents, the Coatis, the 
Kinkajou, the Tapirs, and many other genera characteristic of the 
American tropics.t As noted by Mr. Wallace, it is further character- 
ized by the possession of the entire family of the Cliinchillidce, the gen- 
era Auchenia, Habrocomus, Spalacopus, Actodon, Ctenomys, DolicUotiSj 
Myopotamus, Chlamadophorus, to which may be added the marine gen- 
era Otaria, Arctocephalus, Morunga, Lobodon, and Stenorhynchus, very 
few of which range beyond the northern border of this region. The 
Spectacled Bear is also confined to it, and here are also most largely 
developed the Murine genera Calomys, Acodon, and Eeithrodon. 

Although one of the smallest of the primary regions, it is apparently 
divisible into two more or less well-marked provinces, which may be 

* Geog. Distr. Animals, vol. ii, p. 36, and map of the "Neotropical Region". 

tAmong the genera of the Brazilian Region here unrepresented are, aside from the 
Quadnitnana, Cercoleptes, Nasua, Tapirus, Bradypm, Chcclopus, Myrmecopliaga, Taman- 
dua, CyclotJiurus, Phyllostoma, Glossopliaga, Arctibeus, Dysopes (and other genera of Chi' 
roptera), Hydrochcems, Cercomys, Dactylomys, Loncheres, Echimya, Coelogenys, Dasyprocta, 
Chcetomys, Cercolabes, Lepus, Sciurus, Habrothrix, Oxymycterus, Holochilus, etc., = 27 -f-. 


respectively termed the Andean and Painpean. The Andean Prov- 
ince is principally characterized by the presence of Ursus (Tremarctus) 
ornatus, the genera Pudu, Furcifer, Tolypeutes, Chlamydophorus, Chin- 
chilla, IJagidium, SpalacopuSj Habrocomus^ and Octodon. Auchenia and 
several genera of Eodents range from the Andean Province south- 
ward over the plains of Patagonia to Tierra del Fuego. The Pata- 
gonian plains share largely in the general fades of the Andean fauna. 
A few genera only are restricted to the Pampeau Province, these being 
mainly Ctenomys, Lagostomus, and Dolichotis. The differences between 
these two provinces relate mainly to species rather than to genera. The 
Pampean Province is much the smaller, embracing only the compara- 
tively level pampa district bordering the La Plata and Lower Parana 
Rivers. So little is definitely known respecting the range of the mam- 
mals of this general region that it is scarcely practicable to attempt at 
present a definition of the boundaries between the Pampean and An- 
dean divisions. 

The relation of the South Temperate American to the Tropical Amer- 
ican Realm is of course far closer than to any other, there being as 
usual a gradual transition between the two along their line of junction, 
through the extension of a few forms characteristic of the one for a 
short distance into the other, just as has been observed to be the case 
between the North Temperate and Tropical American Realms. It has, 
however, nothing in common with the North Temperate American 
Realm beyond the presence of a few cosmopolite types that extend 
across the intermediate Tropical Realm. So far as land mammals are 
concerned, it has no genera common to the South Temperate portions 
of the Old World, except a few that are almost cosmopolite. The case 
is different, however, with the marine species. Of the half dozen or 
more genera of Pinnipeds (the only marine forms we are here called 
upon to consider), none are peculiar to the shores of Temperate South 
America but are common to South Temperate and Antarctic shores 
generally. None of them, however, occur north of the tropics,* and it 
is hence only through these that there is any closer affinity between 
the mammalian life of this region and the South Temperate Zone gen- 
erally than between it and that of north temperate latitudes. 

Of the thirty-four laud genera below enumerated as occurring in the 
South American Temperate Realm, rather more than one-half (eighteen) 
are nearly or wholly confined to it. Most of the remainder extend far 
to the northward into Tropical America, and others reach North Amer- 
ica, while five are almost cosmopolitan. 

* Otaria alone reaches the Galapagos, which,- although situated under the equator, 
are still within the influence of the cold Peruvian current, and appear to constitute an 
outlying element of the South American Temperate Realm. 

Genera of the South American Temperate Realm. 

Mainly or wholly limited to the region. 

Marine, and 
mainly Antarctic. 











































The Indo- African Realm consists mainly of Intertropical Africa and 
Intertropical Asia, to which it seems proper to add Extratropical South 
Africa. The small portion of Africa south of the Southern Tropic lies 
wholly within the warm-temperate zone. Its small extent and broad 
connection with Tropical Africa render its separation as a distinct realm 
(as I at one time rather hastily considered it) almost inadmissible, since 
it is especially open to the influence of the great intertropical African 
fauna, as is shown by the extension of many tropical forms down to 
within a few degrees of its southern extremity. The area really pos- 
sessing- a temperate climate is restricted to its extreme southern border, 
where alone appear the few generic and family types that do not have 
a very general range over the tropical portions of the continent. This 
area is many times smaller than the temperate portion of South 
America, but, though so small, has quite a number of peculiar genera, 
which impart to it quite distinctive features. It yet seems better to 
regard it as an appendage of the great Indo- African Eealm rather than 
as a distinct primary region. Madagascar, with the Mascarene Islands, 
on the other hand, while perhaps possessing a closer affinity with Africa 
than with any other continental region, has yet a fauna made up so 
largely of peculiar types that it seems more in accordance with the facts 
of distribution to regard it as a separate primary region. 

The Indo- African Realm, as thus restricted, forms a highly natural 
division. Although its two principal areas are quite widely separated, 
being in fact geographically almost wholly disassociated, they possess 
a wonderful degree of similarity. Of the fifty commonly recognized 
families of mammalia occurring within its limits, three-fifths are dis- 
tributed throughout almost its whole extent. Of the remainder, one- 
half are confined to Africa, and one is African and American, leaving 
only nine in India that are unrepresented in Africa .; three only of these 
latter are, however, peculiar to the Indian Region ; all extend beyond 
it to the northward, five of them even occurring over the greater part of 



the northern hemisphere. Thus the African Eegion is the more special- 
ized division, only a small portion of the tropical element in the Indian 
Eegion, through which it is differentiated from the great Europseo- 
Asiatic Temperate Eegion, being unrepresented in the African, while the 
African has three times as many peculiar families as the Indian.* As 
shown by the subjoined table, thirty of the fifty Indo-African families 
have a wide extralimital distribution, not less than one-fourth being 
emphatically cosmopolitan. 

Families of Mammals represented in the Indo-African Realm, arranged to show (approxi- 
mately) their distribution. 

Occurring in the 

Common to both 

Indian Region, 
bnt not in the 

Peculiar to the 
African Eegion. l 

Common to both regions. 

Eegions, and also 
of wide extra- 


limital range. 




1! Nycteridse. 


1 2Eluridse. 










{ Cervidse. 





t Camelidae. 














J Talpidse. 















1 The Trichechidce (= Manatidce) occur in Africa but not in India, but arA found also in the warmer 

parts of America. 

* Wholly restricted to the Indian Eegion. t Of wide extralimital range. 

t Mainly restricted to the Indian Eegion. Found also in Intertropical America. 

j| Chiefly African. 


Whole number 50 

Of general distributiqn throughout the realm 30 

Peculiar to the African Region ..". 10 

Peculiar to the Indian Region 3 

Occurring in the Indian Region, but not in the African ., 6 

Of wide extralimital range 16 

African Eegion. The African Eegion, as here recognized, is nearly 
equivalent to Mr. Wallace's "Ethiopian Eegion ", with the exclusion 

* Mr. Wallace has arrived at rather different conclusions respecting the specializa- 
tion of the African Region, since he considers its specialization due wholly to the 
peculiar forms developed in Madagascar. Deducting these for he considers Madagascar 
and its neighboring islands as forming a "subregion"merely of the " Palaeotropical" 
he believes would leave, in respect to specialization, the African and Indian Regions 
"nearly equal". In this comparison, however, I wholly exclude the Madagascan or 
" Lemurian" fauna, and still find Africa a considerably more specialized region. 


of his " Lemuriaii Subregion ". Its northern boundary will be pro- 
visionally considered as the northern mean annual of 70 F. 

As thus limited, the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula and the south- 
ern portion of the Great Sahara belong to it. But just how much of the 
latter belongs here, and how much to the Mediterranean Eegion, cannot 
at present be readily determined. As already noticed, it consists largely 
of transitional ground, and is as yet quite imperfectly known. It is to 
some extent, doubtless, also a barrier region; but that it is by no means 
an impassable obstacle is sufficiently shown by the large number of 
generic types of mammals that extend from the Indian Kegion as far south- 
ward even as the Cape of Good Hope. Even if it were an insurmount- 
able barrier, the comparatively humid and fertile eastern coast border 
would afford a sufficient highway of intercommunication between Trop- 
ical Asia and Tropical Africa, and the community of life of the two 
regions shows that for long ages there has been this open way of inter- 

The African Eegion, considering its great extent and its tropical 
climate, is to a great degree zoologically a unit, yet it is by no means 
homogeneous. At least, three subdivisions may be recognized, each of 
which is characterized by many peculiar genera. These subregious 
have already been characterized by Mr. Wallace under the names of 
Eastern, Western, and Southern. The Western (West African Province) 
consists of the humid, heavily wooded region of the west coast, extend- 
ing to a considerable, but at present not definitely determinate, dis- 
tance into the interior, but probably with boundaries nearly as drawn 
by Mr. Wallace.* The Eastern (East African Province) includes the 
remainder of Intertropical Africa, while to the Southern (South African 
Province) belongs the southern extratropical portion of the continent. 

Of these divisions, the Eastern contains the greatest number of genera, 
as it likewise contains by far the greatest area; but it is the least spe- 
cialized, only tiro -fifteenths of its genera being peculiar to it, while of the 
genera of each of the other regions about one-fourth are peculiar. Nearly 
one-half (about forty-four per cent.) of the genera of the Eastern Prov- 
ince have a more or less general distribution over the whole African 
Kegion, while only a little more than a third (thirty-three to thirty-eight 
per cent.) of the genera of the other province have a similarly wide range. 

A much larger proportion of Indian genera are represented in the 
Eastern and Southern Provinces than in the Western. This difference 
Is due to obvious conditions, the fertile belt of the Nile district and ad- 
joining coast forming an easy way of intercommunication between the 

* The conclusions and details here presented were worked out independently and de 
novo by the present writer. That they agree so closely with the views and results 
attained by Mr. Wallace, so far as Africa south of the Great Desert is concerned, is to 
me a source of gratification. In order to avoid unconscious bias I purposely avoided 
a detailed study of Mr. Wallace's writings on this subject till my own results were 
written out, and on then comparing my own conclusions with those reached by Mr. 
Wallace, became for the first time aware of their close agreement. 


two former not equally open to the Western Province. The Eastern and 
Southern Provinces further resemble each other in consisting largely of 
grassy plains, and in being, par excellence, the land of Antelopes. On 
the other hand, the Western Province, in consequence of its moist climate 
and dense forests, is the metropolis of the African Quadrumaues, to 
which region no less than six genera are restricted, and where all but one 
are represented, while only four occur in the Eastern, and merely a few 
outlying 'species reach the Southern. Hence the Eastern and Southern 
Provinces are far more closely allied than is either with the Western. 

Eastern Province. The East African Province or "Subregion" 
includes, as claimed by Mr. Wallace, not only East Africa proper, but 
also a considerable portion of the Great Sahara and the whole of the 
northern portion of Tropical South Africa, thus bounding the Western 
Province on three sides. In other words, it not only includes East Africa 
and Southern Arabia, but all of Tropical Africa, except the western 
portion, situated (speaking generally) between latitude 15 north and 
latitude about 22 south. As is well known, it consists mainly of a 
moderately elevated plateau, rising, in Abyssinia, into lofty mountains. 
It is generally an open region, u covered with a vegetation of high grasses 
or thorny shrubs, with scattered trees and isolated patches of forest 
in favorable situations. The only parts where extensive continuous 
forests occur are on the eastern and western slopes of the great Abys- 
sinian plateau, and on the Mozambique coast from Zanzibar to Sofala."* 
It is worthy of note that the species peculiar to the province occur 
almost exclusively in Mozambique, or in Abyssinia and adjoining por- 
tions of Northeast Africa, a few extending into the Arabian Peninsula. 

Of the ninety genera occurring in this province, ten, which are almost 
cosmopolite, may be considered as having too wide a range to possess 
any special significance. Of the remaining eighty, about one-fourth are 
found also in the Indian Eegion, leaving three-fourths (thirty-nine) as 
peculiarly African. Of these, twelve only are restricted to the Eastern 
Province, sixteen being common to the Southern Province, and ten to 
the Western. The subjoined tabular list indicates approximately the 
distribution of the genera of the Eastern Province. 

* Wallace, Geogr. Dist. Anim., vol. i, p. 250. 

Genera of the East African Province. 

Restricted to the 

Exclusively African, but occurring also in the other provinces. 


Colo bus. 



















t Petrodromus. 








i Saccostotnus. 




t Peleomyfi. 








t Heliophobius. 











, Occurring also in the Indian Region. 




























Acan thorny s. ' 














* Restricted to Abyssinia and Northeast Africa. t Restricted to Mozambique. 

I See Rolleston, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 2d ser., Zool., vol. i, pp. 256, 257, 1877. 

The Southern Province. The South African Province consists of only 
that small portion of the continent lying south of the Southern Tropic, 
and is hence situated wholly within the southern warm-temperate 
zone. In consequence of its configuration, its limited extension, and 
its geographical position in relation to Intertropical Africa, it could 
scarcely be expected to form more than an appendage of the inter- 
tropical zone, and such it proves really to be. Its area is equal to only 
about one- tenth of that of the Eastern Province, yet it has eight-ninths 
as many genera, fully two-thirds of which are common to the two. It 
hence presents to only a limited degree the features of a strictly tem- 
perate fauna, and these become prominent only over the narrow belt of 
country south of the mountain ranges forming the northern boundary 
of Cape Colony and Caffraria; but here even there is a strong invasion 
of essentially tropical forms. 

In general fades it differs little zoologically from the Eastern Province, 
of which it is merely a somewhat modified continuation. From its 
semi- temperate character it is less rich in Quadruinanes, but many 
other properly tropical types range nearly or quite to its southern bor- 



der. It has, however, about one-fourth more peculiar genera, divided 
about equally, and mainly between Carnivores and Eodents, four only 
being Antelopes, and one only (Chrysochloris) an Insectivore. Of the 
twenty -four genera common also to the Indian Eegion, one- third are 
Chiropters. The remaining genera are, with very few exceptions, such 
as occur also in the Eastern Province, only three or four being common 
to the Southern and Western Provinces that do not also occur in the 

Of the eighty-two genera below enumerated as occurring in the 
Southern Province, a considerable portion are restricted to its southern 
half, while many others extend only over its northern portions. A few 
others, white mainly restricted to this region, and eminently character- 
istic of it, also extend somewhat into the Eastern Province. 

Genera of the South African Province. 

Restricted to the 

Ranging into Tropical Africa. 

Occurring also in the Indian Region. 











































Bubal as. 








A sinus. 

































The Western Province. As already stated, the Western Province 
differs greatly in respect to its physical characteristics from either of 
the other provinces of the African Eegion, and has, in consequence, a 
correspondingly specialized mammalian fanna. It resembles the In- 
dian Eegion in its hot, damp climate and dense forests. And its fauna, 
though distinguished by many peculier genera, is also, in respect to its 
general fades, more like that of the Indian Eegion than is the fauna of 
any other portion of the African Eegion. It is similarly rich in the 
higher Quadrumanes and poor in Antelopes, while it shares with the 


Indian Eegion the possession of the Tragulidce. Its peculiar genera 
consist largely of Anthropoid Apes, found elsewhere only in India, but 
also includes several each of Carnivores Bats, and Eodents. It is pre- 
eminently the tropical province of the African Kegion. While it con- 
tains a smaller cumber of genera than either of the others, it has rela- 
tively a much larger number restricted to it, having eighteen peculiar 
genera out of a total number of seventy-five, while the Eastern Prov- 
ince, with ninety-one genera, has only twelve that are peculiar, and the 
Southern seventeen out of eighty-two. 

Genera of Hie West African Province. 

Restricted to the province. 

Restricted to the African Region. 







































Potain ochcer us. 





Occurring also in the Indian Region. 

































* Also American. 

General Summary. 

The number of genera represented in the African Eegion, and their 
range, is approximately as follows : 







Restricted to the African Region, but occurring more or less 













Indian Region. The Indian Eegion may be defined, in general terms, 
as consisting of Intertropical Asia. It hence embraces Continental India 


from the Lower Indus to the Formosa Straits, the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago, as well as Formosa, the Philippines, Celebes, and all of the 
Sunda Islands. As far as the mammalia are concerned, only two primary 
subdivisions, or provinces, seem to be recognizable, the one a Northern, 
or Continental, the other a Southern, or Insular ("Malayan"). The 
former, or Continental, includes nearly all of the Hiudostan and Indo- 
Chinese Peninsulas, excepting the extreme southern border of the latter 
and Malacca. These areas belong to the Insular Province, which com- 
prises not only Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, but all of the above-named 
smaller islands to the eastward, except Formosa, which pertains to the 
Continental Province. 

The long, narrow Malaccaii Peninsula is almost insular in position and 
character, and agrees far better, climatologically, and in its productions, 
with Borneo and Sumatra, than with the mainland to the northward, as 
does, in fact, the extreme coast border of the mainland, embracing Lower 
Cochin China, Cambodia, etc. The small outlying islands to the east- 
ward have nothing in common with the Australian Realm (if we exclude 
the wide-ranging Chiroptera and a few marine forms, which are, of all 
mammals, of least importance in a zoogeographical point of view), except 
the single Marsupial genus Cusvus occurring in Timor and Celebes, while 
no placental mammals except Sus, a few Muri :e genera, the Dugong, and 
Chiroptera, reach any portion of the Australian Realm. Malacca, Borneo, 
and Sumatra form the central and typical portion of the Insular or Malayan 
Province, being, from their larger area and closer proximity to each other 
and to the tropical mainland, far richer in genera and species than the 
smaller and more remote islands to the southward and eastward. Even 
Java has a less varied mammalian fauna than either Borneo or Sumatra, 
and thus differs from them negatively rather than by the possession of 
peculiar types. Thence eastward, throughout the Sunda Islands, the 
differences are almost wholly such as result from the small size and 
isolated position-of these insular areas, through a gradual disappearance 
of many types present in the larger islands. The Philippines, for simi- 
lar reasons, lack a large proportion of the genera found in the central 
portion of the province, while those they do possess, with few excep- 
tions, are such as are common to the larger areas. The few that are 
peculiar are Indian, rather than Australian, in their affinities. 

Celebes and Timor contain one strictly Australian genus (Cascus, rep- 
resented by several species), but the few other mammals found there 
are either Indian or possess strictly Indian or Indo-Africau affinities. 
Hence I fail to see any good reason for assigning Celebes and all the 
smaller Sunda Islands to the Papuan Province, as Mr. Wallace and others 
have done, but abundant evidence that such is not their real affinity. 
Even Mr. Wallace's own tables of distribution show at a glance the wide 
disassociation of these islands from the Papuan fauna, and their much 
nearer relation to the Indian, there being but one typically Australian 
or Papuan form represented in any of them, while none of the placental 


land mammals (excepting several subtropicopolitan genera of Bats and 
a few Muriform Rodents) are common to these islands and the Papuan- 
Australian division. The genera peculiar to the Philippines and Cele- 
bes (except Cuscus in the latter) have little if any more significance than 
the occurrence in Borneo and Sumatra of a few genera wholly restricted 
to one or the other of these last-named islands. 

Ceylon and the adjoining low-coast portions of the Hiudostan Penin- 
sula are more tropical in character than the plateau region to the north- 
ward. While a few genera are restricted to this small area, and many 
more species occur here that are not found to the northward, the differ- 
entiation seems hardly great enough to warrant the separation of these 
areas as a region of co-ordinate rank with the "Malayan' 7 . It hence 
seems to me that Mr, Wallace has teo emphatically recognized this com- 
paratively unimportant difference in making it the basis of a distinct 
subregion (termed by him the "Ceylonese Subregiou"). The only mam- 
malian genera peculiar to this division are a genus of Lemurs (Loris), 
three genera (or subgenera) of Herpestince (Calictis, Tceniogale, Onycho- 
gale), and a genus of Mice (Platacanthomys], each represented by a 
single species, and, so far as known, of limited distribution. 

Continental Province. As already intimated, the Continental Prov- 
ince includes nearly all of Hindostan and Indo-China, or the whole 
of the tropical portion of the Asiatic continent excepting Malacca and 
the southern portions of Tenasserirn, Siam, Cambodia, and Cochin China. 
It also extends into Southern China somewhat beyond the tropic (prob- 
ably to the divide between the Li-kiang and Yang-tse-kiang Rivers), 
and also to the southern slope of the Himalayas.* 

The plains of the Upper Indus appear, however, to belong to the 
Temperate Region to the northward, as does probably most of the coun- 
try northwest of Delhi. The greater part of the interior of the Llin- 
dostan Peninsula has a less tropical character and a less varied fauna 
than Bengal, Assam, and Burmah, situated under the same parallels. I 
cannot agree, however, with Messrs. Blyth, Blandford, and von Pelzeln,t 

*"On the southern slope of the Himalayas there is everywhere, until it has beeii 
cleared, luxuriant forest up to at least 12,000 feet above the sea, inhabited by a fanna 
which extends, without any great change of generic forms, throughout the Malay 
Peninsula and into the hill tracts of some at least of the Malay Islands." BLANDFORD, 
Proc. Zool. Son. Lond., 187G, p. 632. 

t Mr. Blyth makes " Hindostan proper, or the plains of Upper India east and south 
of the North West desert ; Dukhun, or tableland of the Peninsula of India, and the inter- 
vening territory, inclusive of the Vindhaiaii ghats ; Coromandel Coast and low northern 
half of Ceylon" a subregion of his "Ethiopian Region" (Nature, vol. iii, p. 428). 
Mr. Blandford holds that the "hills of Southern India with the Malabar Coast and 
Southern Ceylon form a province of the Malay region, whilst the greater portion of the 
Indian peninsula is African in its affinities " (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 632). Von 
Pelxeln considers India proper, from the Lower Brahmaputra Elver westward, a dis- 
tinct primary region, which he calls the " hindostauische Region". His "malayische 
Region" hence consists of Warm-temperate and Tropical Asia, minus the Hindostan 
Peninsula, to which he adds the Philippines, Borneo, Bali, Java, and Sumatra. It 
includes China as far as the Yang-tse-kiang River, and the Himalayan plateau from 


that the larger part of Hiiiclostan should be joined to the African Region 
rather than the Indian, since only a very few African genera occur here 
that do not also range far to the eastward, or almost throughout the 
Indian Region. According to von Pelzeln,* about one-third of the genera 
of the "hindostanischen Fauna n are peculiar to it, while it shares almost 
another third with Indo-China. The remaining third (fourteen genera) 
are common to the African Region, but all except four of them occur also 
more or less generally over the Indian Region. Of these, two (Hycena and 
"Ratelus" = Mellivora) scarcely reach the limits of the Indian Region 
as here defined. Among the genera given by him as peculiar are, how- 
ever, several that range beyond the Indian Peninsula. 

There is more reason for Mr. Wallace's separation of the Hindostan 
Peninsula from the Indo-Chinese portion of the Indian Region, and its 
subdivision into two "subregions" a northern "Hindostan Subregion" 
and a southern "Ceylonese Subregion". As already shown, the latter 
has a number of peculiar forms, while three or four genera are also 
peculiar to the Hindostau Peninsula at large. But the scale of division 
that would make the Hindostau Peninsula separable into two subregions 
would also require a somewhat similar subdivision of Indo-China, mak- 
ing four divisions of what I here term the Continental Province. While 
these divisions would have some natural basis, they are too detailed to 
come into the category of divisions for which I adopt the term " prov- 
ince w . 

Continental Province. The Continental Province, with the limitations 
here assumed, is nearly equivalent to Mr. Wallace's three "subregious", 
termed respectively "Hindostan", "Ceylonese", and "Indo-Chinese". 
Of about ninety-four genera represented in it, about two-thirds have a 
pretty general range throughout the province, while only about one- 
eighth are limited to the Hindostanese portion, including those already 
named as almost peculiar to Ceylon and the low coast region east of the 
Eastern Ghats. Excluding about a dozen that range over at least half 
the surface of the globe, one-third of the remainder (more than one- 
fourth of the whole) are common to the African Region ; more than one- 
half (almost one-half of the whole) are restricted to the Indian Region 
and a little more than one-fifth (about one-eighth of all) are peculiar 
to the province. This shows, as already noted in discussing the fauna 

Buriuah, Assam, and Bengal to the Kuenluen Mountains, thus embracing Nepal, Butau, 
and Thibet. It is divided into five subregions, the two northernmost of which belong 
mainly to the North Temperate Realm. (Festschrift z. Feier des fiinfundzwanzigjiib- 
rigen Bestehens d. K.-K. Zool.-Bot. Gesells. in Wien, 1876, pp. 53-74 u. Karte.) The 
fauna of the Thibetan plateau, as claimed by Mr. Blandford, being boreal and alpine, 
and having almost nothing in common with the tropical region to the southward, the 
artificial character of von Pelzeln's "subregions" is shown by his assuming the Yang- 
tse-kiang River to be a natural boundary between two primary regions, and his sepa- 
ration of Malacca from Sumatra and Borneo to form a part of his " hinter-indische 
Unterabtheilung", which thus consists of the whole of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula do wn 
to the very southern extremity of Malacca ! 

* Verhandl. d. K.-K. Zool.-Bot. Gesells. in Wien, xxv. Bd., p. 57, 1875. 


of the Iiido- African Kealm, how strong an affinity exists between the 
African and Indian Regions, two-fifths of all the genera of the Indian 
Region which have an extraliinital range occurring also in the African 
Eegion. The clos*e affinity of the two provinces of the Indian Eegion 
is shown by the fact that two-thirds of the peculiar Indian genera found 
in the Northern or Continental division range also into the Southern or 
Insular. As will be shown later, the Insular Province is the more 
highly specialized of the two divisions. 

Genera of the Continental Province. 

Restricted to the Indian Region. 

Restricted to the province. 

Occurring also in the Insular Province. 



3 Tetracerus. 














1 Tniogale. 
















1 Platycanthomys. 




3 Tragops. 




3 Portax. 




Of wide extralimital range. 

Ranging into the African Region. 

Ranging into the Europseo-Asiatic 

-r>_ ^^ >w% 




4 Miniopterns. 

5 Putorius. 

6 Sns. 




2 JElurus. 

6 Rhinolophus. 


, Aonyx. 







5 TJrsus. 






6 Sorex. 





6 Sciuropterus. 














4 Megaderma. 


5 0ervus. 








'Restricted to Ceylon and Southern Hindostan. 
Restricted to the northern part. 
3 Hindostan generally. 

4 Also tropics of America. 
s Whole northern hemisphere. 
6 Also African. 


Whole aumber .\ , 

Restricted to the Indian Region 

R'stricted (almost wholly) to the province 

Other genera ranging over most of the Indian Region and restricted to it 

Common to the African Region 

Common to portions of the Europaeo- Asiatic Region 

Ranging over most of the northern hemisphere 

Nearly cosmopolite 

JRestricted to Southern Hindostan and Ceylon 

Bull. iv. No. 2 4 



Insular or u Malayan n Province. The northern boundary of the 
Insular Province is not at present easily determinate, but it is quite 
evident that, as already stated, the southern maritime portions of 
Indo-China belong here rather than with the northern 'division of the In- 
dian Eegion. To the southward and eastward it embraces, as already 
explained, the Sunda Islands, the Philippines, and Celebes. Of the 
eighty-three genera occurring in it, twenty-five, or nearly one fourth, are 
peculiar, while twenty-seven others do not range beyond the Indian 
Province. Twenty of the remainder are properly Indo-African genera, 
while about a dozen others have a wide extralimital range, and about 
the same number have a very local range, the larger islands having 
each one or two peculiar genera. Aside iroin several tropicopolitan 
genera of Bats, and the wide-ranging genera Sus and Mus, only one 
genus is properly Australian, and this is a straggler that merely reaches 
Timor and Celebes. As would be expected, the larger central islands, 
together with Malacca and the mainland belt, possess the richest and 
most varied fauna, the smaller outlying islands presenting a paucity of 
types proportionate to their size and isolation. 

Timor, considering its close proximity to Australia, is remarkably 
free from Australian forms, presenting, in common with Celebes, the 
single Marsupial genus Cuscus. The distribution of the genera of this 
province is roughly indicated in the subjoined table. Notwithstanding 
its much smaller land-area, and the fact that it has ten less genera than 
the Continental Province, it has, as would be naturally expected, many 
more peculiar genera,* the ratio of peculiar genera in the one being as 
16 to 94, and in the other as 25 to 83. 

* Four, however, are peculiar only in regard to the Indian Region, they being simply 
wide-ranging tropical forms that are unrepresented in the Continental Province. 

Genera of the Insular Province, 

Restricted to the Indian Region. 

Restricted to the province. 

Ranging over much of the Continental 



6 Megserops. 




8 Harpyia. 







8 Cynopithecus. 





8 Emballonura. 








1 Ptilocerus. 


8 Pteropns. 

2 Cynogale. 



8 Macroglossus. 

6 Barangia. 

4 Phlseomys. . 


8 Harpiocephalns. 





* Anoa. 




6 Babirusa. 



9 Tapirus. 


A can th ion. 



Ranging inty> Africa and elsewhere. 







8 Scotophilns. 

. Cam's. 


8 Kerivonla. 



8 Miniopterus. 



8 Taphozons. 



8 Nyctinomue. 





8 Cynopterus. 



8 Cynonycteris. 







J Borneo only. 6 Sumatra only. 

2 Borneo and Sumatra. 7 Java only. 

a Philippines and Celebes. 'Tropics of the Old World gen- 

4 Philippines only. erally. 

* Celebes ; Cuscu* also in Timor and 9 Also American tropics. 

the Papnan region. 


Total number of genera 83 

Restricted to the province* 25 

Restricted to the Indian Region 1 52 

Found outside of the Indian Region in the African only 20 

Common to the African and Indian Regions <29 

Wide-ranging (exclusive of tropicopolitan) 12 

Of local distribution 12 

Restricted to Borneo 2 

Restricted to Borneo and Sumatra 1 

* Exclusive of several tropicopolitan genera not occurring elsewhere in the Indian 


.Restricted to Sumatra 2 

Restricted to Java L 

Restricted to the Philippines . 2 

Restricted to the Philippines and Celebes 1 

Occurring only in Celebes 2 

Nou -pi acental genera 1 


The Australian Realm will be here restricted so as to embrace none 
of the islands situated to the westward of the Moluccas. The Molucca 
Group forms a transitional link between the Indo- African and the Aus- 
tralian Realm, but they are faunally more closely allied to the latter than 
to the former. These islands embrace, excluding Chiroptera and species 
probably or known to have been introduced by man,'* only a single 
genus (Sorex) of Placental Mammals, while two genera of Papuan Mar- 
supials (Cuscus and Belideus) are abundantly represented. 

The Australian Realm, considered as a whole, is made up of very 
heterogeneous elements, its land-surface consisting of islands, many of 
them of small size and widely scattered. The mammals are almost 
wholly limited to its three larger constituents, Australia, Tasmania, and 
New Guinea, and a few of the larger islands in close proximity to them. 
Among the prominent types very generally represented throughout all 
of these areas are several wide-ranging (almost tropicopolitan) genera 
of Bats, which, in consequence of their wide geographical range, wholly 
fail to be distinctive, and may hence be safely ignored in the following- 
general analysis of the region. The marine species (the Dugong and 
various species of Seals) are likewise of small importance in the present 
connection, since they are all wide-ranging species, not properly charac- 
teristic of the region. After these eliminations, we have left a few 
genera of Muridce and the distinctively characteristic implacental mam- 
malia. The latter, with the exception of a single family (Dldelpliidce, 
occurring now only in the warmer parts of the two Americas), are found 
nowhere else, and hence give to the region an exceptional distinctness 
as a primary zoogeographical region. The numerous groups of small, 
widely scattered islands, usually considered as collectively forming the 
Polynesian Region, being destitute of mammalia, need not be here fur- 
ther considered. 

New Zealand, situated more than a thousand miles to the southeast- 
ward of Australia (its nearest large land-area), is also wholly deficient 
in characteristic forms of mammalia ; the only representatives of this 
class, aside from Seals and Bats, being a Rodent, supposed, rather than 
certainly known, to be found there. The Seals are wide-ranging species, 
and of the two species of Bats, one has Australian and the other South 

* These include, besides the common domestic species, Cynopithecus nigrescem, Viverra 
tangalunga, JBabirusa alfurus, and Cervus Mppelaphus var. moluccensis, considered by Mr. 
Wallace as " probably" or " almost certainly" introduced by man, since they are spe- 
cies " habitually domesticated and kept in confinement by the Malays ". Geogr. Dist. 
Anim., vol. i, p. 417. 


American affinities. Judged by other classes of animals, the fauna of 
New Zealand is Australian (or Australian and Polynesian), but is yet so 
specialized that the New Zealand islands must be recognized as forming 
a distinct and highly differentiated region (New Zealand Region) of the 
Australian Realm. 

As regards mammalia (and the same is true of the fauna and flora 
considered collectively), Tasmania, Australia, and New Guinea have 
many features in common, fully one-half of the genera (seven out of 
fourteen) of mammals occurring in Tasmania being represented not only 
throughout the greater part of Australia, but also in New Guinea. 

Tasmania and New Guinea are less rich in mammalia than Australia, 
but this is obviously due to their insular character and small area. Tas- 
mania is scarcely more closely related to Southern Australia than New 
Guinea is to Northern Australia. Formerly, New Guinea was thought 
to be very distinct from Australia, but the recent exploration of the 
interior of New Guinea by MM. Beccari, d'Albertis, and Laglaize, has 
brought to light the existence there of many forms before supposed to be 
lestricted to Australia and Tasmania. M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, 
in a recent communication to the French Academy respecting some new 
species of mammalia discovered in New Guinea by M. Laglaize, in refer- 
ring to the close relationship existing between the fauna3 of New Guinea 
and Australia, thus observes : " Plus on 6tudie la faune de la Nouvelle- 
Guine'e, plus on lui trouve de ressemblauce avec celle de PAustralie, et les 
indications fournies par la repartition des esp&ces animates permet d'affir- 
uier qu'autrefois ces terres ne formaient qu'un seul grand continent. 
Deja les resultats des voyages de circumnavigation entrepris dans la 
premiere moiti^ de ce siecle . . . avaient permin de sour^onner 
cette conformite d'origine ; mais elle a 6t6 priucipalement mise en lumiere 
a la suite des explorations de M. Wallace, de M. Beccari et de M. d'Al- 
bertis. Bnfin les collections qui M. Laglaize a formees dans ces regions, 
ainsi que celles qui lui out ete remises par M. Bruijn et qui viennent d'ar- 
river en France, fournissent des faits nouveaux qui accentuent encore 
les ressemblances entrevues."* 

Formerly the Monotremes were supposed to be restricted to the south- 
ern half of Australia and Tasmania, but within the last two or three 
years the existence of Tachyglossus in North Australia (latitude 21) has 
been established, and an allied species has been discovered in the mount- 
ains of New Guinea. M. A. Milne Edwards has also just described a 
species of Dromicia from New Guinea, and also a species of Hapalotis, 
and Dr. Peters has recently added species of Phalangista, Chcetocercus, 
and Hydromys, making six genera recently discovered in New Guinea 
that were previously known only from Australia and Tasmania. 

So far as at present known, only three or four genera ( Uromys, Den- 
drolagus, Dorcopis, and Mycectis) of mammals are peculiar to New Guinea 
and the small islands situated between New Guinea and Australia, and 
*Compte-rendu, torn. Ixxxv, 1079, cl6c. 3, 1877. 


probably some of these will yet be found iu Australia. One of these 
(Mycectis) has been thus far reported only from the Am Islands. As 
Tasmania has two peculiar -genera (Thylacinus and Sarcophilus), New 
Guinea, in view of its four or five times greater area, is in reality 
scarcely more specialized than is Tasmania, and is hence faunally as 
much a part of Australia as is the latter. As will be shown later, 
nearly as many of the genera occurring in Southern Australia have 
been found in New Guinea as in Tasmania. Scarcely two years ago Mr- 
Wallace stated that u as yet no other [referring to the genus Sus] non- 
marsupial terrestrial mammal has been discovered [in " Papua, or the 
New Guinea Group "] except a Eat, described by Dr. Gray as Uromys 
aruensis, but about the locality of which there seems some doubt. "* 
This genus has not only now been established as occurring there, but 
four additional species of it have been described by Dr. Peters, who 
has also added a species of Hydromys, and Mr. Alston has added a 
species of Mus and M. A. Milne-Edwards a species of Hapalotls, in all 
seven species, belonging either to Australian genera or having decided 
Australian affinities. 

Regions of the Australian Realm. Accepting the Polynesian Islands 
as forming one region (the Polynesian), and New Zealand as consti- 
tuting another (the New Zealand), we have left for detailed considera- 
tion only the larger land-masses, consisting of Tasmania, Australia, and 
New Guinea with its associated islands, forming the third or Australian. 
The close zoological affinity of Tasmania and Australia no one ques- 
tions, and it has been already shown that New Guinea and Australia 
are almost equally inseparable. Although many genera range from 
Tasmania across Australia into New Guinea, this large area, embra- 
cing as it does nearly fifty degrees of latitude, falls naturally into. two 
well-marked subdivisions, the oue tropical the other temperate.! These 

* Geogr. Distr. Anim., vol. i, pp. 409, 410. 

tin 1871, in referring to the Australian Realm (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,vol. ii,p. 
381), I said : " It is divisible into a Temperate and a Tropical Region, the former em- 
bracing New Zealand and Australia." The latter portion of this statement was of 
course made without due consideration. As already stated, New Zealand has no inti- 
mate relationship with Australia, and should be treated as a separate and independent 
region of the Australian Realm. Mr. Wallace, in stating his " Objections to the Sys- 
tem of Circumpolar Zones " (Geogr. Distr. Anim., vol. i, p. 67), has very naturally taken 
notice of this unfortunate slip, and cites it as evidence of the ' erroneous results" 
that follow from the adoption of the principle of the "distribution of life in circum- 
polar zones". My " separation of New Zealand to unite it with the southern third of 
Australia" was certainly most thoroughly erroneous; but while, as Mr. Wallace says, 
the fauna of Australia, taken as a whole, is exceptionally homogeneous, I cannot agree 
with him that New Guinea, so far at least as its mammalian fauna is concerned, is "as 
sharply differentiated from Australia as any adjacent parts of the same primary zoologi- 
cal region can possibly be "in other words, that it can be only arbitrarily joined with 
the northern portion of Australia. I freely admit that I was not only in error as re- 
gards New Zealand, but also in respect to my division of the Australian continent, and 
I accept this portion of Mr. Wallace's criticism as fairly made. That the error was 
not one of " principle ", but merely a wrong application of a principle, I think the text 


I consider, so closely are they related, rather as provinces than regions, 
and may be termed respectively the Papuan Province and the Australian 
Province. The former is situated almost wholly between the equator and 
the twentieth degree of south latitude. The latter embraces that portion 
of Australia south of this line, together with Tasmania. The boundary 
between the two regions can of course be drawn only approximately, 
but may be provisionally assumed as the vicinity of the isotherm of 
700 p.* The reason for uniting the northern portion of Australia 
with New Gujnea as a part of the Papuan Province lies in the fact that 
not only so many of the mammalian genera are common to the two, but 
that these genera are absent from the more southern portions of Aus- 
tralia, where they are replaced by others wholly restricted to South 
Australia and Tasmania. Three-fourths of all the genera of Marsupials 
(excluding, of course, the American family Didelphidce) are, so far as at 
present known, restricted to the Australian Province, as are several gen- 
era of Muridce and the Ornithorhynchus. Of the remaining Marsupial 
genera, six only are limited to the Papuan Province. 

The Papuan Province. The Papuan Province embraces not only New 
Guinea, but the Molucca and Aru' Islands on the west and the Solomon 

here following sufficiently shows. The principle I still hold as applying to Australia 
with the same force as elsewhere, only I make the division more to the northward, as 
a little more care would have led me to do originally. The York Peninsula, and most 
probably the whole northern coast region north of 20 S. lat. (except the high arid 
interior), has certainly closer affinities, as regards mammals, with New Guinea than it 
has with any portion of South Australia. Of the strictly Papuan genera, only two out 
of nine are restricted to New Guinea, the rest being common to both North Australia 
and Papua. Of the other North Australian genera, about one-half occur generally 
throughout the continent, but the remainder are essentially South Australian, rep- 
resented by only stragglers in Northern Australia. On the other hand, more than twenty 
genera occurring in Southern Australia and Tasmania, are wholly unrepresented in the 
portion of Australia I here assign to the Papuan Region. In other words, we get the 
same wide faunal differences between the tropical and temperate portions of the 
Australian Realm that we get elsewhere under similar climatic conditions. 

In the same connection, Mr. Wallace cites my separation of Temperate South Africa 
as a primary region as another instance of the misleading nature of the principle of 
the distribution of life in zones. This I have also seen fit to abandon (see anted, p. 351 ) 
on a detailed re-examination of the subject, not because the principle is erroneous, but 
in consequence of certain peculiar geographical conditions, namely, the comparatively 
small area subject to a temperate climate and to its limited extension into the temperate 
region. It is, in fact, wholly within the warm-temperate belt, and widens rapidly north- 
ward to abut very broadly against the tropical zone. Only a very small portion really 
comes under the influence of temperate conditions. Here we get, as usual, a temperate 
aspect in the fauna, and I still maintain my separation of South Africa as a faunal divi- 
sion, simply lowering its grade from a primary region to a u province " of the great Iiido- 
African Realm, simply from the fact that thesmallnessof its area and warm-temperate, 
rather than temperate, conditions have prevented, as would be naturally expected, any 
great amount of differentiation . 

* Mr. E. Blyth, in a paper (Nature, vol. iii, p. 428, issue of March 30, 1871) published 
almost simultaneously with my own cited in the last foot-note, included a portion of 
Northern Australia in his " Papuan Sub-region ", namely, " York Peninsula and eastern 
half of Queensland (as far as the dividing range), on the main laud of Australia". 



Group on the east, as well as the most northerly portion of Australia, 
including the York Peninsula, and probably the whole northern coast 
region, or that portion of Australia north of the Southern Tropic, except 
the elevated arid interior. Of the twenty-seven genera (exclusive of 
CMroptera and marine species) represented in the Papuan Province, ten 
are not found elsewhere in the Australian Realm. Three of these (Sus, 
Sorex, found only in the Moluccas, and Mus) have a wide In do- African 
range ; four ( Uromys, Dendrologus, Dorcopsis, and Mycectis) are found 
only in New Guinea and the Aru Islands ; and one (Dactylospila) in the 
Aru Islands and the York Peninsula. 

The seventeen remaining genera belong more properly to the Aus- 
tralian Province, or perhaps to Australia at large. Many of them, while 
numerous in species, have here (like Halmaturus, Antechinus, Poddbrus, 
Mus, Hapalotis, etc.) only straggling representatives, but are numerously 
represented in the temperate region to the southward. The distribution 
of the genera is approximately indicated in the subjoined table. 

Genera of the Papuan Province. 

[NOTE. The New Guinea representatives of the genera Hapalotis, Phalangista, and Tachyglossus have 
recently been separated from their Australian affines as distinct snbgenera. Babirusa is also re- 
ported from Bourn, but as probably introduced from Celebes.] 

Restricted to New 

Restricted to New 

Guinea and 

Guinea and 
Xorth Australia, 

Also ranging over most of the Australian Region. 


Sus. 1 

Acanthomys. 3 


Halmaturus. 6 


Sorex. 2 

Phascogale. . 

* Hapalotis. 6 

*Perameles. 6 

* Phalangista. 6 


Cuscus. 4 

* Hydromys. 6 

Macropus. 6 



Dactylopsila. 6 

Dasyurus. 6 


*Dromicia. 6 


* Antechinus. 6 


* Tachyglossus. 


* Chaetocercus. 


1 New Guinea only. 

2 Moluccas only. 

3 North Australia only. 

4 Also Celebes, Timor, and Moluccas. 

'Occurring in New Guinea. 

6 Aru Islands, New Guinea (Peters), and York 
Peninsula (Krefft). 

6 Mainly large South Australian genera, spar- 
ingly represented in North Australia and 
New Guinea. 

Total number of genera 27 

Restricted to the region (including, however, two Indo-African genera) 1.0 

Represented in New Guinea 18 

Ranging also over the Australian Region 16 

Restricted to New Guinea and neighboring islands (exclusive of two Indo- African 

genera) 4 

Common to only New Guinea and North Australia 4 

Genera properly belonging to the Australian Region, but sparingly represented in 

the Papuan Region 10 

Distinctively characteristic of the Papuan Region, about 15 

Australian Province. The Australian Province, embracing Tasmania 
and all of Australia south of about the. southern isotherm of 70 F., 


contains not less than fifteen to eighteen genera, out of a total num- 
ber of thirty-four that are restricted to this region, while of the re- 
mainder much more than one-half have their chief development here. 
One-third of the whole are represented in Tasmania, and nearly one- 
fourth range into New Guinea. Two only are peculiar to Tasmania. The 
distribution of the genera is shown somewhat in detail in the subjoined 

In this connection it may be added that the close affinity of the Pap- 
uan fauna with that of Australia is sufficiently evinced by the fact that 
of the thirty-four genera represented in South Australia nine range into 
New Guinea nearly as many as occur in Tasmania! 

Genera of the Australian Province. 

Restricted to Temperate Australia and Tas- 

Occurring also in the Papuan Region. 

*Antechinus. 2 
Sarcophilus. 1 
Thalacinus. 1 

Bettongia. 2 , 
Hypsiprymnus. 2 
Phascolomys. 2 
Ornithorhynchus. 2 


*Hapalotis. 3 
*Hydromys. 3 
*Dasyurus. 3 
* 3 Perameles. 2 
3 Macropus. 2 

3 Halmaturus. 2 
* s Phalangista. 
* 3 Dromicia 2 
*Tachyglos8U*. 2 

1 Kestricted to Tasmania. 2 Represented in Tasmania. 3 Mainl} T restricted to the Papuan Region. 
*Occurring in New Guinea. 


Total number of genera 34 

Restricted to the Australian Region 18 

Occurring also in the Papuan Region '. 16 

Represented in Tasmania 12 

Represented in New Guinea 10 

Restricted to Tasmania 2 


As was long since claimed by Dr. Sclater,* Madagascar is faunally 
so distinct from every other ontological division of the globe as to be 
entitled to the rank of a primary zoogeographical region. With it, a& 
is generally admitted, should be associated the Mascareue Islands. 
The very few mammals indigenous to these islands are decidedly Ma- 
dagascarene in their affinities, as are the birds and other land animals. 
While the Lemurian fauna shows decided African affinities, it is secoud 
only to the Australian in its degree of specialization. It departs 
most strikingly from all other regions in what it lacks, through 
the absence of all Carnivores save one peculiar family (Cryptoproctidcu), 

* Quarterly Journ. Sci., vol. i, April, 1864, pp. 213-219. 


represented by a single species, and four peculiar genera of the family 
Viverridce; of all Ruminants and Proboscidians; all Pachyderms ex- 
cept a single African genus of Suidce; and all Eodents except a few 
species of Muridce. The Insectivores are almost wholly represented by 
one or two species of Crocidura, and a family, embracing several genera, 
not found elsewhere, save a single genus in the West Indies. Four 
families of Bats occur, but are represented, with one exception, each by 
a single species. They belong to groups of semi-cosmopolitan range, 
and owing also to the exceptional means of dispersal possessed by 
the Chirnptera, have little weight in determining the affinities of the 
fauna. The Quadrumanes are represented only by the Prosimice, of 
which three-fourths of all the species occur here, while about four-fifths 
of the remainder are African. The remains of an extinct species of 
Hippopotamus have been found, a type existing at present only in Africa. 
Although the Indian genus Viverricula has recently been established as 
occurring in Madagascar, the few types that connect the Lemuriau 
mammalian fauna with the fauua3 of other parts of the world are pre- 
ponderatingly African. 

With the exception of the Bats, which, for reasons already given, are 
scarcely entitled to consideration in the present connection, the mam- 
malia of "Lemuria" are, generally speaking, the lowest existing repre- 
sentatives of their respective orders. The most prominent type, em- 
bracing, in tact, about three-fifths of all the species (excluding the half 
dozen species of Ghiroptera), belong to the Prosimice, the lowest of the 
Quadrumanes, which in early Tertiary times had representatives over 
a large part of the northern hemisphere, and perhaps had at that time 
a nearly cosmopolitan distribution. The Carnivores are likewise allied 
to early types of the Viverridce, which formerly had a much wider range 
than at present; and the Insectivores are also of low forms, and allied 
to early types. These facts seem, at first sight, to lend support to the 
hypothesis, first advanced by Dr. Sclater, that Madagascar and the Mas 
carene Islands are but remnants of a former extensive land-area that 
possibly had connection with America as well as India, and embraced 
portions of Africa. The supposed former relationship with America is 
indicated perhaps not so much by the presence of Solenodon in the West 
Indies, and of American forms of Serpents, Lizards, and Insects in Ma- 
dagascar, as by the abundant occurrence of Lemuroid remains in the 
North American Eocene. Since, however, these early Lemuroid forms 
appear not to have been true Lemurs, but a more generalized type, having 
affinities also with the Carnivores and Insectivores, and since they occur- 
red also in Europe, and probably in Asia (for recent palaeontological dis- 
coveries in our American Tertiaries show that much may be expected 
from future explorations elsewhere), it is possible that the explanation 
of the present distribution of the Prosimice needs not the supposition of 
the existence of any very extensive land-area that has since disappeared: 
in other words, that the African and Madagascareue Lemuridce may 


have reached their present homes by migration from the northward 
(leaving a remnant in India), at a time when North America and Asia 
formed a continuous land-area, just as there is good reason for believing 
that the greater part of the present faunse of India, Southern Europe, 
and Africa are a comparatively recent immigration from the northward ; 
that Madagascar derived, at a comparatively early period, its existing 
fauna from Africa, as Mr. Wallace believes to have been the fact; and, 
finally, that at a time antedating the appearance of the present African 
fauna, Madagascar was actually united to the African continent.* 
America is now not only currently considered to be the "Old World" 
geologically, but it seems probable, as has recently been suggested 7 f 
that the Equine, Tapiroid, Ehinoceroid, Cameloid, Suilline, and Cervine 
forms, the Prosimice, and possibly the Proboscidians, Marsupials, and 
Edentates, were either first developed in America, or had their origin 
there in early generalized forms, and have since spread to the more 
recently formed continents of the eastern hemisphere. Many of them, 
as well as other early, generalized types, are known to have had a nearly 
contemporaneous existence during tHe early part of the Tertiary period 
both in America and Europe. This certainly lends probability to Mr. 
Wallace's hypothesis respecting the origin of the present Lemurian 

The families and genera represented in " Lemuria", their launal alli- 
ances, and areas of chief distribution, are as follows : 

LEMURIDJE. Chiefly developed in Madagascar, but occurring in Tropical Africa, South- 
ern- India, and the Malay Archipelago. Represented by about twelve 
genera and about fifty species, three-fifths of which are peculiar to Mada- 
gascar, and three-fourths of the remainder to Africa. Genera : Inctris, 
Propithecus, Lemur, Hapalemur, Microcebus, Lepilemur, CJiirogaleus. 

DAUBENTONIIDJE. Peculiar to Madagascar and represented by a single species Dau- 
bentonia (=Chiromys) madagascariemis. 

CRYPTOPROCTTD-E:. One species (Cryptoproctaferox), found only in Madagascar. 

VIVERRID.E. Warmer parts of Asia, the Malayan Islands, and Africa. Represented 
in Madagascar by several peculiar genera and the Indian genus Viverricula. 
Genera: Fossa, Galidia, Galidictis, Fiveiricula. Species of the African 
genus Herpestes also reported. 

EUPLERHXE. Peculiar to Madagascar, and embracing the single genus Eupleres. 

SUID^. Eastern hemisphere generally. Represented in Madagascar by species of the 
African genus Potamochcerus. 

HIPPOPOTAMID.E. African. Represented in Madagascar by the remains of a species 
believed to have but recently become extinct. 

PTEROPIDJS. The tropics everywhere, except Tropical America. Represented in 
Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands by two species of the Indian and 
Australian genus Pteropus. 

RmxoLOPHnxE. Warmer parts of the eastern hemisphere. Represented in " Lemuria " 
by species of Bhinolophus. 

* Geogr. Distr. Anim., vol. i, p. 273; Nature, vol. xvi (Oct. 25, 1877), p. 548. 

iSee especially Prof. O. C. Marsh's address. on "the Introduction and Succession of 
Vertebrate Life in America ", delivered before the Nashville meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Aug. 30, 1877. 


V T ESPERTILIOXID^E. Cosmopolitan. Represented by the cosmopolite genus Yespertilio. 
EMBALLONURID^:. Warmer parts of the world. Represented by the genus Taphozous. 
CENTETUXE. Confined to Madagascar except one genus (Solenodon) in the West In dies. 

Represented in Madagascar by nearly a dozen species. Genera : Centetes^ 

Hemicentetes, Ericulus, Oryzorictes, Echinops. 
SORICIDJE. The whole world, except South America and Australia. Represented in 

Madagascar by one or two species of Crocidura, a genus found in Africa, 

and the warmer parts of the eastern hemisphere generally. 
MURHXE. Cosmopolitan. Represented by several genera of African affinities, namely,. 

Nesomys, Brachytarsomys, Hypogeomys. 


The Antarctic Eealrn is geographically almost wholly oceanic, and its 
fauna hence consists almost exclusively of marine or pelagic species. 
It necessarily embraces not only the Antarctic Zone, but a large part 
of the cold south-temperate, since very few of its characteristic species 
are wholly restricted to the Antarctic waters. It will hence include not 
only the few small groups of Antarctic Islands, but also Tierra del Fuego- 
and the Falkland Islands, and perhaps also the extreme southern shores 
of South America, while some of its characteristic forms also extend to 
New Zealand, and even Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. The 
only mammals that can be considered as strictly characteristic of this 
region are Pinnipeds and Cetaceans, of which several genera of each 
are almost wholly restricted to it. A " South Frigid", "Antarctic 77 , or 
"South Cireurnpolar" "Zone", "Begion", or "Bealm", has been recog- 
nized by various writers for the marine invertebrates, and, by vou 
Pelzeln for birds, with limitations much as here assigned. While the 
number of species peculiar to it is small, it is large relatively to the 
whole number represented, especially in the colder latitudes. There is, 
of course, a broad belt along its northern border of a transitional char- 
acter, where Antarctic types overlap the range of groups characteristic 
of south-temperate latitudes. 

One of the most important features of the South Circumpolar or Ant- 
arctic Bealm is the resemblance of its life to the marine life of the Arc- 
tic or North Circumpolar Bealm. While perhaps in no case are the 
species identical, the genera are frequently the same, not only among 
the mammalia, but among invertebrates. This is especially significant 
as regards the mammalia, since the terrestrial mammals of the extreme 
north and extreme south present no such parallelism, but the utmost 
divergence. Among Pinnipeds, most of the genera are peculiar to either 
the northern or southern waters, but in several instances the genera of 
the two regions are strictly representative. Thus, Otaria and Arctoce- 
phalus of the Southern Seas are represented in the Northern by Eume- 
topias and Callorhinus, Zalophus and Macrorhimis are both Northern 
and Southern. Stenorhynchus, Lobodon, Leptonyx, and Ommatophoca are 
strictly Southern, while Phoca, Haliclicerus, Erignathm, Cystophora, 
Monachus, and one or two others, are strictly Northern, as are also the 
Walruses. The Mysticete, or Baleen Whales, among Cetaceans, have 


a somewhat similar distribution. While a few genera are restricted 
respectively to the Northern and Southern waters, the larger uninber 
are common to both, though represented by different species in the two 
regions, while they are (in some cases at least) absent from the inter- 
vening tropical seas. A large proportion of the Denticete, or Toothed 
Whales (Dolphins, Porpoises, Eorquals, etc)., are either limited to the 
warmer seas or have there their chief development, quite a number of 
genera being peculiar to the tropics. Others, however, like Monodon, 
are eminently boreal, while others, like Beluga, are common to the bolder 
waters both north and south of the tropics. In most cases, however, 
we know as yet too little respecting the range of the different species 
and genera ofJdetacea to be able to make much use of them in deter- 
mining questions in geographical zoology. 

This similarity between the marine life of the Arctic and Antarctic 
Regions evidently indicates that the forms common to the two had a 
-common origin, and, at some former period, a continuous, probably cir- 
cumtropical, distribution, and that on the increase of temperature in 
the intertropical regions, through well-known geological causes, they 
v sought the more compatible cooler waters toward the poles. The 
.similarity of the Arctic and Antarctic marine life is also a feature that 
sharply differentiates the fauna of the South Circumpolar Realm from 
that of the South Temperate and Tropical Zones. 


As stated at the beginning of the present paper, one of the chief topics 
here proposed for discussion was the influences and laws which govern 
the distribution of life, whether it is or is not co-ordinated with climatic 
zones, and governed in a large degree by climatic conditions, and espe- 
cially by temperature. In fact, so generally is temperature recognized 
by the leading writers on the distribution of marine life that it seems 
superfluous to reiterate or emphasize this principle. That the zones of 
life should be perhaps a little less obvious over the land-areas, in con- 
sequence of the diversity of contour resulting from differences of eleva- 
tion, and the interruptions and exceptional conditions due to mountain 
chains and high plateaus, than over the oceanic expanses, is naturally 
to be expected. That there is, however, a similar correspondence between 
climatic belts and the zones of life seems to me abundantly evident. 
As has been already shown, the broader or primary zones are. first, an 
Arctic or North Circumpolar Zone, embracing the arctic, subarctic, and 
Bolder temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere, throughout the 
whole of which area there is a marked homogeneity of mammalian life, 
4is well as of animal and vegetable life in general ; secondly, that below 
this there is a broad belt of life, which, in its general fades, is distinctive 
of the temperate and warm-temperate latitudes, and that these two 
jzones of life are far more closely related inter se than with the life of the 
inter tropical regions, with which regions they may be collectively con- 
trasted, and together receive the appropriate name of " Arctogcea" ; 


thirdly, it has been shown, so far as the northern hemisphere is con- 
cerned, that the life of the tropical and temperate regions of the same 
continent is more widely different than is the life of corresponding por- 
tions of the temperate and colder parts of the (so-called) Old World and 
the New ; fourthly, that the life of Tropical America has very little in 
common with that of the tropical portions of Asia and Africa ; fifthly, 
that the life of the South Temperate Zone presents a, fades distinct from 
that of the tropics, and has still less in common with that of the North 
Temperate Zone ; sixthly, that Australasia is so highly differentiated 
as to form a distinct primary region, having little in common with other 
lauds, even with those of contiguous regions, or those having a similar 
geographical position ; seventhly, that Madagascar and its contiguous 
islands, while to some extent African in affinity, form also a highly 
specialized region ; lastly, that the antarctic and cold south-temperate 
oceanic regions are recognizable as a primary region, characterized by 
a peculiar general fades of life that more strongly recalls that of the. 
corresponding portions of the northern hemisphere than of any other 
portion of the earth. It has been further shown that the Australian 
Realm is divisible into temperate and tropical portions, and also that the 
land surface is separable into zones of even still narrower limits, corre- 
sponding in a general way with those recognized by Dana for marine life. 
The almost total absence of identical genera, or even of families, ex- 
cepting such as are essentially cosmopolitan^ in the American and Old 
World tropics, as well as the distinctness of the Lemurian Realm, and 
the almost total isolation of the Australian Eealm, evidently require 
for their explanation other causes than merely the existing climates. 
The geological history of these land-areas and. their faunae must be of 
course considered in order to understand their present relationships. 
As the northern hemisphere at present most clearly shows, nearly 
continuous land surface and similarity of climatic conditions implies 
identity of fauna, while isolation, especially when joined with diverse 
climatic conditions, implies diversity of life, and a differentiation propor- 
tionate to the degree of isolation, and the length of time such isolation 
has existed ; in other words, that the present want of affinity between 
the life of the Lemurian and Australian Realms and that of the rest of 
the world is due rather to their long geographical isolation than to 
present climatic conditions, and that we here find, for reasons perhaps 
not wholly apparent, the remnants of a somewhat primitive or early 
fauna that was formerly shared more largely by other areas than at 
present, that these regions became isolated before the development of 
many of the higher and now prevalent types of the larger and more 
diversified land-areas, and that here differentiation has proceeded less 
rapidly and along fewer and narrower lines' than elsewhere; further- 
more, that the present highly diversified fauna of the chief tropical 
areas, in comparison with the fauna of the north-circumpolar lands, is 
due in part jto the southward migration, near the close of the Tertiary 


period, of forms adapted to a high temperature, and in part to the high 
rate of differentiation favored by tropical conditions of climate. Hence, 
given : 1. Arctic and cold-temperate conditions of climate, and we have 
a fauna only slightly or moderately diversified ; 2. A moderate increase 
of temperature, giving warm -temperate conditions of climate, and we 
have the addition of many new types of life; 3. A high increase of 
temperature, giving tropical conditions of climate, and we have a rapid 
multiplication of new forms and a maximum of differentiation. Again, 
given : 1. A long-continued continuity of laud surface, and we have 
an essential identity of fauna ; 2. A divergence and partial isolation of 
land-areas, and we find a moderate but decided differentiation of faunaB; 
3. A total isolation of land-areas, and we have a thorough and radical 
differentiation of faunae, proportioned to the length of time the isola- 
tion has continued. Hence, the present diversity of life is correlated 
with two fundamental conditions : 1. Continuity or isolation, past as 
well as present,* of land surface; and, 2. Climatic conditions, as deter- 
mined mainly by temperature.* 

In accordance with these principles, which rest on incontrovertible 
facts of distribution, it follows that the nearly united lands of the North 
present a continuous, almost homogeneous, arctopolitan fauna ; that 
farther southward, in the warmer temperate latitudes, we begin to find 
a marked differentiation on the two continents ; that this differentiation 
is still further developed in the tropical continuations of these same 
land-areas, till an almost total want of resemblance is reached, except 
that there is what may be termed, in contrast with the more northern 
regions, a " tropical fades 77 common to the two. The small amount of 
land surface belonging to these primary land regions south of the trop- 
ics have no more in common (a few marine species excepted) than have 
these two tropical areas, but it is hardly possible for them to have much 
less. The Antarctic (mainly oceanic) region has a fauna strongly recall- 
ing the marine fauna of the Arctic, but has no resemblance to that of 
the intervening area. 

The northern circumpolar lands may be looked upon as the base or 
centre from which have spread all the more recently developed forms of 
mammalian life, as it is still the bond that unites the whole. Of the 
few cosmopolitan types that in a manner bind together and connect the 
whole mammalian fauna of the globe (the Lemurian and Australian 
Bealms in part excepted), nearly all have either their true home or be- 
long to groups that are mainly developed in the northern lands. A few 

* In illustration of the above, it may be added that the circumpolar lands north of 
the mean annual of 36 F., or, in general terms, north of the fiftieth parallel, with ap- 
proximately an area of about 12,500,000 square miles, have representatives of about 
fifty-four genera of mammals ; Tropical America, with an approximate area of about 
5,000,000 square miles, has about ninety genera ; the Indo- African Realm, with an 
approximate area of about 15,000,000 square miles, has about two hundred and fifty 
genera. Hence the tropical lands are four to five times richer in genera, iu proportion 
to area, than those of the Cold-temperate and Arctic regions. 


have been pressed a little to the southward by the extreme rigor of an 
Arctic climate, but are still characteristic elements of all boreal faunas. 
The very few truly tropicopolitan mammalia are either Chiroptera, or 
marine, or at least aquatic, and have thus exceptional means of dis- 

The primary regions and their subdivisions, recognized in the preced- 
ing pages, are enumerated in the subjoined schedule. 

1. Primary divisions, or "Realms". 


II. A NORTH TEMPERATE, divided into two regions and eight prov- 

III. An AMERICAN TROPICAL, with three regions. (Provinces not 


IV. An INDO-AFRICAN, with two regions and five provinces. 
V. A SOUTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE, with two provinces. 

VI. An AUSTRALIAN, with three regions and two provinces. 

2. Secondary divisions, or "Regions". 

II. North Temperate Realm : 1, American ; 2, Europseo- Asiatic. 

III. American Tropical Eealm: 1, Antillean ; 2, Central American; 

3, Brazilian. 

IV. Indo- African Eealm : 1, African ; 2, Indian. 

VI. Australian Realm : 1, Australian (Australia, Tasmania, and New 
Guinea); 2, Polynesian ; 3, New Zealand. 

3. Divisions of third ranlc, or "Provinces". 

II, 1. American Region: a, Boreal*; &, Eastern; c, Middle; <Z, Western. 
II, 2. EuropaBO- Asiatic Region: .a, European; 6, Siberian; c, Mediter- 
ranean ; d, Manchurian. 

IV, 1. African Region : a, Eastern ; &, Western ; c, Southern. 
IV, 2. Indian Region : a, Continental ; &, Insular. 
V. South American Temperate Realm : a, Andean ; &, Pampean. 
VI, 1. Australian Region: &, Australian; &, Papuan. 

* A " Boreal " province has not been distinctly recognized in the preceding pages as 
a division belonging to the same category as the other so-called or commonly recog- 
nized provinces, and is not at all recognized in the table of distribution given at p. 
339. It is nearly equivalent to what is there implied by " Cold Temperate ". I hope 
soon to be able, in a paper to be devoted especially to a consideration of the geograph- 
ical distribution of North American mammals, to define and characterize it more defi- 


The relation of the different primary regions and their subdivions 
may be approximately indicated diagrammatically as follows: 










c \ b 










i - 1 

L _ 







V -2 





' c 











Bull. iv. No. 2 5 



F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 








WASHINGTON, December 11, 1878. 

[From Bulletin U. S. Geol and Geogr. Survey, Vol. IV, No. 4, p. 905, foot-note.] 

*P. S. SCIUBUS RUFONIGER, Pucheran. Since the paper on Sciuri passed 
out of my hands I have received, through the kindness of Mr. E. R. Alston, 
one of the types of his Sciurus rufoniger, indorsed on the label, " Compared 
with Pucheran's type in Paris Museum. E. R. A. April, 1878." This speci- 
men, as shown by the sexual organs, is a fully adult male, though scarcely 
five and a half inches long, and hence cannot be regarded as an immature ex- 
ample of S. deppei, the possibility of which is above suggested. In coloration 
it differs little from frequent examples of S. hoffmanni. The tail, however, is 
relatively much shorter, the size nearly one half less, and it has two upper 
premolars (Alston) instead of one. In this last feature, as well as in size, 
proportions, and coloration, it finds a near affine in S. pusillus. J. A. A. 
November, 23, 1878. 

[* NOTE. The above was received too late for insertion in its proper 
place, the Bulletin having been worked to p. 887. ED.] 




Since the publication last year of my revision of the American Sciuri* 
the "Neotropical" species of the group have been ably reviewed by Mr. 
E. E. Alston,t under unusually favorable circumstances. With his ac- 
customed thoroughness, he has taken the trouble to seek out the types, 
so far as they are extant or accessible in several of the principal museums 
of Europe, of most of the species of former authors, and has thus been able 
to determine the character of many species so inadequately described, 
that in no other way could their proper allocation be satisfactorily de- 
termined. His careful elucidation of this obscure and perplexing group 
has not only placed his fellow-workers in the same field under lasting 
obligations to him, but must mark an era in the history of the subject. 
Of the fifty-nine nominal species of this group described by different 
authors, he informs us that he has examined the types of no less than 
forty-one ! With the rich material of the British Museum at his com- 
mand, he has been able to tell us exactly what the late Dr. Gray had for 
the basis of his nineteen u new species", described in a single paper in 
1867, some of them so vaguely or inaccurately that the descriptions are 
sometimes misleading, and often inadequate indices of what he actually 
had before him. Mr. Alston has also been able to allocate the species 
described previously by the same author, and by Bichardson, Bennett, 
Ogilby, and other British writers. In the Paris Museum, he found still 
extant the types of most of the species described many years since by 
Is. Geoffroy, Lesson, F. Cuvier, and Pucheran, and in the Berlin Museum 
types of the species described by Dr. Peters ; so that the only important 
ones not seen by him are those of Brandt, Wagner, and Natterer. To 
assist him in collating my own work, I had the pleasure of sending him 
examples of the greater part of the species recognized by me in my 
recent monograph of the American Sciuridce. As I had not access to 
the types of the species described by foreign authors, I made, in some 
instances, my allocations of synonymy with doubt, and, in other cases, 
only provisionally, feeling conscious of the uncertainty with which refer- 

* Coues and Allen's " Monographs of North American Rodentia", pp. 666-797, August, 

t " On the Squirrels of the Neotropical Region ", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, pp. 
656-670, pi. xli. This highly important memoir gives excellent diagnoses of the species, 
with their synonymy in full, and a critical commentary on the species of previous 




ences to many of the species must necessarily, under the circumstances, 
be made. Although Mr. Alston has shown the incorrectness of some of 
my identifications, and the necessity of substituting, in two instances, 
names other than those I was led to adopt, I feel, on the whole, no small 
degree of satisfaction in the confirmation of so large a portion of my 
synonymic work by the trying ordeal to which it has been submitted ; 
especially as Mr. Alston has done me the kindness to state, in several 
instances, that I was led into mistakes by descriptions that did not 
properly represent the objects described. The purpose of the present 
paper is to correct these errors, so far as they have been satisfactorily 
shown, and to present a nomenclature that fairly reflects the present 
state of the subject. 

In my former revision of the Sciuri of Tropical America, I felt author- 
ized in reducing fully four-fifths of the previously described species to 
synonyms, and stated it as my belief that I had still recognized too 
many rather than too few. Mr. Alston, with far more and mainly his- 
toric material at his command, has, in one or two instances, carried the 
reduction still further, but, on the other hand, has added one or two 
species unrepresented in the material I had before me. While I recog- 
nized ten species and two subspecies, he has raised the number of the 
former to twelve. The changes, so far as species are concerned, consist 
in his elevating one of my subspecies to full specific rank; in treating 
as a species a form I regarded as the young of another species ; in unit- 
ing, in two instances, two of my species into one; and in restoring two 
species I treated as nominal. These changes, as well as those of nomen- 
clature and synonymy, will be fully noted in the following pages. 

For the purpose mainly of presenting a connected view of the Amer- 
ican Sciuri, but partly to correct one or two errors of synonymy, I 
include the North American species in the subjoined enumeration, 
although I have no changes to make in the nomenclature adopted in 
" Monographs of North American Eodentia ". In order to distinguish 
readily those that are represented in the North American fauna, I divide 
the species, as before, into two geographical series. Gray's species are 
assigned in accordance with Mr. Alston's determinations, based on an 
examination of the types, as are also those of Peters, Pucheran, Cuvier, 
Geoffrey, Bennett, and Richardson. Consequently the synonymatic 
tables here presented are substantially the same as Mr. Alston's. 


1. Var. hudsonius. 

Sciurus vulgaris, FORSTER. Phil. Trans. Ixii, 1772, 378. 

Stiurus vulgaris, e, Jiudsonicus, ERXLEBEN, Syst. Anim. 1777, 416. 

Sdurus hudsonius, PALLAS, Nov. Spec. Glires, 1778, 376. 

Stiurm carolinus, ORD, " Guthrie's Geogr. (2d Am. ed.) ii, 1815, 292." 

Sciurusrubrolineatus, DESMAREST, Mam. ii, 1822, 333. 


2. Var. richardsoni. 
Sciurus richardsoni, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. vi, 1838, 100. 

3. Var. douglassi. 

Sciurus nudsonius, var. (3, RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Am. i, 1829, 190. 

Sciurus douglassi, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond. 1836, 88 (no description). BACHMAN, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1838, 99. 

Sciurus toivnsendi, BACHMAN, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. viii, 1839, 63 (MS. name). 
Sciurus lanuginosus, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1838, 101. 
Sciurus mollipilosus, AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. i, 1842, 102. 
Sciurus belcheri, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, x, 1842, 263. 
Sciurus suckleyi, BAIRD, Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila. vii, 1855, 333. 

4. Var. fremonti. 

Sciurus fremonti, AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Quad. N. Amer. iii, 1853, 237, pi. cvlix, fig. 1. 


1. Var. leucotis. 

Sciurus cinereus, SCHREBER, Sauget. iv, 1792, 706, pi. ccxii (nee Linne", 1758). 

Sc'uruspennsylvanicus, ORD, " Guthrie's Geog. (2d Am. ed.) ii, 1815, 292" (melanistic). 

Sciurus niger, GODMAN, Am. Nat. Hist, ii, 1826, 133 (melanistic; nee Linne", 1758). 

Sdunis carolinensis, GODMAN, Am. Nat. Hist, ii, 1826, 131. 

Sciurus leucoiis, GAPPER, Zool. Journ. v, 1830, 206, pi. xi. 

Sciurus vulpinus, DEKAY, N. Y. Zool. i, 1842, 59. 

Sciurus migratorius, AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Quad. N. Amer. i, 1849, 265, pi. xxxv. 

2. Var. caroliuensis. 

Sciurus carolinensis, GMELIN, Syst. Nat. i, 1788, 148. 

Sci irus fuliginosus, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1838, 96. 

3. Var. yucatanensis. 
Solurus carolinensis var. yucatanensis, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 705. 

KOTE. In " Monographs of the North American Bodentia", p. 701, 
exclude from synonyms of var. leucotis, " f Macroxus melania, Gray ", 
and from synonyms of var. carolinensis exclude " f Sciurus deppeV\ re- 
specting which see infrd,, pp. 881, 885. Variety yucatanensis seems to be 
a rare form in collections, Mr. Alston stating that the only specimen he 
has seen being the one I sent him. 


1. Var. niger. 

Sciurus niger, Linne*, Syst. Nat. i, 1758, 64. 

Sdurus variegatus, ERXLEBEN, Syst. Anirn. 1777, 421 (in part). 

Sciurus vulpinus, GMELIN, Syst. Nat. i, 1788, 147. 

Sciurus capistratus, Bosc, Ann. du Mas. i, 1802, 281. 

Sciurus rufiventris, M'MuRTRiE, Cuvier's An. King. (Am. ed.) i, 1831, 433. 

Sciurus texianus, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1838, 86. 

2. Var. cinereus. 

Sciurus cinereus, LINNE, Syst. Nat. i, 1758, 64. 

Sciurus vulpinus, SCHREBER, Sauget. iv, 1792, 772, pi. ccxr, B. 


f Sciurus hyemalis, ORD, "Guthrie's Geog. (2d Am. ed.) ii, 1815, 293, 304." 
ff Macroxus neglectus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 425 (locality 

3. Var. ludovicianus. 

Sciurus ludovicianus, CUSTIS, Barton's Med. and Phys. Journ. ii, 1806, 43. 

Sciurus ludovicianus var. atroventris, ENGELMANN, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, i, 1859, 329. 

Sciurus macroura, SAY, Long's Exp. R. Mts. i, 1823, 115. 

Sciurus macroureus, GODMAN, Am. Nat. Hist, ii, 1826, 134. 

Sciurus magnicaudatus, HAKLAN, Faun. Am. 1825, 178. 

Sciurus subauratus, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1838, 87. 

Sdurus auduboni, BACHMAN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1838, 97. 

Sciurus occidentalism AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. viii, 1842, 317. 

Sciurus rubicaudatus, AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Quad. N. Am. ii, 1851, 30, pi. Iv. 

Sciurus sayi } AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Quad. N. Am. ii, 1851, 274, pi. Ixxxix. 

Sciurus limitis, BAIRD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vii, 1855, 331. 

NOTE. Under Var. ludovicianus, Mon. N. Am. Bod. p. 718, exclude 
"! TOMES, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1861,281 (Costa Rica [lege Guatemala])". 


Sciurus fossor, PEALE, Mam. and Birds U. S. Expl. Exp. 1848, 55. 
Sciurus heermanni, LECONTE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vi, 1852, 149. 


Sciurus dorsalis, WOODHOUSE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vi, 1852, 110 (nee Gray, 1848). 
Sciurus aberti, WOODHOUSE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vi, 1852, 220. 
Sciurus castanotus, BAIRD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. vii, 1855, 332 (typ. error for cas- 


Sciurus arizonensis, COUES, Amer. Nat. i, 1867, 357. 

Scturus collicei, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 738 (exclusive of synonyms, which all 

belong to the next species, except " f S. Itporinus, AUD. & BACH.", which is 


NOTE. "Misled by imperfect descriptions and a bad figure of Rich- 
ardson's type, Mr. Allen has referred the Arizona Squirrel of Dr. Coues 
to Richardson's S. collicei. He has since kindly intrusted me with a 
typical example of 8. arizonensis ; and I find that it is quite distinct 
from 8. collicei (which is Mr. Allen's 8. bootMce), being much more nearly 
allied to 8. carolinensis, from which, however, both Dr. Coues and Mr. 
Allen consider that it is i thoroughly distinct 7 ." ALSTON, 1. c. p. 659. 




Macroxus griseojlavus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1877, 427. 
Sciurus griseoflavus, ALSTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, C60. 

f Sciurus ludom'.ianus, TOMES, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1861, 281 (according to Alston, 
1. c. p. 660). 

NOTE. Referred by me to my 8. leucops. Considered by Mr. Alston 
to be "closely allied" to 8. arizonensis, of which he suspects "it will 


eventually prove to be a southern race. More specimens, however, are 
required before they can be united ; and provisionally I therefore accept 
8. griseoflavus as a distinct species. 77 My own inclination, in view of Mr. 
Alston's diagnosis of 8. griseoflavus, is to unite them, but I refrain from 
doing so at present. 

Mr. Alston further remarks : " Mr. Allen considers Gra^s M. griseo- 
flavus to be specifically identical with his [Allen's] M. leucops ; and the 
original diagnosis certainly seems to give countenance to such a view. 
The typical specimens (five in number), however, are very different. 
. . . " In consequence of my referring Gray's Macroxus griseoflavus 
to my S. leucops, he quotes the latter as a synonym of S. griseoflavus, 
Alston, but the specimens I referred to my 8. leucops represent his 
S. variegatus var. leucops. 


f Sciurus variegatus, ERXLEBEN, Syst. Anim. 1777, 421 (in part). 

Sciurus Jiypopyrrhus, WAGLER, Isis, 1831, 610. 

Sciurus nigrescens, BENNETT, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1833, 41 (melanistic). 

Sciurus collicei, RICHARDSON, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, 8, pi. i. 

Sciurus variegatoides, OGILBY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1839, 117. 

Sciurus richardsoni, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, x, 1842, 264 (nee Bachman, 1838). 

Sciurus boothice, GRAY, List Mam. Brit. Mus. 1843, 139 (=S. richardsoni, Gray). 

Sciurus griseocaudatus, GKAY, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, 1844, 34, pi. xiii, fig. 2 (animal), pi. 

xviii, figs. 7-12 (skull and teeth). 

Sciurus fuscovariegatus, SCHINZ, Synop. Mam. 1845, 15 ( = S. richardsoni, Gray). 
Sciurus adolphei, LESSON, Descrip. de Mam. et d'Ois. 1847, 141. 
Sciurus pyladei, LESSON, Descrip. de Mam. et d'Ois. 1847, 142. 
Sciurus dorsalis, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1848, 138, pi. vii. 
Sciurus rigidus, PETERS, Monatsb. Kongl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1863, 

(1864), 652. 
Sciurus oculatus, PETERS, Monatsb. Kongl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1863, 

(1864). 653 (formerly referred by me to my "8. colliosi" S.arizonetisis, 


Sciurus intermedius, " VERREAUX", GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 421. 
Sciurus nicoyana, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 423. 
Sciurus melania, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867,425 (formerly referred 

by me, with a query, to S. carolinensis). 
Sciurus collicei, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 738 (the synonyms, except S. arizo- 

nensis, Coues, but not the specimens, nor the descriptive text). 

Sciurus boothicB, ALLEN, Mon. N. Amer. Rod. 1877, 741 (synonyms, text, and specimens). 
Sciurus hypopyrrhus, ALLEN, Mon. N. Amer. Rod. 1877,746 (synonyms, except Macroxus 

maurus, Gray, text, and specimens, except the series from Guayaquil and the 

text relating to them). 

XOTE. This species, as at present defined, includes both my 8. boothice 
and S. hypopyrrlms, except certain specimens from Guayaquil described 
by me under the latter name, which represent, according to Mr. Al- 
ston's determination of them, 8. stramineus. In uniting my S. boothice 
and 8. hypopyrrhus, Mr. Alston confirms a suspicion I had already ex- 
pressed of their possibly proving identical. I kept them apart mainly 
from the impression made upon me by the Guayaquil specimens, which 
I felt pretty sure were specifically different from those I referred to 8. 


boothiw, and which were really the basis of what I recognized as 8. liypo- 
pyrrhus. I associated with them, however, specimens representing the 
8. dorsalis of Gray, from their apparently slenderer form and relatively 
longer ears and tail. Although Mr. Alston has not seen the types of 
either Wagler's S. lujpopyrrlius or of 8. stramineus, I defer for the pres- 
ent to his judgment in adopting hypopyrrhus as the name of this highly 
polymorphic group. 

Under 8. hypopyrrhus, Mr. Alston recognizes five " types", namely: 
1. "The hypopyrrhus type", to which he refers S. nigrescens, Bennett, and 
Macroxus boothice, Gray, 1867. 2. "The rigidus type", to which he refers 
S. rigidus, Peters, S. intermedius, Yerreaux, and 8. nicoyanus, Gray. 
3. " Thedorsalis type." 4. u Thecolliwi type", to which he refers 8. collicei, 
Eichardson, 8. adolphei and 8. pyladei, Lesson, 8. variegatoides, Ogilby, 
S. oculatus, Peters, and 8. griseocaudatus, Gray. 5. " The melania type " 

u With regard to the synonymy," Mr. Alston writes, "I may ob- 
serve that I have been able to examine the types of all the ' species ' 
here united, excepting that of 8. hypopyrrhus, which, however, has been 
well described by Wagler and Wagner ; it appears to be a dark variety 
without the usual wash of white on the tail. ..." 

"Qf the geographical distribution of the races," he says, " we can 
only judge from the comparatively few specimens of which the exact 
localities have been noted. Tbe hypopyrrlms phase appears to be the 
most northern, the collicei to obtain principally along the Pacific slopes, 
and the dorsalis to be the most southern. Each, however, appears to be 
found along with the others in some parts. Thus, I have seen speci- 
mens of the hypopyrrhus type from Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala, 
of rigidus from Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, of dorsalis from 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Yeragua, and Panama, and of collicei from the 
west coast of Mexico and Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Oosta Rica. The 
only .localities which I know for 8. melania are Nicaragua and Yeragua."* 
In all probability, these five types will prove to be entitled to varietal 


Sciurus aureogaster, F. CUVIER, Hist, des Mara, iii, livr. lix, 1829. 

ticiurtw leucogaster, F. CDVIER, Suppl. de Buff, i, Mam. 1831,300. 

Sciurus albipes, WAGNER, Abb. Bayer. Ak. ii, 1837, 501 (according to Alston ; formerly 

referred by me, vitb a ?, to the preceding species). 

Sciurus socialis, WAGNER, Abb. Bayer. Ak. ii, 1837, 504, pi. v (according to Alston). 
Sdurusferruginiventris, AUDUBON & BACHMAN, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila. 1841,101; 

Quad. N. Am. pi. xxxviii. 
Sdttrus varius, WAGNER, Suppl. Schrebers Siiuget. iii, 1843, 168, pi. cccxiii D ("S. al- 

lipes" on plate ; = S. albipes, Wagner, 1837). 

Macroxus mono, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 424. 
Macroxus rnaurus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 18C7, 425 (formerly referred 

by me to tbe preceding species). 

Macroxus leucops, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 427. 
Sciurus aurdgaster and S. leucops } ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 750, 753. 
Sciurus variegatus, ALSTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, 660 (ex Erxleben). 

* Loc dt. pp. 663, 664. 


NOTE. " Under this name I feel myself obliged to bring together 
two Mexican Squirrels of which typical specimens are very different in 
appearance. Mr. Allen has kept them separate under the names of 8. 
aureigaster and S. leucops, remarking that the difference in coloration 
leaves little doubt of their distinctness, but adding that ' more abundant 
material may show that they are not specifically separable ' (op. cit. p. 
755). The color- variation is not nearly so great as we shall find it to be 
in the next species [i. e. 8. hypopyrrhus] ; and after a careful examination 
of a great number of specimens, especially of the fine series in the Paris 
Museum, I have been unable to find a single distinctive character which 
is constant." ALSTON, I. c. p. 661. 

Of this species Mr. Alston recognizes two forms, denominated respect- 
ively "1, the aureogaster type", and "2, theleucops type' 7 . 

Unfortunately, as it seems to me, Mr. Alston has selected for this 
species Erxlebeu's name variegatus, remarking that it is "primarily 
founded" on the " Coztiocotequallin" of Hernandez, and that Button's 
" Coquallin " is quoted only as a synonym ; and adds, " Erxleben's 
diagnosis and description appear to me to be quite characteristic of the 
leucops form of the present species. By retaining this appropriate name," 
he continues, u we are enabled to escape from F. Cuvier's barbarous term 
aureogaster, under which this beautiful species has labored in so many 
works" (I. c. pp. 661, 662). However pleasant it might be to escape 
Cuvier's barbarous name, this to me is not so clearly the way to do it. 
Erxleben's species is admittedly a composite one, and neither his diag- 
nosis nor Hernandez's account of the " Coztiocotequallin " helps the 
matter, since the best that can be made out is that Erxleben's species 
was black above, varied with white and brown, and yellow below, twice 
the size of the European Squirrel, and with the ears not tufted ; a char- 
acterization broad enough to apply to the dusky phase of any of the 
larger Mexican Squirrels. F. (Juvier's excellent figure and detailed 
description, on the other hand, leave nothing to be guessed at in respect 
to just what his aureogaster was, the types of which, it appears also, are 
still preserved. 


Sciurus stramineus, EYDOUX & SOULEYET, Voy. de la Bonite, Zool. i, 1344, 37, pi. ix. 
Sciurus nebouxii, Is. GEOFFROY, Voy. de La Ve"nus, Zool. 1855, 103, pi. xii. 
Macroxus fraseri, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867,430. 
Sciurus hypopyrrhus, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Eod. Ih77, 747 (in part). 

NOTE. As already stated, this species was embraced under my S. 
hypopyrrhus. The 8. stramineus I included among the synonyms of 8. 
variabilis. The 8. nebouxii I was unable to identify, and gave it among 
my undetermined species. The Macroxus fraseri I referred doubtfully to 
8. tephrogaster* Mr. Alston has examined the types of 8. nebouxii and 

* " It is only fair to Mr. Allen to add, that Gray's description of M. fraseri is so imper- 
fect that it is not surprising that the American zoologist should have doubtfully re- 
ferred it to S. tephrogaster." ALSTON, I. c. p. 665. 


S.fraseri, and their allocation here is on his authority. It turns out 
that the Guyaquil specimens of iny S. hypopyrrhus series (one of which 
Mr. Alston has seen) represent this species. Mr. Alston states that this 
species is rare in collections, and appears to be the only representative of 
the genus in Western Peru. He further says : "A remarkable peculiar- 
ity of this species is its tendency to the development of irregular tufts 
of pure white hairs, rather longer than the rest of the fur, and some- 
times uniting in large patches. These asymmetrical markings are pres- 
ent in the majority of the individuals examined." This peculiarity in 
the texture and color of the pelage I looked upon as abnormal and as 
indicating a tendency to albinism, and am surprised that it should prove 
of such general occurrence. 


Sciurus variabilis, Is. GEOFFROY, Mag. de Zool. 1832, i, pi. iv. 

Sciurus langsdorffi, BRANDT, Me"m. Acad. de St. Pe"tersb. 6 e s6r. Math. Phys. et Nat. iii, 

2 e pt. 1835, 425, pi. xi. 

Sciurus igniventris, "NATTERER", WAGNER, Wiegm. Arch, liir Naturg. Ib42, i, 360. 
Sciurus pyrrhonotus, "NATTERER", WAGNER, Wiegm. Arch, fiir Naturg. 1842, i, 360. 
Sciurus tricolor, "PoppiG", TSCHUDI, Faun. Peruan. 1844-46, 156, pi. xi. 
Sciurus mono, WAGNER, Abb. Bayer. Ak. v, 1 50,275. 
Macroxus gerrardi, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1861, 92, pi. xvi. 

Sciurus brunneo-nigw, '* CASTLENAU ", GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 429. 
Sciurus fumigatus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 428. 
Sciurus varialilis and S. gerrardi, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 768, 766. 

NOTE. Mr. Alston extends this species to cover my 8. gerrardi, which 
I separated mainly on the ground of smaller size. He says : " Here, 
again, the greater amount of material compels me to go beyond Mr. 
Allen in the identification of nominal species. Most of the above syn- 
onyms were brought together by him under the name of S. variabilis ; 
but 8. gerrardi and 8. rufo-niger [lege brunneo-niger] were kept separate 
under the former title. The principal points on which he rested were 
the smaller size and shorter ears of S. gerrardi; but on examination of a 
sufficient series, I have not been able to find any constancy in the pro- 
portions of the ears, while the difference in size totally disappears. 
. . . The smaller specimens (8. variabilis, 8. gerrardi, etc.) appear to 
prevail towards the north j but this is not constant. . . . Kor is it 
constantly connected with any of the numerous varieties of coloration 
rufous, grizzled, and melanistic specimens occurring of all sizes." These 
color-variations, he says, seem to resolve themselves into three primary 
groups, namely : "1, the morio type", melanistic; " 2, the variabilis 
type", red, varied with black : " 3, the langsdorffi type ", reddish- or yel- 
lowish-grizzled. Each of these types seems to prevail in certain locali- 
ties, but there is no regularity in their distribution, the red and grizzled 
often occurring together. 

Our synonymy of this variable group agrees, except that I included 
8. stramineus under variabilis^ and Gray's Macroxus xanthotus under 
8. gerrardi, which latter Mr. Alston refers to 8. griseogenys ( = Sciurus 


cestuans var. rufo-niger, Allen), with the remark, " By some curious 
error Gray's account of this last (Macroxus xanthotus) has been printed 
after that of M. Irunneo-niger, instead of after M. ' griseogena ; so that 
the remark, 'very like the former >, etc., naturally led Mr. Allen to refer 
the synonym to S. gerrardi " (I.e. p. 667). 


Sciurus deppei, PETERS, Monatsb. K.-P. Ak. Wissen. Berlin, 1863, (1864), 654 (formerly 

referred by me, with a ?, to S. carolinensis). 

Macroxus tephrogaster, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 408. 
Macroxus middellinensis, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 408. 
Macroxus tceniurus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d 8er. xx, 1867, 431. 
Sciurus tephrogaster, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 763 (excluding " f Macroxus fraseri, 


NOTE. The examination of the type of & deppei, Peters, by Mr. 
Alston, shows it to be identical with Gray's M. tephrogaster, over which 
it has three years' priority. "As already observed," says Mr. Alston, 
"M. fraseri, Gray, was so insufficiently, described that Mr. Allen was led 
to identify it with the present species, which is about half its size and 
totally different in coloration" (1. c. p. 669). 


Sciurus cestuans, LINNE, Syst. Nat. i, 1766, 88. 

Sciurus cestuans var. guanensis PETERS, Monatsb. K.-P. Akad. Wissens. Berlin, 1863, 

(1864), 655. 

Myoxus guerlingus, SHAW, Gen. Zool. ii, 1801, 171, pi. clvi. 
Sciurus gilvigularis, " NATTERER'', WAGNER, Wiegm. Arch, fur Naturg. 1843, ii, 43 ; ib. 

1845, i, 148. 

Macroxus leucogaster, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 430. 
Macroxus irroratus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 431. 
Macroxus flaviventer, " CASTELNAU", GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 432. 
Sciurus cestuans var. cestuans, ALLEN, Mon. N. A.m. Rod. 1877, 756 (exclusive of " f S. 

pusillus, Geoffrey ", and " M. Jcuhli, Gray ", and inclusive of "M. irroratus, Gray ", 

referred to var. rufoniger). 

NOTE. "Jtf. irroratus must also be placed here, although the original 
description is such that Mr. Allen unhesitatingly referred it to the last 
species [S. griseogenys]" ALSTON, 1. c. p. 668. 


Sciurus cestuans var. hoffmanni, PETERS, Monatsb. K.-P. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1863, (1864), 654. 

Sciurus hyporrhodus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 419. 

Macroxus xanthotus, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 429. 

Macroxus griseogena, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 429. 

Sciurus griseogenys, ALSTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, 667. 

Sciurus cestuans var. rufoniger, ALLEN, Mon. N. Am. Rod. 1877, 757 (excluding S. rufoniger 

and S. chrysosurus, Pucheran, and adding M. xanthotus, Gray, formerly referred 

to S. gerrardi). 

NOTE. "Mr. Allen, in his monograph, regards this Squirrel as a 
c variety 7 or geographical race of the next species [i. e. S. cestuans}. 


differing in its uniformly larger size and strikingly in the coloration of 
its tail. In a subsequent letter to me he says : 4 It would perhaps be 
just as well to recognize it as entitled to specific rank, although I still 
feel sure of their intergradation.' That such connecting links may yet 
be found seems very probable ; but I have not been able to find such in 
the very large series which I have examined, and am consequently com- 
pelled to keep them provisionally distinct. Unfortunately Mr. Allen has 
identified this species with Pucheran's S. rufo niger, which, as will be 
seen presently, is a much smaller and quite distinct species. Dr. Peters 
described it only as a variety of #. ccstuans ; and though specimens in 
the Berlin Museum are labelled l Sciurus lioffmanni\ the name remains a 
manuscript one. Of Gray's three titles I have adopted griseogena (more 
correctly griseogenys) as being simultaneous in date with the others, and 
as indicating the typical form." ALSTON, 1. c. p. 667. 

Accepting provisionally this Squirrel as specifically distinct from S. 
(jestuans, I dissent from the foregoing only respecting its proper title. 
Although the name lioffmanni may remain a manuscript one as applied 
in a specific s$nse, its publication as a varietal name for this form, three 
years prior to the publication of Gray's names, appears to me to warrant 
its use as a specific designation for the same form. Such a procedure 
has certainly the sanction of numerous precedents. 


Sciurus rufonigfir, PUCHER4N, Rev. de Zool. 1845, 336. ALSTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 

1868, 669. 

Sdurus chry&urus, PUCHERAN, Rev. de Zool. 1845, 337. 
"Macroxus tephrogaster minor, GRAY, MSS." apud Alston. 

NOTE. This species I introduce entirely on the authority of Mr. Alston, 
who has examined the types. I referred both of Pucheran's species 
unhesitatingly to the preceding species, but the presence of two upper 
premolars in S. rufoniger would seem to render it unquestionably distinct 
from S. lioffmanni, and to ally it with S. deppei (as perhaps the young of 
that species). 

Kespecting this species, Mr. Alston remarks as follows : " On examin- 
ing the type of Pucheran's S. rufo-niger in the Paris Museum, I found 
that it was not identical with S. griseogenys [8. cestuans var. rufoniger, 
Allen, Mon. N. Am. Rod.], as Mr. Allen supposed, but rather allied to 
S. deppei [S. tephrogaster, Allen, I. c.\ ; and I soon recognized in it a small 
Squirrel from Panama, and which I had begun to fear would require a 
new name. These examples prove to agree further with S. deppei in 
having two upper premolars, but differ in being more than one third 
smaller, in the color of the lower parts (which are only paler than the 
upper, save on the breast), and in the tail being nearly uniform in color 
with the back (the hairs having only very minute white or yellow tips). 
Specimens in the British Museum are labelled M. tephrogaster minor ; 
but I cannot doubt the distinctness of the form. The type of S. rufo- 



niger has tbe middle of the back nearly black; while that of M chryso- 
surus appears to be a variety, merely differing in the tail being more 
rufous" (I. c. p. GG9). There is nothing in Pucherau's description of the 
last-named species to indicate it is not the young of 8. hoffmanni. 

Judging from what I have seen in other species, the darker color of 
the lower surface in Alston's 8. rufoniger as compared with S. deppei 
might result from immaturity ; but in deference to Mr. Alston's opinion, 
grounded on excellent opportunities for deciding, I give the species pro- 
visional recognition. 


Sdurus pusillus, "Is. GEOFFROY", DESMAREST, Diet. d'Hist. Nat. x, 1817, 109; Mam. 

1822, 337, pi. Ixxvii, fig. 2. ALSTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1878, 670 pi. xli. 
Macroxus JcuhU, GRAY, Aun. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, 1867, 433. 

NOTE. These names the first with a query, the second unhesitat- 
ingly I referred in my monograph to 8. cestuans, influenced mainly by 
the strong aspect of immaturity presented by a specimen in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, which undoubtedly represents this species, not- 
withstanding the statement by Bnffoti, quoted by me, that the type of 
the species was shown by the sexual organs to be adult. Although Mr. 
Alston was unable to find the type of Geoffroy's 8. pusillus, he seems to 
have established its distinctness from S. cestuans by finding two upper 
premolars in the British Museum specimens bearing that name, tie 
considers Gray's M. Jcuhli (which I treated also as the young of 8. cestuans) 
as unquestionably identical with 8. pusillus. This is apparently a very 
rare species, as I have met with references to not more than half a dozen 
specimens in all. It is by far the smallest American species of Sdurus. 

The subjoined summary indicates the changes in nomenclature here 
made from that adopted in "Monographs of North American Rodents", 
and also that employed by Mr. Alston in his recent paper " On the 
Squirrels of the Neotropical Region": 

Allen, November, 1878. 

Alston, October, 1878. 

Allen. August, 1877. 

S arizonensis 

S ari/onensis 

S. collisei. 

S griseoflavus 

S oriseoflavus 

S. hypopyrrbus 

S bypopyrrhus 

S. hypopyrrbus. 

S. aureigaster 

S. bootbise. 
S. aureigaster. 

S. Etramineus 

S stramineus 

, leucops. 
S. hypopvrrhus. 

S. variabili8 . 

S. variabilis 


S. variabilis. 

S. deppei 

S. sestuans . . 

S. deppei 
S. sestuans 


S. gerrardi. 
S. tephrogaster. 
S. sestuans var. sestuans. 

S. hoffmanni 

S. sestuans var. rufcniger. 

S rufonifer 

S. pusillus 

S. pusillus ...... ... 

S. SBstuaus. 




F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 







WASHINGTON, September 6, 1879. 




VOLUME Y. 1879. DUMBER 2. 

Art. X. On the Coatis (Genus IVasua, Storr). 

By J. A. Allen, 

Few of the terrestrial Ferae present a greater range of color-varia- 
tion, wholly independent of sex and age, than do the species of Coati. 
Neither does the history of many groups afford so remarkable a record 
of malidentifications and consequent confusion and complication of 
synonymy. Before entering further upon the general subject, it may 
be stated that the number of species recognized by even comparatively 
recent authors varies from one to five, while the aggregate number of 
synonyms falls little short of thirty. The two valid species of the group 
were very early and simultaneously recognized, but later one of them 
was almost wholly lost sight of for nearly half a century, so that the 
names given to them by the early systematic writers were variously com- 
bined and almost indiscriminately referred by later authors to the 
various nominal species they respectively recognized. As preliminary 
to any attempt to discriminate the species, and for the purpose of eluci- 
dating the tables of synonymy given below, a somewhat extended 
historical summary of the literature of the subject may not be out of 

Brisson, in his "Regne Animal," in 1756, described two species of 
Coati under the names "Le Coati-Moiidi" and "Le Coati-Mondi a queue 
annelee," which afterward became the basis respectively of Linne's Vi- 
verra narica and Viverra nasua. Brisson also described " Le Blaireau 
de Surinam Meles surinamensis? which is also a Coati, referable to the 

* The present revision of the group is based mainly upon the rich material contained 
iu the National Museum, the whole of which has been unreservedly placed at my dis- 
posal by the Director, Professor Spencer F. Baird. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. 
Alexander Agassiz for the use of the material contained in the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology at Cambridge, Mass., which happily supplies important data that would 
have b^ii otherwise inaccessible to me. 

Bull, v, 2 1 I5a 


species with an ammlated tail. This later became in part the basis of 
Erxlebeii's Viverra vulpecula.* Only the first two of Bilsson's three spe- 
cies above cited have special importance in the present connection. His 
diagnoses are so explicit as to leave no doubt respecting the particular 
species characterized, and they thus render Linne's Viverra narica and 
V. nasua perfectly determinable. Buffon also described and figured 
both species from specimens he was able to study in life, under the 
names "Le Coati brun" and "Le Coati noiratre," corresponding respec- 
tively with Linne's Viverra narica and V. nasua. Schreber copied Buf- 
fon's plates and adopted Linne's names. He seems, however, to have 
had personal knowledge of both species, and takes pains to clearly point 
out their specific differences, alluding to the fact that both Buffon and 
Pennant considered Viverra narica as merely a "variety" ("blosse Spiel - 
arten") of V. nasua. Erxleben and Gmelin also adopted Linne's names, 
and correctly referred to them Brisson's and Buffon's species. G . Cuvier, 
in 1798, employed Buffou's vernacular names, but referred the species to 
the genus Ursus, retaining, however, the specific names given by Linne. 
Shaw, in 1800, gave Viverra narica as a " var.?", remarking that it had 
usually been considered as a variety of Viverra nasua, but adds: "It is, 
however, rather larger than the former [V. nasua], of a browner color, 
and without any annuli, or, at least, without any distinct variegations 
on the tail," thereby showing that he appreciated correctly some of the 
more obvious external characters of the two species. Up to this time 
the two species had not been confounded by systematic writers, and the 
references to Brisson and Buffon prove to have been correctly allocated. 
Desmarest, in 1817, apparently intended to adopt for the group Storr's 
generic name Nasua, of which he recognized three species, as follows : 
1. " Le Coati, Nasua quasje, Geoffroy," to which he referred " Viverra 
quasje, Linn." (i. e., Gmelint), and Buffon's " le Coati noiratre." 2. " Le 

* The Viverra vulpe^ula of Erxleben is one of those curious compositions so frequently 
met with in the works of the earlier systematists, particularly those of Linne", Erx- 
leben, and Gnielin, based on the descriptions and figures of still earlier writers, 
especially those of Hernandez, Seba, Jonston, Brisson, Buffon, and Schreber. These 
compositions frequently embraced what, in the light of the present day, can be recog- 
nized as several widely diverse species, belonging not unfrequently to distinct fami- 
lies of animals. While some of the citations are still indeterminable with certainty, 
others may be readily identified. Erxleben's first citation under his vulpecula is 
"Yzquiepatl sen Vulpecula, quae Maitzium torrefactum aernulator colore HernantL 
Mex. p. 332 cum jig. mediocr.", which is apparently the " Ichneumon de Yzquiepatl, sen 
Vulpecula Americana, quss colore Maizium torrefactum semulator" of Seba (Thesau. i, 
1634, 68, pi. xlii,fig. 1). said to be "in America Quasjo vocatur" and "vivum ad Suri- 
nam." The description and figure indicate an animal having some resemblance to a 
Coati, but is as likely to have been a Raccoon, and is certainly indeterminable with 
certainty. With it are combined Brissou's "Le Blaireau de Surinam," which is un- 
questionably a Nasua, andBuffou's "LeCoase" (Hist. Nat., xiii, pp. 288, 299, pi. xxxviii), 
which is beyond doubt the Pekaii or Fisher of " Virginie," the Mustela pennantiof 
modern systeinatists, and (primarily) the Viverra vulpecula of Schreber, which Erxle- 
beu also quotes. 

t Although various writers cite a "Viverra quasje, Linn.", the name originated with 
Gmelin (Syst. Nat., i, 87), whose first reference is: " V. castanea subtus flavescens, naso 


Coati brim, Viverra narica, Linn.", to wliich lie referred Buffoii's "pi. 48" 
(the same plate is also referred to the preceding species!). 3. " Le Coati 
roux, Viverra nasua, Linn.", to wliicli is referred Schreber's " pi. 118." 
In 1820 he made a still more thorough confusion of the species, of which 
he nominally, recognized two, under the names Nasua rufa and Nasua 
fusca. His ^ r . rufa is F. Cuvier's " Coati roux" (Hist, des Mam., livr. i), 
which is merely a red phase of the common V. nasua of Linne", while his 
N. fusca is a composition of Linnets V. narica with Marcgrave's " Coati- 
mondi" (referred by Linne to his V. nasua), the Coati and Coati noiratre 
of Buffon, and F. Cuvier's " Coati bran," which last is also referable to 
Linne's V. nasua. 

F. Cuvier,* in 1817, nominally recognized two species, but really de- 
scribed only one, but confounded the synonyms of both. These are : 1. 
"Coati roux; Viverra nasu-alAwi." In his description of this he cor- 
rectly says : " le queue est annelee de noir et de fauve." 2. " Coati bran ; 
Viverra narica, Buff., pll. 47-48." In his description of this he says : 
" le queue est annelee de noir et de jaune sale," and therefore it is not 
the Viverra narica of Linne. Furthermore, in citing here both of Buf- 
fon's plates Ixvii and Ixviii, he confounds both of the Linnsean species 
under the name " Viverra narica," and fails altogether to recognize the 
true narica. 

Desmoulins, in 1823, followed F. Cuvier in making two species, and 
while he adopted Linne's names he wrongly referred Schreber's plate cxviii 
to Viverra nasua, and cites both of Buffon's plates Ixvii and Ixviii under 
V. narica. Lesson, in 1827, simply followed Desmarest's nomenclature 
and determinations of 1820. 

F. Cuvier, in the first livraison of his " Histoire des Mammiferes," 
published in 1818, figured the red phase of the Viverra nasua of Linne 
under the name " Le Coati roux," and in the fourth livraison (1819) of 
the same work figured a pale fulvous variety and a pale brown variety 
under the titles, respectively, of " Coati brun femelle, variete fauve," and 
" Coati brun, femelle," and in the forty-eighth livraison (1825) figured 
still another variety under the name "Coati bran-fonce"; all of which 
are unquestionably referable to the Linna3an Viverra nasua. 

In 1826, Prinz Maximilian published his " Beitrage zur ISaturge- 
schichte von Brasilien," in which work he bestowed on Linne's Viverra 
nasua the name Nasua socialis, and added a 4 second species as " ? 2. 
N. Solitaria" and further indicated 3. " f Nasua nocturna" He calls 
attention to the great variability in color that the Coatis present, referring 
to the fact that in the common Coati, known in systematic works as 

producto, cauda amiulata. Sysl. Nat. X, p. 44." His second citation is: "Meles ex 
saturate spadiceo nigricans, cauda fusca annulis flavicantibus quasi cincta. Brlss. quadr. 
p. 185." Whether the first reference relates to Nasua or to Procyon is hard to deter- 
mine, but the second is simply Brisson's "Blaireau de Surinam." "Quasje" is well 
known to be one of the native names applied to the Coatis in Surinam and some other 
parts of South America. 

* Diet, des Sci. Nat., tome ix, 1817, p. 464. 


u Nasua nifa- t " or " T7rm*ff nasuaj* he had. found red, gray, and brownish 
individuals in the same family. He therefore held all these animals for 
a single species till he learned from hunters that there were two, of which 
one was small and slender, and associated in numerous companies, while 
the other was larger, less slender,. and lived singly or in families; the 
first being termed by the natives " Cuati de Bando" ; the second, " Cuati 
Mundeo." Of the last, he says he had seen only a single example, yet he 
believed in its existence in consequence of the reports of the Brazilian 
hunters. He also says he regards it as unwise to name the species in 
reference to their color, as, for example, " Nasua rufa and subfusca? 
but deems it better to bestow names in reference to their modes of 
life. He accordingly gives the name Nasua socialis to the " Cuati de 
Bando " of the natives, of which he met with many specimens, and of 
which he gives a detailed description. He says this is the common 
variety, which has been named Nasua rufa, and which is sometimes of a 
purer, sometimes of a more brownish red. His N. solitaria is the " Cuati 
Mundeo" of the Brazilians of the eastern coast, but he expresses doubt 
respecting its specific distinctness from his N". socialis. He describes 
the body as entirely yellowish ash-gray, darker on the back, pale yellow- 
ish-red below and yellowish-brown on the sides ; tail very pale grayish- 
red, annulated with blackish-brown. The single example seen by him, 
and which he describes, was an old male. Its larger size and stouter 
form, as compared with his N. socialis, described from, female examples, 
as well as its different habits, have since been shown to be merely sexual 
or due to age. According to the Indians, this larger Coati (N. solitaria) 
agrees in habits with the other species, except that it lives singly or in 
families and is less social. 

In commenting upon the general subject, he says it is certainly wrong 
to recognize three species of Coati, namely, " Nasua rufa, olfusca,* und 
narica? as Eschwege has done, or four, by adding Geoffrey's Nasua 

* Illiger is credited by Maximilian, Fischer, Gray, and others, with the names Nasua 
monde and Nasua obfusca, but neither of them gives references to the places of their occur- 
rence. Gray, however, incorrectly adds, "Prodromus," but neither of these names 
occurs in Illiger's " Prodromus," where he merely recognized two species under the 
Linusean names of nasua and narica. In his " Verzeichniss der in Siid-Amerika vor- 
kommenden. Gattungen und Arten," in his " Ueberblick der Siiugthiere nach ihrer Ver- 
theilung iiber die Welttheile".(Abhandl. Berlin. Akad. 1804-11), he enumerates eight 
"species" of .Nasua as follows : "Nasua Monde, minor, spadicea, Narica, Quasjef, Squash?, 
f Cuja, f canina," but gives only the following means of identifying the new names. In 
reference to them he says : "Die Arten [der Nasua'], von iihnlicher Farbe und Bildung, 
sind bei den Schriftstellern sehr verwirrt. Ob Vulpecula, Quasje und /Squash, wirklich 
-selbstiindige Arten, oder nur junge Thiere andrer Arten sind, kann man nicht mit 
Sicherheit bestimmen. Ich rechne noch Mustela Cuja Molina und Gmelin, und Zimmer- 
niann's Koupara, den Canis sylvestris Scba Thesaur. I. Tab. 30. Fig. 1, zu dieser Gat- 
tung." The memoir in question abounds in similar instances of the multiplication of 
names without formal characterization, five South American "species" of Gulo, for ex- 
ample, being enumerated in the same connection. 


pusilla,* which he says is apparently a young animal. lie adds: 
"Hochstens zwei Arten des eigentlichen Ouati kami man als in den 
von mir bereis'ten Gegenden einheimisch annehmen, wenn sie nicht auf 
eine reducirt werden miissen, die Farbe aber kanu, meinen Becbach- 
tnngen zufolge, keine Species derselben bestimmeii" (1. c., ii, p. 297). 
Finally, he concludes his article on the Coatis with an "Amnerkung," 
in which he says he has imperfectly learned of another animal which 
appears to belong to the group of Coatis, but which differs a little in its 
habits from the two species he has described. This is his "? Nasua noc- 
tur-na, das Jupard oder nachtliche Cuati." The only skin he saw of this 
reputed animal, said to inhabit the great forests of the eastern coast of 
Brazil, was so imperfect that he was unable to determine certainly 
about the genus. It differed from the other described Coatis somewhat 
in color in being pale grayish-yellow above and pale yellowish-red below, 
and through the absence of color-rings on the tail, which was colored 
uniformly with the back. According to the Brazilian hunters, it lives 
during the day in holes in trees, and goes abroad only in the night, the 
hunters never seeing it in the daytime. It differs, he says, from the 
other Coatis, if indeed it really belongs with them, not only in its noc- 
turnal habits, but in its soft, fine hair and uniformly colored ("unge- 
fleckten") tail. 

Wagner, t in 1841, united all the Coatis into one species, under the name 
Nasua socialis, but grouped his bibliographical references under the 
heads of two varieties, called respectively " var. rufa aut fulva," and 
" var. bruneaJ? His view of the case may be best presented in his own 
words : " Die beiden Arten, welche aus dein gemeinen Cuati errichtet 
worden, sind welter nicht s als Farbenabanderungen, die sich, wie diess 
der Prinz von Neuwied und Eengger gezeigt haben, in einer und der- 
selben Famine und in demselben Wurfe beisammen vorfinden, und weder 
vom Geschlecht, noch vom Alter, noch vom Klima bedingt sind." 

Yon Tschudi, a little later (1844-46), recognized five species in his 
-" Fauna Peruana" (pp. 98-103), namely, the Nasua socialis and N. soli- 
tar ia of Maximilian, and three new ones. The latter are N. leucorliynclms, 
N. mttata, and N. montana. He gives only -two as found in Peru N. 
socialis^ the usual or common species, and N. montana, known from a' 
single specimen collected in the Peruvian Andes at an altitude of 8,000 
feet above the sea. The N. leucorliynclms, von Tschudi states, is often 
brought by travellers from the interior of Brazil, but there is apparently 
good reason for questioning the correctness of the locality here assigned. 
Under this name is given a good description of Linnets Viverranarica 
the first recognition of the species for nearly half a century, and the first 

* A "Nasua Quasjc, Geoffr. Collect, du Mus.", is cited also by Fischer, and Gray gives 
"Nasua quasie, Geoff. Mus. Paris"; but I cannot find that the name was ever published 
by Geoffrey. 

tSchreber's Saugt., Suppl., ii, 1841, p. 165. 

t As synonyms of N. socialis he cites Viverra "nasuta" and V. narica of Liiine", and 
Nasua rufa and ^T. "rufina" of Desinarest. 


detailed description. The N. vittata was based on a melanistic speci- 
men collected by the traveller Schoinburgk in the interior of Guiana, 
to which is referred the black variety of Coati mentioned by his brother 
in the "Annals of Natural History" (vol. iv, p. 431). The N. montana 
is also a melanistic type, without the usual white spots about the eyes. 
Four of vonTschudi's species are thus referable to the Liunaean V. nasua, 
and one to the V. narica. 

Gray,* in 1843, revived the Linnaeaii name narica, but, although he 
cites as the first synonym " Viverra narica, Linn.," all his other citations, 
and doubtless all his specimens, are referable to Liune's V. nasua. He 
recognized two species, the other being u Nasua rufa, Desm.," by which 
he evidently intended the Viverra nasua of Linne. In 1864, t he for- 
mally reviewed the group of Coatis, recognizing three species, add- 
ing as new a " Nasua olivacea." He perpetuates the confusions of 
nomenclature and synonymy of his earlier notice, and, so far as can be 
determined by his descriptions, his material is all referable to the single 
Linnsean species Viverra nasua. In ISGGf he added still another nominal 
species under the name Nasua dor salts. In 1869, in his "Catalogue of Car 
nivorous, Pachydermatous, and Edentate Mammalia in the British Muse- 
um " (pp. 238-241), he gives the four species he had previously recognized 
as follows: 1. Nasua rufa; 2. Nasua narica; 3. Nasua dorsalis; 4. Nasua 
olivacea. The references under N. rufa are all pertinent to the Viverra 
nasua of Linne ; those under Nasua narica, except the first three (" Viverra 
Narica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 64 ; Schreb. Saugeth. t. 119 5 Ursus narica, 
Tab. E16ni. p. 113, 1798"), and the "Nasua leucoryplia [lege leucorliynclim] 
Tschudi, Arch, fur Naturg.", are also all referable to the same species, as 
are his own N. dor sails and 'N. olivacea. To judge by his descriptions, as 
well as by the localities given, his material is also all referable to Linne's 
Viverra nasua, as all his species are described as having annulated tails. 
It would be unsafe, however, to assume, that the Viverra narica was 
unrepresented in the material at his command. Respecting his N. rufa 
and JV. narica he says : " I have examined with care a series of skulls 
which are said to have belonged to these two species, but have been 
unable to discover any characters by which the skulls belonging to 
one species can be distinguished from those belonging to the other. . . . 
If I had only two or three skulls, I might have perhaps seen differences 
which I might have regarded as distinctions ; but when a series of some 
twenty or more are examined, it is impossible to define any distinction." 
These suggestive remarks confirm me in the conclusion above expressed, 
that Gray had before him only skulls of Viverra nasua, for he certainly 
could not have failed to distinguish the skulls, or even the skins, of the 
true "F. narica (Nasua leucorhynchus, von Tschudi) if he had had them. 

Giebel in 1855, recognized two species, namely, Nasua socialis and 

*Cat. Mam. Brit. Mns., 1843, p. 74. 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, pp. 701-792. 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1866, p. 169, pi. xvii. 
Siiugethiere, pp. 749-751. 


Nasua soUtaria. To the first lie virtually referred all the species of pre- 
vious authors except N. soUtaria of Maximilian, which alone constitutes 
his second species. This, however, as Hensel has shown, unquestiona- 
bly relates only to old males of the common species. 

In 1860, Weinland described and figured* a species of Coati from Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, under the name Nasua soUtaria var. mexicana. The speci- 
men was taken when two months old, and transmitted alive to the 
Frankfort Zoological Garden, and when described and figured was 
already nearly five years old. Weiriland's detailed description of its 
external characters and hisexcellent figure, drawn and colored from the 
living animal, form the first definite information recorded in reference to 
the Mexican Coati. The species, however, is wrongly referred to Prinz 
Maximilian's Nasua soUtaria, and although the author in his general 
history of the subject refers to von Tschudi's Nasua leucorliynclius, lie 
failed to perceive that the example he here describes represented that 
species as well as the old LinnaBan Viverra narica. 

De Saussure, in 1862,t recognized two species from Mexico under the 
names Nasua socialis and Nasua soUtaria, which, he says, bear respect- 
ively the native names "Tejon de manada" and " Tejon solo." Both 
are referable to the Nasua leucorliynclius of von Tschudi ( = Viverra narica , 
Linne). He seems to have made here the same mistake respecting the 
Coatis of Mexico that Prinz Maximilian made in reference to those of 
Brazil, namely, that of describing the old males as a distinct species, 
adopting for it Maximilian's name soUtaria, and retaining the same 
author's name socialis for the younger males and females ; but the two 
supposed species to which De Saussure gave these names are not the 
two so named by Maximilian. 

Von Frantzius, in 1869, stated f that the specimens collected by him 
in Costa Eica had been determined by Professor Peters to be the Nasua 
leucorliynclius of von Tschudi. He says that two species are recognized 
in Costa Eica under the names " Pisote solo" and " Pisote de manada," 
which are respectively the " einsame Eusselbar" (Nasua soUtaria, auct.) 
and the " gesellige Eusselbar (N. socialis, auct.). But he says that all 
of the Costa Eican specimens that he had examined belonged to Nasua 
leucorliynclius, and he thinks it therefore probable that only this spe- 
cies occurs there, and that the so-called " geselligen Eiisselbaren " are 
only the young and females of N. leucorliynclius, and not the N. socialis. 
Consequently he believes that N. leucorhynchus may be considered as the 
only representative of the genus in the Northern Tropics, and that N. 
socialis is restricted to the Southern Tropics. He further notes that the 
coloration of the Costa Eican species is very variable, the young being- 
browner and the old animals more varied with blackish and white. 

Hensel, in 1869, in his u Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Thierwelt Bra- 

* Zoologische Garten, Jahrg. i, I860, p. 189. 

t Zoologische Garten, Jahrg. iii, 1862, pp. 53 ; 56. 

J Arch, fur Naturg., 1869, i, pp. 292-294. 


siliens,"* in his account of the Brazilian Coati, claimed that Maximilian's 
Nasua solitaria (the " Coati inondeo" of the Brazilians) was based merely 
on old males of the common species. He refers to the great sexual differ- 
ences these animals present in respect to habits, as being the basis of a 
grave error committed by zoologists, and to certain climatic differences 
in color. He even goes so far as to say : " Ich glaube, dass es nur eine 
einzige Art, die Nasua socialis gibt, wenigstens enthalten die Beschrei- 
bungen anderer nichts, was sich nicht auch bei der genannten Art vor- 

In 1873, t however, he recognized two species, namely, Nasua socialis 
and Nasua leucorhynchus. The first he had found so abundant in Southern 
Brazil that he collected of it not less than two hundred skulls, as well as 
many skeletons. He states that from the comparison of these skulls, as 
from observation of the animal in a state of nature, it appears that the 
old males live solitary, and have been accounted a different species un- 
der the name Nasua solitaria. The Brazilian hunters, he says, also dis- 
tinguish it as " Coati monde" from the common " Coati de vara," but at 
the same time recognize very well their relationship. Among his above- 
mentioned skulls were a considerable number of those of old hermits, or 
solitaires ("Einsiedlern"). At a particular time of life that is to say, 
when the long canines begin to become worn the old males leave the 
troops, of which, in company with the old and young females, they had 
hitherto formed a part, and afterward only run with them during the pairing 
season. One can tell, he says, with considerable certainty, by the skull, 
whether or not the animal had already left the troop. The males that run 
with the troops are, as shown by an examination of their skulls, not fully 
grown, so that size becomes a distinctive character of the old solitary 
males. It is difficult, he says, to find any difference in color between 
the two assumed species ; and although he examined every example care- 
fully, and with the object of finding two species, he was never able to 
find any color-differences. He further states that solitary females are 
never met with, unless, perhaps, they have been driven from the herd 
in hunting them. 

He later refers to the fact that a considerable number of species have 
been recognized, but adds that, with one exception, he has no judgment 
to render respecting them. In Eio de Janeiro he saw an example in 
confinement, which he thought probably came from Bahia or Pernam- 
buco, that was distinguishable by its reddish color. He thought it 
perhaps represented Desmarest's Nasua rufa, but to him it appeared to 
differ from the Southern Nasua only in its color, through the yellow 
being of a reddish tone, f 

* Ibid., Jalirg. x, 1869, pp. 289-293. 

t "Beitriige zur Kenntiiiss der Saugethiere Sud-Brasiliens," Abhandl. Kouigl. Akad. 
Wissenscli. zu Berlin, 1872, (1873), pp. 63-67. 

ilu his former paper, in alluding to this subject, he says: " In Rio de Janeiro, in 
Bahia und Pernauibuco sah ich gezahmte Coatis, an denen das Gelb der Haare dunkler 
war uud einen rothlicheu Ton hatte, so dass der Farbeuton des ganzen Thieres auch 


The second species lie here admits is the Nasua leucorliynclim from 
Costa Eica, which, from a comparison of skulls sent him by Dr. von 
Frantzius, he found to be smaller* than N. sodalix, the skull rounder, 
with the crests and ridges less developed, and the molar teeth thicker. 

From, the foregoing it will be seen that the two species of Coati owe 
their first introduction into systematic literature to Linne, who in turn 
derived them from Brisson and Buffon, by each of whom both were 
described at nearly the same date. It further appears that these species 
were properly denned (as far as they were then known) and clearly recog- 
nized by all the leading systematists, down to the early, part of the 
present century, and that confusion and obscurity originated with the 
French encyclopaedists, the two species being similarly more or less in- 
volved at the hands of both Desrnarest and F. Cuvier in the year 1817, 
and that malidentification and confusion of synonymy have since been 
the rule. It furthermore appears that the Linnsean name narica, when 
used at all. has, since that date, covered dnly color- variations of the Lin- 
nasan nasua, and that the true narica of Linii6 finally became again 
specifically distinguished in the leucorliynclms of von Tschudi, and is at 
last currently recognized under that name as the second and only other 
valid species of the genus Nasua. 

These two species may be briefly diagnosed as follows : 

COMMON CHARACTERS. Nose produced, terminating in a bald, cartilaginous snout ; 
tail nearly as long as the body. Skull narrow, long, the frontal region elevated ; 
palate prolonged backward ; postorbital processes rudimentary in youth, well 
developed in old age ; sagittal and occipital crests strongly developed in the males 
in old age, but the former permanently obsolete in the females. Incisors ^|, of 
moderate size, the outer upper separated from the others, and placed more pos- 
teriorly; canines l ~, all curved outward, greatly developed in the males, of 
moderate size in the females ; the upper laterally compressed with cutting edges ; 
the lower rather larger and subtriangular, with a deep longitudinal groove on 
the inner anterior border ; premolars z ~] molars |~.' A small white spot above, 

another below the eye, and a third on the cheek Genus Nasua Storr. 

DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 1. Nose and edge of upper lip white, in strong con- 
trast with the dark brown of the cheeks and facial region ; tail concolor with the 
back, or with obsolete half-rings on the lower surface of the basal half. Pelage 
long, soft, the long hairs of the dorsal surface tipped with rufous, fulvous, or 
whitish. Hinder portion of the palate angularly depressed medially. . .narica. 
2. Nose and upper lip gray, uniform in color with the cheeks and facial region ; 
tail conspicuously annulated with about 7 to 9 rather broad fulvous or rufous 
rings, alternating with dusky or black ones. Pelage generally short, harsh, 
shining, the long hairs of the dorsal surface usually black-tipped. Size smaller 
and nasal region of the skull narrower than in the preceding ; palatal region 
also narrower, with its posterior portion flat not sharply depressed in the mid- 
dle, as in the preceding. Ears also rather longer and more pointed rufa. 

etwas rothlich war ; allein iin Uebrigen glichen sie ganz den Coatis des Siidens und 
konnten hochstens als klimatische Farbenvarietat betrachtet werden." Loc. cit., p. 

* His Costa Rican specimens, as shown by his descriptions and measurements of 
them, were not fully grown, which accounts for his statement that the Costa Rican 
species is smaller, it being in reality larger. 


XASUA XABICA, (Liime) Illiger. 



Lc Coati-Moncli, BRISSOX, Reg. Anim., 1756, 262. 
Coati brun, BUFFOX, Hist. Nat., viii, 1760, pi. xlvyi. 

Harm narica, LIXXE, Syst. Nat., i, 4 176G, 64. Based entirely on Bufifon, as above. 
SCHREBER, Siiugth., iii [1776?], p. 438, pi. cxix (fig. from Button;. ERXLEBEX, 
Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, 486. ZIMMERMAXX, Geogr. Gesch., ii, 1780, 291. 
GMELIX, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 88. SHAW, Gen. ZoSL, i, 1800, 385 (given as a 
"var.?")- DESMAREST, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 219. 
Ursns narica, G. CUVIER, Tabl. Elem. d'Hist. Nat., 1798, 113. 

:' / ^as-ua nocturna, MAXIMILIAN, Beitr. Naturges. Bras., ii, 1826, 298. 

Xasua Icncorlnjnclnis, vox TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, 1844-46, 100. FRAXTZIUS, Arch, 
fur Naturg., 1869, 292. DUGES, La Naturaleza, i, 1869, 137. HEXSEL, Ab- 
liandl. Konigl. Akad. Wissens. Berlin, 1872, (1873), 65. 

Xasua socialis var. fusca, FISCHER, Synop. Mam., 1829, 149. 

Xasua socialis var. brunea, WAGXER, Suppl. Schreber's Saugth., ii, 1841, 165. 

Xasua socialis, DE SAUSSURE, Zoologisclie Garten, Jahrg. iii, 1862, 53. 

Xasna solitaria var. mexicana, WEIXLAXD, Zoologische Garten, Jalirg. i, No. 11, Aug. 
1860, 191, with a colored plate from life. DE SAUSSURE, Zoologische Garten, 
Jahrg. iii, No. 2, Feb. 1862, 27 (habits), 54 (external characters). 

jy8M. solitaria, DE SAUSSURE, Zoologische Garten, Jahrg. iii, 1862, 54. 

Bassaricijon gabbii, ALLEX, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1877, 267, pi. ii, animal (not 
Bassaricyon gabbii, Allen, ibid., 1876, 20, pi. i, skull). 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. Xose, edge of upper lip, a spot below the 
eye, another above the eye, and a small spot on the cheek, white; a white 
line, more or less distinct, usually connects the white spot above the eye 
with the white nasal area; rest of the facial portion of the head black- 
ish-brown ; forehead, sides and top of the head, hind neck, and a trian- 
gular area over the shoulders, lighter brown, varying in different speci- 
mens, however, from dark brown to yellowish-brown, or even deep golden. 
In many specimens this more or less fulvous area has well-defined out- 
lines, and terminates posteriorly in a triangular extension reaching nearly 
to the middle of the back 5 in others, it is less well defined, and has a 
more restricted extension posteriorly. The ears are broadly margined 
Avith whitish, with long brown hair externally at the base, Avhich in win- 
ter pelage forms overhanging tufts that nearly cover the ears. The gen- 
eral color of the rest of the dorsal surface is dark brown, becoming darker 
posteriorly, and varying in different specimens from fulvous to blackish- 
brown, with the tips of the long hairs lighter and lustrous, varying in dif- 
ferent specimens from nut-brown through fulvous to pale yellowish-white 
or silvery. The color of the tail is nearly uniform with that of the hind por- 
tion of the back, with the distal third darker or blackish. Faint annula- 
tions are often observable, on close inspection^ particularly on the basal two- 
thirds of the lower surface, but they are apparently never con spicuous in the 
adults, and frequently specimens occur in w : hich no traces of annulations 
can be detected. They appear to be more prominent in very young speci- 
mens than in those that are full grown, and to become obsolete in old age. 
They are, however, sometimes entirely absent in the young. Sides of the 


neck whitish, varying from fulvous-white to silvery, this color usually 
extending over the fore-limbs as far as the elbow, and posteriorly along 
the sides of the body; 011 the sides of the neck it often forms a well- 
defined patch extending upward to the ear. The thighs are also more 
or less whitish. Distal portions of the limbs dark brown, passing into 
blackish on the feet. Chin, to beyond the syinphysis of the jaw, pure 
white ; throat, breast, and anterior half of the ventral surface, whitish or 
grayish-white, more or less obscured by the brown of the basal portions 
of the hairs. The pure white of the chin is usually separated from the 
grayish-white of the throat by a dusky band, formed by the extension 
and confluence of the dark brown of the cheeks ; this, however, is an ex- 
tremely variable feature, being sometimes wholly absent, often indistinct^ 
but sometimes very broad and prominent. The color of the ventral sur- 
face is variable, being sometimes wholly silvery, or grayish- white, or en- 
tirely dusky, with no whitish anywhere cm the lower surface except on 
the chin and a patch of dingy or yellowish-white on the throat and breast. 
Usually the anterior half of the ventral surface is more or less whitish r 
through which the fuscous bases of the hairs show, the whitish surface- 
color being formed by the white tips of the hairs. A similar whitish or 
yellowish-white tint is seen over the inguinal region. On the chin, the 
hairs are short and white to the base ; on the rest of the lower surface 
they are dusky at base and whitish at the tips, resulting usually in the 
production of a dingy gray. 

The pelage is full, long, and soft, and the tail full and bushy. The 
hairs composing the whitish patches on the sides of the neck are usually 
longer than those of the adjoining parts. 

Judging by the specimens in hand, there are no sexual differences in 
color, one of the darkest specimens of the series being a female. 

In very young specimens, the pelage is softer and more woolly, with 
the look of immaturity usually characteristic of young animals. They 
show, however, the same facial markings as the adults. The annulations 
of the tail appear to be generally more strongly marked in the young,, 
being, in some cases, quite conspicuous, but are sometimes entirely absent. 

A series of fourteen skins from various parts of Mexico and Central 
America presents a wide range of individual variation in color, but not 
greater than most mammals present, and not nearly so great as is seen 
in Nasna fusca. There seems, also, to be a recognizable amount of geo- 
graphical variation, the Mexican specimens being much lighter-colored 
than those from Guatemala and Costa Rica, The lightest-colored spe- 
cimen of all comes from the Texan side of the Eio Grande, near Fort 
Brown. In this example (Nat, Mus., No. 12757, Dr. J. C. Merrill), the 
general aspect of the dorsal surface is yellowish-gray, with a large, 
whitish area on the sides of the neck, and much white along the sides of 
the body; below, strongly whitish throughout. The white eye-markings 
do not quite form a continuous ring, but the spot above the eye has a 
whitish band connecting it with the white nasal area. The pelage is 


very long and 'full, and the fulvous under-color of the dorsal surfa.ce 
shows strongly through the light tips of the long hairs. 

A Mazatlan specimen (Nat. Mus., No. 9068, T. Bischoff) has the top of 
the head, back of the neck, and a long, triangular area over the shoulders, 
deep yellowish-brown or golden, and the whole upper surface is strongly 
fulvous, through the long hairs being tipped with this color. The white 
area on the nose is very broad ; the two white eye-spots form a very 
broad, continuous ring around the eye, which is connected with the white 
nose-patch by a prominent stripe of the same color. The breadth of the 
white eye-ring above the eye is 15 mm. The white of the chin, throat, 
and breast forms a continuous area, and is of unusual purity. In very 
favorable lights, about four or five indistinct rings can be traced in 
the basal two-thirds of the tail $ but on casual inspection the tail would 
be pronounced unicolor with the back, except that it has a blackish tip. 
A Colima (Mexico) specimen (Nat. Mus., No. 7228, John Xantus) presents 
the same general appearance as the Mazatlan specimen, except that the 
golden on the hind-head, nape, and shoulders has a more restricted area. 
The white on the nose is also much reduced, and the white about the eye 
only forms two small, wholly separated spots, the upper of which is con- 
nected with the white of the nasal region by a narrow, half-obliterated 
line. A specimen from Pacuare, Costa Ilica (Nat. Mus., No. 12878, Jose 
0. Zeledon), has the face-markings nearly as in the Mazatlan specimen, 
but the ocular ring is interrupted at the posterior canthus of the eye. 
The yellow area of the nape and neighboring parts is less well defined 
than in either of the preceding, and has a redder cast. The dorsal sur- 
face, particularly posteriorly, is much darker, and the light tippings of 
the hairs are silvery 011 the sides, and rufous or reddish-brown over the 
shoulders and middle of the back. In other words, the specimen is much 
darker. The tail has obsolete rings and a dark tip, as in the others. 

A specimen from Central Guatemala (Nat. Mus., No. 8622, Henry 
Hague), in general features greatly resembles, the last, but the brown of 
the face is darker and the white markings more restricted, the eye-spots 
being small, widely separated, and wholly cut off from the white area 
on the nose. The posterior half of the dorsal surface and the tail are 
much darker (blackish-brown), but the sides of the body, from the head 
to the middle of the body, have the long hairs tipped for nearly half 
their length with silvery white, tinged more or less with yellow. A 
specimen from Talamanca, Costa Eica (Nat. Mus., No. 12197, Jos6 Zele- 
don), in much worn pelage, is very dark throughout, and, apparently 
owing to the weariug-off of the ends of the long hairs, shows none of 
the usual light tippings. This specimen is the darkest of the series: it 
shows trace of annulation in the tail. A specimen from Mexico (Nat. 
Mus., No. 7230, labelled "Nasua leucorliynclms, Tschudi, Mexique, Maison 
Yerreaux ") is deep blackish-brown throughout, the long hairs slightly 
tipped with light-yellowish over the shoulders, passing into silvery on 
the sides of the shoulders. Sides of the neck with a small area of white, 


over which the hairs are conspicuously lengthened; throat and fore 
linibs externally whitish; hind limbs nearly black, the long hairs lus- 
trous black. The white face-markings are greatly restricted, the eye- 
spots being very small, and the white nasal area greatly reduced. The 
whole lower surface of the head posterior to the mandibular symphysis 
is deep blackish-brown, Avithin which, just behind the oral angle, is a 
small white spot, enclosing the mandibular tuft of whiskers. This exam- 
ple (in full winter pelage) is a female that had apparently suckled young 
the previous year. In general appearance, the coloration in this example 
is similar to that of a melanistic Woodchuck (Arctomys monax}. There 
is no white anywhere on the ventral surface, except on the chin, and a 
sprinkling of yellowish-white hairs on the throat. Another specimen 
from Las Graces de Candelaria, Costa Eica (Nat. Mus., No. 9069, Jose" 
Zeledon), collected during Dr. von Frantzius's explorations in Costa 
Eica, also in full winter pelage, is quite similar to the last, but has rather 
more white on the face, and less white on the sides of the neck and fore 
limbs, and the white on the lower surface is continuous from the point 
of the chin to the middle of the body, with no cross-band of brown across 
the posterior part of the lower jaw. There is no trace of annulations in 
the tail. 

Another specimen from Costa Eica (Nat. Mus.^, No. 11405, J. Carniiol) 
differs remarkably from all the others. It is little more than half-grown, 
but the long hairs are worn off from the sides of the body posteriorly, 
and the pelage generally has a much worn aspect. In this specimen, the 
whole head is pale fulvous, including the parts usually white, but the 
usual face-marking can be dimly traced. The general color of the body 
is dark fulvous, lighter on the more worn parts. Over the shoulders 
and along the middle of the back, where the long hairs are intact, the 
color is darker, approaching chestnut, with short rusty tips to the long 
hairs. This example seems to represent in this species the red phase of 
Nasua, rufa. 

There are also in the collection two young specimens, apparently not 
more than two to three months old. One is from Tehuantepec (Nat. 
Mus., To. 9375, Prof. F. Surnichrast) ; the other from Belize (M. C. Z., 
No. 5542, Dr. H. Berendt). They present a general aspect of immaturity 
in the texture of the pelage and in the rather darker tone of the under 
color; but they have the same general markings as the adults, the facial 
pictura being the same, and the long hairs of the pelage being similarly 
tipped with yellowish. The tail is, however, more distinctly annulated, 
the anuulations in the Tehuantepec specimen being very prominent. 
The hair on the tail is also rather short and woolly. 

A still younger specimen from Jalapa, Mexico (M. C. Z., No. 2030, 
Montes-de-Oca), less than nine inches long (head and body), and proba- 
bly not more than two or three weeks old, differs from those last de- 
scribed in having the whole dorsal surface nearly uniform brownish- 


black; in the pelage being wholly soft and woolly, the long lighter- 
tipped hairs having not yet appeared. The sides of the neck and the 
whole lower surface are uniform grayish-white, with no separating band 
cutting off the white of the chin from that of the throat. Lower surface 
of the tail for two inches at the base yellowish- white, crossed distally by 
two dark bars. In other respects, the tail is colored uniformly with the 
back, and shows no other trace of annulations. It consequently appears 
that in very young individuals the tail may be either entirely without 
annulations or have them quite conspicuous. The face presents the 
maximum extension of white, and agrees exactly with the very white- 
faced adult example from Mazatlan already described. 

In the series of specimens above described there is a complete inter- 
gradation from the light grayish fulvous example from the Lower Rio 
Grande to the blackish-brown specimens from Central America, though 
simply an increased intensity southward in the coloration. At the same 
time, there is a wide range of purely individual variation in the size of 
the white face-marks, and especially in the coloration of the lower sur- 
face of the anterior half of the body. As previously stated, there appear 
to be no well-marked sexual differences of color. 

SKULL. A series of six adult skulls of this species (four males and 
two females), and three others from half-grown examples, shows that 
the skull varies greatly with age and sex. None of the male skulls are 
very old, the molar teeth being unworn, while one of the female skulls 
has the tubercles of the molars wholly worn away. Yet in this last the sa- 
gittal crest is wholly undeveloped, w r hile the middle-aged males have well- 
developed crests, varying from 5 to 11 mm. in height. The male skulls 
'are also larger, with much larger canines and more heavily developed and 
more widely spreading zygomata. The male skulls vary considerably in 
size, the smallest having a length (from front edge of intennaxillae to pos- 
terior border of occipital condyles) of 119 mm. and a breadth (at the point of 
greatest expansion of zygomata) of 77 mm., against, respectively, 138 mm. 
and 81 mm. in the largest. The largest (but not the oldest) female skull 
has a length of 123 mm. and a width of Go mm., showing that as regards 
the length of the skull some of tlie females exceed in size some, of the 
males. The average of four male skulls, however, gives a length of 
129 mm. and a width of 79 mm., against, respectively, 122 mm. and 03 mm. 
for the two female skulls. In the females, in addition to the very much 
smaller size of the canines and the entire absence of a sagittal crest, the 
zygoma-tic arches are much weaker and much less widely divergent. 

GENERAL HISTORY AND SYNONYMY". As already stated in the gen- 
eral history of the subject, the present species was described by Brissoii 
in 1756 under the name "Le Coati-Mondi," and was redescribed and 
figured by Buffon in 1760 as " Le Ooati bruu." On the latter was ex- 
clusively based Linne's Viverra narica. Although the habitat of the 
specimens described is not stated by either of these authors, and was 


probably unknown to them,* Buffon's figure, as well as Ids and Bris- 
son's descriptions, leave no reasonable doubt that the name narica was 
based on the Mexican Coati.t By writers of the first quarter of the pres- 
ent century, the present species was virtually lost sight of, for, although 
the name narica was more or less generally retained, it was applied to 
a nominal species referable to the Liunaean Viverra nasua. Fischer, 
while referring all the Coatis to one species, for which he adopted Max- 
imilian's name Nasua social-is, wisely separated the references to the two 
valid species under the varietal names rufa and fusca, and under these 
heads made a judicious allocation of the synonyms of the group. The 
first possible synonym is the " f Nasua nocturna" of Maximilian (182C), 
based on an imperfect skin and the reports of the native hunters. He 
says the tail shows no color-rings, but has the same mingling of tints as 
the upper part of the body 4 It has, however, the matter of locality 
against it, as well as the "fahl gelbrothliche Farbe" of the lower parts. 
He refers especially to its soft thick pelage, which corresponds well 
enough with that of the present species, but it may not be a Nasua at 
all, as he was himself in doubt as to whether it was really this genus, and 
as no subsequent explorer appears to have met with a Nasua in Eastern 
Brazil having the tail colored uniformly with the back. 

Von Tschudi, however, in 1844-46, described a Nasua leucorliynclms 
which good authorities have since identified with the Mexican Coati. His 
diagnosis ( U X. rostro albo, cauda corporis longitudine, concolore in 
adultis"), as well as his whole description, relates unquestionably to this 
form, which alone can be described as having a white nose and uuicol- 
ored tail. He appears to have based his excellent description of the 
species upon an examination of quite a number of examples, as he 
alludes distinctly to young as well as adult specimens, and refers to vari- 
ous features of individual variation, and evinces a thorough knowledge 
of the species. He gives its habitat as the interior of Brazil, remark - 

* Brisson says of Ms specimen, " Je Pai vft cliez M. Lievre Distillateur," without of- 
fering even a conjecture as to the country whence it came. Bufibn simply tells us 
that the original of his Coati, figured in pi. xlvii, and of which is given a detailed ac- 
count of the anatomy as well as a figure of the skeleton (in pi. xlix), is a specimen he 
had had alive, and that he had seen another Coati, of which he also gives a descrip- 
tion and figures (pi. xlviii) as "Le Coati brim," without informing us whence either 
was obtained. The last is unquestionably the Mexican Coati. 

t This species appears to have been thoroughly well known to Schreber., as his whole 
account most emphatically shows, in evidence of which, but especially from its 
historic interest, I transcribe the following from his account of V. narica: "Die 
Schnauze, Lippen und Kehle weislich. . . . Der Kopf, Hals und Leib graubraun : 
so auch der Sch wauz, der, besonders unterwarts, undeutliche dunklere Ringe hat ; 
die uiitere Seite des Raises, die Schulteru, Brust und der Bauch weislich ; der Raum 
zwischen den Hinterschenkelii fast gelb. Jedes Haar ist in der Mitte schwarz, an der 
Spitze gelbbraun. . . . Das Vaterlaiid ist siidliche Amerika. . . . Xach 
Europa koiimit es weit seltener, als das rothe [ V. nasua]." Saugt., Th. iii, p. 433. 

t "Der Schwanz zeigt koine farblichen Riuge, sondern ist von derselbeu Mischuug 
wie die oberen Theile des Korpers." 


ing : " Das Innere vofi Brasilien nahrt diese dritte Species von Na#ua, von 
wo sie von mehreren Beisendeii nach Europa zuriick gebracht word en 
ist." He thus evidently knew the species only through museum speci- 
mens or living examples seen by him in European cities, and as no 
writer appears to have yet given any other authority for its occurrence 
in Brazil, from which country it is still otherwise .unknown,* the locality 
here assigned for the species may be fairly considered as open to ques- 

Weinland, in 18GO, was the first recent writer to describe and figure 
the Mexican Coati, but he regarded it as specifically identical with the 
South American species, of which he made it a variety, calling it Nasua 
solitaria var. mexicana. De Saussure, two years later, distinguished two 
species of Mexican Coati, adopting for them Maximilian's names Nasita 
solitaria and Ndma soeialis, neither of which names have any relation 
to the Mexican animal. His detailed descriptions and comparison of 
two specimens, one in winter pelage and the other presumed by him. to 
be in summer pelage, show that his two species were based merely on 
characters of individual variation, the one referring to the light phase 
and the other to the dark phase of the species.{ Later Dr. von Frant- 

* Schreber, however, should perhaps be excepted, as he says the habitat of V. narica 
is "siidliche Amerika," but which may or may not mean Sou-tit America. 

tDr. Giinther, in the " Zoological Record" for 1869 (p. 17), appears to accredit the 
species to Peru, as he says " Nasua leucorhynchus from Peru occurs also in Costa Rica," 
etc., but I have yet to meet with any authority for its occurrence in Peru. 

1 1 append herewith a translation of De Saiissure's remarks respecting the question 
of whether one or two species exist in Mexico. 

"In Mexico," he says, "the same view prevails among the natives respecting the 
question of the existence of two species of Coati as in South America. They are dis- 
tinguished by the names solitaria and socialis (Tejo solo and Tejo de mannada) given 
by Prinz von Neuwied in his Fauna of Brazil. 

tl Whether this discrimination is arbitrary and rests upon error, as the majority of 
authors appear to accept, or is well founded, will be here more closely examined. 

1 ' I will first mention that the Coatis of Mexico appear to me to be entirely identical 
with those of Brazil, and in order to compare the two types I subjoin detailed descrip- 

" Nasna solitaria is larger, of a darker color, than socialis, but still pretty similar to 
it, and for this reason they are united, being regarded as merely variations of age, the 
species solitaria as old males, which seclude themselves from the small troops in which 
-V. socialis live, as do the old deer, wild boars, and elephants. I myself long shared 
this opinion, but a thorough investigation of the matter induced me to entirely change 
my view. 

"The principal reasons which to me appear to indicate the propriety of separating 
the two species are the following : 

"First of all, Nasua solitaria is by no means scarce, though difficult to obtain, as are 
usually the old male swine. They are as often killed as socialis, which circumstance 
entirely removes the suspicion that solitaria is nothing but old males, which become soli- 
iaria when they leave the younger animals, or at least from their second or third year. 
Finally, 7 have seen in Mexico the self-same Nasua which has been described and figured from 
life. This individual belonged to Dr. Miiller, whom I fortunately happened to meet 
in Mexico, and whose Coati I directly compared with those which I had living in my 
possession. Although all these Coatis at that time were young, and therefore far from 


xius (iii 1800, on the identification of Dr. Peters) and Hensel (1873) 
recognized the Mexican Coati as specifically distinct from the common. 
South American species, adopting for it Maximilian's name leucorhyn- 
' elms. This name, however, is antedated by the Linn jean name nark-a, 
which must take precedence for the species. 

In addition to the above complication of synonymy, I had the morti- 
fying misfortune, in 1877, to add another, by describing and figuring a 
skin under the name Bassaricyon gabbii* supposing it at the time to be 
the skin belonging to the skull previously figured and described by met 
under that name. Without going into details respecting the attenuating 
circumstance of the case, or how I was led into such an egregious blunder, 
I will merely state that the skin described and figured as that of Ba#sa~ 
ricyon gabbii, as above cited, has nothing whatever to do with that species, 
but is simply the Mexican Coati, Nasua narica, and that the external 
characters of the true Bassaricyon gabbii remain still wholly unknown. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The first recent mention of the Coati 
as an inhabitant of Mexico appears, as previously note d, to have been m ade 
by Dr. Weinland in 1860, who states, on the authority of Dr. Miiller, that 
it is common over the whole of the eastern slope of the high tablelands, 
or "Terra teinplada," but does not occur in the "Terra calienta" of the 
coast region. He adds that, notwithstanding this, he finds no previous 
mention of its occurrence. De Saussure, in 1862, endorses Dr. Wein- 
land's statement that previous writers had made no mention" of the occur- 
rence of the Coati in Mexico, although, he says, it is one of the com- 
monest mammals of that country. Tomes, in 1861, gives Nasua fusca in 
the list of mammals collected in Guatemala by Mr. Sah'in, but without 
comment. Dr. von Frantzius, in 1869, refers to Nasua leucorhynchus as of 
common occurrence in Costa Eica. These are the only references to its 
distribution I have met with that I consider as of unquestionable authen- 
ticity. As already stated, owing to the absence of all reference to the 
occurrence, in South America, of a species of Coati with a white nose and 
unicolored tail, except von Tschudi's statement that his-^. leucorliynclim 

being fully developed, we found tliein still very different. ' Dr. M tiller's (now in the 
Zoological Garden of Frankfort) had already all of the characters of N. solitaria, while 
mine, on the contrary, belonged to the type of N. socialis, which sufficiently showed 
that the differences are not merely those of age. 

"To show what they are the following descriptions of both types are given, based 
on many individuals, either stuffed or in skins, which I brought from Mexico." Zoo- 
loyische Garten, Jahrgang iii, 18G2, pp. 52-5r>. 

Very detailed descriptions of both species then follow, from which it appears tluit 
his "JY". sodalis" is merely the lighter-colored and his "JV. solitaria" the darker phase 
of the common A r . narica; and, furthermore, that M. De Saussure could not have been 
very familiar Avith the characters of the Brazilian species. I will here observe that in 
all probability the "Tejo solo" of the Mexicans, like the "Pisote solo" of the Costa 
Ricaus, and the "Coati mondeo" of the Brazilians, as shown by von Frantzius and 
Hensel, was given to the old solitary males. 

*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1877, p. 267, pi. ii. 

tProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1876. p. 20, pi. i. 
Bull, v, 2 - 2 


inhabits the interior of Brazil. I deem it probable that the assigned 
locality of the latter is erroneous, and that his specimens really came 
from Mexico or Central A merica. 

My own material indicates that the range of this species extends from 
the Isthmus of Panama northward throughout Central America and the 
greater part of Mexico, as far northward on the eastern coast as the 
Texas side of the Lower Uio Grande, and on the western coast probably 
northward nearly to California. I have specimens, however, from that 
coast only from as far north as Colima and Mazatlan. 

Xasua narica appears hence to prevail from the Isthmus of Panama 
northward throughout Central America and the warmer parts of Mexico, 
where it also seems to be the sole representative of the genus. 

^ASUA KUFA, Desrnarest. 

Coati, MARCGRAVE, Hist. Nat. Brasil., 1648, 228. 

Coati, VALMOXT DE BOMARRE, Diet. Rais. Univ. d'Hist. Nat., ii, 1775, 596. 

Le Blaireau de Surinam, Meles surinamensis, BRISSON, Reg. Anim., 1756, 255. 

Quasje, SCHREBER, Saugt., iii [1766 ?], 441 (=Meles surinamensis, Brisson). 

Le Coati-M<mdi a queue annelee, BRISSON, Reg. Anim., 1756, 263. 

Coati noirdtre, BUFFON, Hist. Nat., viii, 1760, 358, pi. xlvii. 

Viverra nasua, LINKED Syst. Nat., i, 1766, 64. Based entirely on Marcgrave's "Coati" 
andBrisson's "Coati-Mondiaqueueaniiele'e." SCHREBER, Siiugth., iii [1776 ?], 
436, pi. cxviii (fig. from Buffon). ERXLEBEN, Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, 485. 
ZIMMERMAXX, Geogr. Gesch., ii, 1780, 290. GMELIX, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 86. 
SHAW, Gen. Zool., i, 1800, 386. F. CUVIER, Diet, des Sci. Nat., ix, 1817, 464. 
DESMAREST, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 219. DESMOULLSTS, Diet. Class. 
d'Hist, Nat., iv, 1823, 146. 

Ursus nasua, G. CUVIER, Tabl. EMm. d'Hist. Nat., 1798, 113. 

}'i wra vulpecula, ERXLEBEX, Syst. Anim., 1777, 490 (in part, as it includes "Le Blaireau 
do Surinam, Meles surinamensis," Brisson; not Viverra vulpecula, Schreber, 
which is primarily Buffon's "Le Coase^Mustela pennanti). 

Viverra quasje, GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 87 (in part). 

Nasua quasje, DESMAREST, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 217 (certainly in part, as 
it includes Buffon's "Coati noiratre"). 

Virerra narica, F. CUVIER, Diet. deslSci. Nat., ix, 1817, 464 (not of Linne"). DESMOU- 
LINS, Diet. Class, des Sci. Nat., iv, 1823, 246 (mainly). 

Nasua narica, GRAY, Cat. Mam. Brit. Mus., 1843, 74 (in part); Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1864, 702 (in part only) ; Cat. Cam., Pachy., and Edent. Mam. Brit. Mus., 1869, 
239 (excluding part of the synonyms). Not Viverra narica, Linne". 

Quacln, VALMOXT DE BOMARRE, Diet. Rais. Univ. d'Hist. Nat., iv, 1775, 577. 

Coati roux, F. CUVIER, Hist. Nat. des Mam., livr. i, 1818. 

Nasua rufa, DESMAREST, Mam., 1820, 170 (based on the "Quachi" of Bomarre and 
" Couti roux " of F. Cuvier as above, but mainly on the latter). LESSOX, 
Man. de Mam., 1827, 139. GRAY, Cat. Mam, Brit. Mus., 1843, 74 (in part 
only); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 701 (in part only); Cat. Cam., Pachy., 
and Edent. Mam. Brit. Mus., 1869, 239. 

lT<Wtta/twea,DfesMARBfiT, Mam., 1820, 170. LESSOX, Man. deMam., 1827, 139 (mainly). 
SCHOMBURGK, Ann. Nat. Hist., iv, 1839, 431 (habits). 

fTamanclua, BUFFON, Hist. Nat., Suppl., iii, 1776, 284, pi. Ivi (based on a Coati said by 
Cuvier to have been artificially colored). 


Mynnccophaya striata, SHAW, Gen. Zool., i, 1800, 51 ( Buffoii's " Tamandua " as above). 

u Myrmeoophctga, KRUSENSTERN, Voy. autour du Monde." 

Myrmecophaga annulata, DESMAREST, Mam., 1822, 374(=Myrmecopliaga t Krusenstern, 
as above). 

Tamandua, annulated var. ? Myrmecopliaga tetradactyla, L. T, GRIFFITH'S Cuvier's Auim. 
Kingd., iii, 1827, 305, pi. (original figure from a stuffed specimen*). 

Nasua socialis, MAXIMILIAN, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., ii, 1826, 283. SCHINZ, Nat. u. Abbild. 
d. Siiugt., 1826, 110, pi. xxxiii (from nature). VONTSCHUDI, Fauna Peruaua, 
1844-46, 98. BURMEISTER, Syst. Uebers. der Thiere Brasil., 1854, i, 120 (exclud- 
ing from synonymy FwerrawKca,Linn.). GIEBEL, Siiugeth., 1855, 750 (in part 
only; includes Viverranasua, V. narica, Linn., V. guasje, Gmel., Nasuarufa and 
fusca, Desm., N. leucorliynchus, von Tschudi, etc.). WEINLAND, Zoologisclie 
Garten, 1860, 61. HENSEL, Zoologisclie Garten, 1869, 290 (habits, the chase, 
individual and climatic variations, etc.); Abhandl. Konig. Akad. Wissens. 
Berlin, 1872, (1873), 63. 

Nasua socialis var. rufa, FISCHER, Synop. Mam., 1329, 148. 

Nasua socialis var. rufa aut fulva, WAGNER, Suppl. Schreber's Siiugth., ii, 1841, 165. 

Nasua solitaria, MAXIMILIAN, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., ii, 1826, 292 (old males). FISCHER, 
Synop. Mam., 1829, 149. VON TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, 1844-46, 99. BUR- 
MEISTER, System. Uebers. der Thiere Bras., 1854, i, 121. GIEBEL, Saugeth., 
1855, 751. (These notices are all of them compiled, and are based on Maxi- 
milian's description of the single original specimen, namely, an old male of 
the common Coati. ) SCHMIDT, Zoologisclie Garten, Jahrg. iii, No. 2, Feb. 
1862, 32. 

Nasua vittata, VON TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, 1844-46, 101. 

Nasua montana, VON TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, 1844-46, 102, pi. v. 

Nasua olivacea, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864,703; Cat. Carn., Pachy.,aud Edent. 
Mam. Brit. Mus., 1869, 241. 

Nasua dorsalis, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 169, pi. xvii ; Cat. Cam., Pachy., and 
Edent. Mam. Brit. Mus. , 1869, 240. 

"Le Coati Mondi, PERRAULT, Anim. , ii [about 1668], 15, pi. xxxvi." See "M6m. Acad. 
Eoy. des Sci., dep. 1666-1699," probably tome ii. 

Brazilian Weesel, PENNANT, Syn. Quad., 1771, 229; Hist. Quad., ii, 1793, 61 (in part 

Cuatl, AZARA, Hist. Nat. Quad. Paraguay, i, 1802, 293. 

Coati roux, male, F. CUVIER, Hist. Nat. des Mam., livr. i, 1818. 

Coati brun,femelle, F. CUVIER, Hist. Nat. des Mam., livr. iv, 1819. 

*Dr. Gray says (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 701), " Mr. Turner (P. Z. S., 1851, 
p. 218) professes to have rediscovered the fact (though it is stated in the ' Catalogue of 
the Mammalia in the British Musium,' p. 74, 1843), that Krusenstem's M. annulata is only 
a Coati-Mondi; but he is puzzled to explain the figure in Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom/ 
This figure is engraved from a drawing of Major Hamilton Smith's, no doubt copied from, 
Erusenstern's figure, but altered and improved, as was his habit when making his very 
large collection of drawings a bad habit, that has rendered them of comparatively 
small value for scientific purposes, as it is impossible to determine whether they are 
from a figure or a specimen." 

In reference to the line I have italicised in the above passage, I quote the follow- 
ing from the text (1. c., pp. 305, 306) accompanying Hamilton Smith's figure: "The 
figure we have engraved, under the title of the Tamandua annulated variety ? seems 
likely to be the same as that indicated by the circumnavigator [Krusenstern], differing 
principally in the absence of the dark spot round the eye. This was also drawn [like 
the plate preceding the one in question] from a stuffed specimen, and is subject to the 
same observations as to the position of all the feet as that last mentioned ["Ursine 


Coati brun,femelle, varied, F. CUVIER, Hist. Nat. des Mam., livr. iv, 1819. 

Coati Irun-fonce, F. CUVIER, Hist. Nat. des Main., livr. xlviii, 1825. 

Coati de Bando of the Brazilians. 

Coati mundeo (old males), ibid. 

Gescllscliaftliches Cuati, MAXIMILIAN, 1. c. 

Einsames oder grosstes Cuati (old males), ibid. 

Xasenthier, Naseiibar, SchnauzenMr, Riisselbar, Frcttbcir, and RiisseUrager of German 


Coati and Coati-Mundi of English and French writers, etc. 
Cuati of the Spanish writers. 
Qnasie of the Northern Indian tribes of South America. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. Eye and cheek-spots nearly as in the pre- 
ceding, but of a soiled white (brownish- white or yellowish-white) color ; 
sometimes obsolete, and usually less strongly contrasted with the sur- 
rounding tints, and with no white on the nose, which is colored uniformly 
with the sides of the head and frontal region. Head (excepting the 
whitish spots already noted), including facial region, gray, varied with 
blackish, particularly on the sides of the nose. General color of the 
dorsal surface, and of the limbs externally, gray, the former more or less 
strongly varied with black and fulvous, or rust-yellow. Whole lower 
surface, and the limbs internally, yellowish-white, varying to strong ful- 
vous, or even gamboge- yellow. The hairs of the back are usually black 
at the surface, with a broad subterminal bar of fulvous, varying often 
to rufous, and brown at the base ? like the softer under-fur. Tail black, 
with about eight (seven to nine) rather narrow fulvous rings. 

The color varies greatly in different individuals, through the greater or 
less amount of black tipping the hairs of the dorsal surface present, and 
in the amount and tone of the under-color. A specimen from Brazil (M. 
C. Z., No. 2820, Thayer Exped.) has the prevailing color above shining 
black, varied with grayish-fulvous. Another (M. C. Z., No. 1839, Mana- 
os, Brazil, Thayer Exped.) has the dorsal surface shining black, varied 
with deep yellowish-rufous. Still another (M. C. Z., No. 1440, Manaos, 
Brazil, Thayer Exped.), about half-grown, has the middle of the back 
strongly blackish, and the sides dingy yellowish-brown varied with 
blackish. In these the pelage is short, crisp, and shining. Two other 
specimens (Nat. Mus., No. 4657 and No. 2978), one certainly and the 
other probably, from Paraguay (Corrientes, Captain Page), has the 
pelage long, soft, and full, and the surface tint pale yellowish-gray, with 
a narrow subterminal zone of black, and the basal -portion pale yellow- 
ish-brown. Another specimen (Nat. Mus., No. 3996, locality not given) 
has the dorsal surface dark red or intense chestnut, darkest along the 
middle of the back, especially posteriorly, and lighter on the sides, pass- 
ing into fulvous on the lower surface. The tail is dark reddish chest- 
nut, with narrow rings of blackish. The usual face-markings are faintly 
distinguishable. This specimen seems to represent the Coati ronx of 
F. Cuvier. 
Occasionally specimens occur in which the face is marked more or less 


distinctly with broad indistinctly defined longitudinal bands of whitish 
and dusky or even black, with an indistinct transverse blackish band 
through the eye. In one example thus marked the usual whitish face- 
markings are obsolete. 

As already noted, writers who have observed the animal in a state of 
nature refer to great variability of color in even individuals of the same 
litter. In some specimens, the white facial markings are obsolete, as in 
von Tschudi's Nasua montana. Melanistic examples appear to be not 
unfrequent, and there is also a strong tendency to erythrism, in which the 
whole pelage is more or less reddish, even to the base of the hair, and 
unvaried by other tints save the blackish rings on the tail ; at other 
times, the middle of the back posteriorly is blackish, as are also the sides 
of the nose. 

SKULL. A series of eight skulls of this species, mostly from Santa 
Eita, Southern Brazil, indicates a considerable amount of both sexual 
and individual variation. The females are smaller than the males, with 
relatively very much smaller canines. Two male skulls from Santa 
Eita (M. C. Z., :Nos. 1000 and 1001, Thayer Exped.) measure respectively 
as follows, the smaller being much the older : length (from front edge of 
intermaxillse to posterior border of occipital condyles) respectively 127 
mm. and 115 mm. ; breadth (at point of greatest expansion of zygomata) 
respectively 73 mm. and 74 mm. An adult female skull (M. C. Z., Xo. 
999, Santa Eita, Brazil, Thayer Exped.) measures 110 mm. by Gl mm. 
Dr. Hensel states that the maximum, length (measured as above) of a 
series of thirty -four old male skulls is 126 mm., and the minimum 112 
mm. 5 and of the " normal skull" 118 mm. He gives the maximum, 
length of a series of forty -nine old female skulls as 114 mm. 5 minimum, 
103 mm. ; "normal," 107 mm. 

GENERAL HISTORY AND SYNONYMY. A more complicated case of 
synonymy than that presented by the present species is rarely to be en- 
countered. The introduction of the species into literature can be traced 
back to Marcgrave (1648), and even Thevet (1558), but the first important 
reference is that by the former, which became, in conjunction with Bris- 
son's "Coati-Mondi a queue annelee" (1756), the basis of the Linnrean 
Viverra nasua. The " Coati noiratre" of Buffon (1760) is unquestionably 
the same animal on which was based the first figure of the species under 
that name, published by Schreber in 1776. Under this title, and un- 
mixed with any other species, the present species was currently known 
until about 1817, when F. Cuvier and Desmarest introduced confusion by 
losing sight entirely of Linne's Viverra narica j their Viverra narica being 
merely a color- variety of the present species. The last-named author 
also introduced a third nominal species referable to the present one under 
the name Viverra quasje. For the next fifty years the narica of those 
authors who used the name is referable to the nasua of Linne. In 1820, 
Desmarest abandoned both of the LinnaBan names nasua and narica, 
the first in consequence of Storr's adopting the name Nasua (in 1780) as 


the generic name of the Coa.tis, and introduced the names rvfa and 
fnsca, both of which, as already shown, are referable to the V. nasua of 
Linne. Maximilian, in 1826, deliberately ignored all the prior specific 
names, and introduced in their place social-is and soUtaria, both based 
on the present species, although by some subsequent writers the latter 
was adopted for the Linnaean narica. Yon Tschudi, in recognizing five 
species of the genus Nasua, added two new synonyms to those of the 
present species. 

The changes that have been rung on the various names above enu- 
merated, especially socialis and solitaria, are sufficiently indicated in the 
above table of synonymy, and in the general history of the literature re- 
lating to the group already given (ant-ea, pp. 153-162). Other synonyms 
of less prominence, although of earlier origin, are the Viverra vulpecula 
of Erxleben, already mentioned as a curious compound of several widely 
diverse species, including one unquestionably referable here. It is ap- 
parently primarily based on Brisson's "Blaireau de Surinam," which is 
unquestionably the present species, but also included Button's " Coase," 
which is the Fisher or Mustela pennanti of recent authors. Gmelin's 
Viverra quasje had in part the same origin, since it also included Bris- 
son's "Blaireau de Surinam." Other less important or less prominent 
synonyms are Desinarest's Myrmecophaga annulata and the "Myrmeco- 
pliaya tetradactyla, L.?,? of Griffith's Animal Kingdom. Among later 
synonyms are Gray's Nasua olivacea and N. dorsalis, which relate only to 
particular phases of coloration. 

The LinnaBan specific name nasua having become untenable through 
its adoption in a generic sense, the first name strictly eligible, though by 
no means eminently appropriate, as it had originally reference to only 
a prominent color- variety of the species, is that of rufa of Desmarest. 
Socialis, applied later to the species in a broader sense, is otherwise not 
especially distinctive, and is antedated by both rufa and fusca of Des- 
marest, as well as by the barbarous term quasje. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The present species appears to range 
over the greater part of the continent of South America certainly from 
Surinam to Paraguay, and from the Atlantic coast to the Andes, over 
which extensive region it is one of the most abundant of the carnivorous 
mammals, and apparently the sole representative of its genus. The first 
suggestion as to the correct limits of the habitat of the present species 
seems to have been made by Dr. von Frantzius in I860, as already cited, 
he claiming that in all probability the present species did not occur in 
Costa Eica, and was therefore limited to the Southern Tropics, as the 
Costa Eican species doubtless was to the ISTorthern Tropics. The exact 
boundaries of the habitat of either species still remain to be determined, 
as well as also whether the two species anywhere occur together. 


F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 





J. .A. 


WASHINGTON, November 30, 1879. 



VOLUME Y. 1879. NUMBER 3. 

Art. XVIII. Oil the Species of the Genus Bassaris.* 

By J. A. Allen. 

The mammals of the genus Bassaris were for a long time a puzzle to 
the systematists, who, however, generally referred them to the Viverridce, 
as constituting the only American representatives of the family. Some 
authors, as Gervais, while believing that they were Viverrine, have seen 
in them some affinities with the Mustelidce, while others, as Waterhouse 
and Turner, have hinted at an Ursine alliance, especially to such forms 
as Procyon and Nasua. Professor Flower,t who has especially investi- 
gated the affinities of Bassaris, concludes: "On the whole I think 
there can be little question that evidence has been adduced to prove 
that Bassaris is a member of the Arctoid sub-division of the Carnivora, 
and among these approaches most nearly to Procyon and Nasua" (1. c., p. 
34). Dr. Gill, in 1872, \ assigned it the rank of a family (Bassarididce) 
of the Arctoidea, and a position at the end of the group, following 


Although the Bassarids are of common occurrence throughout Mex- 
ico, and range also far both to the southward and northward of that 
country, and were known to Hernandez as early as the middle of the 
seventeenth century, they escaped the notice of systematic writers till 
within the last half century. The first modern account of them was pub- 

*The material on which the present paper is based is almost exclusively that of the 
National Museum, for the free use of which I am indebted to its able director, Prof. 
Spencer F. Baird. 

t On the Value of the Characters of the Base of the Cranium in the Classification 
of the Order Carnivora, and on the Systematic Position of Bassaris and other disputed 
forms. By William Henry Flower, F. R. S., F. Z. S., etc., Conservator of the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1889, pp. 4-37. Bassaris is 
treated at pp. 31-34, which see for a fuller history of the views of systematists respect- 
ing its affinities. 

t Arrangement of the Families of Mammals, p. 67. 

Bull, v, 3 1 331 


lislied by Lichtenstein in 1830, based on specimens sent from Mexico by 
Herr Deppe, in 182G and -subsequent years, of what proves to have been 
the northern form of the genus. This Lichtenstein, in his commentary 
on the mammals noticed by Hernandez, * named and briefly described 
Bassaris astuta, he recognizing in it the Cacamiztli, or Caca-mixtli, of 
Hernandez, which the latter also mentioned under the name Tepe-maxtla. 
These are still the common native names of the species, and mean 
respectively "Bush Cat" and "Bush Cat." Shortly after B. astuta was 
more fully described by Lichtenstein, and also figured, t 

During the next thirty years, the habits of Bassaris astuta were 
referred to by diiferent writers, and the species repeatedly described 
and figured, the illustrations including colored figures of the animal and 
representations of the skull, skeleton, and dentition. :f The notices of 
Bassaris published prior to 1860 all relate, singularly enough, exclu- 
sively to B. astuta, at which date the second or southern species (B. 
sumichrasti) was first described. 

Professor Baird, writing in 1858 (Mam. N". Amer., p. 147), says : " It 
is as yet uncertain whether America possesses one or two species of 
Bassaris , further investigation being necessary to determine the charac- 
ter of the California species. They are found as far north as Bed Biver, 
Arkansas, on the eastern slope of the continent ; on the western to the 
latitude of San Francisco ; southward they extend throughout temperate 
Mexico. They bear in the United States the name of civet, Mexican, or 
ring-tailed cats, and are frequently tamed in Mexico and California ; in 
the latter country they are great pets of the miners." He adds : " Only 
one authenticated skin, (No. 2343,) has been received from California; 
this is a hunter's skin, not sufficiently perfect to furnish a description." 
The following year Professor Baird described (Bep. U. S. and Mex. 
Bound. Surv., Mam., pp. 18, 19), under the name Bassaris astuta, two 
specimens from Texas and another from an unknown locality, supposed 
to have come from California, naming the latter provisionally Bassaris 
raptor. His detailed account of the external features of the Texas 
specimens indicate very fairly the northeastern phase of Bassaris astuta. 
Bespecting the specimen to which the name B. raptor was provisionally 
given, he says: "In the spring of 1852 (April 23), a specimen of 

> * Erliiuterungen der Nachrichten des Fran. Hernandez von den vierfiissigen Thieren 
Neuspaniens. Abhandlungen d. Berlin. Akad. 1827 (1830), pp. 89-128. Bassaris astuta 
is described and named at p. 119. The paper was read before the academy in 1827, but 
not published till 1830. 

The genus Bassaris and the species B. astuta were also described by "Wagler in the 
"Isis" for 1831 (p. 511), one year subsequent to the publication of Lichtcn stein's 
above-cited paper, both being accredited by him to Lichsenstein; yet various writers 
have attributed the earliest notice of B. astuta to Wagler. 

> tDarstellung neuer oder weniger bekamiter Siiugethiero in Abbildungen und 
Beschreibungen von flinfundsechzig Arten, 1827-1834, pi. xliii. 

I See postca, table of reference under B. astuta. The skeleton has been figured by 
Gervais and De Blainville, the dentition by Blamville and Giebel, the skull by Lich- 
tenstein, Baird. and Flower, and the animal by Lichteusteiu, Wagner, Audubon and 
Bachman, Wolf and Sclater, and Cordero. 


Bassaris was killed in a lien-roost, near Washington, after it had com- 
mitted great devastation among the poultry of the neighborhood. It 
had evidently escaped from confinement, as shown by the marks of a 
collar around the neck. There was, of course, no indication whence it 
came originally, but it was supposed to have been brought from Cali- 
fornia. This specimen is somewhat different from those obtained in 
Mexico and Texas, although perhaps not specifically distinct. The tail 
is strikingly diiferent in having the black rings fewer in number and 
of much greater extent compared with the white portion. Of these 
black rings there are only five distinctly marked ones besides the tip, 
and the last or subterminal one is more than two inches long instead of 
about one. Below the black ring is nearly complete, separated only for 
the thickness of the vertebra by the white of the under surface. There 
is no appreciable difference in the colors of the remaining portions of 
the body. The ears are decidedly smaller,. Very considerable differ- 
ences are discernible between the skull of this specimen and the others ; 
the cranium is broader, but more constricted behind the orbital pro- 
cesses of the frontal bone j the distance between the zygomata is con- 
siderably greater, and the temporal crests of opposite sides much closer 
together. The pterygoid bones, also, are further apart. The proportion 
of greatest breadth of skull to length is as 63 to 100 instead of 59, as in 
No. 4 [female], from Texas. Should the examination of further speci- 
mens show these distinctions to be such as to indicate a different species, 
it might be called Bassaris raptor." In passing, I may add that the 
examination of more material shows that the cranial differences here 
indicated are not important, and show mainly only the usual variations 
accompanying differences of age in Bassaris astuta. The color of the 
tail very nearly coincides with that of a specimen before me from Oregon, 
with which it so much more nearly agrees than with Texas examples 
that I have little doubt that the supposed Californian origin of Bassaris 
raptor is its correct locality. The wide separation of the pterygoid 
bones is certainly exceptional, but is probably strictly individual, as 
I find a perfectly parallel variation in this highly variable feature in the 
skulls of B. sumichrasti. Consequently in Bassaris raptor we have the 
earliest synonym of B. astuta. 

In 1860, M. De Saussure described and figured (Eev. et Mag. de Zool., 
2 e se"r., xii, Jan., 1860, p. 7, pi. i, animal, fig. uncolored), a second 
species, under the name Bassaris sumichrasti, based on a single very old 
individual collected by himself in Mexico. Although De Saussure's 
description is explicit and detailed, and notwithstanding that in his 
careful comparison of the new species with B. astuta (of which he had a* 
large suite representing all ages), he clearly set forth all the leading 
points of difference, Dr. Peters, in 1874 (Monatsb. der k. Akad. der 
Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1874, p. 704, pll. i, ii, meeting of Xov. 16, 1874), 
referred B. sumichrasti of De Saussure doubtfully to B. raptor, Baird, 
at the same time redescribing B. sumichrasti under the name Bassaris 
variaMlis. At all events, he says : " Es war bis jetzt mit Sicherheit nur 


eine Art dieser Gattung, Bassaris astuta, aus Mexico bekannt, der icli 
eine zweite aus Centralamerica hinzufugen kann." Yet he notes among 
the distinctive characters of B. variaMUs most of those especially men- 
tioned by De Saussure as characterizing B. sumiclirasti, omitting, how- 
ever, some, and adding others not mentioned by De Saussure. Peters's 
B. variaMUs was based on a skin and skull of a very old male, and on 
a second skin supposed to be that of a female, all of which he figured. 

Almost simultaneously with the publication of Dr. Peters's paper, 
Seiior Cordero again described (La Naturaleza, iii, p. 270, with a plate; 
the paper is dated Dec. 1, 1874, and was published May 31, 1875) B. 
sumichrasti) under the name Bassaris monticola. His description is very 
detailed, and in his comparison of B. monticola with B. astuta he brings 
into strong relief the distinctive characters of the two species, they 
embracing all those previously mentioned by De Saussure and Peters 
as characterizing respectively B. sumiclirasti and B. variaMUs. He 
gives also excellent comparative (colored) figures of the external charac- 
ters of the two species, and illustrates the cranial characters and denti- 
tion of B. monticola. Although he shows himself to have been perfectly 
conversant with the two species of Bassaris, he appears not to have 
been aware that his B. monticola had been previously described and 
named by De Saussure. 

Dr. Gray in 1804 (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 512) and in 18G9 (Cat. 
Cam. Pachyd. and Edent. Mam., 1869,246) gave a "var. fulvescens," 
adding, "Fur more fulvous, perhaps of a different season." To his 
u Bassaris astuta var. fulvescens" he referred unqualifiedly De Saussure's 
B. sumichrasti. His description of the cranial characters seems to indi- 
cate that he had before him only skulls of B. astuta. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the large southern species of 
Bassaris has been thrice described as new : that the skull has been figured 
twice; and that one plain and three colored (Dr. Peters gives two) figures 
of the animal have been given. 


The external and cranial characters of the Bassarids are so well known 
that it is unnecessary in the present connection to give them in detail 
further than is necessary to the elucidation of the distinctive features of 
the two species, which, so far as at present known, constitute the genus 
Bassaris. They are, as is well known, in general appearance small fox- 
like animals, with soft, loose pelage, pointed nose and ears, and a ringed 
tail as long as the body, giving a tout ensemble intermediate, on the one 
hand, between the Coatis and Eaccoons, and the Foxes on the other, but 
of smaller size than either. The distinctive characters of the species are 
indicated in the subjoined diagnoses. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

COMMON CHARACTERS. Tail with the hairs about equal to or a little longer than 
the head and body. Color above gray, more or less suffused with yellowish-brown, 

No. 3.] 



with a wash of black of variable amount, produced by the black tips 01 the longer 
hairs, usually strongest along the middle of the back; below whitish, tinged more or 
less strongly with pale yellow. Eyes narrowly encircled with brownish-black. 
Behind and above each eye a large, sometimes rather indistinct, spot of yellowish- 
gray, and a smaller spot of the same color below each eye. Tail with alternating 
rings of white or grayish- white and black, and black at the tip. The usual number 
of rings of either color varies from 7 to 9. The females are considerably smaller than 
the males. 

B. astuta. B. sumichrasti. 

Ears rather narrow and pointed. Soles 
and palms with short soft hair on the 
edges and at the base of the toes between 
the naked pads. 

Upper surface of the feet slightly or not 
at all blackish. 

Light rings of the tail broad, pure white, 
or sometimes slightly grayish- or yellowish- 
white, nearly as broad as the intervening 
black ones. The black rings are divided 
below by a more or less broad mesial band 
of white, running nearly the whole length 
of the tail, the lower surface of which is 
white, broadly scalloped on the edges 
with black. 

Anterior surface of upper incisors 
smooth, the cutting-edge even. 

First upper molar with both limbs 
longer and narrower than in B. sumichrasti, 
the inner with two distinct cusps, and 
another on the posterior outer edge of the 

Second upper molar with the transverse 
diameter, compared with the antero-pos- 
terior, relatively greater than in B. sumi- 

Last lower premolar with a small acces- 
sory cusp on the posterior border. 

Canines and whole dental armature 
relatively weaker, the molars narrower, 
and their cusps sharper and more numer- 
ous than in B. sumichrasti, in specimens 
of corresponding ages and degree of attri- 
tion of the teeth. 

Auditory bullse strongly inflated, spheri- 
cal, the meatus auditorius very large. 

Size less than in B. sumichrasti. Length 
of head and body 14 in. (?) to 17 in. ( $ ) ; 
tail-vertebra3 about 12 to 15 ; tail to end of 
hairs about equal to length of head and 
body. Skull, length 3.00 to 3.25; width 
L.85 to 2.05. 

Ears broader and shorter, absolutely as 
well as relatively, and less pointed. Soles 
and palms wholly naked. 

Upper surface of the feet black or black- 
ish, and general color of dorsal surface 
usually darker than in B. astuta. 

Light/ rings of the tail narrow, gray, 
sometimes tinged with brownish. The 
black rings are much broader than the 
alternating white ones, unbroken, com- 
pletely encircling the tail, the lower sur- 
face of the tail scarcely differing in color 
from the upper. 

Anterior surface of the upper incisors 
with two slight longitudiua! grooves deep- 
ening apically, producing a distinctly 
crenulated cutting-edge. 

First upper molar shorter and thicker 
than in B. astuta, with no accessory cusp 
on the posterior outer corner, and lacking 
that seen on inner anterior angle of the 
tooth in B. astuta. 

Second upper molar heavier than in B. 
astuta, with a relatively shorter transverse 

Last lower premolar with no accessory 
cusp on the posterior border. 

Auditory bulla3 less swollen, flattened 
on the posterior inner face, with a much 
smaller meatus auditorius. 

Size larger. Length of head and body 
15 in. ( $ ) to 19$ in. ( J ) ; tail- vertebra) 
16 to 20; tail to end of hairs 18 to 22. 
Skull, length 3.25 to 3.60 ; width 2.25 to 


BASSAEIS ASTUTA, Liclitenstein. 
Northern Civet Cat. 

Bassaris astuta, LICHTENSTEIN, Abhandl. d. Berlin. Acad. 1827, (1830), 119 ; Darstellung 
Siiugeth., 1827-1834, pi. xliii (skull and animal). WAGLER, Isis, 1831, 511. 
GERVAIS, Voy. de la Bonite, Zool.,i, 1841, 18, pi. iv (skeleton and visceral 
anatomy). CHARLESWORTH, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1841, 60 (habits). DE 
BLAINVILLE, Oste"og., Des Mustelas, 1842, pi. v T)is (skeleton), pi. xiii (denti- 
tion). WAGNER, Schreber'sSiiugeth.,Suppl.,ii, 1841, 278, pi. cxxvC (animal). 
THOMSON, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1842, 10 (habits). AUDUBON & BACIIMAN, 
Quad. N. Am., ii, 1851, 314, pi. xcviii (animal). GIEBEL, Odontog., 1855, 31, 
pi. xi, fig. 10 (dentition) ; Siiugeth., 1855, 803. BAIRD, Mam. N. Am., 1858, 
147 ; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound Surv., ii, 1859, Mam., 18, pi. xiv, fig. 2 (skull). 
WOLF & SCLATER, Zoolog. Sketches, i, 1861, pi. xiv (animal, from life). GRAY, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 512; Cat. Cam. Pachy. and Edent. Mam., 1869, 
246.--COUES, Am. Nat., i, 1867, 351 (Arizona). FLOWER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1869, 31, fig. 3 a, skull (systematic position). VILLADA, La Naturaleza, i, 1870, 
297. SULLIVANT, Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 363 (Ohio). COUES, Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 264 
(distribution). ALLEN, Bull. Essex Institute, vi, 1874, 45 (Kansas). " KIRK- 
PATRICK, Proc. Cleveland Acad. Nat. Sci., 1874, 377 (Ohio)." CORDERO, 
La Naturaleza, 1875, iii, 273, plate (animal). COUES, Amer. Nat., xii, 1878, 
253 (Rogue River, Southwestern Oregon). 

Bassaris astuta var. fulvescens, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864,512; Cat. Cam. 
Pachy. and Edent. Main., 1889, 246. 

Bassaris raptor, BAIRD, Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound Surv., ii, 1859, Mam., 19. 

Caca-miztle, Caco-Mixtle, and Tepe-Maxtlatpn, HERNANDEZ. 

Cacomistle, Cacamiztli, and Cuapiote, of the Mexicans. 

Katzenfrett, German authors. 

Civet Cat, Ring-tailed Civet Cat, Texas Civet Cat, Mexican Civet Cat, Cat Squirrel, Mountain 
Cat, Raccoon Fox, etc., of English writers, and locally in the United States. 

The comparative diagnoses above given indicate the average characters 
of the species, but a series of eight specimens shows a considerable range 
of variation in color and other details. Aside from the smaller size of the 
female, 1 have noted no other important sexual differences. The number 
of white rings on the tail in B. astuta varies from six to nine, the usual 
number being either seven or eight. They vary in width, being usually 
narrower than the black ones, sometimes equalling them, while in rare 
instances the white rings are the wider. The general color above is 
gray or brownish- gray, varying in some examples to yellowish-brown, the 
anterior half of the body being usually purer gray (less suffused with 
brownish-yellow) than the posterior half. The black terminating the 
longer hairs varies greatly in amount, but always gives a conspicuous 
blackish cast to the dorsal surface, while in some the prevailing color, 
especially along the middle of the back, is black. In such specimens, the 
upper surface of the feet is more or less blackish or brownish-black ; the 
black rings in the tail are broader and the black terminal portion of the 
tail more extended. A single skin from Oregon * is dark throughout, 
being as black as the darkest examples of B. sumichrastij and contrasts 
strongly with the light colored specimens from Texas and Northeastern 

*This is the specimen mentioned by Dr. Coues in Amer. Nat., xii, 1878, p. 253. 


Mexico. The next darkest specimen is from Orizaba, Mexico. The lower 
surface is sometimes nearly pure white, but is usually strongly tinged 
with pale yellow, varying in some specimens to pale brownish-yellow, 
especially on the chin and throat. The relative amount of black and 
white on the tail is also variable. In the lighter specimens, the greater 
portions of the lower surface of the tail is pure white ; in others, the black 
rings are only broken below by a narrow band of white. In the Oregon 
specimen, they are almost continuous below (the last two apical ones 
wholly so), though much narrower than above. The rings usually 
increase in width from the base of the tail apically, especially in case of 
the black ones. 

The extremes of variation in color are in specimens No. 11849, from 
Camp Grant, Arizona (E. Palmer), and No. 12849, from Oregon (A. H. 
Wood). The Arizona specimen is pale brownish-gray above, varied 
with blackish, principally along the median line, caused by the black 
tips of the long hairs. Below it is pale yellowish-white. The tail is 
mostly white below, but above is crossed by alternate rings of black and 
white of nearly equal breadth. The Oregon specimen has the prevail- 
ing tint of the dorsal region intense black, quite obscuring the brownish- 
gray ground-color. Below, it is strongly brownish-yellow, deepest on 
the throat and chin. The tail is mostly black above, the white being 
mostly half-rings confined to the lower surface. These two specimens 
accord with the peculiar phases of geographical color- variation com- 
monly characterizing the mammals and birds of the two regions in 
question. Should the Oregon specimen here described prove to indicate 
the average condition of the species along the Pacific coast to the north- 
ward, as seems probable, the form there prevailing may require to be 
varietally distinguished under the name raptor ', Baird, this name doubt- 
less referring to the Pacific coast form, as already explained. Five 
specimens from near the southern border of Texas agree in being rather 
darker than the Arizona specimen, and present only a moderate range 
of color- variation. A specimen from Orizaba (No. 8567, $ , Botteri) is 
rather darker, the lower surface more strongly yellow, and the white on 
the tail is slightly tinged with yellow. 

In a young specimen about one-fourth grown, and still retaining the 
milk dentition, the pelage is soft, long, and woolly 5 the color above pale 
yellowish -brown varied with darker brown, but with no Hack; below 
grayish-white, faintly tinged with yellow anteriorly. The tail has seven 
white rings, and the light spots below and behind the eyes are nearly 
pure white. 

In old female skulls, in which the teeth show a considerable degree of 
attrition, there is no trace of a crest. Probably in old males this will 
be found to be present, but the only male specimens before me are only 
of middle age and do not show it. The most notable variation in the 
skulls of B. astuta is the unusually wide separation of the pterygoid 
bones, and the consequent unusual breadth of the posterior nares in 


the original skull of Baird's B. raptor. As this is a feature in which 
variation is apt to occur, and as my series of skulls ofr B. sumichrasti 
presents an example equally aberrant from the usual condition in the 
last-named species, I cannot look upon it as other than an individual 
variation of more or less frequent occurrence in other mammals. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Northern Civet Cat appears 
to range throughout the temperate portions of Mexico, and thence 
northward far into the United States. The most southern localities 
represented by the specimens before me are Orizaba in the State of Vera 
Cruz, San Luis Potosi in the interior, and the Sierra Santiago near the 
Pacific coast. It is said to be a well-known inhabitant of California, 
and ranges thence northward into Southwestern Oregon, where, how- 
ever, it is supposed to be of rare occurrence.* More to the eastward it 
has been found in Arizona, and has long been known to occur through- 
out most parts of Texas. I found it to be a well-known animal in 
Middle Kansas, and a number of specimens have been taken at different 
times as far northward and eastward as Ohio. Though nowhere appar- 
ently abundant, it appears to be rather common in Northern Mexico and 
in Texas, but further northward and eastward is evidently rare. 

Southern Civet Cat. 

Bassaris sumichrasti, DE SAUSSURE, Eev. et Mag. de Zoologie, 2 e se'r., xii, 1860, 7, pi. i 

Bassaris varidbilis, PETERS, Monatsb. d. K. P. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1874, 704, 

pi. i (animal), pi. ii (skull). 

Bassaris monticola, CORDERO, La Natnraleza, iii, 1875, 270, plate (animal and skull). 
Tepechichi del Cofre de Perote, Cacomistle de monte, CORDERO, 1. c., p. 270. 

Bassaris sumichrasti presents variations in general color strictly paral- 
lel with those already noted as occurring in B. astuta. The ground- 
color above varies from nearly pure gray to yellowish-brown, and even 
golden, and the wash of black is sometimes sufficient to render this the 
prevalent tint of the dorsal surface. The yellowish-brown suffusion is 
always much stronger on the posterior half of the body than it is an- 
teriorly. The color of the ventral surface varies from nearly pure white 
to pale gamboge-yellow. The dorsal surface of the feet is generally 
black, always decidedly blackish in all the specimens examined. The 
terminal fourth or more of the tail is usually deep black, with sometimes 
faint indications of one or two gray rings on the lower surface. The 
light rings are much narrower than the intermediate black ones, and 
vary in different specimens from pure gray to whitish-gray and yellow- 
ish gray. They are usually broader on the lower side of the tail than 
on the upper. The number of light rings more or less distinctly trace- 
able varies from seven to ten, but is usually either eight or nine. These 
remarks are based on an examination of seven skins from Southern 
Mexico and Costa Rica. 

*See Cones, Am. Nat., xii, 1878, p. 253. 


Of two specimens taken at Tehuantepec, January 15, 1809, and 
labelled by the collector (Prof. F. Suinickrast) as found in coitu, the 
male is much the larger, grayish-brown above, varied with black, and 
strongly suffused with fulvous posteriorly ; below, pale yellow ; terminal 
third of the tail wholly black; the light rings are gray; length of head 
and body 19J in. ; tail- vertebra 20 in. ; tail to end of hairs 22 in. The 
female is. much purer gray above, with only a slight suffusion of brown- 
ish-fulvous posteriorly ; below, pale yellow; the light rings of the tail 
whitish-gray ; length of head and body 15 in. ; tail- vertebrae 18 in. ; 
tail to end of hairs 20 in. Another male from the same locality, col- 
lected in March, 1872, agrees very nearly in color with the male already 
described, but is rather less strongly suffused with brownish-fulvous ; 
the light tail-rings are grayish-white, and only the terminal fifth of the 
tail is wholly black. Another example (sex unknown) from Mirador 
(Dr. Sartorius) is much darker dorsally throughout, where the prevailing 
tint is decidedly black, the light tail-rings are narrower and more in- 
distinct, and the terminal third of the tail is wholly black. The black 
prevails on the tail to such an extent that above the light rings are well 
defined only toward the base of the tail. Two specimens from La 
Palina, Costa Bica, collected in December, 1876 (J. C. Zeledon), differ 
very little from the last, except that the light rings of the tail are more 
distinct and whitish-gray. 

It will thus be seen that B. sumichrasti is considerably larger than B. 
astuta, darker or more blackish in color, with a relatively longer tail, on 
which the light annulations are narrower, rather more numerous, and 
unbroken below, where they are merely a little narrower than they are 
on the upper surface. The ears are broader, less pointed, and about 
one-fifth shorter than in B. astuta, notwithstanding the smaller size of 
the last-named species. 

Dr. Duges, in some remarks appended to Cordero's description of his 
B. monticola, rather questions the importance of some of the characters 
given by Cordero as distinguishing B. monticola from B. astuta, especially 
the grooving of the incisors, stating that they are to be found also in 
young examples of B. astuta, and that they are features that probably 
disappear with age. Dr. DugeVs remarks respecting other characters, 
as well as this, show that he has evidently confounded the two species. 
In respect to the trilobed border of the incisors, which Cordero refers 
to as having " la figura de una flor de lis," I may say that I have been 
unable to find any traces of this character in wholly unworn teeth of B. 
astuta, while in B. sumichrasti it persists in the very oldest specimens, 
and is even present in one example in which the teeth are all very much 
worn and some of the incisors are broken off, the two or three remaining 
incisors still showing the grooves and the resulting lobed cutting-edge. 
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. Neither De Saussure, Peters, nor 
Cordero state definitely the localities whence their specimens of this 
animal were received. De Saussure gives mereiy ' Mexique, and Peters 


says "aus Centralamerica." Cordero's introductory remarks seein to 
imply that his specimens were obtained in the vicinity of Jalapa. It is 
not mentioned by Tomes as included in the collection of mammals made 
by Mr. Salvm at Dueuas, Guatemala,* nor by Dr. von Frantzius in his 
list of the mammals of Costa Eica.t Consequently the only information 
I can give is limited to the material I have had opportunity of examining. 
The localities reprsented are Jalapa, Mirador, and Tehuantepec, Mexico, 
and La Palma, Costa Eica. As Cordero refers to his having examined 
eight or ten specimens, it is doubtless not uncommon about Jalapa, and 
probably ranges throughout Southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa 
Eica. To what extent the habitats of the two species of Bassaris over- 
lap still remains to be determined. The above-mentioned Orizaba speci- 
men of B. astuta shows that the two species occur together in the State 
of Yera Cruz, and B. astuta may be inferred to be the prevailing form 
about the city of Mexico. 

* Report on a Collection of Mammals made by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F. Z. S., at 
Duefias, Guatemala, with notes on some of the species by Mr. Fraser. By Robert F. 
Tomes, Corr. Mem. Z. S. <Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, pp. 278-288. 
J tDie Siiugethiere Costaricas, ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der geographischen Ver- 
breitnng der Siiugethiere Amerikas. Von Dr. A. von Frantzius. < Archiv fur Natur- 
geschichte, 1869, i, pp. 247-325. 

Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

VOL. VIII. No. 9. 




MARCH, 1881. 

No. 9. List of Mammals collected ly Dr. Edward Palmer in North- 
eastern Mexico, with Field-Notes ly the Collector. By J. A. ALLEN. 

THE region traversed by Dr. Palmer includes the eastern portion of 
the State of Coahuila, the southern parts of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, 
and a large part of the State of San Luis Potosi. The specimens were 
collected chiefly in the vicinity of the city of San Luis Potosi, but in- 
clude a number from Monclova, Parras, Saltillo, Rio Verde, and the neigh- 
borhood of Tampico. The remarks respecting the distribution and 
abundance of the species, when of a general character, may be taken as 
relating to the general region traversed. The collection throws much 
light on the range of Mexican mammals, and in a few cases extends their 
range much beyond their previously known limits. The detection of a 
species of Heteromys so far northward is perhaps the most important 
single fact of the list. The notes on the relative abundance and dis- 
tribution of the species, written from Dr. Palmer's dictation, are dis- 
tinguished by being enclosed in marks of quotation. 

1. Canis latrans, Say. PRAIRIE WOLF ; COYOTE. 

" Generally dispersed but not common, having been to a large extent de- 
stroyed by poisoning and shooting." Dr. Palmer reports their occurrence in 
small numbers in all the parts of Eastern Mexico visited by him. One speci- 
men was sent from San Luis Potosi. 

2. Urocyon cinereo-argentatus (Schreb.), Coues. GRAY Fox. 
" Generally dispersed and very common. Often domesticated." 

3. Putorius brasiliensis frenatus (Licht), Coues. BRIDLED WEASEL. 

Mountains near Saltillo, August 11, 1880. The species is represented in the 
collection by a skin and skull. " Apparently not common." 

4. Taxidea americana berlandieri (Baird), Allen. MEXICAN BADGER. 

The localities represented are San Luis Potosi, San Pedro (Chihuahua), 
and Saltillo. Not common. 

5. Bassaris astuta, Licht. CIVET CAT. 

One specimen, San Luis Potosi, March 29, 1879, " Not very common, but 
occurs in small numbers nearly everywhere. Often tamed as pets." 

VOL. VIII. NO. 9. 


[Bison americanus (Gmelin), Smith. AMERICAN BISON. 

Of this species no specimens were of course observed, but it is here intro- 
duced for the purpose of recording some traditional evidence of its former 
presence at points outside of its hitherto definitely recorded range. " Accord- 
ing to the testimony of old people," says Dr. Palmer, " the Bison was very 
abundant about Monclova and Parras when the first settlers reached these 
points, probably half a century after the conquest. For some years they killed 
large numbers for food, but soon they ceased to appear. There seems to be no 
reason why, so far as the nature of the country is concerned, the Bison may not 
have ranged also to Saltillo. Careful observation failed to detect any of their 
remains, nor could I learn that such have been met with. Little attention, 
however, is paid to such things by the inhabitants, which might easily pass 
unnoticed, even if existing."] 

6. Cariacus virginianus mexicanus (Gmelin), Allen. COMMON DEER. 

The collection contains the head of a male, obtained at Savinito, Tierre 
Caliente. " Common everywhere in the wooded mountains, to which they are 
restricted. Very common about Tampico, and are frequently exposed for sale 
in the markets of the town." 

[Dr. Palmer informs me that he found no indication of the presence of the 
Prong-horn (Antilocapra americana) in any portion of the region he traversed. 
This is an important negative fact, as tending to fix the southern limit of this 
species, as it is known to occur further westward in the northern parts of the 
States of Chihuahua and Sonora.] Berlandier is cited (Alston, Biol. Cent. 
Amer., Mam., p. 113) as authority for the statement that its range extends 
" southwards at least throughout the State of Tamaulipas." 

7. Nyctinomus brasiliensis, Is. Geoffrey. 

Four specimens, San Luis Potosi. " Common, infesting the houses. This 
is the common Bat of this region." 

8. Plecotus auritus, LeConte. BIG-EARED BAT. 

One specimen, San Luis Potosi. This appears to be the first record of this 
species from any part of Mexico. 

9. SpennophihlS grammurus (Say), Bachman. LINED-TAILED SPER- 


One specimen, taken at Angostura, Rio Verde, one hundred and sixty miles 
south of San Luis Potosi. " Occurs here and elsewhere abundantly about old 
walls and rocky places. Very destructive to the crops, and a great pest. From 
the nature of their haunts they are hard to capture." 

10. Spermophilus mexicanus (Licht.), Wagner. MEXICAN SPERMOPHILE. 

One specimen, Monclova. " Widely distributed at favorable localities, but 
not nearly so abundant as the smaller species " (S. spilosomus). 


11. Spermophilus spilosomus, Bennett. SONORAN SPERMOPHILE. 
Eleven specimens, representing both the young and the adult, are in the col- 
lection from San Luis Potosi, and one each from San Pedro (Coahuila) and 
Parras. There is very little variation in color with age or individually. 

" Abundant. Lives on the open plains and about the edges of fields, where 
it is a troublesome pest. Hibernates. Many are tamed." 

12. Cynomys ludovicianus (Ord), Baird. EASTERN PRAIRIE DOG. 
Five specimens, from the vicinity of Saltillo. "Only a single small colony 

was met with, in a little valley surrounded by mountains, not far from Saltillo, 
confined to an area of some thirty or forty acres." , 

This discovery extends the range of the species considerably to the south- 
ward and eastward of any point -from which it has hitherto been reported. In 
" Monographs of North American Rodentia," p. 896, I inferential^ gave its 
southern limit as the Staked Plains of Western Texas, overlooking the fact 
that it had been recorded by Dr. Kennerly (Rep U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv., II. 
Mamm., p. 40) and by Duges (La Naturaleza, I. p. 137) from the State of 
Chihuahua, the former observing it as far westward as the Sierra Madre. 

13. Mus decumanus, Pallas. BROWN RAT. 

" Abundant in the cities of the interior, as well as in those of the coast. It 
was common at San Luis, and extends as far north at least as Zacatecas." 

14. Mus alexandrinus, t. Geoffrey. 

Four specimens, from San Luis, where it is " common in the houses." In 
addition to these are two specimens which seem to be unquestionably hybrids 
between this species and M. rattus, with which it has been repeatedly stated to 

15. Mus rattus, Linne. BLACK RAT. 

Two specimens, San Luis Potosi. " Lives in the houses and also in fields." 

16. Mus musculus, Linne'. HOUSE MOUSE. 
" A numerous pest everywhere in the houses." 

17. Hesperomys melanophrys, Coues. 

One specimen, a full-grown male, San Luis Potosi, September 1, 1879. 
" Rather common in the fields." 

As admitted by both Coues (North Amer. Rodent., p. 102) and Alston 
(Biol. Cent. Amer., Mam., p. 147), there is strong probability that H. mela- 
nophrys, Coues, and H. mexicanus, De Sauss., are identical. The specimen col- 
lected by Dr. Palmer agrees in size with Dr. Coues's largest examples from 
Tehuantepec ; the black eye-ring is also quite conspicuous, but the back pos- 
teriorly is apparently more strongly ferrugineous. I therefore provisionally 
adopt Coues's name in preference to De Saussure's. 


18. Neotoma floridana mexicana (Baird), Allen. MEXICAN BUSH RAT; 

Neotoma mexicana., BAIRD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII., April, 1855, 333 ; 

Mam. N. Am., 1857, 490 ; U. 8. & Mex. Bound. Surv., II. Pt. 2, 1859, Mam., 

p. 54, PL XXIV. fig. 1, skull. 
Neotoma micropus, BAIRD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII., April, 1855, 333 ; 

Mam. X. Am., 1857, 492 ; U. S. & Mex. Bound. Surv., II. Pt. 2, 1859, Mam., 

p. 44. 
Neotoma floridana, GEOFFROY, Zool. Voy. Venus, 1855, 154, PL XIII. Coues, 

Mon. N. Am. Roden., 1877, 14 (partim). ,Duges, La Fraternidad, I., 1874, 82, 

PL (animal, details of external parts, skull, and dentition). 

A series of eight specimens, two collected in October and the remainder in 
March, at San Luis Potosi, contrast so strongly in color and size with Florida 
examples of Neotoma that the Mexican form seems eminently worthy of varie- 
tal recognition. The Mexican specimens are fully one fourth smaller, the tails 
are much more thickly clothed, and the color is widely different, agreeing, 
however, in every respect with N. mexicana, Baird. The tail is sharply bicolor, 
and the feet and the lower surface of the body are snowy white, separated from 
the mouse-brown of the back by a well-marked band of yellowish-rufous or 
golden-rust, varying in intensity in different individuals. Two specimens 
have the dorsal surface strongly ferrugineous throughout, varied of course with 
black medially, passing into strong reddish brown on the sides, thus in general 
tint strongly resembling N. ferruginea, for which they were at first mistaken. 
One is a male, the other a female, and they were taken, respectively, March 10 
and March 24. Another specimen, a female, taken March 20, presents the 
opposite extreme of paleness, being gray above, varied with black and faintly 
tinged on the sides with a pinkish hue. These examples indicate an exceedingly 
wide range of individual variation in color ; the other specimens, however, are 
variously intermediate, and form altogether a closely intergrading series. 

"These rats are sold in the markets as food for invalids whose stomachs are 
unable to retain other food ; as a cure for chronic diarrhoea and dysentery is 
believed to have few equals. The animals are split open and applied as a 
poultice to parts affected with pain. The market of San Luis Potosi is never 
without these rats. They are said to be good eating aside from their as- 
cribed medicinal virtue. They are very abundant, inhabiting the localities 
of the magueys or agaves, about the roots of which they live, probably be- 
cause the thorny nature of the plant prevents rapacious animals from bur- 
rowing after the rats, or possibly in order to feast upon the roots. They 
live in the ground, and the daily supply seen in the market of San Luis Potosi 
is obtained by digging them out of their burrows. They are known under the 
name Rata del Campo." 

Dr. Palmer has kindly called my attention to two papers on this species in 
" La Fraternidad " * by Don Alfredo Duges and Dr. Gregorio Barrocta, the 

* La Fraternidad Periodico de la Sociedad Medica de San Luis Potosi, Tom. I., 
Entr. No. 6, Junio de 1874, pp. 82-87 y pi. 


first accompanied by a plate giving a life-size figure of the animal, with numer- 
ous details, including the skull and dentition. Dr. Barrocta alludes especially 
to its supposed medicinal qualities, to the use of its flesh as food by the poorer 
classes, and to the daily sale of the animals in the market. Duges states that 
they are readily domesticated and form agreeable pets. 

19. Dipodomys phillipsi, Gray. KANGAROO-RAT. 

Nine specimens, San Luis Potosi, September, October, March, and May, in- 
cluding adults of both sexes and half-grown young. In point of coloration 
they present great uniformity, the young exactly agreeing in this respect with 
the adult. 

" Everywhere common. Very troublesome in the cornfields. NocturnaL 
Obtained with difficulty and only by digging them out of their burrows." 

20. Heteromys longicaudatus ? Gray. MEXICAN HISPID MOUSE. 

Hderomys alleni, Coues, MS. 

Dr. Palmer's collection contains a single specimen of Heteromys, an adult 
male, taken at the Hacienda Angostura, Rio Verde, February 26, 1878. Dr. 
Palmer states that it was discovered in a mound in digging for antiquities. 
Two were seen, but one of them escaped. He believes it to be rare, as it was 
not recognized by the natives. Appreciating its importance he offered a reward 
of a dollar apiece for other specimens, but was unable to obtain any more. 

The genus Heteromys has hitherto been known only from Southern Mexico 
(Oaxaca) and thence southward to Northern South America. Numerous spe- 
cies have been described, but only four are recognized by Mr. Alston (Biol. 
Cent. Amer., Mam., pp. 166-168) as valid, and of these two only (H. desma- 
restianus and H. longicaudatus) are found north of the Isthmus of Panama. The 
present example differs apparently in important features from either of these, 
and a detailed description of it is therefore appended. 

" In size and general appearance it greatly resembles Perognathus fasciatus, 
but is a typical Heteromys ; the upper incisors being smooth while the pelage is 
mixed with flat grooved spines. Tail vertebrae as long as head and body ; with 
hairs, half an inch longer. Tail tufted at the end, the lengthened hairs form- 
ing a crest, as in Perognathus pencillatus. Soles hairy from the heel nearly to 
the bases of the toes ; but? a slight strip along the heel is naked. A very 
prominent black tubercle at the base of the inner toe. Under surfaces of the 
toes naked and scaly. Palms naked from the wrist. Upper surfaces of hands 
and feet densely hairy. Ears large, orbicular, projecting beyond the fur ; notch 
bounded behind by a very large flap-like lobe, in front by a slight fold (much 
as in Perognathus pencillatus). 

" Coloration not unlike that of Perognathus fasciatus, but darker. Under 
parts pure white. A conspicuous stripe of fawn-color extends the whole length 
of the head and body, separating the white under parts from the dark upper parts. 
Nearly the whole fore leg is colored like the upper parts ; this dark color also 
descending the hind leg and advancing a short distance on the tarsus. The 


dark color of the fore leg is separated from that of the upper parts by the fawn- 
colored stripe ; that of the hind leg is continuous. Ears conspicuously bor- 
dered with white. The general color of the upper parts is blackish intimately 
grizzled with gray and sandy ; the dark colors predominate and give the gen- 
eral effect on the back, the admixture of sandy increasing on the sides in 
approaching the fawn-colored stripe. The spines are colorless in all their 
grooved portion, the smooth sharp lips being blackish ; these comprise one fifth 
to one fourth of the whole length. The very slender hairs intermixed with the 
spines are similarly colored. The spines are restricted to the upper parts ; 
elsewhere the fur is soft, but coarse, and there appears to be no under fur. The 
hairs of the white under parts, and of the fawn-colored stripe, are uniformly 
colored from root to tip. The tail sharply bicolor, blackish above and white 
below, fully haired, the hair completely hiding the scales ; the pencil at the 
end is entirely dark-colored and occupies the terminal inch of the vertebrae. 
Whiskers partly blackish and partly colorless. Claws nearly colorless. Inci- 
sors yellow. 

" The length of the well-prepared skin (No. 5889, M. C. Z.) is 4.30 inches. 
Tail vertebrae the same. Tail with hairs, 4.V5. Hind foot, 1.15. Ear, .55 
above notch. 

" As above stated, this example is of the size of Perognathus fasciatus, which 
it much resembles in general appearance, especially in the conspicuous fawn- 
colored stripe along the sides ; in its long tufted tail it resembles P. pencillatus, 
but is of course generically different from either. The white rim of the ears is 
also a strong mark." Coues, MS. 

In 1868, Dr. J. E. Gray (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868, pp. 204, 205) described three 
species of Heteromys from Mexico (H. longicaudatus,irroratus, and albolimbatus) 
and one from Honduras (H. melanoleucus), all of which Mr. Alston has re- 
ferred to a single species, together with another (H. adspersus) from Panama 
described by Dr. Peters, in each case from an examination of the types. For 
this species he adopts the name longicaudatus as " the only one of Gray's names 
which is not absolutely misleading." In view of this large number of syno- 
nyms it seems presumptuous to take the risk of adding another, although the 
present example does not agree with the characters given by Mr. Alston for 
H. longicaudatus, nor with those of any of the species described by Gray, 
although recalling certain features of two of them. It has, for instance, the 
white-rimmed ears of H. albolimbatus, and " the yellow streak on the side," or 
" widish interrupted yellow line," of H. irroratus (which, however, Mr. Al- 
ston says, is merely " a slight tinge of pale fawn along the edge of the darker 
coloring "), except that in the present example it is not interrupted and forms a 
conspicuous feature of the coloration. There is no allusion in any of the de- 
scriptions, nor in Mr. Alston's diagnosis and remarks, to the conspicuous crest 
of long (.50 to .65 of an inch in length) blackish hairs along the terminal fifth 
of the tail-vertebrse, unless it be that the phrase, " short black hairs, which 
are more abundant on the upper part near and at the tip, forming a kind of 
pencil," in the description of H. albolimbatus, can be so construed. From Mr. 


Alston's determinations it is evident that specimens he refers to H. longicaudatus 
present considerable variations in color, in the length and hairiness of the, tail, 
etc., and may or may not have white-edged ears. In view of this fact a con- 
servative course seems the only advisable one in the present instance. 

I may here add that some months since (before the appearance of Mr. Al- 
ston's revision of the group) I submitted the specimen to Dr. Coues, who 
considered it as undescribed (an opinion I then fully shared), and returned 
it with the above-given description and MS. name. 

21. Thomomys talpoides umbrinus (Rich.), Coues. SOUTHERN POCKET 


Two specimens, San Luis Potosi. " Abundant Very troublesome in the 
sugar fields." 

The specimens collected by Dr. Palmer extend the known range of the 
species much to the southward (some 10 of latitude) and eastward of pre- 
viously recorded localities (Espia and Santa Cruz, State of Sonora). 

22. Lepus sylvatiGUS, Bachm. WOOD HARE ; " GRAY RABBIT." 

Six specimens, from the vicinity of San Luis Potosi. The series includes 
both young and adult. 

" Everywhere abundant. Brought into the towns by the mule-load." 

23. LepUS callotis, Wagler. MEXICAN HARE ; "JACKASS RABBIT." 
Eleven specimens, including a series of young examples, from San Luis 


" Abundant everywhere ; more common even than the smaller species [L. 
sylvaticus] and forms an important source of food." 

24. Tatusia novemcincta (Linne'). ARMADILLO. 

There is a single carapace in the collection from the Tierra Calienta of the 
State of San Luis Potosi, where, according to Dr. Palmer, the animal is not 

25. Didelphys . 

Parras, two specimens (skins and skulls in spirits), apparently about half- 
grown, of a species not yet determined. The ears are entirely white ; there are 
three prominent black stripes on the face, and the long hairs of the dorsal sur- 
face are black, imparting this color to the whole dorsal aspect. 






F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. 









WASHINGTON, Angus* 30, 1,^82. 

Art. XT III. Preliminary I<ist of Works and Pa- 
pers Relating to the Mammalian Orders Cete and 

By Joel Asapli Allen. 

OWING to the illness of the author, which prevented his 
revision of the proofsheets, it was necessary to stop the 

printing of the "List" at the end of the year 1840. The * 

lent instalment comprises only a little more than one-third 

of the article ; the remainder will be published as soon as the 
author's health renders it practicable. 

J. A. ALLEN. * 

Cambridge, Sept., 1882. 

reached in the collection ol titles nere 

of the subject of the Whale-fishery, for example, has been intentionally 

wholly neglected, namely, legislation for its promotion and regula- 

tion by different governments. This alone would furnish hundreds of 

titles, which, while having only a remote bearing on the natural history 

of Whales, would still have some importance in regard to the history of 


The titles here given have been taken by the writer, when not oth- 
erwise stated, from the works and papers mentioned, and the com- 
ments, unless otherwise indicated, are based on personal examination 
of the same. Many titles relating to the Whale-fishery have been copied 
from D. Mulder Bosgoed's invaluable "Bibliotheca Ichthyologia et Pis- 

Art. XVIII. Preliminary ^i>< of Works and Pa- 
pers Relating to the Mammalian Orders Cete and 

By Joel Asaph Allen. 

Preparatory to undertaking the preparation of a history of the spe- 
cies of the North American Cete and Sirenia, I began, some time since, 
a systematic examination of the literature of the subject, taking titles 
and making notes for future reference. It soon occurred to me that the 
annotated list begun for my own use might be of service to other inves- 
tigators in Cetology and Sirenology, and with this point in view I set 
about the preparation of a bibliography of these subjects. The titles 
thus far gathered are believed to cover nearly everything of importance 
bearing upon their technical aspects, besides the more important of 
those relating to their economical and commercial phases. The defi- 
ciencies relate mainly to the latter, and consist in great degree of casual 
notices of animals of the above-named orders in narratives of travel and 
exploration, and in periodicals of an ephemeral or non-scientific char- 
acter, relating generally to the capture or stranding of Whales at differ- 
ent localities, and notices of Whaling. To make a bibliography which 
should be exhaustive in these respects would be, it is needless to say, 
the work of a lifetime, and would scarcely repay the labor expended 
beyond a certain point of completeness, believed to have been nearly 
reached in the collection of titles here presented. One department 
of the subject of the Whale-fishery, for example, has been intentionally 
wholly neglected, namely, legislation for its promotion and regula- 
tion by different governments. This alone would furnish hundreds of 
titles, which, while having only a remote bearing on the natural history 
of Whales, would still have some importance in regard to the history of 

The titles here given have been taken by the writer, when not oth- 
erwise stated, from the works and papers mentioned, and the com- 
ments, unless otherwise indicated, are based on personal examination 
of the same. Many titles Mating to the Whale-fishery have been copied 
from D. Mulder Bosgoed's invaluable "Bibliotheca Ichthyologia et Pis- 


catoria" (8, Haarlem, 1873), especially many of those published in 
the Dutch language. The titles have, in many cases, been taken by 
preference from this author, for two reasons: first, they are generally 
more fully given by him, and with greater regard to literal transcrip- 
tion, than in many other works 5 and, secondly, they are usually accom- 
panied with references to the particular portion of works, when of a 
general character, relating to the special subject here in hand. The 
titles unaccredited may be considered as representing the literary 
resources in this field of research afforded by the principal libraries of 
Cambridge and Boston, circumstances having thus far prevented me 
from consulting those of other cities. In some cases the sets of period- 
ical publications have proved incomplete, and in a few cases wholly 
wanting. To cover these deficiencies, titles of works or papers known 
to me through citation by authors have been taken from the Eoyal 
Society's " Catalogue of Scientific Papers," or from other bibliographical 
sources. In this way it is believed that few papers of actual scientific 
value have escaped record. I have, however, proof of the incomplete- 
ness of this "Preliminary List 77 in the considerable number of "catch 
references" still in hand, which are too incomplete for insertion, but 
which an effort will be made to perfect as opportunity may favor, to be 
given later, with such others as may be met with, in a contemplated 
reprint of the present "List." In view of a probable later edition, the 
author earnestly solicits the correction of errors that may be discovered 
in the present, and would be glad to have his attention directed to any 

In regard to the plan of the present undertaking, it may be stated 
that the titles are arranged chronologically, with an alphabetical 
disposition of authors under each year. The index to the "List" 
(the titles being consecutively numbered) will facilitate reference to 
any particular author or paper desired. In the case of minor papers, 
the annotations are intended as simply an amplification of the title 
in other words, an explanation of the scope and nature of the article 
cited. In works of a general character, containing brief references 
to the matter here in hand, the particular portion of the work relating 
to the subject is stated, with an indication of its extent and importance. 
In the case of monographs, anatomical memoirs, or special works, the 
contents are indicated by the transcription of sub-titles, when such 
occur, and by further amplification when deemed desirable; in other 
cases by supplied sub-headings. Each species formally mentioned or 
figured is enumerated, with page-references, and in case of figures an 
indication is given of their nature or bearing. As a matter of conven- 
ience^ the species are generally numbered with Arabic numerals in 
heavy type, these showing at a glance the number of species formally 
treated or recognized in the work or memoir. In the case of old 
works, or where vernacular names are alone used, the modern current 
systematic equivalent is frequently indicated. In every instance where 
such occur, new species and new genera are especially distinguished. 


Great care has been taken to make the transcription of titles strictly 
literal, interpolations or emendations being inclosed in brackets. 
Errors of transcription can, nevertheless, scarcely be otherwise than 
frequent, as every bibliographer must be well aware. The orthography 
and capitalization of scientific names are intended to be literal, or in 
accordance with the usage of the particular work under notice, from 
which, however, there are doubtless occasional lapses. The attempt 
has been made to bring the "List" down to the end of the year 1880, 
but a few later titles have been added, and there are doubtless many 
deficiencies for the last year of the record. 


Cambridge, Mass., September, 1881. 

1495. ALBERTUS MAGNUS. Diui Albert! Magni de Animalibus | libri vigintisex Novis- 
sime Impress!. [First page.] fol. 11. 6, ff. 1-^254 . 

ImpressumUenetijs per Joaimem & Gregoriuin | de Gregorys fratres. Anno 
incarnatiouis dominice | Millesirno quadringentesimo nonagesimo quinto | die, 
xxi. Maij. Regnante duo Augustino Barbadi co | inclitoDuceUenetial/ [f. 254], 

Cetus, f. 240 ; Delphinus, f. 241 ; Monoceros, f. 244. . The interest attaching to tho cetologi- 
cal matter is purely historic. [1.] 

1510. ANDREW, LAUR. "The wonderful sliape and nature of man, beastes, serpeutes, 
fowles, fishes, and monsters, translated out of divers authors by L. Andrew 
of Calis, and printed at Antuerpe, by John Doesborow. (Doesborch, 1510.) 
fol. With pictures." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cif., p. 2, no. 10. [2.] 

1526. OVIEDO, G. F. DE. Otiiedo dela natural hy | storia delas Indias. | Con preuile- 
gio dela | S. C. C. M. | [For Gonaalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valde"s. Toledo. 
1526.] 4. ff. i-lij+3pp. 

Delos manaties, f. xlviij (30 lines). The account of the Manatee here given is brief in com- 
parison with that in the Hist. gen. Ind., 1535, q. v. [3.] 

1533. MARTYR, P. Petri Martyris | ab Angleria mediolanen. Oratoris | clarissimi, 
Fernandi & Helisabeth Hispaniaruin quondam rcgum | a consilijs, de rebus 
Oceanis & Orbe nouo decades tres: quibus | quicquid de inuentis nuper terris 
tradituin, nouarum rerum cupi- | dum lectorem retinere possit, copiose, tideli- 
ter, erudititp docetur. | Eivsdem praeterea | Legationis Babylonicac li | bri 
tres: vbi praeter oratorii mvneris | pulcherrimuni exemplum, etiam quicquid 
in uariarum gentium mori- | bus & institutis insigniter preclarum uidit que^' 
terra mariqi acciderunt, | omnia lectu mire iucunda, genere dicendi politis- 
simo traduntur. | [Design.] Basileae, | | M. D. XXXIII. | fol. }1. 12, if. 
Manati, f. 60, C, D. [4.] 

1535. OVIEDO, G. F. DE. La historia general | delas Indias. | [Por Gonzalo Fernan- 
dez de Oviedo y Valde"s.] Con priuilegio imperial. [Sevilla, 1535.] | 4 C . 
11. 4, ff. i-cxciij. 

Capitulo x. Del Manati y de su grandeza & forma : & de la manera qne algunas vezes los 
indios tomauan este grade animal conel pexereuerso : & otras particularidades. ff. cvj-cviij, fig. 
The account occupies 5 pp., and is important as the source whence many later compilers 
drew their materials for the history of the Manatee, and is still historically of the highest in. 
terest. There is a small, very rude cut, hearing some likeness to the general form of tho 
Manatee the earliest figure of the animal published. In the edition of 1547 the text (if. cvj- 
cvijj) is the same as in the present, but the figure is slightly different, showing an attempt at 
art istic impro vem ent. f 5 . 1 

26 a B 


1551. BELOX, PIERRE. "L'histoire Naturelle des Estranges Poissons Marins, avec la 

vraie Peincture et Description du Dauphin et de plusieurs autres de sou espece, 
Observed par Pierre Be"lon du Mans. A Paris, 1551. 4. pp. 115." 

Not seen ; title from Dr. David Cragie in Edinb. Phil. Journ., xi, 1831, p. 43, where he gives 
a critical rCsumt (op. cit., pp. 43-48) of B61on's account of the anatomy of the Porpoise. [6.] 

1552. ARISTOTELES. Aristotelis et | Theopbrasti | Historic, Cum de natura Aniina- 

lium, turn de Plantis | & earum Causis, cuncta fere, quae Deus opt. | max. 
homini eontemplanda exhibuit, ad | amussim complectentes : nunc iam suo 
resti- | tutss nitori, & mendis omnibus, quoad fieri | potuit, repurgatie. | Cvm 
Indice Copio- | sissimo: | Ex quo superfluum quod erat, decerpsimus: quod 
uero | necessarium nobis uisum est, superaddidimus. | Estote Prvdentes, | 
[Vignette] | sicvt serpentes. | Lvgdvni, | Apud Gulielmum Gazeium, | 
M.D.LII. | Cum Priuilegio Re^is. | 8. 11. 40, pp. 1-495, 11. 8 (animal.), 11. 
28, pp. 1-399, 11. 7 (plant.). 

De partu, & pullorum numero piscinm uiuiparnm, delphino, balaena, vitulo marino, & reli- 
quis, quae cete appellantur. Liber vi, caput xiii, pp. 141-143. 

Several earlier and numerous later editions and commentaries of this work are intention- 
ally omitted. [7.] 

1553. BELLON, P. [or BELON, P.] Petri Bellonii Cenomani | De aquatilibus, Libri 

duo- 1 Cum e^couibus ad vinam ipsoruni effigiem, quoad ] eius fieri potuit, ex- 
pressis. | Ad amplissimum Cardinalem Ca'stilliouseum. | Parisiis. | Apud 
Carolum Stephanum, Typographum Regium. j M. D. LIU. | Cum privilegio 
Regis, obi. 8. 11. 16, pp. 1-448. 

De cetaceis, ossibus praeditis ac viuiparis, pp. 4-18. Balena, pp. 4, 5 ; Delphinus, pp. 7, 8, 
fig., p. 6 (apparently of Phocoenacommunis); fig., p. 9 (apparently of Delphinus delphis); Nun ease 
Delphinvm incvrvvm, p. 9; fig., p. 10 (apparently of Delphinus delphis); Duo Delphini incurui, 
dorso repando, ex antiquissimo numismate sereo, figs., p. 11; Quid Delphinus a Tvrsione 
distet, p. 12 ; Matricis Delphini cum fcetu efformatio, fig., p. 13 ; Dolphini caluaria, text and fig., 
p. 14 ; Tvrsio, p. 15, fig., p. 16 ; Orca, pp. 16, 17, fig., p. 18. Dolphin-like figure with foetus at- 
tached by foetal envelopes. 

The figures were all reproduced by Gesner, and were also copied by various later au- 
thors. [8.] 

1554. GOMARA, F. L. DE. La Historia | general delas Indias, | con todos los descu- 

brimientos, y cosas nota | bles que ban acaescido enellas, dende | que se gane- 
ron hasta agora, escri- | ta por Francisco Lopez | de Gomara, clerigo. | Aiia- 
diose de nueuo la descripcion ytraca delas Indias, [ con una Tablaalpbabetica 
delas Prouincias, Islas, | Puereos, Ciudades, y nombres de conquistadores | y 
varones principales que alia han passado. | [Cygnet.] EnAnvers. | Encasa 
de luan Steelsio. | Aiio M. D. LIIIT. | sm. 8. 11. 16+ff. 1-287. 

Dela Fez que llaman enla Espanola Manati, cap. xxxi, ff. 37, 38. [9.] 

1554. RONDELET, G. Gvlielmi | Rondeletit | Doctoris medici | et medicinae in schola | 

Monspeliensi Pro- | fessoris Re- | gii. | Libri de Piscibus Marinis, in quibus | 
verse Piscium effigies expresses sunt. | Qua) in tota Piscium liistoria contine- 
antur, indicat | Elenchus pagina nona et decima. | Postremb accesserunt In- 
dices necessarij. | [Design.] Lvgdvni | Apud Mattliiarn Bonhornme. | | 
M. D. LIU. | Cum Priuilgio Regis ad duodecim annos. 2. 11. 8, pp. 1-583, 
11. 12. 

De Delphino, lib. xvi, cap. viii, pp. 459-473, fig., p. 459 (a Dolphin with young in foetal 
envelopes). De Phocaena, lib. xvi, cap. ix, pp. 437, 474. De Tursione, lib. xvi, cap. x, pp. 474, 
475,. fig. De Balsena vulgd dicta siue de Mnsculo, lib. xvi, cap. xi, pp. 475-482, fig., p. 475 (view 
from above of some pisciform creature having more resemblance to a fish than a Whale. Also 
fig. of a harpoon on same page). De Balena vera, lib. xvi, cap. xii, pp. 482, 483, fig. (anim. fict.). 
De Orca, lib. xvi, cap. xiii, pp. 483-185, fig., p. 483. De Physetere, lib. xvi, cap. xiiii, pp. 485-487, 
fig., p. 485. De Manato, lib. xvi, cap. xviii, p. 490. 

The figure "De Delphino " greatly resembles Bellon's figure of his "Orca, Oudre, ou grand 
Marsouin," but differs in details, and is not the same. [10.1 

1555. "BELON, P. La nature et diversity des poissons. Avec leurs pourtraicts repre- 

sentez au plus pres naturel. Paris, Cli. Estienne, 1555. obi, b. 448 11." 
Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 3, no. 24. [11.] 


1555. "OLAUS MAGNUS. Historia do gentibus septentrionalibus carumqne divcrsis 
statibns, conditionibus, moribus, ritibus, superstitionibus. Roraae, de Viottis, 
1555. 4. [fol.T] Methoutgr." 

" Lib. xxi. De piscibus monstrosis; tie modo piscancli Cetos et Balenas; de Spermate ceti. 
etc., etc." 

Not seen; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 109, no. 1732. 

This is said by Bosgoed to be the first and best edition of the work. Other editions ap- 
peared later: Antwerp, 1558 (Latin) and 1561 (French); Venice, 1505; Basel, 1567; Amster- 
dam, 1599 ; Frankfort, 1G25 ; Leyden, 1645 ; Amsterdam, 16 >2 ; the form varying from 8 to fol., 
and the text modified by abridgment, or amplified by the addition of extraneous matter. I 
give infra, from Bosgoed, a collation of the Dutch edition of 1599, q. v. [12.] 

1558. "BoussuETi, FR. De natura aquatilinm carmen, in universam G. Roudeletii, 
quam de piscibus niariuis scripsit Iristoriam. Cuin vivis eorutn iinaginibus. 
Lugduni, apud M. Bonhomme, 1558. 2 pt. 4." 

Xot seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 4. no. 35. [13.] 

1558. GESNER, CONRAD. Conradi Gesncri | uiedici Tigurini Historic Animaliaiii' | 
Liber IIII. qui est de Piscinin & | Aquatilium animantiuin j natura. | Cvra 
Iconibvs siugvlorvm ad | vivam expressis fere orauib. DCCVI. | Continentur 
in hoc Volumine, Gvlielnai Rondeletii quocp, | medicinse professoiis Regij in 
Schola Monspeliensi, & Petri Bel- | louii Cenoiriani, medici hoc tempore Lute- 
tiss eximij, de j Aquatilium singulis scripta. | Ad invictissiiuvra, principem 
divvni Ferdinan- | dum Imperatorem semper Augustum, &c. | . . . [motto in 
Greek, 1 line.] | [Vignette.] Cvm Priuilegijs S. Csesaress Maiestatis ad octen- 
nium, & poten- | tissimi Regis Galliarum ad deceunium. | Tigvri apvd 
Christoph. Froschovervm, | Anno M. D. LVIII. | gr. 2. 11. 6, pp. 1-1*97. 
(Figg. in text.) 

De Balaena vvlgo dicta, sive de Mysticeto Aristotelis, Mvscvlo Plinii, pp. 132-141 (fig. p, 
132). De Cetis vel Cetaceis piscibus, et Bellvis marinis in genere, pp. 229-237. De Cetia 
diversis, pp. 237-256, fig., p. 255 (de . . . Cetis Oceani Germanici). Do Delphino, pp. 380-410. 
De Phocaena sev Tvrsione, pp. 837-839. De (Physalo Bellva, sev) Physetere, pp. 851-859. 
Includes, in substance, the text of Belon and Rondelet, with much additional matter, mainly 
from still earlier authors. The above-cited figures are, with possibly one exception, from 
either Belon or Rondelet. At pp. 246-251 are descriptions and figures, mostly from Olans 
Magnus, of various fabulous marine monsters. 

For editions of 1560 and 1563, see infra ; later ones (not seen by me) are : Frankfort, gr. fo!., 
1604, 1620. [14.] 

1558. ROXDELET, G. Le Premiere Partie | de f PHistoire | entiere des | Poissons, | 
Composed premieremeut en Latin par maistre | Guilaume Rbndelet Docteur 
regent en Me- | decine en Tuniversitd de Morapelier. | Maintenant Tradnite 
en Francois sans auoir | rieu . . . [word torn out] necessaire & 1'intelligence 
d'icelle. | . . . [word torn out] portraits au naif. | [Vignette.] A Lion, j 
par Mace Bonhome | a la Masse d'Or. | | M. D. LVIII. | Avec privilege dv 
Roy povr dovze ans. | 4. 11. 0, pp. 1-418, 11. 7. [Partie Seconde.] pp. 1-181, 
11. 5. [Numerous cuts in the text.] 

Le Seizieme Livre des Poissons; Des Poissons Cetacees 6 grandes bestes marines. especJ- 
alement des Tortnes, pp. 336-364. Du Dauphin, pp. 344-350, cut; Dn Marsouin, p. 350, cut; 
De la Balene vulgaire, pp. 351. 353, cut; De la vraie Balene, pp. 353, 354, cut; DeJ'Espaular, 
pp. 354, 355, cut; Du Malar ou Sendette, pp. 355, 356, cut; De la Vinelle, pp. 356, 357, cut; De 
la Scolopendre cetacee, pp. 357, 358, cut; Du Tibnron, pp. 358,359; Du Maraxe, p. 359; Du 
Manat, pp. 359, 360. 

Le Seizieme Livre includes not only the species above named, but also the Sea-Tortoises, 
and various anthropomorphous marine monsters. The first four books treat of the general 
economy of "Fishes," including their external and internal anatomy, their habits, facultieu, 
etc., and of modes of capturing them, including the Cetacea passim. The figures arc the 
same as those of the Latin ed. (1554), q. v. The second division of the work contains the 
marine Invertebrates, the fluviatile Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles, and also 
the Beaver, "le Bieure." [15.] 

1558. TKEVET, F. A. Les | Singvlari- | tez de la France an- | tarctiqve, avtrement 
nom- | me'e Amerique, & de plusieurs Ter- | res & Isles decouuertes de no- I 
etre temps: | Par F. Andr6 Thevet, na- | tif d'Augovlesme. | [Seal.] A An- 


1558. THEVET, F. A. Continued. 

vers, | De Fimprimerie de Christophle Plantin | a la Licorne d'or. | 1558. | 
Avec Privilege dv Roy. | sm. 8. 11. 8, 1-163-f 1. (Cuts in text.) 

Description du manati, poisson estrange, p. 138. [16.] 

15GO. GESXER, CONRAD. Nomenclator | aqvatilivra auimantivm. | Icones Anima- 
livm a- | quatilium in raari & dulcibus aquis de- | gentium, plus quam Dec. 
cum nomen- | claturis singulorum Latinis, Grecis, Itali- | cis, Hispanicis, Gal- 
licis, Germanicis, | Anglicis, alij'sq; interdum, percer- | tos orclincs digest ce. ] 
Explicantvr autem singulorurn nomina ae nominu rationes, prae- | certim iu 
Latina et Graeca lingua vberrime: et nominiim confirmandorum causa ; 
descriptioues quorundam, et alia qusedam, pncsertim in magno nostro Do 
aquatili- | bus volumine non tradita, adduutur: defy singulis Rondeletij, Bel- 
lonij, Saluiani et | nostrse sententire explicantur breuissitne'. [ Per Conradvm 
Gesnervm Tigvrinvm. | Le Figure de pesci e cV altri animali, li quali ui- 
uono ne 1' acque | salse e dolci, pin che DCC. | . . . [The same repeated in 
French, 2 lines, and in German, 2 lines.] | Cvm Privileges S. Csesane Mniesta- 
tis, ad annos octo, & poten- | tissimi Regis Galliarum ad decenninm. | Tigvri 
excvdebat Christoph. Froscho- | vervs. Anno M. D. LX. | 2. 11. 14, pp. 
1-374, 1. 1. (Figg. in text.) 

Ordo XII: De Cetis proprie dictis, pp. 160-185. Figg. Delphinus foemina cum fcetu mas- 
culoso, ut Rondeletius exhibuit f = Phoccena comrnunis], p. 161 ; Alia Dclphini pictura, qunm 
& Corn. Sittardo habui [ = Delphinus delphis}, p. 161 ; Delphini caluaria e libro Bollonij [ D. 
delphis], p. 162; Ex eodera, Delphini raatricis cum fcetu efformatio: quo) Phooseiuc etiom 
conuenit, p. 162; Ex eodem, Antiquissimi numismatis serei pictura: quod Delphinos duos 
dorso repando curuos ostendit, non qudd eiusmodi uere sint: ... p. 162; Tursio, p. 163; I.:rx- 
laenae, fig. et descrip., pp. 166-169 (3 figg.): Pristrjs aut Physeter, horribilo genus cutorum, & 
ingens ex capite multum aquae in naues efflat, & aliquando submergit, Olaus Magnus in Ta- 
bulae suaa explicatione : . . . p. 170; Balaena, Adden., pp. 366-368, fig., p. 367 [ = Physeter macro- 
cephalus]. IZostruni uel os & capite prominens, satis commode exprimi uidetur: roliquuia 
uer6 corpus ad coniecturam h .Rondeletio effictum, p. 171. 

The article " De Cetis " includes not only the true Cete but also Pinnipedia, and the pelngic 
Turtles, as well as the many fabulous monsters of the sea depicted by Olaus Magnus, etc. 

In this work, usually cited as Icon. Anim. Aquat., the text is much reduced from thut of 
the Hist. Animal., 1558, q. v. (from about 80 pp. to 24 pp.), but the cuts are nearly all repro- 
duced (three or four only are omitted), and others are added, including a larger and much im- 
proved one of the skull of the Dolphin in place of the former one. In the "Addenda" is a 
description and figure of a Sperm "Whale stranded June, 1755, on the coast of the Adriatic 
Sea. This is one of the earliest figures of this species, and a better one than some published 
two centuries later. [17.] 

1560. GIOVIO, PAOLO. Libro di | mons. Paolo Giovio | de' pesci Romani. | tradotto in 
Volgare da | Carlo Zancaruolo. | Con privilegio. | [Vignette with motto.] 
In Venetia, appresso il Gualtieri, 1560. 4. pp. 1-198. 

Del Capidoglio (= Orca), cap. 2, pp. 22-27. [18.] 

1563. GESNER, CONRAD. " Fishbuch Das ist ein kurtze, doch vollkomne beschreybung 
aller Fischen so in dem Meer unnd siissen wasseren, Seen, Fliissen oder anderen 
Blichen jr wonung babend, sampt jrer waareii conterfiictur : zii nutz u. gtitem 
alien Artzeten etc. gestelt : insonders aber denen so ein lust habend zti erfaren 
und betrachten Gottes wunderbare werck in seinen geschopfften. Erstlich 
in Latein durcli Cunradt Gassner bcschriben ; yetz neuwlicli aber durch Ciin- 
raclt Forer etc. in das Teutsch gebraclit. (Hit eingedr. Holzschnitteni ) In 
Fol. ZUrych, (1563 u.) 1575. Froschovcr. (9 u. 404 S.)" 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann, Bibl. Hut. Nat., i, p. 433. For account of Ceto- 
logical matter see the ed. prin., 1560. [19.] 

1565. BEXZONI, G. La Historia del | Hondo Nvovo | Di M. Girolamo Benzoni 1 Mi- 
lanese. | Laqval Tratta dell'Isole, | & Mari nuouamente ritrouati, &. dello 
nuoue | Citta da lui proprio vedute, per acqua | & per terra in quattordeci 
anni. j [Portrait.] Con Priuilegio della Illustrissima Signoria | di Venetia, 
Per anui xx [=1565]. sm. 8 by sig., 24 size. 11. 4, ff. 1-175. Reverse of f. 
175 : In Venetia, | appresso Francesco | Rampazetto. | M D LXV. 

Manati, p. 96. [20.] 


1565. RAMUSIO, G. B. Terzo Volvmo | delle Navigationc ct Viaggi | raccolto gia da 
M. Gio. Battista Ramusio | nel qvale si contengono | . . . [=13 lines de- 
scriptive of contents]. Si coine si legge nelle diuerse Relationi, tradotte dal 
Ramusio di Lingua | Spagnuola & Francese uella nostra, & raccolte in questo 
volume. | ... [=3 lines]. | [Design.] In Venetia uella stainperia de' Givnti. | 
L'Anno M. D. LXV. fol. 11. 6, ff. 1-34, 1-456. Maps and cuts. 

Manati, ff. 40, 71,72,159-161; cut, f. 159. The figure is a copy of Oviedo's, appreciably 
altered. The account given is also a translation from Oviedo. [21.] 

1577 (circa). Axox. " Ware und eigentlicher Contrafactur eines Wallfisclies, gcfangen 
in der Scheldt, nicht weit von Antorff, Am 5 Julij Anno 1577. (Als bovenschriffc 
van de prent. Van onderen een 16 regelig Hoogduitsch vers.) br. folio." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op ciL, p. 170, no. 2771, who says : "Zie : Mutter, Beschrijvin-; 
van Xed. historieprenten, no. 738." [22. J 

1578. BENZONI, GIROLAMO. Novae Novi | orbis Historic, | Id est, ) Rerum ab Hispa- 
nis in India Occidentali ha- | ctenus gestamm, & acerbo illorum | in eas gen- 
tes domiuatu, | Libri tres, | Vrbani Calvetonis | opera industriaqueex Italicis 
Hieronymi Benzo- | uis Mediolanensis, qui eas terras xiiii. anno- | rum peregri- 
natioue obijt, commentarijs descripti; Latini facti. fie perpetuis notis, argn- 
mentis & locu | pleti memorabilium rerum ^ccessione, illustrati. | His ab 
eodem adiuncta cst, | De Gallorum in Floridam expeditione, & insigui His- 
panorum | ineosfteuitiseexemplo, BreuisHistoria. | An chora[ Design] Sacra. | 
[Geneva?.] | Apvd Evstathivm Vignou. | | M.D.LXXVIII. 8 C . 11. 15, pp. 
1-480, 11. 6. 

Manati pisces, cap. xiii, pp. 213, 214, 216, 217. There is first in the text (pp. 213, 214) a short 
account of the Manati of Nicaragua, and at the end of the chapter (pp. 216, 217) a further 
account, based on that given by Peter Martyr (1533), q. v. The last is additional to that of the 
original edition, 1365, q. v. [23.] 

1590. ACOSTA, J. DE. Historia | Natvral | y | moral delas | Iiidias, | en qve se Tratau 
las Cosas | notables del cielo, y elementos, metales, plantas, y ani- | males 
dellas : y los ritos, y ceremonias, leyes, y | gouieruo, y guerras de los Indios. | 
Compuesta por el Padre loseph de Acosta Religiose | de la Compaiiia de lesus. | 
Dirigida ala serenissima | Infanta Dona Isabella Clara Eugenia de Austria. | 
[Design.] Con Privilegio. | Impressoen Seuillaen casa de luan de Leon. | | 
Aiio de 1590. 4. pp. 1-535, 11. 15. 

De diuersos pescados, y modes de pescar de los Indios. Lib. iii. cap. "17" (i. e. xv), pp. 

Manati, p. 158; Vallena, pp. ICO, 161. 

There are only a few lines about the Manati, and these are not important. The account 
of the capture of Whales by the Indians of Florida, as related to him by " some expert men," 
is of special interest, as being doubtless the origin of the relation, so often told later, of how 
the Indians of Florida capture the Whale by getting astride his neck and plugging his nos- 
trils with wooden stakes, to which they afterwards attach cords and by them tow the Whale, 
thus killed, to the shore. It is doubtless on this description that the illustration of this man- 
ner of killing Whales is based in De Bry. (See BE Bur, 1602.) 

Of the numerous subsequent editions and versions of Acosta's work a number are given 
below, including an Italian (1596), a French (1598), and an English (1604). (See ACOSTA, J. 
DE, under these dates. ) There is a Latin translation in De Bry, fol. , 1602 (part ix of the " Greater 
Voyages.") [24.J 

1593. PI.INIUS SECUNDUS, C. C. Plini.j Secundi | Histories Mvndi | Libri xxxvii. | 
A Sigismvndo Gelenio | sumrna ride castigati, veterumque turn excu- | sorum 
turn manuscriptorum codicum atten- | tissima collatione restituti. | Accessere 
ad marginem varise lectiones, ex | Pintiani, Tvrnebi, Lipsil, | alionimque 
doctissimorum qui pagina quarta | indicantur scriptis fideliter except. | 
Opus tributum in tomos tres cum Indice | rerum onnium copiosissimo. | Tomus 
Primus [-Tertius]. | [Vignette.] | Apvd lacobvm Stoer. | | M. D. XCIII. 

The title changes in the second and third volumes to the following : 

C. Plinii | Secvndi Histo- | rite Mvndi j Tomus Secundus [-Tertius], A 
Sigismvudo Gelenio diligenter | castigatus, veterumque codicum colla- | tione 


1593. PLIXIUS SECUXDUS, C. Continued. 

restitutus. | Additae ad marginem variselectionesex | doctorum virorum scrip- 
tis tideli- | ter except*. | Quse hoc Tomo continentur sequens | pagina indi- 
cat. | [Vignette.] Apvd lacobvm Stoer | | M. D. XCIII. 3 vols. sm. 8 
by sig., 16 size. 

De balsenis, & orcis, torn, i, liber ix, cap. vi, pp. 415, 416. De Delphinis, cap. viii, pp. 417-421. 
De tursionibus, cap. ix, p. 421. 

There are earlier and numerous later editions and commentaries'of the work, but they are 
intentionally omitted. [25. J 

1594. POMET, PIERRE. Histoire | generale | des | Drogues, | traitant | Des Plantes, 

des Animaux, | & des Mineraux ; Ouvrage enrichy de plus de | quatre cent 
Figures en Taille-douce tire"es d'aprds | Nature; avec un discours qui explique 
leurs | differens Noms, les Pays d'ou elles viennent, la | maniere de connoitro 
les Veritables d'avec les | Falsisie'es, & leur proprietez, oij. Ton d6couvre | 
Perrenr des Auciens & des Modernes ; Le tout tres | utile au Public. | Par le 
Sieur Pierre Pomet, Marchand Epicier & Droguiste. | [Design.] A Paris, | 
rhez Jean-Baptiste Loyson, & Augustin Pillou, sur le Pont au Change, | h, la 
Prudence. | Et au Palais, | Chez Esticune Ducastin, dans la Gallerie des 
Prisonniers, au bon Pasteur. | | Avec Approbation & Privilege du Roy. | 
M. DC. XCIV. fol. 11. 6, pp. 1-10; pt. i, 1-304 ; pt. ii, 1-108 ; pt. iii, 1-116, 11. 19. 

Sur 1'Ambre gris, p. 3 (de ser. prem. de pag.); part ii, chap, xxvi, pp. 57-60. Do la Balciue, 
part ii, chap, xxxi, pp. 73-75, 2 figs. (Cachalot, on Baleino Masle et Baleine Femelle). Du Xar- 
wal, part ii, chap, xxxiii, pp. 78-80, 2 tigs. (Licorne do Mer et Narwal). Du Lamantin, part ii, 
chap, xxxv, pp. 82-84, fig. 

The figures' are very curious, as is also the text. The figures of tho Cachalot represent the 
process of flensing. The figure of the Manatee is apparently copied from an earlier design. 


1595 I GOLTZIUS, H. "Walvisch of Tonyn, gestrand te Zandvoort, 1595. Met adres 
van (en door) H. Goltzius, en 14 regelig hollandsch vers. br. 4." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 176, no. 2772, \vho says: "Zie: Mutter, Historie- 
prenten, no. 1033." [27.1 

1598. ACOSTA, J. DE. Historia | Natvrale, e Morale | delle Indie; | scritta | Dal R. P. 
Gioseifo di Acosta | Delia Compagnia del Giesu ; | Nellaquale si trattano le cose 
notabili del Cielo, & de gli | Elementi, Metalli, Piante, & Auimali di quelle : | 
i suoiriti, &ceremonie: Leggi, & gouerni, | & guerre degli Indiani. | Noua- 
mente tradotta della lingua Spagnuola nella Italiaua | Da Gio. Paolo Galvcci 
Salodiano | Academico Veneto. I Con Privilegii. | [Design.] In Venetiu, 
| | Presso Bernardo Basa, All' insegna del Sole. | M. D. XCVI. 4. ff. 24, 

Di diuerse pesci, & modi di pescare delli Indini, lib. iii, cap. xv, ff. 48-50. 

For comment, see the editio princeps, 1590. [28.] 

1598. ACOSTA, J. DE. Histoire | Natvrelle | et Moralle |.des Indes, taut Orientalles | 
qu'Occidentalles. | Ou il est traicte" des choses remarquables du Ciel, | des 
Elemens, Met aux, Plantes &. Auimaux | qui sout propres de ces pa'is. En- 
semble des | moeurs, ceremonies, loix, gouuernemens & | guerres des raesmes 
Indiens. | Compose'e en Castillan par Joseph Acosta, & \ traduite en Francois 
par Robert | Regnault Cauxois. | Dedid av Roy. | [Vignette.] A Paris, | 
Chez Marc Orry, rue S. Jaques, | au Lyon Rampant. | | M. D. XCVI1L 
sm. 8. 11. 8, ff. 1-375+17. 

De diners poissons, & de la maniere de pescher des Indiens, liv. iii, chap, xv, ff. 102-105. 
Manati, f. 102; Pesche de la Balaine en Florida, f. 103. 

For comment, see the original ed. of 1590. [29.] 

1598 (circa). Axox. ? " Description du grand poisson baleine, qui s'est venue rendre a 
Berkhey en 1'an MDXCVIII le III Febvrier, etc. (Znd. pi. of jaar.)" 
" Vertaling van het voorgaande, met dezelfde afbeelding op den titel. 
"Eene Engelsche vertaling verscheen te London, 1569. 4." 
Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 175, no. 27GO. [30-1 


1598 (circa). ANOX. ? "Eeno beschrijvingho des grooten Vischs, die tot Berkhcy ghe- 
strandct is A. 1598 den 2 Febr., met eene verclaringhe der dinghen die 
daeraaer ghevolght zijn. Met nocb een cort verhael, enz. (Znd. pi. of jaar.) " 

"Met eene afbeelding van <lcn walvisch op den tit el. 

"Zie: TIELE, JSibl. vanpamfletten, no. 431 Boil, Ned. Oorl, (1697), iv, f. 434; (1621), 35boek, 
f. 11." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgocd, 1. c., p. 175, no. 2759. [31.] 

1598 (circa). MATIIAM, J. "Walvisch, gestraud tusscbeu Scbeveningen en Katwijk in 
1598. Door J. Matham, met 12 regelig hollandsch vers. Van dezo prent bestaan 
verschillende kopyen, o. a. door G. van der Gouwen. br. fol." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op.cit.,p. 176, no. 2773, who says: Zie: Mailer, Historie- 
prenten, no. 1081-1084." 

(Muller's Beschrijo. van Ned. historieprenten, hero and elsewhere cited from Bosgoed, I have 
been unable to see.) [32.] 

1599. "OLAUS MAGNUS. Do wonderlycke Mstorie dor Noorderache Landen, be- 
schreven door Olaus de Groote. Ook ai'ter aen by ghevoecht vorschcydeu 
waerachtige Nauigatien tegent Noordeu ghedaen by onsen tyt, als op Nova- 
Zembla, Groenlant en door de Strata van Nassouwen anders Weygats ghe- 
naemt. Amsterdam, Cornelis Clacsz." (1599.)' 4. 

" Zie aldaar, 21e en 22e boek : Yan de visschen ; van de vreemde en gedrochtelijke visschen, 
en walvischvangst. De appendix bevat de reizen naar het Noorden van St. Burrough, Fro- 
bisher, Pet and Jackman, en de drie eersten reizen der Hollanders. De 2e druk, 1652, 8, 
bevat tevens 'Een korte en klare beschrijving van Ijslandt en Greenland t,' door Dithmarius 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 244, no. 3526. See, also, Latin ed. 
of 1555. [33.] 

1599. The request of an honest merchant to a friend of his, to be aduised 

and directed in the course of killing the Whale, as followeth. An. 1575. 
<^HaJclu}it'8 Navig. and Voyag., i, 1599, pp. 413, 414. 

A series of questions respecting the provisioning and furnishing of a ship for a whaling 
voyage, with detailed answers,- " which may serue as directions for all such as shall intend 
the same voyage, or the like, for the Whale." [34.] 

1601. SAEXREDAM, J. "Walvisch, gestrand onder Beverwyk, bezichtigd door Graaf 

Ernst Casimir, 1601. Door J. Saenredam. (Met 32 regelig latijnsch vers door 

T. Sere velius. ) " gr. br. fol . 

"Dezelfde prent met het adrcs van J. Janssonius, 1618. gr. br. fol." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 176, no. 2774, who refers to "Muller, 

Historieprenten, no. 1160." [35.] 

1602. [AcosTA, J. DE.] De Novi Orbis Natvra et Ratione. <^De Bry, America nona # 

postrema Pars, 1802, pp. 1-362. 

De diuersis generibus & formis pischmi, in India nascentium, lib. iii, cap. xv, pp. 105-109. 
For comment see orig. ed., 1590, and next title. [36.] 

1602. DE BUY, THEODORUS, J. T., et J. I. ld;ua | vera et genvina, | Prsecipvarvm 
Historia- | rvm omnivm, vt et variorvm j. Ritvvin, Ceremoniarvm, consve- 
tvdi- | uumque gentis Indica3 : Sicut & priinarium ciuitatum, Insularum- | que 
& arcium sou propugnaculorum : do quibns in hac | iiona Americas seu Indiie 
Occidentalis histo- | riaruni parto pertractatur. | Cvilibet Historic designa- 
tioni, | facilioris intellectus, maiorist^ oblectationis causa, Icones ali- | quam- 
rnultae, artificiosissim5 in ses incisae, annex | appositajq^ sunt, I Sumptibus, 
Studio & industria | Theodori de Bry, p. m. relictse viduae, & loann. Theo- 
do- | ri ac loann. Israel, filiorum. | [Design.] Francofvrti, | Excvdebat 
Matthaevs Becker. | | M.DCII. fol. Tab. i-xxvi, cum texte. 

Tab. i. De Indorvm mira piscationis ratione. Plato and 15 lines of text, illustrating the 
way in which the Indians capture whales, viz, by rowing up to them in their canoes and get. 
ting astride the neck and then driving wooden stakes into their blow-holes, which speedily 
causes their death by suffocation. They then attach lines to the stakes and tow the dead 
whale ashore. In the background is seen a dead whale being thus towed by an Indian in a 
canoe, and more in the foreground is an Indian astride a whale driving in the stakes, his canoe 
resting on the whale's back ! The blow-holes are represented, as in other cuts of this date, 


1602. DE BRY, THEODORUS, J. T., ct J. I. Continued. 

as tubular projections on the fides of the head ! This absurdity is apparently based on Acosta's 
account of the capture of whales by the Indians of Florida. (See ACOSTA, J. DE, 1590.) 

The fasciculus having the above-given title forms part of De Bry's celebrated Collection 
of Voyages. In the copy examined it is bound as the second fasciculus of "Nona pars Ame- 
rica," containing tho voyages of Sdbalt do Weert. [37.] 

1604. ACOSTA, J. DE. Tho | Natvrall j and Morall Historie of tho | East and West | 

Indies. | Intreating of the remarkeable things of Heaven, of the | Elements, 
Mettalls, Plants and Beasts which arc pro- | per to that Country : Together 
with tho Manners, | Ceremonies, Laws, Governements, and Warres of | the 
Indians. | Written in Spanish by loseph Acosta, and translated | into Eng- 
lish by E. G. [Edward Grimestou]. [Design.] London | Printed by Val: Sims 
for Edward Blount and William | Aspley. 1C04. 8. 11. 10, pp. 1-590. 

Of Sundry Fishers, and their maner of fishing at the Indies, lib. 3, chap. 15, pp. 163-169. 
Manati, p. 164. Manner of capturing whales by the Florida Indians, pp. 1CC-168. 

For comment see tho orig. ed , 1590. [38.] 

1605. CLUSIUS, C. Caroli Clvsii Atrebatis, | Aulas Cesarese quondam Familiaris, | 

Exoticorvm 1 Libri Dccem : | Quibus Animal him, Plantarum, Aromatum, | 
aliorumque p^jregrinorum Fructuum | .historic describuntur: | Item J Petri 
Belonii Observations, | eodem Caroio Clusio intcrprete. | Si-ries totius operia 
post Prsefationem indicabitur. | | Ex Omcina Plantiniana Raphelengii, 
1605. [Title-page with engraved border.] '2. 11. 8, pp. 1-378, 11. 5. 

Cete admirabilis forma?, p. 130, cum fig. ; Aliud Cete admirabilc, p. 131, cum fig. ; Manati 
Phocse genus, pp. 132-135, cum fig. 

Tho "Cete admirabilis forma)'' is a Cetoid monster; the mouth is open, displaying a con- 
tinuous row of sharp-pointed teeth in the lower jaw ; there are neither pectoral nor dorsal 
fins; the head is upturned, projects much beyond the lower jaw, and its termination may be 
likened to a cap formed of a gigantic squid, of which the tentacles constitute a fringe around 
the neck. The "Aliud Cete admirabile" is a Cachalot (Phyaeier macrocephalus), or "Pot- 
walvisch" (as the text states it to have been called by the Hollanders), described and figured 
from a specimen stranded on the west coast of Holland in 1598. The figure is a half-side 
view, displaying tho ventral surface, with the mouth open and the penis exserted This is 
noteworthy as being apparently one of tho earliest figures extant of the Sperm Whale. A 
specimen stranded three years later is also briefly described. Of the "Manati Phocae genus " 
there is a quite characteristic, although rude, figure from a stuffed specimen brought to 
Amsterdam in tho year 1GOO by a Dutch navigator "ex Occidental! Oceano." In respect 10 
the early history of the Manatee, Clusius justly holds the first place, his description and fig- 
ure being the first based on an original examination of specimens. 

There appears to have been an earlier edition, the work being cited at 1601 by Bosgoed 
(Bibl. Ichth. et Piscat.,p. 168). [39.] 

1606. GOMARA, F. L. DE. Histoire | generalle | des Indes occiden- | tales, et terres | 

neuues, qui iusques a present | out estd descouuertes. | Augmentce en ceste 
cinquiesine edition do la description de | la nouuelle Espagne, & de la grand 
ville de Me- | xicque, autrement nominee, | Tenuctilan. I^Composee en Es- 
pagnol par Francois Lopez de Go- | mara, & traduite en Francois par le | S. de 
Genilld | Marr. Fume'e. | [Design.] A Paris. | Chez Michel Sonnius, rue sainct 
laquez a 1'enseigne | de 1'escu do Basle. | | 1606. | Avec privilige dv Koy. 
sm. 8. ff. 4, 1-485+19. 
Des poissons qu'on appelle en 1'Isle Espagnole Manati, chap. 31, f. 41 (2 pages). [40.] 

1608. ANON. ? " Ware Verthooning ende afbeeldinghe van een dooden. . . . Vis, 
door die Zee aen der Strande opgheworpen den 20 Sept. 1608, tusschen 
Catwijck ende Scheveliugen. Middelburg, 1608. 4. 20 bladz. tekst met 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 175, no. 2761. [41 ] 

1612. [HUDSON, HENRY.] " Beschry vinghe van der Samoyden Landt in Tartarieu. 
Nieulycks onder 't ghebiedt der Moscoviteii ghebracht. Wt de Eussche tale 
overgheset, Anno 1609. Met een verhael van de opsoecking ende ontdeckinge 
van de nieuwe deurgang ofte straet int Noordwesten na de Rijcken van China 
ende Cathay. Ende een Memoriael gepresenteert acnden Coniugh van Spaen- 


1612. [HUDSON, HENRY] Continued. 

gien, belanghende de ontdeckinghe ende gelegenheyt van 't Land glienaemt 
Australia Incognita, 't Amsterdam, by Hessel Gerritsz. A. 1612. 4. Met 
3 kaarten." 

Not seen; title transcribed from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 233, no. 3427. The title as given by 
Fr. duller (Cat. Am. Books, 1877, p. 80) is abbreviated by the omission of the second and 
third sentences, and also otherwise. As the two titles otherwise differ, it is doubtful whether 
either is literally given, Bosgoed's appearing to be psJrtly modernized in orthography. Mul- 
ler's English rendering of his is as follows: "Description of the country of the Samoyedes in 
Tartary, With an account of the research and of the discovery of the new passage or strait 
in the North-West to the empires of China and Cathav (by Henry Hudson). And a memorial 
offered to the King of Spain (by P. F. de Quir) concerning the discovery and the situation 
of the Land called Australia Incognita." (For the title of the Latin translation, published 
the following year, see 1613. HUDSON, H.) 

Respecting the present Dutch edition, Mullcr says: "Of this original Dutch edition of tho 
famous Detectio freti . . . hardly 4 or 5 copies are known in all the European libraries. . . . 
This original book is the foundation-stone for the history of Hudson's and other arctic expe- 
ditions, etc. The collection formed by Hesscl Gerritsz consists of four tracts, by Is. Massa, 
F. de Quir, and the editor, Hessel Gerritsz himself." F. MULLEU, Cat. Amer. Books, 1877, 
p. 80, no. 1425. [42.1 

1313. " GEKRITZ. VAN ASSUM, HESSEL. Histoiro du pays nomme Spitsberghe. Mon- 
strant comment qu'il est trouv6e, son uaturel et ses animauls, avecques la triste 
racompte des matix, que nos pecheurs tant Basques quc Flainens, ont eu a 
souffrir des Anglois, en I'este" pass6e PAn dc grace, 1013. Escrit par H[essel]. 
G[erretsz]. [dej A[ssum]. Et en apres uiic protestation contre les Angloys, et 
ammllatiou de touts leurs fri voles argumens, parquoy ils pensent avoir droict, 
pour se faire Maistre tout seul, dudict pays. En Amsterdam, a Peuseigne de 
la carte nautiq. MDCXII [sic] Chez Hessel Gerritsz. 4. Met 2 kaarteu en 
eene plaat." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit, p. 236, no. 3462. Muller's collation gives the date r.8 
1613, and "2 maps and 2 pi." (Cat. Am. Books, etc., 1877, p. 80, no. 1423.) 

The original edition is "of the utmost rarity." A fac-simile reprint (of 50 copies only) was 
issued in 1872 by Fr. Muller (Amsterdam), "with the real old types" of the 17th century, on 
old paper. [43.] 

1613. HUDSO::, H. Descriptio ac delineatio Geographica | Detectio- | nis Freti, j Sivo 

Transitus ad Occasum supra | terras Americanas, in Chinam | atq* laponem 
ducturi. | Recens investigati abM. Heurico Hudsono Anglo. | Item, | Exegesis 
Regi Hispani;e facta super | tractu recens detecto, in quinta Orbis parte, cui 
nomen, | Avstralis Incognita. | Cam descriptione | Ternirum Samoiedarum, 
& Tingoesiorurn, in | Tartaria ad Orturn Freti Waygats sitarum, uuperq? | 
sceptro Moscovitarum adscitarum. | Amsterodami | | Ex Officina Hesselij 
Gerardi. Anno 1613. sm. 4. 11. 25, unpaged, 4 folded maps and 3 cuts. 

Contains " Veram Effigiem Balenarum " (a half-page cut), and 8 lines of descriptive tert. 
It occupies a separate leaf at the end of the book in two copies examined (in Harvard College 
Library), occurring after the word "Finis,' 1 which closes the preceding page. It almost has 
the appearance of not belonging to the book. Neither of these copies contain Hessel Ger- 
rard's remarkable picture of the Walrus, said to occur in some copies of this work. (Cf. 
ALLEN, Hist. N. Amer. Pinnipeds, 1880, pp. 96, 97.) 

"On this small but highly important work, see at large: Tiele, pp. 179 to 190, and my: 
Essai (Tune Bibliographie Neerl. Eusse, 1859, pp. 71, 103-100, especially on the unknown author, 
Is. Massa, of Haarlem. It contains: 1. the discovery of the Hudson bay, etc. in 1611, with 
map, with additions to the former edition of 1612; 2. the account of F. de Quir on Australia; 
3. and 4. the description of the Samoyedes, their country, etc., etc., by Is. Massa, of Haar- 
lem." F. MULLER, Cat. Amer. Books, 1877, p. 85, no. 1493. 

A facsimile reprint, "with the real old types " of the 17th century, on old pcper, has been 
recently published at Amsterdam by Frederik Muller & Co. [44.] 

1615 (circa?) VELDE, Es. VAN DEX. " Pot-Wai viscb, gestrandt by Xoortwyck op Zee, 
den 28 Dec. 1614. Door Es. van den Velde. kl. br. fol." 

"Eene nndere druk met adres van C. J. Visscher. Van deze prent bestaat ook eene 
teekening in sepia door J. van de Velde." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 176, no. 2775, who refers to Muller'a "Historie- 
prenten, no. 1292-1293." [ 45 -l 


1617. PURCHAS, S. Of King lames his Newland, alias, Greenland : And Of The Whale 
And Whale-Fishing. <^Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World $ the 
Religions observed in al dges <$ Places, etc., 3d ed., 1617, pp. 920-924. 

Of special interest as containing the earliest English, and the first distinct, description of 
the Greenland Whale (Balcena mysticetus) detailed, exceedingly quaint, and in the main 
quite correct. It was derived from information furnished by Master Thomas Sherwin, hased 
on his experiences in whaling in the year 1611. [46.] 

162*2. WHITBOURNE, R. A | Discovrse | and Discovery of Nevv-fovndland, with | 
many reasons to prooue how worthy and bene- | ficiall a Plantation may there 
be made, after a far | better manner than now it is. | Together with the lay- 
ing j open of certaine enormities | and abuses committed by some that trade 
to that | Countrey, and the meanes laide downe for | reformation thereof. | 
Written by Captaine Richard Whitbourne of | Exmouth, in the County of 
Deuon, and pub- | lished by Authority. | As also, an Inuitation : and likewise 
certaine Letters sent | from that Countrey ; which are printed in the | latter 
part of this Booke. [Design.] | Imprinted at London by Felix Kingston. 
1622. sm. 4. 11. 11, pp. 1-107, 11. 2|, pp. 1-15. 

Reference to cod-Hshing and whale-fishing (pp. 11-13) as carried on at the Grand Banks by 
the Biscayners in 1615. 

The work was first published in 1620, without the appendix of the present edition ; there 
is also a later (1623) edition, neither of which have I seen. The 1622 ed. seems to be the same 
as the ed. of 1620, so far as the body of the work is concerned, to which there is added, besides 
tbe above-mentioned appendix, 2 preliminary leaves, containing also new matter. [47.] 

1622-35. "WASSEXAER, CLAES. Historisch verhael alder ghedenck-weerdichste Ge- 
schiedenisse, diehier en daer in Europa, als in Duitsch-lant, Vranckrijk ... en 
Neder -laut, Asia, America en Africa, van den begiune des jaers 1621 tot Octo- 
bri des jaers 1G32 voorgevallen sijn. (Met platen, kaarten en portretten.) 
Tot Amstelredam, by Jan Evertsz. Kloppenburgh, 1622-1624, J. Hondius, 

1624, en Jan Jansz, 1625-35. 21 din., 7 bdn. 4. 

"Zie aldaar: Welvaert van de Noortsehe Compagnio (gehikkige walvischvangst). De 
inwoonders van Spitsberghen. Het verloop van de walvisschen, v, 1623, Septemb., bl. 157- 
158. Van het eylandt Spitsbergen, alwaer do genereuse "Willem Tas, capiteyn, zijn. couragie 
toont. Ook van de walvisschen, haer baeruen en vinncn, baleynen genaemt, die Jan Osborn, 
seer konstigh verwerckt. Handelingh van de Noordersche Compagnie. Verslag van de reis 
van Willem Vermuyden, 1612. Wat recht de Engelschen pretendeeren op de walvischvangst 
bij Spitsbergen, met de wederlegging van Petr. Plancius. Overeenkomst tusschen Ant. 
Monier en Benj. Joseph, aangaandc de verdeeliug van den vischgrond bij Spitsbergen en ver- 
dere bijzonderheden betrekkelijk de walvischvangst, viii < 1624, Decemb., bl. 86-96. Ontde- 
ckingen van Goenlant en Nieu-Nedorlant, ix, 1625, April, bl. 43, 44. Placcaet der H. H. Staten 
op den haringhvanghst, teghens d' inghesetenen van Schotlandt haer wel to draeghen, ix, 

1625, Mai, bl. 56, 57. Vervolgh van het on I deck en van de doorvaert in 't Noordea. Toerus- 
tinghe van een nieuwe ontdeckinghe, door Waygatz, tusschen Nova-Zembla en 't vasto lan'dt 
Hussion, ix, 1625, Julius. Van do Spitsberch-vaerders, met het sncces van de walvisch- 
vanghers, x, 1625, Decemb., bl. 106, 107. Verhael van de reyse op "Wavgatz, na de Tarta- 
rische zee gedaen, alsmede van de reyse door het Fretum Davis, om daerdoor nae China te 
gaen. Nieuwe walrus-vangers, xi, 1626, May, bl. 57. 

" Walvischvaugst ghemist. De buysen verstoort. Walrusvanghen en 't seylen door Way- 
gats ghemist, xi, 1626, Sept., bl. 131-133. Wederom-comst van do walvischvanghers, alsmede 
de Spitsbergh-vaerders, onder do Noortsche Compagnie, xii, 1626, Octob., bl. 8, 9. Visscherije 
op Spitsberghen, xvi, 1628, Novemb. Staet van Spitsberghon, xvi, 1628, Decemb." 

Not seen; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 251, no. 3603. [48.] 

1624. "BAUDARTIUS, W. Memoryen ofte Cort Verhael dcr Gedenck-weerdichste, 
Gheschiedenissen van Nederland, Vranckrijck, Hoogh-Duytschland, Groot 
Brittannyen enz. Van den jaere 1503-1624. Tweedo editie grootelicx ver- 
meerdert. Met portretten. Arnhem, Jan Jansz. 1614. 2 din. folio. 

"Zie aldaar: Enghelsche verhinderen de Hollanders in don walvisch-vanck. Boek v, bl. 
43. Jacobus VI vernieuwt de questio van den harinck-vanck. xii, bl. 16. Nederlanders endo 
Enghelsche int gevecht om de visvangh. Misverstant tussche de Enghelsche ende Neder- 
landers om den walvisch-vanck. ix, bl. 97. Vier walvisschen bij den Hage (Scheveningen) 
gevangen. ix, bl. 97, 202." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 232, no. 3424. [49.] 


1624. "LixsciiOTEX, JAX HUYGEX VAN. Voyasic, ofte schipvaert van Jan Huygheu 

van Linschotcn, van bij Noorden om langes Noorwegen cle Noordt Caep, Lap- 
landt, Vinlandt, Ruslandt, de Wittec Zee, de Kusten van Kardenoes, Swete- 
noes, Pitzora, etc. door de Strate ofte Enghte van Nassouw tot voorby do 
Reviere Oby. Waer inuo seer distinctelycken Verhaels-gewyse beschreven 
ende aen gewesen wordt, alle hetgene dat hem op deselve reysc van dach tot 
dach bejegent ende voorgekoruen is. Met alle do af beeldtsels van alle de Kus- 
ten. . . . Ghelyck als liij 't alles sells siclitelyckeu ende waerachtelycken nae 
't leveii uyt-geworpen en geannoteert heeft, etc. Anno 1594 ende 1595. T'Am- 
sterdam, by Jan Evertszeu Cloppenberg. A. 1624. folio." 

" Tweede druk met gefigur. titel en 15 platen, gegraTeerd door J. en 13. van Doetecom. De 
eerste druk verscheen te Franeker bij Gerard Ketel. A 1601. folio. Eene verkorte uitgave 
zag in 1663 te Amsterdam, by Saeghman, het licht. 4. Deze twee reizen van Linschoten zijn 
vertaald opgenomen in: Recueil do voyages an Nord. Amsterdam, J. F. Bernard, 1731. dl. 
iii, bl. 1-304. Zie verder: Tiele, Memoire bibliogr., bl. 190-195. 

"Zie betrekkelijk de walvisschen in dezen 2n druk: Walvissche in do havon van Toxar. 
Vangen een walvisch duer se 20 tonne specks af krijghen. Wonderlycke liefdo der walvissche 
met den andere. Eene teelt van walvisschii in de haven van Toxar "ende is te gheloovcn, 
. dat soomender op toeleyde, ende op veraien quam, men foude daer sonder twyffel een goede 
visscherye afdoen." bl. 7. Sien veel walvissche' in do Tartarische zee. bl. 17. Vervolgens 
bl. 22>>, 26, 31 b ." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 241, no. 3503. [50.] 

1625. BAFFIN, WILLIAM. A lournall of the Voyage made to Greenland with sixe Eng- 

lish ships and a Pinnasse, in the yeere 1613. Written by Master William Baffin. 
<^Purchct8 his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, pp. 716-720. 

Short history of the adventures and achievements of the English whaling-fleet during the 
year 1613. .[51.] 

1625. BAFFIN, WILLIAM. [Letter] To the Right Worshipfnll Master lohn Wosten- 
holme Esquire, one of the chiefe Aduenturers for the discouerie of a passage to 
the North-west. [Signed, William Baffin.] <^Purchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, 
pp. 843, 844. 

Reference to the "Grand Baye Whales" of Newfoundland, "of the same kinde which are 
killed at Greenland"; also to the "Sea Unicorne." [52.] 

1625. [BAFFIN, WILLIAM.] A briefe and true Relation or lournall, contayning such 
accidents as happened in the fift voyage, for the discouerie of a passage to the 
North-west, set forth at the charges of the right Worshipfiill Sir Tho. Smith 
Knight, Sir Dudly Digges Knight, Master lohn Wostenholme Esquire, Master 
Alderman Zones, with others, in the good ship called the Discouerie of London; 
Robert Bileth Master, and my self Pilot, performed in the yeere of our Lord 
1616. <Purchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, pp. 844-848. 

Whale Sound (77 30' N. Lat.), named from the great number of whiles seen in it, p. 846; 
many " Sea Vnicornes " seen during the voyage. The context following shows the "llela- 
tion " to have been written by William Baffin. [53.] 

1625. EDGE, THOMAS. A briefe Discouerie of the Northerne Discoueries of Seas, Coasts," 
and Countries, deliuered in order as they were hopefully beguuue, and haue 
euer since happily beene continued by the singular Industrie and charge of 
the Worshipful Society of Mtiscouia Merchants of London, with the ten seuerall 
Voyages of Captaine THOMAS EDGE the Authour. <^Purchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 
1625, pp. 462-473. 

First Whale-killing (year 1611), pp. 465, 466. Whaling voyages of 1612-1622, pp. 466-470. 
"The Description of the seuerall sorts of Whales, with the manner of killing them," pp. 470- 
472. % ' Eight seuerall kind* of Whales " are briefly described, as follows : 1 . Grand-bay, taking 
his name from Grand-bay in Newfoundland " = Balcena mysticetus. 2. Sarda Balcena 
biseayensis. 3. Trumpet = Physeter macrocephalug. 4. Otta Sotta a whalebone Whale, gray 
in color, and "hauing fiiines in his mouth all white but not abouo half a yard long " probably 
Agaphelus gibbosus, Cope. 5. Gibarta = some kind of Finner Whale. 6. Sedena, "of a 
whitly colour, and bigger than any of the former, the finnes not aboue one foot long, and he 


1625. EDGE, THOMAS Continued. 

yeelds little or no Gyle.'' 7. Scdena Negro . . . "with abumpe on h : s backo" = ? Megoptcrtt 
longimana. 8. Scwria, "of colour as white as snow," etc. Beluga, catodon. 

A map (pp. 472, 472 b; ") of Greenland (i. e., Spitsbergen) accompanies Captain Edge's memoir, 
with border at sides and bottom consistingof views illustrative of the Whale and "Seamorce' 1 
fisheries. At the upper left corner is a picture of a Whale lying on its side, with the legend 
"A Whale is ordinarily about GO footelonge." Immediately below this is a scene illustrating 
the capture of a Whale, with 4 lines of descriptive text. Below this are two others illus- 
trating respectively the cutting in of the Whale and the trying out of the blubber, each with 
a descriptive legend 4 to 6 lines in length. On the right-hand border four of the live scenes 
depict respectively the towing of the Whale to the ships, the towing of the blubber to shore, 
the preparation of the fins (the legend reads: " Thus they make cleano and scrape y whale 
fins"), and "A tent and Coopers at worke." [54.] 

1625. FOTHERBYE, R. A Voyage of Disconerie to Greenland, &c. Anno 1014. Written 
by RO. FOTHERBYE. <^Piirchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, pp. 720-728. 

Gives an account of the capture of Whales during the voyage. [55.] 

1625. HELEY, W., and others. Diners other Voyages to Greenland, wiih Letters of 
those which were there employed, communicated to race by Master William 
Heley. <Purcha8 his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, pp. 732-738. 

Eleven letters, written by various persons, relating briefly to the history of Whaling by 
the English during the years 1617 to 1623 inclusive. [56.] 

1625. "LAET, J. PE. Nienwe Wereldt | ofto | Beschrijvinghe | van | West-Indien, | 
wt veelerhaude Schriften ende Acn-teekeningen | van verscheyden Natien by 
eeii versainelt | Door | loanues de Laet, | Endo metNoodighe kaerten enTafels 
voorsien. Tot Lcyden, | In de Druckerye van Isaack Elzevier. | Anno 1625. j 
Met Privilegie der Ho. Mo. Heeren Staten Generael, voor 12 Jaren. | fol. pp. 
(2), xxii, 5-26. Maps. 

" See ASHER'S 'Essay,' no. 1. This invaluable work was much improved in the subsequent 
editions and translations by the author, but the maps were unchanged." 

Editio princeps. !Not seen; title and comment from Sabin. Bibl. Am., x, 1878, p. 15. For 
notice of the account of the Manatee in Laet's work, see infra the Latin ed., 1G33. [57.] 

1625. [MuscovY MERCHANTS.} A Commission for Thomas Edge onr seruaut, appointed 
to goe as our Five tor in the Ship called the Mary Margaret, of the burthen of one 
hundred and fit'tie Tunnes, for the killing of the Whale and Morses vpou the 
coast of Greenland, or any other place in the North Ocean : Ginen the 31. of 
March, 1611. <Purchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, pp. 709, 710. 

This is a letter of instruction issued by the "right Worshipfull Company of Xew Trades," 
or "Muscouie Merchants," as above. Among other things it directs the ' procuring of sixo 
men of Saint lohn de Luz " to act as whale-men ; describes the different kinds of Whales to bo 
sought, and their products, etc., this information being evidently based on Thomab Edge's 
'Description of the seuei'Hll sorts of Whales, with the manner of killing them," as given in 
Purchas, iii, pp. 471, 472. [58.] 

1625. POOLE, JONAS. A briefe Declaration of this my Voyage of discouery to Green- 
land, and towards the West of it, as followeth: being set forth by the right 
Worshipfull Sir Thomas Smith, Gouernour of the right Worshipfnll Company 
of new Trades, &c., written by JONAS POOLE. <^Purchas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, 
pp. 711-713. 

Short history of the first English whaling voyage to "Greenland" (i. e.. Spitzbergen), 
made in the year 1611. [59.] 

1625. POOLE, JONAS. A relation written by Jonas Poole of a Voyage to Greenland, 
in the yeere 1612. with two ships, the one called the Whale; the other the 
Sea-horse, set out by the Right Worshipful the Muscouie Merchants. <Pwr- 
chas his Pilgrimcs, iii, 1625, pp. 713-715. [60.] 

marie and Generall Historic of the Indies. <^Purckas his Pilgrimes, iii, 1625, 
pp. 970-1000. 

Description of the "Manati" at pp. 987, 989. [61.] 


1628. " HERNANDEZ, [F.] Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispanise Thesaurus, sen Planta- 

rum Aiumalium Mineralium Mexicauorum historia ex Francisci Heruandi 
Noui orbis medici Primary relatiouibus in ipsa Mexicana vrbe conscriptis & 
Nardo Antonio Reecho . . . Collecta ac in ordinem digesta h, Joanne Terren- 
tio Lynceo notis illustrata; cuui Indice, et Historian Aniuialium et Miueralinm 
libro. Nunc primum in iiaturaliu reru studiosor gratia et utilitate studio 
et impensis Lyuceorum Publici iuris facta Philippo inagno dicata. L'omce. 
M. DCXXVIIII. Ex Typographeio Jacobi Mnscardi. fol. Engiavcd title, 
pp. 950, 17 1. ' Historic Aniraa Hum,' pp. 90 (6). 

"This edition was abridged and edited from the author's MS. l>y Dr. Reecho, of Xaples; 
pp. 345-435 are additions by Terrentius de Constance ; pp. 460-840 byJohnFaber; pp. 841-899 
are annotations by Fabio Colonno; the tables by Prince Cesi. Leclerc, no. 457, describes : 
Fabri (Joannis lyncei). Animalia Mexicana Descriptiouibus, scholijq. exposita. Komae, 1628, 
folio, \vhich is merely an extract, pp. 460-840, from the foregoing." 

Xot seen ; title and comment from Sabin, Bibl. Amer., vol. viii, p. 239. See infra edition 
of 1651, for notice of cetological matter, etc. Sabin also gives (as do Cams and Engelmunn) 
a Spanish edition, Mexico, 1615, sm. 4, translated and enlarged by Fr. Francisco Ximcncz. 
Stevens (Bibl. Hint., p. 76, no. 891) cites an edition of date 16C4. 

See further on Hernandez and his work, Sabin, op. cit., pp. 239-241. See, also, Coues, J>d.9. 
Col. Vail., p. 575. [62.] 

1629. KITTENSTEYN, C. "Walvisch, gestrand by Noortwyk, 1629. Naer P. Mosiju, 

door C. Eittcnateyn, br. fol." 

From Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 176, no. 2776. [63.] 

1632. SAGARD-THEODAT, G. Le Grand Voyage | Dv pays des Hvrons, | situe" en 

FAmerique vers la Mer | douce, ds derniers confins | de la nouuelle France, | 
dite Canada. | Ou ilest amplement traite" de tout ce qui est du pays, des | 
moeurs & du naturel des Sauuages, de leur gouuernement | & fayons de faire, 
tant dedans leurs pays, qu'allaus en voya,- \ ges : De leur foy &, croyance; 
De leurs conseils & guerres, & | de quel genre de tourmens ils font mourir 
leurs prisonniers. | Coinme ils se marient, & esleueut leurs enfans: De leurs 
Me- | decins, & des remedes dont ils vsent a leurs maladies: De | leurs dances 
& chansons: De la chasse, de la peso he & des | oyseaux & aniinaux terrestres 
& aquatiques qu'ils ont. Des | richesses du pays: Comme ils cultiuent les 
terres & accorn- | modent leur Menestre. De leur deiiil, pleurs & lamenta- [ 
tions, & comme ils enseuelissent & enterrent leurs morts. | Auec vn Diction- 
naire de la langue Huronne, pour la commodi- | i d e ceux qui ont a voyager 
dans le pays, & n'ont | 1'intelligence d'icelle langue. | Par F. Gabriel Sagard 
Theodat, Recollet de | S. Francois, de la Prouince de S. Denys en France. | 
| A Paris, | Chez Denys Moreav, rue S. lacques, a | la Salamandre d ? Argent. 
| | M. DC. XXXII. | Auec Priuilege du Roy. 1 vol. 16. 11. 12 (= eng. 
title, 1 1. ; plain title, 1 1. ; invocation to Jesus Christ, 2 11. ; to Henry de 
Lorraine, 2 11.; to reader, 3 11. j contents and royal privilege, &c., 3 11), 
pp. 1-380. Dictionaire de la Langve Hvronne, 11. 80. 

Des Baleines, pp. 24-27 ; Marsoins bl mcs ( = Beluga catodon), pp . 51, 52. 

There is a late textual reprint of this rare work, published in 1865, "giving fac-simile of 
the original title-pages, indication of the original pagination, etc." [64.] 

1633. LAET, J. DE. Novvs Orbis j sou | Descriptions | Indian Occidentalis | Libri 

XVIII. | Authore | Joanne de Laet Antwerp. | Novis Tabulis Geographicis et 
variis | Animantivm, Plantarum Fructuumque | Iconibus illustrati. | Cum 
Privilegio. | Lvgd. Batav. apud Elzevirios. A. 1633. fol. 11. 15 (iucl. engr. 
title-page), pp. 1-104, 205-690, 11. 9. Maps and cuts. 

Manati, p. 6, fig. The account occupies nearly a page ; the figure is a copy from Clusius. [65.] 

[1634?] SEGERSZ VAN DER BRUGGE, JACOB. " Journael, of Dagh-Register, gehouden 
by Seven Matroosen, in haer Overwiuteren op Spitsbergen in Maurits-Bay, 
Gelegen in Groenlaudt, t' zedert het vertreck van de Visschery-schepeu der 
Geoctroyeerde Noordtsche Compagnie, in Nederlandt, zijnde den 30 Augusty, 
1633 tot de wederkomst der voorsz. schepen, den 27 May, Anno 1(534. Beschre- 



ven door den Bevelhebber Jacob Segersz van der Brugge, t' Amsterdam, Ge- 
druckt By Gillis Joosten Saeghman. (z. j.) 4. [Circa 1634.] 

" Het verhaal van de Overwinteringen in 1633 en 1634 vindt men verkort in: (Is. de la 
Peyr6re), Naxiwkeurigo Beschrijvingh van Greenland. Amsterdam, 1678. 4. bl. 114-122. 
Tevens \vordt van hot bovengenoemde journael van Segersz een uittreksal gcvondcn in : De 
"Walvischvangst, ii, bl. 26-36." 

Xot seen; title and remarks from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 239, 340, no. 3491. [66-] 

1035. NIEREMBERG, J. E. loannis Evsebii Niereinbergii | Madritensis ex Sociatate 
lesv | in Academia Regia Madritensi | Physiologies Professoris | Historia | 
Naturae, | Maxime peregrina3, | Libris xvi. Distiucta. | In quibus rarissima 
Naturic arcana, etiam astrononiica, & | ignota Indiarum animalia, quadru- 
pedes, aues, pisces, | reptilia, insecta, zoophyta, plantae, metalla, lapides, & \ 
alia miueralia, nuuiorum4ue & elementorum c*ondi- | tiones, etiain cum pro- 
prietatibus medicinalibus, descri- | buntur; nouje & curiosissinue quaestiones 
disputantur, ac | plura sacrae Scriptures loca erudite enodantur. | Accedunt 
de miris & miraculosis Naturis in Europa Libri duo : | item de iisdem in Terra 
Hebrasis promisa Liber unus. | [Vignette.] Antverpiae, | ex Officina Planti- 
niana Bah hasaris Moreti. | M. DC. XXXV. 2. 11. 4, pp. 1-502, 11. 50. Figs, 
num. in text. 

Caput lix. De balsenis pugnacious, p. 261 ; caput Ix (pp. 262-263), De piscatione balsena- 
rum. Contains a figure of a male Cachalot lying on the side and showing ventral surface 
from Clusius, many times copied by later compilers ; also, a figure of a fabulous creature, from 
Clusius, suggestive in some respects of the Cachalot, the two figures bearing the legend Cete 
admiribilis formce. [67.] 

1636. SAGARD THEODAT, G. Histoire | du Canada | et | Voyages quelesfreres | Mineurs 
Recollects y ont faicts pour | la conuersion des infidelles | divisez en quatre 
livres | Ou est amplement traicte" des choses principales ar- | riue"es dans le 
pays depuis Pan 1615 iusques a la pri- | sequi en a este" faicte par les Auglois. 
Des biens & | commoditez qu'on en peut esperer. Des moeurs, | ceremonies, 
creance, loix, & coustunies merueil- | leuses de ses inhabitans. De la conuer- 
sion & baptes- | me de plusieurs, & des moy6s necessaires pour les amener | a 
la cognoissance de Dieu. | L'entretien or- | dinaire de nos Mariniers, &- autrea 
particularitez | que se remarquent en la suite de I'histoire. | Fait & compose" 
par le | F. Gabriel Sagard, | Theodat, Mineur Recollect de la Prouince de 
Paris. | | A Paris, | Chez Claude Sonuius, rue S. Jacques, al'Escu de | Basic, 
& au Compas d'or. | | M. DC. XXXVI | Auec Priuilege & Approbation, sm. 
8. pp. 1-1005, 11. 22. 

Marsoins, pp. 118, 124, 135. Des Baleines, pp. 130-133. Marsoin blanc, p. 1577. 

A textual reprint of this rare work, in 4 vols., 12, Paris, appeared in 1866. [68.] 

1640. LAET, J. DE. L'Histoire | dv | Nouveau Monde | ou | Description | des Indes | 
occidentales, | Con tenant dix-huict Liures, | Par le Sieur Jean de Laet, d'An- 
uers; | Enrichi de nouuelles Tables Geographiques & Figures des | Auimaux. 
Plautes & Fruicts. | [Vignette.] A Leyde, | Chez Bonauenture & Abraham 
Elseuiers, Imprimeurs | ordinairesde 1'Vniuersitd. | | ClQ I^C XL. fol. 11. 
18, pp. 1-632, 11. 6. 

Le Manati, p. 6, fig. [69.] 

1646. ALBERTZ. VAN RAVEN, DIRK. "Journael ofte Beschrijvinge van de reyse ghe- 
daen bij den Commaudeur Dirk Albcrtsz. Raven, nae Spitsberghen, in den 
jare 1639, ten dienste vande E. Heeren Bewindt-hebbers van de Groen- 
landtache Compagnie tot Hoorn. Waer in verhaelt wordt sijn droevighe 
Schipbreucke, syn ellende op 't wrack, en syn blijde verlossinge. Met noch 
eenighe ghedenckweerdige Historien. Alles waerdigli om te lesen. Tot 
Hoorn. Gedruckt by Isaac Willemsz. Voor Ian lansz. Deutel. Ao. 1646. 
4. Met eeno plaat. 

"Hierbij zijn geveogd nog drie Ileisjournalen naar hot Noorden, en wel van: Andrii-a 
Jansz. van Middelburgh in 1634 ; van Raven in 1633 ; van Pieter Jansz. Pickman in 1G16. Hct 


1646. ALBERTZ. VAN RAVEN, DIRK Continued. 

journaal van Raven vindt men gewoonlijk als appendix achter het lournael van de Cost 
Indische Eeyse van Willem IJsbrantsz. Bontekoe. Hoorn. 4. Het is ook opgenomen in : 
Hulsius Sammlnng von 26.Schiflfahrten. Neurnberg, 1598-1640." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 240, no. 3492. [70.] 

1647. LA PEYRERE, ISAAC DE. Relation | civ | Greenland. | [Par Isaac de La Peyrere.] 

[Vignette. ] A Paris, | Chez Avgvstin Covrbe, dans la | petite Salle dv Palais, 
a la Palme. | | M. DC. XLV1I. | Auec Priuilege dv Roy. sm. 8 11 8 pp 
1-278, 11. 2. Map and pll. 

For notice of cetological matter see infra, ed. of 1C63. [71 . | 

1648. ANON. " Kort verhael uyt het journael van de personen die op Spitsbergen in t 

overwinteren, gestorven zijn. Anno 1634. Gedrnkt te Hooru, 1648. 
"Behoort bij het Journaal van D. Alb. Raven." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 249, no. 3576. See 1646. EAVEN, D. A. [72.] 

1648. " GUICCIARDINI, L. Belgium, dat is: Nederlandt, ofte Beschryvinge derselviger 
provincien eude steden. Met veel bijvoegselen, landcaerten en de af beeldinge 
der steden. Amsteld., J. Jansonius, 1648. 2. 

" "Walvisschen, p. 302a." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 70, no. 1100. [73.] 

1650. JONSTON. J. Historise Naturalis | 'De Piscibus et Cetis | Libri V. | Cum seneis 
figuris | lohannes lonstonus Med. Doctor | concinauit. | Francofvrti ad Moe- 
num | Impensa | Matth[aei] Meriani. [Seal.] [No date. Engraved title- 
page.] 2. pp. 1-228, pll. i-xlvii. 

Historic Naturalis | De | Exangvibus | Aqvaticis | Libri IV. | Cum figuris 
seneis | Joannes Jonstonus j Med. D. conciunavit. | [Seal.] ^Francofvrti | ad j 
Moenvm, | Impendio J Matthsei Meriani. | | M DC L. pp. 1-78, pll. i-xx. 

The work is in two parts, with separate pagination and notation of plates, and the two title- 
pages above transcribed. The index to the two series of plates is on one page, and the general 
index to the two parts is partly on the same leaf. The first title-page is without date ; the 
second is dated M. DC. L., ostensibly the date of publication of the whole work. 

Liber v. De Cetis (= Cetacea+ Sirenia et Pinnipedia), pp. 213-224, pll. xli-xliv. Capvt i, 
De Cetis in genere, pp. 213, 214. Capvt ii, De Cetis in specie. Articulus i, De Balsna, pp. 215, 
216,pll.xli, xlii; Articulus ii, De Balsena vulgi, & Physetere, pp. 216,217; Articulus iii, De 
Puste& Oca, pp. 217, 218, pi. xliii ; Articulus iv, De Delphino, pp. 218-220, pi. xliv ; Articulus 
v, De Phocsena & Scolopendra Cetacea, pp. 220, 221, pi. xli ; Articulus vi, De Phoca, seu Vitulo 
marine, pp. 221-223, pi. xli ; Articulus vii, De Manati ludorum, pp. 223, 224, pi. xliii. 

PL xli, 5 flgg.: upper, "Balaena ~VVallfisch" = Pft?/seter macrocephalus , second fig., "Ba- 
laena "Wallfisch " = P%eter macrocephalus, from Clusius ; middle fig., "Balsena Monstrosa" 
(teeth in lower jaw, and some other features of Physeter, of which it may be a gross carica- 
ture); fourth fig., "Balaena Ein ander art Wallfisch," apparently based on the Orca, but the 
pectoral limbs terminate incurved claws; last fig., " Phocaena Meer Sehwein, Braunfisch" 
= Phoccena. PI. xlii: "Balaena. Ein Grosser "Wallfisch von 60 Schuch lang vnd 41 Schuch 
hoch," a full-page figure, with scenery, of an unmist akable Physeler macrocephalus, lying on 
its side. PI. xliii, 7 figg. : upper fig., " Vtilis Piscis sersam ad instar Pristis habens " a fabu- 
lous creature, with the sword of a saw-fish (Pristiti) protruding from the top of the head ; 
second fig., "Delphinus prior, Delphin" (not determinable); third fig., "Delphinus alter, Del- 
phin" (probably an Orca); fourth and fifth figg., "Antiq. Metal.," obverse and reverse of an 
ancient coin or medal, on one rude effigies of two Dolphins; sixth fig., "Delphinus femina, 
Delphin "Weiblein" Phoccena, with a young one attached by the foetal envelopes; seventh 
fig., " Delphinus alius, Ein ander art Delphin "^Common Dolphin. PI. xliv, 8 figg. : upper fig., 
"Caput Delphini, Delphins Kopf " = Phoccena ; second fig., "Gladius piscis Serite, Dei Kopf 
desSchwertfisch," skull of Pristis ; thirdfig., " Scolopendra cetacea, " a fabulous creature with 
some features of a Cetacean ; fourth fig., " Phoca siue Vitulus marinus, Seehund," Seal ? fifth 
fig., " Vitulus, Seehundt, " Seal ; sixth fig., "Rosmarus, "Wallross"; seventh fig., "Eosmarus 
Vetus, Ein Alt Meer Ros "; and eighth fig., " Rosmarus juuencus, Ein lung Meer Eos," from 
the well known figure published by Gerard. In the article "De Manati Indorum" there is a 
reference to " Tab. xliii," but there is no corresponding figure on the plate. 

None of the figures are original, most of them being copies from Belon, Kondelet, Olaus 
Magnus, Gesner, etc. [74-1 


1651. ALBERTUS MAGNUS. Beati | Albert! | Magni, | RatisbonensisEpiscopi, | ordinis 
praBdicatorvm, | de Animalibvs Lib. XXVI. | Recogniti per R. A. P. F. Petrvm 
lammy, sacrse Theologies Doctorem, Connentus | Gratianopolitani, einsdeni 
Ordinis. | Nvnc priinvm in Ivcera prodevnt. | Operum Tomus Sextus. | [Vig- 
nette.] Lvgdvni, | 

f Clavdii Prost. 

I Petri & Clavdii Rigavd, Frat. . 

Sumptibus { TT . >Via Mercatoria. 

Hierouymi Delagarde. 

. Ant. Hvgvetan. 

M. DC. LI. | Cvm privilegio Regis, fol. 11. 8, pp. 1-634. 

Liber xxiv. De natura natatilium primo in cominuni, & consequenter in speciali, pp. 645- 
661. De cetu, pp. 650, 651. De delphiiio, pp. 653, 654. De gladio, p. 655. Do monocerote, pp. 
657. [75.] 

1651. HERXAXDEZ, F. Nova | Plantarvin, Aninialivm | et Mineralivm Mexicanorvm | 
Historia | a Francisco Hernandez Medico | In Indijs praestantissimo primnm 
compilata, | dein a Nardo Antonio Reecho in volvinen digesta, | a lo. Terentio, 

10. Fabro, et Fabio Colvmna Lynceis | Notis, & additionibus longe doctissimis 
illnstrata. | Cui derauia accessere | aliqvot ex principis Federici CjBsii Fronti- 
spiciis | TheatriNaturalisPhylosophicae Tabula* | Vuacumquampluriruislcoui- 
bus, ad octingentas, quibus singula | conteraplanda graphice exhibentur. | 
[Vignette.] | Romae MDCLI. | Sumptibns Blasij Deuersini, & Zanobij 
Masofcti Bibliopolarum. | Typis Vitalis Mascardi. Superioruui permissu. 

[Or,] Rervin Medicarvni | Novse Hispauite | Tbesavrvs | sev | Plantarvm 
Animalivm | Mineralivm Mexicauorvm | Historia I ex Francisci Hernandez | 
Noui Orbis Medici Primary relationibus | in ipsa Mexicana Vrbe conscriptis | 
a Nardo Antonio Reecho | Monte Coruinate Cath. Maiest. Medico | Et Neap. 
Regni Archiatro Generali | lussu Philippi II. Hisp. Ind. etc. Regis | Collecta 
ac in ordinem digesta | A loanne Terrentio Lynceo | Constantiense Germ . Pho. 
ac Medico | Notis Illustrata | Nunc primu in Naturaliu rer. Studiosor. gratia | 
lucubrationibus Lynceoru publici iuris facta. | Quibus Jam excussis accessere 
tlenium alia | quor. omnium Synopsis sequenti pagina ponitur | Opus duobus 
voluminibus diuisum | Philippo IIII. Regi Catholico Magno | Hispaniar. vtri- 
nsqtSicilise et Indiarii etc Monarchse | dicalum. | CnmPrinilegijs. Romae Supe- 
rior. perinissn. Ex Typographeio Vitalis Mascardi. M. DC. XXXXXI. fol. 11. 9 
[= ill. title (the one first given above), engr. title (the second given above), 
dedic. to the reader, index'], pp. 1-950, 1. 1, pp. 1-90, 11. 3 [ index and errata], 

11. 10 [gen. index, index of authors, errata, and corregenda]. The leaves con- 
taining the general index, etc., here placed at the end of the volume, are in 
some copies bound in at the front of the general text. The "Historiae Ani- 
malivm et Mineralivm Novae Hispaniae . . . Francisco Fernandez Philippi 
Secundi primario medico avthorc" (pp. 1-90-j-ll. 3) is also similarly transposed 
in binding. 

There are earlier editions, none of which T have been able to see: the collation of that of 
1628 (q. v.) has been already given, copied from Sabin. On Hernandez and his works see Itich, 
Books relating to America, 1493-1700, pp. 72-74. 

The matter of special interest in the present connection is : De Manati, Nardi Ant. Recchi, 
ix, cap. xiii, pp. 323, 324, 2 figg. 

About p. of text, and 2 cuts, one in profile, the other from above, scarcely recognizable as 
having any relation to the Mnnati : body elliptical, tail broad and rounded, with a ring at base; 
head in profile, sui generis ; from above, somewhat calf-like; fore-limbs quite long, feet hoofed, 
and of a bovine form, especially as seen in the profile figure. The characters given by the 
artist do not conform to those in the text, which is, compared with other early accounts, not 
remarkable for accuracy. 

Ambra grisea seu odorata, lo. Fabri Lyncei Expos., pp. 564-579. A long disquisition about 
Ambra grise, its nature, origin, and medicinal properties, etc., with references passim to 
Balsenae. [76.] 


1652. ANON. " De Vrye Zee, aengaede haere vryheyt in 't varen en visschen voor do 
Veeren Nederlanden, verdedigt tegen alle bestryders der Gerechticheyt, inson- 
derheyt teghen die hedendaechsche Regeringe in Engeland. [No place.] 
1652. 4." 

"Pp. 55-62 treat of the Herring- and Whale-fishery and the pretensions of the English on 
Greenland and Spitzhergen." 

Not seen; title and comment from FT. Muller, Cat. Amer. Bookt, 1877, p. 200, no. 3424. 


1655. "N. N." America: | or | An Exact Description | of the | West Indies: | More 
especially of those | Provinces which are under j the Dominion of the | King of 
Spain. | | Faithfully represented by N. N. Gent. | | London, printed by 
Ric. Hodgkinsoime for Edw. Dod, | and are to be sold at the Gun in Ivy -lane, 
1655. sm. 8 by sig. U. 7, pp. 1-484, 1. 1, map. 

The Manati or Oxe-fish, pp. 154, 155. Account based mainly on Hernandez and Laet. [78.] 

1655. WORM, OLAUS. Museum Wormianum. | Sen j Historia | Rerum Rariorum, 
Tarn Naturalium, quam Artificialium, tarn Domesticarum, | quam Exoticarum, 
quse Hafnias Danorum in | asdibus Authoris servantur. | Adornata ab | Olao 
Worm, med. doct. | &, in Regid Hafniensi Academia, olim | Professore pub- 
lico. | Variis & accuratis Iconibus illustrata. | [Vignette.] LugduniBata- 
vorum, | Apud Johannem Elsevirivm, Acad. Typograph. | | ClQ IQC LV. 
2. 11. 9, pp. 1-390, 1. 1. Cuts in text. 

Cap. xiii, De Cetis, pp. 279, 280 ; cap. xiv, De Ceto dentato, Balena, Monocerote, pp. 280- 
287; cap. xv, De Delphino, Pristi, Phoca, Rosmaro, pp. 288-290. Skull of Narwhal figured, 
three views, and a view of the tusk separate, pp. 283-285; also a grotesque figure of the ani- 
mal, p. 282. 

Cap. xiii, De Cetis, consists mainly of a briefly descriptive list of Whales from the cele- 
brated Icelandic manuscript "Specvlum regale," numbering 22 species. (Cf. Eschricht and 
Eeinhardt, "Om Nordhvalen," 1861, p. 39, and the English translation, "Memoirs on Ceta. 
cea," Bay Society, 1866, p. 32.) The account and figures of the Narwhal are from the MSS. 
of D. Thorlacus Sculonius. [79.] 

1657. "BARTHOLINUS, TH. Cetorum genera." 

"Zie: Th. Bartholinus', Historia Anatom., cent, iv, 1657, pp. 272-285." 

Not seen ; from Bosgoed, Bibl. Ichthyol. etPiscat., p. 157, no. 2477. [80.] 

1657. JONSTON, JOHX. An | History | of the | Wonderful Things of Nature: | Set 
forth in Ten severall Classes. | Wherein are contained | 

I. The Wonders of the Heav- 


II. Of the Elements. 

III. Of Meteors. 

IV. Of Minerals. 
V. Of Plants. 

f VI. Of Birds. 
VII. Of Four-footed Beasts. 
VIII. Of Insects, and things wanting 


IX. Of Fishes. 
X. Of Man. 

j j Written by Johannes Jonstonus. | And now Rendred into | English, | 
by | A Person of Quality [John Rowland]. | | London, | Printed by John 
Streater, living in Well- Yard near the Hospitall of | St. Bartholomew's the 
Lesse, and are to be sold by the Book- | Sellers of London, 1657. 8. 8 11., 
pp. 1-344. 

Classis ix, chap, iii, of the Whale and Barbel, pp. 290, 291. Chap, xi, of Manaty, nnd the 
Whiting, pp. 296, 297. Chap, xii, of Mirus, Mola, and Monocoros, pp. 297-298. [81.] 

1658. "ROCHEFORT, C. DE. Histoire | Naturelle et morale | des | lies antilles | de 
1'Amerique. | Enrichie de plusieurs belles figures des Raretez les plus | consi- 
derables qui y sont dScrites. j Vvec vn Vocabulaire Cara'ibe. | [Dessin.] | 
ARoterdam, | Chez Arnould Leers, | | M. DC. LVIII. 1 vol. 8 (orsrn. 4). 
Engr. title, 8 prel. pp. incl. regular title, pp. 1-527, 6 11. (contents). 

This is the original ed. Not seen ; title from Coues, Bull 17. S. Oeol. and Oeogr. Surv. 
Terr., v, no. 2, Sept. 6, 1879, p. 240. For Cetacean matter, etc., see second ed., 1665. Also, 
the Dutch version, 1662. [82.] 

27 a B 


1660. HERRARA, A. DE. Histoire | generale | des Voyages | et Conqvestes | des Castil- 
lans, dans les Isles & Terre-ferme | des Indes Occidentals. | Traduite de PEs- 
pagnol d' Antonio d'Herrara, Historiographe de sa | Maieste" Catholique, tant 
des Indes, que des Royaumes de Castille. | Par N[icolas]. de la Coste. | Pre- 
miere Decade, contenant les Pre- | . . . [=etc., 7 lines]. | A Paris, | Chez Ni- 
colas & lean de la Coste, au Mont Saint Hilaire, a | PEscu de Bretagne; et en 
leur boutique, a la petite porte | du Palais, qui regarde le Qay des Augustins. 
| | M. DC. LX. Avec Privilege dv. Roy. 3 vols. 4. 1660-61. 
Du poisson apelle Mauati [sic], tome i, pp. 378, 379. [83.] 

1660. JO[N]STON, J. Naeukeurige beschry ving van de natuur der viervoetige dieren, 

der vissen en bloedloze waterdieren, der vogelen, der gekerfde of kronkeldie- 

ren, slangen en draken, neffens haar beeldnissen. Uit het Latyn vertaeld 

door M. Grausius. Amsterdam, Scliipper, 1660. fol. Met 249 koperen platen." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit, p. 10, no. 108. [84.] 

1662. ROCHEFORT, C. DE. Natuurlyke en zedelyke | Historic | van | d'Eylanden | de 
Voor-Eylanden | van Amerika. | Verrijkt met vele schoone Platen, die uyt- 
beelden d'aller-aan- | merkelijksteseldsaamheden die'er in beschreven zijn. | 
Met eenen Carai'baanschen Woorden-schat. | Door D. Charles de Rochefort 
voor desen Bedienaar | des H. Euangeliums in d' Eylanden van Amerika, en 
tegenwoor- | digh Herder van de Kerke der Francoysche Tale tot Rotterdam. 
| Vertaalt in Nederduytsch door H[eiman]. Dullaert. | Alles na een Voor- 
schrift door de Schrijver oversien | en veel vermenighvuldight. | [Vignette.] 
Tot Rotterdam. | By Arnout Leers, Boekverkooper. | M. DC. LXII. sm. 4. 
11. 20 (incl. engr. title and plain title), pp. 1-475, 11. 5-J (contents). (The copy 
examined lacks the folding plates of the French ed. of 1665, but appears to 
have all the others.) 

XVII. Hooft-stuk: Van de Zee-gedrochten die in dese gewesten gevonden worden, pp. 
151-159. Van de Marsoiiins, of Zee-verkens, p. 152. Van den Lamantin, pp. 155, 156. Van 
de "Walvisschen. en andere Zee-gedrochten, p. 156. XVIII. Hooft-stuk: Bysondere beschrij- 
ving van eenen Zee-Een-hoorn, die strande op de Rheede van het Eyland van de Schild-padde 
in het jaar 1644, etc., pp. 159-177. XX. Hooft-stuk: Van den Ambergrijs; Van si.jnen oor- 
spronk, en van de teykenen des genen die goed is, en sonder vennengeling, pp. 190-194. 
For comment on the cetological matter, etc., see the French ed. of 1665. [85.] 

1663. LAPEYRERE, ISAAC DE. Relation | dv | Greenland. | [Par Isaac de La Peyrere.] 

[Vignette.] A Paris, | Chez Lovis Billaine, au second | pillier de la grand' 
Salle du Palais, a la | Palme, & au grand Cesar. | | M. DC. LXIII. | Avec 
Privilege dv Roy. 11. 9, pp. 1-278, 11. 2. Map and pll. 

References to the Narwhal (le Licorne) and to Whales passim, but especially to the former 
at pp. 192, 193, and to the latter at pp. 220-223. The plate facing p. 145 gives a figure of the 
Narwhal (animal) and three views of the sknll, evidently after "Worm. 

This appears to be a reissue, with a different imprint, of the edition of 1647 (ed. prin., q.v.). 
There is a Dutch translation (Hoorn, 1678), and a German (Nilrnberg, 1679). It is also given 
in English by Churchill (Coll. Voy.), and by the Hakluyt Society (Coll. Doc. on Spitz, and 
Greenl., pp. 175-249). T he cetological matter is unimportant. [86.] 

1664. BOUCHER, P. Histoire | veritable | et | Natvrelle | des | Moevrs et Prodvctions 

| dv Pays | de la | Novvelle France. | Vvlgairement dite | le | Canada. | [Par 
Pierre Bouchet.] [Ornament.] A Paris, | Chez Florentin Lambert, rue | 
Saint laques, vis a vis Saint Yues, | a 1'Image Saint Paul. | | M. DC. LXIV. 

| Auec Permission. 12. 11. 12, pp. 1-168. 

Xoms des Poissons qui se trouuent dans le grand Fleuue S. Laurens, & dans les lacs & 
riuieres qui descendent, dont nous auons connoissance. Chap, vii, pp. 74-87. Marsoin blanc 
[-Beluga, catodon], pp. 74, 75. "On en void des quantitez admirables, depuis Tadou^sac 
jusques a Quebec, qui bondissent sur la riuiere" (p. 75). [87.] 

1664. ZESEN, FILIPS VON. " Beschreibung der stadt Amsterdam, darinnen von dersel- 
ben ersten ursprunge bis auf gegenwartigen Zustand, ihr unterschiedlicher 
anwachs, herliche vorrechte, und in mehr als 70 Kupferstiikken entworfene 
fuhrnemhste Gebeue, zusamt ihrem Stahtswesen, Kauf-handel und ansehn- 
licher macht zur See, wie auch was sich in und mit Derselben markwiirdiges 


1664. ZESEN, FILIPS VON Continued. 

zugetragen vor augen gestellet werden. Zu Amsterdam, Gedrukt und verlcgt 
durch Joacliini Noschen. Im Jahr 1664. 4." 

"Zie aldaar: Fischmarkte, bl. 226, 227-231, benevens eenige bijzonderheden omtrent den 
verkoop van visch. Grtihnlandische Geselschaft, was vor freiheit sie habe, bl. 359. Griihn- 
landische Pakheuser, bl. 358. "Walfische, wie sie gefangen und der trahn daraus gesotten 
wird, bl. 359. Hiirings-Pakkerei und Pakker-turn, bl. 76, 103, 172. 

Not seen ; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 253, no. 3613. [88.] 

1665. ANON. Of the New American Whale-fishing about the Bermudas. <^Philo8. 

Trans. Lond., i, no. 1 [1665], pp. 11-13. [89.] 

1665. [ROCHEFORT, C. DE.] Histoire | naturelle et morale | des ] lies Antilles | de 

PAmerique. | Enrichie d'un grand nombre de belles Figures en taille douce, | 

des Places & des Raritez lesplus considerables, | qui y sont d6crites. | Avecirn 

Vocabulaire Cara'ibe. | Seconde edition. | Reveue & augmente'e de plusieurs 

Descriptions, & de quelques | e"claircissemens, qu'on desiroit en la precedento. 

| [Par C6sar de Rochefort.] [Dessin.] | A Roterdam, | Chez Arnout Leers, 

| | M. DCC. LXV. sm. 4. 18 11. (iucl. eng. title and plain title), pp. 

1-583, 11. 6| (contents), 3 fold, pll., and numerous cuts of plants and animals. 

Chapitre xvii. Des Monstres Marine qui se trouvent en ces quartiers, pp. 190-200. [Con- 
tenant entre autres], Des Marsoiiins, p. 191; Du Lamantin, pp. 194, 195, fig., p. 199; Des 
Baleines & autres Monstres de Mer, p. 195. 

Chap, xviii. Description particuliere d'une Licorne de Mer, qui s'echoua a la rade de 1'Ile 
de la Tortue en 1'an 1644. Avec un recit curieus, par forme de comparaison & de digression 
agreable, touchant plusieurs belles & rares cornes qu'on a apportees depuis peu dn detroit de 
Davis ; & de la quality de la terre, & des meurs des Peuples qui y habitent, pp. 200-220, 2 figs., 
p. 204.. 

Cbap. xx. De 1' Ambre gris ; De son Origine & des marques de celuy qui est bon, & sans 
melange, pp. 236-241. 

The remarks about Marsouins and Baleines are brief and of no importance. The account 
of the Lamantin (1 page and 3 lines in length) is explicit and interesting, describing correctly 
the general appearance and habits of the animal, including its reproduction, and the use of its 
flesh as food by the natives. The cut (p. 199) is a very good figure (its date, of course, con- 
sidered) of the animal an old Lamantin folding its young one in its arms. The account of 
the Licorne de Mer (pp. 200-202), said to have been stranded "au rivage de 1'Ile de la Tortue, 
voisine de 1'Ile Hispaniola, ou Saint Domingue," is given in the words of M. du Montel, who 
sawit. It was about 18 feet long, its body of the sizeof a barrel. It had 6 large fins 2placed "au 
defaut des ouyes, " the other 4 on the sides of the belly at equal distances. The body was cov- 
ered with large scales ; therefore, whatever it may have been, it was not a Cetacean. The horn 
projecting from the front of the horse-like head was 9| feet long. The horn was preserved for 
two years, and finally carefully boxed and shipped by the governor of the island, as a present, 
to "Monsieur des Traucarts, G-entilhomme de Saintonge," but, alas, the vessel was wrecked 
on the passage, and this precious relic was lost, as well as all the merchandise. Following 
this relation is a short account of the Narwhal with (on page 204) "les figures de la Licorne 
laquelle s'echoua en 1'Ile de la Tortue, & d'une de celles du Nord," to show how great is the 
difference between the two species. 

In the chapter on Ambergris, after stating the fact that it was unknown to the ancients, 
and the various theories respecting its origin, the author observes: " Mais c'est plus vrai-sem- 
blablement une sorte de Bitume, qui s'engendre au fond de la mer," etc., and proceeds to give 
his view of how it may be detached, etc. The whole account is one of special interest in 
relation to the early history of Ambergris. 

For the original edition of this work, see ROCHEFORT, at 1658. There is also a later ("der- 
niere") edition (Rotterdam, 1681), of which Dr. Coues has recently given the collation (Eds. 
Col. Vail., p. 241). An English translation was published in London in 1666 (not seen by 
me), and a Dutch in 1662, q. v. [90.] 

1666. ANON. A Further Relation of the Whale-fishing about the Bermudas, and on the 

Coast of New -England and New -Netherland. <^Philos. Tians. Lond., i, no. 8 
[1666], pp. 132,133. [91.] 

1667. "MERRETT, C. Pinax | Rerum Naturalium | Britannicarum, | continens | Vege- 

tabilia, Animalia, | et | Fossilia, | In hac Insula repcrta iuchoatus. | | 
Authore | Christophoro Merrett, | Medicinse Doctore utriusque Societatis | 
RegisB Socio primoque Musaei Har- | veani Custode. | | M^ r<p /loycj /uovvov 
| epyufietvofii&adcuTovelTjTpovc. Hipp. | I Londini, | | TypisT. Roy- 


1667. "MERRETT, C. Continued. 

croft, Impensis Cave Pulleyn. | MDCLXVII. Vol.nnic. 16mo. Tit. If. Epist. 
dedic., 5 f. Epist. ad Lect., 10 f. pp. 1-223+1." 
"Edit.altera. Ed. princeps 16G6. Ed. nova 1704." 

Not seen; title from Coues, Proc. 17. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 361. The work is also cited 
by Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 102, no. 1G19. [92.] 

1667. NORWOOD, R. An Extract Of a Letter, written from the Bermudas, giving 
an account of the Course of the Tides there, of Wells both Salt and Sweet, 
digg'd near the Sea ; of the Whale-fisMng there practised anew, and of such 
Whales, as have Sperma Cetiin them. <^PMlos. Trans. Lond., no. 29 [1667]} pp. 
565-567. [93.] 

1667. TERTRE, [J. B.] DU. Histoire | generale | des | Antilles | habit6es par les Fran- 

cois. | Tome ii. | Contenant 1 Histoire | natverelle, | Enrichy de Cartes & 
de Figures. | Par le R. P. [Jean Baptiste] dv Tertre, de 1'Ordre FF. Pre- 
scheurs, | de la Congregation de S. Louis, Missionnaire Apostolique | dans les 
Antilles. | [Arms.] A Paris, | Chez Thomas lolly, au Palais, en le Salle des 
Merciers | a la Palme, | & aux Armes d'Hollande. | | M. DC. LXVII. | 
Avec Privilege. 4. [3 vols., 4 C . Vol. i, vol. ii, 1667 ; vol. iii, 1671.] 

Vol. ii, Traite iv. Des Poissons. Chap. i. Des Poissons do la mer, pp. 195-233. i. Des 
Baleines, pp. 196-198. ii. Des Souffleurs, pp. 198, 199. iii. Du Lamantin ou Manaty, pp. 
199-209, fig. (pLfac. p. 195). The remarks about the "Baleines" and "Souffleurs" are very 
general and of little importance. The account of the Manatee is more detailed, treating of 
its external characters, habits, products, and capture. The figure is like Laet's, which is a 
copy from that of Clusius, q. v. 1.94.] 

1668. STAFFORD, R. Of a Letter, written to the Publisher from the Bermudas by Mr. 

EicJiard Stafford ; concerning the Tydes there, as also Whales, Sperma Ceti . . . 
<PAiZos. Trans. Lond., iii, no. 40 [1668], pp. 792-795. [95.] 

1669. "MONTANUS, ARN. Gedenkwaerdi^e Gezantschappen der Oost-Indische maat- 

schappy, aen de Kaisaren van Japan. Vervaetende wonderlijke voorvallen op 
de togt der Nederlandsche gezanten. Beschryving van dieren, gewasseii enz. 
t' Amsterdam, by Jacob van Meurs, 1669. fol. Met gegrav. platen en kaarten." 

"Zie aldaar: Beschryving der walvisschen en der walvischvangst, bl. 448, 449. Japansche 
visschers, haer manieren van visschen. Met afbeelding, bl. 55 en 279." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 169, no. 2675. [96.] 

1670. BARTHOLINUS, THOMAS. De Sirene Danica. <^Epliem. Med.-phys. Germ. Acad. 

Nat. Curios., i, 1670, pp. 85-89; edit, secund., 1684, pp. 73-79. [97.] 

1670. "NIEUHOF, JOAN. Het Gezantschap der Ntterlandsche Oo&t-Indische Compa- 
gnie,aen den grooten Tartarischen Cham, den tegenwoordigen Keizer van 
China. Waerin de gedenkwaerdighste geschiedenissen. BeneiTens beschryving 
der dieren, gewassen, enz. Verciert met over de 150 af beeltsels. t' Amsterdam, 
by Jacob van Meurs, A. 1670. fol." 

" Zie aldaar, Visschen : De walvisch, haar gestalte en teelt; hoe zy gevangen worden, bl. 
157o-160a. Vliegende visschen. Met afbeelding, bl. 203, 204." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 170, no. 2682. [98.] 

1670. SCILLA AGOSTINO. La | Vana Specvlazione | disingannata | dalSenso. | Lettera 
risponsiva | Circa i Corpi Marine", che Petrificati fi trouano | in varij loughi 
terrestri. | Di Agostino Scilla Pittore | Accademico della Fvcina, | detto lo 
Scolorito. j Dedicata | all' illvstrissimo Signore, | il Signer | D. Carlo Gregori | 
Marchese di Poggio Gregorio, | cavaliero della Stella | | In Napoli, j 
Appresso Andrea Colicchia. M. DC. LXX. | Con licenz a de' Superiori. 4. 
11. 5, pp. 1-168, pll. i-xxviii-f-frontisp. 

At page 123 is a description of a fragment of a lower jaw containing three teeth ; the frag- 
ment is figured, pi. xii, fig. 1. The teeth are recognizable as those of Squalodon. (Cf. VAN 
BENEDEN, "Recherches sur les Squalodonts," in Mem. de VAcad. roy. de Belgique, vol. xxxv> 

The work thus has the importance of containing the first unquestionable description and 
figure of remains of Squalodonts. [99.] 


1671. "MARTINIERE, P. M. DE LA. Voyage des pays septentrionaux. Dans lequel se 
voit les moeurs, maniero de vivre et superstitions des Norwdguiens, Lappons, 
Sybe'riens, Samojedes, Zeuabliens, Islandois. Paris, 1671. kl. 8. Met fig." 

" Herdrukken verschenen to Parjis, 1G76. 8, en to Amsterdam, 1708 (zonder naam van 
den schrijver). Eeene engelsche vertaling: London, 1674; eeno hoogduitsche : Hamburg, 
1075, en Leipzig, 1711; eeno itaiiaansche in 1683. Zie voor de Hollandscho uitgavc: De 
Noordsche Wcereld . . . [Zio 1685. MARTIXIRE en MARTENS.] Adelung geeft in zijn: 'Ge- 
schichte der Schiffahrten,' 1)1. 298-319, een uitvoerig uittreksel van dezo reis." 

Not seen; title and note from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 243, no. 3512. [100.] 

1671. RAY, J. An Account of the Dissection of a Porpess, promised Numb. 74 ; made, 

and communicated in a Letter of Sept. 12, 1671, by the Learned Mr. John Hay, 
having therein observ'd some things omitted by Rondeletim. <^Philos. Trans. 
Lond., vi,no. 74 [1671], p. 2220; no. 76 [1671], pp. 2274-2279. [101.] 

1672. ANON. "A proportional view of the large Spermaceti whale run aground on 

Blyth Sand, and there killed himself. 30 Jan. 1672. [PI. 8x14 inches.] Sold 
by W. Triugham." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 171, no. 2697. [102.] 

1672. JOSSELYN, J. New-Englands | Rarities | Discovered: '| In | Birds, Beasts, 
Fishes, Serpents, | and Plants of that Country. | Together with | The Physical 
and Chyrurgical Remedies | wherewith the Natives constantly use to | Cure 
their Distempers, Wounds, | and Sores. | Also | A perfect Description of an 
Indian Squa, | in all her Bravery ; with a Poem not | improperly conferr'd upon 
her. | Lastly | A Chronological Table | of the most remarkable Passages in 
that | Country amongst the English. | | Illustrated with Cuts. | | By 
John Josselyn, Gent. | | London, Printed for G. Widdowes at the | Green 
Dragon in St. Pauls Church yard, 1672. sm. 8 by sig.,24 size. 11. 2, pp. 
1-114, cuts. 

Reprinted in Archceologia Americana or Trans, and Coll. Amer. Antiq. Soc., iv, pp. 133-238. 

The Sperma Ceti Whale ; What Sperma Ceti is ; What Ambergreece is, pp. 35, 36. "Now 
you must understand this Whale feeds upon Ambergreece, as is apparent, finding it in the 
Whales Maw in great quantity, but altered and excrementitious : I conceive that Amber- 
greece is no other than a kind of Mushroom growing at the bottom of some Seas ..." (p. 36). 


1672. TULPIUS,N. Nicolai Tulpii | Amstelredamensis | Observationes Medicas. | Editio 

Nova. | Libro quartior auctior, & Sparsim multis | in locis emendatior. | 
[Vignette.] Amstelredami, | Apud Danielem Elsevirium, | ClQloCLXXII. 
sm. 8. 11. 7, pp. 1-392, pll. i-xviii. 

Unicornu marinam, lib. iv, cap. lix, pp. 374-379, tab. xviii. The three very rude figures rep- 
resent the animal in profile and the skull from above and below. They are the same as those 
given by Worm, by whom they were copied from Tulpius. 

The editio princeps I have not seen ; the dedication "Ad Petrum Tulpium filium " is dated 
1641, which is probably the date of the first edition. There are numerous later editions, of 
which editio quinta is the only one I have seen (q. v. 1716. TULPIUS, N.). [104.] 

1673. BOYLE, R. A Letter of the Honorable Robert Boyle of Sept. 13, 1673, to the Pub- 

lisher, concerning Amber Greece, and its being a Vegetable Production. <P7tiZos. 
Trans. Lond., vii,no. 97, 1673, pp. 6113-6115. 

Stated, on the authority of a factor of the Dutch East India Company, to issue from the 
loot of a tree. [105.] 

1675. JOSSELYN, J. An | Account | of two | Voyages | to New-England. | Wherein 
you have the setting out of a Ship, | With the charges ; The prices of all 
necessaries for | furnishing a Planter & his Family at his first com- | ing ; A 
Description of the Country, Natives and | Creatures; The Government of the 
Countrey as | it is now possessed by the English, &c. A large | Chronologi- 
cal Table of the most remarkable | passages from the first discovering of the 
Conti- | nent of America, to the year 1673. | | By John Josselyn Gent. | | 
The Second Addition. | | [Quotation, 6 lines.] | London Printed for G. 
Widdowes at the Green Dragon in St. | Pauls Church-yard, 1675. sm. 8. 11. 4, 
pp. 2-279-f3. 


1675. JOSSELYN, J. Continued. 

Orig. ed. 1664 ; the present is textually the same, except the title-page. Reprinted in the 
Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., 3d ser., iii, 1833, pp. 211-296, "and was again reprinted in 1865 by Wil- 
liam Veazie, following the Harvard College copy" of the 1675 ed., from which copy the above 
collation is taken. 

The Ambergreese- Whale, pp. 104, 105. "Anno Dom. 1668 the 17 of July there was one of 
them thrown up on the shore between Winter-harbour and Cape-porpus [near Boston], about 
eight mile from the place where I lived, that was five and fifty foot long" (p. 104). Nothing 
else of importance relating to Cetacea. [106.] 

1675. MARTENS, F. Friderich Martens | vom Hamburg | Spitzbergische oder Groen- 

landische | Reise-Beschreibung | gethanim Jahr 1671. | Aus eigner Erfahrungo 
beschrieben, die dazu erforderte | Figurcn nach dem Leben sclbst abgerissen, 
(so hierbey in | Kupfer zu sehen) und jetzo durch den | Druck mitgctheilet. | 
[Vignette.] Hamburg, | Auff Gottfried Schultzeus Kosten gedruckt, | Im 
Jahr 1675. sm. 4. 11. 4, pp. 1-132, 11. 2, pll. A-Q = 16. 

Cetacea, pp. 92-127. Meerschwein oder Tunin, pp. 92, 93. Butskopf, pp. 93, 94. Weisfische 
[Beluga catodon], p. 94. Vom Einliorn [= Monodon monoceros], pp. 94, 95. Sagenfisch ins ge- 
mein genannt Schwerdtfisch [= Orca], pp. 95, 96. Vom Wallfisch, pp. 98-109, pll. A and Q (figs. 
a, 6, Balcena mysticetus). Vom Wallfischfang, pp. 110-118. Wie sie mit den todten Walfisch 
umbgehen, pp. 118-123. Von des Fetts, oder Trahns Brennerey, pp. 123-125. Von Finfisch 
[=Balcenoptera sp.J, pp. 125-127, pi. Q, fig. c. 

Martens's work in relation to Cetology is one of great interest and importance, not only 
from its early date, but for the good account it gives of the Greenland Right Whale and the 
Whale -fishery, and also especially for its very good figures of the Greenland Whale and of the 
Finfish. They may be fairly considered as the first passable figures of these species, and those 
of the first were the standard figures down to the time of Scoresby (1820), and as such were 
many times copied. His references to the other northern Cetacea are intelligent, and of great 
historic interest. The only separate translations of the work I have seen cited are an Italian 
(Venice, 1680, 12) and a Dutch (Amsterdam, 1710, 4, q. v.), but various versions, generally 
more or less abridged, have appeared in collections of voyages, etc., as Vries's (Amsterdam, 
1685), Narborough's (London, 1694), Harris's (London, 1705), Bernard's (French, Amsterdam, 
1731), Adelung's (German, Halle, 1768), etc. Also, White's (1855, Hakluyt Soc.), q. v. [107.] 

1676. DEBES, L. J. Fseroce, & Freroa Reserata: | That is | A Description | of the | 

Islands & Inhabitants | of | Foeroe : | Being | Seventeen Islands subject to the 
| King of Denmark, lying under 62 | deg. 10 min. of North Latitude. | Wherein 
several Secrets of Nature | are brought to Light, and someAnti- | quities hith- 
erto kept in darkness | discovered. | Written in Danish by Lucas Jacobaon | 
Debes, M. A. and Provost of the | Churches there. | | Englished By J[ohn] 
S[terpiu]. Doctor of Physick. | | Illustrated with Maps. | | Printed 
by F. L. for William lies, at the Flow- | er-de-Luce in Little Brittain, over 
against | St. Bartholomews Gate. 1676. 12. 11. 12, pp. 1-408. [The copy 
examined (Harv. Coll. Libr.) lacks the maps.] 

Chap. iii. Of the Waters Fertility, pp. 163-189. Grind -Whales [= Olobiocephalus mclas], 
pp. 171-179. Doglings [Hyperordon sp.], pp. 179-184. Roar and Witch -Whale, pp. 184-188. 

The chapter " Of the Waters Fertility " is full of quaint and curious information about the 
myths and superstitions prevalent among the Foero islanders in the 17th century respecting 
the marine mammalia found about these islands, as well as replete with interesting matter 
relating to the natural history of the Seals and Cetaceans. The account of the Grind- Whale 
(Globiocephalus melas) is especially important. 

"The Fishes wherewith this people maintain themselves are of three sorts; first, small 
Fishes, secondly Seals, and in the third place Whales" (p. 164). 

The date of the original Danish edition I am unable to give. A German version (8, Ko- 
penhagen und Leipzig) was published in 1757, q. v. [108.] 

137G. " SACHS, PAUL LUDW. Monocerologia seu do genuinis Unicornibus. Dissert. 
Kaceburgi, 1676. 8. pp. 182, pi. 1." 

Not seen; title from Cams and Engelmann. [109.] 

1677. ANOX. " Strange news from the deep, being a full account of a large pro- 

digious whale lately taken in the river Wioner, within six miles from ? Col- 
chester, (z. pi.) 1677. 4." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 171 S no. 2695. [110.] 


1677. CHARLTOX, W. Gualteri Charltoni | Exercitationes | de | Differentiis & Nomi- 

nibus Animalium. | Qnibua accedunt | Mantissa Anatomica, | Et quwdam | 
De variis Fossil ium generibus, | Deque differentiis & noininibus Colorurn. | 
Editio secunda, duplo fere auctior priori, novisque iconibus ornata. | [Vi- 
gnette.] Oxouiae, | E Theatro Sheldouiano, An. Dom. 16/7. 4. 11. 10. Ani- 
uialia Quadrupeda, Serpentia, Insecta, Aves, pp. 1-119; Pisces, etc., pp. 1-106; 
Fossilia, etc., 1. 1, pp. 1-78, 11. 10, Indices. (With figures in the text.) 

Piscium Cetaceorum Classis [para iij, pp. 46-50. I. Balcena. 1. Balscna vulgaris, the com- 
mon Whale, p. 46 ; 2. Physeter, & Physatus, the puffing aut spouting Whale, p. 47 ; 3. Cetun 
Dentatus, h Carol o Clusio, the Sperma-Ceti Whale, p. 47; 4. Pustes, the Swift Whale, p. 47; 
5. Orca, the Ork, p. 47 ; 6. Monoceros, Unicornu Marinum, the TJnicoru Whale, p. 47. II. Pris- 
tis, p. 47. III. Delphinus, the' Dolphin aut Grampus, p. 47. IV. Phocaena, the Porpus aut 
Porpes, p. 48. Y. Scolopendra Cetacea, p. 48. VI. Phoca, p. 48. VII. Walrus, aliis Mora, 
p. 49. VIII. Manati, p. 49. IX. Hippopotamus, p. 50. The Editio princeps, 1672, I have 
not seen. [111.] 

1678. " BARTHOLLNTUS, TH. De Unicornu observationes novae, secunda editione auctio- 

res et eniendatiores, editae 5, filio Casp. Bariholino. Amstelodami,Wetstenius, 
1678. kl. 12. Met 2 platen en af beeldingeu in den tekst." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 157, no. 2478. [112.] 

1678. CAPEL, RUDOLFF. Nordeu, | Oder | Zu Wasser und Lande im Eise | und Snee, 
mit Verlust Blutes und Gutes | zu Wege gebrachte, und fleisig | beschriebene 
| Erfahrung und Vorstellung | des Norden, | Auss | Deneii, welche | zu 
unterschiede- | nen Zeiten gelebet, yiel im Norden versu- | diet, viel auch 
urnbsonst augefangen und ange- | wandthaben: | Auff guter Freunde Begeh- 
ren zusammen gebracht | dargereichet, und ferner zu betrachten und | zuver- 
mehren, | von | Rudolff Capel, der H. Schrifft D. | und Historiarum P. P. | 
aussgefartiget. | | Hamburg, | Bey Johann Nanmann. | uud Stockholm | 
Bey Gottfried Liebezeit, Im 1678steu Jahre der Christer. 4. 11. 4, pp. 1-236, 
.11. 12. 

Das 5 Capittel. Georg Niclaus Schurtzen bericht, von der Natur und Eigenschaft, auch 
Kachstellung und Fang des Walflsches, im Jahr nach C. G. 1672. aussgefertigtet, pp. 197- 
212. There are also references to Whales at pp. 55 and 67. Chapter v gives a quite detailed 
account of the external characters, habits, products, and capture of the Greenland Right 
Whale. The female is said to be the larger, etc. There are also other passing allusions to 
Whalefishing ( Walfischfangst), as at pp. 141, 158, 159, etc. There is also a large plate (13J x 11 
inches), bound (in the copy examined) to face p. 156, which is a faithful reproduction of Mar- 
tens's plate of the common Balcena mysticetus (two figures), and a Tinner Whale, with the 
accessories of whale-louse, harpoon, and lance. [113.] 

1378. " EXQUEMELIN, ALEXANDRE OLIVIER. De | Americaensche | Zee Roovers. | 
Behelsende een pertinente en waerachtige Beschrijving van allo-de | voor- 
uaemste Roveryen, en onmenschlijcke wreedheden, | die de Engelse en Franse 
Rovers, tegens de Spanjaerden | in America, gepleeght hebben. | Verdeelt in 
drie'deelen: | Het Eerste Deel verhandelt hoe de Fransen op Hispanjola ge- 
komen zijn, de | aerdt van 't Landt, Inwoonders, en hun manier van leven 
aldaer. | Het Tweede Deel, de opkomst van de Rovers, hun regel en leven 011- 
der mal- | kander, nevens verscheyde Roveryen aen de Spanjaerden gepleeght. 
Het Derde 't verbranden van der Stadt Panama, door d' Engelsche en Franse | 
Rovers gedaen, neveiis het geen de Schrijver op siju Reys voorgevallen is. | 
Hier achter is bygevoeght, | Een korte verhandeling van de Macht en 
Rijkdommen die de Koninck van | Spanje, Karel de Tweede, in America 
heeft, nevens des selfs | Inkomsten en Regering aldaer. | Als mede een kort 
begi-ijp van alle de voornaemste Plaetsen in het selve Gewest, | onder Chris- 
ten Potentaten behooreude. | Beschreven door A. O. Exquemelin. | Die self 
alle dese Roveryen, door noodt, bygewoont heeft. | Met schoone Figuren, 
Kaerten, en Conterfeytsels, alle na 't leven geteeckent, versien. | t' Amster- 
dam, By Jan ten Hoorn, Boeckverkoper, over 't Oude j Heeren Logement. 



Anno 1678. | 4. 2 titles, 1 of which is engraved, 21., pp. 186', 4 portraits, 6 
copper-plates, and 2 maps." 

"First edition, of extreme rarity. Perhaps no book in any language was ever the parent of 
so many imitations, and the source of so many fictions, as this, the original of the buccaneers 
of America. . . . ' There is certainly no other book of that time which experienced a popu- 
larity similar to that of the "Buccaniers of America," which was, in the ten years following 
its publication, translated into most of the European languages; and there is a fact most curi- 
ous in the literary history of all times, that the original was certainly unknown to all trans- 
lators but one. They were all inclined to take the Spanish edition for the original ; nay, even 
the learned editors of Mr. Grenville's catalogue seem doubtful whether the Dutch edition 
existed in print, or in MS. only.' " 

Not seen; title and comment from Sabin, Bibl. Amer., vi, pp. 309, 310, no. 23468. There is 
alater "very much altered" Dutch edition, 4, Amsterdam, 1700; a German, 12, Nurnberr, 
1679; a Spanish, 4, 1681, "translated from the [first] Dutch"; also, later Spanish editions. 
The first French edition, "of extreme rarity," was published in 2 vols., 12, Paris, 1686, "a 
translation from the English"; a second French, by the same publishers, in 1688; the colla- 
tion of two later French editions (1744 and 1774, q. v.) is given infrci. Three English versions 
(one said to be an abridgment), translated from the Spanish, appeared in 1684 (q. v.), with 
several later editions, and possibly other translations into English. (See Sabin, Bibl. Amer., 
vi, pp. 309-318, 328, nos. 23468-23494.) 

I have examined the following editions, the collation of which is given by Sabin (op. eit.) : 
4, Spanish (translated from the English), 1631 (no. 23471 of Sabin), in which the account of 
the "Manentines" occurs at pp. 294, 295 (1^ pp. general account of external characters, qual- 
ity of flesh, habits, and mode of capture, with no figure); 12, Spanish, "Impression Se- 
gunda," 1682 (no. 23473 of Sabin) ; account of the "Manentines" at pp. 438-440, and the same 
as that of the 4 edition of 1681 ; no figure. Dutch, 4, 1700 (no. 23469 of Sabin) ; account of 
the "Zee-Koe" at pp. 131, 132 of Deel 1, substantially the same as the Spanish; no figure. 
English, "The Third Edition," 1704 (no. 23485 of Sabin) ; account of the "Sea-Cows" at pp. 
160-162 (8 lines less than one page in length, and substantially the same as the Spanish). En- 
glish, "The Fifth Edition," 1771 (no. 23490 of Sabin); account of the "Manentine," or "Sea- 
Cow," at pp. 209, 210, of vol. i. In none of the editions above cited is there any figure of the 
animal. French, 12, 1744 (q. v.), and 1774 (g. v.). The accounts of the Manatee in these two 
French editions is entirely different from that of the Spanish, Dutch, and English editions 
just cited; besides being twice as long, and containing much new matter, there is an (appar- 
ently) original figure. [114.] 

1678. MAJOR, JOHANN DANIEL. ' De Respiratione Phocamse vel Tursionis. <^Ephem. 

Med.-phys. Germ Acad. Nat. Curios., 1677 (1678), pp. 4, 5. [H5-] 

1678. PAULLINUS, CHRISTIANUS FRANCISCUS. De Singular! Monstro Marino. <^Ephem. 

Med.-phys. Germ. Acad. Nat. Curios., 1677 (1678), pp. 79, 80. [lie.] 

1678. "ScuoLTZ, ADAM SIGISM. Cerebrum Orcae vulgari supposita Spermatis Ceti 

larva develatuin. Lipsiae, 1678. 4. 11. 12." 

!Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. [117.] 

1680. LYSER, POLYC. Disputatio physico-philologica de Cetis. Lipsiae, 1680. 4. 

pp. 20. 

Not seen; title at second-hand. [118.] 

1681. BLASIUS, G. Gerardi Blasii | Amstelrsedamensis, | Medic. Doct. & Prof. Ordin. 

| Anatome | Aniinalium, | Terrestrium variorum, Volatilium, Aquatilium, | 
Serpentum, Insectorum, Ovorumque, | structuram naturalem | Ex Veterum, 
Recentioruin, propriisque Observationibus | proponens, | Figuris variis illus- 
trata. | [Vignette.] Amstelodami, | Sumptibus Viduse Joannis a Someren, | 
Henrici & Viduse Theodori Boom. | | do loc L xxxi. 4. 11. 3, pp. 1-494, 
pll. i-lx. 

Cap. xvi. De Phocena s. Delphino septentrionalium, pp. 286-290, pi. li (animal, skull, 
lower jaw, scapula, pectoral limb, ear bones, tail, etc. = 8 figg). 

Cap. xxxv. De Tursione, pp. 306, 307. [119. ] 

1681. GREW, N. Musseurn Regalis Societatis. | Or a | Catalogue & Description | Of 
the Natural and Artificial | Rarities | Belonging to the | Royal Society | And 
preserved at | Gresham Colledge. | Made | By Nehemjah Grew, M. D. Fellow 
of the Royal Society, | and of the Colledge of Physitians. | | Whereunto is 
Subjoyned the | Comparative Anatomy | of | Stomachs and Guts. | | By the 


1681. GREW, N. Continued. 

same Avthor. | | London, | Printed by W. Rawlins, for the Author, 1681. 
4. 11. 7, pp. 1-386, 1. 1+1L 2, pp. 1-42, pll. i-xxxi. 

Of Viviperous Fishes, sect, i, chap, i, pp. 81-103. Includes Cetacea, Sirenia, and Finne- 
pedia as well as true Fishes. Descriptions are given of ear bones and vertebrae of Whales. 
Narwhal tusks, head and tail of Dolphin, skeleton of "Porpess or Sea-Hog," etc. [120.] 

1681. MAJOR, JOHANN THOMAS. De Anatome Phocsenae, vel Delphini septentriona- 
lis. <Ephem. Med.-phys. Germ. Acad. Nat. Curios., 1672 (1681), pp. 22-32, 
figs, i, iii-ix. 

lig. i, Tursio integer, vel Phocsena; fig. iii, Os sterni Phocsenae; fig. iv, Scapula sinistri; 
fig. v, Pinna anterior sinistri, Manum exhibens ; figg. vi, vii, Os petrosum sub meatu auditorio ; 
fig. viii, Cranium Tursionis ; fig. ix, Maxilla inferioris pars dextra. [121.] 

1681. "TYSON, EDWARD. Phocsena: Or the Anatomy of the Porpus, dissected at 

Gresham College: With a Preliminary Discourse concerning Anatomy, and a 
Natural History of Animals. By Edward Tyson, M. D., London, 1681." 
Not seen; title at secondhand. [122.] 

1682. SEGNETTE, . Historia Ceti aut Balsense ad littora Rupellae propulsae. <Z6- 

diacus medico-gallicus, annus secundus, authore Nicolao de Blegny. Genevae, 
1682, i, pp. 63-67. 

Not seen; cited by P. Fisher (Ann. sti.nat., 5 ser., xv, 1871, art. no. 3, pp. 8, 9), as giv- 
ing a description (measurements, external characters, and parasites) of a Whale stranded 
Feb., 1680, near the island of R6. [123.] 

1683. "ACHRELIUS, L. Cetographia, sive dissertatio historico-physica de cetis. 

Aboae, 1683. Met 6 houtgravuren. 8." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 157, no. 2469. [124.] 

1684. " [OELEN, J. A. VAN]. De seldsaame en noit gehoorde Walvischvangst, voorge- 

vallen bij St. Anna-Land, in 't jaar 1682, den 7 October, mitsgaders eene perti- 
nente beschry vinge van de geheele Groenlandse vaart, verhaudeld in prose en 
versen. Nevens verscheide saaken tot die materie dienende, door P. P. van 
S., met schoone kopere prentverbeeldinge (van Luyken) versierd; dese 2e 
druk merkelijk verbeterd en bijna de helft vefmeerderd. Tot Ley den in 
't jaar 1684. 4. (Zonder naam van uitgever.)" 

' ' Die vermeerdering bestaat o. a. uit het volgende : Ao 1677. Ordre, beraamt bij de Gecomm. 
van de Groenlandse visserij, over 't bergen der goederen, enz. Contract tusschen de Com- 
mandeur en zijn volk na Greenland. Een beschrijving van het scheepsleven en het berijmd 
'verhaal' enz. 

"De le druk verscheen in 1683 onder den titel: Kort en opregt verhaal van het droevig 
en avontuurlijk wedervaren van Abr. Jansz. Oelen. Zie voor de beschrijving der walvisch- 
vangst op rijm: Fr. Martens, Beschrijv. van Greenland. ... en Zorgdrager's Groenlandsche 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 243, no. 3523. [125 ] 

1684. SIBBALD, ROBERT. Scotia Illustrata | sive | Prodromus | Historiae Naturalis | in 
quo | Regionis natura, Incolarum Ingenia & Mores, Morbi iisque medendi 
Methodus, & | Medicina Indigena accurate explicantur: | et | Multiplices Na- 
turae Partuis in triplice ejus Regno, Vegetabili scilicet, Animali & Mineral! | 
per hancce Borealem Magnae BritaniaB Partem quae Antiquissimum Scotiae | 
Regnum constituit, undiquaque diffusi nunc primum in Lucem eruuntur, & | 
varii eorum Usus, Medici prsesertim & Mechanic!, quos ad Vitse | cum necessi- 
tatem, turn commoditatem praestant, cunctis | perspicue exponuntur: | | 
Cum Figuris ^Eneis. | Opus viginti Annorum | Serenissimi Domini Regis 
Caroli. II. Magnae BritanniaB, &c. Monarches Jussu editum. | | Auctore 
Roberto Sibbaldo M. D. Equite Aurato, Medico & Geographo | Regio, & Regii 
Medicorum Collegii apud Edinbvrgvm Socio. | | [Vignette.] | | Edin- 
bvrgi, | Ex officina Typographic^ Jacobi Kniblo, Josuse Solingensis & Jo- 
hannis Colmarii, Sumptibus Auctoris. | | Anno Domini M.DC. LXXXIV. 
2. 11. 2, pp. 1-102, 11. 3. 
Pars Secunda j Specialis. | Tomus Primus | de Plantis Scotiaa | tarn indige- 


1684. SIBBALD, ROBERT Continued. 

nis | quam kortensibus | | Qyse in Libro Primo et Secundo | tractantvr. 

| | [Vignette.] | | . . . [Imprint as above.] 11. 3, pp. 1-114, 11. 3. 

Pars Secunda | Specialis. | Tomus Secundus | de Animalibus Scotiae | tarn 
feris quam domesticis | et de | Mineralibus Metallis | et | Marinis Scotiae. 

| | D.e Qvibvs in Libro tertio et quarto agitur. | | [Vignette, and imprint 
as above.] 11. 3, pp. 1-56, 11. 4, pll. i-xxii. 

Sectio Quarta. De Piscibus. Caput ii (pp. 22, 23, 16 lines). Balcma. the Common Whale ; 
Physeter, the Spouting Whale; Cetus dentatus Cliisii, in cujus capite Sperma Ceti reperitur; 
Porcus Marinus Harengos persequitiir, & Delphinus esse creditur ; Phoccena, the Porpus or 
Porpoise, Delphini species. [126.] 

1685. MARTJNJKRE, P. M. DE LA, en MARTENS, F. "De Noordsclie Weerweld, vertoond 

in twee nieuwe aenmercklycke Reysen, d' eene van de heer Martiniere . . . 
d' andere van F. Martens. Vertaeld en doorgaens met toedoeningen verrijkt 
door S. de Vries. Amsteldam, A. D. Ooszaen, 1685. " 4. Met platen." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op cit., p. 252, no. 3604. See 1671. MAUTIN^RE, P. M. DE LA, 
and 1675. MAHTENS, F., of which the present appears to be a Dutch translation. [127.] 

1666. WILLOUGHBY, FRANCIS. Francisci Willnghbeii Armig. | De | Historia Piscium | 
Libri Qnatuor, | Jussu & Sumptibus Societatis Regies | Loudiuensis editi. | 
In quibus non tantum De Piscibus in genere agitur, Sed & species omues, turn 
ab a- | liis traditae, turn novae & nonduin editae bene multae, naturae ductum 
servante | Methodo dispositae, accurate describuntur. | Eartmique effigies, 
quotquot haberi potuere, vel ad vivum deliueatas, vel ad | optima exemplaria 
impressa ; Artifici mauu elegantissiine in aes incisae, ad de- | scriptiones illus- 
trandas exhibeutur. Cum Appendice Historias & Observationes | in supple- 
mentum Operis collatis complectente. | Totum Opus | Recognovit, Coaptavit, 
Supplevit, | Librum etiam primum & secundum integros adje'cit | Johannes 
Raius e Socitate Regia. | [Vignette.] Oxonii, | E Theatre Sheldoniano, Anno 
Dom. 1686. 2. 11. 4, pp. 1-343, 1-30 (Appendix), 11. 7, pll. 183-1 

Liber Secundus De Piscibus Cetaceis seu Belluis Marinis, pp. 26-43. Caput primum. De 
Cetis vel cetaceis Piscibus in genere, ex scriptis Rondeletii &. Gesneri prsecipue, pp. 26, 27. Cap. 
ii. De Delphino : e Rondeletii, Gesneri, & aliorum scriptis, pp. 28-31. Cap. iii. Phocsena Ron- 
deletii, Gesn. . . . Phocaena seu Tursio Bellonii & Scaligeri. Cimbris Marsuin vel Porcus 
marinus: Angl. A Porpesse, pp. 31-35. Cap. iv. Balaena Rondeletii, Gesneri & aliorum. The 
Whale, pp. 35-38. Cap. v. Balsena vera Rondeletii, Gt-sn. ... pp. 38-40. Cap. vi. Orca 

Rondeletii, & Bellonii, p. 40. Cap. vii. Physeter Rondeletii, Gesn A Whirl-Pool, p. 

41. Cap. viii. Cete Clusio Exot., lib. 6. Descriptum Pot-Wallfisch Batavis maris accolis dic- 
tum, pp. 41, 42. Cap. ix. De Monocerote pisce, qui de genere Cetaceo esse fertur, pp. 42, 43. 
De Pisce Monocerote, seu Unicornu, App., pp. 12, 13 (ex Tulpio). 

The plates have an engraved special title-page, dated 1685 one year earlier than the text 
and are sometimes cited as a separate work. The following is a transcription of the title: 

Francises Willoughby | Icthyographia | ad Amplissimum Virum | D. num 
Samuelem Pepys, | Prsesidem Soc. Reg. Londinensis, | Concilium, | et j Socios 
ejusdum. | Figures Novae, quae non paucae sunt t notantur. | Sumptibus | Socie- 
tatis Regalis | Londinensis | 1685. 

PL A. 1. Pisces Cetacei. Fig. 1. Delphinus; Fig. 2. Phocaena (fig. orig.); Fig. 3. Physeter 
(fig. ex Clusio). PL A. 2. Piscis Monoceros ejusq. cornu a varijs authoribus exhibitum ; item 
embrvonis alicujus cornu. 7 figg. animal, skull, horns; one fig. of horn orig. [128. J 

1687. "BRUNSMANN, . Diss. de Ceto Ibnae, qua eum verum fuisse Cetuin osienditur. 

Jen., 1687. 8." 

Not seen; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [129.] 

1688. BARTHOLINUS, TH. ThomaB Bartholini | de | Unicornu | observationes novae. | 

Secunda editione Auctiores fc | emendatiores editae a Filio | Casparo Bar- 
tholino. | [Vignette.] Amstelaedami | Apud Henr. Wetsteuiura, | | 
CIo ICC LXXVIII. 12. 11. 8, pp. 1-381, numerous cuts. 

De Unicornn Groenlandico, pp. 108-125 (p. 121, 3 views of the skull of the Narwhal, and one 
of the detached horn). [130.] 


1689. "BARING, . De Ceto lonae. Brem., 1689." 

Not seen ; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [131.] 

1690. CLEYERUS, ANDREAS. De Ceto minore Ambrophago. <JSphem,. Med.-phys. 

Germ. Acad. Nat. Curios., 1089 (1690), p. 69, fig. 4. 

The upper figure represents a fabulous monster nearly in profile, somewhat whale-like in 

general form, but having two up ward-curving, slender, pointed tusks in the end of the upper 

jaw and two high bosses or humps on the front of the head. The lower figure shows the 

creature partly on the side ; the dorsal fin, humps, and tusks are not shown, and the figure 

. has a much more whale-like aspect. [132.] 

1690. FABER, J. M. Addenda ad A. Cleyeri Observationes de ceto minore Ambro- 
phago. <Ephem. Med.-phys. Germ. Acad. Nat. Curios., 1689(1690), p. 456. 
See above, 1690. CLEYEH, A. [133.] 

Ifc92. "PFEIFER, . Diss. piscem lonae deglutitorem fuisse Balaeiiam. Lub., 
169-2. 4." 
Not seen ; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [134.] 

1693. ANON. An Account of a Book Intituled, Phaleenologia Nova sive Obserrationes 
de Rarioribus quibusdam Balsenis in Scotia Littus miper ejectis, &c. Aut Roberto 
Sibbald, Edinburgi in Quarto, 1692. <Philos. Trans. Lond., xvii, no. 205 
[1693], pp. 972-976. 

Review of the work. [135.] 

1693. CLAYTON, J. A Continuation of Mr. John Clayton's Account of Virginia. 

<Philos. Trans. Lond., xvii, no. 205 [1693], pp. 941-948. 

Contains a notice of the discovery of Whale remains near Jamestown. Ya. [136.] 

1694. "DROSSANDER, A. Dissertatio de Balaena. Upsaliae, 1694. 4. Met eeue 

phiat." [pp. 62.] 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 161, no. 2543. [137.] 

1694. "PECHLIN, . De pisce lonae deglutitore, non fuisse Balaenam. Lub., 
1694. 8." 

Not seen ; title from DonndorfF, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [138.] 

1696. " SMALLEGANGK, M. Nieuwe Cronyk van Zeeland. Eerste (e~e"nig) deel. Vervat- 

tende de voor dezen uitgegeven cronykeri van de Heereii Jacobus Eyndius en 
Jolian Reygersberg, veel vermeerdert omtrent deres landschaps oudheden en 
herkomsten, wateren en stroonien, eylanden, steden en heerlijkheden. Met 
vele kopere platen (en kaarten) verciert. Tot Middelburg. By J. Meertens, 
1696. fol." 

" "Walvisvangst, pp. 173-178; van de visschen in onse stcoomen en eerst van de zeehonden. 
zeekatten, bruinvisschen, pp. 178-181." 

Not seen ; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 210, no. 3169. [139.] 

1697. LISTER, M. Of a Venomous Scratch with the Tooth of a Porpos, its Symptoms 

and Cure. <PMlos. Trans. Lond., xix, no. 233 [1697], p. 726. [140.] 

1697. MOLYNEUX, T. A discourse concerning the Large Horns frequently found 
under Ground in Ireland, Concluding from them that the great American Deer, 
calFd a Moose, was formerly common to that Island: With Remarks on some 
other things Natural to that Country. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., xix, no. 227 
[1697], pp. 489-512, 3. figs. 

Contains remarks upon the nature of ambergris, spermaceti, and on the occurrence of Sperm 
Whales on the coast of Ireland. [141.] 

1697. TREDWEY, R. Part of a Letter of Mr. Robert Tredwey, to Dr. Leonard Plukenet, 
Dated Jamaica, Feb. 12, 169 6 / 7 , giving an Account of a great piece of Amber- 
griese thrown on that Island ; with the Opinion of some there about the way of 
its Production. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., xix, no. 232 [1697], pp. 711, 712. 

Said to be produced by some unknown sea "Creature," which is believed "to swarm as 
Bees, on the Sea-Shore, or in the Sea." [142- ] 


1C98. ACUNA, CRISTOVAL D', ACARETE, GRILLET, and BECHAMEL. Voyages | and | Dis- 
coveries | in j South- America. | The First up the River of Amazons to | Quito 
in Peru, and back again to Brazil, | perform'd at the Command of the King j 
of Spain. | By Christopher d'Acvgna. | The Second up the River of Plata, 
and | thence by Land to the Mines of Potosi. | By Mons. Acarete [du Bis- 
cay]. | The Third from Cayenne into Guiana, in search | of the Lake of Parima, 
reputed the richest | Place in the World. | By M. [Jean] Grillet and [Francis] 
Bechamel. | | Done into English from the Originals, being the on- | ly Ac- 
counts of those Parts hitherto extant. | | The whole illustrated with Notes 
and Maps. | | London, | Printed for S. Buckley at the Dolphin over against | 
St. Dunstau's Church in Fleetstreet. 1698. 8. pp. i-viii; [Pt. i], pp. 1-190, 
map ; [Pt. ii], 1. 1, pp. 1-79, map ; [Pt. iii], 11. 2, pp. 1-68. 

Parts ii and iii have each a full title-page, and each part is separately paged. 

[Pt. i.] A Relation of the Great River | of Amazons in South-America. | 
Containing all the Particulars of | Father Christopher d'Acugna's Voy- | age, 
made at the Command of the | King of Spain. | Taken from the Spanish Origi- 
nal of the | said Chr. d'Acugna, Jesuit. [Half-title.] 

Chap. xxv. The great Plenty of Fish in this Elver, and which is the best sort of them, pp. 
61, 62. Consists almost exclusively of an accountof the "Pege Buey" [Manatus americanus], 
describing its appearance, how it is taken by the Indians, and extolling its flesh as an article 
of food. A note at the end refers to the trade in its flesh with the "Antilles or Antego-Isl- 
ands," to which it is extensively exported. * 

The original of this "Relation" (seeop.cif., Introd., pp. iv, v) is said to have been published at 
Madrid in 1641 (4) with the title "Nuevo descumbrimiento del gran Rio de las Amazonas," 
but immediately suppressed by Philip IV., so that copies of it quickly became exceedingly 

[Pt. iii.] A | Journal | of the | Travels | of | John Grillet, | and Francis Be- 
chamel | into | Gviana, j In the Year, 1674. | In | Order to Discover the Great 
Lake | of Parima and the many Cities | said to be situated on its Banks, and | 
reputed the Richest in the World. | | London: | Printed for Samuel Buck- 
ley, 1698. 

A "kind of Fish, which they catch in the Rivers with a sort of Harping Iron" is alluded 
to at p. 63 as being the basis of a profitable trade to the Ajatego Islands. It is evidently the 
Manatee. [143.] 

1699. " DOOREGEEST, E. A. VAN, en C. A. POSJAGER. Den Rijper Zee-postil, bestaande 

in xxii predication, toegepast op den Zeevaert. Tot onderwijzinge vermaninge 
en vertroostiuge in de ware godsaligheyt voor allerlei Zeevarendc lieden, dog 
voornamentlijk voor diegene, welke op den Haring en Walvischvangst uitgaen. 
Mitsgaders nog en korte beschryvinghe aengaende de opkomst van Holland, 
waer in 't bezonder ook gehandelt word van 't Eyland met zijn dorpeu, dog 
voornamentlijck rakende de eerste oorspronck en ware gelegenheyt der Haring 
en Walvischvangst. 't Amsterdam, bij Jac. van Nieuweveen, 1699. gr. 8." 

"Ziealdaar: bl. 343-360." 

Not seen ; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 235, no. 3446. [144.] 

1700. ANON. Description de la piece d'ambregris que la chambre d' Amsterdam a 

recuedes Indes orientales pesant 182 livres; avec un petit traitede son origine 
6 de sa vertu par Nicolas Chevalier a Amsterdam chez Fauteur. 1700. in 4. 
p. 67. <Philo8. Trans. Lond., xxii, no. 263 [1700J, pp. 573, 574. 

Review of the work. See next title. [145. ] 

1700. "CHEVALIER, NICOL. Description de la piece d'Ambre gris que la chambro 
d' Amsterdam a regue des Indes orientales pesaiit 182 livres. Avec un petit 
traite" de son origine et de sa vertu. (Mit 5 Kpfrtaf. u. Abdruk einer Schau- 
mtinze.) in-4. Amsterdam 1700, chez Pauteur." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. [146. ] 

1702. "ENGELBRECHT, . Diss. duae de pisce, lonae deglutitore. Lips., 1702. 8." 
Not seen ; title from Donndorff, Zool Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [147. | 


1702. REISEL, SAM. "DeUniconm marino duplici. <^Ephem. Acad. Nat. Cur., Dec. 
3, An. 7 et 8. 1699-1700 (1702), pp. 350-352." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. [148.] 

1702. "SOETEBOOM, H. Oudheden van Zaanland, Stavoren, Vronen en Waterland. 

Amsterdam, 1702. 2 din. 12." 

" Waarin ook over de visscherij (baring- en walvischvangst der verschillende Zaanland- 
sche dorpen) gehandeld wordt." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, p. cit., p. 253, no. 3611. [149.] 

1703. ANON. A | Collection | of | Voyages | Undertaken by the | Dutch East-India 

Company, | for the Improvement of | Trade and Navigation. | Containing | An 
Account of several Attempts to find out the | North-East Passage, and the 
Discoveries in | the East-Indies, and the South Seas. | Together | With an 
Historical Introduction, giving an ac- | count of the Rise, Establishment and 
Pro- | gress of that great Body. | | Translated into English, and Illustrated 
with se- | veral Charts. | | London, | Printed for W. Freeman near Temple 
Bar, J. Walthoe in the | Temple . . . [ = 3 lines of names of booksellers]. 1703. 
8. 11. 16, pp. 1-336. 

The name of the translator is not given, neither are those of the authors whose works are 
here translated. 

In the history of "Third Voyage of the Dutch to find the Passage to China" (pp. 16-68) 
occurs, at pp. 21, 22, an account of the "Beasts" of Spitzbergen, among which are included the 
"Whales. About half a page relates to the Greenland Eight Whale, giving a quaint description" 
of its appearance and food. [150.] 

1703-05. DAMPIER, W. A | New Voyage | round the | World. | Describing particu- 
larly, | The Isthmus of America, several Coasts | and Islands in the West In- 
dies, the Isles | of Cape Verde, the Passage by Terra del Fue- | go, the South 
Sea Coasts of Chili, Peru, and | Mexico; the Isle of Guam one of the La- | 
drones, Mindanao, and other Philippine | and East India Islands near Cambo- 
dia, China, | Formosa, Luconia, Celebes, &c. New Hoi- | land, Sumatra, 
Nicobar Isles; the Cape of | Good Hope, and Santa Hellena. | Their | Soil, 
Rivers, Harbours, Plants, Fruits, Ani- | mals, and Inhabitants. | Their | Cus- 
toms, Religion, Government, Trade, &c. | | Vol. I. j | By Captain Will- 
iam Dampier. | | Illustrated with Particular Maps and Draughts. | | The 
Fifth Edition Corrected. | | London : | Printed for James Knapton, at the 
Crown in St. | Paul's Church-yard, 1703. 8. 11. 5, pp. i-vi, 1-550, 5 maps, 
and several small woodcuts in text. 

[1705.] Voyages and Descriptions | Vol. II. | In Three Parts, viz. | 1. A 
Supplement of the Voyage round the World, | describing the Countries of 
Tonquin, Achin, | Malacca, &c. their Products, Inhabitants, | Manners, 
Trade, Policy, &c. | 2. Two Voyages to Campeachy; with a De- | scrip- 
tion of the Coasts, Products, Inhabi- | tants, Logwood-Cutting, Trade, 
&c. of | Jucatan, Campeachy, New Spaine, &c. | 3. A Discourse of Trade- 
Winds, Breezes, | Storms, Seasons of the Year, Tides and | Currents of 
the Torrid Zone throughout | the World : With an Account of Natal in | 
Africk, its Products, Negro's, &c. | | By Capt. William Dampier. | | Il- 
lustrated with Particular Maps and Draughts. | | To which is added, | A 
General Index to both Volumes. | | The Third Edition. | | London, | 
Printed for James Knapton, at the Crown in | St. Paul's Church-yard. 
MDCCV. 8, in three separately paged parts, as follows: 11. 4 (title, 1 1.; 
dedication, 1 1. ; preface, H U. J contents, i 1.). Pt. i, pp. 1-184, map ; Pt. ii, 
pp. 1-132, map; Pt. iii, 1. 1, pp. 1-112, 2 maps. General Index, 11. 36; pub- 
lisher's Catalogue of books, 11. 2. 

[1703.] A | Voyage | to | New Holland, &c. | In the year, 1699. | Wherein 
are described | The Canary Islands, the Isles of Mayo and | St. Jago. The Bay 
of All Saints, with the | Forts and Town of Bahia in Brazil. Cape | Salva- 
dore. The Winds on the Brazilian | Coast. Abrolho-Shoals. A Table of all 


1703-0$. DAMPIER, W. Continued. 

the | Variations observ'd in this Voyage. Oc- | currenccs near the Cape of 
Good Hope. | The Course to New Holland. Shark's Bay. | The Isles and 
Coast, &c. of New Holland. | Their Inhabitants, Manners, Customs, Trade, 
&c. | Their Harbours, Soil, Beasts, Birds, Fish, &c. | Trees, Plants, Fruits, 
&c. | Illustrated with several Maps and Draughts; also | divers Birds, Fishes, 
and Plants, not found in | this part of the World, Curiously Ingraven on | 
Copper-Plates. | | Vol. III. | | By Captain William Dampier. | | Lon- 
don : | Printed for James Knapton, at the Crown in St. Paul's | Church-yard. 
1703. 8. 11. 12 (title, 1 1. ; dedication, 2 11.; preface, 6 11.; contents, 3 11.), 
pp. 1-162 ; index, 4| 11. ; publisher's cat. of books, 2 11., 4 topographical pll., 
2 pll. of birds, 5 pll; plants, 3 pll. fishes. 

Captain Dampier's "Voyages " thus form three volumes, the second of which also consists of 
three parts, each separately paged, and with a general index to the first two volumes. In the 
set I have here collated, vols. ii and ill are bound together. Vol. i belongs to the "fifth edi- 
tion," vol. ii to the "third," and vol. iii to the first; the date of vols. i and iii is 1703; that of 
vol. ii, 1705. The date of the first edition of vol. i is said to be .1 have references to a 
1702 ed. which correspond exactly with the 1703 ed. here collated. 

As is well known, Dampier was an acute natural-history observer as well as a bold navi- 
gator and adventurer, and his observations on the Beasts, Birds, and Fishes he met with 
during his long voyages are among the best and most trustworthy of his time. His work is 
of importance in the present connection for his very full account of the Manatee, which he 
met with at numerous and widely distant points. There are also notices of "Whales. 

Manatee, or Sea-cow, vol. i, pp. 33-37 description of the animal, its habits, distribution, 
products, and the manner of its capture by the natives of Blewfield (or Bluefield) River ; 
p. 41, in DarienKiver; p. 321, its occurrence at Mindenao, in the East Indies; p. 381, do.; 
pp. 463, 469, its occurrence in New Holland; p. 547, the Manatee of Santa Hellena a Sea-Lyon 
[i. ., a Seal]. Vol. 2, pt. ii, pp. 73, 109, 128, in Campeachy, and near Vera Cruz. 

"Whales and Whale-fishery of Bahia, Brazil, vol. iii, pp. 57, 58; Sea-birds feasting on a dead 
"Whale, p. 95; "Whales on the coast of New Holland, p. 131; Porpusses, p. 162, pi. ii, fig. 2. 

Dampier's references to the "Manatee, or Sea-cow," as occurring in the East Indies and 
New Holland, relate, of course, to the Dugong. His statement that the Manatees of the "West 
Indies are smaller than those of the American Isthmus and Guiana was seized upon by Buffon 
as indicating a diversity of species. [151.] 

1703. LA HONTAN, , BARON DE. New | Voyages | to North- America. | Containing | 

. . . [=20 lines]. | | Illustrated with Twenty Three Mapps and Cutts. | j 
Written in French | By the Baron Lahontan, Lord Lievtenant | of the French 
Colony at Placentia in New- | foundland, now in England. | | Done into 
English. | | In Two Volumes. | A great part of which never Printed in the 
Original. | | London: Printed for H. Bonwicke in St. Paul's Church-yard; 
| T. Goodwin, M. Wotton, B. Tooke, in Fleetstreet ; and S. Manship | in Corn- 
hill, 1703. 2 vols. sin. 8. Vol. i, 11. 12. pp. 1-280, 12 maps and cuts. 

Vol. i, pp. 243-247, gives a list of the "Fish of the River St. Laurence," and "A Description 
of the Fish that are not mention'd in the Letters." The Cetaceans enumerated and described 
are the "Balenot," or "little Whale," the " Souffleur," and the ""White Porpoise." The last 
is evidently the Beluga catodon, of which he says, "They are a ghastly sort of Animals, and 
are frequently taken before Quebec" (p. 244). 

The original (French) edition, which I have not seen, is said to have been published in 1703 
(LaHaye, 2 vols, 12). In the second French edition (La Haye, 1705) the matter relating to 
Cetaceans occurs in vol. ii, pp. 53, 55, 56. In the French editions of 1709 and 1715 (same pub- 
lisher), it occurs at pp. 51, 53, 54, of the same volume. [152.] 

1704. LEEUWENHOEK, A. VAN. A Letter from Mr. Antony van Leeuivenhoek, F. R. S., 

concerning the flesh of Whales, Crystaline humour of the Eye of Whales, 
Fish, and other Creatures, and of the use of the Eye-lids. <^Philos. Trans. 
Lond., xxiv, no. 293 [1704], pp. 1723-1730, figg. 1-6. 

The figures are of the crystalline lens of the eye of a "Whale. [153.] 

1704. MONCK, JOHN. An | Account | of a most Dangerous | Voyage | Perform'd by 

the Famous | Capt. John Monck, | In the years 1619, and 1620. | By the special 

Command of Christian IV. | King of Denmark, Norway, &c. to Hudson's 


1704. MONCK, JOHN Continued. 

Straits, | in order to discover a Passage on that side, betwixt | Greenland 
and America to the West Indies. With a | Description of the Old and New 
Greenland, for the | better Elucidation of the said Treatise. | | Translated 
from the High-Dutch Original, printed | at Frankford upon the Maine, 1650. 
<ChurcMll'8 Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, 1704, pp. 541-569. 

Unicorns, pp. 550, 551, figg. (skull, 3 views). [Unicorn horns an article of traffic], p. 558. 
Different kinds of Whales, p. 567. An Account of the Manner of catching Whales, pp. 567- 
569. A plate to face p. 567 gives a view of Whale-fishing, and another plate (to same p.), giv- 
ing a view of a Whale lying on the shore, is entitled "A Whale Female and the Windlass 
whereby the Whales are brought on shore." One of the plates to p. 543 gives a view of a 
male Whale. [154.] 

1704. "TAPPE, D. Fiinfzehnen jahrige curiose Ost-Indianische Reise-Beschreibung, so 

sich irn Jahr Christi 1667 angefangen und im 1682 Jahre geendet hat. Han- 
nover, Gottfr. Freyiag, 1704. 4." 

"Von Fisschen, Seelausen, Seekiihen, etc., pp. 199-209." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 136, no. 2146. [155.] 

1705. EDGE, THOMAS. The Ten several Voyages of Captain Thomas Edge and others 

to Greenland (called by the Dutch Spitsbergen) at the Charge of the worship- 

ful Muscovia Company. -^Harris's Coll. Voy. and Trav.,i, 1705, pp. 572-574. 

Of the several sorts of whales and the manner of killing them, p. 574. [156. ] 

1705. " HARTEVSTELN, . De magno pisce, qui lonam vatim deglutivit. Witteberg, 
1705. 4."' 

Not seen; title from Donndorff, ZooL Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [157.] 

1705. t [MARTEXS, F.] [A Voyage to Spitzbergen, in the Ship calPd the Jonas in the 
Whale, Peter Peterson of Frieseland, Master, in 1671.] <jQ r amVs Coll. Voy. 
and Trav., i, 1705, pp. 617-633. 

Of the Finned Fishes (includes "The Dolphin," "The Butskopf or Flounder's Head." 
"The Whitefish," and "The Unicorn"), p. 628. Of the Whale, pp. 629-631. The Finfish, pp. 
631, 632. Plate facing p. 629 contains Martens's figures of the Whale and Finfish ; also a view 
entitled "The Whale-fishing and killing of Morses" (two birds, a Walrus, and a small Whalo 
in the foreground resting on the shore ; a Narwhal in the water, and boats attacking Whales 
in the distance). The text is from Martens. The plate facing p. 617 gives another view of 
Whale-fishing, also from Martens. The account of the "Voyage to Spitzbergen" is an 
abridgment of Martens's " Spitzbergische oder Groenlandische Reise-Beschreibung gethan 
im Jahr 1G71," Hamburgh, 1675, q. v. [158.] 

1705. POOL, J. The Voyages of Mr. Jonas Pool. ^Harris's Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, 
1705, pp. 588, 589. 

Contains references to many Whales seen. [159.] 

1706. CAMELLI, G. J. De Piscibus, Moluscis & Crustaceis Philippen#ibus. 
Trans. Lond., xxiv, no. 302 [1706], pp. 2043-2080 [i. e., 2085-2089]. 

Includes a description of " Dugong Indorum." [160.] 

1706. "TYCHONIUS, TYCHO LASSEN. Monoceros piscis haud monoceros, ad verara 

formam nuperi e mari Gronlandico hospitis depictus et descriptus, resp. Just. 
Henr. Weichbart. Havniae, 1706. 4. pp. 16." 

Not seen; title from Cams and Engelmann, ii, p. 1371. [161.] 

1707. "LARREN, . Monoceros piscis haud monoceros ad veram formam nuperi ex 

mari Groenlandico hospitis depictus et descripsus. Hafniae, 1707." 

Not seen; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p 757. [162.] 

1707. SIBBALD, R. Part of a Letter from Robert Sibbald, Knight, to Dr. Hans Sloane, 

R. S. Seer., concerning a Second Volume of his Prodromus Historic Naturalis 
Scotice; with a Description of the Pediculus Cwti, &c. <Philos. Trans. Lond., 
xxv, no. 308 [1707], pp. 2314-2317. [163.] 

1708. LEGUAT, F. A New | Voyage | To the | East-Indies | by | Francis Leguat | and 

| His Companions. | Containing their | Adventures in two Desart Islands, | 


1708. LEGUAT, F. Continued. 

And an Account of the most Remarkable | Things in Maurice Island, Batavia, 
at the | Cape of Good Hope, the Island of St. He- | lena, and other Places in 
their Way to and | from the Desart Isles. | | Adorn'd with Maps and Fig- 
ures. | | London: | Printed for R: Bonwicke, W. Freeman, Tim. Goodwin, 
| J. Walthoe, M. Wotton, S. Manship, F. Nicholson, B. Tooke, | R. Parker, 
and R. Smith. MDCCVIII. 8. 11. 4, pp. i-xv, 1-248, 11. 12. 

Porpoise, p. 7, fig. (pi. fac. p. 7). "Whale, pp. 22-24. Lamentin, pp. 67-70, pi. (fac. p. 67). 

Th remarks about Porpoises and Whales are of interest merely for their quaintness and 
absurdities. The account of the Lamantin is one of the earliest descriptions of the African 
Manatee, and is quoted by Buffon and other early naturalists. The figure of the Lamantin 
displays a pig-like tusk in the lower jaw. It is represented as holding its young one in its 
arms. " The Lamentins, which other Nations call Manati, that is, having Hands, abound in 
the Sea about this Isle [Maurice], appearing often in numerous Troops . . . " (p. 67). 

There is an earlier French edition of which this is a translation. [164-1 

1709. LAWSON, J. A New | Voyage | to j Carolina ; | Containing the | Exact Descrip- 

tion and Natural History | of that | Country: | Together with the Present 
State thereof | and | A Journal | Of a | Thousand Miles TraveP d thro' several | 
Nations of Indians. | Giving a particular Account of their Customs, | Manners 
&c. | By John Lawson, Gent, Surveyor | -General of North Carolina. | Lon- 
don, | printed in the year 1709. [No publisher.] sm. 4. 11. 3, pp. 1-258, 
map, and 1 pi. 

The Fish in the salt, and fresh Waters of Carolina, pp. 152-163. Of "Whales he says : " Of 
these Monsters there are four sorts ; the first ... is the Sperma Cceti "Whale ..." Others 
mentioned are "the Bottle-nosed "Whale," the " Shovel-nose, " and "another sort, . . . though 
not common." He also speaks of the "Grampois" and "Porpoises." The. short but inter- 
esting notices of these Cetaceans occur at pp. 153, 154. 

This is the original edition, issued as a part of Stevens' s "Collection of Voyages," of which 
it forms no. 2. The copy examined (in Harvard College Library) lacks the title-page, but is 
otherwise complete. The plate, however, is wrongly placed at p. 115 of the preceding memoir, 
and the map is bound at the end of the volume. The title-page appears to be lacking in many 
copies of the present edition. That above given is transcribed from Field. 

There were later issues of the work, with different title-pages, but otherwise textually 
identical with the present. See 1714 and 1718. LAWSON, JOHN. The following is a transcript 
of the title-page of Stevens's Collection of Voyages, in which the work originally appeared : 

A new | Collection | of | Voyages | and Travels, | Into several Parts of the 
World, none | of them ever before Printed in | English. | Containing, | . . . 
[here follow seven titles of works forming the collection, of which the sec- 
ond is], | 2. A new Account of Carolina, by Mr. Lawson. | (In Two Vol- 
umes, Illustrated with several Maps and Cuts. | | London, Printed for J. 
Knapton, Andrew Bell, D. Midwinter, Will. Taylor, A. Collins, and J. Baker. 

The dedication, addressed to the Hon. Edmund Poley, is signed John Stevens. The date 
on the title-page of the first memoir is 1708. 

A German translation of Lawson Hamburg, Frankfort, and Leipzig, sm. 8 appeared in 
1712, q. v. [165.] 

1710. " MARTENS, FRED. Nauwkeurige beschryvinge van Greenland of Spitsbergen, 

waerin de Walvischvangst, gelegentheyd van 't ys en haer wonderlijke kracht 
en figuren en de visschen dezer contreyen, duydelijk wordt aengewezen. Oock 
hoe de walvisschen gevangen, gekapt en gesueden worden. Alsmede de 
Walvischvangst op rijm. Amsterdam, G. de Groot, 1710. 4. Met gegrav. 

" Eene vroegere vertaling, met de reis van Martinitre door Noorwegen, Lapland, Greenland, 
Nova-Zembla, enz. verscheen onder den titel : de Noordsche weereld met aanteekeningen van 
S. de Vries. Te Amsterdam, bij A. Dz. Ooszaen. 1685. 4. Met platen . . . Nog twee an- 
dere uitgaven vcrschenen te Dordrecht, bij Hendrik "Walpot. (znd. jr.) [1750? en 1760?] ; en 
nog eene te Amst., bij Abr. Cornells. 1770. 4." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 242, no. 3511. [166.] 


1712. [LAWSON, J.] Allerneuste Beschreibung | derProvinz | Carolina | In | West-In- 

dien. | Samt einem | Reise-Journal | von mehr als | Tauseud Meileu | unter 
allerhand | Indianischen Nationen. | Auch einer j Accuraten Land-Carte und 
aiidern | Knpfer-Stichen. | Aus dem Englisclien [von John Lawson] libersezet 
durch | M. Vischer. | | Hamburg, | Gedruckt und verlegt, durch seel 
Thomas von Wierings Erben, | bey der B6rse im gnldnen A, B, C. Anno 
1712. | Sind auch zu Franckfurt und Leipzig, bey Zacharias Hertelu | zu be- 
kommen. sm. 8. 11. 7, pp. 1-365, 11. IVa. 

Fische iin Saltz- und Siissen -"Wasscr in Carolina, pp. 232-250. Cetaceen, pp. 232-236. 

See original English ed., 1709. [167.] 

1713. "MANDKLSLO, J. A. Voyages celebres et remarquables fails de Perse aux Indes 

Orientales. Contenant tine description nouvelle et trcs curiense de 1'Indostan, 
de 1'Empire du Grand Mogul, des lies et presqu'iles de FOrient, des royauines 
de Siarri, du Japon, du Congo, de la Chine, etc. Traduits de 1'origiual par A. 
de Wicquefort. Nouvelle Edition, revue et corrigde. A Leide, ches Pierre van 
der Aa. 1713. 2 din. 1 bd. folio. Met gegraveerde platen en kaarten." 

" Baleines qui so trouvent sur les cotes du Japon, p. 464 ; dans la mer pres de la ligne 6qui- 
noctiale, p. 623 ; sur les cotes de 1'ilc St. Thomas, p. 675." 

"Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 100, no. 1590. [168-1 

1713. RAY, JOHN. Johaiinis Raii | Synopsis | Methodica | Piscium. | [Vignette.] | | 

Londini: | Prostant apud W. Innys, | sub Insigni- | bus Principis in area Bo- 
reali D. Pauli | Clf) IQ CCXIII. 8. pp. 1-166, 11. 6. 

Pisces Cetacei seu Bellue marinoe = Get acea, pp. 6-17, 9 spp.,to wit: 1 . Balcena vulgaris 
edentula, dorso non pinnato = Balcena mysticetus. 2. Balcena edentula corpore strictiore, 
dorso pinnato = Physalux antiquorum. 3. Orca Rondel. & Bellon. = Orca gladiator. 4. Cete 
Pot "Walfish Batavis maris accolis dictum Clus. Exot. lib. G=^ Physeter macrocephalus. 5* 
Albus piscis cetaceus = Beluge catodon. 6. Honodon piscis 6 genere Cetaceo : NarJmal Islan- 
dis = Monodon monoceros. 7. Delphinus antiquorum, The Dolphin = Delphinus delphis. 8. 
Phoccena Rondeletii = Phoccena communis. Or : 

1. Balcena minor utraque maxilla dentata =r Orca gladiator. 2. Balcena minor, in inferiors 
maxilla tantum dentata, sive pinna aut spina in dorso = Beluga catodon. 3. Balcena major, 
in inferiore tantum maxilla dentata macrocephala, bipinnis = Physeter macrocephalus. 4. 
Balcena major, in inferiore tantum maxilla dentata d.entibus arcuatus falciform ibus, pinnam 
seu spinam in dorso habens = Physeter tursio. 5. Balcena macrocephala tripinnis, etc. Physe- 
ter turaio. 6. Balcena major laminas corneas in superiore maxilla habens, bipinnis, fistula 
carens = Balcena mysticetus. 7. Balcena major laminas corneas in superiore maxilla habens, 
' fistula donata, bipinnis = Balcena mysticetus. 8. Balcena tripinnis, nares habens, cum rostro 
acuto & plicis in ventre = Balcenoptera rostrata. 9. Balcena tripinnis, maxillam inferiorem 
rotundam & superiore multo latiorem habens = PJiysalus antiquorum. 

Eight valid species fairly defined and classified. See Clavis, p. 17. Martens's " Butz-kopf " 
is mentioned (p. 10), but not specifically recognized. , [169. 1 

1714. "LAWSON, J. The | History | of | Carolina; | containing the | Exact Descrip- 

tion and Natural History | of that Country : ( Together with the Present State 
thereof. | And | A Journal | of a Thousand Miles, Traveled thro' several | 
Nations of Indians. | Giving a particular Account of their Customs, | Manners, 
&c. | | By John Lawson, Gent. Surveyor General | of North-Carolina | | 
London : | Printed for W. Taylor at the Ship, and T. Baker at the Black- j 
Boy, in Pater- Noster-Row, 1714." 

"Identical in every respect, excepting the title, with the orig. ed., 1709, q. v. On actual 
comparison, this seems to be only other copies of the original, furnished with a new title-leaf." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Coues, Birds Col. Tall., 1878, p. 576. For account of 
Cetological matter see orig. ed. (1709. LAWKON, J.). 1170.} 

1715. ANON. " Puro e distincto ragguaglio del gran pesce chiamato Balenotto BunV 

lino, detto anco Capo d'OHo, preso in vicinianza del porto di Pesano 18 Aprili 
1715. Venezia. folio. Met houtgrav." 

Not, seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 171, no. 2696. Ell.] 

1716. TULPIUS, N. Nicolai Tulpii | Amstelodamensis exconsulis j Observations. Me- 

dicse. | Editio Quinta. | Cui brevis ipsius Authoris vitas narratio | est prsefixa, 

28 a B 


1716. TULPIUS, N. Continued. 

ac textuum auctorum | illustrationibus. | [Vignette.] Labore et coeli favore. | 
Lugduni Batavorum. | 

fJoh: da Vivie, 
j Vid & Fil. C. Boutesteyn, 
j Andr. Dyckhuysen, 
^& J. A. Langerak. | 

ClQ IQ CCXVI. 8m. 8. 11. 10 (includes eng. title-page and illumin. title- 
page), pp. 1-392,11. 2, pll. i-xviii. 

ITnicornu marinam, lib. iv, cap. lix, pp. 374-379, tab. xviii. 

The text and plates of the body of the work in this edition, even to the pagination, are the 
same as the editio nova (1672, q. v.). There are added 3 prelim, leaves, giving a portrait and 
biography of the author; also 2 supplem. leaves of " Illustrationes textuum Hippocratis," 
etc., by Abraham Salomon vander Voort. [172.] 

1718. JOXSTOX, J. Theatrum | universale omnium | Animalium | Piscium, Arium 
Quadrupedum, | Exanguium, Aquaticorum, Insectorum, | et Auguim, | 
CCLX. Tabulis ornatum, | Ex Scriptoribus tarn antiquis quam recentioribus, 
| Aristotele, Theophrasto, Dioscoride, ^Eliano, Oppiano, Plinio, Gesne- | ro, 
Aldrovando, Wottonio, Turuero, Mouffeto, Agricola, Boetio, | Baccio, Ruveo, 
Scbonfeldio, Freygio, Mathiolo, Tabernomontano, | Bauhino Ximene, Busta- 
mantio, Rondeletio, Bellonio, Csesio, The- | veto, Margravio, Pisone, & aliis 
maxima cura a J. Jonstonio collectum, | Ac plus quain Trecentis Piscibus | 
Nuperrirne ex Indiis Orientalibus allatis, | Ac nunquam antea his terris visis, 
locupletatum; cum Enumeratione morborum, | quibus Medicamina ex his 
Animalibus petuntur, ac Notitia Auimaliuni, | ex quibus vicissim Reinedia 
prcestantissima possunt capi; cura | Henrici Ruysch M. D. Amstelsed. | VI. 
Partibus, Duobus Tomis, compreheusum. | Tomus I. | [Seal.] | Amstelse- 
dami, | Prostat apud R. & G. Wetstenios. | | MDCCXVIII. 2 vols., 2. 

Tomus i. Continet | Collectionem Novain Piscium Ambonensium ac Histo- 
riam Naturalem | Piscium, & Avium. [Pars prima], 11. 2, pp. 1-40, pll. i-xxi. 
[Pars secunda]. Historia naturalis Piscium, cura H. Ruysch, pp. 1-160, pll. 
i-xlviii. Theatri universalis | Animalium | pars secunda. | Sive Historiie 
Naturalibus | de | Avibus | Libri vi, | . . . | Cura Henrici Ruysch, ... 11. 7, 
pp. 1-160, pll. i-lxii. 

Historic naturalis de Piscibus. Liber v. De Cetis, pp. 150-157, pll. xli-xliv, pi. xlv [fig. 1], 
pi. xlvii. 

Caput i. De Cetis in genere, pp. 150, 151 ; Caput ii. De Cetis in specie. Articulus i, De 
Balaena, pp. 151, 152, pll. xli, xlii; Articulus ii, De Balaena vulgi, & Physetere, pp. 152, 153; 
Arttculus iii, De Puste & Orca, pp. 153, 154, pi. xliii; Articulus iv, De Delphino, pp. 154, 155, 
pi. xliv; Articulus v, Phocaena & Scolopendra Cetacea, pp. 155, 156; Articulus vi, Do Phoco, 
seu Vitulo marino,' pp. 156, 157, pi. xli; Articulus vii, De Manati Indorum, p. 157, pi. xliii. 
Additamentum de cane Aristotelis, pp. 158, 159. Ad Librum v, De Phoca, p. 159. Figuri Iviii 
[= pi. xlviii] . Appendix Nova de Unicornu Marino, p. 1 60. 

This work is a reprint of the "Historia uaturalis de Piscibus et Cetis" of Joh. Jonston 
(1650, q. .), and of the "Historia naturalis de Avibus " of the same author, with the "Collec- 
tio Nova Piscium Amboinensium partim ibi ad vivum delineatorum, partim et Museo Henrici 
Ruysch M. D." prefixed, and an original addendum to Liber v (De Cetis) of the "Historia 
naturalis de Piscibus, consisting of p. 160 and pi. xlviii. The text and the figures are other- 
wise as in Jonston at 1650, except that the latter are colored. PI. xlviii gives two figures of 
the Narwhal (figg. 5 and 6), three views of the skull (figg. 1, 3, 4), and two (figg- 2 A, B, 
of the tusk. This edition of the ' ' Theatrura " is often cited under RUYSCH, H., who was author 
of part of the work, as now constituted, as well as editor. [173.J 

1718. LAWSON, J. The | History | of | Carolina ; | containing the | Exact Description 
and Natural History | of that | Country; | Together with the Present State 
thereof. | And | A Journal | Of a Thousand Miles, Travel'd thro' several | 
Nations of Indians, | Giving a particular Account of their Customs, | Manners, 
&c. | | By John Lawson, Gent. Surveyor-General | of North-Carolina. | | 
London : | printed for T. Warner, at the Black-Boy in Pater-Noster | Row, 1718. 
Price Bound Five Shillings, sm. 4. 11. 3, pp. 1-258, map and 1 pi. 


1718. LAWSON, J. Continued. 

This edition appears to be merely other copies of the original edition, issued, like the ed. 
of 1714 (q. v.), with a new ^tie-page. The present title-page differs from that of the 1714 ed. 
only in the bookseller's imprint. The Cetological matter is, of course, the same as in the earlier 
editions. Field states that "Neither of the first three editions of Lswson's work is often 
found complete, with the map, and animal plate." The copy of the present edition examined 
by mo lacks the map, but has the plate. [174.] 

1718. RUYSCH, HENRY. See 1718. Joxsxox, J. [175.] 

1719. STUKELY, W. An Account of the Impression of an almost Entire Sceleton of 

a large Animal in a very hard Stone, lately presented to the Royal Society 
from Nottinghamshire. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., xxx, no. 360 [1719], pp. 963- 
968, 1 pi. 

Possibly a Phocoena. The plate represents the bones of nearly all but the head of the par- 
tially preserved animal in situ. [176.] 

1720. ZORGDRAGER, C. G. C: G: Zorgdragers | Bloeyende Opkomst der Aloude en 

Hedendaagsche | Groenlaudsche | Visschery. | Waer in met eene geoffende 
ervaareuheit de geheele om- | slag deezer Visscherye beschreeven, en wat daar 
in | dient waargenomen, naaukeurig verhandelt ,wordt. | Uitgebreid | Met 
eeue korte Historische Beschryving der Noordere Gewesten, | voornauientlyk 
Groenlandt, Yslandt, Spitsbergen, Nova | Zembla, Jan Mayen Eilandt, de 
Straat Davis, en | al 't aanmerklykste in d ? Ontdekking deezer | Landen, en 
in de Visschery voorgevallen. | Met byvoeging van do | Walvischvangst, | In 
haare hoedanigheden, behandelingen, 't Scheeps- | leeven en gedrag be- 
schouwt. | Door | Abraham Moubach. | Verciert met naaukeurige, correcte en 
naar 't leven geteeken- | de nieuwe Kaarten en kuustige Printverbeeldingen. 
I [Vignette.] | T' Amsterdam. | By Joannes Oosterwyk, | Boekverkooper op 
den Dam, 1720. sm. 4. 11. 18, pp. 1-330, 11. 7, maps 6, pll. 7, and frontis- 

Engr. title-page frontispiece, pi. back ; printed title-page (as above given), illuminated, pi. 
back ; half-title, backed by poem entitled ' ' Verklaaring vande ty telprint, " signed A. B6gaert ; 
"Aan de Heeren Gecommitteerden der Hollandsche Groenlandsche Visschery," 2 leaves; 
"Aan den Lezei-," signed A. Moubach, 4 leaves. Korte inhoudt der Hoofdtstukken, 1 leaf. 

Eerste Deel. Inleiding. Handelende van d' eerste Kust en Land-Ontdekkers in 't alge- 
meen, 9 leaves and 2 maps (no. 1, Nieuwe Kaart van de Noord-Pool; No. 2. Nieuwe Kaart 
van Oud en Nieuw Greenland als meedc van de Straat Davis). I. Hoofdtstuk. Van d' eerste 
Ontdekkers van Greenland, en wie die waren, euz., pp. 1-5. II. Hoofdt. Ongemeene Vischry- 
kheit der Groenlandsche Zee ; en omstandig bericht van d' Eeuhoorns gegeeven, pp. G-10, pi. 
facing p. 7 [three views of the skull]. III. Hoofdt. Gesteltheit en gematigheit der Oud' 
Groenlandsche Lucht, enz., pp. 10-12. IV. Hoofdt. Vruchtelooze togten der Deenen naar 
Groenlandt, enz., pp. 12-21. V. Hoofdt. Groenlandsche Compagnie te Koppenhagen opge- 
recht, zend Schapen naar de Straat Davis, pp. 21-25. VI. Hoofdt. Onderzoek over Groen- 
landts strekking naar Tartarie en America, en bericht over Spitsbergens byzonderheden, 
enz., pp. 24-34. VII. Hoofdt. Yslandts strekking en uitgestrektheit, eerste Ontdekkers, en's 
Lands gelgentheit, en., pp. 34-47, enz Nieuwe Kaart van Tsland (p. 34), [pi. facing p. 38 
eruption of a geyser]. VIII. Hoofdt. Handel en bedryf der Tslanders onderzocht, pp. 47-49. 

IX. Hoofdt. 't Aloude Landbestier van Yslandt, invoering van 't Kristendom, enz., pp. 49-53. 

X. Hoofdt. Zeemagt der islanders eertyds, en d' aloude Bevolkers naagespeurt, pp. 53-60. 

XI. Hoofdt. Verscheide gevoelens wegens Yslandts bcvolking ondcrzocht, pp. 60-66. 
Tweede Deel. I. Hoofdt. Eerste Ontdekkers van Spitsbergen, en waarom dus genoemt, enz., 

pp. 67-71, en Nieuwe Kaart van 't Eyland Spitsbergen (p. 67). II. Hoofdt. Ongemeene koude 
te Spitsbergen, en den aart der Verheevclingen-beschreeven, enz., pp. 71-75 [pi. facing 
p. 74*gives figures of a solar halo and various forms of snow-crystals]. III. Hoofdt. Gestelt- 
heit van 't Ys omtrent Spitsbergen, enz., pp. 75-78. IV. Hoofdt. Spitsbergen en Jan Mayen 
Eilandt, eertyds Vischryke Gewesten, enz., pp. 78-80, en kaart Jan Mayan Eyland, p. 79. 
V. Hoofdt. Veelerly soorten van Walvisschen, waar onder d' Eilandische Walvisch de voor- 
naamste is, enz., pp. 80-87, en pi. p. 81, "Walvisch achter over gekant zynde; Gapende Wal- 
visch waar in den Stant der Barden werd aan geweezen. VI. Hoofdt. Eilandsche "Wul- 
visscheu waar zich onthouden. 't Walvischaas beschreeven en waar meest gevonden word, 
enz., pp. 87-90. VII. Hoofdt. Noordkapers Gewest beschreeven, als mede dat der Vin- 
visschen, enz., pp. 91-98 [the pi. facing p. 7 gives a figure of the ; 'Vinvisch" described at 
p. 92]. VIII. Hoofdt. Of de Biskayers d' eerste aanleiders tot de Walvischvangst zyn ge- 


1720. ZORGDRAGER, C. G. Continued. 

weest, enz., pp. 98-103. IX. Hoofdt. 't Walvisch Gewest van cenruime uitgestrektheit be- 
schouwt, enz., pp. 103-106. X. Hoofdt. Verscheide gevoelens over den doortogt door de 
Waigats onderzocht, pp. 106-123, en Nieuwe Kaart van Nova Zembla en 't "Waygat, enz., 
p. 106. XI. Hoofdt. Hoedanig de Walvisschen tot in de Tartarische Zee doordringen onder- 
zocht, enz., pp. 123-134. XII. Hoofdt. Gedacbten over de warrate der Zon en haare werk- 
zaamheit, enz., pp. 134-139. XIII. Hoofdt. Koerschouding der Zuidys Visschen, en hoe men 
die moet opspeuren, enz., pp. 140-150. XIV. Hoofdt. Zuidys Visschen van bun gewoon 
Gewest kundig, en hunne vlucht voor den komst der Groendlandsche Yloot, enz., pp. 150-156. 
Deerde Deel. I. Hoofdt. Westys Visschen waar voornamentlyk gevonden. Vaart op Spits- 
bergen begonnen en wanneer, enz., pp. 157-164 [pi. facing p. 162, figg. of "Walrus" and 
"Zee Rob"; also "Cachelot of Potvisch"]. II. Hoofdt. Walrussen en Robben hoedanig 
gevangen, enz., pp. 165-172. III. Hoofdt. Eerste opkorast der Walvischvangst, die voordee- 
lig was, en door Compagnieschap omtrent de Bayen van Spitsbergen geoffent wierd, enz., 
pp. 172-175 [i. <?., 185; pp. 184 aud 185 are erroneously paged 174-175]. IV. Hoofdt. De Groen- 
landsche Maatschappy allenks weder gezwakt en om wat reden, enz., pp: 175 [i. e., 185]-197. 
V. Hoofdt. Eilandsche "Walvisch von voor Spitsbergen verjaagt, en de Zcevisschery onderno- 
men, enz., pp. 197-203. VI. Hoofdt. Tsvisschery ondernomcn, en hoedanig. De wj kendo 
Visschen nagespeurt, pp. 203-208 [pi. facing p. 204 gives a view of a fleet of vessels engaged 
in ice-fishing]. VII. Hoofdt. "Westysvisschery hoe verre zich uitstrekt. Hooge Graden 
gereeder dan laage om Visch op te doen, enz., pp. 208-211. " VIH. Hoofdt. "Werwaarts de 
Visch te vinden, wanneer plaatsen en tyden wel worden onderscheiden, enz., pp. 211-215. 

IX. Hoofdt. Visscbery op laage Graden wanneer tydig is; Oud-Groenlands strekking voor 
wiens Kusten Walvischaas gevonden word, waar zich veel Visch onthoud, enz., 215-221. 

X. Hoofdt. Overwintering op Spitsbergen. Verscheide Observation over 't Noorderlicht, 
pp. 221-235. XI. Hoofdt. Verscheide vreemde ontmoetingen en ongevallen den Groenlands- 
vaarders bejegent. Loosheit tusschen de West en Zuidys Visschen hoe t' onderscheiden, 
enz., pp. 235-247 [pi. facing p. 239, ships in the ice]. XII. Hoofdt. Zaaken wegens de Vis- 
schery noodig in acht te neemen, enz., pp. 248-260. Xlil. Hoofdt. Misbruik in den Traan- en 
Baarden handel afgeschaft. Voordeelen door de Visschery sedert eenige Jaaren behaalt, enz., 
pp. 260-283; Byvoegsel [description of Cachelot], p. 234; Groenlandsche Walvischvangst 
in haar byzonder Sheepsleven en gedrag beschouwt, pp. 287-330. 

Toegift voor de Groenlandschvaarders en Matroozen [poem], 1 leaf. Bladwyzer der voor- 
naamste Zaaken, 5 leaves. Drukfeilen, 1 page, backed by publisher's list of books. 

Zorgdrager's work is by far the most important of the early authorities on the Northern 
Whalefishery, and must always be one of the chief sources of information for the early his- 
tory of the subject. It also gives one of the best figures of the Greenland Right Whale 
(Balcena mysticctus) published prior to the present century, and also one of the best early 
figures of the Cachelot. Chap, xiii of pt. iii is statistical, giving the number of Dutch and 
Hamburg ships annually engaged in the Greenland Whalefishery from the year 1670 to 1719, 
the number lost each year, the number of Whales killed, the yield of oil and bone, and its 
value. Also the names of the directors of Whalefishery companies, and of the masters of the 
vessels engaged in Whalefishing from the Dutch, Hamburg, and Bremen ports. The closing 
pages of the work give details of the equipment and expenses of vessels engaged in Whaling, 

The general character of the work is sufficiently indicated by the abbreviated chapter- 
headings above given, which are a transcript of the table of contents. 

The German version (Leipzig, 1723, 4, q. v.) is a translation of the present edition. A 
second Dutch edition, revised and enlarged by the author, was published at Gravenhage in 
1727 (q. v.), which was reissued, with new title-page but otherwise the same, at Amsterdam in 
1728. The only other edition which I have seen is the German edition published at Niirnberg 
in 1750, q. v. [177.] 

1721. OLIVER, W. Remarkables in a Journey through Denmark and Holland. <^Phi- 
los. Trans., Abridged by Jones, 1700-1720, v, pt. 2, 1721, pp. 128-134. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 285, p. 1400. Contains a notice of the horn of a Sea-Unicorn 
[Monodon monoceros] brought from Greenland. [178.] 

1721. SIBBALD, R. Of the Pediculus CetL <Philos. Trans., Abridged ly Jones, 1700-1720, 

v, pt. 1, 1721, pp. 25, 26, fig. 32. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 308, p. 2314. [179.] 

1722. ANON. A Summary Relation of the Discoveries about the North East Passage. 

<Philo8. Trans., Abridged by Lowthorp [1665-1700], iii, 1722, pp. 6 10-614. 

Notice of the reported passage of a Whale through the North-East passage. From Philos. 
Trans. Lond., no. 118, p. 417. [180.] 


1722. ANON. Whales and Whale Fishing about Bermudas. <Philos. Trans., Abridged 
by Lowthorp [1665-1700], ii, 1722, pp. 842-845. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond. [i], no. 1, p. 11 [-13] ; no. 8, p. 132 [133]. See supra, ANON, at 1665. 


1722. [LABAT, R. P.] Nouveau | Voyage | aux Isles | de 1'Amerique, | con tenant j 
1'Histoire Naturelle de ces Pays, | 1'Origiue, les Mceurs, la Religion & le 
Gouver- | nement des Habitans anciens & raodernes. | Les Gnerres & les 
Evenemens singuliers qui y sont | arrivez pendant le long sejour que 1'Auteur 
y a fait. | Le Commerce & les Manufactures qui y sont e^ablies, | & les Moyens 
de les augmenter. | Avec une Description exacte & curieuse | de toutes ces 
Isles. | Ouvrage enrichi de plus de cent Cartes, Plans, | & Figures en Tailles- 
douces. | [Par Jean Pierre Labat] Toms Premier [-Seizieme]. | [Design] A 
Paris, Rue S. Jacques, | Chez Pierre-Francois Giffart, pres | la rue des Mathu- 
rins, a V Image | Saiute Therese. | | M. DCC. XXII. | Avec Approbation & 
Privilege du Roy. 6 vols. 12. 

Description d'un poisson appeH6 Lamentin ou Manati, vol. ii, pp. 200-207, pi. fac. p. 200. 
Very full original account of external characters and mode of capture, with an original figure 
an adult clasping its young one to its breast. The figure, slightly altered, is given hy Bellin, 
1763, q. 77. [182.] 

1722. LISTER, M. A venomous scratch with the Tooth of a Porpus. <^Philos. Trans., 
Abridged by Lowthorp [1665-1700], ii, 1722, p. 842. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond. [xix], no. 233, p. 726. [183.] 

1722. MOLINEUX, G. Several Things in Ireland in common with the West Indies. 
<Philos. Trans., Abridged by Lowthorp [1665-1700], iii, 1722, pp. 544-546. 
From Philos. Trans. Lond. [xixj, no. 227, pp. 507[-511]. See supra, this author, at 1697. 
Relates to that portion only of Dr. Molyneux's discourse which treats of ambergris, sper- 
maceti, and certain plants found in Ireland. [184.] 

1722. STAFFORD, R. [Concerning Spermaceti Whales about the Bermudas.] <^Philos. 

Trans., Abridged by Lowthorp [1665-1700], ii,1722,p. 845. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond. [iii], no. 40, p. 793 [=792-795]. See supra, this author, at 1668. 


1723. ZORGDRAGER, C. G. "Alte und neue Gronliindische Fischerei und Wallfischfaug 

mit einer kurzen histor. Beschreibung von Gronland, Island, Spitsbergen, Nova 
Zerubla u. s. w. ausgefertigt durch A. Moubach. Aus dem Holllindischen 
iibersetzt. Leipzig, 1723. 4. Met kaarten en platen." 

Not seen; title from Bos;:oed, op. cit., p. 253, no. 3616. [186.] 

[1724.] BOYLSTOX. Ambergris found in Whales. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., xxxiii, no. 
385 [1724], p. 193. 

The writer, Dr. Boylston, of Boston, Mass., states that according to the testimony of whale- 
men ambergris is found in a cyst near the genital parts of Whales probably the first an- 
nouncement of its real source. [187.] 

1725. DUDLEY, PAUL. An Essay upon the Natural History of Whales, with a particu- 
lar Account of the Ambergris found in the Sperma Ceti Whale. In a letter to 
the Publisher, from the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq.; F. R. S. <Phil. 
Trans. Lond., xxxiii, no. 387, "for the Months of March and April, 1725" (vol- 
ume dated 1726), pp. 256-269. 

"But here I would have it noted, that the following Account respects only such Whale, as 
are found on the Coast of Neic England " (p. 256). This short account of 14 pp. is the first of 
importance relating especially to the Whales of the N"ew England const, in fact, is almost the 
only one to the present date. The "divers Sorts or Kinds " mentioned arc, 1 . The "Eight, or 
Whalebone Whale" (pp. 256, 257); 2. The "Scrag Whale"; 3. The Finback Whnlo"; 4. 
The "Bunch or humpback Whale" (p. 258); 5. The "Sperma Ceti Wbale" (pp. 258,259); 6. 
The "Killer . . . without doubt the Orca that Dr. Frangius (lege Franzius) describes ..." 
p. 265. 

Several of these became later the basis of species of systematic writers. Although do- 
scribed briefly, their characters are so well indicated that it is not difficult to identify the 
species in the licht of present knowledge of the subject. Other portions of the memoir are 
devoted to an account of "Sperma Ceti Oil" (pp. 259, 260), "of the Ambergris" (pp. 2C6-269), 
to the habits of Whales, and to the "Way and Manner of killing Whulos." 

On the Killer of Dudley, cf. HAMEL, Proceed. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sc., viii, 1855. [188.] 


1725. "HEERFORT, CHRISTOPH. Dis8. liist.-phys.-crit. de Sirenibus, seu piscibus hu- 

mani corporis structuram quodamniodoimitantibus. Resp. Andr. Bing. Haf- 
niae, 1725. 4. pp. 20." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. 1189.] 

1726. " HERRARA, A. DE. Historia General de los Hech t8 de los Castellanos en las Islas 

i Terra Firme del Mar Oceauo. Escrita por Antonio de Herrara, Coronista 
Mayor de su m d de las Indias y sv Coronista de Castilla, En quatro Decadas 
desde el Ano de 1492, hasta el de [1]531. 4 vols., folio, vellum. En Madrid 
en la Imprenta Real de Nicolas Rodriguez franco An de 1726." 

Not seen; title from Field (Cat. Libr., 1875, p. 132, no. 964). For the reference to Manati, 
see ed. of 1728. [190.] 

1727. STALPARTIUS, C., VANDER WIEL. C. Stalpartii vander Wiel | Medici Hagien- 

sis | Observationum | Rariorum | Medic. Anatomic. { Chirurgicarum | Centu- 
ria Prior, | Accedit | De Unicornu | Dissertatio. | Vtraque tertia parte auctior, 
longeque | emendatior. | Editio novissima. | [Design.] Leidae, | Apud Joan- 
nem a Kerkhein, 1727. sm. 8. 11. 17 (including frontis., eug. title, plain 
title, etc.), pp. 1-516,11. 8, pll.i-ix. 

De Unicornu Dissertatio, pp. 463-516, pi. ix. Contains references passim to the Nar- 
whal. [191.] 

1727. ZORGDRAGER,C.G. C : [ornelis] G: [ijsbertsz] Zorgdragers | BloeijendeOpkomst 
der Aloude en Hedendaagsche | Groenlandsclie | Visschery. | Waar in met eene 
geoeffende ervaarenheit de geheele om- [ slag deezer Visscherye beschreeven, 
en wat daar in | dient waargenomen, naaukeurig verbandelt wordt. | Uitge- 
breid | Met eene Korte Historische Beschryving der Noordere Gewesten, J 
voornamentlyk Groeulandt, Yslandt, Spitsbergen, Nova | Zembla, Jan Mayen 
Eilandt, de Straat Davis, en | al 'fc aanmerklykste in de Ontdekkiug deezer j 
Landen, en in de Visschery voorgevallen. | Met byvoeging van de | "VValvisch- 
vangst, | In haare hoedanigheden, behandelingen, 't Scheeps- | leeven en ge- 
dragbeschouwt. | Door | Abraham Moubach. | TweedenDruk. | Metaanraerke- 
lyke zaaken vermeerdert, | nevens een Korte Bescbryving | Van de | Terre- 
neufsclie Bakkeljaau- Visschery. | Verciert met naauwkeurige, en naar 't leven 
geteekende | nieuwe Kaarten en kunstige Printverbeeldingen. | [Vignette] In 
s> Gravenhage. | By P. van Thol en R. C. Alberts, Boekverkopers, 1727. | sm. 
4. 11. 20, pp. 1-392, 11. 7, 6 maps, 7 pll. (and frontispiece?) 

The copy examined lacks the frontispiece of the first edition, which must, however, have 
heen lost, as the poem explanatory of it backs the half-title leaf. 

This edition differs from the first (1720) through the addition of some 60 pp. of new matter, 
including nearly 20 pp. on the Newfoundland Cod-fishery. To the second part (Tweede Deel) 
six chapters are added, giving nearly 20 pp. of new matter ; there are, besides, considerable 
additions at other points, together with omissions of matter contained in the first edition, so 
that portions of Part ii are practically rewritten. The account of the Potvisch or Cachelot is 
transferred from the Appendix to near the middle of Part ii, but the plate illustrating the 
"Walrus, Seal, and Cachelot is omitted (at least ia lacking in the copy collated). The only new 
illustration added is the plate facing p. 21, giving figures of an Eskimo boat. The statistical 
portion is brought down to 1725. 

The chapters apparently newly added are : IT Deel. I. Hoofdt. Strekking der Kusten in en 
omtrent de Straat-Davis, en welke koes men om de zelve te bevaren, te homlen heeft, enz., 
pp. 71-73. II. Hoofdt. Aart en hoedanigheit, kleeding en gedrag der Inboorlingen omtrent de 
Straat-Davis Kusten, enz., pp. 74-79. III. Hoofdt. Landdieren en 't Gevogelte der Straat- 
Davis Gewesten ; hoe verre. zich de ge woone "Wischplaats uitstrokt, enz. , pp. 79, 80. IV. Hoofdt. 
"Verraaderschen aart van eenige Bewooners der Straat-Davis Kusten, en hoe men zich daar 
voor te wachten heeft, enz., pp. 81-83. Y. Hoofdt. "Westkust van de Straat-Davis en den aart 
der Bewoonders Beschreeven, pp. 83, 84. XVI. Hoofdt. Yerscheiden middelen aangewent, 
uitgevonden en in 't werk gestelt om de lengte van Oost en West daar nit te vinden, doch to 
vergeess, pp. 153-157. 

For further list of contents and comments see the first edition (1820). 

Thia edition was reissued, according to bibliographers, at Amsterdam the following year 
(1728), witli a new title-page but otherwise unchanged, forming the third Dutch edition. [192.] 


1728. HERRARA, ANTONIO DE. Historia general | de las | Indian ocidentales; | j de 
los Hechos | De los Castellanos en las Islas y Tierra iirme | del Mar Oceano, | 
Escrita | por | Antonio de Herrara | coronista mayor de su Magestad | de las 
Indias y de Castilla. | En ocho decadas. | Sigue a la ultima decada | la | De- 
scripcion de las Indias | por el mismo Atitor. | Tomo Primero[-quarto], | que 
contiene las decadas | primera y segtinda. | Nueva Impression enriquecida coa 
lindas Figuras | y Retratos. | En Amberes, | Por Juan Bautista Verdussen, 
Mercador de Libros. M. D. CC. XXVIII. 4 vols. fol. Vol. i, 11. 2 (iucl. eng. 
title-page;, pp. 1-496, 11. 12, pll. 

The first edition of this work (given above from Field) appeared in 1726, q. v. 

El Manati, vol. i, dec. i, cap. xi, p. 118 (one-third page). A slightly abridged paraphrase of 
Gomara's account (see 1554. GOMABA, L. F. DE). [193.] 

1730. HERRARA, A. DE. Historia gene | ral de los Hechos | delos Castellanos | enlas 
Islas i Tierra Fi | rme del Mar Oceano. Es | crita por Antonio de | Herrara 
Coronista | Mayor de sv M d . de las | Indias y sv Coronis- | fade Castilla | En 
quatro Decadas des de el Aiio de | 1492 basta el de [1]531. Decada priuaera 
Al Rey Nu ro . Seiior, | En Madrid | en la Irnprenta | Real | de Nicolas Rodi- 
guez [sic] | franco | Aiio de 1730. 4 vols. fol. * 

Los Manati, dec. i, pp. 141, 142. [194.] 

There is another edition of this date differing apparently only in the title-page, as follows : 

1730. HERRARA, A. DE. Descripcion de j las Indias ocide | ntales de Antonio | de 

Herrera coro- | nista mayor de | sv Mag d . de las Indias, y su Coronista j de 
Castilla. | Al Rey Nro Seiior | En Madrid enla Oficina Real | de Nicolas Rodri- 
guez Franco Aiio de 1730. Eng. title-page. 4 vols. fol. 

Los Manati, dec. i, pp. 141, 142. [195.] 

1731. LA PEYRERE, . Relations | de | 1'Islande, | et du | Greenland, Par la Peyere, 

Auteur des Prasadamites. <^Eecueil de Voyages au Nord, Coutenant divers 
Mdmoires tres utiles au Commerce & a la Navigation. Tome premier. Nouvelle 
Edition, corrigee & mise en meilleur ordre. Amsterdam, 1731. 

The letter is dated "De la Haye le 13 Juin, 1646." 

Pp. 93-107 are devoted to a discussion of the question xvhether the so-called hom of the 
Narwhal is a tooth or a horn, and whether therefore the Narwhal is a fish. The conclusion 
reached is that the "horn " is a tooth "de ce poisson, que les Islandois apellent Narhual, &, 
que ce n'est point une corne" (p. 100). The etymology of the Icelandic word NarJiual is said 
to be Hual, whale, and Nar, signifying a cadaver, because this whale feeds on cadavers (p. 97). 
The animal and skull are figured in the plute facing p. 186. with the following legends: 
Poisson nomm6 par les Islandois Narwal qui porte la corne, ou dent, que Von dit de Licorne. 
Teste de Poisson Narwal, avec un troncon de sa dent, ou de sa corne, long de quatre pieds. 
The figures are copies from Tulpius, 1672 (q. v.). [196.] 

1732. "JANICON, F. H. De republiek der Vereenigde Nederlanden. ' Uithet Fransch. 

>s Gravenbage, J. van Duren, 1732. 4 din. 16." 

Kompagnie van 't noorden of van den walvischvangst, ii, pp. 280-*291. 

Not seen ; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 239, no. 3485. [197.] 

1732. MARTENS, F. Journal d'un Voyage au Spitzberguen &c. par Fre'de'ric Martens 

de Hambourg, traduit de 1'Allemancl. <^Recueil de Voyages au Nord, ii (nou- 
velle Edition), 1732, 1. 1, pp. 1-282. 

Du Dauphin, pp. 185-187. Du Butskopf, ou Tete do Plie, pp. 187-189. Du Poisson blanc, 
pp. 189, 190. De la Licorne, pp. 190, 191. De la Balcino, pp. 196-221, pi. fac. p. 196. De la ma- 
niere dont on prend les Baleines, pp. 221-238, pi. fac. p. 222. Ce qu'on fait d'une Baleine morte, 
pp. 239-247. De la maniere dont on tire 1'huile . . . de la graise, pp. 248-251. Du Poisson a 
nageoires, autrement Winne-fish, pp. 251-256. Addition qui concerne la Peche de la Baleine, 
pp. 267-282. [198.] 

1733. BAJER, JOH. JAC. "De pisce praegrandi Mular. <Acia Acad. Leap. Carol Nat. 

Civ., iii, 1733, pp. 2-6, pi." 
Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. [199.] 

1734. BOYLSTON, Dr. Ambergris found in Whales, communicated by Dr. Boylston of 

Boston in New England. <^Philos. Trans., Abridged by Eames and Martyn, 1719- 
1733, vii, pt. 3, 1734, pp. 423, 424. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 385, p. 193. See supra, BOYLSTON, at 1724. [200.] 


1734. DUDLEY, P. An Essay upon the Natural History of Whales, with a particular 

Account of the Ambergris found in the Sperma Ceti Whale. <^Philos. Trans., 
Abridged by Eames and Marti/n, 1719-1733, vii, pt. 3, 1734, pp. 424-431. 

From Philos. Tram. Lond., no. 387, p. 256. See suprtt, DUDLEY, P., at 1725. [201.] 

1735. ATKINS, J. A | Voyage | to | Guinea, Brazil, and the | West-Indies; | In His 

Majesty's Ships, the Swallow | and Weymouth. | Describing the several 
Islands and Settlements, viz- | Madeira, the Canaries, Cape de Verde, Sierra- 
leon, Sesthos, | Cape Apollonia, Cabo Corso, and others on the Guinea Coast; | 
Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c. in the West Indies. | The Colour, Diet, Languages, 
Habits, Manners, Customs, | and Religions of the respective Natives and In- 
habitants. | With Remarks on the Gold, Ivory, and Slave-Trade; | and on 
Winds, Tides, and Currents of the several Coasts. | | By John Atkins, j 
Surgeon in the Royal Navy. | | . . . [= quotation, 4 lines.] | [Vignette 
ship.] London: J Printed for Caesar Ward and Richard Chandler, at the | 
Ship, between the Temple-Gates in Fleet-Street ; And Sold at their | Shop in 
Scarborough. M. DCC. XXXV. 8. 1. 1, pp. i-xxv, 1-265. 

The Manatea (in the Sierraleon River), pp. 42, 43. Its external characters and mode of its 
capture by the Negroes. [202.] 

1735. EDITOR. Editoris Itecensio Experiruentorum circa Ambram Gryseam a Domino 
Joh. Browne, R. S. S. &* a Dno. Ambrosio Godofredo Hauckewitz, R. S. S. 
institutorum, cum D. Neumanni, R. S. S. Experiment! sui vindicatlone. <^Phi- 
los. Trans., Lond., xxxviii, no. 435, 1735, pp. 437-440. [203.] 

1735. NEUMANNO, C. De Ambra Grysea. <^Philos. Trans., Lond., xxxviii, no. 433, 

1735, pp. 344-370; no. 434, pp. 371-402; no. 435, pp. 417-437. [204.J 

1736. D [ESPARS]., N., en F. R. "Chrouyke van Vlaenderen, vervattende haere vin- 

dinge, naem, enz., alsook eene generale beschryvinghe van g'heel haer 
bestreck, steden, casteelen, heerlyckbedeu, enz. Beginnende van 't jaer 621- 
1725. Door N. D(espars) en F. R. Met kopere platen. Brugge, Andr. Wijdts, 

1736. 3 din., 4 stukken folio." 

"Zie aldaar: Greenland's vaerders, d' eerste in see gesonden door van Brugge. Ao. 1665, 
iii, 1)1. 728, 731, 747. De visscherij belooft een goeden uitslag. De Franschen nemen eenige 
visschers met hunne schepen, die sy beswaerlyk doen af kopen, ii, bl. 432. 

Not seen; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 249, no. 3579. [205.] 

1736. LANGEN, Jo. JAC. "Nachricht von dem Unicornu marino, oder Meereinhorn, 
welches in Halle 1736 ist zu sehen gewesen. <^Halliscken Anzeiger, no. 19, 

Not seen ; title from Egede. [206.] 

1736. QVELLMALZ, SAM. TiiEOD. " Observations de unicornu marino, ex vicinia 

Bremensi Lipsam delato. <^Commerc. litter. Nortv., 1736, hebd. xxii, no. 4, 
pp. 171-273.", 

Not seen ; title from Egede. [207.] 

1737. BRICKELL, J. The Natural | History | of | North-Carolina. | With an | Account 

| of the | Trade, Manners, and Customs of the | Christian and Indian Inhab- 
itants. II- | lustrated with Copper-Plates, whereon are | curiously Engraved 
the Map of the Country, | several strange Beasts, Birds, Fishes, Snakes, | 
Insects, Trees, and Plants, &c. | | By John Brickell, M. D. | | Nostra nos 
in urbe peregrinamur. Cic. | | Dublin. | Printed by James Carson, in Cog- 
hill's-Court, Dame- | street, opposite to the Castle-Market. For the Author, 

| 1737. 1 vol. 8. pp. i-vii, 1-408, woodcuts, map, and 2 folding plates of 

Of the Fish of North Carolina, pp. 215-249. The cetological matter occupies pp. 215-226. 
Pages 215-220, including the first half of the latter, appear to relate in a general and rather 
vague way to the Eight Whale of the North Atlantic (Balcena cisarctica, Cope), but beyond 
a few particulars respecting their capture near Ocacock Island, there is nothing of much 
value. The two pages next following are merely a paraphrase of Lawson's account of differ- 
ent "sorts of "Whales ; " there then follow two paragraphs of original matter, the latter treat- 
ing of "the Porpoise, or Sea-Hog." The next reference to Cetaceans is at p. 226, which is 
devoted to an account of "the Dolphin," and is also new matter. 


1737. BRICKELL, J. Continued. 

Field states that Brickcll "stole the material 1 ' for his work from Lawson, "with scarcely 
any disguise," and Coues refers to "a 4th ed. [of Lawson], Dublin, 1737, attributed to Brick- 
ell." It is true that Brickell stole much of his material from Lawson, but to speak of 
Brickell's work as a 4th edition of Lawson is quite misleading, since for the first CO pp. of 
Lawson there is nothing to correspond in Brickcll. The part relating to the Indians is not 
only substantially the same in both, but considerable portions are identical in phraseology. 
The "Description of North Carolina" and the "Natural History of North Carolina" given 
by Lawson form the basis of the Natural History portion of Brickell's work, the latter having 
incorporated nearly all that the former has said, generally in Lawson's own words, but with 
the matter more or less transposed and augmented by often merely verbal additions. Brickell 
has, however, added much that is now, and based evidently on his own observations, some 
of Lawson's paragraphs being expanded by Brickell to several times their original length by 
the addition of wholly new and often important matter. [208.] 

1738. ARTEDI, P. Petri Artedi | sveci, Medici Ichthyologia | sive | opera omnia | de | 

Piscibus | scilicet: | Bibliotheca Ichthyologica. | Philosophia Icbthyologica. | 
Generum Piscium. | Synonymia specierum. | Descriptionesspecierum. | Oinnia 
in hoc genera perfectiora, | quam Anthea ulla. | Posthnma | Vindicavit, Re- 
cognovit, Cooptavit & Edidit | Carolus Linnasus, ,| Med. Doct. & Ac. Iraper. 
N. C. | | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud'Conradurn Wishoff, 1738. 8. 11. 10. 
Pars i, 11. 2, pp. 1-66, 11. 2. Pars ii, 11. 2, pp. 1-92. Pars iii, 11. 4, pp. 1-84, 
11. 2. Pars iv, 11. 2, pp. 1-118, 11. 11. Pars v, 1. 1, pp. 1-102 (i. e., 112), 11. 2. 

[Pars Prima.] Petri Artedi | Angermaunia-Sveci | Bibliotheca | Ichthyo- 
logia | seu | Historia litteraria Ichthyologue | in qua | Recensio fit Auctorum, 
qui de Piscibus | scripsere, librorum titulis, loco & editionis | tempore, addi- 
tis judiciis, quid Quivis | Auetor prjjestiterit, quali metho- | do & successu 
scripserit, | disposita secundum | Secula | in quibus quisquis author floruit. | 
IchthyologisB Pars I. | | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud Conradum Wishoff, 
1738. 11. 2, pp. 1-66, 11. 2. 

[Pars Secunda.] Petri Artedi | Sveci | Philosophia | Ichthyologica | in qua 
quidquid fundamenta artis | absolvit: Characteribus scilicet genericorum, 
Differentiarum | Specificarum, Varietatum et No- | miuum Theoria rationibus 
de- | monstratur, et Exemplis | coniprobatur. | Ichthyologiai Pars II. [Vi- 
gnette. ] Lugduni Batavorum | Apud Conradum Wishoflf, 1738. 11. 2, pp. 1-92. 

Pisces Cetacei, passim. 

[ParsTertia.] Petri Artedi | Sueci | Genera | Piscium. | In quibus | Sys- 
tema totuin Ichthyologiae propoiiitur | cum | Classibus, Ordiuibus, | Generum 
Characteribus, | Specierum differentiis, | Observation} bus plurimis. | redactis 
| Speciebus 242 ad Genera 52. | Ichtbyologiae Pars III. | | Lugduni Bata- 
vorum, | Apud Conradum Wishoff, 1738. 8. 11. 4, pp. 1-84, 11. 2. 

Ordo v. Plagiuri, pp. 74-81. [Gen.] xlii [lege xlvi]. Physeter (p. 74), cum spp. 2 [= Physctcr 
macrocephalus]. xlvii. Dclphiuus (p. 75), cum spp. 3 [ 1 . Phoccena communis; 2. Delphinus 
delphis,- 3. Orca sp.]. xlviii. Balcena, (p. 76), cum spp. 4 [= 1. Balcena myaticetus ; 2. Phy- 
salus antiquorum? 3. Balcenoptera rostrata? 4. Physalus antiquorum ?] xlix. Monodon 
(p. 78), cum 1 sp. [= Monodon monoceros]. 1. Catodon (p. 78), cum spp. 2 [~ I.? Beluga cato- 
don ; a. Physeter macrocephalus}. li. Thrichcchus [vel Tiichechus] (p. 79), cum sp. 1 [= genn. 
Manatus et Halicore]. Iii. Siren (p. 81), cum 1 sp. [= sp. fab.]. 

[Pars Quatuor.] Petri Artedi | Angerinannia Sveci | Synonymia | Nomi- 
num Piscium | fere omnium; | in qua recenwio lit | nominum Piscium, omnium 
facile Au- | thorum, qui umquam de Piscibus scri- | psere: Uti Gra?corum, 
Romanorum, | Barbarorum, nee non omnium in- | sequentium Ichthyologo- 
rum, | una cum Nomiuibus inquili- | nis variarum Nationum. | Opus sine 
pari. | Ichthyologise Pars IV. | [Vignette.] Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud Con- 
radum Wishoff, 1738. 11. 2, pp. 1-118, 11. 11. 

Ordo v. Plagiuri, pp. 104-108. 

[Parsquinque.] Petri Artedi | Sveci | Descriptlones | Specierum Piscium J 
Quos vivos prsesertim dissecuit et | examinavit, inter quos primario | Pisces J 
Regni Suecias | facile omnes ('accuratissime describuntur | cum non paucia 


1738. ARTEDI, P. Continued. 

aliis | exoticis. | Ichtbyologiae Pars V. | [Vignette.] Lugduni Batavorum, | 
Apud Conradum Wishoff, 1738. b. 1. i, pp. 1-102 (i. e., 112), 11. 2. 

Ordo v. Plagiuri, Balaena, G. Pise. 48, pp. 10G-107. [209.] 

1738. EGEDE, HAXS. Omstaandelig og udf0rlig | Relation, | Angaaende | den Gr0n- 
landske Missions | Begyndelse og Fortsasttelse, | samt | hvad ellers mere der 
ved Landets Recognoscering, | dets Beskaffevhed, og Indbyggernes Vaesen 
og | Leve-Maade vedkommende, er befunden; | Af | Hans Egede, | F0rst Guds 
Ords u-vserdig Lserere for Bogens Menigheder | udi Nord-Landene derester 
Kongelig Dansk | Missionair udi Gr0nland. | [Vignette.] | Kjobenhaven. 
1738. | Trykt hos Job. Cbrist. Groth, boende paa Graabr0dre-Torv. 4. 11. 10, 
pp. 1-408.' 

Contains passing references to "Whalefishing by the Greenlanders. There is a German 
translation, Hamburg, 1740, 4. [210.] 

1738. HAMPE, JOHN HENRY. A Description of the same Narhual, communicated by 
John Henry Hampe, M.D.F.R. S. <P/nZ. Trans., Lond., xl, no. 447, 1738, pp. 

A further and rather more explicit account of the external characters of the specimen re- 
ferred to below (see next title). [211.] 

1738. STEIGERTAHL, Dr. Part of a Letter from Dr. Steigertahl, F. R. S., to Sir Hans 
Sloane, Bart. Pres. R. S., giving an Account of a Narhual or Unicorn Fish, lately 
taken in tbe River Ost, Dutcby of Bremen, dated at Hanover ^-^ 1736. Trans- 
lated from tbe French by T. S. M. D., &c. <^PUlos. Trans., Lond., xl, no. 447, 
1738, pp. 147-149, pi. i, fig. 1. 

Monodon monoceros,- account of capture and external appearance of a specimen taken 
January, 1735, in the river Ost, Bremen. PI. i, fig. 1, animal, from "the Figure engrav'd and 
printed at Hamburg.'' [212.] 

1739-1804. WAGENAAR, J. , and others. " Staat (Tegenwoordige) der Vereenigde Neder- 
landen (door J. Wagenaar e. a.). Amsterdam, Tirion, 1739-1804. 23 din. 
gr. 8. Met platen en kaarten." 

"... "Walvischvangst, door de West-Indische maatschappij zonder voordeel ondernomen, i, 
1)1. 533. Beginsels der walvischvangst, bl. 588. Wetten omtrent dezelve, bl. 592. Waar zij 
geschiede, bl. 593. Onderzoek of er de reeders voordeel bij hebben, bl. 599. Kosten op de 
uitrustinfi, enz., bl. 501, 506. "Walvischbaarden, bL 597, 599, 608. Walvischspek, hoe dik, 
Not seen ; title and references from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 210, no. 3170% [213.] 

1740. FRISCH, JOHANN LEONHARD. De Phocsena in Fomeranise lacu quodam inventa. 
<^Miscel. Berolinensla, vi, 1740, p. 124, pi. vi. 

Phoccena communis. 1 page of text and fig. of animal. [214.] 

1740. HERRARA, A. DE. Tbe General | History | of the vast | Continent and Islands | 
of | America, | Commonly call'd, Tbe | West-Indies, | from | Tbe First dis- 
covery tbereof : | With the best Accounts tbe People could give of their | 
Antiquities. | Collected from the Original Relations | sent to tbe Kings of 
Spain. | | By Antonio de Herrara, | Historiographer to His Catholick Ma- 
jesty. | | Translated into English by Capt. John Stevens. | | Vol. I[-VI]. 
| | Illustrated with Cuts and Maps. | | The Second Edition. | | Lon- 
don, | Printed for Wood and Woodward in Paternoster-Row. | MDCCXL. 
6 vols. 8. 

The Manati, vol. i, p. 278. For additional comment, see edd. of 1728. [215.] 

1740. KLEIN, J. T. lacobi | Theodori Klein | Historise | Piscium | Naturalis | Promo- 
vendse | Missus primus | de | Lapillis eorumqve Numero | in | Craniis Pisci- 
um, | cum Praefatione: | de | Piscium auditu. | Accesserunt | I: Anatome Tur- 
sionum | II. Observata in Capite Raise. | | Virgil. V. ^Eneid. 239. | Dixit: 
eumque imis sub fluctibus audiit omnis Nereidum Phorcique Chorus. | Cum 
Figuris. | [Vignette.] | | Gedani, Litteris Schreiberianis. 1740. 4. 1. 1, 
pp. 1-35. 


1740. KLEIN, J. T. Continued. 

i. Anatome Phocaenae, auctoro Dn. de la Motto; Gedanensi, M. D., pp. 24-28. Additiones 
[auctore J. T. Klein], pp. 28-32, tab. iv [i. ., v], figg. A, B, cranium; fig. C, penis; fig. r>, 
ductus thorac. ; flgg. 1-4, 7-9, ossa aud ; flg. 5, vermiculi ; fig. 6, lobi et nervi olfatt. [210 ] 

1741. EGEDE, H. Det gamle | Gr0nlantis | Nye | Perlustration, | Eller | Natnrel His- 

torie, | Og | Beskrivelse over det gamle Gr0nlands Situation, | Luft, Tempera- 
ment og Beskaffenhed ; | De gainle Noorske Coloniers Begyndelse og Undergang 
der | Samme-Steds, de itzige Indbyggeres Oprindelse, Vsesen, | Leve-Maade og 
Handta3ringer, sanit Hvad ellers Landet | Yder og giver af sig saasom Dyer, 
Fiskeog Fugle &c. med | hosf0yet nyt Land-Caartog andre Kaaber-Stykker | 
over Landets Naturalier og ludbyggernis | Handtseringer, | Forfattet af | 
Hans Egede, | Forhen Missionair udi Gr0nland. | | Kj0benbavn, 1741. | 
Trykt hos Joban Christoph Grotb, bvende paa Ulfelds-platz. 1 vol. sm. 4. 
6 11., pp. 1-131, 1.1, map, and pll. 11. 

Cap. vi. Hvad Slaps Diur, Fiske og Fugle den Grenlandske, See giver af sig etc., pp. 36-55, 
pll. facing pp. 37 and 42. 

Finnefisk, p. 36, fig. pi. facing p. 37. Hvalvisk [Balcena mysticetus], pp. 36-40, fig. pi. 
facing p. 37. Nordknpper, p. 40. Sverdfisk [Orca], p. 40, fig. pi. facing p. 37. Cacheloter, p. 
41. Hviid-Fisk, p. 41, fig. pi. facing p. 42. Buts Kopper, pp. 41, 42. Enhierning, pp. 42-44, 
flgg. of animal, three views of skull, and of detached horns. Marsvin, p. 45. 

Cap. vii. Om Grenlaendernes Handtrerenger, Naerings Brag og Kedskab, saa vel soin 
Boerkab, pp. 56-62, pll. facing, pp. 57, 59. Page 57 describes how the Greenlanders kill "Whales, 
and the plate facing the same page is a Whaling scene. 

"Egede's work is still one of the best existing on Greenland, and claims most of all the 
title of truthfulness, the author having been no less than 15 years in that country." 

The present is the editio princeps, of which there are numerous subsequent ones in various 

A German translation appeared at Copenhagen in 1742 (q. v.) ; an English in 1745 (q. v.) ; a 
Dutch in 1746 (Delft) ; a French in 1763 (Geneva and Copenhagen) ; a German in 1763 (q. v.), 
and in 17G9 (Berlin) ; and probably, also, others, besides various abridgments to be found in 
collections of voyages. [217.] 

1741. KLEIN, J. T. lacobi Tbeodori Klein | Historiae | Piscium | Naturalis | promo- 
vendse | Missus Secundus | de | Piscibus per Pulmones | spirantibus | ad ius- 
tum numerum et ordinem | redigendis. | Acccsserunt singularia : | de | I. Den- 
tibus Balsenarum et Elepbantinis. | II. Lapide Manati et Tiburonis. | | 
Horatius : | Delphinum sylvis appingit, fluctibus Aprum, qvi variare cupit 
rem | prodigialiter uuain. | Cum Figuris. | [Vignette.] | Gedani, Litteris 
Schreiberianis. 1741. 4. 11. 3, pp. 1-38, 1. 1. 

De Piscibus, per Pulmones spirantibus . . . [etc.], pp. 1-27, tabb. i-iii. i. De Dentibus 
Balsenarum et Elephantinis, pp. 28-32, tab. iv, figg. 1-4 (teeth of Physeter). ii. De Lapide 
Manati et Tiburonis, pp. 33-38, tab. iv, figg. 5-7 (ossa petrosa Manati). 

Horum Synoptica Tabula [p. 9] : 

(1. In Dorso la?vi apinnes. 
I. Edcntulse </ 2. In Dorso gibbo apinnes. 
[ 3. In Dorso pinnatse. 


(1. Dorso Isevi apinnes. 
2. Dorso Itevi pinnate. 
3. Dorso gibbo apinnes. 
4. Dorso gibbo pinnatse. 
II. NAKWHAL s. Monodon. 

1. Capite in rostrum porcinum, simurn, 

exeunte : Orca : 

III. DELPHACES s. Porcelli 

2. Capite in rostrum porcinum rectum & Ion- 

gum protenso : Delphinus. 

3. Eostro recto, brevi.&obtuso: TursioB.Pho- 

EDENTUL^E [=3fysticete, auct. mod.] In Dorso Icevi apinnes. 1. Balaena vera 
Zorgdrageri, p. 11 (=B. mysticetus]; 2. Balsena albicans; Weisfisch Martensii & Zorgdr. 
[= Beluga catodon] ; 3. Baliena glaciali8 = Eisfisch, Zud-Eisfisch, West-Eisfisch, Nordkapper, 
Zorgdr. [= B. mysticetus, part,]. In Dorso gibbo apinnes. 1. Gibbo unico propo caudam 
[= " Bunch or Hump-back Whale " of Dudley, hence Balcena gibbosaauct. var., nee. Erxleben] 
2. Balenamacra[= "Scrag Whale "of Dudley]. In Dorso pinnatce. 1. OreBala'nsevulgaris, 
a, Balsena edentula, corpore strictioro, dorso pinnato Raji; bjubartes [?Physaluf antiquo- 
rum] ; 2. Ore rostrate [=Hyperoodon bidens]. 


1741. KLEIN, J. T. Continued. 

BAL^EN^E DEXTATVE. Dorso Icevi apinnes. 1. Ccte Clnsii [=Physeter macrocephalus]. 
2. Cachclot s. Potfish Zorgdrageri [=Physeter macrocephalus]. Dorso Icevi pinnatce. 1. Ba- 
lama major . . . Sibbaldi [=?Physeter macrocephalus]; 3. Hular Nierembergii [=Physeter 
macrocephalus]; 3. Linckii [=?]. Dorso gibbo apinnii. 1. DudlejiBalaena [="SpermaCeti 
"Whale" of Dudley, hence Physeter macrocephalus]. Dorso gibbo pinnata. Bala?na, Tigridis 
instar, variegata [=1 sp. fict.]. 

NAUWHAL. Monodon Artedi, etc., p. 18, tab. ii, C, anim. [=Monodon monoceros]. 

DELPHACES s. PORCELLI. 1 . Orca itaqve est, qvie Sibbaldo dicitur Balaena minor in utraqve 
mandibula dentata, p. 23, tab. i, no. i, cranium ; 2* Delphinus, p. 24, tab. i, no. ii, cranium, 
tab. iii, A, anim. [= Delphinus delphis]; S* Tursio sive.Phoca3na, p. 26, tab. i, no. iii: cra- 
nium, tab. ii, A, B, foetus, tab. iii, lit. B, anim. ad. [=Phoccena communis], [218.] 

1741. KUHN, JOHANN MICHAEL. "Merkwurdige Lebens- und Reisebescbreibung, 

dessen Schiffahrten nach Gronland und Spitsbergen. Gotha, 1741. 8. 

"Zie aldaar o. a. : Erste (und zwote) auf einem hamburgischen Schiffo nach Spitsbergen ge- 
thane Reise, 1720-22. Adelung geeft in z\jn: ' Geschichte der Schiffahrten' van beide reizen 
ecn uittreksel. bl. 429-438." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 240, no. 3496. See 1768. ADELUNG, J. C. [219.] 

1742. EGEDE, H, Des altcu | Gr6nlandes | Neue | Perlustration, | Oder | Naturell- 

Historie | Und | Besclireibung | Der Situation, Bescbaffeubeit, Lufft und des 
Temperaments | dieses Landes; | "Wie aucb | Yom Anfauge und Untergange 
derer alten Nor- | wegischen Colonien dnselbst; vom Ursprunge, der Sitten 
Le- | bensart and den Gebrauchen derer jtzigen Einwohner, und was | Dieses 
Land an Thieren, Fischen, V6geln, etc. heget und mittbeilet; Deine beyge- 
fuget | Eine neue Land Cbarte und andere in Kupfer gcstocbene Figu- | reu 
und Abbildungen der Natural! en und Handtbierungen | derer dasigeii Einwoh- 
ner; | Verf asset und bescbrieben | von | Hans Egede, | Vormaliger Missionair 
in Gronland, | | Aus den Daniscben ins Teutscbe ubersetzr. | | Copen- 
hagen, gedruckt bey Jobann CbristopbGrotben, 1742. sm. 4. 11. 6, pp. 1-144, 
pll. 11, map. 

This edition appeared almost simultaneously with the original Danish, and was issued 
at Copenhagen by the same publisher. The plates are from the original etchings, not even 
the page references being changed, they still referring to the Danish edition instead of the 
present one. In this edition chap, vi occupies pp. 44-66, and the account of how the Green- 
landers kill whales occurs at p. 68. For fuller annotation see EGEDE, at 1741. [220.] 

1742. LAB AT, R. P. Nouveau | Voyage | aux Isles | de 1'Amerique, | contenant | I'His- 
toire Naturelle de ces pays, | 1'Origiue, les Mceurs, la Religion & le Gou- | 
vernement des Habitans auciens & modernes. | Les Guerres & lesEvenemens 
singuliers qui y sont | arrivez pendant le pejourque FAnteur y a fait. | Par le 
R. P. Labat, de FOrdre | des Freres Pr6cbeurs. | Nouvelle Edition augD.ent^ 
conside"rablement, & en- | ricbie de Figures en Tailles-douces. | Tome premier 
[-huitieme]. | [Design.] A Paris, Rue S. Jacques, | Cbez Cb. J. B. Delespiue, 
Imp. Lib. ord. du i Roy, a la Victoire &- au Palmier. | | M.DCC.XLII. | 
Avec Approbation & Privilege du Roy. 8 vols. 12. 

Description d'un poisson appelle Lamantin ou Manati, vol. ii, pp. 256-263, pi. fac. p. 256. 
For comment see edition of 1722. [221 . ] 

1744. CHARLEVOIX, P. F. X. DE. Histoire | et | Description generale | de la | Nou- 
velle France, | avec | le Journal bistorique j d'un Voyage fait par ordre du 
Roi dans | FAinerique Septentriounale. | Par le P. [Pierre-Francois Xavier] 
de Charlevoix, de la Compagnie de Jesus. | Tome premier[-tvoisieme]. 
[Vignette.] A Paris, Cbez la Veuve Ganeau, Libraire, rue S. Jacques, pres 
la rue | du Platre, aux Arnies de Dombes. | | M. DCC. XLII. | Avec Appro- 
bation et Privilege du Roi. 3 vols. 4. Vol. i, 11. 4, pp. i-lxj, 11. H, pp. ix- 
xxvj, 1-644, 9 maps. Vol. ii, 11. 2, pp. i-xvj, 1-582, 1-56, 8 maps, 22 pll. (of 
plants). Vol. iii, 11. 2, pp. i-xix, i-xiv, 1-543, 10 maps. 

The "Histoire," etc., comprises the first two volumes only, the title changing with the 
third to the following : 

Journal | d'un | Voyage | fait par ordre du Roi | dans | FAmerique sepeutri- 
onnale; | Adresse" a Madame la Ducbesse | De Lesdiguieres. | Par le P. de 
Cbarlevoix, de la Compagnie de Jesua. | [etc. as above.] 


1744. CHARLEVOIX, P. F. X. DE. Continued. 

Ill the "Huitieme Lettrc" occurs important cetological matter, as follows: De la Pecho 
du Loup Marin, do la Vache Marine, du Marsouin, & des Baleincs, pp. 143-149 (Maraouins, 
pp. 147-149 ; Baleines, p. 149). The account relates mostly to the "Marsouin blanc " (Beluga 
catodon] and its capture, from which it appears that there were two points, a few miles be- 
low Quebec, in the Saint Lawrence River, at which these animals were then taken in consid- 
erable numbers. A few "Whales were still caught at the mouth of the Bay of Saint Lawrence. 

Two editions of this work were issued at Paris, by different publishers, in the year 1744, 
one in 3 vols., 4, of which the title and collation are above given ; the other in C vols., 12, both 
with the same titles, differing only in the breaking of the lines and in the publisher's im- 
print. The collation of the 12 ed. here follows: [222.] 

1744. CHAKLEVOIX, P. F. X. DE. Histoire | et | Description generate | de la | Nouvelle 
France, | avec | le Journal historique | d'un Voyage fait par ordre du Roi | 
dans 1'Amerique sepentrionnale. | Par le P. [Pierre Francois Xavier] de Char- 
levoix, de la Compagnie | de Jesus. | Tome premier[-sixieme]. | [Design.] 
A Paris, | Chez Pierre-Francois Giftart | rue Saint Jacques, & Sainte Therese. 
| j M DCC XLIV. | Avec Approbation & Privilege du Roi. 6 vols. 12. 
Vol. i, 11. 3, pp. i-viii, 1-454, C maps. Vol. ii, 1. 1, pp. 1-501. 3 maps. Vol. iii, 
1. 1, pp. 1-465, 2 maps. Vol. iv, 1. 1, pp. 1-388, pll. 22,,6 maps. Vol. v, 1. 1, pp. i- 
xxviij, 1-456, 7 maps. Vol. vi,l. l,pp. 1-434, 11. 2, 3 maps. 

In this edition the title changes with the fifth volume, the title of vols. v and vi of this edi- 
tion being the same as that of vol. iii of the 4 ed., save, of course, the publisher's imprint. 

The cetological matter is the same (as is the text in general) as that of the 4 ed. (q. v.), 
and occurs in vol. v, pp. 217-220. 

Of ihe "Journal d'un Voyage," etc., there are two early English versions, each in 1 vol., 
8 (London, 1701 and 1703, q. v.). There is a recent English translation of the "Histoire" by 
Dr. J. G. Shea (8 vols., roy. 8, Xew York, 1865), but this does not include the "Voyage," 
and consequently not the cetological matter. [228.] 

1744. [DESPELETTE, ]. Cachalot dchoue' pres de Baionne. <^Hist. de VAcad. roy. des 
Sci. de Paris, ann. 1741 (1744), pp. 26-28. 

This is perhaps editorial, based on a communication from M. Despelette. [224.] 

1744. [DOORGEEST, E. Az. VAN.] " Kort Verhael van eenige merkwaerdige geschie- 
denissen van Holland [door E. Az. van DoorgeestJ. Amsterdam, K. de Wit, 
1744. 8." 

Beschrijving van de haringvisscherij en walvischvangst, pp. 78-96. 

Not seen ; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 249, no. 3577. Said to be a short 
extract from "Den Hijper Zee-postil," etc., 1669, Doorgeest and Posjager. [225. j 

1744. GREEX, J. Abstract of a Natural History of Greenland, by Hans Egedius, inti- 
tuled, Det gamle Gronlands Perlustration, eller Naturel-Historie, af Hans Egede, 
Kiobenhabn, 1741. 4. Communicated by John Green, M. D., Secretary of the 
Gentlemans Society, at Spalding. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., xlii, no. 471, 1744, pp. 

Chapter vi enumerates the Cetacea, Fish, and Birds common to Greenland. [226.] 

1744. OEXMELIN, A. O. [ EXQUEMELIN, A. O.] Histoire | <9es | Avanturiers | Fli- 
bustiers | Qui se sont signaled dans les Indes. | Contenant | ce qu'ilsy ont fait 
de remarquable, | avec | La Vic, ]^s Mo3iirs & les Coutumes des Boucaniers, | 
& des Habitaus de S. Domingiie & de la Tortue; | Une Description exacte de 
ces lieux; Et un Etat | des Offices taut Ecclcsiastiques que Sdculieres, | & 
ce que les plus grands Princes tie 1'Europe y | Possedent. | Le tout eurichi de 
Cartes Gdographiques & de Figures | en Taille-douce. | Par Alexander-Oli- 
vier Oexmelin. | Nouvelle Edition Corrige'e | & Augmente'e de 1'Histoire des 
Pirates | Anglois depuis leur Etablissement dans | 1'Isle de la Providence 
jusqu'a present. | Tome Premier[-Quatrieme.] | [Design.] . A Trevoux, | Par 
la Compagnie, | | M. DCC. XLIV. 4 vols. 12. Vol. i, 11. 7 (incl. eng. 
and plain title), pp. 1-394, 1. 1, map and plates. 

Histoire des Aniniaux et des Plantes qui sont sur les Isles de la Tortuo & de Saint Domin- 
gue, vol. i, pp. 315-383. Chap, vi, Des Reptiles do 1'Islo de St. Domiugue, pp. 359-383, 
pi. fac. p. 373. Anatomie du Lamentin, pp. 372-370 (nearly 4 pp.), avec tig. du Lamentin. 
This is an original account (at least written in the first person and evidently from observa- 


1744. OEXMELIN, A. O. Continued. 

tion) of the external characters and internal structure of the Manatee, its habits, capture, 
etc. , with an (apparently) original figure. The figure, like Labat 's, represents an old Manatee 
with a young one in her firms; the figure is more artistic than Labat's, and has the head of 
the young one directed forward instead of backward. 

The first French edition, said to be of "extreme rarity," and a translation from the Eng- 
lish, was published at Paris in 1686, 2 vols., 12. This I have not seen, and therefore cannot 
say wherein the matter relating to the Manatee differs from that of the present "corrected 
and enlarged" edition. This is the first edition of the Buccaneers I have seen which con- 
tains a figure of the Manatee. The matter in this edition is almost entirely different through- 
out from that of the Spanish, Dutch, and English editions (see anted,, 1678. EXQUEMELIN, A. 
O.), and covers many points relating to the Manatee not mentioned in those. This is doubt- 
less explained by the following transcript from the translator's preface of the present editions 
"La Relation qu'il a ecrite de ce que la nature produit dans les Isles de Saint Domingue & de 
la Tortue se trouve & la fin du premier Tome, on a choisi cet ordre pour ne pas interrompre le 
fil de 1'Histoire des Flibustiers; on 1'a meme augmentee sur de nouveaux M6moires conte- 
nant la Relation du naufrage de Monsieur d'Ogeron a Puerto Ricco, 1'Histoire du Capitaine 
Montauban; les Expeditions de Campeche, de la Vera Cruz, de Cartage 1 ne, & les courses de 
plusieurs Capitaines Flibusters, dont la valeur est presentement aussi connue en Europe 
qu'elle est estim6e dans les Indes." The plate illustrating the chapter vi here cited rep- 
resents (upper half) the "Maniere de Pecher la Tortue." Below this is the figure of "le 
Lamantin," and at the bottom of the plate three different forms of harpoon used in captur- 
ing Turtles and Lamantines. 

The engraved title of this edition is dated 1743. The following is a transcript : 

Histoire | des | Avanturiers | des | Boucaniers | et | de la Chambre J des 
Comptes, | e'tablie | dans les | Indes | 1743. 

Respecting the various translations and editions of Oexmelin [=Exquemelin; also written 
EsquemelingJ, see Sabin, JBibl. Amer., vi, pp. 309-318, 328, nos. 23468-23494; also, supra, 1678. 

EXQUEMELEt, A. O. [227. 1 

1744. "ROEDE, . Diss. de pisce qui lonam deglutivit, cuiusnam specie! fuerifc. 
Hafn. 1744. 4." 

Not seen; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 776. [228.] 

1744. "WiJBO, J. CANZIUS. Dissertatio de balaenarum piscatu. Lugd. Bat., 1774. 


Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 253, no. 3G09. [229.1 

1745. "EGEDE.H. A | Description | of | Greenland. | Shewing | The Natural History, 

Situation, Boundaries, | and face of the Country; the Nature of the | Soil; the 
Eise and Progress of the old Nor- | wegian Colonies ; the ancient and modern | 
Inhabitants; their Genius and Way of Life, | and Produce of the Soil; their 
Plants, Beasts, | Fishes, &c. | with | A new Map of Greenland. | And | Several 
Copper Plates representing different Animals, | Birds and Fishes, the Green- 
landers Way of Hunting | and Fishing; their Habitations, Dress, Sports | 
and diversions, &c. | | By Mr. Hans Egede, | Missionary in that Country 
for twenty-five Years. | | Translated from the Danish. | | London: | 
Printed for C. Hitch in Paternoster Row; S. Austen in | Newgate-Street; and 
J. Jackson near St. James's Gate. | MDCCXLV. 1 vol. sm. 8. pp. xvi-J-2 
11., 220, with 12 copperpll." 

"Chap, vi, pp. 65-99, ' Of the Greenland Sea Animals, and Sea Fowl and Fishes.' " 

Not seen; title from Cones, Birds Colorado Valley, 1878, p. 578. [230.] 

1745. GUMILLA, J. El Orinoco | Ilustrado, y Defendido, | Historia Natural, | Civil, y 
Geographica | De este Gran Rio, | y de sus caudolosas vertientes: | Govierno, 
Usos, y Costumbres de los Indies | sus habitadotes, con neuvas, y utiles noti- 
cias de Animates, Arboles, | Fiutos Aceytes, Refinas, Yervas, y Raices medici- 
nales ; y sobrestodo, se hallaran couvetsiones muy singulares a N. Santa F<5, | 
y casos cle mucha edificaciou. | Escrita | Por el Padre Joseph Gumilla, de la 
Coma-ilia de Jesus | . . . [= titles, 6 lines] | Segunda Impression, Revista y 
Augmentada | por su mismo Autor, y dividida en dos Partes. | Toino [Seal] 
Primero | J En Madrid: Por Manuel Fernandez, Impressor de el Supremo | 


1745. GUMILLA, J. Continued. 

Consejo de la Inquisicion, y de la Revereuda Camara Apostolica, | en la Caba 
Baxa. Ano M. DCC. XLV. 2 vols., 4. 11. 24, pp. 1-403, 11. 2, map, and pll. 

Variedad de Peces, y singulares industrias de los Indies para pescar: Piedras, y buessos 
medicinales, qne se ban descubierto en algunos pescados, torn, i, cap. xxi, pp. 314-330. 
Manati, pp. 319-327. Account of the abundance of these animals in the Orinoco and its tribu- 
tary waters, the manner of their capture by the Indiana, their habits and external appearance, 
and the wonderful medicinal properties of their ear bones. 

First edition, not seen; there is a later Spanish edition published in 1791 (q. r?.>; also a 
French edition (1758, q.v.), and doubtless others. [231.] 

1745. SMITH, [W.] A | Natural History | of | Nevis, | And the rest of the English Lee- 

ward Charibee Islands | in | America. | With many other Observations on | 
Nature and Art ; | Particularly, An Introduction to | The Art of Deciphering. | 
In | Eleven Letters from the Rev d . Mr. [William] Smith, | sometime Rector of 
St. John's at Nevis, and | now Rector of St. Mary's in Bedford ; to the | Rev d 
Mr. Mason, B. D. Woodwardian | Professor, aud Fellow of Trinity- College, in 
Cambridge. | | Cambridge: | Printed by J. Beutham, Printer to the Uni- 
versity; | ... 1= names of four booksellers.] | MDCCXLV. 8. 11. 3, pp. 1- 
318, 11. 5. 

Natural history, passim. Account of "Millions of Porpusses" seen near the "Leeward 
Charibbee Islands," pp. 185,186; two species, one of them "with Noses in the exact form, 
and full as big as Quart Glass-bottles, on which account they have justly acquired the name 
of Bottle-noses." Account of a fight between the "Grampus" and the "Sword-Fish and 
Thrasher as Allies," pp. 198, 199. Also account of a Baleen Whale, 35 feet long, stranded at 
Burgh, Lincolnshire, pp. 199-201. [232.] 

1746. "ANDERSON, J. Herrn Johann Anderson, | I. V. D. | und weyland ersten Bur- 

germeisters der freyen Kayserlichen | Reichstadt Hamburg, | Nachrichten | 
von Island, | Gronland und der Strasse Davis, | zum wahren Nutzen der Wis- 
senschaften | und der Handlung. | Mit Kupfern, und einer nach den neuesteu 
und in diesem Werke ange- | gedeneu Entdeckungen, genau eingerichteten 
Landcharte. | Nebst eiuem Vorborichte | von den Lebensumstiinden des Herrn 
Verfassers. | [Vignette.] | Hamburg, | verlegts Georg Christian Grnnd, 
Buchdr. 1746. 1 vol. son. 8vo, 8 leaves to a sig. Vignette facing title, title, 
reverse blank, 14 unpaged 11. ('Vorrede' and ' Vorbericht'), pp. 1-328, 3 un- 
paged 11. ('Register'); map, and 4 pll., at pp. 43." 

"... There are numerous editions; besides the three I here give (see 1750 and 1756), 
there are these: German, Frankfurt u. Leipzig, 1747; Danish, Copenhagen, 1748; English, 
London, 1758, folio; and two or three French versions of later dates than 1750. tfeeCuv., 
It. A., iii, 331; BOHM., Bibl., i, 769; AG. & STUICKL., Bibl., i, 127." 

Not, -von; title and comment from Coues, Birds Col. Vail., App., 1878, p. 579. 

Amlei sou's work, from its early date and the detailed information it gives, is one of im- 
portance in its relation to Cetology. See later editions, especially the Dutcn versions of 1750 
and 1756. 

Strange as it may seem, I have been unable to find any edition of Anderson in any of the 
principal libraries of Cambridge and Boston, the collations here given being all at second 
hand. [233.] 

1746. AXON. ? " Lijst (Naauwkeurige) van Nederlandsche schepen die sedert 1061 naar 
Greenland, en sedert 1719 tot op dozen tegenwoordigen tijd naar de straat 
Davis ziju uitgevaren. Amsterdam, C. van Tongerloo. 1746. kl. 8. Een 
vervolg op dezo lijst vindt men bij : Honig." 

"In Fr. Muller's Catalogue of books on America, wordt onder No. 17&1 een Hollandsch MS. 
vermeld, bevattende aanteekeningen.vande schepen, inde jaren 1753-1773 naar Greenland en 
de straat Davids, ter walvischvangst vertrokken; en onder No. 1782 eene Lijst in welcke 
jaaren de meeste en weinigste visschen uit Greenland en de straat Davids zijn aangebragt 
(1669-1792). 1 vel. folio. No. 663: Lijst van de Hollandsche en Hamburger Groenlands- eu 
Straat Davids vaarders Ao 1764 uitgevaaren. Amst., J. M. lirouwer. 1765. 8." 

Not seen; title and note from Bosgoed, op. cit.., pp. 241, 242, no. 3505. See, also, 1807. Ho- 
NIG, J. [234. j 

1746, "EGEDE, HANS. Beschrijving van Oud-Groenland, of eigentlijk van de zooge- 
naainde Straat Davis; behelzcnde deszelfs uatuurlijke historic, stands gele- 


1746. "EGEDE, HANS. Continued. 

genheid, gedaante, greusscheidingen, veld-gewassen, dieren, vogelen, visschen, 
enz. Mitsgaders den oorsprong en voortgang der aeloude Noorweegsche volk- 
plantingen in dat gewest; beneveus den aart, inborst, woonigen, levenswijze, 
kleding, enz. der hedendaagsche inboorlingen. Eerst in de Deensche taal 
beschreven door Mr. Hans Egede, en nu in 't Nederduitsch overgebragt. Met 
een nieuwe kaart van dat landschap en (10) aardige printverbeeldingen ver- 
siert. Te Delft, bij R. Boitet, 1746. 4." 

"Zie aldaar: Van de zec-dicren, zoe-vogels en visschen, walvisschen, en/., bl. 54-67 . . . 
Van de gewono bezigheden als jagen en visschen en de noodigo gereedscbappen daartoe, bl. 

Not seen ; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 235, no. 3451. For reference to the 
matter relating to Cetaceans, see the original Danish edition of 1741. [235.] 

1746. LIXNE, C. Caroli Linnaei | . . . [=titles, 2 lines] | Fauna | Svecica | Sistens | 

Animalia Sveciae Regni: | Qvadrupedia, Aves, Amphibia, | Pisces, Insecta, 
Vermes, | Distributa | Per | Classes & Ordines, | Genera & Species. | Cum | 
Differentiis Specierum, | Synonymis Auctorum, | Nominibus Incolarum, | Lo- 
cis Habitationum, | Descriptionibus Insectorum. | | Stockholmiae | Sumtu 
& literis Laurentii Salvii | 1746. 8. 14 11., pp. 1-411, pll. i, ii. 

Classis iv. Pisces. I. Plagiuri Cetacea, pp. 98-100, 4 genn., 6 spp., to wit: 1. Catodon 
fistula in cervice, p. 98 =Physeter macrocephalus ; 2. Mouodon, p. 98; 3. Balcena fistula in 
medio capite, dorso caudam versus acuminato, p. 98 ; 4. Balcena fistula in medio capite, tubero 
pinniformi in extreme dorso, p. 99; 5. Delphinus corpore subconiformi, dorso lato, rostro sub- 
acuto, p. 99; 6. Delphinus rostro sursum repando, dentibus latis serratis, p. 100. [236.] 

1747. BROWNE, J., and others, or EDITOR. An Account of the Experiments relating to 

Ambergris, made by Mr. John Browne, and Mr. Ambrose Godfrey Hauckwitz, 
FF. R. S., with Mr. Nnvmarfs Vindication of his Experiment, drawn up by 
C. Mortimer, R. S. Seer. <^Philos. Trans., Abridged by Martyn, 1732-44, ix, pt. 3, 
1747, pp. 366-368. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 435, p. 437. See 1735. EDITOR. [237.] 

1747. HAMPE, J. H. A Description of the same Narhual [as forms the subject of Dr. 
Steigertahl's communication]. <^Philos. Trans., Abridged by Martyn, 1732-44, 
44, ix, pt, 3, 1747, p. 72. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 447, p. 149. See 1738. HAMPE. [238.] 

1747. NEUMAN, C. Of Ambergris . . . <Phil. Trans., Abridged by Martyn, 1732-44, 
ix, pt. 3, 1747, pp. 339-346, 346-358, 358-366. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 443, p. 344; no. 434, p. 371; no. 435, p. 417. See 1738. NEU- 
MANN. [239.] 

1747. [PREVOST, A. F.] Sierra-Leona, par Atkins. <^Hist. ge'ner. des Voy., du Prfcost, 
iii, 1747, pp. 239-252. 

Manat6e ou Vacho marine, pp. 240-241. External characters and mode of capture, based 
on Atkins, Voy. en Guinee, etc., p. 43. (See ATKINS, under 1735.) 

La Vache do mer ou le Lamantin, ibid., pp. 315-316. A compiled account, based largely on 
Atlcins, op. cit. 

Poisson de mer & do rivieres [de la C6te d'Or], ibid., iv, pp. 256-262. Le Grampus ou le 
Souffleur, pp. 259, 2GO. Le Marsouin, p. 260. 

Poisson de mer & d'eau douce [de Congo <fc d' Angola], ibid., v, 1748, pp. 91-95. L'Ambize 
Angulo, pp. 92-93. Account of external characters, etc., compiled from Dapper. |240.] 

1747. SCILLA, AUGUSTIXO. De | Corporibus Marinis | Lapidescentibus | quss defossa 

reperiuntur, | AuctoreAugustinoScilla | addita dissertatione | Fabii Columnae 

| de Glossopetris. | [Vignette.] Romse, Typis Antonii de Rubeis in via Semi- 

narii Romani. | MDCCXLVII. | | Superiorum permissu. 4. 11. 5, pp. 1-73, 

11. 3, pll. i-xxviii-f-frontispiece. 

In this first Latin version of Scilla (see 1670. SCILLA) the description of Squalodont remains 
occurs at p. 47. The plates are the same as those of the original edition, the Squalodout 
remains being represented in fig. 1, pi. xii. [241.] 


1747. STEIGERTAHL, [J. G.] Account of a Narhual or Unicorn Fish, by Dr. Steigertahl, 

F. R. S., dated at Hanover Apr. 20, O. S. 1736. Translated from the French 
by T. S. M. D., &c. <P/utos. Trans., Abridged by Martyn, 1732-44, lx, pt.3, 
1747, pp. 71, 72, pi. v, fig. 42. ' 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 447, p. 147. See 1738. STEIGERTAHL. [242.] 

1748. BAECK, ABR. "De cornu Piscis piano singular! carinae navis impacto. <^Acta 

A cad. Caes. Nat. Cur., viii, 1748, pp. 199-217." 

Not seen; perhaps not Cetacean. Title from Carus and Engehnann. 1243.] 

1748. ELLIS, H. A | Voyage | to | Hudson's-Bay, | by the | Dobbs Galley and Cali- 
fornia, | In the Years 1746 and 1747, | For Discovering a | North West Pas- 
sage; | with | An accurate Survey of the Coast, and a short | Natural History 
of the Country. | Together with | A fair Vievr of the Facts and Arguments 
from | which the future finding of such a Passage is | rendered probable. | By 
Henry Ellis, Gent. | Agent for the Proprietors of said Expedition. | To which 
is prefixed, | An Historical Account of the Attempts hitherto made | for the 
finding a Passage that Way to the East Indies. | Illustrated with proper Cuts, 
and a new and correct Chart | of Hudson's-Bay, with the Countries adjacent. 
| | London: | Printed for H. Whitridge, at the Royal Exchange. | 
M.DCC.XLVIII. 1 vol. sm. 8. pp. i-xxviii, 1-335, map, and cuts. 

The plate facing p. 132 gives a figure of "The Great Harpoon for Whales, with its Barb, 
Coil, & Bouy" used by the Eskimo. On the plate facing p. 134 are figures of "A Sea Uni- 
corn" and "A Whale." In the text there are merely incidental allusions to these animals. 
The figure of the Whale was doubtless intended for that of Balcsna mysticetus, but the head 
is very short in proportion to the whole length of the animal. 

A German translation of Ellis appeared at Gottingen in 1750, and a French and a Dutch 
translation at Leiden the same year, each in 8, q. v. [244.] 

1748. LINNE, C. Carol! Linnaji | Archiatr. Reg. Met. et Bot. Profess. Upsal. | Sys- 

tenia | Naturaj j sistens | Regna tria Naturae. | in | Classes et Ordines | Genera 
et Species | redacta | Tabulisque a^uis illustrata. | [Monogram.] [Cum 
privilegio S. R. M. PolonicsB ac Electoris Saxon. | | Secundum sextain 
Stockholmiensem eineudatam & auctam | cditionem. | | Lipsiae, Impensis 
Godofr. Kiesewetter. | 1748. 11. 3, pp. 1-224, 11. 15, pll. i-vii. 

Pisces plagiuri (= Sirenia+ Cete), p. 39. Genera Trichecus (1 sp.), Catodon (2 spp.), Mono- 
don (1 sp.), Ealcena (3 spp.), Delphinus (3 spp.), Physeter (2 spp.). Reference only to Artedi 
and Faun. Suec. 

PL iv, fig. 1, Plagiurus cum cauda horizontali = Delphinus ? [245.] 

1748-56. " MEYER, J. D. Angenehmer und niitzlicher Zeitvertreib mit Betrachtung 
curioser Vorstellung allerhaud kriechcnder, fliegender und schwemmender, 
auf dem Land und irn Wasser sich befmdender und niihrender Thiere. Sowohl 
nach ihrer Gestalt und ausserlichen Beschaffenheit nach der Natur gezeich- 
net, gemahlet und in Kupfer gestochen von J. D. Meyer. Niirnberg, 1748- 
1756. 3 din. folio. Met 240 gekleurde platen." 

Not seen; title from 'Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 11, no. 120. [24(3.] 

1749. COXDAMINE, M. DE LA. Relation abregde d'un Voyage fait dans I'intdrieur de 

FAmerique m6ridionale, depuis la Cote de la Mer du Sud, jusques aux Cotes 
du Bresil & de la Guiane, en descendant la riviere Amazones. <^Hist. de 
VAcad. roy. des Sci. a Paris, ann. 1745 (1749), pp. 391-492, pi. ix. 

Lamentin ou Poisson-boeuf, pp. 464, 465. [247.] 

1749. GOMARA, F. L. DE. Francisco Lopez de Gomara, Historia de las Indias. <His- 
toriadores | primitives | de las Indias occidentales, | que junto, traduxo en 
parte, | y faco a luz, ilustrados con eruditas No- | tas, | y copiosos Indices, | 
el ilustrissimo Seuor | D. Andres Gonzalez Barcia, | del Consejo, y camara de 
S. M. | Divididos en tres Tornos. j Tomo 1[-III]. | [Design.] Madrid. Ano 
MDCCXLIX. 3 vols. fol. 

Del Pez, que llaman en la Espauola Manati, vol. ii, cap. xxxi, p. 25. External characters 
and habits, one half page. [243. ] 

29 GB 


1750. "ANDERSON, J. Histoire | Naturelle | do 1'Islande, | du Greenland, | du Dd- 
troit do Davis, | Et d'autrcs Pays situe's sous le Nord, | Traduite de PAlle- 
-mand | De M. Anderson, de l'Acad6mie | Impcriale, Bourg-mestre en Chef | de 
la Ville de Hanabourg. | Par M * *, de I'Academie Impe"riale, & | de la Societe 
Royale de Londres. | Tome Premier [Second]. | [Device.] | A Paris, | Chez 
Sebastien Jorry, Imprimeur- | Librairo, Quai des Augnstins, pres | le Pont S. 
Michel, aux Cigogues. | | M. DCC. L. | Avec approbation & Privilege du 
Roi. 2 vols. 18. Vol. 1, vignette facing title, pp. i-xl, map, pp. 1-314, fold- 
ing pll. i, ii, opp. p. 84 (birds) and p. 188. Vol. 2, 1 p. 1. (title), pp. i-iv, 1-391, 
unnumbered pll. opp. pp. 54 (birds), 78, 108, 1G8, 220." 

"Seo the orig. cd., 1746; there are said to be later French eds., of 1734 and 1764." 

Not seen; from Cones, Birds Col. ValL, App., 1878, p. 580. [249-1 

1750. "ANDERSON, Joh. Beschrijving van IJsland, Greenland en de straat Davis. 
Verrijkt met (6) platen en een nieuwe kaart van de ontdekkingeii. Benevens 
een voorberigt, bevattende de levensbijzonderheden van den schrijver. Uit 
Let Hoogduitsch vertaald door J. D. T. Te Amsterdam, bij St. van Esvaldt. 
1750. 4." 

"... "Walvisch. Baarden, spek, traan, bl. 78-82. "Waarin van andere visschen to onder- 
scheiden, bl. 137. Onderschcidene soorten en nachrichcen van dien viseh, bl. 158. Wal- 
vischdoder, bl. 194. 

''"Walvischvangst. Hoe de Groenlanders dezelve verrichten, bl. 221. "Waarom de Hollan- 
ders daarin beter slagen dan de Denen, bl. 129." 

Not seen ; title and references from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 231, no. 3418. There is a later Dutch 
edition (Amsterdam, 1756, q. v.), to which are appended Horrebow's observations. [250.] 

1750. " BRING, S. Do piscaturis in Oceano Boreali. Lund., Goth. 1750. 4." 

Title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 234, no. 3435. [251.] 

1750. ELLIS, H. Voyage a la Baye de Hudson, en 1744-47, pour la do"couverte d'un 
passage au Nord-Ouest. Trad, fie 1'Angl. augmented, Leide, 17cO. 8. pll. 9. 
This French translation is said to have been made by C. Sellius. 
For account of the Cetological matter, see the original English ed. of 1748. [252.] 

1750. ELLIS, H. Reize naar de Baal van Hudson, ter ontdekkinge van eenen Noord- 
Wester doorfogt. Leiden, 1750. 8. pll. 9, cuts in text. 

Dutch translation of the English edition, 1748, q. 'v. [253.] 

1750. ZORGDRAGER, C. G. Cornelius Gisbert Zorgdrager's | Beschreibung | des | 
Grdulandischen | Walllischfangs | und | Fisehery, | nebst einer grfindlichen 
Nachricht | von dem | Bakkeljau-und Stocklischfang | bey | Terreneuf, | und 
einer kurzen Abhandlung | von | Gronland, Island, Spitzbergen, Nova Zem- 
bla, | Jan Mayen Eiland, der Strasse Davids u. a. | Aus dem Hollandischen 
ubersezt, und mit accuraten Kupfern und Land- | Charteu gezieret. | | 
Nurnberg, bey Georg Peter Mouath, 17 vO. 4. Frontispiece, 11. 3, pp. 1-370, 

Frontispiece title-page, printed title-page, plain back. Vorrede des Verlegers, 2 11., with 
the last backed by Erklaruug des Kupfer-Blates. Einleitung. Yon den ersten Erfindern 
der neuen Kiisten und Lande insgemein, pp. 1-15. Then follows the Alte und neus Grou- 
l&ndischen Fischery, pp. 16-302. Ztigabe (account of the Cachelot oder Potfisch), pp. 302, 303. 
GrSnlandischen Wnllflsch-Fang, pp. 30J-346. Summarischo Nachricht von dem Bakkeljau- 
und Stockfisch-Fang bci Terreneuf, in don nordliclion Theilen von America, aus den Schrift- 
ten des IJerrn Denys gezogen. pp. 346-3C5. Erklarung etlicher fremd- und unbekaunten 
WSrter, etc., pp. 363-370. Eegister, 5 leaves. 

This is apparently a translation of the Dutch edition of 1720, with more or less abridg- 
ment, especially the omission of the rhymed passages of the original, and the statistical lists 
of the Greenland Whale-fishery, with the addition of the Account, of the Codfish-fishery of 
later editions. The copy handled, although apparently in the original binding, lacks all the 
maps and plates except the frontispiece. [254.] 

1751. [DAUBEXTON, L. J. M.] Cachalot. <^Encycl., ou Diet. rais. des ScL, des Arts ct 
des Metiers, ii, 1751, pp. 502, 503. [255.] 


1751. KLEIX, J. T. Jacobi Theodori Klein | Sccr. Civ. ged. | Soc. reg. Lend, ct Acad. 
Scient. Bonon. | Mernbri | Qvadrvpedvm | dispositio | brevisque j Historia 
Natvralis. | [Vignette.] | Lipsiae | apvd lonam Schmidt, bibl.Lvbec. | 1751. 
4. 11. 2, pp. 1-127, pll. i-iii + 2 unnumb. 

Hanatcs, pp. 94, 95. [256.] 

1751. STELLER, GEORG. WILHELM. De Bestiis marinis. <JVbr. Comm. Acad. sci. imp. 
Petropolitanae, ii, 1749 (1751), pp. 289-398, pll. 

Descriptio Manalt seu Vaccae marinao Hollantloriim, sea-cow Anglornm, Russorum Mor- 
skaia Korowa. Occisad. 12. lul. 1742, in insula Bcringii American! inter ct Asiam in canali 
sita, pp. 294-330. Descriptio partium externanim. pp. 296-309. Descriptio internarum par- 
tium, pp. 309-318. Ossium brevis descriptio, pp. 318-320. Descriptio inorum et naturae, pp. 
320-330. [257-1 

1751. [VANDENESSE, M. DE.] Baleiue. <^EncycL, on Diet. rais. des ScL, des Arts et des 

Metiers, ii, 1751, pp. 32-3(5. 

Baleine, pp. 32, 33. Pcche tie la baleine, pp. 33-36. Le l)lanc de la baleine, p. 36. [258.] 

1752. HILL, JOHN. An | History J of j Animals. | Containing Descriptions of the | 

Birds, Beasts, Fishes, and Insects, | of the | Several parts of the World ; | and | 
Including Accounts of the several Classes of Animalcules, | visible only by 
the Assistance of Microscopes. | In these | The Characters, Qualities, and Forms 
of the several Creatures are | described, the names by which, they are com- 
monly known, as well as those by j which Authors, who have written on the 
Subject, have called them are explained : | And each is reduced to the Class to 
which it naturally belongs. | Illustrated with Figures, j | By John Hill, 
M. D. | Acad. Reg. Scient. Burdig. &.c. Soc. | | London: | Printed for Thomas 
Osborne, in Gray's-Iim. | | MDCCLII. 2 C . 11. 4, pp. 1-584, 11. 2, pll. 
i-xxviii, colored. 

Fishes. Class the Fifth. Plagiuri, Cetaceous Fishes, pp. 310-317. Physeter, 2 spp., p. 310; 
Dclphinus, 3 spp., pp. 310, 311; Balama, 4 spp., pp. 312-314; Monodon, 1 sp., p. 314, pi. xvi; 
Catodon, 1 sp., p. 31 5 ; Trichechus, p. 317. A short but very good general account of the subject. 
The specific names adopted are English, but the species are referred to Linntean genera. [259.] 

1752. SCILLA, AUGUSTIXO. De | Corporibus Marinis | Lapidescentibus | quse defossa 

reperiuiitur | Auctore Augnstiuo Scilla | additadissertatione | de Glossopetria 
| Editio altera emendatior. | [Vignette.] Romse. MDCCLII. j Sumptibus Te- 
nantiiMonaldinaBibliopolie in via Curfus. | | | Ex Typographia Lingua- 
rum Oriental ium | Augeli Rotilii, et Philippi Bacchelli. | In ^Edipus Maxi- 
mornm. j Superiorvm permissv. | 4. pp. i-viii, 1-84, 11. 3, pll. i-xxviii -f I 
& frontis. 

In this edition (see SCILLA at 1670 and 1747) the description of the Squalodont remains is at 
p. 55. The plates are apparently from the original etchings. [260.] 

1753. Axox. "Naamlyst . . . van alle de Commandeurs, die sedert 1700 op Groen- 

land en de Straat Davids voor Holland hebben gevaren . . . hoeveel vissen en 
vaten spek ieder heeft aangebragt. Zaandam, 1753. 4." 

Not seen; title from Fr. MuUer's Cat. Amer. Books, 1877, p. 127, no. 2214. For an appar- 
ently later edition of the same work, see 1770. SANTE, (>. VAN. [261.] 

1753. BOND, J. An account of a machine for killing of Whales, proposed by John Bond, 
M. D. <Philos. Trans. Lond., xlvii, art. Ixxi, 1753, pp. 429-435. 

On account of the difficulty in propelling the harpoon to a sufficient distance, the \vriter 
recommends the use of the ancient balista, with certain modifications to suit the exigencies 
of the occasion. [262.] 

1753. STELLER, G. W. Georg Wilhelm Stellers | ausfnhrlicbe | Beschreibung | von 
souderbaren [ Meerthieren, | mit Erlauterungen und nothigen Kupfern | ver- 
sehen. | [Vignette.] | Halle, | in Verlag, Carl Christian Kummel. | 1753. | 8. 

11. 9, pp. 1-48. 

Beschreibung eincs Manati odcr Meertuh, welches Thierden 12ten Julii 1742 auf der TnsiU 
Bering, die zwischen America und Asieo im Canal gelegen ist, getodtet werden, pp. 48-107. 

Detailed account of its external and internal anatomy. This work contains, (1) " Zur Ein- 
leitung. Anatomie eines Meerkalbes, von Johaun Adam Kulmus, in Aciis Nat. Cur., vol. i, 
obs. 5," pp. 1-41; (2) "Georg Wilhelm Stellers Abhandlung von Meerthieren," pp. 41-218, 
a translation of De Bestiis marinis. See 1751. STELLEU, G. W. [263.] 


1753-54. PONTOPPIDAN, E. Erich Pontoppidans, D. | Bischofs uber das Stift Bergen in 
Norwegen und Mit- | glieds der Konigl. Dan. Societat der Wissenschaften | 
Versuch | einer | naturlichen | Historie | von Norwegen, | Worinnen die Luft, 
Grund und Boden, Gewas- | ser, Gewachse, Metalle, Mineralien, Steinarten, 
Thiere, | V6gel, Fische und endlichdas Nature!, wie auch die | Gewohnheiteu 
nnd Lebensarten der Einwohner | dieser Konigreichs beschrieben werden. | 
Erster Theil. | Aus dem Danischen ubersetzt | von | Jobann Adolph Scheibeu, 
| K. D. C. | | Mit Kupfern. | | Kopenhageu, | Bey Franz Christian 
Murame, | 1753. Zweiter Theil, 1754. 8. Erster Theil, pp. 1-367, mit 16 
Tafeln; Zweiter Theil, pp. 1-56, 1-536, mit 14 Tafeln. 

Wallfisch, Zweiter Theil, pp.,223-234. 

The species designated are: 1. Hvalfisk, pp. 223-232. This relates mainly to the Green- 
land "Whale (Balcena mysticetiis), but also contains some reference to the Sperm "Whale ; the 
figure (pi. facing p. 209) is that of Physeter macrocephalus. "2. Tuequal (the Plockfisch of the 
Germans), p. 232. 3. Rorqval, p. 232. 4. Troldqual, p. 232. 5. Springhv'al, pp. 232, 284, pi. 
facing p. 285. 6. Xebbe-HvaL p. 233, pi. facing p. 209, fig. orig. This last, named also Ba- 
lcena rostrata, is evidently one of the Beaked "Whales, but the others are too briefly mentioned 
to be identified. 7. Marsvin, p. 257. 8. XarhVnl, p. 359, pi. facing p. 247. 

For further comment see infra (1755), the English ed. [264.] 

1753-54. WAGENAAR, JAN. Vaderlandsche | Historie, | vervattende de | Geschiede- 
nissen | der Vereenigde Nedcrlanden, | inzonderheid die van | Holland, | van 
de vroegste tydenaf : | Uit de geloofwaardigste Schryvers en egte Gedenk- | 
stukken samengesteld. | Met Konst plaaten en Karten opgehelderd. j . . . Te 
Amsterdam, j By Isaak Tidrion. | 21 vols. 8. 1749-1759. 

Potwalvisch, by Kalwyk, gestrnnd, ix, 1753. pp. 37, 38. Begensels der Walvischvangst, 
x, 1754, pp. 67 et seq. "Walvisschen voor Schevemngeii gestrand, x, p. 158. [265.] 

1754.. AN ON. ? "Seeeinhorn. -^Berlin, icochentl. llelat. der Merlcw. Sachen a. d. Natur- 
reiche, 1754, p. 719." 

Xot seen; title from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 756. [266.] 

1754. CATESBY, M. The | Natural History | of | Carolina, Florida, and of the Bahama 
Islands : | Containing the Figures of | Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, Insects 
and Plants: | Particularly the Forest- Trees, Shrubs, and other Plants, not 
hitherto described, | or very incorrectly figured by Authors. | Together with 
their Descriptions in English and French. | To which are added, | Observa- 
tions on the Air, Soil, and Waters: | With Kemarksupon | Agriculture, Grain, 
Pulse, Roots, &c. | To the whole is prefixed a new and correct Map of the 
Countries treated of. | By the Late Mark Catesby, F. R. S. | Revis'd by Mr. 
[George] Edwards, of the Royal College of Physicians, London. | | Vol. I 
[II]. [French version of the title follows.] London: | Printed for C. Marsh, 
in Round Court in the Strand; T. Wilcox, over-against the new Church, in 
the Strand; and B. Stichall in Clare-Court. | | MDCCLIV. 2 vols. fol. 
pll. col. 

This is said to be identical with the original edition of 1731-33. Coues (op. cit.) gives a col- 
lation of the 1771 ed. 

Page xxxii of the "Account of Carolina and the Bahama Islands" contains 2 lines about 
"Whales " and 10 lines about "The Porpesse,'' neither of any importance. [267.] 

1754. DAUBENTON, L. J. M. Dauphin, delplrinus. <^Encycl., on Diet. rais. des Sci., des 

Arts et des Metiers, iv, 1754, p. 645. [268.] 

1755. ANON. ? "iTree and impartial remarks on the real importance of the Whalefish- 

ery. London, Cooper. 1755. 8." 

!Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 251, no. 3600. [269.] 

1755. PONTOPPIDAN. The | Natural History | of | Norway: | containing | A particular 
and accurate Account of the Temperature of the Air, the | different Soils, 
Waters, Vegetables, Metals, Minerals, Stones, Beasts, | Birds, and Fishes; 
together with the Dispositions, Customs, and | Manner of Living of the In- 
habitants : Interspersed with Physiological | Notes from eminent Writers, and 
Transactions of Academies. I In Two Parts. I Translated from the Danish 


1755. PONTOPPIDAN Continued. 

Original of the | Right Rev d . Erich Pontoppidan, | Bishop of Bergen in Nor- 
way, and Member of the Royal Academy | of Sciences of Copenhagen. | Illus- 
trated with Copper Plates, and a General Map of Norway. | | [Vignette.] 
| London: | Printed for A. Linde, Bookseller to Her Royall Highness the 
Princess Dowager of Wales, in Catherine-Street in the Strand. | | MDCCLV. 
ibl. Pt. i, pp. i-xxiv, 1-206; pt. ii, pp. i-viii, 1-292, 11. 6, map, pll. 18, mostly 

Part ii, pp. 118-151, Cetacea, passim. 1. Hval-fisk, or Qua!, the Whale, pp. 118-123 = 
Balcena mysticetus, principally, but in the account of this species several others are inci- 
dentally mentioned; 2. Herring-Whale, pp. 120, 145, doubtless some kind of Finuer Whale; 
3. Tuequal, or Bunch-back'd Whale, p. 123 = ? Megaptera longimana,- 4. Spring-bval, or 
Springeren, p. I23 = Balcenoptera rostrata (cf. Fabricius, Faun. Groenl., p. 40); 5. Baloena, 
rostraia, or Nebbe-hval, the Beaked Whale, p. 123 = Hyperoodon rostrata; 6. Doglingen, p. 
124=? Globiocephalus melas , 7. Marsvin, or Porpesse, which is here called Nice, and also 
Tumler, the Tumbler, p. 136 = Phoccena communis, at least in part; 8. Narhval, Unicornu 
Marinum, the Unicorn Fish, p. 137, pi. marked "no. 4," but apparently no. 22 of the list at the 
end of the volume = Monodon monoceros ; 9. Spek-hugger, or Yahu, pp. 122, 150, figured on 
pi. "no. 5"(=no. 21 of the list at the end of the volume), described as "in shape much like a 
Porpesse, and about four feet long," with a sharp snout and "very keen teeth," and "long 
projecting jaws," and is said to prey upon the Whales, but the account as a whole cannot be 
referred to any known species. It is impossible to say whether it be really a Cetacean. 

Plates described as "20, 21, 22, Of Fishes, page 103" in the directions to the binder on the 
reverse of p. 291 of pt. ii, embrace, among numerous other figures not Cetacean, 1 . The Whale 
= Physeter macrocephalus, 2. " The Goosebilled Whale, " a caricature of probably some species 
of Hyperoodon, 3. A Whale with two speta buggers, apparently a Delphinoid, attacked by 
two of the " Spek -buggers " described at p. 150. There is no reference to these figures in the 
text, and the names of none of them exactly correspond with those of the species there 
described. 4. The Narwhal an odd caricature copied from an earlier author. None of the 
figures are in fact original. 

Pontoppidan's account of the Whale tribe is largely derived from preceding authors, the rest 
being- based mainly on accounts received from fishermen. The author frankly states that he 
never saw a Whale except once, and then only the back of one as it came to the surface of the 
water to breathe. It is of interest chiefly as a record of the myths then prevalent respecting 
these creatures. His notices of them are interspersed among those of the Viviparous Fishes. 
One specific name still current (Balcena ROSTEATA) for a species of Hyperoodon dates from 
Pontoppidan. [270.] 

1756. ''ANDERSON, J. Beschryving | van | Ysland, j Greenland | en de Straat Davis. 

| Bevattende zo wel ene bestipte bepaliug van de ligging en | grote van die 
Eilandeu, als een volledige ontvouwing van hunue | inwendige gesteltenis, 
vuurbrakende Bergen, heete en war- | me Bronnen enz. een omstandig Bericht 
van de Vruchten | en Kruiden des Lands; van de wilde en tamrne Landdie- | 
ren, Vogelen en Visschen, de Visvangst der Yslanders | en hunne onderscheide 
behaudeling, toebereiding en | drogen der Visschen, voorts het getal der In- 
woon- | ders, hunnen, Aart, Levenswyze en Bezigheden, | Woningen. | Kle- 
dingen, Handteering, Arbeid, | Veehoedery, | Koophandel, Maten en Ge- | 
wichten, Huwelyks Plechtigheden, Opvoe- | ding hunner Kiuderen, Gods- 
dienst, Ker- | ken en Kerkenbestuur, Burgerlyke Rege- | ring, Wetten, Straf- 
oeifeningen en wat | wyders tot de Kennis van een Land | vereischt word. | 
Door den Heer j Johan Anderson, | Doctor der Beide Rechten, en in Leven 
eerste Burgerraeester | der vrye Keizerlyka Ryksstad Hamburg. | Verrykt met 
Platen en een nieuwe naauwkeurige Landkaart der | ontdeKkinge, waar van 
in dit Werk gesprokeu word. | Hit het Hoogduits vertaalt. | Door | J. D.'J. | 
Waar by gevoegt zyn de Verbeteringen | Door den Heer Niels Horrebow, | 
Opgemaakt in zyn tweejarig verblyf op Ysland. | [Designs.] | Te Amsterdam, 

| By Jan van Dalen, Boekverkoper op de Colveniersburgwal | by de Staal- 
straat. 1756. 1 vol. sm. 4. Full-page vignette, title, both backed blank, 
7 more unpaged 11. ('Voorbericht'), map, pp. 1-285+3 11. ('Bladwyzer'); with 
5 pll. at pp. 34 (birds), 149 (birds), 172, 189, 216. To which is appended: Verbe- 
teringen | Wegeus de | Beschryving | Van het Groot Eyland | Ysland, | Be- 
schreven | Door den Heer | Johan Anderson. | Opgemaakt in een tweejarig 


1756. "ANDERSON, J. Continued. 

verblyf | op dat Eyland, | Door den Heer | Niels Horrebow. 5 unpaged 11., 
pp. 1-158." 

Not seen; title from Cooes, Birds Col. Vail., 1878, p. 581. This is the later Dutch edition 
referred to above at 1750. It is by the same translator, with the addition of Hoixebow's me- 
moir, but is issued by a different publisher. See the references to the cetological matter 
given from Bosgoed for the ed. of 1750. See, also, HOUIIEBOW, N., at 1769. [271.] 

1756. BRISSOX, M. J. Kegnum animate | in Classes IX distributum, | sive | Synopsis 
Methodica | sisteus generalem Aniuialiuni | distribution em in Classes IX, & 
duarum priroarurn | Classium, Quadrupedum scilicet & Cetaceorum, parti- | 
cularem divisionem in Ordines, Sectiones, Genera & | Species, | Cum brevi 
cujusque Speciei, | descriptione Citationibus Auctorum de iis tractautium, | 
Nomiuibus eis ab ipsis & Nationibus impositis, Nominibus- | que vulgaribus. | 
A D. Brisson, Historic Naturalis Musei Realmuriaiii | Demonstratore. | Cum 
Figuris seneis. | -r- | [Vignette.] | Parisiis. | Ad Ripam Augustinorum. | Apud 
Cl. Joannem-Baptistam Bauche, Bibli(polam, ad | Insigne S tiE . Genovefaj &, 
S t! . Joannis in Deserto. | M. DCC. LVI. | | Cum privilegio Regis & Approba- 
tione. pp. i-vii, 1-382. 


Le Regne Animal | divise* en IX Classes, | ou | Mdthode | contenant la divi- 
sion generale des | Animaux en IX Classes, & la division particuliere | des deux 
premieres Classes, scavoir de celle des | Quadrupedes & de celle des Cetace'es, 
en Ordres, | Sectiones, Genres & Espe"ces. | Aux quelles on a joint une | 
courte description de chaqne Esp6ce, avec les Citations | des Auteurs qui en 
'ont traite", les Noms qu'ils leurs orit | donnes, ceux que leurs ont donnes les 
differentes | Nations, & les noms vulgaires. | ParM. [Mathuriu Jacques] Bris- 
son, D6monstrateur du Cabinet d'Histoire | Naturelle de M. de Reaumur. | 
Avec Figures en taille douce. [Vignette.] A Paris, | Quay des Augustins. | 
Chez Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauclie, Libraire, a I'Image Sainte | Genevie"ve & S. 
Jean dans le Desert. | M. DCC. LVI. | | Avec Privilege du Roi & Approba- 
tion. 4. 11. 2, pp. i-vj, 1. 1. pp. 1-382, 1. 1. Text in both Latin and French. 

Genus Odobeni=Sirenia + Wall-uses, pp. 48-51. Le Lamantin, Jfanaws(=genn. Manatus 
et Halicore), pp. 49-51. 

Classe ii. | Les Cetace'es. | [ou] Classis ii. | Cetacea. [half-title, p. 341], pp. 341-382. 

The Cetacea are divided into fouK orders: 

Order I. Cetacea edentula. with 1 genus, Balcena, and 7 species, to wit: 1. Balcena vulgaris 
Groenlandica, p. 347 = 13. mysticetus ; ii. Balcena Ixlandica. p. 350 = JR. biscayensis; J*. Balcena 
Novce Anglice, p. 351 " Bunch or Hump-back-wbnlc" of the English; 4. Balscna bipinnis, sex 
in dorso gibbis, p. 351 = 1?. gibbosa, Erxleben or "Scrag Whale" of Dudley; Agaphelus gibbo- 
sits, Cope; 5. Bala3na tripinnis, ventri levi, p. 352; 6. Balaena tripinnis, ventre rugoso, rostro 
rotundo, p. 353=Physalus antiquorum , 7. Balajna tripinnis, ventre rugoso, rostro acuto, 
p. 355=Balcenoptera rostrata. 

Order II. Cetacea dentata in maxilld inferiore tantiim, with 1 genus, Cetus, and 7 species. 
1. Cetus, p. 358 = Physeter macrocephalus; '5. Cetns albicans, p. 3ZQ = Beluga catodon ; 
3. Cetus Novce Anglice, p. 360="Sperma Ceti Whale" of Dudley, hence Phyiseter macro- 
cephalus; 4. Cetus minor, p. 36l = Physeter macrocephalus, juv. ; 5. Cetus tripinnis, deutibus 
acutis, rectis, p. 362 = Physeter macrocephalus ; 6. Cetus tripinnis, dentibus acutis, ai'cuatus, 
falcifornus, p. 363 = PAi/se<<?r macrocephalus; 7. Cetus tripinnis, dentibus in planum desinen- 
tibus, p. 3G4 = Physeter macrocephalus. 

Order III. Cetacea dentata in maxilld superiore tentum, with 1 genus, Ceratodon, and 1 spe- 
cies: Ceratodon=3fonodon monoceros. 

Order IV. Cetacea dentata in utrdque maxilld, with 1 genus, Delphinus, and 5 species, to 
wit: 1. Delphinus, p. 369 = Delphinux delphis ; 2. Phoccena, p. 31l = Phoccena communi* ; 
3. Delphinus pinna in dorso un& Gladii recurvi semula, dentibus acutis, rostro quasi trun- 
cato, p. 372 = Physeter macrocephalus; 4. Orca, p. 373 = Orco gladiator; 5. Physeter, p. 374 
= Physeter macrocephalus. 

Total, 4 genera, 20 species. Of the latter no less than 7 are based on different accounts of tho 
Sperm Whale, the aiithor compiling indiscriminately from Sibbald, Artedi, Klein, etc. [272.] 

1756. LINXE, C. Caroli Linnsei | Archiatr. Reg. Med. et Bot. Profess. Upsal. | Sys- 
tema | Nature | sisteus Regna tria Naturae | in | Classes et Ordines j Genera 


1756. LINN, C. Continued. 

ct Species | redaeta, | tabalisqae seneis illustrata. | Accednnt yocabula Gal- 
lica. | Editio ranlto auctior & emendatior. | [Vignette.] Lugduui Batavo- 
rum, | Aptid Theodorain Haak, | MDCCLVI. 8. 11. 4, pp. 1-2*27, 11. 9+4, 
pll. i-viii. 

Classis iv. Pisces. Ordo 8. Plagiuri. Genn. Trichecvs, Catodon, Monodon, Balcena, Del- 
phinus, Physeter (pp. 39, 40). Trichecus here includes the single species "1. Manatus ... la 
Lamantin." Catodon has 2 species; Monodon, 1; Balccna, 4; Delphinw, 3; Physeter, 2 
geun. 6, spp. 13. [273.] 

1757. BOND, JOHN. Bericht wegens een Werktuig omWalvissente Schieten. <^Hou- 

tuyn's Uilyezogte Verhandl. nit dc Aicmcste JFerken van de Sovietieten der We- 
tensch. in Europa, etc., i Band, ii Deel, 1757, pp. 1-10. 

From: Phil. Trans., 1757, vol. xlvii, pp. 429 et seq. See 1751. BOND, J. [274.] 

1757. "DEBES, L. JAC. Naturliclie and Politische Historic der Inseln. Faroe, woriun 
die Luft, Grand and Boden, Gewasser, Thiere, Vogel, Fische, etc., das Nata- 
rel, die Gewobnheiten, Lebensart der Eimvobner dieser Inseln and ibre Ver- 
fassang beschrieben werden. Aas dem DUniscbcn ubersetzt. Kopenbagen 
and Leipzig, Pelt, 1757. 8. Met kopergrav." 

Xot seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 50, no. 773. For account of the cetological matter of 
Debea's work, see English version, at 1676. [275.] 

1757. HORREBOW, N. Tbe | Nataral History | of | Iceland: | containing | A particular 

and accarate Accoant of tbe different Soils, barning Moan- | tains, Minerals, 
Vegetables, Metals, Stones, Beasts, Birds, and Fisbes; | together with the 
Disposition. Castoms, and Manner of Living of | the Inhabitants. Interspersed 
with an Accoant of the Island, by | Mr. Anderson, late Burgo-master of Ham- 
bargh. | To which is added, a Meteorological Table, with Remarks. | Trans- 
lated from the Danish Original of N[iels]. Horrebow. And illastrated with a 
New General Map of the Island. | | London: | . . . [= names of booksellers, 
4 lines]. MDCCLVII. 2. pp. i-xx, 1-207, map. 

Chap. Ixv. Concerning the Whale. Chap. Ixvi. Concerning the porpus, pp. 85-87. Brief 
account of the capture and ust-8 of these animals. 1 276. | 

1758. BORLASE, WILLIAM. The | Nataral History | of | Cornwall. | The | Air, Climate, 

Waters, Rivers, Lakes, Sea, and Tides; | Of the Stones, Semimetals, Metals, 
Tin, and the Manner of Mining; | The Constitation of the Stannaries; | Iron, 
Copper, Silver, Lead, and Gold, foand in Cornwall. | Vegetables, Rare Birds, 
Fishes, Shells, Reptiles, and Quadrupeds: | Of the Inhabitants, | Their Man- 
ners, Customs, Plays or Interlades, Exercises, and Festivals; | the Cornish 
Langaage, Trade, Tenares, and Arts. | Illastrated with a new Sheet Map of 
the Coanty, and Twenty-Eight Folio | Copper- Plates from Original Drawings 
taken on the Spot. | | By William Borlase, A. M. F. R. S., | Rector of Ludg- 

van, and Aathor of the Antiquities of Cornwall. | | Natale 

solnni dalcedine captos | Dacit. | | Oxford, | Printed for the Aathor ; by W. 
Jackson: | Sold by W. Sandby, at the Ship in Fleet-Street London; and the 
Booksellers of Oxford. | | MDCCLVIII. fol. pp. i-xix, 1-326, 1. 1. 

Sect. ii. Sea-fish, and first cetaceous, pp. 2C3, i :64, pi. xxvii, figg. i, 2. 

The "blower, or fin-fish (Physeter of authors)," p. 263. "The grampus, or Porcus marinus 
major of Raj'," p. 263. "The por-pesse, Porcus marinus seu Phoccuna vel Tursio," etc., p. 264, 
pi. xxvii, fig. 2. "The dolphin, tbe Delphinus of the .ancients and moderns," p. 264, pi. xxvii, 
fig. 1. The figures are from the drawings "of thai accurate Ichthyologist, the late Reverend 
Mr. Jaso of Loo." [277.] 

1758. GUMILLA, J. Histoire | Natarelle, Civile | Et Geographiqae | de j L'Orenoqae. | 
Et des principales Rivieres qui s'y jettent. | Dans laqaelle on traite da Goa- 
vernement, | des asages & des coatarnes des Indiens | qai 1'habitent, des ani- 
manx, des arbres | des fraits, des rdsines, des herbes & | des racines mddici- 
nales qai naissent dans | le Pai\s. On y a joint le detail de plusiears | Conver- 
sions remarquables & 6diiiantes. j Par le Pere Joseph Gamilla, de la | Com- 
pagnie de Jesus, Saperiear des Missions de TOrenoqae. | Tradaite de 1'Espaguol 


1758. GUMILLA, J. Continued. 

sur la Secomle | Edition, par M. Eidous ci-devant | Ingenieur des Arrndes de 
S. M. C. | Tome Second. ([Ornament.] A Avignon, | Chez la Veuve de F. 
Girard, Imprimeur. j Et se vend, | A Marseille, | Chez D. Sibie", Imprinieur du 
Roi, | & Jean Mossi, Libraire. | | M. DCC. LVIII. 3 vols. 12. 

Poissons de FOrenoque. Moyens industrieux <lont les Indiens se servent ponr lea prendre. 
Vertus Medicinales des Pierres & des Os qu'on trouve dans quelques uns. Tom. ii, chap, xxi, 
pp. 36-58. Manati, pp. 43-55. 

For comment, see the Spanish edition of 1745. [278.] 

1758-77. "GMELLNT, Pn. F., und CHRI&TMAXN, G. F. Onomatologia medica completa, 
seu Onomatologia liistoriae natural is, oder vollstiind. Lexicon das alle Bencn- 
nungen der Kunstworter der Naturgesch. uach ihrem ganzen Urnfang erkliiret 
u. den reiclien Schatz der ganzen Natur durch deutliche u. riclitige Beschrei- 
bungen des niitzlichen u. soiiderbaren von alien Thiereu, Pflanzen u. Mine- 
ralien sowohl vor Aerzte als andere Liebhaber in sich fasst zu allgemeiuera 
Gebr. von einer Gesellschaft naturforschender Aerzte nach den richtigsteu 
Urkunden zusammengetragen. 7 Bde. A-Z. (1-4 von Ph. F. Gmelin, 5-7 von 
G. F. Christmann). gr. 8. Ulm ; Frankfort n. Leipzig, 1758, '61, '66, 73, '75, 77." 

Xot seen ; title at second hand, but source not noted. 

Cetaceen, passim. [279.] 

1759. SCILLA, AUGUSTIXO. De | Corporibus Marinis J Lapidescentibus | qua3 defossa 

reperiuntur | Auctore Augustine Scilla | addita dissertatione | Fabii Co- 
lumuai | de Glossopetris | Editio altera eineudatior. I [Vignette.] Romas 
MDCCLIX. | Sumptibus Venantii Monaldini Bibliopolae iu via Cursus. 
| | | Ex Typographia Joannis Zempel | Prope Montem Jordanum. | 
Svperiorvm pennissv. 4. 11. 4, pp. 1-82. 11. 3, pll. i-xxviii-j-1 and frontis. 

This third Latin edition (see SCILLA, at 1670, 1749, and 1752) seems to be textually the same 

as the first and second, with modifications of title-page and accessories. The matter relating 

to the Squalodont remains occurs at p. 54 ; the plates are identical with those of the earlier 

. editions. [280.] 

1760. DOUGLASS, W. A | Summary, | Historical and Political, | of the | First Plant- 

ing, Progressive Improvements, | and Present State of the British Set- | tle- 
ments in North America. | Containing | 

I. Some general Account of ancient | 
and modern Colonies, the grant- j 
ing and settling of the British | 
Continent and West India Island j 
Colonies, with some transient | 
Remarks concerning the adjoin- I 
ing French and Spanish Settle- | 
ments, and other Remarks of | 
various Natures. 

II. The Hudeon's-Bay Company's | 
Lodges, Fur and Skin Trade. | 

III. Newfoundland Harbours and I 

IV. The Province of L'Acadie or 
Nova Scotia; with the Vicissi- 
tudes of the Property and Ju- 
risdiction thereof, and its present 

V. The several Grants of Saga- 
dahock, Province of Main, Mas- 
sachusetts-Bay, and New- Ply- 
mo nth, united by a new Char- 
ter in the present Province of 
Massachusetts - Bay, commonly 
called New- England. 


By William Douglass, M. D. | Vol. I. [-II] | | Ne quid falw dicere audeat, 
ne quid veri non audeat. -Cicero. | | London, | Printed forR. & J. Dodsley, 
in Pall-mall. | MDCCLX. | 2 vols. 8. 

The title-pages of the two volumes differ only in respect to the matter detailing the con- 
tents of the volumes. There appears to have been an earlier [1755] edition, from which this 
seems to be not textually different. 

A digression concerning whaling, vol . i. pp. 56-G1. Ambergris and spermaceti are described ; 
eight different kinds of "Whales are briefly described, with some account of the products of 
each of the habits of Whales, and of whaling. 

A digression concerning fisheries, ibid., pp. 294-304. I. Whales, pp. 296-298. This gives 
an account of the Xew England Whale-fishery as it existed in 1748, with remarks on the 
habits of the Whales pursued, and is of especial importance. [281.] 


1761. CHARLEVOIX, P. [F. X. DE]. Journal | of a | Voyage | to | North- America. | 

Undertaken by Order of the | French King. | Containing | The Geographical 
Description and Natural | History of that Country, particularly | Canada. | 
Together with | An Account of the Customs, Characters, | Religion, Manners 
and Traditions | of the original Inhabitants. | In a Series of Letters to the 
Duchess of Lesdiguieres. | Translated from the French of P. de Charlevoix. | 
In two volumes. | Vol. I. f | | London : | Printed for R. and J. Dodsley, in 
Pall-Mali. | | MDCCLXI. 2 vols. 8. Vol. i, pp. i-viii, 1-382, 1 map. 
Vol. ii, pp. i-viii, 1-380, 11. 13. 

The passage about Porpoises, and Whales is in vol. i, pp. 227-230. See, also, CHARLEVOIX, 
at 1744 and 1763. [282.] 

1762. HOUTTUYN, F. Natuurlyke Historic | of | Uitvoerige Beschryving | der | Die- 

reu, Planten | en | Mineraalen, | Volgens het Sameustel van den Heer | Lin- 
naeus. | Met naauwkeurige Af beeldiugen. | | Eerste Deels, Derde Stuk. | 
Vervolg der | Zoogende Dieren. | [Vignette.] Te Amsterdam, | By F. Hout- 
tuyn. | M D CC LXII. 8. 11. 3, pp. 1-554, 11. 2-, pll. xxii-xxviii. 

Cetacea, pp. 423-534. 1. Eenhoorn-Visch, pp. 423-441; 2. Mysticetus, Groenlandsche Wai- 
visch, pp. 442-477 (Historic der Walvisch-Vangst, pp. 457^77) ; 3. Physalus, Vinvi.sch, pp. 
477-485; 4. Hoops, Ossen-Oog, pp. 485-487 ; 5. Musculus, Breedsmoel, 487-500 ; 6. Catodon, 
pp. 503-505 ; 7. Macrocephalus, Potvisch, pp. 505-530 ; 8. Microps, Klein-Gog, pp. 530-53G ; 
9. Tursio, Mustvisch, pp. 536-539; 10. Phoccena, Bruinvisch, pp. 540-543; 11. Delphis, 
Dolphyn, pp. 543-547; 12. Orca, Botskop, pp. 547-554. [283.] 

1762. "JoNAEUs, W. Dissertatio de piscatura, cujus particula prima, de quibusdam 
Balaenis in mari Islandico captis vel ad littora ejectis, earumque usu, praeci- 
pue occasione libri, dicti Su Konunglega Skuggsja, sive speculum regale, 
resp. J. Jonaeus. Hafniae, 1762. 10 bladz." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 239, no. 3489. [284.] 

1762. SPILMAN, H. "Cachelot, gestrand tusschen Zandvoort en Wyk op Zee, 1762. 

Naar J. Augustini door H. Spilman. br. folio." 

From Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 176, no. 2777. [285.] 

1762 (circa"). VINNE, V. VAN DER. "Cagelot, lang 61 voeten, den 20 Febr. 1762 tussen 
Zantvoort en Wijk-op-Zee aangedreeven. Door V. van der Vinne. br. 4." 

From Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 176, no. 2778. [285.] 

1763. BELLIN, S. Description | Geographique de la Guyane. | Contenant | les Posses- 

sions et les Etablissemens | des Francois, des Espagnols, des Portugais, | des 
Hollandois dans ces vastes Pays. | Le Climat les Productions de la Teire et les 
Animaux [ Leurs Habitans, leurs Moeurs, leurs Coutumes. | et le Commerce 
qu'ou y peut faire. | Avec des Remarques pour la Navigation et des | Cartes, 
Plans, et Figures, | Dresse"es au D6post des Cartes et Plans de la Marine | Par 
Ordre de M le Due de Choiseul Colonel | General des Suisses et Grisons, Mi- 
nistre de la | Guerre et de la Marine. | Par le S. Bellin Ingenieur de la Marine et 
du | Depost des Plans, Censeur Royal, de PAcademie de | Marine et de la So- 
ciete" Royale de Londres. | M. DCC. LXIII. 4. pp. i-xiv (pi. title and engr. 
title, which is the one here given, and "Avertissement"), 1. 1, pp. 1-294, 1. 1, 
maps, numerous plans, and pll. i-x. 

Le Manati, pp. 65, 66, pi. v (Peche du Lamentin par les Indiens ; Lamenum, Manate, Yacho 
Marine). 'Description apparently original; figure a copy from Labat (see 1724. LABAT 
K. R.). [287.] 

1763. CHARLEVOIX, [P.F.X.DE]. Letters | to the | Dutchess of Lesdiguieres; | Giving 
an Account of a | Voyage to Canada, | and | Travels through that vast Coun- 
try, | and | Louisiana, to the Gulf of Mexico. | Undertaken | by Order of the 
present King of France. | By Father Charlevoix. | ... [=28 lines of small 
type in 2 columns, giving description of contents of the work.] Printed for 
R. Goadby, and Sold by R. Baldwin, in Pater- | Noster-Row, London. 1763. 
8. pp. i-xiv, 1 1., pp. 1-384. Without maps. 

The passage relating to Porpoises and "Whales is at pp. 81-88. 

See the original edition, 1744; also the earlier (1761) English edition. [288.] 


1763. EGEDE, H. Herrn Hans Egede, | Missionars und Bischofes in Gronland, | 
Beschreibung | und | Natur-Geschichte | von j Grfinland, ubersetzet | von | D. 
Joh[ann]. Ge[org]. Krunitz. | [Vignette.] | Mit Kupfern. | | Berlin, | 
verlegts August Mylius. \ 1763. 8 C . pp. i-xii, 1-237, i-xi Tafeln. 

Cetacea, pp. 89-100, iv, v Tafeln. 1. Fin-Fisch, p. 89, Taf. iv ; S2. Bart-Fisch, p. 90, Taf. ir ; 
3. Nordcaper, p. 95; 4. Schwerdfisch, p. 96; 5. Cachelot, oder Pot-Fisch, p. 97 ; 6. Weiss- 
fisch, p. 98, Taf. V; 7. Buttskopf, p. 98 = Hyperoodon, sp.; 8. Seeeinhorn. Einhornfish. 
Narwal, p. 99, Taf. v, animal and skull; 9. Der Niser oder das Meerschwein, p. 105. "Wall- 
fischfang, pp. 124-127. [289.J 

1763. GRONOVIUS, LAUR[ENTIUS] THEOD[ORUS]. Zoophylacii | Gronoviani | Fasci- 

culus primus | exliibens | Aninialia | Quadrupeda, | Amphibia | atque | 
Pisces, | quae in | Museo suo adservat, rite examinavit, syste- | matice dispo- 
suit, descripsit, atque | iconibus illustravit | Laur. Theod. Gronovius, J. U. D. 
| Civitatis Lugduno-Batavae Senator, Societatis Physico- | medicae Regiae 
Londinensis, Basilaeensis, | atque Hollanoficae Socius. | [Ornament.] Lug- 
duni Batavorum | sumptibusAuctoris. fMDCCLXIII. fol. Fasc. I. 2 11., pp. 
1-136; Fasc. II. Insectorum. 1764. pp. 137-236, i-iv,pll.i-xvii-fviii a . 

Plagiuri, pp. 29, 30. The only species described is (no. 139) Balcena dorso impenni, 
(nearly =Balcena mysticetus), of which there is a detailed account of the external % characters, 
including measurements. [290. J 

1764. HORREBOW, N. Nouvelle | Description | physique-historique, | civile et poli- 

tique | de Flslande, | avec | des observations | critiques | sur 1'Histoire natu- 
relle | de cette Isle, | Donne"e par M. [ Johann] Anderson. | Ouvrage traduit de 
FAllemand, de M. | [Niels] Horrebows [sic], qui y a 6i envoy6 | par le Roi 
de Danemarck. | Tome premier [et second]. | | A Paris, | Chez Charpen- 
tier, Libraire, rue du Hurepoix, | a Fentrde du Quai des Augustines. | | 
M. DCC. LXIV. | Avec Approbation, & Privilege du Roi. 2 vols. 12. Vol. i, 
pp. i-xlij, 1-368 ; vol. ii, pp. i-v, 1-372. 

De la Baleine, i, pp. 305-311. Du Marsouin, pp. 311-313. 

This work is a critical commentary upon that portion of Anderson's " Nachrichten von 
Island, Gronland," etc., relating to Iceland. The matter relating to Cetacea is not of high 

This French version, as the translator himself avows, is more or less abridged, and very 
freely rendered. Yol. i is wrongly paged from p. 264 to the end, through an omission in the 
pagination of 9 numbers (265-272 inclusive). [291.] 

1764. [KRASHENINNIKOF, S.P.] The | History | of) Kamtschatka, | and the | Kurilski 
Islands, | with the | Countries adjacent; | Illustrated with | Maps and Cuts. | 
[By Stepan Petrovitch Krasheninnikof.] Published at Petersbourg in the 
Russian Language, by Order of her Imperial Majesty | and translated into 
English | By James Grieve, M. D. | Glocester: | Printed by Raikes | for | T. 
Jefferys, Geographer to his Majesty, London. | M. DCC. LXIV. 4. 11. 4, pp. 
i-vii, 1-280, 5 pll. and two maps. 

Manati or Sea Cow, pp. 132-136. Whales, pp. 137-142. 

Krasheuinnikof'swork is of special importance from its detailed account of the Sea Cow 
(Rhytina borealis), its habits, abundance, and products. 

Grieve's version is a greatly abridged and condensed translation, but was the first and tho 
only one prior to 1768, when a French translation direct from the original Russian appeared 
at Paris (q. v.), far superior to Grieve's. Of Grieve's abridged English version there appeared 
a German translation in 1766, by J. T. Kohler (Lemgo), a French, by M. E[idous] (Lyon), in 
1767 (q. v.), and also, it is said, a Dutch (Amsterdam), in 1770. See especially infrd, KHA- 

BHENIXNIKOF, at 1768. [292.] 

1764. NOORDE, C. VAN. "Cagelot of potwalvis, gestrand by Egmond op Zee, 1764. 

Door C. van Noorde. br. folio." 
From Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 176, no. 2780. [293.] 

1765. ANON. Lamantin. <^JZncycL, ou Diet, des Sci., des Arts et des Metiei's, ix, 1765, 

p. 225. [294.1 


1765. [BUFFON, G. L. LECLERC, Compte de, et L. J. M. DAUBENTON]. Histoire | 
Naturelle, | Ge"ndrale et Particulie're, | Avec la description | du Cabinet du 
Roi. | | Tome Treizieme. | | [Vignette.] A Paris, | de L'Impriinerie Ro- 
yale.. | | M. DCC. LXV. 4. 11. 3, pp. i-xx, 1-441, 1. 1, pll. i-lix. 

Les Phoques, les Morses, et les Lamantins, pp. 330-441, pll. xliv-lix. Le Dugong, pp. 374- 
377 (par Buffon). Lo Lamantin, pp. 377-394 (par Buffon). Description d'un embryon de La- 
mantin de la Guiane, pp. 425-430, pll.lvii-lix (par Daubenton). Description d'une tete de la 
Lamantin du Senegal, pp. 431, 432 (par Daubenton). La tete d'un Dugon, pp. 437-440, pi. Ivi 
(par Daubenton). 

See later editions at 1792, 1802, and 1826. [295.] 

1765. CRANZ, DAVID. David Cranz | Historie | von | Gronland | enthaltend | Die. 
Besclireibung des Landes und | der Einwohner &c. | inbesondere | die | 
Geschichte | der dortigen | Mission | der | Evangelischen Bruder | zu | 
Neu-Herrnhut | und | Lichtenfels. | | Mit aclit Kupfertafeln und einem 
Register. | | Barby bey Heinricli Detlef Ebers, und in Leipzig | in Commis- 
sion bey Weidmanns Erben und Reich. | 1765. 8. 11. 17, pp. 1-1132, 11. 13. 

IH. Abschnitt. Yon den See-Thieren, pp. 140-160. 1. GrfinlSndiscbe Wallfisch (=Balcena 
mysticetus), pp. 141-145; 52. Nord-Caper (=B. biscayensis), p. 145; 3. Finnfisch, p. 145; 4. 
Jupiter-Fisch, p. 146; 5. Pflok-Fiscb, p. 146; 6. Knoten-Fisoh, p. 146; 7. Einhorn-Fisch, 
Oder Narhval, Monoceros, pp. 146-148; 8. Sag-Fisch, Pristig, p. 148 (not a Cetacean) ; 9. Ca- 
schelot Oder Pottflscb, pp. 148-150 ; 10. Weisstisch, p. 150; 1 i . Butzkopf, p. 151 ; 12. Meer- 
schwein, p. 151; 13. Delphin, p. 152; 14. Schwerdtfisch (=Orca), p. 152; 15. Eine andre 
Art Schwerdt-Fische, p. 152. Wallfiscli-Fang, pp. 155-160. 

Of the 15 species here distinguished 14 are Cetaceans, and nearly all are recognizably 
described. [296.] 

1765. "FERMIN, PH. Histoire naturelle de la Hollande e'quinoxiale ; ou description 

des animaux, plantes, fruits, etc., que se trouvent dans la colonie de Surinam; 
avec leurs noms diff6rents, tant francois, que latins, hollandais, iudiens et 
n6gre-anglais. Amsterdam, M. Magerus, 1765. gr. 8." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit. t p. 56, no. 872. 1297.] 

1766. LINNE, C. Caroli a Linn6, | . . . [titles, 5 lines] | Systema | Naturae | Per 

| Regna tria Naturae, | Secundum | Classes, Ordines, | Genera, Species, | cuui 

j Characteribus, Differentiis, | Synonymis, Locis. | Tomus I. | | Editio 

Duodecima, Retbrmata | | Cum Privilegio S:se R:SB Mrtis Svecise & Electoris 

Saxon. | | Holnrise, | Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, | 1766. 8. pp. 


' II. Bruta. > Sirenia. Trichecus Manatus, pp. 49, 50 = Manatus et Halicore. Gen. Trichecus 
inter Elephas et Bradypuin sistens spp. 1. T. Rosmarus ; 2. T. Manatus. 

VII. Cete, pp. 105-108. 1. Monodon Monoceros ; 2. Balcena Mysticetus, p. 105; 3. Balcena 
Physalus; 4. Balcena Boops; 5. Balcena Musculus, p. 106; 6. Physeter Catodon; 7. Phy- 
seter macrocephalus ; 8. Physeter microps ; 9. Physeter Tursio, p. 107; 1O. Delphinus Pho- 
ccena; 11. Delphinus Delphis,- l5j. Delphinus Orca, p. 108. 

Genn. 4 ; spp. 12. 

In the Vindobonae reprint (1767), styled "Editio decima tertia, ad Editionem duodecimam 
reformatam Holmiensem," the pagination and matter relating to these groups is the same as 
here. [298.] 

1767. "BECKMANN, JOH. Anfangsgriinde der Naturhistorie. 8. Gottingin u. Bre- 

men, 1767." 

!Not seen; title from Carus and Engelmann. Cited by Doundorff in connection with Ceta- 

A new and improved edition, 8 C , Breslau, 1813, is also mentioned. [299.] 

1767. CRAXZ, DAVID. The | History | of | Greenland: | containing | A Description 

| of | the Country, | and | Its Inhabitants: | and particularly, | A Relation of 

the Mission, carried on for above | these Thirty Years by the Unitas Fratrum, 

| at | New Herrnhuth and Lichtenfels, in that Country. | By David [Cranz] 

Crantz. | Translated from the High-Dutch, and illustrated with | Maps and 

other Copper-plates. | | In two volumes. | | Vol. I. | | London, | 

Printed for the Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the | Gospel among 

the Heathen: | And sold by J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall ; . . . [= names of seven 


1767. CRANZ, DAVID Continued. 

other booksellers] and at | all the Brethren's Chapels. | MDCCLXVII. 8 C . 
11. 2, pp. i-lix, 1-405, 2 maps, pll. iii-vii ; vol. ii, 1. 1, pp. 1-498, pi. 2. 

Of other singular Sea- Animals, i, pp. 106-122: 1. The Greenland Wh'ale, pp. 107-109 
(avowedly from Martens and Zorgdrager), and pp. 118-121 (the Dutch "Whale-fishery "rela- 
tion from the mouth of a Missionary"). 2. The North-caper, p. 110. 3. The Fin-fish, p. 110. 
4. The Jupiter-whale, p. 110. 5. The Bunch, or Humpback-whale, p. 111. . The Knotted- 
whale, p. 111. 7. The Unicorn-fish, monoceros, also called narhval, pp. Ill, 112. 8. The 
Saw-fish, pristis, p. 112 (not a Cetacean). 9. Cachelot, Catodon, or Pott-fisch, pp. 112-114. 
10. The White-fish, p. 114. 11. The Grampus, p. 114. 12. The Porpoise, pp. 114, 115. 
13. The Dolphin, called also Tumbler, p. 115. 14. The Sword-fish (Orca), p. 115. 15. 
Another kind of Sword-fish, the ardluit of the Greenlanders (Orca), pp. 115, 116. Whale- 
fishery of the Greenlanders, pp. 121,122. 

See above (1765. CKAXZ, D.) for the first (German) edition. Also the following: [300.] 

1767. CRANZ, D. " Historic van Greenland. Haarlem (or Amsterdam). 1767. 3vols. 
8. pll. 12, 2 maps." 

Dutch translation of the first German edition. The maps are said to be larger and better 
than in the German edition. A later Dutch edition appeared in 1786, q. v. 

Not seen; abridged title from a bookseller's catalogue. 1301.] 

1767. [KRASHENINNIKOF, S. P.] Histoire | de | Kamtschatka, | des Isles Kurilski, | et 

des contre"es voisines, | Publiee a Petersbourg, en Langue Russienne, par | 
ordre de Sa Majeste" Impe'riale. | [Par Stepan Petrovitch Krasheninnikof.] Ou 
y a joint deux Cartes, 1'une de Kamtschatka, & | Pautre des Isles Kurilski. | 
Traduite par M. E***. [Marc Antoine E'iclous.] | Tome premier [et second]. 
| [Design.] ALyon, | Chez Benoit Duplain, Libraire rue | Merciere^ al'Aigle. 
| | M. DCC. LXVII. | Avec Approbation & Privilege du Roi. 2 vols. 12. 
Vol. i, 11. 4, pp. i-xv, 1-327, 1 map ; vol. ii, 11. 4, pp. 1-359, 1 map. 
Manati ou la vache marine, i, pp. 313-325. Baleines, ii, pp. 1-13. 
This is merely a retranslation from Grieve, 1764, q. v. See, also, under 1768. [302 ] 

1768. "ADELUNG, JOH. CHR. Geschichte der Schiffahrten und Versuche welche zur 

Entdeckung des Nordostlichen Weges nach Japan nnd China von verschiede- 
nen Nationen unternommen worden. Zum Behufe der Erdbeschreibung und 
Naturgeschichte dieser Gegenden entworfen. Halle, bey Joh. J. Gebauer. 
1768. 4. Met 19 gegrav. platen en kaarten." 

"Zie aldaar: Geschichte des Spitzbergischen Wallfischfanges. bl. 269-438." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit, p. 231, no. 3416. [303.] 

1768. "EBERHARDT, JOH. PET. Versuch eines neuen Entwurfs der Thiergeschichte. 
Nebst ein. Anh. von einigen seltenen u. noch wenig beschrieb. Thieren. Mit 2 
Kpfrtaf. 8. Halle, 1768." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. [304.] 

1768. KRASHENINNIKOF, [S. P.]. Voyage | en Sibe'rie, | contenant | la Description | du 
Kamtchatka, | ou 1'ou tronve j I. Les Mceurs &. les Coutumes des Habitants 
du Kamtchatka. | II. La Ge'ographie du Kamtchatka, & des Pays circonvoi- 
sins. | III. Les avantages & les de'svantages du Kamtchatka. | IV. La re"duc- 
tion du Kamtchatka par les Russes, les re" voltes arrivdes en | different s temps, 
& I'e'tat actuel des Forts de la Russie dans ce Pays. | Par M. Kracheninnikow, 
Professeur de 1'Acade'mie des Sciences | de Saint P6tersbourg. | Tradnit du 
Russe. | Tome Seconde. | [Design.] A Paris, | Chez Debure, pere, Libraire, 
quai des Augustius, a Saint Paul. | | M. DCC. LXVIII. | Avec Approbation, 
& Privilege du Roi. 4. pp. i-xvi, 1-627, 11. 2, pll. i-xvii, maps i-vi. 

' ' L'Ouvrage que 1'on publie aujourd'hui, est du tl 1'esprit eclaire de M. de * * *, & a son amour 
pour le travail: il 1'a traduit a Saint Petersbourg . . . " Avis de I'lUditeur, p. x. 

Des Vaches marines, pp. 446-454. De la Baleine, pp. 455-462. 

A comparison of this work with Grieve's English translation, and the French translation 
from Grieve, shows at a glance that Grieve's rendering is greatly defective. All the plates 
arid maps of the original, the editor tells us, are here reproduced, some of them, however, 
from new designs. The work forms vol. ii of the Voyage en Siberie of M. l'Abb6 Chappe 
d'Auteroche, published by Debure at Paris in 1768. 


1768. KRASHENINNIKOF, [S. P.] Continued. 

Muller refers to a French edition published in two volumes at Amsterdam in 1770 as having 
T>een made directly from the Eussian original. Is it other than a reprint of that of 1'Abbo 
Chappe d' Auteroche ? [305.] 

1769. [BANCROFT, EDWARD.] An | Essay | on the | Natural History | of | Guiana, | 

In South America. | Containing | A Description of many Curious Productions j 
in the Animal and Vegetable Systems | of that Country. | Together with an 
Account of | The Religion, Manners, and Customs | of several Tribes of its 
Indian Inhabitants. | Interspersed with | A Variety of Literary and Medical 
Observations. | In Several Letters | from | A Gentleman [Edward Bancroft] 
of the Medical Faculty, | During his Residence in that Country. | | Ad res 
pulcherrimas ex tenebris ad lucem erutas alieno | labore deducimur. | Seneca, 
De brevitate vitae, cap. xiv. | | London, | Printed for T. Becket and P. A. 
De Hondt | in the Strand. MDCCLXIX. 8. 11. 2, pp. i-i v, 1-402, 1. 1. 

Manatee or Sea-Cow, pp. 186-187. Original account. Of this work there is a German edi- 
tion of same date (see next title), and also a Dutch translation from the English (Utrecht, 
1782, 8). [306.J 

1769. BANCROFT, E. Naturgeschichte | von | Guiana | in | feud-Amerika. | worinn | 
von der natiirlichen Beschaffenheit und den vor- | nehmsten Naturproducten 
des Landes, ingleichen der Re- | ligion, Sitten und Gebrauchen verschiedener 
Stamme | der wilden Landes-Einwolmer, Nachricht | ertheilet wird. | | 
In vier Briefen. | Von Eduard Bancroft, Esq. | | Aus dem Englischen. | j 
Ad res pulcherrimas ex tenebris ad lucem eruras | alieno labore deducimur. 
Seneca. | | Frankfurt und Leipzig, | bey J. Dodsley und Compagnie, 1769. 
8. pp. i-x, 1. 1, pp. 1-248. 

Manati oder Meerkuh, pp. 112,113. See last title. [307.] 

1769. FERMIN, P. Description | gene'rale, historique, | ge'ographique et physique | de 
la | Cokmie de Surinam, | Contenant | Ce qu'il y a de plus Curietix & de plus 
Remarquable, tou- j chant sa Situation, ses Rivieres, ses Forteresses ; son | 
Gouvernement & sa Police; avec les mceurs & les usa- j ges des Habitants 
Naturels du Pa'is, & des Europeans | qui y sont e"tablis; ainsi que des Eclair- 
cis,sements sur 1'ce- | conomie g6n6rale des Esclaves Negres, sur les Planta- | 
tions & leurs Produits, les Arbres Fruitiers, les Plan- | tes Me'de'ciuales, & 
toutes les diverses Especes d'animaux | qu'ou y trouve, &c. | Enrichie de Fi- 
gures, & d'une Carte | Topographique du Pa'is. | Par | Philippe Fermin, | Doc- 
teur en M6decine. | Tome Premier [et second]. | [Design.] A Amsterdam, 
| Chez E. van Harrevelt. | MDCCLXIX. 2 vols. 8. Map and plates. Vol. 
i, pp. i-xxiv, 1-252, map; vol. ii, 11. 2, pp. 1-352, pll. 3. 

De I'lchthyologie, ou Description des Poissons, vol. ii, chap, xxii, pp. 248-281. Le Marsouin, 
pp. 250, 251. 

The second volume of this work is largely zoological, but the only passage strictly citable 
in the present connection is that above given. In the chapter " Des Quadrupedes" (vol. ii, 
chap, xix, pp. 88-140) are two pages (I. c., pp. 122-124) on the " Veau marin," in which the 
author evidently describes the Common Seal (Phoca vitulina), in which he says: "Tel est le 
Veau Marin, qu'on appelle improprement, dans le pays, Zee-Hond ou Zee-Eou." This seems 
to be a confused reference to the Manatee, or Sea-Cow, and, strangely, the only one in the 
work. The author also describes "Buffles" (I. c., pp. 9, 90) as inhabitants of the country. 
These two facts seem to show that the author's zoological matter is not wholly trustworthy. 
Tet Sabin cites Kich as saying: "One of the best books at the time it was written in regard to 
the colonies," which, doubtless, in other respects, may be true enough. [308.] 

1769. S., J. A. "Stradavits Reyse ter Walvis-Vangst, rijmsgewijze beschreven door 
J. A. S. Chirurgijn op het schip Zaandijker Hoop. Antwerpen, P. J. Parys. 
1769. 4." 

"Curious and rare." Kot seen ; title at second hand. [309.] 

1769-92. " PORTE, DELA. DenieuweReisiger: of Beschryving van de oudeen nieuwe 
werelt. Uit het Fransch. Te Dordrecht, bij Abr. Blusse en zn. 1769-1792, 
32 din. gr. 8." 

"De walvischen do walvischvangst, viii, pp. 213-218 enz." 

Not seen; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 246, no. 3545. [310. j 


1770. CRAXZ, DAVID. David Cranz | Historic | von | Grdnland | enthaltend \ Die 
Beschreibung des Landes nnd | der Eiuwohner etc. | iiibesondere | die | Ge- 
schichte | der dortigen | Mission | der | Evangelischen Brtider | zu | Neu- 
Herrnhut | und | Lichtenfels. | | Zweyte Auflage. | | Mit acht Kupferta- 
feln imd ein Register. | ] Barby bey Heinricli Detlef Ebers, | und in Leip- 
zig | in Commission bey Weidmanns Erben und Reich. | 1770. 3 Theilen. 8. 
Tli. i, 11. 19, pp. 5-512. 

Von den See-Thieren, Th. i, pp. 140-160. For further remarks in relation to cetological 
matter, see orig. ed., 1765, and the English ed. of 1767. 1311.] 

1770. " JANSSEX, JAC. Merkwiirdige Reise, welcher mit dem Schiffe die Fran Elisa- 
beth den 7 teu April nach Grouland auf den Walltischfang gegangen, etc. 
Hamburg, 1770. 4. Met een plaat." 

"Hiervan een kort Verslag in: JAndeman, Arktische Fischerei, bl. 46-48." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 239, no. 3487. [312.] 

1770. " JAXSSEN, JAC. Verhaal der merkwaardige reize met het schip : de vrouw Ma- 
ria Elizabeth, den 7 April 1769, van Hamburg uaar Greenland ter walvisch- 
vangst uitgezeild, tot den 20 Nov. in het ijs bezet geweest, den 21 ste " dier 
maand daaruit geraakt en den 13 Dec. de-zelfden jaars gelukldg weder te 
Hamburg aangekomen. Uit het Hoogd. vertaald. Haarlem, 1770. 4. 24 
bladz. Meet eene plaat." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 239, no. 3488. Apparently a translation of the work 
last above cited. [313.] 

1770. "PIETERSZ., FR. Omstandig journaal of reysbeschrijving op het schip 'De 
vrouw Maria,' gedestineerd ter walvischvangst na Greenland, in den jaare 
1769. (Amsterdam), K. van Rijschooten. (1770.) 4." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit, p. 245, no. 3538. [314.] 

1770. " SANTE, G. VAX. Alphabetische naamlSjst van alle de Groenlandsche en Straat- 

Davissche commaudeurs, die sedert het jaar 1700 op Groenland en sedert het 
jaar 1719, op de Straat Davis voor Holland en andere provincien hebben 
gevaren. Waarin men met eenen opslag kan zien, hoeveel visschen, vaten 
spek en quardeelen traan yder commandeur uit Groenland en uit de straat 
Davis heeft aangebragt en voor wat Directeurs dezelven hebben gevaren. 
Haarlem, J. Euschede", 1770. Met titelplaat. 4." 

"Dit exempl. is met de pen bijgewerkt tot het jaar 1802." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 247, no. 3550. 

There appears to have been a much earlier (anonymous?) edition of the "Naamlijst" (4, 
Zaandam, 1753, q. v.). 

Scoresby observes that this work, "notwithstanding the unpromising title, is in reality an 
instructive work. It is from it, indeed, that the most interesting details of the success of 
the Dutch fishery during a period of more than a century, included between 1669 and 1779, 
are derived." Arctic Regions, ii, p. 155. [315.] 

1771. FORSTER, J. R. A | Catalogue | of the | Animals | of | North America | Con- 

taining, | An Enumeration of the known Quadrupeds, Birds, | Reptiles, Fish, 
Insects, Crtistaceous and | Testaceous Animals; many of which are New, 
and | never described before. | To which are added, | Short Directions | for 
Collecting, Preserving, and Transporting, | all Kinds of | Natural History 
Curiosities. | By John Reiuhold Forster, F* A. S. | | . . . [Motto.] | | Lou- 
don: | Sold by B. White, at Horace's Head, in Fleet-Street. | | M.DCC. 
LXXI. 8. pp. 43. Frontispiece, pi. of Falco sparverius, Linn. 

Classis iv. Fish. Section i. Cetaceous. A nominal list of 9 spp., under English names. [316.] 

1771. FORSTER, J. R. See OSBECK, PETER, 1771. [317.] 

1771. OSBECK, PETER. A | Voyage | to | China and the East Indies, | By Peter Os- 
beck, j Rector of Hasloef and Woxtorp, | Member of the Academy of Stock- 
holm, and of the | Society of Upsal. | Together with a Voyage to Suratte, | By 
Olof Toreeii, | Chaplain of the Gothic Lion East Indiaman. | And | An Ac- 
count of the Chinese Husbandry, | By Captain Charles Gustavus Eckeberg. | 
Translated from the German, | By John Reinhold Forster, F. A. S. | To which 


1771. OSBECK, PETER Continued. 

are added, | AFaunula and Flora Sinensis. | In two Volumes. | Vol. ![-!!]. | 
London, | Printed for Benjamin White, | at, Horace's Head, in Fleet-street. | 
M DCC LXXI. 8 C . 

" Sxow- WHITE Dolphins (Delphinus Chinensis) tumbled about the ship; but at a distance 
they seemed in nothing different from the common species, except in the white colour" 
(vol. ii, p. 27). 

Under the name Delphinus Orca (vol. i, p. 7) is a quotation from Egede in reference to the 

"Northcaper" ! 1318.] 

1771. [PENNANT, T:] Synopsis | of | Quadrupeds | [By Thomas Pennant.] [Vignette.] 

Chester | Printed by J. Monk | MDCCLXXI. | M. Griffith Del*. R. Murray 

Sc*. [Engraved title-page.] 8. pp. i-xxv, 1-382, pi. i-xxxi-f-xiii bis. 

The author's name does not appear on the title-page, but the "Preface" is signed " Thomas 
Pennant, Downing, March 20, 1771." 

Manati, pp. 351-358. A general account of the Sirenians as then known, which were thought 
to constitute a single species. Pennant's references are here, however, mainly to Steller's Sea- 
Cow and the American Manatee. There is also reference to the " Sea Ape " and the "Beluga," 
the account of which, as here given, is a curious mixture of truth and fiction. [319.] 

1771. ROBERTSON, J. Description of the blunt-headed Cachalot. <PMos. Trans. 
Land., Ix, art. xxvii, 1771, pp. 321-324, 1 pi. 

The plate represents the animal, the head, and the head in transverse section of "Physeter 
Catodon Linnaei "=Physeter macrocephalus. [320.] 

1771. "TRAMPLER, J. C. Umstiindliche Beschreibung des Gronllindischen Walfisch- 
fanges, ingleichen von den Ursachen und Eigenschaften des Nordlichts. Leip- 
zig, Miiller, 1771. 8." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 248, no. 3570. [321.] 

1773. BONANNIO, P. P. Rervm Natvralivm | Historia | nempe | Qvadrvpedvm Insec- 
torvm Piscivm variorumqve marinorvm | Corporvm fossilivm Plantarvm exo- 
ticarvm | ac praesertim | Testaceorvm | exsistentivm | in Mvseo Kircheriano | 
edita iam | A P. Philippo Bonannio | nvnc vero nova methodo distribvta notis 
illvstrata | in tabvlis reformata novisqve observatiocibvs locvpletata | a 
lohanne Antonio Battarra Ariminiensi | Philosophiae Professore. | Pars Prima 
[et Segvnda] | [Vignette.] Romae MDCCLXXI1I. | In typographic Zempelli- 
ano | Aere Venantii Monaldini Bibliopolae. | | Praesidvm Facvltate. 2. 
pp. i-xl, 1-260, pll. i-xlvii. 

Piscis generis Cetacei, quern Capodoglio Itali appellant [Physeter macrocephalus], i, pp. 
157, 158, pi. xxxviii, figg. 34 (anim.), 35 (mand. infer.), 36 (vertebra). Description, with 
measurements, and an original figure of a Cachalot 48 feet long, taken in the Mediterranean 
18 April, 1715. [322.] 

1773. MULLER, P. L. S. Des | Ritters Carl von Linne" | K6niglich Schwedischen, Leib- 
arztes etc. etc. | vollstandiges | Natursystem | nach der | zwolf ten lateinischen 
Ausgabe | und nach Anleitung | des hollandischen Houttuynischen Werks | 
mit einer ausfuhrlichen | Erklarung | ausgefertiget | von | Philipp Ludwig 
Statius Muller | Prof, der Naturgeschichte zu Erlang und Mitglied der Rom. 
Kais. | Akademie der Naturforscher etc. | Erster Theil. | Von den | saugen- | 
den Thieren. | | Mit 32. Kupfern. | | Nurnberg, | bey Gabriel Nicolaua 
Raspe, 1773. 8. 11. 11, pp. 1-508, 11. 7, pll. i-xxxii. 

II. Ordnung. Bruta.> Trichecus Manatus, pp. 174-176. Tab. xxix, fig. 3. 

VII. Ordnung. Wallfischartige oder s&ugende Seethiere. Cete. 1. Monodon Monoceros, 
p. 477; 2. Balcena Myslicetus, p. 481; 3. Balcena Physalus, p. 491 ; 4. Balcena Boops, p. 492; 
5. Balcena Musculus, p. 492; 6. Physeter Katodon, p. 497; 7. Physeter Macrocephalus, p. 
498; 8. Physeter Microps, p. 501; 9. Physeter Tursio, p. 503; 10. Delphinus Phoccena, p. 504; 
11. Delphinus Delphis, p. 505; la. Delphinus Orca, p. 506. Auch der Pflockfisch, p. 493; 
der Knotenfisch, p. 493; der Nordkaper, p. 494; der Sabelfisch (Epee de Mer), p. 507; der 
Murder (Killer), p. 507; der Blaser (Souflieur), p. 508. [323.] 

1773. PISCATOR, LUBERTUS. "Brief van Lubertus Piscator over de visscherij, die bij 
een loterij vergeleken wordt. Oorzaaken van derzelver afneemen. Weder- 
legging. Middelen ter verbetering op de Walvischvangst." 

" Zie: De Koopman of bijdr. ter opbouw van NeGrlands koophandel en zeevaard. Amat.j 
1773, iv. No. 5, 12, 13, 25, 26." 

Not seen ; from Bosgoed, op: cit., p. 250, no. 3588. [324.] 



1773. SIBBALD, ROBERT. Phalainologia nova; | sive | Observations | de | rarioribus 
quibusdam Bahenis | In Scotise Littus nuper ejectis: | in quibus, | nupcr con- 
spectse Bakenue per Genera & | Species, secundum Characteres ab ipsa | Natura 
impressos, distribuuntur; | qusedam nunc primum describuntur; crrores 
etiam | circa descriptas deteguntur ; & breves de Dentium, | Spermatis Ceti, 
& AmbraB Grisese ortu, natura & \ usu, dissertatio^es traduntur. | [By Sir 
Robert Sibbald. Edited by Thomas Pennant.'j | 
Mirac'lum ponti narrant ingentia Cete | 
Viribus invictis, & vasta mole moventur. | 
In littus pauca exiliunt, quce corpore vasto | 
Stint. | Oppianus de Pise. lib. I. | | 

Edinburgi, | Typis Joannis Redi, M DC XCII. | Veneunt apud M. Ro- 
bertum Edward, verbi divini ministrum, in | vico dicto, The Bishop's Land 
Gloss. | Iterum iinpressi, Londini, | Apud Benj. White, in Vico Fleet-Street. 
MDCCLXXIII. 8. 11. 2, p. 1-105, tal>b. 1-3. 

Observationes de Balaenis quibusdam in Scotise Littus nuper ejectis. Praefatio. De Balaenis 
in Genere, pp. 7-14. Sectio prima. De Balsenis, quae Dentes in Ore habent, minoribus. 
Praefatio de Dentatis in Genere, pp. 15-17. Caput i. De Balaenis Minoribus in utraquo Ma- 
xilld Dentatis, quae Orcae vocantur, pp. 17-24. Caput ii. De Balsenis Minoribus in Inferiore 
Maxilld tantum Dentatis, sine Pinnd, aut Spina in Dorso, pp. 24, 25. Caput iii. DC Baloenis 
omnium Minimis, incertaj Classis, pp. 25, 26. Sectio secunda. De Balcenis Majoribus, in Infe- 
riore Maxilla tantum Dentatis. Praefatio de hujusmodi Bakcnis in genere, pp. 27-30. Caput 
i. De Balaena Macrocephald quae Binas tantum Pinnas Laterales habet, pp. 30-33. Caput ii. 
De BalsenA Macrocephala, quce Tertiara in Dorso Pinnam sive Spinam habet, & dentcs in Ma- 
xilla inferiore Arcuatos Falciformis, pp. 33-43. Caput iii. De Balaena Macrocephala Tripinni, 
quse in mandibuia inferiore dentes habet minus inflexos, & in planum desincntes, pp. 43-45. 
Caput iv. De Spennate Ceti, pp. 45-52. Caput v. De oleo quod ex his Belluis paratur, pp. 
52-54. Caput vi. De Dentibus harum Balaenarum, *pp. 54-57. Sectio iii. Do Balaenis Majori- 
bus Laminas Corneas in Superiore Maxillfi habentibus. Praefatio. De hnjusmodi Belluis in 
genere, pp. 58-64. Caput i. De Balaenis hujusmodi Bipinnibus, tarn quae carent fistuld, quam 
quae earn habent, pp. 64-66. Caput ii. De Balaenis Tripinnibus, quae narcs habent, in genere, 
pp. 67-68. Caput iii. De Baleens; hnjusmodi Tripinni qua? rostrum acutum habet, &, plicas in 
Ventre, pp. 68-78. Caput iv. De Balaend Tripinni qua? maxillam inferiorem rotundam, & su- 
periore multo latiorem habuit, pp. 78-84. Caput v. De Balaena hujusmodi praegnmdi in littus 
Bofinae nuper ejecta, pp. 84, 85. Caput vi. De laminis corneis, de plicis, & de oleo hv.jusmodi 
Belluaruin, pp. 85-93. Appendix. De iis quae Balaenis communia sunt. Proefatio, pp. 94, 95. 
Caput i. De Pinguedine Balaenarum, p. 96. Caput ii. De Came harum Belluarum, p. 97. 
Caput iii. De Balaenarura priapo, p. 97. Caput iv. De Ambr.1, Grised, pp. 98-104. Caput 
ultimum. De tempore quo Balaenas maxime conspiciuntur, pp. 104, 105. 

Tab. 1. Balaena Macrocephala. Balasna cum laminis corneis in ore. Vertebrae caudae, etc. 

Tab. 2. Lamina cornea cum pilis. Dens Orcse. Dens Balaense Macrocephala) Orcadcnsis. 
Dens Macrocephalae falciformis, etc. 

Tab. 3. Baleena tripinnis maxilla inferiore rotunda. 

Plate i, upper figure, is a very faulty representation of Fhysetcr macroccphalus, the blow- 
hole being at the posterior part of the head and the upper jaw rather small and pointed. 
Plate i, lower figure, is a better representation of a Finner Whale, probably Dalcenoptcra ros- 
trata. Plate ii, fig. of a blade of baleen of a Finner whale, of a much worn tooth, and a young 
tooth of Physeter macrocephaltis, etc. Plate iii, probably Physalvs antiquorum. 

The edltio princeps of Sibbald's " Phalainologia " (which I have been unable to see) ap- 
peared in 1692 (4, Edinburgh). The early systematists trusted implicitly in Sibbald, who 
unfortunately described diiferent examples of the common Cachalot as different species, 
resulting in the introduction into systematic zoology of several nominal species, which were 
not effectually weeded out till comparatively late in the present century. The confusion 
resulting from Sibbald's work may be considered as more than balancing the much really 
new information he contributed to the subject. This is perhaps less his fault than that of 
later compilers, who knew too little of the subject of which he wrote to have any power of 
discrimination, or even, in some cases, to understand the author whom they blindly followed. 
(O/. Eschricht, "Kecent Memoirs on the Cetacea," Ray Soc., 1866, pp. 161-163.) [325.] 

1774. ANON. The | Journal of a Voyage | undertaken by order of | His present Ma- 
jesty, | For making Discoveries towards the | North Pole, | by the | Hon. 
. Commodore Phipps, | and | Captain Lutwidge, | in His | Majesty's Sloops | 
Racehorse and Carcase. | To which is prefixed, | An Account of the several 


1774. Axox. Continued. 

Voyages undertaken for | the Discovery of a North-east Passage to China ] 
and Japan. | | London: | Printed for F. Newbery, at the Corner of St. 
Paul's | Church Yard. | | MDCCLXXIV. S J . 1. 1, pp. i-xxviii, 29-113. 

The author's name is not given, but the work was apparently written by an officer of the 

Smearingburgh harbour [Spitzbergen], p. 45. "A View of the Whale-fishery," pi. facing p. 
81. There are, however, only a few incidental and unimportant allusions to the "Whale- 
fishery in the text. [326.J 

1774. "HooGERDtnx, DIRK CORXELISSE. Singulieren of byzonderen Historien 
wegeus het verongelukkeu van het Groenlands Schip, de jufvromveii Anna 
Cornelia en Anna, waarop commaudeerde D. C. Hoogerduin van de Helder, 
gedestineerd na Greenland ter Wallevisvangst, met 45 zieleu uit Texel gevaeren ; 
in het gepasseerde jaer 1773 op den 8 April en na een fatigante Rys te hebben 
gehad, hetzelve schip op de te Huisrys, ua alvorens duizende van gevaere te 
hebbe oudergaen, eiudelijk met drie sloepen op den 21 Aug. deszelfs jaers op 
Egmond gestraud, \vaervau 29 man op eeri wonderbaerlijke wys het leven 
hebbeu behouden en de rest verdronken ; vervult met zeltzame en byna nooit 
gehoorde gevalleu. Amsterdam, W. A. Leeuwendasil. 1774. 4." 

Not seen ; from Bosgoed, op tit., p. 238, no. 3479. [327-.] 

1774. Hfrpscn, Baron ron. Beschreibung eiuiger neuentdeckten versteinten Theile 
grosser Seethiere. <Der Naturforscher, iii, 1774, pp. 178-183. 

Ueber Gehorknocben uud andere Knochen der Seekuh und einige Knochen von Walfischen 
bei Antwerpen entdeckt. [328.] 

1774. OEXMKLIX, A. O. [=EXQUEMELIN, A. O.] Histoire | des | Adventuriers | Fli- 
bustiers | qui sc sout signals dans les Indes; | Contenant ce qu'ils y ont fait 
de remarqnable, | avec la vie, les mccurs & les coutumes des Bou- | caniers, 
& des habitans de S. Domingue & de | la Tortue; une description exacte de 
ces lieux, | & un 6tat des Offices, tant Eccldsiastiques que | Se"culiers, & ce 
que les grands Princes de | 1'Europe y possedent. | Par Alexandre-Olivier 
Oexmeliu. | Nouvelle Edition, | Corrige"e & augmente'e de 1'Histoire des Pi- | 
rates Auglois, depuis leur 6tablissement dans | 1'Isle de la Providence jusqu'd, 
present. | Tome Premier [-Quatrie'me]. | [Design.] A Lyon, | Chez Benoit & 
Joseph Duplain, | Pere & Fils. | | Avec Privilege du Roi. | M.DCC.LXXIV. 
4 vols. 12. Vol. i, 11. 6, pp. 1-394, 1. 1. 
Anatomie du Lamentin, i, pp. 372-376. 

This edition is textually the same as that of 1744, q. v., and appears to be identical with 
that given by Sabin as published in 1775. [329.] 

1774. PHIPPS, C. J. A | Voyage | towards | the North Pole | undertaken | by His 
Majesty's Command | 1773 | | By Constantine John Phipps | | London ; 
Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols, | for J. Nourse, Bookseller to His Ma- 
jesty, | in the Strand. | MDCCLXXIV. 4. pp. i-viii, 1-253, 1. 1, pll. i-xiv. 

Mammalia, App., pp. 183-186. Balcena mysticetus, p. 185; JBalcena physalus, p. 184. There 
is a short account of Smeerenberg, pp. 68, 69. The cetological matter is unimportant. 

There is a French translation (Paris, 4, 1775, q. v.), and a German (Berne, 4, 1777, 
q. v.). [330.] 

1774. "WiJBO, J. CAXZIUS. Dissertatio de balaenarum piscatu. Lugd. Bat. 1774. 4." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 253, no. 3609. [331.] 

.1774-75. OLAFSEX, EGGERT. Des | Bice-Lamands Eggert Olafsens | und des | Land- 

physici Biarne Povelsens | Reise durch Island, | veranstaltet | von der Konig- 

lichen Societat der Wissenschaften | in Kopenhagen | mid beschrieben | von 

bemeldtem Eggert Olafseu. | | Aus dem Danischen ubersetzt. | | Mit 25 

Kupfertafeln und einer neuen Charte fiber Island | versehen. | | Erster 

Theil. | | Kopenhagen und Leipzig, | bey Heinecke und Faber. | 1774. 4 C . 

Erster Theil, 11. 8, pp. 1-328, pll. i-xxv, und Charto; zweiter Theil, 1775, 

pp. i-xvi, 1-244, pll. xxvi-1. 

Wallflache, Th. i, p. 35, 90; Vom Wallfische, Th. i, pp. 287-291, 657-663; Wallfische, 
Th. ii, p. 200, 895. 1332.1 

30 a B 


1775. PHIPPS, C. J. Voyage | an Pole Bordui, | fait en 1773, | par ordre du Roi d'An- 
gleterre, | par Constautiu-Jean Phipps. | Traduit de PAnglois. | [Design.] A 

Paris, | 

( Saillant & Nyon, me Saint Jean de Beanvais. 

62 < Pissot. Qnai des Augnstins, pres la rue Glt-le-Cceur. | 
| M. DCC. LXXV. | Avec Approbation et Privilege dn Roi. 4. pp. i-xij, 
1-257, 1. I, pll. and maps. 

Manimiferes du Spitsberg, pp. 187-190. Balcena mysticetus, Balcena physalus, p. 190. [333.] 

1775. [STAUNING, JORGEX.] Kort | Beskrivelse | over | Gr<J>nland. j [Af Jorgen Stau- 

niiig.] | [Vignette.] | Biborg, 1775. | Trykt udi det Kongelige privilegerede 
Bogtrykkerie | ved C. H. Maugor. 8. 11. 7, pp. 1-328, 1. 1. 

Fierde Kapitel, Om See Dyrene, pp. 121-140, contains an account of the Cetacea. 1. Gren- 
landske Hvalfisk, pp. 124-129 = Balcena mysticetus; 2. Nordkapper, et Slags Hval, p. 129 
= ? B. biscayensis; 3. Fintisken, p. 129 = Physalus antiqiiorum ; 4. Jnpiterfisk eller rettero 
Gurbartas eller Gibbar, p. 130 = Balcenoptera jubartes et gibbar, Lecepedc, etc., hence prob- 
ably Physalus antiquorum; 5. Flogtisk, p. 130=3Iegaptera longimana; 6. Knudefisk, p. 130 
= ? Balcenoptera rostrata; 7. Eenliierning eller Narhval, Monoceros, p. 131; 8. Snabelfisk, 
p. 132 = ? [af Gronlrenderne kaldes den Sigukitsok; cf. Fabricius, Faun. Groenl, p. 52]; 9. 
Kaschelot eller Potfisk, p. 133 = Physetermacrocephalus ; 10. Hvidfisk, p. 134 = ? Beluga catc- 
don; 1 1. Butskopper, p. 135 =? Orca gladiator; 12. Marsviin, p. 136 =Phoccenacommuni8; 
1 3. Delphin, p. 137 = Delphinus delphis; 14. Svrcrdfisk, p. 137 = Orca gladiator. [334.] 

U775. VALMONT DE BOMARE. Baleine, lalcena. <^Dict. rais. universel ffHistoirc nat., 
i, 1775, pp. 438-463 (8 eU, 1775). 

"On ne s'attachera ici, suivant le plan qu'on s'est propose, qu'^l jeter un coup d'oeil general 
sur les especes de baleines les plus curieuse, & sur celles dont on retire le plus d'utilite. On 
ne petit rien laire de mieux que de parler d'apres le cnrieux Anderson, ainsi que 1'ont fait 
tous ceux qui, depuis lui, ont traite des baleines" (pp. 438-439). The Baleines are termed 
"faux poisson de nier." 

General history, under vernacular names, of the species then known. Baleine de Green- 
land, pp. 441-446; Licorne de mer, ou Narhwal, pp. 446-448; Cachalot, ou la petite Baleine, 
pp. 448^52; Pecho des Baleines, pp. 455-456; Eunemis des Baleines, p. 456; Epeo de mer do 
Greenland, ou Poisson Empereur, p. 457; Espadon ou Poisson h scie, p. 458; Marsouin ou 
Souffleur, p. 459 ; Dauphin, p. 460 ; Autres especes de Baleines, p. 462. 

Note. The Sirenia are treated in the article " Vache marine," torn, ix, p. 178, the Dugong 
being the only species recognized, under which is included the African Manatee as well as 
the American Manatee. "Le dugon est une fausse espece de morse de la mer de 1'Afrique & 
des Indes Orientales. ..." 

There is an earlier (1764) ed. of Bomare not seen by me. [335.] 

1776. ANON. P6cne de la Baleine. <^Suppl. a VEncycl. ou Diet. rais. des ScL, des Arts 

et des Ne'tiers, i, 1776, pp. 763, 764. [336.] 

1776. [FABRICIUS, O.] <Hulleri Zoologice Danicce Prodromus, 1776, pp. viii, ix. 

Cetacea, p. viii, Balcena Hoops (= Icelandic, Hrafu-Reydur / Greenlandic, Kcporkak) ; 
Physeler tursio ( Balcena albicans, Klein ; Greenlandic, Pernak). 

"Sequentia animalia, qua3 impressis jam primis libelli paginis, suppeditabat venerabilia 
Otho Fabricius," etc., p. viii. [337.] 

1776. MULLER, O. F. Zoologize Danicae | Prodromns, | sen | Animalium | Dani{e et 
NorvegiiB indigenarum | characteres, noniina, | et | synonyma inij)rimis popu- 
larinm. | Auctore | Otlione Friderico Miiller, | . . . [= titles, 3 lines]. | Im- 
pensis Auctoris. | | Havniae, | Typis Hallageriis. | CIo DCC LXXVI. 8. 
pp. i-xxxii, 1-282. 

*Cete, pp. 6-8, spp. 44-57 = 14 spp. 1. Monodon Monoceros, p. 6: 2. Balcena Mysticctus, p. 6; 
3. B. Physalus, p. 7; 4. B. Musculus, p. 7; 5. B. rostrata, p. 7; 6. B.glacialis, p. 7; 7. B. al- 
bicans, p. 7; S Physeter Catodon, p. 7; 9. Ph. macrocephalus, p. 7; 10. Ph. microps, p. 7; 
ll^DelpfiinusPhoccena^.l; 12. D. Delphis, p.7; 13. D. Orca,p.8; 14. D. Orca[ hi ], [338.] 

1776. ^PENNANT, THOMAS.] British Zoology. | Vol. III. | Class III, Reptiles. | IV, 
Fish. | | Warrington: | Printed by William Eyres, | for Benjamin Wliito, 
at Horace's Head, | Fleet-Street, London. | MDCCLXXVI. 8. 11. 4, pp. 1- 
425, 11. 3, pll. i-xii, xii*-lxxiii. 


1776. [PENNANT, THOMAS] Continued. 

Div. i. Cetaceous Fish = Cetacea, pp. 47-74, spp. 16-26 = 11 spp. 1 . Common Whale, p. 50 = 
Balcena my sticetus; 2. Pike-headed Whale, p. 56=? Phy solus antiquorum ; 3. Fin Fish, p. 57 
= 1 Phy solus antiquorum; 4. Hound-lipped Whale, p. 58 = ? Physalus antiquorum; 5. 
Beaked Whale, p. 59, pL v, fig. l=Hyperoodon bidens,- 6. Blunt-headed Cachalot, p. 61, pi. vi, 
animal from Robertson = Physeter macrocephalus ; 7. Round-headed Cachalot, p. 63, pL vii, 
fig. 22, tooth; 8. High-finned Cachalot, p. 63 = Physeter macrocephalus ; 9. Dolphin, p. 65= 
Delphinus delphis ; 1O. Porpesse, p. 69=Phoccena communis; 11. Grampus, p.72 = Orca 

The references to the plates in the text do not correspond with the numeration on the 
plates. [339.] 

1776. . "Artikler hvorefter Commendeurerne og Mandskabet paa Skibene, der 

udsendes for den Gronlandske Handel og Fiskefangst, skulle rette sig (1776). 
(Reglementen waarnaar de Kommandeurs zich te gedragen hebben.)" 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, I. c., p. 232, no. 3421. [340.] 

1777. ERXLEBEN, J. C. P. Io[hannus]. Christ[ianus]. Polyc[arpus]. Erxleben 1 

. . . [=titles, 5 lines] | Systema | Regni Animalis | per | Classes, Ordines, Ge- 
nera, | Species, Varietates | cvm | Synonym! a et Historia Animalivm. | | 
Classis I | Mammalia. | [Vignette.] | | Lipsise | Impensis | Weygandia- 
nis. | MDCCLXXVII. 8. pp. i-xlviii, 1-636, 11. 32, unpaged. Preface dated 
Goettingae, mense Nouembri, CIoIoCCLXXVI = 1776. 

Collation: Dedicatio ad Georgio III, pp. iii-vi; Praefatio, pp. vii-x; Catalogns volumi- 
num eorumque editionem quibus vsus sum, pp. xi-xxviii ; Synopses et diagnoses generum, pp. 
xxix-xlviii; Species, pp. 1-628; Additamenta, pp. 629-631; Nomina Hvngarica mammalivm, 
pp. 632-636; Index generum,! p.-)-3 11. unnumbered; Index synonymorvm, 28 11. unpaged; 
Index synonymorvm Graecorvm, et Index synonymorvm Kvssicorvm, 3 11. unpaged; 
Errata, 1 p. 

Trichechus (=Sirenia+ Walruses), pp. 593-600. 1. T. Rosmarus, pp. 593-596; 2. T. Hana- 
tus, pp. 596-599 (=genn. Manatus et Rhytina); 3. T. Dugung, p. 599. Species obscura 
(=Bieluga, Steller, et Sea Ape, Pennant = sp. fict.), pp. 599, 600. 

[ Cetacea], pp. 601-628; genera 48-51 =4; spp. 13, to wit: 1. Balcena My sticetus, pp. 601-605; 
2. B. Physalus, 605-607; 3. B. Boops, pp. 608, 609; 4. B. Musculus, pp. 609, 610; 5. B. gib- 
bosa, pp. 610, 611 ; Species obscura, p. 611 ; 6. Physeter Catodon, pp. 611, 612 ; 7. P. macrocepha- 
lus, pp. 612-614; 8. P. microps, pp. 614, 615; 9. P. Tursio, pp. 615, 616; Species obscurae (= 
Beluga catodon ; Physeter macrocephalus = Spermaceti Whale of Dudley ; Anderson's Second 
species of CaGh&lot= Physeter macrocephalus), pp. 616, 618; 10. Delphinus Phoccena, pp. 
618-621; 11. D. Delphis, pp. 621-623; 12. D. Orca, pp. 623-626; 13. Monodon Monoceros, 
pp. 626-628. 

Balcena gibbosa, p. 610, sp. n. ; not Scrag Whale, Dudley, as usually stated, which is one 
of the "Species obscure" not formally recognized, although some of the synonyms cited 
under B. gibbosa may cover Dudley's ScragnWhale, which Erxleben cites (or the species based 
on it) at p. 607, at the end of his account of his Balcena physalus. 

The author very justly observes: "Cetorum species pauciores recte cognitae: videtur 
horum historia denuo fere inchoanda" (p. 601). His treatment of the subject is judicious, 
being superior, perhaps, to that of any other systematist of the eighteenth century. While 
still retaining a few species proved later to be merely nominal, he relegated to the list of 
4 ' Species obscurae' ' several which had been current! y recognized by previous compilers. [ 341 . ] 
1777. "HERMANN, JOA. Tabula affinitatum animalium; brevi commentario illus- 
trata. 4. Argentorati, 1777." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. [342.] 

1777. PHIPPS, C. J. Reise | nach dern Nordpol. | Auf Befehl Ihro KSnigl. Grossbrit- 
tannischen Majestat. | Unternommen im Jahr 1773. | Vcn C. J. Phipps, | aus 
dem Englischen, | Mit | Zusatzen und Anmerkungen von Herrn Landvogt 
[Samuel] Engel. | | MitKupfern. | | [Design.] Bern, | | beydertypo- 
graphischen Gesellschaft 1777. | 4. 11. 3, pp. i-x j 1. 1, pp. 1-122 ; 11. 2, pp. 1-304 ; 
1. 1, maps and pll. 

Mammalia [of Spitzbergen], pp. 95-97. 1. Balcena mysticetus; 2. Balcena physalus, 
p. 97. [343.] 

1777. SCOPOLI, J. A. loannis Ant. Scopoli | Philos. et Med. Doct. Caesareae Regiae- 
qve | Maiestatis a consiliis in rebvs metallicis, | chemiae ac botanices Profes- 
soris in | regio archigymnasio Ticinensi &c. | Introdvctio | ad | Histoiiam | 
Natvralem | sistens | genera j Lapidvm, Plantarvm, | et | Animalivm | hac- 


1777. SCOPOLI, J. A. Continued. 

tenvs detecta, | caracteribvs essentialibvs donata, | in tribvs divisa, | svbinde 
ad leges natvrae. | [Vignette.] | | Sur un plan uouveau, toutes couuois- 
sances anciennes | & nouvelles. Adanson. | | Pragae | Apvd Wolfgangvm 
Gerle, Bibliopolam. | MDCCLXXVII. 8. 11. 5, pp. 1-506, 11. 17. 

Tribus xii, Kleinii (Mammalia). Gens i, Cetacea, p. 486, [general 428-431, viz : Balcna 
(=Mysticete auct. mod.), Physeter, Monodon, Delphinvs. Gens ii. Quadrvpedia. Divisio i, 
Aqvatilia. [Genus] 432. Manatvs, Rondelet, p. 490. [344-] 

1778. ANON. "Echt historisch Verhaal zo nit de mond als pen, van drie zeelieden, 

wegens het verongelukken van het scbip, de Wilbelmina van de Helder, al- 
sook de noodlottige en droevige ongelukken van nog negen andere schepen, 
dewelke alle verongelukt ziju in Greenland, door de bezettiug van het West- 
ijs, in den jare 1777. Amsterdam, 1778. 4. 36 bladz." 

Bosgoed, from whose work (op. tit, p. 249, no. 3575) the above title is taken, states that a 
German translation appeared at Bremen in 1779, of which Lindeman gives an abstract in his 
"ArktischeFischerei," pp. 37-46. See 1778. ANON. [345.] 

1778. CZENPINSKI, P. DE. Pauli de Czenpinski, | Nobilis Poloni Varsoviensis. | Dis- 
sertatio | inauguralis | Zoologico-Medica, | sistens | totius Regni Animalis | 
Genera, | in Classes et Ordines Linnseana | Methodo digesta, | Preefixa cnilibet 
classiterminorum | explicatione. | [Vignette.] | Viennse, | typis Joan Thorn, 
nob. de Trattnern, | Sac. Cses. Reg. Maj. Typog. et Bibl. | | 1778. 8. 11. 4, 
pp. 1-122, 1. 1. 
i. Cete, p. 114. Genera 1. Monodon; 2. Delphinus; 3. Physeter; 4. Balcena. [346.] 

1778. FERBER, . ["Bereitung des Wallraths."] <^Neue Beytrdge zur Mineralge- 
schichte, i, 1778, p. 366. 

Not seen; reference from Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 777. [347.] 

1778. "JANSEN, MARTEN. Kort, doch echt verhael wegens het verongelukken van 
zyn schip, genaemt : het "Witte paard, en nog negen andere schepeu, dewelke 
alle verongelukt zijn in Groenlandt ten jaere 1777. Waarby nog copia van 
een brief van commandeur Hidde Dirks Kat, aan zijn huisvrouw, geschreven 
uit straat Davis. Amsterdam, Nic. Bijl. 1778. 4. 18 bladz." 

"Eene andere uitgave, Leeu warden, 1778. 4. 23 bladz." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 239, no. 3486. [348.] 

1778. [ROPER, JURGEN.] "Wahrhafte Nachricht von den im Jahre 1777, auf den 

Walfischfang nach Gronland aufgegangenen und daselbst verungliickten fiinf 

. Hamburger Schiffen gezogen aus,dem Journal des Kiipers Jtirgen Roper, auf 

dem Schiffe genannt Sara Cecilia, Kommandeur Hans Pieters. Altona, 1778." 

"Lindeman geeft in zijne ' Arktische Fischerei,' bl. 49, een uiltreksel van dit Journaal." 

Not seen ; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 251, no. 3596. [349.] 

1778-83. ZIMMERMANN, E. A. W. Geographische | Geschichte | des Menschen, | und 
der | allgemein verbreiteten vierfiissigen Thiere, | nebst einer hieher gehori- 
gen | zoologischen Weltcharte, | von | E[berhard]. A[ugust]. W[ilhelm], 
Zimmermann, | Professor am Kollegio Karolino zu Braunschweig. | | Erster 
Band. [Vignette.] | Leipzig, | in der Weygandschen Buchhandlung | 1778. 
8. 11. 8, pp. 1-308. Mit ein Chart. Tabvla Mvndi | Geographico Zoologica | 
sistens | Qvadrvpedes | hucusque notos sedibus suis adscriptos | edidit j 
E. A. W. Zimmermann. | Aug. Wilh. Knoch delineavit. 

Achtzehnter Abschnitt. Der Manate, pp. 253-255. 

[Zweiter Band.] Geographische | Geschichte | des Menschen, [ und | der 
vierfussigen Thiere. | | Zweiter Band. Enthalt ein vollstandiges Verzeich- 
niss aller | bekannten Quadrupeden, | von | E. A. W. Zimmermann, | Professor 
der Mathematik und Naturlehre am Kollegio Karolino | zu Braunschweig. | 
[Vignette.] | Leipzig, | in der Weygandschen Buchhandlung. | 1780 8. 
11. 4, pp. 1-432. 

XLIII. Geschlecht. Das Walross, Trichechus. Enthalt das Wallross ( T. Rosmarus), und der 
Dugong (T. Dugung). XLIV. Geschlecht. Der Manate. Enthalt Der Manati von Kamt- 
schatka (Afanati gigas), und der kleinere Manati (Trichechus Hanatus, Linn.). , 


1778-83. ZIMMERMANN, E. A. W. Continued. 

[Dritter Band.] Geographische | Geschichte | des Menschen, | und dei | 
allgemein verbreiteteu vierfussigen Thiere, | | mit einer hiezu gehorigen 
zoologischen Weltcharte, j | von | E. A. W. Zimmermann, | Professor der 
Mathematik und Pliysik in Braunschweig und Mitglied | verschiedener ge- 
lehrten Gesellschaften. | | Dritter Band. | | Leipzig, | in der Weygand- 
sclien Buchhandlung | 1783. 8. 11. 5, pp. 1-278. [350.] 

1779. AXON. "Historisch wahre Nachricht von dem Eland und Drangsalen des im 
Jahre 1^77 auf den Waliischfang nach Gronland abgefahrenen, verungliickten 
Schiftes " Wilhelmina" unter dem Commandeur Jakob Henrich Broertjes, aus 
dem Hollandischen Tagebuch und miindlicher Erziihlung der drei Matrosen 
Harm Heurich Kroger, Harm Henrich Kroger der Sohn, beide von Altenesch 
im Delmenhorstischen, und Kasten KUlke aus Lessum, eine Meile von Bre- 
men, ubersetzt. Bremen, George Ludwig Forster. 1779." 

Not seen ; title from Lindeman, Arktische Fischerei, 1869, p. 37. A German translation of 
the Dutch "Echte historisch Verhael," etc., 1778, q. v. 1351.] 

1779. CHEMNIZ, T. H. Von der balaena rostrata oder dem Schnabelfische. <^Beschafl. 
d. Berlmi8chen Gescllsch. Naturf. Freunde, iv, 1779, pp.' 183-189. 

Hyperoodon rostrata. 1352.] 

1779. "GRAUMANN, PETR. BENED. CHSTI. Brevis introductio in historiam naturalem 
animalium mammalium in usum auditorum, cui accedit nomenclatura omnium 
hujus classis civium, uua cum charactere genericoet specifico, denominatione 
germanica ac designatione iconum. 8. Rostochii, 1779. pp. 90." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792. [353.] 

1779. "HIJLKES, R. Merkwaardig verhaal van Reinier Hijlkes als matroos, met het 

schip : de hopende Visser, commandeur Volkert Jansz. ten jare 1777 na Green- 
land uitgevaren op de walvisvangst en aldaar met 9 andere schepen veronge- 
lukt. Amsterdam. 1779. 4. 11 bladz." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 239, no. 3484. [354.] 

1780. CLAVIGERO, F. S. Storia antica | del Messico | cavata da' migliori storici Spa- 

gnuoli, | e da' manoscritti, e dalle pitture antiche degP Indiani : | Divisi in dieci 
Libri, | e corredata di carte geografiche, | e di varie figure: | e | Disserta- 
zioni | Sulla Terra, sugli Animali, e sugli abitatori del Messico. | Opera j dell 
Abate | D. Francesco Saverio | Clavigero | | TomoI[-IV.] | | [Design.] 
In Cesena MDCCLXXX. | | Per Gregorio Biasni all' Insegna di Pallade | 
Con Licenza de' Superiori. 4. 4 vols. Vol. i, pp. i-viii, 1-302, map, pll. ; 
vol. ii, pp. 1-276; vol. iii, pp. 1-260; vol. iv, pp. 1-331. 

IlManatiosiaiaraenJino, vol. i, pp. 100, 101. See Cullen's English transl. under 1787. [355.] 
1780. FABRICIUS, O. Favua | Groenlandica, | systematice sistens | Animalia Groen- 
landiae occiden- | talis hactenvs indagata, qvoad nomen | specificvm, triviale, 
vernacvlvniqve ; synonyma avcto- | rvm plvrivm, descriptionem, locvm, vic- 
tvm, genera- | tionvm, mores, vsvm, captvramqve siugvli, provt | detegendi 
occasio fvit, uiaximaqve parte secvn- | dvm proprias observationes | Othonis 
Fabricii | Ministri Evangelii, qvondam Groen- | landis ad Coloniam Friderichs- 
haab, posthac Norvagis | Drangedalise, nvnc vero Danis hopvnti ivtiae, 
Mem- | bri Societatis Scientiarvm qvae est Hafuiae. | [Vignette.] | Hafniae 
et Lipsiae, | Impensis loanis Gottlob Rothe, | avlae atqve vuivers. Reg. Bib- 
liopolae. | MDCCLXXX. 8. pp. i-xvi, 1-452, pi. 1. 

Cetacea, pp. 29-52, spp. 18-32, to wit: 1. Monodon Monoceros, p. 29; 2. Monodon Spvrivs, 
p. 31 = Hyperoodon rostratus; 3. Balaena Mysticetvs, p. 32; 4. Balatna Physalvs, p. 35 = 
Physalusantiquorum; 5. Balaena Boops,p.36=l Phy solus antiquorum ; 6. Balaena mvscvlvs, 
p. 39 = B. biscayensis; 7. Balaena rostrata, p. 40= Balcenoptera rostrata; 8. Physeter macro- 
cephalvs, p. 41 ; 9. Physeter Catodon, p. 44 = Physeter tursio, L. ; 10. Physeter microps, p. 44; 
11. Delphinvs Orca, p.46 = Orca gladiator; 12. Delphinvs Phocaena, p. 46 = Phoccena com- 
munis; 13. Delphinvs Delphis, p. 48; 14. Delphinvs Tursio, p. 49 = Orca gladiator,- 15. 
Delphinvs albicans, p. 50 = Beluga catodon. 

Monodon spurius, Balcena rostrata, spp. nn. 15 spp., 12 valid. Synonymy, diagnoses, dis- 
tribution, etc. [356.] 


1780. "&ATTERER, CHPH. WILH. JAC. Breviarum zoologiae Pars I. Mammalia. 
8 maj. Gottiugae, 1780." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792. [357. ] 
1780. LAUNAY, M. DE. M6moire sur Torigine des Fossiles accidentels des Provinces 
Belgiques. <Jfm. de VAcad. imp. et roy. des Sci. et Bell.-Lett. de Bruxelles, ii, 
1780, pp. 531-585. 

Brief reference (p. 335) to remains of a supposed skeleton of a Crocodile, here identified as 
that of an Orca, and also to other Cretacean remains. [358.] 

1780. MANN, L'Ablt. Me'moire snr 1'Histoire naturelle de la Mer du^Xord, & sur la 
Peche qui s'y fait. < Mem. de VAcad. imp. et roy* des. Sci. et Bell.-Lett. de Bru- 
xelles, ii, 1780, pp. 157-220. 

Cetaces, p. 197. 

"26. Les especes de poissons qui habitent ou qui frequentent la mer du nord, sont les sui- 

' CetelQ Cachelot. 

1 Balcena la Baleine. 

'Physeter la Sedenette. 

' Monoceros le Narhwal. 

'Ces quatres especes de poissons n'habitent point la mer du nord, mais ils y viennent 
quelquefois de 1'ocean septentrional, surtout dans les hyvers rudes. On a eu 1'exemple de 
baleines jettees sur la cote de Flandre "... (p. 197). [359.] 

1780. "SERIONNE, A. DE. Hollands rijkdom, behelzende den oorsprong van den 
koophandel, en van de magt van dezen staat ; de toenemende vermeerdering van 
deszelfs koophandel en scheepvaart, enz. Uit net Fransch vertaald. Vervol- 
gens overgezien, merkelijk veranderd, vermeerderd en van verscheiden miss- 
lagen gezuiverd door El. Luzac. Leyden, Luzac en van Dame, 1780. 4 din. 
gr. 8." 

Noordsche visscherij en koophandel, i, pp. 345-350. "Walvischvangst, ii, pp. 275-280. 

Not seen; title and references from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 210, no. 3167. [360.] 

1780. WITRY, L'AbMDE. Me'moire sur les fossiles du Tournaisis, et les petrifactions 

en ge'ne'ral, relativement a leur utilite" pour la vie civile. <^Mem. de VAcad. 
imp. et roy. des Sci. et Bell.-Lett. de Bruxelles, iii, 1780, pp. 11-44, pi. i-iii. 

A reference of four lines to remains of "poissons marina . . . qui paroissent avoir appar- 
tenu a des animaux cetaces" (p. 21). [361.] 

1780-84. "BoROWSKi, G. H. Gemeinnutzige Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs, darin- 
nen die merkwiirdigsten und niitzlichsten Tliiere in systemat. Ordnung be- 
schrieben und alle Geschlechter in Abbildungen nach der Natur vorgestellt 
werden. Mit den Kupfertaf. 1-228. Berlin und Stralsund, Lange, 1780-64. 
5 din. gr. 8." 

"1. Bd. Saugethiere. Mit 48 Kpfrtaf. 2. Bd. TTallfische, Vogel. Mit 48 Kpfrtaf. 8. 
Yogel. Mit 48 Kpfrtaf. 4. Amphibien. Mit 36 Kpfrtaf. 5. Fische. Mit 42 Kpfrtaf." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff, Zool. Beytr. , i, 1792. [362.] 
1780-84. "GiLii, FILIPPO SAL v ADORE. Saggio di Storia Americana, o sia Storia Na- 
turale, Civile, e Sacra de Eegni, e delle provincie Spanuole di Terra-ferma 
nelF America Meridionale. 4 vols. 8. Koma, 1780, '81, ? 82, '84." 

!Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. Have seen this work referred to as containing 
(vol. i, p. 84, fig. 1) an account of the Manatee, with a figure. [363.] 

1781. E [RIKSSON], J. Um Marsvina rekstr. <^Rit dess IslenzTca Lcerdoms-Lista Felags 

[ii], 1782, pp. 73-96. 

I. Kap. Um adferd Medalfarar manna, pp. 73-85; U. Kap. Tim adferd Fo3reyinga og Sunn- 
maera, pp. 85-96. [364.] 

1781. FABRICIUS, OTHO. Om Hvalaaset. <^Nye Saml. Kong. Danslce Videnskabers Sel- 
slcals Skrifter, 1781, pp. 557-378 (i. e. 578), figg. 1-4. [365.] 

1781. GRONOVIUS, LAUR [ENTIUS] THEOD [ORUS]. % Zoophylacium | Gronovianum, | 
exliibeus | Animalia | Quadrupeda, Amphibia, | Pisces, Insecta, Vermes, | 
Mollusca, Testacea, | et Zoopliyta, | Quae in Museo suo adservavit, examini | 
subjecit, systematice disposuit | atque descripsit | Laur. Theod. Gronovius, 



J. U. D. | Civitatis Lugduno Batavse Senator, Societatis physico- | medicae 
reghe Londinensis, Basilaeensis, | atque Hollandicae Socius. | Additis rarissi- 
morum objectorum iconismis. | | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud | Theodoruni 
Haak et Socium | et | Samuelem et Joliannem Luclitmans. | MDCCLXXXI. 
[3 fuse, paged continuously. ] fol. 11. 5, pp. 1-380, 11. 10, pp. i-vi, pll. 21. 

This is a reissue of the first and second fasc. of the Zoophylacii [pp. 1-236] -ffasc. iii, 
Vermes, etc., 1781, pp. 237-380. 

The Cetacean matter is therefore the same as in the editio princeps, q. ., at 1763. [366.] 

1781. [PENNANT, THOMAS.] History | of | Quadrupeds. | Vol. I [II]. | [Coat of arms.] 
London. | Piloted for B. White, Fleet Street. | MDCCLXXXI. 2 vols. 4. 
Vol. i, 1. 1, pp. i-xxiv, 1-284; vol. ii, 1. 1, pp. 285-566, 11. 7. 

Sirenia, pp. 536-545, to wit: 3 . Whale-tailed Manati, pp. 536-539; 2. Round-tailed Manati, 
pp. 540-544 ; 3. Sea Ape, pp. 544, 545. The first is primarily Steller's Sea Cow; the second 
includes both the American and African Manatees ; the last is a sp. myth. [367.] 

1781. "WESTERWOUT, J. DIBBETZ. Beknopte besclirijving der XVII Nederlandsche 

provincien, waarin den oorsprong en opkomst dezer landen aangetoond wordt. 

Nijmegen, Is. van Cainpen, 1781. gr. 8." " 

"... Visscherij; Haringvangst ; Walvischvangst, pp. 467-486." 
Title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 213, no. 3188. [368.] 

1782. BUFFON, [G. L. LECLERCDE.] Histoire | Naturelle, | ge'ne'rale et particuliere. | 

Par M. le Compte [George Louis Leclerc] de Buffon, Intendant du | Jardin & 
du Cabinet du Roi, de PAcade'mie | Franchise, de celle des Sciences, &c. | | 
Supplement, Tome Sixieme. | | [Arms.] A Paris, | de 1'Imprimerie Ro- 
yale. | | M. DCCLXXXII. 4. pp. i-viij, 1-405, i-xxv, pll. i-xlix. 

Les Lamantins, pp. 381-384. Le grand Lamantin de Kamtschatka, 385-395. Le grand 
Lamantin des Antilles, pp. 396-398. Le grand Lamantin de la mer des Indes, p. 399. Le 
petit Lamantin d' Am6rique, pp. 400-402. Le petit Lamantin du Senegal, pp. 403-405. [369.] 

1782. DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, M. Traitd Ge'ne'ral | des Peches, | et | Histoire des 
Poissons | qu'elles fournissent, | tant pour la subsistance des bommes, | que 
pour plusieurs autres usages | qui out rapport aux Arts et an Commerce. | Par 
M. Dtibamel duMouceau, de FAcade'mie Roy ale des Sciences; | . . . [= titles, 
3 lines]. | | Suite de la Seconde Partie. | | Tome Quatrieme. | [Design.] 
A Paris, | Chez Veuve Desaint, Libraire, rue du Foin Saint-Jacques. | | 
M. DCC. LXXXII. | Avec Approbation, et Privilege du Roi. 4 vols. 2. 

Trait6 general des Peches et Histoire des Poissons, on des animaux qui vivent dans 1'eau. 
Suite de la seconde Partie. Tome iv. Dixieme Section. Des Poissons Cetacees, & des Am- 
phibies. pp. 1-73, pll. i-xv. 

Introduction, pp. 1, 2. Chap. i. De la Baleine, & des Poissons qui y ont rapport, pp. 2, 3. 
Art. i. De la Baleine f ranche ; Cete ; Balaena vulgaris, edentula, dorso non pinnato, Raii, pp. 
4-9, pi. i, figg. 1, 2. Art. ii. Des differents lieux ou Ton trouve des Baleines, pp. 9-11. Art. 
iii. Details relatifs aux Navires qu'on destine pour faire la peche des Baleines au Nord dans 
les glaces, p. 11, pi. i, fig. 3, pi. iii, fig. 3. Art. iv. Detail sommaire des utensils n6cessaires 
pour la p6che, pp. 11, 12, pi. ii. Art. v. De la disposition des glaces au Nord, pp. 12, 13. 
Art. vi. De la nourriture des Baleines, p. 13. Art. vii. De la peche des Sardes, ou petites 
Baleines, que je soupconne etre le Nord-Kaper, p. 14. Art. viii. Des endroits ou Ton fait les 
Armements, p. 14. Art. ix. Sur les gages des Equipages, pp. 14, 15. Art. x. Etat dos effets, 
dont ceux qui forment 1'equipage doivent se fournir pour faire une campagne de peche, p. 15. 
Art. xi. De la Nourriture des Equipages, p. 15. Art. xii. De la peche des Baleines en gene- 
ral, pp. 16-18. ( 1. Des Harpons. 2. Des Lances. 3. Des Crocs. 4. Des Couteaux.) 
Art. xiii. De la peche des Baleines, particulierement avec les harpons, pp. 18, 19. Art. xiv. 
De VEmbarquement des Chaloupes, pp. 19, 20. Art. xv. De la maniere de lever le gras, ou 
de decouper les grandes Baleines pour en retirer 1'huile, pp. 20, 21. Art. xvi. Methode pour 
retirer 1'huile des Baleines, p. 22. Art. xvii. Sur lajauge des futailles, p. 23. Art. xviii. Des 
differentes qualite &. nature des huiles do Baleiue, pp. 23, 24. Art. xix. Expose sommaire 
de la peche des Baleines en differents Parages, & de la peche accidentelle de ces poissons, 
pp. 24-29. ( 1. De la peche aux cotes de Biscaye, de Galice & de Saint-Jean-de-Luz. 2. De 
la Peche aux C6tes d'Angleterre. 3. De la peche des Baleines par les Groenlandois. 4. 
De la peche en Schetland, ou Hithland. 5. De la peche en Norwege. 6. De la peche de la 
Baleine en Kussie. 7. De la peche par les Hollandois a Spitzberg. 8. De la peche des 
Baleines au Japon. 9. De la peche des Baleines a la Cor6e. 10. De la maniere de prendre 


1782. DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, M. Continued. 

les Baleines la Floride, dans l'Am6rique Septentrional e, par les Sauvagcs du pays. 11. 
Description des Chaloupes qui servent pour prendre des Baleines dans les environs du Canada. 
12. Idee generate des peches qu'on fait a Sinigaglia, jolie petite Villo situee au bord de la 
Mer Adriatique.) Art. xx. Sur les ennemis des Baleines, pp. 29-31. Art. xxi. De 1'Ambre 
gris; Ambra grisea, pp. 31, 32. 

Chap. ii. Des Cetacees. Art. i. Du Cachalot, pp. 33-36. Art. ii. Des Souffleurs, pp. 36-37. 
Art. iii. Des Marsouins, Tursio ; en Breton Meroch ; par quelques-uns, Souffleur, pp. 38-42. 
( 1. Du grand Marsouin, quo plusieurs nomment Souffleur, p. 41. > 2. Du Marsouin & museau 
arrondi; Tursio ou Phoccena, qu'on regarde comme le vrai Marsouin (flgg. 5 & 6).) Art. iv. 
Des Dauphins, pp. 42-45. 

Chap. iii. Des Amphibies, p. 45. Art. i. Du Loup, Veau Marin. ou Phoque ; Phoca, pp. 
45-51. Art. ii. Description d'un petit Phoque noir, & poil fin & onde, pp. 51, 52. Art. iii. 
D'un petit Phoque, copie sur le dessein qui est dans 1'Histoire Naturelle de M. de Buffon, 
tome xiii, p. 52. Art. iv. Lettre de M. Frameris, sur les Phoques qu'on prend dans les Mers 
du Nord, pp. 52,53. Art. v. Description d'un Pboque qui avoitete pech6 dans notre Ocean 
Septentrional, & apporte a Dieppe en 1723, fig. 5, p. 53. Art. vi. Description d'un Phoquo 
de la Mediterranee, envoy6 de Marseille, pp. 53, 54. Art. vii. De quelques Phoqiies, qu'on a 
conserve vivans dans plusieurs endroits, pp. 54-56. Art. viii. Du Lamentin, pp. 56, 57. De la 
peche des Lamentins, pp. 57-59. Art. ix. De la Vache marine, ou Poisson & la grande deut, 
Morse d'Islande & du Greenland ; Odobenus, ou Rosmarus, pp. 59-61. Art. x. De plusieurs 
autres Amphibies, & particulierement du Lion Marin ; Leo Marinus, p. 61. 

Explication des planches, pp. 62-66. Notice geographique des principaux lieux dont il est 
fait mention dans cette dixiemo Section, pp. 67-70. Table Alphabetique, p. 71. Table des 
Chapitres et Articles, pp. 72, 73. Errata, etc., p. 73. 

PI. i. Baleine franche, fig. 1, male; fig. 2, femelle ; fig. 3, deux chaloupes qui poursuivent une 
Baleine; figg. 4-6, fanons. PL ii. Instruments pour la peche des Baleines. PI. iii-viii. 
Peche des Baleines. PL ix, fig. 1, Cachalot d' Anderson ; fig. 2, 3, Souffleurs ; fig. 4, Souffleur du 
fleuve Saint-Laurent ; fig. 5, Marsouin ; fig. 6, Mulard do Rondelet ; fig. 7, squelette de la 
maehoire inferieure d'un Cachalot. PL x. Des Marsouins, 8 figg. Pll. xi, xii. Des Loups 
Marins, ou Phoques. PL xiii. Du Lamentin et du Peche du meme. PL xiv. De la Vache 
Marine : fig. 1, Vache Marine avec son petit ; fig. 2, aquelette d'une tete de Vache Marine ; fig. 
3, Tuerie de difierents Cetacees. PL xv, fig. 1, Pescheurs Groenlandois ; fig. 2, Lion Marin 
avec sa Lionne ; fig. 3, Cachalot Male. 

Duhamel's work was, for its time, a thorough presentation of the subject, relating, as its 
title implies, to the subject of the fisheries rather than to the natural history of fishes, al- 
though of importance in this relation, especially from the numerous original figures given. 
Those of the Cetacea, however, are in part copies from those of earlier writers, some of them 
more or less modified. His account of the Whalefishery, in relation to the capture and sub- 
sequent treatment of the animals, is detailed and very fully illustrated in the plates, and 
forms a valuable contribution to the history of the subject. [370.] 

1782. LE GRAND D'AussY. "Histoire de la vie prive'e des Francais, depuis Torigine 
de la nation jusqu'a nos jour. Paris, Imprimerie de Ph. D. Pierres. 1782. 
3 din. gr. 8." 

Peche de la Baleine chez les Basques, ii, pp. 68-77. 

Not seen; title and reference from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 237, no. 3465. [371. J 

1782. ST. JOHX [DE CREVECCEUR], J. HECTOR. Letters | from an | American Farmer ; | 
describing | certain provincial situations, | manners, and customs, | not gen- 
erally known; | and conveying | some id^a of the late and present | interior 
circumstances | of the | British Colonies | in | North America. | | Written 
for the information of a Friend | in England, | By J. Hector St. John [de 
Crevecoeur], | A farmer in Pennsylvania. | | London, | Printed for Thomas 
Davies in Russel Street, Covent- | Garden, and Lockyer Davis in Holborn. | 
M DCC LXXXII. 8. 11. 8, pp. 1-318, 2 maps. 

Letter v. Customary Education and Employment of the Inhabitants of Nantucket, pp. 
150-158 (relates mainly to the Whalefishery of this island). Letter vi. Description of the 
Island of Martha's Vineyard; and of the Whale Fishery, pp. 159-176. Pp. 162-176 relate to 
the Whalefishery, describing the character, size, and outfit of the vessels employed, the man- 
ner of capturing Whales, "cutting in," and care of the products, etc. At p. 169 is a list of 
' ' the names and principal characteristics of the various species of Whales known to these peo- 
ple" ofNantucket; 11 species being enumerated and briefly described. There are also sta- 
tistics of the Nantucket Whalefishery for the year 1769. [In the French ed. of 1767 the letter 
about the Whalefishery is dated "Nantucket, 17 Octobre 1772."] 


1782. ST. JOHN [DE CREVECCEUR], J. HECTOR Continued. 

A " New Edition, with an Accurate Index," appeared in 1783, textaally the same as the 
present. There are also later editions in English (that of 1793 is given infra), and in French, 
the author himself translating and publishing his "Letters" in that language in 1784 (q. v. ; 
see, also, under 1787). Also cf. Rich, Bibliotheca Americana Nova, p. 302. [372.] 

1782-84. "BocK, FRIEDR. SAM. Versuch einer wirtschaftl. Natnrgesch. von Ost-u. 
West-preussen. 5 Bde. Mit Kpfrn. gr. 8. Dessau, 1782-84." 

Not seen; title from Cams and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 
782. [373.] 

1783. "HERMANN, JOA. Tabula affinitatum animalium, per totum aniinalo regnura 

in tribus foliis exposita, olim academico specimine edita, nunc uberiore com- 
mentario illustrata, cum annotationibus ad historiam naturalem aniinalium 
augendam fascientibus. 4. Argentorati, 1783." 

Not seen; title from Carus and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff and others. [374-] 

1783. [LONDON SOCIETY FOR, etc.] [Gun Harpoons.] < Trans. London Soc. for En- 
cour. Arts, Man., and Com ., i, 1783, pp. 42, 215. 

"Whale-Fishery," p. 42 (announcement of the successful introduction of the gun har- 
poon). "Gun for throwing Harpoons," p. 215 (prize offered for improvement in its construc- 
tion). "Harpoon to be thrown by a Gun," p. 215 (prize offered for improvements in its con- 
struction). These offers, as also a prize for the capture of Whales by use of the harpoon 
gun. were annually renewed by the society for many years. See the society's Trans., 1784 
et seq. [375.] 

1783. SCHWEDIAWER, F. X. An Account of Ambergrise. . . . <^Philos. Trans. Land., 

Ixxiii, pt. 1, art. xv, 1783, pp. 226-241. 

A detailed account of nature, mode of occurrence, and use of ambergris and sperma- 
ceti. [376.] 

1784. BODDAERT, P. P. Boddaert med. doct. | . . . . [= titles, 7 lines] | Elenchus 

Animalium. | Volumen I. | Sistens Quadrupedia hue usque nota, | eorumque 
varietates. | Ad ductum Naturae, quantum fieri potuit disposita. | | .... 
[= motto, 6 lines]. | | Roterodaini, | Apud C. R. Hake. | MDCCLXXXIV. 
8. pp. i-xxxviii, 1-174. 

The Cetacea are not included. The Sirenia are : I. Rosmarus Indicus, p. 169 = Indian 
Walrus, Pennant and Dugon, Buffon; ii. Manati Trichechus, p. 173= The Broad-tailed 
Manati, Pennant; 3. Manatus Balcenurus, p. 173 = Whale- tailed Manati, Pennant, there- 
fore =Rhytina borealis. [377.] 

1784. CHEMNITZ, T. II. Auszug aus einem Schreibeii des Herrn Garnisonprediger 
Chemnitz zu Coppenhagen, an den Herrn O. C. R. Silberschlag, vom 29sten 
July, 1783. 5 Taf. Fig. 4 bis 7. <^Schriften der Berlinisclien Gesellschaft na- 
turforscher Freunde, v, 1784, pp. 463-469. 

Account of the capture of a "Nordkaper" "etwa zwischen Neufundland und Issland," 
from the head of which were obtained examples of the Balanus polythalamius compressus, 
the same being here described and figured, etc. [378.] 

1784. FOORD, HUMPHREY. A short Account of the Invention of the Gun Harpoon, 
which has been introduced into the Greenland Fishery, by means of the Re- 
wards bestowed by the Society; the utility of which will be manifested, by 
the Facts related in the following Letters. < Trans. London Soc. Encour. Arts, 
Man., and Com., ii, 1784, pp. 191-222, pi. 

Account of "an Harpoon to be fired from a Swivel Gun," invented by Abraham Staghold, 
in 1771, with a plate giving figures of the harpoon and gun, pp. 191-196. Six letters from 
Captain Humphrey Foord, giving accounts of the capture of Whales by the Gun Harpoon, 
and claiming premiums therefor, pp. 197-222. The account gives also the "length of bone" 
and yield of oil of several of the Whales thus taken. [379.] 

1784. "LESKE, NATHAN. GTFR. Aufangsgriinde der Naturgesch. 1 Th. Allgem. 
Natur- u. Thiergeschichte, mit 12 Kpfr. 2 Aufl. gr. 8. Leipzig, 1784." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff. The first edition is said 
to have appeared in 1779. [380.] 

1784 (circa). LICHTENBERG, GEO. CHPH. Potfisch. <^Mag. fur Neuste aus der Phys. u. 
Naturg., ii, (1784?), p. 204. 

Not seen; title and reference based on Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 777. [3J ,] 


1784. [ST. JOHN DE CREVECCEUR, J. HECTOR.] Lettres | d'un | Cultivateur | Ameri- 
cain, | [ J. Hector St. John Crevecceur] ficrites a W. S. Ecuyer, | Depuis PAn- 
ne~e 1770, jusqu'a 1781. | Traduites de PAnglois par * * *. | Tome Premier Let 
Second]. | [Design. ] A Paris, | Chez Cachet, Libraire, me & hotel Serpente. 
| | M. DCC. LXXXIV. 2vols. 8. Vol. i, pp. i-xxiv, i-iv, 1-422, 1. 1; 
vol. ii, 11. 2, pp. i-iv, 1-400, 1. 1. [The copy here collated (Harvard College 
Library, 15332-22) contains manuscript corrections of numerous typographi- 
cal errors and additions by the author, with his autograph.] 

Septieme Lettre. Peche de la Baleine, vol. ii, pp. 147-157. 

This is a much altered and enlarged version, more or less changed throughout, rather than 
a "translation," as the title-page implies, of the "Letters from an American Farmer" (Lon- 
don, 1782), with a dedication to the Marquis de Lafayette, which is dated "New Yorck, 24 
Septemhre 1781," and signed "L'auteur & Traducteur," with, in manuscript, the word "Cre- 
vecoeur " added in the copy examined. The matter relating to the Nantucket "Whaleflshery 
is substantially the same as that of the English ed. of 1782 (q. v.), of which it is, however, by 
no means a strict translation. [382.] 

1784. " SCHNEIDER, J. G. Sammlung vermischter Abhandlungen zur Aufkliirung der 

Zoologie und der Handelsgeschichte. Berlin, 1784. 8." 

" Zie aldaar : Kritische Sammlung von alten und neueren Nachrichten zur Naturgeschichte 

der Wallfische, nebst der Geschichte ihres ranges und des damit verbunden Handels, 

bl. 125-303." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 173, no. 2728. [383.] 

1784-86. ANON. "De Walvischvangst met veele bijzonderheden daartoe betrek- 
kelijk. Amsterdam en Harlingen, bij P. Conradi en V. van der Plaats, 1784- 
86. 4 din. 4." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed (op. cit., p. 250, no. 3583), who gives as a new edition of this 
work the Nieuwe beschrijving der Walfischvangst, etc., 1791, q. v. [384.] 

1785. DAUBENTON, [L. J. M.] Observations sur un grand os qui a 6t6 trouv6 en terre 

dans Paris; et sur la conformation des Os de La tete des Ce'tace'es. <^JHst. de 
I'Acad. roy. des Sci. de Paris, ann. 1782 (1785), pp. 211-218, pll. iv-vi. 

PI. iv, tete d'un petit Cachalot ; pll. v, vi, tete du Dauphin. [385.] 

1785. " GATTERER, CHPH. WILH. JAC. Naturhist. A-B-C-Buch, od. Abbild. u. Be- 
schreib. merkwurd. Thiere. 1785. 3 Aufl. 1799. Mit Kpfr. 8." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engclmann. [386.] 

1785. HALCROW, SINCLEAR. [Account of capture of a Whale by use of the Harpoon 
Gun.] < Trans. London Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., iii,1785, pp. 154- 
157. [387.] 

1785. MONRO, A. The | Structure and Physiology | of | Fishes | explained, | and | 
compared | with those of | Man and other Animals. | | Illustrated with 
Figures. | | By Alexander Monro, M. D. | Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians, | and of the Royal Society, | and | Professor of Physic, Anat- 
omy, and Surgery, in the University | of | Edinburgh. | CE | Edinburgh: [ 
Printed for Charles Elliot, Edinburgh ; And G. G. J. and J. Robinson, Lon- 
don. | | M, DCC, LXXXV. 2. pp. 1-128, pll. i-xliv. 

Of the Ear in Cetaceous Fishes, pp. 45, 46, 109-112, pi. xxxv, figg. 19 ("Nose, mouth, ear, 
and larynx of a Porpess "). [388.] 

1785. PONTOPPIDAN, C. Hval- og Robbefangsten | udi | Strat-Davis, ved Spitsbergen, 
og under | Eilandet Jan Mayen, | samt | dens vigtige Fordele, | i Anledning | 
af den Kongel. allern. Placat af 13 Octbr. 1784 ; | tilligemed | nogle oplysende 
Efterretninger om Fangsten, Behandilings- | inaaden, m. m. | ved | Carl Pon- 
toppidan, | Kongel. Maj. virkelig Justiceraad og medadministrerende Direc- 
teur | ved den Kongel. Islandiske, Finmarske, &c. &c. Handel. | [Vignette.] 
| | Hermed fylger et Kobber. | | Ki0benhavn 1785. | Trykt paa Sylden- 
dals Forlag, | hos Frid. Wilh. Thiele. 8. 11. 3, pp. 1-124. [389.] 

1785. "WITSEN, NIC. Noord en Oost Tartarijen; behelzende eene beschrijving van 
verscheidene Tartersche en nabuurige gewesteu, in de noorder en oostelijke 
deelen van Azien en Europa. Zedert naauwkeurig ouderzoek van veele Jaren, 




1785. " WITSEN, NIC. Continued. 

en eigen ondervinding oatworpen, beschreven, geteekent en in 't licht gege- 
ven. Tweede druk, nieuwe uitgaaf, verryckt met eene Inleidiug (door P. 
Boddaert) en met eene meenigte (105) afbeeldingen (platen en kaarten) ver- 
sierd. Te Amsterdam, bij M. Schalekamp, 1785. 2 din. folio. 

"Zie aldaar: Grocnlandt; Nova-Zembla; Straet Davids; Waygats, bl. 45, 93, 762, 782, 832, 
834, 892, 897-906, 915, 919-926, 928, 940, 951, waar tevens van de vischvangst, vooral van de wal- 
visch- en walrusvangst gesproken wordt. Witsen heeft zich in zijne berigten dikwijls van 
de mondelinge mededeelingen van walvischvaarders bediend. Verder: Visch in do Kas- 
pische zee, bl. 614, 690. Visch in Siberie, bl. 787. Vischvangst in 't Samoyeden-landt, bl. 955. 
Haringvangst in Siberie, bl. 745. 

"Vergelijk: Fr. Muller, Essai d'une bibliographic !N"eerlando-Russe, bl. 58, waar eenige 
belangrijke bijzonderheden en eene naauwkeurige bibliographische beschrijving van dit werk 
te vinden zijn." 

Not seen; title and references from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 252, no. 3607. [390.] 

1785-88. "GOEZE, JOH. AUG. EPHR. Nutzliches Allerley aus der Natur u. dem ge- 
meiuen Leben fur allerley Leser. 6 Bde. 8. Leipzig, 1785-88." 
"Neue verbess. Ausg. in 3 Bdn. 8. Leipzig, 1788." 
Not seen; title from Cams and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff. [391.] 

1785-92. FISCHER, F. C. J. Friedrich Christoph Jonathan Fischers | Geschichte | 
des | teutschen Handels. | | Der Schiffarth, Fischerei, Erfindungen, Kunste, 
Gewerbe, Manufakturen, | der Landwirthschaft, Polizey, Leibeigenschaft, des 
Zoll- Munz- | und Bergwesens, des Wechselrechts, der Stadtwirthsckaft | und 
des Luxus. | | Erster [-Vierter] Theil. | | Hannover, | in der Helwing- 
schen Hof buclihandlung. | 1785 [-1792]. 4 vols. 8. Theil i, 1785 ; Theil ii, 
1785; Theil iii, 1791; Theil iv, 1792. 

Wallfischfang, Theil iv, pp. 265-272. Geschichte des "Wallflschfangs, der seit der Sltesten 
Zeit von den aussersten Nordischen V6lkern getrieben wird. Noch giebt es weder bey der 
Hansa noch in Holland formliche "Wallfischjager. Nachricht von Wallfischen, die auf die 
Klederlandische K&ste gerathen sind. Erst gegen Ende des [sechzehnten] Jahrhunderts 
fangen die Biseayer und Engliinder an, auf den "Wallflschfang auszugehen: und die Hol- 
lander werden erst bey der versuchten NordSstlichen Durchfarth mit dem "Wallfischfange 
bekannt. . [392.] 

1785. CAMPER, P. Conjectures relative to the Petrifactions found in St. Peter's 

Mountain, near MaestricJit. <^Philo8. Trans. Lond., Ixxvi, pt. 2, art. xxvi, 1786, 
pp. 4413-456, pll. xv, xvi. 

Descriptions and figures of various fossil remains, including bones and teeth of Phoccena 
and Physeter and part of lower jaw of Squalodon. [393.] 

1786. "CRANZ, D. Hedendaagsche historic, of tegenwoordige staat van Greenland 

en Straat Davids, benevens eene uitvoerige beschryving van de walvisch- en 
robbenvangst. Amsterdam, 1786. 3 vols. 8. Maps and pll." 

"Exactly the same work as the preceding [Dutch ed. of 1767], only the title reprinted." 
F. Muller, Cat. Am. Books, 1877, no. 836. [394.] 

1786. [ JARMAN, NATHANIEL, WILLIAM BROWN, and others.] [Letters and Certificates 
in reference to the capture of Whales with the Gun-Harpoon.] < Trans. Lon- 
don Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., iv, 1786, pp. 179-182. [395.1 

1786. MOHR, N. Fors^g | til | en Islandsk | Naturhistorie, | med | adskillige oekono- 

miske samt andre | Anmcerkuinger, | ved | N[iels]. Mohr. | | Siquid 

novisti rectius istis, | Candidus imperti; si non, his utere mecus. | Horat, 
Epist. Libr. I. 6. | | Ki0benhavn, | trykt hos Christian Friderik Holm, | 
1786. 8. pp. i-xvi, 1-414. 

VII. Cote, Hvale, pp. 12-17, spp. 22-32. 1. Monodon monoceros; It* Balama Mysticetus; 
3. B. Physalus; 4. B. Boops ,- 5. B. Musculus ; 6. B. Rostrata, p. 13; 7. Physeter Hacro- 
cephalus; 8. P. Microps,- 9. Delphinus orca ; 1O. D. Phoccena; 11. D. Delphi*; 12. Z>. 
Albieans, p. 14. 

List with brief notes. [396.] 

1787. CLAVIGERO, F. S. The | History | of | Mexico. | Collected from | Spanish and 

Mexican Historians, | from | Manuscripts, and Ancient Paintings of the In- 


1787. CLAVIGERO, F. S. Continued. 

dians. | Illustrated by | Charts, and other Copper Plates. | To which are 
added, | Critical Dissertations | on the | Land, | the Animals, | and Inhabit- 
ants of Mexico. | By Abbe* D. Francesco Saverio Clavigero. | Translated 
from the Original Italian, | By Charles Cullen, Esq. | In Two Volumes. | Vol. 
I [II]. | London, | Printed for G. G. J. aud J. Robinson, No. 25, Puter-noster 
Row. | MDCCLXXXVII. 2 vols. 4. Vol. i, 11. 2, pp. iii-xxxii, 1-476, pll. 
i-xxiv, map. Vol. ii , 11. 2, pp. 1-463. 

The Manati or Lament-in, i, pp. 62, 63. The text gives but 10 lines to this animal, to which 
are added foot-notes to the amount of 18 lines. 

There is a second English 4 ed., London, 1807, with the same pagination for the body of 
the work. A later American reprint in 3 vols., 8, appeared at Philadelphia in 1817, in which 
the passage about the Manati or Lamentin occurs in vol. i, p. 83. There are German and 
other translations given by bibliographers, not seen by me. . [397.] 

1787. [HoLLiNGSWORTH, S.] The I Present State | of | Nova Scotia: | with a brief | 
Account of Canada, | and the | British Islands | on the coast of | North Amer- 
ica. | | The Second Edition, corrected and enlarged. | Illustrated with a 
map. | | . . . . [_= quotations, 3 lines]. [ Edinburgh: | Printed for William 
Creech, Edinburgh; | and sold by | T.'Cadell, and G. Robinson & Co. Lon- 
don. | M, DCC, LXXXVII. 8. pp. 1-6, vii-xii, 1-221. 

On the importance of giving every possible encouragement to the Canadian Whale-fisherv, 
pp. 153-155. It is predicted that the Whale-fishery from Canadian ports "will soon put an 
end to that of Nantucket " ! [398.] 

1787. HUNTER, JOHN. Observations on the Structure and Oeconomy of Whales. <^Phil. 
Trans. Lond., Ixxvii, pp. 371-450, pll. xvi-xxiii. Read June 28, 1787. 

[General Remarks], pp. 371-381; Of the Bones, pp. 381-386; Of the Construction of the 
Tail, pp. 386,387; Of the Fat, pp. 387-394; Of the Skin, pp. 394-397; Of the Mode of catching 
their Food [includes descriptions of the digestive organs], pp. 397-416; Of the Larynx, pp. 
416-418; Of the Lungs, pp. 418-420; The Blow-hole, or Passage for the Air, pp. 420-426; Of 
the Sense of Touch, p. 426; Of the Sense of Taste, pp. 426, 427; Of the Sense of Smelling, 
pp. 428-430; Of the Sense of Hearing, pp. 430-437; Of the Organ of Seeing, pp. 437-441; Of 
the Parts of Generation, pp. 441-446 ; Explanation of the Plates, pp. 447-450. 

The observations relate to the following species: 1. " Delphinus phoccena, or Porpoise"; 2,3. 
"Grampus," two species, pll. xvi, xvii, animal; 4. " Delphinus delphis, or Bottle-nose Whale," 
pi. xviii, animal; X. Another, but of a different genus, having only two teeth in the lower 
}B,w=Hyperoodon, pi. xix, animal; 6. "Balcena, rostrata of Fabricius," pi. xx, xxi, 
external parts of generation, pi. xxii, one of the plates of whalebone, pi. xxiii, a perpendicular 
section of several plates of whalebone ; 7. "Balcena mysticetus, or large Whalebone Whale "; 
8. "Physetermacrocephalus, or Spermaceti Whale"; 9. "Monodon monoceros, or Xarwhale." 

These species are treated passim, under the sub-headings above given. 

Hunter's celebrated memoir was for many years the principal source of information respect- 
ing the anatomy of Cetaceans, and is even still quotable. His observations were repeatedly 
copied, more or less extensively, by many subsequent writers, and his figures were reproduced 
in many of the older works, notably by Bonnaterre (1789), who faithfully copied all but one 
(pi. xix), which he also reproduced with modifications, e. g., the insertion of the two teeth in 
the lower jaw. [399.] 

1787. MONRO, A. Vergleichung | des | Baues und der Physiologie der Fische | mit 
dem | Bau des Menschen und der ubrigen Thiere | durch Kupfer erlautert | 
von | Alexander Monro. | | Aus das Englischen ubersezt | uud mit eignen 
Zusatzen und Anmerkuugen von P. Campern vermehrt | durch | Johanu Gott- 
lieb Schneider. | | Leipzig, bey Weidmanus Erben uud Reich. 1787. 4. 
11. 4, pp. 1-192, 11. 2, pll. i-xxxiii. 

Yon dem Ohre der Wallfischarten, pp. 53, 54, 65-71, pi. xxv. 

In this version the text is greatly increased and the plates much changed and reduced in 
number. For the original ed., see 1785. MOXKO, A. [400.] 

1787. "Mooi, MAARTEN. Journael van de reize naer Groenlaudt, gedaen door com- 
maudeur M. Mooi met het schip Frankeudaal, behelzende zijue uitreize van 
Amsterdam 22 April 1786, bezetting in het ijs, zedert den 10 Junij, het voor- 
gevalleue met de commandeurs H. C. Jaspers, M. Weatherheacl, W. Allen en 
Volkert Klaassen of Jung Volkert Knudsten, welke twee Eugelsche comm. 


1787. "Mooi, MAARTEN Continued. 

beide hunue schepen verloren hebben; de gelukkige verlossiug van den Altoo- 
naasvaarder Gottenburger en van hem M. Mooi, met veel aanmerkelyke by- 
zonderheden. Amsterdam, David Weege, 1787. 4. 71 biz." 

Not seen ; title from Bosgoed, op. cit, p. 243, no. 3518. [401.] 

1787. ST. JOHN DE CREVE COEUR, [HECTOR]. Lettres | d'un Cultivateur | Am6ricain 

| addressees a Wm. S ... on, Esq r . | depuis I'Anu^e 1770 jusqu'en 178(5. 
Par M. St. John | De Creve Coeur, | Traduites de PAnglois, | Keen feelings 
inspire resistless thoughts. | Tome I[-III]. | [Vignette.] A Paris. | Chez Cu- 
chet Libraire, Rue et Hotel Serpente. | 1787. 3 vols. 8. Vol. i, front., eugr. 
title, pp. i-xxxij, 1-478, 1. 1, map and 2 pll. ; vol. ii, 1. 1, pp. 1-438, 11. 3, 
3 maps; vol. iii, 1. 1, pp. 1-592, 1 map and 1 pi. 

Septieme Lettre. Peche de la Baleine, pp. 153-163. 

Vols. i and ii appear to be the same as the two-volume edition of 1784, with the addition of 
maps and of several pages of new matter at the end of each volume. Vol. iii is wholly addi- 
tional. The matter relating to the Whalefishery is the same as that of the 1784 ed. (q. v.), 
except that the " lettre " here bears the date " Nantucket, 17 Octobre 1772." [402.] 

1788. "BATSCI?, AUG. JOH. GEO. KARL. Versuch einer Ajileit. zur Kenntniss u. Ge- 

schichte der Thiere u. Mineralien, fiir akad. Vorlesungeii entworfen u. mit 
den nothigsten Abbildgn versehen. 2 Thle. Mit 7 Kpfrtaf. gr. 8. Jena 

1788, '89." 

"1 Thl. Mit d. Kpfrtaf. 1-5, 1788. 2 Thl. Besondere Geschichte der luseeten, Gewiirmo 
u. Mineralien. Mit den Kpfrtaf. 6 u. 7, 1789." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792. [403.] 

1788. BLUMENBACH, J. F. D. Joh. Friedr Blumenbachs | der Med. Prof. ord. zu Got- 
tingen | Handbuch | der | Naturgeschichte. | | Mit Kupfern. | | Multa 
tiunt eadem sed aliter. | Qvintilian. | | DrittesehrverbesserteAusgabe. | | 
Gottingen, | bey Johann Christian Dieterich, | 1788. sm. 8. pp. i-xvi, 1-715, 
pll. i-iii. 

IX. Palmata, pp. 137-143. Includes Trichecus Manatiis, p. 143. 

XII. Cetacea, pp. 143-147. 1. M onodon Narwhal, p. 144 ; 2. BalaenaMysticetu8,-p.lM; 3. 
B.Physalus, p. 146; 4. Physeter Macrocephalus, p. 146 ; 5. Delphinus Phocaena, p. 147 ; 6. D. 
Delphis, p. 147; 7. D. Orca, p. 147. [404.] 

1788. GMELIN, J. F. Caroli a Linne", | . . . [= titles, etc., 4 lines] | Systema | Naturae | 

per | Regna tria Naturae, | secundum | Classes, Ordines, | Genera, Species, | 
cum | Characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. | Tomus I. | | Editio 
decima tertia, aucta, reformata. | | Cura | Jo[annis].Frid[erico]. Gmelin, | 
. . . [titles, 4 lines] | | Lipsiae, 1788. | Impensis Georg. Emanuel. Beer. 8. 
7 11. unpaged, pp. 1-500. Mammalia, pp. 1-232. 

Sirenia [<ii Bruta], arranged under the genns Trichechus (pp. 59-61). 1. T. Rosmarus = 
"Walruses, p. 59; 2. T. Dugong Indian Walrus, Pennant, p. 60; 3. T. Manatus, a. australis 
("Habitat in mari africano et americano"), p. 60; 3 a. T. Manatw, /3. borealis (Rhytina 
gigas), p. 61. 

Cete, pp. 222-232; genera 37-40 = 4; species 15, to wit: 1. Monodon Monoceros, p. 222; 2. 
Balaena Mysticetus, p. 223; 3. B. Physalus,p.224; 4. B. Boops, p. 225; 5. B. gibbosa, p. 225; 
6. B.3rusculus,i>.226; 7. B. rostrata, p. 226; 8. Physeter Catodon, p. 226; 9. P. macrocepha- 
lus, p. 227; 10. P. microps, p. 228; 11. P. Tursio, p. 229; 12. Delphinus Phocaena, p. 229; 
13. D. Delphis, p. 230; 14. D. Orca, p. 231; IS. D. Leucas, p. 232. [405.] 

1789. "BECHSTEIN, JOH. MATTH. Gemeinnutz. Naturgesch. Deutschlands, nach alien 

3 Keicheu. 4 Bde. Mit 65 Kpfr. gr. 8. Leipzig, 1789-95." 

"1. Bd. welcherdie niithigen Vorkenntnisse u. die Geschichte der Saugethiere enthalt. 
Mit 16 Kpfrtaf. 1789." 

Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. An improved later edition is said to have 
appeared in 4 vols. 1801-09 (Mammals, 1801). [406.] 

1789. BONNATERRE, . Tableau | Encyclop6dique | et Mdthodique | des trois Regnes 
de la Nature, | De'die' et pr6sent6 a M. Necker, Ministre d'Etat, | & Directeur 
Gdneral des Finances. | | Cetologie. | | Par M. TAbb6 Bonnaterre. | . . . . 
[= motto, 2 lines]. | [Vignette.] | A Paris, | Chez Panckoucke, Libraire, H6tel 


1789. BOXNATERRE Continued. 

de Thou, rue des Poitevins. | | M. DCC. LXXXIX. | Avec Approbation et 
Privilege du Roi. j 4. pp. i-xlj, 1-28, pll. 1-12. ^Encyclopedic Methodique, 
tome 183. 

Tome 183 of the Encyclopedic Methodique also includes : 

Tableau | Encyclope'dique | et Methodique | des trois Regnes de la Nature. 
| | Quadrupedes et Ce"tace~s. | Par MM. Daubenton et Desinarest. | [It bears 
the same imprint as tome 182, and the date M. DCCCXXVI (1826)]. 4. pll. 
1-112 ; pll. suppl. 1-14 = 126 pll. See 1822. DESMAREST, A. G. 

"Le Recueil des planches de V Encyclopedic, destinees a repr6senter les principales espdces 
de mammiferes, a ete publie, sans texte, il y a environ trente ans." Avertissement, tome 182, 
1820, p. v. 

"Avertissement," pp. iii-vi, reviewing the history and difficulties of the subject; "Intro- 
duction," pp. vii-xli, denning the "Differences entre les cetaces et les poissons" (pp. vii, viii), 
and describing in detail the different parts of the various types of Cetaceans (pp. viii-xx), their 
distribution, migrations, habits, etc. (pp. xx-xxiii), and the Whale-fishery, as carried on by 
different nations (pp. xxiii-xxx). Then follows "Precis anatomique des Cetactis, Avec 
1'explication de quelques mots techniques qu'on emploie ordinairement dans les descrip- 
tions" (pp. xxxi-xl), with "Table methodique des Cetac6s" (p. xli), giving the characters of 
the "Classes" and "genres." 

Cetologie, pp. 1-28. Genn. 4; spp. 26. Premiere Classe. Baleines. I er . Genre. Baleine, 
Balena. Linn., p. 1. 1. La Baleine-Franche, B. Mysticetus, p. 1, pi. ii, fig. 1, from Martens = . 
Balcena mysticetus ; 2. Le Nord-Caper, B. Glacialis, p.3 = J?. "biscayensis"; 3. LeGibbar, B. 
Physalus, p. 4, pi. ii, fig. 2, from Martens = Physalus antiquorum; 4. La Baleine-tampon, B. 
Nodosa, p. 5 = ? Balcenoptera rostrata; 5. La Baleine a bosses, B. Gibbosa,~p.5 = Agaphelu8 
gibbosus, Cope ; 6. La Jubarte, B, Boops, p. 6, pL iii, fig. 2, from Sibbald = ? Megaptera longi- 
mana; 7. Le Rorqual, B. Musculus, p. 7, pi. iii, fig. 1, from Sibbald = ? Physalus antiquo- 
rum; 8. La Baleine a bee, B. Rostrata, p. 8, pi. iv, from Hunter =. Balcenoptera rostrata. 

Seconde Classe. Monodons. I er . Genre. Monodon, Monodon. Linn., p. 9; 9. LaNarhwal, 
M. Monoceros, p. 10, pi. v, fig. 1, animal, figg. 2, 3, bidentate skull, from Cope=.3f. monoceros ; 
10. L'Anarnak, M. Spurius, p. 11 = ? Hyperoodon bidens, 

Troisieme Classe. Cachalots. I er . Genre. Cachalot, Phiseter. Linn., p. 12 ; 11, Le Grand 
Cachalot, P. Macrocephalus, p. 12, pi. vi, fig. 1, pi. vii, fig. 2, original = Physeter macrocepha- 
lus; 12. Le petit Cachalot, P. Catodon, p. 14, pi. vi, fig. 4, tooth = Physeter macrocephalus- 
juv. ; 13. Le Cachalot trumpo, P. Trumpo, p. 14, pi. viii, from Robertson = Physeter macroce, 
phalus; 14. Le Cachalot cylindrique, P. Cylindricus, p. 16, pi. vii, fig. 1, from Anderson = 
Physeter macrocephalus ; 15. Le Cachalot Microps, P. Microps, p. 16 = Physeter macrocepha- 
lus; 16. Le Cachalot Mular, P. Mular, p. 17, pi. viii, fig. 5, tooth = Physeter macrocephalus. 

Quatrieme Classe. Dauphins. I er . Genre. Dauphin, Delphinus. Linn., p. 18; 17. Le 
Marsouin, D. Phoccena, p. 18, pi. x, fig. 1, copy of an early figure ; 18. Le Dauphin, D. Del- 
phis, p. 20, pi. x, fig. 2, from Klein = Delphinus delphis,- 19. Le N6sarnak, D. Tursio, p. 21, 
pi. xi, figg. 1,2, from Hunter = Tursio truncatus,- 20. L'Epaulard, D. Orca, p. 21, pi. xii, 
fig. 1, from Hunter = Orca gladiator ; 21. L'Epaulard ventru, p. 23, pi. xii, fig. 2, from Hun- 
ter =? Orca sp. ; 2*. L'Ep6e de Mer, D. Gladiator, p. 23= Orca gladiator,- 23. Le B6- 
luga, D. Albicans, p. 24 = Beluga catodon,- 24. Le Dauphin a deux dents, D. Bidentatus, 
p. 24, pl.xi, fig. 3, from Hunter, altered = Hyperoodon bidens -, 25. Le Butskopf, D. Butskopf, 
p. 25 = JET. bidens (not the Butskopf of the Dutch and Germans, which is an Orca); 26. Le 
Dauphin feres, D. Feres, p. 27 = ? Orca gladiator. 

Balcena nodosa, Phiseter trumpo, P. cylindricus, P. mular, Delphinus bidentatus, D. buts- 
Jcopf, D. feres, spp. nn. 

Systematic names are given to 25 species, 7 of them new. Bonnaterre's memoir, although 
essentially a compilation, became at once the authority on the subject, and was so recognized 
till the appearance of Lacepede's work in 1804. "With one exception (Physeter macrocephalus) 
the figures of the animals are all copies from those of previous authors, notably Sibbald, An- 
derson, and Hunter. The memoir, however, may be taken as the best presentation of the 
general subject up to that date, and is especially important for the considerable number of 
new names introduced. [407. J 

1789? "GROOT, J. J. Beknopt en getrouw Verhael, van de reys van Commandeur 
Jeldert Jansz. Groot, uit Texel na en Groenlandt. Desselfs verblijf op de 
kust van Oud- Groenlandt, nae het verongelukken van deszelfs onderhebbend 
schip, voorgevallen in Anno 1777 en 1778. Amsterdam, Wed. van A. van Rij- 
schooten en zn. 4, (16 pag.)." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 237, no. 3467. [408. | 


1789. MERCK, HENRY. Me'moire sur les Ce'tace's. <^Hist. et Mtm. de la Soc. des Sci. 
phys. de Lausanne, ii, 1784-86 (1789), pp. 339-344, pi. vii. 

PI. vii, fig. 1, crdne de labaleine ordinaire; fig. 2, da monodon; fig. 3, du dauphin; fig. 4, 
du physeter; figg. 5, 6, de une espece de baleine inconnue [= Hyperoodon]. [409.J 

1789. [WHEATLEY, JOHN, and others.] [Certificates of Capture of Whales by use of 

the Gun-Harpoon. ] <^Tram. London Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., vii, 1789, 
pp. 175-186. 

Gives accounts of the capture of various "Whales, with generally a statement of the ' ' length 
of bone"; one "Whale is stated to have had "thirteen fjeet ten inch bone"; others had "ten 
feet bone," "eleven feet bone," etc. [410.J 

1790. ANDERSON, [ ], and COOMBE [ ]. Anderson's | Historical and Chronological 

Deduction | of the | Origin of Commerce, | from the earliest accounts, | con- 
taining | an History | of the | great commercial interests | of the | British 
Empire, | to which is prefixed, | an introduction, | exhibiting | a view of the 
ancient and modern state of | Europe ; of the importance of our Colonies; | 
and of the commerce, shipping, manu- | factures, fisheries, &c., | of | Great 
Britain and Ireland ; I and their influence on the landed interest. | with an | 
Appendix, | containing | the modern politico-commercial geography of | the 
several countries of Europe. | Carefully Revised, Corrected, and continued to 
the year 1789, | By Mr. Coornbe. | | In six volumes. | Vol. I[-VI]. | | 
Dublin : | Printed by P. Byrne. | | M. DCC. XC. 6 vols. 8. 

The treatment of the "Whalefishery is chronological, and therefore runs through the work 
and cannot be conveniently cited definitely. The references are generally brief, consisting of 
summaries, necessarily at second-hand. Vols. i-iii contain the " original part of the histori- 
cal and chronological work of Mr. Anderson"; vol. iv consists of the "Appendix" (pp. 1-208) 
and "An Alphabetical and Chronological Index" (pp. 209-577) to Anderson's work; vols. v 
and vi contain the continuation by Mr. Coombe. The copious and well-arranged indexes 
greatly facilitate reference to the subjects treated. [411.] 

1790. " BOWENS, JAC. Nauwkeurige beschry ving der beroemde zeestad Oostende, van 

haeren oorsprong af tot het jaar 1787. Brugge, J. de Busscher. 1790. 2 din. 

"Zie aldaar: Oesterbank wanneer gemaakt. U, bl. 139. Eeglementen raekende de vis- 
scherijen binnen Oostende. I, bl. 21, 28, 30. II, 143. Acht walvisschen aangespoeld. I, bl. 
17. Walvischvangst na Greenland, opgeregt te Brugge. II, bl. 37, 150." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 234, no. 3432. [412.] 

1790-95. "DONNDORFF, JOH. AUG. Natur u. Kunst. Eiu gemeinnutz. Lehr- u. 
Lesebuch. 4 Bde. 8. Leipzig, 1790-95." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. [413.] 

1791. ANON. ? [or JONG, H. DE, H. KOEBEL, and M. SALIETH.] "Nieuwe Beschrijving 

der Walvischvangst en der Haringvisscherij. Met XXII fraaije platen en 
kaarten vercierd. Amsterdam, J. Eoos, 1791. 4 din. 4." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed (op. cit., p. 250, no. 3584), who gives it as a new edition of "De 
Walvischvangst met veele bijzonderheden," etc., 1784-86, q. v. 

Scoresby gives this work as "door H. de Jong, H. Koebel, en M. Salieth." Arct Reg., ii, 
p. 153, note. There is a French translation by B. de Eeste, Paris, 1799, entitled "Histoire 
des Peches," etc., q. v. [414.] 

1791. FAWKENER, W., and LORDS OF THE COMMITTEE OP COUNCIL, etc. On the pro- 
duction of Ambergris. A Communication from the Committee of Council ap- 
pointed for the Consideration of all Matters relating to Trade and Foreign 
Plantations; with a prefatory Letter from William Fawkener, Esq. to Sir Joseph 
Sanies Bart. P. R. S. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., Ixxxi, pt. 1, art. ii, 1791, pp. 

Mainly a series of questions by the Council, with answers by Capt. Joshua Coffin, 
examined by the Council in reference to the circumstances of his finding ambergris in a 
Whale. [415.] 

1791. GUMILLA, J. Historia Natural, | Civil y Geografica | De las Naciones | Situadas 
en las Riveras | Del Rio Orinoco. | Su Autor | El Padre Joseph Gumilla, | 


1791. GUMILLA, J. Continued. 

Misionero que fu6 de las Misiones del Orinoco, | Meta y Casanare. | Nueva Im- 
presioii: | Mucho mas correcta que las anteriores, y adornada con ocho | l&mi- 
nas finas, que manifiestau las costurabres y ritos de | aquellos Americanos. | 
Corregido por el P. Ignacio Obregdn, de los Cle'rSgos Menores: | Tomo I. j 
Barcelona: | En la Imprenta de Carlos Gibert y Tut6 | Aiio MDCCLXXXX1. 
2 vols. sm. 4. pp. i-xvi, 1-360, map and pll. 

Variedad de pecos y singulares industrias de los Indies para pescar ; piedras y buesos raedi- 
cinales quo so ban descubferto en alganos pescados. Tom. i, cap. xxi, pp. 277-292. Manati, 
pp. 281-289. (See anted,, edd. of 1745 and 1758.) [416.] 

1791. [HULLOCK, TYZACK, JOHN WHEATLEY, and others.] [Accounts and Certificates 
of taking Whales with the Gun-Harpoon. ] <[ Trans. London Soc. Enconr. Arts, 
Man,, and Com., ix, 1791, pp. 158-166. [417.] 

1791. [LONDON SOCIETY, etc.] [Award of Premium for improved Gun Harpoon.] 

<^Trans. London Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., ix, 1791, pp. 167, 

Account of "Mr. Charles Moore's improved Harpoon Gun, with figures of the gun." [418.] 

1791. "MEARES, J. Voyages | Made in the Years 1788 and 1789, | from China to the 
N. W. coast of America: | with | an introductory narrative | of | a voyage | 
Performed in 1786, from Bengal, f in the Ship Nootka. | To which are an- 
nexed, | observations on the probable existence | of | a north west passage. | 
And some account of | the trade between the north west coast of America | 
and China; and the latter country and | Great Britain. | | By John Meares, 
Esq. | | Vol. I [II]. | | London: | printed at the Logographic Press; | and 
sold by | J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly, opposite Old Bond Street. | 1791. 2 
vols. sm. 8vo. pp. i-xii, i-lxxii, 1-363, maps, pll. Vol. II, 2 p. 11., pp. 1-332 -f 32 
unpaged 11. (Appendix), maps." 

Not seen; title from Coues, Birds Col. Vail, App., 1878, p. 589. For reference to the ceto- 
logical matter, see the French version under 1795. [419;] 

1791. OVERBEEK, L. "Vinvis, gestraud tusschen Wijk aan Zee en Zandvoort. 1791. 
Door L. Overbeek. br. folio." 

From Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 176, no. 2781. [420.] 

1791. REDACTEUR. M6moire [par C. Cuvier] sur 1'organe de Fouie dans les ce"tace"s. 

p. 99. <Bull. de la Soc. philom., 1791, p. 99. 

Notice. [421.] 

1791 (circa). SCHWEDIANER, . ["Ueber den Ursp rung des Ambers."] <^Samml. zur 
Phys. und Naturgescli., iii, (1791?), p. 336. Aus d. Phil. Trans., Ixxiii, pp. 226 
et seqq. 

Not seen; title based on a reference in Donndorff, Zool. Beytr., i, 1792, p. 777. [422.] 

1792. BUFFON, [G. L. LECLERC DE]. Histoire | Naturelle | des | Quadrupedes. 

| | Par M. L. Compte de Buffon, | | Tome septieme. | Avec Planches, 
j | [Design.] Berne, ( chez La.Nouvelle Socie"te" Typographique. | | 
M.DCC.XCII. 8. 11. 2, pp. 5-296. 

Les Phoques, les Morses et les Lamantins, pp. 136-203, pll. xv-xvii. Le Dugong, pp. 181- 
185. Le Lamantin, pp. 185-203, pi. xvii. 

The text is the same as that of the original edition (1765, q. v.), with the omission of Dau- 
benton's anatomical observations. The additions made in the "Supplement" (vol. vi, 1782) 
are not included. [423.] 

1792. DONNDORFF, J. A. Zoologische | Beytriige | zur | XIII. Ausgabe | des Linn6- 
ischen | Natursystems | von | Johann August Donndorff. | | Erster Band. | 
Die Saugthiere. | | Leipzig, | in der Weidmannschen Buchhandlung. j 
1792. [Zweyter Band | Die Vogel. | Erster Thiel, 1794. Zweyter Theil, 1795.] 
8. pp. i-xx, 1-840, 11. 30. 

Siebente [und letzte] Ordnung. Cete (Saugende Seethiere), pp. 755-790. 1. Monodon Mo- 
noceros, p. 755 (/3. Spurius? Der Anarnak? p. 760) ; ti. Balaena Mysticetus, p. 761 (ft. Islandica, 
et y. Maior, p. 765) ; 3. B. Physalus, p. 765; 4. B. Boops, p. 767; 5. B. Gibbosa, p. 769; 6. B. 
Musculw, p. 770; 7. B. Jlostrata, p. 772; 8. Physeter Catodon, p. 773; 9. P. Macrocephalue, 


1792. DONNDORFF, J. A. Continued. 

p. 774; 1O. P. Microps, p. 778; 11. P. Tursio, p. 780; 12. Delphinus Phocaena, p. 781 ; 13. D. 
Delphis, p. 784; 14. D. Orca, p. 786; 15. D. Leucas, p. 789. 

D. leucas, nom. sp. n. = Z>. albicans, Fabric. 

Sirenia. All the then known Sireniana are arranged with the Walrus in the genus Triche- 
chug, forming the second species, T. Manatus, pp. 128-131. [424.] 

For fullness and care in citation of bibliography this work is comparable with Erxleben's 
Syst. Reg. Anim. No diagnoses are given of the species, but there is noteworthy commen- 
tary in foot-notes. 

1792. KERR, ROBERT. The | Animal Kingdom, | or | Zoological System, | of the 
Celebrated | Sir Charles Linnseus ; | | Class I. | Mammalia : | containing | a 
complete Systematic Description, Arrangement, and Nomencla- | ture, of all 
the known Species and Varieties of the Mammalia, | or Animals which give 
suck to their Young; | being a translation of that part of the | Systema Na- 
turas, | as lately published, with great improvements, | By Professor Gmelin 
of Goettingen. | j Together with | Numerous Additions from more recent 
zoological writers, | and illustrated with Copperplates: | | By Robert Kerr, 
F. R. & A. SS. E. | Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and of the Royal 
Physical Society, | and Surgeon to the Orphan Hospital of Edinburgh. | | 
London: | Printed for J. Murray, N. 32. Fleet-street; | and | R. Faulder, 
N. 42. New Bond Street. | | 1792. 4. [Part I, Mammals.] pp. i-xii, 11. 14, 
pp. 1-400. The | Animal Kingdom, | or | Zoological System, | of the cele- 
brated j Sir Charles Linnams. | | Vol. I, Part II. [Or] The | Animal King- 
dom. | | Class II. | Birds. 1. 1, pp. 401-644, pll. 3? 

This is a rare work in American libraries. The only copy I have handled (that in the 
library of the Boston Society of ^Natural History) is obviously imperfect, lacking pp. 433-468, 
and apparently several of the plates, and ending abruptly with Corvus brachyurus (p. 376 of 
Gmelin's edition of the " Systema Naturae "), with a catch- word for the next page. The plates 
are unnumbered, and there is no list of them in the work, nor, apparently, any reference to 
them in the text, so that the exact number cannot be given from the copy of the work at hand. 
The figures on the plates, however, have numerals referring to the current number of the 
species in the text. The work is an important one in respect to nomenclature, since a num- 
ber of systematic names originated here which have been currently attributed to Shaw and 
Turton. Cf. Oldfield Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th ser., vol. iv, 1879, pp. 396-397. 
Also, J. A. Allen, Hist. North Amer. Pinnipeds, 1880, p. 434. 

It is noteworthy that a trinomial system of nomenclature was adopted by Kerr for the des- 
ignation of varieties, as has recently been done by Schlegel, and still later by most American 
ornithologists and mammalogists. 

[Order] vii. Cete, pp. 355-365, spp. 785-808, pi. facing p. 355, spp. nn. 785, 796, 802, 805. 

1. Monodon Monoceros, p. 355, fig.; 2. Balcena Mysticetus, p. 356; 2 a. B. Mysticetus groen- 
landica, p. 356; 2/3. 1?. Mysticetus islandica (=Nordkapper, Egede, etc.), p. 357; 2y. B. Mysti- 
cetus major, p. 357; 3. B. Physalis, p. 358; 4. B. Boops, p. 358; 5. B. gibbosa, p. 359; 5 a. B. 
gibbosa gibbo unico, p. 359; 5/3. B. gibboso gibbis sex, p. 359; 6. B. Musculus, p. 359; 7. B. ros~ 
trata, p. 360 ; 8. Physeter Catodon (= Beluga ca(odon), p. 360 ; 9. P. macrocephalus, p. 360, fig. ; 
9 a. P. macrocephalus niger, p. 369; 9/3. P. macrocephalus albicans (=Beluga catodon), p. 361 ; 
1O. P. microps, p. 361; 10 a. P. microps falcidentatus, p. 361; 1O /3. P. microps rectidenta- 
tus, p. 362; 11. P. Tursio, p. 362; 12. Delphinus Phoccena, p. 362, fig.; 12 a. D. Phoccena 
albus, p. 363; 12/3. D. Phoccena fuscus, p. 363; 13. Delphinus Delphis, p. 363, fig.; 14. D. 
Orca, p. 364; 14a. D. Orca ensidorsatus, p. 364; 15. Delphinus leucas, p. 364=15 spp. + 11 
varr. [425.] 

1792. WHEATLEY, JOHN. An Account of the Whales shot with the Harpoon-Gun, by 

the undermentioned Harpooners, in the Ship Queen Charlotte, of London, under 
my command, in Davis's Straights this present year [1791]. <[ Trans. London 
Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., x, 1792, pp. 238-241. 

In the same connection is a list of premiums paid for the capture of "Whales with the har- 
poon-gun in the year 1791 (p. 238), and certificates of capture relating to the same (pp. 241- 
245). L426.] 

1793. BELL, JOHX. Observations on throwing a Gun-Harpoon. <^ Trans. London Soc. 

Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., xi, 1793, pp. 185-192, pi. v. 

The " Observations " .are preceded by a letter from Mr. Bell to the society and followed by 
"Description of the Plate of Mr. Bell's improved Gun and Harpoon." Fig. 1, the Gun fitted 
for firing ; fig. 2, the form of the Harpoon. [427.J 

31 a B 


1793. " DONNDORFF, JOH. AUG. Handbucli der Thiergeschi elite. Nacli den besten 
Quellen u. neusten Beobachtungen zum gemeinniitz. Gebrauche. gr. 8. 
Leipzig, 1793." 

Not seen; title from Carus and Engelmann. [428.] 

1793. [LONDON SOCIETY, etc.'] [Premium for] Gun for throwing Harpoons, [and for] 
Taking Whales by the Gun-Harpoon. <^ Trans. London Soc. Encour. Arts, 
Man., and Com., xi, 1793, pp. 335, 336. 

These offers of premiums were annually renewed by the society for many years. See sub- 
sequent volumes of the society's Trans. [429.] 

1793. " PASTEUR, J. D. Beknopte natuurlijke historic der zoogende dieren. Leyden, 
Honkoop en Mortier, 1793. 3 din. met pi. 8." 
"Ziealdaar: iii, bl. 305-393: Zoogende waterdieren. " 
Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 170, no. 2689. [430.] 

1793. ST. JOHN [DECREVECCEUR],J. HECTOR. Letters | from an | American Farmer, | 
describing | certain provincial situations, | manners, and customs, | and con- 
veying | some idea of the state | of the people of | North America. | | Writ- 
ten to a friend in England, | By J. Hector St. John, [de Crevecoeur]. | A 
Farmer in Pennsylvania. | | Philadelphia : | From the Press of Matthew 
Carey. | March 4, M. DCC. XCIII. 12, pp. i-viii, 9-240. 

Substantially the same as the ed. prin., 1782, with, however, the omission of the maps and 
the references to them. The "letters" relating to the Nantucket Whalefishery, etc., are at 
pp. 118-136. For the character of the matter see ed. of 1782. [431.] 

1793. SINCLAIR, JOHN. The | Statistical Account | of | Scotland. | Drawn up from 

the Communications | of the | Ministers | of the | Different Parishes. [ | 
By Sir John Sinclair, Bart. | | Volume Fifth. | " Ad consilium de republica 
dandum, caput est nosse reinpublicam." | Cicero de Orat. lib. ii. | | Edin- 
burgh: | printed and sold by William Creech; | . . . . [=5 lines, names of 
other booksellers]. | j M,DCC,XCIII. 8. pp. i-vii, 1-591. 

A "list of the different kinds of Fish, which are found in the river and frith of Clyde," 
pp. 535-538. A nominal list, including the following species of Cetaceans (p. 533) : Blunt- 
headed Whale, Physeter mierops,- Grampus, orBucker, Delphinus orca; Porpoise, or Pellock, 
D. phoccena. [432.] 

1793-96. "EBERT, JOH. JAC. Naturlehre (n. Naturgesch. ) fur die Jugend. 3 Bde., 
3Aufl. 8. Leipzig, 1793-96. (1,2 Aufl., 1776-87.)" 
"Not seen ; title from Carus and Engelmann. Cited by Donndorff and others. [433.] 

1794. ANON. Progress of the Whale Fishery at Nantucket. <Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. 

for the year 1794, iii, 1794, p. 161. 

A brief chronological history, 1690 to 1785. [434.] 

1794. MACY, Z. A short Journal of the first settlement of the island of Nantucket, 

with some of the most remarkable things that have happened since, to the 

present time. By Zaccheus Macy. <^Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. for the year 1794, 

iii, 1794, pp. 155-156 (. e.,160). 

Of the Whale Fishery, pp. 157, 158. A brief but important original account of the origin 
of the Nantucket Whale-fishery. [435.] 

1794. PALLAS, S. P., et J. B. LAMARCK. Voyages | du | Professeur Pallas, | dans 
plusieurs Provinces | de PEmpire de Kussie | et | dans 1'Asie septentrionale ; | 
Traduitsdel'allemandparleC. Gauthier | de la Peyronie. | Nouvelle Edition, | 
Revue et enrichie de Notes par les CC. Lamarck, profes- | seur de Zoologie au 
Museum national d'Histoire naturelle; | et Langles, Sous-Garde des Manu- 
scrits de la Biblio- | theque natiouale, pour les Langues Arabe, Persane, 
Tatare- | Mantchou, &c. | Tome Premier [-huitieme]. | | A Paris, | Chez 
Maradau, Libraire, rue du Cimetiere | Andr6-des-Arcs ; n. 9. | | L'Au II de 
la R6publique [= 1794]. 8 vols. 8. 

The title of vol. viii varies from the above by substitution of the following between "Nou- 
velle edition" and the number of the volume: 

Appendix, | Contenant les descriptions des Animaux et des Ve'ge'taux obser- 
ve"s | dans les Voyages du Professeur Pallas, et cite"s ou mentionne"s | dans les 


1794. PALLAS, S. P., ct J. B. LAMARCK Continued. 

volumes pre'ce'dens; | Avec des Notes et Observations par le C. Lamarck, | 
Professeur de Zoologie aa Mus6um national d'Histoire naturelle. 

"Description du Poisson blanc," vol. v, pp. 192-197 (par M. Pallas). "Defyhinus leucas 
[Dauphin blauc], Lo B61ouga de mcr ou poisson blanc, pi. Ixxix," vol. vxi, pp. 25, 26 (par M. 
Lamarck). [436. J 

1795. FORSTER, J. R. Faunula Indica | id est | Catalogus animalium | Indiae Orien- 

talis | quae liactenus | Naturae curiosis | innotuerunt; | concinnatus | a \ 
Joanne Latham, | ChirurgoDartfordiaeCantii, | et | Hugone Da vies, | pastore 
in aber | provinciae Caernarvon, | Secundis curis editus, correctns et auctus | 
a Joanne Reinholdo Forster, | LL. Med. et phil. D. et LL. AA. M. Med. Philos. 
et imprimis Hist. Nat. | et Rei Metallicae. Prof. P. O. in Universitate | Lit- 
teraria Halensi. | | Halae ad Salam, | impensis Joannis Jaeobi GebauerL j 
CIoIoCCLXXXXV. 2. 11. 3, pp. 1-38. 

Ordo ix. Cete, p. 5 = Trichcchus Manatus, Trichechus Dugong. Phoca ursina, Delphinus 
Phocaena, Delphinus Dclphis. Merely a nominal list. [437-] 

1795. HEARNE, S. A | Journey | from | Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay, | to | 
the Northern Ocean. | Undertaken | by order of the Hudson's Bay Company, | 
for the Discovery | of Copper Mines, A Northwest Passage, &c. | In the Years 
1769, 1770, 1771, & 1772. | | By Samuel Hearne. | | London: | printed for 
A. Strahan >md T. Cadell: | And Sold by T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies, (Suc- 
cessors to | Mr. Cadell,) in the Strand. | 1795. 4. pp. i-xliv, 1-458, map and 
pll. i-viii. 

Sea TJnicorn, pp. 391, 392. Black Whale (three killed in 20 years as far south as Churchill 
River), pp. 392, 393. White Whales, pp. 393-395. 

There is a later edition, Dublin, 1796, 8. Also translations in French (Paris, 1799, 2 vols., 
8), Dutch (Hague, 1798, 2 vols., 8), and German (Berlin and Halle, 1797, 8). (See Sabin, 
Bibl. Amer, viii, pp. 188, 189, nos. 31181-31186). [438.] 

1795. MEARES, J. Voyages | de la Chine | a la cote Nord-Oust | d'Amerique, | faits 
dans les ann6es 1788 et 1789; | Prece'de's de la relation d'un antre Voyage exe"- 
cut6 en | 1786 sur le vaisseau le Nootka, parti du Bengale; | D'un Recueil 
d'Observations sur la Probability d'un | Passage Nord-Ouest; | Et d'un Traitd 
abre*g6 du Commerce entre la Cote Nord-Ouest et la Chine, etc. etc. | Par le 
Capitaine J[ohn]. Meares, Commandant | le Vaisseau la Felice. | Traduits de 
1'Anglois | Par J. B. L. J. Billecocq, Citoyen Francais. | Avec une Collection 
de Cartes g<5ographiques, Vues, Marin | Plans et Portraits, graves en taille- 
douce. | | Tome premier[-troisieme]. | | A Paris, | Chez F. Buisson, 
Libraire, rue Hautefeuille, n. 20. | | An 3 e . [1795] de la Republique. 3 vols. 
8. Vol. i, pp. i-xxiv, 1-391. Vol. ii, 11. 2 ? pp. 1-388. Vol. iii, 11. 2, pp. 1-371. 

La peche de la baleine est la branche de commerce la plus avantageuse qu'offre la cGte 
nord-ouest d'Amerique, vol. i, pp. 163-166. Description de la maniere dont los naturels de 
Nootka tuent la baleine, etc., vol. iii, pp. 21-24. 

The copy of this work examined (Harvard College Libr.) lacks the collection of maps, 

views, etc., called for in the title. [439.] 

1795. "SAVARY, J. Dictionnaire uuiversel de commerce, d'histoire naturelle et des 

arts et metiers. Nouvelle Edition. Copenhague, C. A. Philibert. 1795. 5 din. 

folio. " 

" . . . . Peche de la Baleine, i, bl 310-316." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op, cit, pp. 229, 247, nos. 3394, 3554. [440.] 

1795. WALCOTT, S. A | New and complete | Natural History | of | 







Planets, &c., &c. 

Containing | a New History and Description | of the several Classes and Spe- 
cies of Animals which inhabit | The Air, the Earth, and the Water, | in the 
several parts of the Universe. |. . . [=21 lines, giving further description of 


1795. WALCOTT, S. Continued. 

contents.] | Forming an | Universal Display of Nature, | Animate and Inani- 
mate. | ... [=3 lines]. | | By Sylvanus Walcott, Esq., F. R. S. | Assisted 
by many gentlemen of eminence. | | Elegantly embellislied with a superb 
group of folio prints: | Representing several Thousand different Objects . . . 
[=2 lines]. | | London : | Printed for Alex. Hogg, No. 16, in Paternoster- 
Row, and sold by all the Booksellers of | Bath, Bristol, . . . [=8 lines, names 
of other towns in alphabetical order]. No date. fol. pp. 1-542, pll. i-clix [?] 

The plates are not nearly all numbered ; the number of the last one is clix. There is no 
date on the title-page, but at the bottom of the frontispiece page is engraved in small letters : 
Published March 21, 1795, by Alex. Hogg, No. 16 Paternoster Row. 

Book III. A New and Complete History and Description of Fishes in general, pp. 200- 
253, pll. Iviii, Ixi, Ixii, +3 pll. unnumbered. Chap. I. Natural History of Fishes of the Ceta- 
ceous kind, viz. : The "Whale and its varieties, the Cachalots, the Dolphin, the Grampus, and 
the Porpus, pp. 202-206. 1. Greenland Whale, pp. 202-204, pi. Ixii, fig. 66. 2. Pike-headed 
"Whale, p. 204. 3. Round-lipped "Whale, p. 204. 4. Cachalot, or Spermaceti "Whale, pp. 204, 
205. 5. Great-headed Cachalot. 6. Round-headed Cachalot, p. 205. 7. Dolphin, 8. Gram- 
pus, and 9. Porpus, pp. 205, 206. There is a figure of the Narwhal, but apparently no descrip- 
tion. The work is of most interest as a literary curiosity, being a popular compilation, of no 
scientific value. [441.] 

1796. ABERNETHY, J. Some particulars in the Anatomy of a Whale. <^Philo8. Trans, 

Lond., [Ixxxvi], pt. 1, art. ii, 1796, pp. 27-33. 

On the structure and function of the lymphatic glands. [442.] 

1796. "POSSELT, K. F. Ueber den Gronlandischen Wallfischfang, herausgegehen von 
A. Niemann. Kiel, 1796. 8." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 246, no. 3546. [443.] 

1796. STEDMAN, J. G. Narrative, | of a five years' expedition against the | Revolted 

Negroes of Surinam, | in Guiana, on the Wild Coast of | South America; | from 
the year 1772, to 1777: elucidating the History of that Country, and | describ- 
ing its Productions, Viz. | Quadrupeds, Fishes, Reptiles, Trees, Shrubs, Fruits, 
& Roots ; | with an account of the Indians of Guiana, & Negroes of Guinea. | 
By Capt n . J[ohn]. G[abriel]. Stedman. | Illustrated with 80 elegant Engrav- 
ings, from the drawings made by the Author. | | Vol. I. [-II]. | | [Vi- 
gnette.] .... [= quotation, 7 lines]. London. Printed for J. Johnson, S*. 
Paul's Church Yard, & J. Edwards, Pall Mall. 1796. 2 vols. 4. Engr. 
title-page, maps and plates. 

Manatee, voL ii, p. 175, fig. pi. facing p. 176 (general description). [444.] 

1796-1810. BLUMENBACH, J. F. Abbildungen | naturhistorischer Gegenstiinde | her- 
ausgegeben | von | Joh. Fried. Blumenbach. | | N ro 1-100. | | Gottingen | 
bey Heinrich Dieterich. | 1810 | [1796-1810]. 8. 

Cetaceen. No. 44, Monodon narhwal, text, 2 pp. "Die Abbildung stellt denjenigen Nar- 
hwal vor, der 1736 in der Hundung der Elbe gestrandet war, und ist aus einem periodischen 
Blatte jener Zeit, den Hamburgischen Berichten von gelehrten Sachen, genommen." 

No. 74. Balcena loops on plate, U. rostrata in text. Original figure of a specimen 52 feet 
long stranded on the coast of Holland, between Sandfort and "Wyk op Zee, in Dec., 1791. Also 
figure of the head of another example, copied from Sibbald's "Phalainologia." 

No. 84. Physeter macrocephalus. ' ' Hier diese Abbildung ist von dein meisterhaften grossen 
aber seltnen Blatte genommen, worauf der vortrcffliche Kunstler J. Saenredam den 60 Fuss 
langen Pottfisch der im Dec. 1601 am Ufer von Beverwyk gestrandet war, nach dem Leben 
vorgestellt hat." 

No. 94. Balcena mysticetus, "aus Hesel Gerard's descriptio geograpMca transitus supra 
terras A mericanas in Chinam." 

No. 95. Delphinus delphis. "Die Abbildung ist von einer trefflichen Zeichnnng unsers 
unvergesslichen G. Forster's genommen." 

Eigner Tafel ist mit zwei Seiten von Texte vorsehen. [445.] 

1797. ABERNETHY, JOH. Eiuige Eigenheiten in der Zergliederung des Wallfisches. 

<Reil'8 Arch.fiir Physiol., ii, 1797, pp. 232-239. 

Uebersetzung aus der Phil. Trans, roy. Soc. London for 1796, pt. 1, pp. 27 et seqq. [446.] 


1797. " BORKHAUSEN, MoR. BALTH. Deutsche Fauna, oder kurzgefassfce Naturge- 
schichte der Thiere Deutschlands. 1 Thl. Siiugetliiere uud Vogel. 8. 
Frankfurt a. M. 1797." 

Not seen; title from Carus and Engelnaann. 1447.] 

1797. CUVIER, G. Sur les narines des ce"tace"s. <^Bull. des Sci. par la Soc. philom. 
de Paris, i, 1797, pp. 26-29. [448.] 

1797. [CuviER. G.] M6moire sur Porgane de 1'ouie dans les Ce"tace"s. <^Bull. des 

Sci. par la philom. de Paris, i, 1797, p. 99. 

Extrait. [449.] 

1798. COLNETT, JAMES. A | Voyage | to the | South Atlantic | and round | Capo 

Horn | into the | Pacific Ocean, | for the purpose of extending the | Sperma- 
ceti Whale Fisheries, | and other objects of Commerce, by ascertaining | the 
Ports, Bays, Harbours, and Anchoring Berths, | in certain Islands and Coasts 
in those Seas, | at which the ships of the British merchants might be refit- 
ted. | | Undertaken and performed | By Captain James Colnett, | of the 
Royal Navy, in the ship Rattler. | | London : | Printed for the Author, | by 
W. Bennett, Marsham Street, Westminster. | . . . . [=3 lines, names of book- 
sellers]. | | 1798. 4. pp. i-iv, i-vi, i-xviii, 1-179, maps and plates. 

Contains passim references to "Whales seen or taken at various points, etc. Also a plate . 
giving an outline figure of "Physeter, or Spermaceti Whale, Drawn by Scale, from one killed 
on the coast of Mexico, August, 1793, and hoisted in on Deck," giving the topography of the 
animal with reference to manner of cutting in, etc. There is also a half-page of descriptive 
text (engraved on the plate), with also reference to its food, habits, etc. The figure has been 
many times copied in works relating to Whaling. [450.] 

1798. CUVIER, [G.] Ueber die Naseul&cher mid das Geruchsorgan der Cetacecn; 
aus eiiier vom B. Cuvier im Nationalinstitut vorgelesenen Abhandlung. Mag. 
Encycl. < Foigt's Mag. der NaturTcunde, i, St. 3, 1798, pp. 34-40. 

TJebersetzung aus Mayas, encycl. de Millin, iii, 1797, pp. 299. . [451.] 

1798. CUVIER, G. Tableau | ele"mentaire | de PHistoire naturelle | des Animaux. | 
Par G. Cuvier, | de 1'Iustitut national de France, | . . . . [titles, 7 lines]. | | 
A Paris, | Baudouin, Imprimeur du Corps le"gislatif et de ] 1'Iustitut national, 
place du Carrousel, N. 662. | An 6. [=1798.] 8. pp. i-xvi, 1-710, pll. i-xiv. 

Des Mammiferes, pp. 83-179 : Mammiferes Amphibies (pp. 170-173) = Pinnipedia + Sirenia. 
Sirenia: 1. Trichecus dugong, p. 172 ; 2. Trichecus manatus, p. 173. 

Mammiferes C6tac6s = Cetacea (pp. 173-179): 1. Delphinus phoccena; 2. D. delphis ; 
3* D. orca, p. 175; 4. Physeter macroce&halus (="Le cachalot trumpo, Bonnaterre, Encycl., 
planches des cetaces, pi. 8, f. 1") ; 5. P. maximus, sp. n. (= "idem., ibid., pi. 7, fig. 2"), p. 176; 
6. Balcena mysticetus, L., p. 177; 7. B. physalus; 8. Monodon, p. 178. 

Physeter maximus, sp. n. [452.] 

1798. [LONDON SOCIETY, etc.'] [Premiums offered for "Taking Porpoises" and for 
"Oil from Porpoises."] <^ Trans. London Soc. Encour. Arts, Man., and Com., 
xvi, 1798, pp. 84, 85. 

These oifers of premiums were annually renewed for a considerable period. See later vols. 
of these Trans. [453.] 

1798. THUNBURG, C. P. Beskrifuing | pa | Svenske Djur. | | Forsta Classen, | om | 

Mammalia | eller Daggande Djuren, | af | Carl Peter Thunburg, | Riddare af 
Kongl. Maj its Wasa-Orden, | Medicinje och Botauices Professor | i Upsala. | 
[Vignette.] | | Upsala, | Tryckt hos J. F. Edman, K. Acad. Boktr. | 1798. 
8. 11. 6, pp. 1-100. 

Cete, pp. 90-100. 1. Jialcena, mysticetus, p. 96; 2. B. physalus, p. 97; 3. Physeter macro- 
cephalus, p. 98; 4. Delphiniis phocania ; 5. D. Orca, p. 99. [454.] 

1799. ANON. "Histoire des peches, des decouvertes et des dtablissemens des hollan- 

dois dans les mere du Nord. Ouvrage traduit du Hollandois par B. de Reste. 
Avec des notes, (t^S) cartes et ligures. Paris, We. Nyon, 1799. 3 dlu. 8." 

"Eene vertaliuj: van liet werk: De AValvischvangst, Amst. 1784 [7. vT\. Vermeerderd met 
aanteekeningen eu eeue historische vcrhandcling over Groenland en IJsland, volgens Crantz 
[sic], Egede, de la Peyrcre, Horrebow e. a." 

Not seen; title and comment from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 244, no. 3528. [455.] 


1800. BUFFOX, [G. L.] LECLERC \_Compte de, et C. S. SONNINI]. Histoire Natu- 
relle, | Generale et Particuliere, | Par Leclerc de Buffon; | Nouvelle Edition, 
accompagnde de Notes, et dans laquelle | les Supple"mens sont inse're's dans lo 
premier texte, a la | place qui leur convient. L'on y a ajout6 Phistoire | natu- 
relle des Quadrupedes et des Oiseaux d6cou verts | depuis la mort de Buffon, 
celle des Reptiles, des Poissons, | des Insectes et des Vers; enfin, 1'histoire des 
Plantes dont | ce grand Naturaliste n'a pas eu le terns de s'occnper. | Ouvrage 
formant uu Cours complet d'Histoire Naturelle; | Redige Par C. S. Sonnini, | 
Membre de Plusieurs Socie'te's Savantes. | Tome Trente-Quatrieme. | [Mono- 
gram.] A Paris, | de L'Imprimerie de F. Dufart. | | An VIII. [1800.] 8. 
11. 2. pp. 1-324, 1. 1. 

Le Dugon, pp. 184-189 (note par Sonnini, p. 184). Le Lamantin, pp. 190-196 (note par Son- 
nini, p. 191). Le Grand Lamantin da Kamtschatka, pp. 197-211 (note par Sonniui, p. 197). 
Le Grand Lamantin des Antilles, pp. 212-226 (note par Sonnini, p. 212). Le grand Lamantiu 
de la mer des Indes, pp. 327-330 (note par Sonnini, p. 327). Le Petit Lamantin d'Amerique, pp. 
231-239 (note par Sonnini, pp. 238, 239). Le Petit Lamantin du Senegal, pp. 240-246). 

The matter here given is that of the original edition (1765, q. v.), followed by that of the 
" Supplement '' (vol. vi, 1782, q, v.), with notes on the nomenclature of the species by Sonnini. 


1800. LATREILLE, [P. A.]. Exposition methodique des Quadrupedes, Specialement 
mentionne's dans cette Edition de PHistoire Naturelle de Buffon. <^Hist. nat. 
de Buffon, edit, de Sonnini, xxxvi, an VIII (1800), pp. 251-321. 

Onzieme Ordre. Les Cetacees, pp. 288, 289. Gcnn. : Manatus, Delphinus, Physeter, Monodon, 
Balama. [457.] 

1800. MARUM, M. VAX. Beschryving van het BeKkeneel van een jongen Walvisch, 

geplaatst in het Naturalien Cabinet van deeze maatsehappy. <^Natuitrk. Verli. 

van de Roll Maatsch. der Wetensch., Haarlem, i. Deel, ii. Stuk, pp. 199-202, pi. v. 

Description and figure of a skull of a newly- born Balcena mysticetus. [458.] 

1800. NOEL, S. B. J. Tableau historique | de la P6che | de la Baleine; | Par S. B. J. 
Noel, | .... [== titles, 7 lines]. | | A Paris, | Chez Fuchs, Libraire, maisou 
de Cluny, | rue des Mathurins. | | Thermidor an VIII. [1800.] 8. pp. 

Yues gen6rales sur 1'antiqtiite de la p6che de la Baleine, pp. 3-22. Etat present des p&ches 

de la Baleine chez les diverses nations d'Europe et d' Am6rique, qui s'en occupeiit, pp. 23-32. 

Reflexions sur les moyens de ranimer en France cette branche precieuse d'economie maritime, 

pp. 53-96. Preuves et Tableaux relatifs a la peche de la Baleine, pp. 97-108. [459.] 

An historical work of well-known value. 

1800. RETZIUS, A. J. Faunae Suecicae | a Carolo a Linne" Equ. | inchoatae | Pars 
prima | sistens | Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia | et Pisces Sueciae | quain | recog- 
novit, emendavit et auxit | Andreas Joannes Retzius | in Academia Lundensi 
HistoriaeNaturalis, | Oeconomiae etChemiae Professor R. O. | | Cum Tabula 
aeri incisa. | j Lipsiae MDCCC. | Apud Siegfried Lebrecht Crusium. 8. 
pp. i-x, 1-362, pll. col. ( Fringilla flavirostris et F. lutensis). 

Cete, pp. 48-51. 1. Monodon Monoceroe, p. 48; 2. Balaena Mysticetus; 3. B. Physalus, 
p. 49; 4. Physeter macrocephalus ; 5. Delphinus Phocaena, p. 50; 6. D. Orca, p. 51. [460.] 

1800. V., C. Sur les Ossemens fossiles de la Montagne de St. Pierre, pres Maastricht, 
par Adr. Camper. <^Bull. de la Soc. plrilom. de Pai is, ii, no. 42, an 8 de la Re- 
pub. (1800), p. 142. 

Extrait de cette memoire, signe "C. V." [461.] 

1800-01. SHAW, GEORGE. General Zoology | or | Systematic Natural History | by | 
George Shaw, M. D. F. R. S. &c. | With plates | from the first Authorities and 
most select specimens | Engraved principally by | M r . Heath. | [Vignette.] 
Vol. I[-II, each in 2 parts.] Part 1. | Mammalia. | | London Printed for G. 
Kearsley, Fleet Street. | 1800[-1801]. 2 vols. in 4 parts. 8. The ^vhole work 
comprises 14 vols., 1800-1826. 

Vol. i, pt. 1, 1800, 1. 1 (engr. title-page), pp. i-xiii, 1. 1, pp. 1-248, pll. i-lxix + Ixviii* ; pt. 2, 1800, 
pp. i-viii, 249-552, pll. Ixx-cxxi. Vol. ii, pt. 1, 1801, 1. 1 (engr. title-page), pp. i-vi, 1-226, plL 
cxxii-clxv ; pt. 2, 1801, pp. i-vi, 1. 1, pp. 229-560, plL clxvi-ccxxxii + xciv*. 


1800-01. SHAW, GEORGE Continued. 

Trichechus, Walrus [ Sirenia+ "Arctic "Walrus"], vol. i, pt. 1, 1800, pp. 233-248. 1. Tri- 
chcchus Dugong, p. 239; 2. Trichechus Borealis [=Rhytina borealis mainly], pp. 240-244; 3. 
Trichechus Australis [=Manatus australis], pp. 244, 245, pi. Ixix; 4. Trichechus Manatus, pp. 
245-248 (includes also, as "var.," Trichechus Clusii, from the "West Indies; Trichechus Ama- 
zonius, from South America; and Trichechus ? Hydropithecus, or Steller's "Sea-Ape." 

Order Cete. Whales, or Fish-formed Mammalia, vol. ii, pt. 2, 1801, pp. 471-560, pll. ccxxv- 
ccxxxii. 1. Monodon Monoceros, pp. 473-476, pi. ccxv, animal and skull; 2. Monodon Spu- 
rius, pp. 476, 477, from Fabricius; 3. Baloma, Myisticetus, pp. 478-490, pi. ccxvi, animal plate 
and most of the text from Martens; 4. Balcena Physalus. pp. 490-491, pi. ccxxvii, lower fig., 
animal, from Martens; 5. Balcena Boops, pp. 492-494, pi. ccxxvii, lower fig.; 6. Balcena 
Gibbosa,p.49i; 7. Balcena Musculus, p. 495; 8. Balcena Rostrata, p. 496 ; 9. Physeter Macro- 
cephalus, pp. 497-500, pi. ccxxviii, animal, two figg., from Schreber; 10. Physeter Catodon, p. 
501; 11. Physeter Microps, p. 502 ; 12. Physeter Tur&io, p. 503; 13. &lphinus Phoccena, pp. 
504-506, pll. ccxxix, lower fig., animal, pi. ccxxx, animal laid open to show internal organs, pi. 
xxxi, skull, skeleton, and fore limb; 14. Delphinus Delphis, pp. 507-512, pi. ccxxix, upper 
fig., animal; 15. Delphinus Orca, p. 513, pi. ccxxxii, lower fig., animal; 16. Delphinus B idem, 
p. 514, from Hunter; 17. Delphinvs liostratw, p. 514; IS. Delphinus Leucas, pp. 515, 516, 
pi. ccxxxii, upper fig., animal. Appendix to Whales pp. 517-560, abridged version of Hunocr's 
celebrated memoir on the anatomy of Whales. See 1787. "HUNTER, J. 

Delphinus Widens, p. 514, sp. n. = Bottle-nose Whale of Dale, hence Delphinus "bidentatusr 
Bonuaterre, 1789; Delphinus rostratus, p. 514, sp. n., locality unknown, but "supposed to 
inhabit the Indian Ocean" ; species indeterminable. 

The history of the Sirenia and Cetacea is, like most of that part of the work relating to 

Mammals, purely a compilation. [451.] 

1802. ANON. A Calculation of the State of the Cod and Whale Fisheries, belonging 

to Massachusetts in 1783: copied from a Paper published in 1764. <^CoU. 

Mass. Hist. Soc., viii, 1802, pp. 202, 203. 

A statistical table, less than a page in length. The following is all that relates to Whale- 
fishing : " 180 sail of "Whale-fishing vessels, the exportation to Great Britain amounting, in oil 
and bone, to 123,366 06" (p. 203). [462.] 

1802. BUFFON, [G. L.] LECLERCDE, [eiC.S. SONNINI]. Histoire naturelle, | ge"ne"rale 
et particuliere, | par Leclcrc de Buffon ; | Nouvelle Edition, accoinpagnee de 
Notes, et dans laquelle | les Supple'mens sout inse're's dans le premier texte, a 
la | place qui leur convient. L'on y a ajout-6 1'histoire | naturelle des Quadru- 
ples et des Oiseaux de~couverts | depuis la niort de Buffon, celle des Reptiles, 
des Poissons, | des Insectes et des Vers; enfin, Fhistoire des Plantes,dont | ce 
grand Naturaliste u ? a pas eu le terns de s'occuper. | Ouvrage formant un Cours 
complet d'Histoire Naturelle; re"dig6 par C. S. Sonuiui, | Membre de plusieurs 
Society's savantes. | Tome trente-quatrieme. [Les Phoques, les Morses, et les 
Lamantins.] | [Monogram.] A Paris, | de rirnprimerie de F. Dufart | j 
An X. [=1802]. 8. 11. 2, pp. 1-316, pll. ccxxxii-ocxxxv. 

A reissue of the An VIII edition, with only, so far as relates to the body of the work, a 
change of date on the title-page, but the "Exposition methodiqiie" by Latreille (see 1800. 
LAXKEILLE) is printed in smaller type and occupies 7 less pages (pp. 251-314), thus giving to 
the volume a different collation. [463. J 

1802. "GiJLiBERT, J. EMM. Abrdge" du systeme de la Nature de Liun6; histoire 
des Mammiieres ou des Quadrupedes et Cctac^s; contennant 1 la tra- 
duction libre du texte de Linnd et de Gmelin; 2 Textrait des observations de 
Buffon, Brisson, Pallas et autres cdlebres zoologistes ; 3 1'auatomie compar^e 
des principales especes ; le tout relatif aux Quadrupedes et aux C^taces les 
plus curieux et les plus utiles. Avec portr. et 18 pi. in- 8. Lyon, an X (1802), 
ou 1805, Matheron et Co." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. [464. ] 

1802. KLEIN, J. T. "Ichthyologia, seu Historiae piscium naturalis quinque missus. 
Cui accedit Ichthyologia Kleiniana euodata, sive index rerum ad Historiam 
piscium naturalem, cum synonymis recentissimorum systematicorum Artedi, 
Linnaei, Gmelini, Blochii, etc. explicatam. Lipsia3, in libraria Gleditschiana. 
1802. 4. Met 53 platen." 

Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. tit., p. 10, no. 113. [465.] 


1802. OZERETSKOVSKY, N. De speciebus systematicuru genus Trichechi constituenti- 

bus. <#ov. Act. Acad. Scien. imp. Petropolitance, xiii, 1802, pp. 371-375. 

Chiefly about the relationship of the Walrus, Steller's Sea Cow, and the Dugong. [4C6. 

1803. CAMPER, PIERRE. (Euvres | de Pierre Camper, | qui ont pour objet | Fhistoire] 

naturelle, | la physiologie | et 1'anatomie comparee. [ [Trad, par Henri J. Jan- 
sen.] | | Tome premier [-troisieme]. | | A Paris, [ Chez H. J. Jansen, 
rue des postes. No. 6, | pres de Pestrapade. | | An XI. 1803. 3 vols. 8. 
Vol. i, pp.- i-civ, 1-392; vol. ii, pp. 1-503; vol. iii, pp. 1-502. Avec une 
Atlas des planches en-fol. 

Conjectures sur les petrifactions trouv6es dans la Montagne de S. -Pierre pres de Maas- 
tricht, torn, i, pp. 357-3.77, pll. vi, vii, (Vertebres et dents de Cetaces, etc.). Du Dugon du 
Comte de Buffon, torn, iii, pp. 479-491, pi. vii, figg. 2, 3, animal. [467.] 

1803. u GRUBER, J. G. Beschreibung von Gronland und Spitsbergen mit den Wundern 

der Natur- und Menschenweit um den Nordpol. Zurich uud Leipzig, 1803. 4." 

~Not seen; title from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 237, no. 3468. [468 ] 

1803. ROXBURGH, [W.] An account of a new Species of Delphinus, An Inhabitant of 

the Ganges. <^Asia1ic Researches, vii, 1803, pp. 170-174, pi. iii. 

Delphinus gangeticus, sp. n., p. 171. [469.] 

1804. BORY DE ST. VINCENT, J. B. G. M. Voyage | dans | les quatre principals 

lies | des mers d'Afrique, | fait par ordre du Gouveruemeut, | pendant les an- 
n6es neuf et dix de la | Rdpublique (1801 et 1802), | Avec 1'Histoire de la Tra- 
versde du Capitaine Baudin jusqu'au Port- | Louis de File Maurice. | Par 
J[ean]. B[aptiste]. G[eorge]. M[arie]. Bory de S'-Vmcent, | Officier d'Etat- 
major; Naturaliste en chef sur la | Corvette le NaturaUste, dans I'Exp^ditiou 
.de | De"couvertes comniaudde par le Capitaine Baudin. | Avec la Collection de 
58 Planches, grand in-4., dessindes sur les lieux par 1'Auteur, | et gravies 
en taille-douce | Tome Premier [Seconde et Troiseme]. | | A Paris, | Chez 
F. Buisson, Impriineur-Libraire, rue Hautefeuille, n. 20. | An XIII. (1804.) 
8. Tom. 1, pp. i-xvi, 1-412; torn. 2 e , 11. 2,pp. 1-431 ; torn. 3 e ,ll. 2, pp. 1-473. 

Cetac6s, passim : Delphinus phoccena, de se chasse aux poissons volans et de se moaurs, 
etc., torn, i, pp. 88, 89; description de dauphin [= Delphinus Boryi, Desni. ?], pp. 104-10G; Ba- 
Icena physalus, Linn., pp. 145, 146; "un bane de dauphins . . . plusieurs milliers," toin. iii, p. 
293 ; dauphins tres-gros, pp. 293, 294. 

Contains nothing of importance relating to Cetaceans. [470.] 

1804. FR P. [ FRORIEP, L. F. VON]. TabellederUnterordnungen, Geschlechten und 
Gattungen der Wallnsche. Von Lacepede. < Foil's Mag. der Naturk., vii, 
1804, pp. 445-450. 

" Aus einem so eben erschienenen "Werke von Lacepede, und vom Hrn. Prof. Froriep mit- 
getheilt." Siehe op. tit., p. 475. [471.] 

1804. LACEPEDE, [BERN. GERM. ETIENNE]. Histoire naturelle | des C6tac6es, | 
dedie'e a Anne-Caroline La Cepede: | par le Citoyen La Cepede | .... [ti- 
tles, 11 lines.] | | A Paris, | Chez Plassan, Imprimeur-Libraire, | Rue de 
Vaugiard, N 1195. | | L'an XII de la Re'publique [1804]. 4. pp. i-xliv, 
1-329, pll. i-xvi. (Pll. vi, vii, xi, xii, xiv, xvi, d6sign(5es d'apres nature.) 

Dedicace, p. v. Table des Articles, pp. vi-viii. Avertissement, et explication de quelques 
planches, pp. ix, x. Vue general des Cetacees, pp. xi-xxxiii. Tableau des ordres, genres et 
especes de Cetacees, pp. xxxv-xliv. 

Les Baleines, pp. 1-113. 1. La Baleine franche (Balcena mysticetus), pp. 1-102, pi. i, fig. 1 
(d'apres Martens), ii. La Baleino Nordcaper (Balcuna nordcaper), pp. 103-110, pll. ii, iii, 
(d'apres Bachstrom; fig. Balcena mysticettis) . 3. La Baleine noueuse (Balcena nodosa), 
pp. Ill, 112. 4. La Baleine bossue (Balcena gibbosa), p. 113. 

Les Baleinopteres, pp. 114-141. 5. La Baleinop;ere gibbar (Balcenoptera gibbar), pp. 114- 
119, pi. i, flu:. 2 (d'apres Martens). 6. La Baleinoptere jubarte (Balcenoptera jubartcs), pp. 
120-125, pi. iv, fig. 1. 7. La Baleinoptere rorqual (Balcenoptera rorqual), pp. 126-133, pi. i, 
fig. 3, animal, pi. v, fig. 1 (" grave d'apres un dessiu de Jacques Quine), pi. vi, tete osseuse, 
pi. viii, vertebres cervieales et autres vertebres et fanons (pll. vi-viii d'apres nature). 8 
La Baleinoptere museau-pointu (Balcenoptera, acuto-rostrata), pp. 134-141, pi. viii, figg. 1, 2, 
animal, fig. 3, mdchoire sup6rieure. 


1804. LACEPEDE, [BERN-. GERM. E"TIEXNE] Continued. 

Les Narwals, pp. 142-163. 9. Lo Narwal vulgairo (Narwalus vulgaris), pp. 142-158, pi. iv, 
fly;. 3. 10. Le Narwal microcephalo (Narwalus microcephalus), pp. 159-162, pi. v, fig. 2, ani- 
mal, d apres tin dessin par W. Brand), pi. ix, fig. i, tete osseuse. 11. Le Xarwal Anderson 
(Narwalus Andersonianus), p. 163. 

Les Anarnaks, p. 164. 12. L'Anarnak groenlandoise (Anarnak Groenlandicus) , p. 164. 

Les Cachalots, pp. 165-218. 13. Lo Cachalot mucrocephale (Catodon macrocephalus),^. 
165-211, pi. x, fig. 1, animal (d'apres Bounaterro), pi. xi, tote osseuse, pi. xii, vertebres et 
cote (pll. xi, xii d'apres nature). 14. Lo Cachalot trumpo (Catodon trumpo), pp. 212-215, pi. 
x, fig. 2 (d'apres Robertson). 15. Le Cachalot svineval (Catodon svineval), pp. 216,217, pi. 
ix, fig. 2, teto osseuse [ Olobiocephalus melas]. 16. Le Cachalot blanchatre (Catodon albi- 
cans) [= Beluga catodon], p. 218. 

Les Physales, pp. 219-226. 17. Le Physale cylindriquo (Phy solus cylindricus), pp. 219- 
226, pi. ix, fig. 3 (d'apres Anderson). 

Les Physeteres, pp. 227-24 i. 18. Le Physetero microps (Physeter microps), pp. 227-235. 
19. Le Physetere orthodon (Physeter orthodon), pp. 236-238. 20. Le Physetere mular (Phy- 
seter mular), pp. 239-242. 

Les Delphinapt6res. pp. 243-249. 21. Le Delphinaptere beluga (Delphinapterus beluga), 
[= Beluga catodon], pp. 243-24S. 22. Le Delphinaptere seuedette (Delphinapterus sene- 
detta), p. 249. 

Les Dauphins, pp. 250-317. 23. Le Dauphin vulgai re ( Delpldnus vulgaris), pp. 230-286, pi. 
xiii, fig. 1, animal, pi. xiv, fig. 1, tete. 24. Le Dauphin marsouiu (Delphinus phoccena), pp. 
287-297, pi. xiii, fig. 2, pi. xiv, fig. 2, squelotte (pi. xiv d'apres nature). 25. Le Dauphin orque 
(Delphinus orca), pp. 298-301, pi. xv, fig. 1, pi. xvi, crane (d'apres nature). 26. Le Dauphin 
gladiateur (Delphinus gladiator), pp. 302-30G, pi. v, fig. 3. 27. Le Dauphin Nesarnack (Del- 
phinus nesarnack), pp. 307, 308, pi. xv, fig. 2. 28. L'o Dauphin diodon (Delphinus diodon), pp. 
309, 310. 29. Le Dauphin ventru (Detyhinus ventricosus) , p. 311, pi. xv, fig. 3 (d'apres Hunter). 
SO. Le Dauphin feres (Delphinus feres), pp. 312, 313. 31. Le Dauphin de Duhamel (Delphi- 
nus Duhameli), pp. 314, 315. 32. Le Dauphin de P6ron (Delphinm Peronii), p. 316. 33. Lo 
Dauphin de Commerson (Delphinus Commersoni), pp. 317, 318. 

Les Hyperoodons, pp. 319-324. 34. L'Hyperoodon butskopf (Hyperoodon butskopf), pp. 
319-324, pi. xv, fig. 3. 

Table alphab6tique, pp. 325-329. 

The text is an elaborate compilation ; the figures of the animals, with the two or three 
obove-noted exceptions, are copies; all the osteological figures, except one, are original. 
Viewed in the light of to-day, the work is a striking commentary on the poverty of the author's 
resources, and on the inexact information of the times in all that related to the history of 
Cetacea. Compared with Bonnaterre's work (1789), the number of species is greatly increased, 
while the generic nomenclature differs to a very large degree, through the introduction of new 
genera and the substitution of new names for others. The prominent feature is therefore the 
classification, which, considering the state of Cetological knowledge at this time, is entitled to 
praise. Its weakness lies in the recognition of a largo number of species now known to be 
nominal or fictitious, but which, supported by Lacepede's endorsement, figured prominently 
for many years in the works of later compilers. 

Lacepede's new genera are the following: 1. Balcenoptera, 2. Narwalus (=Monodon), 
3. Anarnak (based on Monodon apurius, Fabr.), 4. Catodon (ex Artedi?), 5. Physalus, 
6. Delphinapterus, and, 7. Hyperoodon. His new specific designations are : 1. Baloinoptera 
gibbar(=Balcenaphysahis,'Liun.),'-Z. Balcenopteraji(barte8(=Balcenaboop8,~Limi.), 3. Balce- 
noptera acuto-rostrata (=Balcena rostrata, Miill.), 4. Narivalus vulgaris, 5. N. microcepha- 
lus, 6. N. Andersonianus ( = Monodon monoceros), 7. Anarnak groenlandicus (= Mono- 
don spurius, Fabr.), 8. Catodon svineval (= Globiocephalus melas), 9. Physeter orthodon, 
JO. Delphinapterus beluja (Beluga catodon), 11. Delphinus vulgaris (-D. delphis), 12. 
Delphinus nesarnack (= D. tursio,Fa,l>i:), 13. Delphinus diodon (= Hyperodon butzkopf), 14. 
Delphinus ventricosus (=? Grampus griseus), 15. Delphinus Duhameli, sp. n., 16. Delphinus 
Peronii (= D. leucorhamphus, Peron, Ms.), sp. n., 17. Delphinus Commersoni (ex Commerson, 
Ms.), sp. n. 

Besides the Sonnini version of 1804 (q. v.), Lacepede's Hist. nat. de C.'taces was republished 
in 1805, in two vols. 12, in the 90 vol. 12 ed. of Buffbn, forming vols. 89, 90; in Lacepede's 
8 ed. of Buffon published in 1819 (not seen by me), and in later editions of the same. Also 
in the collected works of Lacepede (ed. Desmarest, 11 vols. 8, 18-26-31), and in the later editions 
of his works published in 1830, 1836, 1839, and 1844 (not seen by me). Cf. Carus and Eugel- 
mann, Bibliotheca hist, nat., i, 1846, p. 332. [472.] 

1804. SOXNINI [DE MANNONCOURT], C. [N.] S. Histoire naturelle, | g6n6rale et par- 
ticuliere, | des C6tace"es. | Ouvrage fasaint suite t\ FHistoire naturelle, ge'ne'- 
rale | et particuliere, composde par Leclerc de Buffou, et | mise dans un nouvel 


1804. SONNINI [DE MANNONCOURT], C. [N.] S. Continued. 

avec | des Notes et des Additions. | Par C. S. Sonnini, | Membre des plusieurs 
Socie'tes savautes | et Iitt6raires. | [Monogram.] A Paris, | de riuiprinierio 
de F. Dufart. | | An XII [=1804]. 8. pp. 1-446, pll. i-v. 

' Vue generate des Cetacees, pp. 5-30 ; Tableau des Ordres, Genres et Especcs do Cetacees, 
pp. 31-42. 

Les Baleines, pp. 43-192. 1. La Baleine franche (Balcena mysticetus), pp. 43-179, pi. i. 2. 
Le Nord caper (lialcena nordcaper), pp. 180-188. 3. La Baleine noueuse (Balcena nodosa), 
pp. 189, 190. 4. La Baleine bossue (Balcena gibbosa), pp. 191, 192. 

Les Baleinopteres, pp. 193-226. 5. Lo Gibbar (Balcenoptera gibbar), pp. 193-199, pi. ii, 
fig. 1. 6. La Jubarte (Balcenoptera jubartes), pp. 200-207. 7. La Baleinoptero rorqual 
(Balcenoptera rorqual), pp. 208-217. 8. Le Museau-poiutu (Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata), 
pp. 218-226. 

Les !N"arwals, pp. 227-251. 9. LeXarwal vulgaire (Nanvalus mdgaris), pp. 227-245, pi. 
ii, fig. 2. 10. Le Narwal microcephale (Narwalus microcephalies), pp. 246-25 J. 11. Le Xar- 
wal Anderson (Narwalus andersonianus) , p. 251. 

Les Anarnaks, pp. 252, 253. 13. L'Anarnak Groenlands (Anarnak groenlandicus), pp. 
252, 253. 

Les Cachalots, pp. 254-319. 13. Le Cachalot macrocephale (Catodon macrocephalus), 
pp. 254-311, pi. iii, fig. 1. 14. Lo Cachalot trumpo (Catodon trumpo), pp. 312-316. 15. 
Lo Cachalot svinoval (Catodon svineval), pp. 317, 318. 16. Le Cachalot blanchatre (Catodon 
albicans), p. 319. 

Les Physales, pp. 320-328. 17. Le Physale cylindrique (Physalus cylindricus), pp. 320- 
328, pi. iii, fig. 2. 

Les Physetercs, pp. 329-346. IS. Le Physetere microps (Physeter microps), pp. 329-338. 
19. Le Physetere orthodon (Physeter orthodon), pp. 339-342. 20. Le Mular (Physeter mu- 
lar), pp. 343-346. 

Les Delphinapteres, pp. 347-355. 21. Le Beluga (Delphinapterus beluga), pp. 347-353. 
22. Le Senedette (Delphinapterus senedette), pp. 354, 35o. 

Les Dauphins, pp. 356-437. 23. Le Dauphin vulgaire (Delphinus vulgaris), pp. 356-399, 
pi. iv, fig. 1. 24. Le Marsouin (Dclphinusphoccena), pp. 400-412, pi. iv, fig. 2. 25. L'Orque 
(Delphinus orca), pp. 413-417. 26. Le D;iuphiu gladiateur (Delphinus gladiator), pp. 418-422. 
27. Le Nesarnack (Delphinus nesarnack), pp. 423-425, pi. v, fig. 1. 28. Le Diodon (Del- 
phinus diodon), pp. 426, 427, pi. v, fig. 2. 21). Le Dauphin ventrti (Delphinus ventricouus) , 
pp. 428,429. 30. Lo Dauphin feres (Delphinus feres), pp. 430-432. 31i Le Dauphin de 
Duhamel (Delphinus Duhameli), pp. 433, 434. 32. Le Dauphin de P6ron (Delphinus Pcro- 
nii), p. 435. 33. Le Dauphin de Commorson (Delphinus Commersonii), pp. 436-437. 

Les Hyperoodons, pp. 438-444. 34. Lc Butskopf (Hyperoodon butskopf ), pp. 438-444. 

Although this work bears the same date (an XII) as Lacepede's Hist. nat. des Cetacees 
(see 1804. LACI^PEDE), it is merely a slightly abridged version of that work, with here and 
there slight additions. Although the text is mostly inclosed in marks of quotation, I foil to 
find any acknowledgment of the source. The work is currently attributed, however, to Son- 
nini. The arrangement of the matter, the number of species treated, their order of succes- 
sion and nomenclature, are identical in the two works. [473.] 

1804. " WIEDEMANN, C. R. W. Beschreibung des Schadols vom. Lamautin oder Ma- 

nati. <^Wiedemann'8 Arcli. fiir Zool. und Zoot., iv, 1804, pp. 67-77." 

Not seen ; title from Cams and Engelmann. [474 ] 

1805. CARLISLE, ANTHONY. The Physiology of the Stapes, one of the Bones of the 

Organ of Hearing ; deduced from a comparative View of its Structure, and 
Uses, in different Animals. <^Phllos. Trans. Lond., [xcv], pt. 2, art. xi, 1805, 
pp. 198-210, pi. iv. 

The plate gives figures of the stapcdes and colnmellae of various animals, including Phoca 
vitulina, Phoccena communis, and Odobcenus roamarus. [475.] 
1805. HOLMES, A. American Annals; | or | a Chronological | History of America | 
from its Discovery in MCCCCXC1I to MDCCCVI. | In two Volumes. | By 
Abiel Holmes, D. D. A. A. S. S. H. S. | Minister of the First Church in Cam- 
bridge. | Suum quajque in annum referre. | Tacit. Annal. | [Vol. 

I | Comprising a period of T\vo Hundred Years. | | Cambridge, Printed and 
Sold by W. Billiard. | | 1805. 2 vols. 8. 

The title of vol. ii differs from the above as follows : 

Vol. II. | Comprising a Period of One Hundred and Fourteen Years. 

Whale-fishery in 1730, vol. ii, p. 125 a brief statement embraced in 6 lines. Also brief 
reference to Morse-fishing and Whalo-fishing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1593, vol. i, p. 133. 



1805. MACPHERSOX, D. Annals | of | Commerce, | Manufactures, Fisheries, and Nav- 
igation | with | brief notices of the Arts and. Sciences connected with them. | 
Containing the | Commercial Transactions | of the | British Empire and other 
Countries, | from the earliest accounts to the meeting of the Union Parlia- 
ment in January 1801 ; | and comprehending the most valuable part of the late 
Mr. Anderson's History of Commerce, viz. from the year 1492 | to the end of 
the reign of George II, King of Great Britain, &c. | With a largo Appendix, | 
containing | 

Chronological Tables of the Sover- 
eigns of Europe, | Tables of the al- 
terations of money in England and 
Scotland, | 

A Chronological Table of the prices of 
Corn, &c. and | A Commercial and 
Manufactural Gazetteer of the | Uni- 
ted Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 

laud | 

With a general chronological Index. | The Antient Part composed from the most 
authentic Original Historians and Public Records, | printed and in Manuscript, 
and the Modern Part from Materials of unquestionable | Authenticity (mostly 
unpublished) extracted from the Records of Parliament, | the Accounts of 
the Custom-house, the Mint, the Board of Trade, the" | Post-Office, the East- 
India Company, the Bank of England, | &c. &c. | By David Macphersou. | | 
In Four Volumes. | | Vol. I [-IV]. | | Printed for Nichols and Son, . . . 
1= nearly 4 lines of names of booksellers]. | London; | and for Mundell and 
Son, Edinburgh, j | 1805. 4 vols. 4. 

The chronological arrangement of the work precludes reference to special topics, ince tho 
same subject may be briefly mentioned in many places. A very detailed and thorough index* 
however, renders the matter readily accessible, and to this index the present writer would 
refer the investigator of matters relating to tho Whalefishery and Mndred topics. The work 
is one of great research and labor, and is standard authority on the subjects treated. [477.] 

1806. DUMERIL, A. M. C. Zoqlogie analytique, | ou | Me'fchode naturelle | de | Classi- 
fication des Animaux, | rendue plus facile | a 1'aide de Tableaux synop- 
tiques; | Par A[ndrc]. M[arie]. Constant Dnmeril, | . . . . [titles, 6 lines of 
small type]. Parva scd apta. | | Paris | Allais, Libraire, quai des Augustius, 
N. 39. | | M. DCCC. VI. 8. pp. i-xxxii, 1. 1, pp. 1-344. 

XIIF 6 . FamiHe, Amphibics [=Pinnipedia-{-Sireni(t], pp. 2G, 27. Genera 3, under French 
and Latin names, viz: 1. Phoca, 2. Trichocus, 3. Dugong, 4. Manatus. 

XIV e . Famille, Cetaces, pp. 28, 29. Genera 10, under French and Latin names, viz: 1. 
Salcena, '2. Balenoptera, 3. Narwhalus, 4. Ananarcux, 5. Catodon, 6. Phylasus (sic), 7. Phy- 
seterus, 8. Delphinapterus, 9. Delphinus, 10. Hyperodon. [478.] 

1806. TURTOX, W. A general | System of Nature, j through the | Three Grand King- 
doms | of | Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, | systematically divided | into 
their several | Classes, Orders, Genera, Species, and Varieties, | with their 

| Habitations, Manners, Economy, Structure, and Peculiarities. | By Sir 
Charles Linue: | Translated Gmeliu, Fabricius, Willdenow, &c. | Together 
with | Various Modern Arrangements and Corrections, derived from the | 
Transactions of the Liuneau and other Societies, as well as from the Classical 

| Works of Shaw, Thornton, Abbot, Donovan, Sowerby, Latham, Dillwyn | 
Lewin, Martyri, Andrews, Lambert, &c. &c. | with a- life of Linne, | Appro- 
priate Copper-plates, and a Dictionary explanatory of the Terms which | 
occur in the several Departments of Natural History, | by William Turton, 
M. D. | Fellow of the Linnean Society, Author of the Medical Glossary, &c. 
&c. | | In Seven Volumes. | | Animal Kingdom. Vol. I. | Mammalia. 
Birds. Amphibia. Fishes. | | London: | Printed for Lackington, Allen, 
and Co. | Temple of the Muses, Fires bury- Square. | | 180o. 8. pp. i-vii, 
1-944. ("Printed by Voss and Morris, Castle-Street, Swansea. 1800," p. 943.) 
Order vii. Cete, pp. 127-130. 1 . ^lonodon Monoccros, 2. Balcena Mysticetus, p. 127; 3. If. 
Phy solus, 4. B. Boops, 5. B. Gibbosa, 6. B. Musculus, 7. B. Itostrata, 8. Physeter Catodon, 
9. P. Macroc"phalua, p. 128; 10. P. Microps, 11. P. Turtrio, 14. Delphinus Phocccna, 13. D. 
delphis, p. 129; 14. D. Orca, 15. D. Leucas, p. 130. Short, nearly worthless, descriptions, 
and no references to previous authors. 


1806. TURTOX, W. Continued. 

Sirenia: 1. Trichechus Durong (sic), 2. T. Manatus, with var. 1. Australia (= African and 
American Manatees), var. 2. Borcalis (= Ehytina borealis), var. 3, Siren (fabulons), pp. 36, 
37. The following complete transcript of the account of the Trichechus Manatus Sirenus is a 
sufficient commentary on the character of the work : 

"3. Siren. Ears erect, sharp-pointed. Inhabits the north-west coast of America, swims 
around ships with antic gestures. Head resembling a dog ; eyes large ; lips whiskered : body 
thick, round, tapering downwards; tail divided into 2 unequal lobes; length about 5 
feet." [479.] 

1807. HOME, E. Observations on the structure of the different Cavities, which con- 

stitute the Stomach of the Whale, compared with those of ruminating Animals, 
with a View to ascertain the Situation of the digestive Organ. <^Philos. Trans. 
Lond., [xcvii], pt. 1, art. iv, 1807, pp. 97-102, pll. iii, iv. 

Investigation based on "a Delphinus Delphis of Linnaeus, or small bottle-nose whale of 
Mr. Hunter." [480.] 

1808. Axox. A Short and true Account of Forty-two Persons [Whalers] who per- 

ished by shipwreck near Spitzbergen, in the year 1G46. <^Pinkerton J s Coil. 
Voy. and Trav., i, 1808, p. 535. [481.] 

1808. Axox. Third Voyage of the Dutch and Zealanders, by the North, along Nor- 
way, Moscovy, and Tart'ary, to pass to the kingdoms of Cathay and China, 
by permission of the Council of the city of Amsterdam, 159G. <^Pinkerton's 
Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, 1808, pp. 90-127. 

"Newly translated from the Recueil des Voyages, qui ont scrvi a I'etablissement ct aux 
progrez de la Compagnie dos Indes Orientales. Tom. i, p. 53." 

"Whales described, pp. 93, 94. Very good description of the Northern Right TVhale. [432 ] 

1803. BACSTROM, S. Account of a [Whaling] Voyage to Spitzbergen in the Year 
1780. By S. Bacstrom, M. D. <Pinkerton's Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, 1808, pp. 

From Phil Mag., July, 1799. [483.] 

1808. BLUMEXBACH, J. F. Manuel | d'Histoirenaturelle, \ traduit de 1'Allemand, | Do 
J. Fr. Blumenbach, Professeur a FUuiversito | de Gottingue. | Par Soulange 
Artaud. | Avec figures. | | Multa fiunt. eadem, sed aliter, | Quiatilian. | | 
Tome Premier. | [Monogram.] | A Metz, | Chez Collignou, Imprimeur-Li- 
braire. | . . . [= Names of 3 other publishers.] | | An XI. 1803. 8. pp. 
i-xvi, 1-528. 

Trichechus manatus, p. 1G4, Les Cetacees (Cetacea), pp. 165-169. A translation of one of the 
early editions, but which is not stated. The matter relating to the Cetacea is substantially 
the same as that of the 3d ed., 1788, q. v. [484.] 

1808. LEEMS, K. An Account of the Laplanders of Finmark, their language, man- 
ners, and religion,by Knud Lecins, Professor of the Lnplandic, with the notes 
of Gunner, Bishop of Dronthciin, and a Treatise, by Jessen, on the Pagan Re- 
ligion of the Finns and Laplanders. <^Pinkcrton's Coll. Voy. and Trav., i, 
1808, pp. 376-490. 

Chap, xiii. Of the Fishery, pp. 431-446. Contains a short account of the "Whales and 
"Whaleflshery of Finmark, pp. 431-433. 

The original edition of Leems (not seen by me) was published in Danish and Latin r.t 

Copenhagen in 1767, 4, with plates. [485.] 

1808. PHILIPS, C. J. A voyage towards the North Pole, undertaken by his Majesty's 

command, in 1773, by Constantino John Phipps. <^Pinkerton's Co. Voy^ and 

Trav., i, 1808, pp. 538-594. 

Natural history, pp. 578-585. Balcena Mysticetus, Balcena Physalus, p. 579 (=7 lines of no 
importance). [486.] 

1808. TIEDEMAXX, D. F. Zoologie. | | Zu seinen Vorlesungen entworfen | von | D. 
Friedrich Tiedemann, | Professor der Anatomie und Zoologie an der Univer- 
sitat zu | Landshut. | | Erster Band. | Allgemeine Zoologie, Mensch und 
Siiugthiere. | | Landshut, in der Weberschen Buchhandluug. | | 1808. 
8. pp. i-xvi, 1-610, 1. 1. 

XII. Ordnung. Fischartige Saugthiere. "Wallfische. Cetacea (Cetaces), pp. 557-585. 

Generalities, 557-570; genera and species, pp. 570-585. 1. Balaena mysticetus, 2* B. islan- 


1808. TIEDEMAXX, D. F. Continued. 

dica (Xordkaper) ; 3. Der TVallflsch mit einem Hb'cker, B. nodose, p. 571 ; 4. B. gibbosa, 
5* Balaenoptcra gibbar, 6. B. rostrata, p. 572; 7. B. boops, 8. 1?. rorqual, p. 573; 9. JYar- 
walus vulgaris ( Afonodon-monoceros), 1O. N. rnicrocephalus, 11. N. Andersonianus,p.5~4; 
12. Anarnacus fjroenlandicus, p. 575; 13. Catodon macrocephalus, p. 576; 14. C. albicans, 
15. C. trumpo, 16. C.svineval, p. 577; 17. Physalus ci/lindricus, p. 578; 18. Phi/set er tnicrops, 
19. P. orthodon, iJO. P. mular, p. 579; til. Ddphinapterus beluga, 22. D. senedetta, p. 580; 
23. Delphinus delphiv, 24. D.phocaena, p. 581 ; 25. -D. (Mra, 26. Dcr Dolpliiu rait dor kohen 
Huckenflosse, p. 582; 27. .D. tursio, 28. />. diodon, 23. .>. Bonnaterrei, sp. n. (=le dauphin 
f6res, Bonnaterre), p. 583; 30. D. vetitricosns, 31. D. Duhamelii, 32. -D. Peronii, 33. -D. 
Comersonii, 34. Hyperoodon butzkopf, p. 584. 

Delphinus Bonnaterrei. sp. n., p. 583. Genn. 11, spp. 34. 

Numberof speciesand nomenclature same.asLacepedo's, excepting "D. Bonnaterrei." [487.] 

1808. WILLOUGHBY, H. The Voyages of Sir Hugh Willoughby, Richard Chancclor, 

aud others, to the Northern parts of Russia and Siberia. <^Pinkerton's Coll. 
Voi/. and Trav., i, 1808, pp. 1-80. 
From ILickluyt's Voy. and Trav. [483.] 

1809. ABERXETHY, J. Some Particulars in the Anatomy of a Whale. <^Philo8. Trans. , 

abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, *xvii (1791-1796), 1809, 
pp. 673-677. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., Ixxxvi, 1798, pp. 27 et seqq., q. v. [483.] 

1809. Axox. Of the New American Whale- Fishing about Bermudas. <^Philos. 
Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 16o5-1800, i (1655-1672), 
1809, pp. 6, 7. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond.',\, no. 1, 1G65, p. 11, q. v. [490.] 

1809. ANOX. A further Relation of the Whale-Fishing about the Bermudas, and on 

the Coast of New-England and New-Netherland. <^Philos. Trans., abridged 

by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1635-1800, i (1665-1672), 1809, p. 46. [With 

supplementary note.] 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., i, no. 8, 1666, p. 132, q. v. [491.] 

1809, AXGN. Description de la Piece d'Ainbre^ris que la Chambre d' Amsterdam 
a recue des Indes Orientales, pesant 182 Livres; avec un petit Traite" de 
son Origine et de sa Vertu, par Nicolas Chevalier, a Amsterdam chez 1'Auteur, 
1700. 4. <^Philos. Trans., abridged by Huttou, Shaw and Pearson, 1665- 
1800, iv (1694-1702), 1809, p. 500. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xxii, no. 263, 1700, p. 573, q. v. See 17CO. CHEVALIER, U". [492.] 

1809. BOYLE, [R.] On Ambergris. <P/iiZos. Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw and 

Pearson, 1665-1800, ii (1672-1683), 109, pp. 94, 95. [Wilh suppl. foot-note.] 

From Philos. Trans., Lond., vii, no. 97, 1673, pp. 6113-6115, q. v. [493 ] 

1809. BOYLSTOX, . Ambergris found in Whales. <^Pliilos. Trans., abridged by 

Plutton,' Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, vii (1724-1734), 1809, p. 57. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xxsiti, no. 385, 1724, p. 193, q. v. [494.] 

1809. "CoRTESi. Sugli Sceletri d'tm Rhinoceronte afric. et d'una Balena. Milan, 

Xot seen; title from Van Beneden, Otss.fosa. des environs d'Anvers, ii, 1880, p. 17. [495.] 

1809. CUYIER, G. Sur Tost^ologie du Lamantiu, sur la place quo le Lamautin et le 

Dugong doivent occuper dans la rue'thode naturelle, et sur les os fossiles de 

Lamantins et de Phoques. <^Ann. du Hus. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1808, pp. 273- 

312, pi. xix. 

Eistorique, pp. 273-282 ; Art. I. Da lamantin d'Ameriquc, pp. 282-293; Art. IT. Dcsespeces 
nominates du petit lamantin des Antilles et du lamantin des G-randes Indes, pp. 293, 294; 
Art. III. Du lamantin du Senegal, pp. 294-29G; Art. IV. Du pretendu lamantin du Xurd, do 
Stellcr, pp. 296-299 : Art. V. Dudugong, pp. 300-302; Art. VI. Ossemens fossiles de lamantins, 
pp. 303-309 ; Art. VII. De quelques os de phoques trouves avec ceux de lamantins, dans lo 
departement de Maine-et-Loire, et des prutendus os do morse annonces par quelques uatura- 
listcs, pp. 309-312. PL xix, Ostcoloie des lamantins et du dugoag. 

This celebrated memoir marks an epoch in the literary history of the Sirenia. After giving 
a detailed history of the views respecting the affinities of these aniraals entertained by pro- 


1809. CUVIER, G. Continued. 

vious writers, including the absurdities of mermaids and mermen, the author closes Ins his- 
torical resume by stating that the Sirenia form three distinct genera, the Lamantins (of which 
he recognizes two species), the Dugong, and Stcller's Sea-Cow, and that these three genera 
constitute a separate family, very different from the Seals, with which they had been previ- 
ously placed, and a little nearer to the Cetascct than the Pachyderms are to the Carnivores. 
Buffon's four species of"Lamantin N he reduces to two. Then follows an account, with figures, 
of the osteology of the Brazilian Manatee ; a comparison of the skulls of the African and 
American Manatees, and a resume of tko distinctive 1 / structural features of Srellcr's Sea-Cow, 
whereby it is geuerically separated from the Dugong and Manatees. Cuvier's results agree 
closely with the modern interpretation of the affinities and generic relations of these animals. 
It was left, however, for Desmarest to bestow technical names upon the species here lirst 
clearly distinguished, Cuvier throughout his memoir employing only the French vernacular 
names. [496.] 

1809. CUVIER, G. Stir les Lamantins et les Os fossilos de ces animaux. <^Xouv. 
Ball, des Sci. par la Soc. Philom., no. 24, Sept. 1809, pp. 395, 396. 
Extrait d' Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. 'Nat., xiii, pp. 273-312. See last title. [497.] 

1809. DUDLEY, P. An Essay on the Natural History of Whales; with a particular 
Account of the Ambergris found in the SpermaCeti Whale. <^ Philos. Trans., 
abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1355-1800, vii (1724-1734), 1809, pp. 


From Philos. Trans. Lond., xxxiii, no. 387, 1725, pp. 256-269, q. v. [498.] 

1809. EDITOR. The Editor's Account, with Observations, of Experiments on Am- 
bergris, made by Mr. John Browne, F. R. S., and by Mr. Ambrose Godfrey 
Hauckewitz, F. R. S. To which are subjoined Dr. Neuman's Vindicatory 
Remarks. <P/n?os. Trans., abridged by Huttou, Shaw and Pearson, 1665- 
1800, vii (1724-1734), 1609, pp. 668, 6o9. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., 435, 1735, p. 437. See 1735. KEUMAXN, C. [499.] 

1809. EDMONDSTON, A. A | View | of the | Ancient and Present State | of the | Zet- 
land Islands; | including their | Civil, Political, and Natural History; | An- 
tiquities; | and | An Account of their Agriculture, Fisheries, Commerce, | and 
the state of Society and Manners. | By | Arthur Edmondston, M. D. | | In 
two volumes. | | Vol. I [-II]. | J Edinburgh: | Printed by James Ballan- 
tyne and Co. | For Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, London; and | John 
Ballantyue and Co. Edinburgh. | | 1809. 2 vols. 8. Vol. i, pp. i-xiv, 1- 
364, with map; vol. ii, pp. i-vii, 1-345. 

The Zetlands not so favorable a point from which to carry on the "Whale Fishery as sup- 
posed, vol. i, pp. 290-293. Of Whales and Wrecks. Section I, Of the Division of Whales, 
vol. ii, pp. 154-174. Fishes [ Pisces + Cctacea]. vol. ii. pp. 29G-31G. 1. Balama Mysticetus, 
2. Balczna Boops, 3. Balcena Musculus, 4. Physeter Catodon, 5. Physeter Micrnps, 6. 
Physeter Tursio, p. 398; 7. Dclphinus Plwcccna, p. 399; S. Dclphinus Orea,- 9. Balcena ro8' 
train, Poutoppidan [= " Dclphinus mclas, Traill"], p. 300; 10. Monodon Monoccros, pp. 301, 
302. A Monodon monoceros "run on shore in Wecsdale voo in Zetland in September, 1808." 
Yast multitudes of Ca'ing Whales .are noted as appearing regularly on the coast. The other 
notes relating to Cetacea are of little importance. [500.] 

1809. FAWKENER, W. On the Production of Ambergris. A Communication from the 
Committee of Council appointed for the Consideration of all Matters relating 
to Trade and Foreign Plantations; with a prefatory Letter from William 
Fawkener, Esq., to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., P. R, S. <PM1os. Trans., 
abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, xvii (1791-179G), 1809, 
pp. 6-8. 
From Philos. Trans. Lond., Ixxxi, 1791, pp. 43-47, q. v. [501.] 

1809. HAMPE, J. H. A Description of the same Narhwal [as mentioned in Dr. Stei- 

gertahl's communication] <^Philos. Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw 

and Pearson, 1635-1800, viii (1735-1743), 1809, p. 161. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xl, no. 447, 1738, pp. 149, 150, q. v. [502.] 


1809. HUNTER, J. Observations on the Structure and Economy of Whales. 

Trans., abridged by Button, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, xvi (1785-1790), 
1809, pp. 306-351, pi. 5. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., Ixxvii, pt. 2, art. xxxviii, 1787, pp. 371-450, pll. xvi-xxiii, q. v. 


1809. LEUWEXHOECK, [A. VAN]. Concerning the Flesh of Whales, and the Crystal- 
line humour of their Eye. <^Phllos. Trans., abridged by Huttou, Shaw and 
Pearson, 1635-1800, v (1703-1712), 1809, pp. 155-157. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xxiv, no. 293, 1704, pp. 1723-1730, q. v. [504-1 

1809. NEUMAN, C. On Ambergris ..... ^Philos. Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw 
and Pearson, 1635-1800, vii, (1724-1734), 1801), pp. 661-663. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., no. 433, 1734, p. 344, etc., q. v. [505-1 

1809. RAY, J. Account of the Dissection of a Porpoise. <^Philos. Trans., abridged 
by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1635-1800, i (1655-1675), 1809, pp. 639-643. [With 
supplementary note.] 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., vi, no. 76, 1671, p. 2274, etc., q. v. [506.] 

1809. ROBERTSON, J. Description of the Blunt-headed Cachalot. <^Philos. Trans., 
abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800,' xiii (1770-1776), 1809, 
pp. 57-59, pi. 1, tig. 6. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., Ix, 1771, art. xxvii, pp. 321-324, q. v. [507.] 

1809. SCHWEDIAWER, [F. X. ] An Account of Ambergris. <P/u?o*. Trans. , abridged by 
Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1635-1800, xv (1781-1785), 1809, pp. 339-393. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., Ixxiii, art. xv, 1783, pp. 226-241, q. v. [508.] 

1809. SIBBALD, R. Description of the Pediculus Ceti, &c. <^Philos. Trans., abridged 
by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, v (170:3-1712), 1809, pp. 317, 318. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xxv, no. 308, 1707, pp. 2314-2317, q. v. [509.] 

1809. STAFFORD, R. Of the Tides at Bermudas, also Whales, Spermaceti ..... 
<^PIiitos. Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 1G35-1800, i (1665- 
1672), 1809, pp. 283, 284. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., Hi, no. 40, 1668. pp. 792-795, q. v. [510.] 

1809. STEIGERTAHL, Dr. Of a Narhwal or Unicorn Fish [ Monodon monoceros'], taken in 

the River Ost, in the Duchy of Bremen. <^Philos. Trans., abridged by Hut- 

ton, Shaw and Pearson, 1665-1800, viii (1735-1743), 1809, pp. 160, 161, pi. 6, 

fig. 1. 

From Philos. Trans. Lond., xl, no. 447, 1738, pp. 147-149, q. v. [511.] 

1809. TRAILL, THOMAS STEWART. Description of a new Species of Whale, Delphinus 
melas. <^Nicholson's Journ. Nat. Phil., Chem., and Arts, xxii, Feb., 1809, pp. 
81-83, pi. iii. 

Ninety-two "Whales of this species were driven ashore in Scapay Bay, in Pomona, one of the 
Orkneys, in December, 1806, at which time the drawing was taken by James "Watson, esq. 
Account of the external characters and habits of the now well-known "Blackfish." [512.] 

1809. TYSON, E. Phocsena; or, The Anatomy of a Porpus, dissected at Gresham Col- 

lege ; with a preliminary Discourse concerning Anatomy, and a Natural His- 
tory of Animals. <^Philos. Trans., abridged by Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, 
1635-1800, ii (1672-1883), 1809, pp. 500, 501. 

From Philos. Collections, no. 2, p. 37. See 1681. TYSOX, E. [513.] 

1810. ALBERS, J. A. Undersogelse over Eeuhiorniugens (Monodon Narwal) Hierte. 

<^Kongel. DansJce Fidenskab.-Sels. Skrivltr for aar 1808, 3 C Rek., v, 1810, pp. 179- 
183. ' [514.] 

1810. LEDRU, A.-P.,et[C. N. S.]SoNNixi. Voyage | auxlles | deT6ne"riffe, | la Trinite", 
Saint-Thomas, | Sainte-Croix et Porto-Ricco, | exdcutd par ordre du Gouverne- 
ment Francais, | Depuis le 30 Septembre 1796 jusqu'au 7 Juin 1798, sous la | 
Direction du Capitaiue Baudin, pour faire des Recherches | et des Collections 
relatives a 1'Histoire Naturelle; | Contenant | Des Observations sur le Climat, 
le Sol, la Population, | 1'Agriculture, les Productions de ces lies, le Caractere, 
les | Mceurs et le Commerce de leurs Habitants, | Par Andre'-Pierre Ledru, | 


1810. LEDRU, A.-R, et [C. N. S.] Soxxixi Continued. 

L'un cles Naturalistes de 1'Expedition, Membre de la Socie"t6 des Arts | du 
Mans, de l'Acade"inie Celtique de Paris, du Mus6e de Tours, | Ex-Pro fesseur de 
Legislation pres TEcole Centrale de la Sartho. | Ouvrage accompagne' de Notes 
et d'Additions, | Par M. [C. S.] Sonnini. j Avec une tres-belle Carte gravde 
par J. B. Tardieti, d'apres Lopez. | Tome Premier [et Second], | A Paris, | 
Chez Arthus Bertrand, Libraire, rue Hantefeuille, n. 23. | | 1810. 2 vols., 
8. Vol. i, 1, 1. pp. i-xlvij, 1-315, 1. 1 ; vol. ii, 1. 1, pp. 1-324, 1. 1. Map. 

Dauphin (Delphinus delphis Linii.), p. 2 (par Ledru), pp. 24-27 (par Sonniui). Marsouin 
(Delphinus phoccena L.), p. 214 (par Ledru), pp. 221-224 (par Sonnini). Combat entre line 
Baleino (Le Gibbar, Balcuna physalus L.) ot Scie (Squalus pristis L.), pp. 217, 218 (par Leclru), 
Le Gribbar, pp. 220, 221 (par Soimini). Le Lamantin (Manatus australis Gm.), p. 238 (par 
Ledru), pp. 294, 293 (par Sonuini). [515.] 

1810. PEROX, [FRAxgois], e< [CHARLES ALEXAXDER] LE LESUER. Notice sur 1'habi- 

tatiou des Animaux Marius. < Ann. du Mm. d'Hist. nat., xv, 1810, pp. 287-292. 

Balcena my'sticetus, p. 288. [516.] 

1810. VIBORG, E. [Supplementary note to J. A. Alber's " Undersogelse over Eenhior- 

ningens (Monodon Narwal) Hierte."] <^Kongel. Danske Fidensloab.-Selslc. 
Slcrivter, for aar 1808, v, 1810, pp. 183, 184. [517.] 

1811. Axox. A Description of the Feroe Islands, containing an Account of their Sit- 
} uation, Climate, and Productions ; together with the Manners and Customs 

of the Inhabitants, their Trade, &c. By the Rev. G. Laiidt. <^Quar. Eti'., 
iv, 1811, pp. 333-342. 

Contains a few lines (pp. 338, 339) respecting the dread of the Feroese fishermen of "Whales, 

and their method of driving them away by the use of unpleasant odcrs, as castoreum and oil 

* of juniper! [518.] 

1811. Axox. ? [REXAUDOT, Abbe, translator.] An Account of the Travels of two Mo- 
hammedans through India and China in the Ninth Century. Translated from 
the Arabic by the Abbe" Renaudot. <^Plnlcer ton's Coll. Voy. and Trav., vii, 
1811, pp. 179-230. 

Of Ambergris, pp. 222, 223. Ambergris is cast upon the coast of the Indian Ocean, and 
is also found floating on the surface of the sea. "When a certain fish of the Whale Idnd, 
called Tol, sees these floating lumps, he swallows the same, and is killed thereby." Then 
men seize the dead whale and tow it ashore and take out the Ambergris. [519.] 

1811. FLEMIXG, JOHX. Description of a Small-headed Narwal, cast ashore in Zetland. 
<Mem. We.rn. Soc. Nat. Hist., i, 1811, pp. 131-148, 1 pi. 

A short diagnosis, with synonymy of Monodon vulgaris and M. microcephalus. The plato 
gives two figures of M. microcephalus. [520.] 

1811. G. Recherches d'anatomie compar<5e sur les dents, par 1. C. Cuvier. <^BulL de 
la Soc. Philom. de Paris, iii. 1811, No. 62, pp. 1S5*-169* (i. e., 265-269). 

Dans le dugong et le narval, p. 165. [521 . ] 

1811. HERAUSGEBER. E. Home iiber eiuige Eigenthumlichkeiten des Gehororgans des 
Wallfisches (Balaena mysticetus). (Ausden Philosoph. Tr., 1811, p. i.) <Deut- 
sches Archiv f. d. Physiol., iii, 1817, pp. 137-139. 

Auszug. [522.] 

1811. ILLIGER, C. Caroli Illigeri D. | Acad. Reg. Scient. Berolinens. et Bavaricae 
sod. | Museo Zoologico Berolin. Praefecti, | Professoris extraod. | Prodromus | 
Systematis | Mammalium et Avium | additis | Termiuis zoographicus utrius- 
que Classis, | eorumque | versioue Germanica. | | . . . . [ = Motto, 3 lines. ] 
| | Beroliui | Surnptibus C. Salfeld | 1811. 8. pp. i-xviii, 1-302. 
Sirenia, pp. 140, 141. Genera, 1. Manatus, 2. Halicore, 3. Itytina. 2 et 3 genn. nn. 
Cete, pp. 141-144. 1. Balaena [Linn, et auct. var.] ; 2. Ccratodon (ex Briss. Monodon, 
Linn., Diodon, Storr, Narwalus, Lac6p.); 3. Ancyclodon [gen. n. Anarnacus, Lacep.]; 4. 
Physeter [Linn, et auct. var.] ; S. Delphinus [Linn, et auct. var. ] ; 6. Uranodon [gen. n. = Hy- 
peroodon, Lac6p.]. Cum charac. gener. [523. | 

1811. K^MPFER, E. The History of Japan. By Engelbert Kempfer, M. D. Physician 
to the Dutch Embassy to the Emperor's Court; and translated from his orig- 


1811. K^MPFER, E. Continued. 

inal Manuscript, in the German Language, never before printed. By J. G. 
Scheuchzer, F. R. S. And a Member of tbe College of Pbysicians, London. 
<PinJcerton's Coll. Voy. and Trav., vii, 1811, pp. 652-821. 

Chap. VIII. Of Fish and Shells, pp. 705-712. At pp. 706, 707 is a short account of "several 
sorts of whales," to wit: 1. Sebio, "the largest fish of the Whale kind, probably Balcena, 
mysticetus, 2. Awo sangi or kokadsura, a small gray or ash-colored whale, probably Hhachi- 
anectes glaums, 3. Nagass, "twenty to thirty fathoms long," 4. Sotoo-kadsura, 5. Moko, 
"three or four fathoms in length," 6. Iwasikura, "that is, sardin's-eater," doubtless a 
Balcenoptera. The Satsifiko, also mentioned, may be an Orca, but as described is certainly a, 

The original work, of which merely an extended abstract is here given, was published 
in 1727 (London, fol.). The Appendix, containing the observations on Ambergris, is omitted. 

For notice of the original work, see Addenda, 1727. K^JMPFBB. [524.] 

1811. MARSDEN, "W. The | History of Sumatra, | containing an account of | the-Gov- 
ernment, Laws, Customs, and Manners | of | the Native Inhabitants, | with | a 
description of the Natural Productions, | and a relation of the | Ancient Polit- 
ical State of that Island. | | By | William Marsden, F. R. S. | | The third 
edition, with corrections, additions, and plates. | ' | London: | Printed for 
the Author, | by J. M'Creery, Black-Horse-Court, ( And sold by | Longman, 
Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row. | | 1811. 4. pp. i-viii, 
1-479, 11. 4. 
Duyong or Sea Cow, p. 122. Grampus "Whale (Delphinus sp.), p. 122. [525.] 

1811. NEILL, PATRICK. Some account of a Fin- Whale stranded near Alloa. <^Mein. 
Wern. Soc. Nat. Hist, i, 1811, pp. 201-214. 

Identified as Balcenoptera acuto-rostrata. [526.) 

1811. PARKINSON, J. Organic Remains of a Former World. | | An | Examination 
of the Mineralized Remains | of the | Vegetables and Animals | of the | Ante- 
del uvian World ; | generally termed | Extraneous Fossils. | | By James Park- 
inson. | In three volumes. | [Vignette.] The third Volume ; | containing | the 
Fossil Starfish, Echini, Shells, Insects, Amphibia, Mammalia, &c. | | Lon- 
don: | Printed by Whittingham and Rowland, | Goswell Street ; | and pub- 
lished by Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, Paternoster-Row; | . . . . [=3 lines, 
names of other publishers.] | | 1811. 4. pp. i-xvi, 1-479, pll. i-xxii. 
Vol. i, The Vegetable Kingdom, 1820; vol. ii, The Fossil Zoophytes, 1808. 
"Cete, or Ceti," and "Amphibia" [Pinnipedia-}- Sirenia], vol. iii, pp. 309, 310, pi. xx, fig. 
1 (supposed Cetacean tooth). [527.) 

1811. SCORESBY, W., jr. Account of the Balsena mysticetus, or Great Northern or 
Greenland Whale. <Mem. Wern. Soc. Nat. Hist., i, 1811, pp. 578-586, 1 pi. 
Description, measurements, and habits. [528.] 

1811. ZIMMERMANN, E. A. W. Die I Erde und ihre Bewohner | nach | den neuesten 

Entdekkungen | | Ein Lesebuch fur Geographic, V61kerkunde | Produkten- 
lehre uud den Handel | von | E[berhard]. A[ugust]. W[ilhelm]. Zimmer- 
mann. | | Dritter Theil. | Die westliche arctische Welt. | | Mit eineni 
Titelkupfer und einer Karte. | | Leipzig bei Gerhard Fleischer dem Jun- 
gern. | 1811. 8. pp. i-viii, 1-327. 

Die grossen Fischereien der arctischen Erde. 1) Der "Wallfischfang, pp. 239-261. 1. Der 
gemeine "Wallfisch (Balaena Mysticetus), p. 241-245. 2. Der Finnfisch (Balaena Physalus 
L.), p- 245. 3. Der ]S"ordkaper, Das Breitmaul (Balaena Musculus), pp. 245, 246; [4.] Der 
Cachelot oder Pottfisch (Physeter macrocephalus), pp. 246, 247. [5.] Der Narwal (Monodon 
Monocoros), p. 248. [Wallfischfang], pp. 249-261. (The Seal-fishery is treated, pp. 261- 
266.) [529.] 

1812. C., F. [=CuviER, FREDERIC]. Description des C6tace"s 6chou6s dans la baye 

de Paimpol ; par M. G. Cuvier. <^Nouv. Bull, de la Soc. Philom. de Paris, iii, 
5 C anu6e, no. 56, mai 1812, pp. 69-91. 
Extrait. [530.] 

32 OB 


1812. C., F. [= CUVIER, FREDERIC]. Notice sur une espece de Dauphin observed dans 
la mer glaci.ile; par M. Fre"minville, lieutenant de vaisseau. <^Nouv. Bull, 
de Sci. par la Soc. Philom. de Paris, iii, 5 e annde, no. 56, mai 1812, p. 71. 

Extrait. [531.] 

1812. CUVIER, [G.]. Rapport fait a la classe des Sciences mathe"matiques et physi- 
ques, sur divers Ce'tace's pris sur les c6tes de France, principaleraent sur ceux 
qui sont e'choue's pros de Paimpol, le 7 Janvier 1812. <^Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. 
mat., xix, 1812, pp. 1-16, pi. i. 

Kemarques g6n6rals snr les especes de la famille des Dauphins, qni sont divis6 de la 
maniere suivante : 1. Les Delphinapteres (Lacep.); 11. Les Marso uins; III . Les Dauphins 
proprement dits; IV. Les Hyperoodons. 

Delphinus griseus, Delphinus globiceps, Delphinus dubius, spp. nn., p. 14. 

PI. i, Delphinus griseus, D. globiceps (2 figg.), D. Aries ? [532.] 

1812. HOME, EVERARD. An Account of some Peculiarities in the Structure of the 
Organ of Hearing in the Balaena Mysticetus of Linnaeus. <^Philos. Trans. Lond., 
[cii], pt. 1, art. iii, 1812, pp. 83-89, pll. i, ii. 

Description of the membrana tympani, with figures of the external and internal parts of 
the organ of hearing. [533.] 

1812. LA HoxTAN, Baron de. Travels in America, etc. <^Pinkerton's Coll. Voy. and 

Trav., xiii, 1812, pp. 254-273. 

Reprinted from the second English ed., London, 1735, 2 vols., 8. 

The Cetacean matter is at pp. 356, 357. See 1703. LA HONTAN. [534.] 

1813. HOME, EVERARD. On the Tusks of the Narwhale. <Philos. Trans. Lond., [ciii], 

pt. 1, art, xviii, 1813, pp. 126-130, pi. vii. 

Figures are given of the young skull of a male Narwhal, a female skull, milk tusks, lower 
jaw, and section of a full-grown tusk. [535.] 

1813. SCORESBY, WILLIAM, Jr. Account of the Balaena Mysticetus, or Great Northern 

or Greenland Whale. (Illustrated by an Engraving.) <^Annals of Philos., i, 
1813, pp. 51-55, pi. 1. 

Reprinted from the Mem. Wern. Soc., vol. i, p. 578 et seqq., q. v. [536.] 

1814. BLUMEXBACH, J. F. Handbuch | der | Naturgeschichte | von | Joh. Fried. Blu- 

menbach. | | Multa nunt eadem sed aliter. | Quintilian. | | Neunte Aus- 
gabe. | j Gottingen, 1814. | Bei Heinrich Dieterich. 8. pp. i-xiv, 1-754, 
11. 20, pll. i, ii. 

IX. Cetacea, pp. 134-137. 4 genera, 6 species. The eighth order, Palmata, includes Tri- 
chechus, of which the Manatees form the second "species" (Tricliechus Manatus, p. 134), the 
habitat being ( given as the rivers and sea coasts of the warmer parts of the earth. [537.] 

1814. LEWIS, M., and W. CLARKE. History | of | The Expedition | under the command 
of | Captains Lewis and Clark, | to | the sources of the Missouri, | thence | 
across the Rocky Mountains | and down the | River Columbia to the Pacific 
Ocean. | Performed during the years 1804-5-6. | By order of the | Government 
of the United States. | Prepared for the press | by Paul Allen, Esquire. | In 
two Volumes. | Vol. I [II]. | Philadelphia: | Published by Bradford and Ins- 
keep; and | Abm. H. Inskeep, Newyork. | J. Maxwell, Printer. | 1814. 2 vols. 
8. Vol. i, pp. i-xxviii, 1-470, maps; vol. ii, pp. i-ix, 1-522, maps. 

"This is the editio princeps of the authentic narrative." Coues (Bull. U. S. Geol. and Oeog. 
Surv. Terr., 2d set., no. C, Feb. 8, 1876, pp, 417-444) gives a detailed account of the different 
editions and versions of this important work, with a commentary on its zoological matter. 

At pp. 105-111 are passing references to a stranded Whale met with near the mouth of tho 
Columbia River, tho skeleton of which (p. Ill) was found to measure 105 feet in length. At 
p. 1 196, same volume, is a short account of "the whale" and "the porpoise." I omit reference 
to the numerous subsequent editions. [533.] 

1814. RAFINESQUE, C. S. Precis | des ddcouvertes et travaux | somiologiques | de 
M r . C. S. Rafmesque Schmaltz. | eiitre 1^00 et 1814 | Ou choix raisonnd de sea 
principales Decouvertes | en Zoologie et en Botanique, pour servir | d : intro- 
duction a ses ouvrages | futurs | | De Linnd le g6nie il a choisi pour 


1814. RAFINESQUE, C. S. Continued. 

guide. | | Palermo | Royale Typographic militaire. | 1814. | Aux d<5pens de 
TAuteur. 16 (4 by sig.). pp. 1-56. 

"III. Cr. EPIODON* (Cetace). Plusieurs dents & la, machoire superieure, aucune a 1'iufe- 
rieure ; aucune nageoire clorsale, 6vents r6unis sur la tete. 

"5. Epiodon urganantus. Corps oblong, attenu6 posterieurement : muscau arrondi, ma- 
choire superieure un peu plus lougue, dents egales obtuses. Obs. Ce Cetace fut pris vers 
1790 sur les cotes de la Sieile, j'en ai eu le dessin. Dans ma Mastologie Sicilieune je flxerai 
et decrirai plusieurs autres C6tac6s des mers de la Sieile, figures par Mongitore, je les ai nomrne 
Delphinus dalippus, Physeter urganantus, Oxypterus mongitori N. G. a deux nageoires dor- 
sales, &c." p. 13. 

The above is a full transcrip t of that portion of this rare work relating to Cetaceans. [539.] 

1815. ANOX. Notes on Nantucket, August 1st, 1807. <Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., 2d ser., 

iii, 1815, pp. 19-38. 

Hunting of Seals, Whalo Fishery, pp. 29, 30. Number of vessels employed in Sealing and 
"Whaling, and where cruising. [540.] 

1815. ANOX. Size of the Whale. <Ann. of Philos., vi, 1815, pp. 74, 75. 

A proposof a statement by \V. Scoresby (op. cit., i, 1813, 51-55) on the size of the "Whale is 
here cited Capt. Clarke's measurement of a Whale's skeleton n6ar the Columbia River, " 105 
feet in length." (See 1814. LEWIS, M., and W. CLARKE.) [541.] 

1815. BLAIXVILLE, H. DE. Note sur 1'existence des nerfs olfactifs dans le dauphin, et, 
par analogic, dans les autres ce'tace's. <^BulL des ScL, par la Soc. Philom., 
1815, pp. 193-195. [542.] 

1815. HUBBARD, WILLIAM. The General History of New England, from the first dis- 
covery thereof, till the year 1680. <^Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., 2d ser., vols. v, vi, 
1815, pp. 1-676. 

Whales killed on the south side of Long Island, near Southhold, vi, pp. 668, 659, 673. [543. ] 

1815. ILLIGER, [C.]. Ueberblick der Sliugthiere nach ihrer Vertheilung iiber die 
Welttheile. <Abhandl. d. Ron. AJcad. d. Wissens. in Berlin, 1804-181.1 (1815), 
pp. 39-159. 

Gete und Sirenia passim. Die Ordnung Natantia enthalt 2 Familien (Sirenia und Cete), 9 
G-attungen und 47 Arten (p. 52). Sirenia, 1 Arten; Cete, 40 Arten (p. 53). 

Of the "40" spp. of Cete enumerated in his several tables of distribution a considerable 
proportion are nominal, they including such names as Monodon microcephalies and M. an- 
dersonianus. Ancylodon anarnak, Physeter orthodon, cylindricus, trumpo, etc., Delphinus 
senedetta, ventricosus, feres, etc. ; in addition to a Delphinus bidens we have Hyperodon re- 
tusus. There is also a ' ' Manatus ? Simia," a Manatus fluvialis, and M. Sphaerurus, in addition 
to M. australis. There is also a Rytina cetacea as well as a Rytina borealis. The lists are, so 
far at least as the Cete and Sirenia are concerned, worthless conglomerations, which, as in 
the case of other groups treated in the same connection, appear to contain some names coined 
for the occasion, without descriptions or textual references. The paper may be safely ig- 
nored so far as Cetology is concerned. [544.] 

1815. SCORESBY, WILLIAM, jr. Description of the Woaps : and Observations on the 

Size of the Whale. <Annals of PMlos., vi, 1815, pp. 313, 314. 

In reply to previous remarks in the Annals (1. c., p. 74) on the size of the Whale. [545.] 

1815-18. "LAING, JOHX. Voyage to Spitsbergen ; containing a full description of that 
country, of the zoology of the North, and of the Shetland isles, with an ac- 
count of the Whale-fishery. London, 1815-1818. 8." 

Not seen; from Bosgoed, op. cit., p. 240, no. 3497. [546.] 

1816. BLAINVILLE, H. DE. Prodrome d'nne nouvelle distribution systematique du 

regne animal. <^Bull. de la Soc. Pliilom. de Paris, 1816, pp. 105-124. 

Mammiferes, p. 109. Sous-Classe I re . Monodelphes, III 6 degre ou Ordre, les Eden- 

* ' a ? 5 Normaux 

' i Anormaux, pour nager . . Cetac.'s 1 [547.] 

1816. G[ERADIN], S. Baleine. <Dict. des Sci. Nat., iii, 1816, pp. 417-468. 

[Considerations generates] , pp. 417-432. 1. La Baleine franche (Balcena mysticetus, Linn.), 
pp. 433-438. 2. La Baleine nord-caper (Balcena mysticetus, Linn., var. B. edit, de Gmelm), 
pp. 438, 439. 3. La Baleine uoueuse (Balcena nodosa, Lacep.), pp. 439, 440. 4. La Baleine 
bossue (Balcena gibbosa, Lacep.), p. 440. 5. La Baleiuoptere gibbar (Balcmoptera gibbar, 


1816. G[ERADIN], S. Continued. 

Lacep.), pp. 441, 442. 6. La Baleinoptere jubarte (Baleenoptera jubartes, Lacep.), pp. 442-444. 
7. La Baleinoptere rorqual (Baleenoptera rorqual, Lacep.), pp. 444, 445. 8. La Baleinoptera 
museau-pointu (Baleenoptera acuto-rostrata, Lacep.), pp. 446, 447. [Sur lea organs du sens, 
des moeurs et de Peche des Baleines, etc.], pp. 447-468. 

We find here again the carious myth about the Indians of Florida capturing Whales by 
getting astride them and plugging their blowholes with conical pieces of wood, etc., here bor- 
rowed from Duhamel. See 1590. ACOSTA, J. DE, and 1602. DE BRY. [548.] 

1816. PITKIX, T. A | Statistical View | of the | Commerce | of the | United States of 
America : | its connection with | Agriculture and Manufactories : | And an Ac- 
count of the | Public Debt, Revenues, and Expenditures | of the | United 
States. | With a brief Review of the Trade, Agriculture, and | Manufactories 
of the Colonies, previous to | their Independence. | Accompanied with Table 
illustrative of the | Principles and Objects of the Work. | | By Timothy 
Pitkin, | a Member of the House of Representatives of the United States, | 
from the State of Connecticut, f | Hartford : | Printed by Charles Hosmer. 
| | 1816. 8. pp. i-xii, 1-407, i-xx. 

Tho Whale Fishery, pp. 42-47. Table no. viii. State of the Whale Fishery in Massachu- 
setts, from 1771 to 1775, inclusive, p. 78. Table no. ix. State of the Whale Fishery, from 1787 
to 1789, both inclusive, p. 79. Table 110. x. Whale Oil gallons, p. 80. Table no. x continued. 
Spermaceti Oil gallons, p. 81. 

A succinct history of the American Whalefishery, with statistica tables of its pro- 
ducts. [549.] 

1816-17. VIREY, , et [A. G.] DESMAREST. [Des Baleines, des Baleinopteres, des Ca- 
chalots et des Dauphins.] <tfouv. Diet. ff Hist. Nat., iii, 1816, pp. 164-201; 
iv, 1816, pp. 525-534 ; ix, 1817, pp. 146-180. 

This is a joint production by Virey and Desmarest, written mainly, however, by "Virey, 
under the words "Baleine," "Baleinoptera," and under the same words with various specific 
modifications, signed respectively "Virey" and "Desm." In the list of authors facing the 
title-page of the several volumes of the Nouv. Diet., etc., the articles on "Les Quadru- 
pedes, les Cetaces et les Animaux fossiles," are said to be written by Desmarest, and Virey is 
stated to have written "Les articles generaux de 1'Hist. nat., particulierement de 1'Homme, 
des Animaux, de leur structure, de leur physiologie et de leurs facultes." In the following 
collation each author's share in the work is indicated. 

Baleine, Baleena, generalities of the subject, and account of the species, pp. 164-194, signed. 
Virey. 1. Balcena mysticetus, Linn., pp. 1G8-183, pi. cxl, fig. 1, juv., fig. 2, ad. from Scoresby ; 
2. Balcena glacialis, Bonn., pp. 183-185 ; 3. Balcena gibbosa, Linn, et Bonn., pp. 185-186; de la 
Peche de la Baleine, pp. 186-194. Thus far by Virey. Then follows a nominal list of six 
species under French names, by Desmarest. 

Baleinoptere, Baleenoptera, pp. 194-201, mostly by Virey, with the interpolation of para- 
graphs by Desmarest. 1. Baleenoptera gibbar. Lac6p., pp. 195-196, by Virey; 2. Balcenop- 
tera jubartes, Lacep., B. boops, Ginel., pp. 196-198, by Virey ; 3* Baleenoptera rorqual, Lacep. ; 
B. musculus, Gmel., p. 198, partly by Desraarest and partly by Virey ; 4. Baleenoptera acuto- 
rostrata, Lacep., Balcena rostrata, Gmel., p. 200, partly by Desmarest and partly by Virey. 

.Cachalot, Physeter, t. iv, 1816, pp. 525-534, signed, " Virey et Desm." General history of the 
group, pp. 525-532 ; 1. Physeter macrocephalus, Shaw, pp. 532, 533; 2. Physeter trumpo, Bonn., 
pp. 533; 3. Physeter catodon, Linn, et Bonn., pp. 533, 534. 

Dauphin, Delphinus, t. ix, 1817, pp. 146-180, pirtly by Virey and partly by Desmarest. 
External characters and general history (the first paragraph signed "Desm.," then about 
four pages signed "Virey," and about another page signed "B. V."), pp. 146-151; [l er 
Sous-genre, Delphinoryhnchus, Blaiuv.]. 1. ''Delphinus Geoffrensis, Blainv., pp. 151, 152; 
2. *DelpMnu8 coronatus [Freminville], pp. 152, 153; 3. * Delphinus Shawensis, Blainv. (D. 
rostratus, Shaw), pp. 153, 154; 4. Delphinus Pernettensia, Blainv., p. 154; [2 e Sous-genre, Dei- 
phinus, Blainv.]. 5. * Delphinus delphis, pp. 154-158; 6. D. chinensis, Osbeck, p. 158; 7. *D. 
dubius, Cuv., p. 158; 8. *D. tursio, Bonn., p. 158; 9. D. tursio, Fabr., p. 159; 10. *D. ros- 
tratus, Cuv., p. 160; 11. *D. orca, p. 161; 12. D. feres, Bonn., p. 162; 13. D. canadensis, 
Blainv., p. 163; 14. D. Bertini, Duhamel, p. 163; [3 Sous-genre, Oxypterus, Rafines.]. 15. 
O. Mongitori, Ratines., p. 163; [4 e Sous-genre, Phoccena, Cuv.]. 16. * Delphinus phoccena, Linn., 
p. 163; 17. D. Peronii, Licep., p. 165; 18. D. Cominersonii, Lacep., p. 1G6; 19. *D. gladia- 
tor, Lacep., p, 166; 2O. D. grampus. Hunter, p. 168; 21. *D.griseus, Cuv., p. 169; 22. D. 
ventricoms, Blainv., p. 169; 23. *D. globiceps, Cuv., p. 170 ; 24. Dauphin de Risso, Cuv., D. 
arits? p. 172; [5 e Sous-genre, Delphinopterus, Lacep.]. 25. D. leucas, Gmel., p. 173; [6 
Sous-genre, Heterodon, Blainv.]. 26. Anarnacus groenlandicus, Lacep., p. 175; 27. D. Chem- 
nitzianus (Balcena rostrata, Chemu.), p. 175; 28. D. edentulus, Schreb.,p. 175; 29. D.biden- 


1816-17. VIREY, , et [A. G.] DESMAREST Continued. 

tatun, Hunter, p. 176; 3O. Hyperodon Butskopf, Lacep., p. 176; 31. T). Sowerbensis, Blainv., 
p. 177; 32. Epiodon urganantus, Rafines., p. 177 ; 33. *D. densirostris, sp. n., p. 178 (based on 
a fragment of upper jaw) ; Dauphins fossiles, p. 179; French names of Dolphins, pp. 179, 

Species 1-25 are described by Virey, with the interpolation of a short paragraph by 
Desmarest in the account of no. 19, p. 167 ; species 26 to 33, as well as the remaining pages 
of the article, are by Desmarest. 

Delphinus densirostris, Desrn., sp. n., p. 178. The 14 species marked with an asterisk, the 
authors state (p. 151, note), are those whose validity is considered to be well established. 
Jn concluding, they state (p. 178) : " Pour rectifer convenablement la synonymie de ces especes, 
de nouveaux reneignemens nous soiit absolument indispensables " ; and for this purpose in- 
vite travelers and naturalists to give special attention to their descriptions, and direct atten- 
tion to points to be observed. 

In these articles the compilers have brought the subject thoroughly up to date ; they not 
only include the species described since the time of Lacepede, but reject a few admitted by 
that author. Although strictly a compilation, it well represents the state of the subject at 
this date. [550.] 

1816-29. CUVIER, F. Dictionnaire | des | Sciences naturelles. | | Planches. | 2 
Partie: Regue organise. | Zoologie. | | Mammiieres. | Par | M. Frederic 
Cuvier, | Membre de 1' Academic des sciences, charge" en chef de la Mdnagerie 
royale. | | Paris, | F. G. Levrault, libraire-eVliteur, rue de la Harpe, n. 81, | 
Meme maison, rue des Juifs, n. 33, a Strasbourg. | 1816-1829. 8. pp. 1-13, 
pll. col., i-c. 

Cetaces (=Sirenia -\-Cete), pi. xcvi, fig. 1, Lamantin ; pi. xcvii, fig. 1, Dugong des Indes, 
fig. 2, Delphinorhynque (= Platanista) ; pi. xcviii, fig. 1, Dauphin vulgaire, fig.^2, Heterodon 
a deux dents; pi. xcix, fig. 1, ^Narwal vulgaire, fig. 2, Cachalot macrocephale 1 ; pi. c, fig. 1, 
Baleine tranche (altered from Martens?) fig. 2, Baleinoptere Rorqual. 

The plates themselves are not numbered, but iu the "table des planches" (p. 4-13) these 
are numbered consecutively from 1-100, with a list of the names engraved on the plates and 
reference to the volume and page of the Dictionnaire where the species are describe. [551.] 

1817. CUVIER, G. Le | Regne animal | distribue" | d'apres son organisation, | pour 
servir de base a Phistoire naturelle des ani- | maux et d'iutroduction a 1'ana- 
tomie compared. | Par M. le Ch er . Cuvier, | . . . . [titles, 5 lines]. | Avec Fi- 
gures, desine"es d'apres nature. | Tome I, | contenant | 1'iutroduction, les Mam- 
miferes et les Oiseaux. | Chez Deterville, Libraire, rue Hautefeuille, 11. 8. 
| | De 1'imprimerie de A. Belin, | 1817. 8. pp. i-xxxvii, 1-540. 

This is the editio princeps of the celebrated Regne animal. 

Huitieme Ordre des Marnmife'res. Les Cetaces, pp. 271-287. 

Les Cetaces herbivores = Sirenia ; genera 1. Manatus, p. 273, 2. Halicore, p. 274, 3. By- 
Una, p. 275 ; species not formally designated. 

Les Cetaces ordinaires=(?etae0a: Les Dauphins (Delphinus, L.), pp. 277-280. Les Dau- 
phins propremeut dits (Delphinus, Cuv.), pp. 277,278. 1. Delphinus delphis, L., p. 278; 2. 
D. rostratus, Shaw, p. 278; 3* D. tursio, Bonn., p. 278. Les Marsouins (Phoccena, Cuv., gen. 
n.), p. 279; 4. Le Marsouin commun (D. Phoccena, L.), p. 279; 5. L'Epaulard (D. orca et D. 
gladiator, Lacep.), p. 279. Les Delphiuapteres (Lacep.); 6. Le Beluga ou Epaulard blanc 
(D. leucas, Gm., D. albicans, Pabr.), p. 280; Les Hyperoodons (Lacep.), p. 280; [7. D. eden- 
tulus, Schreb.], p. 280. Les Narwals (Monodon, L.), pp. 280-282; 8. Monodon monoceros, 
Lin., p. 281. Les Cachalots (Physeter, L.), pp. 282-284; [9. Cachalot macrocephale de Shaw 
et de Bonn, non le macrocephale de Linne], p. 283. Les Physeteres (Lacep.), p. 284 [no species 
formally recognized]. Les Baleines (Balcena, L.), pp. 284-286; 10. La Baleine franche (B. 
mysticetus, L.), pp. 285, 286 ; 11. Le Xord-Caper (B. glacialis, Klein), p. 286. Les Balenopteres 
a ventre lisse, pp. 287, 288; 12. Le Gibbar (Balcena physalus, L.), p. 287. Les Balenopteres 
a ventre plisse, p. 287 ; 13. La Jubarte des Basques (Bal. loops, L.), p. 287. 

Phoccena, gen. n., p. 279. 

The treatment of the Cetacea here presented is strongly in contrast with that of Bouna- 
terre, Lacepede, and their followers, and even with that of still earlier systematists. "While 
Cuvier rejects many of the fictitious species of the early authors, recognizing but a single 
species of Narwhal, and sagaciously hinting at the existence of only a single species of Ca- 
chalot, he runs to the opposite extreme among the Fin-Whales, rejecting species as too 
vaguely known that have since proved well-founded. "We have here the foreshadowing of 
the wholesome conservatism later displayed by the author in his treatment of the Sirenians 
and Cetaceans in his Ossemtens fossiles. [552. | 


1817. DESMAREST, A. Dugorig. <Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., ix, 1817, pp. 603-604. 

Ptesume of its affinities as variously maintained by previous authors, with the recognition 
of the single species "Trichecus dugong, Gmel. [553.] 

1817. DESMAREST, A. G. Lainantin. <^Nouv. Diet. ffHist. Nat., xvii, 1817, pp. 258- 

Generalities, pp. 258-261 ; Species, 262, 263 ; Lamantius fossiles, pp. 263-264. Spp. 2, Man- 
atus americanus et M. senegalensis, Desm. [554.] 

1817. DESMAREST, A. G. Maiumalogie. <Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xviii, 1817, pp. 

History, including synopsis of classifications, pp. 483-526; external characters, pp. 526-542. 


1817. EDITOR. Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay, in His Majesty's Ship Rosa- 
mond, containing some Account of the North-eastern Coast of America, and 
of the Tribes inhabiting that remote Region. By Lieut. Chappell. <^Quart. 
Eev., xviii, 1818, pp. 199-223. Map. 

Review of the work. Contains a paragraph (p. 212) on "Whales struck with the harpoon 
on the coast of Spitzbergen and afterward killed in Davis Strait. [556.] 

1817. G[ERARDIX], S. Cachalot. <Dicf. des Sci. Nat., vi, 1817, pp. 38-83. 

[Considerations generales], pp. 38-44. Premiere famille, Les Narwals, Narwali, pp. 44-49. 
1. Le Narwal vulgaire (Monodon monoceros, Linn.), pp. 45-48. 'J. Le Narwal microcephale 
(Narwalus microccphalus, Lacep.), p. 48. 3. Le Nai-wal andersonien (N. andersonianus), 
p. 49. Deuxierae famille. Les Anarnaks, Anarnaci,i>p. 49, 50. 4. L'Anarnak grocnlandois 
(Anarnak grcenlandiciis, Lac6p.), p. 49. Troisieme famille. Les Cachalots proprement dits, 
Catodontes, pp. 50-59. 5. Le Cachalot macrocephale (Physeter macrocephalus, Gm.), pp. 50- 
56. 6. Le Cachalot trumpo (Catodon macrocephahis, Gm.), pp. 56-58. 7. Le Cachalot svi- 
neval (Physeter catodon, Gm.), p. 58. 8. Le Cachalot blanchatre (Catodon macrocephalus, 
Var. B., Gm.), p. 58. Quatrieme famille. Les Physales, Physali, pp. 59-61. 9. Le Physalo 
cylindrique (Physalus cylindricus, Lacep.), pp. 59-61. Ciuquieme famille. Les Phys6teres, 
Physeteres, pp. 61-65. 10. Le Physetere mycrope (P. mycrops, Gm.), pp. 61, 62. 11. Le 
Phys6tere orthodon (B. mycrops, Var. B., Gm.), pp. 63, 04. 14. Le Physetere mular (P. tur- 
sio, Gm.), pp. 64, 65. Sfeieme famille. Les Delphinapteres, Delphinapteri, pp. 65-67. 13. Le 
Delphinaptere beluga (Delphinapterus leucas, Gm.), pp. 65-G7. 14. Le Delphinaptere sen6- 
dette (Delphinapterus senedetta, Lacep.), p. 67. Septieme famille. Les Dauphins, Delphini, 
pp. 67-81. 15. Le Dauphin vulgaire (Delphinus delphis, Gm.), pp. 68-71. 16. Le Dauphin 
marsouin (D. phoccena, Gm.), pp. 71-74. 17. Le Dauphin orque (D. orca, Gm., Var. A.), 
pp. 74,75. 18. Le Dauph