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COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 



OF 



MUNICIPAL REFUSE " 



1 • 



,'lllllllllllIlllllllllllll|Hlllllll|IIMII|[IIINmilllllllllllllIIIIimilllltllMI(llllflllMI»>lllllllllll|l|llltpil>^ 



PUDllSUtRS OF BOOKS FOF^ 

Coal Age ■^ Electric Railway Journal 
Electrical \U3rId ^ Ei^gineerlng Ne»ra-Record 
American Machinist ^ Ingoiierfa Intemackxial 
Engineering 8 Mining Journal -' Power 
Chemtcal Q Metallurgical Engineering 
Electncal Merchandising 



COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 

OF 

MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



RUDOLPH I^ERING, D.Sc. 

NEW YORkTctTT 

Past Fratident of Amtrifon FvXUe "Rtailli Aitoetalion and of £iiinn>«r« 

Qlub of Fhiiadtlphia; Patl Vict-FrttUvnt of imeHoan SneUty of 

Civil Engimeri. Mtmber of AmtricanlnitUutt af Conttilting 

Enffbteert; Aiiurican Soeitty of Meehanieat Engi- 

tutm Ituliiulion of Civil Eneinter*, London; 

EngtnteTing InMtitute of Canada: Wtil- 

§m Soeietg of Engine^*, tte. 

AND 

SAMUEL A. GREELEY 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Zltmhtr of Amtriean Public Beallh Anociation, Anttritan Sotitty of 

CivU EnqinttTt, Wtttrrn Xocitty of Bniiinean, Aoierican Atto- 

cialwri af Enginftrt, American Water Workt Atto- 

datum, lUinott Society of Bnginttrt, elc. 



FiBBT Edition 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 

NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE 

LONDON: A S BOUVERIE ST., E. C. « 

1921 •• •■ 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

''Kmm. LEWOX ANB 
TILDBK TOUNDATIOHB 



COPTBIGH-I 1921, BT THE 

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 



. * V ■ I 



• • ." i. ' - ,* 




PREFACE 



^_ iIm) M»RH 
^B tlin (udJa 

I 



Tnii porpoiie of this book im (o record ntKl i]ii>cti)<« rho various 
nperif'tKwai ill the iliHjKMitioii of muiiit^itinl rvluMr. Otiivr IxMika bftve 
hem writlcD oo ttib subject, or ott parte oT it, tu in the United &tat«i< 
liy Morw. by Pttnoiui, luid by Venablp; and in England by Maxwell 
Aud by (luudricli ; but l.lii.-rv .ieviiii.-d lu be roum fur a mure comiiny 
bentivp mirvpy ut Um subjivt iii Ihi* liRhl of later i>Kpfrifiic««. Tbc-rw 
iIm) m»r](^ to be a ot'ixf for statiiiit more fully tlian doiie licretofore 
tlin (ubJAmoutal principle:^ reUtiiig to house trcalmwit, cuUectioti, 
dispoaal. Such ».tnI«iiK>iitH may iiv h(>l|>fu). punicularly as 
^{Bteneto eonietiine^ com|)et« wiUi pulilir intercHtn. uiilI as bol.h 
Aoold be identicaJ wben coosidering the general benefits to the 
ranmuiiity. 

The proaont book him been in hand for the lant ten yearti, nt 
•Btwila bf>lwr>i>n oilier e)igin(Hi_>rinKV'url(, andhasretiuirod moroialxir, 
(uimpund price. iriBiNH'tiun. irit|uiry. and ntiisidviuliun tlian viia 
aatictpated. This won due maittly to Llic desire of the au-iton to 
oiTvr, not only a r«oard of g«L<^ral principleN, but alro of preoptit 
prairtire re^ulUai; frum rxprriencv. ho that it might Ik helpful lo Irath 
dte^Sniag and oporating etigjiiiH'r?<. iti :s<N:uring efficiency iind oeonomy 
hi a branch of jmlilir hervitx! which in Aiihtii-a is etill undijrgolng 
diwlopmeiit, |)riiicipally in methitds of dihpotvd. 

The information prcsvuled hat been verified as far as [wapiicabtB. 
.\)tbrMgb many dala won.' estimated, or averaged, and »ome are 
bated ooiy on judgmoat, it i? hoped that their inclusion may etill 
bo of «ervicc. and be the means of encniirBging the collection and 
rfsnrdJDg nf more accurate statisticA. Somo of the information in 
hl)r rvfKirCM hau little meaning lo out«idor8, mainly heeau«>e it tx not 
teducrd ro unit meiuurea. mieh as quHntiting per capita iH>r annum, 
etc, and to thope which are indefx-udent of waeeH, population, and 
nriablo baMM. Thrreforv, »ueh reports do not allow of eomparimn 
vilb data reported from other eities, and do not show the relative 
dh»t« of Ictral eonditioow. In wiine eam-tt wo have added reductions 




*1 PREFACE 

in tirijt tArmn, nnrl in othen the rfiatler may himself be able to make 
i\iMii Un nptmhS cttMn, 

Hfxiie »f thR iiifrirmation wan nelected chiefly for illustration, and 
Wfin not int^iido'l Uy Ik; Rpplirsahlc at prnxent. Occasionally, also, the 
(lata ffir fwriain citira aro apparently inconHJHtent, but the authorities, 
whprn Available, have IxMin citcfl, as it was thought that this would 
))iitl(!AtA Uifl itniMfrtanm of reporting more completely the conditions 
nfTrRting tlin ftivnii rifturcn, and thereby indicate also the variations 
III ihr trcaliiK'nl which may occur under different local conditions of 
Umn and pliit'c. 

To hnvr cnllntod all detailed information concerning existing 
worku that might have l>ocn of intcrewt was not attempted. Yet. 
photiith ha« l>oon givitn, it is hope<l, to enable the reader or the designer 
n\ any nppnlftl work to obtain general ideas, make better comparisons, 
and form nnfe gpni'ml opinions on the subject. If more detailed 
liifiinniition is desired for a sjwcific purpose, this can probably be best 
nbtiiincil by direct cormipondpncc with the respective city officials. 

Tlic iliita ill the iKKik have l)rcn selected partly from original 
Hiuriwt, and partly from publications, articles, and reports. In 
tinniprtms tabW the figures for some of the years have been omitted, 
iwrtly Iwriiusp they were not readily available, and partly to reduce 
niutee. (lenerally, the years of most value in assisting judgment as 
to tpianlities and rwt l»a\-e l»een select«d, as, for instance, just before, 
durinn. and after the War. 

Some of the tabidar matter has been given as it was received, 
and Nuiie has Iwn rearranged, condensed, and ertended, for greater 
uoefulnew, 

Ijifk of consistency in the use trf terms is sometimes apparent 
in qiiolatwns from different authors. 

In a few instances, and for greater convenience of reference and 
H», ihMT are some slight reiwtitions in the text. On the other hand, 
lo ax-oid repetition, ^rencral hir^torieal information is given only in the 
inlroduotion. and that relating chiefly to special developments is 
ineluded only in the resppcth^e chapters. 

In cteAtt to malce the cost data as useful as possible, the years 
(approYimat»}y> to which they are applicable have been given. 
Mtwt of them rrfate to pondiiion* before the War. To use these with 
wifely, it will be necessary to obtain for each locality the percenfafre 
of incrwiw in the wages, and in the cost of material*, and to apply 
the oorrections to the pre-war prices. 

In order i^ fac.iiiiJ»' the preparaiJoL of !-pecifi(",sn.-m-. fnr ihe 
VtlJnfC of conwarls, there have been added wimc oui'iaiirm* and 
I^HCnKftS tl«em apwifieatioiis wiudi hare slood the test of experience. 



PREFACE Vii 

and Eome BUggestions which may be of further service, but these are 
limited to the most important items. Condition!^ of locality vary 
BO greatly that no single form will suit all. From what is herein 
stated, the local engineer can readily supplement the engineering 
parts and the local attorney draw up the legal parts. 

The technical terms that apply specially to the subject of municipal 
refuse and have been used by us are defined in the text. A few 
available sample cards of rules and regulations for house treatment 
have been given. Undoubtedly there are sets of regulations in other 
cities that would be equally helpful guides. 

The authors desire to express their acknowledgments and give 
credit and thanks to the municipal officers, city engineers, firms, 
personal friends, and others, who had special experience in the 
branches of this subject and provided much of the information 
embodied in this book. Among those to whom it is desired to give 
special mention are the following: 

For a number of illustrations we are indebted to various cities, 
Grins, and individuals: to Mr. H. de B. Parsons, who kindly loaned 
tome electrotypes; and to Mr. W. F. Morse, and Mr. W. F. Goodrich, 
for published illustrations of earlier incinerators. Mr. W. W. 
DeBerard and Mr. John Primrose kindly read over parts of the original 
maouRcript. 

We are also indebted for information obtained from numerous 
city reports and from the Engineering Press for various descriptions 
and illustrations relating to present-day practice, and to manu- 
factures and others; particularly to J. T. Fetherston, E. H. Foster, 
and R, W. Parlin, Members, American Society of Civil Engineers, 
and also Professor Frederic Bonnet, Jr., who has supplied suggestions 
ftnd specific information. Lastly, we desire to mention the assistance 
we have received from time to time from members of Mr. Greeley's 
staff: Messrs. Robert A. Allton, R. S. Rankin, W. T. McClenahan, 
and Wm. E. Stanley, and in particular the valuable services of Mr. 
T. J. McMinn, past Assistant Secretary, American Society of Civil 
Engineers, in revising the manuscript and the tabular matter, in 
preparing the index, and assisting in the editorial work. We also 
desire to thank the publishers for the creditable manner in which 
they have issued the book, so as to facilitate its use. 

Rudolph Herino, 

Samuel A. Grbelet. 
New Yohk and Cricaoo, 
December, 1920. 



CONTENTS 



Prepack v 

iNTKODnenoN 1 

Chaptkr I. — RxruBK Materials 7 

A. Definitiona 7 

B. Claasification : . . 10 

C. Special Inveatigatiotis. . . .■ 12 

D. Quantities and their Variationa 27 

E. Proportions of Conatituent Materials 42 

F. Unit Weighta 44 

G. Compoeition 47 

H. European and Other Foreign Data 69 

I, Bummary.... 80 

Chapter II. — HonsE Treatment 81 

A. Degree of Separation 82 

B. Reo^tadea 84 

C. Flies 89 

D. Bpeaai Treatments 89 

E. Improper Conditions, and Complaints 91 

F. EoMDtiala of lYeatment 91 

G. Education of House Occupants 96 

H. Sununary and Concltuiona 97 

I. Samples of Cards and Rules 97 

Chapter III. — CoLUBcnoN 104 

A. RepOTta and Early Conclusions 104 

B. Methods of Collection 108 

C. Relation of Collection to House Treatment and Final Disposal . 109 

D. General Conditions 110 

E. Detailed Conditions and Requirements. . 112 

F. Equipment 127 

G. Organisation IfiO 

H. Operation 162 

I. Technical Boards 160 

J. European Data 160 

K. Specifications 162 

L. Summary and Conclusions 164 



X CONTENTS 

PA3B 

Chapter IV. — Supplemkntal Transpohtation 166 

A. Purpose 166 

B. Available Means and Methods 169 

C. TraiiAfcr and Loading Stations 187 

D. European Data 193 

E. Summary and Concluaions 193 

CaAPTBR V. — E&nuATiNa the Coax of Collection and Transpor- 
tation 195 

A. Elements 195 

B. Loading. 196 

C. Hauling 197 

D. Tranafer Stationa 198 

E. Transportation 198 

F. Actual Cost* Available 205 

G. Private Collection Costs 222 

H. Improved Records Desirable. . . . : 222 

I. Summary and Conclusions 222 

Appendix: Standard Ponna for Statistics of Municipal Refuse 231 

Chapter VI.^Outline of Methods of Final Disposal 236 

A. Natural Methods 237 

B. Artificial Methods 238 

Chapter VII. — Depobitino in Water and on Land 240 

A. Dumping into Large Bodies of Water 241 

B. Dumping on Land 243 

C. I*Bd-fiU 248 

D. Plowing into the Soil 252 

E. Buri^ 252 

F. Summary and Conclusions 267 

Chapter VIII. — Feeding Garbage to Hogs 258 

A. Fundamental Considerations 260 

B. Results in Practice 265 

C. Food Administration Conference 278 

D. Number of Hogs Required 282 

E. Character of Pork 282 

F. Construction and Operation 282 

G. Advantages and Disadvantages 286 

H. Sppcificaticins 287 

I, Summary and Conclusions 288 

Cbaptf.r IX. — Sorting RtiBBien 290 

A. Design and Construction 291 

B. Itecoverablc Materials 29"i 

C. Results in Practice 299 

D. Sanitary Features 308 

E. Summary and Conclusions 310 



CONTENTS ri 

MOB 

Chapter X. — Incineration of Refuse 811 

A. FundameDtal Considcratior..'' 314 

B. Pliint Location 317 

C Design and ConHtniction 321 

D. Tests 369 

E. By-products 390 

F. Plants BuUt and Results Obtained 397 

G. Advantages and Disadvantages 432 

H. Example of Computing the Calorific Value of the Various 

Claaeea of Refuse 433 

I. Specifications for Construction 434 

' J. Summary and Conclusions 442 

Chapter XI, — Rebdction of Garbage 444 

A. Fundamental Considerations 445 

B. Plant Location 447 

C. Processes 448 

D. Products 456 

E. Design and Construction 465 

F. Operation 477 

G. Plants BuUt and Result* Obtained 478 

H. Advantages and Disadvantages SOI 

I. Contracts and Specifications 502 

J. Summary and Conclusions 510 

CHAPTEB Xn, — ESTIHATINQ COHTB OF FiNAL DiSPOSAI 512 

A. Division of Expenses 613 

B. Engineering and Legal 514 

C. Construction .- 61f 

D. Operation 627 

E. Valuations. 641 

F. Preliminary Estimates 545 

G. European Data 560 

H. Summary and Conclusions 555 

Chafteb XllL — Selectinq the Method of Dispohal 557 

A. Influence of Local Conditions 557 

B. Other Controlling Elements 558 

C. Actual Reports 669 

D. DaU Requippd 663 

E. CoDclueions 664 

Chaptbr XIV. — Stable Refuse 568 

A. Materials 508 

B. Collection 576 

C. Final Di^xxsal 578 

D. Results in Practice 581 

E. Summary and Conclueaons 584 



^ CONTENTS 



riam 
Chapter XV. — Strbbt ReFDSR 586 

A. Materials 587 

B Collection 597 

C. Final Diapoaai 602 

B. Stumnary and Coacluaiotis 604 

CHAPmn XVI. — NlQHT-flOIL AVI> T>F*n AmMAI£ 606 

A. Ni^treoil 606 

B. DMd Animals 612 

C. Summary and Conclusioiu 617 

ChAPISR XVn. — PROCBDCRB IN SmAI.L ToWNB >Wn VrLLA'JBS 618 

A. Topical ConditioiiB 618 

B. 8tat« Uw8 619 

C. CdlectioQ and Dispofnl 620 

D. House Trestment and Onlinnnrcs 625 

E. Results in Practice 628 

F. Summary and Conclusiotta. 632 

Index 635 



C(>I.LE(TI()\ AND DISPOSAL 
OF MUNICIPAL EEFUSE 



IKTRODUCTTON 



■ 




» 



An Tm human nee pvoIvrI, vkI nomaflic lrih»« HPl.tled down in 
permiuient nbodee to form commiiniliw, the di^pooition of their rojcctwl 
BkBterialH bvpui to raquin* Kpreial attpntion. It in recorded that Mom»s 
enjoined hi," people to carry all ofTcTit<ivc aitJ unclean miiU«r outride of the 
twnp ruid bum it. Oarluip! wili thrown out on the fiRidR, r» Rtill dnnfi 
in inrlJi of Asia lo-day, to be mten by dogs or biiiiardH. All non- 
doeonapoeoblr »tn| inofTouivo waste w»» «isuaU>' thrown on low Mcas or on 
thpmad^. ^rii« of thcairmts in tho oldi^'t Kuropctin rilj(« hnvo boco 
Rndually ruped aeverni ffet by the nibbinh dumpml ou th«m during 
emturieB. 

TTm" rapid RPrwrth of mndem cities, particularly sini» the devHop- 
mmt of MuiiLorj- wirnco had nuialrrH thr iirobloms of vrati^r supply and 
(pwentfee, limiight the nyfuw reinoval prcibiftn ali^ into prominence. 
Enidand Ird this prmcrcmivc RKiwinmt in startinit work!<. for Much 
fanoval and diiiporal in it« rilt» and tnwnii. G^rmatiy followed, and 
admiCHl the pubjert in ttu^tiuiiil direetitjiis by it^ |)n>v(>rbiul thoruugh- 
IXmi in both ihwirj' »nd praclire. Fmnt-f nlw) fnlliiwod llii- advance, 
and was intttn^^lod chiefly in utilixinn the valuublo luirls of the refuw. 

Anicnm then took up ihe aliovo experience and, while trying must 
tif Ih*" European method*, dc\Tlopwl otlier«, mode po*.*iblc by the Rrcatcr 
wwtrfulnnM of itx ponpin and ronMW|iiPntiy by a pval<>r prr (^apil« 
ititinn at saluiile refuve. 

The nhier oifiw of Kuro|>r wvrf obliKcoi to wilvc thoso problems 
Mlrifariorily hcfori> tl»e)" had !«*riowi|y prcspntwl lheiiiM>lvnA in .\niimca. 
T - ifore h«i« cainwl much experience, a hiRh degn* of efficiency 

at '..and ha^ umvfi al voni-tuxioriH which are Itclpful alho tn 

n. Thr withor*, tbcirfofT", inspected many K<int[N'iiii works, and (•UnliwI 
tmtnirliml report* and puhlicniinns. To a much Kreater exteni, howpver, 
Ihny havr done Ihi" in Americu. It a Iherefnrc hopcti that the pttwen- 
tatinn ri (hr i-oinbii:"l rxpertrnf»r< ^nincd on Iwth contincntj; may veaisi 
Amcncan iniin)ci[«lt(itK iii rvacliing the best solutions. 



2 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

Although our conditions differ in many respects from those common 
in Europe, we must, nevertheless, be aware of the fact that some European 
cities have passed through conditions similar to some of ours, and in 
conducting municipal affairs have at present arrived at solutions which 
in time we may also find best to adopt, although as yet we may only 
be beginning to approach them. 

The recent development in America started in 1887, by the American 
Public Health Association, with the appointment of a Committee on 
Garbage Disposal, of which Dr. Kilvington was Chairman. In 1888, 
this Committee reported on the "Destruction of Organic Refuse by 
Fire." In 1889, a report was presented favoring both reduction and 
incineration as the promising methods of future garbage disposal. In 
1894, Rudolph Hering was appointed Chairman, elaborate statistics 
were collected from more than a hundred cities, and in 1897 a report 
was made on the collection and disposal of waste matter in many of 
those cities, with general conclusions regarding the entire problem. 
A great diversity of opinion was observed regarding the proper methods 
to be pursued. The Committee also studied the English experiences 
and the very complete, instructive, and valuable experiments just then 
being conducted in Hamburg and Berlin, and presented conclusions 
which endeavored to place the whole subject on a scientific foundation. 

The sanitary a.spect was given the first and the financial aspect the 
second place in all recommendation!". It was pointed out that a proper 
solution for any city or town would require a knowledge of the quantity, 
character, and compa-^ition of the refuse, and also of the local conditions 
controlling the several parts of the problem. 

As to the methods of final disposal, the report recommended, as com- 
plying best with the sanitary requirement* under the different local con- 
ditions in the United States, the following: "Feeding to swine, dumping 
on land or into large volumes of flowing water, plowing into soil, extracting 
grease, or cremating the organic matter." As to the method to be 
preferred for n given city, it wa-s recommended that from among these 
sanitary methods, that one should be selected which could be carried 
out at the least expense, when considering jointly the costs of both 
constniction and operation. 

In 1901 Mr. M. N. Baker* stated: 

"In no branch of municipal sorvico has so little progress been made in 
the United Statwi as in the disposal of gnrbngr. \\Tiy do such randitioiis 
exist? First, because the sanitary collection iinH ({isposal is appreciated 
neither by the gcnenil public nor the city officials: !<ocond. becaiLio it is 
seldom rccogniiml that the pmhlem^ inndcnt to finul dispos-tl arc l.irgely 
engineering in character and thorefnrv tdinuld be cntrustod to cnKinecrs." 

• " The Unutlafftctory Coodttion ol OftrbM* tliRpuiwI in thu [ tutrd Sutca." Paper 
md M«n tki LMgM «( AaMtku UnsioltMUUM, 1901. 



rXTRODVCTmS 



I 
I 



» 



Sow then much pwgrWB lia* Iwcn mnrlp, not only in n better a|)i>re- 
cUlinn of l.hp Hiibjpct, but niao in collfttiiin linla <if otiH'riftnei". Fiivt, na 
RK&ni* (|iuuiUty. wp Irnvr iouiim) crmwiiTiitdr kiiowli>(l([P from rpctinU 
eMopiled, pvph when approwmstc. oo that the selection of n)or<> rational 
ccnnoniiral inenn:^ of collection nnd diitpoKiil biivi> ijiriuluully Ijpooiue 
it*. fWondly, lu' rcK&nU tguality, we Imve finiiied mme. knuwl- 
cf tlie moi-^turc, iin<af>e, reftilizin^ and L-omt>u>i(il)lp maiter. ntid alw 
id tfevvvrahW fend siilnblc- timton'olit. coiLtniwvi in rrfiisc. ThinJIy. we 
tunT JWUTed information regarding the actual pmctice and cost of eoU 
lertiog tbt* refuse BOtI of disposing of it in practictthle wayM. 

The fuiitlaiufMitul part* nf the prohlcm have also been Kratliially 
duralofied. pnrtioiilnrly by rt-uliziri); the tiece^itv of u murt.' tntinmte 
»o[iefstion of tlw- hoii>*liwltlfr with tlw" collation part of the prublom. 
Qotise treatment, therefore, bas been given greatPr attention tiian 
kmafow. 

AfrjMcdetl infornmtioti loadiiii; to & complvlc kiiowieilgD of tlifiao 
nbisctA w tiut yet Kvailnblc. anil partif^iilnriy hn thr r<ver>r iwflnnminil 
duturimncc, rauscd by (be War, affpctrd not only tlio coft. but alno the 
qnantitioB and qualitice of the woKte nutbrialii tbeniwlvcit. no that lit 
pracnt the lyincliiHons renehed msy soinetimeK difTi^r from thnse Iluit 
wnt found lo hr beat just before the War. Therefore, some diffinilliea 
in reachinjt the lifnt Aolution< miiy liavi- oKain trniiKirHrily incresLsiid, 
■tthoujrii il Ib hoped they will soon bo reinuvoil by the atcmnubitiua of 
aott dctiiilMl reninfe of expcTicxice. 

As thi" prnhletns rfp iarjicly tcplinienl, the nevt ndvnnee can be 
•otunipltylKd by cstaUi-HhinK the host [imrticable nrKniuKatinttN, wysto- 
natiijag tJw entire work under competent ciifpncerinK lulviw nnd 
BttBagemect, wilh the intinmte co-opemtion of r.li«' health nflicent, 
Ittd, tinder careitilly drawn atdinaii<»vi, reRiilatinK Hiiub commiinily 
wuric 

\ fiirtlier advance con bo iiuule by ohtaininut ninre Uiorough recorth 
•"T II Poni|«ifwin between contract and [lertnimetil city force work, 
tnm tiie BtJuid|)oiiitM of efficiency u.iid vonl. The advaitla^ett of city 
inree wtirk in tttc oollection MTvJre ure nnituully iMwotning more niKl 
•nri" appiin>nt, as city management hewunes bpttor, but thrre yet 
nnaui («jn»e exDeptioiu to thta oariclusioii, [wirticularly in «niu.Iler 
IninH, The ndvantag<<«t uf contmct work utill exist lu to Mime of the 
plants, C3ip(vi»lly in thoxe whirh require manufarturing nnd 
orxuttuiliiinH. I-^)crience, mom knowtctiKe, and traiiiitix of 
loni efiy fur.-.-^ Imvc demnnstmleil in KHro[w that otx'ration by 
jltti rity in iiiorr dK-initile for both jifiuichcH of the work; and a cxirt- 
Haaation of reeonU In AmericAti ciliiM nvAV evenluolly hHow the same 
lej*. This » due to the great complexity of the work, which, for 



AND DISPOSAL OP MUNWIPAL nBFUSS 



the best temilte, requinw a continual adjustment (a varyinj; d«tfiil«. 
It U further iliio to the fact. recognti«<l in Kurupr mort- llian )ktp. that 
whatovcr inuney )«<>iiL>ritM mzy nccnie from municipal work ^ould go 
to the cummunity. to cncuuraKv ita ovm oflkcn and men, rattiRr lluui 
to contracting individuaJs and liniix. 

The rapid progrpsM made within thp Iiwrt fift«tn yean* in tlifl art of 
fdwte hartdliRK lead-t t^ the iyelivf that the nhara^liTistics of l)ie diflcrent 
methods are now more eWarly undoretood, and that the del»iJs cou be 
hitiidled mure effectively, than in fornier years. Thererore^ the intro- 
ductiuii uf :^lill lielt«r luljui^tinenb! in tli« details of the ineihodd of collec- 
tion and dinpoftal o{ municipal rcftiffi now seFmH assured. This can be 
accomplished only by havinc oflit-ials Ijellcr infornicd and trained, and 
this will fvcurc k'tU'r NinitulJon at Icsa i-ot»t. In the light of more 
irivrstigBliomi niid exjierMtiioe, the un^'ertainties are h(>ing reduced, mine 
of the older itsaKe^ are diAappnannK. ninl ninie cHirient and economical 
one« ate taking th«ir pla«». 

Aa iJie IcK'jJ njiKlitJoii." of a city wttiicLiities vary ^nratly. and there- 
fore rc<iuire difTerent melhodtt and tn-utmeiit, tl id now nx'iignixed Umt 
a dReision as lo the propter nwommendatioiiN fur the betit solutjonx of 
the problem in a city iiiusl nwt un llii> rutull of a jiriur thorough inquiry 
into all controlling fonditii>n.'<. 

It ie al«o recoii;nized that wc should di\ide the subject itito tJiiea 
purta: Iloutnv treatnieiil, collcclioii, iind rliH|>oaal, and that the detuib 
of eadi are def)endent on those of tlie others. We shall lliereforc first 
diNCUsa the wayM of preparing at the huu.sc the different kinds of refune 
for coUoctioQ, secondly, the wnj-^ uf cvltvcting, tronHporting, and ddivcr- 
iiiff them to the fioinU nf ditposal, bikI Ihinlly, the various nieiuiK for 
their sanitary dii^pwition. whether wparately or combined. 

The house treatment rmUi ontirt^iy with the producer of llie refuse. 
Thwefure. it ix neresmwry for the (*oinitiunity lo i-wiie Bpecific ruliw sihI 
regulatiuim. which will Ktiidc nut only tlte pr<idue<7 but ali<o tlie ctillix-tor 
in their respective diitiee at the houac, and protect them af^iiat tmubles 
that arc i)lhi)rwisf apt to oriw. 

Thfi eollection of public rcfuw is a public utility. It u quite distinct 
and jieparatp from hou«t treatment and tiiial di*"|xwal, altlK)U|i;)i il fomu 
with them an oneajiic wliole. I'nder wme eoinlitionf the Hpeeial oqpui- 
iuitioii manitgini; it may be a eepatBte one. Although the eollcctHjn i» 
now often maile under eontract. chiefly in ^nall eo(nmuiiit)e», it will in 
the future genemlly be done more Mtit^actorily by the city'a own forca, 
Im-Ruiie of the ftreiiter ease in udjuKtinft tlctjuhi at oticv to lilt! lust sanitary 
retiuimncnt.-* for curh special ra<r ak it oeniiy, 

llie Fonirol arul mnniif[ei)ienl of the finil di»pnui) *>' 
our muaicipalities at llie jiresvnt tiuie, pw** 



INTltOOVCTJON 







orginixation, mhy in wme cues he onnchicled iintlcr rontract 
a pcivkte affair, as well a.t, and occasionally tvcn better tbaa. by 
■laacipd Ubor, pru\'jdL>(l uln-a/s that il securex e<itially satbfactofy 
aDilftUoo ftt a leat tool. 

The nccnt war conilitiotui hft^e materially iitiaellled tho r&t«s <^ 
vagm, atid theTCfon; the costA at both labor and matcriuU. As long oa 
I Hitli fiiiaociul uocvriaintiCE cxiat, and in urdcr at all times to tuaintoin a 
Itafih Mtiutnfj' ftanilurd, safety Kemm to lii! nc pntsent on the aide of 
«ii i-ifMrwiit [iiuniripal manaf^rocnt and ttiHration of dispoMil works, 
vlicfv rxpcndilureti mfty be- at oocQ adjusted tu suddenly ariuiog or 
ettnuudinary cumditiuiis. 

TV itnut ctiangea lii |>ncct<, aad the UDoerLainties ttn U> tlieir Tuture 
Mii>ility. hiive made it diffirull (^ givi> galin^actory statements of costs, 
waxfmiy aa guides in c^tinmting ihc cost of projected works. We have 
therefore cooclud«d to record ro<«t itcni^ before, during, and after lite 
War, M tar iw this was pmcticAlile. By thuK comparing the prices for 
diffemit yf»Ti> and adjuiitinK th<'iii to locnl rxiH^ricnreH an<I to the prieos 
pevailiuK at Uie prouent Itino, it is bogxxl thut tiH' rt-po»ted HlAtcmenta 
BUT \» at lUtC. 

Xcvw before, a« during the la«t yean-, hsuf allcntion lK«n called ao 
ftmngly to the desirubility of hai'ing a more rational \msB thuo only 
thewaRtMof nirti for oitJmuling the cnet of work and mntcriuJK. Not 
mly do daily wiifceA flurtunte hut b\so the niiintjer of hoiir*« eonsliliiticig 
I wuricing day to which Lbey upply. In \m\v» of h\jv\i cronoinic i:t))»> 
Inrtniicm it is not ptuteihle to foretell the t-imt a? ^c\y &» under iioniial 
nmditiuaf, unlnw wc liaVD a lietler tneoHurc of iictiiul work done. Such 
ntwiami are tha§c which indicate, iirespectiw of wages, the efficiency 
ti labor in both lime and work clonient«. 

W« arv quite accuKtoin^d to the iinitK nf foot-poundi4 ppT minute, 
•powGr)« per hour, and ton-iiiilR* per hour. Siic^h t^riim arn inile- 
il of wages, and havn been applied either to unimuU or oiiginOH, 
ll aJdom to nifn. If wp had iPCord« abio of ull tlie variouj" kiiidt of wf)rk 
Vhadi infeo, skilled and un>ikillcd, eun do in one hour, n-e would then 
bar* a mnMira of actual wvirk pe formed, which would need only to he 
oiulLipIin) by the hourly wage rate, at the time of bidding or i»ti- 
Rintitig, III onler to get a rational figiirp for the «Mt. 

iu l>iro(» ihin methml of eedimutiui! cosl i* not unrommnii, i»nrtini- 

kHyumougarchilixtfi, though ranrty {nibli^lied in that way. ll would be 

I Ml] if our eitin* would gather infonnalion n'giLnhng lime and quitntitira 

riml enibiidy It in tlifir annual n'lMjrl.". With it the 

I estimating for new miini<?ipal work would be largely 

data were recorded more frequently than horctofoie, and 



6 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

depended on fixed bases, such as per individual, hour, weight, or measure, 
the infonnation would be more intelligible, accurate, and useful than 
at preeeot. Whenever such informatioQ was available for the subjects 
discuBsed in this book, it has been given. 

We believe that it will be seen in the following chapters that the whole 
subject of refuse collection and disposal, both theoretically and practi- 
cally, has almost entirely passed the period of speculation and experiment. 
With much better prospects of success, now than formerly, and with but 
few elements lacking, it is possible to forecast, both in efficiency and 
cost, the results of the best known methods and wiorks. 

Therefore, after the best solution for the local requirements has been 
ascertained and the most suitable works have been biiilt, their final 
success depends almost wholly on the competence of those charged 
with their operation. 




R 1 

REFUSE MATERIALS 

Municipal refusn maloriab are the mlid wat'tn mftttorK reeulUng 
fntm tlic nuliinil activhicft of a CDriiiiiuiitty. TlicJr pmper oollccticm 
iiuil fiiia) (lispoeal depend on the character of tho particular inat^rialit 
t« be deiUl with. They are tlUlinct fmm the hquid portions of poin- 
Duoity wafitea — gcin-Tully called Hcwaicc — yet Mime of them. iilthoiiKh 
aabstaatiaUy solid in fttmeturc, eontoiit large ^uaiiUtie» of moi^tture. 



A.— DEFHOTIOrfS 

The Eeneral t<rin "rrfuw" inclmlow (he ioHovrinn claesee of waste 
malcrijtl 

L Street Refuse. — Tho reJMtcd tiiat«riAl coUeot^d From public 
streets and .'il!e>'s: it iiicludoi Bnov, Htreel Hwwpin)E>i, leaves, cIcaniDss 
(ram publir calch-bnMins, and waxte buildiiiK maHriaU. (S« Chaptor 
XV.) It aleo includoe tboiK^ large dead animBtc which require remova] 
by tho rommiinity. (See Chaplor XVI.> 

3. Trade Refuse. — The nolid wa»t« from factories, slaui^ter 
houB«s, and iHisinees establish monto; It includM st«aai nahes and 
Iratfe rubbish. 

S. Hoiket Refuse. — A special trade refuse, made up ehiefiy of 
garhaicv and nibbiiih, and eomitiR— 4>ith4>r neparately or combiued — 
from commiwdoR houset and public marhete. 

4. Stable Refuse. — SutMtanttallv manure and Hfniw. (Sec Chapter 
XtV.) 

B. House Refuse.— Chiefly ([arl»gc. ashes, njhblih, arid night-eoU. 
from heufler;. apartmonls, smoll utorcs', reboots, churchett, lioteb, and 
other Bstalilitihmetilfi which do not l)ieinM>lv»-' diK|K»e of the Bolid 
reluwr they pr'jduco, 

t. Garbage. — (iarlwfi« w the niiinial and veKelabl« wa»1e matter 
onKinAlinE in hourcH, kilchenH, restjiiiranl^, and hotuln. atnl includes 
tbe nnlnrfil eortene of moisture and gPiuTulIy, nUu, the tin inna in 
which purlium. of (lie food were ori^oally ijup]jlied. It tx ctiiody (oud 

7 



8 COllBCTIOS AND DISPOSAL OF MVSlClPAh REPVSE 

waHte, and conKntK almoKi nnlin'ly (\\ organic irutttisr and «-kter. 
Much or it, lurticiilarly tlic animal matter, ir-ailily breAks flown, and, 
in warm wc&thpr, ftoon l>e<!omes foul. The oxyRMi of the fttr is not 
ftbnorbed fa^t enough u> pr«ve»l the liegimiinK of putrefftrtion in warm 
moist weather witbio 2-1 hours, uiu consequently offensive odore may , 
ariao. 

Garbage is an imporlanl part of the refuse, and may have n fair 
eommereial value, bocaiuc it contains animal and plant food.*, &nA 
oinra or Ich» grease; it i« importsut al£o bceauiic. if not projieHy and 
quickly Ji^poaed of, it is likely to crvate a wriou? nuixance. It baa 
been Ihc subject of more discuKHion, the treatment has been more 
varied, and there is HtiU more diflercnce of opinion regarding the proper 
method of diepwdng of it. than in the caec of any other kind of refuse. 

Willi reference to the ferracntatJOD of garbage, Mr. Edward D. 
Very * may be quoted, as follows: 

"Knwh itariiaiR', u ft r(«cbo> tli^cati. will rrmain. bian)faniil7W(«lb«r. at i 
a temperature of about 70° F.. for from 12 in 14 hra. before m\\ chnngp (»k<« 
place. Fronn Ihnt time alcoholic frnncnlation n-lit in. aorl ttii^ will <-onlimic 
for anolhor period of, apprnxuoately. 12 to 14 hrs. If the ran is loosely 
eovorral, tiMrtir (wi<l fcrtnwitiition dovclope. but if cuna nrr (nirly w«U cloMd, 
thr itlrohfilir fcnniMitulion ruiitiiiiicfl for about 36 lir<.. after which \\\kk vt 
practically do further action. * * * By test it has tieen found Ihal in 
garhacc which boa remained in the can under ordinary lcmp«mtures for 
itomZ to 4 days, and even a« long aa 21 days, thefreefatly aciiiibf thegreaae 
ore not inoi« than from & to 7%, whereas where matter of a like natitre is nib- 
jwtixi to jiutrofactivc action, the greoK analyKR< from 30 Ui lOrj of frw- fatty 
ooitk. whicb indiesies the absence of doconiiKMitioo in ordinar>' ^srbaice as it 
ii eootaiiwd in the cao. 

"The fermentation noted develops tunntl amounts of alcohol and acetic i 
oeid, with sliglit rfaanges in the vugnt^lo oils, but none in Die animal otli,f 

"The sour udor of KarbaK« is the result of this fermentation devdopin 
acetic acid, tuicethcT with certain fruit eslets.t aldefaydes, and alcohol." 



The terms "slopm," "ofTal," or "awill," are Rometimee applied 
to Karbace. but they will not be ueed in this sense in the prfeeot 
volume. In some Kpceinl tn)<tances. the term " garbage " in used as 
excluding tin cuns, particularly where tt is delivered for final diaponal 
either at reduction workii or at boi; farmi<. It ha^ also be«n used to 
indicate a mixture of garbage with rubbish, or even nith asbm. We 
du not (pvu it tbi«f mvoniiigo. 

7- Ashe*.— Houw adies are defined a« the residue from coal um]3 

• In ■ t«f«> Iwlon tlw BMbtf id OhMilMl IndtMlrv. Marrli 30111, lono. 
t ka aUMrMl adL «auaMift< ■/ •■ «SMihi Milloal kad uy oayatu sinif . 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



9 



ilwolUng bouacs, Mchools, rhurcbos, stores, and small 
3li«liincnt«, but may iniiludc nlnu) »mall quftntitieR of 
other inorganic materialH, a& kIobs. crockery, metnllir substances, 
briclca, eaitb, and duRt. Steam asbee are dormed as ashes from firas 
Dbder large boUen, nod an> tbeo generally considered as a part of trade 
te/uM!. niicy du not differ matcriiilly from hou^ a£\»si. except that 
they eoDtain leu foreign materJiil; in Milwaukee they n-ere found to 
have about the samcuwful calorific value. L'Kually, they da not contain 
H much cinder or unbumod coal, nor t£ much dust, ae liou^ aabcs. 
8. Rubbish. — Rubbish comprises iuiBocIlaHQou6 matorlu!)^ from 
boUMM and stores, such as are not daeiwd specilically under KarbaiEe or 
allies. It coDBJsts chiefly of vood, paper, ra|^, bcddinit, excebior, 
■daw, leather, rubber, old furniture. Htoneware, glass, boxes, barrels, 
etc.. aod swoeiMiigs from buildiugts. The most objci-liuimblc parte of 
refuse of this ela8S ure ihe dust and [xi^lbly pnthogenic gcrm.-< which 
nay be contained in CMt^ifi dothing, bedding, and sweepings- Under 
ry cortdittoDS, ita odor is but tUigbtly oSetLdve, and ite decom- 
m 19 »low aihI not putre».'«ut. 
%. Mixed Refuse.— In many coniniunitiei*, especially in Hurope, 
garbage, oahcri, and rubbish are placed together In one receptacle at 
the kouxe: thereafter they do nut exist lu separate and distinct classes 
of city wMt«. A mixture of garbage, aabce, and rubbish, resulting 
frum thtitr oombiued treutmcnl ul ibc house and in their eollectiou. n« 
distinct fium u separate collection, will be culled mixed refuw- 

Mixed refuse, from the point of view uf cleaiilinexs, presents 
Wferal advantages. The greutcKt nuisances from garbage, wbcii it 
ia kept nepuratc. are caused by the odors from putrefacUon and from 
the foul free Ijqutdii. Uotli uui.'innceK are mtHlerated a.nd sometimes 
I even prevented for several days if the garbage i.s mixed with -jinUcs n.nd 
' rubbish. The greatest nuisance from &«hofi alone is the du«t wlurh is 
blown from them. Moist garbage, when mixed with a«he», teiicU to 
lesaen the quantity of this dust. The greatext nuiMuice from nibbigh 
■ oauwd by the laue« paper which is blown away from the can, wugou, 
or dump, and this is loss likely to liappen if the rubbish is weighted 
down with garbage and a^ihcs. The mixed refu-te, further, haA a 
gnat«r fuel value than any one of it» separate niateriBlt. On the oth« 
hand, tf nnhefl and nibbjsh arc mixed with giirbagr, the ircovery of 
griMde fniin ilie latter is made iiiipraoticsble, an<l dUo the iililiiiniion 
«< Uic food valunk 

10. Ifi^t-Soil.— Tilts term is applied to the contents of priviee 
oam^nmlr' umA at liomiee (or which there are no sewers. (See 
ipCer XVI.) 



iO COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVXICIPAL REFUSE 



B.— CLASSIFICATIOH 

The conntitucntfi of refuse arc classified in Table 1. This clansiti> 
cation, with acme modifications, wait taken from a paper entitled 
" Disposal of Municipal Refuse, and Rubbish Incineration," by Mr. 
H. de B. Parsons.* 

The principal subjects which are important in a study of refuae 
materials are: 

(a) The quantities produced; 

(b) Their composition; 

(c) The relative proportion of the combined materials. 

The quantities of refuse, their composition, and the various pro- 
portions in which they occur when collected together, can be ascer- 
tained with a fair degree of accuracy from the published records and 
reports of city officials having charge of refuse disposal work. How- 
ever, tlus source of information is neither uniform, nor always accurate, 
which detracts somewhat from its practical usefulness unless detailed 
conditions governing the record are also given. (See Chapter I, D.) 
In some instanc&s, only the number of loads of refuse collected is 
recorded, and the tonnage estimated from this record is based on an 
assumed weight per load, or at best on a few scattered weighings. 
The following statement by the Secretary of the Health Department 
of Milwaukee, Mr. A. B. Cargill, in his annual report for 1910, sbowa 
how errors may result. 

"It will be noted under the reports of garbage collection that there is a 
decrease in the tonno^ although an increase ia shown in the number of loads. 
This ia due almost entirely to the fact that a new method for weighing garbage 
has been employed since the installation of the new plant. During the pre- 
ceding four years, estimates were made of the tonnage, based upon the actual 
weights of three sample loads jicr day. This was the best method available 
under the circumstances, as we had no faciiitice for weighing all of the garbage 
received. In fact, it was a much more accurate plan than that employed in 
most cities. With the erection of the new refuse incineration plant, however, 
a wagon scale was built, and since that time we have been weighing every load 
of garbage and other refuse received. The results dearly indicate that in the 
post our mctho<I of weighing has been (as we knew it was) faulty. It has 
sliown, however, that the Department has Ix^n over-weighing. Thin has b<'en 
unavimlnble anil unintentioniil. It in n matter of sntLsfailion that the city is 
now n^reiving its tonnage and figuring il.s ctuit ]m.-t ton upon absolutely reliable 
figiinvi and not fi\>tin estimat«», as Irn-i been tnic in the juist. 

" In making a I'oniparison of the costs per ton with previous years, there- 
fore, the facts stated above must be taken into considcmtiuu, and the jwr- 

• Tmuactuxu. Am. Sac. C. E., Vol. LVII (1000). p- 45. 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



11 



Table 1. — CLABsincATioN of Rbpusb Matekui^ 



Municipal 
Hefuse 



Public 
Refuse 



Trade 
Refuse 



Market 
Refuae 



Stable- 
Refuse 



House 
Refuse 



8trc«t ManuFR and Litter 

Sweeping and Dust 

Leaves 

DroppingB from Carta 

Lirge Dead Animals ' 

Snow 

Cleanio^i from Public Catoh-basins 

Steam Asbes 

Dry Factory Wastes 

Slaughter House Waste 

Rubbish from Office Buildings and Factories 

Cleanings from Private Catch-basina 

(Garbage from Markets 
Rubbish and Cleanings from Markets 
Old Boxes ahd Barrels 

Manure 

Straw 

Cleanings from Stables 

Fly Maggots 

Animal Matter, including moisture 

Vegetable Matter, including moisture 

Tin Cans 

Small Dead Animals 

Coal and Cinders 

Clinker and Slate 

Dust 

Glass 

Crockery 

Brick and Stone 

Metal Fragmenta 

Sweepings from Buildings 

Boxes and Barrels 

Wood 

Paper 

Rags 

Exeelsior 

Stiaw 

Loathrr 

Unbber 

Metal Ware 

Bedding 

Old Furniture 
Night-soil Contents of Privies 



Garbage 



Ashes 



Rubbish 



12 COLLECTION A.VD DL'ipatAL OP WVNICTPAL REFUSE 

niitAge of ovnr-weighini: in past yratia must be figured in, if nicb (xiiiiFMrttKMn 
an to be Bccurnto and fair." 

FxccplioM t» the many former inacciirate statements are ti 
ooDtcuta of a number uf annual rcparts of rccont date. 



C— SPECIAL mVESTIGATrOKS 



The mrmt hrlpftil sourcra of infarmatinn on l)ie tnihject of rcTuM 
mntorialu nro the >;i>Gc>ift1 invcsttgntinns and reporln vhifih hav« been 
made iiniler vurit>u« authitritifw. 

The fin-t comproh«ntiive invest) f^utton of the subject of refuse db- 
posal in America was b{»f;un In 1887 by Ute Garbage Committee of the 
American Public Health Axsocialioii, of which Mr. Rudolph llennft 
later waj« Chairman. This Committee piiblisli^d scvcrn) reports in 
tho TmiuuirJiom of th« American Public Heiillh Ai^ocinlion, Ibo 
Final Report appearing in 1897. Ax a result of th»)e KeiiemI investi* 
(^tions, Heveriil lurgo cilius uiiderlook xpecial examinatkinE of their 
refuse dispudal problems. The earliest of these wa» in BrookI>ii, in 
1S06, by McN'R'. Tnylur and Luckv. At about the fumc time Mr. 
R. H. ThomiU)u made a rrport on the T^fuse di)i[Hi»al prnbli>m for 
Seattle. Followinic these, invcstigationii wore made in New York 
CSty. by Col. GeorRe K. WarinK. Jr.. in \mn. and in Trenton. N. J., 
by Mr. Itudulph Bering, ajwiKted by Mr. Theodore Horton, in 1902. 

Since 1902 there has bwn a marked incrwwc in the number of such 
invvfttigalionit, although many of tluwc Rtudiet do not include detailed 
analyses. mea»urem«nt«. and weights of refuse materiabi. A few are 
deecribed Iwlow. 

1. Buffalo, N. T.— 1 u liHK Mr. Olin H. Ijiiidrclh was oommissiooed 
by the City uf BufTalo to make an inveKtijiiitioii for improved methods 
of refuse disposal. The «»ult# are published in the Faptrii atid R«- 
pnrtf of the Amerinin Public Health AiMoeiBttnn, Vol. 2K, 1902. 

S. BostCMi, Mass. — IVlneen 1!>0.') nnd 1010 invent igRlinn!^ and 
retwrt»< were miide oti the refuse di>i|Ki«tl of Boston. The author of 
the first report wna Mr. X. H. Ooodnuti^h, Chief EHiciiievr of the Maas- 
achu)>ctl« StMt« Board of Health.* Tbi? (cnerai re|K>rt was followed 
by special reportti. to ilie Mayor of Bofston. containing murh valuablo 
information relative lo ihiily quantitica of refuw. The data are 
arrnnjtfKl to nhow the variAlion in the rguanrilirr:* produced fltiring 
differrnl Mea>*inu»> and in different diRlrirU r>f thi* eily. It is one of lite 
enrlke^l American reporU in which c»mprelien."iv-e and Careful etattstics 
of refuse materials and their dtspoeal are presented. 

■ JmrmT. Amm. Baa. SM., XUf, lOQS. 



I 

i 
I 




SBFVSB MATERIALS 



8. He* Yorle, N- Y.— In 1907 Meesra. Parsons, Herinit, and 
Wliincry ])r<wPiit«i in llic Mayor of New Ywk it coniprclieimivt" re|iort 
OD ptivct rI<-jitit(tiE ftii<i rpfm-c (IJH|x)Aal. Sfiine datn from tliis report 
iriatjire tu the r)uamili<?« of refuse malerialti ri)Ilect«i froBj the 
Boroughsof ManhatUn. Bruoklyn. unit The Bronx Tor IdOSarc shown 
in Table 2, togotbcr with Inter data, for IDIO to 1917, ioduHVC. 

TTw' unit wpishu, per nihic: foot, of ^rbngf*. nshps, uiid rubbisli nre 
pTen ill Talik >{, and al»n Int^r (lal.n from othc-r citif^n. ThpHC data 
wenp' RecurH from acluiil moHinurcmcril* of a largo iiuitibor of wagons 
u tbv v&riuuii city dunii». The foregoing report al»o cuutaius valu- 

Ta»LE 2 — QiMwrmKH or ltRFr»t: Matbhials Collectkd in the Bononoiia 

ur Manhattan. ItiUMiKi.yK. and TfiR Buokx, or Nkw YoitK (Jtrr, 

IH 190j, anh nioM 1910 to 1917, niCMJStVB 

(From Report! ol Ui>|i«/iiiicn( at SUd*1 Cl(«uina> 



I 



Ymt 




PomiM m C*mA na Amnrm 


CcMC FsvT PEN O'T ren 1000 
forobATtoH 




UuhKo 


■ ' ■ 


lluhbuh 


ToUla 


llarbac* 


Ajhn 


Rnbbith 


Tout* 


!«»' 


3.833.Q1S 


187 


855 


9-i 


l-iS4 


12 55 


m A2 


40.32 


125 29 


mo 


I,30fi.a73 


157 


1401 


m 


1647 


11 &1 


86 36 


46 15 


144 15 


1911 


4,57.1,010 


141 


lti3 


83 


1672 


10 42 


8S.S3 


4S.76 


145 11 


1913 


4.7-13.771 


148 


1430 


95 


ler^ 


10. (M 


HH 16 


49 lli 


im.2ti 


1913 


i.«l 17,220 


158 


i:it» 


mi 


ISlM 


11 70 


8a,S7 


53 12 


148 G9 


ID14 


.M 90,779 


159 


1302 


M 


IWW 


tl 7.') 


RO "ifi 


4K m 


140 m 


1015 


S.inR.K70 


175 


13Ufi 


113 


1S93 


12.94 


SO 41 


58 25 


151 M 


1010 


!<,138.53'j 


IW 


1946 


105 


16» 


12.20 


82 93 


54 -J8 


149 47 


19171 


S,24 1,302 


153 


134S 


91 


1589 


11.30 


82.01 


46 9U 


141 17 



" Fmoi lUpeH at rnnnia. llFrinv. anrl Whinrty, IW7 

1 ThMQUMUiUvlw IVIT ATE tlVKlJ UD [««(M<J* (ul II dlOUlhe, Jut t lo NoV. IHK 

tMe information rclniivc lo the cbomicftl eomponition of houtie refuse. 
ThiM iH nIiiiwii in TahW 4 nnd 5. 

4. Rochester, N. Y.— In l»()(i Mr. ICdwin A. Kishcr. City Engineer 
of Rochmter, publislied a report on the cuSlectiun and dif>fH>»fU of gar- 
bagB and utber city refuae. This report coiitaiim a digent of M^veral 
ifieeiiU and annutl reports, toicether vith eoat data for the collection 
■ml di«|Mittal of nifuM' inaleriaLi. 

B. Milwaukee, WU.— In the lat.t*r part of 1907. Herinit niftdr n 
enrnpreheiuuve report on garbairp difi|>08al for the City of Milwaukee, 
Id Dr. Q. A. B«iding. IlpaUh officer, recommoDding the building of a 
Ugli-lecaperature itidnerator to burn the mised rufuse of the city. 



14 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

This report gives statistics aa to the quantities of refuse materials 
and the coete for collection and disposal. A receat record of monthly 
variations in the quantities of different kinds of household refuse for 
Milwaukee, Wis., is given in Table 14 under Seaaooal Variations. 

e. West New Brichtoa, N. Y.— On December 18th, 1907, Mr. J. T. 
Fetberston presented to the American Society of Civil Engineers a 
comprehensive paper * describing investigations for refuse disposal in 



Tablb 3. — Unit Weights or Qarbaqb, Ashes, akd Rcbbibh 
IN Sbvebal Cities 







WmGET, IN PotmiM rEB 










Cdbic Foot 




aty 


y«w 






R«t«T«noe 


Oar- 
base 


Ariua 


Rub- 
bish 


Nbw York. N. Y,: 












MsDhktUn and 














1B07 


41.1 


40.0 


5,3 


j 


BrooUrn 


1907 


41.1 


36. 1 


4,7 


> Paraoiu, HcriDR and Whioery 




1907 


34. S 


44.6 


7.4 


J 


Chlmso. m 


1912 


30.4 






0*born-[>'ethorati>D 


BMton, Hbjm 


1900-07 


43. S 


so.o 


7.8 


Goodoough, Joar. Aiiac, Bng. 
Soc., May. 1908 


Buff»lo, N.Y 


1913 






5,0 


Norton 


Columbui, Ohio. . , 


1908-10 


43,7 








Cleveluid, Ohio. , . 
Dmytou, Ohio 


1909-10 
1909 


SO. 2 






SUt« Bd. oT Uaaltb Itopt., 1910 


Cinciiiiikti, Ohio. . . 


1909-10 


45,4 








Milwftukeo, Wia. 


1012 
1912 


36.1 
28.7 






Winter 
SuTDTner 


RochMter, N. Y.. 


IBOS 


43.3 




7 4 


Fiaher, B. A. 


BkD FVkDGbeo, Ckl . 


1908-09 


41.0 


41.0 


»rO, 


Dept. Public WorU, June, 10 10 


TrcDton, N. J.. . < 


1913 
1913 


44.5 


43.3 (mt) 

30.4 (dry) 




> HerinK and Gregory 


WuhiDftOD, 


leis 






7,5 


OaboTD 


DC. 


10 IS 




40.8 






Lo* AnselM, Cal... 


lOlfi-10 


44. & 




n:.? 


Knowlton, W, T, 



the Borough of Richmond, New York City. This paper gives records 
of the quantities, proportions, and composition of the refuse materials 
collected during a period of several years. In Table 6 are data taken 
from this report to show the quantity of house refuse, by volume and 
weight, collected in the Wrat New Brighton District of the Borough 
of Richmond, and to show the composition of house refuse by months 
throughout the year. 

• rra«*adtoiu. Am. 8oo. C. £.. Vol. LX (lOOQ. p. f 



RBPUSS MATERIALS 

T. S«ii Francisco, Cal. — I^or several yenn prior to I9t0tbe Depert- 
it of riihlic VV'orkt; nf San FrancUco miute inventiKatioriH intu tlie 
jiitte^i atii) cliurucioriHlir!^ i>r the roiuiv mn.l«riaU prcM)uc«d in that 
dt]r. The rotuliiiiK >'tntLitir» nre tabulflt«(t and publuhed iu "Speci- 
bstMX) No. M52, Oarbage Disposal Syelem," dat«d June, 1910, from 
wbich Table 7 is takeu. 



Tablr 4- — Amaltbiui or Oarbaoe in New York Cnr 

(DaU (ram Puson>. U^rine. Vftiaery Report, 1907) 



?iAn(liJf 



t muaipla wu tmkMi. 



MoieUDV - 

Volatile nxabmUblc nutter . 

Fted csrfouD 

liMnvuiic nutlCT or ash . . 



indudcd in «boTe: 

QresBe 

phoopbonu pcutoxide 

I^^llnmilUD oxide 

Nitmgon 

fitlorifir vkliM o( dry (naUrial, io 

B.tu 

CUitHfii' viilue MJnihted to orig- 

toftl ma IcrialcoDtainiDg original 

parD«>U(t« »f iiwitDt lire, in B t u 



100.00 

7 07 
0.07 
0.30 

0.80 



B 



E. 107th 
8u«e( 
dump 



100 00 



S803 



^14 



Stanton 
dump 



100 00 



d33S 



2»4.^ 



W 4nh 

evoFt 

dutnp 



Rockuwtty 
dunii 



65 00 

25 83 

4 47 

4 08 



100 00 

6.82 
0.58 
03& 
0.83 

8831 



223Q 



100 00 



8774 



1^400 



8. Ohio Cities.— The Sute Board »f HciilUi of Ohio, Mr. R. W. 
Pralt, Chid F.nfoiKXT, publlohcd a. rcp»rt in 19 M) givintc inforniAtion 
LUi tduee m&l«rial» iu tuaov Ohio filicit and townti. Four ctliee in 
iruiar wrrv olosoly studied, and the inrormAtioii giv«n iii detail. 
o( the data in this reixirt, however, roBt on aanumed bancji, 
* litre recirdH of unit quantitieg wt!n> nut availablo. FiKB. 1,2, and 3, 
and Burav il^ila in Tables s and 4 are taken from thin report. 

8. Chicago, IlL— Farly in l'.H4. Mu-^^. 1. H. O«l>orn and J. T. 
t'ettii-r-tiiii niAlk' a rf>|H)rt on (lie eollt>ctian nnd di^prntn] of K&rbaftie 
Uul trliUK in ChicaKii, Mr. Ramiiri A. Crn'lry lieiiitt in charge of 
Wd InvcatiKatioaa. 



16 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



11 

* I 



U 

! 



I 



II 



£ • *■ S 







<c no S iS 



S 3 r^ 3 



-■ XJ 1^ » 



8 7 S 

=■2 8 



S 
S 



8 
S 



8 
S 



8 
8 



s°as 






o to ob S 



8 
S 



S 
8 



S 
8 




REFUSE MATERIALS 



17 



0". 

g 6 

S 

a B 
& 



9. 

» ■ 



■c 
i 

H 



■t 



o 

u 



^ 

H 



I 






■I 



3 
■ 









o>. 






■nc>oooa*onn^ Aoo 

SH) CD ro r« *-■ Q CO n odnio 
— 5 « C{.« o ^ r- eb a> S m 






n.-(>«co«S-<S Kits 
^-H^tOlO * rt n ■« 4 »3 n ^ 



SB Sio g^= e 















5l 



6 5 V^°^2 



a. s J-s 38- 



I 



B a ■ Q a±c: o 






II 






0>i0t^06*OO*" t*go><^ 






-k 11) (D n «■ i^ oi oQ n fHor> 









<-4kK£r-^p< 



■O^Ot-M-Hl^r-— 0143V 









Ol lO « fr- c f^ — N t- »o« 
sew* — re*OQ — * noOM 



t<- 1- M t<- rt t<- « c tas «em 



i<- ^ i<- •-■ -A -n a 

!■ r* « "ft ■« « fli r- fl 






8 - 






:af 



,(0 



r- 3 



fu 



g-2jSj|-5?& sis 



I II 



ta 

III 



3 

o 



■ 
J 

1 



I 



.» 



■3 

18 



18 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



In December, i913, and in January and Febraary, 1914, nineteen 
loads of mixed ashes and rubbish wers weighed and then separated by 
hand into the items Hsted in Table 10. Summer conditions for 
Chicago are shown in Table 11. 

Table 7. — CoHptrrED fhoh Data Obtained raoM Analyses of Samfles 

Collected froh the Entire City of San Francisco on the 

Dates Indicated. 

(From "SpeeiflcKtioii No. M52, Gu-bix* IHtpMBl Snten") 





vuKht 


PBreoalAge Pcnvntacc PcKcaUce 
ol com- ul inenoi- of 


Vm)uc 


BmUus 

Vnlu 

ol rsf me 


Dat« 


nluM 


buftiblc 


bualibic 


mwaliuc 


<oin' 
in O t u 


•• 


in 


in. nfuac. 


in tcTuM, 


in retunr, 


cvUcctcd. 




IMnindi 


l-jr 


by 


tr 


!■! B,l-H 




pornutic 


w«i|)it 


■pight 


•^ilht 




V 




Ipflt 








pouiul 


pomui 


Dec. 7, 1908.. . . 


31 1 


22.65 


26.45 


50.90 


10,8.% 


2,457 


Dec, 10, 1908.,.. 


26.5 


22.46 


25.37 


52,17 


10,540 


2.352 


Dw 17, 1908 , 


27.0 


23-34 


29-53 


+7 13 


10,588 


2,481 


Dec, 20. 1908... 


29.6 


2a. IW 


27.71 


49,27 


10,330 


2,388 


Jan. 2S, 1909...- 
Avcra(«» 


32.2 


23 16 


28.37 


48.47 


10,M0 


2.366 


28.? 


22 6 


27-2 


49 9 


10.530 


2.410 



Ntlr. — The peraenUtM o' rambuitible, incombiulible, and niMttar*, sod the bratiDg 
vnlue* stated in thti tnblv wprr obtkinMl by tipctiniFnU outUn«d u foUom: Smnll 
wmplsB were taken at random from each load aa il «aa duoiwd into tba re«iTin( bina, 
and all the lamptea ccdlectrd from (h« loada from each aection durini the day were thrown 
Into a lule. Thia pile waa then thorouihly miied and divided until a •ample of about 
1 cu. ft. waa obtained. It waa rbopped up. miied. and divided until a aample of 1 qt. 
waa obtained, Thia waa dried in a imall oven until no further n^urtion ot weicbt 
waa obaerved. thua de(ermtnin( the moiaturr. The eomhutliblc waa then determined 
from theae aamplea in a ohemical laboratory, the heatinc value being aaccrtaincd with a 
bomb calorimeter, 

10. Washington, D. C— During 1015, Mr. I. B. Osborn made e 
careful investigation of refuBC diHposal for WaHhington, D. C. In 
co-operation with the Bur(>aii of Soiln, many aiialj'ses were made of 
different kinds of rcfuHC. Some of (he data appear «t the close of this 
chapter. The report * rttcom mended the reduction of garbage, the 
burning of rubbish, and the dumping of ashot. 

11. DanvUle, HI.— In 1916, (Jreelcy made investigations in two 
smaller cities, Danville (population 35,000) and Galcsburg (population 
26,000) in Ulinoil. Data on rafuie collection conditions are pre- 

■ teitt. 



20 COU.ECTtOff ASD DISPOSAL OF MVSSCtPAL REFVSS 

12. LouiCTille, Ky. — During the summer of 1917, the refuw dfo- 
potol problem ul ljoui8\'i]le vft« studied Lhoroughlj by GreelKj', a»- 
Mst«d by Profeaeor Frederic Bvuiiet, Jr., vf Wurpwtcr, Mana. Tfaid 
work was carried out by the tud of a fund mised by the WotnCTi's City 
Club, sod, wiib its active assielatice, many lueful data were obtaini-d 
■t a minimunt of co^t. Tnhuliited etatiftk^ of the houi^c tKfttllicnt 
and collection sen'ice are given in Table 49. 


^^^^^H 








1 l« -r- 









■ 
1 

I ^ 








- — 






_ 















■ iiiUiitisii iiiUmUii immilui 

^^^r CINCi;4hATt CLEVELAKD DAYTON 

V rapu«uaa*Mii«e popuLuioBtMcaB vsvMittiM -uaan 

H Fk. 2. — Quantities of Aiihcs and RubbiMh CoUcvted in IVUU, in Otiio Citiea, 
^L^^ ia Pounds |i«r Ca|iit« p«r Montb. 

^^^P Pmfoiwir J. H. Jamw, in IWIS, made an annlyns of the l.otiifivi)le 

V refuse, aud also deteruuticd ita calurilic value. The data are net forth 
■ in TaNc I'J. 

H 13. Other Investi{itioat.~There are nomprotis other ioveeUga- 
H tiuna ami <-<Mi)|iilNtii>ii? (tmn \\\w\\ wv have lakm data and aUtiatica, 
H a.4, (uriuiiluuw.rnim tltc I' iiit(>d States Census for 1905. aod the lepnrla 
H mado far the Citim of Columbuii, Ohio, Toroato. Out., and Newark, 
H N. J. Municipal authoritiM ha\T rFcently ciioduMcd Luvfvtignlioaa 
H at C^ni'tniiiili, Ohin, S|irin|i6t>ld nod WnvMler. Mum*., Dallas, Tex., 
H llnltimorr. Mil . San rnuirif^ri'. Cal.. New Oriratw. 1^. and ebfr- 
^^^^^^ttlicn-, tttiil nil liiLvo itdtlfd to the axailAtiln infiirnutiiib. ^^ 



BBFVSE MATERIALS 



21 























































































.'. 








HBO 














m 


\ 
























1 






















* 


\ 






















^ 


t 




















— 1 
1 


1 


; \ 




















i?/ 


uV 


\\ 








DDDu 












-/ 


V 


w 




















1 


T 

_* 


\^ 


i 


















/ ' /r^':'\. 


















1 i 

- J 


*/. 


I ^*- 


















/ / 


^y / 


\ 


V, 






wN 












1 1 
I 1 


/ / 


\ 




















! 


i^ 


\ 


W^ 


















// / 




\ 


\\ 


^ 
















1 t J 


I 


\ 


\ \ 


1 ■ 




tfM 












if' 


j 





** \ 


A 














> 


1 


j 




\ \ 


\ 

It 
















h 


j 






•\ 














/ 


If 






\ 1 1 ^ 


t 










/ 


r'i' ) 






>A y 


\ 


vm 








1 


f ^ ! 








1 1 1 

\ 1 \ 












i/ 










\^ ' 


\ 










/ 


/ 1 








\ \' 










/ .' 








^" 


— * \-i 








f 


f / 










\ \ ' 




1 




y ^^ 










\ V 


300C 


\ 
* 


-B\fc- 


f<' ^ 


1 


/ 










\ v 




;r- 




X 


















t 

' 














\ 




V\ 


z' 


f 
^ 














\ 


Abvi 


\ 






> 












\ 


Bw 


\ 


*,' 




y 














\ 




\ 




'~— — ^ 


^ 














\ 




\ 


i /"y 


















\ 




IM* 


















\ 


aon 


V 


1 — 


Li 


k 


H 


h 


. 







\ 



FiQ. 3. — CompariBon of Monthly Variation in the Production of Garbage in 
CindDoati, Ubio, for 1914, 1915, 1916. and 1917. 



22 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Table 8. — Chbuical Analtbes op Garbaqe, 
WITH Special Reference to the RsDuonoN Process 



Ci^ 


PnCBHTAOE BI WbIOBT 


Rttenaem 


Groaae 


Pho». 
phoric 

wad 


Nitri>- 


Pota^ 


New York City: 

Sample A 

Sample B 

Sample E 

Milwaukee, Wis. . . 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . . 
Cleveland, Ohio. . . 
Columbus, Ohio. . . 

Dayton, Ohio 

Washington, D.C.. 
Los Angeles, Cal. . . 
Chicago, 111 


7.07 
3.52 
7.22 
6.82 
2.83 
1.93 
4.02 
3.85 
3.96 
3-83 
5-12 
1.71 
2,04 


0.07 
0.26 
0.93 
0.58 
0.57 
0.51 
0.29 
0.24 
0,22 
0.19 
0,39 
1.96 
3.81 


0-30 
0.31 
0.33 
0.35 
0.49 
0.35 
0.&4 
0.64 
0.59 
0-51 
0,71 
3.05 
2 65 


0.86 
0.73 
1.25 
0-83 
0-95 

0.28 
0.30 
25 
0,20 
0,28 
1,22 
0.85 


.Parsons, Hering, 
Whinery 

Professor Sommer 

-State Board of Health 

Average of 69 analyws 

E7ig.NeiDg,Vo\.76,p.679 

• 



* For ChioacD the followioi infornutioD haa been reported by Hairy F- Towle, Oenoral 
Fareman in Charie, Bureau of Waste Diapoaal, Dept. of Public Worlu, uoder date of 
November 23, 1919: 

"Averase analyiia of Guiihed tankaie ihipped during October, 1919: 

"Moiature 5.40% 

Ammonia , 2.78% 

Mone phoaphate of lime 4 . 23% 

Potaih 0.94% 

" The BarbaRe greaae produced at thia plant at the present time is running from to S% 
In total impuritie> and from IS to 20% in free fatty acida. The analyaia on the laat ear 
•hipped waa: 

"Total impuritie* 6,73% 

Free fatty acida (aa oleio) IS. 02% 

Volatile at loa" C 0. 70% 

UnuponiHable matter fi.Sfi% 

Petroleum ether insoluble, , 0.08% 

Soluble mineral matter 0. U% 

BaponiScation number of freaaa 1H.4 

Qlyoerine (oombiaed) l.liKt*' 



REFUSE MATERIAI^ 



t 



3 
J 
< 
> 
'■i 

3 

< 
u 

o 
z 

3 

J 

4 
IE 
< 



O 

C 



3 



■ r* GO 



Is 

■ - I1 

6^o o 



"Hi's "S, "q, "3. "3. "B, "B. "3. "H. "S, 3. "E. "ft "3. 
oo ooeoooooooeeo 



^ "^ 


s 


^t 


^^ 


-KtS 


'?- 




» v^ 




ft; •-■ 


?2 


n 


ui 








aoo>aoooo-«ao?4i-h-o 



a 



3 

fa 



if 
5 I 



I 



ii 



8 



-O S r» 



Mmcor«a>eq<pac4aoc4 









3 SS 



cOcO'VCOaO-*c<9ciO>ftMh-a 









silll 



o o o o o o o 



S 



II 



•" .E -f a 5 -S -g 2 . 



II 



a 



24 COLLATION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFVSS 



u 

X 

is 

a ^ 

i| 



5 = 

< £ 

ti 
Is 













s 










* S So K 3 "f 


RS 


S = £ S a S S S !S =: S 






d d 


■'000——OOOOH 


t^ 


g 


22 


22222222222 




8'*-"fe2""g2 agg 


ss 


SSSS8S8S8S: 




s 


^ .A ... 

a U « ? 00 O O 


o d 


oooooeooeoo 




A 








g 
















«j 








> 








< 








a 


So tt 3?"3 




5 


:-52222-|S52i2=3i55i235222S 
°"5aS'!;? 53S3SSSSSSS8S8S8SS 

a' a" idadddddobbaoeoaoee 




=* 








• 








• 

■2 












K 


S U 3 1 5 5 i « = " = 


h35!SJS=S==Ss 




2 


*. S- 5 5 S 2 2 1 3 2 2 


" •»a^'*^""^*'"-»* 




« 


.= j2^£2.£^^£J^J 




-* 


— »M»-2tt Crt* 






% 


a g ♦ r r.« « 




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■ 








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ir If if 








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t5 !5 :5 








at - : 1 E 




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i « E • = * 




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n n j^ 




* 


i 


^i--;.^--r-^ 


1. iH^i 


i 


1 


Mil ^rT 


1 Hirli .f i 


£ 


t 


iissi!iii = ^: 


|-Um=T = 5i^li 


Z 


i 


iiSii:;-J;:!:^-£: 


e = ^': 


- ^ 


- ^ 


?^.^S 


. = 


= - 


:i 


: 





REFUSE MATERIALS 



25 



< 
y 

s 



2 1 

3 



£ 1 

o 

IB 

X 

3 






as 



is 






IS 






■r-l 



1,1 



I 

s 



II 



PI 



a 

& 

9 

o 



•eng — nr^ 












NOOc 



ses 












PI O F^ V 01 fi 



— «M5-f 0« 



-"t-«NTh. 



^fEQUOUbi 



3? 
n o 



3S 



§8 






— d 









s;; 



It 

s * 

-!0, 



-I 



III 



si 






si 



^1 

2i 



I. 



t: 



s 






ll^gP 






C&9i— BOO 






nSkaoe 






O ■ 'TP5 















p'f^nn v^ 



§^ 



2S 






C9^ 



5S 

g — 



1- 



11 



^cQuauh 



26 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



In Europe reports on refuse materials and their disposal have 
been made by Dr. Tbiesing at Charlottenburg, Messrs. Bohm and 
Grohn in Berlin, Dr. Lenormond in Havre, Mr. F. Andreas Meyer in 
Hamburg, Mr. J. A. Robertson in Greenock, Scotland, and many 
others. 

Tablb 12. — Analtskb of Refuse in Louisville, Kt. 
(From Beport by ProfeMor J. H. J^mM) 



Bunide 
So. 


Composition 


Moiature, 
Percentage 


Calorific Valdb im 

B.T.D. r(B POUMD 


Mftteriml 


Pereenugc 
by weight 


Wet 


Dry 
t 180° F. 


A 

( 
B 

C 

D 

E 
F 


Garbage 

Rubbish 

Aahea and dirt. . . 

Rubbish 

A^hes and dirt. . . 

Rubbish 

Ashee and dirt. . . 

Ashes and dirt. . , 

Garbage 

Rubbish 

Ashee and dirt. . . 

Rubbish 

Ashes and dirt.. . 


73 
11 
16 

4fi 
14 
41 

52 
10 
38 

46 
17 
37 

41 
14 

46 

36 

6 

58 


50.50 

42.18 

40.7 

50.7 

50.5 

44.00 


3547.2 

4636.2 

3445.33 

3103.2 

3151.0 

2RfW.5 


7166.0 

8021.0 
5810.0 
6294.6 
6240.6 
5106.7 



Recently, the reports of the United States Food Admiiibtntira 
have Kiven much valuable information, especially 
feeding of garbage to hogs. 



U£yVSE MATERIALS 



27 



U.— QOANTITIES AND THEIR VARIATIOWS 

IIpTuw m»t«riiibs "'»" coming chiefly frnm rMtrlencca, aro pro- 
lenl ill varj-itijc (luantilicK. the variaUunti being dclcrtnincd by the 

1. Grograptiical locotiim of luunici polity; 

2. BcuHiu u( the yc«r: 

3. Chancter o( the population; &k Lu whether it in itidustrial, 
ilial. rurol, etc.; 
Enivii-iiry of Oie dcpanmcnt or agency which collects tho n- 

fiue mat«riaU; 

5. Influence of vrar. 

Mr. F^lwnM I). Very* states that Ibe average quantity of New 
York City sarbiiKc produooci per capilu. per tiny iis J lb., and that the 
vi&fucv weight is 11001b. per cit. yd. (41 lb. per cm, ft.). The average 
HmpU.' roiitaiu: 10% ammnl matter, 79*;^ vegctjible matter, and 

■ i% rullbi^h. 
It analyioB approximati^ly as followit: 70% moisture, 20% tank- 
age. 3.6% Rn"UJ«!. l.b% boiwK, oiui 5*1^ rubbirth, 
^m AoeordiDg to Mr. Ueorge liVatttun, the total liouitc rcfiuc iu Eogtiidi 
^1 eitiot arnouiit« to 400 (loiig) Urns per annum per 1000 of [xipulntion 
^■nn^Lper annum per head). According to Codnngton, 1 cu. yd. 
^^HHIrefu^ ueigtis from 1400 to 1700 lb. 

^r Ob the conliiienl of Eurojic, accunliiig to Ricbtor, the total qunn-> 

^"^ tilxof rcfuiw ranges from i to I liter per day per jwiTon, and iti; nprciSc 

gravity variw from 0.ft.S t« Q.Hfi. If we assume a nw-an of 0.75 li1«r, 

the pnxJurtioii will In- alxmt 0..W kg. (Ij lb.) jmr day per jwrson. 

Trade ^cl^M^ variee chiefly wHth the number and kind of indu»triw 

H ind tli« cunditioD of buKinew. Stnwt refu»;c vuric*; in ([uantity with 

H Ifae kiad of pavement anti with the frctiuency u» well an the thorough- 

^ u* and niediod of dftaninR. (Chapter XV.) The quantity of Mable 

rtfiur dcpcDcla on the number of borHen kept in the community, 

tOaptcr XIV.l 

L Geocraphical Location. — The efToct of the geographical location 

comtinmity on tho ipmntity of hoiiriehnid rcfuw produced is 

Iv ■Mwn l>y conipitrioK the unit productions of einiilar citi«t in 

■|'in«. Table 13 shows the quantitteH of (tarbagc, onhcs, 

*"': --. ,. .. iinxliiccd in M American cities. 

la FiinEiilrriBg iho effcet of getigntphie.al location on the produ&- 
•I ohId'a, it iH reiuini table Ut conclude that the per 
f garbage pnrdiioed in Southern cities are larger 
jf tbo North, because of the larger quantities of 

•\" itiora SosMy at Cfcu^ul Indualry. Uanb WHb, IQOB. 



28 COLLECTfON AND DiSPOSAL OF MUSSCtPAL REPUSB 



TArnX 13. -l»IWllKrmoK OF UKrWRE i\- 


Srlecttp A>nntiCA!« 


CmE« 








rOCim* I'lM CKTtTX 


Crnii' Fkct ma U.i* 


city 


TMr 


Pwim- 


rut AKJiDii 


ru IDOO I^rciiiTimi 


Oaf 


_"l 


G«- ._,. 


Rub- 


T»- 








3tl 
3D4 


b>» 


— - 


biab 


laW 


Bnltlmoic. Md . 
IViatuii. Mom. . . . 


mi 

19U l& 


74MM1 






110(1 n 


IIU 


U.I 


SB.fi 


0,« 


III 3 


•■ 


1917 M 

iDoa 
i»to 
leos 
leia 


781,036 


1A& 


8n 31 


ittui 


11 4 


M.a 


T « 


107. a 


HiilTala, N.V 

CUmco, 111 


STMI4 
43a.710 

a^i,««7 


131 
140 
330 
100 


Ml 

092 I U 

IO30 

7W> 


MO 


























S.9 


M.fl 


H.9 


1 • •■ 
CiDpinnati, Obio . . . 


1017 
lOOS 


3.«(l7.T3a 
3t!l,337 


liU 

un 


., .| 










8fin 


MM 






..... 


1000 


3tlO.0IIOl 


10» 


48a 


ST» 


13 1 


M.fl 


•7 1 


i« 


1017 


4I0.47C 


i3i» 


1 






-1 




Clm-nluul, Ohio 


lom 


M.1.Mia{ 


lAA 


ai3 


*TT 


10. Oi 


31.0 


4a.3 




1B17 


S74.0TS 


iwt 


1 








, -H . 




Cvliimliua, Ohio. . 


1013 


133.7110 


lOR 


304 


Ase 










"... 


1015 


210.000 


1X2 










« * r r > 




Dmy«en. Obio. 


IBDt 

leio 


n0.5T7 


300 












1 


«B 


Ml 









...^.i 


Detroit, Mich . 

RvBRilon, 111 . . . 


loia 

1010 


ft71,7K4 
34.078 


Iflit 












.. 1 


336 


U7 


2K 


tlOil 


fi.O 


47.0 in. 1 


ms' 


Kaiuaa CStf. Mo 


uir 


300.213 


300 


.. 






_ 




- ^ • - 




iM Ane*lr«,C>l.. 


Iftlft-IS 


iUM.oni 


3(n 





«« 


zao 


13 




a.i 


« 1 


"... 


lon-w 


033.0001 


ISI 




U 


ii<t 


» 




«• 


I&.3 


tj>«*ll. Wlmm 
Lynn. Mrs . . . 
Mllmukce. ffb. . 


1005 
IVll 


9tjm HI 


oe7 

927 
833 


1018 

tisa 

tOM 










77.«a 

410,000 


33:t 

1HI) 








:; 


II a 


MO 


*4 


*• >* 


1917 


UAttfi 


Ml 














>* i* 


lOltf 


497,00(1 


MS 


ss » 


I8t 








. . 


MlnnMi)oli>i Minn 


1010 


MI.IOS 
3;3,4M 


1M 


iOB 


SU 










1017 


tSB 


1 






- *\ ^ 






Nuhrill*, Tann 


ions 


MJI7 


RH 


*3a 


HIM 


, - - . 


---- 


t » - ^ ' 




Nftw RHiInrtI, Mm* 
Now Vof L NY. 


lOOS 
I0O5 


74403 
tSKKKita 


1«4 


4ai 

ItM 


677 
IM8 








"■.'1 


,, ., 






... . 


.. 


l<X» 


LMMRT 


lU 


DM 1 as 


Ilia 


14 -T 


77. i 


aa a 


1*7 3 


Pabnin. N J. . 


l«OS 


I11.JM 


l<M 


aas 


1004 





- ' f » 






PliiUdnliibia. Pb 
Pltuliarch, l*k . 


11)17 

iQia 


l,7CB,.M8 


140 



















n 




■ . . 


ft - 


TtooluaM. N.Y- . 


l«ia 


tihjiea 


M4 


um 


74 


IflM 










" 


lOIT 


10d.OOO 140 


lesQ 


w t»to 




, , - 






Si. Loub, Mo. 


1PI» 


7«T,9e« tM 


■ ' r * , 


1 ni • . . . . ■ 






-■- 


'B I* 


1017 


T«0.4M MS 
S47,X« IIR 










...1 


ML Paul. Muin 


IDI7 




.... 








f 


Sail FrtntlKo. r'al 


IM» 


MWjm Bl 


30 


M» 


709 


31 A 


S.I 


47 .^ 77 «| 


MprlocflaM. \\im . 


IUO& 


7JU4a u 


su 


WT 










ftriwioM^ NiY ' ■ ■ - 


lOCM 


1I7.IN MS 


»iS 


lOU 




- , , 








into 


mjiyi !To 


7«a 1 ■ |inii 


33 


M It 






■ > i> 


IfIT 18 


p 


«as ' ■ iiii» 








Tw.M.V 


IMA 




at7 liiT> 








Wfl^kiwkM. D. C. 


IMS 


I'l..^- 


;- - . -. . 








■1 «• 


1*19 


»ti,.-.i' 










tt M 


101--. 


( '.ii 1 > t 




"H 


• 


11." 




1 


1 WU»ln«(n*>.rM... 


ll>l. 


., 














i 



C t*(liHtnl tK aailvii 



BMFVS8 MATKHrALS 



29 



:!ftRtaLlnt consumed there; ami, on the other hand, as the 
n of i-o«I is »nuill, tb« production of a»ht4 there m also small, 
a (or Cohitnbus and Dayton, Ohio, where iialural guH ti> 
mulahlo for fuel. r<hon an (!Xpi'cl«il fiilhim off in the quittitity of 
aehrs. Tlic produotiitn of refuse in the eitie,"! of Kuropc is ioi« thnri iu 
America, an the penpJe are lem wasteful. The avernKc per capita 
luctiiiit of house rcfuw in Europe in approximately 380 lb. per year, 
{tarcKl witJi S60 lb. in American cities. 



a«hM. 
^1 Americ 



Tjuua H. — QdAMTmN or Oarbaok, Aanes, and Rcbbioh DtuvzMKO 
Br Cnr and Puvatk Coixkctiok, aho Dit«ro»BD or at tub 

MlLWADKEK iNCINEKATOa DVRI.VO 1919 



I 



HMtll 


G«tl»«t>. 
IB Ian* 


Atliv*. 
in loiu 


Rubhuli, 
til toua 


Manure, 
in low 


Tnul*. 
In loaa 


4 :w 3< 


3,302.12 
1.^ S7 
l,Me 53 
2,102 31 

2.397 aa 

2,MH 02 

3.477 aa 

3,709 80 

3.«aa.37 

3,458 24 
2,580 47 
2,301 35 


3U6 41 
713 29 
879 16 
GtH 96 
581 98 
510 .TT 
478 92 
497 92 
ODD 55 
fiKi 79 
«78 32 
9S9 92 


2(J2 92 
Ida 02 

■il4 58 
144 85 
122 37 
167 76 
l«2 74 
142 27 
148.32 
119 64 
95 10 
67 55 


0.52 
2.14 

0.50 


3.311.45 
2.,')«9 88 
3.040 27 
2.852 12 
3.120,aa 
3.«a7 .S7 
4.121 m 
4.3.W (IK 
4.382.74 
4.i:i1 (>7 
3,353 89 
3.358.82 


MfT 




f uIt 


aqitaaiber 

Gctobw 

Sovcfnber. . . . 

TnUk . . 


^a,M7 VA 


7.895 50 


I.7RR 12 


a.lfi 


42,202 30 




All tV ^Hia«> dI MilvaiikHi ■ taL*n (o tbe inctDEratai, but Ltw nsltn kod Tubb«l| 
h«A akljr ■ pvi ot tbc my atmi llx iMdoMftUr. 

2. ScAfon.— Tbcrc in a marked difTcrcooc in the quantitica of refuae 
fSuducMl fruni one !tfui.ion to another, and BomelimOR from day to day, 
dinK on the rainfall and the local conditions of hnu»c treatment 
fnllf>ctii>n. 

Mr. Vctv* stalky that the quantity of Karbuge pruduccHi varies by 
•awiiop very nuiln-ially, with thcnutximum during the Mimrnur, when 
nnetalilNi and fruita oonKtitutQ the prlnoipaJ diet, and th« minimum 
i^-' AutciiKt has usually the highest rpcnrd, with about 

•' md February, with about <)%, haa the lowest. The 

1*111 is hi^ ID summer and low in winter, whereaB the 

' ni|»r Mm» SoMalj d Chtmif».\ IiulMtt?. Mvrii MA. igos. 



30 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



S 



S3 



KIT. 

!3S 



van 






iS 

n f 






c e 

5S 



l^g 




5 5^^ 



aSS 



2I2 



s 



^§3 



333 






^3S 



Mooe 

;::3 



NOgo 

"5- 



SS2 



sise 



8 



33 



it 






bi 



Is 



lb 



2 -; 









^s) = 



52g 



so 



«R 


V 




'^ 


^■x 


n 


0- 


^ 


R-3 


*ri 




■" 


■5« 


S; 


3^ 


r« 




"^ 


1? 


n 




** 



■; ti 






JL ^ «^ 






3E:i 






»»pi 



"■-5 54 



3=5 



^si 



'S- 



-n- 



re** 

iCi-M-r 



m 



!r5 



US 



ss s 



i= ^ 



II 






32 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

grease content and the chemical plant food values are low in eummer 
and high in winter. 

The seasonal variations in the production of household refuse are 
shown in Table 6 for West New Brighton, N. Y., Table H for Mil- 
waukee, Wis., Table 42 for Shanghai, China, Table 45 for Charlotten- 
burg, Germany, and Table 46 for Barmen, Germany. 

The seasonal effect on the chemical composition of garbage in 
Washington D. C, is shown in Table 34. 




a a 

K O 4 

FiQ. 4. — Average Monthly Percentages of Grease in Raw Garbage in Several 

American Cities. 



Figs. 3 and 4 and Table 15 present data as to the quantities of gar- 
bage, ashes, and rubbish in a number of American cities, in pounds per 
lOlM) population per day. 

Table 16 gives the production of refuse for Winnetka and Glencoe, 
111., fur summer and winter, and Fig. ?> shows the monthly variations, 
liy weight, in the components of household refuise in the West New 
Itrighton District. 

S. Character of Population. — The effect of the character of the 
population on the quantities of refuse produced is seen by comparing, 
in the name city, different districts having different general char- 
acteriatics. 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



33 



Boeton is divided into a number of general sanitary districts. 
Statistics showing the quantities of garbage, ashes, and rubbish pro- 
duced in these districts are given in Table 17. For Chicago, where 
each ward has its own collection service, the quantities of garbage, 
■sbes, and rubbish, in pounds per capita per annum, are given in 
Table 18. Table 19 has been compiled from the report of the Census 
Bureau on Statistics of Cities for 1909, the production of refuse being 
dufiified as from manufacturing and from residential cities. 

Tabu; 16. — Rspuse Mateeials in Wiknetka and Glencoe, III. 

Qusntitlce id totiB por Aay 

Actual quantities (or IB12 

Estimated qiuntitice for 1B20 



Ytai 


Total P<9uiBtioD, 

Wianetka 

and Gleneoe 


MaterialB 


Summer 


Winter 


AnnuMi 


1912 
1920 


5853 
(Actual) 

9000 
^Estimated) 


Garbage 

Ashes 

Rubbish 

Totals 

Garbage 

Ashes 

Rubbish 

Totals 


4,40 
2,93 
1,47 


2,93 

16 12 
1 47 


3,50 

11 73 

1.47 


8,80 

6,84 
4 49 
2,25 


20,52 

4 49 

24,79 

2,25 


16,70 

5,39 

18,01 

2,25 


13.58 


31.53 


25.65 



SMa. — Manure and tin cana are not included, 

OarbaiB al ooileeted, weigha about 1000 lb. per cu, yd. 
Aabea, a« ooDected, weiih about 1200 lb. per eu. yd. 
Eubbith, ■■ collected, weiaha about 160 lb, per cu, yd. 



There is a larger production of garbage in residential than in man- 
ufacturing cities, and in the wealthier than in the poorer districts of 
average cities. On the other hand, the unit quantities of ashes pro- 
duced may be larger in manufacturing cities, although this does not 
appear in the table, because the quantities given do not include steam 
sebes produced in the factories. 

The effect of different nationalities, in the same community, on the 

quantity of house refuse produced is shown in Table 20. This has 

been taken— with some modifications— from a report of the Chicago 

1 of Streets, made by the Efficiency Division of the Chicago Civil 

nmiBioD in 1913. Other cities show similar results. 



34 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBFU8S 

WashiDgton has long been noted for its high per capita garbage pro- 
duction. Thi8 does not indicate extreme waetefulnees; the true cause 
is the complete elimination of the private collectors, and the inclusion 
of the garbage produced by the city's large floating population, while 
determining the per capita production on the baas of Washington's 
permanent population. 




MCUI.CU 

'■i ^— Haiokar 

~y — !■ •—. 



FiQ. 5. — Monthly Variations, by Weight, in Components of Household Refuse, 
West New Brightoa District. 



4. Departmectal Efficiency. — It is important to note that, in all 
recorded quantities of refuse materials, the energy and thoroughness 
with which the work of collection is conducted has a marked effect 
on the record. An energetic and skillful official will increase the unit 
quantities of refuse collected. The different kinds of pavement, as 
well as the character, thoroughness, and frequency of cleaning, and, 
also, the introduction of flushing, have a material infiuence on the 
quantity of street refuse. 



REFUSE MATBRtALS 



36 



Table 17. — Psoduction or Rktdbe in Different Dibtbicts of Boston, 
In Poohds per 1000 Popui^tion. 310 Working Datb 

(DaU are from AqduaI Rei>orta) 



1912-13 



1914-15 



1915-16 



1916-17 



Ibterimk 



Garbage 
Afihea . . . 
Rubbiafa . 



T«Utl9. 

Garbage, . 

Afihes 

Rubbish . 



1917-lS 



Totals, . . 

Garbage — 

Ashce 

Riibbiah 

Totals- - . 

G&rbafie — 
Asfaee. .. . . 
Rubbyh.,,, 

Totala. . . 

O&rbage 

AahM ...... 

Hubbub .... 

TotaJa, . . 



DunucT No. 



I 



484 

2179 

6 



2689 

386 

1835 

24 



2759 

370 
2420 



2245 

438 

1910 
II 



235d 

404 

1875 

18 



2207 

385 

1590 

13 



1938 



334 
2425 



2796 
366 

2:^10 



2790 

348 
2230 



2678 
2100 



2398 

216 
2190 



240e 



421 

2375 



4242 

064 
4450 
56 



257(3 

368 
2100 



2468 

421 
2043 



2464 

36fi 
lOlfj 



709 

3520 

13 



4605 

970 
3750 



5470 

4028 
4110 

38 



5176 

9«3 

4260 



5223 

572 
4320 



1980 



4S92 



795 



573 



3808j3441 
2 . . . , 



4014 

1145 
3160 

74 



4720 

958 
3745 

25 



4728 

822 

3160 

34 



4016 

649 

3420 

40 



2876 

582 
2235 

33 



3379 

041 

3120 

3K 



3799 

MO 

2R50 

44 



3424 

.5G2 
'2320 



410S 



2382 



526 
2341 
9 



1154 

4fla5 

378 



B197 

1025 

4275 

352 



2850 

578 
236.5 
34 



5652 



1027 



2977 

504 

1804 

33 



2401 
435 

msn 

37 



2452 



BAB 



543 

4480 
lU 



10 



5134 



3925 
103 



11 



1000 
2710 



331G 



405 
2100 



4651 



538 



4140 3630 
327 ■ 72 



2505 

621 
1890 



5494 

981 

srao 

370 



4240 

492 

3440 

14S 



Sill 

A9t 

3720 

250 



4M1 



4077 

S34 

3690 

liW 



3490 



a4ii 

574 
176.5 



2339 

388 

2160 



2548 



The clunctei of the diitrieta i> u followi: 

1. Mixed tnuinen Bod oommercial 

2. Hiud buamcH and ootzuneroiBl- 

3. AU cUmm- 

4. tUddcntial. 

5. RoddentUL 



6. RetidentiB). 

7. Middle-clan residential. 
8 and 9. Reaidcntial. 

10. Miipd. 

11. Hiab-Glaas reaidential. 



36 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Tablb is. — Effoct of Cbaractbr of Popciation on pBODnmoN 
Refuse in the Different Wards of Chicaoo, 1912 

(Pounda per eapiU per SDDum) 



OF 



WkTd 


Uarbace 


rubbiib 


Ctiuaelcr of populilion 


1 


sa 


S78 


Commercial 


2 


lao 


90fi 


Commercial imd mnnufaoLurlDg 


3 


us 


()6g 


Mixed 


4 


107 


6(M 


Mutiuiacturing 


6 


75 


374 


Mixed 


6 


113 


492 


Reaideutiai 


7 


110 


711 


Ilea i den tiiJ 


8 


4& 


»• 


Mixed 


' 9 


5S 


J' 


MiiCRd 


10 


77 


532 


Maciufacturing 


11 


70 


fl78 


Miuiufacturing 


12 


7i 


3lM 


ManurtLC'turLng 


Vi 


irtg 


(»G 


Hesjilentiul 


H 


107 


604 


Mixed 


IS 


1S8 


.581 


Residential 


IH 


81 


485 


Mftnufat'luring and conimerf^iikl 


17 


101 


477 


MaDufacturing and eoniniercial 


IK 


120 


892 


Commerrial 


1« 


80 


G98 


Commeri-ial 


ill 


HI 


93S 


Commercial 


21 


iir. 


1170 


Residential 


22 


77 


U49 


RHtidentin.! and rammcrcial 


21 


us 


810 


ResideDtiaJ 


24 


115 


633 


Mixed 


2.-J 


I4S 


SC8 


Km identical 


20 


l.S(} 


670 


Mixml, c'hieRy residential 


27 


07 


270 


Undeveloped 


■28 


101 


A(« 


Mixpd 


20 


55 


340 


Undeveloped 


30 


12(1 


IS2 


Mixed 


31 


143 


^a 


Mixed 


32 


114 


570 


Residential 


33 


121 


■^2 


Reaidenijjkl 


^4 


104 


570 


Residential and mmmeiriol 


.^.^ 


126 


477 


Miwd 



* G&rba^p, ubfa. uid ru.bbiali colbotcd. ICi|CUk«^ 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



37 



A better Bervice secures a more thorough collection. During a 
"l-year term, aa Health Commissioner of Milwaukee, Dr. G. A. Bading 
increased the quantity of garbage collected by approximately 62%, 
the correBponding increase of population being about 12%, and 
the increased cost of collection being about 17%. The effect of the 



TABL.e 19. — Reftoe Production in New England, 1909, 
IN Manupactdrino and Residential Cities 



Ciiy 



MAnufacrturing cities: 

New Bedford 

Lynn 

lAWTCDCe 

Manchester 

Taunton 



Averages. 



Residential cities: 

Cambridge 

SomerviUe 

Maiden 

Everett 

Newton 



Averages. 



Populk- 
tion 



Garbage 



92,718 
87,166 
83,006 
68,904 
33,678 



103,531 
75,830 
43,280 
32 712 
Z9,280 



PoCNDa PKB 1000 
PoPnUATIOH PBB DaT 



477 
538 
256 
59 
173 



301 



987 
601 
297 
579 
598 



612 



Aahpa 

and 

rubbish 



2939 
3494 
2594 
3141 
971 



2628 



4342 
4232 
2690 
1473 
4989 



3545 



Total 



3416 
4032 
2850 
3200 
1144 



2929 



5329 
4833 
2987 
2052 

5587 



PlBCBNTAQI BT 
WeiOHT 



Garbage 



4157 



I 



14.0 

13.3 

9.0 

1.8 

15 2 



10-3 



18 5 
12.5 
9 9 
28 3 
10 7 



14.7 



Aflhefl 

and 

rubbiwli 



86.0 

88.7 
91.0 
98.2 
84.8 



89.7 



81-5 
87-5 
90,1 
71 7 
89.3 



85.3 



Total 



100,0 
100-0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100,0 



1000 
100.0 
100,0 
100,0 
100,0 



100,0 



Computed from TaUe No, 12 i>( Ceoiiu Bureau Report, General Statistics of Cities, 
IMI* and with the foliovinc valuesL 



I cu, yd. xarbace - 1200 lb. 
1 eu. yd. sshM -1350 1b. 



1 eu. yd- rubbish 

I cu. yd, ashes and rubbish : 



. 200 1b, 
1000 lb 



quality of the service is seen clearly in Chicago, when comparing the 
quantity of refuse produced in wardn having better service with thosip 
in which the service is poorer (Table 21). During the period cov- 
md by the records, the Ruperintendents in Wards 2, 15, 23, 31, and 
34 were reported as giving the more efficient service. 

ttnence of ttie War. — At some newly conatructed army camps, 
production of garbage amounted to about 300 lb. per 



38 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Tablii 20. — Effect of Nationauit on Production of Rbfosb in Cbicago, 
1912. Quantities in Pounds pbr Capita per Annuv 









Aihea 




Weight of 


Wmrd 


Principal 
Nationkiity 


Garbace 


and 
rubblah 


Totab 


■arba^rn, 

in pound* 

per cubie foot 


Ajubbican 


2 


American 


161 


905 


1066 


44.3 


3 






133 


669 


802 


45.2 


4 






108 


644 


752 


38. 


6 






74 


374 


448 


39.9 


6 






108 


492 


600 


45.7 


7 






107 


711 


818 


44.9 


9 








555 


555 




13 






'i69 


683 


842 


40*3 


14 






107 


604 


711 


42.6 


18 






125 


892 


1017 


35.9 


21 






118 


1176 


1294 


38.7 


23 






144 


810 


954 


37.9 


25 






146 


568 


714 


37.5 


26 






136 


670 


800 


37.6 


29 






55 


340 


395 


40.4 


3D 






126 


582 


708 


45.6 


31 






143 


530 


673 


40.8 


32 






113 


570 


683 


38.0 


33 






122 


422 


544 


37.9 


34 






104 


570 


674 


41.9 


35 
Averages . . . 






126 


477 


603 


37.6 




120.7 


630.7 


745.7 


40.5 










FOBSK 


IK 






1 


Italian 


87 


978 


1065 


38.1 


19 


( 1 


80 


698 


778 


38.4 


22 


It 


77 


649 


726 


36.3 


8 


Polish 




459 


459 




11 


t 1 


"69 


578 


647 


39^9 


16 


It 


81 


485 


566 


37-3 


17 


It 


101 


477 


578 


39.7 


27 


t t 


67 


270 


337 


36.2 


28 


1 { 


102 


509 


617 


33.5 


10 


Bohemian 


77 


532 


609 


37,5 


12 


( t 


72 


364 


436 


43.7 


15 


German 


137 


581 


718 


40.1 


24 


1 1 


114 


633 


747 


35.8 


20 
Averages . . . 


Rttaaian 


112 


939 


1051 


36.9 


90 5 


582 3 


666 3 


39.5 


AveraRBB ft 


ir American 










and FoFoii 




108.8 


611.3 


713.9 


40.1 





REFUSE MATERIALS 



39 



capita per year, or about 50% more than a natural city production. 
One reason for the increase was that all the garbage was actually col- 
lected, whereas, in many cities, the collection service sometimes does 
not reach the entire population. The producers of garbage in army 
camps are able-bodied men and large eaters, when compared with an 



Tasls 21. — Reswrs of Collection Srkvicbi in Ten Chicago Wards, 

IN 1912 



W»nl 


PODKIM FEB 1000 
POPDI^TIOH FEB DaT 


NCMBBB or COLLBCTIONB FEB WbEC 


OErtwge 


Anhn and 
Tubbiab 


Garbage 


Ashce End rubbish 


Wint«r 


Suminvr 


WinWr 


Bummer 


Wards with More Efticient Service 


2 
15 
23 
31 
24 

Avoagm. 


518 
484 
465 
466 
440 


2550 
1600 
2140 
1465 
1740 


6 
2 
2 
1 
2 


6 
2 
2 

2 
2-3 


1-2 

I 

1 
1-2 

3 


1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


475 


1899 


2.6 


2.8-3.0 


1.4-1.8 


1.2 


Waedb with Less Efficient Service 


5 
11 
25 

27 
29 

\vcnKm 


240 
222 
218 
218 
178 


1020 

1430 

1720 

743 

938 


2 
6 
2 
1 
2 


3 
6 
2 
2 
2 


2 
6 
2 
3 
2 


2 

2 
2-3 
2 


215 


1170 


2.6 


3.0 


3 


2.8-3 



average city population, including women and children. These facts 

also account somewhat for a larger quantity of garbage being produced. 

During the war (1917-19) a number of unusual factors in the cities 

alHO tended to alter the normal production of refuse materials. Among 

> iofluences were the very active educational work of the United 

■ Food Administration, the relatively high prices of aU food 



w 


40 COLLECTIOS ASOWR 


^^.M OF unsrcrPAL Rsm^^^t 


^H 


tn«t«rulii, nn<t the difBnulty, on the pnrt of public oflici&le, io securiu); 


^^^^ 


MilTirieiit and Rfiicient holp to remove th»roiii^ily all the refutw iisuallj' 


^H 


coHqplivl. Tht* iiL'l result (>f ihcM) fuetorw was an nvpraKC reduction 


^^B '^ 


of » little? I«m tliHu 10'^/ iu tlic ])er c&pita iiuajitity of k^I^sk^ collert^d. 


^H 


(Tabic 22.) With rcferviice tu the p-oduAl pur capita reduction nf ^ 
garbage in the army camps, oeo alxo Chapter IX, page 307. H 


H 


B^ 


Tahlr 33. — OARBAiiC Coujtirra. 


IN Etubteen Cm£s DciuKa the Ykui 


^^^K 


Endik^; Aiwil, ICI18, (.V>up.utEt> with CouxfnoKt> por thb Vbak ^ 


^^^f 


Endinu Antii., 1017. Shuwino DK<-nEAi<Eii I^ioouctkjx | 


^^1 


DimiNG WiB Time 


i 






Toiia or OAMVuMt 




191 VIS 

C«llHli4aw 


1 


^^1 


Chy 


Populk- 






wtlh 




^H 


tlun 










tOI4-IT, 




1 






1B10-1S17 


l»17-lDlft 


I»I7 


19IT- 

191a 


(be Ultor 

laknn an 
100 




Balliiiiort?, Mrf 


S1)3,I)(M 


37,yi5 


24,a(te 


128 


117 


91 5 


^1 


Unirttill. .Mmhb . , .... 


781. 02S 


r,2.m} 


4fl,33.''> 


135 


im 


88.0 




^P 


Brklgeport. Conn, . . , 


172.113 


If) .807 


I8.IM 


231 


211 


01 3 




^M 




416,3W 


io.tm 


a4.ii» 


Iil6 


IfH 


8».8 




^B 


(Irrplnrnl, Ohio . . 


074.073 


.-.9.70fi 


&'>,4lili 


in 


IM 


fl2-0 


1 


^H 


ColumhiL*. Ohio 


23U,01K> 


20,303 


17,2»o 


185 


157 


&4.8 


^m 




195.000 


Hi.ii2l 


15.077 


214 


3oe 


M.3 


^m 


Detmit. Miph 


750.000 


72.7S5 


64.J70 


im 


172 


88.3 




^H 


<\ntnA RApidd, Mii'h. 


140.000 


8,67S 


7,35» 


124 


105 


ft4 K 




^H 


Iii«li»napuliii, Ind 


271. 75» 


33.2C7 


I0.fl2fl 


171 


U7 


Mia 




^m 


Ijih Adk^'Im. Cnl 


IXIO.UOO 


fi1.062 


47.34.'i 


170 


lAK 


W 7 




^K 


Ni-Mf D<«ltcTd, M»na. 


IIK,l.Vt 


IO,lt» 


8.774 


172 


148 


86.3 




^H 


Ni-K Ynrk, N, V 


.i,;t77..i.w 


4.S7.4.11 


445.237 


182 


106 


91.3 




^1 


Iliilftdoliihia. ra 


1,709,.^ IS 


101.678 


114,160 


no 


134 


112. 3" 




^H 


iMt«lmrKh. I'lt 


5711,000 


73.75S| 


r2,612 


205 


251 


«(.4 




^H 


Itorlitwurr. N. Y 


274.000 


30,78:2 


25,92e 


224 


1S!> 


84.2 


^ 


^H 


T(»l«lo,Ohio 


220,000 


23.971 


22,180 


218 


20t 


92.5 


m 


1 


Wnahiiwioo. D. C 


400,0011 


40,203 


48.732 


232 


2M 


100.0 


1 

.1 


13.1A3,0IM 


l,177,7fa 


l.0(»,2&l 


175 


Ift3 


t« i 


• DoubUal 




rf 


^H 


Tlir rwcTil r^^iin-'lioti in llv- 
thcefl«'i i»n iIh- nielbofU of di> 


. . 


itieh euid ^M 




hv Mr ■ 


^H 


[. 8. Onlxini in the A merioni Jtu 


■ 


^^^H 


vbieh mWi u[ tLe noUs Id Uiv ( 


^H 



ItKFTlSK MATKRIALU 



41 



One cReot o( the vru on Uie production of city garbage was a 
gncral deemup in thr (itinnlity p«r riipit»: xnnthor was a clecrcitse in 
il« RCOTenihlc dt^infiile. and mIUI uiKJltitr wus d tondoncy tu adopt 
iliipuMsl mctlioiln pfTcclitig bdUjr c«nwiTution of 111* vulunblc malor- 
ikk o(HiUun«<l iu tite tmrbase. Th« iacrejuted prir^H of fmidHlufTs and 
Um maaen-utiun uinvcnicnt started by the United StAlo* Food Adinin- 
fumiun n&turoJIy c-uumm1 u decrease in tJie quantity uf garbage pro- 
dnoecl. Kepitrts frum ti)>uul ^ixiy nlii» sliuw thiil durinx litl7 tlirm 
vu ut aveniffe decrease of froin 12 to 15% in tlic quantity of garbage 
CDlU«t«d, tbougb in a few cities lk«« waa an increane. In tu>me caxe* 
tiiF ciHumx indii'-atcd an exce»»ivc decrease, but a study of the loca] 
fiiriiiitioiiti rovmled the fact ihnt in fucli cajMW ]o»« iiltcnti'in had b«eB 
r^'-ii to th« collection, or that more private pcrsoin* bad been col* 
I'tDitt the garbftge for feeding bogs. becauM of the high prioe of pork. 
Tfaerc ws« abto a slight increase in the price ul some of the by-products 
mavemble by reducliun. 

In Cinviiinuti, duriof; \\w war, the prfMl iit^t ion or Kfrhogc vrng 
reduced by about lii'.x, and there was a. ^till groater reduction in 
tbA graufl eoDtcDi. 

Tbt) derrofiM* in food waste is indimted more vurely by the reduced 
inlity of creaMC recovered than by the nctual (luantiliea of garbage 
JuG«d. Allfaough the quantity of garbage muy nut continue to 
B, there i» httle doubt that the percentage of recoverable greaM> 
b gradtially diminishing. McatH are the chid t^>urcc of gre&»e in 
garbage, and data from nyliirtiim workv for u '.t-inoiilh jM^riud in l!>i7 
■honr a derrwwe of .WT; in ihi- grease recuvcrcd, on CMinpuri.'d vt\l\\ a 
iiauUr perlotl in 19l(>. and the actual <iuaiitity per ton of garbage 
•bow* a rmluction of about 1.1 per cent. ThiK decrcaHed production 
wffl proboltiy ountinue for several ynars, due to the recent more 
tntfkSt liafiii- formefl by the .^meripan people, who are gradually ap- 
(liiits Kuroitean habiLi in preparing or coni«erving ilieir food: and 
iM>ciH-> dtici there may be a |>ermt>nenl re-adjuf^tment of condilions 
tu ehangrd tneUiods of disposal. 
Tberc lian aUo l)een created a greuter Icndeocy to adopt disp^mnl 
rhtch voiiMrve more of the valuable portions of garbage, 
adon waHteful methcdH. 
Tbn niRtbod of di^poatol by feeding to hogs ban spread to many 
With pnrk at the recent pripe*, garbage, when rtiB|K«ed of by 
ng will jwiMiure from S7 to tft in value for ejich tr»n. Thna, for 
>ge can be properly collected and cod- 
-|X«al iihowi< e<iually high rvluruit. 
li> : the dooreMcd per capita quantity of garbage and 

■u- lAr^r^r oiEua may atill 0nd the reduction pra«es6e<i econoini* 




42 COLLECT JOS ASD DlSPOf!AL OP UVXWfPAL RSFVSB 



cm! for Mme time The deocaae in Uie qmothiea of snaae utd taak- 
Btfi h*ve beea oSMt, to ft Urge <zt«Bt, bj tbcir laciMMd TaliMs. Tke 
netnt nving taodanein majr DtYerth ekw renuo Car mn* lime. 
and the paUie viU prubaUy no loBter whI« ■» macb ae fortDeri)- 
thmiiKh th« medium of the gavbaee can. 

TTjc decrease In the quantity of Kirbage to St. Pkul. Minn., 
■bown by the (act that, ia 1016, I2.00U lout> wvn cuUvctvil. bikI oal 
7,215 totM ID lOlii. The (cenenl influence of the wkr is shoirn by t 
dtttcnun. Fig. 6, tjikeo from the Mmiapal Javrwd and Public WorkM 
of AueuttUth, 1919. 

To aNcei-iftin the effect of high food pricee in New York City on the 
three Idods of refme, the DepiirtmeQt of !?treet Cleaniuc computed llio 
eollected material on a monthly average for the Barou|^ of Mau- 
hatun. Brooklyo. and The Btijox. Comparing 1916 and 1917. tbc 
garbage decreajicd 21 M «art loads, atul the nihhi<iii 4923 cart load* 
per moDlb, whercttn there wan an inciease of 4742 can htadit uf adiea. 






E.— FItOPORTIOlTS OF COKSTITUEITT MATERIALS 



^ 



The relative proportions of garbsKe. a«he», and rubbifth which 
make up the huuwhuld nefiue are parliculariy impurtanl, because of 
their deddinc influence on the equipmeul required for Ihe colleetionrfl 
KTviccnnd oa the method uf Gnal dt^po^l. Tbc propurtioiw vary la 
difTerent eomraumties, in geographical lofationa, and even in ditTerent 
districta of the same city, as already indiruled. Cilies in the vruj-mH 
elimatw of the South [woduee lettit luh; iliereforc the proportion vfV 
garbage and rubbish in the total refuse t» greater. The MHuonal 
variations have eimil&r effects; the proportion of jtarbage, n» welt as 
Its tutal quantity, is greater in summer thsn during other seaitong. 
Also, the character uf the population ha^ i1« effect. Among the 
lowvr clanes a wpnration of garbage, ashcti, and niblusb is found 
diflieult to obtain, and tbe recorded proportion of garbage is 
tbrrefoiT leas than in wealtlttcr divtrictH. When garbage \s roilected 
by one departmest and asbfo nnd mbbiiih by another, the projior* 
tionate quantities nf earh msy vary from one ndmini^Lration t« 
anotber, a^ the eiheieocy of the collecting dep&ninent increu»e« or 
decreases. The variations In tlie relative quantitit^ uf theM> mnlerials 
in liuusc refuse nhowH tbe imt^irtanre i»f kifwing tli<iri<ui;lily the 
detailed conditiomi under wliieU the niatenala are eoIli>ct<'<t and tbe 
recordn an? kept. Thc»e conchiMond may be drawn from mme of tfai 
tables already given. 

Kor eompariaon with European informntioi* 
acoording to Mr. Ge«)rge Watsun, that 



'.LR<ynOS AND Dl 



7F MUNWIfM RBFVSS 



eutnttaiilially of uiie-lhiril rooibuKtihlc maiti^r, utiP-lliirrl iiicumbustilile 
inullor, aii«i oix-lhini irtoinlurr. Althoiieh the com liiititi tile maltirin 
Enjciand, patiicularly in winter, includes much cinder, oa Uie coiiti-j 
nent, excepliog in Hamburg, cinder i» almost cntirdy abtent. 



P.-UHIT WEIGHTS 

Tho unit nMMUKW of house refutie are determined by a numWr nf ' 
fRctoni. Varialioim are due tn the differeocfls io the popiiUtinn, tho 
sCMon, and the character of the cnllMtion JtBrvic*. 

Tabid 1 S i^hom the weight of x«rhft|[i> fnr earh ward in Chiragn, to ' 
pounds per capita i<er niinuai. The fiitur«e are averagee fw 1912. 

The weigbl uf garbage per cubic yard, a» collucted in Milwaukee, | 
in given io Tabk' 23, together with the rainfall for July to December, 
1010. 

The figures in Table 23 are a\-erBgefi from about .5000 loads o(] 
gnrbaRe |>er month, each load of n-hich woe weighed. The incTCMej 
in weight during ttie period of larger rainfall is about 8^^. With| 
individual lotid:*, on very rainy davA, the increase i» greater, an shown ! 
by Tabic 24. containinK the records of oeveral indi\'idual loatU inj 
Miiwniikoe. A portion of the garbage recorded in this Tahip wasj 
wrapped in paper. The increane in weight of individual hutds due loj 
wet weather, therefore, may amount to more than 50%, 

As the labor of liun<lling refuse is more nearly proportionate 
bulk than weight, it L> well to rcvnrd it also by bulk. Most of the in- 
formation i.i now given by weight. II would Ite well, therefore, if j 
more unit weiithtH nf the difTerent tnaterial» collected were taken audfl 
reported, both for different week days and for difTerent seasons, frow™ 
which both l>ulk and weight could bo awcrtiii ned. It would be still 
better if the labor were n^skoncd. not in dollars and cents, but in oubitfl 
yank or ton.o dealt with per man per hour. S 

The following data, ahowing the weight per cubic yard of different 
refuse malcriali'. iirc taken from Hcring'a Milwaukee report: The 
vd^^tH were furiihihod by the city oSciala. 

Gtaitiage and rubbish nuied . IfVtO 

Ai*M 1210 

RubhiBh,. 6.W 

Manure (nporlwl KB "diy"< tiTO 

In wmc oam», (tpatil^^^^Bii 'cilder b] 

ibe collcctioa tlcpaH ■ '^^T^tT^ Iht oil 



BBFV8E MATERIALS 



45 



Table 23. — ^E>rKcr or Radifau. on Gbneral MotrraLT Wbiuht of 
Garbage, in MiLWArKEE, in 1910 

(5000 kink niched prr mooUi) 



MoDth 



Ruafall dttrins moatli, in 



Wriiiht per ruble 
yard, in pound* 



July 

August 

Se|rtembfT... 

Atezbkea. 

October 

November. . 
December. . 

Averages 



2.84 
2.75 
1.71 

2.43 

1.24 

1.63 
0.46 

1.11 



Period of larger 
rainfall 



Period of smaller 
rainfall 



930 
050 
900 

967 

1000 
890 
770 

887 



Table 24. — Effect of Rainfall on Weioht of Individual Loadh of 
Gabbaoe and Ashes, in Milwaitkee 



Weather 


MftterimI 


Number of 

individual loads 

wei^had 


^eisht per 
cubic yard, in 

poundi 


1 Very rainy 


Garbage 

Garbage 

Ashes 

Ashca 


4 
4 
2 
2 


1170 

740 

1560 

1440 


lOear 


1 Very rainy 


Clear 


1 



Table 26. — ^Weight of Refuse, New York City 

IN Podndb per Capita (U. 9. Census Population) 

(Data trom Report by PaiaoiM, Heriii« aad Whinery, 1907) 



Bwonsh 



1906 



Manhattu. 
tlwBniu. 

™Wk|fB, . 



Gar- 
bacB 



Aalua 



222 1276 
121 757 
148 518 
127 . 430 
312 i 530 



1» 920 



Rub- 
bUk 



Street 

•weep- 

infi 



49 
94 
36 
25 



88 



317 

18S 
173 



looe 



Total Gar- 
refuM bace 



Aibea 



1912 



933 



217 



1115 119 



145 



1327 
708 
496 



201 7941 192 ! 544 
789 157fi 256 ^ 561 



Rob- ''^^"^' Total 

buh . ^^ rfrfuM 

inci I 



108 


330 


51 


176 


88 


168 


61 


245 


40 


804 



1082 
1054 

fan 

1(H2 
1661 



261 I 1454 184 : 940 93 ' 267 IIM 



46 COLLECTION ASD DISPOSAL OF MVSlCtPAL REFUSE 

yard of refuM.' bb iJclivpreJ. The CommiMioner of IIPBlth in Minn&- 
apuli^s, liuvinii: churgu of icnrbnicv voUcctiuu »iiU ilispusa). bu» required 
thftt all bnii»(>holders Rbitll drain the f[arbn|te and then wrnp it in 
paper. Thin requirement ia very ptencrnlty olisfirved. Thp wvighl of 
gnrbaec in Miiincapolii^ is rvcnrdctl in i\K umuial rcEiurtH a^ IwinR onty 
O38 lb. p«r cu. yd. Tbls Ium' li^un> is due to the wrsippiiiK in puper. 
Trenton, N. .!., hat also advantaKcou<Jy adopted this pnicticv. 

Table 25 gives the weijihtB per cn-pita of the Mveral kindi* of r*fui« 
collected !» Ilie Rijrriiii!li<i uf New York City during 11)05 and 1906. 

Fanons used Ibr fclluwiii); ootivorsiun figures for New York City. 

Garbaice. . . 1150 lb, per cu. yd. 

\Av» lanO " " 

Rubbiah 200 " " 

SlTOrt KWWpiiiKit 850 " •• 

Special meiwurements were made in Itnchester to deterniinc the 
average wciglil jwr cubic yiird of gnrbagc, with the following resulU: 

"The wRJgbls i>r Hix toads of garbag*- uri October 27, incununng 3.23 cu. 
yd. each, arc lut follows: 

S.730 lb. 
4,080 lb. 
3,530 lb. 
3,4fi0 lb. 
3,S7fi lb. 
3,89fi lb. 

Ibtal 22,860 lb. 
"TliiH rndiiCM to an avoftRt of 3780 lb. pcY load of 3.23 nj. jrd., or IIM lb. 

\Kt ru. yil. 

"The (iviTnitti- ivi'ikIiI per ciihip^nrd iif Iwii \aa.Af of 3,23 cu yd. pueh. uii 
Augunt 30, WVM, wxA 1174 lb. Tke mv<?ni|!0 pnMlurtton of KurUiffc p«r rapitu 
par year ia 240 lb. The might of nibbiah i> estimated at 2001b. per cu. yd." 

In a cold clirnatf*, fmitpn Karbage nnd a-ohes veiKli )e»>8 per unil 
volume th&n wh«n not fntxrii, becaiioo, generally, they do oot pock so 
tightly in the wagon. Garbage, wboti delivered to a point of diflposal 
after a lonii; haul over rousb roads, welKlitu more per cubic yarti than 
nIhorwiw>, because of the settling and packiny; received while traveling. 
In It wimii BJid rnoist clinuitc, gnrbogr, wlicn tightly [Meke<l &/!» 
deJiv«5", wwghs more llian in « cold dry clinwto. In Miami. Fla., 1 
W. yd. baM wni^ied aa much rw ISOO lb. Aalim and ruMnKh, when 
pUcd careloaoly in yards or alleyn, and infrt^iiucnitv mlti ' ' 'orb 
motetUK, beoome mixed with »inil and dirt, and are getn : i»r 

than when kepi at the buuae in rlii(«il canii. Adiliiionnl •'"*'' 
iag unit wcighta arc given in Chaptfra XIV, yv 



REFUSE AfATEHlALS 



G.— COMPOSITION 



The value of matcrtalia with rrfr^rcneo t-H their 6nft) disposal is 

ly to be oblainnd throujch a knowlf^lice of Iheir ]>)iyMC3l uiiJ chum- 

ly«C)<, iDcludiDi; their calorific value. 

FPtijrslcjLJ Atuljrsis. — A ))hym-»l ur iiivchBiucal analysis uf refuse 

eltowa the <)ua»ljtit» and propurtioii^ uJ K^rliBKc, tinc> iwslics, cUnki-r, 

ilisB, pap«r, wowJ, straw, metal, shoes, leather, etc. Mi>ttt r>f thcAO 

Ingredieuta apiwar iii all dasseo of refuse, but more particulnrly in 

Mima and rubbish. Such aualyitvis uf rubbUii ajid mixe<i Tvlu»c arc of 

•pMtal importance whnu it La iiro[>fis<Hl tu wrt out fniin ihtr ryfusp llie 

ntukirtable cnnstituentfl. The nhief causeH for the varinlioti in ihc 

^^uantitiw of tbc«« iofp^ienttt are the character and habits of the pop- 

^Hpatioo. Gdnftr&phiml locntiuii and nciLson csuhf I^ks vuriatiun. The 

^^^■Itttun ui discarded materials generally rcfluct the w(i.'<torubii.'.'>» or 

^HHi ul a community. TabteH 26 to 29 inrhinvt> give the phyMcnl 

aaalyitis uf refuxc iimtciialB in a numttcr of citicH. 

Table 30 lk a aummary of the physical aoalyaes of Chicago refuse 
ilurinB cue January in comparison with similar records iii tlio Buruugh 
of Richronnd, N. V., during live Jaiiunry)). 

In order tu make eompurable phybtcal anaJy^ea of the ingredients 
lor cUfFerent communiUeH, a standard method should be adopted. 
iThe procedure of the Bureau of Streets in Chicuffo, under the dircc- 
ina nf MesHTR. Felhepslon, Oshnrn, and (treeley, an dcKcrihed <iii pnjte 
l6. ia here recommended. The fnllnwinic description nf an nnnlvHi^ 
Table II) in Chic^ago is taken from a report by Mr. W. J. Oalligan, 
It Superintendent of Streets, as followe: 

'Mtffid aabea and rubbish, removed to dumps by the Chicago Bureau of 

wm analyml. frcnn Juiw! 17 to Sept. 16, by wlK-tiiitl SO rr'jm^iita- 

loada frtxu seven difTi-rvitt >onc« into which the city waa divided. The 

are biMcd on aimilar cxiattnit ounditiuiu. • * • 
"The Mgic^tian of the wonlti iaUi the aeven graupa woa bawd an the 
tharactcr uf the nsidcnta as wi-ll as the dam of buildings and their uac. 

"Group A la coinpnMaJ of huKinn«< and ttiaiuiracturidK intenata and ROO> 

fiumtly liaa only a small oiitfmt ef houwhoUJ rcfuac. 
"(IntMp B U roailr up of rcsidcncca and hiKh-Knidc aimrlmcnl liuildinKSi 
Aa homrw of the wealthy. The hi'lp cniplnyi'd la wii«(i>fut, the ashm are not 
iftvil, aoti ibo gariiaAa output in »^<vir itic average. Slcam naA hot waiter 
^mX are uk>I for the mMt part. The output of aalHta ia lnr)(i> :ii numnier 
^^l««t^ bot vattv bcBlcn are operated. Anthmdte, sraii-aathraviti!, or 
^■hwhoiitaa otal la llw fiwl uacd. 

^H "nrnup C includes houaea aiid flnla or apartmenla occupitd by the middle 
^^K^l*' The mitjnta are rflonomtcal, and to a ^oiuidfrnble extent Mft Ihfir 
1^^ a^M and bum the nndem. t$(«un, h»il water, and fiirnacwi funiinh ihe heat. 



48 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



O 



£ 



B 1 

c >. 



5 






1 
■3 









|3 
o a 



II I 






J 



to 






C4 






CO 
d 









I* 






U) 50 -- 

C4 n w 



OA CO CO 

■4 00 cp 






C4 <o o 
t^ » (>^ 



so 

n 



t>> « e«) 
CO r^ CO 






CO 



M OS ^ 

S S 2 



00 



e 

1 

C 
•a 

s 

I 



s s 



00 



n O >4 

^ "> s 



^ « o 
ad £9 i~^ 






IN 



CO 






■" o ft 

o> o^ A 



B 
O 

&> 

c 



B ^ ^ S ^ 



aXFUSE MATEklAlS 49 

During tbe BunuDcr Hwnw the aA ontput is fram bot-mtter bmters. f»s being 
used for codung purpoaea. The out|Nit ol pufange from this group is relxtivTly 
Koall contnsted with thkt of group B. 

"Grmtp D is txnapoeeA of housa and teoements occupied hy the laUmng 
class. Tbeae people are txanoaueml, beat by st«ve, aift their ashr*. «n<t iwc 
both iHtunuDous and anthracite ooal. They alao bun such combustible rpfusG 



Table 27. — Phtsicai, Analtsbs or Rubbish, in Wa^kin<it\)N, I). (.'., 
NOTBUBBR, 1914, TO AnouftT, 1915 

(Id pereeaUcw t>y weight) 



Component pmztM 


Nov., 

1914 


Dto., 
1&14 


Jan., 
1916 


Mar, 
19IS 


May, 
1915 


Jiinp, 
1916 


July. 
iDia 


Aui., 

i9in 




10.4 
6.6 
0.8 
4.4 

16.6 
5.9 
1.2 
1.5 
0.3 

10.2 
0.4 

1 & 

n 

3 .S 


17.8 
12.7 
9.4 
3.0 
4.4 
3.7 
7.4 
0-2 
0.3 
4.6 
7.3 
0.4 
0.& 
S.I 
35 
07 
[I 
8 


18.5 
7.0 

11.7 
2.4 
3.1 
4.5 
1.4 
0.4 

18.5 

11.7 

0-1 

3 

7.7 
4 
0^ 


16.1 
9.5 

10.5 
2.4 
5,0 
5.2 
2.8 
0.7 
0.3 

13 4 

13 6 
0.4 
0,» 

r. 

0.8 


15. B 
8-7 
9.7 
3.3 
4.6 
7.2 
2.6 
1.2 
0.5 

10.4 
8.8 
0.3 
13 

'-1 
5.2 

oV 

03. 
1^ 

3. 


17.2 
7.3 
6.9 
3.2 
2.8 
4,3 
4.1 
0.2 


18.6 
6.6 
5.0 
II 
8 3 


17 
12 1 
10. 
1.4 
2.4 
5.0 
2.6 
1,0 


lit (1 
13.4 
12 8 
r,.(l 
2.fl 
fi.7 
4 1 
1.1 


Cardboard 

Booka, etc 

Rags 

Wood 

Rubber 


Tmware 


12.3 
5.f) 

0.8 

A i 


111 
fi.4 
1 
15 

7 2 
3 5 


Eoaa>e]ware 

Metals 

tUttlni 


Broken i^ase 


4 3] 4 8 
Oil 7 




.5 2 

3 1 

r 
m I 


01 n 71 nil 


Mtl'mg 


0.1 


o.a 


1 .1 
1 


14 


1 


IirK4*iiTn 


rkiaw 

Dirt . . 


14 01 


4 

6. 91 


" ' ' ■ 


01 


4.51 


10 01 


a 4i 1! .->! 8 7 

i 


Totais 


inn m 


ino m 


100 n> 


ino 01 


100 m 


100 onno niioo o 



u available for hFarin^ piirrvwra. D)inntT rhp -mmmpr «>ftiinn rhpy iwr iQut, 
biraiiuiiniia nnal, .ind wond m nu>l for 'vtnkinK. 

'Group B m maile iip itf rmpmrai hoiUM^ itrciiptnl hy rlip tvorkms I'tiuvaiMt 
wio are fontign and -ftill 'U» their iiarivi* liuimuup*. These iteiiple :irp i-arr<le»a 
ahnnt iitminff fhe -rtrerfB wid ;illey!i. ;uiii fnil rn i-omply with no'icen -ten-M lu 
; Tiolationn of •'ily orrtirMnmt. .Xnnlywx ihnw rhcni in he r-.-irfless ;i|ivi 
tuig i^rhafle frnm other rrfiu**. They ;in^ nor wiwlpful, hniTP\fr, 
I qoo tn uy, vtry MVing in overy way possible, ^to^-c heat is em- 



H 50 COLLECTJOS AND DISPOSAL OF UUNtCtPAh RXFUflB ■ 

^H pluyixl. alxiui 75% nf t)H- nciol Immeci lieing biliiminnUAnntl of lltAohnipftA ^M 
^H kind. The rwulting aah is ot lilUe caloriBc value, la seveo ot Lhe ninpteen ^M 

^^^K Table 28. — Piitsicai. .^KALntEe nr RrnniRK, New Yon* CiTT H 




Campoamil puia 


J'«M'*AT«i.iic PrLMKtr Out *a 1'KBCEVT.kac ur Torti. 


1 


C»|r of Kmt York 


BoMcn. 

AUutle 

t^taliuu 
iManti 


York. 
lCr%rrtt) 

■ 




DolMwry 

flUp 
ttMioa 


Thirltelh 
Blnvt 

diUBp 


Forty- 

Hi ml 
ilunip 


Landon. 

(RlUMit) 

• 


HetllD. 

QtaIib) 

• 












16.S 
0.1 
1.8 


so' 

3.6 


33.fi 
6.8 




4.S0 




2.7S 


0.76 




Lonthw 










».7 

0,2 
13 1 


3.8 
10.7 
2,2 
4.3 
7.0 












WlKd 




?.8 
l.S 
1.4 


8.91 
4 10 
76 
039 
0.S7 
039 
03 
0.2S 

10 94 
2.M 

10. »d 
« 16 
&5 


12 

0.35 


1.4 

83 
3,9 


Mdal* 

tWiw 


0.8S 


































HatB 














Rope Botl ntfinit- 






0.13 
23.90 








Paiirr 


3S 40 


33.a 


73.0 


39.4 


23 3 


M&(ii1s • 1 














|-'lLJtl4'txNini . . • 






-* 




























0.24 








ToUl miirkfteblp 

Total iTiirttilcsM 

ToUls , 












30 Ad 

69 U 


«8.8 

fi$.7 


48.80 

M.ao 


35.49 
74. SI 








100 on 


ira.on 


100 00 'too 00 


too 


1U0.O 


100 


^H 




'■"'■ ■■' ^- "1 


ri 


^^^ 

^^^^H 


■ruda ■ Inrgp uni 
■and bimI nNdue 


null ul 1 
UMdfar 




L* 







RSPrSB MATBRTALS 



M 



'Oroup F » compotwd oF tlw homw of n muMi popukUon of nfttiv« wluUi, 
ECorciiCii born, und ouloml iKiiplr. ahui nf rhmp roumiag housnf ncrupitMl by 
fw who do )i|tht tii)iMekt-4-[MtiK. Tlicy nn- mivliMi ^Miiit lit.lrrinc UlO 

Tawx 29. — pBVwCAt. Amaltsis or 21,034 lu. or ItSFBUt, 
Couu:mD from All Partr or Tokokto, Ont., Octobeb, 1914 

(Viaai Kit^utrriif KrvifRrarrd, FrbriLuy ?, 1019, p. 2St> 



1 


ClMiiriMtiaii 


WtlOBT 


Vot-imi 


PoutKla 

P" 

nitric 

loot 


Fuund* 


P«iri<*i»UBn 


C«liiiir*vt Pfmialai* 


B|^IB[«r«elNt7 

Puprr Dnd cardboiud . 


771 25 
81 50 

4.053 00 

396.25 

420 76 

150-00 

10,185,00 

156 75 

240 50 

235 50 

113 25 

187.75 

92-50 

2,196 00 

1,079.00 

73.00 


3. 52 
0.40 

22.12 
1.90 
2.01 
0.72 

48.53 
75 
1.15 
1.12 
O.M 
0.88 
44 

10-44 
5.13 
0.34 


22 30 

7.50 

882.40 

49.5.5 

42.53 

4.70 

390.72 

11.00 

6.10 

40.60 

17.29 

25 91 

am 

66 79 
31.20 
20 40 


1 W 
0,52 

47 58 
3.47 
2,98 
033 

27.21 
f) 89 

41 
2.89 

1 27 
1 80 

48 

4 m 

2.18 

1 (3 


28 2 

109 

6.8 

8.0 

9-9 

31 9 
20 1 
14 1 
39,4 

5.8 

«-H 

7.2 

13.9 

32 8 
34.0 

3.0 


R«BP 

BoflM 


Hn»i1 




Woud, boTM, and boskrla 

Liniilcum , - 

<(raA>,floweni, tod weeds 
Hhow 




TnUdn nn<t nvrmicra. 


21.031 OO 


100,00 


H3n 77 


100,00 


14 7 



Taslb 30. — PuTsicAL Analysis or Aftnts A^fD KcBBiaa 
CoLUtcnD l^ JANLAnr. Nbw Yokk and Chicmm 

(I'^foenlaifv by weight) 



FiM 



C«aland 
Mndua 



Cllfikvr 



KubliHh 



OMtiM* 



BoriMixh of Ricbmoad, 
New York. KVPimee iif 
Bvf JADtiwyit . , 

<*Iii(-»Kt>, one Jtinuary, 



63.5 

49 88 



27,1 
34 <» 



3 B 
11 59 



000 
99 



Iri'clji nnd nllrya, iinH lu^iuirwlinii nf garlwifce. \\'ood &111I bituminoiu roftls urc 
1 (ur fiu-l iluriiiK nil MVMjiirt ut ihu year. 
"Orw^.G (atit inrliidi^l in the accocniiuiying tablt^) ia made up of tin 



82 COLLECTION AND DIUPaSAL OF MVSICIPAL REFUSE 



liotnen of a mixed populatton of .Amnrimn nnd ror«ign-bem pcnmnn ran|[iiig 
froui the middle to the laboring dtuK. No wparation of icarbtt)ci> frufit otb«r 
refiuc in oMkit], flrririK to the imtctwanbiUtj- of llitm- clintrictA to tin- ntlurlitin 
plant. .\11 gradcfl of cool and wnod u« iwed for Tud. 

" In one of ibc tK) loads no aehni ncra found. Swcii IomU id KTOup wen 
not u»ed in the laUe <iwing to the iiottHie]mnilii)n of giirljag«(mtn other ivfiBV. 
Th^ londs avfiragMl 5 m. yd. each. 

"In ciirfnin wnr<lj< iht-rr unire proportioiuiU-Iy Innct'r nmniintti of mref 
biutible refuse than in oUiisb, due to wsrd burners not being opcrotMl and to 
the fKquciicy of service ^vco. whether daily, twice « «-ock, or wMkly, la 
innny londiltra tliu reaidriitjt have {ior1iil>li? nibbi.-di biirraiH. Iti a lame num- 
li«r of aiwrttwnt buildings thpre arv in8taU(<d tT^nuitorius iu wliit-h hulJt ^r- 
kap; nnd rubbixb ii» cuuauineJ. Tlua i> particularly true durinit IJk winter 
Booann. 

"Tlio IaIaI wfi^tlit of rair^ in thf Kixly l>niul« muilyiuvl mM 3M0 lb. They 
vnn- nhtjunisil liiri;<-ly in ii-ui;'Ki» fniin w&rd );>^'ii)>n fi oiid C, reiire(icntati\i- of 
the wndltiy atiil midill'' cIhm'. lit vuituii* of Kn>u|ic I) and H bul tmiall i|Usn* 
titivH wcrv fuund. Rok (<i<-~K<.-n<, with lhi:ir ciirtn vf alMiiil u mtiir yard c«|>a- 
dly, flnumh in the former KToiips. 

"Ofif Xni^npoprm. — It in difficult to aecuro a rttnaoimbly ncrumic artimale 
nf the uutiiul of ntwaiiapcra rvjocted by the publici Janiton, gciiirrally, aavr^ 
bundle nnil tu>Ul pitiwnt iiiit.il ttiKj' aeciiiirc n ruiL-tiderabUr ijiiontily, whirJ) they 
HclI lo pa]M!r nr junk Jenlent. Both ill th« «ue of elex-atfid railroads and strain 
roadfl cominK xiiburbon paswngcrs, at cM'h terminal the pnpt- n< ar« pitbcml. 
balMt Mill H)ld in rnr-loiul IhIk. 'llii- tiiCiU ciri-iilHtioii of rln* doily miirinnR 
and evfniiig pu)>i>rH It l.'Jli-MOO, *r«ighLng 1660 Una, BaecH lipoii Uimu ftgurM 
llif annual t'ltmiiit*' would l>n nearly 520,000 toiu. Addi-d t<i ihin an- thr 
Sunday ediliona, bringing the total very oloee to 000,000 tons pet yew of this 
90Tt of refuse. 

"Pmldlera canvaM the difltrtrta ombmeed in whkI groupn B and C iiffirrinit 
limoniH and oUut hoiuwthoUl urtirliii in ■■xrtianico for fairly good old sboM. 
TbcAR ATv »old tfi u i'1iic« uf I'libbicrn and auiall lUvdnnt who rrpnir and iwll Lhan 
at a small price. DiitrardMt ahom from the other iiroups are of piactJcnlly no 
value, having been worn bej-ond repair. 

"Little melal of any kindwaa obtained in tlie loadu aualyted. rasi iron 
and aemp iraoi wen* to a xniall degree in cvidciKr. I'his elam of vanle is 
geoecaliy sold by houatttolderR and jonitoiv to junk dcalen. 

"RiiUiiali in th« sLrMta and in Um> aUey* » picked over by a chn of men 
who gntb&r onyibing that baa a ready eommeri-ial vnlu«. I'hc nnmber nf mra 
who are tlnu> vmplgyed Is Ioibc; nearly all junk dealers are ready lo (unuab 
them with rarta or biaga. The work is ayat^nntiird, the nn-ii workioK in 
dnRnite dislriefv 

"ffixoecrv »/ VnhuMe MalUr. — Trnde waste la a term applied lo rcfwc 
(lucunlied by faetoriM. nianufac-liUTrs. boleU. and uttiier plaMta of lHuille«s^ 
wbii^b i«Dot rpnwvpil by tteeity. I'lum thi« rliui»i<i( tcluse, prHctietdIv every- 
thinfE of iiilur i^ cxiraet«l by the owrii'r, lanilor, or n oinitruitor < Vrlain 
uwnt-n »r aiti-Mla Iwve Um? einder ooipiit removed frntn their pTDmiwii wilhnut 
«Mt under privntr enntract. by iucludtnic their ulal>Ir iWuae. GorbajR) (nmn 



I 



RBFVSE MATBRIAUS 



53 



. aiSfs, And rraUumnts, ricii in rount xrauw; And 1>one, is of commrrcU 
Ju*> and u< lold or giveo iii tKcdiange for snap ur other arUcles of vnluc. 

"Ill IIm) nxty IoimIk uniil>>»tl, finr mIi, cinder, and clinker M)nipnMd 
i.tf',. li>' vrcicht of (lie wIwiIp, aiid rubbl.ili ihi- n-tnuintkr. Rulibbli, vxdud- 
irg tcarliatc*'. was 298% of lln? wliolp. Tlip wnigtit t/f auOu-H in-r miImi- yard 
wika 1186 lb., and tbc pertvutuKu vf ouiubuntiblc nutvrkl ww 58^. llw 
tnatnial havini: a onnimerrial value wax 14 .S%. 

"I'hi* wri^ht prr riibi^ i/ard of rabbich in nnn«dprnbty hiRbrr thun that 
of Dtber ntit3i, diH' to rtn oiintAiniiiK yard cImciiiiKn nnil Liri^r aiiuniitU of 
Itarb&fCP, Th^ terra yard clntnin^ u§ed in the Chicago da^ificHtion of 
waste doe* not ikpp<»r in tbc report« of other citica. This inat«riftl remained 
in tbe amen in tbe anulyting proncHB and waa separated from tbe cindors by 
[Moking." 



will 

It 
inoi 
iL 




In Boioe cases It is dMirabIc to scpamte the Bnc bA from the oshm 

wlivn I'ollected, IpaviiiK ii larR«r jinniortioti of einder or unbumed 

rhnn, and largpr interstitial air space. By doing this, combimtion in 

cri'oecil, tlir ncoussar.v vupacity uf the furnaces ia ruduced, uad a 

ire swrvioeable imminK mixture i»« obtained. The coat c»f )icrc>eniii)f , 

howBver, aoinetiiiteH mak<!A it iineconnmiral. 

In Bome cilies, enpecialiy atoni; tbe Pacific Coast, tlie refufic eon- 
ins many tin chum. A mechanical atiulyHit should )>e madr. to show 
lit'ir quantity, u:* tbcir prenence ii; un inipurlunt item fur cnn^em- 
n in acvrral methodn of dispoiml. 

Tnstfl have Ixx'ii made at Milnnukeo and New Yiwk to delertnine 
w much moisture can b« drained or preKii>d dijt ol KarbaK^. Th« 
t» at Milwauket-, made by Proft«wur Suniitier, (<xtend(id itvor 24 
Kitira. IJifTercnt qtiuiititivs uf garbaeu vrcrc plncvJ in u nail biirrt*!, an<l 
the quantity of water draining out wo.* ret^orded. The peaults of lliia 
,le«t are ahovrn in Tuhle 31. Tho mnximiiin quantity of moinlurB 
bicb dniiuod out under a pressure of 'i4 in. of garbaKv wua '0.33% 
of th» original wviKbt. 

Compmviicin !«*(« were miwli* by tlii> l/wlerli' Ijiboratoripn for the 
Paraons, Herinij, Whinery report to New York City. The teats and 
rmulta (Table 32) are pv«n in the mport an follown: 

"One cubic ynnl of KiirliaKi* waa placed in a rylindririil rnnel, 3 ft in dinrn- 
rU-r and 4 (t. difji. UVifdits of 438, l.OfiO, 1,0B4. and 2.330 lb , mmwtx)ti<]- 
init. rvofiM'tively, to 6(), 1,^, 2i0, and tiSO lb. per !>q ft., vrvn pbicd vji lliv 
fCarbafCe. and the water druwn off at. recnrdod inten'alfl of time and incamirfd. 
"Tltn MH^nd ttitt prcvdiicnd nc much more liquid than the fint tbul it 
wot tluitticht advieaUe to subject garbaice ntlleded on a Monday to the initial 
Nt of (fO tb. |)n«MUr«. 'Hiv nvull m givvn in thn third tnt." 

Furlher data rcfcrrinE lo pltynicnl aiiulyiwH may Iw found in Cbap- 
XIV. XV, and XVi. 



54 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



2. Chemical Analysis. — The chemical analysis of refuse is difSeuIt 
to obtain accurately. It should include a determination (1) of the 
ingredients in refuse which are valuable in soil fertilising; (2) the 
quantities of grease which may be recovered; and (3) the quantities 
of carbon and hydrogen capable of oxidation to produce heat. It 
should determine, also, the moisture in the refuse material, the quan- 
tity of true ash, aad'the calorific value of the materials. 

Table 31. — Detkruination of Free Moisture in Garbaqe, Milwaukee, 

1907 



Drie 


„ _ QciWmT or Wate« 

Ql-ANTITT of Ga^AOB DBAIN.D 0(TT 


Weisht, in 
pouiida 


Heichta iD 

barrel, 
ID iDchca 


In i^ta 


PerMaUce by 

weicht at 

oritinml 


September 17th.. . 
September 18th. . . 
September 19th. . . 
September 20th. . . 


50 
100 
ISO 
200 


8 
16 
24 
32 


0.33 

7.50 

14.00 

15.00 


0.67 

7.50 
9 33 

7,50 



The difficulty in obtaining these data with fair accuracy is due to 
the difficulty of securing representative samples, because the materials 
vary from one year to another, from season to season, and according 
to the localities where collected. Most analyses do not cover periods 
of more than a few weeks; therefore, the results are not usually truly 
representative, but only show the composition under stated conditions. 

Garbage at Milwaukee, Wis., was analyied in 1907 by Professor 
Sommer, and in 1910 by Greeley; the results of the two analy.'*oft are 
as follows: 



SoMtrr 


PSBCEKTllOK BT WkIOBT 


Moiiture VoUtUe 
rnktUT 


Fiird 

rmrbon 


Aah 


Sominor 


78.0 ! ! 8.4 
70.(1 17,6 4 1 


13.6 
7.7 









These analyses show the importance of securing propo' 
tativc samples, as the portion analysed by Profeaaw ^ 



nSFVSE MATERIALS 



55 



rABLR 32. — ^Liquid Sqceesed trou New York Gasbaqe bt Phessure 

(Pu«ou, Herins, Whinery Report, 1907) 





Prenure, 


TlUB 


raou 


QUAimTT OP LtaviD 




poudda 


Stast or TisT 


S'jUEEKEU Out 
FBOU Stabt or Test 




per 










■quue 












foot 


Houn 


Minutes 


Poundi 


OuncpQ 


First Tebt: 


60 




15 






Monday's garbage col- 


60 




45 






lected Tuesday; bulk, 


60 


7 


15 




3 


leu. yd.; total weight, 


150 


17 




4 




6771b. 


240 


6 




7 


8 




240 


30 




19 






330 


5 


30 


24 


8 




59 


45 


47 


11 




Second Test: 


150 




15 


21 




Sunday's garbage, col- 


150 




30 


32 




lected Monday; bulk. 


150 


1 




40 




1 cu. yd. ; total weight, 


150 


5 


. . . , 


68 




1122 lb. 


150 


6 


30 


73 






150 


35 


30 


82 






240 




15 


1 


8 




240 




30 


4 






240 


1 




6 


8 




240 


3 


30 


14 


8 




240 


6 


30 


20 


8 




240 


24 


30 


54 






330 




15 


I 


4 




330 




30 


2 


8 




330 


1 




5 


8 




330 


3 




14 


8 




330 


24 




43 




Totals 


330 


27 


30 


50 


12 




87 


30 


186 


12 


Thikd Test: 


00 




ir. 


21 




Sunday's garbage, col- 


60 




30 


32 




lected Monday; bulk, 


60 


1 




45 




I cu. yd.; weight, 1333 


60 


3 




67 




lb. 


60 


6 




R6 






60 


17 




103 


- - , , 




.... 


17 .. 


103 





56 COLIKCTIOS AND DISPOSAL OF MUSICiPAL RBPVSE 



to hav« included subetances containing a oomparaltvcly Urge prof 
tii>n of sdh. 

Mmt re(u!« materials cnnlnin vome initrediejits which urc uteti 
in Ok (ertiliitalion of eoil. This is particularly lru« of manure, 
pnintofl out in Chapter XII, but garbage and asb«s also contain urndF 
iiuanlitics of plant food. The chief dcmcnls of (urliliiinK value are 
pho«ph(^nc acid, ammonia, and pntAHh. Coal bjAux crttntnin a very 
small Quantity of potash, and therefore have only a ^\i^b^ fcrtiliiit 
value. Garbace, on the other hand, has a decided value a» a fertjlij 
fdr poor op Handy soiU. Yet tliis value in less llian is ahown by 
anaiy^(^■(, or than is popularly Huppo»cd, because the animal 
vfflietable m-ittcrs mURt first be decomposed before they nro nvnilabr^ 
for plant food. Tbe grease <!ont«nt in 9arbii);;e i* even detrinicntnl 
it« immediate value na a fertiliser, as it tends to clog or " fat " the i 
thuK proveiitiiif; the necoKMitry poiielration of air. 

In the reduction iiiethoil of fturb!LKe(li.-<po»ul icrcjLse ix extracted and 
water i.* drivi-ii off. ThL> fertiliziiiK elcittciits urc conecntnitiMl intg |fl 
dry rcHidue cjilled tJinlcnKe. In some ca-scw, Nperial nnalyscn have heenV 
mode in order to »how the valuer of garbaKc for tliiK method of dii»- 
po»al. The quantity of grea»ie contained in garba^ varies from about 
1 to 7% of the wei^cht of the raw matenal. ami the n^j-irliial tankage 
varies Iruin 10 to 2^%. M 

AllhoUKh the foregoing anah'scR are not estemiivn enough to tthnl^' 
fixr<l variation-i in the chemical compooition due to the location ot 
aeaeon, or to the character of tlic population, ncvertholc^s, the rer'uit- 
ing difTeri-iieeH certainty exiNt. In uiirm KOit^ons and in warm cliuiatni_ 
lem meat and mure vcg;etat)les are eaten. In such ra^&t, the quantil 
of grea«e in the Rarbngc in lens, berauee it i» derived prineipally 
the aniinal matter. In IRIO, in Columbus, Ohio, wliere the gnrt 
i.- treated by reduction, the ktcjisg recovery in Mummcr was 1.1%; 
but in winter it amounted to 1,5%. Partly on thin account, reduiy^ 
tion workfi in southern cities, as a rule, have not been profitable. 

The quantities of Breaee, id percentaKes of the garbane, for »\ 
eitie" huxe Iwen a* follows: 



jiatm 
tnlili;^ 
fro^ 



Ciiy 


1011 


10I& 


1916 


i»i7 ; loi'i 


JO 111 


IJelmit* 

(Vitumbua . . 
Mtnneapnlig 


2.93 
274 


3.81 

2 21 


2 1 

3 111 


1 o I 1 »i 


2.50 



■ n«ia I,., I MadMarilBEirr 



To dmign refuse moiuerators pnipfiriy, tlie annlyfcs of th« refuse 

ttdrials nhould show the cnntcnl o( carbon, hydrocen. niit«r, fine 

trit* fttih, viilHtile matter, nm) the Britiidi i)ii>rmul \im\h. Tliene 

PBCdU nie n*(]uirH! in order 1o iMiinpute the hi^it Value, thi> quaiility 

dinker, aud tUe crQ9B-e«<'tioiml an-aa aecedaary fur tlic furaucu 

■aU and Bum. The bydmgen tnay assinX in estimating thi? calorific 

DC of the nmt«riul. Tublae 33 tu 36 give analyses of rcfiiiie showiiix 

I coiwtUiietitM. 



Hvlatnrc 



Bthn Cmrsct 



itttU 



Tim Tl I Li 



A«h 



tffiTTTfrr 



1.1 



Phoapharlc A«|4 



Ml 



Cnnfauititiir MBti«r 



1.W 
S IJ) 



NilisccD 



Calerifli V.lu^ 



Potaih 



tl 



i 



iimuuuiik 






UN 



UU 



two 



l«10 



""■ '. — Awt»c« Mootlily Variation in Consitiients uf (larLugc iu Four Ohio 
Qtinr, Mid C^atoritii^ Valiim. 

Kan— Av<nn, Majr lo A«(ii«l. IIWP. (ih CUvnlanil, Ciilumbua, aat] Dartnii; »»or- 
1 1^ fbtdacnWr, IVOO, <B tvM, ItlO. (oi CiDcmiuli. CleVfllBaJ. Cnlumbiu. utiiI Unylan 



p- 7 X..^, tj,g ovnrage monthy variation in pcrcontaKCH of iiioii- 
^' ■■'wtible Riatt«r, calorific value, elher extract, phon- 

" '■ .'vmt potatih ill ttie K»fbaK« of four Ohio i-iticK. 

'■ cheriiical unalys»t of thi> Kurlutfiv in ('indnnalj, 
UtUBfl from March lii IXfombrr, 11)17, loncther wilji 
' ' ■mtli. 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



m 



« o — « » 



e* e* 'O " 

^^ t^ r< 1—1 ^^ 



t* r- ■* O 

C4 lO r^ ^ CC 



« "5 * O 

S -• S w 5 

-r 



e« S CO <«■ s 



l« tv lO -« 

CO (C ■-■ i— I^ 



M <0 •-' 00 

ffi ^ « b 



» w t- w 



ti C n n 



OC ■« t~ C4 

■O t<^ « M 



CO ^ tQ O 

c4 >d M b ■«• 



cc >a 00 n 



« ^ ^ t- ffi 
t- rt N ro -r 



s? 



r> « a s 

- C « si 0> 



^ IQ — lO 



o m lo r- 

•r <o •- — 



rt -. o oc 
ra i~^ DC — 

M — — M 



- = *-{: 



W M — BO 



t»^ ♦ ® « 

■^ I,; « _- jj 



O M K lO 

— M ?« ■^ — 
* CJ — n t^ 

s 



C C "J — * 

2 



» N * ^ 



<0 ^ ^ » 
M Cs « — M 
O 



la n a> n 



s 



C C < — SC 



m le X o 



— M M M i« 

DO — * 



* n « X 
e« d ?i — t* 



e « a M 

s 



r> « = n 



S = ^-| 



•e X P* » 

CO X c* — s 

3 



t<- X aC O 



*"i 



e s ac X 



X X a ♦ 
^ t>^ — ^ 



•s — « — 



■ « — 
s as 



S---5 



?« r- -r c 

?*« — —■ 



•C « I- « 



C -r — X 



■X. s. ■s l~ 

«; r« s; I- < 

M — ff* « X 



csr.x 
« = ••■»■ — 



« si - - 3 



X X ff t» 

— OS © c — 



X B5 X — 

5* r* "• c 3( 
*1 — s« ■* « 



^ ^« X 

^ o ♦ ■» w 



X ^ 5« X 



t- ^-^g " 



i 



S X ^ •- 

m — ■; s « 
r* — r« T « 



I 

i 



iil 



■ £ ft S - 







I t ? - 






60 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RSFUSE 

Ab a general appronmation of fuel values, it has been found that 
1 lb. of coal is e<iualed by the value which, under favcvable condi- 
tiotiH, can be obtained from S to 12 lb. of unsorted refuse, including 
domestic ashes. 

Mr. J. T. FetherstoD, in 1908, in a paper read before the Society of 
Chemical Industry, New York Section, gave a chemical analysis 
(Table 38) of an average sample of the three principal components of 
refuse, together with the calculated calorific values and those deter- 
mined by tests. He also shows, in diagrammaUc form (Fig. 8), the 




Fig. 8. — Siiisoiiul Yurialiun in Mixed Refuse Incineration, West New Brixton. 



s(\isniii)l viirintinn in the mixed refuse at the West New Brighton indn- 
or:it«r. Frnm this iliaKriim it will K^sot'ii that the nsh is high in winter, 
!\w\ the HMtiT coiiti'iit of h()u.-ii'lu>ld refuM? iiii-rea^s with the iwo- 
imrtinti i»f pirliDKo in suiiiinor. The sowmd ilivisioii of the diagram 
slitiws Ihtit the summer refiiM^ in low in cnlorifir power, and that 
SepteiiitHT is the eritioni time fur burning the mixed v-aste. Sep- 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



61 



t«mber is also indicated as the critical time for producing steam from 
mixed refuse, and is the time when the lowest temperature of com- 
bustion may be expected. In this case, however, the temperature 
would be hiKh enough to ensure the complete decomposition of the 
gases, and thereby prevent nuisance. 

Table 34. — Monthlt Variation in Chzmicaij Cohposition of Garbaqe 
IN Wabhinuton, D. C, in Jdl5 



Uunth 


Number 

of ton* 

coUeeted 


Moi*- 

turo 


Coni- 

hiuti- 

blo 


Aih 


Ether 
citiart 


Potaah 

■a 
K.O 


PhoB- 

phoric 

acid H 

P.0, 


Nitro- 
nen 


January 

February 

Msrch ...... 

.\pril 

May 


3,745 
3,283 
3,548 
3,829 
3,969 
4,002 
5,266 
8,341 
5,330 
4,607 
3,930 
3,846 


74.2 
72.0 
70.2 
68.5 
72.0 
74.2 
79.7 
78.6 
75.5 
76,4 
72.8 
72,2 


21,7 
24', 4 
26.0 
27.5 
23.9 
21.8 
17.6 
18.5 
21.1 
20.7 
23.3 
23.5 


4,06 
3,22 
3,73 
3.96 
4.16 
4.42 
2.67 
2.89 
3.37 
2.89 
3,89 
4,28 


5.29 
5.95 
6.88 
7.16 
6.56 
4.97 
3.44 
3.82 
4,36 
4.15 
5.03 
5.96 


0.29 
0.25 
0.25 
0.29 
0.33 
0.31 
0.31 
0.23 
0.23 
0.22 
0,29 
0,32 


0.57 
0,47 
0,41 
0.61 
0.47 
0.32 
0.27 
0.27 
0.27 
0.20 
0.11 
0.74 


0.67 
0.77 
0.73 
0.96 
0.82 
0.61 
0.46 
0.54 
0.61 
0.64 
0,70 
1.03 


June 


July 

August 

Septentber. . . . 

October 

November .... 
December. . . . 

Total 

Averages. . 


51,718 


73,8 


22.5 


3.63 


5,12 


0.28 


0,39 


0,71 



Mr. B. K. Welton is the authority fur the following calorimeter 
t«Mt and proximate analysis of mixed refuse at West New Brighton, 
N. Y., made in 1906.* 

1. The materials in the sample were : Garbage , 53.4% by weight 

Coal and cindont. . 27.0% 
Rubbish 19 6% 

2. The pmximate analyaia showed: Moisture 45. 1% 

Volatile matter .. , 26,6% 

Fixed carbon 23.8% 

Ash 14,4% 

3. Proximate ralorilie vttluw) |HT lb.: Original Kumplc... 4300 B.t.u. 

Dry sample 7900 " 

Combustible lUonc 10630 " 

• rraiuadi'inu, Am. Boe. C.E., Vol, LX (1908), 



62 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



« 






i 

a 
u 

a 



■3 



11 






I It I 

^ ^ Q W ^S Q 

Hi WW ® "g nio 

^ ^ f e e £• I i ^ S I ^ i e 

bn c 6. o (*, o P- fli < o ct, o a. o 

m tn u) to -^ t- "N ^ 

C4 00 03 a O) 

■-• n oDomcoi-iO) (COSMO) 

t^--i--> .... 

NC*NiO« r-. — ^ 

^EoS« mooSouS t^oiint- 

I-- h- 3 t~ -" c^ -" 



■fi-e-e-e 

sS dS Si * 

o o c c 




JS Ji j:i JS 

.s .s .sa .s 

^ ^ Xi SI 
^ .£ ^ ,£ 
3 3 3 3 
tf tf « tf 




2 o £ 

Oi ^ Oi 



e 
3 



I 



= 
s 

■c 



u o 



E 1?". 



C D 



■£ S ^2 



-14 

3 
-I ^ » 



a 
o 

# S ^5 B= 



\ 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



63 



It is obviously important that chemical analyses of refuse should 
be made with sufficient uniformity to permit of securing fair compari- 
Bons. The procedures described below are recommended by Dr. 
Arthur Lederer, forraerly Chief Chemist of the Sanitary District of 
Chicago. 

Table 36. — Cheuical Analtbis and Calorific Value of Dry Rdbbibm, 

New York City, 

DctarminatioDB made by D. C. Johnson 

(Data [rom Panona, Hering, Whinery Report. 10O7) 



Averace of two ehemical analyaea of dry 
rubbiib delivered at Delancey Slip 
Station, in Deceiober, 1906 



Perceataci! 

Nitrogen 1.00 

Hydrogen 5.60 

Carbon 45.81 

Orygen 39.01 

Ash 8.58 

Total 100.00 



Calorific value o( (our sBinples of dry 

rubbiah delivered at Delancey Slip 

SUtion, in December, 1905 



Il.t.u. 
Sample No. 1, by Mahler 

calorimeter 7810 

Sample No. 2, by Mahler 

calorimeter 7750 

Sample No. 3, by Mahler 

calorimeter 7580 

Sample No. 4, from chemical 

analysis 7150 



The first important proceeding is the obtaining of the sample. 
The number of analyses depends on whether two or three will be 
sufficiently representative of the community at large, or whether a 
larger number are required, in order to show characteristic differences 
in the various districts of the city. 

Two shovels full should be taken from each of ten to twenty 
wagon loads, and should be well mixed on a smooth, clean, and prac- 
tically watec-tight surface. The pile should be halved and quartered, 
and each quarter should again be thoroughly mixed. The sample 
for the analyses should be taken from the final quarter. 

If garbage alone is to be sampled, portions from different parts of 
the final quarter should be selected, placed in a chopping bowl, beaten 
up, and comminuted, before the final sample ip selected. For ship- 
ping the Hamplea to the laboratory, 2-qt. jars are convenient. Dr. 
I*derer says: 

a Determination oj MoUture. — A determination of the moisture content 
of refuse in essential for all analyses, irrespective of the final disposal method. 

The moisture may be determined by exposing a large (several pounds) 
wa^nd portion of well-mixed refuse to dry heat (as over an incinerator) for 



64 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 






~ 2 



z 
u 

■< 

EG 

■« 

o 

h 
o 



a 



2 

■< 

:^ 

u 
u 

S 



3 



5 
3 

CO 






»s 



H a 



M a - 



*■ 



»S 






t; 5 0,9 



1,1- 






dddddddddd 















S2gJ^S8288 






nd>odao<pdiaM-> 



ooooustft^iONro^N 



^v 



■w us 






■c 
a. 
< 






§ -f 

"^ -^ 



3 









Ji 

6 

a 
> 



1 
E 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



65 



Rereral dayB until the weight has become constant. If the dctenninatioD is 
made in the laboratory, take about 1000 grams of well -mixed refuse and rapidly 
reduce it in a grinding machine to a fine powder, so that it will pass through a 
sieve having cirtnilar holes of one millimeter (0.0394 in.) in diameter. In case 
the sample cannot be ground, reduce it otherwise to as fine a state as possible. 
Before evaporation can reduce the moisture, determine this at once by beating 
two grams (or five grams, if the sample is very coarse] for 5 hours in a water 
oven at the temperature of boiling water. The loss of weight measures the 
moisture. 

Table 38. — Chehical Analtbes op New York Crrr Rbtusb 



CoutituenU 



Carbon 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

SiUca 

lion oxide and alumina . . . 

lime 

Magnesia 

Phosphoric acid 

Carbonic acid. .' 

Lead 

Tin 

Alkalies and undetermined 



pBBCEKTAaBB OF RaruiB Mateuals, 

BT WbIOBT 



GtfbBgo 



43.10 
6.24 
3.70 

27.74 
7.66 
0.41 
4.26 
0,28 
1.47 
0.59 
20 
Trace 
4,45 



Coalasbfs 
and cinden 



55.77 
0.75 
0.64 
2.37 
30.01 
8,98 
1.21 
Trace 
None 
None 
Trace 
sulphides 
I 0.27 



Rubbuh 



42.39 
5.96 
3.41 

33,52 
6,49 
2.03 
2.26 
0.57 
O.IO 
1.49 
0.52 
lYace 
1,21 



Calobuic Values, in Bnmsa Therual Units 



Calculated from above analyses 

Averages of calorimeter determinations 



7970 
8351 



8382 
8510 



72.50 
7251 



Tbtae chemical anatyte* are of dry compoaiU Mtmples ol garbage, coat aghea and 
eiDdeis, and rubbiih, Uk«n in 1905 and 1900. 



In order to prepare the sample for the detornii nation of t.lir othrr i-homiral 
mniitituc-nt^, it is advisable to air-dry a Uirgc [mrtion (SO to 100 grumH) of Ihc 
Rnrly [wwdered sample, by exposing it to a temperature of 80 degrcoi Ccnti- 
pade until the powder feels dry between the fingers. Determine the moisture 
oontent of the air-dried material in the same manner as given above, and put 
ft into ft weishing flask for further determinations, 



66 COthECrtnji AND DISPOSAL OF MVNICtPAJ. REFUSE 



b. A»h and ViJaliU Mailer. — I(^l« a convenient portion {about 2 gtuxa of 
tjic air^lricd mntrrml) in n oidirl dish, and bum imlil (rii: of carbon at tbo 
lowiW pnsnblp heMi. Ili^t lo \im mliifM* uml ueiicti. The mudue. calm* 
IhIwI by pprcrnUgp on o, romplclply dried bu^i^, rvpm^nU the ash; the diff- 
erenm repi*ni-«t« iIh^ voliililr nmttrr. inHuilinit ihi.- cnrbwii 

t. Carbon and U^fibooen. — These consliiUPiiU are determined by whst it 
called (he " rlriiHiniary " anal>'8i«. A dctaiivd dcfcriptiun of thta pntccM eaa 
be found in PrctteniiiA* "Qiuintilativi- C'hemiivd Aiuib'siA. " Vol. 2, |wKr •'W: nm 
litillninn'x " Knginrrring Chtiiiintry, " third pititioii, page 105. The (ollowis, 
slioit d<v>rn|>ti»i> iif ihiit inucrdiin- will lien- kuIKi't: The mnibiutlon nppora-' 
tw« coiuistA of a set of DutiBen burners over wtiich a «>ribu«tii)ii liibf? Li ir»> 
pctuli^d. Till- M>mhiLitinn tubs ix «|>pri>viinnlrJy 7t) «TiliiineI<*r« ktnK- Into 
one pjid of iho tubt- |i1u>-q gnuiululMl aitinr nxide Uk n di-<taiiir of iilmiit 30 
wnlimi-k'n. Piuiv \hv Inlxr in n ronibiixtint) rumaee, coniiect it with u dfj-ing 
ft])|>Hniliui at llif |«>iiit wh<r« (be air ciirrrnt cntm \\k tul>c. Conucct ttc 
Oilier end with n. D liitn'' liUod wiili granulated ewloitmi cbUjride TJw U lube 
'» mmn(M!tJ-d with mi u*\nTx\tiT siid tlie nir w dmwn lhn>ti|[li tlip apparatus 
ver)' alowly: at the Kume tiuii; tli« (unmce in lif^ti-d luid thu bral londually 
inrmupd tinlil all ol the atprir oxide bait rearlicd a tvA heal. Mdiotaai 
tluafnrtift«(>nnuauTM, turn off the p»ii, and M>n1inu« rlie«KpinttK>nof»iriuiliI 
Uie lube is nearly cold 'I'hia pre!uiiiiiur>' heating » necesaary to rliniinste 
liny Hininlun' LIhiI umy \vr in (hi- tulM- or in ihi* eujiric (ixtdc. 

'I'RuiJifvr 0,& Ki^oi u' iJi^* Eui<-'lv powdered air-<Jrii-d refuse t« ■ wciftbod 
pnm^latn bo.it nnd plnrv it in the rombiiation tube at the rod where ihe air 
ciirK-nl <-tit<»r» it Tbc oalnuni chloridr tube wjnncMrd wilb the oilier etid is 
now nrrtiniU-ly wnKb<'d, iu< well aa llic pntiuih bulbs wbirb Ti'Ilnw llii' 1} lubo 
oofltaininK the calcium <rhloride. All tbr ninnectiuiis an? pro])erly made, the 
combiu'tioii '» iHarlvd tilowly, and osyiti^'i >« li«M>fd (brouKh tbc apparatus, 
The puprie oxide in broueht ta n red heat thmughcnit the lubr. Aflcr roni> 
plrtinfc the niinbuxtioii (iiidieiilMl by iho nbwnei' of hbiek iwrtiHps in tlw- por- 
I'cliiiu bunt) Iho beat if turned ufT an<l it hIow rurrent of uxyipn t* ) 
ihroURh until Ihe aptmrntus is nearly cold TIh' bydroKPn in Uie refuMt 
lyinvi^rled tnlo water, wbieh is atisorbe^l by thi- ealciutu chlondic; Ihe rsrhon 
lit eonverlMl tiito dioxide, which in abaotbcd m l.he potash bulbe. The iiicmac 
in wriiclit nf llime tiibiv in iwT>n.!iil, niid tin' hydmiteii ;ind cnrlHin srr mini- 
lot"! (or an nliwilnlely ''o* •»»»« Hw residue mniaiiiiiig in the pon-vlaiii boat 
lepRflenla the true atib. 

d t'alnrifif Valut; tlfntuh Thermal Vuiln ptr pmind) — DptaflnJ dr«rrj|>- 
tiuna of uethiida of determining (he Utitisb llierrual I'oite and ibe apimratus 
used are lo \v fowiid in tnaiiy reieniiee book)" on rbemtilTii' iind rliemical 
eitKii!M>erinc The fnl lowing short dcsrriptian lar^ly foUowvi 8til1aiiut*i 
"EnpnwrinnChemintrj* " Vuri«e«cnloriiiH-ten'nrc in uw, nurh ue Mnblri'ti. 
ParT'xand'nioiuiNton'i For rapidity und nifurni-y, Uie Miililcr's iHimb, eon- 
Ai»liiii; <>! a [mri^Uin-linrd ntw-l i-ylindcr, '» n'" mi mended 'V\h' calurjuielcr 
mirrmindinK 'be iKiinb i:> of thin lirn-v ami ixuilainn nliout 'J. a bilon of water. 
The lar^e ainMint of vat*? prnetimlly i>tiiniiui(r> nil ittut due to ei'n[iom(iin. 
Before thiv instruiurnt on be ueod fur dcterminiinic Ibi- calorific power, jt 
DPI Mil If to Gi>d Uie irat«r equirolenl of the buitib uid tls BpiHrndbflH. 



J 



I 



JtSFVSE MATWmALS 




Abooi. tvo Rraras a( itw ttody fKiwttcml reJucK> lo b^ InttMl (powdered 

iBD M to p(u« ihrviiiih A Hirvr Iiavuik Ul/VX) incTihai lo llir tHiunrv tnrh) aro 
|KirfiiU,v wrtfthnl, niwl iiloi^tl in tiM- imii, whirli H »ll:i(')ipil Ui llif nip of UiQ 
boinh. IIm- inxi iipiilkiii wirf in »ltnr)iiy| in mii'ti » iiiiiitncr A* U> iiuoira 
pru(>T iKnilim 'Ilir i-np d> m ti-w<.'<l into iilnii* aitiij ot.VK^ri iK-niiiltvrl to Row 
but ihc bomb. Wtieo tbe [hvmiuiv ^ uImui 'i.'> atiiH>6i)hpnM, tlip siMp-oook iB 
doaed Bod the ebrll pb<x^ in llic caluruwrtcr whii-h li»a been prrviuudy partly 
fiUrd with iitniiit :M4W KTUiru' of vaWt The llii-niionifU'i luid ngiUtUir me 
djiMiM, Hnd the wlmle ia wnll stirred, to oblajn a uniform tcmpcmtiins. The 
uiwrntun? is llim obH-r^n) fmiD iiunutt; lu minulc for 4 or fi minutn, m as 
tninrt lUt nib> nf olutnict'. T)if I'luirRr i« (hr>n iirciitnl niiii immcdiiktR 
iMfi lakctf |>4ac« in llw bomb. The li-iiij't-nituiv ia otscTved each 
■nmtr until it hcvti* to fall niculurly, and thrm rarh tnintiu- for A miuulcs 
to iirdrr to lUi-rrtniti thi- Kt« of nuttinfc. Thr AfcifJ^tnT nhoiild )m- kftpt fining 
(matanOy ilurug Uh wluile period of obfter%'iiti»n. Tbc AhcU is now tvtooved 
(mm ihp w»r«'f. the bsk permittwl tn wcaiM-, and tb<? sbrli ilwU i« (iikivmI 
'Hte aIm'II should be rmwyl oui wilb disttllt-d wati-r to rollcoi the flfrki Tortifcd 
duritiK minbiMtaaa. The calorifio \&\\ic of ihc weighed refuse b then col- 
coklnd u (uiliiwiu 

Iljit Q -Cnlorifii- value of the weiRhcd M\we, 
T "OlMervMl tiifTcrcncp in lcm|ii^itiire, 
a •"fornn'iiiid for cooliiig, 
V - Wpi([hi of wnt«r tukcn in the vul(>riinel«r, 
/*• s> Water MjuirnJeol of shell aod npiiondiifos, 
p •• U*M(ihl of nitric doid (ortnw), 
p' "• W«tlil i>f ini» wirt hr\n, 
Q3im\arip oheat of formatiun of one gram of nitric scid, 
10 nilairiM-Iicat of combuxtion ofunv iinitu uf iron. 
Thtn (J-'(Ta) (.PP')-(Q23p 1 ftp'). 
Thr ratk>rifkr vahj«>. ^xpraned as calories ia thw dertcmiiuation. is nbangcd 
htt> OnLieh llicmial ouit* by toulliplytag by 3.098. 

Wbon i|CKrb&|c« ia reduced for ibe recovery of (creaae aitd tankage, 

mtv rm)iilrpd in order lo indicate the content of phosphorie 

aaiRiiinia. iKiliinti, and ;:Teiute. Tlu? foilovring; aicthodii of aoaU 

■ro t«lcpn Urjtfily from Bullotin 107, Itpviiiod o( th« Dopsirttncotof 

Afoicultum. Burenu of Cht^miNtry. Siiniliir melliwU arc desorihiKl in 

tile rrtKirta nf tbo Cvminittoe on FatN and Qreasee of the AmrricaQ 

(-lunuatl Boeiely. 

*, Finaphorie Ariit. — Dliwolvff two unim!< "f tbi* air-dried Bampl'C in 30 

IM. af oonrv>ntral«l tiil^- and sad k mtiull quantity uf byiirwldoric 

Mid.n/ul IamI until Uic nnmi'"' DiulU'r ia dcslnij'cd After Miiution. cikiI, 

tlduif to aw ur 'JM ei: . mix and (niur «in a drj- hlliT Take an allquol 

imnino tif tliff K>lution i»r)«irKJ alKivr, norm>iioiiitti)if Ui 2A KToni. OAfl 

^pkRi, or I Kram. nt-iitmlixi- wiUi amnMiniutn hydni\)do, and Hear with n 

r ilrxpN tif nitric add. Add almut 15 granu of diy nnkmoniuoi nitrate or a 




fi8 COLLBCrrOy and OtAPOHAL OF MUSIClPAf. REFUSE 



aalution contaitiing thnt flniounl. To Ibp W nrkltiiiiin mid SO rr. of nialyMatp 
ffoliition {«tx Utillctiii 107) fur every (i««i)tnuu of pttuvtilionc acid (IV\) thai 
in |>[vnci)l. DiKnil Bl nlmiit tVi Icicmn ('. fur nn l>uur. filtrr and w»>h with 
<^i>ld wiklpr, or iir^erxbly willi sninumiuiii nitrate lolutiim. T«<t llw filtr»t« 
for pliuii|>horic acid by irnrvcd dixcstKNi and addition tA more nwlylidiitv 
M)liitiuti lJuNolv«> the prrcipiute iiu lite filt«r willi Miinioiiiuni liydmxidc 
nnd hot wntpr, und wimh into bmlior \o a btiUc of not more than 100 ec. Nearly 
ncutrBJijir wilh hydrut-liiuric ndd, nnd rwA and odd magDesia froiu a burr-tt^; 
add dowly labiiut a drop per semi&d}, slirriog vigoraiialy. Aftrr fiftrrn min- 
utes, add 13 cc. of ammoniuni hydroxide »oluti«ii, spwiSc gravity — .90. Let 
tlu8 Rland for mitir tiiiio. two hinn> » uMmlly cnoiii^i, IiIIct: wash with 2&% 
oiBtnonift until pmirlically frw from chloridps ipiite to whit«ii«Mi, or to a 
ttmjrnh white, and weigh. Calculate the Mg2PiOr piecipjbitc to [ler 
eeiiL. P«Oi. 

/, Airmumia. — Flam from 0.7 tA 3,5 grame of th^nibeUncf to be analysed, 
orrDrdiiif; u> iiu proportion of nitrocra, in a dimitliun flank with a(>praxiaiatdy 
0.7 gram of merouiic oxidi!, or ila eqaivalcnt in Rivtallir merrury. hihJ (ran 
20 (o 30 oc. of ooDceutratod RuJpbunc acid. DifCMt until tho mixture ih adui^ 
lnv> f >r nnLrly xo.or until oxiikilioit ia<-orup|ptft (with Mtnie matKriaU, iu> Iraihpr, 
ehnvM.', milkpruduf^U, He, il ia nea^vsMir>- t4>di|i:Mi1 for several houra) Kentove 
the fla«k from the flame, and. wtiili; still liul, dixi)) |)ulamtim prniianickiiiilt' in 
(carefully, m aRiall quHiiiiliea at a time, until, after tihakiny, ili^ lii^jiiiil nitiaiiiK 
a Kr««n of purple color, After rooling. dihin- with about 200 ce of water, 
add a few piecrs of xmindnurd xinc or piuiiitv Mtax<\ in ordtrr Ui Icn-ii iIk* con- 
l«ntii of thL> fliwk from hiuiipiiig, and 2.^ oit. of potaoriuin ind{)liidi- aolulion 
(40 giuiua of cunimei-cial potowiium sulphide in tine liter of water.) Next 
add 50 re of m)i1i> wihittim (K»tnnite<l xnluUnn t>f tndium hydroxide fn<e 
from nitrate*), or auffii-ierl lo make thp renction strongly alintine. Con- 
nect the flaak with (lie runderiMT nnd distill until rdl ainuiunin haa iwMtcd Into 
till' 9.lA>Klard mlphuric am! m the mwiving tlaak 11ie Hrft \H\ eiv tif the 
di.itilUt«w3l generally cuutainalllhoaoiniotua. The distillate h the« titral<'d 
with atanilard alkali One niliir c«mtiinrl<Tof II«SO. N,'2-0008Jl mn. NUi. 

g. }*ataiiih.-~Sn,timiiv 10 grains of the dnMl nuHoriul with otroug nUphurie 
«<!»<), and ignite in a muMer at a low red luut to d(«ln)y organic matter. Adda 
litlk* Ktrotig hydmclitorie arid, wann xliglilly in nnler to lootten the inaw from 
the nidi-, nnd dilute lu .V)0 w. wilh wuler. Evnpunite 50 rv. «f Um- Hdulion 
neariy to dryne^ add I rr, of ilihite mlphurir arid ^ I lo 0, evnpiirnle lo dry- 
nno, and igntl* to whitonnai with riill n<<l himl Oiwiolvf the ri-uithif in luil 
water, ludng at kost 20 oc, tta codi deeiitrarn nf tMitawium oxide, add a few 
drofM of hydroehlofie aeid and nn «ce«« of platinum Nilution Tor (he prepara- 
tion of the platinum solution timindt Bulletin lOT). Kvaponite in a wal«r 
tnth lo a thirk pnatr and trr-ul the madne witli mV,. aleoh.*!. sp gr OM45. 
avoiding the ahaorption nf anitnnnia. Waxh the [ifceipHale thitroughly wilh 
80% alnihiil. Ixith by dn-anUtion nnd »n Vty filter, eontmuini; Ihe wn»hin|E 
after the filtrate m niliiHi-w WniJi finally with 10 ec of the ammonia ehloride 
aohition imv Hitllelin IH" f•^^ it« preparation) five or *ix tirara n'osh again 
thiimuiUdy wilh SOr* nirohol. and dry tJw precipitate for 30 minutes al 100 
degrMwCentt^radn. Weigh ss KtPt,C1« and calculate to pn- cent KiCX 



nXFVHR ifATEftlAUl 










I 



A. Qrwiff or Owto fal. — ExinuH almil 2 (trsins nf thn xir-drktl msUriit] 

viUi tever&l loUkU pirrltuiui of bvtliiijc uiihjdrouH ulcutuil-frw vtbcr, nibl>uiK 

UwflMkvantI liolUxiiof theilish lo iiiHiif romplelc' tnlutinn of th? fal. Kitt<>r 

ptiivr ttuliiUftii iJtroiiK'i ^ 5-mMvtitiw-trr filt<-r fwfM'r inio a mnall SoxhUt 

KimiMirair iIm' irtlinr aluwly. dry ttie fAlt.v txtnirt fur half an hmir ai 

DO ckntoeB OmligmdH. ]tui Uio HmIc into a dmncHtor, mwl, and weigh. 

FurDicf dntu referring t'U chcmtciJ uioIyscB may bo found ia 
CbajXers XIV, XV, i»n<! XVI. 

H.— EUROPEAN AND OTHER FOREIGH DATA 

RcfuNC cotlection and diapunal Iim bM>n develupwi nviiti succea in 
Bogland aod Ocrinany, and American fngimHTH, within ihv Ia»t 20 
ynm, bav* given Ihfir pUntit mucli Kludy. An ft pni|M.-r npprpmtion 
Ibb roreifcii work rcquirt^i* nn iinden«iaiiditiK of ihe iiuanliiies And 
tliaracter of tbe refu0« material produced, aullicient data have Iweu 
Ubulat«d to indit-ate the unit quiintilies and the ouinpottition of some 
CuDjptati rrfuN;, bsM-d on sevLTu.1 trjpH uf invtfntigalioD made by tiiQ 
ku1liun> ttirodgh Knglaiid, I'Vancc, and C)«rmiLny. 

It is ihR common practice in iuurnpe to plar4> iioiit^ refu»e of all 
ill the f&iae. can aud to collect it in the ttnmc waRou, i^o that it ia 
uritb a» mixpd rvfu^. In apptmrxDce it is dry, frequontly even 
IhtiIt, and hai< n niunl y mlor. It in not uf olijcctiuiinblt u materia) as 
pifbttsc iK^ncrtUly i* m America. Tlic pcuplc in thun; countrion are 
lew WBMloful than Jienplr In AiiiRriRa, and the i^uaiititiH of refuse 
pmloced per capita are materially i^malW. 

A few year* ago the only prominent excepti^na to the cotnmoa 
fracticr vivrp found in Vienna, and in Charlottenburg, adjoining Ber- 
lia. A re|X>rt uf an tii vc^l i||;atiun f>f refuse disposal, made for Char- 
krilcnliuri; io IDftK by Dr. Thietiing, includcti recordti of rr/iuo materia]* 
coQtrtt*! (Wparattly. Mimewhut in accordance with Aniorirati practice, 
ai foUowT- In u«lic», without swpcpmgs, the following i>ercenlat;eB, 
by weight, wnrr found: Thoiiphoric acid, 0.'J7 lu (l.34i; jHtta^ium, 
0^ to 0.!w; ualcium, ir>.24 to 14.'^S. The (olluwiof; pcrcetitas<», 
Ip; weight, were found in eorbaife; Crude protein, 3.75 to 4.87; 
lat. 2:31 U» S.ftS; diKcftiUc crude pn>teln, 2.8D to 4.12; pan- albumen, 
S.4J tu 4.(M; ^.■a^^•.Jllydrat«^ I0.7S to 5.S3; crude fiber, 1.2a to 3.^2; 
■L*h, 4.K1 III 7.1)0: ami wnlcr, 77.1)7 tu 74..i0. 

Other Kiirupeati HtatJAtics of refuse qunnlitlcs arc kivui in Tables 

Tbe chemical c«)niposilion r>f refuw in KiiKland and Germany niKO 
tfiffm fnim Ihni in Ammc«n citie». No analyteci nf ICuropeun 
paimgr •re nvaitable In uliow the <tontflnt of (crea'<e and tanlcage, except 
Uirwe mndp for Chnrlol Ivn l>urE. but severai analyses have been made 
lo thijn the calorific value of refuae. 



70 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 
Table 39. — WeiaHT oy Mixed Refitbb m Soue European CmEs 



CItr 



Year 



PopuUtion 



tM PODHM 



Per 
cubic foot 



Per ompite 
per kODum 



London 

Paris 

Beriio I 

Hamburg 

Sheffield 

Cologne 

Edinburgh 

Frankfort 

NewcasUe 

Cbarlotteabur^ 

Zurich 

Croydon 

Barmen 

Wieebaden 

Eating 

Chiswick 

Watford 

Greenock 



1905 
1895 
1907 
1888 
1905 
1908 
1905 
1908 
1910 
1907 
1907-08 
1910 
1913 
1910 
1910 
1902 
1913 
1908 
1913 



4,100,000 

2,500,000 

2,100,000 

1,677,135 

900,000 

463,000 

390,000 

350,500 

350,000 

264,500 

256,200 

180,000 

170,450 

140,000 

100,000' 

65,000 

40,000 

40,000 

16,500 



44.0 



36.9 

34.1 
55.0 

27.5 



17.2 
15.4 



560 
513 

315 

390 
573 
295 
300 
215 
260 
381 
260 
484 
270 
365 
465 
496 
372 
402 



Average of 14 American cities 
Average of 8 English cities. . 
Average of 77 German cities. 



860 
450 
319 



* Large floatini population 

Mr. Young, of GlaBgow, states that although in London the "fairly 
combustible matter" in the refuse is 64%, in Edinburgh it is 26%. 

The chemical analyses of refuse from Kings Norton, near Birming- 
ham, England, are given in the published specifications, as follows: 

Element, ete. FerecDtase, by weight 

Carbon 36.80 

Hydrogen 0.29 

Nitrogen 29 

Sulphur 0.19 

Oxygen 7.30 

Ash 41.70 

Moisture 12.12 



98.69 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



71 



Tablb 40. — A. — Phtsical Analysbs of London RsrusB, in PERCEKTAasa. 

(ProD "DopoHl of Towna' RafuM," by Qoodrich (p. 204), 1001} 



AtmioKiTr 



Dr. J. Runell, 
1888 



G. WcatoD. 
1S86 

(PaddinBtoii) 



Coal 

Breese, cinder 

Fine aeh 

Garbage, rentable &nd animal matter 

Paper 

Rap, clothing, bagging, etc 

Bottles 

Metals 

Tina 

Bone« 

Glan 

Crockery 

Straw, fiber, etc 



0.84 
63.69 
19.51 
4.61 
4,28 
0.39 
0.96 
0.21 
0.79 
0.48 
0.47 
0.55 
3.22 



ino.on 



0.15 
28.80 
52,60 
14.20 

0.43 
30 
0,37 

0.25 

2.90 



100,00 



B. — Chemical and Other Analyses of Winter Refuse 
FRou Kings Norton, Near BntuiNGHAM, England. (Leask) 



Carbon . . . 


36,80 


Hydrogen. 


0,29 


Oxygen... 


7,30 


Nitrogen. . 


0.29 


Sulphur. . , 


0.19 


Moisture. . 


12.12 


Ash 


41,70 


98.69 



Theoretical Calor- 
ific Value 
B.t.u. 



Winter- , 

Spring. 

Summer, 


4500 
4300 
3000 



Composition of Refuhe 





YMrly 

% 


B«pl, 

% 


Garbage 

Coal and fine dust, . 


39.5 

45.4 

9 3 

5.2 


49.37 

38.80 

7.73 

4.28 


Glass, metals, etc. . 



One ton of 3140 lb. meuured 3.TS eu. yd. 



Paris, which has been very conservative, and has not made much 
progress in refuse disposal in the last 20 years, collected in 1895, as 
an average, 415 liters or 233 kg. (514 lb.) per annum, or 1.137 liters or 
0.639 kg. (1.40 lb.) per day per inhabitant. The composition is 
npntod to be about the same as in other cities, but no analysis is 



72 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

given. Tests have shown the calorific value of Paris refuse to be about 
4500 B.t.u. The pri\'ilege8 of the trsioed rag pickere, who search, 
nut only the street surfaces, but also the house cans, which they dump 
temporarily on a cloth for the purpose of looking for articles which 
can be cleaned and sold by them, would cause analyses probably to be 
somewhat different from those in other cities. 

Tabue 41. — Rbjtjsk Incinkkated in Pltmooth, Enoi^nd 

(From K pkper cDtitled "The ColleetioB mad DBpoaml of UooM RefUM in Plymouth," 
by Jamca Pston, Burougb Encuwer umI Surrayor) 

Description of refuse received at the Destructor Worits rroro April I, 
1008, to March 31, 1909: 

PensDUcM 

Ashes and clinkers 66.74 

Bones 0.08 

Bottles 0.12 

Condemned meat aud animals' carcasses 0.45 

Broken fdass aud crocknj- 2.66 

Fish offal 1.52 

Mattrcssrs and bedding 0,07 

Old iron and steel 0,08 

Paper 12.84 

Itags 0.13 

Straw 0,54 

Tins 0.53 

V^ctable refuse 9 , 44 

Bagging 0,02 

Garden refuse 4.78 

Total 100.00 

The following dead animals were also destroyed: 

Dogs, 109; cats, 331; bullocks, 106}: pigs, 31; sheep, G!); rabbits, 81; 
fowls, 4; calves, 6; lamb. I; monkey, 1; deer. 1; goat. 1. Total, 831}. 

An approximate average figure for the quantity of mixed refuse 
produced per capita in German citiet^ i» stated to be 1 lb. per day, as 
compared with 2 to 3 lb. per day in American cities. The difference 
is imiKirtant when comparisons are made Iwtwecn European and 
American practice, in both refuse collection and ilisjiosal. 

Fig. U is an analysis of the refuse of Co[»cnhngen as given by <lc 
Ft" lor. 

Combined refuse in Knghtml cdiitnins more uiibiirncd coal and 
more waste organic matter than in (jcrniany. The products of com- 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



73 



buBtion — clinker and ashes — in England are onJy one-third of the 
weiKht, in Germany one-half, and in America about one-fourth. In 
America, therefore, possibly three-fourths may be burned. 

Jin. Feb, Ub[. Apt. Mar Juat Juir Aue. Seiil. Oct. Nov, Dec, 



100 


























so 












































t 
















K 


uiitu 


re 












10 

m 

t 

9U 


























^ 






""^ 


"N 


N. 










-^ 


^ 


a 
•n 




ym 

B 
^ 


tf 

* 




v 


s^ 




_^^ 


^ 










—■ 




BO 


9n 




* 
■o 


>N 


wi 




/ 




s 


\ 




Coc 


ibuitE 


lie 


PI 


n 


/ 


^ 










V 






--- 




X 






























10 




































Noi 


-com 


Dustibit 










10 






















































Fio. 9. — Analysis of Copenhagen Mixed Refuse. 

According to Petermann (Gembloux) and Richard (Bru^els), 
hou.sehnld waste from various sources, from which 13% of water hud 
previously been removed by drying, contains by weight: 
Organic matter: 

Nitrogen 0.392% 

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 26.608% 



27.000% 
Mineral matter: 

Phosphoric acid 426% 

Potassium 0,074% 

Sand 67.000% 

Salts of iron, lime, aluminum, etc 5.500% 



73-000% 



Total 100.000% 



REFUSE MATERIALS 



75 



Tabix 43. — Weight or RenrsE in New York, London, and Bebun, 
ExcLODiNO Street Sweepings 

V- {Id pounda per capitm p«r umum) 



Kind of retuaa 


New York. 

Commuaion 

(1907) 


London. 
Weaton 

(I8S8) 


Berlin, 

Bohm A Grohn 

(1898) 


Garbage 


181 

936 

93 


78 

454 

28 


100 

171 

44 


Rubbish 


Totals 


1210 


560 


315 



Table 44. — An altbss or Berlin Mixed House Refuse which Did Not 

Burn without Added Fuel (Bohh and Grohn). 

Percentaoes hy weiqht 

A. — Physical Analyses, 1895 



CompoDcnta 



Coal 

Cioden (partly burned coal) 

Siftingi (mainly asfaes} 

Clinkers 

Paper 

Rags 

Bones 

Wood 

Sundry vegetalile and animal inatter 

Whit« glass 

Colored glass 

Stoneware 

Iron 

Tin cans and other metals 



March 
■od 
AprU 



0.13 
1.20 

57.12 
1.5S 
2.54 
0.74 
0.51 
0.14 

29.02 
0.46 
0.69 
5.01 
0.19 
0.67 



100.00 



July 

and 

August 



0.21 
1.32 

43.19 
1.18 
5.97 
1.57 
0.55 
0.66 

36.07 
0.51 
0.89 
7.19 
0.20 
0.49 



100.00 



Averkcen 



0.17 
1.26 

50.16 
1.38 
4,26 
1.15 
0.53 
0.40 

32.54 
0.48 
0.79 
6.10 
0.20 
0.58 



100,00 



B. — Chemical Analyses, April, 


1895 




Df*criptioD of mat«iriiil 


Hysroacopic 
iraUr 


CombiDHl 

water 

and CO: 


Combuatibl* 
orgsnia 
matter 


[nrambuatible 

and fixed 

matter 




17.62 
10.91 
26.55 


5.54 

2.54 
9.53 


11.94 
13.27 
10,20 


54.90 

73.28 
53. 72 


% 


^*3% 



76 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Table 45. — Monthly Production or Rbfueb at CHARLOTTBNBiTRa, 

Gerhant 

(Data from Beport br Troftmar Dr. Thieainc Berlin. 1908) 
Tho population of Charlottenburi in 1008 was 2S6,2O0 



Year 


Month 


AviHAQB QuAirrrrr, in Tomb per Dat 


Garbage 


Aahcs and 

■weepiusB 

from houaea 


Rubbiab 


Total 


1907 
1908 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January . . 

February 

March 

April 


30 
28 
22 
22 
30 
32 
27 
24 
23 
18 
23 
24 


97 

78 

72 

78 

88 

93 

111 

138 

142 

132 

125 

121 


26 
17 
21 
20 
30 
39 
28 
32 
28 
29 
33 
38 


153 
123 
115 
120 
144 
164 
166 
194 
193 
179 
189 
183 


Annual 
Percent 
Pounds 


averages 

ages 

per capita per year 


25 
16 
61 


H)6 

67 

254 


28 

■ 17 

64 


159 
100 
379 



On the other hand, the following results were obtained for the 
garbage as delivered at the municipal unloading station in Brussels, 
(by weight on dry basis) : 

Organic matter: 

Nitrogen 0.409% 

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 23.471% 

23.880% 
Mineral matter: 

Phosphoric acid 0.628% 

Potaasium 0.322% 

Sand 66.887% 

BiUls uf irvu, lititc, uluniiuUm, t>tu. . . , rn *i 8 2S3% 




REFUSE MATERIALS 



TT 



is QOMi-iOOCOOfiOOOOOOO 



" £ 






5i -- « — 






^ ^ ^ S ^ S S S 3 Si ;5 i: ^ S S & 



—> •- IN N 






8gS!S«228S5gS2S5 : 


■ It 


cC|„^MOOc4or400oo - 


■ o 




L. £ 



:^ 






fc * 



a 



a 



I 



.9 



.3 

o 

S 

o 



■J 

^^ 

fit 

,S 2 

SI 

■3"" 
s 



^^ 



51 



78 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Table 47.7-Froxiuate Calorific Valob or House Rbfdse in 
Cities of Central Europe. 



City 


Britiah 

thermAl unita 

per pound 

oF r«luBe 


R«[ereiiM 




4050 
8050 
4140 
4086 
2880 
2943 
2876 
4140 
1890 
1980 
1800 
3780 
1314 

2556 
2198 
3240 

3600 


ZeUsckrift, Oeeter. Ing. imd 
Arch.-Varein, No. 35, 1906, 
p. 497 

ElektroUchnUche Zeit., Heft 
26, 1907, p. 643 

GemruUieita Ing., No. 42, 1908, 
p. 664 

1 Calculated from local data 

DUStadt. Verbrennimgaanstalt, 

L. Boto, 1907, p. 8 
ZeU. Ing., No. 40, 1907, p. 665 






Frankfurt, a/M 


MiekolcE, Hungary 

Vienna {Florisdorf), winter. . 
Vienna (Guerecki), winter.. . 


Berlin, summer refuse 

Charlottenburg, summer 

Cbarlottenburg, winter 

Maim 

Berlin, winter refuse 




Kiel 







Table 48. — Calorific Valoeb of Certain Refuse Couponkntb 



CompoMnl* 



CobI 

a)ke 

BrcctP and cinder, 
OfTnl and bones 

Bonce- 

Rw 

Hair 

Paper 

Straw 

Veip'lable refiiM., 
WothI. 




Ehquvk Repch (DawHii) 



AtlifiBully 
dried 
B.l.u. 



14.000 

12,000 

6,000 

8.000 



Willi uturmi 

inoUtUre 
B.t.u. 



S334 

sooo 

4000 
5334 



Cfrhah 

tt9;riUBB 

(Uuk1 

B.l.u, 



9380 



RBPUSB MATERIALS 79 

According to Mr. G. WestOQ, the refuse of London-Paddington 
had the following compositioQ : 

Aahea 52.8% 

Cinders 28-8% 

Animal and vegetable waat«8 14 2% 

Broken stoneware 2.9% 

Coal 0.15% 

Bomb 0.25% 

Rags 0.425% 

Old iron 0.35% 

Other metate 0.025% 

White glan 0,075% 

Colored glass 0.225% 

100.000% 

According to Mr. Henry Whiley, in Manchester, where at the time 
the pail system of dry closets was used for the collection of excreta, 
this refuse had the following composition: 

Ashes and excreta mixed with ashes 64.50% 

Dust and cinders 34.55% 

Fish waste and bones 0.15% 

Dead animals 0,05% 

Shoes, Tags, paper, etc 0.05% 

Vegetable matter 0.06% 

Glass, pottery, and bricks 0.60% 

Old metal 0.05% 

100 00% 
Table 42 shows the component parts of the refuse of Shanghai, 
China, for each month, as contained in a report of the Shanghai 
Municipal Council for 1899.* 

The following is a percentage analysis of the refuse of Melbourne, 
Victoria, as given by Goodrich-t 

Screenings, sand, or fine dust 42 . 81 

Cindere, coke 26,55 

Clinker, stones, etc 1.32 

Vegetable matter 13.28 

Paper 7.36 

Raff 1.68 

Straw or fiber 1.63 

Broken glass and bottles 1 . 44 

Crockery 0.56 

Bones 1.03 

- i— Iron 0.33 

"Wlins 1.11 

1 0.90 

100.00 
," p. ISO. t " Modern DfrtruBtor Pnctioe," p. lU. 



80 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



I.— SUHIURT 

The foregoing data and discussions emphasize the marked varia- 
tion in the quantities, proportions, and characteristics of refuse mater- 
ials in dlEFerent cities and towns, and even in different districts of the 
same city. Also, in each city, the per capita production of refuse 
varies from year to year. The effects of the weather, season, and cli- 
mate are always quite appreciable. 

These many factors make it difficult to estimate with exactness the 
quantities and characteristics of tbe refuse to be expected in a city, 
unless a careful study of all the pertaining local conditions is pre- 
viously made. Such studies, properly conducted in advance of a 
recommendation for new works, will result in obtaining a more efTecU 
ive and economical plan for refuse disposal than without them, and 
one which is better adapted to the city in question. 

Of great assistance in this regard are the published special reports 
and the records of city officials. To make them more readily compar- 
able and useful in different communities, they should in the future 
be tabulated on standard forms. A satisfactory form, which can be 
recommended for use, has been published by the American Public 
Health Association, and also adopted by the American Society for 
Municipal Improvements, and is reproduced on pages 231-235. 

As local usage has sometimes given to the same material different 
names in different t>laces, we have felt obliged, for use in the present 
work, to select definite terms for each of the materials and to classify 
them for convenient discussion. We have given their quantities, com- 
position, and unit weights, so far as available and necessary to represent 
different parts of our country and also of some foreign countries, in 
order to indicate, as far as practicable, the separate effects on the 
refuse from a variety of causes. 

It is hoi>ed that in the future municipal refuse will be more fre- 
quently measured and analysed. I>ecause a knowledge of its quantities 
and ciimiKiMJtions is essential to determine tlie best means uf collection 
and disposal. 



CHAPTER n 



HOUS£ TR£ATM£lfT 






The ptublem of a pmper dispowal of refuw trUrtit At the point of iti 

pit. la the caw of lEArhaKe, thin '» the lioUAe or market; io the 

of trade rcfu^, it t^ ttio niAiiufflcLiiriiiK (^lubltshmDiit wliich 

it ; in till' caiDC of niatiure, it is t be ^tubir or ibe direct surface. 

The (eno " house Ireatmeot " of refuw, as used herein, refers to 

tlw bandliug of tbe mntemlR, origiitally in the house, j^tahle, or fActor>', 

pmdouf to the timn when they arc taken up by the collector to be 

pt&eed in the collection waiEon. 

The huifie treatiiM^nt k of fcrentcr importance in the iiciiers] prab> 
than is commonly considered. From the poiut of %iew of the 
-publie, nfficial huu»e refu»e originateK after tlie garbage, aslieH. and 
nilibiKh have Im«ii rcmnvcd from the kitchen, furniiRe. stove, or 
VMte Lackot, and placed tti a receptacle, either in the cellar, or in 
}r&rd ndjiieenl to the back door, or on the i«idewalk. Further, 
is no port of the reiu»e problem nhirh affects the Keneral aspect 
rity'9 t;troet8, alleys, and yurdii more than the bouse treatment, 
failure to kot-p ihc refuse in pruper rvccpteclca quickly pro- 
ueen on the ^trcete un-'igibtly and objectionable conditions. The 
'ciicf reiijuiremcntii for ollicient bouse treatment are Himplicity uud 
dcanlioGM. 

Mucli good ran be doDO by the collection de|)artnient in eduenting 

peoj>lo aH to the re«ilt« of carelew<n«K*. In nearly nil ritie.'^, there- 

Hoioe Bort f>f eiluratioR iiii uttcmptcd aloni; tlii^ line, ae, for 

iMsooe, by diathbuting cards HCttini; forth rulea and reguUtiooa 

ftlTrctine the siic, make, and locution of cann, and bow to um Ihem. In 

1 -, fiuch work of thn department in defeat<?d if carelesa- 

. tilinuw are permitted in Ihr Imck yard and alley udjoin- 

IfiC the houM-. thiie crc«ting outsancc? that affect directly more people 

n any Mitpr objeetinnable eonditionf. even at iMtlnted pointa of 

ipiMd. Careful attention to houw treatment may aIfo reduce 

iterialK ' "f the collection ser^'ice. 

flu .: . icuciug tlivse conditiuuB are diacuraed aa follows: 

t>l 




82 -COLLECTJON AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



A.— DBGREB OF SEPARATION 

The first factor controlling the house treatment is the method of 
disposal which is best suited to the locality. If the garbage is to be 
fed to hogs or treated at a reduction plant, it is necessary that it be 
well separated from all other kinds of refuse. If the ashes are to be 
utiliied to fill up low land, it is advisable, though not always necessary, 
to separate from them all garbage, and sometimes, also, the rubbish. 
Such requirements would demand a three-part separation at the 
bouse; in other words, the house treatment would require three sepa- 
rate cans or receptacles, or two receptacles if the rubbish is bundled. 
In some cities the garbage and rubbish are combined and disposed of 
by incineration. Then, also, two cans n-ill suffice — one for garbage and 
rubbiiih and the other for ashe?. In still other cities, one can contains 
only garbage, and the rubbish and ashes are mixed. Where all 
rofuite is mixed to be burned in incinerators, only one can ix nee^ 
tacle is required. 

The latter is the common practice in Europe. In the larger cities 
of Anieripa. the one-can sj-stem is the exception rather than the nile. 
In Seattle, the DuRHigh of Richmond of New York City. Savaimab, 
Atlanta, Montgomery. San Francisco, and in some other places, mijted 
refuse is iJared l>y t4>e householder in one rvceptacte. Where garbage 
i^ collected alone, sometimes an order is issued by tbe coUectioa 
detvtrlnient re^iuiring that it be drained and wrapped in waste paper 
before it i!> |ilAi*e«) in the ran. as in Minneapolis, and Trenton, lliis 
praciicf has apparently Iteen satisfactory. Dr. P. M, Hall, Health 
OScvr iu MiuuoapoUs, ha^ slated it« advantages as follows: 

"T1>e fir!>t step in thr dtspom) itf |tartia|cp b nuT7i-tn)t it (htm the Ikmbf and 
[dacinn i1 in the r»n. kimI ibp i|ttivtMW luluraUy srvv^, why sbould not th ^ 
tXr%t ht> * Mnit«T>' i»h> mhI Iv nMiV in ihr ilinviicm v>f cdiKating the ha<Me- 
htiMm'? V'MtltT t>\Minc nMulititxts in xlntost c\Teri- nty, the an is as ^ott a 
ntUMniv as ttw xarhMr ilarlt. if not Kittitcr In ihf primitnT' days, the 
Indian, whw the i^ffwwx- (ntm xhf tn»t<e nn«.hK-is .>( hc' houwkwriii^ beanx 
(rt» MttK^nto, iin^\-rd «wa,v. Imt in wit »U,v »nvl i-ronaUvi. wp lemnv the 
|[artwKr and Kw^ i W m»v4I IWc ll»o tii»i *i(^v_,h(. pbi.-in(! of it» gar*^gf. 
th*' wa*|if f^nn). «»r tlrM|*t»"VP f<vw iwir lahKti, iii sny kind «^i rwvpcaHe — wood, 
lpJ\-ani»iH) imn. i*r *hai-iH'i, *uit wiih iln- )i«vwtHv ,-rf hmi, nK^tioe. and 
ftirti, >\wi w»U \-*l-v «i.«» h*\v n ^nil. tt>a(»>i\. t»> -bfwviir* raws of putie- 
fa^ttun S>ii-h a n*«w » m»"*<anl,\ a ntttstiuv. ttxj-.ut^-s :>v»r-*rt;T n^nval, 
antl t* a ininaui-*- i^vvrv <n»"- H i* twHilksl !>\<i;) '.S- ,-*:• :,. r^-^ .bsvwa' Is 
it i»w«itwr> lK»i Thi."<.>*»>.>HK«i.>nl>"VC->tt«>i;!a!v* U -.S:^- rv w^y-orfimo. 
ale thrtv Iwfik-T* >»I' tmlniVih»«. t»,\n «).-;^!i':y- v.- -S- -"•. * I^ :-. npt » 
httk- bit iin>w.i»!HrtU itwt wv h'^vJ.tti- ,*:i.i ;,*Vv s\-i;: r>-.-. zv-.r vbn w« 
ate li«<tvtuatut« the Hj tt«»a».A' m th,- s^:* ,*«^• ,ti;-. :•> :_rv.^--^ * r^et jwo- 



HOUSE TREATMENT 



83 



Vwef 

and 
bte 



lifit- hfi!eding pkee? It ha« been said that the annoyann- of l]ic mn prohaMy 

r will Im- linnc nvray willi 1 1. kii-i)i» Ihitl i.liis txmi)iti(i[i nf lliiii|c' hiw Itn'.n 

■epUil every wlivre siiillUul nuljoJy lum trk-d ^^'c fiiii.1, liw«'cvvr, esctpiioiut 

two dlie»— one in tlw I'niti'il Siaim aikI ihi- ol Iiit in CimiMlit — wlicrc til !nwt 

BB dion hu been made to kcqi the gajtuigc can from t)eiiigB wtuitant Hul-uinw, 

and that ia what 1 liuvc come to IcU you nlwul — liuw 11i«m: tn-o citira have 

been trying — ittid, I will any. with a great mcaaure of niccaa — U> make the 

garbage can no lonp^r a nuiMrxv. 

" 'Dmni x&Hutip' of all nioiHtun'. Uirii wrnp il in pApn- befoir ptitUns it in 
con, and it will neither edicU bod in hoi (reathc>r, nor (reese and atiek to 
Utr oui in cold wi:titlK.T. Da (liis and linvt- a vlvoo taa ut all times.' 

"Hml, moisture, luid the (ly are nil eltiiiinated ThiM rule was put into 
prutice in Minnmpolis in Febniar}*. 10117, and w Ktitl in forcfl. The cam- 
^^Daign of cducaliou wnv a luinl caw, Init wi- Imvi: wuti." 

^H Wbon garbage i» Tod to bogs, ojid even when it ia takon to reduction 
^Brorka, aorae eollectore have reruwd to take away the pnper, nnd have 
^^eturned it to the «an. A local decision, rcKul&ting this matter, should 
: be made for each muniripulity. 

^ft It it impvrtuiil, ill the tiu-^c of iufcdiim^ Ulictutc», to keep out o! 
^■the ^neral coUeotian all refuse from sick roatuii. Thin material 
abould be disposed of separately and in a proper way, according to 
kMjieguIalions. 

^P At West New Brif;litun and at Montreal where mixed refuae [a 
collected and bumcd, it has been found expnlieiii to keep out aomc 
^_of tbe ashes, in order to reduce the bulk of the mntcrial to be burned. 
^H The mort eomnion house tren-tment in Amcric^nn cities is the two- 
^KtBS aystem, in which the K'l'rbaice is kept in one receptacle and the 
^bf!hc8 and rubbish in uDuther. Tliis in the cam in the lur^er titxvn 
of the nortbeaxtern part of the I'liitod States, where feeding and 
LieducUoD inetJ)od» nrv in inont eoiiiiiiou u»e. 

Iji Euro|]e the one-can syt^tem is the muet common. In Parla 

I-iron piiils emit&ininK ihc rt-fusc stand ordinarily in the 

Tlie p>nilM arc funiiithtKl l>y the htkuscholdcr. In fhc ninniing, 

about 5 o'clock in miinmer or Q oVlnek in winter, the janitor plaoea 

tbem on the sidewalk in front of the premises. Before S o'rioek they 

are collvrteiJ by the uily. In Zurich and in some citteo in Germany 

the :<Hnic ni.'tioni prevails, but ths ))ai!» are (cencrally rurnidhed by tbe 

junietixdily- 

Tbe degree of separation should be determined sjiecially in each 
Ity, tu t>uit the mont ccunomicul nti-tbod, l>oth uf collection and fiual 
1, and also to auit the convenience of the houaeholdcnt. 




84 COLLECTION AND DISl^SAL OF Ml 



REFVSB 



B.- RECEPTACLES 



1. Type. — Not mnny years nffo, in AmLTicftn cities. Urge wooden ' 
biiw, infpequptitly ompliod, WDro ubihI fwr tUn rw^'plion and iiUtrn|;« of 
all kiadrt uf refuHC. They were gcncruUy placed in tlie alloy, and wera 
i>ft«n overfilled, allowing the eontoau to epili and forui uEL«ightlyj 
refuse heap*. I^I«r, wondcn pails or lic>xe« were uwod for tJi« gar-j 
boge; these were removed more fre«)Hently, but the ashes and rubhinli 
wore put into the wooden bins or ecnttered in lou«<c piles in tbc alley, i 
Sometimes concrete refiute boxen are advaatageuunly used, an, for^ 
instance, in St. LouLs. 

The nest imprGvement was thc! introduction of the metallic 
with cover. Virions tiitcK and ?)hapcj4 of such ran)^ for fcarbaKC, a(^ie8,1 
and rubbish have becu de\-i««d. Some have cloee-fittinf; covets which 
are opened by a lever, operated by ]irc-»iure with the foot, and HoKe 
atitomatically. Others are cyliudricjil. or ore larger at thc top than at 
tha bottom, and are fitted with covera. 

In cold climates metal receptaclcn are not advaatageous in winter,j 
and woodea pails are preferable. The reverse is tbo euc in hot] 
dimatoe. 

It is essential to have a tight-fitting cover, in order to keep small 
animaJp awuy from the garbage, to keep dust ttvm blowing nway 
from aiiheii, and to koep rain nut of the refiuw. A tight cover uill 
aljto prevent room i^wecpiniit^ from being blown about. Ac the latter] 
may contain diM>aM> geriti». it would be (langcroufi to have them 
tered around. Most kiride of refuse ultrrict flie:*, and afford op|>or-J 
tunities for them to breed. Uncovered gatbaKe cans attract rat«,] 
cats, and dogs, thUH increasing the chauce of Micti chiik Ifeiiig tipped] 
over and their contents spilled. 

The beat size for the can is partly dptcniiinc<l by the number of] 
men ottcnding each culluiUion wagon. Oniinarily, the can shoiildj 
Dot be larger than uue man cad eattily lift uid empty into thc wagon. 
11ie u-<uai capoeitieit range from ] to 4 cu. ft., a rcttxonabte mxo for a] 
garhnge, rubbii>h, or imh ran. If it holds only garbage from oc 
family, with frequent collection. J cu. ft. is euffieieot. GarlwiRe canti 
with a wider lop arc particularly s.uitable in cold c.-liniate>>. iKcat 
Uiey will not m easily become clogged by ice, Thc l^p, howeverj 
should be onlyalii^tly larger than the bottom, in onler thst they nis) 
Dot be top-beavy and tip over. Can* for rubbish alone may be 
cu. ft. in caparity. 

Two irtylea of cana are here ahown: One can (rig*. If and III i»^ 
partly uwlergruund (Koelrtjsler Can Co.). An outcC ><l 
galvanised iron is placed pomanenUy uoderir 



W TRBATMEST 






i;ubag9 eontKiiiftr, 
ring a rAfincity at 
10 t» i3 Rat. 
The whole w cttwed 
Lh a hoti'y tJKlil- 
tltis, hinged cover. 
iH thifi b liftod by 
cvUeclor. To de- 
the garbage, a 
lid in the cover 
liftoil by presing 
\t foot on the trip. 
The utlier aio 
ig. 12) KtfludH un llic 
of iJiei^nntl. 

handle, when 

praved down, toctui 
tlielid wcurdjr ((fae 
SchafTor can). 

For the reception 




iiu. I'J. — L'niJcrgruuud Uutljugt; Cuu. 



of ub«s it tfl well to have a cat) made of extra heavy gialvunised 
ihwt-iraa well reinfurced with irou bands at top nnd Iwittom, and 

heavy steel stats riv- 
eted to the body aod 
LliruuKh tlic Lop and 
bottctii bunds. V'\^. 
13 iihoWR Ruch a can, 
made by the Roches- 
l«r Can Company. 

For rubljish, n me- 
UiHic ran ie not ne- 
cessary; therefore, in 
Cleveland, and in 
other cilica, ninYoe or 
bnrlnp bngK nre used. 
In soiiip cities, mbbiwh 
i^ticdiit biiiidle.3 ready 
fur tliv rullet^tur. 

All rcfiwc rccep- 

tacle.'< have to iilatid 

hard service, and 

IL — RaauvinK the CoatAJner o( the t!ndcr< should bo HtrnnK, with 

ground Qarhago Can. eorrugated or rein- 



y^/ 




■ 


'1 '^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 



86 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVSICIP.KL REFVSK 




Pia. 12.— Oarb(i«e <lui. wiUi 
Lovking Cover. 



forwwi rides. The siie deporwls on the 
r|iiHntity of materul to W tiancllinl und 
tlir interval between cull«t;tionfi, but 
tlie nilml nweptaric i^iouM always Iw 
small eiioujiii tu be )ia»dled eoMly. 
Kor ftshcs, when lh«y ure collected in- 
frw|uenlly. a liirse reneptacli! miwt be 
iiKfd. but it may ihtij be taken to the 
H-uguii on a small roller truck which t): 
colk-cUir Parric-* with him, 

3. Locatioa.~Thc localioD or ti 
huuiie refuse reeeptade inaterJaUy in- 
fluencca the c««t of tlic collection ser- 
\"ice. UTiorc there arc sllc>'«, it in a 
eoriimon praclire to place the can near; 
Where there are n« alleys, an in mt 



he 

1 



the back duor of the house. 

partii of Ndw York City and in rnuHl European cilie^i, Iht- hou; 
holder ia rc<]uired to place the can in the Mlreet at lUc curb i>r hoi 
line. In laaiiy European cttka, the householder pUces the can at 




13.— <^^ for .^h« and Rubhisli. 



\m front doonlvp late in the evening, and it in emptied durini 
night or early in the morning. Wc luve found, in \mtit 
where this method i» foDawed, the aiiL« fi? ■ i-T.ti-i tf-- 
tippcd over, or stolon. 

One of the diflicitU featurex of garbage 



BOVJiB TREATStesr 



sr 



h K p)ar« where the ran may Ite foiinri rf^mlily hy the ci^lector. Fre* 

qofliUy ihcy art* kept in odd, (•iit-«f-lli«-way ryirrn?rn, so that, csp<s 

Dv wheu t)iu ix>nect«r ik wtirlcitiK »( itiiUitur m a nvw man, lie cannot 

tbcnn readily. Tbo back yurd near the kilvhva dour is the 

(cnMc location for the CHn, nndiir our avernge randition^. The 

6y IS not the bewt \Atn-v. for it, because it irv too easy of acce«c4 by 

kail unlicciii*<l ra«r'i<''<«'^i *"*^ <"*" '"* easily upeet or daroaned 

'(luntiK vehicles. The cx'llar b alto an inipru|M>r place for the can, 

uim of the necewity and iucorivenieuce of liaviog the collector 

ler the house. 

The mmiiw relative to the collection ktvicv in Milwaukee, madeu 

WU, indicated that froio six to twelve stops can ho made by each 

■sgQD in one hour. This service was for ((urhtigc when disposed of 

npamtely. tho cai» lidng phiccd in xencral near the back duor. In 

one colletlor, under normal conditions, in said to make 

eaty-four or iwcnty-fivo Rtopn per hour. In di-ntrids where the 

an ar* placed at the curb, it is quite possible to make as many aa 

»llei'tioD« in one hour. Lately, bids for tho collection of refuse 

eeived in Plainfield. N. J., under two acbedules: (o) thai the 

JtluT should set the can out at (he curb, and {(-) that the cot- 

i^jKlor allouJd carry the can out from the basement. The lowesi bid 

^Lder t«licdule (6) wan SI2.00 |>cr house per year, and under Kchcdulc 

Hh) il yne only M.62. Kor a city of 100,000 people, havinf;. say. 20,COO 

^PwiiiMfl, this difference would amount to SH7,600 per veur. There- 

fijfe, it may l)c chenper, from the collection point of view, for the 

hottscholilcr to place the can at the curb. Ncvrrlhelow, (he ci1i«r» 

iORwtiineti prefer to pay a hiichor rate, in order to avoid the burden 

ij«|ii >:i un the Mdcwalk, and the uadeairahilily of haviniclbe 

nSv^ < ^1 front of tho house. 

VariouH irthar ausgwtions have been mudc to provide suitable 
itiom fur the can. At Mine army posta, nherc both the front and 
ick nf the quarters are easily scceH»ibIc, it liai« been Ihe prfletic« 
m build small lattice fences, enclfi^inic a platform on which the cans 
plao4-d. In rtoRio cities, wlicre the nlle>'B are sufficiontly well 
the caiw are placed in boxcBt wliioh are set into the fence, and 
I both inwafd and outward. 

The location of the ean should he an uniforna ae possible tkrough- 

! ^o that the eolleclorK can work nio^t expeditiously. 

moot efhcient i:orrclalioii between the hoiLM; treatment 

on (inrvice, ii may friMiiienlly bo worth while to employ 

- r-i huusokee|>cr». 

.lug garbage cane lu place b\u been dceigned by 
lalCKki ud TvWM." try Anbui lUy. 



S8 COLLECTION AND t)iSlH}RAL OF m'SlCiVAL REPVSB 



1 



Dr. M. E. Connor, Genontl Iiwpector, Depnrtment of Sanitation, 
I. C. C-, Anroii, Canal Tioiw.. The ubjcct of this m>-callcd " garbage- 
can stand " is to make the cant fly- and r&t-proof and to funiish a _ 
Mtf-cloeing cuver. I 

3. Cleuiitif .—-llic mos^t ecuDouucal way for a dty to koep bouw 
cans in i^oixl L<»mliliun would be lu compel the hoiisf! opeupatitH lu 
rWn them. Howt-vtr, such eli-aDing is D<!glectciJ mi frcfiucnllj* that 
cullcctiuii dcpnirttiicntx liave found it iinpo8»Mc t^ r^y on it. K««p- 
iai; llip can d«in itn ini|)ortant, for wveral r(>nfton»: A dirty pan is 
uriniicliUy and udorouB; it containt^, in thn dirt left in the coroers, 
orffanimns which may vaiioc putrefacliuu ; and, u-lien (rceh refuse 
in plaocd in an unclean can, il may bccwmi' quickly needed with ibvoe 
organisms, with tiastcncd dceompo&itiun in hot weather. 

Of the variouK inethodB to imiitre clean cans, the one practiced in 
some cities of Aineriotk and Kuroix' xt^ <|uite natufactory. WItcn the 
full can is placed oa the collecting waRon, a clean one in left in it? plan) 
by the uollectur. Tlio cans, aft«r being emptied at the disposiil plant 
arc at once Ihoroughly disinfoct«(] or cleaned by washing ^'ith a buM 
and then replaced on the waKoin. 

This syjttem has many advanta^e^, the most important heinR that 
the department baa full control as to the type of can and itv condition. 
The householder i» as responsible for the safely of the ean on hiaS 
premisCtf ok he vrould be if be owned it. At Kiel, flcrmany. it re<)uircd 
«ght penonfl on thn day shift to clean the canti c«minjt; from a popu- 
lation Elf about 170.000. 

In Buffalo, when the collection of rcfuae wati done by contractiJ 
the eonlrnctor wni^ required to sprinkle a disinfectant over the innidal 
of each can at the Iioa-te after be lind emptied it. The collector! 
carried with him, for thu purpow, a box uf disiiifccting powder. I 
This method may be subject to carelesii treatment, and, nilhout eon*J 
scicntiuua collectors and rigid inapcetion, may prove ineffective. At 
itome plania the cans are dcaned with boiling wat«t. 

In Lansing, the collector take» tlio full can and leavnc an empty' 
one. HouMcholdors are not obliged to -riaAx the cann, but il costs Ibe 
dty tISOO a year to wash and disinfect them. Objedinnuble sub- 
etancCA, auoh as ^aes, nibbish, and riwccpings. are often put in the ■ 
garbage cans and are not detected until emptied. The extra handUngfl 
of tlie cans in the wagons bax cnu»ed Kreater depreelafioUt ftud 
therefore dumping into c<i|tri-tioo wagooH may be prefeTTfid. 

4. Ownersbip. — The eolli^-tton deimrlment should dwjgnatc lh« 
proper ownership of (he can, so thill " ''ililyfor 

the rules can be fixed. In mo«t ■ — 

tbe rofiMe are ttiipprwixl tn provide lit 



ffOVSK TRK.ATMKNT 



80 



lory when tbo owner lives <m the premises. Tenants providing 

~prD|ier SKrbince cans, eometimcR tinding it ilifTictiU to prevent ihoin 

Inm beeomioH lost or stolvii, have refuseil id provide now cnns, 

clauDing that it is the duty of tbe proprietor or dty to supply tbem. 



1 



C-PUES 

Id tli« summer a most important feature of the house treatment 
nditM to fly breeding. Although probably more than 80% of all 
bouse flie« htveA in Htahle refune, as diHcu)»etl in Chapter XIV, the 
Duiob«r brcfding in garbage is cousidcrahtc. The garbage dclivtivd 
U* the iocinemtor at Milwaukeir was found to b*- swarming with fly 
miCgots. 

The extent to which flies actually develop from the maK;trits in the 
htjgt depends on ihc (olluwiiig factx; It rettuireK alxiut two weeks 
the fly tu develop iifter the egg ii^ laid. Therefurc, if all the gar- 
iii da)tn)ye<l within two wcok« after it hati originnted. the con- 
'luEKd nui|{Kota will be dentroyed with it. In uncovered rans, some of 
the uaKKot^ are known to crawl from them into the Krouud and bury 
ilveB during the period o( pupation. 
Oli»ervftiiou» in Europeati riticn point to the fact that, for the same 
mher of person*, mixe<l refuse harbors fewer mnggols than Rnrbage 
luou. H the asbeu and rubbiHh form a ii^uflieipntly Inrge piirt of ihe 
tw as txi produce ii dry und dusty rcfui*e. the material will not 
tAhle for fly breeding. The Minneapolis method of wrapping 
prbage in paper when separately collerted in also effeetive in pre- 
ibe multiplication of flies. The best prcvciiti^-e, however, 
JneM and a «iuflieiently frequeut eollretion, \n pre%'enl the 
lopment of the fly from the eKK' 
To ealeh the living fly in or aboul a house, tlie he«t moans are 
iramercial Tanglefoot white fly paper inside the houw. and liglit- 
iired bailee! eunic-al traps uf fme wire neltinK outside of the houKe, 
in a vrli-ligbt(vl plaee and out of the wind. The bait sliotild be 
onntained in a sballuw, eircular pan. For fly paper the best bait is 
S ports of roein to I part of ca«tor oil; for the trapt, it is cither milk 
»ilh uverripo batiniiaH or I (urt of molaswv with 3 pntts of water, 
•Jighlly fermented, The lliea are best killed by innnerniDS the 
lA hot water. 




D.— SPECIAL TREATMEHTS 

OirUifl flpecial Ircatmenle of Ihe ^«fu^<e in Ibe houae, before it ia 
tbc> can. are also aometimes of value. 

OR. — Rotating and fixed srreenii, tu be attached to ash 



90 COLLECTIOX ASD orHPOSM OF MUMCIPAL RKFUSg 



cans can be purrhaMHl, and are useful in rafting out aome of 
unburned conl from Ihrr luhox. Thif uiibuniud but iioornlipd an 
called " ciiider " in Knidand, itnioiiiit^ lo from 15 to 30^^ i*f tin 
ashos eominf; from the averaKe hous« furnace or atove. Althousl) it 
'» nut ax cutiibujdiblv tm new vuilI, it has still a gwx) calorific valu«|M 
and i» particularly useful fur baukirig Drcs al iiigbt. ^M 

2. Burning at House. — The burning of t-om))ui*tihle refuw at ttie 
)ir>up<e would Ik- the cheaiteiet method of dinpoNiiiK of it, uiiil woulc 
relieve the comniuniby of the cost of cullevlion, trannportatioii, an 
dbpusiU. Mr. Arthur May, Siiperiiilondt-iil of the Cleansing Depart 
n».'iit, iJorouKli I'f Kiiwbury, London, corisidcni this procedure 
part of a hou^ieholder'ii rcwpf^usihility to the community, and TMOir 
tnendx that a by-law lie enkolnd to compel the buminff of eombtulibli 
refuse. However, if done at many houHca in a crowded district, a fei 
CarelflBs porsoiut might cjiuw a great nuieanve. GsjtocioJly if the refuse' 
contained some garbage. In gent-nil. Ilie practice, therefore, has 
not IwiMi favored. 

Dr.S.II.Diirgin, former Hr>allh Ofliceraf Uoston, has rccommendt 
a sim[de means of mrbonicinK the garbage in tlie flue leading fron 
the kitchen stove. The gikrlxige U ttlowly dried, then ehftrr«d, and' 
fiimlty oan be u:«ecl im fuel, all without the di>tcharti;e uf any odont. 
Altlicnigh thi» contrivance is quite sutiofactory under favurable con- 
dittoiiH, it has not been generally uned becaune of the Deenuiity n(. 
giving it careful nttentlon and reguhir clinrgcs and removals, depend- 
ing on Ihc humidity of the garbage and the hoAt iii (he flue. 

GuK ovens for burning giu-bage alone arc designed like a umall 8tove,1 
to Ktand in the kitchen and be eonnect^nl with the chimney. TIte 
garbage is consumed by gaa flnniCH eoining from l>clow. A amal) 
fnmily might find such a du*po)«l too expeiuive to opemtv. and it al«o 
rcquircTc ciireful attention. The operatiou, including fixed churgca^j 
may require froni IWW l« 21(00 cu. ft. of gas per month. Tberefore, 
ooly a comjiorntively small itnrl uf the populution could afford I 
npenM. Several of ituch garbage bumersi are in the market- 

A very eoinmoii method of rubbi.<ih dinpoKal for iwilatwl boti 
and nmall tuwnn and villaget) i» to bum it in bui-kel cagDH in the back 
yanla, or, in case of Etohools or iUDtitutiotiK, in a mnall mawmry ovenj, 
but care muxl lie taken in xtarling and continuing the ftres, In ordg 
to prevent olTonKive inlors. (Se** Chapter X.) 

3. Wrapping. — Wruppirig the giirbaiEe iN-fore ptaeing it in the 
Ah alrvAdy drM-rilMii. hs* julvniilngi-p, imrliiriiiarty in ?n)nll rc-iidniti.-J 
ciimmuiiitiew, and w1m<ii the garbage in to k- uieinoratnl. (Si>i' alta. 
Cliaplcr WII.) When, hitwever, ibe garlmge is tu be fed lo boi 
and MXiuitM the prior removal of the p«i>cr and It* separat* << 



has 
oi^l 

id™ 
«. 

D- 

I 




>rdik^| 

caiul 



HOVSB THE ATM EST 



91 



l>>- Siv, lite wrapping metliwJ lm» been xtrungly obJMted to at the 
'liog fttrniH. 'Hii! wrappiiif; liiu< nlMi t>Beii nlrcmioiinly objected t« if 
rbago is titkoa to redueticin works, as r.hn pupiT absorbs aad rcmuvis 
(DUcli frrcame, and the Iftbor uf uuwruppiug in cX{>eDi9ve. 
1. Qosed Syttftin.— In some Kuropww pitiw and in certniii (li«- 
tiiclK ill Now Vurk City, tliore Kah been uned whnt is. ii>rii)<Ml the 
" cIomhI systeai." Thu huuMs csda are etjuipped with t<pc<;iHl .'•litlinie 
covent, which fit iiit^i (cuidtH over openingii in Die top q{ the collection 
wagons. TbuH the contents of the cann crd be dixcharKed into the 
wagon without rxiiocurfi to the air. 

fi. Temporal; Cold Storage. — 1» the Peuiiitylvatiia Railroad Sta- 
^:tionB in New York and Wiinliiii)i;ton, there are cotd-*torage rooms for 
Jie iQirbaRO froin the rmpectivo reetuuraatfi, for ita sanitary preserva- 
ttioii until it can be removed. 



t 



£.— OCPROPER CONDITIONS, AND COMPLAINTS 

Very hllle definite information in available roj^ardinft Ihit: miliject, 

rini{ an investiKiitinti of refuse dispu^al in ]>oui»vil]e (1^17) by 
reeley, special rtudiea of house tr<iilinent were made, and aeHial 
conditions were observed in a number of difitrittts uf dilTeretit (.-barac- 
tetistics. The rtwullw arc nummariiicd in Tabic -19. The lack of 
proper hoase treatment ami the ca\ttc» uf eomplainU are tthown. 
Only 17% of \he houses utted garlMge caii^. In all other ca«e» the 
Karbogc was foun<l by the collector in burrclH, Uoxe«, diab paud, and 
mtsoellaneous ret-optneles. 

At Wa.ihitiKl«n. I>. C, (here is fcepi a rpeord of complaints, sab- 
divided according to Uta clat^ of rofu'k.- niittcHal. The rc»ult« of 
;wo yeant are shown in Table 50, 

In Toledo. Ohio (popHlatiun a^a.UKt). durinR the first five months 
IS'.JO, the number of complaints received frum the collection service 
in reference to garbage averaged 12.^ {ler day. and lhe:>e were quite 
well distributed about I he city. Tbi.-> wan t^tiuivalent to 5.2E) oom- 
plaintd ppr KKI.QOI) population per daj', ax oompiired with Washing* 
tou and Milwaukee, where tbcy were 1.10 and l.£3, respectively. 



tF.— ESSENTIALS OF TREATMENT 
A tliorough atteiiiion to the L-^KC^titiHU uf tbc huiiw trvntmeni u 
Beoory for llic KCiierul i^iiccr,-.- uf the wurk of the r</]lcc(ion d(.'piart- 
ment. 

1. Gaibage, Aabea, and Bobbish. — The nmplc^t treatment will 

Bnernlly be preferable. From experienoo in many cities, it is prac- 

ilile to maintain a two- or three-can ayHtem, but tliia ia not done 



92 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



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HOUSE TREATMENT 



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94 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

without elTort. Some [wrsons do not seem to understand exactly 
why or how the Reparation should be made. In Chicago, Boston, and 
elsewhere, under the two- and three-can systems, much garbage finds 
Hb way to the dum)») by way of the ash cans, and some rubbish to the 
reduction plants in the garbage cans. From the point of view of 
simplicity and ease of general adoption, the one-can system, as gen- 
erally practiced in Europe, offers most advantages to the residents, 
but — in our country — not always to the city treasury. 

Of the available systems of house treatment, the one which per- 
mits of the greatest cleanliness should be preferred. Garbage gener- 
ally causes the most nuisance, because of the odor of its putrefaction 
and from the Uquids draining from it, which foul anything with which 
they come in contact. Both these objections are reduced if the gar- 
bage is intermixed with ashes and rubbish. Garbage, stored sufficiently 
long by itself, always creates a nuisance. 

In Milwaukee, in order to keep the foul-smelling garbage wagons 
off the streets during the day, the collection department has been 
forced by public opinion to collect garbage at night. Much of the 
public complaint against selecting certain locations for disposal works 
is due to the necessary concentration of odorous collection wagons 
along the routes. 

Where garbage has become too old for feeding to hogs, and if the 
loosely fitting covers of the cans do not prevent odors, it is suggested 
that chloride of lime, a dilute solution of cresol, a solution with a pine 
oil base, gas house waste, or sawdust, if available, might be used. 
When garbage is not yet too old for feeding, but should be disinfected, 
then powdered charcoal is the most serviceable material. Garbage 
pails should be washed with water after being emptied, particularly 
if the garbage is fed. When not fed, disinfection can be effected as 
above, to serve as a fly rci>eliciit. 

The greatest nuisance from ashes i-; the dust which the wind blows 
from them. Wet or moiwt garbage mixed with them lessens the 
volume of dust. The greatest nuisance from rubbish comes from 
the loose paper which is blown away from the can, wagon, or dump. 
This is less likely to happen if the rubbish is weighted down with 
garbage and ashes. 

Mixed refuse is loss objectionable to handle than garbage atone, 
and, in this rcpcct, dues not differ materially from either ashes or 
rubbish. Therefore, n hotter class of liibur can (leiieraUy be secured 
to collccl nii\cd rcfuso. 

With rogiinl tu cleiiiilini'Sf;, the l'!iir()|H';ni (iric-can system, ther^ 
fore, has many advantiigi's. 

From the viewpoint of total co.-it, including the cost o* 



HOUSE TREATMENT 96 

diapoeal, the separation of garbage from anhen and rubbish may be 
Advantageous, particularly in America, where the richer garbage can 
be U!>e<l profitably as hog food, and where it^ percentage of grcar^e is 
high. This is also true when ashes and rubbish, if kept separated 
Irom garbage, do not require to be collected as frequently as do cither 
prbage alone or the mixed refuse. In many commuiiitiea or difltricts 
both ashes and rubbish can be disposed of by themselves, in part or 
together, at the premises, or by short hauls to near-by dumps. This 
condition may relieve the collection department of much work, and 
it will reduce the cost. 

The value of the different methods of house treatment, therefore, 
must be considered in conjunction mth the costs of collection and 
disposal, and will be taken up again later with thef« subjects. The 
cost data bearing on bouse treatment alone are quite inadequate, and 
difficult to formulate. None is here gi^'en. 

%. Trsde Refuse, Manure, Sweepings, Niglit-soil, and Dead 
Animals. — Owii^ to the great %-ariation in the character and quantity 
of these materials, no general suggestions can be given as to the 
treatment at tbeir origin, as this will depend entirely on the local 
coaditioDS in each ea^e. A few detafled remarks, howe\'er, may 
beof serriee. 

(o) Tradt RffitM. — Trade refuse should receive aoch treatment 
and storage at the taetory ^a will prevent any and all nuLnancet> arising 
tberofrom on the pcemaes. Therefore, it will depend entirely on the 
tpecifie cfaarart«r of Ae mAtmals. If thev are :^n:iall in quantity and 
luve the dianc^.er or isneral rubbish, they may be cla.-<wd as rubbish 
ind coUeeted fcy ^a* -rity in the same receptacle as the domentie 
rubbish, aati is. 'Jm •Ame ouuiner. In that a^t the refuse should be 
placed in Kmnar »a». xz -niitahle poinr.^. and for cnllection at '^uch 
boors a* int ixfi -7 -he Tiry. If the quantities" are lanie. the pro- 
ducer afaoahi T^aur™ ~iiem ir his own expeni^e. 3^ a part of his biisi- 
nen affair* wwt JTin'»wT '<\ t^he ^perial i*itv mnilarions enverini^ the 
reqairemefic if HunRiTinR ind f:he eomforr of the citizens. 

'il ."i&wic 'ifmfirv- — jta rT>a3rTiti the hnii-te nr ^tahie Teatment, it 
should be ^rann^^sKfi i«t» -fiat .lil -ifabii' niannrp -ihoiilii he prevented 
from hefiminie im^i^nnmiiiv oditniuy. by pmviiiinu dahr-firritig 
ftt\t>T* :'.r .!*• -^r uirt ly \ *iitfirienrly rminen'' rfmovLil, hur i-hierfy 
ivim Vr'ifr.^iii L f'"--irp«tintf •fntir This -iiihiwr i>t iiifi(Tii.''w^i it 
leosrn lit "•.^^■jfr T.~' 

<• ■r-^j.r'.'.j -^)ii;^ "¥»^r)tmc= "iiiisisr ■•hietlv if ItLtr. mil. ^here 
a ■eparu-x -AKr.on » n«inT;iineit, in* imuiUv pjaiwi :n ^hc nibhish 
•r aril Eui. •■ -tT" I«nr»nle. liow>*v.'r. :n .raw 'r nii'crintiri lis- 

■t- a -mmm. that :iil ^wet^pintc -xa well i» other rubbish 



96 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

from sick rooms, be kept out of the rubbish and burnt if possible in 
the house furnace, kitchen range, or elsewhere on the premises. 

(d) Nig/U-»oiL — In localities where there are no sewers, night- 
soil is usually contained in privy vaults, which are specially built 
for the purpose, either with open joints to permit the liquids to drain 
out, or with tight joints requiring both solids and liquids to be pumped 
out periodically and removed by odorless excavators. (See Chap- 
ter XVI.) 

There are numerous contrivances in America and Europe, con- 
sisting of pails, barrels, fosses mobita, etc., which are placed at the 
bottom of the soil pipes in a house and receive the droppings. At 
suitable intervals of time the full receptacles are exchanged for empty 
ones and removed. 

One of the best contrivances for receiving night-soil , in a house 
for which there is no sewer, is the so-called earth-closet, first intro- 
duced in England by the Rev. Henry Moule, in 1863. A sufficiently 
lai^ pail, barrel, or box, is placed beneath the seat of a closet, a suf- 
ficient supply of dry and finely pulvented earth, sawdust, charcoal, 
loam, or clay — but not sand — is stored in the closet about 5 ft. above 
the seat, and filled from the outside. A pipe leads from it to the bowl 
under the seat, and is proWded with a valve. By means of a pull) 
similar to that of a water closet, a fixed quantity of earth, sufficient 
to absorb the free liquids, is released and spreads over the fresh fsces 
and by covering them prevents offensive odors. This contrivance 
has been especially applicable in small towns or suburbs where an 
opportunity may offer to utilize the material in gardens or on fields. 

(e) Dead AnimaU. — The dead bodies of horses, dogs, and cats are 
usually collected from the house or stable by the public departments. 
The treatment at the house prior thereto should be as follows: As 
soon as the death occurs, notify the Health Department. Meantime, 
leave the body in a suitable place for collection, and keep it covered so 
that no flies or other insects may get to it. Unless the body is removed 
within twenty-four hours, a good disinfectant must be hberally scat- 
tered entirely over it, and the body again covered. (See Chapter 
XVI.) 

G.— EDUCATIOn OP HOUSE OCCUPAITTS 

As already su^ested, the education of the house occupant to 
treat properly his own refuse at the house before collection b impor- 
tant. In cities ha\'ing different classes of inhabitanti', from the more 
careless and uneducated to the most particular, it is very difficult 
to secure uniform house treatment. Only systematic and persistent 
efforts along educational lines will approximate the desired result. 



BOVSE TREATMENT 



97 



k 



■ 



SnuH> mill cftQ be secured by utiifonnitig lh« workmen in the col- 
lettion service. (Sec Tnblc 52, in Cluiplcr III.) 

Tbe (lillicully of ouiinLaining the da-iirod KopMation of refiiM* ftt 
the boUM » reflected in (he city ordiruinces of New York, Cliicapi, 
dc, K<|tliririg that no cuUection be uiaile uiilvtss tbu bouecbolder 
obBoms Uie rules regardiu)} the scpurtittuu. 



H.-STTMMARY ATO CONCL0SIONS 



The (ielail- i>f llic hou^: trealtncnl nf rpfiiso dinriiioipd in this 
rtwpter should son-p to show nnd to «Diphu(-ix« iU iuijmrtaiicc. 
.Speci6r conciuirioitH pcrtnininK tn nil rnnditioiu cnnriot 1k> drami. It 
u nccwBory (o atudy th»e wiliiecl carefully, together with u coiiKidpr- 
•UoD of the organisation and ruuiinv wurk of the coll<>ction depnrt- 
ment. The relation of the houM.- treatment to the collection iwrvii^ 
uid final disposal rcquirce more attention in its details than bat; bore- 
loftne been gix-en to it; and, to secure the best troatmont, the henrty 
«M)pcration of the householder?) with the deparl:ttietit is iiecesHary. 
'Tha ran be obtjiined only by patient, [wrsistciit, and intelligent 
inxtruction, aa well oa guidaooe, ou (be part of the officialii of the 
depattmeut. 



L— SAMPLES OP CARDS AlfD RULES 

Kxaraplps of bou.'^ cards and rules pHbtished by tity departments 

liavitiR cliarKO of refuee collection work have been selected from 

I I'ariouB parts of tbe country, and are shown on pages ftS to 103. 

Suob cariif ebould be hung up at euttabiB placoa, as a oODfltont 

rvminder. 

In f^pringficld, Matts., the coIlectorH report each csat wb«rc 
eollection has not been made. The form provided for tbe puriK^nc 
shows the street, house number and the date, and indicates thai the 
coUcetion could not bo made for one of the following rcasouH: Locked 
door, wttlka not Aho%-cled, can not in convenient place, refuftc not 
Hparaterl, rickety bani>l^. frozen barrebi, large barrels, builder's 
lubbuh, itarbago uut on ground Hoar, gsibago not in ouu, ot«. 



9S COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

»»»p tga CAKD USP THIS CABD 

REGULATIONS 

FOB 

Collection o f House hold Waste 

Tlu d»ptt r l m »nt mil mata tmy tndaavor te rvndtr 
^fieitnl a&rnet.bul inllajtiiDu no mpOTinMIilyybr Ion or 
damagt to pnrptrty if oAn or mUuA or* rtquirtd U> h» 
T t moood from vilAin hu^ingo. 

SEPARATE CONTAINERS 

Separata coBUiaen moat be pioridad for nrtiaga, 
MhM, obA nibbiilt, and in no eM« will collections D* nwd* 
by tba Cl^ onlaiB Um followioK MpaimtionB an nada: 

GARBAGE COLLECTION 

Gtmtagt: Tha tarm "gartawa" mcana all Tecetabla 

matter and tabia waita, 
Oiwlaiaii ■: - Corarad watar-ticht natal cana. 
CbBacKoa*: Twka a week. 

ASHES COLLECTION 

The term "Aihcs" inelodea aahes, floor 
aweepinn. broken (laat, discarded kitchen ware, tin 
aaaa, and worn-out furniture. No material will b« 
MmoTad that »'•'•""■"'«*— aa the resnlt of boildlns 
operation*. 

Comtainm: Hatal can*, or berrela. siie not to exceed IS 
Inehea in diameter by 26 inchea hisbi walk* leading to 
container* ahall ba cleared of ice and snow. 

Cottectunu: Once a Draath in lommer and twice a month 
in winter. 

RUBBISH COLLECnON 

RaUuk.' The term "mUiiah" maan* paper, card- 

boaid boiaa, raga, bottles, metal*, old clothe*, ahoea, 
andrnbbera. 

Cow (a fa «r*." Light metal cana. or barrels, eanvaa or 
burlap baga. 

CollectioM.- Once a month. 



Addreal all coinplainla to 

DEPARTMENT OF STREETS AND ENGINEERING 
Wsate Diapotal DiTition, 
AdminUtration Building. Springfield, Maas. 
TelephoM&eiOO 



B TRBAT}tE\T 



CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



How \o Help Keep Our City Clean 

SufutMttoos to Hou«rtioUi«n Ratatln to Ih* Co1I*ctton 
o( Asbea, Rubbtob, Wun Piper uul Gkrbote. 

A8HB8 AHD SmBISH 

Tic MItecbon of aikea «d() nbkiih U providtd Otily in hoa*«lioldt. 

la Mdcr to bcjtilice uid nUic poiaibh a Iboroiub uid clFicitot 
celMtKM ol Bi&ti and rulibiih luuMhoMcri should frovii* ■uil4U« 
mtpUcla wilh huidlu kod vuvcis. and )<Ii« ihf attiM *ni1 nihbiiih 
Ch*f«iR. The*« rc«cf tacl«> stLOuU cot be Uifti (ban cm lit learned <on> 
vtBiaoltf to tbe wigon alter ihey ir« filled. If there it ttiott ttiai c*n> 
not be pUecd la tba nccptscin then |l>i> malniil ibuuM be iLtJ in 

Ho Hht* er nAbith will bt nmorc^ from baitmcnlR. At! ma- 
iHbb U be KMOVod br the a(y muii be kept in a plan that will main 
In edlaciioa conTcnitnt. 

Ktrrf plan faibayt, vrcitibitt or othir oSenaivn eulentl in the 
Mac rtcipude witb aAta and rubblih. Boiilci, iin cant, clc. ihouid 
ha f]»u<l oiili tfc« rubtnrfi aad aahti *n^ not with g^iKis'' Kubbiah 
•etnaulMrd in yard*— *ueh as ft*ta, leavn. twiga, ittnibi, cic, it not 
topbol^ tob« |iaad)*d, vill te laUm. 

WASTE PAPER 

W*Mr paper wd Se renuived Irom bciifiesi pltte*, acoftnidit 
keoMI. hOMcbolilt and otbtr pUcei proiidol it is kc;>t in tuss OT tied 
m buiillM. Waitc I»I>er muat alwtjri be kept in a dry place. 

In order that wiite paper ma; be krpl diy. and lu prtvml it fron 
Mowms abmt-tbe pecTiiaea and tirtKt^t it ^ifl be retniD'^'ed Iron baao* 
mm/It or ibtdi. box c^ltKEora tviU nM enter biiemcnii unlni tbe occi^ 

Kl of the hoax if prcMSI and «ve> hit or her <on*«fit. II piper I* 
I U the baura«nt ii ttiooM b« ui a can*tninit placf, and ibould b* 
naar the toot ol Ike italr*. - 

GARBAGE 
An saitetc iBuat bo plarrd >n * mriat rt««pt«ctt. which ibali b» 
MM'tiM with a tofi or cover. Far a family nl ordiuar; lije a firbagc 
TCMPtltlt hcldi«t ^D iralloal il rKORimrnde'l. 

It II i.»;..ii iMitjnancn reculatinf the publkheallA \o throw gktb- 
act I ' < DT allow tne Miue lo remaia eapoieii and noi in ■ 

Ij.. ■■.! 11-. .11 anyihrnif in the gitbaffe can except vejeuhle mat- 
ttr, uMc rtfuK. nc. 

M» colfcctar ot aajr of th« city dlritiont If ptmiittnl to accevi any 
wtwunwitlon from any bouieliatder. Any c^llcciot leeeptini a lamin- 
■stion wIU kt dlimimd Uinr\ ttic Krricc 

HoMMhoUcT* are requeued ta rcpcri anv tnatttfiiian 6n the put ot 
Bp l licwri of mahn. tubbiih. watie paper and laibace la the CocnpUint 
TliJiMllinnl. 114 City HulL Mlia *600 Stalion 6 or C*i>tnl 1 Swiion C 

By-fompMiig wMJi Ibete rul*a ym w,-iil ai>l ihf riiv .idniinialraip--n 
In iti tR»(t9 la imkc Cloaland a baatthm, tttaner auij ticllcr ««!/ in 
MdlB b I- liv«. 

Let ii» all do Mtriian. 

Vtry TtipHtfully, 

^•M HARRY L DAVIS. Msye* 



:>0H44A 



100 COLLECTtOS AND DISPOSAL OF MU\IC!PaL REFVSE 



MILWAUKEE. WIS. 



Hani 



this card in your kitchen 

AND 

"CLEAN THE CAN" 

cm or MiLHtvutc 

DCPARTMEnT or PUBLIC WORKS 

OARBACE COU.ECTION 



RULES. 
1. Provitlf ^«MRiV* uni hiving Tight tnia^ e«««rt siid bandlea 

on the li'dct. (SiJte aboiil 20 gxlloni). 
3; Provide tcioufh cam la hold 1 w«k't accumuUtion of eubtcs. 

3. Place UiecAiiton \beCrotmd flcor, wlu(e<atllr 'onnil. 

4. Fmi Drain Ih< gittagc of all wattr. 

5. Then Wrap ib* drained ci[b*KC ill a pi«c« «( old ncwtpiper. 

4. Pul oa\j Dra'ncil and Vropptd larbaec In tlic j;aita£c can, No 
other rtfuBC niU^x icmoitd bytbc e«rba|[c tallecter. 
REASONS. 

1. Gar1iaj!« it liKaniUial itiA vrfctibk wmIi From kilcbtiu. When 
tW.Ua It imcll* and brnda flict. Fmh lattafc la laoBeniive. 
Onlf toiled. H«t {artwt<. Id dirl)', open c*n>. tccomet (onL 
Woodaa pada or biHr* loak np Ibe foul iuic«« Iroin the garbage 
■ad btcom* (ooL Uncorutd (*m aKracI tbc lliu and haaun 
deCBT. Uaclna «aoa M« • acnaM lo beallh and will b< report- 
ed to lb* HmIIL DtputmcDl. 

3. Carbaga ia collcclcl bf the departmenl once in M*«g dajv. If 
UUa it not done, comptainl ihould tv made la 'phann No. 4 City 
Hall (Main 2575/ Be tore ttiil jaof cccnpUini i> 1c{;itinia)c 
VaiHKMaaiT camplaUila watlc tinK and iaonK,j. Aa farbtcc 
la e«IUct(d al Di(&l IcqIc Lnle Ikc c<d btlor* Complainia^. 1( 
you bura ibr combii^tihlc c>rl>acein yourttuveor luraincc. Ihc 
Karbase wilt not aMummuiitc. 

3. Place lh« can In a Kegatar. euily fonnd place, where tfaecolW- 
toi can always eel it. Donuikccp r>>ii.r eaie locked. If job 
hart a nkJi dog, chain him op. KclplhtcolEcctM viAi»<fiW 
ale w.lb the deitanneoi. 

4- Keep the (aebaCe wnpptd and drained. Il xiU ool iliek to ll>« 
cao In any weather and Ihaean wtU r«I become Ion I. Motlaf the 
naiMOce [rom eartM^e ttxrtaiiitbcsaTbaEecaa. Oarbefe, when 
(eul it geacrajly mi bcuuie decay baa been lUrtcd by ibc diity 
Opcu, UDCovered can, 

i. Flics arc a ouiiaDce and («rrr ditcaic. They ibould be ciler- 
tnioaled. They brted In firbage. Wrap tb« garbage %o thai 
ibt nics can uot lay ihtti (££« In it 

6. Tk« garbage wagon* are nai equipped al pecteat lo collect aaf- 

thlng bnl tarbatc Thceelorc only wrapped aad drained garb 
age mual be pal In Ibc larbace can. 

■CLEAN THE CAN" 



notfSt! TREATMF.ST 
MINNFAPOLIS, MINN. 

CTTY ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT 

F. W. C&pp«l«a, City Engineer 
DIVISION GARBAGE COLLECTION 

RULES 

Pertuning to the Collection of Garbnse 



L Th« tATbu* ot Uinnuipolla i* coIIoMmI oniler 
tin dlracUon wf tlw Ctlr EuUesr and by tlie autborlly 
tt( tlw Cllr CouDCl]. (Sea R«*olutluo pasied JonuaFjr 
Itk. I»1E.) 

I. Tb« o«ii«r or occuiHDl of «*ch liai(*i> I* required 
br >•« lo ^roTlda malalUc canii. v-KB cloa^ntciHK mt- 
«n, »»d wltb liaiidlMi upon tlio ildai. 

t. f^TlAe ■ Mitticieot numb**- ot auu to bold ttt 
kaal MTMi dftya* feccumulailgu. Csot muit be placed 
OS VtfU sromid rioor. near ttae aller. null? accenlUS 
u» the CQltoctor. eod wbuo Dlctir. l*sklD(. ur id *aj wey 
^tacU**. M replaced by new caoa Garbtce caoa 
iBMt ba at a z»«Bi]aa tlw. 

1; Drstn nrbMe n( all Dolatarv. Xima irrkp tt la 
PMM.Mtore pulttDK It In itae can, and It will naUbcr 
nell bMti In liDl VDattier, not ttutta or stick t» tbe 
Mil la OOM WMther. 

E. Pul Into ili« sarbase can all aalmaJ and TtKetaUe 
rafMo tntn Ibc kliu>i«tt. rata. wua1« paper, old abOM> 
rubbara, Qoor iwcDplnita, and all mlocotUnixruB rafow 
Ikat will bora, (iaitase can*. rxiauinlaK wntor, alppa, 
aafeat. lia cao*. Klawnn^ trockcr?, or masarv. will 
BM be aaaptled br the eoUactor. 

ii B*»o«1 alt dead animala lu (bla Departmael, «1t- 
lar aact iMallem of aaaia. 

f. Pleaaa 4o not auk (ha eollaclor to do jronr JauJlev 
vavk. H« I* paid a Mtary. and hU Unto bdotts* to tka 
C«j. 

t. ran afa aot aatltlad lo tbe ••rv]e« «r lU* Oepan- 
naal nwlaai yaa eoabinc to Uuiaa nilni. 

b- *nar rou lui-e coupiiMl wttb Ui« abo*e rulaa, ra- 
pott all wnplaiBU to the Plrmauib Avaaue SlaUoa. 



T. B. BUCXLST. 
eaK- dT Oarhasa. 



N. W. Phonai KlooUat lid. 
TiMute. Norm lan. 



KANO THik UP IN VOUft KtT«HIN. 



102 COLLBCrmnnnnWffW^L OF ilVmCIPAL REFUSE' 
WINNETKA, ILL. 



HANG THIS CARD IN YOUR KITCHEN FOR REFbJtENCE 

VILLAGE OF WINNETKA 
Garbage, Ash and Rubbish Service 



NATURE or SERVICE 
SmiImi 2t1 o1 (he ViUtec Coit oE Orilinancn rcqaiMt 

-Ihil auk sa-lsav ornTAliH Id u> TIDu* sf VluMta rfu9 nsm riaa M> snnlM* 
«v 4t%«rv1M Jti m i tClJI M*lM*. KAfcA^ lilt fAU vi^ UMlAl ««rl^ kf*«i* vlUfl t^m 
m*^*tr vU ■!— I «u« 4M alt nfax «' ttvr ^fvlbihkn n^tuitHtf. t«d t^ hta laid 
v^tmimm tt all IIOM ma aB4 data oT Afir aaranalaQana af ■■fbua, uBhl ll» rai* ltd 
ia4iil vua,knkn iiaai lai wi ii i >M u»( v*n u4.anrara« attKiy -laairliitlHi 

RcKul>r coDrctions of cartMC< >nd iihn arr mldc by the M11*xe fur » moiiltily 
(^r«. Ihi>«4 on lh« mimlur ei iiMnia ■■> jouf raaxleat*. Tlie di»fj[< for » lii«-r«ini 
rrtidtDcc it 3075 iirr month anil incrtaici 1025 fur cacb Iddiliaual luom. Oil Win- 
Dclka S4 loT ii.(uiiii*l>on. 

Tin an%, bottio and olh« rcfui« ate coUt^tfd luiivtriatlr throui^oul tlvt VIIUi* 
lite of tkirfr out ■>! iundt provided by ih« iptvial two null tut. Cutagr, ittiti and 
rubblih >ic ciih collecifd in ip-tciatly dcvicntd tthidci in order to inakt ihc retvict 
clean, untlir^ *nd unobjeftl&ruiMe. 

TIME OP COLLECTIONS 

CaA '^'''^ri W'^tiaaJaj- ni FdiMT of ncl) wo*. 



....9(^C<^y.^^5iL)t*:«4y. 



KuDbiih ,9*J^w*/,Pt5T*Tr,f^-!*:.'™V 



IXriniTllVT-'naii raar rforlkiMa wtwn ma talMiUr MB I**** ttIB maUt tm IM tola 
tat« "t-T. Thia wlBl balp at IB Unjrt*a tni »«rTt?«. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS 

Thtal nniMleB* an band on ihr Yilli«e Carhair (Vdiaini« ■n4 OliM be nnfulljr obftrxd. 
Thar art atuvMi M prsim vnni hrilih intf lu •■>■ ill in •'fxim mMm, 
Sft*f#la r*Cap<acJaa frit.«t I.4 prcp*i^tj foi *afh ^1 tlj* laltavtif: 

t. Carh(<. 

r Am**, 

1. Ttn cini, bMtla* anl oilier n4u<c, 

ti la icrj importani ihai f»h of ih« (ttrfc Icrrfcifii eliaict tt licM f arifitlfj ■tf^rarc 

Car1ia<< lacefplKEldi Ami t-u cntltl etna. lA Lt4( Ihaf n^y »a*liy bt waabail, a*4 ib«bI ba^^ 
vMf^ vlib a i<ihi Aiiini tv<ii. Kaa* raur a»W(> aaa daaa •« all (liH*. 

Ci'b>« iHould ti« dninrd aniS wrat'^eJ in piper ia raid waiiher to prtfanl ftcvcfv ta Ibc 
caih 

Ai^ta ihooli] br nlKid In <ini or oihet ri((p>acl« vbidi un tie atiHir hiailled by ibr id- 
Iniar*. 

ItetaelKlet ibeiLld be slued it ■ twt'tnleal pehK Mitldi lh< bulIdlBC, aa Ibc d>r vUa 
yw coifeeiiDfi 11 watfe. An ntaietiBiite tit thl* riiEe will creaTljr Emptore rbc iCTiil«mr '^1 r^' 
«eevie«> T\a* required l<># (Al1t<tiAoi -i a^arl^ 4<»jblrJ mban rt<rpt»itrt in W*^l fh«>^, 

l^ptt will be lutlriitd mill mbliiib •■ 4eiiri4. Ii it eapatied. boaem. Uui all nlHi can 
■ill uit BAtatinei. neaitptpeli aad aid Wiakt lot lk( Bojf Sieule, 

OerllKtort ara aot allil^<4 l« vp«44 ttiaa Irp ficlll*^ uf r*fv«v vbkb ku BM fr***f«*IV 
•na placed In iKeiUKlie. 

IttBicnit-er 1L4 (alfeeLAe't rifna It v«li)abl«k Ciietiol ifTTica <a« Dbi^ be rendered by c^ 
o^rtti^n i^n iHe fwri of itie tiontvholder. 

CoUacton ar* lairewlrd 10 br (oaitMiia al ail UMM. Amr latttOUy iboaM be fr»vlti to 
» VlllDrc t«it al i»<r. 

KciwehoMtii iri rxjuetieil id Iniinxi ibeit help In ih* ebitrrtnc* *d IbcM rttiMiMM, 

vnr IHPOXTAKT-ILoiHtnaldeii leiiina lb* VilUc*. a> aho tM any atbo (ea<M wlab 
twice Jitc«tl4n4«<l. Kmpartriif <*t (tcrmipcatl^, ih«ald nMilf <h« VilWff bfkt lo thu ■tf«vt 
Nf|r(«i <" «* <*»'■ 4*atn PBiKh unnnvtMrr (pi»0d««i»ilii« aAom |^ period «tkk dm |,|Q 
for t(r»tc< kkmld iWft. 



HOVSE TREATMENT 108 

MONTCLAIR, N. J. 

XeialnUim Scgtujiing A*i|e« tu^ ((atbtige (HoUecfiim 

WsBW^ ^ ardw^a tiajua tUfXA, itOf, it «u anUaed Iku ubn ud sut>(< Indi utf 
j i alMail wiOia iIh Smib of ibi Tdsb of HoKdiir Aodd WalWcud, nawnd lad dlifaDi a( u 
yaWi u i fm i IB nch Mw ni r u Ibt Caendl itaD Irao lin B ibk br nglgtioB omu si i)it Bafsriv 
at l»ij C im ci te flit ; »■ >i )l 

Ktm^M, Ttu Ihc folkiwiac nia ud ruriMlani m bmtj idsftcd Is tbi cdbOia d< i^i wd 
ritafc in tiK Te« d( Uentckir. 

XUtES AND REGULATIONS FOK THE COLLZCTION OF ASHES AND GARBAGE IN THE 
TOWN OF UONTCLAIR. 

ASHES: AB tilia C«r poWk c^UkiIcb BdM V plKid m ibeul laBaiacn wbkb w^ Itkd wO 
■li^ aai tma mi h » i li »d pgiadi ind ml kt plved tmiMm ike taUdn* 4iid vUiia ttrtBtf Iw Ibenal. 

Ariu mat ba free ln»i da caa^ lapcr and nUWi ef avrry d mjttakm 

GARBACE; Gutad (gr paUk olban bW ki |ihad ■ aMasen acaptaUe (a He Bwd «< 
Hakk ud aaal l» plamd amiilt dl Om balUac and wfeUa IwoBy (w IhBnf, 

Gaitaft ta a aii u of <mtt lasdnSa oaljr aad niw ^ fn< I'm tiB laaa. raper aod afacr nUiiili 
slcwrUad. 

GENERAL REGULATIONS: Atiar ■ mom lOieian tacba a bbr. •■bo ul lutafi vDl ma 
la adcciB] friM rrmiiii vhti* ■ falh at UaM Ma fw widi b sol ibiinlM (ton Ihi HnS u Iha 
Imtkn of Uh uh gr ^iW ™>>- Wbtn OH of drimnfi it ntiaad to inf<«- uh and vtafi on 
m^ tt flaod ai ibi mb Ibm of ibc imaL 

Alba ar t^rtafi placed b Md B fj aMid rm|<a«l« win aai baodlecied bjr tawo ma. b^ At uh v 
prtaga (H nial kt ula Irca A* rac^uek bjr Ibt mliliiil lad fliad aksn At frsoiil b a bnlioa 
ai asMd abani. CsOeaan >n illo m d m ae am ta tour hniliHap sc putt ibenaf Eat ikc crfh a ie e< 
a*_orpu1Bfa. 

Odiiai an nit ltd mt u dhi adketort.tntaida at ■■■ nrrphiiiiliiil la a wtfan tadi will ka 

Hiliiaa art mamJ la iwln all "-t**'-" ts Ibi Towa Edfliittr'i n&Bi laaNad of utorpliBt to 
aniillili wkb die aOKton, Tttqtiait Z7W Wmtckir. 

Fkvpcitj owan witl frallr (KibtaU Ibc eaPtctlcii of balk Ibt aibca awl ^ikafc bjr m A p lyla) Mlb 
*■ •knt midali et aad tif bannf Iba aib asd (tikift cnt cm in tbt pnps ImUlea on Iki nfilai 
^n lor taUicaaa. 

riMililliiM p aftelag , two H)DaalMa sf aibei aicb weA an andt dmi^ Ibt wlaiir oioiilbi. aad in* 
tiliniaa dbitaf Iha imiii i lauba, and two csBicllaa al ^Afc aadi wnk dmofbew tba ]W. 

'iiiiiia II III III! iMlTiij riniti nf rtii Bmrit nf lliiMi rtada H lolon: 

S«sa«. AB ffiW "^ «**! wha iliall aflewJili aaywbara la Ibt Taam of MeaBlair. of rhkk 
b aarad. hv< " nBtaad AOBh ibafl ki bv> i> wanr-<l(lil im kr Mai IBVladv pnridid wMb licbtlr 

AdifUd ^ Tawa Cawul April IM, I9U. 

HARRY TRIPPETT. 

TowB Ck^ 



CHAPTER III 
COLLECTION 

The collection of refuse is an intermediate process between the 
house treatment and the final diHpot<aI. In some respects it is the 
most important of these three parts of the problem. Many people are 
affected by it more directly than by the other two parts, and the cost of 
collecting municipal refuse is normally larger than that of the dis- 
posal. This branch of service becomes more important the larger 
the city, but it has been frequently unsatisfactory in its results. The 
best solution must be based on the special conditions of each case, 
and is practically an engineering problem of plant, power, and time; 
it cannot be obtained by copying other cities or by blindly accepting 
the claims of those who are financially uiterested. 

Conveying the refuse from the points of origin to those of final 
disposal is divided into two parts: One pertains to the actual collec- 
tion or gathering of the refuse from the houses into the wagons, and 
the hauling of it to proper places for subsequent transportation or 
direct delivery to places of final disposal; another part pertains to 
the transportation of the refuse by secondary means after the original 
collection. Such secondary methods include transportation by barges, 
motor trucks, street railways, and railroad cars, and are not now 
required in all communities, but their utie is increasing in the larger 
cities. 

The subject of collection is discussed in the present chapter. 
The subject of transportation by secondary methods is discussed in 
Chapter IV. 

A.— REPORTS AND EARLY CONCLUSIONS 

Until quite recently the details of the collection service had 
rarely received the consideration from city officials which its impor- 
tance deser^'ed on account of both cost and sanitary efficiency. Only 
within the last few years have enninecrR succeeded in focusing atten- 
tion on this subject. The matter was first given scientific considera- 

104 



rOLtRTTtOS 



I 



lioQ by the Garbage Committee of the American Public Hcnitb 
Aasocialioti. Ttiis Com mi r. tee. in I80O, Mrnt out, in pamphlet form, a 
qocfltionnairc on nliirns disposal, iu which the subject of cuIlrcttDn 
wm* vory carefully eui'preil liy 27 items. From timo to titni' tUe 
matter Una rercived ndditioiml Mudy. In a pai^er before tbe Iiitcr- 
ntttonKl KniDDCcriDe Conjcrces, held ut St. Louia in IWM, Appears the 
(uUoviuK Blatemeut by Heriiig on the collecting of refuse.* 

"1( will Im- cviilrnl ihal I)m! iiirltwxl of vullt-olinK (he muli-risls just de- 
•criboi »ko fiiraut ui impunonl part of Lite work uttilcr Jiacumtin. Nut uniy 
viU ibe oljjectmiwbk qualitii^ uf thp rvfiuv ivqiiirr Kiwrial ptvcBiitionary 
nmitferatiuti and apeeuU meiluKb of b&ndlinf;, but the i>lM»(<[it nf roBit t>i Itodw- 
pdrtinit tkme snuH^ttncB becomos aufficicnll)' important to dn^ide the method 
nf fitui diii[i()MBt (in-«l dtKtnnitii for luiiiliii^ may not ii;^inHt tho oronuin}' of 
,ut«r»iinK a uuKle pluit Cuiiv •.>!«<.■]>', the method of dispoaal tu be adopted 
controls tlti- m-ccaettry manncT uf rallcrtion." 




An efficient nnd fnithfut collection »crvi(;p. depending primnrily 
on a wienli&c atudy niid an cranomicjil as well a.H efTective orKatiixa* 
li&Q, can be wicuTpd only through the entire *cpar»tion of the depart- 
mrat activities from the frequently changing political orguniEation 
is Milue of our American cities. The necessity for an intimuie 
familiarity with the routes, the loc&tinn of the cnn», the habits »nd 
propeiMties of the individual houKchuldeni, the complcxitie-'* of the 
raAltfiftb la be gathered and conveyed, with Iht-ir tctidcncicH to create 
nuie)uicc« throu^i odor and du»t, if not properly handled at proper 
limea, retiuircA Ions exiterience and ade<|UHte traiiiiug, The force 
emplojvd, lliercfore, should be as nearly permanent a* practicable, 
and the men in the department should Iw encouraged, by a reward 
for the bert wtK'k, either by ))romulion or incrru*c of pay. 

For Iboae res«cin» city refuse collection »houid only be done by eon- 
Irart when the municipal departraent iit known to be wholly inca.pab)« 
of doing the work, bccaupe of inexperienced or inefficient cmE)h}yev^. 
In all well-managed cities of Eurojje, with a longer experience than 
ourn. municipal rcfUM; u collected only by force account n-ith well- 
itntaed men. The reault« are high eflicieiiey nnd ewinomy. and, 
lly, thorough aatiRfaction to the public Bit well aa to the occu- 

Willun the Iu«t few yean further careful thought lias been given 
to the atibjeiM of rtftiF^ cullcction, nnd several inijiortanl reports have 
bmi Dudc. TIk first one in which tluF subject woe iso1at«d from the 



• Trtn*»Mtmt. Abl&» C.B., V«l. t.lV. I>»1 K (t«0»), p. Ml. 



106 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSS 

general refuse problem was proscntetl to the Wefltern Society of Eti(j- 
neers in Soptemlwr, llllS.* From this report the foLloning ia quoted: 

"Of the three divisionx nf rcfiwo disposal work, the collection ia the moit 
imiKirtiint, for the following reasons: 

"(1) It iH the most (xmtly. Tnhlc 51 shows the coat of collection andd» 
ponal, chiefly for garhaf[e. in a number of Ameriran cities. From this t^lleit 
in ovidont that the cost of eollertiou varies from two to eight times the cost of 
disiMsal, 'I'he house treatment involves no common cost to the communitj, 
but against all householders comes the cost of the house can and its up-bep. 

Table 51. — Comparative Cost of Collection ahd Dibpobal 



City 


Year 


Material 


Cost pui Tom 


Atttboiity 












C-oll«- 


Ditpoaal 










tioii 






Alliaiiy, N. V 


ICj»iiiiiBtt-<l 


Mixod rt'fuiw 


Sl.»l 


10.41 


Wallace Oremaleh 


Kiehmond Uurough, 












New Vork City . . 


1911 


Mi ml rHfiuu' 


i.m 


M(l> 


J. T. Fetluntan 


.Sesttie, Wuli 


EatitiiBtcd 


Mixed ri'liUH' 


1 :i» 


0.02 


Georiie H. Htnra 




1«10 


All rpfiLSP 


[ 41 


0.43 


AonuBl Repott 


ilurtsio, N. V 


1907 


Ciarbanv 


2.10 




F. O. Wanl 




mil 


CjArbaAC 


^42 


0.38 


8. M. Sinclatoa 
W. J. l^winitnm 




1911 


GarbnjEiT 


2 Kl 


1.04(2) 


(''■liiiiihuB, Ohio 


mil 


Ciarbaac 


l.Wt 


0.77(8) 


E. W. atriUlDc 


MiiH'iLiik(i', Win 


mio 


Gaihsac 


2.8S 


O.DO 


Annual Report 


Miiiiii-aiHillii, Minn... 


1010 


Garbaoc and 












aabn 


i.:i2 


0.93(3) 


Annual Report 


iiiiiTiiin, N. y 


1007 


Hubbinh 


4 00 


0.04(4) 


P. a. Ward 


S3. 42 


to.no 



NoUt. — (I) Eatiiiiatrd frutn cost per cubic yard. 

(2) l-rorit. 

iH) (Uwx t\t EarhaRD rliaiMrsaL unly. 

(U (lai alli-r UuductiD* prufit fruin rubbiah «ortiD| plant. 



"{2) Mim- iiiiineniiis complaint!) arinc from the failure of the ooDeetaoB 
aen'ii'c than fnxri llii- htiiisc Irciklmcnt or the dis|>o»al of refuse. At MilmiH 
k(i', cliirinit twn yciirx, (Inn-ley found th:it unly three complaints were receivad 
iiK'iinHt the dis[HiMiil .lystcin. whcrcu.i the ttimplnintH against the coUectJoB 
MTvii'e niufci'd fron) five to tifly fXT d:ty. boinf; more in Bumnwr and iHi 
in winter. 

"CO The iiillii'tuinMTvi(^!aff(K:tsninn-|Mi>ple more directly tfaandoathi 
diM]Hisid [Nirt of X\v: work. An unHtmitiiry jNiint iif dis|>o»il is generally In la 
isiil:itrd [jhiie wlicre it {ilTerlH tint few ilwi'llin|!;s mid loinparutively few peopls. 
On thi'iilhiT hiuid. faihin' to providi^ (n'liuent culleeliuti iiervicc affects direetty 

• Jiiuriml, Wi-Hti-ni .Scir, fliiKinrrrs. Vnl, XVII, No. 9. 




Civil Savtw CoaunimoD of Chica^, 19I3J 



Ok«U4l COIAKTIOX AMO KBMOVAL 



od 
UK 



Mnrtly bandc on 
■nfOBt 

aUk «Um. ««T- 
■nd topi 

)-lKnM:MMllNH 
RMKMd 



Typool 



hud-bobt 

•UalbuiM 
amlUKfei 



Wood lufa 

HCMilUKkl 

tnwi boiM 
Cwla 

llMlcuti 

Stwl carta 
Iron cBrU 

tfooboni 

UcUl-liMd, 
*alw4lgbtboi 

Wm(Im**«OM 

raak-waooM 
bnBH 



9lMl 

Cbbvm 
CanvM 



IDDd 
oortr 



Woodctt 

C'anru 

Iron 



OUTM 



CauvM 
Maui 

M«(al 

Iraa 
MiMattMl 



Rear dump 
Darrlsk. 

DunqMri 

lUiKlhotol 

llou* mit OR lal 
sua by alartrio 

Bbctriii boix to 

tan 

Sell-dsBLpini 



aiaal 



MMlMd 

ot 
uuluadinx 



RtrfucUciii 

Br contncl 
RaduetiQa 



Holirtodbj orann 
lloitlnd by nan* 

SalC-duatiUs 

Mr-daaipad 
SaU-dMnpad 
BaH^wpad 
BelMumiMd 

Kaiiil-ilitinpvil 
D«npadiaar 

ahavaU mt 
npfdu-hMUia 
rear dulB|t 

R*at-<1uiBp I 

Dirinp«l 

Raa>-duiip 

Dwriek { 

Darrtak 



DupoftitioD 



RaduMloa 

f PrivaW radut- 
l LuwnaKpany 

/ CWmatioo anJ 

, Pi^lcrr 
KMuntoa 

t'td (n Kofli 
lnniiivat«d 
Iniiinrvalad 
Dumped 

Cramatuui 
lt«du«tion 
IndnwlioB 

InstiK^ntioll 
tUduetlan 
Wnan- 
lUJwwton 

hivBldy <mad 

dcatfustof 
liMinoniM' 
Inrttar 

RnluolKia liy 
f^bUmrt 

RadnMion 



Nona 

Oita 

Om 
Nana 

NoM 
Nona 
Nana 



No. of 

aulii tcvrka 

loi 

rpmoval 

n( waata 



One 

None 

None 

None 
Nona 

NaM 



Noaa 

Noae 

Dm 

Nona 

FfTalnufa 

Nona 

1 Imcita la haul 
trota InaiUnc 
alalwa 



7'» /•lev po^t /Ctt. 




COLLKCTION 



tlie pmplv wlio stiould receive ihe sorvk-e and tlipir nri^hlnra as wrll. Failure 
^Bin ihr Inrk yiml, whii'ii nuy ciute a nubancc for i>caplc living in the Bsme 

HhNfc." 

' In tlip samo year, tln» Biirpsii of Kotmomy nnd E ITicipiiry, at Mil- 

wauknr. publishL-d u bulletin entitled " (jwrbagc CoUccliuii." Tbo 
Gtild rtudiw fur Ihu report included detiiiled time sUidiw of the eol- 
leotfon wiiK<iux, to dr^teriniiw the number of (olWtioiin which could be 
made by a wiixon of iciven capncily, the rate of travel, the number of 
li«d« por day, and other eijociul olpniotits of the t'olleclion sen'ife, 

ITb* ix-fwii comnii'Dt» udvt-rsdy on uiglit coUcciions. and makes a 
•trong pica for Wb^hiiig ftnd disinfecting the wagons ikt frequent 
^trr^'iU. The frequency of garbage collection recommended iit oa 
IdIIowb: 



Winter collertionii: Bimnesu Reetion, 5 times a week; alt other 

xcctionn, once a wpck. 
Sammcr cnllMtinm*: Bii«iiicM action, 6 timce n week; all other 

weltonii, twice n week. 






HepnrlA have been imidv by Ilering and CJregory for Trenton and 
Daylon. in which Ihe di'tniln of the cc)uipment required and its tiiiem- 
tton for diflemtil method* of digpntwl were enrefully wnrkcd out and 
inrloded in iho mtinutCK of cost for various projected methods of di»- 
PumI. 

More reeeiitljr, the question of collection bus received apecial con- 
Irration in ChicuKo. The lOM rcjmrt of the Civil Service Com- 
viwinn on the Bureau of Street", (pvwi much information relative lo 
the local niethodn of nilU-eliuu tBiibfute. iu<ltC9>, and ntblii»h. Il cun- 
l«in» A tablr, with data fnim a iiitmlier of ritics, rclittinic In \\w enl- 
W»ti(m»M'r>'icie, Tntiles'Jhas tjeen made up from the data contained in 
iW rvpori collocteil from 2fi cillen. It aliso covers uniformii. 

FollowinK the prevtou^ rriK^rt, the City Wa^ito Comniif^ion of 
Chimgo secured, fmm Mcf«irH. OMborn niid l-'cthcrMlun, » rcporton the 
nfuM) problem which diBCUMeii the collection of refuse, u» foUows: 

"In any methud adopted (or the i»lli«tii>n «f n>fiiN<>, itwre are four requi- 

fcw MtoecMa: 
"I \ anffir-inii, i)|i|im|inntioD. 
"3. An rlKri^nt nrKimtintion. 
'S. ftiaiUry and cmiiiimiml idi-iIiikIs tif wurk. 
'4 <}>>4»ptfaliuti un iIm- imrt of tbp piiblir 
"Tin- fin! DMumlttil M •rir-<^v)ilftnt, for, in ordrr to n-nder sal iiifacloTy tar^ 

mMriont fiuida tnuHi b<: provided lo carry out the work. The appropria- 




108 COLLSCriOX AND DISPOSAL OF MVSIClfAL RBFUSS 

(inn will ho rrgiiUtM ta 9. Urg^ «xt«Bt by tho d«gi«e of nieo««s obAainod in the j 
(kivf-liifinM-iit (if tbi^ nlht-r thnv rtiquiidUfi. 

"Ad efficipnlonetniiaticMi cannot be mainlaiued nitlioutusuificient appro* 
pration, neither cui trarii be <wDdii«(cd satisfactorily or ccoDomically nitbout 
an cfficieDt orguiixation anil o auffidmit aittiroprialion C'-oHifirniLiuii (Mi lis 
|<«rt of lh)< iniblic c&nnot bo expeetcd without rendering MtMfartory wrvim. 
All fuur rcquntca are depeodeot oa each oUter to obtaia the nmimum dcxnio 

of SUCCCBB." 

TlidM and other investi^tEons and reports bavo rmulled in moro 
nctriniu* attempts on the |iarl of the cIcniiAinK Huri«rint«ii(lfnt« to 
iiuprov» the collection semce. ThiH result has bcoti reflected iVLvntly 
in mure it^fatcmatic aad coiuplcti' udquuI reports by depart iiiciil chiefs 
and in more comprehensive and careful epecifications under vhieb 
bidB for ooUeation work have been asked. 



B— METHODS OF COLLECTIOM 

The cnllmtion of refuse mtu<t be controlled by two mtun require- 
ments; No mlor; no dust. 

In the cilie« of America and Europe, one (inde a icreoi vnrtcly 
methods aud equipmeul« for colleeliiig rcfuM. Many Htytes of wagonsl 
for garbuii^ and a»he» arc in uhe, and their caiia«.'itic» in America range 
from I .h to (t.O cu. yd. The woponii arc itometinu^ c<iv'ere<l tiiid some- 
tinicis ojK^n. The interval between coUeetioii» varies fniin daily to ■ 
once a w«ck, or mueh longer for twhcs and rubl>i«b. Methods for " 
keeping the wagnnit clean are more conttpienous by iheir absence titan 
by Iht-^ir extst«iice. CleaiiiiiK wAK»n» 19 more imporlaiit in America (ban 
abroad, because here il i^ u frequent praetice to eolleet fiarbage iiepa- 
rated from a«hes and rubbish. To keep clean t,ho«c wngnnA in wbicb 
raw KarbaRp is collected requires frequent aud regular attention. 

Il \» iiigiiirieant that in Kurope, in general, tJierp in a lietter COI- , 
lection service ihsn in America, and more uniforni methods are used. 
Almoot everywhere there ikrr in uxe Urge iileel wagonx holdtnj; frotnl 
3 to 5 cu. yd., and having fixed covem. The collections are made at 
Eeaft three ttinea a week. KaH:<aKe. nshes, and rubbish, an ittated in 
Chapter 11, beinfT Koiiernlly iroinbineil and eolleeted in tbe Humo 
wai:on. The work i:< ofleii ilone at. nieht. the houboliolder baving 
set the refuse ean out on the curb in front of tho bouse in the early 
evening. The collection wagunx are washed daily. In both couti*] 
tries bomcB, gaeoltne, eleetricity. and ttteam are Uie powers uMtd for 
the coUeetioo. Horms have tMN>n used from the earliest Iiuim, and 
atill have their value and prrfrrence under ccrtnin eonditionn. Motor 
trucks luvc been drivDii by guoUnn, electricity, and stcatu. Tba. 



stCAin waRoni' havf; (liiiappeiired, as heinx Ipjw simple Ihari either rsmi- 
liae or electricity. Between gasoline and electricity, the former is 
the itmrt' simple aiid reliablu, imd thcrofore is prBferred in mncit 
oitiof. except -when: cleclricity c»Q be ubtitined very conveniently 
uid cheaply. 



n 



• 



C— RELATION OF COLLBCTION TO HOUSE TREATMENT AMD 
FINAL DISPOSAL 

Lti intirnal« rKlntiuii exiris between llie various parts u( itie refuse 
lem uf a municipality. The orfcanitation of the collection »erricc 
in«*t sntis/y the pDpuliir newl-i. Special rpqiiirpments of Ihe difTorent 
cla.sN^ of |>coplL* livinic iti dilTi^rciit' tli?tricl» uf ihc city, und the inSu- 
poee of the M(wori« must be imn«Herc(l. Both the Minitary efficiency 
kiid tlw cowl ile[M>nd to a marked degree nn the houneholden*. (See 
Chnpler II. > [nvctJtiKalioiiH and roportM. lookiiiK to a better ver\'ice, 
nhicb da not distinctly eunttider th^ requirements of liuubeboldcrg 
utd the svailnbic melliods for fuliillinn these requircmcntj', fail in 
tlkii important part of Ifae service. Kegulftrity of the »cr\'ice, uniform- 
ing; tite employem, aimnidnK time achedulN for visiting the hotucM, 
knd many ini|)ortant details iiboiild be includrd in Mtch in vf,sti cations. 
Further, the >iuppres«ion of iioise, odors, and dust from collecting 
ttBgouM, both night and day. is neccseary to satisfy the public. 

One ot thi! difBcuU poiritA tu mittle eonuerniiiK the garbage roI- 
Ipction in the proper location of the can, (See Chapter II,) Some- 
time* the can^ nre kepi in places where the colleetor cannot find them 
readily. Thi« i* more npt to be the ea<te in districts populated by 
tomgoen. It in adviaahle to employ an in»ipectur of Ihe lutme nation- 
tlily M the people in tiuch djatrioto, and his chief duty should be to 
promnle co-operation Itetnven the liou.«phi<I(ter and the eollcction 
dopftrtment. An improvement wf the appearance of bark yanis and 
•lleya oCteu folloyrii carefully pUinncd educational work of Ihifi ehar- 
ael«r- 

In some communiliee, methodn of refuse dts|X)Sftl have l)een adopted 
ind HixpoNal wnrkK built in advance of n xlndy of the be^l funeral 
rallection service. In such ftfot, the characCer of the collnelinn is 
inftoencod to a Rreat extent by the methcid of dirtponat, aometimos 
T«c|atring eipeeinl wagon-bofliofi suitable fnr the recoioiary unloading 
et|uipmrnt at the diapo^uJ plant. T)ic adopted method of dijipoHaJ 
Buy add rnnlrriilly U> the colleetioii coKf. 

In •niall citieM where the pnpnlutiun j)er acre is small it may 
e quits unnrcnvAry to have a public collection uf aahcM, rub- 
ltd maDum. Garbafte may be the only material Te<|uiring 



110 COLLECTIOS ASn DfSPf^AL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

fi»ll«cti»n. Tlioii, particularly if the bouses arc far apart, small 
garbage wagotm uf special dcKign may be more suiublo than large 
oiie». 

Uouaeholdcn in Buffalo art reriuirod to make three ncpuralioiu: 
AsheA and floor Hweepiiigs are placed in one receptacle, garbnijein 
another, and rubbish in the third. All rcocpUiclcff muM Ik Ic/t in 
pUi«(w n«ccssiblc lo the pontraotorfl men, jind those men bring thcin 
to the curb, and, aft^r they are emptied, return them to (lieir (iriffinal 
places. All rubbish is owned by the city, and is carted by the con- 
trsctur l^ the cjly'tt rubbish utilizatiuii plant, where il is ^rted. 
All muturinl of no comiiierciul value is burned in the fumuco, and 
h&lpn to nenomtc -■<t«am for the city'* downfte pumping plant. 

In Salt LakeCity, at first, the separation wa* not very satisfactory, 
but il in being improved by educational n-ork throuj^h publicity in Itio 
DOWt-paperi, by i;ul1PCtora and othor aj^nt» uf the onntructont, and, 
where nceided, throuith taKipnit the Rorbacc reneptacle with a 5) by 7-in. 
bufT-colored card of explanation, headed boldly, " This ReceptAclc i9 
Not lOmpiieil for the Ketison that the Garbage' and Waste Matl«r ut 
Not Properly .St-puraLcd," lulluwcd by in!ttrucliui» which, if observed 
by the houitclioldcr, will oiisurc collection. The scpuratioa ia rapidly 
itnpronQK. 

D.-GENERAL CONDITIOHS 

nrfurv dir>cuK<inj|; iti detail the chief eleraenta which control the 
collection, haul, and drlivnry of muiiiripal refuse, it is iiereaKary lo 
rotL^idcr ccrtjiin general cuntlitiuns which inBucnvc the work of col- 
lection ill an iiidirvct vruy. 

1. Quaatity of Materials.— The quantity nf refuxc inatcrialH 
produi'vd degiend.') on the hahita of the |K»>plc makiuK up the mm' 
inunity and on the seaauu of the year. The unit ijuanLilieH of tli« 
varimiK rofuNO materiat!' ]>nidiircd undi^r ilifTerent cnnditiuns have 
been Htatcd in Chapter I. The (|uautily pro<lunMl at each hoiirc 
InfluonccH the eollectorV work. It ia nol ceonomical for a collector 
to make a trip from the backyard to hts wai;on reculnrly with two or 
three small cons from the ?ame place at one visit, Therefor** the »iw 
of llie can and the interval between eollectioim ritiould be ptunited m> 
Uiat at each visit the coUccli-r will rcuiovx tmr fim prn'-M'-'ilIv fu! 
of rofuM*. 

Thr >^'hcdule i»f uperm' ' '" '." 

MUuioiiiU lluctuntions in t)i< -i^ 

aecompli.'ihed by providing wup"! 
u»e tit iTaguu» of dillcniut iomh, ^ 



I 



COUSCTIOS 



111 



frequency of oulleclion from Maaon lo season, cao Homctiniw be aiiide 

CtiiDnuiuitini prodttoins mora rvftme will hav« a cotTmifiotidiiiKly 
KTFnter cost for i-ollfCUoii. In Eurojn; it 1-* ehtimiiU^d tliat an wvrrjijte 
I ul about 0.04 cu. (t, vf cvnibiiied lum&e refuse ih proilueed |M>ri-»|iita 
Ijwr working lUy; in American citicii the quiuitity AVfni|n'» obrntt 
0.10 cu. ft. ur 2\ timet* oh uiucli. TbtTcfurv. tlic collcctiuti d«part' 
inenti* in American citic« niuft liiku sway more than tu-i<-p as iiiuuli 
rpfnoe a^ v* rrmovixl in Kurup«an cities from the fnaw. |)n[iiilat-ion. 
American cit»«, by the way. are obliced to rcmovn nUo more than 
twice M much wwafte. 

The actual qiianlil.im of garbacc cullurtcd in wvfiral cities where 
fairiy ««iunite ret-ords sr* known lc» h»vn Iwcn kepi, bavi- nnifod 
fruni 0,2U tu 0.53 lb. per capita per ivnrkinK day of 310 da>'s jjcr >-cor. 
Ihc profcnt iivcniiie l>eii»K not far from 050 lb- nnd 0.70 lb. jwr day 
dunng the maximtim month, but the maxiuitim day during the year 
win rxct-rd till!* finuri-. 

2. Cbiinctcr of Materials. — The eompuBition and character of 
a nttyV n^uxe. a* cmllerted. is di-trrmincd by thi- di-nri^e nf At-pnralinn 
M the linitiw, the n-eiilher, and tlit: luibiU of the iK'nplc. Mixed refuM' 
m a fairly dry material in wliirb the ^irluige is Uirfcely ubseured by the 
nibbiKh ami \\f\\cv. Surli a materini ic less object iomiblc !« bundle 
lliAQ raw gurbage. Three wpiirutioiif, an occaMondlly fmind in 
.tmerica, ([cnerally require throe different kinds uf wajcons, aiid tlie 
rnll<>ct)(in work is comsspondingly complicated. 

3. Cltmat*.— In cold climate", durinjt the wiiit«r, Karbflpp does mil 
ileeiimp<ne a* rapidly a^ in Mimnier, and, s.« smulW quunlitie? are 
invdured at t^ucb tiinee, the interval boitwton coUcctionn can be 
inemtfed. InBouthern oitiea, warm moKt of the year, more frequent 
■inter ooHertionit are nooettsary. To »ome r-xlent. the climate inftu- 
rneM also the type of WAgonit which whonid lie uwd. Whorp heavy 
■naw« arc fre^picot, hauling becomea more difriciilt. und tarxe waKons 
caitniil well be \irvA for continuous scmce. 

4. PaTcmtnu and Gradei. — The team haul in refinte eollectinn 
w affected mnierially by the rhnracter of the pavcnientp and the 
UwpaeMi "I the -"Ueetfi. It i« fwmotime* pofujble. by proper routinn, 
lo tiare the coUeetion wagons make tlicir lri|i< up hill when empty 
and Anwn hill when riill. Krt>m (hi.- point of view, cvll&ction work 

ay be ■otunlly lifthtcr in a hilly cily than in a flat one. In Hat cities 

I- the bridae* arc frurnirntJy raiHotl above 

■■ of the load which minht be carried on a 

tri of thf way must be retliiced on account of 

i.'i.ii;). approavbof. The wcittbtn which cuti be 



112 COLLECTIOS ANI> DJSTU'iAI. OP MUNICIPAL RBPtfSB 

hauled by one horse up difFitrent fcr*d«<i, and over Rood, htird pttv»-{ 
mctii:', arc as follows {data by J. B. Pottor) : 

Grudc iKTccntaiic 1 2 2 4 3.3 4 

Net load for one Ww, in poundH 4000 3600 3240 2WW 2n40 2000 



I 



E.— DETAILED COHDITIONS AND REQKIREMENTS 

The prime roruidcralioii, in order to xjve satisfaction In refuM ool- 
leclion, 18 to secure tho motil iiaiiUary and vcuituinical service, from 
the viewpoints of the huusehoider and o( the t.-utiimuiuty a» a whole. 
Tlie efficiency of iht service rosultn loigely from the iiidiWduuI abilily ■ 
of thp mpn of Iho nrganiifllioii. and is iiinreaj>wl by iinprov<Ml standards 
of nppmtion and individiinl work. The element of cosi w influenced 
by tli(! kind of ofiuipment iiHcd and the Reiicral rules of operation tA Ibo 
department. 

The cost CUD be analysed moro readily than the efficiency of tbo 
6crvioc. This is particularly apparent when luyinc out the schedulM 
of equipment and operation for new works. The estimates of oo«t 
can he made with » fair degree of certainty, when properly realisini; 
fill the deladcd conditions which afFoct ihr work. The twn principal 
lLem«t of cost relate tA the loadiriR and hauling. The efliciency depends 
largely ou the human element. 

The coRt of collection will vary in diflercnt communities, depend- 
ing on the scale of wages, houn for work, the efficiency of labor, 
and other it«m«. OmMned colloction i* cheaper because but ob» 
type of wagon is used, and the same territorj' requires but one trip. 
Direct eoMt compariMinH, therefore, are dilbcult to mivkr. A lietter 
baiiiia of comparison in diflerent cities i^ the detcrmioation of the 
number of rollet'tion vraicons of ttiveii capacitj' per unit of jiopulatjon. 
Still other coitilition^, euch a^ frequency of culloclion and the time 
required to make collections from each house, also influence the etwt. 
Uowcver, the l>c»t bases for cnmparifinn are reconis of man-hours 
and ton-miles, ax they are independent of wngos and the length of the 
working <lay. Unfortunately, Kuch records are. at> y«t, rarely made. 

All the#e conditions should be newcd in their proper relntioiia. 
It is oonvenient, first, to cunnider the various sjiecial conditions 
affectinf! the number of cullcction waEoiin required in the M-r^Hcc, 
because the total cost of collection can then be dntermined from UM 
Dumber. 

1. Frequency of Collcctioa.— Tlic interval between colleeUoofl b 
one at the riLCti>r« whtcli dciiTmine the quantity of refuse that ehotild 
be collecleil etich tintc at each hoiiw. The interval nhould V 
fii'cnlly -hiri lo prevent miiiuiiind, Hali<>fv' the tmiiM 



COhlRCTtON 



I 



opportunity for appnHrimal«Iy one full pan of refuse \a Rccttmiilntc. 
Frfim bnloU and r»t.iuriin(« the rotlLt'tion i^houUl \w made dnily. 
Th*; fre<|iicncy of collection in vnrious cJtiw in America and abroad ia 
ufoUom: 

aw* York,— lo Uw hiiift-U|> durtrirt* of Mi»nIwtUn, Tlie Bronx, and 
Dngkljn, ihe nillcciiiMui are mndr hU liinra » wn-k In tlu- oiitMkirtx tW 
mlltirtians an- tnw lnH)iirnt In llu- Boroiigtiol Hirhniund (h^ rullerlioDs ue 
■nifora thruuidwut tliu yvat, duil>' iu Ibe uiun; poptUutod dii(tnt;ts nnd tlirvic 
tUDBiawOBkiDdirthitawhcicthr putnilatioti is nol. no dense In llip llorougb 
d4 ^^tMM (oII«c!tii(HU arc nutde every ilay in «umm(?r und rvciy other A^y in 
wiulcr, vxoept in thickly iMpulutcd aruia, wIh-fc daiJy coUectiunn an- nixlu. 

l^lLAUCLriiiA — Ciitrli4iK<^ iH roiiiovMl Kix Uxav* a week fruui ail building 
In Ute builUiip distrirts thmuglmut tli« year. 

BcrrAbi — GariMgc, aebcK, and nibbutli arr collcptcd daily, all the yciir 
rwnd. from tlic buidnua Motion. Kmni tho rcruaintlcr nf thf dty, ihcy nm 
e(ilMit«Kl tfri«) a wook from May to Novcmbor, and once a wook from No- 
naim Va May. 

UtLWaCRfiE. — Carltagp poUprtion variee from daiJy for holds untl rarlau- 
notn In weekly for msdcDccs, Uiruufthout thr >Tar, jVshcs and rubbish am 
noQwU^l nhiiui IWK-e a month 

M»KKATOLia,~Carfaa^, osbm, nnd nthbisb are colloctod w^'kly, «xc«|jL 
fiDtn botrJs and rrstauraiita, wlirrr tlu' nilliHtiiin va more Imqiicnl. The (car- 
i» oU wrufii»ed in pa|»er to retard its decompcwition, 

iLrtTnu. — (rtiHnite IS t^ollfclcd daily (except .Sundays), in the central 
portion of ilu- riiy fmni May 15il» U» Occ<il«-i Ifitli. am) ihnt' tiniM a wrek 
lalhr rvniamiuiiiHirt of therity: fi»mOclob*r I5th to Mny 15th, twi«>u wwk 
b ibc nrntral portion of Ihi* city, nnd oner a vrrck in the tT.infiinilrr. Mi»>d 
hIwr and rubliioh .irv (N)lli<rt(>i) weekly tbiougli tlie fall, winter, anil i^iriiiK, 
tad aoniredtly in aummer. 

D«xm — GnibacKr la L'oltn:4cd once a wrvk in wintiT, and lliroi: tinits a 
«rrk ill mmowr. 

Coi.vuttt:i> — Gatbo^ in nilfectcd weekly from November to May, and 
Iwiec a wmk fram May <o Novmil>er Garbage and rubhixli are cnllMlt^l 
■bily from bolHs and r«BlauranU Ashm and rubbish arc eollortod once ev«ry 
l<liby> 

S«.T I.Aar. Prrv — In llic huainesa disiriet eollpeliniM tuv made daily 
bolwr^w 7 r.w al»l 3am In the rr-^id^nf*- i«-<>lir>n poIIppi ion* iirr mudc onoo 
avrwk in tlm day liinc. ilto-iiybniiKdividi^l into nix loneit, having a rolIe<^(ii»i 
tn aath ttmt <>n a slated day of <)>e wyk 

idim AKncLSR — The rrnlral antl d"wn-lowii di^ttricU r«.tive eolledioM 
liiwp tinii* a WW* All othur diatrirts rcci'ivc two i-ollrrtionM a wwk 

lx)Mi»oM, Paiiw. IttTRUtr, ANO CoLonKK.— Miwd refuao ia collortsd daily. 

IIauhcrii, BHKHSiit, FMAKxroHT, AM> Ii^eBBK. — MuBcd icfuH IB gqIIccIuI 
llntK tuuH a week. 

In <l>r hiiilt-up Motions nf northern cities there should be at looht 
per wi.<ek in sumnicr nnd two in n-intftr; in aoutlicrD 




114 rorxECTioy akd disposal or %wsicipai. refuse 



ritie* Ihe coUcctio&s should be twice as oft«n, or mt local eonditions 
m«y Te({iiire. 

Ofborr nnil Fet.her»t»ii rccomnieiKl Tor ChicsKo tJiat rc([ulAr and 
sjttitciiiatic culltiL'Iiuii uf garLiage, siihw, und rubbish be made »eps- 
rately at daily ur tri-wcekly iutervals. de{)eiidiiig on ihv character of 
the duitricte B«n-cd and the e>CBeonB of the ye*r. Thi5 is a hiRh 
fltandard for Atnericun citiett and rarely found, but it in frequently 
maintained in Kuniiw. 

Thr frpqin'n<'y nf ncarba^ic rollection, whether it it. or in not com- 
hincd witb nilibitih, tthoiild depend on ihp NcaAon, and not on the 
density of population, as carbage becomes odorous as quickly in the 
lburl)« a;^ in the rentor of a city. If pomible, garbage should Ite 
[illertcd daily in bul nratlier, at leu^t thiti' tinim n week in cpring 
and fall, and not lew Lhnn Iwiee a week In cold weather. 

When refuHe is left at the rear of pmnUe« for collection from 
nl)cy», it IB not eo important to liavc i-pecificd days and hours fur the 
cnlleelion jih wben loft in front of )>iiildiri)ts nti ihe sidnmilks. 

In warm weather. K^'l^'aKe should be (■nlle<"te<i at intervab- of not 
more than two daytt, on account of He raind deoumpooitiun. Anhn 
i<hould be eollectod onre or twice a week \n winter, tin account of their 
<iuantily, nnd once or twice n month in summer. In MiUnukoe, 
thrnuRhnut the summer of IDII, nn allempt wn.« made I" collect no 
aiihc» from rc^ideni.'es l>ctwccn June I'lth and September I5lh. It 
WM found necessary, bowe%'er, to make a collcetion during July, 
l>crat]M> of the many rcquvxts ibnl wure received. Hublmh should 
not miiain uncollected loniccr than a month. Mixed refuse docK not 
doconifMHtp nearly so quickly un Rarlia^e alone, bul it accumulates 
more rapidly. In European cities it is collcctvd from three to mx 
timci> a vreck. in American citie« only from one to three liiuoa a ytook, 
and theref<in> nl leMi oo^it. 

The difliciiltieH often nritiinK from infrequent collertioti, ami the 
cnithe<ti)onl niirl inevilable piilrefactioti. have cauacd many cndcavnre 
to lie made to dicinfect the tcarliage. Il hati been tried, particularly 
in llrurfrls but tbe eoncluMon n'ai-hed wan thai il aflordn only a 
temporary relief. hiuI is fnr from jn«tifyinf! Ihe-reqni^ite expenditure. 

In refLTencL- to the dixinfci'tion of rollection %'chirlcs. lite PuUio 
HeaHb Service '>f the V. H. Oovemmenl stales a* followR: 

" It is nol HiifipiilMl ihal any other mlutmn exrepi wmler nhould bi< uied 
on wngone rclMminK from the |wuit of diKpontt; bill, a» a Hy repellent, the 
waitona misht be Nprayrd with » m^A wilutioii. imii' oil iluunfucianl, iiolu- 
tion of gaa-hcHMC wnsta, or Uerosene ail ■ )nr nf Ibn tnwirm riijm on thn 
Mscuaet claims that thoroughly waahiait tbe wuiuna irith ecu water aawta 
in the ellininatMN) of fly troubles " 




I» 



OniinA.a<«M huvr benii r-iinrtnl In n tiiimlicr (if citirs, tut in Mipli- 
lIUnoM, and L'Uli, roRulatinn the c>MI<?«ti<>ii un<l disposal i>f ig;iir- 
h|^. Recpiu dodxiniiB of upvcnij StiiU' Supreme t'mirN hiivi> imld 
thil thp "pri)|M^rty riichlH u( individiiulK in KarbniCL- nn- .<<iil)nr(|jii:Ll« 
ri) itiK Kt:iit-ml Kvo*i. aJi'l Uiat gtirlmgo dUiMisnl ia Mil.jivt. li> •■ititlrol 
br RiuniriimlitH'K undt^r tlir> policft pawrr." 

,f Cily of (Srnrid titipidA iiotifit-d llitr pn>|»ri('i,nrH <.f liolirlM eiiiiI 
ruiiljt til diw-ontimie llio rvtiiveyanct' and ilUpainJ nl tlicir |[«r- 
In farmx vhrtv il wns fi-d tn Im^ uiul |>i>uUry, a» it waK in vi(>- 
lion <<f A dty urdiDiuici-. Th<; Cuurt lias ^u»taicicd tlic Oily. 
Thi> (mlinattcw (wrLtuiily wan iiit<>ii(l(HJ tn lie litiiiteij, in juHli«<> 
for till" (■(imiiinn lipiipfil, tmly in rpfercnce to tlif rtinvi-yimce of 
ltir<iuiil> ''"* «tr«'t*i when it had hooomo old oiiotinh lo 1* 
ijlT(>iiMi-(-, uiid tliiTpfor*' III afTput tin' puhlii-, in which ca.se it should 
contriillfd by Ihf City mid mit Ijy individual.*. Tht'it- could not lir 
nir r<mBnn for prohibiting tho parting thmiinh the Mtroot* of tcArhaitf 
firforr (l<Toiiiposilioii hiid wt in, i.p., only mip or Iwn days <Ai[. any 
tnot* tbaii |>Mldlii(ing )>utchor or vcKCtable waKDns from ddivvriiii; 
gnodl. 

Tha underlying objoct of fuch ordiimncrs car only W n pr<>vpnti()n 
nUiMnee. 1'tiifl cnn alwny* be ncpf itnplishod by a siifHcieiitly 
1 oolloctinn ot garba-BP and by kprpinj; wagons Hud rviri-pljiplpft 
timm thonruKhly rlpAii ilikI povpred. 
S. Time R«]uti«<) for One Collectioii.— The time required to 
filWt tlic refijx- matcrbln fnim ciuh point of origin haji aUn an 
iiDpvrtiint b«aria|i on Ihc oconomical urrungcmcnt of tliii pnllection 
»*rviv«. It p<iiifrolM lh« nuniborof <-olU>ptii)n»( whirh can be inadn 
during the workinE dny, and thus dptprRiin«t< the t|uunlity of rpfii!« 
which ran Im rptnnvnt by varb vraffnn. An increat*o in the tinm 
rfiiuiml to ctillppt from each htmrto will tncrcaiw porresfxmdiiifciy the 
btimbor uf wsKunx rM)iiirpd to ^c^vt; a icivrn jHipulalion. 

In April, 1911, n vprj' cnmplole rpponl wns kepf o( tbp vrork done 
by K&rbnfTP collortors in Milwtiiikep. Thp tripn of twcnty-on« col- 
levu>t* iTBrp oboterred, and data were secured sliowiuit the length 
•pRnt by facii one in Itnnii'SHi n ); IiIk hone. t^oiiiR to tht> fir»t 
of collection, making thp colli-«'lioii» rrniuirpd In iH'piin* » full 
tnsd, and delivering that load nl the point of di.«i>osftl, The reeonlK 
▼tre kept fur ciich n-ngon making one trip. The wagiin« <irdinari)y 
hmmJc two and tiotDPlinin» three IripH per day. Kiich ])ad a cupncily 
»A l.S Pii. yd. 

The city is divided into xmall riiHi^etion diiitriptjt. their me, Khapo, 

*rMl h«-r»iir.n l>eiii|t urruURcd m tluit the lenitlh of tuiul and difhculty wf 

rtllertloii will allow the time fur cnlleeting two Uwda lu ap)>r«iximate 



In A 



116 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

an eight-hour day. The obeervatioDB also covered diBtricts in dif- 
ferent Bectiona of the city, where the conditions of service changed 
from small houses to hotels and apartments, thus affecting the num- 
ber of places entered. These data are Bummarized in Table 53. 



Table 53. — Collection Data, Milwaukee, 
Time Studies or Coi-LEfTtjBs' Work 



Number 
of blocks 


Number 
of plana 


TlHK, IX 


Minutes, prr Trip 


PeroentacF 
of total 


Average 

time, in 

ntinutta. to 

collect from 

one pUre 








oovcrvd on 
ODS trip 


entered on 
one trip 


HnulinB 


CoUoct- 


TotAl 


time apent 
ooUeotiog 


3 


58 


225 


80 


305 


39 


1.38 


b 


49 


167 


60 


227 


26 


1.22 


2 


32 


174 


75 


249 


30 


2.34 


2 


46 


60 


48 


108 


44 


1.07 


3 


39 


150 


70 


220 


32 


1.79 




46 


88 


128 


216 


59 


2.85 




24 


110 


115 


225 


51 


4.80 




106 


100 


133 


233 


57 


1.25 




38 


210 


106 


316 


34 


2.79 




16 


100 


70 


170 


41 


4.67 




8 


66 


55 


121 


45 


6.87 




9 


36 


44 


80 


55 


4.90 







92 


32 


124 


26 


5.33 


3 


58 


119 


56 


175 


32 


0.97 


4 


15 


136 


64 


200 


32 


12.80 


6 


18 


75 


105 


180 


58 


5.85 


5 


90 


115 


185 


300 


62 


2.06 


3 


59 


89 


155 


244 


64 


2.63 


1 


26 


151 


115 


266 


43 


4.43 


5 


13 


120 


85 


205 


41 


6.54 


6 


45 


50 


100 


150 


67 


2.22 


6 
.VveraRWf 


32 


160 


90 


250 


36 


2.81 


3K 


lis 


90 


207 


44 


3,71 



The most strikinK features of this table arc the number of places 
which one collector can visit in one day and the length of time required 
at each house. It was fouml that, on the iiveraRc, one collector could 
visit about 100 houses in an eiRlit-hour day, iitid that the time required 
at each house was slightly more than two minutes. The individual 
results, however, are quite variable. 



ILLBCTION 



117 



I 

I 
I 



U 



Th« importanofl oT *\xe\\ informufjon lb etnphnKised by » etate- 
ment (if Artliur May, CleaiiniuK HupiTinl»idriit-. Lundou, as folluwH: 

" It has been generall)' ncccptcd thnt. with a diulc [dump] within two iiiilGa 
nl Ihc DuaUniK l>istri<:t, a Doo-honc van nitb a eapucity o[ 4 cu. yd. would, 
upilcr nonnnl rnnditiiNH. makr froiti 240 l» 2/)n rallx nnd iiillnrtions nirli day 
of t«n houn * * * In dixtrictx vh»r« dust-pans [houee f&iui] are pUvod un 
tiic mlicr of the curb * * * il u quite ponble to makfi u many as MO mt- 
WiiiMM ill ont> day.*' 

Tli« London c(»Uectar, Uierefore, tit iil)le to vittit frnm two to 
five HtnM aa many hnuBes per day a* llie Milwaii)c(« collector. In 
olbcr woi^s, llir work in Ltjnditn ciiii be done by from onr-half to 
one-third &» many men per unit place of production of tcfmw. Mr. 
May litalm futlJiRr that 

" K lai^ city lilte Man^'hfsrter ha* over 7.000,000 wo«kl)' coll^tiotis every 
year, and one mimitc's delay in ntrli r(illi*<'ltrtn nitioimtn in the year to a Icmh 
of 1 19,606 working lioim for a home ai)d cart and one or two men." 

It is chiefly the location of the can which determine the »pecd 
with which enlleetorxran (WrvccHch Iwuhc. Wheri> the ran iw |>l»ei'd nl 
the nirb for the CDllertor, a.* in Ijiiidcm, Parii", HatuhurK, and other 
European cities, it r^ciuires but a fraction of a minute to empty it 
into the wagon. Tbo same uporatton in Mitw&uko«> required aliout 
two minulea. 

The type of rcccptable (ind the Inadlnft height of the wnfcon aUo 
affect the time of each co|le<'tion. 

Since ibene iiivcfltijcationa were made in Milwaukee, «iniilar olwer- 
vrUohs have t)een made in Evanxt/^m by Mr. C. C Saiii^r, and in 
Chicaf^o, 1/Hii.sville, and eWwhere by Grfwicy. Tlie re.-4ult0 of these 
Dlwen'atmiis ate pven in Table 5-1. The capacity ijf the waipxu' u^ed 

Tabue M. — C-oLLKcnoN Data rnou Srxtvav Cities. 
Ek'MiijUiv of TiuK i^TifDiiih n>a CwLW-mox i-na Mui'jik 



at. 


ct 
(iou 


A I'tTftfC 

tiniv |>« 
(ttltitetiian, 

in 
ininu'tM * 


KtrttutT 

«( baud.* 

V" 

vorklnn 


a! 


Audtmlly 


.Suien l>lai)d. N. V. 
Uke Focwt. m _ , 


7 
2 
9 
9 


0.37 

0.91 

1 21 

10.00 


226 

7C 


Curb 

Bark dutir 
Back door 
Bark <liK)r 


Greeley 
Fethrrnttip 
Kanrr 
(Invley 



* Timr cif bkillini Biid (tumpiuB nul irjcluJnt 



118 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSR 

in Evannton was 1.5 cu. yd and in Chicago 5.0 cu. yd. In these two 
citien the time for one coUection is less than in Milwaukee. Evanston 
18 a residential Buburb of Chicago, and Chicago has a mueh greater 
density of population. These factors had some effect in reducing the 
time of collection. 

Time studien of garbage collection, made in Lake Forest, 111., by 
Greeley, indicated an average time per collection of ten minutes. 
Lake Forest is a residential community in which the houses are on 
large lota. The observations were made at nine houses, the average 
distance from the street to the house being 630 ft. 

Mr. C, G. Alfs, contractor for the collection and disposal of refuse 
at Decatur, 111. (population 40,000), states that with a 5-iuile haul to 
a dump, one 4-yd. wagon collecting mixed refuse can serve 100 houses 
in a nine-hour day. With delivery to a refuse incinerator, which is 
near the center of the city, each wagon server from 200 to 250 houses 
per working day. 

The investigations in Chicago were planned to indicate the varia- 
tion in the time required for one collection of different kinds of refuse. 
Observations were made for mixed refuse, garbage, and for ashes and 
rubbish mixed. Table 55 gives the detailed results of these studies. 

Table 55. — Collection Data, Chicaoo. 
TutE Studies of Collectors' Work 



MftUri«] 


Intervkl 
■inoe lut 
oollMtioD, 

in dkTi 


Number 

of plaoea 

cntertd oo 

one trip 


Time 
toocdtcot 
OM kuul, 

in 
minutdi 


ArBraca 

tinw to 
ooUwit tram 
one plnec. 




7 

8 

4 

a 

8 
8 

2 

8 
3 

7 


63 

52 
51 

390 

745 

25 

112 

71 

24 


115 

100 

80 

3UU 
345 
345 

65 
135 
100 

85 


1.8 
1.9 
1.6 

0.8 
0.6 
0.5 

2.6 
1.2 
1.4 
3.5 







Table 56 gives the results of time studies made in WashingfaMB, 
D. C. 



COLLSCTIOS 



119 



Taklb flft. — CoujHrrioii Data. WAfmisciiOM, D. C 



MMrW 


N*. 
of 

««UMa 


M*mlMr 

«l 
ptao 

€IMCf4Q Ml 

tUM trip 


TiMC IV Miavnn, 


Ponmua* 

al taUl 

aaHntiag 


liiB*. M 
cnilrct from 




BbuUki 


Tm>I 


RaUMfa.. 


flO 
2B 
44 


280 
160 


72 
12S 


lU 

73 

1S3 


23S 
145 

278 


SI.O 
4S.S 

45.2 


43 
0.91 
1.74 



With mor« of euch iaforiaB.tioii it would be poaaible to f^ a Tmir 
figiux rnr man-hour work and to make a proper cstuiiat« of tiic rrl»> 
tire cftetjt of coUeoting mixed and Mparated refuse. SimilAr iovcsti- 
fitiomi «lioukl be nude more fnqDeotly along ihwe Udm. 

3> TImw of Callectiaii. — ^The waridne time of a ooUector may be 
£vided into tJie produetiv* tiioc, i.e., tbe time aetuaJly apeat in eal* 
tKtmc nnd empLirinit the botue ni» into the wrnson*, and ihr unpn^ 
docttve time, i-e., tlie titoe npeot to drivtac (lie londeil wkK<'n from 
Utt lut point of collection to tbe poiat of transfer or final divpoaL 
Tbb dit-i<aofi aeparatea the time of eoUcrtinx aod tbe time of ddiv- 
thnit tbe load. 

Tbo oapnxlaetiTe time dtoold be kept aa abort aa pcWti. To 
do Uiia uodo' oHinatT coMfitioMi re <|iiii a tkal Uw wacma be aa lata* 
aa poadble, ao that U eaa make tbe leaat BMaber of tjipa to tbe pomi 
rf anloatUnK. If it arere pomiblK lo handle a vasoa of w Unpe a 
capacity Ibal tbe lime teq an ad U> kad it woald kavc Ume to niake 
oaljr ooe trip per day, ibea tbe moat aeaooiaimi om of the 
waold rondt. Local c oii Jhfan a, borwevcr, ceaeraBr da aot 
tfe^ In Chwaffo, for uateDM, it ia foasd that tbtre are dtftrieta 
where a working day » too ihun lo CD eompktely a 4-yd. va#oa with 
larfaace Tor a aafle trip to tbe diapoaal work* or tnairfer Maiiott. 
Obvtoiialy, thar^ore, ia a larvt cfty. vagOM of a iiiaai mam vfl b« 
raqaind to meci moat i iiiianiiiiraltj the > g i at ioBi ia Ibe dUmai 
dittricta. New York Ctty iMt baea omc « S-<«« avC^^Dcfc, Fif. 14, 
tor banliBe garfaac* lad aAoa, aa tka baab aia «Mb dHTlar tbaa ia 
CUeaco. The atondardXaw York amb^P art. boww^.»itb^Ja- 

Ibe Wft vafoa. to dMrlaa ife «apaadw«nv liafc ftawd i w i . ■ ■ 
>tnki&« (kpartttfr fma pwC laailwa Mr. E. O. Vaty, «f K*v Yoefc, 
*(waka entbamaalkair cf the 



• 



noLLRVTinyj 



131 



For Chicag" 
** Mn«iuki->- 

f:. .u.t.ni 


' ' Luuitville . 



The pcTccntagF nf Ihc tAtnl witrkitie tinie nf a ccilli-clor wlilirli in 
[iMd productively hon t>r<u(i fidinO (<• Iw: 

aOOVo 
^ft 0% 

wi fr;, 

1.-. -z'-.-t 
'^ 0% 

Leacth of Hsol. — If «ll rpfuMi m»teriiila from a idvtrn iroa urn 

to iiiM* point of cliHpo««], the Iwigtb of tuuil will l>r< Abtmi il<itiltl(> 

it wfaicb wodM be reqaired if two poinU u( cli*pu<uil vera avsiliil>(« 

I tbe MOW Aim. Tbic f*ct (loqnetttly iudieMw tlie airjat MODOOueal 

I of eoUwtifni, utd ahom tbe impurtAnt nlstion be t wae n aoltoetioD 

metbod of dtipowl. 

Forcumple: Id MUwaakee theino*iairulabl««t«(arftndue{ioii 

w at MeqgoD. about 7 tnilea Bortb of tbe city. On tbe otber 

» Tcry ooatnd locati on waa avsiUUe f«r ma iadnerator. viih 

Je bxallatia iwnnlwl for fatore lAiMa. Tbe ewl Bji«lr>«» 

tbat tbr inriiuratitjn «f tBiud rcftiM at a tentraJ innneralAf 

^toosld be riieaptr tban tbe radartkra gf tbe sarbaipB. Um buniiHt. ^ 

rabbiib, and tbe doaiptftc ut aaba. Tbe balaaee to favor of the iaelA- 

,«nuir ndbod «f ftna) dinpaal a< afl nfoae wae 4iK to tbe afaortar 

\vtn«ebnL b CUeafl», e« lb* «|W bud, a nry cMlnl hMaUoM 

«aa araiUble Ear nAaakm wtsfa, aad tUt awtbod cd diipoMl, wiab 

wtsnte t i afl i rt i lo, prond lo be c^Mpcr tbaa baraiag Maed nimt, 

■ of pbata at T%nem leeatMoa tlwey^NMt IW ally, 

U a otr «f IMlXW IMVle. fndndnc fiO l«na «# «ubav ^ di^, 

ia tte k^llh «f tod anAdaC u iaoMM tbe cnac <d 
, 30 «est« per (0* i» •qvT^CMt to a capital ««« ntf ebovt WOJWIO. 




122 COUJiCriOS ASO DhtlWiAI. OF MVSICtfA.L REfUSS 

Tn Milvaiikop, durinK H)^ f>uinm«r of 1911, this yt&n found to Averaite 
3.6 niilm jwr bour. It vtnx also aHccrtaioed iu Chicagu that t«atn^ 
tiiLulitiK ice could iiiakc on ftvcrnge r&U: of 3.0 uiilis< per hour tutuliid, 
aud the drivers were ina(riict«d not to exewd this mt« t^atly when 
their waguiis were empty. The actual rate of travel of garbaK<^, atih, 
niid rubhLih wngotu in ChicAgo wa« found by the Ci^il Service Com- 
miMiion to b« 2.7 milrii per hour. A 8peed of 3.0 milm per hour, how- 
ever, nJioiild be i>erur«d under reaAonably favorable oonditioiu of 
wtrceto and of operation. 

For a dtaiidard rate of travel, the cost af team haul per ton-mile 
will vary with the rol« of wages paid Ibc driver for his time aud team, 
and can euiily be eompntad for tiie various weights of refuse hauled. 

In Chicago, the weight of the average load nf garbage hauled is 
2.0 toni>, and of a#he« and rubbi!<h 2.5 tonH. Where rubt»«h li eol- 
leeted rapiinttely, ihe tonnage that can be handled in one wagon in 
much etmalkr but the yardage i» greater. In Columbus, and iu Buf- 
falo, S-yd. wagonx have been uited succeBsfuUy for hauling rubbish. 
The net weight of rubbish hauled in such a wagon averages 0.8 ton. 
The cost of haul [>er ton-mile for riibbifih, therefore, U much larger 
than for garbage and a-tbei*. I'nder these condition?, and with wagea 
at 75 Donte per hour tho unit oueta uf tciuu haul nuiy be averaged na 
folloVM: 

CCitOlTMB BmI 

pwTM-Mnr. 

<BMadTrip) 

Garbage tO 25 

A<bM 030 

Bubbish 0.62 

Mundrehne 30 

Of eourw, these unit figures rc<)aiT* adjustment to loeal eondittooa 
after tnitficieiit inrestigatioti. The co«it of hauling a 5-ton load by 
motor truck is aboirn in Chapter V to be about SO.lfl per ton-mile 
(round trip). 

The cost of collecting and handling mixed refuae in Torocto ie 
appr<ixitn«tely 81.35 per ton-mile. 

C Quantity per House. — The cost of ooUectJon depends also on 
the quantity of rrfiu<! produced per capita, or per bouse, and, there- , 
Ion, OB the time miuired to get a TuU load. For a given freqiieney of ' 
coUeetioo, the rolieetor will find a smaller accumulation to the bouaa 
can when stnaUer quaclitiw ar« produced per capita, and the tiiM 
of getting a load will be rarreapoDdinRly lengthened. When largtf 
qnaatitim are cnlloctod at aaoh house, a wagon of giwn oiae wfll h« | 
nofo quickly filled, and wiB not serve aa many houws on obs bin 



coLLEcrros 133 

This eonditioD h putieoUriy evkleDi when making compuwon* 
<rf refuee otJlectiaii in Europeui uid American cities. For thtropean 
conditions, with a Bmana* per capita production, the mixed refuxe of 
100,000 people can be removed by about 15 wagons. In American 
cities, about 30 wagons are required for a similar service. Them 
figures are only appronmate, yet they show that the quantity of 
refuse produced per inhabitant and per house must be considered in 
an analysis of the collection work. 

7. Compatatiooi for Collection Service. — The relative effect of 
the foregoing detaik on the collection service can be seen beet by 
representing them in algebraic form. The following letters reprwent 
the various factors entering into the computations: 

If -Number of collection wagons; 
V- Capacity of one wagon, in cubic feet; 
f -Interval between coUectiona, in days; 
T - Time required to collect from one house, expressed as parts of an 

hour; 
C-The percentage of working time spent by the collectors in the 

actual time of collecting, as distinguished from hauling to and 

from the point of disposal; . 
D —Length of working day, in hours; 
5 -Number of trips to point of disposal per wagon per day; 
P -Total population served; 
A^ -Average number ot people pa- honse; 
B -Daily quantity of refuse per capita, in cubic feet; 
B - Daily quantity of prbage per capita, in cubic feet; 
a - DaQy qnanttty of asbea per capita, in culne feet; 
r - Daily quantity of rubbish per capita, in cubic feet. 
These facton are embodied in the foDowing expreamoiH: 

S-^^xFxyxRxj, (a) 

FxB 

Equatina («> Atnm Hbx anmher nt trips to the pomt nl ftinpnnal, ne 
transfs'. for aeh tnOitfEnna wa^is per day. in temiB of the prodnctive 
working time, 'im ninut bt itnlleet from one house, the frequenity nf 
coDectioafl. dut gir ta^itla. j^mrfoetioa of refnae. and the eapaaCy of 
etch WBtpin. [i: fimwt '4tsc dift oumber of trrps per day which «»n he 
■ade »3I incmawt -vnh dut prndnOiTK wnrkin^ time and Khe per 
■*ilB prwhurrinn if a^fiuat bat will decrease as the cime mquimi 
t» btutmt .uvHjmm aaA dw asm of the wagnna beeomes la*||er. 



124 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

Equation (b) showe the total number of wagons required, in tenns 
of the total quantity of refuse produced for a given population, the 
number of trips per wagon per day, as computed from Equation (a), 
and the capacity of each wagon. The number of wagons required will 
be greater for greater quantities of refuse, and will be less for larger 
wagons making the same number of trips per day to the point of dis- 
posal. These two expressionB serve to bring out the relative impor- 
tance of the various factors in the collection service. They should not 
necessarily be considered as formube giving definite results. Being 
purely analytical, they should serve merely as a general guide in 
solving problems. 

This method of computation for the arrangement of refuse collec- 
tion was used in Chicago in the report of 1914 by Osbom, Fetherston, 
and Greeley. The following is a typical computation for the 25tfa 
Ward of that city: - 

CoupTFTATioN roR Ndubeb op Tgaus in Wabd 25, CmcAao 

General Data. 
Collection Frequency: 
Ashes and Rubbish — Winter — ^twice a week. 
Summer — once a week. 
Garbage — Winter and Summer — three times a week. 
Mixed Refuse — Winter and Summer — twice a week. 

Capacity of Wagons; 
Garbage, 4.0 cu. ya. — lOScu. ft. 

Aehes and Rubbish, 5.0 cu. yd. — 135 cu. tt. 
Mixed Refuse, 5.0 cu. yd. = 135 cu. ft. 

Time for 1 Collectioa = T in Equation (a): 
Garbage, 1 minute. 

Ashes and Rubbish, 2 minutes. 
Mixed refuse, 2.5 minutes. 

Production, in cubic feet per 1000 population per day: 

Winter Summer Averiiie 

Garbage 10. 23 15 

Ashes and Rubbish 95. 67 76 

Mixed Refuse . . 100 

Number of peo|>lt> per mllcction = 10. 

Lt-ugth of working day =8 hours. 

Rate of travel in haul = 3.0 miles per hour. 

Sperial dalafor Ward SS: 

Length of avcra)^ haul = 4 miles. 



COLLECTION 125 

The metbckl of computation ia as follows: 

I. Tripa per day 

( Length of working day, in minutoi— time apcn t haulipg, in ininutce) 
(Time for 1 collection, in minutes) 

(Quantity p^ collection) 
(Capacity of wagon) 

n V _,w iimnrtf, (Quantity per capita) X 100,000 

n. Xo. of Wagons per 100,000 = 



(Trips per day) X (capacity of wagon ) 

Substituting in Equations (a) and (6) : 
Garbage, 
Summer: 

(8X60-5X4X2X|^) J 

'-- U ^X — X10X2X- = 1.21 trips per day. 

^X100,000 

IT* «17.S wagons per 100,000 population. 

1.21X108 -6 F- . i~i' 

Winter: 

10 
---X 100.000 

Vm — __i3 4 wagons per 100,000 population. 

0.69X108 -6 H" - i"!- 

Average: 

j-^XlOO,000 

'*'■=——- — n^-^lS-l wagons per 100,000 population. 
. 92 X lOo 

Aibcs and Rubbish, 
Suimnor: 

'^ 2,0 X-^j^X10X6X- = 2.01tnpsperday. 



57 

X 100,000 

21.0 wagons per 100,000 population. 



^X 100,000 



X135 



126 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

Winter: 

„ (480-1805) 95 I 

S ^;^—X—X10X3X— -1.88 trip, per day, 

^X100,000 
W- I 88X13 5 '^"^ ^ ™*°°* ^^ lVfi,(m population. 



Average: 

„ (480-1605) 76 1 

S ^;^— X~X10X4X- = l.MtnpBperd.y. 



j^X 100,000 
TP° c^s^tit. "29.0 wagonB per 100,000 popuktJon. 

1 - in X loo 



Mixed Refuse, 
Average: 

„ (480-1605) 100 „ 1 . . 

5=--^;^— X— X10X3X--1.76 tnp. perday. 

W" -e,^.„, -42.2 wagona per 100,000 population. 
1 .76X135 

Summary : Wagona per 100,000 population: 

WiDter Simuner Avenvs 

Garbage 13.4 17.6 16.1 

Ashes and Rubbish 37.4 21.0 29.0 

Mixed .... 42.2 

The foregoing computations were simplified by UBing the diagrantB, 
Figs. 16, 17, and 18. The method of analysis described can be 
extended and used in greater detail, as was done by Hering and Gr^ory 
for Dayton, Ohio. Fig. 19 is a diagram used in garbt^e collection 
computations. 

Table 57 shows the actual number of wagons, per 100,000 popula- 
tion used in the various wards in Chicago for 1912. The number 
required under assumed conditions of better service is shown, in 
Table 58. The application of this method of computation to ascertain 
the service in European and American cities for cUfferent rinnnro of 
refuse materials is shown in Table 59. 



^^^F F.— BQUtPMBlfT ^^H 

^V In th» foRKoinx an&lysio, the condition!) ftfT«ctii]R tbv cUoicv of the ^^^| 
nfotu tor the coUe«tion wnrice were uut cnnaidered. Sonu> of the ^^^| 
tnurr JiDporlnnt roquircinnnts. which not only aSrcl the coiit of the ^^^| 
aiitclHitt hilt ftUo tlio sanitary tHimncy, ara ah follows: ^^^| 
1. ^e of Wagons. — Theorelir«lly, as just slated, r refii»)e wugun ^^^| 
duMiltJ be of such a eixe that the tiin« retiuired lu till it leaven juHt ^^^| 
nflicteot time in ooe working day for one trip to the point uf dispotul. ^^^| 


1 

M 

a 
• 

1 ** 

m 
m 

M 


\ 




























\ 


^ 
































1 


































'f 




^ 


. 






























\^i 


^ 


5^ 




























^\\%$ 


1 


b 




























\N 


v^ 


k 


























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\s\\\\\N 


























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\>^v 


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1^ 


^\IvN 


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f^ 






















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. 


















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\ 


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ha. 

thrt 

^%th 

h 


lit (SlStiltlSU10Xt34»llHat 
NulabM o( WsfOU 

IAl— Diacrun for Estimating NutdImt of Wagons Reiiuired to CuUmi 

G«rt»gn. 

eoDflilionreducefi the unproductive lime. Further, ainrice wsgon 
ndljr tvqutreii fur il« op«nilton a more intetligcnt collector, and 
promotw tb« snential cuKtjicration between the buu&eholder iui<l 
MillecttoD tlcjiartmeut. 

*r»rttrjdly, I ho bwt waf;nn «i«! for each locality can be det«r- 
id only after a coiiflideration of a nititilHrr of coiKlitioitH. Thera 
« uut, ftnd the population of a dietrict; the relative UnMt upcnt 





128 COLLECTION AND omPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RRPVRR 




10 

ao 

30 
40 

GO 

■a 

S « 

1 "' 
h 

B SO 

l» 

£160 

1711 


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10UIOS&303G4915COUI»eBn ISSO UN 
Number of Wagon* 

Ft(j. 17.— Diagram for Estimating Kumber of WagonB Required to CoUect 
Aahes and Rubbish. 



c 


^5> 


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10 

ao 

30 
10 
CO 

d 


w 


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1 


3 13 

o 

H SO 

e 
- 30 

a 

1 100 

d 

1 iw 






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120 

in 

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I& ( 





15 £ 


Q E 


A 


i 


iS ' 


ro 1 


E i 


n 8 


S 9 


9 


G A 



Number of Wagon* 

FiQ. 18. — Diagram for Estimating Number of Wv 

Mixed Refuse. 



ved toCoQeot 



130 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBPVSS 
Table 57. — Coixection Equiphent and Scbtice in Cbicaoo, 1912 



WMd 


OUIBAOB 


ABHSi AMD RmaiBB 


W»con» 


Number of oolleo- 


A.ver*ce 


WktDM 


Number of ooUeo- 


ATaiMC 


per 


tioDB per week 


Duinber 


per 


tiom per week 


number 




100,000 
popu* 




of milca 
hftuled 


100,000 
Popu- 




of mike 
liauM 












UtioD 


Winter 


fiURUDOr 


per trip 


ImtioD 


Winter 


Summer 


per trip 


1 


6 


6 


6 


4.0 


33 


6 


6 


4 


2 


11 


6 


6 


2.7 


25 


1-2 


•I 


4.2 


3 


9 


1 


3 


3.7 


25 


1 


1 


3.8 


4 


9 


2 


2 


2.0 


16 


2 


3 


3.6 


5 


6 


2 


3 


2.0 


11 


2 


2 


2.0 


6 


7 


2 


3 


5.5 


16 


2 


1 


4.6 


7 


7 


2-3 


3 


7.0 


20 


2 


2 


4.6 


8 


No 


aepust 


ion 




12 


2 


3-2 


1.7 


9 


tt 


1 1 






16 


1 


1 


2.0 


10 


6 


2 


6 


3,3 


15 


2-3 


3 


2.1 


11 


5 


6 


6 


3.0 


15 


6 


6 


2.0 


12 


4 


2-3 


3 


4.5 


8 


3 


2 


2.0 


13 


11 


2 


2 


4.1 


20 


1-2 


1 


3.6 


14 


8 


2 


2-3 


3.2 


20 


2 


2 


3.9 


16 


» 


2 


2 


3.5 


16 


1 


1 


3.3 


16 


6 


3-6 


3-6 


2,5 


14 


2-3 


2-3 


3.4 


17 


6 


6 


6 


1.0 


14 


1 


1 


4,5 


18 


10 


2-3 


6 


2.2 


18 


2 


3 


2.6 


19 


6 


2-3 


4 


2.5 


22 


2-3 


2 


2.5 


20 


9 


3 


4-5 


2.8 


20 


2-3 


3 


2.6 


21 


8 


3 


6 


1,6 


40 


3 


3 


4.8 


22 


7 


2 


3 


1.0 


24 


2 


3 


3.6 


23 


11 


2 


2 


2.6 


25 


1 


1 


3.1 


24 


10 


2 


2-3 


1.2 


20 


3 


2 


2.0 


25 


12 


2 


2 


4.5 


16 


2 


2 


3.5 


2f, 


9 


2 


2 


3,5 


18 


1 


1 


15 


27 


S 


1 


2 


3,3 


10 


3 


2-3 


2.0 


28 


10 


2 


2 


1,5 


16 


3 


2 


18 


29 


4 


2 


2 


4,0 


11 


2 


2 


1,5 


30 


8 


3 


3 


3,0 


16 


1-2 


1 


2.1 


31 


11 


1 


2 


3,5 


16 


1-2 


1 


3.5 


32 


g 


1-2 


2 


6,0 


18 


2 


2 


1.3 


33 


g 


2 


2 


5.0 


12 


1 


1 


4.0 


34 


8 


1-2 


2 


5,5 


14 


2-3 


2 


1.2 


35 
Aver. . 


g 


1 


2 


5 


14 


1-2 


1 


4,0 


8 








18 






... 



^^^^^^^^^^^^COLLBCTIOS^^^^^^^^^^ 


■ 


bcnlbetaig %oA in delivaring; the TacCthat a iVton wagon requiiwt ^^^| 


HHR labor than & 4-ton wagon, and law time in uned for the Ui^r ^^^| 


HfM tl imeh end of iu journey. Finally, the size i^ inSueiiccd bi 


^^^H 


iWkiad of nuitcrial to \ie uolli-ctMi. 


^H 


^^^ Taclb 18. — Ninouin or CnuxcnoN Waooim MKCEfWAn? 


^H 


^^^^H TO Onx Good Service 


^^1 


I 


^V CntCAOo RKTUf-K Disposal, Mabch, 1914 


■ 


P 


1 

I Sc-HBUi or Waoos* feh lUU.tilXI I'oriri.A. 


y_ 




THIH NnrBiMlRT von LOLLKf^.Slil: 


^^1 


K 


DialrM 


1 1 




^^^^^1 


F 




Garbtc* 


Atiitm 


1 
ItubbUh 




• ^1 


Uniwonl) and 39(h t<U 


125 


IS. 5 


11.0 


21 


^ 


Knjnr .Are. and Canal 


12 3 


14 A 


ii-d 


m 2 


fl 


■ 


Sttto uid tMlh 8u 


I'i a 


18 


12 1 


17,8 


^1 


■ 


Hijfw - ' 


10 


12.3 


m.g 


12.4 


^^^M 


■ 


VMem and Mth Stu 


12 a 


182 


124 


17 a 


^^^M 


F^ 




12.4 
12.3 


18.7 

17.3 


12.3 


ID 4 


^M 




12.1 18 1) 






12.2 
12.3 


17,0 
17.4 


12 1» ■> 
10 3 ; \H-2 


^M 


tWntry Blvd. and \. Br 




Ininc Fkrk and Rodnrefl 


13 


20.2 128 


21 


^^^M 


^ 


Cwthad and Cr«wfoml 


13 


210 12.9 


22 1 


^^^1 


^H <«nU and Cravrfon] 


12 4 


17.0 12.2 


19 3 


^1 


HI Slav Eriand mad 9Slh 


12 3 


17.8 13.1 


21 3 


^^^^ 


nUurtlnnWorki 

WM Total* 


12.3 


17.0 12.1 


21 


1 


173 


245.7 1 108.2 267 

1 


I 


A vv'niicu 


12 3 


17 & ' 12 19 1 




Ab advantogeou* capacity for rubbish wagotu) appcant to be from 


f t» 10 cu. yd. U luge atin with fongoitad populatiotu, tbe be*t 


^^H 


■^ty frir Karfaace waffDOB aod for a»h wngoos is about 1.5 cu. yd.. 


^^H 


ttdlor mixed eoilectiua abngt H to »cu yd. In smallMand randcntiaJ 


^^H 


Unaa, th« working day is not Iook enoiiirh lo fiU larte wacoiu. I dvu> 


^^H 


tapUona in Wionetlu. and Ul«- Foroil, [U., indicate that waicotu of 


^^^1 


I^ra. yd. eaponty a» lurge euouRh. In large citi«. on account of 


^^H 


thofivaUr miwtf <tf nnmlir ii^iw the enuipment should include wagons 


^^H 


tf ASwQirt eapadUm 


^^^1 


Hg, 30 ahowi a ttox atiacbed to an aab wagon: it ia of nufficieni 


J 



132 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

size to hold the winter production of garbage. The figure shovrs Kuch 
a wagon as used in Winnetka, 111. 



Table 59.- 


-EbCAUPLEa OF 


Appucation of the 


Mbtbod of Couptitation 


City 


Popu- 
Ution 
»erve<l 


Actual 
number 

of 
wacona 

in 
■ervifW 


CajwolJ 

of 
Wacom 

in 
cubic 
yardi 


Int«rva 

bctveen 

oollec- 

tioiu. 

in 
days 


Ver- 

ocDtace 

of 


Avumn 

time 

nqniiec 

per 

houae. 

in houn 


Numbei 
oftnpa 

tm 
wMtnn 

day 


NvHBa* or 

WAixMam 

MOiffiW 

farmjtnm 


time 

■pent io 

collect- 

InC 


^--^SS 




P 


If 


V 
— F 
27 


C 


T 


S 








AtfBBICjl 


n Crnia — Bbpabhtb Coli^ectioh 

UAHSAOK 


■ 


MilwBukcp , . 
Columbu*. . . 
Ftocheater . . . 


37S,00a 
181.000 
22n,000 


05 
30 
30 


1.5 
S.6 
3.3 


8.0 
4.5 
3.0 


U.4S 
0.65 
D.7U 




2.U 
2.06 
1.68 


as 
11 

13 


B 
14 
13 


ABKU ANP RUBDian 


Culumbui.. , 
Rorhmlrt. . . 


181,000 
225,000 


40 
50 


3.5 
4.0 


10.0 

e.o 


0.50 
U 60 


t 


5.02 
4.67 


23 
32 


32 
>4 






Euro 


^■AN Cmu — Mixed CokuicnoN 




llmnibuTR . . . 

Frankfort... 


1,000.000 
D20.IN)0 


90 
HO 


5.0 
2 5 


2 

2..^ 


0.75 
<t.S 




3.41 
3.47 


a 

14 


IS 

17 



AaaumpUona: (Sre paRp 123) D —S houn: R -0.5t cu. It. (or European citici; p —0.03 mi. 
ft. for AmsriRBii ritiM: a -0.07 cu. ft. foi American ritiw: r s0.05 cu. ft. for American citiea. 



2. Loading Height — The loading height of a general refuse wagon 
should be such that the workmen can easily turn the contents of the 
can into it. If only one man operates the wagon, the height should 
1« not more than 6 ft., and preferably not more than 5 ft., from the 
ground. If step-boards are placed at the rear and on the sides between 
the wheels, a somewhat higher wagon may be loaded conveniently. 

The fnirk.t for ihe removal of tiend liorscs, etc., ishould be hung 
low, in ordt^r to av(nd an cxces-iive lift. 

The greatest loading height of a rubbish wagon ia different. As 



rOU.FjCTlQK 



1S3 



ft^lislitcr and cleaner niato'iul. tb« ci>]lcclur can pile it to a 
FlTPWiler height, 'Hie ruWiish nugitDt^ in Uuffalu aiitl New York are 




I'll*. 2L— ^ew Vork Rulibwh Wimon. 



loaded to a heiftht of more than 8 ft. Fie. 21 sbovss rubl>Ifi)i ^'"fton 
in New YnrV City. 
'8. Wbe«l Ba»e. — [n un<leveIoped diatricta, where Ikere are inaay 
rough niflds and narrow alleys, and where nhort turns ar« required, a 



134 COLLXmoS AND DISPOSAL OF MUmCJPAL REFUSE 

lung wheel ba» is objcctioiiAblc. An ntlcmpt to iiicreoxe lite capwatj 
of a wngnn tRii<bi to incrensn thi> whec>t iNute, which niftkcri it clutmy. 
For some di!«Lrict», therefore, it will tc deturalilc U> lmr» tijimial 
wagons, made mXh short wheel bsuses, or to uiw lwo-wheele<i carta 
iii8l(-Ad. 

4. Coveriag. — For several re«M>nR, refune waKoiii* require oovering. 
Those used fur ttiUectini; axhvn aiid ruitbUh or mixed refuse Hbould be 
covi-Tttl in urdcr to prevL-iit dust »iid louae impcre from bdng blown 
iDto the atr«et. Those uecd for garbftge should be covered so as to 
prevent n nuiiinnce to both tiight aud smell. I'ig. 22 idiofira a eovercd 
waxon used in Newark. 




Fta 22.— CoTCTwl Wiwon. Nmmrfc. S. J, 



Tig. 23 shows a w;aT\mfiv. can. uwd on Staten Island, N. Y., oor- 
crcd with thiives. In CoJogne, Cierniany. h wugoii f«r mixed refiiM \» 
fitted with a 6xod cover, the refuse being loaded throu^b doors hiogetl 
00 the sides and «t Iho rejir. Fig. 24 iihows a garbage wagon, with 
hiiiiied covert, iiaeil in Chicago. Similar vehicles arc uted ia Cleve- 
land and Milwaukee. 

A Urge garbage wagon i* used in Minneapo1i.'<; il is oovenxl with 
cnuvos, and hue a oapacily of 100 cu. ft., the body being removable for 
transportnliiin by train. 

The hinged tync of cover or lid. n.**ed in Chicago »tid elw-whcre, 
often become^ l>i>iii or broken, And when Ihe waRon is filled, a box, 
tuiTTel, or nthfr large pi<>ce of refu-se, often prevent* the IhI from 
eiuainii. Gurbaice juioCH tend to adhere to the hiiigcs, and thus it in 
diflieuU tu keep Die wagon clean. When it if empty and i*^ paMing 
over rough paYemente, the iiobe made by the rsttliog of the loost 



136 COLLSCrrON AND TilSPOSM. OF UUNtCIFAL RBFVSB 

coven* \is tjbjfKtjoruible. The light-Btting covorH uecd nbrowJ do 
awa.y wilh these truubles. Fig. 25 ghowii h lypc or WMgoii with i:lowd 
cover u.-«ed in KuHch, KwitxeHaml. 

WuxuiiD Hliuuld be built wilh the top about a Toot above tlic 
loading hoight. Th« flat canvas euver biut ibe advaitt^^v ui pbeapneBS 
and fiiniplicity, but it bccumca auilci! and lur», aud ctutDOl be kept in 
leo durini; the loading. An arched eanvns rover, b& in Newmrfc, 
;ipe&rK to hf preferable. A careful tnan will keep hi^ wagoo covered 
aa Diuch an possible while coUcotioos arc biding made. 

Newark hae abuul 50 ash wagons, eacti having four oovcns, on« 
alidiag over the other. This arraiigecnent makcH it poeoible to leave 
not more than one-quarter of the top temporarily open while loading, 



Fio. ib. — Wagon »iih Closed Cover. Zujicfa. SwiUcflaixL 

and ipvatly prvventA duat from blowing to the ridewalk. A wagoo 
ofthi-slypr isshoKti in V\f,. 22. 

S. Wagon Bodl««.— Waiion bodies ebould preferably be made 
of steel, with itmooth inicrior Kurfacei' and round vifim and enmm, 
fnresfly woAUins. Ritx> and utilTctierii should be plai-vd uii the outaide. 
The running tjsun are of wood or steel, of titandard eon^trurtion. 
Tlir wagons 8houl<l be well pointed on the outside, and kept hi a dean 
and proper oooditioo. 

In addition to the wacon. Ibe fitll «<iiiipmrnt r^uircs a small 
bucket, a nbovcl, and a broom. The neci^>rit.v for LhcMr altarhtncnts 
ileprndx on the nature of the houiv treatment. With standard aiMi 
ell krirt. and ip*wmlty U!*»l by ihp huuM'holderE. this ■> lip- 

frill it> not required. lu cold rlunalrs a pi<-k t» fnmf, -led 

to btvak (rosen garbage. A small roller truck u frtKiut-nlly uwd («r 
carrviag beavycaiis. 



COLLECTION 



187 



an> sometimai divided into com port mcnt^, each oot- 
eced wttb a lid. (.)iip ultjert in liaviiiK such cflitipartment« h to 
expOM Xa the open uii il? small uu urva tut practicable; nnother inta 
afford opportuoity for the Bunultaacoue coUoction of different kiods 
of refuse, which arc to be kept und ili.spoi;ed of »oparutely. 

Fig. '36 .iliowA a oiotordrawn wa^QiL, with cunipurtmcuts. ba^'Ulg & 
capacity of 25 ou. yd., as used in New York City. 

Some bodies Imve movablu purtitions, as in Salt Lake City, bo 
that the garbage may be kept aoparatcd from the other refuse. 




m 



iu. "io. — AlDior-unimi V^hkoh. »^tl1 Compartments, New ^'orit City. 
Ca{»i(iiiy, 25 Oibie ^'iinln. 

C. Dumping. — The loaded wagon muni be dumped with aj< tittle 
time OS poi>siblo. The method of dumping deppndfi partly OB 
method of final di«po«aI. Wbcri'! Ihp refiiKC i^ taken to dumps, 
bottom-duRipinK wncoDH are mo»t serviceable. They are suitable for 
Bsbcs, rubbish, or mixed refuse. Bottom -dumpinn uiigoos, of A ctt. 
yd. capacity, were tried iu MilwatikfM! for the collection of gsrbaice; 
but. a» it wai* imiiun^iblc to keep them water-lifcht in wet summer 
iKther, they wem ohjpi-ttonjible. Thi* dixtnnoe from the gnmnd to 
le bottom of the wnEon is limittKl to a cerlain maxinuim, Hiifficieot 
to xive clearance to the bottom when oiwiied: thin limit reduces the 
available capaeily. 

The rubbish waKon* used in Winnetka. Ill, and Dallaw. Tex., are 
shown in Flip. 27 and 28. The Milwaukee (Studobakcr) dumping 



COLLECTION AND DlSPaSAL OF MVNtCIPAL KKFUSE 






' / 



^ 



Fill. ^— Tuo-jtbaI Itubtwb Wngun, ]>>IW<. 



140 COLLBCTtON AND DISPOSAL OF MVSlCtPAL REPVSS 

This iwrmitfl » Inrne waRon body to be used, and fncilitAtes dumping 
ADy^bcro with reofonablc «p««d. The front of tbc wagoD body caui 
hv lifted by a crunv ul tlic untoiidiiig station, as in Ibv l'iuo uImi ut| 
Culuiiibua, Uliio, ur by a bund-turned pMX. 

In Lakewood, Ohio, t\w. ^rl>age U. r<i)lect4><l in large csiw pliued i 
low-hung, bone-drawn vebicleH. At the Iraiufer station tbenc ci 
UT tniiisfcrrcd to &-toii motor tniclu, cacli currying &\x caus. 
motor truck, and the honxMJrnwn vclitclo, botb built by the Tif 
Wapjn ComiMuiy. are nhown in Fig. 3!. 

A C^-yd. rubbish wagon, with a hand-power hoist, also built by tbl 
Tiffin Compauy, luwd ia East, CleveUnd, Ohio, is ahowa by Fig. 32. 

I'hu giu-bu^ waf^OD built by the Uolzboi; Coiii|Miny i? shown byl 
Fig. 33. The body has tight covers, and the interior Duutaiiu noj 



0^.k .-^-si:;,-^ 



-vy 



Fic. 31.— 8ix-taa Mcilor Triirk Cart>-ini; Six Oarbaga Conlnlnpn; 
ilono-drawn CoUecUuu Wagon CarryioR One Garbafic CootaioKT, 
wood, Ohio, 

nichee or corners where fillh miizhb be retained. Tlic method alt 
dunipins i» evideot froni the iUuHratioD. Tfai- wagon ia lomiiti 
two Mien, having capacitiea of 37 and 54 vu. ft., for one home iir two. 
Wsgoiw arc also built with removable steel bodies whiob CSD 
liftH fmm the truck by a crane and placod on frfii^lit rurs nr wnws 
(or removal l*i the dixpoital wortu. TJw remova!>!(- Ixidy Is ofli-u lifted, 
directly into the dittpooal plant and, after duini>iiie, '»» returned Ui Uh 
wagon frame. This method of unloadinR in used at MinnenpnlU,! 
Chicuico, uud Milwaukee, ot Zurich, rrnnkfort, and llumlHinr, ta) 
EuropR, and »1 other platn-*, Tlic unloAding rofiuirr--' riM 
time, depending on the length of the crane. At the MiUmii:' 
erator, it la pomible to unload by this melhod from 2l' 
per hour per craue. With two cran«a workii -, ■' ■ 



C0hhECTtO>f 



plant f«r iinloadinft u about -10 wuionit per bour, which ts jueI suf- 
ficient (u keep ahcKil of llicui as they arri've. 




I 



Flo. 33.— HnUbfig C.nrh.-ip> M'lijton. 



Ash and rubhUh nngonti in Chirngn an> hiiilt with fix^i wooden 
bodies, bavinE a capacity nf fi cu. yd. When uiilomliiii at tlie duin|>. 



l'J2 COLLBCTION AND DISPWiAL OP MVNWiPAl, REFUSE 



the rrfiu'*R must be nliovHeil oiit at (lie rear end. Tlie averaitv iitno 
requiretl lor unloading; one wa^on is about twenty-five minutes. 

Id iirclcr to Hliortuti the time uf un1uii<UDg ut tbc rt-'fu»c disposiil 
works. and tomnkv tlicnxfcua mdepondoiitof (faeualoiidini; uiachiucryi 
diiin]iiii)f nr stonii^e pita iiiuy be provided. Such pits lire iililiie<l nt 
lliR Diixnd rcfuKc incineratore in Fatc'son, Cliftnn, Haraoa, Savannah. 
!in(l Sun FTunfiKro. Thp wAgonn (lum|) directly into Ihe pits, and the 
tvhwff is lifted fruiTi tliein by itntb-bucketK, and coDveyed to tlte fur- 

At Home other pl&res, Inrfje buckets are set into cellar pits Iwlov 
the roadway level, as in Bruuklv-n. inflleud of u^ing one lar^c diinipinc 
l^t. Uottnm-dumping wagontt drive over the buckets nnd di«cliargo 
into them. The bunketii are !iiibHe(|uei)lly lifted by eraiieft and taken 
to the funince. At Milwaukee, (our i>ucli bucketi^ are provided. At 
Greenock, Scotland, there are two pit** each large enough to bold one 
iqMNriiil bucket. Tbcre are 100 of these buckets at tlie plant. An 
empty one is dropped into ii pit, and, when filled, i? lifted by a croDO 
and placed an a tttDrape floor above the furnace. The refuse is Blored 
in the^c bucket" until bunivtl. 

7. Cleaning Wagons.— The separate collection of garbage, as 
pracUi-ed mostly in Amerieji, demaadtt a frequent and thorough eleaa- 
ing i>( the wagons. Under European eoDditiim^, with mixed refuw, 
the wagon.4 arc oniinnrily waiihed nfler each day's work. In Mil- 
waukee, two wa-^hings a week, with a hose and a hronni, were uui 
sufBcient to prevent the garbage wagons from creating a Qui<>anc« in 
hot weuthvr. In Chicago. Ilic garbage wagons arc fitte<l with reronv- 
able bodies, which are clounvd by dtppiiiK them into n large tank of hot 
water, '\\i\n i« done juM after the wagon body hna beeo uniuodcd liy 
the crane at the reduction wnrka. ^Slien the washing is not done regu- 
larly, ofTcnaJve odors result. Prequcnt rc-|Xiuiting tsslao defirable. 

The Gun>|ienn refuse wngon '» ordinarily arranged to dump by 
lipping it over the rear axle. \Vlien it U in this position, it can ba 
ecuily fliutbcd and cleaned ftt the yard with a l)o«e. This melbod 
■cenas to be pr«fcmble to must others. The washing at Miln-aukea 
required a man to get into the wagon and nweep tlin water out with a 
broom. An cietiinato of the cost of washing per wagon wu as follows: 

ton whkoiu can bcWB&bnl perdny by one nuui,at tZ.OO . tO 02 

SSOgnl iirwnliY, iitncrain|)ei ItXIOgiiL. Q CQ 

Fucdandoverheadchargm, driver's lirtM>, etc , O.OI 

Total U3st. per wapn SO 

Tbn deniitn of a wagon, (Mirticularly one to be iim»1 for tlie coUeo-] 
tioD of garbage alone, shotdd tnclade arrangemeDta tor easy eU 



roLLErrroK 



143 



1 

I 



4tnUy by water from a binie un<lfT preaBure. As tbe odor from 

krb4(r rtvtjiu* fmm putT(>f.ictinn, the ieHvinip in the uhwmIic^ 

Kii.- ttic ctiief cjiuse of thp trouble. 

Bk Hofses. — With rcfcreucc to tb« v&rc of horaes used for refuse 

Bretioti, we i»ii do no belter tban refer to & pniiiphlot prepare by 

Dvpartnieut of Btreei Clesninic i>f New York City, wka-a &lr. 

Mbenton yitus Commissioner, delininx the dulid^ and rvvpuQEibililJca 

Vol ihe vvlrrinariiiDs of tbe department and tiy&lemstiEing tbe wedietU 

care of tlie stock. This pamphlet was prepared and lilierally dl^ 

1 ■ %dt.'V4ini; hovf to prevent M(>kn»w of hopw**;, how to dcter- 

,af*. mid vihnt to do for it. Tl nlMH outlined the proper 

tjuuuicr m which the stock wus to be watered and fed. 

Tbe result in tbe Departm(>nt was vf>ry bcnefimi, as it greatly 
rrduciNl tbe tiiek and death ralejt and increased the amount of work 
that could lie done by the borMa. Every hor«c ta well cared for, uiiJ 
itvetves a uuw sboo on eseh foot at least once a munlh. Tbrougbuut 
the yr»r the feel are equipped with hoof proteetora, when pods are 
ant UfK^d, In the winter the boiBCi) are provided with hea\-}- woolen 
1 blanket*. 

]| the prevailing practice to um> burws for colkctinK mfuHn at 

bc<-au>tii of il* corjnomy. The many slops recpiired rewilt in 

irery trrefidar power detnuud, and an uueconomieal serviee for 

vehicles, Uorvc-drawn vebiole«, therefore, are preferable, 

Jly for a bniil of Insa than one or two miles. It may appar- 

!»e a Inna time before horse power will be di!>placc<l by electric 

or even Rasobne power, when tbe collpetion is from amall 

or Mattered buildings atid for lig^it loads. Data regarding 

[iW decreow in tbe number of bonee in ciliee will be found in Chap* 

[vr xrv- 

fl. Motor Trucks.— The rapid increase in the line of larft*^ gaMiline 
trucks in tbe place of bori»e-drawu trucks baa becu due to the fact 
that tbe lar|!er tbe tonnae^ of the vehicle, tbe less will be tbe mileage 

I of haul per lim, and consequently the cost of baulage per lon'mtle. 
1l i« |Kai:(intble to inoroaM greatly the sues of power tmebi, but it is 
DOl irraelirsble Lu inrrf>a*« greatly ibe sIsM of horse-drawn trucks, due 
itw (be limltatioa of tbe individus] honw power. 
Therefore, when larRe quantities of refuse can be colle«rted within a 
ibort diM '■• mobur trucks w0] generally l>e ecfjootTueal, as ta 

ibaaely [* j ^wtioos of a city. From transfer i-tations to faul 

difpiMal pointii honns nn lonjter provide the efaeapmit traniportation. 
The espeniw tif r.nrrh*B»t a motor truck, and allowinit for (bed 
(Stargen, ao well u- f-m t!:« wMHional mmI of tbe »top-and-«lart tervice, 
b Burb gvwtci than that nf horwr-drawB earU nr trucks having the 





144 COLLKCTfON AND orSPmAL OF ArUXJCfFAL RSFUSS 



same capacity. Ita oo«t per hour, tb«r>cfare, is mucb Ereat«r. Ini 
ttrilep to justify this pstHsw of cost, a. motor tnii-k miiBt be usikj for a 
rorresiKiiidingly greater amount of work per hour. It docs its oioxi- 
roum work wh«n it is lotidod full and moving. Tlicrpforc, it miiict 
gi'l il« luuii quickly. in«ke short Htoim, and an f«w of them tu [xiiwihle. 

Thi» rfiiuireiiieiit tendii to rule nut motor trucks for tbe lmut>e 
eoUeetian serviOG of (garbage, where Ihc loaded increments are small, 
and the stops are fnx|uent and sometimes of long duration. 

Trailers, drawn by borees, may be used for bauiw collections, and 
wh«n filled liauLpd to convenient points, from wliieli a train of tbne or 
fotir mny he tnken by an suto truck to a. transfer 8iation or the place 
of final disposal. (Sep Fig, 52.) 

The following infurniutioii Itas been E&ined from aevers) cities: 

BoaroN- — The Gty operatca two 5-ton, rcardump, doetric trucks tor\ 
eoUaotiiiK oithca, nibbish, and Rtieet sweeping. The trucks moka boun-to-j 
houM ooHcctiona, and deliver the material to dumpa. 

New HKDront) — A private eullni'toroiwrstesanel^toa, gasoline tiuek for' 
tefuae M)U««'ti<yn. 

Lawrkxce— A 3-ton, puolinc tnck ia operated by the Koalth Depart- ' 
meat lor refiwe collection. 

Jcaaar Crrv.— A private coUeetor opcrotM one 3-t«&, gasoliiM) truck for ^ 
refuM! mllccLinn, 

DETHOtr. — ^The City opemtea two 3-ton, |tAanlin« tnieJu for tmnoving ' 
garbage from hotels and rcstatuanta, 

IjANaiNU — nie City is eolleeiinii with a notor equipmrait ranfristing at \ 
one Dujilex, f our- wheel pii trutrk of 3| tonfl capadty, with a trailer of the a 
(file, miiiiriiiR ihren men. Tlir larse truck in ffipccially ndvaiilageuua In^ 
winter, when roads are bad. There are also sbuut half a doxen nualler trucks ' 
in 11*0, ai I oi 2 toim capacity, ^Aetb mciuiring two men. 

RnntFjnr.K — U ir rt-jKirted that the nxoiomiual low limit of haul lor' 
motor trueks w'2'-25 axiitr. 

Atl.i>cta. — ^Thc Strtvt CleanioK Dcpoittncnt operaln »n-cml gaaoUno 
Irueka for tolleeting mixed rofuM- from bouaes and hauling it to tbe aty indii* h 
emtor (Fig U.) I 

JouBT — The City operates a S^ton, ga^uhne Inirk equipped with ao 
aiitomutir.', mir-<luiiip body. It in uvnl fnr hottnc^Io-linuse mlleetion of gaN 
bage. m 

AauEviuf. — An electric truck m used for house-to-house collecttno of gar* fl 
bage. The Itody is all Htiwl and water-tight, and Ium a nutnbor of liinged 
eovaca. ]t M dumpod fmm tbe mar b}- a band-tiuiiit. 

Wakuixotos — Prior to July 1st, 19IK, both the collection and dfepnal 
of tliP gariwge were under one eontmet CoUeetion* were made In lion^ 
drawa veliirleB, fwrb oirryins a roelal laikk body hnving a cniwi-'iiy of abauS 
2} eu yd. The RUed tanks WPre removed from Die niiiiiiii|t p-<it at a Inioirfer] 
(cliition within Umi eily limit* and plneed ab ntri: enr* for mil InmnfHirtjitH 
to Lhe diiipuHal plant shout 30 miles down thi* Poinmac River in V 



COLLECrrON 



Tlv Dirtmt took over the work at that time and hu mDUnued it alratg the 

I|UW Kjaenl liueo, but bae u*nl motoriMd «quiptDont for mftking «otW*Miui 
hn hoUb. mtaunmtB, ami iitiwr Ufce pirbege iimduciiig cvuilere in Uio 
Mi4Mt, Pla. — far the ouUcctian of RutMCD mkJ mbbiafa, Miftui hw firs 
IHon ud ivu 2t-tua motor Lmcks, and two 2-bnne n-aJtou, and, to nddi* 



Pia ».— Rduae CoUectJon Truck. AUi>nu^ Q«. 

Iko Id Itu! ftrivec^ hao 2a Ubaim. The duly nort of opL-rnt inn. inrJiidiof; the 
■VMof ibodrircn. fvoliop, od, r«|Min.Biid dcpncialioo in 1020 wu: 

S3Hon tradn atflSOO SeS 00 

321- * 11 C»_ , 22 00 

2 ^-honciiiflDM'- SOO 12 00 

2SUboPa« '• 2 75 « 75 



«IS7 7i 

TV duly cuO»rti>Mi n( orfaao* hM bvn I& torn: aod of nibhwb. 30 loea 
'^ Thr BvvntHP b>n{ctb n< hud ■ I|b^b. T1im>f( ppr tnn (nr roOnKng ^rbtflt 
,HitniM>iab»S3.n. 

Mtatui bw atn opWed • 2-Mb alKMe trodk for fcnae-CiHkoaB toPw 

fluniriK in ihi' nmnuDC "tfli s Inkd r^ eitaa nuw one wiw hrfl nl cadi hnac 
r..... ..I..,.!. . fvTi ,,0 «^ tufetfi Thff nwt of ilip inidE wm 13300, ud iW 

I. mhw ii'i j V {bnl >4mv«, — lOwlwt U» afcoot ff p«- ^y. 
1 tia 11^ 1 JO- 1 I a^ man «r cipo Wpw for kiadtaK cfe cruelu 

Sact Uu Citt — Kmb An«Mr WM, tiBifl Atvait, Iftt9. .«>aM:tMna 
««n^(ir wtlb iwi 3f*a» ttufei oad one 24aB tndk, <hk& dnwos oaa or 



OrSPOSAL OF MUSWIPAL 



two 2i-Tnn trailiTs, hU with st^rpiKlly built, ntrrl (tumping knclim and wttli 
(Kiniixvrt nu'fiu (o kcpp Llio fprbafcc acp^raiMl from otJi«r refuse, as noted 
fruin au uTlii.'lc iii EngtHeennfi \ctej-[{rear4 of Mny IStli, 1930, 

Ir wnA found that, on at^rounl of the exceauhe m«lj>i of upkeep of th)> lit^ksl 
and trailun, iht^ ahui<i> wtkiHi thmr nvcirM) (mm Mtr> rl{iM of Ixltor it wiu i)C««- 
aary lo coipluy. und lieruusr itie inji^kD luiil tn 1h! continually Htopiml aixil 
starrjiitwhitncdllticliiiKfnnMi liiiiwr I'l hniinr. tlit'oxp^niio wus loo grmt. Tlwre-I 
(or?, iti Au)p.iii(. VMM. llw-ir list" wiw(itwi<jiitiJiue(J, witli ibv fxc<-*pliuii ofu 3l-lon 
Pedi^raJ Inick witli ImiliT. wliii-h ia used &t ni)cht. Thu truck and trailer, 
tiup|>k-iui>nUKl with Iwu li-huiw outflu with Hpoiiiully construct^^ Uxlini un^ 
tbc waguuj, coUcL-L ai night all the nsfuso in tbi^ buaimefis diatrict. 

Lcm Akuklkh — ll(5ru»e in rolWted from (hv outlj'ing diatricUi with moUai 
trunks. The full load in hmiled an nvemge distance o( H rnilofi. Two 2^-taa 
tnicks rolled: aboTit ;tOO tons of garbage per month (larbagc was fonnrrly 
(NilWlod fnim t\u-n- ■iiNinH)' liy ^i-liorw Diit.fiiK, taicli milking one lrii> a day., 
Toiuae urv btill usvU iu tLi- oliurl-liaul sutm. 

Diiriii); th<? loftl two yBars, Irucke bai'o been introduced at Mi»-] 
euula. butIV: Dubuque, Hpringiidd, Mutsn., uiiil elsewhcr«, There 
arc, -thfiKforc!, many ciliea wfa«re motor truekH are used in the refuse 
collection service. 

In Wcw of the largR dccreaflo in the uumbor of homes iu ibc Metro-j 
p<)lil.Hn District of New Vork, it iicani!i that the itiolnr truck will 9001 
replace the lionw, ai leatnt.. in indii»<trial and commercial work. TheJ 
delay in sub^tituling the powor truck? more rupidly ia ascribed, not] 
to the tinit coat ax murh aK lo the expense of upkeep of iDBterial] 
and of apparatus which deteriorates very rapdily. 

After a thorough study, the Efficiency Di\*i»ion of the Chicagol 
Civil Service Comniissioti reporteiJ. in July, IftlS. Ihai the iiitrodut- 
tiuu u[ (tatfolice and cleclric truckn in place of horse carU> watt not 
juiitiiicd on account of the cxpcniie. ^M 

For t A-ton tni<;k or tractor the report gl^'Os as fir^t oaM S4000 fur . 
gWcAine, and IfiOlH) for electric truekH. The fixod charRCs per >'car ara 
tlM)4 for gnsoline and $IHS7 for electric trucks. 

Tlie ojicruliug expeusca per uiilc «'erc: 





GiuoJiiu) 


ElM-tnu 


Depreciation 


t() 0.^ 


t 0.1)3 


Tin-.. 


() <Hl 


n fM 


Maial«naDM^ and repain 


IH 


08 


Oa and itmur , . 


OOOS 


OlXU 


EtifTg.v. isui^tite I3t vt-iiis |H?r gal- 






lon, clc<^tn«ly 1 cent prr kw -hr, , . 


1134 


H m& 



to 179 to 130 

The Irucke arc pearly all operated by gamltac. FHectric (rucks 1 
most Batitfactory on level roadi, and can be ummI tafoly only wbe 



COLLEcrWS 



147 



electric pomrer is reailily availabtt>. Aa the incineration of refuse can 

pnxJuc-c ^Icam nnd slcam can pnidiicc cIctLricity, it is prBcUcftbl« to 

use the luttrr for Inndinj; 1h* fttwagc butteries* wliicli ci»n be pUieed 

ou the cullectioK Iruckii. For other mothmlxof fiiiii) <li»f>nsal, ^uoline 

motors for collection piirpoiws. even cm Mtr«p grades, arc more likely 

to be preforrf-ij, bimktiM' ii( tlicir eftsi«r hiliI ]e»^ dcltcutv operutton. 

■ 10. Wagon Atteadants.~The iiuaiber of nttcndants icoiiiK with 

"««cb coUoction wagon (tenerally varies from one to three. Thus, at 

Milwaukee, with 1.6-cu. yd. wagons, thero U one man. At ButTnlo 

and Ni'wark, with 4.0 to 5.0-ct]. yd. wagons, there an- three and 

wknictimftjt fuur mea to the wagon. Tti «uch cam* otic mnti workii 

on fiai:h akle of a ntreet, briiiKinit th<^ caiu> to and from the curb, nnd 

the third man cmptitv) them inlii thi; wajcmi. Thin it; (^oinrtinies 

terni(.<d the " roller " system. At Toledo, with 3-eu. yd. wap;onH nnd 

It Cleveland with 2.5-eu. yd. wagons, there if one altendunt in nonic 

i!4ricls and lwi> in t>lhvr». In ChicaiEo and Piltaburgh, with 4.0- 

1. yd. wagons, thore are two men to cjirh wagon. 

The Mtloction dependit on the location of the houiw can, the length 

wagon haul, the time avnihihle for eolltftion, the relntive eo»t of 

[teams and men. the density nnd ctinr:i<:1(rr uf ;xipubtioti, nnd other 

(acton. It t» found iu practice under averaKe city conditions 

liat one man can collect from about 70 to "ih houses per hour when the 

ins arc placed at the reju- door nnd that from 27r> to 300 liousr.s con- 

titut«8 a good day's effort. If the cane arc at the curb, the number 

may be increased up to about oOO. Tlie folluwinfi; coinpilntion ie 

i^iypical: Amume two hours of haul oiil o( iin eight-hour day for one 

During the six hours for collection one man would have lime to 

leolleet from about 420 hou»««, wliich h too many for a single load, and 

fh too much effort fur une nutn. If two luud» arc niudc. IcaviDg 4.5 

hourv for eoUeetion (nii extra half hour iit gained because one trip to 

^aiid from the barn ia eliminated^ the waiton with two men ran make 

olleetiona from more than fiT.'j houfieo. The greater une of the team 

must tx' balHiiC4><l aiiiiiii^t the ciisl o( the extra man. 

11. Equipment in Some American Cities.^E''or the collection of 
|pirl>e|ir in the larv citiwi of f>tiio, n spceini e(|uipment in prox-ided. 
rhere are two general types of WHfcnn.<i. In Cleveland, Columbus, 
fCincinnati, Dayton, Sleubenvillc, and iiCanee\nlle covered tank bodien 
of KteH are uxod. In other eitieti of llie Stjitc the wagow* are built 

Ewilh two platforms on which the hoiiseholdent' rant* are plarcil dirertly. 
rbe Cle%'dand and CdumbuBwaeonn are alike, and are designed for 
lumpiou their contenl-t without removal of the bodieji. In Cinrinnati 
knd DnyluD the bodies may l)c removnl from the runriiiis gear, tran^ 
trUld to the point of diapuHal, and dumt>ed. The platform wagow 



148 COLLKCTtOS AND DISPOSAL OF HfUXICtPAL BKFUSR 



bnlflinc tb«i cans an: somevhat less ecDnomical than the tank wag 
but aro Miitaljlo (or small oititw whore th« <|uaiititie« ur garbase an not' 
gml. 

In the xmallcr citien ct Uhio, th« collection wqkom ico directly 
to the dJHpdCial plantK, but in Ihf larger dties, wbere lb« length or baal 
becorncN CRunumically iuiportmit. transfer stutiuiis have bcrn ostal>- 
Ihibccl, whor« the garbage ruay be dumpmi into iipctrtiUly consinicted 
can, or left iti th« wagon bodies to be placed on flat can« and tran»> 
porieil to tbe point of final disposal. The latter nwtlKid is prao- 
ticc^d in all tlie larse citien in Ohio. 

In 1910 only three Oliio citi«'s, Cindnnati, Cleveland, and Dayton 
had organiicd rofuw collection system? for a.^hc? and rubbish. Ott 
dnpended on private scnrcngent. Altbougb th4> wparate rollectimi 
tlieoe two materials t& practiced in Ohio in certain londitiee, tbey are 
genorally collected and disposed of tomether. ■ 

DaytoD hao a modiRcatioo of the »Ltt-board type of wagon. V 
Local conilitioiiti arc met at Ciiicinnuti by the um i>f a bai:k-<)ump 
wagon manufaotured by the city iitreet-oleaning department, aitd at 
CIcvdand by the une of a bottom-dump wagon of standard maice. 
The opinion Aocm^ tn prevail that, for the best eeonomie resulte, where 
there i« n coinbin«d rollection of uMbex and rubbish, the wagtm ^oold i; 
have a capacity of from 3 to 4 cu. yd. ■ 

In Weatmount, Que., the city forncs eoUeet all refuse together in * 
the !«ime cartM during the summer, or from April 18th to November 
ISlh, whon there are only amaU quantities of aahes. During the five 
nioiiih< of winter tbo ashes are large in quantity and are collected 
neparately from the xarbage and rubbish. After delivery they are 
aided through screens of ]-tn. meah. The fine maierial is dumped or 
taken away free for private use; the coar« material is mixed with 
garbage and mbbtah, and burned in tbc ininncrator. Thn average 
number of loads collected daily vnriiM from 6 to 8. aeoonJing to the ^ 
BeasoR. Tbe average haul b about 1 mile, or from 12 to 16 mtlea »■ 
day for eaoh cart. In the winter large sleighs are used for collecting. ™, 
Them have two ccimpartm«nl«. one opening at the rear and tbe other 
al Oiieh side. In the mimmer the two-wheelf*! S4<otcb dump cmrt, 
drawn by one horw. hi used. Three men attend each rart. 

In OttAwa, Ont., there » no acparation ot refuse, ashea. or garbage 
ftll Mng placed in the ^irne receptacle. Tbe eoDeclions are made 
ooce a week, except that in summer the bitsinew sMtioo bM an extra 
collection. 

Tbe eoQeetion wagon* are larger than in many American dti«, i 
ihry carry about 7 cu. yd. Ad arranErnient of can^'Bv and ehaiM < 
pUoed on tbe bottom and up to the front of tbe iragoo bdoiv •* 



cou.Krrroff 



loodfid; lh«n, when the waKtm arrivte At tbo tnriiioratDr or dump, the 

choina are atluulK-itl l>i s niMc o-iid I.Ik> loiul in rollrti uut at the buck, 

tbc t«il'bo(>ril huviiix first bM>n rl*mti^'^(i. 

^B 12. Equipment in Some European Cities. — Greater Advance* 

^P^ve l>eeii uiuiie ia Kurupcau tliiui iu AmcnctiQ cilics iti the develup- 

meot oT tbe e'^uipment nHiuirwl for refuse i;ollcctton. TIue is partly 

due to the greater age of Humpenii citing, and pnrtly to the fact that 

i a mottt auce foreiip) offi«tal» hav-c taken up the problem in a mure 

^Mcieiilific way, and have made prior trials and Lests to determine the 

^'noftt Miitable eiiuipmcnt fur the pnrliuutur ucedfi of the district in 

r)ueetion. 

The wagon ei|uipineiitA in Europe vary Mnnewhat.. l>ut llie devel- 

opmeiil toward staadartU haa gone farther than in Aiiierii-a. Where 

modern WAf;on<i have been adopted, they are constructed to rceeivo 

and diMbarge tlic n.-fune from the huutic cunit without expoNnfc it to 

tbe air. In nearly all caec^, tbcy are desiicncd to be operated in con- 

^Hnnetion with xtAndard cnnei. A ETeater advAnce was powihie, 

^^Becauae tjie people arc ar.cii»tomed to comply' more readily vitb the 

^■BKulattoas of the municipal deimrtuienta. 

^^ Fig. 3.^ shows a typical horse-drawn wagon for collecting com- 
Initod rcfuM. as ui<«d in Bremen, Germany. It ha? lower and upper 
I'Miding doors at th^ rear and abo up|»>r duurs at the ."ideH and (owurd 
the front. This arranKement of doors facilitates the londmg by reducing 
the heiiibt to whieh the cans must be lifted l>erore they are dumped. 

Uectric truck* are being uwd in Hamburg, Orniany, fnr refuse 
collection. The body has a capacity of about 5 cu. yd., and the cost 
of the truck in Germany ia about $4000. The totol weight is about 
11,000 lb. It is fitted with two cleetnc motors, each of 4,5 h.-p. 
A truck can make four tripif each oigbl, covering about 3J> miles in 

K^t hours. At the end of ea<>h nifiht's work, the batterie* are 
pUced with others trewhly charged with electricity gCDcrated at the 
eily refuse incinerator. The cost of operation in Hamburg, reduced 
tu cents per cubic yard pet aula, b givBO m follows: 

Tiros M cMit 

^Powrr 70 " 
Miacelkneoua M) " 
Total 1 74 eeota 

Tbeee are very low figure*. The wupwintendeni in Hftmburg 
0t«ted that tt»e motor truck waa only then i-heaper than two-horse 
wacons of eimilar capacity, when operated in two «hifta of eight hours 
t, whirh distributed (he fixed ehargea over a large tonnage of 
(Fig. 3fl.) 



iSO COLLErTIOS ASh hl.<POSAL OP Ml'XIClPAL REFUSE 



G.— ORGAinZATION 

Efficient scmce io collection work depends larfcely on the organi- 
zation and the methods of operation used in the (»Uection. It shuuld 



S=J 




Ix- Rilaptwl l»oth to the chnriiclcr of the city and to the detuled 
reiniiK-iiH'iit.1 (if tlic stTviw*. 

'V\wTV slmiilil Iv a siug:l<> rfsmuiaihle liead controlling and ditecting 
the activities of a suitable number uf a^i^tants, who, in turn, should 



COUBCTIOK 



Ul 



•Dtrnl fiiid direct the men io thcnr vnriou« (luttct (Iowti to Ihe lant 
lil, so tbat huioionious work r<-^u1t-s nilh a mimmiim I(k» of 
'poey uutl liiiic. Tlicre ghoulil lie a complete iiyHlL-ni of daily 
ppurting, Bu tbul ibe character anil amount uf all the wurk dutic in 
I MTvioe is fully known, as well as tlie ttin« devoted tn each kind of 

In at Iwixt tbc larger citic» it h citAlomary to uniform tho men, 
vkieh not only draws nlicotion to their aiithorUy, but mure «ITi>iaiYi>ly 
inienitM the coiisoiou^ncwi of retponsilulity. Tabic &2 contaJnB 
data regarding tb« uniforms in many ciliea. 




Pio. 30. — Electric Truck for Refuse Collection, HamburK. Germany. 



There are three lyi'ieal sy«1eius of cullevtiun u[)ertiliun in American 



1*1 



1. Municipal rollMlion, by the municipality with it« own equip* 
irnl and working foree. 
'2, Onlracl roltection, by whirh the ffity pays a private party or 
pumtirm lo do the work with 'n» own or thp pity's (■i|iiipmerit. 
M>u»p citirti the L'ontrurtor is periniltcd to choritt the hnusphnlders 
6xvd »iina for the service, 
3- Scnrenger B>i(lem. wberHtiy. under licenie or reflation of the 
lir»lth depart mrnt. cprtain iiidividualH an* ]w-rniittcd to collect the 
jkHmk^ und rubbf^l) within delincd areas of the city. 

TIttN lattpr tiyHtom it. aa a rule, impractical for larRe cities, beraune 
a lark <if centmlixed oritanisation, but in comnmnilice of lc«a than 
1,000 population tt may Iw Hitutfactory and efTK'irnt. It« huccvm, 
any caae, depend» on IhenrEanieaticiuand the enforcement of rcgu* 



152 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

lations. The fewer the collectors, the more easily is their work super- 
vised, and the dangers to public health confined and safeguarded. 

For the larger cities the preference lies between contract and 
municipal collection. 

Evidence seems to support the contention that municipal coUefr- 
tion is more sanitary, and that contract collection is more efficient 
along financial lines; but the better sanitation of municipal collection 
is deemed worth the extra cost. The permanency of municipal col- 
lection and the value of this to public service is another strong infiu- 
ence which is likely to induce American communities to adopt this 
method. 



H.— OPERATION 

1. By Munidpality. — In the majority of lar^ cities throughout 
the United States, and in Europe almost exclusively, the collection is 
done by the municipality. The city controls, if it does not always 
own, the collection equipment; and the men employed in the work 
are directly responsible to their superiors, who, in turn, are respon- 
sible to the public. Some cities own the wagons and hire the drivers 
and horses by the day or month; in others the wagons are also hired. 
Municipal operation is generally found to give the greater satis- 
faction, for the following reasons: 

1. Sanitation, not profit, is the primary conatderation, and superviakHi ia 
more readily effected. 

2. Greater flexibility of the service is secured to meet the ever-changitig 
conditions of scasoD, weather, populatioD, et«. 

3. The work is directly imder the control of public officials, whose chief 
object is to render good service to the publit. at the house and on the street, at 
a reasonable <x>st: thus eliminating the not unnatural tendency among some 
oontractois to do, within the terms of the contract, as little as practicaUe and 
with the least e.xpenditnre of money by themselves. 

4. Direct respon-iibility to the public produces quicker results. 

5. It is less expensive, generally, because the equipment investment is 
pennanent; and no fund is necessary to meet emcigencies, and do pmSt is 
included. 

There are. however, certain disadvantages in some cities in operating 
refu:* collection by the iniiiilcipality. as follows: 

1. BiL-:inefw prinripics arc s<itiict imps sucritintl tii jmlilirfil machinery, when 
it demands minefcssar^' chanp-s in iipjxmitnu'nts. methods, etc. 

2. The operation of refuse collection aiay fall into the hands of incom- 
petent and untrained officials. 



COLLECTION 



ISS 



Wlierf tht? tnanicipfJity owns the [4ant, or hiros and direrto the 
\ municipal nperiLlion tx (vrriiKl out in Ain«:-ni':i uikIlt tbL> tlireo- 
of eitliur tbe Heiillh L>u|)arlin<>itt, llie Slri^-t Ck-iiiiing Depart- 
tKQt, or ft special burcuu of tli« UcpArtiDeiit of Public Works. In 
■oow izuAaDCOK tb« work u) divided Iwtween tba Depart meniA of 
Bnltb and Public Work». The UcBlth Dupnrtiiietit drica not Ken- 
milly undertAko inor« lli«n the garhttg«' i^iill4^>itoii nnd dis|>oi«al, and 
lere m k tendeocy lo relieve it even of Home of thi8 jiurtioii of the 
ItcMnt reofKauisations of Health [>epartmeal« deduribc tLeir 
lion ia refuse dispwial as la^^y supcs'visory. Th«y should 
t the work of the rufuae cdlection department and it« restult*, 
'ly ftfl r«fiftrdtt the RiippresRion of odon and ouiraBces, to protect 
btir liealth, am) sveuro a high nlmidnrd of dctiidlums. 
lihe development of refuse collection and disposal in Milwaukee 
ilttrinK the lo^ t«n years \b oharactcriHlic of the pro^<>ii.t made in the 
nuutagemeot of ituch work Iti the C«ulraJ West. Previous to 1910, 
thr rity'a a^hes and nibbiah wcri-r collected undt^r the Ifepartmsnt. nf 
Puhlic Works by a superintendent in eliarge. but thuro wiu^ no dit^tinet 
btireau for this purpose. Garbage w&» collected by the Depurtment 
i>f Health, und*r a supvrintendenl reporliiiK to the Comnii.-!siontT uf 
Health. In lOIO, the Uepnrtmnnt of Pubho Works was reorgRnijMKl, 
uul a divitiou of street eleaninn creat«d. Tliin division handled the 
collection and diapof^l of all refiim" niateriala, a« well as cleaninK the 
■tn)et«. The Kupcriiitendont in charne of the division appointed a 
wperiutcndi'nt l« hoodie the collection of ftarltage for the entire city. 
B« alao appointed ward mpnrintcndents to control the work of eol- 
lectinic aabn and rubbish and the eteaninij of »trucl«. Tliem ward 
Wj>erii:it«iidcut« abo supervised the maintetiunce of diimpi>, The 
Snal dtft|Hii<aI of garbage was eotnuited to a superintendent of f>nrba.ge 
dinpoaal. 

Thia organization was an improvement over the earlier method of 

adliog the work. Further betterinent« might result if thv city 

divnled into about half a doten dintrictti, with a foreman, in 

of aaeh one, to look after all the work in hia dtRirict. The 

[Kpial works require a apecial forenmn. Tliii" division would place 

ffwponmhility in the hand.*" of a few men, each of whom could 

[IbMOOQe thoroughly acquainted with the Rpeeial requirementw of hia 

ict. In Detroit the work U thus organiKd, the city lieing 

eight di^irieLt. 

lo New York City, the .Superintendent of Street Cleaning has 
Aorge of a departiaont which ia sfpnrat^ «nd diMinct from uU others, 
but ii Mfnitod lothe Uorouglw of Mnnhaltan. Brooklyn, and The Bronx. 
Tbe work is diridod into various bureaus, respectively charged with 



154 COLLSCflOK AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BEPVh 



J 
{ 



stnet dcuning, nhiM collection, and fiiul dispoHal. For l&rg» cities 
sucb tin orgaoizfttion batt many advuit^ces. It ia the ooniniun o&bh 
in most European citi«i. H 

In New York, WaaliinKtuo, 13o»ton. ClrvcUod, Detroit. Columbas, ~ 
Roohetter, cUv, the collection e<iuipa>ent, iticluditig tlic hor«c« and 
vehicle*, is oniied by tbe dty. 

Nov York officials udvocate municipal Q|>eratir>ii for collection atid 
dispoeal, but Ht»tc lluil \ li« u-urk niUMt be atandnrdized, and cacb nuto' 
task clearly delined. Detroit offii'ialn ure uiiunituuus iii llic opinion 
tluit all collection sliould b« done by city forces, but bi^i-YC that the 
final disposal should tw by contract in the i'ah> of a reduction plant, 
beciuiSG the frequently chani^ing pcrsouncl of city t!n'^'<-minontft la 
not favorably to continuity of ojjcr&tion; snd also that tb(* person 
wtio ix reepoii^iltlc for Ute opvmtion nf the plant should alM> be its 
deniKiief' Trenton would tiol cIuvjirc Iu the contract ui«tbud of col- 
leelion tieonuM! the people cu-opemte bo1l«r with mumoipnl collection, 
and arc Icm inclined to litter the 8tn%Ls. St, l.uuie and BtifTulo claim 
tliat better and cheaper work a done if the collection in hy the munici- 
p«Jity„ 

In Chic&Ko, the collection and diHponal of all refiipe ia handled by 
the Uureau of Street!!, which is a part of the Department of Fubliis 
Works. The Snperititetident of ihi^ bureau i? appointed by the Com-i 
misaioaer o( Public Works, and rcporta to bim. Ue has three ABoist-' 
antSuiwriiitcntlcnt.-i, each one beinfi; a»ii([ned to a diff(*n>nt part of Che 
work. The netual «nper%'iaion of the team» and laborerfl falls to the 
variouif Ward Superintend onts. Tlie teams, drivers, and vehicle 
are hired by the day. After an invextigalion of the collection of 
rofuHe in Chicago, tho Eollowiog reoDtuniendations were mode by 
OAbom and Fetherstoii: 

"(1) ThA city should both own and operate all the equipment aod mrfcs 
Heceamiy for a complete Ry*tcm of coUeetioo, tnuwportalion, and diqMWB] of 
all claxMW of c-ity wasLes. 

" 12) That regular and Kyslemnl.ie rolloHitjn of M-pnrntMl riasww of vasta; 
(aahcs, mrbuKe, and rubbbb) be nutde at daily or tri-wwkly tDli:r*ab^ cl»> 
pnading on ihc rharacter of ibc distnrl.t ncninl and (he scationii of the rear. 

" (3) That the lam r^tanlinR the ML-iwmEioii ami handling ni tlw difTerent 
cla.-W':* of WBdttit by ilx- htuwehojiliff be givfn «inh revision as may bo nreca- 
iiar>'(o brinn I hem inU) proprrct>rreliiti<iii with llie ]Nilii'ieM iw In ntllrctjun and 
disposal rrcommendMl and lu norure their cfTeclive enforcement. 

"(4) Tbal the wpamtion of all rcfuw iitlu Die rIesiKimtcd rliw jg he maifc 

the hou»eliotdi?Ti>. except in the diAtrieta where the mmbtned Mwm iilo be 
of by incineration. 

"<S) That B compeleni tcHmiral atafT he einplujnxl la ilev«h)t*. b»rtall, 
IMd openle for at leait ooe year the pruiecl berrinafter iwumnMsided, and to 



a 



COLLECTIOK 



155 



iiHik« flu<*h fnrlluT studies and tmU lu nwy h<> iMM«MMry to (ict4?rTnin« in detail 
Ite moot suuaUn type or nwRpUclea and equipment for a inuUir ouHcctioD 

%. By Coatrect.— Tlie work of collecting rofusc lias l>ccii frequently 
t out U) c4)Dlruct(irH wbo own (lie equipment, as, for inslJinpc, in Pful- 
idphia, UufTalu, lU-Aitiug, BuatuD, Ncwtirk, Han Franci^cn, and otlier 
m, 8onK an now ooDtomplating » clwngc U> mtioicipol collection. 
tlie differtnt citiRs the form of ixintrect and thi^ ^.-api! of the work 
'er. In (>ome the work bt let to a unitle oontrnctor. and the term 
vary from ono to t*n years. In utbera, individual collators arc 
icenaed to do the work. FrequcniJy, quite elaborate specificationH 
prepaid to govern the controctor's work. Iind a force of inspectors 
, on thn part of the city, to ff^ that the contract and Kpeci- 
fullillcil. 
Cbntrai^u for doiiii; municipal work are usually limited to terms 
from thfM! to five yvsni. For bucIi short terms, reeniiring a tarRe 
Invcfetiuont, coiitructont do not provide the most dunilile equipment 
ur build works on a itormanenl huRiii, nnr can they lieeiirc men with 
wfficipntly Inng training. A ten-year term of conlrai't wouhl Iw 
tor, although risking the viciseitudes of t^trikca, panic, or war. 
itb long l4irnix and a more [lermunent eiiuipmeiit. such as could be 
affnnin] hy the l&rger eitics, lower eo»ta for a suti^factory »rvice 
miglit be secured by eontraet. 

I'wilwr Uie contract nietho<l, it in necessary to «pecify the exact 

cter of the work to be done and alao the requiiementa which 

!tligati' the eonlmrlor to fumiitli llie desired servitv;. lie is re(|uired 

mniiiluin an efTH'tent organization and .HuEBciciit oquipnient. Kigid 

titin and control by the municipality is Decc«Bary in order lo 

Batinfactdry work. 

Tbcreforr. broad and rigid npecificationH muHt bn prepared for tlie 

- ' i^nntrul of the contractor. The»o should cover the fol- 

:■<, among otliera: 



ffvi. 



tion til rrfiise, 
"Rmnval of rrfuw. 

Brfnae rrrcpUiHfs, 

Fmiurucy irf i-olk^rrtion. 

Map* ahiiwinf! mut«i and diatricu, 

TiTOP fur nr>U("ticm*, 

Ntonlinr of rtiUiwioni, 
' CoOeMiMi ««0aai^ 



rieantng of wiutnoH, 
V.mvtvrney wapjiw. 
Penally for injury to bouse 

or property. 
Penalty for failuio Lo eultcct, 
DiainfMrlants, 
('<iiii|iliimtii. 
Telephone wrviea. 



ProvtnuD muvt be made for a bund of nufficknt siie to injure full 
! Wd fajlbful pcrfnrmanee, a bonuR for better work than «pceitied. and a 



156 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

penalty for breach of contract or for insufficient work, sufficiently 
targe to make such action highly unprofitable. Complete aod detailed 
regulations should be included in the contract. 

Philadelphia is one of the few large cities where collection by con- 
tract ia still practiced. A recent report,* however, made by city 
officials, concludes that the contract system is diBadvantageoua, and 
that in the future the collection should be made by municipal forces. 

The advantages of the contract system are' 

1. The application of business principles is more readily effected. 

2. The elintinatioa of politics from the operation removes some chances 
for uDBAtisfactory changes in the working force. 

3. A BimpUfication of the work of the municipality is advantageous, chiefiy 
in smaller towns. 

4. A definite sum of money is fixed in advance for the work. 

• S. Borrowing funds for constructions and purchase of supplies is obviated, 
as the contractor must raise the capital. 

The disadvantages of the contract syBtem are: 

1. Profit, not sanitation, is the predominating influence. The oontractor'a 
criterion is the least sanitation permissible at the least cost. 

2. Operation is less elastic, and contract profits may be reduced by sudden 
unforeseen occurrences. 

3. Response to unforeseen occurrences is less rapid. Breach of oontroct 
may produce unsanitary service. 

4. As usually no records of details are kept, it is diflScult for the city 
to make estimates of cost and of efficiency of service. 

5. The uncertainties in ascertaining the approximate quantities of refuse 
to be collected. 

C. Lack of concern for public welfare invites failure to give full service. 

7. Lark of direct responsibility to the public causes hindrance to expedi- 
tious action. 

8. Uncertainty of contract renewal causes an excessive charge for use of 
equipment. 

0. The apparently frequent difficulties in letting a contract for a long 
term, partly in view of strikes, panic, or war. 

10, In view of the foregoing uncertainties, the contract system, especially 
for large cities, is frequently more costly. 

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, the contract system has in some 
instances given good results. 

3. Routing the Wagons, — Various uu-thodK of conducting the 
actual cuilcctitiii ;irc found in difTerent cities. The so-called 
" roller " system has Iwen practiced in Buffalo, New York, and 
Springfield, Ma.ss- Workmen go down each aide of the street, about 

* " Report on the Study of the Mpthods ol Strpct Cleaning atiA Collection uid Di*- 
poiKl of Municipal Wuti^." Journal. Engmeer'a Club, Pbiladelphia. Auauat. 1920. p. 336. 



rOLLECTlOX 



IBT 



a« tiour ahead of tbe wu^iif, and roll or wheel lUc coiis out to tbo 

■irl). Thr tiirn mny hv prnvided witli HmnH Inicks for this purpose. 

!irn tlie JriviT piupticn the fans into the whi;uii. unii, in some cities, 

pririklM ihcra with a dUtnfi>rt»iil . Men follow tho wngon'! and roll 

(imply CAM from the curh to the b«ck yard. This nmthud iimkeH 
Ji« lte-*t Mm t»f Uie lime (or lliiw rnoal «x[>eii8ive p»rt '>f the WTvice, 
ud liasHt*^<.-iul advflnl:if;cs whppe tho boiisp can U nol pasily arcensible. 
The aae of rlcttnc nud other motor trucks Id the c-uHcctiuD service 
duunuU o rapid loading and a minimum time oj stopping at cacb 
luKise. The " roller " synloin of cnlltM^tion, thnrnfore, mny prove of 
ttivftDtoce in connection with power-driven collncticm waRons, as in 
Hamhurg, CiermAny. 

I-'or the collection of garbage, the City of Milwaulcee \a divided into 
about 200 small districts, and these are arranged so that each one, 
whpn \isited at rogular intcrx'nl!), yield>4 one full tond of )tarhAK«. 
A rollrclor is BBsigned to two diiitricta, one with a lung and ihc other 
with a short haul, or be has two districts ha^^ng together an average or 
■anJium-leiigth huul. The city covers an areit of about 25 Kciuare 
milM, attd, in 11)10, had a poiniUtion of 345,000. Ninety-five col- 
leeton were required to serve the 200 districts. The small distrit't 
(yitdin ha« the advantage of permitting the collwior tu become fnmiUur 
with liu dtAirict. One luperintcndcnt, with an office at the incinerator, 
lias charge of the collection work. The wcighmiutlcr «cr\'e« a« his 
■MJatanl. The diiitnct« have no relation to the political boundaries 
of wards or precincts. 

Where ihe workmen are of »u£Bcieiit intelligence to cu-operate 
fully with the hou»ch()ldvr, this «>i!ti;m fwoves quit,c »utisfuctary. 

iln M)me eities the «'agon»i carry only !..'> cii. yd. of garbage, and the 
dnverf furnixh tlwir own horeeii. Consequently, men of nmall mc>An.<t— 
lad *>metimes of small intelligence— purcba^W! the ntfcetwary horse and 
tehielp tn order to gel a plure on the city pay-roll. The work w too 
large to be haodleii dTectivcly by one superintendent with a weigh- 
Uurter a* osustant, and the collectors, as a rule, do not give to the 
Nnrk« more than the mechanicul operation of their equipment. 

The eolloction of ti\\ti and rubbish in Milwaukee is under the 
direotioa o( the Wnnl SuperinlRndentR, the city being divided into 
I& warda, no that each Superintendent hae charge of o comparatively 
mall dis^nei. He plaitn the collection to suit the ciweial require- 
swnla of his district, in accordance with hii^ iM^ntoiiul knowledge of the 
rndrnt", Ihr locultty, ami (he money approi>rial«d each yi-ar. 

Rc«j>nn mrndutions which were made for the improvement of 
tarhav* eoUuutiaa in Milwaukee lucludod the use of wagons having a 
Capadty of \ cu. yd., and the appointment of two Awistant Suptr- 



aOLLBmoS AND DISPOSAL OF i/UXICtPAL RBFUSB 



tnt«nclent«, wfao would endeavor to de<cure better co-oporfttton b«t weeaj 
the eoIlvctopK uiid the houfcholdors. 

In MiiiiivjtiiijiliB, a city cuvtrrioK uhuut 53 m|. milcA, with h popul&-' 
lion of moru than 3(X),00I), tho eollfintion of all the refuse is utnlcr the 
Hi-altli Gommissioncr. The city is divided into 31 districts, whicb 
ftre the «Ain« lor garbage, a«hiM, and rubbish. A city ordioaoce 
reqiiirns that all garhiigcr shall lie drained of wnter and wrapped in 
paper before it is placeil in the can. (See Chapter 1.) Thiis, abo, 
a loi of rubbish is collected with th« garbage- For the 31 di»tricl4 
lliert; ».r« aa many cullectors, and each i« held accountable for the 
removal of garliugc, aalicn, and certain portions of tJie rubln«h. 
The eollpelors are paid $100 [xr month (lOlo). Their duties are to 
maintain a clean district— not to render service for n given number of 
hours per day. The mitiraum standard i» one collection of mixed 
n»\w» and nibhish and one collection of uarhaffp from each household 
[»cr week. The Kood work done by the MinneniHilib department is 
i-lainiud to he partly due to Heparatitig the collection district* from , 
iliow wliich art purely political. 

Columbtu hu a refuse collection department m n part of Um'| 
Board of Public Semc<>. The princ^ipal duties nf thi« department are 
the collection of RarbaKe, nihbinh, and manure. I>uc to the \\se of 
natural gux, only a Minall {juantity of asbn* is product'd. Dnring 1013, 
curb collectioru vmre made twice a week from July Ut to October Ist, 
and once u week at. other times. Between July 1st and October 1x1, 
24 teamfi were engaRed in the work, and. durini; the renuunder of ttio 
j-ear. IS (earns. There are IS collrirtiun routes, each divided into 
two section'!, one requiring a long haul to the transfer Nation and tbe | 
other a xhort haul. Tbe route* are grouped %n ns to give p«ch teanpj 
an far as powible, about an eftuol niindwr of niiloR to travel \m clay,| 
the limit lietng an average of about 16 milcv^. Each team colleeUi 
two loads daily. The city owns tbe collji-etiuii ct|uipmcnt. including 
horsve and veliiclu, and operates atabte«, UaokAiuith abopsi, aiKl u (kno.^ 
for raising com. 

ArranginK the routes no that a wagon vieitfi each house at approii>] 
fnatrly thcMmo time, on fixed dnypt of the week, offcnt an advantagoj 
ill protnoting a natisfactorj* hmiwhold co-operation. Time vclteduleaj 
have been arranged in thia way at Buffalo, and at Bremen, Vrcnatay. 
This methcKl of ruuling ennbleM a superintendent to follow the work 
of the colicctors more cnrufully than otherwise. In Premen. notice of j 
the eoUe«tors' approarh i.'< given hy the ringing uf a bell. Tbe eaiMJ 
Bj-stem is practieeil in c^-tain parts of Chicago. 

4. Day or Right Collection. —The quealioa of nigbl ae agalnsL dafl 
mlleetlon anist be answered in sach city by tltc existing speeial OOD*] 



COLLECTION 



159 






» 



ilitioiu. There is some wiitiment in America against ntglit collection, 
duefly OD account of the nuinc, and of the cans t^ometiuim lieiiiK 
stolen when set out at niRhl for t>i« collector. In down-town diiitrjctet, 
bowever, (l U u(t«*n difiicult to make c«llectioiu io the daytime 
bccauac tif tbc cruwdud alreute. 

Mr. William H. Kdwardfi, formerly Coininif»ioncr of Street Clean- 
la New York City, titated, in .t pai>er rvtiA before the American 
ic Ilealth A£60ciali«u tu 1913, tliftt uitthi collection would he 
Klvantageous in New York City. He objeL-ts tu the unMiglitlitiesH of 
caiui standing in Iruiit of builditigB during the day, but udde ihut 
reevptaclcii enn be kept covered more easily then thun during I ho 
nigbl. The recept&oleH are IfMS of an obntriictinn lo petlej^lrinns in the 
aiglil thuii in Uie duy, but, when plnreil within an areaway, it is 
•ouwUlDieB diffieult for the collector to find theui at night. The effect 
of the beat of the suit rnditituig front puvciiienLi in summer \» a 
further and distinct druwbuck in day cullcction, both for men and 
inimwlF Tbe spilling of nmtoriiil frf)Ri ihe wstp*'''' '" "'i" another 
(tttadviint«ice of the day collertJ«n. With night collection this 
BuitMnc« can be obviated by the early raorninK cleitning of the Ktreet«. 
Od tbc other liand, Buper\'isiuu of the work at ni)Ebl is more diflicult 
than during llic day, and io the dwcllin]|;-liouec diHtnctti, the noise of 
tbe work is a disad vantage. 

In Milwaukee, <lurinx the summer of lOlO, there was a public 
outcry aitaiu^t ha\'ini; the coUeclion waKona on the streets durinK the 
day. The schedule w»m changed mi that collflctiuns were made early, 
ftum 2 to 10 A.H. Thin worked well in i^ummer, but duriiiK winter it 
»M more diffieull to net jtiifficiently rnpid work, and it wa'j neeewary 
to rliaaice the schedule again, mi that r^illectioiut were made in winter 
from -t A.u. until noon. TIiid une of early morning hotire in eummor and 
vii)Ii>r, by vombinint; advantuKes of both day and night culleclionii, 
Mtnu to have been r|uitc satiKfactory. 

Id European citiia it ix quite common to collect in the early tnom- 
lag. In PariM collM'tion* are made from 7 to 9 a.m. in xummer and 
frora 8 to 10 A.M. in winter, 

9. PriTate Collection- — In some of the larger oiticK, where, in 
eartain dwtrici ", the municipal collection of gHrlwiKe wa.-. ikh ^lii*. 
Fartoryi private orgnnixstioiui, or iniprovenieut aM>ocmtions. have 
betn formed to do tliii^ work. In 11)13 it wbh fuuiid that in Chicago 
llwrv were approximately 130 such organisation.-'. Twelve of these 
reported annual exju-nditurKi totahng $130,8.TJ in 191 1, and more 
than tlAO,IXN) in 11)12. Such orKuniiationtt. when maintaining tho 
mmm afficuuicy »« dty drpartiuentn. cannot ordinarily do the work aa 
ecmotaically. I'rivate eolleelions, however, will probably conlinuo 



160 COLLKCTIOX AND TUSPOSAL OF mmiCJFM ItEFI'SS 



to be made from faoteU and restiuiranta, portictiiariy in tbe latgej 
iriti^H, beriiUt^ of the prufit realiictl from the eule uf garbugp fur 
feeding. In RociiesU-r, litv cuUeclimi cuntrat^'tor is not required to 
remove, without additiorml payment, tmrbtigc from ^^ccrica, cuuning 
fnRtoriRR, nnd minilnr e8tfibH»ihmont8 when in vxccsw of 250 gBl. per 
week for aiiy siiiitle estubLJ^htrient. 

I.— TECHKICAL BOARDS 



I 



I 



In Chic«KO & so-called " T<elmica! Board '* was established, 
mitde lip of [DDtnberH of tlie Bareou of StrwtM and of tlie ElBciency 
Division of the Civil Scrviirc Commisfcion. TKis board had for il» 
obJMl the dcvciopmcnt of an cfRoipnl rn-opprnlion amoiif; th? nffioiiJH 
of the Bureau of Street* by the e»tablifihment of imprr>%-ed methodx, 
the creation of an expert force to maintain the proposed weaaure6, the 
traiiiinpt of esperla for future department heads under llie prouioliun 
Kj-stem, and the more certain recognition by the Civil Sen'icc Coro* 
mifttion of flood or hod service in the bureau. The mme object, in a ■ 
modified form, in Ho«ompli«herl at Toronto, Ont., vhere a xpmal fl 
cnniiieer wa* appointed to fterve with the Comtniamoner of Htre«*t 
CleHninK to develop and improve tbe col)e<.>tion service. The develop- 
ment of the Technical Board in Chicago and it^ ample finaneial support ■ 
was recommended in a report by <}sbom and Fethcnston. Such 
linardM aid in xntiRfyin^ the increasing demand for better service ia 
the clean»n(( departments. 



J.— EDFOPEAK DATA 



en isf 



lu Europe, the collection and di»po»a1 of refuse in small eitien 
gODCnUly in the han(L-< of private perMun»; in mt-dium-aizvd cities it is 
under contract, and in large cities the work is done by the muniri|)aUty 
with a permanent force of men. Some data from our private not« 
of trip? to Europe, prior to and indudiDK lUU, are summaiixod briefly ^ 
herewith. f 

Thp Renernl trend of Kuropean practice is to collect all refuse 
together, and in one rather sniaU bousc-cnn H>t nut on the sidewalk; 
the collections are frequent , mostly dally, and tbe waiKiiui arc cam* 
paratively InrKe and have fixed covers. 

In ICnKland the t'rocerdings of the Awneiation of Clennmnit Super- 1 
intcudcnts contain much valuable information. In the Poplar Di»- 
triet of ix}ndon, collectioiw are made nl l»'"^t t wii-K n ivm-v r*»H> ■••■■li \ 
hinn iJaced on the sudewallu. The iin«-^ 
and are dumped by tipptOR otvr the r«ar ay 



coLLEcrroy 



161 



Id Birmingham, la Auicuel, 1619, U waa the intention to c&Ublisb 

refuse system, requiring two ciuik st each hoURe, our tn rncRive 

'the ashot aud swcvrpingH unO the olhcr tlic Karl>ftK<' t^ixi rubbnh. 

fHie coUocting wngorM w«rc to Iw divided into tu-o compartments for 

Iwo clantCH of materJAl. The A»Ue» and 8weepiii|p« were to b« 

1, aud the fiite dual — abotit onc-balf of tli« total quantity — 

wu to be delivered to firmeni as a dresKing for laud, the rest was lo 

, ba dumped on low land. The gurbiiKf ntid riil)l>iE>h wltc tu be i-tniitied 

[On a long traveUog belt from which the valuable mat«riald were to be 

' picked out and thf> rest uwd for fuel in the plant. Tin cnnif were lo be 

de-tiiineii. During the war. rapi found a ready eale. Cotton and 

wool werv Bepnrat«d. wulicKJ. driud, and sold. 

In Paria, the pails are emptied into (xiUecling wagooB — UHUally 
(vo-whoeled — before 8 AM. One man (Ic charrtUtr) stundK on the 
■Bgon and roouvfti the pail, finiplirii it, niid spreads thR coutRnta. A 
munan (la retrautuKuie) rl(^aii» the jieil and .Hwecpn up from the nlrri't 
»urfac« any refuse that may have dropped, Two men take the p^ulu 
from tbe house to the wagon. In 18U5 nbuuL 2200 men und oUU 
aaeuna were enguged io this svrvicc. Of the waguiiP, 71 were drawn 
lij" thr<* hoFiM?*, 458 by two, and 31 by one horse. It has been pro- 
pOBad lo make lh« reflection honrs from midnight to 6 a.u. The 
Pans waeoD» contain an average of 4.5 cu. m. (5.1) cm. yd.) of refuse, 
or 2Ji tons. In the interior of the city each lilted wagon has a route 
of about Liikm. iOM mile^ a day. and in o|>crati'd about seven hours. 

In Zurich. Iho collection work is done by the city. C<tllectione 
«p mad(? twice a week. Roeeptncle* are plnred at thp nirb. The 
wagon bndii>:4 are divided into three compartment* or receptaclei*, 
Hfh scparal<<1y retnovable. Their net vupat^ily is 3100 Ih., and 
tli«r« are ten men and two borHes fur each uaguii. 

Id IlamhitrG, rrfuH* if collrrtcd by the city from caoK ^et out on Ihc 
.■dawalk. Collefliors are made between II p.m. and ». au. The 
[irafona carry 2 lotu net, and are hauled by two horsca. Recently. 
'mow fJectnc truck.- have been used, the power being derived froai 
'Hnfagp Imtteries charged at the city refuse inriiieratnr. 

In Cologne, collectioiw art; made at night (10 p.m. lo (1 a.m.) 
and MX lintM a week. There are 52 wagons for :i population of 
1400.000. The cnnit mu^t be of metal, and must be placed at the curb 
' < < vrd boforp 7 a.m. Each can mu«t have a handle and a 

.ver. 
In harnien, the rily mokes collectionB with onp-}ior.»r wagons, each 
|Bg(t4ea. ft. The wagon bodies are of wood, lined with iron, uud 
llHlb small hinge<l melal covem. 



162 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



K.— SPECIFICATIOHS 

When it is found better to have the coiiections made by contract, 
and it is desired to ask for bids for the collection or disposal of garbage, 
ashes, rubbish, etc., it is necessary to advertise the prominent fea- 
tures of the proposition. If good bids are to be expected from respon- 
sible firms, sufficient time should be allowed to permit prospective con- 
tractors to study the project and become familiar with all the con- 
ditions. The notice or advertisement should be published, not only 
in the local newspapers, but possibly in those of large near-by cities, 
and also in the technical journals. 

The notice should state the length of time of the contract; the 
available facilities which may be furnished by the city, such as the 
use of docks, street-railway lines, etc.; the approximate location, 
respectively, of transfer stations, points of delivery, dumping sites, or 
areas to be filled in; the hours when the collection is to be made, or 
the areas in which the collection is to be restricted to certain hours. 
Information should also be given as to payments, penalties for infrac- 
tion of rules, etc. 

The general instructions to bidders should contain complete 
information as to the preparation and submission of bids, and as to 
guaranties, sureties, bonds, etc. 

In the specifications the principal words or terms, such as " gar- 
bage, " ashes," " rubbish," etc., should be closely defined, so that 
there may be no misunderstanding. 

There should be a statement in full of the general work the con- 
trnrtor will be required to do; what plant he shall furnish, as horses, 
carts, drivers, tools, and implements; the limits of the territory in 
which the collection is to be made, its subdivision into districts, and 
points where loads are to be delivered; the hours within which the 
work is to be done, etc. 

A paragraph should refer to city ordinances and State laws, and 
provisions for procedure, if new ordinances or laws should have the 
effect of increasing or decreasing the cost of the work. 

The method of inspecting the contmctor's plant and his method 
of eolloction, should be specified, and also the officers of the city who 
are to be satisfied with its efficiency. 

There must l>e a clause in reference to receptacles for garbage, 
ashes, etc., for instance, that, if reiiuired, separate receptacles for 
these materials will l>e provide*! by householders: that other refuse 
wit) lie secunni in jwckages; that garbage cans will be water-tight, 
ha\f cloi^c-fitling covers, and be of such a siie as to be easily bandied 



COLLECTION 




by ooe nun; that receptAcIe* wUI I* iilnrwl wli*re essily found, as 
»t tbn curb line, etc. 

Ah di>ipiit<w msy uritip n^eaixling the pluve where a rcceplRc)f> w to 
\ett for iMillcctiun. iJie epccificiitioaK shoulcl make the method cif 
idiuK thcui clefti. 

Street* or pitrtK of glrMt« nrp xometime^t rIoHed ternponirily, by the 
cltou uf wwt'nigtf iir utiicr wurkit, and the ttpccilicutiuni* (should 
tliot tho ootitractor's men are to carry Iho garba^, a^hcfi, etc., 
ttte collectioa wagoon. 

U niay be necessary to provide that on crrtoin tttrerts the collec- 
lioa of ipu-biLKe, wbes, etc., shall be made b«fure !) a.m., aIho. that 
tpeaai mllecliuns shall lie miide in certniii ooiiKtrrstt-d dUtrict^ wttliuut 
tttXB competuatioa. and tliut the contractor l>e ollowinl tu readjust 
Is routes to accommodate such !i[)er.ial mlleclionK. 

It if. detumhie to npecify that the contractor »hal) vmi nr pass 
t1irouj:h, wiUi a sufficient number of cartfl or wagonfi, all prewnl ajid 
atreeCs, aiid cart away all a«tie« and iiun-cxjiiibufttilile refu»« at 
oaco or (wicv a week, un<] on .-•utrh dnytit as niuy Lie ijrcKrribcd by 
proper nffiear. It may hIho be v/pW to apecify a Hepamie collection 
baite, fiom May l»t to October lot everyday (SiiiHlaysex<'ei»t«d), 
from October 1st to May Ist at least three times a week, on 
illimatp duy», a« fixed by the proper officer. It may alco Im? mlvwable 
tuiodicate certain diHtricltf lu which the collection of garbage, aAhcs, 
et«., Atnll b« nuide more frequently that) in others. 

It ithould benpecified that the contractor Khali iK«ue to each house- 
hold a cnrd, in accordance with city rciculalinnh, MalinK the dayi« (and 
apprtfsituately the hours) when the eulleotion of Karbafte, ashes, etc., 
wiD br made, and that he should give due notice when changes io 
Uie tiine arc luude nccctwary. 

In n-fcreiiee t<i cartii, waftono, etc., it is adxnsable to sppcify in 
tlie contract that they '^liall be uniform in construction, and ho that 
t«cb may be loaded, curry it«) load, and be unloaded without iciving 
efleiiM- to the public. Such vehicles hIiouM be stronK, niiiiibererl, and 
norkod to indicate the nature of the material carried, kept in repair,' 
wfl! paiiit4>d, Ihowiunhly cleaned, and, nft4«r each dHiverj-, dimnff-cted 
•ilh dininfectontu furtiiHlied by the rontrartor, »o (hat it will be free 
from odor at all timea. 

It flSould aUi> be speeified that all animaiR iioed in haulinft earti or 
*a<i>n* nhull lie slinnE; and wr\*tceable homen or mtilet>. If iiaMiIine 
Of electric truck.* are to be u«ed, ccrtAin information »i|ioutd be (civeo 
Io ibrir rapacity, tirm, wheel bane, construction, etc. 
Tbe inspctotton of all animaln. vehtelea. and plant of every dcacrip- 
liw farni'die'l by Uie cuotractor mttut be provided for. 




IM COLIBCTION ArfD DfSPOSAL Q? UUNiCIPAL REFVSB 

II iJioiilcl bt; Jipocificd ibut vchictta, when m mntioii, sbBll be kept 
tiffhtly closed, aixl. while Ite^inj; fill«l, »ltall Ix opened rj>> lilMe »s i>o»- 
wtjle. A jKfiislty may Iw imposed for the infrdction of niW. 

It inuy be pusMhIe to make ArranKement» wii]i Ihe street rnilwayJ 
fieme« for the transportation of Rarbago, Bshca, and nitibixh bctvwaj 
certain |K>ints and »-ithiu ctrtaio specified boun. and, if tht» can bal 
doDe, the fipGcificatiotis should cont&iu the Dccowyury provi«ion< regard- . 
iiig puyiueiit]!, etc. 

The roiilrarlop shoidil moke a weekly or monlUly ri>iM>rt of col- 
lectifiii work done, quantity removed, in cubic yards, and thv approx- 
imate toRDHKe of loftds in vehicles of different aices. Reparate returns 
ehould be made of garbage, oAhcs, noii-cumbustiblc rofuae, and of , 
mixed refuse or whatever may tw coUoctod. 

It :<huiiU] Ije i^pecified tlml the noiitractor tthall (or shall not) be' 
tbe owner of all or of certain parts of the material collected. 

The contmctur should be requiriH] to maintain an office, with 
Iclcpluine counoctiuu, mthJn the city, niid br in cunimunicaliuD nitb 
Ihf proper city officcru at all tim^s, in order to rci'<>ivc and trftiutuit 
orders, etc. ■ 

The city may desiprnate the pl«FPS where aehes and nnn-combuntible ■ 
or other rlean materifti dhall be clumped for the purpose of grading 
rtrccts. etc., and provision should Iw made for payment for any 
inci«a»e in the average haul in auch i-AaCM. Provision should be mode 
&« to nrbitration in any csmc of di»put« rcUtive to compcnsaUoD torj 
increftni! uf haul. 

Among the pmernl provinons it should b« specified that th«' 
contractor shall do his work in such a way aa to create no uuLoiinee; 
tliat all materia) of any kind spilled or scattered on aidewalka. gtittent, ^ 
or roadways shall bo ew«pt up by him; that all recAptacles or vocselafl 
for ncarbage. asheM, or other refuse, after bcitiK emptied, etiall bv 
returned, without injury, to the placer" from which (hey were rcmovrd. 

The penallies tn be paid by the contractor for infrartion of the 

termn of the conlract and H[)cci6cntiiiiM ahuuld be utated in detail, and.^ 

'ki*o the method of making pttymenle to him. fl 

It should be xpecified that the contraetor will not l>e ]M>rmit1e<l to 
Mlblei the whole or any part or the work, or make any ai^ignmrnl nf 
the contract or any interest therein, or of tlie nionej-M to be pfcld 
ihervoit. without written permisttion from the rity aiilhoritieH, 



L.— SUMMARY AND COHCLUSIOHS 

Tha fon^oing stataraonts abow the great need for efliclen 
economy in tbe collection of refusQ mat«rial)t, beam" 



COLLECTION 



the mwt impnrlaitt. and casUy iiinglr clnnnnt of tbe entire refune 
problem, and one where impToromentH, diiefly in ef|iiipiiienl, ran 
moot roadilv be vaado. Tb<r collection requiree well-orKaniiixl und 
effMtive cuHjperaliun belwvi^n the huuM'huldpr and colleclor, and a 
cleatwuig dciMU-tmcnt which upcratvn aluan thurouKfaly business-like 

The equipment should be carefully adjusted to the fpeeific needs 
of the locality, and itandordiecd as much a^ practieable. 

Tlie i-»lleclion8 shuiild he regular. They i^huuld be along well- 
Janned nnitoH, etudieil carefully to gel lh« lar|[f»l loads in tbe 
Drtent time alone the eju>ieHt roads. The frequency of eoUcctico 
should depend on llie metli'id of linul dirijiONiI. on the HefiMin of 
the year, and on the gcogrnpliinil luration of the town. The time of 
collection should be »elceted no ar to ^vc the lea«t inconvenience to 
(leopte and trnflic inovinK on the i>trpelji. The manner of rolleetion 
should be Huoh as to remove the refuse from hnuKe to waxon in the 
leaat (ilijeL'tionable wny. The louditif^ mhuuld be dune fh] that it will 
produce the le&dt pomible dust and noise, and the «-aguns should be 
kept covered for oa much of the time as practicable. The dftta hereia 
T«xirded rurnish many extN-riences and su|2ft^tions in these dlrectkHia. 
Oepvndint; on the pine of a city and the efficiency of it* govem- 
menl, the collection t^hould he made either by t:>ormnnent municipal 
furcwt, or by contract under carefully preiuircd arici detailed specifi- 
catioiif, and operated under an efBcieat and experienced eupervieion. 
Private eollectiun from hotels and re«tauran ts, and in small towns 
under equally good supervision, may be found ndvuutagcous occa- 
eiomUly. 

In order to increa-ie the efficiency and the ecnnomy of the collect 
tinn, it vrould be well to establish more records for comparison on the 
to-hour ami ton-mile ha-viv. The latior employed should be eom- 
Icnt, iutelliKCnt, und fnithful. Short, daily repurta sliould be made 
in a simple but fairly complete niaDuer, pvine route, number of houses 
vtaitod. nnd kind of reru.ie collected. All cnmplaintn should he fol- 
lowed up, checked, rcwons bfcertaincd, and causes of trouble reme- 
tdie<l. All pmetiwible in ftent !%•<■« should he (rivfn for eRcclive work, 
rani wlmulil he kept at the ofIi<p for earli house, and cullectiona, 
ruubleei, imyntcuts, etc., recorded thorooo. 



,'■- *•'».• -■ •« '.i» ->f' L* -^--i ■■ :. — ifn ".w unset iiws aTC il'wi;? 
»'''. r ■ : ■(• v.i.ii-'- , ■; -*r- i"* T'li^n "JH tfsiC3. II iiiiU. -'Jf aaiT»sy 5 

*v.^>.-.-> 1 .■,'-,r,.-- -.i, ri»*-ii.f,j- ,t ~7ias^iir':iaia :>!^:imf —■'-^ 

'.-.,•..•.',. r- '■■ i»r- rr. v t.".i: - 'uct^vL aKzs?:^ TCRaii ;<i* -Te 

',' -^ •*■■ ■.--.'.'■iv. ■:.,■•. -;.^. ir,-<!f .>■■:;:»* ■a^i!ip»;r:*sa;a ^:c la* ?«n« 
'•■,-.■. '-/■ */.■,■.■,-,■.->.. ...-.-„■;- -.^ '.i.:j^::j.^ za-zL ;•> ^n* piwitf oc" fiiai 

I-., >'-,■/ <■ .• , v.»-r»: TTi,- :"■.,- —j.-.T t-tst* 3»; =je±p« suitable 
.'.•,.',',r. '',- ?. /;■.--/./': rir'; .'■■o:. ;.!i:.'. '^r. Birmi I^I&nd. about 20 
!'...' • h'.n. M;.f.r.:j'---.r. ■.>'»iVr-, a:.'! tr^^r.-p^^rtAcioQ t» the island by 
f/«-' «.,- f,"y"-;.r. A* '','i'-.':i«;,'i a tr^iti-ffrr -latiOB could be establialwd 
iir,*..!' J »..:'■ ff'(»j ',K'; ' j'v MftI!. ari'J th'.- f-jvor&ble location for agarb- 
uyi- itiloi-WiTi jiliijit w^i' f'f'Hi'J Ui \if! &t Willow. about 9] milcE ftom the 
ti-iiti-t 1,1 till- Illy, Mri'I. Hii-.n-furp, tr&n.-<prjrtation by rail wa« required. 
' (iirjijff,. (((VciiiiK « nrpat'Tr ;»r»Ki than any other city, also required 
.tiirmtiu V ii\i-iiii- or irfiit^jniTUil'mn. A purt of its garbage is taken 
\iy iiiiii/i- llir'iiiirli llir: ('|ii':fLft'> Jtivcr to a reduction plant in the 
i!l<i< I- viikI' I'url". nf tlic iif}i<rH, nitilrii^h, and street cleaoingn are 
liikcii, fillii'c liv irdlli-y citr nr l>y frcijElit rnr, from transfer stations in 

II ily ■" 'Uiimr: nil Die iiiitxkirlM; iiiid manure is taken on freight 

I'ltix III fiiiiiiiiiK (liJilrii'lii, Hrtriii- iliNtitiin; from the city. 

'Mil' l<ir>i>< " lli'ljiy Hlnlion," " Tnuisfer Station," or "Loading 
Mliiliiiii " tii'iM'i'iillv ri<ri>r lo II xlitlinn wlinro ntfuse ia transferred from 
llii' ■'•illri'iKiii si'liii'li' 111 iiDiilliiT vcliii'h' w)iii;h is to transport it to the 
|iiiiiit III ili'i|iii'<iil 

'I'lii' li'ipii " I niiiliiiK Still iuii " niniiiH s|H>ci flea Ily a station on arail- 
iMiiil, III nil 'I »iil<>r I'linil, uliiTv niilriiinl curs, <ir xrows, may be loaded 
hitiii llic ii'liiy M'lm'l'"' "f fntiii llii* tiriuitiul cnllcftion vehicles. 

liHt 



SUPPLEMESTAI. TRANSPORTATION 



167 



The tmtiKfor or rclfiy of n lond may be tna^lp citlicr by dumping 
Tim llie iHttlectioD vehicle into a ski|> or oilier transfer nrrangetiw-iit 
om which t.bi? refuse in in turn dumped into a ^cmi-lrailcr and tnirk. 
ruck UD<1 fuur-wh«cl(xl tntilor by which Ihv refuse \r, trannportcd 
lontliii); Klfllitii m llic point [>f disposal. Ttiiit urrKngemenl in 
IoIIowmI iit Urwiklyn. 

A Meond method its by IrunKrorring to nnotlter vehicle the body 
<d Uie vehicle m which the refuse w collected, ok in Detroit, Ciucin- 
uti, and eevcrnl otlier cities. 

A Ibird method U by collecting in a honie^rawn vehicle which can 
be u)«d w s trailer bchiml a tractor. Such s vehicle is usually a four- 
ibeelej trailer &nd it! hauled to the di^ipoHiil point, or the loading 
itaLton, in (raiitiiof n>viL'r»l vebiclfs*. f^iich &n nrrKngotneiit is used in 
I'tira. Buffalo, Ilridseport, Meiiipliiit, and iiiimeroii? other citii?^. 

IVse Hupple mental methods for trancfiortinf; refuse to greab^r dis* 
tuoMare required chiefly for economical rather than sanitary rcaflons; 
W tktre are also aatiitarj- dcmandi!. Tbc«« arise at the stationH whi^re 
Ue refuse ia tranaferrcd frum the collet'lion n-a^otur tu curs or boats. 
Sriwal exaniples of rrloadiiix or transfer tttiitionn, inappro[>riatt'ly 
■ittifned and operated, could be cited where, throucli improper do^ign 
w carderanoH. a nuiitance baB been created, f^uch titationn mnxt 
»l»iy» be built with s.prcial reference to preventing dust from blowing 
■*iy 'luring dumping, olTem'ivc odors from polluting the air, and the 
■lulling of refuse between tbe waguus and the L-urH. There xbould be 
»4ifil<i pmvision for cleaning every pairt of the :«tatioii. and psrticu- 
Itrijr tlie dumping pUlform« and tracks. 

BefuK collection *er\'iec. a» already described, inrlude» two parttn: 
tW kouMftv-house culleclion, and the tran-iportation of tbe material 
Cnm thv paint of finit deliv'ery to the pinee of final dispoiial. The 
Sfrt part conntilutcs a so-called start-and-stop ser^'ice. The trocond 
i» ■ ilraiKbt run. The (inil corrcsponcU eomcwbat to icc-delivcry 
fnirv or packagtvdplivcry from a department store; the Hecond 
C9rm|MDdii lo coal-del i^ery. 

Tile economy of mipplementsl trenHporlation of refuse re(|uirea the 
nnMcralinn vt: 



1. The nr«( nf rotloptinn or Inam haul, 

%x T*"" ""t "' 'mn-iioriation by wupplcmcntat melboils, 

It ' .'(THti: for trHn^rpTslatioiifi, 

1. ' ilioriB for final liupoaal. 



(nl rnisidiTntinn of the oondilioni< in each city may refjuiro 



(01 tbc infunrinliyn will dctermiae wy clo«ly 




168 COLLECTIOS AND DISPOSAL OF MVXWIPAL REFUSE 

the best relstion between the lengths of ctrilectioD haul and supple- 
mental haul. Such an analysiB was made tor Chicago by Messrs. 
Jacobs and Cenfield, engiDeers in the Effideney Di-visioD of the Civil 
Service Commission. They determined the fdlowing basic unit casta 
for Chicago: 

Average cost of t«am haul per load^nOe, one 

way fO.SO 

Average cost of dumping one ooDecticn wagon, 

including overhead charges 0.35 

Handling the refuse materials on troUey cats required the following 
costs per wagon load: 

Time of team at transfer station fO.lO 

Operation of transfer station 0.38 

Transportation by trolley car 0.77 

Handling at diunp 0.08 

Average cost of handling, per wagon load $1.33 

The cost of transportation by trolley car includes the serriee of a 
motor car at S25 per day and of two trailers, each at S6 per day. 
The trains are assumed to make one trip in 2.7 hours. 

Using these estimated unit costs, the relation between the haul by 
trolley cars and the team haul can be determined from the following 
equation, the results being given in cents; 

50i + 133=5%+35, 

in which x ie the length, in miles, of the team haul from the point of 
collection to the loading station, and y is the length, in miles, of team 
haul from the point of collection to the point of final disposal. With 
the«e assumptions, it is found that for any given value of y, as, for 
instance, 3 miles, the corresponding value of x will be 1.96 miles less, 
or, in this instance, 1.04 miles. It would be more economical, there- 
fore, to haul refuse directly to the place of final disposal if the differ- 
ence between the length of haul to such place of final disposal and to 
the loading station should be less than 1 .96 miles. 

The same analysis may be made in order to determine approxi- 
mately the most economical locations for transfer stations in various 
parts of a city, which information may be used as a guide for the final 
selection and purchase of property. In Chicago, such an investigntion 
resulted in the selection of several transfer stations. The Civil 
Service Commission eHtimated that an annual saving of about 960,000 
would result from this supplemental transportation, by avoiding tiw 
unusually long team hauls. 



aVPfJJiMBSTAL ttCAPfSrORTATlOrf 



im 



B.— AVAaABLE MEANS AWD METHODS 

Tlie four principal means fr>r a supplemental Irnit-iportation of 
tcfue m&t«riAU are: boat, steam railroad, trolley car, and motor 

1. Boats and Deck-scows.— The uw of boata or barges in oow «od- 
iMd udusively to a ilispUHiil at )>ea or ou llie Great tjikes, wheri> the 
priii^ is dumped from 10 Lu 15 mUcs frum shon. ^Vt New Orlea,ii!), 
fwHoe year*, gaibago was boated a short distonoc dowa the Mi»- 
nnippd Kivftr for diimpin^c. Deck-snnws were uned in Boston acid 
Nc» York many yearn ago; the scows were taken to sea and the 
f/uw was thrown overboard by liiborers usinK piteh-forkp. In 
New York such rather ooHtJy nielbod was followed by the use of the 
BuDey fclf-dampiug scow. This vetsael was built with a binge 
cdaQding horizontally alonff the center line of the boat at the deck 
IweL The two halves o( the barge npencd at the bottom, iillowinK 
l** refuse stored in the hold to drop into thosca. 

A further iIl'V clop men t vnm the Delnhanty Relf-propellinj;, uuto- 
nittc dumping boat. TIiih boat is a catamaran liavinK poeketa 
Mweea its two hulls. The pockets hang o» hiiiKPs, antl are opened 
ud Hteeii by the name power as ihut used (o dischurjfc the reTuRo. 
In tUk boat the New York refuse wu carried to sea and diftchartied. 
, ^(OMt (or transportation and delivery in 1^05 was about 1*J centa 
I Ptroibtc yard. The dispotial of refui«e inaterinU by duinpinic ul aea 
■"■ la the Great takes, however, is being jcrndually discontinued, 
UcauM «ume of the refuse eventually drifta ashore. 

A shallow, hollow, or hopper iMirgc is now u»cd in New Y'ork for 
tnaaporttng garbage from the water-front tranitfer 8t«tionK Ui the 
ndartion (Janl or to dump at swn. The rollcction cart-* dump into 
Ut barge m'er a tipping board along the edge of the wharf, or the truck 
bodies ore emptied into the xeun* by h derriek. The burgiw are then 
lowtxl by a tug. Similar barges are ui<ed ia Boston. 
Id Chlr^go, deek-jieow» are iLted for the transportation of gorhane 
im the river-front transfer stations to the reduction plant. As the 
wagons arc fitteil with removable steel bodies, and as derricks 
ibla at tbe transfer stattotLS, the wagon bodies ean be liftud 
tba running gear and placed on the derk of the ncnw. llie 
iHit are of two types: seJf-propelling, and arranged for towing. 
It the rvdui^tion plant (he boxes are unloaded by derrifkn. 

A imall. n<to-pr(>pclling, deck-scow for river survire nurmnlly costs 

fr. rr. v.,Hin u, tld.dOO. A liiK to haul the scow coKtH about t3.\00a 

(to boim can )m' piled on the scowtt to form two or three 

k>>:r^. i ti« cost of txaitiporting garbage by Ibis tnethod in Chicago 



170 COlUiCTinN AKD DISPOXAL OF MUNICIPAL SEfVSF 



i 

I 
B on 



durinf; 1912 trafi abaut 76 cento per ton. The work was done undrr 
eoiitnicl by u li)c)ilcriLK(< ciiiii|iJMiy, iiiul iho cohI ivua tlimiphl to be high. 

In MilwHukiH!, Wis., nsKOii Ixjtiicjt hnve. heeii lru.ii.-<porLnl on drrk- 
Koyn across the Milwaukee Hiver to the Ki^rbago incinerator, la 
Frunkfort. Germany, the (M waguti bodioK, K|>rcially cicwignwl (or tiuick 
diM!harg(^ of mixed relusf bio the tnciiicratur, arc taken to the dis-J 
piMal i>l«nl, ilown tJii* riviT uii dcofc-SJi-ows. 

2. Steam Railroad Cars.— Sl^am railroad trnnRpartatian u nsedl 
more frequently now than any otber method. Three typoe of] 
ears aru used. Oarbage is dumped into fto-culled metal " tank 
cars, or the entire wuxon hodiiM ari> taken to the Ji»p<K%al works on 
flat cnr<i. Mix^^d refuse in bulk is transported in »ttandard freight | 
car« of the " )(ondola " type, the sides of whicli are arranged lu of 
for unloading. 

Tank can* of «pfteiftl eoimtruction are tined in Cleveland and' 
CnluiiibnM for the lriiiis[K)rljLtian of xirbdKe. These cam have nnw 
been in service ittt more than leu yearf-, and salirfactorj- standards 
have bLMin developed. Kigs. 'Si and 3}S i^iuw the most recent d«»iKii 
fur car» of this type. They have been placed on th« market by Ibe 
Koppel Industrial Car and Kquipment Company, and mny be m 
described as followx: 1 

The cars are of liteei. and, in every n»pcct, are biiill to conform 
to standard M. C. B. requirements fur transit on their own wheels by 
any ruilruud, and arc equipiwd with Wcslingbouse air brakes. Tfie 
tank carried on the car has a scmiciroular Hottom, and reet? on rockers 
at the endx and on rollers at intermediate jMiintB, ho that it can lie 
dumped and righted very eaxily by two meo. The tanks arc made 
nitli three and fuur water-tight eompartDienUi, eaeh of which has 
two lid» or covers hinged nt the center. The caiwrity ut the tanks 
is frum 12,01)0 to IS.OOO cii. ft. Hve or more strong eliains on eachi 
side of the car keep the liink in jiusitiun during tranKporlation. 

These CUTS, though intended for garbage, could ohw be used for] 
aaheit or street ^wcepinpi. They arc being uwd in St. Lotii^, !*e 
Antonio, and other cilien. 

The e<»st of thcHp cars al Cleveland ami Colmnbus in 1!>H ranged 
from SIHOO to $'2500 curb. The cui^l of tran^|»>rtuliun varies with the 
diittance and tlie loea] switching charges. In CIe\-elBnd. the freight 
obrt averajted approximntely '20 cents per ton. In Columbus, th< 
oost per ton has exceedeil 30 centK, although in 1011 it was only 23^ 
ocnbt. 

Part of the gnrbage of Cleveland wan fnrroprfy taken fmm th< 
loading ntation lo the reduction plant in wagon IkhIics uii flat car 
The bodiM were lifted from the wttgoD to the ear by a travelinic crans^ ' 




BVffLHMESVAL THANHf'ORTATIOS 



171 



Tank Car for Supplpmpnial Tmnsporlation or "Refuao, 



!■■ 


^■^^^^H 


^^^^^H 




P" 


•KkLCTLOr* i CHC.HIC tL 


cnnri^fllA^^I 




I^H >ltM»IK« 


R1 LUUIS 


^^H 


V 




^ 






1. la 






•)«« y 




p'* ■ - * 


k 

A 


. 


< 


^■■c 


1 



Flo. 37.— tiidc View, 




Km. 3S.— F^id View of Tank Uur in Duni|>iitK Pcmtioi]. 



172 COLLECTION 



iPOSAL OF MUSICIPAL RBFV& 



I 



The crane traveled an a runway which extended over the road And 
uviT the Hiding on which tho (lat cam stood. The same method of 
tmtL^'pflrtMtinn in umm) aWt in MinncupuliM, when? the ciwt has nver- 
aiced 24 cents per ton iif Karbii^, iiirludiiig Hie oiicralioD and maiu- 
teuance of the traurtfer atatioii. It io abu umkI in Dtilroit, the tranafcr ^ 
KtittiuQ having a crane traveling on a runway, a» at Cleveland. Tlio H 
wagon bodiofl, however, arc emptied int«j " gondola " cam, which are 
tAk«n to the work« of the Detroit ItcductioD Company, about W 
miles distant, the city paying a part of the freight. 

Asbesi, rubbish, and street i^weepiiigs have been moved iu Clucugu 
on gundola-type ear^. The collection wagons dump dire?lly into the 
can, and these are taken away at night, in a train of four or five, to 
the dumps at the city limits. The rcfuM materials arc discharged 
through lite s.idex of the carv, nnd aro spread over the dump by hand. 

Minnea|Kilis has flat cftr» on which the wagon bodies are stacltcd. 
Pittsburgh has cars with high uides. In New Orleans, the garbage il 
taken in Kteel railroad cars from the Irsn^fer Ntationif to a large dump 
outside the city. The collcirtion wagons deliver it t« five such Maljons , 
along the Ixtll railroad. The garbage, when duin|x>d into tlie cam, 
a treated with u disinfectant, and a tarpaulin cover is liithtly drawn' 
over each car. At the terminus the refuse ia dumped into smaller 
cnr.<i, operated on portable tracks, and hauled to the dump by gosolins 
eneinc*!. 

8. Trolley Cars. —Three types of trolley can have been u»ed 6U 
cCKefuliy in Ainurioa for the I rani' porta tiuii of dlfTereiit refu^ matvnalK. 

Fir/rl, ill Bruoklyu flat nint take onhc? and rubbiHh to the dump. 
The collection wngoii-i dump into large Rteel bins set l>elow the dump* 
ing f!c>or. W'hen full the bins are lifted by a traveling crane and placed 
on the ears, each being large enough to hold four of the bina. (Fig. Sll.^ 
Similar flnt trolley cant were u»ed in Cliirugo during the winter of 1914 
fur lruii»|)i)diiiii: giLrbuge-wiLgon boxes to an cinergeuoy di^jHMal plant. 
In both eoflee the cars were fitted with motors. 

Secondl}/, gondola-typp, fidoKlumping can, for trailer ser^-ice 
over street railway's, were URcd in Chicago for the trannportation of 
ashe>< and rubbtxh in the duinp«. These ears have rtdRC<l botinms in 
order In facilitate dunipinic. The nides arr arninii'-d with hiugra at 
the top, tu> that they swing clear at the bottom. The uoloading at 
the dump requires from thirty to sixty miniita. 

Tkirdiy. an improvement h»n been made in street railway mif 
dumping car* in Chicago, following Mie experience wit( 
type. The new type developed ia callefl " I he triph^l>' - 1 
oar, rocker type." The car eonaiflta of three bo- 
arranged to dump on either side, and ao 1 



*PlE)dESTAL rHAffSPOHTATlOlf 

huAepeoA^atiy of the othCTs. It is used m a trailer. The tliree bodies, 
{ tuK«tbtT tiiivitiit a rafviciLy of 25 cu. yd. fillvd to a Icvd, ciw carry 30 
' ni. yd. <>f rcfuw. The over-all Icagth of the car is 40 ft. 6 in., and 
\\\ie mautuum uvvr-aJI width U 8 ft. 9 in. Th(^ height from the roil to 
I'Ibe top III the bodies b H ft. 10 in. 

Thv car>< are uarri«d on standard trucks, suitable for otreet railway 
They can bt- emptied iii a few minuttw over the lide of a 
iduiu|), aud w> llutl thv truck can )k- nisily muiiituiiicd along the 
odge. lo practice, there has not been muoh dif&culty in dumping the 



Fi«. 39. — Bim Loaded on u IcAky Cat. Bronklyii. 
Itiam "Tha Diipcwl ol Uuaki|»l fMoHi," by IL d« B. I*»ra4n«) 



e» bodies, and they have given Rood service. The first of these 
can twuidit by CIuckku cost f 1000 each . 

Trolley can have been uiwd in Philadelphia for moving street 
fvwpinipt to the dituipe outsidv llic city. Tlicy were of s]iccial dcMignt 
tvtanicnbir in cmwHWCtion, the wide« extending about 7 ft. ahnve the 
l*w. ^vinK the cnr an unusually larp" capacity. It wa,* found 
thai llivdtpth •)( the material made it difhcull to hold wet ciwee|riiiKS 
ige. On Ihi» ucrount they wore doI as «ali«factory as the 
can. It ia gencrully nccewiary bo raise the oollcction 
the IfBUsler station lo a hi|th dumping platform. la 



174 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



PUladelpIiia this was done with a hoiatlDg engine wliich pulled botb 
the bor>tea And wa^oim up an incline to the plutfurm. 

In S&lt Lako City the f^rbage ih trnnsfcrred at a npecinl fdation, 
within the city limits, to specially conHtrucled railway cars imd 
tmrisportod over the lines of the Bamberger Electric Rsiltoad Com- 
pany t« the hog'feeding farm of the contractors, 7 miles north of the 
city, where a (iwitoli ruiis directly into the nuiin building. All other 
wa«te matter is dehvered ai a. dumping ground within 3 miles of tb« 
businpsji district. 

4. Motor Trucks. — With recent odvanccc io the conntniction of 
motor-driven vehiclos, the transportation of refuse mHlerinU by this 
method has increa<!«d. The principfll types are the niotor-<l riven 
runninK Kcar, nith the refuee-con taming body attached, and the tractor 
type, where the body in carried on a separate running gear drawn by 
ilif! mutor. A flat body for carrying garbage boxca or house cnns is 
also used. Motor truck.<< in refu»o dinpoiifl] tw>r\'iec were firxt used in 
Ainerir4i in Seattle, and later in Atlanta, and their n-se if^ f>xt«nding. 

Many maJces, typcfi, and sizes of trucks are in ui^, with cither gaso- 
Uiw or clertrle motive power. The btidim are built to unload by 
dumping at the rear, or by using a ro)M! network, aa at Calgary. 
With a tractor, the trailers can be built for bottom- or side-dumping. 

The use of motor tnicka for Iran-fporting refuse from a transfer 
station to a point of di«ix»ial wa» recommended in Chicago, and the 
cost of operation wa« o^timated at 30 eenta per ton-mile. For gar- 
haite transportation, a motor truck was considered with a flat top on 
which collection wagon bodies were placed by a derrick. It woo 
estimated that motor trucka on tbw serx'ice could be relied on to make 
40 miles per day. Similar aervto; by mutor truck wai- considered 
for Boston by Mr. John Primrose, Kngincer of the Power Specialty 
Company. 

In eelecting the sise. it should be remembered that a 6-ton vehicle 
oostK no mure, in lalwr (o run it, than one of 4 toni: capacity, and less 
time [)cr tun \s used at each end of the journey, iQ getting into posi- 
tion, and aLtn in loading and unloading. 

Tractors have not as yet been used much for rrfusc tranfiporta» 
tion, though Ihcy have nbown lower coft^i than motor truuka for 
a similar iwrvice of hauling stone, sand, and grikvcl. 

Mr. Walter M. Curtin, Manaser of the t)nj:inc«rinK Department 
of the New Ii:nRland Audit Company, in 1013, made a careful 
aoidyMLo of the co»t of haul fur vhHouk mutive powera. Tlie resiuttit 
of his invcstiguliun are ^ivwn in Kig». KJ and 41. The I'oste ore baaed 
on 300 working days per year, with the re^iervation that, where work 
U unsteady, and (here ia much idle Lime, the cost per ton-miU 



176 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

and inquiries have been directed to different municipalitiee and motor truck 
oompaoiefl and aeveral tests made in this city to detennine the following: 

" 1. The relative economy of hauling refuse and street repair materialB 

by motor tnicka and by teams. 
" 2. The kind of motor truck beet adapted for this purpose. 
"3. The practicability and economy of discarding present equipment 

and the purdiase of motor trucks. 
K 



4S 



40 



30 — 






u 



H 



- 


t 






















1 


















\\ 


















1 


V 






























\ 


^ 


V 


V 














\ 


^ 


^ 


s^ 


^ 


■~~- 


-- 


._iToD 


IVact 






V 


\ 


^ 


^ 


=:=: 




-'OU T,„ 


TTact 








^ 


■~— ■ 


-^ILl 





If-Teii T 


t-Tan 

■•et»r 


T'tllat 

















le 



20 



30 40 50 W 

Average Dallj MIImkb 



TO 



00 



M 



un 



FiQ. 41. — Comparison of Haulage Costs of Tnicka, Tractors, etc 



"The matt«r of the relative economy in the use of motor-driven and horse- 
drawn vehicles for difTerent lengths of haul has been treated by Mr. R. T. Dana, 
Member, American Society of Civil Engineers, who shows the variation in 
eost pin ton for difTenmt lengths of haul from nnf-qiinrtcr mile to tpji mikfl 
and the savings thut would resull in the U9(^ iif ini>tnr-ilrawii vehicles. F<dk>W- 
ing are bis summary figures: 



'^PLBimXTAL THASSmRTA TIOS 



177 







Cuvt FEB Tun 


Con ram Tox-auui 


FeiTtaitfeftif of 

■aviRi by 
UaiiiK 

rtblolc 


laaiUM 


U»nD- 

ir«ttkU 


lihAat- 
(Lawtt 
nUolo 


Uone- 


MMot- 
Vfhici* 


1 

( 


SO \b 
22 
32 
50 

70 
0.90 

1 00 
1 29 
1 4« 
1 «8 

1 88 

2 07 


SO 19 
24 
32 
48 
06S 

79 
O.W 

1 12 
1.28 
1 44 
1.60 
1 77 


SO &10 
II 410 
320 
250 
233 
TO,"! 
U 219 
215 
211 
210 
209 
207 


SO 7fiO 
4»> 
320 
240 
207 
I9S 
192 
187 
183 
INO 
0.17S 
177 


-IS 8 
- 9 I 
+ 00 
+ 40 
+ 11 2 
+ 12 
+ 12 3 
+ 13 
+ 13 2 
+ 14 3 
+ 14 7 
+ 14 7 


1 - 
•% 

1 ,-- 
4 , 




6 . .. 

7 .. 


... 


t 

|l> 


1 



"telu iiiT«rti0itioaB have bdon nudii nt Ih^ XUffiarhufiottfi InBlitut« nf 
Todagfegy, and lliv roUowinc suuuuu'y shows tho ivlativc owl of o^tcntlag 
tW hanNtfanwD, gBfM>Uiu>, and electric coftuneroial vcbicles, based u[>uii the 
oiBeRitt luee of veJuclts : 



la (OH 


NuHBB* ar MiLH Th*VELu> roH Gursxunvmi ov ll.OO 


llar*D-'ltai>ii 


OMnlliui-iltivea 


EleoUlMUv«ii 


i.... 

■ ■ 


39 
3.9 
22 


■1 d 
2 6 

2 3 

1 11 


4.3 
3 1 

27 

2.2 



"la ntim&linK the probublt- ornritnnv of thr tninjtpnrijiticiii of puvx-Tn«-nt 
'likRil tiy tlie u-te of motor trucks, llip following aMUntiiCiutiR have been 
"^ liHC^ uiHfb tbe cxpchcDccM and i«({uireio<:»ta iu thia uty. 

"i Thm fivp-ion tnicV»wnn)oa'»«i, 

":.' Tlut llvsi> tmi'kH be e(]iii|i|)ed witli d(ini|i IkmIuw. 

"3. Til*! the tintp midirrd for badiiiK mitl ijtilvtLdiiiK viiU bti five miuotte. 

"1 That nach Xrark witi hi- m actual ump nevrn tiuuin {K^r day, tfaiv twang 

libf>r»1 for n<4«Mftry <lolB>it in tifivnlinft, loading, cle. 
"A. That un avrrncr Hpm^l iif M-vm mili-H (lor Kuiir cad l)(^ nainUincd by 

elertrif moiora; wgiil and a half mili-x liy (cu^lim" tnn-k*. 
"• ITrnl ihc other cImiku enlirririK uito tlii? ni-t of opomtion «re the 

Minr u th*- amumptians Tot tlu'vc-Ion Iniikn utliiiialnJ tor K»i t «gD 



178 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REPV3B 

"The following aaaumptions were oonsidered in estimating the economy of 
the use of horae-drawn vehicles for hauling the same materialB: 

" 1. Capacity of atone wagon 7,500 lb. 

Capacity of asphalt wagon 8,900 " 

"2. Time required for loading or unloading 5min. 

"3. Average ^>eed of wagon 2.7 milefl per hour. 

"4. Coet per day (wagon, team, and driver) |6.00 



J' 

i 
I 



____..„__„.„.,_ _ ______ 


:::::: :i::=±::: ::.i^^ 


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-- '^;^- 


inm^ M 


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._ ____ _.:"g35j?'S::::: 


S/^9 -' 


_^ ^ : z^j^^Eiz- - 


~ ' ■ ty fip ^ ■'■r 


^^$9- 




::::::::::: ::::::^:4^^: = :::::: 


"± ■ 'A'^z'-^, : :_::::::_: 


-4 — -t- — iiMit :::::::::::: 


y^v 


M^^ ::::::::::::::::: 


v5^' 


:J:z - - - 


:^y. -..-. 


m'' 


__T |j^L J 


_ ^^' ± : - - 




^Sn^"-LL .. . 


BL_| L .-_ ^- 


J ^_| , — 1 — iJ 1 L-j- 



1394 se7t 

Ban], In MStt 

FiQ. 42. — Haulage Coete for Horae-drawn, Gasoline, and Electric Vehides 
of Throe Tons Capacity, for Hauling Garbage. 
(Chicaco CitU Scrrk* CommunoD). 



" Analyses of tbemtimatt^ have hrcn made, and rurv-cs, showing mSes pw 
day, coet per ton, and cost per ton delivcrcd in street work, based <■ t^~ 



8VPn.KWKy'TA L TRA fiS PORTA TtOS 



179 



sbove BMUBiptioBS, Atm ihnt the itw> of motor tninkit w ntHir nronnnuRit lluui 
luMw-dnwD vchkia whcfi IIk lutni- arc ihhsI for n pcrjixl oF ii( Ivnst 300 days 
pnr y*u in tfae tnjui]iitrlatU)U uf rrusbed hUmip. oBphitll, nnil ut^icr Btrret 
RpKir malmabi If thi' |htuxI in wliidi the t<Dtw)iorlati<>ti Mjuipineiit ia uwd 
H> IcHS ilutu 18(1 [in>n mi-li ,viuir, wtiich ia Utc minimuni pcnod id wbicb slrMt 
repair irork will be msde (liiriiiK nny ymr. tbr tu^* ijf IkunwHlnnm nsptialt 
w^pxwi ti nwirft e«x>DoniiP&l, uiid tbi^ tue <>f borac-drawn witgoiu for hauling 
crmbed Htooe ts leat eooiMiiiiical thun any typo uf motor truck. Tbc currca 




1 s : , 1 



FW- 43. — CnmiiarBoii dt Mitw per Day, Cost per TDn-mile, and Cost per 
Ton Delivered, fgr UauU of Different Lcogtbs, for Stnvt lU'inir Work. 



'lurUuT Arm tlutt, in order Diat ihe oosi in luring rimrtrir trucks instead of 
Hpholt WBRDtM be miuaJin^l, Uir rlcrtrir tmok mtul vpiTnli.- at ktL«t 230 dajit 
nwh jnaar, aod the naaaline Inick m\\»\ oprratr al least 30O daytt each yrar. 
TTmkf favorable ronditinna, tho mntnr tniokK would be mnri' iwinitmiml lluin 
bQni>^rBin) vrhii'lm for tlu* trnnn)iariatiiiii of mihhiil nloiie and aK|>hiilt. nnd 
the uae a( ek>ctrii^' Inirkii will iirolmbly aIm)w a navinic uf uppnixiinntHy 25%. 
"TIk Study of the oooMiny and adaptability of the use of motor tnick* for 



180 COLLSCTIOS AM> DISPOSAL OF ilVNICIPAL BSPUSSi 

fciilKm unUnn Bod Mhrr rity rrlusr. as nhown khovr umI in ihr cums (Fi^ 
43 Uid <3>. bas led U> ibe (uUuwmg mnWiianiis: 

" I , Tl^t at tfa* pratml pn^M)ut|t <xa>t of iMun kirr, llic aHTioe in ibe on 
a( dectrir initor troc^ for hkultug gyHiHce, id «uch nud* «» have a c tt M iul B*- 
■IiIb haul, would amounl to 5 1% of the tolalcoat o< nmoving buA tT^'VS^ 
by teaiBs. 

"2. TfaaL, If the sM ftf tcaina mn incraued la SSU) per day, Uie total 
Mtinatod Mving bj iwng motor trucks for h*iding; w*!!!!!! N- »l>oiit 415,77ft ^ 
per year, or 12 3';^ of the UiIaI wtimstcd nwt uf ttaiiM al 9U i'lO prr day V 

"3. That, iMMmuch m tbete wrtimatw are aampmed on the n^uhonr 
day baw, and that the praxol irarkiBi; poriod o( BBib*ce IcMU midy UDotmU 
tod(bt hour* per day, and often ihrworiung period baa low aaiixboura, llial 
the nvtn£ wlu^ could bp npM-ted would exMed the pemnlagp grren 

"I. lint ctthrr the pinlinc or dn-tric pnwir Unck cam hoodlt ibr hau^ 
ing of garfaaffe with (omparatire ease and with apfmnnnauly equal Mt»- 
bction. 

"5 Thnl. the mnrr rrtMMimind iKiwer truck two httn found to \te Hivtrir 
Thifl » spwmed in it meafiure l>y llw low nt« of east of elerlncHl earrgj- from 
the HanitArr Dirtnct to Lbi- dty for nuchl power, and the fact that tbc cut* 
iLTtnl dau on the ekrthc tnick haye Rhown bwn per not nUa for deprr- 
eiation, maioteoaooi', nfmir. and mmruice than for ihegaaoUrw tmek." ■ 

Table 60 Kivee M>in« costs of Lransporling gkrbage hy various 
■^Dcies and io diffetent cities during the iwriod Trom 10)7 to 19M. 



Tablc flO. — Costs op Tba-vsu^bttik*! Gjjuaos 
(FTaa itcpon hj & A. Grader as Garbafr CoUKlvm »nd DwpiMal (or Toledo. Obi»l 



CStjr 



Mctbo) 



C«M»t 

*r»iMport*- 



Chicago. Ill 

ll^iinnn>, Md 

IX-iniil. Mich . . , . 

U'aHhinKton. D. O 

Pitt«»«irKh. Pa 

lodianapolis, lod 

DaytiMi. Ohio. ... 

<ir&iid Kapids. Mich . . - . 

I'tim. N V 

Wilkn>-Barro,n.... . 



1919 
1920 

ison 

1919 
1930 
1919 
1919 
1917 
1919 
1918 



Dane! 

Barge 

Kailroad 

Railnwd 

RaOrond 

ItailroBd 

RaOiokd 

RailiDwl 

TVartor tmcln 

Trxtfk 



780 



fi3.258 

60,000 
10,687 
11,390 
10.fiOO 
8.400 



A brief sumrDAT)' of the u»v niadi- uf motor truckH fur eupplvtuefltal 
transportation in a few ulhur dtics fulltm-*: 

New Vont, N. K.—The DepartniMJl of Strwt CIe»nitig opuralM 
number of S-loii, rcur-duiup, gasoline tnirkx. The iravUir-tnulci 



SVPPLKMeSTAL TltAXSPOItTATlOH 



181 



» 



8>-st«iii it) OMd. and iU equipment iucludes V-tou Kftrbane wakoils 
liiivins n low loading height, aiiil S-tuii and 15-lun aali and riibliUh 
woKUfui. Tbir I'Vlun nuguii is buill fur a, ttpL-vil ul H uiil(» un liuur. 
Il ts fitt<^ with xtevl tir«K fur ttumiiinr iisr, niid in winter rublinr timt 
ire put on ill* front wheeU. The bulk of the load. hnwevRr, im car- 
tint on tlie »t«el Lirctt {Vifp. 44 uiid 4i>). 

Fi(p*. 4tl itnd 47 illibitratc thedemouutableequipiuL'tit Ui^i^ilili Now 
Ynrk, wliprrliy »ii rxpfTnaivc piiic of iiiai'liiiiery — ^llif Iruclt— is kcjil 
It wurk all ilie year round, uut«ad of lyitie idle. In wLntei it is used in 




Fia. M.— Eight-oon»iiu.tUiu^ii; U.niia«o Truok, New Vork City. 

ikf KtllcoticiD of refase and in trummrr for sprinkling or fliuhing streets. 
Tbe n*cw|>tii^l(w for refuse »re rRinoved from th« chft-s-ilK. and tlw 
VsIpt tnnk. will) thn niicetwary pipiiif!. ifl substituted. 

Kt^. 4» and 41J illustrate tli« Read wiat«r dump body mounted on a 
71-lon Mwk track, ll is fitted with metallic coveni. and ha» a 
(|iteul Autoomtic. tail gate which is thrown up over the body nnd 
urt of the way whE-u durnpinK. An an indiratinn of the priiinple 
that u much wnrk hh prHHiblc ^hnuld l>n obtained from fxiv\v expcmive 
tiMchiDff>*, it may h^ Hlat^fl llmt tirdvp of ChoHO uiiita have l)eeii in 
conlinuuu* service for tdxteeii buure, or more, a day, for mote than 
three ymn. 



182 COtlECTIOS ASD UJSPOSaL OP MVKWIFAL RBFL'Sg 

Fi|;. 50 ahowg an 8-cu. yd. refuM collcetiai) body on a ft{-toa 
Mnck truck, aa used by ihe N*ew York Departmeal of Street ClRaninn. 
TJu» hwiy is muuntcd vo a chsiuaE wJucb is designed for use vitb a 
defoountalilo flushing equi{iineiit. 

Detroit, ViVA.^In the colJertion n( eari)a|ce in Detroit, an inM- 
pcneivp, on*-horse. four-wheeled, running gear was used ll''ig- 51). 
Tli« body is a reclsngular stcd box, holding 60 cu. ft., and bn^ing a 
canviui cover. Une oulq, ddc bom, and unc wagon, trith the hos 
budy, cuxnprises une unit. When the box u tilled it ut dnveo to tba 



.1 / 



Via. 46.— lVeot)'-fivp Yard Motor Trailer, New York City. 



trsDMrcr etution, wlirre 1.hv body itt lifted from the vniKon by h fliierial 
rig and drponted in a pile of Hurh bodie«i to await the Arrival of (lie 
fRlny vehicle. An empty body is then placed on the cnllcriinii run- 
ning gear to go back for another load. 

Sfttltlf. irflJtA, — Tlie DeparliiM'iit of Health liim up<_Tntcd one 
&-ton, KiuMilinp truck for (nrryinic KiirbaKi^ from a tranaft-r station \u 
the place of final diepoAal. The truck carries a 7-cu. yd-, rear-dump 
body. 

Colpary, Alia. — This city opcmttM a number of olertrlv truekit. 
covering a variety iif iwrvicci'. llie Sanit.iry nrpdrtitwnt has a i>-l<in 
Inick with an extra Iwttery at thrrear- Thislnick i» u.m-iI with three 
Inulent, iwch liaviuK a capacity of aboul 16 ou. yd. The garliaee vt 



aVt^FLEMESTAt TRAh'SPOItTATTOJf 



183 



dr»VD by onfr-borws curis to tran«fcr stations nnd there diaclmrgcd 
iBto the trailers. A rope network \% attached to cowr the inside of 




IWm. -16 Mid 47. — OrmouDtaUc ISqaipincnt of Motor Truck, New York City. 



Ae tnilAT b«dy. The trftilen arc picked up by th« truck at certain 
tilNr each day uid hauled In ihn iiieinnriilAr. At the iacinemUir, a 
(avdinc orono picks up the rope network holding the KorbuRn, and 



COiLBCTJON ASD DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REPUSt 

dumps it tnto a storagv pit. Tlie 6*ton truck h hM to liave repli 
six Ic&ms. Its cost wna $5050 (f .o.b. Calgary) complete with battcryj 



r' 




PiOB. 48 wkJ 40.— Road Wint«r Durap Body on 7Hoo Mnok Thick, Htm 

Yoik City. 



til HnwklyD, BrlilicviMirt, C^lniiry. Km( (ither dtim. tntus ttf tnilcnl 
art Uivod in supplemenlal trueportatiuu. Fig. 53 sbtwn n imia 



fiUPPLBitSXTAL TRAMSPORTATIO/i 



186 



three Lee lrailert» which are beinK huuled nround a ourve anil eiiterinK 
narrow alley, thus demuustralmg their perfect trsekiun uiii] »teer> 




W fiO.— Eighl/-y»rd Refuse CoUeclion Body on fil-tMO Mock Truck. N«w 

Ywk City. 




Ro. 61.— One-horec Wagga, with Kctnovablc box body, Dciroil, Mich, 



These trailers are of the drop-frame, reversible, type, and are 
lumpeit ft! either side. Each trftiler ix drawn by horses and used for 
jaw-tA-hnune collection. At certain time* and places three or four 



SVPPLEMENTAL TRASSPOHTATIOS 



187 



A vLutly of About GO tjrpicol motor routoet by llif DcpArtmcnt of 
AffTKullurc in lOlS iiidicslml Ih&t I gal. of gasiriiiic would he »)ufliviciit 
to enable » 2-U)n truck to travd rn>iii 5 to 7 mitvs. a !VtuQ truck frora 
I ... r, r 1 '. ■ Mul a 5-ton tnick f«tm 3 to 5 inilci'. Tlio dffprecintion 
iiiik^'ii :><' i.-.iniiitt(K] n>U(!;)il>' nt from 15 to 25%, beini ohviou^Jy great- 
nt (ur (i<p KTcnttst aiiiiuiJ oule*4Ee. It variei* also wilb {lifTwt^nt 
nuk««. twtxjt rorr««>pondia^y leas with the better vehicles. 

Thv [lurcnu at Markets fthown a. r&nKe of from I to 4 rents per mile 
(or tlir c<j!tt u( solid tir««, for different loads. Pneumiitic tires wore 
found to <>oet more, but tlic nnriuul depreciation imd rcpairH were 
wumOy less. 

To rstlmale the total cost (her^ should be added gftrnge rent, 
Uutoi, iauirancc. license, and office overhead expenHen. 



C.-TRAHSPER AND LOADIHG STATIONS 

Tbs flinictiireM for tcaosfer and loading etatinn^ are of several 
typoa. 8ome have an elevated ptittforni with inclined approithe$, 
)'wagon> bcinit dumped fnini the platforms into freight earn, boats, 
tto. The platfona should be attractively touiwd and have concrete 
kfioors. Tliere should be an ample supply of water for wtit>)iinfr, and 
llpwd (IraiiiaK*^. rMnilly, these conditions have not received »uf- 
IficioDt attention. .Sonn- ^tmions have a eraoe fvr picking up loaded 
'•■(on bodies and either emptying them into or plneinf; them on 
aaotbcr vebido for further transportation. 

Such stations •ometiineM have crilicnl loeationx and require BpetfEoI 
pTOvUlotu and rare, la New York, Chicago, Ilidliuiore. and [ioston, 
Ihere are water-front hjcaliooa for boat or bnrgc transport alien, 
ftnraa citjca have railroad transpwtation. 8omc ttatione are boueed; 
in alhent ibe plntforms are not covered, 

lo Detroit th*" Iran-tfer station, Fiu- 54. ia a building irnrtly walled 
in with brick, and having a galvaniicd-tron ruof. It coninins nn elec- 
tric bowt mnmiiit an overhead l-lKjaini*. Periodically, according to a 
tefpilar sehedule, a A-t«n Maek truck and four-wheeled trailer, I'iii;. 55, 
CI1 from the traiittfer utatinn, where the full nauEon bodies have l)een 
r««ved. to a l"jiidiHg i-tuti<fu at the railroad, where they are emptied 
Jmd raitrond earti for transportation to the dUpcMal works. The 
onpty wacofl Iradicn are llien taken back to the transfer xtalion and 
twhaniK^ for another load. 

T" ii iK ■tatiiiii at Deiroit is a gal vani Bed-iron shed, built 

OVr: "i»d (nickB, and has M>veral eleelric crant'n operated on 

orertMwd l-*>«amf. Theae crance lift the wujton bodiea from the 
ttoct and trailer, using a rig similar lo that at the tran»fpr station, and 



COLLECTION ASD DISPOSAL OF MVKfClfAL RKFUSE 



convey them to a pile or directly to tb* cars, into which, by « rimplr 
ovcrturmng, they are empUed. 

Ill Columbue there u a transfer etalJoii (Fig- 56) of a good type 
for handling garbage. It vss designed and built by Oiborn, and 
U ill a central lootLlion. ueur the city atablei). Itf co«t was about 
$15,000. The collection wagons dhvo up an incline with a Q^; grade, 
then tmrk up against a biimper board, and dump uver an aproa 
into steel tank cars below. The width of the pUtform within the 



I 




Fio. M.— Tnuufi!! ui Kriay Stjitiop, Detnnt, Mkh. 

btiildiiig is 2\ (t.. which pVM room for a two-horse team lo turn and 
diimji. The wagonii are hinged alioiit the rear axle, and are dumped 
by uAiiiK a pnlloy travaling on I-beams over the bumpi-r board. As 
the dumpinK eauws nomc spillinfr of garbage about the truekts, it haa 
been nooeiwary to pave tlie Mpaoe around and between (he tracki>»< 
in ordt-r thai it iimy be cleaned CftHJIy. Bdow the dumping platform 
lhi>re \ii n Nauksniilh •'hdp aiid a vtornge mom for tooU. The builtlint; 
iaol brirk and rrinfureed concrelo. 

The wat«r-front transfer stations in New YorJc (Fig. ''•Ti .h..-.!.i ni 
wide open wharves, htted with bumper buarda at eji> 
BC0W8 are moored alongside the wharf, BcvemI feel b*!" 



I 
1 




^m 190 COLLECT JON AND DISPOSAL OF 


MUXtaiPAL 


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mt 


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SVPPf-KMESTAL TRANSPORT ATtOS 



tlw JumplnK flaor. The coUcction carls l>auk up agaiiiflt the bumper 
»i»J dumi* tiver the edgi* into Iho jtcoiw. Nt» prc>t«ction is irruridcd 
«)IKinil. lht> i^iingw *A (liixt and ndnrH. 

Ii I ami Milwaukci^ tli« traiii'fcr ntuljoiis uloag tbe river, 

I (or '.I - '4 gftfl'ttR* boxes from the waKurm tr> th« scow's, consist 

it op*a pIslJorniK on which there arc dcrrickn. Tbe hntxliiiK vngincs 
itiug the derricks are huuecd, but utliflrwim mi pruLuvUoii is 
led. In ChifiRH, a transfer ittfilion for a^hos and nihbi«h, 
tiuilt at ISth and I>oonii» S(r«*l«, coriMPWd of a long platform, (10 ft. 
iMido, aeccMible from both cndv by tstay incliue^. Switch tracks from 
this tiDdcy lines were built on both xideH, and the wngoiii! vrnTu dumped 
ioUj I . l<ithaide«of thoplatform. Tbe tatter was not enclosed. 

, ftud .1' •■! was made to pr^vont the escape of du»t and odors. 
Th» BX|>«;n«ace |;aiiied wilb this ImnHrvr nUilioii led (he engiiieent 
.of the Cliioigo Civil Service (V^miniKtiun lu rvcutomcnd onp of a new 
ilyp«r. (Fig. 58.) Thi* now iitiLlion w reached by nn incline witli a 
6*^; gfude, awl is left by an incline with »n R'.'^. gradv. The switch 
Irarkf art; rjirried thiuuich the building under the diiniping floor. 
' Tmp-doorH are pro\idefl in this floor so tbut botioin-dumping wagons 
drop ibcir loads dirwlly into the cars Ix'low. itcnr-dump waxons 
ji also deliver rtfiise lbroii(|(h thc*c traivdoora, Tbe durapinR floor 
1 *ui R hniL'ie Stted with larjce aleel duf^L curtains at the nin- 
--iLiHw and exit. It is estimtittd that such n transfer station, 
ith A capacity (►( 3S wagons per hour, could be built for tl'J.OOO 
[1913). Thix pric« is for a structure which in not very subHtantial or 
ttnctive. 
A twnattr elation of brick and reinforced concrete, two stories 
ftitb acicl 46 by MH ft. in plan, was built in RoKina, Awiin., at a cfit<t 
U IIO,U00. A sidiiig of the municipal street railway runs tlirouch the 
tiujt.i : ' " ((round loveJ, and on (hi)- are run o-km. yd. steel dump- 

otf^ . dt^itciiod for transportitiic n-fuiH.-. The loiuletl col- 

wagons ratdh the second floor by on approach or niuip, und 
) dir«ctly into the earn. 
The follawine requirements are found in the contrant and apeeifi- 
' the City nf Boston for the transportation of refuee from 
r'i naler-front stations: 
Fnttn fntanH Statimu. — Refiias H to bfi tranftported in metal rcecii- 
[^lidm, haiilcil by Uorsw nr motort), or by Ptenm railroads or strwit rail- 
(>arl>aEe munt be earned in Kte-ei receptacles i>r tankx, and 
lunt bnvc un air-lieht rover to lie fastcncil down with swing 
■Hin a» the receptacle in filled. Tlie garbage is to t»e dJF- 
I thntugh an upetitnu iu tbe reeeptacle similnrly fastened and 
■^*pUt■l^>^^ fi.r (rniisporling other refuse ar* to be modified 



192 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFU8B 




SCPtLEMBHTAL THASSPORTATIOS 



t03 



iBilaiKn HO thai Ibey may be load«l and (liM;hai^:ed rapidly. They 
m to tx? m\-vrc(l and w<>ur«d w a» \o prev«iil Ihc unvapc of flyinR 
auttml nr dUagrrPiilile nrliiFK. 

tnn Watrr-franl .Sfflliona.— RiJuso is to be tnin.i ported in mtows 
divided into water-tight and air-1igh( compartments eo a» to carry 
H Doeh of the rrfiwe *g powtible bplow the wator lino, and thun 
hnen the danger of uvcrttirninK or xpillitiK the rrrfuw. The ncown 
m W have hfavy minminKs, aruund the outride of thr hold spaci?, 
tii|[h eoough to prrvpitt. any malt-rial fnim spillinit nvprboard. The 
umol putnpti, c-npetuoe, winches, uod all mudcni applianccM arc l« be 
pRufided. 

'iVri in siimmrr the Rarhagp has hpcnmr sovprnl ilavM idcl, when 
11 l)i« station, and foul od'vr« and fly KropriiriK arc to be prevented, 
tlini, if the garbage ia nut to l>€ fed, it i» ad^'isahle lu uwe a ditiinftH^t- 
*"'. «ich a« a orcaol uoliition, kerosene oil, or a solution o( ga»-houHe 

D^ECROPEAK DATA, 

Tlie uae nf tnipplenicntal inelhods for IranHporlatitm and transfer 
*taliiitM \ww- not been found on nc4;»titnry in Kiiro|K! n-i in America. 
Tlip n^min in that in most Eurojicnn cJlieH tlie rcfuiw in niixcil, and in 
<iapcM>cl of by inrinrrutiun. As incinemUin* can be built willtin tbo 
filira, tlie length of haul ia short, Ihua obviating the necessity fur 
nijpleioenial transportation. Within the Ixmdon Metropolis, for 
futance, there are fourteen Incal inrineratnm. 

lu ICngWid, petrol was iif«d extensiveiy tor mipplcmental tran»- 
pbdatiim during the war and HJnee. Thi- nteain wai;'>ii ^weniH to he 
ffiiiilt cMit of une. The flcclric wagon liu« come lu the fore duriuK 
IIm pstfl few yvan. It doc^ it.-< \K^i work on level roods and when 
Uiit wiirkinK nlxive it-i eaparity. It in Tound tn t>e econiunicjtl in 
it|i«nitiun if of a KuHirirntly ptiwerful type. It ia tl»r'd for refuno 
rniHival in Soutlipnrl anil Hlaek|»i'>l. 

In Parii then* are five local iiicineralorx. 8oitic of the rL>fuiw is. 
Imadeil on fvov/g at the f^hure» of the Heine und t>vnie i» removed on 
rtni'l <ir Menra niilroiKU. The frciRht ohnrgM averaRP O.OTy frano 
[wi tun ltuul»l I km. Motor trurk.i have been u-sed in l*an», Hanf 
bure, aA(f in other places. DarRc 1 rami portal ion on the river Main 
haa beon uneil for the Frankfort mixed rvfuse. 



E.— SUHHARY AND CONCLDSIONS 

Titerhief (nrior in deeidingon tlie adoption of nupplcmental traii»< 
'pitrlaUuB. prvvided the saiiilary rtiiuirtmcnhi arc properly mut, Ja iLo 



194 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

cost. The cost per ton-mile for moving refuse materials by supple- 
mental methods of tranuportatioii for long distances is less than by 
team haul. Therefore, they are often used. The larger the volume 
of refuse to be moved, the more economical will this method become, 
and its use will increase as the design of motor trucks improves. 

Such transportation is secured by trolley cars, barges, steam rail- 
roads, and motor trucks with or without trailers. The local conditions 
and the cost should decide the best means to be adopted. 

An important part of the scheme is the transfer station at which 
the collected refuse is delivered and transferred to the means by which 
it is to be transported to the place of final disposal. Such stations 
must be properly located at suitable places and designed so that they 
may be readily kept clean and be economical in operation. 



CHAPTER V 

ESnMATZnG THE COST OF COU^CTIOlf Ain> 
TRANSPORTATION 

Iq the previous chapters a few co»'t data are gi^'en in connection 
*ilh descriptions of structures and operations. In the present chap- 
'w the subject of cost estimation as a whole will be considered. The 
""precedented effect fA the late war on the prices of materials and on 
ubor makes the determination (A costs at present generally extreraeir 
difficult. Careful anal>'9es, and adjustments to present conditions, 
"■* therefore especially necessary. 

The abnormal conditions increa.<:inf; the cost at present are: 
I*bor shortage, decrease in the efficiency of men, higher wages, and 
sorter work day«. 

So many local factors enter into the cost of collection, haul trans- 
'^r, and transportation of refuse materials, that, unless these are con- 
*"iered and understood, the cost data are often misleading. Standard 
'"Tms for recording the cost data of refuse collection are not used 
Extensively, so that, as the available information is not in uniform 
"''Kpe, it should be judged with caution, and used with qualification. 
" &11 cases, reference should be made, where possible, to the original 
""urce of ioformstion. The cost data in the following [>ages are 
"&ssilied according to the suggestions made in Chapters III and IV. 
"ethods of analyzing the cost of various parts of the service are 
'I'^'^n Sntt, and are followed by the actual data. Some of the data 
"*^e been taken from the work of Jacobs and Cenfield, Chapter XII 
'^'"tains some information on the cost of collection in Chicago, 



A.~ELEMEIITS 

The elements governing the loading, hauling, tran.'ffer, and trans- 

. , ^lum of refuse materials have been mentioned in Chapters III and 

Those pertaining to the cost of each part of the collection Ber\'ice 

** be segregated from what has already been given, and studied 

**iitigeously by the methods mentioned in what follows. The 

195 



196 COIJ.ECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

unit quantities used in the computations for any proposed work, mu 
of course, be determined for each locality and specific local conditic 
as the asBumptions made in the following calculationB are solely f 
the purpose of illustrating the method. 

B.— LOADIHO 

The cost of loading wtU vary with the character of the materi 
the district served, the season of the year, the unit cost for labor 
each locality, and with still other local conditions. 

We may analyze the cost of loading one wagon with garbage 
other material, as follows: 

Let n -number of persons per house or per collection; 

m -number of minutes required to make one collection, or 

give service to one house; 
d -inter\'al, in days, between collections; 
c- capacity of wagon, in tons; 

q -quantity of garbage or other material produced by 10 
persons, in tons per day ; 
and N -number uf hours required to load one wagon. 



Then, N 



1000 
ex -Xm 



dX9X60 



Let a -cost of team, wagon, and collector per hour; 
and b — cost of loading one wagon. 

Then, the cost of loading one wagon — ATa. 
Examine: As-tuming that 

n-10, m-1, d=2, c-2, q =0.273, and <i=$0.75. 

2x -XI 

Then, N -6.1 hours to load the waEoii: 

2x0.273x60 * ' 

and the cost to load one wagon 

6-6.1x0-75-54-57. 

4 57 
As I" = 2, the cost of loading per ton is -^ — =S2.2S. 



BSTIMATINO THE COST OF COLLECTION 197 

The same analysis can be applied, also, to the loading of ashen, 
rubbish, mixed refuse, or any material, if the proper unit tiuantities 
and basic data are first determined. The cost per tun for loading 
other refuse materials in Chicatco in 1914, in accordance with properly 
a-'wiimed data, were found to be as follows: 

Coat of Lo«din( 
HBtamla per Tod 

Asbn 10.415 

Kubbiah 2.62 

Mixed tefuae 0.66 

0.— HADLING 

The refuse material when loaded into the collection wagou must 
^ hauled to the transfer station or to the place of final disposal. This 
IS done by horse-drawn vehicle or by motor. The length of haul will 
be from the point of last collection to the place of final delivery, and 
this distance must be covered twice for each separate load. 

The cost will depend on the rate of travel, the weight of the load, 
'nd the coat of the team and driver, or motor and mechanic. The 
Wt of team haul may be estimated as follows: 

Rate of travel 3.0 miles per hour 

Cort of outfit $0,75 per hour 

Cost per mile traveled . 25 

Ca«t per mile hauled . 50 

Coet per ton-mile with a 2-toii load 0.25 

The coat by gasoline or electric truck may be estimated as follows: 

Rate of travel 6.0 miles per hour 

Cort of outfit $2,40 per hour 

Cost per mile traveled . 40 

Cost per mile hauled 0.80 

Cost per ton-mile with a 5-ton load 0. 16 

The rate of travel will vary considerably in different sections of a 
large city, being slower through streets congested with a large volume 
"f traffic. In such districts, the collection work may preferably he 
'lone at night or in the early morning. 

Cost of Horse Maintenance in Boston, Mass. — The a^'e^age citM 
in 1918 of maintaining the horHCM of the sewer and sanitary divisiiin 
of the Public Works IJcpartiiient of Boston, Mass., was $1.68 per day 
pir hone, according to the rcoently issued annual report of the dejuirt- 



198 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

meat.* An average of 171.8 horses was kept. The itemized cost 
was as follows: 

Par hone 

perd>y 

Labor $0.5837 

Hay and grain 8365 

Fuel 0087 

Light 0056 

Rent and taxes 0500 

Yard and stable repairs 0187 

Yard and stable fumishingB 0286 

Veterinary services and medicine 0225 

Horseshoeing, etc , 1292 

Total 11.68 



D.— TRANSFER STATIONS 

The building and operation of transfer stations should be con- 
sidered as a part of the cost of trausportatiou. A transfer station 
to handle 600 cu. yd., or 375 tons a day, has cost, depending on the 
type of building and local conditions, from $30,000 to $50,000, includ- 
ing land in a fairly well built-up section. 

In 1916 the annual cost of operation, for about 375 tons per day, 
waa estimated as follows: 

Interest at 5% $2500 

Depreciation of plant at 2J% 1250 

Labor: 

1 foreman 1200 

4 laborers 3600 

Repairs and supplies 2500 

Total $11,050 

This is equivalent to a cost of 0.5 cents per ton. 

E.— TRANSPORTATION 

The cost of transportation of refuse from the transfer station to the 
place of final disposal depends on the method used. The cost for 
each of several methods is discussed below. Chapter IV, under dif- 
ferent subheadings, also contains information on the cost of supply 
mental transportation. 

■ AviiMtriiw «mI Cenfrscfjiv, Mweb 3d, 1920. 



ESTIMATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 199 

L By Trolley. — Having; a typical transfer station receiving 600 
cu. yd. of refuse material per day, and trains made up of one motor 
c&r, which Garries no load, and two trailers, each trailer having a 
capacity of 25 cu. yd., then, 24 trailer loads are required to move 
600 cu. yd. per day. If the place of disposal is in such a location that 
each train can make two trips a day, six trains will be required. 
■Wume that three motors can handle the six trains. The daily cost 
a! operation would then be: 

Motor cost ; three at $26 "$75 per day. 
TralletB; twelve at 6*= 72 per day. 

Total $147 per day. 

If the 600 cy. yd. of refuse weigh 375 tons, the cost of trolley trans- 
portation would be 40 cents per ton, 

2. By Baizes. — A good serviceable tug has cost about $30,000, 
and deck-scows about S7000 each. The annual cost of operating a 
Beet may then be estimated as follows: 

A»KDAL CoflT or Tug: 

lntereBtat5% $1,600 

Depreciation on IS-year life 1,389 

lAbor: 

Captain $2100 

Engineer 1800 

Fireman 1000 

Deck hand* 1800 

8,700 

Repairs 2,500 

Fuel 3,500 

Supplies 1,000 

Imurance 200 

Total $16,789 

^■"^u. Co8T OF Barge: 

Interert at 6% $3S0 

Deiweciation 324 

Deckbaoda 1^00 

$2,474 
Aammw that one tug serrcB four barges $9,896 

Total annual coot of fleet $26,686 



200 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL Of MVSJCIPAl RKPVSB 

If each burgD iDak«K one trip per dny, carrying LOO tons of rcfu.<«, 
the coat |tcr ton umoutil^ to 22 cents. 

S. By Steam Railroads.— Tbe oont of Uansportatlun oy ateami 
rRilmadH depends principally un t)ic switclung cliorgcs. Tbose may] 
raiiAO froia $5 to S15 per OAr. A car will hold about 40 ton:t of gar- 
bage, on whiuh bamk tbu switching churgc will average about 25 cents 
p«r toil. Tabic 61 givea the cost of tranflportiag garbaKo by stean 
raiiroad at Cleveland and Coluinbtia, Ohio, 



Tablb (It. — CoflTB or TRANBKtBTiNo Garbaoe dt 8tk\u Railroab 



csw 


Vew 


Topu- 
Ulian 


limul, 
in 


■■rbkffo 


TfUl 


Cart 
p*f 


Copl 

lOk- 


CM 
P" 


Clemlktiil, Ohio 


IVOS 


•ieH.000 


V 


3Q.KH3 


H.MI fin 


M.ion 


■0 niJ 


•U 010 


■■ 


101 1) 1 MaiMU 


t> 


<*,T*7 


ti.im 00 


uo 


OlS 


O Oil 


■■ 


iai.1 


mo, Don 





C2,a&* 


II.IWZ lA 


12a 


014 


011 


■■ 


101V 


TTCOCiO 


» 


oo.oaa 


lt,'l41 10 


0.IS6 


0.021 


oou 


CalunibuB, Obio 


nii 


lOa.THC 


2 


:s,TB9 


4.300,00 


0.3W 


0.067 


D.on 



4. By Motor Trucks. — The? cnHt of luailinK a motor trurk ia analyzed 
by tlip samp method as mrntioncd for wagonn. The wist for truck 
operation per hour will he tcrcittcr than for w»)coit», and tbi> rate of 
litiuliiig will have to be increftspd proportionately lo make iLo oust 
eipiol to that of loadiiiK a hoixe-drawn waKon. The ootit of haul by 
motor truck, however, will (hi Ibbb. The rolativcly high loading eoit 
f()r motor trucks can be reduced by limiting theiii lo transfer wiwk 
and by using the so-cuUcd tritclvr and IraiU't syittctn, being tried on a 
largo Reale in New York and other eities iu America, and already used 
in (|uit« a iiun)l}er of Kurn|ie«n cities. 

The Brat coAt of motor trucks variM with the kind of body, tbo 
general finish, the appiirteiinncos, the motive power, ant! other it^mc. 
In view of the prer^inl utiecrtainty of prices, no c<»sts arc here givtiu 
Thcj' can be reutlily atwertaine-d at ony limt from dealers. 

The Elairictil World' has coni|)iled oprrnting ca!rt»i for el«?tjia 
motor truekn in eomuicrciul nervire from TiO plan('< in all piLrtjt uf Iho 
Tnitwl States. The eoels inchide internsl, tipprerintinn, iiiAumnrr. 
lii-eiiflcs, upkeep of tirrn. bntlcric^, rocehanieal port!*, power. f>iip|il)f«, 
garage ehargM, driven' wage*, and supcrvivioB. The daily mil 
Li not remmled, but the voKt per <tay, for the varioiu axes, ia give 
in the futlowinK table: 

• Ortobrr T. )0. *i>d IT. 10H. 



I 



JSTIMATJNG THE COST OP COLLECTION 



201 



HaliNl rafMoily. in liiua 


AvBiagR coal pir ilar 


0.S 
1.0 

2.0 
3.S 

.vo 


10 94 

7.50 

S.92 

10.38 

11 74 



The CliieoKO ChAmbcr of Cumuiercc, in 1915, after compiling a 

Urf;e number of ilitu for cum mure ml trucks of v»rjouit siecs, urrivcU 

at no aventf((> oost i>f operntion of $0.1 1 per tan-mite, including fisi-d 

cliargra. Thoso figuren were quite roprcAentativR when piiblii'hnd, 

rbul at preacnt Blight be mtiltiplitKl by almost two. 

Id referrnix' to thL> opt-mliiig chargei> on gHsuIiiio molor tniclcB, 
tbe following is ab»tructeij from &u urtidc by Mr. Jut^cph HuNran, 
Editor of 7"A* Cumou-rcial IVAiVJi*, in the issiii" nf that jniirnol of 
April 15, 1919. pp. 26-2.-*. 

The ycarl}^ chargM for Kasoline uiotor tracks arc Kivc-n )>cIow, 
^tbeir magnitude being in the order iianied. 

Tbo totftl ycnrly durgCM arc nearly equal lo Llic first cost of tlic 
Ftruek, with it« body, dumping device, and otht^r acc««Rori«. Nfr. 
' Iliiitsoii illii.-<tr«t(w this by what lie orIU " The Big 8 in Truck Ojjera- 
tion." icivittg the detuib n( thf yearly nrwration of a .Vtnn Pierre- 
Arrow truck u.'»H in thi* gi>npral conlriw-ting business in Philadelphia. 
The original cost of thi.t truck, including S400 for the body nnd $132 
war tax on thi- truck, wois St^S. 

Tbe comtjt of oifcratioii fur one year (1018^ were: 



1. Orrer's woera ftSOO.OO 

2. Tiitti 1095.60 

3. CfaaDline $683.16 

OiLrtc aa.OU 720.16 

4. lM|>ectlon and rv^uiint 396.00 

0. Depredation <lif« of iJiO/)00iiiileM> . 3SI 20 

0, IneunuiFC 377.38 

7. Intereat on iBvestmcnl at 6% 361.92 

5. Ganse SOD.OO 



Pcncntas* 
20.0 
21.1 



IVrtak $52U.8« 



l(X),00 



Tbe total number of days operated wax 300, and the mileage 
12,000. The average daily mileage was 40. Tbe cost per day operat 
vu $17.38. and the ooet per mile wan $0,434. 



202 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL HBPVSB 



Tlie lurgest item in the opcriiti n% oostct ik llic driver's wagr^. Labor 
QOftba Dje hi{;h, and may yet incrco^ before HlabilixinK, Iii opcntttug 
the truck, much dcpcuds un the driver. If he is c-ar«lpK« nr iiidif* 
foroat, the rc&iiltins costa per ton-mUc may be cxcctwivHy hifEh, even 
\i Die truck it, une oC the Wj<t on the riuirkct aiid U oporalvd under llie 
best poisaible conditions of loading; and uulimdiiifE. 

The cost of the tire« was $1095.60 for the 12,000 nuks, or S0.0913 
per mile, iaeluding depreciation, eto. The original rrkI of the four 
tircH waa SRSO.lfl, and Ihcy carried a guaranty of 70110 inil(«. Iliis 
cost for tiros is almo8t a.* large a>f that for the driver, and indicates _ 
tliat the greuttut care should be taken iti seleeling tbctu and keeping | 
tliem in repair. Tire co^t." nnd 1ok-< of time when luakinic tire chntigcs 
nrc important., and ^ihoiUd not be overlooked. Of iviurw, the condition 
of the roada IravcrKed alfeclc the life of all tireS) :ind the Hpeed of the 
vehicle and the care or car^lceeoCMt of tbc drivor are nioet important 
factors. Overepeedirig and overloading are the two KToateet truck 
ei%-il}(, aud shuw (heir iiiHiien<« directly in tire roats. Tlic mnnntrr of 
starling and slopping tlie truck also ho? an important iiiBueiice on 
the wear of the tires. 

The cost of goaoUno is the third item in importance, which indi- 
cates that it should be reduced in every wny posRibte. In general, 
the engine nlioutd not be altoived to run while (he truck is .xtjtndtag 
and being loaded or uidoaded. The engine Murter has been used 
extoii»i%'ely on truekft having pneumatic tires, iind has proved a 
great gaAnline economizer; but it has not yet been found entirely 
practicable to u»e it on the larger trucks having t-oltd tirefl. 

Regarding the costt of in;<pccitnn and repairs, it may be ^d tliat, in 
the cane of the 5-ton Pieiee-Arrow truck cited, thia item was about 
3J oenta per mile. The best way to cut down this expense Ih to make 
repairs whUe they nrc small. This may be done by making a brief 
but thorough daily inspection. KxneMivc repair co»t« are generally 
due 1o overs pwding, overloading, or general earelcwinejw on the part 
of the driver. Proper lubrication ia al.«o an ini|x>rtant factor in reduc- 
ing the co:it of repairs, and efficient garage methods save I he mechanie'a 
time. 

The depreciation charge w aFFeeted, to a large extcDt, by the initial 
coat of the chassis, body, and equipment of tho truck. II baK l>ova 
customary to charge ofT this depreciation by awtuming that the tnirk 
will la«t a certain number of ycnra. A more rational inctbo<| is tO 
!<ume the truck to have a life of mi inaiiv Ihoinand niilex. and U> 
iportion the deprociAlion to cover this assumed lift:, (MttsidnrinK 
the kind of work \xaa^ done, lu tlic uAiie cited the » 



HSTI.VATISO TUB COST OF COLLECTION 



203 



imri) to bavp a lifp of l.V),()[HJ milrN. This, however. wrniB to bo 
I hif>h for llic avcnvg^ triKik, iidIcm tlio hetiX ol ewe ia taken iii npcm- 

The item ot iitftiiraiici) AKniiihl ian; llieft, and ftccidont '\» almost 
larRe as I bat uf ia^jieutiuu aiul re{>airs. [tmuranoc, liowover, is 
very itoporlsnt, and should iicvcr b* neglected. 

»lDtcrcdt 13 an item wliich U in direct proportion to (h« oriRinBl 
DOftt of tbe rhiuuix. body, and acceNMirivs, and in tbii cue wan com- 
puted at 6%, the logal rate in New York State. 

Tbe eighth and Inst item i^ the charge for garngeing. In this the 
truck owner must decide whether it ii; more economical to iiaintain 
his troche io a public fcaraKt^ or in one of his own. Geticrally five or 
more trucks can Im^ inaiutaiiied more cheaply Lu the uwimr's garage 
than iu a public oiie. 

A study of a number of records indicate;! that the daily mileage of 
trucks will generally range from 25 to 40. 

The Chicago Civil Service Comminion, after an extended study in 
ltU2-]3, round the oijentting coRt of a 3-ton gat^oUuc truck lo be $0,13 
per l«n-inilc. A 3-tnn electric truck cost 10.11 per ton-mile, wilh 
euiTcnt at 0.0 cent per kilowatt-hour, which, however, is » rather low 
figure for electric power, piirliculariy einoe the report was made. 

I The Department of Public Works in Chicago uaca one 5-ton and 
4»nc 2-lon gasoline truck (or delivering materials between city yards 
And construction jobs. The Average cost of operating tbe S-too truck 
vras 13 centn per ton-mile. The coat of oj^erating Ibe 2-lon truck 
varied from 14 to 32 cents per ton-mile. The coet by teams under 
contract was 26.0 cents per t<m-mile. Thew fipirea are from arlual 
•er^'ice records kept during the \>\nt mx months of 1014, and include 
Bxed and all oilier cliarge*. They are, however, only for truek opero- 

ILion, and do not include the waccM of helpent for loading, etc. 
Mewire. Downing and Perkins, of liartford. Conn., reported in 
April, iyi7. thai, the averjiRc co«t per day for operatinn a I-ton truck, 
with an avenige daily haul of 37.2 mtlce, and including driver's pay, 
depreciation, interest, and nil other expen^M, na« S5.(l7. 

■ The Waterbury Committee'.H inve»ttgatJon in 1919 showed that 
lor tw*nty-five cities under municipal ecdlection the average per 
capita cost of collection was S(i.30; for fourteen cities of more than 
^—125,000 population it was 90.2)1: and for cicveu cities of less than 
^■125,000 population it was $0.36. The average for five cities under 
^Hthe contract system was $0,3r>i jter capita. Per capita cnqnt^ wera 
^BOivcd in Waterbury, rather than per ton r.(»K», because of the belief 
thai tbe number of penwiu affected determines the utmiber of col- 



204 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BBFUSE 

lection trips more accurately than the quantity ooOeeted, vliiefa mar 
vary greatly in different districts. 

Mr. Ralph W. Home * gives a table, showing the complete avenge 
of operating costs of trucks, which we copy bdow. Items I to i 
are more or less constant, irrespective of ton-mileage. Items 6 to 9 
decrease directly as the ton-mileage increases, indiestiiig that, in a 
given period of time, as large a toa-mOeage as poasiUe ahoald be 
accomplished. 

" The table expreaaeB the percentages which any pveu item is at the tot«I 
time. They are based on a cost of 25c. per gallon for gasnlinr, taxes at 
SIS per $1000, license fees on the basis adopted by the MasssefatMEtts Bigb- 
way Commission, storage charges at the rate d S20 per nxHith, and deprecis- 
tion costs on the sinking-fund basis with interest at 5.5% sfipUed anDnaDy. 
The life of the truck has been rationally estimated after caieful study of the 
conditions under which the given truck was operating. ADowanee must be 
made for any factors which may t«nd to increase or decicsse the items, audi 
sa poor im. good roads, hilly m. level country, short nt. kmg haul, light m. 
heavy loads, and short loading oa. long loading periods. An aUowaaoe like- 
wise should be made where the costs of fuel, supines, and labor differ great^." 

OpERATDfo Cons or MoTOB Tbocks 



'Cn[>Hrity of truck, tons 

.'\vt'ragc load carried, tons 

Total ni>orating cost, cents per ton- 

milr 

IVrti'Hl i)f lolalroet per ton-mile of 
nwl of: 

1. tljijioliiie 

2. Ltiliri rants 

3. Tirw 

4. Keiwirs and sutKirics 

5. Depreciation 

6. ChiiufTeTir 

7. Lirenso. inauranec. and taxes. . . 

S. Stiirane 

9. liHerest (at Hi'", jxT annum) . 



2 
2 

21.5 



13.6 
4.7 

18.0 
0.1 

23.5 

18.1 
4.3 
5.2 
3.5 



3 
3.3 

10-0 



15.2 
4.2 

14.8 
9.4 

22.0 

20.6 
4.4 
4.8 
4.6 



31 

3.8 

18.1 



17.3 

2.0 

18.5 

10.0 

20.5 

24.0 

4.6 

3.0 

5.1 



4 
4.15 

17.8 



19.7 

1.4 

10.8 

10.5 

21.0 

21.7 

6.4 

3.6 

fi.O 



5 
5.2 

16.5 



18.6 

2.2 

16.7 

11.0 

20.0 

17.3 

5.0 

3.7 

fi.5 



7 
IS.C 



17. C 

2.S 

20.2 

11.1 

2O.0 

15.4 

4.8 

4.C 

5.3 



•Eneintrrtna XftcfRttord, Sefit, 20, 1917. 



EBTIMATIIfG THE COST OF COLLBCTTWt 



ao5 



r.-^ACnTAL COSTS AVAILABLE 

Mote aetiul data ^ould be ocdlected in order to venfy the costs 
ntimated herein, as but very few are now available, and as the war 
effects have materially modiSed them. The costs for collection service, 
u generally recorded, include both loading and hauling in one figure, 
but costs of transportatiOD are frequently given aeparately. Some data 
from dtiee in which the itemized cost of collection is avtulable have 
IxeD summarised below. 

L Hew York. — The cost per cubic yard for the collection and re* 
nioval oS garbage, in steel carte having an average capacity of 2 ou. yd., 
m 1914, was fiO) cents per cubic yard in Manhattan and 67 cents in 
Bnxddyn. For the collection of ashes and street sweepings the aver- 
tge cost was 59i cents per cubic yard. Rubbish removal in 7.5> 
(V. yd. carts cost $0,216 per cubic yard. Although these figurcH 
tike DO account of the length of haul, they give a general idea of the 
unit cost of the service in 1914. 

Parsons, in 1906, stated that garbage can be transported and 
dumped at sea in a Delahanty self-dumping scow for 19 cents per 
nibic yard, equivalent to about 35 cents per ton. 

The following data are from a report by Mr. J. T. Fetberston on 
''k Ofxnttkms in the Borough of Rjchmond in 1911: 



QuaotiUca 



Unitoovt 



t^oQectirai of street flweepin^i 

'^Omr removal from roadways .... 
^^emotng gutten of bdow and mud, by 

htnd 

^^eainng guttcn of snow and mud, by 

plow 

^^leuing aoow from ndewaJkn . . . 
*^euuBg snow from nnMS-wallu 



36,210 

42,190 



cu. yd. 



49 

12 7R " 
262 2 " 



S0.35percu. yd 
0.19 " " 

4.72 p«r mile 

S6 " " 

78 97 " " 
6-53 " " 



The reports of the r>epftrt.ment, of iHtrpet Cleaning, for the Boroughs 
'*• Manhattan, Brnoklyn, and The Bronx, rfhow that the coiit of col- 
"^tiun of fltreet sweepings in lOlx wax greater than in lOlT an the 
"*^*ften ftf inspectors were inrrrffuwd from llOfl to Jll.'t per month, 
***■■ from 66| centi* to 7.'> cent« per hoiir, and shovelera from 2^ i«Qta 
■• 3? iMti per hour. 



206 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

The following items of expenditure have been taken from the 
report of the Department of Street Cleaning for I9I7, and refer tfl 
the Boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and The Bronx, with a pop- 
ulation of 5,241,302. The last column haa been added to show the 
expenditure per 100,000 population. 



Total 
expenditura 



EUpnuditure 
per 100,000 
population 



Salaries and wagee, regular 

Salarlea and wages, temporary 

Supplies 

Ek]uipment 

Materials 

Repaiis and replacementfi 

Transportation and telephone 

Final disposition, department service 

Final disposition, general plant service (con- 
tract) 



S4,S44,300 
781,500 
660,700 
201,500 
131,100 
16,300 
143,100 
121,000 

I.IHOOO 



$92,425 

14,gi4 

12,605 

3,844 

2,501 

311 

2.730 

2,309 

22,781 



The number of men engaged in the collection service and by the 
Department for the final disposition service, in the above three Bor- 
oughs, is as follows: 





Total numbar 
of omploj'vaB 


Number ol 

employeca ftt 

100,000 

pcqratatiaD 


Colloction Division: 


261 

212 

1956 

116 

120 


4.79 

4.04 

37.32 

2.21 

2.80 






Effuse collectors (Manhattan alone) 

Final disposition (including street sweeping, 
but excluding disposal of garbage by con- 
tract): 

Superinlctidcnt, inspectors, and boardmen. . . 



In addition to the employees mentioned above, there was a suitable 
force of clerks and mechanics, and also the medical aad sui^etl 
service. 



ESTIMATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 



207 



S. Chicago. — A careful analysis of the cost of collecting garbage, 
tshes, &ad rubbish in Chicago is shown in Table 62, for the years 
1906 to 191S. 



TULB 62. — ^AVKBAOE CoOTS OF COLLECFIHO BXFITBE IN ChICAOO 
(Trimrling &nd hauling) 







Coit prr 






Cost per 


Ymr 


Coat per too 


culuD ynd of 


YMtr 


Coat per ton 


cubic yard of 


t Vb 


o( BBrbaie 


aabea and 


of gkrlnfie 


Bshea and 






rubbish 






rubbiah 


1908 


$3.78 


SO-56 


1914 


»3.63 


SO. 66 


1W9 


3.76 


0.57 


1915 


3.20 


0.70 


1910 


3 43 


0.59 ■ 


1916 


3 70 


0,72 


1911 


3.19 


0.62 


1917 


4,35 


0.76 


1912 


3.20 


0.60 


1918 


4.79 


0.86 


1913 


3.60 


0.62 









If ashes and rubbish together weigh 1000 lb. per cubic yard, the 
Cost of collection for these materials amounts to $1 .20 per ton. Jacobs 
BiidCen&eld state that in Chicago: 

"The Royal lighterage Company has the contract for transportation 
ftwn the loading stations, and the present contract ia made on a per diem 
**■<« at the rate of S81.45 for each working day. During the year 1912 the 
^**t of operation, maintenance, and lighterage of garbage dehvered to the 
^^>Uey Avenue Btation averaged about 80 cents per ton. The coat of opera- 
^ion, muntenance, and lighterage chargeable against the garbage dehvered to 
^ Chicago Avenue loading station averaged about 65 cents per ton dm-ing 
"m aune period." 



The cost of operating the hoist or of making the collections is not 
""eluded. 

Mr. George A. Zinn estimated the cost of tenm haul in Chicago in 
'^12 at 50 cents per ton-mile. (See alpo Chapter III, under Speed 

3. niiliidelphia. — For Philadelphia conditions, a report in Fngi- 
''««nnfl iVciTif of January 11, 1917, gives $17.91 aw the cost of operating 
•■ 64on gasoline truck 50 miles per day. The fixed charges were 
^•36 per day, or 30^ of the total cost. 



208 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BBFVSS 



The variable expenses were: 



Depreciation* 

Gasoline at 2fi cents per gallon 

Lubricating oil 

Tirea 

Repairs 

Totalfl ,.... 



'Per milB 



SO. 06 
0.083 
0.006 
0.039 
0.06 



90.25 



PerdkiTBt 
SOmilca 



$3.14 
4.17 
0.27 
l.M 
3.00 



$12.62 



PerembKB 

of total cut 

per day 



17.6 
23.3 
1.5 
10.8 
16.7 



69.9 



• About 15% of the Gnt coat deprariatca with the paaaaoe of tima, and about K% > 
proportional directly to the mileage run. 

Assuming 25% as the depreciation for the life of the truck, oper- 
ating 25 miles per day, with a life of 1500 days, we must explain that 
this rather high aUowance is due to the following facts: That a truck 
used in house-to-house collection work must be started and stopped 
many times for each loading, that the motor must be kept running 
during the short stops, and, on account of the many stops and starts, 
the average speed will be much less than the most economical speed 
of the truck. We should also note the deleterious efifect on the truck 
of the dust from the street and the grit and ashes of the refuse. 

4. Cleveland. — The work of collecting garbage is carried on by the 
Garbage Disposal Division of the Department of PubUc Service. A 
superintendent of garbage collection is in direct charge of the work. 

The garbage wagons are built according to specifications drawn 
by the city. They consist of a water-tight, steel body, on a four- 
wheeled running gear. The body is arranged to dump at the rear, 
and has a canvas cover. The capacity of a wagon is 70 cu. ft. One 
horse and one man go with each wagon. 

Garbage collections are made every other day in districts within 
1) miles of the loading station, and every third day in outlying dis- 
tricts. No collections are made on Sundays. About 100 wagons are 
used to collect from the entire city. 

The wagons deliver the garbage to a central loading station on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Special garbage cars are used to 
transport the garbage from the loading station to the reduction ptiut, 
9 miles distant. 

Table 63, giving the cost of collection of garbage for 1919, was tak«i 
from the annual report of the department. This table also givea • 
summary of costs for 1913 to 1919. 



SSTIMATINQ TUB COST OF COLLECTION 



200 



Tabue 63. — Cost Psb Ton yoB CoLLKcnNo Garbaob 

n CLBVBI.AND FOB THE Ybab Endino Dbceubbr 31, 1919; 

AND Spmmarikb fOR 1913 to 1919, Incldsivb 

(From DeputnMDt of PnbUo Worla) 
(Qiund^ of Kubace ooUeeted io 1019 -60,032 ton*) 



SupmritkHl 

Opention: Labor for collecting 

labor for ghoeing 

SqjfdieB: Office 

Fuel, light, ftDd powor 

Feed 

Kioeing 

Bbhi 

Motor vehicles 

Cteaning and toilet 

Medicftl and surgical 

MiflcellBiieouB 

Overhead and miscellaiieoufl 

MainteoaDce : 

Can and r/agons, labtv axid matoial. 

BsmeM, labor and matsial 

Bundioffi, labor and matmal 

Office furniture and fixtures 

Machioery, tools and implemeDta. . . . 

MotM" vehicles 

MiaoeiliuienMa eqiupmatt 



Total M^lectiDa eoit. 



LoHon hone*. 
PepCBaa t ioo- - , 



Totd collection cost induding depTOwtioo . «343,74S.84 
'^ of su p pfa mm tal tnnqwrtatkn from 
dual Boad to mOoir 11,426 06 

^o(a] eost dS tHj eoOectioo and wi ppl wM ntal 
tcaaqMrtAtion to Vilkm <3&5,174.»0 




10.0375 
4.0862 
0.0902 
0.0039 
0.0228 
0.4984 
0.0414 
0.0378 
0.0795 
0.0009 
0.0042 
0.0030 
0.0675 

0.3352 
0.0716 
0.0667 
0.0010 
0.0055 
0.0219 
0.0343 



16.5096 

0172 

0.1148 



S5 641S 



0.1875 



»5-8290 



Total Buml 



(124,938.26 
165.658 52 
181^36 29 
195.266 18 
Z3ej]S5 16 
304,183 38 
355,174 90 



Com per too 



12 385 
296 
2.91 
3 22 
4.21 
6.27 
5.83 



Com per capita 



to 2016 
221 
276 
0.290 
0.341 
430 
0.461 



210 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

The following is a atatement of the cost, etc., of the coUectio: 
plant at Cleveland in 1919: 

Building at Canal Road S8I5.00 

Equipment : 

Furniture and fixtures 541 . 40 

Cars and wagons 28,040,00 

Harness 3,16500 

Horses and mules 22,715.00 

Motor vehicles 4,260.00 

Miscellaneous 4,653. 52 

Inventoiy: 

Supplies 4,976.55 

Maintenance 1,170.14 

Total value 170,336.61 

6. Baltimore. — Table 64 shows the cost of collecting the mixture 
of garbage, aahes, and rubbish in Baltimore for 1913. 



Table 64. — Cost of Collection or Mdceo RErnm in Baltivorb, in 1918 



Totttleoat 



Coat per ton 



Pay-roll 

Feed 

Shoeing 

Stable rent 

Veterinary 

Sundries 

Wagon and cart repairs . 

New carts 

Horses and mules 

Harness 



Totals. 



tl50,029.88 

86,866.63 

4,167.62 

1,350.00 

552.48 

2,028.37 

4,949.01 

5,043.00 

15,025.00 

1,102.78 



$221,114.77 



SO. 465 
0.114 
0.013 
0.004 
0.002 
0.006 
0.015 
0.016 
0.047 
0.003 



tO.685 



Garbage 

Ashes and rubbish 

Total tons. 



Cubk yaida 



180,531 
464,720 



Ton* 



90,270 
232,360 



322,630 



S. Detroit — The garbage is collected by the city. The w m g uu a 
comprise a water-tight steel body on a four-wheeled nuuuQg (BW« 



ESTIMATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 



2U 



The bodjr is removable, and b transported to the reduction plant on 
freight cars. Each wagon is drawn by one horse, and is served by 
one maD. The cost of coUection per ton for 1910 is shown in Table 
65, which also gives a summary for 1910 to 1916, inclusive. 

TuLB 65. — Cost or Gabbaoe CoixEfrnoH in DETBorr, Mich., in 1610; 

AND SUMMASIEB FOB 1912 TO 1916, iNCLttBtVX 
(PopubtioD in 1910 -405,706, tonnace -34.06S) 



Openting expense: 

libot 

Feed, and shoeing 65 honea 

9apL, us't clerk, and blacksmith 

Hainteaanoe — Wagans 

Uuntenance — Hanieas 

Rre inniTaooe lor borees and equipment. 
Stable supplies, telephone, fuel, etc ... . 

Services (rf veterinaiy 

Hones icfrfaced 

iiuDdries, sooop shov^ et« 

Miinteoanee — Builditi^ 

Totals 

DrpRciatMN) of equipment 



Total eo«t 



»46,813.05 

11,221.29 

3,971.00 

2,082.00 

220-00 

249.90 

704.43 

221.95 

2,775.00 

182 76 

298 93 



968,740.40 
92,856.34 



C<at per 
ton 



SI. 374 

0.329 
0-117 
0.061 
0.006 
0.007 
0-021 
0-007 
0-082 
0.005 
0.009 



$2 018 
to. 064 



Per- 
eentace 



6S.2 
16.3 
5.8 
3.0 
03 
4 
1.0 
0.3 
4 
0.3 
0.4 



1910 

1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 



Total oi«t 



SW,74(i 40 
»1,4W 45 
102.132 30 
122^17 44 
133.W9 60 
US.WW 42 



Coat per 

too 



•2.018 

2 17 
2 14 
1 91 

I 88 



100.0 



Oat [« 
r«(ii(a 



•0 147 
IM 

(i-VU 
0.2X5 
248 

-jm 



7. Mihraitkee. — Id Milwaukee, all nffa^te ii^ •y.dlect^d under the 
supertTMon of the Departnient of PuWjc Worlo^. Two Mfparationi- </f 
the refuiie are made, th*' iEart.(ajce beiii^ olle'-t^ aioue and tiie ttithee 
and nibbihb toeetber. 

The part*ee i- Myilfc'ted in four-wheeled waipjuh wjUj r'-iuovable 
mm bodies of 1.5 <-u. yd. capacity. Ti.ey are drawn by '/uf borne, 
I goe» with mch wa^n. The eity [uriiic-heF the iron iMjdiKt, 



212 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



but doee not own the vehicles or horses. The price paid per day for a 
horse, vehicle, and collector is $3.50. 

The garble collections are made in the early morning, on five 
days a week during the winter and six daj^ a week during the summer. 
Each collector brings two loads per day to the incinerator, and the 
wagons are routed so that one load has a short and the other a long 
haul. 

At the incinerator, a crane picks up the wagon body, dumps the 
garbage into storage bins, and replaces the empty body on the wagon. 

The ash and rubbish collection is made with 3-yd., bottom- 
dumping, wooden wagons, drawn by two horses. The wagons, 
horses, and drivers are hired by the city. Collections are made once 
or twice a week. In collecting the ashes and rubbish, the driver has 
no helper assigned to him, but in each ward there is a crew of men 
whose duty it is to help load all wagons in the ward. 

Tables 66 and 67, computed from the reports of the Department 
of PubUc Works, give the cost of this collection service. 

Tabls 66. — ^Annual Cost of Collection of Garbaoe ik Milwaukee 



For year 
endins 
nccem- 

ber 3lBt 



igit 



1016 



Itoma 



SuperinMndent 

Timekeeper 

Slutionery, etc 

Geneiml HUpplioa. .-.-.,..,.. ^ . , 

Qeneral repairs 

Telephone 

tloree uid vebicle hire 

Street cuu f«ro 

General equipment 

Totals 

SalariM 

SuppUea 

Hone and vehicle hire 

tCquipmenr, burae-dravrn vehiclea 

T.Hnln 



Total oMt 



S 1,200.00 

036.29 

S SO 

64.41 

32.79 

OD 00 

113,453. 2S 

72 76 

060 IS 



Slie,524.13 



S2,0ZS 71 

328.50 

117,210 17 

106.25 



(1 10.72:1.0:1 



Cart 
per ton 



■0.030 
0.024 
0001 
002 
001 
003 
2.869 
003 
0.017 



12. 947* 



10 0S3 
O 000 
3 078 
0.004 



S3 144 t 



Cart 

par 

capita 



■0.0026t 
0.002s 
O.OOODl 
0003 
0.0001 
0.0002 
2701 
0002 
0016 



10 2774 



■0 0046 
0.0007 
0.3666 
0.0004 



Par- 
ocDtac* 
of total 

COTt 



1.030 
0.803 
O.OOS 
O.OU 
0.028 
085 
97 365 
062 
0.567 



100.000 



1.697 

0,274 

97.898 

131 



■O.2722S,I00 000 



In lOIS the aversRe pml of itiirbiiRe eollpdionii vu.iii (4.83 per ton. It haa increand 
■TBdually Bmrc 19i;i, whpn ii wiw 12 42 per Ion. Thi- wait™ paid lo the colleclon in 1018 
serf t4 ,10 per day. niiil cac'li ri.llortiir wtis n"iiiired lo bring la two loiida a day. 

• 311,, '>4 .■!,,■) I toru lit (iarli»KC iv>llpr(pd Hiirini 1014. 

1 :iH.i;i<> tons III KBrliHKr r.plli">(pcl diirinK lltlti, 

tT'ipulaliiin in 1014 mtimalH Ht 4^M>IN). 

I Population in mm eatinialed at 440.000. 



ESriMATtXG TBS COST OF COLLECTION 



213 



Rsl C— Aiore-u. Cost or Gollbcikn* op Ashis axd RuBBtsa 

EX UlLWAm 



Tmim 


- 


Total 
•aal 


too* 




(Mat 


f 

nu - 


\^m 


, ! 

iH^i.M fM.saai !«0.»» WIMT 43.n 

431.38 0D» 0.0013 1 0.0010 0.30 
8.U O.OOOI 00002 00009 004 
USk4» Sa ft«0$ ' 38M . 0.S9H W.86 
3BS.30 OOM 0011 OOOT 0. IC 


riiii>i>^tBM 


mt 


CfiiiiIm^miH 

Tatah 


Kn.58&.8> 


•1 4»*0 


«o.s«5« ao suo 100.00 




3« 00 
ISLUO.QO 


fO U30 

a.oa»4 

O.SIU 


1 

OOII 0008 
3738 0.M30 


44.00 

0.17 

36 SI 


ClBHllMJWiw 






ms.cTi.si 


SI MOI 


SO. MM to SOiI M» on 1 









Umstfcc 

■M7,Maia 
UUOO ton LuBiil.l dariDC 1»1& 



coat s< raOectiott of 
ted darias I»I4. 



aad rabtak wia 80.79 per calat jraH. 



MRJtm n. fd. la fctt i i danna 1814. 

HUTS ca. yd. lolimJ dvias 1810. 
t nnH^iiiia ■■ ltl4 imimtu<\ at 430J)00. 

ruiiahliiM m U18 iWMaliil at 4401000. 

Table 68 givM the tonnage fA garbage, the volume of ashes and 
nib)»Bh, aod the eoeta for labor and team haul, for each month of 1919, 
(ogetba* with some eomparatiTe figures for 1918 and 1917. 

Pnt» to 1910, garbage was transported across the Milwaukee 
River by barge. The wagon bodies were h<Hsted to the deck of a 
barge which made two tripe a day. The towing service was given 
free by the firr tug. The cost of hoisting and transportation ranged 
from 12 to 15 eeata per ton. 

8. WuhtniAMi. — In Washington, the work is done by contract, 
and certain fines are deducted, in accordance with the specifications. 
Summaries of additional co^t data, taken from annual departmental 
reports, are shown in Table 69. 

9. Columbos. — The following note^ on collection, compiled from 
%-arioiissources. apply to the >'ear 1912. for which the coi^t.-' are given. 

The wJlection of all refuse L* carried on by the city under the 
Huper\T?ion of the Department of Public Service, with the ^■uperin- 
tendent of the Department in direct charge of the work. 

Two aeparationa of refu'^ are made. The garbage i$ collected by 
jtHlf And ddivered at a loading station near the center of the city. 



214 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

Rubbish is collected and hauled to dumps. Due to the general use 
of natural gas, there is very little ash, and this is collected with (be 
rubbish. 



Table 68. — Unit Costs of CoLLicnoN, re Milwaukkk, in 1919 



MoDth 



Gamkaok 



Number 

of 

tool 



Cortol 
Idbor sod 
teun hkul 

per ton 



A»IB AND RnBBDB 



Niimbtc 

of 

oubic fsrds 



Com of 
Labor ud 

totm had 

I" 
cubic jtii 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 

December 

Totals, 1919. ... 
Averages 

Totalcfor 1918, 
TotaUfor 1917. 



2,272 
1,617 
1,924 
2,085 
2,380 
2,890 
3,40d 
3,679 
3,604 
3,417 
2,528 
2,236 



$6.08 
6.27 
6.00 
5.87 
5.91 
5.38 
5.12 
4.63 
4.68 
5.00 
5.45 
6.42 



69,8e5 
44,236 
46,024 
40,441 
34,022 
24,839 
11,226 
9,994 
10,098 
22,901 
33,769 
58,420 



32,050 



»5.43 



394,865 



$4.83 
4.18 



356,786 
366,120 



$0 91 
0.95 
0.94 
0.89 
0.82 
0.97 
1.02 
1.06 
0.56 
1.05 
1.00 
0.96 



$0.94 



$0.79 
0.70 



Avernsp wi'ight of uiip liiatl al gkrbBgr : 
Wagpn t.'i.OO poi day. 



(113 lb. Two luadi a day tor each tMin. 



The garbage wngons have a capacity of 2.5 cu. yd., and are spe- 
cially built a<;cor(Iiii(5 to the city's r pec locations. They consist of a 
rectanRuIar stoel body mounted on heavy running gear and provided 
with a spring seat. The cover is of canvas, put on in sections, which 
makes it possible to uncover only a part of the wagon at a time. Two 
horses and one man go with each wagon. 

The garbage collection work is earned on during six days per week. 
From January Ist to Juiy Ist garbage is collected once each week; 
from July 1st to October Ist, twice each week; and from October let 



216 COLLBCTfOft .4Vi> ntSPOSAL OF HUNIVWAL RBFVSB 

tu December 31et, once each w«ek. Tbis schedule is aot followed in | 
th6 dowD-tovn diatript, wherp collections are mnde dnily. Thp avir-i 
1^ numb>er uf toiimm nt work each week is as followri: Janiiury to 
July. 18; July to October, 24; October to December Slat. 18. The . 
citv is laid out in 18 mules, each being dividi»d into two s(.*olionE. 
One section is a long haul from the loudinK stuliuii and the other a 
xlifirt haul, Tliojic are f^ouped as far an po.<sible so as to Rive each 
tftiiii nil Pfiual mimber nf niilps to travel per day. By ihifl method no 
team travels more than 16 milett daily. Each t«ain collects two taadu 
doily, except the hold le&m, which collect* from three to five. The I 
itiad.s iiiiit<t ftveranc i I Ions. The average haul is 4 milcft. 

The nibbinh mmons are fntir-wheeled, with wooden htxitiw of] 
3 cu, yd. capacity. They are druvrn by two horws. 

For the collection of rubbish, Uie oily in divided into eifclit dtt>-J 
trieta, eneh heinp in ehnrf[e of a foreman, who has control over about 
four t^eaniji, four driven, and one helper. The number of teams 
working daily, throughout (he year, average" 35. Tlie numlwr nf 
Umdi' each team haulx varies with the lenjiith of haul, but paeh muHt 
rolled at leaftl three toadn daily. Tlie averaxe lenRth of haul ia] 
2 inilea 

The garbage Ib traniiported frnm the loading itt«liuii (o the reduc-* 
tioii plant by rail. iSpccinl run, with n capacity of 80,000 lb. and 
holding about I-IOO eu. ft., nre used. Uy mejins of a sidinK at iJie 
rerluRtion plant and another at the loading tttation, the curs are hauled 
directly from one to the other, a distance of iihoul 2 mile>i. 

Table 70 gives* the first cost of the eolli'rlion and tniDsptmatJon 
equipment. Table 71, computed from figures in the reportti of th« 
Ueparlment of Publir Service, gives the coet of cullevtion, exdustve 
of (ixed charges, uf the different cIoMtcs of refuiK. 

The rost of cillecting manure in Columbus in 1917 and I9t8 van as 
follows: 



Yrt 


Tom : CmI vt 




Pntn 


1017 
»18 


SOI 
3008 


S8I03.M 
WWO.OT 


«1.3S 
1.33 


S348U.00 
4040 .00 


S17.36 

108.0) 



10. Toronto. — In Toronto, in 1910, Oeborn estimated (he r(>»l uf 
motor lrans|x^rtatioa for gntbageund ashes at 14.0 cenia per tou-uiile 
for a full load and at 23.5 eents per ton-mile for a part load. These 
estiniatee were based on 8 length of route of 40 milee per day. 



BSTIMATrNG TBE COST OF COLLBCTtOX 



ai7 



U. Itsntoo. — Table 72 ^ves the cost of ctJlectins gftriwge and 
»ta in Trenton, N. J., from March. 1912, to March, 1913, and a 
niDuury of the cost tor suboeqaent years up to and including 191S. 

11 StmkHaf. — Table 73 is taken from an account of garbace 
coOeetioa and ineiiieration in Sewickley by the Borough Engineer, 
Mr. Edward E. Duff. Jr.* 

Tuu 70. — Co0T or EqmpitBMT roB CoLLCcnoH and TaANBroiiTATtoN 
or RBTCSB Dt COLVUBVB, 1912 

(Populatian Mtii)ut«d U 193,700) 



Total ooat 



Coat p«r Mplta 



Lotdiiig Btatioo mto 

Ltading statioii 

CoOBCtioo atables 

'nvtle ud driveway 

Gnding, fill, electric wiriog. 
Hiihny nding 

4pri»0ecar8 

349itage wagMtB 

MnbfaiBh wae»B 

iipecul nibbidi rngpaa . 

Bmn 

HuiMB and ataUe ■«4ipliM. 

OGce equipment 

atcdlockera 



10,136.40 

14,101.64 

42,260.81 

2,tfi3.10 

2,379.54 

3,161.60 

7,664.00 

7,151.10 

3,466.50 

1,625.00 

24,000.00 

5,484.31 

K2.51 

310.00 



$0,043 
0.078 
0.219 
0.011 
0.012 
0.016 
0030 
0007 
0.018 
0.003 
0.125 
0.028 
0003 
0.002 



Totab $123,316.51 



$oe3» 



U. CalgBfT. — Table 74 givei the eoeU and other particulars for 
dectrie tmefca at several njes. at Calgary, during 1914. 

14. Tolado — Table 7.5 grren the coot of garbage eolleetmn in 
Toledo. (Mo, in 1918 and IHl!). The eolleetinn in organised under 
the Street Oeaning Department. The city in divided inti) three 
main distrieta, each in. chantR • ' a wperintendent. There :ire :38 
wagon diatrietH, each generally wrved by one man :ind i J'hurw 
WBgoo of 3 eu. yd. capacity. The wagonti generally rake nnt* [wui s 
day. In a few diiiCriciM the wngnnH have two men ^nd r^ilce two Inaitit 
a day. 

U. Los AagdM.— fn 1017 \H riw mnt of .^nllerrion vrith .^^fnn 
track* on long haiilH Mnu C7*t ijer ton. and uning r*«mit <tn -ihorr 
12.00 per -on. The long houln ire from fi -o I -nil««: rlic 

•tf.uuWMl /••wturi. -injrrmhf^ 11, 10!-'. 



218 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 






a 



a 



if^li 



Hi 



o 

IS 



fi 



3 






&I 



5 



© (N 00 



00 00 C4 

p4 *-l iH 

cs o o 
god 



S3 



s 



o o 



«ss 



^ t e 

« « N 



8 



CO 



s 



i 



>|-3|1 



^^1 



3 

i2 



o « t* 



52 
8° 



SS 



-- © o 



S3S 

» M N 

1^ ^H N 

t« a Go 

S5" 



© 
S 






i 



3 



■| s 



h 

^ 



t2 



1-1 « 

si* 



© Ol 



« S 



gS5 



£3 



?ffi 



5^ 



3 

I 

t 



f-H 



BSTIUATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 



219 



irenge is 8 miles. The operating cost of the trucks ranged from 
tSlO to $250 per month, including fuel, wages, repairs, and dcpre- 
eUtioo, but not the wages of the two garbage coUectorB who accom- 
puf the truck. The trucks haul 2| tons per load, and make at least 
1*0 trips per day. 

Tails 72. — Coar or Collbctimo Garbaoe and Ashkb in Trknton, N. J, 
Mabch, 1912, TO Mabch, 1913; 

AMD ALSO A SmilfABT FOR 1914 TO 1918, IncLCBIVB 



GuuAOB * 



ToUl 



I ra|»m. 



Uior I ia31».e3 

Tt^ i,i».ei 

HoiM 3BO.O0 

BummuhI i«pun 2SS.90 

1,32S.15 

33. 7.1 

SIS.OO 

30.37 

178.07 

S7S.48 

18.13 



^'ctaiBsiT kod draff 

HoTMihocinc 

Li«h. 

lt«t«B, phot ud boOdiBff 

U«Bd|«Ben> 

^VV^ 

TmbUic 



Cart 
per ton 



ao.sss 

0.319 
023 
0.022 
0.103 
0.003 
0.039 
0.002 
0.014 
0.045 
0.001 



Per- 
ceaUcp 



Aanm t 



ToUl 
cost 



Cut 
per toD 



47. » 
3S.2 
2.0 
3.0 
9.4 
0.3 
3.Q 
0.2 
1.3 
4.1 
0.1 



«e.373 01 

3.493 03 

290.00 

370.66 

1.250.3^ 

34.40 

M3.02 

24.03 

1TB. 07 

574.63 



SO. 166 
0.091 

o.ooe 

007 
0.032 
0.001 
0.014 
0.001 
O.OOG 
0.016 



138.00: 0.004 



Per- 

nntmcp 



48.2 
36.6 
3-2 
2.1 
9.5 
0.3 
4.1 
0-3 
1.4 
4.4 

1.0 



ToUb I3I4.3M-38 »1 098 ' 100.0 113.175.97 |0 344 lOO 



WKtlPC' 



Tdili (or 

Uttk 3kt: I , 

■•14 113.437.37 SO »4 

1»15 i 13.340.34! 94 

1>1« I 14,679.92 99 

UlJ ' 17,193 13 107 

■•IS. . 21.935 09 145 



«7,8«3.02' 10 46 



18.360.14 

18.727.47 
30381.67 
29.523. 16 



0.44 

43 
0.45 
«1 



'Told loDBaae of nrbaCF id 1913-12.930. 
t Total tonsas* of mbm u 1913 -30.470. 

Hubbish is collected at a cwt of 96 centJi per cubic yard. In the 

. ■**'t-hau! lone the collwtion was made wHth team.", with day and 

'•^"t jihjftH. The day shift collected 22(K) ton» per month at a cost of 

~ 1^ o per ton ; the night shift collected 2800 tons per month at a cost 

°* *1.18perton.* 



• Fron Bivtiutriitg u4 C — If rf i ' iy, Scptenber 11. 1919. 



220 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RSPV8E 

Table 73. — Cosr or Collzctioh of Gabbaob in Sbwicklet, Pa.; 
AvsRAGB Ybarlt Chargb, Mabch 1, 1910, TO Dbcbmbbk 31, 1914 





ToUlotwt 


rmi iiiii in|ii[^ 






S1432 

400 

124 

37 

440 
60 


10.286 
0.060 
0.025 
0.007 
0.088 
0.010 




















MiBceUaneoufl 

Totals 




(2483 


I0.4S6 \ 






\ 



Table 74. — Averaob Opkratino Cobts akd Fixbd Chabobs 
FOB Two 1-ton, Two 3-ton, and Two 6-ton Elbctbic Tbuckb 

AT CALOARy, AlBBHTA 
D«ta for lOM 



Itemi 



Supplies 

Repairs 

Enei^ 

Garage 

Garage employees 

Driver's wages 

Interest, sinking fund, and depreciation 

Storage battery department 

Average cost per month 

Average number of days in service per 

month 

Average number of miles per month . . . 
Months in service during the year .... 



Two 

l-tOD 

truolu 



SO. 60 
30.05 
11.83 
10.00 
28.75 
77.80 
50.83 
14. 5S 
216.08 

26 

722.6 
9 



Two 
a-ton 
truelB 



SO. 65 
91.14 
15.71 
10.00 
37.75 
85.80 
68.23 
23.61 
271.46 

25.5 

543.5 

9 



Two 

ft-tOD 

trucks 



SO. 75 
191.14 
33 19 
10.00 
42.76 
80.00 
8S.54 
27.78 
258.99 

26 

539.6 




■' 

eoat 

Tabid- 



10.6^ 
104 1» 
20.24 
10. DO 
36.42 
81 .20 
60. 20 
21,90 
248. S4 



The cost for collection depends on a number of locnl factors, suet* 
aa character of refuse material, climate, frequency of collection, lengtt* 
of haul, and size of wagon. The coHts per ton for loading and hautis^ 
various refuse materials, for various methods of transportation, ancJ 
for transfer stations, average approximately as shown in Table 76. 



BSTfMATmO THE COST OF COLLECTION 



221 



The figures in Table 76 are intended to give only roughly approx- 
imteeoBts before the War, and should not be applied to any particular 
local utuation without careful reconsideration. A special study 
u required -in order to estimate the cost for each locality, hut the 
iufonaation contained in this chapter may be of material assistance 
for the preliminaries of a specific case. 

TiBH 75.— Annual Cost or Garbage Collection in Toiado, Ohio, 
AS Shown by Cmr Rbpobts 



1918 



I9IB 



^pervision 

I^Jior, collecting 

ViacellaneouB supplies 

Qone-flhoeing 

BUckamith and wagon repairs . 

^tta^iAUl.&^.^l 

6ani ^ of 150,378.95 

CMlecttoD 

Tons collected 

Co0t per ton for collection 

Average length of haul 

Coat per ton-mile for collection 



S 3,225.63 

40,310.14 

1,725.27 

1,571.30 
26,600.00 



I 5,127.51 

50,770.24 

1,001.00 

2,658.65 

2,127.90 

35,257.37 



S73,432.34 

20,320 

S3. 61 

4 miles 

SO. 90 



$90,942.67 

19,990 

S4.S7 

4 miles 

SI. 22 



Th» taUe iadudei no kllowance for Sxcd or general ovrrhetid charges. 

*f ABLE 76. — Costs of Loadinq and Team Haul, Transportation, and 

Thansfer Stations 

Data for lOlt 



F 



Loading and team haul: 



Transportation: 



Garbage 

Ashcfl 

Rubbish 

Manure 

Mixed refuse . 



Street railway. 
8tcam railway. 

Ilargc^ 

Motor truck . . 



Transfer stations: Gout of operation . 



Coat per 


ton 


SI. 00 to S3. 50 


1.00 to 


2.30 


2 00 to 


6,50 


1.50 to 


2.50 


1.00 to 


3.00 


30 to 


0.50 


0.10 to 


0.25 


0.20 to 


0.40 


0.15 to 


0.30 



O.IOto 0.20 



222 VOLIBCTIOS ASD DISPOSAL OF MVNWfPM. REFUSE 

18. Ptteraon.— The coaU of collpctioii in Paterson, X. J.. 
1920, «xclu»ivo of overhead duu-gee, were appronmftt«ly as follows: 

Yard>«* Coal pn oubM jwti 

ElTirtrir tnirks , .51,026 53 txnta 

GBsolinG trucks. La,383 AS " 

Horn- wagoM.. „ M.MO 74 *' 

G.— PRIVATE COLLECTIOM COSTS 

Frivatc BcavcngorM arc more oft«u found in email (hao in Iurc 
cities. In the lutler the coHt nf onllection to the ituliv-idual served 
is KPnerally K^'i'^ter than wlieR the niunici|>ality docs the wark. Coat 
of private collecUona of )iarba(;e in several Ohio citic« were oloted U 
have beei) as low as 10 cents per family per week. IiiKmall nwidential 
townn in lUinoia, the co.it of collucting garbugc by Bcavengcm ^ttrifs 
from tl to %4 per family ppr montb. In some inxtniiccf), the removal 
of oahea i» included in this figure. 

a.~IMPROVED RECORDS DESIRASLE 

The recording of unit coKt diita for loading, hauling, trnnsferring, 
and tranflporting refiiKC niBt.eri&l», in of sufficient value to merit rnoro' 
aUeulion by city officials than is now UBU&Uy given. More reeordai 
should be kept and inurt; information published in the annual reports, 
so that useful comparisons mjiy bo made and a check Mcured un Iba] 
efficiency of local work. The coHtM should Iw kept and reeordrd iu as^ 
much detail an prarticable, in order to cover each element of the work, 
and also the work dune, if |H)«>iible in man-houni and lon-mil». \ 
i^ugicesteil standard form for cunt statistics has been published by the' 
Anicriciin Piiblit- H<-a]tli Annociiition ami the American Society for 
Alunicipal liopruveiaeutti, and is repro<iuoed at the cod of this chapter. 

1. -SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIOIIS 

In order to make n fair extimAte of the eost of eotlecting and 
delivering refu.M*, wc must consider nil the various partM of the work. 
\Vc should fir»l know what is neceo^ry l« liui'l the wagon propcHy, 
under the (-oiidilionv cxii^ling tn Ihe speeilic town; and this will vary 
chiefly with the m'h.-^uu, n-ith the cost of apporotie), the locution of ttio 
can, and the co«t of labor. We ahould then oetimate the work nf 
hauling, which variefi with the kind of wagons or tnicks uiwd, whether 
horee-drawn or motor-driven, and with the lengtJ) of haul. The nut | 



SSTIMATISG THE COST OF COLLECTION 223 

nil depend also on tbe rate (A travel, influenced by the grade of the 
territory and the character and paving of the streets, and on the cost 
of the team and driver, or of the motor and mechanic. 

The cost of transportation from the transfer stations to the points 
of fiiul disposal depends on the particular method adopted and the 
distance to which the refuse is to be transported. These methods are: 
Conveyance by trolley, bai^, steam railroad, or motor truck. 
Detailed estimates should be made of several of the most available 
tatua of transportation, in order to discover the most economical one. 
As the collection of city refuse is sometimes the most expensive 
part of the refuse removal problem, it is quite important to make 
tltese cost estimates in as much detail as practicable. The selection 
<tf the most economical method of final disposal, as will be shown in 
Chapter XIII, may depend on the cost of collection and transpor- 
tation. 

Although the data in this chapter will help in making estimates, 
the recent large increases in the cost of labor and materials requires 
Rpecial caution in adjusting the prices prevailing before the War to 
those relating to present conditions. 

Aa an aid to judge of the probable costs, we add Table 77, which 
^ves the cost data in a number of American cities and for various 
years from 1910 to 1920. The information is given for mixed refuse 
•nd garbage separatdy, and for ashes and rubbish, both mixed and 
separated. 

We wish here again to emphasize the desirability of recording 
information which allows the cost to be estimated independently of 
vagea and team hire, and therefore, of the variations both in the 
wages and io the length of working daj's. This is done by recording 
the efficiency of the labor throu^ time and work elements. In 
other words, when we record the ton-miles per hour for hauling by 
various meanSj both when collecting and delivering for final disposal, 
we shall be able, not only to compare the efficiencies under different 
organizations and conditions and by different means, but also to make 
safer estimates of cost, merdy by multifri)riDg the hourly cost of labor, 
prevailing at the time when the estimates are made, by such factors. 
We have endeavored to give such figures where they have been 
available. 



224 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



t 



B 


1 

>• 


«■ 




U 


a 




o 




H 




S 




s, 




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3? 



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Hi 
111 



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' 3 " " 














X 3 « a> 


3S33SXS 


■«< O 1» * O -■ -J 
rt t- oi rt n 4- ^ 


n « 


n « M « 


n 40 lo « c« <-* «-■ 


■-• lO -< n es ra -« 


■o « 


SS25 


3?SSi3SS 


S!S;:sss;8 


:S 


5 o a o 


o o o o o o o 


o o o o o o o 


- o 



« 'iC ■»« -« ■ - ■ - 'Oi-« 
. ■ ,ai >Cae ^« r*r* 

ti m I 

o o < 

E^!;S3SS3SSS38$ESS = 3SSS 
g3S3;SSE33^g|SSiS3aSS3 



S :S 












CO lO 

.3& 



fi 



:: 2 SS2a 

a — — — — — — — — — — — aioioio — -"■-'-* 



8- - 



-^ o 






■? ■ 

3s 

I = -- 2 

E- = c S 

J' >, i 3 

^ 5 .J * 

L- caw 



■a s 



•■ i: -.3 









X 




►i. its i I 

i« £ i. = 2 S S 



226 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RSFVSS 



k 
^ 



1 



S 



1| 



I'- 1 

5 _; JS 

O 3 ■= 

■< 



If 

^ s 






a: 



o 



82S 
3-- 



3 8 S&:$8!?83S 



OH-Hnoooi-i 



■ ' PS 

■ ■ K 

' '8 






Saae : : : : : 

e o a o — 






M 

n 


3 






sse; 




d 


2228g2SS2^ 


S 


2 e o 


oeeoOMOoo ^^ 


o 



1|S8 



g32 



Sh S28ZS283SI 



.6 oni0rt>^t^i9>^'4 ■ * S 



«> <a •>> •« 



is' 



i5 5« 



2 R 



!SSSS32;:8S: 
:2:fs^S^a:f: 



a I 



" lis r 



:^2S'S^^^S'^ s 



A a 49 

>-• <x o 
o 1- *-■ 



2 ^ 

£i2 



H 

,2 

I < 

.9 o 

S ,2 






:0 

n 



s 



228 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBFUSS 



I 



J! 

B 



3 

6 



Q 9 






n 



S 3 

O d 



5 



U 



s 



lis 



B 



9 A -D ' 

5u " 



fi =K 



-S 5 



S 

a* 



: ;g ; 




:si;ii 


.R 




...... .o_- .= . . . 




^3 


1.13 

0.37 
D.fiO 
0.S8 


-4 4 

■J r» 

e d 


: : : 


K :3S 




-izs 




^^ r^ ^ 

— c * 

-• d d 


a «- 




■ o a -^ 


a = = c; 


'■ \ 


. a o o 

■ o O O 




3S3 

Q Q _ 



B 8 s ; S S S Z 2 g g 8 K 2 : 

•* — WM — BHSio.-iCTOi-cO' 

J3 w" o ^ >c ^ «■ »" ej oo «■ e> -e e o 

St " - "~ 



n 10 « iQ <a 3 

ID ^ n d d d 



CO M 



^5 



35^ 






& QD O -^ 

fc-S ** -t *H 

^ A e t^ 






*3 o a t- 
a a ai 9 



aaSS — S5S 






:0 

■a 






ESTIMATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 



229 



- S n 

■a- 



:S3ff 
-god 



:33 
: o e 



1/3 to 



.S3 : :3 



» -o n n « o H 

w * lo * to * e* 

^6 a o o 6 6 



5 3S 
d — d 



ges^gSS 15 S«S8 



S M 3 t * * 



w^ — ci— — — — oi 



d — 



•a la 



B 



a 
I 



' i 

I o a ■r la ta 

So o h- o 

_ — p M a 

■ 8 I us H 5 

« ^ ci M e^ 



S'3 



h- -4 O O Q ^ ' 

if3 *4 K n O ?4 < 



— « 

33 



eq oa c9 r- 

9 Oi Oi ^ 



91 C^ O Oi "4* 



Is. 

a '■ 

a a 



J: 






.■5 

o 

g" 



O U 



a .a 
■f i* 







230 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 












O 

o 

o 



7 



H 



E 
1 



3 
u 






1.2 



IJ-i 



3l 

^1 



s 



;ll; 






' oa « 9 O 
■ n M 5 — 

' cj 6 b ci 



n t« O « M 
« to 5 r- r^ 








gssss^s 


tib ^ -^ n t^ 
C4 r-^ « r^ rf 








61,834 
4,608 
2,708 
28,167 
66,300 
16.714 
16.013 



ssass" 



N M O 
4 1-1 ^ 
n « O 



« » 2 



« t- o 

S5S 
iC t>^ itf 



8 8. «. 



« ^ PT "O ^ r- M 
» « ^ rv rv r^ an 



^ O so O 00 40 

^ S t^ o ^ 9 

r<- 5 c>) o 4 « 

« — n .f « w( 



2g S 



= 3 



■a . 
o - 






fill- 



3 



: * 



I. g 

IT 



1 

a 

a 
I 



5 

i 

a 



^ s 



! 



■ .5 5 I 
8 - *3 

I S S « S 



APPENDIX TO OHAFTEB V 



STANDARD FORMS FOR STATISTICB OF Ml*M':iF.,L HKH-HK 



<Tbe forma berewitb leprodueed won n<wlnl at ifcr wtm 
Fubik Bealth AnocistioD. Havuui. Cuba. Dvcc^bn. 1H14 



(1) Name of dty. 

(2) Population... 






1» 



43) Character of population 


LhCraxCA* 19 




P"P»*J l.-n* ^vgolaMivt 









A . Htatisti€» or 
(4) Avenge daUy quantity of refuae: 




232 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 
(5) Weight per cubic yard: 





Miaimuni 


Mftiimutn 


AverafE 




















Rubbish... 
















• 








Total refuse 























(fi) Quantities of refuse: 





Poundi per capita 
per yp«r 


Pounda per 1000 Popwl^' 
tioD per day 










Rubbish 
















Total refuse. 










_ 



(7) Mechanical analyses: 





Olasa 


Bo DOS 


Papor 


Rasa 


MetaU 


Wood 


Dd^*- 


Garble 

Ashea 

Rubbish 










. . 




■'■'^i 






.. 






— 1 


Total rofust'. 




1 




....-/ 



ESTIMATING THE COST OF COLLECTION 
(8) Chemical anaiyses: 



233 





Cwboa 


W«t«r 


Ash 


VolatUe 
MatMr 


Greaae 


Tanlucc 


Am- 
Enotiik 


Potuh 


Rubbish 

Total refuse. . 



































B. Statistics of House Treatment 

(9) Size of house can 

(10) Type of house cbq 

(11) Number of cans 

(12) LocatJon of can 

(13) Is can act out for coUector? 

(14) Number of separations 

(15) la the gartuige drained or wrapped in paper? 

C. Statistics of CoLLEcnon 

(16) Is collection done by city or by contract? 

(17) Does the city own the stables and equipment?. . . . 
(IS) Number of collections per week 





Summer 


Winter 


BiuiiiMS 


Rnidentiol 


Outlying 


BuiiLneaii 


ResideDtiiiJ 


Outlying 


Garbage 






















Total refuse. , . 

















(19^ AvRmcA Imf^.h of hniil! (CirtiAps) 
Rubbkb 




234 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBPUSB 
(20) Type of collection wagons used: 



Garbace 



Aahta 



Rubbkh 



Capacity (cu. yda.) . . . 

Material 

No. of horses 

Attendants per wagon. 

How dumped? 

Coveted? 

Maker 

Cost 



(21) I^Vequency of washing wagons: 
Method of cashing wagons: 

(22) GquipoieQt required: 





Bummer 


Winter 


Gtrbase 


Ashes 


Hubbtsh 


Garbftge 


Ashes 


Rubbi^ 


No. of wagons. . . 
No. of men 















(23) Cost of collection per ton: 



Garbage Ashes Rubbish 



D. STATrancs of Dibposal 

(24) Method of disposal— Garbage 

Ashes 
Bubbiah 

SanUary Aspects 

(25) Disposal by dumping: 
Classes of refuse dumped 
Number of dumps 

Area of available dumping pounds 
How are dumpe kept up7 
Cost of disposal per ton 

(26) Disposal by burial: 
Location 
Character of soil 

Area required per ton per year (sq. ft.) 
Frequency of using soil 
Number of men employed ~~~ 

Cost per ton 



BSTIMATJNO THE COST OF COLLECTION 1336 

Pn DqxMl bjr feeding to pi^: 

Ii the di^KMkl by the dty or by coDlntctT 
Anmnl paymeDt to contractor 
iMttioa <rf piggezy 
Nnmber of pigi Icept — Summer 

Winter 
Kmnber <rf pip lost per ye&r 
Are the pigs vaccinated? 
Ib the garbage BtertUsed before feeding to pifpiV 
Number (tf men employed at the piggery 
Grmb cost of operation per ton of garbage 
Rerenue per ton of garbage 
(%) DJBpoaal by reduction: 
Location of reduction plant 
T^pe of plant 

Quantity of garbage reduced per year, toiiH 
Number of men employed at the plant — HumtiKT 

Winter 
Cost of plant 

Gross cost of operation per ton 
Quantity and value of by-prod uctM 
Revenue per ton 
(29) Disposal by incineiation (including rubbiNti ttortingj 

Capacity of each plant Numlierof pUnU 

ClaBses <rf refuse bunied 
Locatifm of plant 
Typeof fdant 

Cool used per ton of materia] burr^ 
Total nuiid)0- of men employed at tbe fdaul— Kuoiiuer 

Wi«t« 

Gross cost per too 

Bevenue p(T ton 

Cost of plant 

Value td povo- developed 

CSjnks' ntiliaation 

B. MisceLLAMET^cs SraTunvJS 
nC) Under what rity defwrtuMSit m tl« wwk *»e? 
m I How IB manure ke^ at Bt«bk«? 

How is manun- r«ooredf »«* dwp««dT 

(£!i Are tiia<e loadiuc sUtlkms in tlie city* 

If su, faow nans wkI far «lt»t utewK ^ niu^r 



CHAPTER VT 
OUTLINE OF METHODS OF FINAL DISPOSAL 

The term " refuse dispoBal " includes the final dispoBition, utiliza- 
tion, or destruction of the refuse materials after their collection and 
delivery. Several methods are in common use in different countries, 
aad even in the same country under different conditiona. To be 
satisfactory to a community, the disposal must answer two require- 
ments: It must be sanitary, i.e., it must not cause a nuisance or danger 
to health; and it must be economical, i.e., the expense must be the 
lowest that will effect a sanitary final disposal of all the refuse materials. 

The demand for a satisfactory final disposal may be progressive, 
for, it generally becomes more and more important and urgent with 
the growth of a community. In very small towns, simple methods 
suffice for a number of years. In large communities, more complex 
and costly works are necessary. In many cases, also, the relative 
importance of the collection and disposal is essential. It is obviously 
unwise to provide costly and comprehensive disposal works before a 
general and efficient collection service has first been developed and 
adopted. 

There are no marked instances of disease caused or spread by inad- 
equate or improper refuse disposal. The disposal works, however, 
may, and frequently do, have a secondary effect on public health, 
produced throufi;h flics, mosquitoes, rats, and probably still other 
causes. These facts may be verified by a visit to any city which has 
no proper method of refuse collection or disposal, particularly a city 
in a warm climate; for the modern standard of public health and 
comfort cannot be maintaiiie<l without proper attention to them. 

One purpose of refuse disposal works is to provide a definite place 
to which all the waste materials can be brought, and thereby prevent a 
promiscuous dumping on or near places where it might become objec- 
tionable. At such works the materials must be treated so as to con- 
trol the organic decomposition, to prevent objectionable odors, to 
recover any valuable parts, perhaps, also, to be used in producing 
steam, and to reduce tlic final residue to the smallest quantity and 
the least offensive condition. 

236 



OVTUtfE OF UKTIiOliS OF FI.VAi. MSPOSAL 



* 



Sev-eral lupUiuda are available for aucb disjiuBal, tlieir preTereiicu 
d •'I*'' ■>''■■*(( ■"> ItK'nl rrmdilioiiN nnil the clinractcr of Ibc muttrials. 
t-U'it of Ihcm have been tried and developed to a natisfaeWry degree 
of efficieucf itnd eeotKiniy. Tliey urn iiiPiitioii<Hl Ix'low, ni>d the 
beet gf tbem vriU be deeciibcd In detail in nulieequent chapters. 



A.— NATURAL METHODS 



I 

^M 1. Dtonping into I.ar|[e Bo<li«8 of Wa^er.— Such dumpinfc hti» hetn 
^" practiced by cities situated near ueeaiis. lukt.'s, or large rivers. The 
rr/uw rnatcrialfi are truiusport«d on nciwp tti a considrrablt; dislanee 
from th« Hbore and there dumped; or, they are diHclinrged into u 
flowinK stream brfow plnreii of hnbilation. The methtxl hiut heretofore 
seldom beeo pennanently satisfactory, beH»Lu»e of lUe nuisftiioe rc«ult- 
ing tnmi Koating refuse frequently eitrandiiig un the shnres. 

S. Diunping od Land. — Thih luelhml is folluned more tlian any 
iithar. Dumping garbiti^. «!<jM>cially in Iiltsp (|iinntiti«^, without niixinK 
irilh other materialu, how«'ver. creates olTensivp eondit innK. Putre- 

kfaetUiQ and By breeding may soon produec (piite eerioita riiiiMinceH, 
Klion the itarlntge i* mixed with a suDieient qunutity of ashi^i, riibbiiih, 
'If atreet sweeplnis'. itie duiiipiiiK i" lews <ibjectiiiiiiihle, [trjicndine on 
the quantity and character of such ud(l(^d materinU and on the climntc. 
Aohni aiid nihbish witlmiil (cnrlmjie may nomeliiiieH bi> diinipeil nith 
no aBrnaiv« rwult^. A proper miMiif; of the malcriaU, a coverinc 
with a thin layer iJ exeaviited ntiil. and pniiM^r eontnil of (he dumiw, 
are oecoLsnry in order to prevent fly brevdinic. imlrefiirtioii, and fins 
Oa the duttipi>. Sueh duni)>s, to be ^ali.-<ractory, miiKt, iievcrthcle«Q<, be 
JHiffieiently far from habilatioiiii, uiid munt be given proper attention. 
A. Land-filL — DibjhjimU of refuse by taiid-fill. with the addition of 
4:lwn malrrial*, »neh ns earth, ii« neeitnipli.'thiMl by flllinj; in large 
dspfwrionii or old exeavatiom. Oarhatc*. ash(>s. and rubbish, ah they 
mo IjcinK dumped in the fjll, may, for instance, be mixed with street 
|H MivrmpinK'i, or earth taken from near-by building exeavBtiorM or burrow- 
^■^tii. Wlicn a mifTieieiil ipiantity of nui-h fairly clenii tnaterinl is 
^Ltaind with t he refuse, nnobjeeti'Minhle oxidation of the orjcanic matter 
^Vuay take the p!u<-e of ixilifrnrtion. 

4. Plowing into SoU. — Thix tnethml \» Minilnr io principle to land- 
ffi). Ii i» ijHod in >^inie Euro|wnn cities, in ve-ry candy noil«, even for 
th* disposal of niixe<l refu.-*. The refuse is first spread over lh« 
KTount) and Ibcn wiiliiti a day or two turned into the soil with a 
pbw. 

L Burial.— A disTJutal by shallow burial in tnore applicaMe to 
(WbasD than to other refaae pinteriaitt, and ia generally mure avail- 



2.-?8 COLL£CTlOi\ .UVO DiSPOSAL OF SiUNiCtPAL HEFVSE 

able for xtnnU towns thnu for larKc citim. Xevcrtfaftlcra, it in uacd 
Bucocsafiilly for a very large popuUlion in Berlin, Germany, where 
(he Hoil h almost eiillrely Httad. 

6. Feeding to Hogs. — The food value of frcfli Rarbaite lit sufficiently 
grttit U) liav(- iii!nii; fwdtiig to hogs an old and verycomimm method ol 
final dispijMil. Hoteh and eatjag housefl generally have private eoUcc- 
tioR9 for thi^ purpt>'e. and realise a profit therefrom. In' uearly all 
dities some of the garlmge is diitpuHHd of in this way. lu late yeani 
thv use uf this method hae been grvutly extciiiJcd, and jt promixes 
further wtisfoctory dovelopmeot along both sanitary and economical 
Udm. 

B.— ARTIFICiAl METHODS 

1. Sorting. — Sorting eunHiRls of itepaniting, generally by hand, tbe 
marketable from the worthleiw portionK of the rvfuiv . It in applicabb 
chiefly to iwhwi and general rubbUth, and in citip* where the pupulft- 
tion in wftKleful. The net profit to citiei< i.s imually quit« small. 

2. Incineration. — Tlii^ method, ae it« name implies, is tbe burning 
of all c-umbutitibLo wa^U' malertale in specialty designed furnaccr^ 
When garbage i:t collected by itself and alone disposed of by incitiern- 
tion in garba(;e fiirnneeA, or so-called cremHtories, an additional fuel, 
as conl. gux, or nil, munt be ufted. If HuHicient fuel in added, sueh 
material? may i>e burned liatisractorily, from a ^aIli(a^y standpoinL 
Such burning doe»4 not usually reimlt in producing very high tem- 
peraturea, and therefore mich a furiiaco is spoken of as a " low-t«m> 
pcruturc " inciticrnl'tr. Mixed refuge, coiitiduin^, bc«idi'» garbaco, 
uliio Miflicienl f|uaiititia4 nf unburnt coal in aAhcw and of riibltish or 
litlrr may burn readily without additional hicJ. Under forced draft, 
even an inbenMe heat can be created; therefore, i>uch furnaces mtt 
called " high*tcmp»raturo " incinerat«n). Thu ut ilixatinn of the stmm 
and clinker produced by them may yield a subatantiaJ revenue and 
thus rediiee the net cost of ineineralion. 

3. ReductioD. — The reduction method of dinpoKol h applicable 
only to garl>ftgo and dead animals. The process consiste. briefly, in 
cauHinR the (^rbanie to be sejinrntiHl into four |>artt«; water, ktmuw, 
tankafic and volatile mntler. TniikaBe,i> a ilry vcj[rlnble. animnl, 
and mineral material, which is fairly stable, miMtly fibnuiii, and haa 
some fertilixing value. 

The fforkft require the ittstallatioo and maintenance of appumtua 
and machinery whieh in mon; or \i^» voinplicated. The method baa 
boen economical and oatiafactory in some of tlia larsc oitias of Um 
Unitod Stal«B. 



I 

I 

I 

I 



IR 






OUTLINE OF .\fBTHODS OP FINAL DISPOSAL 239 

4. HtsceI)an«ous.— Under tlii» heading several other pro«e«Ms 
Ale oiCDtionnl. Ax yd, none of Ihvm liu:< gaiiiiMl an extendi field. 
Only UD« U dmcribed hom in dptnil; it will not agnin be mentioned. 

Qriudinx ibrotfagr) iK a method of diM[Hi;<il dcvf-lopei) in Franc*?. 
It is more Kenetally applicable to mixed refuse, but i^ a1«o suitable 
fnr garliogi.-, when this i« sufTiciently dry. 'The refuw is ground 
Itrtwfcii tWo rutHtiiig steel-toothed |>1ntiv> (fiatciited by Scbodlcr) 
friim which it falh into ours (or rcmuval. Tho f^ound nuit«rial 
is Kaid to look somewhat like leaf mould, and is UHed for fertilizing. 

CirindinK work» were ejttablii-bcd at Vitry, u few tnilcc aoutheoat, 
ajtd at St. Ouen, a few miles nurthwcMt of Paris. Before treatment 
the larger mnlL-rialii, »udi n» bone?, tdi>^. iron, etc., were |Mcked out 
and »old. The remaining laatcrial was then ground and rabcfr- 
((uenlly nifted. Atmiit foiir^fifthy of this material were eomminuted 
And sold aa a fcrtiliEer, the other fifth vros incinerated. Tha treats 
ro«nt nf 10 u>aa required about 20 h.p. Eaeh of the grinders broke 
up alwui 2!) toiii* daily, The odor of the final nmlerial, though quite 
prunouunnl wiitiii it htft the work^, dtsappeared in about tlirise weelut. 

The average conipositiun of the grouiid-up refuse, determined by 
Viviai, Guillou, and olheiu from many samples, whs: 

To4aI nitragwi 9.31 partu per 1000 

Total pboMpburie ackl 7.12 parts per 1000 

Tutalpotaab S.28partaper 1000 

Totttl lime 54.90i)kTt«|iur 1000 

The east of preparing thin fertilizer ha^t nut permitted a profitable 
aole. yK it haii reducwl the previous cont of dinponal. It sells for from 
1 to 2 frftaM per ton. The hygienic value of the procc«a is low, as 
tfaore » no daitniction of the pathogenic germs which enter the refuse 
from bcHuMB and aireeta. Grinding has not yet boon tried aucceesfuUy 
in Aneriea. A recent moditieation in Europe b a mixing of ground 
rafniw with cool dust to form briquettes which are sold as a household 
(ueL* 

A proeoM far making a poultry food from garbage lias been devel- 
oped by Mr. Kdward C. Emery, of Los Angeka, Cal. 

Oarbuice, after eomo careful preparation, haa been fed alao to 
Betgbn Imres. 

Mr. Moncan, of Chieaico, ha» develofied a proceta of rc<luetion by 
which alcnhol ia prnduived from garbage, and Dr. HoKt, of the Mine 
Hty. ban endeavored to fonvorl the odluloM of gnrfaage into dextrin 
or ilmtro^c- Neither of tliew prooessee has as y«t prognMsed beyond 
tiie ozperinieatal stago. 

•bABialMth«K«-Fael Conit>wir hMiWMQrbMa loriMrf. bkv{ncili**uiMobv«eL 



CHAPTER VII 
DEPOSITING IN WATER AND ON LAND 

There are several methods of refuse disposal by which the naturaT 
agencie-s offered by large bodies of water or the soil are utilised. 
These agencies comprise chiefly the bacteria of the water and soil, 
the larger forms of vegetable and aoimal life, and the physical action 
of rain, frost, sunlight, and other factors. 

These methods comprise the earliest in use, and are still frequently 
prncticeil by large and small communities. Mr. W. H. Maxwell* 
iri'ferring to Luciun's " Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Dia- 
covorics ") de^tiTibcs u pillar, found among the ruins of ancient Rome, 
iH'tiring the inscriiitiuii, " Take your refuse farther on or you wiD be 
fined." Kven in those early days unrestricted dumping of refuse 
wn.-i apparently ooiisidero<l objectionable. 

WhtMi doiMisiting methods are properly conducted and restricted, 
thoy still offer, for many local conditions, a disposal which is both 
siitiit:iry and ocoiioniical. Along the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, 
sumo cities dump gMrbnge and mi^ed refuse at sea, and several have 
cMutinniHi this practico, oven after the introduction of modem higb- 
tcm|icr:iturc rt'fuse incinerators, whenever sea dumping was found 
chcaiMT as welt as toinix'rarily unobjectionable. 

Two pencrul considerations should here be kept in mind: First, 
it should Ih- n'alianl th;)t certain characteristics of the various rejected 
materials hold im)Mirtant n^laiions to the success of each of the above- 
mclH^>>n^^! mcthoils of ilis)Htsal. Secondly, thesse methods themselves 
should Iv .MusidcriHi in the light of their " relative values " in munid- 
\^<t^^ sniiitniion. 

Si>mi' small oommuniti*>s cf.nnol afford to do more than provide 
lUc Kirt>st s.iuitary i>ss<'niials. They may l>e obliged to be satisfied 
with establishing a gi>i>ii t"\»Uei.'tion se^^■ic^^ and to dispose of the refuse 
(om|ion»rily and chciply in the Kt-sI objei-tiiniable manner. Large — 
and i<s|it>cially wallhy — tMUinmniiies have pvaier facilities for 
wUblij«luii4 better but mi.w r-Kiiensive mcthois. Local conditions 

4 D^ml ol Ton Rtl^- 



DBPOSITSSG IN WATSR ASD Oif LAffD 



241 



ikmild tnd viU, therefore, oonlrol the aeleclion of the more mitftble 
dupoaal. 



I 



A^DUiHPmG orro laage bodies of water 

Otunping into largn bodiw of wiLtcr hu been prnctineci lo a con- 
S*i('rah1e extent id tlie pAot, but ila mm is now bi.>coniing morn aad 
nrce Kstricled. It is & mpthiHJ uvailahlo chiefly in «oiumuniti«» 
•IwK the WACOiutt, thu Missii^ippi Kiver, anil llie Greul Luki-s. 
Il a kvulablo for nil kioda of rcfuw. Due l-o tlie fitct that the liglitcr 
iwlidttof (tsrbofte niid rul^ish drift to and are stranded on the shores, 
dus dutopinfi luM sometimes beconac quite objectionable. Along the 
''('"eiKjtippi River, and near ocean bathing re«ort«, it h&« in somo 
^■otunocs been prohibited becauw r>f the unde«irnble results. 

In u report on the Karbacc dispona) for Milwaukee (11H)7), Heriiig 
"*anlii Duit in ISW) the garbat^e of the city was dumped from InrKO 
*wwm iiiio Lnke Micliigan. Tliia ilispOKsl cauiwd a public proicat, 
"*cauK: p*rticleieo( tlio garbage were diwrovcred in the drinking water 
oiiLaiiti>d (nun t.hP I,Ake. 

Tli*r report by ParaonB, EfcrinK. and Whinery, on Waste Dispoual 
•■ New York, makes the following recommendation on dumping at sea: 

" AD Uw ncTuse niQectioDB could be duinpod in'o the Allunljc Ooiwii, but 

'^*>ntaiBtriy tha bmt harmful mutcnril nitikn lukd the fiiiilMt Daals. so that 

Kuiirli g( thr flnalahU mius will bo scattered along the beaches*, through the 

•*»ti of cum^i and wind ThiB fouliuK uf ih«; beaches cjrates b Ditiuiioe 

t. tlir (MiblirilkmlilDiit IkMuUcudio iidernie The cattofH-ndinit thi-8n.>w» 

*ft^ to rt» that LhtTv would be no danger uf fouling the l>ca('l]>.f), aufi the 

>-* ami mtrTTUixJnns r«iM<d by nionnN niu) ic«, fiirtiid tbo um! of this plan. 

(lumping of rvfiwe at sea ihouk] not be morled to f>!(p«pt in tWHM of 

, wheo the period of lucli »ca dumping will be of Bhert duniliun." 

Thifl metliod of di.4{>Qsal ha^ been used for New York, Bmtoo, 
"ioim. f1p\-eland, Milwaukee, St. Louts and New Orle^nfi. I'Ik^ -W 
^"■*"Ur>. n «■!>«■ tmng unlim<li>d by hand in iho oevan o(T Sandy Hook. 
t\iim|ie the cHic* of Uvcrptiol, Miirwillc!^, and Nice Iiavc dispueed 
ir refute bv dumploK at sea. 'l*he principal require men ta arc n 
vbcrr the refuMj in duliverod from the nagona, and [>ri)|X)r 
Utr taking il to iiyi. The wharf i>liould be of •iub«tantinl enn- 
Irlton, preferably of niincreto, with ample (iicililies for cleaning, 
a* neatly r«l-profif a» prmsible. Kig. .'>7 (Chapter IV) shows a 
■"Pical New York wharf. Fig. lit) shows a SI. l.oui»i wharf. 

Tlie feoWH slinuld he con«tructml so that they can lie iinlondcd 
*^t>i(Ily and eaatly kept clean. Deck-A«ow« must be unloaded by 





242 COLLECTION AKD DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFt'SS 




Fia. ae.— 8c»w bnnc UnkMited hy HmmI in the 0km, off Sandy Hook, 

New York. 

(Prai-TlMDhVCMlaf Mosldfwl Saffli^** bj H. dt B fmrmatmi. 




PEpa^rTiffo r.v wathh axd oy lawd 



243 



^^ 10 E 



huii, hqt bottom-ilanipins stows, ak used by New York Cily, ure 
pR^bt«, Tablo 78 t>how« the eo»t M dumping mixed rcfiiM} at sea 
in Bwtuii In 1013. 



Tauui 7ft.— Coar nr DrMPiMn at Se*. Borton. Mjuw. 

tFMin AimimI RvporUct RmtiI •< PablM nviu, loll •n.l 1013) 



Umm 


Uai> 




Channtor ol retuaa 


Tutu (if 


Cml 


Com |Mr 
ton 


1: 

II 


1912-13 


8u.(mf 


Mixctl rcfuM, prin- 
cipally a.oht». No 
pnthaff* 

i'i|>aily uIms. No 


6I.30S 


25,0W.£() 


SO. 3137 

0.1088 
to 3612 





tiVf 



» 



B.— DUMPING OK LAMD 

Some kiudfl of refuw material will prubiilily alw8>'s l>e di&poxvd of 

n " dumps." Tlib nivtliod. Iht-rvfure, nhuiild receive curcrul couaid* 

•rarion- Pmwnt diimp.i, in many plntN^i, are obj^otionablo, and 

impruveiudiiU in iheir maDagement are desirable. As often prai>* 

ticcd. tbo nrfuEC u Lakoa to waste taad or low Uad and deposited 

over it proniucuouiily. The delivery \s by wagnn, trollev, motor 

rk, or utraiR railway cars. Picking over hiipIi diimj» is orien prac- 

iced, and ftometimes left entirely to scavengers. The presence, par- 

imilnrlj', nf rabhL-b. generally having »omt' siiiall valuo for picking 

ver, iurrrtnnai the defiirv of some i>oor people to scavenge the niiitcrial 

dcftimiMl thftre. 

T' <r materials thus di-sposed nf -ihouid coittral the manner 

of iii>. 1^ fluch plana. Streot itwcopinfp* in Atdcrtea, building 

eicavaliaoa, houae rubbish, Milid iiiofTeiiitive maniifnetuhtiii: wastes, 

id aalifl*, are generalty. nt Icaat in part, dit^posed of in this w-ay. 

BWtwialB can be handled tto that very little, if any, nuisance 

rwuiwl to near-by prupiTty. WHion rubbish is included, fires are 

wnAimm started, nci-idenlnliy or intentionally, and may burn for 

■\ha. The smoke and uneonaiimrd volatile organic matter gen- 

y rreate ilissurcenblc odors. When Karhaice is present, llie 

Uiwoee from the «rooke and vapors is *till more i)r*>nounoed, and 

, when e:ipoM«j for several days, it ptitrcfies and may give off 



244 COLLECTION AND DrSl^SAL OF UVrNlCIPAL RKFVSK 



very offviuivc odurs. Fliee and nia <ure attracted \jy tlic garbngc anrl 
breed in it. 

Arna.4 available fur dumping near Ihc wjurcc of the rcfuHC should 
bv carefully cotii«itlcrcd, berjitii«« the divUitirc to Ibcm sfTects the 
ciMt of collection and the selection of the m«lhod of finnl dUposal. \i 
Hiioh uroiut are acaroe, ihoy sliouhl l>e reserv<^ oidy lor better mnle- 
riala which may be dejiuHiteJ th«re without nbjoctiuu, an otherwiMCi 
iin uuiicccx^ary udditiun Ici Ibv ci>st of huuliii); will result. If utbrrj 
methods of diipoeial arc provided for both n^rbBgc and rubbifib, tbcj 
nvAilnblft Kittis will lant lonRer for the better materials, ant) a. miirh ' 
l>e(<ter n.|>pcar!in<;e will I>c maintained. 

Thv curefiil consideration of Ihc pro|wr upkeep of dump« is quite* j 
impariant, both lor sanitary and ccotio [iupaI rea«oait. If there is 
a sufficient and reRular supply of aabes, street 8wee|)in{:s, and c*ta-\ 
vated soil, a Uttle additional garbage and rubbiith may sontetimn 
be diapused of sali»fiirtunly in this moinicr; but. in this ease, the 
tnaterials mu#t bo adcipiiLLRiy mixed and properly i^prcnd. 

The appearance of such dumpH can umally be Icnpt iiattpfactory ' 
by a mnilerate amount of attflDttOQ. There should be o euflieient 
numlwr uf lab<irer* In imx ihe ninti-riiiln, Iriiu the edges cif ihe dump, 
prevcnl or extinnuirth fires, and stop nndi>><irable •icnvenKinK Where 
possible, the complclcly lilted portions !-:hould be covered with soil 
mid KLi'ded. In name exposed locations, it may Ik adviiiable to 
enclose the UAcd portion of the dump with a light, movable, butj 
doate, Eeaoe. Thi.s may hide the luiMghtly portions, prevent du«il and 
loosB paper from bloninK away, and more easily prevent unflcnirable 
acavem^ing. 

Fig. 01 showxa dump at I^tuisville, Ky., with the attendant work- J 
ing force, and fairly wclMiept pramiaee. 

The dump» at Si. Louis (Fig, O'i) have been well kept. Tbeyj 
are used for the db|Kisal of otdictt. rubbish, Ht-rcct swcvpinp. an<l| 
building oxcuMitious. The H-fuse is brought mostly in woRona I 
which arc emptied by Lilting, although some of il iit brought in private] 
vehicles. The dumps arc in ravinex and other low-lyini! areaa aboatl 
the city. On the larger oiie-fi, three or four men are employed to 
trim and keep them in neat condition. Thi.-»e tnen spread the luatir- 
rial and cover the rubbish, or burn eome of it in pUt». Tlie rr«ull0 
are satisfactory, and scavenginKifi praelicully abnliithc^l. 

Probably more refuse i» diwpaned of by dumping than in 
other way, and yet i( 1.4 iinciommon Ui find any .■'peeini bixlgct appn^l 
priation for the proper municipal care of rr-fune dUpnsal by iblfl 
inetliod. \a a result, there ore uiauy well-fouiidvd eotnplAinttt agoioat 
such places. thiHigli this ncecwary metliud of nlive disjiuHal 




oe uvxicrPAL refuhb 

and— uniier proper regulatioos and 
vv* of iBip uuiD g of ashes, street sweepings. 

amgr beouae afldutre diould be eovrr«(I. and 
. •atlkr b* pnkibittd or pot under strict coiitrul. 
Tk* aM J Bp — Jb bwgBl* oo tbm BMChod of dischargiDg tlie load. 
BnMiMi tump ur tip wiBpini ar« pnAsnUe to tboae from which the 
hAm* wm* b» unhiadBil by hamL At ChiMgo 5-yd. or ft-ifd. wagons 
an UMd IB fc^fHtTf lalta* and lobboh. Thry npen at the back, but 
dto atA Upt. Ik taieaa abmil) tworty-fiv* nuuuta bctwccu etop and 
tu itnluail suGh a m^m. (^UB-dsmping frei^tl cnrs may be 
la ailvwriaflr vbiB a awvabla tnok ran be laid alcmK the vdge 
of th> itWQ it pai^bla Mm nay b* um^I to lift removable wagon 
biNh*^ unl dtat dkBp Ike oaaMnta. That has beeo |M-«cl)c«d at 
BtvoU^a. N, T. 

> Tha «gal «t ■aialaMiic dvMp* winw from almost nothing up to 
the nMk uf bttrini. B4<Be t^ ^^f * oost of 10 cents per ton of rcriiM; 
malaltiliilll a lacw» JMirnp k& rMMOaMy good rendition. Tlic coet uf 
Jfaptwl nf nIm* ui ty» way in ififlsrvnt parts of Bonton in given in 
Table T*. 

The rwq ui wiBeats for the upkeep of dumps may be concisely staled 
■s (cillavi: 

d. T1k« damp abouM bs Bfied m as lo liiuit the length of the dump- 
ing sdgs as mofh as practwabte. Th« expo«icd odj^nt arc the tnost 
objectionable parlM bccauw of the diFBrultr of oovcrinR them. 

A. A suSiciont iiuautity of ashes, stn-et dtrt, htiilding oxeavalion. or 
borrowed earth should be secured to cover and level the dump i>to[>- 
erly. 

e. Completed portions of the dump shuuld be seeded and partly 
parked, us ia freipicnlly doite (New Or1run», Nuremburg). 

J. \n sravenginf; should be allowed at the dump at any time, 
•xcojit by city empluyees. 

f. IV^rtoble rubbit<h burner* should be kept at tbfi dump tu bum 
Inrice, bulky pcirtionsof rubfaich not suitable for filling. 

f. A wiktiir |»iiM: should be laid to each dump to aupply water for 
putting nut firra nnd prpvr>nting diut. 

\ •iilhcifiit nupply uf kerownft, cretMil w>lulion, or other fly 
jp'Miili'ldit *)i'iiil<l Ih' kcirt on hand, so that fly msEKot* may hv killnl 
Iwtfom iln<rn|n|)ini hilu Sins. In addition, fly traps nhuuld t>e k«pt al 
thi» il«mi>s, M ihmi' tn WnwwiPr, Mans. (Kit. W). 

h \M\ iiii^li DHtbnin' am P«nniit !>e ntsdily kept M^parated from 
B" ' ' l>r iliimpcd. 

I 1111]) ■l«vit)<l W rnr1o-ed with a light 



I 



I 



DEPOSITING IN WATER AND ON LAND 



247 



3 



aJ 






S 



9 



i 1 
S 2 



i 



ES 



n 



3 



S3 



1 

•3 



1 

U 



g 2 



s 



5 



1— < 

s 



3 

1 

V 

a. 






o 
■a 



00 



00 



E 

I 



I 



I 



III 



5& 



&1I 



a 









248 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUSWtPAL REFUSE 

movable board fence, to fAcilitate oontml nnd provcnt paper and dust 
frum blowing away. 

j. Thf dump should be in cbftrno of a uniformed foreman wtlli 
authority to enforce tbe regulationB. 

Thp reimrt of tbc Department u( Public Wurka of Mtlwnuket.' 
for I'Jll slates that 173,327 cti. yd. of sisthv» luid nibblsh were h,ii)li>d 
to dutupH. The roct of the dump maintenance wa.** $2,033.97 for 
lubor and 140.00 for water. Tbc rcaultiug coel, therefore, was 10.012 
per cubic yard. 



^,£~ 



Fid. fl3.— Fly Tnp» ant Buried Fish S 



-!pr H<ig i'tirro. 



A few data in reference to the cost of dumping on bind nt MiU 
vriiul{<.-<; nnd Chicago arc shown In Table. SO. 

I n DoLroit, \ia^ <^xcnvntion.s in bri<>k yardH hav« b<>cii filled ia ' 
with nihhish. thus nccnmplifihing two dciirahlo purpOMii. 

Parv dixpofvii of much of its organic rcfuM on land, where it i»| 
spread out for fertiliung purpoxce; it is delivered by train or iMat (o | 
the outlying country. 

Tabic SI showA the coet of upkeep of dumps in scvcnU Axuoricau | 
cities. 



C— LAKD-FILL 

ThiH mothud of disposal b a davelnpment of dumpinft, but itiflc 
from it. berjtui* it includes a definite process nf mixii 
with a sufficient quantity of inorjianio nwitcnols to n 
Qenerally, a sufficient iiuanMty of earth is n 



nKHwrmn in water ash on laho 



249 



instfe a tlinmugti digi<«tton o( n moderate r)uftntily of gArhogc And 
Uher putraKihle maleriali*. Hiich earth may l)« taken nithpr fr^mi 
biuldinii cxcavntkiiiH or frnm tmrrow-pita. .Street nweepinicH, )iril«« 
Wtdy lultbUli and street manure, may also aut^u'er the same purpoM. 

Tahle fiD. — CoHT or DruriKo on Lawd 
ll>kU IroBi RcpiNta uf Il«>r<l vt Pulilic W«rk>) 



Tw 


JUll.ttJI'«.MI. Wtt 


<:iiii-*iii>, lu. 


MitraMiiih 
ha«lnll« 


OhI at duDp 


Cubir jmtia 
of bftlicri 

anil rubhuh 

llRolmt to 

dumps 


Cofl of Jiiiiig) 
buint* Mnfv 




Pur 
cubic yard 




IV 

nibia yard 


tDII 
WIS 
l»U 

\m 
loia 


173;{37 

310 IU8 
321,m» 
3S0.373 
333,375 


r2.(f73.D7 

10A57.on 
7;i57 -25 
6.1lll£.8S 


$0,012 

o.tm 

Oi3 
0.018 


l,r>14,2:» 
).4W.81ti 
1,487 431 
1,406,667 
I,&l6.0fi7 
1,371.400 


SW1,7S2 m 

7r>,a.>r>.ft.') 

12.9i» 72 
73,022 !i9 
M,283 n 
m.HiH 34 


«).04A 

0.(M« 
0.tM!l 
W2 
04.i 



TwLc H\ — Cdwt (H* t'l'iLEEP or Dumps in Sevbkal .^wkru-as CrTiKfl 



CUj 



rmr 



^••wlo, Hurt ■ 

■■tMttk. ()■ < . ,, 

*-I^I.MIn(i» 

k*teBkd Uuroofk. M. V. 

'-wnilit, Kr ' 



19tl 

Mia 

t*l« 
i«n 

into 



Total 



M*,077 



a47,U9 
M.000> 

!3a.flO 
1 U.td'O 



Con 



ToUl 

PWSBkt 



9I3,H8 
&.300 

tsica 
S.313> 

14.Tatl 
4.210 

taxxt 



•0 0113 



017 
IW 

osa 

OIH 
•0 00» 



MU 
U 07 



to 0*2 



Nota 



Ona (Jump 



TvD dlalrlffts 
Tilt** ilMrleta 



'i«iNlaH hall U>i- p«CndUton tn hr IribuUtry, 
*lb««« el BatHHi nl Unnirlnl Riwntrch, 

' Ro^MtK 

intoi Hiavuiwlit til 1*hI, an4 Loularilli abtaual by tttter. 



260 COLLECTION AND DJSPa<iAL Of 



TmCtPAL aSFX'SE 



Buoh & melliod of giu-l>aK« ilMpofta) hu been uaed at Uavtoi 
for a number uf yean, lliv city U rcelaimiiiK, in lUui 
nrcyi uking t.hi» MuutiiMippi River, by diinipjnf; over the e«lgo 
river hank, which, ai ordinary stages, t» from S to |2 ft. high. 
waicoiu) are back«d to tti« odntc and emptied by Ulting. PiIm 
material for mixing «Jid cuvering are always kept in rcaHiocvw 
the top of the blink, and are njiAoedeo that there is Jitst <>n4H]gh : 
between thi> piles for the wnKotui to back up to ilie edge. A/t 
wagon pi:llH out empty, two men, nnth lonK-liandied shnv^, st 
the covering material from tlic two adjacent piles. In a wry few] 
minute's, thororore, the garbage is covered lo a depth of from fl to lOia. I 
This depth has Wrn fuumi mi Riciettl for niitisfactorr proivrtion. 

At times of hifih water in the river, it is n(K'c»»»ry l« prnlect the ' 
edge of the fill by placing " matlreMfs " over tlie bank. TbcMin 
mudf »f ordinary cliickon wire, and arc A ft. wide and 15 ft. long. 
T«ro ttLri|w of wire, about, 10 in. apart, nnth old hay held tietwrfu, are 
laced loRfllier with marline. The miittresMs «rf hung nvcr the 
face of the bank and weighted with rip-rap. The wash of tbc boali 
and tlic silt of the river very quickly seal tb« matii and pre^'cnt tbea 
from b«iiig wiuhed uwuy. 

During the .lummer, about 1200 eu. yd. par mouth (30 lorn pn 
(lay), of garbage and night-soi!, are dUpowd of iu ttiis vn^y at DaTfft- 
port. They are mixed with material from cellar excavations, a^iei, 
alrwt nweepinga, and spoil from paving and sewer work. 

At times it has been neccn»ary to purchase udditiotuil malarial fa 
mixing. Under lht>c cotidilions, al>out 2 cu. yd. uf r^overiiig nnd init* 
ing material have been required for each l.i^ cu. yd. of gartwcB M 
night-ftoil. In 191(1 a concrete rcUiining wall wad buill in onlsr l4 
protect the dump from the river wuich. 

tl is stated that the land made by this fUl k very valiiaMe. Xht 
filling is controlled by a foreman and three laboront. The coal of tUf ' 
force ranges from 1K.2 tu 35.0 cents per cubic yard, the sVKtage Img 
28.0 cents. This rcprcacnte the entire coat of the turbage dinpTwl, 
and, in 1016, wa« c<|uivalcnt lo about 14 ccnU per ton. 

At New Orleans thiH melh<Nl ha.^ l>een fiiUowed fur the dfepMil flf 
all kinds of refuse exc«pt garbage. Small parka have been coavtrocMd 
on ihe fillf^d land. 

A similar method of disposal is lued at Ksseo. Germany, wfrtft 
there are a number wf lowareoH which can take a HU of fmiti 20 to 30 ft. 
Cenernl hau.'io refuw is (lumped there and mixed with earth. la 
Warm weather, some lime is added; tikis lends to prr\t>nl the bmediait 
of flic« and al«o tlic putrefaction of the gnrl>age. Thetc fUla are kept 
in good order by laborers, and aorae scavenging i« permitted. 



Duposrrisa ts watkr asd on land 



251 



Sty of Niiromhurg, BnvArin, aim diitpoMn^ of it« rofuse by thin 
Hod. Many ucrtw <>( [larkH tinve hiwn inadc on aretu* wliicli Wfire 
_ , Mnd pita rx«ivat«d for buildiiij; purposes. The city otTiciala 
^^ve demnnittratpd I tint tliiti mHliod u saititary aod dues cot vaiwe 
''Qy puimnce, wlieii |>roperly coiid iict«t] ; il u< nisu ccuuomiciU, if tho 
value ul the rednimod bind i« canaidcred. 
An appruximation to such n disposal is sometimes found by litniting 
-^ctuMitityof garbage ItMtn to the &I1, or, better, keepiitK it out aJto- 
:«llH!r. It nuvly hitiijwns, howevw, that all ihe garba(;(> c&a be 
:«|>t out, atxt often too littJe attentiun ii< giwu tu sLicuriniz u sttf- 
icJetitly safe mixture. Fretjuently, olso, the proportion of rubbii>h 
itaoKTVot, kod fires have- bt-uu lighted ui reduce it« tiuantity, thereby 
; distlSTVciibk' odore. 
The CfMntials for a .Hucce«8ful practice of this method of land filling 
B nufliclcDt (iiitiiility of earth, and a proper tiii:«iiiK mul tri mining, 
' wirtb furaiahes the aerobic baeteriA to oxidise the orRanic matter, 
adds etalulity to the till. Ah a precaution, it is well to have on 
ad nt vuch dumps a sufficient quantity of liquid germicide, hucIi 
*MH ereiwt Milutitm, pine oil dUinfpi'tunt, or a solution of gn^houi^c 
"^nstc and krroHciic, for iLse in killinR Ry maxxots. 

fclIl Chicugo, in 1UI3, oning to eome difBoulties with the garbafte 
ueCioD conlraetor, it became necessary to provide a temporary 
uu of di:<iK»ting of the garlKigc. It was treated with an acid and 
n dump«d iirid Nprcad (nil in oltcriintc layers with ai«hc« and rub- 
V^iih. The garbage kh.i brou((ht to tht> wharf in iieows. In cold 
^—'^fft'ttthcr il quite commonly froic in the wagon hodies. 
^B Thfl plant conMftled of a whnrf, 150 ft. long, li%-« K-ouden vats for 
^^^talling the gorhage, a trsi-k along the vrharf, two 5-tini loi-uniolivc 
^^^Blkea, 1200 fl. of movable track for use with 8ide-<lumpinK cv.n, a 
SiMting plant, and a storehouse, hlnch vat had a capacity of 50 tonx 
^ KkcbagR, and wbh covered and well undcr-ilrained. 

The garbage wm dumped into a vat, until trithin 2 ft. of the top. 
The vai waH then filled with water mixed with a sufiicienC quantity 
«r crudf bydrochloritr and ouiphuric acid, in et|ual part«i, to make a 
1% MoluUou. The charge wati allowed to iitand in the vat over night, 
Ifas ti^lMK' was then drsMm off t hruugh the under-draiuK, Wheu 
1 WW Iftiriy dry, the treated material was pieked up by the 
mnes, depodted in lide-dump ears, and drawn by harden to the dump. 
Tke garbime was carried in wheelbarrows and spread over the bottom 
of the txcsvatioB to a depth of about 1 ft. At the same time the city 
Hh wagons delivered their material along the edge of the dump. At 
«i|ht ibu aehw wetc diatributvd over the garbage to a depth of from 




252 COLIECTTOK AND DISPOSAL OF UUS'ICII'AL IlEFl/SB 

Thia ptocfiwi was conliriued rrom October I, 11H3, to Jims 15, 
11)14, or for about 200 wrirkiiig d&ys, the uvcragc quiintity of Karltaico 
hanilli<d per day beto^ 300 tons. The settlement amouiitcd to about 
9 ft. from an original dnpth of from 25 to 35 ft. After one yvar. Mime 
of the mnl«rtal yriu excavated to a depth of 5 ft., aiid van found to bo 
dry and iuoffonsive. Tlie procesa was devised by I>r. (I. B. Young, 
the Health ComiiiitvtimiCT of Chicago, from whose repirt tbe (oro 
going account ia taken. 



D.— PLOWING INTO THE SOIL 

The dispoBft) of ref(u«e matwriaU by plowing into the Mnl is it method 
very similar to burial. Tliv rvfuse mutefials nrc iipreiul over the 
ground in a thin layer, and aro plowed in at intervals, by which proccM 
they are partly mixvd and partly covered. This method has htvn 
UMcd at Cologac, Gcriauoy, where niixcd hou»e refuHo ia iHpread over 
field:* having an area of 50 acres or more, and ut inlen'abi of one month 
ia plowed into the soil. 

For raw garbai^e Ihiit method b not as Huittible aa burial, because 
in warm weather it must be covered very quickly in order to prevent 
a stench. 

The plowing method for garbage disposal was tried at Yotk, Pa., 
in l!K)f>, but ttx) long an intcr^-al wax allowed b«1:wevn the plowtngs, 
and the objectionable odors which reeulted were obnervahic for ncvvral 
thotii^aiul feet. 

With Europpun niix<^ refuse, the offense from putrid Kiu'bap;^ in 
largely cUininatwI. A grfvater trouble renuH* fr*>m many looee piccwi 
of pajwr blowing ahont , which was especially noticeable on tite Ootogne 
ficldn. Thin iiir^lhod (loes not have a wide applieation. 

At the WorDBator hog farm, wme garbage ha» t>een diapo«ed ofaitcr- 
nalcly by burial and by plowing into the soil (Fig. 64). The soil iii a aj 
randy glacial drift, well suited for the burial proc««>s. nowing in f 
Ihin layom was found to cause less trouble from flii*s than dumping 
and covering in pita. It waa found neoceeary to have laliorers trim 
tlie furrows in order tv cover the garbage thoroughly. 



K.— BCRIAL 

\Vhen properly done, a aluillow burial in ihe wiil ronfltttutoi &| 
(ully sanitary and adequate method of dtHposa), and |iartioularly forj 
garbage, to whieh it is generally conHned. Manure and night-«oit' 
can al(>o Ite well dinpofied of in this way. In xiiiail rommunilieti it ia ; 
BmonUly beet to cover both of thc«o matoriald with iu. i>f ml. 



254 COLLECTION AND DISpaSAL OF MtTXICrPAL RKFUSS 



Th« tKfttincnt of LUe buri&l field b simple. A treoch is duff, About 
3 rt. wide nnd 1(1 or 12 in. dopp. The garbage \s dum|MMl intu il fntm 
the wagon and wprcad out in a luycr from 6 to 8 in. deep. When an 
adjoining trench m iltig (or thr> iinxt diiy, the exi^avaled tiialrrinl is 
used to cover the K»rl>Hf(e, already spread, Lo a depth of from 4 to ti in. \ 

In cold winter weather, the garboKe ttometitnee tnay hf. P)ire«dl 
on the ground and cuvcred with aiihce, which are plentiful during that 
aemton. Tlie mUluru is then plowed into the soil in the spring. A 
sufficient Iciigtb of trench eiin be plowed open to last through thetPinter. 
Kor iiti ]iverii^f> winter, liLtling four monthfl, it would l>e nec <sn« ry i 
tn open LWO ft. of trench to prnvidc for one ton d&ily. The sarbage' 
in the trouc)ie>; may be covered in the winter with Iuiu[» of frosen 
earth picked (roui the earlier excttvatioiut and piled up in ridges 
adjoining the trench. Very Uttle decompaction takes place in winter, ■ 
and t ho covering can be trimmed and reinforced in early sprinf;. There 
need W i\u frar of flies, either feeding or breeding a( the burLiI field, 
if the garbage is covered, and the grounds are kept clean and well 
trimmed. If small breeding eeulera for flle«, rats, and mice develop, 
they mo t>c aUmpcd out with a suitable germicide. 

The fti)uipment should include a tool-buuse, with a room for the 
keeper, and a stove. There should be a place for wa-shing the wagons, 
ftnd preferably, also, a w&gon aeale. Building a fence or plaotiog a 
hedge amund the field would »erve to bckou the operations, if thi^ is 
dcaimblc. 

In large cities siifiicient aTca for buriAl '\a not generally avaiUbleJ 
within reasonable hauling diKtancc>. In Milwankfte llm melbud ot\ 
garbage disppwd was practiced during the winter, until a few years ngu. 
At Umt limetwo dispoBjd areas wore available. One bad a aandy wil, 
Uie other wan clayey. The Irenche* were from 3 to 4 ft. wide nnd 
about 12 in. deep. The depth of the garbsge placed io thorn waa 
nimut S in. in sumnipr and about H in. in winter; it was Ibea covered 
with the excavated material from the next adjoining trench. A vco-J 
tkw of trench from ID to 15 ft- long suHieed for about one (on of gar-j 
bage. In the sandy location, the mil oould be reused after one ymTr 
but, in the clay location, only after four yean. The fuu>imilation 
the garbage was asHJfiled by plowing every ax montlis. 

The garbage did not art v» a viry good fertiliser. The first fUJininec 
after the clay ground was treated, small vegetables eould be rai<>ed. 
The twit at this time wan not good for growing grain; but, with fns- 
iiuent deep [ilowing, grain cmdd ho grown during (he nerond .•'iimnier.J 
At Milwaukee, (he annual rejMirts of the CommissioDer of IlnUllil 
for 1907 give tbe co«t of burying garbage in winter at from 50 
oente per ton. 



K 



*. 

W 



DFPOSlTtSO IN WATER ASD ON LAND 265 

Diflposn) of gnrbaKC l>y btirial m cnmmcnUK] on in the special report 
(19101 iif lUc Ohio Stilts Bnnrd of Hmlt)) on the collc«ti<in nnd dixpoiwt 
of city waHtw m Ohio a» follows: 

" Thi* raMhod of duipoml may br mnridem! m Mm primitive ihic in thii 
State. »n )lll^ ix'^Ti ilx-nueelsewlieve. It was found to bt' in uHcin liulMieof 
tbv R(i<w aturiittl, aamdy, C^UimbtH. bat in a great nuinlNT of luunicipniitiea 
thKHMtlxAit ihc- SUiU it in (bv ninlomBry rncthod of OinpgwU. Tbi» it aipo* 
cittUy true u( liic stuiUler cx>minuiulir3. At Columbus, tbis mcthiKl was tjo- 
pluytnl HH » titmtfRkry rxpixlioiiC ituring llic tiiuv ulii|whi|c betvr«!i!n Ihn rxpini- 
tiou uf u i-vntna-t witli a |ihvat« cuuipuny and the uonttnK-tiuD ofa tauiiioiiial 
ndurtioR phnt. 

"To provtdr n fit,** for tho dtspM*] of K<irhagp, Ibe City of Colunthua 
puirbucd a fann of 70 acres suiUibly located soutbwnt ot Ihr city, and 
anploynl it roniinuruBdy fnnii IWHi In UHO w a liurinl (urtuiid (or bII njirin^, 
tucht-Aod, and dead auimaLt from tbo city. Tbe uutoriul waa plBC«d in iiit« 
dux 1" a drplh of about 2 ft , with an avrraitr width uf 7 f t , and of iodctiniie 
ktDgth, and rovercd with a lay«r of froni I to 2 ft. of looae aoil Approxi* 
tuatdy IS mat* of land were umkI in thi« wn.y each year. 

" Dii^iOMiJ liy tiuryiiiR, nhvn pmimrly coniliiirtMl and wbm thii point of 
dtapoesl is auitabJy located, givffi no onuae for obj^ctioiw from a Huiitaiy view- 
point. At Columbue the mcl Itod was entirely vrithoiit objcrtion, as the burial 
gmund waa at a distance nf at kiut IINN) fl, fnsn any dvrolliiiit, and nxtrfrno 
cair wan lakcii to avoid the pr<>iliiclii»i of udont by prompt cuvcring of the 
material altrr diitnpiiiB. T\w jiriiiciiMl obje^^Linn that haa bc«n raiM>dtothia 
BMthod of dinpoul, cupncially m Urff cities, mieit aa Cotiunbiia, hax hf*n the 
estnowly long haul which b reriuirrd in oonve>'ing the gartiai^ to the burial 
gniind In small vonimuiiittiw wb«rv tliis ia iMit uhjwtiunable. tbo awthod 
of diflpoaal is vatirely Mtisfaotory. 

Alter burying; tbe iprba^ slowly undergoes dcrompOBiticMi. and finally 
OMUpica a Utyer orto^ilth to one-third uf ila oiipnal thii^tniaw In th« Npring 
at 1909. aevcral holes were dug to imoovcr garbage, which tiad beeu buried 
EordilTtmnt porioda, with a vimv lodMcowriitBtowhat oxtwit dKompoaition 
had boen eompleted. The foUowiog was the result of tiia obacrvution:!. 



Tune hwiei Conditiim. 

6loOi»oathB- In vpr>' hicli ftatoof pulrefaetion. Objectionable odor. 

Con*tituehl« rctidily dt^tnifCuUiutble 
7 moalha In a somewhat leea state of piitn>faciJnn ; Mill readily 

dixUnguathablc. 
20 OKNitbs Still dKXMnpoeinK and of sooto fvitl odor. Character 

more or lem dislincuiahablo. 
SOmontin Material innocuous, leaemblin); butnua tnnttcr, and 

baring a slight must; odor, very (aintlj dietia- 

KDJahabla, 



fc 



" It wiD be arm from these obicrvatioiu that the garha|:e waa ont ran* 
ontiroly atabl« until two nnri nn»>half yaam after lU burial, but, at this 



256 COLLATION ASO DtSPa^iAL Of MUKtCfPAL BSFURS 

time it WW found tn br in woh ooiidiliuii tlut Lbe land was nc&iti rendy to be 
iumI Tor buriftJ. " 

Thn mixed refiue of several million people ix dttpowd of by burial 
at Rerliii, Oerioany, on a large scale. The soil is altnoot eaUidr 
sand, and i» couvprted into very productive land. Su luug as Buf- 
Gm-iil laud ia avuilubie at an economic distance, no other nivitiod J 
disposal will be used. 

At <')iainpajgti, ID. (1916), garbage baa been dixpowml uf iiucoMa- 
fully by burinl for the liut twelve yean. A burial field of 3 acitt 
(Fig. 05), about a mile out of tbe city, ia rented for 9100 a year. Ow 



Fta. OS. — Uinying Oarba^, Ciuuttpuign, 10. 

man carea for thit) &cld, to whicb are brought about four loads of pa- 
bage pur day. It in buried In lrflii«hati about 4 ((. doop. An (•xf^ava- 
tion made in the Karba^ce buried tvfelve years aico, shnn-ed it to bu stSU 
decomposing and to bavo a foul odor, indicating burial at too Kreat a 
depth. In Rom<.>, garbage buried about 1000 yean ago, at a depth of 
from 25 to 30 ft,, when exjiminvd, near the eiid of thu 19lh CcntunTt 
had not complel«Iy decompotwd. 

An estimate of the c«ist of garbage burial for a Rmall conimuDlty 
of £000 people, produciag, in t012, 4 tona of garbage per day, ia aa 
followa:* 

• Fran th* Iltpan ofl tbt CoUettMs ud DfapcNa) td Utttm U VioaMla uul OlMOOIb 
IH.. hj Ottvky. IM, 



DBPOSITISO IS WATEH ASO ON LAND 257 

Ttral Coti. 

Und, 10 wm* St MOO tWOO 

ALtOHUnl'n kuuflc 5IK) 

ffarilbK pfaitfortDfl 2(n 

Wnter oounMtioiM nov 

Dninoge . 300 

ToolEandbon lOO 

PIuiUnK WW 

Bo^liraj- 400 

trsoo 

Coaliitsvnoici SOQ 

Totd tSOOO 

AnmulCim. 

Ubor. ., ..> ttaOO 

Aippben 200 

R«r«Ji* 100 

Spring pluwiiijc >4..>>..*ii<>>..>.> 50 

SISSO 

lliMmtooS8000fi('l)% 360 

ToUl $1910 

Avenge oubL per loo of gvbaKC tl.60 

In bifl report on KacliaKC iliapntul at Davenport, Mr. John W. 
Alvord it&tw thai the cost of cuv«ring about 22.S tons of gartuee por 
■^^y «M Kboat 37.5 cents per Ion. Tlic covering wns soil, cluefly sand 
>iQd MQUt day. It wiu very satii^factory. 

P.—SDUMARY AITD CONCLUSIONS 

The natural tnetlxMN itf refune disposal dfnrrihed h<*rt>in need, in 
our opinion, more consideration than they have received in the past. 
'JTidr nrnplicity and economy heretofore have U.-nded toward neglecl- 
<n« » mfficicnL study of their cfliciency and copt; yi-l they conxtitiilc 
,tn important branch of rity rpfiise dispftsnl work. nnd. as wnme cif 
tjn-ni Iwve ail eKtnnsive applicaiion, they need prpalcr study. More 

att«nHon »hould bo given, particularly to the diimpn^ «> that they inay 

tir kopt innfTeiuive and clean, which ix neldom the custom »t prehcnt. 
Shallow burial of garbBge in the beHt naturid treat mcnt, and ohould 

b« ennxidered rflrefully when artificial methodH cannot rtsdily bo 

OMde Hinitary or eeonomiral. 

D«po«it4nR refuse in large bodies of wat«r should be generally 

eooridcnd only w a tempurary expedient, or he xvufA in an emorgenry, 

miMd t^ floating mutter can be prevented from reaching the shores 

•nd it \a the least expon«v« method of final disposal. 



CHAPTER Vril 



FEEDING GARBAGE TO HOGS 



Garbaec ran be finally diNposi-d of tiy ftwding it t« bogs. 
Kivcn t<r tliciii raw or b fiml cooked or wartned, and sometimes it 
criricliPil wit!) it atnck food. KeedinK ui practiced to a large extent in 
the L'nitnd Staleis. At fnrm» and isolated country houses it ha« been h 
an old and common rustom to u«c gs^hngc for feeding hog!^ andfl 
chickeo!*, and farmers have foiifid it profiial^le to rollert it from tiear-by 
toHu?. In finall eoinmuiiiticn (hi^ mctliod pen<ii»tii, aud even in 
New York, Philadelphia, BoKlon, Chicago, Hi. Louih. and other larg« 
cities, hotel Karliugc in disposed of extensively in ^hi^ way. h 

Providence, Knll lliver, Pawtuckel, Wwrc&iter, and many olkn-f 
cities in New England, feed all their Karl'aEc to hngs. In ISKM, an 
iiive«tigatiou in Maat>.achuw:tlA, by the. ritatc Board uf Health, revealed 
(he faet that 61 eitiee and towns in that State were disposing or gar- 
bage in this way. In the Middle West tills method is ii*ed at Orandi 
Rapids. St. Paul, Omaha. Denver, and t^pcwhcrt. Not uutil lom] 
waK it abandoned in Ixw AnKele?! in favor of reduction. 

Table 82 cxtntain!- approximate data from a number of cities tl 
various poji* of the United Statw. 

Diirintc 1917, owing to war conditions, feeding *'f garbage received' 
much special nttentiou. The United Suiee I^'ood Adiiuni.-stration 
commended ils u^e as a fowl-pniducing and waete-eniiM-r^alioa^ 
measure, iind the War Ucpartnieut adopted il at many of the Army™ 
Canip.4 and Cantonments. I'nder thin atimulutt, much careful 
study has been directed to it, and much uwfiU information has been 
gained. 

PreM^nl practice (1019) may bo grouped in 0«\-erol ehutses, rame-a 
■what an follows' ^ 

(rt) The garlMge ie collected by the city. &ud is delivi-riHl at Inuw- 



fer stntioiw. in or iieur the city, to eontnu'tort wh') 
uperale hog fariiis. Thiit ic done at (ir»nd lUpidx anti 
(6) Tho garlingc U both colleete/i ttnd diipoMW) ' ' 
as at Duuvcr, Topuku, Omaha, Kannnn C* 



and 




FEEDING GARBAGE TO HOGS 



259 



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(c) The garbage \» coWvsXcA ant] disposed of by tlie municiiialil}'. | 
Frequently lh« hug farm i« ut the city or county poor farm, aa at i 
Wiipofister, and other Nrw Knglnnil ciUci". 

(d) Thn gnrlmne in received by n (romimrAlivfvIy larit? nunilier uf 
farnwra for recJioK hoKs oil their fariua. The coUectioun are iceiiej-ally 
inadi* by lh<^ furmvni theinKelveii, but in aome cases the city nleanfiing 
di-pitrtinent delivers it t<) them. In Evannton, III., iind other smnllcr 
eitie^, the (-ArhAgR i^ eollvotfid by t)i« city and hftulcd to * central 
point, where farmer* who want it may take it away. Whatever 
left in burned in an incinerator or buried. 



A. FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 

1. Fresh and Clean Gatbage.^The ehief retjuireinenla in feeding 
garbage to hogs are. to keep it a.« fresh a-i poiwible. so an to preserve 
the highest food value, and to safeguard and maintsJu the health of 
the hogs. Both ii( these r«<;uirciu«ntM eal! fi)r Njieeial sanitary care in 
the houne treatment, coUeotion service, transportation Hystem, and 
the farm. As the hishcat food value dependis on eleanlineAs and 
freMhne<uf, so do these in turn depend on the source of the garbage, the 
ciuTf lukeii in the ecparatioti, the frequency of cuUuctioo, etc. Svlectnl 
hol«l garbage may have a food value t«n times a» great w that nffl 
mixed city garbnge. V 

For feeding purpottcn the garbage ohould uot contain any noticeable 
portions of Ashe-;, rubbish, glass, or other foreign matter. Tin cans 
are cbicctionablc because they cut the moulhs uf the hogB. Tbey , 
tthould be removed preferably before the garbage ia ptaeed in th«fl 
feeding trough;). ™ 

In warm Heaannn, particularly, the garbage fihould be delivered 
to the hug farm prunaptly. Some monagert) of such farms consider J 
twice a week, except in hut weather, a sufficient frequency of collection. V 
This ID the practice in Worcc«)tcr. both in winter and (>ummer. Ilow> 
ever, a more frequent collection is preferable, and it U detdrable that 
the garbage be fed to the hoga in nummer within fifty or axty houra 
after it is produced, depending on the (emperature. 

In large ritiev collection and delivery routes are long, and, further,, 
it is difficult to exclude all foreign material, except at hotels and eatin| 
bouses. Therefore, fending with dom&'<tic garbage from nil hulhlini 
in large cttien in apt to be \nf» unitary and IfM profitable, aad 
practice, therefore, is quite limited, 

En «o&w imitaneee garbage is steriliced by oonVintf Itefcn- it 
pven to the liogs. When tlUH i* done, eotoe greaA'- 
by skimming it from the top of the cuntAirwir 



FEKDIffO OARBAOB TO fTOnS 



of Xew Jersey, when wv^rol thousand hofcs arc fed on gar- 
ohiofly rmm holt-la mid rpsUtur»iili>, prarlically nil of it U 
CM&nd fur fruiQ nix to tiinr liviiirn in InriC! upfii Yittn. W'v. urn itiformett 
rhal Iki* eiMtkiriK apppiim Ut htkve hud no Itad efTect uii llii- hut»i. 
Tlingmuw recovered in said to be equal In fnnri 3 to i% of the raw 
prbo^tti. KxiM-riniico wit)) ooolc«d city ^rb&fto at Denver and 
linuil Ita|iid.u. lion^vpr, wan. iiol fnvorahle. It Is jirulialiW Mint ci>r- 
Uu OT^nir scidx were formed, nnd l\uf€! fwm to hnvr irrilnt^'d llie 
■(ocuchi of the hoK>. Furthemmrp, tlicwo aiiiinalt^ ouimoL -uell reject 
uadninlile partielw from the couk«d itHrbaKC. Oii ilitx account, and 
''HUMDof itA ooet, cookinii; ban nut everywhere been prucliccd where 
K^rbo^ in f ed. Hometimes in winter it is simply wsmifd and Miftcnod 
by » ihort oookintt. t-siKsrially for young stock. At Worcester it is 
*'>»k8d in worm water. 
^m 1 Diseases of Hogs. — f{<>f;K urv eubjoct to chok'ra, pneumnnia, 
^H 'Mt-ftzHl-inoutb dL<eiiM;. aiid uthrr nilnicnlK. I'hi; chittii'L-s of dL-alb, 
^V H^wevur, can l>e p-ontty r(>iiuord hy proper care, 

" fl. CkoUra. — Hon rholera can be largely eontrnUed liy tiuitahle 

^■witiatiaQ. It is recarded 014 a KermdiHcaHi^andconLnKiouit, although 

**<pwifi« orptantsm lni» not yft Iwpu itulaU'd. lis lirst apiK-aranw in 

^ Ciuled Stalva wax in 1833, The Tint noliccable symptom is loss 

"ippfclitfl, itetifirally preceded by same me in blood lemperalure. 

^m! '^^Ifb usually avvompaniiM tlic di!«aM>. Cuii»i1iputiuii often ocvurs 

^B*" ^bp early HtaKe.-*, Hiid the Ptool!4 are covered with mucus. In lalcr 

^f^twdiarrhcpo appears; theeyeH become feetercd. and red Wotchfia 

F'PPear on the »kin. en)i«i:iully in Ihe abdoininnJ rc|^uii. The liug a 

J "rtanttoleAvait* bnd, nnd frequently biirroB-s under the liecldtiii;. 

^^|_^lb niay oeeur witliiii tw<?nty-four hours, or the diaea-'ie may nm 

^^^ about net wN>k!< More recovery. A pink color of the skin i.-* 

^VPital of a death from eliolrra. 

^■^ SdnM tl«Uil> mnctTiiinft the mpcltein»i to combat hog ehulora are 

^H^ia bi the fuUowing abslmcta fnjoi a letter la tlin authort by 

^•Wawir Ffede-rip Uonnct, Jr.. formerly of Ihe Polylechnic Int-titute 

* Wacc«»t4M-, Maw., and \u charge of the hog fnrm at Horeesier. 

Tlir " viruH " \» et^entiidly the blood of a hoa artively NufTering 

'^>m boo cholera. It eoiiluinx the active principle (micro-ornaniufna 

nd tbrir mrtnMic produrtti) of the dineajie. Cullccling thim blood 

", be done in .•ucti n way hm to protect it BRain!>t oon- 

V taking the iiiinal bactertoloeicat prcenuilonj. It is 

to add, ai a prrMTvative. a fraetional pi'rceiilaac of phctiol, 

a), etc. Thc-M? [Hxiwrvntiveit. in the concciil ration Ui^l. hart 

tically no ofleel (ui I lie viruit ilwlf. When n small ptH-tlon of »uch 

Uagii — ur vir- ■ ' loeulated into a benilliy unimnmiiiaed hog, 




VPAL RBFl.SB 



ibe Btiima], in the coumft of a fc«r dayn, thavn all tlic evidences of Uia 
di&eane; but, with micli tinsall innciila1ton«, thr animal orgaiiUin haaj 
■n opportunity tt) (lovflitp MUtricivni aiilitoxin t(i nviiLriilix« ilii> vine 
or poison. Oiicc !>tiiuiiUit«d by ihv virus U) prinluce- uiitiluxiii, ibal 
orKaiiiniu apparently coutiuues to produce il, whicb (£ivf6 it iiuumuity| 
for tlie remainder of its Ufe. 

The " surum " in prepared from the blood of a liog which hu» 
the chnlnro and hiu complet«ly recovered. In other wonU. a he 
havtnj! in it» hlood xtiRicient antitoxin to give it immunity. Ax il 
the coHe of " viruci," blood ia drawu, under proper condition!!, and i»^ 
allowed vitlier to cou^ulate or iti eilratcd, i.e., traatwl with »udiuni 
citrak' to prevent i-oaiculalioii. Larger yields are ohtaitHHl bj' tbe 
Utter m«thod. A small quantity of tbe prcvcrvativee — lueutioned 
prenourdy — are added to the aertim, as waa the case with llwH 
virus. ™ 

Treating a hog unth eerum alone will give it only lomporary 
immunity, ntid the imnmiiixmii efTect of the serum very .-.oon diMip* 
pearb, Ifecnuae serum aloue does not stimulate the orKaoi^m to pr*- 
duev antitoxin itsi^lf. Il is important, therefore, that a hug should 
huve had the dincuwc in order tluit it- iiuiy be immune. 

In the CAM of hog» fed with municipal garbnfie, one very importtttt 
fact is often lost sight of, namely, tli&t any municipal pirbage may b« 
infect«d. Thta is due, largely, to the fact that Uogs are killed to the 
initial stages of the disease, and the trimminga get intA the gorbaf^ 
Hence, too much strcsa cannot be laid on tbe imFN)rtaoec of proper 
inoculation; and by thi5 is meant, not otily the tocliui^uc of actually 
doing the work — which is aimple enouj^ — but tbe oae of " staodord* 
izcd " scrum and virus. 

Some hog farmem, nnd «\'en somii Stato agrieultural oollegiw, hav) 
attempKnl to ii.<<e "nntnrni viniH," i.e., thm taken fnim a lioic prr 
suniAhly sick with ch>jlcra. In euch vases there wa»> no ««i>uranee that 
the \u>g W8K not renlly on the high road tu n-t-nvrry, and ilt^ bIncH 
rontninecl very little, if any, virun. Id conMNiuener, tbe vt^u^ 
really absent, or so dilute aa to be inactive, and errotwoua eoneltisioi: 
were drawn. 

The virus, after being prepared, should be rarefully tented ni 
healthy animal)>, and the course of the difleaxo frtlloweil rl<Kwly. 
»ame in true of the serum. Llnlps^ this is done, there will certainly bai 
r«I»e sense of Hwurity in the remedy. 

It) Max^('hu«4'tU no virus iir »erum ix allowed to be uiaed until H 
iv approved by (be i>tat« Bureau of Animal Indunlry, whirli maiD< 
tains a fami for this very purpom*. The serum nnd vinw HhnuM 
rctwu their puteuuy fur u given period. It t- undentutxl that tl 



FEEDJSG GARBAGK TO HOGS 



S63 



liriltr nianuracturcrs of th«t>c remedies are uiidertakiiig to Rupply 
nulfna) <<{ x bis rh&raotcr. 

Th« inuHl wriotis drawback, in recnmmemling gnrbsRe diicpo«a) by 
ItabiK, boB been tbe difficulty of obtaining rclinbly tented and 
I viriu and writ in in all S^I^a, Tli(> «ucccsi^of the fading 
MamachuiKTlta has been due, larK«l>'. to {\w- exc«Ueiit work 
'Itt Burcttu of Animal Industry', the bead of which is Dr. Edwurd 
CiUL 

Tie vjnu of bog cbulcru and the scrum may be iujcctcd rimuL- 
UDMib'ly, th4^ vim* nl one point and Itin ^nriim at, ftnother. This 
Untliwnl prudiioe^ laiitinR immunity. For a short time, ju*t before 
uui dfter vaccination, the ho|^ ehould receive special food and core. 

!>\ tbe Grand Kapids farm tim bufp) an- vaccinated when about 
lis vtclu old. Mr. Alva Brown, the maaagcr, dcacribea the vaccina- 
tion uJoUows: 

"n« |ii)p »rr ttcfltcd nt the A|te of from four to ten wocIcn xnd while nura- 
ttf; k |Bg iit lurid ill iHMlKUi by one man ojii). by h>iKMlennic, xxntu is iiijtk-tcd 
tatheiMitloofthplrft liain. wliirhfiiriii*hrx tlnrdiM^aseet^rm: M>niin is iajOL'tcd 
y>l^ii|jit luun, wliiL-ti [urniotini Uif cx>iiibiilivt:<)iuUitiTO tii thr|jiK'i*»>-«teio; 
|ii Inowa aa ' the stoiultAnnjiis tiratmcnt ' and is not always practind 
'ol llie danger in luinillitig tin- %'iriiH on ttif [iiirt. of llii> <>|)CTator. My 
'"*> ID |ii|D!< from tttis trvHtuii-nt in the Mini;iiernirji)tlin will nut nvrira^c above 
6^ Ihii m ibp other uuiuIJm, which are not bo ravonible lu ihr pigx, tl)i> Iumms 
"••oniiilftably grt-aUr, and the pwrMattap- dnimiMin on \h»f. wc«t)>cr conditioiw. 
' ^••* ntpi nl thin iigi- IjrcaiL-u- of thi-. Inmr aiiKtiinl of niaU'rial rr<niircd. oa 
'"'■mpdaU^l by (he Avoirdui>ols of the uniinul. Another reason ia that all 
W <tMk oiuei be immuDc. othcrMiiK the ndiiiuals arc quite cim; to contract 
y WWim. vaxly In lifn If oiiy fUiiinul-< :ire to ditr lhniii|;h viit'ciiuitiun or 
I diBGMe, we want it to happen while they &rc young, and befon any 
of consequence in thi?ir drATlatmtcnt htm In-cii iK-rasionod. My 
rnn< ijidirulw that treatment by this proeeaii makeH the aniiiutl iitiwune 
: il« rtatund life, wbicfa does not often exi;c«d four at fire yenn &iid is 
Dy murh Ins. My pigi being from inunntLr nirv and d»in makoM them 
l—rquible to the diaeiuic if not raeeiniited, and less liable to death through 
"'" *tectoatiiig pnoeae, Ii hu been cattmaLcd tjiat pigi from slock where 
"fViaiiily cKl«nd> back aovml yaanoo both tidwt hav» about M)% of iinmu* 
^, iMui thoctsh no (natmeot ia given, and I believe thia ia a fair utimato." 

fnorulatioii againxl cholora nt the Worcexicr hog farm is dncribod 
V I'lwfwwir Bonnrl. an rollnwb: 

TV t-ntire alock i« Irentcd by ih« lo-eallod duuhip lrt«tn)ctit mirUnnJ 
mid m-nniil. Piip (ivi- l^mlx wn-lcn old an? iriiiculalwl witli bttuui only. 

^tnvtAwtit, r-arritut thi'jii for nhnnl u^veii weokn. when, nl llie wi>i|tlit of 
i40 lo M lb., ihoy are givrai (he iliiubic trmtment. rinw nofi wruin. 

• Vctcrisurianit lindi'r ihr SU1« liurcati uf Aninud Induitr>- do ihis it-ork 



204 coiterrios and disposal of MVSiapAL refuse 



frM of cltOTKr, the rlcpaitinml nrrcly pa)in([ lor tbr Mnun aiMl virus used nod 
f<n x\ic ncceieaiy hdp. The mat u( trmuuetil dcpeuds uptui the iiisir ol ibc 
BninuLl. ntxK inure mriim is iunI the lurgcr it in 

'"rheaoniin cueta li pml» percc, mitl dIniuI 20c,c, arr unxJ fnr a tO-tn 
GO-lli. hoK, livr woiKht, M lha.t the total oosl. uf trml.iDent, excliHivr <>( tirlp. w 
tbarafore abaut 70 oentu p*r pi^. Thi; pli»fi> for injection 'l<ctwx>'fl ihr IiukI 
lejcs) >« scTubbctl with soap and vrftt«r mnlititiiiie lyail or siiuibir iliniufrrtMit, 
Olid ffwiitilinil wilh tincture i>r iiKlinv afl4-r puiiciure. Kul ii(m> hoi; in 500 b 
lo«t, And there i» no Iroubk (rum ulcer (orniattDii if the iiuHulaLion ii> iwnpnl)' 
done. One vrtcrinary with live helpers can irral 2fiO pi^ of 40 to AD lb 
wvight in a. day 

" To prevent itch, the hufts &ie mli epnycd Hbout aoee in atx wedut wHk a 
mixlure of three p&rtx <j( kerutene and one inrL of turiMntine " 

h. Pneumonia. — Hagg also die from pD^umonia. contraelwi fraal 
exposure to cold. At VVoreest«r 78 hoipt out of ISOO died from thisi 
oauKB during one monlli in the nnnlcr of 1900. In tlin Sn>HUctj]» dp* 
trict uF New JcTst;y the principal Insnctt are from pncu motiifi. Tlie 
preventive is proper houeiug nnd protection ftRaiOft bad weather. 

e. FooO-antl-Ahml/i Disenw. — Hrtfo^itUociMilntrt ihf fuot-and-tnoutll j 
diseoAC. At I'rovidoiiec niid at Worc&'ter, in Marrh, 19t.'), all tb«' 
boffi had to be killed on aecuiinl of it. No remedy hax yet hem 
Found (lOlA), »nd GDvernment inspectors inaist on killing all animib 
at iL farm which h thiitt infeetod. 

The esperieuce at \Vorce«l«r is described by Professor BuoneC, as 
follows : 

"In February. Kill's, the herd of iwino at the Hnmo Porm «-as visilod by 
tint dreniliHl hwif-iind- mouth dlsnise, whieh was prolmbly narrirHl hy rrrmv 
from lui ttifotU^ herd of ratllc nv'wr-by In the hti^ fed o<lt of ilt>un». F'rifcn' 
aiid Sljito AuthiiflliiM lA»k irlijirge i>f the iiimnuiline and tlie kilhnH uf wmw 
23813 uiiiinftls. Ttie KMcml Uuvt-mtnefi t |mid ouc-lt&lf the amnncid tTolucof tbe 
infected anlmobi, and the SUilv the otlicr half. After kiUtDi;, iherne: aaimafa 
wttrc hiiriwl in pit* with lime. Those not infected were killed for poTk. Th»] 
farru viiin not rfMtoi^ked until the foUowing Sepl<9nhc7- It U iiititralitiif 1 
to note that Lhe diaeoae did not infcet thn Home Farm herd of caitlr. 
thiH iiitefval the garbage was dumiKxl in a hollow on tim fiinn nnil cnwrrA wit 
loam. In Jimc s«-amvi of flice developed from this dump, hot, by tlte <«e rl 
tntp. a k<(nwa-ni-turT)«tiI ine apray (3 to I), and a creomtr a\wuy. tboy woe 
dcBtmyed and kept under enntml. 

" After the hoof'nnd-n)ii>uth diaenao, 0«at pains were takm to rid Um ' 
prt^iniMW i)f nta. Potnoii. lnt|i«. MhiHitini!, niut 'Imikliug mit' were all nu- 
ployed. Many nf th« older buildiitga were eoudeinnMl by lhe CotiiinhB*>nJ 
becauM' tlii^y liarlMin-d en maay rats. Tlintr rodrntn not only steal icuiiaipcl 
but may prave a miiuine to (he Iwrd «I«ii]kl the)- benune infectMl. Tb« aoly 
rancdy for eontrullinR tUein is bj' pctristmlly killing tbera In evoy way | 
■Ible and building ibetu out. Crowa are alau a mcnaoo to ibc herd, aa Wi»-i 



r !■■ dnovaul tn ha florrmr, nnd tlinr pmnM<r n» jng r*nnit iihaiild Im 

8. RESULTS ra PRACTICE 

An Alrrndy indimtnl, maay kiuds nnd hus of hog farmt* Tor Rnr- 
>a.r< ' lire ojientcd in America. A few typiral mica nre 

1. Worcester, Maes. — fPopiila.lio« ahout 175,000.> .•^'nw* ls72 

^*»iqr [iijrtioii» iif the city cnrlmRf- liiivf lieoii taken lo llip ilomt! Farm 

k-tiil (rd Ui bi>f^, ntid the Sup(>riii ten dent sent a wsgtMi intn the city to 

'fcultct ctHHigh gnrlnigc to furd Lhvm. Tlir work Iulk drroloi>oil with 



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\Tia. flO. — TVpical Sertinri Uimiucli Hog Iloutir Pi-opoowl iit Worwtrtor. Mask 



^tbe growth of thn city, nnd in \9\S, about 70% nf the f;«r)>afc<* of 
' Wuroeder wo tuken to Iho Home Farm, wlierp tl>ere were rrcim 'HWO 
to 9000 hoE"' A «|^-ial Mi-callcd muivoiikiiik (IcpartlDont hoe now 
bftia orgftntnxj to handlo this work. The (^rliBgi? not c(>)l<>rti*rl hy 
tbia dep«rttMDl ie token by private collcctutB. aud is aim liu'gely 
fed \v hu|p. 

Tbo farm in in ihe itorihnuitcrn wrtinn of the dty. abonl 3.2 to'dea 
fby rmd from the City IJall. On iIip left, the farm bt»rUer* Lake 
Cjuiiuiitamund. The couotrv im rolliiiic, partly wmMlnl, and ha^ llie 
Krafdly upen (oil t^THrnl fif the Tiew Kngland glacial drift, A tirook 
whkh dnuo* ibe r&rm cmpli» into the upper end t4 the lak«. Th* 
B<ini«> f arm prof)«r eoYnn 376 aorew, but the rity I«a«» alMi an addt- 
twcu! rirrantfjariiriv, :it « renin] t.f fIfiOO (««■ y«ir- 

I . aJ wciiim througt Uw pift bona* at Wor- 



'Jff. tOU-f/7IO': ASD [/.'.'!-' tSAL f'F Ml'StriPAL BEfr^E 

irr.^'':'./ i.Ti •: ;. v'i. S-iTixSCy. :r.«^ 4r% -1 '■i«'>eij iq service. i::.i raii 
'>.,.:-.r- •>:.•: I'/i'l & 'iiV- Tr.t earbase i= res:«>ve<i twice a vee-£ :>■::. 
*4':t. '..'i'-': \'.i xti*: ':'*iie*rti'fii area. .\d umsuaJiy ^ijod repar^iiii^ i- 
.'ft^iiri'A. f.T'J by tfii hoi-*holder>. and comp&ra;iveiy liitle f-jreiCi 
.'f>Att<:r ir f'jiiiid id lilt ^rbage. Fish offal and njiten egg? irunj 
markhU a;i'i '.■»^rImlL^sioll houafe: are collected ^paraiely. in fpeouil 
'taiu: wit^i light-fitting cuvers. and are buried, a^ they are not suitable 

t'i'i'i t'/T \l't^r. 

fiitil rtcciitly, mt/rt of the hotel, restaurant, aod hospital garbage 
id SlA'.'-at:inif.t:nn k'H'u^ w^-. coUecIed privately, but now the cities are 
'rx<;rciiii(iK Hioro authority in the matter Chapter 75 of the Re\-ife<i 
lAw.il. Iiul(; 22,1, anr] are starting a public collection of garbage. 

7'h<: gHrhagc nr. it coiner to the farm is neither washed nor steamed. 
Washing i.^ not found to lx^ economical because pieces of food are lost. 
C'loking or ^ttdaining wa^ found by experience to be objectionable, 
11- it ifiiKJ'; II .".oiip from which the hog could not reject unsuitable food. 

In iirufiiw, th(; little hogR arc kept with their sow in indiA-idual 
Itt-.u* until th<;y arc Ax w(?ck^ old, although tbey begin to eat garbage 
wlii;n fiUiut thnre wrak-s old. The hoars are castrated when about 
(iv<! w:i:U.n old, nii'l arc then left with the mother another week. 
IlogH itrr; kftpt in jxiiiH until about six month!! old, and are fed from 
triiUKJiH. At the eriil of I Ihm time they weigh from 75 to lOO lb. 

Af1i:r fix month.s the hogs (or shoat!>) are turned into out-door lots, 
ati'iijt -i tiTCH lM;ing ntquircrl for 100 hog»!. Here the garbage if iipread 
iirj fc-i-iling pliilforniH made of 2'in. plank in S-ft. square sections. 
'r)icH<t arf! mr>iint(;(] on Hkid^, and have half-round timbers on two 
sidds to {iri^vftiit thrt gurhage from being pushed off. Several sertiono 
arc jiiaced v.tul to end. When the ground around the platforms 
lH><'oiiie!4 fouled with Die xpillcil garbage, the platform? are skidded to 
iiiiollier locatiiiii, anil the used ground is plowed over. The plat- 
foriiw ar<? shovel-dcam'd liiiily. The hog manure and leavings ore 
r-(iiiipiisli-il, and are sold in qunntiticH weighing from 230 to 300 lb. 

liogM arc hrerl by turning about IIOO sows into the same lot with 
iiboiit ;il) linrirs f(ir iilniut five weeks. The first period is from about 
(IctnlMT IJdth til DitciiiIkt Ittt, which brings the farrowing during the 
liiltcr piirt of .hirmiiry, Ihrough Kebruiiry, and into early March. 
Afti-r II tiiiitith iir Mix weeks, a second lot of hogs is bred, and so on. 
1 luring I'iirrnwing, iitid sonietmes during inoculation, they receives 
iitlic- griiin and middlings. Boars iirc rarely kept more than two 
years, and only llic best sows sire kepi for repented breeding. 

rp tn I'.ll I there were twelve hug houses seattered about the farm. 
Seven nf t lu'se were slielter sheds for outside hogw, but they have ninee 



TV mnis 



«f 



mlwili mf^ M pmeoi faor Mt Wovmb Mid iim iMtM **«iW 
in OM. AU tlir ban* w* urmnflnl (or fwdtns in thr (***» ^ Va 
tbo iuMjan t» ^UxiB-bMUd. ud if iP«l t»r|ir*y (xh (■m»«ittt 

lfiittrcatin|tlheftmiiial6»brnsick. Tlir niml tTT«'»tl> i> 
_ j.*f iiiif ral-fimof consliuctian. iodmlingcom-rclcKnimift" ■■ 
tlciiJiug e*vor»I feci »l>o\i! ihc grouml, ami ImviiiR a rwk'fttlwt 
lent uuiivT thv floor. Tu provitte atklitiuiuil puu for UUt •ItHuR 
1^ iuu »ia&U iwrtable uk»-dowa colooy houMi faftva Inra 



^v. 



• llMC >'.Mna#i iw Ony .la «• ClWlit 






;uvt*^ xBBt iar*>*twt« 



jLLBrTios A?rD nrsposAL OF m'yrciFAh rbpvse 

uiiplviLMiitl odors. However, when properly compoxtod iu la.yeru with 
equal qitaritiljtM of dry U)p hoiI, titc iIuvompuHi tion tuny be kept nn 
AD tcrobic basis, without odon?. harfsa concrete compost pits have 
been built at Worcester far ihb purpikso. About 2.5 nu. yd. of this 
tHXsllffd " hog Dianuro " ate prtMJuccd daily. 

lOxpTriciioe (urtlicr indicates a no«d tor caroful aKenlion lu tbc 
8uppn!»nii.m (i( rat-t and flic-x. The proncr mcusurvs includv nil-procif 
constructiou of hoK houevt^, jiruper disiJuniiL ot hu^ ninniirp nnd what- 
ever giifbage is uot used fur food, imd a. Uberol use of germicides wfaer- 




FlO. 6S- — Unloarlirtf; Ciutl'H(t<i (»r ll'>>;> i>i. rLLi..iiji.., at V. . 



ever fly inaRxots uppear. Uuri»l nre»5 iiiid PuinpOHt pitri arc quite 
desirable. 

The Worceslcr hog farm has reccotly bccu nvll operated under the 
direction of Mr. Thomas Horn, under the Adnoc of l^rofeseor Dotinet. 
It U found Unit one curcitiiker i» iipedinl to fped and bed cacb 2S0 to 
300 hogs, ami to dean the pcnit, 

Cwt datii for Ihn Wim-ontw i\t% farm nm prnipiil(>d in 'niblis S3 
iimt K4. the data Iteing laricvly tskeii fToiii rc|H>rt(i by IVofL'nsur IWtnuK. 
It Khuuld Im: iioti^d thiil ll«; co(<t rt-i-ordn of the r-rnvt-iiKer dfrpiirtii>ctit 
at Worcester are mi intorwo\'(>n with thosn of the Pnor Vxrin pnipcr 
that a separate ntalemcnt ia not cosily aeeurcd. Furthentkntt), Undj 
ebuves, nmtal of leasml land, eoA nS colony houwa, compost 



PBSDtNa OAR RAGE TO fTOOS 



209 



n»idwH>-i(, main fonceK, etc., are not included. Th« labor rates arc 
pvsD nt vory low (i%aTW, luid appear on the whole to b« too luv for 
appUrnUou l^lAcwtIcr«, irreopevtivc oven of the large adviuicc siuou the 
iKf^iiining nt the War. 

TAMJt SS. — Cwrr op a Una Faam, bAssD os Wokckhtck CoNDmonra, 

Kxc-LiiuTB or Lt>i>. K» HjiTiM*Tr.i> Br PMunowoR tk)<ntET (IIJ17*; 
AJtc OriuiATiNa Exi>knu:a at Wchckster, Exclcmix nr Fixxo OaASoss 

CapMitj. 90 U BO MM par~4«ar 

— _ -■ 

(d iKvrjtTMlSNT RKQiriHKU: 

Four buildingK, Mlwuity nlxxit SflO poiu. S by 12 ft., 
IncludiDK mmU hcBtiag plimt tor onv huunu, wikt«r 

pupfily. dnuiuMCB, plntfomut. bii<1 lending 93n,(XK) 

lIuM Ikmvm, wngoDS, and Alcd* for dispoaal work. . . . 1,500 

Stock llOOhiie* ai*30 »a3.000 

lOOsoiFB nt 25 2,600 

aOOahoAU at 12 . 9J&X 

WO null hon at 5 4,500 

sobMn At 20 eoo 

Totalt. 30aO tSO,-iOO S50,200 

Total iovaftmeDt t»l ,700 

(b) OnttuTiNu Ext-K-vaiM, ExcLVDtNa Fixed CiuiiQBa 
Uog rju«takcn», 7 
Mainir* men. 2 
CompoBt naui, 1 

— 10»i|37 [lernwath »4.M0 

Aiblirioiml oecanooal help 1,320 

Umin ud beddinft 3,910 

Medirinp (ftcmin, vinw, iind (lismfwdaala) 3,040 

Ktpnhnuvndcnt, farm forctnao. andofl!«e 3,1K0 

li^t, heat. wntw. etc 1.000 



«]5.000 



In Mi..ri' nvonl rflUinaU-M {.luly, 1020), in»d« for Tr»lf'di>, Ohio, by 

plimHrjr, llic fiMt wwt erf a farm for 5l«H» hog», cinlinirinit Uie ilfliiwi 

(it Uud, fiiriiilvHip>c. ^hl•^t«n^, feedinK lioiiMa* imd platform*, hani, 

Uwk, roadirays, ft'iicinn. teams and wagoDP, water supply, and «wnr- 

|M^ k tiTM al *150,000; and Ihe annual coat for aupCTvisiou, labor, 

m«*A. wKrinary scrvioe. suppliea, light, heal, water, new rtock, Iom 



270 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



of stock, shipping and selling expenses, repairs, and legal and admini ^s- 

trative matters at from $130,000 to S175,000, with fixed charges ^ L» t 
$18,000. 

Table 84. — Operatinq Data at Worcester Hoa Farm 
Includinu Cost of Cdujiction 



Year 


Gahbaqk Collect ku 
PER Day 


Number 

of hogs. 

November 

30tb. 

each 

ynar 


Financial SuiuiAaise ros cacb Yiu 1 


LoBiU 


Cubic 
yards 


Tom 


Toul 
eipenditurcs* 


Total 


Net 
cott 


Nrt 
prafiC 


1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1004 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1016 
1017 
1918 
1919 




19 
19 
19 
19 
21 
21 
21 

21 
21 
19 
20 
20 




62.8 
52.8 
62.8 
52.8 
57.5 
57.5 
67.5 

52.5 

42.0 
.S4.0 

66,0 


31.5 

.... 

.... 

28.4 
22.2 
23.0 
21.0 
27.0 
33.0 


2850 

1388 
2057 
2167 
2502 
1300 

t 
2O0d 
2750 
3081 


S14,804 . 34 
17,109.00 
17,751 21 
18.936 86 
18,765.03 
18,140.67 
22,326.02 
20,515 83 
23,626 49 
30,491.93 
34,475 , 73 
37,737 79 
37.039 68 
41,121.74 
45,750.28 
63.109.10 
53,325 62 
66,718.43 
57,680.03 
83,24 1 19 
79,413.32 

105,272. 18 


t7,674.02 
10,641.52 
11,947.91 
13,933.03 
18,766.99 
11,941.56 
7,327 . 00 
12,539.20 
19,321.00 
24,830.71 
24,321.22 
29,257 . 25 
43,224 . 25 
25,579 . 68 
22,863 . 27 
38,376.11 
38,838.67 
39,994 36 
16,692.99 
44,609.15 
50,569.60 
73,643.17 


17,130.32 
6,467 . 48 
B,767 . 30 
6,002.83 

6,199.02 
14,000.02 
7,976.63 
4.204 . 49 
S,601 . 22 
10.164.51 
8,480.54 

15.642.16 
22.887.01 
14,732.90 
14,486.95 
16,724.07 
40.987.04 
38,602.04 
28.868.72 
31,629.01 


%\..90 

4184. S-"^ 1 



* Total pipenditureH do not include filed chacgee, but do include coiti of coUeetion. 
t la 1916, the hoof-and-mouth diaeaae wiped out the herd. 

2. Stony Wold Sanatorium. — At this institution, in the Aditow 
dacks, the garbage is collected daily. It is dumped into a catdroa^ 
brought to the boil, then cooled and covered until fed to the hogS' 
The length of haul is about } mile. In October, 1912 (an averi^ 
month), there were 100 hogs. Additional food is purchased from time 
to time to prepare the animals for killing, and for nourishing brood 

80 W8. 

The Berkshire breed of hogs is raised, more or less mixed with i^ain 
hogs purchased from local farmers. Every two or three years, a 
registered Berkshire boar is purehased, each time from a diffamit 
breeder, in order to keep the animals vigorous, and to Avoid tin 
supposed ill effects of inbreeding. A finaDo*"' 



FEEDING GARBAGE TO HOGS 



271 



operation is shown in Table 85. The data in this table come through 
the courtesy of Mr. R. S. Weston, who states that " Careful post 
mortem examinations of the swine have failed to disclose any lesions 
due to infection, and the experiment coincides with that of other 
corporations." 



Table 85. — Cost or Operatino the Hoo Farm 
AT Stony Wold Sanatorium 



Hem 


Veab 


1909 


1010 


IDil 


1012 


Value of stock on hand, January 
Irt 


I 497.75 

390.68 
747.97 


S 758,24 

555.11 
1073,81 


(1101.24 

613.44 
1041,10 


(1032.40 

673.11 
1652,72 


Expenses: 
Ifibor and supervision 




Total debit 


11636.40 

758.24 
1703,80 


S2387.16 

1101.24 
2211,04 


(2755.78 

1032.40 
1648-94 


$3358,23 

1390,05 
2310,66 


^tock on hand, December Slst. . 
**^ceipts from sales 


Total credit 


$2462.04 
S825,64 


S3312.28 
S925.12 


$2681.34 
(74.44 


(3700.71 
(342.48 


Profit '. 

LORR 







3. Lansing, Hich.-r-At Lansing the experience has been satis- 

'^tory, and, considering the investment, profitable. There are more 

^bao 400 hogs, valued at more than $12,000, and the intention is to 

*louble the plant. The garbage is placed on the ground, or on cement 

Watforms. In the former case the land is subsequently plowed and a 

'^rop raised. The average hog cats 20 lb. per day, and, under good 

Conditions, gains from i to 1 lb. per day. The losses of animals are 

not serious. It is reported that some substances which have found 

their way into the garbage with bad results are the very thin glass from 

eljctrio light bulbs, and also phonograph needles and discarded razor 

blades. Frozen garbage is unsatisfactory to feed, and requires thawing. 

All hc^ should be given a serum vaccination, and should have a 

■' at least 100 lb. before being fed exclusively with garbage. 

'1% reported to be due to poisoning by decomposed food 



272 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVmCIPAl REFVSK 



and cureletMneM; some are due to muddy, otayey and wet grounds. 
which may produce piivutiiuiim and retard ibi* gruwilt of ihe hu^ 

Thr folluwing i^< quotixl fnuu a bullclin nt llm U. B. FucnI Admini^ 
Iration eiitiU«d " Uuba^e UtUiMtion," issued iu Kebruftry, 1018. 

" Tlir SPCTVX. of Niicma with Ka^ba^^-fn] hog« in, aa with gnUD^ed 
largely aue of faaunguiia-nt 'I'ht^ inan behinil the ho^ U tbc prime 
ation. It rvquina hunt wurk, uu liiilc knowkti)^- vf boss, and a larsc aauHibt 
of ntniiiioii m-vvn- U> rain- gurl)n|{>v(c<l hiiipt (!iti» undiYtAkiiiic miiittriiial 
hog-nising muat reowmber that (he pi^ arv to bf fed on ^riugv; not on 
pulitim. Tht- men who &re nukkinK a buccgmi in thai work nrr up aulf anil 
late, are prugrcwuvc, kniiw thi»lr hag*, and have a dutinct knowledge of what 
is l>cing done &nd bow It should be done " 

The meat of Karbage-fed hojc!) is equal to that of Rrain-fed animals, 
and, in fact, him brought the highest priceH in the Detroit market. 

4. Baltimoie, Md. — On May 1, 1919, a -l^-year cimtrnci wo." let in 
Baltimon'! lattitnAted popnlntiun 720,000), for di4po.-iing of th*!> g^r- 
bugc (140 tons daily) hy feeding it lu hugs at a farm on the idiorr of 
Ch««flp6akc Boy, The city pays the cost of collcctinn the garbage aad 
towing it to the rarni. Tli« price i»t ton to be paid (o the city, after 
delivery at the bng farm, a dinlance of ^ixtran niilen liy ban;^ is 
three and one-half timea the top price per pound of live killing bop 
at Chicago, the garbage to be drained before weiglung. The city 
will enforce a good primary Mparatian and the delivery of mil bou««' 
hold and hoti'l garbage and animal market refniv. 

The farm (Fig. 6(1) covers 157 acres, and comprifips conrrptc feedias 
pliitform!>, buildings, and yards (May, lU'JO), for &UO0 hogs. Then 
are fourte«n yardx, each 100 by 500 ft., aud each contiurut a miail 
flheller houne (3+ by SO ft.) having a capacity of from 300 to S.'ifl 20()-tb. 
hogH, or from .600 to 600 100-lb. hog«. The feeding platform ib of 
concrete, end the garbage is taken from the wharf in iraiiu of l-yd. 
oars on 24-in, gauge track, and unloaded by band. Tbe iQAximum 
quantity of garbage handled at the (arm (up to May, 1020) was in 
July and AiiRiittt, I!}I9, and amounted to 120 Ions per day. 

As the city failed to deliver the garbagi! in a frwh condition, fit for 
feeding lu bogx, the conlrectur has abanduued llie ctinlnct. 

6. Newark, K. J.— During 1910 a five-year contract wax let for 
di»poHing of garbage by feeding to hogs. Tbe price per ton to be paid 
to the city after delivery at the hog farm is eight times the top prite 
per pound of live killing hogs at Chicago. Xcwark has a populatian 
(1920) of about 430,000. and i^rhage (fieparated from other refuse) U 
collected from about SUO.UOO. It h collected three timen a irt«k 
from re«id«nraB and daily from huBinpss houses, and umounis to £ or 
40 tons a day. 



PSBDtSG GARBAGE TO BOOS 



273 



Tbfl farm tg in llie induiitrial district nf the city, is Hurround«d 
witli chcmioal, oil, trid clua wo^k^, mid i^ iifar a Uri;e city dump. It 
coven $ acrett of land, built up in (he mantlieti with refuse, and covered 
nith cinden. The farm is uiteoded for ioteiutive operation on a Mmall 

^n^'a, and bII the garbage ic fed indoon (Kig. 70). There w a ncaJe 
lioii)<c, an of5ce, (our hog hou)«e», and a ham within a fi-neetl-in ar^a. 
Each hog house ia 100 ft. square, and has a central concrete feeding 



Hoe Muiun Dbbs 
-MO^ A*%^ KD^ 



D 






O 



n 



Af±, 



IX' 



Xuk 






, Ttuk 



Whfttt 



FiO- flO. — Guiwral Plikii nf Hok I'nna, B«llimnre, Md. 



plaiform 24 ft. wide. Wagono are driven direelly upon ihi» plat- 
form and Iho garbuge is Kprvuil on it. Th« pviim have wuuden Doom, 
lid on eoncrt-tc. Ea(;li building h ttuppliud with water under presKtire, 
lid hu a «cwcT. No besting in neceeaary. Each hog hou«c ba« a 
tjMicity lor WK) or lOOn animals. Kxpnrieni^e indicates that the 
feeding i)latfriTnit< are too fiivall and the |)en» ion large. 

The aitimal* are allowed on the platforms once a day. Garbage 



274 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

is the only food, except when do deliveries are made. The worfc 
conducted by a foreman (who lives at the farm) and four men. Th^F' 
manure and leavings, amounting to about 50% of the garbage deli' — i 
ered, are cleaned off daily, and are dumped about the buildings «« — ■^ 
composted with lime. The manure is bandied by two men with 

Jteoo'o" 

-tt >( It M H »c H M K W M It W K 



Pa 

i 
c 



HOG FARM 

Nawuk. N.J. 

GENERAL PLAN 



Jf 




's^ 




u 




i 




i 




"8 




1 





a 

+1 



O 

&«!• HODTC 



-W M tc X M • 



B Ft.w In Fraea 

W K If M W JC- 



"^"^"^^^^^fl^^ 




roncra y 



SECTION A-A, Through guiloino 
FiQ. 70. — General Plan and Section of Hog Farm, Newark, N. J. 



one-horse wagon. Negotiations are pending for shipping the manure 
to truck gardeners as fertilizer. 

6. Denver, Colo. — At Denver the Hog Itunch Company collecta 
and disposes of the garbage at no cost to the City. Collectiona an 
made daily in the down-town district and twice or three times a week 
in residential districts, except for a less frequent coUecUon b< ' 
weather. The farrowing shed is a wooden struct'^' 



PBRDtSa GARRACIK TO HOGS 



m 



ft. wide, iriUi &• by 10-ft. pens on nacb sick oF a. lO-fi. roadway. 
Tbe tOBide pens are roiinivcl^l witli npen S by tt>-(t. (eodiiiK \)cns. 
Qnrhege is ^thovcled directly fr»tti ihn tnink wagons Ui the oiitfiiitA 
pens, there boiag drivoways for this purpiise un both aides of ttio shed. 
On the far ^do of each drivowa^' tti«rc arc 30 bj' 20U-fl. " faM«oing " 
pens, where ilie f^base is plac«tl on cuiic-rete platforins. Then^ is a 
fcnoe OD each side of t)its plalfortn, with gates to control the &ceee» of 
the bogs to the guxUage (Fi^. Tl ajiil 72). Hogs that are being fat- 
tened will not coliruly uluuu up tliu garbage. L«ao pi^ ur recently 
hrvd 80W8 iLTo then let in on ihc fccdintt plntformii, and every day tbo 
material finidly left on tbcm is cleaned oB, put in wagons, niid taken 




Flo 71,--t>»nTOr Hog Farm. 



amy. Gub&ge is not cooked at the D«n ver [nrm. Cooking was tried 
several years ago, becttus« of an af^tatiun against the feedinii; of mv 

■ ^rlKiRC, and 920,000 was apcnl for a plant. Th<; hugs did well on the 
eiKiked Karb&ge for about two months, and then bet^n to lose weight. 
Organie ad<ii!i weri? xaid f/> have bten formed by the process which at 

I first stimulated the notion of the fitomnch, but (iniilly irrilatcd iL 
T. Grand Rapids, MidL—Garba^^ h&» be«n fed tu Iio^m at Grand 
RApidN for many years. The firHt farm (wwA until I9I3) included 
VI area of alioui lOU acree of uandy »oit about rj inilct< from the center of 
Ui« city. The owrior of the farm took the KarbaK<! from Ibe city at 
loading stations and trarMf^rred it in water-tight freight can to the 
farm. The transfer and fUxpo^al of garhaf^e wereat no ooat to the City. 
.Hiding (rora tbc railrtNid extended about 1000 ft., between long open 




276 COLLBCTIOff AND DISPOSAL OF MVNtCfPAL RKFVSS 

fe«diDK peiu coDUinirig concr«t« plaUorniK (Fig. 73). Thov were alai 
three furron-ing builctiDgn ta whirh gnrbn^ wnit dt'livonnl hy wAf^im. 

A ucw form, '13 milut from dmnd Itapitb, hiL'4 now \-»x\\ e»lHl)lii>lic4 
to which Ibfl i^arha^e in delivered hy freight citrs, It covers an lu-eu Ql 
240 tuens, and aX. tiraeit contaii]i< lu luatiy att tiOOO hogs. Oarhngc i 
fed on the ground and ott cuucrctv ptiilTormB. I'o bandlu ihr gurbagp 
of 135,000 people, xoven Tre'tght curs ii wvuk are required, with ai 
icoreBse to eight earn a week in the eutntncr. Garbagp w c<ill«ct« 
thrM times & week during the eight warm moiitbe of the year and twio 
a week during cold weather. The fre« moiitLure in dntiued out at tbi 



Fro. 73.— Ftoeding Box. Ltoivcr Uor lurm. Placed bctA'een l>ni. >■. ..i.d 



transfer stations. It i« iit«t«d that the unoonsumed garbage does nc 
•mount to more then \V% by weight of the total raw material. 11 
bunct, picked out after the feeding, amount to froiu 500 to 600 II 
per day, and are worth 1 vent per pound (1918). 

8. SaltL«lceCity,Utah.~Tbe garbage is collected by the Moiink 
States Feeding Company, eitd transported to n feeding form, «bo« 
7 miles north of the city. The farm comprised 60 acres, but only, 
small part of this area ia u yet u»ed. The mnin buildioK, 70 ft. wid 
and 140 ft. long, and 4S colony hoiiaeo, cover about tt neres. 
colony house aceoinmodate* 50 hogs, and includes ■ ^1 by tl-l-fl. itfarlt 
a 9 by 64-ft. open feeding floor, and a 15 > " "■'-'• " 
hogn Mt and sleep on board floors, and have 
rheumatism. Flowing welb eupply freeh wnu-r ult'- 



PRBniSa tlAKHAdU 



377 



la t stQil-pipc, fram which it i* i»pe(l to a trough at each colony 
kuUM. I|n<!« c»n be attached t» ibo H-&ler sx-Ettcin, thun providing 
(m pmtoction (or the wrawMleii r>truvlunw, and viiabliiif; the attvnd- 
ub t« givfi the aiiimaJ^ a nhuwer Ixith iit liul vruutlicT. 

At (Ifsl tbe (-umpaiiy exjietrted Ui buy bfyxKJ itow« and raise pigs, 
but UiB mui WMiu found to be u did»dYantaip>. and now it purchoMut 
." reedon" ud " stoclters," oaob weigbiog from 8U to 100 lb. Each 



i^ 



Via, 73— 4)til lt»K I'ltnn, (Imiid ltjL)*iiU, MhIi. 



Ikh MKtf. Tnini Ifi to 20 lb. ni KoriiiiicL- ft dny, niid is niiv fed about 1 lb. 
' ' ^" Tlii- be «itd 1(1 ^iw II ilftily Krtiii im t-iwli Iuir <if fmm \\ 1<i 
'^ ^'' Unductinic rrom the liaiilage expense what tlie city pays for 
otiDD, the «iirt>in{« vt«u the company about 6.6. cent* n day for 

IBBriinKc was tried, but, nftcr thirty or forty dayn, Ui« hogs 
w Rnrh&K« U now iiiied. In winter it is warmed 
uit. 



27S COLLBC^ 



ATin DISPOSAL OP MVNICIPAL RBF 



Old hogs ire doublc-treatiwi with chnlera serum bofiwn thcynUa 
the coinpany't) p€i»i; and, before hein^ nllowed full feed, they in 
given what U culled a " »^we&t pitmhI " uf i'i)^iU<on lo tn'enly-onpduyi' 
Tlie company ha^ npver lost u liufE Irenti-d in this WHy. As many u 
2500 hugn urc ted vritL gurbage at, oiie liiDC, and tlie average autabtt 
in the winter is 1500. 



C. FOOD ADMIKISTRATION COKFERfHCB 

Id December. 1917, the United i:tat«« Food Adminintrfttion ttM\ 
a conference in Chicago of men experienced in the dispntul uf gKri)a(c 
by feeding it to hnRR, in order to discuss the rcaultis which had Ixeii 
obtained in practice. Somo of the more important finding are«iBi- 
tnariwd as foUon-s: 

1. " Quality of Pork Produced. — If joubagc-fed pork a inferior to gnin- 
fed, the priuo paid by the pockius, who ore naturally averse to payini fall 
price for an iofcrior artidtr, fihould indicate the fact. Wc have ooi h«eb abb 
111 litiil ELiiy tiuiTlcca whf-HT KtirlHiKf^fed hogs are being geonally aolil al a 
lower price lli&n grain-fed anitnab Wh»<n cawM of ' •nflvr ' iKirfc haw tMNi 
noted it hnti fp»ii:ral1y Imx;» Uniad iliat the auiiutiLit wore itupruiivrl) nimli 
kept in smaU pens, and not allowed to exvrose. There in no tfaeofCtical itaaoit 
why |;ELTbAK<^ »bould l^ bni] for hofpt Even putrefying materials mtj be 
t.r&nKfoniiM] into delirioiw human fnod; for examF>Ie. lobetcn. crabn. abcioVi 
etc., feed olinoet exclusively on decaying fish; and the cuounon tianyuil 
cliickcn vriLl cat uid thrive on ahnoNt oil kiuda of mc^mIIm] fillli. 

" Recently, ^rbage-fed hogs were raised ai the experimental atatioa et t 
Mijtdlc Wottcni StAte and marketod a( the wntc lijn<> ast hojpi r<>d on com and 
oilier K^itw, 1'1»- c:nn-iw<Nit( of l.linw fgubaee-fed bogs cnuid nut bo di»- 
Liiiguishcd by the ollicialE of one of Uie large pBckinii housen from corn-M 
bogi, and wtse even given a hif^n KnAu^ than xune of the hogft Udonta- 
tain gruns. 

L ** Gala in Weight per Pound of Garbage Bateo.— A number of ' 
haw been made wlUch mtaliLsh that a saiik of aljout a ixiund iwr day cut 1 
expected with g^wini; hogx. Thli tueiuui roughly that n ton of garbage : 
equal lo 100 iM>und>i of live weichl )^ined. It docs not mean, howrvir, tb 
toiiN of giibii^ HK [•nxliK'Mt mitltiplnril liy 100 eqtttiU thr live wi'ight In be |il 
on the market A i«rlain p<;r«*ntagc of low in "loik i« alwnvB to U* t^n 
and cvrn with the fuUnst co-operation with householtler<. rity iilBrialn. «ic,1 
certain auounl of iiiixlible material, and <^v«>n ItuwJihde gurtiuge, will al«ays ) 
present. 

" 8»me feodere are stating that the quality of I1m> KnrlmnP now pmdui^ i 
not as s^tod aa that of a year ap>-^t hat man gat hnge must Ite i-nten to prmbll 
a pound sain Thia is not dcHnitety cetablinhed, but il ia imnunM)!*: to nii; 
poae tluit with hiRh pdMa. etc., tlie quality is not as good We rtwoniti 
that, to cover Iosmm and a poMibhi doi-mwe in the quality of the (ar1>i 




FmaiNG UARK.WE TO HOGS 



3T9 



I 



fnl, itut ftinount of muketaUe live w«i^t be uuiunHl uL t lb. to 60 lb. of 
awt»gB- With careful m im ganc ai t itw mlio could be lowered tMMdcnbly. 



S. " liociitioii of Parro. — Tht dvUuiec of iIm! Inntt frtm tbe munidpaltiy 
■Ulunlty depemb on local ooD<liliiiDti With wtiipxi in- fnicli huuluKe. di^ 
taDre is an important fmrltir, Imt witli Rarlniwl lutH an addilioiuU lU-mik haul 
aiMa vny Irttle to tK^ ffMghl rato, and a iiturv idtn\ loaition may be wieclod. 
" Thd pig farm ifaould be located on mil thai drains readily, iirrfttrnhly swmI 
cr gT*v^. Fnr the aamo rvoana it i» ad^ixabto thai the land ho rallinK; the 
houm nbould then be tocatnl for warmth in winter aiid coolnnas in Bummcr. 
Oood dnaoage m mmmtial nt alt waiwina. 

" (iArhaK»-red ho|p t»(]uir« aNindaitt drinkinr; vntter If any atrvtmu) or 
btxikn htn included in tbe ptopcrly. ihcy nhould he carvftilly Inuvil and th«ir 
patt/aMaUished. or dw fnnfwd ulT act that thv Hnitnab; will drink pure water 
wpplied. 
" The sixe of the farm neccaaar>' rariu with the i^mooi of handlinfc. Wth 
ing Atti of dnon in all but extrcnw wmthor, ftMiime AO pip per acrv. 
ladcr cover, the number cao bo increased to from -MX) U> 600 per nciv. 





4. " M*tbi>4i oj Feeding.— The two general niMhodti of fwdJnit depend 

pninariljr oo bow ti>e niatmal ia ditlivi-ml tii the farm. When in wa^iontuaila 

!)]■ footor trock, itwiUprobablyboftdvantageoiui to have what are known oa 

lota. TImm loU arc about an acre in aice. and contain une or more 

plalitmiM madi! of IttmlMT, and of nuHlrEiml wic to hold a load of icar- 

aa delivered. Tbe platforme are on skids, and have a low mO, » 2 by 

nailod OQ fidicc. to help pnrvr-nt tho ^rlMiKr bring nhoved off liic platfom. 

"Tba pipi an pnrtiullc<l to cnu-r (lirr fi'nliiit; l"t only aftor tba pirbage fau 

dtUDped and tiw vehicle lia» left the lut. 'thia prercnta injury during 

iftnn.ting Mid avoida jtarbage tM-iof; thrown ou Ihc piicE. 

"After feeding; tbe pip am tihiit out of tb« lotJ, tht httni* ([alhrn<d, the 
platfoniaa dcMiod and aitiddiMl t(» n nrw location, lite ground Ixaimtli and 
■mond the old eito t« pJowod under, and daniiei- of odoni from all spilled imr- 
haiT »r noititura eliminattyl. Tlie feed lot4 arc (changed from lime tn tiii>», and 
vanuua f'irage nopn gnxvrit on tlir InUi tliiiH fertUicod by unealeu {Curbiiiec and 
naaure. Tina apprvciatlon of the aoil n imixtrlnnt, imd l.tnil tlial will benefit 
b; Kicb fertiluatioQ can well be purchoKd raUtix tLuu laud totally UiiBuit«d 
far lilbga and the ra»ing at cnipa, 

" Whfirc deliver}' » made in r*rload Iota, the lalmr expenac of rehandUng 
nay eat up a ItirBe part of the fonl value. Under tiurJi conditioiifl tlic hop an 
bnni^t tu the cartoa^, and tlin (ceding plKtfarm§ arv a<ljnpent to the railroad 
Usdni. OsDvnt plntfonna eoun beamie eaten by the noid in garbage, but aome 
IrapsfTiniM material muat be UMd whnr- the plat forme ran not be moved 
afaoat and the graimd underneath tunicd over. 'I^' uae ol narrow trougha 
ia obiortioaablo. Nol only do tliry finionie ao eaten by Lho acid aa to be bard 
lo ileaiL but it u much tMlttwtoiprcad t)w material out OD a AatMirfaciewliera 
hog will have an oppiirttuui.y tn i^rt di><I rejeiH any injurious mntt^r. 
" The b«Kt garingr abouUl be fed to (attcning ntocfc or to auwa with young 



280 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

pig8. When open-lot feeding is practiced, this is a aimple procedure, ainoe 
the material collected in the better portions of the city can be reserved for 
these particular purpoaeH. With carload lot« the aame effect is produced t^ 
first pennitting only the fattening stock to the platforms. After these have 
become satisfied, a second lot, aay, j-oung shoata, are let in . In the same way a 
third or even a fourth lot are given an opportunity. Not only is the better 
garbage eaten by the most important portion of the stock, but the garbage ia 
eaten more closely. The last lot, generally brood sows, are kept hungry and 
can be relied upon to clean up all the edible material remaining. 

"The feeding of frozen garbage during the winter months is not consid- 
ered advisable. It may be unavoidable, but it must be remembered that 
before this food can be digested its temperature must be raised to that of the 
stomach. This requires a certain amount of energy, more cheaply supfdied 
by mechanical means than by the body heat of the animal. ConaidenUe 
froicn garbage is being f«l, but not as good gains in weight are obtained. 
Where the malcrtol is thawed before feeding, the gains are said to equal those 
of other seasons. 

"All authorities agree that obundant fresh water must be available at aO 
times. If possible, some sort of heater should be provided to prevent freenng 

during severe weather. 

• ••••• 

S. " TTae of Supplementary Feeds. — Most garbage is more or leas a bal- 
anced ration and no supplementary feeds arc required. We find, however, in a 
number of places, that animals arc finished ofT with com; in others whea^ 
middlings, or similar feed is given tu brood sows, or corn silage Is fed on Sun- 
days. As a rule, however, no feed other than garbage is provided. Other 
feeds, and particularly pasturage, may cause gains to be made in quicker time. 
With hotel and other special garbage a certain amount of roughage may be 
desirable and even necessary. The opinions of different raisers vary greatly, 
with the personal qualifications of the nmn feeding providing the moat impor- 
tant factor. Mo differences in results are claimed by those supplementing 
garbage as compared with those feeding garbage alone. 

8. " Amount to Feed. — In using grain feoiLs it has been conclusively shown 
that greater gains can he made per pound when the feed is available to the 
aninmls at all timcN The same result not unnnturolly seems to hold with 
garbage feeding. It must be remembered that ihe percentage of water in 
garbage is much higher than in grain feed. The animal must, therefore, fill up 
oftener to obtain the xunic amount of su.-<taining matter. This means thai 
the garbage must l>e available to the aniniids for a considerable portion of 
the day. 

T, "Cost of Feeding. — The cost of ojKTation at a farm depends almost 
entirely on conditions at the piggery in quostion; any comparisons would bo 
misleading unless n r-Hreful analysis uf all fiictors lending up to and depending 
on such costs were considered. 

" In a genemi way it i^* safe to ii.-*.-;iiin(' thai the cost of disposal after the 
farm is reached, ineliiding overhead cliitrRcs iit the fiirm, would not exceed S3 
per ton. Ijcss ccwIs arc reported, and (lie above tigure permits of reduction 
with careful management. A supplementary source of revenue at a farm is tlw 



WSSDISO GARB AGS TO ItOOS 



281 



I 



boom ntttrertid. Tluw ^m nollmufl pn-pitnuory to da&nlng up tin plac- 
fcmw «ft«h day. The aiuount r«cov«iiiKl runs from 7G to 100 ib. per ton of 

8. " Hiunber at Amraals per P«o,— The loses due to ' piling up ' are so 
txnvy thai i»cb Iwg taiaa bus vciy positive iilctu na to the number o( niumaJa 
per pen. Someaay that &§ low ha 10bit)u>auiu))tT Ut be allowpd in asbdm. 

" Individua] pMU shouM bn pruvidtd for mrh liruixl wiw, or nt the most 
two eowB sbould nhare the auiue fyea. U|mq being wi?utkcd tlip yoiutg pigs 
■bould lie 1ir]>t K ur 10 to a pw until about «iglii ur *<■» wwkx old. b'fTortx 
d bo mode to kec<p in 6ai^ pen pt^ of approximately the some aae. 
iWhen over 60 to 7S lb. in trei^t thejr can be turned out into cum para tivelj 
loUi. Tlic lartfer the aiiiiniilH thu inore ean lie put tognlher in a idngle 
tadogura wilKoiU dung«<r. Uur rocurd« Indic&tc l.hnt lu, high ws SOU to 600 
tmimab hAva iMtcii kvpl in a tiini^o iucloflure vithiout KufTu^ieiit piling up to 
eause baitn." 

Som« te^U, at Louisville, on the TeedinR and growth of hogi 
showed tbut 32.4 lb. of city gurbnge weru rvquireil to add I lb. to tbe 
weiicht of tli« animal. The t«sto tur<led eevcn weeki<, and from 2$ t4> 
40 hogs were under nbften'ation. WitJi pork on the hoof at 15 c«nt« 
per pound, the garbage would have a grtxss value of $!).26 per ton, but 
it vu «old by the city nt that time (September, 1918] nt from fS.OO to 
$3.50 per ton. At Worcenter il hiu* been found that 37.5 lb. of gar- 
bage are required for each pound gained by tlie hogs. Hot«l garbage 
haa a hif^er food value, and, in Ht. Loui-i, it has been lound that 
only 25 Ib. of Ruch KarbaHe produced a gain of 1 lb. in the weight of 
tbe hog. Tbit result ha.' idno been confirmed by tcet« ikl the Iowa 
AgricuUurftl nxpcrinu-iit 8tulion. With |)Drk at 15 ocntx iter j)oimd, 
hotel icarbatce, for feeding purpu>e.t. .thould have a gross value of $12.00 
pet ton. From this groe^ value one must dedui-t the oo»t of plant 
operation, risk, overiiead, etc., and such toKts are quite variable. 
In Worocatcr, in Ifllfi, the total annual coet waa t.-^linmted iit S2.30 
per ton. Conlrnntorf), however, do not neem to t>e wilhnR to pay much 
more than $1.00 per ton (or city garbage, and in some ca.scs ]e^, aome 
eoDtract prices being as follows: 



M 



Ctly 



Y~r 



Pricq p«kI by rvutnuUx 
to ntljr pnt ton of 



MilDHapnliH, Miiin 
Orand Rapida. Mich 
PbrtIand,Oi« 

Newark. N.J 

St. IHul, Mina 

.\iidi'r«'n. Ind 



]»1R 
lfl]7 
1918 
l»]fi 

ion 

1017 



SI. 26 
0.+5 
3.90 
1.20' 
I. OS 

! m 



' CtiiitiniUd Hi ■Ight tima Uur patmd ptW nt lEre padt in ClilMiOb 



282 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBFU8S 

Ordinarily, contractors agree to diBpose of the garbage, exclusiTe 
of oollection, free of cost to the municipality, or for a nominal sum. 
At Omaha the contractor paid the city a nominal Bum. At South 
Bend an offer of $1 per ton was made for city garbage, including the 
hotel garbage, under a ten-year contract. At Denver the contractor 
collected and disposed of the garbage, a few yeara ago, at no cost to 
the city. In 1917 New York suburban farmers paid from 75 centa 
to SI a ton for hotel garbage; in 1918 they paid from $1.38 to S3.27 
a ton. 

D. NUMBER OF HOGS REQUIRED 

The number of bogs required to dispoBe of garbage from differmt 
populations vEuies, of course, with the season and other local connd- 
eratiooB. The available data on this subject are presented in Table 82. 



B. CHARACTER OP PORE 

The quality of the hog meat should be judged by the following 
characteristics: Hardness, color, oiliness, and clearness. Id other 
words, the meat should be hard, white, and free from oiliness and 
irregularities. Garbage-fed hogs compare favorably on this basis 
with others. At Worcester the loss from condemned meat has 
recently been less than 50 lb. in 100,000 lb., or 1 lb. per ton. 

The principal difference between garbage-fed and grain-fed h(^ 
is not in the quality of the meat, but in the yield of pork, which 
may be 10% less for those fed with garbage. Professor Evvard 
(Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa) found that garbage-fed hogs, 
dressing to 74.2 to 76.8^i, will run about 3% below grain-fed hogs. 
Garbage-fed hogs will shrink about 5% in shipping. As regards the 
finished products, however, there is practically no difference. 



F. CONSTRUCXIOrr AND OPERATION 

Construction and proper equipment are essential elements in the 
successful management of a hog farm. Where prevention of disease 
is so vital to a continuous service, economy demands that the greatest 
cleanliness be observed. The buildings .ihnuld be substantial, well 
lighted, well ventilated, and have smooth concrete floors. Concrete, 
to resist gradual iiiiur>- by weak acids, shiiuld !« thoroughly dense, have 
a smooth Hurface, tind not contain more cement than required to fill Utt 
pores of fine sand at the surface 



FBBWSG GARBAGE TO HOQS 



283 



The mure builrliiifp are provided Tor ho(( fmMlinfE, tlio less will be 
Ihr liVclihoud of iiubanoc, sad the 3ina1li;r b the area of land that will 

The rnwlwayn and IrcdinK \*'^* should eUo Iw of funcri't*. Tlippe 

be plenty of water available for WKAhitiK ttnd fluttfaiiig, and 

liwwwrmgie. At iHr^e r&rnw, com kept in hiIiw is u^ed for feeding 

%y» nod Iiii1idik>'». wh^n tm iturljuii^e is dcliverpd. 

licular iui|»>rtun(.*c is Ihc udditionul (»'tiit)lii>hinent about the 

farm of n EwnitArj' method of dttpcicing of gnrlMign wliiHi is not Htlil- 

ifthle for fecdinx. U can be buried in a proper soil (Chapter Wl); 
or it can be burn«d in a furnace. Some method of diapwing of tin 
cam, olht^r than by dunipinf;, ia dcsirnbl'e' (ClmptLr IX). A prnper 
nstbod of di^iKMiiig of Uk.' manure of hoin is also ncvRwury. 
Kxperience at WDK«RU>r and at Highhmd Park indicatos that hog 
naoiire and garbage not eaten ma.y amonnt to fmm 30 to Wy'(. of 
Ibe qutkutily of garbage received. If tbc manure and wa^tc ii* buried 
10 furrow» by ptuwing, followed by bnnd triiuiiiing or serspiiiK. and 
allowatire b made for re-use every two years, from 0.67 to I ai-re will 
he required for 1 ton of manure and waste per day. 

Suiitary loelboda of oporating hug farms are Mscntial. No 
torimKe should hv. disliverod unlc!".-* it is frcah, and i-vL-ry part of the 
Works fihoiild be kept thorouRhly clean at all times. Compared with 
^—Otber methodx of di!<iKn>:d, ihe delivery of clean garlmirc to farmers 
^Bur reetlinfi i» quite eatiefactury. The State abould keep a record of the 
^^Banitju-y oondittnn of the gu.rba^> farms, and any poorly kept farm 
^IkliouM be either al once improved or nbaiidoncd. 

The odoni from garbage when it is fed in buildings do not U)<UAlly 
^^pxXeod loore thou about lAO ft., and 300 ft. is a reasonably iiafe 
^Htnantii). 

It is advisable to provide HulTteient arpa to grow corn for feed, and 
^^tn build mIoh for \U storage. Provision nhouUI also be nuide for 
^hvormiug p4rli> of the garbage in winter. Good reeei^-ing and shipping 
^Bjuuliliea are uenenlial. 

^H Tho co«t« of constnietion and operation of the Worcoftcr and 
^■Btony UV>lil Snnnlorinrn farmi> have bi^en given. 

J^M Cuel data foi lt»r coniilnii'lioti of bog farina are available in only a 
fpw ca^*9. An ediimate of cost made by Greeley in rJIti for a farm 
for Winnt^ka and Glencoe, to have 330 bogs and ».erve a po]mlation 
of 01X10, in shown in Table SA. 

At llanvillo a fanii wa.-^ iilikiiried for inside feeding, (be design of 
ltu> hug hou*^)i being nbown in l-'ig. 74. Tabic h3 nhowtt tlie ojrerating 
tbu ol th« Worceflber hog farm. 

Kig. 75 is a design for a bog farm suggested in Circular Ko. 80 of 



284 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

TaBLB 86. — ESTIHATED COBT OF CONBTRUCTION OF A HoQ FaBH 
AT WlNNETXA, lu.., IN 1913 

Populatioii wrvcd, 9000 

330 hogs at »5 $1,650 

Horses and harneaa - 1,000 

Boiler houxe and sterilizing equipment 5,000 

Buildings, pens, and fences 10.000 

Farm house 3,000 

Water supply 2,350 

Haihtiad siding 1 000 

Land, 10 acres, at 1300 3,000 

$27,000 
Engineering and contingencies 3,000 

Total $30,000 



FUUmd 




■a* 



= '■ Pi 

; ■ =:■ -] 

SECTION 

Fill. 71. — l'n>iM)scd Hog House, Danville, 111. 



286 COLtECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BBFUSB 

a run. Some feeders prefer troughs. Plank flooring is undosirabley 
as it is almost imposgible to keep it clean. 

The sleeping quarters may be built just back of the feeding floor. 
Each pen should have a plot, or, if possible, a pasture, in order to 
provide a place for exercise, and here, in some cases, it may be poesiUe 
to supply the hogs with a crop of rape seed, soy beans, or other green 
forage. The pens should have gates so that wagons may be driven 
through, in order to facilitate cleaning and the movement of the 
animals, and these gates should be arranged so that the hogs can be 
shut oS the feeding floors while the garbage is being dumped in, and 
also while the floors are being cleaned. In the plan shown, the gates 
are arranged so that wagons may pass across all the feeding floors 
except those of the farrowing pens, in order to clean the floors and tbe 
shelters at the same time. 

The pens for fattening hogs and for young stock are of various mxes 
because it has been found practicable to keep fattening hogs and broocl. 
sows in larger numbers than are safe for young stock. 

In this design the farrowing pens and lots are placed between th9 
pens and lots intended for other stock. Such a plan is convenient for m' 
large establishment, but, if hogs are purchased and fattened and ncv 
stock is raised, the central building may be omitted and the fattening 
pens built on each side of a central driveway. 

The plan is not intended to fit every case, nor b it complete in alB- 
details. The scale and system of operation, topography, availaUs 
capital, convenience, etc., are factors which should determine th9 
arrangement of pens, houses, and other equipment. 



G. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVAITTAGES 

Apparently, there is quite a difference of opinion as to the sani- 
tary features of garbage disposal by feeding. Some authorities 
consider the process a thoroughly sanitary one, and recommend it 
because of its comparative economy. Some few have opposed the 
process as a nuisance and as unsanitary. The authors share the 
following publicly expressed opinions, provided the garbage is fed 
while fresh and the works are carefully and properly designed, buHt, 
and managed. 

a. Dr. Charles V. Chapin, Health CommiBsioncr. Providence, R, 1,, in 
his aiinunl rrjMirt for 1902. statpii that " Foodini; jcarhagc to swine will not 
cause [liHcasp either in Providenee or in other towns to which it is removed. 
In an experience of nineteen years I have never found a caae of sickness that 
oould be thus explained." 



PBSmsa GARBAGE TO UOGS 



287 



b. Dr. P M Komi,* of \iw MirhiKnn nUtlo Biutnl cS HoiHb, in 1913. when 
['dsM^log U>e Graiul Kapida l>o|; fuin. •taUst Muit " Kvirrytlitti|t i» well ki-|>t 
' and arderiy. ll Mxtao that ttiv Citj' of Ununi lUi^ids in diaixwiug vi lU j^r- 

boge and wwte id on economical and atiafBCtory way. I coticlude by mying 
thai the garbttgo of thU oity is diipOMod of duuply, it&luifii^lonlv, and in s 

aanituo' manner." 

c. Dr. Edward Cahill, of Ihe Masachusetta Oun-uu uf Animal Indiwtry, 
ststoB that 96% o( all the hogt of MaiincliiUiclUi an fvd uii Korbafp;, witb gvu- 
«nhy mudanMrf ramilu. 

The general advantages of garbage disposal by feeding (o bogs may 
be tttated otf follows: 

1. The aniuial cost is low, compared witli most other methods of 
diflpoaal. particularly for the smaller cities and t^miH, with jMipula- 
ncioRs of 1m» than about 73,lXX), and often n. proflt can bo returned to 
"Ui8 city. 

2. As hog fariDA Are generally at »ome didtaiioc from tlie community, 
and often at several comparatively remote individual forms, they 

* afford a disposal utiicli, Imtcuum: remote, does not require conlinuoiu 
Bupervisiou by the tuunicipality. In entail communities, the opera- 
tion may be conit>arativcty Kimplo. 

3. GarlMge fed In Iiorh must be reiuoDHbly fresh, aud lbcrc(<»e 
mit»t \x collected frequently. This is au ttdvantage, bccuuM it 

•demandi! the beat possible collection service. 
The dieadvantagcfi may be stated ai^ follows: 
I. The danger of loving ho^p^ by di^eafio w always present. Should 
nuiny of the hog:* die, the rcKular method of garbage disposal would be 
»ehou&ly crippled. This r««ult would be more M^rioua in a large 
^thoD in a small city. 

^1 2. In some luciditie« the comporuUvcly large farm area required 
^niear-by is not ava:!ahle. 

V 3. Tlie practice of alh>win({ a large numtter uf farmers to aoUeot 
garbage in a city, for feeding to hoge, makes flupervtsion difficult- 



E. SPBOFICATIONS 

Although the municipal opwation of hog farms may frequently be 
IM«(erable, under favonble conditionn, it will be advantaceuiw nt inrwent 
ID many citiea to entnut tbiH nii'thod nf dii^poKnl to a cunlructor It 
lien bccoroCB nDCOmaiy fur the city to embody suitable apcclficBtiona 

the contract. 

Heti»tofore, specificationa for irarb«(cp disposal by feeding to ho^i 
have been very neacral in gtatemenl. They iibould generally include 

' PtMCc HMiUk, iMMlaa. Mbh., for Jaiiuify-Mkrcb. 1012 



COllBCTtOS AND DISPOSAL O/f MXTNICIFAL RBPVSS 

a more definiM description of the cliaracter of th« etmetUTM to b« 
built at the farm, and ftiiflicmit l« iiiKurv MitUnry operalinn. Th« 
Bpe<;ificationt= ohoiild not Ew limited to n jieiiuriU reqtjiremciit fur 
Batiitary upkeep a.nd op«raliuti, but the necMsaary works tuid »ppa- 
TBtu» lu secure liic cleunlincsfi and bealthfulnem of the hogs nhould 
be specified with as much detail lu practicable. 

In 19{)fi a contract was made bctw&vu Grand Rapids, Midi., and 
the UtJliiiation Company, which itiHumnutrixed as follows: 

1. The city ia to collect the (pirbHKV, tin taiu, uud uiibrolcen bottles, and 
deliver Ihom daily to tho coDtractor. 

2. Tlie cocilraciur iw to di«|NiM of the mBterials thus dutivenid in amiHaiy 
nmnner outside of the city limiia. 

It. The dclivL-i^' of the collected materials 10 to be made to the nuitiactar 
in hit vehiclea or, at suitli iiitnvvnii'iit pUiitu as may be agroed ua. wbeT« it 
can be loaded on these vdiiclw without «x|»eiim: tw llie cuntmctor. 

4. GaibiBgc shall be held to include waste or dumyed fruit, nnininl aiid 
irrgrtoblc mutter, liquid and olbi^rwuie, which attenda the prvparation. iw, 
ocKjking;, dealing id, or etorinc of, moat, ftah, (owl, fruit, or vtrgvlablc nutter of 
all kinde. whutlier from private or public tiuuiie* or tnaaufactorka, but tM 
sahcf, manure. nijcht-«oil, or rubbish. 

A. The city agrees to malcc oollcetionB not 1c« than Iwiec each vrtk, 
excc|)t that froin Novemlmr lhU\ to \lareh L'tth in each year the cotlMTtiOM 
will U(ct be otteiier than once each yreek. 

6. The delivery of malerialB ahall be under the inaiuijcement of the Boaid 
Of Health of Ihedty, 

7 The iHiiiita of delivery shall be sdooted by mutual oKreeiuenl betweca 
tlie city and the evintrartor, 

8. Tlie contractor UKrees to dinpoae of the garbage free of co«t to the city, 

9. The fontractor attm-s to conduct the faiudneMi of diftpoaing of the ipw- 
Ihikc in H iitreful nmnner, aiidtoobserveany ruloeandregiiliitionatliBt may bo 
uitide by any competent authority in reference to ita (aiiitary ditipoaal; and 
tJ)e work of reicinvinK it froDi the city shall be done in a manner mtiafikolary 
to the Board of Health 



tlie contract, made in 1908 at Denver, reciuiitt? that the gar 
shall be disposed of by fcedioK to liox» or otherwiie, an feat aa acctitnu- 
latcd. l''or the protection of the City, the contractor should baj 
bonded against unsanitary operation. 



L SUHHAST AND CONCLUSIONS 



The disponal of garbage by fee<ling to lioip is an old staa^ 
pntcititM?!, and utilixes the food value, whicli is itii (rreateat ^'aiue, 
the time and the expense of taking it from buue« to fann, bcfo 
bei:oin«8 uoeatAble, is too sreal. Therefore, :< " '-> •' 



rSKD/Na GARBAGE TO fffXJS 



to st&Alt citiea, towns, ftod \-iUsKoe; or by special daily ooUeetioDS 

klio Irnm hotels and eHting huu)«e# in large cttient. 

Tu uijUei; its grettlce>t value it in ne«e*«Ary al the lioiwe to keep the 
tuba^ llic?rc>ughly well separated froai all other refuf>e, and to have 
Ireqwnt onHections, from two to six or ecvca limca a vivek, according 
to chuiiclcr of district, ^eo^ou, aud gcocml olimate. U is ateo hcmm- 
wy lo have aiiitflhly dcoigiicr), wf^ll-mHiiai;i>(I, and Ihornughly clftari 
loeJinKiwlabUihrnerite. The manaRpment should include an expert 
eiptlile <if takini cure of the sanitary* conditions of the food from 
the lime of collection to the time uf feeding, and able to coiuluil hog 
(Mere or other diauuMv, i<hotiUl thi^y iip]x.>ur. Tlii» uur» in iiiiport&ut, 
t)*(wueanuglect«dfarni is likely to hnveuTifortii nut eresultK. Whether 
t^ KarlMtKC is collc!Ct«Kl aud ili.s]H)MKl of Ity rontract nr city forces, a 
Ihoruughly well oiRaniied suporvl«ion U essential for ouccoes. 

Ftrnts Hhould be kept mt free as putwible Iroiii ratit and Qim by 
I**>pcrij pluouiiig all HtrucMirm and by a free unc of traiM. lucincr* 
*tore, tuirial ureag, or compost pits for all uncanRUmed garbage are 
Woesairy. 

CoulcinR or warmtiiK the Rarbage jiut before fading ha« hero and 

'tfaentnot withsuoccMi, particularly when tlio gurbtigu whk xule. The 

' *tUaUty of the pork produced on the hent^nmiiftKt-il (cirlinKe-feeding 
'uins Iu8 been fully equal to that scvurcd by coni'lccding. 

Tbe moat Mirious drawback in hn^ fiKMliiii; nilh garbage han Iteen 
the difficulty of obtaining in all loraUtirat reliably t'nsted nnd Nlandard- 
'■■dwrum and virux for inoculatiun Hguijixt rhnk-ni, which produces 
taniinUy: yet this difficulty in iK'iu^ enidimlly reinuv<^l. Pneu- 
•""ois, which hati occaptonally vutited the farmo. can be prevented by 
P^per housing and protection from the influence of bad weatlier. 
AgitBil tite foot-nnd-moulb diacaec tbcrc docs not Be«m to be a 
'•'Wile remedy, a* yet. 

A bog (arm should be established on a well-drained and, preferably, 
■*Mdy FIT gravelly soil. The houtten iihoidd i>e built for wnrmth in 
■"iter uul cooltiens in Hummer Plenty of water nhoutd be available 
™ drinking and cleanKing. All unconsHjncd fond and all excreta 
■^Id bt mmovcd and disposed of frequently and thoroughly, and 
^^tmUag platforms should be washed before the next feeding. 



CHAPTER IX 



SORTING RUBBISH 



AH olftssw of miintcir>nl refuw ontftin flome artJdep whirh may 
pickcKl out, sorted, and sold. Kubbinh, much more than other kinc 
erf refuse, ciintaitkH mucIi artidex »» paper, ra^, rubber, bottles, tin , 
cans, bit« uf mcUil, ulil slioes, etc. At dbpowl works, laborom occa- 
»onftlly Rnd silver RpooiiR, ooinH, jewels, aiid otber vnluiiblca in 
collert^d material. 

PicldnR over tbi« rubbish, and marketing tbe salable portioos, b' 
an uld cuBtoni, aud its praetlcvd with nmiiy variatious. In Paris, 
mcnibcra of Ihv liistohc cumpauy uf " lloiE-pickere " (Chiffonitra) 
exfiminc th« hnaso cnns before collection, and lake out that wbicb 
Ibey can use or sell. They remove from the rcfufle nil luaterials 
Ihul have any value l)efi>i'« it in rollcct,ed for titial dittpoeAl. There- 
fore, there U very little msteriat left to b« pii?kedoul at the delivery I 
point. It is (wtatnatcd that the annual rt'ecipta of this ambulatiogj 
PanEiati rubbish pickiug cstabUsbmcut bavo amounted Ut ouuiy IboU'J 
kaikIk of dollArti. 

i^iiie pickiniE over or »caveninn(c is done at most of the rcfuw' 
dumpft in Amehean cities by unlicensed aeavenccm, and [rcqucHtly 
without municipal Htipervieion. It is geri(>rHl]y an nnsightly activity, 
ifccuuKu the pickcn* arc ufk'n slovenly and unclvati, and allow smaQ] 
children to luutist 1h<>m. Undi^r proper enntrol, however, tttii work 
at dumps may be fairly satisfactory and bring a iiubfltanlial revenue^ 
to the municipality. The total weight of rubbieb sydtcmatirally 
picked out and »i>td lias occaMtonally ranged from 30 to 50% of tbe 
total riibbt.t|i collected. " 

The praclice of sorting is not nomplirativl, but it is open to the 
uncontrollable danger of transmitting diNMneH through gtrms in 
ewccpingK. Wdding. and diMonlifd materials from roittn^ vhtsn 
luilicnl'^ hnvinit infeotioua dis^^sm havr lu-eii eonfined. 

The rollffction sen-ice shoiihl t)e arraiici-il rm as lo tirint[ th" "tlthfeli^ 
to the sorting plant in a« dry and cleati a condition oil 
order that the recovery may be worth while, and tl 

290 



SORTlSa RVBBTSB 



291 



hand ralue of tbe nrntemlx approaoh«d oa nearly a» possible. The 
layout u( ormvL-yupi, prentes. And uihw macliiiiery at the plajit >ihuuld 
bt' nrmiiK^^l ho that tbe operators vnn work with the iKrealvi^t cBicicnrjr 
Uid with OS little lo»t motion o^ posMblc. Clean and !<aminry condi- 
. should Iw maintained «^-eryn*here. aiid Kood ventilation it: exMD- 
Moet of the machinery required in an the market, and can be 
ifod and erceted to suit each layout. The plant in 1arf;e oities 
tiould be near a railroad, id order to facilitate shipiuBnta of the 
recovered niateriahi. 



A. DKSIGH AND COWSTROCTIOH 



tWhen carefully developed, the ftortinft is carried on in building 
tt«d with eonveyora on which the rubbish h i^pr^ad out before the 
pick«fv. There are also biiu for temporary sturui^e. and prcvseji and 
Other machiuer)' for prcpaiinj; the sorted matenaU for shipment. Aa 
^^nanerator URually adjoins the building, and in it tb« residue in burned. 
^1 The design of a rubbish eorting plant involvcx finit, a decidion an to 
^Blie extent to which the recovery »hall be earricd, then a selection of 
IFUte initchinery, and finally >be nrratiftement of the part« so aa to pro- 
mote efficieii I and sanitary operation. The various partii are described 
Hin thii< i^bnpler. 
I L Receiving Arrangements. — Rubbiftb, weighintt only about 200 lb. 
per cubic yard, hB8 a comparatively large vobinie. The per capita 
^t)rodur(ion varivK cunHidDrHbly in difTi'rent citidK. fti Buffalo it 
^bmfiunta to as much us 03 lb. per capita per yvar. The quantity dellv- 
^"ered each day to the sorting plnnt averages 50 tons, or. at times, more 
than SOO ou. yd. Owing to this Inrge volume, ample space raai*t 

|)i)e jirovided for unlimditiE and liandlinK it- The cuUcction wagons 
priliiiarily ilrivc on a dumpinK platform in tiic building. The dumped 
Inaterial lit tlien raked by hand lo a sorting conveyor. A hopper is 
■ometimeH f^oed over the i»aveyor (Rochester] to facibtate the 
raking:. 

3. CooTcyora. — WTirn the volume of nibbish is large, the conveyor 
mujt be long enough to permit of spreading it out in n thin layer 
ao that all pieces may be »PRn by the pirtcern. At Fort Hill Wharf, 
Bo^ttw. the conveyor ifi 100 ft. long- The belt should be of i'uch a 
width that the pickers on each side may reach fu the center cunveiii- 
eutly. It is fjeoeially made of steel slaiit niiitiinK on eudlcwt chains 
^^m» etich ndc. 

^ft The conveyor tuually moves up an incline, and carrier the rubbiith 
io tbe sorting platforms placed on each isidc. At the Uclancey Street 



292 COLLECTION AND DL^iPatAL Of MVNICtPAL REFUSE 



pluit, New York City, the conveyor wm of the npmn lype, 48 in. 
wifte, with udc aiiKltm in cnnfiiio l\vf rubbigli. Tlie bIhIk were nch 
6 in. wide, rxlondiiiK entinfly ncroiw IIk- lielt Aiid lupping nvrr ow 
another. »o that there waa tto open sp«c« betw«fia Ihcm wbeu ihef 
traveled over the head-sJisfts. The speed wa« about 00 fL pv 
minuto. 

3. Storage Bins. — A ^tormgo bin miut be provided Tor each kiiKl 
and Krudc of iimcerial to b« :«ort«d. The bios ar^ cuiumoiily arraii|ed 
in two rows, oae on «a.ch side of the conveyor, and are separated (niDi 
it by llie plutfornu) oii wliicli the pickers atand. They are unullr 
in the second story of the building, und discharge by gravity to \\it 
baling presses below. The Ihwc for glawi, iron, leather, lwia«, etc 

should also lie on tlie seeond 
floor, in order W permit oT 
spouting the materiab intu 
cnn or wagons. The capadt!* 
of the bioA dcpendo un tli» 
nature of the material and 
the Hchedule of apemtioiiL 
Eitch paper bin Bhould hel>l 
ntxiut 2 cu. yd, 

4. BaUng PreESes.— A ImI- 
iiig prexM I'oityiMtA of a wooden 
or steel caxiuR Het in a UeaTV 
frame, within which then' v* 
piKtofut whit'li limy be operal'^ 
by hand, thrmigh gcnra, ur by 
a belt- or RGAr-«mneet«d no- 
Inr. A large^i«d pre« ia 1 
ft. fS in. by 2 ft. 3 in. in plan, 
nud 6 ft., deep, and ran tun 
out a bale of WB»t« paper 
weiKhing from 500 to 800 lb- 
A pre»« of Ibis type, m(rt«- 
driven, cohL in Ifil-l almat 
SA50, r.o.h. At the world, Md 
weifthei) about 7000 lb, A smaller lia.nd-operuted prtaoi U 2 ft. bjt 2 
It, ft in. in plan, 6 ft. deep, nnd makes a bale nhoul 4 ft, deep- A 
prwit of this type, when built of wood. cn«t in 1914 nbniit $100. Rwl 
when of BtocJ about tl75. f.o.b. at ibe wi>rkH, 

Another type (Fig. 7«) culled the "Pak-tite" is manufaeluted tf 
III'- Itallle Cn<ek Siompine Work:*, and tlw fulluwing detail* vim pnn 
In June, lfil7: 



FiO. 78.— The " Pak-Ule ' Haling Press. 



SOnnifG RVBBJSfi 



SM 



8<>*«lkwb 


WMcklulb^ 


aiWhinF 


PfJL-O 


It li)r Id bj 30 in. 

IflbyWby 32 in. 
30 by » by 3-1 in. 


U to 100 lb. 
100 to 150 lb. 
2tHJ to 300 lb. 


I«Hf>. 
ISO lb. 
276 lb. 


t2ft 
fiO 



6. Tin Can Presses. — The dUposal of tin cans is a oenoui; problem, 
Imb in small UiwtLiuucl liirge cities, and especially in tlia wesltTii part 
oltbc United HtutvH and in Canada, where largu quuiilitics vf canned 
fcob nro uand. Pre»<ing tho canti into imnW imlca after cleanning 
tlwai ia a good method of marketioiE theni, whether or not the other 
rabbbh is iiort«d. 

A ntulactory tin can press, operated by hydraulic prNstire, hfl« 
bsto mule by K. O. Wood and Company, of Fbitadelphia. It con- 
■ittfll a heavy titeel reeeivinn hnp|>er, one sidi" of wbit'li ncKa an the 
boHl or plunger of tlic hydrauUcally operated pbton. The hopper 
it Ultd with caiu and the top \* bolted into place before prcetting 
bgHu. Attached t« the same ba»e plate kk the hopper ix the hydraulic 
eylindM'. workinjc under a maximum prennure of 4004) lb. per »<|uare 
iodi. It is operated from a iteiieral hydraulic prwsurc system, or by a 
hkad-pover pump. The bane plate is 5 ft. 4 in. loni; and 2 ft. 8 in. 
*ide, and the height u. 3 ft. 1\ in. The total weight in 8000 lb. The 
pnwcotfti npproKimately $115(1, enelwuive of Ili« puinp. A buibII hatid- 
(MiBp axtLn ubout S<50. .\ liit(Ii>power huling pre«8 for tins is made 
■hohy Lojteman Brothers, of Milwaukee. 

i^vtral tin van prosKai are in UHe in England. At Uiackpool, the 
*W of labor for preaeiDg and loading the baled tinn int» truclu was 
'boBi $1.75 per ton. At Bradfowl, the Clcjinsinn Ocpivrt incut dis- 
PMmI nf about 170 tons of tin rami per year, at an averufte prici> of 
*l«vlt3.7&pertoo,f.o.b. at Ute worlu. 

Tin caiw ore aluo treated by de-tinning. In ISlft de-tinning worka 
M Eaut ('hicaico, Ind., paid $5 per Ion for tinn delivered on freight carK. 
"^ proOKt coiiKistK of a drying and deaninic of the tins aod a recovery 
of tkv metal by heat and treatment uith cbemieala, aa deacribcd later 
lailiu vlutpter. 

(. PuDcliinc Machines.— 'nn can»i can be dit open and flattened 
out io a ao-callfd " liidrupting Machine." The flat picrro of tin 
poacheil out are Aold a» roolinit Mathers or crate eoruen<. A di.-^ 
rvptiuft maehina ia about 3 by 4 ft. in plan, ux'igh" alwul ItMHI lb., 
Uil n»juin» about 3 h.p. for tU operation. It can cut up about .SOOO 
ia an tight'huur day. The roolinit waahers or crate corners us 



2M COLLRCTfON XYD DI8FOSAL Or MVyTCTFAL RRFtrSK 

punched out of the tin «aiis nith a No. 19 Bliss pre8«, fitted with epeciAl, 
douhle-ruM feril, dim, <lte l>luok)<, snd punch holder. Tbexo uiavluaat 
utf iniirlc i*y the AslicstUH I*ruteot«d Wtial CumiHuiy, uf Benx'er Fails, 
Pa. PnoBa quiiteJ, f.o.b. works ( LU14), were uppruximalcljr on fuUuwit: 

DiiTUpliiiK irwchinu. . . . . tSGO 
Blinpnm ,.... 16|l, 

Duuble-rull feed UO 

Uics, die bliicks, &nil punch holder ISO 

Tol^ t825 



I 



In addition, the company, in I9I5, chari[«d a royalty of 82 per ton 
of caiu cut, or would tAk« th« cut and etraisht«ned tin for $15 per 
ton delivered at its wurks, in uhidt ca»u no royalty was cbarpsd. 
There it« le:«H vraete in iriakinK cral« corners than in making roofing 
washers. Knch brought about 3 ccii(« per pound. 

7. De-soldering and De-tinning. — An appamtus for de-soldering, 
cleaning, and de-tinoing tin cans was in operation at the I.x>tidoa 
Klodlric Work», in Euglaiul, in 1913, and i^ {lt>9«cribcd by Goodrich aa 
full own: 

The tin.>i are iir-t sorted out uod delivered to a perforating mocbint 
which punches the tiiin lull of small holes so that the liquid uiied latvr 
in the procL-ss can punctrate more thoroughly. The perforated tina 
arc delivered to a conveyor which discharges Ihein into a perforated 
drum, revohing in n weak solution o( hot cauKlii- tioda. This treat- 
meut requires about one hour, and cleans the tins of fat, paper, duat. 
hitti of garbage, and other foreign material. The cleaned eann are 
di»cliarged into a second and similar dnim whtoh revolves in an 
empty tank. In thix, the entrained liquor i« drained out. The tinaf 
then pa«* into « third drum revohTiig in cold water. Prom the nild- V 
water drum they pfu» into a fourth drum, through which the waste 
gfin^ from the de-Holdering furnace pass, so tluil the tins are thor- 
oughly <lrinl. The tins now piuv« into a fifth drum, in which the 
de-«oldennit take;* plnce. This drum rcvol\-c« in an iron eonog, and u 
heal«d tn a temperature just high enough to nielt the solder ofl ths ^ 
tina. The end of this drum is open, and dinchargeH the de-»oldeted'H 
tinx on a platform under which iit a hydmulte prew by which they uq . 
preiwetl int<o brifiuptlei). 

These hriquetten were then ahipjied to K^-wri. 'Icrmany, to be 
de-tinned by what is known as the " ohiotine " procetm, as follnwii: 
1'hc de-soldered tin briqucttw are put into a large Iron cylinder 
rbicli the air is exhausted. The crlindcr k then Hlled with 



m DC 
Iowa: J 



sORrmo RVBBisn 



. cMorine gas under prauure. The c)ilorin« unitm with tlio tin, forming 
Bitloridi: of till (SriCU) for whieli Ihore in ti iiiurkct in thv »ilk-<lyeiiig 
BiKliulry. TbJii treatment trc^s the briquettes front all tin, and pure 
Htc«l rematiui, for which there b a dctoand at the Dcigliburing steel 

B At tho London worlu about 15,000 tons of tins were made into 
briquettes each year, and at Eeoen upwards of tm.UOO Iohh were 
Huiunllv d«-tinne(l. 

i. Storage and Shipment. — It ia not geni-mlly adviitablf^ to provide 

nScicnt storage to hold products over a period of low prt<:<M<. There 

dmuld tx- xiiflicii^nt »ipni!<-, however, to tide ovvti the asun) irritgiilantiet) 

iaftngtit twrvicc. AiranKenientA fihnuld lie made at the plant for the 

L nay loitding of cars, and aa much by gravity tm possible. 

I 9. BttUdiogs aod Grounds. — Wetl-Ughted liiiildiRgs of brick or 

^k eOMrtlc are dctiirabtv. There in apt to l>c conaidcrabli? dui^t from the 

^f hudting of the rubhUh, no that th« building should l>o ciiffirictitly 

Ml. knd provided with good ventilation. All the work i^hnuld be 

i»o« within thi* building. The plant should be near a railroad, in 

•derto facdit»t« shipping, and if the grounds are (inclosed by a fence 

* »ili preveut loose papers from being blown away. 



B. RECOVERABLE MATERIALS 



fl. XJtW. — EITorta to save and utilize waate products nhould be 
mcoQraged only when the opcratimi is ceoiiomicuLly juetifcd and is 
ool Bmnnitary, and niblti)>h sorting pknt« Khouli Ih> Rnnxidored oidy 
fwiathiw iHiinl of view. 
IW I'nilH Statoii is the rhief pa per- producing eountiy in the 
' *nrid. Ill I1>|)9 tito annual niilpur. wok otclirnated to 1w 4.216,708 
^ tMki. Xlii: cuotuuptiuti amounted to about 100 lb. j>cr capita (ler 
^^ Jiar. Nearly half of this is uf«d for nf>wftpa[>ors nnd p<^riodiral«. 
^■■Berrnt Kul>7tljinceit run be; luod in manufacturing paper Ktock. Of 
^^0lk mtitnriid;<, of coun>c, the Hoft wood&. euch as !>|}njcv, poplar, 
*ilV>w. fir, bireh, and the like, are bettt suited, but wai'tc paper and 
**p art abw renddy adapted to this u.<ic. Thr pulf>-makiug portioo 
■>f Ihn trrtw amountn to Icao Duui 40^^. of the whole bulk, so that the 
■*»le in I»rp'. 

Il w e.|iiita|ed that onr edition of a large Sunduy ivcwspapcr 

■wttt 20 acren of wood-pulp tree*", and that more than 2000 aeres 

witally jirt rcr)uired to funiish the pulp for the paper of one Urge 

*»»pn|ier. The drain on the forestc of Hie country i* evident, atwi 

tfllura economic value of eaWng marketal^c paper waste should 



29C COtLKCriON ASD DI.^POiAL OP MVKtClPAh REFUSE 



be considered r-arpfuUy. The United Statect Uepiu'tiiieiil of Coi 
aummarizes the uhdh of Bucb woalc material ae foUavR: 

" CIcnn wliito rottiin or liuon rap nnil cloui unUeMbed cotton aj 
nis> iirv ulwayn tJi dtiiuuit! tiiTitpo and itmall pJfOM are Juirt u suitable u 
huch larg;rr piccnt. The finest iiradca uf puper arc made from audi uiatcrial, 
ad the <tcinAnd fnr niirb mg* i« olwnjv nt«'A(ly. 

" ('uttingB from (imcy shirlingH, uilili- dniimnlut, loweling, coUom and linrn 
drew (toodH. dc , art- in demand, and ore rcsdily sold. 

" Soiled white mfcB, boih new and u«ed, «nicT ioto tbfi cotDpoatiaa cf a 
very large variety of high-gntdc whito niid «Jorod paponi. 

" Soiled luiil dirty I'liliinil rujpi, known tu the mil1» as ' tliinls and bluca.' 
except ihi: bluck tiud durk-rvd a>lun.-d Litite, uuike up tlic iuipKft anuiunt of 
any Hindi' itr»dc uf m^ iiwd in ilie m&nufa(-tur« uf liigb-gTBdr book papen and 
mMlium-i;rudo writing papersi. In tbiu clam ia lui'ludcd old ranviui, awninp, 
Maik-lolh. and nil kindf of Mitlcd mp No UghtM.'al»rt>d rag is loo dirty it* hr. 
iukhI. iui (hr iniiiiiifHctuniiK pniit'wi rvmvRrtK f\if dirtiivt rapt into a whila 
luiws, wKlI^t than tli») uriKinul cottoit frum wliirh it wa* made. 

" UUrIc ra^ Fspccially old black sLockings, nrr in Kcncral demand. TV)' 
arc lutod in prudurin^t l)lni-lc jwpent, and mtxH^iidly fur inixing with ij^rieN 
colored |)ap«T atockn, tlicjvby pruduring tb« effect knuwii as srsiuUi |Nt|ien. 

" Woolvn raiB of all kinds htp of valor, thp tiii^irr Eradn aiv nixtrarA to 
the woolen mill for rc-tniuiiifArtUTr, whilt^ th» lon-er gradce an in dcmuid for 
nuuiufiicturc into roofing futpers or roofing felU 

" Alli'ntiuii is (fi|>ci-ially r^alled t4> Uip wide range of uses fot whirb rap and 
old papeni iff iiU kiiidn nrv nvniliiibk. All Krmln< ohuuld be nivixI, as thrn^ 
pifkrr ajid tlic i>fl,|xT maker will find a iwe lur iheiii 'I'be liigluwl gradm wfll 
go intA thi* lufd^rr grftdni a( jwipf^r, nrhil^ cvt^ th? Iciw^t ^rad^v nf tbis wantf 
mnt«rial ran be [niuli* inUi Ikix Ixmrd. Tfic {imdiii'l known n^ Ikix baani is 
an rxavllcnt Mubntitute fitr wood iiwd in the manufacture of wooden bosos, 
nnd.whcnnmde into shipping rantainftn, it i» fully luatrongtui, and i^ery mudl 
lighter llin.n, the wood whieh it replaces. The Having of tbis tn>l<ii&I, tber<v 
fi>fi>. ])cX)dnreH u aem and nupttrior product, and at tbe same liiae cuDsema 
our forwta. 

■■ li\1iitc r]ip]»ing» and shavinm from book papers, bond papers. Inlgpr 
pnpcn, and writini; puipcrp, arc (wpeciAlly valuable, and a iteady demand for 
eucb maUirtal is alwaj's found 

" Printi*™' WHHte, iun«iHiiiiK of iwppr damsBPd in 'printing, patter luett lo 
Hean ink fwm the inked fortn^ and mllMsof iwinlingpTww^, und other milod 
printing wiurt«. h Bvailnbl« (ur nt-manufacture into many difTcrcol gradoa of 
pappr. 

" ^\lut« and colored writing [mpers are suilable for re-okanufarture into 
many other gradn after tlie ink &nd ntiloring matter »re rentorml 

" C'kan wrapping pajwra of all kinds are valuable for re-man ufKetum iui 
dinilar gradiw. 

" Old bcxilui. magazinn, pvriodiraU, aormmt bcNikji, oii' , t»D km re-nMitV- 
foctured into book papers of exccIleaL quality All materiid nf ihia kind Ikrt 



I 



SOHTINO KUBBTSir 



297 



is wiveA Bi of dir««t bcneBt to th« Tomts o( the eauntry, tu magazine and bM>k 
p m x CT ore T«ry largely mutlc in>ni wood jiiilp*. 

'' Cleui folded uewapiiper Kdxk u Kiutublv Iut * ntunbw oi \m\WT products, 
wtMnA ia in dsmouid. 

" An gnuln of cmrdhoard, ntrnwlKmnl, corTUKnt<^ liox hoard, nnd wiltfl 

vmppillg papers, nc^'^pupcn, etc. stb miitsbl« and in demand for tc-iiuiiiu- 

f*civrv ioUt cwdboard rrqtiirod to tnokc coBtaiii'cn for padunx crackm, 

«wtf«U. knd Dtb«r food priMturta Tlie procen of re«umufBL-lure a mii^li that 

^^he mmlwml in^ u thormiKhly i;tpriliBpd. The demand for cJcsn food producta 

^Bbituirm ihni all old paprra should tiir naved. 

^^ " BurUp bofciiing; and maiiila ropo are also o( value in the production nf 
Mrrmg wTAppinK pnpcrii, «nd th<: supply of thU mntrnftl m ftlwiiyvi InM than the 
dcatnnd " 

3. Hukel Values. — We gii'e l>elow, to wrve as a Renerul Ktiide in 
forminii: an o[niiioii, flic umrkct values lliat huw prvviLiIvd m mtvitoI 
American cities. The great war has altered maoy of them. S^nic 
^^»re noK- higher, Bome Inwnr. 

^H A mibntantial rovoDue from refuee hoa been derived in Ronton, 
^^^>ir York, and other cilio>i. in titp latti-r {^itv Ihc privile}^ of picking 
^^Dvvr ttiv Tiffune ut the dumj)* und trii[ii?'for <<liiti(Jii!t ia Miid to huve 
^Hckctted an Annual income of more tlian SIOO.OOO. In Seattle the mixed 
^^x*fuiie b picked over on the dtimpn hy city pcnployws. 
RelatinK In ChipHno. we lOve the following figures: 
TKe pruoeas uf picking involves n iieparntion of the v&ate paper into 
^JiOervut gmdee, clit»iified by thuir market value, aa foUtiws, the i>rioiB 
ciog thtMe of the Chicago inttrkot in 1UI3: 

find nr wmp pnprr t 7 00 iwr ton 

S'rw^papprs 8 00 " 

Hier PMxirde 10.00 " 

aitapoppr lOOO " 

BUf^jiiaw. journals, and books with coren removed 13 00 " 

<:to)bMrd £ 00 " 

Gluw u> ACpamted into two doiiBes, old botllM and broken kIbhs, 
called " oullct " in the trade. Prices in Chicago in ldl3 were oa 
Sollavs: 

Hint or whiU cullet t A.OOpcrtoo 

hi ipmi cullH ■ * SO " 

■iiArl 3.00 " 

ApWtlM 0.30p«Tdoxen 

*\tic&i (if «omc other waste materials at Chieago tn October, 
u roll'jws: 




298 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

Scrap iron : Per act twi 

No. 1 cost scrap $12.25 to $12.75 

Stove plate and light cast scrap 10.75 to 11.00 

Grate bare 10.26 to lO.HJ 

Brake shon 10 . 00 to 10. fifl 

Railroad maileable 12.00 to 12. SO 

Agricultural malleable ll.OOto 11.50 

Unassorted Mxnit 8.00 

Old metals: Cwta pw lb. 

Heavy wire 22.60 

Heavy copper 22 . 50 

Copper bottoms 20.00 

Copper clip 21.00 

Red brass 19.00 

Yellow brass, heavy 14 . 50 

Yellow brass, borings 14 .00 

Red brass, borings 16 . SO 

Lead pipe 6.75 

Tea lead 6.00 

Tinfoil 33.00 

Block-tin pipe 36.00 

Pewter No. 1 28.00 

Scrap sine 7.00 

Tin cans when reasonably bri^t 3 . 00 

Old rage: Cent* pw lb. 

Unassorted About 0.75 

No. 1 whites 4.40 to 4.70 

No. 2 whites 3.80 to 3.80 

Thirds and blues 2.80 to 3.00 

Straight garments 1 .80 to 2,00 

Hard-back carpets 1 .60 to 1 .90 

Soft-back carpets 2.30 to 2.60 

Old rubber: C«ii«ii«rlb. 

Boota and shoes 8.75 to 9 

Trimmed arctica 6.76 to 7 

Auto tires 4.5 

Bicycle tires 4 to 4.5 

Solid tires 6.25 

No 1 inner tubes 24 

Mixed white scrap 8to8.5 

Mixed red scrap 6. 6 to 7 

Mixed black scrap 3.28 

Garden hose 1.25tol.5 

Cotton fire hose 2 



SORTlSa HVhBIJiH 



2QQ 



Tbe eurroDt pHces of some waste tnatoriab in Chicugo, tt5 of 
Xagasi, lOld, were an toUavs: 



Senp ana : Per dm md 

No. l««t 922 

i^lovii plat* . 2f> 
&UOo»Ue 18 

OUmelAk: CMnarnib. 

HMvy wire, «!oppcr clip« 

M)d bavy copper 18 

Itelbran 17 

Red horiBigi 16 

YdknrbnoB 11 

Ydlmv boring* II 

Lead pipe 5 

The selling prices of nibbi^h matorisls in the ChKago market, 
tnm quutations dated November 7, 1919, were as foUon's: 



Old metak: Cmu ivr tb. 

T*»l«»d 3 

Tin pipe HR 

Tin foil 35 U> 40 

IVwUv 42 

Zinc 6 

Miiutd m^ CAT load Iota. . 4 

Scrap rubber: 

Boot* and nhooa.. ..... 7 

Aulo and biirycle lirns. . . S 

Twlw* (miwHi) 10 



(Vippcr SOISpfTlb. 

Light cnpiirr 0.15 " 

ltra«.nsd O.ia ** 

bnui, bmvy yellow. 0. 10} " 
DtM»,liBbtQryellow. O.Og " 
Bras, ycjlawborinoi 0.09 " 

Brai^rad U.14 " 

Uut OMi *' 

Sne 0.05 " 

MhcdiioD 12.00pertaD 



Mi.\rd rapi S0.03 perlb. 

BimRiiiK 0,02 " 

NpwDijapcre 0.70 per 100 lb. 

Mixnt jinper 0.00 

Auto timi 0.03 per lb. 

Auto tubf» 0.09 *' 

Mixmi boota and 

(Ji<«i 0.04 " 

Arctic sho«B (clotb 

covered) 0.04 " 



C. RESULTS IN PRACTICE 

A* tlio jmrtice of sortint; In »pecmlly built plants hu^ been fairly 

wf'll d<rveloped in some of our cities, we describe a Tew of them below. 

1. If«w York City. — 'The Smt nil>bi»<h fiorlieg plant in tlu? Unilvd 

l&tatoa WBA built by Col.Wuring.fnr NcwYork City, on un cxpvrimental 

boMi, and waa operated frnin January I, IH9H, to Au|^iHt U, 1900, 

land tlion nb».ndoned. The rubbiah waa collected aepiiratdy from a 

i|i>iptilnti(>ii CBtimalcd to be about 110,000, within the territory 

lumndwl by Sixth and Seventh Strp*t*t on the >«iiilh, the Howt'ry and 

I fifth Avenue on the wewt, Twerity-weeoml Slrwt on the n»r1h. and Ihe 
Eaxl River un the east. The area eontainnd a nuralicr uf Hrge dDpart- 
Bvnl ttt'Orcs. Th(> plant was built by Ihe Cily and operaU-<l by a 
ertutnuHAf, with tbe results ithown in Tabic 87. The quantity of 
mbhiab delivered raniced from 40 to 50 loads a day. 



300 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVNICIPAL REFUSE 

Table 87. — IIehults or Operat.on of EbcpEHiMBNTAL Rubbish Boarnia 
Plant, New York City 



Ymv 




pATMEim TO CtVT BT 

CoirrkACTom 


Total, 
in Mm 


Pound* per 
capita pet year 


ToUla 


FM-tM 


1808 

1800 

IflOO (7 montlw) 


6710 

5660 
3300 


116 
08 
08 


W141.00 
3109.00 
3680.00 


10.017 
0.5W 
1.10 



Of the total quantity of rubbish, it was found that 37% wan sorted 
and sold, about 60% of the remainder was burned up, yielding 40% 
as ash. The material sorted out had the following cotnpoBition, by 
weight : 

Pcreantaia 
Material by waicbt 

Papnr, six itriidiw 74.6 

HaRS, dothinK, baRginK, and twine 12.2 

Canwts, four ((rudes 3.3 

H<»tUefl, common and proprietory 2.5 

Metuls: Iron, bnins, lead, and zinn 2.1 

Tina 1,4 

Leather: Hhoesand srrnp 1,9 

HnliWr: SIkkw, Iiobo, and mats 0.2 

Wliole burrels 1.4 

MiMct'lliineoim 0.5 

Total 100.0 



In 1002 nnothor snrtiiiE plant, with incinerator, was built at 
Forty-scvcnlh Street am! tho Hudson Ilivcr. It had a capacity of 
ahdut i)() tons ])cr twenty-four hours, and cost $20,000, exclusive of the 
pier rin which it was built. It con.sistcd of a cunvcynr which passed 
through two rows of .-itoraKc bins (lig- 77] and discharf^ed into tbs 
to|vf('<i hnp[)er of the furnace (I'iR. 78). The materials were sorted 
into the bins, and the papers baled in hand-pre.-'ses. A test of the 
plant was made on OitohfT 7, llt04, ami TiibJe 88 is a record of the 
nialerinls sorted out. Tlie quniility picked out was 48.S^j of the total 
by weight, and (>3. .'>':; by volume. Tljc dumliou of the weighing and 
measuring test was -1.5 hours. 



SOHTISG RUBBiSU 



aoi 




Tnj. 77. — Cyovyor, nwl Men Sorting out Matptial, New V^rk 

«Fioni "Tin- Hitviuat.\ ui Umutlpul Wi«U." by i\, ilr II Pur.oriii. 




Pio. 78, — C' ' »iv;hi»ntinK into F^imacc, New York. 

jynn "TVt ■■ Munmpul Wut«." hy It, <ie B. Pvhm) 



302 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUSWU'AL RBPUSB 



A tliiri] nibliuh Mirting plant, with iucinerator, wna built in 1905 
in Uelancej' Street, under the n-t»t approach of the WilUaniAhurK 
Brid)^. The plant compriiied a riibbisli sorting ttquiptncnt, two 
furnaces for burning the iCHidual rubbish, two 200-h.p. Itoilera. ami 
an electric power plant, cuntaiiiinR one oO-U-p. and two 100-h.p: 
uaitH. Tlio ciMt of tlic rubbish surting and incinerating plant 
$34,139, and of the electric power plant $-19,391. 

Tajilb an.— Rrcoro of Qtr*NTmta of RtmniRn Soiitkd 
AT 17tu SfREtrr Vutxr. Nkw Vouk Citt, OcroDKa 7, 19(H 




Material Krrtct) 



Cubic y»rda 



P^uwi* 



Newnpaptir I 

Manila pftper 

Paslcboord 

Mixed paper 

Mi»xl paper and raei 

Bfwk* , 

Iron nnd tbu. 

liottlnj 

RagB 

llnRRinn , 

C!in)l.-ls 

Shoes 

Hitts 

Rope 

Ilfurel* 

Boxes 

Ibtal' 



DS 


5.1S4 


M.5 


1,250 


1060 


4,900 


53.0 


2,613 


&.0 


eas 


0.5 


259 


16.0 


I,fH2 


0.5 


363 


6.5 


1.007 


].0 


IH1 


1.5 


274 


o.e 


ISO 


0.5 


17 


0-5 


lit 


31.0 


2.836 


11 


1.400 



376.0 



23.144 



Two teeta. made in December, 1005, lasting 5.6 boure e«cb, 
gave the results shown in Table 80. 

The plant actuKJly handlrd about 1050 cu. yd, of rubbish a day, 
amounting to about one-fifth of the totui daily output of the Boroughf 
of Manhattan and The Bronx. 

A fourth rubbish sorting plant in Ihe metropolitan area bafi been mk 
operatcrl in Ea^t Now York, a sMtion of Brooklyn, by the Amerieoii^l 
Railway Traffic Company, under a oontrant with Brooklyn. The 
[flant iH operated in connection with an a-th dump. The building ia 
100 by 75 ft. in plan, 'm tn-a HtoricH high, and is uf wood covcrod wlilkj 
corrugated iron. A part of the upper floor ia uwril for uoJo*' 
wiLgonR into bins whieh discharge into IroUoy ror*. 
cuiitainii a lihorl bell conveyor for nibbiah aorlinir 



SORTING RUBBISH 



903 



coniains the storage biiiK. The plant also han an iaHnern.tor. The 
asfaee are run out hy trolley to low land and used for filling. 

OE these four New York plants, only the East Ne«- York Htatioa 
waa to operation i» lillS. 

T*aiJt 89. — Rehoits or Two fioariNa Tismi at Delahcey Stbekt Plant, 

New Vokk Citt 



lUni 



CiuDditioQ of rubbi»b 

Totnl weiglit a{ tubbiab, in pounds 

Kubbnh »ort«d out for sale, in poundM: 

Pbprr 

Raff 

C'uu 

Pcfi«jniii«» o( rubbiah ■orted out, by weight 



QL-kHriTux floncu 



nntlMt 



Dry 

31,193 

6.870 
1,800 
2S0 
28 » 



Hwund tMI 



Wei 
■il.l75 



In addition to the sortinp plants. New York City hns for many 
jrean sold the "privilege of picking over clii- garliage and nibhtKli, at 
Btbo dutapd and mow tr&nrier tXhX\ot\t> along the water front, for which 
^'eonlTBclon bave paid apprtjximalely 31U20 per week. The estti- 
otttcd quantity was 1800 tons ptT w«ek, from wtuDb ubout 3.5% was 
picked out and sold. The value of the rubbish to the city was thuB 
about SI.06 per Ion. 

8. Buffalo, FI. Y. — A mbbish-fwrting plant was built by the 

Buffalo Sanitary Company in 1905, and wa» purchased by th« City 

III 1007. The building i» of brick. 200 ft. long, 50 h. wide, and 25 ft. 

high to tha eaves, with a gahln roof and munitor. It is dindcd into 

^ three eotnpartfflcnts, containing, rcb'p«clively, the rubbith -sorting 

^■j)l&nt, the incinerator, and the sewage pumps. The plant haudles aa 

^urenffi of 50 ton:* per day, and foet the city $65,000, exclusive of 

^ftbe aewage pumping machinery, but including one of tJie incinerators. 

Thv rubbuh-eorting plant occupies half the building, namely, an 

, area 100 ft. by SO ft,, in which there is room for handling about 500 

yd. of rubbish per day. The delivery is made in large wagons, 

rtiolding from 10 to 15 cu. yd., each wagon being littvd with » removublo 

'falM> buttoni of wire iter^^en. Tho wngonii paia in nt one end of the 

[building no tbe ground floor through a large portal. The nibbisb it 

itioipM OQ the floor by lifting the fabe bottom inth an overhead 

ivctlni! pulley. Two hiborerH rake tbe rubbish on tliP belt cunx'eyor, 

H cm the lint-fioar level and rises at an angle of about 25" 



COLLECTION AND MUPCHiAl OF HVmcWAl REFUSE 



througb the aortios room to above Uie furnace, carrj-iiiK th« rubbUhj 
witli it in 11 Lhiti luyvr. 

Th« icQ^h of the sortiog platform U about 60 It. Od each side 
of the conveynr ar« ten |>ickerH, each one nortiiig out a spoctal article 
and depositing it In a bottom-dumping hopper, ei^it of which are wt 
in a row un uuch uido of the eoiivoyur. Below some of the hoppen 
arc the baliug priMMe, hydraulically openitvd, in wliicli ibe vimous 
kiiidh of papers and ra^ are baled leudy for siiipiuunt. 

In a small room beltiw the sortiriR Roar oro tlio machines^ for At*- 
ruptitig tin cans, rolling them out inlu sheets, am) punchiag out rtKilini 
wftifher*. All bottles arc sorted and sold a« cither mixed, sorted, or as 
broken Jtlass, 

After the conveyor pawcn through the sorting room, it dischargea 
the wasl« Tubbi^h on the fluur al>ove the furnace. Tliere are two 40- 
ton incinernton*. each having thri-e i;rat«», a comhuation chamber, 
boiler, air heater, and forced-draft apparut-uit. One of the furnaoa ! 
siflu buriifi some garbage. The steam generated i.s ummI to operat* 
and light the plant, and to ui)erate the «cwage pumps, A coal-fired, 
7d-ti.p. boiler 18 used as nn auxiliary. In the annua) Itnancial sum- 
maries, the plant ih credited with generating :4t«ani at a i^uat of 70 
oenta per hour The operating ret<uLte, from May 20, 11KJ7, to June 30, 
1917, inclusive, are kIiovt-u in Table 90. One year's record of tha 
materials sorted out is given lu Tabic 91. 

Tabls 00, — Anhdai. Cost* of BirppALo RcBBiau SoariNO Plakt, 
ExcLuaivB or Fixed CHAaiiaa 









RmEsn 






YMr 

(imlinK 
Juiir 
SUlli 


A omul 
aoau 








Itekaa' 


Bkteof 
noortrvd 


aklfol 


T«ul 






tnatfrial 


•t«aB 


mur> 




1908' 


S3»,13tt 1,5 


uz.ao7 w 


t3,.<>A2.R5 


S35,Mn.S4 


se.72i w 


looe 


28.965. £8 


28.G35 68 


2,629.73 


31,2«5.3I 


2.279 73 


into 


SiM-M 60 


36.373 31 


2,802 03 


39.175.97 


8,251 37 


mil 


38,622 43 


37.tn2 43 


3.00» 62 


41,071 05 


2,44K.62 


1912 


33,S1U.1H 


3-J.350,tll 


4,074. »» 


30,K5.49 


2,009. 30 


1913 


3ii,(U<3 92 


413M.29 


4,505 58 


45.823 87 


0.239 05 


1914 


48,2(H 76 


55,404 24 


4.480 88 


»l,n7S 13 


11.770.36 


1915 


51,890.72 


55 AW. 14 


4.467 40 


59,823 54 


7,JU2 9a 


t9ie 


6l,0ia.31 


55,1 17 .09 


4.235 IS 


59.353 27 


-I.IWO 04 


1917 


52,-t30 46 


S6.917.0I 


3.874 15 


60,793.06 


8,361 . in 



' [I llie litnl rluT^n ale linduMMl friMi U>c IxJaairp lot cacb tv»t, ItierB suiM Im, 
la cruel kJ. k kas, 

' Ptont in opcnUoii ttvn Mv M. tM7, M Jmkc 30, lOM, 



:X)BTINa RUBBISH 305 

Table 91. — MatsriaiiB Rbcovkiuu) fsou RznTas in Butfalo, N. Y., 
ntou JuLT 1, 1917, TO June 30, 1918 

(From R«port at the Bafiue Utiluation nuit, Bnaalo) 

Sales 

6,730 balM newapapere 2,939,231 lb. JW,287.38 

15,987 balcBmixed papers 6,785,680 " 20.357.28 

1,803 bales manita paper 811,682" 4,464.27 

201 bagsr^B 103,800" 1,927.62 

5 bagsflourbaga 2,015" 30.23 

5 baff of charcoal bags 1,490 " 22.35 

74 careof tins 1,290,078 " 4,059.61 

&okea glass 204,440 " 630-44 

275,077 mixed bottles 1,836.50 

144346 beer botUea 1,189 . 83 

138 crates, beer, wood 13.15 

38 crates, beer, iron 7.15 

712.57 tons garbage destroyed. (EstimatedatSl.OOpertoa) 71257 

— bales, old shoes 63,9631b. 267.46 

Oldmetalware 13,440 " 31.50 

Old granitcware ,.. 13,980 " 32.77 

Old Bcrap iron 15,885 " 122.23 

8,000 old electric bulbs 82,00 

Wood ashefl 24,840 lb. 62 . 10 

30 jugs o.ao 

Fire loss 1,670 . 00 

Pay-roll refund 2.76 

J47,759,79 
Steam furnished to Hamburg Pumping Station, 4,115} 

houn at $2.08 8,560.24 

«66,320.03 
Chabqes 

?iy-roa *. . $48,689.68 

Maintenance and repairs 5,71 1 . 78 

Interwt 1,440.00 

$55,841.36 

Net revenue $478.67 

Although Table 91 shows an apparent net revenue of $478.67 
for the fiscal year, 1917-1918, there are certain charges, not included, 
which indicate that the works were actually run at a loss. For 
instance, Mr. George H. Norton, City Engineer, states that the 
■aUry of the superintendent, about $1800, is not included in the costs, 
bat thftt one-third of his time should be charged against the sewage 



306 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BBFUSE 

pumping Btation. He also states that the cost of haiiling emdoa 
from the plant (about t2000 per year) is not included, and that dd 
charge for overhead or plant depreciation is shown, excepting intenst 
on outstanding bonds and insurance. He says, however, that the 
costs of maintenance and repairs have actually included much of 
real betterment to the plant. 

S. Rocheater, N. Y. — A combined rubbish norting and iseino^or 
plant was built in Rochester in 1912 by the Decarie Incinerator Com- 
pany. The plant has a capacity of 60 tons per twenty-lour hours, ud 
c(»t approximately SIOO.OOO. The cost for the year 1013, exduaJn 
of fixed charges, is given below: 

Tons of refuse sorted 4,500 

Cost of operation (23,000.00 

Revenue from salable refuse 15,000.00 

Net lofls of operation 8,000.00 

LoBB per ton sorted 1.77 

The arrangement is similar to that of the Buffalo plant. IV 
wagons drive into the building and dump into receiving hoppen 
which have sides sloping down toward a conveyor at the center. 
The conveyor rises to the sorting floor, where the salable articles are 
sorted out into bins, the remainder being delivered by the conveyor 
into the charging hoppers of two furnaces. Below the storage bins 
are the baling presses, driven by electric motors. 

During 1913, 4500 tons of rubbish were handled. The operatii^ 
force consisted of two engineers, five firemen, and from sixteen to 
twenty sorters. The sorters were [>aid 25 cents per hour, and the 
engineers SLOO per month. The furnaces were operated continuously 
during the winter, but only during daytime in summer. 

4. Miscellaneous. — In Washington, D. C, rubbish is disposed t& 
partly by sorting and selling, and partly by burning. The work is 
done by contract. . 

Columbus, Ohio, has recently erected a municipal rubbish sorting 
and incinerating plant, from v,-hich the revenue for 1917 and 1918 
was as follows ; 

ID17 191S 

Botttm % 365.21 t 116.33 

Paper 1859.06 1876.06 

Iron 145.53 58.19 

Hags 579,94 239.45 

Cans 452.59 1600.31 

Metal 114-39 S.fiO 

MisccllunoDiLs 5.03 28.28 

Totals 93521.75 S39S4.10 



SOItTtS'G RUBBIUft 



807 






Boftton and PitUbui^h also nnvo sorting plants. 
Thi> U. S. Oov<>rninL>nt, in tliv o)wralion of tlic cantonmentn built 
luring the latti war. piiid <!oii»(iJt-ntl)lv itttctilum to llw uLiliEatitin of 
ip refUM. Thn roiuitritrlioii of iiiHnfiratorR for tho t£ni[)Arary 
impn wnuld hnvc l>ec!n both tJuw and <^xp<tiirav<!. It whs therefore 
decided to keep the difltrciit kinds of refuse fvp&rated, i.e., to .lort 
ihcin, mid dispOKO of canh ok found l>e«t undvr the luvul {.•ondiliuiu;.* 
" Much oonfumioii exiat*d rlunuR the early days of lh« wur," wliicb 
was reflected in the tUst contracltt awarded for rcfuae dbtposal, and 
many coniplaint« of waHtefulness were made to the Food AdminiiH 
tmlion. Later, controcta wen: nccurdin^y arruiigcd on the conecr- 
vancy program oS Ihn (Juartorrn.'u'tjitr's Cor|iH " to hrinji nhoiil rrdius 
tion in me^s waotc." " Prior t" July 1, llllS, the averaRP mes,i waste 
for al) nantpn in tho United States was nearly 2 lb. per man per day. 
ThiM 18 far in exce«x of the wanlra reported from municipalitiiM, and 
even exeeeds the waBtagc |K;r penon of fir^t-t-la.-w huteljt." " After 
the iiitove date, whcTi new ponlracLt took effept, the vriuitaf^ was 
luccd to about J lb. iier man per day." TluB was brought about by 
better discipline, definite reKuIatioos, better adminifltration of the 
'rae«ses throitxh educationa] literature, and primarily through the 
Iraintni; of nflinern, flonkn, and i>akerfl in the army ochooln." Tlie 
flortioK that woh decided on by the Quarterma^ter'H Corps watt a 
^^eparation into four parts: 1, bread, to conserve wheat; 2, bones; 
^B, meat, fats, ete,, for ^yccrinc production if necessary; and 4, other 
^^port>agR. Before a flpcriRc utilization aa contemplated should lie 
^fctTected, the ffarhnRe wai^ to be fed to hoRR. 

^B lu Europe the principal plants have b«en in London, Bradford, 
^^A inxtvrdam, Muuirh, Vienna, and Buda Peet. Toward the end of 

Uie War BirminKhaiii started a snrtiiiK phuil tChnpter Ilf). 
^^ The most developed case of sortinj; refuse in Kurope ia at Puch- 
^neim, a suburb of Munich, where the refuse from » [)upulBtion of 
more than tiOO.OOO ia picked over and finally divpovvd of. Fii«t, the 
finef materials and duKt aro >tifted out on a moving and vibrating 
belt, and tlie bulky salable nrlidefl arc picked out. In the a<ljnining 
room about 40 women stand on each side of the belt, each one picking 
out a designated material ami throwing it intr> a deKignaled wire 
basket. Tlio suliKlanceit thus removed are chieHy : Paper, white and 
green ^aiu, rapi, leather, bnnea. tinned cans, iron, brass, copper, tin, 
etc. The bones are treated with lieniinc, and, on the premises, are 
converted into grease, glue, bone monJ, or rharcoti.). nnrbagc is 
cleaned. vtcril'HK], and fed lu hngn in an adjoining building. Pn|}or H 
fncd from dust, preased into bales, and utilised for the maoufacture 

• Uftmieipot /uanal ai>d PuUie n'«»fa, .\iw4l M and May 3, ISM. 



308 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

of pasteboarii. Wood is burned under the boQers. Bottles are 
cleaned, disinfected, and sold. Tinned cans are sold as iron. No 
one enters the- works until after donning working clothes, nor leaves 
them until after a good wash or bath. The working rooms are washed 
twice a day with di!ute carbolic acid. It is reported by De Fodor 
that this very effective sorting contains the germ of faulty economics, 
in the fact that the total revenue hardly covers three-quarters of the 
necessary expenditure. 

The data for Amsterdam for 1905 are: Population, 650,000; 
refuse per annum, 240,000 cu. m., weighing 100,000,000 kg., as followa: 

Sheet iron 310,000 

Tinned plate 231,750 

Tin and white metal 820 

Zinc 15,010 

Copper 19,050 

Lead 380 

Enameled iron 51,630 

Cast iron 06,540 

Green glass 106,750 

White glass 80,000 

Black ^aSB 192,900 

Bones 62,960 

Leather 95,540 

Rags 563,320 

Paper 1.996,800 

Total quantity picked out 3,823,440 kg. 

D. SAWITART FEATURES 

Rubbish sorting is unfavorably criticized because it requiren the 
handling of miscellaneous, dirty — and possibly infected — materials 
from hospitals and sick rooms; and because the picked out materials 
are returned to circulation and use without much cleansing. 

It should be remembered that it is impracticable to remove waste 
materials without manual contact. Therefore such material, when 
suspected of being dangerous or infectious, should be condemned by 
the Health Department and sterilized or burned at once on the prem- 
ises or in incinerators, and should not p&fs. over the picking platforms. 
The processes by which the rubbish is manufactured into articles for 
the market, frequently, but not always, sterilize it. 

The effect of sorting on the operat<)rs at the plant is commented 
on by George H. Norton, Deputy Engineer C(imniisnioner at Buffalo, 
as follows; 



SORTlS'a RtrBItTSH 



309 



" This (t.h(t nnrtinK) >* tlonr willioul ntiiiancv and witfaotit imtprial rom- 
intK of injurious ofTcflta upon tIi«- hc^llli of thoM> t^njtft^p^ m thin witfl:. 
xubjurt of vflfH-t upoa Itrultb niay wi4I bv thr subji^ct ot [urthcr di^tuilml 
itwitgikliun " 

C-oroment., by the Ohin State Board of IleRlth, in " Henlth Huiairda 
tJuok Sorting," in an follows: 
"Our invc8liKBtii)nK ntvured 2a cstablifllimcaU {fxHuitive of paper mtta- 
turmj locAlnl in lii'e cities, employing wagfv-ramcrs tliviil«d as fo1)i>«-fl: 



' 1 


Namlipr of 
nieiiu 


MbIm 


FfuuBlra 


TolBl 


*kp«r and nif sorting 
KefiiutiiE metoln ... 
iWHte, maaufftcturinit 


20 
4 
1 


303 

33 

158 


71 

10 


274 

33 

Ui8 


b 


25 


394 


SI 


475 



' Tltc cjcpueurc to tluxt t^OK * l>u<i kujtaiil in 17 plu<.-a». iUi suurce bctiii; tbe 
R, pApet, anil lutrtalx tinjuIlLHl Qunrtuni wi-rv vrry tlirly and iliMiTdrrvd in 
10 pfaww, whilo a fourth of the pl&rj?8 vcrc practiciill^- unprot«l«l frttni the 
Tbe li^t won vi,-ry pwr when ibr wurkcre were engaged in 8 
Confined quArlnnt Kiving pout ojiportunity for vnutiluliciii ciitisti- 
bftd hftcard in 13 pUccs, and fairly eo in 3 morv. Ilcat wtte a bod 
I one line* rmpluyinc 3 men. ChillinR fn>ni winter rolil wiui n tiaxord 
rthfr wurkera in at least onivhalf of the plapea. In one place, cin[>tuyinK 17 
> and women, the only hnt was from unhoodcd OBlanuLndcrs, the f»e from 
fch fUlad llie i]uarten. Faligue wut a coiixiilerable haxard in at Iwut 3 
t nnploying iprU. i)t»< to tbo alwence of aoata, pie<.-c worit, faultjr postum, 
aail tim like. 

" The genera] aitpearonce of workera waa fair to good in 10 of the plant* 

*, boweTM, cuKAR'-^ in handling mctola). The wurkcm, a» a nik, wn 

retloeiit ahciut makiox wunplainta, but tlin ill elTrrU of dintt. uiu«aiiii«0' 

and lung lunm. wore comi)lain»l of hy then]. Out invwtigatora 

^ canui of lead poiMoninK in 2 mcllini; jilonlii, 2 coim of lutwreu- 

and re|M>n<xl thai several eases of lockjaw had cfiaui from one of the 

plniii*." 

Thpr* have been no Rppeifio and seriouB enmplainla afCAinrt nibbJHh 
ling on health groundH. in Nftw York City or nlscwherp. so far as 
autlMni have been able to nitvcrtaia. In 191D the foregoing i>ug- 
Joo of Mr. Norton Hummed up ihe Kituation fairly w«ll. It might 
IweUt bowrver, t« add the cautJun, that, wherever »ortinK is fouad 
^Gtahln, allh'>uKli rubbii>h from pick rooms may be eoUected eep- 
kt4ily iind burnnl, it would he adviaable to disinfect all rubbish 
lor* it ia picked over or sorted, and before it leaTts the worka. 



310 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL RBFVSB 

E. SUMMARY AND CONCXUSIONS 

The recovery of wante materials is justified only when the opera^ 
tion is entirely sanitary, and when, after previous disinfection, it 
shows a BufTicient margin of profit. It is certainly not advisable to sort 
rubbiHh at a net financial Icffis, in preference to other and simpler 
methods of disposal. Present available cost records indicate that the 
earnings from the sate of sorted rubbish, when including fixed charges, 
generally exceed only slightly the cost of operation. A small favor- 
able balance is sometimes secured, also, by burning all the rubbish, if 
some use can be made of the resulting steam power. Considering 
both fiiianoial and sanitary aspects, it becomes questionable whether 
sorting is often advisable. Only a study of each local condition can 
determine the correct cost and the relative sanitary values of sorting 
and burning. In all ca.ses, picking over and sorting rubbish should 
be done only by persons regularly licensed by the city or town, so as 
to control the work and, as much as possible, prevent unsanitary 
results. 

A net financial profit from sorting rubbish must be balanced and 
justified to some extent by the kind of labor necessary to yield this 
profit. Unless the sacrifice due to such disagreeable conditions fully 
justifies the establishment of sorting stations for securing the small 
revenue, a progressive and well-to-do community should not engage 
in this business. The rag-picking contingent, chiefly in southern 
Kuroi>e, is a remnant of the Middle Ages, made up from the lowest 
cIh:(.si>s, having low intelligence and murals, and a high death rate. 
The small profit and unpleasant occupation discourage a rising to 
higher levels in community life. 

Exception, however, cnn he justly niaile here and there of separate 
ash (Iunt)>s where much unburncd conl can t>e picked out. and also 
of s*une rubbish dum|ts. where inoffensive materials may be gathered 
by litfused pii-kers without much objection. 

Ill Kiiro[X' sorting of mixed refuse i.s not generally fav(»ed, for 
sanitary rea.ions, and in many cities its abandonment has been ree- 
ommfiitltHl. IV FiHlor. the Hungarian author of an able work oo 
" Klectricity from Refuse " 1,1^11^ says: 

" In (>nr «t>ntury anil in the name of hrgieue and humanity, theiv sfaoidd 
no lt>nKi-r Ih' |>tMi>lt'. who. In cttrii iheir living. .^r« compelled by a municipality 
to i>nk I'viT its refiim- '" 

Dr. Thie::!ing, of the Berlin Experiment Station, says, on the other 
hand. th:it OMch city should decide the qiie^stion on its own ba.-^. 
but tliat in every case all picked-over material should be disinfected 
before it leave* the works. 



CHAPTKR X 

ncniERAnoii op WErcrsfi 

The dJHpofa] of rrfose by moin<»M1i<Mi -ot l«imin« if x^i>t\rfA 
cctHwrreh-, ind in seTwal wnx-^. It \\a* \>^n \iw>tt fiir nlmrvet i\\\ 
kxDck rf irfnac dtber separately or <ri*ml«Hpir Tl*!* wHirflt n)\\\ ^iw- 
pleet metlmds an the burning of |tArlMK*> in kitfliiin ntox-po iit- )iittt!>t> 
fnrBwcB. ukI the burning of riiltbinh on n iiilc in Hip lint<tt ynhl. 
>haim has sometimes been btirnnl nntlrr xtprini bnltpt^. 

Manicipal refuse incinomtion, nnniptinipn i-Hllptl ilpntriifllitn Mf 
eranation, in specially deMinncd furhttrpR. iirlKiniitpil in KtiRlrillil, 
where it was introduced HuccenKftilty Tor tlip iin-innrntiiili tif itil^tMt 
refuse, in 1874 at Nottingham, by Alfrpd (''rypr, a i-i mi tnt-Uit. 'tmi 
years later, a somewhat improvrd rofuRti fnrnflrp mnn Imllt Iiy film ni 
Maocheflter. It consisted of a M^rinH of rpllx vhargfiii tht'tunh llf'flfl^r■< 
at the top aod fitted with grat«w nloping t'lward t hp fruui. '^^I^J'^ ^^r^y 
plants were sufficiently niiccetwfiil Ui <;aiiw> a fiirthpr i]t>vt-UifiTfit>tii nf 
this method of di«p«ina), s*» that, n'rw it is praf^tif-nHy thp rrrply r»nf iixM 
oa a large scale in (Inglaivt. 

On the eoatiatnt. r.h* n«riiri> ^f fh« rftfuw: and fht» f><vnditt/>n« of 
labor and popolaiiinn »i^« ■m1fiH*nt!y simtlnf f'V thfwf* in F;t>fl;]nnd, *^ 
in time the iaeinnnnnn nf mix*»^ Wii^p (•«m»> into n^f al*"^ in J^Mn^'r* 
and Germaay. and vflry mnfh iilona; i^h* linpx foilftwd m Knirliind 
The development rliitrf). howPV(»r. hnn not hppn «% fxt-fn-tvA ;!?■ in '"twrtt. 
Kitaia, where rtiPtt" ;ii«» now morw fh«n 2*V1 plnnt*. Tbp rtrjt Inrire 
one in Germany. rti«iiniPd iiy ?. Andrea" Mfvr. I'l'v Rnainfwr, 
waa built at Hiimhiir« in IfffW- ft vr;i« ;)ntrpr>ifd 'hipffv ift«r tbp 
En^ish Hiintfnli r'iin)»)H> inl fon^d ■Jniff 'iv 't"' '^•h )r"-*t'>>ifAd 
air wan prefpmvt ui ho -t»^in ji^ ;tdv>icatpd 'iv [Tortfrtll -Jiiii-'- tbi* 
finrt: plant ww bmlr '".•riAan «Ti(rin«T" im'" 'tp'"l"wH ^i^'v Ip-iarti", 
holding fi» 'h^ Mnaiiah irieimtt in prinrinlp. ^m ■li.Tiffinar ■li* irr-inor- 
ment iif 'h^ afAt« lip o^thod if :'«»dine. m'l '''ipt l***'!*!" 

T!i4">iohifinn ..f nHnPrft*ion in Amwrifn ).i- ■wti -omfivfinf ilnnir 
ithiT iin<«. In» .-. riff-ront incal .■nnditi"n^, ^nwiiillv hf linr'.M^r 
of the rpfii«A r. im^ricnn ■i>i*«i ;hp jmnul.-iti'^n "*•> ^rMd nofA 
tlMy over .*r«er .fpw .n^TPWtng 'he aaiil>» anrt ;iffording rtwre 

:J!1 



AITP 



ptfPOWi- 



.r.i*^ 



Cor 



"1- 






1>* 



I 






rifCIIfERATtOy OF ttSFUSE 



313 



In lOOl Minneapolie built the fint plant of quite a number dcKignMl 
F. L. I)«curi«. The ruToacM) reonvcs tlio K»rl»itw in u cfiitp of !*tccl 
ipcM HU^vvuJvd uvcr Ibe fire, t« elTect Ihv pruliimiiar.v JryiiiK uiid 
event n psckinit of the maati. In uRli>r tu tnnke llie Mieel pipvs mi>re 
lurablc, vrubcr was circululvd througb them. Iiii<t«iU of Grv-brick 
lide«, wui«r jackets of «t«el were ui«ed, with the dUadv&ntagc of kecp- 
m the fiimnce tcmporiLture luw and preventing tlie ret|uired high* 
smjieratiire coinbiifltinn. 

In 1903 a umaHl experimental rubbieh burning plant was built in 
lew York City. It wum found that I lb. of rubbish produced 1.4 to 
lb. of Blcam.* Thereupon tlie rubbiah burning plants at West 
'47th Street and Delanrey Street were built in 1906. 

Four Dixun furnaces «.-crc built in Queens Burougb, New York, 
in 1906. They burned in one year 5600 ton* of gnrltage and 680 tons 
of rubbUh. It was nece**ary, however, to add 706 Ions of cool. One 
ton of coal wan required to biurn up 7.!! tonn of fcarhage. 

Since llie iiilri^Hluotion uf tlio fir^t i;ur)>u{;e furnaceii, Iheir use and 
leveiopinent in America boa bcfii rupid, so that, ot tbe preitent lime, 
we have more than 200 municipal planta in operation. Tbcy arc all 
ainular in principle, oomiisting of a hearth on which the wet Karbage 
falla from the charging boloA at the top of the furnace, .\t onr end 
of this hcurth, in tbe earlier designs, is a coal grate, the hot R»sif>i from 
which pafH over — and in the Dixon furnace aUo under— the ictLrbage 
hearth on their way to the cliimney. lii thin way the tarbage ih first 
dried, and then is stuked down on the hoaxth and burned. Oeca- 
siotially. an additional coal grate in set nt'ur the <;himncy, as firttt 
recommended in 1S90 by Col. Jone«, of Wrexham. Kngland, and called 
by him a "rrematory," ho that any unconsumcd gaiwi^ may he com- 
pletely burned before escaping into the otr. The larger plant; con- 
nal«d of a series of garbage liearthn and eool grates, and natural draft 

(with cold air was uned. 
I Many of the*o garbage furnaces have failed to operate aatisfac- 
torily, partly due tu improper design and cont^tmction uf det&iU, and 
partJy lo unskilled operation and a tendency to um: too little fuel. 
Later designs, including thow by S. K. Ix^wli, have included mnrhanir-nl 
stoking and better construct ion, so that more natisfactory operation 
bjM n»ulted. The American garbage furnace co^to )c«>« to build than 
\\c English type for mixed refum;, and luun been iti^ul in many smaller 
piticHi where suitaMe plant locations were available, where occasional 
puufilete eombui-tiiin wax not Dbji^ctionable, and whore the furnace 
mot utnize<l tu generate power. 
During the last doten years, 8uec««8ful adjustments of tbe f uroacot 

• PuMM, "IHnMad of MnaldiMl ItoTwr." pp, tS3 kfid lU, 












:-.;.-■: :. -■■;.: i^i ^here 
'. -^^ 1 siii.hinim tigun?. 



INCINERATION OF ItEFUSB 



815 



but j lb. or rcfuM! should produ<-c 1 lb. of steam (Milwaukee); yet thiii 

iffivinnvy hjis oot nlwnys be«D attained. On tbo other band the beat 

nt'inr-ralorti have produced 2) lb. of st«am — lUid more — from 1 lb. of 

' refute. Wlier« ^t^am {iruiluctton has been moRl. cffimntly d«velopi>d, 

uiifurtuimldy, wt> liiid (lit; (vweit records of a proper Aoalysifi of the 

^kefuM to %-ciify ttte deKree ol efficieacy. To pre^'eat undesirable 

^■teKults at the outset, or a ghorteiiiriK of the life of tlie plant, il in 

^■desirable to Bsocrtujn. before the deajgtia arc made, the approximate 

eompowition of the refii>"e and it« cfllorifjc value. 

The priiirtjmt eletiientH rec|iiire(l in roinbii<itioii are rarboii, hydro- 
gen, ami uxyRen. Carlran combines with oxyKen to farm CO and COi. 
^kII will bum to CO) when in the Aulid »tal«, or partly in the HoUd and 
HfMrlly ill the ^nscou^ .itate. Hie change being first from C tu CO and 
then from CO to CO*. When the j-iipplyof air (o the fire is insufficient, 
CO, or carbon monoxide, is not further oxidiied, but remains o« such, 
^b FVcc hydrogen combiner with oxygi^n to form water, with the 
^^production of intcn!«c heat. Hydrogen in this «late haa a calorific 
value of 62,000 B.t.u. per pound, but the hydroRen present in refuse 
a£ water does not add beat to the combustion. The heat required to 

KpUl up the hydrogen and oxygen in the water in greater than the 
leat developed in the rcr^m In nation of the two elements, by aa 
.mount nf about 10,000 B.t.u. per ponnd. 

Carbon and hydrogen uUo appejir in refuHe bk hydrocartxmK, such 
aa tar and pitch. Kent * states that: 

" If the hydmrar)>on!>, on their lintt iastiing from antong^ the burning 
carbon are mixed witli a large iiuantity of hut air, ihme intbuiumibli- Ktmv nre 
complotaly burned with a i mtwiitin-nt blue flume, producing carbon dioxide 
KX}i| and HtMin. When mixi-d with cold air the)- arc a|)t U> l/c chilled aad 
pen off unbumed." 

^m Carbon and free hydrogen do not often comttitute by weight more 

^Mhan otwvfilth of the mix<>d reinse. They are, therefore, masked by a 

large quantity of inert material and water, and it i» difficult to bring 

|.tbe oxygen of the drnft air into intimate contact with the combustible 

ib»lan<"e». 

The total beat of the combustion of tbew substances with oxygen 

'may I» determined with a Mahler's bomb, ns doK^rilxn) in Ctiapt«r 1. 

The total heat of coRibui>tion uf 1 lb. of fuel, or the calorific value, in 

Brititdi IheTTnal unitet per pound, may be determined from the fol- 

>winB pxpreKuon: 

H-H500[c+4.2S/ 



• -* HMhulol Knfinms' Pocbrunoiik.'' Otb Ed., p. SIS. 



316 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBFUSS 



£n whicb tlw carbon, hydrogen, And oxygen are exprcsMd in tlecii 
of H pound pvr pound o[ rerune. Thiut, a refuse roiitAintiiiE 20% ^ 
cartmn, 3% of hydrofoil, and fi% of oxygen would have n calor^ft* 
value of 420fl B.t.u. SoniP colorific values of refuse, an determjonl W 
test«, arc given in Chapter I. 

The quantity of air required to hum reliue mtut \» ralciilatecS in 
order U* determine the necBBeary draft and the pro|wr seflUonol imr-W 
of flues and chimney*. If the compoHitiou of the refuse is kno ~^i 
the calculation may be made in the following manner: 

Assume, na before, that tli« refuse contoiiu 20% of carbon. 3% 
of hydrogen, and (i% of oxygen. The atomic weight of carbon \f^ 13 
and of oxyKen 10. no that 12 lb. of carbon require 32 lb. of oxyRer^^ lo 
burn completely to COj. Each pound of carbon, therefore, n»qu An» 
2.67 lb. of ox/gen. Hydrogen has an atomic weiglit of 1. In burr* ins 
to water, or HtO, 2 lb. of hydrORen require 16 lb. of oxygen. Tboi^ 
fnre, rnoli pound of hydrogen requires S.0 lb. of oxygen. 

The iiheorctical quantity of oxygen required to bum 1 lb. of *b* 
refuse can be oalculated as follows: 



I 

t 



(• 



8X10 03 



2.67x0.20 
8 



0.534 lb. of for Uie carbon, 

I -0.1801b. of O for the hydrogen, 
0. 714 lb. of O for the refuac- 



In the first tine the wcond figure (0.20) i» the quantity of carbor» 
1 lb. of refuse. In the computation of the oxygen required to bum *^- ■* 
hydrogen, an allowance inuxt bo made for the 6% of oxygen alrea-^^ 
in tiic refuK;. Ucnce, in the (second factor of the «H-ond line, the &gu^ 
0.03 (quantity of hydrogen in 1 lb. of refuse) ta eorreeted by t;- ' 
equivalent, an hydrngen, of the quantity of oxygen prcAenI, or 
eighth of O.UO, as shown. 

jVir uonlAias by weight 23% of oxygon, tw that a refuse nf V 
■asumed coinpoctition would require, theoretically, approximalf^ ._ 
3.t lb. of air per pound of refuse. In usual practice, however, (nr» ^^^H 
eraton; cannot be operated with the quantity of air iheoreiiraB- -^^ 
required, and an Gxcc«<i iim:>t be supplied, amounting lo from fiO 
100^; of the computed qunntity, or from 4.5 to 6.0 lb. of air per pou 
of mixed refuse. Areas of flues and openinc^ for the bol goM^ mi 
be computed with allowances for this excws arKl for the temperalt--^ ** 
of the guMB St tlio pnintji under ciini<!derattun. 

A velocity of air iu the fluca of not mott^ lluui 20 ft. per eecoC*- ^> 
and averaging almut 10 ft. iwr second, is dvkirnble, If the flue* ^^^*^ 
too small, a back proaaure uf bet gaoea agninst the funueo fronia i 



^ 



-^^K*" 

^ 



INCINKRATIONOF REFUSE 



S17 



loon will msult, ao that cspcwcd tnmvrnrk will be buracd out. The 
lucH in the redise incincrntor nt Ncweiutlo-upon-Tyn*, in England, 
ton Rmall, nnd the iloors in the fnrnacc; fronts were burned out 
\vo nr thrco ttmiw a year. 

For ooiivuiiivtice of calcululion, the vutume and weight of air at 
dilTcrctit tcmpvnuurat &rt' ^vca in Tabic 92. The volume of I lb. 
»f various Ukses at different temperatures is pvcn in Table 93. Tbo 
Itomic weightti, ralorific values, and wt-ightii of oxygen required, per 
lund of combustiblr, am given for various Eubstanocs in Table 94, 
rahlcOd^ves the appruximate volume of ttiv products of eombucttioa 
it differeut temperatures for diflcrent quantities of air supply. 

B. PLAWT LOCATIOH 

An already indicated, rcfui^e incineratom and (i;nrba(;c ftirnapcs 
ive been built in a number of towns in close proximity to dwellinipi 
id other buildings, without prejudice to such property. The quc»- 
>n ot plant location is important, on account of il« influciico on the 
st of ooUection. Expert engineering opinion, m set forth in a 
)Unil>er of reporta, maintains tliat high-temperatore refuae iocinergtore 
gr garbnge furn&eeH can \m placed nearer to centers of population 
liao can any other plants fur rciute dispoul. Cullccliuti coetii, 
therefore, as a rule, will be lower when the Baal disposal is by inctn- 

ktiOD. 

Regarding the effect oti the people rettiding in the vidoity, Good- 
'rieh says; " It is no exaggeration to say that the discharge from the 
modern dcstnictor chimney is of a much le» offensive nature than is 
the «a»e with an average co*l-fircd boiler chimney." 

The location of a few plants, partly under unfavorable condiUonii, 
it in Miccee»ful ojieration, may be deecril^cd aa follows: 

Miinviuknt. — Rejv't lneiner<ttor. — Capocity, 300 tons per twenty- 
four hours. Plant ix at entrance to harbor and within I mile of the 
bufoneBe oentcr of the city. Saloons and cheap frame housce are 
within half a bloek. 

Weit New Itriiihton — Refuse Incituraior. — Capacity, 60 tons pet 

twenty-four hours. Plant is on water front, about .SO (t. lower than 
lain Street, two blocks away. Main Street is lined with storee of a 
good clasfi, flat«, boarding housce, and socond-closs n-sidcnocs. 

AUnnla. — HffvM Inan/ratar. — Capjicity, 240 Uma per twenty-four 
honnt. Plant Js in railroad yards, about three-<iuarters of a mile 
from the buuoess center of the city. 

Vananaier. — Rtfius IntinerfUor. — Capacity 40 tons per day. 
Plant w no an alle/r^OO ft. from a main street, about four blucka 
from the City Hall, and in a well buitl-up buaine6s difitriot. 



MS r(J/,i.KC77(I.V .\M> lUSItKiM. OF MVXICIPAL REFUSE 



'I'kiii.K tK!.— VoLi'MCii Avn WxiGim of Drt Air 

\t AtUUM-UICHH- PK£l»l-lUi, I^.tJOtiS LB. 

Wi'iKtit, III |viiiu1m iH*r vultio fi>ot =t).0i!OrJS\:r 7-— ; 

/ -1-459. 6 

r+-to9.6 



N'uKimc, ill t'ul'ii' fwt j»T ii>iiiiul = 



0.0SlirJSX491.6 



IVwilvi- 


V 


*lui11tf. 


W 


I'inhi .J 


Vv-Iumif o( 


Zvnu'tr' 


Volumr, 


Wright of 


^ol'£3U 'if 1 


■ lUIV.III 


0\>ui|Uhi a1 


ill* Oklt>IV 


1,'IW IVUIhl 


aciuv. lit 


Ainpurd 


line nibie 


•JOt 


IKtod 


fan IV II 


U- 


tWiiiiu- 


r^K 


I i>I all. 


ol 


air. 


J<vr««*> 


Ci.> Vul-iOW 


(>vt at air. 


of 


ur. 




al 




Ill 




lU 


l"**hrvn' 




>[ 




Ul 




ji 


tlVlt 






11 j«^t 


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P 


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cubiv fvu 1 


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t 


ll'.li 


<} 


iiJJ4> 


■s 


TUt:! 


H' 





d.s.>J 




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11 


Si>J 


:v 


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tl'17 





■w:;79 


W: 


KM 


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tI.H' 




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77 * 


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4.^ 



INCINERATION OF REFUSE 



319 



TjiBLE 93. — VoLmiK of 1 Pound of Various Gabes at Oifferbnt 

TCHFBRATURBS, UnuER A PRESSURE OF I ATMOSPHERE 

(Volume in cubic feet) 





Carbon 


Carbon 


Nitroeen, 

N 




Sulphur 




in decraesi 


dioxide, 


moDozide, 


H,o 


dioxide. 


Ail 


Pahr. 


CO. 


CO 


SOt 




100 


9.22 


14.63 


14.62 




6.36 


14.10 


200 


10.86 


17.09 


17.11 




7.60 


16.62 


300 


12.61 


19.05 


19.69 


30.63 


8.63 


19.15 


400 


14.15 


22.21 


22.28 


34.95 


9.77 


21.67 


fiOO 


16.70 


24.77 


24.87 


39.37 


10.90 


24.19 


600 


17.44 


27.33 


27.46 


43.79 


12.04 


26.71 


700 


19. OS 


29.89 


30.05 


48.21 


13.17 


29.23 


800 


20.73 


32.45 


32.64 


62.63 


14.31 


31.76 


900 


22.37 


35.01 


35.23 


67.05 


15.44 


34.28 


1000 


24.01 


37.57 


37.82 


61.47 


16.58 


36.80 


1100 


25.06 


40.13 


40.41 


65.89 


17.71 


39.32 


1200 


27.30 


42.69 


43.00 


70.31 


18.85 


41. &4 


1300 


28.95 


45.25 


45.58 


74,73 


19.98 


44.37 


1400 


30.59 


47.81 


48.17 


79.15 


21.12 


46.89 


1500 


32.23 


50.37 


50.76 


83.57 


22.25 


49.41 


2000 


40.45 


63.17 


63.71 


105.67 


27.93 


62.02 


2500 


48.67 


75.97 


76.66 


127.77 


33.60 


74.63 


3000 


56.80 


88.77 


89.61 


1.59.87 


39.28 


87.24 



Table 94. — Soue Combustion Data for Various SuHsTAHrEs 





bol 


Atomic 
weight 


CombuBtion 

product 


Weight 

of 
oiygen 

per 

pound 

of 

■ubatance, 

in 

pounds 


Am R KID I RED 

pen Pound 
or auBBTAKca 


Calorific 

value, in 

British 

Ihermal 

units, per 

|)ound 

of 

substance 


SabsUnoe 


Pounds 


Cubic 

feet 
at 62° 
Fahr. 





H 
C 

CO 
ClU 
C,H. 

H 


16 
t 

13 
12 

M 
HI 
2*1 
32 


HtO 

CO 

CO. 

CO, 
a>>Bnd HiO 
CO] and IliO 

ao. 


8.00 

1 33 

2 67 

67 
4.00 

3 43 

1 00 


34. HO 
.'j.80 

11. UO 
2.4H 

17 40 

IS. 00 
4 35 


4ST 
76 

l.'i2 
33 

229 

IHO 
.17 


62,0.32 
4.452 

I4,.V)0 
4,32S 

126.38:1 

21,2M 
4,032 






CarbiiD monoiide 

Marsh ■»• 

UUflantcaa 
SnIpfaiiT 



320 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



Table 96. — Tehperatitrb of CoMBoanoN akd Volume or Gabcb 

WITH DlPrRRKNT QtTANTITIBS OP AlR SnPPI.T 





HiippLT or A», IN PciuHM, pra Povhp or Fdbl 


Tempera- 
ture of 






[ 






■■Art, in 


2 1b. 


3 lb. 1 4 lb. 


Sib. 


«Ib. 


desTMa, 
FkKr. 




1 










VOLDHB OF Oa4C«, IN Cdmc Fwr, lt TunaATErBis Imdic&tbb 


68 


27 


40 


64 


68 


80 


104 


29 


43 


67 


71 


86 


212 


34 


51 


68 


85 


102 


392 


43 


65 


86 


108 


130 


572 


53 


78 


105 


131 


156 


752 


C2 


92 


123 


154 


184 


111-2 


80 


120 


159 


199 


240 


1472 


98 


147 


196 


245 


294 


1832 


UC 


174 


232 


280 


348 


2500 


151 


226 


302 


378 


452 



Oak Park. — Garbage Furnace. — Capacity, 30 tons per twenty-four 
hours. Plant is on a traveled street, about four blocks from the 
buHincfts center of the town. 

Ft. Wayne.^jarbage Furnace. — Capacity, about 40 tons per 
twenty-four hours. Plant is on a traveled road, about ten blocks 
from the buHinesD center of the city. 

Within the Metropolitan District of London a large number of 
incinerators operate without objection. Goodrich states that "no 
less than 94% of the refuse destructors [incinerators] working it 
present [1904] in Great Britain are in close pronmity to houses." 
Limiting conditions of location can be determined from a study of 
plants critically situated, where operating conditiona have been 
reasonably free from objectionable influences and are otherwise 
satisfactory. 

A more Kcrious feature of the location of incinerators is the neceft- 
sary concentration of collection wagons in one vicinity. This con- 
centration i.s an argument for having a number of smaller plants in 
different localities, instead of one large plant. The cost of collection 
is thus reduced by shorter hauls, but it costs more per cubic yard to 
incinerate in separated small plant-^ than in a single large plant. 

The collection wagoni^ need not create a nuisance if they are of 
proper size, are covered, and carry fresh garbage. Incinerator buildinp 
should be substantial and attractive, and surrounded by parked 



fNCISERATIOS OF ftSPVSB 

>unds. The compurative oosU of the buildings iirul equipment of a 
imber of ptanut are given in Chapter XII. 

C. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
The design of a refuse incinerator may be divided into the following 

a. A rurnaoc built of brick, hmvily braced with structural Mteel, 
and cuntuininie one or more cast-iroo or brick grates and aithpita, A 

rmbu?t)on chamber is commonly included in the rurnacn. 
6. An upL-tiiiig ur spiscial apiMLXatuA for charKinx rcfuw into ibe 
furnaoc. 

e. The nccewQury duola, valves, and lilowon lo deliver the roqiiuiite 
quantity nf ur into the fumaci; and bring the oxygen iutu contact 
with the combustible pari* of Ih* refuite. 

d. The nefi»*ary fiuei* and chimney to conduct the gawa of com- 
bustion out of the furnace and into the atmosphcn;. In the bvst typra 
of inrin«ratoRi the hot gases are patti«cd through air heaters lo pre- 
heat the forced-diiift air. und uli^o to hoik-nt fur I he generation of 

team. A combui^tion chamber is included, to impure complete incin- 
^ation of the volatile matter and lo remove duKt from the escaping 

e. An opening, with or without moans for removing the reeidual 
clinkers and ashes from the nrrilcs mid iiKhpit. 

The dcKigti uud urrungcnienl of lht;»c r,->scnlial partn of a refiine 

teinerator depend on the ty[w nf furnace deaired, the refui^ to be 

iirned, the experience and preferences of the -Jesigtier, and Kome local 

indilioiu. tlowcvcr, the principlci^ of the de;«ign of furnarca arc 

imilar fur nil lypint. A dinarnnimntic section typical of one unit of 

Milwiiukee iiirinenvtnr is ^honn in Fig. 79. 

1. Faroacfl Proper— An important difference in the design for 
JK furnace types i» cause<l by the character and condition of the 
efiuc to be bunicd. Kor iii^tuiicc, a wet rcfuBn, BUch bf garliajice, or 
lixetl re-fuse conlaining a high jwrcentagr of garbage (70%). gener- 
ally requires some kind nf a dryiiie hearth from which the refuse can 
be raked down on Iho grate. With dry refuse ihis is not iicces.«ary, 
because il can l)e charged directly on the grate. 

The furnace structure of a niixnl refuse incinerator ordinarily 

cont«in.i from two lo six grotett and n common eomhuslioii chamber. 

It \s rectangular in plan and from 12 lo lt> ft. wide, the length being 

iclcrminod by the number of grateti. The height ih from 12 to \ii ft. 

lie walU aro of faei?»>brii-k, Ixicked with common hrick, and lined with 

Illicit. Od tlie outaidc of the brickwork there La a scrica or vcr- 



322 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BEPUSB 




lyaNRHATIftS OF REFUSE 



323 



■■Off 

I* 



,1 ftod horiwDtal channel-iron or I-bcftm bfl«k-«to}-s, held at th« 
ip Aiid bottom by lieavy lie-r(«J>*, l*he cunt-iron furnace fronts are 
ally altachcd U> the vwtical ataye. The whole structure luust 
t un a ^ubslaiittal fuuiulalioii. 

Ill muiiy of the enrly Ksrbiige funiucc^, built in Amt-'riL'a, and by 
DtfActorH under inadi>(|Uftt« spct^ilicationH, tho bracing w»!* not 
.fficieat. Thi« cuiimmI diritortioiu which bmkf- the frnnt.i and c^raclced 
le brickwork, producing openings for the cntmnce of cold air. Low 
impenbiHw roMiltvd, and oomplaint^; of the retiultiiig iiuiiuinom 
uard many of these sarbiige furnaces Lo fall int« disfavor and be 
andoned. 

The area of the grate depends on the chnracter of tlie refuse and 

r»tc of bumiog. The br«l aiac must be dct«nnincd largtly in 

dice. Tabic 06 ^hows thecompoiiitinn u(r('fui!esndraleof burning 

mixed refuw per square foot of fsrate tturfaec in a number of incin- 

itors of different deraigns. With a fairly dry mixed rofuec of high 

lorilie value, ihe rate of buniing per square foot can be increamd 

terially by Intmducine a fcreater draft under a higher preRHure, equal 

from 6 to 10 in. of water, aa ia done at Hamburg, Germany. 

The arrangement or setting of the grati- in lh« furimce depends on 

<c general design, and is partly cuntrulled by the necessity for keeping 

e fn'at« cool by conLaet with the forced draft. The air, if pre- 

led, comeii to thr^ gral« at n temix-mtiire of about 300° Fahr., 

bich i» not hifth enough to burn out the grat« bars. 

As ordinarily wt, » fwetl grul« hii» an urvs of from 20 to 30 sq. ft. 

It if built up of bars, hooked or hinged at the back, and resting on a 

sliding (ace in front, in order to pro\idc amply for expansion and 

cunlraction. The grate-bara may be built of cast-iron channels. 

They are puKuratcd with numerous hole* for a better distribution of 

le draft air to the burning refu.te. The bars ^ihould have narrow 

ccH IwtWi'ecn them, often A in., and ineveral barx are ui^ually cast 

together. In Kimo furnaces Ihc center grate-bar i» ridged about 3 in. 

hiKi), my an to form a weuk MM'tion in the rc«uhiiig Hiukt'r, uliich in 

therefore more easily broken and withdrawn. The »idep of the grate 

'e protected with a cast-iron curb, the depth of which dejjend« on 

Uio nature of the rcfui>c to be burned. A maximuui curb depth of 

about 12 in. ie used for a romparatively dry and light refuse. 8ucb a 

refuse may be char Red on the grate Ion depth of altoiit 3 ft. 

The *ide-curbft and cratc-l>ar? arc kept from burning out by the 
mparaiively cool rorc«<l-draft air, which niunt roach all part« of the 
grate. In this matter valuable experience ha.** been gained at the 
mfilso incinerator at Atlanta, Ga. In the original design the hot 
diuker n-a« drupped from a sliding grate into the aehpit below. The 



324 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 




m ti.i 
"" 1 1ll 







l-slsl 



00 00 ^ ■ . . ■ ■ o 

tecoM ... ui 



a 



9 

0. 



o 



§ 



I 



•a to -v •* ifi ^ 



A QO 00 0> CI? 



o> o o 

s s * 



cc r» o u^ oi -J o 

Q 09 ^ 00 C4 M O) 

« "O * fiS 00 (C Tj- 



CO o o 
la d iQ 

V-1 4-4 t* 



s*g 






t-^ciOceaoae_K 



IS 

I ^ •« o o 

CD 



is 



3 



§ 

I ^ 

4; 2 

I I 









I I 

5 I 



2NCISERATI0fl OF HSFUSB 



325 



[w«e<l-draft air wns ndmittcd through the bottom of th« twhpit. It 
ptsied U|i ihroiiKh the hot clinker, ahsnrhinK heat on il« vruy to the 
fjatd pn>|M^r. Wlicii tl rcacKc*] the Kratc it voit Uxi hut I** allow 
mffiirienl odoliiiK, and, witJ) a pour dbtribution uf tlic material, the 
Rrateft burned out. In thi* Mhpit, thv clinkcnt became »o hot that 
tluy BODMtimea molted iind the moss ras into tho air inlets at tbo 
bottom. Thin mudition was retievncl xiiccnvifully by intrndiiciiiij 
the forced-air drivft through the aideB of the finhpit, inflteitd of at the 
bottom. 

Id Home deatgoA, the air in introduced through spaces just under 
thn nide-eurbs; thi» givi» it additiouul heat. It then piutsca to tbo 
Ashpit and through llir (p-atc up to Ihn firp. 

Tlie divi«on of tlie furnace int4) a number of Rrales produces a 
Aore UQiform average fire over them and a more uniform heat in the 
tombuslion rhamber. Th« efftwl of a poor fire on one grat« will be 
mpnjvcd hy good lircs oo the other f^atvu. When unc grntu is buiog 
'linkprcl, the nctinn of only one part of lh« furnace i.i reduced. With 
(ivided axhpitii, aUo, each grate can be operated an an inde]>eitdent 
Init. Groupitig the rellii back to back, v-itb the main ftuo between, 
ndurea the loss by radiation and allow-s tho."ough mixing uT the ga»QS 
roin the dilTcrcnC cells. 

Gubago furnaces must contain a drying hearth and a main grate, 
ind arc generally buUt with complete and t>«paratc cclltt or unit«, rather 
iluin with multiple cellh. The retiuiRite a^ue of the furnace depends on 
ibe moUture contained in the garbage and the eoni^cquent rate of 
Irying, rallier than on the rale of burning on the grates. As ordi- 
larily designed, garbage furnaccH provide a sufficient area of drying 
liearth to handle one day'n delivery of garbage, the whole ijuanlity 
bolug fitored within the furnace. An exception to thiv type is tbe 
mnchfliucaily-fed furnace designed by S. R. Lewii, in which storage is 
provided in a bin outside of the furnace, and the dr.ving hearth is 
nude hirge enough to dry small f]uantitio8 of garbage, aa they ore 
Intermittently cbai^ied into the fumace. 

(n the ljev\» design the drying grate is doped to the main grate 
•t an angle of io", in order to provide drainage and facilitate tttoking. 
jyhen thL> drying grate i.t suet horiiontally or U flightly arched, drain- 
■n and Htoking are fanliut^d by leaving holex in the he-irth. F^re- 
wi«k h«yirtha, when rec«ivinK wet Karbage on lop, abwrb moisture 
lAOd are subject to intense heat belou-. They will, therefore, warp 
crack in from onp to two jeani. 

Tbp principal material of construction in the furnace is fire-brick. 

i( should Iw Mtlect4Ml carefully. Bricks in arehei, whon subjected 

it bent, nhould have a high refractory quality, u eomparativel; 



32fi COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSS 



porous texture, and a minimum contraction and expansion ondef 
changes of temperature. In bricks for drying hearths which are to 
receive wet refuse, and also are subjected to high temperatures, the 
percentage of absorption of water must be low. They should be close- 
grained and dense. Fire-bricks around stoking doors, subject to 
abrasion from tools and also to great heat, must be hard and refrac- 
tory. The Semet Solvay Company has found, after a large number 
of trials, that in coke ovens a 95% silica brick gives the best service 
under great abrasion and great heat. The fire-bricks used in the 
construction of the refuse incinerator at Milwaukee were selected 
carefully for the various parts of the furnace. Their compositioB and 
tests are shown in Table 97. 

Table 97. — Analtsks or Fire-brick 
Used in Milwaukee Refuse Incineratob 

Percentasf* of chemical* by weight 



Subatanoe, ftbaorption. and eloogatioii 


KtMD or Buck 


C. Fnnklin 
CrowD 


Royal 
Star 


Sciato 
Star 




53.25% 
41.01 

3.36 

0.41 

0.47 

1.50 

6.93% 
0.4 


65.25% 
41.78 

1,67 

0.27 

0.50 

0.66 

8.64% 
0.67 


66.17% 
40.86 

1.53 

0.2B 

0.52 

0.62 

7.00% 
1.40 














Elongation, at 1800° Fahr 



The " C. Franklin Crown " brick is tough, hard, and close-grained. 
It is used to line the sides and doors of furnacee, and te selected 
especially to withstand the wear and tear from stoking and clinkering. 
" Royal Star " is a softer, coarse-grained, highly refractory brick, and 
useful in the arches of furnaces, where the heat is greatest. " Scioto 
Star " is a good refractory boiler brick, and is useful in lining the 
second pass of the boilers and the flues. 

Fire-bricks should be laid in fire-clay, mixed to the consistency of 
cream. Each brirk should be dipped into the clay and then ham- 
mered into its place with a heavy mason's hammer, so as to be pne- 
tically in contact with the surrounding bricks on all sides. Th» 
maximum space between the bricks should not be p«™» t*»"n * 



INCJNERATION OF MFVSB 



327 



this thipkn(!M of joint Kbould n«^'cr «xt«iid ovvr the whole bed, 
tlip ftwriiKe ttiickuciw aliuiJd be lens tlmti A in. To accumplitih 
,^e bricke in «ach course must be quite uniform in thick- 

in walls mon than one bricfc thick, Iho fire-bricks may be held 

ptb«r by iilniifl <>( A-in. iruii, eAU-tiding cloar through and over 

tm, the end of the iron bcinic t>cnt over n.<« a hnok at tht; cxpotcd 5ur- 

tc of the bmkwork. This is required because a differcnee in tem- 

iture on the two t<id» of the brickwork would natiirAlly produra 

Trivnt drgrvc^ of expansion and contraction, and the Ui'ti&l header 

bd siTctoher bond would give no opportunity for the brickwork to 

Ijiut itself tu Iboe movementa between the imido and outdde 

ouracd. 

Around the clinkcring doors, large hneVn of two ein» are used. 
Tliwe nhould he luid with ;i wide ovrjiap, which will prevent them from 
Qg looooncd under the jars of choker removal. 
It 18 good |>nietice to have the furnave top built nf two independent 
fick nrclu-!^ i^eparated by a thick sand joint. The lower arch rrrcives 
In- full Ileal from the fire, and protects the upper arch, which thereby 
will remain ia it« original positiou to hold the roof of the furnace in 

r:e. 
8. Charging Appantus.— In the first fumMos built, the refuse 
materials wiv chLtritcd by hand throui^h ojiLMiiiiip' in Ihv top, front, or 
back. UuriuK the la^t few yciira, apparatus for nicchanically charging 
Hbe refuse into the riimnce from the top have iRnm developed suc- 
^MMfuQy, paitioularly in Ainericn, by the Dcstrut-lur Conipuuy, and 
^pc DOW fissential parti* of iin evonomicnlly operalcd plant of largo i^ixc. 
Bottom-charged ineinerii1.orH are hred by hand through door^ in 
^Uic front or back of the furnace chamber. The earlier furiiaccn made 
By MddniDi were charged in front. This type woe built at Seattle, 
^■id at WeHttnoiint. A t>'pical wetion through a Aleldruni i>lant u 
^^own in Fig. I()3, reprej*entinK the one in Watford. Rngland. 
'' In the late Nineties, Hceuau and Froudo developed (he back-fired 
furnace, in which ihe r«fuM) wait tihovelod in through » door rt the 
back, sod the clinker was removL-d through ft door at the froot. H 
Was elaimod that by tliii* procedure uU the refuse was forced to paaa 
tbruugh the firt) before the »Mhc« could !«ive the furnace, A plant 
this t}-pe ia in operation at West New Itrighlon. It ia illuatratod 
Fig. til. 

Dr. Leaormand, of Le Hitviv, in hix report, saya ihat in 1008 the 
in Diid Kroudc nyHtem, with nonie detailed im provenicntt*, 
■^ biM opinion, an "iucootcstAble superiority," l>eeBuii« it haa 
Iht hygii'tiic pr>)blem. 



328 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

For top-feeding, the refuse for the earlier furnaces was stored in a 
large pile on a floor above them. This ib unsightly, and also makes 
working condition!^ unpleasant. Leaks in the doors over the top 
openings allow the hot gases from the furnace to ignite the drier por- 
tions of the stored refuse, causing smoke and odor within the building. 
These objectionable conditions are avoided, first by storing the refuse 
in enclosed bins adjoining the charging doors, and then by mechanical 
charging. 

In 1908, the authors made a trip through England and Germany, 
investigating furnaces for burning mixed refuse; and particular 
attention was given to the method of charging the refuse into the 
furnace. An account of the methods and their relative merits wis 
given by Greeley in Engineering News (August 26, 1909), a part (rf 
which ia reproduced as follows: 

" It was not intended to make any comparison between the J^iit gliah and 
American incinerators, but rather to bring out the respective features of the 
hand-charged and mechanically -charged indnentora of the high-tempoa- 
ture t)'pc. These will be described and then oompared on the basis at (1) 
cleanliness and freedom from nuisance; (2) constniction; (3) opttatkn; 
and (4) efficiency as measured by the value of the output. For instanoe, 
it is claimed by some that it is more difficult to build a mechanically'-diarged 
plant than a hand-charged plant; that the hand-charged plant gives better 
return in useful heat energ>' and at the same time entails a lower cost of 
reiMitrs Other? maintain that the mechanically -charged jdaot operates more 
economically, in a rieaner fashion, and gives equally good steaming results. 
It will Im' interesting to sec how these points work out when judged by actual 
results in practice. 

■■Greenoci, Scotlan-d 

"thie ty|H' of mechuiiical-charping device is known as the Honfall 
■ Tub l'c('(l ' In Great Itrilain It has been installed and successfully operated 
nt l-iHiU. Ncwi'a.-itK'-uiH>n-Tync, and at Greenock. Scotland; and recently 
tlic ilt'vii'o li;i.-< Nvn titti^i to two of the furnace cells at the incinnvtois in 
Zuriili. Swil/erland, The incinerators at Greenock illustrate the operation 
of this lyiH' iif nu'ihniiic.il device as favorably as any of the otbera, and it will 
tlien'fon* !»■ iIi-sitiIh-^I a.-J tyjiic.il. 

" Tin- n-fiise biirnol l^ a mixture of parbapc, a.«hes. nibbish. and manure, 
nml is of aM'ram- quality .\s it i-onies to the plant it is dumped from the 
cart.-' inio n w.hhIiu lub si-t in a tii>)>inK-|iit helow the ground le\-el. The tuh 
is a >liiiinil> biiill s,ni;m' niMHten K-x. lan-c ononch lo htMd about 1,.t ions of 
ri'fui-f. and IS ojh'h nt llie top, wiib hinKi>) liils at ihf Untom Normally, 
thi-s.' bil« all' ilow-il tipihl by the r\>»ls .•»iid h.vks irvim wbii-h the tub is sus- 
iviulrtl The li|iiiinii-i>it ha.s ^tj^.v for four tulv .\ hopjier. especially 
dosigm'd to pwvwtt spilliug, is arrangwl on tracks to mo^-e off aud on over the 



INCINERATION OF REFUSE 829 

pit- Wheo R lob h ffllnl with rpfusto, iL i* liftfxl bj' tin eloctrinJly-opMiittv] 
uvrrtii'*)! ln»T«tiBg crane to (he pUtKumt owr lliir diiikning fl<M>r luid » ltt(i« 
ftlxivr ibf level of the funwv top. Th» ))1iitr<)mi nfTorilit MiffinMit H})acT for 
f tunnt; ••i^ily tubs uf refuse. Tbe opening in thp top of each funiace is closed 
\iy ft ch&nc>'*K 'Jutx' vith • wat«r«(Hil«l inwt . Kuniiuuiitiiig the uh*rKin|[ door 
and fwrt«nrd to it is a cradle of levera and batanre weight*. When t)>e c-ruie 
dopmitA B tub into tliia rnullr, Ihi- weight of the tub cauMS th* cradle t« 
kiver; &od aiinulltiii«piialy thn levi-r» hfl the dixjr from ila wotcr-fviiU-d nrat 
ftOil piwli il on i(uid« to one BJde, thus allowing the low(^r edge of the hikptter to 
dtMCad K very abort distumx- into the cborfciitg bolvof the fuin&cc. As tiio 



ia. 60.— Chargiiig Fkwr, Greeooclc IncJacrBtoi', Showing Rcfuae Tub wtd 
Water-Denied DooTi. 



ta.1 
LdJ« takM the wnxht uf tlie tub off the enuie, tliu Itdx in the bottom of the 
tiri) M* fricoMd mm) tbe eoDtect/i of the tub ue diiwhArRed nolo th« itntte 
bliav. must tbe tub ia empty, the cnuic cotricti it bi»^k to the etorace plat- 
form or lli« Li|>ptng-pit ; wid ihv wnt4T-M«Jnd dixir, ikirliinlMl by the Uiliuirff 
««l|cht4, is (Intwn h«rk to \U seat The operation oeeupics lees than one 
minute Pivi M) and 81 illtiMnte thin drvjra and FIr 82 nhowm tlitt K<^tiernl 
Uyotit nf ilie (Jreenock plant. 

" TluB lypv of cUar^inf; device obviates aQ haitdlinx of U>i^ mivK at iht 
plant, and the only niaiiuiil work, aliore tlint niiuired in nn unliiinry i<!leetric 
powv station, in the rlinkering of llie fiimaee. Conseqiienlty, ineinentUon 
phiita fittnl niih thit> rhanQnR de^itT an; cleanly and free from unsightly 
rvfUM*; and ihcrx are none of the nuiaanoee or antireca of iofeotiijn ifieUleiil to 
.lli> «turinit iif refuao in larite npcn »ptic9» or bina whet* n«) are wwliing- Hw 



830 COLLFCTIO.V AS'D DtSPmAl OF Ui'NJCtP.tL RSFUSS 

tub* oanl in the pluiU At I«ftl(s Xcwnatlv, ud Greettoek botd sboat 3 1 
yi) of tWiwr Wlmti tliM in iluiii|x>d oiilw ibp pale it TuniiH u. tayn- (mm 'J ' 
3 ft Ihwk. Ttiw fliK'k Uycr rr(}uir<« •»rwnWtnl4o (intnun! aa thr dmfl, 
nnJnr Ui thiimuitlily mip[)l>' ill jiarlw nf [he ImrnitiR niiuss with »ir, amt tl 
forv mom ixrwifr in um-iI in improductivc work ihun if iti^ tliirknnw of (h* : 
n^frkr^it mun- i>i-nr1y iinifiinti Asit rH|uim rnrmoacto twiihouTHtomdun 
nnn t'liniv of rrfiiM' lu luril cliiikM-, it in noL pomihlo (or lb«' firemui In ' nunc ' 
Lho (in; Btid nmiH'qticntly minic irT«fula.nli(« io lh« t«inpvnitunr are uciraid- 
ftbk ThiMT iimpilfttitim rl<i tiftt np|)car tu be cxcanrc and &r« pully roB>- 
Itntntml for liy i)m> alldmnii* rhnrvng o! thi? fcreles, tbus Kllnwing thr but fnm 
ona lirv nt thu uiaxiniuiii |H>ii)t Ui nvcniec uf> with iho low beat of Uic fmUj. 



o 



]>ta. 81.— Ouw wrt ii iB. GwmJL IWwe iMviottuir. Sbo«a« Tubliii 

limpil pftl» N pTFrtW I w^ . JB tiM loag r«i, fhirgam nA k^ qMnuuw 
«l t«<«K onto the tnM mMhIt. wilhotift wlNrtiaB *fc» a^pa^lin d ik 
irfi Io lh» aaodMioB of tfaa Int. iMai ranlt m ■ ' ■ ii-mi^ i rij i m 
Iwc r--- --'- -^— .-.--- --^ ' I mill II 1 II 

It ■ poHiUc ii mmMK vImMw «1m* lbs cssw s am wMlad i«i to it> f d 
i1iiK|. Kt | «ww l > a lH«ir annbv nf ^mIot laba. Una ayifnaBhac ^ 



•idvilbi 
Ifwibvt 



Ifati 



TW 



'TW< 



332 COLLECTION AND Dliil'OSAL OF MUNICIPAL HKFVSS 

" This type nf Apvite mnkn nccewnry the caoBtnictkin of m hii^a hixiUint 
Otul ibc 1 11(1 III lilt 1(111 (if u[!c uc nuiTG emim, bMli <■( wliicJi arc ilctiia cif incnutd 
cvst. Tliv pUiit •^^utiiKjt hv vpomXvd without u, aaae. Kxperiimce nl (jftc» 
ock indlcauw ibut at Irast two crui« should be providtd. for tit« only tnm a 
ii«nnn< iit ihal plant brake domi (or a DUiltcr of half a d>y u>d put liur plant 
mmpletnly out nf butunna. Only one cnumnui w»a nmtirfA st luiy of tW 
plsDl«. At r.iw(l«, tnirnin^ nv*>T SO Itinit por dny, th« rranecnac hud plmtj'Dl 
time to aiuktl in lh« cUiilt^rinK, w> that only one vtlter mnn wh in »tteoduK 
One toan at Greenock CB«ily opcntcd the crane cfaargjng six grates. 



"HAMBtTRC, CcuuAinr. 

" In nemifiny, ervcml dericm for feeding rt^uw Into incinvmtarB tmhUH 
ically huvc lioon <I?volui)o<l Kc<iiT[itly, C'asporeolin and Uhde, nt Hunbuts 
linvG licca [TnrrjinK vix n wnon vl cx|>eriiQCUts on the incincratiuo of refu* 
which have included the dcaipi and opcratioD of a mechaoimMmding dnwt 
I'hr iwiidtii of thi> fxprrimentii havR not yet been publinhed, but tfar exftr^ 
iiii-ulttl (unmet ixll fiiu^l vritb a loechauival-chaiging derioc ytaa in opcnUn 
at thv liiuc of the writer s vjxH to the plant. 

" This experimental cell coiuista of a Rmte one itqiMre meter in ara pLiKi 
over an ash pic and set in the vertical brick walla of the cell. IMwno tht 
evil uiil I 111- itiiiiii tliu! M n Itirgi- diixl eatohcr, xliuiicd like an invorted tnat 
fitted with u eJidliiK dour ut lliv liuttoiD, and wt high moogfa so (hat a otr oD 
be piuced below the dooi to receive the dual and wot coDeetMl Thm dim 
cftiehcr i« deigned to be »opamtc for each eeJl, and in rcqfuiiwl b««aua« the h^ 
jimsMirt- oil tlic ilmfl (-«rneB large quaniiliee of diisL and aool out of tbr oi 
toward the main flue above tlw grat«. The fiimace walls an arefaNl, 
there it a charging door located directly o^'er ibe firate. This tlonr is fituJ 
with the nierhiinieul device for delivenn^ ilie refuae to the gralo. ll u Jt^ 
piisuHl in a pliinl now being built in Hoinliurft to am a laT|t(* number ol relb 't 
Ihix dmi)cn, (kh'Ii m'U to Ire n. m-pnrnlir uiitt, with aah i>it. anb anil rlinkcn* 
(lo(>re. gnvte, chajging device, dust rsteher, and eonneotion to the main Ow 
The iitiiiii Hue Hi-rven lu a ci.irabii^t.ion rlkonibcr Muuiectuig tbe diifrninl rak. 
aitdciiiricDihohot. ciiM-n to the bciilcra. A typicalaedionof surhafonuot 
with i-linrinnK device \s Bliovm in Fig. 83. 

" The (.')]unE>nit device consiaUi of a lonK u^yi* drum uliiling iiuude U a' 
■hortcr concentric drum of conxiderably lanier dtanieier. Tbe«r dnum 
into a conienl !i)iret-«te<-1 binnH. built into the briek work of the fumacv 
The two driinm and the ftirinel form two nnnular truiitKuInr npsocs betwuea ik 
vertical miUvt of the drums and the nlopinK fiurface of Ihc ftiniMl. Tbe oppS 
of themMinnulur !<pacn<opcn« at the floor level, and llivfirenuui rakeaor 
rcfunc into it fnnn the ndjiicent fforaice phtfonn ItniMriR iIh- dnim nf bi 
dianwter iillown the refiup lo fall into the \nwrr annular spuee t ■ 
drum if then miilneed an<l ufterwanl lU- i-iuiLi-ulit o( the lowr-r 
dropped direetly into the cell by raiBiim tin- niiinllef- drum TbuB Ito 
tJon of eharging the fiimooc » p^-tfiimteil without aetuatly ncpoainc t^ 
to the outside air, and there is no leakii' ' Sit gMM (rum iba funaca 



i 



nut^Minc, B Iatk* open plntronn was built oner tho furnacn and the n!fiwe 
m* »i..rrxl IrwRioly on this plutfonn, »iid from it raked or itl)i>%-cir>il Id iho 
rharipiii: uiethuiiifiin t'oiuictjui-ntly this lyiw of devire \» not whiillv KitrliKH- 
ical. tn)t n-tiuitm « iiTtuin AnnHUit nf ninniDil lumiliiiiK "f the rt'lusn. Tha 
lUusis ircre ruuvd nud k>irvtc<l l>y t> diflcntttint iiulley opcrotvtl by Uic fitmuui 
90 thr ftonicr plBtform. 

' 111* device la very sunplc^, und hiw U-w moving juuiM. It is nrrangMl 
•0 lliBt lIh^ rt^^UMC run br miwt] und khkIixI iN-fiirr fMtliiiK it iitln thc^ Tire, and so 
thnt tb« aixe of tbp rhat^ ran be varied at will. Ordinarily. 1 mi. yd of 
rafotc ■ diiK'hancml nt one tiinc into the cell, and lhi« forms a layn 3 ft. dn*]) 
on thn [mte. The ^n'f » biiilt small in ami. wilh vf^niral miit*. mi ttiui the 
nfuM wPl fidl wviT the grate in a tiiy«>r nf npiirDxinistoly even d«p(h arnd will 
Htm prawnt a unilonu rcMBtwKc lo the forced drnlt. Thia chuntr is burned 
in ibuuL thiny minutes, and one man an care for the durgitig of two crJlx. 



11* 1 1(1 




in iIm irquirMl la cliiikpr twii rvtln Srrvi-rnl tmto Iibvp twon tnmlo 

Vith thin rhargtind dpvicr, and in thrm the tptnponiliirp varied from 1650" 

tu 2000" F, ihc i-Mrcnw minimum UHnic 1000° F, after diukriine The 

innperftlurc was rt'cordi'd ouiitinuoiiAly in ihc Duiin Hue, nnd Iht! luw|>(>iiilN 

^k ib tkc cuTfc tt)Trt»j<oni\c*i cloacly lu the (iiuvs of (-harionK the aH. 

^K^ " Tkr pirMiin- mi Uti* dm/l wan G tu 7 in. nf KiLl«-r, and laxR*' <|Uiu)tilicii of 

^HBl UTM)un(|[ix lo nlKiitt 1 rii yd in uiglit hours, trcro carriml out of th« i^U 

H^^ur flur. tu a [ilaiit wUvn the boiler is doec to the oeU luid whrrr eluiui 

m vtthulAt. ilUa duat adtliiig on tht bciil«r iuIkk nugtit M-ricnuly ta-duuc Ute 

^^imtvof evapomUon It i* not entirety pomibk to f-hnrgp any furtiacn mMhan- 

^ftically, for a long-raal inunl linw, in tniK-h nmnllrr quantilint llion 1 ru yd, 

^Btaxmiui' i1m> fr«i|iii^ii>y of rttarpng. uecavoiy to maintain th(> 4»|)Bcily of Iho 

^Bjilaiil. ImmftiiB tninKiHMnuc. Thcrrfori'. Iht* lariii' chiifRi?. Ihc depth uf ttfuso 

(If) itw gniti . Mil )]ii;Ii [irnviin* iin ihr draft, (he |ini)luHian of ihi^ diul. and 

the \iniiin\ir l'>u> iinc of (he l^mjirratUR! jusi all'>r •■Itarfcinic arc iiirvitalilf 

^L " 'VW rhnWfT fmm the cTperiiwnlal rrW irns tbiinniahly hiinn-d and Imrd. 

^Illif rr^uoe lyitiK t>iiMM«l in the rhnrginK dcviro and u))an the storage platfr>nn 

wai uiinchtly and liabln at any tiinc to create a Buiaaaco. To raiac Uw 



334 COLLHCnON ASD DISPfiHAl. OF MUMC/PAL REFUSE 

refuse Trom thi> imdnrl h'vi-l lo the Klora^ platform rcquiml th«> iiMrof ■ amt 
or of nil iiirlmwl ninway, Iwth of whii-h nrt HmhtiIm nS <-x|»rMr The bntht 
of biiildiiiK rcquircii, while KTcutrr thaii for u botloinThafKwl iacittcrshif . u 
not so ETBat hb for the plaiit uniitg the tul><f«!d ilvvicu. 



" Hkhoeh-ix Dkvice. 

'* IlcrberU, H Runtractor, with ht.^fid(|iiarteni it Co]okiu% has drvclopnl t 
device for rharKiiiEn-futfpinloiiicinoraTorc. Todemowtrate iJti^fiunMSKu/ bi« 
dMign. he has built aa cxpennieat«l plwit at CoIokdc, which opcralce lur ihc 
enlighlciuDcnl of muniripal suthorilica who are uHiBkleriiig the noiwtniniov 
of ft rdtm- iiieiiierutor. Herbertc has a |)]ftnt In operalion at Kio] and <io« 
Uiickr const tucti«n at P'rwikfort . 

" The iilniLl at CoIdkiir tonsislx of live sepaiBt« cratn, built adjnceDt S'° 
each other. A common cnmbuKtion ch&mber extends along the baok of ihe^^ 
gralce and the hot fomsf ftuin the KnitcR pmae dircctJy through this chamb ^^ 
ou to two mtler-tubc boitcre The gratia ench have aii una at about ] sq. yt ^M* 
and ftr» nwde of a.n iron pint* prrfftraKtfJ with 'i4 holes for the (oreed dnf^ *■ 
Th« oella or gnto ail (mcit. un irni- rliiikt-riiiK nioiti Aliove this dinluiiiii^'*^^ 
room IB a large aheet-iron bin, tho bottutn of which hoa a. alope of about H 
dovmnrd lo the t«p of the furnace, A vcrlicaJ conveyor UfU the rofiee iat 
thia bin. At the bottom (if ihis slope, and forminK onr aide of the bin. a ' 

vertical sheet-iron wall; ami ubimt '.i ft fmni Ihi? m a ximilar sheet-iron w»l ^B^' 
livtwevn Ihf two w«IU are ptac«d iron «hut<* which lead through the furaa^T^^** 
Ui|> to the graiea An operator on a platform over the mmbuHliun vlmtahc-^ "^ 
ralcM n^f^M down from the bin into the nfantoa, and tcccpa (h«in always In 
of refuHe The Gnipt>'ing of a charie into the cell iit cITci-tcd by incans vt ^ 
sliding door ill thechiiti.-. whidi iH iifU'^ratnl by a lover from theelinkenngi 
A ad of HKiuiU iiidicatca to thi? operator above wbenevt^r a rhut« bocot 
empt]r. 

" It WW vustonuiry at the Cologne plant to rhnrge abinil 1 ru yd , 
refuse on to the grate at a (imo. This gjvca a depth of rvfuM on tho gmte i 
alxtut 4 ft., and mjuirw a prmnun- on the draft of a* much as 12 in of waK 
Enrh NiW has a rn.pa'-ity of alimit 1 lom of refiiw per day. The <Mnhij*>tio»^ ^^i 
of ttIuw wak thnrougli. and the recordrd tniipcvaturm on the many leate^*-^ 
whit^h huvi> been made with a rariety of rafiue from many eiti««. vary fiwr^^Bi 
1200* to StXXI" 1-' The atorage bin can bo made lartp- At Krankforl. wfacr'^Bn 
thp plant will ii>n.-«L*t of several unila, earth similar to the iilani at Colofne, ih^c=3ff^ 
bin hns a rapadiy milfiHeiit to hold tlir refuw roUivted in 1wenly>lour ban 
With this type of chanpug device, the refuae ia kf|>t away from the opnrato" 
and well out nf rnght. Tbe operator above «ao vary the use of oluup^ ^^at 
direetvd by the Hri^iian, and, to n certain extent, ran iletiTminf the gradi* ^nf 
refiltie neirdcd for any (ortkular charge. The aHiuJ rliari;itiK of tlie funi^-*4 
and the otwnitiE of the rlurEinK door ii" |MTfi»rro«l belwtwt thv v. ^ 

w»lhi when ihe doorway* through thcae ore ciw»e»l. tmi fhiw Iti. "I , 

(umaoe gH.'>c8 out into the wnrkinx moms is inat> 

" Tlw ll«rlM<rl* pUuit at Kiel bus bet* in npi-t - 
It cmuMtfl of three units, eaehunit liavihgaixvciU. < i 




INCiNBIVlVrOK OP REFUSE 



335 



. one wato^ube boiler In earb cdl is a grate bartng an ar«a of about I 
. yd ( >\-«i rarh liiniai« i» a Monice liin, i-nrb luvine h c'M]uinly •>! uIhiuI 
Icu. yd. Thp |)lant hu a rated daily <:aparit}- of Is.^ tonn, uml hiima mn 
ltd 12S loui per day. Tbc scbnnp uf atorinic the rvlum^ in drvMnl bins, 
. and away from lb« «p(>rkiun:, wud devdoped further ai Kit>l ibui 
rC<il<iKn«. 'ITm' hoiwdioldew deposit the rofn*c in canK and t-hr=u> wins »ro 
llirrtnl III! luTKc lwi>-)ionu' WHRtiiin liuviiix » mimciiy ut 44 cikiiM ■■iirh. No 
:ipl mu) made to grade the refuse in the cade The wagons pnti>r (he 
at orn aa ioHiocd roadway and dvbvvr tW caiut on a platfunn at IbL- «1«- 
of the top ofiJie storage bin*. The tops ol lliesc biiw are entirely 
i, uad rtwh orir ia fitted with a Hoiwd hoppr, built Ui ivwive thfl 
can't and Ui diflcUurK** tin- ouiit«nU of the [-unit ittlti Ihi^ bin beltiw. 
. M uad H5 UlUBtrate bow tbe refuse i« rvovivixl at lIil> i>laDl and i>IbcwI in 



(pX 



liiJi t^i 



Vta. M. — Section througb Ucrbcrii Itictnerator, Kiel Germany. 

(Prom Biititufnii4 Kttt.y 



I bina. "Vhe bins I Vanwlvm ar« btiilt of shcet-inin. and arc similar to ihow 
[CidUKliP. They riopf ut ulmut 4S* Ut llm toji of thn fiirnnrt', ovrr the cliiilc- 
(foora, ami fc«d iutu cUute« wbich guide lliv refuM into the ocIIb. Th« 
loa arv Allnl and diwiiantcd just aa tbry arc at Cologne Tbe fealuji! of 
I plant is ibal the refuse, from the tinw it is placed in the nme al the hauna, 
rhcTc fstpowd to night until it comes out of the fumarc aa clinker, 
' This iQvtbml of unloading tbe refuM- in tbr i-ana at the plant, itlihuugk it 
fn» ilii' exiM-iiv of opmiing a crane, nevorthdspw reqiiircn the Htecp haul up 
inrbnnl a|iiiT(>ai',)i, nnd iiiirviuiCH the labor at tbe plant over lliat rcquirod 
Mth the liili feed. The fonv lequireil duriiiK the day to deliver ibe refuse 
}IP|Ik wugootlothf^ tMn^ cnmpriiteji four wtifknKn, and an ]i]!<>)iilant emptying 
am) iTifcht irniiM-n r-JeanioK tlw omply eanii The wfnuen cleaniag tbe 
^. .\i...,!,t not Ik> rlurgM ni;ainiit this nyitttm, Iwvaiifle in any splem Ihc 
I wbieli the rrfuM in rulleeted or stored oliould be elnincd. 
■ [j.ii:iri<l « itt, ikbaud-firMl phiuL. ibissyvtemuf rlutrfiing tlM^futnaeo 
1 l!f id : :,. i,-ril of huildtng ai»d ih*- rxiM-nse of an inclined roadway. 
uvd mill till,- tut>-feed dcvica, it rc(|iiim an ovnrfacad sloraKe bin in 



336 COIJ^ECTIOS Attn DISH)SAL OF MVSICIPAt REFUSE 

ftdditioa tothecaiiaorUibausHluntheMiIleeUDftiriLipuu; but doM nol r«qain 
tbc use of wi cjcctfic cnuiv. Aft<T the rcriuc is placed in tbo suinige bin 24 
nien are required lo operate the pUnt. indiidiiig Iwu iiuirhuiwLK hikI Uro bailer 
fttlMulnnU If the lK)il<T itU<-tifi»nlfi utd miirliJiiiAU) ak tiot inrluilwl, and if 
two men jx-r nliift ore iiirluiti-d fiir uidundiiiic cans, the labor rcducca to ttight 
mon per shift on thp incjiterator proper. 



Fia. 65- — Ilciiuc ltux;i\tui^ 



ui^:iK. Aud Lim-WiUiluag iloor. Kid 

III iiiiTLiior. 



" Wu:eBjU>RN, Gehhakt. 

" A fourth type of charitinit device has been developed by B«r!it, «n^i)Mr 
in charKc »f rrfiiM disposal at Wicxbaden, Genaatiy. Tbit plant oonnintn of 
six cells, built in pnini, and hxH a cspaeKy of about tM Utnn |i«t day Tbc 
furnace top ta floored over etronf^y and divided Eonptudinally info two room! 
by a Strom: vertical wall. The nirt bodice oontaininji thr n^'fijw art.- hiuteil 
by a crnne and eni]>tled on (he platform on one side of (he wall. On (hi- nihri 
aide of the wall are lo<»t«d lh<^chargift(thA]ca trading to thi- grain For earh 
two rhaniiiiic bolrss (here ih one chute or lube wlurh iiin h<- iMtinic urrr citbcr 
dtarginK hole Thai rhuto leads llimiig)i IIm* dividiikg wall intn tliii T*ifu« 
BforafR room at a lidxht of about 7 f( frvtn the ilour, tHe rhute Iwuig limsad 
a few feet out frotnthe wall, Dirtytly Wlowit.. 'li 
the tlota of tbc Moiage room in wliich sets a <■' 
wnrknieji rake the rafuae, piled loosely on the 



ISCISEHATICN OF HKyVSB 



387 



means of a pulley uid guides, raise the osn until it nnptim lh« ni\at it coo- 
iMiw iLriiugh ll(c f:liu(« inio llic c«U. 

" Witb iliu lypo of (l«VKw. the refuse is piled openly in the Btorage room, 

nd llie workown w>nw in actiinl contA'^t with it This, while being a luini- 

tr>' <LinudviiiiLim«, allowv tbf uieii lo delivitr n (uirly uniftirui gnulu of refuse 

thv fiiragn! umI tu var>' the quclit; of & rhnrgv lo suit tlu> fire. The cans 

iDuiMntainnvQivthaii 1 ra.yd. of lefunc when fuU, 

" When Lho writer inapeded tbe plant, the rcfuac alld tlirough the diutca 

ly^ and tlwrR wiw tui gmit iRukngp ilimiigli ilic font IihIm ituring charging, 

llbougb the chute did not tic tiniliily uvvr th<! duor It is [juesiblc, bowcrvWi 

■ r tiinn> these diut><s would ctoK a>><l rnuw troiitilii and dclaj'. 

' This type of chorginK device doM not do awny with the emne, nor Ihe 

atorac" ^^ rcfuar, and, cxnriit that il does away with tlir physiral di»- 

lart nf hnnd-tiituft. has little advnntuge VKVt Uie luuid-churKiid pluut 

ch cell was charged every 40 min. with about I cu. yd. of refuse The 

ft wan ftimi.ihe4l to cnrh cell In- a wparate nititfir fitltd with a rjoiitTutliiiK 

vitx for rhan^ng the speed of the motor, and so the prcasure of the draft, to 

lit Uio cvnditioD of the fire. Mr. Bvrlit etataxl that onb' about 11% of tha 

I di-ctncal uutpiit o( tbe plant was ui>ed in the forced draft 

" The Ifonifnll tut>-ferd, the Hanthnrg di^-ice, Ihe Herhfrtx ^'Ktem, and 

DwHtanimii m tL*« ul Wimliudt-ii rv|>m«^^iit iinicljcally creTylliinR tlial hoe 

dovriopnl to date in the nay of ii)>erial rlevires for charging refuse into 

IdMnton In addiliort to (he invcalif^tiniu of the tnecbanical-fecdiitg 

rioM, ni ilcarrilied above, the writer viKitMl haiKJ-tired planta at Zurich, 

ritaeriand. at W'atfunl. Wuod (irepJi. hikI tSalilry. (England, and at Svrantoo, 

ittic, \'ai>coin-(T. and West New BTighlvti w this country. Dctaila of the 

of several oUur idants of both typos were obtained by oorrespood* 



"llAim CuARdoro. 



''Sine* a i^ood deal has recsntly henn puhlinhcd alwut innnnrators ehargnl 

by tuind. and ue tWre an eevvrul uf Ihcee iii optiralioD ou this cnntinnnl, a 

detailed d«>srn|rtion uf thi* type will not Iw presented h it enough id my 

that Willi inriiteratora of lliin type, the refuse is ronimonly dumped mto a 

•tofacr triu Dpcaiog at thv level of the rlinkning Hoof The refiiae in then 

huvvled by hand on tti tlx' grate aud th« ejiidcrr withdrawn by tbe duon 

hroui^i which the fiinut«o was eh4,rg«d. or the doora on the uppuait« aide o{ 

hr KTntr Altbougli it in poanblc with hund-firing to keep the temperature 

I Ihx &IV (wen, by proper regulation of the charge and by (rec[iiiiitly Applying 

1! elurL; < \-\\vK this caniiut be curried lo any great extent oa 

il <>( > inruili (rf ixild uir wlicn I lie fiimaee door is open The 

. |iL (itilfonn U) a considerable extent by liAvini; s group o( 

! - in nti" i-nmmnn furnace whirh ean l>r cliitnci-d nitemalely, 

iif iIh' fire \» not neriouNly reduced. Any of tho 

''ril«.'d iniglit l>e used with sucb a tnulti-oellular 






^ 



I 







I 



to be Qo good reason why the fixnl rooLaincra usccl iii chanting the fur- 

HiuJiJ nut bo eittkw uwA nt tlu^ htMiMsi or rArriisl on it{MH>iitlly^4if[iu<d 

ifM, Mtncwb»t e» »t Kj«l, llirougti the vily rull«c1iDg th« Muw from the 

^i)TT«. mlxxiU. clr Thin would avoid il)in)|>inR tmm On- n>Il<i-Uri 

lo UiR bxvd ronlainvre nt lh« pUtnl, lind tti« refufic ooiliK^ed in the tuba or 

wniAJncn could be Jtmdcd oh Ihc iragons poeeod (rom houio to house. 

" In pduus churgKl nu'chnnintlly it w iiM^aeutry to V.eep u luRb pnnure on 
the dmft In tfiito of thi«, at only one plant vm there *ny nuiiunf* (rocn 
koluiRi' UiriJiii:!) lliF rluuxinK 1mi|<v 

'tltio wrilvr found that tbo higher building r«<|uirGd iD the mechanicftOy- 
ehkncrd )ilan(0 to arounimodulc the crane uiid churtQiiK ^cvi<^-, Connidcrahly 
ftdtln] to thi? einn«n of the buildlni;. It ia th<- opinion of llic writt-T thai llie 
BvcfauiiRally-oharip^ plant« nrn tiic dcanGsl iind the moicl HaiiilnT^' fur llu) 
toctt ufX-ntlioc thr funuu-e. 

•* A itiuse tnciniiator. howpvpr, Hhould be free from nui«inre, not only to 
1i»aM OpemUng Ihc plimt, but nUn to tho jifofil^ Ijvinf; and HVTktng in Ibe 
nejghburiiiic buildings- About uo oiin of the plants viititcsl wait there any 
deddnl odor, and it wa* cvitk-iit t.hat in practinitly ali voil-built nnd wcll- 
«(H-ralcd iitcincratdrB, of both top-chariEvd aad bottoDW'haii^ types, r«fuM 
iCiMiId l>r burned without otTctu*r to the community 

" It IB aflcoBBry, with Dieohanieal cbarKins and high pmBUre on th» droftr 

take |pT«l pretmutiona to ktxp lo^t «iid doct from bcuiii: blown out of (he 
aul up lite chiiniM^>'; r*«tulli> in pntrlif* indicate tlint thia ia entirely 
fteubk. The writn found httli* fo choose between top- and bottom-ehArgKl 
JBdnonttoni on the btvtia of nuisanec to the community. 

" (2) Ctmnlrvftion .—'T\tr. mmiAntl lyjic uf inciucrator to build la the fronU 
frd typr. InoiMTstors built for lui> cliuripnK uikiat have no oponinf; in (h« 
arch OVM thr (cn>'<fi and nrquirr rarrfiil andmilHtantin] nwvtniction to acroin- 
pUih till!) securely. The bnltuin-4'harged plants, and pRrtieularly Llioae fired 
in frtMit, haT« the cbarpjng doot« in the vertical wnlla of the furnace and 
wi«km the furnace atructurc very littlv. The to[>4ed plaota require a iitrong 
f;nit« or a bacli hearth to gtiard ngainsl fracturo from the fall of the rvftiM. 
Tlua M trtiP cvvn auvr: willi thtt incchanicnl-rharKtng dcvimn, which fre- 
quently diaeharge (be refuse from Hre or more feet above iho f^ate level. 
Thno fcatum add to the «o«t a( the top-charged plants. Furlht-rmorc, the 
kxrlinad approarh, bolt cuaveyor, or rrane uaed to lift the refuse nboi-e tha 
fumare top rnrruum the eo«t of I hi* top-diarged [ihint C'onaMpicntJy, tht 
lup-chu(Ri^l incinerator should generally coat mor« than the liottoni-rhaiged 
ty|it Antual entita of conilructiun are oinleadirig iinliw* mie kixiws tlte local 
ronditioiw controlling the building of th» plant Nt^LTtlieleas, the fi>llciwtng 
figura Msrw to thruw aonif light tin ttir rflativf ronatrurtion coeta of tbcae two 
ly|H« (if ineineratnrs Mn«l of th«w o(»t« am for Knidt(A iiirinenilnni, and 
luiuiul be taaed directly (or Auiehean practice. It ia only when uaed fxmv- 
immlivriy thnt Llipy havn valu« Either featunv. auch BB style of building, 
blaa affeet thv total iwft of any |)arlie(iU.r plant 

"The data (treM-ntiil in Tables 96 and 9V are inkva from s paper by 
Mr. i T Fi'iliMstnci, rend tirfiwe the AnJCTican Snoirty of Civil hJigiiMf-re, 
Oea«Dl>cr, ItNTT; trow iho ' Minutes ol Evideneo,' Vol. S, 1S06, of the RoytJ 



340 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBFUSB 

ComnusBion on Sewage Disposal, and from ' Refuse DispoBol and Poinr 
Production,' by W. Francis Goodrich. The individual results differ widdy, 
and show how local conditions affwt the cost of construction. There my 
be conditions for which a top-chargod plant is the more economical. In 
general, however, the resulU point to the fact that the top-chai^ped indneraton 
coat about 10% more than bottom-charged incioemtora. 



Taulk 98, — Average Cost op Conbtrcction 

OP BoTTOM-CBAHOED iNCWERATOhs 



Plant 



Rated 
rapacity t 
ia tODi of 

20001b. 

p«r day 



Cost 



Total 



Per ton 



Antboritr 



Aldershot 

Burslem 

East Ham 

Ecclea 

Epsoin 

Fulham 

Heywood 

Hyde 

Ilkey 

Kettering 

Kings Norton . 

Lytham . 

Manchester 

Radcliffe 

Rathmines 

Salisbury 

Seattle 

Sheemess 

Swansea 

Taunton 

Vancouver 

Watford 

West New Brigbion . . . . 

Weymouth 

Worthing 

Wrexham 



50 

33 

67 

53.5 

W.5 
135 

27 

80 

22.5 

28 
100 

27 

33 

40 

67 

30 

60 

26 

71 

60 

48 

53 5 

60 

53.5 

28 

53.5 



S5,S00 
18,950 
61,700 
22,000 
22,100 
82,124 
24,300 
34,000 
7,020 
25,480 
73,500 
11,700 
12.700 
16,000 
35,200 
14,600 
36,000 
17,I.W 
53,900 
19,500 
35,000 
33,000 

19.500 

21A50 
11,324 



SI 16 
574 
920 
412 
412 
610 
900 
425 
312 
910 
735 
434 
385 
400 
526 
486 
600 
635 
756 
325 
730 
618 
about 1000 
365 
765 
211 



Goodrich 

Fetherstoa 

Goodrich 



FethersbiD 
Goodrich 

Fethenton 



Goodrich 



Fetberston 

Goodrich 

Morse 

Fethenton 
II 

Goodrich 

Gredey 

Goodrich 

Nutting 

Goodrich 

FetherstoD 



" A mpchaniral-charginn device fitted to n toiv-fwi plant is an added d^^' 
ment of cost. The incinerator at Ncwcafittc, fittt^ with the Horafall tut-^ 
feed, cost about $48,000. and has a rated cjipaciiy of 67 tons, which giw 
cost per ton of about S715. At Greenock, the incinerator, wi^ 



INCWSRA TtO/f OF REFUSE 



341 



l<ib-r«ML cMMl 405,000, and has a mtcd ^Apaeity Af 120 loiu, giving u met (Mir 
luri of (790 'I'lie roet of the tDM'haiiicuUy -charged pUuit ut liixHb wiw only 
937& per U>n: but thue pLuit wiut built udjttcoiiL ti> iiti old hmid-t^'hargiMl invin- 
<tnt(ir wticp^ it na« po««il>lf to uw> iho fluM, boilers, and chinmry of t\tc old 
jiUnt Mr. Gcaintr WotMiii, iif IIk! Humfall Co , figurvd roiiKhly on SIT.OllO 
u itw etml i»r <-dI of a lub-fcd incitierslor. This, on a Inuum ur 'Jfi tonti i>or 
nO pnr dny, w at LxxmJv, icivrx a <v«l t>cr too of about tCTiO. HuMt- TiKiirM 
indim« thai a ntKchaiiicallyt-lisTged indiienitnr may nwl in tiw iiei^tur* 
hood of SA&O to S700 prr Ion iindrr miidiiions which would T«<quirc on expnadi- 
Uiiv of about VM per ton for the luind-fired botlam-rharKc^d planta. Thtl 
diffomee, at fi% anntml intenwt and 310 working daya per yMr, roducei to 
aboot 2 eenta per ton Thn fignrta (tiven for t)ic mat of ooMtniction ore for 
the whole plant, includiu^ rcUs. building, chitnnny. runwmy, rrone. and hopper; 
but do ool iDcltide land m any iidjiuwnt oli>etric pl&stfi, Bewagp-pumping 
MatioiUtCtc. 



Table W.— Avchaoe Oist or CoMfrarf-noM 
uy Toi*-cnARnEi) Incinekatoks 



FlanI 


RaWd 


C'w 


Authority 




ia toto «f 

90001b. 
iwTdar 


Total 


Parloa 




Aferinffun 


fiO 
1S4 

eo 

m 

so 

28 

M 

75 

75 
100 

28 

89 

OS 
112 

«S 

SO 
100 

22.5 
112 

78 

80 

■X) 


SflO.flOO 

49 000 
40000 

tioono 

23 000 
•J3 0IW 

ui.ruo 

33 000 
30 500 
43 ISO 

a7a8o 

100 230 
52 000 

100 SOO 
46 0[» 
19.500 

102 000 
IfiWU 
49000 
24.'iaO 

50 180 
12.100 


1870 

soe 

570 
500 

478 
820 
7H 
442 
405 
430 
IKW 
1130 
W7 

mo 

725 
390 
M4 
870 
43K 
3I& 
630 
620 


Ooodchli 

PothfTaron 
Rotidrich 

Feiheintoii 

Cloodrich 
■ 

■I 

KutberHtiin 

■1 
If 

(•oodrich 
Fctbersioa 

41 
44 
4* 
4* 

Goodrich 








Briaiol 

Bromley 

Burton-on-l^vnt ... 
Dnltnamock, Lilian il. 
Eoatboumf 

LJAndtiibw, Vr'akii. 
Kueliill. 8(ntlaitd 
SallJey 








S« raiicfM 
(*tuekioiniii-T<*^'. 

A'allhkiailow 

Wiind^wtiftli 
>Vi>»<cun«lPf Him>'. 
Wwujtwtcr 






342 COLLECTIOlf AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

" (3) Operation. — Data showing the force required to operate the dilfennt 
types of i^ante and the cost of repairs have been obtained and are prcBeoted in 
Tables- 100 and 101, which follow. Table 100, hand-charged inciDeistor^ 
gives the tons of refuse which can be handled per man per hour. All of the- 
hand^red plants are grouped together and averaged for compariaon with 
the mechanically-charged pUnts. There is no great difference in this re^wct 
between the hand-fired bottom-charged plants and the hand-fited top-cfaaiged 
pUnts. Actual quantities of refuse burned, instead of rated capadtiee, an 
used in reducing the results to a man-hour basis. 

Table 100. — Labor Rkquirkd in the Operatioit 

OP HAND-CIlABaED iNCINERATORa 



Pluit 



Top-chATBed 

or 

botloiD- 

chATged 



Number 

of men 

per 

■hilt 



Touot 
20001b. 
burned 
per dAy 



Tarn 
mAn-boar 



Accrington. . 

Saltley 

Seattle 

Vancouver. . . 

Watford 

Westmount.. 
Wood Green . 
Zurich 



Average . 



Top 

Top 
Bottom 
Bottom 
Bottom 

Top 
Bottom 

Top 



5 
3 
4 
2 
2 
3 
2 
10 



40 
60 
60 
50 
30 
30 
35 
160 



0.34 
0.83 
0.63 
1.00 
0.63 
0.42 
0.73 
0.67 



0.66 



Table 101. — Labor Required in the Operation 
of mechanicallr-charged incinerators 



PlADt 



Greenock 

Hamburg cxjicrimontal plant 

Kiel 

Leeds 

Newcastle 

Wiesbaden 

Average 



Numbor 
of men 

p*r 
■hift 



Tons at 
2000 1b. 
buroed 
per day 



110 
00 

1>5 
.53- 
00 

110 



Toia 

P» 

■UAD-bour 



1.14 
1.25 
0.65 

1.12 
083 

o.go 



0.98 



INCINERATION OP REFUSE 30 

" The STcnge is brou^ down by the low figure for Accrington. which hat 
a ckMC, pootiy rentiUted clinkering room where cUnkerioK is hot and heavy 
irork; and by the low figure for WeAmount, where the jdant is woricing coo- 
siderably bdow its rated capacity. Onutting these two, the average becomes 
0.75 ton per man per hour. Mr. Fetheiston sums up his study of 27 fianta, 
only one of which was mechanically-chained, by saying thai ' each maa 
employed would handle 0.88 short ton per hour. ... At an easy rate of 
working there should be no difficulty in destroying 0.75 ton per hour per man." 
The writer'a invealigationB bear out this cooduaioD. 

" \s compared with this, Table 101 shows the quantity of refuse handled 
per man per hour in the plants fitted with mechanical-chargiag devices. 

" Herberts, who is building a mechanically-charged plant at Frankfort, 
has stated that the guaranteed force required to operate each unit of four 
grates is three men per shift of eight houtB. At the capacity planned for, as 
based on experiments made at Cologne, this averages tu 1.10 tons per man- 
hour. 

" These tables indicate that with a mechanical charging device about one- 
fifth of a ton more per man per hour can be handled than without it. Assum- 
ing 2o cents an hour for labor, this difference amounts to 5 cente |)er Ion in 
favor of the mechanicaily-chargeid inciDeraton> For plants fitted with the 
Horafall tub-feed this figun- may be i^li^tly greater. 

" The cost of repairs for inrineratorw varieit considerably fr«jm year to 
year and do ver^' definite results can Ite expected. I'lie nie<'luiiiically'CtuirK«d 
plants have most of them been built within tlie bu<t twi yt-ani, and tlu^re are 
very few data on co«l of repairs. The plantj< were gnfUfjed in Tables Ufl and 
103 according to whether they are bottom-clisrged </t Uti>-i:harged, \)tn^im^ 
top-charging in general ii^ harder on the grate und bt^rth. and iMiauM- I hi- t/^p 
chained plants are more nearly anali^gous U> tlie ri»»H.liaiiii;ally-"-burRe'l plants. 
The costs given in the tables are taken from tlie t'iftiitiorjy of Mr W F. 
Goodrich before the Koyal O>miui)»4on <>n Kewa(£" i>if\Mit^\, (tow Mr l-<th- 
erston's paper, or were furoi^lM^ by Mr If Nonuan Jj-axk, of Mart'luvl'-r, 
England A few of them were taken fr<>iii KiiKl'''b ixiiiipbli-ti- uii refuse 
incineration. 

" On a basi-( of 310 working dayr< in a year, tlusw- avi-rafci- riwulix n-'luii' Ut 
about 0.50 cent per utii fur n'-jmirt' for tlu- initUim-i-\ior^iA |>luiil« and 'Z.li 
cents per ton for hand-fir«d lui^^bargn'l plant*-, a Iwluii'^' of 2 ii-ij1»' jmt Uhi 
in favor of the l»'it1'jrij-''liari£nd iii'-ii»erat«>r 

" For the inwbaiii<-ally-i-liiirgfd plant ai i^-»^lt>. if>w m ifi- fjfili yiiir and 
burning 53..J t/iiii- i>t day, tin- r"-tiaii> i<u tbi- y<-ar IWJh ui;t<>ijiii'^l Ui fW^ <>r 
about $1 (W i>er Ijju j^-r yiair. »'lii"'li l^ "wjuivuli-ni Ui fii "■'■iii jo-r I'M) <jf 
refiwe liuniitl 

" Mj Efiriiw'i, iiifl \''iliii 'ifOul/rul t't:f\ai]ir I 111' lii'i^t Mil lrliii-|j,iy way 
to comiKiri- dilTi-riTi' U\m-r ui [ii>nii-raV>rr ti- 'iii 'hi- Ijin-ir '(t lln vuliM' iff i\u; 
output Thf •I'-'i-.A 'I'l'jiiii ifl u ri-fijM' iriMtii'iiii'ii cdiiiiiMr i-liii-tly the 
elinker sti'I i|i' ■.i\^,!h:'i\i- ln-itf I'lii-rgy IV^ili 'il lliiw mi- tiiiiC'lv di-|jfiiiii-til 
upon the (|ti:i!:M 'if M-tiiM' luirni^l. and iv^oiiiudiiivi icMiilr nliifiil'l In' iivluivid 
to tiie SBHH uKi'l' <il ri-luDt.' 'J'htr, howvcr, u- jM'u>!li<Hlly MiifmnihW tu do, 



344 COLLECTtO.K AND DISPOSAL OF MUXICIPAL BBFCSE 



Table 102. — ^.\rrBoxiMATE C<»r of Rktaibs 

rOB BOTTOH-CHAKGED IXCIXBRATOBS 



n«t 



Tom at 3000 lb. 
( bnnied 



Ctmtor R>rua* : 



I Tub 



Aldenhot 

Pir min gti n ni 

Buralem 

Gosport 

Graj-fl.. 

Hereford. ... 
Ln-eoshiilmc . . 

Lytham 

Manirbestcr. . . 

RadcUffe 

.Sherraese 

Watford 

We>-mouth, . 

Worthinf! 

Wrexham 

Avpragc 



13 
37 
40 
33 
12 
12 
50 
13 
60 
39 
14 
30 
20 
21 
33 



Tctel 



SO. 90 
40.00 

7.00 

213 00 

25.00 

21-00 

8 00 

5.00 

122.50 

85.00 

14 00 

50.00 

8.40 
32.00 
21.00 



Pa too 



SOOT 
1-08 
17 
738 
2.08 
1.75 
0.16 
0.38 
2.05 
2-18 
1.00 
1.67 
0.42 
1.52 
0.&4 



SI 50 



Table 103. — .\pproximate Cost of Rxpaibs 
for top-tharged incinerators 



PUit 



Belfast 

IJolton 

CanibridKC 

Fii]luiin .,..,. 

Hacknt'v 

LeaminKtiin. . 

Rnthcrham . . 

Rnytun 

Sou t ham pi on 



.^vpraup 



T->M or 2000 lb, 
burnrtt 
prrdsy 



90 
50 
29 

118 
142 
39 
'>« 
IG 
4.1 



Cost or RkPAiaa pkb Yia> 



Total 



S490 00 

6S.00 

290.00 

14.80 

22 50 

73 00 

31.T 00 

146 00 

34(1 00 



Per (OD 



S5.25 

1 36 

10.00 

12.50 
15.80 
1.87 
5 62 
9.15 
7.55 

17.00 



INCINERATION OF REFUSE 



345 



and only general tendencies can be noted by tabulating and averaging large 
numben of reeults covering a wide range of conditiona. 

" The writer'B obeervatione lead bint to conclude that the value of the 
clinker is little affected by the type of incinerator in which it is burned. Thus, 
at Zurich, a band-charged top-fed plant, the clinker and ash were sold for 
concrete and artificial atone, and brought 3S cents per cubic yard. The clinker 
from the mechanically-chained plant at Newcastle was crushed and used in 
city streets as a surface grit to prevent horses from slipping. The clinker at 
Greenock was crushed, graded, and sold, and was of excellent quality, hard 
and durable. The clinker from the hand-charged plant at Watford was 
used successfully for building sewage-disposal works (filter beds). Local 
conditions affect the value of clinker bo greatly that, relatively, the method 
of charging has almost no effect. 

" On the other hand, the method of charging has an important influence 
on the value of useful heat enei^ obtained from the refuse. Tables 104 
and 105 indicate the extent to which the useful heat eneigy returned is influ* 
enced by the method of charging. 

Table 104. — Evaporation Obtained in Tests 
or Hand-fired, Top-charqed Incinerators 



Plant 



Dkte 

or 

erection 



Founds o( water 

evsporated per 

pound of rcfuM, 

from and at 

212" Ffthr. 



Accrington 

Aahton-on-Lyne 

Birmingham (Montague St 
Bradford (Hamerton St.) . . 

Bury 

Canterbury 

Fleetwood 

Fulham 

Hackney 

Llandudno 

St. Helens 

Shoreditch 

Saltley 

West Hartlepool 

Wandsworth 

Wcetmount. 

Average 



1900 
1001 
1879 
1898 
1901 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1898 
1899 
1897 

1901 
1897 
1899 



1 39 
0.78 
1.56 
1-25 
0.94 
1.54 
1.19 
1,30 
1.42 
0.86 
1.54 
0.96 
1.82 
1.25 
1.24 
1 3<i 



1.27 



" Nineteen tcslH were made at the mc<'hanically-eharg(Hl plant at Oilogne, 
and the average actual rate of evaporation was 1.01 lb. of water per pound of 



346 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



refuse at 140 lb. steam preeeure. This is equivalent to about 1.251b. of water 
per pound of refuse, from and at 212° F. The Greenock plant, when tested, 
gave an evaporation, from and at 212° F., of 1.41 lb. of water per pound of 
steam. At Kiel the evaporation, from and at 212° F., is about 0.95 lb. c^ 
water per pound of refuse, and at Wiesbaden about 1.08. Theee results indi- 
cate that hand-charging will give an evaporation, fcom and at 212" P., per 
pound of refuse, of about 0.40 lb. of water more than can be obtained with « 
mechanical-charging device. 

Table 105. — Ev\poratiok Obtained in Tests 
OF Bottom-charged Incinerators 



nut 



Dftte 

of 

ereetign 



Founds of •>!« 

eVBpormt«d per 

pound of refiM, 

from utd il 

212° Fabr. 



Ayer 

Burnley 

Burslem 

Darwin 

Ecctee 

Grays 

Gloucester 

Hereford 

Kings Norton 

Lancaster 

Mansfield 

Nelson 

Northampton 

Preston , , 

Rathmines 

Kochdale 

Salisbury 

Seattle 

Watford 

West New Brighton 

Average 



1903 
1902 
18S9 
1899 
1904 
1901 
1902 
1897 

1901 
1903 
1900 
1903 
1903 

1894 
1902 
1907 
1903 
190S 



1.58 
2.00 
2.16 
1.48 
1 35 
1.22 
1.74 
1.67 
2.63 
1.63 
1.80 
1.77 
1.32 
1.70 
1.7S 
1.81 
1.23 
1.00 
1.56 
1.32 



1.67 



" Tables 106 and 107, with but two exceptions, were compiled from fc**® 
testimony of Mr. W. F, Goodrich before the Koyal Commission on Sewa-tf* 
Disposal. They show the saving in coal at sewage-pumping stationa or ti— *^" 
tricity works where refuse is used to generate part of the ateam. 

" These two tables confirm the evidence of Tables 104 f"* - -- - ■""''" 
value of the useful heat from refuse used to raise w*' 
hand-fired bottom^ctuu^ed |duits than f" * 



INCINERATION OF RBFUSB 



347 



Table t06. — Approxihate Annual Savinq in Coal, 
Dub to the Use of Steam Generated at Top-charged Incinerators 



Plant 



It»f uac burned, 
in toDM 
par day 



Ahhval Satiho ih Coal 



TotBl 



Pw ton 



BoltOQ 

Leamington . . . 

Leyton 

Newmarket — 
Walthamstow. 
Weetmount. . . 

Average 



50 
39 
160 
12 
67 
30 



>1130 
900 
1090 
1090 
3150 
3000 



7.3 cent* 

6.8 " 

2.2 " 

29.4 " 

Ifi.O " 

33.3 " 



15.5 cents 



Table 107. — Approximate Akncal Savtno in Coal, 
Dub to the Use or Steam Generated at Bottom-charoed Incikcbiutorb 



Plut 



Alderehot 

East Ham. . . . 

Ecdes 

Ep«om 

Goeport 

Hereford 

Lytham 

TaimtoD 

Watford 

Weymouth . . . 

Avenge 



ReiUK burned, 
in toD> 
per day 



13 
33 
31 
13 
33 
12 
13 
22 
30 
20 



Annual Savinq in Coal 



TotAl 



»1700 
4850 
1700 
1800 
1950 
1950 
1330 
560 
1600 
1820 



Per ton 



42.1 cenU 

47.4 " 
17.6 " 
44.6 " 
19 

62.5 " 
33 

8.2 " 

17.2 " 

29.3 " 



31 . 1 ccnti 



" Mr. W, Goodrich, in his book entitled ' Ref iwe Disponal and Power 
Production,' presents a table showinic the number of electrical unilJi gener- 
ated per ton of refuse destroyed at twenty combined electricity and destructor 
WDtfca. If the U^t-rharged and bottom-charged plants listed in these taMes l)e 
avtnfed separately, the results would show an output (rf 30 kw.-far. per 
i ton for the top-charged inrrinerators, as against 40 kw.-hr. per short too 
"AD-eharged incinerators. 

4ta have been bettered considerably in won reeent inatalla- 
! oo the top-charged [dants at Bradford and Hackney, and 



348 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REPUSS 

on the mechanically-chained plant at Greenock, developed 60, SO, and 80 
Icw.-hr. per short ton of refuse burned, respectively, the average being 63J 
kw.-hr. per ton. The bottom-charged incinerators at Stoke-upon-Trent, 
Woolwich, Preston, and St. Albans developed, on teats, 97, 90, 90, and 92 
kw.-hr. per ton, respectively, the average being about 92 kw.-hr. 

" In comparing the efRcienciea of incinerators on the basis of electrical 
miits generated, the efficiency of the machinery becomes a factor, aa well u 
the grade of the refuse, and the results arc not so reliable as the evaporative 
tests. Nevertheless, the evidence is strong that with bottom-charging, ■■ 
compared to top-charging, a greater output of electrical units may be expected. 
This difference may amount to 20 kw.-hr. per short ton of refuse. 

" Most of the above results are confined to band-fired plants. Sudt 
results as are given for mechanically-charged plants indicate that these do not 
differ greatly from results obtained with the hand-fired top-charged planti, 
and that, as compared with bottom-charged incinerators, the results tabu- 
lated for hand-fired top-charged plants are a good index of the efficiency cf 
the mechanically charged plant. If we assume steam to be worth 3 cents per 
100 lb, and electric power to be worth 1 cent per kw.-hr,, then we have^ u 
the value per ton of bottom charging over top chargiDg, the following resulta 
for each of the bases taken for comparison; 

Centa per ton 

On basis of evaporation 24 

On basis of saving in coal 15.6 

On basis of electrical output i 20 

Average 19.9 

" It miisl, however, l>e remembered that, except for the resulta based cai 
the aimual saving in coal, the results arc based chiefly on test runs and not on 
everyday working eonditions. In view of this fact, the writer believes the 
value i>f hiind-firing in bol Uim-chargcd plants over top-chai^ed plants ia not 
gencnilly over i;i to \r-< cents per ton. This is particularly true because, in. 
steam |iUiiits iLsing refuse for fuel, it in the minimum power developed that 
delemiiiK's the true rating, and it Is only in works where a considerable poi^ 
tion of steam is raised in coul-fired boilers that the irregularities in the fuel 
value of rcfiLsc can be somewhat reduced. The saving in coal should be s 
good index iif the value of the refuse as fuel in such works. This element of 
value in bottom-eharging over top-charging applies only where steam is vat 
uable, 

" These various jxnnis may be summarized as foUows: 

" (1) Cleanliness: Meehunical eharging offers the greatest opportunity 
for cleanliiK'ss. wilhiii and alxnit the plant, of any type of incinerator, and 
causes ni> uion' niiisnnce tii the (iimniimity. 

" l2) ('niislnietion: A median iral I y-i'harged incinerator, other thinp 
being ec[iuil. will cost a)>out $1*25 i>er tiiii of rated capacity more than a bottoD* 
charged iiiciiier.ilor. This is cciuivaient to a difference of about 2 oeol^ 
ton of refuse burned. 



jncjnehatios of hhfuss 



349 



(3) Operatjaa: Bj uang * mnchaninkl^dmrRinic device, about one-fifth 
'ft ton of rrfuse p«r nuD-liour nan he handled morv ihan with hand-firinK in 
Oott'mi-i-liurKvd in(in«ratoTi>. Tlii.-* it cquivaUiit to aWut 6 conU pa luii of 
rcfifcw bunivd. A mccliuiiirally-rluniitd plant um.v ihniI from 1 to 2 cents 
per Ini) fai rrjxiira tluui thr Imi.i.tini-chsrgcft plant. 
" <1) Value of Oul|>ut: Tht-n.- jx Uttic diETvreiin! in tJiv value nf ihc rlinkcr 
ihe dificirnt tyjuts of inrinrratorH. The UM^ul heat energy- fnitD tl»c 
3-lirM] bo1t4>Uf«-hnrKed planU ia worth from 13 to 15 ccnU prr ton of 
burui«l inoTc llioo tbc iHcful boftt tocrgy from mailiaiiicnUy-rlitLntcd 
Kton. 
"WitluD th« range of capaeiliM of the pUut« inw(i|pil«cl (ny up to 
tana daily mpwit;^, and in roramunitint where sbeam hjui a <liininct 
Niif, llic vvid^niw presented in<li<^&t«a that han<l-l\riv] lu>i (jitn-frhur^cd 
ueraton ant the most ctouomicol tyitc. In i^uinmuiiitiin whifrv .it.«ain 
Bine >> n<>t of priinf im|iurt«nce, or whcn> [xiwvr rannot be readily mar- 
j. mwluuucal charging has many ad^-antagca. 8oidc of the«e (ncnot be 
lin tcmvi of money raluc, TIiuii, forcuchconimuDity, theroDtroUing 
sni niiiM be detemuoed, and the type of inplnenitjor best iidaptMl tu ihoo 
adittocifl iiHUl l>o Mkctcd. 

" It ia only fair to Mate, however, that tfpecia.1 dcvicra for clionbnR hiidi- 

iture tedoerators are a oompHmtively rcwnt development in n>fiue 

ktjon, and have not yet bci.-n dc^'dopod to the same extent to whkb 

; bna he«D carried. The farta that the midden fall of n con^der^ 

of rrfUM may bt^ rvivivMl on s dr>'ini; hearth nl the hark of the 

and ihue kc|)t fruin siil>nit-rKiiiK the bumJiiK nioM on Ihc firc-jp^to ^ 

r, and tluii the grade of refuse may be kept imitorni even iii ibc tiih-fed 

of plaDti by taking spt^ciA) care to fill each container with the proper, 

I of eorii (vnwLiluent of r«fuite, Icjids one La believe tlut the amount 

[uMfid heat in t\m ivfuiw may bo dcvf>lop<.<d in m(<<-hAnicaIly-char{;^ pl&nta 

I Mftriy tbc Bainc extent to which it if drvcloprd t>y luind-tiKnK. Add 

[ihia Ihe nxMideratioo that mcchanicnt rharging pennila of i^niiter rteaii- 

I in OfMfAlioo and cornpe In th^ iwn of ^killtvl Inbor, ond it I-mvyhdm «\')dont 

for waiae condiiiona, mechanical ihnrKing iiiay be the more aclranta- 



SiDce 1908. wb«n the foreKoiog account was jHxtparod. mechanical 

ii<T» for (^harKing rcfiiwo have been further improved. Partieu- 

ly, due tu the development of mtK-hatiiral clinkcriiiK, the efficiency 

iiocinersliou with mechaaical chanpng has been iR«rea«ed, so that 

Iprvfl^nl (he temperBtures appear to c^xcivcl thuae of baDd-cbarpDE, 

IU9C the tiniD rf<tuircd for oi>ciiing iitid clusiiig Ibo furnace- doon 

the iiiritih of cold air in nvlured 1o n minimum. 

The mrwt recent devices dir chnreing rrfuw into hish-tcmpprnturQ 

bnefatiire are UiOfWi at Cliftiin, Palcreon, Atlanta, Savatiaali, and 

\t the Clifton plant tbc wagons dump Into a bin 

. '\i^r '\s raked into a rcctanpilnr box, wt just below the 

-lUt V\L< N U full it can b« pushed by a hydraulic ma 



350 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



into the furnace, several feet above the grate. When the boi is 
inside the furnace, its bottom is withdrawn and the charge falls on 
the grate below. The device is illustrated in Fig. 96. 

In the other four plants, the refuse is discharged into deep storage 
pits at the ground level. Electrically-operated grab-buckets lift the 
refuse from the pit and carry it to charing containers above the fur- 
nace, one of which is set over each grate. A charge is delivered to 

the grate by opening a hydraulically- 
operated sliding door in the bottom of 
the container. This apparatus is Uitia- 
trated in Fig. 86. 

Mechanical devices for charging 
have also been operated successfully 
on garbage furnaces; the one designed 
by Lewis is illustrated in Figs. 87 and 88. 
The wagons discharge garbage into a 
steel hopper set below the delivery floor, 
This hopper must have sufficient capao 
ity for one day's deUvery. A pusher 
or ram works back and forth at the 
bottom, and at each forward stroke 
discharges a small quantity of garbage 
on the drying hearth. The rate of chain- 
ing can be varied by changing the speed 
of the eccentric. 

3. Air Supply. — .\s already computed, air must be supplied for the 
combustion of mixed refu.se at a rate of from 4.5 to 6,0 lb. per pound 
of refu.sc. For burning garbage (not mixed refuse) with coal, however, 
the quantity of uir depends on the nature of the garbage and the quaC' 
tity of coal burned with it. If we assume the garbage to contain 5% 
of carbon, 1*7 of hydrogen, 4^r of oxygen, and sufficient moisture to 
require, tor odorless combustion, 400 lb. of coal per ton of garbage, 
then the following theoretical quantity of oxygen is required per 
pound of garbage. (See pages 315 and 316 for method of calculatioo 
and also Table 94.) 

Oxygen required to burn the carbon 2.67x0.05 -0.13 lb- 

Oxygt'n requircii to burn the hydrogen.. .SO xO.005 —0.041b. 
OxygtMi rcquireii to burn the coal 2 5tixO.8xO.2-0.43lb. 




Fic. 86.— Grab-bucket. 

[From Eai/inrrring Stiet.i 



Therefore, the rctiuiriHi oxygen por i»ound of garbage =0.60 lb. 

In the lirst line of this computation, 2.ti7 is the weight, in pounds, 
of oxygen requirtnl to Inirn 1 lb, of carlwn to COt, and the figure 0^ 



mCWBRATlON Of RBPUSB 







3. 87. — ^L«wi9 ftnd KitclK-o GiubaKc Furaacc with Automalic Cbargbg 

Device. 

£w^ 



ttC J^ 




LOHOmiOIKAL UCTION 



» 



ol Kitcbea Gul>iige Funuuw wiUi Autonutic ChaxginK 
Device, 



352 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP- MUNICIPAL RBFVSS 

is the quantity of carbon in 1 lb. of garbage. The product, 2.67 XO.05, 

is thus the weight of oxygen, in pounds, required to bum the carbon 

in the garbage. In the second line, 8.0 is the weight, in pounds, rf 

oxygen required to bum 1 lb. of hydrogen to HiO, and the figure 

0.005 is the quantity of hydrogen in 1 lb. of garbage corrected by the 

equivalent as hydrogen of the quautity of oxygen in the garbage, 

0.04 
thus 0.01— g- =0.005. In the third line, the first figure (2.56) is 

the weight, in pounds, of oxygen to bum 1 lb. of carbon to COi, 
the second figure (0.8) is the assumed quantity of carbon in I lb. <rf 
coal, and the third figure (0.2) is the quantity of coal (400 lb. per 
ton) required per pound of garbage. 

As air contains 23^ of oxygen, by weight, this means that 2.61 lb. 
of air are theoretically required to bum each pound of garbage aod 
the 0.2 lb. of coal. As an excess of air, amounting to from 50 to 100^, 
is necessary, the actual quantities supplied will be from 3.9 to 5.2 lb. 
of air per pound of garbage (not mixed refuse). The volume occufHed 
by this quantity of air depends on the temperature of the gases of 
combustion at the part of the furnace under consideration. 

There are five methods of supplying air to the fire: 

a. Natural or chimney draft; which is the utilization of tbe 
difference in weight between the warm products of eombus- 
tiou and the cooler and hea^'ie^ outside air; 

6. Forced draft produced by a steam jet set in or near the ashpit; 

c. Forced draft by fan.s or blowers; 

d. Induced draft by a steam jet or fan placed at the base of a 

chimney. 

e. Combination of forced and induced draft. 

a. Natural Z)ra/(.— Xatural draft has the advantage of mm- 
plicity and ease of maintenance, as there are no moving parts 
needing repair, and there is a minimum of exposed parts. As tbe 
pres.i'ure of natural draft which can be pro\ided economically is lim- 
ited, and ^nerally has not exceeded 1 in. of water in the ashpit, it il 
seldom u.*ed in refuse incinerators. With it, the pressure over tbe 
fire near the furnace door is generaUy less than atmospheric, and it is 
difficult to prevent the entrance of cold air from the outside. With 
forced draft, a slight excess of pressure can be maintained inside tbe 
furnace, so that no cold air can enter. 

If the natural push up a chimney due to tbe hcaner cold air 
outside y used to ?upp!y air to a number of unit?, the distribution of 
the draft through the furnaces is not ea-sily controlled. Nevertheless, 
at present, it is likely that natural draft will be preferred for small 



rNClSSRATtOfi OF REFUSE 



ZS^^ 



Karltagf* furnaces, bccnuw of its simplicity and the fnct that its ctwt 
is \«M thftn for artificial draft produetion. Natural draft is in fa<t 

tniPtlicMl uaetl mort frequeuLly for supplying air to garbage furnac«e. 
The ncccBear)' height and CKMut-eoctitin nf a chimney, l-o paas a 
Bivra weigiit of air tlirou|ih a furnace io unit time, may be calculated 
by several formulas, but the rotulta aliould always be checked by those 
of aucceosful practice. 

A rational theory nf thn actinn nf th(> cliitnnny wan first worked 
out by P£clct and developed by Itankirip. Based nn these HtudieN, 
Kant* offer* Iho fnllAwing formula, in which the constants, 7,84 and 
7.0&, refer tu the deu&ities of the uutaiile air aud the chimoey gascst 
rcspeclivoly: 

LH ^— 
7.64 7.95 
T. r, 

in wbioh ff i» the hriKht of the chimney, in feet : P U the preH^ure in th« 
ashpit, «xpre«««d &» incboe of water; 7*9 la the abttoluto temperature of 
lite iiul^idc air; and Tt is the average absolute temperature uf the 
chimoey leases, botli in d^rees, Fahrenheit. Using thb formula, a 
typcal eomputatioQ for a chimney for a garbage furnace is as follows: 

II, Atnmptiimt: 

Teuperaiurc of air (rj TO* Fuhr 

Ttrapentun uf chinuwy CtMS (T^ 600° Falir 

Rat4> of buminK Karbace 24 toiw iht day 

) tjtuniity nf chtmnry fpuoi per pound af gariMflit. A.0 lb. 

Velority of gaoes up ehimaey .... 10.0 fl. per aec 

^K r i MU ff of draft ill aithprl (f) OR in at water 

■ Wc«ht per cubiv foot of vhimii«y (jwee 0.03M lb. 

"1 

2. Bticht of ChvTiney: 

i^^K 030 loeo 

^^9^Jro»ttetiimai Area of Chimnty: 

Volume (i( twuw 2000 Xfi I t ,, ^ 

Area --- ,;. — . ~ .,^^,>: 'X.;^;^X— -7.1»q. ft. 

Velocity 0.03M 3000 10 ^ 

CTO«-w<^t.ion*l areji of the chimnoy at the top i« that of a 

th a diaiuel«i of 3.0 ft. An a Reuoral role, the velocity of the 

ft itbould not cxeeed LO fl. per second. 

It. forcM DrnH. — The advantages of forecd draft depend nn ihe 

ster of the rafuw. Tbo more cumpact the refune, the mure duiit 

■ ' Mfrhviiul todBiNn' rMkM>Bo«li. TUi EdiUoa." ». 733. 



354 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MVSICtPAL REFUSE 



sad moiaturo il cualiun^, and the more acc«asnry it will be to fa 
ftir through the rnius, in order to supply sufficitMit oxyi^n (or Lht^ 
required rapid combustion. A lorRe proportion of fine ashm in 
wfiMO, therefore, will demand a. lon-cd druft, wlien rubbish untl 
bago iiluiio wotilil not reiiutre it. In all ca^eti, however, n forced dra/l 
will increase the teniiKralure of comkufttion. All ironwork expowd (o 
exceasive h«at, tberofare, mu«t be protected in some vny. 

Either fauK or sl«ain jets arc UMsd for artificial draft in practially 
nil bigh-ti^iiipcriiture refuse incinerators. There htu been mack <1>^ 
eU8»)«n over the merits of these two methods, l^rewnt prnctire fimre 
ihe fao draft, because o( the tendcacy to get liigher pronaurcs iu ibc 
Mbpit. The various BdviLntagcN ftiid di»advantagcM of the tw> 
nuUiods are siimniarized briefly below. 

Sto&m jets use up more steam than fnne. A steam jet will retiOBt' 
from 10 to 15% uf th<.' tut-al »t«atn proilueed by the bumiii); refute: 
a fan will not require more tli an lOCJ:, mure often otdy &yr.uf thc»t(a(0. 
During the test of the Milwaukee incinerator, the power for fta 
eiiRine^, hoisting cranes, and etcctiic Ugbta required &.3% of the total 
atcam output. 

8teum jet* arc eho«per than fans, arc more ea«ily arraiiKeiJ. m|ijii« I 
lean attcndiLiire, and are le»i cxpRnaive to maintain. Huupver. ttev' 
arc not n.i accc^ible for repairs, because they are fc^nerally plateijiti 
the ashpit of the furnace. 

A steam jet caimut operate without- steam, whereas a fan nut'*'' 
driven by an electric motor. In a Hmall plant, whore Ihe quantiiycf 
Hteani in not a1way.s DufEcient, this dilTerence is important. A tittM 
jet cannot be useJ economically to produce n high-|>rci«ure drsll- h* 
ordinary working limit ih a prcMture nf 3 in. uf wuUt in the w^lip<* 
The steam pa-sniuK thriiu);h the Krat« with the draft from a etvam jtt i 
prevents the clinker from adhering to the grate, which makcti dinkefj 
big caaCT. Tliis advantage, however, is not impurlunt with inodoxi 
appliance? for mechanical clinkerin^ The steam druft has a ('"-j 
deney to make Ihe Hinder more porous and friable, and thus b^j 
suitable for concrete and other u^eful jmr|N»pn. 

Maxwell* xlaleii that with xtcJim jfila " a i<l4>ndier stetus 
is maintained and more steam per ton of refuse it av.ii]alilr at iM 
e&icinea." On the other hand, Mr. J. A. Rolicrt*rf»n, Chief Ivnuinecfi'j 
tlie Electricity Work» nnrl Refutes Dotructors' nt Greenock, Seollaall^ 
favoni the u^c nf the fan draft. 'Hie effect of the oleani in ibe< 
has been well stated by Lord Kelvin and Professor Barr, aflAr i 
ments at the Oldham destructor works, in the following exlncl ' 
their report: 

• " TKt Itouovkl mJ Dlainakl ol Toh« HoImd," l»y V, IL .M 



WERAriOX OF REFUSE 



366 



Kp Btcatn is contlcoscd by contact witb the cotd air whicli it ini«:bt, 
f vrntut (but |)«mIuckJ Is n>-<!Vii|i()fnti>(l in onnud wttb Ihc furuu«e Iwtv, 
g ilowit Uieir teiii|>crnturo. In this way the life of the furnace bat* is 
( proturigLtl. A niurr iniiMirlxut (uiiriion in. httwext-r, fuirilln) by tbc 
I In ramitiK into twntort with the incfiiideecent fiict it ie (lecomposed, 
tlfoffou brinic fnml, wliilr Ibc oxygen combiiics willi the- uirbun in the 
(arm earbuu iniinoxtile 

Ilia dN-nrnpfMition o( the watf r t* ofTMK-d hy heat Abetr&«t«d from ibe 
^arl iif lite firr, itUrrr. it cbii \k of romimmiivrfy mmll vnlui" for ihc i:re- 
I of th« d«UlUt« 

fb«t water nan (hydrgftc-u and carbon tnoiraxidc) posKS upwards to be 
I by ttu.' nxceaa air wlucb it auxta over ibe fire, thuH KTVing to iucrmM 
tiprmuirp whii-b would otlwrwiw* Mist nt llio tnt'ctinp of thi^ product* 
IttHliun with the fjum dixtiUi-d fnini thn ntw ni»t«rinl " 



ikiiUiiona have b«en oorapiled by Goodrich of te»is nmde at 
iaciaeralors iiiiiniE both ty]>eA of forced draft. He coucludoa 

Rcr quantity of COi in the flue Kttxes r»iulu frum the eteuin- 
itl tbrrcfort! indicates better oumbiistion. 
huratigh te^tit have bcrn mndo. nlim, with the fan blofll. 
ibfwe it Heenift protHthle that the line of high-draft pre^urea. 
i hisber bumiaK efficiencies, K-itI l)c jircfcrrud in tbc future, 
Iherefore, that fnii dntfl will be uitcd tnore generaUv on this 
pt. Witb very dry eombu«lil>l« refuxB, steam {[XMidUy exhauHt 
) let into the a.thpitn nii^t tend to preserve the griktcA without 
jrift iiiat«mll>' the other portions of the fire and furnftee. 
ifl well to place the exhaust so that all fumes given off on tbe 
c bearth will paA« over the hot fire before entering the flue. 
ftrciKl draft, with o ti][lit]y cto«ed tuhpit, should lie e(iual to at 
t to. of water column, lu Hambun the preN«ureti vary frota 
[in. 

lu daiined thai fan draft can be lined lo Mipprcan dusc in tbe 
hg, by drawing the air supply (or the fan (rom tbe firing and 
rinc rooms. Obviously, by this method, some of the dust aod 
I are drawn away from the operators and forced thnnjKh tb« 
f tha irhitnaey. In actual practice, however, the eScct im not 
I becauiw the quantity of nir rei|uired fur rombuMtioo \n itoC 
•ompMvd with tbe ()uanlily naturally etiterin« the baOdtDC. 
jere b a variety of nteam )et«. (an^, and blowers in th« markM. 
son tlimugh the atram jei uted in the incinerator at Westmoant, 
nrn in Tig, >tO. Tbe anpne-driven fan nt the ineinfrator at 
Ntw Brishton. in ffhown in Fit 90. Fans cau be drivea by 
enipQes, turbinn. or dectric mtAeas. Steam turbiim ar« a«d 
and Savannah. 



356 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

e. Iriduced Draft. — Induced draft ia not used frequently. After 
the incinerator at Atlanta went into operation, it was found that tbe 
chimney was not large enough to carry away the furnace gases. 
The draft, therefore, had to be increased. This waa done by the use 
of a fan placed at the base of the chimney. 

The combination of induced and forced draft incidentally increases 
the capability of the plant and the flexibility of the furnace to tate 
care of refuse of different characteristics due to seasoaal variations. 
This increased draft, however, increases the velocity through the 
chimney, so that provision must be made for preventing the escape o( 
paper and dust at the chimney top. This can be done if paper and 




Fin. 80. — .Stram-jcl Blower, Wi«tmount Incinerator. 

A blowpr U iilnced in the ashpit beneath the gr»tix in eae)i division of the fumHr etfl- 

dust arc caught in the dust chambers Iiefore reaching the induced-draft 
fan. 

d. Tem]>crnture.—Of great importance is the question of the tem- 
perature of the air as it enters the ashpits. In many small i^nU. 
particularly parliage furnaces, the air supplied is at the atmwpbmf 
toinperature. In the larger modern incinerators, the air is pre- 
heated to teni[>erat ure? as high as 400° Fahr. The advantage of a hoi 
air supply for all oombustion priiees.-;es is now generally reeogoiied, 
especially if the added temperature is obtained by heat which would 
otherwise be wasted and lost. 

There are several special advantaces in pre-heated air when 
burning refuse. If the refuse has a high content iif moisture, a hol- 
uir supply assists in its evaporation. Mixed refuse in America Aott 



368 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF UUNWIPAL REPVSE m 

The air supply tony \>c ii>rp-l«ilc(I liy any of nrvcrtil mcthodB, u 
follows: 

A buttery of tube« may b« Uiiill into the outlet* from the boiirr 
or tlic iiiuiii flue. Tlic waste fcaycM arc possod throiiKli Ihet^ iulta. 
and (lip nir is (<irovd nrouml llic yutxidc and Uikes up licat r»n the t.%r j 
to the nfthptt. I^axk tttnlen that, in yiich a batltery, llie rule u( tran»- ■ 
miaston of heat from t)ie Kafle» to the air is a'Kiut 1000 B.t.u. |>or hcxir ' 
per si^imro foot of tube surface, and Ihnt in tliis way tbi* lt>iu|)erulure 
of th« nir I'aii be raiM-d iibi;iiL <(iic-<iuurt«r uf ft tlcgri-v for nvvry M|tiarD 
foot »f hentiriK surfucc. Tern |MTatii res »» high as 400° Fnhr. can be 
tbiLi ulitained. 

Another arratiecmcnt ib to drop ihc hot clinkers into a chamliw 
betow the ashpit nml poiw (he air supply over ihii^ ebnker on its vi»y lo 
thn ashpit, as done at W«<t New Britcbtoit, Atlnnlii, and eWwht^re. lu 
these plants the main part of the pre-hcniinK i:^ done through a boit^rj 
of tubos placfKl in th« main flue. Heat is saved and retaioed fnr we 
ill the furnace by thun ab»lra«tiiig it from the hot rlitiken, 

A third method of pre-bnultiiK the nir, which hnii been used ui 
manj- of the Ilonsfall plants, la by forring it tbroueh rasi-iron bcrsa 
farming the itido-n-alU of tlio hre-gratefl. Thb not only pr»-hciitf the 
air, but also keep»* the caitt-iroTi grul^-curbii ooot, and oMiifils tbo proccM 
of clinkering. Thi^ melliud is u»cd at tho r«fu»e iiicinerulorot Gr«ca- 
ock, Scotland. Mr. Koliertson, Chief ICngint^er, reporta, bowevfr, that 
he cannot pro-heat the air to more than 180* Pahr. lie aba states 
that 

" A further disadvantaice is thai, as the amount of heat then iinparU-d i 
to the air supply di>{M>iid)i on llic teiniHiimlure of lh« funiaiw nisr tlu' grnia] 
Ivvvl, thp tcq 11 1 torn turf ■>{ iKr draft air is lown>l itnmnluttnly aflrr rhargiiv, t n , ' 
jiixL lit t)i<- tinii- wlirn hiKh Icnijieraturc is iiu»l iu-<^dMl U> dry the fefuw and 
to ronunpnre combustion. " 



Tlle)^e comments are obviously proper, and mudem plants nlmmt 
always have prc-hvatcm with npcciul lubca buyund tlit buili^r. Tbe 
pn^-hnater at Milwaukee, N«t juf>t at the outlet from the boiler, ia] 
ahown in Fig. !*1. It should be noted that the tubes ihrriURh which ' 
the hot gaj^c:< pam arc Kct vertically al>ovc a large s}>iire into which the 
dufl from the tubes* can be blown out and removed. Some sue 
arrangfiRient iR nec«»«ary. if the maximum rate of healjox in to U 
maintained. 

Tlie value of pre-heiitiTiR the air (-tmnir^ts in n*ducihs the volume (r/l 
waj<lc heat, [muiiutinjit more rllii-ienl combu-^lion, and iuuruaoinK thftl 
temiwrnrure of the furnace, aa will be shown in the " beat halanOf**'| 
gtveu later. 



JNCIXKRATrOy OF REPVSS 



3d9 



Tfae imporluKv of prc-facatine aod property proportionios the 
qaantiiytir Uie air supply enrimit be ov«rastimated. An apprMiable 
hxss itf efficiency b foand both witti t, deficiency utd vith ±a exe^ 
of mir. 

e, (^ViMwry. — In ihi* ftctusl conetmelion of rcTiuie indnerators and 
I funi&c«F, ft cliiiiuicv t!' iilws>-^ rwiiiiml tti rf.ni)iti-t die gucB of 



%■ ^. 






Flo. 91. — boittTauil i'n.~li»ter. Milwaukee [iiriti«nilor. 



imbuKti'itt well alxpve any uoRtibuniiK building*. CrtiisciiUfoUy, ■ 

[certain natuml draft in pmviilpil. TIiik citimney miiNt bp ni ample 

[cafMH-ilv lo carry away tbe furnarc icaaft^ wirliout creatiiiit a txack 

'prrwiiiT, snd it fhoiild Im> Um lary^ ratbor ihnit loo eniall. Thrrefitre, 

I 111 pnwtiiT, II r4imhiiiati<in nf f'lrrr*] draft and nntiiral draft in umkI id 

fuve iDcuierBl4in>, aod ouly tuitural draft in gnrlMite (untaeee. 

TaUi! los nlmm tbe bcigbt, diameter, etc., of lb« ebtmjie>ii in luw at 

nrioue pUols. 



360 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL RBFUSB 



Tabij: IOS. — Height, Dluietsb, amd Crobs-bectionai. Area 
or Incineratob Chiunets 





Rated 


Chiuvey 










Area of 




capacity 






Top 


ero— 




Location of pUiit 


in torn 






intcitial 


■aotion 


Typeof dnft 




per 24 


lleisht, 


etet. 

in 

feat 


eroaa- 


P« 






hours 


in 


•aotiona 


10 tons 








feet 


area, in 
■guara 


olntsd 
eapacity. 












feet 


in wriaM 
fast 




Ambrican; 










■ 




Wat New Brigbloii.. . . 


120 


130.5 


7.6 


23.7 


1.08 


Fan 


Clifton. N. y 


00 


134 




10. fl 


3.1« 


■■ 


Milvnukec, Win 


300 


154 


10 


78.6 


2.61 


•• 


Seattle, Waiih . , 


60 


80 


6 


29.1 


4.8 


Slmm-jet bloncr 
Double fan 


Atlanta, Ga 


250 


1£0 


S.fi 


66.0 


2.24 




130 


130 


fl.S 


33.2 


4.4 


Fan 


Patenon. N. J 


eo 


160 


6.5 


33.3 


A.S 


Turbine blown 




120 


178 


g 


A6.0 


4.6S 


Fan 


MontKoiDEry, Ala 


60 


100 


4 


12.B 


3.1 


Steam-jet bloiret 


Vancouver, B. C 


GO 


ISO 








Fan 


WcatmouDt, Que, 














(MeJdrum) 


SO 


160 


e 


38.8 


2.8 


flt«lin-t^ hLnvfT 


Weal.maunt (Hernnn) . . 


No aepai 


-ate ohi 


nney. 


Ua<a p 


lower plant emmiicy | 


Ilolifm, N, 8 


60 


US 


e 


28. 3 


8.7 




Toronto, Unt 


180 


175 


7.5 






Fana 




500 


150 


n 


05.0 


1.0 


Natural dralt 


Knolish: 














Hull Muniripul Corp'r. 


90 


110 


7,5 


41.2 


4.0 


Steam-jot bknctt 


J.caniiiitEtnn Mundgial 














Corporation 


25 


90 


5 


10.6 


7,8 


„ 


Liveraedgi- rrban Dis- 














trict Council, .... . . 


13 


00 


3,S 


9.6 


7.4 


" 


lAwntnft Municipal ' 
















2N 


120 


6.S 


33.2 


tl.9 


■■ 




18 


210 


6 


28.3 


W.7 


Fan 


I.ylhani Vrban District 














Council j 


in 


oO 


3,75 


11.00 


11.0 


Stcan^jet Mover 


Mosa Su!p I'rbnn Dia-' 












trici Counril, , J 


2i> 


00 


5 


10 


7.S 


" 


EliiiTiBEHtr Miiniriiml 














Corporflti^m ' 


2t\ 


luo 


5 


10. s 


7.S 


" 


SouThpnrt 


40 


180 


7 


38. G 


O.S 


.. 


Siorktiin-on-TccT* 


■ill 


i-to 


4 


12,0 


e.3 





A( .•joiiic Ki""!':!);!' furniu'cs, lialf-lmrnpd paper htis been carried 
tmt (if the chinmey by .-ipurts in the irregular draft. This may be 
prevented by placing a coarse Gcrcen at the base of the chimney. 



INClJfmtATTm OF REFUSB 



381 



4. Flue* and Fumice Accensories. — A Ftudy of the fluee, eom- 
lluittiun chamber, Iwiilerft, and chiimiey, requires u delvritjitiatioii at tlie 
luaatily of Rases of combustion and of their temperature, in order to 
1(1 ihe volume to he pruvitleil for. The weight at the volatile 
producta or wasbc g&scs cud be iwccrluiiicd with Huffioictit sLxurucy by 
adding 0.75 lb. to the actual qiinntity of nir aupplied in the draft. 
To find the arejui nf fluf>«, the qiinntity of air to he supplied may be 
taken at twice the thenroticAl quantity, to which c>hould be added the 
0.75 lb. of volatile produt^M from the refuHo. 

The volume of et^uiii thitt can be di_*vcloped in » boiler is dependent 
on the dklorific value of the refuse, the air supply, and the temperu- 
tufo of corabnstioti. Thoso elements of the de>^i|pl of a refuse Jncin- 
itor cnn be studied advniitaKeoiisly by uning a " Hi-at ItalanL-c." 

Tho temperature of (!ombu«tion and the probable evaporation in the 

Jiler can be rnniputed ax follows: The mixed refuse is, for thin pui^ 

pone, aAbumfid to have Lbe following chemical coinponilion, by wei|^t: 



Carbon ,.,...,.,.,.. 

Hyttroecn 

OxyptM), 

Nilrtigea 

Ash,et<> . ..,,. 

Water A2% 

Total 



6% 

*% 

25% 



^^B Total 100<!;, 

^^^^B Total available British Ihermal unita per pound— 42UII 

^^^^ft Air roquitcd for ciinibuntiun |>cr poundof nfuw—S. t lb. 

^^^H At lOO^exccM, ihU inmiu.-lI to fl-2Ui. 

^PWlth thftse dalji, we may now make a heat balance, or nn approxi- 
V mate distribution of the total British Ihermal ijnit« available from each 
pouud of rofu(« burnnd. 

1. Heat rfquired for the evaporation of 42 lb of water, 

868X0.42 ". 408 B.tu. 

Z. 8upeTlieatingthi«sU«ntl2(IO''Fahr. 12(10X0^5X0.42 - 170 B.tu. 

S. Low du« to unburaed carbon in clinker and ash. ]4,60OX 

0.a&x026 - 182 B.t.u. 

ft. Heat lost in the hot elinker Awiline an average temperature 

' tbiougbout the moHB of 500' Fahr. and a ■pcd&c beat of 

OZ; SOOXO,2XO,2S - 25 B.t.u. 

S. LoM in radiation, aO% ,...,...,...., = 957 B.tu. 

LtWI B.t u. 
IImi lo«t in dry rliimnry guM* after teavinj; |ir»-hent«r, 

e^XSoO-XOaM... ' . , -925 B.t.u. 

Availkbli- for rauiiiK ntcnni. <-ulrulatt'd by dilTi-n-nci* . . — 1725 B.t u. 

Total to bolanee . •42D(i B.t-u. 



362 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBPVSS 

This beat balance, of course, is only approximate, and it voidd 
require several trials to obtain accuracy, as it is baaed on sevetal 
indeterminate factors, but in practice one calculation witt often 
suffice. The assumption that the steam will have to be superheated 
to 1200° may be corrected after computing the temperature of coiD- 
bustion, but the resulting change will not be great in proportion to 
the radiation losses. 

Under these assumptions, the evaporation in the boiler, front and 
Et 212" Fahr., will be, 

1726 

-^T —1.79 lb. of water per pound of refuse. 

For determining the temperature of combustion, the specific hekt 
of the gases of combustion must be ascertained; this may be done u 
follows, assuming 100% excess of air: 

Weight of Oases as Products of Combustion per Pound of S^vif.— 

N: (3.1 -0.714) X2.00+0.O4 -4.87 1b. 

COi: Since 12 lb. of C give 44 lb. of CX),, we have HXO.20 -0.73 lb. 

fSincellb. of HgivesSlb, of HA0.03X9 -057 lb. 

aO: Inthefuel -0.42 U>. 

1 16 lb. of O give 18 lb. of H,0, we have ttXO.06 -0.07 lb. 

0: In excess air —0.71 H). 

Total -7,07 lb. 

The specific heat of each of these products of combustioa is knowii) 
so that their average specific heat can be calculated. 

N -0.244X4,87-1-19 
CO, -0.22 X0.73=0.16 
H,O=0.48 X0.76=0.36 
O =0.217X0.71=0.15 

1.86 
-Heat required to raise 1 lb', of the products of combustion 1" Fihr. 

1.86 

--x= =0.264 =specific heat of products of combustion. 

The heat available for raising the temperature of the gases of com- 
bustion is equal to the sum of Items (i and 7 in the heat balance, 
becau.te all the other items represent heat lost, and not left in the 
products of combustion. The^c two items amount to 2650 B.t.a. 
The average temperature of combustion will then be 

2650 

j^g- 1420- Fahr. 



In this computation, no aepaiate account hu bMn tatceo of a pr»- 
baat«d air supply. The aasumption in here mitde th&t the pro-heating 
mcr«ly keops & certain quantity of heat in the furoAce itiiil 
foaUs a loss, but dov« not iidd to the actual available heat supply. 
A pre-beated air ;>upply u udvantafteous. In the Rret place it 
ring* ihp air to the fuel in vpry mudi larfter vahime i»cr unit weight, 
means that the air supply pormcatea the refune more thoroughly, 
id the oxygen in the nir searchw out the i-urbon and hydrogen in the 
refuM more coinr^etcly. Furthermore, the heat brought to the fur- 

Pcc at thi« point a««isLi in drivinR off the escnut moi^tttre of th4 
use. thus facilitntinc comhu^tion. These itemn Hn> in addition to 
s flaving of heat that would otherwise be lost at the chimney. 
Mr. Fethenton prepared a Lent balance fur the mixed refuse 
incinerated at Wmt New Hrt^hton ia 1907. Table 109 gives the 
naotta of hii investigation. 




TaSLC I«9. — .\ppaoxiUATE Hrat Balance pcr Pottkd or Mixed Rbvcbs 



iFraai paper by J T. Fcltureton 


, Tntiwifiivru, \ai. 9oc. C, E.. Vo 


. LX, 10051 


1 lloat vatiMS in Brltbh tlwrni.iI unlM. 


T^tin'.*m] trmivfHtufra 






1 


flpring 


EbmBMi 


Autiiina 


Winter 


V«r 


Srpt.* 




4747 


stn 


38S3 


4S&8 


4374 


334A 


l.aaii* iluA to; 
















U4 


ITS 


303 


174 


259 


W< 




4«a 


40T 


421 


443 


444 


3«a 




MS 


US 


X32 


MM 


3» 


SHI 


VktMrnx) mtna ko »Am. 


aH 


aao 


MS 


4M 


382 


uo 


lint in (linkrr ' ..... 


u 


3H 


44 


03 


M 


M 


roronl dikti ..... 


111 


IM 


no 


IIA 


llfl 


103 


lladUlUmiM . 


M» 


W 


7ftr 


873 


a&s 


M3 




33M 

am 




aatxf 

I41» 


M4I 
10IT 


3511 

ton 


9M 


\m <wi4iilhnal tolwilFt . .. . 


t:>IMtvslM>t •*«fotMi«, fnini and M 














7l7*F*kr <uulul*uun),lii»auada 














•J ■aim |H« iwundot niiMl rrltu* 


a tn 


1 » 


i.oa 


I.W 


a. 03 


i.ra 


I'MlMilnl IfnifMftlum tn wwnbiw- 














liaa rhaabw. Id llecraM. Vaht. . . 


asTo* 


ITIO- 


iiiwr 


3i4iy* 


jisn* 


lUO* 


U.Hiliur ... 


14 na% 


aa m% 


37 74% 


13 tl% 


1«.7«% 


B6a3% 


\%h 


»l IM 


TO 74 


30 71 


SI. 72 


4fl 08 


IS w 


tTonihiulil'lr . . . 


aA 01 


at t» 


33 » 


84 17 


34 3) 


» 4S 



•A 



«*hi(lfcv •niart (m mMtnat Mtnpunoiito ««n uard U mtivius ai fivpUubai 



Wa«a.~The pmper area of fliH-« may be aHCcrtninnl by proportiOD- 

invlh* iMfniwrnturod of ihc gwc^ from the 1-120' Kuhr. at the fire to 

'vHf in the chimney. Tlie weiftht of the ffigei a* prod- 

•OD WAS fuuiid to be 7.07 lb. per pound of refuae. 



3M rtfU^fXriOS ASU OL^FOSAL OF MVSICIPAL REFCSE 

Th': v'J'ii«*r '/'■JTtijAh'i hy tJit total weiicLt of gafcs at the eompntcd 
Unuj^trnfim ':vi \i*: d'^tf^riaiucj by reference t<i Table 93. 

f'ami/uJttv/n '.'fi/jnJjrr. — A c<jmba^ton chamber is usually ineerted 
U<tw<i<iri th'; Knit«K tirid the I^Miler or chimney. It serves to equalue 
aii'l rt<;tMly th't U:ifit»;niture from different pvtes as wdl as to mff<Hd 
tiiiiw for C/frifjlftt*; ombiLstioD before the furnace gases reach the 
'■oiii[jtirativ(t)y cold Kurfaces of the boiler tubes or cbiouiey walls. It 
alwi M-rvftH SH a [Xick<>t for catching durt. 

A r;otiHid«tration of the combustion chamber and the boiler invtdves, 
not only tlxf Mttimation of the available heat units and the tempera- 
tiirrt of coirilmittioti, but abto the question of dust. When bumisg 
inixiKl riiltim: undnr a forced draft, we find that a considerable volume 
of itHh iliiHt in carriofl away from the fire into the combustion chamber 
and (liKM. 

I'or niiMovinK diixt from flue gases two methods have been tued. 
Thi* lirnt, and the one moHt usually applied, depends on the pri&- 
cijilo of M'diniitiitatioii liy a reduction in the velocity of the flue 
KiiHOH Ixtldw tliK HiiKtK>iiiuon point. This is done by enlarging tbt 
Hi'dljiin iif t)i(! fliio through the combustion chamber. Then a large 
nuiulicr iif (luHt pitrtiHoH will settle out. Storage for the dust thw 
ciillcctoit niutti Ih^ providod. 

.\t t lii> Milwiiiikrc inrincrator, the (crates are set on each side of s 
ciininioii <<i>inlHisli<)ii rhiimbcr. The gases enter the latter from oppch 
xilr Midi's, and so tend to clicck their own velocity. Besides, the 
voliii-ily is fiirlluT n-duiwi by an enlargement of the chamber. To 
rwi'ivo tlit> Mi'tllinK dust, there is a pit, about 6 ft. <Jeep, bdow tbe 
ctintluiHrioii I'UHniluT proprr, from which the dust is removed by hand. 

I\vi'n wirh ttiosc dovifcs. some dust parses along and settles OQ 
tho Iniilor tubos, Thi'n'fure, provision must also be made for bbwiag 
ii out initi » sii>r:iKo s)viiv Ivlow, so that the efficiency of the boilen 
m:iy nol hv MTimisly rtHluctHl. At Milwaukee it was necessary to 
n>movt< dust fri'iii the contNusiion ohaml^or pit and boiler pit at int«l> 
\.^ls nf friMit <\\i> wtvKs to \iiio month. The main flue from the boilen 
ti> tho stsok was I'U'auisl twiiv .•> yoar, 

riio I'tlitT n^oth.^l oi ilust tvmoval i? by utilini^ rentrifugil 
t\>rw, Vi tlu- IviM- I'l t!io v-hi;iinoy the s*s«s are carried at the anul 
hi^li xt-l.vity .ir\v.iM,i » .-irvv.'iAr .;■.;.■;. Oeniriiugal force throws the 
ii.;st ivir:i.-%'^ to :!-.o .■■.:\".;;v.:otvv.ov. whore :hey collect in pockets 
!>o-.i «;-uV. :;•,(■> .\i;-. iv Tx".v..-vtv;. ThU ■.v.e:t.vi has been used in 
i ■;<■.:«:■,.•. :•■.;; -•..•: i'\:i".-.K^ t-"> ';: is ,'■.>■- 'lo :he i>i-;ectian that no 

■ ^.— /,- ■.—/,:.••> !.'s-.\v„^V\ :r ^Vrr-^r.y. t=* combustita 

.r. ■. -.VT ; ■ ;^-r\- i .-,:>.■ A-- A .-.;#: .->,s--"rvr s sk ii^ sad pofiM 



INClNF.RATtON OP REFUSE 



366 



slopinR hoppor bnttomtt. The diiKl can then ho removed into 
cum ilirouxh a slidinK door lit the bottom. Thlti arransenicot is 
illuHtroted in Fig. S3. 

The Im-aiioii, tdxe, and shape of the combustion chamber, with 

■ftlaljon tu the boQor, i» imporlont. I'bc sltapc inuat iiiKuru u proper 

Blixing of the giutw. Thn hoiW m'tst not b« so cloew to the (cmlfis 

that ibe (awt of combiLHtion will bo noaled liefore camplete combtistton 

^as taken pla««. The length <ti time required for lh« combu!<tioQ 

Ibriousl}- ili.'-ppiHtii oo the charavlcr uf the refuoe. With n ritfuiip high 

n volatile raatt«r, or of low calorific value, tlie dii^tance to th« boiler 

must b« Kreater than would be ruquin'd for a highly oiinhuiitible 

refuM. At a number of Nucf««iful plants, and with bvitbicv refuse, 

tfan boiler entrance is set abijut 10 ft. from the grates. The value of 

ttnn), thn char)U!t(>r of the neighborhood, and the Lopograjihy near 

the plant, Rhould alio I>e siren cunsidrration. 

It) f!arhai>(- furnaces, the combudtion chamber ha* oft«n been 
■putted, and in some caiws tt hmt htKn plB<-vd vo far from the grate 
^^por that it is of little value. Thic> occurs when Iohk Kiirbagc 
hearths for dryinR are wt Imtween the coal grate and the outlet 
of the furnace. In nonic few plants, the dr>-inc hearths arc built ia 
atnail utiite, with email combustion chflmher^ following each 
bcarth. 

S. CUnlcer tad Ash Handling. — In buniinK mixed refuse, clinker 
and a^h r'^main after the combustion. The clinker la a hard, vitreous 
mom, often glowing, and may cover the whole grate to a depth of as 
much aa 10 in. If the clinker door is nide enough, the cUnker mass 
can be rcnvaved 08 one body from the grat«. If t)io door \» mirrower 
than the irate, the matsi mii^t Iw broken up before it ran be removed. 
Uader and around the (^linker there is much fine and coann: wth. 
Some nf thix falU into (he aiihpit, some iH withdrawn with the clinker, 

rd some Hhouid bo left on the grato to tfcnite the next charge of refuse. 
" Clinkcring" is the process of removing clinker. It retiuires both 
strength ami Kkill. To promote funiiice efiiriency, olinkering must 
bo done ((uickly, in order to reduce to a niinimuni the inrush of cold 
Hfr. The draft xhould he shut off dunnfc I'he interval and ]>ut on a few 
^HoutM before re-chancing. Quick olinkecing alao reduces the time 
(htM a grale is out of )ter\'tce. 

llurinn tlio test of the Milwaukee int-ineralor, where cUnkering 
w d<me by hand, the uveragn time re<iuircd for one grate was sboui 
«gh« minulas. With m««hanical clinkoring, as at Atlanta, Um 
material can be removed from the Rrato in l«« than one minute. 
^fter cUiikermg, live fireH slioiUd be left on top, and evenly itpread 
It t4i imiite the new charge. 



36S COUjKCTION AffD DISPfJSAL OF HVStCtPAL RBFOBB 



GftrbuKc ftlonc, burned with co»I, producis very little elinkcf, but 
moHtly Riic Hflh, wliich run he hiindlRcl with shovel and wheelbarrow. 

Marked improvements in apparatus for handling tliakcr and uti 
liKvc twen dvvvloped during the piwt few yeur^t. larfcely by AoivrinD 
eiitpDCCTH. In thb curlier dcisiKU^, clinker waa rcuiovvd from the pi(( 
by hand with sUite-hnrH, rakes, and hoes, uud placed in mnall cars, i 
good diial of it was spilled on the floor and had to be ahovcJcd into ti* 
oars. Thie proccii^ wiU' ftli<io hib^riou^. 

The first improvement was to get the clinker Butomaticsllj- into 
the clinker car for detivery to the dump or crusher. The firinK floor 
wan built high onotigh to nfTord u pptod bummPnt, and a trnp door «u 
set into it ju.-il in front uf llii- clinker duor. The hot clinker could Ikut 
be dropped from the RTttte through the trapdoor into the carWIo*. 

At West New Brighton, and elsewhere, the clinker falls into i 
clinker cooling chamber under the ashpit, from which it coa be di** 
chttrgfxl by gravity into cnri"- 

Subitequent improvementf ri>Iftt(H] to the withdrawal of the clinker 
from the hre. This is now aecontpliiihod BUCceMfuIly by mechanical 
appliunciw, BO that the labur and time of cliiikeririg is reduced lo* 
minimum. Two gt-nerul tyjies of apparatus are in use: 

1. The " pull " ranthod, as developed at Frankfort, Germany 

and alao lined at f^avannah: and 

2. The " push " method, as developed at Wcet New Brighte 

and also used at Patorson, Clifton, and Atlanta. 

The method in u«e at Frankfort re<iuirrs the construction of a 
Furnace door of the mme width as the grate. When the lire is build- 
ing up, and before the dinker vs formed, a tigtsg iron Imr is sei inliM 
the refuse, about € in. above the grate, and is (uB«d into the rlinkcr. 
The bar has n rin^ or tuindle at the outer end. Just before elinkerinfc 
a clinker car. opening at the grate level, is placed in front oT therlinker- 
ing door. Then litis door \e opened and a chain from a traveling 
winch is hooked to tho liandlc of the bar, and, by Ihu winch, thi 
olinkcr is pulled bwlily out of the grate into the: clinker car. The' 
bar ift then recovered from the clinker and u»pd for the next charge. 

A similar dinkering device is used at S&vannah, where the dinker 
u puUod out by hydrauUcally-<>|icrated cylinders, instead of by 
vinch. Thix method requires a bard clinker, or the bar will not 
hold Init pull mit. The clinker bur at Sikvannah is madi.- like a hue;' 
the dinker in rather M>fi, yet ihivre in hut little anh. The ltnr» bii 
out i]uite frequently. .\ itevtion n( the Savannxli incinvralor U aho' 
in ng. 100. 

The " push " method of dinkering wa« devi»e<l al West 
Brighton. Two hydrauUcally-operateil ■ f rylii. 



IT JOS Of 



upper oiMK Arc fa»t«neil to the movable grate* of the furnace. 

Kratcs have ridicfd bars Wnt up at tlto iunvr niid. They are 

jlled out from midfir the dink«r, and, in pfuunng, the ban break it up. 

The hot clinkers (all into a ruulinjc chambvr Iwlow the Kn>U-, which 

iy have auffiviciit capacity fur iH-vcral charfcet). The lower hyJrauU« 

irlinden nrc conimoted with henx-y cast-iron puBhen. Theoe push 

ic dinkcr mit of the ccK>linK chamlier into the clinker car. A nco 

ion of th« Atlanta tndnorator, whcro tliiii method is uaed, is shown in 

rift. 92. 

S. Dust — An iiup'Ortiint and aiint>>'inK fiNtture in refuw incinera- 
Bon ix tbi! dust about the plant durini* operation. Dust cotnee from 
ill- dutDpinK of the rollcction ivaicoiix. the charipng and dinkering of 
^thc lire*, and the disposal of the clinker. It varies in quantity with the 
character of the rcfiwe, tyjw of plant, and care of operation. Refu»« 
jL^KintaininK Kreater quantities of a^h will produce nnrreEiptindincljf 
^^pore dui^t, particularly on n-arm and windy dayx, and, in nome cases, 
^Bd order to keep it down, it !.( nece»itLry to dampen the stored refuAe. 
|^B*lanl.s (ipvtating with htgh-prussurc draft ninkc more dunt than others 
(nee C. 2. Hiunburg), nnd the Ronditionii arc aKgrnvalfid if the fiuc4 
and chimney have not, been proportioned correctly. A naturally 
somewhat dirty condition its stilL further in<*rca»ed by slovenly and 
inclean operattuii. In Karbai;e furnaces, where jcarboKV i« burned 
rithout asbctf, and uadet natural draft, the dust problem is not a 
srioua one- 

Thuii far, only two precantionH have been taken against thU 
luinanre. One quite effectiro remedy is n liberal u»e of water on 
bo ft^ired refu);e and on the hut clinker and twhira alxiut the build- 
IK- The other con»Ut« in withdrawitiK the dusty air from the hmiditg 
the tmctioa of the forced-draft apparatus. This \» a usual pr^ 
'oedure, and is commemhible because it tteeurev some advantittces 
which otherwise wouhl be lost. In a larp- building, however, with 
many windows, doon, and other opcningst, nnle^ ihew are tempo- 
rarily closed, the denired effect h considerably nxiuced by targ« 
volumes of freeh air enleriiiK and other air leanuK the btiildins. 

7. VentilatioD. ^The ventilation of the building in, of couree, 

aa9«octut4xl riortely with the dust problem, hut should be con.sidcred 

primarily with refi^rencc to the workmen operating the plant. Their 

^^^fficienoy and comfort roquire (tuffinient frp«h and clean air and a 

^Hdiance to be protected from the great heat of the furnace. Plenty 

• of doors and windows, afTording necejt» to tlie uuluideair. and o]>eniiigs 

for fresh air to enter, may ««rve the purpose of ventilation as well sm a 

meehanieaj plant. It is advisable to pronde for ventilation uIhu 

irougb the roof. Most of the air in an incinerator building is warm, 



368 rOLLSCTWN ASD DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSK 



antl rises. If therv ure vcnlilaton in tbc roor, tbe bot air ep o pee 
tbrougti th«ni and fresh cool kit eRien below. Ai \Iilurauk«v. whetv 
tbe iiicitierBtur building covets shoat lO.OQO sq. ft., nii*l coutAiiif four 
75*tiKi fumacoi, mx 18-in. ventiUton have now been buiK in tbe rod- 
In tbe orixinnl rontntct only two w«re included; tb« ntbera wm« built 
after exiferienoc in operftLion hod bIiovu that Itiey were advisaUe. 




^»'#»"« 






Flu. 92. — Ocnenl Sectionnl AnasgemeDt of Atluita lodncistar. 



Althnugh udun at reduction workii rMult chiefly from llu- prorcHses 
of miuriniE. ttiCK<« nf inciDeratJDit plants are due to utuktllful oper- 
ation. The material, in Uie latter ease, when delivered pmmpLly 
a> mixed refuM, luu lc» odor than garabge olunc, yet it should be 
burned u promptly as po«rible. The opowlioD of the (untsce, 
including ntlentiuii to proper drafts, and, eapeclolt.r, attempts to 
bum wet sorlw|:c without a fiuHieieut quantity of combiiEtible nibbiaJk, 



nWlSKRATtOS OF HJiFVSK 



369 



■kill and ultcation. The furnaces iihoiild be fed no a^ to 
rcale cuotinuoualy a bigh teinperatur<>, sny, at Icattt I2S0°, as this 
nould. picvont any p«M»blo escape of odorous jvt»eK from tho cbim- 
ays. 

HDC of the nilinx, fur the r(>iiioval of which vpntilntiun is newth 
arixe from the adhenioti of tine |jarliclc8 of pnriJy biimcd orsanic 
itt«r to the interior waits and to surTacoi! of apparatus, and to clotb- 
iK, aod theiie odon persiHt for snmR time. The mnNl elTcctivi^ way of 
[^moving them k by air n'a»liinK, that, is, by playiiiK a j«t of coin- 
ed air OQ the siiriaces. Genernl cl«niiljiicwi eliuiitil be oheerved 
llKNit the works. 

D. TESTS 

DuriiiR the last few yearn a number of tents of refuse incinemtorB 
[luve been made, the results of whidi iiave been published in America, 
Eni^and, and in Uermany. These teata ((ivc mufh UM>fitl informa- 
Inn rctotivv to ibc principles and prartice of iiicinerntimi, and, lakra 
jnncrutivcly, m.\rk the proRm** thai has been made in the art. 

When sindjing the results of oflii-tnl tCHls, it »huuUI he remem- 
ered that al mich timea Aperially favorable cunditioiu gcncmUy 
BvaJI. The men operating the fires are keyed up to a wnrkin^ rate 
imetimea much above normal. All part-i of the plant are notched 
by faithful md HkillL-d ittcnduul^. and the result is frequently above 
the intandnTd of everyday o]>erH.lion. The readings and meadurementa 
made durinK teata, however, are generally accurate, and the resiUttng 
computed Rgures may 1)e ue>od as an indication of a practicable high 
rste of upi-raticin atlaiimblo under Lh« best conditiuni^. The longer 
durstifni of the irM, Ihc more nearly will the rr^dtf^ approach 
o( at-erage conditions of operation. SummaricH of the le»ita 
the iDoiDeratont in a Dumber of American dtieft are given in Table 
Tbia will een-e for purpcwca of corapanxon. The order is prcf 
re. and indiraCo* plainly the im]>rovernL>nt in the quantity of 
refuse which ran be incinerated per »()unre foot of grate urea. 

The fifft romplete modern test made on thJA xide »r the Atlantic was 
at Wectmount. A description of the same if given in Knginrtring .Veuw 
of May 24, IWB. It was found that our miXRd refiice was well suited 
for iuciueralion, OH I lb evaixmitcd 1.30 lb. nf water, from and at 212* 
?aJir. This gave encouragement to the iniroduction of higb<bempcr* 
Uiointtrali>ni in America. Table 111 gives a Rummary oftbistatt. 
*!Two )'aars htter a tesi wan made at Weet New brightou of the first 
Targr high-temperature ivfii-f innuenitnr in Ihe I'uitcd Statoa. It 
WIS huilt by Ihe I*'iwer Spwially Company, of \ew York. The reault« 
oi the tost showed that 1 lb. of mixed refuse evaporated 1.21 lb. of 




370 COLLECTION ASD DISPOSAL OF MVSrCll'AL KEFUSS 

TABLE no.— ftiniMucror 









CuttPOMTKMt ar Rsrtaa 


PUM 


OKt«ollMt 


KlihI oI ladMfMM 






motel 








Oar^ 


Fliit 








bag* 


«ah 


WrvlciDbat, Quf^ 


U»y S, t«Kt 


1 Mdldrum. i 


15. 


«S 


Wni No« BH|:hUm 


May li. I'UUS 


/ HnriuD a ml fMudo I 
1 Rack-fMd / 


4».B 


31. 1 1 >1 


■ I ■* 


.Msy 8. 1V(>8 


do. 


11. V 


T»i 


.. 


Jbn, 1 l4> 1 


d» 


24 -» 


» 


Scalltr. Wufa . . . 


Mw.. IWM,tol 
Jan.. IDOD 1 


r Meldrum. t 


33.S 


«e 


Mllnkukc«,lni. , 


' Mar I* M^ 1 
1 1910 1 


Hecaaa. Tvp-ftrd 


30.7 


M.a 


*t It 


May 2S 14. I 

Juno 3. imo r 


k> t. 


30.7 


MI 


'• ... 


t Mny 36 lA 1 
^ Jan* 1. tgiO 1 


■« •< 


40.1 


«iii 


(tavMinoli. (•* 


Au« 11 13. lOli 


H«*naB 


45.11 


w 


CVfton, H. Y 


July U. le 13 


■■ 


M.S 


us 


•a 


■■ ■■ 


July 3V, 1013 


■■ 


22. e 


30 1 


oM 


" " ,. - 


AvK U 1911 


'" 


as. a 


14 a 


id 




Aus- 10. 1918 


■■ 


H.« 


».« i 11.1 


IlklUu. N.S 


Mai. K, 1013 


McrUnt 


l« 


n 1 


P»l«tMII,N.J 


Der. t-«, l»tS 


llatnaa 


B 


" 1 


■ i *« 


Un. IS-lf, loia 


t» 


IS 


ta 1 


Kun Vttneimm. Cal 


1 8((lL 4 In 1 

. on. X 101* ' 


" 


• 




-1— 1 


Unkvlny. (~>] . 


Jan. lo-ai. laii 


ISIMlliiM 




I p ■ - 


...rfl 


" ■'..,, 


yrb 2-7. 1014 


" 




- ■ . 


.4 1 « I 


AtlaBla.G«. . . 


Am 8. IBI4 


Hceoan 


«ft.« 


ti 


.t J 


KitiBMnnflc Nb 1^. 


jkUr N mia 


IlraariB 


TO* 




^■fl 


'■ " ... 


May 10. IDin 


'• 


70,1 





I^^H 




Ma> IS. 1010 




70 i 




■>.b-^ 



w&trr. fmm nnrt at 212° Tnhr. Tabic 1 12 ftivcn th^ ilrtnil.^ itf tlrt 
Tllc plnnl is dewrilvwl in Kngint^riiiff Hfaird, OpIhIxt 'i. IH08. 

In 1910 n ttitt wa(< made nf the innnnriUor ni Milwaukee T'Yi' 
wati tlii> lurnpst plftOt t»f ito Iun<I, it* raparily twine :MiO rnr- ~" ' 
It. wam kIhi iiuiti 1»y Ibe Pnwfr Spcr-ialtv <'iitii[i»tiy Tk< 
three iiwi.-* .showpd that 1 lb ot mixcil n- 
I.4S lb. of wnler, rwpepii^'cly. fntm . 
gives Ibe deUik. A doH;npii«u ui • 



I 





INCINERATION OP REFUSE 



371 



Tmm 


OF 


Incinkhators 






Dfc bl WBIi^MT 


Poundii nf 

burn»l ptt 


tion, 
raui]ilH o! 


Numbflr of 








Rub. , 


fBdure 


equar? (not 
(it grntf} 
taiiace 


wntcr »va[i- 

pound of 
refiue. 


Table 
deULIi 


AiiCboiily 






per 

bour 


Iron) and al 
213° Fnhr 




' 


IS 




.W.T 


I.3B 


191 


Bn^iAfwrimv JV*ww 


14.9 




52 


1 41 


113 


£a<ii>Mirtiiiir ttteotd 


5.3 




- 


40 7 


1.33 


112 
112 








1 


12.2 


,'H 8 






Bnginrcrcite JVcua 


1 


«.6 


03 


O.M 


113 


.. 


1 


a.s 


«.". 


1 45 


]13 




I 


13.4 


Si 


1 3i 


113 


.. 


1 


B 


!iO a 


1.D2 


IIG 


Munii Kng . Dm.. 1914 


10 6 


IV. I 


14:^.3 




115 


.1. T. Fothcrstun 


4 8 


7-9 


lae 




iia 


'- 


6-6 


10.0 


I4T.2 




us 


.. 


3.V 


7.4 


147.2 
77,7 





115 




1 






IW 




• . . w • ' • ^ 


a. 4e S, Puraoru 


1 






Ida 






■ 1 II 




... 




Bin-iu 

Tl 


I 20 

D.SQ 


117.1 Ifi.llQ 
130 


Poott B|M4UltjF CoUpaoy 





... 




77 


1.01 


uo 




1 


... 




}J9 


1,72 


Ul 


Pcfwpr apMially Codiimilv 


».l 






oa 7 


, 


1Z2 


En^tneermv Ntwa 


SB? 






7! 4 


.--,... 


122 


., 


n.B 


■-■ 




fVI 1 




123 





'ids of the temperature and evaporation were taken regularly 
out all the teaU;. Temperatures tti the combustion chamber 
lien every fifteen minuter with a Bristol electric pyrometer, 
sd to read to 2400° Fahr. The points of the inxtrument 
1 through the Might hole in the door of the combustion cham- 
^^bout 5 ft. into it, and therefore not Into the hotte»<t part. 
vere taken every half hour. The Bristol pyrometer 
three other high-temperature recorders, and 



372 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

TABLE 111, — Sdumart of Tebt of WEBTMonur Refubk Incinerator, 1900 

Duration of teat 8 hre. 32 min. 

Number of cells 3 

Total grate area 75 sq. ft. 

B. & W. boiler heating surface 2,197 Bq. ft. 

Refuse consumed (composition of waste material): 

Garbage, manure, and leaves 15% 

Ashes and unburned (anthracite) coal, cinders, etc 05% 

Iron, wood, bottles, tins, leather, etc ■ 5% 

Rubbish, including paper, branches, old furniture, etc 15% 

Total 100%. 

Weights : 

Unscreened refuse, rubbish, garbage, manure, etc 38,090 lb. 

Tine, etc., not burned 540 " 

Net quantities consumed 37,550 ' ' 

Refuse consumed per hour 4,402 ' ' 

Refuse consumed per hour per square foot of grate area 58 . 7 lb. 

Weight of clinker remaining after combustion 15,880 lb. 

Percentage of clinker and ashes to refuse consumed 42 . 1% 

Water Evaporation: 

Total water evaporated 41,991 lb. 

Water evaporated jwr hour, actual 4,920 ' ' 

Water evajwrated per hour, from and at 212° Fahr 5,970 " 

Water evaporated per pound of refuse, actual 1 . 12 lb. 

Watcrevaporatedperpoundofrefuse,fromandat212''Fahr. 1.36 " 
Water evaporated per t>ound of refuse, from and at 212° 

Fahr. and persquarefoot of total heating surface per hour. 2.72 " 

Pressures and Tempekatures: 

Temperature of outside air, average 55° Fahr. 

Barometric pressure, average 29.5 In. 

Average steam pressure 123.5 lb. per sq, in. 

Average pressure in aj?hpita 1 . 74 in. 

Average vacuum at chimney base A " 

Average temperature of combustion chamber (by Watkin's 

heat reeordere) over 1,994° Fahr. 

Highest tem|>erature of combustion chamber. over 2,318° -" 

Lowest temperature in rombustion chamber 1,742° '* 

Average temperature of air entering regenerator 75° " 

Average temperature of air leaving regenerator 206° " 

Average temperature of ga.'tes entering regenerator 427.5°Fah^H 

Average temperature of gases leaving regenerator 337.5* " 

Average temperature of feed-water 47° *■>*" 

Gas .Analyses: 

Percentage of CO, (average of six readings) 10.9% 

Percentage of CO:, highest reading 13.6% 

Percentage of COt, lowest reading (clinkeriiic fin^. . .., . . 4.6% 

Times: 

Time taken to clinker ooe gnt* 
Time between clinkerinvB. 
Times each firewp^ 



INCl}fERATION OP REFUSE 



373 



TABLE 112. — Summary of Tests of West New Brighton 
Refuse Incinerator 



Te«t Ko 

Date. 1908 

Duration, boura 

Itfsteri>] <■« Dot« at toot of 
labia) 

Refuae burned, total tana.. 

Ref uae burned per square foot 

of crnt« area, hourly, lb. , . , 

Clinker, lb 

Aahw, lb 

Tini, etc., not fired, lb. . . 

Total, lb 

Pereentace of orisi nal refuse 
Efavoralion ptr pound of tt/- 

tH( bvmtd.' 

Grow actual, lb 

Groaa equivatont, from and 
at 212". lb 

Net useful steam for power 
purposes, from and at 

212Mb 

Carbon dioxitU: 

Arerace, per oont 

Maiinium, per cent 

Minimum, per cent 

T#iiip«rofkr« in coTnbuition 
ekambtr, dog. F. 

Averace 

MnT^r"^F"* 

Bdinimum .. ........ .... - 

Temp o(obimne)rgasCB.deB.F. 
Tamp, of outside air, de|. F . . 
Temp, of ait leavins healer, 

de«. F 

Temp. ofteed-iratar,de«, F. . 
Ararace ataam preosure, lb. 

persq. in 

Number ot fires olinkered . . . 
Arerace time per clinkerioB, 

minutes 



1 
Mar 6 

8 

Sept. 

mixture 

20.802 

S2 

10.S30 

787 

1,046 

13,180 

30.9 



1.17 
1.41 

1.31 

13.3 
17 




1,846 

2.210 

l.S2fl 

393 

48. G 

300 
Sfi 

137.4 
9 





2 
Mays 

«1 

Rsfuse as 

collected 

la. 14fi 

40.7 

8.300 

787 

340 
9.843 
30.2 



1-03 
1.26 

1.10 

12,3 

10.5 
8 



1.716 

1,922 

1,626 

380 

81.6 

287 
53 

133.2 

8 

8.4 



3 
May 13 

8 ' 

Fob. 
miiture 
19.827 

40, a 

11,466 

1.978 

448 

14.293 

36.6 



1.10 
1.33 

1.24 

13 5 

17 
6 



1,037 

1.940 

1,382 

364 

83.0 

208 
56 

130 6 
10 

11 



4 
May tS 

6) 

Refuse aa 

collected 

17.236 

63,7 

12,006 
ae9 

389 
14.372 
41.2 



0.01 
1.10 

1,02 

13,4 

17,6 

8,6 



1,008 

1,004 

1.526 

307 

60.6 

388 
64 

130,4 

7 

12.3 



6 
May 10 

8 

Refuse aa 
collected 
33.073 

S9.3 

17,344 

013 

340 

19.083 

40 



1 

1.21 

1.13 
13 9 

ie.3 

7.6 



1,793 
1.940 
1,634 



64 



137.4 
6 



8.3 



Not*. — The material burned durini the different teats was as follows: 
.Teat 1. — This "September miiture" waa prepared artificially, and wu made up of 
46.6% of larbBce, 21.7% of fine ash, 7.7% of coal and clinkeis, 0.6% of clinker. 8.5% of 
^Bss and metals, and 14.0% of rubbish. 

Teat 3. — The material was rcFuso just aa collected, and wet from the rain. A sample 
dried save 38% of moisture. 

Teat 3. — This "February miiture" waa prepared artificially, and was made up of 
79.5% ol ashes, 11.8% of garbage. 5.3% of rubbish, and 3.4% of glan and metala 

Teat 4, — Tbs material waa refuse iust u collected, and was wet from a rain of the 
prerioua.day. 

Teat 6. — The material was relatively dry refuse as collected, and was reprtaentatiTa 
matarial. 



374 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SBPUSB 



TABLE 113. — SuyuART of Tests of Milwaukee RErcBS iNdNKK&ni, 
Mat and Ju'fE, 1910 

(Prom £iv<n«nn0 tftm, July 21, IVtO.) 



Date 


May 19 and 
20 


May 23, 24, 

and June 3 


Haraoto 

JUDBI 




Duration, in hours 


37 


36br.26niin. 


37 


Grade of refuse tested 


Extreme 


Extreme 


Avnage 




summer 


winter 


■"I"*! 


Refuse burned, total tons 


123.62 


128.87 


126.81 


Percentage of garbage 


56.7 


29.7 


40.8 


Percentage of ashes 


30.6 


59.7 


41.0 


Percentage of rubbish 


5.9 


6.8 


4.8 


Percentage of manure 


6.8 


3.8 


13.4 


Rate of burning, in tons per 24 








hours 


80 


84 


86 


Poimds per square foot of grate 








area per hour 


63 


65 


64 


Number of fires clinkcred 


57 


62 


63 


Average time per clinlcering, in 








minutes 


7-8 


9 


7.3 


Evapomtion per pound of refuse: 








Gross actual, in pounds 


0,79 


1.19 


1.10 


Equivalent, from and at 212° 








Fahr., In pounds 


0.% 


1.45 


1.34 


Xet useful, from and at 212" 








Fahr., in pounds 


0.87 


1.36 


1.2S 


Temperature of feed-wat*r, in 










52 


49 


49 


Average steam pressure, in 








[munds per square inch 


146 


133 


130 


Curbon dioxide: 








Average, percentage 


9 3 


8.8 


12.9 


Maximum, percentage 


10. 


19.8 


17.2 


Minimum, percentage 


0.2 


5.5 


3.5 


Teinjierature, in degrres Fahr. 








Combustion chamber, aver'gt^ 


1007 


IOCS 


1664 


Combustion chaml>er, min'm 


1207 


1240 


1267 


Combustion chamber, maxi'ni 


18^0 


2060 


2000 


Chimney gases 


oSl 


597 


515 


Forced draft, leaving heater. . 


398 


3;58 


351 


I'resaure of draft leaving heater, 










4 2 


4.9 


4.6 




No. 1 


Noft. 1 and 2 


No. 1 



INCINBltATlOiV OF KEFVSB 



376 



llound to be apprQximn.teI>' oorrevt. The iiiburenf emplo>'e(] during 
!p'le>>U) w€n> rinl Hkiltcd in tli» kind uf work. The firemen had bcuii 
rurkiuK about otic month fiii the furnnom before the teiAts were started, 
iid hud tint hid any previous ex)>erience in bieh-lempemture Brin^. 
lie wnter fed to the iKtilcrs wm mcatiurcd tbrougli ■ bot-walcr motcr, 
libraU'd by running a hiiown weight of water through it. Id some 
stiLDcei all the water delivered to the boilers wait preferably weighed 
mcuurcd. 

At this plant an interacting tvtt of steatn production wa« made 
jder working conditioQH from June 4 lu H, 1911, covering a period 
six daya of routine operation. A water meter on the main boiler 
Lline was calibnite^l, acid read at frequent interval-i, day and night, 
i quantity of each kind of rcfii^c burned wa» recorded daily. The 
emen worked the furnaces carefully, and no extra or i>|)iM!ial men were 
Btnployod. The te»t wa-i planned to determine the iiunntrly and rate 
of -4tcam produution which could be secured under ordinary conditioni 
operaiion. 

The l€«t I'howed that the avcmge quantity of water evaporated in 

fwtlem wa« 10,200 lb. [xr hour; Ihe mnximnm, 31,B00 lb.; and 

ralnimuin. S.fiOO lb. The average rate of evaporation, in pound? of 

iter per [lonnd of refuse. wa& 1,18; the mnximum, 1.04; and the 

linimmu, 0.54. 

The following tabulation shows the quautilies of refuse burned: 





Averag? lona 


pet lumacr 


by Hpiitit 


Gwhnge 
Aahm 
Rnhbnii 
Maoure 

T<vtflU 


IIV 2 

i&.3 

19 3 

47 

as 


42 1 

17 4 
7 
1 7 
13 


61 3 

24 7 

9.8 

2.4 

16 


m n 


6S 6 


100 



An ('xi'eplionally vnliiahle rccurd of pl.ml npcrnliiid uhj: hukIc in 
_J9I0 :il< the refiwc incinerator al SeattlCi which had a capacity of 
toiM \toT twenty-four hours, and had a frotit^fcd and hand-fired 
jriiace. It Ih given in Table 114. 

Unfortunalf-ly, reliable tests of garltagp funtaf^c^, from the thermal 

, of view, have riirely l»een made. The principal data of a 1e*l of 

'furnace at Racine (pupiilalton about 4o.<KHt). on December 13, 

1013, are therefore of intercut. Thid plant wa.i designed by Mr. S. R. 

iwis. The chimney is 130 ft. high and 4 ft . in diameter. There are 



J76 couxcrws ASD msrosAh of municn'al hefvse 



two furnaces, each having two units. Tlw Kuamiitcpd capacity was 
1 tnri per )tnur in VHcti «f lliv uDltH. Thc> (eNl vtA miidR on one fur- 
nace. The imir^rial )ti In- Imrat'd (which was ntorol for sevcnl tlay» 
in order lo oblaiii the reqii!sil<^ qunnlity, immHy, 8 tons) wan com- 
ptl^<.■d of kitchen gnrbagc and m&niire. with noitie fi;«nerftl nihht'^: 
this bod an average weight of 31 lb. per cubic foot, aiitl was froiMi. 



TABLE 


114.— R» 


lOLTBOT 


OPSRATID 


N or ttmrx 


'HE INCIW 


ERAtOR A-l 


SlUTTU 


k 








101(1 


















A>h Anil 


















cUnkac 


AV*tB«* 


llvtraca 


Annm 






No of 

day* 

opertllon 


RafUM 


CUnlw. 

In 




daily 


iIrm tn 


tlmmmik 




hlooUi 


barnnl. 


<oaibuB> 


quamity 


dinfccr 


flf*«W 




ID 


tiea 
cbambcr 


of tcfUM 

himod. 


r*eb an. 

In 


baninc 












klid Biua, 


in Von 


ninutw 


nWi 












in tniu 










Jan. 


26 


1SU,022 


Ms.rio 


57 OOO 


flO.n.'i.'; 


18 SS 


370 


Feb. 


2i 


iWfl.ai'-' 


543 470 


4S.100 


66 42C 


13 10 


3 18 




Mar. 


27 


IKH d44 


958,801 


47 600 


67.220 


13 37 


3 lA 




.^irQ 


26 


1745 S»4 


008.570 


OS 700 


67 140 


13 2.'> 


3 Id 




May 


2S 


1794 643 


7.51 .300 


50.100 


e9.02S 


11.. W 


3 10 




June 


26 


1813. 3A8 


730.810 


29.100 


09.746 


10.40 


3 4S 




July 


26 


IT64 7.11 


561 .540 


22. WW 


B7-87« 


8.72 


3 57 




Autc. 


27 


lSfi2.<}31 


S&1.330 


21 161 


70, too 


0.15 


3 13 




Sept. 


2fi 


ISlil 782 


eao 775 


23 1.W 


71.607 


10.35 


333 




Ort. 


21 


i.-naitiy-i 


ASS. 010 


20 I7A 


74 330 


10.92 


2 ijg 




Nov. 


2S 


1019.054 


8S4.110 


38.710 


73.810 


10.46 


2 sa \ 


IJ.V- 


27 


la'vi H.ifi 


lilts la-i .'.2-3im 


72.402 


10. OA 


2.22 


i 



Tho firra wen? started at aboui 10 am. Thiw houni and 300 lb- 
of cool were allowed to heal Ifae fumavc prior to the testi whicb »B^ 
sUirtcd nt 1 p-ii. 'Hie refuse wiw tiilrodurod throURh the air loek u » 
faiHy coiiHtant »i)eed until 3:45 r.»., at which time Lbe K ton? bad aX^ 
been thrown in. In IJ hount, from ZAh to b r.M., the material »" 
Uie heartha was burned up ctimpletHy 

From 2:50 to 3 P-M. the door^ leading into (he atoratcc Udb 
purpoedy uponed. rFiiderin|[ ihi^ »ir loeke inopcralivo, and iMaring 
drop in tcmiicnitiire to 900* al that time. 

The quantity of raal bum»d per ton of refune was 132 lb. 
Riaximtim quantity of eoal miarHnteed for 1200' li-mEieralun 
I.V) lb. Tlw quantity of refuM> burned per hour per rquarv loot 
gmtf arm w*» $& lb. 

to l-t7&* ^^^gpmm^tmm^^ il waa allowwt to drop 
800- 1- . : >om 0.00 to 0.7S 



378 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



TABLE 116. — Resdlib of Test of Heknan Incinesatob at Savannah, 
AUOUBT 21 AND 22, 1914 

Duration of teat: 3 am., 2l8t, to 12.30 a.m., 22d: 21) houn. 

Composition of refuse: Garbage 45%, rubbish 40%, manure 5%, ash 10%, 

Type of incinerator: Two four-trough grate furnaces with forced draft. 

Number of furnaces at work : 2. 

Total grate surface: Both furnaces, 160 sq. ft. 

Type of boilers: WJcke's vertical water-tube, equipped with Foster mipo^ 

heaters. 
Total heating surface of each boiler, 2000 sq. ft. 
Total refuse burned, 277,560 lb. 





Test 


Bvildvn' 






raaulta 


CtUTUitua 




Total refuse burned per hour, in pounds 


12,906 


10,833 




Total refuse burned per square foot of grate surface 








80.6 


60 




Total clinker and ash, in pounds (approx.) 


68,608 






Percentage of clinker and ash to refuse burned 


24.7 






Maximum combustion chamber temperature 


2,000° F. 






Minimum combustion chamber temperature 


1,700° F. 


1,250° F 




Average combustion chamber temperature 


1,845° F. 


1,500° F. 




Average steam pressure (gage), in pounds 


120 








523° F. 








173° F. 


100° F. 






206° F. 








307,162 
450,382 






Total water evaporated, from and at 212° F., in lb. 






Total water evaporated per pound of refuse, in lb . . 


1.62 


1.3 




Water evaporated per pound of combustible, in lb. 


2.15. 






Total boiler horse-power developed per hour 


607 






Estimated horse-power used in plant for 75 kw,. 








non-condensing, turbo-generator set and boiler 










118 








489 


330 




Average air pressure under grate, in inches 


31 








252" F. 








0.72 


, 




11.43 


- A 




447 


- -A 




621 


,..-\ 


Total number of clinkerings. both furnaces 


64 




^ 



380 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

of water, the average being 0.69; and the CO* in the gas ranged froa 
7 to 12%, with an average of 9.6%. 

The plant at Topeka, also designed by Mr. Lewis, is practictllT 
a duplicate of the one at Hacine. 

Table 115 gives the work elements that were obtained during 
official tests made at the Clifton incinerator, built by the Power 
Specialty Company, in 1914, for summer and winter refuae. 

Table 116 gives the results of a test made in 1914 in Savumahofs 
new Heenan incinerator, under the direction of Mr. E. R. Conant, 
City Engineer. The water evaporated from 1 lb. of refuse, from ud 
at 212° Fahr., was 1.62 lb. The details of the test, which lasted 2IJ 
hours, and of the cost of operation, according to contract and acliu!, 
are given. Fig. 93 gives diagrams of the COi record and of the tem- 
perature in the combustion chamber. 

The test was made nith a running start. All the hoppers wee 
empty, and were then charged with the test mixture. All combustioD 
chamber temperatures were taken nith a thermoelectric recordinf 
pyrometer. All other temperatures were taken with mercury thtt- 
mometers. The water was measured with a Worthington hot-watw 
meter. Steam pressures were taken with a recording pressure gaup 
connected with the main ateam line. 

The steam was delivered to the main steam header of the wata- 
works pumping station, and used to operate one 10,000,000-gal 
pumping engine and one lS50-cu. ft. cross-compound condensing 
air compressor. From 12:15 to 5:10 p.m. the pumping engine ins 
speeded up. The steam was also used to operate all prime-mo^TT 
units used in generating jxiwer in the plant. The safety valves on the 
boilers were popping off from 5:30 until 6:30 p.m. 

At 7 A.M. of August 22 all the refuse in the storage pit had been 
burned, nnd from that time until 8 a.u. insuflicient refuse was d^v- 
ered to keep the plant going at full capacity. 

The weather during the test was hot and humid, and there were 
occfcrtional showers. All the calculations were based on the standards 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Cost of Ofeuation — Based on Contract 

HoJRtinK, 1 man per S-hnur shift at. . S2.40 S2.40 

KtokiiiR, 4 monporS-hourshiftat. , . 2.40 9.60 

( ■linker removing, 1 man i>cr 8-hour shift at . . . ! , fiO I . SO 

Kiigincer, 1 man porS-honr shift at.. , 4.00 4.00 

Tutitl lal>or charges i>cr shift tl7.S0 

Ti>t.il labor olinrgos per 24 hours 52.50 

Totiil labor charges per tun, at 130-ton rat« 0.404 



INVlSEKAriON OF REFUSE 



381 



ft 



Com OF Orciu.'noN — Hnrxn (W Actital Tuers 

Hniitlina:, 1 man jwr 8- hour ehiri at . . t2.2.'> S2.2S 

fitdkitia. 4 luirii t*mi-lmur Hliifl at . . . ],7fi 7.00 

Cliiili'^r removing, I nwiit (k* 8-h'>ur shift »t . , . 1.50 ],fiO 

Eiij^uct'r, 1 mail jHT l^licur oliifl at . . . 4.00 4.00 

Tot&l labor rhanm per (bifi S14 .75 

Tuttit Wwir H)i)nc»i jHT 24 )u>uni 44 .2fl 

Total Ubor ohargra prr On, at ISO-ton rate 3103 

TaUl l&bor ctutrKW pur kin ftiT 13S.7& toon m 2U hn- 0.318 

San Fraocisco, on tbv adWcc of Hcring, prcpnrctl specif! cat ioiiii 

[or ttc coiistruvlioii of nn incinerator al UlaJfi Crook. The Power 

Ipocinit)* Co[npan> was the lowHst liiddor, and built the works. 

[The Kuuruutics were clear and reasonable in their intent Ui sccur« 

aatiefacUiry resiiltji, hut. in a strictly literal iutorprelatiuii, voutoioed 

'Kv«ral refiairemcnto wliicli, under exixtiiig conditions, were not quite 

tullillcfl. Tlieineinemlnr was first operatfld in August, 1013. In Febni- 

■ty. iyi4, it was »lnit dnwn in order to piil in a new and better clinker 

UndlinR Hynt4.'nii it was ORain operated in AUKH^t, 19M, and tested 

W t period of tbirtf days fram September 4 to October 3, im4, 

TABLE 117.— Aww-vsea or Refpm: Oruvukkd n»« Tkitt 

ril- lnLAin ChMK IsCIVRBATOk.' ,-■■■•. InwCIWW, 11)14 





DM* 


Mo. 


Tom 


liouted 


Samples 

uken 


Moicture 


Cmd- 
buMlbIa 


fM|it, 23 


1 


121 til 


181 


22 


55.0% 


26-9% 


" 24 


2 


92 13 


132 


22 


53,1 


24.9 


" 25 


3 


104.21 


IfiO 


2A 


56. S 


23.4 


" 28 


■1 


109 SU 


H3 


24 


S2.9 


2U.S 


" 28 


5 


113 H-l 


162 


27 


j>5.4 


26.5 


\ "20 


6 


13-1 30 


188 


30 


47.7 


23.fl 


1 •' SO 


7 


138 40 


180 


30 


52.5 


25.7 


1 Oct. 1 


8 


no 83 


15Q 


25 


48.0 


28.0 


J " 3 


» 


101. 4S 

- ■ » • 


123 


ao 


48.0 


27,3 


1 Totala. . . 


471.5 


232.1 


Avenicrn (or the nin« 


days, ,. , 






92.4% 


2.va% 


k ^^m 











vrfnf r.f Mir rofusc delivered by the rily duriiiK llir tr,M in 
TBl)Ie 1 18 i» a record of the thirty-day t«Bl, and 
-tiie evaporation trial. 



382 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BBFVSB 

TABLE 118. — Results of Tebt of Ibi^ib Chkek Incinbrator, 
Sam Fbancisco, Cal. 

30-day tst 

Date of teat Sept. 4 to Oct 3, 1914 

Duration of test in actual operation 26 days 

Total burning for entire period 449.0 bouTB 

Average burning hours per day for 26 days 17.6 " 

Received for the period, Sept. 4 to Oct. 3 2331 .0 tiMn 

Average tor the 26 days, per day 108.88 " 

Moisture per ton at 52.4%, mean of 9 samples 1,048.0 lb. 

Combustible per ton at 25.8%, mean of 9 samples . . 516.0 " 

Average quantity of ash 21.8% 

Graiet: 

Area of one grate 15.4 aq. ft. 

Number of gralea per furnace 4 

Total grate area for two furnaces 123.2 sq. ft. 

Refuse burned per hour during test 12,600 Ui 13,700 lb. 

Refuse burned per hour per square foot of grate 

surface 102 to 111 " 

Water: 

Average to boilers during burning time 190,085.0 " 

Average to boilers 8hutr<iown lime 10,060.0 " 

Total average to boilers for 24 hours 200,145.0 " 

Feed-water temperature 68.0 deg. 

Svaporotion equivalent: t 

Factor of evaporation for burning period 1 . 264 lb. 

Factor of evaporation for shut-down period 1.19 " 

£>luivalcDt evaporation, from and at 212°, for bum* 

ing period 240,267,01b. 

Equivalent evaporation, from and at 212°, for sbul- 

down period 11,971.0 " 

Total of equivalent evaporation, from and at 212°.. . 252,238.0 " 

Steam: 

Pressure by gage, mean of 26 days 148.0 " 

Temperature, saturated steam at pieesuie 365.0 deg. 

Temperature, superheated steam 487.0 " 



* No tfsta wm msilp (□ d»l»rminr the pcncntacn of gArbkBc mbtiMh, IIbc hIi 
in the refuse. So far w kiioKa, the quality of the refuae «ra* practicaUy the ^i— * ** 
when the »na1y»e« inrorporoted in the apecifieatjatu were made. There waa practJ ^*^^ 
no roai uh. and (he refiiw michl he claaaified ai a mixture of saiiiaaB and rw*>" 
with a ronsidrrablp Quantity of metal, i.r.. wire. Lin caoa, etc. 

t The average evaporation during the 30.da]r teat, in poundi of nter per bmir. *^'^'" 
and at 212° F.. wu 1.22. Thia waa hiiher than during the two eraporatioa teati tttr *" 
actual net coat of incineration, in which teata the ootraapoadinB Gsure wai I.IS lt>. S^^ 
houi, fiom and it 2U° F.. p« i^obmI of titam. 



J.VaNBRATlOy OF REFUSE 



383 



TABLE UR— (C«i(m««ft 

I of •uperltral 122,0 due. 

BRnenlor drivi-, 2S.I7 Itj. pi-r kw.-hr 'J.St7.0 lb. 

feed pump, 29..M lb. p« 1000 II' -SUU.O ■* 

AvailablG balance (or revenue. - . •23ti,Sti7.0 " 

Total output by generator, arcr^c for 2A days. . . . 3ti&.S\(wAit. 

For incineoutioD _,,„,,,. 34S.iS " 

Cott of ittciturtUion: 

Anuawd teveDUe riom Kteom at tOM, 100 lb. itcoin (M . 60 

CiMtof labor- 17.6/23 of «».00 S2.80 

Aaniraed uet (irotil . . *t ftU 

Com of intimtatum jft (on of gnrbug^: 

AMtuned ivvcnui; fruin stcmii jkt ton 86SS 

Cost of labor - 17 C/22 of K6.00/ 108.86 0.4840 

Aanuuciliict prvSlpcr Ion 0.3889 

QuaranUtd profit jjrr Urn, ttaruiani aarita^t 0.265 

Corrections for DxoeM of muistum — minus 0638 

Cotteotioiut (or cxccm of eombtistibic — plus. ,.*...> IKOS 

Correoted piaranteed profit per ton 291 

Diflfmiw bMwi-cii awHinicil m-l profit and oorTwt«d 

guaranteed uct {trafit |mt Urn morr iban guanuily.. . 0,0020 



Alter this tmt the City Oflicen) r<})eotecl tho pinnt on the ground 
lihat it did not fulfill all thr KuaratiticH. Tlic ra-sc van taken into 
PCourt, tried, and, aftCT many witnesses had been hciud, was decided 
in favor of the cotitracting company. 

The City had rtaimcil that the teat showed & nubiance from the 
wurlcs, in thut odors, ubnuxiuua gaitea, umuke, mid dui^t iNciifM-d from 
the building or chiniiifys. The evidcncf of niuny witncMWi cIcErly 
showed that any Dui»aiicc during the test was either trivial, unreliable, 
or emanated from other plants than the incinerator, or when Ihp taller 
was not operating uritW contrnct ronditionit: und ntoam escaping 
from tlie ehimiieyx luii! pitpitlnrly been iiiiMlaken for amttke. 

The City had rlainiod thaf the camhu.Htioii chamber temperature 

At timw bad fallen below the »pcct6c minimum of ISoCI". According 

to the evidence, this had hcvri the cams only near the slarlini; time, or 

momeiiUrily when lerettUy disproportionate coiubufftible refuse bad 

^been deliverwl by the City. 

^H The Cily had claimed that all the re^iiduo should be burned thor- 
^Bughty bard. Proof wu? prc^nted indi(.-atinK that, At in all ctuwns of 
^btty refuse containing little or no uhee, the Sun Francisco rcfUfiC eould 
DoL alwayn produce » thoroughly hard dinkcr. 



384 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

TABLE 110. — Evaporation Test op Islais Cbrec Incineratos, 
•San Franci»co, Cal. 
(A pan at thr 30-dty teat.) 

I)aU! of Uvt October 2, 1914 

Duration of lesL 16.4 houn 

Oarlxigr: 

For the day 104.45 ton 

Mointiire per ton at 48.6% 972.0 lb. 

C^imbuBtible per ton at 27.3% 646.0 " 

Water: 

To boilers for burning period, 16.4 hr 190,460.0 " 

To boilers for shut-down period, 7.5 br 13,330.0 " 

'I'otal Ui boilers from starting Oct. 2 to startii^ Oct. 3. 203,790.0 " 

I''txid-water temperature 68.0 def. 

Eiiiitorntum rquiiialent: 

Factor of evaporation for burning period, 16.4 hr 1 .26 

Kact^tr of evaporation for 7.5 hr., shutdown period 1.19 

I':<iuiviilcnt cvap., from and at 212°, for 16.4-br. period. 239,979.0 lb. 

I':<iuivalcnt cvap., fn>m and at 212°, for 7.5-hr. period. 15,862.0 " 

Total equivalent evaporation, frooi and at 212° 255^1.0 " 

litram: 

I'rttwun' by fcafcc 147.0 " 

T(>iii(M'mturc, saturated steam at pressure 364.5 deg. 

T<'m|>enitur«\ auiwrheated steam 480.1 " 

IVktmii i)f t)U])crb('at 115. 5 " 

Kiir p'lu'ralor <lrivt'. 28.17 lb. per kw.-hr 9,975.01b. 

r..r fw.h.nmp. 2».5.'> lb. |>cr 1000 lb 6,022.0 " 

.AvailabU- lialaiirt- for n-vcnue 239,844.0 " 

Ptnn-r: 

T.tctl output by ippricrator 374.7 kw.-br. 

For .■linker 20.6 " 

For iiii'iiicr^liiin 354.1 " 

('ivij ii/ iHci-n^i/ii") fnr ihf tliiu: 

Vssuntol n'wiiui' fmrn Kti'AU) at llVlM |>cr 1001b S05.94 

O.wt .if Ltlvr Ui 4 -22 of $i!<irt> 49.20 

.Vie^uimxl uoi pntlit 46.74 

\ssiiniiit n-vvniK- itvun strain ai 4 ii-nls UW ib ... 0.91S5 

r.*t oi UKt H; 4 -A' o! JiVitV UM 4,> . . O 4T1 

\s>im><\i :m-i iM>'lil i>fr i.^n 0.4475 

ilii.-irsiiJiw ■-■'^•tii i>rr Ion of sis !•.»!.■» r\; fsrlvscp 255 

k\»nv;hM: !OT iV^.'>cr.-> .'t hhms;;:t\- 0078 

^.^'TT>v!>.^!■. tor <-\\»5 of .\'n!l''-.is; I'.^io 1376 

».\«:Tiiv;t\i |f.wr»'.-.T<w; •.•t\>;^.! 400* 
l^tT!oT\;^*v lvi*wK 3tf»-.;r.x\l nrt ■or\\;:: »r;.i .\'.TTK\-;rti 

pM»knt<<<\i iK'l p«\«l i** uwi t>xi»v :hir. f.;ir*:;-.j 0171 



tNCJNERATIOS OF REFVSE 



S86 



On thr other hand. Iht- City admitted tlint tlic aversKe lempenituro 
io excess of Kio Kiiimifitw^l iivcrage of ISOO"; that fumaow, flues, 
cnmliitttltoii chambers, etc., did not hav« t-o ix? shut down nion? I.han 
Jurty-oijeht hiiurs in luiy one wci-k in ordor U> remove all dust and 
th«*; that the rumtwr of ;H>und4 of rofuj* burned per »qu&[« foot 
of grate iturface exceeded the contractor's bid: and that the cost per 
ton fur incineration was ]ee« than the bid price. 

V^'l• have here stated tfomo of the detuilx of this case for two wwont. 
T'\Tvi. to show the fut-ihty of "iH'cifyinK tciutranties in Uio much detail, 
,*t Ibe p««cnt Btage of the still devi>loping art of refuse iiieiii«r»tion, 
nntead of only the bixuid essential requirements; and Hecondlif, to 
'plate Ifcfore cnKinccrs and oontrnctor^ quectJona in refcperice to Kuar- 
anticf a-luL-h may arise in Conrt. 

A careful .■'iu<ly wsj* made by Mr. J. J. Jewup for a refuse indn- 

erator at Berkeley, in lltl^, with the reijult that the Sterlins di^tign 

was adopted and built. In 1014 a lest wa» made, with the r«inlt« 

given it) Table 120. The refuse cont'i.'^ted alnioKt wholly of KntbnKe 

and rubhiah. The average moisture ranged from JSJ to fi3*'i,, and 

Ibe average combuatibic only from 51 to \'%. Consequently, the 

eii-«pOf»tioD. from and at 2l2*Fahr., per pound of rofuao, ranged only 

from 0.6 to 1.01 lb., but the incineration wa» without ofTenstve odor. 

At Huntington (pn|iiilation about 4.'),000), the garliage funuicc de- 

^jBlpicti by Mr.H.H. Lewi(», waa tested on October '•'6, IttH. The furnace 

^M eomposcd of two waitu, and ha.** i>[N>cial (juiek-operatiDg dooni, but 

^fto iftoraec bins. Natural gar) i» burned, though provision i.-« made for 

H|hc uov of coal. The chimney ig \'2h ft, high mid 26 in. in diameter. 

' The mat^ial burned waj< a mixture of kltrhen garbage and general 

dty rubbish, thi- hitler weighing 22 lb. per cubic foot; the carcae^ of 

one borHC, H'eighing 1200 lb. wiu) burned. 

Tlie fire* werp »iart«l at 030 a.m„ and SOOO cu. ft. (»f gaa were 
burned tu heat th«- funiaco to 900* (coml>u.Hlioa ehnrnber) at 10 x.u, 
its nuil«riiil was introduced continuowily from 10 am. until 5 p.ii. 
had sti been burned at 0:.3O rm. 

The maximum lemppniturr in the wnibusltou chamfwr was HOO', 
■> minimum. Uno", and the nverage, I2;i0°. The tenipemtiire 
pipped Io 000* lUmimt motnetitarily when the door to the combustion 
umber «a* oiwiied. 

In M boiirx 2.i,sfiO lb, of reruse, or 30-13 lb. per hour, wero biirne«l. 
i» al the rale of &4..^ lb. per square fo<it of grate nren \vj hour, 
it required O.TW uu. ft. of ga.-* |>cr pound of refu«e burned. This 
m baa tvtwntly Ijoou shut down. 

In IVtl it wa« decided, on the revonmiendation of Ifering, la 
lOd ft mixed refuse incinerat^ir iu Atlanta. MX^t cooapetitivc bids 



386 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



TABLE 120. — REaoLTB or Tests or the Sterling Repusb Incineratob, 
Berkblbt, Cai,., 1914 



Dates. 



Number of days 

Quantity of refuse burned, in pounda. , 

Average number of tons per day 

Average number of hours nm per day . . 

Average number of tons burned per hr . 

Exceeding guaranteed capacity, per- 
centage 

Average weight of refuse per cubic yard, 
in pounds 

Average percentage of moisture 

Average percentage of non-combustible 

Average percentage of combustible in 
refuse 

Total quantity of water evaporated, in 
pounds 

Evaporation, from and at 212° F., per 
pound of refuse, in pounds 

Average boiler pressure (gage), in lb. . 

Minimum temperature in combustion 
chamber 

Maximum temperature in combustion 
chamber 

Average temperature in combustion 
chamber 

Pounds burned per square foot of grate . 

Exceeding guaranteed capacity, per- 
centage.. 

Wages paid during test, per hour. . . 

Actual cost per ton 

Having under guaranteed cost, percent- 
age 



Capacity 
teat 
with 
wet 

Bubace 



Jan. 10-31, 
1914 
19 
1,261,350 
33.2 
12.55 
2.65 

33 

818 
63 
31* 

61 

628,083 

0.6 
100) 



71 

34 
SI. 342 
0.506 

2.7 



EvaporMioD 
■nd tempfirm- 

tUM teat 

with averase 

BUbace 



Feb. 2-7, 
1914 
6 
373,040 
31.09 
10.7 
2.89 

44 

744 

48J 
34} 

17 

311,581 

1.01 
97.3 



1,300° 

2,200'" 

1,800' 
77 



45 

SI. 342 
0.464 

10.8 



GuBTsn- 

tMd 

Gpirea 



1250° 



53 



SO. 52 



the Power Specialty Company erected a Heenan furnace. It waa 
completed early in 1915, and waa tested from 1 p.m., May 26 t» 
6:10 a.m.. May 27. Table 121 gives a summary of the test. It will 
be seen that the evaporation, from and at 212" Fahr., waa more thar* 
2 lb. of water per pound of refuse. 



INCINERATION OF REFUSE 387 

TABLE 121. — ^RebdijTB of Tebt or Heenan Refube Incinsbator, 
Ati^nta, 1915 

Refuse lea into furnaces (of proportiona specified in con- 
tract) 39!,086Ib, 

Dry clinker withdrawn 112,300 " 

Percentage of water in clinker 13.45 

Clinker, percentage of refuse 28,8 

Refuse, less clinker 278,785 lb. 

Water evaporated 530.258 " 

Furnace hours 51.5 

Duration of run 17 hr. 10 min. 

AvxRAQE Quantities 

Steam preasure, absolute 190. 051b. pcrsq.in. 

Steam temperature 515.22° Fahr 

Superheat 137.62° " 

Feed-water, before passing through feed-water heater. . . 78° " 

Feed-water, after passing through feed-water heater 190,31° " 

Factors of Evaporation 

Boiler only 1.0706 

Boiler and superheater 1 . 1508 

Boiler and feed-water heater 1.186 

Boiler, superheater, and feod-water heater 1.266 

Rates 

Water evaporated per pound of material fired 1.35581b. 

Equivalent evaporation, from and at 212° Fahr., per 
pound of material (refuse) fed into furnace: 

Boiler only 1 .4509 lb. 

Boiler and superheater 1 . 5594 ' ' 

Boiler and feed-water heater 1.0082 " 

Boiler, superheater, and feed-water heater 1.7167 " 

Water evaporatd per pound of refuse fed to furnace, less 

clinker, observed 1 .905 " 

Equivalent evaporation, from and at 212° Fahr., )x;r 
pound of material (refuse) fired, less clinker: 

BoUeronly 2.038 " 

Boiler and superheater 2 . 190 ' ' 

Boiler and feed-water heater 2.26 " 

Boiler, superheater, and feed-water heater 2.41 " 

Capacitv per 24 Hours 

Based on 72 fumace-houm 273.5 tons 

Average temperature, charging floor 121.5° Fahr. 

Average temperature, out doors 75 . 7° " 

Average difference 45.8° " 



388 COU.KCTIOK Afilt DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFVSK 



With referenu' to ttie t«ti, it should Iw menUotml tliat Mr. E. H. 
Foster, of the Powur Spiicialty Company, !^blt»t that: 

" Dim- ti> till' cxprawivi' itmniiiil nf nitiliiiKP dnlivt-rvil nitti iIm' n^uwr, tho 
ro rail iiiu<:h UiKbvr tluui ll'*.- ixMilruct ounditjuua cullixl i\}t, wtiirli 
\xr. <-liiiniivy undrnuinl wlirn tlinv furuarcs were in o)M:nitw>n, tuxl it 
1(1 thfii tiMt chimney tlrud h&d Ui be au|tnteQt«d by tho JngtAlbitinB at 
on indtinnl-draft fan, which raaily brought the piiuit up to capacity. U il 
had b«ten kiiowti befiirctuind ihut tho cily ruUertioD ws« m (le5cieot in Uauv- 
h^d aahcfl, ample precautious could uiid would haw be«D taken in th* otigiitti 
draiKii." 

This case shows the importance of makini; KuRicioiit ftDAlysca dI 
the refu^w (Chapter 1), in order tn dexign the plant propRriy and 
cconuiiiically, and determine its \x»t operation. 

Wo have added tho results t>[ a tent of an iticitierator at Rldgewood, 
la 1910, which consuinod only garbagv uiiJ rubbish. Nn oshm were 
contained in tli«^ matfrlal ileltv«red anil nu fuel was added. TaUe 
12a i^v&t the detailed results a« recorded. 

A L'unipuriMon of the working elcmvnt* of the plaalti at West New 
Brighton in 190S, and Cltlton in 1913 !>• icivcu in Tabic 133, lu ahuw 
the HiibHtaiitial pro^Tvsa mado in Ihr pflirii^nt'y of incineration. 

For other tcet*, wee also under despription of plants, Chapter X, Y. 

The succc^ful operation of an inciiiprat-or requires careful atten- 
tion and skilled lubur. Tliv handlinfi of the firex is pnTtieuLorly impa^ 
tant. It iti dot unusiinl lu operate: the furnace six days in a week. On 
Sundays and holidays, a.i well as. nverniclit in amall eities, tbe (iraican 
be bonki^d, with a smnll loss. 

After a year of opcrnlion, the following njle« were formulated fur 
tbe guidance of the liremcn at the Milwaukee incinerator: 

"Thr follnwinfit rfirM-tifiiw rniut hr- oarftfiilly fihxiTvvd in firin(ti 

" («) Always wivi-r the fire as heavily wtiti aa ntimlly an iMuaililr With 
w«l |pirl>H|Ci\ whidh is ov^r 60'!^ nf ttic inivturp. oiiKh rovpr can only be about 
3 in. thick. With dry nialerial. cunlaiiiing not i>vcr £0^!> gnrbaKi; ujd ?oo- 
siderublir rubbisL <«ay lO'.t), the fin ran be eovercd 2 ft. thick i>r innin!. 
I( ihe refuK U drj' but ouupact, and Lbcnfoie heavy, (tie dover ahall nol h* 
OVIST I ft, 

" {h) Ahovr nil, kit^i thi* lire rovpreil with fmib wet matorial all ihf timp, 
utitil time for it to bum off beforo clinkering. 

" (r) In Wiikitiicup a htr tohial, p^t iniug tittle aeh as ptMsible— a hank of 
7A% icarliaKe U buit. Tiiin will prvvvnl tite clinker frooi bciny Iturd A 
fire bankpd wilh .ihIhv U di(lii>iilt lo draw (Hit nftcr fliKtc^■^ hoiire. 

" dO In cliiikcrinc a lire, draw oiit as htUe fine ohIi an pandhk TItf 
lioO of couIk tf-ft rin Ibe (iru tuny Im> b' ilei'p u 4 in., but (iliiwld nol hr nmrli 
ov4Tthifl. If llu-nMiI« aro hut aitil yrvW liunii'd, covCT tlwtn witliafnMh dkfclSt 
at onoe. 



INCINERATION OF REFUSE 



389 



TABLE 122. — Results or Tests of Decabie Incinerator, Ridqbwood, 
Borough or Qdeenb, New York Citt, May, 1916 

(From Ettgintering Neaii, ScpMmber 38, 1910.) 



Dkte of teat 

Unit t«*t(itl 

Wwtlwr 

DimtioD of teat, in houn 

Mixed refuM ooiwuined — mibkae. in poundi 

Miied refuae eonsuiDBd — rubbiih, in pound* 

Total loaterial couiuDed, in pound* 

Guaranteed rated eapaeity of unit* operated, in torn 

per 24 lioura 

Pereentace of material, larbace 

Peroentace ot material, rubbiah 

Refuae eonaumed per hour, in tona 

EiiuivaJeDt incineration in 24 houra, in toni 

Elquivalent incineration per aquare foot of grate area 

per hour, in pound* 

Idbor coat, u per term* of contract 

Labor coat per ton, ■• per contract 

Actual labor coat, aa operated by the city 

Actual labor coat per ton, ■■ operated by the city. . . 

Coat of fuel required per ton 

Total coat of operation per ton, aa per terms of con- 

traot 

Total coat of operation per ton, a* artually operated. 
Guaranteed maiimuin coat of operation, per ton. . . 

Condition and quantity of unoke 

Peroentafle of carbon in tree atate in the clinker. . . . 

Peroentace ot aah and clinker produced 

JT^nifwralurei, m degrtet FaJtrenheit: 

Average in combuation chamber, No. 1 unit 

Average in combuation chamber. No. 2 unit. 

Manmum temperature in combuation chamber, 
Ko, 1 unit 

Maximum temperature in combuation chamber, 
No. 3 unit 

ATerace temperature of forced draft beneath gratn 

Arerace ataok draft, in inchea of water 

Attngt iteain prunir>, to poundi ptr iiptan inch: 

In No. 1 unit 

In No. 2 unit 



May 8 

No. 1 
Clear 

17 

74,770 

30.585 

105,355 

SO 
70.0 

ze 1 

3 00 

74.10 

00.07 
>22 . 31 
42 3 c. 

(28.00 
M.Sc. 


42.3 c. 
64,5 c. 

75 c. 
Light whiti 
5.30* 
0.3 

1040 



391 

0.B4 



80.2 



May 10 

No. 2 
Clear 
ie.fi 
71,326 
20.090 
101,316 

60 
70 3 
20.7 

3.26 
78 24 

72 4 
(20 35 

40.1c. 
•20. 16 

51. Go. 


40.1c. 
51.6 o. 
75 c. 
Ijght white 
6.68* 
10.7 



1101 



leoo 

406 
0.90 



63.7 



May Ifi 

Noa. 1 and 2 

Clear 

17.6 

141,681 

aO,330 

202,011 

100 

70.1 

30.0 
5 77 
138 48 

B4.1 
«36 00 

36.7 a. 
•42.06 

42.2 c. 


36 7 c. 
42.2 c. 
00 c. 
Light white 
1.13 
12.3 

1200 
1340 

1650 

1810 
SIO 

0.68 

00.0 
00 



• The higher peroentagta of carbon in these two testa wa* due lo the fart that Ibr unita 
were being overloaded to far above capacity, sa rate of combuation per aquare foot of 
grate are* will ahow, when compared with rate of combustion in third teat. May 15th. 



" (e) Start with a very low air supply about J to I turn on the Milwaukee 
valves, increase this to not over 3 tuma sa the fire grows. The tendency 
is to have an cxcees of air. 

" (f) In clinkering, get the tumps out with the mke as much as possible, 
leaving the fine stuff behind. 

" (p) The careful handling of firing tools is a matter of much importance, 
tnd should be impressed on the firemen from the start. 



. •_-■ .- -::^ -xu» t-r i -n.,r- -inw. «7 r^r a^cs. innih 
r.. -.„-- _ .--_--■_ r.r ::j.-3P -an 3^ er- -a -j^ ra.-k -i^^.-i: ':«(iist 

■ -'■ ■■■ ^ -■ '-'■•'■''^ --'■ '- ^'ini^i najiil- -xniier 3ii-3i^ inS ■nliik 
■_■ . _- ■::, ._ 1 ■- 1^.::,-: is -.«u- -a^ir rs=r^ .f fnTrrr is poesbi* 



. *■ 


.- ;>taiat 


:«■ -..a 


•Z'lrtifi 


.r 


;<-■ 


t;r>? — •Hill 


rina.-if 


i-^il 


Ttr 3JU 


a.:i;f 


?a- i;.ir 


*■ ~- 


::i.=7 


1' 


■T-."-"''. 



Pcraoutf 
•; iary f >;s (loon •« 



>* 3 73 :■ 

1+4 i 5-1 



L.-— : i.-T.tr :£j-j, -ei-j 



E. BY-PRODCCTS 



Ir, '■'::. r'ty.r- ■:.- :„:-.■> *r>-:r. ^iiiCe r. inipnr.vwi refuse diipoa] 
■/.'.f, : r' T. .': ;.;- ■•■■-:. ::. '. il-^i. w:.:.::. o.uM be derived from the 
u'lli/i'i'.r. '.:' ■'■:::. pr ,■: ic-i ir. > yp^niMMn and the «»le of clinker 
iiml llu'- 'I . • If. -'.:;.'■ .v. rk-. :"■ ii-'wins the recommendations <■! 
tin- 1- Mji'ir' !■.': :ij,r/iri-';- f'T 'i^iiizir.e the products of high-tempen- 
hiic jfKiti'-j.iii'.ti liiiv- rmi Ureii \i-ix in. The expected revenue wa.< nrt 
riiilli'-'Miipna. iiii'l ':'.ji-<;i)ii<;iitly. financial di::ap[>riintmeDt resiulted. It 
( i|c iriililf, ilntri^forf. in ni'i:-t <■«-(->. to detPrniine the cost of makiof: 
(111' hy pfidm-l ■ ii-<-fiil. and iil-'» to f-tiniate the market value for them. 
(o tliiil lln'ii- lull- viihir? fur r-ui-h particular locality can be stated. 

'[]]>' |>tijit'ip:il tiirlhods of iitilizinc cltnker are mentioned on paf[f 
.'l!i.'l Mo- 1 III' tlii-i' iiii-tliixis iiivolvp the crushing and sereenintt of 

tl Iiiikir: ill sortie il ix i^roiind fine in mortar milli^. A few methods 

for iilili/iili'iti ini- ill -Mcril Kill nioro fully liclow, the data being taken 
liii'Ki'ly fniiii ■' Mixlcru Destructor rractice," by W. F. Goodrich, 



mcifiERATWri OF ftSPVSE 



391 




1. Steam.— The extent and kind of utilization of steam depends 
Buroewhat ou tlic quantity produced. ^Utiiitics of llic quiuitily 
pnxluccd undvr variuuA conditions uf operation luive ulrvuily been 
Kivf-n in thb chnpter. The use to be made of the titeam now remnins 
to !«■ coiiwdcrcd. 

Practipdlly all incin<*rnlor» Ihnt bum mixed refuse can prodnee 

Some plnntA, and chipfly the xmaller ones, iiiay not furnish 

than «iiout!li to operate the works. Tlie larKcr the [>lant the 

ecuuunuoully can tlio gri>at«r quantity of Eteatn produced be 

I utilised. 

In Europe we find a variety of osea, including the partial or com- 
plete operntiiiD of dectric Ui^ting plunia. electrii^ railway ^yiitems, 
Ieewagc pumping, and waUr pumping etatione. The irreeularity in 
the production of Rtoam domaiidH A utilisation which nxiuirm no rr-gu- 
lur and cixuitant' pnn-cT, such us Krindintc cltnker for mortar. crushinK 
lot use on roads, inaldnK artificial i^tono» and ^aba, fcrtilisent, ice, 
loading storagv batteries, etc. The first incineraton; where the heal 
wae utilised to produce electricity were those at Shorohnra (England) 
and We^t mount (Canada). 
The Micccaa of these produRtA in Fiiropp has infliipnced American 
practice, and at«ani botlora have been built as integral parts of most 
of ibc htgh<lompcraturc rofuso iucineratorv in America. At only a 
few of tliem, however, baa steam as yet been uaed to produce a 
fei'enue, 
If xteam in used for generating electricity, and particularly in 
itmallcr plaats, it is advisable to put in electric accumulators, to 
■vpragp thp production and increamt the dependable |iowvr: or it 
tiuiy I'*' preferred to add an aiixilinry riirnaoe for cnnl. oil, or gas firing. 
The pniccr re<iuircd 1o opcrat* ati inrinerntor has vsned from one- 
sixth to one-third of the entire liower which il hai* produced, depending 
«n the deMKO and the way in which the wurb< have been conducted. 
In bclectiiig a method for utilizing uteatn from an incinerator, it i» 
K deccMurj- lirvt to consider iLf rale of production. As refuse has so 
B 'Yanahlr a cidnntic value, the rate of i<te-Am production will not be 
tiniform. a* shown by the Milwaukee text. Furthcnnoro, a refuse 
mitdnerator may not have mulcrial ddivcrcd to it continuously fur 
^parmlion, an th« colled ion ix nisponded on hoiidaym and Bundayn. 
K liie total qiiniitily of refiine incinerated ia Milwaukee during 1916 
^g a.; shown ib Table i'24. 

The nurfilii** Meain at the Milwaukee incinerator i» ronxfrted into 
l^^eotric povmr and uned to pump flu^hinc water iulu Ibc Milwaukee 
River (HW Table 125), Thi* is a fa\'orable sorl of load for an incmer- 
r> bccnuAC the pump» can be shut down without objection at times 



392 COLLECTION AXD DISPOSAL OF MUMCIPAL RBFVSB 



\ 



when the incinerator is not working. When the &t«am is used foT 
pumpinfc water or sewage, or for lighting, and it requires r-riili — i' 
service at certain hours, or rontinuous twenty-four-hour service, it im 
■d^'i$ab1e to have supplementarj' sources of power at the inrinerato "7, 

as at Westmount. If the pumps are operated by electric motm s, 

the additional power can come from other power plants. Witz::h 
steam-driven puniiv. stand-by boiler? are required. In most caw— s, 
the incineration furnishes only a part of the steam requiml for outsici:^ 
purposes. Under these conditions, however, mon (A the incinetat 

T.\BL£ 124.— Total Rctt^se Ixctniirated ix MiLWArKCE 
Crrr .vnd Pritatt CouxctionS'. 1916 



Moctk 



Tot>! boon 
ofiRmtfd 



Tou: pooadk. 



IBS. per poiud o 
Bind rrfiac 



Fobnait> 

M»rvh 

April 

May 

JiiSie 
J-.i:v 

T -A* 



«** 


Ne?9.7* 


1 rs4 


501 


<^1»5.H0 


I sa> 


6t^S 


5.iS«S.lOO 


2 (WO 


65<> 


T.o37.r3) 


1 494 


6S0 


d.oii-'JW 


t m: 


656 


S-.vS.'iW 


1 *«■ 


610 


^.n4iyj>X> 


I 771 


»5SO 




! 5:3 


6?6 


10.:* 3V 


1 9-^4 


^«>t 


•> TtvSa? 


I 9>>4 


'5."<> 


7 T^'aMI 


1 771 


r+S 


v.'^.^iii 


: 741 



IK "vt" Ty 



I r>i 



■■f-^^i-ij' -i ~ tfK ii-.i^riirti ii.-.2i( ll'.i 0.f?ifc4J!. » y-~ 



. il.«-,: 



riC«iaiX -• n: .. 



iTei— "A- ~»e :-^-i ".'i- ■'"■-■r-T-»- >> '." ^".". -■" S* r>?>_'^«!sary w kftp 

;""■> ' "a. : *■? "■ ■■" ■■•fi;'* .1 -^.I'-f - ..— -"i?-.'— -•-'z'y. T\f irrwpilarv- 

t:-^ ■" "■■:■ 7-i"^- 1" -;'"■••.::':- c "■•■; •-r-.-.'irx' r --.j-a— Are Silan<«d 

Irv "h.-: ' .i.re-:r - ii""':"v ■ .-'j;' ■:■■. "" "'i; iiv":'7.l r''al-dr™»i Otjilerf- 

A- ■■■-v-v^":-£ --<; ■ - t-vj:-.- -as >*■- v:cr->'-"i i" M:Iwa;ii»e i=jd 
a: N:'v V -v -.'--.■■^■y :■.■ -.v-i-f ■>; "l.i---. >_• -■■- itfriiHy tri>!C- 

Y'i" ■-" 1 - '. •-.•. -■«; .'--■V'-.-. ,iv> 1": 'tr-'u --^ T2«; ircti'?*- 

":■.■■" ."A" -■' ("iv"-"'. -•" ~.' " ' f ■■ -.r ■ z ■~'".-*' - .-f src?ar:i. 
Ti-? SI" ■ "' i • -^1 ■". . .' ■■ 'i -" r-i- - -. 

l'"iic;r"';c A". M j:rri:a rt.-iJr. '^-I'ln '.:•; " .~::a-:v t "»i"-ir- Liirieted 



IKCtSKltATlON or RfirVSB 



39S 



anil tbe fcrales are made of water tubea, the beat ie used merely to 
wann the fiywl-trntrr for a Imilpr. TliiH pri'-li<.*»liiig in: donp iti x\w wallit 

fd grutu't >if t)iL' fiiruuv-o. Al- ulbi-r iiltiiit.-<. wuttT b* licrkk-tl <u Ik* 
E^l in wik<hing u-iiK<itiM iiml for olbnr rli>amtif; nl tbr plitnt. 
8. Clinker.— At mnny inHnera1on<, particubrly in lOnptlnnd nnd 
Ttnaiiy, rriii<bcd clitikcr is made, ta be used in pbicc; of broken e^toac 
or ffravel. for bulls^t or aggregate in rr)iiiT«l4;, for (viving aiid buUditig; 
tlgda, t1ugst<jiie\ uiid bricks, as meMliniitd below, tl Laa b««it found 

r 



TABI.IS 125,— EuKTHio PtiWRx I>kuvkhko 

rtwiu me MiLWAiiKES Incinerator Power Plant 

TO OrEHATK nix MlLWArKKK RiVKK Flusiiin'u Pl^ht 

DL-Bima 1918 nan 1919. 

WalBr l>ft«d ST l\ 



UmUi 



ianiistr - 

I'cliniury 

March 

Afinl 

May 

.llllM- 

Jiily 

Aucu*t . . . 
September 

Niivtiol>cr 
Ill-i'i'ltllwi 



(luMhitiK 



WU 



No flush 

1 
IW I 

409 2 
207 I 



208.4 
Nn flutb 



WIB 



Ing neocB ury 



1& 2 
:iS3 1 

nam 1 

MH I) 

»>» h 

499 1 

420 H 

137 5 

iriK netm 



KiJoWBtU 

uii*tBi.iiia 
iiuuiiiiis 

■WliuD 



IftlB 



340 
330 
33U 
330 



320-0 
wary 



lOia 



340.0 
320.0 
297 3 
■2S2 3 
274.1) 
282.2 
291 4 
271 9 



Kilontuhoma 

dalinnd to 

Uiialiiiii 

MBllDtl 



ItU 



242 



340 

4S.W2 

135. ISO 

08,393 



08.778 



»i» 



h2\2 

90.040 
H8.821 
IflT.OSO 
IM.ltiO 
140.800 
122.880 

38.400 



cxpecially useful for eonr rele in invRnwiit fuuudaliuns under a weuring 

•urfaco. iind for sewoKu filter betU, Tire nerwninir* have Iwcn used 

^JMi for !<urfacinK HtnooUi pavi>nH->nt(( and betu-i>en car IriickH lo reduce 

^BpperiunM. Fiiiea»hi» n<:iveiivd frum the clinker at Portland, Ore. 

^^1)16) woronold iw n fertiliser. In ituncli. SviteerUind, they nro uwd 

W R 4bi>inrectaiit in out.xide toilets or piirlh clowls. 

Hue duxi ha£ not ox many po^tibililica for utilisation aa clinker. 
LnioplF fmrn tli« Milwaiikoo inrinerator wa« submitted lo an aapluilt 
It, who TtiportL-d tliat it was it satisfactory material to use as a 
in tuiphalt psviiiK luiicturas. 



394 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



An excellent record of clinker utilization has been made by the 
Glasgow Corporation, as shown in Table 126. The revenue shown in 
this table is equivalent to approximately 60 cents per ton of clinker 
sold. Some revenue from clinker has also been received at a few 
American incinerators, as at Seattle- and West New Brighton. 

TABLE 126. — Revekue from Crcbhed and Screened Cunksr, 
Glahoow, Scotland 



Year 


Tom (old 


Revenue 


1901 


9,753.2 


*5,495.00 


1602 


9,332.9 


4.885.00 


1903 


11,938.3 


7,060 00 


1904 


15.292.0 


7,950 00 


1905 


14,093.0 


8,465.00 


1906 


17,635.0 


10,880.00 


1907 


13,975.0 


8,140.00 


1908 


13,307.0 


8,.5.'>5.00 


1909 


13,807.0 


8,895 00 


1910 


11,768.7 


7,910-00 



All the above uses have been tried on a working scale and found 
to be more or less successful. In many ca.ses a net revenue has 
resulted. The question of clinker utilization should always be con- 
sidered in the design of new works. Local conditions of available 
dumping areas, and opportunities for the sale of products, will largely 
control the decision as to whether or not to put in clinker-handling 
machinery. 

The handling of the clinker from the furnace to the dump, to the 
freight car, or wagon, is also of importance, when considering the whole 
cost of operation. At many plants, the clinker car is pushed by hand 
to the dumping place. At some of the more recent plants the cars are 
suspended from overhead rails and operated by a motor. At the 
Westmount incinerator, the clinker car bodies are taken to the dump 
near the building by an overhead cable. The loaded cars are pushed 
under the cableway and the bodies are picked up by an electrically- 
operated carriage controlled from switches in the building. The 
carriage takes the car body to the dump, unloads it, and returns it to 
the building. 

Cars for handling hot clinker need careful design and construction. 
Standard contractors' dump cars, with a capacity of 1 cu. yd., did not 
last more than four months at Milwaukee, when they had become so 
distorted that they could not be dumped. Cars with cast-iron bodies 



lacimRATtOlt OP RRPVS8 



396 



were Itwd, but wpm- found to be too heA\->'. The cur body finally 

I»(|<>[itod c<)n»)9lod vi a frame made of 4 by 4-iti. anRlett (o whirli pliiteci 
>of i-iii. wiouglit iron were lxil(«d. >\'hcu the jjlaiefi became teul, 
iliry were taken off aiid Ktnii^htened. 
3. Paving BlockB.— Kxpfirimfiilal work, on .i ron!<)dpnibI« »<:ii\t, 
fiiT mnkinK paxinK blonkii nf cliiikRr and ai>{ihall, hnA been C'nndiicl<>d 
at the KcnEinet^on inrincrntor in Ixindon. Tbe proccKi and rcsulta 
Are deHfribed by Cioudricb, ok (oilaws: 
" 'IIm; cUak«r is l&kcu dimt from tti« ccUa and f«d into a powerful grioding 
mill. whRre [l » ground suflitimtly to itam & fine ncnwn. llie Kreened mule* 
rifll in thra frd, by ninuiK cif tii»r)i!uni.nl piiHlicn, inin ttir Invn-r part of a etre] 
Hei'slor, whii'l) is vnciUMl in at«e1 shwling. and in ek-vutt^ U> tin- firnl (liN>r of 
tbp biijldinit. and pasKl tlirougb a shoot inlu n ni'volvinic ^«¥i i)r>-pr, where 
the itorM^ned cllnlc«r h BUbjcetAd to an intt^nno hcut Paiuint; fniu ltu> dryer, 
it IB apun dtratad to the fluor above, and in thi.'^n fed iiilo a meatiiring ho|)per 
having a bntlODi4rvcr diarhnritt!. Wtiili! l)iu< ;jiirl of llif proit^w in tukitig 
(lace, the ground iut]>halt m being prtrparcd. 'I'htt a^plmlt is boiet«d tv (he 
top door of tbr buildiiix nnd frO iriUi Innci; nu-ltinic vjl.t. wtiii-h ure uf ^|x:riid 
nmaLrurlion, arranged with heating coils and a Biiiierheatcd slwun supply (or 
(be melting of tbe ua|>lialt and for maintaining the kuiw at a bigli tcmpcra- 
lun Wluui in a Huiiuhle nmdition a aupply of r«aiduuin oil ia iiitrtiduct-d 
^H " Front tho moiling tanks tbo miidurf p(u««« into a ooniral mMisuring \*<«- 
^HmI; when the dc«red ^'olumr ie tmrhcd. this vt-sicl is rnrrird by means of a 
^VtBDOH ndl (u th« tntxcr. into which th« ground clinker and a.<<]>hQli niixluro ar« 
^t ^multancoudy tnlruduocd and thoroughly mixcKl Thti mixer lm of xtmng 
nuHUrxiriiiin, iM-inic inncU- in alrel biMlt^r |>laie, and in providnl with )iug amia 
•nd BabstAntial gcitring. 

" Wbcn tboroui^ly mixed at nn vvm trmpcmturv tlic material ia dit- 
^■dikigKl Into a alM-1 ihnoi whieb conimtmicateo wiih the binrk pnas. 

" The hlixk prrva in nf mnMivr mnrtrurtion, and exert* a pmKiirr of 1(10 

ina Upon cnHi I4iirk ; tlx^ p"''^ <» aulnmalie in n<-tion ; aa uno boppvr in HIK^ 

yy the Oinn in eharKF, anclht-r romoiUiidRr tticditwof tint pm«i, and ru^enrh 

>rk is (ornacd it is pushed forward over a smootJi iron tabic and conveyed 

the HK^ing tank. 

g^' Foe the maniifnenin' nt ItXK) pavinft Mirt.s nhoiit SJ tons of clinker are 

I with I (on of as|>lialt, tbe wi'jght of tbe iini>:<hcd bUii-ks l>einfi alxtut 4 (<■»*; 

lie Ion in w«i|di( is sreniint'-d for by l)m nuiivliire Tlie ccjciI {icr 10(U inving 

cka u about £4 (or nuitorinl and l-l shillings for Labour. 

" It IK clainied that tbe bloeks ore nviltinit, aa noim:lnt< an vimkI jiavinb 

jn-pnniua. wmitury, and unalTected by temperature Upirnrtls of one mil- 

n,o <>( lliwe IdcH'ks have been bid in tjWMi'a f5ute, Hyiic I'ark, W , Ledbury 

load. ItayHwutet, a»d in fkamfurd titrect, near to the Itoyal Albert Hall, 

Ci-miugtun. Vi." 

4. FlagstoflCk (or Sidewalks.— The clinker ia used in tnakitiit 
It is Gnt cniabpd lo about | in. in mo nnd iit tben mixed 



396 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



wet with Portlaod cement in the proportion of one part of cement to 
three parts of broken clinker. The mixture is then placed in an iron 
mould to make a slab from 2^ to 3 in. thick. The surface dimensiotiB 
vary from 2 ft. square to 2 ft. by 3 ft. The mixture is compacted 
in the mould with a heavy maul or under a hydrauHc press. The 
surface is troweled smooth or given a finish of granite chippingH. 
The flags should stand for four to six months in summer weather 
before being used. At the Bristol Corporation Works, in England, 
it is stated that one ton of clinker and j ton of cement will make 
16 sq. yd. of flags. The daily output ia 97 sq, yd, per working dsy 
of 9.5 hours. At Liverpool it is stated that three men and an appreo- 
ticc, working with a hydraulic press, could make about 45 sq. yd. of 
flags per day. At this plant, 53,684 sq. yd. of flags were made in 1909. 
Maxwell reports the following strengths for machine-made clinker con- 
crete flags, 2,5 in. thick. (He does not mention the other dimeusioDB): 



Ado of lli.g 


Urcakiiin load 

applied at center 
of flag 




I8(U lb. 
1474 •' 
1742 " 
1917 " 
1608 " 
1752 '• 
2061 ■' 
1966 ■' 
1859 " 
1659 '■ 
1589 " 


4 " 


4 " 


4 " 


4 " 


4 " 


6 " 


6 " 


4 " 


4 " 


4 " 


Average 


1766 lit. 



A three-mould hydraulic flag press is made by Fielding and PUtt, 
Ltd., in England. This method of clinker utilization is applied in more 
than a dozen cities of England, where the cost of making these flag- 
stones has been about 40 cents per s(iuare yard. 

6. Bricks. — Making building brick of crushed chnker and lim* 
or cement is practiced less extensively than making flags. Never- 
tlieloss, it is a promising incthoil of ulili/alioii. There is a plani '" 
oprration at Nelson, England, wilii a cjipiicity of abnul 20,000 brirk* 
per week. This plant comprises a ball mill for grinding lime, a9-ft- 
perforated grinding mill for clinker, a clinker screen, a patent hydratinS 



IMCWERATtON OF RKPV3S SOT 

rer, a GiuU mixer, brirlivrwk silos, an " Emppror" prefoi. and a 
lirift oHiiinlxT willi n i-iijia<-ilv fur 7WM> bricks. Tlie jUanl in 
ically alrivm. rpipiiriiii; ntuxil 1^8 b.j). fr*r |criii<iiii); and I'i h.p. 
mixini anil brick makinir. Tbe clinker it* ktouikI, misvd, anil 
lpcwiit4Nl ill ihH silrw on thnm dityn (>f llie w«.'k, and the bricks ar* 
tiilv oil lliv ollM'nt. TliP BU'auiing of ihi; bricks is dune at nJKhl willi 
III! nmdi^ by tii« incincmtur. Thrii.' men ure required to operate 
bi> plant, and ■I..') lonK of lime nrp iimhI for 18.000 bricks. The time 
luiml fur the whnle prucofw Is froni thirty to forty-eiKht liours. 
of tliKe bri<!kii arc recorded in Tabic 127; the c<wt of making 
tfam «u about 84 per iliouMsud. 



P. PLAflTS BUILT AND RESULTS OBTAINED 



Many iuec««»ful appticaticMiii of the principlcH. dcMRn*. nnd practtra 

Kcrib^hl herein have Iwcn niiidc. and in butli Anirricik nnd luir(>|)0 

iny pxjimplcM exi't. Thp toroigii plai)t« have been dpsi)[ni»(l fur 

bciuemtin^ ii mixture of KBrbagc, mbblsh, and iu>hcR. In the Unitecl 

Ltm there are n ninnhcr thnt inrinrrat<> ii mixture nf only fi;a.rb<itfri? and 

ibbiah — aj*h«. I>«in(! nepxralety iliH)M;c«d of l)y dunijiintt- Tlit- liwit 

tniMviled by the taller ini\lnrc if i[iiirh let«, kt tlint a utilization of 

pam IH frequently iiupraeli cable without the addition of extra fuel. 

rmcriy, tUtw were many furnaces in the L'nitcd States where 

rhkjie alone vms burned. A^ Ibis nlwnyrt rcctuired the addition of 

1, oil, or Ras lo dt'strcy the gurlm^ie, tliereliy adding rciDsidenihle 

envr, nucli garliage furnaec» are frequently operated at relatively 

temfieratMroH. 

We pliall dcwcrihe a few tnciiienton and icar)>ai:e furnaces which 

typical and indicate ibe proeres^ that ha.- I>e«n nimle. 

L West New Brighton.— The rcfuM.- incinerntcr built in inos at 

fcsl New HiiKbfjn. under the direction of Mr. J. T. Fcthcraton, ia 

IP of the (irxi [dantii in America, and in an excellent example of tbo 

ind-fhanfrd. back-fired type. It has a rated c-ap&ciiy of tiO torn* 

ruined fcfunc )H-r iwrnty-foiir hourx. Tlic plant is on the waler- 

iL, about 26(1 ft, north of rhc mnin stroct, and fierves a dtsltiet 

ItcndinK alonK the northern phnre of ^taton Island fur about 4 

The anw of the distriet is alwiut 5000 acres, and I he populo- 

>n Mq-ved about 35.000. The population in mixed residential, buii- 

n, und nianufavlurini:, and prodiicirsubniit 1.(1 lon^ of mi?ied rcfune 

1WH( jHipulntion per day. UurinK ""1 this refuM* was composed 

[M% of ubes, 34.9% of fntTLage, and 7.W, of rubbi-ib. 

Tbe luetueratur is housed in a ihree^tory, reinforced concrete 



398 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



TABLE 127. — Tests of Clinker Bricks Made at Nelson, E^olans, 1914 
{Qoodrieh, "Modern Dntructar PraetiM," p, 133.) 



Dtaoription 



Ditnen^ioiUr 
in iuclua 



Area 
oE baa«, 

in 
wtu&re 
incboi 



Compreaaive •treiicUi, 
ia pounda 



Cracked 


Cracked 


■li(litir 


generally 


223. OOO 


ssg.soo 


100. goo 


230. 80O 


1M.600 


222.700 


150.900 


206.000 


134.500 


204.700 


130 700 


159.000 


ISA. 417 


213. 033 


4208 


5440 


270.6 


349.8 



Criub«l 



Compoflition brick, eray, no 
reoeaa, made from deatructor 
olinber and 6% lime. . . . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



2.77,9.00by 4 36 
2.95,9 02by4.4O 
2. 80,9. 00 by4. 34 
2.63,9 02 by 4.36 
2.62,9 03 by 4.36 
2.80,9 00 by 4.36 



Mean 

PDUoda per aquare inch. 
Tana per iquBre foot . . . 



39.24 
39.09 
39.00 
39 33 
39 33 
39 24 

39.31 



2S2.OO0 
248 000 
222.700 
206 000 
204.700 
159.000 

217.007 

6523 
365.1 



Tests for Abdorption 



Deacription 



Before 
immenion 



After 
24 houra 
immeraion 



Diflereace 



PerccntBRC 

of 
afaaorption 



CompoaitiDU brick, gray, no leccae 

do 
Do., rrrraamt one aide 



Pounda 
9.330 
8 510 
8.573 



Pound* 
9.879 
9.273 
9.196 



Pounda 
0.367 
0.763 
0.623 



3.93 
8.97 
7.26 



6.72 



Comparison o' Analyses of Lihe Bricks and Ceuknt Conceetg 



CUnkBr aitd lime bricka made with aliout 

8| % of lime 



Clinker and tement concrete made Iroiu 
I cement and S clinker 



t,>me 17.0% 

SUica 32.5 

Alumina 14,8 

Ferric oiidc 18.2 

Magncaia and alkaiin 5..t 

Wat«r in combination. ......... 12.0 

100 . 0<-i 



Lime 16.8% 

Silica 33,2 

Alumina UA 

Terric oiide 16.8 

MaKneeia and alkalica 6 8 

Water in combination 14.3 

100 OT, 



TKCrSERAriOK OF RKFrXE 



^9 






I 



building, about 50 ft. equare n.nt) 4J) ft. hiRh. The ctincrete chimney 
fo^m'l•tt'l| with Ihc fiiniiicp i« 125 ft. hinli. iitui in lim-<l with rtn^brifk 
ko H heiKht of 2U ft. On ihv Uip floor nf i\v tiutldiiiic in IhetlutnpitiK 
room, wUch is approached by an inclined roadway from the main 
street. The sturage pit ix reuc)iod ihTOugh ii Inrge doorwny fitlvtl 
with n vertical steel niiWr door. The duininniK platfunu Is about 40 ft. 
Rquore. ICxtcnding acrost: the lop of the pit there are two runways on 
whirh the «-aKoii.<i arc backed before ihcy are dumpeil. The pit has 
A capacity of 120 ea. yd., and u divided into four scctioiu, so tbat 
diflcrcnt grades of rnixcd refuse can be storwl Mciuirateiy, if dtwircd. 

The fltorane pit opens on the level of the ehaiKini; floor at the hank 
of the fumaea. There is just Buffitient spaeo between the pit opeiuugs 
mud the furnace doont to permit of eaxy shoveling. 

Th« fumooe compriaeH four grutea, a cDiubustioa chamber, a 
trater-tube boiler, an nir hentcr, and the necessary eonnccting flues, 
ashpita, and accewiories. Fig. QA hIiovs a plan and iwctioiiH through 
the funuicc. and l-'ig. 95 is a (general view of the plant. 

Each grate itlojies about 3 in. toward the clinkering dour, srid 
is made up uf six (swt-iron slutis, about h ft. long and 10 in. wide, set 
side by Bide, and drilled with two lincu of )-iu. holes. This gives an 
iodividuid grate ares of 25 sq. ft. Each grate is surrounded with an 
inelioed cwt^droa curb. Tbc top of the fuToace is arched over each 
grate, so that an undulating firo-briok surface \h expowed to the hot 
gaaea, pimducing a reverberatory effect, and thus mixing the products 
of oomlrastion. The erown of the aruh is from 3 to 4 ft. above the 
gratM. 

The products of coEnbustion pa^ over the tteveral grates into the 
pombiistion chamber. This is 10 ft. square, and nearly 20 ft. deep, 
funning a pocket for collecting duHt. 

From the (vmbuxlion rhamber, iho products of combui>tioD paw 
to a lA^h.p. [tai>o(>ck and Wilcox, wat(«r-tube boiler, thence to the air 
boater, and finally to the chimney. The air heater oan»iHtt) of a rert- 
angular box, alwut lU ft. long and 5 ft. »quarfl, filled with vertivsl 
tubes. The pnHliicta of combustion pai« through theite tul>cn. up on 
<ine «idp of a cenlnil partition and down on the other. The air for 
llie draft, which liuti l>eeu drawn by the fun (rum the vurious room!) in 
the huddiuR. it forrcd Ihroiigh tlie lieuler in the n|)uei« iH-twcco the 
tubes and then drawn under tlie clinker pits, from which it juutics either 
Dp through grates in the clinker pit« or directly into the adhpita and 
thenn- to the refufw (hroiigh the hole» in the grates. 

The ventilating oyslem is arranged »o that all the air can be 
drawti from the dumping room, from the cJinlcuring room, or from 
the fumaca room, as desired. Tt>e plant is equipped with a full 



<HiU.BCTinN ASD mSPOfiAL OF MrstcrPAL nBFtffin 



Mt of rRPordiiiK itHitrumcnte, and vulitubla rcponb of operation an 
available. 

The clinker is withdrawn by hand tbrough opfnings in the front 
of the furuace, and dropped Ihrougli trnp duore into a oliiiker voDliDg 




Pio. M. — P!&ii and StwtJoiu, WiM New Bri^itnn Ineiiu-nibir. 



cbnmher under the a»hpnt«. From the cooliniE chamber it b lakea 
in wlioulbuiTuwg to the dump, ami bm htmn utied for making concr(5t« 
and for fillinic. 

1'lie diiily rejMrt stieet^ of tb? operations conducted at tbc West 
New Qrighton and Clifton indoDral^m include Ifao fullowuitt: 



* 




ISCINKRATIOS OF REFUSK 



401 



TiU« niit) n«mi;(if employee ami hlo bndjie iiuinWr; Uic tiirn'oflus 
wrivm) nut] ilt^fturturv and ilip houn hi> worked, tof;eihcr with tite rate 
"f waico^ &nd their nminint. lli^ nliM'iH'CK ami vuculiuii^ nru uho 
nwirdMl. Hw work iw ^tAUjd undor l.hij hondingii: SupcrviBion, 
iiF«nUiiK inncliiiicry, fewliiig (uruiicR, retnovifiK diiiknr, whtwIinK 
clinltOT, tiorfproduclivc, nuii^iutiK rcfiisc, w&tctiinK, etc 

Bepnniln nccnuntH are kept of <>ach repair job, and iilw of all sup- 
{ilicx cojiauMird nod malcrialH msvA. 

2. Clifton. — The refuse* iiicinfMtnr at Clifton, on Stateo Icland, 
[N> v., romplclod in 1013, is a developmenl frOD)experiment« at the 





I 



Fiii. fiS. — Viow of Wrsl New Bh^tnn Indnembir. 



tt'wt New Hritthtoii plant with mo^•hanicaI nppllanoM for «hnricing 
and cliiikfriiis. The plant ii^uti L>xn*llonL(txniiiplccif the iiiri-haiiirnlly' 
opcml««l lyi*. It cuiir<i(it« vS twu 45-toii furnace units with Iwu 150- 
b.p. tHdlern, one 50-kw. vlet'tric generator, a hydruuhc putiip, an 
•cnimiilator, a rlinker chi^iIht and scrrvn, and other acoewiorim. 
Each finnarf- i<ompriArii thrr-o gratpo, earh fitlwl with hydniulitrally- 
«perat(Ht chareinn. clinkpriiie, and (.-ltiikerHlt)>charKinit dvvicm, and 
limit: rlinker-foohric rliamWr*. The plant is about two blocka Dorlh 
dT a ainin ittri^t and within a Hrvk of dwiOlinK houitm. 

The furiiacei art- hoiiJiod in a lhr(.'r-*tnry conrrclff itnd hrick biiild- 
ini, with n brifk chimni'v and an indiiipd roadway apitnuich. Tba 
coUocUtju wagons drive t« tbc upper floor, and dump from either of 




4U2 COLLBCTiOS AND DtSPOSAL Of MI'.VIVII'AL KEFUSB 



two udcK into a storage pit ncur the ceiiicr of llie buildinK. Ttw pit 
opens uu llie chancioK fioor bdow. Thv Furuacc^ an- i>ct on rach aido 
of the starnKc pit. JUHt belnw the chorgiutc f!onr, Itotwocii the pit and 
the furnai:«s, Iherc! «re mx charKtnfi; pha». imp for earh RTatp. The 
refuse is thrown into tbcm by the firemen. A tiydraulimlly-opcfftlM 
ram pUHhc» llie loailed pnn into the fumnve nlmve the grtXe. which \i 
covers completely. Wbeu tbc |Mti ib witbdrawn, Ibc back in hdd in 
place, ao that the rcfust falls off tho oiid and it dtttribulod evenly 
over the fire. 

Clinkcring b* Accompliiihed by pulling out the grate and allowing 
the clinker to fall into the cooling chamber below. Tbe grate is made 
of channd-fihaped, flat grate-bars, with twu ridgo-ban; proiectine 
about 6 in. above il. These grate-bant nre carried on a i^troDg vuvt- 
irun frame attached tn the pt»lon rod, the frame njnriing on rullerft. 
Tbe rtdge-bar» forrn weak Ae«tioit3 in the clinker, for eafiier breaking. 
Kaeh ndge-bnr turns up to fonii a nose or hump at it« extreme end. 
A» thcM! humpi |ki»s thrungli the clinker Ihry brenk il up iiilu nmall 
lutnpM. Tho ram piillt< the gmte into a clowd chamber, lo prerenl 
the entrance of cold air. After the clinker has fallen into the coolinR 
chamber, the grate is put back into it« regular position. j 

The clinker-discharging de^Hce comiiitLf of » piston or puabsM 
which fit* the cooliiig rliamber. A forward sir^ikc of thi:* puidier 
foreiM the clinker out through the clinker door into a car or iikip for 
removal. The clinker con are suspended from an owhead rail which 
extends t'U the crw^bcr, set in a pit below IJic ground loveL Tlie 
entt*hed dinker in elevnted to )*creenfl, and the screened clinker is 
stored in an elevated Inn for delivery to wagon». A baling prms fur 
tin cans i§ aleo provided. 

The producta of combustion pom through comburtion chambet*, 
builrh', and iiir heaUjn< on their way to the rhinincy. Iliuv port? are 
arranged nutxtantialiy ^g in tbe New Brighton planl. Vi-ntil.ttmn 
w proridcd for the difTcrcnt portions of the building in connt^-iiin. 
with the fore<od draft. A action through a furnace ia ehovu iti Fgi- '•'O. 
Fig- 97 i» a general view of the plant. 

3, Milwaukee. In 11H)S, after a thorouch ritiidy of tlu> prohlno, 
tbe cundlnicli')!! of un iiicinenilor tit 3tNt tone daily rapKieity wu 
recommended to the city. It wa.^ built in 1909. and ii» u|ieration 
began in 1910. It is thelargest incit>erator in the I'niled Slut**)'. The] 
refuiie uf tbe city is divided intit two cIwmh: First, garlwge. which tiJ 
dvlivcnti to the inciiicrator from the entire cily: and tecond. ibe > i- I 
and nibbi.'^h, delivered only (rum ntM>ut one-lhtrd <if lUe (tily. > . i B 
manure is nl.«o detivrrcd. fl 

In lui; the average perccntagCfl of n:fuM iDdaeratcd wrr<: m 



rxcttiSBArioN or bsfuse 



£5»>loms: Qartiiigc. 6R^%; Afhcs, 26.5%: rubbish. 4.5%; manure, 
^ 7%, Tbercfore, Ihc proportion of tho ingredieiils differs from that 




» 



Fia. 07 —View of Uiriun IiiiiiK^raUtr. 

ecnenilly fouml in t^iiropc nml in tnoHt American cities, in that a 
murlt larRPT percpntaBP of ipirhage per ton must be inei uprated. 
Yablu 12k Allows the nluse inciiiemted moulbly uad ako the averap 
ftlemiD froductioD. 



404 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



TABLE 128. — Refuse Incinerated Monthly in Milwadxee I>[JBt>«'< 

1919 (City and Phivate Collections); and Steam Pboduction 

Peed-wkter pumped to boUera at averase (cmperature o( 180° F. 



Montb, 
1*19 



Total houra 
operated 



Total pounds 

of mixed 

reluw 

inoi Derated 



Total pounda 

oC leed-watn- 

dclivered 



A«era(e 
evaporation, o 

pounds o( 
■team produe*?^ 
per pound 0^ 
mixed ref uae- 






Jaoiiary. . 
Februaiy. 
March. . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. , . 
September 
OcUiber . . 
November 
Deccinljer . 

Totals 



664 
608 
664 
656 
660 
640 
688 
664 
656 
680 
624 
656 



6,622,900 
5,139,760 
6,080,540 
5,704,240 
6,204,660 
7,255,140 
8,242,960 
8,700,160 
8,765,400 
8,263,340 
6,707,780 
6,717,640 



4,124,892 
3,876,635 
4,343,828 
4,805,690 
5,534,286 
6,242,760 
7,066,051 
6,782,052 
6,221,087 
6,177,100 
4.776.733 
4.304,452 



1.G05 
1.325 
1.399 
1.18& 
1.121 
1.162 
1.16S 
i.282 
1 108 
1.345 
1.404 
1.560 



7860 



84,404,520 



64,256,166 



1.315 



Analysis of refuse incinerated during 1919: Garbage. .. 77.00% 

Ashes 18.70 

Kubbish... 4.23 
Mamire... 0.07 

The plant is in the city, at the mouth of the Milwaukee River, and 
server! a population of about 450,000. Figs. 98 and 99 show a general 
plan and both longitudinal and crosH-scctions. 

The building is about 100 ft. square, and holds four furnace units, 
each of which consistn of six graten or cells, a combustion chamber, an 
air heater, and a water-tube boiler. To keep the temperature as 
uniform ftH practicable, the mix cells are divided into two groups of 
throe cells each, and have a combustion chamber between them. 
Kach unite has an area uf about 20 s(i. ft., and is backed by a drying 
hearth. Fans drive air throuRh an air heater and then through the 
ash])il to the fuel on the urate at a temperature of about 300° Fahr., 
and under a pressure of about 3 in. of water. The ga.'^cs go through 
the combustion chambers to the four boilers. These are of the hori- 
zontal, water-tube tyi>e, each rated at 200 h.p. The clinker drawn 
from the grate falls through a trap door into a clinker car .standing on 
rails in the basement. 



JNrjyEliATfON OF REFUSB 



407 



Tbe garbanic, ticing collecl«d «toparHtol.v, u stored by JUelf and 

MoetJ. thiw reiiucing its' wright by from 7 to 9%. It i« further 

lri«-<l OH tli« drying lieartli before Iming misvd with the nibbtsh 

In 1!})7 tbe avCTiif;« evR)Miration wnc< 1.620 lb. of natitr pi-r pound 

rofOM). In iniU it wa^ ualy 1.31&. The ]>owf>T ulilimrion 

jile ifTRRular. It varied in VM7 from 16,SS4 kw.-hr. for 

^ovemtwr to iyy,".!l!t kvr.-hr. for Au^uit. No clinker utilization 

Ks yot bc«D fttl«initl4Hi, except for lilliiiK in nt thn xhore of thv luke. 

t Being thu firat tarj^ incinerator built in Amcricn, arid with quite 
indted fiimls, a number of evprnlienotoH and space rest'ctiotis were 
adopted which could readily have bwn avoided undiir other condi- 
lioiis. After ton ycun uf Kcnicc tlie plant is now in vurj* good coti- 
ditioD. Three years nfo hyrtrBulic cylinders were put in for the pur^ 
Kpo«e of oppnUing thn charKing doors. Mr. Samuel A. CJreeley wna 
^Eri peri n ten dent of the plnnt (or the fimt fifteen months of operation. 
HUc W&8 I'ui'coedcd by Mr. -lufieph E. Kuddy, who Ik t<till in charge. 
H i. Berkdey. — The Sterling incineratiir at Uerkeley (J. J. .lewup, 
Vcity Engineer), was built in 11tl3. The pUint is housed in n Rtecl 
And reiofoirced oonorele building h&vnng large windon-n and con> 
retiient doorwa>'« for acce«s lo th« refuse-receiving pit and the fur- 
nace room. 

The incinerator waa doianed by IlughcM and Sterling, and is of Ihe 
»p-feed typ« with Ihree cell*, llie mftlerinl t» firsil fed to a drying 
behtod Uie grate, and i» dragged upon the hitter rh needed. 
ti-preaaufB forced draft supplier the air under the Hiw. Three 
fipstea are placed side by side, opening one into the other, nilh a 
eommon eombuflion chamber at one end in which the temperature u 
not lew thati 1200" Fahr. From this chamber to the- xtack Ihe garcii 
pan over the heating fiurfaces of an Abendmth-Hoot water-lnlie 
boiler and then through a reiEcneralor of iron and t^teel tuhe^ net into 
tbe floe. The forced draft v» liupplied by a blower, and the air 
paann between the bested regenerator tubes, which raise it« teuiiwra- 
ture to above 3.MI'. 

The refuse is taken from the dumping pit by a grab-biieket, car- 
ried on a muoorail i-rntin running on an I-henm in the roof space of 
thft bufldill|^ Tbe huckfit dumpa into one of the three steel charging 
eontainara, onealrnvn each cell. Tbe furnace w eharged by hydraulie 
rauM. with Talveii contmlled from tlio stoking floor. 

Tli« tFir«rnnti«a for the plant were Thai it shall destroy 48 tons 
' in Iwonly-fnur houn^; that the xtenm generated in 

Ill and al 212* Fnhr., ahall not Iw Icn than 1 lb. per 

«t rtfuse consuiued; that tlie minimum temperature in tbe 



1 



408 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BEPVSB 

combustion ctrnmbcr Bhall not be less than 1250° Fahr.; and that at 
Irast 53 lb. of rcfuee per sciuare foot of grate area per hour shall be 
burned. 

The performance of the plant during the official test exceeded the 
Ruarnnticrt, and during the subsequent operation waa quit« satisfactory 
&K to coniplctc incineration without offense. However, its use was 
discontinued for a time, when it was found less expensive to dump all 
the refuse at sea. 

6. Savannah. — Plans and a section of the refuse incinerator at 
Savannah are shown in Fig. 100. They are described by the Chief 
Knpinoer of the city, Mr. Conant. 

The incinerator is of the Heenaii-Froude type, and was completed 
in March, 11>1-1. It haii: a daily capacity of 130 tons, including gar- 
bage, rubbish, ashes, and stable sweepings. The plant is built near 
the city water-works piini|)ing station, and steam from its boilers is 
carried by a pijie directly to the steam header in the water-works 
b«>iler riv)ni. 

The plant con.>ists of two fi-Vton furnaces, and each unit haf four 
cells, about iS in. wide on the Imttom, 34 in. at the top, 16 in, deep, and 
S ft. lone. Kaeh unit has a sei«rate cttmbuslion chamber of large 
si.*e. a ■.^XVll,p, \YieVes water-tube b»>ilcr. an air heater, and a cen- 
trifuiial fan l\>r supplying fi>rotHi draft. The cells are fitted with 
triMicii i;r:»t<>>. 

T!ie ci'iiiraet i.t the plant inchidctl the cunstniction of the building 
in whiih ;1 is hon-isi. a nveivimi pji h.ivins a ca(»acity of 260 cu. yd., a 
Tt^Ci'iierat.T or pre-heaJer, a;; eUvTrie hoi^i iVr iran,*ferTine the refuse 
fn^ni ihe >:or:n:e y-' :o :!;e iv:i!:ii;-.er*. ;he nci^c^^an,- instruments for 
n;i\->Mir;;-,i; ar.^i rtwr.l-.tic :!;e .^>:■..:;:i.>^.s a! The fumaees. and a .^team 
t.ir'.v -T ev..::v,i--i:r:Mr. ci"r.i-;i:.^r o:* TTi kw. to supily the current for 
lii:V.;;v.t; ;V,e :\;i;,; sr.,; .-.vnw.r.t :V.e ;v.v:. :, 

IVi.I-. .vV ';•.:.> .-i tr?.:e .'in-.i .:' :>' ?■: :'• . .■i:..i cn-h i>oilw a heating 
s',:r::i.v ,■: ".^lVX^ >- ;r sv.; a « r'n::.; :>?:^-.:rt- ■:" IfV lb. per square 
ir..'h Vl:t- >:s--k ■:' r:-,.v..s'. ";—.,■ s .■ v-tr-.u": t . i* l.Vfi. hich and fij ft. 
jv.>-..;i- ,;.A".-.-.:i7 ,i: : ;.=■ :. :- VS" r-.-.-.- .y.i ^: rac? pii is 3i ft. long. 
■.'. :: «■,.".,• ;-• .: .V ■: .-.ivv ', ■ ; -;:.-.-:• > rsi^o^i r-y a crab-bucket 
w ... ,A- :■ . V ■: ,.-.- -, -. :.■ > ■■■...-: v.: ^-.-r..-: extra handling. 

\ .-.■-■■: ..■ ^> ..." ■■•■■■ -, if-.' ~,";^-l Vy T'r.ip crab-buckets, is 

■,- ■• v \.- ,■ . -■ ": ,- ;. . ■ ■ ::■-■ • .'.*■ .:: : cm. yd., and is 

» -.■ - ■■ - ■ - .1 ■ -v .•.:-■ pin?. Each cell 

"■.■■.■.- ■ ■-. - ■ ., > . - -^ : ■ f ;>.€- crate is com- 

'■■• - :'t.&: ibsre is free 

'. ' >• ■. • " : ■. :. tr.'.-'i«- arc of he«^-y 

4-*.'.: .-. ,. .- 7, -.v .. ■■,.;o.; >.- .'.> :. f ■ ; yr:j<K i»Trir«aiion of air 



410 rOLLECTIOX ASD DISPOSAL OF MIXICIPAL REFUSE 

throughout the refuf«, and, at the same time, secure the maximum 
cooling effect on the iron supports. The clinker car is of special de^^. 

The superSeater is of the Foster type, and the air heater is at the 
back of the boilert'. The air for the forced draft is taken from the 
ventilating system in the building. 

The guaranties for the plant were: That it shall be capable of 
destro>ing, under normal operation and without additional fud, 
130 tons of mixed refuse in twenty-four hours: that no obnoxioiu 
gasea shall ei^:ape from the chimney or the building: that at 
no time, during normal operation, shall the temperature fall below 
1250* Fahr. : that an average temperature of 1500° Fahr. shall 
be maintained in the combustion chambers: that the steam gen- 
erated in the boilers, from and at 212° Fahr., shall not be less than 
1.3 lb. per pound of refuse consumed: and that the net effecti%'e boiler 
capacity for steam utilisation, over and above that required for oper- 
ating the plant, shall be 330 h.p., based on 34.5 lb. per boiler horse- 
power. 

The cost for incineration under the stated conditions was not to be 
more than 40.4 cent-s per ton. The refuse to be burned per hour per 
square foot of grate surface was not to be less than 68 lb. 

The official test shows that all the guaranties were fulfilled. The 
total cost of the plant was about S125,000. Regarding the operation, 
Mr. Coiiaiit says: 

" All the refuse brought to the plant is weighed and then dumped into the 
storage ho|i))er at the ground level. It is taken from the hopper by a grab- 
bucket operated by an electric transporter, and delivered to the containere, 
one of which is located over each cell of the funiace. .\t the bottom of the 
containers is a solid door, operated hydraulirally, the operating of which is 
done on the stoking floor, which enablrs the stokers to fill their grates in accord- 
ance with the roiuiremeiits of their fires. 

" Stoking is dune through a supplement ani' door, which avoids the necesntf 
of opening the large dour through which the clinker {» withdrawn. 

" The clinker formed on the grate is rcnioved by seDii-mechanical mraitf. 
The aides of the grates diverge sliglitly fnini the rear to the stoking door 
There is a. large bar to which is fiuitcned :» plate which forms an uptiiiiK<l 
hoe laid on the l>o(tom of the grate Iw-fcire the first churge is dro|q>ed upon it. 
and the clinker is ]iulle<l out iMnlily by (xiwor oht;iiiu-d from a hydraulicall}'- 
driven winch onto a hand-pushwl cnr. which is pullc<l over a level, paved sur- 
face to the dump. Thi.s mclliod <if clinkoring iMrniits of the clinker being 
removed from the gmti-s within from three to tour miniiles. The platform at 
the dump in on the s;iim> level :is the sloking (lour, the clinker is dropped ui»ii 
a sheet-iron pliiifunii, and is scrai>ed into w:igoTis or ciirts and hauled a^ay- 
While withdruwing the clitiker, rcguhitiug v:i!vfs are o|MTated so as to shut 
off the uir supply from the air heater. 



tKaSlltiATIOS OF HEFVSB 



4X1 



" One pipai k(liiintaii> o( the ftirnans nt thifl plant, ovct (immcM con- 
cur lit *ouip nllirt dliux. m that » der^i fire ie mainlainod, wIimIi cnnblcfl 
wrt (Hifiion uf the rcfuM ro Ih> ituirv thcirou^jr dried and dtatroyed thao 
sluillow fcratr* In my opinion, tbe miccMs of this plant ia partly due io 
liarticutiu' foitun:. 

" Thi> a\-emia> liuiB of biiniins n rliarite in l«-ciily iniDut«it. Usually ax 

I are ina^tc for oiu'ti t'ljiilciT produced on th*^ (irat««. Whrn tlwr plant h 

arkinx at itA full, or Qc&ily full. ra{wclty, thr labor required b oitcrnlix] in 

w NhifU ()C ngiiL huitnc rm-li \Vilh lli« dtwlrU'Vliun nf fnini HU tii 7f> tnmt 

paibagc, uiily unv tiiiil in un^\ with llwe ahlfla ol lalwr This im licltcf 

to tiM' iwii iibifia, triirkinic IkiiIi funiacn, fur a more vvun RUpply uf steam 

I ddivered to the piunpiri); ^lulion 

" During July and Aufcuiit, vhcn thr drlivc;?)' of watermelon rinds awrmtrm 
' luna daily, thin amuiuil nf extra wi-t ^rbuKi^ bringing ibr perrantage of 
aUiK ahovf l(i<- gimninty, it. only d(s1roy(<d tty adding dry material which 
I MiHii-iim hrot imittf li> ulfMt the rxmoiivn jnoLiturt- in iW Kiirlmicc. Thu 
l»Riu|jit about by addiiii^ lO'^f. in n-viglit of cindm ruUcvtRl from manu- 
irturins plnntx With the addition of IImmv ciiidrrx ci>inpletv cocnbiutioo fit 
■ guhmg/s a otttaincd." 



6- Ridgewood. — A npcarip inrinffrnt4)r for Queens BorouKfa. New 
Tork City, waf built at UidgewwKi «.m\ put in operation in April, iyi6. 
[icre are two AO-toii uniiii, whirh may l>e o|)eretiHl wparatcly or 
etiicr. The funinrc^ nre huucctt in n bn<^k liuilding Imving rein- 
furuHl coniTete Hoors and a roof of Spaiutili tiles. The chimtwy is of 
idisi lirirk construe tiun, :uid is 6 ft. b diameter and 150 ft. high. 

A epecial feature of the plmit i» tJic alweucv uf uuy storage bins. 
Jl mnlcrtal to t>e t>iiriioct » dumped on the upixir floor, and panes 
the funiacen through hop|)cr Di>oninK». Karh unii m cApabie of 
holding 16 cu. yd, of parhaf^c and rubbish at one tiino, n-ithotil tend- 
ing ill any way to smother tlie Gre^ TbU it iiiadv possible by the 
blUfkH-gmte coualnicliou, a marked fvature of the Decaric desiga. 

Kjich unit Iiiu4 it.t itAK-mmbustian chatnl>er, pro-hraler, and bnth 
indulged- and forc«l-drafl fans. The fans for the iiidufcd-drafl ore 

r«o, S Sirocco, and tho^c for the forced draft arc No- 1 10 Special, both 
inafip hy the Aiitorirun Blower Company. All fnn»> nr« driven by 
steum eiiEinw. the fteuin being gcuerated in the water jacketo uf the 
furnseea by the burning refuse. 

All materialK were tn be conrtumed to a niiiieral a»h practically 
frre from organic matu-r. imd the pinnt in it« operation vns to cause 
lo nuLianee through the eBcafw of obnoxious odors, gasfls, or duat 
m\ either the huilding or the stack: The nsult«t of the official 
*t are uhown in Table 12:2 (iindef TratK). 

In llitt t(!st. the plinit ex(-ei-i]ed its rated capacity by frt)ni 48 to 
i% with uaits opernling separately, and by 3S.S% when both units 



412 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVNICIVAL HKFVSB 



vtn working, burning as much ss 73.4 lb. of nifoM p«r square foot nf 
grate urra \ivT hour, witliout auy fud or doatatie nabes to belp taaisk- 
UuB Uic temperature. 

Analywti of tbe kam-s when Innving; thi> stock sJiomK) an averrngs 
of about 6 to %% <jf curboti dioxide, &n eznesa of free oxyicrn of about 
169c ('lu^i o* wuiw, lo the forced draft), together willi a Inwe fA_ 
suljihur dioxide. There wui no rartton muDuxide or liytlrtigBa 
pbide prccwut. Then was no dark frtnoke. 

Tbe averugc temporalures in the gas-eombuxtion eluimboiv showj 
thai thi! pluiit orciipicit a |>ut<itiun bct«'cen the hiKh-lemperalure anil| 
the iilow-hurning Inw-icmp«ra(ure typc«. The tomperalure iu thi 
furnace proper wan high, and the tin r«U0. bottlwt, crockery, etc^ 
weze fused into a vitreoufi clinker. The hot forced draft was essen- 
tial in obtaining theire resuKt:, and slaved the addition of fuel which 
otbcrwKiic woidd have been ncct«»ar>'. The plant yuBs built by 
Kdly aud KcUy, of Long IiJaud City, for 198,700, and the machinery , 
was ftmiRhed aod set up by tbe Decarie Incinerator Company, o( 
Minneapolifi. 

7. Top«ka.— The followiag de!«eription of tbe garbage furnace at] 
Topeka wtLt prepared by it.-< desi|;Qer. Mr. S. R. Lewis. Ii sbouldl 
be cJae&cd txa a low-t«mperature furnace. 

"The icaibaiK and refuw rumac* at Topeka «aa buOt in 1900. It ii tbi| 
fim pbuii of tbe Lewi* type. 

" 'I'heiv siv two (umnmt, hark to hack, eaeh having thine grate uaiu. j 
Tltc f uniane are heavily bfaced with vertical pain of 6-in. I-beaiAs and boti* j 
lontal cbaiinriif optxMite thr nkewharkf of all arcbes. la addition, all tlx 
walls are of 9 in. of fira-brkk hacked with 9 in. of eoBUBOO brick, and «ii 
efacathcd in an air-liKht sted casing to prevent ait infiltration. 

" Eaeh Rrtitc unit hju a shaking grate and a hearth doping at i5*, the area | 
of each bcarth being approidmately three time* that of the grate. 

" Tbe gnibage and refuve (the plant is nut iutendnl lo handle aifaea) oiaj 
duroped directly from the wageoB into tii^t, *l«el bins, tnm tbe Mrand i 
level, raidtcd bj on indiat^ drhrewny . Coondenble material i> faiuu^t byl 
rocrefaants af the city in their awn eonTeyaaoea- ECach bin bokfaafaouL l| 
cu yd. In tbe botlom of each bin is a riiding piKtan having a rectproeaUng 
notion, and ^mkiI ten stnikee ate miiutrd to fine the refuse in a thin sbeel, 
thioo^ tbe autatnatir fire door, at the lumaee end of each bin, into the fn^, 
oaee. 

" The irf iiM- falb at tbe top of tbe indinod arched Iwartb. and, without! 
ap]>reruhlc hftiiil Moking. itk>wly rulb or idMea <lmni iIm> inHtnit \a lb«^ 
tndined arched hearth n hut 30 in frcm tlio )>nnil< ' :rrhaboT« 

it. and aa aJI the pmducW nf mmbuKtion imM pit =raee, the 

inrotBing ntateriat i» wamMyl luid in a large nctent burBed before it roaebsa 1 
grata. At the chanting doon aiv gefinaUy doted wboi the feeding nucfaaiutn ' 
ki la opetatioo, and in any event tbe door lo ibc tumace tram tbi; atorage bin 



iSCINERATION OF SKFVSB 



413 





I obnlnirtiHl hy reftiw nnlil the t^n it nearly empty, llui fcvding o( refuae may 
lN>Mtld to tw' r;tninJ im tJinniKli nii iiir liii-k. 

' llir tiinv funuicas on eu<.'ti sidtt uk> in sdrits. so Lhat the hcst fffcct IS 
CiimHUtivr, antl, on Uiis nocount, itic unit neannL tlw t'htmnc)- hiiK proved 
< IwTo rutinidKnltly more burning caiiaciiy than the unit fartltesi amy froni 
Am nil ndhiw «tv Imniiol, ihrn' >>> IKUc-rJinlLnr awn rmiilluf tike fluualMUtion, 
l)i< nhiikii^x K»)C<)< luivi* ]>nir<.il eutiBTnctoo'- 'I'ticy luusl ba of a type, 
fr. ntil i-.tsily cIuitKi.'il hy lunltt-n iA»M ur metal. 
' Thi^ furnitce ia o)M-rut'>(l oii the oontinuoui, rothtr than the cbarfp, 
prindpl« Tba rcfuM b oonsuntly entering, without undue air IcKkagOi and 
^L th» tnnpenttum, butntnl tiy ikildnl fuo). » easily held ranstAnt. 
^f " After |)«wui|t over the lluni lu-urlh, the guMc div« down tnlo a v«ry large 
oimltUjiticM) c)iunl)cr. IcairiRK !< fur l.he rliiitincy nvnr tbe floor. Tliia nhMDhcr 
bu Itt tunitt itic (>ro»-M>eiiflDal Mva of the chisuiey, and luw been found quite 
mirfartory as a dust arrotcr. 

' An piijit-ttc)ur fwl run. with a rnlJhrat«d dectric pymmeter in the ooio- 

[ Inuitinn rlumb«rr, Ift ft. beyoiid the U«t graU' unit, nhowod an a^-trnfER tempore 

!uf KUO' It wivimY^Msnry tohumahdUl 120lli i>f ixud i>er Uiiiof mixed 

to maintain this t«>fnprraturp Hilh wet Kuibnice exclusivvty, it haa 

been fritind txxvw^ry in burn <u much as 225 lb. of eodl per too of garbage ia 

maJnlain 1201)'' Fbhr. in iho awibiuilioQ chamhcr. 

" Tn show tho imiMirtancN: of Ih* air litcdi luid raiitinuou)) nlov'fooding, 

jvpvatpd tcato liave been made, ut>ing tlic diargioii |iiriitoipl« common to 

|juTn«(<e9 of oldw il«sign. throiinh emeneeney dirwjt ho|ipcT8, whieh are always 

VrovtdMJ Insli^ t4 a ^nmitaiit tomtxtrntun! of around 1100°, the «>robu3k 

«i (iluiintitv jiyrurni'KT i<li<>weil an imnitxliaui drop to 900° or Ifiwcr when the 

DpIKr wait o|)«i«l, and a shiw DH'iivery whik thv ehiirite of c»ld, wvi material 

^Jnt abaorbiiiR hvnt from I he furnnn: walls and fnim the Grv. 

" The invreue in llw Ufc of the fumacc over older ly|we is notable. After 

Dtir ytnn' rtui, thi-re wn» <ui npiirc-eiohte d('f>reoialiofi. exeept amund tho 

Fidoora, and uii rxiictiditurv of a tnthnji sum covered the repairs needed, the 

•iiddcn and vide vurialionn in |rjTi|Mrnki.ui«. inevitable when charging ihniui^ 

op«n hoppeta, aa done in a ebimuey-dnift fumnee. are eliminatMl The 

hconfa, with iU al'.'cp olope, hcat«d on ouc nidc oulyt and built of brick mtfav 

tlma bliirlu, bid* fair lo laat aa Iodj^ as the fumaoe. 

IJj^ " Tho Topaka plant u in a parte, near the btudiMMi oBnter of the city, and 

^^B huiucal in a MulMianliid hriek building The plant is rated to bum 0000 lb. 

•^lA riifuBo per hour " 

Thl« plant bai- been closed. 

8. MIoDflapoUs. — The ^rbage and iiome of the refuso of Mintie- 
'iltfi are Immcd in a earbagc funiuce built by the Dcrnrie Iricincmtor 
Jyniixiny. The fiipniipe is dcflipicrl to burn garbaRC and rubbish, 
riih the ndditinii of coal when reiiuired, but u not suitable for buni- 
on larce(|iiaiitilirfi. Theplnnt :>tandauDalargcopcn piece uf 
ml hiia b«*ii opernti^ with fair suwexs under the Huper- 
oC I>r Hall, Su|icrint«iiilent of the Health Oeparlmcot. 



414 COLLECTIOX AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFVSS 

9. MUmi. — This rapidly growing city has a plant burning garbage 
and rubbish. However, it is not of sufficient capacity for the needs of 
the city, and has to be operated at a very high rate of combustion, 
which compels the use of about 1 ) cords of wood per day, in addition 
to the rubbish. Under these conditions, the cost of operation per t<m 
is greater than it would be if the capacity were greater. 

Under the super\-ision of Mr. C. W. Murray, the City Engines, 
the operation has been conducted with special intelhgence and care, 
so that, even under unfavorable conditions, there have been no com- 
plaints of objectionable odors. It is intended soon to enlarge the 
plant, the extensions being built on improved designs. 

The cost has been : 

1 i cords of wood at t7.00 S10.50 

20 laborers at 3.00 60.00 

1 foreman at 5.00 5.00 



(75 00 
Cost per ton, SI .68. 

10. Nye Incinerator. — This is one of the latest furnaces offered 
for burning garbage and rubbish without ashes. It is comparatively 
simple and operates ^mewhat on the Dutch oven principle. It is 
practically square, and is arranged to receive separately dr>- and wet 
refuse in a single large compartment. The refuse is dumped through 
two openings at the top and is burned on a concrete floor. One 
opening receives the dry material, such as rubbish or trash, which 
drops through a chute immediately to the grate: the other receives 
the wet garbage, including watermelon rinds, night-soil, and small 
dead animals. This latter material drop$ on a shallow pan where its 
surplus moisture is evaporated. The dried material is finally burned 
with the rubbish into which it has been raked. 

The furnace is lined with fire-brick to retain the heat and reBeet 
it on the refuse. To conse^^-e the heat, there is an automatic arrange- 
ment for pre-heating the air supplied to the ashpit under the grate. 
Thi.« pre-heating is accomplished by passing fresh air through flues 
below the concrete floor and ther. behind the side-walls of the furnace. 
A combustion chamber is provided where the gabies from the different 
parts of the furnace floor are united and burned, and where a tempera- 
ture of 1500' has been reached. From this chamber the gases are 
broucht back throueh flues under the wet garbage pan before they 
escajK" throuph the stack. 

Care must l*e taken to have each kind nf refuse uniformly mixed 
before it is dumped iuio the openings, as otherwise great fluctuationa 



JKCIlfEBATIOff OF REFUSE 



in temperature will rotuU, 1b« lower temperatures being tivtufBcient 
^ur tlKirouxl) cumbiiKlioii, und result iui; in uduivuf this furacM and itmoko 
oipinft from ilir Hrnnk. 
No alU'iiipt IioA Weil made to uliUr^ the heat for iccnrrntinx :<tr.iii) 
.»t tlie«« tamMe». It i« said tiiat, ordinarily, no extra comntercial 
lel n omh}. ah tlie lifat of t1t«t burning ruhbinb U sufBcieiit tu An\9 
Iht inowturv from Die vol KarbnRR. But in Honie of the plants the 
tho eombuetion produces imfufTicii'iit beat fur thi> odorlet^ incineration 
the wbote. 

Aa suob iacineratora are not usually operated eoDtinuoualy, it is 
oeccMsry to start tlie Bnn fretiuently. For lliin purpoNC, either 
•electixl rulibi»li u-bidi, wtiL-n burnud, will nut produce oHeiisiTe odors 
mufil bf used, or spncially hu ppliod fuel. 

locincratoni of this type arc in operation in Jnck>nnvt)le. Fla., 
[ Clint tAnooga, T«nn., Brunswick, Ga,, AnniKtou, Ala., Norfolk, Va., 
?llu)in Bay Naval ii»*#, X. Y., and other jilacus. 

11. U. S. Army Cantonments. ^Iii(;iiictiit.<>n< of varioun mech and 
typc», ranging Eroin xmidl liiMpilal or kitchentypei) tounit-i hnviiiK rnted 
capaciti4!tt of oO tons per twvnty-fuur bmm, were built at varinua 

tArniy post« and Cant«nracn1<j. Tlicir purpor^e was to provide u place 

|(or llie complete and sanitary diHpdsnJ by incincrntion of any wtL«t« 

itlcr cunlaininK disease germs, totcn'hcr with nibblth and mich por- 

ion^ of Ibr fpirtiiigc and nmnure a« could not b« dt^poeed of by aale. 

Thew inciiieratorx were intended to liuve Huffici^iit capacity to 

|di«po0« of the entire output of RarbaKC and refupv produced each day, 

thieh waa estimated al from 1.5 to 2.0 lb. j>er man per twenty-four 

"hourn. 

The larger tneitMrators eonnsted of n suitable trAu^fer platform 

receiving the cans from the various partM of the enmp, the can- 

ifiuthing equipment, and the incinerator proper, with appropriate 

-proof buillling^ for the i)errjiane»l camp^. The iiicineraton; were 

It of different dpsiicns, in neoordance »ith tlic viiriouu conlracton' 

I, but were i^neratly of the ftarbiiRC furnace type, compriaiiig 

ur more grateti set io brickwork and encased eiilirely in reinforced 

et«. A urate for bitmin)( coal or other additiunal fuel, and a 

I oprntoe for dead nnimiils ware al-io included. 

At moet t(f ihe Army Cantoomcnla the garbage proper van sold 

l4) enntracUirs lor hog feeding, and tbe ineitieratorii wer^: used for 

rnbbifh iMirninit. 

12. HootretL — A Brittsli refuae incinerator, or <li\'«trurtor, was 
buill in Montreid in IS!)4. Mr Charles Thackeray erected a plant 
which waa a alislit modiflcation of the Fryer dei'iun. placinic the relb 

ek, ainl wilb u common charsin^ platform on top. Tbs 



■or 



Ire- 



ine 



416 COU.ECTIOX AXn DISrtiSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

fire grates are inclined and rocking in onler to muve the refuse forward. 
AliMut 1012 it na.' determined tu sepiirate most of the ashes from 
the rest of the rvfuse and iliini[i tlicm ^e]>:ir:itely at near-by points. 
The reason given was thi- insiifticicnt size of the incinerator. Sifting 
through a fino-iiK<sh scni>u had been tried, in order to reduce the 
quantity, bm it was soon found that this was too expensive to make 
it worth while, and that in damp weather the siftings became foul. 
In summer \'20 tons and in winter 70 tons were incinerated per day. 

13. WestmounL — The fir^^t r^uceessful British refuse incinerator, 
or destructor, in Amerii-a, was erected at Westmount, in 1906, acd wai 
of the " Meldrum top-ipeil "' type. It consisted of three grates, having 
a total area tif 7.'> m\. ft., a combustion chamber, a Babcock and Wilccn 
water-tube boiler having '2l\>7 si), ft. ui heating surface, and a regen- 
erator. The steam is fully utilizinl. in connection nith the combined 
electric plant, for oper.itine the wurks and illuminating the town. 

The buihlings are of brick, and the chimney, of the Custodis type, 
is l-iO ft. hich. The plant is in a central location, and has a reryfar- 
orable site, as the refuse is delivered to the storage hoppers at an 
elevation which [.•ermits ii to pass through the furnaces to the clinker- 
ing tioor by gravity. See Fig. 101. 

Forced draft is provided by steam-jet blowers, and the figures of 
the official tc>t show that very Eood results h.ive V)een obtained. 

In March. I'.'UV iiu t-\tc!i-ion 'T duplicate plant was added, increas- 
ing the CLipacity by ,M> ti'iis per twoi;ty-ii>ur iiours. This is of the 
Hccnan tMp-ieed lyjx'. ami con-isis .if liirw crates 75 sq. ft.l. a com- 

bii-tion ciianibcr. a bui'i k a:;d Wi'.cx water-tulie boiler having a 

hiatinc sun'aic i-:' "-1','7 -'i. :'t,. a suiHrhca:cr. and a regenerator. The 
liTicd drafi i* \'i';;ii:iCii wi;!i a iciitrifunal fan. (lil in. in diameter, 
coupled dircitly ii. ;;» i-ticl.'v-d. vertioal. hisih-six-ed engine. 

The iflU'wiiis; iriijir.;;::;!- w-'re iiivcn: 

1. That :;:c pi:i:;: -;.;:': ■i- l':i;i::;'.c ■■: '^•■■.t'.aws. to a hard innocuous 
clinker, ."ttl Ti-us o; rofti-i- ii-r i:;-.y if ;wi:^ty-i'vur hours, or '20 tons in 
tc:i li.'urs. 

'1. Th;\t -V.t' I'm:;!-'-.:-!-.!;-. :' •':.■> r.::-!' -h:'.;! Ix' complete, and free 
ir->T:i !;,:U:v.;.i'. ;■.:.■; ii;rii :. ■ .-.■■;- vr :.■ \i. \s na-c- shall L>e emitted 
!r-'r:i :;;■- '.;:vT;i'y, 

:! T:,::' ''..>- •.Mi;!vr::--:-f ;■ "'■:-•:.■:■. i'T::inilvr, in normal 

w.rk.ii:. wi'!'. rif-:-f ■ :' ;•. r/.j ■.. - '■ '. ■■ ■ -';i;l Ik-Ikw I.'rfM)" 

>■;.'. r . ;i:..; ■;;:.: tiic ■.■.\ ■.•■.. ^•. ■'■■ ■ .:■. '...... !■. :vv.\ 171HI lo IMHJ" 

l;.t.: 

! 1": :i:, Hi: ■.:■■■:':-•■■:,.■■■■ ._ :..'■■.■ ■ •-. ;i->r:iiiiiii i.f IJ lb. 

v-:' i*Li'.;r per p-;;:.'! ■■:" r. " .-^ 1.2 r:,hr.. shall be 

oi:rii:.ed. 



4W COLLB^-TIOS ASD DISPOSAL OP MVStCtPAL BEPVSM 

7*h« oflirul teMU pntved that th« ipiaruities were foDy met, and tfce 
inanKnt/ir hwi remaini^ in imccestFful Bad economieal operaticm. 

Tlw dinber ftnd wheK are taken sway, at no cort to tbe ehy, and 
utilizfw] Tor t'ivIk, concrete basement flocffs, and for malcing co im el » 

l/iiildinff Morkfi. 

Kig. KK! ipven the daily output cun-es recorded by ^le^ns. Roa 
ar>'I tiiAgate, entpncffm, in 1905. For each hour frqm aftenotHi unti 
tnorriinx there are ipven curves for 150 arc lights, the madmum (winter) 
btiil the minimum (Hummcr) incandescent lighte. The deficiency cf 
power obtained frtjm the incinerator, when it occura, is supplied fnnn 
ciM\-ftTMl iKiilertt. The total capital account of the incinerator plant 
iii«Um,nt)l.76. 

During the fiscal year 1918-19 there were consumed 8032 tons 
of KarbHKe and rubbiHh and 10,627 tons of ashes. From this consump- 
tion a credit of $4872.46 was ^ven for heat value on the year's cost of 
opt^ratinK the plant. 

The followinp; statement is taken from the annual report of Mr. 
(leo. W. Thompson, GcneriU Manager, for tbe year ending October 
31, 1019. 

IIkvkkuk and Expendittrb at the Refithe Incinerator at WsBmorm, 

Que. 

For 12 moDth* eodins October 31, 1910. 

Revenue 

Fuel vnhiP of refuse consumed and rharged to 

Hoiitric liKht operations $4,872.48 

Interest earned 981,33 

$ 5,853.79 

lli'ultli Duparlraent, for deatniction of refuse 19,464.52 

$25^.31 

ExPENDITURZ 

OlHTiitiriK oxpenRoa $14,998.34 

OfHTiitinK a«h dump ',380.21 

$16,378.55 

Intorcst on debentures $4323 59 

NinkiiiK fund for rodcmption of bonds. .. lOtiO 112 

I>i.Ms on siilo of Umih 53 78 

■ J5.437 1»!> 

KestT^-f for tlt'iinvintion 3,501 . 77 

S25318^ 

As 19.707 tons of refuse were collected, the actual roet of indixTstiBS<** 
ton waa $1.28. 



TIS'BHATIO.V (>y liEFUSS 




W 



14. Vancouver. — A ITnniiftii and Froude incinerator nf 40 tont 
ifwcity waH built in Vancouver (populalioD, 60,000) in 1907. Tbe 

ma (ninifd ("ontsinc*! 4(»r( gnrbngo and muritrt wAi'tc, 40% a«bos, 
and I2';7 trnd<- r«fm<e. It hax one unit of three cella, comhustton 
ittinbcr, fan draft, and pre-hcatcd air, a t55-li.p. Babcoc): and Wilcox 
ler, a chimoey 120 ft. higU. back food, and vlinkeriug fruro tbe 
I. The iKiwrr is UH«d for operating and lighting the wurkii, aod 
iDR* are nlM name lights Hupplicd outside. 
The refuse liumed per man-hour was 1.04 tons (ft men eight hours 
ih). 

The clinker wan one-third of the refuse ddiverrd, hard and well 
rnod. Tlie l^'niperfitiin? in the rnnihustinn rhaudier wne from 
!500 to 20011' r»hr. The tcmiwrature of the forced draft was from 
511 (o flOO' Fahr. The uvniKjratiun repurU;d wua 0.52 lb. of wuler 
per pouEid of refuse. No nuL-tunce vra» caused about the plant. 

15. Toronto. — The incinerator at Toronto krs built in 11)12 under 
the MUprrvi^on of [. S. Onboru. It has a guaranteed capacity of ISO 
tone i«ir day of twenty-four hrnirs, there being three fumacctit in opcra- 

n. In the ofiieiiil cn|i«eity tes.1 the results exceeded the gunranly 
ty 33?^. Tbe plant Ls now operated with one nhift daily, and the 
pacily of the throe furnuees in from BOO to 67» tuns per week of 
( da>'9. 
Tbe operating cxpcmtcs have been reduced recently, due principally 
changes in the furnaee and eontniner doors, which were first oper. 
,t<Kl hy water preiwurt^ and are now operated by comprctwed air. 
ree extensions of the tipping floor have recently been built, and 
uve alnd caused u iimli-ria) reduction in the catt of o[)eration. 

16. Watford, En^and.— Goodrich sl«tee ' that the Meldrum 
eetructor at Watford — about 17 mileu north of London' — combined 
fith the sewa|!,c pumping pliLnt, is one of the most succetieiful in Great 

Britain. (S««e Kig. 1(13.) The furnace is a. front-feed M^nerative 

estructor, and consumes about 27 tons of refuse daily, working con- 

inuously for about 150 hourK per week. Sleam, at a pressure of 

20 lb. per B(|Uan> inch, ia supplied to Worthingtnn jiumpa and air 

mprcwor engintw. About 1,000,000 kaI. of sewaicr are puni|>ed i»er 

ty-four hour? to a height of 8.4 ft., and an additional 500,000 kbI. 

are puin|jed by the air I'onipreK^orA and ejector plant. 

The deotructor wa? ^Ia.rtetl on March 31. UN)4, and tbe following 
figures,! covering the first two years of working, Goodrich stales, 
are perhaps without parallel among combined works of the kind:" 




t> " Tho CollnMlan and niapoHl of Munid^nl Wuip." by W. P. Monc. 
tP«f Uw mnrrnioaiv of Anioncaa nmim, Uir Buflisli B(una )»v* Iibpu nourarlMl Int9 
Ant«H«a*, laliinc ll>« Rnctiih p«iLnil »i«ritB(M*^iullo$4.M|. 



420 COLLECTION AST) DIUPOfiAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

For year ondinf;: 

March 31, 1904. liefore erection of destructor S4S92.33 

March 31, 1905. Aft*r erection of destructor 774.87 

March 31, 1906. After erection of destructor 1146.73 

Fimt year's working of dcBtmctor, saving in eoai bill. 3815.02 

Add revenue from sale of clinker 493.66 

Add re\-enue from sale of old tins 39.30 

Second j-ear's workintt of destructor, saving: in coal bill 3t45.60 

.\d<l re\-en»ie from sale of ctinker and residuals. 984.65 

Total TOvinfE for two years $8778.43 

Total cost of repaim and maintenance 82.49 



ni!?«* 




SECTION C-D 



Fill. 1(13- I'liin :inil S.-ili..i:- ■■! Miliinnii I'V-itnictor. Watford, En^nd. 

.Kriini '" Tbr Ci.l1i.-ii.-.r. ari.l PiPiH^SiJ of Maiiiiija- W.isn." by W, F. Munr.) 

The penernl armnp'iiioiit "f tI.o pl;ir.t is -hnwTi in Fir. 103. The 
h..t (ra?e>. iiftor p:is>iiic ilu- I'l'iliT, nrf iMili/e.l fiT hentinf; the air for 
CHii!l'Li>iiiiii ill ,1 Mt^li'.nnii r>-i;ii;i!:ii. r. ;iii<i :il-i> fur heating the boiler 
fii-ii-\v:it(r ill a iJriH'iiV iv. 'iL-iT:;i.ir, I'.i- t''!ii[VT!i turps Iteing aliout 
Sllll Mi:il -."'O" F:ilir.. rt-}V'iTivrli , 
rrL'i'iii r:il>T ::i;ii roi'iii'iiujer Tf\y. 
fri-;5i ny. :inr:icc of I'^iH'' F:.'!ir.. 
ll:-' l"i]!i-r. t.-:.i>i.Li; 4l'li" V:A -. :.; ■ 

Tl.r >:<-:, i!;-:'n-»i:!-i' ri'i-. ■-■<!! r .1: 
tl.n'i^thiiUi :lit' iwi'iil\-;"<';.T !. ;t 



')\c l.i\ilim; Mirfnce^ of the Imilcr 
i:;i :hi- li :;;;>iT:iIure of the pn>f^ 
::. ;'.■ .■■■■.: !;;-iiini chamluT Ix-forc 

■LIT. -■:.--■ . :, ■■ . TV -ifady jiressure 



ISnSKfiATiOS OF KBPrSK 



421 



I 



17. St. Albans, England.— The nennnn destructor ftt St. Albwu 
^ oil exrclicnt oxainplc of a <n'e!l-<lcfiiKue<l plunt of the front-feed type. 
Vherv xrc two 3-grale iinita witli combuBtiun chambers, and two 
Il«)»cock aod Wilcox boilcn. having u heating eurfacr or about 2000 
. ft-, and fitted with Foster itup«rh«At«r8. 




Vitt. IM.— Plan and Section of St. AUvloa Doaructor. 

(VMM " MoAmd DMtruclM PrtotiM.*' by W. P. aMdilek.) 

Tbc fun for th« forced draft may be driven by tlie usual hijth-epeed 
«ti|^De or by a tnutur of Uie vuriable-Kptwd tyjie, witli nhunt regulator. 
RryFiicralura hcul tbc air for eombusUun. The chininoy ie 130 ft. 
hi|^, and ha*t nn internal diamet/r of h\ fl. at the t«p. 

Kir. 104 nhowii a plan and M^tinn of the plant, from which it b 
MCD Itiat tlie building is arronged in ttiree tuuin bays. The rear bay 



422 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

contaiDS the destructofj boilers, and pumping plant; the generatiiig 
sets, switchboard, and fitters' shop are in the center; and the front baj 
houses the battery-room, test-room, store-room, offices, etc. The 
whole plant is arranged go that its capacity may be doubled at any 
time without building another chimney. 

18. Coventry, England. — The Heenan destructor at Coventry 
consists of three back-feed, hand-fired and cUnkered units, eadi 
complete and independent. Each unit comprises a continuous fur- 
nace divided into three sections or grates by division walls in tbe 
ashpit. The products of combustion pass from the furnace into tbe 
combustion chamber, the functions of which are to permit a deposit 
of the dust carried from the furnace, and to ensure the complete 
diffusion and mixing of the gases before they come into contact with 
the boiler. During four separate tests, each extending over four 
days, the average temperatures varied from 1840 to 2587° Fahr. 

The gaiics from the combustion chamber pass through a Babcock 
and Wilcox water-tube boiler, having 1966 sq, ft, of beating surface, 
and constructe<l for a regular working pressure of 200 lb. per square 
inch. Kach (toiler has a Fester standard superheater, which ddiven 
the steam at the generating station main, 300 ft. distant, with a 
superheat of l()0° Fahr. 

.\n .lir healer, or regenerator, i^ placed in the path of the gases 
after these have )>assed through the l>oiler. the object of which is to 
raise the temperature of the air, required for supporting combustion, 
by pa-ssing it over the exterior of the tubes of the heater while the hot 
gases pjiss thniugh them. In this way the temperature of the air 
extraotod from the destructor house, which i« normally about 68* 
Fahr., is niiseil to an average of .ilxiut 300° Fahr.. and this. beinK 
delivered al the under side of the furnace bars, acreleratet> the igni- 
tion of freshly charireii material and raises the furnace temperatures. 

From iho air hc.itor the gases pas.< thniugh a Green's econoroiier 
and thence to tho chinnu'v. >>ch eiMUomiier con^t^ of 96 ppw, 
with suitable scrajxr gi>ar. Thus each destructor unit is comjJetc and 
indejiendcnt, .ind is equipjx^l wiih all the steam raiding acecswaies 
that makf a plant effiricnt. 

The furnaces, cunibusiinn chanilvi^, K>iler settings, and Bats 
are liniM wiih f^tourbridin' tin>-brick>. and the exterior walls are faced 
with s:ih-);!.sreil brioks. 

The sir i.>r the fiTfisl dra'i is extrr.i-Trti frfm the interior of the 
desiniotor hiMis*' by sii air ihw. plfnW ii: the .'tiv\ of the nmf, extend- 
inc the «h>tlo loncih if ihe lv.i:;>i;i;c. (''■.w.iiii^ h-. ihi* duct admit tbe 
air •'riim the de>trurtor hous«'. .111.3 i* i^ .'.rswn thriiugh tbe duct* 
by centrifugal fans. This has tho s.ivsr.tAce oi remo\-ing effeclivdj 



IKCIflBRATtOa OP REFUSE 



423 



^1 



m 



€ 



foul air from the nuiin building uikI buppcrs, tbc air being (l«Uv- 
to the uKliiiil^ »I. n [intuitnp uf uhiHit 2 in. nf water cultimn. 
i.t almtiliite coiitnil of thiii uir mipjily, un<l it unn be rcgulatcnl \n 
rduriRP witli the roqiiireincntw nf unch fiirtmno, or it ciin Im; out 
eiuirvl)' (mm xriy grate itccUiiti iluriitK tht^ rlinkmiix npcration. 
TLc rcru.sc, on nrrivul at the plaut, io taken up uii iDclinoil roadway, 
nnd is tipiwd into Die rweivinfi liop|H?r. Tli* tturuice i-jipHi.-i1y is sufli- 
iciit for one dj»)'* Rupptj't i""l. ii" lh« Coventry refuse wliru fresh in 
t objccttotutble, the urrangement hjw fiilfilloi evnry rftquir<-n)«nt. 
T'Voin tliP liop|>or tlio TRfiL-^o fniU to thn level of the charging iiill, 
III tlieiic« in rthovel-feil into th« (iiniacc. The fiririK d"or« arc 2 ft. 
in. ubovc ihe tluor lovel, so tluit lh« labor uf footling ts reduced to a 
immum for a liaud-fired plant. 
Owiag to tbc relative levels vf the destructor site and eertaii) 
gbboring re«<iontial areas, it was considered desinible to eroct a 
imtMy sbuft IH() f1. Iiigh, no ait t<r uvoitl the poivsibility of irrcating 
any nuiRanee. The prodiji'l.s r>f 'CoinbuftjoM Uitiiihg from thin ehimncy 
>, at alnioxt alt tiine.H, scarcely viniblc. 

The whole plant » contained nithin the main biiildinK, which ia a 
Jn brick i^truet-urc wllb gliuot atid slate rocvf. The whole building is 
fire-resisting iiiuli.Tiiib. A ine,-i.i ruuin, bulh mom. and drus-^ing 
nu are provided for the workmen. A portion of the main building 
enclosed to uccommodaie the fnn^, en^nes boiler feed p\imp«, ctr., 
Ibo clinker ulUixation mtkcliiitcry iit houeed in another sectkiii. 
lie whole im lighted by eleclrie.ity. 
Fig. IC'i shows the refuse destructor plant at Coventry, and Fig. 
IU6 ia a view of the cliakering floor. The grinding niill nnd Bag prcKS 
tihown In Fig. IU7. 

Fig. 108 is a set of three diagniinK* nhowing tbc scaiHinal variation 
iR the comhuMtibln rnni-ent of the refu^ nf Coventry, and \t buwd on a 
three yearn' avc rage of the records nf the destructor. 

The system of recording idl tbc conditions and work done at thin 
ilant wa* very coraplntfl. Kvery load of refuse was weighed. The 
water evaporated in drawn from the hot well and delivered lo a 2000- 
I. fitipply tnnk over the pump room. The water drawn from the 
Ilk is nieiereil. the meter is read evury fifteen minutes, nnd the resulth 
are compared, with the object of eiiaiiring a r»ni>lanl evaporation 
Le. T\iK Nleaiu pressure i^ taken continiiou-xly nn n RriKtnl wlf- 
onliiig gaiitce. The residue from the furnactr^ is utiliuvl in various 
wnvs. All information, with lempomturc readings, is entered oa the 

iiy log. 



■ Prom • vvr. Iiy Mr. J. Eri« Solodlcbuni. tatiUnl " Th« CoMtiuctioo and 
^4fUw «( * UofmB R«ruM) l><«ttu«(w.'* 



424 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

lu unlvr to show tbe rexulte concisely, the iliagnLtuB arc imatd ui 
nil Bvunicc of llircc- yrai?' work. The first chtu-t on the duunaa 
Khows Hie iiuinl>L>r of tons of refuse burnt (luring each monilr The 
montlity ((uuntit>(9< vury coiisidcinbly. 

The wcnml churl shitWi* thnl Ihfi cnlorific vftlue of the refuec ttat 
varim in marlccd degree owing Ut n-a»unal aiid other influencM. 

Tbe evapuniUvt- rntv is Bbuwii uti Ibc third cliort u( llii; diognat 
In this tbe average evaporation rate is reduced to tlic UBuai Maadiri 



Ftc 106.— Vie* at fUtMax Pntnrtvr, CbTCKiy. [^riud. 



of Ihti eqiuTmleoi exiporslMMi. fmn and at 212" Fahr., ptt pnmaA 
tombasi9Ae. Thb Hurt thrtvv that tbe acmgr rvaporalino |f 
tknt roar>., ao b<4«fv1 ku c^iuaMI 2.13 lb. of vatrr par prmod 
nIoM! biinMd. 

S9l GraawdE, SoollaatL— 1V drc>tnic«ar at Gnwoock. a liaa oTj 
wbteh K Avn m fig. 82, w of tbe Honfill. " luM<y] ~ lyj^, with 
ds nSa. Staua is icMiermtoiI ia Ibrw bailm. ol iW Batvoek awl IKi 
<«(B Bahn* t>i<e. thrrt Kra^g ««e Imilw for e»dl pair U rella. TV' 
boSeni work ai a (Nupuji irf 3D0 Ih. piv itqvatv iacb. and baw anjar- 
Watov tbe &mI beat «f lb* rtaua all« Iwnag ifat •aFcrftolm 



426 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REPUSg 

being 550° Fahr. Tbe boiler fced-«st«r is heated by a large eeoik- 
omiser. 

The steam m fully utilixed in the geaerating station with whiek 
the destructor is combined. The refuse is a mixture of gaihage, 
ashes, rubbish, and manure, and is of average quality. About 57 
tons are burned daily. 



Chan MoJ Qwatltr oT Bcfiue Bwatd 
Jh. Fak. Mix. Af. Mir JsH Jilr Af- ••Ft- OO. >«- D«- 



t 

€ in 

■ 

J ''^ 



I " 

■i « 

: » 

I" 



























^"" 







t 



















An 


f p 


«Mo 


ia_ 


UM 


■H 


— 






^~' 


















































Cbsrt Na3 Ave»c* Bnialnc Kata 
Per Hour Pa 9qnu« Foot of Ontc Ana 
















1 1 


1 












\~~ 








Anrafv pi 


iruJ 


Ltk- 


iU LI 




1 








' 


















1 










j 




^^^m 


1 








' ' 


1 


1 






1 



fc>ia*TMrM«» 



Fiktwr - M^ 
lUHk - lOJ 

Afril > MU 

Mn - Mj 

Jm - «J 

Jaly - B-T 

Aatut - HJ 

H p f fcl- ■.! 

OcMkCT - «J 

■wWt — M.« 



Chart NojS Atctuc Brapontloa 

Per PoaDd of RefiiM Burned Per Uoath 

EqslTalcBt ETspantliia. boa and at S! Fahr. 

1 •■• 

■■ 

Jaa. Fab. Mac. i^. Haj Jaaa Jalj Aa4. Sat*. <>*>• Xar. Da*. 

FiQ. 108. — Results Obt&incd at Coventr)', Baaed on Avenge- of lliree Ymis. 















\ 




' 
































JLiaraar ■>«! Umih — 1 


inu 










--— 


' ' t ----^ 




f— ^^-^"+--1 





.—H 












' i— 




_. 















































This destructor i^ mechnnirally charged (Figs. 80 and 81) and, 
during 1909. developt-d an average of 67.2 kw.-hr. per ton of refuse 
burned. At thi.s plant a temperature of from 1300"* to 2160° Fahr. 
i"! given a.-* typical of a day'? run. The electric power generated 
netted about $8000 for the year, and the clinker brought about S300. 

20. Hamburg, Gennany. — The plant wa:' deiiigned by F. Andreas 
Meyer, City Engineer, and is the largest in Kuroiie. It has thirty-ox 



ISCtyBRATlOS OF HHFVSK 



437 



tlU, wilh 900 Ml- ft. of gnil« t<urr«cc. mi<) wrv(-j( h ixiptilntiiHi of more 

tluui :MK),U()0 i»er80Qi. It can incinoralc more than 300 tons of mixed 

[jfuhc per liny. Thii (uruHctw ure vt llie tKill|{l<^-cell ly]>o, and are 

by a toi><fced device. (Hec aIm under C. 2. Hamburg). 

fho nin^lc oiinrfEv ist oae inotcr de«i>, and in burned to » linrd Hinkrr 

alxivil thirty miniil«», witli a furced draft of ubout 7 in. of water 

Hurc. Th« hiKhesl Umperaturo U vrdiiiftrUy HSti", tlic Inwtmt, 

12*, and tliu average, 1 124* Fahr. A spfcinl eh'vntcd duKt catcher is 

>vtded for cikIi oell, with a fcr&nty outlet into dumping cars. Frtjia 

' to iy>c of the rtfuse is cont<um«<l, and, of the residue, from 10 to 

% in o-theti and from .W to 4V"( is clinker. CliDlcering is done by 

md through a side oficninK in ruch rcll. 

The lliirty->tix oclln are iti .*ix groupt^, plnocd in two niw«, with 
be celk liack bo haek. Tliey arc nil top-fed. \ laborer piilbi the 
^fuMi from the drj-ioR hearth to the grate and spreads it out there 
Jn t hin hiyen^. Every I \ hours the eliitkera are drawn out into Irurks 
tid Ijikeu outside. 'Hie forced draft is ^ul. off when feedinc or 
^linkering is done. Kvory twelve hours oshea are removed from 
>oeath the grate. The giusea patis thnmgh a oombuMtloa chamber 
id miiiii flue, which \s cleared of dust cvcrj- three months. Ciireful 
wnrn miidc wllh itteam-jet blitnt. and dry-air blaitt, with the result 
U the former was effective in greater heat production only when the 
' wae at white heat. As it in frequently not ao hot, the steam then 
ltd a tvlalively cooling efTecl on the fire. The st»am bla^t, thererore, 
IfiA aboadoned, and the more economical hot-air draft wim intro- 
luoed at a pre««<urp of l.-l in. and O.-'S in. of vacuum in the main f^ue. 
Tbc ai-erage Kteam pnxliiclinn fmin I lb. of refuM U 0.62C lb. 
The boilers generated »teani at 90 lb. preeeure, which was utilised 
lo produce eleutrieity for operating the craiiF«, venlilalont, forced- 
draft blowen*. ciiidertru.'^hcre, and theillumj[mti(.m of theculirc plant, 
^\I«M storage batteries were loaded with the surpliisi energj*. which was 
>ut 300 h.p. daily. This was utUited finl for newage pumpH, and 
eity tugboat, and lat«r for the Heetric: trucks oollcctiag the refui>e. 
In 1*JU1 the ooAt of ineinerattng otic Ion of reluse, inchidlng lixed 
chsrgea for depreeiation and iiitero!«1 , wa.^ 1.04(i markn, nr about 25 
^^onta. The <oet of collcctioa wae 13.031 marks, or about 50 cents per 

^H Dr. T,«normniid, Municiind CouiiHnlur of I-e Huv^<^, Krance, in 
^Ipin Report on (he Treatineiit or Municipal Hefuoe of 1^ Havre, 
(' Kappiirl kut Traitement dot Ordurf?( M^niiin^ft"K 1008, in speaking 
refuse oollcctioa and dispwHU iu Hamburg, ttayvi 

'^Sanadoule, n<ie luo^ura francalBni ii'nccoininodcraicnt mal d'uDC trmblaUe 
■Uon, d'allure toutc miUlaire; il a'm faut pa* moiua eonveuir que la 



^^AImm 

Kbou 

^^ fit 



430 n)UErTtO.V A.VD DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RSFUSB 



eiiii 

»ffSI*2 

i 



-I 




- 



ISCISEltArJOS OF RSFVSB 



431 



manurial ftnd calorific \'alu^. Exp^Icnce in Parii:, howovcf, 
jirAved, as dscwherc, Miat the niaiiunul vuliit- is i<aiall ami thai it 
diflicult to <^tain a mnrlcct for il irxt-ept on very iiati<ly luid biirrett 
iiil. tl wiut decided, thert^fore, to repeat a trial for incineration. 

Keliruary, 11H)9, aad under Tavorable coudiliouf, aiiotbcr lest 
'ma^lc at Vilry by the Asswcialiuit Parixi^mm de Fro|>riftaires d«8 
AppareJla k Vapcur. Abuut 12,000 lb. of n.-fu»c wcrt! buriicd in i^cvca 
hours and fifty tninut<#. The temperature maintained was l.VW Fahr.j 
and 1.8 lb. of Mtcnm nere prcHiuced from 1 lb. of refuse. It was hoped 
ftbat n conversion into electrical eiici^y would not only i^upply the 
dt^raand of the works, but make uvailitltU- it ^uqiUm (ur dix|M>Mil to the 
niuuicipalily. 

Since then two plant:* of the Heetiaii type have been built, at 8t. 
>uea and at li«y. The St. Ouen plant has four ft-wll units, each having 
IB nijiActty of 120 tonti |>er twenty-four hour^, nith trough Rratcsi 
[^electrically operated lop-eharfpnK and oporatinf; doom controlled 
m the ulinkvfing Hour. Tli« clinker i« withdrawn by a winch 
ciai ^kip, which Ik picked up by a truveliiiK crune and 
a clinker-cooling apparntiis. where the clinker in broken 
Dp and immemed in water. The clinker ut geiiprally u&etl fur brick 
^ makiiiB. 

^p A test of four day^ and five hours showed thai about 1 tun per cell 
could l>f incinerotcd in one hour. The residuals after burning wcro 
IS% of the refuftc delivered. The eWtrical energy pnxluocd was 

I8.W kw. per hour. The evaporation j»er pound of refuse was 0.!t3 lb. 
of water. Several colk-eting trucks were supplied with litorsne l>at- 
tcrieM diargnl al the workii. 
Mrldruni plants were built in the Mulnirbs of Ivry, RomainviUe, 
And tieiint-villif-ro', of aimilar cai>aei1y luiii effiticncy. 
Although tttc Parb ineinerator» have deKtru>*ed the objeetiontible 
quality of Die refufle. the anticipuled Pitcani pruducllou bua uut lieen 
gcnerfdiy realited. 

32. Other Indnenting Plants.~Tn addition U* the plants jui>t 

ld*"rnl»^d. ttifrn- lire iniiny in use for burning mixed refuse at high 

[l«ui|ierai.unw, particularly in England, where, in almost all cities, 

Licb rtfuM contaiiL" a Urge prupurlion of ntibiimt rnnl. Descriptions 

llrf many are itvuilal>le in ihe engineering prcsw and in the publica- 

liund of Waxwell. Coodrich, Panfons. Morse, and othere. Brief 

dwrriptiooa ut CMetittal pariii of ncveral American and Kun»i«ao 

^bifh-temperaturo plantA will ht found also in Ihia chapter under C. 

'' ' '' ' ' I, and n. Te«t.-5. 

11 neritLinR plant jdiould be judged by the de(trc« 
»ileoin|tlio« with the lawti of cwmbutttion, tJic available beat 



432 COLLECTION AND DlfiPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

units produced, and the economy of operation. Yet, some of (he 
best of such plants in the United States, as at San Francisco, Berkdey, 
and Seattle, have been ordered suspended, because it was found to 
be cheaper to dump the refuse at sea or to fill up low land without 
objection. 

G. ADVANTAGES ASH DISADVAMTAGES 

There arc a number of advantages and disadvantages in refute 
disposal by incineration, other than cost. Their relative importance 
will vary in different localities, and must be considered carefully in 
each case. The most important are given below. 

Advantages 

a. Incineration permits of the single-can house treatmeDt, with 
the so-called mixed collection. It takes a slight burden off the house- 
holder in keeping tlie different parts carefully separated, and pennite 
of an easy and generally clean collection. 

b. The cost of collection can be reduced, because good incinerators 
can be built in interior parts of a city. They can frequently be estab- 
lished near the centers of the largest production of refuse, thus 
reducing the length of haul considerably. 

c. The possibility of having several plants in a city reduces the 
risk of interrupting the disposal in case of the destruction of one of 
them by fire or otherwise. 

d. The proccHs is thoroughly sanitary, and destroys all organic 
matter and germ life. 

e. A revenue is available from fhe products of incineratioQ, 
namely, from strain and clinker, and it is possible that some revenue 
could be secured by the sale of dust and fine ashes as a fertilizer. 

Disadvantages 

rj. The- dust produced within the incineratxir building during 
operation. This, however, is not a disadvantage to the general 
public. 

b. The chance of the escape of unconsumed offensive fumes from 
the chimney top. This is piirticiilarly to lie fcurcd when the charged 
refuse is df.'fif;irnt in combu.^tihlc niiittcr, and in low- temperature 
furnaces, which, howcvfr, can he subslnntially obviated by proper 
operation. 

c. With a mixed collection, the necessity of hauling all kinds (tf 



tSClNERATION OF ftEFVSB 



43S 



! to (he incinerators, itiKtead of hauling Kumi: part«, lui oslicti, to a 
DAor-ty dump, iovrcaMa) the lalior uf colluctiuu. 



EXAHi^S OP COMPDTING THE CALORIPIC VALUE Of TUE 
VARIOUS CLASSES OF REFUSE 

AcMirdtnit lu Dsn^xiii, the utlohlic viiluc uf viiriiiUN coiuttituorita 
ipil rofum), wbim rlry, in t«rmc of heat unit« d(n'clope(l,pcr pound 
tmbustible, is aa follows: 

Coal H.0O0B.t.u. 

Coko. . i:!.C)UIPlJ.l.u. 

Bono* and offal , - . , - HfXH B.i.u. 

Hrwxc and nmUm, 6,0(in[).t.u. 

Rap , . - . 5,000 B.t-u. 

Papor, Btnw, fibrous rnstcrial, und vvgatable ntfLwe 3,800 U.t.u. 

Aamiminff that these claflRM of ma(«mls in olher plnccf have the 
e culorifit: values, il is a sinipl? mnltiir to compute the approximate 

burniiiK <iuuliltC6 of Ili« rcfunc of any city wheu wc know t-he relative 
^QrojxirtionR nf the various classes, 

^K In Koi^atKl it i.s found in practice that fmm 1 In 2 Ih. of water 
■Ban be evaporated per pound of re(u«e- In Kome Gorman citiee it 
Hwna found that from \ to 1 lb. of water could tie evHporhted per jiound 

of raftiM. Let UM now take, fur example, Iht? refuw of New York. 

and oompute tbe heating jtower from the constituenbi of the various 

claaMH of wantiBi. Wc have, then: 

1. Th« asfaM contain 25^ of unconsumod coal. havirK a wlorific 
value wbou dry of, say, 10.000 D.t.u. The remniniug 7&% i» inert 
nuilter. 

2, The Rarhage when dried eontainfl about 23^, of animal and 
«)(eUable maliej. with a calorific %alu« of, say, SOOO B.t.u.: 5% rab- 

H.bt)>h nnd rombu:ttiltlc wotdr ImvinK a calorilic value of, nay, ■t<'>00 B.t.u. 
'^^The remaining matter containit alxjul 2% of inert matter and 70% of 

water. 
^ 3, The rabhlsb contains about 96% of comhriictihlc matler, having 
^Bfe cjihirifin value of, aay, 4500 B.t.u. Tlie romaininit jtorlion is inert 
"malU'f. 

4. Tbe street sweeptnRH contain about 25% uf orr^anic or com- 
bostibln nuillcr, hnvins a raloriflc value of, say. 4000 B.l.u., about 
moisture, and about 35% inert matter. 
TakinK. then, lOfl lb. of total city waste and reMotvinitit into various 
nlaRes. vrc obtain in tabular form Ihe follovrinf; results: 



434 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RBPUSB 





Poundi 

of each 

oluB 

of 
wajtca 


Watbb 


CoMBUmBLB 

Mattbb 




CU-OHIFIC 

V'LUB or 


Pel- 

eent- 

■«e 


Pouuta 


Pei- 
cent- 
ace 


Pounda 


Pm- 
eoDt- 
aca 


Pounda 


B.t.D. 

Poosd 

of 
wa«l« 


Total 
B.t.a. 

In 
WHta 


Aahcs 

Gaiiiage. . . 

Refuse 

Sweepinea. . 

Totals 

Averages. , 


66 
10 

6 
18 






25 
28 
95 
25 


16.5 
2.8 
5.7 
4.5 


75 

2 

5 

35 


40. S 
0.2 
0.3 
6.3 


10,000 
7,500 
4,500 
4,000 


165,000 
21,000 
26,600 
18,000 


70 


7.0 


40 


7.2 


100 




14.2 




20.5 




56.3 


5,810 


22^600 




1 






Thus we have a total of 229,600 B.t.u., correspoDding to about 
16} lb. of coal, having a calorific value of 14,000 B.t.u., and 14.2 lb. d 
water. This water must first be evaporated, and the residual value 
of the combustible may then be considered available for produdng 
steam. 

Assumin);; 7 lb. of wat«r evaporated per pound of coal, it wiD 
require 2 lb. of coal to evaporate the 14.2 lb. of water in the refuse, 
and the difference between 2 and 16), or 14) lb. of coal in the coal 
equivalent of the 100 lb. of mixed refuse. On the basis of 7 lb. of 
water evaporated per pound of coal (a modest estimate for steam at 
100 lb. pressure from any good boiler under ordinary working condi- 
tions!, we have 7 times l-ij, or 101 lb. of »team per 100 lb. of mixed 
refuse, equivalent to 1.01 lb. of steam per pound of refuse burned. 
This is the quantity of steam which New York refuse, properly incin- 
erate<l in a destructor of modern type, should develop. This figure 
also compares favorably with results obtained in England under 
ordinary daily conditions. 

I. SPECIFICATIONS FOR COnSTRCCTIOW 



Si)erifipHti()ns for rcfusr incinerators nro senerally accompanied by 
one or two general lay-out and location plans, and are prepared m 
that different munufnrturrrs can base their bids on their own patt«iiB 
and designs. On this account, each bidder should be required to guar- 
antee the operation of bis deeiga, both for eflScieiicy uid eeonomy. 



isciffKn.iTinx of refvsb 



435 



Tlio {firm and arranenmenl nf the !>|iecirtCBli<iDK for refu«e incin- 
Horn niy'i not tli/Ier frtifii llitwe rnijutrpil for otlior munieipul works. 
rii(' sjiMrifii'aliond for iimtumis and nif-lhudH uf ooiislructtuu sud 
for macliitMjry are nut e^scutislly diffvrviit. 

Pro(!0(itiig the Bpeeificntioiui, nf (Mtine, tb«r« n^iould be coinplet« 
tLnirtiuii.t and informntiDn for biddrrs. The fiml »vvtioo of llie 
Kions sliould oontnin conciKc definitions of all terms in regard 
ich tderi! might be miiiunderytaiidiiig. 
Tbe rcfiuircmcntfl may thou be ittated, ubuut as follows: 

1. A brief Rtateraent of the work to he d(nii>, 

2. A description of the lotnttiun of tho plant, the Mse, cilevation, 
id K''i>d'» of the lots '^"d tho ftiitxDil on vvliich it iii to be built. 

'i. Tike uuparity of the plant, in tutis per twi.-iity-fi>ur huun. 

4. 'tlie fiaiiitftry requirementfl in the operatiun of tlic plant: 
loantiness, freedom from diinl, Hmetl, smoke, etc, 

5. Muxitnum and miiiimuiu leiuiwralunw in combiintion vhitmbpr. 
Lversfte trmiwriiture and rak- tif ttonibiistion. 

6. 8tiitemei)t of compoHition of refuse: Porccnluges uf moi-tture 
and combiLHtible matter. 

7. Arrsngemenl of furnace-*, eombu-tion chumlwrn, pro-licatcrs, 
iDrenl-tlrufl apiuiralus, air duiifi, Ilui>>;, and stesm ItoUers in units. 

uL-b unit iu uinniNt of one furmice tiuving fuur grau*N, four dr^nnit 
lienTthx, four i-linkFr-^xiolinK chttmbeiM, one i^umhuHtion chamber, one 
IfirctHMmfL apjiamtiK wiih air-hentr?r and nir-vnlven. one Hl«am 

HiiiiT 111 th<' wtiler-lulje type, with Ibe ncca'u^ry flue*-, firing tools, and 

i-cordinK ia'<triii»eii(ii. 

8. Htal«n>ent of the nnmhcr and raputrity of units. Provision in 
for AddittODal uuita. 

Conveying syfjleiii for handling refuse and clinker; venltlaticig 
lent; foed-water puinpt*; fuel-oil system; cIcRtric r«|ui]nnenl for 
|ht and power; nyslcni of pipes and appur1«nan<.-L>)( for iMmvoying 
MD, water, and oil; eniNbinf; plant for criuhinK and MTWuing 
3ink<^; haling prenn fi>r mmparfing and balinK tiim; int*truiiienti< for 
r.ordiiii^ and controlliiif; oin-ralion of plant; loohi ond nupplios for 
making n^pairs. el«. 
^_ 10. Si»e or eopacity nf iionvcyiiig, ventilating, «team, and water- 
^nipr 8>-Ktems, boiler feed putn|M, elnrtrit^a! equipment, crunhing plant, 
^Baling u|iparalu.«, elc. with prxiYinion for adding tu the e<|Uipincot 
^Bwilhmtt iiiiilue eX|)cnMe. 

It- lient'rnl descripti^m of plant; refuce. how ilelivered: refnw 

^Wdglied; platform scuW; lond«, how eni|«ied; conlainiw or con- 

m% apparatiw; storage of e*intain(tr«; refuse lrani'p«irt«l or 

indled ineohaniMlly; uppIianoeH constructed bo that no refuse will 




(,' J/;;)"), !;.■-'! -'* '/.;,' ';.'r/ '■>:'.. •.A: :'-iif'iiW "jfJiUwi. No *T«tioi(*rT 

\,ii.- i.',',,i^f_ ',1 !■',',• 'i/'i.'.!. i'/T ■io:ii'4': of Ki'i-f:. Pro\i.*ioii for 
iiiii'i.-.i -il ':<>.■ -ii 'tUf-i i(;'.'j.';/ii'j-Mi/i'- liia'.'-rial Ivj lar^ to be put 
in f'.Mi:.".- )!('Ji).i- I', t^i li-t :ii t'j[( '<f f urua'.-e* : provision for 
lii'ifni ■■*',lriitv } •iiiiit'i- i'< Imv: u|f|riirutij^ for burning oil when 
ii'i|iiHi'J Ifi'.-it 'fl < Itok'-r ;iriil ii>ti r(rtiirri'^<l to furnace. Clinker snd 
ii.-li )• tii'.vcl i«i|(iw (t'^ij IfV'-l, lifid <ioiiV«ry*;d to crusher. Proraion 
t'li I iii.'lii(i|« II (II J i-M-''iiiji|f nil r';>-j'li]<-friMii fitniucoH, utid baling tins and 
M'fdji 'ijii-i'.: (I'lKi fiiiuriiT'-n f't piihN tliroiiKli Utilors for generating 
fli iiiri, II ml fitrfiiiuli Ih'iiI<t-. for )ir(--tifaliiiK air for combustion, 
mill llif'ii In Die hliti'k. Air fur '•oijiiiu^tioii taken from near top of 
IiiiiIiIjijk, i'iiii^'i-v'<''t I'V l>liiwiiiK ii|>|>unitns thriHigli prc-hcatera and 

ili'>liiliii(i'il III Iiii'Mj M Siniiii u'liidi i» not uttcil for operating tbe 

iiii'iitriiiioi In III iiilijrti-d til iiiljiiiiiiiiK room or building where 

uliii'liir K* iK'itiliiif. pliiiil is cri'cli'fl. Surplus steam, how dis- 

|lilril'il III 

)'-' liii'iiii'tuliiiK |ilniit.i III roiii|irisc all woiRliiiig xcnles, hoppers, 
nliiiiilir I'liiiliiiiii'r^, I'lHixryiiiK 4'iiui]>iiii'iil, fi'tMling n])]>artitus, furnaces, 
hii'l I'll <>t|iii|iiiii-iit, biiitri'r. iiiiil (I'cit piiiiiiis with appurtenances and 
I'oiiiii'i'tiKii-', |>ri' lii>iiti-i>>, Ww's, hlowiTs, air compressor, crushing and 
.-<i'iiii>iiiim a|>|>ai'iit ii-<, l>aliiik; |ii't>ss itiiil !i|i|turtciitiu('es, electrical equip- 
aii'iit, t'lpi-.. s:il\i-., aiitl lillHii;-, iii>lriiim'iits. tools, supplies, etc. 

I i ruiiii ii'tiM lo )>i'i-<riit bill lor I'litirc work of building the in- 
t'liu-i.iiiiit'. |>l:iiii. l>i-k;iri!',i<it^ mill Mi'itiliiii): soales and ending with 
..■iivi-i.'i [,>i , liii!vi-i ;i!'d a»li, ami im-Uuliiii; foundations. Sues. 
I'liil.liiiii . , !'.iMii!,\ ■;;'. '!ii,v"i, I'v'iliTs, i:ri;»'rator>. eti'.. etc. 

It li 11 !. liM.ii.i.ii '.,' ii-c :!'.o c\.v-«s -U'am for jH'wer, and the 

, 'i;i'\. .i ■. N ■..■' 'i' 1-: :■■ ;'m-.i;. v-i-;iTi-:o oU'.. thi-s -should l* Statetl. 

(■■il ■. '. .■ ■ ■ ■ ' S.' 'i' '!■,.,■*'■ ■-' V I'l ";■'.' (■'.o.y '.''.I'lrioraiixl. 

' ' \ ,■-■■ ■..■ ■•'v->.>-' ■ .:". ^''..i','- .■,'■.■- ii'.^i'ri I'T iiv.* ■'f or.'.ire 

wi- V ■ ■■ .; - ,■■> :..■ iv ■a:-'.', rf- :uir¥::Lec:s 

.' ■,■. ■ .■ ■. '^ ■■> ■ .;>. '•!■ ■". ■■;"i' ■.:-'"ai:, ir.'i 'C'rw 

_ . . : .^ „ ...,.,... . , w:-; " • :=-'■■;■:« 

■ ,■ - ■ ,i :■•--■ •.":: ■'•■: ■■■•:'--':au 

■■■ ■ 4 ■ ■ . ■ - ■ .i-,;a-.j -i:e 



tNCISHHATlO^ 



iPVSB 



for correct proportiotung of any partw lA I he work or for any defects 
in cqunLnicltun. 

IK. ('4>iiirsctor may lie nllowe^l u> TurniKh orerei-t a certain struc- 
lurr or i»[it>uriitus iljfl'eniiK rrnro that uriituiully fponfied , Lul shall 
^^r*t rulimil dmwiri|;» and JescriptiifilH wUiub niusl \>c approved by 
^Bh« ritginper. 

^B ll>. .Statviiiciil in full of m^ujk> ot pru|Ki-sal: I^ioratioii of plant and 
^^Mm rapacity, complete lUt nf nil purix of tlif plant, aud p^ovi)^ioll for 
^HrtailraJ (1^1 after citmplrtion. 

^^ 30. Tlic pfioc bid tt> be a lump hudi for the roimtructiuii of the 
liiiildiiiip and ctiirniicy, ttii'^ furiiiicliiiig and orecliiiK uf all machinery 
nimpteie Hurkine orrler. and lite citiiduftiiiK uf a (mt iti ncrurdance 
filh proKTain ftiftcififd by lh(> «>iicine«r. 

21. A prcivi«iuii may be iimerted rc4|uirinK the bidder to Kuarantoo 

ceiinin cunt per tun a^ thci net t^ost fnr iiiriiirrHline rcfuw onn- 

kinini; pertain pcrccntaf^ of water and rnndmntiblc (for iiMtance, 

^r San yrarii-isfo, these i)iiai)litins were HXX) lb. of water and 4t>0 lb. 

ftf «.*uinbuiitible per ton). Then it may be ppccilied titat tie be ret|uired 

n guarantee aWi decreaiwd or ini;rt*aKed rosU pvr ton below ur ubovc 

tho ItM cuurauUfd cuel for dt'«r«iu>ed nr iitcrranod iiuuiililics of wntr^r 

nr JDcreased or decreased quantities uf combustible in the refuse. 

'22. A [mtviKidii may also be inserted rctiuirinR ihc bidder to 
IPiamntnc Ihe number of pounds of rcfufit (of Kpecihed cuinpo-xilion) 
which will be ii)ein«m(<Kl per ttquare foot of grate area per hour. 

23. The bidder to be required to ^tnte the probable xroHtt rate of 
X'upuratioD in Ihe boilers, from and at 212' Fahr., per pound of refuse 
Hpecified foinpfwitiun) cuiuumed. 

folloning luctliad uf determiuijig tlie lawast bid wui adopted 

Franeiaeo: 

ne Ud.4 were compared on the bans of the loncdt net annua] 

cost fur o|>erution. 'Miih bid was made up of 10% of the bid price 

for cfin&iruction added to the labor coitt for the year, the tatter t>eing 

^u-nuQed by multiply in k the icuarsnteed ewt for labor by tliv total 

jiubcr of tons per year, computed from the guaranteed capacity of 

Frnni thin tium whs deducted the annual value uf thcttteam 

f, computed from the guaranteed rate of evuporalion, an 

amiuiujwt value of iileain, the total annual tonnage, and aloo the 

vahtr nf the clinker. 

Tbe lowest price thus ascertained wan designated ai* the lowMt bid. 
TIm^ *ppciriral.ion» rii:»y nive detailed deweriptionH of nil jwrtfi of 
Ihe inrincratinK plant, machinery, nialeriala, tools, workmanship, 
^|te.. under headings somewhat Hi- fullou^: 

Handling refuse; furriaceo; fuel-oil equipmenl, air and ventilation; 





438 COhLRttJOS AND DlSptViAL OF MVStCf^AL RBFUSB 



farnaoe gaaes; UandliDK clinker: i:t«flm generatioD; pipes, valvw, 
6ttitigx; electric liiclit imd power H|uipiiiiTit; inBtnirnenU: tools: 
supplier; and materinls and worktnaMhjp. 

There sbuulit be a »tat«Diciit as to tho conLr)t<>t«r'ti guarantii 
rdnting l^i niiitsuncb, Miiukc, giutes, duxl, Icmpfmturen, re^idui 
elinker, i!liiit-dnwn.-i, mte of incineration, and eof^lf per Ion. Ue 
Rhniihl nho he retiuitrd to Kiiarnntce the tilahility of Ilie fouoda- 
tioos, buildinf^, and chimney, and also the cuD&trucUou and wori- 
mausliip on all piirtu of tli« luachinery. 

The detail? of the (cetrt should be specified, and abuuld define 
the time when they are to be made, their tiumber, and leiigtb ; abo 
details of any apccial teats which may be rc()tiired (for jnitanoe, with 
■dditiooal fuel, ot for cvapunitiuu). The expense of rnakiuc the 
is geowftlly home by the noiitractor. but lhi» should lie stated. 

The method!! of aM;ertainini; the coattt of incinerntion during 
tG«t6 should be fully t^tatnl, in order to avoid any misundent 
or di^puWs tm to the final result*. 

Then tJioulU follow the usual MclionH relating to "Bonua 
Damages," " Arceptanee and Rejection," "Time of Copnp)etjoa,' 
" P&ymeiitH," and " Clcncml Provisions." 

The eectionit in <<pcoiticatii>ns which require special com<idenUoa, 
because they arc Koniewhal unusual, are IhoKC relating to fire-brtck 
instmmeDts. guarnDlice, and te«l«. There hoe been a marked 
larity in 8p«cifieation.<t ooveriaK these matters. 

For fire-brick the Sao Francisco spectlic&tioiu ^vm tb» 
clauses: 

" Fire-MrJt— AH firebrick used shall l» equal to tlw U«i padv of tin 
fblfanping tnanufaciTirers r 

"HnrlM^wjM-Walkcr ttdrKclaricH Co., ISttsbunt 
Timmw and Co., Stourbridge, En^and 
TotoI*^- tn-n Oi , Ij««dii, KuRtand 
Olf-nboiit I'niun Fire-clay Co., Glcnboig. Srntland. 
HoRiiiitiK, NUM-khnltn, Swndra. 
" loyino FiT<~brKk.~Aa 6rc-brick shall be laid with llic ciamU pM- 
aibk jointit. with a pantc madr of the aanw materia of which the Dn>4)ndD 
are made. The proportions ahall be twenty (20) per i*nl ihiIvmiict) b** 
brirk and righty (80) per cent . drc-dayi with not morr tlian onr and o*^ 
quarl«T<lJ) |wrc«nt.af hydmtcdlime. The rir<<-i'lny khaU bi> KUk'<(l or wtturf 
at Imri three (3) tlayv before it in tited, and aliall 1>c used ia a thin parte ■»>) 
not aa u mortar." 

Toronto, Canada, issued epcrifientions in Jamiflr' 
ISO-Ion refuse liidnerator, Tt ■ -,-:■'■■ 
ilar to Ihow of San Fnuitiw. 
and the Oartcroip FireH-l 



INCfNERATinX OF RKFVSB 



430 






Tbc anibari believe that bicldcn should be given more informa- 
n about tbe u.«c:* for the fire-brick, and th« partieular qualitieB 
uirMl la meet tba^n uhki. 

Instruments for reading tcmporaturee, analyiinj; flue Ra(«8, aud 
ring draft preexurw and vrlociliw arc not <>»H)ntiaJ to the opera- 
of an indiMfratur, but. as tliL'y promote efficiL'ncy. they are fre- 
quently included in the pliinl. The moat complete t«peei6eationit for 
inftrumont£ arc in the ^a Knuiciseo set. The requirements aresub- 
tixdly as follow!): 



k 






Sec. liiO. — For tbc Uae Otek Station tb« contractor shaO fumiah the 
loUomug iu>tnun«iila: 

" IVu (2) Keconling Electric P>Ton}t?l«!r Uilrfita rnrnplote with ruU charts 
to nad Ui about V*Xi° rnhrrnlx-it, 

" Time (3) four-foot llaliiium Piatjount-rhodium Thcnoo-oouple Out* 
flta oomplelf, with ijiiaUx or porcelain ptotc^ting tubca, and one (I) extra 
couple bimI tube (or rviiirwid 

'■(.>nr (1) ]iidi«itiiiK t'yromfler witli niw- made n^iiiK t<i idiout 2400* 
Fnhreulteil uid cilibfntvd for the i^lalinutu pltitiuuui'rhuUiimi ivupla*, and 
one scale reading Ln almul riOO" Fahrcobul and calibrated for the medium 
te m petMtnrn lhmno-n)U|)lw. 

"Ten <10) Double Knifr-blnde Switches n-ith leads from a suitably 
loealed nritrhbo»nl Id Kn>^-n<l mh-IcHk located ns dirN-twl try t)u> C?ily Ktiip- 
Iwcr L«id* lo ibc plntimitn |tl»titiuin-rhudiuiii ciiuplot sludl Ix- umiiixed to 
OMUieri. with both reoordini; and indicAtinii ini>tniinL'nt!i 

"Sli f(i) Pour-foot Miilium TPiiij>«iitun' Tticriiio-iiiuplc OiitllUt for 
laDpemtuns up lo about I^IX)" Fahrenheit ixiinpletv, with udc (I) extra 
Gr»«Tid for renewal. 

"Ttro (2) Ell»».>n Differential Draft Gauira. 
"Ten (10) U-tut>e Draft Uaiigcx lo imd to 10 in. prfwitrc. 
"One (1) Simmaiii-e.Abady COi Itecorder, or equivalent, spptm-ed by the 
City Engineer, with oonnerlion In thr kud rxit Him> of naeh unit. 
"One (I) Crtfthy nrBrimol ReninliiieBlram (luti^. 
"One (D ^uilatile motor, approval by tli? City Enjcneer, for contintiotia 
meadurcraent of fi:rd-wiit<T mippl*'-'*! I" 'l"' t^wlcrs 

"Sec. 181.— The ronlrarlur »hall provide the followinK ixniable instni* 
BwatM fer ijanonil tu>r at I'lihiTr of lIii> pluotj* hm muy Vh- dirKinil 

One (1) Ferry lludiut ioii Pyrometer Outfit t-omplele, including pyroowter 
adlui4abti' iliai>liniKtii, jcidvandmeli-r wit.h twir (2) din^cl n-udiii|{ I'ahreo* 
bdt aeoin and i-t-r1ilimtc, telweopie tripod stand, thirty-three (33) feet of 
«i«I irj-.rlinii box. 

■ -elay tultna fotir l-t) feet lonR for the above 
' ' ''•-» TlKwnonirter graduated \n HXWi"' Falirt^nhctt, anitle 
iC Cam; Nw 2fl8n and ZfifUi Hohinutm A Maurer'a 

ilitr Snaket '['hcrmometer for xUperhiMtml titontn. Rrwluated 
"■>•■ Ko 4027 Eimer & Amend'H catalog, pase 3o7 




440 COLLECTION ASD DISPOSAL OF MVKTCIPAL REFUSS 

"Oni! (1) \6" Thmnomvln-. ktmIimU-J 30° to 212" Fahmibrit in l-IO 
deQ7«eB, widi oertifioflle and oue; No, U 5800A nniio-KDecht'lIeitnuai^ 
cattolog, pAgt 9tt7. 

"Oi>c(l) Pil«niet*r suitable fnrmoaaurinR the vdoeity of giwm in tlw Bun 

"One (1) ur RKWV S<>ir-m-iircling .Slimn Mi^Ivtm, of eupnntuM miitshltifw 
cni.'KauTiiiK all it^- stvaui uaed whUe Mstiag the ionnerstine plaate. an mjuiml 
mnd di[n:t«tl b}- the Chy iviipncpr 

"One (1) OdoriiiMHcr jniitnblc for incaauring UiD quality of fftcun iwlivieft 
tbo BUperhcater, completo. 

"Onc! (1) Set of Kpparatiu fnr nu« jtnmuulTxfai flonwitinit ()( ihp fnllmriN 
iteni«orcquiv(dci)l. Tlw numb««» r«f«r to KunOT A AiiMiDd'« efttalog vl IDOT 



This 1st is far more complete than is KenersJIy reqnirvd. Hie 
Toronto spcciScationis call for a conlinuous rccordiuB; rfttiiatton p>Tucn- 
eter, a CO* recorder, thermometers for recording the tem|>craturc« ut 
chimney g&tMW, piv-heated air. and outside air, and drafl-gagt* la 
recording pressures in the ai^bpit«, flues, and chitnDcy. This U Urn 
ll)^ual ofiuipmetii CRllcd for. Thr pUn»i and specifications should 
provide for a ituitable dust-proof room in wliirrh to keep the rcvordint 
apparatus. Cranes and other machinery cxpo«ed to dust should alw 
be property protected. 

A miwt important part of ineineralnr »pecifiralious rclatca Ut Uu 
Buaraniies and tcvts. The rei|uirenicnl» of Kuarantien arc \tniie*] on 
the oonMption thai an inriiieral<^>r, like a pumping enpnc or \Mt\ifi, 
must operate at a Euaranteed efficiency, and must come up to rvrlaui 
8tan(lard^ act forth in citatciuents by the bidder. I'laos and Npecili- 
cations are drawn to allow each bidder or manufacturer to mslcp 
use of bin on'n pattcniH for cmlingn, etc., and uImi, to a Umitol 
extent, of hi* own general dciiigii and method of operation. On Ikifl 
account, bidding should not be limited to labor and mnieriah. twit 
should also partly include design. The contraG(4)r (tuuraiilcn lii» 
doiigii to prodtiee certain nsulto. The guaranties include, not only 
the resiiltfi of the o|KTattoii of the r»nm«v», hoilem, and * 
anoes, but ulfio the labor and power required to pr>Hlueo il: 
in prartioc. 

The value of nn tneineralor to a pitrchafer i» lakrn to be the mi\ 
cost of operation, which ineluden credits fnt the pfmlucta nf oprralin { 
and drbit^ tor the Ial»r and other ■■'■ ' ■ ■■ -liMrforr.j 

hnx'e been compared on thiit finnl :•.' nui on ihl i 

6rst coBt. A luom r'^pemive, bm . .-ieDt, plant, whh lowwj 

ftonual coiX, may •^'•■- '•- -.. — ; 
fint uwd at Milan 
Company was ' ■ i 



INClNEttATlOS OF REFV&S 



441 



•aeurtK) the work on account of th? better ovor>all «flw;i«iicy kiult- 
antee*). In nildilini) tu tlic giiarimlu^ i>u efficiency mid cu't, €«rlBin 
othcrR. BxiiiK nanitAry titauilards or ttpcnttinn, nhoulil lie indutk-d. 

TItr Turaolu api:«ilitatiut)» raquired !<ub»t&nliully thr following 
Kimrantiw: 

" \,V) Tbut there will bi.- no smoke at any time «e>«.-ap(n|i ftoii) tW i-liimnry 
of adngrcvof tlik/luwmorihfiMily Knutvr ttuii tbnt drtvnninr*! Iiy Cluin No 1 
uC ItioiJcnuuui'B sinolce tetAv. as AiipitJiMl by tha United iStat«a Ufolofiioat 
Survey - 

" 4'i) Tlut Mute will be do diKrt emitted froin the top of ilie ciiimrMiy. 

" V,i\ I'lut thtr rwliir nluiU not rrml.tin rnitrf tlmn one jX'r crnt. of wipuuc 
flutter, cxrituiw of raiUm " 

A detcrnitiintion of the capabilitkn of tlie plant to fulfill such 
Ittiitntiili*'^ iiiUi^t i>e liti»cd on tests. The method iif conduetinjn; thcAo 
t»>lM lllll'^t be descriLwd dearly iii the H[*eoiSi.-atiuiia, ba n oufcfiunrd 
t«i the iMircbuArr and in fainiuss to the Contractor. The rhiirncter 
of the rrfuBo to Iw iiwd during the te«<t-'« mintt be rlefined lu eliinely as 
praeticBble. at* tliAb tlie cnitraclor Iisa a rcai>onal)ly delinit« lasts fur 

Kwinintier. (Sec Chapter X. 1>.) 

Diirinif the \)nst few >'eiire there ha» lieen un tinprovenient in the 
rtiunii of 8[)evificaticiiu( ctiveriiiK tlie churueler of tlto reftiKC. This 
iI1<i/ is covered in the Toronto «^pe«iGcntioiii« 0.4 follonnt; 

"The eontr&ctor hereby gimruiteMi lluil iKr follnwinf HMM]itif<iia will be 

■I, subject lo the juditmriit of the tttniiti-cr. vheii the furuaciu ore 

ting, viihout additiooaJ fuel, at or about their ralvd catHU-ilim, refine 

alMiOig not more Uum nii>e hundml and forty (M0> pnunda of wut/-r 

uin, deUnuiniil by eviiiKirntion Intitt, und ni>t Inw than four hundred 

I •illy \VM) puundii of roinbunUble per ton, dulrmiiiii'd by norobuMion 



8p«eifieation« (or garbsKc rurnacee arc more often prepared bj 

>ntr»ctors and RiAiitifueldn'rH than by municipal engineent, mid 

ofletvd to live purcha^^r as a deseription nf the jilanl thtiy pro- 

to build and the chjiracter i)f the workmanship and materials 

uy prwpodft to fumuih. '\'\m UMge bi fre(|uently found in small 

Unually. hdweircr, better rotult^ are to be expected if thorough and 
omph'te B|irvilieatinn» are prpjiiired by the city tlm»ugh il* cnginecrji. 
*uch »pefificiition'., nnil with propi-r iiwped-ion during eon- 
, a pUiit wiih a louxer useful life will generally be secured, and 
I tion will follow, if, for inntanec, leak!- of cold air, 
linn, arc rlimiiiatcd. Al»o, « low eo"! ft'r re[>*ira 
tllliui) under kimm) t<|jeeifiaitioiu>. 



442 COLLECTIOX A\0 UlSPOSAL OP MVStCtPAL REFVSB 



J. SVMHART AXD COlTCLUSIOirS 

Burnint; refuse RyBtematically ha.s been practiced for niaajr years in 
America and abroad. American practice started with the bumiogof 
garbage alone, U!>inK coal as a necessary auxiliary fuel; European 
practice lia.i been developed along the lines of an incineration of miied 
rcfuxe n-ithout an additional fuel. Furnaces of special dedgiu lian 
been built for each of these practices. Within the past few years in 
America several large mixed-refuse incinerators have also been 
operated quite Kucces.afully. Each method of burning can be Raoitary 
and eflicieiit through proper design and operation; their relative 
prr-fcrence for a npecial case will usually depend on the annual cost, 
including fixed charges. 

The principles of refuse incineration are now well established, and 
their practical application is becoming better understood; yet there is 
Ktill a need for n more general use of the best designs and more intelli- 
gent operation, and the preparation of specifications to insure proper 
construction and ii|)eration. 

The fallowing conditions may be considered among the essentials 
of a satisfactory incinerator: 

The design must be arranged so that the charging with refuse can 
Im; rupid and thorough, and permits but a minimum of cold air to 
cjitor the furnuce during a charge. The refuse for ever>- charge must 
hi', well mixed and contain a sufficient quantity of combustible matter. 

The cells and flues should he arranged so that only pre-heated air 
passrw over every p!>rt of the fire, and that the sulwequent fumes enter 
n sufficiently large coiiibustiiin chamber, adjoining the cells, on th«r 
way to tli(' boilers and chimney. 

The t('mi)erjilnre of the developed heat must be high enough atit« 
minimum tn dc-troy cfTectuully all organic solid and gaseous matter 
before reachinK the cliimncy, which requirement, therefore, almost in- 
variably necessitates the use of forced draft and a combustion chamber, 
and in Idw-leniperuture furniices frequently the addition of some fud- 

N<i dust should eHrat>e from the chimney, which requirement 
d(>nian<ls a properly designed dust settling chamber, to give a suf- 
liciently slow velncity to the ascending gases. 

Boilrrs for steam production should be placed immediately beyond 
the coinbustion chnudter, in order to get the greatest available heat. 
Pre-heiited air for the grate fires should be produced beyond the boilers. 

Ashos and clinkers should be removed quickly and inoffensively, 
with a minimum of dust ; and be utilized, as far as possible, by their con- 
version into salable materials, unless filling up land is more desirable. 

In lOunipe steam production fntm mixed refuse, and its utilization, 



rscrsKHATios OF nnFirsK 



443 



practicftlty cvtryKlicn Accomplished, nolwilh^tuDding that tbe 
rccritaKT i>f unbiirnt cual containod iii dniiiPKtic refuse is iio greater, 
it KOiKTriilly lr<4, tlinn in America, cxrcpt when; oil niiJ icai< arc the 
inri|i!il liiolx. (SccChnplpr I.G.) Sl4:-fLin l« ulilixod, iiul uiily Ui move 
^eci. biirketH, valves, and donn^, but tu iceiierate electricity for both 
VKltt^BKivnd power purpo«i>«. Westmoutit, Qu«., han utilized llu.- steam 
produeml by inrinprstioD in tliis matiiier for many years. \\p. Imvc 
It a (cw 9ucli cases in the I'liitvd t^latcs, yt-l tlio conditions inviting 
sumt^ n^ulle nxint horc aa well an they do in Kngland. Wo should 
Erefore give more att«nlion than heretofore l<i the titilivalioD of 
im, chiofly to r<Mlucc cofi rather than lo expect profit. 
The r«A«()n« why Amorii^aii iiieiiierutorx rardy develop much 
ini, are, liret, the more cnnnmon practice of erecting plants of 
iper &rsl coat, which ore nut dettiKned for efficient steam production, 
id aecorKlly. unskillful operation, which produces low tompemtures 
id coaMquetitly iuvouiptcte coiubuKtioo with bad odors. 
The adoption of louMemperatur« funiucet^, when the average 
mstcriiil has a ^ufhcipntlr high mmbuatible value, le juftifird only 
tho coffo of perfect reliance on on effieirnt operation, both in the 
llection Mrvive and burning of the carbaRe. Mo«t of our present 
fre((ucnlly do not produce a fufhcienlly high temperature 
pnt the Dcca^iiunal escape of ofTensive odors, becauite of no|;lect 
Irllv in faitinic to add cnougli fud when miuired to destroy all the 
iorotii* K»«CA which arc to be cxpiv-ted niul partly in fniliug to mix 
RiHt<>rialc of the ehargM ho thai they can produce a ^uRicienlly 
)| IcniiK'ntliire Id dcMtrny all the nhjei^tionable oreariir iiialtcT. 
I'ht' detailH relating lu the o|M.-ratiou of refuiM! incinerator)- have 
ly developed markedly along the lines of irrealer mcctuioical 
Dtrol. cliniinalinK hard labor, speeding up the various operations, 
eai>in|t the efTieiency, and improving the combustion. 
If rcfuBc ran be incincratcHl in properly de^iRiicd and ojM-rated 
|h-tem|M>ralure fumaw^, without producing n numiice, which hna 
m amply dcmoiirtrated in praetiee for years both abroad and liere, it 
^fca^'^hle then, not only to burn the refuse at selected points nithia a 
ty, mn in l,nndon. and thus greatly (ihorteii the eoDecttun haul and 
rediipp t|j exiveiuc. but iiI.ho to siuiplifr the hou»e trealment in nmny 
■tneti^ where Kr>|«irati<iri is now irksome. The utiliaation of hard 
km ut a nnncrete aggregate in building operations would reduce 
cimt <pf their rentoval to a distance, anci llio generation of oleo- 
ity would rehire tlio total roft of ineineratton. aitd soniGtiniM 
•if ihe cnllrt'tion. 

In any particular ease M»itar>- result* coupled with careful 
Stnatm of cost should d«cido whether or uot incineration ix heat. 



CHAPTER XI 
REDUCTION OF GAItBAGB 

The development of the reduction method for the final dispcmJ 
of garbage has been due. in a great measure, to American initiative, 
for, with the exception of a few experimental operations, do pUnts 
have been built in other countries. Without doubt, the greater waste- 
fulness of the American people is one reason for this devdopmeot, as 
it produces a garbage rich in recoverable elements. 

The reduction method ia a combination of mechanical and chemical 
proces.-:es whereby the garbage is separated into four parts: Vc4atile 
matter (driven off as ga.«l, water, grease, and '" tanlcage.*' The latter 
is a dry material, which is somewhat stable, mostly fibrous, and (rf 
vegetable and animal origin. The grease and tankage have maricet 
values, which is the chief reason for the development of this procesE. 
Garbage grease is used in the manufacture of soap, candles, glycerine, 
and other materials, and has been selling at from 3 to 10 cent« per 
jxiund. The tankage l-* used a.* a filler or base for certain fertiliiers, 
and has been soiling at from $6 to SIO per ton. generally according 
to its ammonia content. The volatile matter driven off contains foul- 
smelling ga,-ies. and this source of odor must be destroj-ed by fire or 
otliiTwise, if nuisances are iv he avoided. 

The commercial character of the prtioess. the risks involved, aiid 
the noeil far exiwnsivo niachincrj- and skillful operalioo. have gen- 
erally pn'vi'ntt>»I the prxn-es.-* Wm boine adopted in cities with popu- 
lations of less than alxml 7.iaKX>. .\s it can 1* used for the disposal 
only oi" iiarK-jce .-ind dead animals, it therefore requires a separate 
collfction -v'stom. 

The Tchiction of garl»ace ir-.io ereaso and feniliier ori^dnated in 
.\u>iria. wiiciv. in Vienna, the "■ Merz " pi\*ce^s was first introduced 
e\ivri;;;tv.:a!'y, but w.is not devoK-jxii >'ji-v-es.~iul!y on a working sak 
f.>r larct" .■!;!<■- until its inir\>.iuoiion ir.;-/ America at Buffalo, in M«!r, 
ISSii. J'v Mr. H. A. noischnisn. who orirar.iied a company to " man- 
ui.ii-:-,::m' ):i>'-"*--* and fortiliier from city rv:;:**-'." A contract was mwfc 
with that city whewby the garbage was to be kept separate bom ■0 
iho other lefuae and ddinnd at tike company's wto^ 



JtSDtlCTiOyt Of OAltltAOK 



445 



Tbc tupugraphy i)f AniFiiciui cities and tlic di)«tributtoD of tbo pop- 
ulBti'tii over comparatively lArge artMi.'', have provided opportunities 
for the rrady disposal of ashrs. nihhish, street su'eepinics. and other 

, tuorc or Ic«w inoit kinds of rofiiw, by dumping on low laudfi. As 
bailee, wtten dumiied in tliiit way, docoitipoees rud produces wdoni 
uuimnceA. a diUerent method for it«< dtHposftl Vfa» dcmaiidi-d. 
CoaditioDii in America were favorable to the development of gRrtiago 
raluction, ohieflir uit account of the h.\^\> percentage of grcaae obtain- 
able. As an inoffensive burning of garbage, unmixed with other 
kiutU fif refui«, wm* found to I>p expensive, (he possibility of obtaining 
a re^eime by using tlie reduction proccaH for iL^i dinpoAal beimme 

IBttnietJ\<e, and the Auslriao [nv«nlion was received favorably by 
Antericnn promotere. 8e^*eral procesHes were developed sulieequently 
and became known by the naniee of tbdr reapeotive inveators. These 
are clevcribud briefly herein. 



A. F0H0AMEHTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



H Reduction proconce consist of a breaking up of the garbage by the 
Hap|>lK-ation of heat and meehanical agitation, so that the valuable 
^ftr'ji»<titiipnl*< can be recovered ond prepnnxl for Ihc market. Osbora 
^Buts cloai^iried tbeee processes as follovn: 

^V " At llie preMoit Itme gailmgo is usually reduced by one of two methoda, 
and, for <lHlin<^tiAn, nil iIm^ plantn optTntinit naa lie M>ii«l(lcred m using eitW 
.die tUying or the vookiiiK iiielWI. 

Tbf> two methock miKlit tip lUwTiln'i] lu* fotlom; 

1. l>vtntf MttAad. — The drying nicthoil rt»u\«i« in crushing ar grinding 

e csudv garbage and puiwinn ii. thmiiKh ilirct^t-hml. drmrs to drive olT the 

,rvAii<l)>iT«kiL»wr)(li£'r«llH. The dry Hi)id& uw then pliMH>(linex(ract4>r 

_ anil list- gmiM ut rprovcrt^l by ixTctiljiticm, luving ic»««line ne a »Dlvmt. 

"2 ("oofrinfl iMrt/iiW, — T\w <"i">kiiiK iiifltiud ciuisiiiW in plaring the gar- 

Phage in di|p»t<^r l^iikK wtipro it U i-tuikcil, anil llicn extraoltiig the frre grrajio 

ft nii>c>tiin- by iimvtinK- The wili<L> fn^m thu praofo* arc then dried, aitd. 

Ihr naak-m [itanU, thcdrtcd (anka^ is pcroolatod to recover tlie gr^aae thsl 

Dut twlraHwl by til** prwww. 

■• Thi- rvlaiiw advunliiKCH -ff ihn Iwo methods give rine Ui a difTnencr u( 

m. [Ulhough nl. tlir prcwnt ttini' tW iiinjorily of plsnU atv operated l>y 

'tltr iiMkiitft OMfthod The itdvnntaeoa tad disiulvaniagM of the two luethoda 

mttx lo* AHTUnt^d up as follnwc 

I T<»t of iJh- pliinl m IftM, due tn the nuallrr v^iuipiiiciit anil 
liini I I ■lUilnl. 

,' Idling eosta are leas, due to the unallet amount of labor axwi 
petm i*)|ulKd 



446 COLLECTIOS AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL BEFUSB 

" DisadttajUagM o/ Dryijtg MMod: 

" 1. Carboniiing of the grease in the drier, due to the hi|^ tempcnture 
required, so that the maximum amount of grease is not recovered. 

" 2. The materia] is not brokea down to let the solvent act aa readilr oo 
the grease particles and allow maximum recovery. 

" 3. The mechanical condition of the by-products is not desirable without 
additional treatment. 

" 4. There is a greater volume of gases to be dcodorued, mnlfing H difficult 
to deodorise it economically. 
" Adoanlages of Cooking Method: 

" 1. The cells of the material are more rompletdy bre^en down, so that a 
larger amount of grease can be readily recovered. 

" 2. All material is enclosed during the process, so that the gases are moR 
readily deodorised and their volume is less. 

" 3. In the modem plants, the mechanical condition of the by-^nodncts ii 
better. 
" DuadivnJages of Cooking Method: 

" 1 Increased firat cost of building and equipment. 

" 2. Increased operating cwst. 

" 3. Increased maintenance cost. 

" The by-products from either method have the same rdative market 

\-alue. In plants that have been operated by both methods the experience hai 

been that the additional amount of grease reco%-ered by the cooking method 

has more than offset the increased cost, and at the same time the odors wen 

\ eliminated to a larger extent . ' 

The desired result.'; from reduction processes are the production of 
the greatest quantities of grea.-ie and tankage, having the most valuaUe 
qualities, in the mui-t economical way, and with as much cleanliness 
and freedom from nuisance &s practicable. The raw material is 
garbage, which generally contains more than 70^ of water and less 
than 30*^ of solid matter. The water is u.-ieless. The solid loatter 
contains a mixture of vegetable and animal fats, and of nitrogen, 
phosphate, and other elements which are valuable as fertiliiers. 

The garbage reduction proces.-: differs from that used in the man- 
ufacture of other oils and f.its chiefly in the facts that there is a com- 
paratively large percentage of water in the raw material, uid that 
both animal and vegetable fats are present. By simply crushing the 
garbage and allowing sedimentation, some grease can be akimiaed 
off. and the solids have some fertilizing or food value. If the gar- 
bage is cooked in an open kettle, grease ean also be skimmed off, 
the water drained away, and solids with some fertilizing or food valw 
can be recovered. The later {Kxiceases have introduced a greyer pro- 
duction of grea.se by crushing and cooking, and extracting it man 
completely with solvents. The aolida must thu be diisd to pradnoe 
a marketable tankaga. Tlw mmmm w -mm an 



BBUVCTION OF GaRBAGS 



447 



Djecttoaable, and must be treaica tn a sanitArr way. The modcra 
I have been dcftigtied tu secure these rciiults with a luitUfartoO' 
kotrol of the foul gasvs rind li<iuida. 

Tbe daeiga of reduction workx r^quirnt a spcci&l knowlodgo of the 
iteriRla to be handled and prndticed. The most pertineat features 
b« d«««rilxd. 



B. PLANT LOCATION 

Tbe fact that ofTeniiive Ks^es and odors arise from the r^uction 
ealment uf i;aibaK« makes il iiprasiiary Tor u city to deHtroy thfim 
>tuplctuly or, if tliis cannot be done econoiuicuUy, tu remove Ihe 
irks to a favorable or distant locality where odora, if detected only 
^caRionally. would not be objectionable. 

Tbe preference abuuid be dcfidcd by the comnmnity, as to how far 

will take a rUli. The exi»en»c of tlie works must be invressed In 

■der to provide siiffineiit irieaiiN hoih to destroy the offeneive gases 

>inj)let«]y and to occupy land ucar tbe city ; but a ehortenJti); uf huul 

jnea greatly rtKluces th(> (.'XfjenKV uf di^livery. Un the other 

if mifficiontly fur fruni rt-!<i(i(;iice.i, uiid where, ns in tbe neigh- 

borboo*] of Aimiiar cstAbtJRhinenfci, an oecfuiionnl odor may be por- 

jiiiwble, the workji tnay l>e oprraled Uvts expensively. 

■ Tbe coflt due i*> a lonEcr delivery route is generally much greal^r. 

In Milwaukee il was funnil to be more bxp«Miiiv« to ostiibli^h a reduc- 

^un pifiitl tit the n«■are^t pL-ritiiissi ble point, uii nrcuunt of Ihc grealer 

It of delivery, than to build incinerators near the center t>f the city. 

TorDiito. where the moat economical Holntiort waa a reduction plant 

bveral milcn from the city, but in u iicigLborhotxl that was desiruble 

' gooi! n!sideiieeH, it was deeidetl t^i build an ineineration plant, til a 

dUtatit point, but in a ncighborhoiKl where it wai; not deemed 

bjecttonable. Where a plant eaimot be placed at a near point, and it 

ime» aeeewary to have a trnnttfer stAtton, with a Oiial delivery by 

jr truck, rail, or water, the cost of traniiportation per mile thereby 

ting letts. 11 may sumelimea be better to select at onee a suf- 

itly diaiaut point, mi that it may become pcrmanemly established 

I Midi in iU neighborhood. 

tn very large cities it hoA boen found more economical and quite 

|ti-fartory, as lu Ixindon, Kngland, to e^itoblish a numlwr of inciii- 

iring {ilnntM within the metnipfiliK, and thereby ulinrten the length 

cullctiion haula. t^iich a M>lution Iih.'4 not yet heen attempted with 

luclion plants, probaUy for two reasona. One is, that aaflumioB 

»i> ' ''Uffp eotild bi> dlipoHwl of at the Mime cost, either by ■ 

< «r II i<)nKlc incineration plant, tlicn it would cost more 

FMtabli^ and ojwrale two reduction plant« each of fiO totu capacity, 



448 COlLECTUm ASl) DISPOSAL OF MLtSWIPAL REPVSB 

thnn two incineration pliinti nnch of WJ tons cnpacily, beoiuBe tlw 
former \i&\e more <;oin|iIicateiI mnrliincry aiij an? iiiorR difficult lu 
oi>erat«. Another reason ib that the o<lor« in the forrarr »re tnofe 
diffti-ult to control Iiocuum^, lit rediicticin wnrks, tlie ndor« arc pro- 
duved by titc ptxjc«9«, while at on iiiuiucrator tliey are jirevpitlfd or 
dpslroyeii by tliff proeosH. 

On the other hand, the rrduction plantK, for inntancr, at Kooh- 
eetor, Tol«do, Chicago, nitd Lif* AngHc^ ore quite fAvoraUly loi^atcd 
AS Tttg&nU haul of gitrbngc nnd npcrnlion nf the worlu. Thp!!« plantu 
have been iii ui*e a number of years, and th^re has been no apparent 
difipumtion nn Ihi' part of the citicf* to uhange their lucutiouH. The 
plauLt at Toledo and CliicaKu arc in lucution.** odjoininu stock yard) 
and puckiiiK houncv, where odors arc expected. The plaitt location at 
Rochester, apparently HatlRfnctory, U npar the cent«r of the city and in 
what would iwiially weni to be a rather eritieal lucation. 

It thu* appear*) noeensary, when potwiiltiring plant lacatiorut, to 
canvan.-. carefully tlte local conditions, so that favorable local cireuro* 
stances may be advantageouoly utilized. 

C. PROCESSES 

1. Mer2.— In the Mers prooese the fiarbage ta first dumped into 
a larp" hopper and thp frse water allowed to drain ofT. It is then 
spread out, so that foreign matter, such as caiiM, hotlltw, rag*, iiKtals, 
boDee, etc., can be picked out . The reuuiioing icarhase is t hco ground 
in eTUsheni, and the comniinuted mn.<» is duni|x>d into hot-air driers, 
or the crude jcarbage in <lunipQd ilJrectly into them. In the driiirM the 
ma«8 i* stirred with mechaiiieiil mixor>i and drie^l fur a (mtiikI nf frrjni 
one to «ix houra. so that the material ii^ partly broken up and niurh of 
the moiature driven oGt. The dried material is dark brown aad 
groatiy. In this condition it i& put into exlractora, or clotui lanka, 
through which a solvent, euch as naphtha or beiisiiic. peroolatCB; 
this difwolves the gnxwe and thus " extracts " it. The fftn^ vt 
recovered from the Kolvenl by heating in clo.<)cd re«i-ptaclo!> which ai« 
arranged eo that the naphtha is dirtillcd off and Ihi; grvaw romatoa. 
Hiis is then rlrawii off and barroled fur itale. The aolide, left OT«r 
after tlie crease vi extracted, are dried. Krouiid, ntored, and mid u 
taakaite. 

In Hume of the earlier Men plant* the drying waa itone in stcatn* 
jacketed dricn, which required more time and were more «xpeniam 
to operate th.in now. Id rec<>nl plantt* the cni»1itd garluiKe » pnasRj 
through direct-heat driers, in which it comes wlu direct contact wilh 
the hot air, and ix dried mora quiekly. 



I 
I 




4 



aSDl-CT10\ OF GARBAGB 



440 



The gases produ«d in Ihcsc severd iifocwewa arc cciQvcyed to a 
[cooling towor aad vroshod with a fine spray of wat«r to reduce their 
' nffi<twuveiieBiii. 

Rccliirtioa works of the Mcrz typ« were built and have been 
«|Mral4xl at BufTulo, Milwnulcco, Ht. Paul. Patenion. St. Louis, Colum- 
l>itA, anil Chicajfo. The plaiitoi at MilvrRitlcee, At. Paul, and Paienon 
bavc it^M abandoned, and the others have been materially mudifHxl. 

2. SuDODitt.-~-ln llie ^iinonin procvstt the &otveut uKed for grease 
^txtraetiuo in applied directly to Ibc gurboge before it ia dried. The 

v^ tx lirxt duuipcxi on a. connrete f!oor, niid thi^ canK and rubbish 
picked out. It is then placed in Mhitllow iron pan.s built uj> in 
ruecewivo laym on truckti. Tho headed trucks arc run into horizontal 
eyliudricaJ eitructttig ovctut, U ft. in dianiotor and 18 fl. lung. These 
extiactfln, or dige^terft, are cItMed tixhtly and filled with naphtha. 
The cimtenta nre then heated and dige<tte(l as lonp aa Iwenty-four hour* 
by »(e:im cuils fixwj in the bottom of the dtgeHtera. The gnrtuiKe 
twatcr and the naphtha not umkI for cxtratHing Krca^^v arc both Mith- 
'drawti fl« vapor from the digester to a eondenser nud then to a set- 
UifljE eikJ separating tank, from which the water i» drained to the 
sever and tli<- naphtha flowf into clorago tanks. 

Tli« na|>hlha. with the diwolved grease, i» drawn off from the 

dtgeatcrs inlu ovapuratorK, in which the evaporation m contiau«>d until 

inuat uf the froe naphtha is driven off to the condeniwra. A «oliilion 

of ereaw in left in Iho evaiNiraiing timk from which it i» drawn off 

Linto the rctthiig tank, and iho naphtha l<i separated from the groase 

[by illKtillation. The miIuIh or Innkiigp reitininin^ in the dige»t4>ni 

beated ni>veral timea by live fltenni. to drive off the water and any 

fn-'tnaining naphtha. The dried tnnkage is taken out, Hcreened, 

and is then ready for !<ale as a dilutanl for xlrong fertitieors. The 

lwb«ilc proocrw re<|iiire« about fi>rty-«iKht hours. The offensive ua.M'a 

[BMnping when the digesters are opened have L-siused considerable 

cuiuplaJQt. 

I'he tirvt plant of th» type wof built in Pnividonce, in IS90. 

[Thr workfl corapriKed Iwosle^im lioilen*, pixe)itrartor>' or dige.sterK, two 

pvltliMg lankA, (wo nlillM, and a titoruge houfe for nuphlhd. Itcdue- 

tiou planlH of ttii» type wer<.< built alKi nl Cincinnati and New Orleans, 

[bul they have been abandoned aod replaced by othom. 

3. AmOlil. — The Arnold prrKTw wn* uwed on a working wslo firal 
ifuau lifjc-ton in IMl.'i. when- u plant wa« l'< instructed from pl;in<i pre- 

by Mr. t'haHes IMRej-Ion, of Phdarh^lphta. Thrrrforc, it ia 
limoH iipnken of ax the Amold-Mgrrton procxiM It was Iho 
imi! to pracliee the crxikiog of garbage witli live iilcam. After 
'the Ktus, do caitK, rubbish, and other utiiJc«irablc roatorials arc picket! 



450 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF UVNIClPAl BEFVSB 



out. l]i« garbage b dunifM^ into vertical digesteni, each holding about 
6 toils. Thew have cnnical bottoms, «nd ore filkd at the Inp fr'>Ri A 
IravelinK conveyor. The garbage is then cooked from five U> uiglit 
hours under prcnurc with live eteam. At tbc end of tfaio (irae it law 
boea tboroughly broken up. Th« mass rMcmbic^ » thick browa 
grwy MUp, and is nHthdrawn from the bottom at the digestiu- inio 
rooQiriog tanks from which, at the «-iU of the operator, it is dmwn into 
a pow«r prms which supuratos the liquids (rum thv Mtlids. The liqaMfa 
ootuiat of grcAM and wat«r, which are Agaio wpamted in a wttling 
tank by gra^'^ty, and the KrcBi* reduced to a comioerciftJ forta. The 
vFuter draimi ulT into a sewer, uud the grease fiosra into (auks, fnnn 
which it \A barreled ond isold. The nuHd tankiigc entcns eteam- 
jaeketfKJ driers, \* agilntnd, pu)v«rixc<l, dried, ground, screened, and 
sold a« a filler for fertiliscrK. 

In Komc of the hitcr plants th« sOilid matt«r coming from the driers 
is tmnt«d a *ei-ond ttmo with a solvent while passing through Kupphv 
mentary ppiTolatoTH or ertractora, wid an addiitonnl quantity of 
groa>« to withdrawn, which also incrvosea tbe fertiliiing value nf the 
tankage, lit order to render the xlcam and gUMi from the digesters 
and olheV at>t>Bratu8 less offensive, they are conveyed to condcriMnt 
and boilem before they are discharged into tbe outside air. PlaiiU 
of thU type* hiive lieen built and optM'ated at Bofltan, Philadelphia. 
Kcw York, Rnltimorc, and Rochwt<'r. 

4. Holthaua.—In Itridi;;e|iort. Coiiii., in 1887, a method wa« uliliml 
diFfcring only fliichtl.v from that inlrodiioed by Simoiiin. Naphtha 
vitrn uhmI for extravljng the grease in (lige^^rs of smalW capacity, nad 
the marhiiiery and apparatiun were of better di-nign and conxtmctJoa. 
The plant wor dcf^royed by an explosion of the naphtha vapor*.! 
Another Holthaiu plant waa built in Syracuse, but, inntend of uatng^j 
nnphtha, tht; ktouk woh i'x1nicl<?d with steam. Tlits plant waa 
destroyed by fire. Now Bedford adopted ttiia uytem in ISM, and j 
built workfl 3 milen from the City Hall. Naphtha again urtm used, H 
but only for cxiracting the grosse left in the tankage after mo»l of it ^ 
liHil lirvn removed previou)-ly hy steam. Again an explosion dottroyed , 
the jilaiit. ^1 

6. ChambefUiii.~Tbe " Liquid 8e|Mratiiig ProceM," invented by B 
Mr. M. H. Cliambedain, was (irxt used at Detroit in 1898. It wai 
recommended tig an improvement on the previous proccwo*. Tha ^ 
Detroit works were built at Kreneh'^ 1.anding. about 20 miles oulnidit V 
thr city. The prinripnl new feature i;" a cpeciul flinretcr, fhp txitlnm nf 
which i* provided with rbreeeoncenirie circular cyllndci* having double 
wnlltt, which areclowdnt the lop and n|x;n nt theboltoiu. The ftdetof 
the cylinders are porforated. After the cooking poiiod, steam at highi 



aSWCTJON OP GARBAGE 



451 



entcm the digpsi^r so as to force the cylinders up aud drive 

Ihe Litiutds carrying the KreaKC. lliu wuti^r and grcuM; which 

ll»ve b«wii prtt^ned out are se|mratpcl l»y Rpnvity, and thennlid miitlor ix 

dried and uthurwisc prcparpd for the markt^t. PhmUt of thia type 

were built nUo &t Indiaii«po!i«, Cincinnati, and Washington. 

^1 6. WiBelogeL— Mr. Frederick (t. Wuetogel ■van for muny yvavs 

^BBonected with tbfl Donstruction nf the Simoiiiri and Mere Kurbagc 

^^^wtioti pknta and later with lh« St. Louis Sanitary Companjr. 

^Erhc mluction plant at Vincciiiira, Ind., built in 1002. is pprbspia the 

HSrat one which ia distinctively of thie type. The Wiselogel proccas ia 

de«cril]«d as follows by the Secretary of a Booton Company orgnnized 

to promote tt; 

" Our apporntui conasta of a »elf>«ootaincd rpodcrmft lank and dmr 
cnmbtncd. It ia a Huaxn-jafilceted cyltnd<>r or rnxt iron. S ft inlmiul iliainfitcr 
and \'i or mora feci king, |>mvidr(l with n nhatt and nel to xlir t he miun within . 
Tbe nmerial to be r«duo<Hl in f<-d in nl the lop of the tank. Ui which an iiir ur 
vacuum pump is attached, and. bviiig conattinUy in motion, produces an 
inward draft while the lAok is ti|H'n, Ihui' (inivcntiiig any odors (ram cucaping. 

" U'licn the tank ia (Uted, the door i;t cloacil and tianipixl Steam ia 
adinilinj ojmI iht* ni-l la wet in mutioii. thr air )>tiin]> tuiil (■uiidi.-nMT siill tiring 
in operation. The wHt«r. toi^tlicr with tlio greaac, sMeiablw in the bottom of 
tbe ma<^hine, and b iiumpnl into the ooolInK tank, wtirrv \\k gmuw is drawn 
off into barrelii and ia nady far marlcrt- The niitcr in led ofT im a harmloM 
efllgenl into tbe aewcr. Rvlicvcd u[ the wati;r and gnnae. the reeiduum ia 
drisd in tba aame macliinf. and, iliiritiK tti<^ entir*) procem, by Um- aid of tlw 
Ta«vam pump, all vapors and gaaoe are drawn from the machine and forced 
thfou^ a cofMlenncr and ncporator where the vupors arc tundcnwd and the 
gnws diverted to a spedaUy oonstmeled eonsuraf-r When the reaiduuni wt 
lanka^ ia thoroughly drrnl, it i* <lij>i^hikrt(<>d frntii t.ht? niachinr lui a <mmm«rcia] 
fertiliser. Thin whole ojieraLiiin c^nmiinBi itbout eiglit hnunt' tiuie. 

" 'IImi material aiifTen no exiMMUre from tlii> limi' il U fed in at tlw top until 
it if dischaiged, a dry and udurlun prwluct, ready fur ilu[iuieDt." 

^B The Vinccnnci* plant wat> dcntroyiMl by Gn- in 1908 and not rebuilt, 
^K 7. Bdcon. — The Kd«o» Reduetitm Mnchinery Company, of Cleve- 
^Hantl, tind previously developed a prncrHo for ireatiiiK Bsh waste 
^nnMvrial in n unitary manner, and built in Dclruit work>> for garbage 
^Flteatmeut in lieniR'tii^aily m'hI<'iI digevU'TT', drierx, and extractoni. 
In IIK)7, after a yeur'a operation, the worka were closed, oi they 

rould itot fullill the terms of t he cuntract. 
tu 19(M the Edson prucons combined with the Chamberlain prorew 
vafi Inlroibic^d at Cleveland, and put in pruetire at the redviotion 
til at Willow, tt was the firxt plant ownc^I and o)N.*riilt-d by » rity, 
lul the worka have been gradually improved. 
The garlMp! 'w ^tni cooked with xtcum. uniler 7U lb. [n-ensure, in 



452 rOLLEtTIOS ASH DISI'OSAL OF MVXICIPAL REFUSE 

24 difteiiters. each havine a eapaciiy of 10 ton* per day. for f-ix lo €i^t 
hour-, ami thcH llif: Kr»-a.-«- and water are fon-ed by ihe sieam pnsiMiif 
into M.-ttliiiK laiik^ from wIiIl-K the i:rea.-« i> >kiiiiiiied o^ aiid bamjed. 
The ^olid- iri»iii the dige^^n^r;: are njiiveytij i.j .-teaiu-jaekeied drwr?. 
fittfnJ with revolving [jaddlev. and then dried for from eix toei^hi hour». 
The dried mulerial is di^vhari^ed iiH" jiertolators. in whieh the gTKt-e 
It extraeie^J by a naphtha .-ulvL-ut. The remaiiiin; ^ulid1^ are dried, 
srcr»*ned, crushed, and made u|j into a marketable tankaee. Tbe 
plai.t i.- atxfut flj mile- from the City Hall. aiiJ i> operated ^ucees.-iully. 
Fie. II- i^ a diatcruin ^llowi;le the n/uovvry of |erea.-e am! tankage. 
The fucces^^ful devi.-lopmeiit oi this fir-t municipal rvtiueiiou plant 



lU 



,1&0 



M 




. ... Iiakase- 



>.^-^^ ._ ..as--' ?'*3t'?'r,^.. .GT.t-.e- 



wj 



lilC 1317 IE 14 

Fic. 112. — Mmitlilv Itetijvi-rv of tlri-a.-^' uiid Tankage, Cleveland Ki-durtinD 

Plant - 

was due tu the efficient and devoted efforts of Mr, W. J. Springliorn. 
President of the Bnanl of PnWii' Service. 

Similar i)roc-e?-t? have lieen develMi>ed aNo liv Fliiui, Whcoiright, 
and othrT-. Muri- i-xn-ndctl artount? uf these procc:>ses are giiven by 
Mor-f.' 

8. Cobwell. — The ni.>-t recent dcvplnpment in pirbage reduction 
l-i known a,-; the " I'uliwvll " [iroiv^,-;. invented l>y Mr. Raymimd Wclk 
It lia?^ Ixt*n adii|i!i'il :ir l.us .^ncele-. li.nhe-tcr. and Staten IfiJaiid. 
N. v.. and was n>t-ii ;>i \\\v Paiiani;! I':nn!i<' l^xjmsitinn. The fcarbap', 
aftrr lifiiiit (ilaeeil in ihf rodmiT, a r-nnid. tiat-Iiottonied, ciivcred 
taiik havinj! a dianietcr ni' :i' li-a-t iwiif i:- hfiirht, I.-j first fliiiidcJ 

with naphtha ami tiien ked in tiu-e air-tii:lir. -Tf:iin-jacketo<l tanks. 

iimlcr a pri'ssiire of alumt vMli. piT .-iimin- imli. Airilafur arms in the 
lank.- keep the niatoriid in motion. Thi> ii-iii|MTaniro of the garlajjo 
and t;a.-'oliiio must l)e maintained at less ilnm JiH)- Falir.. which cau«« 
■■• xhe CollrctioD and Diipaul U Muni<'i)<al n'Mtc ." Fint Editioo. 



RBbVCTIOS OF GAhHAOE 



453 



itiT In Iw <-nrrin(l off willi llii? va)Kin/pil i;a^>lini>. \Hct \\\o 
%v U dry. tin- tciiiiHiratun.' in Uif Uuik ristts. tliiiM iiidimtinii; wlicii 
ke tenuivul i>f L)ic moisture is eompletc. Tho dri^^d i^Iuik^ in tlicn 
riulied Bcvcrol tiiam uith ga-MiItne, to extrnrt tht* Rrca&e cumplct«ly. 
^iually, iivc steam xa iiijixtorl Tor n Rhurt time ititu tliL- rwultiiig lank- 
ly, wliicb is ther«)jy finully dried- After (■niKliin^; aiid screening it 
rendy for sale. Tlie iirocess, an foUuwed at New Vork, la described 
detiul later ia tlite chB|>ter. 

9. Chicago's Process. ~fiarlNif:v reduiitiuii in Clucs|p» In bawd OD 
tJic use u[ KO-('uII<-il '- ilin-cl-indin.t-t " heat drien*. iLmI liaa been 
DveJoped largely by Cul. H. A. Allen. The gurbnge is fimt ruu thruugb 




■■•tea 

Can MX MM 



AkalMl T(fM 



SHU 



1. 113.— BxiierimfiitAl Almlidl RijiiiiJtiurnl nt Gurbimr Rrdiirtton riiint, 
CViliimljiis, Uhiu. 



bent, to \ittrak up liirf;e material, tfiiiB (>r>rmitting mtire efBcient 

DK- tlii' cntuhpd materitd is thvii fed to drien, ivbicli are built 

rilli dduble Hbfllf*, the inner yne bcinfs fitted Tuith pcrforuted lugs for 

tirnii)t tbt' gHrb]iyi>, Hnt air piiSM^« tbrouRh tho annular .opane, from 

wbidi a [lart iwcupca iiitu tbe garbage ibrutigh the pcrfuratiuna in 

tug!<. Tbe dried matDrinl is then {wruolfitaMi [or tiie recovfry of 

«-, uod the tankage ia dried, ncreened, milled, and prepannl fur 

w iniirkct. S|M>ciiil <!ta<-ki< are provided lor cluaoiag the drier {(adea. 

10. Miscellaneous Processea.— Exijerinieni* were made in Culum- 

ae (llUtV-l/l, on the recovery of alciliol from garhage by ii prutTss 

iranted by Dr. J. .1. Morgan, of Cbicagu. The experimental plant 

ibowu in Pig, 113. The gariwgc is find cookwl iii a digester, witli 

lr»ra 2 l«4%of tWrniliJiiirit acid uii<l>;rOO lb. prtssMiie, for nlxml two 

t|icitr>, after which ii i:^ fuirtty ueutndized and then ditcbttrgtid into 



454 COLLECTIOS AND DlHPaSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 

a Mcrew prcHs. The liquor from the presn Bowa to a neutralismg tank, 
and the Bolids are dried, percolated for grease recfivery, and then 
converted into tankage. In the neutralizing tank the grease is Gnt 
separated from the liquor, and the latter is then treated with lime, 
which forms a precipitate. This settles out and is made into tanka^ 
The neutralized liquid is then cooled and fermented with yeast for 
from thirty-six to seventy-two hours. Finally, the fermented liquo 
is heated and distilled for the recovery of alcohol. 

From 2000 lb. of selected garbage Dr. Morgan obtained about 50 
lb. of alcohol in Chicago and 32 lb. in Columbus. In the latter etty 
it was estimated by him in 1918 that the expense of extracting alcohol 
from 1 ton of garbage would be about 12.00, and that about 25% of 
dried garbage, or about 5% of green garbage, could be converted into 
alcohol. 

A summary of the results of the Morgan process, based on the 
experimental plant data, tut compared with the results of the regular 
Columbus process, is shown in Table 129. The experiments were 
made by Messrs. C. P. Hoover and W. L. Melich, for Mr. T. D. 
Banks, Superintendent of the garbage reduction works at Columbus. 
This procesH has not as yet been conducted on a scale of sufficient aiie 
to determine its commercial value. 

TABLE 129. — Comparative Data or Garbage Rbdttction 

AND MomiAN ProCEHSOFObTAININO AlX^OHOL, 

AT Columbus Reduction Plant 



Itf^m 


Hoduotion procem 


MorsBii proceH 


I'l^nujiitttge <if KTouw- fmin gurbaicc. , . 
I'crruiitufK! of tunkaKC frum garbagi-.. 
( iiJlutiH of 90% alcohol jut ton of Ritr- 


3.33 

8.22 

0.0 

3 f>3 
2.01 
4.»4 


3.11 
8.10 

5.8 

3.26 
2.16 
4.46 


PcrcwiiitjiKiw in tunknicc; 

Aminoniii (NIU) 


Triiulrinni plKwphnte (raifPOn)-!. 



Dr. Horst, of ChiraRo, has I>een experimenting with a chemical 
proccHd for coiivcrlinK tUv. cellulouc u{ the gurbage into dextrin or 
dcxtroMtt, but no u-icfiil tliitn li^vo yot b«*n <lovelo|«!d. 

Tho Puii-Ann'rinui Iwii Mining ('c)ini)any, (if Kaii!ia.o City, 
Mo., hiw Ix'on cxpcrimoiitinii with ihi' prixliiction of a. stock food 
from KiirlmKC, but, us yet, im plant liiis been put into operation. 
However, nil ngreeniriit luis IxM-n niadi' i I'.VM), lictwpcn this company 
and the Toledo DisjioMal Company, wliereby an exiKrimental plant 



REDUcrrorf of garbaqk 



4S5 



making ttLock fotnl is to lie buill atljuiuiiiK the reduction vorlu. 
10 tOMilU of operation Khould be available during 10:21. 



D. PRODUCTS 



H 1. Greasa. — OurbaRO Riva»c Is a loH-'grndc fftt, \xmd chioRy fur 
manufat'iuriniE n^ oil. iclyccrine^. »iul Miapc. 

Vu|{:trtable and aninml oilx are calied " &a[K>niliable " oUa, to dis* 
tingitifiii iliem frum the imnerul and iKsciitiai uils. TUc Kapunttinblc 
oU» dilTcr frum uthcr oils in tbcir t-kcmicol cumpuaitioD, lidng com- 
pounds of orj^anic aeidf with Hub«tani>ea of the aJRiihol group. Th« 
numt frfinH-ni reprewntative of the alcohol group found in saponifiable 
odn w (dywrine. 

The composition of Ki^rlmg^ gn>s»L' m. uf ouursc. vuriable, but 
^ommonly conKUtit of stcarir, uleic, iialmitic, and other fully ucida 
Houibiucd with glycerine in varying proportions. 

Theae fatH are found in oil -leedti of planla and in animals, (iar- 
I KreaMS will contain, not unly vegetable and IciroKtrial-animal ojl.>i. 
It also marino-animal oiU. Steiuia and palmitin havo molting 
>ints of about IfiO* and 150* Kahr., respectively. Olein is wifter, 
rilh a mcJiinit point of 25* Fa.hr. The ineltinR point of the Kt'eaoo 
de|)pndii on the |t>lalive pruiHirt ionx of tho threv fats in the mixture. 
In llie induitlrtcs, tiic mcthoda of extracting oil may be grouped 
uder tlim heads: (1\ hy rendering, that u, by boiling out with w&t«r; 
\) by prertfing: and f3) by using solvents. The vegetjible oils aro 
>tiuned bycni.<4hinx and then pre»<in){ the crutihed material or Ircatiiig 
with a Milvpul. Thorp' xtatee llmt extraction with a solvent 
' gives a larger yield of oil, ooiniaratively free from gelutinoua mailer, 
i( Mme r««in9 and roloring matter may b« dia»olv«d, thus con- 

ifiiinating it If the extraction L<i carried too far, the rp.iidiin 

crushed seed pulp hofl liaw value as ammul fi>od and is chiefly used 

forlilixer or fuel," The prc»i-<'«kc from many vcgelahlc oils is val- 

blc a* rallle fo<Ki, hecaune of the oil and prateidH contained therein. 

Animal oils and fat« can be extracted by rendering, i.c., eiHier by 

3tlinK with water l'> which n iimnH rpmntity of "ulphiirie neid is added 

■ promote the liRtiikiiiK up of the cell wailtvand lhu:4ht>eraling the oil; 

cuoking in large digoiKtcra in direct contact with «t«am under 

irr. Aa tbew oils arc contained tn animal cell*, which putrefy 

aooo after the animal i« killed, the rendering must be done within a 

ry •hi»rt lime, or the fat will Iteenme raneid and linvp a bad odor. 

(iarbagf^ creaM* at* onlinarily prepared for the market is a brnwii- 
Jorcd Mift fat . The luitial testa for aaponifiable fats iihoui<l be apj))iod, 

• - 0«UUM ol ludurakl Ch*Mtalry." 



466 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



including those for hardness, rancidity, and the saponification value. 
The test is a good indication of the purity of the grease. The aapom- 
fication value is expressed by the number of milligrams of potassium 
hydroxide needed to saponify one gram of the oil, or, in other words, 
to neutralize the fatty acids. This value indicates the quality of the 
grease for soap making. A higher saponification value than necessary 
indicates that more alkali is required for the manufacture of the soap, 
In most oils and fats this value is about 193; that of garbage grease is 
usually about 188. Grease with higher values than these is not 
desirable for soap and candle making. For other special tests of the 
value of grease, the reader is referred to text books on that subject. 

Table 130 gives the average analyses of grease at the Columbia 
plant. 

TABLE !30. — Average Percentaoes or iHPuarnBB in Grbase 

AT COLUHBUS REDUCTION pLANT 
PercentKcea by ireiKbt 



Vpai 


Moisture 


Impuritiea 


U OABponifiable 
nutter 


Free (»tty 
add* 


1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
191S 
1919 


2,69 

1,97 
2.53 
1,52 
1,56 
1,11 
1 025 

1 96 

2 29 


244 

0,205 

0,125 

0,131 

0,196 

0,46 

0,732 

o.Ss 

0.52 


2,44 

2,99 . 

2,84 

2,91 

3,37 

3,54 

2,830 

4,57 

4. 51 


27,512 

50,02 

• 



• Not reported 

Th(r fdildwing observations can be made quickly, and are useful 
in judging the value of a grease: 

a, 'Vhf turbidity, which indicates the presence of water or of oils which mix 
itni>crfcftly ; 

)), Thcquuntity of sediment; 

c. The color; 

d. The fluoreacencc or " bloom," wliich indicates the prefcnce of mincBl 
oils; 

e. The: odor, eniJerially when warmod, wbii-h, for instance, may l>c fishy or 
rancid, if the Krcaiw- if nut thoroiift'ily stable; 

/, The ta.ste; 

g. The viwosity, which may be judged by suddenly in/crting * t«st-tube 
01 bottle partly filled with the oil. 



REDUCTION OF GARBAGE 



457 



On account of the presence of sediment and of some odor, garbage 
Tease is frequently used for making cheap toilet soap, in which the 
mpuritiefl are obcscured by the color and perfume in the soap. Con- 
racts for the purchase of garbage grease generally limit the percentage 
if moisture and the unsaponifiable matter and impurities to 3%. 

Fig. 114 is a diagram showing the monthly percentage recovery of 
3«ase at the reduction works in Washington, Cincinnati, Detroit, 
i^leveland, and Chicago. 




u ij ^ ■: •■ K 

Pia. 114. — Arenge Monthly Percentage Recovery of (Ireoiic from Ciahaifs 
in Several American Citieti. 



3. SolreotB. — The extraction of garbage grftafte by a Holvent 
requires (he use of one that in volatile. CarlKin biHiilphide wan fintt 
ised by Mr. Jesse Fisher, in England, in 1H43. Ah at prfwtnt man- 
ifactured, this chemical in comparatively cheap, and, um it is \wavii:T 
than water, it ha« certain advantages on account of storage; but it« 
bad phynioloipcal effects on workmen, and the chemical action of 
impure carbcm bisulphide on iron, have practically prr^ventM itn uKe. 
Carbon tetrachlorirltr fould be used, having the ailvantagiM r,f txting 
iKm-inflammable and aUo heavier than water; but it is Uttt ex[>ciuuve. 



458 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MVmCTPAL RBFVSS 

Petroltnim naphthft !» the mlveni most frequently ubccI kI prtKKl 
It iaa product obuiiiied by diBtillattun ftum i'T\uiet p4>lroli>itm. ftnJ Im 
a spt'oitic gravity of from 0.711 to i>.746. I'mlnratmiwphpric pnnun 
it VKporJMs at from 100 to 210' K&br. It a uiRuiumaltle luii nt^o- 
sive, and, under alfnosphehr piVMiure, hiw a boiling (xiiiit t>f 160 (o 
210* Fahr. Pvtrulcum naphtha is a mixture of liydrociirljons. aod 
should he dislinguiiihcd from eo-caJled " solvent naphtha " or bcnnne 
derived from coal Ur. GuaoUnc may also bt used, but it is more 
cxpctwivc. 

3. Tankage.— TnnlcsKo is orttiuarily sold a« a base or filhv bx 
artificial fertiliner^. Its celling price is dotcrmiiKHl by itJt coDleal of 
so-cailed " urute " of ammonia, bone phosphate vl time, xutd poUfA. 
A unit of ammouiu, fur instunoe, is 1^ of ammonia per ton of tanlufn, 
or 20 lb. A typical hill from a xarbace reduction ptoat to a pat- 
chafer uf taukage would be made up about as foUowa: 

Car number Shipped (Date) , mntaininit 3SJ tons of 

tankage valutMi as followB, from analyaiB: 

Ainiuouu. 3.40% )g, 12.50 . 18 50 

[iativ phoBphnt« of lime. O.M% @ 90.10 0. 0& 

Ptttarfi, iyih% ^ »070 , 0.S8 



Vuluv pvr ton. 



SJ72 08 



Thi> percentage of mointure in tanka^o should he kept b«low ten. 
Methods of analysing garbage or tnnkntce for the alKive Hiili^anpcw ■(* 
given in Chapter I; reference should also be made to the rcpurta of 
the Committee on Fat8 and Greasm. of the AuMrrlcan Oiemici] 
8oeiety. Marketable fertUiient contain fmm 2 to S'^ if... il*, 
from 6 to 10% of Ixine phosphate of lime, and from ^ to ICi , h, 

the remaining portion being u filter. The composition of the tjuika^; 
should be varied to suit each particular soil. Bcforv tankaite mn be 
percolated adv&iitageou«ly with a wlvent, it iihould eontaia at leart 
10^ of grease. 

Table 131 gives the average analysw of tankage at the Columbtn 
plant. 

The rmvQet<9 of the tankage ifi i^so a quality affecting lU vmJue. 
Tankngc is sold either ground or unground. and a ofteti Ftftnl to reaJaM 
il to the proper <Icgrfc of fiDenem. 

In Mme reduction proocMca, the water from the RepemtinK tanbl 
hui been evaporated to a sj'nip (stiek), to be added lo llit* jBufc^p 
before it IP completely dried and finished. The tank-water nmtaitn a 
comparatively largo percentage of fertiliiing elements, and thu^ nuf 
Aorieh tlie tankage. It aim is flomewhat gntty, which adds |o ibi 



REDUCTION OP GARBAQB 



459 



Talue, M it Tcndcn the tankage kss flufTv oaA light; but the treat- 
meut of tho»o w»L«ni is »eldoin ccooomieiJ. 

TABLE 131. — AvntAOK PBiicE!fT*aEa or Ckotain CoMroinnns 
or TmuuB at OiLituiittK Kkuuction Fijukt 

I'vfmntMtta by weia>( 



y«u 


MulSlUlL- 


(IfCAAfl 


AfDiuaaUi 


PoUwh 


|ibo*pl]*l4 


19)1 


10 7 


10.7 


335 


0.00 


fi.63 


1012 


10 2 


2.0 


3 £0 


1.03 


7,16 


1013 


8.0 


1.8 


3.M 


o.w 


7.35 


t9M 


3 1 


1.2 


3.3S 


0.78 


8. OS 


1916 


3. 37 


2-9 


3.62 


1.12 


6 S3 


I9t« 


2&5 


3.3 


3 39 


1.9D 


7.99 


1917 


2 78 


4.28 


3 8« 


1 06 


7,56 


1919 


330 


_ - . , 


3 77 


1.08 


7.W 


1919 


Tankage « 


Qld *l flat r 


late on annl 


yaia guanu 


tccd 






IhtM! 


SW 


t.OO' 


7.80 



I 



4. Wastes. — The wasl4« from tlie reduction procetw are solid. 
liquid, and gasi'ous. All are capaMc vX creating nuisaDcm, chieBy 
the ga.->«ii. The sati.Hfarlnry oiwralJon of n mlii(;ti«n plant tlependB 
very largely on the- metltcxl of handling thene wsirtcs. TIip jfoHd 
waatcA, such as nibbisb, tio eanif, etc., arc the Icoet objcctiunablc. 
Tlioy are calktl " iiiiJings," nnd oiii b* disposed of like similar 
Kilid rrfuM. 

The litjiiid wnslos, orflinarily, ar« not large in (juantily, and their 
profier diapuxal is not difficull. They are the floor waxliings, »!uit« 
tank liqUQie, drippings from (he pretweit, etc., and ooulaiQ 9qum sreaisc 
and Aome nmninnJa. Analv^sea of the wiLit« liquidH from the plant of 
the Chicago Rcdm;tion Company are shown in Tabic 132. 

Id plant* where the tank Liquor is evaporated and the eyrup 
added to the tankage, the iinnntity of liiiuid waxto uUl lie lc»i, Where 
plants are near a larRR body of water or ii system of sciveiN, the waste 
liquid)^ can be diKcharp^d directly without nmeh Ireatmrnt. A 
pru[H!rly tlovigned mlrh-bai'in xhuuld be built to retain both the hi^vy 
s«ttlinK wlkU and the liphlcr fluatiiiK particlca. If the plant Is 
situated on a small stream in which the wn.>«l« liquids would ereAt« 
nutsancca, more «>mpletc purification musl be provided. Special 
deBijcnii, mmilnr to aewaftc trfntmcnt worVi, are required, 

A salisf.aclory dlspoKal of the wtii«te v^w* i» more difTicult. owing to 
lb« necessity of confining them. They contain volatile organic com- 



460 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OP MUNICIPAL SEFOSK 



pounds, such as ammonia, pboephine, acetic acid, carbon dknide, 
sulphur compounds, and partly burned carbohydrates, which create 
odors and are nuisances when discharged into the air near human 
habitations. During the last few years, methods of trapfHng and 
confining these gases have been greatly improved, and several procenes 
have been developed for their final purification, or, more correctly, 
their washing and burning. 

TABLE 132. — Cheuicai. Analyses or Wast*: LiQume. 
Chicauo Reduction Plant, Jolt 25, 1911 

(Courtecy of The SkoiUn' DBtriet of CIucmd) 
Rcaulla in parU per million 



BourM of 
•MDple 


ScarsHDsa Matte> 


OZTGBN COHaL'HBD 


NlTBOGKH 


CUo- 

rina 


Alk» 


ToUl 


Vol»- 

Ule 


Filed 


ToUl 


By 

soluble 
matter 


By 
■u>- 
[WimI- 

ed 
matter 


Orcan- 
ieni- 
traccQ 


Free 

amino 

nia 


Co nde naor 
wktcT Irani 
iiBphlhi planl 


132 


ee 


3a 


63 


.... 


.... 


9.6 


S.O 


31 


13D 


Wftter from 
wuhing tower 
for wBflteguiefl 


88 


76 


13 


184 






10.0 


a.8 


as 


81 


Drkin from 
■■rl»«e pile 


4280 


4000 


2ao 


88S0 


8790 


60 


1407 


1.2 


Bx- 
cenive 


2S0D 



If the waste gases are carried to a wet well, those which are solu- 
ble will be dissolved and may be discharged into the sewer. The 
insoluble gases may be passed through a hot fire and deodorized by 
oxidation. If the gases are led to a high tower, from the top of which a 
fine spray of water is continually falling, some are dissolved when 
passing up the tower and much of the odor is removed. The insoluble 
gasps, however, escape at the top. By heating, some of the insoluble 
sulphur compounds are changed to soluble sulphur dioxide, which 
can be removed by waf^hing. 

Insufiicient attention to waste gases has been chiefly responsible 
for the objections to the reduction system, 

6. Odors. — Objectionable odors at reduction works are due, 
partly to the garbage when it is stored temporarily at the plant until 
treated, partly to the fumes escaping into the open during the treat- 
ment, partly to the exposed tankage, and partly to the exposed liquids 



nBDVCTIOX OF GARBAGE 



461 



Bchai^cd from the di^n^tcrf and grca«o-scpnrating tunks. The 
intciiaity or qiinntity of odor (I»>7>«>n(l8 on the detaih of ihf» proccsM. 
Dtrrcl'lifrnl ^Irirri, [mrtiniluily, priidiice gaiKs in ()iiantitipfl which arc 
difficult to control. 

To pinveiit Ibo crmtiaQ mid dilFiisioii of tliexc olijoctionablu odors, 
the worke, as a fir^i re>iuircmcnt. should be kept »crupuloiit<ly clean. 
Thf opomlion ehouUI bo airanj^cd so that Iho frftshly ddivcrpd f^rbage 
can be plaml in thp digest^?! ut onco, or within a vnry short time, and 

Jpt loft cxiMMcd in the opva air to become foul. 

H GaacK and vapory ari'<iii|; front digeKl4>rR, as wvll s* (torn prtssos, 
iui]ihth» l.iii!><i, driers, and whcrrvtr odor» fmm the cooliod inirlin^ 
tnay ho scopratod, should be confined and dit^horgod into pijwe of 
dtametCTK rjT»[M>rl,v proportioned to c.-arr>- away cuinptololy all uduruus 

f' - asceudiui; from each ooiirce. The draft into the hoods imd (he vtr* 
Intion through the pipes U ba<it effected by a blower of ample 
eapuoiiy. 

Th« otlorou^ ftir thus collected from all places where it is formed 
ahoiild be delivprinl to projwr places for a rareful treatment. One such 
plane may 1% Mow the in'aloH of the funiaoeti at ihe pitiiil, where the 
fotd (OkBCA can be [Uij?swl (hrou^ (he firos by forced draft and be burned 
by iotenM! heat. If I.1h? (guanlily of llit^ foul uir is to» great Inr Ibo 
ngular furtucc;-, an ndditioim) epecial furnace Fhould be built to 
Httrn the exeees), u Uie complcto do.struclion of thu4 foul air Is 
^frnerally imperative; nr, it may lie di'^chnntod into the rear pass of 
the IxiUem, and this may be fliifficicnt to eliminate iU ol)jccti<'iiiAl>le 
rharscler. Wajiliing with water, and a proi^r control of the furnace 
empcmlure, may ult^ sometimes b« ^ufliricnt. riiJS>inK tho fuul air 
jf^h n diiiinfoctin;; chamber is gDncrally Icar effective arKl tnoro 

tly- 

Pmcli*^aIIy all the r^»}«tioM which have been made to the e«l«b- 
iment of Karba^ rediielion works in the I'inted Slates have t>r«o 
iMsl ai»i)tly by the fact that the foul orlors naturally cmanutiiig 
oni them have not been suppressed by elTicnont means. 
A nntiet-uble im|ir<>vciiM*iit of the ndor in a rcductiun plant rruiy 
be ltaiuc<J by i.iccBPionnlly blvwinc c<.>niprc«*cl pure air from a jet (air 
waxhiiig) a^Dfit the inleridr wallf: of the building, the siirfaceft of all 
jparatttA within it, and even a£ain:=t the cJoihing of the attendants, 
rh otborwi)ie haw boon kn<iwn to retain the odor* for rruiny hours. 
r o7.(ine has bpi»n propoawl, but the additional exiwtiM 
;- rart^y justified. 
At ihr Itnrren Iilintd reduction plant, Osborn and Klein made soma 
ntit!;iitto[L% on the elimination of odorA, for the Couiniiltec nn 
it Cleauiug of the Uoord of Kaliniato and Apportionment of 



462 COLLECTION AND DISPOHAL OF MUNICIPAL HEFCSE 

New York City, in 1915. The result of their work is summarM 
below: 

It was found that the odors from the reduction plant came fromibt 
following Hourcea: 

1. The (Tudc K&rb&i^ delivered at the plant; 

2. The tankoj^ stored at the plant; 

3. The vapors given off from hot materialB during the procea, when dw 

arc exposed to the air; 

4. The vapors given off by the grease settling baaiDs; 

5. Odore given off from materiale which aour or ferment and wtiiri 

accumulate when the plant is not kept in a cleanly condition: 

6. Leaks in apparatus under pressure, where gases and vapors escape tfl 

so arc not confined and deodorized; 

7. The gases vented from the tops of the digesters; 

8. Gases given off from the receiving tanks below the digesters when tfe 

latter are discharged ; 

9. The gases from the driers; 

10. The duat in the drier gssea. 

The finft six of these sources are considered as producing more or 
less local odors which could be controlled by proper upkeep, good ven- 
tilation, and the maintenance of the apparatus in a clean condition. 
Comments on the last four sources listed were made as follows: 

7, The giises vented from the tops of the digesters are the most pennratiM 
odors fnim thi- reduclion process. The volume is not so great as fnim 'h* 
driers, and with pnij^fr Irciitment nan be completely deodoriied. 

8, The gusos given ulT from the receiving tanks, except for the air dl- 
Itlarcd, ronwi.'^t mostly of atoum vapor, and can be condensed. 

9, The g:u-«"i fnini the driers are not as permeating as the dige»<ter{UM-% 
hut, wilti iliiert-heat driers, ihe volume is large. These gntu^ can he dei>- 
dorized if pri>[>erly and sufficiently treatwl. 

in. The ilu-it i 1 t)ie drier puses is carried in suspension. A large part ran 
111' elimiiialed In passing through a dust chamt)er, and all can be removed by 
seruhliing. 

ft is thus repeatedly rcp()rte<l that the odors from the redurtinn 
process, causing nuisance to the surrounding territory, come chiefly 
from two sihiirci's, viz., llic gases vented and escaping from tlif 
digesters and driers. The greatest source of odors is from the dircti- 
hrut driers. 

Ucgardiiiu the digester gases, it was found that they conlaiiifi 
alcohiils, acetic acid, sonie volatile fatty acids, carbon dioxide, some 
of I he essential oils, and sulphur compounds. There were aU-i 
substances earrit'd over mecliaiiicanj' by the steam. In tiolution 
there was {).00ty7% rmneral and 0.0035% organic matter: in suspcn- 



J 



REDUCTION OF GARBAGE 



463 



0.0016^ mineral and 0.0106% organic matter. The water used 
bBorbing these gases sometimes had considerable odor, removable, 
aver, by small quantities of chloride of lime. It won also found 

heating the gases to from 700 to 800° removed all stinking odor. 
Table 133 shows the effect of heating on the odor of digester gases, 
•rding to observations made in Chicago. 

(LE 133. — 'Epfbct op Heatino on the Odor of Dicester Vent Gases 





Temperature of 




oastOT of 


gaacBi ID 




(nnikee. 


decreea. 


Nftture of odor 


1 desrcea. 


Fahrenheit, 




du«Dheit, 


at point where 
odor ITU noted 




0-350 


40-118 


Sweet, slightly nauseatinf;;, slightly irritating 


450 


144 


Sweet; s%htly acrid; slightly irritating 


550 


169 


Not BO sweet; acrid; slightly irritating 


750 


176 


No sweetnesa; more acid and irritating 


850 


194 


Acid; irritating; snlphnr dioxide odor 


950 


201 


Acrid; irritating; sulphur dioxide odor 


1050 


205 


More acrid; irritating; nulphur diox>de odor 
very distinct 


U60 


230 


Acrid; irritating; sulphur dioxide odor very 
distinct 


1200 


230 


Acrid; irritating; sulphur dioxide odor very 
distinct 



Regarding the drier gas, it was found that the odor could be com- 
ely eliminated by heating to a temperature of 18."i0° Fahr., and 
t all odor was removed by bubbhng the gases through a quantity 
water containing a calcium hypochlorite solution having about. 
000 part available chlorine. 

Tests were also made on the dilution of drier gases with air, with 
following result: 



Katb or Flow, in Cubic Fklt plii 
Minute 


nilution iif drii'r 
goa Ui uir 


intonsily of driot 
KIU4 r>il<ir in njtxturc 


Drirr ftM 


Air 


6 
0.2 
0.03t 


12 

12 
12 


1 : 20 
1 : m 
1 : tlM) 


Very strong 
St rong 
Distinct 



464 COLLSCTIOS ASD OrSPOSAL OF XfVSIViPAL REFVSE 



Tbe reattlU fham thai no reanmaUe amnunt iW diJutinn wttb 
in cQvctivc in causim; thn drier k» wlnr to bccoiiK nrgligililc. 

A0 « rcMlt of \h(-:v^ studiM and invntigAlions, lb» f«>Dowiits rocoa-] 
mendaliorw nvrr prcsoiilod: 

t. That inuncdistr chanfcs be mule to thr trraltocnt of ibr iiuohible |Chm 
vmud ItiHu tli|^H«n tltroiigta <nndenaen,>D ^ to dendoriie them eotinlT^.u 
Ibe pnacDt pndicc of ttochanniig iota Uw boilo (unuKv dm nut dnMlubw 
ttum. 

2. That q>Mial fttt«ol«oii be givi-n to kr<^.<iHc kII Iftnkx fonUininn 
fClriMCie, or iBiboflc in (he pa x r m nl (]i|ci«tk>u. Tn* fmoi lucJin. uii'l Uinl 
tnent riiH absolatdyfnv frDin leaks when uhiIh' {««"»'« be kpptuutoJaCTviRr 
until r^|iiur« are nk&de. 

3 Tbnt ^aoB ahall not br permitted to flsaipc at tho time of opawt 
digmten 

4- Thai speciul sttcntiou (w ip\-eii to uU madnser« to iiiHUD^ miIIicii** 
mter banK lurd. and mi n tcmpmltUT tlal will mndnuK oil ibc Moini anil 
take op all aolaUe ^uea. 

5. That tbc pr««nt dhcr plant bo coo0tnirl4<d nt chanitctl so oa lu ptvrfl>t 
leakvKP aiiil mluoe tbe valtune ut pan to be tmtMl 

H Tliiit 11II giif¥W gjirrn nITfmni lh«i ilri^n nhill hr nrniliVit imil ibnrlnmnl 
thnroii^y before bdnc allowed to ompc to Ibe almuspfanv. 

7 That ibr wrulihrr nov iimuIImI be replaeed or remnetrurtad, to euUt 
tiu* v<iluiiM^ <if Kjut iKuauif; through it to bo waBhMl fit wruhh<>d thMraUKhlf 

H Tliiil tilt.' valpr nipfil.V nt the iiUuL be tnrrcnwiL slid, when- timsBQ, 
pumps be iluplirsled tu insiuv MUKciail wotor fur wMukiiuuig uhI acnbbiv 
of ■B0c» Bl all tima. 

9 That the piinipe br of a type that vfll iosnrc the rniuircd qptantity of 
mter being del jven>d; ildJ fitted wiih roctoa to ^ow !>■' t|ii«ntit; UMd 

U). Thai the trorka and ipuuDds be kep( at all tram iu a cloaaly <k»- 
dltion. 

11 That tbc Illy nl all umen should have luqiectiQin made, to detuiaar 
tJv motiner nt whidi thi' wurk to \Mfka% dom^ 

It tvaft abu tituted Uiat, t<i obUkin MiltHfnclDry rr^ulti tu I ho Mirab- 
liei*. the M-nipcraturc of the gas should be reduced lu UN) or IIP' 
Fuhr., and the vHiH-ity fihoiilil Ih- nt the mt<; nf 30** : * ' pre 
miniili*, tbe qiuinlity of water rerguired dppenilinif kIi t)>> .>nl 

lemperulurv uf lb« gaw't to U- srrublMxJ. 

The cost of the nece!S*ar>' ehan«'- '■■ -'■ "- '■ ■■ •— ii'-- 

from the mliictioii plant wii> t»^<- 
apjimsiiii:* 

It "ho. I ->• th^ 

uut at a rr>dui-' 

Mini I . 



REDUCTION OP GARttAGE 



4SS 



Ion daascd ns local wnuld lie requiriKl wUere the tocatioB and 
ivinmrnent are more crilical. 



E. DESIGN AnO COKSTRUCTIOW 

The (ImiKn of n roHiirtinn plant rc()iiirrj) n fltiidy oF its ^nirioos 

inrtioiix, llu> macIuDea U89() for cnrh |>ruc4^u, and LliR gruu|>ing or 

itiRPDionl Df its |>iirti<. Tliiwc |»irl.i are (lct>t:nb(^ bdow. 'thty 

iriiilij lie dosignod Ui fit tfin loiui) ronditions for rnch |ilni)t. Much 

lite niacKJiicry included is mnniirncturcd by certain firiiiH, and stock 

dee eaa be purchasod. The gcucrtU iimag«motit of (he parte can 

best iKcertainod frota the descriptioits of existing plants. Special 

ligDH for cnrh location, however, are almoist ain'ays required. 

1. Buildings. — OniD}* to the fire riih, the buUdinf:<i ahoidd he 

ir«*-pmof. The acids m csca|une giuM-H act on galvaniipd iron, and 

lierefure it u not pcxRiancnt. IJrick, stone, or dense concrete with 

Mirfacws well rubbed down, arc the ino«t suiUiMo nitilcriftls. 

It 13 seneralJy desirnble 1o ^ive the hiiildiiiRs and erounds an attractive 

ippoaranee. The sliKhl ndditional coat le pMienilly fully juatifiod. 

Proper facilities for rcci>ivin)i; ihe garbage at the pluiit depend ou 

10 uwtbod of dclivvnnK it. Provision ."hould be luade for rapid 

idUnft vitli Hit little hand tnlior ok po»»l>le. 

At Columbus and Clevclaitd, the tcarbage it »cnt to the plant in f)idc> 

lumpinc tank cars. The receiving buildings contain elevated tracks 

|or the eaiB. Below llio trneks there is a storage bin with Rlopiog 

jttorei. and coveriul drains. A eonveyor extends along the bottom 

)f th(> hopper. The oars are dumped anth a Rear. After being 

'dumped, the cnrlmco is raked upon the eonveyon* by laliorerv. and the 

I till L-iuifi are picked out. The fret walcr flows away in a drain for 
Bub4Ci|uent timLmcnt. 
At ChicaRo the garhngo is delivered to the plant in removable 
wagon lioxefl. These arc picked up by a crane and emptied into 
lllevaled Hlornpr t)i»« of roinforwd coiifreto. These biu*i have hopper 
bolNiiii.-i liltefl Yfith valvew, ami diM'liarge by gravity upon oiovcyors. 
The oponin^ and vatve» maxt be of ampin Bixe to prevent elogging. 
j^BBcftirc the empty wagon l>oxrs am again wt on the vragon IxMlieA, 
^Khry are wa-thod by dipping them into a tauk of hot water containing 
^^krerMhte. 

^H At thn Barren Iiilnnd nnliirtion plant eonveyors extended fntm the 
^Ht**^lt into the digester building. The garbage wa» transferred by grab- 
^^>ucket« fn»m the Iwirgw to the crmveyore. 

Al nmnlfcr |ilaiil.-< thu nagont' dump directly into ooncretc boppora 
which the garbage is raked upon the coRveyom. 



466 VOLLECTIOS ASD DISPmAL OP MUMClPAl REFUSE 

Ample capacity of the buildings Is essential, a^ overcruwding the 
pl:ki)l roiliicrrs its general cfTicicncy and curtaib: the oppurtunitits for 
thorough cIcAiiini;. The apparatus receiving garbage should be 
cncldstx] nherevcr po;<si)jle. A weighing scale should be placed at liie 
entrance to the plant. 

2. CoQTeying Machinery. — In modem reduction works, the gar- 
l^go. tankage. grea>c. etc.. arc handled mechanically. A large number 
of conveyor?! and other apparatu.'- are required. The surface:*, lints, 
corners, and adjacent spaces about thi; machinery become covered 
nr filled n-ith l>it.« of garhace and its juices, and the^e decompose and 
produce odor*. All *uch apparatus should K-e arranged in accee:dble 
places, with ample facilities fur wa.-hiae and cleaning. 

The raw garhacc is generally ha^^dled in trough or scraper coa- 
veyorf. Bhieh cii:>is: nf reotsneular sheet-steel troughs in which 
tra>"c]s a:i ciidlo* l;iel: <■:' vcr:ical sice! p!a:es or scrapers. The plates 
fit Ini.-cly ::; "he :r.'iij!i. asd are su-poaie-i froai a link belt which 
ir.'^ivcls .:■; ro!It-7^ r,i:::.i:.c o^ r^ijr ■ r. each ride of the trough. The 
p-irhiict? :- :i..:^ o:-irT;c-i .:■: r'-^i-ht.i alor.g by the plates, Openinip 
c:i" !t^ '.•■:: i:: :;.o iv-::.-:r. ■:: ::.e tr-jsh :>r di^charidng the garbage at 
H'.t-c:<:\ ;■» ,r.>- 1: i' ooniv-arj: ive^.- ei-y :o clean a conveyor of this 
ty;v, 

t' .;• :■.■■■:■■ > ■■■•' i- -'^■" '■'■'"■■'• ■ ■■ "-"-■* '•^■T-'-.ce. bur are not gener- 
;'.':.: ';".'.-:'.." ry V, .;;„;■. ::..■ ; 1:.:,:. :rs" t",;r.i: i-t:' conveyors, and also 
Mr;v ,■ :■..-; 7-. ::T-: ..—:■. : r :ii\.K:.zv. T:.? la".er are particularly 
;>. :' : r ;.. .:..: r.:. .y ..,- . , ■ . ■ : -.:*:■. ri:j!. The dcs^ign of con- 
^ :>■.:.; ...:. ... ■ r; ^.. ;. .■"■-- '■■''1 ..---:—• : <"i7y puiiii forclcanin?. 

3. Cmshers.- ,■•.- ;...■- t-'.,.—-: ■■: ^.■■.::.:-.C'; > t^- Iv dried without 
y:. T -'■ • t^...z .' .' z ■•■'; r;- -.■■■:' '. ; r::.s ix ..: :::! a crusher or grinder. 
: T ■...- '::■..!- ...■!- :.. - :.t- :: :;:i market. A rotary 
.r £- r.v" :; : .•.•:: ■■.'.. -:, ,. . -. ■.... .>,.,i .•,! Chicago with 
s.-;:;-:V..-- :; r-. - A r ■..- :? .- ■• ~.-....:,t ;.- that used for 
: T'.tX. .z ./ ." - ■•-" .-;-.i 

4. DigcSTeT*. ■ ■ -., , _-■•■.; ;■: ■ ■■;- .-iT-: si: free and may 
;r-!.r\ - ■,-.'..' .:,;--.- -■: -. ^- ■ r:-"-"-- ■..n dc>tri)yeii. if nut 

i^,*'-,\ : ■---..:;■:■. -■: . .- , ■;..; .:-;.,-j«c aojds formed 

■"-■■"■ .■■-.■:;■.•.- ■ i.- ■ .;.,j- '■■:.. '■■■■ni.ain a miTturc 

.■ --::■ --.■,-:■" . ■ :-i: ■•- ■■•i:>ccially active at 

■ ■: .1 ■-■ ■ -■ ■- '' ■, ■ -. : :• ■'■■ .CP>lPT. 

- ■ ■ ■■ i^-.- ■ .-. ■ ■ . - .- :icp'iers cnnsi't "/ 

■ '■■ -■■■■ -^ ■ " ■•; 1.^ ■ . ■ , '■■.•iiriui fur recciv- 

.-.t • .- ' ; -;. - i. iT- ■■ ■■ .-I -• ■ c;.-;r>. Their pur* 

;i -^^ :- ■ ; -■;,;, ;.: :\'i .'i . ..■:" •- ". . ,,-, '! i.:,:*' iJiCf, sfi as to prf* 

Tr.:-'.t '■'■!! ^■'!iTi::ii<i. >x lii"ii.)il> {..K., L->\-.Si ".I,! ;:.;.,;, feature of ihe 



WVCTIOS OF G.KRBAOB 



467 



b tbe cooking n-ilh live Htcam, but them are difTereDt appur- 
tenances for minnjj thu ateain lUiJ K'lrl'UiCCt Hirriiig tlic mixhirt, and 
drawing oflf the products, each dPsiRner fnllowinx his own ppefcrpiico. 
Al llie CIcvclnnd reiliiction pluitt the digc.vlcrB arv. 14 ft. hiftti n<id 
ft. (I in. in diameter, ^tt.'am Id turned in at tbc bottom, aiid the 
Hilcing coutiuues for bIx or seven hours iiiidor 70 lb. preiwure. When 
ic cuukiug is dune, the slouiit is ftiut off at the bottom und turned In 
t the top. the pressure driving off the free water and Bome of the 
)[rea«p tbroiigh a draw-ofT pi|w nt the bottom. 

Al tlic Schenectady plant, steam u admitted tit the bottom of the 

igvMters through » ring of pt|)e re-^titig on the lioltnm, ami is dii;- 

hiu-jieil through numerous Iioles a few inches from the inside of tbe 

liell. 

At Culumbua each digeBt^r is 7 ft. in diameter and H ft. high, and 

is made of J-in. Mrcl plates. Thi: itixidc is lined with cement itiid tile, 

1} in. chick, to protect the digcjttcr from wear by the agitation of the 

rilty m:i(eriid ditrittK the lioiliux, and to resi.it the nrtinii of the acids 

t free. The diumeter uf the inlet at the top is IS in.; that of the 

itel at tbe bottom is 16 in. A noxxlo for tbe admimiun of steam is 

pix^d into iMieb aide of the outlet iiuttint;. T\\v ntcum, entering Ijotb 

2Zle.<) At ouoe, nprciidii and cireulateii thoroughly through the gar- 

KxpOTieiico indtcaleti thai !>tcel digeHlen without a lining \wi only 
about two yearn before extensive repein or complete replacement are 
ivccssary. AttcmptK have been made to line them with wood, but 
tuoUy this oIm) givcri way, or atluns the iron to be attacked. The 
ce of the wood lining al^o molcra repain diSicuIt. Sjier-ificii- 
ins now commonly retpiirc that digeiiter' nhall he lined with vitrified 
ick, tile, or— le«8 effectively— with remont or eonerele. A digester 
from tOOa to 11000. (1»U.] 

Prette*. — After thr cookiutc ha-n been completed in the digCMten, 
'le miu« \» prcMsed in order to separate the water and gTcaae from (he 
>]id matter. Presses of three typea arc in use; the hydraulic prcns, 
roller pre?«, and the »tc«ni prc«#. 

The enrli<^t plants had (he hydraiilir presa. Thitt conviNt* of a 
tiaJ pifiton carrying on ito lower end a heavy ca-nting, about 1 ft. 
luon:, running in guides. The cwikcd garbage, nlored in remving 
under Llie digenterK, lit drawn out on flui car< of the same crufM- 
KeliOn aa tbe pi«t«n head. The nperutiuii of charging u a» follows: 
Kiwi, there i« placwl on the br>rtom of the ear a square piec* of laltieo 
work or a faW [Hiil^nn. nmile of 1iith»<. and on this is spread a piece of 
burlap. On (op of Ihi.- I^iirlnp ia set a »tr|uare wooden fmmo ahnut 4 in. 
eil garltage is run on the biirtap until the frnme 




RTetit 



Ituila 




^ 1 


4G8 COUJCCrmS ASD OJSPOSAL of MVStCfPM hkfvss 

I 

it ritll; ll)c latter j^ th«n reinovi'il and ihu mu.-^ U l>uuod up in Iba 
burlap. Anothnr piece of lattice work t; tlipii |)lnr(>tl nliovr tlic hurlsji 
La^. tli<! frame U replaced, and ttic <i]h.txI iun repratrd. In ttii-t wny 
eai'h ciir i< lond«d to a licijcht of nlinut S ft. Tho car ifl thfu nio under 
th«- pr«8H, an,i) the iDiileriitl u prvsved down to a thickness uf2nr2.fi ft. 
The M-iil«r and itn.-u^' which havo i><.t.'n Miucvsed (Hit tin the flour Dm 
conducted in drsiiiy to a pump well or settling l>a--<in. Ktir loadinf; one 
CBT Bdout Iweiily piect-s of lattice wnrk atnl about 20 yd, of liurlnp 




1 




\ 

l 


^JwM«<^^ 




-1 


-' 1 




I 


'■ . ■ = — ^ -■ - — ^ — ^^ - . .-^^=^=^s^r^ 

FlO. 115. — I'm^inK Grvasc nnd Wnlt-r fniin Co«ikt.->J imrtmcc New York. 
(Frufu "Tbe Uii[iM«l «l Atuiiiafisl IMuc." by H- it^ It I'tma'am. i 

nre lurod. Tho lattieo work liuttn only n few days. Two men «» 
rc(|uircd (u toad n ear. The wurk in dirly and luipleusuct, because tbe 
hoi Clicked garl'OJff .'■pnUfrd alwul considerably, and nuwitittea vt 
rteam and vapor are given off. The prvMKex ojieralc under a preivure uf 
from 40 U> 100 111. |)er Mjuare invli. Tlw prucawi ta illuAtrnUKl ii 
l"i«. 1 15. 

The contiiiuous'rfiller press |>urmit« of rlcaner operation, and 
ir^fpiirtis kvn labor. Typical roller prcMC^ arc u:«d at tiic Columbui 
tttdurlion nork."*. from dt^iunn by Mr. Chaiiew I'Jliti'rtiin. Tliry arr 
cnclaned in ca*t-ir«n covrn-. a)K>iit 28 fl. lone, 7 ft, liiRh, an<l 3 ft. wide, 
and urc iwaHit-ally gat-liitht. Kach pns* w ronni'<'iPil dirwilj" 
with Ihi' bottom uf a n-cuviiig hopiicr, wliidt »tiuids uiidcr aiid wrves 


4 

1 



BBDUmOX OF OARB.IGB 



460 



four digester*. There ia an upper and a lower conveying apron, the 

• upper «nn liHnp niadp up of i-iri. rste^d «lri|w rivfttcJ to h<!Avy (orged- 
«l«wl cboiiu. Tbiri aprnii fornis lh(> hnthiiti i>( Ihe ren^iving hoppur, 
and, as it muvM, the mulcjiul is carried tlirnuKh the Teedinc rolU and ia 
diiurliafged aa the Inwrr apron. Tliu uppor upruii uccupit>)i the roar 
Iiair or the machine (Via. ilf3>, the Iuwlt miv pikttiiof thruui^h six ca^t- 
trt>Q roller?, set in pairs, otic above Ihv otlii.T, and at the front end of 
,lbe niavhiuo. It is cumpuF«d o( perforated plates, j in. thick, riveted 
Airged'Atecl cliains. The ruUcrx are 28 in. in diamcttr, and are 
jnirulUstI by hoiivy ittecl ApriiigH, by vrhich the prt^Kun^ may ha 
icreaMd or dccreaitetl, dependiiiff on the (jtiiintlty of material to he 
These pnaoa* are cuiiHtructcd of caiit iron, WToup;hl steel, or 
It steel, and are Bttod with renewable wearing £tni», take-up boxoe, 
3d cleaning lini»hcs. The pressed muteriul in dJM'hnr^-d nl the 
jTmnt (if (ho press into a oonveyor. The water and upVAse How nut of 
thi* «iilea into floor drains leading to catch-baains. 

The aleam prtas, dcvtscil by Mr. Irving Blount, i-* a mori- r«cnt 

iRvelopmont, and was UJ«ed nt (he Barren IiJnnd reduction worka. 

tt it) constructed ot heavy steel plules. and coinpri.te» n rent«r cylin- 

Irieal Mclion having a perforated internal lining, and two slightly 

kou^ end -fy linden, uLto with pPTfurll^od lining. The two end 

are connected with the ccutcr cylinder by liMivy liinge« al the 

>]>. and are elo!<ed tightly with bcnvy boltJt extending around the 

imnnference. When closed, the pre.<u i<< tilled with material from 

ntCCiviag hopper. Live Ntoani at. high pretu^uro in applied, and 

Irlvos out tlie water and free greaiie through the pcrfiirnU'd lining 

into pipeH leading to catch •bu.-iins. When the pretuting haA been ■ 

"Vompteted, the two eoned enda are disponneeted from the eenter 

cylinder, and the outer ends are nwung around the hinge». Thiit 

I^Bopena tlic pn»M so that the prrj'.'^cd matiTriul ran Ixt diNchnrged on (he 

^rOoctr and nnraped u|Min a conveyor. ]f the praams is set vertically, otdy 

the lower end u hinged, and when it is opened the material drops 

Pio the flo«r, 
In <nuilli>r plants, the prttwiiig h wiinetimm don« in digestert, 
thniugh a perfornted fulw Imttoin, A cuntinnoHs acrcw prw* is alfro 
i«uitalil(! fur handUfig relatively small quautiti&i of inatvriul. Prp^sing 
[In digistrnt retiuirca about two hours. 

At the Ctucngo reduction plant, screw presses were used. Thww 

iiMst of a long pipe or eylindor within which is u revolving wrew. 

|Thp cylinder in perforated alonj; the bottom, and lilted with nn>all steel 

lit which fit the threndN of the ttcrcw. The screw revolves eon- 

tinuoUfdy, preMing the miitrrini lietween ita Itladen and the Ht«.-I arms, 

'fend furciug lite liquor out thnmgb the perforations in the cylinder. 



470 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFVSS 




RBDUcrroy of carbaoe 



471 



The tnoidtuK cootnnt of tlio matoriiU aittfr prGssing, in from SO 

10 65";;. 

Th< liquid, callwl "stick," a/tir leavinR the prcssw is sometimee 
mliim) mid tbickeont by evapuratitpn, and bt adtM to lh« tankage 
lu i^tirich it. 

6. Driers. — The mothocU or drj-in^ an> hy direct »r indirect heat. 

[>irwt-lie»t dryiuK nxiuirtw lonu cylindrical drums filled inndo with 

Jadce whivb luni the material over &nd ciury it through the 

iruniH aa il ruvulvcs. A blmtt u[ hot air in blown coiiliniioiiHly through 

Itbe drum. The tuniiKTiUurc of this uir in urdiimrily from 300 to 400* 

F^Fahr. 'Vhc cM^nping air cniitaiiut foul-HtneliinK !;aHPK, nnd luu^t lie 

puriGed. Its rdatively ];irgc Toluinc mnkcs purification expcnaivo. 

I It IB aU)o found at times ttinl the temperature; of llic air becoi»e» 
^OBMve. thiiK cniuiing ^nnw nf the grcai^c tn he buniod and Homc of 
the amiiinnia to h«> drivrn off. 
As the margin botw«n tht ©oonomical 1#mperatur« required for 
drying and tlial at which thu grniMP burnx is eltglit, the grease reco\'ery 
with direct-heat dryiiiK iriay be ehghtly Ictw than witti indirect heat. 

Indirert-heat drjinR also rfK)iiir<>!i long re%-olving nylindripal drums; 
but, a» tlinw arc steam- jackctod, a more uniform icmpcratun! nwults, 
and thpn are smaller volumes of dtr and eteani to care for. The 
danger of bunting the grease t» also riMlucmi by the separation of tfa« 
garbafe from the hot st«am, and by the i<tcam t«mr>erHture not Kreatly 
MoeediDg 212' Fahr. Thin method, however, is somewhat more 
co«l1y ihan drying wi(h direct heat. 

Tl»e design of the nmcliincry for donng is important, for wvenil 
muoaft. A mitficient and proper e(|uipmcn1 in re^iuircd in praetieally 
all typee of plant, an this may be the chief .•^ourro of odoroiin ga-wa. 
At tb0 Barren Inland plant, it was et^timated that l73.(HlOeu. ft.of gaa 
per nriinilte are given off from the dricrx of the direct-lieat type. 
^ Two types of driers are u.<«cd: The direel-lieat and tbu steam* 
H^keled drier; and of each of th&ie several dedigiiig are on the market. 
A direct -heal rotary drier connLtls of u idiiKle cleid shell in whirh the 
bnt fiimare i^ajwci come in dimrt contact with the materiul lo be dried. 
Near the inlet end ta a .suitable furnace for generating lira! from coal, 

»oil, gns, or other fuel. The revolving steel cylinder i» flliglitly inclined 
from the boriiontnl. The hot fumnee ga«eg and (he wet material 
enter n1 the same end and paw thrmiKh. the wvl material being 
lbor<Hjghly agitate.1 nnd mised with the gaj<« by the Ufting action of 
Heel aoKlao and Iukh placed innide tbo cylinder. 

Such drien are biiill m larne aa .I ft. in diameter and 40 ft. long. 
They are used for drj-ing crushwl garbage in plnnta where the cooking 
p ro ca f ia not used. There 'u danger of burning or charring somo of 



472 COlLECTIOfi AND TirSPOSAl OF MVmClt'M. RKFVSB 



the grease ond tbc frrtiU!E4>r materials, although tbU datiKcr b rec)ue«d 
Boiiipurhftt by firxt brinpnit ihe bollcst gaw^ iiito coiilact with the 
wetitcHt inaterinl. 

A sleam-jackeUKl rotiir)- drier coosista of on isner shell siirr<mnd(>d 
b>' a sti^ai-jackcL and fitUxl inside with lifting un^c». Thi- licat for 
dicing comce from the Rteani through the inner shell. The heal ia 
nngrupiited by Mnniiig hot nir throii|th the shell. A radiator of 
Hl^'am coiU in ant in a htick hoii»c at tho rear end of the drier, and a 
t>mail raKl-iniii fan IjIou-n fiir through tht coils and into thv (Itkt. At 
the dUrhiLTKK «-nd of l)i<; drier lui exlmti.sl fan forces tlie italurated air to 
a purifying apparatus. Tho material to be driott in fed into Itic drirr 
by a sppi^iiil ronx'pyor, and pufvit-ic througli it by gravity, i\w driw 
being slightly iiii-liiK.-J. The dr>'iiig pniows cuiittumca morr: time with 
this than with llic other type. 

An intermevliaiP form coiuiiHl« of two concentric «lcol cytindpn. 
TKc inner rylinder aetj) a^ a Rue for hot ftirnacc gawe, and Ihe npao! 
lx^tw4M!ii it and the i>utvr eyiindur is um'«1 for i\\» passage uf ilut mulorisl 
t-o be dried. The two cylinders arc firmly eonneclcd by heavy eaul- 
iroQ braces, o-iid both revolve together. At the end fart-hcHt from 
the furnaee, the hut gH»». now partly cnoled, [)ai>« into (he annuUr 
Rpare and return to the furnace emi, paj^MiiiR through the tumbling 
maleriiJ. This method of drying dcerfa«c« the danger of buriuuK. 
A Hiinilar type coasiBtj* of a cylinder iiiount«d wittiin a briek rliamber. 
Hot gaecn enter the chamber .■nirroiinding the (.'ylinder, and are drawn 
into Iht' latter thrmigh n)>i>nings cut at intervals in itn ahell, Tbe 
ojalerial to be dried pntvscs through the rylin<ler. 

Btill other t>-pes are used. For small planle, a vertitrnl cylinder, 
iibniil ft. in diameter and 6 fl. high, is Kunieient. This may )>e ml 
ill the brit^kvrurk of a furnace: or the drying may be necmnplislied by 
fitenm working uiidRf a vacuum. Another device provtdeo a |)orout 
hearth in a roncrclc box. Tlcated air if driven by a fan inin a epaoe 
below the hearth, and forci-d through the porw into and lhn>U)^ ibo 
material tu be dried, the latter Iwing plneod ou tbe upper rml of 
the hearth. 

With theee drj-ing pr<iees«p4, the moisture eonteut may !>«• n-ducwl 
to alwut 10%. Secondary drierx may be reiiuired to dry the ranlmp 
after [lercolatinn . 

7. Separators.— There are several designs of liaiiinp for lieiiarmting 
the grea^ from the n-ater and other impuHtien. The Kuiiplcv,! am 
shalloiv reetaiigular tanks in which the greaw ri-<(.-s and flmttA abtiw Iha 
wat«r, whence it if ponipeil to a jioruge tank. A inor<' elaborate 
arrnnKemcnt is a battery of vertieal nteel tanks oonneeled In aeries. 
Tbe floatiog preaee overflows from tbe first tank into the wcoad, and 



I 

I 



I 
4 



HRDUCTfOS OP fJARBAGE 



473 



; ttiroufili aII the tanlui, the Urgcdt (|uantity Ixung mllectcd in the 

tank. TrrntiiiR tankn art* alM (wmetimes useil. Thttw nre 

either rect&ngdiiir or tm-iilar, and l.he greiwe in hKiitwl in tliem by 

Biteam coils to remove the impurities. These tanlu should ha-\-e 

Hhoppcr bottonix. to fsnljtate cleaniug. The greASe \t puiiipod Trom 

^Ptb«m inUi stunige tanks for shipuiont. 

H 6. Evaporttois. — The B(h««ll«d tiiiili-nratLT which romaiiu^ in the 

V gmute-hCiKiniting lankit conlainn i>nnu(;h vnlt)jil>li> Holids in solution to 

make It pay to rei-over lliem. umier certain ninditions. Thw is done 

■by evaporation. Motlorn cvapuratorx opcnilc with stvam (oflva 
■xhaitHt steam) iindtr a vnriiuni. 

One type of «v.tporat^r is inndc up of a vcrtirul, cylindrical shell 
of ewl iron or other suitaW* material. At the bottom is a heating 
surfare of tut>e8, and above it tht vapor Hpaw. The i^tBarn circulates 
wiUiin the tubes, nnd t)iv tiijuor uutnidc ul tlii'm. 

Al llw Colmnlms work^, t riplo-cfFf ef, evajioratorii ar« iised. ICach 
ia R ft. in diameter, and the total heating t^urfare is 2.'r.S4 (M|. ft., made 
hUP of No. 14 (old ftage) bra;« tubce, 1} in, in diameter. These 
HtvniMtrutors ejin ennoentrate 1500 gal. of tank ual^r per hnur from 
^■7" tu 22' lUs.Mm6, ut^iiiK enhniint xt«nin at ii pre^^urc of 5 lb., and a 
^Vrneuiim of 'J5 in. in the third-efTe<-t evaporator. Condenser piimptt, 
^bitht holes, and other appurtennneea are required. 1*be eun- 
^■bralrated B>Tup is drawn off by a Magma pump, and mixed with 
^Iho tankage. Other sstiHfactory types of evaporutorf are in the 
niiirket. 

9. Percolators. — Percolators or extractors are tised to treat the 

^fedried material with n eulveiit and thereby recover the remaining: grease. 

It ia nevrttMary lo have an intimate imxture uf the mntcrial with the 

solvent, and n provixinii for drawing otT tli« itolveni and greatw with aa 

liUl4' of the Hnlid matt*-r nx {lOKKiblc. 

Percolators are orditiarily vertical, cyUndrioal, iron tanks, from 

to 10 ft. bifch and from 4 to 7 ft. in diameter, tho garbage being 

i«hargi>l tliroiijeh an ojiening in the tup. The nolvenT i^ pumiced in, 

\^ allowed lit pereoiate through the mnterial, and in later drawn o!T H-ith 

the gmtM!. An appre«-iahle r|nnntity of the iiolvent remains, bul thi^ 

recovered by injecting i»toam into the pcrcuJator, wliich viipurixca 

ind drivea it off. 

To cnmplele the e.^lraeling proee»j«, the fnllowinR apparitla* are 

rM|iiirr<d, TJie gn-iiw and I'ulveiit flow from the porenlntrtr to a tnyit- 

ng tank in which Klenm coili heat the liquid Buflieienlly to vnixiriie 

fi« Milvrnt and leave the cn'OM? in the tank. The vaporised aolvoot 

icn pasWM" throutth a nondetmer, where it 'm reeovcred. The Iom of 

Dt may amount to aa much an S.A gal. per ton of malerial trctited. 



474 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REPUSS 



With the Cobwell process, at New Bedford, the lose of solvent is said 
to be from 2 to 5 gal. per ton of garbage treated. 

The Columbus reduction plant wea first built without percolators. 
A percolating plant, costing approximately $20,000, was added sub- 
sequently. During 1912, 203.5 tons of grease were recovered by 
percolation, amounting to 1.82% of the total garbage reduced. The 
price received for the grease was 116,890, or 4.14 cents per pound. 
The cost of operating the percolating plant during the year was 
(4,601.97, including labor, fuel, gasoline, and supplies. The records of 
grease and tankage recovered at the Columbus plant are shown in 
Table 134. 

TABLE 134. — Grease and Tanxaqe Recovered 
AT CoLtiMHns Reduction Plant 

(From Bnffititrring Ntat-Rteotd, Kov. 18, 1020.) 



Yeu 


Tons of gkrb>s« 
reduced 


Perceot*ce of toW gBrbase 
redueed 


Greue 


Tankage 


1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


17,534 
18,789 
20,711 
21,629 
22,909 
21,861 
17,127 
15,630 
18,126 


2 227 
2,721 
2.697 
2.744 
2.214 
3.076 
2.261 
2.164 
1.942 


13. 37 
11.64 
10.10 

8.10 
10.031 
10.307 
10.214 
10.258 

8.60 



10. Screens. — Generally, screening is the finishing process for the 
tankage. Overhead revolving screens, having about five openings 
per square inch, separate all large lumps, nails, cans, etc., from the 
tankage. Sometimes iron particles are withdrawn on magnetized 
belt conveyors. The screened product is taken to a storage room. 
In the West the tankage is sometimes burned. Under favorable con- 
ditions of burning, 6 tons of tankage have been found equivalent to 
1 ton of coal. 

11. Water Supply. — A comparatively large volume of water is 
required in the oi)eration of reduction plants. The quantity used at 
the Los Angeles plant (Cobwell system) is shown on Fig. 117, and 
averages from 200 to 300 cu. ft, per ton of garbage reduced. In this 
plant the condenser water is cooled and used over and over again. 



^W r<fLLE>TT:0\ iVO DISPOSAL OF UVXICIPAL BBFVSE 



A'. 0:i~— 'n;*. Ti*r» *ri' > v-^ done, the w»ier coiu^uinptioD is esti- 
■=^:^i iz.'i c-'*c t' I'V«> c^ ft, per too d ckrb>|ce. 

U. S»ataee.~P*z.-i2T.t -rJpment. tbere mii$t be ami^e fanliiie 
f:«- <':rjix c^a.-* ii.-i Tiriiw. The grease is pumped to overhead 
Tat^*.-. frr ~ wi;-';. :' csr. i--w inir- tank rai^. At the ColumbiD^ jJsnl, 
TTi 1 iiilj ra?fc::TT ■:/ I^ K-r.* oi raw garfasge. four grease s'orap 
ta.-j.r aj* ?c:-.-;»i. »i:h a iwal esparity of 15.000 gal. The plant 
&: ^;c<^;kci'e' I'^Ia^'O. B>:(rtoD. ha£ ft«age capadtj for 260 tons ol p^aa 
pet w*^'.j~:ry^ 'Ly.iT^. or 0O.OOO gaL 

S:oTue :->r lir-uce i? ontinarily proTided 00 an upper floor in 
order :o :'40L:;:i:e ?h;pjMr.f in bulk in boi cars. Some plant.^ ha™ 1 
special w4rfLc-,i!*. .\t the Si. Louif i^&nt. with a capacity of loO 
•.r.-z^ of orbsee per twenty-four hours, the warehouse is 36 by 128 ft. 
ir, plan. 

13. Shipping Facilities. — Special switch tracks should be provided 
f»r <hippir.z the cre&'« and tankage. There should also be scales, and 
a labi-.-raC'r^- for sami^ng and analyzing the products, as their value 
d^-pend* on their composition. 

14. Accessories. — The accessories at a garbage reduction plant 
iriclude a boiler plant, with all appurtenances, a good fire-fightins 
.-vjitem. an office, and a laboratory with instruments. Scales, road- 
way?, electric liehtine. etc.. are also necessary. The boiler equip- 
ment at a number of plants is shown in Table 135. 



TAHLFT I3.">. — Capacity of Boilers at Redcction Plants 



plant 



Rulfd raparily 

of pl&nt, in 

loa> per d*y 



B;im'Ti IsUiml. N. V 

Statpn Island. X. V 

Boston, MaKi 

I^ifl AnKcli-K. Cal. 

Chicago. Ill* 

Columbus. Ohio 

ClcvolaiKi, Ohio 

Schonoi.'lady, N. V 



2000 
2000 
250 
175 
500 
160 
■240 
.10 



Boiler 
horvc-pawer 



5320 
3000 
1750 
900 
506 
700 
700 
250 



Hor»e-poww 
per ton 



2.6 
1.5 
7.6 
5.1 
1.0 
4.4 
3.0 
6.2 



Nu digi'iitioD, simply dryiDg. 



The rhiniiipy miisl be adequate for both the boilers and the 
cleiined k"^*'-'^ (mm ttic digesters, driers, and other parts of the 

plant. 

Reduction works require special attention in regard to the climiua- 



JteOVCTlON OF GARBAGE 



m 





in of odoR! of Ibc mute products, particularly the wdfito EUtt> 
"p In th<» prmpiit time, tho |»r<>Nem \\a» born difficult of sittuifiietory 
aulutiuu by the cotL-aruclivr uiearut scneraUy ii:*od. 



F. OPERATION 



Tbe openition oT a reduction plant rcquirae both technical ."kill 
and bitfliDOu nliilrtv. tbv latter Iwiug nvceseary to market thu prwluctN. 
At large phuiLn & chcmiat .^hutild Ix' oiiiployed. Camport.-d wilh other 
ncthodR of disposal, n hi(;hor grade of skilled labor li required, lM>caiiii« 
the cumplcx locchuiiical and chemical nature of the prooeaa. Fur 
mccweful operation it ia neccas&ry to watch the cooking prooees, to 
[innki> xuT^ that a digcetor va not pmptii^ t>c>rori> cooking in (-omplclu; 
he drvitiK inu.'<t Itc i)roperly repilatcd u* avoid loKt b>' buriiiiiic: mid 
he iKrcotation must b« carefully contT(^«d to avoid the exocssivo 
of sotventH. There must I* strict di»apline, in order to avoid 
tdaiigcr of fires; and careful altcotion to the <let&ila of iiiuinl^nancc and 
operation Ls refiiiir«^l, if odorv are not to exceed an altowable minimiini. 
Frequent iimpectiou by (he Health Department i." adAn>«ble. 

Owinic to th« fact that reduction works have been in the hands 
of private corporations and contrnctorM, itifonnaliuu rt-garding ihe 
details of their operation, a» well oa cost, have not been lu available 
H hive thoM of other methods of dij<po<«al. CIpvoiand hoji built 
and operated reduction works by its own ofTii-er:!. who, iii their annual 
reports and othenri<tc. have recorded the bc»it piibliflhed information 
Avulable on the uperaLioos of hucI] plants. Columtmb-, likewise, 
built and opcralc<l u inunicipu] plant, from which detailed infurmnlion 
is available. Utbcr cities now operating their own ]>1flnt6 are Day- 
too. Akron, Schenectady, and trhiea)[o. WaahinKton ban recently 
token over wch a plant from the contraeion. ami will add still more 
to our knr>wlr>di;e coneerning the bert details of ojierntion. 

From the annual report for lUlJlof Mr, Alex. IVn lutein. Directorol 

tiblic .Service in Cleveland, wc Cud tliat the crea^te content increased 
tm 2.3GTI in lOlS to -2.55% in I«l!>, ahowinK a slight rehixatioa In 
Bronserration movement. 
Table 13fi in a compnmtive statement of the operation of tbe 
cvobini! rodurlion pliint for the years lIM.'i |4» 1913. 
In Chapter Xll will b« found a slatcmcnl of the crew aad equi|^ 
oquirod to operate I be works, .•ut well ** the coat. 



478 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE 



TABLE 136. — Opebattonb of the CLEveuun) RsDncTioit Wobkb 
roR 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1919 
(Fcom Ammml Kcport, Dinctoc of Public Work^ 191V.) 



igis 



i»ie 



1917 



1918 



1919 



Garbttfle eoltteted, in 
ton* 

Tknkacc recovered, in 
tona 

Oretue eitr^utal, in lb. 

BftmincB — ReduetioiL . 
EipcDM — Reduction. . 



62,357 

6.879 
3.731,770 

•223,145.14 
161,503.31 



60,717 

7,037) 
3319,326 

•303,437.16 
15fi.5»4.M 



66,121 

6,341 
3,071,093 

•293,012.96 
191,001.09 



S7.7H 

«,33» 

3,736,786 

•437.344.01 
266,243.39 



«U)3> 

T,093i 
3,11«.7«T 

«20S.6W.fl 
238,103. n 



Eaminia — Net. 



•71,641.83 



•146,842.36 



•101,011.87 



•173,100.72 



ie7,477.9l 



COUPAHISON PBB ToN OF GaBBAOE CoLLECTCD 



Euninci — ReduotioD. , 
EipenHe — ReductioD . . 

Net earnincB — Reduo- 
tioo 



•3.58 
2.43 



«1.I6 



H.9S 
3.66 



•2.42 



•5.20 
3.40 



•7.67 
4.50 



•1.80 



•3.B8 



14.8S 

3.01 



•O.M 



G. PLANTS BUILT AIH) RESULTS OBTAIUBD 

Available records indicate that forty-five reduction plants have 
been built in America, but, of these, only about twenty were in acUve 
use in 1918. 

BoHton, Lob Angeles, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Toledo, 
Philadelphia, Bridgeport, and New Bedford dispose of their garbage 
by reduction under contract. Schenectady, Columbus, Cleveland, 
Dayton, Chicago, Washington, and Indianapolis have their own i^ants, 
and at Rochester and Syracuse works are under constructioQ. The 
New York plants on Barren Island and on Staten Islaod have been 
at present abandoned. 

Brief descriptions of a few of these plants follow: 

1. New York City.— The orif^nal garbage reduction plant was 
buUt in 1896 on Barren Island, about H miles in an air line from 
the City Hall; and, with changes, additions, and enlargements, it 
treated garbage from the Boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx, and 
Brooklyn from that time until 1917. In that year a new plant, 
using the Cobwell system, was put into operation on Staten Island, 
under a contract for five years. Fig. 118 shows the general layout of 
the plant, and also longitudinal and cross-Bections. The following 



480 COLLtTTtON AKD OlSPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL RSFVSE 



ilescription is abitractod from the Engineering Newa-Hecord of March 
21, 1918: 

"TIii< ]ilBnt is locntm) on Fn«h Kiilfi, lowir Stjitm Island, Borougli oT 
Rii-iuiioiiit. New Yurk (^ily. Their is nv railioad cuitncctiun. All DUlvtllli 
tttcd must be brought in or taken out by )xi»Li« Tbe materials mwived are 
1S00 toil* of )^)ia^ ptr day. Die nemMMry itolvciit, uid eokl fnr 3000 b.p. 
of boilen. Tbe pndaeia shipped aro greaae, tankage, aod eocb by-ptodticta 
as botUm. (srw. boDM. nnd ntg* I'o ncnioniuiKlaie the wltippinit. a dorJi lUUCi 
ft. lonit hatt been pronded. Thp dcfligners o( this plant had atmul 57 anm 
of uninipTuvnl practically Ic\-c1 land al tbcir diDimMl, eo tlic eoriditioiu wen 
idtiil (or the «ii)Ktnii-Uon of a plant for tbe ««oi>oiuical and rapid hnndliiifEof 
tKo mHia^, iJm^ various inat<n&l« required for iW fcatmcst, and Uir tlic 
diniHuvd (if ill)' fiital iinHlurtx 

" Thi> plant van put in oixTstion lati> in 1917 It wok dnciptnl to mwL ' 
tlic ccnditiow of a rautrnct ImUtvh tbr Metro pnlitan By^producta Co aodj 
the City of New York Tor tkr dupcMol of all thr cubap from Llie rily. ncrviit- 
ififC A port of tjucctui Horuufih and Stat«ii Ulutd. (or » {"^rind of five ynxt*. Ilia 
rity iraerviDK the pmiliv*^ tn buy the plant at the aiqpiration of the ni<iint<-t 
Tlu> ncKoiiial rsgiacity of the |iJmiil in l.WO loiia a tl&y. It 1j* up<^nur<l in lhn« 
ebifts of eight boure «arh 

'' VhSt in traiiNt in ISO- tn 3n0-ton Wk» thr orimKr i« corrnrd villi 
laree wbIgt- proofed Larpaulim which aiv waabed and spread out Lu dry earli 
trip while tliD fjtthttgt it bditg ludnaded. 

" A'J-yd t-laiiidtdl bucket trainfen iltcKaibap^frntntlir liarspi to a larRC 
receiving hopper plarvd on sfaorv and tontl^ diroetl}* one a pirltiac or eoning 
tNmvcyur. A (ecsler is provided uudcr tliLi hupix^r to insure an erni layrr ti 
tnatctial on tbe conveyor, which is ^aeniial to tbe |irvliniinttr>' mhIiok uf eer- 
taia material This feeder nuwisU of a nut-iron box in vhjeh twn tntfN 
menkiDg paddle whrcla slowly m-olvc, allowing tbe pnqier amount of tnalmtl | 
to paw tbrouitli 

*' The picking (HMtreyor oonsieta of a smM of overlapinng at^el p 
mounted on two slranib of chaina tltnt arf in tiim n>»unt«d on self-utl 
roOeta. Men w stationed on both fidra of this skiw-moving ODOVf^or wl 
duty it is to rti»o\-e <m (ar as poKiMe without tfttrringl all flam, cmrlccry,' 
atns. large raet, wood and other subotaitees iJiai niighi dog the convrynnor 
marhiner)- It i* liere that the intlk and wine l«lU«s are r«e»vrmd and plsnd 
in boxes or barrele, while wotthlces broken enx-kery, eticka. He . niv thrown 
into a rliut« that leads to a dump c«r 1iel"w The. empty cans are sepanttd 
and when a boat load bos aoramulaled ttiey arv ship|wd sway It m inter- 
cHiiiig to note that the tin m nemtrnd from tbe coos by a b«tk of cliloruie gis 
The (pu is cnodramd and used in tbe dyeing of silk. I'be cans are I }wa tnrlti^ i 
and east into sasb weiithla, 

" Fnim the larking Dcaveyor tbe green garbage is fed to the '\-Mrra (;J < 
veyon mstallod inside tJw tndncer booaa. Th*?* runvaynt*. niitil tn oumbsj 
are made alike in M> for »" ' - .1.. [-Wh one omsisto ol a 

doulile stnntd of faav)- dr«, :> iIm- ttronds nf -mhitk an 

emunted. at intemls, iteel plau fti^ta ai seiapen Tfane ■aB|«n rM Ik a 



as DUCT JON OP GARBAOE 



481 



trfUitlit ImuKh in which are loraUd sUdo gateH ortiie rack-aud-pinion type. 
Iif pitts on aD of the aomo |>*tt(!rn, wbcth«r for fM^og duwii 1o Uic rcduccn 
or (rutii biw ecoiTj'or to auotU«T- 

" The Minv*j-orB in' w> nrrati^iil thai by the ]>rup«r rnanipulation of the 
_fatc* the ^rhag^ can be dirvclwl lo luiy uilv u( the lOQ redui-cra Ivcultnl undt^r 
■mm-ejnni Thr winvryom) arr; driven b>- electric motora — tbc drirca bdnit 
liko, an iJtat on« gparv pan of eacli kind sujficea for any. Conveyoni 2 and 1 
' in duF^iuilC', to llial nay mishap to cilbcr wiU not tie up the |)laiit. Con- 
ura H and 9 an> ealk'd the ' orent ' cnnveyota. for, aa llirir nnnit> impliiM, 
y arr an planrd ihAt tha>y will catoh any mati^rial Ihal might run over th« 
niD|^, or be k(t over atiur BUiiiK the reducciv whun unnjc canvcyan 
r.. e. r«-7, 

" Thv main or redaiwr building u a oDc-atniy atru^lurvt of mnrrctc. with 
irk-GJlnl aido-waUs, covmiip an area 160x337 fl. H[>ace ia nIkiwMl (or If) 
at rodiKen, 24 in a rnw, iir 41 mure than thn pn'M-nl iiD^lalljil jim . 'I'Ik^ 
urer* urv rJovatod a f«w feci frvu the Qoor. lu acvutimicKUlf Ihi- nvcocnru-y 
lipe linm. trap*. Ptr., as nvll bk to farililat? thr disrharipnit of tlic fiDiMlml 
Nlurt onio a 1>o]t conveyor plarvd in a (>it lielvivn Iwa niw of rodiiMn. 
err arc Iwo phitfvnna ruiininip; tlic limtcth of thr house. One plnlform is in 
i of tvro linca of rHiiitrra and ^ivcH iu-^^mh I<j nil fti'K^ a>'d "iKhl iiitiutfrn. 
ber platform in n liltic higher (jiut on a Ir-vcl willi thf n-dur^T lop^ and 
gives acfcas lo the taiitple huh* and iipuul« for lilliiiK in tliu nm-n ftnrlMiKO, 
jrhne plalftiniw nn> niudu of 3X4-in XufT laid flat with al<out j in iMlwrvti, 
'I nn> ihi- imly wood id tlw buildUif:. 

^** iLavh leraup of 24 rrducvrs ho-t ita •wfmrale crrw of inro and ila own vapor 
liniM, trap lanka, nondi'mrrw, anil >(^ianil/>n l'*iirlliPmior*, UiP 
■ aiid valv-m ar^ »o anaoK*^ ('ft axty one r«ducer laa be vui *4 ooumia' 
won withmit afTiTtinc thi- opnation of the ntlu^ni. 

" The rvduMT in ihc rpntral Icatim of the di>|ic8al prorma, kiNiwii aa tlw 
qratcm. whii'h nan divqcncd by the C. O, Unrllrlt amJ h'nuw Co , 
and raOMla ol a rylindrii^ slerl BhcU whoite IhukIh i> uImjuI <ino 
' the diatneti^. Th* ImttMn ntxl ndMi nt the- r«^iiiwr« ar^ itonihji^jftckctwl 
and ao amuipd lliat livr ntntiu a) aloiit UK) Ih iinvAfirr- i-nn Ur iiflriiittix] 
to Iha jai'ki't wiltunit nimtnit in mntart with mnU-riid inxiik- ll>r tntud-r A 
rtTi1<^ iTiiiid)/* ia loralMlon thr- wriiral axif of llir mlurcr, <in whirh in rr>uuiil4^ 
apairat alimni paddlca. Thieapindlr i«rfvolv4'd hy iiirunNof a fiair o( hrvd 
nmn and shafting located on ibe tap ut thi* lank and driven by nieuna of a 
tight ajKJ Ummh |MtIlry trrun an i>lM'trte.inotflr-4lriv4^n tini' «baft wiiiili M-rvea 
24 m]iirrr« A *inglr rrdiirrr hnhh about A lorw ol grrrn garlmKt.- and b 
81M in Inm lire lo fifteen minulc* 

" WttcotheHutrKiiigo(Brr<)iinTM»>in|JHr«), llta charging itrnff iarJaiiilx'd 
down, mDit iMtivral ia mlrudiiml nnlil f he rnaaa i> jiMniviTiil Ntimm u I lien 
tiimi^l into the rtojii Jockel. tlit.' aeitulan an* Htaxted, iind lite valvt^ lo iha 
vafKir Iiiw opened The vapon on rnirinl to a cnodms'T, whrn- ihr «u1vn>l 
n ■epflmt<''l (n>m the watrr and rciiimnl in llxr ayBtrm for fiinhrr iw Hiv 
wotv ta uani for mnd'««nf, and ii relumml lo llie )tay ]i » lotenvling lo 
□ot« Uiat the water vapurlaoi al a lower Imipmliinr wtten eruporatnl wilfa 
aaolvent Uauiotbarwise. C'ajkiii(tacualiuueduutd thegarlMguianMuplvtaly 



482 COLLECTIOS ASn OlSPOHAL OF MUStCtfAL kEFVSB 




dehydrated and the aalvent gMs ta ihf coodniMT fm» of vnXn Daring the 
proooa of dcbydrntioo, mora or Ins Uqtiid. goinvtinwa ct>iiL»ininK mirli hj^i 
MlMUutnGH M corks, u carried over. Ikik'p it is DKvasary to tuimducf! ■ lafge 
tcap ttuik that Min b«t dnkwtt ofT from thr bottom. 

" TIh- ilclijxlraLiiig operaiinn rotiuirra sbout ae^va hmira, %,i tbc aid of 
whiirh tinw the nolvi-nl ranitwiui m birp* niruxtnt of gmuv whif It hu hem \ihet- 
alvfj froiu tho KBrtiOfp^. Th« nxhiM-r is pruv^d^ with «(nittim in tiK- bottom 
ihruugli whirh the liquor rontuininiE soliTiit and fjvnae a llicn drawn lo a 
MU or tivftting \»nk, in wfakh the aolvcnt b rem^-cred b\- di>tillnty>n. Tlw 
tcdues 1b then filled agun with solvent and dravu off w brfom, luid frren a 
tliird tinMi — the thne wsMhinc* raiuinng an average ul Ab, iW, and 120 min- 
VU*, Te«pivtivetf . 

"Tbe Mpantioo of ihn crcar*e from tii« folvent is all dooe m (nc etm 
liuiiwi in whipb are locnted 10 BliUs that nm be lued iDt«rvh«ii|(nabIjr Tla 
sUUa conxi«t of rylindricAl xtcH lanlui, H ft in dbiTiMiv and 30 ft. looi^ laid 
horison tally, in wliii'h ih kiratMl a nmt of dtniill |)i|)cn for thr admissinn of 
n«am, th« st^am nowr coming in ruitsct witli thv matt^rial to be dwriQed. 
Wbcn tbc KiTO>«-ladvn m>Ivvnl w iiilrvdur«d i> is vitporised ami tlMia oot 
in a jet condcuapr. while ihr fKasr is Irfl a» irsiduf and a drawn uO to «t 
tanbt. 

"The dischante door on the ade of the reducer is then npowd 
aptator in eo tthaiM-d tlial whrn rrvolviiiK it ha* a iriiili-nry to push the ] 
out tnward the sidM of the rodutyr, thiu making it srlf-^niptyiuK U tvqUiKal 
itxnit liiteai miimtca to t-inply. Tlif niutcrial as it Ico»ts the reducrr Es of a 
bnrwiiifth <mlor, and has an (xlor nut at nil <jfl<!fiMvc, rrniiiKlinf one of tnA 
touted ooflee. It Is then perfectly dry and stcrtlei uud a unuall; called 
tankap*. 

" Ttc tankage in diietmrged from the reduoen at a tintform rate, and 
drops by pvvity onto a belt conveyor Icr Iraiisportatioo to the tAiiVacr hoiae 
AlUMntKh I lie material in wanii. it iti not hot cnou^ to do any ilania^ to the 
belt oonvp>'or». Hy a Kcriw of lonpt.inlHial rrow amf inrlined belt convey 
the tankftKl- in el(!vii1*d Itt a [Kiiiil aUml .10 ft nlm^t- thi- Kround. wbnrv it 
dinchar^od into a largv rrvolvins; srrrcn, provided with riding rln)^ Uiat 
on revolving trunniAiui. Tfai> Mreen b made of wire rlolh with l)-tn. 
Thp lojlinip are discharged onto a sUnr-spced belt con^TytM-. Two nwn 
etatiomxl aloniptdi^ tluK <Hitiv#yor. ()ne pii'ks nut all bonra and dropa ihrm i^ 
B chute that k»da to a distributing conveyor, which distributoR and d> 
them to iIm- .lUimgr room Mow. The other pirkx off all m£B and tcvMn Ih 
to the etorafie bins. The material kit on the W)t, MMHinlui^ of slicks, v^tny 
cobs and tneccIUneoua rubbiitti that viould not pose thruu^ ilir iirrliuiniAry 
■nVMi, in diaeharged to a cbtne tlial lead-i u> a nibbiih rar 'Iliu tuaienal ii 
defHWied nn i> dump. 

"0"wii hunk, whirli fortunalL-ly etiinnt only Iwn or Ihrrr nMitith* m t^ 
ytat, b one nf the mrnt diffW-iilt niati>rinls In piit thnnigh ilo- [itnnl, and 
pt»c<KaIly wonhloMt w » tunkage ojnlent execfiling for the Niuill lunniml i 
potaab it rontaJna. It is proftoacd nt lliis plant to pick the mrii hiuk out 
tlipprrnicarluiceHt the dock and rhar it in a n>volviitKdnttn,(liu«idiinJr 
it from ihv cvu^eyoitt Hodr«du«'r«andul»o cvmtcrt-inglbcpotashfWMDl 



nEDurriON of a.iRijAGE 



4B3 



m 



nth 



" The Unkacc that piuam throiixl) ihr mmhra of llir pTpliminaiy screen 
ohufptl lo ft MmpGMWDV«>'ar thai dititnbiilHi ihn nii>l«nHl Id h ruw or f<iiir 
>'olviiiK KrMiM tbut an dti^Utti\nt o( the itrcliniinury (vrvcii, cscvptiiig 
ml tijr maiii h much Kucr MiiKrrinI tluit jkumis <jvi-r tint milx ij( tlieM- fiiiaj 
mriiit H (liwhargeil (hiUi :i lirli ii^rvi-yor proviitiyl wjlii a iiiBgnolic ht^ 
lUoy. ThiH iiuUey rvuiuvtti ail juiriii-'ltB <>I iiuii, Mich aa Uaajnun uwi kiiivcti 
(nrkx. 1^ amount of irou rvcoveml is \tss Ih&n 0.2SVc of tlip Laiiksge. 
" Pmm tfaia hdt conveyor the iimtcrj>l pnMws in u. sompcr-eunvoyor 
it nuvis Qm onlcrinl to Iwo (lr>'-griiitiuiK poiia. Those ronBist of bouvy 
OMUtam bowb, fi (t iu itminm«r, in wbicrb the iiiAtcrinl in ktouiuJ by n jmirof 
hi^ai^ Krvdviog cast-irtin mU«r« irhosc weight ie 8iifhcienl u> grind anything 
iii of atMii boll bntrinc* The icniund nkstnrinl In iJim-linrxrd onto a Iwlt 
nrpynr &nd theme to a scrvw conveyor that carrim the iiiaterial to a ver- 
iKtd hsKktX vlfrvntot. From the otcvutor the u&tcfial cbutn to n avrnpcr 
vcyoT wluch catricB it back to the sciecna for reacreening. ll will be noted 
ibI ftt tii(t]inint thirrv in n«Mn[ilot« cyc4c. mo that all matniiaJ lUMxIiig through 
ir preluiiumry hcjvcii is eitbvr ncroened throuxli ibu fiiuil numciu or removed 
tluf niAipirlitr Mimiator Occanoiully then ant large piecm of braai, etc., 
1 will nntbar grind nor aeparat*. These are removed by hand froin the 
diy iMtiw ur from one of the belt convcyore. 

** The material lliat ]ia»ni ihroiiKli iho liiuU m-n^mt in fuiixhcsl Uuikage, and 
IranrferrAcI U> an M)X 100-fl storage hotue by a »eriM of conveyor* aucl ele- 
torv HI arnuiEol titat it ran \k romiili^U-ly filli-il. 

" All tankage is shipped fratn the plant iu boats, so there is no necCHiity 
for bagpnK. The tankage is <lropped from Iht- morehouac Ruor to two par- 
li-l Mi mnveyora whirli di.^t^buKe mtio itirJintKl bt-h iiuiveyon letiiliiiK to 
ivcl «p(iuts [ilacnd on the dock The spuul« finally deliver the tanluge 
lu tbr liolds of the bonta 
" A narrow-gsxp indunuial railway eonneeta the various (lepaitmenla of 
iliutt It is equipped with gaMilinc loconinlivni and Mabdartl contrwlor'a 
lunip mm This railroad was uncd lo goud a<lvai)Ui^ during t.he i^itintnii- 
m of tlw! |>lniit and is also omkI fur the wasting »( rulibmli and fur fetcliiiig 

from the ttortflc pilrx. 
" rbnunrrdal nlmtrir ("nvcr has Ihtu iwetl thmughuut the plant for driv- 
g ntat'hinery, conveyors, and Balt-wuier r^ilary pumpi, 
" St^'wiii IB umkI in the redui-cni. •tilLi and reciprocating punips fruoa a 
XNtJ-ft budcr Ituuse cunlaining five liU>-h.p wntet^-tube bnilmiL The 

(or tba builcvo in of oonemte, It) ft. in dianictitr by 'iOil ft. high 
" Cool (or the Iwilcnt Ja tuiloddod fruni the bargtci by a ■■lainaliell bucket 
anil phuttt in a Iki|ip«t hd ihe dock The (^al n-ceivetl » 'nin-of-miiia' and is 
(ed by a doiib1o.pl ungcr fcwier into a two-roll nrusher thai r«luc*pi i1 to 
the iiru|)rr Hue lot ibu otokm. The coal lio|)t>cr is plaiixl clo«c U> n luipiMT 
ir rvi-eiviUK ^uluw ho llmt the •uiiie Ktul>-buuket inn iiiiliMul cither <x<»l or 
K»rli«g« 

" t'ntm tlift rru)t)ii-r tho n«l dropA to a lioll mnveyer lltat travels up and 
alonpiide the rctliicrr buildinit and ditiKMitH the coul on a eonveyor nt right 
angka Ilka' trnvrla on an tncline to a iwoitton over the bunken in tlic boiler 
iHMiav, Tnu ttationnry trt|i|mH are placed in tliv bell, uutoiili! of tlui bullttr 



484 COLLECTIOS AND DISPOSAL OF Ml'yiCIPAL EEFL'SB 

house, ao th&t coal maj. be stored on the mnod. The loeai indoBtri&l rail- 
ruaii carriea Chis coal to the buili^r hiiuse on a track provided far the purpoee. 
A liepreaBed tiack i>f the induutrial nuhray leads ander the stokers, so that 
adhes drop directly into dump am. 

" The absence of nilrood iximmunication na.'eniuted the coDstruction of 
large storage caotainera for both mlvent and fiaiabHi prwiacta. Thin is par- 
ticukuly true of the greaw-uToiage tank, which is 35 ft. in f<i*m*fjr by 30 ft. 
high, and of the grease burding boose. 

" In the barrdiDg houae are placed o^t Ii)x23-ft. Totical steel tanka, 
into which the fxvaae ta pumped brfoce barreling. Theae tanks have conical 
bottoms and the draw-oS pipe for the finished grease is well tq> on the side. 
The irease ia pumped into these tanks and allowed to settle. The heavy 
grease and impurities aettle to the bottom while the pure and lighter greaae is 
drawn off to the bairelfl for shipment to be ueed in the macu&Kture of ^ycerine, 
soap. caniUes. etc. The building is of concrete and brick, and h lOOX 100 ft. 
It is placed near the dock to minitni»* handling of the barrels. A completely 
equipped chemical laboratory oecupia one comer of the building. Ekuwhua 
there ia a 30x L3}-ft. machine and repskir shop." 

The plant worked ^ti^factortly. and without any offensi'^'p odtHs, 
untQ 1'.>I*>. when war prices caused financial difficulties for the com- 
pany, and a ctinsequent failure to maintain the works in proper 
operating c<:>ndition. Thie resulted in the escape of gaaee and odors 
sufficient to oau:« a public auLiiance. The inefficient condition wa^ 
increa.^ dy the cailuie of the company to enlar^ the w^»ks to such 
an extent a.< to keep pace with the gradual increase tn the quantity of 
KartiaKe. an.i the peak loads could not be treated properly. It has 
atr<> been reported Chat there wa^ difficultr in securing the requisite 
laN'f . .U a refute the company's affairs were placed in the hands of a 
reix^iver. and the carbaee was aaain taken to sea and there dumped. 

2. Los Angeles, CaL— Durins ll^l-t a Cobwdl type of garbage 
redi:>'ri.<n plane. ha\'inx a capacity of 17-3 tons daily, wa;^ boDt in Los 
.ARKrle~. iiTidcr a contract between the City and Mr. C D. Oouefa, 
I'V whj.h the city receives 51 i-ent.* a t-m for alt fcarbage deUvtmlto 
tho plant. Viis- 11"^ and I'JO show a areneral plan and a '\-iew of 'the 
»1.^k^. The f'>llo«nnz 'lescription t condensed from an anooiit* by 
Mr. Henaril C SinioriT-. .\s.>^i~tant pjitrineer during the eoodtnietioil 
«I rlif pl:ir.t 

Tli>- 2:-.rbaee is .le!i%ereil t<t the plant in wa^ns hanng remmaUe 
pTit'l t»~i:<- which art' •rnptiol ititu a gart^as?^ bin or dump by an fvnr- 
heail i-r.-.r^'^. 

Fri'ni Th^ earbaizp il-:nii>the material l-* raked on a scraper eoBTCjor 
whii !l c;irr;'- i* a-T'-- ■ :■• the rerluivr buildinz. This buQding eoo- 
tain> Ju rt-djcerr. vil.ich :''.>r:ii the central part ui the s\'stem. The 

• J^fi'^l.^^i' /iMmia.', last 10. 131S. 



COLLBCTtOK ASO OlSPOSAl OF mSlCtfAL UnftS£ 



scraptf eotrTVyorpHBoiBloiif ibeoBtn'cif tlus binUitigiwAr t^roof, 
aad feeds IW stAmgt into tl»c rrdutvn Uirua^ novdbb chul— . 

ThM ■]»(«■ of redartioB, frbuh ia knnwii am tke Oifawdl, ««« fin* 
drrdopeij b>- the C. O. tkrtlftt umJ i^w CDnfMiy, Uw psoni 
«iM%T»etta Utt tl)t plftnt. Tbe ndcwer m a vtcMft-JadMUd, eytin- 
(IriegJ ii])f«nitus, 4 ft. in (tumwter mad 4 ft. Id^. TIm iadds ii SCt«d 
with ail &fE)t&tiof[ iieii'*oe rot«t«d by jgMn pbccd aa Uie a|ipn- portioe 
of the BfipftnOuB. Each rvduc<er bcJds about S] (obb of garfaagB per 
dunte. A« auoa aa the reducer is filM, a solvent known *b coboieae 
<a p^trdf-um product not Kreatly diffenut from naphtha) ettlen ia 
mlticrii'tit (|uaniitiK tu c«ver th^ mam. aod In's steun at a prewv 
of S5 lb. pfT square tttcb '» admitlcd to the jacketed waiU and botloau. 
afti>r wfakh the ittimnf; device i» rtarted. Conncrted witb thr 
mlurer t« a larite vapor pipe mniiiDR to a ooodeafer. Tbe p«ineiplr 
of the apeniUrti depend* on the fact thul water t^ vii|»^ri>ed at a k>wer 
Icmperstttrr Khen HvaporatMi along with a mihvnt having a low 
boiling point. .A^ tiie water and tnlreut are evsiNirated logetber. 
the Bolvent u Heparated by gravity and returns to tbe reducer, and 
the water, which ia perfectly clear, flows to tbe aewer, the operatiuB 
beitiic cr>iitiiiu«d until a tost nb»'A> that all tite water haa boea rciMbTed 
and the w>lvent ic running over Hear. 

Tbr mnterial ix now dr>' except fur tbe solvent and the RRase. the 
latier, by this time, being entirely froe and dissolved in the solveol. 
Tlia aolTent aiul greaMe are then drained from the mlurer to a stilt, 
frutu whi<;h IIm- ttnlvent c&u roudily be driven off and the grease 
Tceoverpd. When Lhe laxt traces cd wlvent have been reinuved hy 
further h«nt. iht- giiHiage i» diwbiirged thmiigli u donr in the side of 
the apparatus by using the agiuting dDviee. The wliole operaCioa 
in tbe reducer reiguirca from ten to sixteen bours. 

The niallcr discbargrd from the rrduixf, known as tankace. laih 
from the door of tbe redover on a t-craper conveyor whieb earries il 
lo a aecond conveyor and tbence to the warcbouae. At the vaf^ 
bottae the tankage is paitsecl tlirougji a rotary ^rrwn, any material 
whiob ia oot fine <mougb being ground in n ^perisl rotary grinder, and 
the lintftheil product, ready for Aacking, i» delivered by a acrew oon- 
Veyor. 

At the woHut tfaere t« also on rfiuipmenl for sorting nthhish and a 
fDmiMrorburtiinelhvfomliuMlbkpflTlion which baxnoDiarkct value. 

S. Cleveland, Ohio.— The prtwcnl Clevuland plant Ls a ilevrl())i> 
ment from rxpcricncra with a niinilN-r of tyiicn vt apporatiia. Tbe 
wnrha ore at Ulllow, 2 milra wuth of the southerly city Mntita and 
abiNit fi miles from lhe gurbagr loading station iii tbe city. Th* 
firwt works were built by the Newbary E(eduetkin Company in 1S98. 



RSDVCTION OF GARBAGE 



4»7 



Thft proMee eoaaistcd i>f cooking, folluwol by hydiaulic prcBBioR. 
Tho (Irj- tniiksin? recovered nmnuntpd tn S or 10%, nnd the KTcaAc to 
nligbliy mwrp ttinii 2% of t.lic origina) weight n( garbnge. 

The dty bnu|;tit thp plnnf in 100&, snil, ttndor the gui<Unc« of 
Mr. W. J. SprinRborn. established the Ed^oii prooww. Ii« dixtineUve 
fc4lure was the ure of ateara jackrlH and mechanical etjrrinjt devices 
■ti ouoking and drying, but it w&h found Ui b? 9\uvr and iwi costly. 
The plant, tliereforv, wru n-muJulcd, and its dL-dcribvd as foIluwHt* 

" The old o>»thod of luiloading tho garhagp from tiuik wagon bodim by a 
enof ha^bcvtiabaodoiivd, &nd there ie now providrd nicrccn icnrbnicr building 
wtxre due gsrbnge cara </ special i)!!*" «re tinptied This building i* a brick 
rtniHurc, KX) fl lung, 32 ft widr, and 30 ft high 'rhi> mnt tnttt thn btiUiU 
itig on ui el0rst«d Inrk alH>ut 12 h. abfivc the door levd, and arc dumped by 
rhjun hniBtB. A Utrgv titinntity of I^ip frt>ft vh-U-t cnnlniiioil in lti<- gnrtiiigr m 
tliAinMl off through suilablo npenin)^, nnd At pn>0ont » diachorg^ dircrlJy 
iolo tltr nvpf- Tbia green gnrbitKc buildiuR is ft .-Oiurl dietiuicr from (hr maiu 
liuildiiig. U) tliv Uip fttiiry »( whioh the gnrb«ge is curried by ii(.-nippT roncf'yur, 
■liprtuuging through cliulci* into tlicdigwlcre. Th*w arcnijitcfn nrwdigcstrrs 
in Uw remod'-lixl )>laiil<, nil tliv uliI <>rim luivi]ig bii-n ivrniiri'il Tin* digtiftcm 
&rr nuh M in in dLBnieler and 14 ft. deep, und btp nm^ttrtn'trd of |-in. rivpted 
etcnl plal«8. ibo interior btring linwl with '£-'m. vj-pmn luulicr. Each digmtcr 
kn pnividcd with a fnlM! Itutioin coiuiiiiting of u pi^rforatrd mrtal did(. On Die 
mir i>f ihf digmtcr. juaI ttbovr iho falM boltom, is a donr for mnoving th« 
lAnliAcr. and a coil of ntcam piping i;i t>liicrd immediately bdow tlir^ to-hc 
lM)ll>ini (hniilgb whirh thp stvoni for cooking in appliMl. BUun le ndmittiHl 
(lirc<:tl> to the luatrriul. for u i>criod of nix houfH, at o procure o( 70 to 80 lb. 
Aftrr digmtiiin ix iimiplH<:tl, Mtnun pmMirr in applied &t thr lop, and the fm 
bqitor IS lirivvn nlT ihnjiigli » miini-rticin st. tbf iKidJiin, *?i(t nonvpyni to Bot- 
tling tank", whifc H*e grcnso riiiw tn the t'>p and 'u< t>kiinin«d ofl. Tlic liquor 
I (mm the holuim of itie wtlting i.ink* U wiwK-d into ihr riv<>r 

" TIti- Innbngn from llir fUgwUm ia n>morf>d in <ipo«inlIy (vinslnwlrd itimi, 
froin which il b dtMliargcd into n n>nvryor Irjiding lu thr drvETn. TUe ]::»M>n 
drif^rv iiMPd in njatm-iirm with Uii> old proi-nm nrv now iii*rd In dry ihr latiksgi* 
pAftty, Thiw- dncrs nrc provid*^, f«ch of whii-h in of wifh caiiai-ily hh In 
mvivp two digmlm full nl n rtuirgr 11u- niiiUTinl in dri«'d durtitg a prtiod 
of oumf^luit tnoro than l.wii hniirs. willi a Kteam prmoiirc in the jacket uf 
(nitn 7n to HO tb., oorrcspunditig I" lih^tit '•i'it}" Vain. Afl<r diaohnrge fron Ibo 
Edfluti drK!in> the laiikagi? t-tiiuniiis aboiil A(i^', of ooiHlurr. 

" Kram the (Mnon <lrt>-rfl tin* niHti-nnl m rnnvi>yi'd to n tins) drif^r. which is 
tfar dajftn of Mr. b-ti. IVck, former nupmulcndciilvf thrwurkx Thc> drier in 
31) fl long and 4 fl. & in. in dinmotpr, and in oct at an angtr slightly inplinrd 
from llii> hnriK'tilul, w thai tlic malcriol paaacn through it (-(iniinuowily by 
gfavily The drier has n S(-tn strain jackot amuiid llir oiit«de and n 12-in. 
■tv»n>druiBUitvDdiiiglbraugbitsce&tet. U is ulao pruvidiHl with a hotbUnl, 

• - R<iMrt «■ OonntioB and Diipmi at City WMtc in Obio,-* Om 8twa Bonl ol 

a«aiu. i«ia 



488 CGLLRCTIOS AS'D DISPOSAL OF MUmcrPAL RBfUSB 



Uw au- b«iii« hMted by & eyatem of euttxa Koil* M the dwflurRe «!i>d of the driv 
and dnwu bja fun at llir clmntiiiRciid The cylioclrint] bttdy of the drier fe 
revolved on rolltr bearmge. (he pou-rr Iwidk Kuiiptied by ■ nM>tnr DumtR 
drying, steam H applied in (lie jncltvliuxldmniat 70orS0lb, praMUtw, and the 
hnl-air Uaitt fct applied &t a t^iu|M?:ature uf about 250' Fafar By ponaRc 
througb tlw drier the iiiuiaUm! raateut of the tajikage is redoioed to 
nUiut 5%. 

" After dn'iniL the malerial i* r<i«vi'>-od la the pv^rcnlstor buildinK. » ■fwit 
d>ttaiu« Trom th» niaia building It eontains the percnlatar niut two gtvam 
•pparaton. Tbe perailator is of a apccaal doayn. alnu iii-viw<] by Mr Peck, 
and nuuiita of a *teel cylinder. Sf t In diameter and li ft. lone, set tmrijuKiiaily. 
and r«etiiig on bearlntc* on which it nuy be twolrcd. An opeatni; ta provided 
at the ti^. thnugli wliicb the rharKe of tankage ia admittnl It ia i^ual 
to fill tbe pereniatnr two-tliinh full of tankage. It m then IViuiled with naph- 
tha tntroduc#d ■( the (op, ftnd, nTter standing about one-half hour, the naphtha 
it withdrawn and tlic pi-rcolatur acDun flooded with fnsh iisptitlia. Tldi 
pnema is repeated until the color ci the naphtha iiidicaUv that thv gnaM I 
been iJnxHt romplTtely removed. After the last floodinc of naphtha i* ' 
drawn the pen-oUUir a lumMt o^-er and mnua at front 10 to 15 lb preamir* b 
paaaed tbrmigh (lie lankap lo renM\t< tnnm of na|)htha. The rhmijft it thin 
d wii p wl to tbs Dour fttim the pmnlator. Tltc steaming adda about 10^ of 
mobtare to th» tankage, bat Una b not cnasdcmt objvriianahle Tfaa laadt* 
agelacuried iaaeanveyortoaRvalvinfrwnai and, after acreeiuctg, ianady 
for ehipmrat Thv »cf««i talin^ an chmpKl near the plant . 

" Ihr nafihtfaa "^ **^i'f tlN p«H» ia cnBdurted lo tvu a^wrmiiog tanfca. 
HmH an bonmiUl cytiodiffK. 13 FL lone aod 6 ft- tn Ai»airUx. aad hare a 
fMMP eoS akMB tW faiMlcMi The B ap ht> » b naponted, and the Tapnta an 
Mdwwd and alorad for iMe apkin. The greaae ie wnMrawn and stored for 
■l»inml " 

4. Columbus, Ohio.— One <4 the bwt of th* ffkrl>*|te ndudiM 
pUntii was built in Columbus in 1907. aad waa put into oprration JB 
1010. It bae a r*l«<i capacity of 160 tot» |Mr day. the fuUowiog b 
eond<-DH(d from a dwrhption by Usbom.* wlio «•• in diarge of tk* 
eoaalnKtiiHi: 

IWrrdiKtiaBptaBtbaboiil tnahnaoal&af tkt cwlcr of the nty, on tbi 
SeiMa Hivrr. and anar the *fmwm pT^nitinn wtfca. The r^iinMd Umtkg al 
Mm plant ai*<wlatic<f the W<r«a«WtbMn«MM*lbebAlBgail« aadataMl 
Nil atwT* the ffwid loot allhrbJJnpL Ttii itiiilfcii ilnai ill iimIi 
iM eaMh« ta tba fitani M b» dichaqad fnailho ^ t? pavity 

At tW |kM thrt* an Vmt hMMtapk thw adi hdMw. tbe ffma ^ 
bmt UMki^ a M«I1 utter bvMnft aad a stahAt TW ^il^ wta 
dehvwnl at the i<*»At > n-Aa^M^^a^ •.^-k --tiivwadlkm^slaik* 
grr^ ^r«M«> Sia. 1^^^ w».d — liiwiii ai ty 

l«iWTT hi> ti w mi (■ ■ "^^^^^^ „T ar> i-K.-^9l «■ tha flnr bria«. 



USDVCTJOS OF GARBAOK 



480 



ng and oovered with [irrforatnl pLalm. The nrill mtcr front the gutter 
I rimuiuit tiito A culoh'lioaiii. from which it ia dbchuised into thf )[mM>«ep> 

ttng Unke, Aft^-r whirJi it io iwaitnraKd. The gurbftgc is sorted Uiil ebov> 

led into a 24^ii nctmi^ei oanvcynr which extends the full Icogth gi the graen 

rtoirboge building. C«iiiiixiinK Lhitt bui)<litig with ttko ama building \b in 

iDt^hiicil InuB which vuriw the coiireyor to th« top of the Diuiii building und 

over liie taps uf the dlgrstcre. iiiU> whii-li the gnrhngc h dit^'haricwl direcUy. 

Tbero ftiv cif^l digMtcn, uul they haw & (opacity of from 10 to 12 tons of 
Vb^'^IC^ f^ insidir is liood with cement aiiJ tilv, 1 } in. thick. 

The KUuim in turned on, nnd sprends and ciiirulittefi through the msM. 
When n>Qk«d, the Knrboge a disuh^rgcd through n isrgr vgtlvf into the 
mciYing ItopiMrr. wliirh is oonnoctcd directly to rlit nillttr prai*. 

The vaiKiw whi^h arise from ihe maas when dropped into the receiving liiO(>- 
pcr we conducted by a vont line to n cobdenMT, which, with the coadttHV 
for the digffitent. i« roiiiie<:ted tu h vu[xjr>i)ght stt^l hot well. Any odoni that 
•re earned by the gaees Attii not takt^ti up in the condonmn are trapped in th« 
hot well and (hen poMed by a v«at line tu the boiler furaac«s. 

The lime retitiired in cooking variea with the quality of the garbage, but 
BVCtagu about «x houm with the Mt4>ajn at from HO to 70 lb. gnugv timwtirct an 
il rotrr* thr digivl^ 

"Vhe pressK. whirh arc eornnptnl to llin rocciviiis hoppOT. arv of lli« 
OontiauolU) roUci type, and were dMtgiied by Edgertou twpeciidly for band- 
Ung garbage They arc i»nniv;led dirrctly to the bottom of the remvltig 
boppen, vo that the material from tht digrati-ra immms through the pnn 
btlon; bong cxponcd The pR» is provided with upper and lower runreyiag 
Bpions, Tlie upi)er apron acts &a the bottom of the receiving hopper, oarrie* 
tbe material throi^fh the (eediiij! rolls, and diseharge* it on the lower apron. 
Tlie tower apron paww between six cast-iron mlla, arranted in pain. The 
mUe are 28 in in dtanM^KT, and arn miilroltKl hy hoavj' steel spring so that 
the}' ntay b« regulated to any d«Bir«d preeeuie, depending on tin: ijuanLity vi 
material to be pwned through 

The prcaaed material ia diseharged at the front of th^ prea* into a eerapw 
mnveyor which rarri« it to the second Roor of the drying driiamiieiit The 
f i i mii ng mli* n,r« driven by rhaina, and the prow i» ('onrtructed so that one 
apran, or both, can b« operated at the Same time. On the feeding rolt is a 
nfcty device Uy protrct the )irr», should any foreign nibatanre. too Urge to 
fMM throu^ or loo hard to be cmuhed by the rolls. gH back of the rolls. 
Tbo prccB can be revervcd, so as to lemove any material, if dottired, frtHn 
under tlte roUs. 

The water and pease flow baek from the press through a rovered oonduit 
to Dte catcb-buina in the grMM^-aniaiating room, below the floor The wnte^ 
and gnaae are pumped from the settling baaina into n Itatter}' of tanks. whet« 
tlw greaae u nrpnrntiyl hy gmvity 'I'here are six svparating lonlu. The 
grease rising in the firet tank overflovm into the aeeond, and from ihe second 
to tbe third, and my on through all the tanks, with Ihd largest quantitj- of gr«aae 
coUcctiiig in the aixtb tank, from whieh it is drawn oH through a pipe line into 
one of two treating tanks. 

The grease drawn olT from the separating lank in lutnlrd in Die lreatia| 



490 COUSCTIOH AND OISI^OSAL OP UVNICIPAL. RSFVSS 

tanks, >& nnlnrtoiirpiinite iK* iminiriiiPMind thm p«m|)c<l intovtonMCP tanb 
for Bhipment Thm art- four rtvaiw HlnniP^ lanbt with m tntnJ nKHnty tii 
15,000 rhJ. They ore ptpod m (iwt ibe Rimw ru ■< t>utu|w«l itibi My «l 
tbe twifca or be drawn ofl and dischansKl into raihraj tank car* frir Mpam. 

11k hqfi» a* it eonMHi fmnt tlw pmnB etunn mm tir Uw aultib in »»• 
penaion Tbrac sutkla are kiiawD as muck and ^t, and an Uniwn ofl by > 
Mapna pump and tluvharptl iiiUi a miMrk tank, (men wiurh tb^' pas tfarodik 
A Ktfw prcM into caMk-baaiitt, and the lulkb are plarad oa the iMlCjPifl 
leadiag to the drier roan. 

The tank<waler fpoiti tiM> stance tank pM> to a Iripl4^«a4«f avapncalot, 
•n ae to ncovtr the .'> to 7% of lobd* m aolutiDo. The evapontor » e«p«U* ' 
of ooncmtratinK 1500 ^. of touk-wabr per boar. 



,- J ' 



III link HI I iT I |1 1 ill 
*a fe ■yiii 1 1. «^M *« il» 



thryaw dcfisBod to ll« 

?«• ^ iMictU if 

■^ «r lUm *iw gad tb»n»- 
M_ TWAy ■— iiroalwta 

I vabr ihiti-a c^oBd tar SartSvc 
iA«i dria- 
M <• tkr 






RKbVCTIOH OF GARBAOE 



491 



6. CHicago, HL — The plant of the Chicago Reduction Company 
» porchastid by Uic City in VM'i at lh« r^diicod pricfl of 827(t,fiS9. 
Bince then it hiL» hwn v^ry Inr^cly n>rnod4>]e(I l>y the City. A brief 
description of the present plant,* made up chiefly (ram pulilishcd 
utirW by Col. H. A. Allen, tlic! do^tii^nor, follows: 

OutIkiko irt liroufchL to tin- phml in :«i)onaIly dctiicti^d lK>xe», by 
waKtiiis and barren. The whkuh Itudien arc lift«d by crimes, and (lioir 
onntents are disebarged into large eoucrote binH with hopper bottoms 
fitted witli ]argc swing gnten on boriionta] opening. From Iheae 
boppen thp gjiHiage w eJci'nted by conveyors Uy thv top of the dner 
building. 

Generally, the Rurbagc i& (in't run lliruUKh a crusher toemash cans 
,,Df mndetiined foods and lo break up uthor lurgp matemk fur more 
tffivicnt ilrying. Tlic matcrJul from the crusher is thi>n fed into driera 
lirh its moi-itiire rntitonf is rodiiced to about IO*JJ, or lesa. The 
inutcriid i.i led into percolators where ii Li treated with a grease 
il^ffol. The grraMVMitiimtf^d nnlvcnt is then drawn off and the 
»lveiii diHlilled rtni and Kindenxed for r(su«-e, the greaM> being treated 
id ptorrd frn* shipment. Steam \* llieii turned into the permlator 
». driv*- (.IT any residual wilvent, after which the tankage, cuntaining 
llmiil 'Zti% of moiHlure, ii> with<lniwn ami put thnxigh final drior^, in 
ifaich the moiKluru in n.-ducL-d t'O from Q to 8^1. The tankage is thcD 
encd, milleil, and finally stored for Khipinetit. 
Thwt «i-callml " drier syBtem " was selected by CtA. Allen for the 
folluwing rpjiii»ne, on alated by him: 

My in vmt ilea linn cnnvinred me that one great CAimc nf nffcaw at the 

nt of llw f'liirtigri Heihiitton Company was due to the use nf direct-heat 

I and niiiMf|uciit bnrnniK nr cnrbonicinn of cortsin grtsKa and niateriaU, 

I BT luiir and fl(»!i It hdiiIiI m^-ki thai nenain (Hlnm thtio (ofnied nrv not 

ill wnler, Iherelore not readily washed or Hcni)i)i«-cl This ti«irehtiig 

not rrnly wn.i ihi- rAU!« of olTr^nr, but aim, I bdievitl, llie miiac of Idm 

tlie value nf by-pnvliifiH 

liv (mult wtu> llu) in»l«IUtinn oF (be tnorv mstly dJrorl-indir«cl heat 



\t> |>r<->)K't<ni. W'lien UMiig IIk- indin-ct-bettt ilriers. not only lia» Ibi- riere»- 
ty f(ir Hrmbbinx pni<^lii-iilly Ih-th vliiniiuilcd. but tlw pnHluced taiikugL- and 
arr brllrr, with mniK^ucnt inca-anMl valura. The garbage b dried 
1 70^ oiniiture h> 10% or lu« in une I'yliniJer." 

Til iirder to pliiiiniale olTeiwive wlnrs, e*irli dri^T w |mividi>*l with a 

_" prUtmnt " flm-li iitoi-i^ting of a seriew nf Roncrntrically piare<l uteel 

tiden, meh onv larger than the proceding lower one. Theae 

• Tt* oh) iilut b itmrrllMd in Km^i^MHit A'hm. ^'oI. SO. p. STS. 



492 CVLL£CTIO\ -l.VO DISPOSAL OF MVSICtPAL RMFVUS 

staefcs promolc commio^inB of fMibtide fToh ur «Hh Uhs Bfi ip ng 
gu«e fron tb« dhers, tbu* d(mAii« tiieiii ukd Uiimrins dmm ■ MStna 
qnsntity of noisUira whidi euriw nxUt tt mmm of ibe fine 




riB. 13^-OMaal 




491 COLLSCTtOy AS't> DtSfOSAt OT Jfpy/fTP^L* 

A MBowl pUat, auag tht Anold pwewr, «■« boat aS Uw ** Oo« 
torture "» 18S& Vitkma mfiasWS aik* of it (bet- im- 

btioo of {rhb aOjOOD to 7S,000. It ctmt op wa HB of fV* ' u 

thira were eonliiwl eompliuDU of miimiify. ii wm fcmored in IMN) 
to Speetode Uaod, aboot 3 mike oat id BoBtao HaHnr. Thu fiUst 
mu used mti 1912, wbni it mt tatinlj nibmh. twcMH* at tim 
high eosl of opcfmiioa uid (be pnductjaa irf adar*. wlncb wm uaiof- 
{■(•Itbeniilbad. Tbc oew pfaat is deanibrf bnt^y ae foQoirs:* 






J I 



^B52«,Hg:« 



.V 



no. 133^— U»«il«dmal SeHnu. CUe^i RnlaMiaa PluM. 



Hir piut b on tbe watotir li^ of Specude Uiad. TlMra xrt 
fear priMiiwl buildiDca: Tlw mfttti K^J^j^g. coataiBfaw the iligjrirr 
hooM. pvapontioa rooin, 6twr naooi, ppvcr pluft, aiid tociBsmlar; 
the tgr ro U t oT twNisc mmI tvo trtu i ehwjttJ . GawifiiK Hoed in tfat 
pemriaiioti p r u e wa » itand ia laaks oat ol doon. about 100 ft> 
fmra ibr pertMlator hann. 

On Ktma^ at tlw wbaif, tbe gariiasa it tiaadvncd fRita tbv *mmh 
to tbe main baMlag- TV en^A-£ufaA«> eta v r yin t •qttipnwci <no- 
lats «f a 4S-iii. pui ; -ft. pn iwDate, asd a M-ia. 

Tfc^ cKfMrlty or fW* 
fl- •mr rerciva* ihc fPrM 



tiEDUCTtOS Of (JARBAaa 



m 






^ 

^bi 



where foreign malorinl'' nrr ftuHed mil. Thi> Rurhoge is then ttelivered 
ihc ftcmprr ri>iiv«yijr. wliirti is iiu-luttod, uod in carnrd by uii inclJniHl 

til ihe lop of the digc»(cT >ioui:«. 
The dip-Htprg aro in two mws trf eifiht each. Each unit h** ft 
rapacity of 13 tonn. if 90 in. in inKide dinmcter ntid ID ft. iti. bifth. 
Ttimugh IJ-iii. pipe <vjiinection8, live Htcfliii i» ndmitted nl n preanuro 
«jf fmin 75 to 90 lb. per f*\. in. for cookiug. 

In opcmting the diKe^tera, the ste&iii is turned on for an hour 

and then Hhut ofT for an equal period, this cycle twing repeated on the 

mvemiEP for ton hours. If the gurbiiin.- is old uittl »oft it cookt; murh 

.ore rapidly tliftn trhcQ Kr««n And <«tiff, and the reduction of weijtbt 

evaporation slightly increiu«.H the nominal (lerceiitage of grease 

ibtaioed and reported. The dejcree of diKCHtioii i^ dct«rmiaod 

byliM»eninK the inlet door. The malarial wlion fooked has an odor 

rescKibliug that of licorice. There arc two remving taiikii under 

cb row of digcatcrv, eaoli tank being supplied by four digcstcn. 

.reelly under ouch receivi