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Full text of "The Collecting net"

^^i^^'iMm 







Vol. VI. No. 1 



SATURDAY, JUNE 27, 1931 



Annual Subscription, })2.00 
Single Copies 25 Cts. 



THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY AT COLD 
SPRING HARBOR 

Dr. Reginald G. Harris 
Director of the Laboratory 

The Biological Laboratory at Cold Spring 
Harbor of 1931, is in many ways, a dififerent in- 
stitution from that of 1928 when I last bad the 
opjKirtunity of writing about 
it for The Collecting Net. 
This is due, not to a change in 
aims, l)ut to a realization of 
some of them, and to a partial 
fulfilment of certain of the 
prophecies which were made 
at that time. 

One of the most significant 
of these changes is the forma- 
tion of a small permanent staff 
of investigators who carry on 
their work at the Laboratory 
throughout the year. 

The development of biology 
in the last generation has 
necessitated marked changes 
in biological laboratories, and 
seaside laboratories have been 
found to move along in the 
procession. There was a time 
when nearly all the summer laboratory had to 
su])ply was a building in which to work and a 
place to sleep. The Marine Biological Laboratory 
at Woods Hole and the (Continued on Pane 3) 



M. 


1. 


i£. 


(UalmJiar 




TUESDAY, 


JUNE 30, 8:00 P. 


M. 


Evening 


Semi 


nar. 


Dr. G. S. Df 


dds. 


"Oseofl 


asts 


and 


Cliondroc-lasts 


'. 


Dr. A. 


W. 


Poll 


ister, "The Archi- | 


tectuif 


of 


the 


Liver Cells 


of 


Amphiuma" 








Dr. G. 


H. 


Pa 


ker, "Passage 


of 


Sperms 


and P 


gg^ through 


the 


Mammalian 


Ovi 


luc-t". 




FRIDAY, 


JULY 3, 8:00 P. M. 




Evening 


Lec< 


ure. 


Professor E 


B. 


W'ilson 


Da 


Costa professor emeri- | 


tus, (' 


)luni 


Ilia 


University, ' 


The 


Centra 


Bodies". 







THE HEME PIGMENTS AS OXYGEN CAR- 
RIERS AND AS OXIDATION CATALYSTS 

Dr. Leonor Michaelis 
Member, Rockefeller Institute 
Hemoglobin consists of globin, a protein, and 
heme, a compound of iron with a porjihyrin mole- 
cule, which in its turn is a complicated ring made 
up by the linkage of four 
pyrrhol rings. Hemoglobin 
can be oxidized in two dif- 
ferent ways. Either it com- 
bines reversiljly with molecu- 
lar oxygen without the iron 
atom being oxidized from the 
ferro state to the ferri. This 
is called oxygenation. Or the 
ferro state is oxidized to the 
ferri, a true oxidation, and the 
oxidized hemoglobin is called 
metheniogloliin. Many iron- 
porphyrin compounds are 
found in all cells and tissues. 
They belong to the family of 
the hemin compounds, namely 
the various forms of cyto- 
chrome as found by Keilin 
and Warburg's resi)iration 
ferment. 

The oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin 
can be performed by various oxidants, but does 
not take place with any appreciable rate when 
molecular oxvgen is used as oxidant, oxygenation 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

The Biological Laboratory at Cold Spring Tlie Course in Embryology at the Marine Bio- 

liarho]-, logical Laboi-ator.v, 

T)r. RePinnbl n. Harris 1 Professor H. B. Goodrich 7 

The Heme Pigments as Oxygen Carriers and Directory for 1431 S 

as Uxi.lat.on Catalysts, Editorial Page .',,.! ^ ! ^ ^ !_! ^ .!..!! ^ ! ^ ^ . ^ ^ ' It 

Dr. Leo'ior Miehaelis 1 , 

The Course in Physiology at the Marine ISio- "^™^ »* Interest l.j 

logical Laboratory, Woods Hole Log ;ill 

Professor W. R. Amlierson fi Currents in the Hole .W 



THE COLLECTING NET 



f Vol. VL No. 41 



taking place instead. Hemoglobin is, therefore, 
not autoxidizable. This, of course, is the condi- 
tion necessary for its ability of acting as oxygen 
carrier. Most of the other heme compounds, in 
their ferro state, in contrast herewith, are 
autoxidizable and can be oxidized directly by 
molecular oxygen to the ferri state. This is the 
condition necess.-iry for an iron compound to act 
as an oxidation catalyst, i. e., a catalyst which 
enables the otherwise inert oxygen to act as 
oxidant for organic foodstuffs. 

The problem of this lecture is to correlate the 
chemical constitution of an iron compound with 
its property either as oxygen carrier or as oxygen 
catalyst. We have to consider as an introduction 
to this problem the general properties of ordinary 
complex iron compounds. 

A complex compound arises wdien the e'ectron 
pair which represents the chemical bond is fur- 
nished by only one of the two atoms which are 
to combine. The accepting atom (Fe) utilizes 
the electron pair furnished by the donator ( say. 
the cyanide-ion) to fill up its electron shells to 
that complete state which is found in the noble 
gas krypton. Taking into account the number of 
electrons already present in the ferro ion, just 
six cyanide ions turn out to be necessary to fill 
up the electron shells to the krypton model. A 
main valence, in contrast herewith, is a shared 
electron pair of which one electron is furnished 
by one, and the other electron by the other of 
the twi) atoms which are to comliine. 

In the heme compounds, the four nitrogen 
atoms of the four pyrrhol groups are attached 
to the iron. Two of them are present as NH, 
and the H atom must be replaced by the Fe atom. 
They may be said to be attached to Fe by main 
valences. The other two are present as N without 
H. They may be said to be attached to the iron 
liy coordinative or residual valences. For spacial 
reasons only one molecule of the porphyrin can 
combine with iron, although it occupies only four 
of the six available coordination places of the iron 
atom. Thus, two places are free which can com- 
l)ine on the one side with such molecules as globin 
or pyridine or nicotine, etc., and on the other hand 
with .such molecules as O-,. or CO. or the cyanide 
ion, etc. 

In order that a ferro compound be oxidized to 
a ferri compound, the iron atom has to eject one 
electron from its kernel and to deliver it to the 
oxidant which thus is reduced. It is easier for 
the iron atom to throw off this electron when the 
iron atom is in an electro-neutral state than when 
it is positively charged, on account of the electro- 
static attraction. Therefore all iron compounds 



in which the iron atom is present in the neutral 
state should be expected to be autoxidizable and 
all iron compounds in which the iron atom carries 
its ionic positive charges should be difficult or 
not at all auto.xidizable. This has been experi- 
mentally proved liy C. V. Smythe in my labora- 
tory. The maiority of the iron complexes are 
easily autoxidizable, e. g., the complex with tar- 
taric, oxalic, phyrophosphoric acid. Here the 
positive charges of the ferro ion are abolished 
by neutralization due to the negative charges of 
the acidic ions which combine with the iron 
through main valences. On the other hand, the 
ferrous ion itself as it is ])resent in an acid solu- 
toin of ferrous sulphate, or in the iron complex 
compound of alpha-alpha'-dipyridyl, or of phe- 
nanthrolin, is not autoxidizable. In these cases 
the ferrous ion remains positively charged even 
in the complex compound because it is held only 
by resi<lual valences. The N-atoms of the two 
just mentioned compounds contain no Il-atoms 
attached which could be replaced by the iron and 
thus could estalilish a main valence. All six val- 
ences of the complex consisting of one ferro ion 
and three molecules of dipyridyl are residual val- 
ences, and the ferrous ion remains doubly |X3sitive- 
!y charged. Therefore it is not autoxidizable. 

As hemoglobin is not autoxidizalile the hy- 
pothesis is offered that iliose two nitrogen atoms 
which in ordinary porphyrin compounds are pre- 
sent in the form of NH, are present in the por- 
phyrin which is ])art of hemoglobin without a 
hydrogen atom attached. As porphyrin contains 
several unsaturated linkages and unsaturated side 
chains, it is not diiificult to imagine tliat the two 
hydrogen atoms are shifted to such unsaturated 
places. This shift is sup])osed to be intrinsically 
connected with the attachment of globin. Details 
cannot be ofifered, however, as yet. Such an 
hypothesis would explain why hemoglobin is not 
autoxidizable, and it may .serve as a working 
hypothesis and leading idea for the chemical re- 
search of hemoglobin, the constitution of which 
is not known in any detail at all. 

Most of those other heme compounds which 
are derivatives of the ordinary porphyrin cum- 
piumds are exjiected and are proved lo be 
autoxidizalile. 

The ])roblem as to under what condition a 
compound can act as reversible oxygen carrier 
can be answered in this way. It is more than 
likely that any f erro-comp ex which is auto- 
xidizable can form an oxygenated ferro com- 
pound as a verv transient intermediary state 
between the ferro and the ferri state. One of 



[IKK 17, 1931 



TIIK COLLECTING NPZT 



the various evidences for this assertion is the fact 
that such ferro compounds can form molecular 
compounds with carhon monoxide or with the 
cyanide ion, which are always competitive with 
molecuiai^ oxygen in complex formation. So 
our problem is reduced to the question : When is 
such an oxygenated ferro compound stable instead 
of being a transient state between ferro and ferri? 
The answer is this. First of all, the ferro com- 
])ound must not be autoxidizable. Otherwise, the 
oxygenated com])ound would not be stable. In 
the second place, at least one of the six coordina- 
tion places must be available for the oxygen mole- 
cule to combine with. The first condition is ful- 
lilled for a compound such as the tri-dipyridyl 
comiilex of ferrous iron. But the second condi- 



tion is not fulfilled because all si.\ coordinatj<in 
places are exceedingly tightly occupied by the six 
X-atonis of the three dipyridyl molecules. But 
in hemoglobin, two coordination places are free 
and available for other molecules. One of them 
may be thought of as occupied by globin, and 
the second is available for oxygen or carbon 
monoxide or cyanide, which are competitive with 
each other in their combining power to hemo- 
globin. 

.So it has been shown that the constitution of 
the por])hyrin is in an ideal way adapted to the 
|)hvsiological purpose to work in combination with 
iron, either as oxygen catalyst, or by a slight 
uKjdification of the structure, as an oxygen 
carrier. 



THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY AT COLD SPRING HARBOR 

(('(iiitiiiuecl from Page 1) 



Biological Laboratorv at Cold Spring Harbor 
were direct descendants of Agassiz's mental 
child "Study Nature not Books," and in the 
early days of both institutions field trips and 
general biological and ecological observations 
were the chief activities of the biologists and 
students for whom the laboratories were formed. 
A microscope and a little glassware were nearly 
all that were needed even by the most exacting. 
For some time the biologist could easily bring 
with him all of the apparatus he would need 
during the summer, and this could be set up 
without loss of time. 

While it is unquestionably still possible to make 
important discoveries when one is armed only 
with a microscope, a few' chemicals, a modest 
supply of glassware, and some unsuspecting ma- 
rn^e animals, or eggs, the group of biologists 
which limits itself to such needs is relatively 
small. The researches of many others seem tii 
demand intricate and delicate apparatus, and 
cquijjment that appears to be far from modest. 

To deny such biologists the privilege of work- 
ing at a seaside laboratory would lie unfortunate 
bfith for the biologist and for the laboratorv, and 
liiology would suffer b\' reducing the scope of its 
most active, and probably its most valuable, clear- 
ing houses. 

The result is that seaside laU^iratories, dedi- 
cated primarily to research and to the advance- 
ment of biology in the most fundamental sense, 
have found it necessary to equip themselves with 
a])paratus and other facilities of considerable 
value. In order to house properly such appara- 
tus suitable buildings must be provided, and al- 
most before we know it the plant of a modern 
summer laljoratory for biological research comes 
to represent an investment of several hundreds 



of thousands of dollars rather than a few thou- 
sand dollars, as it did formerly. 

Un.questionably such an investment is eminent- 
Iv worth while. The results, both visible and in- 
visible, of the functioning of summer laboratories 
in this country for the last forty years have been 
so great as to warrant much larger expenditures. 
But it is e(|ually true that to have such valuable 
estalilishments for research used actively for only 
a very few months each year, is unfortunate. 

The more the plant can be put to productive 
use throughout the year the greater becomes the 
return upon the investment, and in general, para- 
doxically en.ough, the longer the life of the 
equipment. Anything desirable which may be 
adopted to bring this about is an obvious good. 

.Ml these are factors which entered very 
strongly into the mental attitude which has led 
to the formation of a small permanent staff at 
the Laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor. 

At the same time we believe that the active 
promotioti' of research throughout the year 
gives an atmosphere to the whole laboratory 
which the summer investigator and the student 
find agreealile and stimulating. 

The permanent work has been arranged with 
a view to its value to the summer work as well 
as to its intrinsic value. 

The biophysical lalxjratory should serve ad- 
mirably to illustrate this point. The research in 
biophysics is of a very broad and fundamental 
nature. It is concerned with, (l) the chemical 
action of X-rays, with a view to carrying these 
studies to the point where cells and tissues may 
profitably be employed as experiinental material ; 
(2) .soft X-ray photography is being intensively 
studied with the hope of developing its applica- 
tions to biological research; (3) the electrical 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



capacity of hiolosical cells and systems, and tlieir 
resistance to electric currents of higli frequenc\' 
arc subjects of major research at the lalioratory 
for biophysics because of the value which, in all 
probability, will accrue to biology from additional 
discoveries concerning them. 

The equipment entailed b\ these studies, a 
liigh voltage transformer, X-ray dosimeter, soft 
X-ray uutlits, vacuum jiumps, high temperature 
electric ovens, glassblower's shop, machine shop, 
.sjjccial apparatus for gas analysis and for titra- 
t'on, niddificd wheat.stone bridge, all this is l)eing 
.supplemented by other physical equipment which 
may be used to advantage in Ijiological problems. 

Indeed for certain experimental work in biol- 
ogy Agassiz's motto might well be extended now 
to include apparatus. Thus the location of a bio- 
physical unit at a summer laboratory becomes a 
matte:- of considerable importance as a source of 
new tools for biological research. It provides an 
unusual opportunity for the many biologists, both 
students and investigators, who are interested in 
the possibilities of applying physical methods to 
biological problems, to become acquain.ted with 
such methods, and with machines, their construc- 
tion, and uses. 

In this connection it is significant that we have 
appointed a physicist in charge of the biophysical 
laboratory here. Biophysics is clearly an applied 
science. It involves the application of physics to 
biological research. It would seem axiomatic 
then that a physicist should be in charge of the 
laboratory which is to construct machines and 
work (jut methods by which physics may be fur- 
ther ap])lied to iiiologica! research. The value 
of such a man, and of such a laboratory, to the 
summer work of the biological Laboratory, is 
obvious. 

The all year statf is envisioned as having up-- 
tisual flexibility, in respect to the number oi its 
members, and the nature of its works. The Bio- 
logical Laboratory does not wish to l)e perma- 
nently committed to any division of biological re- 
search. Its summer visitors represent nearly 
every branch of biology, and it is desired that anv 
further development of the all year staff be inroad 
ni its basis and fundamental in its conception. Xo 
.'q)pointments are permanent. The continuance 
ol any work depends upon its apparent value to 
biology and upon the ability of the Laboratory to 
.sponsor it. At the present time five different 
types of work are being supported by the Lab- 
oratory throughout the year. In addition to bio- 
lihysics, researches are being conducted in phar- 
niacokjgy. in |)hysiology of reproduction, and in 
certain aspects of bacteriology, and the publica- 
tion of a series of monographs on the Brvo- 



phytes, is being accomplished. During the last 
two years the Lalxn'atory has helped support, 
throughout the year, the researches of Drs. W. 
W. .Swingle and J. J. Fliffner on the adrenal cor- 
tex, but aid from other sources makes this no 
longer necessar\. 

The research in ])liarmacology is concerned 
with the action of drugs and factors modifying 
such action, notably the relative amount of cal- 
cium in the blood stream, the relative acidity of 
the blood and, in the case of isolated organs, of 
surrounding fluids, and the effect of diet. 

The research concernin.g the phvsiologv of re- 
production is based ujion factors regulating preg- 
nancy, more especially the corpora lutea. 

Two of the laboratory buildings are in use 
tJnxughout the year, and several houses are kept 
open for staff members, their associates and as- 
sistants. 

A secon.d significant change in the Laboratory 
during the last three \ears may be seen in a fur- 
ther increase in the number of those carrying 0:1 
research there. During the summer of 1928 there 
were, at the Laboratory, twenty-four people en- 
gaged in sereach. This summer there are about 
fifty. The number of students remains relatively 
constant at about thi ty-five. All of the courses 
now give marked attention to individual re- 
search. Indeed the course in Vitkl Zoology, 
which at one time wrs known as the course in 
Migh School Biology, has advanced to the point 
where each student engages in an individual 
problem of research as half of his work in course. 

The courses given include, in addition to Field 
Zo(jlogy, Field Botany and Plant Ecology, Gen- 
eral Physiology, and .Surgical Methods in Ex- 
perimental Biology, while a series of lectures arc 
iill'ered in Endocrinology. 

.\ staggering of courses, somewhat similar to 
that which was inaugurated at Woods Hole two 
years ago, is now enterin.g its second summer at . 
Cold Spring Harbor. This system has been applied 
to the courses in Field Zoology and in Meld Bot- 
any, Zoolog\ being given from about the middle 
of June to the end of July, while botany is of- 
fered durin.g August and the first part of Sep- 
tember. This has appeared to bring forth sev- 
eral benefits, of which the use of student labora- 
tories and livin.g (piarters for twelve weeks, rath- 
er than six, with its consequent saving of space is 
one of the most important. At the present time 
only about one-fifth of the total laboratory space 
is given over to students during the summer. 
The research carried on during the summer cov- 
ers, as would be expected, a wide variety of sub- 
jects. Investigators at seaside laboratories have 



JuNF. 27. 1931 ] 



THE COLLI'XTING NET 



lonjj since ceased limiting themselves to marine 
material. Yet Cold Spring Harbor is probably 
nniqne in the high percentage of investigators 
wiio make use of mammals for experimental pur- 
oses. At the same time, good advantage is 
taken of the abundant marine material at hand. 
Three of the five laboratory buildings are 
equipped with running sea-water, and a number 
of students and workers make use of the facili- 
ties thus available. 

The management of the Laboratory continues 
to rest ultimately with the Board of Directors, 
which is composed of about equal numbers of 
biologists and laymen. Among the memliers of 
of the Corporation there is likewise a relatively 
high percentage of laymen. Even the Executive 
Committee contains members of each group, ai^.d 
it is particularly interesting to note that the 
President of the Long Island Biological Associa- 
tion, which maintains and controls the Labora- 
tory, is not a biologist. 

In many ways this representation of laymen 
among the oflicers and on the governing toard 
has been highly beneficial. Much needless dis- 
cussion and delay are obviated in board meetings, 
since legal and financial, as well as biological, 
questions can receive immediate expert evalua- 
tion. The varied experience in legal and finan- 
cial enterprises, in the workings of large indus- 
tral research laboratories, in the management of 
hospitals, universities, colleges and medical 
schools, which these laymen bring to delibera- 
tions of the Board are very valuable. 

At the same time the points of view of those 
who regularly work at the LalxiratorN- are ably 
represented by the biologists who are members 
of the Board, while every biologist of attainment 
intimately associated with the Laboratory is a 
member of the Scientific Advisory Committee, 
whose recommendations play a very important 
part in the development of policy and the conduct 
of affairs. 

Sub-committees of the Scientific Advisory 
Committee take up special problems, wdnile an Ex- 
ecutive Committee of seven members takes ac- 
tion on pressing matters in intervals between 
meetings of the Board of Directors. The Direc- 
tor of the Laboratory is in residence throughout, 
the year. There is an active Women's Auxiliary 
and a membership of about two hundred and 
fifty in the corporation. 

Quite beyond the benefits in management 
which the Laboratory enjoys as a result of having 
lav members in its Corjwration and on its Board, 
there can be no question but that the interest in 
liiological research which is aroused by such an 
organization as the Long Island Biological Asso- 



ciation can be made of enormous value to biology 
in this country. It is probably safe to say that 
since the transfer of the Biological Latoratory 
from the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
to the Long Island Biological Association in 
1924, over a quarter of a million dollars, which 
would probably never have found its. way into 
funds for the advancement of biology, has been 
contri!)uted to the Biological Laboratory alone. 
It is also true that the Department of Genetics 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, locat- 
ed at Cold Spring Harbor, has also benefitted 
financially from the interest in biological research 
evoked among wealthy laymen of this region by 
the Long Island Biological Association. It would 
not be surprising if many other biological insti- 
tutions should also benefit directly, in the course 
of time. Indeed biologists and biological latora- 
tories, for the sake of the maintenance and 
growth of biological research of the future should 
not only increase the basis of fact and observa- 
tion upon which it may stand, but should insure 
its financial well-being by interesting in its value 
and possibilities those in a position to 
give to its support. The more rapidly this can be 
acconi])lished, the more rapid will lie the increase 
in biological knowledge. Its accomplishment will 
l)lace almost unlimited potential funds with- 
in the reach of the science which l)iologists are 
attempting to serve, and the understanding of 
life and the philosophy of living which their 
work advances. It will likewise give pleasure to 
the laymen who liecome interested. 

It is significant to note, by way of parenthesis 
in this connection, that the recently reorganized 
station at Bermuda has adopted this policy in re- 
spect to tlie formation of its Board of Directors, 
and, indeed, has c£.rried it a step further in elect- 
ing laymen of more than one nationality. 

The measurable advar.tages which have come 
to the Laboratory at Cold Spring Harlxjr since 
it has been under the management of the Long 
Island Biological Association are many. Three 
laboratory buildings have been erected, including 
the (ieorge Lane Nichols Memorial, and the Doc- 
tor Walter B. James Memorial Laboratory. A 
fourth laboratory building has been made avail- 
able by remodeling the old lecture hall. Three 
dwelling houses have been procured and remod- 
eled to ])rovide small suites for investigators and 
their families. Over thirty acres of land have 
lieen purchased to provide sites for buildings, 
and opportunities for biologists to erect homes 
near the Laboratory. The grounds and build- 
ings have been greatly improved in appearance 
and usefulness. Finally, the scientific and admin- 
istrative equipment of the Latoratory has been 



r, 



THE COLLECTING NET 



\'oL. VL No. 41 



iiK-icascd many Iniiuli-ed fold. All of this repre- 
sents a marked increase in the assets of the Lah- 
oratory which are now evaluated at over $400,- 
000. At the same time the annual budget for 
olieratii'-i;' has increased from about $7,000 to 
about $7S,ooo, and the Laixjratory seems to be 
holdinj,' its own during the present period of seri- 
ous linancial dcjiression. 

Unfortunately the Laboratory is not yet pro- 
vided with anything like an- adequate endowment 
fund. Likewise the library is unimposing. But 
a beginning has been made in the formation of 
a library and headwa>- is being maintained. The 
lil)rar\ of the adjoining Department of Genetics, 
Carnegie Institution of Washington of 12,000 or 
more volumes, largely serials, is available for the 
use of investigators at the Laboratory. 

b'.vening lectures are given during the summer, 
and estates and gardens nearby are visited on .Sut- 
urda\ and Sunday afternoons. The sr.cial life of 
tlie Laboratory is (|uiet and informal. 

Contrary to usual custom, I have held a short 
historical sketch of the Laboratory until the end, 
in the belief that those already accjuainted with 
the history should have an. opportunity of becom- 
ing informed of recent developments at Cold 
Spring Harlior without the necessity of being 
subjected to a recitation of their historical l)ack- 
ground. For those not familiar with that back- 
ground the following may be of interest. I wish, 
however, to accept this opportunity of express- 
ing to the officers, members and students of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory, through Thk 
CoLLi-XTiNC, \'i;t, my best wishes for an agree- 
able and profitable summer. 

\n its founding at Cold Spring Harbor 
in 1800, as a branch of the Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences, the Biologi- 
cal Laboratory was endowed with ideals and 
policies which were to control, almost completely, 
its development for nearly thirty-five years, and, 
to some e.xtent at least, to the present time. One 
of the founders. Professor Franklin W. Hoojier. 
Director of the Brooklyn Institute, had, through 
his personal ac(|uaintance with Prof. Agassiz's 
station at Penikese, acquired the marine biologi- 

■ ■ had 



led to the establishment of the Marine Biological 
Lalxjratory at Woods Hole. Another founder, 
Mr. luigcne (i. Blackford, fish commissioner of 
Xew \'ork, who brought in his interest in fish- 
eries and the utilitarian point of view so pro- 
nounced in certain European marine laboratories ; ' 
while a third founder, Mr. johp- D. Jones gave to 
the newly estalilished laboratory the aid and at- 
titude of a wealthy lavnian interested in biologi- 
cal instruction and research. 

The Lalwratory was early provided by Mr. 
[ones and his brother with about three acres of 
land and four Imildings, including a newly erect- 
ed laboratory. This jiroperty was, to<'-ether with 
certain mone\ s, placed in the hands of the Wawe- 
l)ex Society. This Society continues generously 
to place this 'iroperty at the disposal of the Lab- 
oratory, and to contribute to its support Dr. 
ISashford Dean, the first director of the Labora- 
torv, was of considerable help in. interesting Mr. 
bnies in this action, which took place during Dr, 
Herbert W. Conn's directorship. 

In 1S98 Dr. Charles B. Davenjxirt became di- 
rector of the Laboratory and brouglit with him 
a stimulating group of young biologists, thereby 
n(.)tably increasing the extent of the scientific out- 
]iut of the Laboratory. .\ valuable addition to 
the pbxsical equipment was made in 1904 by the 
erection of ])lackford Memorial Hall, the gift of 
Mrs. Eugene Blackford. ( )ther than this, how- 
ever, growth of physical equipment was not great, 
for gradually the program of the P)rooklyn In- 
stitute became so vast, and its immediate inter- 
ests so localized, in Brooklyn, that finally, with 
Professor Hooper's death in 1914, interest in the 
Biological Laboratory fell oflf considerably. It 
became apparent that the Lalxiratory should look 
elsewhere for a fostering institution or grou]). 
The realization of this need was indicated in the 
raising, in 1917, from residents of the vicin- 
ity, of an Endowment Fund of $25,000, the in- 
come from which was expected to meet the an- 
nual deficit. But this program, though accom- 
plished, was found to be too modest, and in 1924 
the Laboratorv was transferred from the Brook- 
lyn Institute to the Long Island Biological Asso- 
ciaion, with the results which have lieen noted. 



cal enthusiasm whch two years previously 

THE COURSE IN PHYSIOLOGY AT THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

Dr. W. R. Amberson 

Professor of Physiology, Uiih'crsity of Tennessee 

Direetor of the Course 

Ur. Laurence Irving- of the University of 
Toronto and Dr. Margaret Sumwalt of the 
University of Pennsylvania come to the Physi- 
ology Course as new members of the teaching 
stall'. Dr. Irving is lecturing on the physics 
and chemistry of sea-water, and its biological 



.■i])))li'eations, and is supervising a group of stu- 
dents in a physico-chemical study of sea- 
water. He is also introducing laboratory 
work on the salt and H-ion concentration of 
the body Huids and tissues of fish and inver- 
tebrates. Dr. Sumwalt will direct work on cell 



June 27. 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



])ernieal)ility and ion balance larjyely on ma- 
rine egg's, together with a special section of 
work on electrical nietliods in permeability 
studies. 

'I'lie system of student election of laboratory 
work has been continued this year. The lab- 
oratory schedule includes eighteen projects, of 
which each student attempts six or seven 
only, according to his own selection. The 
needs and desires of each student are thus 
taken imto account in planning the work. 

For tile first week, daily lectures are sched- 



Central Nervous System in Posture, Move- 
ment, and the Maintenance of Equilibrium," 
Dr. Philip Bard; July 2: "The Permeability 
of the Living Cell to Water," Dr. Baldwin 
Lucke; and July 3: "Cytological Problems of 
Cell Cleavage," Dr. Henry Fry. 

The requirements for admission are an in- 
troductory course in biology or zoology and 
the usual half year course or its equivalent in 
the embryology of the frog and chick. As 
the enrollment is limited, admission is of ne- 
cessity competitive but the primary basis of 



uled. In the following three weeks daily lec- selection is the ability of the student to profit 



tures will be given, except on Saturday. A 
series of special lectures is being arranged for 
the last two weeks in July. 

'I'he following lectures have already been 
given: "The Acid-Base Equilibrium in Sea- 
Water," Dr. Laurence Irving; "The Funda- 
mentals of Potentiometry as Applied in Physi- 
ological Work," Dr. Leonor Michaelis; "The 
Acid-Base Equilibrium in Sea-Water," and 
"The Composition of Sea-Water," Dr. Lau- 
rence Irving; "Respiratory Pigments," Dr. Al- 
fred Redfield. 

Next week the following lectures will be 
given: June 29: "Cieneral Organization of 
Central Nervous Systems," Dr. Philip Bard; 
June 30 and July 1 : "The Role Played by the 



by the experience of the course and his pro- 
spective ability as an investigator. Preference 
is not necessarily given to those most ad- 
vanced. It is felt that the most favorable pe- 
riod for attendance often comes after the end 
of the junior year of the undergraduate and 
before the close of the second or third year of 
graduate study, but obviously no arbitrary 
rule is desirable. 

A limited number of students who are well 
qualified and who propose a satisfactory pro- 
gram of research are allowed to continue after 
the close of the course without payment of 
further fees. It also may in some cases be 
possible to arrange for positions for students 
as research assistants to some older investiga- 
tor during the remainder of the summer. 



THE COURSE IN EMBRYOLOGY AT THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

Dr. H. B. GdODRRH 

Professor of Biology, Wcslcyan University 

l>ircctor of the Course in Eiiihrvology 



The course in Embryology at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory aims to jjrovide oppor- 
tunities for the study of living materials 
which for the most part are not attainable at 
universities or colleges. The student is able 
to see the actual living processes of develop- 
ment usually known to him only from the 
printed description or from fixed material. This 
includes such events as the fertilization of the 
egg, polar body formation, mitosis, cleavage, 
gastrulation, and many later phases of em- 
bryology. He may become familiar with the 
technique of artificial parthenogenesis, isola- 
tion of blastomeres, shifting the cytoplasm by 
centrifuging, interspecific hybridization, sub- 
jecting the egg to varied environments, etc. or 
may try other experiments that he or the in- 
structor may devise. Twenty to thirty diverse 
species are available for these varied pur- 
jioses. The student obtains from these obser- 
^ ations a stimulating contact with vital pro- 



cesses that is not otherwise possible and these 
cxjjeriences provide him with a valuable 
foundation for research and for teaching. This 
training is most immediately useful in the field 
of embryology or in those phases of general 
physiology which utilize embryological mate- 
rial or which deal with isolated living cells, 
but the general background provided is likely 
to be of value in almost any realm of biologi- 
cal inquiry. The lectures, in addition to' pro- 
viding the necessary introduction to the ob- 
servations of the laboratory, are also intended 
to outline various fields of embryological re- 
search. In attaining this purpose great as- 
sistance is rendered by those investigators 
who present to the class the methods and re- 
sults of their own studies. Many students 
come from in.stitutions where there is little op- 
portunity for contact with actual investiga- 
tions or participation in the enthusiasms of 
the research worker. 



THE C' LLI'X'TING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 41 



DIRECTORY FOR 1931 



KEY 

Laboratories Residence 

Botany Building Bot Aijartnient 

Brick Building Br Uurniitory 

Fisheries Laboratdj.v FL Drew House 
Lecture Hall L f''isheries Residence 

Main R(ioni in Fisheries Homestead \\<^ 

Laboratory M Hubbard 

Old Main Building OM Kidder 
Eockefeller Building, Rock Whitman 

hi the case of tliose individuals not livin;i 
laboratory property, the name of the l.'indl'ird a 
the street are given. In the case of individuals livi 
outside of Woods Hole, the place of residence is 
parentheses. 



THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

THE STAFF 
Allen, C. E. prof. bot. Wisconsin. 
Amberson, W. R. prof, ph.vs. Tennessee. 
Bard, P. asst. prof. phys. I'l-inceton. 
Bissonette, T. H. jirof. liiol. Trinity. 
Bowling, Rachel ii:str. zool. Columbia. 
Bradley, if. C. prof, ph.ys. chem. Wisconsin. 
Brooks, S. C. prof. zool. Califoinia. 
Calkins, G. N. prof, proto. Columbia. 
Cohn, E. J. assoc. prof, physical chem. Harvaid. 
Cole, E. C. assoc. prof. biol. Williams. 
Conk!in, E. G. prof. zool. Princeton. 
Coonfield, B. R. i)rt)f. biol. Southwestern. 
Croasdale, Hannah T. "Biological Abst,acts''. Petiiis.vl- 

vania. 
Davis, H. asst. prof. phys. Harvard. 
Dawson, J. A. asst. prof. biol. Col. City N. Y. 
Duggar, B, M, prof. bot. Wisconsin. 
Fry, H. J. prof. biol. New York. 
Garrey, W. E. jjrof. phys. Vanderbilt. 
Gerard, R. W. asst. prof. phys. Chicago. 
Grave. B. H. prof. biol. DePauw. 
Grave, C. prof. zool. Washington. 
Goodrich, H. B. prof. biol. Wesleyan. 
Hansen, \. B. grad. Chicago. 
Harvey, E. N. prof. phys. Princeton. 
Hecht, S. prof, biophysics. Columbia. 
Hoadley, L. prof. zool. Harvard. 
Irving, L. instr. phys. Toronto. 
Jacobs, M. H. prof. gen. phys. Pennsylvania. 
Jennings, H. S. prof. zool. Hopkins. 
Lewis, I. F. prof. biol. Virginia. 
Lillie, F. R. prof. zool. Chicago. 
Lillie, R. S. prof. gen. phys. Chicago. 
Lucke, B. assoc. prof, pathol. Pennsj'lvania. 
iVIcClung, C. E. prof. zool. Pennsylvania. 
Mast, S. O, prof. zool. Hopkins. 
Mathews, A. P. prof, biochem. Cincinnati, 
Michaelis, L. member Rockefeller Inst, 
Morgan, T. H. dir. biol. lab, Cal. Inst. Tech. 
Nelsen, O. E. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. 
Packard, C. asst. prof. zool. Columbia Inst. Cancer. 
Parker, G. H. prof. zooL Harvard. 
Pollister, A. W. instr. zool. Columbia. 
Poole, J, P. prof, evolution. Dartmouth. 
Robbins, W. J. prof. bot. Missouri. 
Sayles, L. P. instr. biol. Col. City N. Y. 
Severinghaus, A. E. asst. prof. anat. Columbia Med. 



Sumwalt, Margaret asst. prof. phys. Woman's Med. (Pa). 

Taylor, W. R. prof. bot. Michigan. 

Twitty. V. C. instr. Idol. Yale. 

linger, W. B. asst. prof. zool. Dartmonlh. 

Wilson, E. B. |irof. zool. Cidumbia. 

Woodruflf, L. L. piof. ]iroto. Yale. 

INVESTIGATORS 
.\danis, E. M. grad. asst. biid. Cini-i:inati Med. Br 'AVI. 

Dr 2. 
.4ddison, W. H. F. prof, histol. and emb. Pennsylvania. 
Alice, W. C. prof. zool. Chicago. Br 332. A lOB. 
.\mberson, W. R. pi-of. phys, Tennessee. Bi- 30ib 

Quissett. 
-Anderson, Stelia slenograjiher. "ladustj-ial & Engineer- 
Chemistry." Br 203. Young, West. 
Apgar. Grace M. gi-ad. Penns.A'Ivania. Rock G. D 211. 
A;m long, P. B. asst. picif. anat. Cornell Med. Br 318. 

A 10,";. 
Astrom. I. E'.izobeth asst. bot. TcJronto. Bot. H 4. 
Austin, Mary L. instr. zo,d. Wel'esle.y. Br 217B. 
Bailey, P. L. instr. phys. Col. City \. Y. I. 28. 
Bailey, Sara W. res. asst. Iiiol. Radcliffe. Br 312. 

Thunii)scn, Main. 
Bakwin, H. asst. prof. pafh. New York. OM 4, 
Ball, E, G. instr. phys. chem. Hopkins Med. Br llll. 
Baitscll, G. A, prof.' biol. Y:i1b. Br 323. Brooks. 
Ballard, W. W. instr. zord. l)ar»month. Br 217K. Dr. 1. 
Bard, P. asst. prof, phys, I'rinceton. Br 109. A 301. 
Barth, L. G. Nat. Res. fel. Br 111. 
Barron, E. S. G. asst. prof, biochem. Chicago. Br 313. 

I) 210. 
Beams, H. W. asst. prof. zixd. Iowa State. Br 0. ])r 1. 
Belkin, M. instr. biol. New York. Br 328. Dr .".. 
Benkert, J. M. grad. zool. Pittsburgh. Rock 7. Ta.vlor, 

Last. 
Benkert, Lysbeth H. grad. zo(d. Pittsburgh. Rock 7. 

Taylor, Ea.st. 
Bissonette, T. H. prof. biol. Trinity. OM 21). D 108-109, 
Bodansky, O. instr. pediatrics. Bellevue Med. OM 4. 

Brodei'ick, North. 
Bostian, C. H. instr. genetics. North Carolina .State. 

Rock 2. D 102. 
Bowling, Rachel instr. zool. Columbia. OM 21. A 307. 
Boyd, M. J. grad. biochem. Cincinnati. Br 342. 

Tashiro, Pai-k. 
Boydcn, Louise E. edit. sec. "Biol. Bull." Harvard Med. 

Br 305. Young, West, 
Bradley, H. C. prof. phys. chem. Wisconsin. Br 122A. 

Juniper Point. 
Bradway, Winnefred E. asst. biol. New York. OM 1. 

Cowe.v, I'epttt. 
Bridges, C. res. asst. genetics. Carnegie Inst. (Wash.) 

Br 324. McLeish, Millfield. 
Brinley, F. J. asst. prof, zool. North Dakota State. 

OM 39. Grinnell, West. 
Bronfenbrenner, J. J. prof. baet. Washington Med. (St. 

Louis) Br 2. Quissett. 
Budington, R. A. prof. zool. Oberlin. Br 218. Orchard. 
Butt, C. res. asst. Princeton. Br 116. 

Calkins, G. N. prof, proto. Columbia. Br 331. Buz- 
zards Bay. 
Cannan, R. K. jiiof. chem. Bellevue Med. Br 310. 

(-iardiner. 
Castle, W. A. instr. biid. Brown. Br 233. 
Cattell W. rc-s. worker. .New York. Br 328. (Cherry 

Valley). 



ji-xK n. 1031 1 



THE COLLECTING NET 



Chambers, R. piof. Iiiol. N'ew V<Hk. Br S28. Gosnold. 
Checver, C. A. rotircil |iliysiiM!iii. But li. Lewis, Buz- 

z.irds Bn\-. 
Cheney, R. H. pidf. l)i»l. I.ciiig Island. OM 4.";. I) 208. 
Chidester, F. E. jirof. zcxil. West Virginia. Bi- 306. D 

.•!18. 
Christie, J. R. assoe. iiciiiatol. T', K. Deiit. Agr. Rock ?,. 

Cahooii, Woods Hole. 
Clark, Eleanor L. res. asst. ;ijiat. IV'iiMs\-lvaiiia iled. 

Br 117. Kast. 
Clark, E. R. prof. aimt. Pennsylvania :Med. Br 117. 

East. 
Cline, Elsie grad. Hopkins. Br 127. W d. 
Clowes, G. H. .4. dir. Lilly Res. Lalis. Br H28. Shore. 
Cobb, N. .4. i)rinci]tal neniatol. T'. S. Dept. Agr. Roek 

3. F 43, 
Cohen, B. M. nsst. 7,(i(d. Hopkins. Br 12fi. Niekerson, 

Millfii'ld. 
Cole, K. S. as.st. jirof. plivs. Colunilda Med. OM .1. 

n 210. 
Cole, R. Olierlin. Br 31.j. U 2](i. 
Cconfield, B. R. instr. zool. Brooklyn. OM. D 30(3. 
Copeland, M. pi-of. liioI. Bowdoin. Br 3.34. Gardiner. 
Corson, S. A. grad. jthys. Pennsylvania. Rook 6. Dr 

attic-. 
Costello, D. P. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. Br 217.1. 

Elliot, Center, 
Cowdry, E. V. prof, evtol, Washington (St. Louis) 

Br 223, Millfield. 
Croasdale, Hannah T. grad. Penns,ylvania. Bot. 22. 

]lilt<in. Main. 
Culemann. H. W. assoe. pi-of. hiol. Amherst, OM 33. 
Curwen, .\liee O. instr. histol. Woman's Med. (Pa.) 

Br 217H. K 12. 
Dan, K. grail. Pennsylvania. Br 217. U 21.7. 
Danks, W. B. C. res. ofticer Dept. Agr. govt. Kenya 

Cidony. Br 224. 
Darrah, W. C. paleoliot . (*arnegie Mu^. (Pittsliui-gh ) 

Rock 7. Hilton, Millfield. 
Daugherty, Kathryn res. asst. phvs. Pennsylvania. Br 

217F, I) 211. 
Davis, J. E. asst. med. Chicago. Br 313. Hilton, Main. 
Davis, J. F. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. OM Base. Dr 0. 
Dawson, A. B, assoc. pi-of. zool. Hai-vard. Bi- 312. D 

112. , 

Dcdds, G. S. prof. enih. West Virginia Med. Br 222. 

D 300. 
DoUey, W. L. prof. biol. Buffalo. Br 339. A 203. 
Dcnaldson, H. H. nji'nilier Wistar Inst. Br 11.1. Buz- 
zards Bay. 
Dubois, Anne M. res. asst. emii. Carnegie Inst. (Balti- 

m.-'re) Br 343. D 110. 
Dubois, -E. F. prof. med. Cornell Meil. Br 340. Pen- 
zance Point. 
Dunbar, F. F. grad. asst. zool, Columhia, Br 333. 
Eastlick, H. L. grad. asst. Washington (St. Louis) 

OM Base. Dr 7. 
Edwards, D. J. assoc. prof. phys. Cornell Med. Br 214. 

Gosnold, 
Erlanger, Margaret Harvard Med. Br 108. Young, 

West. 
Failla, G. physicist. Memorial Hosp. (N. Y.) Br 306. 

Danchakoff, Minot. 
Field, Madeline E. les. fel. phvs. Harvard. OM Base. 

II S. 
Fogg, L. C. instr. Idol. New York, OM Base. Mc- 

Kenzie, Middle. 
Fogg, Mildred C. instr. Idol, Hunter. OM Base. Me- 

Kenzie, Middle. 
Fowler, J. R. res. .asst. zool. Chicago. Br 332. Erskine, 

Main. 
Francis, Dorothy res. asst. Memorial Hosp. (N. Y.) 

Br 329. 



French, C. S. asst. phys. Harvard. Br HI. Eldridge, 

Wooils Hole. 
Furth, J. assoc. pathol. Pliipps last. L 24. 
Fry, H. J. prof. Idol. Now York. ()M Base. Pnrdum 

W Is Hole. 

Garrey, W. E. jircjf, phys. Vanderhilt Moil. Br 215. 

(iardiner. 
Geiman, Q. M. grad. proto. Pennsylvania. Rock fi, 

Cowey, Depot. 
Gelfan, S. asst. prof. phys. AUierta. Br ,333. Sylvan, 

Millfield. 
Gerard, R. W. assoe. prof. phys. Chicago. Br 309. D 213, 
Gilmore, Kathryn grad. zool. Pittsburgh. Rock7. Eld- 
ridge, Kast. 
Gilson, L. E. instr. Inm-hcni. Cincinnati. Br 341. 

Tashiro, Park. 
Godfrey, A. H. grad. Wi>st Virginia. Br 3116 WUde 

West. 
Goldforb, A. J. prof, zool, Ccd, City N. Y. Br 122C. 

S(diramni, Cariliner. 
Goodrich, H. B. jirof. Idol. Wesleyan. Br 210. D 316, 
Gordon, Gladys secretary. "Industrial and Engineering 

Chemistry". Br 203. Nickerson, Millfield. 
Graham, C. H. Nat. Res. fel. Pennsylvania. Br 231. 
Grave, B. H. pi of. zool. Dc Pauw. Br 234. Grave, High. 
Grave, C. prof, zool. Washington (St. Louis) Br 327, High 
Graubard. M. A. asst. zool. Columhia. OM Base. Mc- 

Innis, Millfield. 
Gray, Nina E. asst. zool. Wisconsin. L 22. Broderick, 

North. 
Green, Arda A. res. fel. ph,v,s. Harvard Med, Br 108. 
Grundfest, H. Nat. Res. fel. phys. Pennsylvania. Br 

232. D 301. 
Hall, S. R. res. fel. Harvard Med. L 26. 
Hahnert, W. F. Nat. Res. fel. zool. Hopkins. Br 111. 
Ham, A. W. instr. cytol. W,ashingtoiL Med. (St. Louis) 

Br 224. D 101a. 
Hamburgh, M. Jr. Hopkins Med. Br 313. Glaser, 

Gosnold. 
Hamburger, R. J. asst. med. clinic. Groningen (Holland) 

OM 4(1. ,I(dilin, Park. 
Harnly, M. H. asst. prof. biol. New York. Br 1. 1) 101, 
Harnly, Marie L. asst. biol. New Y^ork. Br 1. D 101. 
Harryman, Uene res. asst. Lilly Res. Labs, Br 319. 

1) 103. 
Hartline, H. K. fel. med. physics. Penns.ylvania. Br 231. 
Harvey, Ethel B. asst. biol. New York. Br 116. Gosnold. 
Harvey, E. N. ]irof. phys. Princeton. Br 116. Gosnold. 
Hayden, Margaret A. assoc. prof. zool. Wellesley. Br 

217A. Nickerson, Quissett. 
Haywood, Charlotte assoc. prof. phvs. Mt. Holyoke. 

Br 31.1. A 207. 
Heilbrunn, L. V. assoc. prof. zool. Pennsylvania. Br 

221. D 31.-1, 
Henshaw, P. S. biophysicist. ilemorial Hosp. (N. Y.) 

Br 329. D 206. 
Hill, E. S. grad. biochem. Cincinnati. Br 342. Dr attic. 
Hill, S. E. asst. phvs. Rockefeller Inst. Br 209. Veeder, 

West. 
Hilsman, Helen M. grad, asst. zool. Pittsburgh. Rock 

7. Hilton, Millfield. 
Hoadley. L. prof. zool. Harvard. Br 312. A 302. 
Holbrook, Lucile A. grad. zool. Wa.shingtou (St. Louis) 

Br 313. Sylvan, Millfield. 
Holt, Helen asst. biol. New York. Br 328. Chambers, 

Gosnold. 
Homes, M. N. asst. bot. Brussels. Br 122A. D 203. 
Hook, Sabra J. instr. biol. Roehe.ster. Br 314. K 2. 
Hoppe, Ella N. res. asst. biol. N. Y. State Dept. Health. 

Br 122B. A 305. 
Horning. E. S. Sidney. Br 223. D 203. 
Howard, Evelyn grad. phys. Pennsylvania. Br 110. 

Veeder, West. 



10 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



Howe, H. E. editor "Industrial .■mil Kii,e:iiieeriiiR Clu'iii 

istry." Br 203. West. 
Howe, Mary '•Iiiilustrial & EiiKiiieerins Clieiiiistry." Br 

203. West. 
Huettner, A. F. prof. hiul. New York. Br 1. Ganset;. 
Imai, T. asst. Ijiol. Imperial (Seiiilai, Japan) L 34. 
Irving, L. instr. phys. Toronto. Br lOH. D 312. 
Ishii, K. instr. bioelieni. .likei-kai Med. (Tokyo) I'.r 

122. Tashiro, Park. 
Jacobs. M. H. prof. gen. pliys. I'eiiii-iylvMiiia. Bi 102. 

Miiiot. 
Johlin, J. M. assoi'. ]iriif. I.imlu-ni. Vanderliilt Med. 

B) 336. Park. 
Johnson, D. S. prof. hot. Hopkijis. Br US. A lOle. 
Johnson, H. H. Col. City N. Y. Br 31.'i. 
Katz, J. grad. liiol. New York. OM Base. Avery, Main. 
Keil, Elsa M. instr. zool. N. J. Pol. Women. Bi- 8. W e. 
Keltch, Anna K. res. asst. Lilly Re<. Lal)S. P,i- 311). 

Duffus, Millfield. 
Kidder. G. W. grad. zool. Columliia. Br 314. I) 307. 
Kille, F. R. assoe. prof. Idol. Birniingliam Snutliein. 

OM 1. D 307. 
Kindred, J. E. assoe. prof. emii. Virginia Med. Br 100. 

1) 202. 
Kinney, Elizabeth T. lect. zool. B.irnard. Br 21". K 3. 
Knower, H. M. assoe. prof. anat. Ailiajiy. Br 334. Buz 

zards Bay. 
Knowlton, F. P. prof. phys. Syr,a[use Meil. Br 220. 

(Jai-diner. 
Lackey, J. B. prof, l.iol. Southwestern. Br 8. A lO.S. 
Lambert, Elizabeth F. tech . Harvard Med. Br 107. 

Young, West. 
Larrabee, M. G. Harvard. Br 231. Beal. Bay View. 
Lillie, F. R. prof. zool. Chic-afo. Br 101. Gardiner. 
Lillie, R. S. prof. gen. phys. ChieagcJ. Br 326. Gardiner. 
Liljcstrand, P. H. Ohio Wesleyan. Br 21fi. Dr 3. 
Lucas, A. M. asst. \irof. eytol. Wasl)ington Med. (St. 

Louis) Br 224. Mast. Minot. 
Lucas. Miriam S. instr. eytol. Washington Merl. (St. 

Louis) Br 224. Mast, Minot. 
Lucke, B. assof. prof. ]iatli. Pennsylvania. Br 311. 

Minot. 
Lund, E. J. jirof. phys. Te.\as. Br 206. A 208. 
Lynch, Ruth S. instr. (jeneties. Hopkins. Br 127. D 201. 
McClung, C. E. prof. zool. Pennsylvania. Br 219. A 201. 
McGoun, R. C. instr. liiol. Amherst. Br 204. Dr 6. 
McGregor, J. H. prof. zool. Columliia. Br 301. Klliot, 

Center. 
Mann. D. R. grad. asst. Duke. OM Base. Hall, Hig'.c. 
Marsland, D. A. asst. jirof. biol. New York. Br 31.">. 

U 106. 
Mathews, A. P. pi-of. bioehem. Cincinnati. Br 342. 

Buzzards Bay. 
Mavor, J. W. prof. Idol. Union. Br 304. Bar Neck. 
Medaris, D. De Pauw. Br 2171. K 7. 
Meltzer, A. Cornell Med. Br 217L Dr 1. 
Metz, C. W. prof, cytcd. Carnegie Inst. Wash, and 

Hopkins. Br 343. Hyatt. 
Michaelis, L. member Rockefeller Inst. Br. 207. 

Danchakoff. Gansett. 
Miller, Helen M. Nat. Res. fel. Hopkins. Br 126. D 10.^. 
Mitchell. P. H. prof. phys. Brown. Br 233. Orchard. 
Morgan, F. H. prof, biol. Cal. Inst. Tech. Br 320, 
Morgan, Lillian V. Cal. Inst. Tech. Br 320. 
Morgulis, S. prof, biocliem. Nebraska Med. Br 313. 

D 308. 

Morrill, C. V. assoc. prof. anat. Cornell Med. L 27. 

Country Club Inn, (West Falmouth). 
Morris, S. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. Bock 6. D 310. 
Nabrit, S. M. prof. biol. Morehouse. L 33. A 104. 
Navez, A. E. lect. gen. phys. Harvard. Br 122A. 
Newton, Helen ms. editor "Industrial & Engineering 

Chemistry." Br 203. Young, West. 



Nicholas, W. W. physicist. Bureau Standards. 

Nicoll, P. A. grad. asst. biol. Washington (St. Louis) 

OM Base. Dr 7. 
Ncnidez, J. F. assoc. prof. anat. Cornell Med. Br 318. 

Whitman. 
Packard. C. asst. prof. zo(d. Columlda Inst. Cancer. 

().\1 2. North. 
Papcnfuss, G. F. grad. bot. Hopkins. P.ot 4. Frawlev. 

Main. 
Parker, G. H. prof. zool. Ilarvar.l. Br 213. Elliot, 

Center. 
Parkinson, Nellie A. asst. ed. "Industrial & Engineer- 

iiig Chemistry." Br 203. Young, West. 
Parks, M. E. asst. instr. biol. New York. OM Base. 

Avei'y, Main. 
Parmenter, C. L. assoi-. prof. zo(d. Pennsylvania. Br 

220. D 204. 
Parpait, A. K. instr. phvs. Pennsvlvania. Br 20."). II 

302. 
Parpart, Ethel R. asst. Idol. Long Island. Br 20."i. D 

302. 
Patch, Esther M. asst. a]iat. Long Island. OM 1. 

Googiiis, Quissett. 
Payne, F. i>ri>f. zool. Imliana. Br 122D. A 202. 
Peebles, Florence prof, bi d. California Christian. L 

30. 
Pierce, Madelene E. RaiU iiffe. Br 217E, Kittil.-i, Brir 

.\'ei-k. 
Plough, H. H. prof. biol. Amherst. Br 2:14. Agassiz. 
I'ollister, A. W. ijiti-. zoi 1. Coluncbia. OM 44. I) 314. 
I*oliister, Priscilla F. instr. zo(d. Brooklvn. 0>T 44. 

1) 314. 
Pond, S. E. asst. piof. phys. 1'enn.sylvania. Med. Br 

216. Gansett. 
Poole, J. P. prof, evolntion. Dartmouth. Bot 2.'i, D 

3(;."i. 
Raffe!, D. Nat. Ri'-. f(d. Hopkins. Br 12.5. I) 201. 
Redfield, Helen Cal. Inst. Tech. Br 320. D 301. 
Reese. A. M. prof. zool. West Virginia. Br 222. I) 2('ii. 
Rempe, A. E. tech. Washington. Br 224. Cowe.v, Depot. 
de Renyi, G. S. assoc. pi-of. anat. Pennsvlvania. P>i' 

114. D 213. 
Reznikoff, P. instr. med. Cornell Med. Br 340. 
Richards. O. W. instr. biol. Yale. Br 8. D 317. 
Rijiant, P. B. L. prof. phys. Brussels. Br 22.'i. I) 212. 
Risley, P. L. inst). zool. Michia:an. L 21. 
Robinson, E. J. grad. asst. New Y'ork. OM Base. Averv, 

Main. 
Root, C. W. a.sst. biochem. Princeton. B)- 110. <'owey. 

Depot. 
Root, W. S. asst. prof. phys. Syracuse Med. Br 226. 

Spaeth. Whitman. 
Rosensteel, Eva G.. secreta)y. Br 223. A 306. 
Rugh, R. instr. zo(d. Hunter. Br 217M. 
Sayles, L. P. instr. biol. Col. City N. Y. OM 2."i. D 214. 
Schauffler, W. G. physician. Princeton. L 23. 
Schechter, V. asst. zool. Col. City N. Y. Br 122C. Di' 2. 
Schluger, J. res. asst. biol. New York. Br 1. McLeish, 

Milltield. 
Schmidt, L. H. res. fel. bi ichem. Cincinnati Med. Hr 

341. Tashiro, Park. 
Schrader, F. prof. zocd. Columbia. Br 330. (Gansett). 
Schrader, Sally H. res. worker eytol. Columbia. Br 

330. (Gansett). 
Schultz, J. Carnegie Inst. (Wash.) Br 232. D 301. 
Schweitzer. M. D. grad. asst. zool. Columbia. Br 314. 

McLeish, Millfield. 
Scott, A. C. grad. asst. zool. Pittsburgh. OM 43. K 10. 
Scott, Florence M. asst. prof. biol. Seton Hill. Br 217D. 
Shapiro, H. grad. asst. zool. Columbia. Br 314. Dr 10. 
Shaw, C. Ruth Pittsburgh. Rock 7. H fl. 
Sichel, F. J. M. grad. asst. biol. New Y'ork. Br 337. Dr 2, 



June 27, 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



11 



Sickles, Grace assl. hni-teriol. N. Y. Strife Dept. Health. 

Br J'2'2. 
Slifer. Eleanor H. Nal. lies. fel. zckiI. luwa. Br i;17<i. 

Kittila, Bar Neck. 
Smith, Helen B. erarl. res. zuul. Hupkins. Br 343. 

Gra.w P.uzzards Bay. 
Smith, M. Doreen res. asst. prev. deatistrv, Toroiittt. 

h 32. H 2. 
Snook, T. iiistr. liistiil. and enih. Cdriiell. L 2ii. l)r 2. 
Sonneborn, T. M. res. assoc genetics. Hopki)is. Br 127. 

D 111. 
Southwick, W. E. grad. emh. Harvard. OM Base. 

Lj'ons, Wudds Hole. 
Speidel, C. C. prof. anat. Virginia. Br 10(5. D 104. 
Stancati. M. F. grad. asst. zool. Pittsburgh. Rock 2. 

Hilton. Millfield. 
Stockard, C. U. iirof. anat. Cornell Med. Br 317. Buz- 
zards Bay. 
Street, Sibyl asst. zool. Vas.sar. Bi' 8. MeLeish, Mill- 
field. 
Strong, O. S. prof. neur. and neurohistol. Coluniljia 

Mod. Br 8. Elliot, Center. 
Sturdivant, H. P. instr. zool. Columbia. Br 314. U 207. 
Sumwalt. Margaret asst. prof. phvs. Woman's Med. 

(Pa.) OM 3. D 209. 
Tang, P. S. res. fel. phys. Harvard. Br 309. D 107. 
Tashiro, S. prof. Iiioehem. Cincinnati. Br 341. Park. 
Taylor, W. R. prof. bot. Michigan. Bot 24. Whitman. 
Tittler, I. A. grad. asst. zool. Columbia. Br 314. Dr 10. 
Titus, C. P. director. ,Sch. of Microscopy (N. Y.) OM 

Base. Aver.y, Main. 
Torvik-Greb, Magnhild grad. asst. biol. Pittsburgh. 

Buck 7. H 9. 
Turner, J. P. instr. zool. Minnesota. Br 217X. 
Twyeffort, L. H. giad. Princeton. Br 111. Lvons, Woods 

Hole. 
Unger, W. B. asst. prof. zool. Dartmouth. OM 22. U 

218. 
Van Alstyne, Margaret res. asst. mod. Harvard. Br 213. 

(irinnell, Bar Neck. 
Van Slyke. E. instr. zool. Pittsburgli. Rock 7. K 10. 
Wade, Lucille W. I)e I'auw. Br. 31!i. Robinson. Scliotd. 
Wald, G. grad. asst. Ijiophvsics. Columbia, OM Base. 

McLeisli, Millfield. 
Walker, Ruth I. instr. Iiot. Wisconsin. Bot .5. Bro- 

derick, Noi-th. 
Warren, H. C. prof. ))svch(d. I'rincefoii. Br 303. Bar 

Neck. 
Weelans, Anna A. secretary. Princeton. Br 303. A 205. 
Weisman, M. N. tutor. Col. City N. Y. OM 34. K 15. 
Wclty, C. asst. |nof. biol. Parsons. Br 332. Taylor, East. 
Whitaker, D. M. asst. prof. zool. Columbia. Br .333. 

Morgan, Buzzards Bay. 
Whiting, Anna R. jiriif. biol. Pennsylvania Col. Wimieii. 

OM 40. Wliitman. 
Whiting. P. W. assoc. prof. zool. Pittsburgh. OM 4(i. 

Wliitman. 
Wilde, Mary H. grad. asst. bot. X. .1. Col. Women. 

Bot. Prentiss, Millfield. 
Wilson, E. B. Da Costa prof, emeritus zool. Columbia. 

Br 322. f-iuzzaids Bay. 
Wilson, Hildegard N. grad. asst. l)iochein. Neiv York 

Med. Bi' 310. Buzzards Bay. 
Winsor, Agnes A. assoe. biol. Hopkins. L 25. (Catau- 

inet). 
Winsor, C. P. assoc. liiol. Hopkins. L 25. (Cafauniet). 
Witschi, E. prof. zool. Iowa. Br 9. A 201. 
Wolf, E. A. asst. prof. zool. Pittsburgh. OM 43. 
Woodward, A. E. asst. prof. zool. Michigan. L 21. K 3. 
Young, Roger A. asst. prof. zool. Howard. Br 228. 
A 304. 



STUDENTS 

Adcll, J. C. grad. Cidumlda. profo. Nickerson, Milllield. 
Alderman, Evangeline giad. asst. Wellesley. enib. W ,i. 

Alexander, L. E. grad. Michigan, emb. K 14. 

.\lexanderson, .Amelie M. Bryn Mawr. emb. K 2. 

Altland, Clair S. grad. asst. biol. American, bot. K 7. 

.\ndrew, Barbara L. grad. asst. bot. Alabama, bot. K 8. 

Auringer, J. giad. Detroit City, proto. Dr 15. 
Barney, R. L. jirof. biol. Middlcbury. phys. Glover. 
E.'insom (Quissett). 

Beck, L V. grad. asst. pliys. New Y'ork. phvs. .Mc- 
Leisli, Millfield. 

Boone, Eleanor S. grad. asst. zool. Stanford, emb. 
Nickerson, Millfield. 

Brown, Rebecca R. grad. Columbia, proto. K 12. 

Bryan, Hilah F. grad. Smith, bot. Robinson, Quissett. 

Buehheit, J. R. grad. asst. biol. Illinois, enilj. Dr 6. 

Buck, M. Anna Maine, emb. K 8. 

Burr, Edith R. grad. Columbia, proto. Gray, Buzzards 
Bay. 

Cable, R. M. grad. fel. New York. emb. Cowey, Depot. 

Carlson, J. G. instr. biol. Bryn Mawr. emb. K 7. 

Carpenter, Helena J. fel. biol. Ohio Wesleyan. proto. 
W c. 

Chase, H. grad. Howard, enilj. 

Chen, H. T. Harvard, emb. Dr 9. 

Coulter, Edith A. Goucher. emb. W b. 

Dee, M. Barbara grad. zool. Boston, protu. Eldriil,;e, 
Woods Hole. 

Denny, Martha grad. Radcliffe. emb. Kittila, Bar Neck. 

Derrickson, Mary B. Syracuse, emb. W e. 

Dick, G. A. prof. vet. med. Pennsylvania, emb. 1) 204. 

Ericson, Alma L. grad. biol. Columbia, proto. H 7. 

Eskridge, Lydia C. tech. asst. Hopkins, proto. W c. 

Fenton, Frances E. Connecticut, proto. H 7. 

Fisher, K. C. asst. liiol. Acadia, phys. McLeish, Mill- 
field. 

Gaetjcns, Laura C. Elmira. phys. White, Millfield. 

Green, D. E. asst. zool. New York. phys. McLeish, 
Millfield. 

Heiss, Elizabeth M. grad. asst. biol. Purdue, phys. W g. 

Henderson. Lillian O. instr. biol. H. Sophie Newcomli. 
proto. Erskine, Woods Hole. 

Hunt, W. L. Southwestern, bot. Berg, Schiol. 

Hutchings, Lois M. teacher biol. Barringer U. K. prolo. 
H 8. 

Ickes, Marguerite teacher biol. Lincoln H. .S. (Cleve- 
land), proto. 

Jackson, J. R. grad. asst. Missouri, bot. Dr 2. 

James, Miriam E. teacher biol, Gloucester H. S. (Mass.) 
profo. Griniiell, West. 

Kaston, B. J. grad. asst. biol. Yale. emb. (Martha's 
Vine.yard). 

Lundstrom, Helen M. grad. res. fel. dental surgery 
Peiiiis.yhania. ph.ys, H 3. 

McQuesten, Barbara grad. Radcliffe. phys, Nickerson, 
Millfield, 

Magruder, S. R. grad. Cincinnati, emb. Kittila, B,-ir 
Neck. 

Michaelis, Eva M. grad. cliem. Barnard, phys. Danch- 
akoff, Gansctt. 

Moore, Caroline Peiiiis,ylyania. bot. H 6. 

Moore, Elinor grad. Peniisylvaiiia. phys. U (i, 

Morgan, Isabel M. Radcliffe. phys. Buzzards Bay. 

Newcomer, A. Virginia grad. Radcliffe. emb. Kittila, 
Bar Neck. 

Noll, C. I. grad. asst. chcni. Trinity, phys. Cowey, 
Depot. 

Oppenheimer, Jane M. Bryn Mawr. emb. H 7. 

Ormsby, A. A. glad. Detroit City, proto. Dr 15. 

Perry, Lily M. grad. Shaw Sch. of Bot. Washington, 
bot, Y'oung, West. 

Plylcr. Phyllis V. asst. biol. Goucher. emb. W b. 



12 



THE COLLECTING NET 



Vol. VL No. 41 



Price, J. B. asst. biol. Stanford, enili. Dr 14. 
Pro.sscr, C. L. grad. asst. pliys. Hoiikiiis. [iliys. Hr '>. 
Reid, Marion A. instr. pli.vs. Biistoii Mod. phys. Kdliiri- 

soii, Quissett. 
Sawyer, Elizabeth L. instr. ziicil. Maine, oinli. Avoiy, 

Main. 
Scherp, H. W. giad. clioni. H.-irvard. pliys. Koldiison, 

Qnissetf. 
Sell. J. P. Olinliii. enili. K .'. 
Shea, Margaret M. grad. Wclleslcy. enili. W a. 
Smith, W. F. Jr. ('nnioll Med. emii. Mclnnis, Millfipld. 
Sperry, Helen A. instr. Idcd. Cntliedral .Sell, (if Ht. Mary 

(N. v.) iindii. Rnliinson, Wcnids llrjlr. 
Stewart, P. A. RrnliestcM-. proto. K C. 
Sweetman, H. L. asst. prnf. cut. Mass. State, pliys. 

Iliggins, Depot. 
Townsend, Grace instr. biid. Juliet Jr. cnili. H 4. 
Walker, P. \. grad. Bowdoiii. eml). Tlmniiisoii, Main. 
Watkins, Evelyn G. Vassar. proto. Eldridge, East. 
Weed, .M. R. grad. asst. liiol. Wesleyan. emb. K 5. 
Willard, W. R. Yale Med. phys. Dr 2. 
Woodruff, Beth H. grad. asst. liiol. Western Heserve. 

emb. W d. 
Woodside, G. L. asst. Iiiid. Del'aiiw. enili. K 7, 

ADMINISTRATION 

Billings, Edith secretary. Millfield. 

Crowell, Polly L. asst. to the liusiness manager. M.iin. 

Oillinger, Bessie R. secretary. W i. 

Finch, Kathleen secretary. H 2. 

MacNaught, F. M. liiisiness manager. Sidiind tV Millfield. 

LIBRARY 

Klanchard, Hazel assistant. W g. 

Bradbury, Hester A. assistant. W li. 

Lawrence, Deborah secretary. Locust (Falmoutli). 

.Montgomery, Priscilla B. lilii-arian. Wliitman. 

Rohan, Mary A. assistant. Millfield. 

CHEMICAL ROOM 

Deitrick, J. E. grad. H(ipkins Di- ■'>. 

Frew, Pauline Bates. \V f. 

Geib, Dorothy grad. Hopkins. 

Hale, J. B. grad. Illinois. Grave, High. 

Johlin, Sally Oberlin. Gardiner. 

Keil, Elsa M. instr. zool. N. J. Col. for Women. W e. 

Lackey. J. B. prof. biol. Southwestern. A 108. 

Richards, O. W. (in charge chem. room) instr. biol. 

Yale. U 317. 
Street, Sybil asst. zool. Vassar. McLeish, Millfield. 
Strong, O. S. (director ehein. room) prof. neur. and 

neuroliist. Columbia. Elliot, Center. 

APPARATUS ROOM 

.\pgar, A. R. photographer. D 1111. 
Boss, L. F. mechanician. Middle. 

(iraham. J. D. glass-blowing service. Veeder, Millfield. 
Liljestrand, P. H. Ohio Wesleyan. assistant. Dr 3. 
Pond, S. E. as.st. prof. phys. Pennsylvania, custodian. 
Gansett. 

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

Clarkson, W. ileckhand. Water. 

Crowell, Ruth S. secretary. Main. 

Crowell, P. S. Harvard, collector and chauffeur. School. 

Erianger, H. Wisconsin, collector. Dr 3. 

Cray, G. M. curator research museum. Buzzards Bay. 

Gray, M. collector. (Teaticket). 

Hilton, A. M. collector. JlilUield. 

Kahler, W. cidlcctor. lOast. 

Leathers. A. W. head slii|iidng dept. Minot. 

Lehy, J. collector and chauffeur. Millfield. 



Lewis, E. M. engineer Cayadetta. Buzzards Ba.v. 

Lillie. W. collectoi'. Gardiner. 

Mclnnis, .1. resident manager. Millfield. 

Nielsen, Anna M. secretary. Glendon. 

Poole, Marjery G. bot. collector. I) 304. 

Smith, C. B. Il.imilton. collector. Dr 3. 

Staples, S. Harvard, cidlcctor. Dr 3. 

Thornley, W. Dartmouth, collector. 

Veeder, J. J. captain Ca,vadetta. Millfield. 

Wamsley, F. W. supei-visor of s<'ho(d>, Charleston. 

speci.'il preparator. 
Wilcox, G. G. collector. Dr 3. 
Wixon, R. fireman. (Falmouth). 

BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

Callahan, J. janitor. OM N wing. Dr 4. 

Cornish, G. .ianitor. Br 1st floor. Dr 4. 

Goffin, R. T. Jr. iceman. Millfield. 

Googins, H. janitoi'. Quissett. 

Hemenway, W. carjienter. carpenter shop. lljnvilmrMe. 

(Falmouth Heights). 
Hilton, H. A. superintendent of buildings ami groumls. 

carpenter shop. Thompson, Water. 
Keltch.R. .janitor. Br :ird floor. Millfield. 
Look, G. .janitor. OM S wing. Qui,ssett. 
Mclnnis, F. M. .janitor. Bot & L. Millfield. 
McManu.s, J. janitor. Br 2nd fioor. Dr 4. 
Rock, J. F. N. emergency man. Dr 4. 
Russell, R. L. gardener. 
Russell, M. R. night ivatchman 

Swain, G. Jr. janitor. Br 3rd floor. Main (Quissett). 
Tawell, T. E. storekeeper and head janitor, basement 

Bi'. Thompson. \\'ater. 

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT 

Carfy. F. night mechanic. Br 7. K 7. 
Kahler, R. assistant. Bi 7. Macbeth, East. 
Larkin, T. superintendent. Br 7. Woods Hole. 

DOMESTIC HELP 

Ashe, Helen K. Bates. Ho 202. 

Birkitt, Dorothy K. N. J. Normal (Glassboro). Ho 204. 

Brown, Bertha C. Ho 111. 

Buckley, Katherine Ho 101. 

Colby, Anna Ho 203. 

Collins, Mary C. Ho 210. 

Coombs, L. Ho 2. 

Coombs, Nellie in general chjirge. Ho 12. 

Duest, Virginia Ho 203. 

Downing, Florence E. H(j 20.". 

Downing, Isabelle L. in charge dining loom. Ho 201. 

Fischer, L. Boston. Ho lOfi. 

(ireen, .Angle B. N. J, Normal (Glassboro). Ho 202. 

Hookstra, Ruth U. N. J. Normal (Glassboro). Ho 204. 

McDougall, Mary Ho 207. 

McGrath, Mary Broderick, West. 

Mulford, Kathryn H. X. J. Normal (Glassboro). Ho 204. 

Nordstrom, K. chef. Ho 0. 

Pease, .4nnie IIo 211. 

Percival, Mina N. Ho Ut2. 

Pereira, J. R. Suffolk Law (Boston). Ho 107. 

Pond, Luella Dr. 

Porteous, W. Ho lOS. 

Russell, Helen E. Ho 212. 

Shea, Katie Ho 112. 

Steele. N. 111'. 

Temple, 1. Ho 7. 

Tuttle, P. School of Fine Aits (Boston). Ho lOli. 

Welch, Hattie Ho 105. 

Welch, Hattie Ho 105. 

Wester, (k-rtrude Ho 203. 

Weymouth, D. N. School of Fine Arts (Boston). Ho 2. 

^'oung, Grace West. 

Young, Virginia Maine. Ho 202. 



June 27, lO.Sl 



TliE COLLECTING NET 



n 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

INVESTIGATORS 

Bailey, E. W. jr. aquatic liicil. I'. S. 1!. V. (Ciiiiiliriclgc) 

Oi'eaiiographie Inst. IIIH. V W. 
Bateman, C. B. lab. iiic-luiiuc. V . S. \^vy\. Ai;r. (Wash.) 

F 55. 
Bcarse, H. M. ,ir. aquatic liiol. l'. S. ]!. V. (('aiiilpriilftc) 

13S. Wiles, Gardiner. 
Bigelow, R. P. prof. zool. Mass. Just. Tecli. .VI •! Gar- 
diner. 
Brown, F. A. Jr. Austin teacliiiii; fol. ziiol. Harvard. 

1123. F 50. 
Buhrer, Edna M. .ir. ncniatulugist. V. S. Dcpt. Agr. 

M. Lehy, Millfudd. 
Cable, Louella E. jr. aquatic biol. U. .S. B. F. (Beau- 
fort, N. C.) Hatcliery and M. 31. F 31. 
Cheslcy, L. C. gra;!. fel. phys. Duke. 151. F. 41. 
Cobb, N. A. prin. neniatologist. U. S. Dept. Agr. M. 

F 43. 
Conger, P. diatomist. U. S. Nat. Museum (Wasli.) 141. 

F 47. 
Cooper, Corinne jr. neniatologist. V . S. Dept. Agr. M. 

Sydell, Glendon. 
Crossman M. Louise jr. neniatologist. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

M. .Sydell, Glendon. 
Danforth, Josephine V. illustrator, f. S. Dept. Agr. M. 

Lehy, Millfielii. 
Foster, K. W. instr. biol. Tufts. M. F .54. 
Galtsoff, Eugenia assoc. zool. George Washington. Vl'l. 

F 26. 
Galtsoff, P. S. in charge ovster investigations. U. S. 

B. F. (Wash.) 122. F 20. 
Coffin, Catherine E. Brown. IIS). Millfield. 
Goffin, R. biol. U. S. B. F. 115. Millfield. 
Hall, F. G. prof. zool. Duke. 149. Ilamblin, High. 
Herrington, W. C. haddock invest. II. S. B. F. (Cam- 
bridge) 140. F 45. 
Imlah, Helen W. grad. Radcliffe. M. Kavanagh, High. 
Jaffe, Ernestine grad. Wellesley. 130. Goilin, Millfield. 
Jenkins, G. B. prof. anat. George Washington Med. 1. 

I 'lough, .Millfield. 
Kumin, H. grad. Antioch. HO. F 50. 
Linton, E. fel. Pennsylvania. M 5. West. 
Lynn, W. G. instr. eonip. anat. Hopkins. 123. F 48. 
Milch, Erna L. secretary. U. S. B. F. (Cambridge) 11?. 
Moses, Mildred S. asst. U. S. B. F. (Cambridge) 140. 

Agassiz. 
Nesbit, R. A. .asst. aquatic biol. V. S. B. F. (Cambridge) 

M 6. F 47. 
Neville, W. C. .asst. U. S. B. F. 119. Greene, Millfield. 
Sandground, J. H. curator of heiniinthology. Harvard. 

M 3. F 44. 
Sette, O. E. the director, in charge North Atlantic 

Fishery Investigation. V. S. B. F. (Cambridge) 

118. F. 
Smith, R. O. asst. aquatic biol. ovster investigations. 

U. S. B. F. (Wash.) 122. 
Swanger, Helen H. jr. nematologist. U. S. Dept. Agr. 

M. Lehy, Millfield. 
Taylor, G. W. grad. Princeton. M. F 48. 
Tipton, S. R. fel. phys. Duke. 149. F 41. 
Turner, J. P. instr. zool. Minnesota. 217n. Grinnell, 

West. 
Webster, J. R. jr. aquatic biid. U. K. B. F. (Cambridge) 

140. P 49. 
Wilson, C. B. head science dept. Mass. .State Normal 

Sell. (Wc.^tfield) M 4. P 44. 
Worley, L. G. Austin teaching fel. zool. Harvard, M. 

F 54. 



BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

Armslrong, J. S. engineer. "Phalarope". Glendon. 
BosiMirlh, Edith C. secretary. 117. Millfield. 
Bosworth, W. R. V. fisherman. "Phalarope". Millfield. 
Brown, S. 3rd. iiiuseuin attendant. FL 130. 
Cassidy, H. L. carpenter. Woods Hole. 
Conklin, P. S. fireman, machine shop. Hi ;li. 
Hamblin, R. P. apprentice fish cultuiist. h.ilcliery. 

Nye (Falmouth) 
Hoffses, G. R. superintendent 117. F. 
Hosmer, H. Jr. museum attendant. FL 130. 
Howes, E. S. cockswain, hatchery. Wafer. 
Howes, W. L. fish culturist. 110. Millfiidd. 
Lowey, J. E. engineer, machine shoji. Glendon. 
Morrison, D. cook. "Phalarope". "Plialaroiie". 
Radii, A. H. apprentice fish culturist. Halclicry. FL 134. 
Reynolds, J. seaman. "Phalarope". "Plialarope". 
Snow, C. B. fireman, machine shop. FL 135. 
Veeder, R. N. master "Phalarope". West. 
Webster, H. M. fireman, machine shop. FL 137. 

OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION 

Allan, K. B. grad. Claik. 213. 

Beach, E. F. Brown. 110. Hilton, Water. 

Beale, Alice grad. emb. Radcliffe. 108. Thompson, 

Main. 
Bigelow, H. B. the director, curator oceanography. 

Museum Comp. Zool (Cambridge). 114. Luscombe, 

Main. 
Borodin, N. A. Museum Comp. Zool. (Cambridge) 107. 
Brooks, C. F. prof. Clark. 213. 
Burbank, C. B. Harvard. "Asterias". 
Church, P. E. grad. Clark. 213. 
Clarke, G. L. Museum Comp. Zool. (Cambridge). 212. 

"Atlantis". 
Emmons, G. grad. Harvard. 207. (Monument Beach). 
Ingalls, Elizabeth Harvard Med. 102. 
Iselin, C. 2nd asst. curator oceanography. Museum 

Comp. Zool. (Cambridge) 208. "Atlantis". 
Montgomery, R. Harvard. "Atlantis". 
Mosby, O. V. S. Coast Guard Ice Patrol Base 5. 
Rakestraw, N. W. asst. prof. chem. Brown. 110. Wilson, 

Woods Hole. 
Reuszer, H. W. grad. Rutgers. 201. 
Rossby, C. G. A. assoc. prof. Mass. Inst. Tech. 207. 

Wilde, (iardiner. 
Sears, Mary grad. zool. Radcliffe, 108. F 32. 
Seiwell, Gladys E. Brown. 211. Larkin, Woods Hcd?. 
Seiwell, H. R. curator oceanography. Buffalo Mu,eum 

Science. 211. Larkin, Woods Hole. 
Stetson, H. C. asst. curator paleontology. Museum 

Comp. Zool. (Cambridge) 105. "Neva"! 
Waksman, S. A. microbiologist N. J. Agr. Experiment 

Station (New Brunsmck) 201. 
Walker, Virginia B. secretary to director. Museum 

Comp. Zmd. (Cainlnidge) 112. Howes, Millfield. 
Warbasse, E. Antioch. 201. Penzance. 
Warner, W. S. Jr. Harvard. "Asterias". 
Weed, R. H. Harvard. "Asterias". 
Welsh, J. H. Museum Comp. Zool. (Cambridge) 207, 

215. Clough, Millfield. 
Wolfe, Mary F. lab. technician zool. Harvard. 105. 

Kittila, Bar Neck. 
Ziegler, Virginia asst. to William Beebe, New York. 

100. White, Millfield. 
Zucker, J. M. Brown. 110. 

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

Barnum, Susie G. assistant. Br 120. H 1. 

Johnson. D. S. chairman div, biol. ■■iml agr. Br 120. 

A 101. 
JrtcGraw, Miss Br 120. H 1. 



14 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ \'oL. VL No. 41 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly inil.lii'atinii devoted tn llio seientifii' work 
at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattcll Editor 

.Assistant Editors 

Marcaiet W. (iiiffi)i Eleanor Brown 

Auualeida S. Cattell 



The Collecting Net in 1931 

The purpose of The Collecting Net is to 
assemlile material which is of especial interest to 
the workers in the biological institutions at Woods 
Hole. We want to record as fully as we can the 
research work and other activities of the menibers 
of the Marine Biological Laboratory, the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries and the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. But we also want to 
seek relevant material outside of Woods Ho'e 
and to record local events of interest. The yiri)- 
jected editorial contents of our magazine can be 
divided fairly well into the four parts: 

( 1 ) Results of scientific work rejiorted dur- 
ing the summer at Woods Hole, together with 
critical reviews of such reports. 

(2) Items reporting the activities of members 
of the scientific institutions in \\'oods Hole. 

(3) World-wide news of the activities of 
individuals working in the field of biology. 

(4) The more important local news. 

The Collecting Net is an independent publi- 
cation. Its contents are based primarily on the 
three scientific institutions in Woods Hole, but 
it has no official connection with any one of them. 

We believe that there is not only a place luit a 
real need for an informal magazine of biology 
which is prepared to include constructive dis- 
cussion on any topic of interest to those persons 
working in the field of the biological sciences. 

The fact that The Collecting Net is 
responsible to no organization gives it a peculiar 
advantage over many other publications in the 
field of .science. It can include material that they 
would liesitate to print. Editors often have an 
article that they would like to print, but cannot 
because some editorial board or organization 
would have to assume responsibility for it. 

We therefore wish to make it known that we 
welcome material of this kind and that we are 
ready to reproduce in black and white many 
things pertaining to the administration of 
universities and scientific institutions which one 
often hears but rarely reads. 



Beach Restrictions 

Two recent cases of the assertion of property 
rights, the limitation of the bathing space on the 
bayside beach and the courteously formulated 
request of the Trustees of the Forbes estate, call 
the attention of the scientific institutions in 
Woods Hole to the need of safeguarding and 
developing recreational facilities. 

It is natural and desirable that laboratory 
workers should hope to profit from the physical 
advantages of their environment. It is certainly 
true that some investigators, even among those 
who have acquired property, are beginning to 
feel that Woods Hole is likely to become less 
desirable for themselves and their families unless 
recreational facilities can be retained and ex- 
panded. Is there, for example, any surety that 
the bathing beach frontage may not be limited to 
that of a single lot or even lost entirely if efiforts 
are not made to place the bathing beach under 
public or institutional control? The Marine 
Biological Laboratory has shown foresight in 
])rt)viding real estate for the summer homes of 
investigators and it now seems desirable that 
attention should be paid to these recreational 
needs before it is too late. 



The regular meetings of the Penzance Sunday 
Forum will be held on Sunday afternoon at four 
o'clock at Gladheim on Penzance Point, begin- 
ning July 5th. These meetings are an established 
institution and have been held for the past twenty 
years. All teachers and students at the labora- 
tories, as well as other interested persons, are 
invited. Social, economic and scientific matters 
of current interest are discussed in an informal 
way. At the first meeting on Sunday, July 5th, 
Mr. Roger Baldwin will speak about our civil 
liberties. 





Currents in the Hole 




At the 


fol!:'^villg hours (I)aylig;lit S 


aviiig Time) 


the eui'i'en 


t in tlie liule turn.s to run from Buzzards | 


Bay to V 


neyard .Sound; 




Tuly 


2 6:38 


6:47 


lulv 


3 7:23 


7:35 


Julv 


4 8:09 


8:21 


[uly 


5 8:58 


9:13 


Inly 


6 . . . 9 :45 


10:10 


lulv 


7 .10:32 


11:03 


111 CM. 


li case the eurrent tdianges a 


pproximately 


six hours 


later and runs from the Sound to the | 


Bay. It 


must he remembered that 


the schedule 


printed al 


>ove is dependent uiion the 


wind. Pro- 


longeil Av: 


nds sometimes i ause tlie tu 


rning of the 


currenf to oc-eur a lialf an hour eai 


lier or later 


than tlie times given aliove. 





June 27. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



15 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Dr. C. G. Rogers, professor of comparative 
])iiysioIogy at Oberlin College, who has been 
located iii the Oberlin Room in the Laboratory 
for many years, resigned from the staflf of the 
embryology course of the Marine Biological 
Lal)oratory. After sjiending the summer at 
Oberlin, he sails early in September for Europe 
where he will spend his sabbatical yar. 

Dr. Hojie Hibbard, associate professor of 
zoology at Oberlin, has gone to Europe for the 
summer. .'-Ihe will spend most of her time in 
Russia, Austria, France and Germany. 

Dr. V. C. Twitty of ^'ale, who was on the 
staff of the embryology course last year, is now 
holding a National Research Fellowship at the 
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute at Berlin. 

Henry B. Bigelow, Jr., sailed from Montreal 
on |une 26th, for England. He will return about 
September 1 as an able-bodied seaman, on the 
Athiiitis. 

Dr. and ^Mrs. Frank Knowlton have gone to 
Syracuse, New York, to see their daughter, Miss 
Katherine Knowlton, who has just returned 
from a trip to California, They will return to 
Woods Hole at the end of next weeT<. 

Dr. Hans Spemann of the University of 
Freil)urg, a prominent luiropean embryologist. 
will visit Woods Hole during the latter part of 
this summer. 

Dr. and Mrs. J. AL Johlin and daughters, Ruth 
Ann and Sally, of Nashville, have deserted the 
Laboratory Apartments this year for their new 
home ofif Gardiner Road. Miss Sally Johlin 
will work in the chemical room of the laboratory 
for the summer. 

Dr. S. Tashiro and family are living in their 
new house on Park Street, off Gardiner Road. 

Mr. J. A. Gilmore, collector in the Supply 
Department two years ago, made a short visit 
to Woods Hole during the week of June 8th 
before returning to Dartmouth to be graduated. 
He will attend the Iowa Law School this sum- 
mer. 

During the last few years the Bureau of 
Fisheries has released thousands of drift bottles 
off the North Atlantic coast of the United States. 
An extremely interesting return has just come 
in from the 1929 release, from a bottle 
picked up at Fairfield Crooked Island, the 
Bahamas. Judging from previous distant drifts 
this bottle was carried eastward across the North 
Atlantic and southerly on the eastern Altantic 
and then again to the westward, being cast up 



in the Bahamas after floating about two years. 

Dr. Paul Galtsoff, in charge of oyster investi- 
gations at the Bureau of Fisheries, attended the 
Pacific meetings of The American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, which were held 
in Pasadena, California, from June 15th to June 
20th. He read a paper at the symposium on 
oceanography, entitled "The Life in the Ocean 
from a Biochemical Point of View." Among the 
many , interesting symposiums were those of 
genetics and photosynthesis. Over twelve lum- 
flred registered members of the association were 
present. 

Dr. O. E. Sette. director of the Bureau of 
Fisheries, left in the Albatross on June 12th for 
the Virginia capes. The trip covered about 
fifteen hundred miles. Dr. Sette was in charge 
of the scientific work ,and William O. Neville 
and Frank E. Firth assisted. The object of the 
trip was to look for the early stages of mackerel 
e,ggs and larvae in the various plankton forms. 
The party returned on June 18th. Temperatures 
and water samples were taken, in order to deter- 
mine the oceanic conditions that influence the 
development of the various pelagic plants and 
animals. An abundance of the late mackerel 
larvae was found in the southern half of the 
region covered. In the northern half of the 
region, earlier stages were found, as well as a 
great abundance of Calamis. one of the most 
important food members of the plankton. 
Collections have been brought back to the 
Fisheries laboratory for detailed examination. 
Along the western edge of the continental shelf, 
forty or fifty miles off shore, a Portuguese man- 
of-war was spotted — ^the first to be seen this 
spring. 

The M. B. L. Club again invites your attention 
to the facilities of its club house. You will find 
there an opportunity for quiet relaxation, for 
reading current periodicals, for playing cards, for 
meeting old friends and for making new ones, etc. 

The opening dance was held on Saturday. 
As heretofore, there will be a dance every Satur- 
day evening. The radio amplified phonograph 
which used to provide music for dancing has been 
improved since last year, and it is hoped it may 
again be used for repeating some of the splendid 
concerts of last year. 

A new raft has been built and is ready for those 
who enjoy water sports. 

Every member of the laboratory is invited to 
join the club and to give it their support. 



16 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. \T Xi). 41 



NEW 

Hausman Ecology Collecting Sack 



Designccl and (le\cl()pc(l by 
Dr. Leon A. Hausman, Head 
of Department of Zoology, 
New Jersey State College for 
Women, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey. Now manufactured 
and sold e.xclusively by the 
I ieneral Biological .'supply 
House. This sack has been 
used for many years by the 
students in Dr. Hausman's 
field courses. It is i)articular- 
ly useful to the collector of 
aquatic forms. 




Durably made of heavy tan 
cam as with double seams and 
reinforced shoulder straii. 
Tweh e pockets for jars Ij^ inches 
in diameter; four pockets for 
jars of pint or half-pint size. 
.Size 17 by W/- inches. Weight 
()'/> pounds equipped with jars. 
The weight is so distributed that 
the bag may be carried for hours 
withnut tiring the collector. 



■^*^^Sf^''''' Price complete with 16 specimen jars (as illustrated) ( Each $3.25) Dozen $37.50 
TIIDTnrVwbn*niirTC P'i'^e for sack only (without jars) I Each $2.25 | Dozen $23.50 

^^" General Biological Supply House 




The Sign of the Tiirtox 
Pledges Absolute Salisfaction 



Incorporated 
761-763 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 




GLASS ELECTRODE 
APPARATUS 

The glass electrode method of hydrogen-inn 
determination of liquids is particularly adapt- 
able to measurements on physiological mecli.i. 



Advantages 

(n) .Accuracy within 002 pH is 
obtainable. 

(b) Medium under test is not con- 
taminated. 

(c) Less than Ice. of the sample is 
sufficient. 

(d) .-Vbout 5 minutes to each test. 

(e) Clear, colored or turbed solu- 
tions can be tested. 

(f) A null method is eni;iloyed. 



A ropii of List lOS-C vill be sent on 



Pioneer Manufacturers 
of Precision Instruments 



CAMBRIDGE 



INSTRUMENT CP Inc 



3732 Grand ( entr I 
Terminal, New York 



Ji-NE 27, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



17 



SPENCER 



OVER 



1800 




Universities and Laboratories 

use this MICROTOME 



L HE Spencer Pi-ecision Rotary Microtome No. 820 is used 
in practically every important educational lu).si)ital or researcli 
laboratory in America. 'I'lure is scarcely a country in tli;- 
world to which it has not been shipped. 

The microtome has gained this worldwide approval because of 
several distinctive features, one of which is as follows: 
It con)|)leteIy overcomes the inaccuracies usually encountered 
in rotary microtomes, due to an u])-and-down movement of 
the object. It does this by using an inclined-plane feed, an 
adv.antage possessed by no other similar instrument. In this 
inclined-plane feed the up-and- down movement and the feed 
work independently of each other. 

The many other advantageous features manifest themselves in 
its perfection of accuracy. 

Catalog T-8 completely describes 
this Spencer Precision Rotary Mi- 
crotome. Write for it today! 

Products: Microscopes, Microtomes, Delineasoopes, Visual Aids, 

Optical Measuring Instruments. 

Branches: New York, Boston, Washington, Chicago, Minneapolis, Los 

Angeles, San Francisco. 





Compmuf 



NEW VOR.K 



18 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 41 




RESEARCH MICROSCOPE 
GCE-10 

Magnifications: 30 - 1800.x. Large 
mechanical stage, Abbe illuminating 
apparatus. Aplanatic condenser n. 
a. 1.4 Quadruple revolving nosepiece. 
Apochromatic objectives: 
10 n.a. 0.30 
20 n.a. 0.65 
40 n.a. 0.95 
90 n.a. 1.30 (oil imm.) 
K oculars 3x, 5x, lOx, 15x, 20x, 7x 
micrnmoter. 
Price, complete in case, $447.50 
f. o. b., N. Y. 

BITUKNI FOR USE 
WITH GCE 10 MICROSCOPE 

r'.iiii)cul:ir attachment I'.i- 
tukni including- one pair 
of compensating eyepieces 
(7x, lOx or 15x)' $86.00 
f. o. b. New York. .Addi- 
tional compensating eye- 
pieces $18.00 a pair. 

CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

485 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Pacific Coast Branch: 
728 SoutJj Hill St., Los Angeles, Calif. 




The Wistar Insdtute Slide Tray 



Tlie ideal tray for displaying or storing slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-inch, thirty-two l^o- 
inch, or twenty-four 2-inch slides, and every 
slide is visible at a glance. Owing to the 
nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof c ver for 
the one beneath it. while the center ridges as- 
sure protection to high mounts. Made en- 
tirely of metal, they are unbreakable and 
easily kept clean. They form compact stor- 
age units. Twelve hundred 1-inch slides may 
be filed in a space fourteen inches square by 
e-ght inches high. PRICE, $1.00 EACii 

Orders nr.\\ be sent to 

THE WISTAR INSTITUTE 

Thirty-sixth Street and W&odland Avenu;% 
Philadelphia. Pa. 



ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Env'ronment 

Established 1920. Quailerly. Official Publication nf the 
Ecological Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for coinplete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able. $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Foreign 
jiostai^e: 20 cents, 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Established 1416. Himonthly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete v.iiumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number rate. 
Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $7.00 each. Foreign postage: 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Established l''l-l. Miuilhly, except Augii".t and Sep- 
tember. (.Jfticial Pubhcaiion of the Botanical Society of 
.\merica. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number 
rate. Volumes 1-lS comidete. as available, $146. Single 
numbers, $1.00 each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
on request. Foreign postage: 40 cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

Vnlunie 1; H coniribution>; by v.-iri..us an hi.rs on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ec.dogy, plant 
geography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.50 plus 
postage. 

Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part 1. 
The vegetation of Montauk, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1423. lOS itp. Price. $1.00. 

Vol. Ill; The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Harrington Monre and Nor- 
man Tavlor. 151 pp., 27 text-figs., vegetation maii in 
colors. June 10, 1927. Price, $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 

1000 Washington Ave. Brooklyn. N. Y.. U. S. A. 



June 27, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



19 




Again B&L 
Advances 
Microscope 
Design 

When BAUSCH & LOMB fii-st announCL-d 



the Drum 
Binocular 
marked in 



Nosepiece for Wide Field 
Microscopes an event was 
the history of microscopy 
comparable in importance to 
the invention of the first re- 
volving nosepiece. Now 
comes the first radical im- 
|)rovement in the Drum 
Nosepiece. . .another histor- 
ical milestone. 



Formerly the Drum Nosepiece contained three jiairs of matched objectives, 
which were non-removable. The New 10.S2 Drum NoseiJiece contains only one 
pair of objectives (the 0.7X) ]K'rmanently mounted. The other two ))airs can 
be readily removed by simjily sliding out the objective mount. Other ob- 
jectives similarly mounted can be quickly substituted. In all other respects 
the well-known KW series of wide-field microscopes remains the same. 




Write for complete information 



BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL COMPANY 

671 St. Paul Street 




nisiiHiiiraffliia 



Make r s of O r t h o gon Eyeglass Lenses for Better Vision 



20 



THF. C( )LLECTING NET 



Vol. VI. No. 41 




Spalt^holz 

Transparent 

Preparatiuns 

Human 

and 

Zoological 





Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for i)hysiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, e.*c. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name rf school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

VisW our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Rooms and Museum 



i 


.■BttJElBWl 


> 



Life History 
of Chick 



Mod?l of liu 



Heart 



Clay-AdAm's '€(©MMifr 

117-119 EASl 24th .STREET NEW YORK 



Living and Preserved 
BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS 

Riprcscnting all t_vpes, for tlie Laboratory, Museum or Special Research. 
1ti addition to all of the widely used forms, we specialize in important 
southern species not oht.iiuahle elsewhere. Also lieadquarters for Micro- 
scopic Slides. Life Histories. Deuioiistrations. Insect Collections, Skeletons. 
Catalog's Free. 

'I'he best service on liviufi' niateri;il such as t>iant southern IJullfrofi's. 
Aniphiunia, Alliy'ators, 'I'urths, Crayfish, Clams, Protozo.i .'ind .\(|uariiiui 
Anim.als and Pl.-ints. 

SOUTHERN BIOLOGICAL SUPPLY CO., Inc. 

517 DECATUR St. NEW ORLEANS L\. 



1 1 ■ N E 2 7. 1931 ] THE COLLE CT ING NET 21 

AN 
EXCEPTIONAL DISPLAY 

of 

MICROSCOPES and 
ACCESSORIES 



Wc are ))lcascd to nnnnuncc that thrnuf,^h the cooperatimi i)f the 
MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, we have been granted the i^rivi 
lege .,f hnhlino an exhibit Ir.mi JUNE 28 to JULY 4 in the OLD LECTURE 
HALL at WOODS HOLE, Massachusetts. 

This exhibit will include a number nf new and important developments 

as pertain to various fields (it scientific endeavor. Certain specialized equip- 
ments will be shown in actual use with specimens and working material ob- 
tained at Woods Hole, for example, the Chamliers' Micro-Manipulator with 
icro-injectinn and dissection devices; the Capillary Microscope with illu- 
inant and camera for studies of blood circulation, etc. The new model of 
he l.eitz Research Microscope "lURM" with Apochromatic objectives and 



m 
m 
t 



inclined ]irism body, will lie in .actual use. 

The LEICA Camera now utilized at practically every institution of 
learning, will be displayed with its complete line of lenses, accessories and 
illustrative material. Photog'raphs will be taken of specimens submitted to 
our representative and recommendations advanced indicating how this 
camera can serve your individual studies and requirements. 

You are cordially invited to visit our exhibit at the OLD LECTURE 
HALL, JUNE 28 to JULY 4, MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

E. LEITZ, Inc. 

60 E lOTH STREET NEW YORK, N. Y. 



22 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 





INTERNATIONAL 
CENTRIFUGES 

JLiny types offering a large variety 
of equipment of tuhe.s and a wide 
range of s]ieed and conse(|iient 
relative centrifugal force. 

International Equipment Co. 

352 VVESTEKN AVENUE 
BOSTON, MASS. 



A TRIPLE BEAM TRIP SCALE 



1 010 irrams 

Sensibility 05 g 

Capacity with extra weight 



This balaiu't' has three times 
the iteam rapacity of (loul)l( 
Itejiin trip scales. 

Specifications 

I-'i-niit lu'iiiii Wfijilis rrntii t) 1(1 

('(■HUT ln'iiiii weighs from (1- 
.'»i«i y;riinis hy HKi j;ranis 
Thirii lu'aiu wt'ii;ll^i irnm U- 
HK) grams hy 10 grams 
ToImI capacity on beams HIU 
grams 

'I'oln! capacity with extra 
w<-ight l.iHn grams 
Snisibility it.iK'i gram 
Untied kiiilV e4iges rest on 
;i;;ati' planes 
^^l^^^^^^^m 'II^BIII^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^ — . g l!^^ Pan mttlded Itakelitt 

.\vvHrnvy 

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No. 4040 Triple Beam Balance, Harvard Tnp Scale construction. Capacity (HO grams, 
seiisibiUty il.O.") {>ram. Complete with sliding weights on the beams, each ... $12.00 

In lots of () ro more, each $9.00 




No. 4040W Extra Weight, to increase capacity to 1,010 grams 



.75 



W. M. WELCH MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

MaiMifiU'tiirerB. IimmrterM imkI ICxporters of Scieiilirte ApiianitiiH, Furniliire luul Schoal Siippliet* 

General Offices: 1515 Sedgwick St., Chicago, 111., U. S. A. 



ifn'.ft',- A mm nil II M Fndiiyii n in{ Warehouse I 
151G Orleans Street, Chicago, IlUnois Brnneh Offices 

:U2 Miiiiis.Hi Avp 191 (> We*;I Knd Ave. 

New York City, N. Y. Nashville. Tenn. 

BvauiiKne<'htHpiniann Co.. Ltd. 

57fi-.'.84 Mission Street Pnrifir Const Dishibiilor 

San Francisco, California 



:uth * Bffi.-idwiiy 
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Manitowoc. Wisconsin 
'J220 Guadalupe St. 
Austin. Texas 



The Bratin Corpmatiuu, lad. 

:ir)3-371 New Hiffli Street 

Los Angeles. California 



J u N E 27, 1931 ] THE COLLECTING NET 23 



WARD'S NATURAL SCIENCE 
ESTABLISHMENT, Inc. 



Announcement of Re-organization 



The Directors of Ward's Xatural Science Establisliment, Inc., 
tai<e pleasure in announcing that the University of Rochester has 
decided to continue the operation of this establishment in the inter- 
est of science. 

To carry out the desire of the Universit\' to render the great- 
est possil>le service, we have secured the services of Dr. Dean L. 
Gamble, who has now assumed the active management of the estab- 
lishment. Dr. Gamble taught for eight years in the Department of 
Zoology at Cornell University, and for the past seven years he has 
been in charge of the Zoology Division of the (ieneral Biological 
Supply House in Chicago. Because of his experience in teaching, as 
well as in i:)usines3, he is veiy well fitted to maintain the highest sci- 
entific standards of Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc. We 
have also rented a large four-story laiilding, having over 40,000 
square feet of floor space, where, f(jr the first time in many years, 
our enormous collections will be properly housed. 

We wish to take this occasion to thank our many patrons and 
friends for the patience they have siiown in putting up with the de- 
lays necessitated by the confusion caused by our fire of last Sep- 
teml)er, and to assure them of prompt, careful and efficient service 
in tiie future. 

Send for Circular No. 330, which cimtains a revised list of our 
Catalogs of Natural Science Material. 



WARD'S NATURAL SCIENCE ESTABLISHMENT, Inc. 

P. O. BOX 24, BEECHWOOD STATION, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



24 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



Biological 



Specimen 
Dishes 

hlou- in Tico Si'vCS 




The very satisfact ry demand lor Biuiogica 
Specimen Dishes has led to the introductior 
of a larger size. 

The small Dish has a capacity to the brim o 
350 cc, inside height 45 mm., inside diameter 
100 mm., height overall 50 mm. The large Dis: 
has a capacity of 1750 cc, inside height 7C 
mm., inside diameter 175 mm., height overall 
80 mm.. Both Dishes are made from clear 
heavy glass. The bottoms are flat and the 
Dishes will stack perfectly. 
This type of bowl has been in use for a 
number rf years at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory at Woods Hole, Dartmouth Col- 
lege, DePauw University, Ohio University, 
Louisiana State University, George Washing- 
ton University, and elsewhere. 
It is applicable to work in embryology, espe- 
cially with chick embrycs; to small aquatic 
organisms, living or preserved; to the develop- 
ment of Echinoderms and other eggs. Further 
uses will be readily apparent to the biologist. 
The small dish fits conveniently under a 
microscope. The rounded inside permits easy 
cleaning. When stacked or nested, the dishe.s 
can be easily transported and stored. 



G734 — Biological Specimen Dishes. 

Small 



No. in original barrel 
Each 



168 
$.35 



Large 

36 
$1.00 



10% di.scount in dozen lots, 20% dis- 
count in original barrels. 

WlI^I^ CORPOKATIOy 

LABORATORY APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS 

ROCITESTER, X.T; 




Genetics Preparations 

TIk'sc pro|i:iiatioiL-; (h-nioiistiato t-lassi ■ uxampU*:; 
(if Meiulelian iiilteiitaiu-e. The results of cross- 
itifTS of individuals \vith foiitiasHug characters 
in the 1st and -nd generations are clearly V'.\(\ 
vividly shown in the first three preparations by 
ai'iual specimens, supplemented by diagrams and 
explanatory notes. The Plaques with colored 
figures and diagrams are also very instructive 
and are excellent preparation for courses in 
Genetics. 

<.M 1. The IVa. Actual siK-ciniciis illustrating' 
.MiMidflian in-int-iiilcs. sliowiny,' resii Is in .-rnssiii;; 
siiKioili yellow and wrinU'ed jin'cn n-as, mnuntcd in 

;;liiss I up. wood pxhibitidii casi' $«.7ii 

(iM 2. The Snail. A<tu:il siircimi'iis oi' snail shells 
illustratinti Mendelian |)riiieiples. slir»wi"i; result (tl 
erc.ssiii^' handed red and bantUess yo'luw snails, 

iiiniinled ill wood exiiihitioii ease $(>.7.> 

<i.M H. The Snail. Same as almve mnnnt showin;^ 
results ol" erossintr bandless yellow and Hve-banded 
yellow snails. 

<;.M ">. Mfiuh'lian Diajirams. (hi plaques !)Vj" x 
1.!" ill size, with cellophane covering to proleet 
eti'.ored fij?ures and diagrams prepared in iiiil;i 
1 ranies for durability, 
at .Mirabilis Flower. Kffeel of erossing nd and 

wliiti' individuals, 
l») Fowl. Kffect of err>ssiii;; white and b'aeU 

individuals, 
(i) Snail, Kffeet of crossing bandless and tive- 

banderl individua's. 
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June 27. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



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Kewaunee Laboratory Furniture 

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26 



THE COLLECTING NET 



f Vol. VL No. 41 



Scientific Instruments 
Research Apparatus 



New Principle in a 
MICROMANIPULATOR 

The new Emerson MicromanipulatDr con- 
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The device is jjrecise and sn^ooth in opera- 
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The amount of motion of the needle across 
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OTHER DEVICES MANUFACTURED INCLUDE 



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SHAKING DEVICES for Clark Hydrogen 
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DI.^iLVSIS APPARATUS as described in 
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June 27, 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



27 



Now Ready 

"... (J fresh survey of iiwdcru 
Biology especialh desii^ned for 
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Introduction 

A Vertebrate Animal 

A Flowering Plant 

The Cell and Metabolism 

The Cell and Behavior 

The Cell and Reproduction 

Heredity and the Gene 

Ecology and the Community 

The Evolution of the Species 

The Plant Kingdom 

The Animal Kingdom 

Applied Biology 

Appendix 

(a Glossary of Technical 
Terms 

(b) Classification of Organ 
isms 
Index 



Textbook of 
General Biology 

By WALDO SHL'MWAY 
Professor of '/.oology, Unii'ersltv of Illinois 

From the w:ealth of illustrative material offered in the fields of 
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The student is introduced to the subject by an account of 
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logical principles. 

After a discussion of these principles a brief survey of the 
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THE COLLECTING NET 



Vol. VL No. 41 



Just published - 

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Invertebrate 
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By HARLEY JONES VAN CLEAVE 
Professor of Zco'-Ogy, University of Illinois 

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June 27, 1931 ] 



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29 



Oxidation- 
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117 Illustrations. 305 Pages. $3.00 



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64 Illustrations. 275 Pages. $3.00 

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The Nature of Animal Light 

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36 Figures. 14 Tables, 182 Pages. $3.00 

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Donald P. Jones 
4C Illustrations. 285 Pages. $.3.00 



L I P P I N C OTT WASHINGTON SQUARE, PHILADELPHIA 



30 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



The United States Coast Guard located at 
Woods Hole leads an adventurous life in the 
service of the government and the community 
patrolling the waters from Old Harhor on the 
outside of the Cape to the Sakonnet River. 

During the past week two fishing boats went 
aground off Gay Head. The Coast Guard came 
to the rescue. One of them. The Constellation, 
had had her bottom ripped out. The crew were 
rescued and fed at the base and j\Ir. Gaboon 
then provided them with transportation back to 
Boston. The other was salvaged in spite of the 
fact that there was quite a blow on, and as the 
engine wouldn't go, the Coast Guard towed her 
to New Bedford where she could undergo re- 
pairs. 

lust at present Commander Patch has a mys- 
tery to solve. Three or four days ago a Mr. 
Howard Rynard reported that his boat, a green 
sloop thirty-six feet long, numbered C-7076, had 
been taken without iiermission and he asked the 
Coast Guard for aid in recovering her. A little 
later, a green sloop was reported off No. 2 Buoy 
in Hyannis. She was full of water and when the 
Coast guard finally got her off they found that 
she was numbered C-7076. Maskus Seralis who 
was in charge of the sloop when she went a- 
ground, was arrested as a suspicious character 
on Tuesday. Now the owner has disappeared, 
and nobody by the name of Rynard can be 
located. 

Although Commander Patch is constantly 
pestered by people who miss the last boat 
and wish transportation, he can not. of course, 
comply with such requests unless the circum- 
stances are unusual. Last Fall, however, a 
gentleman on Nantucket was seriously ill, and 
as a final measure to save his life, two blood 
donors were coming down from Boston. The 
boats were not running so Commander Patch, 
warned by the Doctor of the arrival of the two 
Bostonians, came to the fore and transported 
them over to the island. 

The Coast Guard was also of invaluable aid 
last Fall in checking the terrific forest fires 
near Hatchville, and one of their men had his 
eye dangerously burned. 



The garden of Gladheim, the Woods Hole 
home of Dr. and Mrs. James Peter Warbasse 
of Brooklyn, was the scene on Sunday, June 
21st. of the marriage of their daughter. Miss 
Agnes Warbasse to Mr. Harvey Willard Bur- 
ger, son of Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Plunistead 



Burger of Brooklyn. The Rev. Leslie Wallace 
of Falmouth performed the ceremony. Miss Vera 
W'arbasse was her sister's only attendant. Mr. 
James Peter Warbasse Jr. was best man and the 
ushers were Messrs. Richard Northrup and Eric 
Price Warbasse, brothers of the bride. After a 
short trip the couple will live in Brooklyn. 



Swimming and life saving lessons will be given 
free again this summer in Woods Hole to chil- 
dren and adults under the auspices of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, with Miss Ruth Mullaney of 
Hyannis as instructor. The schedule of lessons 
at the Breakwater Beach is as follows : 

Julv 1 at 10 A. M. 
Julv 2 at 10:30 A. M. 
July 3 at 11 A. M. 
July 11 at 4 P. M. 
July 25 at 4 P. M. 

The first half hour will be devoted to be- 
ginners and the remainder of the time to ad- 
vanced swimming and life saving. Registration 
blanks may be obtained from Mrs. Thomas 
Larkin. chairman of the Red Cross. 



The Woods Hole Choral Club had its first 
meeting in the M. B. L. Club Tuesday, June 23rd, 
after the lecture. The Club is beginning its fifth 
season under the leadership of Professor Ivan 
Gorokhoff. Rehearsals are scheduled for Tues- 
day and Friday evening after the lecture. All 
those who like to sing are cordially invited to see 
Mr. Gorokhoff before or after the rehearsal. 



We took the Old Silver Beach road last week 
to the Lhiiversity Players' Theatre where, amid 
an array of boxes and cans of paint, the Players 
were beginning to get things organized for their 
fourth season. 

Composed primarily of men and women from 
the Colleges and Universities who are striving 
for the development of a more imaginative and 
a more craftsmanlike American theatre, the 
Players are adhering more and more rigidly to 
professional standards. This year every member 
of the company is specially trained in his part- 
icular field, and their ambitious schedule calls 
for such Broadway successes as "Paris Bound," 
■'Coquette,'' "Her Cardboard Lover," "The Trial 
of Mary Dugan," "The Guardsman," and "Juno 
and the Paycock." 



Ji-N-E 27, 1931 1 



THE COLLECTING NET 



31 



The UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, Inc. 

Presents 
"PARIS BOUND" 

JULY 29th — JULY 4th 
Oia Silver Bea?h West Falmouth 



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The MRS. G. L. NOYES LAUNDRY 

Collections Daily 

Two Collections Daily in the Dormitories 

Woods Hole Tel. 777 

Service that Satisfies 



i>iii:;SSES — LINENS — LACES 

Fine Toilet Articles 
Elizabeth Arden, Coty 

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Choice Bits from Pekin 

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Miss Imogene Weeks Miss Helen E. Ellis 

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throiiuliout tlu- summer 

season. 

THE WHALER BOOK SHOP 

106 SCHOOL STREET NEW BEDFORD 

Telephone Clifford 110 



KELVINATOR REFRIGERATION 

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Filfuel and Glenwood Ranges 
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Visit 
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32 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



Church of the Messiah 

(Kj)iscoj)al ) 
I'lic Rev. James iJaucroft, Rector 



Holy C'oiiumiiiion 8 :00 a. in. 

.Marning- Prayer 11 :00 a. ni. 

I'.veniiig Prayer 7:.'iO ]). m. 



THE QUALITY SHOP 

Dry Goods, Toilet Articles, Shoes and 
Souvenirs 

Ask for things you do not see. 
Main Stres-t Woods Hole 



SAMUEL CAHOON 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

FISH AND LOBSTERS 

Tel. Falmouth 660-661 

Wo ds Hole and Falmouth 



WALTER O. LUSCOMBE 



REAL ESTATE AND 
INSURANCE 



Woods Hole 



Phon3 622 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
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Agency for 

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VERA'S HOME BAKERY 

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LADIES' and GENTS' TAILORING 

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Coats Relined and Altered. Prices Reasonable 

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Main St. Woods Hule, Mass. Call 752 



IDEAL RESTAURANT 

Main Street Woads Hole 

Tel. 1243 



SANSOUCrS BEAUTY PARLOR 

Frederic's Permanent Waves 

and 

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FALMOUTH PHONE 19-M 



PARK TAILORING AND 
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When in Falmouth Stop at 

ISSOKSON'S 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE 

Shoe Repairing Done While U Walt 
A. ISSOKSON 



The Collecting Net 



Began Publication in 1926 



HACK NUMBERS AND 



VOLUMES 



May be obtained by 



addressing 



The Collecting Net 



WOODS HOLE, MASS. 



Ii'NF. 27, 1931 



THl': COLLECTING NET 



33 



THE PENNSYLVANIA BIOLOGICAL 
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Extensive use of mice by scientists, medi- 
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Each time a book is sold, all of the agent's commission will be 

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Vol. VL No. 41 



EXHIBIT IN LECTURE HALL 

JULY 5th - 21st 

July 5tli - 2 1st, uiulci- ilii-fction of J. A. (Jack) Kyle 



Biclogical Life Histories 

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A|)|)lyin!>- at Sn|)ply Department Office 

CiEORGK M. GRAY, Curator 



June 27, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



35 



Important New Books in Biology 

HEGNER 

College Zoology: Third Edition 



This is tlie text which, by its outstanding merit, 
won 3.6 adoptions f- r the year 1929-1930. Revision 
has not changed its original successful plan, but has 
added the important features of a new chapter on 
Heredity and Genetics; more material on several of 
the types, and on the histcry of zoology, the evolution 
of man, vertebrate structure and vertebrate embry- 
ology; over a hundred new and revised illustrations: a 
glossary of zoological terms; and a durable, water- 
proof, fabrikoid binding. 

At the old price, $3.50 



With an accompanying 

LABORATORY GUIDE 

This GUIDE, long awaited by z-ology 
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Matching the te.\t in size 
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LINDSEY 

The Frohlems 

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36 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 41 



"It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'^ 




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The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
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It has been endorsed by many leading 
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AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: It is used for projecting in actual colors on wall or 
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not be demonstrated with equal facility and time saving under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
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AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actual colors on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
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Vol. VI. No. 2 



SATURDAY, JULY 4. 1931 



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Single Copir.s, 25 Cts. 



THE MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Dr. Herbert V. Neal 
Director of the Laboratory 

The Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory 
was founded at South Harpswell. Maine, in 1898 
hy John Sterling Kingsley. who was one of the 
first to appreciate the need of 
a marine liiological station 
nortli of Cape Cod. The 
Lahoratorv was incorporated 
in 1913 and later— in 1921 — 
moved to Salisbury Cove on 
Mt. Desert Island. At present 
it has two stations, the Weir 
Mitchell Station at Salisbury 
Cove and the Dorr Station at 
Har Harbor. Research work- 
ers only are admitted to the 
former, while field courses as 
well as o]iportunities for re- 
search are offered at the latter. 

The facilities of the Labora- 
tory are adequate for thirty 
research workers. The ]iro]i- 
erty of the Lalioratory includes 

over one hundred acres of 

land, five small wooden labora- 
tory buildings with wharf, runway and float, a 
social center and dining hall, two cottages, tents 
with wooden ])latforms, three motor boats, etc 
Til" I'llioratorics arc (Coiitiiiiied on Page 40) 



m. 1. ai. (UalniJtar 

TUESDAY, JULY 7. 8:00 P. M. 

Evening Seminar. Dr. A. ('. Redfiold, 
"Effect of Ilyilio^^eii Ion Concen- 
tration and Salt Concentration on 
Iho Oxygon Dissociation Constant 
of Ilomocyanin." 

Dr. Laurence Irving, "The Co.^ Dis- 
sociation Cuive of Living Mam- 
malian Muscle." 

Dr. E. N. Haivey, "I'hoto-electric 
Records of A?iiin:il Luininescence." 

FRIDAY, JULY 10, 8:00 P. M. 

Evening Lecture. Dr. G. II. Parker. 

jirofossor of zoology, Harvard 
University, "Humoral Agents in 
Nervous Activities with Special 
Reference to Chronintophores." 



OSTEOCLASTS AND CHONDROCLASTS 

Dr. G. S. Donns 
Professor of Embryology. School of Medicine, 
U'esf J^irginia University 
The large multinucleate cells, known as 
osteoclasts, which are so common in red bone 
marrow are commonly believed to be the agents 
in the destruction of bone 
tissue during the development 
and growth of bones. There 
has also been a belief on the 
]iart of some students that 
these same cells have an im- 
portant jjart in the destruction 
of preliminary cartilage which 
precedes the bone in the pro- 
cess of endochondral ossifica- 
tion, though this view has not 
been widely accepted. The 
following oliservations upon 
growing bones of dogs and 
cats have a bearing on this 
question. 

It was observed in the de- 
velo|)ing bone, where the 
marrow is encroaching upon 
the cartilage and the cartilage 
cells are arranged in longi- 
tudinal rows, that the calcification of the cartilage 
matrix does not effect the transver.se walls be- 
tween the cells of a row, but only the longitudinal 
walls between rows in the invasion of the 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

The Mt. Desert Islam! Biological Lalioiator.v The Oour,ie in Invertebrate Zoology 

Di. Herbert V. Neal 37 Dr. James A. Dawson 4i; 

Osteochists .■nid Chonilroelasts The Chemical Room 

Dr. fl. S. Dodds 37 j),.^ Os^ar W. Richards 47 

Review of the Hejirinar Report of Dr. Dodds Morphology and Physiology of the Algae 

Dr. Arthur W. H.im .^ . 38 Dr. William R, Taylor , .48 

P.assage ot Sperms and Eggs Through the t> t n ■ 

Mammalian Oviduct ; Seminar Report of ^""'' l"'"i'»' 4!) 

Dr. G. H. Parker Director.v Additions and Corrections 50 

Summarized by Dr. Alfred M. Lucas .... 39 Items of Interest .11 

Review of tlie Semin.'ir Report of Dr. Parker The ABC of Woods Hole 57 

Dr. Alfred M. l.uc-is 40 W,.ods ilido Log fiO 



38 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



marrow into this tissue are broken down 
and the cartilage cells liberated, apparently 
under the influence of the smaller cells of the 
marrow (the primitive connective tissues cells or 
the vascular tissue). No osteoclasts are present 
in the tongues of marrow which advance along 
the rows of cells. On the other hand, it was 
constantly observed that where the longitudinal 
walls of calcified matrix are undergoing des- 
truction, osteoclasts are very abundant .and are 
commonly seen wrap|)ed about free edges of such 
spicules. Thus the calcified part of the tissue is 
destroyed by a different agency than the non- 
calcified portions. This same relation was also 



seen in the nests of cells found in epiphyseal 
centers and in the earliest beginning of the center 
of ossification, when the marrow first enters the 
cartilage from the periosteum. In each case the 
uncalcified portions of the matrix are removed 
without the presence of osteoclasts, while calci- 
fied material is destroyed, apparently only under 
the influence of osteoclasts. 

The studies indicate that there is no one type 
of cell to which the name chondroclast can be 
given, and that osteoclasts do not confine their 
activity to bone tissue, but rather to calcified 
matrix, whether of cartilage or bone. 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORT OF DR. DODDS 

Dr. Arthur W. Ham 
IiKlnicliir ill Cytology, ll'asliingloii Uiiit'crsify 



Dr. Dodds has made an excellent point in in- 
dicating that there is no one type of cell to which 
the name chondroclast can be given. His work 
shows that in the developing bone the multinu- 
cleate cells arise as the osteogenic cells and blood 
ves.sels invade the calcified cartilage, and that 
the osteoclasts only form about the calcified 
matrix. It is interesting to compare this process 
with that seen in the healing fracture. In the 
latter the osteogenic cells of the periosteum and 
endosteum are found to difl"erentiate into both 
cartilage and bone, and as healing progresses the 
cartilage is replaced by bone in much the same 
manner as that seen in developing and growing 
bone, except that there is no arrangement of 
the cartilage cells in columns. The cartilage 
is not replaced until the cells have become mature 
and the matrix calcified. When this occurs, signs 
of degeneration make their appearance in the 
cartilage cells, and on occasion, lacunae coalesce 
before the invasion of blood vessels and osteo- 
genic tissue. Soon, however, through the pass- 
ages created by the breaking down of the ratlier 
thin walls of the lacunae, the tissue is invaded 
by osteogenic cells and blood vessels, The former 
differentiate into osteoblasts which form bone on 
the surface of the remnants of the calcified 
cartilage matrix, and into osteoclasts, which 
form about portions of cartilage matrix not 
covered by new bone, and about portions of the 
newly formed bony tralieculae. There is no 
evidence to show that the osteoclasts are 
instrumental in opening up the cartilage lacunae 
as a previous step to the invasion of osteo- 
genic cells and blood vessels. On the other hand, 
it is quite evident in a study of healing fractures 
that the formation of osteoclasts is somewhat 
secondarv lo the invasion of the cartilage. 



It is significant, as Dr. Dodds has noted, that 
the calcified material calls forth the formation a( 
osteoclasts. On the other hand, it is very evident 
that calcified material is a profound stimulus to 
new bone formation, a point which is well illus- 
trated by the formation of metaplastic bone about 
areas of pathological calcification. It therefore 
ap])ears that calcified material incites two types 
of responses, one which results in osteoclasts and 
the other in osteogenesis. It is not unreasonable 
to conclude that the osteoclast response is in the 
nature of a foreign body type of reaction. The 
osteoclasts are not strongly phagocytic and they 
refuse to take up vital stains. Hofmeister indi- 
cated that they, because of their non-specific pro- 
perty of elaborating carbon dioxide in the course 
of their metaliolism, caused solution of the calcium 
salts in the calcified material adjacent to them. 
It is obvious that resorption of bone is often ac- 
comiilished without their assistance, as in creep- 
ing replacement, tumor invasion and under the 
influence of pressure. Furthermore, in instances 
of hypercalcaemia induced by either hyperpara- 
thyroidism or hypervitiminosis (D), the calcium 
salts may lie removed from bone matrix in whole- 
sale fashion. In these conditions, however, it is 
not uncommon to find conditions similar to giant 
cell tumor and osteitis fibrosa cystica developing, 
an observation which on the surface appears to 
indicate again that the osteoclasts in these condi- 
tions are formed as a result of calcium remov,aI 
rather than as the primary cause of it. 

Although it seems definite that osteoclasts are 
called forth by the presence of dead calcified 
matrix, and that the histological evidence is in- 
dicative of their playing some part in its removal 
by liberating some substance causing a solution 
of the calcium salts, their importance in btine and 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



39 



calcified cartilage destruction should not be over- 
estimated because the process often occurs with- 
out their assistance. Their powers are not unique 
as other cells on occasion advance readily into 
calcified matrix. Although they arise from osteo- 
genic cells, they tend to form about almost any 
type of calcified material if it is placed in contact 
with the osteogenic tissue, so that although they 



are called osteoclasts they are really not specific 
for bone. Consequently in view of the lack of 
specificity on the part of the osteoclast, it is 
obvious that there is less evidence to support the 
hypothesis that presumes the existence of a specific 
destroyer of cartilage, and that the use of the term 
chondroclast only aggravates an already compli- 
cated situation. 



PASSAGE OF SPERMS AND EGGS THROUGH THE MAMMALIAN OVIDUCT 

Seminar Report of Dr. G. H. Parker 
Director of the Zoological Laboratory, Harvard University 

Summarized by Dr. Alfred M. Lucas 
Assistant Professor of Cytology, Washington University 



The vertebrate oviduct performs the interest- 
ing mechanical feat of conducting objects in two 
directions : the sperms toward the ovary and the 
ova toward the uterus. The oviducts of certain 
reptiles and birds possess a ciliary organization 
particularly adapted to perform this function, in 
that there exists in these animals a narrow pro- 
ovarian tract for the conduction of sperms up- 
ward and an extensive abovarian tract for the 
propulsion of ova downward. In mammals, 
however, the effective stroke of all cilia is toward 
the uterus. 

The interval of time required for the comple- 
tion of various phases related to reproduction are 
quite constant in the rabbit, which makes this 
animal well suited for studies on the mechanism 
of sperm and egg movement. The passage of 
sperms from the vagina to the uterus is more 
rapid than could possibly be accomplished alone 
by their swimming movements. It is apparent 
that muscular contractions of the region concerned 
must aid in the propulsion of sperms toward the 
oviduct. This conclusion is supported by the 
experiments of Lim and Chao (1927), in which 
a segment of rabbit uterus was reversed, and yet 
fertilization and implantation was obtained. The 
passage of sperms upward through the oviduct 
has generally been conceived as a rheotactic 
response to the ciliary current which is directed 
downward. This opinion is supported by the 
experiment of Adolphi (1905), in which sperms 
placed between slide and cover-glass oriented 
themselves to a current of fluid passed over them. 
It has been observed, however, that the heads of 
the sperms are somewhat sticky and the tendency 
to adhere causes them to be orientated against a 
stream in a fashion similar to that of a weather- 
vane. Sections of the rabbit's oviduct were re- 
moved and slit open longitudinally. Sperms, 
suspended in Ringer's solution, which were added 
to the preparation, were carried downward 
with the current produced by the cilia. They 



remained unoriented. This evidence of rheotaxis 
is lacking. 

Small quantities of ink injected into the lumen 
about mid-way between the two ends of the 
uterine tube ultimately appeared both in the 
uterus and on the fimbriae. When introduced 
into the tube near either end the ink appeared 
at the opposite end. The ink particles have no 
motility of their own, yet some of them arrive at 
the ovarian end of the tube against the ciliary 
current. 

Muscular movements of a tpye similar to the 
segmentation in the intestine are known to take 
place and have been observed in the uterine tube. 
The several contractions occurring simultaneously 
divide the lumen temporarily into a series of 
compartments. The numerous liranched ribbon- 
like folds which form the walls of the tube pre- 
sent surfaces largely covered by cilia. The cur- 
rer.t produced passes downward between the 
oiijiosed faces of the folds. Since the lower end 
of the compartment is closed a return current is 
initiated which passes upward through the center 
of the lumen. Sperms, ink particles or other 
objects which may lie in this central stream are 
carried upward by it toward the upper end of 
the segment. The next succeeding rhythmic con- 
traction cuts the compartment in two parts, the 
U])per half of which together with the lower half 
of the segment above forms a new closed com- 
partment. The same ])rocess being repeated, it is 
only a matter of a sufficient number of contrac- 
tions before material which floats in the axial 
stream is carried to the upper end of the tube. 
Likewise, objects which lie close to the walls and 
come under the direct influence of the ciliary beat 
will by the same muscular mechanism reach the 
uterine end of the tube. The motility of the 
sperms, therefore, has no direct relation to its 
conduction through the uterine tube. 

The egg of the rabbit lias a diameter of about 



40 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



0.18 mm. and this size is such in relation to the 
size of lumen and folds of the tube that the cilia 
may most effectively propel the ovum toward the 
uterus. The egg lying between two adjoining 
folds presses aganist their surfaces and it is well 
known that mechanical stimulation increases the 
effectiveness of ciliary movement. 

Sobotta, as well as others, regards the absence 
of ciliated cells from the uterine end of the 
mouse oviduct as indicating that peristaltic con- 
tractions of the muscular layers are responsible 
for the propulsion of the ovum. The experiments 



of Lode, Grosser, and others led them to regard 
the cilia as the motile agents. 

'i'iiis study is of particular interest to the 
gynecologist in his interpretation of hemorrhagic 
cysts of endometrical type. The histological ex- 
amination of so-called chocolate cysts led Samp- 
son ( 1922) to conclude that they are derived from 
fragments of uterine epitiielium which somehow 
have been carried through the tube into the body 
cavity. The present woi-k would indicate that 
the uterine cells follow the same course as the 
ink particles and the sperm. 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORT OF DR. PARKER 

Dr. Alfred M. Lucas 
Assistant Professor of Cytology, Washington University 



The extensive studies which have been made 
upon the muscular movements in the uterus and 
oviduct of mammals have resulted in a tendency 
to minimize the importance of the function of 
the ciliated epithelium lining the Fallopian tube. 
Conclusions based upon recent studies might lead 
to the belief that cilia serve no other function 
within the mammalian tube than that of a 
"sweejjer" for the purpose of removing cellular 
fragments and debris from the walls of the tube. 
Some regard the antiperistaltic contractions as 
adequate for the upward conduction of sperms. 
Earlier investigations, however, such as those of 
Kchrer, Pinner, Heil, Lode, Grosser, and others 
represent cilia as important agents in the pro- 
pulsion of sexual products. 

The interesting experimerits and deductions 



made l)y Dr. Parker suggest a correlation between 
ciliary and nniscular movements in the oviduct 
of tiie rabbit. The muscular contractions in this 
case render the ciliary movement effective in the 
upward conduction of sperms. Dr. Parker 
has shown how it is possible for sperms to be 
conducted upward through the system and ova 
to be carried downward toward the uterus with- 
out a change in direction of ciliary movement. 

The controversial question can only be solved 
when direct observations are made upon the 
mammalian tube in situ. Since it has been 
possible to observe ciliary movement through the 
oviduct wall in situ in rats and guinea pigs it is 
reasonable to anticipate possible direct observation 
upon the movement through the oviduct of larger 
objects such as sperms and ova. 



THE MOUNT DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

(Continued from Page 37) 



supplied with running fresh and salt water, 
electricity for light, heat and power, and the 
usual apparatus for biological research. The 
library contains most of the American journals. 

Mount Desert Island is situated on the coa=,t 
of Maine, one Inindred miles east of Portland. 
Its cold waters are extraordinarily ricli in ma- 
rine life, including- forms found on rocky surf- 
beaten shores, in muddy coves, on the sea 
bottom at a multitude of depths and con- 
ditions, and floating on the surface of bays, 
inlets, and open sea. Depths of over a hun- 
dred fathoms are found within twenty miles, 
where Salpa, Staurophora, Tomopteris, Siph 
onophores, and hundreds of other pelagic 
forms are found on the surface in their season. 
The deep bottoms furnish brachiopods, huge 
actinians, basket stars, Boltenias, and many 
other rare forms. Cerebratulus and the echin- 
oderm Echinarachnius are abundant and fur- 



nish ripe eggs for study in the summer. The 
large holothurian, Pentacta, sea-urchins, and 
several starfish are extremely abundant and 
of large size. 

In addition to its marine fauna, the island 
has a range of bold, deeply divided, ice-erod- 
ed mountains that form a belt across its soutli- 
ern half. Their lower sides are clothed by 
forests, and between their peaks, rising at 
highest over 1500 feet, are lakes, streams, and 
marshes with a rich fresh-water fauna. Sev- 
eral of these lakes are large and deep; one of 
lesser size is 1 100 feet above the sea. Brooks 
are abundant and of cold water, containing 
trout and a great variety of northern fresh- 
water invertebrates. 

Besides being situated in a region of great 
beauty, unspoiled by commercial exploitation 
or nearness to large cities, the Laboratory 
has the ad\antage of being placed in close 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



41 



contact with the wildlife Sanctuary of Acadia 
National Park, created recently on Mount 
Desert Island by the United States through the 
elforts of a group of its public-spirited sum- 
mer residents. This is the only National Park 
in the eastern portion of the continent and 
the only one in the country in direct contact 
vvitli the sea. This secures for all time a 
jjermanent and singularly rich area for bi- 
ologic study in every field, vertebrate and in- 
vertebrate. 

For the season of 1931 thirty research 
workers have engaged rooms at the Weir 
Miteliell Station and ten students are enrolled 
in field courses at the Dorr Station. Among 
the researcii workers are: Professor William 
H. Cole of Rutgers University, Professor Ulric 
Dahlgren of Princeton, Professor Defrise of 
the Universit}' of Milan, Dr. Allan Grafflin of 
Harvard Uni\ersity, Dr. Percy L. Johnson of 
Johns Hopkins University, Professor Margaret 
L. Hosliins of New York University, Professor 
Abram T. Kerr of Cornell University, Dr. and 
Mrs. Warren H. Lewis of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion, Dr. C. C. Little of the Jackson Memorial 
Laboratory, Professor E. K. Marshall, Jr. of 
Johns Hopkins University, Professor Samuel 
O. Mast of Johns Hopkins University, Frank 
J. Myers of the American Museum, Dr. D. M. 
Pace of Duke University, Professor Herbert 
V. Neal ofTufts College, Professor E. A. 
Park of Johns Hopkins University, Professor 
C. C. Plitt of the University of Maryland, Pro- 
fessor Harold R. Senior of New York Uni- 
versity, Dr. Homer W. Smith of New York 
University, Professor William Wherry of Cin- 
cinnati University. 

During the present season public lectures 
will be given by Ulric Dahlgren, Warren H. 
Lewis, C. C. Little, E. K. Marshall, Jr., Kirt- 
ley F. Mather and Herbert V. Neal. 

A seminar on the researches carried on at 
the Laboratory is held weekly during the 
season. 

At the Dorr Station work on problems of 
college undergraduates or graduate grade is 
open to a limited number of students. Mt. 
Desert Island is peculiarly fitted for work 
of this sort. Forms for study among the in- 
sects, arachnids, fishes, amphibians, birds, and 
mammals are plentiful and varied. The work 
is conducted under supervision of a general 
ratlier than of a detailed nature, aiming to de- 
velop in the student individuality and an ap- 
lircciation of the value of field work in natural 
history. While not neglecting laboratory 
metliods, it attempts to focus major interest 



on problems of behavior or ecology in the 
field. The large number of species of bird 
life on or near Mt. Desert Island makes pos- 
sible unusual opiJortunities for field study. 
Work in the field includes investigation of tiie 
distribution, resting habits, and other interest- 
ing phases. Opportunity for a limited number 
of advanced undergraduates or graduate 
students to take up personal problems under 
the direction of the staff of the Roscoe B. 
Jackson Memorial Laboratory at Bar Harbor 
is also ofiered. The problems center about 
the work of cancer research being carried on 
at that laboratory. 

Those wishing to come to the Mt. Desert 
Island Biological Laboratory may come by 
rail from New York or Boston by the Bar 
Harbor express which brings them directly to 
Ellsworth on the mainland where they will be 
met by the Laboratory car. The connections 
by water from Boston are excellent and les-- 
e.xpensive the Boston and Bangor Steamship 
line leaving Boston every evening and connect- 
ing at Rockland in the early morning with a 
Bar Harbor boat, which passes through the 
beautiful Fo.\ Island Thoroughfare, among the 
spruce-clad islands of the IMaine coast, and ar- 
rives at Bar Harbor about noon. Or it is 
permitted to remain on the Bangor steamer 
until the boat reaches Bucksport, Maine, from 
which a steamer bus runs to Bar Harbor. 
Those coming to the Laboratory should notify 
the Director in advance, so that they may be 
met on arrival by the Laboratory car. 

Board for those connected with the Labora- 
tory and their families is provided at the Lab- 
oratory dining hall in Salisbury Cove at $10.00 
per weeek. Rooms at reasonable prices may 
be found in the village of Salisbury Cove, or 
tents may be rented for the summer from the 
Laboratory. 

Applications for rooms in the Weir Mitchell 
Station should be addressed to Herbert V. 
Neal, Salisbury Cove, Maine. Inquiries in re- 
gard to admission to courses in Field Natural 
History should be sent to Clarence Cook Little, 
Jackson Memorial Laboratory, Bar Harbor, 
Maine. 



Geors^e Sylvester Viereck, novelist, is staying 
at The Breakwater for the summer. His many 
interesting volumes include :■ — ■ "My First Two 
Thousand Years — The Wandering Jew", "Salome 
— My First' Two Thousand Years of Love", and 
"Flesh and Blood". He has traveled extensively 
and during the World War became noted for the 
stirring articles he wrote. 



42 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



THE COURSE IN INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY AT THE MARINE 
BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 



Dr. Jame.s 
AssistiVit Professor of Zooloyy. 
Director of 

The course in Invertebrate Zoology at the 
Marine Biological Laboratory has been in 
existence now for over forty years. During 
this time a few accounts of the work of this 
course have been published. The account 
given by Allee' gives a resume of its history 
and development up to the year 1922. The 
writer, who at present is in charge of the 
course, has been a teaching member of the 
staff since 1919 and has thus been actively 
connected with the course for the last twelve 
years. From 1922 to 1925, inclusive. Dr. 
R. H. Bowen was the instructor in charge 
and the present writer has held that position 
from 1926 to the present time. The staff 
who have collaborated in the writing of this 
account have all served at least three years 
of this five year period. While the general 
organization of the course has remained 
practically the same as it was during 1922, 
a number of changes in the nature of the 
work have been made and it is proposed to 
deal briefly with these in this account. 

Applications for admission to this course 
during the period under consideration have 
been each year from 60 to 100% in excess of 
the number (54) which could be accepted. 
Selections have been made in accordance 
with the policy of the Laboratory which is 
clearly outlined each year in the Announce- 
ment. Thus young graduate students and 
seniors who have the announced intention 
of doing investigation in Zoology have made 
up the greater part of the student body in 
the course during the last few years. With 
such a large application list and with nearly 
eveiy applicant at least technically qualified 
for admission the task of selection has be- 
come increasingly difficult. It is felt, how- 
ever, that the class selected each year drawn 
largely from the eastern half of the United 
States is representative of the students 
showing most research promise. 

The presentation of the subject material 
includes as in the past the various phyla of 
invertebrate animals from the Protozoa to 
the Chordata exclusive of the Vertebrata. 
The modifications and new developments in 
the course will be given in this order. Spe- 
cial developments in certain groups and 
features dealing with the work of the class 
as a whole will be presented at the end of the 
treatment of the phyla. 



A. D AW. SON 

College nf the City of Nezv York 
the Course 

Protozoa: As usual two days are spent 
on this phylum and in addition the first field 
trip of the course is taken on the Saturday 
of the opening week. For this trip the class 
is divided into two groups of four teams 
each. Each of these groups collects from at 
least four different habitats. The collec- 
tions made by the whole class are then as- 
sembled and studied as will be described 
later. 

In the laboratory work on protozoa the 
aim has been to present to the students spec- 
imens of the chief classes or sub-phyla of this 
phylum. The protozoan fauna of the Woods 
Hole region is peculiarly rich since great va- 
riation in protozoan habitats, including 
fresh, brackish and salt water, can be had 
in the space of a relatively short work. For 
the sake of completeness and to obtain as 
much contrast as possible the first day's 
work is devoted to a study of fresh and 
brackish water species while the second day 
is given over exclusively to marine species. 
During the past three years students have 
studied, chiefly with the aid of the low pow- 
er of the compound microscope, subcultures 
of two species of common, large, free-living 
amebae. These cultures are prepared in 
Syracuse Watch Glasses a few days previous 
to the time they are to be studied in accord- 
ance with a method worked out by the 
writer' and thus contain organisms in a nor- 
mal active growing condition. Optimum 
conditions are thus afforded for the study of 
the activities, e.g., locomotion, food capture 
and ingestion and even fission of the pre- 
sumably best known protozoans. Students 
are asked to record their observations so 
that they can later identify each species 
when referred to accurate descriptions. Re- 
sults recorded for the past few years show 
that a relatively small number of the class 
make sufficiently thorough diagnoses to en- 
able them to identify correctly the organ- 
isms. It is felt that time so spent is fully 
justified when it is realized that the common, 
free-living amebae have specific differences 
which are generally not known by the ma- 
jority of zoologists due largely to the lack 
of opportunity for comparison. Cultures of 
the. representative but somewhat rare ciliate 
Blepharisma undulans and of the heliozoan, 
Actinosphaerium, are also studied in the 



July 4, 1931 ] 



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43 



same way. A number of other representa- 
tive forms, all obtained from the vicinity of 
Woods Hole, are invariably present in the 
laboratory for students who wish to increase 
their knowledge of well known species which 
are not usually studied in college laborator- 
ies. During the second day marine species 
are studied. Students are taught the method 
of finding and studying not only such free 
living forms as the Suctoria of the region 
but also the less well known parasitic species 
such as Haplozooit clynicnellae, the parasitic 
dinoflagellate from the annelid, Clymenella 
torquata, and the gregarine, Schizocystis 
sipunculi from the gephyrean worm, Phasco- 
losoma gouldii. 

Field work with the protozoa is carried on 
during the first Saturday of the course. All 
species taken at a given habitat during the 
morning field trip are kept together in clean 
glass dishes. The entire afternoon is spent 
in identifying such species as the combined 
efforts of the class and instructors can ac- 
complish. Determinations of the pH of the 
water from each habitat have been made 
during the last three years and the motile 
phase of different protozoans has been stud- 
ied. The list of protozoa which have been 
identified is on record and gives an interest- 
ing and valuable picture of the protozoan 
fauna of this region. 

Fori f era: There has been no change 
worthy of comment in the work on Porifera 
during the years under consideration. 

Coelenterata and Ctcnophom: In gener- 
al, treatment of these phyla varies slightly 
from year to year due to the variation in sea- 
sonal growth of the coelenterates and cteno- 
phores of the region. Representatives of the 
genera mentioned in Alice's account are 
available for study by the class. Living 
Aurelia are obtainable about every other 
year. Unfortunately the typical ctenophore 
of the region, Mnemiopsis leidyi, has in the 
past been present only during the closing 
part of the course. Living specimens of this 
species are studied after field trips at that 
time. Since 1929 the course has begun in 
August and as a result all of the previous 
difficulties in regard to living ctenophores 
have been removed. Unfortunately some of 
the better known hydroids such as Tubularia 
are no longer available at this time; this is 
compensated for by the fact that Pennarm, 
usually very scarce early in July, is at its 
period of greatest abundance during August. 
Platyhelminthes, Nemertinea, Nemathel- 
minthes and Trochelminthes: 



The treatment of these phyla has under- 
gone extensive modification since 1922. As 
in the previous groups the schedule of study 
is rather elastic. Due to the diverse prep- 
aration of the class, consisting as it does of 
selected advanced students, every opportu- 
nity is given for individual work; only very 
general directions are made and students are 
advised to select their material in such a 
way as to gain the most e.xtensive acquaint- 
ance possible with the functions, structures 
and habits of these animals. 

In the laboratory work on Platyhelminthes 
the following studies are suggested. (1) 
The study of the role of cilia and muscles in 
locomotion using the fresh-water triclads, 
Planaria nuiculata, Phagocata gracilis and 
Dendrocoelum Uicteum; the marine triclads, 
Bdelloura Candida or Syncoelidium pelluci- 
dum (both from the gill books of Limulus) 
and Procerodes wheatlandi, also the marine 
acoele Polychoerus caudatus. (2) The me- 
chanics of proboscis action; the single 
pharynx of Planaria and the multiple pha- 
rynges of Phagocata are observed as they 
are extruded under the influence of 7% ether 
water. (3) Feeding experiments. (4) Mor- 
phology of living specimens of Bdelloura or 
Syncoelidium including observation of the 
flame cells. (5) Regeneration experiments. 
If, as frequently happens, the student has al- 
ready performed such experiments on Pla- 
naria, he is advised to do more extensive e.x- 
periments in regeneration or to carry on a 
comparative study of this in several species. 
Planaria foremanni is especially favorable 
for this work, its dark color contrasting 
sharply with that of the unpigmented regen- 
erating tissue. (6) Demonstrations of egg 
capsules and newly hatched young of vari- 
ous species. 

Laboratory work on the Trematodes in- 
cludes (1) Morphology of living Pneumonc- 
ces vibex, a fluke found commonly in the 
pharynx of the puffer, Spheroides maculosa. 

(2) Sporocysts of different ages are obtained 
by stirring vigorously the crushed bodies of 
50 or more mud-snails (Alectrion obsoleta) 
in sea water, decanting off half the liquid 
and examining the material which settles out 
of it. The older stages contain Cercarium 
lintonl which has apparently no redia stage. 

(3) Rediae are obtained in quantity from the 
liver of the European periwinkle (Litorina 
littorea) in certain regions, particularly 
those most frequented by gulls around 
Woods Hole; these contain developing cer- 
cariae. (4) For cercariae, the tailless Cer- 



44 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



carium lintoni may be used or the more typ- 
ical and active cercaria from Litorina lit- 
torea. 

Laboratory work on the Cestoda is essen- 
tially as described by Allee (1922, pp. 106- 
107). (1) In addition, however, to the 
study of the scolices of the living Rhyncho- 
bothrium bulbifer and CaUiobotlirium vcr- 
ticillatum from the spiral valve of the 
smooth dogfish, study is made of preserved 
scolices of Taenia, Moniezia, etc., as well as 
of Thysanocephalum and other marine tape- 
worms. (2) The mature proglottids of Rhyn- 
chobothrium, a parasite of the dogfish as 
sand sharks are no longer sufficiently com- 
mon about Woods Hole to provide a depend- 
able source of living Crossohothrium. (3) 
The eggs, discharged when a "ripe" proglot- 
tid is placed in a dish of sea water. (4) Em- 
bryos of Rhynchobothrium following the 
plan instituted by Bowen in 1921 (Allee 
1922, p. 106) . 

Nemertinea: Prior to 1927 the little ne- 
mertean Tetrastemma, commonly found in 
pile scrapings, was studied each year for 
about half a day. In 1927 this exercise was 
discontinued in favor of a study of the free- 
living nematodes of the region although a 
few students each year have studied Tetra- 
stemma. 

Nemathelminthes: Laboratory work in- 
volves the study of various free-living ma- 
rine genera, especially Oncholainium, from 
beach sand a short distance below tide level. 
The sand is washed in pans under a swift 
stream of seawater whereupon the lighter 
organic material consisting of varied assort- 
ments of protozoa, worms, crustaceans, etc., 
is decanted off and concentrated. These ne- 
matodes because of their abundance, trans- 
parency and resistance to the pressure of a 
cover glass are most satisfactory objects for 
study, even under oil immersion. They pos- 
sess, moreover, extensive structural modifi- 
cations not seen in the parasitic forms which 
are the only nematodes familiar to most of 
the class. Through the courtesy of Dr. N. 
A. Cobb, senior nematologist of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, and his staff, 
living and fixed specimens of many other 
common nematodes of the Woods Hole re- 
gion have been demonstrated. In 1927 and 
1928 the class has been fortunate in hearing 
a special illustrated lecture on the Nematoda 
by Dr. Cobb. 

Echinodermata: The Echinoderms, with 
no fresh water representatives, present ma- 
terial which can be studied satisfactorily 



only in a marine laboratory. The first day 
of laboratory work on living starfish in- 
cludes in addition to dissection, a study of 
the details of locomotion, righting reactions 
and movements of isolated arms. By class 
discussion these studies are correlated with J 
the work of Jennings^ Cole\ and Hopkins^ 1 
Class observations confirm and question 
many points made by these workers. Com- 
parative studies of methods of locomotion 
are also made upon members of the Ophiu- 
roidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. These 
studies are suggestive of the different fac- 
tors upon which the evolution of the differ- 
ent classes may have turned. The experi- 
ments of Parker'' on the movements of the 
sand-doUiiY, Echiiiaiachiims ure repeated and j 
help to bring into discussion the theory of a | 
return of bilateral symmetry upon a second- 
arily imposed asymmetry. Experiments to 
test the nature of the adhesive power of the 
tube feet (Cf. Paine") are carried out. Mem- 
bers of different classes of echinoderms are 
used for a comparative study of the cell con- 
■ tent of the perivisceral fluid. The work of 
Kindred'' is followed in some detail. The 
phagocytic nature of the coelomic cells is ob- 
served by microscopic study of the coelomic 
fluid 12 hours after injection of 10 cc. of a 
carmine suspension. Coelomic fluid is ob- 
tained according to the method given by 
Allee, 1922, page 107. 

During the second day and part of the 
third the study of Arbacia includes the spe- 
cial study of Aristotle's lantern as an in- 
strument of mastication, respiration and 
locomotion (Gemmill, 1912'). The study of 
the embryology of the starfish is deferred 
until the third day since experience has 
shown that the problem of the unique meta- 
morphosis with changes of symmetry, polar- 
ity and body axis becomes clearer to the stu- 
dent after a study of the adult structure. 
The embryological material is obtained by 
following Dr. C. Smith's schedule"^ In order 
to prepare the cultures it is necessary to 
have a large supply of mature male and fe- 
male starfish. At this time, July 15, (ac- 
cording to the class schedule for the years 
preceding 1929) the average number of such 
starfish is about 1 to 2 in 30 animals. This 
difficulty has been overcome by having the 
laboratory assistant select and save mature 
specimens for two weeks beforehand. Con- 
dition of the gonad is determined by remov- 
ing an arm and making a microscopic study 
to determine percentage of fertility of the 
eggs. From such mature specimens cul- 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



45 



tures are started and maintained. Mature 
females thus tested and kept in an aquarium 
have been seen to take the umbrella position 
and to extrude clouds of mature eggs. This 
process may be stimulated to occur by intro- 
ducing strong sperm suspensions into the 
aquarium. Such a starfish if removed to a 
crystallizing dish will continue to give off 
mature eggs for about half an hour and from 
these eggs the best cultures are obtained. 
Normal shedding of eggs does not frequently 
occur under laboratory conditions but fac- 
tors which favor this process are at a max- 
imum when selected females are stimulated. 

On the last day of laboratory, students 
study Lcptosyiiapta and Thyone independ- 
ently. The technique for securing anaesthe- 
tized Thyone has been improved by using a 
carefully prepared and specially kept chlore- 
tone solution. A chloretone solution made 
saturated by heating and kept in a bottle 
filled to capacity to prevent volatilization re- 
tains the concentration of chloretone. If 
15cc of such a solution is inoculated into a 
living fresh Thyone the animal relaxes in 
half an hour and the tentacles may be forced 
out by gentle manipulation. In work on the 
echinoderms experience has shown that the 
interest of the class is best secured by the 
discussion and repetition of recent investiga- 
tion of animals of this phylum. 

Annelida: Since this group illustrates 
how a simple body plan may be highly mod- 
ified in various habitats, the laboratory work 
is introduced by a comparative study of the 
external features and activities of a series 
of living worms. For this purpose the fol- 
lowing were selected : Nereis Virens, Gly- 
cera, Lepidonotus, Diopatra, Amphitritc and 
Hydroides. The specimens are placed in 
large crystallizing dishes containing fresh 
sea water and the students are asked to 
make a study of variations in cephalization, 
modifications in the parapodia, various types 
of movements and to correlate their obser- 
vations with the habitats in which the worms 
live. The method used by Copeland" with 
Nereis is employed in the study of these an- 
nelids. Each student is furnished with short 
pieces of glass tubing of suitable size and 
asked to find out which of the specimens will 
enter the tubes. It is found that both Nereis 
and Diopatra will usually enter the tubes and 
remain there. When the woi-m is in the 
tubes students can easily distinguish be- 
tween respiratory and locomotor movements. 
In the case of Diopatra the method of tube 
building is easily seen. Shortly after Dio- 



patra enters a glass tube it secretes a layer 
of mucus around the body, attaches this to 
one end of the glass tube and then rotates. 
In this manner a mucus tube is produced 
which immediately invests the body. Par- 
ticles of seaweed, shells, etc., are taken by 
the worm and cemented to the end of the 
glass tubing. In a number of instances 
worms built an extension of an inch or more 
on the end of the glass tubing in the course 
of a day. 

In addition to a study of the structure of 
typical annelids of the region, e.g.. Nereis, 
Glycera, Arenicola, etc., a comparative study 
of the parapodia of Nephythys, Nereis vi- 
rens, Glycera dibranchiata, Arabella opalina 
and Diopatra cuprea is made. Thus a series 
ranging from the uniramous to the com- 
pletely biramous condition is studied and at 
the same time the modification of parapodia 
in different parts of the body is noted. (Ma- 
terial for this study is prepared in accord- 
ance with instructions left by Dr. R. H. 
Bowen.) The worms are hardened and seg- 
ments are cut off with a sharp scissors. 
These are dehydrated in alcohol and cleared 
with oil of wintergreen. 

A concluding study of development is 
made of the larvae of Hydroides and Nereis 
limbata as well as of the brood pouch of 
Spirorbis. 

Bryozoa: Live polypides, cystids, ovicells, 
avicularia and spines of Bugula flabellata are 
compared with those of Bugula turrita. Cili- 
ary action and feeding reactions are also 
studied on these animals as types of endo- 
proct Bryozoa. Barentsia sp., a typical en- 
doproct is obtained by suspending glass 
slides in racks from the eel pond float for 
about three weeks. An especial effort is 
made during the day to have students fa- 
miliarize themselves, by study of zooarial 
features, with such erect or stolonate forms 
as Aetca, Crisia, Boiverbankda and with en- 
crusting forms, as Lepralia, Schizoporella, 
Membranipora and Flustrella, all of which 
are common to the district and are met with 
over and over again by students. 

Arthropoda (Crustacea only): The study 
of Arthropoda comprises only a considera- 
tion of Crustacea and of Limulus. One after- 
noon is given over to study of tow which in- 
cludes many crustaceans. The lobster and' 
crab, including either the blue crab, Calli-. 
nectes, or the rock crab. Cancer, are used for 
a complete dissection study. : 

A comparative study is made of crusta- 
cean appendages but this has been consider--' 



46 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



ably modified during recent years. It has 
been felt that it was unnecessary to stress 
too heavily the principles of homology and 
serial homology as these are usually well 
taught in every college in the land. 

Accordingly this exercise was modified to 
form a comparative study of the external 
features of representative malacostraca. In 
this modified exercise the nature of the ap- 
pendage and homology are taken into con- 
sideration and also such aspects as body 
form, body regions, presence or absence of 
carapace, nature of abdominal segments, etc. 
Points stressed in this study are also of defi- 
nite diagnostic value. Thus they are feat- 
ures which, since they may be used as a basis 
of identification in the field, serve to coordi- 
nate in this respect the work of laboratory 
and field. 

Study of Tow: This takes place in the lab- 
oratory although members of the class have 
the opportunity of observing methods of 
taking tow. Materials from Woods Hole 
passage and from the Fish Commission dock 
on both east and west tides have given con- 
sistently good material. That this serves as 
a good introduction to the study of plankton 
forms of the region is seen by the classified 
records of forms studied. To provide 
against the possibility of not having good, 
characteristic, living tow it has always been 
the practice to secure and preserve in forma- 
lin several batches on days previous to that 
of the exercise. It has rarely been neces- 
sary to use this preserved material. 

Study of Lepas: An excellent method for 
this study has been worked out. The carina 
is carefully removed and, using a sharp sec- 
tioning razor, median sagittal sections of 
each animal are cut. Specimens prepared in 
this way make excellent material for the 
study of the structure of Lepas. Not infre- 
quently the sections show the greater part 
of the nerve cord and in practically every 
case the arrangement and relations of the 
internal organs are obvious. Further dis- 
section can also readily be made. In 1927 
large Lapas anatifcra were brought from the 
whistling buoy near the south shoal. Such 
individuals on account of the extra large size 
are rather more favorable for study, and 
exceptionally good sections are preserved for 
demonstration and study on succeeding 
years. 

The activities of Balanus cburncus are 
studied regularly. Usually, shortly after 
placing adult specimens in finger bowls the 
metanauplius larbae are shed. Unless these 



are removed as soon as possible after shed- 
ding is completed the lai'vae are captured by 
the long raking movements of the thoracic 
appendages of the adult and devoured. 

Living Heteromysis have been used in re- 
cent years for comparison with the "Mysis" 
stage of the lobster. (Michtheimysis is not 
found in July in the Woods Hole region al- 
though its larger size would make it a more 
satisfactory form for study.) In addition 
to living Heteromysis, preserved specimens, 
dehydrated by the usual method and cleared 
in synthetic oil of wintergreen (methyl sali- 
cylate) are available for study. Mysis 
stages of the lobster are somewhat infre- 
quently obtained alive; preserved specimens 
are used when living ones are not available. 

Limuliis: Well advanced embryos of Li- 
mulus are secured during the last week in 
June. Several hundred are placed in a 
fingerbowl and exposed to sunlight and air. 
These usually develop so that they are at or 
near the hatching point some four or five 
weeks later and are used to illustrate the so- 
called "trilobite" larval stage of Limulus. 

The Dissection of Limulus: An entirely 
new method of preparing Limulus for dis- 
section has been worked out by Dr. E. C. 
Cole and has proved so satisfactory that it 
has entirely superseded the method former- 
ly used in the course. By means of saw cuts 
the entire dorsal part of the carapace can be 
separated from the rest of the animal with- 
out difficulty and removed without injurying 
the softer parts of the animal. If the eyes 
are carefully cut around it is possible to 
trace the optic nerves to their endings in the 
eyes by this method. Animals may be pre- 
pared for dissection in a little over one min- 
ute using a small saw. 

Mollusca: The trend which in recent 
years the work on the Mollusca has followed 
can be briefly stated. Lankester has said of 
the mollusca: "However diversified the ex- 
ternal configuration of the molluscan body, 
the internal organization, at least in its main 
features and in young forms, preserves a re- 
markable uniformity." The group is homo- 
geneous, sharply defined and its members 
are easily recognized. The mollusca also af- 
ford a very good instance of progressive 
modification and evolution of organic struc- 
ture. It would be difficult to name a group 
of the animal kingdom in which relation- 
ships can be more clearly determined and 
the pedigree of the sub-groups more cer- 
tainly traced; and for this reason no phy- 
lum in recent years has yielded such fruit- 



JVLY 4. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



47 



fill results to the investigator. Under Dr. 
A. E. Severinghaus the molluscan work has 
gone on with a singleness of purpose; it has 
been a serious attempt to justify the above 
statements both through the lectures and the 
laboratoiy. To accomplish this end within 
five days it was imperative to make the 
lectures and the laboratory largely comple- 
mentary. In the former it was the pur- 
pose to discuss as many of the important 
researches related to the molluscs as time 
permitted, especially those concerned with a 
better undei'standing of the coelom and the 
haemocoele, with their related organ sys- 
tems. A discussion of the origin of these 
important body cavities opened up some of 
the most interesting literature in inverte- 
brate morphology, and gave the opportunity 
of introducing to the students in a related 
way the lives and work of such men as 
Haeckel, Gegenbaur, Leuekart, Kowalevsky, 
Hatschek, the Hertwigs, Lankester, Sedge- 
wick and others. It was necessary in such a 
discussion to emphasize the primitive condi- 
tion of the circulatory, nephridial and repro- 
ductive systems, and this happily formed the 
basis for a clearer conception of modified 
molluscan structure as seen in the several 
classes. These modifications were left largely 
for the student to discover from his dissec- 
tions in the laboratory. Each year there is 
in the class a group of students who have 
very little knowledge of molluscan anatomy. 
It is therefore necessary to furnish mollus- 
can type forms for dissection. For this pur- 
pose Chaetopteura, Busycou. and squid are 
used. In order to stress the progressive 
modification and evolution of organic struc- 
tures emphasis was withdrawn from 
such interesting but specialized struc- 



W. ('. Alle... Tlio IiiviTti'liralc I'oursc in Ihi' JIariiio 
iiiloui.iil LalMiratui-y. Hi<il. P,ul'. +1 lllil-l.'Sl. 11122. 

J. A. Kawsoii. TliL' Cultivatliiu of Large Freolivinsj Ame- 
11.-. AlucT. Nat. (J2 ;4.">:i-4l>ll. li)2s. 

H. s. .lenninsN. Bi-havior i<( tlic Starflsh, Asterias for- 
•ri cir I.orial liiiv. C'al. Puli. Ziiol. 4. VM7. 

I,. .1. Ciilc. niriTliDii iif Lin'ipiiKition in the Starfish, 
sli'i-ias fiirhi-si. .1. P;.X|»t. Zcio'. 14.. l'.>i:i. 

.\. K. Hopkins. <Mi Ihi' I'h.vsioloK.v of the Central 
crvous Svsf.-iii in the Starfish, .Vsti-rias tenuispina. J. 

.\iMT. zooi. 14, ifee. 

(i. II. I'arlver. The Locomotion of the Sand-dollar, 
eliinaraihnius. Anal. Roe. .'!1 ::i.T2. 1!>2.~>. 



tures as the odontophore, radula and its 
muscles or the male reproductive apparatus 
of the sciuid and the student was urged to 
spend instead more time on the primitive 
Amphineuran structures and then proceed to 
the comparative study of such constant mol- 
luscan features as the mantle, food, gills, 
muscles and shell. By using this method 
it was hoped that the student would get, 
through his laboratory work, a thorough un- 
derstanding of the primitive type of mollusc 
and some insight into the origin and devel- 
opment of structures discussed in the lect- 
ures. It is believed that there is little merit 
in acquiring by daily dissections an accumu- 
lation of knowledge concerning the varied 
structures of molluscan types or any other 
types for that matter if this knowledge is 
to be an end in itself. It is to be hoped that 
the student caught this attitude and that 
molluscs and members of other phyla will be 
remembered solely as illustrations in the fas-: 
cinating stoiy of invertebrate development. 
Chordata: This work does not differ ma- 
terially from that of previous years al- 
though in the last two years the study of 
living Dolichoglossus has been supplemented 
by the use of cross sections of proboscis, col- 
lar, gill and gonad regions serving to bring 
out the relations of the proboscis organs, of 
the gill mechanism and of the gonads. The 
slides formerly used for the study of the 
Bryozoa are kept over in aquaria and are 
again available for study of early stages of 
Botnjllus and not infrequently Ciona and 
other ascidians. Such slides represent the 
development taking place in six weeks. As 
usual the last afternoon is spent in the inde- 
pendent study of Botryllus or Amaroucium. 
{To be concluded in the July 11th issue) 

7. V. I-. Pnine, Adhesion of the Tul)e Feet in Starfish J. 

E.xper. Zool. W:Mn-:i(]l'>. 1020. 

R. .1. K. Kindred, The Cellular Elements in the Perivisceral 

Fluid of Kehinodernis. Biol. Bull. 40:228-251, 1924. 

!►. .1. I'". Cteniinlll. The Locomotor Function of the Lantern 

in lOehinus, willi Ohservations on other Allied Activities. 

I'roc. It<..v. Sue. Lon. Ser. B. Ha-.M. 1»12. 

10. r. Smith, .\pproxiniate Schedule for Stages in Echino- 
derm nc'Velopmonl, etc. Biol. Bull. 41:120-121. 1922. 

11. M, Copi'I.iiid and H. L,. WIenian, The Chemical Sense 
and Fcediiif^ Kcdiavior of Nereis virens Sars. Biol. Bull. 47: 
2M-2:iS. 11124. 



CHEMICAL ROOM 

Dr. Oscar W. Richards 
Instructor in Biology, Yale University 



The Chemical Room .supplies chemicals 
glass ware, clamps and support stands for use 
only at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Spe- 
cial Apparatus, batteries, gauges and reducing 
valves for gas cylinders are issued at the Ap- 
paratus Room (Brick Bldg. room 216). Sup- 
plies that are to be used by investigators else- 



where, such a.s microscope slide.s, cover glass- 
es, shell vials, etc., may be obtained at the 
Supplv Department (Frame Bldg. back of 
Brick"Bldg.) 

The following standardized solutions will be 
furnished in limited quantities during the sea- 
son of 193L Special solutions, buffers, glass 



48 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



distilled water, and pH standards should be 
ordered at least two days before they are 
needed. 

N 1.000 (with faetor in the ith place) 



Sulphuric acid 
Sodium Hydroxide 



Sodium hydroxide 
Borate pH 7.6-10.0 



Acetic acid 
Hydrochloric acid 

N 6.100 

Hydrochloric acid 
Buffer mixtures 

Acetate pH 3.()-5.() 

Phosphate pH 5.1-8.0 

Acetate-citrate pH 2.2-8.0 (Mcllvaine) 
Indicators — Clark and Lubs series. 
Color tube standard.s — on special order. 
Glass distilled water — on special order. 

For other standards inquire of the person 
in charge at the Chemical Room. 

Attention is invited to the Formulae and 
Mctliods jniblished by the Chemical Room in 
Tin; COLLKCTING Net (1930) for the composi- 
tion of solutions and stain solubilities. Copies 
may be obtained at The Collecting Net 

office. 

Certain common tools are available at the 
Chemical Room for temporary loan to inves- 
tiirators. In order that maximum use be made 



of these, it is requested that they be returned 
within 2'i hours. When needed by other inves- 
tigators they are subject to recall and will 
then be collected by the janitors. 

Supplies no longer needed will be collected 
if word is left at the Chemical room. 

Investigators are urged to co-operate with 
the Chemical Room by cleaning their glass- 
ware before returning it at the completion of 
their work. If the investigator will place his 
name on the Bulletin Board of the Chemical 
Room the janitors will return his supplies on 
the date indicated. 

When the investigator is continuing the 
same work in the same room during the next 
season his supplies may be retained in the 
room if they are listed on a Kept Out card 
(furnished at the Chemical Room window) 
and the card left with the supplies. All sup- 
plies not so listed will be returned by the jani- 
tors. Should the investigator be unable to re- 
turn the following summer the supplies will be 
returned to the Chemical Room stocks if they 
or the room is needed by other investigators. 

Small amounts of special solutions will be 
kept during the winter for investigators in the 
Chemical Room on request. Supplies that may 
be injured by freezing should not be left in 
tile wooden buildings. 



nir. 



MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ALGAE 

Dr. William Randolph Taylor 
■ctor of the Course in Botany, Professor of Botany. University of Michigan 



The plant group known as the Algae holds 
particular scientific interest in that it is a central 
one from which most, quite possibly all, other 
plant groups have been derived. At the same 
time it merges with the lines from which holozoic 
flagellates have come. Most algal groups by con- 
trast have also established highly specialized 
evolutionary lines, contrasting in their advanced 
types with the generalized ones still extant. With 
this very great morphological diversity there is 
associated a wide range of physiological adapta- 
tion, and most extraordinary ecological associa- 
tion and distribution. As the algae are of an- 
cient lineage there is a considerable paleobotanical 
history known in several groups, though for most 
there is, from the soft character of the organisms, 
no record. Their activity in laying down vast 
siliceous strata and as dominant influences in 
forming tropical reefs is continuing today. 
Economically their significance as the prime 
aquatic food source is obvious, and becoming in- 
creasingly exploited. Other more direct services, 
as for chemicals recovered by treatment, are 
also available, and slowly advancing in importance 
with us. 



In .'\merica the number of persons sufficiently 
well informed respecting the algae, marine or 
freshwater, has never been high enough to ac- 
complish even the pioneer cataloging of these 
plants over the country as a whole, let alone much 
monographic work of importance. Ten to five 
years ago the number of active investigators 
reached its low point, and there is now an in- 
creasing group developing and publishing in al- 
gal distriijution. ecology and limnology. Some 
of these are former students in the Woods Hole 
course, and with the stimulus of association, com- 
petition and the training of more investigators, a 
much improved situation may be expected by the 
close of the next decade. Physiological studies 
involving algae have been rather limited in scope, 
principally due to the lack of information as to 
availability and individual characteristics of de- 
sirable types. Such intensive investigations as 
have used Spirogyra, Nitella, Valonia and Volvox 
will be matched with other algae and with dif- 
ferent problems. 

The course on algae at Woods Hole aims to 
give a general survey of the group first of all, for 
nowhere else in this country is it possible to do 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



49 



so as effectively and with living material of fresh- 
water and marine types. There is but one other 
laboratory known to the writer which (under 
severe climatic limitations) attempts this task. 
This is an unescapable duty, for until someone 
lays the foundation there is no advanced training 
])ossible. In this general survey there is incor- 
])orated a study of the morphology and evolution 
of the groups based on a skeleton of the systemat- 
ic classification. The striking physiological pe- 
culiarities of the various types are outlined, but 
no detailed general physiological exposition is 
practicable. This is due first to the fact that as 
yet we have only scattered observations, preclud- 
ing generalization, and to the fact that the stu- 
dents have yet to secure that morphological back- 



ground which would enable physiological dis- 
cussions to be applied to the material. Enough 
of the fossil history of the groups is given to in- 
troduce the student to the topic. The ecological 
aspect is mainly approached in the field trips, 
which likewi.se introduce the student to the in- 
volved problem of recognition, collection and 
conservation of the living material. Since this 
country is yet in the pioneering stage where col- 
lection, identification and cataloging are desper- 
ately needed, the class is introduced to the tech- 
nique and literature involved. During designated 
periods each week and at the end of the course 
opportunity and encouragement are offered for 
the initiation and prosecution of investigations in 
the various ramifications of this study. 



BOOK REVIEW 



Fundamentals of Health. {The Human Organ- 
ism. Its Development and Conservation.) By 
T. Bruce Kirkpatrick and Alfred F. Huettner. 
567 pp. (illustrated). Ginn & Co., $3.80. 



In the homes of all intelligent people, there is 
frequent demand for a compact, well-expressed 
and clearly written statement concerning the 
human body and its functions. Not only does 
the younger generation need to have such 
reference material at its disposal, but most adults 
have at least occasional calls to refresh their 
minds and bring their own knowledge up to date. 
Fundamentals of Health, written as a college 
text-book of hygiene, serves this purpose in a 
most admirable manner. It is intended to give 
a "more substantial amount of scientific informa- 
tion concerning the origin, the development, and 
the functional characteristics of the human body, 
a basis for the formation of appropriate habits 
and attitudes concerning health." 

In a direct and simple manner, T. Bruce Kirk- 
patrick, associate professor of physical education 
at Columbia University, and Alfred F. Huettner, 
associate professor of biology at New York Uni- 
versity, review the basic principles of evolution 
and trace the development of the, individual 
through the embryonic stages of growth, which 
they correctly regard as an important period in 
the life span of the individual. A well-balanced 
discussion of genetics and human inheritance 
gives information concerning chromosomes, genes, 
sex linkage and inheritance, environment and 
heredity, inherited defects and susceptibility to 
disease. 

In order to present intelligently the subject of 
foods and nutrition, the authors give a per- 
liminary description of the chemical and physical 
properties of human protoplasm, the structure 
and functions of the alimentary system, the 



nutritive requirements of the body and the 
measurement of food values. An important sec- 
tion of this part of the book deals with the factors 
which determine food requirements and includes 
interesting height and weight tables for children 
and adults. The vitamins receive their due share 
of consideration, and their u.ses in prolonging a 
healthy life span are cited. 

As "health is fundamentally the state of an 
organism which enables it most successfully to 
make appropriate adjustments to its environ- 
ment," a consideration of the role of the muscles 
and their activity is necessary to appraise the 
importance of motor activity in relation to health. 
The heart and its circulation are also described 
from this same point of view ; various disorders 
of the arteries and veins are discussed, together 
with an explanation of the effects on the heart of 
focal infections, drugs and tobacco. 

Chapters on respiration and excretion are fol- 
lowed by an equally interesting section on nervous 
and emotional adjustments. The two succeeding 
chaptersl> deaJing with the glands of internal 
secretion and with sex and reproduction, form 
one of the most important portions of the book. 
The directness and completeness of the treatment 
of these topics, grossly neglected in many books 
in hygiene, places Fundamentals of Health in the 
category of modern scientific literature which 
recognizes no need for undue reticence regarding 
these vital subjects. A consideration of immunity, 
immunization and public health problems brings 
the reader in contact with the social aspects of 
hygiene, and concludes this excellent treatise. 

(Signed) Arthur H. Compton 
Edwin G. Conklin 
(Copyright by the KiRTLEV F. Mather 
cicicntiftc Book K^lub. tt t-< o 

Reprinted with Spec- "arLAN T. StetSON 
ial Permission.) EdWARD L. ThORNDIKE 



so 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. Vi. No. 42 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific ivork 

at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Griffin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 



The Beach Question 

Recently there has Ijeen much discussion con- 
cerning tlie curtaihiient of the bathing privileges 
at the Breakwater beach. A fence has been 
erected which runs down into the water exclud- 
ing from use the finer and larger portion of the 
beach which has been for so long enjoyed by 
laboratory people and residents of Woods Hole. 
The post farthest from the shore extends well 
below mean high water. Many people claim that 
the land below the mean high water mark is 
public property and that formal permission must 
be obtained from the State of Massachusetts 
before placing any permanent structure below 
that point. We understand that this has not 
been done. 

However, whether or not the action that has 
been taken is legal, it is not courteous. The 
owners of the property bordering the beach state 
that swarms of children in the day time and 
boisterous parties at night made conditions in- 
tolerable. Why could not the disagreeable 
features be eliminated without amputating a large 
portion of the beach solely for private use. W'e 
respectfully submit the following suggestion to 
the property owners north of the fence on the 
Breakwater beach : 

IVe recommend that the courtesy of the 
northern portion of the beach be extended to 
adidt members of the three scientific institutions 
betiveen the hours of sunrise and sunset. 

This arrangement would seem to eliminate all 
the objections that have been advanced by the 
property owners. Their scientific colleagues 
would be grateful for these privileges, and as 
guests, would respect every wish of their hosts. 

A Book Service 

This year the ofifice of The Collecting Net 
is prepared to obtain books for members of the 
scientific institutions at Woods Hole. We will 
confine ourselves primarily to books in the 
field of science, but we are ready to order 
any book which may be required during 
the summer. Soon we will have assembled in our 
library all the important books that have been 
published in the field of biology in the United 
States since last September which especially 
concern the Woods Hole group. Our library will 



be open all day and we hope that members of the 
laljoratories will feel free to- examine the books 
and use the comfortdile couch and chairs. 

b'-ach time a book is sold a sum of money equal 
to the agent's discouiit will be ttirned over to 
The Collecting Net Scholarship Fuiid. The 
magazine will pay every cost involved in the 
transaction. Long ago sortieone reiliarked that it 
would be desirable to use any profits that niight 
result from publishing The Collecting Net in 
the ini])rovement of the journal rather than 
diverting it to the Fund ; and then use' the 
magazine as an agency to oljtain the scholarship 
money in other ways. \Ve have decided that this 
Ijolicy is tlie wisest one to adopt. 



. Directory Additions and Corrections 

THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 
Anderson, R. S. res. a.ssoc. Princeton. 
Atlas, M. .nsst. cnih. Columbia. Br 314. Dr 14. 
Austin, Mary L. asst. prof. zool. Br 217B. Nickerson, 

Quissett. 
Bakwin, H. a-ist. i)rot'. pathol. New York. OM 38. 

Tinkhani, ("Jardiner. 
Bakwin, Rutii iiistr. New York. OM 38. Tinkham, 

Gardiner. 
Ball, E. G. instr. jiliys. cliem. Hopkins Med. Br 110. 

Veeder, West. 
Butt, C. res. asst. Princeton. Br 116. Sylvia, Millfield. 
Carabelli, A. A. med. stud. Pennsylvania. Br 114. 
Castle, W. A. instr. Idol. Brown. Br 233. Kittila, Bar 

Neck. 
Dunbar, F. F. grad. asst. zool. Columbia. Br 333, Wal- 

bice (Falmouth). 
Einarson, L. res. tel. Harvard Med. Br 108. A 107. 
Eyre, Sara W. res. .asst. Long Island. OM 4.5. D 200. 
Favilli, G. asst. Inst, of Gen. Patliology, Royal (Flor- 
ence, Italy) Br 208. PJlliot, Center. 
Graliam, C. H; nat. res. fel. Pennsylvania. Br 231. 

Hilton, Main. 
Green, Arda A. res. fel. phvs. chem. Harvard Med. Br 

108. Grinnell, West. 
Hartline, H. K. fel. nied. physics Pennsylvania. Br 231. 

McLeish, Millfield. 
Johnson, H. H. Col. City of N. Y. Br 315. White, 

Millfield. 
Loebel, R. O. Ru.ssell Sage fel. Cornell Med. Br 340. 

Nickerson, Church. 
Margolin, S. grad. proto. Columbia. Br 314. Avery, 

Main. 
Morris, Helen grad. Columbia. Bot. Mclnnis, Millfield. 
Nelsen, O. E. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. OM 21. K 9. 
Oltmann, Clara Columbia. OM 34. W h. 
Reznikoff, P. instr. med. Cornell Med. Br 340. Mc- 

Kenzie, Pleasant. 
Rugh, R. instr. zool. Hunter. Br 217M. D 303. 
Schuett, J. F. zool. Chicago. Br 332. North. 
Scott, Florence M. aSst. prof. biol. Seton Hill. Br 217D. 

Nickerson. Millfield. 
Sickles, Grace asst. bacteiiol. N. Y. State Dept. Ilealtli. 

Br 122. Y'oung, West. 
Turner, J. P. instr. zool. Alinnesota. Br 217N. Grin- 
nell, West. 

OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION 
Bigelow, Elizabeth 100. Luscombe, Main. 
Lambert, .\nne 10.5. Young, West. 
Redfield, A. C. prof. phys. Harvard. 103. Price, 

Church. 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



51 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



IDr. and Mrs. John M. Fogg, Jr. sailed from 
New York City on Saturday, June 27, to spend 
the summer in Italy. Dr. Fogg has published 
recently in Rhodora on "The Flora of the Eliz- 
abeth Island.s, Massachusetts." In pursuing his 
studies of these islands. Dr. Fogg spent a number 
of summers at Woods Hole, and for part of the 
time was collector for the Botany course. Td 
tliose who are unacquainted with the story of the 
islands. Dr. Fogg's publication provides a very 
interesting. description of their locations and early 
history which is well worth reading. 



On Monday morning the statue of Confucius 
which ordinarily stands in the foyer of the 
ialioratory was found in front of the bulletin 
l)oard at the Mess Hall. During the night two 
young men had transported it in a wheelbarrow 
and left it with a bunch of daisies in its hands to 
greet those coming in to breakfast. After break- 
fast the statue was returned to its usual post. 



Research workers, teachers, students and their 
friends are invited by Dr. and Mrs. Warbasse to 
the grounds of Gladheim, to walk the paths and 
to visit the gardens and the Point at all times. 
There are miles of winding foot paths about the 
grounds which offer views and vistas of the water 
:uid the foliage in fascinating variety and beauty. 
The sign at the entrance of the property, which 
proclaims. "Visitors Welcome," means precisely 
what it savs. 



In order that "scientists visiting Woods Hole 
might have the advantages of prompt service and 
an opportunity to compare microscopes of dif- 
erent types, the firm of Carl Zeiss, Inc. has 
established an office and exhibition room at 
Woods Hole. It is located on Main Street 
opposite the Oceanographic Institution, and 
visitors are always welcome. Charles P. Titus, 
former president of the New York Microscopical 
Society and of the New Jersey Chemical Society 
is in charge. Mr. Titus conducted a School of 
Microsco])y in New York for several years, 
where students received assistance in their special 
])roblems and difficulties. Facilities are also 
available for advice and help in the field of 
photomicrograi)hy, and during the summer it is 
expected that demonstrations of procedure will 
be made. 



Mr. Victor M. E. Koch, vice-president of Carl 
Zeiss, Inc. will also be at the Zeiss office until the 
end of July. He and his wife and daughter. Miss 
[immie Koch, are staying at The Breakwater 
Hotel. 



The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory 

A number of research workers from the Labor- 
atory went over to the Roscoe B. Jackson 
Memorial Laboratory, Wednesday evening, June 
i4th to attend the first of a series of seminars on 
cancer research. Miss Fekete was the speaker of 
the evening. She has been studying the histology 
of mammary glands in cancerous and non-can- 
cerous strains of mice and gave a very interesting 
paper on the subject, which was followed by a 
lively discussion. After the seminar. Dr. C. C. 
Little took the members of this Laboratory on a 
])ersonally conducted tour of the Jackson Memo- 
rial Laboratory. 

The Laboratory will hold its annual Fourth of 
[uly i)icnic on Saturday afternoon at three o'clock 
on the shore in front of Dr. Lewis's cottage. 
Research workers and their families are cordially 
invited. 

A limited amount of property called "The Mc- 
Cagg Tract" is owned by the Laboratory in Salis- 
bury Cove. This land has been divided up into 
lots which are suitable for building and which 
are for sale to research workers on the condition 
that they will build a private dwelling thereon 
within a year. Within the last two years Dr. 
Esther F. Byrnes of Brooklyn, N. Y., Dr. Robert 
W^ Hegner, Baltimore, Md., Dr. Margaret M. 
Hoskins. New York City, and Dr. Warren H. 
Lewis, Baltimore, Md., have purchased lots and 
built summer cottages. Dr. E. K. Marshall, Jr., 
Baltimore, Md., has just applied for Lot No'; 6' 
which is adjacent to Dr. Lewis's property. 

Dr. Duncan S. Johnson of Johns Hopkins 
University, and son, David, paid the Laboratory a 
brief visit last week. Dr. Johnson is spending the 
summer at Woods Hole as a member of the 
National Research Council. 

Fr.Tnces E. Snow, LaV)orator,v Sei'i-et.iry 



Dr. Albert Russell Mann, dean of the New 
York State Colleges of Agriculture and Home 
Economics at Cornell, has been elected provost 
of the university, an office newly created by the 
hoard of trustees. He has been at the head of the 
College of Agriculture for the last fifteen years. 



Correction 

The last two paragraphs at the end of Dr. 
.'\niberson's article on the physiology course 
belonged to the article by Dr. Goodrich on the 
embryology course. In paging our printer mixed 
the type and our proof reader failed to notice this 
unfortunate error. Dr. Amberson wishes em- 
phasis placed upon the fact that a course in the 
embryology of the chick is not one of the entrance 
requirements for the physiology course ! 



52 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 





^'-'isilili' 


^ 


1 


jjpl^ 


'^«'-. 


1 


p 


>"::. ', 


j'g'^' 


p 


- 




-•-■. .\ .^' " 


- -' i 




Spalteholz 

Transparent 

Preparatiuns 

Human 

and 

Zoological 




Model of Human Heart 



Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for physiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, e'c. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name of school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

Visit our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Rooms and Museum 



117-119 EAST 24th STREET 




Life History 
of Chick 



NEW YORK 



ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Environment 

Established 1920. Quarterly. Ofticial Publication of the 
Ecological Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for complete volumes (Jan, to Dec.) Parts of vulunies 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Foreign 
postage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investiffattons bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Established 1916. Bimonthly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete volumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number rale. 
Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $7,00 each. Foreign postage: 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to AH Branches of Botanical Science 

Established 1914. Monthly, except August and Sej)- 
tember. Official Publication of the Botanical Society of 
America, Subscription, $7 a year fur complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number 
rate. Volumes 1-18 complete, as available, $146, Single 
numbers, $1.00 each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
on request. Foreign postage: 40 cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

Volume 1: 33 contributions by various authors on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ecology, plant 
geography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.50 plus 
postage. 

Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part I. 
The vegetation of Montauk, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1923. 108 pp. Price, $1.00. 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Barrington Moore and Nor- 
man Taylor. 151 pp., 27 text- figs., vegetation map in 
colors. June 10, 1927. Price, $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
lOM Washington Ave. Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. A. 



E&A 



f> 



(TESTED PURITY) 

CHEMICALS 



Represent the highest quality c. p. chemicals 
obtainable. They have been carefully checked 
in our testing laboratory and bear labels 
showing the results of their analyses. 

Many are of American origin, but we draw 
from the best products of the world, insuring 
the user the highest purity at a reasonable 
price. 



For analytical chemicals, 
specify E. & A. 



grade. 



EIMER &L AMEND 



EST. 1851 



INC. 1897 



llciidquartcrs for Laboratory Apf>aratus 
and CliCDiical Reagents. 

Third Ave., 18th to 19th St., New York, N. Y. 



July 4. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



53 




STRENGTH ! 
PRECISION ! 
BALANCE ! 

The stand of Microscope GS, the latest 
B & L laboratory model, is Iheavily 
constructed, finely balanced and beau- 
tifully proportioned. It adds to the 
Bausch & Lomb line an instrument to 
suit the personal preference of those 
who like a somewhat sturdier micro- 
scope that can be easily manipulated 
and nvoved about. 

The arm, which forms a graceful, 
sweeping arc, joins the base just at 
the correct point of balance for max- 
imum stab^ity. The microscope is in proper balance at amy angle between 
the vertical tnd horizontal. The long, straight toes of the base furnish a 
foundation upon which the instrument sets (irmly and squarely. Every 
detail of design calls attention to its stability and sturdiness. 

The optical equipment is the same as that of other B & L 
Laboratory microscopes. 



BAUSCH <SlLOMB OPTICAL CO. 

675 St. Paul Street - - Rochester, N. Y. 




Makers of Orthogon Eyeglass Lenics for Better Vition 



54 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No.. 42 



TURTOX C^ 

rv '"' 

O^ J No. 1 Insects 
No. 2 Aquatic 
Life 
No. 3 Plants 



The Sign of the Tnnox 
Pledges Ab .'oi 




CCI I LCTC'ETS were designed by experienced teachers for the use of 
students in field ccurses. 

For a descriptive circular, illustrating and describing each Gollectoset 
in detail, write to the 

General Biological Supply House 

Inciirl^oratcd 
761-763 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 



The Wistar Institute Slide Tray 



=p 



The ideal tray for displaying or storing slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-lnch, tlirty-two I'i- 
inch, or twenty-four 2-inch slides, and every 
slide is visible at a glance. Owing to the 
nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof ever for 
the one beneath it, while the center ridges as- 
sure protection to high mounts. Made en- 
tirely of metal, they are unbreakable and 
easily kept clean. They form compact stor- 
age units. Twelve hundred 1-inch slides may 
be filed In a space fourteen inches square by 
eight inches high. miCE, $1.00 EACH 

Orders may be sent to 

THE WISTAR INSTITUTE 

Thirty-sixth Street and Woodland Avenue, 
PhiladcIiAUi. Pa. 




eCLD ^IMP SEAL 

Non Corro?:ivi' ^ wSKkS ^ Non-Corroslve 
MICROSCOPIC 

SLIDES -J COVER GLASSES 

Do Net Fog 
\l jour dealer's, or write (giving dealer's name) to 

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1I7-11U lia.st 21tli Street NEW VOKK 



CIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL 
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES 

IN COMPLETE SETS 
Volumes and Back Date Copies For Sale 

B. LOGIN & SON, Inc. 

EST. 1887 
29 EAST 31st STREET NEW YORK 



THE TWIN DOOR 

RESTAURANT AND BAKERY 

G. M. GRANT, Prop. 

Chicken and Liol>ster Dinners 

Waffles 

Main .Street Woods Hole, Mass. 



July 4. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



55 



LEITZ 



Origmated The INCLINED BINOCULAR 

TUBE 

In constructing tliu Inclined Bmocukr Tube, the LeiL/. 
\^'()rks were guided by the desire to lend even 

more coxifort and convenience to 
continued microscope ohseri'ation 
than was oiTercd with ])i-evi()us microscope models. 

The lUnoeular Body witli its inclined oculai 
tul}cs permits the observer to sit at the niicrp- 
scope in a natural upright position. The micro- 
scope does not need to be inclined and conse- 
quently the stage retains its horizontal position 
which is of paricular advantage when using oil 
immersion objectives, when observing material m 
solution, in darkficld work, when using the micro- 
manipulator, etc. 

The Inclined Binocular Tube is available for 
anj' Lcitz Binocular Microscope and can be 
used with everj' one of the three series of 
Leitz iMicro-Objectives (achromatic, fluorite 
and a))ochromatic) as well as with the Huy- 
ghenian and Periplanatic Oculars. This body 
tube is readily interchangeable with everv 
other tube offered for use with Leitz Binocular 
Combination Microscopes. 

No. 22850. Inclined Binocular Tube, - - $75.00 

When ordering- any Leitz Binocular 
Microscope with the 

IncMned Blnccular Tube 

in place of the regular 
vertical binocular body — • 
add to list price of such 

microscopes $25.09 

WRITE FOR PAMPHLET No. 1187 (CN) 




Convenience and Comfort 
For Continued Observation: 



IT MAY BE IN ORDER TO MENTION THAT 

the Leitz Works are credited with originating the majority of 

important developments in micro-constructions. 

Those developments as relate tjo- research microscopes alone are:. 

Handle Aran St,?.nd - Dustproof Nosepiece - Bin-jcular Body Tube 

Interchangeable Feature of Tubes - Ball-Bearln!» Fine Adjustment 

Combinatioin Condensir for Bright and Darldield, etc. 



LEITZ WILL CONTINUE TO CREATE AND ORIGINATE AND THUS CONTRIBUTE TO 

THE DEVELOPMKINT OF SCIENCE 



E. LEITZ, INC. 



60 EAST 10th STREET 



NEW YORK. N. Y. 



S6 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



EXHIBIT IN LECTURE HALL 

JULY 5th - 21st 

July 5th - 21st, under direction of J. A. Kyle 



Biological Life Histories 

Botanical Models 'Brendel' 

Spalteholz Preparations 

Charts: Anatomical, Neurological, etc. 

Skeletal Material, Human and Zoological 

Models, Anatomical and Zoological 

"PROMI" and "PROMAR" Microscopic Drawing and Projection Apparatus 



117-119 East 24th Street 



N. TSIKNAS 

Fruits and Vegetables 

Woods Hole Falmouth 



The Whaler on Wheels 




"Our Wandering Book Shop" 

Miss Iniogene Weeks Miss Helen E. Ellis 

Mr. John Francis 

Will be at Woods Hole Mondays 

tIii-oii<rlu)ut the summer 

season, 

THE WHALER BOOK SHOP 

106 SCHOOL STREET NEW BEDFORD 

Telephone Clifford 110 



New York 



LADIES' end GENTS' TAILORING 

CIei\™ng;, Dyeing and R^pairin-y 

Coats Relined and Altered. Prices Reasoniib'c 

M. DOLINSKY'S 

Main St. Woods H le, Mass. Call 753 



Books in Biology 

arc on sale at 

The Collecting Net 
Office 

We are also prepared to obtain any 
available book. 

Each time a book is sold, all of the agent's 

commission will be turned over to 

THE COLLECTING NET 

Scholarship Fund. 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



57 



The A, B.C. of Woods Hole for 1931 

All Schedules Set to Daylight Savins Time — Bold Type Indicates P. M. 



RELIGIOUS SERVICES 



Church of the Messiah — Episcopal 

Communion 8:00 

Morning Prayer 11:00 

Evening Prayer 7:30 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Morning 10:30 

Evening 7:30 

Thursday Prayer Meeting 8:00 



St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church 

Mass 8:00 and 10:00 



Currents in the Hole 

At the following hours (IJaylight Savings Time) 
lie tiirrent in the hole turns to run from Buzzards 
Hay to Vineyard Sound. A.M. P.M. 

Inly 6 9:45 10:10 

hilv 7 . 10:32 11:03 

Inly 8 11:20 11:55 

Inly 9 12:06 

Iiilv 10 . 12:44 12:57 

Inly 11 1:31 1:40 

July 12 2:24 2:31 

luly 13 3:07 3:19 

July 14 3:58 4:08 

In eaeh case the current changes approximately 
.six hours later and runs from the Sound to the Bay. 
It must 1)0 remembered that the schedule printed 
above is dependent upon the wind. Prolonged 
winds sometimes cause tlie turning of the current 
to occur a half an hour earlier or later than the 
times given above. 

The average speed of the current in tlie hide 
at its maximum is five knots per hour. 



Library 


Hours 






Wednesdays and Saturdays 


3:00- 


5:00 






7:00- 


9:00 


urs 




Telegraph Office Ho 


Week-days 


8:00 


-10 


00 


Sundays 


10:00 


■12 


00 




5:00 


- 7:00 

ours 


Station Ticket Office E 


Week-days 


7:00 


- 6 


00 


closed from 


10:30 


-11 


30 


Sundays 


3:10 


■10:10 

Hours 


Station Baggage Office 


Week-days 


7:00 


- 7 


00 


Sundays Around 


train ti 


me 
rs 


only 


Express Office Hou 


Week-days only 


8:00 


- 5 


30 



Post Office and Mail Hours 



The Post Office opens at 7.00 and closes 
at 7.50. 



Week-days 

* Outgoing Mail closes 

6:45 12:25 5:25 

Incoming Mail 

6:50 10:30 3:35 6:09 



Sundays 

Outgoing Mail closes 

5:55 6:25 

Incoming Mail 10:40 



Laboratory Mail 

Outgoing Incoming 

9:15 11:30 

3:15 4:15 



'Trains leave the station with mail a half hour 
after mails close at the Post Office. 



58 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 42 





BUS 














Woods Hole — 


Falmouth 














l,\. 


Siiinlay 












Lv. Woods Hole 8 


30 9:55 11:00 


1:40 


2:55 4:05 


5:25 


6:35 


7:15 


8:00 


9:30 


Due Falmouth 8 


45 10:10 11:15 


1:55 


3:10 4:20 


5:40 


6:50 


7:30 


8:15 


9:45 


Lv. Falmouth 7:55 9 


15 10:30 11:35 


2:20 


3:30 4:50 


6:00 


6:55 


7:30 


9:00 


11:00 


Due Woods Hole 8:10 9 


30 10:45 11:50 


2:35 


3:45 5:05 


6:15 


7:05 


7:45 


9:15 


11:15 


Bus waits fur Pii-tuie Slupws ami Icaviii;; 


inu'S ot 


9:00 1". M. ami 


11:00 P 


. M. aro 


aiiprdxiinato. 









BOAT SCHEDULE 






For New Bedford 


Woods 


Hole, Oak Bluffs, Vineyard Haven 


and Nantucket 


Leave 


I'ail.v 


Daily 


Dailv 


Daily 


Daily 


Daily 


New Bedford 


7:00 


9:30 


12:05 


2:30 


5:00 


7:45 


Woods Hole 


8:20 


10:50 


1:20 


3:50 


6:20 


9:05 


Oak Bluffs 


9:10 


11:40 


2:10 


4:40 


7:10 




Due Vineyard H. 












9:55 


Due Nantucket 


11:30 


2:00 


4:30 


7:00 


9:30 




Leave 


Dail.v 


Daily 


Daily 


Daily Daily 
ex. Hun. 


Only 
Sun. 


Daily 


Nantucket 




6:30 


9:00 


12:00 2:30 


3:00 


5:00 


Vineyard H. 


6:10 












Oak Bluffs 




9:00 


11:30 


2:00 4:30 


5:00 


7:00 


Woods Hole 


6:55 


9:50 


12:20 


2:50 5:20 


5:50 


7:50 


Due New Bedford 


8:20 


11:30 


2:00 


4:30 7:00 


7:30 


9:. 30 







TRAIN SCHEDULE 










Woods 


Hole to Boston — Week-davs 






Woods Hole 


Mon. only 

7:05 


7:15 10:10 


12:55 


3:20 


5:55 


Falmouth 


7:12 


7:22 10:17 


1:02 


3:27 


6:02 


Boston 


9:05 


9:10 12:30 
Sundays Only 


3:00 


5:40 


8:00 


Woods Hole 


6:25 


8:20 Boston 






8:30 


Falmouth 


6:32 


8:27 Falmouth 






10:32 


Boston 


8:35 

Boston 


10:27 Woods Hole 
to Woods Hole — Week-days 




10:40 


Boston 


7:35 


Sat. only 
8:30 1:06 


1:25 


4:03 


4:47 


Falmouth 


10:20 


10:32 3:08 


3:27 


6:02 


6:47 


Woods Hole 


10:30 


10:40 3:15 


3:35 


6:09 


6:55 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



59 



SPENCER RESEARCH MICRO- 
SCOPE No. 7 



Designed under dircc 

tion o[ Professor 

C. P. McClung, 

University of 

Pennsi/U'ania 




SPENCER No.7LH RESEARCH MICROSCOPE 

Equipped with new Inclinocular body, mecJianical stage, 
complete fork-type substage, achrcmatic condenser 
N.A. 1.30, triple nosepiece, afhroniatic objectives IG 
mm and 4 mm dry and 1.8 mm immersion, paired' 
eyepiece 6x p.,nA lOx, complete in mahogany 

cabinet $368-<"' 

Single body tube (if wanted) extra 15.00 

10*^ discount to Schools and CkiUeges. 

.■/.s7,- for iinv RuUct'm M 



Has met a demand that has no parallel 
in research microscope history. 

There is now scarcely a college, uni- 
versity or research laboratory in Amer- 
ica.! that does not possess at least one. 

It is now fitted with 

SPENCER 
INCLINOCULAR 

BOD I AS ONE OF 

Three Types Supplied 

Tliis Inclinocular Body has been 
desifjncd for comfort and efficiency 
in binocular work, where the stai;t' 
of the microscope must be horizon- 
tal, for example in examination of 
liquids, etc. It is an inclined cye- 
l)iecc binocular body taking the 
place of regular binocular body or 
the combination body. 

The oculars are at the ordinary 
distance from the table. 

The angle of inclination is suited 
to the comfort of the observer at 
[he ordinary height. 

The superior ojitical qualities of 
S)icne('r o|ities are jireserved when 
the new Inclinocular is used. 

NO COMPENSATING LENSES 
ARE NECESSARY BECAUSE OF 
ADDED TUBE LENGTH. 

The si^e of the field is the same ar^ 
with ordinary binocular body. 

The Spencer ooiverging oculars, ex- 
clusive on .Snencer microscopes, are in 
corporated in the new Inclinocular 

The inclinocular is as easily placed on 
or removed from the microscope as is 
the ordinary binocular rr single tube. 

-45 







60 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 42 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



The Junior Laboratory and Children's School 
of Science opened its doors to beginning investi- 
gators Monday, June 29th. All children over 
seven years of age are eligible to begin or to 
continue their scientific training during the sum- 
mer in the School House. Older boys and girls 
who have completed the work previously ofifered 
at the Children's School of Science or who wish 
to supplement their high .school biology are 
registered as students in the Junior Laboratory. 

This newest branch in summer laboratory work 
at Woods Hole has proved highly successful dur- 
ing its previous seasons and is now well started 
on what would seem to be an even more profit- 
able summer. The enrollment is not yet com- 
]ilete. The school is in charge of Mr. George A. 
Hutchinson of the Fieldston School in New York. 
tie is assisted by a teaching stafT of four ; Miss 
Katharine A. Clarke of the Friends' School in 
Baltimore, Miss Elizabeth Kinney of Barnard, 
Mrs. Alice Carke Mullen of the University of 
Virginia and Mr. Clifford C. Kilian of the Mc- 
Burney School in New York. 

The school session is from 8 :4S to 1 1 :30 every 
day and the courses include Nature Study for 
the seven and eight year olds ; ,\dvanced Nature 
Study and courses on the Forest and the Animals 
of Woods Hole for those eight to ten ; General 
Science and an advanced course on the Animals of 
Woods Hole for those ten to twelve ; and for 
those twelve to fourteen and over. Biology, Ad- 
vanced Zoology and Biological Technique. In 
the latter course the pupils prepare and make 
slides for microscopical work. 

The school has no connection with the Marine 
Biological Laboratory. Its management is in 
charge of a Science Committee headed by Mrs. 
Compton. The Marine Biological Laboratory of 
the future, however, may very well rest in some 
of these beginning young investigators' hands. 



The Disabled Ex-Service Men's Exchange Sale 
\\ill be held on Saturday, July 11th on the grounds 
of the estate of Mrs. Geoffrey G. Whitney on 
Nobska Road. 



The worst forest fire which Cape Cod has had 
in years raged near Hatchville last Fall. The 
fire area covered forty-five square miles and ex- 
tended as far as Bourne. Five or six cottages 
were burned. All the fire departments of the 
region were present including even one truck 
from Plymouth. Woods Hole was represented by 
the Fire Department and the Coast Guard. For 
a week the territory was ablaze and the firemen 



worked continually in day and night shifts. 
Direction of the fire-fighting was controlled from 
a plane and dispatches were dropped to the fire 
marshal. 

Since that time there have been nothing but 
small house fires for the Woods Hole department 
to handle. 

The Woods Hole Department is a branch of 
the Falmouth system, which now has five stations : 
one each at West Falmouth, East Falmouth. 
North Falmouth, Falmouth and Woods Hole. 
The .system now has ten pieces of apparatus 
counting the new ladder truck which was added 
to the apparatus at its headquarters June 27th. 
The region is controlled from a look-out tower 
m West Falmouth. The Woods Hole depart- 
ment has two ]oermanent men and a force of 
volunteers. 



Bishop .Sherrill of the Episcopal diocess of 
Massachusetts will pay his first visit to the Church 
of the Messiah on Sunday, July 12th. The Bishoj) 
will jierform confirmation and preach at a special 
service at four o'clock in the afternoon. The 
regular evening service will be omitted. 



This !s the first year that movies have be^^n 
shown in Falmouth on Sundays. 



The University Players Inc. opened their sea- 
son Monday, June 29th, with Philip Barry's 
recent Broadway success, "Paris Bound." With 
sophisticated, fast-moving dialogue, Barry has 
assayed the solution of some of the problems of 
modern marriage against a smart society back- 
ground. The staging was excellent, the directing 
on the whole satisfactory, although the play would 
have been more brilliant if the tempo throughout 
had been slightly faster. Barry's plays are 
"talky" and depend somewhat for their success 
on a speedy bombardment of the sparkling lines 
on the audience. Christine Ramsey's character 
study of Fanny Shippan pleased the more, not 
only because her impersonation was viv'd and 
amusing but because the tempo of her speech and 
actions was faster than the other characters. The 
entire cast was highly satisfactory and displayed a 
rare talent for acting. 

The Players have been busy making improve- 
ments at Old Silver Beach as well as rehearsing, 
and this year a brick terrace was built at the 
entrance by members of the company and the 
lobby is hung with new draperies. There was 
dancing between the acts in the tea room. 

M. s. a. 



July 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



61 



The 


UNIVERSITY PLAYERS 

Presents 

"INTERFERENCE" 

JULY 6th — JULY nth 


Inc. 




Old Silver Beach West 


FalmoL 


th 



The MRS. G. L. NOYES LAUNDRY 

Collections Daily 

Two Collections Daily in the Dormitories 

Wcods Hole Tel. 777 

Service that Satisfies 



FITZGERALD, INC. 

A Man's S'lOrc 

MEN'S WEAK 

Colonial Eulding Tel. 93.5 Main Str^Pt 

Falmouth 



DRESSES — LINENS — LACES 

Fine Toilet Articles 

Elizabeth Arden, Coty 

Yardley 

Choice Bits from Pekin 

MRS. WEEKS SHOPS 

FALMOUTH 



IDEAL RESTAURANT 




Main Street 


Tel. 


1243 


Woods 


Hole 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
HARDWARE CO. 

Agency for 

LYNN OIL RANGE BURNER 

Falmouth, opp. the Public Library Tel. 261 



SAMUEL CAHOON 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

FISH AND LOBSTERS 

Tel. Falmouth 660-661 

Wo ds Hole and Falmouth 



WALTER 


O. LUSCOMBE 




REAL ESTATE AND 
INSURANCE 






Woods Hole 




PhonD 


622 



KELVINATOR REFRIGERATION 

EASTMAN'S HARDWARE 

.') AND 10c DEPARTMENT 

Cape Cod Distributors for 

Draper Maynard Sporting Goods 

SPECIAL PRICES TO CLUBS 
Falmouth Tel. 407 



TEXACO PRODUCTS 

NORGE REFRIGERATORS 

WOODS HOLE GARAGE 



COMPANY 

Opposite Station 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 

The Rev. James Bancroft, Rector 

Hf)ly Cuninninion 8:00 a.m. 

Morning Prayer 11:00 a.m. 

Confirmation and Sermon by 

Bi.sho]) Sherrill 4:00 p.m. 



Visit 
Malchman's 

THE 

LARGEST DEPARTMENT STORE 

ON CAPE COD 



Fair 



jth 



Phone 116 



THE COLLECTING NET 




[ Vol. VL No. 42 



PHYSICIAN'S 

AND LABORATORY 

MICROSCOPE 

ESC-106 

Miigiiification: 5(i-!)00X 
Fixed Stage, 12cm. square 
Illuminating Apparatus with Rack and 
Pinion. 
Condenser 1.2 with Iris. 
Triple Revolving Nosepiece. 
Fine adjustment with graduated drum. 
Achromatic Objectives: 
8 n.a. 0.20 
40 n.a. 0.65 
90 n.a. 1.25 oil im. 
H\iyf;ens Oculars: 7X and lOX 
Price: f.o.b. New York, $128 
A good dark field outfit is ohtaired by cdding: 

Cardioid condenser $22, extra for iris for 

oil im. $4. Compensating ceu'ar 15X: $8.50. 

A satchel type of carrying case can 

be supplied instead cf the standard 

cabinet at an additional cost of $4.00. 

CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

485 Fifth Avenue 
New York 

Pacific Coast Branch 
728 South Hill Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 

J tNA 



Recently Published 

Biology 
in Human Affairs 

Edited by Edward M. East 

309 t"9'^^' 6 -f 9. $3-50 

A WHITTLESEY HOUSE PUBLICATION 

1 HIS book is a survey of the outposts of 
biological knowledge. In it, twelve leading 
scientists tell what has been accomplished in 
the fields of heredity, genetics, medicine, 
zoology, public health, psychology — even in 
the preservation and development of food re- 
pourccs. What has been achieved in these 
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front the research worker are clearly and 
strikingly set forth. It is a serious book in 
tended for people who find satisfaction in the 
disentanglement of the riddles of the universe 
in which we live. 



Scud for a fo/'v on approval 
McGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., Inc. 

j70 SEVENTH AVENUE NEW YORK 



BLAKISTON'S 

Recent Advances Series 

Among the 25 titles now available 
in this series are: 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Imrns 

MICROSCOPY 

Pinei) etc. 

PLANT 

PHYSIOLOGY 

Barton-Wright 

PSYCHONEUROSES 

Ciilpin 

BACTERIOLOGY 

Dible 



BIOCHEMISTRY 

Pryde 

ANATOMY 

Woollard 

NEUROLOGY 

Brain & Strauss 

PSYCHIATRY 

Devine 
PHYSIOLOGY 



Sold separately. Each $3.50 

P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc. 

1012 Walnut Street 
Philadelphia 



JrLV 4, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



63 







Revised 


and Reset 


The 


t Sci< 
Bio 


ence of 
logy 




An Introductory Study 


By GEORGE G. SCO J I, Ph. D. 




Professor of Biology in the College 




of tlie Cit 


:y of New York 


^'S.^ I'dijcs. 3<)r 


) llliislriilioiix 


5%r,S.34 /.Lv/ /v;n-, $3.75. 




RECENT ADOPTlOm 


AmliersL Collfge 




Maryvvood C^ollege 


Antioch College 




Massachusetts Institute nf Technology 


Bethany College 




Mount St. Joseph College 


Hirmingham-SoullR'ni CulK'Kc 


Occidental College 


Bradford Academy 




Phillips University 


Brooklyn Colle"e 




Rosemont College 


Buckpell Universily 




St. Francis College 


Carnegie Inslilule 


)f Technology 


St. John Kanty College 


College of the C'ily 


of New York 


Salem College 


Conception College 




San Diego State College 


Cornell University 




Shenandc.ah College 


East Carolina Teac 


lers College 


Southwestern College 


Franklin and Marsli 


all C:ollegc 


Southwestern Louisiana Institute 


Furman Universitv 




State Teachers College, Faniivillc 


Georgia Industrial ( 


"ollege 


Virginia 


Good Counsel College 


Temple University 


Haverford College 




Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial 


lamestown College 




State College 


Johnson C. Sniilli 


L'liivcrsily 


University of Pittshurgh 


luniata College 




Llniversity of Rochester 


Kalamazoo College 




Western Maryland College 


Kent State College 




Western Reserve Llniversity 


Loyola University 




Westnioorland College 


THOMAS Y. CROWELL CO. new york 



64 



THE COLLECTING NET 



Vol. VL No. 42 



7t saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' 




Quoting remark of a school superintendent 

who bought the 

"PKOMI" MICROSCOPIC DRAWING and 

PROJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
ganisms and insects on table or wall for 
drawing and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
gtni'^us yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteriflogy. Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ogy, Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 
AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: It is used fur prDJccliiit; in actual colors on wall or 
screen, niicroscoiiic preparalions, living organisms aiul insects for lecture room denionstralion anil 
instructinn. Makes it possible for a group of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' alteulion on important features, which can- 
not be demonstrated with equal facility and time saving under a microscope. Elimiualcs the eye 
strains of microscope examination. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in aeliial colors cm drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black ur colors. Li\ ing insects or microscopic living organisms can also be projected. Ad- 
juslnient of the size of (he image is simply a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
projected. Higher magnificalion may be obtained by using lube and ocular and our liigh power ob- 
jectives. Charts can readily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror and inverting 
the apparatus a com]iound microscope is achiexed. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
standard niicrosccipic high power (tbjeeli\es and ocidars. 

AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can be idiotograplied witlioul the use of a camera. 

PRICE: !•". O. B. New Yi>rk $100.03 complete apparatus in polished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 and 220 volts with cords, plu.gs and switch for both DC and AC cur- 
rent, llx objective, tube with Sx ocular, reflecting mirror and micro-cuvcttc. Extra equipment prices 
on request. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR" MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

.\ new instrument which has been brought 
out in response to a demand for a simple 
apparatus like the Promi fi)r more advanci-d 
work which retpiires more powerfid illinni- 
naliun ami higher magnification. The I'ro- 
mar operates in the same manner as the 
Tromi but is more heavily constructed and 
has the following additional features as 
standard equipment : 

^^ore brilliant lighting, making higher magnification possible. 

Triple nose piece, facilitating use of three objectives. 

Fine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 

Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and condenser. 

Screw centering adjustment for light. 

lve\<il\ing stage. 

Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. Write to 



« 




© 



;a,Air"J\.E)A.K:a:; 



117-119 East 24th Street 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 




Vol. VI. No. 3 



SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



COMMENTS ON THE LECTURE OF 

PROFESSOR E. B. WILSON ON 

"THE CENTRAL BODIES" 

Dr. C. E. McClung 
Professor of Zoology, University of Pennsylvania 
In an admirable discussion of recent studies of 
Huettner upon the cleavage of Drosophila, of 
Sturdivant upon Ascaris spermatogenesis, and of 
his own restudy of Chaetop- 
terus and Cerebratulus eggs. 
Professor Wilson presented 
liis matured views upon the 
nature and .structure of the 
central liodies in these objects. 
The lectmx was illustrated by 
a series of his own lieautiful 
piiotomicrographs, some of 
which were from the orig"inal 
preparations of INTead and Coe. 
( )nly incidental reference was 
made to the central l)odies of 
other olijects. Professor Wil- 
son's endeavor being to show 
the uniformity, constancy and 
genetic continuity of these 
bodies in the taxonomically 
varied forms studied. Because 
of the difficulties arising in 
Echinoderm eggs from the close association be- 
tivcen the central bodies and astral radiat'ons, Pro- 
fessor Wilson was careful to point out the pres- 
sencc of central liodies in (Ccntinued on Page 71) 



%. %. (Halciibar 



TUESDAY, JULY 14, 8:00 P. M. 
Seminar. Dr. H. H. Plough, "Some 
Observations en Self Sterility in 
Styela." 

Dr. R. Chambers: "Evidence of 
a Direct Action of the Nucleus 
on the Cytoplasm in Tissue Cul- 
tures." 

Dr. A. F. Hutttner, "Genetic 
Continuity of the Central 
B-dies." 

FRIDAY, JULY 17, 8:00 P.M. 

Lecture. Dr. Eliot R. Clark, Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, University of 
Pennsylvania, "The Microscopic 
.Study of Cells and Tissues in the 
Living Mammal." 



THE HOPKINS MARINE STATION AT 
STANFORD UNIVERSITY 

Dr. W. K. Fisher 

Director of the Station 

Marine stations were popular in the Stone 
.A.ge. On the shores of Europe and America a 
multitude of ancient shell deposits or middens 
bear mute witness to the 
immemorial hn'e of clams, 
oysters, and crawling things 
of low degree. Because the 
sea has always been a reliable 
source of food, early man 
may have first become acutely 
ocean-conscious by reason of 
his stomach. We may im- 
agine these ancient camps as 
a primitive economic-social 
gesture which probably pro- 
vided an agreeable means for 
the exchange of gossip, whilst 
clams ,and perchance a head or 
two, were being cracked. 

Since those rather informal 
beginnings man's contact with 

the sea has become as complex 

as civilization itself; and in- 
stead of the crumbling shell mounds mixed with 
Hints and the chaixoal dust we have blossomed 
into such sea-side activities as New York, 
(lloucester, Deauville and Woods Hole. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Comments on the Lecture of Professor iC. B. 
W'lson on "The Central Bodies", 
Dr. C. E. McClung 65 

The Hopkins Marine Station at .Stanford 
University, Dr. W. K. Fisher 65 

The Architecture of the Henatic Cells of 
i^mphinma, Dr. Arthur W. PoUister 71 

Review ^f the Seminar Report of Dr. Pol- 
'i-^trr. Dr. H. W. Beams 73 

Effects of Hydrogen Ion Concentration and 
Salt Ccnc;ntration or the Oxygen Disso- 
ciation Constant of Hemocyanin, 
Dr. Alfred C. Redfield 74 



Re"iPw of the Seminar Report of Dr. Red- 
field, Dr. F. G. Hall 74 

The Cours9 in Invertebrate Zoology at the 
Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Dr. James A. Dawson 75 

The M. B L. Clyb 78 

Currents in the Hole 78 

Notes from the Scripps Institution of Ocean- 

' graphy 79 

Items of Interest 81 

Woods Hole Log 88 



66 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 




THE HOPKINS MARINE STATION OF STANFOR D UNIVERSITY AT PACIFIC GROVE ON THE 
SHORE OF MONTEREY BAY, 130 MILES SOUTH OF SAN FRANCISCO 



Tlie Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory 
is the largest in the world, as the Stazione 
Zoologica of Naples is probably the most 
famous. Woods Hole is a dream of Agassiz 
developed by the energy of Whitman and Lillie. 
The Stazione Zoologica is Anton Dohrn',s — in 
the land of Virgil on the sunny shore of "Mare 
Nostrum." With impeccable biological method 
we have now traced an idea from the Paleolithic 
to 1891, when four men at Stanford got their 
heads together. 

These conspirators were Timothy Hopkins 
David Starr Jordan, Oliver P. Jenkins and 
Charles H. Gilbert. Dohrn's laboratory at 
Naples had greatly impressed Mr. Hopkins while 
Dr. Jordan had playecl a part in Louis Agassiz's 
Penikese experiment — ^the idea ultimately res- 
ponsible for the great laboratory now at Woods 
Hole. The combination of these four men was 
a ])eculiarly hap]n' one — all young, enthusiastic, 
each playing an essential part. So the idea 
startecl and so it happens that the Hopkins Marine 
Station is linked with two distinct biological 
enterprises on far separated shores. After forty 
years it is significant perhaps that the Hopkins 
Marine Station more nearly resembles the Naples 
Station than it does any of its other predecessors 
— hut with features essential to its organization as 
]iart of a imiversity. One of its buildings bears 
the name of Agassiz's son, Alexander, the great 
oceanographer. It is to be hoped that those 
responsible for leading the younger generation 
will remain minrlful of the Penikese idea, which 



has been so ably interpreted in years past by Dr. 
fordan and which gives biology its main value as 
a discipline in education. "Study nature not 
liooks," Agassiz insisted. 

The first Station, known as the Hopkins Sea- 
side Laboratory, consisting ultimately of two 
roomy wooden buildings, was planned by Jenkins 
and Gilbert and erected early in 1892 at Pacific 
Grove, on Monterey Bay, with money provided 
by Timothy Hopkins, on a small parcel of land 
donated by the Pacific Improvement Company — 
a syndicate which constructed the Southern 
Pacific Railroad and in which Stanford was then 
financially interested. The laboratory was only 
nominally a part of the Lniiversity. It was sup- 
ported by student fees and the deficits were 
patiently met by Mr. Hojjkins. 

Here gathered, during a six-weeks' summer 
session, men and women who investigated life as 

it is found in the ocean which is an avowed 

purpose for which marine laboratories are estab- 
lished. Just that — life in the ocean; and the 
ocean which harljors the life. In addition, others 
crossed the continent and came from overseas, 
lured by the richness and accessibility of plants 
and animals. Animals were new and strange. 
Undergraduates were perforce investigators — a 
very fortunate circumstance since real education 
thrives in an atmosphere of research — be it ever 
so humble. So long as the ocean can provide 
problems which grij) one firmly and demand to be 
solved, so long is the world safe for biological 
education ! 



JlXY II, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



67 



The Seaside Laboratory was only one phase of 
Stanford's work in marine biology. Prior to the 
opening of the University Dr. Jordan, in col- 
laboration with Dr. Gilbert, had spent consider- 
able time studying marine fishes of the coast, and 
Dr. Gilbert had been an assistant naturalist on the 
famous U. S. Fisheries steamer. Albatross. After 
the establishment of the Hopkins Seaside Labor- 
atory there were a number of extensive marine 
projects, among which ma\' lie noted : Expedition 
to Panama (Gilbert, Starks) ; to Mazattan (Jor- 
dan, Culver, Scofield, Williams) ; Fur seal in- 
vestigation (Jordan, Adams, Greeley, Snodgrass) ; 
Hopkins Galapagos Expedition (Heller, Snod- 
grass); to Japan (Jordan, Snyder): Albatross 
Hawaiian Expedition (Gilbert, Snyder, Fisher); 
Samoan Expedition (Jordan, Kellogg) ; Albatross 
Alaskan Expedition (Jordan, Heath) ; Albatross 
Survey of California Coast (Gilbert, Heath, 
Fisher, Spaulding) ; Albatross Japanese Expedi- 
tion (Gilbert, Heath, Snyder, Burke). 

The prese.it activity of the Hopkins Marine 
Station in the field of oceanic biology is therefore 
in line with what is essentially a Stanford tradi-> 
lion. The leaven was brought to the new Uni- 
versity by the youthful and eager Jordan ; perhaps 
it is a legacy from Louis Agassiz. 

The new Station dates from 1916 and is due 
to the vision and energy of F-'resident Ray Lyman 
Wilbur who was himself a student at the old 
Seaside Laboratory. Another nearby site was 
chosen which by subsequent purchases was aug- 
mented to about eleven acres, comprising all of 
what was formerly known as China Point, from 
the presence of an old and picturesque Chinese 
fishing village wiped out by fire in 1903. This 
bit of China was dear to students of those days. 
One of its citizens. Ah Tak, was a skilled collector 
whose industry provided material for embryo- 
logical monographs of importance. 

The present name was adopted in 1917 when 
our first building was under construction. This 
unit, recently designated the Alexander Agassiz 
Laboratory, contains the general laboratories in 
which most of the undergraduate classes are held 
during the s|)ring and summer, and houses mem- 
bers of the permanent staff occupied with the 
oceanological survey of the region and with the 
more estalilisbed lines of research in biologv. 

In the summer of 1928 a second unit known as 
the Jacques Loeb Laboratory was completed 
from funds donated by the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion. This, like the Agassiz Laboratory, is of 
reinforced concrete. It consists of a central 
portion of two stories flanked by two wings of 
one story enclosing three sides of a front court, 
the over-all dimensions being ninety-five by one 
hundred and fifty-two feet. The building is 
intended for research in experimental biology, 
with more limited facilities for physical and 



chemical work. As a general principle, larger 
specialized laboratories are equipped rather than 
individual work rooms, although seven private 
rooms are available. Sea-water is conducted 
through pure lead pipes to a reservoir of 10,000 
gallon capacity situated on an elevation of rocks 
whence it is fed by gravity to the aquarium tables. 
The principal laboratories and work rooms are 
equipped with hoods and are supplied with sea- 
water, hot and cold fresh water, distilled water, 
gas, pressure and suction air, and alternating and 
direct current. 

Since 1918 the station has been open during 
the entire year. It now maintains a resident staff 
of seven specialists in addition to four assistants, 
a secretary, and a mechanician. This permanent 
staff is augmented during the summer by other 
members of the school of biological sciences of 
Stanford, and by a few visiting biologists. For 
instance, during the summer quarter there will 
be two additional members from Stanford, two 
from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search*, and onef from the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology. 

Graduate students are welcomed during any of 
the four quarters, but undergraduate work is 
offered only during the spring and summer. We 
have come to view teaching as an incident of a 
yearly progrpm ! Climatically and otherwise, the 
best period for research is between October 15 
and June 15. 

If the Hopkins Marine Station were concerned 
solely with instruction of students in those phases 
of biology most advantageously undertaken at the 
seashore, its work would be simple and inexpen- 
sive. But it is quite otherwise, for no institution 
is content to use knowledge already acquired 
without adding a considerable quota of new 
material through original investigation. 

Looking at the matter very broadly there are 
two attitudes of the biologist toward the ocean. 
He may use oceanic animals and plants simply as 
material for the investigation of general problems 
without reference to their "marineness", because 
in experimental work, for instance, there is great 
advantage in being able to control precisely the 
environment of an animal. Sea animals are in- 
timately surrounded by water which can be 
minutely modified as to temperature and chemical 
composition in comparison with the normal sea- 
water in which the animal is found in nature. 
This is, roughly speaking, the attitude of the 
general biologist. He is interested in the ocean 
as a most valuable source of material for certain 
fundamental line.s of research. Ry far the larger 
number of investigators who visit marine biolo- 
gical laboratories belong to this category what- 
ever prefix they may fasten to their "logy." 

*Lawrence R. Blinks, Leonor Michaelis 
fElisabeth Deichmann 



68 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



A rapidly increasing number, however, are 
interested in that extraordinary complex known as 
the ocean, of which water is merely the obvious, 
visible part. These people approach the ocean 
as an environment of life and consider its living 
contents with due reference to the multifarious 
aspects of this environment. Oceanologists run 
the gamut from mathematicians concerned with 
hydrodynamics — through physicists and chemists 
interested in the behavior of an extraordinarily 
variable solution of earth — to biochemists and 
biophysicists working with the operation of 
physical laws upon aquatic life; to physiologists 
occupied with the responses of animals occasioned 
by the environment ; to a multitude of specialists 
in zoology and botany who must work out the in- 
numerable technical aspects of their subject with 
reference to development, life habits, and applica- 
tion to the needs of mankind. Just here is where 
marine biology and 'commerce meet. The re- 
sources of the sea are usually exploited with a 
porcine greediness that takes for granted an un- 
ending supply. When- ruin is in sight the 
Exploitation seeks a miracle from Science to save 



it from its own folly. Too often the long suffer- 
ing biologist, called in like a physician when the 
patient is dying, can do little more than give 
advice, which often goes unheeded in the absence 
of drastic laws. 

An enumeration of projects under way at the 
Hopkins Marine Station would suggest the 
scattered blocks of a mosaic rather than an easily 
discerned picture. This is occasioned by the 
magnitude of the material and the scarcity of 
funds and investigators. 

Under the general supervision of Dr. Tage 
Skogsberg in cooperation with the California 
State Fish and Game Commission, an oceanolo- 
gical study of Monterey Bay is being prosecuted. 
This work involves frequent trips aboard the 
State Fisheries patrol boats, Stcclhcad and Alba- 
tross, for the painstaking collection of data rif 
various sorts. Water samples from dififerent 
stations are being analyzed for temperature and 
chemical changes in order to understand the 
movements of water and for correlation with the 
migrations of open sea fishes, especially of the 
sardine and mackerel. 




THE RESIDENT STAFF OF THE HOPKINS MARINE STATION , 

From left to right they are: Harold Mestre, B. E. MacGinitie. W. K. Fisher, the Director, C. B. van Nicl, 

Tage Skogrsberg- and Harold Heath. ,1; 



Ti'LY II, K)^! ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



60 



By means of tow-nets hosts of minute floating 
organisms, the ultimate food supply of oceanic 
animals from sardines to whales, are being taken 
at various de]3ths. Several graduate students are 
working on diiTerent groups of these "plankton" 
organisms, as they are called, since they are as 
economically important as they are intrirsically 
interesting. Their absence creates an ocean 
desert, and there are plenty such. From the un- 
lighted m'd-region between the surface and 
liottom many b'zarre and unusual forms cont'nn-^ 
to thrill the dyed-in-the-wool zoologist. Dr. 
Heath has rerently exhaustively studied a small, 
transparent worm-like creature, a link between 
two major groups heretofore believed safely 
separated. 

It has been amply demonstrated that the 
methods of science yield good retur-is when 
applied to problems of economic importance as to 
those removed from the concerns of life. Eugene 
C. Scofield of the State Fish and Game Comm's- 
sion is a liaison member of our oceanological 
project, working now in the field on the sardine 
problem, and he has recently covered not less 
than 8,000 miles of cruising off the California 
coast. Joseph H. Wales is investigating the rock 
cods, a fishery greatly depleted; and W. A. D.ll, 
the group of fishes which contains the fldinidcrs 
and halibuts. Rolf L. Bolin is investigating the 
open sea floating eggs and larvae of various fishes. 
Dr. D. S. Cope is in charge of the chemical side 
of the Survey. 

Nor is the bottom being ne-dected. for, bes'd 's 
yielding fascinating material for students and the 
zoologists of the staff, its deposits are keeping 
E. Wayne Galliher busy. As a matter of fact 
the material of the bottom differs greatly in con- 
tent and weight from place to place, with varying 
mixtures of organic material, both living and 
dead. It is the seat of physical and chemical 
changes and is preparing to beeome the solid rock 
of some future land, in its turn to be resolved 
into soil again and washed back to sea. 

When one visits the seasho'^e, he has little o|i- 
rortunity to see, much less study, the complex 
life of the open water. I'ut the crowd-d 
assemblage of ])lants and animals which make 
their homes between high and low tide is acces- 
si])le to anyone. The very fact that they are able 
to survive long exposure to air, even to partial 
d ssication, sels them ajiart as different fro'n 
creatures which are always submerged, li life 
originated in the ocean, as many biologists are 
convinced it did, then it is obvious that the 
ancestors of all land animals and plants must at 
one time or another have accustomed themselves 
to life outside of water. But most of the inter- 
tidal animals have simjjly been immigrants from 
sh-'l'ow water forced through competition to take 
a flesperatc chance in a very unfavorable environ- 



ment. The result has been thousands of new 
forms, new coinmunities, new responses — a dis- 
tinct world of life obviously neither terrestrial 
nor yet entirely marine. 

The extraordinary rich fauna and flora of the 
Monterey Bay region offer exceptional opportuni- 
ties to the investigator and beginning student 
alike. There is a surprisingly large number of 
marine animals and plants readily accessible. Such 
include not only the species found between tide 
levels, but also those which dwell in the open 
oeean, and those which are secured by dredging 
at various depths. The student of land forms will 
fnid an equally interesting and in some ways 
licculiar assemblage of materiel. This is in part 
due to an imusual variety of physiographic and 
climatic conditions within a relatively small area, 
and in part to the presence of a number of 
characteristic and dominant types such as the 
Monterey Cypress and Monterey Pine. The 
particular advantage of work at the Station is the 
]3( ssil)'lit>' of observin'^ ard studying a kirtre num- 
i)er of living animals while these are still fulfilling 
their role in the general scheme of marine and ter- 
restrial life. Investigators in the fields of general 
experimental work, taxonomy, anatomy, and em- 
bryology, will find a wealth of material to choose 
from, while those concerned with a study of 
animals from the special standpoint of their 
"marineness" will naturally be exceptionally 
favored. 

The wealth of marine forms is in part due to 
the diversity of environment, which ranges from 
a rugged granite coast, broken by beaches, to 
sheltered, estuaries alive with mud-loving species. 

The groups which especially give character to 
the fauna are the coelenterates, polyclads, nemer- 
teans, bryozoans, echinoderms, chitons, gastro- 
])ods, ])olychaets, the higher Crustacea, and the 
tunicates. Among actinians, Evactis, Epiactis, 
Urticina, and Corynactis are the high lights. The 
solitary coral, Balanophyllia, is abundant. There 
are about ninety species of hydroids, and Sc\|ihn- 
zoa are represented by Aurelia, Chry,saora, and 
Pelagia. Siphonophores and ctenophores are 
occasionally conmion but of uncertain occurrence. 

For experimental biology an abundance of sea 
urchins (Sirongylocciitrotus purpitratus and fran- 
ciscainis) is available. The sea star, Patina 
miiiiata, is equally good. Lcl^tasterias acqualis and 
Ilcuricia Icvhtscitla brood their eggs. The same is 
true of the small holothurians, Cncuinaria ciirata 
and Tliyoiicpsnhts nutricns. 

There are upward of fifty species of chitons, 
the largest, Crypfochiton stcllcri. reaching a length 
of twelve or fifteen inches. Urosobranch and 
nudibranch gastropods abound. The large alialone 
(Ihdiotis) is the outstanding mollu.sc of the coast. 
Dorrd nudibranchs are conspicuous for their size 
and lirillinnt coloring. The Iiav teems with squid 



70 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



in spring and summer, and octopus, which is 
common but not easy to procure, reaches a weight 
of forty pounds. 

Among the polychaets are numerous representa- 
tives of Halosydna, Polynot, Nereis, Leodice, 
Lumbrinereis, Glycera and Amphitrite. A showy 
sabelHd EudistyHa, is abundant, while every rock 
pool is alive with serpulids. Arcnicola is less 
easily procured. A big echiuroid, Urcchis caiipo, 
is an almost perfect type for experimentation, and 
its large clear eggs can be procured without injury 
to the animal. Sipunculids are abundant and 
large. Conditions appear to be ideal for flat- 
worms and nemerteans. Bryozoa, especially the 
encrusting forms, are conspicuous and complete 
for available surface with sponges and very 
thrifty compound ascidians. 

Among the Crustacea the crabs are most con- 
spicuous, but of more interest are the primitive 
burrowing shrimps, Callianassa and L^pogebia. 
Emerita is abundant as are also pagurids and 
several mysids. Barnacles of several species are 
very abundant on the granite and, of course, 
swarms of isopods and amphipods. 

Mention should be made of the hag-fish. Polis- 
totrema, of the chimaeroid, Chimaera coUiei, and 
of the midshipman, Porichtliys notaius, which is 
equally interesting for its conveniently deposited 
eggs and numerous photogenic organs. 

The plankton of the bay is rich in larval forms 
and protozoa. 

Bringing students in contact with this world 
is a major concern of the Station, as is a more 
formal study of the interrelationships of the 
plants, animals, and physical environment under- 
taken by Prof. George E. MacGinitie. No better 
introduction to biology has been found than 
scientific natural history (ecology). Yet no one 
man is equipped to cover the whole field in its 
technical aspects. There is work here for every- 
one. The extreme richness of shore life in the 
Monterey region as well as the great diversity in 
the shore itself are among the principal assets of 
the Station. 

Dr. Harold Mestre is attacking the complex 
problem of photosynthesis from the photo- 
chemical standpoint. Abundant marine algae, 
some growing in thin sheets like sea lettuce 
(Ulva), and some of the minute single-celled 
forms, furnish ideal material for this work. 

Light does not pass through water as it does 
through air, but is rapidly absorbed. The red 
rays can penetrate only a few fathoms, while the 
blue and violet go farthest— to about one-fourth 
of a mile in very clear water with the sun directly 
over head to avoid loss liy reflection. This pene'- 
tration of light is being studied by Dr. Mestre 
with a submarine spectrograph in order to deter- 
mine the effects of the energy sujiply nn the 



abundance of sea life. 

Still another interesting problem is that of the 
effect of ultra-violet light upon the organism 
itself. For instance, it has already been found 
that the unfertilized eggs of a marine worm 
Urcchis canpo, can lie made to develo]j and grow 
for several days when irradiated. This fact ofifers 
a new approach to the old question of partheno- 
genesis made so famous by the work of Jacques 
Loeb which was done on this very spot. 

Investigations into the nature of photosynthesis 
have been confined to this process in green plants, 
because until recently it had not been elsewhere 
recognized. But a group of bacteria, known as 
purple bacteria, can build up living matter out of 
inorganic constituents under the influence of light. 
This type of photosynthesis has been intensively 
studied by Dr. C. B. van Niel. It is of especial 
interest in this connection that the "purples" have 
probably acquired their photosynthetic power in- 
dependently of the green ]ilants and that they do 
it differently. Ordinary plants use carbon dioxide 
and water in the presence of light ; the "purples" 
substitute hydrogen sulphide for water — a very 
remarkable difference. 

The ultimate aim of studies on photo.synthesis 
is to understand the mechanism of the process to 
the end that we may he enabled to carry out this 
reaction without the aid of living plants. Our 
concepts of this mechanism have already under- 
gone some changes as a result of the investigation 
of bacterial photosynthesis, and the time docs 
not seem too far off, in Dr. van Niel's opinion, 
when we will be able in the laboratory to repro- 
duce the conditions under which it occurs in 
plants. 

Since 1919 the California State Fish and Gam- 
Commission has made the Agassiz Laboratory its 
headquarters for the study of the sardine. This 
work is quite independent of its cooperation in 
the Oceanological Survey. 

Some long-continued work by Dr. Heath on 
the embryonic development of marine organisms 
and by Dr. Fisher on the classification and ana- 
tomy of marine animals has more technical than 
popular appeal. For over thirty years Dr. F. M. 
McFarland has studied the delicnt- nud'liranr'i 
molluscs of the coast and Mrs. McFarland has 
painted their portraits. Space is not available to 
catalog the research done by biologists of other 
institutions who have availed themselves of the 
Station's facilities. They include, among others, 
such old friends as J. H. Ashworth, H. B. Bige- 
lovv^, Calvin Bridges, W. R. Coe, E. G. Conkiin, 
B. M. Davis, P. S. Galtsofl^, Torsten Gislen, Ber- 
til Hanstrom. Libbie Hyman, J. S. Kingsley, 
Harold Kylin, F. R. Lillie, Albert Mann, Otto L. 
Mohr. A. R. Moore. T. H. Morgan, Joseph 
Needham, H. H. Newman, A. C. Redfield, A. H. 
Sturtevant, David Tennent. 



Iri-Y II, 1 931 ] 

The permanent staff consists of W. K. Fisher, 
Trofessor of Zoology; Harold Heath, Professor 
111' Iinil)ryology ; George E. MacGinitie, Assistant 
Professor of Zoology; Harold Mestre, Assistant 
Professor of Biophysics; Tage Skogsberg. Asso- 



THE COLLECTING NET 



71 



ciate Professor of Marine Biology and Oceano- 
graphy; C. V. Taylor, Herstein Professor of 
Biology; C. B. van Niel, Associate Professor of 
Microbiology; Tadaichi Hashimoto and Danella 
Straup Cope, Research Chemists. 



COMMENTS ON THE LECTURE OF PROFESSOR E. B. WILSON 

( C ntinued from Page 65 ) 



I Ascaris and Drosophila when astral rays are 
lacking. The various stages in the move- 
ment of the large and clearly defined cen- 
trosomes about the nucleus, until they reach 
(.pposite poles, were clearly shown in Ascaris sper- 
matocytes. The presence of hundreds of mitoses, 
all in al)out the same stage, in the egg of Droso- 
phila affords an excellent opportunity to study 
the mitotic figure. Here Professor Wilson was 
able to dsmonstrate the successive stages in the 
division and movements of the centrosome and 
its derivatives, and to show the variations which 
appear in the process The preparations of Droso- 
jjhila were made by Dr. Huettner and will serve 
him as the basis of a report to be given later this 
summer. 

Professor Wilson pointed out in the beginniuT 
that there is nothing new in the major features of 
centrosome phenomena reported and that these 
were beautifully worked out by the early masters 
of cytology — 15overi, van Beneden, Flemming and 
others. Because of the minute size of the central 
bodies and the difficulty of observing them, there 
have always been doubts as to th-^ir reality, and 
th'se jiersist to the present day. It was Profes- 
sor Wilson's desire to remove any uncertainty 
ni his own mind that led him to take up once 



more a subject which has been of great interest 
to him from the time when he contributed to the 
overthrow of Fol's theory of the "quadrille of the 
centers." No one is better qualified by experi- 
ence and ability to discuss th's subject, and Pro- 
fessor Wilson presented a demonstration of un- 
questionable clearness that in the forms studied 
the central bodies are realities, with a well defined 
and constant cycle of mitotic changes. So far as 
conditions in the spermatocyte of Ascaris are con- 
cerned, I can confirm them by observations upon 
Orthopteran cells. Except for relative sizes there 
is practically no difference in the two widely re- 
moved species. One familiar with such material 
can have no doubt of the reality and constancy 
of the central bodies in the male germ cells of 
animals. If, however, there are still those who 
doubt the e.xistence of such relatively large bodies 
as the chromosomes, despite their demonstration 
in the living condition by various means, it will 
doubtless be long before there is agreement re- 
garding the nature of the minute central bodies. 
Their demonstration in the living cond't'on would 
do somrthing" to lessen uncertainty regarding them 
and it is to lie hoped that Professor Wils^Mi may 
be able to add this bit of evidence to the large 
mass which he has alreadv accumulated. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HEPATIC CELLS OF AMPHIUMA 

Dr. Arthur W. Poi.i.isti.r 
Instructor in T-oology. Cnluuihia University 



The tissues of Amphiuma are exceptionally fine 
material for cytological studies; first, because this 
animal has the largest cells of any Vertebrate ; 
and second, because, like most Amphibia, it seems 
to be especially suital)le for successful application 
of technical methods for study of the tissues. 

In the present study the material was prepared 
by .standard technical methods for the general 
histological picture, by the special methods of 
Benda and Kull for demonstration of mitochon- 
dria, and by the Kolatchef process for blackening 
the Golgi apparatus with osmic acid. 

The liver of Am])hiuma has laree, irreTularlv 
polyhedral glandular cells, the relationship of 
which to one another is much like that of the cells 
of the mammalian liver. Most of the bile canali- 
culi are tubes formed by the apposit'on of parallel 
grooves in the surfaces of two contiguous cells. 
The ducts are all of practically the same diamet"r. 
They .Tnaslomose extensivelv to form a complex 



network, from which project many short side 
branches that end blindly. The canaliculi may 
occur on any part of the cell, except that they 
are never on a surface that is adjacent to a blood 
capillary. At places the network of canaliculi is 
continuous with the smaller ducts of the liver and 
through this duct system the secretory product 
ultimately reaches the hepatic duct. In addition 
to these intercellular canaliculi bounded by two 
hepatic cells, there are ducts that are intracellular, 
actually penetrating the cytoplasm of tiie liver 
cell. Thee are of the same inside diameter as 
the intercellular canaliculi and are always con- 
nected with them. The most frequent condition 
is for the intracellular duct to extend through the 
cell and open into the intercellular canaliculi at 
opposite sides of the cell. Not infrequently this 
intracellular tube has a short s'de branch, and ex- 
c-ptionallv a rather extensively branched system 
is seen. That the duct is actuallv intracellular. 



72 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



and not merely an intercellular duct seen at the 
upper surface of a cell, is evident from the oc- 
currence of sections of cells in which the nucleus 
is seen at the same level as the intracellular duct, 
since the nucleus is never at the surface of the 
hepatic cell. 

A study of the details of structure shows that 
the two types of canaliculi are somewhat dif- 
ferent, ihe material prepared by the Benda 
method is most useful for this study, al- 
though it can also be made out in material fixed 
in Helly's fluid and stained with iron hematu.xy- 
lin, or in that prepared by the KuU process. In 
Benda material the cell boundary shows a double 
la\er, an outer very thin line that stains heavily 
with the crystal violet and an inner thicker zone 
stained with the alizarin. The walls of the inter- 
cellular ducts are composed of both these layers, 
as would be expected from the fact that they 
are morphologically only spaces between two cells. 
The intracellular ducts, however, have walls com- 
posed of the purple-staining membrane only. An- 
other feature characteristic of the intracellular 
ducts is the presence, a short distance outside the 
margin of the wall, of a row of small granules 
that stain faintly with the crystal violet. These 
must certainly surround the entire circumference 
of the duct, but I have not been able to see them 
when focussing above or below it, probalily be- 
cause they are so small and so faintly stained. 

This duct system is peculiar to liver cells. In 
most glands there are tubules or acini in which 
several cells surround the lumen into which the 
secretion is passed, and in such a case only the 
tip of each cell is in contact with the lumen. In 
these cells we find the Golgi apparatus always ly- 
ing adjacent to the lumen, in the region where the 
secretion is being formed, a relationship that has 
been held to lie circumstantial evidence that this 
cell component is in some way concerned with 
the synthesis of the secretory prcduct. This topo- 
graphical relationship is very much more striking 
in the liver cells of Amphiuma. Here the region 
where the visible evidence of the synthesis of the 
secretory product first appears is not merely at 
one point in the cell, but is a zone adjacent to 
the bile canaliculi. The Golgi apparatus in these 
liver cells alwa\s lies along these complex secre- 
tory zones, and is never found in any other part 
of the cell. It seems to be an irregular network 
a short distance inward from the surface grooves 
and surrounding the intracellular canaliculi. 

Another constant feature of the structure of 
these hepatic cells of Amphiuma is the presence 
of one or m ire clusters of fat droplets. These 
are gray after treatment with two per cent osm'c 
acid in the Kolatchef method. The bhi^k'^nin'j 
is removed l)y the standard treatment with rect'- 
fied tu'pentine, which leaves the intense black of 
the Golgi apparatus unaffected. The f?t drop- 
lets have a very definite orientation in the cell. 
Thev are apparently never found at any place 



except that part of the cell adjacent to a blood 
capillary. This relationship of the fat droplets 
to the capillaries is especially emphasized by the 
fact that all the cells adjacei'.t to a capillary show 
fat droplets in the part near it. Only a small 
percentage of the cells are found with a cluster of 
fat droplets and no capillary visible in the imme- 
diate vicinity, and these are easily explained by 
the vagaries of sectioning. 

The mitochondria of the hepatic cells of 
Amphiuma, when properly fixed, are all of the 
filamentous type generally characteristic of ver- 
tebrate glandular tissues. The filaments are all 
of the same diameter, but there are a long and 
a short type that are clearly distinct in their dis- 
triliution. In the general cytoplasm, away from 
the nucleus, adjacent to the blood capillaries and 
to contiguous liver cells, there are very long 
chondrioconts that are relatively few in number. 
In the zone around the nucleus and frequently in 
another region around the intracellular canaliculi 
are dense clusters of very much shorter mito- 
chondria. Those in the vicinity of the intercellu- 
lar ducts are also mostly of the .short type, but 
they are not concentrated as in the other two 
localities. 

Some of those who have worked on the Golgi 
apparatus of liver cells have found it to he lo- 
cated as I have just described in Amphiuma, 
while others have found it to l)e a juxta-nuclear 
mass, as it is so frequently in other gland cells. 
It appears to me possilile that the following may 
explain this discrepancy. It is well known that 
the mitochondria are often blackened Iiy methods 
used for the demonstration of the Golgi ap))ara- 
tus. Indeed, in Amphiuma, in which the Golgi 
apparatus reaction to osmic acid is the most posi- 
tive I have ever seen, cells are occasionally found 
in which the mitochondria also are blackened. If 
it happened that this reaction occurred very 
strongly in the den^e juxta-nuclear zone of chon- 
driosomes, rather than in what I have described 
as the real Golgi substance along the bile canali- 
culi, the result would be a demonstration of a 
l)lackened mass which could be easily interpreted 
as a Golgi apparatus adjacent to the nucleus. 

I wish to point out also what may possibly be 
a wider significance of studies on liver cells. 
Some workers on gland cell structure have come 
to the conclusion that the typical pictures of the 
Golgi apparatus are due to the impregnation of 
mitochondria in the so-called secretogenous zone 
of the cell, and they have produced as evidence 
e.\am])les of perfect impregnation of mitochon- 
dria in this region. Now in such cells the sec- 
retogenous zone, between the nucleus and the 
lumen, really has two topographical relationships. 
It is a region where secretory products first he- 
come visible, and it is also a region close to the 
nucleus. In the hepatic cells of Amphiuma these 
two regions are ohviouslv quite separate and it 
seems clear that the ju.xta-nuclear region is 



July ii, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



7Z 



characterized especially by the presence of a dense of view may offer an approach to resolving the 

mass of mitochondria, while the secretogenous confusion that exists today with regard to the 

zone is primarily the location of the Golgi ap- true structure of the secretogenous zone of typi- 

paratus. It seems to me possible that this point cal glandular epithelial cells. 

REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORT OF DR. POLLISTER 

Dr. H. W. Beams 
Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Iowa 
Dr. Pollister's interesting paper on the archi- theory of Schafer. It would also be of particu- 



tecture of the hepatic cells of Amphiuma sheds 
considerable light upon tlie long existing contro- 
versy as to whether or not there really exists in 
the hepatic cells a definite system of intracellular 
l)ile canal iculi. It was long ago suggested by 
.students of the liver cell that a system of intra- 
cellular bile canaliculi could be demonstrated by 
the application of the impregnation methods of sil- 
ver nitrate, and the administration through the 
hepatic duct of a variety of injection fluids. How- 
ever, the conception of intracellular bile canaliculi 
has not been widely accepted and recent his- 
tologists have seriously questioned this interpreta- 
tion. Maximow ('30), for instance, states that 
the view of intracellular bile canaliculi is incor- 
rect and what has been described as ir.tracellular 
canals is probably part of the Golgi network. 
Others have suggested that the so-called intra- 
cellular bile capillaries demonstrated by the injec- 
tion methods are simply artifacts, in the sense 
that the cell has been ruptured by the pressiu'c 
developed in the process of administering the in- 
jection fluid. While still other histologists seem 
to interpret the intracellular Ijile canaliculi as tem- 
jjorar)- phases of functional activity, accompany- 
ing the discharge of secretion. 

The findings of Dr. Pollister in the hepatic cells 
of Amphiuma demonstrate clearly, and beyond 
doubt, the presence of a permanent system of 
intracellular bile canaliculi. His observations are 
indeed important. They should go a long way 
to help clear up the present controversy concern- 
ing the presence of intracellular bile canaliculi, at 
least to the extent that they do exist in certain 
types of liver cells. Just how general this con- 
dition may be found to exist in the hepatic cells 
of other animals remains to be proved. 

It was of particular interest to the reviewer to 
note that Dr. Pollister did not observe a network 
of fine intracellular blood capillaries in the liver 
cells of Amphiuma, as described by Schafer for 
the liver cells of the rabbit. There has always 
been much skepticism expressed as regards the 
interpretation of Schafer; notwithstanding the 
apparent ease with which he and his students have 
been able to inject these capillaries, even to the 
extent of demonstrating them within the nucleus. 
Inasmuch as the liver cell of Amphiuma has 
proved such excellent material for tiie demonstra- 
tion of the intracellular bile canaliculi it might 
likewise be assumed to prove favoralile material 
upon which to repeat the methods, and test the 



lar interest to some to know just what relation- 
ship, if any, the intracellular bile canaliculi bear 
to the "trophospongium" (nutritive canals) of 
Holmgren. 

The distribution of the Golgi apparatus in the 
hepatic cells of Amphiuma, in juxtaposition to 
the intercellular and intracellular bile canaliculi, 
which marks the secretogenous zone for bile at 
least, is of great interest in view of the current 
conceptions of secretion. The striking topo- 
graphical relationship of the Golgi apparatus to 
the intercellular and intracellular bile canaliculi 
seems to ofi^er strong support to the current 
theory that the Golgi apparatus plays an im- 
portant role in secretion. However, since the 
liver cells perform so many diverse functions, and 
since any one of the cells is presumably capable 
of performing all of the functions, it becomes 
difficult to correlate the presumed formation of 
the synthetic products of the liver, on the basis of 
the Golgi apparatus theory of secretion. If the 
Golgi apparatus constitutes the secretory route of 
the cell, one should expect to find soine such ar- 
rangement as that described in the thyroid gland 
by Cowflry where the Golgi apparatus shows a 
reversal in polarity. Ll^nless some cytological ex- 
planation is given to account for the presumed 
endocrine-like function of the liver, it seems that 
we are not justified, for the present at least, in 
concluding that the Golgi apparatus is the single 
synthetic center of the cell. Furthermore, it is of 
interest to note that the Golgi apparatus in the 
salivary glands of the Chironomus larva show 
apparently no relationship to the intracellular, 
secretory ducts (Krjukowa). It would seem 
therefore, as Dr. Pollister has clearly pointed out, 
that the relationship of the Golgi apparatus to the 
formation of secretion (bile) in the liver is at 
present circumstantial. However, it is very prob- 
able that the relationship of the Golgi apparatus 
to the iiitercellular and intracellular bile canaliculi 
actuallv signifies a definite physiological associa- 
tion rpther than a chance position. Rut just how 
general this condition may 'be found in other se- 
creting cells remains to be proved. 

The obsei-vations of Dr. Pollister on the 
mitochondria in the liver cells show quite clear- 
ly that they are discrete structures and do not be- 
come hypertrophied to form the Golgi apparatus 
as claimed by Parat. As a matter of fact the 
mitochondria in the ''zone of Golgi" are composed 
mostly of short rods, a condition quite different 
from the "active" chondriosomes of Parat. 



74 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



An interesting phase of the study of the Golgi 
apparatus upon which Dr. Pollister did not report, 
and which might profitably be investigated in the 
liver cells, especially in view of the recent findings 
of Dornesco, is whether or not the Golgi appar- 
atus is the same as the neutral-red-staining vacu- 



ome of Parat. Also, if not identical, what is the 
topographical relationship which exists between 
tlie Golgi apparatus and the neutral red bodies of 
Makarov and of Ludford, who assume that the 
neutral red bodies are formed by the influence of 
the Golgi apparatus. 



EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND SALT CONCENTRATION ON 
THE OXYGEN DISSOCIATION CONSTANT OF HEMOCYANIN 

Dr. Alfred C. Redfield 
Professor of Physiology, Harvard University 



One of the incentives for the study of hemo- 
cyanins has been the hope that in this group of 
pigments conditions would be found which are 
suificiently at variance with those characterizing 
hemoglobin and also sufficiently simple, to enable 
further light to be thrown on the mechanism by 
which oxygen is transported in the lilood. 

In the case of three hemocyanins, that of 
Helix, Busycon and Limulus, a system is obtained 
when the pigments are purified which has a 
rather simple behavior in its relation to oxygen. 
The equilibrium proceeds as though the hemo- 
cyanin unites with one atom of oxygen to form 
oxy-hemocyanin in accordance with the mass law. 
One may consequently deal with the factors in- 
fluencing the oxygen equilibrium in a very defi- 
nite way, because one can state their etTect in 
terms of the oxygen dissociation constant. 

The change in the o.xygen dissociation constant 

REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR 

Dr. F 
Professor of Zoo/o, 

It has been said that hemogloliin is the most 
interesting substance in the world. Heniocyanin 
now shares some of that interest. Dr. Red.ield. 
more than anyone else, has contriluited to our 
knowledge of the function of heniocyanin in ma- 
rine organisms. He It's shown that the same 
general physico-chemical jirinciples which apply 
to the function of hemoglobin are likewise ap- 
plicalile to the function nf heniocyanin. 

There are several points that come to one's mind 
in comparing the function of heniocyanin with 
hemoglobin. Does hemocyanin behave quantita- 
tivcl\- in the san-e manner when isolated from 
the iilood and purified as it does in its natural 
environment? It is well known that the dissocia- 
tion of oxygen from purified h'^mosrlobin is quite 
unlike that of hemoglobin within the intact cor- 
puscle in whole iilood. Since heniocyanin is car- 
ried in the plasma one would not expect such a 
great diff^erence as in the case of hemogloliin. Dr. 
Redfield's data indicate such a condition to obtain, 
and it is very likely that his studies give us a 
true picture of the function of hemocyanin in 
nature. 

To one interested in marine problems a com- 
parison of the function of hemocyanin and hemo- 
globin is of interest because each makes use of a 
metal, copper and iron respectively, which are rel- 
atively very rare elements in sea water. In most 



of Busycon heniocyanin with varying hydrogen 
ion concentration may be explained on the as- 
sumption that the neutralization of certain acid 
or base binding groups produces a hemocyanin 
salt with an oxygen dissociation constant differ- 
ent from that characterizing the acidic (or basic) 
form of the hemocyanin. The relation between 
hydrogen ion concentration and the value of the 
o.xygen dissociation constant may be described by 
the equation developed by Ferry and Green in 
connection with an analagous treatment of the 
problem in the case of hemoglobin. The presence 
of NaCl at 0.3 molar concentration does not in- 
fluence the form of the oxygen dissociation curve 
and has little or no effect upon the value of the 
oxygen dissociation constant of the hemocyanin 
or its salt, but changes by about one and a half 
pH units the reaction at which occurs the forma- 
tion of the supposed hemocyanin salt. 

REPORT OF DR. REDFIELD 

G. Hall 

.Cy, Duke University 

analyses they are only reported as traces. Yet in 
the blood of Molluscs, Arthropods, and Verte- 
brates one or the other of these two metals are 
the essential- element of the respiratory pigment 
and organisms seem well .supplied with them. A 
study of the copper and iron cycle in sea water 
would perhaps be worth while. 

The problem of the influence of temperature on 
the function of hemocyanin, alluded to by Dr. 
Redfield, is still an open one. It is in about 
the same state of solution as in the case of hemo- 
globin. We do not yet know the mechanism by 
which oxygen is unloaded from either hemocya- 
nin or hemoglobin at the low temperature at 
which many marine animals live. Dr. Redfield 
has shown in a previous study that squid, for ex- 
ample, are dependent upon heniocyanin for their 
oxygen supply. They cannot maintain themselves 
on the oxygen physically dissolved in the blood 
plasma. Thus in animals living in an environ- 
ment low in temperature it would appear that the 
respiratory pigment has some special way of giv- 
ing up its oxygen to the tissues. The fact that 
salts have very little effect on the oxygen dis- 
sociation of hemocyanin is advantageous to ani- 
mals that live in the sea. 

Finally, one is led to conclude that Dr. Redfield 
has made significant contributions to both general 
and comparative physiology. 



U'LY II, I93I ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



75 



THE COURSE IN INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY AT THE MARINE 
BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

Dr. James A. Dawson 

Assistant Professor of Zoology, College of the City of Neiv York 

Director of the Course 



Field Work: This has always been em- 
phasized in this course and, it is felt, rightly 
so. In the field the student sees the animal 
in its noi'mal surroundings and the greatest 
freedom is given for the study of any phase 
of the activities of marine littoral animals. 
The organization of the field woi'k has so 
far as the equipment, method of division of 
the class under instructors and localities 
visited, been continued largely as described 
in Allee's account. In 1926 Crane's wharf 
was removed and field trips to Nobska or 
Quissett have been substituted. 

As an illustration of the schedule of field 
trips that of 1928 is given. Those of the 
other years are essentially similar, the only 
differences being the diflferent dates and oc- 
casionally somewhat diflFerent localities, both 
occasioned by local conditions of tide or 
weather. 

Field Trip Schedule for 1928 

June 30, Saturday — Protozoa Collecting 
Trip — Fresh, Brackish and Salt Water. 
Start 9.00 A.M.; Return 11.00 A.M. 

July 5, Thursday — Quissett Harbor — Flats 
and Rocks — Digging, etc. Low tide — 3.37 
P. M. Start 1.30 P. M. ; Return 4.30 P. M. 

July 7, Saturday — Vineyard Haven Wharf 
Piles — Pile Scraping. Low tide — 8.50 A. 
M. Start 8.15 A. M. ; Return 11.30 A. M. 

July 11, Wednesday — (omitted) 

July 14, Saturday — Hadley Harbor Flats — 

Digging, etc. Low tide— 3.01 P. M. Start 

12.30 P.M.; Return 4.30 P.M. 
July 21, Saturday — Dredging in Vineyard 

Sound. Group I— Start 9.30 A. M. Group 

II— Start 2.00 P. M. 
July 25, Wednesday — Study of Tow in the 

Laboratory. Start 2.00 P.M. 
July 28, Saturday — North Falmouth — Rocks, 

Flats— Digging, etc. Low tide — 12.04 P. 

M. Start 9.30 A. M. ; Return 4.00 P. M. 
August 1, Wednesday — Nobska — Rocks, et". 

Low tide— 3.10 P.M. Start 1.45 P.M. 

Return 4.45 P. M. 
August 4, Saturday — Class picnic. 

Special attention has of late years been 
paid to the collection and identification of 
protozoan species from the varied fresh, 
brackish and salt water habitats at Woods 
Hole. The summarized account of results 
of field work has been kept for the last four 



years. This is a list showing the protozoa 
identified from eight ponds ranging, from 
fresh water (nos. 1, 2, 3), brackish (nos. 4, 
5, 7, 8) to salt (no. 8). On each trip for 
the past four years the class has been di- 
vided into two groups of four teams each. 
Each group made collections from four of 
the sources listed. A very representative 
sampling was made as each team collected 
from a different region of the pond in ques- 
tion. Upon the return to the laboratory all 
samples made by each group from any given 
pond were put in a large clean crystallizing 
dish which was carefully labelled as to 
source of material for identification. Dur- 
ing the study of collected protozoa all in- 
structors were present and for each year 
except 1930 Dr. Mary S. MacDougall, for 
several years instructor in charge of the 
laboratory work in the Protozoology course, 
very kindly aided in the identification of the 
rarer or more difficult species. As there is 
not a published check list of protozoan 
species from these sources for the Woods 
Hole Region it is hoped that this list will 
have a definite value. The ponds are men- 
tioned by names used by both the members 
of the Invertebrate Zoology and the Proto- 
zoology courses and are well known locally. 
Representative samples in separate clean 
bottles were taken by instructors from each 
pond during all of the years in question and 
pH readings were made colorime: trically 
immediately upon return from the trip. 
These readings are also given in the list. 
The classification used follows Calkins 
(1926)'-. This list is available for consul- 
tation by workers at Woods Hole and it is 
proposed to leave copies of it in the Library 
for reference at any time. 

The check list of Invertebrate species has 
been revised three times since 1922. The 
second of these revisions in 1927 was made 
for the purpose of bringing the nomencla- 
ture up to date and the staff was fortunate 
in securing for the checking of this work 
the services of authorities in the systemat- 
ics of nearly all the phyla represented. The 
number of species in the present check list 
is 318. In the report of Sumner, Osburn 
and Cole'-' the total listed number of inver- 
tebrate species for the Woods Hole region is 
1286. Since in the extensive work of that 

* Continued from last number. 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



report much greater areas were covered and 
most of the collecting was done by dredging 
it is felt that in making the acquaintance of 
25% of the fauna recorded in the 1911 re- 
port the members of the Invertebrate Zo- 
ology class get a fairly complete picture of 
the entire littoral fauna of the region. As 
has been emphasized before (Allee, 1922) oc- 
casionally new records for the Woods Hole 
region are added. What is much more val- 
uable is the constant checking over of abund- 
ance of forms useful to the research worker. 
For instance, it was found dui-ing the sum- 
mer of 1928 that the aberrant and interest- 
ing cirratulid worm, Dodecaceria conchanim, 
was present in large numbers. This species 
is relatively little known at Woods Hole and 
had never before been identified in the work 
of the course. It is at present being used 
as research material by one of the members 
of the staff. Other instances similar to this 
can easily be cited. 

The custom of providing each student 
with a revised check list of the species which 
have been taken in other years by members 
of the course at Woods Hole has been con- 
tinued but the procedure after field trips has 
been considerably modified during the last 
eight years. Instead of writing a list on the 
blackboard each instructor checks over the 
record sheet of the day with members of his 
team. During this checking process any un- 
identified or provisionally identified speci- 
mens deemed sufficiently interesting or im- 
portant to bring into the laboratory are 
looked at again for more complete study or 
final identification. Immediately after all 
final identifications are made the composite 
field record for the trip is compiled from the 
individual team records and posted in the 
laboratory. This has been done for everv 
field trip' since 1922. As a result, a check 
list showing at a glance the relative abund- 
ance of common littoral forms from seven 
different but renresentative localities at 
Woods Hole for the years 1922 to 1930, in- 
clusive, has been compiled and conies of this 
list are available at any time. This list sup- 
plements the annotated catalogue made by 
Allee" ('23a) and nlaced bv him in several 
institutions. The data of this list have also 
furnished interesting comparisons of the 
distribution from year to year and have fur- 
nished some evidence as to the effect of tem- 
nerature on the abundance of littoral forms 
in this region. 

As a result of past experience with the 
so-called "question-mark" bottle whifh fre- 
quently dropped entirely out of sight, or, 
having been filled with animals more or less 
mutually antagonistic was often found upon 



examination to contain only animal debris, 
the device of providing one set of bottles and 
vials of suitable sizes to fit into a specially 
constructed carrying case has been used 
since 1927. In such a convenient set car- 
ried by one member of the team a suitable 
receptacle for one or more of each species 
studies was provided. As a result, without 
waste of time, there was immediately avail- 
able for further study representatives of the 
entire list checked in the field by any team. 
During 1928 for example, following the 
North Falmouth field trip a special demon- 
stration of representative species, about 150 
in number, was made in the entrance hall of 
the new main building. This representative 
collection of species from the richest collect- 
ing area in the vicinity of Woods Hole re- 
ceived a very careful inspection and several 
requests were made by research workers for 
the use of extra specimens. 

Two important modifications closely re- 
lated to the field work have been made in re- 
cent years. Beginning in the year 1923 
members of the class made individual studies 
of selected areas of Quissett Harbor. This 
region was surveyed and an outline map 
drawn to scale by Drs. D. B. Young and J. 
A. Dawson. On this map the areas were 
outlined and assigned to small groups of 
members of the class. A selected list of 50 
to 60 representative species taken in previ- 
ous field trips at this locality was made and 
students were required to check quantita- 
tively the distribution of these within the 
given area. The combined reports were kept 
as a matter of record. This ecological field 
work was done during the latter half of the 
course at which time each student was fa- 
miliar, from previous field trips and from 
study in the laboratory with all the species 
on the list. No supervision on the part of 
the instructors was practised but the entire 
woi'k lasting usually about two weeks, was 
left to the initiative of individual membei's 
of each team. It was felt that this independ- 
ent work on the part of students formed a 
valuable part of a course in which initiative 
on the part of the students is encouraged in 
all aspects of class work. 

During the years 1927 and 1928 a modifi- 
cation of this type of work was made. A 
list of species, one for each member of the 
class was chosen from the field check list. 
Forms occurring relatively ra'-elv were 
avoided but from tho^e found fairlv fre- 
quently a careful selection was made. 
Especiallv inclusions of snecies which offer 
special difficulties in field identification we^'e 
made. One species was assigned to each 
member of the class after the second week 



U'LY II, 193 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



75 



THE COURSE I.N INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY AT THE MARINE 
BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

Dr. James A. Dawson 

Assistant Professor of Zoology, College of the City of Nezv York 

Director of the Course 



Field Work: This has always been em- 
phasized in this course and, it is felt, rightly 
so. In the field the student sees the animal 
in its normal surroundings and the greatest 
freedom is given for the study of any phase 
of the activities of marine littoral animals. 
The organization of the field work has so 
far as the equipment, method of division of 
the class under instructors and localities 
visited, been continued largely as described 
in Allee's account. In 1926 Crane's wharf 
was removed and field trips to Nobska or 
Quissett have been substituted. 

As an illustration of the schedule of field 
trips that of 1928 is given. Those of the 
other years are essentially similar, the only 
differences being the different dates and oc- 
casionally somewhat diflferent localities, both 
occasioned by local conditions of tide or 
weather. 

Field Trip Schedule for 1928 

June 30, Saturday — Protozoa Collecting 
Trip — Fresh, Brackish and Salt Water. 
Start 9.00 A.M.; Return 11.00 A.M. 

July .5, Thursday — Quissett Harbor — Flats 
and Rocks — Digging, etc. Low tide — 3.37 
P. M. Start 1.30 P. M. ; Return 4.30 P. M. 

July 7, Saturday — Vineyard Haven Wharf 
Piles — Pile Scraping. Low tide — 8.50 A. 
M. Start 8.15 A. M.; Return 11.30 A. M. 

July 11, Wednesday — (omitted) 

July 14, Saturday — Hadley Harbor Flats — 

Digging, etc. Low tide— 3.01 P. M. Start 

12.30 P. M. ; Return 4.30 P. M. 
July 21, Saturday — Dredging in Vineyard 

Sound. Group I— Start 9.30 A. M. Group 

II— Start 2.00 P. M. 
July 25, Wednesday — Study of Tow in the 

Laboratory. Start 2.00 P.M. 
July 28, Saturday — North Falmouth — Rocks, 

Flats — Digging, etc. Low tide — 12.04 P. 

M. Start 9.30 A. M. ; Return 4.00 P. M. 
August 1, Wednesday — Nobska — Rocks, et-'. 

Low tide— 3.10 P.M. Start 1.45 P.M. 

Return 4.45 P. M. 
August 4, Saturday — Class picnic. 

Special attention has of late years been 
paid to the collection and identification of 
protozoan species from the varied fresh, 
brackish and salt water habitats at Woods 
Hole. The summarized account of results 
of field work has been kept for the last four 



years. This is a list showing the protozoa 
identified from eight ponds ranging, from 
fresh water (nos. 1, 2, 3), brackish (nos. 4, 
5, 7, 8) to salt (no. 8). On each trip for 
the past four years the class has been di- 
vided into two groups of four teams each. 
Each group made collections from four of 
the sources listed. A very representative 
sampling was made as each team collected 
from a different region of the pond in ques- 
tion. Upon the return to the laboratory all 
samples made by each group from any given 
pond were put in a large clean crystallizing 
dish which was carefully labelled as to 
source of material for identification. Dur- 
ing the study of collected protozoa all in- 
structors were present and for each year 
except 1930 Dr. Mary S. MacDougall,' for 
several years instructor in charge of the 
laboratory work in the Protozoology course, 
very kindly aided in the identification of the 
rarer or more difficult species. As there is 
not a published check list of pi'otozoan 
species from these sources for the Woods 
Hole Region it is hoped that this list will 
have a definite value. The ponds are men- 
tioned by names used by both the members 
of the Invei-tebrate Zoology and the Proto- 
zoology courses and are well known locally. 
Representative samples in separate clean 
bottles were taken by instructors from each 
pond during all of the years in question and 
pH readings were made coloi-ime: trically 
immediately upon return from the trip. 
These readings are also given in the list. 
The classification used follows Calkins 
(1926)'-. This list is available for consul- 
tation by workers at Woods Hole and it is 
proposed to leave copies of it in the Library 
for reference at any time. 

The check list of Invertebrate snecies has 
been revised three times since 1922. The 
second of these revisions in 1927 was made 
for the purpose of bringing the nomencla- 
ture up to date and the staff was fortunate 
in securing for the checking of this work 
the services of authorities in the systemat- 
ics of nearly all the phyla represented. The 
number of species in the present check list 
is 318. In the report of Sumner, Osburn 
and Cole" the total listed number of inver- 
teb'-ate snecies for the Woods Hole region is 
1286. Since in the extensive work of that 

* Continued from last number. 



7G 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



report much greater areas were covered and 
most of the collecting was done by dredging 
it is felt that in making the acquaintance of 
25% of the fauna recorded in the 1911 re- 
port the members of the Invertebrate Zo- 
ology class get a fairly complete picture of 
the entire littoral fauna of the region. As 
has been emphasized before (Allee, 1922) oc- 
casionally new records for the Woods Hole 
region are added. What is much more val- 
uable is the constant checking over of abund- 
ance of forms useful to the research worker. 
For instance, it was found during the sum- 
mer of 1928 that the aberrant and interest- 
ing cirratulid worm, Dodecacena concharum, 
was present in large numbers. This species 
is relatively little known at Woods Hole and 
had never before been identified in the work 
of the course. It is at present being used 
as research material by one of the members 
of the staff. Other instances similar to this 
can easily be cited. 

The custom of providing each student 
with a revised check list of the species which 
have been taken in other years by members 
of the course at Woods Hole has been con- 
tinued but the procedure after field trips has 
been considerably modified during the last 
eight years. Instead of writing a list on the 
blackboard each instructor checks over the 
record sheet of the day with members of his 
team. During this checking nrocess any un- 
identified or provisionally identified speci- 
mens deemed sufficiently interesting or im- 
portant to bring into the laboratory are 
looked at again for more complete study or 
final identification. Immediately after all 
final identifications are made the composite 
field record for the trip is compiled from the 
individual team records and posted in the 
laboratory. This has been done for every 
field trip" since 1922. As a result, a check 
list showing at a glance the relative abund- 
ance of common littoral forms from seven 
diflferent but renresentative localities at 
Woods Hole for the years 1922 to 1930, in- 
clusive, has been compiled and conies of this 
list are available at any time. This list sup- 
plements the annotated catalogue made by 
Allee" ('23a) and nlaced bv him in several 
institutions. The data of this list have a'so 
furnished interesting comparisons of the 
distribution from year to year and have fur- 
nished some evidence as to the eff'ect of tem- 
nerature on the abundance of littoral forms 
in this region. 

As a result of past exnerience with the 
so-called "question-mark" bottle which fre- 
quently dropped entirely out of sight, or, 
having been filled with animals more or less 
mutually antagonistic was often found upon 



examination to contain only animal debris, 
the device of providing one set of bottles and 
vials of suitable sizes to fit into a specially 
constructed carrying case has been used 
since 1927. In such a convenient set car- 
ried by one member of the team a suitable 
receptacle for one or more of each species 
studies was provided. As a result, without 
waste of time, there was immediately avail- 
able for further study representatives of the 
entire list checked in the field by any team. 
During 1928 for example, following the 
North Falmouth field trip a special demon- 
stration of representative species, about 150 
in number, was made in the entrance hall of 
the new main building. This representative 
collection of species from the richest collect- 
ing area in the vicinity of Woods Hole re- 
ceived a very careful inspection and several 
i-equests were made by research workers for 
the use of extra specimens. 

Two important modifications closely re- 
lated to the field work have been made in re- 
cent years. Beginning in the year 1923 
members of the class made individual studies 
of selected areas of Quissett Harbor. This 
region was surveyed and an outline map 
drawn to scale by Drs. D. B. Young and J. 
A. Dawson. On this map the areas were 
outlined and assigned to small groups of 
members of the class. A selected list of 50 
to 60 representative species taken in previ- 
ous field trips at this locality was made and 
students were required to check quantita- 
tively the distribution of these within the 
given area. The combined reports were kept 
as a matter of record. This ecological field 
work was done during the latter half of the 
course at which time each student was fa- 
miliar, from previous field trins and from 
study in the laboratory with all the species 
on the list. No supervision on the part of 
the instructors was practised but the entire 
work lasting usually about two weeks, was 
left to the initiative of individual members 
of each team. It was felt that this indenend- 
ent work on the part of students formed a 
valuable part of a course in which initiative 
on the part of the students is encouraged in 
all aspects of class woi'k. 

During the years 1927 and 1928 a modifi- 
cation of this type of work was made. A 
list of species, one for each member of the 
class was chosen from the field check list. 
Forms occurring relatively i-arelv were 
avoided but from those found fairly fre- 
quently a careful selection was made. 
Especiallv inclusions of snecies which ofl'er 
spe'-ial difficulties in field identification were 
made. One species was assigned to each 
member of the class after the second week 



July ii. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



81 



ITEMS OF 

Some of the students in the Course in Emliry- 
ology will be interested in opportunities to remain 
as assistants during August. If any investiga- 
tors desire to make such an arrangement they 
may communicate with Dr. H. B. Goodrich, 
Room 210 Pjr. 210. The course closes Saturday 
July 25 and arrangements should be made as 
soon as possible. 

Catalogs of chemicals and apparatus may be 
obtained from the Apparatus Room of the iVIa- 
rine Biological Laboratory which is in Room 216 
of the I'jrick Building. The Chemical Room can 
not loan its catalogs, because it needs them con- 
tinually for reference work. 

Miss Jeannette Hegner has been awarded a fel- 
lowship to study history in Rome. She is going 
this I'all and will be abroad a whole year. 

Dr. Hettie Chute has been promoted from in- 
structor to assistant professor of botany at the 
New Jersey College for Women. 

Mr. Herbert H. Harris, who took the course 
in physiology at the Laboratory in 1928, and 
Walter Garrey, visited Woods Hole for several 
days. They are spending their brief vacation in 
their boat, taking various cruises to the south of 
the Cape and up around the north shore. Both 
men graduated from Harvard Medical School 
(Mr. Garrey, cum laudc) and they will begin 
their internships next year. Mr. Harris goes to 
Presbyterian Hospital in New York, and Mr. 
Garrey to the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATOKY 

The annual Laboratory picnic was held at the 
home of Dr. and Mrs. Warre i H. Lewis on the 
Fourth of July. 

The fir.st lecture in the Popular Lecture Course 
will be given on July i6th, by Professor Ulric 
Dahlgren of Princeton LTniversity. His subject 
is "Electric Fishes". The second lecture will be 
opj "Inflammation" and will be given by Dr. 
Jos''])h McFarland of the Universitv of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The first seminar of the season will be held on 
Monday, July 13th. Dr. Homer W. Smith of 
New York Universitv will describe his experi- 
ences in Siam and Malaysia. Lantern slides will 
be used. 

Dr. James Murrav of the Jackson Memorial 
Laboratory, Bar Harbor, gave the second seminar 
in the lack.son Memorial Laboratorv series. July 
1st. Dr. Murray spoke on "The Efifects of In- 
breeding Mice." 

FRANCES R. SNOW. 

Laboratory Secretary. 



INTEREST 

The Zoological Field Laboratory, conducted by 
the University of Kentucky, will not be in opera- 
tion for the next two years, owing to absences on 
leave of memljers of the stafif who conduct the 
station. 

On his return from Nantucket, where he at- 
tended a meeting of the Social Science Research 
Council, Dr. Adolf Meyer, professor of psychi- 
atry at Johns Hopkins University spent a day 
visiting several members of the Laboratory. 

Father P. H. Yancey, who was an investigator 
at the Marine Biological Lalioratory last summer, 
received his doctor's degree at St. Louis Uni- 
versity in June, He has been appointed professor 
of biology and director of the department at 
Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama. 

The group of workers from the Johns Hopkins 
L'niversity gathered for a picnic on one of the 
beaches in West Falmouth on the evening of 
Saturday, July 4th. 

Visitors to Woods Hole with out-of-state cars 
who expect to remain for a period of more than 
thirty days are required to secure a special permit, 
according to a new law in Massachusetts. The 
l^ermit is free but each operator of a car is re- 
quired to give evidence of holding a personal lia- 
bility insurance. Blanks to be used in applying 
for the special permit will be available at the 
Administration Office in the laboratory. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL STATION 

Dr. Helen R. Murphy (Cornell '20) is in resi- 
dence for a few weeks while finishing two papers : 
"Observations and Morphology of the Horned 
Toad" and "Notes on the Salpugids." The work 
for these was carried on in Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. Dr. Murphy leaves the last of July for 
China where she is going for a three year period 
to teach at Ling-nan College, Canton. 

Mr. F. R. Petherbridge, entomologist of Cam- 
bridge, England, has been visiting the Depart- 
ments of Entomology and Plant Pathology. 

Dr. Gordon F. Ferris, Professor of Zoology 
at Stanford University, called at the Entomology 
Department when in Ithaca recently for the re- 
union of the Telluride Association. 

Prof. A. H. Wright who is conducting the 
West Virginia Traveling Summer School in 
Zoology has returned for the opening of the 
Cornell Summer Session. Mrs. Wright and Dr. 
W. J. Hamilton, Jr. will lead the group in Dr. 
Wright's absence. 

ELSIE BROUGHTON KLOTS, 

Instructor in Limnology. 



82 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



TURTOX Cq 

Ov J No. 1 Insects 
No. 2 Aquatic 
Life 
No. 3 PlanU 



The Sign of the Turtox 
Pledges Absolute Satisfaction 




^3^ 



COLLECTOSETS were designed by experienced teachers for the use of 
students in field courses. 

For a descriptive circular, illustrating and describing each Collectoset 
in detail, write to the 

General Biological Supply House 

incorporated 
761-763 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 




Spalteholz 

Transpiarent 

Prepiiratiijns 

Human 

and 

Zoological 



2:^ 






xs^ 



'j.i- 







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Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for physiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, e'c. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name cf school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

Visit our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Rooms and Museum 

117-119 EAST Z4th STREET 



4 


wsmJ-' 


• 

> 



Life History 
of Chick" 



NEW YORK 



July ii. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



81 



ITEMS OF 

Some of the students in the Course in Embry- 
ology will be interested in opportunities to remain 
as assistants during August. If any investiga- 
tors desire to make such an arrangement they 
may communicate with Dr. H. B. Goodrich, 
Room 210 Br. 210. The course closes Saturday 
July 25 and arrangements should be made as 
soon as possible. 

Catalogs of chemicals and apparatus may be 
obtained from the Apparatus Room of the Ma- 
rine Biological Laboratory which is in Room 216 
of the Brick Building. The Chemical Room can 
not loan its catalogs, because it needs them con- 
tinually for reference work. 

Miss Jeannette Hegner has been awarded a fel- 
lowship to study history in Rome. She is going 
this Fall and will be abroad a whole year. 

Dr. Hettie Chute has been promoted from in- 
structor to assistant professor of liotany at the 
New Jersey College for Women. 

Mr. Herbert H. Harris, who took the course 
in physiology at the Laboratory in 1928, and 
Walter Garrey, visited Woods Hole for several 
days. They are spending their brief vacation in 
their boat, taking various cruises to the south of 
the Cape and up around the north shore. Both 
men graduated from Harvard Medical School 
(Mr. Garrey, cum hiudc) and they will begin 
their internships ne.xt year. Mr. Harris goes to 
Presbyterian Hospital in New York, and Mr. 
Garrey to the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

MT. DESEaiT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATOKY 

The annual LaI)oratorv picnic was held at the 
home of Dr. and Mrs. Warre 1 H. Lewis on the 
Fourth of July. 

The first lecture in the Popular Lecture Course 
will be given on July l6th, by Professor Ulric 
Dahlgren of Princeton University. His subject 
is "Electric Fishes"'. The second lecture will be 
on "Inflammat'on" and will be given by Dr. 
Jos'-ijh McFarland of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The first seminar of the season will be held on 
Monday, July 13th. Dr. Homer W. Smith of 
New York Universitv will describe his experi- 
ences in Siam and Malaysia. Lantern slides will 
be used. 

Dr. James Murrav of the Jackson Memorial 
Laboratory, Bar Harbor, gave the second seminar 
in the Jackson Memorial Lpboratorv series July 
1st. Dr. Murray spoke on "The Effects of In- 
breeding Mice." 

FRANCES R. SNOW, 

Laboratory Secretary. 



INTEREST 

The Zoological Field Laboratory, conducted by 
the University of Kentucky, will not be in opera- 
tion for the next two years, owing to absences on 
leave of members of the staff who conduct the 
station. 

On his return from Nantucket, where he at- 
tended a meeting of the Social Science Research 
Council, Dr. Adolf Meyer, professor of psychi- 
atry at Johns Hopkins University spent a day 
visiting several members of the Laboratory. 

Fatlier P. H. Yancey, who was an investigator 
at the Marine Biological Laboratory last summer, 
received his doctor's degree at St. Louis Uni- 
versity in June, He has been appointed professor 
of biology and director of the department at 
Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama. 

The group of workers from the Johns Hopkins 
University gathered for a picnic on one of the 
beaches in West Falmouth on the evening of 
Saturday, July 4th. 

Visitors to Woods Hole with out-of-state cars 
who expect to remain for a period of more than 
thirty days are required to secure a special permit, 
according to a new law in Massachusetts. The 
permit is free but each operator of a car is re- 
quired to give evidence of holding a personal lia- 
bility insurance. Blanks to be used in applying 
for the special permit will be available at the 
Administration Office in the laboratory. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL STATION 

Dr. Helen R. Murphy (Cornell '20) is in resi- 
dence for a few weeks while finishing two papers : 
"Observations and Morphology of the Horned 
Toad" and "Notes on the Salpugids." The work 
for these was carried on in Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. Dr. Murphy leaves the last of July for 
China where she is going for a three year period 
to teach at Ling-nan College, Canton. 

Mr. F. R. Petherbridge, entomologist of Cam- 
bridge, England, has been visiting the Depart- 
ments of Entomology and Plant Pathology. 

Dr. Gordon F. Ferris, Professor of Zoologv 
at .Stanford University, called at the Entomology 
De]iartment when in Ithaca recently for the re- 
union of the Telluride Association. 

Prof. A. H. Wright who is conducting the 
West Virginia Traveling Summer School in 
Zoology has returned for the opening of the 
Cornell Summer Session. Mrs. Wright and Dr. 
W. J. FInmilton, Jr. will lead the group in Dr. 
Wright's absence. 

ELSIE BHOUGHTON KLOTS, 

Instructor in Limnology. 



82 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



TURTOX Cq 

P 

O^ ^ No. 1 Insects 
No. 2 Aquatic 
Life 
No. 3 Plants 



The Sign of the Turtox 
Pledges Absolute Saris/action 




COLLECTOSETS were designed by experienced teachers for the use of 
students in field courses. 

For a descriptive circular, illustrating and describing each Collectoset 
in detail, write to the 

General Biological Supply House 

Incorporated 
761-763 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 




Spalteholz 

Transparent 

Preparatiuns 

Human 

and 

Zoological 





Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for physiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, e'c. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name r.f school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

Visit our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Rooms and Museum 















^^^ 





Life History 
of Chick" 



Clay-AdAms Com pant 



Model of Hmiian Heart 



117-119 EAST 24th STUEET 



NEW Yonic 



July ii, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



83 



LEITZ 

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The four parabolic mirrors which act as concentrntion medium for the light rays lend 
the projector "Vh" a most effective mode of light concentration resulting in an cxcecdint/ly 
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specimens can be hnndled conveniently and injury to them through overheating is eliminated. 
The projection olijectives are of utmost correction, gifing crisp and clear-cut images. 



.1 comparison ivil! prove that purchase accordi.ig to quality, not to price, means 
economy and satisfaction zviih projection equipment. 



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Cliicago District: E. LEITZ, INC., 122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, ni. 



84 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



EINTHOVEN STRING GALVANOMETERS 



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Full information on request. 

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TuLY n, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



85 



Stability and Dependability 

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86 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[V ol. V L No. ^3 




MAGNIFIERS 

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July ii, 1031 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



87 



ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Environment 

Established 1920. Quarterly. Official Publication of the 
Ecological Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
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GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Eetablished 1916. Bimonthly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete volumes (Jan. to 
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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Established 1914. Monthly, except August and Sep- 
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America. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
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Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part I. 
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Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
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LABORATORY APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL N o. 43 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



In the June 27th issue of The Collecting Net 
the account of the Coast Guard included the story 
of a green sloop reported stolen by Howard Ry- 
nard and found by the Coast Guard off Hyaniiis. 
Maskus Seralis, who wa.: in charge of the sloop 
when she went aground and was arrested as a 
suspicious character, was released when it was 
discovered that he had been granted permission 
to take the boat by one of Rynard s friends. 

Seralis' affair with the Coast Guard is not 
yet over for on July 4th he claims that he wa.^ 
msulted, that his clothing was torn, and that lis 
was thrown into the water by a memi^er of the 
Cuttyhunk Coast Guard Station, probably as a 
result of a quarrel over his earlier trouble witli 
the Coast Guard. Commander Patch he.e has r^.- 
ceived the following letter, which seems of suf- 
ficient interest to reprint : 

July G, 19J1. 
My Dear Commander: I respLC.iuily ap- 
peal to you by mail as I have taken Ui. pleas- 
ure and courage to write all my coinplaiii!.s 
and true st ry as it is and as iol.o-ws. on 
Saturday, July 4 at the Cuttyhunk bathing 
beach I v/as insulted by a member ol' t.,u 
Coast Guard in the presence of his mate and 
civilians. However his name can be traced 
througli his captain, Mr. Sanborn who is in 
charge. Betides names and threats uiy per- 
sonal damage in clothes torn besides throv/i.;g 
me overboard I esti nate and clai 1 $3) frorr 
his pay. I wish to state also that I per."onaIly 
did my very best to avoid this aid fi'rt'er 
trouble but my main and only cause is to give 
this man still another chance to make good 
for he may be young and foolish as he is. 

Though we rught younir anel old, be 
proud of our fathers and mothers, it makes 
no difference what nationality wo may be b'-t 
the mighty and respectable nation of f-e 
United States of America with its old glory 
anel eagle flying should at all times be re- 
spected by its citizens or a'iens. As I am 
nw doing my duty and living the life of a 
civilian. 

Thanking you in advance Mr. Command- 
er, as I am in hopes you ivill take care of 
this case in time for correction and mv rights. 
Respectfully and sinccrelv I remain 
Vnnrs trii''^'. 
MASKUS D SERA US Mat" 
Schooner Ada Sh'-u. 
Nantucket, Mass. 

Connmnder Patch is turning over the cpse to 
District Commander James S. Phillips to be in- 
vestigated. 



The Woods Hole Yacht Club held its first race 
of the season on Wednesday, July ytli, starting 
fro m the Frost boat house at five o'clock in t.ie 
afternoon. 

'the schedule of the races was as follows : 
Haby Knock-Abouts 
Entries Time 

"Adios" — Morris Frost i :,S5 

"Porpoise" — Lomstock Glaser 1:57 

"Tyro" — Mrs. Croisley i :^9 

"Scuttlebutt' — Preston Copeland 2:31 

"Meiiidia ' — bied Copeland 2 44 

"Charlog" — Ogden VVoodruff did not finis. 1 

Dories 
No one finished in this race on account of fog. 
"Dorine' — Gtoige Clowes 
"Aunt Addie ' — Art MeigS 
"lilack Cat" — Vera Warbasse 
"Dunky" — Ivenneth Cole 

Catboats, Etc. 

"Lurline" — Philip Woolworth I :43 

' Squido" — Henry Kidder 2 :j7 

"Salty Dog" — lom Katcliffe 2 151 

"H. C." — Lewis Perrine did not finis.i 

The Club plans to hold races each Monday 
afternoon throughout the summer. 



Miss Charlotte Griffin of Woods Hole, a Jun'or 
at Pembroke College, Brown University, has re- 
sumed for the summer h;r position in the tcle- 
gr,"])h office. 



This week the University Players at SHver 
Beach have been featuring the well-known melo- 
drama, "Interference" by Roland Pertwee and 
Harold Dearden. The play tells the story of 
Lady Marley whose happy second marriage veers 
toward destruction when her first husband, whom 
she believed dead, reappears, and the only woman 
who knows of the situation seeks vengeance 
through blackmailing. Around this frayed plot, 
the authors have built a structure which includes 
all the tricks of the stage; a take-off of reporters; 
a variety of the eternal triangle ; a murder ; and 
the process of crime detection. 

Although the play dragged at the start and 
moved too slowly in parts, notably whai Sir John 
Marley held the stage, it gave excellent opportun- 
ity for delightful bits of character portrayal. 
Particularly outstanding were the acting of I'ricda 
Altman as Lady Marley ; the clever work of 
Peter Wayne, dashing young hero of "Paris 
Bound" last weeb, whose excellent jiortrayal < f 
the returned first husband left nothing to l-.c d - 
sired ; and .such mhior bits as Fred the hall by 
and Dr. Puttock, ably acted by Myron McCo ■- 
mick and Alfred Dalrymple respectively- 
Next wpck th" Players are ]nitting on Mi'ne's- 
comcdv "Mr. Pirn Passes P.v," ' — M, S. G. 



jlLY II, I93I ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



89 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
HARDWARE CO. 

Agency for 

LYNN OIL KANGE BURNER 

Falmouth, oi)p. the Public Library Tel. 26) 



THE UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, INC. 

Present 

"MR. PIM PASSES BY" 

A Coiiiedj- by A. A. Milne 

July 13 — July 18 

Old Silver Brach ' West Falmomh 



MUlVSON & ORDWAY 
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Fresh Killed Poultry — Fruit & Vegetable; 

Butter, Eggs & Groceries 

Home Cooked Food and Delicatessen 

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'i DcliviTii'H l>:iily in AA'oocIe Hole 



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_Fine Toilet Articles 
Elizabeth Arden, Coty 

Yardley 
Choice Bits from Pekin 

MRS. WEEKS SHOPS 

FALMOUTH 



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WOODS HOLE GARAGE 
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Opposite Station 



KELVINATOR REFRIGERATION 

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5 AND IOC DEPARTMENT 

KITCHEN FURNISHINGS . 

Pyrofax Gas and Glcnvvood Ranges 
Falmouth Tel. 407 



The Whaler on Wheels 




"Our Wandering Book Shop" 

Miss Iniogene Weeks Miss Helen E. Ellis 

Mr. John Francis 

Will be at Woods Hole Mondays 

tliroujrhout the summer 

sen son. 

THE WHALER BOOK SHOP 

106 SCHOOL STREET NEW BEDFORD 

Telephone Clifford 110 



Visit 
Malchman's 

THE 

LARGEST DEPARTMENT STORE 

ON CAPE COD 



Falmouth 



Phone 116 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 
The Rev. James Bancroft, Rector- 

Hfily Communion 8 :00 a. m. 

Morning Prayer 11:00 a. 111. 

Evening- Prayer 7:30 p. m. 



90 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



Just Published 



The revised, up-to-date 
SECOND EDITION of 

HEREDITY 

By A. Franklin Shi'll, 
Professor of Zoology in the University 
of Michigan 

McGKAW HILL PUBLICATIONS 

in the 

ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCES 

'~P HIS is a sound and thorough treat- 
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also covers enough of the phenomena 
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In this edition all of the many recent 
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of the book. 

Important among the cihanges are: 
— The discussion of immigration has been 
altered to fit the present laws and ad 
ministrative procedure, 
— the analysis of the population problem 
has been revised to accord with the new 
census and other recent statistical results 
— the chapters on heredity in man have 
been greatly enlarged owing to the In- 
crease of readily accessible material 
— in the more fundamental parts of the 
book new phenomena, such as multiple 
allelomorphism and lethal homozygotes. 
have been introduced because of the cer- 
tainty or increased probability that they 
are exhibited in man 
— important new experimental results bear- 
ing on the evolution question are included 
— the history of knowledge of heredity has 

been entirely rewritten 
— problems for drill are introduced into 
the fundamental divisions of the work, 

345 foges- 6 -r 9. 
143 ilhistrations, $3.00 

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46 Illustrations. Cloth, $6,00 Postpaid 

This lidcik empliasizcs all of the important 
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JrLY II, 1931 ] 



THE COLLFXTING NET 



91 




The Added 
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GSE, the new B & L Laboratory 
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The GSE is a binocular microscope, thus affording the user relief from eyestrain. 
The eyepieces can be manipulated so as to give a decided stereoscopic effect. 
The binocular body is removable for the substitution of a monocular tube when 
the instrument is to be used for photography, projection or drawing. 

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of microscopy. 

Write for descriptive literature. 

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Makers o f Orthogon Eye glass Lenses for B etter Vision 



92 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[Vol. VL No. 43 



'7t saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' 




Quoting remark of a school superintendent 

who bought the 

"PKOMI" MICROSCOPIC DRAWING and 

PROJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
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drawing and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
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The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
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genious yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteriology, Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
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It has been endorsed by many leading 

scientists and instructors. 

isfd for projecting in actual colors on wall or 

organisms and insects for lecture room demonstration and 

group of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 



It 



AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS 

screen, microsco|iic prcparalions, li\ in 

instruction. Makes it possible for : 

ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on important features, which can 

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strains of niicniscciiic examination. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actual colors on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
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justment of the size of the image is simply a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
projected. Higher magnification may be obtained by using tube aiul ocular ami our liigli power ob- 
jectives. Charts can readily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror and inverting 
the apparatus a cimipciund microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
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AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic pre|.arations of slides, living or- 
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THE "PROMAR" MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
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Vol. VI. No. 4 



SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



HUMORAL AGENTS IN NERVOUS AC 

TIVITIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE 

TO THE CHROMATOPHORES 

Dk. (;. 11. P.VRKKK 

Professor of Zoo!of/y. Harvard University 
I am sure it was a great pleasure to us to hear 
Dr. Wilson at the first lecture. He is far and 
away the senior zoolojjist of us all, and it i.s al- 
ways a matter of delight when 

he is willing to talk to us from 
his rich store of knowledge. In 
this series of lectures I am his 
unworthy successor. 

Vou all know that the nerv- 
ous system of higher animals 
is commonh- diy-ded into three 
parts ; the receptors, or organs 
which haye to do with recep- 
tion of impulses from the en- 
vironment : the central nervous 
system, which is an ad justor ; 
and finally, the efl'ectors, the 
organs wherehy the anim-'l cnn 
rf'Dond to the environn^ent. I 
wish to trlk to vou aliout a 
particular frouD of effectors. 

First I might recpll hrieflv 
that there are numerous anima 
'■leme"tary ones are, first, the urticati rs. or sting- 
ing cells, which occur in (Continued on page 96) 



M. IB. % €alcn^ar 

TUESDAY, JULY 31, 8 P.M. 
Seminar. Dr. S. Morgulis, "The 
Chemistry of Bone Ash." 
Dr. J. M. Johlin, "The Bnoliza- 
tion of Gelatin by Neutral Salts." 
Dr. E. S. Guzman Barron, "Oxi- 
dations produced by Gonococci." 
Dr. Shiro Tashiro and Mr. L. H. 
Schmidt, "Bile Salts." 

FRIDAY, July 24, 8 P. M. 

Lecture. Dr. T. H. Morgan, pro- 
fessor of biology, California In- 
stitute of Technology, "The 
Marine Laboratories of the 
World and their Work." (Illus- 
trated. I 



effectors. The 



THE BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION AT 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 

Dr. James G. Needh.\m 
Professor of Eiitoinoloi/v and Limnology 

Times have changed. For many years we at 
Cornell L'niversity tried to maintain a biological 
field station like the others in this country, with 
a well equipped laboratory by 
the waterside. Then the Imild- 
ing burned down ; and before 
we could get another we be- 
gan to realize that the auto- 
mobile had changed conditions 
for us ; that we could now get 
from our best collecting 
crounds to the University in a 
few minutes : that there was 
no need to try to duplicate our 
regular laboratories, which 
would always be better 
eauipped and more comfort- 
al)le ; and that by using the 
automobile freely we could 
l)cfter draw upon the variously 
distributed resources of our 
rich environment. So our pres- 
ent plans contemplate keeriing in the field only the 
eouipnient needed for field work, and keeping it 
not in one place only, but ir'' several places. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Humoral Ap-onts in Nervous Activitlps 

wit^ Siecial Reference to the Chro- 

matophores.. 

Dr. G. H. Parker 93 

The Biol p-ical Field Station at Corndl 

University, 

Dr. James G. Needham 9^. 

Reviews of Three Botanical Books 100 



The Beach Question 102 

The Report of the Special Meeting of the 
Corporation cj the Marine Biological 

Laboratory 10:> 

Items of Interest 103 

Items of Interest 104 

Currents in the Hole 101 



94 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. J4 




DOPHINA PROPAGATING POOLS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL HATCHING STATION 

These po Is are fertilized and planted in succession and the crop of dophinas when 

grown is flushed at intervals of a few days into a lower bass fry pool. 



Our plans have in part been realized. Our 
campus is traversed by two clear-flowing perma- 
nent streams. On one of these, Cascadilla Creek, 
thei-e is located the Fish Cultural Experiment Sta- 
tion that Dr. G. C. Embody has developed. The 
ponds of this station are an inexhaustible sou'xe 
(if biological materials. On the other stream. Fall 
Creek, and not far from our laboratories, is lo- 
cated a pump house and rearing station. Here 
are troughs of running water and rearing cages 
for lotic organisms, and here is the electric pump 
that supplies untreated water to our insectary on 
the hill above. In the insectary also are facil- 
ities for our work with aquatic insects. These 
places are the chief repositories of living material 
brought in from more remote collecting places in 
the field. In these much of oiu" research is done. 

We have as yet no permanent field station on 
Cayuga Lake for general biological use, though 
one is contemplated ; but for work with birds we 
have a Fuertes Alemorial I'ird Sanctuary in 
charge of Dr. A. A, Allen; and adiacent thereto 
is the Cayuga Bird Park maintained by the Citv 
of Ithaca in a 50 acre tract of rich bottom land 
woods. 

Another P'ield Station that is. by the courtesy 
of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, available for 
research work in aquiculture, is the federal fish 
hatchery, located on some very laree sprinirs 
( Gyrinophilus Springs) trilmtarv to Upper Fall 
Creek, some fifteen miles north east of Ithaca. 



This is in purpose a i-esearch station, rather than 
an ordinary fish hatchery. 

We have three nearby wild life preserves that 
have lieen pi'esented by the heirs of Mr. C. G. 
Llovd to the University on terms that provide for 
their maintenance in a state of nature. One of 
these near McLean, N. Y., is a wooded tract of 
81 acres, containing a number of cold .sphagnum 
bogs whose fauna and flora are largely Canadian. 
Another is a wild flower preserve near Slater- 
ville Springs. It is a tract of 436 acres of rocky 
hills covered with maple and beech woods, and 
intersected by beautiful trout streams. The third 
is a wooded morainal tract of no acres of rolling 
hills with kettle holes holding shady pools having 
varying degrees of permanence. These suppl\' 
some very interesting Phyllopods and other Crus- 
taceans. 

All these preserves, and three state parks as 
well, are within walking distance of the Uni- 
versity (though nowadays nobody walks). All 
being on good roads they are easily and quicklv 
reached and their bioloeical resources are there- 
fore very accessible. The three parks all con- 
tain high waterfalls of singular beauty, and the 
deep gorges below the falls have a rich and verv 
interesting faima and flora. And, happily, the 
Fin.<7er T^akes Park Commission, that has them in 
charge, has been imusually successful in its efiforts 
to preserve the life in them from destruction bv 
ca'"eless visitors. 



JULY iS, I93I ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



95 



With this sort of environment, with all the 
YurietN (if unsiwiled nature at our very doors, we 
would surely De neglectful of our opportunities 
if we (li<l not lay some emphasis on field work at 
C'nrnell L niversitv. Ksjiecialiy is this true of 
work witli aijuatic animals; for we have nearby 
us hodies of water varying in size from a deep 
kikc (La. uga having a maximum depth of 435 
ft.) to transient pools; we have both head water 
liogs and flo^d plain marshes ; we have perma- 
nent streams of every degree of swiftness with 
half a dozen fine water falls on the campus itself ; 
and we have springs both fresh and salt. Since 
these waters have sufl^eied very little from pollu- 
tion of any sort, their fauna and flora are rich 
and varied. 

So at Co "n;ll L'niversitv we are alile to live 
"t home during the summer while working in the 
field. There is no distinction i)Ct\veen the wo-k 
i.f the summer and that of the acrdemic vear; fin- 
it runs the year round continuously. Li order to 
help nil ire effectively with field work Professor 
j. Ci. Xevdham continues in reside'ice during the 
summer, teaching no classes, but giving his time 
to directing the research wo-;k of graduate .stu- 
dents. Professors Johnnnsen, Matheson. Allen 
and Claassen also give time to graduate work 
while teaching in the .summer session. 

During the summer of 193 1 half a dozen grad- 
uate students will be alisent. engaged in the l)io- 
lii'Tical \vi rk of various stream surveys. A par- 
lal list of the workers in res'dence and of their 
seasonal prnblems is as follows: 



Professor J. G. Needham : Mayfly ecolog}-. 
Professor ( ). A. Johannsen: Biology of 

CItiniiioiiiiihic. 
Professor P. W. Claassen: Life Plistories of 

Flccoplciii. 
Professor R. Matheson: Piiology of the Ciili- 

cidae and SimuHidac. 
Professor I^ . A. Allen : Propagation of the 

Ruffled Grouse, and Life Histories of N. 

A. birds. 
Mr. Wm. ( ). Sadler : Quantity Production of 

C hiroiioiniis. 
Miss J. li. Traver : Taxonoinv of the /;/'/;- 

ciiicridac. 
Mrs. A. 1). Klots : Deep water Crustacea of 

Cayuga Lake. 
Mr. G. r. Lew; The Topography of the 

Hs;id in Odoiuita. 
Mr. \'. C. H.su: The I'.iology of the IMaylly 

tic.ius Hcptagoiia. 
I\Ir. M. T. Cheo : The Coleopterous famih', 

Cwntidac. 
Mr. 11. T. Feng: The Piiology of the 

Dyliic'diu-. 
Mr. Geo. 1). Saunders: A I'.iological Studv 

of tile Me:iilow Lark. 
Mr. W. .\. Walter: A I'.iological Study of 

Marsh Wrens. 
Miss l^mma Davis : .\ P.iological Studv of 

tlie Killileer. 
INlr. Paul Kellogg: A Distriliutional Study of 

the i'.irds of the Cavuga Lake liasin. 




ONE CF THE BASS PONDS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL HATCHING STATION 



96 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



HUMORAL AGENTS IN NERVOUS ACTIVITIES WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO THE CHROMATOPHORES 

(Continued from page 93 1 



the jellv-fishes and the hke ; and ne.xt, the 
glands ; ' the kiminous organs ; the chromato- 
phores, or cells which change the color of ani- 
mals : the cilia, organs of movement : muscles, 
the typical efifectors of the animal kingdom : elec- 
tric organs, etc. No animal has a full range "f 
such effectors. The frog, as you see here on thi 
first slide, has glands, ohromatophores, cilia, mus- 
cles ; human beings have glands, cilia, muscles. 
It is a strange coincidence that the earthworm and 
human being have the same sets. 

Our full response to the environment is car- 
ried out by these three sets of effectors. Glands 
are concerned with secretions for the most part. 
They play no obvious role in our external re- 
lations, save, for example, as tears express emo- 
tion. Our cilia are mainly concerned with keep- 
ing- the chambers of the body clear. We depend 
chiefly on the muscles for our responses. Prac- 
ticaly everything we do in response to our en- 
vironment depends upon the muscles. As I am 
talking to you I am making use of muscular re- 
sponses. My voice comes to you by reason of my 
breath passing over my vocal cords and my lips 
form words which are supposed to excite in your 
mind something of the ideas I am trying to ex- 
press. These are all muscular operations. Mus- 
cles do everything ; they enable us to dig trenches ; 
to carve statues; they run the whole gamut of our 
activities. Even our expressions are due to the 
play of muscles. Perhaps you have what is known 
as a "poker face." That means that in an un- 
conscious way you are able to control your facial 
muscles. We learn to read such manifestations 
with a skill we scarcely understand. We ])ay 
big prices to go to the theatre to see people play 
with their muscles in this way and we sh»d tears 
in response to the actor's artificial play with these 
effectors. 

The particular group of effectors I want to talk 
about is the chroniatophores. They are found in 
the Cephalopods, in Crustacea, and in the water 
inhabiting vertebrates. The squids have a won- 
derful play of color; their external color is due 
to chroniatophores. 

The next slide which we shall see is of an 
ordinary devil fish. The differences of light and 
dark color are due to tho contraction or e.xpansion 
of the chromatopliores. The ne.xt figure shows 
the resting stage, the light condition where the 
chromatophore is a sphere with a great niinilier 
of muscle fil)ers running out from it. Thev pull 
the sphere out into a flat disk and spread it over 
a large area. The chroniatophores are reallv or- 
gans, in the technical sense. Thev have a system 
of innervated muscle fibers. The simplified 



types of chroniatophores are single cells and are 
capable of changing color. Most fishes are cap- 
able of color change in this way. 

This figure shows the chroniatophores of Fun- 
flulus lioth in the contracted and the e.xpanded 
states. The next will show you some sketches 
from Pouchet, who, back in the 70's studied these 
chromatophores in fishes. Along in the go's Bal- 
Irwitz demonst'-ated fjiat there were really nerve 
filters which control the activities of these organs. 
The next figure shows you a flat fish in two po- 
sitions : in the first instance it is on a dark back- 
ground ; in the second case the fish reproduces 
not only the lightness or darkness of the sur- 
roundings, but it reproduces the pattern of its 
surroundings likewise. Like its background, it 
is more or less mottled. These animals have a 
control over the chromataphores which is not a 
common control over the whole liody, but some- 
thing like our muscular control. They can ex- 
pand their spots or contract them in .such a way 
as to bring about an imitation of their .surround- 
ings. 

The next slide shows you an experiment with 
a checkerljoard pattern. The fish could not quite 
acconi])lish that, but nevertheless gives a spotting 
that is fairly accurate. The next shows you 
other ])atterns, coarse and fine checkerboards. 
The animal also can not imitate these exactly but 
it conforms fairly well to its background. It 
seems impossiljle to regard this as due to anything 
else but nerve control of the elements concerned. 
I believe, therefore, that fishes jjossess this cap- 
acity as a result of nerve control of their chrn- 
matophores. 

Colors may likewise be controlled by injecting 
various materials into a fish. If, for e.xample, 
adrenalin is injected, the chroniatophores contract 
and the fish goes into the light stage. We know 
that humoral influences likewise affect these or- 
gans. In general, however, we see that these 
changes in the fishes are essentially nervous 
changes. 

When we consider frogs and other Amphiliia. 
but particularly frogs, we find a remarkable and 
disturbing condition. Many experimenters were 
convinced that the nerves act on the chroniato- 
phores of the frog, but they never brought fortli 
any real evidence. It is chiefly due to Hogber 
and his co-workers that we are now convinced 
that color change in the frog is quite different 
from that in the fish. 

The next slide will show you the two conditions 
— light and dark, — and the following will demon- 
strate the chroniatophores in the skin. The thre" 
conditions, contracted, intermediate, and expanded 
are shown. Nerves mav be cut, and no difference 



July i8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



97 



whatever can be noted. This condition does not, 
therefore, depend upon the nerves. Hogben point- 
ed out that the dark condition in the frog was 
probably brought about Ijy pituitary secretion. 
When the pituitary glands were removed the frog 
went into the light state and remained light per- 
manently. Pituitary secretions poured into the 
blood causes the darkening and its absence the 
light coloration. This state, therefore, is one in 
which the animal as a whole changes and cannot 
change in pattern. 

Two years ago I experimented with tree toads 
by putting them on checkerboard patterns, but 
could get no evidence of change of color otber 
than that of the whole pattern of the animal. It 
therefore appears that the Amphibia are humoral 
in their response. 

Another group which shows color changes is 
the lizards, of which the chameleon is a typical 
animal. Hogben used the African Chameleon and 
cut the animal's spinal cord at different levels. 
These cuts induced an expanded condition of the 
chromatophores, and the animal, when electrically 
stimulated, became light or dark colored only in 
front of the cut. He concluded, therefore, that 
in the chameleon the system was under nerve 
control as in the fishes. The fishes, then, are pre- 
dominantly nervous. Amphibia humoral, and the 
reptiles nervous. I think no zoologist can look 
upon this with complacency — there is something 
queer about it. 

I set one of my students. Dr. Perkins, to work 
on Crustaceans and his studies on chromatophores 
proved to be extremely interesting and illuminat- 
ing. The next slides show you three Crustaceans, 
one light and two dark ; and chromatophores in 
various stages, expansion, contraction, ,Tnd he-e 
they are contracted almost to a dot. The fully 
contracted condition produces th" light co"d'tion 
in the animal. Expansion is a]ipnrently within 
limits. Perkins started to find out whether the 
control was humoral or nervous. He found it ad- 
vantageous to work upon the alxlomen of the 
animal. He made cuts on the side and from 
above and sets of cuts unon different animals but 
the only cut that was effective was the one which 
severed the dorsal blood vessel. This prevented 
any further ch-nge in the abdomen. Perkins then 
opened the animal in the back, lapped over 
thp dorsal blood vessel, and, catching it on the 
skin, stopped the circulation of the lilood, where- 
upon the chromatophores ceased to change. When 
circulation was restored the capacity to change 
was recovered. There seems to be every reason 
to lielieve that in these forms something carried 
in the blood is responsible for chang'ing the ani- 
mal from the light to the dark condition. 

What is this disturbance and where does it 
come from? Perkins worked on the organs in 
tl^e animal's body, making extracts and injecting 
them into animals to see whether he could get 



light and dark changes. He finally fell upon the 

eye stalk, ground it up with seawater and then 
injected the material into the blood of another 
animal. The animal becomes light if it was dark; 
if it was light colored it remains light. So Per- 
kins concluded that some substance produced in 
the eye stalk was effective in bringing about 
changes in the chromatophores. He could not 
find a substance which produced the dark con- 
dition. 

The eye is absolutely necessary for this change. 
If the eye is removed the changes cease. The 
same is true of fishes and amphibians and lizards. 
If you blind an animal on one side, color changes 
are still possiiile. If you make it totally blind 
the color changes cease. 

Roller found that if blood from one Crangon 
was injected into one of another color, there was 
a change. He succeeded in finding an organ 
which he claimed worked upon expansion as well 
as contraction. He found that eye stalks brought 
about contraction, as did Perkins. The next slide 
shows the eye stalks which produce one change, 
that is the light change. Here is also the organ 
which produces the dark change. It is a small 
area behind the rostrum in the head region. Its 
secretion, injected into the blood of an animal, 
H'ill bring about the dark condition. 

The next figure shows a shrimp in which the 
dark organ has been destroyed and one in which 
it has not been destroyed. When both animals are 
put on a background one responds to the dark and 
the other fails to do so. The process probably 
proceeds like this : we have light falling upon the 
eye; consequently there are nerve activities here; 
and somewhere perhaps in the ganglia, secretion is 
produced At any rate there is nerve action to start 
with. This [M-oduces a substance which is carried 
by the blood until it comes into contact with 
chromatophores. There is a double action here. 
It is not a simple question of nervous or humoral 
action ; it is both. The first part of the action is 
nervous, the last part is humoral. Neuro-humoral 
is therefore a term that can be applied perfectly 
well to Crustaceans. 

In Amphibia you see exactly the same thing. 
The eye is necessary for the operation. The! 
light falls on the eye from a light or dark en- 
vironment. Nervous activities are started ; some- 
thing in the central nervous system gives off a 
substance which is carried in the blood and sets 
off a change in the chromatophores. The action 
here may also be said to l>e neuro-humoral. 

Is it possible that there is a neuro-humoral state 
of affairs in fishes and in reptiles? If so we can 
call the whole system as neuro-humoral. If vou 
think of the condition in the fish you will see at 
once that it is entirely possible to consider the 
process in these terms. The light falls on the 
eye of the fish; it is stimulated to nervous activity 
through the central apparatus, and the active sym- 



98 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



pathetic fibers eventually reach the neig'hborhood 
of the chromatophores. At thi.s point I believe 
there is humoral activity. That condition, so far 
as I know, holds for the fishes and reptiles. If 
we accept that view, then we can see that neuro- 
humoral activity is sufficient to make all of these 
devices work on one plan. This would clarify 
the situation so far as the vertebrates are con- 
cerned. 

In the fishes and reptiles the nervous com]io'i- 
ent is long; and the humoral short ; in the Amphib- 
ia there is a short nervous condition, with an ex- 
tended humoral one. In a specialized animal like 
the flatfish the stimulation is local in character. 
Fraulein Mayer has found exactly that state of 
affairs. She drew the blood from a dark flatfish, 
injected it into a light flatfish and found th.it 
that spot became dark. Reciprocallv a spot on 
the lilack flat fish turned light \'\/hen injected with 
blood from a light flatfish. This shows that these 
samples of blood rre active in the fish's body, and 
active locallv. It is entirely possible that we mav 
exjilain local color changes in this way even if 
they are humoral. 

This neuro-humoral hypothesis assumes that 
the fine endings of the nerves secrete substanc- 
es. That perhaps is a considerable assumption. 
Dr. Speidel some years ago described cells in the 
spinal cord of the skate which were bel'eved to 
be .secretory. The gland of the body which is 
most concerned with such chanijes is the adren-il 
and is one which secretes substances. The me- 
dulla, which secretes the rdrenal fluid, is embrvo- 
liigically derived from the svm]i.Tthet!C svstem. 
What difl^erence does it make whether we have 10 
deal with a cell which mav secrete on its own sur- 
face, or whether we are dealing with a cell which 
has a long process which secretes at its end ? I 
have no difficulty in believing that nerves are se- 
cretory. I believe also that the whole nervous 
system may work in this wav, and that such be- 
havior is not confined to the nerves which con- 
trol the chromato])hores. 

Other receptors may also be controlled in a 
neuro-humoral way. 

Urticators, the netling cells of sea anemones, 
nre non-nervous. We do not know much about 
the nervous control of cilia, luminous organs, and 
electric organs, so we have to pass these over. 
^Vhen we turn to the glands we find that certain 
ones are regularly excited liy humoral influences. 
e. g. the pancreas. This is a straight out-and-out 
humoral organ. The salivary glands are partic 
larly interesting in this respect and have been des- 
crilied as the typical nerve-excited glands. In 
TQi.^ Demoor carried on an experiment on these 
glands. He excited the salivary gland of a dog, 
drew ofT the secretion, and injected it into a 
quiescent dog. The second dog secreted saliva. 
It looks as though there were a substance there 
which passed into the saliva and incited response 



when it was secondarily injected. I believe that 
the nerves of the salivary gland produced a sub- 
stance which excited the gland to action and some 
of this substance, escaping in the spittle, was 
capable of exciting the second dog. 

A striking example among the efTectors is the 
vertebrate heart. It can be slowed in its aaion 
by stimulation of the vagus nerve. In 1921 
Loewi began a remarkable series of papers on the 
stimulation of the heart. He took a frog's heart 
and clemrd it of blood, then filled it with a cer- 
tain amount of Ringer's solution. The solution 
was then withdrawn and set aside. He filled the 
heart again with Ringer's solution and when the 
heart again began to lieat normally he stimulatetl 
th2 vagus nerve. The action gradually slowed 
He again drained off the fluid and set it aside, and 
restored the original Ringer's, whereupon the b^.'t 
retU'Mied to normal. The second fluid was then 
intrrduccd and he found that the beating of the 
heart was slowed. 

Th's experiment has been repeated in many 
ways. It is ordinarily performed with two hearts, 
and the same result is obtained. There is .good 
reason to sup]3ose that the vagus nerve produces 
a substance which is cirried in the blood, which 
will influence other organs than the heart in the 
same way. 

An interesting case has been described in the 
smooth muscles affecting the hair on the tail of 
the cnt. Wh"n the smooth muscles are excited 
the hairs .stand up. If you arrange a cat with 
denervated heart, so that the adrenals and livr 
have no part in the circulation, and then stimulate 
the sympathetic fibers going to the tail, the hairs 
will stand up. For a few minutes after, the heart 
changes its beat. This is due to something which 
has been secreted and poured into the blood. Can- 
non and Racq believe that there is a substance 
Ijroduced in the smooth muscles of the tail which 
escapes into the circulation and affects the end 
organ. This they have called sympathin. I a.sked 
Cannon whv it might not be a secretion from the 
nerve endings, and he said that he h.-^d nevri' 
tliought of it in that way. I am inclined to be- 
lieve that the nerve endings are the secretory or- 
c^ans 

In 1924 experiments were carried out on the 
skeletal muscles of the frog. Here substances pro- 
duced in the skeletal muscle of one frog were 
passed over in the blood injected into the rectum 
of another frog, and produced a change in tlie 
smooth muscle. 

Years and vears ago Rotezat put forth a theory 
which was the neuro-humoral idea, potential^', 
as applied to the ordinary secondary sense cells 
of the vertebrate body. In the ordinary organs of 
t''Ste we have this condition revealed : the nerve 
fi'ber comes down and branches in the immediaf^ 
vicinity of the taste buds on the surface of the 
tonrue. How do these cells excite the ner\'e 



July i8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



09 



fibers which lie immediately behind them ? He 
said "I think they act as glands. They secrete 
a siilxstance." He proposed to call these cells 
"Sinnesdrusenzellen." That was in 1910 and no 
one paid much attention to the work, so it was 
lost sight of. 

These fibers have very remarkable influences 
of another kind on their end org'ans. li nerves 
going to the tongue are cut, the taste buds degen- 
erate. H it is not a part of the filler, why dosi- 
it degenerate? Some of the influence passer-, 
across from the nerve ending to the taste bud and 
maintains its integrity. That is a trophic influ- 
ence. I don't think that there is such a thing as 
a tropic nerve, but I think practically all nerves 
have a tropic influence. When the nerves of 
which we are speaking regenerate, the taste buds 
regenerate. Some of you have heard me lecture 
about neurofibrils. I expressed the view that the 
neurofilirils were concerned with the transmission 
of these tro])hic impulses. Here, in the case of 
the taste Inuls, we have conditions occasioned by 
a neuro-humoral activity, nerve impulses to the 
interior and trophic impulses to the exterior, and 
all probalilv neuro-humoral. 

The disease known as "shingles" apears in the 
form of bands around the body breaking out in 
inflammation. It was formerly thought to be a 
sk'n disease. It is now known to be due to an 
inflammation of the s]iinal ganglia of a particu'r^i 
region and these hand"; are in exact correspond- 
ence with the distribution of the sensory nerves 
of that particular area. The disease is probably 
due to abnormal secretion of nerves in that p''r- 
ticular section. If we think of these fibers as 
ordinarily secreting something which keeps the 
skin in a normal condition, then we can under- 
stand how such an abnormal secretion will pro- 
duce the disease. 

In the central apparatus the main problem is 
the interrelation of neurones. Thev come to- 
gether, at the synapses and impulses pass across 
in these regions. The remarkable fact aliout this 
is that the imiJulse will pass in onlv one directio". 
at the synapse. It cannot be sent in a reverse di- 
rection. It appears that the synapse is polarizesl 
It takes more time for impulses to pass across a 
series of breaks of this kind than it would to ]iass 
along a single fiber. How does this polarization 
come ab.out and how is retardation of the opera- 
tion effected ? Dr. Gerard has gone over this mat- 
ter in a recent survey and Ins stated that "either 
the same kind of ion migration and chemical re- 
sponse which represents successive activation of 
one region of the nerve filire by another must 
.•'b-o take place at the svnapse, or it is conceivalile 
that the end of the axon acts as a minute gland 
and, when stimulated, produces some chemical 
which is able to excite an adjacent or neighboring 
dendrite." The second alternative is exactly the 
view I have been talking about. Time is con- 



sumed in secretion. I believe that central physi- 
ology favors this idea that the neurones are inter- 
related through secretion and that polarization of 
neurones and retardation across a synapse is due 
to secretion. 

Dr. Rartelmez a few years ago studied gigantic 
synapses in the Mauthner cells of the fish but his 
work was largely histological. In the worms and 
Crustacea there are giant fibers which run the 
whole length of the animal's body and are sup- 
posed to be continuous. The earthworm has 
three of these giant fibers the shrimp four. 

In 1924 Dr. Johnson of the Harvard latoratory 
demonstrated for the first time that these fibers 
are not continuous. One segment of a giant fiber 
overlaps the next segment, and there are as many 
of these overlappings as there are segments in the 
animal's body. They are not continuous fibers 
then, but are segmentally arranged. S_\mapses 
here are really gigantic and I feel justfied', there- 
fore, in giving them a special name — macro-sy- 
napses — as contrasted with the ordinary synapses 
which are so small that they can scarcely be seen. 

The next slide .shows a cross section of the 
n.ervous system of the earth-worm. The three 
giant fibers are enormous. The next slide will 
show you a series of sections taken from a region 
where the overlaps occur. If you study these 
fibers histologically you will see first of all that 
they are polarized. The two ends are not alike. 
If you stain them in osmic acid you will find that 
the lateral fiber is always deeply .stained. If you 
study their action you will find that it is that of 
the direction of the worm as a whole. If you 
stimulate the worm on the head it pulls together ; 
if you stimulate it on the tail it pulls together. 
That is a continuous action of the individual. If 
you cut the lateral fibers and then stimulate the 
tail the action will run only to the cut. Corres- 
ponding experiments show the direction of the 
transmission in the median fiber. It is a double 
system of transmission. The conditions are such 
that the d'scharging portion of the neurone is 
dark colored, the receptive, li.ght. The same thing 
is found in the shrimp. The lateral fibers are 
deeply colored and transmission is toward the 
head. The receptive portion is li.ght and the dis- 
charging portion is stained. That shows us that 
these macrosynapses are chemically different on 
the two sides. I think this is the first time we 
have found evidence of such a difference. It does 
not prove the existence of a secretion, but I be- 
lieve that a secretion is present. It does show 
that these giant nerve fibers have a remarkable 
physiological and histological polarization which 
is quite open to the interpretation that I have sug- 
gested. 

This neuro-humoral condition is quite hypo- 
thetical, as you see, but the hypothesis seems to 
me suggestive and provocative of manv questions. 
I think it likelv that further stud\- will reveal that 



lOO 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



it is an activity of considerable importance. The 
French materiahstic physiologists of a century 
and a half ago were impelled to make many i-adi- 
cal statements. Cabanis said "The brain secretes 
thousfht as the liver secretes bile." No one be- 



lieves this literally but I suspect that the nerve 
activity of the body is much more influenced by 
secretions than the modern physiologist has sus- 
pected. 



REVIEWS OF THREE BOTANICAL BOOKS 



Bacteriology — A Textbook on Fundamentah 
Stanley Thomas. Second Edition, 1931 xvplus 
301 pp. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 

This book is not as inclusive a document as the 
first part of its title would suggest, nor does it 
limit itself to the field of bacteriology. It is a 
book quite evidently designed for a class of 
students which will not enter upon laboratory bac- 
teriology without separate and further training. 
The sanitarv engineer, th.e hygienist and the food 
technician will find here the information which 
newcomers in tlieir fields will be expected to as- 
similate as the foundation for more specialized 
training. The professional bacteriologi.st in train- 
ing, particularly the medical student, will find 
that the familiar environment of isolation and cul- 
ture methods, of description of numerous patho- 
genic organisms with the methods for their de- 
tection, are absent or treated in generalized form, 
with avoidance of specific techniques. This raises 
in the mind of the reviewer the question of the 
fundamental character of the technique of a 
jjranch of science; changing tool that it is, is it 
not as fundamental to a proper understanding of 
science as the ancient history of the science. 

The history of the various phases of pure and 
applied bacteriology receives extensive and read- 
able exposition by the author. The discussion of 
classification of bacteria is adjusted to the revised 
understanding of that confused field now in 
vogue. This is as it should be, but it is unfortu-i- 
ate that the author should state in generalization 
that the genus name is usually a Latin word ( p. 
18), for it is generally (when not based on a per- 
sonal or geographic name) of Greek origin, 
sometime latinized, as one may confirm in any 
botanical manual (such as Gray's 7th ed.) where 
the roots are given. Bacteriological morphology 
is treated in the light of the renewed acceptation 
of possible pleomorphic changes in the develop- 
mental course of the organism, and consequent!;,- 
bears a quite difl^erent and secondary relation to 
classification than it did for an earlier generatio'i, 
and much more specific relation to life histories. 
It seems unnecessary to state, when discussing the 
size of liacteria, that (p. 59) the micron is equiva- 
lent to l-2g,ooo of an inch when it would have- 
cost no more to print the correct figu'e. The dis- 
cussion of the structure of the bacterial cell is 
full and helpful. TJie chapter on the iihysiolo','v 
of these organisms likewise is well elaborated, 
although it attains a somewhat highly technical 
vocabularv in discussing the newer interpretations 



of l)acterial heredity. The chapter on cultivation 
of bacteria is a generalized one, including, with 
the general features of growth conditions, mention 
of palaeobotanical records of bacterial growths 
and bacterial ecology, rather than culture media, 
isolations and such techniques. Much of the 
physiological distinctiveness of bacteria shows in 
the chapter on bacterial enzymes, and this is a 
particularly useful portion of the book to the 
worker in allied lines. Bacterial relations to the 
n'tngen. carbon, phosphorus and sulphur cvcles 
in nature are elaborated here. The following 
chapter, ostensibly dealing with micro-organisms 
other than l)acteria, is less fortunately presented. 
After short mention of viruses and Spirochaetes, 
attention is turned to the last four orders of the 
class Schizomycetes ! Then follow some four 
pages of reference to fungi, and about three to 
nlgae. The latter ]iortion, prol)al)ly introduced 
out of courtesy to the student of water supplies, 
might better have been omitted. The author has 
vwfortunately adopted archaic information or mis- 
information as if from elementary liotanical text- 
books. For example, be states that there are four 
major algal groups (p. 130) when there are nine 
or ten (depending on interpretation) independent 
groups recognized He also claims that the chloro- 
phyll in Cyanophyceae is diffused throughout the 
cell (p. i7o) ; that the genera of the Protococcales 
(mi.scalled a family) which occur in water are 
Pleurococcus and Volvox (p. 131) when there 
are dozens of others in like situations; that Lam- 
inaria reaches the phenomenal length of 800 feet 
or more (p. 132) — ]irobal)ly ten times the maxi- 
mum in this genus; that the (hatoms (p. 132) are 
members of the so-called "Brown Algae" (Pliaeo- 
phyceae) ; and he hps al<;o taken various liberties 
with spelling: Oscillaria for Oscillptoria (p. 130), 
Coelspaerium (p. 130) and Caelosphaerium fp. 
i6j) for Coelosphaerium, Aphanzomenon (p. 
i6j.) for Aphanizomenon, and .so forth. There 
follow chapters on bacteria in the so'l, in water, 
sewage, the air, foods, and in disease production, 
which appear to be adenuatelv and helpfully done, 
as are those on immunity, sanitation, and bacteria 
in indust'"v. 

Lastly, the introductory chapter may receive 
some attention. It is designed, apparentlv. for 
those students who lack preliminary training in 
biologv. In some parts it seems hardly qiiit.-^ 
sound, as in the description of mitosis (miscalled 
karyokenisis (p. 12) for karyokinesis), whe-e an 
c1,Tborr.t" mechanism of centrosomes and asters 



July i8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



is involved in this generalized plan, though these 
structures are known in only a very few plants 
indeed, and where (p. 13) the longitudinal divis- 
ion of each chromosome involving the splitting of 
each chromatic granule is said to occur on "a 
plane perpendicular to a line drawn hetween the 
two centrosomes"when it occiu'red long before this 
period. Conjugation (p. 13) by confusion of a 
sexual reproduction with undifferentiated sexual 
reproduction is made a subdivision of the former, 
and the cytological history as given bears little 
resemblance to what is known of this process in 
plants. The statement on p. 16 that "Maturation 
or reduction division is a mitotic division with 
subsequent fission" likewise does not hit very 
near our present state of knowledge. 

Fortunately the features to which the reviewer 
takes exception are not such as will appear im- 
portant to the normal user of this liook, and its 
obvious acceptability (as evidenced by its appear- 
ance in a second edition) for teaching purposes 
will outweigh these weaknesses, so long as the 
central material is soundly presented. 

— Wm. R. Taylor. 
***** 

Plant Physiology. (With reference to the grecii 
plant.) Edwin C. Miller. 900 pp. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., $7.00. 

Dr. Miller has attempted to fill the need for a 
text-book in plant ph\sio!ogy which summarizes 
an<l lirings to date work done in Europe and 
America. 

The result is a carefully written discussion of 
the following topics : plant cells, absorption of 
water and dissolved material, water loss, photo- 
synthesis, nitrogen metabolism, fat metabolism, 
digestion, translocation, respiration and growth. 
No discussion of reproduction or responses is in- 
cluded. Good literature lists accompany each dis- 
cussion. At the end of each chapter is a set of 
questions on the material covered. These ques- 
tions, together with the treatment of physiology 
entirely from the standpoint of green plants, seem 
odd in a lx)ok designed for advanced students. 

The text is an excellent reference book for any 
one interested in physiology and, with the use of 
carefully selected references, supplementary lec- 
tures, and class discussions, should be well adapt- 
ed for use as an advanced text in plant physiology. 

— J. R. Jackson. 

T^ * T^ T^ 'P 

The Lo'ii'er Fungi — Phycomycetcs. Harry 
Morton Fitzpatrick. 331 pp. (Illustrated). Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co. $4.00. 

This book will be heartily welcomed by students 
and research workers in mycology and plant path- 
ology. The author has recognized and attempt- 
ed to fill the need of a complete and detailed 
treatment of the taxonomy and morphology of 



the phycomycetes. In his classification of the 
Phycomycetes into the eight orders, namely ; 
Chytridiales, Ancylistales, Blastocladiales, Mon- 
oblepharidales, Saprolegniales, Peronosporales, 
Mucorales, and Entomophthorales, the author 
does not depart far from the older classifications. 
Where changes are made, adequate explanation is 
given for the reason of the change. The inclusion 
of the Plasmodiophoracae in the Chytridiales and 
the establishment of the order Blastocladiales are 
examples of this. Keys are provided for all gen- 
era. A complete discussion of the work done on 
various species of a genus follows with citatioiis 
to literature. Doubtful or excluded genera of an 
order are treated at the end of the order. In con- 
clusion a brief and concise survey of the various 
views of the origin of the Phycomycetes as well 
as Hemiascomycetous affinities is given by the 
author. 

Technical terms are printed in boldface type 
in the text at the point at which they are defined* 
or explained. Especially desirable is the bibli- 
ography found at the end of each chapter. 

— Ruth I. Walker. 



One of the two Research Corporation prizes 
for 1931 has been awarded to Dr. Andrew Eilli- 
cott Douglass who is director of the Steward Ob- 
servatory of the University of Arizona. Besides 
a bronze placque he receives $2,500. Dr. Doug- 
lass has received the award for his researches on 
the rings marking the annual growth of trees 
which have thrown light on the past climate of 
the earth, and shown a correspondence between 
weather and solar activity. 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 

At the following- hours (Daylight Saving- Time) 
the current in the hole turns to run from Buz- 
zards Bay to Vineyard Sound: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

July 18 7:11 7:29 

July 19 8:00 8:22 

July 20 8:47 9:19 

July 21 9:44 10:18 

tuly 22 10:40 II :i7 

July 23.... 11:33 

July 24 12:21 12:34 

July 25 I :i6 1 :2S 

July 26 2:19 2:27 

jnly 27 3:07 3:16 

July 28 4:01 4:06 

In each case the current changes approximately 
six hours later and runs from the Sound to the 
Bay. It must be remembered that the schedule 
printed above is dependent upon the wind. Pro- 
longed winds sometimes cause the turning of the 
current to occur a half an hour earlier or later 
than the times given above. 



I02 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific wcrk 
at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Griffin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 

THE BEACH QUESTION 

Our note on the beach question has lirought 
forth a good deal of discussion. In conversation 
with one of the property owners bordering the 
lieach we have learned more fully the reasons for 
the erection of the fence on the beach. We shall 
try and state them as they were understood by us ; 
They very much regret the necessity of closing 
their property to bathers. This is occasioned by the 
increased number of people who now come to Wo ds 
Hole. Last year they found conditions intolerable 
because of the noise which inevitably accompanies 
bathing so near the cottages and the entire loss of 
privacy which ensues. 

They do not feel that our suggestion about per- 
mitting the adult members of the laboratories to 
use the beach in the day time is practical, because 
of the undesirability of limiting its use to them, and 
because even then the disturbance would be too 
great. 

There is not the slightest desire to be discourteous 
nor to prevent bathing and swlmmin!? on the long 
stretch of beach in front of the bathhouses. The 
moral right lies in the desire of every person for a 
reasonable amount of privacy in his home and the 
pr perty owners express their great appreciation 
for the universal observance of that this summer. 
The legal right is defined in the following statement. 
contained in a letter from the Commissioner of 
Public Works of the State of Massachusetts: 

"Under the laws and court rulings of Mass- 
achusetts the right of the general public t" 
use flats privately owned is strictly limited. 
Persons may enter upon such flats to exercise 
the right of fishing, which may include the 
digging of clams, and may pass over the beach 
for the purpose of fowling. No right of the 
public has been established to walk upon the 
beach f' r bathing, or to remain there for play, 
for rest or for any other than the two pur- 
poses of fishing and fowling, and of naviga- 
tion." 

Our limited space makes it necessai"y to post- 
pone any comment that we may have to mak-e 
until the following number. 

Five CoLLFXTiNG Net scholarships of $ioo.oo 
each will he available for award this summer. 
Any student in attendance this summer at the 
Marine liinlogical Laboratory is eligible for the 
award. The mone\' is approprinted to meet a 
part of the expenses of the recipients at Woods 
Hole during the summer of 10.^2. Application 
blanks will be made available soon. 



THE REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE 

OF THE CORPORATION OF THE MARINE 

BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

In connection with the corporation meeting of 
the Marine Biological Laboratory which convenes 
on August II, it is of interest to reproduce the 
following report of its special committee which 
was mailed to members during the winter : 

At the Annual Meeting of the Corporation of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory held on August 12, 
1930, a committee was appointed to study the mat- 
ter of nominations of Officers and Trustees. 

At the request of the Committee the following re- 
port is distributed fcr the information of members 
of the Corporation. Gary N. Calkins, Clerk. 

To Members of the Corporation of the Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory: — 

At the Annual Meeting of the C rporation of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory of August 12, 1930, 
it was voted that the entire matter of methods in 
nominating Officers and Trustees be referred for 
study to a Special Committee consisting of two n n- 
Trustee members of the Corporation and two Trus- 
tees. 

ihe existing method of selecting Officers and 
Trustees is based on a vote of the Corpt ration at 
the Annual Meeting in 1911, requesting the Trus- 
tees each year to submit to the Corporation at the 
Annual Meeting, nominations for vacancies on the 
Board. Trustees hold office f r a term of four years 
normally eight such vacancies are filled by election 
each year. The practice has been for the Trustees 
to submit one name for each vacancy and until this 
year these nominations have been elected by the 
Corporation unanimously. 

After careful consideration and discussion with 
the Executive Committee of the Trustees your Com- 
mittee is prepared to make the following recom- 
mendations. In advance of the next Annual Meet- 
ing at which the final report will be made, it seems 
desirable to submit these recommendations to eacn 
member ^f the Corporation with the hop? that those 
interested will transmit to the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, possible criticisms or suggestions for ad- 
ditional recommendations. The final report of the 
Committee will be prepared after the consideration 
of any such c mments. The recommendations fol- 
low: 

1. That the By-Laws be changed in such a manner 
that the individuals in charge of courses shall be 
Trustees ex-officio. 

2. That the Committee of the Corporation for 
nomination of Trustees"~"consist ' f five merab'rs, of 
w'lom not less than two shall be non-Trustee mem- 
bers of the Corporation. 

3. That on or about July first of each year, the 
Clerk rf the Corporation send a circular letter to 
each member giving the names of the Nominatin?: 
Committee and stating that the nominating com- 
mittee will be glad to rejeive suggestions regardin>j 
nominations. 

4. That the members of the Corporation be en- 
couraged to avail themselves rf the opportunity, 
which has always existed but which herrtofore has 
been little used, of bringing to the attentiin of the 
Executive Committee at any time matters which 
they consider to be of importance to the Laborat-ry. 

Hubert B. Goodrich 

Harold H. Plough 

Ivey F. Lewis 

Wiiierton C. Curtis, Chairman 



July iS, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



10.^ 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Dr. Douglas M. Whittaker, fnrmerly assistant 
professor of zoology at Columbia University, has 
accepted the position of associate professor of zo- 
ology at Stanford University. 

Dr. E. Alfred Wolf, assistant professor of 
zoology at the University of Pittsburgh, has been 
appointed associate professor for next year. 

Dr. Ruth L Walker, instructor in botany at the 
University of Wisconsin, has been placed in 
charge of the work in botany at the Milwaukee 
center of the University of Wisconsin Extension 
Division. Dr. Walker is carrying out her work 
in botanical research this summer at Woods Hole. 
At this same institution Dr. Donald C. Broughton 
has been appointed assistant jirofessor of zoologv. 

Dr. T. Thomas Flynn, who is now Ralston pro- 
fessor of biology in the University of Tasmania, 
has b.een recently appointed to the chair of zoology 
in the University of Belfast. 

Professor Charles W. Dodge has been made 
emeritus professor of biob gy. He has held the 
l)osition as head of the Department of biologv at 
the University of Rochester for forty-one years. 

Dr. Warren S. P. Lombard, professor emeritus 
of physiology in the medical school of the Uni- 
vers'ty of Michigan has been awarded an honor- 
ary degree of doctor of science by that institu- 
tion. 

At tb; commencement exercises of Purdue Uni- 
versity, the honorary degree of doctor of science 
was conferred on Dr. J. C. Arthur, professor em- 
eritus of botany ; and on Dr. Stanley Coulter who 
is professor emeritus of biology. 

Dr. A. B. Keyes went abroad early in Septem- 
1 cr of last year as a National Research Fellow. 
He worked with Dr. A. Krogh at the Universitv 
of Copenh-igen. Dr. Keys has lieen reappointed 
a fellow of the National Research Council and 
will spend the coming year at Plymouth and 
Cambridge, England. 

Dr. William Crocker, director of the Bovce 
Thompson Institute for Plant Research, hns been 
elected acting director and general manager of 
the Tropical Plant Research Foundation Dr. 
Crocker spent the summer of 1927 at the Marine 
Biological Laboratory as Chairman of the Divis- 
ion of biology and Agriculture of the National 
Research Council. 



Dr. L. G. Barth has just returned from a year 
in Europe, where he worked at the Zoological 
Station in Naples and at the Kaiser- Wilhelm In- 
stitute in Berlin. He is the holder of a National 
Research Fellowship. Next year Dr. Barth will 
be an instructor at Columbia University. 

MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

The second seminar of the sea.son will be given 
Monday night, July 20th, in the Dining Hall, by 
Dr. William H. Cole, of Rutgers University. He 
will talk on "Chemical Stimulation in Animals." 

Miss Miriam Slack entertained the young 
people of the Laboratory at a picnic supper 'held 
at her summer residence on Wednesday, fuly Sth. 

Sunday afternoon, July 12th, the young people 
of the Laboratorv climbed the ladder trail up 
Newport Mountain as the guests of Miss Eliza- 
beth Mast. The climb was followed by supper 
at Miss Mast's house. 

The first Laboratory dance will be held in the 
Dining Hall, .Saturday night, July 18th. 

On Thursday, July 23rd, Dr. Joseph Mac-Far- 
land, Professor of Pathology in the University of 
Pennsylvania Medical School, will give the 2nd 
lecture in the Popular Lecture Course. His sub- 
ject is: "Inflammation." 

Dr. Feng cf the LTniversity of Ohio arrived 
Saturday, Julv nth, to assist Dr. W. H. Cole in 
his work. Dr. Feng is one of the Chinese Fel- 
lows sent to this country by the Chinese Govern- 
ment and supported by the Boxer Indemnity 
Fund. 

Dr. Warren H, lew's of Johns Hopkins Med- 
ical .School spoke on tissue cultures of cancer at 
the Jackson Memorial Lalioratory, Wednesday, ' 
evening, July Sth. 

Dr. Harold D. Senior visited the Harvard- 
Medical Sc'hool in Boston last week. He went 
esoecially to examine the embryos in the Harvard 
Medical School collection for information rela- 
tive to the development of the ulnar artery. 

Frances R. Snow, Secretary. 

Dr. Carl F. Cori, a member of the State In- 
.st'tute for the Study of Malignant Diseases (Buf- 
falo), has been apoointed profes.sor of pharma- 
coloev at the Washington University School of 
Medicine. 

Dr. L. J. Cole, Professor of genetics at the 
University of Wisconsin h-is recently been elected 
a corresponding member of the Czechoslovak Ac- 
ademv of Agriculture. (Continued on Next Page) 



I04 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



The Collecting Net will be glad to keep 011 
file in its office a list of names of individuals who 
are interested in obtaining a position for the ap- 
jiroaching academic year. Their names and any 
information that they would like to leave would 
be made available only to those persons whoi 
might be concerned with their appointment. 

Mr Alfred L. Loomis of Tuxedo Park, New 
York.' accompanied by Dr. Donald Christie of 
McGill University, has been cruising the waters 
around Woods Hole in his yacht in search of 
sharks for his experimental work on their glands. 
Mr. Loomis carries on experimentation _ at his 
physical laboratory in Tuxedo Park. He is visit- 
ing Dr. E. Newton Harvey. 

Miss Mary L. Austin will sail for Lucknow, 
India, in Tune of 1932. She will take the place 
of Miss Evangeline Thillayampalam as head of 
the zoology department at the Isabella Thoburn 
College. Miss Thillayampalam will come to this 
country during that year to take Miss Austin's 
place in the zoology department at Wellesley. 

Dr. M. A. Graubard. who received his degree 
this year at Columbia University, has been award- 
ed a National Research Fellowship for the com- 
ing year. He sails for England the beginning of 
August to take up work at the University of 
Manchester. 

Miss Molly Hassler, daughter of Mrs. Francis 
A. Wilson, and Dr. Thomas P. Hughes were 
married in New York City on July 7. Mr.s. 
Hughes has just graduated from Cornell Uni- 
versity, and Dr. Hughes has recently been ap- 
pointed an associate member of the Rockefeller 
Institute. 

Raymond R. Montgomery is sailing on the "At- 
lantis" this summer. He is helping to take wat-r 
densities and doing general work in physics. He 
will be a senior at Harvard next year. 

Dr. Cornelius M. Clapp has returned to Woods 
Hole from Mount Dora, Florida, where she 
spent the winter months. 

Brooklyn College has appointed Dr. Ralph C. 
Picnedict as associate professor of liiology. He 
has been chairman of the department of sciences 
at the Haaren High Schol. 

Dr. C. H KaufFmin, emeritus professor of 
botany and emeritus director of the herbnrium of 
the University of Michigan, died at his home in 
Ann Arbor on June 14. 



Mr. R. L. Dufus, of the editorial .staff of the 
New York Times, and recently appointed editor 
for the Committee on the Cost of Medical Care, 
will arrive in Wods Hole during the week of July 
20 to spend several weeks with his family who 
are living in the Jennings cottage on Gansett 
Road, Mr. Dufus has written some successful 
novels, the most recent of which was "Tomor- 
row Never Comes " He is the author of "The 
Santa Fe Trail" and of a volume entitled "Books, 
Their Place in a Democracy." 

Dr. Charles J. Fish, director of the Buffalo 
Museum of Science, has accepted charge of an 
international survey to determine the effect on the 
herring industry of the proposed power dam at 
Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine. Dr. Fish has re- 
ceived a leave of absence from the board of man- 
agers of the museum and went on July 10 to the 
Canadian biological laboratory at St. Andrews, 
N.B., the seat of the two-year investigation. He 
has spent sever2l .summers at Woods Hole as d'- 
rector of the local branch of the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries. Other members of the com- 
mission are: Dr. A. G. Huntsman, director of the 
Atlantic Botanical Station. Canada ; O. E. Sette, 
in charge of North Atlantic investigations for the 
Unifd States Bureau of Fi.sheries; W. A. Found, 
deputy minister of fisheries. Canada, and Dr. H. 
B. P>igelow, director of the Woods Hole Ocea"()- 
graphic Institution. Dr. Fish will li" executive 
secretary of the comm'ssion and will have charge 
of the work in the field. 

SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

Fu'-niture for Ritter Hall (the new lalioratory 
building, is arriving by the car load and part of it 
is already Ijein^ installed There will proliablv 
lie three carloads of it especially constructed in 
Michigan. 

Dr. T. D. Stewart of the Department of Chem- 
istry of the University of California at Berkeley 
vi it'^d the Institution on Monday of this week. 

Mr. M. L. Natland of Long Beach, California, 
who for .several years hns been making a compar- 
ative study of fossil and recent foraminifera vis- 
ited the Institution on Monday of this week to 
consult Director T. W. Vautrhan al)out a .special 
program of investigations which he is undertak- 
ii"? this summer. The nlnns. concerning which he 
wished to get most advice, involve the dredging 
of approximately two hundred samples of sea 
I'ottom from shallow to deep waters between 
Long Beach and Catalina Island. For th's part 
of his program he has been granted a special a-d 
fund bv the National Research Council. 



July i8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



105 



SPENCER 



MULTIPLE 
NCSE- PIECE 
€LTEITS 

SUPERIOR MODELS 




UNIVERSAL BINOCULAR 
MICROSCOPES 

Nos. 55 and 56 

Convertible: 

No. 55 — as illustrated with horseshoe base. 

No. 56 — the stage and above that omitting base 

Equipped with 

MULTIPLE 
NOSEPIECE 

A new, original, patented objective 
chansjer which carries three pairs of 
low power olijectives and which re- 
volves like an ordinary triple nosepiece. 
The objectives may be removed in- 
stantly and others substituted. 

The objectives on the nosepiece are dust proof and the worker can easily get to them to 
clean them. 

These microscopes have a very large stage lOO m /m x lOO m/m. Objects in the center 
of a dish 50 m/m high and 130 m/m in diameter may be l)rought into the lines of vision. 
The rack and pinion movement together with the adjustal)ilit\- of the arm on the slide per- 
mit the focusing on very thick objects. The large mirror ( 62 mym diameter ) is sufficient 
to illuminate the large iields of the lower power olijectives. 



SPENCER EXMCIT 

Old Lecture Hall, M. B. L. 
July 23 to Aug. 4 

-:- You are cordially invited to call ■: 



io6 



THE COLLECTINCt NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 44 





SpaltPholz 

Transparent 

PreiMirations 

Human 

and 

Zoological 




Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for physiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, etc. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name of school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

Visit our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Booms and Museum 









1 •etcc^api 









Life History 
of Chick 



Model of Human Heart 



in-119 E.VST 24th STUEET NEW YORK 



The Wistar Institute Slide Tray 



The ideal tray for displaying or storing slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-inch, thirty-two I'-o- 
inch, or twenty-four 2-inch slides, and every 
slide is visible at a glance. Owing to the 
nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof cover for 
the one beneath it, while the center ridges as- 
sure protection to high mounts. Made en- 
tirely of metal, they are unbreakable and 
easily kept clean. They form compact stor- 
age units. Twelve hundred 1-inch slides may 
be filed in a space fourteen inches square by 
eight inches high. PRICE, $1.00 EACH 

Orders may be sent to 

THE WISTAR INSTITUTE 

Thirty-sixth Street and Woodland Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



The Recent Advances 

Each Volum? $3..50 Postpaid 

Physiology, 4th Edition. By C. Lovatt Evans, 
University College, London. 
The research of notable physiologists is sum- 
marized and the practical features empha- 
sized. 113 Illustrations. 446 Pages. 

Biochemistry, 3rd Edition. By John Pryde, M. 
Sc, Welsh National School of Medicine. 
Includes a diverse selection of topics in which 
recent progress has been most striking. 42 
illustrations. 393 Pages. 

Preventive Medicine. By J. F. C. Haslam. M.D , 
Asst. Dir., B'lreau of Hygiene and Tropical 
Diseases, London. 30 Illustrations. 328 Pages. 

Psychoneuroses. By Millais Ciilpin.M.D. (Lond.) 
Lecturer, London Hospital Medical College. 
A survey of psychoneuroses in industry, war, 
childhood, clinical, etc., amplified by many 
permanent advances of today. 
4 Illustrations. 348 Pages. 

Bacteriology and Infection. By J. Henry Dible, 
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The author takes a broad view, keening the 
balance between extreme technicality and 
what is common knowledge. It includes a 
study of infections 22 Illustrations. 363 Pages 

P. BLAKISTON'S SONS & CO . Inc. 

1012 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA 



July i8. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



107 




AN 
EFFICIENT 
MICRO-PROJECTOR 

—compact and 
permanently aligned 

Bausch & Lomb 4354-AA Micro-Projector is a time and trouble saver 
The illuminating unit and optical parts are permanently aligned — always 
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Illumination is furnished ordinarily by our mechanical-feed arc lamp, 
which is adjustable by two centering screws. A 108 watt bulb can be 
substituted if desired. The microscope is conveniently designed, allow- 
ing the use of regular objectives cr Micro-Tessars for wide-field pro- 
jection. The body tube swings aside for projection with Micro-Tessars. 

Write us for literature completely describing the 4354-AA and other 
B & L Micro Projectors. 

BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL COMPANY 

675 St. Paul Street 




Makers of Orthogon Eyeglass Lenses for Better Vision 



io8 



THr; COLLF.CTING NET 



r Vol. VI. No. ^4 



"H 



ave you seen 

MILLER'S 

Plant Physiology 

with reference to the green plant 

By Edwin C. Miller 

Professor of Plant Physiology, Kansas State 

Agricultural College, and Plant Physiologist. 

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Statiiui 

MeGRAW-HILL PUBLICATIONS IN THK 
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HIS book gives a complete survey of the Jield of 
plant physiology in a comprehensive and minutely 
detailed treatment that makes it suitable both as a 
text for advanced college students and as a reference 
work for investigators. The work is confined entire- 
ly to the physiology of the green plant; the findings 
of the leading American, English and continental in- 
vestigators are summarized. Review questions and 
unusually complete bibliographies follow each chap- 
ter. 

Send for a copy on approval. 

McGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., Inc. 

370 SEVENTH AVENUE NEW YORK 



THE QUALITY SHOP 

Dry Goods, Toilet Articles, Shoos and 

Souvenirs 

Ask for things you do not see. 

Main Street Woods Hoi? 



BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL 
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES 

IN COMPLETE SETS 

Volumes and Back Date Copies For Sale 

B. LOGIN & SON, Inc. 

EST. 1887 
29 EAST 21st STREET NEW YORK 



Books in Biology 



are on sale at 



THE COLLECTING NET Office 



We are also prepared to obtain any available book. 

Each time a book is sold, all of the agent's commission will be 

turned over to 

THE COLLECTING NET Scholarship Fund 



July iS, 1031 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



109 



Marine Biological 

Laboratory 

Supply Department 

FOR THE BEST 

BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL 

CLASSROOM MATERIAL 

MICROSCOPIC SLIDES 

LIVE MATERIAL 



Catalogues and infcrmation furnished by 

applying at Supply Department Office 

Woods Hole, Mass. 



N. E. TSIKNAS 

rnUITS AND VEGETABLES 

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FISH AND LOBSTERS 

Tel. Falmouth 660 661 
Woiods Hole and Falmouth 




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Achromatic Objectives : 
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Huygens Oculars : 
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Price : $132 f.o.b. New York 
A good darlc field outfit is obtained by 
adding ; Cardioid condenser $22, extra for 
oil im. with iris $4. Compensating ocular 
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CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

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Pacific Coast Branch: 
720 Soutfc Hill St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

[gAREZEisri 

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I 



no 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



The Woods Hole Library has recently been 
the recipient of seven Ixioks presented by Dr. and 
Mrs. Alfred Meyer in memory of their lirother 
Harry Harvey Meyer, on his birthday. June 29th. 
The hooks are : 

The Autobiography of Lincoln Stcffens, 2 vols. 

Cluirlcs W . Elliot, by Henry James, 2 vols. 

America's Way Out, by Norman Thomas. 

This N eiv York of Mine, by Charles Towne. 

Retrospect, by Arthur Balfour. 

The Romance of Leonardo da Unci, by Mer- 
ejkowski. 

The Story of San Miehcle, by Axel Munthe. 

The Coast Guard have announced the following' 
regulation concerning row boats : 

Rowing boats whether under oars or sail sliall 
have ready at hand a lantern, showing a white 
light which shall lie temjiorarily exhibited in suf- 
ficient time to prevent collision. 

On Monday. July 13th, the Woods Hole Yacht 
Club held its second race of the season. The re- 
sults were as follows : 

Baby Knock-Abouts 
Entries Time 

"Porpoise" — Comstock Glaser 43' 9" 

"Tyro" — Mrs. Crossley 43' 13" 

"Scuttlebutt — Fred Copeland 43' 19" 

"Adios" — Morris Frost 45' 28" 

"Menidia" — Preston Copeland 49' 5" 

"Charlog" — Ogden Woodruff 50' iS" 

Dories 
"Aunt Addie" — Arthur Meigs 47' 

"Dorine" — George Clowes 49' 

"Hunky" — Kenneth Cole 51' 

"Black Cat" — Vera Warbasse 53' 

Catboats 
"Lurline" — Phillip Woolworth 44' 

"Dinny" — Janet Blume 4S' 

"Salty Dog" — Tom Ratcliffe 50' 

"Squido" — Henry Kidder 56' 

"Lady Luck" — Mary Love i :i9 

The Dories held a race, postponed from the pre- 
vious week, on Tuesday, with the following 
results : 
"Dorine" — George Clowes i :io 

"Black Cat" — Vera Warbasse i :ifi 

"Hunky" — Kenneth Cole I 129 

"Aunt Addie" — Arthur Meigs disqualified 

The handicap for the catboats has not yet been 
figured out. The results as stated above are how 
thev crossed tlie finish line. 



On Thursday, July 16, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. 
Woodford of Bridgeport, Connecticut, stopped at 
Woods Hole to have their houseboat overhauled 
at Hilton's. They are on a two months trip and 
have just come down from cruising along the 
Maine coast. Their passengers, a dog and two 
cats, were interested spectators of the overhaul- 
ing process. 

On Friday evening, July 17th, Mr. William W. 
Swan gave an illustrated lecture on "Yacht Rac- 
ing" in the Woods Hole Golf Club under the 
auspices of the Ouissett Yacht Club and the 
Woods Hole Yaclit Club. 

( )ne of the Forbes' boats from Naushon was 
at Hilton's Shop on Monday, July 13th. The 
new motor boat, "The Dolphin." is to be used 
for swordiishing. She had a piece of cast i"oi 
in the keel for balance and was having the metal 
removed and wood substituted in the hope that 
the lighter weight would increase her speed. 

Cape Cod is now busy driving mosquitoes from 
its territory. Last year, a three year project 
was started to I'id the Cape of its summer pests 
and already a great deal of work has been done. 

Salt water mosquitoes are the liig prolilem of 
this region so work has been concentrated on the 
salt marshes. Seventy-five percent of the salt 
marsh breeding areas have now lieen ditched. To 
date 3000 gallons of fuel oil have lieen sprayed 
on lioth salt and fresh water breeding places. Up 
to June 20th, the total expenditure was $1 13,476.60 
and fifty-two local men are on the payroll. 

Mrs. Henry H. Fay is opening her estate 
"Nobska" f( r a garden party on Tuesday, July 
2ist, for the Iiencfit of the Church Home Society 
for the care of children and young people. From 
three to six there will be bridge and Mali Jong, 
movies will be shown for the children, afternoon 
tea will be served and ice cream cones, lemonade 
and lollypops will be on sale. Admission to the 
grounds is twentv-five cents for adults and ten 
cents for children. 

On Tuesday afternoon, July 21st at 2:30, The 
Tatterman Marionettes will pay a visit to the 
University Plavers Tlieatre at Silver Beach. They 
will ])resent a special matinee ])crformancc of 
"The Glowing Bird." a f<:lk fairy tale of old 
Russia. 

(Continued on Page 112) 



July i8, 193 i ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



The 


MRS. 


G. L. NOYES 

Collections Daily 


LAUNDRY 


Two 


Collections Daily in the 


Dormitories 


VV.ods Hole 




Tel. 777 




Service that Satisfies 





IDEAL RESTAURANT 




Main 


Street 


Tel. 


1243 


Woo,ds 


Hole 



SCIENTIFIC DRAWINGS 

CHARTS and GRAPHS 

NORRIS JONES 

Room 211 — Bk. BIdg. — M. B. I-. 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
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Agency for 
LYNN OIL RANGE BURNER 

Fal.niouth, opp. the Public Library Tel. 26) 





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Hosiery aid Gift 


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WliJn in Falmouth Stop at 
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Shoe Repairing Done While U Walt 
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The Whaler on Wheels 




"Our Wandering Book Shop" 

Miss Iniogene Weelis Miss Helen E. Ellis 

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season. 

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Telephone Clifford 110 



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Opposite Statian 



LADIES' and GENTS' TAILORING 

Clcn.ning, Dyeing and Repairing 

Coata Rclined and .'Vltered. Prices Reasonable 

M. DOLINSKY'S 
Main St. Woods Hie, Mass. Call 752 



112 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 44 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 

Continued from Page 110) 



The University Players are showing the result 
of having worked together for the past few! 
weeks. "Mr. Pirn Passes By," this week's play, 
was consequently the most finished productio-i 
thev have put on this year, well cast, well acted 
and well staged. This does not mean necessarily 
that it was the most enjoyable performance of 
the season, for A. A. Milne has let his fancy run 
rampant and caused a terrific lot of pother about 
nothing. It was charming, as A. A. Milne always 
is, if you like that sort of thing. 

Outstanding in the cast was Miss Elizabeth 
Fenner who has been with the Players since their 
very first production and is a favorite with her 
audiences. As Olivia Marden, she set the tone 
of the play. When that passer-by, Mr. Pim. very 
excellently acted by Charles E. Arnt, Jr., cast his 
thunderbolt of proof that Olivia's impossible first 
husband was still alive, it was Miss Fenner's 
superb restraint in acting that warned the audi- 
ence not to take life too seriously. Throughout 
the play she managed to put across her meanini; 
by the slightest lift of the eyelirow or shrug of 
the shoulder. 

Miss Katherine Hastings, as Din.nh, deserved 
special commendation also. On Monday it be- 
came evident that Miss Margaret .Sullavan, who 
was to have played the part and who unfortunate- 
ly was suffering from a strained back, would be 
linable to appear. Miss Hastings stepped in, ably 
filling the role even on such short notice. 

Next week Miss Sullavan. who has just been 
starring on Broadway in "A Modern Virgin" will 
play the lead in "Coquette," the drama by Ann 
Preston Bridgers and George Abbott in which 
Helen Haves plaved tlie title role in New York. 

— M. S. G. 

The Spencer Lens Con^pany of Buffa'o will 
hold an exhibit in the Old Lecture Hall from July 
23rd to August 4th. 

The Marine Experimental station of the Re- 
search Institute of the Lankenau Hosjiital. Phila- 
delphia, has again opened for the season at North 
Truro, under the direction of Dr. Frederick S 
Hammett. The station stands on land granted 
bv the Capt. L. D. Baker estate of Wellfleet 
Financial si:pport is provided by a number of 
friends of the institution. 

A student, who was asked to compose one 
verse of poetry including the words "analyze" and 
"anatomy." promptly produced the following : 
My analyze oz>er the ncean. 

My analyse over the sea. 
Oh, ivho win go over the ocean 
And hvinci hack niv unalonw. 



On Thursday evening, July i6th, the first Vic- 
trola concert of the season was presented in the 
M. B. L. Club House. Bilbert and Sullivan's 
comic opera, "Pinafore" was played and about a 
hundred members of the laboratory were present 
to enjoy the perennial favorite. The records were 
lent by Mr. R. C. McGoun, and whether it was 
because of the superior qualitv of the records or 
the fact that the phonograph has been repaired, 
at any rate the reproduction was excellent. 

The second victrola concert of the season will 
lie held at the M. B. L. Club Hou.se on Thursday, 
July 23rd. The program will be : 

Mozart Kleine Nacht Musik 

Brahms Symphony No. 4 

Mozart German Dance 

The program for the following week, July 30th 
is as follows : 

Bach Prelude in E Flat 

Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 

Pieethoven Symphony No. 7 

The Falmouth Publishing Company is publish- 
ing a weekly magazine to be distriliuted free of 
charge in hotels, tea rooms, drug stores and other 
])ublic places, called "What's Fun in Falmouth." 
This is what the Tulv 4th issue savs about Woods 
Hole: 

This village, four miles south of the shopping 
center of the t^wn, besides being the terminal for 
the railroad and the steamers to Nantucket, Marthas 
Vineyard and New Bedford, is the home of famed 
scientific institutions; — the Marine Biological l^ab- 
oratory; the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries station; and 
the new Woods Hole Oceanrgraphic institution. A 
fascinating aquarium filled with colorful fish of the 
neighboring waters is at the U. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries, open to the public. Also at Woods Hole is 
Section Base 18 of the U. S. Crast Guard, with a 
fleet of 20 patrol boats for guarding ships at sea; 
and the U. S. Lighthouse Service depot and buoy 
yard. At Nobska Light, on the point, is a weather 
obsrrvatory and lighthouse, and here is obtained the 
m St magnificent view in Falmouth, particularly at 
sunset, overlooking Vineyard sound. Buzzards Bay, 
Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands. 

On Monday, July 20th. the physiology class is 
having a picnic. They leave in the morning on 
the Caycd:tta going by way of Robinson's Hole 
to Tarpaulin Cove for dinner. 

On Tuesday the Caycdetta is taking the botany 
class to Black Rock. 

Posts have been erected at either side of the 
drawbridge on Main street to support new gates 
which are to take the place of the wooden hors?s 
which now prevent traffic when the draw is open. 
Tlie gates are due to arrive shortlv. 



July i8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



"3 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 
Tlif Rev. James Bancroft, Rector 

Holy Communion 8:00 a. m. 

Morninj^ Prayer 1 1 :00 a. m. 

Evening Prayer 7 :30 p. ni. 



THE TWIN DOOR 

RESTAURANT AND BAKERY 

G. M. GRANT, Prop. 

Chicken and Lobster Dinners 
Waffles 



Main Street 



Woods Hole, Mass. 



The UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, Inc. 

I'reseiits 

"COQUETTE" 

JULY 20 — JULY 35 



Old Silver Beacfi 



West Falmouth 



DRESSES — LINENS — LACES 

Fine Toilet Articles 
Elizabeth Arden, Coty 

Yardley 
Choice Bits from Pekin 

MRS. WEEKS SHOPS 

FALMOUTH 



PARK TAILORING AND 
CLEANSING SHOP 

Weeks' Building, Falmouth 

Phone 907-M Free Delivery 

We Press While You Wait 

(Speeia,! Riates to Laboratory Members) 



WALTER O. LUSCOMBE 

REAL ESTATE AND 

INSURANCE 



Woods Hole 



Phone 622 



FITZGERALD, INC. 
A Man's Sliore 

MEN'S WEAR 

Colonial Buiding Tel. 935 Main Street 

Falmouth 



Visit 
Malchman's 

THE 

LARGEST DEPARTMENT STORE 

ON CAPE COD 



Falmouth 



Phone 116 



KELVINATOR REFRIGERATION 

EASTMAN'S HARDWARE 

5 AND 10c DEPARTMENT 

Cape Cod Distributors for 

Draper Maynard Sporting Goods 

SPECIAL PRICES TO CLUBS 
Falmouth Tel. 407 



FOLLOW THE CROWD TO 

DANIEL'S 

for 

HOME-MADE ICK CREAM, 

DELICIOUS SANDWICHES 

COFFEE 

PICNIC LUNCHES 



114 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. _i4 



Turtox PLANKTON TOWING NETS 

Aside from their 
use as plankton .gath- 
erers these nets are 
I'linnd vahiahle for 
Cdllccting (hatoms, mi- 
nute Crustacea, small 
a(|uatic insects arcl 
many nther semi- 
micr()scii]iic forms. 

Each net has a conical hag of Dufour standard silk holtin.'; cloth. thirt\'-'''ve inches deep, 
h-ivipy thirtv-ei'iht ( very coarse ) to one hundred seventy-three (fine) meshes to the inch. 
The hag is suspended on a rim of non-corroding phosphor-hronze wire, nine and one-'ha'f 
inches in diameter. Three hraided copper wire leaders suspend this from a swivel hy which, 
the net is dr;iwn through the water. 




TURTOp^"* 



^Q|)UCTS 



The Sign of the Titrtox 
Pleckes Absolute Sadsfaction 



Write for a catalog describinsf over forty collect- 
ing nets for every purpose and a complete line of 
other collecting equipment. 

General Biological Supply House 

Incorporated 
761-763 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 



Laboratory Crushers 
Grinders and 

Mills 

AP.HE P.ALL :\IILLS AND CUTTING 
MILLS 

Bulletin No. 462 on Request 

LAliORATORY COLLOID MILLS 
Bulletins on Request 

h'(ir inf(]rmatii)n in regards to crush- 
ers, other grinders and pulverizers or 
other f(irnis of lahoratory apparatus, 
:idvisc rciinirenicnts. 



EIMER & AMEND 



Established 1S51 



Incorporated 1S9T 



Headquarters for Laboratorj' Apparatus and 
Chemical Reiagents 

Tliird Avenue, iSth to lOth Street 
New York, N, V. 



ECOLOGY 
All Foi'ins of Life in Relation to Env'ronment 

Established 1920. Quar.erly. Oflicial Puhlication of the 
Ecological Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 jiost free. Foreign 
postage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record ol Investifjat'.ons bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
E.s ablished IQlf.. Bimonhly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete v. lumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of v liimcs a' tli? single number rate. 
SingU numbers, $1.23 post free. Rack volumes, as avail- 
able. $".(JI each. Foreign postage: 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOUrvNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All nranchcs of Botanical Science 

Established 191-!. Mon lily, except August and Sep- 
tember. Ofticiai Publica'ion of the Bo*_aiiical Society of 
America. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number 
rale. Volumes 1-lS complete, as available, $116. Single 
numbers, $1.00 each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
'>a retpiest. Foreign jiostage: -JO cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

\'ohinie 1: 2i contributions by various au hors on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ecology, plan: 
M':-ography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.50 plu^ 
postage. 

\'olume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part L 
I lie vegetation of Mon tank, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1023. IDS pi>. Price, $1.00. 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Harrington Moore and Nor- 
niaii Tavlor. 151 pp., '27 text- figs., vegetation map ni 
Colors. June 10, I'i27. Price. $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
1000 Washington Ave. Brooklyn. N. Y., U. S. A. 



July iS, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



115 



LEICA the Universal Camera in Science 



CAMERAS IN ONE 



COMPACT 



ACCURATE 




Weighs only 15 ozs. 
Focal Plane Shutter 
Uses 35 mm film 
Takes 8 pictures per foot 
36 pictures at one loading 
Interchangeable lenses 



No one interested in science can afford to be 
without a LEICA 

With a LEICA Camera Model C you really have many cameras in one, — a micro camera, a 
copying camera, a stereo camera, a telephoto camera, a camera for speed phot graphy in bad 
lighting conditions, a wide angle lens camera for including larger areas, a clinical camera, a 
camera for portrait photography or for general use, an aerial camera and a camera making 1 x 1% 
in. negatives which are even superior in quality to many larger size cameras. 

With this camera the educator or the student can make his rwn pictures from original lab- 
oratory snecimens, field trips, library research work or fr^m many other sources where pictures 
are the vital factors in presentinjj any subjects. 

LEICA negatives produce beautiful detailed enlargements and film slide or glass slide posi- 
tives. LEICA contact prints measuring 1 x 1% in. furnish excellent pictures for illustrating 
special reports, letters, maps and for all types of indexing work. 

With the LEICA Camera you never have an obsolete instrument. The first LEICA made 
can be adapted to be just as modern as the very latest camera from our factory. The LEICA 
is really a unit camera which can be applied to many photographic demands in every pr fes- 
sion. Today with the recent discoveries in fine grain developers and with the new fine grain mo- 
tion picture film now available, thero is no obstacle in the way of completely accepting the LEICA 
as the universal camera. 

For the recording or progress picture" exploration work in all sciences a camera 

which is plastic enough to make general vicv/s or minute close ups. 

The complete story of the LEICA Cameras and accessories is told in our new LEICA CATA- 
LOG No. 1190 which will be mailed upon request. 



E. LEITZ, Inc. 



Dept. CN 60 E. 10th St. 



New York, N. Y. 



ii6 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 44 




"It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' ?2llir:'::l::,ir^T ^"^^^- 

"PKOMI" MICROSCOPIC DRAWING and 
PROJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Piojects microscopic slides and living or- 
ganisms and insects on table or wall for 
laawing and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
gtni us yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteri logy, Botany, Zoology, 
Fat!:ology. Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ofjy. Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 

AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: It is used for prt>icctiny in actual colors on wall or 
screen, uiicn)SC(;)i)ic iJrcjiaratinns, living organisms and insects for lecture room doinonstratittn and 
instruction. Makes it iiussible for a group of students to examine a single siiccinien simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on important features, which can- 
not be demonstrated with equal facility and time saving under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
strains of niicrosci>|ic examination. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The ilkistration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actual ct)lors on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black or colors. Li\ing insects or tnicrosco jiic li\ ing organisms can also be jirnjected. Ad- 
justment of the size of the image is sim|>ly a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
projected. Higher magnification may be obtained by using tube and ocular aii.l uur liigli pawer ob- 
jectives. Charts can readily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: By removing the bulb and atla'.-hing the reflecting mirror and inverting 
the apparatus a cornpnund microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
standard microscopic Iiigh power cibjectivcs and oculars. 

AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can be pliDtngrapheil without the use of a camera. 

PRICE: F. O. B. New York $100. OJ complete apparatus in polished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 and 220 \olts with cords, plugs and switch for both DC and AC cu-- 
rent, llx objective, tube with ,Sx ucular, reflecting mirror and micro-cu\ ette. Extra equipment prices 
on request. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR" MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

A new instrument which has been brought 
(lUt in response to a demand for a simple 
apparatus like the Promi for more advanced 
wiirk which requires more powerful illumi- 
nation and higher magnification. The I'ro- 
mar ojieratcs in the same manner as the 
I'romi but is more heavily constructed and 
has the following additional features as 
standard equipment : 

More brilliant lighting, making higher magnification possible. 
Triple nose piece, facilitating use of three objectives. 
Fine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 
Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and ciindcnser. 
Screw centering adjustment for light Kciohing stage. 

Demonstrations will gladly be made by Mr. Robert Hugh, Rooin 217, 
Main Bldg., M. B. L., Woods Hole. 
Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. Write to 




117-119 East 24th Street 



NEW YORK N Y. 



Vol. VI. No. 5. 



SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



THE LIVING NUCLEUS AND EVIDENCE 

OF ITS DIRECT ACTION ON THE 

CYTOPLASM IN TISSUE CULTURES 

Dr. Rinii-.KT Cii.vmbers 

Professor of Biology. Washington Square College. 

New York Ihvvcrsitx 

Before entering into a discussion on tlie action 
of the nucleus upon the cytoiilasm, I wish to pre- 
sent a few oliservations on the efifect of mici'odis- 
secting nuclei in diffei'ent 
types of cells. The nucleus 
of the fresh-water amoeha 
a))pears to have the con- 
sistency of a stiff jelly. ( )ne 
can stretch and tear it within 
the hody of the amf)eha and no 
ill effects are produced. The 
deformed nucleus is simply 
carried ahout by the normal 
streaming movements of the 
amoeba and an hour or so 
later may resume its original 
sha|)e. 

The nucleus of the Metazo- 
an cells studied behaves quite 
flifferently. Nuclei of eggs, of 
connective tis.sue cells, of gut 
and gland epithelia, nerve cells, 
etc., ai"e e.xtremely susceptible 
to injurv. When punctured, 
the nucleus of any one of 
these cells tends to collapse 
and to be conveited into a ro- 
agulum. The membrane wi'inkles and the nucleus 
diminishes in size {Continued on Pag'^ 2I0) 



M. 1. %. (!:alcn^al• 

MONDAY, JULY 2", 7:30 P.M. 
Semini'r. Dr. John P. Turner, "Fib- 
rillar System in Euplotes." 
Dr. Daniel RafEel, "Types of 
Variation pn duced by Conjuga- 
tion in Paramecium aurella." 
Dr. Ruth S. Lynch, "Effects of 
Conjugation in a Number of 
Clones of Paramecium aurelia." 
Dr. Tracey M. Sonneborn, 
"Crcssiner Diverse Clones of Par 
amecium aiirelia." 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 29, 7:30 P.M. 

Scientific Meeting. Under the aus- 
pices of the Society of Cellular 
Biology. Detailed program on 
page 127. 

FRIDAY, JULY 31, 8 P.M. 

Lectare. Dr. H Spemann, professor 
of zoology, Univerfity of Frri- 
berg, "Exneriments on the Am- 
phibian Egg." 



THE IOWA LAKESIDE LABORATORY 

OPERATED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF 

THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 

Dr. Geo. W. Martin 
Director of the Laboratory. Professor of Agri- 
culture. Wasliington and Jefferson College 
The Iowa Lakeside Laboratory was founded in 
1909 by Professor Thomas H. Macbride, at that 
time head of the Botany Department of the State 
University of Iowa, later 
President of the University, 
and now President Emeritus. 
For several years previous to 
that time Dr. Macbride and 
Professor Shimek had con- 
ducted summer field work 
in the Iowa lake country, 
and both felt that it would be 
desirable to have a permanent 
location. Since the Universi- 
ty, as such, is prevented In- 
law from establishing Iiranches 
outside of Iowa City, it was 
necessary to secure private 
support, and a group of alum- 
ni organized, purchased land 
;'nd liuildings, and still hold 
the laboratory property, mere- 
ly placing the facilities at the 
disposal of the graduate col- 
lege and summer session of 

I the un.iversity, under whose 

auspices it is operated. 
The Iowa lake region is situated in northwest- 
ern Iowa near the western edge of the Wisconsin 



TABLE OF 

The Living Nucleus and Its Action en 

Cyton'asm 117 

The Iowa Lakeside Laboratory 117 

Genetic Continuity of the Central Bodies, 

Dr. Alfred F. Huettner 121 

Re\'iew of the Seminar Ponort of Dr. 

Huettner— Dr. Henry J. Fry 122 

Photo-electric Cell Records of Animal 

I uminepcence — Dr, E. Newton Harvey. 124 
Review of the Seminar Report of Dr. 

Harvey — Dr. William R. Amberson.... 125 



CONTENTS 

The Carbon Dioxide Combining Power of 

Mammalian Muscle, 

Dr. Lawrence Irving 125 

Review of the Seminar Report of Dr. 

Iryinp-— Dr. Walter S. Root 126 

Some Observations of Self-sterility in 

Stvela— Dr. H. H. Plough 126 

Reviews of Scientific Bo-ks 127 

Kditorial Page 128 

Items of Interest 129, 130 

Wo-^ds H0I3 Log 138, 140 



ii8 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 




IOWA LAKESiLifc: LABOHATOKY 

THE LABORATORY liUILDINO ON WEST 

OKOHOJI LAKE 



drift sheet, not far from the Minnesota l)irfler, 
and owes its existence to the hlocking of the 
oripnal drainage systems at the time of the Wis- 
consin glaciation and the d-version of the 
drainage channels from the Mississippi to the 
Missouri River. There are three large lakes. 
Spirit Lnke and East and West 'Okohoii 
Lakes. Spirit Lake is the largest and extends 
into Minnesota ter-itory. West Okohoji Lake, 
upon the western shore of which the lahoratory is 
situated, is next in size, heing ahout six mile., 
long and three miles wide, with an irregular' 
shore line, and attains a depth of a hundred and 
fort\- feet, being by far the drepest of the group. 
East Okolioji, connected with it li\- a narrow 
opening, is \oncr and narrow, .■nul for th" most 
part qu'te shallow. Scores of smaller bodies of 
water — lakes, ponds, and kettle holes — occur in 
the vicinity and afford a wide rarge of habitats 
tor atiuatic organisms. While nianv of these 
have been drained s-nce the laboratory was found- 
ed, the multiplication of automobiles and the 
rapid develpment of giid roads have made man\- 
(;thers easily available. Fortunateh-, drainage has 
ceasfd and it seems unlikelv that it will lie re- 
sumed on any extensive scale for many A-ears to 
come, if at all. 

The refion about the lalioratorv was originally 
mostly prairie. It is now largely farmed, but ex- 
tensive patches of nrairie still remain. The lake 
shores and the valley of the Little Sioux River 
were for the most part forested and nearly all of 
this forest remains near the lakes, and much of 
it along the river. Numerous seeps and hangin-j 
bogs occur both in prairie and forest. The lab- 
or.itory campus, of alxiut a hundred acres, in- 
clutLs a snnll tract of mesophvtic forest, a larg- 
er bit of xerophytic bur oak forest and prairie, 
banging liog and marsh areas, surrounding a 



shallow bay rich in aquatic phanerogams and the 
associated animals and lower plants. 

The laboratory building is merely a frame 
shelter for workers. It has recently l)een repaired 
so that it is adeijuate if not lieautiful. It is sup- 
plied with running water and electricity, and a 
small amount of glassware and apparatus. Pend- 
ing the erection of a fireproof structure, it has 
seemed advisable to ship needed supplies from the 
University for the summer only. There is a large 
head(|uarters cottage, with roomy, enclosed porcii 
and public rooms, and a numlier of other build- 
ings, including mess-hall, dormitories and small 
cottages. All are located on a wooded bluff, 
thirty to fifty feet above the level of the lake. 

The laboratory is normally open for ten weeks, 
but in recent years arrangements have frequently 
been made for special work before and after the 
regular sesion. For purposes of instruction the 
session is divided into two terms of five week-) 
each, and one ciurse in botany and one in zoology 
are offered cch term. These courses are open to 
both undergraduates and graduates, the accomp- 
lishment expected of the latter being, of ciurse. 
greater. Students register for but a single course 
at a time, hence there are no schedule com|)lica- 
tions The coarst work is very definitely directed 
toward meeting the needs of teachers of liiologv 
in the interior of the country, by eni])hasizing the 
availability for study of the familiar plants and 
animals of that region, many of which can be se- 
cured almost anywhere. There is, of course, no 
thought of disparaging the work of marine sta- 
tions and all students who are not familiar with 
marine conditions are urged to make every effort 
to spend some time at Woods Hole or some other 
seaside laboratory. 

Research material available is of necessity more 
limited than at a marine laboratory, but is suf- 
ficiently varied to supply a wide range of prob- 
lems. As examj)les of the type of problems stud- 
ied at the laboratory in recent years may be cited 
taxonomic studies on vascular ])lants, fish, Clado- 
cera, rotifers, phyto-plankton, filamentous algae 




THE LABUHATUKY 
LIIOKINO Wt-STWARD ACROSS THE 



July 25, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



119 



and Myxomycetes ; development studies on am- 
phibians ; studies on the temperature and oxygen 
changes in the lake; investigations of mycorhiza ; 
the ecology of the prairie with reference to water 
relations. 

The phytoplankton of the Okoboji region has 
been stated liy competent observers to be one of 
the richest in the world, except for desmids, and 
tiie animal life of the lakes, while less completely 
known, is certainly rich and varied. Frogs and 
salamanders are aburdant. Fish nests line the 
lake frontage of the laboratory. 

Situated as it is in the tension zone between. 



forest and prairie, the region in the vicinity of 
the laboratory offers many advantages for the 
study of ecological problems. Much has been ac- 
com])lished, but much more remains to be done. 

The resident staiif this summer, in addition to the 
director, is composed of Professor H. S. Conrad, 
of Grinnell College, and Dr. Arthur P. Kelley, 
in botany, and Professor Ira T. Wilson, of Heid- 
elberg College, in zoology. In addition to these 
men and their classes there are several research 
students carrying on investigations on the fungi 
and algae either independently or under super- 
vision. 



THE LIVING NUCLEUS ITS DIR ECT ACTION ON THE CYTOPLASM 

IN TISSUE CULTURES 

(Ccntinued from Page 117) 



possibly because of an e.scape of fluid. It 
'has been claimed that the nucleus of the Am- 
phibian red blood cell is an elastic body which, on 
stretching, will tend partially to return to tht' 
form it possesj^ed before stretching. I am 
convinced that this property of elasticity appears 
only after the nucleus is dead and has become 
coagulated. When the nucleus within an intact 
red cell in blood serum is punctured, the nucleus 
swells appreciably and the haemoglobin-colored 
cytoplasm fades. Only then is the nucleus con- 
verted into a semi-elastic coagulum. 

The nucleus of a plant cell such as that of 
onion bulb-scales is also highly reactive to punc- 
ture. Sometimes it disappears completelv ; at 
other times it collapses and then coagulates. When 
plasmolyzed plant cells are examined (e. g. onion 
cells plasmolyzed with potassium salts), the nu- 
cleus is often seen to be a swollen hyaline sphere. 
A puncture of such a nucleus causes it to disap- 
pear completely, the c\toplasm at the same time 
undergoing degeneration. 

I shall not go into any detail here in discussing 
the considerable evidence thus far olitaincd in de- 
termining the alkalinity of the nucleus with re- 
spect to the cytoplasm surrounding it. Probablv 
the first person who showed this is Paul Reiss of 
Strassburg. Reiss placed immature Echinoderm 
eggs between a cover slip and slide in sea-water 
colored with a pH indicator. On crushing the 
e^afs, their nuclei took on the alk''line color of the 
indicator, while the cvtrplasm assumed the acid 
color. I have repeated this experiment on star- 
fish eggs with the same result. The first thing 
that one not'ces. r.fter crushing, is the disappear- 
ance of the nucleolus and a change in volum" of 
the nucleus. The nucleus shrinks and persists f o ■ 
some time as a hyaline nuclear remnant within 
the cytolizing deliris of the cytoplasm. With 
])henol red in the sea-water the debris fo*" a short 
time is bright yellow facid), and the nuclear rem- 
nant is rose red (alkaline). 

Evidence from carefully conducted mxro-injec- 



tion experiments have shown that the nucleus ex- 
hibits a distinctly alkaline reaction (a pH of 
aiiout 7.6) while still within a healthy appearing, 
intact cell. It is interesting to note that, upon cy- 
tolysis, the cytoplasm becomes more acid than be- 
fore facid of injury). The nuclear remnant, on 
the other hand, maintains the same alkaline re- 
action possessed liy the nucleus within the intact 
cell. It is for this reason that Reiss was able to 
note an appreciable difference in the reaction, 
when tlie cells were crushed. 

I wish to present here new evidence for the 
greater alkaline reaction of the nucleus in con- 
trast to that of the cytoplasm. When neutral red 
is injected into the nucleus, the dye quickly passes 
out into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, when 
methyl red is introduced into the cytoplasm, the 
dye passes into the nucleus. Methyl red is the 
only indicator I have found which Iiehaves in this 
way in the living cell. 

The possible explanation is of interest in re- 
lation to the fjuestion of vital staining. Neutral 
red, in an aqueous medium on the alkaline side of 
pH 7,0. tends to lie present in the form of its 
slightly solul)le, undissociatfd free base. On the 
acid side of pH 7.0 it is far more soluble as a 
dissociated salt. The tendency is for the dye to 
pass from a medium in which it is less soluble to 
that in which it is more solulile. Probably this is 
what makes it an almost ideal vital stain, si-ice 
physiological fluids which bathe cells are on the 
alkaline side of pH 7.0, while the internal proto- 
plasm of the cells is on the acid side. Egcs in 
sea-water are readily stained with neutral red, al- 
most too readily, for its tendency is progressively 
to accumulate in the cytoplasm until the eggs are 
overstainfd. When conditions are reversed, i. e., 
by acidifying the sea-water so that the latter is 
made dii-tinctly more acid than the cytoplasm of 
the eggs, no staining occurs and colored eggs 
nuickly liecome destained. When we study the 
distribution of neutral red between the nucleus and 
the cytoplasm of the egg we find that the dis- 



I20 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



tribiition is such as can most easily be explained 
bv the differences in their acid reactions, viz., 
neutral red in the cytoplasm never passes into the 
living nucleus and, conversely, when the dye is 
injected into the nucleus the dye rapidl\- diffuses 
out into the cytoplasm. 

Methyl red is amjihoteric and its Ijasic proper- 
ties are manifested only in a distinctly acid medi- 
um. .\t about pH 5 it tends to form a free base. 
In sea-water at the normal pH of S.2 it e.xi^ls 
almost entirely as the sodium salt of its acidic 
radical and as such is not a vital stain. In sea- 
water, acidified to a pH of 6 the methyl red readi- 
Iv diffuses into the cytoplasm and stains it. The 
csgs are viable at a still lower pH. The differ- 
ence lietween this dye and neutral red is that the 
methyl red does not merely stain the cytoplasm 
hut also diffuses into the nucleus. In methyl red 
a-.id neutral red we have two dyes, one with a ten- 
dency to diffuse from a more alkaline medium 
and the other with a tendency in the reverse direc- 
tion. Their 1)ehavior in regard to the nucleus and 
cytoplasm of the starfish egg is of the same order. 

I'uncturing the nucleus of the Metazoan cell 
produces an extraordinary effect. Owing to the 
plasticity and extensibility of the nuclear mem- 
brane the nucleus can be pinched almost in two 
with no dire results; Init if the needle scratches 
the membrane so as to tear it, the nucleus breaks 
down and cytolysis occnrs- 

During this last Spring I have been working 
with Dr. Fell in Cambridge. England, on tissue- 
cultures under darkground illumination. The 
condenser we used was a recently improved 
special form with a wide angular aperture. It is 
constructed to permit the insertion of micro- 
needles 1 eneath the hollow cone of light for oper- 
ating upon cells in a hanging drop. The illumim- 
ti(m is such that we were able to use oil immer- 
sion objectives, and to observe, in beautiful de- 
tail, the delicate cytoplasmic structures character- 
istic of tissue culture cells. On puncturing the 
nuclei of the cells we obtained a very beautiful 
dnrkfield picture of the changes which took place. 
Tlie slightest puncture of the nucleus prrduces 
almost instantly a stopjiage of all movement with- 
in the cell. This came out strikingly in the iris 
])igment cells in which the small pigme: t-rodlets 
scurry about in groups and singly, very much like 
guinea-pigs in a pen. The ne.xt thing one ob- 
serves is the appearance, immediately around the 
collapsed and shrunken nuclear remnant, of very 
fine granules observalile only with the darkfield. 
The granules progressively increase and the re- 
sulting opacity of the cytoplasm around the nu- 
cleus spreads until it invades the entire ce'l. An- 
other change is in the mitochondria. This shows 
up beautifully in the fibroblasts, where long, sinu- 
ous mitochondria can he seen moving about in the 
c\ toplasm. "S'ou can dig about in the cyto]T*asm 
w'th the needle and nothing happens: the mito- 
chondria keep on moving and they maintain their 



long, sinuous shapes. But if the nucleus is punc- 
tured one notices, as the fine degeneration gran- 
ules appear in the cytoplasm, that the mitochon- 
dria begin to be transformed into pale outlined 
spherules quite different from the highly refrac- 
tive fat droplets which normally occur in relative- 
ly small numbers in these cells. The extended 
pseudopodia slowly lose their peripheral attach- 
ments and are withdrawn as the cell becomes con- 
verted into a shriveled, coagulated mass with 
regions here and there in which active Brownian 
movement can be seen. These progressive 
changes following the nuclear puncture occur gen- 
erally within a period of five to eight minutes. 

An e.xtraordinary phenomenon occurs when one 
of the nuclei of a hinucleate cell is punctured. 
Binucleate cells are frequently found in cultures 
of a variety of cells. They appear to be quite 
normal in all other respects. Those experimented 
upon were phagocytes, fibroblasts, gut and pig- 
mented epithelial cells. With a very fine-tipped 
micro-needle one nucleus of a binucleate cell was 
slightly (lunctured. There occurred the same se- 
quence of events as previously described, but in 
this case restricted to the immediate region of the 
injured nucleus, viz., an immediate cessation of 
movement, the gradual appearance of degenera- 
tion granules, the conversion of mitochondria into 
spherules and a retraction of the pseudopodia in 
the vicinity of the injured and shriveling nucleus. 
However, after a few m-nutes the degeneration 
granules began to fade from view, the mitochon- 
drial spherules disappeared, normal mitochondria 
invaded this region, pseudopodia extended again, 
and the cell then appeared as a normal mono- 
nucleated cell, containing the shriveled remnant 
of the one nucleus which had been punctured. 
This is a striking demonstration to show that the 
presence of one healthy nucleus can overcome the 
degenerative action produced by the injury of the 
other nucleus. Recovery did not always occur. In 
several cases the degenerative effect of injuring 
one nucleus involved the other nucleus, which, in 
its turn, also degenerated, resulting in the death 
of the cell. 

The essentialness of the nucleus to the contin- 
ued life of a cell is, of course, undisputed. More 
directly it is well recognized that the elimination 
of a nucleus causes the cell from which it has 
been removed to lose the ability of reproducing 
itself. The evidence presented in this paper still 
more directly demonstrates the importance of the 
nucleus by showing that the presence of a healthy 
nucleus can keep a cell from destruction even 
after a certain degree of cytolysis has once set in. 

We know nothing of the nature of the material 
which must emanate from the living nucleus to 
maintain or to restore normal conditions in the 
surriunding cytoplasm nor do we have an inkling 
of what escapes from a punctured nucleus to in- 
duce cvtolysis. All that we know is the fact of 
the occurrence. Concerning the chemistry of 



July 25, 193 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



121 



the livinsf nucleus and cytoplasm the pronounced 
alkalinity of the nucleus in contrast to that of the 
cytoplasm is at present of no assistance in help- 
ing us to arrive at any conclusion. 

DiscrssiON 

Question : What conception do you have of the 
motility of the mitochondria ? Do you get the im- 
pression that they are self-motile, or that they 
move hy virtue of cytoplasmic currents ? 

Dr. Chambers: The sinuous movement of the 
long slender mitochondria in fihroblasts is at times 
much more active than at others. As far as I 
have been able to notice, the variation in their ac- 
tivity seems to correspond closely vi^ith the stream- 
ing movements of the cytoplasm of the cell. Mv 
impression is that the mitochondria are carried 
ahout passively. 

Question : Have you formed any conceptions 
as to the time factor in death? Do vou consider 
it instantaneous or is time involved? You have 
used the term intra vitam : might we use the term' 
intra mortem? 

Dr. Chambers: There are definite successive 
degenerative changes, none of which are necessar- 
ily mortal, because in the case of a binucleated 
cell you get all these visible changes, but the pres- 
ence of the other nucleus may result in apparent 
complete recovery. 

Question: What happens if you puncture the 
second nucleus? 

Dr. Clianibers: On puncturing the second nu- 
cleus the same degenerative changes occur, w't'i 
death of the cell. I am speaking of the Metazonn 
nucleus; the Protozoan nucleus behaves quite dif- 
ferently. 

Qitest-on : You said that if vou cut off a piece 
of the filiroblast it continued normal for some 
time. 

Dr. Chambers: Yes. That suggests that it is 
not the mere presence of the nucleus, but of some- 
thing emanating from the injured nuc'eus which 
stoDs movement and results in degeneration of the 
cell. 

Question : Does Rrownian movement occur in 
the degeneration process ? 

Dr. Chambers : These degeneration part'cles 
show very active Brownian movement in some 
cases and not in others. When the cell is verv 



much flattened the membrane apparently stiffens 
with death and the degeneration granules adhere 
to the inner surface so that no Brownian. move-, 
ment is appreciable. 

Question : Have you been able to inject the 
nuclear contents of one cell into another? 

Dr. Chambers: The difficulty lies in working 
fast enough. I have done so with the fluid con- 
tents of the germinal vesicle in the starfish egg. 
When removed and immediately injected into an- 
other egg I have obtained degenerative changes 
in the second egg but such material cannot be kept 
in a pipette more than a few seconds, after which 
the injected material will cause no cytolytic 
change. 

Question : Do you get some degenerative stages 
from ordinary penetration of a needle into a cell? 

Dr. Chambers: Ordinarily, when a sufficiently 
fine-tipped needle or pipette is used, no observable 
cytolytic change occurs. With blunt tipped needles 
it is very difficult to puncture manv cells because 
of the extreme plasticitv of the membrane of the 
cell and of its contents. With such instruments 
penetration is accomplished only with distinct dis- 
ruption as the needle tears its way into the cell. 
Possibly the chief difficulty of many who attempt 
micro-manipulation of living cells, is due to their 
not appreciating the necessity of using the proper 
kind of micro-needles. That the mere penetration 
of a needle into a living cell produces some in- 
jurious reaction there is probably little doubt. In 
the starfish egg we have been able to demonstrate 
that an evanescent, injurious action does occur 
even when the operation is done so as to produce 
no apprecialile morphological change. This has 
been shown liy inserting a needle into an ei;g 
which previously had been colored blue by the 
injection of brom cresol purple. At the site of 
penetration a distinct minute trace of vellow oc- 
curs, indicating an acid of injury. Within a sec- 
ond, however, the color reverts to blue, indicating 
)a neutralization of the acid. This reaction of 
acidity is more pronounced the more rapidlv the 
needle is thrust into the egg. 

In the case of tissue culture cells, the cytoplasm 
could be repeatedly punctured without producintr 
anv noticeable effect. It is only when the nucleus 
is ptmctured that cytolysis occurs. 



GENETIC CONTINUITY OF THE CENTRAL BODIES 

Dr. Alfred F. Huettner 
Professor of Biology, Washington, College, Nezv York University 



The egg of DrosophiJa melanogastcr is ap- 
proximatelv one tenth of a millimeter in thick- 
ness and slightlv less than half a millimeter long. 
It is centrolecithal, normally polyspermic and 
with the first polar Ixidy spindle in metaphase at 
the time of fertilization. Within ten minutes 
after the spermatozoa have entered the egg the 
second polar body is formed and the two pro- 



nuclei are ready to fuse. All early cleavages are 
simply divisions of nuclei within this large egg, 
and only at a much later stage are cell walls 
formed and still later the tissues differentiated. 

The first cleavage results in two nuclei which 
are imbedded in clear and separate protoplasmic 
patches. These nucleated, separated protoplasmic 
islands are characteristic of the cleaving insect 



122 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



egg. As far as the thirteenth cleavage all nu- 
clear divisions with the exception of the primor- 
dial germ cells, are synchronous so that the same 
mitotic stage can be studied on hundreds and 
sometimes on thousands of nuclei in the same egg. 

The Drosophila egg has to be pu'ictured while 
it is immersed in the fi.xing fluid to insure rapid: 
and proper fixation. However, when the punc- 
ture is ver\- minute so that the fixing agent will: 
enter slowly, the mitotic figures will be seen to 
varv from the point of puncture to the opposite 
parts of the egg. For instance, if one should 
puncture an egg in which the nuclei are all in 
metaphase. those nearest the puncture will be fixed 
in meta])hase, but the further the figures are away, 
the later they are reached and arrested in their 
activity by the fixing agent, and the mitotic fig- 
ures will show a gradation from metaphase into 
anaphase. One may therefore oliserve the ceu- 
trioles actually elongate and divide and take up 
position at opposite sides of the inte-kiretic nu- 
cleus. One may also observe that the centrioles 
are dynamic, moving about and changing position 
in the protoplasmic islands as the c\ tomechanical 
processes are in progress. 

I do not wish it to be understood that the cen- 
tral bodies as seen in the ph(jtographs. which were 
])rojected on the screen, conform preciselv to the 
condition existing in the living egg. I would 
hold onlv that they are definite entities of some 
kind that conform to the jirinciple of genetic con- 
tinuity. It is possible, even probable, that in the 
coagulated cell they may have undergone ma- 
terial changes. Whatever their morphologic 
nature in the living cell, there seems to be no 
doulrt tliat thev are definitelv organized parts of 
the animal cell which, at least in the more favor- 
able cases in the animal and also in some of the 
lower plants, can be demonstrated to be continu- 



ous. In Drosophila the evidence indicates strong- 
ly that this continuity is perfect, since it seems 
that the spermatozoan carries the first centriole 
into the egg, and from this first one are derived 
every succeeding centriole, including those of the 
germ cells. 

This leads to another aspect of this question 
since Dr. Fry has denied the existence of the 
centrioles in somatic mitoses in members of 
several phyla with a strong implication that they 
do not exist in any somatic mitosis. However, he 
does admit their existence in the maturation div- 
isions of the oocyte and spermatocyte l>ecause in 
the latter they act as blepharoblasts. The photo- 
graphs shown prove that in Drosophila the cen- 
trioles of the somatic mitoses are the same as 
those of the germ cells. Nor is it possible liere 
to uphold that these definite bodies with their reg- 
ular appearance, location and precise movement 
are random granules or staining artifacts or focal 
points of astral rays when no astral rays are pres- 
ent in interkinesis. I wish to emphasize that the 
photographs, which were submitted, are by no 
means exceptional or specially selected for their 
beauty. When photographing at such high pow- 
ers one is definitely limited to one narrow focal 
plane and the best evidence cannot be photo- 
graphed because parts of the picture may be 
slightly out of focus. 

Since all the evidence gathered in Drosophila 
is in full accord with that worked out hv Van 
Beneden, Boveri, Brauer, Flemming, Heidenain, 
Wilson, Griffin, McFarland, Mead, Coe and many 
others who worked on other phyla and in diversi- 
fied classes of such ]ihyla, it appears that Droso- 
phila is by no means exceptional and represents 
merely the most complete and most evident his- 
torv of the central bodies thus far observed. 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORT OF DR. HUETTNER 

Dr. Henry S. Fry 
Prnfncssor of Biology, Washiiiiiton Sqit arc College. New Vorh University 



Dr. Huettner's description of central body be- 
havior in cleaving Drosophila eggs is a most im- 
]iortant contribution to the central bodv problem. 
In this species we are apparently dealing with a 
typical centriole which persists as an individual- 
ized structure from one cell division to the next. 
In this persistence, which is independent of the 
astral condition, lies the significance of the Droso- 
phila material, and herein it differs from cleaving 
eggs of most species, where central bodies do not 
persist during the interkinetic period when asters 
are absent. The question therefore arises, is 
central body behavior in Drosophila different 
from that of many other forms, or will future 
study bring the phenomena under one categorv? 

Obviously we are not dealing here with random 
granules ; this point needs no further discussion. 
It also seems equally apparent that the central 



bodies are not just the coagulated focal area of 
astral ra\s, since thev can be clearly demonstrat- 
ed in fixed material when rays are absent, but 
this conclusion needs further examination In 
this connection the results I am now obtaining in 
cleaving eggs of other forms (Pennaria, Cum- 
ingia, Chaetopterus, Asterias, Cerebratulus. and 
dogfish) may lie significant for Drosophila. In 
them an orderly central body is present only 
when distinctly organized rays reach the astral 
center : in some species the rays must be coarse : 
in others, a few delicate rays are sufficient; in 
some cases a spindle without asters may have 
such bodies, provided the fibers are sharply 
focused. This body does not e.xist before the 
aster arises ; it disappears simultaneously with 
the breakdown of the inner ends of rays, regard- 
less of their clarity in the outer parts — hence such 



JrLY 25, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



123 



bodies are not present in these species from late 
anaphase onwards. It is probable, therefore, that 
these bodies are actually nothing but the coagula- 
tion product of the area where the rays come to 
a focus, an area which differs chemically and 
physically from the surrounding region where 
there is more or less inter-ray material. These 
bodies may be large and diffuse as in Echinoderms, 
or minute and period-like as in Cerebratulus and 
Chaetopterus. 

May the central bodies of Drosophila also he 
only the coagulation product of the focal area of 
rays ? Dr. Huettner presented two arguments 
that apparently disprove this possibility : first, 
central iiodies can be demonstrated during mitosis 
whether the rays of the living aster are fixed or 
not ; second, they persist during the interkinetic 
period when asters are absent. These facts, how- 
ever, cannot be accepted as conclusive until cer- 
tain points have been cleared up whxh make the 
study of central bodies in Drosophila peculiarly 
difficult. 

Fixation of Drosophila eggs is unusually pre- 
carious and undependable. It is well known 
among cytologists that in the eggs of most spec- 
ies a given type of fixation at a given mitotic 
phase in a certain stage of development usually 
yields results that are repeatable : for example, 
variations in the structure of asters, under such 
conditions, among dilTerent eggs of the same fe- 
male or of different females, are negligible. 
Furthermore, the use of a proper reagent reveals 
depend.Tbly on the fixed slide the gross condition 
of the living aster, i. e., large or small, distinct or 
faint. Drosophila eggs, however, present a very 
different situation. As Dr. Huettner stated, they 
are so impervious to reagents that each one must 
be pricked individually to permit entrance of the 
fluid. The results in different eggs at the .same, 
stage are quite variable, due probably to differ- 
ences in the size of the puncture with consequent 
differences in the amount of fluid entering the egg 
and the speed diffus>on. Not only are such 
differences apparent between different eggs fixed 
at the same stage, but in some thev exist at differ- 
ent distances from the point of pricking, as pointed 
out by Professor Wilson in his recent lecture. For 
example, the lantern slides of anaphase figures 
showed clear rays in some cases, whereas others, 
in identically the same stage, as ind'cated by the 
position of the chromosomes, showed no rays at 
all. All astral stages exhibit variability of ray 
fixation. A given mitotic stage, which undoubt- 
edly has rays in the living condition, may or may 
not show them after coagulation. It is at least 
possible that ray material may be coagulated more 
rendilv at the pster's focal region where it is more 
abundant than elsewhere where there is inter-ray 
material. Were such the case, it is poss-ble that 
under one condition of fixation both the focal 
area (central body) and the peripheral portion 
are fixed, the latter showing clear rays ; whereas 



under a slightly different condition of fixation, al- 
though the center is coagulated as previously, the 
rest is left non-radial, even though both figures 
were radial in the living condition. 

It would have added important information to 
the discussion if Dr. Huettner had given some in- 
formation concerning the fixatives used — whether 
more than one reagent was employed, and if so 
whether or not there are variations in the coagu- 
lation products. Until fixation of Drosophila 
eggs can be made so dependable that the mitotic 
figures at a given stage fix in a similar manner 
and adequately preserve the gross living con- 
dition, conclusions concerning the presence or 
ai)sence of central bodies in relation to the pres- 
ence or absence of rays are necessarily uncertain. 

The second difficulty lies in the unusual short- 
ness of the interkinetic period when asters are 
absent. In most species twenty to thirty minutes 
elapse from one metaphase to another, and the 
interkinetic period is about eight to ten minutes. 
In Drosophila from metaphase to metaphase re- 
quires only about eight minutes and the inter- 
kinetic period covers at most two minutes. Such 
a brief period might be overlooked if certain 
classes of cells are regarded as well fixed and 
others, put up at the same stage under similar 
conditions, are dismissed as poorly fixed. 

I recently studied forty Drosophila eggs (fixed 
by a formol-alcobol-acetic mixture) having re- 
formed nuclei, and showing no asters. Less than 
half of the eggs showed central bodies ; whether 
or not these eggs actually had asters in life which 
were not preserved bv the fixation is unknown. 
The impo'-tant point is that more than half had 
no central bodies. Two of the latter, photo- 
graphed w'th ultra-violet light by Dr. F. F. Lucas 
of the Rell Telephone Laboratories, showed no 
ceritral liodies. The evidence from these very pre- 
liminary studies is of course not conclusive, but 
it raises the possibility that in the very brief inter- 
kinetic period central bodies may actually be ab- 
sent. Assuming that the presence of central bod- 
ies is related somehow to the presence of rays, it 
would be easy to pass from the latest telophase 
stage having rays in the living condition to the 
earliest prophase stage having rays, unconsciously 
skipping the brief interkinetic period. The whole 
situation is further aggravated by the vagaries of 
fixation, since the rays may or may not be fixed. 

All Drosophila eggs fixed with a given reagent 
at a given interkinetic period and treated in the 
same manner, as far as technique permits, should 
be reported. If the great majority show central 
bodies at all stages, including the interkinetic per- 
iod, that is one-result; if, however, as I found in 
the sample of forty eggs mentioned above, a large 
percentage does not show central bodies, at least 
the percentage of each class should be reported. 
If certain groups are dismissed as non-significani, 
the reason for such action should be made clear, 
in view of the brevity of the interkinetic period 



124 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



and the uncertainties nf fixation. Possibly Dr. 
Huettner has considered all this, but no informa- 
tion was given on this point. 

LTnfortunately, space forbids discussion of the 
division of the central body during metaphase. In 
some of the forms I am now studying this occurs 
also, and is associated with the widening of the 
spindle-end which renders the aster bifocal. 
Whether the liody is a d\namic center playing 
some role in effecting these changes, or whether 
the centriole's change from a single to a 
double condition is a passive result of the unifocal 
astral area becoming bifocal due to the widening 
of the spindle-end, remains to be proved. 

Should further study show the central bodies 
of Drosophila actually to be absent during the 
interkinetic period, this would be in harmony with 
the condition during maturation of Drosophila 
eggs, where there are no asters and no central 
bodies. It would also harmonize with the result.-; 



in the other forms previously noted, where order- 
ly liodies are absent during interkinesis when as- 
ters are absent. If, on the other hand, further 
study confirms the conclusion that we are dealing 
with typical centrioles. then it must be ascertain- 
ed whether or not the liehavior of Drosophila cen- 
trioles is in a different category from that of the 
other forms mentioned. In this connection it 
may be noted that the centriole-blepharoplasts of 
.sperm-forming cells show diverse behavior: in 
.some species arising in late spermatogonia; in 
others, in the primary spermatocytes ; in yet oth- 
ers, in the spermatids. If such variability of this 
structure is manifest during spermatogenesis in 
different species, may not central bodies show di- 
verse behavior during cleavage? 

Dr. Huettner's studv is a stimulating contribu- 
tion to the suliject, which will call forth further 
research and contribute to the eventual solution of 
this important cytological problem. 



PHOTO-ELECTRIC CELL RECORDS OF ANIMAL LUMINESCENCE 

Dr. E Nf.wton H.\rvey 
Professor of Physiology. Princeton University 



Determination of the ab,solute intensity of weak 
luminescence is a difficult undertaking, since the 
quality of the light is far different from that of 
a comparison source. Relative intensities of 
luminescences may be determined by various types 
of photometers, provided the light lasts long 
enough to make an eye comparison. For rapid 
flashes of luminescence such as those of many 
luminous organisms some sort of recording mech- 
anism becomes absolutely necessary. The photo- 
cell with amplification and a string galvanometer 
is a convenient means of recording such flashes 
of light. 

The pioneer work in analysing luminescences 
was carried out by Dr. W. R. Amberson who 
studied the decay of luminescence when solutions 
of lucifcrin and luciferase. the light-giving sub- 
stance of animals, are mixed in a test tube. His 
method of recording was to revolve photographic 
film on a kymograph drum past a narrow slit in 
the blackened test tube in which the solutions were 
mixed. After development, light intensity could 
be measured in terms of the lilackening of the 
film. These decay curves were logarithmic, the 
slope (velocity constant ) proportional to luciferase 
concentration, varying with luciferin concentra- 
tion, increasing 2 to 3 times for a 10" rise in 
temperature and independent of stirring the so- 
lutions. The time for decay was absent about S 
seconds. 

The photo-electric recording method allows 
very rapid decays to be measured in which the 
time for half decay is of the order of 1/2 to i 
second. Even such short flashes of luminescence 
behave in the same manner as the longer ones 



studied by Amberson, giving logarithmic decay 
curves A long series of records of velocity con- 
stants shows that with constant luciferase con- 
centration these are inversely proportional to the 
square root of the concentration of luciferin plus 
oxyluciferin, its oxidation product. This can be 
exjilained by assuming the velocity constant as 
measured by hmiinescence to depend on the luci- 
ferin plus oxyluciferin adsorbed on luciferase, 
the luciferin and the oxyluciferin having the same 
adsorption isotherm. 

A long series of studies of the flash of the 
fire-fly obtained by Mr. P. A. Snell in different 
oxNgen concentrations show that the normal refle.K 
flash in the male is perfectly symmetrical and 
looks like a normal distribution curve. The 
duration is about Vc second at room temperature. 
P)rown and King find the female to give an un- 
svmmetrical flash with a secondary maximum. 

The West Indian elaterid beetle, Pyrophorus, 
gives a long lasting luminescence on stimulation. 
This rises to a maximum in 0.8 to i second and 
remains there with rhythmic =;% changes in light 
intensity, having a period of 0.2 to 0.3 second, 
which gradually becomes longer and finally 
merges into a rhythmic pulsation of light of al)OUt 
I second period, detectalile liy the eye. These are 
ascribed to rhythmic volleys of impulses sent out 
from the nerve ganglions controlling the liglit 
organ. 

Rapidly changing intensities of luminescence in 
a suspension of luminous bacteria can be record- 
ed : for example, the flash of "excess lumines- 
cence" which appears when these bacteria are de- 
prived of oxygen. The intensity of this flash is 



Jmly 25, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



125 



about twice that of the normal light. It falls off 
rapidly in intensitv and lasts some 12 seconds. 
These records have not been published hut were 
illustrated by lantern slides. The method will 
prove as valuable in the analysis of luminescence 
as the optical lever in muscle physiology. 



Literature 

/nbcrson, W. R., Jour. Gen. Physiol. 4, 517, 1922. 
Stevens, K. P.. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 10, 859, 1927. 
Harvey, E. N. and Snell, P. H., Jour. Gen. Physiol. 
14. .'529, 1931. 

Snell, P. A., Science, 73, 372, 1931. 
Brown, D. E. S. and King, C. V., Physiol. Jool. 4, 
2C7, 1931. 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR 

Dr. William 
Professor of Physiology, 
The application of the photo-electric cell to the 
study of animal luminescence registers another 
success for the use of modern phvsical apparatus 
in biological research. The results described by 
Dr. Harvev present us with a very accurate p'c- 
tiu'e of the time relations of these rapidly chang- 
ing luminescences. Although it is true that I was 
able, some years ago, to discern the main re- 



REPORT OF DR. HARVEY 

R. Ambf.rsgn 

Lhih'crsity of Tonicsscc 

lationshijis now confirmed in the present study, 
as Dr. Harvey has kindly indicated, it is also true 
that my old method was exceedingly laborious, 
and relatively inaccurate, in comparison with the 
quick and easy study now made possible. Th° 
new method represents an important technical ad- 
vance which may now be extended to other prob- 
lems in this field. 



THE CARBON DIOXIDE COMBINING POWER OF MAMMALIAN MUSCLE 

Dr. L.\fRENCE Irving 
Associate Professor of PhvsioIoi;y, Ihiiz'crsitv of Toronto 



Although muscle contains only about half as 
much CC)2 as blood in each gram, the total re- 
serves of muscle CO2 in the liody are aliout five 
times greater. This quantity of reserve CO2 is 
subject to alteration by changes in the CO2 ten- 
sion of circulating blood. The relation between 
CO2 content and tension may also be used to re- 
present the condition of the acid-l)ase equili!)rium 
and the buffering power. But it is much more 
difficult to deal with an active and sensitive solid 
tissue like muscle than with the fluid and rela- 
tively stable blood. 

The two variable factors to be determined are 
(l) CO2 content and (2) CO2 tension. Th.> 
first may be accurately determined by a method 
developed from Van Slyke's principles of blood 
analysis. There is no direct method for determin- 
ing CC)2 tension in a living solid tissue. But it 
is evident that the CO2 tension of a tissue must 
always be greater than that of the venous blood 
in order to maintain the escape of CO2 as it is 
produced The circulation of mammalian muscle 
is so elaborate and the diffusion of CO2 is so 
easy fhat Krogh has figurefl that the difference in 
tension lietween muscle and its venous lilood 
cannot be perceptible. The sampling of venous 
blood from a muscle and sulisequent analysis of 
it in the quantity available have required the de- 
velopment of special operative and analytical 
technique. 

The gastrocnemii of sjiinal dogs were dissected 
so that the only blood passing out through the pop- 
liteal veins came from the gastrocnemii alone. 
Rlood samples were then d'-awn from one vein 
for the determination of CO2 tension, and the 
muscle was removed for analysis. These two 
results showed the CO2 content of the muscle at 
about a normal CO2 ten.sion. The dogs were 



then either overventdated to reduce the CO2 ten- 
sion or ventilated with a CO2 rich mixture to 
raise the CO2 tension. After this treatment had 
become effective, blood samples were drawn from 
the second muscle and the muscle itself was an- 
alyzed. 

When the results are plotted as CO2 content 
against tension, there is a definite trend that re- 
sembles fhe curve for blood, Imt at a lower level 
of CO2 content. The most suitable curve will he 
one whicli fits the points ranging from P C02(20 
to 200 mm. Hg), is reproducible, and shows the 
derivatives in reasonable form. One expression 
for such a curve is CO2 in cc. per 100 grams 
is equal to 3.4 \' P CO2. 

The curve summarizing the data can he modi- 
fied to show the amount of combined CO2. This 
re(|uires the assumption of a value for the ab- 
sorption coefficient of CO2 in muscle. The value 
selected is k38o is equal to 0.41, representing the 
dissolved CO2 as if it were that which would be 
dissolved in the water of the muscle. The curve 
is most useful when applied to the estimation of 
hydrogen ion concentration, and in this form the 
pi I calculated at P CO2 is equal to 50 mm. is near 
7.0. and at 200 mm. near 6.6. 

The slope of the combining power curve may 
also be u.sed to estimate the buffering power of 
muscle. The figures show that the carbonates of 
muscle are only about l/j. as effective as the otlier 
buffers. Further, the buffering due to CO2 es- 
cape is about as large as that of the other buffers 
beside CO2. It also appears that the muscle 
buffers are nearly as effective as tho.se of blood, 
in spite of the lower CO2 capacity. 

The analvtical results are quite satisfactory in 
agreement, but the constants used in determining 
the acid-base equilibrium are only reasonable as- 



126 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



sumptions. But allowing for their subsequent 
modification to give more correct absolute values, 
it is clear that the carbonate system in muscle 



can be compared in general character with any 
carbonate system, and can be used for the deriva- 
tion of the condition of the acid-ba.se equilibrium. 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORT OF DR. IRVING 

Dr. Waltkr S. Root 
Assistant Professor of Plivsiology. School of Medicine, Syracuse University 



The report of Dr. Irving is an interesting con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the acid-base equi- 
librium in living tissue. Unlike similar studies 
upon other tissues, gaseous equilibrium was at- 
tained in vivo. 

The use of the carbon dio.xide tension of the 
venous blood as the carbon dioxide of muscle 
probably gives values lower than these actually 
present. The studes of J. A. Campbell upon 
tissue gas ten^sions seem to indicate that carl ion 
dioxide diffuses from the tissues under a percept- 
ilile head of pressure. 

The shape of the carlion dioxide dissociation 
curve of nnnimalian muscle and the ]iH values 
calculated from this are similar to the results oIj- 
taincd i)y Fenn, .Stella, and Brody upon frog tis- 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON 

Dr. H. H 

Professor of Biolog 

Genetic self -sterility is the inability of sperm 
to fertilize eggs of the same individual even 
though both sorts of gametes are capable of fer- 
tilization as shown by crosses. Although common 
among plants, such a condition has been demoii- 
strated with certaintv in animals only in the Tuni- 
cate, Ciona. This was first shown by Castle, and 
the situation has been investigated by Morgan 
over a long period of ye.irs. Conklin long ago 
suggested that the common sea-squirt, Stycla par- 
tita, showed self-sterility, and I have demonstrated 
this fact for a number of years to the Embry- 
ologv students here at Woods Hole. Last sum- 
mer I attempted to analy.se the situation in this 
sjiecies in detail and the results disclose an inter- 
esting situation, especially bv comparison with 
Ciona. in the latter, self -sterility is complete and 
has been supposed bv Morgan to be genetically 
determined. In addit'on, the physiological nnturc 
of the block to self-fertilitv has been considered 
M\- data bear on both these problems in Styela. 

With Styela it is impossible to exci.se the 
gonads or ducts in such a way as to get eggs free 
of possible contamination by sperm, I therefo'e 
set up the experiments in such a wav as to make 
use of eggs which had been exposed to an eve 1 
suspension of their own sperm before being 
crossed. Single animals were allowed to shed 
eggs and sperm normally in separate fingerbowls 
of sea-water. From each, a thick sperm suspen- 
sion was withdrawn with a fine pipette, and the 
eggs and remaining sperm stirred. Equal sam- 



sues. All investigators agree that the carbon di- 
oxide capacity of muscle is less than that of the 
blood. Apparently the carbonates of frog muscle 
are more effective compared with the other buf- 
fers present than is the case in mammalian 
muscle. 

Fiske and Subljarow .have demonstrated the 
presence of a substance in mammaban muscle 
which the Egglestons have called "phosphagen " 
Recently Meyerhof and Lipmann, working with 
frog muscle, have shown that in the presence of 
carlion dio.xide "phosphagen" splits yielding base. 
It is probable that the absence of a complete plat- 
enu in the carbon d oxide dissociation curve is 
due to this reaction.. 



SELF-STERILITY IN STYELA 

. Ploi'Gii 

y, Amherst College 

pies of from 100 to 200 eggs were then picked 
up and placed in 10 cc. of fresh sea-water, in as 
many Syracuse dishes as there were crosses to be 
made. The sperm suspensions were then diluted 
and equal amounts used in making every possible 
cross fertilization. The success of the self or 
cross fertilizations was shown bv the number of 
tadpoles in the dishes on the following morning. 

.■\ number of such crosses showed quite clearly 
that in Styela, self-fertile, partially self-sterile, 
and completely self-sterile individuals exist side 
by side. Duplicate tests indicated that the re- 
sults were self-consistent when egg samples of 
this size were tnken. and the .same sperm suspen- 
ion used. Fuchs, working with Ciona, reported 
an increase in the percentage of fertilization with 
a more concentrated sperm suspension, thus rais- 
ing the question as to whether samples taken at 
ditTerent times might be expected to give consis- 
tent results. My tests on this point are not con- 
clusive as yet, because of the difificultv of getting 
animals to shed more than once. A small number 
of animals which shed on four different occasions 
gave counts which were somewhat variable in the 
actual pe'xentage of fertilization from one te.st to 
another, but the relation of self and cross-fertilit}' 
remained constant in every case. It appears, 
therefore, that the self and cross fertility shown 
by one series of adequate tests is in general a con- 
sistent index of certain inherent differences in the 
animals themselves. 

This conclusion is made much stronger by ex- 



Jl'LY 25, 103 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



127 



periments involving a large number of crosses 
simultaneously. One such series shows all recip- 
rocal crosses between nine different individuals. 
The percentages of fertilization show all possible 
steps from complete self -sterility to complete self- 
fertility, with quite marked variability in the 
cross-fertility from one individual to another. In 
general, the lower the percentage of self-fertility, 
the greater is the number of sperm suspensions 
which increase the fertility of the eggs in crosses. 
The most striking fact which such a series of 
tests shows, however, is that there is a negative 
correlation between the fertilitv of eggs by sperm 
of other individuals, and the ability of the sperm 
of the same individual to produce increased fer- 
tility in other eggs. St?ted more simply this 
means that self-stenle individuals shed snerm 
which are less likelv to Sfive increased fertilitv in 
crosses than partiallv self-sterile individuals, and 
the latter than self-fertile individuals. Such a 
relation is in no sense inherent in the data, and 
can be accounted for only bv the inherent, or 
genetic nature of the animals themselves. 

The simplest genet'c hypothesis which appears 
to fit the facts described is that certain individuals 
carry a mutant gene S, for self-sterilitv. which is 
allelomor])h!C to the normal F, for self-fertility. 
SS individuals are self-sterile, and will not fer- 
tilize any animal bearing S genes. SF animals 
may show partial .self -sterility. Such an hypothe- 

REVIEWS OF SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 



sis may be tested by rearing one generation of 
hybrids, as I hope to do in the future. The genetic 
determination of self-sterility in Styela thus ap- 
pears to be far simpler than that in Ciona, where 
all animals are self-sterile, and for which a com- 
plex multiple factor situation has been suggested 
by Morgan. It may be that Stvela shows how 
the Ciona situation has originated. 

A few words may be added with respect to 
the physiological nature of the block to self-fer- 
tilization. In Ciona, Morgan believed that the 
test cells or their secretions within the membrane 
prevented sperms of similar genetic constitution 
from reaching the egg. This seemed justified by 
his observation that removal of the membrane 
mechanically made self-fertilization possible. I 
have already reported that fertilization of Styela 
eggs in sea water with a few drops of weak 
NH4OH or NaOH (pH 8.5-8.7) made all sperm 
suspensions of approximately equal fertilizing 
power. By similar treatment Loeb long ago 
brought about species cross fertilization, and Ten- 
nent family cross fertilization in Echinoderm^. 
In such experiments it has been supposed that the 
change in the pH of the sea-water produced an 
effect on the egg cortex. If this is the correct ex- 
planation then we must look at the egg cortex as 
furnishing the block to self-fertilization rather 
than the egg membrane or its inclusions. 



Tlie Use of the Microscope. By John Bellip-g 
(Cytologist, Carnegie Institution of Washington) 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1930. 

This excellent treatise, written by a skilled cy- 
tologist and microscopist, is one that should be 
in the hands of everyone who makes use of the 
microscope, whether in research or in teaching. 
It is written with commendable brevity and ab- 
sence of needless technicality, and in the course 
of its twenty-four short chapters deals with al- 
most every aspect of microscopical research in 
biology. To the reviewer its st^-ongest poirit 
seems to be the numerous practical suggestions, 
evidently the product of long personal experience 
in the laboratory, with which its pages are every- 
where crowded. It is difficult to select specific 
examples of this, since it is characteristic of all 
the chapters : but especial mention may be made 
of those dealing with the routine microscope, il- 
lumination, light filters and screens, the condens- 
er, the cover-glass problem, photography, testing 
and care of the microscope, and rules for high- 
power microscopy. The work contains also chap- 
ters on the past and future of the microscope, its 
literature, discoveries due to its use, and practi- 
cal exercises, including brief directions for cyto- 
logical work. Novel features are a list of "prac- 
tical points" at the end of each chapter and a 
final list of two hundred "questions'' for a search- 
ing of the souls of those addicted to the practice 



of microscopic research. A useful glossary, liter- 
ature list and index are appended. The book is 
cordially recommended. — E. B. Wilson. 

Invertebrate Zoology. Harley . Jones. Va'i 
Cleave. 1931. xiv-282 pp. McGraw-Hill Book 
Com]5any. 

In writing and revising this textbook of in- 
vertebrate zoology the author has successfully 
avoided the mistake of writing for the sake of 
impressing his colleagues in the field. In the re- 
vision, stress has been taken from the taxonomic 
organization originally employed, while general 
material has been introduced such as was former- 
ly found in textbooks of general zoology. The 
index reveals one brief reference to the entoderm ; 
the ectoderm is referred to the same page while 
the mesoderm has a paragraph on the following- 
page. Nematocysts are called exclusively "net- 
tling" cells : cnidoblasts are not mentioned : neith- 
er for that matter is the coelom given a place in 
the index although it is mentioned at different 
places in the text. The echinoderms are dis- 
cussed between the Molluscoidea and the Mol- 
lusca, and one finds scarcely a hint of the pos- 
sibility of constructing a diphyletic organization 
of the animal kingdom. This text must have 
been found useful, otherwise a second edition 
would not have been called for, and a hasty su\- 
vey indicates that the revised book is an improve- 
ment. — W. C. Allee. 



128 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the sclentiflc wcrk 
at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Griffin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 



THE BEACH QUESTION 

(_)ne of the property owners on the Bayshore 
heach has ol)jected to our editorial note in which 
we said that their action in Mocking off a portion 
of the heach was not courteous. Nothing has 
taken place to change our opinion. Furthermore, 
(we helieve that most of the people in Woods 
Hole agree with us. In appropriating the north- 
ern section of the heach for private use each 
property owner is assigning himself ahout sixty- 
five feet of the heach. Together they have left 
Eomewhat less than half of the beach for the 
rest of the people in Woods Hole. H all_ of 
Woods Hole contained only five more families 
the heach would he equitably divided. One day 
last week there were three hundred people on 
one S'de of the barrier and only one individual on 
the other. This arrangement is not a democratic 
one. and some change ought to be mide to relieve 
the crowded conditions that have prevailed since 
the erection of the fence. 

BOOKS AND OUB SCHOLARSHIP FUND 

We have received recently as a gift from The 
Scientific Monthly a large number of books which 
are now on sale for tlie benefit of The Collf.ct- 
ING Net Scholarship Fund. A substantial dis- 
count has been made from the publishers list 
price, because we wish to sell as many as we can 
during the summer. The books are of many 
kinds! Some of them are technical books in the 
various fields of science, but most of them are 
more general in character. Everyone will find 
books that are of especial interest, and a cordial 
welcome is extended to membere of the scientific 
institutions in Woods Hole to examine them. Our 
office on Main Street is always open and we hope 
that investisratnrs and students will avail them- 
selves of this opportunity. They are welcome at 
any time, but we expect most of our visitors in 
the evening when nur typewriters have ceased 
their noisv chatter. 



THE NOMINATION OF TRUSTEES 

Following out the suggestions contained in the 
preliminary report of the special committee of the 
Corporation of the Marine Biological Laboratory 
(printed in The Collecting Net for July 18, 
1931), the following memorandum has recently 
been distrilnited to the members of the Corpora- 
tion : 

At the annual meeting of the Corporation of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory held on August 12 
1930, a special committee was appointed to work out 
a representative method of making nominations for 
officers and trustees to be elected by the Corpora-' 
tion at the annual meeting in August. The report 
of this Committee was printed during the fall of 
1930 and a copy was sent to each member of the' 
Corporation. 

Although the provisions of this report cannot be 
approved and adopted prior to the annual meeting 
in August, one of them — viz. that concerning sug- 
gestions and recommendations from the Corporation 
at large for nominations of Officers and Trustees ol 
the appropriate class, to be sent to the Chairman of 
the Nominating Committee, — was sanctioned by the 
Executive Committee as not inconsistent with the 
present practice. The opportunity is given herewith 
to carry it out. 

Officers and Trustees are elected by the Corpora- 
tion; members of the Corporation are elected only by 
the Trustees. The new officers — viz. Treasurer and 
tbe Clerk of the Corporation, are elected annually. — 
Trustees are elected for a term of four years. The 
oresent officers and Trustees of the Class of 1931, 
any one or all of whom may be reelected, are as 
follows: 

1. Treasi'rer of the Corporation Lawrason Ria:gs, Jr. 

2. Clerk of the Corporation Gary N. Calkins 

8 Trustees of the Class of 1931 



3. H. C. Bumpus 

4. W. C. Curtis 

5. B. M. Duggar 

6. George T. Moore 



7. W. J. V. Osterhout 

8. J. R. Schramn 

9. William M. Wheeler 
10. Lorande L. Woodruff 



If you wish to make suggestions for nominations, 
please fill in the blank below and mail prior to July 
31 to the Chairman of the Nominating Committee 
for 1931. Dr. A. C. Redfleld, Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 

Gary N. Cslkins, 
Clerk of the Corporation. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE NOMINATING 
COMMITTEE 1931 

N. B. The numbers below correspond with those 
given in the list above. Nominees must be members 
of the Corporation. 

1. For Treasurer 2. For Clerk 

For Trustees of the Class of 1935 



7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 



Signature . 



July 25, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



129 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



On Thursday evening, July 23, Mrs. C. E. Mc- 
Clung gave a picnic to the Woods Hole memhers 
of the zoology department of the University of 
Pennsylvania and their families. The party was 
scheduled to he held at Sippi- 
wissett, hut rain interfered and 
Mrs. McClung entertained in 
her apartment. 

Dr. L. O. Howard, who re- 
cently received the Capper 
Awarci, consisting of $3,000.00 
and a gold medal, sailed on the 
S. S. Virginia on July 11 for 
Honolulu via the Panama 
Canal. He will stop over a 
few weeks in Horolulu, after 
which he will sail for Paris 
by the way of the Indian 
Ocean and the Mediterranean. 

Miss Agnes Addison, tlv? 
daughter of Dr. and Mrs. W. 
H. F. Addison is correspond- 
ent for The Falmouth Enter- 
prise during her trip through 
Europe. 

Dr. David I. Hitchcock from tlie department of 
physiology of the Yale University School of Med- 
icine is coming to the lal)or,-'tr ry on the first of 
August. He and his family will occupy the Bud- 
ington cottage on Orchard Street, Crow Hill. 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 29, 7:30 P.M. 

Seminar. Dr. B. Lucke, "The Mech- 
anism of Bacteriotropin Action," 
Dr. M. H. Jacobs and Dr. A. K. 
Parpart, "Is the Permeability of 
the Erthrocyte to Water De- 
creased by Narcotics?" 
Dr. L. V. Heilbrunn, "The Action 
of the Common Cations on the 
Prot'^plasmic Viscosity of Amo- 
eba." 

Dr. R. Chambers, "The Forma- 
tion of Ice Crystals in the Pro- 
toplasm of Various Cells." 

A variety of research apparatus in- 
cluding some devices cf entirely 
new design are now being ex- 
hibited by Mr. J. H. Emerson of 
Cambridge in the Old Lecture 
Hall. 



Miss Evelyn Howard, who has just received 
her doctor's degree from the University of Penn- 
sylvania, has been appointed assistant in physi- 
ology at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. 

Dr. Selmin A. Waksman 

gave an address on marine bi- 
ology at the staff meeting of 
the Ocean(jgraphic Institution 
held on Thursday, July 23. 

The Spencer Lens Company 
opened their annual exhibit at 
Woods Hole in the Old Lec- 
ture Hall on July 23rd. They 
are showing a number of new 
instruments, pre-eminent a- 
mong which are two new re- 
search microscopes in which 
are incorporated several orig- 
inal and improved features. 
They are exhibiting a binocu- 
lar microscope with adjustable 
inclined eye-pieces. The two 
new types of fine adjustments 
for microscopes are being dis- 
played as well as a new Delin- 
eascope for color slides as used by Mr. Craske in 
his lecture last Thursday evening. Mr. C. H. 
Ash of the Boston office and Mr. L. M. Potter 
from the Pjufifalo headquarters are in charge of 
the exhibit, and will be here until August 4th. 



APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE 

CORPORATION OF THE MARINE 

BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

At the annual meeting of the P.oard of Trustees 
of the Marine Riological I^iboratory on August 
II new members will be elected to the Corpora- 
tion of the laboratory. '"Professional biologists 
and persons who have rendered conspicuous ser- 
vice to the Marine Biological Lahoratory, may 
upon written application to the Clerk of the 
Corporation and upon recomme'-dation of the 
Nominrting Committee be elected by the Trustees 
to membership in the Corporation." Applications 
for membership in the Corporation must be en- 
dorsed by two members of the Corporation. 
Forms on which to make formal application may 
be obtained from the business office of the lab- 
oratory. 

At their meeting last August the Trustees elect- 
ed the following persons to membership in the 
Corporation : 

Dr. D. W. Bronk, Dr. Edouard Chatton, Dr. 
A. B. Dawson, Dr. L. C. Dunn, Dr. Helen M 
Miller, Dr. A. W. Pollister, Dr. Danial Rafifel, 
Dr. W. S. Root, Dr. T. M. Sonneborn, Dr. 
Margaret Sumwalt. 



MT. D3SERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Dr. Samuel O. Mast gave a lecture on July 
i/th at the Maine Marine Station, LaMoine, 
Maine. His subject was "Function of the Eye 
S|)ots in Unicellular Forms." 

The third seminar of the season will he given 
by Dr. Mast on Monday evening, July 27th, at 
the Dining Hall. 

Dr. E. M. East of the Bussey Institution visit- 
ed the Laboratory on Monday, July 20th. 

Dr. Esther F. Byrnes arrived at the Laboratory 
July 17th to continue her researches. Dr. Byrnes 
is accompanied by her sister. 

The Fourth Popular Lecture will be given by 
Dr. E. K. Marshall, Jr., on Tlun'sday afternoon, 
July 30th. 

The young people of the Laboratory gave the 
first dance of the season at the Grange Hall on 
.Saturday night, July l8th, in honor of the older 
people. Music was imported from Bar Harbor 
and refreshments from Leslie Dunton's, in Salis- 
bury Cove. 

Miss Kitty Marshall entertained the young 
people of the Laboratory at supper on Sunday, 
July iQtb. — Louise R. Mast. 



I30 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Mr. Seymour M. Farber, who was awarded 
one of The Cgllf.cting Net scholarships of 
$100.00 for work at the laboratory this season, 
plans to Ijegin work at the Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory early in August. 

Dr. Henry W. Scherp, a student in the physi- 
ology course this summer, has been appointed as- 
sistant at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical 
Research. He will go to New York about 
September i. 

The S. S. Olympic recently reported that the 
''Atlants" was 530 miles west of Plymouth, Eng- 
land. 

Dr.E. T- Lund, professor of physiology at the 
University of Texas, and Mrs. Lund, have arrived 
in Woods Hole for the rest of the summer. The\- 
have taken one of the laboratory apartments. 

Miss Elizabeth Ross Shaw of Winthrop, Mass- 
achusetts, who has been biological prooof-reader 
for the Boston office of Ginn and Company, spent 
a few days this week in Woods Hole. She ex- 
pects to return to Woods Hole next year to do 
some work in marine biology and microscopy. 

On Sunday, July 26th, Gilbert and Sullivan's 
operetta, "The Pirates of Penzance," will be giv- 
en in the M. B. L. Club at 8 P. M. Librettos of 
the opera will lie for sale at $.25 apiece. 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 



At the following hours (Daylight Saving Time) 

the current in the hole turns to run from Buz- 
zards Bay to Vineyard Sound: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

July 25 1:16 i:2.=^ 

July 26 2:19 2:27 

July 27 3:07 3:16 

July 28 4:01 4:06 

July 29 4:47 4:54 

July 30 .=;:30 .■^:4i 

July 31 6:09 6:23 

Aug. I 6:51 7:09 

Aug. 2 7:35 7:.'^i 

Aug. 3 8:13 8:34 

Aug. 4 8:59 9:21 

In each case the current changes approximately 
six hours later and runs from the Sound to the 
Bay. It must be remembered that the schedule 
printed above is dependent upon the wind. Pro- 
longed winds sometimes cause the turning of the 
current to occur a half an hour earlier or later 
than the times given above. 



SCBIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

Mr. E. H. Quayle has returned to this institu- 
tion after spending three weeks on a collecting, 
trip in the Chiricahua Mountains of South East- 
ern Arizona. This trip was organized and 
fir.anced by Mr. Joseph Sefton and the party 
obtained large numbers of specimens for the Sau 
Diego Society of Natural History. Since his re- 
turn Mr. Quayle announces that he has received 
from Arthur Wrigley, London, England eighty 
specimens of European corals for comparison 
with those of Southern California which are be- 
ing studied by him. 

Mr. A. E. Longley, botanist in the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, is makinsr his residence 
at this institution for several months whi'e he is 
engaged in special investigptions at the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture Acclimatization Station 
near Torrev Pines. 

Mr. H. R. Byers of Massachusetts Institute of 
Tei-hnology and Mr. G. B. Armstrong of Pomona 
Collge are serving as Graduate Assistants in^ 
Meteorology under Dr. G. F. McFwen for the 
summer. 

The following dates for elcturcs at the Institu- 
tion have been arranged and others will be an- 
nounced as soor)' as possible. Evening lectures 
will be popular or semipopular in character while 
afternoon lectures will tend to be more technical. 
All persons interested are cordially invited to at- 
tend either. 

Evening Lectures. (8 p. m.) 

Monday, Tuly 20: "The Meaning aud Causes of 
Cancer" Dr. Leo Loeb. 

Friday, Tuly 24 : "Japanese Gardens" (Illustr-ited 
by Colored Lantern Slides). Director T. Way- 
land Vaughan. 

Monday, July 27: ,'Denths of Penetrat'on of 
Light in Sea Water in its Relation to Distribu- 
tion of Organisms." Dr. Burt Richardson. 

Afternoon Lect^ures. (4 p. m.) 

Fridav, July 17: "The Buflfer Mechanism of Sea 
Water." Dr. E. G. Moberg, Dr. D. M. Green- 
berg, and Miss E. Allen. 

Friday, July 24: "Five Recent Papers on Evap- 
oration." Dr. Burt Richardson. 

Friday. July 31 : "Notes on Recent and Current 
Oceanograiihic Activities." Director T. Way- 
land Vaughan. 



July 25, 193 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



131 




Carefully 
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as a fine watch 



Every detail, each adjustment of the 3000 Microtome is precise 

is properly designed to perform its function perfectly. This instrument 
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in place. A scale provides for recording the proper cutting angle, once 
it is determined. The 25 mm object disc is actuated by a balance wheel, 
grooved for a belt where a motor is to be used. 

Write for catalog D-21 for complete description of this and other B & L 
Microtomes. 



BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL COMPANY 



675 St. Paul Street 



Rochester, New York 




Makers of Orthogon Eyeglass Lenses For Better Vision 



132 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



N. E. TSIKNAS 

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Falmouth and Wcods Hole 



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Morning Prayer 11 :00 a. m. 

Evening Prayer 7 130 p. m. 



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July 25, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



133 





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134 



THE COLLECTING NET 



\ Vol. VL No. 45 



COMPTON ELECTROMETER 



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weight 
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Two good slides for demonstrating the above are: 
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JiLY 25, 1931 ] THE COLLECTING NET 135 



LEITZ 

"ULTROPAK" EQUIPMENT 

Demonstration and Lecture 

at Main Laboratory 

Marine Biological Laboratory 
July 27th - 28th - 29th 



LEITZ again leads in the development nf new Microscopical Equipment. Tlie Leitz 
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The Leitz "ULTROPAK" Micrcscope provides the following outstanding features: 

1st: — The specimen needs no preparation and can be observed in its natural 
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This aperture can be adjusted at will to suit each special condition to the 
preparation. 

E. LEITZ, Inc. 

60 East lOth Street New York, N. Y. 



136 



THE COLLFXTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 45 



MINOT 

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each holding 24 glass slides, 75 x 25 mm. 
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July 2S, IQ31 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



137 



The Wistar Institute Slide Tray 




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138 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



The Southern Massachusetts Yacht Racing As- 
sociation held its second annual meeting on Fri- 
day, July 17, in the readins: room of the Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution. Dclesjates were 
in attendance from the vacht cluhs at Nantucket, 
Ed-jartown, Vineyard Haven, Wianno, Waquoit 
Ray. Ouissett, New Bedford, Mattapoisett, 
Duckshury and Marion. 

Vice-commodore Frank J. Frost and Edward 
A. Norman, chairman of the race committee, rep- 
resented the Woods Hole Yacht Cluh. A com- 
mittee reported considerahle progress on the de- 
velopment of uniform classes among the member 
yacht clubs, with a view to permitting inter-ckil) 
racing. 

A three-day cruise to include the Edgartown 
Regatta on August i was planned, and a number 
of matters of routine business were transacted. 

The new officers elected are: president, ?I. Nel- 
son Emmons, Beverly Yacht Club at Marion ; 
vice president, C. Gardener Aikin, New Bedford 
Yacht Club ; secretary, L. W. Sargent, Edga-town 
Yacht Club; and treasurer, Franklin King, Ouis- 
set Yacht Cluh. 

Before the meeting, the delegates attended a 
luncheon at the Breakwater Hotel and were ad- 
dressed by Gardner Emmons of the < )ceano- 
graphic Institution in the work and plans of that 
institution. 

The results of the races of the Woods Hole 
Yacht Club on Monday, July 20th, were as fol- 
lows : 

Baby Knock-Abouts 
"Adios" — Morris Frost 59 min. 25 sec. 

"Porpoise" — C. Glascr i hr. 2 min. 40 sec. 

"Tyro" — Mrs. Crossley i hr. 2 min. 45 sec. 

"Charkg" — Ogden Woodruff i hr. 2 min. 50 sec. 
"Scuttlebutt" — P. Copeland l hr. 14 min. 05 sec 
"Menidia" — Fred Copeland i hr. 14 min. 10 sec. 

Dories 
"Dorine" — George Clowes 6o min. 15 sec. 

"Aunt Addie" — A. Meigs i hr. t, min. 30 sec. 

"Hunky" — Kenneth Cole i hr. 18 min. 

Cathoats 
"Lurline" — Philip Woolworth 59 min. 55 sec. 

"Dinny" — Janet Blume I hr. 21 min. 

"Squido" — Marjorie Kidder I hr. 27 min. 
"Lady Luck" — Mary Love I hr. 31 min. 

The handicap for the cathoats is still undecided 
and the time given is consequently how they 
crossed the finish line. 



Application blanks for permission to drive out- 
of-state cars nnv be obtained from The Col- 
lecting Net office. 



A serious accident occurred on Wednesday, 
July 22nd, when two cars crashed on the main 
road just below Nobska Road. Mr. William 
Hemenway of the Carpenter Shop was driving 
his own truck towards Woods Hole and Mr. 
Lawrason Riggs III, son of the treasurer of the 
M. B. L. driving a Chrysler, was going towards 
Falmouth. Mr. Hemmenway's car skidded on the 
wet pavement, the two cars crashed, the truck 
being jammed against the brick wall. Mr. Hem- 
menway was thrown from his car and Ijadly cut 
and bruised. He was taken directly to the doctor's 
in Falmouth where twelve stitches had to be 
taken on his forehead. According to latest re- 
ports, he is doing as well as can be expected. Mr. 
Hemmenway's car was so badly damaged that it 
had to be towed. Mr, Riggs was not injured. 

The stage at Silver Beach this week was the 
scene of a stirring emotional drama of youth in 
a small Southern town. We had a confidential 
tip as we entered from one of the members of 
the company that Peggy Sullavan's fine acting 
had wrung tears from the Players' group who 
were the audience at dress rehearsal ; and even 
with so much to anticipate, we were not disap- 
pointed. 

"Coquette," by Ann Preston Bridgers and 
George Abbott is emotional ; it is heavy tragedy 
effectively contrasted with a bright. Southern so- 
ciety first act and farcical comedy in certain of 
the minor characters. For the sake of comparison 
we wish we had seen Helen Hayes as Norma on 
Broadway. We do not hesitate, however, to com- 
mend Miss SuUavan very highly. The role is a 
difficult one., demanding great versatility in act- 
ing. As the flirtatious Southern belle whose love 
for one outside her Social pale brings ruin to her 
father, her lover, and herself, she was at one 
moment utterly charming and trivial and the next, 
she reached the depths of real emotion with her 
interpretation. A native Virginian, she, too, was 
most perfect in her Southern accent. 

The entire cast was thoroughly satisfactory al- 
though not all of the accents would convince a true 
Southerner. Kent Smith as the father was par- 
ticularly fine. Also, we have been hoping for the 
opportunity of seeing Henry Fonda play a leading 
role ever since his successful acting of the com- 
paratively minor part in "Paris P)Ound," and so 
we welcomed him in the part of the lover. Mary 
Lee Logan in her first role of the season also 
deserves prai.se for her able acting of the girl in 
her awkward 'teens. 

The Players did a difficult play surpassingly 
well, and it is with interest that we are looking 
forward to the production of the light French 
comedv, "Her Cardboard Lover," which is sched- 
uled for next week. — M. S. G. 



JiLY 25, 1931 ] THE COLLECTING NET 139 



Adopted by the Scientific 
Book Club as the book for July 

Kirkpatrick and Huettner's 

FUNDAMENTALS of HEALTH 

An outstanding new Isook presenting in interestins;", readable form materials 
dealing with genetics, embr\ology. immunology, and endocrinology assembled bv 
two well-known authorities — Professor Kirkpatrick of Columbia LTniversity and 
Professor Huettner of New York University. It is a book of unusual interest,, 
dedicated to the presentation of such knowledge of human life and human adjust- 
ments as may aid each person in reaching opinions of his own on the importance 
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We cordially invite you to visit our large showrooms and solicit your enquiries 
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10-14 West 25th Street New York City 



I40 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



At 7 :26 on the evening of Tuesday, the twenty- 
first, the fire siren sounded and all the cars in 
Woods Hole turned out to follow the fire ens:ine. 
After a mad dash around Crow Hill and the 
Gansett section, the fire engine came to a halt, 
the chief's car from Falmouth drove up, the 
parade of cars stopped and as the crowd thronged 
around, the Chief was heard to ask where the 
fire was. The reply came from the hook and 
ladder, "We don't know; we're trying to find it." 
Another wild rush for cars and the procession 
circled around some more and out on the point. 
There the fire had heen, in the oil stove in a room 
adjoining the garage on Mrs. T. H. West's place. 
Though the fire was small and the damaere slight, 
the chase was as exciting as if the conflagration 
had heen terrific. 

The rockets seen from the M. B. L. Club on 
Saturday the eighteenth were sent up by a Coast 
Guard boat that had become disabled near Gay 
Head. It drifted as far as the Woods Hole end 
of Naushon, where it was carried by the tide to- 
wards Vineyard Haven. Before it had gore very 
far one of its sister ships towed it back to the 
Base. 

On Thursday. Tuly i6th. the Boston auxiliarv 
schooner, the Olive M. Williams, ran aground 
early in the morning. She was discovered l)y 
two Coast Guard boats ; a line was made fast 
to the mainmast, another line attached to the 
side and by hard pulling the vessel was finally 
di.slodged at 7 .3,0 in the evening. 

Reports had been current that the boat was ,^ 
rum runner, liut upon investigation it was found 
that instead of Iieing loaded with liquor, she Iwe 
a heavy cargo of ice, having discharged her boat- 
load of fish in New Bedford. She is owned by 
Tibbetts fisheries in Boston and carried a crew 
of seven men. 

The A. & P. Stores send over to Nantucket 
eight tons of sugar every Wednesday to supply 
the eight stores on the island. On July 22nd the 
supply would have been ruined had the sudd"n 
downpour in the morning occurred a few min- 
utes earlier. As it was the rain held off until the 
sugar was safely loaded on the steamer. 

The results of the races of the Woods Hole 
Yacht Club on Monday, July 20th, were as fol- 
lows: 

On Thursday, July 23rd, Leonard Craske, 
sculptor and artist, gave a lecture in the audi- 
torium of the Laboratory on "The Art and Uses 
of Color Phitography." The lecture was illus- 
trated. 



The U. S. S. Constitution "Old Ironsides" will 
make New Bedford her port from July 31st to 
(August fth. The city is planning a series of 
entertainments for a gala reception to the old 
frigate. Friday, the day of arrival, is reception 
day; Sunday, an old time ship service will be 
held in the Seamen's Church ; Monday, there will 
be a clambake for officers and crew of the ship, 
followed by a sightseeing trip and a dinner for 
the officers ; Tuesday is the gala day when all 
New Bedford is expected to turn out in a street 
parade ; Wednesday, whaleboat races ; and Thurs- 
day, "Old Ironsides" departs. 

The Church Work Association of the Church 
of the Messiah holds weeklv meetings every 
Thursdav afternoon in the parish house. Summer 
residents are cordially invited to attend. 

Mrs. R. S. Thayer and family of Lancaster 
have taken the Sargent Cottage on Nob.ska Road 
for the summer. 

Mr. and Mrs. West and family from Philadel- 
phia have taken Mrs Frank Handy's house on 
Piuzzards Bay Avenue for the summer. 

On Friday, July 31st, the Walter Main Circus 
will put on a show in Falmouth for one day only. 

The board of Governors of the Woods Hole 
Yacht Club has called the Annual Meeting for 
Saturday, August 8th, at 8:15 P. M. at the Club 
Station. 

On Wednesday afternoon, July 22nd, the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church held its annual .sale of 
flowers, aprons, home-cooked food, candy and ice 
cream in the vestrv of the Church. 



TIDE TABLE AT BREAKWATER BEACH 

At the following hours (Daylight Savipg Tims; 
it is high water at the Breakwater B^ach: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

July 25 S'04 F^'-- 

July 26 (5:03 6:13 

July 27 6;54 7:10 

jiily 28 7:47 7:54 

July 29 8:30 8:jo 

July 30 9:16 9:26 

July 31 9:54 10:0^, 

Aug. I 10:39 10:48 

Aug. 2 11:1,3 11:30 

Aug. 3 ii:S9 

Aug. 4 12 :ii 12 :40 

Approximately six hours later, the tide is low. 



Jl-LY 25. I93I ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



141 



The UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, Inc. 

Presents 

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JULY 27 — AUG. 1 

Old Silver Beach West Falmouth 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
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Fresh Killed Poultry — Fruit & Vegetables 

Butter, Eggs & Groceries 

Home Cooked Food and Delicatessen 

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'i Deliveries Daily in Woods Hole 



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Telepliione Clifford 110 



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142 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



^ Whittlesey House _ 

brinsjs to your attention 

The Scientific Book Club 

Selection for May 

BIOLOGY 

in 

HUMAN AFFAIRS 

Edited iiy Edw,\rd M. East 
Professor of Genetics. Harvard University 

A series cf twelve relatively non-technical dis- 
cussions, by twelve leading scientists, of the 
present conditions of several of the more im- 
portant sub-divisions of biology, emphasizing 
recent advances and expressing a few con- 
servative predictions as to probable future 
trends. 

Tlie Scientific Bonk Chih rcviciver says of 

East's BIOLOGY IN 

HUMAN AFFAIRS 

"This composite book, like so many others 
of the kind that have been appearinsj of late, 
is an admirable illustration of what the sci- 
entist means when he speaks of progress 

The present volume deals with some of the 
most important applications of the newer 
knowledge of biology, psychology and 

sociology to human affairs Much of the 

material included here is not generally 
known, e.xcept to specialists, and demon- 
strates the ingenuity and sportsmanship of 

scientists in the face of difficulties the 

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APPARATUS 

FOR DETERMINATION OF UREA 
IN BLOOD 

Ref. : Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 
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ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Environment 

Established l'J2U. Quarterly. Ofllcial Publication of the 
Ecnlntjical Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for Complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
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postage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Established 1916. Bimonilily. 

Subscription, $6 a year frir complete volumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number rate. 
Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $7.00 each. Foreign postage: 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Established I'Jl-l. Monthly, excei)t August and Sep- 
tember. Official Publication of the Botanical Society of 
America. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number 
rate. Volumes 1-18 comjjlete, as available, $146. Single 
numbers, $1.00 each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
on request. Foreign postage: 40 cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

Volume 1; 33 contributions by various au hors on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ecology, plant 
geography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.50 plus 
postage. 

Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part I. 
The vegetation of Mont auk, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1923. 108 pp. Price, $1.00. 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Barrington Moore and Nor- 
man Taylor. 151 pp., 27 text- figs., vegetation map in 
colors. June 10, 1927. Price, $1.60. 

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M. B. L. JULY ZSrd to AUG. 4th. 




Campmu^ 



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144 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 45 



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AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microsc<j])ic specimen slide is pro- 
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A SCIENTIST'S IMPRESSIONS OF THE 

PROGRESS OF EDUCATION AND 

SCIENCE IN RUSSIA 

Dr. Sixm.vn a. W'aksman 
Professor of Microbiology, Rutgers Unifersitv 
It is very difficult in a brief space to give any 
fair idea of the nature and extent of the experi- 
ments which are being carried out at present in 
Kussia and which are. no 
(li)ulit, bound to prove of 
the greatest consequence in 
history. These e.xperiments 
are a result of a revokition, 
not only political hut social, 
economic and intellectual in 
nature; they affect every 
phase of hiunan Hfe. In order 
to understand the full signifi- 
cance of the Russian Revolu- 
t'on, it is not sufficient mere- 
ly to describe certain observa- 
tions or to draw certain con- 
clusions, for any conclusions 
are boimd to be superficial, 
unless one is able to comyjare 
conditions in Soviet Russia, 
not with those in Western 
luirope and in America, Intt 
with those in Russia before 



THE DESERT LABORATORY OF THE 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF 

WASHINGTON 

Dr. Forrest Shreve 
Director of the Laboratory 
The word ''desert" commonly brings to mind a 
picture of vast expanses of drifting sand almost 
wh lly devoid of plant and animal life. Areas 
of this character may be foimd 
in the Sahara and the Desert 
of Gobi, but they are the 
mo:~t extreme manifestations 
of the desert. The arid and 
semi-arid regions comprise 
nearly one third of the land 
surface of the earth and they 
exhibit contrasts and variety 
to even a greater extent than 
do the forested portions of the 
earth. The deserts of the 
United States and Mexico are 
of the less extreme type, for 
the most part, supporting veg- 
etation and animal life of siu"- 
prising abundance. 

The definition of "desert" is 
not simple. Like a good spe- 
cies it can be delimited only 
on the basis of a group of 
the Revolution. I shall attempt to limit myself here characteristics. Deficiency of rainfall is the most 
only to the conditions under which the student important, but an amount of precipitation found 
and iirofessor live (Continued on Page 149) in a desert at low latitudes will support forests 



M. ®. I. Calcnftar 

TUESDAY. AUGUST 4, •J:30 P M. 

Seminar. Dr. Eugene F. DuBois, 
"Surface Temperature and the 
radiation of Heat from the Hu- 
man Body." 

Dr. Pierre Rijlant, "Oscillograph- 
ic Study of the Cardiac Ganglion 
of Limulus Polyphemus." 
Dr. D. M. Whitaker. "The Change 
in Rate of Oxygen Consumption 
at Fertilization of the Eggs of 
Chaetopterus, Cummingia, Ner- 
eis, ArlDacia and Fucus." 
Dr. R. W. Gerard, "Phospho- 
creatin in Nerve in Relation to 
Activity." 
FKIDAY, AUGUST 7, 8 P. M. 

Lecture. The Reynold A. Spaeth 
Memorial Lecture. Dr. R. G. 
Harrison, professor of compara- 
tive anatomy, Osborn Zoological 
Laboratory, Yale University. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



A Scientist's Impressions of the Progress 
of Education and Science in Russia 
Dr. Selman A, Waksman 145 

The Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, 
Dr Forrest Shreve 145 

The Composition of Bene Ash, 

Di Sergius Morgulis 151 

Bile Salts, 

Dr. Shiro Tashiro and L. H. Schmidt. . . 153 



The Enolization of Gelatin by Neutral 

Salts, 

Dr. J. M. Johlin 154 

Oxidations Produced by Gonococci, 

Dr. E. S. Guzman Barron 154 

Book Reviews ., 155 

Editorial Page 1.56 

Currents in the Hole 156 

Items of Interest 157 

Woods Hole Log 166, 168 



146 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 




THE DESERT LABORATORY OF THE ( AKNEtilE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 



at hiijlier latituiles. Iliyh temperatures are prev- 
alent in (lesert.s, liut extremely low ones also oc- 
cur. Each of the great desert regions of the 
world has its own group of climatic conditions. 
They have many features in common, notahly 
rainfall which is insufficient in anmunt cir irregu- 
lar in distrihution, great range of daily tempera- 
tures, low relative humidity, high total wind 
movement, and high percentage of sunshine. As 
a direct or indirect result of these characteristics 
the streams of the desert are intermittent, the 
soils are highly charged with soluble salts and 
are poor in organic matter, the surface of the soil 
is gravelly or stony, and erosion by water and 
wind is active. The vegetation of the desert is 
composed of a relativelv small number of domi- 
nant plants; their stature is low and ciimnuinities 
which they form are sparse and open. It is cus 
tomarv to regard the plants of the desert as highlx 
specialized, Init the structures and activities which 
lit them for a successful e.xistence in the desert 
are no more unu.sual than those found in the 
plants of rain-forest, salt marsh or ])ond, albeit 
they are familiar to a small number of liiologists. 
The Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institu- 
tiim of Washington is located in one of the rich- 
est and most diversified desert areas in North 
America, at Tucson, Arizona, within 65 miles of 
the Mexican border. The laboratory buildings 
are situated two miles from Tucson in the midst 
of a tract of 840 acres of virgin desert at an alti- 
tude of ^.663 feet. The laboratory .grounds have 
l:ecn iircitected from grazing and trespass for 
twenty-four years, and afford a A-ariety of tyi^es of 
surface, soil and vegetation fur observation, col- 



lecting, anil instrumental nr experimental wnrk. 
Desert plains e.xtend from Tucson to lower and 
higher altitudes, and .several mountain ranges are 
accessible which reach 8,000 to ij.ooo ft., as well 
as numerous hills and small mount;iin ranges of 
varied mineralogical cf)mposition. 

The rainfall at Tucson, chiefly in midwinter 
and midsummer, averages 10.5 inches for the 
year. The winters are variable in temperature, 
but minima of 250 F. are usually registered from 
two or three to 10 or 13 times. The summers are 
warm, with the daily maximum sometimes above 
100 ' for 20 or 30 days in succession, but the tem- 
])erature rarely rises above loS^J. The low at- 
nnisiilieric humidity does much to counterbal- 
ance the high temjieratures, as far as human cimi- 
tort is concerned. 

Tucson is a verv ancient tfiwn, with Indian. 
Mexican and American traditions, anil a ])0])ula- 
tion of 40,000 persons, in which these ele- 
ments are rather ec|ually mixed. Its location 
on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railway 
and on the Borderland Highway gives easy ac- 
cess to it from the East and the \\'«st: Tucson is 
the seat of the University of Arizona, the Arizona 
Experiment Station, the Southwestern Forest and 
Range Ex])eriment Station of the U. S. Forest 
Service, the Magnetic Station of the U. S. Coast 
and (ieodetic Survey, and of the Desert Sanator- 
ium and Research Institute of Southern Arizona. 
Important wr)rk is also maintained there by the 
I'. S. I'iological Survey. These organizations 
bring together a grouii of over 80 persons inter- 
ested in various phases of liiological work in its 
scientific and practical aspects. 



August i, 193 i ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



147 



The Desert Laboratory is open throughout the 
year. At present there are four resident investi- 
g'ators, and every year there are generally four or 
five visiting investigators vi'ho remain from two 
or three months to a year. No lectiu'es or courses 
are given, and there is no way in which universit\- 
credit can he secured for work done there. The 
facihties of the laboratory are open to accredited 
investigators who make a|)plication three months 
in advance, and present plans for their work on 
which apiiroval of their prospective residence can 
l)e liased. Preference is given to those whose 
work is most closely related to the current in- 
vestigations of the laboratory staff. The numbci 
of persons that can be accommodated is depe'"dsnr 
on the character of their work and needs. Those 
whose work is chiefly in the field can almost in- 
varialily 1)e accommodated and given a table. 

There are no living or dining facilities at the 
Desert Laboratory, but houses or rooms can eas'lv 
be secured in Tucson. From the office of the lab- 
oratory a regular bus line is operated to the latsi- 
ness district. The long distances which are in- 
volved in living arrangements, field work or con- 
tacts with other institutions lead most of the in- 
vestigators to purchase cars, therebv saving much 
time and energw Excellent stores make it un- 
necessary for the visitor to bring with him any- 
thing hut the most unusual items needed. 

The equi])ment includes two stone laljorntorx- 
Imildings with 12 rooms, a small frame labora- 
tory, a shoo, a greenhouse, a number of lath and 
screen shelters, and a '"cave" with nearly con- 
stant temperature conditions. All of the ap- 
pliances and supplies commonly needed in morph- 



ological and i)hysiological work are on hand, but 
unusual pieces of equipment are secured onI>' 
when needed in a particular investigation. A 
small library is maintained with files of the prin- 
cipal botanical, physiological and ecological jour- 
nals, as well as those of general scientific inter- 
est. There is also a small collection of texts, hand- 
Iiooks, reference works, floras and Ijooks relating 
to the desert regions of the world. 

The work of the Desert Laboratory centers 
around the ecology and physiology of desel't 
plants with the chief emphasis on their water re- 
lations. The importance of water to the living 
organism, vital as it is throughout nature, as- 
sumes a new emphasis when those parts of the 
world's surface are considered in which it is so 
scarce. Its importance in connection with growth, 
respiration, photosynthesis, movements and other 
physiological phenomena liecomes more critical. 
The availability of water to the plant is seen to 
affect its germination, its success in giving new in- 
dividuals a start in life, its distributional move- 
ments, its genetical behavior, its response to path- 
ogenic organisms, its intricate relations with in- 
sects and other animal life, and the whole trend 
of evolutionary development. The flora of the 
southwestern states and of northwestern Mexico 
comprises a very high percentage of plants re- 
stricted to that region, a considerable number of 
genera not found elsewhere, and even some si.x 
families of plants which have come about in this 
relatively small area. The great majority of 
l)lants confined to the desert region are so intri- 
cately adjusted to its conditions that they have 
not spread into adjacent, more moist, regions. 





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VEiJETATION IN THE VICINITY OF THE LABORATORY 



148 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



and none of them, except certain tropical cacti, 
have become spontaneous weeds in other places. 
The consideration of the desert flora not only em- 
phasizes the deep-seated influence of the scarcity 
of water, but also indicates that Arizona, Sonora 
and the adjacent regions have been desert for a 
very long time. 

Broadly conceived biological work must keep 
in view the larger procession of nature, and the 
complex relations between the various groujis of 
organisms and the multifarious physical con- 
ditions, as well as the intimate physiological pro- 
cesses of the individual organism. An effort to 
understand the life of the desert, like that of the 
ocean, is an extremely complex task. William 
Keith lirooks used to say to his students, "My 
hand is related to everything in the universe." In 
studying the life of desert or ocean it becomes 
oln-ious that no feature of them is without po- 
tential influence ujion the particiflar problem that 
is being investigated. 

Two of the most striking features of the vege- 
tation in the Tucson region are the gradual 
changes encountered in climbing any of the larg- 
er mountains, and the abrupt changes that w'l! 
be noted in going from one type of soil to another 
on the floor of the desert. The mountains present 
a panorama of plant life extending from the 
cacti, diminutive trees and thorny shrubs of the 
desert, through the region of yuccas and century 
plants, the open groves of evergreen oaks, and 
the forests of yellow pine, to the heavy stands of 
spruce, Douglas fir and aspen. The desert dis- 
plays a simple pattern of vegetation in which a 
relativelv small number of species form a still 
smaller number of communities, each distinctive 
and each occupying areas of different physio- 
graphic history and different soil characteristics. 
Some of the earlier work of the laboratory was 
concerned with the mountain panorama and the 
relation existing between the vertical distrilm- 
tion of the vegetr>tion and the gradients of con- 
ditions. At present, attention is being given to 
the desert floor, the distribution of some of its 
commonest plants, and the investigation of the 
conditions which appear to be concerned in the 
limitation of these plants to certain habitats. The 
perennial plants of the Tucson region fall into 
two groups which are very shaq)l\' marked. 
These are the succulent plants, represented almost 
solelv by the cacti, and the non-succulents, rep- 
resented by plants of a wide range of relation- 
ships. There are a number of very marked dif- 
ferences between these groups, not only in their 
structure and anatomy, but in their relation to 
environment and in their physiological behavior. 
The cactus is shallow-rooted, presents a transpir- 
ing surface which is very small with respect to its 
volume, thereby reducing its chlorophyll-bearing 
surface as well, and by every feature which con- 
serves water also retarding the gas exchanges be- 



tween its tissues and the atmosphere. Through 
its capacity for the rapid and considerable storage 
of water, it is enabled to meet its needs by util- 
ization of the moisture that is available in the 
surface levels of the soil for a very brief time 
after every rain. The non-succulent plants have 
not the uniformitv of structure and behavior of 
the cacti, liut thev are alike in their dependence 
on the more deep-seated water of the soil. They 
diiifer among themselves in the extent of their 
leaf surface, in the seasonal diu'ation of their 
foliage, in the location of their chlorophyll-bear- 
ing tissues, as well as in the character of their 
root systems. Experience has shown the great 
plasticity of these plants with respect to water 
supply. Many of them are able to live for weeks 
in a soil which has fallen below the moisture con- 
tent that is theoretically presumed to cause wilt- 
ing, at the same time that they are exposed to hot 
dry air which is in almost constant motion. Under 
such conditions all growth is in abeyance, many 
leaves fall and even twigs and branches may die. 
■| he water content of the leaves and stems falls 
to a low level, and the ])lant is in a state of dor- 
mancy which in many ways resembles that of a 
seed, except that there is the small but inevitable 
loss of water day by day. On the other hand, if 
an abundant and constant supjily of water is given 
to one of these hardy plants, it will grow rapidly, 
soon exceed its normal size, present a larger leaf 
surface and produce vastly greater crops of seed. 
It must, however, have a well drained soil, with 
favorable conditions for oxygen sujiply to the 
roots. 

One of the commonest plants in southern Ari- 
zona is the creosote bush, which ranges from 
southern Nevada to central Mexico, growing in 
extensive pure stands in some of the most tm- 
favorable parts of this great desert domain. As 
a plant which hps successfully solved the difficul- 
ties of a low and uncertain water supply and a soil 
highlv charged with salts or impregnated with 
calcareous hardpan, the creosote bush is calciflated 
to elicit the admiration of the i)lant student. ;\Iuch 
of the work at the Desert Laboratory is concen- 
trated at the present time in an attack on the eco- 
logical and physiological behavior of this ever- 
green bush. While the cactus is drawing water 
from its succulent tissues for its current needs, 
the creosote bush, like all of its non-succulent fel- 
lows, is making a struggle each day to maintain 
a balance between its water income and its water 
expenditure. The progress that is being made in 
this work leads to the hope that some of its re- 
sults may serve as a kev to a better understanding 
of the non-succu!ent plants in general. The sap 
of the foliage of the creosote bush has, much of the 
time, a very high osmotic value as compared with 
that of other plants. An extended study is being 
made of the dififerences in the osmotic value of 
the sap of plants in ditfei-ent habitats, favorable 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



149 



and unfavorable, and this work is being carried 
through several seasons, coupled with an investi- 
s^ation of the moisture and salt content of the soil 
in which the bushes are growing. At the same 
time an investigation is under way that will be- 
tray the manner in which the shrul) handles its 
water, the course of the daily fluctuations of 
water in stem and leaf, and the influence of ex- 
perimental conditions on the ability of the plant 
to maintain its water solvency. 

Another plant of the desert which is under ob- 
servation and investigation is the ocotillo, a large 
meml)er of a very small family, which Dr. W. T. 
llornaday aptly descril)ed as looking like a "bunch 
of loosely held wands." Its branches have little 
green color, and beneath their liark is a horn-like 
layer which serves as insulation against loss of 
water. The leaves appear shortly after every rainy 
period, and are thin, soft and well provided witli 
stomata. A few days after the soil begins to dr\- 
out at a depth of 15 cm., the leaves turn yellow 
and fall. If it rains again, two weeks later there 
will be another crop of leaves, perhaps there will 
be a dozen crops of them in a year. When it is 
in leaf the ocotillo uses large quantities of water 
and is in fact a moi.st-country plant. When the 
leaves fall it becomes an ideal desert plant. Sev- 
eral pieces of work have been done on the ocotillo 
at the Desert Laboratory, notably on its trans- 
piration and stomatal movements. Work now 
under way is furnishing a much more precise 
basis for our understanding of the habits of both 
])liases in the life of this ])lant. 

As a iiackground for all of the investigations on 
plants, continuous records are lieing kept of the 
principal climatic and environmental conditions. 
The importance' of the seasonal distribution of 
rainfall and its efTects on the great reservoir of 
water in the soil has led to detailed instrumenta ■ 
tion in these fields. In addition to an electric 
recording rain gage in the laboratory garden, 
there is a series of thirty six gages in different 
parts of the laboratory grounds, sixteen of them 
arranged in a 300-meter square for the determina- 
tion of the local variability of the rainfall and 
eight of them at 100-meter intervals on the slopes 
of Tumamoc Hill, for the recording of vertical 
differences in each shower. In addition, two lines 
of long-period gages extend west and southwest 
from Tucson, to Yuma and the Gulf of Califor- 
nia, bv which semi-annual readings are secured 



from these very arid and thinly settled regions. 
A percolimeter is in operation for the measure- 
ment of the run-ot¥ and penetration in each 
shower, and fortnightly readings of soil moisture 
are taken at eight depths to two meters, and oc- 
casionally to four meters. The temperature of 
the soil is also being followed at depths of one 
and two meters in connection with this work. 
Records have been taken over long periods of the 
temperature of the air and soil, humidity, evap- 
oration, wind and sunshine, as well as many rec- 
ords designed to show in what manner and de- 
gree the conditions in certain habitats differ from 
the climatic conditions of the region. 

Records are being kept of the fluctuations in 
plant life as well as in the climatic conditions. 
.Several small areas on the laboratory grounds 
were carefully charted in 1906, and are perma- 
nently marked so as to make possible for many 
years a study of the changes taking place. Other 
areas on several types of soil are used for a cen- 
sus of the short-lived plants which appear after 
the summer and winter rainy periods. Areas are 
also under observation on which the creosote 
bushes have been charted, and the rate and man- 
ner of reproduction and establishment are being 
followed from year to year. On some of the.se 
areas the old hushes have been removed, and vari- 
ous modifications of the natural surface have been 
made, as by raking, spading, or covering with soil, 
with a view to shedding light on the very poor 
natural reproduction of this plant. Soil cultures 
of the creosote bush are also being carried on. witli 
soils differing in texture and in the amounts of 
calcium, these being designed to give data on 
comparative growth, and also to supply material 
for a study of their water behavior under the dif- 
ferent soil conditions. 

Visitors who are seriously interested in the 
work of the Desert Lalioratory are always wel- 
come. The time given to them is amply repaid 
by the fact that they are able thereafter to vis- 
ualize much better the work that is going on, and 
are able to read more understandingly the publica- 
tions from the laboratory. Those who are inter- 
ested in the work, but who are unable to see it 
in person, should apply for copies of the annual 
report, reprinted from the Yearbook of the Car- 
negie Institution, for an illustrated booklet on 
the lalioratory, or for such separates of journal 
articles as may !)e available for distribution. 



A SCIENTIST'S IMPRESSIONS OF THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION AND 

SCIENCE IN RUSSIA 

( Continued from Page 145 ) 



and work in Soviet Russia. On the portals of 
the First University of Moscow, the oldest uni- 
versity of Russia, there is written the following 
motto: A'auka Tnidiastchiinsia. or "Knowledge 
inr Those that Labor." The university whicli. 



less than fifteen years ago, admitted only the very 
rich, with very few exceptions, and where a labor- 
ing man or a peasant had little chance indeed of 
ever lieing admitted, unless special circumstances 
favored him. has now a sine qua non requiremerit 



i.SO 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 46 



for admission that the candidate be one who 
labors, with his hands or with his brains. This 
motto can serve as a device for the whole Russian 
situation at the present time. 

Following the World War and the Revolution, 
many Russian scientists left their country and 
went to seek a home on other shores. This, as 
well as the fact that numerous new institutions of 
higher learning have been opened, accounts for 
the great shortage of professors and scientists in 
.Soviet Russia, as a result of which one professor 
usually occupies more than one position. A well 
known physiologist enumerated to me seven po- 
sitions which he holds and to which he has to 
devote a certain amount of his time. In most 
cases these duties are limited to attending con- 
ferences once a week or once a month. However, 
he has to supervise the work of several assistants 
in at least four institutions, each of which would 
well require the service of his full time. 

The younger generation of scientists has not 
arrived yet, at least not in sufficient numliers. 
This is due largely to the ravages of the War, the 
Revolution and the Famine, which led not only to 
a direct destruction of many promising youths, 
but also to the crippling of the institutions of 
higher learning, for a few years. However, one 
encounters everywhere enthusiastic groups of 
voung men and young women, recently graduated 
from the universities, eager for knowledge and 
for new ideas and willing to sacrifice all material 
comfort for an opportunity to devote their life 
to scientific work. 

The term University or Polytcchuicum has dis- 
appeared from the Russian vocabulary and has 
been replaced by the term Vu::. which desig.iates 
merely an institution of higher learning. To be 
admitted to one of these now numerous institu- 
tions one must be a graduate of a gymnasium, 
with a seven-year course, only little less vigorous 
in its training than formerly, or of a technical 
school, with a five year course, or of a rahfak. or 
workers' faculty, with a three or four year course. 
The latter is especially interesting, because this 
tvpe of school originated since the Revolution. It 
is an attempt to give workers and peasants a pre- 
paratory education, in concentrated form, em- 
iiling them to enter a I'l/J as soon as possilile. 
There are now in Russia nearly one hundred such 
schools or workers' faculties with about 50,000 
students : while few of the students in the other 
two types of schools, especially in the first, re- 
ceive stipends, practically all of the students in 
tlie latter school receive stipends of forty rubles* 
per month. This is about sufficient to cover the 
cost of books, clothing and living expenses. 

When a worker is taken from the factory and 
is sent to the rahfak or to the vttz he is given the 
full wage during his entire cour.se of study which 
he was earning at that time at the factory. He 
* An equivalent of twenty dollars. 



is encouraged in every way possible to continue 
his training and education. Probably two-thirds 
or more of all the students in the vuscs hold 
stipends, these ranging from forty rubles per 
month and up to two hundred rubles per month 
during the last one or two years of training. Out 
of this the student has to pay for his meals and 
books. He usually obtains a free room in one of 
the dormitories and pays a nominally low price 
for his meals. This enables him to devote him- 
self entirely to his studies. When he graduates 
from the znis, there is no difficulty in obtaining a 
position. As a matter of fact, in many instances, 
especially in the case of engineers, he has already 
been engaged by some factory a year or so be- 
fore he graduates. If he wants to continue fur-, 
ther training, in order to devote himself to re- 
search work or to teaching, opportunity is given 
either at the same institution or at one of the 
numerous investigational institutions. 

It is interesting to note that most of the men 
usually take up technical courses, engineering and 
agronomy courses, while the women go into med- 
icine, nursing and biology. 

The courses of study in the higher institutions 
are highly specialized ; the students in agriculture 
receive, for example, a three-year course in prac- 
tical subjects with only a glimpse into the funda- 
mentals : the students in engineering receive a 
five-year course in some specialized branch. The 
more brilliant students, however, can be left for 
another three }ears as candidates, then receiving 
a salary of two hundred rubles a month and 
specializing in one particular branch of science ; 
these students or candidates may later qualify as 
professors. 

As to the professor himself, his salary and liv- 
ing conditions are favorable when compared witli 
those of the meml^ers of the working class, peas- 
antry and intellectuals. His salary ranges from 
300 to 1200 rubles per month, depending on the 
number of positions that he holds and their 
nature. He has also larger and more convenient 
living quarters, and is allowed a three-months 
vacation instead of the ordinary two to four 
weeks. As long as he keeps away from political 
activities, if he is not a communist, and devotes 
himself to his duties as investigator or teacher, he 
is not onlv left alone but even variously encour- 
aged. The director of the institution is usually a 
worker appointed by the government, but he inter- 
feres very little with the research activities of the 
faculty, as long as the members do not indulge 
in underground political activities. It is interest- 
ing to note that the student body has something 
to say concerning the election of the professors 
and the nature of the courses to be given. Strik- 
ingly enough, it is this bodv that usually insists 
that the courses be made stiffer and the students 
be held more to their tasks. If a professor is 
discharged, for one reason or another, the great- 



Auf;u<;T i, 193 1 J 



THE COLLECTING NET 



i^i 



est punishment usually consists in sending him 
out of Leningrad or Moscow to a corresponding 
chair in a provincial university. 

The scientific institutes are very well equipped 
with apparatus and supplies. They have been 
completely reorganized since the Revolution and 
are actively supported, esiiecially those institutes 
which deal with natural sciences, industry and 
a.griculture. Some of them would do honor to 
any country in Western Europe or America, es- 
pecially those dealing with biological, chemical 
and soil studies. 

Consideralile emphasis has been placed recently 
in the newspapers on the fact that Russian scien- 
tists are requested to keep in clrse touch with the 
practical and applied. This is, to a certain extent, 
correct. There are, however, two justifications 
for this tendency. With the large numbers of 
growing industries and with the rapid develop- 
ment of scientific agriculture in a ' large rural 
countrv, in which ninety per cent of the popula- 
tion was illiterate only a dozen years ago, it is 
quite natural that emphasis should be laid upon 
])ractical problems. There is a tremendous need 
in Russia for practically trained men and women ; 
numerous new problems arise daily which require 
immediate solution. Where are th'-se problems 
to be solved and where are the men to be trained 
if not at these institutions? Further, the Russian 
scientist has frequently been accused of lacking 
direct contact with the practical and of tending 
to be too theoretical. For a poor countrv, w'th 
great daily needs, tb.is is too much of a luxury. 



unless certain returns to the practical can be made. 

There is no doubt that the engineer, chemist 
and agronomist receive primary consideration and 
are accordingly free in their expressions as well. 
The scientist, and especially the economist, phil- 
osopher and historian, are more limited in op- 
portunities and in freedom of expres.sion. How- 
ever, with all the forces driving toward the prac- 
tical, there is still considerable evidence of oppor- 
tunities for research in various fields. This i.-^ 
shown by the numerous scientific publications ap- 
pearing at present in Soviet Russia. To pa;-s 
judgment upon the merits of many of these is 
beyond my scope ; similar criticism could be a|)- 
plied to various scientific bodies in other countries 
as well. 

One must also call attention here to the great 
IM-ogrcss made in lower education, with the result 
that within a brief period of time, the percentage 
of illiteracy has been greatly reduced. The most 
pi pular corner at a railway station or a club is 
the bookshelf full of new books and journals, sold 
at comparatively low cost, which are eagerly ex- 
amined by jieople, most of whom could not dis- 
tinguish one letter from another ten years ago, 

Russia lives at present under a terrific strain 
in an attempt to change completely its economic 
and social structure. Everything that one needs 
to satisfy ones physical and spiritual needs is 
lieing dished out in minimum doses. The scientist 
and p-ofessor are not those that suiifer most from 
this economic reorganization. 



THE COMPOSITION OF BONE ASH 

Dr. SiiRGius MoR<;ui.T.s 
-Projcssor of niodicniistrw School of Medicin'. Unlvcrsitv of Nebraska 



The investigation of the composition of hone is 
one of the earliest attem])ts at the study of the 
chemistry of animal tissues. The great prepon- 
derance of mineral matter in bony structures 
made it the favorite material for chemical analy- 
sis long before the other tissues of the organism 
were studied from this viewpoint. Theo'der 
chemists have foinid that the mineral com]ionents 
of the bone contained a |)reponderance of basic 
radicles, but, dominated l)v a preconceived idea 
that the bone salts must be neutral, they have 
spared no effort to find extra acid radicles to ac- 
count for the discrepancy. The result of th-s was 
rather disastrous .so far as attaining a clear under- 
tanding of the chemical nature of the bone is con- 
cern:ed.' Only since the ideas and principles' of 
physical chemistrv have assumed a dominant role 
in the study of biochemical jiroblems has there 
been a revival of interest in the chemistry of 
bone. The phvsical chemist, however, has at- 
tacked the fundamental problem of how a struc- 
ture consisting of insoluble salts could be derived 



from soluble components dissolved in the circu- 
lating blood without the fundamental knowledge 
of the nature of the salts which constitute the 
mineral matter of hone. This and the lack of 
appreciation of the biological factors involved in 
■bone formation such as vitamin, hormonal and 
jxissibly also enzyme factors has had the inevit- 
able consequence. The prolilem, instead of hav- 
ing been clarified through the application of 
ph\sico-chemical princijjles and methods, has bee'i 
thrown into com|>lete confusion. The extremely 
contradictory findings from' this angle have finally- 
forced even the physical chemist to realize that 
these findings may be independently correct and 
yet have nothing to do with the question of how 
the insoluble bone salts were deposited from the 
serum. A more recent attempt at a solution of 
the problem of 'the nature of the bone ash salts 
was inspired by the x-ray spectrophotometric an- 
alysis of crystal structure. It is still too early to 
appraise the true significance of the results of 
these x-rav spectrophotometric studies. Of the 



152 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



very few studies so far made, some think defi- 
nitely to have established that the basic component 
of the bone ash is of the nature of an apatite 
mineral, Ca[ (Ca3(P04)2)3]C03, i. e. a com- 
plex salt of CaC03 and Ca3 (P04)2, thus ac- 
cepting the view which was proposed by Hoppe 
some seventy years ago. 

When one considers what different calcium 
salts constitute the basis of the tone ash (and 
quantitatively these represent by far the largest 
part), thei-e is no doubt as to the presence of 
CaC03, but with regard to the Ca3 (P04)2 
some doubts have been raised. The chief objection 
to the latter, apart from purely physico-chemical 
considerations, is the fact that a pure compound 
of this nature is not known to exist. One can 
readily accept this as a valid objection without, 
however, Ijeing obliged to resort to an hypothesis 
that, instead of a tricalcium phosphate, secondary 
calcium phosphate, CaHP04, is the substance 
constituting the bone ash in combination with 
CaO. All the evidence, both from spectrophoto- 
metric and from chemical analysis, fails to sup- 
port the idea that CaHP04 is a component of 
the tone salts. Is the apatite structure of the 
bone ash salts, namely, the complex calcium 
lihospbate-carbonate, the only other alternative? 
Does the chemical analysis of the bone ash su])- 
port such a hypotheis? 

As a result of our study of the composition of 
the ash from the vertebrae of a large series of 
animals, from cartilaginous fish to mammals, we 
came to the conclusion that the bone ash cannot 
be a compound like Ca[ ( Ca3( P04)2 )3]C03. 
Our analyses were made on the bone salts after 
the organic matrix had been leached out by 
means of alkaline glycerol at about 250°. The 
ash so prepared and dried to constant weight was 
analyzed for Ca, Mg, K. P, CO2. In addition, th? 
ash solution made by dissolving a weighed quanti- 
ty in a definite amount of o. i N HCl was titrated 
back with o.l N NaOH using methyl orange as 
indicator. In this way we were able to determine 
the balance of acid and basic equivalents in the 
ash. We found the following outstanding facts 
in our comparative analyses. The chemical com- 
position of the salts of vertebrae is remarkably 
uniform. The only striking diflference occurs 
lietween the vertebrae of the marine fishes and 
tliose of all other vertebrates examined, and this 
consists in the much lower CaC03 content 
found in the marine fishes. Whereas the calcium 
phosphate : calcium carbonate ratio is. on the 
average, 12 :i in marine fishes, in the other ver- 
tebrates it is 6.6:1. The other significant fact re- 
vealed by the analyses is the excess of calcium 
which cannot be accounted for either as phosplnte 
or as carbonate, thus indicating that a third tvi^e 
of calcium compound must exist in the l)one ash. 



Finally, it was found that the basic equivalents 
exceed the acid equivalents, the ratio between 
these two being, on the average, 19 to 18. We 
are therefore led to believe that the bone ash con- 
tains Ca(OH)2 in addition to CaC03 and Ca3- 
(P04)2. The fact that the residual Ca over 
residual P ratios in our analyses range from 1.99 
to 2.13, whereas if the residual salt were only 
Ca3( P04)2 this ratio would be 1.94. also shows 
unmistakably that another calcium salt must be 
present in the bone ash. 

In spite of the opinion, presumably sustained 
by x-ray spectrophotometric studies, that the 
CaC03 and Ca3(P04)2 are present in bone as 
an apatite compound, we must decline to sub- 
scribe to such a view for the following reasons. 
On the assumption of an apatite crystalline struc- 
ture such as Ca[ (Ca3( P04)2 )3]C03, one would 
expect that the phosphate : cartonate ratio in 
bone ash would be 9.3. As a matter of fact we 
have seen how in marine fishes this ratio is con- 
siderably higher while in the other vertebrates 
much lower than the theoretically expected ratio. 
Furthermore we know that this ratio also varies 
under pathological conditions as well as with age, 
mode of nutrition, etc. This would hardly be ex- 
pected if the CaC03 and Ca3(P04)2 were parts 
of a definite crystalline compound. Finally, as 
will be shown presentlv. the carbonate and phos- 
phate do not stand in a definite and simple molar 
ratio as would be expected from a chemical com- 
|)ound as distinguished from a mixture. Accord- 
ing to our analytical results, the average compo- 
sition of the bone ash of marine fishes cor- 
responds to: 82.15% Ca3fP04)2, 7.00% CaC03 
and 3.74% Ca(OH)2. In terms of mols these 
values are 82.15/310, 7.00/100 and 3.74y74, thus 
giving a molar ratio of 6.00:1.37:1.13. Similarly, 
the average composition of the ash for all other 
vertebrates examined is 77.20% Ca^(P04)2, 
11.81% CaC03 and 3.13%. Ca(OH)2. cor- 
responding to a molar ratio of 6.00 : 2.82 : 1.02. 
It is interesting to observe in this connection that 
similar ratios mav be obtained from bone analyses 
published by other investigators, and al.so from 
analyses of so-called tricalcium phosphate. The 
btter which we analysed so far may be of two dis- 
tinct tvpes, consi.sting of Ca3(P04)2 either with 
Ca(OH)2 or with CaHP04, but in either case 
in a molar ratio of 6.00 : i.oo. Obviously, there- 
fore, a simple compound Ca3(P04)2 does not 
exist by itself but always occurs as part of a com- 
plex salt, and in bone ash the evidence indicates 
that the same complex salt e.xists. It will be 
noted that lietween the carbonate and idiosjihate 
neither the molar ratio demanded bv the hvpo- 
thfsis of the ajiatite structure nor any other defi- 
nite molar ratio can be shown. The chemical 
analvfes suggest that the basic complex salt com- 
posing bone ash is Ca[ ( Ca3(P04)2)6] (OH)2. 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



153 



BILE SALTS 

Dr. Shiro Tashiro 

Professor of Biochemistry, University of Cincinnati 

L. H. Schmidt 

School of Medicine, University of Cincinnati 



While studying the toxic action of hile salts, we 
fonncl that the administration of thyroid principle 
to the guinea pig increased the toxicity of the hile 
salts in much the same manner as Hunt foimd 
some years ago that the similar treatment in- 
creased the susceptihility of the rat to the toxic 
action of acetonitril. This increased sensitiv- 
ity which, liy the way, can also be demonstrated 
with artecia and fish emhryos, under limited con- 
ditions, is the most pronounced in the gastric ulcer 
producing action of hile salts in the guinea pig. 
Some of you probably know that Sellard dis- 
covered years ago that when a small amount of 
hile salts is injected into a rabbit or a guinei 
pig, ulcerations are jiroduced in their stomach. 
The lethal dosage for this action is quite sharp 
under a given condition. In normal male guinea 
pigs, an intraperitoneal injection of less than 20 
nigs, per icxj gms. body weight will not produce 
these ulcerations, but in the pig, fed with 0.2 mgs. 
of thyroxin twice or more, even 15 mgs. per unit 
weight will cause the lesion. With a greater thy- 
roxin feeding and a smaller injection of l.nle salts, 
we find interesting results. With 12 mgs. of bile 
salts per unit weight, no guinea pig shows ulcer 
when the thyroid principle is fed once: when fed 
five times, 62% showed the lesion; and when fed 
ten times, 83% showed a positive lesion. I may 
add here that the thvroid administration not only 
increases susceptibility of the pig to the toxic 
action of bile salts, but it also produces a type of 
pathological picture which is similar to that found 
in the very acute gastric ulcer of man. 

As to the mechanism liy wh'ch the toxicity 01 
bile salts increases under the thyroxin treatment, 
we are of an opinion that a change in lipoidal. or 
I should .say, lipid metabolism, must be respon- 
sible. There are several lines of evidence to sup- 
port this view. In the first place, it has been 
found in our laboratory that certain lipids such 
as lecithin, cephalin, sul]iholipid (Tsuruta) and 
cholesteryl oleate ( Ishii ) are the only compounds 
which have power to protect the animal from this 
toxic action of bile salts. 

In the second place, any conditions, iihvsiolog- 
ical or otherwise, such as sex and seasonal varia- 
tion, in which the lipid content of the body is dif- 
ferent, manifest a different degree of resistance 
to the toxic actions of liile salts. For instance, 
sartorius muscle of a male frog requires less bile 
salts to produce tetanus than that of a female. 
The toxic dose required to produce ulcer in a 



male guinea pig is much smaller than in a female. 
Not only are these minimum toxic doses different, 
but also the amount of lipids required to neutral- 
ize the toxic effect of the bile salts differs with sex. 
It requires more lipids to antagonize the same 
amounts of bile salts with male than with female. 
The muscle of a winter frog is more resistant to 
bile salts than that of a spring frog. The more 
of these lipids the body contains, the more resist- 
ant it is toward toxic action of bile salts. 

Since phospholipids are the most outstanding of 
all the antagonizers both in effectiveness as antag- 
onizers and in the quantity occurring naturally in 
the body, we have attempted to discover whether 
or not the decrease in plios|iholipid alone can be 
responsible for the increased susceptibility of thy- 
roid-fed animals to bile salts. The normal male 
guinea pig requires 18 mgs. of lecithin to antag- 
onize 20 mgs. of bile salts, and the pig, fed with 
the effective amounts of thyroxin, requires 44 
mgs. of lecithin to neutralize the same amount of 
bile salts. Therefore thyroxin treatment must 
have decreased antagonizers which correspond to 
26 mgs. of lecithin in each 100 gms. of body 
weight, or 1 mg. of lecithin phosphorus. But the 
guinea pig contains only 8 mgs. of lipid phos- 
phorus per 100 cc. of blood and consequently only 
0.6 mgs. of blood lipid phosphorus per loO gms. 
of body wei.ght. In other words, the thyroid-fed 
animal must have lost about twice as much phos- 
liholid as contained in whole blood before treat- 
ment. 

As a matter of fact, we found in rabbits that 
the decrease in blood phospholipid under similar 
thyroxin treatment is aliout 22%. Although it is 
highly probable that a rabbit and a guinea pig 
may not act in exactly the same manner, we are 
inclined to believe these data suggest very strong- 
ly that the decrease in phospholipid alone could 
not be responsible for this increased susceptibilitv. 
And certainly the thyroid administration must 
also diminish other antagonizers such as choles- 
tryl oleate, but how much has not yet been de- 
termined. At any event we are certain that the 
l)hospholipid content of the body is a correct in- 
dex of its resistance against bile salts. From 
these and other evidences, that I can not go into 
now, we wish to conclude that the gastric ulcer in 
the bvmnan is a metabolic disease involving lipids, 
and that hyperthyroidism is one of the most ag- 
gravating conditions for the gastric ulcer, par- 
ticularlv in the male. 



154 



TIIR COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



THE ENOLIZATION OF GELATIN BY NEUTRAL SALTS 

Dr. J. M. JoHLiN 
/Issoc. Professor of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, J 'anderbilt University 



Loelj's well known studies show that the action 
of neutral salts on gelatin can be accounted for 
on the basis of Donnan's theory of membrane 
equilibria and can be predicted and quantitativel\' 
expressed by a mathematical equation. These 
explanations, however, do not hold in the case of 
gelatin which contains neither acid nor base. The 
writer has found, for instance, that a neutral salt 
added to a solution of gelatin, which is entirel>' 
free of acid and base, or contains but vei-y small 
amounts of these reagents, increases rather than 
decreases the viscosity of such a solution. Loeb 
found that a neutral salt added to a solution of 
gelatin at a pH of 3.0 did not ailfect the hydrogen 
ion concentration. The writer has found that 
when no acid, or when but small amounts are 
liresent. a neutral salt increases the hydrogen ion 
concentration of such a solution. 

Aside from any consideration of the jirobable 
effect of a neutral salt on the hydrogen ion activ- 



ity of gelatin it seemed possible that this increased 
acidity might be due to the enolization of the gel- 
atin by the neutral salt. Such an effect had, so 
far as is known, not been observed before. Pauli 
and his co-workers had, on the contrary, found 
that neutral salts do not affect the optical activity 
of proteins. The writer found in his experiments 
that a considerable number of neutral salts great- 
ly afifected the optical rotation of solutions of ash- 
free gelatin and that small amounts of acid pro- 
duced no similar effect. 

This action of neutral salts, which is assumed 
to be that of a tautomeric displacement involving 
the equililirium between the keto and the enol 
forms of the protein, is proportionate to the salt 
concentration. The explanation given for this ef- 
fect does not exclude Hardy's postulation of a 
union between the neutral salt and the nitrogen of 
the protein. 



OXIDATIONS PRODUCED BY GONOCOCCI 

Dk. E. S. Guzman Barron 
Assistant Professor of Bioclicmistry, Universitx of Cliieago 



It is well known that many bacteria possess the 
power of oxidizing not only the simple carbohy- 
drates Init also their fermentation products, since 
aerobic growth is known to occur on lactate, 
acetate, succinate, glycerol, etc., when these form 
the only source of carlion. During the last years 
those investigators concerned with the ]iroblem 
of cellular oxidations, have studied some bacterial 
oxidations with great detail. It seems obvious 
that for a comprehensive study of cell o.xidations 
we ought to look for those cells possessing an oxi- 
dation mechanism as simple as possible, uncompli- 
cated liy oxidation processes beyond the investiga- 
tor's control, such as endogenous oxidations. 

A suspension of gonococci washed twice in sa- 
line solution {0.154 M NaCl), and buffered at 
different pH's from 4 to 10, does not show any 
appreciable oxygen consumption when the proper 
aseptic precautions have been taken. This ab- 
sence of endogenous respiration renders the ma- 
terial an excellent one for the study of cell oxida- 
tions. The following substrates have been used: 
glucose, Na lactate, pyruvate, acetate, formate, 
succinate; glycoccoll, d-alanine, all of which are 
oxidized by B. Coli according to Cook and 
Stephenson. Gonococci are able to oxidize only 
the first three sulistrates. None of them is oxi- 
dized to completion. One mole of glucose takes 
up two moles of ox}gen ; one mole of lactate 
takes up one mole of oxygen, and one mole of 
pyruvate requires one atom of oxygen. The ve- 
locity of oxidation of these sulistrates is as fol- 



lows : lactate < glucose ■c pyruvate. The effect 
of pM on the activity of oxidation of these sub- 
strates has been studied. Cducose and lactate 
show an optimum activity from pH ((.3 to 6.9: 
Pyruvate from 6.5 to 7.0. From this optimum 
plateau the velocity of oxidation falls asxmptoti- 
call\-. Glucose and pyruvate are rot oxidized at 
pH's 3 and 9. Lactate is oxidized within wider 
limits: from pH 4.6 to pH 10. At pH's 5 and 9 
lactate is oxidized to pyruvic acid. By changing 
the pH of the bacterial suspension it is possible 
to dissociate the process of lactic acid oxidation in 
two steps : first step, lactic to pyruvic ; second 
step, pyruvic to acetic. We can therefore picture 
the chain of reactions taking place when one mole 
of glucose is oxidized bv gonococci, as follows: 

G(iH,20,; gives JCH3CHOHOHCOOH (Hy- 
drolysis ) 

2CH3CHOHCOOH plus Oo 

gives 2CH3COCOOH plus 2H2O 

2CH3COCOOH plus O, gives 
2CH3COOH plus 2CO2 

KCN at o.ooi M concentration inhibits the ox- 
idation of these three sul)strates, although at dif- 
ferent levels. The oxidation of glucose and py- 
ruvic acid are inbiliited about 80 per cent. The 
oxidation of lactate is almost completely inhibited. 

Reversible dyes act in the same manner as in 
norni:d tissues ; they increase the oxygen con- 
sumption only when the oxidizing enzymes have 
been inhibited bv cyanide. 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



15s 



SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 



.IdvcHtures in Biophysics. A. V. Hill. 162 pp. 
University of Pennsylvania Press. $3.00. 

This book contains five lectures given by Pro- 
fessor Hill during the autumn of 1930 in Phila- 
delphia under the auspices of the Johnson Foun- 
dation for Medical Physics. Not all of Hill's un- 
usual appeal as a lecturer, his magnetic person- 
ality, his sense of the value of "human interest," 
has been lost in the fixation of these lectures on 
the printed pages. Roth the general physiologist 
and the biochemist will read the book with a fas- 
cination that makes its title, "Adventures,"' seem 
well chosen. 

The i^\t lectures are entitled : I. Some Ad- 
veHures with Vapor Pressure; IL The State of 
Water in Tissues; HL The Conception of the 
Steady State; IV. The Time Relations of the 
Events in Muscular Contraction and V. The Me- 
chanics of Muscular Contraction and Other Mat- 
ters. 

In the first lecture, he explains how some an- 
omolous results in experiments on the heat pro- 
duction of muscle, measured with a delicate ther- 
mcjpile, proved to be due to the change in vapor 
jiressure of muscle flu'd as its osmotic pressiu'e 
rises during activity. This apparent defeat was 
turned into victory and the very delicate instru- 
ment "made to expiate its crimes" by using it as 
a convenient and sur])risingly accurate means for 
measurement of small differences in osmotic p-es- 
sure. Applications of this method are the chief 
subject material of the second lecture which 
brings out the idea that, contrary to much of the 
recent tendency of adsorption theories, nearly all 
of the water of muscle and other tissues appears 
to be "free" in the sense that it can act as a 
solvent. 

The third lecture develops the thesis that the 
steady state in living things must be regarded as 
<lynamic, as due to sustained expenditure of en- 
ergy, not as equilibrium. The experiments chosen 
to prove and illustrate this idea are mostly thos-: 
dealing with osmotic pressure differences and ad- 
justments but they cover a wide range of biologi- 
cal material. The varied mechanisms of these ad- 
justments "will provide an excuse for many of 
us, for some time \et, to work in laboratories by 
the sea." 

In the fourth lecture, Hill presents interesting 
and suggestive new ideas concerning the problems 
of muscular contraction, while pointing out how 
far we are from an understanding of either its 
chemistry or its mechanics. He pays considerable 
attention to the relative significance of phos- 
jjhagen breakdown and lactic acid production both 



in this and in the last lecture which is chiefly 
concerned with the relations between total energy 
liberation and the heat production during muscu- 
lar contraction. 

To research workers, the book should be useful 
practically, because of descriptions of special in- 
strumets and an excellent bibliography; inspira- 
tionally, because of its unbiased presentation of the 
present unsatisfactoriness of theories of muscu- 
lar contraction and of dynamic equilibrium, while 
clearly pointing out for these mysteries some of 
the clues which hold promise for immediate in- 
vestigation. — Philip H. Mitchell. 

Heredity. A. Franklin Shull. 2nd ed. xv-345 
pp. McGraw-Hill. $3.00. 

The new edition of "Heredity" by Dr. A. 
Franklin Shull shows several points of improve- 
ment over the first, excellent as that was. 
Designed as a text for a lecture course for be- 
ginners, it fulfills its purpose admirably. The 
chapters are concise, unified and clearly written, 
the illustrations well chosen and not too numer- 
ous, the subject matter up-to-date and critically 
selected. The introduction of material on chro- 
mosomes and sex in plants and especally the ad- 
dition of problems at the end of each chapter are 
to be highly commended. Other changes, all for 
the better, are the expansion of the first chapter 
fin Rise of Knowledge of Heredity, the revision of 
chapters on Immigration, Population Problems, 
Evolution and Heredity in Man, the addition of 
sections on multiple allelomorphs and lethal 
homozygotes. The discussion of human heredity 
and of eugenics is critical and restrained. 

Two impressions given are questioned : one, the 
restriction of the use of the term Fi to genera- 
tions or individuals derived from homozygous par- 
ents and of Fj to progeny of such heterozygous! 
Fi individuals : the other, the statement in the 
chapter on linkage that "several instances of link- 
age in man are known." The reviewer has 
supposed that although sex linkage has been 
proved in man. not even the various sex-linked 
factors have been proved to be linked with each 
other. The reviewer has also found rt more 
satisfactory in teaching to introduce multiple al- 
lelomorphism and sex-linkage after monohybrid 
crosses and to postpone a discussion of evidence 
for location of genes in chromosomes until after 
the preentation- of linkage and sex-linkage, since 
these phenomena strengthen the discussion. 
These are, however, merely points of order and 
in no way lessen the value of the book for the 
purpose for which it is intended 

Anna R. Whiting, 



156 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific w. rk 
at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Griffin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. CattclI 



THE COLLECTING NET SCHOLARSHIPS 

I'-ach summer for the last three years The 
Collecting Net has been successful in accumu- 
lating the sum of five hundred dollars for its 
scholarship fund. In the Fall the money is 
awarded in the form of five one hundred dollar 
scholarships to assist promising students financial- 
ly at Woods Hole during the following summer. 

These five scholarships will be available again 
this year for work at one of the local scientific 
ins'titutions in 1932. They will be assigned in 
September by a committee of senior investigators. 
Any student taking a course at the Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory and having the following 
c[ualificati()ns is eligiljle for the award : 

The student must show evidence of al)ility to 
engage in research work. Judgment of this 
ability will in part be based on a written report 
(jf prol)lem work done at Woods Hole during the 
summer. Such work need not necessarily be 
done in connection with the course. Preference 
will be given to students who without such 
financial assistance would be unable to attend the 
1932 session of the laboratory. The student must 
engage in a full-time research problem at the Ma- 
rine Biological Laboratory for a period of at least 
six weeks during the summer of 1932. 

Application blanks may be obtained from the 
director of any course or from the office of The 
Collecting Net. A summary of work accom- 
plished during the period in which the scholar- 
ship is held will be printed in our magazine. 



Professor Hans Spemann, who is now visiting 
the Marine Biological Laboratory, comes to us 
with no need of an introduction. He is an out- 
standing student of the physiology of develop- 
ment. Trained by Boveri at Wurzburg, he spent 
his earlier years instructing in the laboratory of 
his teacher. Later he accepted an appointment at 
the Ka'ser \\'ilhelm Institute fur Biologie at 
Rerlin-Dahlem, where he shared in the director- 
ship of the labciratiiries. From Dahlem Professor 
Spemann went to Freitiurg in Breisgau where he 
is director of the Zoological Institute. There he 



and his students are continuing his studies of de- 
velo]:imental phenomena in the newt, Triton. In 
a series of experiments extending over a thirty- 
year period, he has tested the relationships be- 
tween the parts of the developing amphibian 
germ. The results have demonsti^ated the wide 
ap])lication of the principle of induction as a 
fundamental process in development and the value 
of certain units as centers of organization. Pro- 
fessor Spemann's contributions are among the 
most stimulating to all students of developmental 
problems. 

The Collecting Net is indebted to Mr. 
Charles P. Titus of Carl Zeiss, Inc. for the use 
of his telephone. Through his accommodation. 
The Collecting Net may be reached by calling 
Falmouth 993-M. 

Dr. Helen Miller of Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, has had her National Research Fel- 
lowship in zoology renewed and will spend the 
coming year in the department of Professor L. 
L. Woodruff at Yale. Dr. Daniel Raflfel, a 
National Research Fellow in the department of 
genetics, Johns Hopkins University, has been re- 
appointed and will continue his work in Profes- 
sor Woodruff's laboratory at Yale. 

Mr. lohn A. Kyle, manager of the Natural 
Science Department of the Clay-Adams Company, 
is now vacationing at Woods Hole. He is staying 
at the Column Terrace, Falmouth. 

Dr. A. K. Parpart, who received his doctor's 
degree from the University of Pennsylvania this 
Spring, has accepted an appointment as instruc- 
tor in the department of physiology at Princeton. 



I 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 



At the following hours (Daylight Saving Time) 
the current in the hole turns to run from Buz- 
zards Bay to Vineyard Sound: 



Date A. M. 

Aug. 1 6:51 

Aug. 2 7:35 

Aug. 3 8:13 

Aug. 4 8:59 

Aug. 5 9:45 

Aug. 6 10:32 

Aug. 7 1 1 :20 

Aug. 8 12:01 

Aug. 9 12:55 

Aug. 10 I :52 

Aug. II 2 :43 



P.M. 

7:09 
7:51 
8:34 
9:21 
10:14 

11 :07 

12 :i6 
I :io 
2:03 

2 :5i 



In each case the current changes approximately 
six hours later and runs from the Soimd to the 
Bnv. It must be rememberrd that the schedule 
printed above is dependent upon the wind. Pro- 
longed winds sometimes caiL-^e the turning cf the 
current to occur a half an hour earlier or later 
than the times given above. 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



157 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Admiral Byrd was present at a picnic supper 
held on the shore by Dr. and Mrs. Warren H. 
Lewis, Tuesday, July 21, 1931. 

Dr. and Mrs. Homer W. Smith of New York 
I'niversity have applied for the Laboratory lot 
adjacent to that of Dr. Robert He.gfner. Dr. and 
Mrs. Smith expect to build a summer cottage in 
the near future. 

On Thursday, August 6th, Dr. Warren H. 
Lewis will give the fourth lecture in the Popular 
Lecture Course. His subject is "Cancer Prob- 
lems" and he will show motion pictures. 

Dr. and Mrs. William Wherry of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, are entertaining the Laboratory at a barn 
dance, Saturday, August ist. 

Dr. and Mrs. E. K. Marshall, Jr. invited the 
older members of the Lalioratory to tea Sunday 
afternoon, July 27th 

The Monday evening seminar will be given on 
August 3rd by Dr. Harold D. Senior of New 
"S'ork I'niversity and Dr. A. Defrise of the Uni- 
versity of Milano, Italy. 

Frances R. Snow, Secretary. 



Mr. and Mrs. Henry Finch announce the en- 
gagement of their daughter, Kathleen May, to 
Dr. Lester G. Barth. The marriage will take 
place the latter- part of August at the Finch's 
home in Boston. After a motor trip to Detroit 
and Chicago, the couple will return to New York 
City where Dr. Barth will be an instructor in 
zo(;logy at Columbia University. 

Miss Cornelia L. Carey, professor of bacteri- 
ology at Barnard College, after having been West 
for several weeks, has arrived at her home in 
Quissett to spend the rest of the summer. 

Dr. Florence Peebles, professor of biology at 
the California Christian College, Los Angeles, has 
returned to the laboratory after two years ab- 
sence. She is planning to work on the trans- 
planting of organizers in Fundulus eggs. Dr. 
Peel)les is living at Charles Grinnell Jr.'s house, 
having recently sold her cottage, "The T^antern," 
on (lardiner Road, to Dr. May Wilson of the 
Medical School of Cornell Universitv. 

Miss Jean Henderson, a lecturer in the depart- 
ment of zoology, McGill University, is spending 
the summer as an investigator at the Bermuda 
l')ii,logicrd Station for Research. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL FIELD 
STATION 

Dr. Umma Shuma Sharga has recently arrived 
from the University of Edinburgh to study en- 
tomological control methods in this country be- 
fore returning to India. He will remain in 
Ithaca about a year. At jiresent he is making a 
study of the aquatic populaton of our waterfalls. 

Dr. Elizabeth Genung of Smith College ad- 
dressed a meeting of Sigma Delta Epsilon,"Grad- 
uate Women in Science, on July 20th, on her 
African travels. 

Mr. Alexander B. Klots has accepted a position 
with Wards Natural Science I^stablisbment as 
head of the Entomological Department. He will 
also be an Associate in Entomology at the Uni- 
versity of Rochester. 

Dr. Cl\de Fisher of the American Museum of 
Natural History is teaching in the University 
Summer Session, in the absence of Prof. E. L. 
Palmer who is at the University of Hawaii. 

Prof. J. C. Bradley left this week for a few 
weeks of Entomological collecting in Florida. 

Prof, and Mrs, Needham are receiving con- 
gratulations on the birth of a second grandchild. 
James George Needham II is the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. William R. Needham. 

— Elsie Brou(^iiton Klots. 



On Tuesday, July 2Sth. Miss Ida T. Genther 
was married to Mr. L. Herbert Schmidt at 10:30 
in the Church of the Messiah. Miss Centher will 
be remembered as one of the investigators at the 
Laboratory last summer. She has lieen doing re- 
search work in Cincinnati this past year. Mr. 
Schmidt, who is a research fellow in biochemistry 
at the Medical School at the University of Cin- 
cinnati, is working with Dr Tashiro at the Lab- 
oratory this summer. Miss Sybil Street was the 
bride's only attendant and Mr. E. M. Adams was 
the best man. The ceremony was ])erformed by 
the Rev. James Bancroft. 

Dr. Eugene DuBois will be the speaker of the 
afternoon at the weekly forum on Suntlay after- 
noon, August 2nd at Dr. Warbasse's estate on 
Penzance Point. His talk will be on ".Some Phys- 
iological Aspects of Submarines and Deep Div- 
ing." 

On Sunday, August 2nd, Gilbert and Sullivan'.'? 
operetta, "The Mikado," will be given in the M. 
B. L. Club at 8 P. M. 

On Thursday evening, August 6th, at 8 p.m. 
there will be a victrola concert in the M. B. L. 
Club. Sibelius' Symphony No. i and Stravinsky's 
Fire-Biid will be presented. 



158 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 




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for complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Foreign 
Iiostage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Established 1916. Bimonthly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete volumes (Jan. to 
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Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Established 1914. Monthly, except August and Sep- 
tember. Official Publication of the Botanical Society of 
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Aui;usT I, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



159 



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THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 




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August i, 193 i ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



161 




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1 62 



TIIF. COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 

The Woods Hole Choral Clul) gives its fifth the hoat were uninjured although Mr. Aranaze's 

Annual Concert Saturday evening, August 8, at Iwir viras singed and his companion was hlown 

eight-thirty in the Auditorium. Most of the fifty out of the boat. The present owners carried no 

singers who have been practicing during July are insurance, 
biologists, but membership is not limited to Lali- 

oratory workers: the club i'; open to all who like The laurels of this week's production at the 
to sing and who are willing to practice for an University Players' Theatre go to Petei Wa\'ne, 
hour after the Tuesday and Friday lectures. "the cardboard lover" himself, in Jacques Duval's 
Mr. Ivan Gorokhoff, director of choral music clever little skit of that name. The adaptation by 
at Smith College, is again the conductor. He is Valerie Wyngate and P. G. Wodehouse is very 
remembered by the older laboratory workers as witty and although the plot is a totally trivial 
the leader of the Russian Cathedral Choir which love intrigue, the play affords a delightful even- 
gave a concert at Mr. Crane's residence some ing in the true French manner, 
vears ago. .Simone divorced her liusband, Tony, for his 
The program consists of two parts; sacred infidelity, though she still loved him. When he 
music, mainly from the .service of the Russian conies back to seek her again for his wife, she 
Church, and secular songs. The German com- hires the young Andre to be her lover only in 
poser Handel is represented by four choruses name, as a protection to .save herself from giving 
from some of his less known operas and oratorios. in to Tonw Andre, the cardboard lover, is only 
Here is the complete program. too faithful in carrying out his duty of inter- 
Cherubim Song Musitchcskoo ru])ting her tete-a-tetes with Tony and the comedy 

Only Begotten Son Gretchaninoff revolves in a whirl around these three; Simone 

O praise ye the Name of the Lord Kastalsky who wants Tony and regrets the day she hired 

Then round about the starry throne Handel Andre to be her "shadow ;" Tony, the egotist, who 

The heart that's contented Handel wants Simone and is used to being irresistible to 

May no rash intruder Handel women; and Andre, poor, in love with Simone, 

The foolish lover squanders Handel who is forced hy his contract into an unusual and 

Wassail Song ll'illiains false position. 

P)\'linka Kastalsky Simone, as played by Katherine Hastings, was 

The Rrook Arkhangelsky delightful, though a little too much the young. 

Dusk of Night Arkhaiu/rlskv impetuous, American college girl to be truly con- 
Tickets for the concert will be on sale soon for vincing as a French madame. Henry Fonda as 
$.SO and $1.00. Andre was thoroughly satisfactory and looked the 

part of a French monsieur. Freida Altman, who 

On Thu"sda\-, August 6th, Falmouth wl'l be played one of the leads in 'Tnterference," made a 

gay with the annual fete .for the benefit of the sujierb French maid. 

Nursing Association. From three u'nil eleven I'eter Wayne as Andre played an unconvincing 

thirty p. m.. the town will be busy raising money role in a convincing manner. Though the part 

to support the organization during the coming did not enable him to reach the heights of chir- 

year. Booths will be installed on the Village acter-acting that he attained as Philip Voaze in 

Green and, as a special attraction, th'-re will be "Interference," he, nevertheless, made the most 

bl(jck dancing with the i.^th Regiment Bard of of his role. 

Whitman supjilying the music. The sets were very efifective but there is one 

complaint to be made against all the scenery of 

Earlv Tuesdav evening the fire si'-en summoned the season and that is the poor construction of 

most of Woods Hole to a spectacular boat fi'e at the doors. They are amateurish and do not close 

the wharf beside the Penzance Garage. A s])eed and open with facility and without causing a 

boat, owned by Mr. Aranaze of Falmouth, caught trembling of the adjoining walls, 

on fire when the eni,nne backfired over by Ca- The Plavers are busy now rehearsing "The 

boon's wharf. The boat could have been saved Trial of Mary Dugan" with Cvnthia Rogers in 

by efficient handling, but instead they took her the title role. The cast reciuired is so large that 

out in the breeze and managed to get her over to jiractically the entire group will have to take 

the dock behind the Fire House. The insignifi- parts and the stage will be enlaryed. The busi- 

cant blaze became serious when the gasoline tank nrss in the court room will begin at 8:m next 

exijloded and by the time the fire was put out, week, althou"^h the action of the play itself will 

tlie boat was a total ruin. The two occupants of not start until the usual time of 8:30. — M. S. G. 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



163 



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Queen's Byway 
near Filene's 



Madn Street 
near A & P 



J A X 
FEMININE FOOTWEAR 

$4.45 to $7.45 
Two Falmouth Shops 



The MRS. G. L. NOYES LAUNDRY 


Collections Daily 


Two Collections Daily in the Dormitories 


Woods Hole Tel. 777 


Service that Satisfies 



THE TWIN DOOR 

RESTAURANT AND BAKERY 

G. M. GRANT, Prop. 

Chicken and Lol>8ter Dinners 

Waffles 

Main Sitreet Woods Hole, Mass. 



WALTER O. LUSCOMBE 



REAL ESTATE AND 
INSURANCE 



Woods Hole 



Phone 622 



SAMUEL CAHOON 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 
FISH AND LOBSTERS 
Tel. Falmouth 660-661 
Woods Hole and Falmouth 



The Whaler on Wheels 




"Our Wandering Book Shop" 

Miss Imogene Weeks Miss Helen E. EUis 

Mr. John Francis 

Will be at Woods Hole Mondays 

throughout the summer 

season. 

THE WHALER BOOK SHOP 

106 SCHOOL STREET NEW BEDFORD 

Telephone Clifford 110 



TEXACO PRODUCTS 

NORGE REFRIGERATORS 

WOODS HOLE GARAGE 
COMPANY 

Opposite Station 



KELVINATOR REFRIGERATION v 

Eastman's Hardware 

5 AND IOC DEPARTMENT 

KITCHEN FURNISHINGS 

Pyrofaix Gas and Glenwood Ranges 
Falmouth Tel. 407 



i64 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 46 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



A protest against the present prices of gasoline 
on the Cape has been tiled by the Cape Cocl 
Chamber of Commerce, which contends that the 
higher prices prevailing here are harmful to trade 
in general. 

tiasoline prices on the Cape average about 17V2 
cents a gallon, which is from four to five cents 
higher than other parts of the state. The retail 
]nice is based on the firms' prices to filling sta- 
tions. Gasoline officials claim that prices on the 
Cape are normal but that prices in New Bedford, 
Boston and other cities are abnormal at the pres- 
ent time because of a price war between rival 
companies. 

H. S. Dowden, secretary of the Cape Cod 
Chamlier of Commerce sent the following tele- 
gram to the Federal Trade Commission : 

The Cape Cod Chamber of Commerce calls 
your attention to the price of gasoline on Cape 
Cod, four and five cents higher per gallon than 
all other points in the state. This is harmful 
to all trade here and it gives the impression 
that other commodities are in the same pro- 
portion. 
Following the telegram, a letter was dispatched, 

as follows : 

Confirming our telegram, the Cape Cod 
Chamber of Commerce urges your assistance in 
adjustment of the price of gasoline on Cape Cod, 
which is four and five cents higher than in all 
other points in the state. 

I am enclosing a map showing the towns af- 
fected. In the town of Bourne, the price is 13 Vs 
cents and 14I/2. Other points on the Cape 
range from 17.4 cents to 17.6. In New Bed- 
ford gasoline is selling for 12 li cents to 13 'o in 
company owned stations. 

This is very harmful to all trade here as it 
gives the impression, especially to our summer 
visitors, that all other commodities are in the 
same proportion. 

Last October the Cape Cod Chamber of Com- 
merce and the Selectmen's x^ssociation launched 
a drive against the high price of gasoline and 
within a week the price fell between two and 
four cents. 

The Cygnet, a two masted au.xiliary schooner 
yacht, seventy-five feet long, bound on a sword- 
fishing trip, i-an aground at Chilmark early Wed- 
nesday morning, July 23rd. Captained by John 
Carr of New York City, the vessel was headed 
for Vineyard Sound when she ran ashore in a 
dense fog. Captain Carr and his crew of four 
were forced to swim about twenty-five feet to 
shore; and in the dash for safety one of the 
crew sprained an ankle and was removed to the 
Vineyard Haven Marine hospital. Two patrol 
l»ats from the base here at Woods Hole went 
to the rescue and finally towed her in to New 
Piedford, arriving about nine o'clock at _riight. 



On Monday evening, July 27th, the Coast Guard 
received a call from H. W. Morse whose yawl, 
"Onawa," went aground at the entrance of Ed- 
gartown harbor. In less than an hour after the 
call was received, the yawl was pulled oft", un- 
damaged, by the patrol boat, C. G. 286. 

Recently two members of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory sailed to Martha's Vineyard. On 
their return trip, the boat was incapacitated and 
they were picked up by a fishing vessel. The 
young man amused himself by taking pictures of 
the girl with the members of the crew. One of 
the fishermen asked to have a picture sent to him, 
leaving his name and address with the girl. 

When the pictures were developed, the girl sent 
one to the fisherman. A few days later, the ad- 
ministration office opened a letter addressed to 
"The Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 
Mass.," and were surprised to find the following: 

Whoever opens this letter will you please 
place the letter and the picture in the hands of 
the lady whose face appears in this snapshot. 
I admire your nerve in addressing my husband 
with such affectionate terms as "My Dear Mr. — " 
and telling him you had net forgotten him but 
my advice to you is to forget him and not to 
correspond any further with him. Maybe you 
did not know he was married but I am telling 
you new that he is. I am sorry I can't address 
you by name but my husband tore ycur sig- 
nature from the letter, thinking I would not be 
able to write you. (Signed) Mrs, George P. — , 
Provincetown, Mass. 

( )n Sunday. August 2nd the Rev. Mr. Herman 
R. Page, rector of St. Paul's Church, Dayton, 
Ohio, will preach at the 1 1 o'clock service at the 
Church of the Messiah. He is spending the sum- 
mer at Vinevard Haven. 



TIDE TABLE AT BREAKW.\TER. BEACH 

At the following hours (Daylight Saving Time) 
it is high water at the Breakwater Beach: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

Aug. I 10:39 10:48 

Aug. 2 II :i3 II :03 

Aug. 3 11:59 

Aug. 4 12:11 12:40 

Aug. 5 12:59 1:25 

Aug. 6 1:46 2:11 

Aug. 7 2:43 3:00 

Aug. 8 3:40 3:54 

Aug. 9 4:34 4:47 

Aug. 10 5:31 5 :4'^ 

.■\ug. 1 1 6 :28 6 :40 

Approximately six hours later, the tide is low. 



August i, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



165 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 
The Rev. James Bancroft, Rector 

Holy Communion 8 :00 a. m. 

Morning Prayer 11 :00 a. m. 

Evening Prayer 7 :30 p. m. 



FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
HARDWARE CO. 

Agency for 

LYNN OIL RANGE BURNER 

Falmouth, opp. the Public Library Tel. 360 



FOLLOW THE CROWD TO 

DAN BEL'S 

HOME-MADE ICE CREAM, 

DELICIOUS SANDWICHES 

COFFEE PICNIC LUNCHES 



MRS. H. M 


BRADFORD 




Dresses, Millinery, 


Hosiery a,nd Gift Shop 


Souvenirs 


and Jewelry 




Depot Avenue 


Woods 


Hole 



N. E. TSIKNAS 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

Falmouth and Wcods Hole 



Zoologist, Ph. D. Nine years teaching experi- 
ence which has included administrative respcnsi- 
bilities; especially trained in General Biology, Cy- 
tology, Invertebrate Physiology, Embryology, 
Genetics and Anatomy; desires position in an 
accredited college. For further details inquire 
at the Collecting Net office. 



BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL 
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES 

IN COMPLETE SETS 

Volumes and Back Date Copies For Sale 

B. LOGIN & SON, Inc. 

EST. 1887 
29 EAST 21st STREET NEW YORK 



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This is a great advantage over any other oven manu- 
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This oven is built on the same principles as all other 
Asta ovens. It has been designed by Prof. Alfred F. 
Huettner, Washington Square College, New York 
University, where this oven is now used in the cy- 
tology laboratory. 

The following new features are incorporated in this 
oven: 

1. Automatic heat control by means of thermo- 
stat, ranging from room temperature to 
80'C. Pilot Light indicating when heat is on 

2. Removable tank for filtered paraffin attached 
to the rear wall. Filtered paraffin always ob- 
taina.ble from this tank through a small tap. 

3. Solid paraffin automatically filtered to supply 
tank. 

4. Paraffin glasses rest en a grid over a drain 
board, eliminating untidy appearance of heat- 
ing chamber. Imbedding dishes never stick 
when oven is cold. 

5. Large heating chamber unobstructed by heat- 
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6. Cylindrical Heating Unit is attached to the 
upper part of the front wall of the heating 
chamber, allowing the maximum of space for 
manipulation within the heating chamber. 

7. Heating unit can be pulled out cf the oven in- 
stantly to be used in keeping- paraffin in 
liquid condition while imbedding outside of 
the heating chamber. 

8. Drying Chamber, accommodating two slide 
boxes (50 slides), attached to the right. 

Cata,logue No. 3000 $30.00 

These are some cf the major features in which this 
oven differs from others; there are other minor ad- 
vantages which will be appreciated by cytologists 
and histologists. Investigators who employ the 
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place of an incubator by simply changing the tem- 
perature control temporarily to 40'C. 

STANDARD SCIENTIFIC SUPPLY CORP. 

10-14 W. 2.5 ST. NEW YORK CITY 



1 66 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 46 



TIJCT€X NEWS 

MAILED WITHOUT CHARGE TO OVER 30,000 BIOLOGISTS IN THE UNITED STATES 

AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

The principal purpose of Turtnx News is to announce new Turtox products and new 
develojiments in the Tiu'tox lalioratories. It is not, however, our pohcy to mal<c tiiis ]iubh'ca- 
tion a purely advertising medium, and in every issue are pulilished short articles and notes 
of interest to biologists. These articles are all of a biological nature, but cuver a wide range, 
including ecology, pedagogy, nature study, travel, laboratory methods, etc. They are written 
in some cases by members of our staff, in other cases bv teach.ing Biologists. 



TURTOX^""* 



The Sifjn of the Turtox 
Pledges AbsoUttc Sati^fiicdon 



If you are not receiving Turtox News regularly, just 
send us a postal, asking us to place your name on 
the mailing list. 

General Biological Supply House 

IncoTporated 
7C1-7G3 EAST SIXTY-NINTH PLACE 

CHICAGO 



The Wistar Institute Slide Tray 




The ideal tray for displaying or staring slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-inch, thirty-two 1';.- 
inch, or twenty-four 2-inch slides, and every 
slide is visible at a glance. Owing to the 
nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof c"ver for 
the one beneath it, while the center ridges as- 
sure protection to high mounts. Made en- 
tirely of metal, they are unbreakable and 
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be filed in a space fourteen inches sauare bv 
eight inches high. PRICE, $1.00 EACH 

Orders niav be sent to 

THE WISTAk INSTITUTE 

Thirty-sixth Street and Woodland Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



HYDROGEN ION 
APPARATUS 

tolnrimctric and Elcclroiiiclric 
Hcllif/c~-LaMotfc—Pifsrhncr 

llelhge Colorimetric Comparators em])loy 
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The regular outfit includes the Comparator 
proper with special Prism, one Color Scale, 
one bottle of Indicator Solution, Mixing 
I'ipette, Graduated Test Tubes and Frosted 
(ilass Plates. 



Write for Pjulletin No. 440 which gives de- 
tails, and also for Bulletin No. 442 which 
gives details of ap])aratus for water testing. 

EIMER & AMEND 



Established 1851 



Incorporated 1897 



Headquarters for Liiboratorv ApparatiLS and 
Clieniical Reagents 

Third Avenue, i8th to 10th Street 
New York, N. Y. 



August i, nj^i ] 



IF, COLLECTING NET 



167 



LEITZ 



WIDE riELD MICKCSCCPE 

A New AFodf] with 

AUTCMATIC MULTIPLE 
€EJECTIVE NCSELIECE 

/// roinirrfioii with Wide Field Biiiiiciilar Microscopes 
of other iiialce. the one or other method of interchaiu/- 
ing objectives has been offered. . These ivere foiind to 
have shortcomings in being cither rcstrict^ed to the use 
of special objectives or to a limited number of them. 

The Leitz Works have succeeded in providing an 

AUTOMATIC MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE NOSEPIECE 

WHICH PERMITS THE USE OF THE STANDARD 

PAIRED OBJECTIVES 

This multiple Objective Nosepiece provides an auto- 
matic interchang'e of three pairs of objectives at one time. 
The prism body, resembling in its general construction 
the b^dy of the well-known series of Leitz Wide Field 
Binocular Microscopes, is provided with oculars of large 
diameter. To this body is atttached the Automatic 
Multiple Objective Nosepiece. A pair cf objectives IX is 
permanently mounted to the nosepiece while two dove- 
tailed tracks serve to accommodate any two pairs of ob- 
jectives of the available series.. 
The track on which the objective carriage gl ides is provided with three steps. When sliding 
the carriage back and forth to change from one objective to another, the carriage spring engagos 
these stops. The right hand side of the obj;ctive carriage is equipped with a spring handle. Upon 
releasing this handle, tha carriage automatically moves forward to be arrested at the next stop, 
thus placing the second objective into the optical center. The same procedure is repeated for 
placing the third objective in position. The bac kward motion of the objective carriage is ac- 
complished in, an identical manner: each of the three objectives can successively be located within 
the optical field. 

An important feature is offered by the rapid and exceedingly simple manner in which the 
change from one objective to another is accomplished, this by means of a spring arresting^ the 
objective aiutomatically within the optical center. The convenience of this device can readily be 
appreciated through actual use of the microscope. 

A permanent alignment of the optical system is assured by means of the rigid mounting by 
which the objectives are attached to the carriage and furthermore, the fact that, when shifting 
the objectives, they are not touched by hand and not the least pressure is exerted upon them or 
upon the optical axis, respectively. 




IVe 


belie 


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that «' 


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of this Automatic 


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piece, zi'c lui 


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contril 


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mrds enhancing tl 


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Microscopes. 





WRITE FOR PAMPHLET NO. 1183 (ON I in which five different microscope models equipped 
with the Automatic Multiple Objective Nosepiece are listed. 

E. LEITZ, Inc. 

60 East lOtli Street New York. N. Y. 



1 68 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 46 




''It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' ?r:iTnaeir2lVu,lttT ''''''- 

"PKOMI" MICROSCOPIC DRAWING and 
PROJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
g-anisms and insects on table or wall for 
drawing and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
genious yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteriology, Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ogy, Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 

AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: It is used for projecting in actual colors on wall or 
screen, micrnscupic iirciiaratinns, li\iiii; organisms and insects for lecture room demonstration and 
instruttiun. .Makes it ii(.>ssiblc lor a tirouii of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on important features, which can- 
not be demonstrated with equal facility and time saving under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
strains of microscopt' examination. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actual colors on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black or colors. Living insects or microscopic living organisms can also be projected. Ad- 
justment of the size of the image is simply a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
projected. Higher magnification ma.v be obtained by using tube and ocular and our high jiiiwer ob- 
jectives. Charts can readily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE; By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror and inverting 
the apparatus a CMni|>onnd microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
standard inicr, .scdpic hi.uli p.iwer "bicctivcs and nculars. 

AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can be photographed without the use of a camera. 

PRICE: F. O. B. New York $100.09 complete apiiaratus in polished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 ami 220 \olts with cords, plugs and switch for both DC and .^C cur- 
rent, llx objective, tube with 5.x ocular, riHectint; niirmr and micro-cuvette. Extra equipment prices 
on request. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR " MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

A new instrument which has been brnnght 
out in rcsiKinse to a demand for a simple 
apparatus like the Promi for more advanced 
work which requires more powerful illumi- 
nation and higher magnification. The Pro- 
mar ojierates in the same manner as the 
Promi but is more heavily constructed and 
has the following additional features as 
standard equiimient : 

More brilliant lighting, making higher magnification possible. 
Triple nose piece, facilitating use of three objecti\es. 
Fine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 
Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and condenser. 
Screw centering adjustment for lij^ht. kevi>l\ini; stage. 
Demonstrations will gladly be made by Mr. Robert Rugh, Room 217, 
Main Bldg., M. B. L., Woods Hole. 
Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. Write to 




117-119 East 24th Street 



NEW YORK, N. 



A 



^^^^* W^^^ 




Vol. VI. No. 7. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 8, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE AMPHIBIAN 
EGG 

Dr. H.\ns Spkmann 
Director of the Zoological Institute at Freihiiri; 
It ,c:ives me great pleasure, and I consider it a 
high honor, that I may speak to you of my ex- 
periments. I see amongst you some of those men 
who, from the earhest days of my scientific 
career, I always looked upon 
as upon heroes of our science : 
I see voimg scientists whom I 
wish to fiil with enthusiasm 
for the experimental emhry- 
ology. 

First, hefore entering on my 
lecture, I wish to acquaint you 
with a good old friend of mine 
— the newt's egg — which has 
accompanied me for the great- 
er part of my life. These 
eggs of the newt may always 
lie found during spring and 
earh' summer in the aquaria 
where the adult animals are 
kept, attached hy the female 
to leaves of water plants. The 
egg is covered hv a thin vitel- 
line membrane and hy an out- 
er shell of elliptical shape, very 
soft immediately after the egg 
has been laid, hut soon becoming rather hard and 
elastic. In order t(i [Cniifiuiicd on Page 173) 



M- % % Calcnbar 

TUESDAY, AUG. 11, 7:30 P.M. 

Seminar. Dr. W. H. F. Addison, 
"Aquatic Mammals — A Descrip- 
tion of a Special Cell type in 
the Cerebellum." 
Dr. C. C. Speidel, "Living Nerve 
Sprouts." 

Dr. J. E. Kindred. "Histologi.? 
Effects of Ligation of the Vasa 
of the Spleen of the Albino Rat." 
Dr. G .S. deRenyi, "The Effect of 
Radium Irradiation upon the Ov- 
aries of the Albino Rat." 

FRIDAY, AUG. 14, 8:00 P.M. 
Lecture. Dr. F. L. Hisaw, profes- 
sor of zoology. University of 
Wisconsin, "The Corpus Luteum 
and Anterior Lobs Hormones 
and their Physiological Interre- 
lationships." 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 
BIOLOGICAL STATION 

( ii-.oKiii'; k. LaRui-; 
Director of the Laboratory 
The University of Michigan Biological Station 
had its origin in 1909 when Professor Reighard, 
now Professor Emeritus of Zoology in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, and Professor Burns, now 
Professor of Botany in the 
University of Vermont, with 
a group of 13 students be- 
came interested in making an 
intensive study of the animals 
and plants of Alichigan in their 
natiu'al surroundings. It was 
desiral)le to establish a station 
within a region as little dis- 
turbed by man as possible and 
at the .same time readily acces- 
sible for transportation of 
supplies and equipment. 

During the twenty-three 
consecutive years of its exis- 
tence the Biological Station as 
a phvsical plant has grown 
from a few tents to 125 build- 
ings of wood, concrete and 
steel construction. The faculty 

has been increased from two 

to fifteen members and the 
student bodv from 13 to 107 students. The mem- 
bership of the .Station including students, faculty. 



TABLE 01 

ExDeriments on the Amphibian Egg, 

Dr. Hans Spemann 16S 

The University of Michigan Biological Station, 
George R. LaRue 169 

The Formation of Ice Crvstals in the Pro- 
toplasm of Various Cells, 
Dr. Robert Chambers ITT 



CONTENTS 

Scientific Book Reviews 179 

The Directory for 1931 180 

Picnic Parties on Naushon and Nonamesset 182 

Dr. Fry and the Forty Drosophlla Eggs, 

Dr. Alfred F.' Huettner 182 

Currents in the Hole 182 

Items of Interest 183 



lyo 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 




LABORATORY BUILDINGS OVERLOOKING DOUGLAS LAKE 

A viKW (II' THi'. ^^I(■HIl;.\N Bioi.iniri ai. siaiihn I'KdM Tin: hili.sidi-: back of tiii-: campl's 



investigators, and the various staff memliers and 
families now numbers more than igo people. 

The Station is situated on the shores of Doug- 
las Lake on the tip of the Lower Peninsula of 
Michigan and is almost equidistant from Cheiiov- 
gan, Mackinaw City and Petoskey. It is located 
on the Hogardus Tract, an area of more than. 
3,300 acres of land which extends from Douglas 
Lake to Burt Lake on the south, and has a com- 
l)ined frontage on the two lakes of more than six 
miles. The Hogardus Tract is the propertx' of 
the Univer.sity of Michigan and is occupied ex- 
clusively by, and devoted to, the Biological Sta- 
tion. Except for two small summer resorts on 
Douglas Lake, the region for miles about is al- 
most uninhabited. 

The Dougla.s Lake region is peculiarly well 
adapted for biological studies. This part of 
Michigan is diversified by hills and vallevs, and 
was formerly covered by virgin forests of hard- 



woods and conifers. Small tracts of the former 
remain. Over most of the area second growth 
forests are becoming well estalilished. The region 
contains many lakes of clear water, unsiu'passed 
in the .State for size, depth, and beauty of setting. 
Douglas Lake is of irregular outline, two and one- 
half miles wide and four miles long. Its wooded 
shores are in some places low and receding; in 
others they rise in terraced lilufifs seventy feet 
high. The beach is of clean sand or stony, and 
the lake bottom, excejit for occasional alirupt 
drops, slopes gradually into deep water. This 
great variety of conditions ranging through a 
comijlete series of situations from lakes to hills 
and in the transitional zone supports a large num- 
ber of species of plants. For these reasons, also, 
the region is equall\' well supplied with a varied 
animal population, Ijeing particularly rich in its 
imertebrate fauna. 

The Station is located on a narrow strip of 




THE DINING ROOM AND THE BOTANY LABORATORY 

TIM, lll-.ALTH SF.RVRE COTTACICS MAY BK .SF.KN IN THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE 

TWO BUILDINCS IN THE FOREGROUND 



August 8, 193 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



level ground along' the south shore of the east 
end of Douglas Lake. The plan consists of two 
streets isaralleling the shore and connected hy 
cross streets. There are three main divisions of 
the Station, the central portion or campus, the 
west end or residence areas for men and married 
.students, and the east end or residence areas for 
women students, faculty, other staff members, in- 
vestigators and health service. The entire Station 
is adequately supjilied with a sanitary system and 
a water system. The campus and the west resi- 
dential area are equijiped with electric lights and 
it is hoped that in the near future the lighting 
system can l)e extended to the east residential 
areas as well. 

The residence cottages are of two types, wood- 
sheathed with metal covering, or wood-sheathed 
and covered with slate-surfaced roofing felt. 
All have concrete floors, screened windows, 
screened doors, and stoves. They are equipped 
with beds, tables, chairs, and other necessary fur- 
niture. The cottages occupied by the men and 
married students are of the wood and metal type, 
14 X 14 feet square in floor dimensions, and 
equipped with electric lights. All other cottages 
have the slate-surfaced roofing felt covering. 
Those occupied by the women students and the 
investigators are 14 x 16 feet, and those occu- 
pied by the faculty families are 14 x 34 feet in 
floor dimensions. 

(^n the campus proper are located the build- 
ings used in common by all members of the Sta- 
tion. The largest of these is a two-story adminis- 
tration Iniilding of steel and concrete construc- 
tion, housing the administration offices, photo- 
grajihic rooms, stock rooms, store, post-office and 
kitchen storage below, and a kitchen and dining 
room above. Tiiere are nine laboratory Ijuildings 
housing 13 laiwratories, a liljrary building, an 
aquarium, an insectary, an animal house, a club 
house, shop, tool room, garage, and keeper's house. 
Near the campus to the east are the hospital, 
physician's residence and office, and to the west 
a boathouse with a covered harbor. 

The Station is adequately equipped to care for 
the demands of students and investigators. For 
transportation of classes and su])plies the Station 
owns three trucks, several launches, outboard 
motors, and rowl)oats. Other equipment for class 
use includes nets, seines, traps, cameras, field 
glasses, microscopes and accessories, microtomes, 
aquaria, pens, cages, a large supply of minor 
equipment and a good working liljrary. The zo- 
ological laboratories have large collections of 
bird skins, mammal skins, and skulls and many 
preserved specimens of reptiles, amphibians, fish 
and parasite worms. The herbarium includes 
ne'irly all of the flowering plants of the region. 



At the Station class work is conducted in si.x 
courses in botany and seven courses in zoology, 
and in addition many students and faculty mem- 
bers are engaged in special prolilems of investi- 
gation in both botany and zoology. 

The botanical faculty consists of four mem- 
bers; Dr. John H. Ehlers, assistant professor of 
botany, in charge of systematic botany, Dr. Carl 
D. LaRue, assistant professor of botany, in charge 
of work in plant anatomy, both from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan ; Dr. Frank C. Gates, profes- 
sor of botany in the Kansas State Agricultural 
College, in charge of work in plant ecology, and 
Dr. Hempstead Castle, assistant professor of 
botany in Yale University, in charge of the work 
in lower plants. Professor Castle is new at the 
Station this summer, having been called to take 
over the work of Professor George E. Nichols, 
also of Yale, who was unable to return to the 
Station this year on account of ill health. 

The zoological faculty is made up of eight 
members whose fields of interest follow their 
names. From the University of Michigan are: 




PLAN OF THE BIOLOGICAL STATION 

Dr. George R. LaRue, professor of zoology. Di- 
rector of the Station and directing research in 
animal parasitology; Dr. Paul S. Welch, profes- 
sor of zoology, directing class and research work 
in limnology ; Dr. Frank N. Blanchard, assistant 
professor of zoology, ornithology ; and Dr. Frank 
E. Eggleton, instructor in zoology, limnological 
methods. Those from other universities are; Dr. 
Herbert B. Hungerford, professor of entomology 
in the L'niversity of Kansas, entomology; Dr. 
William W. Cort, professor of helminthology 
in Johns Hopkins University, parasitic worms ; 
Dr. Charles W. Creaser, associate professor of 
zoology in the College of the City of Detroit, 
vertebrates other than birds ; and Dr. Lyell J. 
Thomas, assistant professor of zoolcgy in the 
University of Illinois, working with Professors 
LaRue and Cort in helminthology. 

Other new members of the staff are Alfred H. 
Stockard, instructor in zoology in the University 
of Michigan, Secretary of the Station ; Jewel F. 
Stockard, dean of women, substituting for Grace 
Walker Nichols, who was unable to be preseiit 



172 



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[ Vol. VL No. 47 



at the Station this year; and Dr. Maurice R. Mc- 
Garvey, physician at the Health Service in the 
LTniversity of Michigan, Station Physician. 

With a teaching staff composed of men of rec- 
ognized authority in their fields and drawn from 
several leading universities, the Station is given 
the advantages hoth of excellent teaching and 
direction of research, and of broader contacts 
with scientific spirit and progress over the coun- 
try than could be had from a stafT drawn from 
any one university. The coming together each 
summer of the staff from the several parts of the 
country brings something of the spirit of a scien- 
tific meeting in that thought and discussion for 
the entire summer are centered on the various 
phases of biology. 

The courses taught at the Biological Station 
deal with those phases of biology which can best 
be learned bv close contact with the undisturbed 
plants and animals in their natural habitats; or by 
the study of those plants and animals in the lab- 
oratory in relation to their natural habits and 
habitats. All courses essentially systematic in 
nature, as systematic botany of the flowering 
plants, ferns,' mosses and algae, entomology, ich- 
thyologv, herpetology, ornithology and mammal- 
ogy, as well as plant anatomy, are conducted with 
considerable emphasis placed on living appear- 
ances, habitats, and natural histories of these 
forms. The Station is particularly suitable for 
the ecological studies — plant ecology, limnology 
and parasitology. 

The student population of the Biological Sta- 
tion is an inspiring study within itself. Of the 
107 students enrolled this summer eighty-four, or 
■]■]%, are graduate students, and twenty-three 
are undergraduates. Thirty-si.x; of them, or one 
third, claim Michigan as their home state. Of 
the remaining seventy-one, fourteen come from Il- 
linois, nine from Ohio, nine from Pennsylvania, 
six from Minnesota, five from Indiana, four from 
Wisconsin, three from Iowa, three from Massa- 
chusetts, two each from Connecticut, Mississippi, 
( )klahoma and West Virginia, and one each from 
California, Georgia, Kansas, Missouri, North 
Carolina, Tennes.see, Texas, and Utah, and one 
from China. 

While the large number of out of-state students 
at the Biological Station entails considerable ad- 
ditional expense to the State of Michigan, the 
contributions of these students are worthy of 
consideration. In the same way that the faculty 
members from various parts of the country bring 
contacts and ideas of the progress of the country 
with them, the students make the Station a cos- 
mopolitan institution. Many of the graduate 
students as well as the faculty and visiting in- 
vesti.gators. both while here and back at their 
winter residences, are engaged in working out 



))rol)lenis concerning animals and plants of this 
part of Michigan, and as a result the biological 
situation of the Douglas Lake region is perhaps 
lietter known than that of any other region in 
North America, excepting that of Woods Hole. 

Many productive botanical investigations are 
being carried out at the Station. The situation 
and equipment are best adapted to work in plant 
ecology, ta.xonomy, and physiologjical and eco- 
logical anatomy, and many contributions in these 
phases of the subject have been produced. At 
present twelve investigators are working in bot- 
any with very encouraging results. 

Because of its large variety of plant habitats 
the Douglas Lake region is particularly suitable 
for work in fresh-water algae and bryophytes. 
Over one hundred genera with 450 species of 
algae and 282 species of bryophytes are found 
there. Of these bryophytes 115 have not been 
recorded from other parts of Michigan. 

With the great variety of habitats, the richness 
of the plant life and the abundance of ecologically 
related invertebrate fauna always on hand, work 
of an ecological nature is pursued to excellent ad- 
vantage. These conditions also provide an 
abundance of material for investigation, both in 
the laboratory and in the field, in ecological and 
physiological anatomy. 

General entomology is receiving a good share 
of the attention of investigators. Contributions 
from the Station in this field have been numer- 
ous, and the solution of each problem unearths 
new problem.s for solution. This summer five 
investigators are conducting research in ento- 
mology. 

The opportunities for investigations in limnol- 
ogy are very favorable. At the present time eight 
people at the Station are pursuing problems in 
this field, five in general limnology and three in 
aquatic entomology. The limnological situation 
and equipment are quite adequate for the de- 
termination of life-histories and ecological re- 
lationships. 

Researches in parasitology have been particu- 
larly productive, and at present fourteen peo])le 
are carrying on investigations in parasitology. The 
subjects under investigation by this group are 
quite varied. The largest number on any one 
phase of the subject are working on the life cycles 
of the digenetic trematodes, including studies on 
the further development of holo.stome, schisto- 
some and stylet cercariae. Another group is 
studying the life cycles of tetraphyllidean ces- 
todes. Other problems on the helminths are con- 
cerned with cestcde and nematode morphology 
and with the life cycles of several nematodes in 
aquatic hosts. An interesting investigation on a 
lilood-inhabiting protozoon, Leucocytozcon, is be- 
ing carried out. Life history studies seem to 



August 8, 193 1 ] 



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173 



be best suited to the location and equipment of the 
Biological Station. The life cycles of a con- 
siderable number of parasitic forms have already 
been worked out and others are in the process of 
solution. 

Attendance at the Station is a distinct advan- 
tage to the student. Students are constantly 
searching for appropriate problems for investiga- 
tion, and many problems are being discovered at 
the Station as the biological situation there is 
more and more completely analyzed. The teach- 
ers of biology in the public schools are find'ng 
the Station to be a particularly valuable source of 
training for their work. A first hand knowledge 
of a large number of living things, both jilant and 
animal, in their natural habitats and under nor- 
mal conditions is of prime importance for doing 
the type of teaching required in the public 
schools. The usual college courses in biological 
subjects do not give this type of training. Two 
or three summers of attendance at the Biological 
Station give the desired training, and it stimu- 
lates an invaluable enthusiasm for biological 
work. 

While the predominating spirit of the Station 
is one of work, the ])lay side of life is by no 
means neglected. The entire Station population 
is brought together for meals in the large dining 
hall. Positions are reassigned by chance once 
each week so that the student population is con- 
stantly being shifted and new acquaintances are 
being formed. With the excellent water and an 
ideal sand beach and lake bottom, swimm'ng is 
an attraction in the late afternoon. On the 
Fourth of July the annual picnic is held on top 
of a large hill overlooking the Station and lake. 
Here games ^.nd contests of various sorts are 
held, followed by a picnic supper, an initiat'on 
parade for the new students and a party or dance 
in the clubhouse in the evening. 



On each Saturday night of the session an en- 
tertainment of some sort is given at the club- 
house. Bridge, stunt parties, "dress-up" parties, 
community singing, and dancing all have their 
turns. These attractions are very popular with 
the entire Station population, the only problem 
being that of room to accommodate the attend- 
ance. 

During the summer several Sunday excursions 
are conducted to points of interest in this region. 
This summer on July ig a group journeyed over 
the Michigan Inland Water Route starting at 
Conway and passing through Crooked Lake, 
Crooked River, Burt Lake, Indian River, and 
Mullet Lake to Topinabee. and return. On Aug- 
ust 9 an e.xcursion will visit historic Mackinac Is- 
land and Les Cheneaux Islands in Lake Huron. 
On August 16 the annual photographic exhibit is 
held at the Station. This is a display of any 
pictures of general interest which may have been 
taken by members of the Station, and oppor- 
tunity is given for exchanges or purchases of 
prints. 

Perhaps the feature event of the summer is 
the annual Visitors Day, which was held this 
year on the afternoon of August 2. On this date 
the Station held open house for the benefit of 
any visitors who wished to become acquainted 
with the Station and its work. The various build- 
ings and laboratories are thrown open and sam- 
|)les of the class work and research are placed on 
display and qualified persons are present to ex- 
plain or demonstrate each exhibit. This has come 
to be an interesting and enlightening attraction 
for people in this portion of the State, and th; 
types of work are so varied and the number of 
workers is so great that, indeed, the memliers of 
the Station look upon this day as an opportun- 
ity to make themselves acquainted with the work 
done at the Station. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE AMPHIBIAN EGG 

(Continued from Page 169) 



operate on the egg, this shell must be taken 
off before cleavage begins ; then the eggs are kept 
in the vitelline membrane up to the time of the 
operation. 

When I began my experimental work, the sci- 
entific world was roused by that famous contro- 
versy between W. Roux on the one side, and H. 
Driesch and O. Hertwig on the other. W. Roux, 
in his classical pricking experiments on the frog's 
egg, had found that after killing one of the first 
two blastomeres with a hot needle, the other sur- 
viving" cell would form half an embryo; from this 
he derived his conception of self-differentiation. 
H. Driesch, on the other hand, had stated that 
each of the first two blastomeres of the sea-urch- 



in's t%%, when separated, would form a whole 
embryo, half-sized, but normally proportioned. 
From this he derived his notion of the harmonic- 
equipotential system. O. Hertwig tried to separate 
the two first blastomeres of an amphibian egg, 
the egg of Triton taenmtus. He was not success- 
ful in this, but his method turned out to he of 
great importance. 

My first experiment was to test Roux's results 
on the amphibian egg. Instead of killing one of 
the first two l)lastomeres, I tried to retain its de- 
velopment by means of low temperature. To do 
this I first constricted the eggs of Triton with a 
fine hair loop. I soon found that, in case of con- 
striction along the median plane, either twins or 



174 



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[ Vol. VL No. 47 



double monsters may be produced. Endres and 
Herlitzka had done the same thing a short time 
before me. 

These e.xperinients occupied me for several 
years. Their results did not at first go far be- 
yond those which Driesch had found in the egg 
of the sea-urchin. I followed this author in test- 
ing the critical period of determination. 

When an embryo of a somewhat later stage, 
for instance, with the tail bud just visible, is cut 
in two along the median plane, two half embryos 
will be formed ; when the same is done in the 
two-cell stage, two whole embryos will develop. 
Between these two stages, there must be 
a critical point or a critical period in which 
the one way of development is turned into 
the other. I found that this period coin- 
cides with the period of gastrulation. The 
left and right halves of a very young gastrula will 
form whole embryos, more or less symmetrical. 
The more gastrulation proceeds, the greater is the 
defect on the inner side of the embryos ; when 
gastrulation is finished, the axial organs can no 
longer be doubled. Later on, this experience led 
me to choose the early gastrula stage for my 
transplantation experiments. 

Another series of experiments, those on the 
lens of the vertebrate eye, led me to the concept 
of induction. The single parts of the vertebrate 
eye develop, as you know, in close relation of 
space and time to one another. Just at the spot 
where the anlage of the retina, the primary eye- 
ball, touches the epidermis, and just in the mo- 
ment it does do so, the lens is formed. Both pro- 
cesses seem to be connected as cause and eff^ect. 
This may be tested by experiment. If the forma- 
tion of the lens depends on some influence from 
the eye-ball, destruction of the latter should pre- 
vent formation of the former. In consequence 
the anlage of the eye-ball was eliminated, either 
early in the neurula .stage, or later, after closure 
of the medullary folds. The effect is different in 
different amphibian genera. Nay even in differ- 
ent amphibian species. In Raua tcmporaria, a 
European frog, no lens was formed ; Bomliinator 
behaves in the same way. On the other hand. H. 
D. King found in an American frog, that lens 
formation may occur after destruction of the e\e- 
ball ; I could later confirm this in another Euro- 
pean species of frog, Ratia esculenta. The dif- 
ference seems to be only a gradual one. Even 
Bombinator shows slight indication of lens for- 
mation. The same was observed by v. I'bisch in 
Rcitm tcmf'oraria. 

Instead of elimination of the eve-ball. I .sug- 
gested settling the question by bringing the eye- 
ball in contact with alien epidermis from other 
parts of the embryo. F. W. Lewis made this ex- 
periment by trans]ilarting the eye-ball under the 



skin of the trunk. I later transplanted the skin 
on the eye-ball. These experiments, and many 
others performed since then, proved that the eye- 
ball may induce formation of a lens in parts of 
the epidermis that would normally not have 
formed one. 

It is a fact of great theoretical importance that 
this faculty of inducing a lens in alien epidermis 
may be possessed by the eye-ball even of those 
species in which the lens may develop independ- 
ently. Filatow showed this in the case of the 
epidermis of Bufo, brought in contact with the 
eye-ball of Raiia cscnlcuta. In this frog, as I 
showed, the lens may lie formed after destruction 
of the eye-ball ; yet this same eye-ball of R. esctl- 
Icnta was shown b)- Filatow to have the power 
of inducing a lens in the trunk epidermis of a 
toad's embryo. This was one of the first cases 
of what was called "principle of double insur- 
ance" by W. Rhumbler and H. Braus, a principle 
that has since turned out to be of great import- 
ance in development, and even in physiology. This 
concept means that there is a double factor of 
safety; as, for instance, when a bridge which is 
intended to carry one thousand people is built to 
carry two thousand. So, the lens might be formed 
without the eye-ball out of the proper region of 
the skin, yet the eye-ball has the faculty of form- 
ing lens out of perfectly indifferent skin. We will 
encounter this principle again in the normal for- 
mation and the experimental induction of the 
medullary plate. 

The combination of these two series of experi- 
ments led me to the discovery of the "center of 
organization" and the "organizer." To make this 
quite clear, we must consider the fir.st steps in the 
development of the amphibian egg. 

The fertilized egg, as you know, is trans- 
formed, by segmentation into the blastula ; the 
blastula, liy invagination, into the gastrula. The 
outer layer of the gastrula, the ectoderm, is go- 
ing to form in its dorsal part the medullary plate, 
the anlage of the central nervous system and of 
the eye-balls. If one marks a point of the ecto- 
derm, near the animal pole, by staining it vitallv, 
as W. Vogt did, one may find the mark just in the 
fore end of the medullary plate; the marked re- 
gion has developed into medullary plate, it has 
been presumptive medullary jilate. A second re- 
gion of the gastrula. a little more in front, will 
form epidermis; it ma\- be called presumptive 
epidermis. 

Now the median constrictions proved that in 
the early gastrula stage the single regions can- 
not be determined, at least not irrevocably, as to 
their later fate: Ihev must be able, at least to a 
certain degree, to fill out each other's place. It 
should be possible to test this by actually putting- 
one in the other's |ilace, that is by transplantation. 



August 8, 193 1 ] 



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175 



This may be dune by means of tine instruments 
made of glass, namely by micropipettes, by glass 
rods drawn out to very fine points or by hair 
loops mounted on the capillary tip of glass tubes. 

In this way presumptive medullary plate and 
presumptive epidermis of the early gastrula may 
be exchanged. They develop, not according to 
the old region they come from, but according to 
the new region into which they are brought : that 
is, presumptive medullary plate will form epider- 
mis ; presumptive epidermis, medullary plate. 
This may he seen clearly when the germs used 
for the experiment were of somewhat different 
color either by nature or by vital staining. 

It is an important fact that such transplanta- 
tions may be performed not only between germs 
of the same species ( homoeoplastically ) ; but also 
1)etween those of different species ( heteroplasti ■ 
cally) ; for instance, between Triton tacniatiis and 
T. cristafus. The eggs of the former species are 
more or less pigmented, while those of the latter 
are of a greenish white and almost free of pig- 
ment. In consequence, the transplanted pieces 
may be clearly distinguished, even in sections, 
throughout the early development. Here, too, the 
transplanted piece will adapt itself to its new sur- 
roundings; but in doing so, it will still retain its 
specific characteristics. Presumptive medullary 
plate of T. taeiiiatus, for instance, will form epi- 
dermis of the gills, when brought into the region 
of the presumptive gills in a gastrula of cristatiis: 
hut it will preserve the specific characters of the 
tacniatiis epidermis of the gill region; the gills 
covered bv it have the form of taeiiiatus gills of 
that early stage. 

O. Mangold showed that presumptive epider- 
mis may not only form medullary plate but al- 
most anything else ; somites, nephridia, intestine, 
etc. 

However there is one region in the early gas- 
trula the parts of which behave in a totally dif- 
ferent way. If a piece of the u])per lip of the 
blastopore or of its immediate surroundings is 
transplanted into the ventral side of a gastrula, 
it does not follow its new neighborhood in its 
development, but sticks to its own way. More 
than that, it forces its neighboring cells to follow 
it ; it organizes its new surroundings and gives 
origin to a secondary embryo, partly built up by 
the cells of the implant, partly induced by them 
in the host's tissues. The chimaerical condition 
of such induced secondary embryos may be clear- 
ly demonstrated by heteroplastic transplantation, 
as Hilde Mangold has done in her beautiful ex- 
periments. 

Because of this organizing faculty the region 
of the upper lip of the blastopore was called 
"center of organization." and the cells composing 
it, "organizers." 



The next step in analyzing this center was to 
determine exactly its limits. This was done by 
H. Bautzmann. He found that all material of 
the dorsal and lateral lips of the blastopore will 
induce a medullary plate, which is invaginated dur- 
ing gastrulation to form the notochord and the 
mesoderm of the embryo. This was in full ac- 
cord with a statement made a short time before 
in my laboratory by A. Marx, that the mesoderm- 
al roof of the archenteron has the power of induc- 
tion. In both series of experiments the pieces of 
mesoderm were inserted into the coelom of a 
young gastrula through a slit in its upper part, 
and so came to lie, from the beginning, under the 
ectoderm of the embryo. This method was used 
in many of our later experiments. 

These experiments were a starting-point for 
several lines of investigation which I have fol- 
lowed, together with an increasing number of 
young friends, during the last ten years. As the 
time is passing, I must restrict myself here to 
outlining briefly the most important results. 

The first, almost perfect embryo induced bv 
Hilde Mangold had a medullary tube without 
eyes, but with two ear vesicles, a notochord and 
two rows of somites. The secondary ear vesicles 
lay almost exactly in the same level with 
the primary ones. This suggested the question of 
the regional determination fif the induced em- 
liryo. There might lie a gradient of some sort, 
a head region and a trunk region either in the 
ectoderm or in the underlying mesoderm. If the 
latter were true, we might speak for the moment 
of a head organizer and a tnmk organizer, words 
to which no deeper meaning is attributed. The 
head organizer would pass first around the upper 
lip of the blastopore, to be pushed forward to the 
region of the later brain, with its eyes in front 
and its ear vesicles on the posterior end. After 
this the trunk organizer would be invaginated, in- 
cluding that material that comes to lie under the 
medullary tube. In consequence, the upper lip 
of the Ijlastopore of the gastrula just beginning 
to invaginate, consists of the head organizer, at 
the end of the gastrulation of the trunk organizer. 

In view of this four series of experiments were 
made : ( i ) The head organizer was made to work 
on the head region, (2) The trunk organizer on 
the trunk region, (3) The head organizer on the 
trunk region, and (4) The trunk organizer on the 
head region. The result was that the head or- 
ganizer always induces brain, with normal or with 
cyclopical eyes, either in the head or in the trunk 
region ; the trunk organizer induces spinal chord 
without eyes aud ear-vesicles in the trunk region, 
but it induces brain with eyes and ear-vesicles in 
the head region. From this the conclusion may 
be drawn that there is a gradient of some sort, 
or rather, as I think, some brain-forming factor 



176 



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[ Vol. VL No. 47 



in the ectoderm as well as in the underlying meso- 
derm. Each of them is sufficient to warrant the 
formation of a brain; in normal development both 
work together to the same end. The fact that 
their effects are not cumulative seems to show 
that they are qualitative rather than quantitative. 

One might feel inclined to assume that the 
whole development of the newt's egg is composed 
of single processes, one inducing the other. A 
good example would be the induction of the eye- 
anlage by the mesoderm, followed by the induc- 
tion of tiie lens by the eye-iiall. The latter, itself 
induced, goes on to induce; it might therefore be 
called a "secondary organizer" or an "organizer 
of second grade." Such a secondary organizer 
could be produced experimentally in the follow- 
ing way. A piece of ectoderm, presumptive epi- 
dermis or medullary plate was transplanted in 
the upper lip of the blastopore. It was invagi- 
nated together with the surrounding material and 
would have formed notochord. After invagina- 
tion it was taken out again and transferred into 
the blastocele of another gastrula. Originally it 
would not have had the power of inducing a me- 
dullary plate; but in its new mesodermal sur- 
roundings it had apparently acquired this faculty; 
it induced a very beautiful medullary plate. It 
had become a "secondary organizer." 

If this were of general occurrence, one might 
conclude that the whole development were purely 
epigenetical. But there are certain facts which 
will make us cautious. The lens, for instance, 
may be induced by the eye-tell ; yet, in some 
species, at least, a lens may also originate without 
an eye-ball. The medullary plate might liehave 
in the same way; though it can be induced by the 
underlying mesoderm, it might besides be able to 
originate without it. Recent experiments of 
Goerttler and especially of Holtfreter point in 
this direction ; they show that presumptive me- 
dullary plate of the early gastrula, when isolated, 
mav form nervous tissue. As it develops by self- 
differentiation, it must have been determined : but 
as the same material might have been induced to 
form epidermis, this determination cannot have 
been an irrevocable one. This case and other sim- 
ilar ones seem to justify the concept of "labile 
determination." 

In normal development, presumptive medullary 
])late capable of self-differentiation, is in contact 
with mesoderm capable of induction — again a 
.striking example of double insurance. One might 
speak of a "svnergetical principle of develop- 
ment." 

Little is known as vet about the structure of 
the center of organization and its means of induc- 
ing new structures. A rather radical way to test 
both is to destroy its structure and .see what sort 
of an effect is left. Pieces of presumptive meso- 



derm were boiled, frozen, dried out, cut in very 
small pieces or pressed between a slide and cover 
glass. Only the mechanical methods have yielded 
positive results as yet. Organizers, finely chopped 
and mixed, or squeezed hetween glass slides, may 
induce a medullary plate. Besides that, they may 
exhibit a most wonderful power of self-regula- 
tion, which reminds one of the sponge experi- 
ments of H. V. Wilson. In two cases almost per- 
fect embryos resulted, with medullary tube, noto- 
chord and two rows of somites. The medullary 
tubes were certainly induced. The mesodermal 
parts might have been induced ; but most probably 
they were formed out of the implanted material 
itself. 

Let me now, in conclusion, hint at some ex- 
periments which are just now going on in my 
laboratory. You remember the effect of hetero- 
plastic transplantation : ectoderm of Triton 
taoiiatus, transplanted into Triton cristatus, will 
adapt itself to its new surroundings and will form 
just the organs that are wanted in its new place ; 
l)ut it will form them in its own way, as taciiiatits, 
not as cristatus. Now, if it were possible to com- 
bine in this way germs of different genera or 
even of different orders, as of an urodelan and an 
anuran amphibium, very interesting results might 
be expected. The larva of Triton has little teeth 
in its mouth, of a structure like other vertebrate 
teeth, while the tadpole has horny jaws. Triton 
has balancers below the eyes while the tadpole 
has suckers. Now, if ectoderm of a frog's gas- 
trula is transplanted in the presumptive mouth 
region of the gastrula of a newt, what will be 
formed later? Will there be formed any part of 
the head armature at all and it in what sort? 
Teeth and balancers, or horny jaws and suckers? 
I can answer the question only for the latter or- 
gans, and even there only with a certain reseive. 
But I may say that just in the last days before 
my departure I saw beautiful suckers, in living 
specimens, in one case in sections, in the operated 
larvae of Dr. Schotte, with whom I am working 
on this problem. When these results have been 
worked out, they may throw some light on the 
nature of the stimulus thrt effects induction of 
organs. It is as if some key word were given : 
"mouth armature" : the response depends on the 
quality of the reacting material. But this way 
of looking at the things surpasses, at least for 
the moment, the limits of e.xact knowledge. It 
is my personal conviction that the processes go- 
ing on in the living matter mav be comiiared with 
nothing else so well as with the workings of our 
own mind. To deal with the living organism as 
if it were animated unto its last fibers, seems to 
me the best way to understand it and to help it. 

That is all that I wish to tell you about my 
own experiments. But perhaps you will allow 



I 



August 8, 1931 ] 



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177 



me as a foreign guest to add a few personal words 
in conclusion. You will realize that a German 
who loves his country could not leave it light- 
heartedly just at the present moment. I would not 
have done it simply for my own pleasure. But I 
knew I was going to friends, and the welcome 
you have given my wife and myself has shown 
me that I was not mistaken. But I was welcomed 
by America even hefore I came to her shores, in 
a most wonderful way. In the reading room of 
our steamer, the "Europa," I saw in the four 
corners, four heroes of spirit, two German and 
two American, placed fraternally together: Kant 



and Goethe ; Emerson and Walt Whitman. Few 
of us have studied Kant, but his spirit still per- 
vades our life. Goethe is not dead amongst us; 
many of his works I know by heart. But besides 
Goethe, no authors of world literature have in- 
fluenced me as much as Emerson and Whitman. 
If you were to look in my library, you would see 
that there are no books so well-thumbed as Emer- 
son's Essays and the good grey poet's Leaves of 
Grass. When I think of them, I see two stars 
shining over your country: their names are free- 
dom and comradeship. I wish to say to you that 
I feel happy under your stars. 



THE FORMATION OF ICE CRYSTALS IN THE PROTOPLASM OF 

VARIOUS CELLS 

Dr. Riibkrt Chambers 
Professor of Biology. Washington Square College. New York Uni^'ersity 



This past spring I had occasion to visit the 
Low Temperatures Station in Cambridge, Eng- 
land. The station, under the directorship of Sir 
William Hardy, has s])lendidly equip])ed labora- 
tories, and in the basement are a dozen or more 
large rooms which can be maintained at various 
constant low temperatures. There I became inter- 
ested in the question of what happens to proto- 
plasm on freezing. At what temperature dojs 
freezing occur and what form do the ice crystals 
take within the cell? Do they form in such a 
way as to give one an inkling as to the existence 
of internal structure? In collaboratif)n with one 
of the members of the Station, Mr. H. P. Hnle, 
I started a series of experiments on muscle, 
amebae, and the epidermal cells of the red onion. 
These e.xperinients were performed as follows : 
A muscle fiber of the sartorius of the frog was 
removed and placed in a dish of liquid paraffin, 
where it was pas ed back and forth several times 
to rid it of interstitial fluids. The fiber was then 
placed on a coverslip and inverted over the moi'^t 
chamber of the micromanipulator which had been 
placed in a rrom of the desired temperature the 
night before. Fir.e thermocouples were used for 
determining the temperature of the hanging drop 
and the experiments were always performed in a 
room the temperature of which was several de- 
grees lower than desired. By means of cold filters 
and by using a low ]>ower substage condenser, we 
were able to maintain fairly constant conditions 
in the drop. We worked mostly in a room the 
temperature of which was about — 6°C. The drop 
could I)e warmed when desired by a fine loop of 
heated platinum. For the purpose of inoculating 
supercooled material we used a micropipefte filled 
with water which was frozen so that a micro- 
column of ice protruded through its tip. After 
the muscle fiber had been allowed to over-cool as 



it lay in the oil surrounded liy a thin film of 
serum, the ice-tipped pipette was brought against 
the fiber, whereupon freezing took place. Fine 
flakes of ice spread over the surface of the fiber 
until the cut ends were reached. The ice at the 
cut ends initiated the formation of slender ice 
columns which ran in parallel linear lines along 
the interior of the fiber. The tips of the cfilumns 
were ])ointed and they advanced regularly and 
progressively. 

These experiments bring out two interesting 
]5oints : ( I ) the ease with which the internal ice 
forms as slender columns running lengthwise 
within the mu.scle fiber. Apparently there is some- 
thing which resists the formation of ice in the 
transverse but not in the longitudinal direction. 
This argues for the interior of the muscle fiber to 
consist of linearly arranged solid and liquid areas. 
The lower the temperature at which this internal 
freezing is brought about, the more rapidly grow 
these columns and the more slender and numer- 
ous they are. We also froze some fibers over the 
open top of a Ixjttle containing liquid air. A 
photograph of such a fiber which had been ac- 
cidentally liroken across the middle, showed tiny 
columns projecting from the broken ends in the 
space caused by the break. 

(2 ) The other interesting point about these ex- 
periments is the difference in temperature at 
which surface and internal freezing occurred. We 
obtained external freezing at about — 1.80C., but it 
was not until the temperature was lowered still 
more that we secured internal freezing. This is 
interesting because Mr. T. Moran of the Low 
Temperature Station, has found that muscle is 
irreversibly affected when frozen below a tem- 
perature of — 1.5° to — 2.0°. As the muscle was 
thawed, those fibers which had had columns of ice 
formed inside, contracted irreversiblv, while the 



178 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 4; 



fibers which had been frozen at the surface only, 
would be contractile at a temperature as low as 
— 10°. 

Our other experiments Were on the ameba. 
Several organisms were placed in a drop of water 
on a coverslip. The drop was ringed with oil and 
as much water as possible drawn off, leaving the 
ameliae flattened against the coverslip. A drop of 
oil was then deposited so as to touch the ring, and 
to enclose the amebae in a thin film of water. The 
coverslip was then inverted and brought to the 
low temiierature. When the over-cooled water 
around the amebae was touched with the ice- 
tipped pipette, ice spread in several sheets from 
the site of seeding. On approaching the amebae 
the ice sheets grouped about them and spread un- 
til all of the water was frozen except for a nar- 
row zone around the organisms. Freezing con- 
tinued until finally this also was frozen. Oc- 
casionally the resulting compression was so great 
as to burst the amebae, whereupon they froze. 
Amebae which were not compressed sufficiently to 
cause bursting remained quiescent, with their 
pseudopodia extended and firmly embedded in ice. 
By raising a microneedle from below and pushing 
against the ameba. the granules within could be 
moved about. The temperature at which the cul- 
ture-medium froze was in the neighborhood of 
— 0.30C. We had to drop the temperature consid- 
erably below this before we secured internal freez- 
ing of an intact ameba. This was done by in- 
serting an ice-tipped pipette into the ameba, 
whereupon fine, feathery ice crystals would grow 
through the interior and stop inside the mem- 
brane. After a few minutes the crystals ran to- 
gether into blocks of ice, squeezing the cytojilas- 
mic granules into spaces between the blocks. It 
made a striking picture to observe amebae, as one 
after another was punctured. The unpunctured 
amebae were translucent and one could see the 
nucleus and contractile vacuole. LTpon punctur- 
ing, the entire amebae at once became opaf|u?. 
The ice crystals as they formed, could be seen to 
run around the contractile vacuole, and then after 
a bit this, too, would freeze. 

We obtained analogous results with plant cells. 
Strips of the epidermis of the common red onion 
were placed in liquid paraffin and frozen bv touch- 
ing with an ice-tipped pii^ette. Freezing of the es- 
caped sap first occurred over the surface of the 
strip and then in the cavities of the dead cells. 
Ice crystals would form under the cellulose wall 
of normal ajjpearing cells, resulting in a dimin- 
ution of the vacuole. The protoplasm progressive- 
ly shrank as the color of the contained sap be- 
came intensified, suggesting the e.xtraction of 
water, (^n thawing, the water was reabsorbed. 
In other words, with freezing it is possible to ob- 
tain reversible plasmolysis. At temjieratures be- 



tween — 8° C. and — 10" C. spontaneous freezing 
of the sap within the vacuole may occur, but 
above — 8° C. freezing of the sap occurred only 
when the protoplasm had ruptured. This suggests 
that plant cells, as well as the ameba and the mus- 
cle fiber, possess a membrane which can prevent 
external freezing from inoculating the interior. 
In the case of the ameba and of the muscle fiber, 
it is of interest to note that the type of crystal 
formation within the former denotes a lack of 
definite structure, while the reverse is true inv the 
latter. 

Discussion 

Question : I wonder if these results are not sim- 
ilar to what \ou get in fine capillaries where there 
is supercooling and then a small crystal of ice is 
added? At 5" or 6° lielow zero the whole thing 
solidifies. 

Dr. Chambers : It is true that the capillary di- 
mensions of the droplets I used made it far 
easier to induce supercooling than if the fluids 
used had been in greater amounts. 

Question : As I understand it, the ice crystals 
did not form, at least in muscle cells, unless they 
came in from the outside. You had no formation 
of ice crystals inside when the membrane was in- 
tact ? 

Dr. Clwiiibers: Occasionally we obtained spon- 
taneous freezing of a cell but that was only when 
the temperature was considerably below the freez- 
ing [joint of the interior. However, at a tem])er- 
ature at which external freezing occurred no in- 
ternal freezing could be induced even when a 
piece of ice was inserted into the interior. At a 
temperature still lower, seeding the interior in- 
duced internal freezing. 

Qu:stiou: When you had actually penetrated 
the membrane, did the ice columns proceed strict- 
1\ longitudinally, or did they ever extend trans- 
versely ? 

Dr. Chambers: If the seeding occurred at the 
cut end of a fiber, the ice columns started at that 
spot and advanced in parallel, longitudinal lines 
along the interior of the fiber. If the seeding oc- 
curred at a tear in the sarcolemma on the side of 
the fiber, the columns started at this spot and 
sprayed out in curves from there, then running 
along in the two longitudinal directions to the 
two ends of the fiber. 

Question : Would you draw the conclusion that 
outside freezing does not extend through to the 
inside ? How would you interpret this as relating 
to the pore theory? 

Dr. Chambers: The surface of the cell appar- 
ently serves as a liarrier against seeding of the 
interior from the outside. I do not know wheth- 
er a pored membrane would act in a similar man- 
ner. 

Question: Is anything known about the be- 



August 8, 193 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



179 



havior of artificial membranes? Will freeziiisj 
pass through them? 

Dr. Chambers: lilocks of orelatin will freeze if 
the tem|)erature is lowered sufificiently. At a rel- 
atively high temperature there will he surface 
freezing, extraction of water, and shrinking of 
the gelatin. Ry lowering the temperatu"e the 
freezing will sjiread into the gelatin block. 

Comment: It seems to me that it would be a 
good thing to make experiments with memliranes 
having pores of known sizes. I do not believe 
the gelatin membrane would help mvich because 
we know that that is mostly water. A dried col- 
lodion membrane, for instance, is extremely per- 
msabie. If it should turn out that freezing would 
or would not go through a collodion membrane, 
it might throw a great deal of light on the que.<^ 
tion. 



Question : How do you interpret the longitudin- 
al spread of freezing with reference to the in- 
ternal structure of the fiter? 

Dr. Chambers: The myofibrils are longitudinal- 
ly arranged, solid elements, immersed in a more 
fluid medium ; and the whole is surrounded by a 
membrane which resists the inoculation of freez- 
ing from without. 

Question : Did the ameba show reversal, and 
the muscle fiber also ? 

Dr. Chambers: None of the amebae we ob- 
served showed recovery from internal freezing. 
They were irreversibly coagulated. Unfrozen am- 
ebae, kept in solid ice at — 30C. for 3 hours, may 
recover on thawing. When an internally frozen 
muscle-fiber was thawed an irreversible shorten- 
ing always took place. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOK REVIEWS 



The Laboratory Mouse. Its Origin. Heredity 
and Culture. Clyde E. Keeler. 81 pp. Harvard 
University Press. 1931. 

A brief statement of the geographical distribu- 
tion of the mouse is followed by an informing 
account of the antiquity of the fancy mouse. It 
appears that dominant spotting, albinism, and 
waltzing were all recorded before the present era. 
The other breeds were distinguished much later. 
Since in the classical literature the same word 
Mils was used for both the mouse and the rat, it 
is only possible to determine which is meant by 
the help of indirect evidence. 

Some twenty-four breeds of mice are briefly 
described and these descriptions followed by a 
useful table, listing for twenty-seven varieties the 
fanciers' term, the scientific term and the genetic 
formula. 

The genetics of normal and abnormal inherit- 
ance are then considered, and the book closes with 
a chapter on the laboratory breeding and care of 
these animals. 

Twenty-one life-size figures, in black and white, 
indicate the habit and coat color in the several 
breeds. — H. H. Donaldson. 

Laboratory Studies in Zoology. H. D Reed a'ifl 
B. P. Young. 1930. viii plus 121 pp. McGraw-Hill 
Book Company. 

This laboratory manual has grown out of the 
elementary course in zoology at Cornell. Approx- 
imately half the book is devoted to outlines for 
the study of the frog. Keys are given for student 
identification of Protozoa and for ''the laref'r 
groups of animals." This adds another to the 
distinctly teachable laboratory outlines in ele- 
mentary zoology for the incre-'sing nimiber of 
teachers who dislike to "roll-their-own " 

— W. C. Allee. 



The Genetics of Domestic Rabbits. A Manual 
for Students of Mammalian Genetics and an Aid 
to Rabbit Breeders and Fur Farmers. W. E. 
Castle. 31 pp. 39 figs. Harvard University 
Press. 1930. 

This brochure is a pendant to Castle's larger 
book on genetics. It deals only with the rabbit 
and its immediate purpose is indicated in the 
subtitle. 

Twelve mutations are precisely described in 
four groups under: "Color Mutation," "Spotted 
Coat," "Structure of Coat" and "Color of Fat." 
The genetic constitution of each of the various 
breeds is given in detail. There follows a chap- 
ter on Iwdy size and ear length The figures are 
ercellent and the book forms a handy compendium 
for those concerned with the rabbit in any way. 
— H. H. Donaldson. 

Te.vtbook of Histology. Eugene C. Piette, AL D. 
450 pp. 1931. F. A. Davis Company. 

This elementary text is made short and simple 
to meet needs of medical and dental classes, hut 
merits wider usage. The style is crisp, the 277 
illustrations are admirably chosen and spaced. 
Ke\' words and phrases on every page are set in 
bold face type to save the student time in re- 
viewing. There is more material of general bio- 
logical interest than in many medical texts, and 
an effort has been made to include recent work in 
the various fields. Histological techniques are 
briefly and neatly described in an introductory 
chapter. Forty pages are given over to cytology, 
a hundred and fifteen to general histology, and 
the rest to special histology. , 

In common with so many American ,scie itiftc 
books, this text is printed on glossy paper. Glossy 
paper was invented by the devil to blind the eves 
of those who read at night. ^W. W. Ballard. 



iSo 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 



THE DIRECTORY FOR 1931 

{ ADDITIONS ) 



This list contains the names of the workers at the 
laboratories in Woods Hole which were not included 
in the first number of THE COLLECTING NET. 

KEY 

Laboratories 

Botany Building Bot 

Brick Building Br 

Fisheries Laboratory. .FL 

Lecture Hall L 

Main Room in Fisheries 

Laboratory M 

Old Main Building . . .OM 
Rockefeller Building, Rock 



Resilience 

Apartment A 

Dormitory D 

Drew House Dr 

Fisheries Residence. . .F 

Homestead Ho 

Hubbard H 

Kidder K 

Whitman W 

In the case of those individuals not living on" 
laboratory property, the name of the landlord and 
the street are given. In the case of individuals living 
outside of Woods Hole, the place of residence is in 
parentheses. 

THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

Investigators 
Alderman, Evangeline grad. asst. Wellesley. Br 204. 

W a. 
Anderson, R. S. res. assoc. Princeton. Br 110. Mc- 

Innes, Millfield. 
Ashkenaz, D. M. asst. biol. New York. Br 328. Cav- 

anaugh, High. 
Atlas, M. asst. emb. Columbia. Br 314. Dr 14. 
Austin, Mary L. asst. prof. zool. Br 217B. Nickerson, 

Quissett. 
Baikwin, H. asst. prof, pediatrics New York. OM 38. 

Tinkham, Gardiner. 
Bakwin, Ruth instr. pediatrics New York. OM 38. 

Tinkham, Gardiner. 
Ball, E. G. instr. phys. chem. Hopkins Med. Br 110. 

Veeder, West. 
Beck, L. V. grad. asst. phys. New York. Phys. Lab. 

McLeish, Millfield. 
Beutner, R. prof, pharmacology, Louisville Med. Br 

325. Lewis, Buzzards Bay. 
Biddle, R. asst. gen. Col. Inst. Tech. 
Borodin, D. N. invest, plant phys. Yonkers, N. Y. 

Bot. Hilton, Millfield. 
Buck, Louise H. asst. cytol. New York. Br 343. D 10.'5 
Butt, C. res. asst. Princeton. Br 116. Sylvia, Millfield. 
Carabelli, A. A. med. stud. Pennsylvania. Br 114. 

Addison, Gosnold. 
Carlson, J. G. instr. biol. Bryn Mawr. OM 33. K7. 
Castle, W. A. instr. biol. Brown. Br 233. Kittila, Bar 

Neck. 
Chor, H. neurol. Washington Med. (St. Louis) Br 

223. (Falmouth). 
Clark, Frances M. Lilly Res. Labs. Br 328B. Howes, 

Main. 
Coldwater, G. instr. zool. Missouri. Br 335. 
Corey, H. Irene res. asst. Pennsylvania. Br 219. 

Purdham, Main. 
Cowles, R. P. prof. zool. Hopkins. Br 336. D 101. 
Curtis, W. C. prof. zool. Missouri. Br 335. Dr 211. 
Dearing, W. H. grad. cytol. Pennsylvania Med. Br 

220. Elliot, Center. 
Dunbar, F. F. grad. asst. zool. Columbia. Br 333. 

Wallace (Falmouth I. 



Ea,stlick, H. L. grad. asst. zool. Washington (St. 

Louis) OM Base. Dr. 7. 
Einarson, L. res. fel. Harvard Med. Br 108. A 107. 
Eyre, Sara W. res. asst. Long Island. OM 45. D 209. 
Favilli, G. asst. Inst, of Gen. Pathology, Royal ( Flor- 
ence, Italy) Br 208. Elliot, Center. 
Francis, Dorothy res. asst. Memorial Hosp. (N. Y.I 

Br 329. W f. " 
Fniser, Doris A. asst. anat. Pennsylvania Med. Br 

114. Addison, Gosnold. 
Gayet, D. dir. Lab. Physiologic Pathologique (Paris) 

Br 109. Broderick, North. 
Graham, C. H. Nat. Res. fel. Pennsylvania Br 231. 

Hilton, Main. 
Green, Arda A. res. fel. phys. chem. Harvard Med. 

Br 108. Grinnell, West. 
Greenwood, A. W. lect. Inst. Genetics (Edinburgh) 

Br 123. 
Hartline, H. K. fel. med. physics Pennsylvania. Br 

231. McLeish, Millfield. 
Hitsehler, W. J. grad. Pennsylvania. Br 117. Wilde, 

Gardiner. 
Hodge, C. Jr. instr. zool. Virginia. Rock. Rohmeling, 

Pleasant. 
Hodge, Ruth P. grad. bot. Virginia. Bot. Rohmeling, 

Pleasant. 
Heiss, Elizabeth M. grad. asst. biol. Purdue. Phys. 

Lab. W g. 
Jackson, J. P. grad. asst. bot. Missouri. Bot. Dr 2. 
Johnson, H. H. Col. City N. Y. Br 315. White, Mill- 
field. 
Jones, N. scientific artist. Br. 211. A 201. 
Kille, F. Rt assoc. prof. biol. Birmingham Southern. 

OM Base. D 307. 
Kostir, W. J. asst. prof. zool. Ohio State. Bot G. 

Gifford, Juniper Point. 
Lambert, Elizabeth F. tech, phys. Harvard Med. Br 

107. Young, West. 
Lewis, I. prof. bot. Bot. Virginia, Hubbard, East. 
Loebel, R. O. Russell Sage fel. Cornell Med. Br 340. 

Nickerson, Church. 
Margolin, S. grad. proto. Columbia. Br 314. Avery, 

Main. 
Metcalf, M. M. res. assoc. zool. Johns Hopkins, High. 
Moor, Carmen, Sec. to Dr. Bronfenbrenner. Gifford, 

Juniper Point. 
Moor, W. A. tech. bact. Washington (St. Louis) Br 2 

Gifford, Juniper Point. 
Morris, Helen grad. Columbia. Bot. Mclnnis. Millfield. 
Nelsen, O. E. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. OM 21. K 9. 
NicoU, P. A. grad. zool. Washington (St. Louis) OM 

Base. Dr. 7. 
Oltmann, Clara Columbia. OM 34. W h. 
Reznikoff, P. instr. med. Cornell Med. Br 340. Mc- 

Kenzie, Pleasant. 
Risley, P. L. instr. zool. Michigan. L 21. Gifford, 

Juniper Point. 
Ru<;h, R. instr. zool. Hunter. Br 217M. D 303. 
Schiiuffler, W. G. physician. Princeton. L 24. Fish, 

Woods Hole. 
Schmidt, Ida Genther jr. res. fel. Children's Hosp. 

(Cincinnati) Br 110. Neal, Woods Hole. 
Sohniuck, Louise grad. cytol. Johns Hopkins. Br 

343. H 2. 



AunusT 8, 103 1 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



181 



Schuett, J. F. zool. Chicago. Br 332. North. 

Scott. Florence M. asst. prof. bid. Seton Hall. Br 

217D. Nickerson, Millfleld. 
Shore, Agnes instr. chem. Bellevue Med. (New 

York) Br 310. A 206. 
Sickles, Grace asst. bact. N. Y. State Dept. Health. 

Br 122. Young, West. 
Smith, Suzanne Instr. zool. Missouri. Br 335. Erskine. 

Woods Hole. 
Snyder, C. D. prof. phys. Hopkins Med. Library, Mc- 

Kenzie, Pleasant. 
Spemann, H. dir. Zool. Inst. (Freiburg) Br 306. 
Steinbach, H. B. grad. zool. Pennsylvania. Br 220. 

Elliot, Center. 
Stewart, Dorothy R. asst. prof. biol. Skidmore. Br 

222. White, MiUfield. 
Stokes, Julia C'. res. asst. Washington Med. (St. 

Louis) Br 2. Hamilton, Main. 
Taift, C. H. Jr. assoc. prof, pharmacology Texas Med. 

L 32. Whitman. 
Tocker, A. J. res. asst. bacteriol. Washington Med. 

(St. Louis) Br 2. Dinsmore, School. 
Tohyama, G. asst. prof. Tokio Imperial. L 31. Ca- 

hoon. Main. 
Turner, J. P. instr. zool. Minnesota. Br 217n. Grin- 

nell. West. 
Tyler, A. instr. emb. California Inst. Tech. Br 315. 

"GoflSn, Miimeld. 
Tyler, Betty S. res. asst. emb. California Inst. Tech. 

"Br 315. Goffin, Millfield. 
Walker, P. A. grad. Bowdoin. OM 41. Thompson, 

Main. 
White, Edna tech. Hopkins. Br 343. Moses, Agassiz. 
Wolf, E. A. asst. prof. zool. Pittsburgh. OM 43. 

Elliot, Center. 



U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

Investigators 

Cobb, Margaret V. res. assoc. Education. Harvard. 

M. Howes, Main. 
Hooker, C. W. grad. zool. Duke. FL 54. F 149. 
Long, Margaret E. tech. Duke. FL 149. Lewis. High. 
Parr, A. E. asst prof. zool. Yale. FL 141. F 2. 

OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION 

Bigelow, Elizabeth 109. Luscombe, Main. 

Borodin, N. A. Museum Comp. Zool. (Cambridge) 

107. Lewis, Buzzards Bay. 
Lambert, Anne 105. Young, West. 
Redfield, A. C. prof. phys. Harvard. 103. Price, 

Church. 



INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 



Instruction Staff 



Bissonnette, T. H. prof. biol. Trinity. OM 26. D 108- 

109. 
Cole, E. C. assoc. prof. biol. Williams. OMB 24. D 304. 
Coonfield, B. R. instr. zool, Brooklyn. OM 29 D 306. 
Daiwson, J. A. asst. prof. biol. Col. City N. Y. OM 

28. A 302. 
Hadley, C. E. asst. prof. biol. N. J. State Teachers' 

(Montclair) OM 32. Hilton, Main. 
Nplson, O. E. instr. zool. Pennsylvania. OM 21. K 9. 
Parks, Elizabeth K. grad. asst. Oberlin. OM. W d. 
Pollister, A. W. instr. zool. Columbia. OM 44. D 314. 
Sayles, L. P. instr. biol. Col. City N. Y. OM 25. D 214. 
Severinghaus, A. E. asst. prof. anat. Columbia. OM 

31. K 12. 



Students 
Aguayo, C. G. asst. prof. biol. Havana. Clough, Mill- 
field. 
Anthony, Elizabeth S. grad. Browm. H 7a. 
Bachrach, Josephine E. Vassar. Grinnell, West. 
Baker, E. G. S. stud. asst. anat. and emb. De Pauw. 

K 6. 
Barron, D. H. asst. Yale. Cowey, Depot. 
Belcher, Jane C. Colby. Cowey, Depot. 
Brewster, J. R. ed. Univ. Film Found. Avery, Main. 
Chase, H. Y. grad. Howard. Dr 8. 
Chen, H. Harvard. Dr 9. 

Chinn, M. Priscilla grad. Goucher. Cowey, Depot. 
Clark, Adele F. Tufts. Kittila, Bar Neck. 
Clark, Jean McN. Wilson. Hilton, Main. 
Clausen, R. G. instr. biol. Union. Smith, Glendon. 
Cohen, B. M. asst zool. Johns Hopkins. Nickerson, 

Millfield. 
Corey, H. Irene res. asst. Pennsylvania. Purdham, 

Main. 
Croley, J. T. Dartmouth. Dr. 
Dimick, Helen Wellesley. H 7. 
Drew, R. W. Wesleyan. K 5. 
Drugg, Helen Vermont. Sanderson, High. 
Easitlick, H. L. grad. asst. zool. Washington (St. 

Louis) Dr 7. 
Ellis, Lolj>, M. asst. biol. Southwestern. W c. 
Fish, H. S. grad. Harvard. Crowell, Main. 
Forhan, Laura Montana, Broderick, North. 
Fuchs, B. American (Washington, D. C.) Dr attic. 
Gerstell, R. Dartmouth. Dr 1. 
Glidden, Dorothy P. grad. Smith. W e. 
Hegner, Isabel Radcliffe. Conklin, High. 
Hetrick, L. A. Jr. asst. biol. American (Washington, 

D. C.) Dr. 3. 
Howard, J. W. Hamilton. K 8. 

Hussey, Kathleen L. fel. zool. Ohio Wesleyan. W c. 
.lefferson, Margaret D. Pennsylvania Col. for Women 

Broderick, North. 
Johnson, Arlene C. Wheaton. H 6. 
.Jones, E. K. lect. biol. Dalhousie. (Halifax) K 8, 
Kilgore, B. Butler. Kobinson, Quissett. 
Kramer, T. C. res. asst. biol. Western Reserve. K 7. 
Lrigstroth, Muriel A. Dalhousie (Halifax) Gray, 

Buzzards Bay. 
Mann, D. R. grad. asst. zool. Duke. Hall, Millfield. 
Melvin, G. grad. De Pauw. K 7. 
Metzner, J. fel. zool. Col. City N. Y. Young, West. 
Moment, G. B. fel. zool. Yale. Cowey, Depot. 
NicoU, P. A. Washington (St. Louis) Dr 7. 
Pomerat, C. A. asst. biol. Clark (Worcester) Hig- 

gins. Depot. 
Raye, W. H. Jr. Amherst. Dr 6. 
Rosenbaum, Louise lab. asst. zool. Pennsylvania. 

Sanderson, High. 
Rountree, Kathorine E. instr. biol. Wesleyan. W b. 
Sanders, R. grad. Yale. White, Millfield. 
Smith, O. R. grad. Cornell. Supply House. 
Solberg, A. N. instr. zool. North Dakota Agricultur- 
al. Avery, Main. 
Stewart, P. A. Rochester, K 6. 
Thomas, T. B. grad. asst. Oberlin K 5. 
Warters, Mary asst. prof. biol. Centenary (Shreve- 

port. La.) k 2. 
Westkaemper, Remberta instr. biol. St. Benedict. 
Nickerson, Millfield. 



Willard, W. R. Yale Med. Dr 2. 

Wismer, Virginia asst. bot. Pennsylvania. Sander- 
son, High. 
Young, D. G. Acadia. McLeish, Millfield. 



1 82 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific work 
at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Grifiin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 



EDITORIAL NOTES 

Three more numbers of The Collecting Net 
will be published this season, the last one beinjj; 
issued on Saturday, August 29. Material for pub- 
lication in this issue cannot be accepted after 
Monday, August 24. 

The plan of selling books to obtain money for 
The Collecting Net Scholarship Fund has been 
a successful one. A sum of over one hundred 
dollars has already been realized from this source. 
We still have a large collection of books for sale 
at reduced prices. Books on Cape Cod and a fev/ 
of the current magazines can be purchased at the 
publisher's list price. We are under obligations 
to Miss Ruth Ann Johlin for the poster of the 
darky holding the announcement of our sale. 

Several young biologists who would like to ob- 
tain positions this winter have placed informa- 
tion about themselves on file in our office. This 
is available for consultation by individuals who 
might l)e concerned with their appointment. 

PICNIC PARTIES ON NAUSHON AND 
NONAMESSET 

The following statement has recently been re- 
ceived by the .Marine Biological Laboratory from 
Mr. Ralph K. I'orbes, Managing Trustee of the 
Forlies Estate : 

The Trustees of Naushon have had under con- 
sideration the matter of permitting the landing of 
picnic parties at different parts of their property 
and they have decided to modify the regulations 
which have been in force for some years. 

On account of the building of two new houses bv 
members of the family, one on Nonamesset over- 
looking Inner Hadley Harbor and one on Goat's 
Neck, it has been decided to cancel the general per- 
mission given to the public to land on the so-called 
Wild Duck Wharf on Goat's Neck and in the stead 
thereof, to authorize the landing of oicnic parties 
on the white sand beach on the North side of No- 
namesset near the old Nonamesset House; and the 
other point where picnic parties may land is the 
small Cove which faces South on the Sound at the 
extreme Eastern point of Nonamesset; and on the 
island of Naushon, permission is given the public to 
land on the white sand beach at Tarpaulin Cove, 
but with this proviso in both cases, — that picnic 



parties of more than twenty-five persons are re- 
quested to notify Mr. Allan the foreman at Naushon 
Farm and obtain from him the permission of the 
trustees for landing such large parties. 

The lighting of fires without permission, on any 
land of the Naushon Trustees, is prohibited. 

We wish at this time to express our appreciation 
of the consideration which has been shown by the 
members and students of your school, in clearing up 
the traces of their picnic parties in the past. Other 
picnic parties have frequently been less considerate 
and we find it important to make more strict rules 
than in the past. 

Will you kindly inform those who wish to land 
and make use of the privileges of Naushon and 
Nonamesset, of the new regulations which we are 
putting in force ? 

DR. FRY AND THE FORTY DROSO- 
PHILA EGGS 

Dr. Alfred F. Huettner 
Professor of Biology, Washington Square Col- 
lege, New York University 
In his review of my recent seminar report Dr. 
Fry criticized my observations on the Drosophila 
egg by comparing my data with his own which 
he obtained from forty Drosophila eggs. He 
found that only half of this number of segment- 
ing eggs showed centrioles during interkinesis, 
and the reader is left with the impression that I 
must have had similar results and that I must 
have withheld such negative evidence in my re- 
cent report. 

I have studied thousands of Drosophila eggs, 
and I have coagulated them with a large variety 
of fi.xing agents, beginning with Weismann's heat 
coagulation and ending with the specialized tech- 
niques of Mottier and Kopsch. Invariablv all 
segmenting Drosophila eggs show centrioles dur- 
ing interkinesis when coagulated with the .stand- 
ard fi.xing agents commonly used in cvtologic 
technique, and I am willing to demonstrate this 
fact to anyone who is interested in this problem. 
— Alfred F. Huettner. 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 



At the following hours (Daylight Saving Time) 

the current in the hole turns to run from Buz- 
zards Bay to Vineyard Sound: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

Aug. 9 i-:.S5 1:10 

Aug. 10 1:52 2:03 

Aug. II 2:43 2:51 

Aug. 12 3:33 3:48 

Aug. 13 4:21 4:34 

Aug. 14 S:io .S:24 

Aug. 15 6:01 6:19 

Aug. 16 6:44 7:05 

Aug. 17 7:36 8:00 

Aug. 18 8:23 8:28 



August 8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



1S3 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

Mr. R. D. Norton, Palaeontologist of the Texas 
Company, Shreveport, Louisiana, visited the In- 
stitution last week to consult Director T. Way- 
land Vaughan concerning certain problems of for- 
aminifera and marine sediments. 

Dr. F. S. Brackett, Chief of the new Division 
of Radiation and Organisms of the Smithsonian 
Institution of Washington, delivered a lecture at 
tht Scripps Institution on Wednesday afternoon 
of last week. His suliject was "Study of the 
effect of radiation on plants," and he devoted con- 
siderable time to explanation of methods of in- 
vestigation being developed by his Division. He 
showed that already they have obtained remark- 
ably accurate measurements of the use of light by 
a ])lant both in respect to the common rays of 
"white light" and in respect to the color com- 
ponents (red, blue, ultra violet, etc.) of such rays. 
He was accompanied by Prof. A. R. Davis of the 
Department of Plant Physiology of the Uni- 
versity of California at Berkeley. 

Mr. H. B. Foster, Engineer of the Comptrol- 
ler's office of the l''niversity of California at Ber- 
keley, visited the Institution on I'niversity busi- 
ness from Saturday of last week to Tuesday of 
this week. 

On Wednesday evening of this week Prof. W. 
P. Kelley of the Department of Agricultural 
Chemistry in -the Citrus Experiment Station at 
Riverside delivered a lecture on '"Bafe exchange 
in soils." This lecture was especially interesting 
to members of the scientific staff of the Institu- 
tion because a number of the problems discussed 
are similar to those encountered in study of ma- 
rine sediments. 

Mr. and Mrs. James Leach, Teaching Fellows 
in the Departments of Zoology and Palaeontol- 
ogy, respectively, of the University of California 
at Berkelev, were week-end guests of Mr. and 
Mrs. E. H. Myers. 

On Saturday of last week Mr. Harry Reddick. 
City Engineer of Santa Paula, arrived by aero- 
plane to spend the week end with h's cousin, Mr. 
L. D. Barber, Superintendent of Conftruction at 
the Institution. 

On Monday evening, August t,, at 8:00 p.m.. 
Dr. F. B. .Sumner will deliver a lecture in the In- 
stitution library entitled "Some results of seven- 
teen years study of geographic races of mice." 



MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Dr. and Mrs. C. C. Plitt of the University of 
Maryland arrived August 4th, 1931. They will 
be at the Laboratory for the rest of the summer. 

Mrs. William H. Cole arrived August ist. Dr. 
Cole is working at the Lalwratory this summer. 

Dr. and Mrs. A. Mansfield' Clarke of The 
Johns Hopkins Medical School visited Dr. and 
Mrs. Warren H. Lewis over the week-end. 

The Monday evening seminar on August 3rd 
will lie in charge of Dr. H. D. Senior of New 
York University who will speak on "The radical 
difference between the arterial anomalies of the 
human upper and lower extremities.", and Dr. A. 
Defrise of the University of Milan, whose su!)- 
ject is "Sytophysiology of Kidney." 

Miss Miriam F. Clarke who is now a student 
in the Department of Biochemistry at Yale Medi- 
cal School, has been visiting her brother, Mr. 
Robert Clarke for a few days. 

Dr. and Mrs. William Wherry entertained tlie 
members of the Laboratory at a barn dance on 
August 1st. Prizes for the best costumes were 
won by Dr. Esther F. Byrnes aiid her sister. Miss 
I'yrnes, who appeared as bugs ; Mrs. W. L. Holt, 
Jr,, who dressed as a mummy; Dr. Homer W. 
Smith, as an organ-grinder : Miss Frances Snow, 
as an old-fashioned lady ; Mr. William L. Doyle 
as a pirate ; Mrs. E. K. Marshall, Jr., as a little 
girl. Miss Louise Mast and Mr. Heinz Specht 
were given a prize for the dirtiest costumes. 
Prizes were also given to the Misses Louise and 
Elizabeth Mast and Mr. Robert F. Mathews for 
stunts. — Louise R. M.\st. 

Miss Louise Schmuck and Dr. Helen Smith 
have returned to work in Dr. Metz's laboratory 
after a month's vacation. They were guests of 
the Right Reverend Mr. and Mrs. Schmuck in 
Laramie, Wyoming, and motored with them to 
Yellowstone National Park and other western 
points of interest. 

The M. B. L. Club has announced the two fol- 
lowing programs for this week's victrola con- 
certs : Sunday, August 9 : — 8 :oo P. M. Egmont 
Overture, Beethoven ; Rosamunde Ballet Music, 
Schubert ; L'Apres-midi d'un Faune, Debussy ; 
Symphony No. 5, Beethoven. 

Thursday August 13 — 8:00 P.M. Clarinet 
Quintet, Brahms ; Passacaglia, Bach ; Quartet, 
opus 133, Beethoven. 

The music begins promptly at 8 :oo P. M. 



1 84 



THE COLLFXTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. Nn. 47 




SSBKSSIirTrSSByT'TB^B^BEFiaBSS 



Spalteholz 

Transi>arent 

Prei>aj-atiuns 

Human 

and 

Zoological 



'^^hu^^ i® 





Model of Human Heart ' 



Skeleton of Fish in Case 

Models, Specimens, 
Charts 

for physiology, zoology, botany, 
anatomy, embryology, etc. Cata- 
logs will gladly be sent on request. 
Please mention name cf school 
and subjects taught, to enable 
us to send the appropriate 
catalog. 

Visit our New and Greatly En- 
larged Display Rooms and Museum 

117-119 EAST 24th STREET 



> 



Life History 
of Chick" 



NEW YORK 



€VEN 

W'e cordially invite you to a dem- 
onstration of this oven designed by 
Dr. Huettner at the Collecting Net 
office on August 13 to 15th. 

Our ;\Ir. W. Lel)owitz will he 
in charge of this demonstration. 



STANDARD SCIENTIFIC SUPPLY CORP. 

lUnlogical, Bacteriological and Chemical A (^paratus. Naturalists' Supplies, Speciiiieiis, 

Shcletons, Anatomical Models, Wall Charts, Glass Jars. Microscopes 

and Accessories. 




10-14 WEST 25th STREET 



NEW YORK CITY 



August 8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



1S5 



LEITZ 



ROLL FILM 
ATTACHMENT 



Camera 




This Camera is inserted into 
the Microscope Tube after the 
ocular has been withdrawn. 



Attacliahle to any Standard Microscope 

THIS CAMERA USES 
STANDARD 
CINEMA FILM 

Specimen of image produced 
with Roll Film Micro At- 
tachment Camera. The 
characteristics under which 
this photograph was taken 
are as follows: 

1. Standard type microscope; 

2. Achromatic objective 16mm; 

3. "Periplan" ocular 8X; 

4. Magnification 27X; 

5. Low voltage lamp as illuminant; 

6. "Lifa" filter No. 200b; 

7. Exposure 1-10 second; 

8. Condenser diaphragm closed one-half 

9. Film used: Leitz special cinema film. 




Heretofore, the demonstration of microscopical specimens through projection was solely con- 
fined to the use of lantern slides. Aside from lantern slides being costly to produce, they are 
easily broken and represent a bulky collection while transporting them from one lecture room to 
another. This obstacle is quickly recognized amongst scientists who have to do with lecture work 
and the reason for an ever- increasing use of film slides (film rolls) for projection is therefore 
readily conceived. So far, no camera has been available for taking pictures of microscopical speci- 
mens upon film slides, and with the introduction of the Leitz Boll Film Micro Attaiohment Cam- 
era, a long felt demand has been complied with.. 

This new camera consists principally of a m ?tal housing and within its chamber, the film is 
carried by magazines made of brass. Each magazine contains standard perforated cinema film in 
lengths of approximately 51,4 ft., for 36 pictures each measuring 36 x 24 mm (double cinema frame 
size). The magazine, however, may be loaded with any strips of shorter lengths. The exception- 
ally fine grain of the cinema film and the favorable size of the picture produced by the camera 
render the negatives available for extensive enlargements. 

The magazines are loaded in daylight by using film supplied by us in daylight packing. A 
counter tally disc is provided at one side of the camera housing and this disc registers auto- 
matically the number of exposures made. The conical adapter attached to the camera contains a 
lens combination to render the magnification at tn:? nira one-third in value of the niagnitication 
obtained with the microscope. 

Attached to the conical adapter are a side telescope and shutter. This side telescope permits 
constant observation of the object while taking photographs. "Periplan" Ocular 8X is best adapt- 
ed for photographs with this camera and is included in the standard equipment. Focusing the 
camera is accomplished in a very simple manner and the photographs it obtains are exceedingly 
sharp and brilliant. 

The negative film slides, prepared through the use of the camera, can readily be copied upon 
positive film for protection. For this purpose, we offer a simple model of contact printer. For 
projecting the positive film slides, we recommend our Film Slide Projector "Uleja". 

Write for Pamphlet No. 1142 (CN) 



60 East 10th Street 



E. LEITZ, Inc. 



New York, N. Y. 



iS6 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 





INTERNATIONAL 
CENTRIFUGES 

Many types offering a large variety 
of equipment of tubes and a wide 
range of speed and consequent 
relative centrifugal force. 

International Equipment Co. 

353 WESTERN AVENUE 
BOSTON, MASS. 



Tlie Wistar Institute Slide Tray 



The ideal tray for displaying or storing slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-lnch, thirty-two 1%- 
inch, or twenty-four 2-inch slides, and every 
slide is visible at a glance. Owing to the 
nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof cover for 
the one beneath it, while the center ridges as- 
sure protection to high mounts. Made en- 
tirely of metal, they are unbreakable and 
easily kept clean. They form compact stor- 
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be filed in a space fourteen inches square bv 
eight inches high. PRICE, $1.00 EACH 

Orders ni;iy be sent to 

THE WISTAR INSTITUTE 

Thirty-si.xth Street and Woodland Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Marine Biological 

Laboratory 

Supply Department 

FOR THE BEST 

BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL 

CLASSROOM MATERIAL 

MICROSCOPIC SLIDES 

LIVE MATERIAL 



Catalogues and information furnished by 

applying at Supply Department Office 

Woods Hole, Mass. 



August 8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



1R7 




Setting the Pace in 
Kesearch M.icroscope I^esign 



When Bausch & Lomb designed the DDE,* placing the arm at the front, an instru- 
ment was made available to the research scientist that wsis truly revolutionary. This 
construction brought greater convenience by allowing free access to the stage, ob- 
jectives, substage and mirror. It brought comfort, because the inclined binocular 
body tube gives relief from neck and eye strain. The specimen is always viewed 
with the stage horizontal. 



The DDE is complete in every 
right eyepiece by a quarter turn of 
formed into a monocular instrument 
The complete substage is equipped 
swung into position when changing 
of changing the focus of the con- 
denser. 

You are cordially invited to at- 
tend an exhibit of Bausch & 
Lomb Instruments from August 
6 - 15 in the Old Lecture Hall. 



respect. It is possible to direct all light into the 
an adjustment button. It can be quickly trans- 
for photomicrography by changing body tubes, 
with a supplementary condenser which can be 
from high to low power, eliminating the necessity 
Write for catalog D-164, which 
will give you a complete descrip- 
tion of the DDE. 

^Suggestions of Drs. L. W. Sharp 
and L. F. Randoljili iif Cornc-ll 
University. 




BAUSCH & LOMB 



671 St. Paul Street 



Rockester, N. Y- 



i88 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 




BINOCULAR ATTACHMENT 
"BITUKNI" 

I HE Bitukni tube attachment 
^ serves for stereoscopically 
viewing microscopic objects with 
the aid of a single objective. It 
enables the observer to look 
obliquely into the microscope 
without inclining it atout its 
hinge, thus retaining the conven- 
ience of a horizontal stage for 
manipulation of the specimen. 

Price $86 f.o.b. N. Y. 

including one pair of compen- 
sating eyepieces. {jx, lox, or 

Additional compensating eye- 
pieces, $18 a pair. 

CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

485 Fifth Avenue 
New York 

Pacific Coast Branch: 
728 South Hill St., Los Angrelcs, Calif. 

[ tftRLZEisri 

JE.NA 




GCLDl^^ SEAL 

Non-Corrosive ^^^^^ Non-Corrosive 
MICROSCOPIC 

SLIDES -J COVER GLASSES 

Do Net Fog 
At your dealer's, or write (giving dealer's name) to 



NEW YORK 



BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL 
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES 

IN COMPLETE SETS 

Volumes and Back Date Copies For Sale 

B. LOGIN & SON, Inc. 

EST. 1887 
29 EAST 21st STREET NEW YORK 



B. WESTERMANN CO., INC 

13 West 46th Street, 

New York City 

All Scientific Books in Foreign Languages 



DRESSES — LINENS — LACES 

Fine Toilet Articles 
Elizabeth Arden, Coty 

Yardley 
Choice Bits from Pekln 

MRS. WEEKS SHOPS 

FALMOUTH 



Available: as research assistant after August 
first. Have A. B. and M. A. degrees in zoological 
sciences and wish to continue in Woods Hole. 
Willing to act as assistant in any capacity. Local 
references as to qualifications if desired. For 
further information inquire at 
THE COLLECTING NET ^Jane Carpenter 



HKADDUARTERS FOR 

STEEL FILING CABINETS, SAFES 
AND OFFICE FURNITURE 

LOOSE LF.AF B01KS AND FIGURING BOOKS 
FOR ANY KIND OF BUSINESS 

Callanan St Archer Co., Inc. 

WHOLESALE STATIONERS 

10-14 S"- Second St. New Bedford, Mass. 



August 8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLFXTING NET 



189 



Turtox Products for Biology 



APPARATUS FOR BIOLOGY 

BOTANICAL MATERIAL 

CHARTS 

COLLECTING EQUIPMENT 

CULTURES 

DISSECTIONS 

EMBRYOLOGICAL MATERIAL 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SPECIMENS 

INJECTED MATERIAL 

For C/omparative Anatomy 
JEWELL MODELS 
LANTERN SLIDES 
LIFE HISTORIES 
LIVING SPECIMENS 
MICROSCOPIC SLIDES 
MUSEUM PREPARATIONS 
PARASITOLOGY MATERIAL 
RESEARCH SERVICE 
SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
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STAINS AND REAGENTS 
TAXIDERMY 
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Turtox Publications 

Supplied free of charge to teachers of Biology. Yours 
will be mailed to youi' teaching address on request. 

Turto.v News. Published monthly and mailed to over 
20.000 Biologists. 

Turto.x Serviop Leaflets. Offering suggestions and in- 
formation on laboratory and field work in Biology. 
Turtox Biological Red Book. A 232 page, illustrated, 
book listing dissection and demonstration specimens for 
Biology, Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, Entomology, 
Embryology and Parasitology. 

Turtox High School Biology Catalog aitid Teachers' 
Manual. 1931 edition. a" 300-page, illustrated book 
prepared primarily for the use of High School teachers. 
Lists dissection and demonstration specimens, micro- 
scope slides, lantern slides, charts, models and ap- 
paratus. 

Turtox Microscope Slide Catalog. 1931 edition. Lists 
over two thousand different prepared slides for Bac- 
teriology, Botany, Plant Pathology, Zoology, Histology 
and Neurology. Many illustrations from original photo- 
micrographs. 

Turtox Visual Education Catalog. (Ready in Septem- 
ber.) This book will not only list lantern slides and 
film strips for Botany, Zoology, Bacteriology, Histology 
and related subjects but will also catalog sources from 
ivhich visual aids may be obtained on a loan or rental 
basis. 

Jewell Model Catalog. We are the sole manufacturers 
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Turtox Apparatus Catalog. Instruments, equipment 
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Incorporated 
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CHICAGO 



igo 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 



STAINING DISH 




15659 




15658 



15657 



This staining dish consists of a rectangular 
glass jar measuring 4I/8 1\V iVi ''>' 2% 
inches over all. The cover is provided with 
a slight flange which sets inside the dish. 

The removahle glass tray has provision for 
taking 20 slides hack to hack and a nickel 
spring wire holder is provided for lifting the 
jar out of the staining solution. This dish 
accommodates slides 3 inches in length and 
any width up to 2 inches. 

This type of staining dish is economical of 
reagents and by having extra glass tra\v. 
available, a very great number of slides ma\- 
be stained with convenience and economy, 
and further washed and counter-stained in 
different dishes. 



15652 STAINING DISH. Coraplet3 with glass 
dish, removable tray and wire holder. .$2.00 

15657 GLASS DISH only. For above 1.00 

15658 GLASS TRAY only. For above. . . .90 

15659 WIRE HOLDER only. For above. . .25 

■ sag 



WlLI^ (TOHPOKATION 

LABORATORY APPARATUS AND CHCMICAUS 

RO C HE STEH, Jf."Y; 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 
The Rev. James Bancroft, Rector 

Holy Communion 8 lOO a. m. 

Morning Prayer 11 :00 a. m. 

Evening Prayer 7 :30 p. m. 



IDEAL RESTAURANT 


Main Street 






Woods Hole 




Tel. 


1243 





LADIES' and GENTS' TAILORING 

Cleaning, Dyeing and K2palring 
Coats Refined and Altered. Prices Reasonable 

M. DOLINSKY'S 

Main St. Woods Hie, Mass. Call 752 



TEXACO PRODUCTS 

NORGE REFRIGERATORS 

WOODS HOLE GARAGE 
COMPANY 

Opposite Station 



August 8, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



191 



SPENCER RESEARCH MICRO- 
SCOPE No. 7 



Designed under direc- 
tion o[ Pro[essor 
C. F. McChing. 
University of 
Pennsylvania 




SPENCER N0.7LH RESEARCH MICROSCOPE 

Equipped with new Inciitiocular body, meohanical stage, 
complete fork-type substage, a<"hromiitic condenser 
N.A. 1.30, triple nosepiece, achromatic objectives IG 
mm and 4 mm dry and 1.8 mm immersion, paired' 
eyepiece 6.\ and lOx, complete in mahogany 

cabinet $368-"0 

Single body tube (if wanted) extra l.'j.OO 

10(7;^ discount to Schools and Colleges. 



Has met a demand that has no parallel 
in research microscope history. 

There is now scarcely a college, uni 
versity or research laboratory in Amer- 
icn, that does not possess at least one. 

It is now fitted with 

SPENCER 
INCLINOCULAR 

BOD I AS ONE OF 

Three Types Supplied 

'I'liis Inclinocular Body has been 
desifined for comfort and efficiency 
in binocular work, where the stage 
of the microscope must be horizon- 
tal, for example in examination of 
liquids, etc. It is an inclined eye- 
piece binocular body taking the 
place of regular binocular body or 
the combination body. 

The oculars are at the ordinary 
ilistance from the table. 

The angle of inclination is suited 
lo the comfort of the observer at 
the ordinary height. 

The superior optical qu.alitics of 
Spencer optics are preserved when 
Ihe new Inclinocular is used. 

NO COMPENSATING LENSES 
ARE NECESSARY BECAUSE OF 
ADDED TUBE LENGTH. 

The size of the field is the same as 
with ordinary binocular body. 

The Spencer converging oculars, ex- 
clusive on Spencer microscopes, are in- 
corporated in the new Inclinocular 

The inclinocular is as easily placed on 
or removed from the microscope as is 
the ordinary binocular cr single tube. 



Ask far new Bulletin i!f-45 



192 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



On Tuesday, August 4th Coast Guard Base 18 
at Woods Hole c^lelirated its 143rd liirthday. The 
Base was open to the pubHc during the day and 
many members of the Laljoratory, as well as oth- 
ers, visited the Base and were shown over the 
patrol boats liy a member of the Coast Guard. 
The boats were gaily decorated with flags. A 
water sports program was held in the morning; 
in the afternoon the Base 18 baseball team played 
a team from the Coast Guard cutter, "The Acush- 
net ;" and in the evening a dance was held in the 
Community House. 

Traffic must be slow both under and over the 
drawbridge on Main Street. Ca]5tain John J. 
Veeder, harbor master, has had signs placed at 
the entrance to the Eel Pond limiting the speed 
of boats to five miles per hour. The wash of 
swift boats is threatening to undermine the bridge 
while heavy trucks rolling over it cause a vibra- 
tion that is also weakening it. The word "slow" 
has been jiainted in large yellow letters on the 
surface of Main Street at the approach to the 
bridge and signs have been posted setting the 
speed limit for cars at ten miles per hour. 

Heavy frosts this past winter have also weak- 
ened the bridge, cracking pieces of the counter 
balance weight and making it lighter, necessitating 
the addition of two thousand pounds of pig iron 
to the balance weight. This, and the gates for 
keeping back traffic when the draw is open, rep- 
resent part of the improvements provided by the 
$3100 ?»j)propriation voted for the bridge in town 
meeting this year. 

On Friday afternoon, July 31st, Old Ironsides 
passed by in full view of Woods Hole harbor. 
From then until Thursday of this week, she has 
made New Bedford her port and people have 
poured from all over the Cape to see the historic 
old frigate. On Sunday 11,906 people visited her 
and several hundred were turned awav from the 
gangplank as the crew closed the ship for the day. 

On July 31st, Mr. Inglis Moore Uppercu of 
New York City president of the Uppercu Cadil- 
lac Corporation, sailed into Great Harbor in his 
square-rigged sailing vessel, "The Seven Seas." 
He anchored for the night and sailed the follow- 
ing morning for New ^'ork. 

The Y. P. L. Girls of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church are giving a picnic to the children of the 
Sunday School and their parents at Old Silver 
Beach ne.xt Wednesdav afternoon. 



The annual flower show of the Cape Cod Horti- 
cultural Society will be held this year in Falmouth 
on August 12, 13 and 14th on the Village Green. 

The University Players Theatre this week was 
turned into a courtroom when the case of the 
People against Mary Dugan came up for trial. 
At 8:15 the cleaning women and the court at- 
tendants began to get ready for the big case and 
at 8 130 the court convened. 

Bayard Veiller's dramatic recording of "The 
Trial of Mary Dugan" is good theatre. The 
cast is very large and yet each person in the cast 
is a distinct character. There are fine chances 
for dramatic interpretation even in the most 
minor parts. The Players did a good piece of 
work. Notably Bretaigne Windust, as District 
Attorney Galway, left nothing to be desired. 
From the moment when he presented the case to 
the jury-audience he was lawyer through and 
through and, in a way, he it was who held the 
whole play together and was responsilile in large 
measure for its success. Two other parts were 
completely satisfying. Elizalieth Fenner as the 
murdered man's wife and Christine Ramsey as 
Marie, her volulile French maid. 

The Players were attempting a tremendous feat 
this week. They played under a handicap in fol- 
lowing so closely on the heels of a Broadway pro- 
duction which was pretty nearly perfect and they 
must pay the penalty for this by having the 
audience, of necessity, make comparisons. Cyn- 
thia Rogers as Mary Dugan was good but there 
was something lacking in her rendition. You 
could forget, as she sat quietly listening to the 
testimony of witnesses, that she was a kept- 
woman on trial for her life for the murder of 
her lover. Even on the witness stand tlie mo- 
ments were rare when she made the audience 
feel her struggle as a girl of fourteen to bring 
up a young brother and her solution of financial 
worry by becoming mistress to a wealthy man. 
There were times when she succeeded in project- 
ing this stage personality across the footlights 
but her character was not sustained throughout 
the performance. Henry Fonda as her younger 
brother, Jimmy, who took over h's sister's case 
as lawyer, was more satisfactory, though he didn't 
look as lioyish as the role requires. 

The minor parts were excellentlv characterized 
throughout. The stage was much enlarged and 
the set effective. 

Next week Elizabeth Fenner and Kent Smith 
will take the parts played in New York by Lynn 
Fontanne and Alfred Lunt in the production of 
Ferenc Molnar's satire on the home life of an 
actor, "The Guardsman." — M. S. G. 



August S, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



193 



The UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, Inc. 

Presents 

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Aug. 10 — Aug. 15 

Old Silver Beach West Falmouth 

For Reservations Call Falmouth 1250 



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Available as instructor or research assistant in 
physiology or general zoology for the academic 
year 1931-32. Have M. S. degree in zoology from 
the University of Pennsylvania. Refer to Dr. 
L. V. Heilbrunn, Br. 221 

— S. A. CORSON. 





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194 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol, VL No. 47 




ave you seen 



MILLER'S 

Plant Physiology 

with reference to 
the green plant. 

By Edwin C. Millkr 

Professor of Plant Physiology. Kansas State 

/li/ricitltiiral College, and Plant Physiologist, 

Kansas .Igrieultural Experiment Station 

McGKAW-HILL PUBLICATIONS IN THE 
AGRICULTURAL and BOTANICAL 

SCIENCES 

900 pages. f> x 9. 38 ilhistrations. $7.00 

THIS book is planned to bridge the gap in the 
literature of plant physiology left by books 
which summarize the work that has been done on 
the continent, but which fail to cover adaquately the 
contributions of American and English plant physi- 
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decades have been outstanding and dominate in 
many cases the work along certain lines. 

In this book the field of plant physiology is com- 
pletely surveyed in a comprehensive and minutely 
detailed treatment that makes it suitable both as a 
text for advanced college students and as a refer- 
ence work for investigators. The work is confined 
entirely to the physiology of the green plant; the 
findings of the leading American, English and con- 
tinental investigators are summarized. 

The tables are numerous and complete; illustra- 
tions are original with but few exceptions. Each 
chapter is followed by extensive bibliographies giv- 
ing the full citation of each reference, including sub- 
ject, date, volume and pages. 

Send for a copy on approval. 

McGRAW'HILL BOOK CO., Inc. 

370 SEVENTH AVENUE NEW YOKK 



ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Environment 

Established 1920. Quarterly. Official Publication of the 
Ecological Society of America. Subscription, $4 a year 
for complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Foreign 
postage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Established 1916. Bimonthly. 

Subscription, $6 a year for complete volumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number rate. 
Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $7.00 each. Foreign postage: 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Established 1914. Monthly, except August and Sep- 
tember. Official Publication of the Botanical Society of 
America. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number 
rate. Volumes 1-18 complete, as available, $146. Single 
numbers, $1.00 each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
on request. Foreign postage: 40 cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

Volume 1: 33 contributions by various autlmrs on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ecology, plant 
geography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.50 plus 
postage. 

Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part I. 
The vegetation of Montauk, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1923. 108 pp. Price, $1.00. 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island. Maine, 
and its environment. By Barrington Moore and Nor- 
man Taylor. 151 pp., 27 text- figs., vegetation ma]) in 
colors. June 10. 1927. Price, $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
1000 Washington Ave. Brooklyn, N. Y.. U. S. A. 



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In ortlering. give complete details of your 
electric current. 



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Incorporated 1897 



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Chemical Reagents 

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August 8, 1931 ] THE COLLECTING NET 195 



Ready in 
September 

OUTLINE 

COMPARATIVE 





By AUTE RICHARDS 

Professor of Zoology and Head of Dcpt. 

Dircrlor of Biological Survey, Uiiizrrsity 

of Oklalio)na 

Tin's textbook presents an extensive summary of the types of cleavage, 
lilastulae, germ layer formation, and mesoderm formation for the entire 
animal kingdom, as does no other book written in English. It is intended 
chiefly for college-of-Arts courses in embryology as distinguished from 
medical courses. Also as a preparation for medical courses, and for pro- 
fessois of medical emliryology the book will l)e extremely valuable. 

The first part of the book discusses the principles of early development 
for the entire animal kingdom and the relation of different types to each 
other is lirought out. The second part discusses topics of embryologicai 
interest about which every embryologist and zoologist knows something but 
most f)f which has never l)een brought together in a form available for 
English speaking students. Tables are included which contain a great 
amoimt of information summarized and condensed into consultation form. 
They include: events of importance in the history o f embryology ; tables 
showing cell lineage; types of invertelirate larvae: chart summarizing em- 
bryologicai conditions found in various phyla of animals; table of animal 
classification shf)wing the systematic positions of forms of embryologic ini- 
jiortance : tables showing occurrence of embryonic membranes fif mamma.'s. 

There are two glossaries and a comprehensiye bibliography, and 224 
figures illustrate the te.xt. As a reference book in addition to its class room 
use it will l)e found of great use. 

Probable Price $5.00 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. 

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ic/t 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 47 




''It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' Srd?„rwr Lu/h^tr ^"^^'"- 

"PUOMI" MICKOSCOPIC DKAVVING and 
PKOJEC'TION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
ganisms and insects on table or wall for 
drawing and deinonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
genicus yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteriology, Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ogy, Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 

AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: U is used for projecting in actual colors on wall or 
scrcL'ii, micriiscoiiii: inciiaratunis, li\ iii,^ organisms and insects for lecture room demonstration and 
instruction. .Makes it possible lor a .group of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on important features, which can- 
not be dcmonstratcfl with equal facility and time sa\ing under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
strains of niic. osciin- cxaniinalion. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actual colors on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black or colors. Living insects or microscopic living organisms can also be projected. Ad- 
justment of the size of the image is simply a matt er of varying the distance to which the image is 
projected. Higher magnification may be obtained by using tube and ocular and our high power ob- 
jectives. Charts can readily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror and inverting 
the appaialus a coiii|)oini(I microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
standaril niirrosco|iic hv^h power nbjrcli\'cs and oculars. 

AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can be jihcitographcd without the use of a camera. 

PRICE: F. O. B. New York $103.09 complete apparatus in polished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 and 220 \.ilts with cords, plugs and switch for both DC and AC cur- 
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on rc(|nost. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR" MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

A new iiistrununt which has been brou.ght 
out in response to a demand for a simjile 
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work which requires more powerful illumi- 
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1^-omi but is more heavily constructed and 
has the following additional features as 
standard equipnieiU : 

More brilliant lighting, making hfghcr magnification possible. 
Triple nose piece, facilitating use of three obiccti\cs. 
Fine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 

Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and condenser. 
Screw centering adjustment for light. Kevohing stage. 
Demonstrations will gladly be made by Mr. Robert Rugh, Room 217, 
Main Bldg., M. B. L.. Woods Hole. 
Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. 




Write to 



117-119 East 24tli Street 



c 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 






Vol. VI. No. 



SATURDAY. AUGUST 15, 1930 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



IS THE PERMEABILITY OF THE ERYTH 

ROCYTE TO WATER DECREASED 

BY NARCOTICS? 

Drs. AI. H. Jacobs and A. K. Parpart 
University of Pouisylvaiiia 
Among the evidence cnmnioiily cited in .supjioi't 
of the theory that naixosis is associated with a 
deci'eased celhilar pei'meahihty is the fact oh- 
served hy Ai^rhenius and Bu- 
hanovic, Jarisch and others, 
that narcotic agents, such as 
ether, chloi-oform, various al- 
cohols and urethanes. etc. tend 
in certain concentrations to 
oppose osmotic hemolysis. 
This result has been interpi'et- 
ed as indicating a lowei'ed per- 
meal)ility of the cell to water 
in the presence of narcotic 
agents. An examination of 
the data published hy the 
workers in question, however, 
shows that no clear disti'nction 
was made by them lietween 
the degi'ee of hemolysis ulti- 
mately attained, which prob- 
ably has little to do with per- 
meability to water, and the 
rate at which the final equi- 
librium position of the system 
was reached, which conceivably may have some 
such connection. {Coutinucd on Page 201) 



. % %. (Halcnbar 



rUESDAY, AUGUST 18,8:00 P.M. 

Seminar. Dr. Helen B. Smith, "Gen- 
etic Studies on Selective Segre- 
gation of Chrosoraes in Sciara." 

Dr. C. B. Bridges, "Specific Mod- 
ifiers in Drosophila Melanogas- 
ter." 

Dr. P. W. Whiting, "Local and 
Correlative Gene Effects in Mo- 
saics of Habrobracon." 

FRIDAY. AUGUST 24, 8:00 P.M. 

Lecture. Dr. C. R. Stockard, Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, Cornell Med- 
ical School, "An Experimental 
Dog Farm for the Study of Form 
and Type." 



THE MARINE ZOOLOGICAL LABORA- 
TORY AT THE ISLES OF SHOALS 

Dk. C I*". Jackso.ni 
Director oj tlic Laboratory 
The Lsles of Shoals ai^e a group of eight rocky 
islands lying about ten miles out fi^om Poiis- 
miiutli. New Hampshire. They ai'e of varying 
size, the largest lieing aliout a mile in length while 
the smallest is scarcely a few 
hundred yards across. 

Very little is known of the 
early history of the Isles of 
Shoals. Befoi-e the appear- 
ance of the white settlers, it 
is quite possible that the In- 
dians "lay have used the is- 
lands as a fishing place ; com- 
ing thither in canoes and 
camping until the season's 
catch was sufficient to meet 
their needs. Champlain and 
de Monts may have seen the 
islands in 1605 during their 
exploration of the New Eng- 
land coast. Captain John 
Smith gave them his name in 
1014, and when members of 
his expedition proposed to di- 
vide his discovei'ies, he des- 
; ;.' crilies the islands thus: "But 

no lot for me l)ut Smith's Isles which are a 
manv of liarren iTicks, the most overgrowne with 



TABLE OF 

Is the Permeability of the Erythrocyte to 

Water Decreased by Narcotics? 

Drs. M. H. Jacobs and A. K. Parpart 197 

The Marine Zoological Laboratory at the 

Isles of Shoals, 

Dr. C. F. Jackson 19''' 

The Fibrillar System of Euplotes, 

Dr. John P. Turner 202 

Types of Variation Produced by Conjuga- 
tion in Paramecium Aurelia, 

Dr. Daniel Raffel 203 



CONTENTS 

Effects of Conjugation in a number of 

Clones of Paramecium Aurelia, 

Drs. T. M. Sonneborn and Ruth S. Lynch 205 
Cross-Conjugation in Paramecium Aurelia. 

Drs. T. M.. Sonneborn and Ruth S. Lynch 208 

Scientific Book Reviews 211 

Meals of Corporation Members 212 

Review of the Seminar Reports of Drs. 

Lynch and Sonneborn, Dr. J. A. Dawson 212 

Directory Additions 212 

Items of Interest 213 



198 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 




THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 
SPRING HARBOR 



AT COLU 



HUGO FRICKE, 
L.VBOR.^TORY. 



DIRECTOR OF THE BIOPHY.'ilCS 
IN HIS RESEARCH ROOM. 



such shrubs and sharp whins }-ou can hardly pass 
them, without either grass or wood, but three or 
four short shrul)li_v old cedars." 

The hrst impression of these islands is their 
barrenness, — rough, irregular rocks jutting up out 
of the sea. Low shrubs cover the islands with a 
sparse carpet, the bayberry, poison ivy, and bhie- 
herrv being perhaps the most common, while in 
the crevices of the bare rocks, the tiny blossom 
of the scarlet pimernel adds a touch of color. 

In his "American Note-books." Mr. Nathaniel 
Hawthorne (lescril)es these i.slands as he says: "It 
is quite impnssilile to give an idea of these rocky 
shores, — how confusedly they are bound together, 
lying in all directions: what solid ledges, what 
great fragments thrown out from the rest ! — -But 
it is vain to try to express this confusion. As 
much as anything else, it seems as if some of the 
massive materials of the world remained su])er- 
fluous after the Creator had linished, and were 
carelessly thrown down here, where the millionth 
part of them emerge from the sea, and in the 
course of thousands of years have liecome par- 
tially bestrewn with a little soil. 

It is impossible to descrilie the real beauty of 
the place. The barren wilderness surrounded on 
all sides hv the gray sea gives it a charm that is 
peculiar to no other spot. Mrs. Celia Thaxter, 
the island poetess, has written : "There is a 
strange charm about tliem, an indescribable in- 
fluence in their atmosphere, hardh- to be ex- 
plained but universally acknowledged." 

( )f the eight islands l)elonging to this group. 
White Island lies farthest out to sea and is the 
most barren of the group. Indeed, it is little 
more than a rock cliff, rising sheer twenty-hve 
feet out of water on one side, with more gradual 



slopes on the others. On the east side a bay is 
formed, where floating seaweeds collect and fill 
the water with color as they are moved aliout by 
tiie tide. The rocks are smoother and less hroken 
up than on the other islands, and the few pools 
which do occur are at the low tide level. Animal 
life is abundant around the island. The rocks are 
covered with colonies of Coclenterates of several 
species and the waters aliound in the common 
sjjiecies of fish. From the rocky cliffs on the 
.south side, the Irottom drops rapidly to a depth of 
nearly two hundred feet. Here are found had- 
dock, hake, codfish, and occasionally one or an- 
other species of deep sea sculpin. 

Londoner's is the next i.sland and is somewhat 
larger than White Island. There are two high 
sections separated by a lower narrow strip of 
sandy l)each formed largely of small pelibles and 
ln'oken shells. This is one of the few islands 
wiiere summer residents live. There is one small 
cottage on the north section of Londoner's, occu- 
pied for a few weeks during the summer. 

Hundreds of terns nest yearly on Londoner's 
Island in the heavy brush which covers the island, 
or in depressions of the bare rocks which form a 
generous liorder of shore. This colony is com- 
posed largely of the common tern, Sterna hiruiido, 
Imt there are also found a few pairs of the more 
vmcommon roseate terns. Before the advent of 
the summer residents, this was a very large and 
interesting colonv composed of several thousand 
individuals. The number is rapidly decreasing 
under continuous persecution and will undoubted- 
Iv be driven from the island within two or three 
years. Aside from the terns, this island holds 
little of interest for the biologist. 

Star Island boasts the Oceanic Hotel where 




THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY AT COLD 

SPRING HARBOR 

THE CHEMISTRY LABOR.\TORY IN THE NEW 

BIOPHYSICS BUILDING. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



199 



summer conferences of the Unitarian Association 
are held. The island itself is composed almost en- 
tirely of hare rock with very little soil or vegeta- 
tion. There are a few small swampy areas of 
fresli water on the island to which a lusty colony 
of frogs claim first rights. The shore drops off 
rapidly into deep water except on the east side 
where a hreakwater and the neighboring islands 
make a friendly harbor for fishing ships. Gos- 
port Harlwr is a splendid collecting ground. At 
the upper end of the harbor nearest the break- 
water, depths of only a few feet occur, the bottom 
gradually sloping into depths of one hundred feet 
or more near the mouth of the harbor. This is a 
large sedimentation liay and numerous species of 
an'iri:ds are found here which do not occur at an\' 
other point at the Isles of Shoals. Within the 
sheltered waters of the harbor, flounders, skate, 
wolf-fish, and many species of invertebrates can 
usuillv be secured for laboratory purposes. 

Cedar is connected with Star Island by a break- 
water. It is a small round island with no out- 
standing characteristic. Two families of lobster 
fishermen make their home but they apparently 
disturb very little the animal life which is of 
interest to the biologist. 

Smuttynose, so named Ijecause the long ridge 
of rock which runs out into the ocean appears 
black to pa' sing ships, is flatter and has a m:ire 
regular surface than any of the other islands. 
About a third of the island is taken up by a rock\' 
shore. In the center of the island is a fresh 
water swamp. The transition from the shore in- 
to deep water is more gradual he'e than on Star. 
White, or Lo"doner's Island and huge patches of 
Fucus break the force of the waves which pile 
up on its shores. 

This i.sland is a paradise to the biologist. Its 
interior is inaccessible to the average tourist anfl 
it pre ents more nearly unspoiled conditions than 
any of the other islands. Piirds of numerous 
species nest here in abundance, particularly the 
song sparrow and the spotted sandpiper, and dur- 
ing the migration season, many unexpected vis- 
itors are found. In the rockv crevices along the 
shore, Leucoslenia, the finger sponge, and Coe- 
lenterates occur in abundance. Great colonies of 
hydrokls, Metridium, and associations of starfish, 
and sea urchins may be found in the tidepools. 
Just offshore is a variety of sea bottom rangi ig 
from Cedar Island Ledge, which is exposed at 
low tide, to depths of nearly fifty fathoms. Th; 
bottom is of various types: sand, mud, bare rocks, 
and dense beds of Fucus. Off the shore of 
Smuttynose may be found colonies of .^ea cu- 
cumbers, blood stars, Ascidians, and many species 
of interesting deep-sea molluscs. A great variety 
of Crustaceans also occur both in the deep water 
and along the shore. These include, in addition 



to lobsters and the common rock crab, the inter- 
esting spider crab, deep water hermit crabs, and 
a great host of pelagic forms. 

Duck Island lies about a mile northeast from 
the rest of the group. It is composed of broken 
rocks between which are narrow channels or pas- 
sages. The largest of these rocks is only a few 
hundred yards in extent. The entire group is 
drenched from time to time during periods of 
heavy storm. This group of rocks is the home of 
thousands of herring gulls. Their nests and 
young cover the rocks so that one must walk with 
care in order not to crush them. When an in- 
truder lands on the island, during the breeding 
season the air is filled with thousands of adults. 
Their screams can be heard almost continuously 
day and night at the laboratory, a mile distant. 
There is little in the way of vegetation on Duck 
Island. During the migrating season, thou.sands 
of ducks of various species collect in the vicinity 
of these broken rocks, where they find an abund- 
ance of food in the sheltered bays and channels. 
Duck Island is a wonderful collecting ground for 
invertebrates, especially those inhabiting compar- 
atively shallow waters. An abundance of fish 
common to the shallow waters of the Shoals is 
found here. Gunners occur in enormous num- 
bers and pollack, herring, and mackerel are fre- 
fiue;itlv found in the surface waters around Duck 
Island; 

Appledore Island is the largest of the Isles of 
Shoals group. It is about a mile long and a half 
mile wide. It is very roughly triangular in shape, 
with the apex towards the mainland. The nar- 
rowest part and also the lowest, is near the north- 
ern end, and during bad winter storms, is some- 
times completely submerged, dividing the island 
into two portions. Appledore is higher than most 
of the other islands, the highest elevation being 
about sixty-seven feet above mean tide-level. The 
shoreline on Appledore Island is very irregular. 
( )n the west side the rocks are less broken and 
they slope off gradually into deep water towards 
Portsmouth Harlxir. On the north and east 
shores the rocks are very irregularly scattered and 
high cliffs drop off precipitously into deep water 
of narrow ravines or into the open sea. 

Along the shore, numerous tidepools of great 
beauty and interest are found. They range in 
size from tiny crevices that hold the water from 
one tide until the next, to large pools where 
abundant plant and animal life remain permanent- 
ly, probably finding better protection than in the 
surf, yet gaining the benefits of the shallow water. 
These pools are filled with an abundance of Coel- 
enterates. Molluscs, and other littoral forms. 

Vegetation is relatively' abundant on Appledore 
Island and many species of shrubs find it an ex- 
cellent environment. A fresh water pond on the 



200 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



higher portion of the island and a fresh water 
swamp at the opposite end give variety to the hfe 
that exists here. All of the different forms of 
invertebrates already mentioned are found in the 
vicinity of Appledore. Within five minutes walk 
the student from the laboratory may find a suf- 
ficient amount of material to employ his time for 
the remainder of the day. 

The Marine Laboratory at the Isles of Shoals 
is an outgrowth of the regular summer school 
work at the University of New Hampshire. The 
Laboratory was established four years ago by a 
Sroup of advanced students in zoology who felt 
that advantage should be taken of our proximity 
to salt water. We were particularly fortunate in 
securing a set of well built, although somewhat 
neglected, buildings formerly connected with the 
Appledore Hotel. These buildings have been 
thoroughly renovated and painted, and have been 
ecjuipped with electric lights, running water, and 
modern improvements. Since the equipment of 
the zoology department on the universitv campus 
is only a few minutes from tide water, it is pos- 
sible to secure any emergency supplies directly by 
boat from the University. 

Owing to the generous support of the Uni- 
versity authorities, and together with the coopera- 
tion of the Star Island Corporation, who had 
control of Appledore Island, practically the en- 
tire island was leased and is now constituted into 
a large field laboratory. Unhampered liy any out- 
side diversions, students are aljle to carry on eight 
weeks of study under ideal conditions. 

The Lalioratory is devoted primarily to the 
work of the undergraduate and first year gradu- 
ate student. In this field there is little competi- 
tion since most of the great marine laboratories 
are centers of advanced research work. Th? 
number at the Lalioratory is limited to about 
thirty, although it is hoped in the near future to 
increase the facilities to accommodate a larger 
number of students. 

The work is divided roughly into two fields. ■ 
One is for the premedical student and includes 
comparative anatomy, histology, and embrvologv. 
It might seem that a marine laboratory is ill 
adapted to pre-medical work. However, the 
students find here an abundance of fresh material 
for the study of comparative emliryology, com- 
pai"ative histology, and comparative anatom\'. 
Furthermore, work in a research laboratory in 
contrast to a vocational environment, is of great 
value to the pre-medical student. 

The second field covered is that of ecology and 
oceanography. Although this is of a very ele- 
mentary nature, seniors and first year graduates 
are enabled to carry through many independent 
lines of investigation. 

Some of the problems which are now in pro- 



gress are as follows : 

1. Ecological associations of deep sea areas in 
the vicinity of the Isles of Shoals. Apparently 
very little work has been done on deep sea ecology. 
The general oceanography of the Gulf of Maine 
has been thoroughly investigated. Animal com- 
munities, however, in water of more than two 
fathoms in depth are difficult to investigate. It 
is ho])ed that some interesting information may 
be secured along this line. 

2. Ecological Studies of high tide pools. A 
paper on the physical, chemical, and biotic as- 
sociations of high tide pools is nearing comple- 
tion. Some interesting differences in the biota of 
certain of these pools have been found. 

3. Ecological studies of marine sponges. A 
systematic and ecological study of the marine 
sponges of the Isles of Shoals has been carried 
on for the past four years. It is hoped that this 
will be extended to include all of the sponges of 
the Gulf of Maine. 

4. Ecological studies of the fish of the Isles of 
Shoals. The Shoals were at one time noted as 
the center of the fishing industry for the south- 
ern portion of the Gulf of Maine. A consider- 
able change has taken place in the relative abund- 
ance of certain species of fish : some having dis- 
appeared entirely, while others have apparently 
become more abundant. The entire problem of 
the fish population of the Isles of Shoals is being 
investigated. 

5. Ecological survey of the birds of the 
Isles of Shoals. The Isles of Shoals are 
most favorably situated for the study of 
the l)ird population. This is especially true of 
those forms which follow the coast line in their 
migratory flight. B\' glancing at the map, it will 
be seen that these islands lie within the Gulf of 
Maine, having land to the northeast and to the 
southeast. Birds flying in a direct line from 
Cape Elizabeth to Cajie Ann pass within a com- 
paratively short distance from the Isles of Shoals 
and great numl^ers make this a resting place. 
Owing to the sparse vegetation, liird study is 
rendered comparatively easy and a census of the 
relative abundance at any given time may be 
readily taken. Preliminary papers on bird mi- 
gration and the general ecology of the resident 
Iiirds are now practicallv ready for the press. 

(>. Embryological studies of the herring gull 
have been carried on for the past two years. The 
abundance of material on Duck Island has made 
this a profitable line of work. 

7. A study of the fresh water Protozoa of Ap- 
pledore Island has been carried on, revealing, 
however, little unexpected material. 

8. An attempt is being made to determine the 
possible effect on the embryological development 
of the albino rat when carbon mono.xide is ad- 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



201 



ministered to the mother during the period of 
gestation. This is a prohlem connected with the 
pre-medical work and will h.e continued on the 
canv.His. Preliminary experiments seem to show 
tint death or weakening of the offspring occurs 
when the mother has heen sul)mitted to sufificient 
quantit'es of this gas. 

0- Studies on parasitic protozoa are in pro- 
gress. Dr. Swan of Trinity College is renderin;; 
valuaiile assistance in this work. 

Minor prohlems in the taxonomy of various 
groups, histology, and experimental embryology 
are being carried out by undergraduate students. 

An experiment which has been in progress 
during the past three years is an attempt to es- 
talili.sh a tern colony on north head of Appledore 
Island, ^'oung liirds have been brought over 
from Londoner's and raised to maturity. We are 
ftill uncertain whether or not the colony will l)e 
permanent. 

A complete liiological and ecological survev of 
the Isles of Shoals is contcmplatrd in the near 



future. Much of the material from the above 
problems will ultimately be incorporated in this 
survey. With this in view a set of problems of 
strictly oceanographic nature have been outlined 
including the determination of depths and bottom 
within a three mile radius, water analysis, cur- 
rents, temperatures, and the relation of these fac- 
tors to the distriliution and migration of fish and 
certain of the invertebrates. Plancton studies will 
also accompany this work. 

Nothing of originality is claimed for the work 
of this laboratory. It is hoped that it will be 
primarily a stimulus to the young investigator 
who may go on in productive re.search. The time 
may come when our facilities can be increased 
to accommodate the seasoned biologist. Until 
diat time, it is felt that the Laboratory is per- 
forming a real service in an attempt to stimulate 
interest in research work both in those planning 
to enter the medical jirofession and in those 
students interested in the purely scientific phase 
of zoology. 



IS THE PERMEABILITY OF THE ERYTHROCYTE TO WATER 
DECREASED BY NARCOTICS? 

(Continued from Page 1971 



In the absence of this necessary information, 
hemolysis experiments are entirely useless for 
the purpose of measuring cell ])ermea!)ilit\-. 

In the work here reported, advantage was taken 
of a method previously described by one of the 
authors (Biological Bulletin. 1930) which per- 
mits the entire course of the hemolytic process in 
such experiments to be followed and recorded 
over a period of several hours. Inspection of the 
records so obtained in the presence and absence 
of several narcotics shows immediatelv that what 
was observed by Arrhenius and Bubanovic and 
other workers as a result of the presence of such 
substances was not a change in the rate of hemo- 
lysis, and, therefore, by implication, a change in 
the rate of penetration of water, but rather a 
r ere change in the degree of hemolvsis ultimate- 
ly attained ; that is, in the osmotic resistance of 
the c"lls. Exviermients of the type p'-eviously re- 
]iorted, therefore, give no clear evide.ice either 
for or against the "pei'meabilitv" theory of nar- 
cr sis. 

That a decreased permeability of the cell ma\' 
be produced bv narcosis is, however, suggested 
by results obtained with very strongly hypotonic 
s^lut'ons in which true rates of hemolysis may be 
measured with considerable accuracy by a modifi- 
cation of the method already described. In such 
experiments the presence of phenvl or iso-amyl 
urethane in concentrations lying within the phys- 
iological narcotic range produce a slowing of 
heme lysis which, though comparatively slight, is 
nevertheless easily measurable. It is entirely pos- 



sible, therefore, that such narcotics may slow the 
rate of entrance of water into, or the escape of 
hemoglobin from the erythrocyte, or both, in the 
manner demaneled l)y the permeability theory of 
narcosis. It should be emphasized, however, that 
such results by no means prove that a condition 
of narcosis is generally, or even sometimes, pro- 
duced by a decreased cellular permeability ; it is 
possible merely to state that the facts here re- 
ported are not incompatible with such a theory. 

A provisional, though purely hypothetical ex- 
planation of the effect of narcotics, both on the 
rate of hemolysis and on the po.sition of final 
equilibrium of the system, may be given in terms 
of the so-called "pore" theory of permeability, if 
it l)e assumed that molecules of the narcotics are 
adsorlied bv the erythrocyte in such a way as to 
diminish the effective diameter of the "pores". 
The effect of such a change, in the pathways by 
\-hich water might be assumed to enter the cells, 
on the rate of hemolysis is obvious. An e.xplan- 
ation of its effect on the degree of hemolysis ul- 
timatelv attained could similarly be furnished by 
imagining a sufficient degree of blocking of the 
enlarged "pores" in a swollen erythrocyte, to 
maintain their normal impermeability to hemo- 
globin molecules. In the absence of conclusive 
evidence of the' presence of such "pores" in the 
surface of the erythrocyte, such an explanation 
is, of course, to be treated merely as a conven'ent, 
though rather crude, working hypothesis, which 
might re"dily b.e abandoned without in any way 
changing the significance of the observed facts. 



202 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



THE FIBRILLAR SYSTEM OF EUPLOTES 

John P. Turxkr 
Instructor of Zoology, University of Minnesota 



apparatus of the ciliate 

lietter known than that of 

-which, after all, is not say- 



1 he neuromotor 
I'.itfiotei is probahh' 
any other protozoan- 
iiig a great deal. 

Following the original description by Sharp in 
1914 of the neuromotor apparatus of the ciliate 
Diplodinium, an inhaliitant of the stomach of the 
cow, Yocum in 1918 described the neuromotor 
system of Euplotes patella, which is similar to 
that of Diplodinium in that it consists chiefly of 
fibers extending from a coordinating center, the 
motorium, to the motor organelles. 

Taylor, in 1920, demonstrated the co-ordinat- 
ing nature of this system b)- cutting various fillers 
and observing the subsequent lack of coordination 
between the cirri and membranelles to which the 
fibers had extended. Rees, MacDougall and 
others have followed with descriptions of neuro- 
motor systems of various degrees of complexity, 
some with and some without a definite motorium. 

Klein has recently called our attention to the 
delicate system of fibrils near the surface of cili ■ 
ates which he calls the "silver line system" from 
his methcd of demonstrating it with silver im- 
pregnation. He pictures the lines following the 
basal bodies in the rows of cilia. These ciliary 
rows have been known, of course, for many years, 
and partly descrilied. 

One of the forms which Klein studied was 
Eufilotcs karpa. 

In applying his method to Euplotes patella I 
have Iieen unable to obtain satisfactory prepara- 
tions. However, by modifying his technique suf- 
ficiently I have obtained some striking prepara- 
tions. 

I'.ear in mind that Euplotes has ro cilia on the 
dorsal surface. Nevertheless, the lines are pres- 
ent. FurtlT-rmore. they connect up rows of gran- 
ules, arranged in rosettes, which some believe to 
be basal bodies of ance-tral cilia. If th's as- 
sumption is correct, the\' have changed their size, 
arrangement, function and affinity for stains. Data 
regarding these points will lie discussed in a 
future publication. 

There are nine longitudinal rows of these 
rosettes, each row containing about twenty-five 
rosettes. The rosettes in turn are each composed 
of from si.x to twelve large granules. 

Griffin, in 1910, described sensory bristles pro- 
truding from the rosettes in Euplotes ivoreesteri. 
Klein, with his silver method, shows only single 
blots for the rosettes in Euplotes harpa. 

As can be clearly seen even in photomicro- 
graphs, the dorsal surface of Euplotes patella 



shows nine longitudinal fibrils which connect up 
the rosettes. These I have called the primary 
fibrils. There are also less re.gular but quite dis- 
tinct secondary filirils which are between and par- 
allel to the primaries. In addition, there are com- 
missural fibrils extending across from the pri- 
maries to the secondaries, creating a veritable 
network or latticework which varies from one 
organism to another remarkably little. 

In every case, the rosettes are located between 
the intersections of the commissural with the pri- 
mary fibrils, which indicates that they are nut 
merely nodes of attachment. The entire network 
is connected anteriorly with the membranelle fiber 
of the neuromotor system. 

The network of the ventral surface of Euplotes 
patella is much more comjilicated than that of the 
dorsal side. Instead of the fibrils forming 
squares and rectangles in parallel rows, they are 
arranged in an irregular fashion, forming long, 
slender rectangles, pentagors. hexagons, etc., ac- 
cording to their location. This gives somewhat 
the appearance of badly treated chicken wire. 
The pattern, however, is constant and character- 
istic. The baspl plates of the rdoral membranelle^. 
the slender rectangles formed by the fil]rils jios- 
terior to the peristome, and the more regular pat- 
tern in the region of the oral lip are particularh' 
noticeable. 

Now questions naturally arise as to the mean- 
ing of all this fibrillar network. Is it an artifact? 
If not, what is its function? Is it a part of the 
neuromotor apparatus ? 

I lielieve it is not merely an artifact, for three 
reasons : 

(1) Because of its constant and regular ap- 
pearance when impregnated with silver in either 
unfixed, dried material, according to Klein's 
method, or in material fi.xed with osmic vapor. 

(2) The entire system appears clearly in ma- 
terial stained only with thionin. 

(3) I have seen the primary fibrils in living ma- 
terial stained with neutral red. They appear as 
delicate threads extending through the rows of 
rosettes. The rosettes show b.ejiuti fully in neu- 
tral red stained material. 

If we accept these facts as evidence of the 
reality of the network, what can we say of its 
function ? 

Klein believes it is a primitive nervous system 
with both motor and sensory functions, and he 
interprets Taylor's results as the effect of cutting 
the network. He also states that it, in some wa\', 
initiates division of the cell (I believe I can show 



I 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



203 



this is not true.) He assigns various other func- 
tions to the network, hut, in all cases, what little 
evidence he presents is not convincing. 

There is, however, a suggestion as to its pos- 
sihle function. Yocum and Taylor descrihe one 
row of filirillar hexagons in the oral lip of 
Euplotcs patella which arises from the neuro- 
motor apparatus, 'i'his they helieve to have a 
sensory function and Taylor demonstrated that 
tiie oral lip is the most sensitive part of the ani- 
mal. Now these hexagons are only a small, 
though easily demonstrahle, part of the filirillar 
network. We see then that the network is inti- 
mately connected with the neuromotor system and 



that at least a part of it seems to have a sensory 
function. 

As I have already pointed out, Griffin states 
that sensory hristles protrude from the rosettes in 
Euplotes ivorcesteri. 

So it may be that the fibrillar network in Eu- 
plotes is sensory in function and supplements the 
neuromotor system as a sensory apparatus. It is 
just under the pellicle where one would expect 
to find such a system. 

This possibility needs testing, of course, and I 
hope to find methods which will yield further evi- 
dence. 



TYPES OF VARIATION PRODUCED BY CONJUGATION IN 
PARAMECIUM AURELIA 

Dr. Daniix Raffel 
National Research Council felloTi.' in Biology, Johns Hopkins Unii'crsitv 



The object of this paper is to give a general 
account of the types of variation which were pro- 
duced by conjugation in a clone of Paramecium 
aurelia in an investigation which Professor Jen- 
nings, Drs. Lynch and Sonneborn, Mrs. Rafifel 
and I began here last summer. 

The members of a clone of Paramecium, i. e. 
the individuals descended from a single organism 
in the absence of conjugation are remarkably uni- 
form in their characteristics. However, Jennings 
found in 1913 that after conjugation occvu'red in 
such a clone this uniformity is destroyed. He 
found that the variability of the fission rates in 
such a population is much greater than in a popu- 
lation composed of individuals of the original 
clone which had not lieen allowed to conjugate. I 
recently undertook a reinvestigation of this prob- 
lem, using such methods of cultivation as to elim- 
inate the ])ossibility of environmental factors in- 
fluencing the results obtained, and my results en- 
tirely confirmed those of Jennings. Therefore it 
seemed of great interest to ascertain what types 
of variation are produced by conjugation, i. e., 
what kinds of characteristics are inherited by 
Paramecium. 

A single individual of P. aurelia was isolated 
from a mass cultu'^e in the laboratory and its pro- 
geny were allowed to multiply until a great num- 
ber had lieen obtained. Then conjugation was in- 
duced in this clone and 258 pairs were obtained. 
After the memljers of the pairs had separated, 
they were isolated and from each of the 516 or- 
ganisms a single line of descent was kept. These 
516 lines were cultivated for ten days and records 
were kept of their fission rates and any obvious 
peculiarities of any of the lines which were ob- 
served. At the end of the ten days, all but 40 of 
the lines were discarded. Further intensive studv 
was devoted to the 49 lines which were retained. 



I made an intensive study of 11 of these clones 
and it is with the results which these clones 
yielded that this paper will treat. In general 24 
lines of each clone were carried for the ne.\t 40 
days. The results are based almost entirely on 
the data which I collected on these clones. These 
data are tvpical of the results which all of us ob- 
tained. 

The clones differed in many respects : namely in 
their (i) general vitality, (2) fission rates, (3) 
reactions to endomixis, (4) sizes and shapes, (5) 
uniformity (6) the production of abnormalities, 
(7) the effect of conjugation on them, and (8) 
reactions to different changes in their environ- 
ments. 

In the fir.st place, striking diversities were 
shown in the general vitalities of the different 
clones. After conjugation there were 516 ex- 
con jugants. Of these, 96, or nearly 20%, died 
in a short time without dividing. In addition to 
these, 179 lines of ex-conjugants died out within 
9 days of the time they conjugated. Some of 
these latter lines were, from the beginning, weak 
and sickly — they divided slowly and produced 
weak and often abnormal offspring; others of 
these clones appeared vigorous for a few days 
and divided frequently, only to die in a short 
time. Other clones lived for longer periods, de- 
clined in vigor and died. Still others of appar- 
ently low vitality lived for long periods but di- 
vided very slowly during the ten months that they 
were studied. Finally, other clones were ex- 
tremely healthy and vigorous and the one such 
clone which wjis kept lived for more than 300 
days without showing any decrease in vigor. 

Some idea as to the diversities in vitality of 
the group which lived for longer periods of time 
is given by the diversities in the rates of repro- 
duction among the dififerent clones. The eleven 



204 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 48 



clones varied in their daily fission rates from 1.08 
fissions per day to 2.IQ fissions per day for a per- 
iod of 60 days during' the greater part of which 
time 24 lines of each were carried. There was a 
rather complete series of fission rates hetween 
these two extremes. The dififerenccs in fission 
rates persisted and the clones with the higher fis- 
ion rates reproduced more rapidly during the suc- 
cessive periods than the clones with the lower 
mean fissi(5n rates. Thus we see that conjugation 
certainly produces clones which differ in their 
rates of reproduction. 

Another interesting diliference hetween the 
clones was found in their reactions to endomixis. 
Some of the clones showed no indication of any 
depression during endomixis. Their fission rates 
fell ofT l)Ut slightly for a day or two and then 
rapidly recovered. These produced few if any 
abnormalities and on the whole were relatively 
unafi^ected hy endomixis. Other clones were 
seriously depressed for several days and produced 
many ahnormalties while they were inidergoing 
this process. In some of these, endomixis was 
such a serious process that it was at times doubt- 
ful whether they would survive. In one clone 
which had manifested the highest degree of vital- 
ity of any, endomixis proved fatal. 

The clones varied greatly in their tendencies to 
produce abnormal individuals ; some produced 
many such individuals, others produced some per- 
iodically, while still other clones produced very 
few abnormal individuals or none at all. 

There were also dift'erences in size and form 
apparent among the dift'erent clones. Most of 
these differences were small and they were not 
studied intensively. However, one clone dift"ercd 
greatly from all of the others. This was only 
•about one half as long as the others and had a 
spindle-like shape. A comparison of this clone 
with any of the others shows great diversity in 
size and form which conjugation can produce. 

A very unexpected and interesting difference 
which was found between the clones was the di- 
versity in their uniformity. Jennings found in 
190R that they were very uniform in their char- 
acteristics. In these clones this was generally 
true. A clone called i2Sa, however, occasionally 
produced lines which differed from the other lines 
of the same clone in their size, shape and rate of 
reproduction. These a!)errant lines were in every 
case similar and never were known to revert. 
This type of variation is quite dift'erent from that 
produced by conjugation. Conjugation produces 
a number of clones which differ from each other 
in varying degrees while in this case all the des- 
cendants of the clone 128a are of one of the two 
kinds. One other clone which I .studied also pro- 
duced aberrant branches from time to time. How- 
ever, in most of our work we obtained the same 



kinds of results that Jennings had earlier — clones 
are uniform and selection is ineffective. 

Clones vary in the effects that conjugation 
have on them. Dr. Ruth S. Lynch is giving a 
full report of this type of variation so I shall say 
r.othing about it here. 

Jennings in 191 3 came to the conclusion that 
conjugation within a clone produces a varied 
population containing many diverse clones some 
of which will thrive under one set of conditions 
and others under different sets of conditions. In 
order to test this hypothesis I made a study of the 
reactions of a few clones to different environ- 
mental conditions. The first comparison which 
was made was with respect to a general dift'er- 
ence. I cultivated my organisms in a salt solu- 
tion to which cultures of known liacteria and al- 
gae were added. The details of this medium 
have been published.* The others working in this 
investigation used an oat infusion to which the 
same algae were added. Lhi fortunately we de- 
voted our attentions to different clones so that, 
when we came to make the comparison, there 
were only two clones on which we both had suf- 
ficient data to compare. These two. however, 
showed a marked difference in their reaction to 
the two media. In the oat infusion they made 
records which were practically identical. In the 
salt solution, on the other hand, one clone repro- 
duced much more rapidly than in the oat infusion 
and the other reproduced much more slowly. Ob- 
viously then, conjugation produces clones which 
react diversely to different media. 

I |)erformed a series of experiments to deter- 
mine the reactions of the different clones to small, 
known dift'e'/ences in the environment. The first 
of these experiments was designed to test whether 
the different clones would react diversely to a 
decrea.se in the quantity of bacteria which was 
sujiphed in the medium. In carrying out this in- 
vestigation two sets of media were prepared daily. 
Each set was made in a tube containing about 15CC. 
of the sterile culture solution. To these were 
added approximately the same quantity of Sticli- 
ocnccus bacillaris. To the tube of control medium 
a pipette (appi-ox. 1 cc.) of a rich suspension of 
Achrouwhacter caudicaiis was added while to the 
tube containing the experimental medium only a 
single drop was added. Sister individuals of the 
24 lines of each clone to be tested were transfer- 
red into this medium. Then both sets were cul- 
tivated for 15 days using the necessary precau- 
tions to exclude bacteria. In calculating the re- 
sults, this 15 day period was divided into two of 
7 and 8 days each. The clones differed greatly 
in the extent to which their rates of reproduction 
were depressed by this decrease in the quantit\- 

*Raffel, D.. The effects of conjugation within a clone 
of Paramecium aurelia. Biol Bull, 5S: 293 312, 1930. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



205 



of l)actei"ia in the medium. The extent of the de- 
pression in the two periods was very similar in 
the case of most of tiie clones. There was, how- 
ever, some variation in the extent of the depres- 
sion in the two periods in some of them. This 
was due probably to the occurrence of endoniixis 
and was not sufficient to obscure the variation 
which was apparent in the reactions of most of 
the clones to this change in environment. The 
evidence is clear that some of the clones do differ 
in their reactions to a decrease in the quantity of 
bacteria supplied to them. 

Another environmental agent tested was a de- 
crease in temperature. The control group was 
cultivated at a temperature varying from 25° to 
270 while sister animals were cultivated in the 
identical medium at 1X.5 to 20.0°. Three experi- 
ments were performed to test the reactions of 5 
clones to this decrease in temperature. The re- 
sults which were obtained were similar to those 
obtained from a decrease in the quantity of bac- 
teria. The five clones which were tested varied 
greatly with respect to the degree to which this de- 
crease in temperature depressed their fission rates. 
The three experiments showed the same differ- 
ences between the clones. The one which was 
most depressed during the first exiieriment was 
most depressed during the second and third. In 
the same way the one which was least depressed 
during the first experiment was depressed least 
in the others. The other three were also de- 
pressed in proportional amounts during the three 
experiments except that two were interchanged 
during one period. Thus conjugation produces 
clones which vary in the extent to which this de- 
crease in tempeVature will depress thein. 

The third environmental difference which was 
studied was a decrease in the pH of the medium. 



In the three experiments which were then per- 
formed on this difference, 24 lines of each clone 
were cultivated in the usual medium which had 
a pH of 7.2, and in a medium which was the 
same in every respect except that it had a pH of 
6.8. The results of these three experiments 
showed that the clones differed greatly in their 
reactions to this decrease in pH. One of the 
clones was not depressed in any of the three ex- 
periments, one was very slightly depressed in all 
three, others were more depressed in varying de- 
grees. A few of the clones showed different re- 
actions in the three different experiments, prob- 
ably due to the effects of endoniixis which oc- 
curred during the progress of these experiments. 
These experiments demonstrated that the clones 
produced by conjugation dift'er in their reactions 
to a decrease in pH. 

The study of these eleven clones demonstrates 
beyond a doubt that conjugation produces varia- 
tion in vitality, rate of reproduction, reaction to 
endomi.xis, size and form, uniformity, production 
of abnormalities and reactions to various differ- 
ences in the environment. These differences are 
independent of one another and are not all 
l)hases of differences in vitality. Clones which 
were of high vitality and reproduced rapidly were 
often depressed more by endoniixis or various 
environmental agents than were others of lower 
vitality. 

It is obvious that conjugation within a clone of 
Parmncciuni aurclia produces manv clones which 
dififer in numerous respects. Each of these eleven 
clones is different from each of the others in one 
or more ways It seems probalile that, by using 
a sufficiently large number of criteria, each ex- 
conjugant could be shown to give rise to a unique 
biot\pe. 



EFFECTS OF CONJUGATION IN A NUMBER OF CLONES OF 
PARAMECIUM AURELIA 

Dr. T. M. Sonnkborn, 
Research Associate in Genetics, Johns Hopkins University 
AND Dr. Ruth Stocking Lynch, 
luslructor in Genetics, Johns HopI;ins University 
( Reported by Dr. L}nch ) 



Dr. Raffel has described the types of varia- 
tion brought about in Paramecium aurclia as a 
result of conjugation. I shall attempt to show 
how some of these types of variation (diverse 
fission rates, varialiilities, and mortality percent- 
ages) are manifested in closely related clones of 
the same species. 

Conjugation effects have generallv heen con- 
sidered identical for all species of ciliate Proto- 
zoa, although it has been suggested that the vari- 
ous species might differ in this regard. But the 
idea that conjugation might affect various stocks 



of the same species differently has been little con- 
sidered. However, certain results obtained by 
Calkins on Uroleptus : by Woodruft' and Spencer 
on Spathidium ; by McDougall on Chilodon ; and 
hy our own group in work still unpublished, 
strongly support the idea that such a diversity in 
effects of conjugation may occur even within a 
single species. Such diversity, particularly if it 
is found to be wide-spread, might account for 
the conflicting results obtained by various in- 
vestigators and the consequent diversity of their 
theories of conjugation. 



206 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 4S 



For this reason, among others, the variability 
of conjugatinn effects in closely related clones 
was studied by Dr. Sonneborn and myself during 
the past winter. The problem was attacked in 
three ways. A study was made, (l) of repeated 
conjugations within one clone; (2) of simultane- 
ous conjugations in si.x closely related clones; (3) 
of repeated simultaneous conjugations in two 
closely related clones. 

Clone 247a, one of the forty-eight clones used 
in the investigation described by Dr. Raffel, was 
the parent of all the clones studied. It was kept 
under examination during the entire course of the 
investigation. Three successive conjugations 
were induced in a portion of this clone on October 
I and 16, and on December q, 1930. In each 
case, after fourteen or more days of examina- 
tion, all the resulting daughter clones were dis- 
carded, with the exception of si.x from the last 
conjugation which were kept for use in the sec- 
ond set of experiments. 

This second set of experiments consisted of the 
induction and study of simultaneous conjugations 
in these six sister clones. All of the resulting 
28S daughter clones were discarded at the end 
of the experiment, and all but two of the parent 
clones. Two of the parent clones, Ejoa and 
E8ia, were kept and studied throughout the rest 
of the investigation. 

The third and last set of experiments consist- 
ed of a series of three more simultaneous conju- 
gations, induced in these two sister clones. 

The rest of this rejiort is a consideration of the 
results of these fifteen conjugations. 

In the first conjugation induced in a ])art 
of cone 247a, 116 lines, one from each member 
of the 58 pairs isolated, were studied. Their 
mean total numlier of fissions was 15.7010.16*; 
the mean total number of fissions in th'? 
co-existing non-coniugant lines was 15.7S| 
0.29, almost exactly the same; their ratio is 1,00. 
In the second experiment, the mean total number 
of fissions for 100 conjugant lines was 13.87 + 
0.27; that for the co-existing non-con jugant lines 
was 13.7410,21 ; their ratio is i.oi. In the third 
experiment the mean total number of fissions for 
the 194 conjugant lines was 19.26J0.23 ; for the 
non-conjugant lines, 18.32J0.17 their ratio is 1.05. 
It is quite clear that the mean fission rate of the 
clone 247a is unaffected by conjugation. 

The second method, the study of simultaneous 
conjugations in a number of sister clones, was a]i- 
plied to the descendants of six conjugants from 
the last experiment. Conjugation was induced in 
all six on January 12 to 14, and the descendants 
of 48 pairs of each group of conjugants. together 
with non-con jugants of each parent clone, were 
studied for fourteen da>s. 
" This symbol "t" indicates "plus or minus." 



In mean total number of fissions the six groups 
of conjugants fall into two classes; Class i con- 
tains five of the groups : Class 2 contain only the 
E8ia grou]5. The five memliers of Class i show 
l)Ut slight differences. For the members (E4ia 
and l'"8ob) showing the highest and lowest mean 
total nvmiber of fissions in Class i the means for 
the first five-day period were 16.69fo.19 and 
16.38J0.19. In the E8ia group (Class 2) th? 
mean total numlier of fissions was 7.46J0.42 ; less 
than htdf that of every msmber of Class i. For 
the two representatives of Class i in the second 
five-day period, the m;an total numl)er of fissions 
was 13.66J0.18; and 13.26J0.2.;. In the E8ia 
group the total number was S.39jo.5,9 ; again less 
than half those of Class i. For the total time, 
the mean for the highest memljer of Class i was 
30.46J0.34; for the lowest member, 29.76Jo.i<o. 
For the one member of Clafs 2, it was 15.06J 
1.04; again half as high. These two classes of 
conjugants from sister clones show a difference 
of 100% in their mean fissions rates. 

This difference Iretween the groups of conju- 
gants is paralleled by the difference between their 
relations to their groups of non-con jugants. 
These relations are expressed by the. ratios of 
conjugant total number of fissions over non-con- 
jugant total number of fissions. The ratios for 
the group E4ia are i.oo, i.oi, i.oi ; its mean 
fission rate has been unchanged liv co.ijugation. 
It is similar in this respect to clone 247a, the 
first clone .studied. The corresponding" ratios for 
the group E8ob are 1.12, 1.02, and 1.07; its fis- 
sion rate has been slightly but consistently raised 
by conjugation. The rat'os for E8ia, on the other 
hand, are 0.54, 0.61, and 0.70. Its mean fission 
rate has been consistenth' and markedly loiiK'rcd 
by conjugation. 

This simultaneous comparison of the effects of 
conjugation in six sister clones demonstrate that 
conjugation does not have the same effect on 
mean fission rate in all clones; in some clones, 
conjugation raises the mean fission rate (re- 
juvenescence) ; in other clones, conjugation low- 
ers the mean fission rate (depression); in still 
others it leaves the mean fission rate ab- 
solutely unaltered. Some groups of conjugants 
may have a fission rate twice as high as the rate 
in other groups. It is apparent that each of the 
different results obtained by different investiga- 
tors can be attained by studying the appropriate 
race ; the effects of conjugation on mean fission 
rate depend on the nature of the race which con- 
jugates. 

In variability these six grouiis again fall into 
three distinct classes : (Class l) those whose vari- 
ability is low; (Class 3) those whose variability 
is high; (Class 2) those with an intermediate 
variabilitv. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



20; 



In Class 3 are the conjugants of E81a; their 
standard deviations of 3.98J0.30 for the first 
period, 3.S6I0.41 for the second, and 6.56I0.74 
for the total time, show a variability distinctly 
higher than that of any other group. In Class 1 
are the conjugants of E40a, with standard devia- 
tions most unlil<e those of E8ia; they were tlie 
lowest found (1.44I0.07, 1.60J0.08, and 2.68t 
0.14.) The intermediate class is represented by 
E4ia, its most consistent member; its values are 
2.66J:o.i4, 2.52J0.14, and 4.63I0.24. These con- 
jugant groups, derived from sister clones, show 
variabilities of widely different degrees. 

Dii¥erence in iiiciciisc in variation is shown 
most clearly by the clones E4ia and E40a. In 
these two clones the ratios between the standard 
deviations of the conjugant groups and the cor- 
responding non-conjugant groups show that con- 
jugation increased absohite varial)ility about twice 
as much in the clone E4ia as in tlie clone E40a. 
(The ratios for the two five-day periods and 
total time are: 2.74 as compared with 1.32; 1.91 
as compared with 1.04; and 2.82 as compared 
with 1.23). 

These results are another instance of disagree- 
ment of data obtained from different clones. An 
experiment on E40a alone would have led to the 
conclusion that conjugation dees not increase var- 
ialiility; but an experiment on E4ia alone would 
have led to the conclusion that conjugation great- 
ly increases variabilit\. The present experiment 
shows tliat neithe" conclusion tells the whole truth. 

In percentage mortality the six groups of con- 
jugants again fall into three classes. In Class 3 
are the conjugants of clone ESi, with a very high 
mortality: 81.3%. In Cla,ss i are those from 
E4oa and E4ia, with a very low mortality : 1 1.5% 
and 12.5%. The other groups fall into the inter- 
mediate class, with a mortality percentage ranging 
from 24.2% to 37.5%. It is evident that mor- 
tality, also, varies with the clone ; in some clones 
conjugation results in a very great mortality; in 
other clones, in very little. 

The differences between the mortalitv percent- 
ages of the conjugants and the mortality percent- 
ages of the non-conjugants bring out the same 
type of relations. Conjugation lowered mortal- 
ity in E8ob (0.8%) ; left it alisolutely unaltered 
in E85b; slightly raised it in E46b (10.7%), 
E4ia (11.5%), and E40a (12.5%); and raised 
it greatly in E8ia (43.8%). Non-conjugant 
members of both ES^b and E8ia had a mortality 
of 37-5% ; conjugation increased this to 81.3% 
in daughter clones of ESia, but left it unchanged 
at exactly 37.5% in the daughter clones of ER^b. 
In some clones conjugation increases the moi'- 
talitv ; in others, it leaves it unaffected. 

The third method was carried out on the two 
parent clones of the second experiment which had 



shown the greatest diversity in all effects of con- 
jugation studied: E4oa and E8ia. This study of 
repeated simultaneous conjugations in these two 
sister clones was designed to answer the question : 
What ditference between E4oa and E8ia in the 
effects of conjugation will be found repeatedly 
and at dilferent times? 

The first conjugations studied simultaneously 
occurred of course in the second set of experi- 
ments just described. The second were induced 
February 9 to 12; 48 pairs from the E40a clone 
and 44 pairs from the E8la clone and their des- 
cendants were studied. The third occurred Feb. 
15 to 18, and 48 pairs of E40a and 96 p,airs of 
E8ia and their descendants were studied. On 
March 11 to 16 the fourth and last simultaneous 
conjugations were induced and 20 pairs of E40a 
conjugants and 21 pairs of E8ia conjugants and 
their descendants were studied. 

In every period the mean total number of fis- 
sions of the conjugants of E40a is significantly 
higher than the mean total numlier of fissions of 
the conjugants of E8ia: i6.26|o.io as compared 
with 7.46J0.42 ; 13.70to.12 as compared with 
S-39to.39 ; 5.51 Jo.ib as compared with 2.83I0.27 ; 
and 10.41 to.32 as compared with 6.00I0.30. 
There can be no doubt that conjugation in the 
clone E40a yields groups of conjugants with 
higher mean fission rates than does conjugation in 
the clone E8ia. 

The coefficients of variation also show consis- 
tently significant differences. The coefficients of 
the Ejoa groups of conjugants are alwavs less 
than the coefficients of the E8ia groups: 8.87^ 
0.46 as compared with 53.38I4.98; 11.6910.62 as 
compared with 68.36]: 10.69 ; 38-43|2.28 as com- 
pared with 77.38I9.99; 30.5212. 34 as compared 
with 52.08I4.31. Obviously, conjugants from the 
clone E8ia are relatively much more varial)le in 
fission rate than conjugants from the clone E40a. 

A comparison of these conjugant values with 
the corresponding non-conjugant values brings 
out characteristic effects in each clone. The mean 
total number of fissions for E4oa in the first 
period of the first experiment is 14.25I0.26; for 
its conjugants, i6.26|o.io — the fission rate has 
been slightly raised by conjugation; the ratio be- 
tween the two totals is 1.14. This is also true of 
the second period in which the ratio is 1.04. In 
the third experiment it has been slightly lowered : 
the ratio is 0.90 ; in the second experiment, low- 
ered still more: the ratio is 0.60. In E81a. on 
the other hand, the total number of fissions for 
the conjugant' group is always considerably less 
than that for the non-conjugants: the ratios in 
every case are close to one half; and, in every 
period, they are almost exactly half the ratios for 
E4oa. They are 0.54. 0.61, 0.33, and o.^S. 
It is clear that in E4oa the fission rate is usually 



208 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 4S 



little affected. In E81a, it is regularly about 
halved. 

The same thing is true for varial)ility. The 
ratios for E8ia are in every case greater ; in three 
cases, over twice as great: 4.18 as compared with 
1. 16; 1.O9 as compared with i.oo: 10.87 ^^ com- 
])ared with 5.38; and 4.16 as compared with 2.01. 
Variaijility in E8ia has been regularly increased 
by conjugation to a much greater extent than in 
E40a. 

The two clones show similar differences in ef- 
fect of conjugation on mortality. In every ex- 
periment the mortality of the E4oa group of con- 
jugants is very much less than the mortality of 
the E8ia group of conjugants: 12.5% as com- 
pared with 81.3% ; 14.3% as compared with 
40.97f ; 71.9% as compared with 99.5%; 
47.5% as compared with 92.9%. For the four 
experiments the average mortality among the con- 
jugants of the group E8ia was 81.3% as com- 
pared with 36.1% for the conjugants of the 
clone E40a. There can be no doubt that conju- 
gation results in a very much greater mortnlity in 
the clone E8ia than in the clone E40a. 

A comparison of the differences between mor- 
tality percentages of the non-conjugant and conju- 
gant groups l)rings out specific effects in each 
clone. In E40a, the conjugant percentage is 
greater in the first experiment by 12.3% in the 
second, by 14.3% ; in the fourth, by 7.5%. In 
the third experiment, the mortality of the conju- 
gants is less liy 3.1%. It is evident that mor- 
tality in E40a is little affected by conjugation. In 
E8ia, however, the mortality percentage is regu- 
larly considerably higher in the conjugants: 
43.8% in the first experiment; 40.9% in the sec- 
ond, 18.0% in the third, 22.1% in the fourth. In 
E8la conjugation regularly and significantlv in- 
creases mortality. 

Thus repeated comparison of successive groups 
of conjugants from the two clones E40a and 
ESia as well as the study of successive groups of 
conjugants from 247a has fully established that 
each clone shows certain characteristic effects of 
conjugation. Conjugants from clones 247a and 

CROSS-CONJUGATION IN 

Dr. T. yi. SONNKEORN .\Nn 

Johns Hopk 
(Reported by 
Although cross-breeding experiments are ob- 
viously important for genetic analysis, only three 
cases in which cross-breeding is definiteh' known 
to have occurred are to be found in the whole of 
protozoan literature. The best of these is the 
cross made by Pascher between two .species of 
Chlamydomonas. This, however, will not be 
described, as the present account will be confined 
to the ciliate Protozoa, in which the phenomena 
of mating are verv different from those in fiagel- 



E40a have a high fission rate similar to that of 
their parent clones; conjugants from E8ia, a low 
fission rate, about half that of their parent clone. 
Conjugants from E40a have a low variability, 
slightly greater than that of their parent clone ; 
conjugants from E8ia a high variability, con- 
siderably greater than that of their parent clone. 
Conjugants from E40a have a low mortality, like 
that of their parent clone; conjugants from E8ia 
a high mortality, well above that of their parent 
clone. 

In conclusion it may be stated that in this in- 
vestigation, fifteen conjugant groups from seven 
closely related clones were found to l)e verv di- 
verse in fission rate, varialiility, and mortality, 
(iroups of conjugants obtained over a period of 
three months from two sister clones differed con- 
sistently in fission rate; the ratio of the slower 
over the faster never exceeded 0.58. Differences 
of similar degree were found in varia1)ility and 
mortality, extending over the same three months 
period. 

The relations between conjugant groups and 
parent clones were also very diverse. Most clones 
showed no effects, or very slight effects, in their 
fission rates. In others, the fission rate was 
raised by conjugation ; in one it was strikingly 
reduced. The same is true for mortality. Varia- 
bility was usually increased, but to very diverse 
degrees in the several clones. We found no uni- 
form conjugation effects in the species Paraincc- 
iuin aurclia. 

However, within each of the three clones in 
which three or more successive conjugations were 
studied, certain characteristic effects of conjuga- 
tion were demonstrated repeatedly. In one clone 
(E8ia) fission rate was halved; mortality was 
greatly increased; and variability was doul^led. In 
two clones, (247a and E40a ) fission rate was un- 
affected ; in one of these two (E4oa,) mortality 
and varialiility were also little increased. 

In general, then, according to these results, con- 
ju','ation effects are specific for certain clones of 
Paramecium aurclia, but are highly diversified .in 
the species. 

PARAMECIUM AURELIA 

Dr. IviTii .S. Lynch. 

ins I'liii'crsity 

Dr. Sonneborn) 
lates like Chlam\domonas. The first clear case 
of cross-breeding in ciliate protozoa is the single 
]iair of cross-conjugants of S/^athiclium spathula 
obtained by Woodruff and Spencer in 1924. The 
descendants of this one pair were compared for 
25 days with the descendants of two pairs of in- 
bred conjugants from each parent clone. No sig- 
nificant differences in fission rate were found. 
The only other case is the work of Miss Mac- 
Dougall on Chilodon. Fifty pairs of cross-conju- 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



209 



gants between a normal and a tailed race were 
obtained, but every one of these died before 
they could be studied She states, however, that 
another type of cross has been more successful ; 
l)ut no account of this has yet been pulilished. 
These two cases of WoodrulT and Spencer and 
of Miss MacDougall cxliaust the literature on 
cross-breeding ciliate Protozria. 

In an attempt to help fill in this gap in the 
genetics of these organisms, a method was de- 
veloped by which clones of P. aurcUa, with dif- 
ferent genotypes, could be cross-bred. The chief 
difficulties in achieving this are due to the facts 
that conjugation is ordinarily induced in mass 
cultures and that, in mafs cultures, the two clones 
to be crossed cannot usually l)e distinguished 
with ce-'tainty. These difficulties mu'-t be over- 
come either l)y artificially marking in different 
ways the two clones to be crossed, before mixing 
them in mass cultures; or by devising some meth- 
od wherebv conjugation can ht induced in isola- 
tion cultures containing only two individuals — 
one from each clone. Both methods were tried 
and tiie latter found to be far more satisfactory. 

The method finally used was essentially this : 
Conjugation was induced synchronously in sep- 
arate mass cultures of the two clones to be 
crossed. Then, pairs consisting of one non-con- 
jugating individual from each of the two clones 
were isolated together in the smallest possible 
.nmount of fluid taken from one of the conjugat- 
ing cultures. 

After this technicjue had been successfully em- 
ployed, it was discovered that Woodruff and 
Spencer had obtained one pair of cross-conju- 
gants (the one already mentioned) by the use of 
a somewhat similar method. The essential dif- 
ference in method is that they set up pairs in or- 
dinary culture fluid instead of in fluid from the 
conjugating cultures. This difference may ac- 
count for their failure to get more than one pair 
of cross-conjugants. 

That the method here employed will probabl\' 
be found to be of wide-spread usefulness is indi- 
cated by the facts that we have olitained crosses 
among five genotypically dififerent clones of P. 
aurcliii. and Mr. Cohen, using the same mstlu.d, 
has just succeeded in crossing dift'erent races of 
a very dififerent species : Euplotcs patella. 

Of the different crosses we have obtain.ed, one 
was done on a large enough scale to yield results 
of interest. The experiment was performed on 
two of the clones of which Dr. Lynch has iust 
given you an account: The clone E^oa, which, 
when inbred, yielded groups of ex-conjugant 
clones with high mean fission rate and high via- 
bility: and the clone E8ia, which, when inbr-d, 
yieWed groups of ex-conjugant clones with low 
mean fission rate and low viability. 

During the fourth of the comparisons of the 



effects of inbreeding which we made between 
these two clones, we also studied twenty pairs of 
crosses between the two clones. The conjugants 
of the three groups were obtained at the same 
time. From each e.x-conjugant we ran two lines 
of descent, so that we had eighty cross-bred lines 
to compare with eighty inbred lines from one 
parent and eighty inbred lines from the other 
parent. The experiment thus consisted of 240 
lines. These were compared for twenty daj's. 
The present report will be limited to a discussion 
of two characteristics: Fission rate and viability. 

In mean fission rate, the three groups difl^ered 
greatly. The inbred E40a parent yielded a group 
of e.x-conjugant lines with means of 10.61, 9.48, 
10.77, <i"'-l 1^-5- fissi(jns for the four successive 
five-day periods, respectively. The inbred ESia 
clone yielded a group of ex-conjugant lines with 
means of 3.77 and 4.58 fissioais for the first two 
periods, respectively. (The means for the last 
two periods for this group are not given because 
the descendants of only three ex-con jugants sur- 
vived thee periods, and their means are obvious- 
ly insignificant.) The cross-bred group yielded a 
group of e.x-conjugants with means of y.y2< 7-S7< 
/.<jy, and 9.28 fissions for the four successive five- 
day ])eriods, respectively. Period by period, the 
means of the cross-bred group are lower than the 
means of the inbred E40a clone (by a total of 
10.8 fissions for the 20 days of the experiment), 
and higher than the means of the inljred E8ia 
clone { by a total of over 7 fissions for the first 
10 days of the experiment.) 

It is important to inquire into the possibility 
that the intermediate results of the cross-conju- 
gants are due to the fact that half of the ex- 
conjugants descended from one parent have its 
characteristic fission rate: and the half descend- 
ed from the other parent, its characteristic fission 
rate. The group as a whole would then be inter- 
mediate also. The means of the means of the two 
parents, 7.19 and 7.0.3 for the first two periods, 
are indeed very close to the means of the cross- 
bred group. 

That this resemblance is not due to the pos- 
sibilitv just suggested, is shown by figure I. On 
these graphs the percentage of each group is plot- 
ted against fissirjn totals. The first set of curves 
fire for the first five-day period; the second set, 
for the second period. The broken curves repre- 
sent the inbred E8ia group; their curves show 
tb,'.t the great majority (71% and 67%) of Ibis 
group fell in the class having less than 5 fissions 
in five days. The dash-dot curves represent the 
inbred E.'Oa group; their curves show that the 
great majority (Cyofc and 67%) fell in the class 
having more than 10 fissions in five days. The 
solid curves represent the cross-bred group : their 
curves show that the peaks (41% and 58%) fell 
in the intermediate class having between 5 and 



210 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 





lUrcb II-IT. 1«31 


70* 


- A 


? 


- A -J- 

, \ no. / ; 


!'• 


- 1 / /\/ .■■■■ \ \ 


h" 


-/■/ M' V 




-/''■'/ y ' n\\ 




'/ ^ v 








8 . nil. ! njTBT — lo.D-irr" 



10 fissions in five days. The dotted curves are 
the means of the curves of the two inbred par- 
ents ; these curves are Ijitnodal with the two modes 
falling in the two extreme classes, the minimums 
in the intermediate class. The curve for the 
mean of the two parents and the curve for the 
cross between the two parents are thus exactly 
opposite in character; the low points of the cross 
curves fall where the high points of the parental 
curves are, and the high points of the cross curves 
fall where the low points of the parental curve 
are. Clearly, then, the cross-bred group resembles 
neither parental group nor the sum of half of 
each of the two parental groups. Its distribution 
of fission rate is characteristically intermediate 
between those of the parents. 

The situation with respect to mortality is quite 
diff'erent. The mortality of the cross-bred group 
was almost exactly like the mortality of the in- 
bred E.^oa group at every stage of the experi- 
ment, and very difl'erent from the mortality of the 
inbred E8ia group. At the end of 20 days, the 
mortality among the inbred E-joa group was 
47.5% and among the cross-bred group, 52.6% ; 
but among the inbred E8ia group, 92.9%. Mor- 
tality of the cross-bred group is not intermediate, 
like fission rate, but is for practical purposes the 
same as the mortality of the more viable parent 
and very difl"erent from that of the other parent. 

There is one further question of much im- 
portance which the present experiment clearly 
answers: Do the results of conjugation in a given 
type of individual depend on the genetic constitu- 
tion of its mate, as well as on its own? Dr. Lynch 
reported our experiments which demonstrated 
that the results of inbreeding are characteristical- 
ly ditiferent in different types of individuals, sucli 
as those of the clones E^oa and E8ia. W'e can 
now compare what happens when an individual 
of the clone E8ia mates with another individual 
of the same clone, with what happens when it 
mates with an individual of the very different 
clone E40a. 

This can be done in the following ways. Al- 
though we have no way of telling which mem- 



bers of the pairs of cross-conjugants came 
from the clone EBla, we know that one mem- 
ber of each pair came from this clone. So. we 
can find the minimum possible mean fis- 
sion rate of these by averaging together 
the values attained by the slower mem- 
bers of all pairs. The average thus found may be 
lower than the true average of the E8ia descend- 
ants in the cross-bred group, but it cannot be 
liigher. Calculation made in this way shows that 
the minimum possible mean fission rate for the 
cross-conjugants derived originally from the clone 
E8ia is 5.1 fissions in five days. The correspond- 
ing value for those derived from inbreeding the 
clone E8ia was 3.8 divisions in five days. Thus, 
by conjugating with E40a instead of its own 
sisters, the mean fission rate of the descendants 
of E8ia has been increased, at the very least, by 

35%- 

The difference in viabilit\- due to the sams 
cause can be demonstrated in the following way. 
The minimum possiMe viability of the E8ia 
members of the cross-conjugant group can be cal- 
culated by counting as survivors only those 
whose mates also survived. Obviously, one 
member of each of these pairs must have 
been descended from the clone E8ia. We thus 
find that the minimum possible viability of the 
descendants of E8ia in the cross-bred group to 
have been 25%. When ESia was inbred, only 
3% survived. Thus, by conjugating with E4oa 
instead of with its sisters, the viability, as meas- 
ured by survival, of E8ia has been increased 
from 3% to 25% — an increase of 2.57%. 

It is thus clear that in respect to both fission 
rate and viability the results of conjugation in 
any individual depend not only on the genetic 
constitution of that individual, but also on the 
genetic constitution of its mate. This elementary 
and fundamental principle of protozoan genetics, 
though often assumed, has never before lieen 
demonstrated experimentally in ciliate Protozoa. 

Noic : Since the above report was made, the 
experiment has been repeated on two new clones 
with characteristics similar to the ones previously 
studied. In the repeated experiment, it was pos- 
sible to distinguish through and after conjuijation 
the two parents entering into the formation of 
the hylirids, by a clear-cut dififercnce in size. It 
was thus possilile to demonstrate, lieyond doubt, 
that crossing a clone characterized by low viabil- 
ity and low fission rate with a clone character- 
ized by high viability and high fission rate re- 
sulted in increasing the viability and fission rate 
of the poor clone and decreasing the viability and 
fission rate of the good clone. The result pre- 
viously reported (that the effect of conjugation 
in a given type of individual depends not only on 
its own genetic constitution, but also on the con- 
stitution of its mate) has therefore been fully 
corroborated. 



August 15. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



211 



SCIENTIFIC BOOK REVIEWS 



ChUdroi iriio Run on all fours. Ales Hrdlicka. 
XX + 418 pp. Illustrated. $5.00. Whittlesey 
House. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 

The modern student of children has come to 
realize that their characteristics in lioth structure 
and liehavior give at a very early pe4Mod strong- 
indications of their future personalities. 

They appear to he horn with their main traits 
already determined, their behavior already far 
more set than many parents realize. Much time 
and effort have l)een wasted by such adults in 
trying to bend the little fixed organisms to im- 
agined ideal standards entirely unsuited to their 
type. Tragedies have often thus resulted. 

l)Ut the key to types is not yet always easily 
found since variation and intermixing of traits 
often obscure their identities. Hence it is of 
special interest and helpfulness when certain chil- 
dren are found distinguished l)y an early definite- 
ness of organization and habit, which can lie tabu- 
lated and analysed. 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka first observed with surprise 
some thirty years ago in our western country a 
little Indian l)aby running on all fours like an 
animal. Since then he has seen many other cases 
in the course of extensive travels throughout the 
world, and lias collected through correspondence 
nearly four Inmdred records of cases apparently 
well authenticated. 

The attitude and liehavior of these children was 
so unusual as to attract attention ; but though a 
numlier of scientists are quoted as observers of 
occasional cases like these and of associated ani- 
mal-like habits, the book before us seems to be 
the first serious attempt to bring the available, 
much scattered data together in s\'stematic form 
with an effort at scientific estimation of their 
meaning. 

"Children Who Run on all Fours" is a 
relatively small volume of about four hundred 
pages with almost tliree hvmdred pages de- 
voted to the data furnished by most interesting 
letters and reports concerning individual children. 
Three hundred and eighty-seven children have 
been thus carefully recorded, 369 being of the 
white race. As the author says, these detailed 
first-hand accounts are found to be of much and 
varied interest — not mere statistics. They form 
the vital part of the book. 

A reading of the letters leaves the impression 
that much more extensive studies should lie car- 
ried on, extending the scope of this suggestive lie- 
ginning. The first one hundred pages give a 
review of the field and discu;s the cases ar- 



ranged. In the second part, the relations of the 
phenomena to race, sex, heredity, general health 
and physical and physiological traits are dis- 
cussed briefly. The variations in performance 
and in its appearance, as well as other animal-like 
haliits which seem associated, are considered and 
there is a special section on the "mentality" of the 
children. Many excellent photographs are repro- 
duced which add much of interest. 

In the section on "Mentality" correlations with 
animal habits, musical rhythm, etc., the author 
touches on a variety of topics, and suggests meth- 
ods and rules of value in following up and ex- 
tending his studies. There seems to be over- 
whelming testimony rating children of this type 
as decidedly aliove the average mentallv as well 
as physically. Dr. Hrdlicka feels we have here 
retained in a few modern children (the per- 
centage not yet known) a conspicuous definiteness 
of neuro-motor coordination and control which 
was once common property. It is not an atavistic 
nor a degenerative phenomenon. It looks as if 
this extraordinarily efficient motor control is ac- 
complished by the develoiiment of a better than 
usual mind already exceptionally adjusted at birth. 
The reviewer has been lucky in knowing two 
children of this type and is strongly impressed, in 
addition to their motor effectiveness, by their 
early precision and clarity of thought and ex- 
pression which continues as they grow older. 

The author is certainly right in his conviction 
of the importance of this field. It should be de- 
veloped much further. There is promise of new 
data on inherited traits and capacities of children 
for guidance in the better understanding of vari- 
ous types. 

It seems to me that the author's non-technical 
presentation of tlie cases and advice as to meth- 
ods of observing should be exceptionally useful in 
enabling the average person to observe and record 
much useful data which is now lost. Parents will 
certainly discover through this little book a new 
world of interest and suggestions for dealing with 
their children. — Henry McE. Knower. 

An Introdiictinu to Ncurolos:y. C. Tudson Her- 
rick. Fifth Edition. Revised. W. B. Saunders 
Company. 1931- 

All students of neurology will welcome the 
fifth edition of this very excellent text. It is too 
well known to need comment. The present edition 
hns been carefully revised and brought up to date 
and maintains the high standing of the earlier 
imprints. ■ — G. H. Parker. 



212 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific work 

at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. Griffin Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 



MEMBERS OF THE CORPORATION AND THE 
MESS HALL 

Workers at the three scientific institutions at 
Woods Hole receive their board at the Mess Hall 
for $7.00 a week. Members of their immediate 
families (wives, husbands or children) are also 
given meals at this rate. 

This arrangement is held to rather rigidly, and 
there are people who feel that certain exceptions 
should be made. As things now stand, any mem- 
ber of the Corporation of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory who comes down to attend the official 
annual meeting of that l)ody in August is classed 
as an "outsider" and charged for his meals at the 
rate of $10.00 a week. This holds true even 
though, in addition, he has come back to the lal)- 
oratory to write a scientific paper in the library. 

Membership in the Corporation is limited to 
those "professional biologists and persons who 
have rende-ed conspicuous service to the Marine 
Biological Laboratory." This institution should 
therefore welcome the opportunity of making its 
Corporation members feel at home when they re- 
turn to the lalioratory, which, in the last analysis, 
they own and control. A contribution in this di- 
rection would be to extend the privileges of the 
"$7.00 a week rate" to them. 



In its oflice The Collecting Net has some of 
the current magazines for sale as well as a num- 
ber of new books on Cape Cod, including one 
entitled "Jane's Island," by Mrs. W. C. Allee. 

Copies of the twelve-page reprint on "Formulae 
and Methods" used in the Chemical Room of the 
Marine Biological Laboratory (Edited by Dr. 
Oscar W. Richards) may be obtained in our 
office. 



An appropriation of $750,000.00 was author- 
ized recently for the work of the National In- 
stitute of Health by Congress. The Institute is 
under the administrative direction of the Surgeon 
General of the U. S. Public Health Service. Its 
purpose is defined as aiming to advance "pure 
scientific research to ascertain the cause, preven- 
tion and cure of diseases affecting human beings." 



REVIEW OF THE SEMINAR REPORTS 
OF DRS. LYNCH AND SONNEBORN 

Dr. J. A. D.vw.suN 
.Isxixtaiif Professor of Biology, Co!lc(/c of the 
City of Netv York 
Drs. Lynch and Sonneborn have re-opened, with 
the aid of the improved culture technique devised 
by Dr. Raffel.the question of the effect of conjuga- 
tion in the ciliate protozoan, Paramecium aiircHa. 
Dr. Lynch's paper in general supports the earlier 
experimental findings of Dr. H. S. Jennings on 
the effects of conjugation in Paramecium. The 
method wherebv conjugation between closely re- 
lated clones of Paramecium is secured almost at 
will by Dr. Sonneborn is a noteworthy contribu- 
tion in protozoology as it opens the field for suc- 
cessful genetic studies in the protozoa. It is to 
lie hoped that some method of determining ac- 
curately the identity of the individual e.x-conju- 
gants can be devised. 



DIRECTORY ADDITIONS 

THE 1VL\KINE BIOLOGK'AL LABOK.^TORY 

Investigators 
Adams, E'izabeth prof, zool, Mt. Holyoke. Br 109. 

Shore (Falmouth. I 
Crurver, G. L. prof. biol. Mercer. Br 315. D 316. 
HendiTson, Jean instr. zool. McGill. Phys. Lab. Grin- 

nell, Bar Neck. 
Ifcefe, A. M. rector and prof. biol. St. Norbert. Hot. 

5. White, Millfleld. 
Moreran, Ann prof. zool. Mt. Holyoke. Br 109. Shore 

(Falmouth.) 
Sellnieyer, B L. prof. biol. Loyola. Bot 5. White, 

Mil'lield. 
Speicher, B. R. grad. asst. biol. Pittsburg-h. Rock 7. 

K 14. 
Vicari, Emilipj M. res. assoc. anat. Cornell Med. Br 

317. H 8. 
Wcdon. A D. prof. zool. North Dakota State. CM 

39. Dr 201. 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 

At the following: hours (Daylight Saving Time) 

the current in the hole turns to run from Buz- 
zards Bay to Vineyard Sound: 

Date A. M. P. M. 

Aug. 1.=; 6:01 6:19 

Aug. 16 6:44 7:05 

Aug. 17 7:36 8:00 

Aug. 18 8:23 8:.S8 

Aug. 19 9:13 9:.S4 

Aug. 20 10:10 10:.S6 

Aug. 21 11:11 11 :.';9 

y^ug. 22 12:10 

Aug. 23 1:05 1:16 

Aug. 24 2:05 2:09 

Aug. 25 3:01 3:07 

In each rase the current changes approximately 
"■■-r hours later and runs from the Sound to the 
Bay. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



213 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Dr. Calvin B. Bridges, who for many summers 
has heen carrying on investigations at Woods 
Hole, has received an invitation from the Rus- 
sian Soviet government to visit Russia early this 
fall to work on some of the agricultural prol)lems 
with which the Stalin administration is faced. 
Dr. Bridges is a memher of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington and for the past three years 
has been working in the biology department of 
the California Institute of Technology. He ex- 
pects to sail for Russia early in October for a 
four months' stay. Officially a "learned special- 
ist," the highest post to which a scientific worker 
may l)e appointed in the Russian institutions, he 
will have his head([uarters at the Academy of 
Sciences in Leningrad where he will continue his 
studies in theoretical genetics. He exjiects to de- 
liver a series of lectures on genetics to the staff 
of the University of Leningrad as well as consult 
with workers in various agricultural stations on 
specific problems of plant and animal breeding. 

Dr. Helen Morris received her Ph.D. in botany 
at Columbia L^niversity in June. The second 
honor that came to her this Spring was election 
to membership in Sigma Xi. 

Mr. Seymour M. Farber, who was expecting 
to begin work at the Marine Piiological Labora- 
tory early in August, has just written that illness 
will prevent him from utilizing The Collecting 
Net scholarship, which was awarded to him last 
year. Mr. Farber plans to continue his research 
problem at the laboratory next summer. 

Dr. Carl V. Smythe has completed his first 
year as a National Research Fellow in the lab- 
oratory of Dr. Leonor Michaelis at the Rockefel- 
ler Institute and has been appointed to a foreign 
fellowship for 1931-32. He sailed for Germany 
on July 2nd where he will continue his work on 
fen ic compounds in Warburg's laboratory at the 
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute fur Biologic at Dnhlein. 

Dr. Henry B. Bigelow, director of the Oceano- 
graphic Institution, addressed the members of the 
Kiwanis Club of Falmoutli and their guests at a 
lobster supper at Handy's Tavern at the end of 
July. He spoke on oceanographic work in gen- 
eral as well as about the new laboratory here. 

Dr. Harry H. Charlton, who in the past has 
worked manv summers at the iMarine Biological 
Laboratorv, has been promoted to a full profes- 
sorship in the Department of Anatomy at the 
University of Missouri. 



MT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Dr. James Murphy and Dr. E. M. East con- 
ducted the seminar on August 5th at the Jackson 
Memorial Laboratory. 

Dr. Warren H. Lewis delivered the fourth 
lecture in the M. D. 1. B. L. Popular Lecture 
Course on Thursday afternoon, August 6th. His 
subject was ''Cancer Problems'' and was illus- 
trated by motion pictures. 

On August 7th the members of the Laboratory 
were entertained at the Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory at Lamoine, Me. An exhibition of spec- 
imens was given by the students. The visitors 
were invited to inspect the buildings and grounds. 
Tea was served at the dormitory. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Lewis entertained the 
Laboratory at a picnic on August Sth. 

The Monday evening seminar on August 10th 
was in charge of Dr. William Wherry who spoke 
on "Biological Control of Bubonic Plague" and 
Professor Ulric Dahlgren whose subject was 
"Disease among Invertebrates." 

— Louise R. Mast. 

scripps institution of oceanography 

From S. J. Cook, General Secretary of the 
Fifth Pacific Science Congress to be held in Vic- 
toria and Vancouver, B. C, in May-June, 1932, 
Director T. Wayland Vaughan has just received 
a letter asking him to organize the program for 
a divisional meeting of the Physical Sciences 
dealing with the general subject of "Recent 
soundings, gravity investigations, and mapping of 
sea floors." 

Last week Dr. O. T. Black, Biochemist in the 
Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, arrived at the Institution 
to make use of its Laboratorv facilities for some 
special investigations which he has in hand, in 
collaboration with Dr. W. T. Swingle. The pri- 
mary object of these investigations is to find plants 
favorable for producing certain kinds of chemi- 
cal .substances (e. g., certain kinds of drugs) in 
commercial quantities and to increase production 
in others. 

Dr. F. S. Brackett, Chief of Division of Rad'a- 
tion and Organisms in the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, D. C, visited the Institution 
last week. He was especially interested in the 
work of Mr. Burt Richardson on penetration of 
light into sea water and in investigations on solar 
radiation. He was accompanied bv Dr. W. T. 
Svingie of the U. S. Experimental Date Farm 
at Invo, California. 



214 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No, 48 





Spalteholz 

Transparent 

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Human 

and 

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Models, Specimens, 
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lor physiology, zoology, botany, 
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Visit our New and Greatly En- 
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This is a thorough textbook on the struc- 
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See a copy on approval. 

McGRAW-HILL BOOK Co., Inc. 

^^^^^"^ Penn Terminal Building 

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Marine Biological 

Laboratory 

Supply Department 

FOB THE BEST 

BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL 

CLASSROOM MATERIAL 

MICROSCOPIC SLIDES 

LIVE MATERIAL 



Catalogues and information furnished by 

applying at Supply Department Office 

Woods Hole, Mass. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



215 




PKESENTATICN 

— the Ke}' to Interest 



THE Overhead Projector gives an 
instructor cr lecturer a new ad- 
vantage. He can present his 
subject, illustrated witlh lantern slides, 
while at his desk facing his hearers. 
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projects the pictures on to a screen 
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his audience. Features in the 
picture which hs wishes to 
stress can be pointed cut on 
the slide with a pencil, in- 




stead cf using a pointer on the screen. 

This attachment is particularly de- 
signed for use witih Balopticons Model 
B and BDT which are slide projectors 
of the highest order. Its attachment 
to these models is a matter of moments. 
It can be used with practically every 
model Balopticon. 

Write for literature giving a complete 
description and setting forth 
^X^v the many advantages of the 

Overhead Projector. 



BAUSCH €> LOMB 



671 St. Paul Street 



Rochester, N. Y. 



216 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



JEWELL MODELS FOR BIOLOGY 



Jewell Models for Biology are now be- 
ing used in practically every university and 
college in this country. Their wide accept- 
ance is proof of their scientific accuracy and 
of the e.xcellent workmanfhip and quality of 
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The mitosis set illustrated is in use in 
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The Wistar Institute Slide Tray 




The ideal tray for displaying or storing slides. 
It carries forty-eight 1-inch, thirty-two lli- 
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nesting feature, the trays may be stacked so 
that each one forms a dust-proof cover for 
the one beneath it, while the center ridges as- 
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Orders niav be sent to 

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August 15, 



1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



217 



Stability and Dependahility 

CHARACTERIZE 



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io% Discount to Scliools and CcUcf/rs 

Samples submitted for tests 

Catalog and Quotations Sent on Request 





Sp£Mr£/? Im^ (//mpfJMM 



E W YORK 



218 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No, 48 



Church of the Messiah 




FOLLOW THE CROWD TO 


(Episcopal) 




DANIEL'S 


The Rev. James Bancroft, Rector 




HOME-MADE ICE CKJiAM, 


Holy Comiminion 8 :00 a. m. 




DELICIOUS SANDWICHES 


Morning Prayer 11 :00 a. m. 

Evening Prayer 7:30 p. m. 




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FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

Falmouth and Weeds Hole 



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Weeks' Building, Falmouth 

Phone 907-M Free Delivrry 

We Press While You Wait 

(Special Rates to Laboratory Members) 



When in Falmouth Stop at 
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CURRENT MAGAZINES 

and BOOKS ON CAPE COD are 

for sale .-\t 

The Collecting Net Office 



August IS, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



219 



The MRSw 


G. L. NOYES LAUNDRY 




Collections Daily- 


Two Collections DaUy In the Doniiitories 


Woods Hole 


Tel. 777 


Service that Satisfies 



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THE QUALITY SHOP 

Dry Goods, Toilet ArticlBs, Shoos and 
Souvenirs 

Ask for things you do not see. 
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LADIES' and GENTS' TAILORING 

Cle^,,ning, Dyeing and Repairing 
Coats Relined and Altered. Prices Reasonable 

M. DOLINSKY'S 

Main St. Woods Hole, Mass. Call 752 




THREE SPECIAL APOCHROMATIC 

OBJECTIVES 

Each of these tl-tree objectives represent an outstand- 
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intended. 

Price f.o.b. New York 
Apochromait 5 n.a. 0.15 $ 34.00 

Apochromat 60 n.a. 1.4 oil im. 108.00 

Apochroniat 120 n.a. 1.3 oil im. 9.5.00 

Apochromat 5 was introduced to meet the demand 
for a highly corrected objective of low magnification. 
To obtain corrections of the desired high order it 
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other objectives. 

Apochronrat 60 n.a. 1.4 is a homogeneous immersion 
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for comfortable use. With reasonable care it can be 
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Apochromat 120 n.a. 1.3 is of interest to those 
who require an objective with exceptionally high 
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n.a. of 1.4. 

A copy of Micro catalogue 367 containing detailed 

data for objectives and ocu'.ars will be 

supplied upon request. 

CARL ZEISS, Inc. 

485 Fifth Avenue 
New York 

Pacific Coast Branch: 
728 South Hill Street, Los Ange'.es, Calif. 



220 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



THE CHORAL CLUB CONCERT 

The program presented Saturday evening, Auj;- 
ust 8, was a glorious treat to the largest crowd 
that has thus far attended a Choral Cluh Concert. 
To critique such a performance is not easy. 

Opening with a feeling of restraint that showed 
more lack of confidence than of training, the 
first number was perhaps the weakest on the 
program. One could see the audience settle itself 
for "another one of these programs" and polite 
applause. 

Then came a surprise. The masterly "Cheru- 
bim Hymn" of Musitcheskoo, in its dramatic in- 
tensity, swept the singers out of themselves and 
caught up the audience as well in its enthusiasm. 
Whether the rounds of applause were due to fa- 
miliarity with this number and unfamiliarity with 
its predecessor is an oiien question. To one hearer, 
at least, Kastalsky has always seemed more or 
less ineffectual. This is especially evident when 
one compares the opening number of the program 
with the stirring setting given it by Ivanofif. 

The Gretchaninofif number, a sort of abbreviat- 
ed "credo," was smoothly rendered and interest- 
ing by reason of its recitative quality. It was fol- 
lowed by Handel's "Then Round About the 
Starry Throne," reminiscent, in its contrapuntal 
passages, of Bach, and quite as effective. 

As encore for the first section of the program, 
"Gospodi Pomiluy," the hymn from the (iood 
Friday Service of the Russian Liturgy, won in- 
stant favor. It is sometimes rendered at a less 
speedy tempo, but the ritual melodies of the < )r- 
thodo.x, as well as the Latin church, are sus- 
ceptible to a wide variety of interpretations — and 
that is the affair of the Director, not the audience. 

The second part of the program opened with 
three more numbers from Handel. The first and 
third were characteristic of the early attempts to 
graft English words on an Italian operatic stvle, 
and consequently pleasant to hear but, in count- 
less repetitions, utterly unhapp\' as to sense. The 
second number, a serenade, was much better and 
the singers showed themselves more at ease. 

Another high sjwt on the evening's program 
was the "Wassail Song." Here was music which 
both audience and singers understood, appreciated 
and took unto themselves. A picture of Yule in 
old England with carollers heard in the distance, 
approaching, singing their good wishes and go- 
ing on into the distant silence — and its naivete in- 
creased its hold on the imagination. 

The last two numbers by Arkhangelskv were 
pleasing revivals from previous years. Different 
alike in thought and melodic theme, thev were, 
in the faultless rendition by tlie club, characteris- 



music, like Schumann's, is noted for its descrip- 
tive ixjwer. 
tic e.xamples of the great Russian genius whose 

That Mr. Con.khofif continues to return to 
Woods Hole is a tribute to his pulilic spirited 
interest in our scientific colony. It is, likewise, a 
tribute to the spirit of cooperation shown In' the 
Choral Club members. Without their regularity 
at rehearsal and fine feeling for interpretation, 
the efforts of any director would be wasted. Nor 
can the intsUige.it assistance of Mrs. Moser, 
Schweitzer at the i)iano be overlooked. She is one 
of those rare accompanists who reallv accompany 
and do not lead. 

It is to be hoped that Mr. Gorokhoff will con- 
tinue to inake tlie Woods Hole Choral Club the 
exponent of the choicest Russian music and that 
he will continue to vary his programs with num- 
liers from the old and modern English music, not 
only of Vaughn Williams, Hoist, and Gilliert and 
Sullivan, but also fi'om William Byrd, Orlando 
Gibbons and the rest of that group which made 
Elizal)ethan England a "nest of singing birds." 

— Dr. a. M. Keefe. 

On Saturday night, August 8th, the Coast 
Guard burned and sank a rum boat ten miles off 
Vineyard Light, after a hard chase. The Eaglet, 
an eighty-foot craft from Tiverton, R. I., h.id 
long been under suspicion. The CG-813 sighted 
and hailed her, and when she increased her speed, 
fired a shot across her bow. The Coast Guard 
the.i opened fire with the machine gun, wounding 
three of tb.e Eaglets crew and puncturing her 
fuel tank. The seven memliers of the crew and 
nine cases of Canadian liquor were rescued be- 
fore the boat finally burned and sank. The crew, 
who had on board about 1500 cases of liquor, 
have been turned over to the police in New Bed- 
ford for arraignment in the Federal Court. 

On Monda\' afternoon, August 10th, the 
\\ oods Hole ^'acht Club again held races. The 
winners were : Morris Frost in iiis baby knock- 
about, "Windwaid;" Wistar Meigs in his dory, 
"Aunt Addie;" and Philip Woolworth in his cat- 
boat, "Lurline." 

This past week, the University Players have 
reached a high point in both acting and produc- 
t'on in I'erenc Molnar's satiric little play, "The 
Guardsman." Elizabeth Tenner as the actress- 
wife disi)layed an even greater versatility and 
charm than usual and Kent Smth proved himself 
both a good actor, and an adept at foreign ac- 
cents. Next week the Theatre at Silver Beach 
will present "Juno and the Paycock," by the gift- 
ed Irish dramatist, Sean O'Casey. - — M.S.G. 



August 15, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



221 



The UNIVERSITY PLAYERS, Inc. 

Present 

"irNO AND THE PAYCOCK" 

Aug. 17 — Aug. 22 

Old Silver Beach West Falmouth 

For Re.servation.s Call Falmouth 1250 



BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL 
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES 

IN COMPLETE SETS 

Volumes and Ba*k Date Copies For Sale 

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EST. 1887 
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EMBRYOLOGICAL 


SLIDES 




We present in this list choice microscopic 


preparations in Frog Embryology 


i 


prepared by a leading 




embryologist : 




E 1 (a) Frog, testis 


$0.75 


E 2 (b) Frog ovary, young eggs with 




follicular layer 


1 00 


E 3 (CI Frog, fertilized ovum 


1.00 


E 4 (d) Frog, fertilized ovum with pen- 




etration path or first spindle 




(rare) 


3.00 
be 


Several of these preparations should 


used for demonstration. (Marked slide.) || 


E 5 ( e ) Frog, first cleavage 


1.00 


E 6 Frog, second cleavage 


1.00 


E 7 Frog, third and fourth cleavages. . . 


1.00 


E 8 Frog, later cleavages 


1.00 


E 9 Frog, blastula 


1 00 


ElO Frog, early gastrula, longitudinal 




section 


1.00 


Ell Frog, entire early gastrula, serial 




longitudinal 


2.00 


E12 Frog, late gastrula, longitudinal 




section 


1.00 


E13 Frog, entire late gastrula, serial 




longitudinal section 


2 00 


E14 Frog, gastrula hemisected longitud- 




inal (two halves) . . . 


1.75 


E15 Frog, formation of neural folds, 


transverse section 


1.00 


E16 Frog, formation of neural folds, 




serial transverse section 


2.00 


E17 Frog, formation of neural folds. 




longitudinal hemisection (two 




halves) 


1.75 


E18 Frog, formation of neural folds, 


serial longitudinal section .... 


2.00 


E19 Frog, 4-5 mm. larva serial sections: 




Transverse 


2.30 


Longitudinal 


2 00 


Horizontal 


2.00 


E20 Frog, 6-9 mm. larva serial sections: 




Transverse 


2.75 


Longitudinal 


2.00 


Horizontal 


2 00 


E21 Frog, 10 stages of development in 




toto, in small vial. 




We offer other preparations such aa 


the 


embryology of the chick, maturation 


di- 


visions of Ascaris and the development 


of 


the holoblaster egg of Cerebratulus. 


A 


list of these preparations will be mailed || 


gladly upon request. 




Standard Scientific 




Supply Corp. 




10 - 14 W. 25th ST. NEW YORK CITY 



222 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 48 



CAMBRIDGE ELECTROMETERS 



Llndemann Electrometer with 
Grouading Switch, 




314" .\ 1" High 



The application of Electrometers to the 
measurement of small electrical quantities has 
increased rapidly in recent years. 

Among the more prominent electrometer 
uses are researches in radio-activity, spectro- 
scopic investigations and many uses in conjunc- 
tion with photo-electric measurements. 



The Lindernann Electrometer (illus- 
trated) is an exceptionally compact and 
robust instriunent of high sensitivity, 
short period and low capacitance and 
does not require levelling. 



List 169 describes in detail th? Lind3- 
miuin, Tilted Gold Leaf, String, DolezQ,- 
lek. Recording Quadrant, and Oonipton Electro- 
meters. 



Pioneer Manufaeturers 
of Precision Instruments 



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ll'ritc for further information and 
prices. 



ElMER &L AMEND 

Established 1851 Incorporated 1897 

Headquarters for Laboratory Apparatus and 
CheniicaJ Reagents 

Third Avenue. i8th to TQth Street 
New York, N. Y. 



ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation tn EnvVonment 

Esrablishcd l')2U. Ouarierly. Ofhci.il Publication of the 
Ecological Society uf America. Subscription. $4 a year 
for complete volumes (Jan. to Dec.) Parts of volumes 
at the single number rate. Back volumes, as avail- 
able, $5 each. Single numbers, $1.25 post fr.^e. Fur.ign 
jiostage: 20 cents. 

GENETICS 
A Periodical Record of Investigations bearing on 
Heredity and Variation 
Es'abli^hed Vn(,. Bimonihly. 

Subscrii-tion, $6 a year for complete volumes (Jan. to 
Dec.) Parts of volumes at the single number rate. 
Single numbers, $1.25 post free. Back volumes, as avail- 
altle, $".1X1 each. Foreign postage; 50 cents. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 
Devoted to All Branches of Botanical Science 

Establii^hed l'*l-l. Monthly, except August and Sep- 
tember. (_)11icial Publication of tlie Botanical Society of 
America. Subscription, $7 a year for complete volumes 
(Jan. to Dec.) I'arts of volumes at the single number 
rate. Volumes 1 - IS complete, as available, $1-16. Single 
numbers. $1.1IU each, post free. Prices of odd volumes 
on request. FLireign jiostage: -10 cents. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN MEMOIRS 

Volume 1: li contributions by various au.hors on 
genetics, pathology, mycology, physiology, ecology, plant 
geography, and systematic botany. Price, $3.5U plus 
postage. 

Volume II: The vegetation of Long Island. Part I. 
The vegetation of Mont auk, etc. By Norman Taylor. 
Pub. 1923. lOS pp. Price, $1.00, 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Barrington Moore and Nor- 
man Taylor, 151 pi>., 27 text- figs., vegetation map in 
colors. June 10. 1927. Price, $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
1000 Washington Ave. Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. A. 



August 15, 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



223 



LEICA the Universal Camera in Science 



IN ONE 




COMPACT 



ACCURATE 



Weighs only 15 ozs. 
Focal Plane Shutter 
Uses 35 mm film 
Takes 8 pictures per foot 
36 pictures at one loading 
Interchangeable lenses 

Depth of focus scale on lens 
mount for quick reference. 



No one interested in science can afford to be 
without a LEICA 

With a LEICA Camera Model C you really have many cameras in one, — a micro camera, a 
copying camera, a stereo camera, a telephoto camera, a camera for speed photcgraphy in bad 
lighting conditions, a wide angle lens camera tor including larger areas, a clinical camera, a 
camera for portrait photography or for general use, an aerial camera and a camera making 1 x IV2 
in. negatives which are even superior in quality to many larger size cameras. 

Many new photographic thrills can now be expei ienced in three dimensional forms when using 
the new STEREOLY attachment for the LEICA Camera and viewing the positives in the LEICA 
Stereo Viewer. Here is an attachment which will greatly extend the applications of the Univer- 
sal LEICA Camera which is now in constant use for every photographic purpose. 

When using the STEREOLY it is possible to photograph action pictures as well as still ob- 
jects, and preserve all the natural depth of the third dimension just as seen with the eyes. The 
pictures are photographed in transposed positions on the LEICA double frame negatives, thus 
giving two single frame pictures of the same subject. No special printer or enlarging apparatus 
is required for finishing the positives. WRITE FOR NEW BOOKLET No. 1194, Stereoscopic pho- 
tography with the LEICA Camera. 

The complete story of the LEICA Cameras and accessories is told in our new LEICA CATA- 
LOG No. 1190 which will be mailed upon request. 






A special LEICA Camera exhibition and demonstration will be held August 
17, 18, and 19th in the "Old Lecture Hall" Marine Biological Laboratory. The 
new LEICA stereoscopic attachment, a new focusing copy attachment, LEICA 
film and glass slide projector, and the complete LEICA equipment will be on dis- 
play. Willard D. Morgan, Manager Photo-Optical Dept. E. Leitz, Inc. New York, 
will personally direct the demonstration work during these three days A special 
lecture will also be given. 



•i.t 
it 
j.{ 
it 
i,t 
it 



E. LEITi 

Dept. CN 60 E. 10th St. 



Inc, 

New York, N. Y. 



224 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No 48 




"It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes'' ?r:^:nZr2T^:u,ir^T ^"^'^^ 

"PKOMI" MICKOSCOPIC DRAWING and 
PROJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
ganisms and insects on table or wall for 
drawing and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
genious yet simple apparatus which fills a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
lesearch in Bacteriology, Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ogy, Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 

AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: It is used for projectinp in actual colors on wall or 
screen, microscopic preparations, living organisms and insects for lecture room denionstration auJ 
instruction. Makes it possible for a group of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on inriKirtant features, which can- 
nnt be dcninnstratcil with equal facility and time saving under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
strains of niicroscnpe examination. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected in actiud ci.l.irs . m drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black or colors. Living insects or microscopic living organisms can also be projected. Ad- 
justment of the size of the image is simply a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
prnjcctcd. Higher magnification may be obtained by using tube and ocular aiid our high ]in\ver oh- 
jecti\cs. t'harls can rcadilv be made for class mom instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: ' By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror and in\crting 
the apparatus a compound microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
standard microscopic high power objecti\'es and ocidars. 

AS A MlCROPHOfOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can be jiln ■!' ■i;ra|ilu(l with'iul the use of a camera. 

PRICE: I-'. C). B. Xcw Ycirk $103.09 ciimplete apparatus in polished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 and 2211 vults with co-ds, plugs and switch for both DC and .\C cur- 
rent, llx objective, tube with .^x ocular, reflecting mirror and micro-cuvette. Extra equipment prices 
on request. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR" MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

.\ new instrument which has been brought 
out in response to a demand for a simple 
apiiaratus like the Promi for more advanced 
work which requires more powerful illumi- 
nation and higher magnification. The Pro- 
mar operates in the same maimer as the 
Promi but is more heavily constructed and 
has the followin.g additional features as 
standard equipment: 

More brilliant li.ghting, making higher magnification possible. 
Triple nose |>iecc, facilitating use of three objectives. 
I'ine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 
Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and condenser. 
Screw centering adjustment for light. kevoKing stage. 
Demonstrations will gladly be made by Mr. Robert Rugh, Room 217, 
Main Bldg., M. B. L., Woods Hole. 




Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. Write to 



m 



117-119 East 24th Street 



(S(o)k^:[pArit 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Vol. VI, No. 



SATURDAY. AUGUST 22, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies. 25 Cts. 



.sui)stances, in ;id- 
liy the corpus lu- 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CORPUS LUTEUa^ 

AWD ITS INTERGLANDULAR 

RELATIONSHIPS 

Dr. h\ L. His.\w 
Professor o] Zooloi^y. Uiiii'ersifv of Jl'iscniishi 

Tliree physiologically active 
ilition to oesti^in, are secreted 
teum of the sow. One. rc- 
laxin, produces relaxation of 
the ])elvic ligaments of the 
guinea pig chai"acteristic of 
the normal condition which 
exists during pregnancy. A 
second sulistance, a mucifying; 
factor, niodilies the vaginal 
mucosa of certain rodents, e. 
g. rats and mice, into a mucus 
seci'eting type. The third 
hormone, cor])orin or proges- 
tin, has a specific acfion on the 
uterus, causing .such' titerine 
responses as the development 
of decidiial'' tissue, formation 
of the [iseudopi-egnant' con- 
dition in the uterus of ralihits 
rnid the development of a 
l)remensti-ua-l- endometi'ium in 
ihc uterus of monkeys.. Other 
jjhysiological effects/ .such -as 
tlic inhihition of the oe.strous cycle and the in- 
hil)it'on of ute 'ine (Continued on Page 2,TO) 



X\\. B. IE. (!Lalfn^al■ 

TUESD.-VY, AUG. 25, 8:00 P. M. 

(1) Dr. Paul S. Henshaw: "Re- 
covery from X-ray Effects as 
Observed in Arbacia Eggs." (10 
minutes) 

(2) Mr. Ware Cattell; "The Re- 
action of the Fundulus Ovum to 
the Direct Electric Current.' 
Motion Pictures ( 15 minutes ) 

(31 Dr. E. A. Wolf and Dr. H. H. 
Collins: "The Effect of Ultra- 
violet Radiation upon the Color 
Pattern of Triturus. (12 minutes) 

(4) Dr. G. H. Parker: "The Dis- 
charge of Nematocysts." (15 
minutes) 

FRIDAY, AUG. 28, 8:00 P. M. 

Professor J. H. McGregor: Motion 
Pictures taken in the Belgian 
Congo and the Cameroon by the 
African Expedition (1929-30) 



■J. 



THE PACIFIC BIOLOGICAL STATION 
IN NANAIMO. B. C. 

Dr. W. a. Clemens 
Director of the Station 
The Pacific Biological Station is located on De- 
parture Bay, Vancouver Island, four miles fi-orn 
the city of Nanaimo, B. C. It is one of four 
stations operated under the 
auspices of the Biological 
Board of Canada, which in 
tiu'n is luider the conti'ol of 
the Alinister of Fishei'ies of 
the Dominion. 

The Biological Board came 
into heing in the \ear 1898 fol- 
lowing representations made 
to the Government hy promi- 
nent Piritish and Canadian hi- 
ologists on hehalf of the Brit- 
ish Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science and the 
Royal .Society of Canada. 
The first Station was es- 
taljlished on the Atlantic coast 
in 1899 and the Pacific Sta- 
tion in 1908. The Biological 
Board as at present constitut- 
ed consists of representatives 
from iiracticallv all of the uni- 
versities of Canada, three representatives from 
the Department of Fisheries and two i-epresenta- 



TABLE OF 

Physiology of the Corpus Luteum and its 

Tiicri-ip.ndn'ar Relationships, 

Dr. F. Ij. Hisaw 225 

The Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, 

D:- W. A. Clemens 225 

T}-o Tnrt"oras Laboratory, 

W. H. Lang'ev 227 

The Murmansk Marine Biological Station. 

Dr. Dmitry N. Boiodin 229 

Oscillographic Study of the Cardiac Gang- 
'cn of i.imu)u.s Po'.ythemus, 

Dr P'crre Rijlant 231 



CONTENTS 

Surface Temperature and the Radiation of 

Heat from the Human Body, 

Dr. Eugene F. DuEois 233 

The Action of the Common Cations on the 

Protoplasmic Viscosity of Amoeba, 

Dr. L. V. Heilbrunn 23 1 

The Mechanism of Bacteriotropin Action, 

Dr. Balduin Lucke 235 

Living Nerve Sprouts, 

Dr. Carl Caskey Speidel 236 

Editorial Page .244 

Table of Contents Continued. 244 



226 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



fW% 




' ¥s 






BII^H^^^V^IIH^^hI 




^-. . ■ »-■ '■^~. SHP 1 




^^m^i^im^m 


- ■? ' 


■""■ >>,? ^ ■■■ 


>iP^ 







THE LABORATORY BUILDINGS, 

WHICH ARE EQUIPPED WITH RUNNING FRE.^iH AND 

SALT WATER AS WELL AS WITH GAS 

AND ELECTRICITY 

lives from the fishing- industry. Few organiza- 
tions, if any. have had a greater influence in the 
development of research in Canada than has the 
liiological Board. It has drawn to its prohlems 
most of the l)est trained l)iologists of Canada and 
in recent years, leading chemists and ])hysiologists. 
It has interested the universities in marine proli- 
lems and has given them a field for study and re- 
search, and undoubtedly this has contributed to 
the breadth and high ((uality of the instruction 
given in them. It has provided an opportunity 
for young men and women to become acquainted 
with marine biological problems, to .gain exiieri- 
ence in research and. at the same time, to obtairi 
a practical, as well as philosoijhical. outlook. 

Perhaps the primary function of the Pacific 
Biological .Station may be said to be the su])ply- 
ing of information which shall make possible the 
intelligent conservation of the aquatic resources 
of the Canadian Pacific coast. This is a wide 
field in that any information concerning the ocean 
or the fresh waters and their contained life is of 
some value. However, there are certain problems 
which can be attacked in such a way as to yield 
results of more or less immediate api)lication and 
our program gives special attention to these, but 
at the same time provides for investigations of a 
fundamental character. Naturally, chief atten- 
tion is given to fishery problems. 

The work of the Station is entirelx' investiga- 
tive, no instruction being given. The investiga- 
tions are carried out by two sets of worke'"s. 
namely, by a resident staff and by members of 
the staiifs and post-graduate students of universi- 
ties working during the summer months and com 
])leting investigations and reports after return to 
universitv duties and studies. The ])ermanent 
staff as at ])resent constituted consists of eight 
men in addition to the l)irector, Tlie numlier of 



voluntary investigators and temporary assistants 
ranges in a season from twenty to thirty, located 
at the Station and in the field. The lalioratory 
accommodation consists of three buildings, two 
given over to biology, administrative offices, 
library and museum, and the third to chemistry. 
The laboratories are equipped with gas, elec- 
tricity, fresh and .salt water and general apjiaratus 
and supplies for biological, chemical, physiological 
and oceanographical investigations. A si.xty-foot 
motor boat, equijip'ed with a winch, dredges, nets, 
water bottles, etc. provides for field work. In 
addition, there are two smaller motor boats and 
row boats. Living accommodation is provided in 
a large residence building. While the Station 
serves as headquarters and a great deal of the re- 
search work is carried out there, much of the 
work is actually done in the field with centers 
of activity scattered along the whole coast line 
and even in the interior of the Province of I'ritisli 
Columbia. 

Some of the major problems occupying our at- 
tention at the present time are as follows : 

Pacific Salmon. At Cultus Lake, a sub-station, 
known as the Pacific Salmon Research Station, 
has b.een established where, under the direction 
of Dr. R. E. Forester, a comprehensive study of 
the projjagation of sockeye salmon is being carried 
out. Here relative efficiencies of artificial propa- 
gation with fry planting and egg planting are hi- 
ing determined in comparison with natural propa- 
gation. The value of retention of fry in ponds 
for various jjeriods is being studied. Carefully 
controlled e.xperiments to determine the possi- 
bilities of transplantation from one area to an- 
other are being carried out. Various hatchery 
practices are being investigated. Special studies 
of the causes of mortality during e°:g and fry 
stages have been instituted. 

On the Queen Charlotte Islands a study is be- 
ing made of the life-histories and propagation of 




EXPERIMENTAL FISH PONDS 

AT \ SUB-ST.\TIO.\ KNOWN .\S THE I'.VCIFIC 

SALMON RESEARCH STATION 



August 22, 1931 J 



THE COLLECTING NET 



227 



]iink and chum salmon by Dr. A. L. Pritchard. 
The investigation involves the enumeration of 
spawning adults and seaward migrating fry. 

During the past five years a comprehensive sal- 
mon tagging j)rogram has been carried out for 
the ]>urpose of determining the migration routes 
of the various species. The results from the 
tagging of spring salmon liave lieen particularly 
successful and illuminating, revealing an exten- 
sive movement southeastward all along the coast 
even to the Sacramento river in California. 

Pilchard-Hcrriiuj. The pro1)lems in connection 
with these fishes are lieing attacked chiefly liy sta- 
tistical studies of catches and samplings of 
catches, supjjlemented by certain biological re- 
searches. The work is under the direction of 
Dr. J. L. Hart, with Messrs. R. W. Whittaker 
and A. L. Tester as assistants. 

SheUfisIi. Various Ijiological investigations are 
being carried out on cralis, prawns, clams, anrl 
ovsters. Special attention is being given to the 
jiropagation of oysters, of which three species 
now occur in our waters, namely, the native, the 
introduced eastern and the introduced Japanese. 
The work in this field is in charge of Mr. C. Iv. 
Elsey. 

Trout. The trout constitute a very valuable re- 
source in the Province of British Columbia. The 
investigation has been initiated by a thorough 
taxonomic study and has been followed by studies 
of general life-histories, natural and artificial 
]iropagation and the productivity of various lakes. 
Mr. C. McC. Mottk'v is in charge of the investi- 
gations. 

Occiuography. A detailed study of the oceano- 
graphical conditions existing in the Strait of 
Georgia is being carried out under the general 
supervision of Dr. A. H. Hutchinson, of the L'ni- 
versity of British Columbia. The physico-chem- 
ical iihases are now being determined by Dr. N. 
M. Carter, of the stafl^ of this Station. The 
Strait presents a ver\' complex set of conditions 
Ijecause of the extensive tidal movements and the 
inflow of very large fiuantities of fresh water, 
liarticularly from the Eraser river. It hrs been 



;found that the water from the Eraser river forms 
an extensive stable surface layer which takes up 
heat and as a result the waters of the Strait have 
a relatively high summer temperature as com^ 
pared with the outside waters. High phosphate, 
nitrate and silicate values have been found. Cer- 
tain areas are exceedingly productive of plankton, 
and the productivity of this body of water in re- 
lation to the peculiar physico-chemical factors 
forms a very intricate and interesting" study. 

General. The region in the vicinity of the 
Station is exceedingly rich in plant and animal 
life and offers an excellent field for investigators 
in general biology, ecology, experimental zoology, 
taxonomy, morphology, general physiology, bio- 
chemistry, etc. While investigators coming to 
the Station are expected to undertake studies of 
more or less economic significance, they have not 
been entirely limited in this respect, for it is real- 
ized that any advance in the knowledge of the 
ocean and its life is of value in the consideration 
of the genera! economy. The following partial 
list of researches now lieing carried out or re- 
cently conducted will indicate something of the 
range of activity. 

Diatoms in the food of oysters; The signifi- 
cance of diatoins in the food of Copepods and 
Schizopods ; Life-histories of Copepods; The 
early stages in the life-histories of crabs; The 
reactions of fishes to loud noises ; The Protozoa 
of British Columl-ia waters; The life-historv of 
the ling cod ; The development and growth of 
scales in steelhead and cutthroat trout ; A study 
of quantitative methods for the collection of 
plankton; The productivity of lakes; Svmbiosis 
among marine organisms ; Systematic studies of 
Polychaetes ; The relation of seafowl to fishes; 
Cestode parasites of Pacific fish; Creatin and 
creatinine content of fish muscle and body fluids; 
Nitrogenous metabolism in the dogfish ; Physio- 
logical and |)harmacological studies of fish gut. 

Each piece of research carefully and thorough- 
ly carried out is a welcome contribution in a 
field at once extensive and complex, and so in- 
timately associated with the welfare of mankind. 



It was by authorit)' of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, which has since maintained it 
continuously, that the Tortugas Laboratory was 
established'by Dr. Alfred Gillayor in 1904. It 
stands on the westernmost of the Florida Keys, 
far out in the Gulf of Mexico, seventy miles 
west of Key West, itself one hundred and forty 
ni.les distant from the Florida mainland. 



THE TORTUGAS LABORATORY 

W. H. L.\NGi.Kv ■ ' 

E.vcciiti-i'e Officer of the Laboratory 

This choice location was determined by several 
factors. Among these, the richness of the local 
marine fauna, wdiich attracted the attention of 
Alexander Agassiz as early as 1878, should proli- 
abl\- l)e given first place. Its influence is powerful- 
ly sui-iported, however, by the purity of the ocean 
water liathing the shores of its islands, and bythcir 
freedom from all endemic tropical diseases. 



228 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. \'L No. 4'J 



In 1904 the fact that, in the interest of the 
garrison then stationed at Fort Jefiferson on 
C.arden Key — four miles from Loggerhead Key, 
the site of the Lahoratory — government lioats 
maintained frequent communication with Ke\- 
W est, seemed an additional advantage, but when 
the garrison was withdrawn, it proved an eas\ 
matter to adjust the life of the station to the 
changed condition. Enforced isolation proved a 
benefit in disguise. It permits and encourages 
concentration upon research uneml)arrassed by 
tlie restrictions of convention or the interrup- 
tions of casual social activity. 

The station is open at present each summer for 
twelve weeks, Ijeginning its season about the first 
of June. Twelve to fourteen men mav he com- 
fortably accommodated at once in its two labora- 
tories, one of which is 20 by 50 feet in length 

with a wing, 20 by 30 

feet, housing aquari.i 
supjjlied with running 
sea-water reaching 
them through a lead 
distril)Ution system. 
Tlie other is 20'by 58 
feet with a sleeping 
jiorcli 14 feet wide 
surroui'.ding it on 
tlu'ee sides. One of 
these l)uildings in- 
cludes a photographic 
dark room and a larg- 
er light proof room 
for experimentation. 
The services of eight 
skilled workmen, the 
resources of a rather 
well -equipped machine 
sliop, and a fleet of 
lioats meet tlie re- 
(|nircments of inves- 
tigators. 

The .liitdii Polini, 
seventy feet long, em- 
inently seawortlu', with two fifty-horsepower 
engines, and capalile of nine knots per hour, m.ain- 
tains communication with Key West at fort- 
rightly intervals. She is also provided with 
equipment for dredging to the depth of three 
liundred fathoms. The launches I'elclla and Dar- 
win, respectively capal)le of making eight and 
twelve knots per hour, provide adeciuate trans- 
])ortation or for collecting expedit'ons within the 
group vand for shallow water dredging. Smaller 
lioats are available as needed. 

A Delco lighting plant permits night work, ex- 
press tanks with a capacity of twelve thousand 
y/dlons store fresh water in quantities sufficien; 
for every reasonable need. Th.ere is an ;idei|uate 




yALE AT MOUNT LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION 

IN VIRGINIA 
J. M. Valentine; L. L. Woodruff; Mrs. Valentine; 
Mrs. Woodruff; Mrs. G. E, Hutchins; Mrs. Burns; 
A Petrunkevitch; Robert Burns, and his two 
children. 



cold storage system for fresh meats, perishable 
vegetaliles, etc. The table is in charge of an 
nnusually competent steward. By courtesy of 
Hie .Superintendent of Liglithouses, Seventh Dis- 
trict, communication with the outside world by 
telephone and telegraph is possible. 

Admission to the laboratory is by invitation. In 
general, place may be found only for investigators 
of some experience whose problems may l)e 
studied at Tortugas with especial advantage. A 
place as assistant is sometimes open to a younger 
man of unusual promise. The e'|uivalent of 
transi>ortation from New York to Key West and 
return, when the necessai'v costs of travel are so 
great, is made available to each investigator. The 
institution bears the usually moderate cost of 
sjiecial apparatus for research. There are no 
charges of any sort for maintenance, service or 
the use of the labora- 
tory's facilities. 

( )ne advantage the 
station ])ossesses in 
greater degree than 
most others is a di- 
rect result of its geo- 
graphical location. It 
is possible to work all 
dav long, if necessary, 
in the warm water 
about it, and to use a 
diving hood for hours 
without discomfort in 
the stud\ of marine 
animals, undisturlied 
in their natural sur- 
roundings. The nioal 
about Fort Jefferson 
and a tern rookerv 
within the Tortugas 
group increase thv 
range of ])ossible 
studies. ISut, for bi- 
ologv as a whole, 
these advantages are 
all slight in compari.son with the opportunity the 
laboratory gives to northern workers to see a 
niarine flora and fauna very different from that 
tlie\' know be.st. Even superficial contact with 
the species of a strange reg"i<in enomiou'-K e;i- 
hances the value of the home laun,-i :ind llora as 
materials for study. 

During the current season the following in- 
vestigators have worked or will work at the lali- 
i.ratory : P. Hartsch, U. S. National Museum : E.\- 
jieriments with Cerious ; W. E. l-iullington, Ran- 
dolph-Macon College: Movements of filiate I^ro- 
tozoa : L. k. Cary. Princeton Cniversity : The 
Cultivation of Invertebrate Tissues in \'itro; lohn 
Colnian, Cambridge I'niversitv. b.ngland ; Ecu- 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



229 



logical Studies in Marine Zoology and Investiga- 
tion of Coral Reef Structure ; C. Hartman, Car- 
negie Institution: The Hypophysis in Fishes; \V. 
N. Hess, Hamilton College : Photoreceptors and 
Reactions to Light in Bahnogossus, etc ; D. L 
Hopkins, Duke University: The Life Histories 
and Physiology of Mai-ine Amebae : B. W. 
Kunkel, Lafayette College: Differential Mortality 
in Hermit Crabs Exposed to Unfavorable Con- 
ditions; W. H. Langley, Goucher College: Ob- 
servation in Fishes ; H. W. Manter, LTniversitv of 
Neliraska: S\stematic Studv of Tortugas Trema- 



todes : H. S. Pearse : Migration of Organisms 
from Sea to Land ; W. L. Schmitt, U. S. National 
Museum : Systematic Study of Decapods and Sub- 
marine Motion Photography; R. G. Stone, Uni- 
versity of Missouri : Influence of Radium on Re- 
generation in Annelids ; G. Tandy, British Mu- 
seum Natural History: Ecological Studies upon 
Marine Algae, and Studies of Coral Reef Struc- 
ture ; J. P. Visscher, Western Reserve University : 
The Barnacles of Tortugas with Special Refer- 
ence to their Larvae; S. Yamanouchi, L'^niversity 
of Chicago: Life Histories of Marine Algae. 



THE MURMANSK MARINE BIOLOGICAL STATION 

Dr Dmitry N. Borodin 
I iidct'cndciit / iivcstigator, Yonkcrs. N. V. 



Murmansk Marine Biological Station is located 
near Ekaterininska\a harbor, Alexandrovsk, a 
town on the northern shore of the Kola peninsula, 
near Norway, Russia. The geographical position 
of this marine biological station is unique. Being 
located at 69°15' N.'latitude and 32''30' E. longi- 
tude Greenwich, it is the northernmost scientific 
institution in the world and the only station lo- 
cnted a1:out one degree aliove tiie polar circle. Tlie 
ocean near the Station never freezes and the har- 
lior is free from floating ice, like the entire Mur- 
mansk cnast all the year around as far as Cape 
.Sviatoy Noss in the East. This is one of the 
numerous Russian paradoxes ; other harl)ors 
which I'lre located farther south, like Arkhangelsk 
on the White Sea, Leningrad on the Baltic, As- 
trakan on the Caspian, Vladivostok on the Pacific, 
as well as ( )dessa on the Black Sea, are frozen 
and closed for different lengths of time in the 
winter. Pjcfore t"he war it was possijjle to reach 
the Murmansk liiological Station only by a 
steamer from Arkhangelsk ; Imt at present a rail- 
way delivers one to Murmansk, a large port and 
a vivacious town in the Kola fjord, and from 
there a steamer takes one to Ale.x,androvsk. 

I'rom May to July there are no nights at Alex- 
androvsk, and the work at the lal^oratory can be 
continued for twenty-four hours without arti- 
iiciil light. To those "white nights" one must 
1 ecome accustomed, for to keep a record of the 
calendar dates and week days is entirely useless. 
The economy in electricity which is thus efTected 
in these polar regions is only temi)orarily appar- 
ent, for the "l)lack days" of fall and winter, when 
there is no sun and no daylight at all, but only 
monn and an aurora Iiorealis succeed the "white 
n-gbts". 

The Station has four liuildings. One of them 
h-s laboratories, a lilirarv with a complete set of 
"Repcrts on the Scientific Results of the Ex- 
liloring Voyage H. M. S. Challeger 1873-73". a 
dining room, and aquaria in the basement. A sec- 



ond building serves as dormitory and abode for 
the stafT; the third building is an electrical station, 
and the fourth a dry dock and workshop. 

The Station has for its use a good two-mast- 
ed, gasoline motor yacht, "Alexander Kovalev- 
sky" and many other boats of Norwegian "jolas" 
type, as well as Russian "shniakas", which re- 
semlile the ancient ships of Norsemen and Vik- 
ings. 

From May or June, when the steamer brings 
the first group of students and professors, until 
the end of the season, the Station is full of ac- 
tivity. Russian universities of the North are us- 
ually well represented. 

The ocean in the vicinity of Murmansk Station 
has an exceedingly rich fauna of invertebrates 
and vertebrates, whales being included in the 
latter phylum. Among the Polychatea the fol- 
lowing are common : Lepodonotus sqitammatus, 
I'hvllodocc macnlata. Lumbrincreis fragilis, Ner- 
eis pelaffica. Ammotrypane aiilogaster, Areiiieola 
nwriiia. Spirorbis borealis. and many Saliellidae ; 
and among the Chloraemidae are Brada granidosa 
/?. (iraiiuhita. Trophoiiia pliiiiiosa and FlabcUigcra 
affiiiis. Nemertines are well represented and some 
of them attain a large size. Very common are 
Linens gesserensis, Ainphiponis lacfiflores, and 
Ccpludofria. Ecluitrus pallasi and Priapalus caii- 
daliis are always ready for student use. 

Molluscs are easy to obtain, and they include Lit- 
toriualitorciu L.nidis. L. pallida. L.obtiisata,Mya 
Iritiieata, Mytilus ediilis and Peeten islandicus. 

An enormous quantity of sea-urchins is usually 
consumed by investigators ; they belong to a local 
species, viz., Stroni^yloeentrotus droebaehiensis, 
Asterias rubcns. Opkiura sarsi and Ophiopliolis 
aculeata are other local echinoderms. 

Balaiioglossiis mcesehkoivskii. that classical oli- 
iect of study, is also present. 

The oceanic flora of algae consists of large Lam- 
iiiuria scieliariiia and other species which may be 
found in the deep fjords. When the water re- 



230 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



cedes at low tide the algae Lithothumnion glaciale, 
L. ungeri, L. soriferum, and L. nodosum form a 
pretty pink and magenta border to the shore. 
Other species of algae are Porphyra lacininta, 
Phyllophora clongata. Hildebrantia prototypus, 
Rhodomcla lycopoidcs, CoralUna officinalis, As- 
cophvlluin nodosum, Lithodcrma, Nemolion lubri- 
cum and Ficus serratus, F. vesculosus, F. filifor- 
mis ana, F. inflatus, and manv others. 

The author remembers as his co-workers of 
the summer of 1909 Professors V. A. Dosjiel. 



Protozoa, A. A. Zawarzin, morphology of the 
nervous system of insects, K. M. Derjugin, fauna 
and ecology, K. K. Kluge, director of the Sta- 
tion, and a group of students from two universi- 
ties. During that summer the author collected 
material for comparative histology of polychaete 
worms and also carried on experiments on their 
])hysiologv. Part of the written, unpublished re- 
ports disappeared during the Russian troubles, 
but some of it was saved by his culleagues and 
recently discovered in Vladivostok. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM AND ITS INTER- 
GLANDULAR RELATIONSHIPS 

(Continued from Page 225) 



contractions which are known to be due to the 
corpus luteum can be demonstrated by the use 
of e.xtracts, but the specific hormone response is 
not known. 

Relaxin. This hormone, in addition to being 
present in the corpus luteum, may also be ex- 
tracted from the blood of several species of mam- 
mals during pregnancy. It is also present in am- 
niotic li(|uor and tlie placenta. \ single subcu- 
taneous injection of relaxin into a virgin guinea 
])ig during full oestrus produces relaxation of the 
])elvic ligaments within eight to twelve hours. 
Usually the amount of hormone obtained from 
one gram of corpus luteum tissue of the sow is 
sufficient to produce a positive result. This hor- 
mone can affect changes in the pelvis only when 
the animal is under the influence of oestrin. The 
pelvic ligaments of a castrate female do not re- 
spond to relaxin unless the animal is first put in 
the proper physiological condition by the admin- 
istration of oestrin. The symphysis pubis of a 
normal male guinea pig cannot be rela.xed due 
to the fact that it differs anatomically from that 
of the female. This condition can, however, be 
changed to the female type through feminization 
by oestrin or ovarian grafts, after which relaxa- 
tion can be produced under the same conditions 
as described for the female. 

Relaxation is the result of a combined action of 
oestrin and relaxin. It is a "one-two'" reaction 
in which oestrin must act first, followed by re- 
laxin. The relationship between oestrin and re- 
laxin is a qualitative one, that is. large doses of 
oestrin do not seem to inhiliit or intensify the 
action of relaxin. 

The mucifying hormone. The vaginal mucosa 
of rats and mice is changed during pregnancx' to 
a mucus secreting type which apparently serves 
to lubricate the liirth canal at parturition. This 
development can be produced in castrate animals 
by corpus hUeum extracts and is due to a si>e- 
cific hormone which, as far as known, takes pari 



in no other reaction. Though the complete dis- 
tribution of this substance is not fully known, it 
has, however, lieen extracted from other tissues 
such as foetal membranes and also from urine. 
The mucifying hormone acts in conjunction with 
oestrin in producing its effect. The vaginal mu- 
cosa must first be built up by oestrin before the 
mucifying substance can act. This is then also 
a "one-two" reaction in which oestrin must pre- 
cede the mucifying factor, but the relationship 
between the two hormones is a c|uantitative one 
in that oestrin in sufficient doses to produce 
oestrum prevents the action of the mucifier. 

Corporiii. A third hormone of the corpus lu- 
teum, corporin or progestin, promotes such re- 
actions of the uterus as development of decidual 
tissue, formation of the pseudopregnant con- 
dition in the uterus of rabbits, preservation of 
young in the uterus after castration, and the for- 
mation of a premenstrual endometrium in the 
uterus of castrate monkeys. The physiological 
factors governing these uterine reactions seem to 
be the same, and so they can be illustrated by one 
or two examples. 

( I ) The pseudopregnant or progestational con- 
dition in the uterus of rabl)its depends on a quan- 
titative lialance between oestrin and corporin. 
The reaction may be thrown in either direction b\' 
dosage, that is, a large dose of oestrin will mask 
the action of a small dose of corporin, while the 
reverse is also true. (2) A subthreshold dnse 
of oestrin aids the action of a threshold dose of 
corporin when the treatment is contiiUied for a 
long' period. (3) A given dosage of oestrin may 
mask the action of a given dosage of corporin, but 
if the dosage of corporin is increased the same 
amount of oestrin does not inhibit corporin but 
enables corporin to preserve the progestational 
jiicture longer than it otherwise could if given 
alone. 

(1) Neither corporin or oestrin when given 
alone can produce a typical ])remenstru:il eiido- 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLFXTING NET 



231 



nietrium in the uterus of castrate monkeys. (2) 
The folHcular hormone ( oestrin ) must first pro- 
mote growth of the endometrium and the corpus 
kiteum hormone (corporin) modifies this struc- 
ture into the premenstrual condition. (3) It is a 
"one-two" reaction in which the two hormones 
must have a quantitative relationship to each 
other. (4) Oestrin inhibits menstruation, while 
corporin does not. (5)Oestrin may be injected 
in large doses (100 rat units or more dailv) for 
long periods ( over 30 days ) without producing 
menstruation, but bleeding is precipitated if the 
do.sage is lowered materially or discontinued. This 



bleeding, however, is not from a typical premen- 
strual endometrium but is due to necrosis of an 
endometrium of a follicular hormone type. (6) 
Oestrin stimulates mitotic activity in the uterine 
glands while corporin does not. (7) Corporin 
produces swelling of the cells of the uterine 
glands, contributing, we think, to their coiling. 

The three hormones which have been extracted 
from the corpora lutea of the sow produce spe- 
cific physiological reactions which can be used 
as end points for their quantititive standardiza- 
tion, and as they are chemicallv different it is 
jiossible to isolate them b\' chemical procedures. 



OSCILLOGRAPHIC STUDY OF THE CARDIAC GANGLION OF 
LIMULUS POLYTHEMUS 

Dr. Pierre Rijlant 
Professor of Physiology, Sotvay Institute for Physiology. University of Prusscls 



Indirect evidence as to the neurogenic origin 
of the heart Ijeat in Limuhis polyphemits has 
been brought out by Carlson (1904). Studying 
the electrocardiogram of Limulus oljtained with a 
string galvanometer, Hoffman ( 1911) showed the 
oscillatory character and supposed that this was 
due to an oscillatory discharge of the ganglion, 
tctanizing the heart muscle. Carrey (1912) veri- 
fied the findings of Hoffman and studied the mod- 
ification of the normal oscillatory activity under 
the influence of changes in temperature and of 
drugs ; he does not. however, consider the con- 
traction of the heart of Limulus to be of tetanic 
character. But Nukada (1918), working on the 
heart of Limulus lougispina could not find, in 
normal condition, an oscillatory discharge and 
described an electrical activity similar to that of 
the heart of vertelirates. Hoshin (1925) and Du- 
buisson (1930) agreed with this conception and 
more recently Monnier and Dubuisson, using a 
cathode ray oscillograph similar to the one of 
Erlanger and Casser. They also admitted that 
the origin of the heart lieat was not in the car- 
diac ganglion but in the muscle itself and that, 
under normal conditions, no conduction could be 
detected, the heart contracting simultaneouslv in 
all its parts. 

The disagreement between physiologists as 
to the neurogenic or myogenic origin of the 
heart beat in Limulus is due to the fact 
that no direct evidence whatever has been 
brought as to the sjiontaneous activity of 
the cardiac ganglion. There is even disagree- 
ment as to the nature of the electrical wave in the 
heart muscle. This is due to the low value of 
the action potentials in Limulus. No string gal- 
vanometer can record the potentials accurately, 
and the cathode ray oscillographs used were not 
adapted to work on a spontaneous reacting tissue. 

For these reasons 1 made a cathode ra\- oscil- 



lograph outfit (autumn, 1930) giving continuous 
records at constant speeds which can be adapted 
between one and five hundred centimeters per 
second, and having a sensitivity up to one micro- 
volt for two millimeters' deflection. For the actual 
experiments a sensitivity of five microvolts per 
millimeter is used with a balanced amplifier, re- 
sistance coupled, amplifying 560,000 times. The 
exi^eriments on Limulus were performed either in 
the Solvay Institute for Physiology in Brussels, 
on Limulus sent over in the Spring of 1930 from 
the Woods Hole latoratory, or in the Marine 
Biological Laboratory this summer. 

The records obtained show the oscillatory char- 
acter of the electrocardiogram of Limulus ; us- 
ually a very important initial wave followed by 
ten to thirty small waves are obtained, the whole 
length of the complex being 1.2 seconds. When 
the vessels are tied off or the heart is distended by 
!)lood or air, this activity is superimposed on a 
very slow single wave analagous to the well- 
known "deformation potential" in any living sys- 
tem irregularly distended. This corresponds, cor- 
rections of their records being made, to the find- 
ings of Hoffman and Carrey. Lack of sensitivity 
in their methods prevented Nukada and Dubuis- 
son from finding oscillatory oscillograms. 

In some experiments on intact animals it is 
possible to show an electrical activity independent 
of the heart activity but of the same average 
rhvthm. This is probably due to the activity of 
the auricle commonly called pericardium in Lim- 
ulus, 

To study the pace-maker in the heart two cath- 
ode ra\' oscillogra])hs are needed, the deflections 
being registered- simultaneously on the same film. 
Two pairs of independent electrodes are con- 
nected to the tissue in experiment, the poten- 
tials amplified through amplifiers and sent into 
two cathode ray oscillographs. When one oscil- 



232 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 49 



lograph registers the activity of the cardiac 
ganglion and the second one the activity of the 
muscle, under all conditions the nervous activity 
starts before the muscular activity. Nowhere is 
it possible to find a muscular region active before 
the corresponding part of the ganglion becomes 
active. 

Hoffman, Nukada, and Carrey made unsuc- 
cessful attempts to register the activity of the 
ganglion. A few months ago, Heimbecker des- 
cribed an action potential in the cardiac ganglion 
of Limulus as ".scattered volleys of low potential 
which increase in frequency, number and ampli- 
tude." That description does not correspond in 
;mv of its points to the action potential of the 
cardiac ganglion of Limulus polyphemus and is 
due to the fact that the method used by that au- 
thor does not give objective information about 
complex waves starting spontaneously. 

When the cardiac ganglion is completely iso- 
lated from the body and connected to the oscil- 
lograph, periodic changes in potential lasting 1.2 
seconds and separated by periods of quiescence of 
2 seconds are observed. Each of these potential 
changes is composed of a series of waves. Three 
different types of activity are obtained: 100 to 
200 fast WiTves ; 10 to 30 slow waves ; or s-niul- 
taneou.sly fast and slow waves. The maximum 
action potential obtained is 150 to 200 microvolts 
while the normal value is 100 microvolts. 

Under normal conditions the activity starts in 
tlie region corresponding to the fifth segment and 
is conducted up and down the ganglion at an 
average speed of 75 centimeters per second. This 
agrees with the measurements of Carlson, Ed- 
wards and Pond. Roth rapid and slow waves 
are conducted throughout the whole ganglion. 
These experiments show that the ganglion activity 
is not due to a reflex stimulation by distention of 
the muscular part of the heart, as there is no 
muscle present in these experiments, Init to a 
local nervous automatism. 

In a further series of experiments I have 
studied the neuro muscular junction; the gang- 
lion is completely dissected out with the first mus- 
cular segment remaining attached, the other seg- 
ments being destroyed. Electrodes are put on the 
muscle and on the nerve in the second segme-it 
and connected to two oscillographs. The records 
show that the action potential appears in the nerve 
50 .s- * before it stTrts in the muscle. Corrections 
being made for the conduction time in the nerve 
between the leading off electrodes and the neuro- 
muscular junction, the delay at that junction is 
about 30 .v under normal conditions but can in- 
crease to 200 .f before complete block occurs, 
r'urare (\'/<) does not affect the junction, but 
strychnine and ephedrin produce block. A rise 
* ^- This symbol indicates "sigma". 



in temperature decreases the delay at the junction. 

Stimulation of the isolated ganglion by single 
induction shocks produces either single waves or 
oscillatory waves. Small stimuli produce single 
waves ; two types are observed : either of short 
duration | * 10 i' or of long, up to 80 j. The os- 
cillatory waves are made by .slow or fast waves 
or by both. When threshold break shocks pro- 
duce an oscillatory wave, the corresponding make 
shocks produce either a single wave or a very 
si'.ort oscillatory crmplex. 1 be length of the os- 
cillatory complex increases with tlie strength of 
stimulus to a limit equal to the length of a normal 
sixjntaneous complex, but decreases when the 
interval between stimulus and the preceding beat 
decreases. The absolute refractory phase for the 
production of an oscillatory discharge is about 
half the normal length of a discharge, the relative 
refractory phase, as regards the length of the 
complex lasts about two seconds. The height oi 
the oscillatory wave does not change when the 
strength of stimulus is modified ; the height of a 
single wave is proportional to the stimulus up to 
a limit. The refractory phase for single waves 
;s verv short and less than five s. .A.t frequencies 
of stimulation of 100 D. V. per second signs of 
fatigue appear and the height of the single waves, 
either fast or slow, diminishes. 

Single waves can be obtained without disturb- 
ing the normal spontaneous rhythm of the gang- 
lion. C)scillatory waves delay the following spon- 
taneous beat. Similar results can lie olitained 
when the efferent electrodes are put on the muscle 
and the stimulus applied to the ganglion. These 
experiments show that the ganglion has two dif- 
ferent types of nerve fibers, one giving fast 
waves, the other slow waves. It shows, also, 
that when certain ganglionic cells are stimulated 
the waves liecome oscillatory. This seems to in- 
dicate that besides the .slow and fast motor nerve 
fibers the ganglion contains "cells of association" 
resjionsible for the oscillatory discharge. 

When conduction is impaired so that gangli- 
onic cells become isolated from the centril 
]>art of the g'anglion, a new automatism arises. 
The rhythm is very regular. Single waves 
".])pear at a constant speed varying in dift'erent 
experiments from 50 to 900 per minute. The 
smaller the group of cells, the higher is 
the speed obtained. When conduction changes, 
these isolated be.Tts can be gradually mixed 
ui) with the normal slow complex. It is 
possible to show progressive passage from the 
normal oscillatorv wave to the rapid single wave. 
A single wave can determine in a group of gang- 
lionic cells the start of a new impulse which will 
travel in a direction opposite to the initial wave. 
These reflected waves can occur either at isolated 
'' This symbol indicates "plus or minus." 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



233 



"i^roups of cells in the anterior segments I or II, 
or in the central segments. Any of these waves 
can be conducted to the muscle and determine a 
corresponding action potential in it. Slow waves 
produce slow potential in the muscle, fast waves 
fast potential changes in muscle. This indicates 
that there are probably two distinct muscular sys- 
tems in the heart of Limulus, one slow and one 
fast. Nukada has described the microscopic 
structure of two muscular systems in the heart of 
Limulus. 

In a last series of experiments I have tried to 
investigate why the ganglionic activity is oscilla- 
tory. When electrodes are put on the isolated 
nerve in segment V (pace-maker) and in segm^nt 
II, the two waves obtained are similar. If be- 
tween the two pairs of electrodes the nerve is 
modified either by compression or by drugs, the 
activity of segment V is not modified, but the 
waves obtained in segment II are progressively 
modified. If the initial complex showed 100 fast 
waves and 15 slow waves, the fast waves pro- 
gressively diminish in number, the slow waves 
diminish in amplitude. Conduction can be mod- 
ified so that only one fast wave, the first one. is 
conducted. At that moment the nerve cells in 
segment I start beating spontaneou.sly at their 
own fast rhythm. This shows that the whole 
normal complex arises in the center of the gang- 



lion and is conducted to the peripliery. It also 
shows that the normal complex inhibits the fast 
automatism of isolated ganglionic cells. 

In one single ganglion two or more oscillatory 
waves of normal shape and length can exist sim- 
ultaneously without modifying one another, and 
be conducted to some extent. When conduction 
is slightly modified in the ganglion, dififerent cen- 
ters of automatism, elaborating a comjilete normal 
complex, can exist simultaneously. The intricate 
form of the oscillogram of the cardiac ganglion 
of Limulus is not due to the ganglion as a whole 
but to some of its ganglionic groups. I assume 
that in the ganglion there are dififerent systems of 
association cells, each of these being able to elab- 
orate a normal complex and to inhibit the funda- 
mental fast automatism of the isolated ganglion 
cells. By the action of drugs it is possible to iso- 
late in each of these complexes the slow and fast 
waves, which indicates that either the fast or slow 
motor components can be inhibited without mod- 
ifying the characteristics of rhythm and duration 
of the association complex and corroborates our 
working hyix)thesis. In the cardiac ganglion of 
Limulus, frequency and length of the spontaneous 
activity are regulated by a system of association 
cells independent of the activity of the slow and 
fast motor cells. 



SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND THE RADIATION OF HEAT FROM 

THE HUMAN BODY 

Dr. Eugene F. DuBols 
Professor of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, Medical Director. Russell Sac/c 

Institute of Pathology. 



It is generally stated in the literature that the 
white human skin acts almost like a perfect black- 
Ijody radiator and that the amount of heat radiat- 
ed from the surface can be used as a measure of 
the surface temperature. Some work on malarial 
chills performed in association with D. P. Barr 
in K)!/ led us to doubt both of these assumptions. 
Last year Drs. W. S. McClellan, H. M. Halcro 
Wardlaw and the writer investigated this subject 
using the respiration calorimeter of the Russell 
Sage Institute of Pathology. The calorimeter de- 
termines the heat lost by vaporization by col- 
lecting the water vapor in a sulphuric acid bottle. 
The heat lost by radiation, convection and conduc- 
tion is all collected by a .stream of cool water flow- 
ing through pipes in the top of the calorimeter. 
Rubner has estimated that a man loses about 44 
per cent, of his heat through radiation and 31 
per cent, through convection. Conduction plays 
a minor role. It is difficult to separate these 
channels of heat loss. 

According to Newton's law of cooling the heat 
loss by radiation and convection bv one bodv to 
another surrounding it is proportional to the tem- 



perature difference between the two. This is 
cjuite accurate for small temperature diflferences 
and we need not concern ourselves with the more 
complicated formulas when we are dealing with 
human subjects. Our experiments were per- 
formed on two normal men who lay naked in 
the calorimeter at a temperature of 25° C. The 
rectal temperature was measured by means of an 
electrical resistance thermometer and the skin 
temperatures were read in 17 spots using a resis- 
tance thermometer devised by Mr. G. F. Soder- 
strom. 

In the first experiment the subject "D" had an 
average skin temperature of aliout 33° C. at the 
start. During the first hour he was quiet. He 
felt cool but did not shiver and he lost about 70 
calories that hour by radiation and convection. 
During the next short interval we measured the 
surface temperature and found that it had dropped 
about one degree. He then started the second 
experimental period and tried to exercise just 
enough to keep the surface temperature constant. 
It so happened that he was successful and main- 
tained the average skin temperature almost ex- 



234 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



actly at 32° . His mild exercise had of course 
increased his heat production and the heat loss 
l)y radiation and conduction rose from 70 to 81 
calories per hour. In other words the skin av- 
eraged half a degree colder the second hour and 
yet it eliminated 16 per cent, more heat. 

The second e.xperimental subject "\V" did not 
show as much drop in skin temperature and his 
mild exercise in the second period warmed him 
so much that the average skin temperatures weie 
almost exactly the same for the two hours. In 
the lirst period he lost ahout 60 calories 1>\' radia- 
tion and convection and in the second period with 
ilie same temjierature he lost ahout 78 calories. 

These two experiments show that under special 



conditions heat loss is not proportional to surface 
temperature. A review of the large number of 
calorimeter experiments that have been performed 
on patients with fever supports this statement. It 
is true that the calorimeter measures radiation 
and convection together but there is no reason to 
assume that convection is independent of surface 
temperature. In the case of radiation it is quite 
l)r()t)able that the skin does not act as a perfect 
black-body radiator but possesses the power of 
changing its permealiility for radiation. It is 
(|uite possible that the true physiological surface 
lies in the deeper layers of the skin or in the 
sulicutaneous tissue and that the outer layers of 
the skin resemlile a suit of clothes. 



THE ACTION OF THE COMMON CATIONS ON THE PROTOPLASMIC 
VISCOSITY OF AMOEBA 

Dr. L. V. Heilbrunn 
Associate Professor of Zoology, V nhtersity of Pennsylvania 



Four cations are common to living substance. 
They are found in most types of living cells, and 
biologists are agreed that their presence in these 
cells is of great importance to the vital machin- 
erv. These ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, 
and magnesium. There is a hu'.;e literature con- 
cerning the effect of the individual ions on vari- 
ous tvpes of living systems. Muscle physiologists, 
l)lant physiologists, students of medicine and of 
agriculture, all have contributed important ex- 
])crimental observations. We know that a given 
cation may show pronounced antagonistic effects 
toward another or other cations. It is also known 
that two of the cations, magnesium and potassi- 
um, may have a pronounced anaesthetic action. 

For the general physiologist, it is obviously im- 
portant to know what physico-chemical effect or 
effects the various cations may have on the jjroto- 
plasm. In 1923 I was able to show that sodium 
and potassium ions increased the viscosity of tiie 
protoplasm of sea-urchin eggs and of Stentor, 
whereas calcium and magnesium ions had the op- 
posite effect. Similar results were obtained for 
plant cells by Cliolodn\' and by AVeber and these 
observations found an easy interpretation on tlie 
basis of colloid chemical theory, if one assumed 
that the protoplasmic micellae were positively 
charged. However, in 1926. Chamliers and Rez- 
nikotf, in studying the effect of the common ca- 
tions on the protoplasm of Amoeba dnhia. con- 
cluded that sodium and potTSs'um made the 
protoiilasm mrire fluid, i. e. less viscous, and that 
calcium and magnesium had the opposite effect. 
These opinions were based partlv on evidence 
gained from micro-dissection, but apparentlv m ire 
on the fact that in sodium and ootassium sulu- 
tions the granules or crystals of the amoeba were 
observed to fall through the protoplasm. 



It is of course possible that the micellae of am- 
oeba protoplasm are charged differently from 
those of the other types of protoplasm mentioned 
previously and that .sodium and potassium do ac- 
tually produce a liquefaction in Amoeba dubia. In 
order to test this point, a series of centrifuge 
tests was planned on specimens of Amoeba dubia 
immersed in solutions of sodium, potassium, mag- 
nesium, land calcium chloride. These tests were 
performed by Miss Kathryn Daugherty. She 
made a long series of experiments in each case, 
and her results show conclusively that sodium and 
])otassium solutions increase the protoplasmic vis- 
cosit_\-, and that calcium and magnesium decrease 
it. On the average there is a 41% increase in the 
sodium chloride solution, a 21% increase in the 
potassium chloride, and decreases of 35 and 32% 
in calcium and magnesium chloride solutions re- 
spectively. These findings are in accord with the 
older work on other types of protoplasm, and 
they likewise favor the view that the protoplas- 
mic micellae of amoeba protoplasm liear a pos- 
itive charge. During the past winter, Mr. Kat- 
suma Dan has done some cataphoresis experi- 
ments with amoeba which also favor this view. 

The fall of crystals which Chambers and Re7.- 
nikoff observed in potassium chloride solutions !s 
due to stoppage of movement rather than to any 
change in the viscosity of the protoplasm. The 
crystals of Amoeba dubia are large and thev fall 
readily whenever the amoeba stops moving. In 
sodium chloride solutions at room temperatures, 
we have never observed an\' fall of crvstals. 
However, at 30°, amceboid movement ceases in 
.sodium chloride solutions and the crvstals fall. 

The discussion so far has concerned Amoeba 
dubia. When this ramoeba is centrifuged at slow 
speeds, practically all of the crystals move through 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



235 



the cell. On the other hand, when Amoeba pro- 
tons is centrifuged at slow speeds, only the crys- 
tals in the interior of the amoeba move, and those 
in the outer cortex or plasmagel remain as they 
were. Hut tlie crystals in the plasmagel can also lie 
moved if the amoeba be centrifuged for longer 
times at considerably greater centrifugal speeds. 
The length of time required for the crystals of 
the plasmagel to move into half the cell when the 
amoel)a is subjected to a given centrifugal force 
is called the "centrifugal value". For reasons 
which cannot be gone into here, this value is 
not an exact measure of the viscosity of the 
plasmagel, but it can at least be stated that high- 
er centrifuge values indicate higher viscosities, 
and lower centrifuge values lower viscosities. 

When Amoeba proteus is immersed in dilute 
solutions of potassium salts the centrifuge value 
becomes markedly diminished, so that it is only 
a small fraction of the normal. In these dilute 
solutions of potassium salts, the amoeba is com- 
pletely anaestlietized. It seems fair to conchule 
that the anaesthetic action of the potassium ion is 
in some way associated with this pronounced 
liquefying action. The magnesium ion causes an 
almost complete stoppage of movement of 
Amoeba proteus; it is only bv oliserving 
the amoeba for minutes at a time that 
any movement can be detected. In dilute so- 
lutions of magnesium chloride the centrifuge val- 
ue of the plasmagel is reduced to 687o of its nor- 
mal value. Pioth magnesium and potassium .an- 
aesthetize and both liquefy the plasmagel. These 
observations are in excellent agreement with cur- 
rent theories of amoeboid movement. They also 
give support to the theory that anaesthesia is as- 
sociated with a -liquefaction of the protoplasm, a 
theory which I proposed some years ago. 

The sodium ion has but little efifect on the cen- 
trifuge value of the plasmagel. Its only action is 
to cause a slight decrease in the value. As might 



be expected, amoebae immersed in sodium chlo- 
ride .solutions continue to move. The only one 
of the common cations which causes an increase 
in the centrifuge value is calcium, and the efifect 
of this ion is pronounced. The work of Pantin 
and of Pollock has indicated that calcium is the 
one cation which is essential for amoeboid move- 
ment and its specific action in stififening the plas- 
magel is particularly interesting in this connection. 

Numerous e.xperments have been performed on 
the efTect of combinations of cations on the plas- 
magel of A>noeba proteus.. Indeed every pos.sible 
combination has been tried. It will not be pos- 
sil)le to consider all these experiments, but it 
should be pointed out that the liquefying action 
of jjotassium and magnesium is antagonized bv 
calcium, and that a trace of this element may 
exert a very powerful efifect. 

Our experiments have shown certain effects 
of individual cations on the interior protoplasm 
of Amoeba dubia. and very different effects of 
the same ions on the outer protoplasm or plasma- 
gel of Amoieba proteus. It is not practicable to 
study the plasmagel of Amoeba dubia, nor is it 
])racticable to study the viscosity of the interior 
protoplasm of Amoeba proteus. It seems a fair 
assumption, however, that the two amoebae are 
essentially similar in their behavior toward the 
common cations. It is fortunate that we have the 
two forms, one of which can be used for a study 
of the interior, the other for a study of the cor- 
tex. Our study of the interior indicates that this 
protoplasm behaves toward the common cations 
like a positively charged suspension. The cor- 
te.x is very different. Calcium tends to solidify or 
stiffen it, magnesium and especially potassium 
have the opposite effect. The anaesthetic action 
of magnesium and potassium ions has always been 
a great mystery ; their behavior fitted in with no 
one of the theories of anaesthesiva. Perhaps our ex- 
periments may throw some light on this mystery. 



THE MECHANISM OF BACTERIOTROPIN ACTION 

Dr. Balduin Lucke 

Laboratory of Pathology. Uiiirer.Hty of Pennsylvania 



The experiments here reported were made in 
collaboration with Drs. Mudd, McCutcheon, 
.Strumia, who are equallv responsiljle for the re- 
sults. 

Leucocytes ordinarily take up living bacteria 
only to a slight degree. When, however, bacteria 
are treated with specific immune serum they are 
readily phagocytized. The substance or substanc- 
es in serum which promote phagocytosis are 
termed liacteriotropins. 

We have studied the relation between phago- 
cytosis and certain properties of the liacterial sur- 
face, namely, cohesiveness, electric charge and 



wettability. The bacteria used were various sjic- 
cies of living tubercle bacilli ; the phagocytic cells 
were exudative rabliits' leucocytes; the immune 
sera were prepared by injecting rabbits with the 
micro-organisms studied. In the experiments bac- 
teria were treated with serial dilutions of immune 
sera and rotated in a Robertson agitator with 
leucocytes ; the degree of phagocytosis was de- 
termined from the number of leucocytes which 
hid engulfed bacteria in a given time. Mean- 
while, the effect of immune sera on cohesiveness 
of bacteria was studied bv the agglutination and 



resuspension reactions ; the effect 



rface 



236 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



charge was calculated from the cataphoretic ve- 
locity. The effect on the wetting properties was 
determined by suspending bacteria in an oil-water 
interface ; before interaction with serum the 
micro-organisms used readily pass into the oil ; 
after interaction they resist passing into the oil. 

The results of this first series of experiments 
may be summarized as follows : Sera reacting 
with bacteria have increased phagocytosis, caused 
agglutination and increased cohesion of bacteria, 
decreased the bacterial surface charge, and altered 
tiie surface from one readily wet by oil to one 
wet by water. The changes in these surface 
])roperties and in phagocytosis are, in general, of 
corresponding degree. Alternatively stated, sera 
which have reacted with liacteria so as to cause 
increased cohesion, decreased surface charge, and 
change in wettal)ibty. have effected a correspond- 
ing increase in phagocytosis. 

In the next group of experiments we studied 
the alterations of surface properties of bacteria 
and of phagocytosis during the course of active 
immunization. Tests have been conducted peri- 
odically with the sera of rabbits under active im- 
munization and with different strains of tuliercle 
l)acilli. Again a close correspondence between in- 
tensities of surface reactions and of phagocvtosis 
was apparent. From these experiments the con- 
clusion may be drawn that both surface reactions 
and tropin effects are due to the deposit of a cer- 
tain sui)stance or substances contained in im- 
mune serum on the bacterial surface. 

In the next group of experiments immune sera 
were fractionated into their glol)ulin and allmmin 
fractions. It was found that solutions of the 
gloliulin fractions possess essentially the same 



properties as bacteriotropic sera. The properties 
of the globulin fractions were now further in- 
vestigated by studying the iso-electric point of 
bacteria sensitized with increasing concentrations 
of serum or of its globulin fractions. It was found 
that the iso-electric point of the bacteria so treat- 
ed is shifted progressively toward a zone lying 
l)etween pH 5.5-5.8. This is somewhat above the 
iso-electric point of normal serum globulin. 

In the next experiments various proteins (egg- 
albumin, edestin, etc.) were adsorbed on small 
collodion [^articles, and the effect of immune sera 
and their protein fractions on phagocytosis and 
on surface properties of these particles, was 
studied. Essentially the .same results were ob- 
tained as in bacteria. 

In the experiments summarized aliove poly- 
morphonuclear leucocN tes were used as the phago- 
cytic cells. In the higher vertebrates there e.xist 
two main kinds of mobile phagocytic cells, the 
leucocyte and the large monocyte (macrophage). 
The relative tropin effect ujion these two kinds of 
cells was investigated. No essential differences 
were observed in phagocvtic properties toward the 
i)acteria or particles used. 

The general conclusion is drawn that the vari- 
ous surface changes and increased phagocytosis 
effected by immune sera are all consequences of 
one underlying phenomenon, namely, the depos- 
ition on the surface of, and the specific chemical 
comliination with, the antigen of an antibody pro- 
tein contained in the glol)ulin fraction of immune 
sera. This glolmlin appears to possess ph\sico- 
chemical differences from the normal serum 
globulin. 



LIVING NERVE SPROUTS 

Dr. Carl C.\skey Speidf.l 
Professor of Anatomy. I'liiirrsitv of I'irgiiiiu Meciieal Seliool 



Although nerve cells and sheath cells have been 
cultivated in vitro by various investigators and 
the growth of nerve fillers observed, the forma- 
tion of the myelin sheath has never l)een obtained 
in artificial media. Preliminary observations on 
frog tadpoles couA'inced me that it might be pos- 
sible to watch the process of myelination liv direct 
observation of the trans])arent fin of living ani- 
mals. Accordingly, individual nerve sprouts and 
sheath cells were kept under dailv observation for 
long periods (a few days to several months), and 
their activities correlated with the development 
and growth of the myelin sheath. 

After early development of the frog tadpole the 
nerves of the tail fin are partly of the unmyelinat- 
ed type and partly of the mixed tviie, including 
bi.ith mvelinatcd and nnmvelinatcd fibers. A few 



may be entirel) of the myelinated type for a part 
of their course. In the unmyelinated type, and 
in the unmyelinated portion of the mixed type, 
tliere may Ije distinguished under favorable con- 
ditions "myelin-emergent" fibers and "non-myelin- 
emergent" fibers. 

A myelin-emergent nerve sprout differs from- 
a non-myelin-emergent fiber in its greater bias 
toward mxelin formation. The former in combi- 
nation with a primitive sheath cell leads to the 
formation of a new myelin segment, the latter 
ordinarily does not. An exception to this is the 
formation of the initial myelin segment on each 
nenrone. 

The transfer of a primitive sheath cell to u 
myelin-emergent fiber may be effected in a variety 
of wnys, such as : ( a ) from the unmyelinated por- 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



237 



tion of a mixed nerve to the accompanying mye- 
lin-emergeiit si>rout ; (b) from a nearby, but 
separate, unmyeHnated nerve, following a tem- 
porary anastomosis where the two nerves cross ; 
(c) from one nerve to the unmvelinnted portion 
of an adjacent nerve by way of an anasromosis, 
followed by transference to the myelin-emerge.it 
fiber accompanying the second nerve. In each of 
these varieties, sheath cell migration mav b.e in u 
distal (5r ])roximal direction, and multiplicatif>:i 
liy mitosis may take ])lace. Transfer from a 
crani'd nerve branch (dorsal branch of ramus 
lateralis vagi) to a spinal nerve lias also bee i 
seen. Myelin segment formrtion has been 
watched following ench of the migration varieties 
listed above. The transfer of a primitive sheath 
cell in the reverse direction, i. e , from a myelin- 
emergent fiber to a non-myelin-emergent fiber, is 
quite rare. Transfer from one myelin-emergent 
sprout to another, however, takes place. 

Myelin formation proceeds from proximal to 
distal, each new unit being added at the end of 
the myelin line, but occasionally gaps are left be- 
tween two segments. Such intersegmental lengths 
of nerve fiber may become myelinated by the 
])rocess of intercalation of additional mvelin seg- 
ments. A fiber about to be myelinated presents 
a characteristic thickening and becomes somewhat 
more prominent optically. The earliest myelin 
is formed in the vicinity of the sheath cell nu- 
cleus. It grows from this center by continuous 
extension in l»th directions ( "nucleo-fugally"). 
One adult internodal segment genetically corre- 
sponds to the zone influenced by one primitive 
sheath cell. 

Early unmyelinated nerves serve to direct in a 
general way advancing mvelin-emergent nerve 
sprouts, ar.d to furnish them with i)rimitive sheath 
cells as a preliminary stej) to myelination. The 
ac(|uisition of primitive sheath cells by the sprouts 
is greatly expedited by their movements in ex- 
tension, retraction, branching, .and the formation 
of temjiorary anastomoses with adjacent fibers. 
The early unmyelinated nerves which act as di- 
rectives for the developing myelin line may he 
compared to the preterminal plexuses (of Har- 

HISTOLOGIC EFFECT OF LIGATION OF THE VASA OF THE 
SPLEEN OF THE ALBINO RAT 

Dr. J. E. Kindred 
Associate Professor of Histology and Embryoloi^y. School of Medicine, 
University of Virginia 
The object of this investigation was to deter- 
mine the fate of small lymphocytes entrapped in 
the vasa and hmphatics of granulation tissue. 
Maximow ('07) describes the transformation of 
small Ivmphocvtes into large lympliocytes and 
thence into ervthr(jl)Iasts in the invading 



rison) which are the forerunners of the final end 
arborizations. 

Young myelin segments grow both in diameter 
and in length. Complete elimination of side 
sprouts occasionally occurs as the myelin segment 
iiecomes longer. Overproduction of myelin is 
also frequently to be seen at the region of the 
node of Ranvier. Long myelin segments may be 
formed Ijy end-to-end anatomosis of shorter seg- 
ments accompanied by complete obliteration of 
the intervening node of Ranvier. This is partly 
responsible for the wide variation in length of 
myelin segments. It also accounts for the pres- 
ence of two sheath cells on .a single myelin seg- 
ment. Occasionally, a portion of one segment 
fuses with the .segment next to it, and a new node 
then develops. The formation of perpendicular 
myelin units, either at a node of Ranvier or at a 
nerve terminus, is essentially like that of the for- 
mation of parallel myelin units. 

The process of regeneration of a single myelin 
segment following trauniatic degeneration has 
been observed in detail. Regeneration may occur 
without preliminary sheath cell multiplication or 
migration. Sprouts from myelinated fibers grow 
into newly regenerated re.gions much less rapidlv 
than do sprouts from unmyelinated fibers. 

Primitive sheath cells appear to aid nerve 
sprouts in surmounting slight obstacles in the way 
of free growth. Growth and extension of nerve 
s])routs seem also to be stimulated by sheath cell 
mitosis near the nerve terminus. Other observa- 
tions include detailed movements of primitive 
sheath cells in mitosis, extremes of v>ariability in 
])rimitive sheath cell migration, and the shifts in 
jjosition of mature sheath cells on myelin seg- 
ments. 

Many years ago in tissue cultures Harrison 
saw nerve fibers grow out from nerve cells. Each 
active outgrowing fiber was provided with a ter- 
minal ameboid growth cone. I have Ijeen able to 
find active growth cones in living tadpoles and, 
under favorable conditions, to watch them for 
long periods of time. A number of interesting 
observations have already been made which liear 
directly on certain problems of neurogenesis and 
nerve regeneration. 



vasa of the ligated kidney of the rab- 
bit The erythroblasts sul)sequentiy mature 
into normol)lasts which usually do not 
undergo further change. Jordan ( '26 ) has 
described changes of small lymphocytes into 
erythroblasts in certain lymph nodes of the rabbit 



238 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



and dog. According to Jordan the specific stimu- 
li for the modification of the lymphocytes are 
slow circulation in the medullary blood vessels, 
and disjunction of the efferent lymphatics witli 
consequent relatively high concentration of car- 
bon dioxide. This condition parallels those sug- 
gested by Latta ('21) for the modifications of 
lymphocytes into erythroblasts in Peyer's patches 
of the rabbit. Latta emphasizes as necessary for 
the changes: closeness of association of the lym- 
phocvtes to the iilood stream, slowness of the 
current in the blood vessels, and thinness of the 
vascular walls. Normal erythrocytopoiesis in the 
bone marrow is thought by Mieschler ('93) and 
Dalhvig et al. ('15 ) to be dependent upon a defi- 
nite concentration of CO2 in this region. If the 
C( ):; is increased the production of red blood cor- 
puscles is speeded up. 

Histologic conditions following ligation of the 
kidney (Jordan, Kindred and Paine, '31) of the 
rat were almost identical with those suggested by 
these investigators. These conditions did not ob- 
tani immediately, but only after the autolytic and 
hetenilytic ])rocesses characteristic of ligated or- 
gans ill z-iio iiad occurred. The newly formed vasa 
were thin-walled, having only an endothelial wall. 
The lym])hocytes were present in the vicinity of 
the vessels and from what is known of the chem- 
istry of autolysis and heterolysis it is probal)le 
that the;e was a higher concentration of COo in 
this region than is normal. Nevertheless, the lym- 
phocytes difl^erentiated only into plasma cells 
(Marschalko type) or grew in size into large cells 
resemliling the hemocytoblasts of bone marrow. 
These changes were e.xtravascular. No intra- 
vascular evidences of erythrocytopo'esis such 
as Maximow described for ligated kidney of the 
rabbit were obtained. Since it is conceivable that 
the products from autolysis and heterolysis of the 
kidne\- may have contained some suljstances which 
inhibited the action of the erythrocytogenic po- 
tentiality of the 1\ mphocyte I undertook the study 
of ligated spleens. 

The normal jjarenchyma of the spleen of the 
rat has the histologic structure and cellular con- 
tent characteristic of the mammalian spleen with 
the addition of megakaryocytes and foci of eryth- 
rocytopoiesis. The cellular elements are support- 
ed by a stroma of reticulum fibers. The capsule 
is a thin filiro-elastic layer in which smooth mus- 
cle cells are present in addition to lymphatics and 
fibrolilasts. After twenty-four hours' ligation thv 
only vialile (histologic) jiart of the spleen is the 
capsule and a narrow su1)jacent layer of macro- 
phages and small lymphocytes evidently kept alive 
1)V their closeness to jieritoneal fluid. Occas'onal- 
Iv bacteria accumulate in vast numbers in the sub- 
capsular region. These liacteria resemlile morpho- 
logicallv the germ of infectious anemia (Barlnii, 



cUa inuris) in rats. A devastating anemic efifect 
liy this species of bacteria follows splenectomy. 

yVfter three days of ligation a layer of neutro- 
philic granulocytes is present on the surface of the 
capsule and during the ne.xt few days these gran- 
ulocytes penetrate the capsule and .spread over 
the periphery of the central necrotic parenchyma. 
E.xactl\" similar histologic conditions are present 
in ligated kidneys after the same lapse of time. 

At the end of one week the capsule is much 
thicker than before and is usually adherent to 
some neighboring organ such as the kidney, pan- 
creas or stomach. Many filiroblasts are in mitosis 
and the growing tips of blood and lymphatic 
capillaries are present. They are entering the 
capsule at right angles to its surface. The lym- 
phatics are filled with small lymphocytes and the 
blood capillaries with small lym])hocytes, red 
blood corpuscles and neutrophilic granulocytes. 
Many monocytes and macrophages are present Ije- 
tween the capsule and the neutrophds. The pro- 
ducts of heterolysis of the neutrophils are ap- 
parently stimulating the fibroblasts and endotheli- 
um just as they do in tissue cultures according' 
to Carrel ( '22 ) . 

The criticpl time of the experiment is reached 
during the fifth week after ligation. At this time 
tiie capsule is verv thick. Filirobla.sts, collagenous 
fil)ers, blood capillaries and lymphatics are very- 
numerous. Not only are the Ivmphatics filled 
with small lymphocytes Imt lymphocytes of all 
sizes are present external to the capillaries and 
lymphatics. In addition to the lymphocytes, there 
are ])resent many so-called plasma cells of Mars- 
chalko and all stages between them and small 
!ym[ihocytes. From the study of .sections of 
spleens ligated for two to four weeks it is con- 
cluded that there is a continuous emigration of 
small lymphocytes from the Ivmphatics into the 
surrounding extravascular area. Here under the 
environmental conditions present these small 1;, m- 
]ihocytes are stimulated to change into large Ivm- 
piiocytes and so-called ])lasma cells. No such 
changes of small Ivmphocvtes have been ob- 
served in the capillaries or in the lym- 
])hatics The'e observed cytologic clianges 
are identical in time and place with those 
in ligated kidneys The so-called plasma cells are 
characterized by a polarity of the nucleus. The 
ch'-omatin is arranged in radiating blocks. The 
cUoplasm is relatively great in amount rs com- 
|iared with the nucleus and has a homogenous bas- 
ophilic tinctorial reaction. No vacuoles are pres- 
ent in these cells. The margin is smooth and 
ve-v sliarp in contour. Immediatelv on the side 
of the nucleus toward the greatest amount of 
cytoplasm there is a small area which is distincth' 
eo in' philic hi rerction. This arei passes with- 
out sharp dcmarc.ntion into the surrounding in- 



August 22, 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



239 



tensely basophilic cytoplasm. Many of these cells 
show changes which grade into the Russell body 
cells. The cells of this transitional series are 
characterized by the essent'al characteristics of 
the so-called plasma cells, but contain withiti the 
cyto])l;;sm one or more discrete glolniles which 
have an intense eosinophilic reaction. When these 
bodies are few and small they are usually spheri- 
cal, but as they get larger they assume all sorts 
of l)i/,arre shapes. When the cells are full of 
these bodies the nucleus is compressed and dis- 
torted, but it still retains its characteristic chro- 
matin pattern. None of these cells has been ob- 
served in mitosis. From these facts it is con- 
cluded that the Russell body cells are the end 
results of the degenerative changes in small Ivm- 



phocNtes. The changes described above are only 
intensified during the next five weeks so that by 
the end of the tenth week there results an adeno- 
fibrous mass enclosing a very small remnant of 
the originally e.xtensive necrotic parenchyma. 

From these facts the conclusion is drawn that 
the sequence of histologic change in the spleen 
!follovving ligation of its vasa are the same as in 
the kidney under similar experimental con- 
ditions. In both spleen and kidney the 
ditferentation of the small lymphocytes i^ 
limited to the formation, extravascularly, of large 
lymijhocytcs, possible abortive hemocytoblasts and 
plasma cells of the Marschalko type. There is 
no evidence of change of the small lymphocvtes, 
intravascularlv, into erythroblasts. 



AQUATIC MAMMALS A DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIAL CELL TYPE 

IN THE CEREBELLUM 

Dr. William H. F. Addison 
Professor of Noriiia! Hisfolooy mid Enibryology. University of Penusylvauia 



In a histologic study of the cerebellar cortex in 
a series of animals, I have noticed in certain 
aquatic mammals conspicuous large cells. These 
mammals include the harbor porpoise {Phocaena 
eoiiuiiunis ). bottle-nosed porpoise (Tiirsiops 
irttiicatits }, sea lion {Eumetopias stelleri) . mana- 
tee (Maiuitiis ainericiDiiis). common seal (Plioea 
vitidiua) and whale { Bolaciioftcra sulfurca). 
Three Phocaena brains were obtained in Woods 
Hole through the courtesy of the Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory and the United States l-lsh 
Commission laboratory. 

These cells usually occur singly in the granu- 
lar layer or in the medullary layer, or in both. 
( )ften two or three are seen in a folium. Their 
shape is varied, but in general they are of two 
forms: (1) narrow elongated, and (2) stellate 
multipolar. The former often lie near the boun- 
dary !)etween the g'ranular and medullary lavers. 
The latter lie more freciuently in the middle of 



the granular layer. In size they are often larger 
than the Purkinje cells. Similar large cells were 
reported by Obersteiner ("13) in the elephant 
and whale. 

The position of these cells is shared bv several 
other types of cells: — Golgi cells, type II : synar- 
motic cells of Landau ('29) ancl Kesaunaite 
( '30) ; and the Golgi cells with long axones, des- 
cribed by Ramon y Cajal. But none of these 
cells attain the conspicuous size of the large cells 
here flescribed. 

These aquatic mammals all have modified limbs 
and specialized caudal and trunk musculature 
adapted for swimming. The vestibular apparatus 
is apparently large and well developed. The 
weight of the cerebellum has a high ratio to the 
entire brain weight. These animals are thus 
characterized !)y great cereliellar development, and 
in them there is seen a cell type which seems to be 
an addition to the usual cerebellar mechanism. 



SCIENTIFIC BOOK REVIEWS 



H. C. Sherman and S. L. Smith. 
1931. Chemical Catalog Coni- 



Tlie J'ilaniiiis. 
Second Edition, 
pany. 

The theory of the function of vitamins in nu- 
trition has larely a score of years behind it, but 
what a rich and fascinating storv it makes ! One 
is hardly justified in speaking of the discovery of 
vitamins, which may be traced to the early nine- 
teenth or even the eighteenth century, but the 
realization of the existence of vitamins as dis- 
tinct entities and of their paramount significance 
in the life of the animal organism is a gift of the 



biochemical science of the past few years only. 
Fresh as the scientific knowledge of these elusive 
vitamins is, the havoc wrought by their absence is 
hoarv with tradition. Especially, the mariner of 
the era before the motor-propelled vessels felt se- 
verely the scourge of the vitamin lack. In the 
days of the picturesque clipper ships and in- 
terminalily long 'voyages, it was scurvy, as much 
as the fury of the ocean, which was the cause of 
untold suffering and added tragedy to the heavy 
lot of sea- faring men. On those long voyages 
fresh food was, of course, out of the question and 



240 



THE COLLECTING NET 



Vol.. M. No. 49 



the supplies furtheniiore were, of necessity, of the 
Isind which would neither spoil nor take up too 
much space. The result was that scurvy flour- 
ished, occasionally decimating the ship's crew be- 
fore it could reach its destination. No wonder 
that this dreaded disease of the mariner caused 
much concern; and even as far back as 1720, the 
value of green vegetables, and especially the juices 
of citrous fruits, was discovered in preventing 
the occurrence of scurvy or in curing its victims. 
Scurvy, however, was not merely the dread of the 
ancient mariner. Even as recently as the W'orM 
War, at least one garrison capitulated l.iecause tlie 
men defending the fortress were laid low liy 
scurvy, and the disease was quite prevalent in 
prisons, asylums and similar institutions. If one 
cannot be certain of the original benefactor of hu- 
manity who discovered vitamins, or rather vita- 
min rich foods, we are well familiar with those 
who have been instrumental in establishing the 
vitamin theory of nutrition. Foremost among 
tliem is Prof. H. G. Hopkins who. in 1906. clear- 
Iv formulated the view that the animal body re- 
(|uires a great variety of substances other than 
protein, carbohvdrate, fats and salts in order to 
live. It must also be acknowledged that C. Funk, 
who, in 1911, coined the name for these es- 
sential dietary substances, recognized that their 
absence may be responsilile for a variety of dis- 
eases. The e.xtent of the growth of the subject 
of vitamins to which Fimk has given such a tre- 
mendous impetus can he judged not only by exces- 
sive popularity, which it unfortunately acquirerl, 
but l)y the unusual volume of work it had in- 
spired in laboratories all over the world. In the 
valuable monograph of Sherman and Smith, the 
second and revised edition of which we gladlv 
welcome, the bibliography alone occupies 17.^ 
printed pages, which is half the space occupied 
bv the text of the monograph (350 pages.) The 
bibliography contains approximately 3500 titles 
and. assuming that this list is exhaustive of the 
studies on vitamins which have been published 
for the last quarter of a century, this represents 
an output of a new paper perhaps every two or 
three days over that entire period. LTndoubtedlv, 
the quality of the work produced at such a pro- 
lific rate did not keep pace with the quantity; 
nevertheless, it signifies both an intense interest 
in as well as a deep importance of the subject of 
vitamins. Sherman and Smith trace the growth 
of the subject in all its details and ramification';. 
From an original number of three, our knowl- 
edge has expanded within a ver\' few vears to a 
definite recognition of six different vitamins .\nd 
if one reads the signs correctly, the "vitamin 1')" 
which has only recently been split into two sep- 
arate entities may, in the near future, undergo 
still further fractionation. In the case of a sub- 



ject as young and interesting and vigorously 
growing as that of the vitamins, a monograph, no 
matter how comprehensive, soon becomes out of 
date, and one can only be glad to see the second 
edition of the splendid book by Sherman and 
Smith in which the authors have conscieiitiouslv 
revised the text to conform with the latest de- 
velopment of this branch of biochemistry. No 
student of nutrition, nay, one is tempted to say 
no student of biology, can be without the aid of 
this valuai le monograph. — S. Morgulis. 

A Synopsis of the United States Pharm-.icopocia 
and National Formulary Preparations. H. J. Ful- 
ler. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc. Philadelphia. 

Th's little \dlume is one of unusual interest 
and value to all students and practitioners of 
medicine. In his preface, the author states : 'Tt 
is not intended to take the place of the Pharmaco- 
poeia, National Formulary, or any of the we'l- 
known recognized works on pharmacv, but is 
rather intended to precede or supplement th^s'? 
works, as well as the instruction given by the 
teacher of pharmacy." 

As a matter of fact, this book gives to the bus,' 
practitioner or medical student the salient fact*-- 
reg.irding the sources, (jreparations and dosage 
of all the best known drugs. Its stvle is clear and 
its tables and index are innisually complete and 
practical. 

It is invaluable for ready and relialile reference, 
and should be on the desk of everv up-to-d^te 
practitioner. — W. G. Sch.\uffli-.r. ^1/. D. 

Genetics and Eugenics. A Text-Book for Stu- 
dents of Biology and a Reference Book for Ani- 
mal and Plant Breeders. W. E. Castle. -|th 
edition, iilus 474 pp. 14 figs. 21 plates. 36 tallies. 
Harvard University Press. 1930. 

This foin'tb edition of Castle's ]iresentation of 
the problems and results of genetics is the latest 
revised form of his book, first published in iQifi. 
There are four parts: (i) The biological basis 
of genetics, which gives the data fundamental to 
the d'scussion that follows; (2) The historical 
development, showing the order in whicli ideas 
have developed from the earliest recognition of 
the prol)lem of genetics; (3) The es.sential facts 
and a presentation of selected and illustrative re- 
sults so far obtained on both plants and animals; 
and (4) Eugenics — the relation of these results 
to the question of genetics in man and race better- 
ment. 

Ch;n>ters on binmetrv and on calculating of 
Mcndelian exjiectations are introduced, the in- 
heritance of acouired characters and the by]iothesis 
of mnlti]ile factors co"s'dered, anrl a lii))li- 
ogra]ihv of sixty jiages is added. The book ac- 
com])lishes its purpose. — H. H. Donaldson. 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



241 



H<ind-book of Anatom\. ]. K. Young-. Revised 
hy G. W. Miller. 7th revised edition. 1930. F. A. 
Davis Company. 

This volume presents human anatomy in syn- 
optic form suitable for ready reference and re- 
view. It contains a numlier of well-chosen illus- 
trations. Perliaps the most valuable features are 
the comprehensive diagrams of nerves and ar- 
teries, and various tables. Siu'gical anatomy 'and 
dental anatomy are treated briefly. 

— C. C. Speidel. 

Tx^'iiis : Heredity and Ein'ironnicnt. D. M. 
Hirsch. 1.=;^) i)]). 1930. Harvard University Press. 
$2.00. 

This author, a psychologist and student of 
Professor Wilham McDougall, has collected data 
on 58 pairs of dissimilar twins of the same sex 
and 38 pairs of similar twins living in the same 
homes and on 12 pairs of similar twins living in 
dissimilar environments. 

The sini'lar or identical twins were selected fa) 
on the basis of similarity of a])pearance, voice, 
gait, expression, etc.: and (b) on the basis of 
similar school work and general intelligence as 
judged by the teachers of the twins. The d's- 
similar twins were selected on a similar two-fold 
basis. 

The author concludes that heredity is almut five 
times as important as environment in contributing 
to the intelligence of the individual; about four 
times as important in contributing to head length 
and height; about twice as important in contrib- 
uting to weight ; and probably from two to four 
times as important in contributing to impulsive 
and emotional processes. 

To the revievver Dr. Hirsch's essa\' seems not 
to be a very profound or convincing discussion. 
The most valual)le jxirtions of tlie little iiook are 
perhaps quotations from Newman, Muller, and 
others. — \\'illi.'\m L. Dolley, Jr. 

Outlines of Zooloi^x. ]. Arthur Thomson, 8th 
edition. 28 + 972 pj). '528 figs. Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 1929. 

This admirable survey of the animal kingdom 
from Amoeba to man is remarkable for the 
wealth of information systematically arranged in 
a volume of handy size. It contains essentially 
the information that the beginning zoologist 
should have, and the skillful use of three points 
of type gives a sense of perspective that is im- 
portant, especially in a work of this kind. In th? 
present edition the author Ins had the help of 
his son. Dr. D. L. Thomson, in addhig more 
pliNsiological material, and of Mr. R. M. Neill on 
the structure and development of the mud-tishes. 
The first six chajiters deal in a general way w'th 
])hysiology, nioqjhologv, ]inlaeontologv, the doc- 
trine of descent, etc. Then follows an account 



of each of the principal phyla, including general 
characters, followed by descriptions of typical 
forms of special interest, then classification, struc- 
ture, life-history, ecology, and other topics, such 
as parasitism and relation to disease. The illus- 
trations are clear and significant, and for the most 
part are original. The final chapters deal with 
geographical distribution and the factors in or- 
ganic evolution ; then follow test questions, an ex- 
cell:nt list of books of reference, and an index. 

— R. P. BiGELOW. 

Protoccau Purasitisni of the Alimentary Tract: 
Patholoyv. Diagnosis and Treatment. By Kenneth 
M. Lynch, pp. xvii + 256. $3.75. 1930. The 
Macmillan Company. 

Doctor Lynch has written a handy book for 
medical students, practitioners, and others con- 
nected with medicine in special ways that make 
them responsible parties in the diagnosis, treat- 
ment, and prevention of protozoan infections. 
The author's aim to write an eminently practical 
treatise has led him to omit, insofar as possible, 
all technical details land controversial questions 
that might serve to confuse the medical man who 
has had little or no training in Protozoology. Pos- 
sil)lv he has gone a liit too far in this regard, es- 
pecially in the introductory chapters. However, 
nmple references to the standard treatises as well 
as to special papers are given, and to some of 
these the reader undoubtedly will wish to refer 
when he has finished Doctor Lynch's outline. The 
book should prove, for the audience to which it 
is addressed, not only thoroughly useful but also 
thought-]irovoking. — L. L. Woodruff. 

Elements of Water Bacteriology. By S. C. Pres- 
cott and C. E. A. Winslow. Fifth edition. 1931. 
pp. viii + 219. $2.50 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

For more than a quarter of a century Prescott 
:ind Winslow's "Elements of Water Bacteriology" 
lias been a standard text in the field of sanitary 
vyater analysis, and the present revised fifth 
'•dition insures for the work further years of use- 
fullness. The authors conservatively retain the 
details of the older methods of water examination, 
but also introduce a precise account of the newer 
procedures. However, it is their hope that a 
somewhat radical evaluation and simplification of 
the laboratory processes involved may be found 
jxissible in the near future. — L. L. Woodruff. 

The Soil and the Microbe. By Professors Sel- 
mnn A. Waksman and Robert L. Starkev, pp xi 
-f 260. $3 50. 1931. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

When one recalls that our knowledge of the 
role of microorganisms in soil processes and plant 
growth has developed chiefly in the past hnlf 
century, it is remarkable how large a body of in- 
formation has already been accumulated. And 
much of the most significant of this Dr. Waksman 



242 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. \'I. Xo. 49 



and Dr. Starkey marshall binefly in ian inter- 
esting and instructive manner in "The Soil and 
the Microscope", so that the reader obtains a 
vivid picture not only of soil organisms and their 
multitudinous physiological reactions, but also of 
the relation of these processes to the origin and 
development of soils, to the cycle of the elements 
in nature, and to plant nutrition. The present 
volume affords an excellent introduction to the 
somewhat encyclcpriedic "Principles of Soil 
Microbiography" liy the senior author, a world 
••■.nthoritx- in the field. — L. L. Woodruff. 

Textbook of General Biology. Review of 
Textbook of General Biologv. Waldo Shum- 
way, viii + 361 pp. $3.00, John Wiley & Sons. 

Professor Shumway has written a very inte; - 
esting and attractive textbook which ought to ap- 
peal strongly to the beginning student. As he 
.savs in the preface the "book has been written be- 
cause of a feeling that there is a place for a 
fresh survey of modern biology especially de- 
signed for those who do not plan to specialize in 
liotanv or zoologv. Biology, as the term is used 
in tills l)ook, refers to those phenomena of lif'j 
which are common to both plants and animals. 
No attempt is made to cover the field of Botany 
and zoology even in outline form, but rather to 
select from the wealth of illustrative material 
offered bv each, such facts and theories as iiave 



.", general significance." 

The book begins with an account of the struc- 
ture and activit'es of the frog. This is followed 
immediately by a similar .account of the wheat 
plant. The next chapters may be said to deal 
largely with the principles of biology. Three 
c'laiJters on the cell discuss its metabolism, be- 
havior and reproduction. Then follow chapters 
on "ideredity and the Clene," "Ecology and the 
Community," "The Evolution of Species." The 
plant and animal kingdom are then taken up sys- 
tematically. The book concludes with a chajiter 
•n "Applied Biology." Throughout the te.xt the 
phvsiological point of view is emphasized, ex- 
planations are given of structures, and processes 
are viewed from a physical-chemical point of 
view. The book is printed in clear type, excel- 
lently illustrated, and generally presents an in- 
viting appearance — no smiall factor in an ele- 
mentary text. A glossary includes "all technical 
terms used in the text." 

The author states that it is his ''a'm to write 
for these to whom laVioratory facilities are not 
■"vailable. Accordingly, illustrations have bee;i 
u-^^ed freely to take the place of demonstrative 
material. These art carefully labelled, and the 
use of abbreviations has been avoided." It ought 
to lie jiossible, nevertheless, to use the book in 
courses where laboratory facilities are aviailable 
and laijoratory work required. — J. W. M.'ivOR. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEES APPOINTED TO STUDY THE MATTER 
OF NOMINATIONS OF OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES 



To the Corporation and the Trustees of the Ma- 
rine Biological Laboratory: 

Your committees appointed to study the matter 
of Nominations of Officers and Trustees submit 
the following report and recommendations for 
action by Trustees and Corporations : 

(1.) After considering various methods by 
which those engaged in instruction might be rep- 
resented upon the Board of Trustees, it is be- 
lieved that the following action by the Corpora- 
tion will be the best means of insuring such rep- 
resentation: "The Corporation affirms its po- 
sition that instruction is a fundamental part of 
the work at the Latoratory and hence this work 
should be adequately represented upon the Board 
of Trustees." 

(2.) "That the Committee of the Corporation 
for nomination of Trustees consist of five mem- 
bers, of whom not less than two shall be non- 
Trustee members of the Coqxiration, and not 
less than two shall be Trustee-members of the 
Corporation." 

(3.) "That on or about July first of each vear, 
the Clerk shall send a circular letter to each mem- 
l)er of the Corporation giving the names of the 



Nominating Committee and stating that this com- 
mittee desires suggestions regarding nomina- 
tions." 

( 4. ) "That the Nominating Comm'ttee shail 
])ost the list of nominations at least one week in 
advance of the annual meeting iif the Corpora- 
tion." 

( 5. ) "That no trustee shall be eligible for re- 
election imtil one year after the expiration of the 
term for which he was elected." 

(6.) The following changes in the Bv-laws 
should be adopted to make the foregoing reconi- 
mendatiiins effective. 

Insert in Section I of the By-laws, as printed on 
page 3 of the Report of the Laboratory for 1930, 
after the sentence ending "eight Trustees to serve 
four years," a sentence as follows: 

"No trustee shall be eligible for re-election until 
one year after the e.xpiration of the term for which 
he was elected." 

Insert in Section I of the By-laws, as printed on 
page 4 of the Report of the Laboratory for 1930, 
after the sentence ending "as Trustee Emeritus for 
life", a sentence as follows: 

"Any individual, who has served as a Trustee and 
who has reached the age of seventy, may likewise 
be elected a Trustee Emeritus." 



August 22, 1931 ] 

The entire Section I, as amended, will then read: 

"The annual meeting of the members shall be held 
on the second Tuesday in August, at the Laboratory, 
in Woods Hole, Mass., at 12 o'clock noon, in each 
year, and at such meeting the members shall choose 
by ballot a Treasurer and a Clerk to serve one year, 
and eight Trustees to serve four years. No trustee 
shall be eligible for re-election until one year after 
the expiration of the term for which he wa.s elected. 
There shall be thirty-two Trustees thus chosen di- 
vided into four classes, each to serve four years, and 
in addition there shall be two groups of Trustees as 
follows: (a) Trustees ex officio, who shall be the 
President of the Corporation, the Director of the 
Laboratory, the Associate Director, the Treasurer 
r.nd the cierk; (b) Trustees Emeritus, who shall be 
elected from the Trustees by the Corporation. Any 
regular Trustee who has attained the age of seventy 
years shall continue to serve as Trustee until the ' 
next annual meeting of the Corporation, whereupon 
his office as regular Trustee shall become vacant 
rnd be filled by election by the Corporation and he 
shall become eligible for election as Trustee Emer- 
itus for life. Any individual, who has served as a 



THE COLLECTING, NET 



243 



Trustee and who has reached the age of seventy, 
may likewise be elected a Trustee Emeritus. The 
Trustees ex officio and Emeritus shall each have the 
same right to vote as the regular Trustees. 

"The Trustees and officers shall hold tneir re- 
spective offices until their successors are chosen and 
have qualified in their stead." 

Altlioiigh this matter is not strictly within the 
province of the committees' report, it is thought 
desirahle to call the attention of memhers of the 
Corporation to the fact that all should avail them- 
selves of the opportunity, which has always ex- 
isted hut which heretofore has been little used, of 
Ijringing to the attention of the Executive Com- 
mittee at any time matters which they consider of 
importance to the Laboratory. 

Signed W. C. Curtis, Chairman. 
Committee of the Trustees: 

Ivey Lewis, W. C. Curtis. 
Committee of the Corporation: 

Ivey Lewis, H. H. Plough, H. B. Goodrich, W 

C. Curtis. 



ANNOUNCEMENT FOR THE COURSE IN PHYSIOLOGY 

Dr. Laurkncf, Irving 
Associate Professor of Physiology, University of Toronto 



The course in physiology has been directed by 
Dr. Amberson for two years. During that period 
he has assembled a staff wliose members are quite 
in agreement as to the general plan of operation. 
They look forward to a continuation of the wori< 
together, Imt they realize that it may not always 
lie possiljle that one man can spare the time for 
detailed plans and executive work for a number 
of years. At the present time Dr. Amberson has 
asked to be relieved from direction of the course 
for next \ear in order to continue research work 
in (jermany. 

Since the meml)ers of the teaching staff wish 
to work together on the course in the future, they 
have proposed that the direction might appropri- 
ately rotate among them, allowing each member 
to take a turn for a year. In this way the prol)- 
lem of organization and planning will he fresli 
each year to the appointed chief and will allow 
for the introduction of such new methods as he 
may devise for development of the common juir- 
jiose. 

An arrangement of this sort assumes in the staiT 
membershi]) an expectation of continuity. For 
next summer the five present members will re- 
turn. Dr. \V. R. Amberson, Dr. Philip Rard, 
Dr. R. VV. Gerard, Dr. Laurence Irving and Dr. 
Margaret Suniwalt, with Dr. Irving as director 
of the covu'se. 

It is too early to indicate the detailed program 
for 10^2, but the general plan will resemble that 
used this summer. The following subjects will 
lie handled during the first four weeks of lab- 
oratory work. (l) Electrical phenomena in liv- 
ing and non-living systems (Dr. Amberson). (2) 



The central nervous system of invertebrates and 
fishes (Dr. Bard). (3) Tissue and cell respira- 
tion (Dr. Gerard). (4) The acid-base equililirium 
in sea-water and tissues (Dr. Irving). (5) Per- 
meability studies (Dr. Sumwalt). The subse- 
quent period allows for two weeks further work 
in any of the subjects which have become es- 
pecially interesting to the student. If any student 
develops a particular interest and aptitude in the 
work and wishes to continue beyond the six 
weeks formal allotment of time, he may go on 
with any further investigation which is compatilile 
with the facilities available. The material and 
ec|uipnient is quite adequate for qualified and 
interested students to start with serious research, 
and the members of the staff are glad to advise 
and give assistance. 

The first lectures will, as before, be given by 
the staflf in physiology to cover the subjects of 
the laboratory offerings. After these lectures 
special lecturers will be invited to present im- 
])ortant physiological subjects into which their 
research has given them special insight. 

In making this announcement of the future 
program it is important to mention our indebted- 
ness to the lecturers who have given their time 
and interest. We feel that it is an unusual privi- 
lege to hear each physiological subject presented 
v.ith the vitality and penetration that character- 
ize men dealing with their favorite subject. We 
hnve also to acknowledge the constant support and 
good advice of the director of the laboratory. It 
seems that these .acknowledgements properly be- 
long in the announcement because we regard the 
previotis experience as a promise for the future. 



k 



244 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VI. No. 49 



The Collecting Net 

A weekly publication devoted to the scientific wcrk 

at Woods Hole. 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 

Ware Cattell Editor 

Assistant Editors 

Margaret S. GrifHn Mary Eleanor Brown 

Annaleida S. Cattell 



BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS 

Printed matter concerning Biological Abstracts 
has l)een distributed to the workers at Woods 
Hole during the past two weeks and is still flvail- 
alile. This inckuLs the comprehensive report of 
the co:iference held in Washington, March 7, 
1931, a review liy Professor Frank R. Lillie, and 
other literature. The Union of American Bio- 
logical Societes, which is principal sponsor for 
tlie Abstracts, is directing a program designed 
to inform the biologists of America and other 
countries regar<Hng them. More suliscriptions 
are of prime impo:tance at the prese:it 
time in order that abstracts already accumulated 
may be printed more promptly, and in order that 
the interest of biologists may lie evident to those 
who must be asked to provide the subsidy neces- 
siary for editorial work. Under the present 
scheme, the subsidy pays edito-ial costs, the sub- 
scriptions pay for printing, and the Union of 
American Biological Societies pays for current 
advertising and similar overhead. At a cost of 
$9.00 la year to the individual and $15.00 to the 
institution, no one need be without access to this 
comprehensive key to biological Hteratu'e. ^\'hilc 
older investigators mn\ find most of the litera- 
ture of their special fields coming to them as re- 
prints, there remain many papers in correlated 
fields, and other subject matter that must be cur- 
rentl\" examined. Younger investigators have no 
such advantage. For them the literature of even 
a special field must seem overwhelming. It was 
to meet these situations and to provide an instru- 
ment for. biological science comparable with 
Cliciiiical Abstracts that this great co-operative 
undertaking was initiated. Only a little more 
sup|>ort is needed to realize the completeness and 
promptness that are the goal in such an enter- 
])rise. If that which is ahno.st within our grasp 
can be attained, American biologists will have 
created an "institution" that will be second only 
to the Marine Biological Laboratory ras an aifl to 
research. — W. C. C. 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

Histologic Effect of Ligation of the Vasa 
of the Spleen of the Albino Rat, 
Dr. J. E. Kindred 237 

Aquatic Mammals — (A Description of a 
Special Cell Type in the Cerebellum), 
Dr. William H. F. Addison 239 

Scientific Book Reviews 239 

Report of Committees on the Matter of 
Nominations of Officers and Trustees. . .242 

Announcement for the Course in Physiology, 
Dr. Laurence Irving 243 

Items of Interest 245 

The Woods Hole Log 252 



TO THE TRUSTEES OF NON.4MESSET AND 
NAUSHON 

Tho' in our ranks the lyric muse is scarce. 

We must confess, it 
Seems that someone ought to pen an ode 

To Nonamesset. 
Gay exiles once again to native heath 

In joy returning 
With whoops of gastronomic glee we start 

Old i)each fires burning! 

No snnd than thine in sandwiches 

Nor smoke in eye, is sweeter. 
No sheep so bhthe^ no ticks so tame. 

No shoreline ever neater. 
From Barnstable to nor'ard, way 

Down east to Poponesset 
We've vainly sought a substitute 

For ancient Nonamesset. 
Steaks did not t"ste as steaks were wont 

So sad was our condition 
For in Elizabethan ground we'd 

I-'ounded our tradition. 
So thTuks for lifted l)ans and 

Prohibitions well rescinded ! 
\\'c'll watch ou.- fires well and keep 

The l)rushwood to the wind'ard. 
(Signed) Tlic Society of Serious Steak Ealcis. 

DIRECTORY CORRECTION 

Whedon, A. D. prof. zool. North Dakota State. CM 
39. Br 201. 



CURRENTS IN THE HOLE 


Date 


A. M. P. M. 


Aug. 22 


12:10 


Aug. 23 


1:05 1:16 


Aug. 24 


2:05 2:09 


Aug. 25 


3:01 3:07 


Aug. 26 


3:45 ?,:S3 


Aug. 27 


4:24 4:32 


Aug 28 


5n<^ 5:19 


Aug. 29 


5:41 5:56 


Aug. 30 


6:26 6:.37 


Aug. 31 


6:55 7:14 



August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



245 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

Recently Vice President Monroe E. Deutsch of 
the University of California at Berkeley visited 
the Institution. He was accompanied by Mrs. 
Deutsch, Mrs. Koshland of San Francisco and 
Assistant Dean of Undergraduates L. O'Brien of 
tiie University of California at Berkeley. 

Last week Prof. W. E. Allen made a trip to 
Los Angeles on Institution business. 

Last week Prof. G. E. F. Sherwood of the 
Department of English in the LIniversity of Cal- 
ifornia at Los Angeles arrived with his family 
to spend a month at the Institution. 

Dr. E. E. Thomas of the Citrus Experiment 
Station and his family at Riverside have arrived 
for a two weeks stay at the Institution. 

Last week Dr. Merle Smith. Pastor of the 
First M. E. Church of Pasadena, arrived with 
his family to spend a month at the Institution. 

■ Prof. Daniel Freeman of Albany College, Al- 
liany, Oregon, visited the Institution last week. 
1 le is a special student of flat worms and he col- 
lected a numl)er of specimens in this locality. 

Mr. and Mrs. N. Turner of Mexico, Missouri, 
parents of Mrs. Shoup, have been visiting Prof, 
and Mrs. C. S. Shoup for a few diys. 

A numlier of summer residents left the Insti- 
tution at the end of last week, including Dr. D. 
M. Greenberg and family of the Disivion of Bio- 
chemistry and Dr. and Mrs. H. F. Blum of the 
Division of Physiology of the University of Cal- 
ifornia at Rerkfeley, and Dr. R. S. Stone and 
family of the L'niversity of California Hospital in 
San Francisco. 

The pulilic lecture in the Institution was given 
on August 10, l)y Dr. W. T. Swingle of the U. S. 
Experimental Date Farm in Idaho, Calif. This 
lecture dealt with problems and conditions of 
date culture. 

At 4 p. m. on Friday, August 7, Dr. A. II. 
Gee gave a .semi-public lecture on "Lime Deposi- 
tion at the Florida Keys". 

On August 14, Director T. Wayland Vaughan 
gave a lecture entitled "Notes on Recent and 
Current f\-eanographic Activities". 

The position of Dr. G. W. Martin who con- 
tributed the article on the Iowa Lakeside Labora- 
tory was incorrectly recorded in the Julv 25 num- 
ber of Thk Cor.i.i'XTiNG Net. Dr. Martin is 
professor of liotany ,at the State LTniversity of 
Towa. 



»IT. DESERT ISLAND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY 

Dr. James Murphy and Dr. E. M. East con- 
ducted the seminar on August 5th at the J.ackson 
Memorial Laboratory. 

Dr. Warren H. Lewis delivered the fourth 
lecture in the M. D. I. B. L. Popular Lecture 
Course on Thursday afternoon, August 6th. His 
subiect was "Cancer Problems" and was illustrat- 
ed by motion pictures. 

On August 7th the members of the Laboratory 
were entertained at the Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory at Lamoine, Me. An exhibition of speci- 
mens was given by the students. The visitors 
were invited to inspect the buildings and grounds. 
Tea was served at the dormitory. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Lewis entertained the Lab- 
oratory at a picnic on August 8th. 

The Monday evening seminar on August 10th 
was in charge of Dr. William Wherry who sjxike 
on "Biological Control of Bubonic Plague" and 
Professor Ulric Dahlgren whose subject was 
"Disease Among Invertebrates". 

— Louise R. M.vst. 

The Rev. Dr. A. M. Keefe arrived on August 
8. He has just spent several days on a collect- 
ing trip in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey with 
Dr. C. J. Niewlands, C. S. C. of Notre Dame 
University and former editor of "The Midland 
Naturalist." They visited several little known 
s])0ts in the central part of the state and secured 
a number of rare floral specimens. 

Dr. William R. Amberson, professor of phys- 
!ology. and Director of the course in physiology 
it the lal)oratorv sailed for Germany last week, 
where he will carrv on at the laboratorv of Pro- 
fessor Rudolf Hoeber in Kiel during the coming 
semester. 

The Gilbert and Sullivan opera "lolanthe," 
which was scheduled for August 16, will be given 
on Sunday, August 23. The postponment of this 
concert without advance notice was caused by 
the temperamental behavior of the victrola, and 
was sincerely regretted by the officers of the Club. 

On Thursday, August 27. the program will in- 
clude the following selections of the Wagnerian 
music: "Prize Song" from Die Meistersinger, 
"Seigfried's Funeral March" and the "'Closing 
Scene" of the Gotterdammerung. The "Svm- 
phonv in D Minor" of Cesar Franck will conclude 
the program. 

The concert scheduled for Sunday, August 30,. 
will include Russian .songs and selections from' 
Russian operas arranged by Dr. Borodin. The 
comi)lete program will be announced later. 



246 



THE C'OLLECTIXG NET 



[ Vol.. \ I. Xo. 49 



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248 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 




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August 22. 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



249 



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250 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



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Ask for things you do not see. 
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LADIES' and GENTS' TAILORING 

Cleaning, Dyeing and Repairing 

Coats Relined and Altered. Prices Reasonable 

M. DOLINSKY'S 

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DONNELLY'S BEAUTY SHOPPE 

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FALMOUTH PLUMBING AND 
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Service that Satisfies 



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SAMUEL CAHOON 

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MUNSON & ORDWAY 
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August 22, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



251 



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252 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 



THE WOODS HOLE LOG 



THE EIGHTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF 
MR. LUSCOMBE 

Mr. Walter O. L. LuscomLie, a resident of 
Woods Hole for fifty-four years, was host at a 
celebration marking his eightieth anniversary last 
Wednesday. His home was flooded with visitors 
and congratulatory messages from the people of 
Woods Hole and from his Cape and Boston 
friends. Mr. Luscomhe has heen responsible in 
l:irt;e measure for the Woods Hole Public 
TJbrary and the new Post Office building, and has 
in many other ways acted as sort of a God- 
father to the residents of this section of Fal- 
mouth. 

In 1899 Mr. Luscomhe was elected Senator for 
the State of Massachusetts and during his term 
of office he was chairman of the Committee on 
Towns and Railroads. He was an active member 
of la great many other committees, some of which 
were : Committee on Constitutional Amendments, 
Committee on Harbors and Public Lands, land the 
Ways and Means Committee. He is now presi- 
dent of the Cape Cod Chamber of Commerce, a 
position which he has held for five ye3rs, and he 
has for awenty-five years been one of the Direc- 
tors of the Falmouth National Bank. 

We learn from The Falmouth Enterprise that 
Mr. Luscomhe served as deputy Collector of Cus- 
toms in the days when Woods Hole w.as an im- 
portant port along the Atlantic seaboard. He 
-served in this capacity until 1888 and later en- 
gaged in the grocery, grain, coal and real estate 
ijusiness. His Inisiness is now confined primarily 
to real estate and insurance. 

Since 1896 Mr. Luscomhe has attended almost 
nil of the National Conventions of the Republican 
Party. He is now director of the National Rivers 
and Harbors Committee which is a Congressional 
ap]iointment. Mr. Luscombe's many friends were 
haiipy to find him in such good health and so 
actively engaged in carrying out his varied duties 
for the National, State and local org'anizations of 
which he is a part, and in his own business. 



The sum of seven hundred dollars was extrac- 
ted last week from the merchants of Falmouth by 
an attractive young woman who was supposed to 
lie collecting it for the West Falmouth Public 
Library. The library knew nothing of the "cam- 
jiaign" and the enterprising visitor has disnis- 
])oared. It does not seem as though it should he 
so difficult to raise $.^00.00 for The Coi.lfxting 
Nkt .Scholarship Fund in Falmouth. 

The public schools in Falmouth will open on 
September 8. 



The construction of a highway connecting 
Providence with Buzzards Bay, designed to short- 
en the driving distance between the Cape towns 
and points to the West, is under construction. 
Tlie New Bedford Chamber of Commerce will 
present a protest against this proposed highway 
v/lien recommendations are presented to the 
I5oard of County Commissioners. 

i\Irs. C. E. L. Gifford has been elected presi- 
dent of the Woods Hole Community Association 
which assumes responsiliility for the Community 
Hall. The other officers which were elected at 
the meeting are : William Chambers, treasurer : 
Mrs. George M. Gray, secretary. The Board of 
Trustees is made up of the following individuals : 
Mrs. Thomas E. Larkin, William Chambers, Mrs. 
Alfred Norris and Mrs. George M. Gray. T!ie 
Community Hall is over fifty years old and it 
was first known ias Liberty Hall. 

During the summer months Iniilding permits 
to the extent of over $95,000 have been granted by 
ihe Town of Falmouth. The corresponding sum 
of last summer was nearly half, which is an indi- 
cation that residents and visitors are taking ad- 
vantage of the exceptional economic conditions. 

The Coast Guard patrol Ijoat CG 285 was busy 
last week aiding boats grounded in the recent 
thick fogs. The schooner yacht Alamyth, owned 
by W. P. Latham, was hauled off a sandbar two 
miles northeast of Menemsha Bight last Satur- 
day night. The 92-foot schooner, Miclwdo, was 
tovved off the Shovelful Shoals near Monomoy 
Island. A fishing boat went ashore in Woods 
Hole Harbor, but it was pulled off undamaged. 
The patrol boat located the lost schooner, W'areUa 
the next day. The boat was owned by Judge 
Poland who was sailing from Boston to Nan- 
tucket ; he was lost in the fog and they towed it 
to its destination. 

Two local men have been discharged from their 
work of laving bricks for the new gramma'" 
school in Falmouth owing to the fact that they 
•rre non-union men. The choice was put up to 
one of these men of joining the Lhiion or of los- 
ing his job. He wanted to become a member c f 
the Un'on. but was unable to raise the necessarv 
sum of $73.00. The man in question, Samuel 
Pierce, has not had a permanent position for six 
months, and he finds it difficult to support his 
famih-. It is unfortunate that the New Be<lford 
Bricklayer's Union should have sufficient jniwer 
t(i pi-event res'dents of Falmouth from building 
their own schools. 



August 22, lO.Sl 



THE COLLECTING NET 



25o 



Church of the Messiah 

(Episcopal) 
Tin- Rev. James Bancroft. Rector 

I Inly Ciimniunidn 8:00 a. ni. 

.Moniiny Prayer 11 :00 a. ni. 

Evening Prayer 7^30 p. m. 



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254 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vni,. VL No. 49 



Just Published 



The revised, up-to-date 
SECOND EDITION of 

HEREDITY 

By A. l-'UANKLIN SlU'LL. 

Professor of 'Zoology in the Univcrsit\- 
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McGKAW HILL PtIBLICATIONS 

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ECOLOGY 
All Forms of Life in Relation to Environment 

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Pub. P)23. lOS pp. Price. $1.00. 

Vol. Ill: The vegetation of Mt. Desert Island, Maine, 
and its environment. By Barrington Moore and Nur- 
man Tavlor. 151 pp., 27 text- figs., vegetation map in 
colors. June 10, l<^27. Price, $1.60. 

Orders should be placed with 

The Secretary, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 

1000 Washington Ave. Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. A. 



August 22. 19.S1 1 



THE COLLECTING NET 



255 



Forging to New Heights of Leadership 




in 



MICROTOME 
CONSTRUCTION 



iium Sliding MICROTOME No. 850 

A new Microtome — Spencer quality — to meet the need of a moderate priced hiRh 
grade sliding microtome, built low and compact for comfortable operation. 

In this microtome is incorporated the great features which have accounted for the unusual success 
of all Spencer Sliding Microtomes: i.e., the sturdy main frame, the inflexibility of the knife and 
knife block, and the accuracy and rigidity of the feed mechanism. 

The main body of the instrument is 14I2" long. 5%" high, and TU" wide at the base. As on all 
sliding microtomes the knife block, which is 5^^" long, 3" wide and ITj" high, rides on a horizontal 
surface at the top of tha main casting. The chesion of nearly 12 square inches (three times as 
much as on any ordinary microtome) of oil contact on the accurately scraped surfaces holds the 
block very firmly to the main frame. An additional fortification against any possible jumping of the 
knife block is provided by opposing bearings. 

This combination, which is on all Spencer microtomes cnly, insures accuracy in the movement of the 
knife block, which can be attained in no other way. The smooth even draw is a delight to the touch. 
A rigid and free moving object block accurately fitted and carefully scraped surfaces insures feeding 
and holding the object, however hard it may be, definitely to the knife edge for accurate cutting of 
thin sections. The feed screw is U" in diameter. The notched wheel of this feed mechanism provides 
for cutting sections in steps of 2 microns up to 40 microns. The feed is operated by hand or auto- 
matically. There is no back lash or spring. The specimen must move up the distance for which the 
section thickness is set. The total upward excursion is much greater than on other makes of micro- 
tomes which are priced higher. On No. 850 this distance is 33 millimeters. 

It is provided with the standard Spencer ball and flange object clamp which has been- so popular. It is 
easily criented by means of three screws. One reason for the accuracy of these microtomes is the 
fact t'.'at no split nut is involved. The nut is heavy and thick enough to cover twenty threads. When 
the upper limit is reached the object clamp is quickly lowered by means of a crank at the back of the 
microtome. This crank also provides a quick means for bringing the object into the desired relation 
to the knife edge before cutting. 

No. 850 Microtome complete with knife, knife clamp, handle and back for 
sharpening — now ready tor shipment — $200.00 



256 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 49 




''It saved us the cost of 5 microscopes' SS'nt'^Xlu/hrr' ^°"^^^- 

"PROIMI" MK'HOSCOPIC DKAVVING and 
PKOJECTION APPARATUS 

Takes the place of numerous microscopes 
and gives the instructor the opportunity of 
teaching with greatest efficiency and least 
confusion. 

Projects microscopic slides and living or- 
ganisms and insects on table or wall for 
drawing' and demonstration. Also used as 
a microscope and a micro-photographic ap- 
paratus. 

The Promi, recently perfected by a prom- 
inent German microscope works, is an in- 
genious yet simple apparatus which Alls a 
long felt want in scientific instruction and 
research in Bacteriology, Botany, Zoology, 
Pathology, Anatomy, Embryology, Histol- 
ogy, Chemistry, etc. 

It has been endorsed by many leading 
scientists and instructors. 

AS A PROJECTION APPARATUS: ll is used for iirojccting in actual colors on wall or 
screen, microscopic preparations, living organisms and insects for lecture room demonstration and 
instiuition. Makes it possible for a g: oup of students to examine a single specimen simultane- 
ously. Invaluable for instructors in focusing students' attention on iniptr.-tant features, which can- 
iiiit be demonstrated with equal facility ami time saving under a microscope. Eliminates the eye 
strains of micrnsco]ie examii\alion. 

AS A DRAWING LAMP: The illustration shows how a microscopic specimen slide is pro- 
jected ill actual ci'lnrs on drawing paper enabling student or teacher to draw the image in precise de- 
tail in black or colors. Living insects or microscopic living organisms can also be projected. Ad- 
justment of the size of the image is simply a matter of varying the distance to which the image is 
l)rojcctcd. Higher magnification may be obtained by using lube and ocular and dur Ingli power ob- 
jeclixcs. Charts can icadily be made for class room instruction. 

AS A MICROSCOPE: By removing the bulb and attaching the reflecting mirror auil inverting 
the ap])aratus a compound microscope is achieved. Higher magnification is possible by the use of 
stanilard microscopic hi.gh power objectives and oculars. 

AS A MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS: Microscopic preparations of slides, living or- 
ganisms and insects can lie |ilii n, i-raplud without the use of a camera. 

PRICE: 1''. O. 1). New S'ork $100.03 complete apparatus in ]iolished wood carrying case. In- 
cludes bulb, rheostat for 110 and 220 volts with cords, plugs and switch for both DC and AC cur- 
rent, llx objective, tube with Sx ocular, reflecting mirror and micro-cu\ ctte. Extra equipment prices 
1111 rctpiest. Prospectus gladly sent on request 

THE "PROMAR " MICROSCOPIC DRAW- 
ING and PROJECTION APPARATUS 

.\ new instrument \\liicli has been brought 
out in response to a demand for a simple 
apparatus like the Promi for more advanced 
work which requires more powerful illumi- 
nation and higher magnification. The Pro- 
mar operates in the same manner as the 
Promi but is more hea\'ily constructed and 
has the following additional features as 
standard equipment : 

More brilliant lighting, making higher magnification i 
Triple nose piece, facilitating use of three objectives. 
Fine and coarse adjustment for focusing. 
Screw, rack and pinion adjustment for light and condenser. 
Screw centering adjustment for light. Kcvohing stage. 
Demonstrations will glcdly be made by Mr. Robert Rugh. Room 217, 
IVIain Bldg., M. B. L., Woods Hole. 
Prospectus Gladly Sent on Request. Write to 




117-119 EaGt 24th St:eoi 



NEW YORK N. Y. 



1^ 



Vol. VI. No. 10. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 29, 1931 



Annual Subscription, $2.00 
Single Copies, 25 Cts. 



AN EXPERIMENTAL DOG FARM FOR 
THE STUDY OF FORM AND TYPE 

Dr. C. R. Stock.\rd 
Professor of Anatomy. Cornell Medical Cotlet/e 
A general survey was attempted emimeratin;.;' 
the (lifticulties and problems of maintainin;,'- 
a large colony of dogs. The experience of 
any one who has kept one or two dogs actually 

gives no idea of the difficulties , 

arising when the number is 
increased to a hundred or 
more animals. One or two 
flogs may ]>e allowed to run 
moi-e or less at large without 
seriously contaminiatin,g the 
area ; while among a great 
number of dogs there are cer- 
tain to be infected individuals, 
and these contaminate tlu- 
others under any limited con- 
finement. Dogs.are commonly 
infested with intestinal para- 
sites, and when many arc 
brought together in a small 
region the entire ground lie- 
comes infected with the eggs 
of these pai'asites and every 
memlier of the colony is very 
soon also infected. On re- 
moving these pai'asites with 
ordinary treatment, the dog is onh' temporarily 
relieved, since it {Continued on Pai^e 262) 



M. 1. 1C. (£;c^lcll^c^r 

TUESD.VY, SEPT. 1, 8:00 P. M. 

Dr. Albert Tyler: "Artificial Par- 
thenogenesis in the Eggs of the 
Pacific Coast Echiuroid, Urechis 
caupo." 

Dr. Paul Galtsoff: "Specificity of 
Sexual Reactions in the Genus 
Ostrea." 

Dr. K. B. Coldwater: "The Effect 
of Sulphydryl Compounds upon 
Regenerative Growth." 

Dr. N. A. Cobb: "The Use of Live 
Neraas in Zoological Courses in 
Schools and Colleges." 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3 

Final Scientific meeting beginning 
at 9:00 A. M. 

FRIDAY, SEPT. 4, 8:00 P.M. 
Professor Bradley M. Patten, West- 
ern Reserve University. "Micro- 
Moving Pictures Applied to the 
Study of the Living Embryo." 



THE U. S. FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL STA- 
TION AT BEAUFORT 

Dr. Herbert F. Prytherch 

Director of the Stat'ion 

As early as 1860 Beaufort was recognized liy 

zoologists as an excellent location for studies of 

the marine fauna and floi'a of the South Atlantic 

region. The natural advantages offered here for 

the investigation of biological 

problems led to the estalilish- 

ment of a marine biological 

station by the U. S. Bureau 

of Fisheries in 1899. The 

present laboratory which was 

built in 1902 is ideally situated 

on a small island in Beaufort 

Harbor and separated from 

the mainland and town by a 

channel about 150 yards wide. 

This provides very desirable 

but not inconvenient isolation 

and assures quiet and pleasant 

surroundings for reseaixh 

work. 

The investigators enjoy a 
little community of their own 
on the island, as accommoda- 
tions in the sleeping quarters 
are fiu'nished free in most 
cases and meals are provided 
at cost in the attractive mess hall nearby. 

Immediately to the north of the 'tation is the 



TABLE OF 

An Experimental Dog Farm 257 

The Biological Station at Beaufort 257 

The Allegany School of Natural History 260 

Microscopic Studies of Cells and Tissues in 

the Living Mammals 264 

Local and Correlative Gene Effects in Mo- 
saics of Habrobracon 268 

Genetic Studies on Selective Segregation of 

Chromosomes in Sciara 269 

Phospho-Creatin in Relation to Nerve Activity 270 
The Effect of Sulphydryl Compounds upon 
F;egenerative Growth i;71 



CONTENTS 

Recovery from X-Ray Effects in the Arbacia 

Egg 272 

Artificial Parthenogenesis in the Eggs of the 

Echiuroid, Urechis Caupo 273 

Biological Spectrum and M-Rays 274 

The Use of Live Nemas in Zoological Courses 27G 
Specificity of Sekual Reactions in the Genus 

Ostrea 277 

Arterio- Anastomoses 279 

Scientific Book Reviews 280 

The Voyage of the Atlantis 285 

Exhibit of Invertebrate Animals 287 



258 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 50 




Tilt: v. s. BuriKAU uF i-'isiiiLiaKs statiux at beaufomt 

Established by the Federal Government in 1899. It is located on a small island in Beaufort Harbor 
which is separated from the main land by a channel 150 yards wide. 



large estuar\-. knuwn as N'ewport River, headed 
liv a .sluyi^ish fresh-water stream of fair size. 
Westward lies Uogue Sound ; eastward are an- 
other large estuary, the North river, and Core 
Sound ; the latter connects v/ith the great Famlicd 
Sound. Adjacent to the sounds and estuaries are 
large stretches of marshes, and sand and mud flats. 
I'lU'thermore. the numerous good roads of the 
vicinitv make it possihle to reach easily by private 
auTonioliile or the station's service car various 
fi"esh-water creeks, ditches, di'ainage canals, 
swamps, ponds, and small lakes. 

It is evident, therefnre. that the station is Sii 
situated that th;' ocean with its shore lines, highfs 
and tishing hanks, the sounds and estuaries with 
their streams, the ponds, the marshes, and the 
sand and mud flats are all within easv reach from 
the lal]or.atf>ry. This makes it possiltle to olitain 
Cdiivenienth' for studv a very large varietv of 
a(|uatic animals and plants, ranging from those 
that live in the ocean in strictly salt water, to 
those occupying the sounds, estuaries, and streams 
with brackish and fresh water. Here mav he had 
fish, oysters, clams, scallops, crahs, shrimp, tev- 
raoins, ])orpoises, water birds, seaweeds, and a 
host of li\ing things that have no names other 
than tlie ones gi\en them liv naturalists. 

An idea of the wealth of the local fauna and 
Hora m,a\- be foimed from the fact that 29i 



species of fish. 153 species of decaiiod crusta- 
ceans — that is. crabs, craxhsii. shrimp, etc. — 21i') 
species of mollusks, and 132 forms of marine al- 
gae or seaweeds, are found in almost the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the laboratory, b'urthermore, the 
conditions for the study of the aquatic life in its 
natural environment are exceiient, as industrial 
deveio[)ment and the concentration of iiopulation 
are not great enough seriouslv to disturb nature, 
r;nd the plants and animals, as already indicated, 
mav be studied over a very wide range of natural 
ccniditions. 

The biological station consists of the main lab- 
oratorv liuildin.g, the mess house and kitchen, di- 
rector's residence, pump house, l>:*athouse, car- 
penter shop, and a terrapin-rearing house. The 
latter is a building 60 feet long liy 25 feet wide 
and is designed to house conveniently 30,000 
yomig terrapins. .Mong the shores are several 
concrete ponds used in terrapin culture. 

The labonatory building is a two-story frame 
structure 70 feet long and 42 feet wide, with two- 
stor\- wings, each aliout 52 feet long and 18 feet 
wide, sm-roimded by porches. In each wing are 
six bedrooms for the accommodation of the scien- 
tific staff and the investigators from colleges, uni- 
versities and other institutions of learning, to 
whom the facilities of the lalioratory are open at 
all seasons, ivich bedroom is ])rovided with lH)th 



August 29, 1931 



THE COLLECTIiNG NET 



259 



hot and cold running water and the necessary fur- 
niture ;and bedding. The central portion of the 
l)nil(ling is devoted to investigation, instruction, 
and a<hninistration. The laboratorv occupies the 
entire second story, removed from the distractions 
and noises ins«paral)le from those parts of the 
l)nildings and grounds open to the general public. 
Along the north and south walls are alcoves for 
investi.gators, separated by half-height partitions 
designed to interfere as little as jjossibk with the 
free iMssage of light and air. Each alcove is 
provided with a table and shelving, and whatever 
aquaria, dishes, apparatus, and reagents may be 
required for the particular work in progress ; one 
or two high windows furnish light and ventila- 
tion. At each end of the lal)orator\- are two large 
tank tables with aquaria, which afford facilities 
for keeping and ob- 
serving" live plants and 
animals brought in 
from local waters. 
Sinks, a fume cliamber. 
and a photogr-ipliic 
dark room are situated 
along the end walls of 
the room. 

The first floor of the 
laboratory building is 
occupied in part b\' a 
museum which is .o])en 
to the ])ublic. It con- 
tains many marine ani- 
mals and plants repre- 
sentative of Beaufort. 

On the first floor, in 
addition to the museum. 

are a chemical laboratory, two small research lab- 
oratories, the director's office, a store room, and 
the librarv, which contains about 2.000 volumes. 
.Although small, the library has been selected with 
s])ecial reference to the needs of the investigators, 
who also may obtain books from the excellent 
main library of the Bureau in Washington and 
from the other unusually fine public libraries of 
that cit\-. 

The chief purpose of this article is to acquaint 
biologists with the fact that the laboratory at 
Beaufort is thoroughly modern and up to date as 
"i result of recent extensive improvements and 
alterations. The buildings have been thoroughly 
renovated and additional equipment installed. The 
salt-water and fresh-water supplies have been 
modernized, the electrical svstem renewed and hot 
and cold running water provided for the dormi- 
torv rooms, which occupy the wings of the build- 
ing. Compressed air and artificial g.as are now 
supplied to the lalioratories. An equally impor- 
tant improvement has been the installation of a 
central steam-heating ])lant. which makes the 




THE MAIN LABORATORY ROOM 



whole laboratory building comfortable for occu- 
pancv throughout the entire year. 

The floating equipment of the laboratory has 
also l;een brought to a high standard of efficiency. 
A comfortable, sea-going motor cruiser and a 
smaller speed boat have been placed in commis- 
sion, and two other launches attached to the sta- 
tion have lieen rebuilt. The larger vessel is 
equipped with a lal)orator\-, hoisting gear, nets, 
dredges and the usual oceanographic apparatus. 
Ai)cut a dozen rowboats are provided for the use 
of the investigators. 

The primary purpose of the Beaufort labora- 
tory is to render service to the fisheries through 
the knowledge gained by studies in pure and ap- 
plied science. The ever increasing importance of 
seafoods as a source of the essential elements in 
our diet emphasizes the 
need of research in a 
variety of fields dealing 
with the si>ecies of 
commercial importance. 
There are innumerable 
problems pertaining to 
the cytology, physiol- 
ogy, morphology and 
ecology of these organ- 
isms in which l)iologi.sts 
may find excellent ma- 
terial for studies of 
fundamental scientific 
value. The Bureau is 
anxious to interest in- 
vestigators from other 
institutions in such 
phases of these prob- 
lems as pertain to their respective fields, but at 
tlip same time offers them entire freedom in the 
selection of such biological studies as they de- 
sire to make. Every year outside workers, de- 
sirous of continuing their investigation of some 
s))ecial problem, visit the laboratory. It is hoped 
that the number who do so may be increased and 
everv courte.sy and all available facilities will be 
given them. 

The chief investigations conducted at present 
by the 15ureau of Fisheries at Beaufort deal with 
the biology and cultivation of the ovster, the 
d?^-elopment and distribution of the shrimp, and 
the propagation of the diamond-back terrapin. 
The research work that is lieing carried on at the 
laboratory during the present season In- Federal 
investigators and those from other institutions is 
as follows : 

Dr. H, V. Wilson and Joseph Hyde Pratt. 
Jr.. Cellular Behavior in Hydroids ; Dr. Bernard 
Steinberg. Effect of Bacterial Toxins on 
Various Marine Forms ; Miss Rebecca Ward, 
Behavior of .Amoebacytes in Annelids; Dr. Ver.i 



260 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 50 



Koehring, Narcosis of Marine MoUusks ; Profes- 
s<if Ezda Devinev, Regeneration in Ascidians ; 
Mr. Paul ( ). Klint,'ensmitli, Chemical Studies of 
Sea Water; Dr. fames S. (iutsell. Development 
and Distribution of Shrimp; INIr. Pdount Rddman, 
Terrapin Culture : Dr. Bert Cunningham. EtTect 
of Temperature on Development of Terrapin 
Eggs ; Dr. Herbert F. Prytherch, Relation of 
Copper Content of the Water to Oyster Growth 
.-,nd Reproduction ; Chemical Warfare Service, 
War Dei)artment. Value of Certain Wood Pre- 
.servatives for Submerged Structures. 

In conclusion I wish to add to this brief des- 
cription of the station and its work the comments 
of an investigator who has carried on research 
work here since its inauguration. Dr. Henrv Van 
Peters Wilson, veteran zoologist of North Caro- 
lina and a regular visitor at the Beaufort station, 
describes the laboratory as follows : 

"The station has at its door the open ocean and 
fine sea beaches. Within what mav be called the 



harbor, which is large and beautiful, passing east 

and west into sounds, are sand shoals, mud flats, 
and salt marshes. The tide brings in an excel- 
lent plankton. The whole fauna is varied and 
abundant, and, what is of the first importance, 
easily accessible to the individual collector. More- 
over, throixgh the work of biologists during the 
past fifty years it is sufficiently known to be usable 
for many sorts of investigations. The associa- 
tion of Beaufort with the general growth of 
American biology, as may be seen from the long 
list of published investigations carried on here, 
is interesting and stimulating. The laboratory is 
unusually comfortable and convenient the 

summer climate is healthy and pleasant and the 
temperature and purity of the harbor water make 
collecting a pleasure. Beaufort is now easily 
reached by rail and hard-surfaced highway." 

Applications for accommodations should be ad- 
dressed to the station or to the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries at Washington, D. C. 



THE ALLEGANY SCHOOL OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Dr. R. I''. CoKF.R 
Director of tlic School 



It is a far cry fnim the salt-washed beaches 
of Woods Jlole, Cold S])ring Harbor, and Bar 
Harbor to the thick forests and swift streams of 
the .'\lleglieny Mountains; but the field for bio- 
logical and geological studies is not limited by 
the wash of the tides. There are inland lakes 
anfl streams, mountain sides and meadows that 
abound in various forms of plant and animal life. 
There are Crustacea, ga,stropods, and pelecypods 
that never knew the sea and a whole class of ver- 
tebrate animals marked by the most profound 
distaste for mineral salts in concentrations proper 
to an ocean. Tliere is also a class of invertebrate 
animals more numerous in species than all others 
combined, whose members scarcely touch the sea. 

It is true that JuUanar said to king Shah- 
yeman ; ".\nd know, moreover, that all that is on 
the land in comparison with what is in the sea is 
a very small matter" ; but JuUanar had more im- 
agination than Iiiological information, for, if the 
textbooks are to be believed, there are many more 
kinds of animals without the sea than within it. 
•And plants? — but the botanist must say. Ob- 
viously there is a place for the lake and desert 
laboratories, the river and the forest stations, as 
well as for the marine centers of research and 
study. The Allegany School of Natural History 
in the forest appreciates the welcome from its 
more venerable and distinguished sister at Woods 
Hole which comes in the form of an invitation to 
give some account of itself. 



The Allegan>- School, it must be said at the lie- 
ginning, is not jirimarily a biological station in 
the usual sense, although it offers facilities and 
abundant opportunities for zoological, botanical 
and geological research. Its primary function is 
that of a school for field studies in the three 
general provinces of botany, zoology and geology. 
Its clientele comprises teachers, college students, 
both undergraduate ,and advanced, musemn 
workers , and others. It is yet young, just enter- 
ing upon its fifth season. 

To begin with the birth of the instituti(jn : 
.Some si.x years ago Mr, Chaimcey J. Hamlin of 
Buff'alo, President of the Buffalo Society of Nat- 
ural Sciences and member of the Allegany State 
Park Commission, conceived the idea of making 
the State Park ]3erform an educational service 
greater than could be incidental to the use of the 
Park as a place for recreation and the passive 
enjoyment of nature. There was also the interest 
of Dr. Charles C. Adams, Director of the New 
York State Museum and a member of the State 
Council of Parks, who. with Mr. Hamlin and 
others, had been one of the ])rime movers for the 
estal)lishment of a great park in the Allegheny 
region of New York. The original idea found 
expression in a joint undertaking for wliich the 
Allegany State Park Commission furnished ample 
ifrounds, buildings, ^and fixed equipment, as well 
as current transportation for classes, the Buffalo 
,Society of Natural Sciences furnished the mov- 



Au(U-sT 29, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTIXG NET 



261 




THE STONE TABLETS ON THE SCIENCE BUILDING AT THE PENNSYLVANIA 

COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 



A new science building, Buhl Hall, has recently 
been completed at the Pennsylvania College for 
A\'onien in Pittsburgh. The idea of placing names 
of outstanding -living American scientists on two 
stone tablets on the building came to Dr. E. K. 
Wallace, head of the Chemistry Department. He, 
assisted by Dr. Anna R. Whiting, head of the 
Department of Biolog'y, and the students of the 
Science Seminar group, sent questionnaires ask- 
ing for suggestions to C)o6 scientists starred in 
American Men of Science and representing fields 
(jrdinarily taught in a Liberal Arts College. The 
number chosen in each group was determined by 
the proportion of starred men in that group. 
About (joo replies were received. The names have 
been engraved and it is hoped to hang in the 



main hall of the liuilding a photograph, auto- 
graphed if iiossible, of each of the men on the 
list. The names inscribed are : 

Biologists, Drs. L. H. Bailey, E. G. Conklin, 

C. B. Daveniiort, R. G. Harrison, H. S. Jennings, 

D. S. Jordan. F. R. Lillie, C. E. McClung, T. 
H. Morgan. H. F. Osborn, G. H. Parker. W. M. 
Wheeler, and E. B. Wilson. 

Ph\sicists, Drs. P. W. Bridgman, A. H. Comp- 
ton, K. T. Compton, A. A.' Michelson, R. .\. 
Millikan, R. ^^^ Wood. 

Chemists, W. D. Bancroft, E. C. Franklin. M. 
Gomberg, I. Langmuir, G. N. Lewis, A. A. 
Noyes, W. R. Whitney. 

A.stronomers, W. W. Campbell, G. E. Hale. 



able equipment, operative management and a 
member of the teaching staff, and the State Mu- 
seimi furnished the educational direction, several 
instructors /uid an important linkage with the 
well-establislied research program of the Museum. 
Shortly afterwards, the interest of the L^iiversily 
of P)uffalo being incited, the School was affiliated 
with the University, ^\'e should not fail, too, to 
mention the State Library which, although not 



ostensibly one of the cooperating agencies, yet, 
.somewhat as a silent partner, contributes in an 
indispensable way to the efficiency of the School 
through generous loans each summer of the bociks 
and pajiers necessary to its work. 

The .Allegany School is located on the slopes 
of a small mountain just aliove Quaker Run. one 
of the most beautiful trout streams of the south- 
western part of the state. Ju.st at the School a 



262 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 50 



rlam huilt across the run liy the State Park pro- 
vides an artificial lake several acres in extent, and 
twenty feet in deptli at the dam. Here, in th: 
heart of an extensive forest, in a state reserva- 
tion comprisin.ij nearly ten square miles, there 
were constructed a number of very sulistantial 
f.nlnns with a campus of some thirty acres. 

The School buildings pni|)er consist of a large 
cabin, 48 x 96 feet, providing !alK)ratories for 
geology, botany and advanced work or research, 
n. librarv, and an assembly room, another cabin, 
22 x 62 feet, housing the office and zoological lal)- 
oratory, and two additional single-room cabins. 
Another large cal)in includes the kitclien and in- 
cidental storage and working space, and a dining 
rhom capable of seating eighty or more persons. 
There are also a shop with a dark room, an ice 
house, recreation room, deep well and tank, 
shower cabins, a number of cabins where stafif 
memliers and help may live, and twenty-five 
three-room cabins for students, each designed for 
the use of two students. At the entrance to the 
grounds and overlooking the lake, there is an 
oi)en-air museum which the School conveniently 
maintains both for its cwn use and for the inter- 
est of the general public. Electric lights in all 
t\\c buildings and on the grounds, and running- 
water in the laboratories and at points convenient 
to all cabins, provide some of the conveniences 
necessarv for the most efficient work. 

Class work is adajited both to those coming 
with little preparation in the special fields and to 
those entering after a good deal of college train- 
ing and teaching experience. The classes are 
small, permitting individual attention, and empha- 
sis is placed upon problem work or report topics 
"dapted to the abilities and interest of the students. 
Eich class pjriod ( e.xcept on Saturdays) lasts a 
full (lav of eight hours, so that there is little limit 
to the length of the field tr'p (with Inis transpor- 
tation) or to the iriter-adiustment 1i\' the instruc- 
tor of field, lal)oratory and lecture work. In each 
department the greater part of the study is, of 
(■ourso, dene outside of the diss, which meets Imt 



one day a week in addition to the Saturday con- 
ference hour. 

The .schedule and arrangement of work is i^er- 
haiis a distinctive feature of this school, and, 
after an e.x|:)erience of five years, durin.g which 
the plan has imdergone only minor modifications, 
we are, as a whole, enthusiastic as to its value for 
student and instructor. Lender this plan, which 
virtually eliminates all necessity for watching the 
clock and obviates the waste of time involved in 
repeatedly yjutting away papers and equipment 
r-nd in passing from room to room, the ma.ximum 
of personal contact between student and in.struc- 
tor goes along with a maximum of continuous m- 
dependent work by the student. Undergraduat:; 
study assumes somewhat the aspect of graduate 
study with most of its best features in the aqui- 
sition of method and the development of a capac- 
ity to "carry on" after the .student leaves the 
School. The instructor enjoys the advantage of 
comparative freedom for research and can the 
more readily concede the occasional hours for 
suijplemental individual conferences when they he- 
come desirable. 

As indicated in the beginning, the primary 
finiction of the institution is tiiat of a school for 
field studies. No special attemjit has been ma(L' 
.''s yet to attract independent investigators, al- 
though the school welcomes those whose interests 
lead them to this environment. To such it ofifers 
comfortable living conditions, and a congenial 
social and intellectual environment, as well as lab- 
oratory tables and equipment for collecting and 
keeiiing animals, plants, or geolo.gical specimens. 

The present staff of the School includes: A. A. 
.Saunders (Yale), of Bridgeport, Conn. Schools, 
for Ornithology; W. P. Alexander (Cornell and 
Leiijzig), of the Buffalo Museum, for Nature 
Study; L. E. Hicks (Ohio State University), of 
' )liio State University, for Botany ; Charles' 
P>rewer, Jr. (Harvard and Pittsburgh), of the 
Universitv of Kansas, for Geology; and, R. E. 
Coker ( University of North Carolina and Joims 
Hopkins), of the University of North Carolina, 
for Zoology. 



AN EXPERIMENTAL DOG FARM FOR THE STUDY OF FORM AND TYPE 

(Continued from Page 257) 



almost immediately becomes reinfected from the 
contaminated groimd. This has made it neces 
sary to pave all of the kennel runs with 
concrete. It is much the sime sanitary 

proposition which a human community faces 
in growing from a sparsely settled villag" 
condition into a thickly ]Kjpulated town. It is 
neces.sary that the streets and pathways be ]iaved 
and kept clean. The small numlier of dogs owned 
by an individual are usually of one selected l)reed. 
The person conies to understaml the general haiiits 



and behavior of this breed and has little trouble in 
hantlling his pets. Imt when one luidertakes to 
ktep a great number of pure line breeds and then 
makes comliinations of these, he soon has an enor- 
mous number of actuall\' different animals inso- 
far as their food habits, breedint;' habits, and gen- 
eral behavior go. All these ditTerences must ijc 
understood, and many of the more delicate breeds 
must be carefully and individually provided for. 
In addition to the internal parasites mentioned 
above, dogs are also frequently infested with e.\- 



August 29, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



263 



ternal parasites, such as fleas and lice, as well 
as the very annoying mange mites. In order to 
have favorahle conditions for reproduction and 
growth all these plagues must be consistently elim- 
inated. Pups and dehcate types of dogs are high- 
ly susceptilile to these infestations, while adult, 
vigorous animals in the same run may i)e entirely 
free. There is in a way a certain type of re- 
sistance or immunity to parasites on the part of 
the aduh dog. All infections and irritations tend 
to produce more marked nervous symptoms in 
dogs than in almost any other mammal. Things 
that irritate a hum^n being to only a mild de- 
gree will often produce a state of extreme nervous 
agitation in a dog or actually cause fits or spasms. 

In maintaining a large colony of dogs one of the 
most important problems is that of proper feeding 
.and the careful adjustment of their complete diet. 
With our animals kept in wire-fenced enclosures 
on concrete pavement there is no opportunity to 
(Jjtain any other foods or stuffs than those that 
lire actu:'lly provided by the kennel ration. We 
were son ewhat surprised to find that none of the 
commercial and sporting kennels had a properly 
developed d'et. Al! of the patent and commercial 
dog foods are considerably deficient in many ways, 
although they frequently claim to contain all 
necessary vitamins and salts as well as a perfectly 
balanced nutritive ration. On these accounts we 
have found it necessary to use as a base a broken 
up ke mel food, to which we add a freshly-made 
soup of vegetables and meat. Chopped lean meat 
scalded by the soup is also used, and then cheap 
avnilable substances containing the separate vita- 
mins ave added, as well ss bone ash and the other 
necessary blood salts. Unless this diet is care- 
fully and properly complete, the animals develop 
vari(.us nervous symptoms and fail to grow in the 
t pical fashion. The absence of vitamin B over 
any length of time very soon brings about so- 
called "running fits" and other nervous conditions. 
When this deficiency is adjusted the fits after a 
few days disappear. Certain other deficiencies in 
the diet disturb the whelping react'ons of the 
mother and also comj)letelv upset her normal l)e- 
havior towaids the pups in regard to nursing as 
well as properly cleaning and caring for them. 
Improperly Ir.lanced food causes failure in con- 
ceptions and frequent abortions in the breedin'z 
animals. Several years work was necessary in 
order to determine and control the^e difficulties. 

The handling of dogs on a large scale is a 
very delicate performance, and the kennel men 
and keepers must be carefully selected pc-sons. 
We have constantly avoided the employment of 
any experienced or professional kenrel men. Such 
persons invariablv know so much that is wrong 
about the handling of dogs that it is imoossible 
to teach them anv logical method. Thev also 



strongly believe many absurd superstitions which 
are handicaps in handling animals for scientific 
purposes. We have found that ordinary farm 
boys who have an interest and knack with animals 
can be trained to make the most useful kennel 
men, and all of our crew of kennel attendants are 
such i)ersons. The keepers sleep in living quar- 
ters which are built immediately over the kennel 
houses, so as to be on hand at any time. 

The kennel houses have been built in various 
ways, and in winter they are heated with either 
steam or hot water. We have found, however, 
that simple outdoor kennel ho.xes or small indi- 
v'dual dog houses are far better than well liuilt 
and heated houses. The small short-haired house 
dogs actually stand the winter very well complete- 
ly out of doors in these kennel boxes. Lender 
such conditions there is much less trouble with 
parasitic infections. It is necessary, in maintain- 
ing a colony of this size, that the place be ade- 
quately supplied with running water, electricitv, 
and a refrigeration plant. These requirements 
are not always easy to obtain in isolated positions 
such as a dog farm must necessarily occupy on ac- 
count of the barking and noise of the animals. 

This dog colony is intended as material for a 
study of the general problem of the relation of 
modified internal secretions to structural develop- 
ment and bodily and mental behavior. Dogs better 
than any other mammals almost exactly paral- 
lel the various modified and distorted growth 
concl'tions which are exhibited by human beings 
and which are generally interpreted as being due 
to modifications in their glands of internal se- 
cretion. It has seemed to us most desirable to 
try and analyze the genesis of such conditions. 
This, of course, is impossible to do in man. Many 
so-o'dled glandular diseases such as achondroplasia 
and acromegaly are very probably complex in 
both their origin and development. They are not 
simply the result of an unusual function in some 
one gland, but more likely a number of glands or 
possibly all of the bodily organs are somewhat 
modified. Such a cond'tion can only be under- 
st'^od by a study of the inheritance and develop- 
ment of the conditions. In this wav one might 
find whether there is some one initial peculiaritv 
which secondarily brings about modifications in 
the other secretions and organs involved. It has 
recurred to us that by properly crossing different 
types of dogs which showed conditions compar- 
able to the human glandular diseases we might 
break up certain complexities into their more or 
less elementary parts. With this in view some- 
thing mere thati a dozen different pure line breeds 
have been crossed in various ways. By taking 
nnimals with a given condition and crossing them 
with others entirely lacking this condition, we 
have followed out the genetic behavior of several 



264 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. \'L No. 50 



peculiar structural forms. A numUer of illustra- 
tions of such crosses through the first and second 
generations were shown during tlie lecture. 

Sujjplementing these genetic studies cnreful his- 
tological and cytological examinations of all the 
glands of internal secretion from the pure line 
parent stocks and the Fi and Fu hyhrid descend- 
ants are invarial)ly made. Through these studies 
it is hoped to determine whether the peculiar his- 
tology of a certain .glmd is definitely and con 
stantly correlated with a given hodily structu e 
or form in the adult individual. For example, if 
the short achondropLisic legs of the Basset hound 
are associated witii a given histological peculiait,- 
of the pituitary pamthvroid ap])aratus, on cross- 
ing this hound with the normal long-legged Ger- 
man shejiherd dog, the F, pu])S liaving short lejs 



should also show glandular histology compar,ahle 
to the Basset, and further, the Fo pups, some of 
which are short-le.gged and some long-legged, 
should have .associated with their leg conditions 
the parental glandular structures. The instincts, 
reactions and nervous behavior of diflferent parent 
stocks and hybrids are being studied in association 
with these bodily and structural differences. 

This extensive investigation presumes that 
proliably the most promising prospect in an 
understanding of nvmnmalian growth is an analy- 
sis and regulation of the internal secretions. Such 
knowledge may actually aid in the control of re- 
sistance to infectious disease, as well as regulate 
physical and mental development and behavior. 
At the present time, however, we have onlv the 
slightest beginnings of this knowledge. 



MICROSCOPIC STUDIES OF CELLS AND TISSUES IN THE LIVING MAMMAL 

Dr. Eliot R. Clark 
Professor of Anatomy, School of Medicine. I'uivcrsity of Pennsylvania 



In the latter part of the 17th century Leeuwen- 
hoek first studied, with a simple form of micro- 
sco])e, the vessels in the transparent tails of tad- 
poles. Passing over sporadic studies on this ar.d 
otlier trans])arent regions throughout the ISlh 
century, which reached considerable proportions 
(luring the first half of the 19th century, we find, 
witii the rise of modern microscopic anatomy or 
histology, usually dated from the time of Schwann 
( 1830-1840), a very considerable use of natural 
transparent regions in living animals for the 
study of the finer make-up of the tissues. Among 
the successors to Schwann mav be mentioned 
Koliiker (1846), Kemak (1857), and Strieker 
(1860-70), all of whom, among other objects, 
made use of tiie transparent fin expansions of the 
tadpole's tail for their microscopic investigations. 
Such studies reached a climax in the period from 
1870-1880 when Arnold, Rouget and others made 
their oljservations on the blood vessels in the tail 
ol the tad])ole. while the pathologists, Cohnheim, 
Thoma, Metchnikoff and numerous others, were 
using transparent living olijects such as the frog's 
web, the mesentery, and the tadpole's tail for 
their classical study of inflammation. Perhaps this 
first period of the intensive study of cells and 
tissues in the living animal miay be considered to 
have come to an end with the studies of S. !\Ia\er 
on the tadpole's tail in 1884. 

b^ollowing this time, and coincident with tlie 
discovery of the anilin dyes, the attention of his- 
tologists and pathologists was largely confined to 
the study of fixed tissues sectioned with the 
microtome and stained. This was, of course, both 



natural and desirable, since such methods made 
possilile tlie acquiring of a world of information 
in regard to tissues and organs which were inac- 
cessilile to direct observation. 

It seems to the author that the late Franklin P. 
Mall may l)e considered to have liridged the gap 
— at least in this country — between the earlier 
period of microscopic studies of the living and the 
modern one. Dr. Mall informed the author that 
he had begun studies on the blood vessels in the 
tadpole's tail with a view to making photographic 
records of the same vessels over long periods of 
ol)servation, with correlated studies of the circu- 
lation. He had temporarily al)andoned this study 
because of lack of a suitalile antiesthetic for keep- 
ing the tadpoles immobilized. It was in Dr. 
Mall's laboratory in 1907 tiiat Dr. Harrison de- 
veloped the "tissue culture" method for studying 
growing nerves fiutside the 1>odv. It is interesting 
to note that l)ef(n-e growing nerves in plasma. Dr. 
flarrison first m/'.de oliservations on living nerves 
in the tadpole's tail. In 1908, the author began 
his studies, also in Dr. Mall's laboratory, on living 
blood vessels in the tadpole's tail. By the use of 
chloretone anaesthesia and a specially designed 
micro-aquarium for keeping the tadpole in a nor- 
mal ])osition, it proved feasible to carry out long 
continued studies of the same cells and tissues ff)r 
liours. class, weeks, and months in this beautifully 
transparent region in a living animal. It was 
at Dr. Mall's suggestion that the author began 
the study of the growth of lymphatic capillaries, 
at that time a subject of heated controversy. 
Since 1908 the author Ins carried out a number 



August 29, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



265 



of studies on the cells and tissues in the living 
animal using the method of direct ohservation on 
the tadpole's tail. Since 1916 Mrs. Clark has 
oollaliorated in niiany of these studies. Observa- 
tions have been made on the growth and retrac- 
ion of Ijlood capillaries and on the transformation 
of capillaries into Larger vessels, linking the 
morpliulogy with the physical factors of the cir- 
culatiiOn. Studies were also carried out on the 
formation of adventitial cells and their relation 
to contractility of blood vessels. E.xtensive ob- 
servati(jns on the manner of growth of lymphatic 
capillaries were also made. In addition the de- 
velopment, morphological characteristics and lie- 
liavior of a numlier of tissues have been studied 
under both normal and experimental conditions. 
L'or example, olsservations have been made on the 
behavior of blood and lymphatic vascular endo- 
thelium, connective tissue cells, and various types 
of leucocytes toward minute quantities of in- 
jected substances such as paraffin oil, dilute cnitu i 
o:l, vital dyes, carmin and carl)on granules, lipoid 
.'.ubstances, protein, starch and allied substances, 
and toward killed liacteria. The develojjment of 
tissue macrophages, and their morphological char- 
acteristics and behavior, have been studied in 
tensively, and the undoubted transformation of 
monocytes from the lilood stream into tissue 
macrcjihages observed. The e.xtra and intra-vas- 
cular phagocytosis of erythrocytes have bee;i 
WiTtclied. The regeneration of lymphatics anrl 
their iiehavior in edema have been studied, and 
•a numl;er of other oliservations on the growth of 
nerves, muscles, and upon various blood cells, 
chromatophfjres, and subcutaneous canalicular 
cells b.ave lieen made. The general result oi these 
studies on the living transparent tails of amjibib 
ian hrvae has Iieen a more intimate knowledge of 
the life liistory of a group of cells and tissues a^ 
seen in the living animal, and a growing I)od\ of 
knowledge suppf)rting the specificity of cells of 
tliis group derived from the mesoderm. 

L'sing the same method and the same type of 
animal, Dr. S. Culver Williams, working under 
Harrison, has recently carried out studies on th • 
regeneration of nerves, while Dr. Speidel, at t'.ie 
UnivL'rsity of Virginia, is engag'ed in studies o-i 
the growth of nerve sheaths in the tad])ole's tail. 

During this period, also, similar microsc:)|)ic 
studies on tissues in living .animals were carried 
out liy Stockard on the early development of 
l)lood vessels and lilood cells in the transiwrent 
emliryos of Fundulus, and by F. R. Sabin. W. II. 
and M. R. Lewis, and othe's u])on early stages of 
the area vascu'.osa of the chick, removed from 
the egg to 1 hanging drop by the method of Mc- 
W'horter and \Vhi|)ple. ( )f course, you are all fa- 
m'liar witli the multitude of valuable studies on 
living cells made bv investigators using the tis- 



sue culture method and the method of micro-dis- 
section, although in the case of these last two 
methods such oliservations were not made on tis- 
sues and cells in the living animal. 

During all this period, the author had a persis- 
tent desire to extend this mode of study to the 
mammal. It was realized that the results ob- 
tained with regard to the growth and behavior of 
tissues of tlie lower vertebrates would not neces- 
saril\- lie identical with the growth and behavior 
of the same cells in mammals, although the diver- 
gence could scarcely be expected to he as marked 
as was suggested l)y one investigator, -iVlio, at tht 
h.eigbt of the "lymphatic controversy," after ad- 
mitting that the growth by sprouting of lymphatic 
vessels had been proven for the tadpole's tail, 
stated tiiat the problem then was to discover wh\' 
the t,':di;ole's tail (Hfifered, in this regard, from all 
other regions in all other animals ! 

That a similar desire has lieen felt by other 
workers is evidenced by the use of oblique or 
vertical illumination for studies such as those on 
th; blood vessels of the nail lied and otiier semi- 
opaque olijects. The name of Vonwiller of Zu- 
rich siiould be mentioned in connection with im- 
provements in the use of this method. The mes- 
e.itery and omentum, objects used for much ex- 
perimental work in the living animal, are adapted 
to short-time observation only, while the bat's 
wing is too thick to he satisfactory for liigh jxiwer 
cytolog'ical observations. 

Since there was no natural transparent region 
in the mammal available for such long continued, 
liigh 1 1 iwer microscopic studies in the living ani- 
mal, under normal conditions, it seemed tlesiral)le 
to create one. 

It mav l)e of interest to record the steps wliich 
led up to the develoiiment of the method for in- 
serting transparent chamliers into rabljits' ears. 
The idea of using an artificial transparent cham- 
l:er c-'me from the results obtained by Ziegler and 
Maximow in inserting artificial chamliers under 
the skin, and leaving them for varynig lengths of 
time. In 1875 Ziegler made studies on tlie new 
vessels and tissues whicii had grown into a sjiace 
between two coversli]is inserted under th; skin of 
mammals, ard in 1902 Maximow gave a Ijeauti- 
ful description of the new tissues present in 
celloidin chambers which were inserted and re- 
moved at (b'fferent intervals, and then fixed and 
stained. Although liotli of these investigators 
made their studies on fixed material their results 
showed conchisivel.N- that new tissue inchidin'j 
blood vessels, will invade the thin artificial spaces 
m-^ntioned above In 1910 somewhat nelmlous 
plans were formulated for ])lacing such chamliers 
in a mammal so that a thin transparent space 
could l)e watched continuousl\' in tlie living animal. 
A1;out 1912, when Mrs. Clark was making some 
m'cro-iniections the fine tip of a glass cannula 
was accidentallv broken oft', and remained in her 



266 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. VL No. 50 



finger. Several clays later, when slight irritation 
was noticed, the spot was examined under the 
binocular microscope and the small glass tuhe re- 
moved. It was noticed that capillaries had grown 
into the lumen of the minute piece of glass tuljing. 
Ik'ing unable at the time to think of an arrange- 
ment by which a laboratory mammal could be 
l<ept stiil for a sufficient length of time to jiermit 
the tvpe of observation desired. I toyed with tlie 
idea of attemiHing the installation of such a cham 
l)er in the human finger. 1 Lowever, this exi>erime.it 
was not attempted, and it occurred to me that it 
would be more desirable in every way to try tlie 
operation first on the rabbit's ear. This plan was 
again postponed because of the lack of a satis- 
factory scheme for holding the ear still dur'n^ 
long observation periods. About 1920, while 
speculating upon the feasibility of such studies, 
the suggestion was made by my brother, who had 
had some experience in agricultural matters, that 
the rablsit's head might be put in a "stock," as is 
done with cattle. With this practical suggestion 
the method of inserting transparent chambers in 
rabbits' ear was ready for development, and the 
prol)lem was suggested in 1924 to Dr. J. C. Sandi- 
son, then a medical student at the Uuivers'ty of 
Georgia. 

Sandison carried on ,a number of experiments, 
both at the L'niversity of Georgia and at the Uni- 
versitv of Pennsylvania, until finally, in 192S, 
chamljers were olitained with a sufficiently thin 
S|jace to permit of careful long-time observation 
with high magnifications. Sandison was al)le to 
make a number of observations on blood vessels 
and l)lood cells, some of which have been pub- 
lished, and he was also able to obtain new grow- 
ing bone in a thin portion of such chambers fol- 
lowing a transplant of endosteum at the time of 
the original operation. Dr. Sandison then de- 
cided, m spite of efiforts to retain him, to carry 
out his original intention to complete his surgical 
training, and unfortunately left us. 

Since 1928, a number of workers in the depart- 
ment have been carrying on studies on living cells 
and tissues using different varieties of transpar- 
ent chambers inserted in rabbits' ears. It was 
soon discovered that a great deal of work would 
lie necessarv before satisfactory chambers, adapt- 
ed to different types of problems, which would 
remain in the ear and in which a uniform space 
could l)e retained, could be olrtained with any- 
thing like uniform success. The original chaml>ers 
were none of them permanent ( four and one-half 
months lieing the longest time during whicli 
Sandison's chambers remained in the ear). They 
were also very easily infected and susceptil)le to 
drving due to the iiermeal)ility of the thin koda- 
loid covers, while neither the extent nor the depth 
of the thin areas of grnwtli could be controlled. 
A number of workers enthusiasticallv took hold 



of the various problems involved, and many m ,d- 
ifications were tried out and improvements de- 
veloped. In 1929. a five year grant from the 
Rockefeller Foundation for Medical Research was 
olitained (largely through the interest of the late 
Dr. Richard M. Pierce), and still more rapid pro- 
gress was assured. 

It would take too long to recount, at this time, 
all the subsequent steps in the development of the 
method, all the various modifications which have 
been tried out and adopted or abandoned. Each 
worker contributed one or more suggestions, and 
all successful ones were immediately adopted by 
the whole group. By the winter of 1930, four suc- 
cessful types of chambers had been developed and 
tried out in a sufficient number of animals to dem- 
onstrate that they satisfactorily met the require- 
ments for difTerent types of research. These four 
chamljers — the "bay" chamber, the "round table" 
chamlier, the "preformed tissue" chamlier and the 
"combination" chamber — have been described 
(Clark, Kirl)y-Smith, Rex and Williams '30). Oi 
these four types, the "preformed tissue" chamljer 
and the "round table" chamber (the latter de- 
signed for the study of new-growing vessels and 
tissues) have been standardized as to construc- 
tion and dimensions and over si.xty of each va- 
riety have been successfully inserted in rabbits' 
ears and studied. Eight of the "round table" 
chambers, which were inserted from twelve to 
sixteen months ago, are still in the ears and are 
still good for microscopic observations. 

In addition to the types of chambers described, 
a new chamber, which might be called the "moat" 
chamlier ( as you notice, all of these cliambers 
have names ) has recently lieen developed. The 
first ones of this kind were tried out liy Dr. Hou, 
of Peiping University, working in our laboratory, 
and the construction has recently been developed 
and improved by Mr. Ricliard .\l)ell. This cham- 
ber is adapted to the circulation of fluids of 
known chemical constitution. 

Again, a numl)er of workers in the d'.'i>artment 
have been experimenting with dift'ercnt methods 
of gaining access to "round tal)le" chambers for 
the pjurpose of injecting minute quantities of solid 
and semi-solid foreign substances, iur the trans- 
plantation of l)its of organs and tissues from 
other parts of the body into vascularized cham- 
l]ers where their cytoloj^ical characteristics could 
he studied in the living condition, and also for the 
micro-dissection of the new cells and tissues pres- 
ent in the ol>servation areas. Dr. Kirl)v-Smith, 
Dr. J. Howard Smith, and Mr. W. J. Hitschler 
have carried out successful experiments of this 
kind, having on a number of occasions unsealed 
the access hole in the bottom of the chamber, in- 
jected or implanteil small quantities of various 
substances, and resealed it without causing hem- 
orriiage or other visible injury to the tissue. 



ArcusT 29, 1931 



THE COLLECTING NET 



267 



The latest improvement has been the use of de- 
tached protective celluloid collars, which are quite 
separate from the chamber proper and which 
serve as effective splints, protecting;- the thin area 
of new growth from undue strain, pressure or 
tension. About twenty chamliers with this im- 
provement have been introduced into ears and 
followed for several months, and we are con- 
vinced that the growth of new vessels and other 
tissues in such chambers is much more uniform 
and stable. 

Studies on the growth of blood vessels have 
])een made in over sixty standard chamljers o f 
the "round table" variety. In this group the 
growing capillaries started to invade the central 
table area five to nine days after the operation ; 
in over one-half of the chaml)ers they appeared 
on the seventh d.ay. The new vessels, which were 
continuous with circulating vessels in the pre- 
formed tissue, steadily invaded the central area 
from the perijjbery until they met and anasto- 
mosed across the center. Vascularization of the 
table area was complete one to three weeks after 
the first appearance of the new vessels. The rats 
of invasion averaged .23 mm. per diem. In the 
series of daily photographic records shown in the 
lantern slides, the chamber was inserted on May 
27 of this }ear; new growing cajjillaries appeared 
on the central table on June 2 (6 days), and vas- 
cularization was complete on June 16 (14 days). 
The central table area measured 6.5 mm. in di- 
ameter and its radius was 3.35 mm. The average 
rate of advance of the new tissue was .232 mm. 
]ier diem. In a series of standard chambers, all 
laving the same dimensions, there were varia- 
tions in the rate of growth of new blood vessels 
ranging from A to .6 mm. per diem. Various 
factors which were found to influence the rate of 
extension were, temperature, slight injuries which 
cau:ed small hemorrhages and accumulations of 
macrophages, the position of the central table in 
relation to the surrounding cartilage of the ear, 
and individual variations in the circulation of 
different raljbits. 

During the period in which the new vessels and 
other tissues are invading the central space a wide 
varietx' of oliservations can be made. Among the 
studies which have been carried out or are still un- 
der investigation, I niav mention the following: 
studies on fibrin, on fibrolilasts, on erythrocytes 
and leucocytes ( lioth inside and outside the ves- 
sels ) , on- macrophages and giant cells ; studies on 
the new formation of blood capillaries, on the 
formation of adventitial and smooth muscle cells 
on the walls of newly formed vessels, and o;i the 
relation between the morphology of blocd ves- 
sels and haemodynamics ; studies on the growth 
of lymphatic vessels and on the growth of nerves. 
After th.e table has been comiiletely vascularized 



a tremendous variety of problems in morphology, 
physiology, pharmacology, bacteriology, pathology 
and parasitology can be studied. Only a small be- 
ginning has lieen made in such investigations. 

As the cbamljers remain longer in the ear and 
the newly formed vessels and other tissues be- 
come older, it has been possible to follow the 
shiftings in the circulation of the area and the 
associated changes in the pattern of the vascular 
network, including such phenomena as the rise 
and fall of veins, the development of large ar- 
teries and the formation of companion veins, the 
formation of arterial anastomoses and of arterio- 
venous anastomoses, and to study vascular con- 
traction in relation to the regeneration of nerves. 
We have also been able to study changes in the 
lymphatic vessels. 

Again, the problems which can be studied by 
the method of transplantation of organs from 
other more inaccessiljle parts of the body into 
vascularized chamljers also cover an immense 
range. Already microscopic studies have been 
made upon the growth of bone and of epidern-iis 
in the chamliers, and preliminary experiments up- 
on the transplantation of liver and kidnev tissue 
and of bone marrow have been undertaken. 

Although many of the studies opened up to in- 
vestigation in the living animal by these methods 
have l)arely been started, while still more of them 
have nierely been planned, it has Iseen possible 
to carry out a few which are fairly complete. For 
e.xam])le, in addition to general studies on the 
growth of lilood vessels already referred to, care- 
ful oliservations, many of them with the oil-im- 
mersion lens, with daily photographic and camera 
lucida records, have lieen n-iade upon the growth 
of blood vessels and lymphatic capillaries, fol- 
lowing the same regions for several months. It 
has been possible to see with great distinctness, 
in the living mammal, the n^ode of growth and the 
cytological characteristics of both of these types 
of capillaries and to observe with certainty that, 
in Ixith cases, the new vessels grow by sprouting 
of endothelium from that already present, in the 
same manner as that described for the vessels of 
living amphibian larvae. In addition many inter- 
esting differences in the morphology and in the 
physiological hehavior of mammalian vessels as 
compared with those of amphibians were ob- 
served. 

( Lantern slides of photographic records, taken 
with both low and high magnifications, of the 
living cells and tissues present in the transparent 
chambers in.serted in rabbits' ears were shown ; 
a reel of motion pictures showing the different 
types of circulation in arteries, veins and capil- 
laries, the back and forth movement of cells inside 
lymphatic capillaries, and the shapes, positions, 
and movement of the various t\pes of cells in the 



268 



THE COLLECTING NET 



[ Vol. YL No. 50 



lilood stream was also shown.) 

In conclusion, I wish to explain that, in giving 
this report of studies on the rabbit's ear cham- 
liers, I am acting as spokesman for a devoted 
group of collabor.itors, each of whom has made 
important contrilnitions to the development of 
the method, and whose names are: Dr. J. C. 
Sandison. Mrs. E. R. Clark, Dr. H. T. Kirhv- 
Smith, Dr. R. O. Rex, Dr. R. G. Williams, Dr. 



E. A. Swenson (responsible for the motion pic- 
tures), Mr. W. J. Hitschler, Mr. R. O. Abell, 
Dr. J. Howard Smith, Mrs. D. W. Wilson, Dr. 
L. P. Schenck, Mr. and Mrs. B. Varian (who 
have taken the microphotographs). Miss Legallais 
(who constructs the chambers and has charge of 
the operating room), and Mrs. L. Bentz whose 
devoted work in raising and caring for the rabbits 
is an invaluable part of the program. 



LOCAL AND CORRELATIVE GENE EFFECTS IN MOSAICS OF HABROBRACON 

Dr. p. W. Wiuting 
.-Issociiitc Professor of Zooloc/y. i'liiiTrsitx of Pittsburi;h 



Extensive studies of gvnandromorphs and 
other mosaics in Drosophila have been carried 
out in the past by Morgan, i\Irs. Morgan, Bridges, 
Dobzhansky, etc. The theory of chromosome 
elimination in early flevelopment seems to fit most 
of these cases. To explain gynandromorphism in 
Hymenoptera various ideas have been advanced 
by Morgan, Boveri, and others. These include 
the theories of polyspermy and different hypo- 
theses in regard to egg binuclearity. In 1927, 
Goldschmidt postulated egg binuclearity in the silk 
worm, Bombyx. Cytological evidence was later 
found indicating fertilization of two nuclei in one 
egg. Previously I had advanced a somewhat sim- 
ilar theory to explain mosaicism in Habrobracon. 

A female heterozygous for a certain trait, e. g. 
recessive orange eye color, isolated as a virgin, 
ordinarily jjrcKluces eggs which develop partheno- 
genetically into males of the two ex])ected classes. 
Occasionally there are found males which are 
mosaics of the two traits carried by the mother. 
I assume that in such a case we have post-reduc- 
tion with reference to these allelomorphic factors. 
The second polar body remains in the egg along 
with the egg nucleus and each takes part in par- 
thenogenetic cleavage. If one of these nuclei is 
fertilized, a gynandromorph results, the fusion 
nucleus giving rise to female parts, the unfertil- 
ized to male. Female parts are therefore bipar- 
ental, male parts maternal. 

Morgan and Bridges in the early work on gynan- 
dromorphs of Drosophila noted the striking fact 
that the male and female parts and their sex- 
linked characters are strictly self-determining, "no 
matter how large or how small a region may be, it 
is not interfered with by the aspirations of its 
neighbors, nor is it overruled by the action of the 
gonads." 

The majority of mosaics tliat have been ob- 
tained in Habrobracon are very clear cut and rep- 
resent combinations of a great variety of traits. 
Many of the male mosaics show mutant characters 
that have been obtained in the course of X-radia- 



tion experiments. I would like to take this oppor- 
tunit\' to acknowledge support from the Com- 
mittee on Effects of Radiation on Living Organ- 
isms of the National Research Council which has 
aided materially in the course of this work. 

Despite the fact that in regard to most traits 
the genetically different regions of the mosaics ap- 
pear quite distinct and self -determining, a number 
of instances have arisen in which the characters 
tend to intergrade, in which there is apparently 
modification of one part by another. 

This has long been noted in eye color. Eyes 
which are genetically mosaic for black (wild type) 
and the mutant form ivory do not show clear cut 
difference between the two regions but .grade 
from black through red or orange. Usually the 
ivory does not appear as such but the lighter arej 
of the eye is suffused with red color resembling 
the allelomorphic trait, orange. In several cases 
the mosaicism is shown onlv by breeding tests ; 
the insect breeds as black and the eyes, although 
genetically ivory, are entirely orange in apjiear- 
ance. 

Other cases of correlative gene effects may be 
.seen in mosaics for stumpy. This factor from an 
X-ray mutation reduces the tarsi to mere vestiges 
but in mosaic males from heterozygous mothers 
the stumpy legs are somatically intermediate, 
"semi-stumpy". 

Another instance is that of fused. This muta- 
tion has occurred independently at least three 
times but in no case from X-raying. The tarsal 
segments and the antennal segments are fused to- 
gether, lacking joints entirely. Mosaic males 
have fused regions "semi-fused", so that seg- 
mentation appears to a greater or less extent. 

Exceptions to the rule of self-determination 
have appeared in Drosophila, vermilion eye color 
( Sturtevant ), liar eye (Bonnier), ebony body 
color (Stern) and recently, in gynandromorphs 
of DrosopliHa siintilciiis. Dolizhanskv has found 
modifications of form and color in gonads and 
genital ducts. 



Al-gust 29, 1931 ] 



THE COLLECTING NET 



269 



GENETIC STUDIES ON SELECTIVE SEGR 

Dr. Helen B 
Research Assistant to Dr. C. W. Mets 

The genus Sciara belongs to the group of so- 
called fungus gnats. These flies are small and 
relatively inconspicuous because of their dark 
color. About a dozen spe