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■::£.- /:»'' 




Oan. WK. S. SKITH, Kineral Point. 


Hon. nelson DEWEY, 
Hon. morgan L. MARTIN, • 
Hon. GEO. R. McI^NE, 

SteTonf Pointy 
Green Baj, 
Mineral Point, 
Pine Lake. 

Corresponding Secretary— LYMA^ C. DRAPER. 
Recording Secretary— JOB. ^ W. HUNT. 
lAbrarianS . H. CARPENTER. 
IVwwurer— Peof. . M. CONOVER. 


HoK. L. J. FAftWELL, 
" J. P. ATWOOD, 
« D. J. POWERS, 

" H. A. WRIGHT, 




Governor of the Staie qf Wnoonain: 

-In accordance with the act granting to the State Histori- 
etj five hundred dollars annnallj, we, the nndersTgned Ex- 
Committee of the Society, herewith render the Treasurer's 
report of the manner of expenditure of the appropriation, 
) vouchers therefor. The receipts of the year are there 
have been $56S 53, and thedxsbursements $497 lO^Iear- 
lance in the treasuiy of $55 48. 

rganization of such a sociefy was first suggested and urged 
uvoT 0. BBrrr, Esq., in the Hineral Point Democrat of 
1845, and though the newspaper press of the Territory ap- 
the proposal, nothing was done till the 80th of Januaij 
hen the State Histobioal Sooiett or Wisooirsiir was fi^Iy 
^ at Madison. But in the infancy of the State, and the 
mon neglect to preserve, by means of associatied efibrt, me- 
of the history of the past and passing events, little was ae- 
hi^d till the year just drawn to a close. An act of incorpo- 
ras obtained in March, 1853; and, in January, 1854, the 
reorganized with a view to more efficiency, when the 


chief labors and dnties were assigned to an Execatiye Committee, 
who were to meet monthly, and oftener when necessary. The last 
Legislature was memorialized for the small annual appropriation 
of $500, to be expended in making collections illustrative of the 
history of Wisconsin, no part of which should ever go to pay for 
services rendered by the officers of the Society ; and the amount 
asked for, was granted in Februaiy last This, together with the 
few volumes of state publications placed at the disposal of the So- 
ciety to aid in effecting literary exchanges, has placed the Society 
upon a firm basis, and enabled it to enter at once upon a prosper- 
ous and honored career of usefulness. 

In January last, the number of volumes in the library was fifty. 
During the year past, the Society has purchased a complete set of 
NUetf Naiional Hegiiter^ containing a most valuable current his- 
tary of the times from its commencement in 1811, to its termina- 
tion in 1849, in seventy-six volumes ; and also fifty-four volumes 
of rare historical works, relating mainly to the West and Korth 
West. Among them may be particularly mentioned a copy of 
Lescarbot's History of Kew France, published in 1609 ; two vol- 
umes of the old Jesuit HeUUions, 1643 '44; a full set of the 
Zettres JEdifianUs et Ourieuses^ in twenty-six volumes, containing 
much rare historical matter recorded by the early Catholic miss- 
ionaries in the North West, conunencing in 1672; Evans' large 
and rare Map and Analysis of the Middle Colonies and the West 
in 1765 ; Carver's Travels in Wisconsin, with a portrait of that 
early western traveller ; Mackenzie's Travels, and other early and 
valuable works. Beside these one hundred and thirty volumes 
purchased, eight hundred and seventy volumes have been receiv- 
ed by the Society during the past year, either as donations or ex- 
changes, from nearly two hundred different sources ; making the 
present number in the library one thousand and fifty volumes. — 
Of these, seventy-five volumes are quartos, sixty-two volumes of 
newspapers, and the remainder chiefly of octavo size. They may 
be classified as follows : 

Works on hiatorji ioclading newspaper filea^ and pnb* 

lications of Historical Societies - - 486 v0V%, 

Congressional publications - - - 18S 

Agricnltnral, mechanical and scientific - 121 

Miscellaneous ..... 197 

State Laws and Journals - • - -65 

Unbound Works - - - - - 66 

Total 1060 

There are sixty-two yolumes of newspapers, besides Niles Keg>- 
ister, all either bound or in process of binding ; and several of 
these Tolames embrace a period of two or more years ; so that 
the entire series, including Kiles, make about one hundred and 
forty years of printed matter, or over one hundred years aside 
from Niles' Register ; and the Wisconsin papers alone comprise 
one half of these yearly files, commencing with the pioneer pub- 
lication of Wisconsin, the Green Bay Intelligencer^ which first 
appeared Dec. 11th, 1833. This collection of papers, large for the 
brief period the Society has made it a** special object to secure 
them, is a matter of much felicitation to the members of the Execu- 
tiye Committee, knowing their iaestimable valae to the present 
and future historians, legislators and jurists of our State. Bat the 
collection, large as it may appear, is by no means complete ; there 
are many files of Wisconsin papers extant that should early find 
their way to our library. The names of the donors of these sev- 
eral newspaper files are, Darwin Ofark, Wm. N. Seymour, W. W. 
Wyman, Beriah Brown, David Atwood, L. 0. Draper, J. W^ 
Hunt, O. 0. Britt, and S. G. Benedict, of Madison ; E; Beeson, 
and Boyal Buck, of Fond du Lac ; Gen. A. O. Ellis, of Stevens^' 
Point; John Delaney, of Portage City ; E. B. Quiner, of Water- 
town ; W. E. Cramer, of Milwaukee, and Patrick Toland, of West 
Bend. From the latter, a Tenerable volnme of the Pennsylvania 
Evening Post, from August 1776, to Angu8tl777. ExGov, Doty 
has most kindly and liberally tendered the Society several files of 
newspapers published while Wisconsin was a part of Michigan- 


Territory, and which twoAi prore a peculiar ly raluable acgnirition ' 
to otlr ccSlictioD, and whose arrival may ^on be expected.* 

The Society has also been fortanate in seenring, at a moderate 
cost, eij^teen volumes of newspapers, published in [the Atlantic 
States, in various years, from 1784 to 1832, containing much fron- 
tier hifltoHcal matter, particularly relative to the war of 1812-'15, 
and the "slack Hawk war; and these may be expected to reach 
here, early in the ensuing spring. 

Sixxce March last, the Society has been in the receipt of twenty- 
nine Wisconsin papers, five from other states, and four magazines; 
all ijaost generously donated by their publishers or editors. There 
are also preserved for the Society, by members of the Committee, 
nine Wisconsin papers, and three from other^states. These fifty 
publications are all carefully filed for binding as often as there 
shall be enough of each to form a suitable volume ; and they are 
deemed, not only by the Committee, but by all enlightened men, 
to be among the most important labors engaging the attention of 
the Society. This department alone of the Society's collections 
must speedily become vast in extent, and valuable beyond all es- 
timation for purposes of reference, and as treasuries of the history, 
growth and progress of Wisconsin. 

The department embracing the published transactions of kin- 
dred Historioal Societies, and other learned institutions of our coun- 
try, has received the early and constant attention of the Commit- 
tee, and very gratifying success has attended their efforts. Prior 
to the past year, the Smithsonian Institntion and Bhode Island 
Historical Society had alone furnished their publications ; and, 
during the year just closed, the Society has received the publish- 
ed Transactions and Collections of the Historical Societies of New 
Hampshire, If assachusetts, New Jersey and Ohio, New England 
Q:eneAlogical Society, Essex Institute, American Ethnological So* 

*TheT bare aiDce come to hand— a bound file of the IMroU OaxeU$ from 1818 to 
183d ; tne Galena Mintr^i Journal, I829-'30. and others. Ooy. Dotj hasalao forwaided 
a naoat iatMitin| aerieaof lawa which goianied thia conntrj undor the British regime, 
the Noctii Weat, Indiana, and Michigan Temtorief. 

cietji American Inetitnte, and the pablieations of Harvard Col- 
lege. The American Philosophical Society has liberallj voted ten 
quarto volumes of its Transactions to our association and placed 
our society upon its list of exchanges, and these valuable works 
may early be expected. Assurances have also been received from 
the Ilistorical Societies of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Georgia, 
the American Antiquarian Societyi and the American Geographi- 
cal and Statistical Society, of their friendly co-operation, and of 
their readiness to enter upon a system of exchanges with us ; so^ 
that but three efficient Historical Societies of our country, those of ' 
Ifeio York^ Maine and Virginia^ remain nnrepresented in our 
library or list of exchanges. The large measure of success at- 
tending this department of our ccUections, is mainly attributable 
to the liberal policy of our State Legislature in placing at the die* 
posal of tbe Society a few volumes annually of the State publica- 
tions to use in effectng exchanges ; together with the confidence of 
the kindred institutions of our country, that this Society will soon 
enter upon the regular publication and distribution of its manu- 
script collections. It is extremely desirable, that such publication! 
be commenced without delay, as multiplying and diffusing copies 
of rare historic documents greatly increase the means of their 
nsefniness, as well as tend to avert their irretrievable loss by acci- 
dent. The dissemination of such publications would be well cal- 
culated to exert a most favorable influence abroad respecting tbe 
intelligence, foresight and public spirit of the people of Wiscon- 

Quite a respectable number of the volumes added to the library 
during the past year, relate to State, County and Town histories of 
various portions of the Union, family genealogies, historical ad- 
dresses, eulogies, and funeral discourses ; which, with the Transac- 
tions of the Historical and Genealogical Societies of the country, 
will prove invaluable in tracing the ancestry and antecedents of 
such of the present and future leading and influential men of our 
State as may deserve to be ranked among our public benefactors. 
The published collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society 





» ^ _^ • 









A* Yattemaret of Paris, has also most kindly promised to include 
onr Societj in bis noble system of Interaational Literary Ex- 

. A PiCTiTBE Gallerv ha9 been cemmenced under the most flat- 
tering auspices. The veteran artist, Thomas Sully, of Philadel- 
idiia, has painted and presented to the Society a copy of Stuabt's 
WisaiNGioN, pronounced to be a faithful and valuable copy by 
the venerable Pi«sideat of oar Society, who was personally ac- 
qVAinted with Gilbert Stuart, and has often seen the original 
pointing as well as the venerated Washington himself. From 
dement S. Edwards, a celebrated artist of Cincinnati, has been 
received a fine copy of Jarvis' portrait of Gest. Givorge Booesb 
Clabk, the Washington of the West, and a portrait of Dr. Wm. 
Bybd Powell, of Kentucky. It was by the genius and conquest of 
General Clark during the Eevolntionary War, that the country 
north-west of the Ohio, including our own Wisconsin, became 
American territory, and the Legislature of our State has worthily 
commemorated his worth and services by naming a county after 

Bobert M. Sully, of Richmond, Virginia, who in 1833, painted 
from life, spirited and truthful portraits of Black Hawk, his Son, 
and The Prophet, is making copies of them for our Society ; and 
from his skilful pencil our collection is fiirthermore to be enrich- 
ed by a beautiful portrait of the renowned Indian Princess, Poca- 
hontas, and a painting of the Buins of Jamestow^n, from draw- 
ings made by the artist upon that classic ground. Mr. Sully also 
hopes to be able to make for the Society a copy from his original 
portrait of Chief Justice Mabshall. As Mr. Sully has intentions 
of soon making our favored State his home, how appropriate that 
the delineator upon canvass of Black Hawk and two of his noted 
followers, upon the war-paths of our soil, should visit in our midst 
and paiiit the battle-fields of the old chieflan, to bo sacredly pre- 
served in the Hall of our Society ! 

. J'ohn Bp Johnston^ of Cincinnati, had made for the Society a 


eopy from bis original portrait of Gbit. Jackboit , but recently both 
were nr fortunately consumed by the burning of the building in 
which they were ; but the persevering and skilful artist writeti, 
that he yet hopes to bo able to fulfil his original iBteutiQm Those 
talented brothers, O. N. and John Frankenstein, one of New Yoik 
and the other of Ohio, have each generously tendered like Sooietgr 
a portrait or historical piece from his pencil. An anxibus desire to 
secure tiie portraits of those who have presided as governors oVar 
Wisconsin, is likely to meet with the most gratifying success. 
Gbk. Ca«s, who was so long Governor of Michigan Territory when 
Wisconsin formed a part, Govssnobs Dodob, Tallicados, Diwttr, 
Fabwkll and Dabstow, have severally signified their intention to 
comply with the wishes of the Society. When all these promised 
paintings are received, our Gallery will number eighteen, and 
will prove not only an interesting collection of works of art, btt 
many of them will serve to illustrate the history and historic men 
of our State. 

During the past year, thirteen hundred circulars, ptblished by 
the Society, fully setting forth its aims and wants, have been seiit 
to men of learning and genius in our own and otheir countries, 
and more especially to those known as lovers and promoters of 
history, and many of them have kindly responded Co the appeal ef 
the Society, contributing rare and noble works io oar library and 
collections, and warmly commending the wisdom and forethought 
of the Legislature of our State, in having been the first in the 
Union to lend its aid in founding sach an institution as ours, which 
must soon exert a marked influence in the historical literature of 
not only our own State, but the whole North West Beside these 
oroalan, over three hundred official letters have, at the same time, 
been sent forth in the name of the Society in furtherance of the 
objects of its formation. 

A singular instance of the appreciation of such societies may be 
taaud in the fact that Mr. Mosbs Shkffasd, of Baltimore, a t^en- 
arable member of the Society of Friends, and an active member 
of tk« Marjlaad Historical Sooiety, sent to onr Sooie^ a doaation 


of twdnlyfive dollars* Saoh an example shonld serye to qoicken 
.the state pride of our own citizens, who may have it in their power 
to contribute in building np a society in our midst, which, in almost 
a single year, since its efficient re -organization, has outstripped the 
most flourishing kindred institution in the We8t,one which has been 
nearly a quarter of a century in existence. The most able and 
. enlightened men of our age and country, have warmly commend- 
ed the labors and objects of Historical Societies. ^'The transac- 
tions, of public bodies," says Webster, ^^local histories, memoirs 
of all kinds, statistics, laws, ordinances, publie debates and discus- 
.sions, works of periodical literature and the public journals, 
whether of political events, of commerce, literature, or the arts, 
all find their places in the collections of Historical Societies. But 
these cellectioBS are not history ; they are only elements of his- 

: At the recent semi-centennial anniversary of the Kew York 
Historical Society, the Hon. E. 0. Winthrop very justly remark- 
ed, that 'Hbe Historical^ Societies of the different States of the 
Union— rand I am glad to remember that there are now so few 

. States without one-^iire engaged in a common labor of love and 
loyalty in gafthering up materials for the history of our beloved 
country. But each one of them has a peculiar province of inter- 

' est and of effort in illustrating the history of its own State. ^ ^ '^' 
^^None of us," continues Mr. Winthrop, ^^should be unmindful, 

.that there is another work going on, in this our day and genera- 
tion, beside that of writing the history of our fathers, and that is, 
ih§ acting c^'C^r awn hialory. We cannot live, sir, upon tho 

^ glories of :ihe past. Historic memories, however precious or bow- 

. ever inspiriog, will not sustain our institutions or preserve our 

^^ There is a future history to be composed, to which every State, 

• and evex^ citixen of every State, at this hour, and every honr is 

. contributing materials. And the generous rivalry of our societies, 

and of their respective States, as to which shall furnish the most 

ibtillumtmcard of the past, must not be permitted torewierus 


rc^^ardless of a jet nobler rinklry^ in wbtek it becomes ns jilleven 
more ardentlj and more ambitionslj to engage. I know trot ef>>a 
grander spectacle which the world could famish, than thai of the 
maltiplied States of this mighty tTnion eontending with each oth* 
er, in a friendly and fraternal competition, which shonld add the 
brightest page to the fatare history of our common country, which 
should perform the most signal acts of philanthropy or patriotism, 
which should exhibit the b^st examples of free institutioos well 
and wisely adminisliered, which should present to the imitation of 
mankind the purest and mpst perfect picture ot well- regulated lib- 
erty, which should furnieh the most complete illustration of the 
success of that great Republican Experiment, of which our land 
has been Prori^entiaily selected as the stage." 

This ^' acting ottr cwii hi^arif^^^ conveys to us an impressive and 
suggestive admonition. As we are now gathering up and pre- 
' serving the acts of those who have gone before us, and aided in 
laying the primitive foundations of our State, so very .soon,,. will 
others, after us, be similarly engaged with reference to those now 
prominent on the stage of action. Histobt is a stern, impartial 
judge, deducing truth, justice and right from the acts of the con- 
spicuous men of the age ; and by these, rather than subserviency 
to party behests, or playing the part of mere time-serving demo- 
gogues, mast the character and worth of our public men be ulti- 
mately judged and determined. 

May our State Histobioal Society, faithful to the purposes of 
. its formation, never falter in its noble mission of gathering from 
the mouldering records of the past, the scattered fragments that 
yet remain, and securing complete memorials of the present, to 
render rtnple justice to all the worthy sons oi Wisconsin, who 
may be earnestly laboring in any department of science, legisla- 
lation, literature, mechanism, philanthropic or industrial effort, to 
advance the honor and prosperity of our State, or to enh'ghten, 
improve, or ameliorate the condition of man ! 

As an evidence of the worth and interest of the manuscript pa- 


ip«re we have already collected on liyiscoDsin Imtory, aa well as an 

r.'earaeBt of what may be more foUj expected hereafter, we append 

U few that are deemed particalarly worthy of notice and pnblicity. 

All of which is respectfully eabmitted, 



Execntive Committee. 

' Madison, January S, 1859. 




8 1 

i .'^' 

iPPSNDB wa 1. 


Madiboh, Janaaiy 2, 18M. 
T04Ae Soeiety : 

The Treasurer of the WiBconsin State HUtorieal Societj, 

pectfuUj presents the following statement of the receipts into the . 

Treasnrj, and dkbnrsements therefrom, daring the jear ending 

this day : 



Feb. 23, 1854. From former Treasurer, 

9 5S 

<C M C& 


Recording Secretary, 

a 00 

cc 24, •* 

cc cc 

S 00 

" 28, " 


State Treasurer, 

SOO 00 

lleh.16, " 


Eecordipg B^re^rj^ ; , . . 

8 00 

Apr, 18, " 


Moses Sheppard, BdJt. Md., 

S5 00 

June 6, " 


Recording Secretary, 

1 00 

Julj 10, •* 


cc cc 

S 0) 

Sept. 12, " 


cc cc 

1 00 

Jan'jr 2, 1855, 


cc cc 

T 00 

Total, |562 62 


If eh. 15, 1854, Ber'ah Brown for printing circulars* 15 OO' 

^ ^ ^ Weed ife Eberhard, paper for circukra, 10 50' 

" «< »» Joho N. Jones for postage, 17 68 

*• w M Oha^. B. Norton, for books, lOo 00 

Apr. 1, ** J. Ho'ton, express charges, 8 00 

^ 8| *^ J. K. Jcoies, postage, 18 lO- 


Hbj 4, 1864. Express charges, 

June 8, « " 

July 11, '^ Sandrj bills for books, freight, &c. 

Aug. 1, « « " 

Sept 12| ^^ 0. B. Edwards, t>oxing pictures, 

Oct 3, ^^ Postage and freight, 

Dec 5y ^' Express charges. 

); ■:: M :.l 

[18 83 

3 00 

253 11 

38 10 

1 00 

6 58 

19 30 


4 00 

1 1 

1 i 

1 00 

I4»r 10 


6S 43 

Jan, ^8» 1855| Posta;ge| &c., 
"''i, « Book, ' 

Total disbursements, 
t-n. / BalaiWe on hand, 

^" $S53 52 $353 53 

Touchers for each of the foregoiog disbursements are herewith 
* presented. 

BespectlqUy aabv^ittsd, 

O. U. CONOVER, Treasurer. 

AudiMd &nd found correct, 


f ' • 

0" •' 

^i; :, ■•'■■.' ..-..;; I, ' 

I ' 



CaABLU Whiitlesey, Esq., of Eagle River, Lake Superior, aa 
iDtelligent and accomplished scholar, sent the following translatioxi 
of a French manuscript, relating to the early history of Greeu 
Bay, to Hon. C. D. Robinson, by whom it was kindly communicar 
ted to the Society. It was, with many others of a similar nature, 
brought from France by Gen. Cass, when he returned from his 
mission, who loaned them to Mr. Whittlesey far perusal and trans- 
lation. He promises copies of others, which will no doubt prove 
iuteresting and valuable. 

Mr. Whittlesey thinks it is not easy to determine by whom 
this memoir was penned, or to whom it was directed. He sug- 
gests that a part of it has the air of a circular addressed to the 
Commandants on Lake Michigan and the Illinois by the Iiead of 
Indian Affairs; but most of its sentiments and many of the phra- 
ses agree with a letter of June 19, 1726, by M. DaLiguey, from 
Green Bay, to M. DeSIette, among the Illinois. 

Memoir 'conceminff the peace made by Monsieur DeLigney {or 
Signey) v)iih the Chief e of the Foxes {Renards)^ Souks {Salkis\ 
and WinndfOffos {Puans a la Baie\ June 7, 1726. 

To make the peace which has been effected by M. Da Liomn' 
with the Foxes of the Bay, and the Puants (Win neba goes), of 
the 7th of June last, certain and stable, it is thought proper t6 
l^rant to Ouchata^ the principal chief of the Foxes, his particular 
request to have a French oflScer in the country, which will, he saye^ 
aid him in reiLraiuing hit young men from bad thoughts and ae« 

We think, moreover, that it will be neceetarj that the com- 
mandant at La Pointe, Chegoiwegon (Lake Snperior),8honld for his 
part labor to withdraw the Sioux from an alliance with the Foxes, 
to detach them by presents, and allow them to hope for a missioib- 
arj and other Frenchmen as thej have desired. 

The same thing should be written to the oflScer commanding at 
4he pott of Detroit, and at the river St Josephs, in order that the 
nations adjacent to those parte, may be detached from the Foxes, 
snd that those officers, in cpse of war, have a care ^that the waj 
shall be stopped, and the Foxes prevented from seeking an asylam 
with the Lx>quoiSy or in any other nations, where they may secrete 

Monsieur Db Sikfte, who now commands in the niinois country 
in place of M. Db Boisbruute, has written to M. Db Lignbt, that 
the Foxes are afi*aid of treachery, and that the surest mode of se- 
curing our object, is to destroy and exterminate them. That he 
has made the same proposition to the Council General of New Or- 
leans, and has given to the gentlemen, who are Directors of the 
company of the Indies, the same opinion. 

We agree that this would be the best expedient, but must main- 
tain that nothing can be more dangerous or more prejudicial to 
both colonies than such an enterprise, in case it should fail. It 
would be necessary to effect a surprise, and to keep them shut up 
in a fort, as in the last war ; for if the Foxes escape to the Sioux, 
or to the Agouais, (Iroquois?) they would return to destroy us in 
all the Upper Ojontry, and the French of both colonies would be 
unable to pass from post to post, except at the risk of robbery and 
murder. If, however, after our efforts to cause the peace to be 
durable and real, the Foxes fail again in their promises, and take 
up the hatchet anew, ic will be necessary to reduce them by armed 
£>rces of both colonies acting in concert. 

In the meantime, it is proper that M. Db SorrrE should cause to 
be restored to the Foxes by the Illinois, the prisoners that they 
may have with them, as M. DbLiqney has made the Foxes promise 
to Send to the Ulinois their prisoners ; and that you dv> not f^illow 

tfi6 example of other eommandaiits before 70a, wbo have thonght 
to iotimidate the Foxes, and eaoae them to lay down their armi 
bj baming Fox prisoners that fell into their hands, which has 
oalj serred to irritate that people, and aroused the strongest hatred 
against ns. 

If, with these'arrangements on the part of the Illinois, the Foxes 
can be persuaded to remain in peace from this time a year, we 
shall be able to have an interview with M. De Sicitb, at ^' Ohie*- 
goux,** or at the Bock (on the IHinois), from whence to make aa 
appointment for the Ohiefs of the Illinois nation and of the Baj, 
(Green Bay), where they can agree upon the numbers of French 
and of Indians, on the part of the Illinois and on the part of 
Oanada, who shall meet at a fort to be built at an agreed place d^ 
signed for the meeting; 

After this, the treaty of peace with the Foxes and their aIlieS| 
can be renewed, and the following summer we can cause '' Oucha- 
tai** and the war^hiefs of the Foxes, with a train of their allies; 
the Pnants, Sauks, Kickapoos, Maskoutens and Sioux, to descend 
the Lake to Montreal, where we can enquire of them their dispo- 
sition and intentions, and also learn the desires of the King from 

It would be apropos that Onchata shonld pnblicly demand a 
^ief from the French in presence of his chiefs, and of thc«e of 
the Sautems, (Ohippeways,) Potowatamies, Outawas, (Ottaways,) 
and other nations, whom it may also be proper to bring down, 
and a chief or two on the part of the Illinois, to be witnesses of 
the matters concluded with the Foxes. There will be no difficultj 
ia granting them a French officer, although it may not coincide 
with the wishes of the Commandant at the Bay, who will doubt- 
lais be opposed to this establishment, only on account of private 
interests, which ought always to yield to the good of the service 
of the King and the Ck>lonies. 

jlPPmiDZZ Ha 8. 


[iBtMliietoffy BOtobj UMOuTMiMiidiogScey of thi Stuto TliitMiwl Sodtty •! Wigf 

Tbe late venerable Sobert Gilmor, of Baltimore, obtained from 
Horatio Ridont, Esq., of Whitehall, near Annapolis, Maryland, 
qdite a collection of rare and cnrions manaseripts relative to the 
did French and Indian war, and among them this journal of Lient. 
Gorrell. Kr. Bidont's father was John Ridont, who was Secretary 
to OoT. Horatio Sharpe of Maryland during the French and Indi- 
an war, and thus became possessed of these valuable papers. Mr. 
Qilmor presented them to the Maryland Historical Society. 

Francis Parkman, Esq , of Boston, when collecting materials 
for his able work on border history, the Conspiracy of Pomtiac^ 
procured a copy of Oorrell's journal, and has kindly communi- 
cated a transcript of it for the use of our Society. So interesting 
a memorial of the early history of Wisconsin, never before pub- 
lished, cannot but be received with favor. 

Of Gorrell himself, it is to be regretted that we know so little. 
In addition to this journal, he left another of Maj. Wilkins* expe- 
dition from Niagara to Detroit, in the fall of 1763. This is the 
lait trace we get of him. As his name does not appear in tbe 
British Army Register for 1780, of which we have a copy, it would 
aeem that ho had died prier to that date. 

A few explanatory notes are added by the editor to the joumaL 

L. 0. D. 



ComiDenciDg at Detroit, September Sth, 17G1, and ending at Ifontreal, 'Angust 13th| 
1763, eentalDiof an aceouut of sererel councils held with the Indians ;--a]ao. showiDg 
Um Tillunj osed by the Oanadiansto eorrupt the Indians^ and exeite theai agaioM tbt 
Xoglii^, with a brief aceouat »f the numlier and streagth of the Indiaoa^ aMi their 
commene ia that quarter. 

Detroit, Sept. 8, 1761.— Captain Belfonr of the 80th Regt., was 
ordered to inarch with a detachment of the 60th and 80th Hegts., 
to take possession of, and leave garrisons at the posts on Lakes 
Ilaron and Mitchicon, yiz., at Mishamakinak, La Bay,* after- 
wards called Fort Edward Angnstns, and St. Josephs. 

Septi 28th. — We arrived at Mishamakinak, when Capt. Belfour 
called a council of what chiefs of the Indians were then there, 
and gave them a belt and some strings of wampum. Here we left 
Lieut. Leslie, of the Royal American or COth Regt., with one 
sergt , one corporal, one drummer, and twenty-five privates of the 
same regiment. 

Oct. 1, — The rest of the detachment sailed with a fair wind for 
La Bay ; went ttiat evening sixteen computed leagues, and not* 
withstanding we were detained by contrary winds, c&c., four days 
at the Grand River, we arrived at La Bay on the 12th, which is 
computed eighty leagues from Mishamakinak, at a time when 
there was but one family of Indians in the village — they being gone 
a hunting, according to their custom, at this time of the year, and 
return commonly in the months of April, May, and June, accord- 
ing to the distance they go, and the openness of the season. There 
were several Frenchmen who had gone up the river that forms the 

* Thb taking possosaion of these western posts prrTiou^lj occupied hj the French, 
in ooDseqaenoo of the conqoest of Canada the prefiotis jear hj the English and 
Oolookl ftirees, and the surrender of the Uarqoia de VaadriiuU, Qovemor Oeaeral of 
Canada ; and La Bajf waa our own Qreen Baj of Wisconsin, or,ss the earlj French wri* 
ters ttttmed it, la Bay dt$ PuanU 



Bat wbreh comes from Lake Puaa,* al>3at fo«rte^« leagvee up. 
Tbeee inkkr* hare sioce p^e up at far as the Soar^ conntrj, 
near two bmidred leagaet from La Bar, aad aa ihej vent pMt 
tbia poit, ootwiihatanding thoie rerj Frenchmea were emplojed 
bj tbe Engliab tradera firom Montreal tbat came to Muhamakinak 
hj rirtme of Geo. Gage*^ lioeuef did all tbat laid im their power 
to pemade tbe Bay lodiana to fall npon tbe EngliJi on dieir way , 
aa they heard of oar coming, and teUing the Indiana diat the Eng- 
lish were rerjr weak, and that it coold be done Terj readily. Some 
of the yonng warrioia were willing, bat an old and great man of 
the Sack Nation whom they call Ajosh^ (and whom the French 
call DiBoo,) told them they were the Eaglkb dogs or alarea now 
that they were eonqnered by the English ; that they only wanted 
his men to fight the English for tbem, bat he said they shoald not, 
and called tbe French old sqoaws, and obliged the waniofs lo de- 
atsty wbich tLey did, and went to their banting. I was informed 
by an English lad, and a New England Indian that was with them, 
of this in tbe spring following, bat when I got an English interpre- 
ter, tbe Indian told me of it, aa will appear hereafter. 

We arrired at, and took post at La Bay, the 12th October? 
fonnd the furt quite rotten, the stockade ready to fall, the bonses 
without cover, oar fire wood far off, and none to be got when the 
rirer closed. The 14th, Capt Belfonr departed, learing me with 
one Serg't, and corporal, and fifteen privates at La Bay, a French 
Interpreter, and two English traders — viz : Messrs. McKay from 
Albany, and Groddard from MontreaL 

When I left Detroit for St Josephs, and had received my orders 
from Capt Donald Campbell, of ye 60th or Royal American 
Begt, I found in bis orders very little respecting Indians, for 
wbich reason I applied to bim to know if he bad any other in- 

atructions, npon wbich be referred me to Sir Wm. Johnson^, who 
was then there, to wbom I af^^lied. He told me verbally that an- 
less I did my l>e«t to please the Indians I bad better not go there ; 

WbasUgoLidM. t Siou. tSuperbtMuliatof tU VoHhmlBdissDt|MHaMii 


he told me he would leave belts of wampnm with Oapt Campbell 
as sooB as the council wag orer, to be sen" to the different pcnts, 
thongh I never received anj, as I imagine the captain never bad 
it in his power to send them. Understanding shortlj after mj 
taking command of the post, that there was a vast number 
of Indians dependant on it, more than was ever thought of, I 
found that I should have to send to Detroit for bolts to give them 
on thoir arrival in the spring. For this purpose, I at three differ- 
ent times attempted sending expresses, both by way of St Josephs 
and Mishamakinak, but I could never do it 

Iherefi>re, as I could not get any from Detroit, and could not do 
without it, I was obliged after getting what Mr. Gk>ddard bad, to 
borrow of the Indian squaws, and pay them some twelve hundred 
for a thousand. I also made use of some I had from Lieut Bre- 
hm, which was fur his own use. That borrowed from the IndianSp 
I wa^ obliged to repay on the arrival of the first trader that 
brought wampum. So that I had six belts made, one for each ua* 
tion that visited that place, but I found that some nations required 
two, some three, and some four, as they had towns. The Fi ench« 
in their tiroe^ always gave them belts, rum, and money, presents 
by which tbey renewed their peace annually. 

Nothing material happoied from this till the May ensuing.--< 
If e mostly busied ourselves during the winter in repairing the 
fort, houses, etc , as we had by the Oauadians many Arious ac- 
eooiits, differing from one another, of the Indians intending to at- 
tack us, which accounts we had all the reason afterwards to be- 
lieve were propagated to hinder the trader from coming up to that 

fiome few young men of the different tribes or nations of Indi- 
ans oame at different times to know how they would be treated, 
and were agreeably surprised to find that we were fond of seeing 
them, and received them civilly, contrary to the account given 
them by the French* They asked for amunition, which I gave 
them at different times, as also sent flour to some of their old 
oien, who, they said, were sick in the woods. There being no 

^fHUfs here at our arriyal, we Jiad no ooancil with them antil Qm 
23d of May, 1762, on which I delivered the following speech, the 
f hiefii of the Folles AToinee,* and of the three Pnan chiefs, being 
present; and agreeably to my orders from Capt Campbell , I gave 
them belts of wampum, and strings of the same, for the return of 
prisoners : 

BxoTHKBs ! — As you may have lost some of y V brothers in the 
war in which yon imprudently engaged with the French against 
your brothers, the English, and the' by it yon ought to hare 
brought a jost indignation upon you, yet we will condescend so 
fiur to forget whatever hath happened, that I am glad to take this 
epportani:y to eondole with yoo on the loss you have met with. 
At the same time, by these belts, I wipe away all the blood that 
was spilt, and bary all your brothers' bones that remain nnbnried 
en the face of the earth, thattliey may grieve you no more, as mr 
intention is henceforward, not to grieve but to rejoice among you. 

^ Brothers! — I hope also by these belts to open a passage to your 
hearts, so that you may always speak honestly and truly, and 
drive away irom your heart all that may be bad, that yon may, 
nke your brothers the English, think of good things only. I light 
also a tire of pure friendship and concord, which affords a heat 
sweet and and agreeable to those who draw nigh unto it ; and I 
light it for all Indian nations that are willing to draw nigh unto it. 
I also cleaf a great road from the rising of the sun to the setting of 
the same, and clear it from all obstructions, that all nations may 
travel in it freely and safely. 

BRornEaa! — As yon must know the arms of the great King 
Geurge have entirely subdued all the French dominion in Canada, 
as you must also know the just causes that obliged him to make 
those conquests, in consequence of which, and agreeably to terma 
ef capitulation made last year, by which, as before mentioned, 

* Tba Frwek nttne glriD to tho MaoBOncf^ mttiUDg Wild Oats, tlfaiditis t» itM 
triU iicf» whiob grtw aboiMUiiUj in ths iSunUj, nud from vhicb Umj deri?«d Uim 

Oanada, with all its dependencies, was ceded to the Engignkhils* 
ny master and your father, I am sent here to keep the best order 
abd administer the strictest justice amongst jon, as also to protect 
all the Indians tlilit will by their good behavior deserve his royal 
bounty. He halh also recommended it to all his subjects who are 
oome amongst you to trade, to bring whatever necessaries yon may 
want, and save jon the trouble of going so far yourselves ; in com 
aequenoe of which, I have brought one along with me, who, you'll 
find, will use your people well and sell everything as cheap aa pos^ 
aible to them, which some of them have already experienced. There* 
fore, I hope you will, on your part, behave well, and give convincing 
proofs of your good intentions to keep a good understanding wiA 
kim by paying him always whatever he may credit yon, as your 
brothers the English do. If you have any just complaints against 
him, or any others of the English or French traders, or people 
otherwise employed amongst you, let me know, and you may da- 
pond upon having justice done you. It is for these purposes that 
I am sent here, which you may plainly see by my bringing few 
men with me ; and always depend that I shall be glad to serve 
70U in doing justice. In one word, by these belts, 1 renew and 
ooiifirm all the treaties and covenants of peace which formerly 
subsisted between your ancestors and onrsi which was lately re* 
mewed by your neighboring chiefe at Niagara and Detroit. I ex- 
pect yon'll hold fast and often record it in your minds, as by that 
means you'll study your interest, and ever give ns good prooft of 
your fKendship and go(/d meaning towards as. I also reoommeod 
it to yon to take care and use well all who have or may come, and 
look upon them as your friends and brothers, as they are subjecta 
of His Majesty, and we form one body and blood, and since we 
are joined by friendship, henceforth we shall be one people. 

Bbothxrs :— In consequence of this and tlie several treaties held 
with you and your neighboring chiefi at Niagara, Detroit and Mish- 
•makinak, these strings are to open your eyes and hearts^ to follow 
their example to bring in all the English prisoners who yet remam 
with yon or your people, that they may be retnmed to us. You 


know they are onr owq blood, and yon are aeosible that it woald 
Tex you to have yoor blood with any nation. Yonr great father, the 
King, will be very angry if yon don't comply, and send as many 
men as there are treea in the forest to compel yon to a compli* 

To this the FoUes AToines, on whose land the fort stands, an- 
fwered : 

That Ihey were tbankfnl for the good speech I had made them, 
as also for the presents ; and said they were rery poor, havinglost 
three hundred warriors lately with the small pox, and most of 
their chiefs by the late war in which they had been engaged by 
ibe then French eommauder he:e against the E:iglish. 

That they were very glad to find the English were pleased to 
pardon them, as they did not expect it, and were conscioas that 
they did not merit it; bnt that I might depend they would adhere 
to whatever instmctions the commanding English officers might 
gire them, for the fatnre, as they had always done with r^ard to 
the French. 

They begged I wonld send for a gnn-smith to mend their gnns, 
as they were poor and ont of order ; the French, they said, had 
always done this for them, and their neighbors at Mishamakinak 
had had this fayor granted them. They said the French com- 
mandaut always gare them rnm as a tme tuken of friendship. In 
regard to prisoners, they said they had none amongst them, nor 
«ver had ; for what English prisoners they had taken during the 
war, they had always left at IfontreaL They expressed great 
satisfaction that the English traders were coming among them, 
mnd seemed desirons that they should continue to come, as they 
ibund by experience that tbls goods were half cheaper than when 
the French were amongst them, and said they wonld use the tra> 
ders well, oblige their yonng men to pay their credits, and assured 
me thi^y would willingly partake the influence of the pure fire of 
irieiidship I had lighted for them. They thanked me for my ad* 
tiee in desiring them honestly and sincerely t«> speak their senti* 
niktntB) which they always would d0| and acquaint me with any 

bad UXk ftat mi^t 1>6 Amongst them, or tiye neigbboring IncKaa 
Nations, as there were five more that depended on that poit 
Thej returned thanka to the great God for sending them anch a 
daj fur their conneil, which they looked upon as an omen of hiatr 
ing peace with them. 

To which I gare the following answer : 

That I woald write to Oapt CampbeH, eommanding at the 
Detroitffor a gnu-smith as soon as possible, and made no donbt be 
would send one. To their request for mm, I told them that their 
great father. King Geoi^, knowing that they were poor, by being 
so knog at war, had ordered no mm to be brought amongst them 
to sell, lest they should neglect their «k>thing, their wiv«s and 
children, until such time as they might be clothed, which I hoped 
would be in a few years. 

The Puan Chief returned the same answer with the rest, with 
a demand for a gun-smith ; and added, that be wonld send the 
good road 1 had given him, meaning the belt, to the two other 
chiefs of his nation, and he did not donbt they would come down 
very soon. 

No Indians came here till the 29th, when a party of Toways,* 
who liyed at Little Detroit, arrived. I spoke to them as I had 
doBo to the rest, and ga^ them string? of wampum fur the return 
of prisoners, and made tbem some small presents. 4ls they lay 
between this and Mishamakinak, they promised th^y would use 
the English and French . well who wonld be coming thither. They 
went a wily well pleaeed. 

June 5th, 1763. — Ambassadors from the Sacks and Reynarda, 
with a chief belonging to the second Puan town, arrived here, to 
whom I made a speech to the same purpose, and a-so gave tbem 
each a belt and strings of wampum. Their answer was nigh to 
the saitae purpoM as the former, w!th a demand for the English 
tnuiers to go to their towns. I tuld them I would write to my 
commander at Detroit, and await his answer. 


IrocoT^d a letter fl\>m Oa^. Osmpbell, dated at Detroit ii 
September, [ 1 76 1 ,] whieh rtererhad an crpportnnfty of ooruing be- 
fore from Mishamakinak, wherein he cuttd that it was against the 
OeneraPs instmctions to gire the Indians more presents than were 
absolutely necessary to keep them in temper. These orders made 
me nneasy , as I was assured I^conld not keep so large a bodj of In- 
dians in temper without giving them something, as they had al- 
ways been used to laige presents from the (French; and at the 
aame time, if I did not giro each nation the same I had giToa 
those that had been to see me, all wonld be lost to me and the 
aervice. I, therefore, sent my interpreter, who could acquaint 
Oapt. Campbell best about it, with letters to him, and engaged his 
•OBsin at his recommendation, who had just coma from the Sous 
country, as interpreter. He behaved very well for a Canadian for 
sometime, but I was convinced soon to the contrary, as will appear 
in the sequel* 

There are by both French and Indian accounts, 89|100 Indian 
warriors, besides women and children, depending on this post for 
supplies, and they are as follows : 

Taways, etc, 100 Little Detroit and Milwaoky. 

Fulles Avoines, 150 warriors; Tliey lire at La Bajr, in two towns. 

T>„- ^„ 1 Kft (At the end o( Puans Lake, and 

ruans, lou < over ^aipst Louistonstant. 

«^, 2XQ I Above Louistonstant, in ye. gov* 

■••^ *» ^^ ( emmeht of Louisiana. 

Beynards, , SM On the Kivor Reyovd. 

Avoys, (lowayst) 8,000 On each side MisslssippL 

Rons. 80 000 i ^^ ^®®^ "'^® Mississippi, near 300 

^ * \ leagues off. 

Total, 39,100 

I had a,n answer frooa Oapt 0«pipbell as soon as could be expect- 
fid; in which he was pleased .to signify his being satisfied that I 
had done all in my powen for the benefit of his Majesty's service. 
He said he had written to the General, and had let him l^now that 
the number of Indians at my post was great, and hoped to know 
bis Excellency's orders to enable him to supply them uritJIi what 


wonld make them easy ; at the same time desiringi would coutinue 
to keep tliem iu as good humor as possible, cousistently with fru- 
gality. He albo sent '200 lbs of tobacco for them. Lieut. Leslie 
Bent me 100 lbs, which I made the most of by giving it very spar- 
ingly, as the traders who come to this place bring very little of 
that article. 

Jane 24th. — Ambassadors from the Chippewas, a nation de- 
pendent on Mishamakinak, came to negotiate the adjustment of 
a quarrel with the Follcs Avoines rcspectiug a man killed at Mish- 
amakinak, belonging to the latter tribe. They brought a let- 
ter from Lieut Leslie, commanding at Mishamakinak, in which 
he warmly recommended it to me to assist the Chippewas in that 
negotiation, as it would be very prejudicial to the trade and com- 
munication between the posts if any such quarrels should take 
place ; for which purpose, I called the chiefs belonging to the 
post together, and was under the necessity of giving them a few 
email presents. 

June 25th. — Mr. Thomas Hutchins,* now Ensign, came, with 
Mr. George Croghan'fi instructions to enquire after Indian affairs. 
It being Captain Campbell's orders to me to assist him, I called 
what Lidian chiefs were then there, consisting of the Folles Avoi- 
nes, Sacks and Reynards. When lie had let them know his busi- 
ness, they immediately demanded of him colors and comniissionSy 
SQch as the French superintendents used to give them ; to which 
he replied, that he wonld report of it to the superintendents who 
sent him. 

* This ctrly Anglo- American riftitor to Wiaconsin was a natiro of New Jeraej. la 
1763— *64, he lerved under Col. Bouquet at Fort Pitt, and Mhsequcntlj in Weat Flori- 
da. Ha vaa in England at the commenGement of the Rerolution, where hia ical for hia 
Mrtivalaiid caused hfni to refuse tcrof»lin^ offers* and finally led to his imprisoument^ 
and the lues of twelve thousand pounds inasinj^le day. When liberated, he went to 
Visnoa^ and thence tu Charleaton, ^hero he joined the army under Gen. Greene. He 
waa toon appointed Goo;;raphet General of the Dnitcd Statea, and died in Uiat aervioa 
.afrPittabuigh, in April, 17S9. Ue was mnarkable for hia piety, charity and beneTo- 
Utee; and was the author of two descriptive works, one on PennsylTania, Maryland, 
Virginia and North CarolLnn, and the other on Louisiana and Weat Florida. 



Jnljr 12th. — A Bejnard camo who said ho was a cbief| and de* 

manded leave to buy seven barrels of powder, presenting me with 

a large belt of wampum. Having reason to suspect his intentions, 

I refused to allow him to buy any more than would serve him to 

. hunt, until I should have a council with his chiefs, and I gave him 

^a belt, desiring his king might come to me very soon. 

Aug. 6th. — ^Three Puan chiefs, with four ambaspadors from the 
Avoy nation, came. I made the same speech to them as to the 
rest* The chief of the third town of the Puans brought me a large 
belt, confirming what both the others had said before, telling me 
that he had seen the belts I had sent, and that he had never been 
at war with the English, nor could the French commander 
pursuadehim to it. He brought the other chiefs to confirm what 
be said, as he never knew any harm the Erglish had done him. 
He made the same demand for traders, with the same promises of 
protection for them, and also, asked for a gun smitli, and rum. The 
Avoys then spoke, and said they had come very far, and brought 
no belts, as they had come to see if I would shake hands and for- 
give them, as I had done the rest. I gave them belts and strings 
of wampum for the return of prisoners. They said their king 
wonid come in the spring and see me. 

Aug. 13th. — The King of the Sack Nation came, to whom 
I made a speech of the same purport as to the rest, and bis 
answer was nigh the same ; that he had seen the good road I had 
given his brothers, but as he understood I would not let any Eng)- 
lish come amongst them till he came to see me, he had left home 
in company with 250 of his warriors to wait on me and know my 
commands, and also to get English traders ; but as the ncwAcame 
after him that the town was threatened with an invasion by the 
Isle Anoix^ Indians, he had to send his warriors back toguaid the 

* Probablj tbe Ittitiou TDdfatia IlinoiB, accordinfr to Farther Harqnette, mMnfllM 

'^NiMi/' M if other India? • col^parc>d ^ith tbcm vera mrre bcratai It ia pwaible, fbai 

Ilia Indiana aUnded to hy Lleat. Gorrell, belocgixl on ione 29le mui Koise or 1^'ihtil 


women and children. As I liad now given a good road, he would 
take care to keep it open and c'ear, and if any ti'ees should spring 
up to obstruct the waj, he would not only beat them down, but 
tear them up by the roots, lie brought with him a pair of French 
colors, flying on board his canoe, and excused himself by saying 
he knew no dijflference, and hoped I would give him English colors, 
which I did, and he burnt the French ones. I also gave him a 
belt of wampum and other presents. He was the only Indian 
that disapproved of ram being given to the Indians. lie had 
never seen an English officer before. He showed me a commis- 
sion signed by the French superintendent, giving him command of 
the whole nation. I sent a copy of it to Oapt. Campbell, and 
promised the Indian, at the same time, that he should have one 
from the English. 

Aug. 2l8t. — A party of Indians came from Mil wacky,* and de- 
manded credit, which was refused, as they properly belong- 
ed to Mishamakinak. Tliey also made great complaint of the 
trader amongst them, but as he came from Mishamakinak, and 
did not touch at this place, I desired them to go there and make 
their complaint, and they w^^uld be redressed. Tliey promised to 
come to this place to trade in the spring ; I made them a small 

* TbU it the earliest notice, it i» l>elieTed, of Miiwauk§e, aad indicAtes that it waa 
tfaa^ 1T63, qaite an Indian town, with an Englidi trader reaiding there. Col Arent 
BAnykr De Peyater, who eommnnded the Urittah pnat of IfichiUimaekiBae from 1774 
tiBteMtiiiBD of 1779, haa left a volumo of If iaeallaniea* in which he haa reoonled tha 
fpiliatiiica of aapeech he (delivered to the Indiana at the Ottawa town of L' Arbre Croche, 
on tha ahoreaof Lake Michigan, eomo diatanee weat of the fort at MichiUimackinae, on the 
4lli of July. 1779 ; in which he apeaka of '* thoae mnegatoa of Milwakie— a horrid aet of 
 efca e tar j Indiana." In the aame apeech, in another eonnecUon, he alludea to " W6$» 
m l^ ' P § $ o t 9, a aenaible oki chief at the head of a refractory tribe"— probably the If H- 
vankaabaDd, who aeem not to haye been aabeerrient to British rule during the Ameri- 
cui Ravolation. According to a atatement dictated by aeveral Sac and Fox chiefa, 
appasdad to Dr. Morae'a Report of hia Indian Toor in 1S90. MU-Mimk-kie waa aettled by 
ttoBaoi ud Vioam, and the name ie derived from IfSm-iMi-waA-iNa— |lMtf /oiidL The 
Iplblo tism^j givoD hj Oorrell of the Indian aaUoaa dependent on Iji Bay, maotiona 
XUwaeky aa being then bhuUted by " OttawM» ate' 



present, and told them if they did, they should be well trestel 
and not imposed on. 

Ang. 25th.— The king of the Reynards came, to whom I mtdi 
the same speech as to the rest. He answered to the same p» 
pose with the king of the Sacks, but he lot me know that he bid 
routed those bad men who demanded the seven barrels of pow- 
der; and promised protection to all traders that came amongit 
bis peo[>le. I ina^Ie him a present of a stand of colors and othflr 

Sept. Ist. — The chiefs of the Folles A voines came and demanded 
credit for their young men, which the traders hero granted, on tki 
chiefb giving their word for payment in the spring. 

Fr«)m tliis to March 1st, 17C3, nothing remarkable happened, 
except the arrival of several English and French traders, some of 
whom went up tlie country, and most sent up the largest part of 
theij goods. Several Indiimsof the nation belonging to this plaee, 
camo in at different times during the winter for necefisaries. Tbig 
day twelve warriors of the Sons came here; this nation's number 
I liave before given. It is certainly the greatest nation oi Indians 
ever yet found. Not above two thousand of them were ever 
armed with lire-arms, the rest depending entirely on bows and 
arrows and darts, wliich they use with moro skill than any other 
Indian nation in North America. They can shoot the wilJestand 
largest beasts in the woods, at seventy or one hundred yards i» 
tance. They are remarkable for their dancing ; the other natioil 
take the fashion from them. It is said they keep regular gnaift 
in their chief town or metropolis, relieving once in twenty-fupr 
hourS) and are always alert. They proffered mo the command oC 
their warriore, being 30,000 in number, to keep clear the road I 
had opened for them. 


This nation is always at war with the Cbippewas, those who da- 
strojed Misbamakinak. Thoy told me with warmth, that if erer 
the Chippewfls, or any other Indians, wished to obstruct the pas- 
sage of the traders coming up, to send them a belt, and they 


rould come and cut tbem off from the face of the eartli, as all 
odians were their slaves or dogs. I told them I was glad to see 
hem, and hoped to have a lasting peace with them, etc., rehears- 
Qg the same speech I had made to the other Indians. They thea 
;ave me a letter wrote in French, and two belts of wampnm,from 
heir king, in which he expressed great joy on hearing of there 
K)ing English at this post, and great desire of making peace with 
hem, and having English traders. The letter was written by a 
French trader whom I had allowed to go among them last fall, 
ivith a promise of his behaving well, which he did better than any 
[Canadian I ever knew. They said they found the road very bad, 
ind would have turned back but for meeting a chief of the FoUea 
^voines who prevailed on them to come ; but as they had now 
jpt a good road, they could travel on it without fear, and hoped to 
some again in the spring with their king. 

With regard to traders, I told them I could not allow any to 
^ amongst them, as I then understood they lay out of the govem- 
□QODt of Canada, but made no doubt tliey would have traders from 
Blisaissippi in the Spring. They went away on the 8d, extremely 
well pleased. What was remarkable, when they went to give 
lances to the people, agreeably to the Indian custom, they began 
with the soldiers say ing) they were the people who should have the 
most honor paid them, as they fought for it ; but being told 1 was 
a soldier as well as commander, the chief said he regarded mo 

ll£arch 25th. — Bead letters from Mr. Lottridge, who lived all 
tliis winter, in the trading way, up the river with the Indians ; 
that be understood one Goddard, a trader from Montreal, sent or- 
ders to his clerk, a Canadian, who lay at the same place with Mr. 
Lottridge, to send word to the Milwacky Indians, and desire them 
act to come here, but stay at home, and he would send goods to 
them in the spring, the contrary to what he told them last fall. 

Several Indians came from this to the 15th May, when almost 
the whole nation came together from their hunting. On the 18th, 


I was informed that some jonng men bad threatened to attack tbe 
fort^and as there were' some Taw ays here^Fdid notdonbt buttbey 
wonld help them, upon which I called together the chiefs ot both 
parties, and told them what I ^had heard of their design. Tb« 
l^wajs declared thej knew nothing of it, which I believe wa» 
trae. The FoIIes Avoines' chiefs said, if anything made their 
yonng men nneasy, it was on account of the colors and medalii 
Mr. Hutchins had promised. There were none of the old chieft 
here at the time, buta few*days later they came in. I held coun- 
cil "With them, and in it, by a belt and some strings of wampam^ 
I renewed all former treaties. They all seemed well pleased, only 
they wanted the promieed colors and medals. The chiefs w^rt' 
much displeased at the Carroy's getting a present from Mr. God- 
dard of a fine suit of embroidered clothes. This Carroy wa# 
much thought of by the French. I changed my interpreter tbe 
20th inst, and employed the English lad of Mr. Moran's above 
mentioned, at which the Indians were^'generally pleased. 

June 14 til, 1768. — ^The traders came down' from the Sack coai^ 
try, and confirmed the news of Landsing and his son being killed' 
by the French. There came with the traders some Fuans, Ba4 
four young men with one chief of the Avoy nation, to demand 
traders to go amongst them. They promised that four hnudrsi* 
and fifty other men would be down in August to trade. I g9^r4 
them presents. 

Agreeably to Capt. Campbell's letter last fall, wherein he told 
me that he bad either lost or mislaid my last year's account, and 
ako from Maj. Oladwin at the same time, I had made up my ac- 
count both fur last year and this separately ; one for Capt. C. dar- 
ing his command, the other for the Major's time ; and had giren 
them to Mr. Moran, a trader going to Detroit, who was this morn- 
ing, June 15th, to set out, when about nine o'clock came ten 
Taways and Frenchmen, and brought the following instructioBi 
firOm Capt Etherington : 


^' Mishamakinak, June lltb^ 1763. 
'^Dbab Sir: 

**Thi8 place was taken bj sarprise on tbe fourth instant, by the 

Cihippewas, at which time Lieut Jamet and twenty more were 

killed, and all the rest taken prisoners ; but our good fKends the 

Ottawa^ haye taken Lieut Lesley, me, and eleven men out of 

their hands, and have promised to reinstate us again. Yen'Q 

fherefofe, on tbe receipt of this, which I send bj a canoe of Otta^ 

WMi set oat with all your garrison and what English traders you 

hftve with you, and come with the Indian who gives you this, wh<^ 

wm coodaet you safe to me. You must be sure to folli)w the ii^^ 

itnictions. you receive from the bearer of this, as you are by ngr 

means to come to this post before you see me at tbe village twen-^ 

tf ipilea from tliis. Leave the French clerks with tU ir mast^J^'^ 

goods, as the Cbippe WAS have offered no violence to any French* 


"Bring with you what provisions you can. Yonr batteau will 

bring you and your garrison, and the merchants can come in a 

Qmoe. Tell the savages that you are obliged to come here t<^ 

open the road which the Chippewas have shut up, that the mef* 

ehants may have leave to come to them, and the bearer of this will 

ipake the same speech to the Indians. If there are any English 

tinders thit are not at your post, you must not wait for them, but 

riMommend them to the care of the Indians till you come back^ 

whidi will be very soon ; aod if you iind it absolutely necessary^ 

fM, may make them some presents. I must once more beg you^ 

leae no time in coming to join me ; at the same time, be verycare^ 

hif and always be on your guard. I long much to see you, and 

WDi dear sir, 

" Your most humble serv't, 


^* J. GORKBU^ 

^ Boyal Americans.'^ 


**TeU the traden to bring what i^rovisions they can with them^^ 
i&d be sure to bring all your amunition ; and recommend the care 


of the fort to the Indian chief, that it may not bo burnt before 
yoar return. Let no person know but that jou are to come straight 
to the fort, a; the knowledge of our design might be attended with 
bad con8eq.uence8. 

(Signed,) "G. E." ' 

The same day and date, received the following from the aame, 
bj same bearer: 

'< MichiUimackioac, Jane 11th, 1763. : 

** Bear Sir : — I forgot to tell you before I sealed the letter I jast 
nosr wrote you, that if the Indians I send you should want any 
belts to speak upon, you will give them what they want, and like- 
wise give each of them a shirt to encourage them. In the other 
letter I wrote you, I said my letter would be given yon by an In- 
dian, but as the Frenchman that I sent with him has a little box,' 
I gave 'the letter to him. Please lose no time in coming to me, 

and believe me, 

" Tour most obedient servant, 


Agreeably to these orders, I gave the ten young Ottawu 
clothes, and also five belts of wampum to speak for the English, 
or rather for themselves. 

I called the Folles Avoines chiefs together, and all their young 
men, and informed them, with a belt, of their brother Oapt 
ETHSBINOTO^'8 distrcss, (giving them large presents,) and askact 
their counsel and assistance; whereupon they called their 
whole town together, and all unanimously agreed to come along 
with me, and sent several of their young men to the lower town 
to disfpatch] them on their march. The seven young men I also 

June 17th.— I made every thing ready to set off with the gar- 
rison and all the English traders, but contrary winds prevailed. 

June 18th. — About 1 o'clock in the afternoon arrived -^ 

chiefs of the Sacks, Eeynards, and Puans, who said their young 
men were coming, and desired me not to trust myself and garrieon 
pit^ the; Tawaya, as they bad seen t^e b^lts, and tbey were m^i 


Bincore ; they 'desired mo to %taj for them, whfch I did till the 
19th, when they arrived, and with them came one Pknnensha. — 
This Pennensua is the same man who wrote the letter the Sous 
brought with them in March, and at the same time held council '■ 
with that great nation in favor of the English, by which he much 
promoted the interest of the latter, as appeared by the behavioif 
of tbe SoHS thereafter. He brought with him a pipe from the 
Sons, importing that after their ambassadors or chiefs retumed| 
they had called a council of most of the warriors, in which it was 
agreed to send the following speech to the Indians depending 
on the Baye, — that I had received a belt from them, with a 
road plain and easy to be found ; they therefore' desired, that as 
the road is now clear, they would by no means allow the Chippe- 
was to obstruct it, or to give the English any disturbance, or pre- 
vent the traders from coming up to them. If they did so, they 
would send all their warriors and cut them off. 

This speech had its desired effect, as it changed the minds of 
the Ottawas very much, and settled those of the rest in favor of 
llie English interest, who came with Pennensha, very happily for 
ns. When all the young men of those nations had arrived, they 
told me all their nation was in tears for the loss of two English 
traders who were killed by the French in their lands, and begged 
l6BTe of me to cut them all in pieces. They seemed well pleased 
that I had got an English interpreter, as they could tell me their 
Blind more plainly than by a Frenchman. I called a council of 
the Four Nations, to whom I gave large presents ; and to the three 
Utt nations, each a belt. I also made a speech to them in the 
belt manner I could, informing them of Capt Etherinoton's dis- 
tresfl, and that I was going to relieve him if possible, and return 
te them again after we had cleared the road ; and that I hoped, 
as they had alwajs shown themselves brothers, tlioy would go 
alo&g with me, and assist in that good work. I was going to try 
to reinstate their brothers and mine, so that they might be sup- 
plied with goods for their wives and children. Upon this, the old 
Back chietj who was with me last summer, and brought the French 


colors as before mentioned, addressed the rest of the chiefs as fel- 

That he wrs verj sorry for the distress of his brother, the Eng- 
lish chief at Mishamakinak, and hoped they'd open their eyes and 
be strong and of good courage to let their new [British] Father- 
know how they had his interest at heart, and not to believe all tfa% 
bad things the French had told them last winter. He then advised^* 
the other Indians to follow his example and show the English how 
mnch they had their interest at heart lie conld, he said, gire no, 
greater proof of this, than by giving himself and taking his yonng; 
men with him, and he hoped they wonld do the same. He aaid 
he knew that their new Father wonld have pity on them, and send 
np traders. 

They all agreed with this, and said they were glad they could' 
now show the English how mnch they loved, them, and that 1/ 
should find they would keep their promise of the year before. 

By request of the Four Nations, I sent off the ten Ottawa^ ta. 
inform Capt. Etberington I was coming. They promised to meet 
me at the Fishing Place at the Filote-Traverse. 

June 20th. — ^The Indians busied in gumming their canoes, and. 
getting ready. 

June 2l8t. — I set out, [accompanied by] part of the Four Ni^ 
tiont, vis : the Folles Avoines, Sacks, Puans, and Reynards, sail- 
ed about fifteen leagues to the Lower Folles Avoines' town— ear 

June 22d. — Set out, and arrived about ten o'clock at the mouth- 
of the river, on which the village stands. Went on shore; walk- 
ed up to the town, and was saluted by the firing of guns by about 
fifty warriors of that town, who discharged their gims three timea. 
Called a council and spoke to them in the same uianner as I did to 
the others, and gave them large presents. They sent two chiefs 
with twenty warriors with me. Contrary winds obliged us to 
stay all next day, being the 24th. 

June 25th. — Set out escorted by ninety warriors exclusive of 

v%j garriaon and the English traders, and crossed the Bay. Oame 
to Little Detroit, where a party of the Ottawas lived, to whom I' 
gltve presents, and some strings of wampnm, which pleased them. 
They sent six yoang men more with me. 

Jiiae 26th.— Crossed the Say again, and encamped on a litUe 

Jane37th.-— Went abont ten leagues; encamped at the month 
of the rirer, called the Fishing Place. 

June 28th. — Went to the Ohippewas' fishing place. Here the. 
Indians who were with ns apprehending tbey might meet with 
the Ghippewas, who might be there to waylay ns, sent ashore for- 
ty warriors to reconnoitre the woods before we landed, which they 
mostly did during our jonrney, and always made us encamp in the 
center. The Sing of the Sacks always went in the batteau with 
me, and would always lay in the tent — so great was their care. — 
We waited for the return of the Ottawas' canoes, as they had 
premised to meet as here us was before mentioned, but they did' 
not come. 

June 29th. — Set out and came to Isle Castor. Here we were 
alarmed with great smoke rising in the Lie, in different places, 
and at different times, while we were crossing the Traverse ; and 
as the Ottawas had not met us according to promise, our Indiana 
misfmsted their sincerity. When we came near to the Island, our 
Indians halted, and made all preparation imaginable for an action. 
They obliged the English canoe to go in the center; the Follea 
ibToines went foremost, stripped ready for action. We went about 
half a league, when turning a point, we saw three or four Indiana 
oil the shore, naked, with lighted pipes, who calltfd in the Ottawa 
tongue for us to come ashore; which our Indians did, perceiving 
them to be tlie Ottawas who were to have met us yesterday. 
They brought nie a letter from Oapt. Eethebinoton, which, after 
ptaaing the pipe, they delivered. It was as follows : 

" Ottawa VnxAGB, June 28th, 17(!3. 
" DsAB Sib:— Tour's I received this morning, and am glad to 


hear you're coming. Agreeably to your desire, I h^ve sent the 
canoe of Ottawas to conduct you to this place, and keep all the 
English you have together. I hope to see you soon, and am, 
dear Sir, 

" Your most obedient and humble ser^^ant, 


N. B. — On the other side was wrote, viz : " The Soutons* or 
Ohippewas continue their mischief. They have plundered all the 
canoes they have met with since I wrote you last, and are now 
encamped on the great island near the fort, to which place ihey 
all repaired on the appearance of a canoe. 

** Lr. J. GoBBELL, Eoy. Americans.^ G. E." 

We lodged on this island this evening ; during which canoes 
came from Mishamakinak with Indians. They had been plun- 
dering there as our Indians apprehended. Upon their arrival, 
one of our Indian chiefs, who had a relation killed last summer 
by the Chippewas, and thinking those Indians or some of ihem 
were Chippewas, went with tomahawk and knife to their canoe to 
kill them ; but found no Chippewas nor plunder, as they had hid 
the latter on an island not far off. 

June 30th. — I set out and arrived at the Indian village where 
Capt. Ethebington was, about thirty miles above Mishamakinak. 
The Ottawas received me with great joy, by the firing of several 
guns, three times each. They also presented us with nine pipes 
of peace. It was on our arrival here, that we expected to have^our 
allies^ sincerity tried, as we heard it reported last night that, on 
our arrival, our arms would be taken from us, and we would be- 
come prisoners, like Capt. Etuebinotom and his party. I told my 
Indians of it, at the same time letting them know that none of my 
party should give up their arms, as this was their fixed resolution. 
The Indians all said they would stand by us. However, on our 
arrival, no attemj)t of the kind was made, nor did they ever look 
on me or my party as prisoners — but to the contrary. 

^ Stuteuri^ probablj. 

July Ist— Kothing of consequence, but feasting, dancing, and 

July 3d. — I gave the Indians that camo with me a belt of wam- 
pum, and they called a council ol the Ottawas, and gave them a 
large belt of wampum, and returned them thanks for taking care 
of Capt. ErasBTNOTON and the rest oTthe prisoners. The Ottawas 
gave the Indians that came with me several barrels of powder 
and many other presents, and returned them thanks for bringing 
nie and the garrison down safe. They sent to the Fort for some 
Chippewa Chiefs to come to them. The same [day], the Indians 
that came with me and the Ottawas renewed their old alliance. 

July 4th — The Chippewas arrived and held a council. The La 
Bay Indians took great pains to get the Ottawas to join them, to 
get Capt. ETHERiNaTON re-instated, which they refused, but said 
they would do all in their power to take us to Montreal. The 
La Bay Indians said that if they did not, they would have no 
more to do with them, but would break off former friendship. 
They also spoke to the Chippewas, but could not bring them to 
consent to their proposals. Nothing but councils till the 7th. 

July 7th. — ^Tbc La Bay Indians came and told me that they 
were going to the Fort to speak fur the last time, and make the 
Chippewas lay down their arms to let us pass for Montreal. I 
gave them two large belts. They likewise said, that if the Chip- 
pewas would [not?] consent to their proposal, they would take 
me and my garrison back with them, and take care of us till such 
time as they would [go with] their warriors and open a road them- 
selves. This day they went to the Fort, and took with them most 
of the Iraders that came with them. On thtir arrival, the Indi- 
ans belonging to the Lie Castor tonk one Mr. Lottridge and Mr. 
&oghan ; the former was taken from them by a chief of the Sacs, 
to whom he gave considerable presents ; but the latter was obliged 
to buy himself clear. 

July 8th.— They continu<ed in council till the 11th, in which time 


tbey got all tlie prisoners clear, except mjself, Mr. HsiiBY''^, a tra 
der, and two soldiers ; and the same daj, being the lltb, we all 
arrived, the men, the traders, and most of the Indian women, 
from the Ottawa village. 

July 12th. — The La Baj Indians and the friendly Ottawas in- 
formed ns that the road was -clear to Montreal, and that tliey had 
appointed several Ottawa chiefs and warriors to conrej us there ; 
upon which we and the traders promised thej should be well re- 

July ISth. — About eight or ten of the principal Indians that did 
the mischief, came to Oapt. Ethbbinqtok, and made the following 
speech, viz : That the/ would know if he would shake hands with 
them. Upon being refused, thej said it was not on account of the 
Tawas that they saved Capt Ethbrington and the rest of his garri- 
aon, but on account of the Indians from La Bay with mo, who came 
with their pipes full of tobacco for tbem to smoke ; and if they 
were all under arms and ready to fire upon us, tbey would be obli- 
ged to lay down their arms on account of an old alliance between 
them. They said that though it was the Chippewas that struck, 
it was the Ottawas that began the war at Detroit, and instigated 
them to do the same. They said at the same time, that if the 
Oeneralt would forgive and shake hands with them, they would 
never do the same again. Upon this, Oapt. Etherinoton said, that 
if they expected any mercy, or that he should speak in their fa- 

* Thii was AT.ncA!fDU Hiket, who wm born in New Jenej, in Augnat, 1739. Ho 
aieomfMBied Amb«ibt's Bspodttion in 1760, and was pretent at Ibo roduction of F«rt 
da Leri, and anmndar of MoBtreaL In deaceading the river, he loat three boata of 
morchandixe, and oolj aafod hia UCb bj clinging to the bottom of one of them. Poa- 
■eaiing an enterpriaing apiri^ be aoon after visited the Upper Lakes, and engaged in the 
for trade. He waa captured with Capt Ethuihgton's partj at Mackinaw, and anbsa- 
qnentljr reaamed the ooeupation of a fur trader. He waa the author of an iateraatJog 
work of Travela in Canada and the Indian country, between the jaara 1760 and 1776i 
He died at Montreal, April 4, 1834, aged eightj-foar jeara. He waa a maa of warm 
affections, domeatio habita, and a generous mind. 

t Sir Jeffrej Amherat waa then British Oommaiider-!n-chief in If orth America. 


TOTi they must give up all the prisoners, which was their oiily 
method of getting forgivness. 

July 14th. — ^The La Bay Indians came to me and demanded 
commissions. I gave them eight certificates, which answer the 
same end as commissions. The Chippewas then said, that if tney 
had some ram theywonld go >Qd consult of it. Uaving no 
rum to give them, they went away and said no more to us. Af- 
terwards they went to th3 La Bay Indians, who desired them to 
deliver op all the prisoners, as the only method to get forgivuess. 

July 18th. — Oapt. Ethebingtoi^ made them some small presents, 
and thanked them for their good behavior: and at the request of 
the chieis, Messrs. Bbucs, Fishbb, and Roseboom, a trader from 
Albany, returned with them to^La Bay. The same day, the wind 
being fair, we embarked for Montreal, consisting of forty canoes 
of soldiers, traders and Indiana. Kothiog of conseqaence occur- 
red till we came near the French river, where we met a party of 
Missasaga Indians. The next day, we entered the French river, 
when tlie chiefs called a council, in which it was ordered that 
Capt ETHBBiNaTON,Lieut. LE8Lis,and all the master traders, should 
go in the Indian canoes, and make what haste they could to Mon- 
treal. I was left with all the soldiers and traders' hands to guard 
the peltry. Lieut. Leslie being an elder ofiicer, insisted on stay- 
ing on that command, but an Ottawa chief who had taken him 
from the Chippewas, and adopted him as his son, would not let 
him, as he said he would take him to the General and give him up. 
And they proceeded. After a tedious passage of thirty -two dajs, 
I reached Montreal the 13tli Aug. 1763, with all my garrison. 

I was so much hurried after receiving Capt. ETiiEBiNcrroiir's * 

* Ovpt KTBiuirGTOV, it would appear from Okaydon's Merooirt. waaprobablj a native 
of Dataware, earlj entered the army, and aenred aa drummer and aervi«nt A wealthj 
wif'ow of Newcaatle countj becoming enamored of him, purcbaaed nim a commiaaion. 
After ibe li«a (if bie poat at Micbillimackinac, we 6nd bim atatioued at HbiJadelpbia ; 
and io September 1775. be waa promoted from a Major to a Lieoteoant Colonel in the 
Bixtietbnr Ro%a1 American Regiment, which rank beheld in nSO—bftween which 

•cute intellect, and bad a happy talent at repartee. 


letter the 16tli June, 1763, that I could not put the particulars in 
the margin, as in the former, but was obh'ged to refer the amount 
of the sundry presents given to ihe Indians since the above date, 
t(^he traders' accounts below mentioned, viz: 

Messrs. Moran and Company's accounts, 

" Goddard & Co., 
John Abe all & Co., 

Messrs. Lery & Ezekiel Solomon, i bags corn, 
Henry Bostwick, for corn, 

Total, £1166 2 11 

This exclusiye of 21,800 wampum, not charged in trader's ac- 
counts, being belts received from ^different nations, as pledges of 
their fidelity ; the moat of which necessity obliged me to have 
made over a^i^ain, lest they should be known. • 

Montreal, Aug. 16, 1763. 















VLj first visit to Green Bay was in the fall of 1816. I was con- 
med with Col. Jaheb Thomas in the supply of the troops at De- 
it, Mackinaw, Chicago, Green Bay — prorided, said the contract, 
it a military post should bo established at the latter place with- 
the year. The post at Mackinaw was then under command of 
"evet Col. Talbot Chambers ; but in August, or thereabouts, Ool. 
HN MiLLEB, afterwards Governor of Missouri, arrived, and tak* 
; command, determined on establishing a^ post at Green Bay. 
Vessels were accordingly chartered, and, I think, three compan- 
\ of riflemen and infantry were put on board. I. furnished the 
(juired amount of provisions and they all arrived safe, though 
is was the first instance of merchant vessels navigating the Bay. 
i% leading or most reliable commodore jof the fleet was Capt. 
OBsms of the '-Washington," belonging to Erie, Pa, of hundred 
ns, the largest vessel at that time on the Lakes, though they 
oke of the " Wellington," of one hundred and thirty tons, be- 
Qgiog somewhere in Canada, which had been on the Lakes, but 
and too large or drawing too much water for lake navigation, 
d had then disappeared. Dobbins sounded the whole way up. 
e Bay, and on his return gave the worst account of the naviga- 
»n — all shoals, said he, and rocks, with no barbor, river, or creek 

io put into, or iBland to take shelter under, excepting two at its 

This account was all gammon, as I conjectured at the time, as, 
though not contradicted by the other masters of vessels, it was not 
confirmed by tliem. They were, however, under some kind of 
cow to Dobbins, who besides being in some capacity in the U. S. 
service, was of a lordly, imperious disposition, and commanded 
the finest vessel on the Lakes, and was, moreover, acquainted with 
the fact, that I had further and large supplies to forward. He 
first asked $10 per barrel freight, then $7 — $5 — $3 50, and finally 
closed with my offer of $1 50 per barrel, at which I loaded his 
own and four other vessels of forty and fifty tons each — schooners 
and sloops. This gives you an idea of the price of freights at that 
time, the general rule being $2 per lake for a barrel bulk — that is, 
from Buffalo or Erie (Cleveland not being much known then) to 
Detroit or Maiden, $2 ; to Mackinaw $5, St. Clair Lake being call- 
ed half one. Chicago then had no trading reputation, vessels on- 
ly visiting it to carry troops or provisions to supply them ; and 
these provisions and supplies up to that time, were prindpally 
brought from Pittsburgh, including pork, flour, whiskey, soap, 
candles, vinegar, conveyed by keel-boats no the Alleghany, and 
French Creek, to Le Boeuf, or Waterford, and thence wagoned 
over to Erie. 

At this date, Ohio first began to furnish pork and flour for these 
posts ; both, however, were held as inferior, the hogs being light, 
and the flour dark or yellowish. Michigan farmers then raised 
little or nothing to sell. They were French, settled on so many 
arpents* of land, fronting on Detroit river, and limited back, I 
think, by no defined line ; it never entering their grave heads that 
.any man would locate himself without a river front. Here they 
jaised a few vegetables which they preserved through the winter, 
and some wheat and corn, which they ground by wind mills, still 
to bo seen on the points of land along the Detroit. The town of 

Ad arpcnt is about one-seventh leas than an English acre. 


Detroit was of some bnsineBS importance, but Mackinaw was the 
great emporium of trade of the North American Fur Company, 
at this time embodied in JoiOi Jacob Astos. Here his agents re- 
sided, and from hence were fitting out his trading boats lor the 
various Indian regions, north, east and west. I think in 1816, he 
fitted out two hundred and forty boats, each one containing two 
traders and from four to six hands. The two traders were only for 
this year. Congress having by law forbidden foreiyner^ being 11- 
censed to trade with Indians — all liis traders had hitherto 
been Canadians. Astob was compelled that year to send Uni- 
ted States' citizens, and sent out two hundred young clerks from 
city counting-houses of whom to moke Indian traders. As tbey 
knew nothing of the traps connected with the business, Astob had 
to send his old traders with them as hands. But a single year 
sufficed to make them all first-rate men — the Yankees being al- 
ways at home at a trade, and they easily took up with the traps, 
leaving the Frenchmen to seek other pursuits. 

I did not visit Green Bay until October or November, 1816. 
I found the troops in quarters prepared for tliem by Col. Gratiot, 
the engineer, who accompanied CoI.Millee* to the post, which the 
latter left in command of Gol. Ciiamrbbs, and returned to Macki- 
naw, and afterwards to Detroit, that year, leaving the post at 
Mackinaw in command of Brevet Col. Joim McNeil, brother-in- 
law of the present President Piebcb; at which post Mere also sta- 
tioned at the same time, Capt. B£N.r'x. K. Piebce, and Lieut. John 
Pierce, of the Artillery, boih brothers of President Pieboe. The 
former, now Gen. B. K. Piebce, I believe is still living, and still in 
service — at least he was in 1848, when I had the pleasure to see 
him in this place by receiving a call from him when passing 

* GoL JoBX MiLLKB, the first Americaa officer incommmd at Green Bay, vasa nattre 
of Virg:iai£. He had served with great rcpatation during the warof ldl^-15. After 
his command at Green Bay, he waa appointed register of the public lands in the Howard 
district, Missouri, and was subsequently elected goremor of that State, and for scyeral 
yeaxa a member of congrsw. Hs died near Florisnnt, Mo., March 18lh, 1846. l. c. d. 


The fort at Green Bay, I think called Fobt Howabd, was built 
lower down Fox river, and nearer the lake than anj ot the settle- 
ments, and on the right as yon ascended the river. The settle- 
ment was a promising and a pleasant one, having comfortable 
honses, framed buildings of two stories, with numerous small farms 
under good cultivation, and the land very productive in com, 
wheat, grass, &c So rapid was the vegetation, that it was gravely 
asserted ihat they could hear and see the com growing. 

Col. MiLLEB experienced no difficulty from the Indians in 
establishing his post, though something of tliis had been antici- 
pated from the Winnebagoes, a bold and warlike tribe who lived 
at Lake au Puant, or Stinking Lake — ^now Lake Winnebago— 
some sixty miles up Fox river. None was apprehended from the 
Henomonees or Wild Sice Indians, who resided at the mouth of 
the river. A deputation of the Winnebagoes camo down and re- 
monstrated with OoL MnxEB against what they termed an intru- 
sion ; and inquired why, and for what purpose, he was about to 
establish a fort there ? Milles gave them what he had in expla- 
nation, and that his purpose, though armed for war, was peace. 
The Winnebago Chief then made to him the celebrated remark of 
the Armenian Prince, I think it was, tq Lucurxus, " that if his ob- 
ject was peace, he had brought more with him than was neces- 
sary to treat ; but if his object was war, he had brought too few 
to fight." MiLLEB told him that he had not seen all the force he 
had with him, and invited him down to the river bank, among 
the grass of which he showed* him some ten or twelve large can- 
non lying, which the Indian had not before seen; but upon viewing 
them, he said that Col. Milleb probably had enough to make 
good his right — broke up the conference, and gave no fartlier trou- 
ble. The Winnebagoes seemed to be a different race of people, 
and were so regarded, from the Chippeway, or rather Ojibway, 
of which great family, nearly, if not all, the other tribes in that 
region were branches — their language be'ng totally different, 
having a guttural sound like the German, 

The Menomonees at Green Bay were a small and generally 


peaceable tribe, bat bad, at this time, a very remarkable man as 
their chief— one held in mnch awe by the surrounding Indian 
nations, and in high respect bj the whites. His name was ToiiAH, 
whom I personally knew, and I may say, yenerated. I learned 
from those who were acquainted with his history, many marked 
occurrences of his previous life. He had no hereditary claim to 
the chieftainship. This was held, at the time, by a man nearly as 
old as himself, who was an idiot, but who they always took with 
them in their excursions. ToaiAii merely ruled as the acknowledg- 
ed strongest man of the nation, and this he had continued to do 
lor a groat many years. The Indian tribes around were repre- 
sented to me as all afraid of him, though they mentioned it as a 
singular fact, that he had never engaged in war with any of them 
while in control of the nation. 

An interesting illustration of this I received from several per- 
sons, as occurring upon an interview ho had with Tboitmseh in 
ISIO or 1811, when tliat remarkable man was forming his great com- 
bination for driving the Americans back, who like the waves of the , 
sea, were encroaching upon their hunting grounds.' With this view 
ho visited Green Bay, obtained a council and hearing from Tomah 
and his people, whom he addressed in a manner he best knew how 
to do ; and in the course of which, in true Indian spirit, he pic- 
tured the glory, as well as certainty of success, and as omens of 
this, recapitulated to them hie own hitherto prosperous career — 
the number of battles he had fought, the victories he had won, 
the enemies he had slain, and the scalps he had taken from the 
heads of warrior-foes. Tohah appeared sensible of the influence 
4)f such an address upon his people, and feared its consequence, 
for he was opposed to leading them into war. His reply was in a 
tone to allay this feeling, and he closed with the remark to them, 
that they had heard the words of T£CUMSEn — heard of the battles 
he had fought, the enemies he had slain, and the scalps he had 
taken. Ue then paused ; and while tlie deepest silence reigned 
throughout the audience, he slowly raised his hands, with his eyes 
fixed on them, and in a lower, but not less prouder tone, continued 


'* biU it is my ioast that these hands are unstained with human 
Hood /*' The effect is described as tremendons — ^natare obeyed 
her own iinpnUe, and admiration was forced OTen from those who 
could not, or did not, approve of the moral to be implied, and the 
gravity of the council was disturbed, for an instant, by a murmur 
of approbation — a tribute to genius, overpowering, at the moment, 
the force of education and of habit. He concluded with remark- 
ing, that he had ever supported the policy of peace, as his nation 
was small and consequently weak ; that he was fully aware of the 
injustice of the Americans in their encroachments upon the lands 
of the Indians, and /or them feared its consequences, but that he 
saw no relief for it in going to war, and therefore, as a national 
thing, he would not do so, but that if any of his young men were 
desirous of leaving their hunting grounds, and following TwuacsEH^ 
they had his permissicn to do so. His prudent counsels prevailed. 

I always thought this an odd speech — a veiy remarkable one 
to come from a savage, for such Tohah was by birth and education^ 
but by nature I always thought him one of the grandest speci- 
mens of humanity I had ever seen. I had not met with him at 
Green Bay ; I was only a few days there in 1816, and hurried 
with business, nor did I hear much, if anything, of him, until after 
meeting with him the next year at Mackinaw. Hie first I heard 
of him, was a prescription of his to Col. John Bowteb, the Indian 
agent at Green Bay, for the gout, of which my brother, EifwAsn 
BmDLE, told me, and a very rational one I thought it — ^^to drink no 
whiskey, live on lean meat and wild rice, and scarify his feet.^^ 
This lead me to make inquiries abont him, when I found, that my 
brother had become a warm friend of his — an admirer of him. 

When at Mackinaw, early one morning in the latter part of 
May or early in June, 1817, I had come out of my lodgings, 
and observed approaching mc, one of the many Indians then 
on the Island, and taking a look at him as he emerged from 
the fog, then very heavy, I was struck, as ho passed, in a 
most unusual manner by his singularly imposing presence. I 
had never seen, I thought, so magnificent a man. He was of 


the larger size, perhaps fall six feet, with fine proportions, a little 
stoop-shouldered, and dressed in a somewhat dirty Indian blan- 
ket, and had scarcely noticed me as he passed. I remember it 
as distinctly as if it was yesterday. I watched him until he dis- 
appeared again in the fog, and remember almost giving expression 
to a feeling which seemed irresistably to creep over me, that the 
earth was too mean for such a man, to walk on ! The idea, to be 
sure, was discarded the moment it came up, but existence it had 
at this my first view of Tomah. I had no knowledge at the time 
who he was, or that Tomah was on the Island, but while standing 
there before my door, and under the influence of the feeling I have 
described, Hbnby Gravebat, the Indian interpreter, came up, 
and I enquired of him whether he knew of an Indian who had 
just passed up? He replied yes, that it was Tomah, chief of the 
Menomonee Indians, who witli his people had arrived late the 
evening before, and were encamped at the '^ Point ;" that Tomah 
had just been with him to ask a council with the Indian agent, 
Maj. Wm. H. PunnrFF. The council was held at 10 o'clock, and 
I made it my business to attend. 

To understand what follows, 1 must make a short digression. — 
The British for many years had paid annual contributions, termed 
by them Indian annuities, giving each member of the tribe a suit 
of clothes, consisting of a shirt, leggins, breech-clout, and blan- 
ket — and each family, a copper kettle, knives, axes, guns, amuni- 
tion, &c. For these, each tribe came regularly in the spring or 
fall, either to Mackinaw or Drummond's Island, or the Sault Ste. 
Marie. Tomah was a British Indian. lie had not himself engaged in 
the war, but his feelings were with the British, as were personally 
some of his young men. He had arrived on Mackinaw Island with 
his whole people on their way to Drummond's Island to receive their 
usual annuity, and had stopped at Mackinaw to rest over nights 
There was nothing novel to us inthis,as a number of tribes had pre- 
viously arrived, stopped and had a council, at which they told 
their story, always winding up with professions of love for their 
" Ohemuckim^an Noeah^'* or America/n leather j who, they hoped. 


would open his heart, and give their people some meat to stay 
them on their journey, and his breasts to give them some milk — 
i. e. whiskey — to make them joyful. This was the usual winding 
up of all such councils. "When the council in this instance had 
met, and the proper time oflfered, Tomah arose and stated to Maj. 
Pttthuff, that he had arrived with the Menomonee Nation, the 
night before,on their way to visit their British father,and that having 
stopped on the Island to rest over the night,he had thought it his 
duty to report the fact to his American father. With this simple 
announcementjhe sat down. Puthuff, a little nettled, made a short 
reply, and the council broke up. 

Coming out of the council house, I waited for Maj. Puthuff, 
and remaked to him that Tomah would want some provisions for 
his people, and that I wished he would give mo an order for that 
purpose. "D — n the rascal, why did 'nt he ask for it, then ?" *'I 
suppose," said I, "being a British Indian, he is too proud." "Well, 
let him starve, then." "If all are to starj^e who are proud, God 
help many that I know of. Major." I had no diflSculty in pro- 
vailing in the matter, as government had made provision for such 
issues to Indians, and Geaveeat and I made out an estimate 
proper under the circumstances to give, and Tomah and his people 
continued their voyage. 

In a few days he and they returned, dejected and disconsolate. 
A change had come over the spirit of British policy. They had 
just come out of a long and exhausting dance led them by Napo- 
leon, and were counting the cost. They had been casting around 
to find where surest and readiest to cut off drains upon tlieir trea- 
sury, and judging that they had no further need of Indian servi- 
ces, lopped off the whole list of Indian annuities. This was al- 
ready known at Mackinaw, and had been told to Tomah upon his 
first arrival, but he would not, or did not, believe it. He found it, 
however, too true. Tliere were no annuities there for him, or for 
any other tribes, many of whom were there ; and it was anticipa- 
ted at one time, that they would rise upon the British force there, 
..and take what they could get. But this was not attenjpted. 


My brother Edward, then and now at Mackinaw, had been 
well acquainted with Touah at Green Bay, and inamediately after 
bis return to the Island, he came into the store, spoke a few words 
to my brother, and left. I had seen the interview, and watched 
the result, without makiug any enquiry, for I saw that my brother, 
who greatly loved Tohah, was imbued with all bis melancholy. 
In a few moments a young Indian came in with a three gallon keg, 
which my brother bade the young man in the store to fill with 
whiskey, which was charged on the books to Tomah. I was look- 
ing over the books but a few years ago, and saw the entry on the 
ledger, which brought with it a train of wild and melancholy 
thoughts. This insult from the British authorities, as he took it, 
was more than his proud heart could bear. For himself he might 
have borne up against it, but for his people, and in the sight of 
those whose good ofhces he had refused to ask, he could or would 
not. Tlio keg was brought to him in bis tent, from which he 
drank alone, and to an cxce&?, that relieved him the third day of 
pride, grief, joy and care. He was buried on tlie Island. I was 
present at his funeral, and witnessed his daughter, a young girl of 
nineteen or twenty, as she mournfully sang his death song at the 
head of the coffin, just before lowering into the grave all that was 
murtal of Tomau. I never saw so distressed and broken-hearted a 
people. They ftiid they were no longer a nation — no longer any 
thing. ToMAH could alone command and keep tfaem together, but 
now they would be scattered and lost. "We made a collection, 
and bought them provisions which carried them home, where they 
organized under some other chief, until driven from their old 
hunting-grounds by you land-grasping WiscouFiners !* 

* Of Tomau, or Tbomaw, or Toomab Caerox, we hare found but little in print. 
Ht aeems to have ^bcen the great Indian clieiftain of the Wiaeontin tribes ; our Philip 
of PoKANOEKT — ouF PosTTiAO — our Tecgmsih; Dotso Well known, to^besure, and fig^rin^; 
on a amoller theatre, but exhibiting traits of character none the leit noble — ^none the leas 
extorting our admiration. CoL Djc Pit3T£E, in hia 'rare work pre?ioualj alluded 
to, thussj>oke of him in 1779; 

" While none on earth liro more at ease. 
Than Caronff*$ brave Menominces ;" 


The settlement at Green Bay in 1816, as I have remarked, was a 
very clever one. They had comfortable honses and good farms. 
It was composed mainly of old engagers — Canadian boatmeD, 
who had withdrawn from the employment of the fur companies, 
and fixed themselves down on a piece of land fronting on th 
rivevy and married to whole or half-breed Indian women.* The 
custom I found prevailing here was somewhat unique of its kind, 
as a leading feature of the community, though something of the 
kind still exists at New Orleans among a distinct class. Y on Wis- 
consiners may smile, or grin, or scowl at it, but you cannot alter 
the facts as I found them at that time. The young people there 
were generally a cross between the French Canadian and In- 
dian, and marriage between girls of this class and the white men 
arriving, was of a conventional or business kind,to suit the conve- 
nience of the case, the residence of the men not being prmanent, 
or intending to be so. Marriage, therefore, was limited as to 
time, and was contracted either for lile, or for six, or twelve 
months, as the case might be — with the white men arriving, it as 
generally of the latter kind. The lover having made choice of a girl, 
applied to her parents, with whom he entered into a limited mar- 
riage contract^ — specifying the amount to be paid them for depriva* 
tion of her services — the amount to be paid her in hand for her 
own benefit, and the amount per week for her boarding and rent 

and added, that he was "a rerj clever feUow, ehief of the Dation of Menommeea — tht 
handsomest roan among the Indians." 

Dr. MoRBE, in his Tour among the Indians, in 1820, speaks of him as "the celebrated 
Tbomaw, who died, and was buried, at Mackinaw, and over his grave Ifr. John Law of 
Green Baj, erected a monument with the following inscription : 

''Here rests the bod j of Thomas OAsaoir, Grand Chief of the Folle Aroine ( Menoni* 
nee) nation, who departed this life July 8th, 1818, aged 56 years, regretted by all who 
knew him.'* This date makes his death occur a year later than Mr. Biddle, who thinks 
he cannot be mistaken ; and Tomah mast hsTe been fully ten years older than the age 
upon this monument represents, judging from the fact of his being a prominent chief as 
early as 1779. His son Mau-oau-tau-bbb, or Cabbox, of whom Dr. Mobsb spoke aa a 
modest, sensible man, is one^of the present chiefs of the Menomonees, and has so bean 
eyer since his father's death, and has attained tJbo age of fifty-five years.^ 

L. 0. D. 


of a room in the hoase, if to remain in the dwelling of lier pa- 
rents. These payments were generally maae in provisions, clo- 
thing, &c. 

In case the lover or husband removed from the place before the 
expiration of the time agreed on, he had the right — as in the case 
of the engager — to transfer his marital claim thus acquired, to an- 
other; so that during the term of the stipulated coverture, the 
girl might find herself the wife of two or more husbands. I knew 
of several marriages of this kind during the few weeks I was at 

the Bay in 1816 and '17. I could state that of Capt. , of 

the U. S. Army, but I decline any reminiscence of names. I was 
so far intelligent of this, as to be called upon by the Captain, an 
old acquaintance, to heal some breach between him and his thus ac- 
quired wife— for the reason that I could speak some French, which 
he oould not. She was in high tantremSj he said, about something 
which he could not understand. He wanted that I should go with 
him to ascertain what oould be the matter. Of course I went, 
and found the fair dame sulky and sullen, but with an eye flashing 
high anger. I easily got the truth from her. Her jealousy had 
been excited or roused by some tale-bearer. I gave her the ex- 
planations and details he tendered, with promises of caution and 
good conduct ior the future ; and having restored peace between 
man and wife, I went merrily home. The contracts entered into 
in this manner were regarded by them as sa!cred, and no evidences 
were adduced or known of infidelity on the part of the women, 
and were consequently highly resented if occurring on the part of 
the spouse. 

The Bay was unblessed at this time with any thing in the nature 
or calling of a priest, but it did rejoice in the possession of a 
magistrate, who had enjoyed the office of judge time without 
memory of when it began ; and long had all the business of the 
colony been regulated and kept in order by the awe-inspiring 
authority and portly person of Judge Beaumb. No person there 
could tell when hia official duties first devolved upon him, nor 
from whence his authority was derived. It was sufficient to ob- 


tain obedience, that it existed, and no one disputed his authority^ 
or appealed from his decision, for, in trnth, there was no po\w 
above him. Before him all complaints were brought, and all 
wrongs redressed, and marriages celebrated — for doing which he 
had fixed fees. In the case of marriage, of which it was disco?- 
ered he kept some kindof record, if you remained in cohabitatica 
beyond the stipulated time, he would send for you ; hare you to 
renew the engagement, or punish you by fine for contumacy or 
neglect — thus securing a new fee for his own pocket, and enforcing 
a proper respect for the laws and customs of the country. While 
I was there, a vagabond French desperado was arrested for an act 
of violence to a half Indian girl. The case was rather broadly 
made out against him, which excited the ire of the good Judge to 
such a degree, that he sentenced the fellow to buy the girl a new 
frock— it having been proven that her own had been torn in the 
scuflie, and to work one week in his, the Judge's, garden ! 

It was reported, but I know not with what truth, that his libra- 
ry was enriched with two odd volumes of Blackstone, but whether | 
in French or English I did not learn. A gentleman, a friend of 
mine, had a dispute with a troublesome fellow about some trifle, 
and upon whose application, Rbaume sent my friend a summons- 
instead of paper with name and seal, the constable exhibited the 
well-known large jach'h%ife of the Judge, which had long been 
made to serve that purpose. On the day of appearance, defendant 
broke ground for The Judge's, and stopping at a store on the way, 
bouglit some cheap article. On approaching the office, he found 
the Judge at the door, who exclaimed to him in broken English, 
"You may go away — go away; I has given judgment against 
ye." '• Good morning, Judge." " Good morning ; I has given 
judgment against ye." " Coming along by Burgan's store, I saw 
this small cofi'ee-pot hanging out, and I bought it to present to 
you. Judge ; will you do me the pleasure to accept it?" '^ O — yes, 
tank ye — tank yo kindly — very much 'bliged to ye." " Judge, I 
don't owe that fellow any thing." " You don't ?" " No, I have 
really overpaid liim." "The rascal ; I reverses my judgment, and 
he aliall pay de costs." 


Now it must not be imagined from this, that Judge Bkaumb 
18 a bad man. He was the reverse of this, but followed the 
nper of the times, and bowed to the current of the country's 
stoma, rather than undertake the labor of changing or rising 
ove them. Hie quiet acquiescence of the people to his autho- 
J for so long a time, and the sufferance of his rule and sway 
ider British and American supremacy — aod possibly under 
'ench, too— for he may not have surrendered until long after 
ontcalm and Oomwallis did, is an argument at least in favor of 
e mildness of his administration. Nor was he deficient in Intel- 
;ence, and pbssessed mudi of the natural j)oiitene8s of the bet- 
r class of rural French.* The most considerable man bow- 
er, in the settlement, the one of most intelligence and enter- 
ise — the substantial one of the colony, was John Law, who oc- 
pied a fine farm on tlie left bank of Fox river as you ascend, 
lich he afterwards sold to JonK Jacob Astos, and which now, I 
ink, forms a part of the town of Green Bay. 

Tliere is, or was, a natural phenomenon at Green Bay, which I 
,ve before made public notice of, and repeat here ; I mean a re- 

' Judge CiTAmtn Riactxi was probably m natire of Detroit—at least, in ITH, there 
s a promineDt resideiit of Detroit, named Pinai Reavum ; and in 1778, CHAaLia 
\Afauz, WIS a captain in the British Indian Department, at Detroit, and accompanied 
•T. HiMikTOX in his expedition against Vincennss in December of that jear, and 
len the American Col. OaoaGX RoGcas Clabk recaptured that place in Febmary, 
79, Capt Reauvx was among the prisoners, who taking the oam of neutralitj, was 
rmilted te retam to Detroit Gen. Clabk's ^fS, Paperu, in the writer's possession, 
ore this fiut From Moasx's Indian Report, it appean that Capt. Rcaume settled at 
reen Baj in 1790, and probably derived his early comroimioQ of Judge from the 
ritiah anthorities at Detroit ; and anticipating perhaps, the early transfer of Detroit to 
e Amsrican goTomment, may hare had something to do in hastening his departure, 
'hen Brown county, in which the Green Bay settlement was and is still situated, was 
{aniaed under the authority of Michigan Territory, in 1818, Judge Rxaume was ap- 
inted by Oov. C.\ss an Associate Justice, and Justice of the Peace ; in July, 1834, 
other filled hia place on the bench— hence it would appear, that he died sometime be- 
eea 1618 and 1834. 

L. C. D. 


pUMT ebb Mnd fioT js of a tide, in the wMtezs of Fox rlrer.* I 
i^^AlrA it eTerr dar f-^r aV-at te- daT§ ±at I 5*a:-1 -cLerc in IS 17. 
T-fe rlie aad f%u was. I uii::k, rarel^e to eigiteei: iacles, and oc- 
cult? e-i regnlATj at L--e same hours eTerr daj — ^being greater or 
Ie« ir. :t» rise and &!! as tLe innd was up or down the Bar. I 
p *:/.-rLed a Lodce of tLi* iz the P-ttsbTargi Gazete in 151S-'19, 
v:.;^:. was copied into Tar:':*!:s paper?, and cazne under the notice 
cf J-*i2e W/:*>LWAK>. of Detrc'it, a ^ntleman of mncb learning 
aid t^rienee. wLo risited Green Bav and e3casi:ned into it, and« in 
a pub!L»Led report, c*.fn£rmed tbe existence of ie ebb and flow 
ae I Lad f^nnd and described ft. 

Xow. don't set me down as deMng behind CHAiK^rBRiAXD. — 
Po-or Chatiacbbiasd had been landed on the wild shore in Cana- 
da from a boat on Lake Ontario, and ran into the woods to enjoy 
t:-e luznrv of :he wild, unstinted freedom of Xatcre in all her 
elorv of forest and nowers: and in the ecstaev of exc::ement, he 
W2£ huggirjg t};e trees, ho tells ns, when he heard a load and 
rziriW.iL'^ r^jSLTj *.vh:ca alarmed and brought his mind back to earth 
fro;r. elj-i^m, and caased him to run to his comrades in the boat to 
see was the matter. The alarm, he laid, had been caoselese : 
It wa* or*hj ttu; tid'i cominff in ' This is not worse than Crtiver 
Goldsmith, good honest fellow as he was, who, in an old and hon- 
ored school !x^^k, gave a verv £iir, trae and faithful description of 
Nijfirara Fal.s — the {perpendicular height and vastness of the col- 
umn precipitated ; and then, after writing all this, and seeing what 
he ha^l written, qnietlf and calmlv remarked, that notwithstanding 
the height of the fall, and the power of the current, Indians had 
been kriowu to pass down it in their canoes in safety ! I well re- 

* A:i ahift Article upon tie ti'ien of tLe Xorth American Likes, wriitcn hj ike Imte 
CoL ilEVLT Whitisg, of the L'. 8. Xrvnr, mar be found in SiHimanU Journal^ and also 
ifi HiMoruxd end iitUrUijU: JyktUhgt of Michigan . CoL Whitisg argues that there is no 
mttt»ih\t Inijar tkin on tbe Lakes, and Miustainedin this opinion br Gen. Cass and Hix- 
Ef li. .S'.fi'/oLcaArr, Kat^.: tbmt there are probablr planctanr iufluences operating on the 
lak<; vat'.'ni, tut that the cht^n^-. in tbelerel of the Traters are mainW produced by at, 
nj'AHpheric phfr-ornens. 

L. c. r. 


lember reading it in my own old school book, fifty years ago, and 
f beiDg bothered about it ; but that passage about the canoes has 
een dropped in all the later editions. 

The fowl-game at Green Bay were the duck and prairie hen — 
•oth abundant. The ducks used to rise like large dark clouds, 
ubsisting probably on the wild rice growing near the head of the 
Jay, I wonder, by-the-by, if it grows there still I The Indian 
romen used to make a favorite dish of wild rice, corn and fish, 
tolled together, and called Taasimanonny. I remember it to this 
lay as an object of early love. 

i'ittsburgh, Pa«, Jan., 1854. 
Co Lyman C. Draper, Esq. 

jlppbnddc no. 5. 


IN 1832. 


In the Spring of 1882, vessels were unable to reach the Upper 
Lakes until the first week in May. We were detained at Macki- 
naw a few hours, and were landed at Green Baj about the 15th 
of that month. The weather was cold and boisterous, which 
rendered the delay at Mackinaw agreeable, enabling the captain 
to lay in a supply of trout, and tho^e who by reason of sea sick- 
ness had found the stomach a very uncomfortable place, to settle 
that organ, and treat it to a little food. Hero we found the garri- 
son and the inhabitants in a state of the most pleasurable excite- 
ment. Our vessel and another in company were the first of the 
season. The ice had left that part of the Lake long since, yet no 
sail had made its appearance in these waters till to-day. Daring 
the winter, residents upon the Island are in a state of complete sep- 
aration from the rest of the world. The postmaster at Detroit wa& 
authorized to procure'a foot-mail once a month, after tlie swamps 
and rivers were sufficiently frozen, and a Frenchman sometimes 
succeeded in taking a letter-bag through the wilderness, but pa- 
pers and pamphlets directed to this quarter spent the winter in 


Ihe first vessel therefoi^ brought op the arrears of news, and 
jHTodacod those who had escaped im the fisU to enjoy life and ci« 
vilusatum in the cities. It opened a passage for 1|he trader wha 
Icnr half a year had looked out upon snow and ice, to flee to the 
scenial soath,prom{sed a renewed emomnnication with friends and' 
kindred, when he who had enjoyed only the range of a barren' 
Island, could strike across the Lakes and the States to the Sea, min* 
gling with old comrades and new friends. When transplanted 
from the contact of the gleeful Oanadian and the boisterous Indi* 
an, he could taste the sweeto of refinement, and partake of the deli* 
cions and chastening society of accomplished women. 

Bneh had been the delay of onr arrival that the anxiety of these 
exiles had become intense. All had partaken of the expecta* 
tioc, from the officer to the voyageur, and from morning till 
night they lingered in little knots upon the heights about old 
Fort Holmes, straining their eyes to catch the first glimpse of 
the 'first topsail on the dear line of the horizon. A dim spedr, 
the canoe of the Indian, a floating log, a fragment of ice, or 
even a fleeting ware, by force of imagination and hope, right- 
ed up into a mast-head and colors peeping across the convexity 
of the watery Burfaoe. 

At Irag^ a ship makes its appearance, and under full press of 
sail rounds the Islatd of Bois Blaac, and stands in for the anchor^ 
agis. The passengers from its deck may see a commotion among 
the people on the brow of the hill, the swinging of hats, and the war- 
ing :of handkerchiefs. But he cannot hear the acclamations, the 
itopBt frantic shouts of the IslaHdefs. 

.The striped hamper ascends the flag-staff of the fortress, while 
the American flag greets its fellow in the wavings of the breeze 
at.t^e main peak, and the heaviest gun upon the works awaking 
from a winter's slumber, sends its heavy tones along the shore.— 
As the first boat grazes the pebbled beach, a congregation has 
clustered arpund the spot Then follows the hearty gripe, the 
soul-felt recognition, and the silent, yet deep congratulations to 
which every organ except the eye refuses utterance, 

The individoAl who had seen Macldsftw lor aceord*ng to Noah 
Webster, Michillimaekiiuicki ms esrlr as ld32. bad been to tli6 
verge of civilizatioii, and was expected to prodoce a descriptMm in 
detail. Bj the rapid enlargement of American oecnpation, it has 
now ceased to be a point of great interest, and will soon attraet at- 
tenti<m m\j for the .historical reminiscences that attach to the 
name. Alwajs the resting place of the Indian wandering from em 
ITorthem Sea to another, his camp-fire was seldom extinguished 
npon its shore. 

Abont 1650, the conntrrmen of Father Hennepin and La Salle 
came along to dicker for furs, mingling the gibberish of the French- 
man with thegutterals of the native. Then the Englishman located 
himself there, with a half civil, and half military possession nn* 
der the treaty of 1763. By die Revolution, the Americans ac- 
quired title, and in 179^1 obtained poasesaioii of the iBlaad.** 
The military occupied the old Kitish fort, named SCohnes by the 
Americans, in the rear of the present stockade, until 181S, when 
it fell by surprise into the hands of the English. The issae of the 
war made it again American ground, and since 1S19 a small gar- 
rison has been in occnpation, being the center ot far tradingope- 
rations in the North- West till within twovears-t It waa theneu- 
tral ground of the Indian who came from beyond the Mississippi to 
get goods, presents and whiskey, and the harvest ground of the 
white man who took his furs, for a penny, and sold them to Ua 
brother or sister for a pound. 

But the red man is no longer congregated here, and the white 
man has gone after him to ^' Fond du Lac,'' at the extreme of Lake 
Superior. The garrison is therefore unnecessary, the missionary de- 
serted by his flock removed to '* He Point," everything points to 
the speedy decline, if not the abandonment of this wild spot. Tho 

* Th« Biitiih acqaired poneHioQ of Maekiaav in 1761, bj the anmendtr of Ouiftds 
and itBdependeodes; and Detroit and Mackinaw were detained as Briiiah posta nntU 
1796, when tbej were delivered to the American goTemment under the proviaionaof 
Jay'f TfBBty.— L. 0. D. 

^Thatiatonj,tilllS86,fiBrtlili jMparwtswiittmbjOol. 1fBiiTLBasT,in 1838. 


Island is limited in extent, rocky and steep, tlie main liand adjacent 
rough and monntainous, but in summer a most delightful residence. 

My passage through Wisconsin resulted from employ meat which 
detained me at Green Bay till September. J^ot haying contem- 
plated a description of any thing which transpired, or which I saw 
in that regioDi the present obseryations are mere gleanings of me< 
xnory, unassisted by a single note, date or memorandum. They 
will be impressions rather than facts, the remains of marked inci* 
dents and events not yet obliterated by subsequent affairs. 

Our schooner entered the Bay during the night, nearing the 
mouth of Fox river, where the settlement is, before morning ^ 
Emerging from the companion-way about sun-rise, we found oorh 
solves midway from each shore, distant five or six miles, the land 
sloping on either hand towards the water. During the progress of 
the voyage no signs of vegetation were apparent, and the unbud- 
ded trees along Lakes Huron and Michigan still retained the bleak- 
ness of winter. The direct rays of the sun illuminated the west- 
ern shore, leaving the dark shadows of morning still resting upon' 
the east. Judge of our surprise and pleasure, when at the first 
glance, we saw the forests of both shores clothed with young leaves, 
rich in tlie velvet green of spring. We had left; the realms of 
rough winds and floating ice, and were transferred in one night to 
calm and clear waters, and the gentle fanniugs of a southern breeze. 
Our latitude was higher than the lowest part of Lake Huron, yet 
the season was more than two weeks in advance of that spot. 
Whether the original discoverers came into this place under like 
circumstances and gave it a name accordingly, I am not informed, 
bat the propriety of its title will strike every one who does* 

The garrison is situated on the west side of Fox river, about one 
mile from its mouth. The old settlement occupies both sides of 
the river for about eight miles. Opposite to Fort Howard the 
town of Navarino had been built on paper, and some good hooseB 
were actually completed. The old village of " Shanty Town," 
otherwise ^' Menominee," already showed symptoms of a decline, 
being two miles further up the river. Around the head of the 


£aj, tLe Imz^ is a ^e: pr&irle a=.d sarsZu with Iisg gnss, fiumiah- 
ing Tngfktf^f4< izi fse^Tv^ef^Ie niucben. B^ die land on the 
east of iLe Bar nses gTacaaZr frr>si the varer £ lerel, coTered 
YhL scattcnzig c«b acd occasional th^drKs of low tim- 
ber. It is a TlnesiTue region, «spp>rting a good toil, which bean 
in man J places the marks of ancient cnkfrati^n. In the direction 
of Dock Creek there is some pcor land. Bst receding from the 
rirer and the Bar on all sides, there will be ibnnd a fine agiicul- 
toial eoantrj. The bottozi lands are occnpied br descendants of 
the French, who were here abc*i:t a centnrr and a half ago. Their 
feeatioos ar^; n the French strle, narrow npon the riTer, and ran- 
nbg back great distances. Bejond these daims, most of the 
eonnliy lies in a state of natore. 

He Kenominee Indians Lad but lately held the title to most of 
it, ir>r a drcnit of sixtj miles, raising a few patches of miserable 
com, on the low grounds. About eight miles soath-wes^ a partj 
of Stockbridge * Indians had been located bj goTernment, and 
were in the coltiTation of lands as a civilized commnnitj. At 
tiie Great Eakalin, aboot twenty miles np the Fox rirer, a mis- 
sionary establishment soccceded in bringing many of the Me- 
nominees to clear land, boild comfortable cabins, and practice the 
art of hosbandry. Some halt-breeds occauonally preferred a hut 
to a wigwam, and raised a little com, and a few potatoes. With 
these ezcepti<»is, this interesting tribe existed in a state of worse 

* Of mhm thmftj Oneidai. Bat. Zlmxm WiUinii% with a d^mtatiom of tbe 
OiMidaiia fint TuHrd tbe Gre^n Baj region witli a riew to finding a new honi«, in tlie 
•oniMr of 1890. Rcportisg fiTorablj, in Angost IB21, Williams again repaired to 
Qntn Jkj, UnMilf aa the deput j of the St. Begia Indlaiia, aooompaniad hj a delaga 
tiaa of OnaidaiJBtDckbridgea, Onondagof% Seoaca^ aad Monaeae, who aaada a treaty with 
tha M ai io in o o aae and Winnebagaas^ and porchaaed a oonndflnbla territoi7 from tham. — 
la Septeabar, 1822, this tarritonr was largalj increaaad bj an additional purdiaae 
Tha7*^ Torit Indlaos emigrated fiom time to time im banda, and aettlad on their por* 
Aaae. Tha writer of thia note, well ramambeia aaeing a party of Onaidia paMlog 
ihaoog^ hoekpori, K. T., on canal boata» on their way to Oiasn Bay in 1836 or 1897* 
and among tham were lome rery pretty, wdU beharad femalai^ dremad in the ooetome 
pf tha uliitaa l. c. d. 


than savage wretchedneBS. Thej are Datnrallj a good natoredf 
people^ and less ferocious than their Northern brethren. The In- 
dian thirst for fire-water, however, reigned with them, even be- 
jond the nsiial limit of aboriginal desire. As a consequencei 
murders were of common occurrence, and when committed beyond 
the reach or knowledge ot American authorities, were not scrnpu- 
lonaly noticed. 

In person, they are of a thick-set frame, less tall, and in better 
condition than most Indians, and at least equally indolent. The 
thief is not so common a character with them, as widi many other 
tribes. Tlieir attachment to the United States, has not been ex- 
ceeded by any Indian people. But the gratification of a never 
satisfied craving for whiskey, has debased them to the lowest point 
of human degradation. Osokosh was at this time hereditary chief, 
and about twenty-one years of age.* He was a young chief, of 
strong sense, a murderer of one of his tribe, and a lover of strong 
drink. In council, he withheld his speech till late in the debate, 
but spoke with firmness and effect The Gbizzlt BsABf is well 
known as the orator of the the nation. He had a commanding 
manner in speech, but his talk exhibited more of the energetie 
declaimer than tlie speaker. There was in his character little to 
admire, being a great drunkard. His wife lay at night in the wig- 
wam asleep, when he came in, ferocious, and overcome by liquor, 
and made a pass at her head with his tomahawk. The hatchet 
grazed the side of her head, through the unsteadiness of his aim, 
and sank into the earth. This was not occasioned by any quarrel 

* OtBxosB was much older. In ICarch 18S5, he reprMentod himself to be lixtj ^ein 
of ege, end tboee who know him sej, that he appeari to be abont that age. Hia name 
•ad that of Joesm CAaaoir are attached to the treaty of Butte dee Mort8» in Auguet, 
18Sn, Oehkoah aigaifies braTe. The ages ;of other Menomonee chiefa at this time, 
March, 165 S, are — SovLioxr, Head War Chief, 70 ; Carbok, 55 ; Na-Moltx, 42 ; Osh- 
XXB-HB*2f AW-HiiWy or the T<mng Man, 49 ; As-kx-ho-to-wat, 37 ; Sbov-ni-on, or 
BUver, 38 ; OAS-A-aAS-o-i-OAT, 45. See Milwaukee SetUinel, March 8, 1855. l c. d. 

t KAvaK-K4u-H0-XArrs, or Oriuiy Bmr, signed the treaties of 1831 and 183S, bat not 
that at Oedar Point in 1836— and hence was not probablj then liviog. l. c. d. 

* m 

w noLMt tgfciiiE Ler. ii-i '^^ iL:^ -to zizn rcjiCAicd- Hie taking 
of 13t iL ti-Lt ▼sjj i * f'i-Trrr :#:«zrrfcr.5r. refiL'TTTig from aa in- 
^fro.-: L>x^-iLI:s:i&e». rta&ed zslw* &ra:c. r*T cxoesKre drink. 

Ax ^ fiiiueT TovL* nicrc iraf ss EpdsecfpiLi ITmbwi Tciy ably 

owidnffftd bj Ser. Mr. C . Ibe penned of cBfoffciBg eivi* 

lincm vaa eenaizLSj dia»7:2mf3tg; ud izi cxuB&atkn of fte 
«5*c#ol- •2i'y::gL i: exlfi i:ei -^.t li^es: j rx-& of lie pcnsTenuwe, 
uiC ':Hs«frT'jue:*ee, cf :a oaLdkdCTs. Left z^o rcac*m to doubt the en* 
t^ fiLS'SJt 1=5 k ft'jLesaf: &:• dear to Ar-.ericaa p> Hamhrppiata, It 
jii A'^t i^eoefttrr t:^ detenr.inK vbciher tie Indian is. br a role of 
L(aT«£, dfaarli^ed v^ rejt^e: forerer tie b:esr>gs of education and 
agncTsInu^, but :i seeiriE plain iLa: lief:*re he viH secure them, his 
pittbelit feeling znzifii ::L£d€rgC' a radical change. If it arose from a 
SEMfre vaDt of ^l/Lirr. or simple isdi^erence, a hope of ultimate 
enec^MS m:gLt be iLdcJged. The conditioz: of his intellect is sound, 
bnt the :i« of Lis miLd is adverse. There is an affected 
etnp;djtTy an obstinate resistance, in relation to the reception of 
all leamin]^; an iLnate distaste to all mental ^plicatkn, which 
henneticallj teals up the ta]ent of the race. If by any fortune, 
ihej bad fallen prifoners into the hands of the ancient nationSi as 
the spoils of con^^uest, and their native indolence had been oyer- 
come bj servitcde and the lash, as with the Helots of Greece, i 
few generations would have resulted in an amalgamation of blood, 
an exaltation of character, and the heroes, the orators, and the 
admirals, of the subduing nation, would have borne the'mizturein 
their veins. Perhaps tlje same result would not follow a course 
eqaallj rigorous and unjust, if adopted between the American 
and the Indian. But an entire revolution is to take place in the 
tendency of their present career, if, a century hence, the only 
liTing monuments of the red race, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
shall not >>e the half-breed and his descendants. 

As has been observed, the original white settlers of the valley 
of the Fox river were French. In point of refinement and enter- 
prise, they were advanced a degree above the aborigines with 



whom they intermarriecL Thoy are a yery brisk, lirelj people, 
who dance, sing, drink, and nm horaee, in winter drawing a mea- 
gre saBtenanoe from the aoil and the far trade. There are now, 
however, some very respectable and edneated persone in that vi- 
oinity, of Indian and French parentage. 

]>uring thi0 spring, the '^British Band" of the Sacs and Foxes 
retomed to tbeir grounds on Bock Biver, in Illinois, which gave 
rise to a border war. The eircamstances of this affair have been 
so variously stated, that it is difficult to come at the truth. An 
important matter, to be settled on the part of the United States, 
by the expedition, was at that time considered to be, the punisk- 
ment for murders committed at Fort SnelUng the fUl previous, by 
a party of Sanka and Foxes upon a body of Menominees. The 
assailants, ancient enemies of the Menominees, came up the river 
silently during the night, and sprang upon the lodges so secretly 
that the sentinels of the fort, though within cannon range, had no 
notice of their approach till the butchery began. It was near day 
light in the morning, and the offending party escaped before a 
force could reach the spot The Menominees were faithful friends 
of the United States, and considered themselves under their pro- 
tection. Justice required the interposition of our government to 
punish the murderers, and good policy demanded that these two 
Indian tribes, full of the bitterest enmity, should not be suffered 
to wage war among our frontier settlements. The Menominees were 
restrained in executing their vengeance, and promised that the 
murderers should be obtained, and tried. The Sauks refused to 
deliver them up, a measure which of itself would probably have 
led. to a conflict if persisted in. 

' In the meantime, the return of Black Hawk took place, and 
the Illinois militia made an attack upon him at the Sycamore 
Creek. The defeat of the whites at this place encouraged the In- 
dians and exasparoted the frontiersmen, putting an end to all hopes 
of an amicable arrangment. If this rash affair had not happenedj 
there is very little doubt but a reconciliation might have been ef- 
fected. Black Hawx was opposed to war. He bad seen the pow* 


er of tbe whites, Imt his joangmenliad not. He was over^raled bj 
&ea], saBtained as they were by Nabfopb the Head Chief, and the 
Fjbophst,* who was a half-breed^Pottawatamie priest oi great in- 
flnence. Bat when pnt at the head of their f oroes'as the first War 
Chief of the nation,he determined to make the most of oircnmstan* 
eeSi and when General Atkotsok sent him a talk, urging him to • 
yield without bloodshed, and stating '^that his^troops wonld aweep 
over ihem like the fire ofer the prairies," the old chief reffdied 
<*that he would find the grass green, and not easily burned." 

When the Sauks and Foxes had retreated as far up Bock rlyer 
aa Lake Koshkonong, the settlement al Gh*een^ Bay began to 
feel apprehensions. The picketing of Fort Howard had become 
rotten, and much of it was removed. There werej^but two compa- 
nies in the garrison, one of which left for Fort Winnebago abost 

Preparations were made for receiving^the citizens and their 
property within the stockade,^having been patched out, by hori- 
zontal timbers, aci'oss the curtains. There was very little cause^ 
however, for alarni, surrounded as we were by Menbminees, who 
could muster a respectable band of warriors, and only^waited for 
permission to do so. But the^settlement was keptjn a state of 
anxiety, during most of the summer, by &lse news, business^'and 
travel being in a measure suspended. 

During this year, no 8team][boat ^came to the Bay, and resseb 

*At this ptge is going through Uia pre«, the Doble portnutsof Black Havs». hit 8oir, 
and the Pkopbiti painted bj Robert M. Svllt, haye aafelj arrired, and been plaoad in 
tbe roomt of tbe Stats Historical SoaxTT. ^Tboae of KA-raa-A-KUSK, or Loud Tbuv- 
nsR, BOD of Black Hawk, and WA-7X-8Hs-KA,or Tbx Liobt Clovd, better known aa 
tbe Profbet, are originalfl^ taken from life, in Majr 1833, at Fortreae Monroe, Old Poiat 
Comfort^ Va.; and tbat of Hak-ka-tai-mxh-sbi-ka-ka, or Black Hawk, is a copj from 
tbe oHginal taken at tbe aame time — tbe eop^ being deemed, in tone and execution, supe- 
rior to tbe original. Tbe oonntenanoe of tbe Pbopbxt indieatee a malignant laar, 
wbieb, witb bis dark maasire kcka, is in perfect keeping wiUi bia cbaraoter ; wbilo old 
Black Hawk ezbibiie a noble, benevolent, intellectnal pbjsiognomj, so well befitting^ 
one of N ATuaxs Noblkm a.t. Tbera ia notbbg particularly /emarkable in tbe appearanc* 
of Blaos Hawk bis Son. 


reached there but Beldon. The troops tinder General Soott, who 
were expected to enter the conntry through this point, engaged 
moit of the Upper Lake craft, and instead of proceeding by way 
of thlB Fox river, landed at Chicago. Under these circnmstancei 
time passed- slowly. 

About the first of September, after procuring horses and equip 
xnentSi a stock of. provisions, blankets^ co£Eee, and liquor, a com* 
pany of four took their departure for the Portage. The road since 
constructed between Forts Howard and Winnebago, not being 
then laid out, our route lay along the Fox river. The station we 
had just left, though sufficiently endowed by nature, had nothing 
in its then condition to cause regret on leaving it Had the contra- 
ry been the case, the pleasant scenery of the river and the singular 
mixture of civilization and barbarism exhibited by the few peo^ 
pie we saw ; the unusual combination of valley and hill, of prairie 
and woodland, that distinguished the country, would have banish* 
ed all regret During the second day, we passed some most 
lovely situations on the banks of the river. The most romantic 
boarding-school miss never imagined a more enchanting display 
of nature. The country was elevated into rolling meadows fifty 
or sixty feet from tlie bed of the stream, and covered with scat- 
tered oaks, beneath which the coarse grass flourished in high lux- 

This river is obstructed by four considerable falls, beside rapids, 
but the only communication for goods, provisions, &c., to the milita- 
ry and trading posts in that quarter, is by navigation on this stream. 
At high water, a small river boat, of fifteen to twenty tons, is pushed 
against the current,- till it comes to a fUI, or *' chute ;" the cargo 
la here taken ont until the^ foyageurs^' can force the craft up the 
rapid by main strength. In low water, it is with difficulty a bark 
canoe will swim. An Indian farm showed itself occasionally on 
its banks, but our path generally lay through a wild pasture, well 
stocked with the prairie hen. Near night we passed the ^* Little 
Butte des Morte," or EtU of the Dead^ where the treaty of 183T 

was held. It is a large mound apparentlj artificial, on tke aiisa- 
mit of which still stood the fi^g-staff of the American commi#- 
sioners. The mound is reputed to contain the relief of depart 
warriors. Early in the day, we had crossed an open space of a 
few acres, where the Sauks once met the French in battle i widc^ 
contained several small mounds, but apparently the result of 
wind* acting upon a light soil. We slept at a hut on the southern 
shore of Lake Winnebago, near where the Fox rirer etiiptiea iMo 
it From the rapids belbw the Lake to the Portage, this streiuaer Is 
isluggish, and though' crooked, is of sufficient depA for trahtpoi^ 
tstion of boats. It is rather a succession of shallow lakdS thmi a 
continuous river^ bearing the wild rice in endless prbfasfon. This 
l^lant strongly resembles the southern rice in the kernel, and 
somewhat in taste, -furnishing excellent food for ducks and In- 
dians. Where the wateir is still, it comes up fh)m a diipfh often 
to fifteen feet, extending abore the surfltce, in a dense greem 
mass, about as high as grown flax. In the iall and winter, the In>^ 
dian poshes his cano<d through it, and shakes out the seed over th^ 
gunwale into his boat It also serves to shelter him in his iilsid- 
ioua designs against th^ wild ducks, who congregate amotigit, 
and lay claim to what they wish to eat. After pushing our way 
in a flat through a thick growth of this vegel!able, about two 
milee, we were on the opposite shore of the river, near t^e %p6t 
where the father of " Grizzly Beab" is said to have lived, raised 
pumpkins and entertained the whites. 

Here commences a low, rolling prairie that continued about fif- 
ty miles. The trail passed two Winnebaigo villages, one of which 
was called Yellow Thu)? lum, from itn ehiet Tbd Winnebago is 
the reverse of a Menominee. Tallin flgone,. haughty in his mein, 
proud of his nationality, and ever ready fok* war, he indulges in 
less drink and idleness than his neighbor, practices theft and mur- 
der, and repulses the advance of the white man. We had too of- 
ten seen their treachery and duplicity, to be anxious to spend much 
time with them, and would have been quite willing that they had 
dispensed with following us out of the village on horseback. — 


Though professedly friendlj, thej had acted as purveyors and 
spies to the Sanks and Foxes during the entire campaign. For 
this reason, they had been refused admittance into the forts at 
Green Bay and Winnebago, which apparently grieved them very 
much. But they only waited for a safe opportunity to appear as 
belligerents among Black Hawk's band, and if they had scceeded 
in entering Fort Winnebago, were to remain till an assault could 
be made from without, and join in the fight. The rations dealt 
out occasionally to friendly Indians, at the frontier posts by order 
of the government, were by them carried into the Sauk camp. 
Many of the murders charged to the latter, were actually commit- 
ted by them, and particularly the cattle and goods so frequently 
stolen from the settlers by supposed enemies, were in truth appro* 
priatod by these professed friends. 

We arrived at Fort Winnebago late^at night, having made one 
hundrea and forty miles in two and a half days. Fifty miles of 
this day's travel lay in a rolling prairie, over which a two-borse 
carriage travelled in company, although no road had been con- 
structed. Nothing occurred to hinder the progress of a vehicle 
except an occasional marsh. On the right of our track lay at ir- 
regular distances the Fox river, and " Opukwa" or Hice Zakes^ 
which were distantly seen as we rose the swells of the country. 
The garrison Is at the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin 
rivers, on a handsome rise, overlooking the immediate valley of 
both streams. This valley is a meadow or swamp about half a mile 
across, over which the waters of both channels mingle in time of 
flood, floating boats from the valley of the Mississippi to the val- 
ley of the Lakes. Goods destined for posts on the Upper Missis- 
sippi from the east, are here carted across and conmiitted to the 
current of the Wisconsin. This nver has capacity for steamboat 
navigation, but is filled with moveable sand bars from the portage 
to its mouth. 

From the fort there were travelled roads leading to the Missis- 
sippi at Prairie du Chien, or Fort Crawford, at the mouth of Fever 
River near Oalena, and at other points. After two days rest, we 


took the route for Galena by way of the " Blue Mounds.'' At the 
distance of about fifteen miles in a south-westerly direction, the 
traveller discovers that he has impercetibly attained an elevation 
commanding the timbered valley of the Wisconsin, and from 
whicli the stockade and white houses of the garrison are distiiictr 
ly visible. On the east and north-east the Baribouhills rise oat of 
the flat woodland and stretch away northwardly towards Lake Su- 
perior. He stands upon an eminence of five hundred feet, sloping 
gently down on all sides, covered with waving grass. On the 
east and south as far as the eye can aistinguish, he perceives a 
succession of similar hills, their rounded summits ranging irregu- 
larly around, not a tree, nor a stone, nor any fixed object,, to be 
seen in the whole prospect. In the spacious valleys that inter- 
vene, millions of small flowers mingle their bright colors with the 
green of the meadows, chastening and ruralizing the scene. An 
excitable person would exclaim at the sublimity of such a pros- 
pect, having the grandeur of a mountain without its loftiness, and 
the command of the sea without its monotony. A painter would 
pass from the grand outlines and dwell with delight upon the 
beauty of its details. 

It was through such a country, varied by a few small lakes, that 
we spent this day. We started a plenty of grouse, and frequent- 
ly saw the deer quietly feeding on the hill sides, secure frcm our 
rifles in the distance. The sight of a prairie wolf was not an un- 
common thing. This animal differs materially from the common 
wolf, being less in size, of a gray color, and wanting in speed. It 
feeds upon the mice and small animals of the low prairie, seldom 
assaulting the farm yard. He is less ferocious than the fox-tailed 
wolf, and may be soon overtaken with a fleet horse. Their nnf- 
form practice in regard to us, after running away at a moderate 
step a couple of hundred yards, was, tofaceabeut and examine the 
company. There were no Indians along the route. The Winne- 
bagoes, following their established customs, had abandoned their 
allies after their defeat at the " Bad Axe '' about four weeks previ- 
ous, and were in pursuit of the fugitives who had made off north- 
wardly during the engagement, towards the Sioux country. 


At night we slept upon the ground occupied hj a war-partj of 
the KenomineeB a fortnight previouBi on the banks of a elf ar lit- 
tle brook. The transparency of running water in the prairie dis- 
tricts, is a matter of general surprise. A glass of this liquid taken 
from Apple Creek, a stream about sixtj links wide, which puts 
into the MississippL from the east, twelve or fifteen miles below 
Galena, would not suffer by a comparison of its purity and clear- 
ness, with the water of Lake Huron. The war party had left a 
good supply of odd flre-brands and chunks, for the purposes of 
our cookery and evening comfort They had beaten down the 
grass, making a smooth place for our blankets, upon which were 
deposited our bodies, after the Indian fashion. 

This tribe, though not in a war-like mood, had become impatient 
of the delay attending the subjugation and punishment of their 
late murderous and ancient foes, the Sauks. They had col- 
lected their warriors at the Agency, three miles up the Fox river 
from Fort Howard, anxious to avenge themselves. Col. Stam- 
bjluoh, the agent, had at length promised them, if the war was 
not ended by a certain date, that they might march under his di- 
rection to the Wisconsin and take part in the work of our troops. 
Their progress en route was about twenty miles a day, marching 
in a single file, which of course left a distinct trail upon the ground. 
Our own men made twenty-seven miles a day on foot over the 
same country. About sun-down the Indian soldiers would collect 
themselves at a convenient spot, generally near a thicket, and al- 
ways near water. They build fires, and set up a row of posts or 
crotches in front, and lay poles from one to the other, as a protec* 
tion against the enemy. After the evening meal, they frequently 
hold a dance about the leading chief, accompanied by a due pro- 
portion of songs, and threats against the foe. Then all compose 
themselves in perfect security about the fires, entrusting the guar- 
dianship of the camp to the watchfulness of their little dogs. Sen- 
tinels were sometimes persuaded to take post a few yards in ad- 
yance ; but they also betook themselves to their blankets, and 
slept till day-light. 


It was now early in September, and everything conspired to 
nerve the system and animate the senses. The sky had not shown 
a clond for many days ; the air was cooled by an ever moving 
breeze ; conntless flowers shone in purple and gold about us, and 
wherever we chose to move, the ground was firm and smooih as a 
turnpike. A new and unmingled pleasure diffused itself through 
the company, of which even the animals seemed to partake. 

The path wound around the northern shores of the Four Lakes, 
from which Gen. Dodge, with a band of mounted militia of the 
mining district, had lately driven the remnant of Black Hawk's 
force. The scattering trails of the retreating Indians were still 
distinct. Sometimes thoy would all converge into one broad and 
plain track, then again radiate in different directions, continually 
branching and spreading over the country, dwindling to a mere 
trace. This resulted from their method of travel, sometimes in a 
body, then in classes, these again subdivided, and so on, for the 
double purpose of deceiving their pursuers in regard to their true 
route, and also of dispersion and escape in case of attack. It 
proved one of the greatest annoyances and hindrances of the ex- 
pedition. In the ]>resent instance, delay on the part of General 
Dodge became a matter of life and death. From April till the 
latter part of Jnly, they had evaded the white forces. During this 
period, they had been driven but little over an hundred miles, that 
is, from the Sycamore Creek t«> the Four Lakes. Much of the 
time their exact position conld not be known. They were now 
suffering by famine, and found it necessary to cross the "Wisconsin 
into the timber country north of that stream, for subsistence. Prob- 
ably there is not a known instance where attachment to a cause 
and to a leader has continued under circumstances of such dis- 
couragement. They wore encumbered with women and childreUi 
and had been so closely watched for two months, that little oppor- 
tunity occurred to fish or to hunt. They had lived upon roots, 
boiled grass, bark of trees, anything capable of sustaining life, 
before they would kill the horses upon which the squaws and pap- 
ooses rode. They were now reduced (o a state of utter staira- 


tion, with thirty miles of country to be traversed, and the whites 
had discorered their camp-fires the night previous across a small 
lake. If they could cross tl\e Wisconsin before an attack was 
made, the fish of the stream would furnish them a meal, and the 
river itself a protection. The militia were in motion at day-light, 
and within a few miles of the forlorn band. Along the trail lay 
the bodies of famished men, women and children ; some dead, 
othei's helpless and exhausted to the last degree by fatigue and 
hunger. These wretched aad worn-out creatures, if still living, 
were bayonetted upon the spot The exasperated frontierman now 
finding his viotim within reaoh, imbibed the ferocity of his enemy, 
dealing instant death to every one that fell in his power. In fact, 
early in the season, Oen. Atkziibo!^ had found it necessary to place 
a guard over his Indian prisoners, in order lo save their lives. 

An instance is known of a decrepid old man, to whom a loaf 
of bread had been given, and he suffered to depart. He had not 
passed out of hearing, when he was dispatched by the bayonet, 
and his food distributed among the murderers. At a fight near the 
Mississippi, just previous to the final action at the Bad Axe, a fine 
young chief about fourteen years of age, was taken, with silver 
bracelets on his arm. The militia-man who captured him was on- 
ly prevented from butchering him on the spot, by a threat from a 
lieatenant of the regular service, that his own life should instant- 
ly answer for that of the prisoner. 

In such plight were the fugitives, and with such a spirit their pur- 
suers were rapidly approaching. He foremost of the mounted 
men fell in with the scattered divisions of the enemy about two 
miles from the river. The party attacked fought desperately. 
^ The mounted squaws, provided with rifles, joined in the en^age- 
ment, and the main body succeeded in crossing, with the loss of 
about thirty. Their fate is well known. 

Ob the second day we passed the foot of the Blue Mound. It is 
ahigh hill of regular ascent, overlooking the country, and serves as 
a beacon to the traveller thirty miles distant. At night we slept 
in a Block-House in the mining district. Within sight of the sta- 


tioD, a newlj made grare lay at the road-side in the midat of a 
aolitary prairie. The person over whom it was raised had ventur- 
ed too far from the house, and approached a thicket of bnshes. 
Soddenl J a band of concealed Indians sprang npon him, with the 
fatal whoop on their tongaes ; his scalp, heart, and most of his 
flesh, were soon stripped from the body, and a savage dance per- 
formed about the remains. 

The country is still prairie, with scattering tufts of inferior tim- 
ber. The huts of the miners had been deserted on aeoount of the 
difScnlties now terminated, and the business of makisg lead wai 
about to re-commence. Occasionally a farm might be seen run- 
ning out from an island of timber, and supplied with comfortable 
buildings. But most of the improvements were of a temporaiy 
nature, consisting of a lead furnace and the cabins adjacent The 
process of reducing lead ore is very simple and rapid. The furn- 
ace is a fSsce wall, about two feet thick, located upon a gentle slope 
of the ground, with an arch or passage through &e center; on 
each side of the arched opening, and in the rear or up-hill side, 
two wing walls run out transversely to the face wall, between 
which the wood is laid. The ore is placed upon it, and a continu- 
al fire kept up. The lead gradually separates from the dross, and 
runs into a cavity in front of the arch. 

The '^Mining District" east of the Mississippi, mustindnde 
ten thousand square miles. Galena or lead ore is found in veins 
or threads, more often in a square form, of various sizes, and run- 
ning in all directions with the horizon. They are liable to disappear 
suddenly, to enlarge and diminish in size, to combine with other 
materials, rendering the operations of mining very uncertain. 
Their course is generally straight and not curved, seldom exceed* 
ing a foot in breadth. The analysis yields 85 to 90 per cenL of 
lead, of which the first smelting of the furnace extracts about 76 
per cent. It requires skill and experience to discover the vein, 
but very little of either to work it when discovered. The lime- 
stone formation of Green Bay and Lake Michigan extends to this 
region, embracing copper ore at ^^ Mineral Point," and at other 


places. At this time the government leased the ground to priae* 
tical 'liners, who rendered a proportion of the prodact in kind^ 
In c 'nseqnence of the derangements of the times, although th» 
snpplj was small, lead was then dull at three cents per pound. 
Thu supply appears to be inexhaustible. In one respect, this re- 
gion diflers from the mineral regions of other countries. There 
are but few yeins that justify a pursuit to great depths, and al- 
though thej are very numerous, the pits and trenches are eatilj 
filled up, and the rich soil left capable of cultiration. The great 
drawback upon the agricultural prospects of the Mining Die- 
trict, arises from the consumption of the little timber that grows 
there, in melting the lead. How long the presence of this mineral 
has been known, and its value understood, is not exactly known ; 
but tliere are mines which were worked by the French, soon after 
they ascended the Mississippi. The Indians could scarcely haye- 
found use for it before the introduction of fire-arms among them. 

Arriving at Galena, we found the place crowded with people. 
The mineral riches of the Dubuque country were well known, and 
it was expected that General Scorr would secure the title to a con* 
Biderable tract west of the river, including the richest mines.-— ^ 
The negotiation was still pending at Rock Island relative to the- 
purchase. Thousands of adventurers lined the eastern shore of 
the Mississippi, ready to seize upon the possession and pre-emption 
rights in the new territory the moment they became perfect. Id 
this case as in many others, guards of soldiers were necessary to 
keep the whites from taking unlawful occupancy of Indian lands. 
It has become fashionable to abuse the government for its conduct 
towards the red man. ^ My observation has, on the contrary led 
me to admire rather than to condemn the folly and practice ol the 
Federal authority in this reppect, believing, that in general, its mag- 
nanimity, kindness, and protection, demand the lasting gratitude 
of the Indian race. But with the frontier settler it is otherwise. 
The wrongs of the Indian are individual, not national offences.— 
When the pioneer crosses the boundary line agreed upon by the 
two people, through their proper agents, he is a trespasser, and his 


life taken within their jarisdiction is not canso of quarrel, if he 
persist in usurping occupation. We may admire his enterprise 
in pushing forward bejond the range of his fellow-meUi but must 
<^ndemn that morality which allows a forcible seizure and detain- 
er of property to be right Parties of men, such as locators and 
surveyors on Indian ground, may be considered beyond the pro- 
tection of the government, and if killed while persisting in main- 
taining possession, contrary to the will of the owners, their loss is 
not the subject of retaliation. But beyond the lines mutually es- 
tablished, the red man ought not to push his revenge, and the early 
massacres within the acknowledged limits of our jurisdiction, made 
it a duty in the government to preserve the integrity of its territo- 
ry. Murders committed by whites upon Indians, either in their 
own country or otherwise, have been the crying enormities result- 
gin from the contact of civilization with barbarism. If it can be 
shown that our authorities could have prevented these individual 
outrages of its citizens, it will then be connected with the primi- 
tive encroachments of one race upon the other. That it should 
enforce agreements and cessions, entered into in good faith, and 
retain territory acquired by just war, can scarcely be considered a 
national sin. Is the government of the United States in finult be- 
•CBXiBe the Aborigine is unable to secure his own territory against 
individual intrusion !— or because, in his thirst for whiskey and 
.baubles, he chooses to barter his patrimony for a drink or a bead! 
The intelligent Indian himself draws a distinction between the of- 
Jcial acts of the nation, and the unauthorized proceedings of tra- 
cers and speculators. On the part of the former, they have to ac- 
knowledge that they have been permitted to occupy grounds long 
after they bad agreed to depart; that their dissatisfaction with 
compacts was not shown till after the presents were received, and 
sometimes not until after payment had been made ; that the com* 
pensation has been faithfully tendered, and implements,^ schools, 
. and artisans provided free of expeose. They would be forced to 
^admit, that gratuities and presents, above the stipulated price, 
^ave been bestowed to purchase peace, and to obtain the fulfill- 


ment of their previoae engagements ; and to acknowledge, that af- 
ter the receipt of the increase, thej still forced the United States 
to war to obtain what they had bargained and paid for. 

The fate of die Indian cannot fail to raise a deep sjmpathj in 
the mind. Bnt to maintain that it is not the duty of the gorem- 
ment to secnre, hj all npright means, the title to those lands, is 
equivalent to the proposition that the earth was designed to pro- 
duce game, and not the bread of life, to sustain but one human 
being npon a square mile capable of maintaining one hundred. 

The case of the Sauks and Foxes has been recently quoted, as a 
strong instance of the injustice practised by the American nation, 
opon Indian tribes. The assault upon Black Hawk at the Syca- 
more Creek, was the act of frontier men under arms ; and if act- 
ing under any authority, derived the same from the Executive of 
Illinois. It was the result of a border feeling, which permits the 
destruction of an Indian upon the same principle that it does the 
wolf. No murders had been perpetrated upon the whites, or other 
acta committed that called for summary punishment The attack 
was a rash and unprovoked affair. But it is equally true, that the 
party assailed were in force in a country they had ceded to the 
United States, and had agreed to abandon. After this transac- 
tion, General Atkotbon, who commanded the regular troops as- 
aembled upon the Mississippi, made every effort to induce them 
to return peaceably, and confine themselves to the territory allot- 
ted them, and accepted as their home. Their prompt refusal left 
no alternative. The generalship of their chief prolonged the 
contest five months, without any offers of surrender on the part 
^ BukCK Hawk andhis brave band. They resisted until starva- 
tion and force compelled them to do that which had been urged 
npon them from the outset, to retreat towards the Mississippi 
When at last overtaken npon its banks, reduced in numbers, ema* 
ciated by hunger, worn down by incessant toil, they still fonght 
with their little remaining strength, till their force was either 
killed or captured. It is also to be recollected, that this band had 
always been among onr opponents in war, when an opportunity 


occurred ; $lwKys attached to the British interests, asd reoeired 
Britiflb preeentB. They "w&e taken as prisoners bj military foreie, 
arms in hand, fighting to the last, and breathing rengeance in the 
prison after their capture. Under such circnni stances, what rights 
were left this people, as a tribe or nation. Their miracolona at- 
tachment to their chief, and to each other; their wooderfnl endu- 
rance under hardships and privation ; boldness, skill and bravery 
in fight, must command our admiration. But their political ri^its, 
which might have been retained by complying with the offiared 
terms, were lost by resistance and conquest. 

The treatment of Black Hawk and other prisoners, has ofken 
been matter of animadversion. Of all the men, women and chil- 
dren captured by our regular troops, only eighteen were put in 
confinement. These constituted the influential men of the tribe, 
who never flagged in their efibrts against the government Black 
Hawk, it is true, from motives of prudence, being well eogninmt 
of our power, was in favor of peace. He was also an Indian who 
had a sense of honor, as well as pc^cy ; a man in whom tiiose who 
knew him confided. Bot he had exerted all his inflnence and doll 
against us in the campaign just closed ; and however patriotie to- 
wards his own people, he was decidedly a dangerous enemy of 
ours. Wbhsit, one of the chiefs in confinement, continued to 
fire his rifle from behind a few logs, till he was secured and seat 
to the rear; and his only regret, during confinement, seemed to 
be that he had not been able to kill more whites. The enmity of 
the PaoPHET is well known. KAHPonii the nding chief^ was oiily 
second to Wishkbt in his fury against the white man, and always 
counseled fi»- resistance. The two sons of Black Hawk were 
perhaps less harmless in the forests than in the cities, but their de- 
tention ensured the good conduct of the father and tribe. With 
the exception of Black Hawk, they spent their time at Jefiaraen 
Barracks, with a ball and chain on one leg — a precaution, the s^ 
cessity of which was never doubted by those acquainted with the 
circumstances. That personage, fond of multiplying his wrengs, 
has charged us with loading chains apoa him during his detautien 


upon the Mississippi. I am unable to saj in what condition he 
was brought from the Sioux countrj, when he was taken to Jeffer- 
son Barracks, where he was lodged in the guard-house with his 
confederates. Bat late in the period of his confinement at that 
post, he had not been shackled, as I wai ftiformed by those on du- 
ty at the time, having faith in his pledged word not to escape. 
Four of the eighteen were transported to Fortress Monroe, from 
which they were soon liberated, and escorted to their homes, 
where they met their fellow prisoners, and such of their brethren 
and sisters, as had survived the war. Their band was merged in 
that of Eeokucx, and their nationality forever gone. There re- 
mained, however, life, Ituntifig-grounds, and annuities, as before. 
Galena lies about seven miles eaat of the Mississippi, on t&e 
north side of Fever river, up which stream boats come to town in 
high water. Block houses against Indians were standing on the 
heights overloeking the plaoe, which' may have contained SOOO. 
inhabitants. It had all the business mt of an old place, though'' 
sadly deficient in cleanliness and comfort.' The quiet of its peo- 
ple was again most completely destroyed by the appearance of 
the Asiatic cholera^ the night previous to our arrival; and the first 
"violiiti, it young lady, was borne along di6 street on' a bier, as we 

. . I 

1 1 1 

appbndu: Na 0. 



IxTiODUCTOKT NoTB.— The bistorj of the Lcgeod, so far m I ipa eoDDected irith i|^ it 
u foDowB : In September, 18S9, 1 wu one of the proprietoteand editore of the Bt^fk^ 
lo J^umdU At that time, Mr. Puiixv WjLminxB, who was juttlroB tiie eoi]Dti7 ef th* 
Wianebagoea, waa spending aeme liatie. in our then riHaga B)a «iade m j aoqnaialueit 
and related to me many of hb wcatem^adTf nture^ and among othera thia one^ wldch in* 
terested me ao much that I wrote it out from hia oral narration, aided bj hia imparfoct 
aotea. He aaaored me that he had added abfeolutely noithing to the literal fiicta aa they. '- 
aotoallj oeemred, and in redndng hia atatemfenl to print, I adhered atrilBtly' to hia nant^ * 
ti?i^ without enbeUiahmeDt, whU| aa here oommnmated, appeared in the.BnflUd 
Journal of Sept l§th, 1699. 

The following communication of "Pont" will be read with in- 
terest. The singnlaritj^of the narratiye itself, and the still more 
singular circumstances of its relations-detailed, as it was, to our 
author, while seated upon the^top of a monumental pile, in the 
midst of a trackless forest,] bygone whose aged heart still clung 
to the past and bled at its recollections of fallen greatness— eott- 
spire to clothe the whole with more^than ordinary norelty.. 


Early in the spring of 1828, it will be recoUected that one of 
those border wars which^so ofken^rage along our western frontiers^ 


broke oat between the Winnebago Indians and the adjoining set- 
tlements. At that period it was mj fortnne to be within the In- 
dian territorj, seeking mj waj through the pathless forests that 
diride the Portage of the Oaisconsin from the settlement of 
whites at Green Bay. The canse of the mptare alluded to was 
the murder of a man hj the name of Botmt^ who was found 
dead in his own house, the bodj bearing evident marks of rio- 
lence. The murders perpetrated the preeediug summer, bj the 
"Winnebagoes, on the Mississippi, immediately fixed suspicions 
upon their tribe, in this instance ; and although the deed was sub- 
sequently traced to the partner of Bomer, a white man, yet . the 
resentment of the miners for a considerable time carried on a most 
desolating crusade against these sons of the forest. Those not 
prepared to repel the invasion, which was wholly unprovoked^ 
and equally unexpected, were driven to seek safety in flight. A 
company thus fleeing to the deeper recesses of their native forests, 
I fell in with, upon the journey I have mentioned. The party 
consisted of about forty persons, principally women and children, 
led by an old man whose locks were bleached by the frosts of some 
eighty winters. He was a chief, and he designated his little band 
by the collective and endearing appellation of ^^my family. ^^ At- 
ter the suspicions which the colour of my skin had roused were 
allayed, the old man approached me, and his cordial shake of the 
band, his proffer of the lighted pipe, and a portion of his jerked 
venison, gave me every assurance that I had met a friend. Our 
courses lay in the same direction, and we proceeded together. 
On resuming our march, the countenance"of the old chief, which 
had been animated, sunk and became dejected. At times a tear 
stole silently down his furrowed cheek ; but when a murmur es- 
caped the lips of any of his band, it was checked as soon as artic* 
nlafted, by a glance that oould not be mistaken. Ab these were 
all uttered in the Winnebago langaage, which no white man ev- 
er understood, I knew them only to be words of grief. 

• John Bonnff.— Sw ITOm Bigiitoi, VoLXXXV, p. 15L 


After travelling several hours across a beautiful prairie, we 
;approached a lake, the bank of which was^ adorned with a few 
large trees, and its shore presented a series of regularly ranged 
mounds, conveying to a distant eye the appearance of a formal 
town. On entering the cluster of these, each individual, in turn, 
ascended quite to the top of the highest, preceded by the aged ve- 
teran, where he first turned his face to the sun, (which was low in 
the west,) then towards the Mississippi, and making a violent mo- 
tion with the right hand, as if wielding the tomahawk, he ejacu-^ 
lated a few words in his native tongue, and immediately rejoined 
US by the path he had ascended. The nature of this mysterious 
rite I was anxious to understand. My questions to this point, how- 
ever, were carefully avoided for some time, until a small present 
overcame the scruples of the chief, when ho accosted me in the 
Chippewa language thus ; " My friend, no white man ever saw 
the Winnebago ascend that mound before, nor has one of our tribe 
ever disclosed to the whites the origin of the mounds you see 
.around us. You are the Indians' friend — if you were not| you 
would not trust yourself with me when your brothers are hunting 
my children like the wild deer of the prairie. You have smoked 
with me the pipe of friendship, and I will tell you all." Ho then 
itook me by the hand, led me to the summit of the principal mound, 
and bade me sit down. I drew forth my writing materials to as- 
sist my memory, but my guide exclaimed, ^^ mo, no, you mmst not 
— ^paper tell every body : paper lie too : you remember enough." 
I should here observe that the Chippewa language is the clasai* 
cal tongue of all the N'orth Western Indians and traders, and the 
^ne through which all their intercourse is carried on. In this 
tongue, with which I was acquainted, after we had each taken a 
whiff from his long pipe, he thus began : 

-"My friend — tlie Winnebagoes are not like other men. They 
^ame not from the east ; they are the only children of the Great 
Spirit. He put them on one side of the great waters (Lakes), tmd 
his two great lights on the other. He gave us the buffalo, the 
moose, the elk, and the deer, for food, and their skina he tanght na 


to use for clothing. lie filled tlie waters with fish, and covered 
the land with choice fruits. All these he gave to us ; and he 
marked with his finger between us and the great lights, that we 
might not approach them. Upon the other side of us he placed 
a land of winters, where no Indian could live. After this the 
Long Knives (English) came, not as enemies, but as friends. — 
They took our bows and gave us guns, for our skins they gave 
blankets and calicoes, and they gave strong drink to our hunters. 
They enticed away the young squaws, and when the Winnebago 
went after them they would not come back. Soon the hunter get 
lazy, love strong drink, and die. Many, very many die so. Then 
it was that the Great Spirit told his oldest child, the great chief 
of the Winnebagoes, in his sleep, to leave the country to the Long 
Knives, and cross the great water to a land nearer the great 
lights, where no white man had gone. We went forward, found a 
good land where this river (Fox, which enters into Green Bay) 
goes into the great water. For two moons we found plenty of 
game, and saw no Indians. We thought the Great Spirit had ta- 
ken them all away to make room for his children ; when one mor- 
ning we found the river full of canoes and Indians for one day's 
ride in length. Our chiefs and old men held a talk, and a canoe 
was sent to the strangers with as many men as there are moons 
in a year. They carried presents of wampum, fruits, sugar and 
meat These never returned. Their pipes of peace were thrown 
into the river, and their mangled bodies were hung upon the 
trees. Dogs were fastened in the canoe dressed like the Win- 
nebagoes, and the bark, with these, came down the river to our 
Tillages. Our good chief seeing the tears of his warriors for 
their fi lends who were slain, struck his'foot in wrath upon a solid 
rock, which sunk it to his ankle, and called his father, the Great 
Spirit, to witness that the tomahawk be unburied with the Foxes, 
Sacs, and Chippewas, until a tree should grow from the place 
where his foot then stood. He then burnt a council fire in sight 
oi his enemies, and put blood upon the trees that they might see 
more was soon to be wasted. When they saw this, they fled up 



the river to Winnebago Lake. Our warriors followed — a battle 
was fought on its banks, which we lost, as part of our fighting 
men were deceived in the long grass bv their guide. The Win- 
nebagoes being swiftest on foot, gained this spot before the even- 
ing. It was then the enemy's town, and they soon came, with 
their prisoners, little thinking we were here. Finding us in their 
town they kindled their fires upon all sides, and sent in word that 
the next day they would eat the Winnebago chief. With the dawn 
the fight began. We soon drove the Foxes down the river, but they 
went round and joined the Sacs, who were above us. The rest 
of that day all was quiet, but the next night, at the rising of the 
moon, they again came out from their hiding places. This fight 
did not stop for three days ; and we lost ten men for each day and 
night of the year, before it was ended. On the third day our 
chief fell, covered with wounds. While he still lived, he called to 
his warriors to remember his wrongs ; and^with his own hands he 
pressed the blood from his wounds, which he gave them to strength- 
en their hearts. He lived to hear the cries of his enemies as they 
fled, and then, under this mound, where he lay, he opened his 
mouth, and his spirit departed. In that battle the Winnebagoes 
kept the town, took many hundreds of canoes and many prisoners. 
These, except the young squaws, we killed. Those that escaped 
fled up the river, and the next day we pursued them. We came 
to the lake which makes the Fox river, and hunted for our enemy 
three days. Thinking the Great Spirit had taken them all from 
the country, to stop our pursuit, we were about to obey his wishes 
and return, when we discovered a trail in the high grass. This we 
followed a little, when we came to a strange river (the Ouiscon- ' 
sin,) running towards the Father of Kivers, (the Mississippi,) into 
which they had put their canoes. We now agreed to follow and 
fight our enemy, until he should leave this stream, and cross the 
Father of Bivers. At the Bine Mounds we fought them ; and there 
we were joined by the Pottawatomies, and they by the Menomi- 
nies. At the mouth of the Ouisconsin they made mounds, and 
put their women and children behind them, for [they^expected a 


great batile. The Winnebagoes had more fighting men than their 
enemies, but they fought for the last of their country, and the 
Winnebagoes for rerenge. For thirteen days the bloody strife 
did not eease, and hundreds of brave men fell on each day. At 
length the Great Spirit raised a loud storm of thunder, lightning, 
hail and wind, which caused both parties to stop, for they thought 
the Great Father of all was angry with his children. The Winne- 
bagoea stood still, and their enemies all crossed the Father of 
BiTers, where they now liye, at eternal war with our nation. No 
Fox or Sac meets a Winnebago, (except in council,) but one must 
die. AU that great land between the Ouisoonsin and the Missis- 
sippi is to this day disputed ground, and neither can safely 
^>Ocapy it Chippewa or Winnebago go there, he die — ^but no 
matter, Winnebago, Chippewa, Fox and Sac, all haye country 
enough now. Sixty winters haye passed oyer^us since my father, 
who was then strong, told me of these deeds of^our nation. But, 
my friend, the Winnebagoes are not now wise. Once they had 
many thousand fine warriors. But every year we grow smaller. 
Too much our young men go into the white man's house, and 
striye to live like him. They drink strong drink, and soon die. 
Traders buy our skins, and give us strong drink, calico and beads, 
whieh are not good tor Indians. TheVkins of our game we want 
for cluthes, and we could raise com for ourselves were we left 
akme ; but soooi, ray friend, we shall be no more. A few short 
years and our nation will be unknown. Then, when the stranger 
shall pass along here, and look upon the scenes of so many battles 
that have been won by the only children of the Great Spirit, and out, upon every hill, where, ii the Winn^kigot echo 
aloaa shall answer from the west — ^ tohere is the Winnebago /" 

<< Our enemies, the Sacs and Foxes, have grown strong, and 
oouM now destroy us. They have shunned the ways and the 


htantsbf the white men, and their people have multiplied. Their 
nfitions are large, and their warriors healthy and brave ; while 
iha forms pi our old men are wasted with age, and our young 
men are drunkards, like the whites. Our young squaws have be- 


come the coiupaniona of txaders and boatmen^ and our 
are broken up. We are 8urtx>unded upon all Bides bj white men, 
save one, and on that, live our sworn and eternal enemies. We 
have but one recourse left We own the land where the two 
rivers ran different wajs, (the Portage of the Fox and OuiBConsin 
rivers,) and to that we must now &y. When that is gone, the 
Winnebago will have no hope — and he will no longer ask to live. 

Hero the vetcrao chief ended his harangue, and seemed much 
affected at the deplorable, though just picture, which he had 
drawn of his nation. My sympathies were roused, and I felt, for 
once at least, as became a philanthropist— compassion for the 
stoic of the forest, and shame for the treatment he had eoffered at 
the hands of my nation. But the object of these mounds^ and of 
the rites observed upon their tops, I had not yet learned, and whei 
my aged chronicler had roused himself from his melancholy mxh 
sings, I repeated my inquiries upon these points. He paused for 
a moment, and answered thus : *' My friend, this place was long 
since called, by white men, ^Bont de Morte.^ * The mounds you 
see were raised, each over the grave C/f some renowned chief, who 
fell in the great battle here. By a custom of our nation, every 
Winnebago who comes in sight of this mound upon which we aie 
now seated, must ascend to the top, and observe the rites you wit- 
nessed. When taming to the sun, we swear that our arm, while it 
has power, shall be exerted in defence of this land, in remembrance 

«» • 

•UtHMj,J£mi^pUei</Jmtk TbeFraoehpluxMUMdbjth^dbMf most ban bi« 
introdoMd, pnbabJj, bj the French JauiU, to tnntlate the WinnelMifo im ae i  
name that eeema to hare teea given to the spot from the shape of the shore, reaemhliif 
a haman foot, at the hett of which the monnds are situated. Hence it waa the lieel, or 
heel-pi e ce- and the conteqnencea of the battle fought there would readily saggiil te 

[This definition ia probablj erroneooa.owing, perfai^ to If rWABBOisa miaundgnrtipd* 
inf the pronunciation. Instead of Bout dt JforU, it ia unirerBallj referred to ■• Mttt 
dtM MorU, or Hill of the Dead^whtre the slain in batUewere buried. A battle was 
hers fought ia 1714, between the French and Outagamie^ or Foresi which b not&oed 
bj OBAnLKTOtx, WnnnE, and other eadj hieloriaiia, aad in Oen. Smre'i Hiit of Wla- 
OQBtiD^— i..aa] 


of the son of the Oreat Spirit who sleeps below ; and when facing 
the Sacs and Foxes, we swear ever to remember and revenge the 
death of the best of Chiefs, the favorite son of the Great Spu*it| 
who fell by their hands." 


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C i 

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Early limeft— Indian diatarbancet— firat ptnnanent white aettler witliin the limite of 
Dane eonntj — Blue Moanda Fort — sayage maaaacree— Sauk war — location of ICadi* 
Bon, <fc&, Ae, 

The incidents of the early settlement of our state, howerer un- 
important in a national point of yiew, are worthy of being trea- 
sured np for the remembrance of posterity. But few of these hardy 
and daring men who came into the country many years in ad- 
vance of the present population, now remain among us, and the 
little circle is rapidly contracting. It belongs to this generatioa 
and our time to collect together the personal history, experience, 
and adventures of these worthy and yeteran pioneers, and pre- 
serve it as a very essential and interesting part of our local annals. 

One of these earliest comers to the south- western part of the 
State, was Ebenezeb Bsioham, of Blue Mounds, the oldest and 
undoubtedly the first permanent settler within the present limits 
of Dane county — a man of rare modesty, unsullied reputation, 
possessing a strong and retentive memory, and who is really a 
living history of the " life and times'* of the very first white set- 
tlers. We have never been able to induce him to write out a 
sketch of those early times ; but having got him &st by the hnU 
ton-hole a few days since, we took the occasion^ jot down some 


items, which we serye up in our own way, in connection with 
other matters, trusting that more complete details will be obtain- 
ed, of which he has a large fimd, and that the reader will bear in 
mind the admonition he gave us, not to make him the hero of the 

Mr. BsicnAM journeyed from Worcester, Mass., to St. Louis, in 
1818. The Upper Mississippi country was then almost unknown. 
Beyond the narrative of Pikers Expedition, and the somewhat 
vague reports of hunters, boatmen, and a few lead diggers about 
Dubuque, the public possessed no reliable information, and felt 
little if any interest. It was regarded as a wild region filled with 
hostile savages, and very few were willing to trust themselves 
among them. In 1822 Mr. B. followed up the river on horseback, 
to the present site ot Qalena ; the place then consisting of one log 
cabin, and a second one commenced, which he assisted in com- 
pleting. Shortly after he returned to Springfield, the present 
capital of Illinois, the young city then containing four or five 
cabins. In '27 he again returned to the lead region for the pur- 
pose of embarking in the business. With a small party he pitch- 
ed his tent on what is now called the Block House Branch of the 
Platte river, about four miles south of the present village of Flatte- 
ville, for the purpose of prospecting. From this point the party 
retreated in some haste to Galena, owing to the conunencement ot 
hostilities by the Indians. 

As the particulars of this outbreak are not generally known, we 
digress a little to give a few of the leading facts. 

Oen. Cass had made an appointment to meet the Winnebagoes 
at Butte des Morts. On the day fixed ior the council, not an Indian 
appeared. Alarmed at this, and other hostile signs, he rapidly 
descended the river to Prairie du Ohien, where the people had all 
taken shelter in the garrison, and where he heard of an attack on 
a government boat, which had been up the river with supplies for 
the garrison at St. Peters, a short time previous. Hastening im- 
mediately to Galena, he notified the citizens of their danger, and 
advised them to build block-houses for their protection. 


The boftt alladed to, had already reached Galena, and as the 
fight shows some of the perils of river navigation during those 
early days, we give the particulars in brief. In descending, the 
boats had to pass a narrow place between an island and the main 
shore. The Indians, several hundred in number, had stationed 
themselves on both sides, and had also prepared canoes to board^ 
if necessary. The forward boat was suffered to pass unmolested ; 
but when the second came within reach, it received a discharge 
from the whole force, killing one man and wounding another. The 
fire was returned, but with little effect, as the crew were in a rery 
exposed and awkward situation. In this position of affairs, an 
attempt was made to board, and a strapping warrior jumped on 
to the stem, seized t^ie tiller, and set the vessel ashore, but not till 
after a bullet struck him dead. At this juncture an Irishman of 
the crew, familiarly called " Saucy Jack^* jumped ashore, and, 
amidst a shower of bullets, shoved it off, and escaped unhurt, the 
boat proceeding without further molestation, carrying off the body 
of the ambitious Indian, which was left at Gttlena. The sides of 
the vessel, the boxes, &c., were riddled by over three hundred bul- 
let holes. 

This was a period of great suffering at Galena. The weather 
was inclement, and two or three ^thousand persons driven sud- 
denly in, with a scant supply of provisions, without ammunition 
or weapons, encamped in the open air, or cloth tents which was 
but little better, were placed in a very disagreeable and critical 

From Galena, Gen. Cass proceeded with the utmost dispatch to 
Jefferson Barracks. A large force under Gen. Atkikson immedi- 
ately came up the river in boats, as far as the Portage (Fort Win- 
nebago) Generals Dodge and Whitesides with companies of volun- 
teers following along each side on land, and scouring put the lark- 
ing savages. A lorce from Green Bay also concentrated on the 
same point, and the Indians beheld with dismay a formidable army 
in the Qiidst of their country. The result was a treaty of peace^ 
and the giving up of Bed Bibd, who had a year previous mas* 
sacred a family near Prairie du Chien. 


The reports made by the officers and men, on their return from 
iiB warlike expedition, first drew public attention to the nnbound- 
i fertility and exhaustless rosouicea of south-weatern Wisconeia 
-and their return was followed by a large immigration to the 
ad region. 

It was while this force was on its march, that Mr. Bbioqah and 
is party returned and built a block-house at the point they had 
ift, and recommenced their diggings. 

In the spring of 1828, he removed to Blue Mounds, the most 
dvanced outpost in the mines, and has resided there ever since, 
eing by four years at least, the oldest white settler in the county, 
he isolated position he thus settled upon, will be apparent from 
16 statement of a few facts. The nearest settler was at what is 
>w Dodgeville, about twenty-four miles distant Mineral Point 
id most of the other diggings where villages have since grown 
p, had not then been discovered. On the south-east, the nearest 
Duse was on the O'Plaine river, twelve miles west of Chi :ago. On 
le east, Solomon Juneau was his nearest neighbor, at the mouth 
f the Milwaukee river; and on the north-east. Green Bay was the 
earest settlement — Fort Winnebago not then having been pro- 

The coufitry at this time was part of Michigan Territory. The 
drthem boundary of Illhiois was so vaguely defined, that the 
iggerson the Mounds voted at the Shullsbnrg precinct for con- 
ress men for the Sucker State. Soon after locating at this place, 
Er. Brioham visited Green Bay in company with others, to attend 
D Indian council, in order to settle on certain boundaries between 
le whites and red men. The line fixed upon was drawn from 
le head of that branch of the Bine Mounds creek that heads 
ist of them, to that branch of the Pockat makie that heads east of 
le Mounds, and down these streams to the Wisconsin and Rock 
fspectively. The Indians biased the trees along this line, notify- 
igthe whites not to pai^s it — a prohibition about as effectual as 
10 whistling of the wind. 


To explain the reason for this treatj, it may not be amisa to 
look back a little at some matters of diplomacy connected witb the 
natives. Some time between the years 1814 and 1818, (we have 
not the documents at hand,) some tribe ceded the lead region to 
the United States. As the real owners refused to be bound by it, 
Governor £DWAia)s, of Illinois, as Indian Agent, was directed to 
cede it back again. In doing this, he reserved three .leagues at 
Prairie du Chieu, together with such other tracts as the President 
might select, not in all exceeding five leagues. This is the sub- 
stance of it 86 we gather from report, not having time to hunt up 
the treaty ; but under it the War Department allowed locations 
in tracts of 200 yards square, and if the miner found no mineral 
within his stakes, he pulled them up and and set them down again 
at such places, and as often, as he pleased. The effect thus was, 
that the whites took possession of pretty much the whole mininf 
region. -It was- in consequence of complaints growing out of this 
confltruotion of the treaty, that the council was held, and the new 
boundary agreed upon. 

In 1832 the Black Hawk war broke out. Tlie Winnebagoes 
were professedly friendly, but it was evidently a kind of friendship 
not to be relied upon in case of a reverse to the whites. To guard 
against surprise, Mr. B. and his neighbors built a block house in a 
very commanding position on the prairie near the Mounds, called 
^.^l£lf^ M&unds Fort.'' Into this the fpllowing persons withdrew) 
a^d kept up a regular guard day and night, about three months,.to 
^it: Ebenezer Brigham, Thomas McCraney, Esau Johnson, John 
C. Kellogg, Jeremiah Lycan, George Force, Emmerson Qreen, 
William Atijberry, Jonathan Ferrall, John Sherman, Hugh Bowen, 
Jiacob Keith, Alfred Houghton, — — Houghton, John Dalby, 
James Collins, William Collins, Moses Collins, Harvey Brock 
and Frengh Lake. 

After SriLLMAif^s defeat in May, the Sauks spread rapidly over 
northern Illinois, for purposes of massacre and plunder. The mnr- 
der ofti)e families of Messrs. PEmoREw, Davis, and part of that of 
Mr. Hall, in La Salle county, is generally known^ and of no far- 


ther importance here, than is connected with the givir^g np of the 
two captives, (Miss Haixs.*) It seems that the murderers imme- 
diately fled northward, following up Rock river a number of miles, 
and finuUj put their captives into the hands of the Winnebagoes, 
it is believed, for safe keeping, for the purpose of securing better 
terms of peaoe with the whites. News of the event was express* 
ed to the Mound, and a reward of $2000 offered for the two cap* 
tives. Word was sent to Whttb C&ow, who with his band was 
encamped somewhere about the First Lake. The result was, that' 
next day tht^ Indians came to the Fort and gave them np — and 
they were returned to their surviviiig friends — the reward, doubt- 
less, in tJie estimation of the Indians, outweighing the obligations 
of friendship. 

A day or two after the departure of these captives, W^illiau 
AuBBRKT was murdered at a spring near Mr. Bbioham's present 
residence, by the Winnebagoes. He was shot from his horse, and 
such valuables as he had about him were carried off. The assas- 
sins escaped punishment. 

About twenty days after, Geoboe Force and Emmbbsoh Gbkbn, 
while out on a scout, were set upon by a party of sixty or seventy 
Sauk warriors, in view of the fort, and both killod.f Had the In- 
dians not stopped about half an hour to dancQ aroand and mangle 
the bodies of their victims, the little garrison must have been des- 
troyed, as, owing to a feeling of security, only six were left in the 

* t*he narratife of tbwe captiTM is one of Hie most harrowing incidents of Che war. 
Ob the Slst of Maj, 1833, the families of Messrs. Hall aiid^Prrrioaaw were assembled 
Ik the hoase of Wiluam Dati% in Indian Greek sttlement The first iatimation tbej 
lad of danger wae the sudden appearance at the gate of some aerentj sarsges, who 
malwd into the house and butchered all its inmates^ me'i, women, .and children, to the 
nnasber of fifteen-^sparing onl^r these two sisters, who were taken capti?«s, and deli¥«r- 
«d up aa above stated. Thej were well treated, aside from the hardships of their lapkl 
joamaf. It seems scarcely possible at this daj, that such tragedies wane enaeted in this 
c u m Uy only about aevontaen jean ago. 

t AvBSEY was killed June 6th, and Forcb and Gkbeh on the 30th of that month. 
€es Smitu's H;et. Wis., 1. S73, 276. 


Block House at the time. The delay enabled them to get ready 
for a desperate resistance, and the warriors, after capturing the 
horses of the slain, made off, without daring to assault the fort. 

To follow iip the events of this war : The army had moved up 
as far as Fort Atkinson. Getting short of provisions, Col. Dodgb, 
with several oompames, was soht to Fort Winnebago for snpp ies. 
On hia return, he struck off towards the Bock river rapids, ia 
order, if possible, to get scent of the Indians. He struck on their 
trail east of the Crawfish, and immediately gave chase. He fol- 
lowed directly west,, ere ssing the Catfish near where the present 
bridge stands^ on the eastern confines of Madison, thence over 
the hill, and across the ground now occupied by the capitol and 
public square. At the head of Fourth Lake he found an encamp, 
ment they had left not many hours previous. Pushing on some 
eight or ten milesi they overtook and killed, an Indi^,* and at 
the crossing a little below Sauk Prairie, they came up with the 
main body. A battle immediately took place, in which fifteen 
Indians and one white man were killed, and nuinberd on both sidea 
wounded. The battle of Bad Axe and surrender of Black Hawk, 
soon after closed the war. 

In these details we have confined ourselves as nearly as posai^ 
ble to occurrences within the limits of Dane county. Our friend 
Brigham claims nothing on the score of military service, although 
taking an active part in the ^^ rough and tumble^' of the times. 
In 1836 the territory of Wisconsin was organized, embracing the 
present State of Iowa, and the north-west territory. He was 

* Wklum Foici^ one of the gmnitoo who wm mnanerad, had a hernvj gold walefa, 
by which the hoara ol atmudiog guard wert regulated. At the time he was killed it 
was iu hia poeket, mod was takeu — ^hia bod/ and limba being chopped in pieeea. aad 
acattered about on the prairie. A abort time after the 6ght at the ferrj, WALLra Bjo/wmm^ 
who waa a trader residing at the head of Fourth I«ake, waa out on the trail, and picked 
op (iTe or aijc Indian anddlee, the horaea ha?ing given out in the retreat On oomiag op 
to the bod J of thia aaTage, he found the prairie fire had paaaed oyer it, oonaumiog hia 
pack and clothing. 1 he watch of Force waa found in the aahea, apd identified by Mr* 
BuGBAii a day or two after. RowAir kept the watch oTer ten years before finally part- 
ing with it 

dented a member of the flhft conncil — the gession 'being' flrtt 
heldnt Belmont, and the second one at Biirlihgton, lo'^a. The 
'district at that time consisted of the territory embraced in thb pre* 
sent counties of Grant, lowa^ Lafayette,' Gi^efD, iM part 6f I)kh& 
He was re-elected to the samie'dffiee'in '^8| -and U^M fbur yeah. 
The district ihen'consi^t^d of thb countieir-^ Diane, Gr'eft^,- ITc^- 


jSeraon, Dodge and- Sank. ' His Ia8t'electi6n to H;be legliKCtire', "wsia 
mt the first sesiion tinder the Estate* constitcilSoli — the district being 
some doxen'or siicteen town^. ■. ' ''" *' 


In the twenty odd yeats of Mr. IJ.'^s residence in this region, 
what wonderful changes have passed before him ! For severd 
years after his coming, the savages were*sb)e lords of the sot!. A 
large Indian village stood near the month of Token Creek ; anoth- 
er stood on the ridge between the Second and Third Lake, in plain 
view of our present location ; and their wigwams were scattered 
all along the streams, the remains of their gardens, &c. being still 
visible. Then there was not a civilized village in the state, of any 
considerable size. When the capitol was located here, he was 
the nearest settler to it — twenty fonr miles distant! He stood on 
this gronnd before its selection as the seat of government was 
thonght of, and from the enchanting beanty of the spot predicted 
that a village would be built here. Fort Winnebago was com- 
menced in 1828, under the superintendence of Maj. Twiggs and 
Ool. Harney, and the protection it afforded greatly promoted and ex- 
tended immigration. The in-rolling flood has now reached 300,000 
— ^hundreds of villages have sprnng up— and every thing has 
changed. From being himself the sole population of Dane, he 
now counts but one in 16,000. Nothing remains of the Indians 
bat their graves. He has seen a savage people pass off the stage, 
mnd a civilized one come upon it — and all with a rapidity which 
most appear to him like a dream. 

We have thus imperfectly sketched some of the incidents in the 
life of the first settler in Dane, with a brief statement of some of 
the leading events which have passed in review before him. Al- 
though gray hairs cover his head, he still enjoys robust health, 


and his strai^gbt form and elastic step ebow that age eite lightlj 
npon him. We are inclined to attribute bis exemption from tbe 
common ills pf life to tbe fact, that be never sought an office^ or 
^ei^t a fymgrj im>n from lus door without food. He has a large 
fi^ijd of Yf^lnable local bigtorj/with .anecdotes of ^^ng syne*' 
worthy of being preserved for future times. Altogether he as a 
;f^oble specimen of the gentleman of the olden time, with a repu- 
tatioii as favorably as it is widely known. The pe(^le of this 
county without distinction of party, we Jknow will all unite with 
us in wishing him many years yet of health, prosperityi and hap- 

Hadisoo, Nov, SO, 1849. 

• 1  . ' 

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• •  ■' •  ' I ' , •■  i M 1 ! I t -  '  Jit • j -*  . '1 








ill^l Ui.i 


Hii"i  ^ 


1 1 





Although the history of Calamet county may be found less in- 
teresting than that of her more wealthy sisters throughout our 
yonng, flourishing and prosperous State, yet, such as it is, I very 
cheerfully communicate it to you. 

I think it was not until the year 1840, that Oalumet county was 
first set off, and organized for judicial purposes.^ Previous tg 
that time, what now constitutes Oalumet, was recognized as a part 
of Brown county, and was first taken possession of by, the Stock* 
bridge and Brothertown Indians ; two or three families of each of 
those tribes having removed there in the winter of 1881. It was 
then a dense forest of very heavy timber, and the only roads or 
improvement of any kind, then existing within the present limits 
of Oalumet, were a few Henomonee Indian trails. About the 
year 1830, a white man by the name of Westfall settled in the 
northern part of what is now Oalumet, and pretended to keep a 

* Oalnmet eouDtj was Mt off from Brown countj. Dec. 1, 1836, organixed for oounM" 
yinpos ea, Jan. 6, 1840, and on tiielbDowing 13& AvguatyirasdSaotginiiad, andattaehad 
t» Brawn. It was raHtyanlsid for oaontj ]nirpoKa, Fab. 1 8, 1849, fwiaining in JudidM 
eonnaction with Brown nntil the formation of Fond du Lac county, Jan. 39; 1844, ta 
wUdi it was aittaelMd fbr Jndidal psrpoaaa. It wtt at length Mly ovgantlMd, Fah. 5, 


tavern on the military road leading from Green Bay to Fort Win- 
nebago, which road was commenced about that time. But Buch 
a tavern ! The writer of this sketch well remembers the time 
"when he called at the aforesaid tavern, drenched with cold rain, 
and asking for breakfast for himself, and baiting of some kind for 
his horse, but unfortunately could obtain neither. The landlord 
had gone to Green Bay, a distance of nearly twenty-five miles, 
for the purpose of procuring and bringing home a back-load of 
proviBionB. I think I can safely ^ay, that these were times, that 
not only "tried men's souls," but their appetites also. 

The 8tockbridge and Brothertown Indians continued to emigrate 
yearly from the State of N^w York, and joined their friends in 
Calumet county ; and up to 1840, the county contained about 230 
Btockbridge, and about 300 Brothertown Indians, and only about 
three whites-— to wit : the tavern keeper before alluded to, the Eer 
Cutting Mabsh, a missionary among the Stockbridge IndiaoB, 
and Moody Mann,* a mill-right, who superintended the erection 
of the first grist and saw mill in our county for the Brothertown 
Indians. Similar mills were built by the Stockbridge Indiana, or 
rather by Daniel Wihtney, by their consent, having been erected 
upon their lands. All these mills were built about 1836-7, and 
for several years after their erection, the people of Oshkoeh, on 
the west side of Winnebago Lake, got all their milling done at 
these mills, as did also the people of Fond du Lac, and a large 
number of inhabitants from the north-eastern portion of Fond da 
Lac county get their milling done to this day at the Brothertown 
Indian mills. About two years ago, there was another saw-mill 
"built, in what is called KUlSnake Settlement^ by William Ubm- 
BTON, about fourteen miles north-east of the Brothertown milla ; 
and this spring I have learned that another saw mill has just been 
put in operation in Cbarlestown, about twelve miles easterly from 
the Brothertown mills. There is yet anc ther saw-mill in our coun- 
ty, built two or three years ago, but it does not do much businesa. 

. * Hob. Mooot lliinr, Judge of C«luaiet oouotj, died ia that ceun^, in Dec Id&L 

Xi* o< t^% 


la the year 1839, the Brotbertown lodiaog petitioned CoDgreafl 
for citizeD^liip, wliich was granted, add they are no«r enjoying all 
the rights, privileges, and immanities of other citizens of the 
United States, and the State of Wisconsin. In 1843, the Stock- 
bridge Indians also petitioned for citizensliip, and were likewise 
admitted ; but a portion of them remonstrated from the xmtrset, 
and finally succeeded in shirking out; and, since that time, those 
jwho desired and embraced citizenship have sent a delegation to 
Washington to get set back again as Indians, and it is said they 
have agreed to emigrate west of the Mississippi. 

The census of Calumet oonnty in 1850, gave 1746 iDhabitants, 
of whom about two hundred and fifty were Stodcbridge, and four 
hundred Brotbertown Indians. For several years past, much pre- 
judice has existed abroad with regard to this county and its in- 
liabitants; the former was believed to be too cold to permit the 
growth of ordinfary crops, and the latter deemed as poor degradied 
savages, destitute of the common comforts of civilization, and 
withont any principles of morality^ and people scarcely dared to 
pass through our oonnty, for fear of being scalped^ But since 
they faffve learned that the Indians are an agricultural, mechanic 
eal and mann&ctnring people,^ that they live, dress and talk like 
other ^* human critters," (having entirely lost theit language, the 
Brothertowns in particular,) that they have th^ir own common 
schools in operation, public officers, churches and preachers, and 
the fact that travelers frequently get nearly through the town with* 
out being aware of it, and then enquire how far it is to Brother- 
town, — I say, since the people are beginning to become acquainted 
with these facts, they begin to entertain a little more respect for 
Oalumet county and her population. 

Yes, sir, the time has been when Oalumet county was consider- 
^ to be the very sink-hole of vice and iniquity, and acting upon 
that belief in some instances, horse-thieves and gamblers have 
«ought to obtain a shelter here from the iron clutches of the law ; 
but when they have found the Indians ready and willing to turn 


ont en mc^sse^ and surroiiTid and search honses in the d«ad of night 
where it was supposed these kind of gentry were concealed, they 
have generally made extremely short visits, being both ocularly 
and mentally convinced that oar county was a very unsafe asy- 
lum for persons of their stamp. 

For the last six months or more there has been a constant tide 
of emigration setting into our county. Scarcely a day, or week, 
at least, passes, but teams are seen passing into dur county loaded 
with goods and families, and I should not be surprised if Calumet 
doubled her population in one year from this time. 

It may be interesting to know, that the first steamboat that over 
graced the crystal bosom of Lake Winnebago, was built in our 
county by the Brothertown Indians, under the superintendence of 
Petek HoTKLnro, who was a white man, and the captain of said 
boat. She was called the Manchester, and is still running on the 
lake under the name, I think, of the Fountain Oity. We hmr% 
obtained a charter for a plank-road from Manchester to Sbebqy* 
gan, a distance of thirty- five miles, which will pass through one 
mi the finest portions of the state, in regard to the fertility of its 
soil, its water power, and its lofty groves of pine and othef tiar 
ber for lumbering purposes. Oahusot county is about sixteen by 
twenty-five miles in size. 

Manchester, April 29, 1861. 



' \ 


AFVsmvDciro. & 



In accordance with the reqneat of the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsini I have prepared this brief sketch of Bichland ooan* 

Oniia county was organised for jndidid purposes May 1st, 1880| 
and now forma part of the fifth jndieial cirenit. It has an area of 
aixteeo sectional townships in a sqnar^ form, with also some frao- 
tionml townships npcfn the Wiseotasin river, which constitntes its 
sonthem bosindary. It has fbnr very considerable mill streami 
running from the north to the eonth timmgh thecotttit]r,and emp* 
tying into the Wisconsin. These etreame ai4, Bear Greek in the 
e^Atempart of the ooontyi Phi» tiyer raaning throngh the central 
por^ioni £%gle oreek more westedji and Knapp'k' creek in the ex* 
tfame westecs part of tiia.ce«|i4|]fi« Xhose seTend atreamsy with 
iheir nnmerons tributaries, abundantly supply all parts of the 
eoaaly wilh the beat of wateir^ whkk la almost invariably soft 
Tbhesof diffetent kfnds, including pike, pickerel, catfish, mullet^ 
nccors, and the specified trout, are found in great abundance. 

Bichlaad county has a plmty of tiie beat timber of various kinds^ 
tei^irit: maple, ash, elm, oak, basswood, butternut, watntit, and 
some beautiful groves of pine andpoplar. Ihe face of the coun* 
try is diversified by hills and vaUeya, with numerous spriogs oi 


pure soft water. There are some very prettj prairies, surrounded 
by groves of heavy timber. Some lead and copper ore have been 
discovered in the southern part of the county, and an extensive 
marble quarry has been opened in the valley of Bear creek. All 
the stone is to be found in qnarriee, and none scattered promiscu- 
ously upon the surface of the soil. There are many large tracts 
of well- watered and rich land in this county — hence the appropri- 
ateness of its name, Richland. * 

Of natural curiosities, perhaps there is in the whole western 
country none greater, than the Natural Bridge over Pine river. 
It is of rock, from forty to sixty feet high, and over half a mile 
in length, extending into a level country, with a beautiful arch 
sufficiently largo for the passage of the waters of Pine river, even 
in times of flood. This rock bridge is perfectly solid for thirty feet 
above the water, and covered on the top with a beautiful grove of 
thrifty pine. The rock is a species of sand stoiie, about four rods 
wide, and its sides perpendicular the whole length. It forms a great 
natural water power, and shelter for man and beast The Indians, 
it. is related, used to aaaembla . here in great numbers, to worship. 
The chief or principal speaker oauaually stood upon the top of the 
rock, while his aadienoe remained below. Another very conaid- 
erable curiosity in our county, is tho Warm Cave, which sends forth 
a warm current of air at aU seasons of the year. 

This county is settling very rapidly by •an intelligent and enter- 
prising population, almost wholly Americans.* Its agricultural, 
mineral and lumbering resource^ together with its proximity td 
ain extensive mining country, and its faoilitleB fbr market, form 

* ▲ writir in a iteent nvmber of tlid Platleyillt Ameiiaim, who dgM hluMllf "A» Old 
Piopcer/' njB that h% explored, in 1848, tha ▼ijd parts 0f ftask aod RichIaB4 oooiiUM^ 
in the latter of which ecareely a aection of land had been entered, althoogh it had been 
in market four or fiTe jeara. The entire |x>pQbdon of Richland county did not exceed 
sdoaen fimilieaDnabering thirty aoole^ who wvs mostly ao m poae d of thieaonaof Aim* 
Bpd who had retired from the busy haonta of m^ to ponue the chaae, and enjoy tha 
chamiBof aolitude. Richland City was foaoded by Issac H Wsllace. who erectM tha 
firbt log cabin theris late in the autumn ^f 1849. T^ population of the county, which 
WiaSISfaiiaS0>iio#asliiMMalSa00.-''-' <' *'- ' ^"' 'l.o.d. 


great inducements to settlement and cultivation. There are sever- 
al thriving villages already teeming with life and animation. 
Among them may be mentioned Richland City, situated at the 
mouth of a very pretty stream called Willow Creek ; and seven 
miles still higher up on Pine, is the new county-seat, Richland 
Center, situated on a beautiful prairie with scattering shade trees, 
and the whole surrounded by noble groves of thrifty timber^ At 
this place is an excellent water power, and mills are now in pro- 
cess of erection. This promising town is just springing into vig- 
orous life and activity. Richmond, the former county-seat, is also 
a pretty village, situated on the Wisconsin river. 
Richland Osnter, Dec. 15, 185B. 

' 't 




To the Cor. Sec. of the Wisconsin Historical Society : 

The object ot forming the Historical Society of Wisconsin, is to 
gather materials for the formation of a correct history of the State, 
and to preserve from oblivion such incidents, names, &c., as will 
be of use in compiling such a history. And to aid in the accom- 
plishment of this design, in one particular, I respectfully suggest 
the propriety of collecting the original Indian and French names 
of the State, of counties, towns, rivers, lakes and mountains, and 
attach to each the signification in English ; and also the deriva- 
tion of all purely English names. 

That my design may be understood, and at the same time to 
contribute my limited knowledge in this matter, I will give a list 
as far as they now occur to mind; and at the same time request 
such corrections and additions as may be necessary to perfect it. 

If editors, and others, who live on the spot, and have the 
means of reliable information, will take some pains to correct any 
errors in this, and to enlarge the number of names, and publish 
them, an accurate vocabulary of names may be obtained, of which 
the future historian may avail himself, to the interest and edifica- 
tion of the reader. 

In doing thi?, I would suggest the propriety of giving the name 


of the Tribe of Indiaas, from whose language the Indian name 
of a place or a thing is derived, if known. The importance of 
this distinction will be seen in the sequel, and from the fact that 
the same thing is differently named bj different tribes ; and in the 
iiifferent languages, tongues or dialects of the Indians, slight vari- 
ations in sound may have given rise to different spellings, and 
hence an apparently different name, while, in fact the same name 
is intended. For instance, Manitowoc^ if from the Chippewa, or 
Oj i bo wa,^ should be Jfiin<r(it;(> — a general name of spirit. The 
prefix or termination gives the kind of spirit intended. Mun-, 
edoo i^A means Devil^ or Evil Spirit, in Ojibowa. OwJceaha-mune^ 
doo is God, or Good Spirit Woe may be intent Wd for owTcy and 
munito may be intended for munedoOj and if so, Munedoo-owh 
alias Manitowoc, when applied to the Islands in Lake Michigan, 
or the river emptying into it, probably signifies the habitation of 
the Good Spirit. The perversion or corruption of the word may 
be from the imperfect understanding, or imperfect orthography of 
the white n-^an of the Indian language, or it may have been de- 
rived from the Menomonee, or some other tribe of Indians, who 
use the word a little differently from the Ojibowas. 

I am not an Ojibowa scholar, but have a work by Peter Jones, a 
celebrated missionarj'^, from wliich I derive the above orthogra- 
phy of the word, but if I am not right, will some one be so good 
as to put me so. 

But to the general list of names ; and firat of the State. Tlie 
State derives its name from the principal river which runs cen- 
trally through jt. The Chippewas upon its head waters call this 
river WeeaTcon-san which signifies " the gathering of the waters." 
They gave it this name, as an Indian trader infurmicd me, on ac- 
count of its numerous branches'near its head concentrating into one 
stream, which afterwards runs so great a distance with but com- 
paratively few principal branches to swell its current. The French 

* Dr. Morse, in his Report of his Indian Tour of 1S20, speaks of " an old Ottowa 
chief liTing at Ma^nU'Cu-WLuk-Ahi rivtr of bad tpiritt** See the deflattion in the fol- 
lowing paper, bgr Mr, Uatbawaj. L. 0. D. 


voyager called it Ouisconsiny the first syllable of which comes 
nearer to the Bonnd of the Indian than does Wis. The second 
syllable of the French, if yon gire the c its hard sonnd, is more 
like kon than eon* bnt the last syllable (sin) is evidently a devia- 
tion from the Indian both in the English and French. An attempt 
was made, a few years since, to restore the second syllable of this 
name to its original Indian sound by substituting k for o, but this 
would not restore either the first or the last. The attempt, how- 
ever, was unpopular, and the Legislature solemnly decreed that 
the name should be spelled Wisconsin^ and this, probably more 
from opposition to the individual who attempted the restoration, 
than from correct literary taste, or any regard for the original In- 
dian name. 


Adams, — K"amed'in honor of President Adams. 

Brown. — In honor of Gen. Brown of the TJ. S. Army. 

Crawford. — In honor of W. H. Crawford, Sec. oi TJ. S. Treas. 

Columbia. — From Columbus. 

Calumet. — Indian — pipe of peace; the name said to have been 
given to the place on account of the different tribes frequently 
holding peace councils there, when they smoke the Calumet or 
pipe of peace. 

Chippewa — From the river of that name — Indian, Ojibowa. 
Several bands of this tribe*settled on its head waters, to which 
they fought their way, about 120 years since, from Lake Superior, 
against the Dacotah or Sioux, and gave their name io the river in 
honor of their victory. 

Dane. — ^In honor of the author of the'ordinance of 1787. 

Dodge. — In honor of Gov. Dodge. 

JFbnd du Lac. — ^The head or fountain of the Lake — Winnebago^ 
The same name is also given to the head of Lake Superior. 

Orant. — From the river which took its name from one Grant, a 
trapper, who bad his cabin on its bank. 

Greene. — In honor ot Gen. Greene, of the Revolnttoo. 


Iowa. — From sn Indian tribe who once inhabited tEe counfrj. 

Jtfferaon. — In honor of Picaident Jefferson. 

Z(ifayeUe,^ln honor of Gen. Lafiijette. 

Za Pointe, — From the point of Magdalene Island in Lake Sa- 
perior, on which a trading post and village are situated. 

Marquette. — In honor of the French discoverer of the country, 

Milwaukee. — From the river of that name. It is ludian. — 
[Will some Milwaukecan give tho meaning?] 

Pvfiage. — ^This county took its na»ne originally, from the port- 
age between the Wisconsin and Fox rivers. But when the coan« 
ty was divided, the representative from it, hailing from the north 
part of it, with a view, it is said, to keep the record books, and 
thereby save a few dollars in the purchase of new ones, managed 
to retain the name f >r the north part of it, in which is Plover Por* 
agey calling the south part Columbia, 

Racine. — From the French name of the Root or principal river 
in it [Will some citizen there tell us what root was so abundant 
upon it as to give it the name ?] 

Richland.— ^0 called on account of the richness of the soil. 

Rock. — From Rock prairie within its limits; and this from a 
large rock located on it. 

Shehaygtm. — From its principal river. [Will some one tell ua 
what the word means fj 

Si. Croim.—T[\Q holy cross — ^the name given to the lake and riv- 
er upon which it borders, by the French missionaries, because it 
enters the Mississippi nearly at right angles, and because the 
waters of it when high, are of a dark red color, being stained by 
the roots of the tamarack which abound in its head branches. 

8avk. — From Sauk Prairie within its limits, which took its name* 
from the Sauk Indians, who once had their principal village upon 

WaBhinglon. — In honor of Gen. Washington. 
Waukffsha, — From the ludian name of its principal river. It 
signifies F >:() probably from the number foxes taken upon it. — 
[la it Menomonee, Putawotome, or whatf] 

15 • 


Wmnebago. — From the lake of that name, which took its name 
from the Indian^tribe. 

Walworth. — In honor of Chaneellor Walworth. 


Prairie du Chien — Dog's Prairie — From a Sauk chief of that 
name who had his village on it when first visited bj the Frexich 

Prairie La Cro89e — From the French name of a "ball club," 
crooked or hooked at the end. When the Frei ch first visited the 
country, the neighboring tribes were in the habit every summer of 
meeting on this prairie for their annual ball play. At these games 
each tribe took a side, and often staked all they had at command. 

Monttrempe'Veau — ^The mountain that stands in the water. It 
rises in the form of an oval cone or natural pyramid, from a base 
80 rods long by 40 wide, to about 300 feet high, and is entirely 
surrounded by water. It contains an extensive den of yellow rat- 
tle snakes, from which they swim in the spring, and to which they 
return in the same way in the &11. 

Lac Flambeau — ^Torch Lake. A collection of five small lakes, 
of from thr^e to five miles in length, and from twenty rods to half 
a mile in width. On these lakes a band of Chippewas settled, 
about 120 years ago, to which they fought their way against the 
Sioux on one hand, and the Sauks aud Foxes on the other. The 
lakes abounded in fish, which were taken by torch light, from 
which the French traders gave it the name of Lao Flambeait. 

Lao CourteoreUle" Short Ears. — ^It is said that when the French 
traders first visited this lake called Ottawa^ a band of Ottawas oc- 
cupied its banks, who had cut the rims off their ears, making 
them short; from which the Indians, their lake, and the river run- 
ding from it into the Chippewa, received this singular name. 

Mountain of the Stare — ^A natural mound some thirty miles in 
circumference, and several hundred feet high ; from its base and 
sides the Biack river flows to the south, L'eau Olaire and Yellow 
rivers — branches of the Chippewa — to the west, and two branches 


of the Wisconsin river to the east It is said to be covered with' 
pine timber, and its rocks and sands to abound in indications of 
copper, or some richer ore. The Indian name is not recollected| 
bnt signifies the MountcUU of the Star^i i^ul was so called by them 
on account of its lofty peaks. 

I shall continue to collect these names and their origin, and if 
others, and especially editors, will do the same and publish them, 
the historical object contemplated will be accomplished. The 
above is yet imperfect, and is open to amendments and corrections; 
and it is but a small portioA of the, names worthy of collection 
and preservation. 

Prairie du Chien, June 11th, 1849. ^ 

■f t 

. ' i 


Aih?&aytx no. 11. 




To thd Cor, Seo, of the Wisconsin Ilvftorical Society : 

Following the suggestion of Mr. Brunson in his interesting com- 
jDiinication to your Society of the llth ultimo, I propose to con- 
tribate a portion of the aboriginal names of places and rivers in 
oar State, with their signification, when known, and their present 
corrnption in spelling and pronunciation. 

Much of the corruption in the pronunciation of Indian nameSi 
has arisen from the want of a simple mode of spelling, and from 
an inaccurate habit of pronouncing words, when correctly spelled. 
Thus, in orthography, the sounds au, aim, ee, are ipcorrectly ex- 
pressed by a, an, and e; and the orthography au, ahn and ee, is 
inaccurately pronounced by a, an and e, or y — for example, Wav^ 
Jcee-Bhahy is incorrectly spelled Wakesha^ and inaccurately pro- 
nounced, (though very commonly,) Walkyshaw, 

One more suggestion : When the double vowel ee occurs in 
the orthography of an Indian word, the syllable should have a 
thin, prolonged accent, more especially when it forms the middle 

MUwavkee^ or Milouaquiy of the early French settlers, is de- 
rived from the Indian name of our own river, Mahna waukcs 
leepe, first and third syllables accented. The word is Pottawatta- 
mie probably ; and the early French traders gave different signi- 
ficationa to it, so that no one of them is reliable. 


Sh^HAffjan^ or Ohehoiff'-an of the early maps, Is from'the Indian 
name, Shawhwa way-Jeuriy half-accent on the first, and fall accent 
on the third syllable ; the word or sentence (most likely Chippewa,) 
expresses a tradition *^ that a great nciise, coming under ground 
from the region of Lake Superior, was heard at thi^ river." 

Manttouioacy or Demies den. — ^The tradition of the Indians is, 
that a nondescript being was several times observed at the mouth 
of this river; hence the name. 

Ne^ho-Uth^ or Twins, now known as Two Rivers. A glance at 
the place, or at the map, showd how appropriate the name. 

Ketoau-nw Hi ver, on Lake Michigan, east of the head of Green 
Bay, signifies Prairie Hen. It was formerly known as Wo >d*a 
river in the sketch maps; please give to the writer the credit of 
ascertaining and restoring tiiis enphonionsname by his Field Notes 
in 1834. Kewaunee is doubtless a Chippcway word — accent on 
second syllable. 

The next and only river of any magnitude, north of the last 
mentioned, is the 

Mukwaa wutJirta-guon — accent on first and third, and half ac- 
cent on last syllable. Muk-wan signifies Bear — the whule, Bea^^g 
Head. The present settlers in that region are striving to substi- 
tute the name Wolf River; bad success to them — we prefer a 
beards head to a whole wolf. 

Mas keeffOy from MaekeeguiaCy signifies Oranherry — probably, 

Wauheeeha^hy the name given to the county wrested from Mil- 
waukee in 1846. As the county was appropriated wirh'mt the 
consent of the owners, so it was very proper that the name should 
be. It is very probable that this name was never seen in English 
characters until the year 1846, when it was inscribed, by the 
writer of this, upon an oak tree, standing where the town of Ro- 
chester now stands, in Racine county. The name was selected by 
me with the consent of Messrs. Cox and Myers, all being interest- 
ed in the location, a^ a name for the future town, and it so appears 
on the sectional maps of those times. When the town began to 


be settled shortlj after, the name was^'chaDged by the inhabitants 
to Bochester, because, like the Ilochester of New York,"it had a 
water power — no further point of resemblance being traceable. 
In 1835-6, 1 was engaged in sub-dividingthe townships now com- 
prising Eacine conntv, and from some Indian bojs lodged near 
my encampments, I made additions to my Indian vocabulary ; 
and with the medium of a lox-skin collar, I obtained this name, 
understanding it to be Pottawattamie for '* Fox," which is a favor- 
ite name with the natives for all crooked rivers, whose course, in 
this respect, resembles the eccentric trail of that animal. By 
giving the middle syllable a thin, prolonged, decided accent, and 
leaving the last syllable but half aspirated, you have the original 
as given to me — Wau*ib^shah. 

Me-quar^i-gOj from Me-quan-i-go iok« likewise the name of the 
town. Hic-wan signifies a ladle — a bend in each stream known 
by that name resembling a ladle, seems to have given the name. 
That the resemblance may be detected, it may be well to remark, 
that the Indian ladle is a very crooked utensil, with the handle 
turned quite over the bowl. 

Ko8hrh(Hiong^ or more properly, Kosh-kaw a-nong, (third sylla- 
ble unnaccented,) signifying ^Hhe lake we live on," was for many 
weeks, the lurking-place of the families of Bla^ok Hawk's war- 
riors, in the troubles of 1832. 

Wau-pee-ty-seepej or Tooth River, a tributary of the Wisconsin 
above Grand Bapids. Wau-pee ty (full accent on first, and half 
accent on second syllable.) signifies tooth — Chippewa probably. 

Dm Plainea Biver, in Bacine county, or more properly, Bivor 
jmx Plaines, named by the French, signifies, soft maple. 

Oconomewoc, Scupemong, Fewaukie, Odhkosh, Taycheedah,. 
Wauwatoosah, Techora, Kaukulan, and a host of other n^uaioal 
names remain, to invite the elucidation of contributors, among 
whom I hope to see the names of Qovemor Doty and JULr. Euji. 

ICn^wAUXLES^ July lO, 1819. 





Being pereonallj tiDacqaainted with the langaage of the Chip- 
pewas, and consequentlj their customs, I have taken some pains to 
procure the information desired by the Historical Society. I first 
applied by letter, and then in person, to Mr. William Cross, who 
resides in the northern part of this county, and from him have 
derived the necessary data to enable me to make up the narrative 
I now communicate. For want of time, he could not give all the 
information desired by the Society, but he assured me that be will 
pursue the subject still further, if requested to dp so. I think Mr. 
Cross has the ability to give as correct information as can be ob- 
tained relative to the traditions and customs of the Chippewa 
tribe, having been many years among them, and enjoying in a 
high degree their respect and confidence ; and being a good 
scholar beside, is able to communicate correctly. 

Indian curiosities, such as wampum, drums, medals, pipe» 
of peace, war-dresses, medicine bags, ^c, Mr. Cross informs me 
cannot be procured, except by purchase, as they consider them 
sacred things, and place a high estimate upon them. Should an j 
of these articles be desired by the Society, I will endearor to pro- 
etire them when inatnicted to do so. 



I will now proceed to give a list of the Chippewa names, with 
their significations, of the tributary streams of the Wisconsin riv- 
er, from the Forks down to Point Bas, a distance of one hun- 
dred and twentj-five miles hj land, and about two hundred by the 
river. Of the Chippewa terminations Sehe or Se-pee and IFd- 
shance^ theformer signifies river^ and the latter creek. 

Ma-nato-kik-e-we-Se be — Stooping Spirit River. 

Skana wong-Se-be-we-shancc — ^The creek that runs through 

Shin-gwack-Sebe-we shance — Little Pine Creek. 

Mush-koda-wunSebe we shance — Little Praiiie Creek. 

Oska-ki-ra jaw-Se be — New Wood River. 

Pequa-bik an Se-be-^Rocky River, better known ^as Copper 

Pan-gaw do-wajSe-be-wg-shance — Ball Play Creek, now known 
as Devil Creek, 

Musb-ko day yaw-Sebe — Prairie River. 

Shingwack-Se-be — Pine River, 
. Tah so-so win-ing Se-be — Dead Fall River, now known as Trap 

Opic-wun-a Se-be — Rib River. 

Wahyaw con-ut-ta-gua-yaw-Se be — Clear Water River, now 
known as Eau Claire, 

She-sheg-e-ma-we-she can Se-be — Soft Maple River, now known 
as Eau PUine^ or Full Water. 

Ma-no-mi n a-kung-a-kauy -Se-be — Rice Stalks River, now known 
as LitUe Eau PUine, 

Au pnh-ki-ra-kan-e-we-Se-be — River of Flags, now ^known as 
Plover River, 

Wau-peeteeSe-be— Tooth River, now known as Mill Creek. 


Tliere are several rapids and falls on the Wisconsin river, with 
most of which theLidianff have some superstitious notions associ- 
ated. The first is a smaU rapid just below the Forks of the Wis- 
consin, called by the Chippewas Wa-bo je-wun, or Narrow Falls, 

dicative of their character. The UQzt are the ^^Bre^kr-beaux^" 


or Grand Father Ball Falls, which are the largest on the Wi^con- 
6in,aiid are called by the Indies Ko-na-je-wnn, which signifies 
the Long Falls. These falls are two miles in length, having 
three perperidicular falls of several feet each in that distance. 
There is said to be one hundred feet fall in these three successive 
rapids. Thcj were never run bj the whites, and but one instance 
is known among the Indians of any of their people having passed 
them in safety. The Indians have a tradition, that there is a great 
spirit that presides over tlieso falls, to which they make an appro- 
priate offering. A portage passes around the falls on the west 
side of the river, where the Indiana cariy their canoea on their 
heads for a mile and a halt. About midway on the portage ia a 
solitary rock, abont ten feet in circumference at the base, and about 
four feet highy in the shape of a cone or sugar-loaf, on which the 
Indians mako an offering of tobacco. This offering, it is said, is 
preserved by the spirit until an Indian passes along destitute of 
tobacco, when it is given to him. 

In 1S40, these falls were navigated, in a bark canoe, for the 
first and last time by two Indians — the Black Natl and the Ckow. 
At the head of the falls before starting. Grow held the canoe by a 
rock projecting from the shore, while Black Nail made a prayer 
and an offering to the spirit of the falls. The offering consisted 
of two yards of scarlet broad cloth, and a brass kettle. The 
prayer was iu theae words : " O Great Spirit of the Falls ! I im- 
plore thee to extend thy protecting arm over us as we run these 
mighty waters. Mayest thun strengthen my arm and my paddle 
to*gnide my canoe safely down these dangerous waters. I do not 
implore thy protectiim for nothing; I give thee two yards of scar- 
let, and a brass kettle !" Having finished his prayer, he threw 
the offering overboard, and grappled his paddle, and the canoe 
went bounding over the billows, and ran the falls in safety. 

Ohippewa names of falls or rapids on the Wisconsiii : 

Sa-se-je-wnn — Falls or rapids. 

0-ska-kwa-yaw — New Wood rapids. 

Mosh-ko da yaw — ^Prairie rapidSi now known as Jenmy Bull. 


Iirah-ba-iia-«a-se*je-wnn — One^eided rapids, now called Trap 

Pah-je-tak-a-ke ning^a-ning — The water tbat falls o^er rocks, 
now known as £ig Bull FalU. 

Oh*ka-kan«dah'go-kag — Spraee falls, now known as LUUe JBiiU 

Mis-qaa-wauk-sa 8e*je-wan — Red cedar rapids, now known as 
Oonanfs Rapids. 

Ahda-wa-gam — ^Two sided rapids, now known as Oranfs Bap- 

Bangah je-wim — End of the rapids, now called Whitney Jtap- 
ids^ which are the last on the Wisconsin. 

Chippewa names of towns or villages on the Wisconsin : 

Mash ko-da-yaw-Tosh-ko-bo-je-gun — Jenny Bull Falls. 

Pah-je-tak-a-ke ninganing — Big Bnll Falls, now called Wan- 

Wah yaw-con-nt ta-gna yaw — Ean Claire Mills. 

Oh-ka kango kag — Little Bull Mills. 

Nay-osh-ing — The Point, now known as Du Bay^s Trading 

Kah-kag-e-winche min-it-e-gong — Hemlock Island. This name 
is applied to SteverCs Pointy on account of an island in the Wis- 
consin opposite to the village, covered with hemlock, which is a 
a rare growth in that region. 

Mush-ko-da*ny — Plover, the county seat of Portage county. The 
The meaning of this Chippewa name is ^^ Prairie^" given on ac- 
count of the prairie-like country arouifd it. The trail dividing the 
Chippewa and Menomonee lands runs through this town. Here 
the two tribes of Indians have been accustomed to make the port- 
age from the Wisconsin to Wolf river, by carrying their canoea 
on their heads ; the uistance across being about eight miles. This 
portage is called by the Chippewas Wah<baa-gaO niug-ah ming, 
meaning the Eastern Portage. The ter mination O-ning-ah-ming^ 
means a portage. 

▲thdah-WA gam-*-amad Bapida' MiUs^ 


Ban-gah-je-wnng — Point Bas. 

O-niDg-ah-ming — ^Portage citj. ThiB place is named from the 
portage between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. 

Ho-nung wahna-can-ing — ^This name is applied to La Pointe, 
on Lake Superior, and signifies TeUow Woodpecker^ and was 
given on account of the great abundance of those birds on the 
island on which La Pointe is situated. 

The Ghippewas in Wisconsin are divided into sixteen clans or 
bands, numbering about four thousand persons altogether. Each 
of those bands is governed bj a chief, and each has a head-brave 
or war captain, who leads in war ; a chief orator, who speaks for 
the chief; and a chief medicine man, who is regarded by the In- 
dians as gifted with the spirit of propbesj. Great confidence is 
placed in the chief medicine man, as his services are required on 
all eventful occasions. 

The Wisconsin river band numbers about two hundred Indians, 
and occupies the country from the Grand Rapids up to Tommy- 
Hawk Lake. The Head Chief of tliis band is Osn k a.-ba- wis,or The 
JfesMfiffer; the Head Brave is Ka-kao-o na tosh, or The Sparrow 
Sawk; the Chief Orator is Now-o-com-iok, or The Centre of the 
EaHh ; and the Chief Medicine Man or Conjurer, is MAncA-DA- 
oouNG-A, or The Black Nail^ who performed the feat of descend- 
ing the Long Falls in his canoe, and is represented by the other 
Indians as being a great Medicine Man. He is always called upon, 
fisr and near, in cases of sickness, or in the absence of relatives, 
to foretell whether the sickness will prove fatal, or whether the 
ftiands will return in safety, and at what time. He is also con- 
salted by the Indians when they go out to hunt the bear, to fore- 
tell whether success will crown their efforts. Before performing 
these services, be is always paid by the Indians,with such articles 
an they have, which generally consist of tobacco, steel-traps, 
kettles, broad cloth, calico, and a variety of other commodities. 
H#asiia11y performs after dark, in a wigwam just large enough t6 
admit of his standing erect This lodge or wigwam is tightly 
covenid with mats, so aa entirely to exdnde all light and the pry- 



134 J^ 

ing cnriosity of all ont-siders. , Having no light within thelo^ge, ' 
the acts and utterances of the Medicine Man or Conjnrerare re- 
garded as nijBterioQS, and credalonsly received bj the wondering 
crowd surrounding the tent He first prepares himself in hit 
family wigwam by stripping off all his clothing, when he emergei 
singing, and the Indians oat side join him in the song with their 
drums, and accompany him to the lodge, which he enters alone. 
Upon entering, the lodge commences shaking violently, which ii 
supposed by the Indians outside, to be caused by the spirits.— 
The shaking of the lodge produces a great noise by the rattling of 
bells and deers' hoofs fastened to the poles of the lodge at the 
top, and, at the same time, three voices are distinctly heard inter- 
mingled with this noise. One is a very heavy hoarse voice,which 
the Indians are made to believe is that of the Great Spirft ; anoth- 
er is a very tine voice, represented to be that of a Small Spirit^ 
while tlie third is that of the Medicine Man himself. He pretends 
that the Orb\t Spiaft converses in the heavy voice to the lesser 
spirit, uuintelligibly to the conjurer, and the lesser spiiit inte^ 
prets it to him, and be communicates tlie intelligence to his breth- 
ren without. The corem my lasts about three hours, ^hen he 
comes out, in a h*gh state of perspiration, supposed by the super- 
etitious Indians, to be produced by mental excitement. 
., The present chief of this band, Osiika-ba.wib, is a very sensi- 
ble, intelligent Indian. He went to Washington during President 
Polk's administration, in company with other chiefs, to obtain re- 
dress for some grievances about their payments. They secured 
an appropriation of $6,000, but were cheated out of it by the in- 
terpreter who went with them, who having charge of the moneji 
hid $5,000 of it, and soon after died, so that the Indians got only 
$1,000 of the amount 

Each of the other bands occupies a separate tract of country for 
hunting purposes. The Chippewas all belong to certain family 
tribes or totems. Those belonging to the same totem, are con- 
sidered brothers and sisters, and consequently never mariry;-^ 
These fiuuilx tot^ols or designations, are taken fiom some fiuniliar 


TiBg object, 8Qch m the bear, the wild goose, fish, sand-hill 
iwie, etc. — heooe the bear claa or totem, and so of others. Al- 
i0»i ever/ thing that inhabits land or water, is adopted by certain 
idians as their totem, and some of the Indians belong to differ- 
ii dans or totems at the same time. These marks or totems de- 
»nd from tho lather to the son. When a warrior goes to war 
id takes a scalp from the enemy, he sends or takes it to his fami- 
r. clan or totem, that they may dance over andaroand the trophy, 
Hi recite his deeds of valor. They call their family or tribal 
line ioiamej or toUm. 

The Ohippewas have a singular onstom abont hunting the bear 
I winter. Jonrneying iVom place to place, whenever they camp 
ker dark, the hunters all assemble in a wigwam by themselves, 
cdading the squaws and children. They generally assemble at 
le lodge of the chief Medicine Man of the camp, who presides 
rer the ceremonies, which are commenced by beating on the 
ledicine-drum, and singing a certain number of songs, which are 
mg only on these occasions. The chief Medicine Man sits in the 
kiddle of the lodge, with some broad cloth and calico spread be- 
>re him, ti»gether with a stuffed cub bear-skin, wliile his pipe or 
ilnmet,alreadyfiiled,is placed bofire him on two crotchcd sticks. 
[e then addresses tlie bear in this wise : ^^ O, my brother I we 
re very hungry; we are on the point of starving, and I wish yon 
\ have pity on us, and to-morrow when the young men go out to 
ant you, I want you to ehow yourself. I know yi^rj well that you 
re concealed somewhere close by my camp here. I give you my 
ipe to smoke out of, and I wish you would have pity on us, and 
ive US your body that wo may ealt and not starve." Having thus 
pdken, he takes the medicine-drum and beats on it, accompany- 
ig it with some songs that he recites from two small boards, on 
rhich they are written in hieroglyphics. When he gets through, 
e passes the drum and boards to the next Indian, and so on 
round, till all have sung and beaten the same tliirtg. The per- 
>nnance generally lasts about four hours, when they retire to their 
dveral lodges. In ihe morning, the hunters all go to the medi* 


cine bag of the chief MediciDe Mao, which is generally sttspend- 
ed from a small tree, and take from it some vermillion with which 
they paint themselves, and the noses oi their dogs. Thus pre* 
pared, they start on the hnnt in different directions, and being in- 
spired with faith tod goaded on by hanger, they are almost sure 
of success before night 

Other customs are obserred by them, which also indicate the 
superstition of the Ghippewas. I will notice that of the burial of 
their dead. When an Indian dies, they believe, as did their fore* 
fathers, that he has gone to better hunting-grounds, and has need 
only of s^ much provision as will be sufficient to carry him through 
the journey ; and when there, that he is endowed with a benevo*. 
lent spirit, and in order that he may exercise it, the Indians make 
frequent offerings of such articles as they can spare, by placing 
them at the head of the grave, when any destitute Indian coming 
along, and finding the offering, accepts it as a gift from the bene- 
volent spirit of the dead. 

July 10th, 1851. 





The Territory of Wiscopsin was organized in Jaly, 1836. It 
was divided into three Judicial Districts. Judge Dunk was ap- 
pointed for the Western District, Jndge Irwin for the Middle, and 
Judge FRAnER, of Pennsylvania, for the Eastern. Judge Frazier 
arrived in Milwaukee on a Sanday evening, in June, 1837. He 
put up at the small hotel which stood where ^* Dickerman's Blodk " 
now stands, which was called the »»*»*♦♦ Tavern, 
kept by Mr. Yail. On his arrival, he fell in with some old 
Kentucky friends, who invited him to a private room, for the 
purpose of participating in an innocent game of ^^poJcer.^^ The 
party consisted of the Judge, Col. Morton, Register of the Land 
Office, and two or three others — friends of the Jndge. They com* 
menced playing for small sums at firsts but increased them a3 the 
hours passed, until the dawn of day, 'the next morning — when 
small sums seemed beneath their notice. The first approach of 
day was heralded to them by the ringing of the bell for breakfast. 
The Judge made a great many apologies, saying, among other 
things, that as that was his first appearance in the Territory, and as 
his court opened at 10 o'clock that morning, he must have a little 


time to prepare a charge to the Grand Jury. He therefore hoped 
that they would excuse him, which thej accordingly did, and he 
withdrew from the party. Tlie court met at the appointed hour — 
OwRN Aldrich acting as Sheriff, and Cfrits Hawley as Clerk. 
The Grand Jury was called and sworn. The Judge, with much 
dignity, commenced his charge ; and never before did we hear 
such a charge poured forth from the bench I After charging them 
upon the laws generally, he alluded to the statute against gambling. 
The Englibh language is too barren to describe his abhorrence of 
that crime. Among other extravagances, he said, that ^' a gambler 
was unfit for earth, heaven or heh," and that ^' God Aliidghty 
would even shudder at the sight of one." 

At that time, we had but one session of the Legislature, which 
had adopted mostly the statutes of Michigan, which allowed the 
Court to exercies its discretion in granting stays of executions 
Ac. A suit came up against a man in the Second Ward, who had 
no counsel. The Judge ordered the crier to call the defendant 
He did so, and the defendant appeared. The Judge asked him 
if he had anything to aay against judgment being rendered against 
him. He replied, that ho did not know that he had, as it was an 
honest debt, but that he was unable to pay it. The Judge inquired 
what his occupation fvai. He replied that he was a fishennan. — 
Says the Judge, " Can you pay it in fish ?" The defendant an- 
swered, that '^he did not know but be could, if he had time to- 
eatch them." The Judge turned to the clerk, and ordered him to- 
" enter up a Judgment, payable in fi8)i,and grant a stay of execn- 
tion ior twelve months ;" at the same time remarking to the de- 
fenda^it, that he must surely pay it at the time, and in good^Ay 
for he would not bo williijgr^ to wait so long for " stinking fish." 
Tbo next suit worthy of note, was against Wm. M. Djcnnis, our 
present Bank Comptroller. He, like his predecessor, had no 
counsel. His name was called, and he soon made his appearance. 
He entered the Cuurt-room, wearing his usual smile, whittling,, 
with his knife in the left hand. Tlie Court addressc'd him in a 
loud voice, ^^ What are yoa grinning about, Mr. DiOfKis t " Mr.. 


D. replied, that he was not aware that he was langlnng. Tlie^ 
Court inquii-ed if he proposed to offer any di-foiice! lie replied^ 
tliat ho did, hut wad n*)t ready for trial. '^No matter," said the 
Judge, ^Mhere'd enough that are ready ; the clerk will cDter it 
'continaed,'" The next caHe, ahout which we recollect, was the 
trial of two Indiane, who were indicted for murdering: a man on 
Sock liver. Tliey were also indicted for an assault, with intent to 
kill, upon another man, at the same time. The trial for murder 
came olF first Tliey were found gnilty, and sentenced to be 
hanged. On the day following, they were tried for the assault, 
&c., found guilty, and sentenced to five years imprisonment, and 
to pay a fine of five hundred dollars each. Qi>vemor DonoK, 
however, deeming it too severe to fine and imprison a man after 
he was hanged, commuted it to imprisonment for life. Tlie In- 
dians were confined in a jail a year or two, but were finally par* 
doned by the Governor. 

Judge Frazibb soon afterwards went to Green Bay, and held a 
Court, from whence, for want of a jail in which to confine prison- 
ers, he sentenced a man, for sikne tiifling offence, *^ to be banished 
to Turkey river." After the C»urt adjourned, he returned to Mil- 
waukee on the steamboat Pennsylvania. She anchored in the 
bay, and the Judgt>, who was dead drunk at the time, was lowered' 
by raeoKaof a tackle, into a boat, an^, rowed to the landing, at 
Walker's Point From the effect of this bacchanalian revel be 
sever recovered. His friend, Col. Moktok, took him to his own 
house, called to his aid our best physician'^, and all was done that 
human skill could devise, for the restoration of his health; but it 
was too late; the seeds of death had been sown; he lingered in 
great distress for four or five days, and breathed his last.* The 
members of the Bar, generally, neglected t> attend the funeral ; 
and having no relatives in the State, he hardly received a decent 
burial. Ilis remains were f *llowed to their last re-ting place by 
only two members of the B:.r, (Slessrs. AunoLDand Cbookrr,) be* 

* Uou. WiLUAM C. FftAXiKH, AiiMiclAtc Joc^ f»T Xht TwtiUwj of Wiacnnsiv, died At- 
IDlWAukca. Oct. ISih 1^, ag«J kiziy-iwa ^eora.— JinrrMui Aimattoe, IS4.0, 



eidee a few friends. Thej now remain in the old chnrcb-yard ia 
the First Ward, without even a slah to maik the epot. 

Tlie above sketch was written by iie from memory, for the Wis- 
^onsiny last summer. Wo now re- publish it for the purpose of doing 
simple justice to the living, by adding tbat we have since learned 
that a son of Judge Fbazieb came to Milwaukee some years bince, 
and had the remains of his father renioved to the new cburch- 
yard in the Fifth Ward, and proper tombstones erected over them. 

December 6, 1854. 


Solomon Juivxav was the first white settler in Milwaukee. He 
was a native of Canada, and immigrated to that place in the fall 
cf 1818, and built him a log cabin among the natives. At tbat 
time his family consisted of a wife and one child. His nearest 
white neighbors were at Chicago, Green Bay and Prairie da 
Ohien. He kept a few goods suitable for the Indian trade, and 
for the first seventeen years he was not only the only merchant in 
the place, but the only white man. During that period, a few In- 
dian traders were oooasionally there, but not permanently located. 
In the spring of 1885, a land office having been previously es- 
tablished at Green Bay, this land was brought into market^ and 
Mr. JuKSA¥ purchased a small tract consisting of about 180 
Mres, lying on the east side of the river, directly north of Wis- 
/CDDsin-street Previous to this time, Geo. H. Walxxb, Esq., had 
xx>me and made a claim on what is now called ** Walker's Point,'' 
which lie subsequently obtained a title to. Btjk>v Ejlbousv, 


39q., about that time purchased a tract on the west side of the 
'iver, which has from that time been known by the name of ^' Kil- 
x>urn Town.'' Daniet. Wells, Jr., W. W. Gilmak, Geo. D. 
[) •usMAN, E. W. Edoebton, T. C. Duusman, Geo. O. Tiffany, D. 
[I. BiGHARDB, William Bkown, Jr., Milo Jones^ Enoch Dabling, 
md otheis immigrated abuut the same time, aud made large pur- 
chases of latids. In the course of the summer of 1835, a number 
}t good buildings were erected, and a great many eastern specu* 
aturs came and bought lands at higk prices. Mr. Juneau, about 
liis time, sold an undivided interest in bis lands to Morgan L. 
tfABTiN. lie built a fine dwelling-house on the lot whore MrroH- 
ell's Banking-house now stands; also a large store and ware- 
i«iuse on what is now known as ^' Ludiugton's Oorner." In 1886, 
vhen we came, he was doing a large business both in selling 
pHids and lots. During that season, some two or three hundred 
lioasand dollars^ worth of goods had been brought there to sell, 
j^i^mnd rent was nearly as high as it is now. A merchant with a 
itock of goods would arrive one day, and by the next day noon he 
iroald have a sture completed to open in. Tilings were done on 
Jie California principle. They were usually built of rough boards 
with a ^^ grass floor," and in several instances a blanket was hung 
ip for a partition, and one-half of the tenement rented to another 
or a dollar a day. The town was flooded with speculators, and 
ill made money until the non-residents left and navigation closed^ 
irhen a sudden change ^'came 6*eT the spirit of their dreams." 

The town was left with a large stock of goods, and but few inhab- 
tanta. Merchants and other business men enjoyed the winter in 
lie best possible manner. During the fall quite a large number 
»f actual settlers had arrived, of the right stamp, among whont 
na Q. N. TFells, J. E. Arnold, Henry Williams, Hans Orocker, 
r. fi. Tweedy, L. Blossom, J. W. Pixley, S. H. Martin, Geo. P. 
Delaplaine, Geo. Reed, Cyrus Hawley, Fred. Wardner, A. O. T. 
Breed, Eiiphalet Cramer, Rufus Parks, Curtis Reed, Orsun Reed, 
Bf iiliam M. Dennis, Truman L. Smith, Edmond D. Clinton, A. A. 
Bird, and many otherS| whom time will not allow oa to mention* 


AH had been doing a ^Mand office basineet," anJ had plenty of 
money left to winter on. At this time oar old friend Juneau was 
BappoBed to be worth at least $100^000 with a fair prospect of ite 
being doubled b? the rise of land in the spring. We have often 
seen him in those days go into his store, atler business hours were 
over, and take from thu drawers the money that bis cleiks had re- 
ceived dnring the day for goods and lots, amounting often to 8 or 
10,000 dollars, and put itioose in his hat; and upon one occasion 
we recollect of his hat being knocked off in a playful crowd, when 
Bome $10,000 flew in various directions. In short, money seemed 
to be of no earthly use to him. If a man called upon him to sub- 
scribe for either a public improvement or a charitable object, 
whatever was required he subscribed, without asking wby or 
wherefore. In the meantime he had looked on and seen others 
gel rich on the rise of property that he had sold, and he com- 
meneed buying back lots and paying thousands for those he had 
previously sold for hundi'eds. We recollect very well one circum- 
Btaaoe; his re-purchasing the corner lot, near Yonngs' Ball, for 
$8,700, which he had sold the year previous for $475. He was 
truly in the language of the poet, *^ The noblest work of God, an 
hoBoat man." lie had implicit confidence in every body. 

The spring of 1837 disappointed all our anticipations. A general 
stagnation in business prevailed in all directions. Immigration 
bad almost entirety fallen off. Our currency which was mostly of 
the Michigan " Wild Oat," stamp was no longer a legal tender. — 
Tlierd was no sale for real ostate. The second payments were be- 
comiogdneon purohiisesof real estate, and all who supposed theni- 
Belvesrieh in lands, were not only destitute of money, butthe means 
to raise 't. Some who were able to hold on,kept their property un- 
til ihey could get a handsome advance ; while the majority were 
compelled to Soil for 'What they cduld get, and bankruptcy was the 
inevitable' resnit 

At this time, there were but a few settlements in the interior; 
but the hard times which continned through the years 1837 and 
183I5| inducifd many to leave Milwaukee and locate a *^ claim/' — 


The lands between MHwankeo and Rock River were then anrrej- 
ed, but were not brought into market until the fall of 1889. Da* 
-ring this time they had become thickly settled, and many of theta 
^|aite valnable. The hard times at the East had led many to seek 
a home in the West ; and in the fall of 1839, when these lands 
came into m irket, many of them had beon so improved that they 
were worth from $10 to $100 an acre, while the occupants had not 
ihefii'st ^*red cent" to buy them with. Consequently, a large 
proportion of the settlers were compelled to either sell their im- 
provements for what they could get, or pay from 25 to 60 per 
cent, for money to enter their lands with. 

About this time, Alex. Mitchbll, JIarvrt Bisohabd, the Messrs. 
LcTDiNoroNS, £. Eldbbd and other capitiilists came to Milwaukee, 
and purchased lots at $100 each, that had previously been sold 
from $1,000 to $1,500, and are now selling from $5,000 to $'5,000 
•each. From thatdiy to this, •Hhe rise and prog'-ess'' of Milwau- 
kee has bt^en steady and onward. The price of land has con- 
tinned to advance with the increase of business, and nearly all who 
commenced in business there at that time, and continued to the 
present, have become wealthy and independent. In 1846, the 
Legislature passed an act to divide Milwaukee county, and eatab- 
lish the county of Waukesha; also another to incorporate the citj 
of Milwaukee. At the first charter election in the new city, Sol- 
axon JuKBAU was elected Mayor, which was a well-merited com« 

pliment to the ''old pioneer." 

«« «« «« •»«« 

Mr. JuNBAu, subsequently, left Milwaukee, and settled at tlie 
village of Theresa, in Dodge county, (the name of which should 
be changed to Juneau,) where ho still resides. He has now a 
large fami'y, and we learn, that by hard labor, he gets a comfort- 
ble living. 

We have spun this yarn much longer than we intended ; but the 
Oftme of '*oLDSoLOX'>,^'a4 the Indians used to call him, brings with 
It so many ''sweet recollections of the past," that we could find no 


•topping place nntil our sheet was fall. A notice of him which w% 
eopied last week from the Qreen Baj Advocate^ which stated that 
^ Mr. Juneau left that place in 1830,'' has prompted us to cof- 

, lect that error,^ ami give this hastj sketch of a man who is truly 

, eiie of Nature's Noblemen. 


Waukesha was originallj called ^'Prairie Yillage." Afterwardsi 
the Legislature changed it to 'Trairieville ;" and after the county 
was set off from Milwaukee, it was changed to Waukesha. The 
first white settlers were Meesrs. M. D. and A. R. Cutlkb, John 

Handsbtillb and Luthsb. They came here in the spring of 

1884, not very long after the close of the ^^Black Hawk War.^ 
At that time the land had been purchased of the Indians ; yet^ in 

* Tbe editor of the Oretn B€y Advo4aU» Hon. C. D. Robikson, thoe noticee thU aliet^ 
•f the old pioneer of Milwaukee, and fernishee some additional hc\g relative to earij 
Ktlwaiikee aettlert : ** The Wavksihm PlmMndtr haa a lengthy notice of Hon. Soiomi 
JwvBAV, who, it sayBk waa the first white aeitler in Milwaukee, and correcu our error b 
•Uiing that he left here (Oreen Baj, ) some time about 1830. The brief article whick 
ve made at the time waa penned without any definite knowledge of Mr. JeifiAii'M early 
klatory, other than that we beliered him to be the first settler of Mil«>aukee, and sup* 
peeed, though erroneooaly, thai he went there from Oreen Bay. 

We were reminded by Mr. A.J Tisiv. of this place, that hb father, Mr. Jam Yibav, 
Sea., emigrated to and settled in Milwaukee some years before Mr.JvNiAU went therej 
■Bii that before Mr. Y ikau csme, other white men had settled there. i> r. J. b. BiACBtn^ 
sew of Chicago, had already been there some years before Mr. Vibau, and a Mr. LAraoii* 
BOMB, whoHO children now live in Chicsgo, was there some time before Mr Bbaubibw. 

These fiicts touch oaly the question, of course, ss to the Jitskwhixe settler of Milwsn- 
keei. That Mr. Juhbau ia eolitled to the credit of founding the city, and Ukiiig as a»- 
Hf e and honorable part in ita early guTemment> and ia contributing in a ?erj graai ds- 
gv«er|6 Hb proiptrltj, there is noikiubt.'' 


accordance with the Treaty, they remaioed in possession of it up ' 
to the samiuer of 1836, when it was snrreyed by the General ' 
O »Yernmeiit The Blesflrs. Cutleb bailt the first ^4og cabin^ in 
this town in the year 1834. It was located near where Messrs. 
Bl\ib & Smith's machine shop now stands. Mr. Mandbsvillb at 
that time made a '^claim'' on what is now the ^^school section.*' 
Mr. LuTHKB claimed the land where Mr. Mkteb now resides, on 
section 20, in this town. These were the only settlers who came 
here that year. At that time large tribes of Indians were located 
in tliis county. Their head quarters were at this place; yet their 
vrig warns were scattered np and down the Fox Rirer, (or PUh^ 
taJca^BA thny called it,) from Mnkwonago to Pewankee Lake ; 
and for the first two or three years they were a ^preat annoyance 
to the white settlers. There being no fences, the settlers' cattle 
wonid often get among the Indians' com fields, and caused much 
tronble. The Indians being legally in possession of the land, and 
hairing »he numbers and power to rule, would demand such dam- 
ages as they saw fit ; and upon one occasion claimed and received 
of the Messrs. Citi'lrb a fat ox for the damage he had done their 
corn. In the spring of 1835, Mr. MoMiLLiosr and family came 
and built a cabin where the Court House now stands. Mr. A. 0. 
NiOKELL and Df*. Cornwall located on the south part of the fan& 
now owned by Mr. Niokkll. Mr. Iba Scxwabi located on^what 
is now known as the ^^Cnshman farm," and Messrs. Isaac and 
BicHABD Smabf located where they now live. These were the on- 
ly settlers who came that year. 

During]; the summer and fall of 1836, Mr. MaRBAT loca- 
ted on what is now William Wnrrs's farm. Messrs. Nelson and 
Thos. H. Oun located on what is now known as the 'Kxale far.xi.'^ 
Mr. SsBaiCANT located on the we^t side of the river, near the wa- 
ter-power. Soon afterwards, this townshiv> was surveyed, when it 
aeeuied that the Messrs. Cutlkr, McMillan and Sbeqeant were 
all on one quarter section, where the village and mills are now 
Licated. This, for some length of time, was a bone of contention^ 
all being auxioos to ^^claim" the water-power. In the fall of that 


year, Mr. Nathawifl Waltox, with his family, located whore 
thej Btill rec$ide, near this villHge. Up to tliis time, Mrs. MoM^il- 
LAN was the only white woman in this part of the country; conse- 
quently there was no tea table gossip at that time. Mr. McMillan's 
cabin, wiiich was about 16 bj 24 feet, was the only public houae 
in the place, and an interesting sp«>t it was, too. 

At that time we were located at Milwaukee, and came out here 
often. Upon one occasion, we stopped with twelve others at tliia 
hotel over night, there being but one room and two beds in the 
Jiouse. We have often seen the hogs occupy the inside of the 
)u>nse, and the whiskey barrel placed on the outside to make 
room. If a landlord, at that time, could raise a barrel of flour, 
,poik and whiskey, it was all that was necessary for a '^first-ciaaa 
hotel" In. short, tavern keeping was more an act of necessity 
than choice with many, as the settlements were so few and far be- 
tween that they wore compelled to keep all travellers that came, 
.regardle^8 of their means of accomm«)dation, as all preferred 
keeping on a floor to a bed, or on a blanket in the open flelds, as 
we were often compelled to do. 

In the spring of 1887, we came here to look at a claim owned 
by Mr. Cltler, which he had thcfi recently purchased of Mr. Lu- 
THKB for five hundred dollars. We stopped with Mr. Waltoh, 
^holit that time kept the best house. In the morning we started 
-on foot, in C(»mpany with Mr. M. D. Cutler, to view the "claim" 
— a distance of about four miles. AVhen we came to the river, 
which at that time was nearly two feet deep, Mr. C. commenced 
fording it. We backed out, and proposed to return to the hotel 
for our pony ; but Mr. C. insisted on our trying our pedestrian 
powers in the water, and after spending some time in consultation, 
be supplied the place of our pony, and carried us safe throngh 
.the rivc-r. Upon arriving at the "claim," we found it to be "all 
our fancy painted," and we soon closed a bargain for it at $1,000, 
paying in four (paper) city lots, at $250 each. 

Previous to tliit time, Mr. Obrik Baowif had come and located 
.on the quarter aection where the '^Suine Qnarry" is; and Ifr. 


^audebvillk having found biraselfi after the snrvej, on the sohool 
section, located on the quarter section that Mr. A. Minob now 
lives on. In the course of that season, Messrs. £. D. Clinton, Z. 
Bidwell, Honrjr Bowron, James Y. Watson, J. M. Wells, J. Rice, 
J. W. Kossman, E. Churchill, Ezra Mendall, Joel Bidwell, Dan- 
iel Thompson, Robert Love, Mioses Ordway, Sabina Barnej, Asa 
8. Watson, and Pi^er N. Cushman, located on different claims in 
this town. This comprised the whole settlement here, in the year 

In the spring of 1838, several new settlers immigrated. Among 
them were H N. Davis, James Buckner, Charles Crr>wnheart, Ira 
Driver, B. F. Cliamberlain, O. N. Iligley, Albert White, James 
and Edward W. Kinjrt I. C. Owen, Daniel Chandler, Allen Clin- 
ton, Lyman and E. W. Goodnow, and several utliers. During that 
sea-^on, James Buckner and Mr. Bowron built what is now a pait 
of the '^Prairieville Uouse.'^ Robert L'lve built a small frame 
dwelling h luse, and we another. These wei'e the only framed 
buildings in this connty at that time. Associations had been firm- 
ed by the settlers for the mutual protection of each other in their 
'' claims." Each had his claim registered, and was protected in 
the peaceable possession of so many acres, which was altered from 
time to time by the Association. At first, each man was allowed 
to claim 160 acres; after wh ch '* claims" became more valuable, 
and it was extended to a whole section. Disputes having arisen 
between the Messrs. Cutler, McMillan and Sebgkakt, (who were 
all on one *' claim,") several '^ claim trials'' were bad, and finally, 
the Messrs. Cutlkb bought off the other claimants. In the mean 
time, M. D. Cu tlkr had bought out Mr. Brown, and taken posses- 
sion of the quarter section where he now lives. 

Up to this time, the only provisions used or seen in the country 
were salt pork, flour and potatoes. Flour was worth in Milwaukee 
$16 1> $17 a barrel, purk $30 to $33, p.>tatoe.s $2 to $3 a bushel; and 
tlie price of hauling a barrel of pork from tLern was $5, and otlier 
freights in proportion. Tbe road from here to Milwaukee was any 
whore we cliose to travel, as travellers generally preferred new 


rontes each time, knowing that a change mnst necessarily be ax^ 
improvement. It had never been cut out through the timber, and 
each traveller was compelled to carry an axe to cot the trees^ 
whenever he ran against them. Previoas to the summer of 1838, 
there were bnt few settlers between hero and Milwaukee. 

Daring the summer of 1836, Messrs. Camp and Aicdbews bad 
settled at Mnkwonago, Messrs. Hatch and Eookwell at Oconomo- 
woc,and Messrs. Fuller and Pobtbb in Pewankee, where they now 
live ; and in 1837, Messrs. Edokbton and Dousman located their 
claims in Summit and Ottowa, where they mm reside. The same 
•eaeon, Mr. John Gale, who then lived at Milwaukee, bought Mr. 
Ootlbb's claim to the quarter section containing the water power, 
for $6,600, and the next season built a fl«>ur and saw-mill on it. Af- 
ter which he sold an undivided interest in it to Wm. A. B^Rsn^w 
and BoBEBT Lockwood, who, in company with him, laid it out into 
Tillage lots, many of which were sold at a high price, and bonds 
for deeds given '^hile the title still remained in the General Gov- 

In October, 1839, the lands were brought into market and sold. 
At that time all the best locations had been taken, and e^ch occu- 
pant was permitted to purchase his land at public aucticm, at the 
minimum price of $L 25 per acre. Many of the &ettle.'S being 
poor, paid from 25 to 50 per centr for money to purchase their 
lauds, and allowed the speculators to take the titles to them in their 
own names, as security for the money loaned ; whereby in the end, 
being unable to pay, they lost their all. All those who succeeded 
in paying for their lands, and have remained on them up to the 
present time, have become wealthy ; while some, who were unable 
to pay for their lands, sold their improvements for what they 
could get, and commenced anew on unimproved lands. From that 
time to this, the settlement ot our county has gme forward steadi- 
ly, and the lands are now mostly owned and occu]»ied by actual 
settlers. Several large and flourishing villages have been built 
up in the county, which time and space will not allow us to apeak 
•f^ on this occasioiL 


In 1847, tho *'Milwaalcee and Waakesha Railroad CJo.** was in- 
corporated, and Bubseqnently it was changed to '^ Milwaukee and 
Hississippi,'' and exfeh^'ed to the Missi^sippi. Tiie road was com- 
pleted from Milwaukee to this village in March, 1852. There are 
ftUo charters for three other Railroads running through this vil- 

The xilla&ce of Waukosha was incorporated in 1853, and now has 
m popuIati(»n of about 2,200. It contains one saw mill, one flouring 
Biill, two foundries, one railroad car factory, one machine shop, 
ene threshing machine manufactory, two breweries, nine black- 
smith shops, nine b<iot and shoe shops, two paint shops, one cooper 
shop, one carriage and wagon manufactory, two tailors' shops, two 
millinery establishments, twt> jewelry shops, three saddle and har- 
ness establishments, two cabinet ware-rooms, two tin and sheet- 
jron establishments, two etone-cutting establish- 
ments, two butchers' shops, three drug st»res, three stationery and 
book stores, three hardware stores, five dry goods stores, seven 
grcKseriei>, three hotels, two livery stables, nine physicians one 
daguerreian room, one portrait painter, otie dentist, seven lawyers, 
twelve minit)ti*rd of the gospel, besides Rey. Dr. Sataoe, Presi* 
dent of Carroll College ; eight churches, the court-house and jail, 
a college, a female seminary, the Waukesha County Bank, two 
printing presties, one literary paper, and two newspapers. 


Some time in the month of February, A. D. 1837, we in cx)m« 
pany with Augustus Story, (a nephew of the late Chief Justice 
Bn>ST,) s'arted from Milwaukee on a tonr to the mining regions* 
We were both young and green in evtry thing connected with 


western life, if not Dpon general principleB. Onr ontfit eonsi^ted of 
two Ifidtan poiiieSi rigged with pack-saddles, sadcJIe-bags, hlankete, 
*' provisions for man and beast," with a fuw extra '^ Ifquids." The 
snow was about ten inches deep, and the weather extremely cold 
— say 10 or 15 degrees below 0. We reached Prairie Village the 
firdt night, pretty much ^'nsed up," being unaccustomed to riding, 
especially through heavy timber, where there was no road, except 
what we made for each other, in travelling in ^^ Indian file.'' At 
Prairie Village, (now Waukesha,) we put up at the best house in 
town, which was a small log cabin, abput fifteen feet square, and 
contained but one room and two beds. Some five or six travellers 
from other directions, had arrived in advance of us, and a ^' sight" 
for lodgings looked rather dubious. Upon inquiry, we were told 
that we could stay, as it was a standing rule of the country to en- 
tertain all travellers, regardless of accommodation, for nece^Bity 
compe'led it. After partaking of a very palatable supper, con- 
sisting of fried pork and bread, the two beds were properly divid- 
ed among the crowd upon the floor ; but, having a good supply of 
blankets ourselves, we refused our proportion, and made our bed 
near the stove ; ^ad being so much fatigued, from our journey, we 
soon fell asleep, and did not even awake until daj light pres^6d 
the duty up<>n us. After, having breakfasted, we resumed our 
journey in the direction of Fort Atkinson. Being aware of the 
fact, that there was no house on the route between Prairie Village 
and that point, we prepared ourselves for the worst. The road was 
but an Indian trail, completely hidden by the snow ; so we were 
compelled to travel by compass instead of "trails." We reached 
Bock River just as the daygod was sinking in the west; and, as 
good luck would have it, we discovered a light a short distance 
fiom the river, and directed our steps towards it. Upon our arri- 
val at thoHpot from whence it proceeded, we found some o!d ft it^nds, 
whom wo had previoualy seen at Prairie Village — the Messrs. 
FoSTKR, of Fort Atkinson. This was the only cabin in the place. 
It had just been completed, and was located near the old Kort. 
Beader,if you were ever cold, hungry, weary, ^^dry** and wet, at 


the same time, yon csn imngine onr feelings on that occasion. The 
accoininodatiiHis were somewhat limited, it being h log cabin of 
about the usual size, and contained but one room occupied by two 
families. Ten travellers, besides ourselves, had bespoken lodg* 
ingB fur the night ; still we were comfortably provided for. 

Tlie next morning, with much reluctance, we again resumed our 
journey, weary and sore. We would willingly have retreated ; 
but did not do so, lest wo should be laughed at. Wo were in* 
formed that the next nearest stopping place (except among the nr. 
tires) was at IIanet^s, near the Blue Mouude, a diotance of 50 
miles. It was a cold, cloudy day. Our compass, from some un- 
known cause, refused to perform its duty; and after travelling 
five or six miles, we wore unab!e to determine whether we were 
going west or cast. Our comrade becoming weary and dit^cour* 
aged, seemed determined to take the back track ; but this we de- 
murred to, as being contra to our early education. We took the 
lead, and kept it till about 3 o'clock P. M., when, looking round 
for onr friend Story, we found that we had distanced him, and that 
he was not in s'ght We halted for a short time, when he came 
up, and insisted upon ^^campiug'' upon the spot.^ We as-^nred him 
that we would reach an Indian settlement, on the First Lake, be- 
fore dark and prevailed upon him to fallow. lie finally consented 
to do 80, and we again led the way till night overtook us, when we 
halted on the banks of the Catfi-h river, near the ])ro8ent site of 
the village of Dunkirk. After brushing the snow away from au 
old log, wo struck up a fire, turned our pony loose to browse, and 
made preparations for lodgings. Our compauion had not yet ar- 
rived, and we started on the back track in st^arch of him. Twi- 
light was fast deepening into night ; and it soon became so dark, 
that we could only proceed in the direction from whertce we came 
by feeling the footprints of our pony in the snow. Placed in thii 
dilemma, we knew not what course to pursue. The wolves com- 
menced howling around us, evidently intending to give us their 
hand, without a f irmal introduction ; and at times they Would sp- 
pnmch ao near ua that we could aoo their glaring eye-balls through 


the darkueas. In this manner we felt onr way back for the distance 
of abont a mile, when we met our companion who was coni|jlete- 
]j exhausted. He was proceeding on foot, feeling his way, and 
leading his pony — cursing both us and the country. We as<)iired 
him that we had procured the best of lodgings, at the ^earu^t ho* 
tel, which was but a short distance ahead ; and iu this way we 
kept his spirits up until we reached the lodgings which we had 
provided by the "old oaken " log; and never were mortals more 
happy than we were on reaching it After ^pancelling our pimies^ 
and turning them loose to browbC, we looked after our provisions^ 
and found that they had "stepped out," or, in ot >er words, we had 
lost them; and nothing had we in the shape of refreshments, ex- 
cedt a bottle, about half full, of "iourth proof." We took that 
to the river, for the purpose of dilating it with water, and tiius ma- 
king it more palatable ; but we found the river frozen over. We 
attempted to break the ice with our fist, but it was stronger than 
we had anticipated ; and after dcaUug it a few blows, our knuck< 
les " backed out" After seeking in vain to find a stone near by 
we conceived the idea of breaking the ice through with our bottle ; 
but at the first blow the bottle yielded, instead of the ice; and 
away went the last t)f our liquid refreihmerUs. We returned to 
the camp, and found our friend engaged in endeavoring to re-kin- 
die the fire, which had nearly expired. We informed him of our ' 
misfortune, and at the same time reminded him that it was useless 
to mourn for ^^spilled milk," or brandy. After a while we succeed* 
ed in reyiviug the fire, which we took tnma in replenishing with 
fuel daring the night. It was bo cold that we should have been fro- 
sen before morning, had we not kept up a fire, which, t<»gether 
with the time occnpied in keeping the wolves at bay, occupied one 
or the other of us antil day dawned upon as. The wolves watch- 
ed every move we made, as thoagb, (if possible,) they were mure 
hungry than ourselves. 

We were ^^ up and dressed " in good season in the morning — not 
having slept at all daring the night — and proceeded up the Cat- 
fish rirer, knowing that that ttreaoi would lead us to the " Fourth. 


[jako,'' where were several Indian wig-warns ; and when there, we 
i^oald obtain 8otnethin<j: to eat, even if it was not of the cljoicest 
kind. At about noon we reached the First Lake, and seeing moc- 
casin tracks in the snow, we followed them a short distance to a 
wigwam, but found it tentantlcss. After searching it from top to 
bottom, we found a few cold roasted potatoes, which, we assare 
yon, (after liaving fasted fi^r twenty-four hours,) relished well. — 
Wc remained in this wigwam an hour or two, atid then passed on 
t» the point where Madison is now located. At that time, neither 
the axe, nor '^ the shovel and the hoe," liad been hung up or laid 
down in that vicinity. It was nearly sundown when we crossed 
the Third Lake. After travelling over the first eminence — where 
the Capitol now stands — we struck a ravine, (between Capitol* 
square and the present site of the University,) where we made a 
halt, struck up a fire, and encamped for the night, without even 
making any inquiry about supper. The cold potatoes which we 
ate at noon, snpplied the place of breakfast, dinner and supper. 
The weather had moderated a little, which, together with the 
hardships of the journey, and our extreme fatigue, caused us to 
slt-ep quite comfortably during the night. The next morning we 
crossed Fourth Lake, a distance of about four miles, where we saw 
a small log cabin, which was the first building of the kind we had 
seen since leaving Fort Atkinson. We knocked at the door, but 
all was silent We were both cold and hungry, and the sight of 
a cabin was some relief. We did not wait for/*eremony, but bolted 
in, where we found a squaw and some four or five pappooses. We 
•poke to her in the Pottawatamie language, but she made no reply. 
We were soon satisfied that she did not understand us. We then 
made all the signs tliat our Indian education or ingenuity would 
admit of, t> show her that we were hungry ; but all in vain. We 
•zpi'Cted that her husband would soon come in and kick us out of 
doors, without waiting for an explanation, and were at a loss what 
to do. A white man, however, soon came in, spoke to us in good 
English, and seemed glad to see us. He informed us that he was 
a Canadian, that the sqnaw was his wil'Si and that the children 


were also his. The squaw belonged to the Winnebago tribe, and 
Bpoke a different language from the other Indians in the vicinity. 
He had been an Indian trader there for years. The latids wbich 
he had cultivated had been sold without his knowledge; for, in 
frtct, he took no interest in anything, except trading in fun*, &c. 
His wife, on being made acquainted with our wants, flew around 
and prepared fur us a supper. It was a kind of pot pie, which rel- 
ished very well. After finishing our meal, we inquired what kind 
of meat we hacf eaten, and were informed that it was musk rat. — 
We remained there till morning, and then lefc for tiie ^^Blne 
Mounds.'' In the meantime, we had become blind, from the efftct 
of Bore eyes, caused by too frequent ezpofiure of our ocular organs 
to the smoke. 

At Blue Mounds we found Mr. Ebenfzkk BKiofiAM, who still 
resides there. By this time, our eyes had become so sore, that we 
could not bear the light We remained at tho Mounds a day or 
two, while our friend Stohy went on to Mineral Point. Being 
anxious to arrive at the ^' diggings," whether we were able to see 
or not, we hired an Indian to lead our pony, mounted upon his 
back* and proceeded to Mineral Point. We were obh'ged to ride 
blindfolded, to protect our eyes from the wind. We arrived at the 
Point a little after dark, on Sunday evening. We were conducted 
into a room at tho principal hotel, kept by Mr. Nioiioi^ ; but still 
kept our eyes bandaged. There were all kinds of fun, sports and 
music going on in theVoom. After sitting a while, wo removed 
the bandac];e from our eyes, washed them^ and found that they 
were much better. Such a sight as presented itself to our view, 
we never saw bo^ore or since. It seemed that tho miners were in 
the habit of a.sembling there on Saturday nights, to drink, 
gamble and frolic until Monday morning. The house was com* 
posed of three or four log cabins put together, with passage ways 
cut from one to another. This was the only public house in tho 
place. The bar room, in which we were sitting, contained a largo 
bar, well supplied with all kinds of liqnors. In one c<»rner o< the 
roomi was a Faro Bank, discounting to a crowd around it; in aiio- 


ther corner a Roulette ; and in another, sat a party engaged in 
playing at cards. One man sat back in a comer, playing a fiddle, 
to wliose masic two others were dancing in the middle of the room. 
Hundreds of dollars were lying upon the tables ; and among the 
crowd were the principal men of the Territorj^ — men who held high 
and responsible offices then, anddtf now. Being pretty much worn 
out by our journey, we expressed a wish to retire. The landlord 
showed us flirough a dark room, and opened the door of an- 
other, inT which two men were also playing at cards, and a third 
lay drunk upon the floor. The landlord eat down his light, seized 
the drunken man by the collar, and dragged him i^to the next 
room. He soon returned, and informed us that we could choose 
between the beds — there being two in the room — and bid us good 
night. We sat down upon the side of the bed, and began to figure 
in our mind upon the chances. We had several hundred dollars 
in our pocket, which we had brought with us, for the purpose of 
entering land.* "We imagined that in case they sliould get 
'' short," they might call for our "pile." 

After studying a while, we threw down the outside blanket, 
find quietly crawled into bed witli all our clothes on, except cap and 
boots. We had a good bowie-knife in our belt, and a pistol in 
Bach pocket; we clasped a pistol in each hand, and in tliis way 
we lay until daylight, and a longer night we never wish to see. — 
When daylight made its appearance, wc got up; our room-mates 
were still playing at cards. On going out t^ the bar-room, we 
Eband tliat tlie crowd had mostly disappeared ; there were here 
and there one or two asleep around the room, and all was still. — 
Die next day, our companion, (Mr. SroEY,) who had been visiting 
iome friends near by, came round. We catered our lands and re- 
tamed tp the Blue Mounds, where wo laid in a store of provisions 
and left for home, which we reached in four days, having learned 
the way, the faro, the mannera and customs of the miners, and 
haTe seen enough of travelling in a new country to last us from 
that time to the present. 

* Pwhapt it would b« well to aUto here, in eonnection with thii Uict, tbtt Uu* was 
pnrieiw to our coDDection with poUtiM or nawtpftpen. r. 



1. MauiMcript sUtoments and narratiTea of pioneer acttlors — ol \ letters and joumali 
velatiTo to the enrly hintory and settlement of Wigconsiii, nnd of the Blnck Hawk War ; 
biographical notices of ^ur pioneers, and of eminent citizens, deceased ; and facta tUos- 
trative of our indiaii tnbes, their hlKtory. chanictoriaiics. sketches of their pruminMit 
chiefs, orators and^ warriors, together with contributions of Indian inapl<uoents, dnm, 
ornaments and curiosities. 

3. PilcR of newspafiers, books, pamphlets, collegfo catalogues ; mf nutos of ecclcsiifti- 
cal conventions, astnciatioDS, coafereucfs and synods, and other publicati<%i8 relatiagto 
this State, or Michigan I'erritory, of which Wisconsin formed a part froimlnlS to 1835— 
and hence the Te'-ntorial Laws and Journals, and !ilcs of Michigan newspapers for thit 
period, we are peculiarly anxious to obtain. 

3. Drawings And descriptions of our ancient \nonnda and fortifications, their lise, 
representation and locality. 

4. Information respecting any ancient coins, or otlior curiositses fotmd in WisconsiD. 
The contribution of buch articles to the Cabinet of the Society is respectfully solicited. 

5. Indian geographical namos of streams and localitiea in this State, with their ftlgoi- 

6. Books of all kinds, and especially such ns relate to American history, travels and 
biognq)by in general and the West in genealogies, old ma{raKines.pamph- 
lets, files of newspapers, maps, historical manuscripts, autographs of dibtinguished 
persons, coins, medals, paintings, portraits, Ktatuar}' and engravings. 

7. We solicit from Historical S(tcietios and otlier learned bodies, that Interchange of 
books and other matenals by which the usefulness of institutiouH of this nature is «> ' 
essentially enhanced — pledging ourselves to repay such contributions by acts in kind to 
the full extent of our our ability. 

8. The Society particularly begs the favor and compliment of authors and publishcn* 
to present, with their autographs, copies of their respective worki* for its Library. 

9. Editors and publishers of newspapers, mofn^ziues and revjows. will converalirfig 
favor on the Society by coutiibuting their publications retrularly for its library— or, at 
least, such nnmbors as may eoutaiu articles bearing upon Wisconsin h story, biagniiij, 
geography, or antiquities ; all whivh will be carefully preserved for binding. 

Patkr.ifes for the Society may ha sent to, or depowted with, the following gcnt1eiflM» 
▼ho have kindly consented to take charge of them. Such parcels, to prevent uiiiitAhlib 
should be properly envelofH-d and addressed, even if but a single article ; nud it wodd, 
farthermore, be desirable, that donors should f(»rward to the Corresponding SecreUiJ * 
gpecitication of books or articles donated and deposited. 


Gi f& J. A. HmsiN, at Lippincott, Grambo A Co.*s Philadelphia. 

Samuel G. Ubaicf., Antiquarian Bo ^k Store, liostou. 

Charles B. Noaro.N, Aht<ir Place. New York. 

JoBi. MuNSBLi., Publisher, 78 State Street, Albany. 

GEoaoB OooKN Deeto <& Co., Washington City. 

C. R. Stabkweatheb. No. 102 Mlchi^ptn Avenue, Chicago. 

0. C. SimioNs, City Recorder, St Louis. 

L A. Lapuam. Milwaukee. 

David Andeeson. Cincinnati. 

Jesse Clembjit, Editor Western Literary Messenger, Buffalo. 

ff Donors to the Society's Library and Collections will, in return, be plieed qbob 
th« hat of exchAogee, and receive equiValtnt pnblicatioiis of tibe Society. 



f officers for the year 1S55. .•.....•••••.. % • 3 

lal Report of the Executive Committee. • 5 

" " Treasurer l9 

I Bay in 1720 21 

11*8 Journal at Green Bay, 1761-63 24 

e*s Recollectioii3 of Green Bay in 1816-17 •• •••••••••••• 49 

lleRej'a R'tonllectionB of a Tour in Wisconsin, in 1832 •••••• 64 

id of the Winnebngoes ••••.••••• •••86 

Times in Wisconsin •••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 94 

nuck's Sketch of Calumet county ••••.. • 103 

ttine*s Sketch of Richland county, ••••• ••••• 107 

lon^s Wisconsin Geographical Names. •••••••••••••• • 110 

iway^s Indian Names. • ••••••••••••••••••••116 

Bs' Indian Nomenclature of Northern Wi3C9DsiQ, dec •••••119 

s Remi nii^cences of Wisconsin.. ...••..••..•••••.•.• ...127 

lar — Objects of collection desired by the Society • ^ • • 146 



II, John, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 48 

fts county, derivation of name, 112 

ivs Hon. Charles Francis, works promised, • 11 

iultural, mechanical and scientific works, number in the Library, 7 

9-no to-way, a Menomonee chief, 69 

for Dirdo, an old Sac chief, 20, 41, 43 

ch, Owen, early sheriff of Milwaukee, 128 

ican Antiquarian d«x;iety*s co operation, 9 

Philosophical Society's Transactions, 9 

Ethnoloirical Society's collections, 8 

Geogrspiiical and Statistical Society's collections, 

Institutti's Transactions, 9 

mt, Sir Jeffrey, 46 

ewa, early settler at Mukwanago^ 138 

9 Creek, purity of its waleia, 77 

Id, Hon. Jonathan £., early aetter at Milwaukee, 129, ISI 

at of land, 60 

, John Jacob, [51,01 

I, Qen. Heniy, raarehes in 1827 against the WinBebagoe^ 90 

in the Blaok Hawk war, 72, 79, 88 


Fort, on Rock riVer, * K 

Atwater, Hon. Caleb, contributions, 
Aiwood, Col. David, member of Execntive Committee, 1964-5$, 

contributor of newspaper files, 
Atwood, Hon. J. P., Librarian of the Society, 1854, 

member of Executive Committee^ 1865, 
Aubrej or Auberrj, William, killed at Blue Moundsi 

Bad Axe, battle at, in 1 832, T 6, 6 

Incident prior to, 
Ball Play or Devil Creek, Indian name o^ 
Baraboo Hills, north of the Wisconsin, 
Barney, Sabina, early settler at Waukesha, 
Bantow, Gov. Wm. A., early settler at Wankesha, 

portrait promised the Society, 
Bartlett, Hon. John R., vrorks promised the Society, 
Battle of the Bad Axe, in 1832, 76, S 

Wisconsin Heights, ia 1832, 79, 1 

Bear Creek, Richland county, 1( 

Bear hunting by the Chippevras, 
Beaubien, J. B. early setUer at Milwaukee, 
Beeson, E. contributer of newspaper files, 
Benedict S. G., ** u u 

Belfour, Capt. visits Qreen Bay in 1761, 
Biddle, James W. recollections of Ghreen Bay, 

Edward, Indian trader at Green Bay and Mackinaw 
Bidwell, Joel, early settler at Wankesha, 

" Z. ** " 

Big Bull Falls, or Waosau, Indian name of 
Birchard, Harvey, early settler at Milwaukee, 
Bird, Augustus A., ** ^ 

Black Hawk, Indhin war of 1832 71—85, 9( 

Crtrait of, 
tUe-fields should be painted, 

Blaek Hawk's son, Na-she-a-kusk, or Loud Thunder, 12, 

Black-Nail, a Chippewa, exploit of 
a great Medicine Man, 

Block House Branch of Platte River, 

Blossom, Levi, early settler at Milwaukee, 

Blue Mounds, traditionary battle fought there, 

Ebenezer Brigham settled there in 1888, 

in 1832, fort there, 76, 79, 96 

Bonner, John, killed in the Mining District, 

Bostwick, Henry, an early Wiscon&in Indian trader, 

Boundary line between the whites and Indians aboat^l828, 

Bowron, Henry, early settler at Waukesha, 

Bowyer, Col. John, Indian Agent at Green Bay, 

B«u^beaux^ ot. Orwd Father Bull Falls, 1 S 

'Bmij A. 0. t^ tarly settler al Milwaikaa, 


1, Lieut, in service in the north-weet, 1761, 2V 
im, Ebeaezer, first settler of Dane county, 94 — 102, 144 

2. C. suggested the formation of Wis. Hist. Societj 5 

contributor of newspaper files. 7 

County, derivation of name, 112 

organized in 1818, 61 

, Beriah, member of Executive Committee, 1854 — *5 3, 16 

contributor of newspaper files, 7 

I, Orrin, early settler of Waukesha 138, 137 

William, Jr., early settler of Milwaukee, 131 

rtown Indians, settle in Calumet county, 10^— -106 

obtain rights of citizenship, 105 

an early Wisconsin Induin trader, 47 

>n. Rev. Alfred, Wiaoontin Geographical Names, 110 

; W. C^ works promised 11 

Royal, contributor of newspaper filet, 7 

er, James, early aettler of Waukesha, 137 

of the dead by the Chippewas, 126 

des Morta, early battles there, 74, 88— 9f 

treaty there in Aug, 1827, 69, 73, 05 


IS, Hiram, paper on Indian Nomenclature, 119 

let county, derivation of name, 112 

sketch of, 103 

lUck, Thomas, sketch of Calumet county, 103 

', early settler atMukwanago, 138 

bell, Capt. Donald, of Detroit, 26—38 

Hon. Wm. W, works promised, , .11 

Dter, Stephen H^ member of Executive Committee, 1854, 16 

Librarian -1855, 3 

I or Tomab, head chief of the Menomoneoff, 53 — 58 

1 or Mau-cau-tau-bee, son of Tomah, 58, 69 

f, a Menomonee chief in 1763 38 

r's Travels, copy of, in the Library, 6 

gas-o-egay, a Menomonee chie( i. 69 
en, Lewis, as Gov, of Michigan Ter. appoints judicial officers 

for Wisconsin, 61 

1827, holds treaty at Butte des Morts 69, 73, 95 

efforts to suppress the Winnebaeo outbreak, 95, 96 

opinion concerning tides on the Northern Lakes, 62 

French historieal manuscripts, 21 

portrait promised, 13 

h River, of the Four Lakes, 100, 141 

B-of-the-Eartb, a Chippewa orator, 123 

iler, Daniel, early settler of Wauksaha, • 137 

bera, Col. Talbot, commandant, at Mackinaw and Green Bay, 49—51 

berlin,B.F., early settler of WMikesha, 1S7 

flitown, Calumet county, 104 


Ghateaabriand, love of nature, 6ft 

Chicagoux meotioned in 1726, 28 

Chicago in 1816, 50 

Chippewa county, derivation of name, 112 
Chippewas or Sauteurs, early notices of, 23, 33«— 47, 1 18 

sketch of manners and customs, 119 

Medicine Men, 123, 124 

^ Totems or trilml distinctions, 124, 125 

Bear bunting, 126 

Burial of the dead, 1 26 

Cholera at Galena, in 1832, 86 

Churchill, E^ early settler at Waukesha, 1 37 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers, Edward's portrait of, 12 

county in Wisconsin named after bin, 12 

re-captured Vincenneain 1779, 61 

Clark, Darwin, contributor of newspaper files, 7 

Clarke, Julius T., member of Executive Committee, 1866, 8 

Clay, Thomas H., gift of Napoleon medals, 11 

Clear Water, or Eau Claire nver, Indian name of, 126 

Clinton, Dewitt, personal memorial of promised, 11 

Clinton, Edmund D., early settler of Milwaukee, 131 

early settler of Waukesha, 137 

Allen, ** " 127 

Columbia county, named after Columbus, US 

its primitive beauty, 76 

1827, troops march there, 96 

1 828, Fort Winnebago established, 97, 101 
1832, " garrieoned, 72, 78, 7«, 100, 104 

Congressional publications in the Library, 7 

Conant's or Red Cedar Rapids, Indian name of, 122 

Conjurer or Medicine Man, ^ 123,124 

Conover, Prof. 0. M^ Treasurer of the Society, 1854-6, 3. 16,19 

Continental paper money, 11 

Copper or Rocky river, Indian name of, 120 

Copper ore at Mineral Point, 80 

Cornwall, Dr. early settler of Waukesha, 181 

Cramer, Eliphalet, early settler of Milwaukee, 181 

Wm. E. contributor of newspaper files, 7 

Crawfish, River, 100 

Crawford county, derivation of name 112 

see Prairie du Chien. 

Fort 76 

Crocker, Hon. Hans, early settler of Milwaukee, 128, 181 

Cfioghan, Col. George, Indian Agent 8S 

captured by Indians, 46 

Cross, William, fami^r with Chippewa language andeuitoma 110 

Crow, The, a Chippeini, exploit of 121 

Crownheart, Charles, early settler of Waukedw, 1 87 

CttahoMD, Peter N. <* " 132 


ti^ O; W.*P^ of Ariiagton, promised memorta) of WjnhiDgtoo, 1 1 

hfi M. D. and A. R., early settlers of Waukesha, 134 — 1S7 


16 ooaDtj, origin of name, primitive beauty, 76, 78, IIS 

Blue Mounds, tradiiiooary battle fought there OQ 

Brigham and Haney, early settlers 07, 141 

Indian war of 1832, 70, 70, 98—100 

Rowan, early trader at head Fourth Lake, 100, 143, 144 

former localities of Indian towns, lOl, 141, 148 

ling Enoch, early settler of Milwaukee 131; 

is, H. N. early settler at Waukesha, . 18? 

'is, William, family murdered by Indians, 98, 09 

idson, Rev. Dr. Robert, works promised, 1 1 

d Full or Trap river, Indian name of, 120 

Boisbriante, M., in the Illinois country, 22 

aney, John, contributor of newspaper files, 7 

nplaine, George P^ early settler at Milwaukee, 131 

Ligney, at Green Bay in 1726, 21 

mis, Hon Wm. L., eariy Feltlor at Milwaukee^ ' 128, 129, 131 

Peystor, Col. A, S., commandant at Mackinaw, his volume, 36, 67 

Plaincs river, origin of name, 118 

Biette, M., in the Illinois country in 1726, 21 

roitf a French post in 1726, 22 

1761, surrendered to the English, 06 

in 1761-63, 26—46 

Hamilton's expedition from, in 1778, 61 

surrendered to the United States, 1796, 66 

10 1816, 60,61 

in 1 832, the ultima tbule of N. W. poet offioee, 64 

Gazette, old file of in the Library, 8 

il or Bali Play Creek, Indian name of, 120 

rey, Ex-Go?. Nelson, a V. P. of Wis. Hist. Societyv 3 

portrait promised, 13 

loor Aking, an old Sac chief, 26, 41, 48 

>bi«s Capt., eariy upvigator on the Northern Lakes, 40,60 

Ige, Hon. Henrv, in Winnebago War, 1 827, 96 

in Black Hawk war, 1882, 78, 79, 100 

Gov. of Wis. Territory, pardons Indians, 129 

portrait pmmtsed, 16 

Ife county, namea after Gen. Dodge, * 112 

I<^i11e. in 1 828, 9; 

iver, Ira, eariy settler of Waukesha, 13* 

^i Ex- Got. James D., contributions to the Library, 7, 8 

invited to elucidate Indian nainea, 118 

HBi&, George D.» and T. G., eariy settlers of Milwaukee, 181 

earlv settler of Ottowa, 188 

p«V Lyman C, Cor. Sed. of Wia. Hist Society, 1864~'6, 6. 1^ 

contributor of Mwipaper filei^ * 


ezplanatory notes, 25, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 44, 46, 47, 50, 
61,67, 58, «1, 62, 66, 68, 69, 72, 87, 92, 104, 108, 111 

Drummond's Island, British Indian annuities paid there, 65, 67 

Da Bay's Trading Post, or the Point, Indian name of, 122 

Ducks, wild, on Fox River and Green Bar, 63, 74 

Dunn, Hon. Charles, of the Tertitorial JudiciaiT, 127 

DuiTitt, Daniel S^ member Executive Com. Wis. Hist, Society, 1866, 8 


Eagle Creek, Kichland county, I07 

Sau Claire, or Clear Water River, and Mills, Indian names of. 120, 122 

Eau Pleine, or Full Water River, Indian name of 120 

Edgtfton, E. W. early settler oT Milwaukee, 131 

early settler of Summit, 138 

Edwards, Clement R, portraits of Gen. Clark and Dr. Powell, 12 

Gov. Ninian, of III., re-conveys Indian lands, 98 

Eldred, E., early settler of Milwaukee, 133 

Ellis, Gen. Albert G., a V. P. of Wis. Hist. Society, 1855, 3 

contributor of newspaper files, 7 

invited to elucidate Indian names, 118 

Eod-of-Bapids, or Whitney Rapids, Indian name of, 122 

English take possession of Western ports, m 1761, 25, 66 

surrender them to the United States, in 1796, 66 

Efi&ex Institute publications, 8 

Etherington, Capt. George, surprized at Mackinaw, in 1763, 38 — 47 

sketch of, 47 

Evans, Lewis, early Map and A^nalysis, 6 


Falls of Wisconsin River, 121, 122 
Farwell, Ex-Gev. Leonard J., member of Ex. Committee of Wis. 

Hist Soo, 1864-5, 3, 16 

portrait promised, 13 

Flagg, Hon. Edmund, works promised, 1 1 

First Lake, Indian settlement on, 141 

Fisher, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 47 

Fond du Lac, Lake Superior, 66, 112 

county, derivation of name, 112 

Force, Lieut George, killed by Indians, 80, 99, 100 

Forks of Wisconsin River, 120 

Foster, Messrs., first settlers at Fort Atkinson, 140 

Fort Atkinson, mentioned, ' 100, 140 

Crawford, a\ Prairie du Chien, 75 

Holmes, at Mackinaw, 66 

Howard, near Green Bay, 62, 67, 72, 71 

Snelling, Indim murden there, 71 

Wiicebago, 72, 73, 76, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104 

Four'Lakea alluded to, 78 

H ^ Indian TiibigM •&, 101, 141, 148 

Foorth Lake, early trading oatablishmaiit ct head o( : 100, 143, Hi 


Foxes, or RojDards, traditionarj war with the Winnebagoes, 80 — 03 

war with the French, 93- 

make peace with the French, in 1726. 21 — 23, 
friendly to English, visit Green Bay, <fec., 1762 '3, 31 — 42 
participate in Indian war of 1832, 71— 8X>, 98 — 100. 

Fox River Valley, beautiful scenery oQ 73 

Frankenstein, G. N^ promised painting, 13 

John «« M 13 

Frazier, Hon. William C, of the TerritorialJudiciary, sketch of, 127 

Freight on the Lakes, price of, in 1816, 50. 

French at Green Bay and La Pointe in 1726, 21, 22 

surrender western ports to the English, 1761, 25, 60 

Fuller, early settler of Pewaukee, 13$ 


Gale, John, early settler of Waukesha, 138 
Galena, 75, 76, 81, 85, 05,90> 

Miners^ Journal, early file of in Library, 8 

Geographical Names ef Wisconsin, paper on, 110 

Georgia Historical Society's oo-operation, * 9 

GKlman, W. W., early settler of .Milwaukee, * 131 

Gilmor, Robert, of Baltimore, 24 

GUdwin, Maj. Henry, commandant at Detroit, 36 

Gbddard, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 20, 27, 38, 48 

Goodnow, Lyman and E. W., early settlers of Waukesha, 137 

Gorrell, Lieut James, Journal kept at Green Bay, 10, 24,25 

Gout, Indian remedy for, 54 

Grand Father Bull Falls, navigated by two Indians, 121 

Grand Rapids, alluded to, 123 

Grand Rapids Mills, Indian name of, 122 

Grant County, called after a trapper of that name, 112 

Grant^s, or Two Sided Rapids, Indian name of, 122 

(iraverat, Henry, of Mackinaw, 55, 56 

Green Bay, the French there in 1726, 21 

English there, 1 76 1 —'63, 25, 47' 

in 1 8 1 6 —' 1 7, recollections of, 49—63 

1827, a force marched thence against Winnebagoes, 99 

1832, Indian War, 64, 67, 70, 72 

early military road, and land office 104, 130 

Intelliffencer, early file of, in Library, 7 

Green, Emmerson, killed by Indians at Bine Mounds, 99 • 

Greene County, named after Gen. Greene, , 112 

Grizzly Bear, orator of the Menomonees, 69, 74 

Chouse, abundance of, 76 


Hall, the Miseea, eaptivity and release of, 98, 99 

Hamilton, Henry, British Gk>TerDor| expedition against Yineennes, 61 



Hanej, «ar]j settler of Dana county, 

Hard times in WisconBin, 1837 — '38» 

Harney, Col., superintends erection of Fort Winnebago, 

Harrison, President, personal memorial o^ promised, 

Harvard, University publications, 

Haskins, R. W., Legend of the Winnebagoes^ 

Haseltine, Ira S., sketch of Richland cointy, 

Hatch, an early settler of Oconomowoc, 

Hathaway, Joshua, paper on Indian Names, 

Hawley, Cyrus, an early settler of Milwaukee, 

Hemlock Island, Indian name of, 

Hennepin, Father, early explorer, 

Henry Alexander, an early Indian trader, 

Higley, O. N. afk early settler of Waukesha, 

Historical works, number in library, 

local, useful in tracing genealogy, 

Historical Societies, collections, exchanges and co-operation, 

their uses and value, 
cornmended by Webster and Wiothrop, 

Historical and Scientific Sketches of Michigan, cited, 

Hoetellin^, Peter, early navigator of Lake Winnebago, 

HoIme^ Fort, at Mackinaw, 

Horse tbeivei and gamblers driven off by Brothertowns, 

Howard, Fort, 

Hunt, John W^ Rec Sec. Wis. Hist Society. 1854-'5, 

contributor of newspaper file. 
Gazetteer of Wisconsin, cited, 

Hntchins, Thomas, noticed, 


Illinois, or Isle Aux Noix, Indians, 

country, M. De Boisbriante and M. De Siette, early 
Indian Names, and Indian Nomenclature, papers on, 
Indians^ unfavorable to civilization, 

kindness of General Government towards, 
Indian Waris Winnebagoes with Sacs and Foxes, 

French against the Foxes, 
Pontiac's outbreak, 1763, 
Winnebago disturbance 1837, 
• Black Hawk's, 

International literary exchanges, 
Iowa Indians probably alluded to 
Iowa county, origin of name, 
Irwin, Judge David, of Territorial Judiciary, 
Isle Castor, in Green Bay, 


Jaokaon, President, Mills' Statuette of promised, 

Johnston's portrait of promiNd 


132. 133, 138 








128, 131 







8, 9, 146 






105, 106 

62, 67, 72. 78 














86, 87, 95—97 

71—85, 98—100 


32, sa 


43, 46 



Jamestown, Ruins^ Sully's intended painting of 12 

Jamet, Lieutenant, killed at Mackinaw in 1708, 39 

Jefferson county, named after President Jefferson, 119 

Jenny Bull Falls and Rapids, Indian names of, 121, 122 

Jesilit Relations of New France, 1 643 — ^^4, in Library, 6 

Johnson, Sir William, at Detroit in 1761, 26 

Johmton, John R, portrait of Gen. Jackson promised, 12, 18 

Jonei^ Milo, an early settler of Milwaukee, 131 

Peter, a missionary to the Indians, 111 

Judiciary of Wisconsin in 1837— '8, 127 
Juneau, Solomon, 97, Id0-»1S4 


Ka-kak-o-na-yosh, or the Sparrow Hawk, 123 

Kaush-kau- no-naive, or Qrizzly Bear, 69, 74 

Keokuk, chief of the Saos and Foxet^ 85 

Ke-wau-nee, origin and signification of name, 1 17 

Kickapoos, alluded to, 23 

Kilbourn, Hon. Byron, ehrly settler of Milwaukee, 180 

Kill Snake Settlement, Calumet county, 104 

King, James and Edward W., early Waukesha 8ettl«)n, IST 

Knapp*s Creek, Richland county, 107 

Koshko nong, Lake, lurking place of Black Hawk\i foUowen, 72, 118 


La Bay, or Green Bay, 25 

Lac Courteoreille, origin and meaning of the narae^ 114 

Lac Flambeau, or Torch Lake, origin of name, 114 

LafayetteTcounty, named after Gen. Lafayette, 113- 

Lafromboise, early settler of Milwaukee, 134 
Lake Winnebago mentioned, 26,32, 52, 74, 106 

Landfing and son, killed in the Sac country, 38 

Lapbam, Increase A., V. P. Wis., Hist Society, 8 

LaPointe, French post at, in 1720, 22 

county, origin of name, 113, 128 

La Salle, early French explorer, 66 

Law, John, early influential settler at Green Bay, 58, 6 1 

Iaws, early codes, governing Wisconsin, in Library, 8 

Lead ore, di^ginir and smelling, miners' claims, 80, 81, 98 

Legend of the Winnebagoes, 86 

Letcarbot*8 History of New France, 1609, '6 
Leslie, Lieutenant, in command at Mackinaw, 25, 83, 69, 47 

Lettres Edifiautes et Curieuses, set in Library, 6 

Light Cloud, or The Prophet, 12, 72, 84 

Utde Bull or Spruce Falls, Indian name of, 1 2^ 

Detroit, on south side of Green Bay, 31, 82, 48 

Eau Pleine, or Rice Stalks* river, Indian name of, 12o 

Pine Creek, Indian name 0^ 12o 

Prairie Creek, 12o 

Looal histories, useful in tracing genealogy, 9 


Lockwood, Robert, early settler of Wanketlia, 18S 

Loesing, Benson J^ works promisedi 11 

Lottridge, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 37, 45 

Loud Thunder, Black Hawk's son, 12, 72, 84 

Leve, Robert, early settler of Waukesha, 137 

Luddington, Messrs., early Milwaukee settlers, 133 

Lutliej', early settler at Waukesha, 134, 135 

Mackinaw, early notices of, 25 — 47, 64 — 67 

Hadisou, its primitive appearanoe, 100,101,148 

Maine Hist. Society, uurcpresented in the Library, 8 

Manderville, John, early settler of Waukesha, 134, 137 

Manitowoc, derivation and meaiiiug, 111, 117 

Mann, Moody, early settler of Calumet, 104 

Maps, early, of the West, in tho Library, 6,11 

Martin, Hon. Morgan L., early settler of Milwaukee, 131 

V. F. of the Wis. Hist. Society, 3 

S. H. , early settler of Milwaukee, 131 

Marshall, Chief Justice, Sully "s promised portrait, IS 

Marsh, Rev. Cutting, a pioneer missionary, 104 

Maryland Historical Society's co-operation, 9 

Haskouteiis, 23 

Massachusetts Hist. Society's collections, 8, 9 

McKay, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 26 

McLane, Hon. G-. R., a V. P. of Wis. Hist Society, 3 

McMillen, an early settler of Waukesha, 135, 13G 

McNcilK Col. John, commandant at Mackinaw, 51 

Mend all, Ezra, early settler of Waukesha, , 137 

Medicine Man, or Conjuror, 123, 124 

Menomonecs, or Folles Avoines, 28—47, 52—58, 68—77, 90 

Menomonee, or Shanty Town, Green Bay, 67 

Mil 1 C reek, or Waupeoty River, 1 1 8, 1 20 

Miller, Col. John, commandant at Green Bay, 49 — 52 

Mills, Clark, Statuette of Jackson promised 11 

Hon. Simeon, member Executive Committee, 1854' — 5, 3, 16 

Milwaukee, origin of name, edrly settlement, 32, 35, 37, 1 13, 116, 1 30—134 

Mineral Pointy early notices of, 80, 97, 144, 145 

Mining District, digging mineral, smelting, 80, 81, 98 

Mitchell, S. Augustus, map publications promised, 11 

Alexander, early settler of Milwaukee, l33 

Mont trempe-Feau, origin and meaning, 114 

Moran, an early Wisconsin Indian trader, 38, 48 

Morse, Dr. J., Indian Tour and Report, 35, 68, 61, 111 

Morton, Col., Register of Milwaukee Land Office, 127, 1S9 

Mountain of Stars, origin of name, 114 

Mttk-wan-ago, or Me-qon-i-go, 118, 135, 138 

MuDsees in Wisconsin, 68 

Murry, early settler of Waukesha, 135 

Mnskego, meaning, 117 


Nah-pope, bead chief of the Sacs and Faxes, 72, 84 

Na-Molte, a Menomonee chief 69 

Napoleon medals, 11 

Na-ahe-a kosk, or Loud Thunder, Black HawVs son, 12, 72, 84 

Natural bridge over Pine River, Richland couotj, 108 

IfaTarino, Green Bay, 67 

Nelaon, Menrs., early settlers of Waukesha, 136 

Nesbotab, origin and meaninff, 11^ 

New England Historic-Genealogica] Society's publications, 8 

New Hampshire Hist Society's collections, 8 

New Jersey, u a u 8 

Newspapers, files of in the Library, 7, 8 

New Wood River and Rapid-", Indian names of 120, 191 

New York Hist Society, unrepresented in the Library, 9 

Nichols, early hotel keeper at Mineral Point, 144, 146 

Nickel], A. C. early settler at Waukesha, 196 

Nilee' National Register, full set in Library, 


Objects of collection de8ired|by the Society, 146 

Qconomowoe, 118, 188 

Officers of the Society for 18S5, 3 

Ohio Historical Society's collections, 8 

Oneidas in Wisconsin, 68 

One-Sided or Trap Rapids, Indian name of, 122 

Onondagas in Wisconsin, 68 

OTlaine or Des Plaines River, 97, 1 18 

Opukwa or Rice Lakes, 76 

Ord way, Moses, an early settler of Waukesha, 137 

Osh-k-ba-wis, or The Messenger, a Chippewa chief, 123, 124 

Osh-kee henaw-niew, or The young Man, a Menomonee chief, ^ 69 

Oshkosh, head chief of the Meaomonees, 69 

citT, people early went for milling to Brothertown Mills, 104 
Ottowa Indians, 23, 8 1—47 

Ottowa, eariy settlement, 138 

Onchata, principal chief of the Foxes in 1726, 21, 23 

Owen, I. 0^ early settler of Waukesha, 137 


Parkman, Francis, the historian, 10, 24 

Park), Rufus, eariy settler of Milwaukee, 181 

Peckatonakie river, 97 

Pennensha, an early French trader among the Siour, 41 

Peinsylvania Historical Society's ceoperation, 

Eve. Post, early file of, m Library, 7 

Records and Archives, in Library, lO 

Pittigrew family murdered by Indians^ ^ 99^ 

P«-waakee Lake, Waukesha oonnty, 118, 136 

early aettlement, 188 


Tail, of Milwaukee, 127 

Tattemare's literflrj excbanges, 12 
Yaudretiil, Marquia De, 25, 86 

Vieau, James, SeD.i 
Virginia Hist. Society, 



Wallace, Isaac H^ 108 

Walker, Hon. George H, 1 30 

Walton, Natbaniely 136 

Walworth County, 114 

Wa pe>8heka, or Prophet, 12, 72, 84 
Wardner, Fred., 131 

Warm Cave, in Richland Co., 108 

Warriner, Pliney, 86 

Washington, Geo., Sully's portrait, 12 

personal me*rials, 1 1 
Water, transparency, 11 

Watson, James Y. and Asa S., 137 
Waukesha, 113, 116—118,134, 140 
Waupeety River, 118, 120 

Wausau, or Big Bull Falls, 122 

Webster, Daniel 11, 14 

Wee-nip-pe-goes, 35 

Wells, Hon. Daniel Jr. and H. N, 121 
J. M. 137 

West, early maps of G, 1 1 

Westfal), pioneer of Calumet, 103, 104 

Wild Rice, 28, 63, 74 

Williams, Rev. Eleazcr 68 

Henry, 131 

Willow Creek, 109 

Winnebagoes, 21, 28, 42, 63 

Legend of 86 

hostile, 1827, 86,87,05—97 

Black Hawk war, 74, 75, 76, 90 

Winnebago Fort, 72, 78, 75, 96, 97, 

100, 101, 104 
Lake, 26, 32, 52, 74, 90 

White, Albert, 

William A., 
White Crow, a Winnebago, 
Whitesides, Gen. 
Whiting, Col, Henry, 
Whitney, Daniel, 
Whitney Rapids, 
Whittlesey, Col. Charles, 
Wild Cat Currency, 
WUd Duckj, 

Yellow Thunder, 





Winlhrop, Hon. R C. 
Wisconsin, origin of name, 
early laws, 
Ter. organized, 
rapid settlement. 







early taverns, 130,140, '1, '4, '5 


high prices, 

hard times. 


Early Times, 

Indian names. 


falls and rapids, 

first railroad, 

governors' portraits, 
Wisheet, Indian chief. 
Woodman, Cyrus, V. P., H. Soc. 
Woodward, Judge, 
Wyman, W. W., newspaper files, 



40, 94 


110, '16, '19 


121, 122 










Pug^ 29 — ^£nd of first line, instead of '* Bngignkhib," read BflglUh Bnig, 
M 1 CO— •William Forck should evident]/ read (^iob«i Forcx. 





<.»F TUL' j 








.%.. .«„.. 













Youna n. 




oAUOxrs * PRouDriT. FRurriBa 


I . ' 


^ I 

OFFICERS FiO:R 185*6. 


Gen. WM. R. SMITII, Mineual Point. 

VICE presidents: 

Hon. JAMES DUANE DOTY, :::::: :;;;:; Menasba. 

INCREASE A. LAPHAM, ::::::: Milwaukee. 

Hon. ALBERT Q. ELLIS/ ::::::: Stevens Point 

Hon. morgan L. MARTIN, ::::::: Green Bay. 

GYRUS WOODMAN, ::::::: Mineral Pofait. 

BKRIAH BROWN, ::::::: Dela£eld. 

Catrisponditig &cre/ary— LYMAN C. DRAPER. 
Recording Seerdnry-^ORS W. HUNT. 
rA&raria?i— DANIEL S. DURRIE. 
7Vca««rfr--PB0F. 0. M. CONOVER. 

mam, L. J. FARWKLL, 
mom J. P. ATirOOD, 
BOK D. J. P0WBB8, 
B. r. H0PIDI9, 


Hon. T. 0. EDWARDS, 
n. C. BULL, 

W, B. JARVI8, 
Prof. E. 8. CARR, 


On FtMicatioiti—UMBns, DRAPER, Jcdgk ATWOOD and IIUNT. 


Om Auditing Mid JYnane/:— MEBSRf. FARWELL, POXVERS and ILSLEY. 

Ori lAbrmrVf Purchau$ and FVzfttr<!«— MUBRS. DRAPER, DURRIE and RUBLEE. 

On Pietmr$ QmIUry--^wnR9, CARPENTER, TIBBITS and HOPKINS. 


of Uto EvecDtirc Coimiitkc vn held on the ftnt TxxttdMj ffreninf of Btch menth. 

OBJECrrS OF collection desired by the SOCIETl 

i. HADUMript Atatcments and namtivM of pioneer Kttlen — old lcitcn> and journ&Ui rcUtire to i 
cadj hiitory and settlement of Wiaconsin, and of the Black Ilawk War ; biographical notiooi of o 
pionecn, and of eminent citizens, deceased ; and facts illostratiTO of our Indlui tribes, their histM 
diaracteristicfi, sketches of their prominent chiefs, orator.s and warriors, together with contributions 
Indian implements, drcsn, ornaments and cnriosiUcs. 

2. Files of ncwspaporii, books, pamphlets, college catalogucn ; minutes of ecclesiastical conyentioi 
conferences and synods, and other pnblicatlons relating to this State, or Michigan Territory, of wU 
Wisconsin formed a part from 18IS to 1835— and honce tho Territorial Laws and Journals, and filai 
Michigan newspapers for that period, we are peculiarly anxious to obtain. 

3. DrawlnpfN and descriptions of onr ancient mounds and fortifications, tlicir alae, represontation u 
loeality. I 

4. Information raapect ing any ancient coins, or other curiosities found in Wisc«'>nKin. The contribvtM 
of such articles to tho Cabinet of the Society is respectfully solicited. 

fi. Indian geographical names of streams and localities in this State, with their significations. 

6. Books of an kinds, and especially such as relate to Amarican hlatay, txsttl* aaA biography iagt 
eral and the West in particular, family genealogies, old magazines, pamphlets, files of newijpqpa 
maps, historical manuscripts, autographs of distinguished persons, coins, medals, paintings, poital 
ftatoary and engravings. 

7. We solicit from Historical Societies and other learned bodiof, that Intecdumge of books and tft 
materials by which the naefblnoss of institotioika of this natnro ia ao raanntially enhanced— |ls4^ 
onnolTes tn repay such contributlom bj acts ia Idiid to tha foil axtont of our ability. 

8. Tho Society particularly bags the favor and compliment of authors and publishers, to ]>reiesii wit 
theirjautographs, copies of their respective works for its Lflnrary 

Ste Editoni and publishers of newspapers, magazines and reviews, will confer a lasting favor en H 
Society by contributing their publications regularly for it^ library— or, at least, such nnmban ai  
cantain artidns boaring upon Wisconsin history, biography, geography, or antiquities ; all wUch vffll 
aaiefUly preserved for binding. 

Adages for tbe Society may be sent to, or deposited with, the following gentlanKan, who bava kMI 
consented to tako charge of them. Such parcels, to prerent mistakes, should be lurope^f ^malopiiii 
addreiiad,eTen If but a single article ; and it would, futhormore, be dealnUa, that domon flkoold Isnu 
to the Corresponding Secrctao' a specification of books or articles donated aad deposited. 


0. k J. A. IlBif8K.\, at J. B. Lippincott* Co.'s Philadelphia. 
Hajiukl G. Drake, Antiquarian Book Store, Boston. 
CiiAKUs B. Nonroir, Ap])leton's Building, New York. 
Joel Uuhul^ Publisher, 78 State Street, Albany. 
Gbobok OtiDSK Dbkth k Co., Waahlngton City. 
C. R. STJL&KWXATiixit, No. 102 Michigan Avenue, Cliicago. 
O C. Smxom, City Becorder, St Louis. 

1. A. LAnxAir, Milwaukee. 
Datid AnaaaoM, Cincinnati 
Jbssi CzjncnrT, Editor Western LiterarylMctsenger, Buflalo. 

V* Donors to the Sodety'f Ubnry and Coneetioai will, la rotui^ ba pUotd «pM liilM of 
AMgiiffuid reealT« equivalent publications of the Society. 


To His Exqellbnoy, Wh. A, Babstow, 

Governor of the State of Wifoonevn : 

Sir: — ^The nndersigned Executive Oommittee of the StatbHib- 
TOBXCAL BocnPTY OF W18CONSIN, in compliance with the act of the 
Legislature granting five hundred dollars annually to the Societj, 
beg to present herewith the report of the Treasurer for the past 
year, exhibiting the objects and extent of the expenditures of the 
Society, with the accompanying vouchers. The total receipts of 
the year, including the balance on hand on the 2d of January 
last, have been $760 42, and the disbursements $668 12 — ^leaving 
a balance in die Treasury of $92 30* 

In presenting their Second Annual Report, the Executive Oom- 
mittee are happy in being able to congratulate the members of 
the Society, and the citizens of the State, on the large measure of 
success that has attended the Society during the past year. The 
increase in the library and collections has been very large — with- 
out a precedent in the history of any similar association in the 
Western States ; and the Society, at the same time, has increased 
its hold upon the sympathies and kind offices of men of letters 
abroad, and of our own enlightened fellow citizens of Wisconsin. 
With noble ends gained by honorable means, it is a subject of 
just pride to the Committee, that our institution, having no selfish, 
sectarian, partizan, or exclusive aims, should thus receive the 
wftihu app^bation of the wise and tlie good at home and abroad. 

I ' 

In January, 1854, after the Society had been five years in ex- 
istence, there were but fifty volumes in the library. At that date 
an efficient re-organization was effected, and the patronage of the 
State secured ; and the result was, that on the 1st of January, 
1855, the library by gifts, purchases and exchanges had increased 
to 1060 ; and now, after the labors of another successful year, we 
have to report the present number of volumes in the library at 
3115 — exhibiting an increase the past year of 1065 volumes, thus 
something more than doubliug the aggregate in a single year. 
Of this increase, 192 were by purchase, and 873 by donation and 
exchange ; while the previous year, the number of volumes pur- 
chased was 130, and 870 received by donation and exchange ; 
and the 50 volumes which the Society possessed prior to 1854, 
were all donated. Thus of the present number in the library, 
322 volumes were purchased, and 1793 wore received by dona* 
tion and exchange. Daring the past year, of the additions to 
the library, 46 volumes were folios, 53 were quartos, tlie rest 
chiefly of octavo size ; thus making now in the library 108 folios, 
and 128 quartos. These works relate almost exclusively to our 
own country, and may be classified as follows : 

Works on history, biography, travels, bound newspaper files, and 
publications of Historical and Antiquarian Societies, 937 vols. 
Congressional publications, . - - . 509 " 

Agricultural, mechanical and scientific, - - 165 ^' 

State laws and State legislation, - - 150 ^^ 

Miscellaneous, ..... 354 a 

Total, - - 2115 <* 

The character and value of the works added to the library dur- 
ing the past year, demand a passing notice. The Committee have 
had constantly in view the paramount object of first obtaining all 
works relating immediately or remotely to our own State, and 
then of the West generally. Of this class may bo mentioned 
the works of Lescarbot, Marquette, La Hontan,. La SaUcj 
Hennepin, Labat, Lafitau, Crespel, Carver, Henry, Pike, Shea, 



Pranchere, falconer, McLeod, Hanson and others. The large 
folio work on the American Indians, bj Hall and McKinnej, 
in three volumes, with 120 beautifully colored engravings, 
taken mostly from the collection of the Indian Bureau at Wash- 
ington, and embniciug among the number several chieftains of 
the Ottawa, Chippewa, Winnebago, Menomouee, Sauk and Fox 
nations, is a valuable acquisition to our hbrary. It was pur- 
chased at considerably less than the usual price. A large number 
of btato, county and town histories and family genealogies, re- 
lating to various portions of tlie Union, and many of them gifts 
from their respective authors, have been added to the library, and 
serve a most valuable purj)03e in tracing genealogies, as well as 
facilitating general and local historical research and investigation. 

Our newspaper files, so valuable for numerous purposes of re- 
ference, have been largely augmented. Fifty-eight bound vol- 
umes have been added during the past twelve mouths, of which 
thirty-thr§e volumes relate to the period preceding the introduc- 
tion of the printing press in Wisconsin, in 1833. The whole num- 
ber of bound newspaper liles now in the library, including Niles' 
Kegister, is 206, making almost a continuous series from 178:1 to 
the present time. We have one prior volume, covering a portion 
of 1776 and 1777. We have Gen. Ellis' file of the Green Bay 
IrUMigence?' from its commencement, Dec. 11, 1833 to Sept. 1835, 
and then a gap occurs until the establishment of the Wisconsin 
MiquweVj by J. A. Noonan, Nov, 8, 1838 ; but tliis hiatus, we 
hope, will be amply supplied by the valuable fi.les of territorial 
papers so considerately preserved and so kindly promised to our 
Society, by the Hon. George Hyer and the Hon. Joshua Hathaway, 
both early and meritorious jnonec-rs of Wisconsin, and warm 
friends of our Society. Rev, Alfred Brunson, another early pio- 
neer, has ijromised a file of the iT. Y. Advocate and Joui^nal^ 
from Aug. 1832 to May 1884, containing many of Mr. Brunson's 
communications relative to Western matters at that period ; G. 
W. Bliss promises a full file of the Mineral Point Tribtme^ em- 
bracing 8 volumes ; J. O. Oover, the Lancastct Herald^ 1861-65; 


E. B. Quiner, Watertown Regiatery 1850-54; Mrs. Hiram A. 
Wright, a file of the Prairie du Chien Patriot, 1846-51 ; John 
Dougherty, a file of the Oshkosh Democrat^ 1854-55 ; J. Crow- 
ley, Menaeha Advocatej 1854-55; Gen. A. 6. Ellis, StevenB 
Point Pvnery, 1853-55 ; and Gov. Doty, a file of Dr. Philleo's 
Gdlenian for 1832, valaable as containing the current news of 
the Black Hawk war. Other early files of "Wisconsin papers, 
preserved by members of onr Society, residing at Milwaukee, 
Mineral Point, Kenosha, Appleton, Elkhorn and Portage City, 
in this State, ^and Easton, Pa., it is anxiously hoped will eventu- 
ally find their way to our collections, and thus very materially 
enrich this invaluable department of our library. 

The Society is in the regular receipt of sixty-eight publications, 
of which fifty-two are published in Wisconsin, and of this num- 
ber, five are dailies, fifty-one weeklies, ten monthlies, or semi- 
monthlies, and one quarterly ; and there are besides, at least, 
seven Wisconsin weekly papers, preserved for the Society, at 
the ofElces of their publication— making a total of seventy-five 
publications carefully preserved for binding, and which will 
add largely to our already respectable collection of newspaper 
files. It is extremely desirable, that the newspaper editors and 
publishers of our State, who have not hitherto contributed their 
respective publications, should do so regularly and, if possible, 
from their commencement ; and those persons who may possess 
old files, are earnestly requested to bestow them upon the society. 
Let it be the pride of Wisconsin that we endeavor to possess a 
more complete series of newspapers of our own State, than does 
any similar Society of its State in the XTnion. Beginning thus 
early, if we but persevere unfalteringly, we- can secure this de- 
sirable attainment. 

Daring the past year, about two thousand pamphlets and docu- 
ments have been received, making our whole collection number 
not far irom three thousand. This kind of material is important^ 
cofK^>ri8iiig h^atopy, atati8ti,cS| orations, eukigiesi speeches in Con- 
gress, catalogues, essays, and public documents — they form, in the 


estimation of Webster, " the elements of history." They shonld, 
in due time, be arranged by snbjects, bonnd and indexed, and 
then wonld be regarded as tmly valnable. The cost of binding, 
however, would be qnite an item. 

Among the donors to the library, ex-Gov. Tallmadge is the 
most conspicuous lie has presented his valuable collection of 
Congressional documents, for the period he was a member of the 
U. S. Senate, from 1832 to 1843, uniformly bound, in 160 vol- 
umes, which form a complete series. From the Department of 
State, Washington, has been received 164 bound volumes, com- 
prising mostly laws, journals and reports of national legislation. 
Hon. Wm. B. Towne, the American Antiquarian Society, S. G. 
Drake, Geo. R. Sampson, John P. Jewett, Rev. J. S. Barry, Dr. 
Edward Jarvis, Wm. H. Prescott and Hon. Ohas. Francis Adams, 
of Mass. ; J. 8. C. Abbott, of Maine ; Rev. E. W. Stone, R. L ; 
Miss F. M. Oaulkins, Conn. ; Samuel Cole and G. O. Deeth, D. 
0. ; J. B. Lippinoott & Co., Phila. ; S. G. Deeth, N. J. ; Dr. Mar- 
tyn Paine, Joel Munsell, Mrs. Emma Willard, Dr. F. B. Hough, 
and J. H. Hickcox, New York; D. B. Cot^ko & Co., 111.; N. 
Tnibner, London ; and Silas Chapman, D. S. Dnrrie, Hon. Chas. 
Durkee, Hon. Henry Dodge, Hon. L P. Walker, Hon. B. 0. 
Eastman, Hon. Daniel Wells, jr., Hon. J. B. Macy, Hon. S. S. 
Case, ex Gov. J. D. Doty, Dr. H. D. Holt, Hon. Chas. Clement, 
Hon. Levi Russell, Cyrus Woodman, Dr. W. H. Brisbane and 
Daniel Noble Johnson, of our own State, have severally made 
valuable contributions to the library. A full list of the donors of 
bound volumes, and the number contributed by each, will be 
found appended to this report. 

The publications of the Historical Societies of New Hamp- 
sluie, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Minnesota, the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, the Smithsonian Li* 
Btitntion, and Am. Ethnological Society, have been previously 
announced as having been received ; and we have the pleasure to 
add, that during the past year those of the American Antiquarian 
Sooiety, Maine and Ohio Historical Societies, and one volume of 

10 , 

the Pennsylvania Ilibtorical Society, have been plaood upon our 
ahelves, with as^nranceo that those of the New York, Maryland 
and Georgia Historical Societies, and ten quarto volumes of the 
Am. Philosophical Society will ho early forwarded. We have 
also received one volume and several pamphlets from the Royal 
Society of Northern Anti<j[uaric3, Copenhagen ; and it would be 
extremely dosirable to receive their larger work on the early dis- 
covery and colonization of America by the Northmen in the tenth 
century. Wo'have the must sanguine expectations that our So- 
ciey will soon be in possession of a ci>mplete series of all the 
publications of the several Historical and Antiquarian associa- 
tions t>f our country. 

Twenty maps, pertaining mostly to our own and other Western 
States, and a large number of charts, have been received; also 
several line engravings, among which may be mentioned, the 
County Election, 22 by 30 inches, from the artist, Geo. 0. Bing- 
ham; engravings of President Taylor, Silas Wright, Calhoun and 
Fremont, 12 by 16 inches in'^size, from N. Trubner, London, of 
Hon. H. A. Wise, from Cyrus Sharp, a fine photograph of the late 
Dr. Daniel Drake, of Cincinnati, from E. G. Hawkins, and a large 
fac simile copy of the Declaration of Independence, from the 
State Department, Washington. 

To our autograph collection, several interesting additions have 
been made : Autograph letters of six of the si^rners of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, and the signature of anDther, have been 
received ; of Samuel Huntington and William Ellery, from Rev. 
Dr. Sprague ; of Thomas McKean, Ciesar Rodne;* :nid George 
Read, from Wm. T. Read, Esq.; of Carter Braxton, and signature 
of John Hart, from F. M. Etting, Esq. We have also received 
those of John Dickinson, Philip Schuyler, Qtjorge Clinton, De 
Witt Clinton, Aaron Burr, Nathan Dane, C. C. Pinckney, Henry 
Lee, W. H. Crawford, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Martm Van 
Buren, Zachary Taylor, R. M. Johnson, Thomas Oarwin, John M. 
Clayton, and others. 



A beantifal plaster statuette of Oen. Jackson has been received 
from the celebrated artist, Olark Mills, but was unfortunately 
bndcen on the way ; and learning which, the talented and indefat- 
igable artist, nothing daunted, has informed the Society that he 
has resolved to supply its place with a metal one, as soon as he 
can conveniently cast it A gift so valuable, from such an emi- 
nent artist, would ever be regarded as a splendid triumph of 
American genius, and a worthy ornament to our library. 

To C. A. Johnson the Society is indebted for a beautiful case of 
daguerreotypes of 27 members of the last Wisconsin Legislature, 
and a framed daguerreotype of Gen. W. R. Smith. Also daguer- 
reotypes of Ool. Joseph Dickson and William Davidson, pioneers 
of our State, and of Lieut. Gov. Burns, Hon. A. P. Ladd, and 
Hon. T. J.^Moorman have been received since the last^report was 

During the year, the Cabinet has been enriched with various 
curiosities ; a silken tassel from the bed of the unfortunate Mary 
Q^een of Scots, obtained from Holyrood Castle, Edinburgh, and 
presented by Ilobert White ; a fragment of the frigate Constitution, 
so well known aa Old Lronsides, from Hon. Levi Bussell ; one of 
the original stamps of the celebrated Stamp Act of 1765, which 
aroused the spirit of resistance to British oppression, and led the 
way to American Independence, from F. M. Etting, Esq.; a white 
marble idol, with the head broken off and missing, live inches in 
height, in an oriental sitting posture, found iu 1851, about one 
foot under the surface, while ditching a marsh lot near Taychee- 
dah, Fond du Lac county, presented by Judge Hubbell ; a rosary 
of olive wood, from the Mount of Olives, presented by the late 
Hion. G. R. McLaue ; a large quantity of continental paper moneyi 
from Gen. W. B. Smith, F. M. Etting, and Ilev. A. Brunson; and 
from the latter and others, several notes and shinplaiters of early 
Wiscoudin banks and corporations. From the heirs of the late 
Hon. John Lawe of Green Bay, has been received, through the 
kfaidncss of Hon. H. B. Baird, the ancient court dress of the quaint 
old Green Bay pioneer^ the late Judge Charles Beaume. Quite 


a nnmber of cnrioas coin have been added to onr collection ; 
three ancient Boman ones of the first centary, dog np a few years 
since, in Lincolnshire^on the old Boman road from London to Scot- 
land, presented by Robert White; a silver coin, about the value 
of 16 cents, bearing date 1593, dug up, about 1842, in Berkshire 
county, England, and presented by John W. Ford ; and others of 
modern dates, from Prof. J. J. Cole, Mrs. O. M. Oonover, lire. 
Bobert White, H. D, Holt, and others. Capt. George S. Dodge, 
with the just appreciation of an enlightened scholar and traveler, 
has generously promised, that our Society shall, in due time, re- 
ceive his valuable collection of about two hundred rare and curious 
coin, collected in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and other 
countries, and must add much to our knowledge of numismatics. 

The Picture Gallery has become one of the most interesting 
and valuable features of our collection. In the last annual report 
three portraits were acknowledged as having been received — a 
copy of Stuart*s Washinoton, from the venerable Thomas Sully ; 
and a copy of Jarvis' Gen. George Bogers Clark, the Hannibal 
of the west, and an orignal portrait of Dr. Wm. Bted Powell, a 
learned writer of Kentucky on medicine and science. Fifteen 
others were aimounccd as having been kindly promised the So- 
ciety. During the past year, eight* portraits have been received 9 
and now adorn our Hall. Five of them are from the pencil of the 
late Robert M. — two of them originals, never copied, Wa- 
PE-SHE KA or the Light Gloudj better known as the Prophet of the 
Sauks and Foxes, and Black Hawk's son Na-she-a-kusk or Zoud 
Thund^ir^ both painted from life by the artist in 1888 ; and an im- 
proved copy of his Black Hawk, painted at the same tiine ; also 
a copy of a splendid portrait of Ohiep Justice Marshall, from 
an original taken by the lamented artist ; and a copy of the beau- 
tiful Pocahontas, taken from an ancient painting, since crumbled 
to ruins, long preserved by the descendants of this renowned In- 

• A« tbii !««• !• bttDff put in typt, April, ltl6, the toUl muaber of oU politiiv In the Floterf 
GftUtty bai iDrreafltd to tutaty.two ; vide LllmriM>*M report, which baa hem made to Inelade then 
eH* L. O. t>. 


dian Princess ; of the others, one is nn original portrait of De Witt 
Olintok, which was once possessed by that eminent^statesman, 
another is a striking likeness of Hon. Btbon Kilbousn, a Milwau- 
kee pioneer, painted by S. M. Brookes; and the other, a good por- 
trait of Hon. I. P. Walker, taken in 1852. The portraits of Black 
Hawk, Na-she-a-knsk and Wape-she-ka, were purchased at a low 
price from Mr. Sully ; while those of Pocahontas and Chief Jus- 
tice Marshall were liberally presented by the lamented artist. 
The portrait of Olinton was purchased at a mere nominal price, that 
of Mr. Kiiboum was presented by himself, and that of Ex-Senator 
Walker was kindly contributed by Geo. P. Delaplaine, Esq. 

We have the promise of portraits from the following forty-seven 
persons, all more or less intimately associated with the history of 
Wisconsin : Gen. Lewis Oass, so long tho Governor of Michigan 
Territory when what is now Wisconsin formed a portion of his 
government, ox-Gov. John Reynolds, of Illinois, so prominently 
connected with the Black Hawk war, Gov. Henry Dodge, Gov. 
Tallmadge, Gov. Dewey, Gov. Farwell, Gov. Barstow, Hon. Solo- 
mon Juneau, Hon. James H. Lockwood, Col. Ebenezer Childs, 
Hon. Henry S. Baird, Hon. Ebenezer Brigham, Hon. Moses 
Meeker, Gen. Wm. R. Smith, Hon. Morgan L. Martin, Gol. Jas. 
Morrison, Ool. D. M. Parkison, Maj. John H. Bountree, Hon. A. 
A. Townsend, Oapt. B. M. McGK>on, Bev. Alfred Brunsou, Gen. 
A. G. Ellis, Hon. John S. Horner, Chief Justfcc Whiton, Hon. 
A. D. Smith, I. A. Lapham, Esq., Hon. Alansou Sweet, Hon. 
Mason C. Darling, Col. Samuel Byan, Hon. Charles C. Sholes, 
Col. James Maxwell, Cyrus Woodman, Esq., Col. A. A. Bird, 
Hon. Simeon Mills, Darwin Clark, Esq., Col. H. M. Billings, Hon. 
Patrick Rogan, John Messcrsmitb, Gen. Geo. W. Hickcox, Ste- 
phen Taylor, Esq., Maj. John P. Shcldf)n, Hon. Joshua Hatha- 
way, Bishop Henni, Hon. Charles H. Larrabce, Asabel Finch, 
Jr., Esq., Hon. Daniel Wells, Jr., and Goo. P. Delaplaine, Esq. 
It is anxiously to be desired, that all these portraits, with those of 
other pioneers and early public men of Wisconsin which have 
been respectfully solicited, will be early furnished ; then the Society 


may well point with pride to the collection as the most complete 
poseeesed by any State of its worthy pioneers and early pablic 
servants. Such a Qallery would not only prove deeply interest- 
ing as works of art, bnt most of them would serve an invaluable 
pnrfiose in illustrating the history and historic men of our State. 
It is proper in this connection to remark, that the distinguished 
artists Jasper^ F. Oropaey, John Neagle, J. MoMurtrie, P. F. 
Rothermel, William Hart, and Samu(.'I M. Brookes, have sever- 
ally promised or intimated some gift of their pencil to the Society 
— worthy tributes from men of genius which would ever bo held 
in high estimation by our Society. 

By the groat kindnefjs of S. M. Brookes, of Milwaukee, a bust 
of Hon. Byr<in Kin>ourn, and one of Bishop Henni, both cast by 
that talented arti-^t, have been bestowed upon the Society, and 
now adorn our Library. 

P(»raonal memorials of Henry Clay and Dcwitt Clinton have 
been received from Thomas H. 01 ay, Esq., and Hon. Q. W. Clin- 
ton. Pergonal memorials of Washington, kindly promised by his 
venerable step-son, Geo. W. P. Cnstis, of Webster, by his son 
Hon. Fletcher Webster, and of Harrison, by Ins son, Hon. J. S. 
Harrison, have not yet reached our Cabinet, but hope they may 
during th'i coming year. Similar memorials of Franklin, La 
Fayette and Jackson have been sought, but hitherto witlir.nt suc- 
cess. Such relics potsess a peculiar interc.-^t, and serve t-^ keep 
alive the fires of patriotism in the hearts of the people. 

Several important donations have been kindly tendered the 
Society, and which may confidently be expected to reach our col- 
lections during the year; among them, a set of the works of John 
Adams, in 10 volumes, from his grandson, Hon. Charles Francis 
Adams; over 30 volumes of the N. A. Review, from D. W. Bal- 
lon, Jr. ; nearly 70 historical volumes from the library of the late 
Dr. Stephen W. Williams, tendered by his family in accordance 
with his request ; the works of B. J. Lossing, Hon. J. E. Bart- 
lett, Rev. Dr. R. Davidson, Alfred B. Street, Edmund Flagg, S. 


Agustus Mitchell, G. W. Riggp, Jr., and others. The committee 
of Boston merchants having in charge the getting np of the gold 
medal to Com. Perry, have promised a bronze copy to onr So- 
ciety ; and G, W. Childs, Esq., the enterprising publisher, has 
tendered proof impressions of his engravings of Stuart's Wash- 
ington and Sully's Jackson, beside several volumes of books. 

Since the last annual meeting, the First Anmial Ihport and 
GoUeotiona of the Society have been published by the State in a 
thin volume of 160 pa^es, and some three thousand copies have 
been circulated in our Stiite, and other portions of the Union. 
This ])ublication bos served tlic Society a valuable purpose, to 
send in return to donors, making more fully known, especially to 
the citizens of onr own State, the worthy aims of our organiza- 
tion, and giving ample evidence of the good it has already ef- 
fected, and is destined still further to cifect. There is, however, 
a suggciftion which has come from many able and learned men, 
that we must beg to present — that our annual publication, which 
is to be the permai»ent repository of a large mass of valuable his- 
torical and statistical matter relating to Wisconsin, should be 
issued in a better and more enduring form ; that the quality of 
the paper should bo better, and a portion, if not all of the edition, 
should be.i)ut up in cloth binding — in a style similar to the Trans- 
actions of our Agricultural Society^ published by the State. 
While this would cost the State but a small additioaal sum, it 
would prove largely creditable alike to the State and Society, and 
would better subserve the great end of preserving the valuable 
collections thus yearly brought together. 

Among the many reasons which might be adduced in favor of 
an improved style of publication, we would respectfully advert to 
the following : 

L It would prove highly useful to the State, by furnishing re- 
liable materials for historians and other writers, at home and 
abroad, and by thus disseminating a correct knowledge of the 
history and progress of our towns and cotmtieB, render our State 


more tavorablj known abroad, and more especially direct the at- 
lentici of an intelligent class of emigrants and capitalist to our 


II. Si?ch a publication would be a powerful incentive to our 
oi'i p>"i'3r3 and intelligent early settlers to prepare and furnish 
their wriri m reminiscences. 

III. Yh: alnable manuscript narratives collected by the So- 
cit^y \\'n\i\d Thereby be rendered secure from all contingencies 
ai.d acoidonr —the most of which collections once lost, could 
nevM" be replac-^d. 

IV. TLt libva; X-, now numbering over 3100 volumes, and over 
3000 pani[hif»^s, und about 70 periodicals regularly received, 
has been v*'i(; od mainly by donations; and this publication, if 
credif^i^' v >/ . i ia its typographical appearance, would ena- 
ble th o^h:!! ^nij-erly reciprocate these valuable gifts, and 
largely ■: ■■. ; ithors. 

YI. Evjiy reasonable encouragement to the Society in its 
earnest efforts tu build up a public reference library of works of 
hi6i^.>ry« statjVt :cs and general literature, would lessen the necessi- 
ty ( !* I •nkin£' appropriations to increase the State Library, except 
fir tlr rl.^s ' ^ f works relating particularly to law and legislation. 

Ti.« - ii. ..cript collections of the past year have been quite 
luru;r ir- nuMber, and valuable in point of matter. The more im- 
portan of those received, may be found appended to this report, 
and ovmcc, as all must acknowledge, a gratifying evidence of the 
suecosB ^f the Society in this department of its labors, and testi- 
fy most conclusively to the interest and high appreciation cher- 
ished by the intelligent pioneers of Wisconsin in behalf of the 
wor..hy objects contemplated by our organization. In addition to $ 
these, a number of other valuable papers are promised, which 
may early be expected to reach our archives. 

The State publications granted the Society to aid in effecting 
exchanges have been mostly received for the year^ 1854 and 1855, 


aD4!WiU 1)0 early tranfimittod to the Bereral sodetiM 
to which they. hav^bQen voted. Seireral oaiiaes hare oenapiied 
to deU|j7 ^^^^ reception by the Society. The Tolnmes gimnted 
by the. State to Mens. A. Yftttemarei to be traiuimtted through 
the m^idian of theJSopie^, wiU be speedfly aent 4>rward to their 
destinatioD ; and both our. Own Society and the State Library may 
soon hope to reap the benefits of Vattemare'B noble syetem of In^^ 
ternational literary ExbhangOB. 

During the past year, the Exeontiye Ck>mmittee have regular- 
ly held their uu)nthly stated meetings, and four spedal meetingSi 
and one special meeting of the Sooiefy has also been held. This ' 
steady interest manifested by the members may be inferred from 
the £act that, since the re-organizatioa of the Society in January, 
1851, no meeting ever failed for want of a quorum. Forty-acTen 
active members h^ve been added to the Society in the course of 
the year, seventeen life members, several honorary, and a large 
number of corresponding members. Xhe library and collectiona : 
have been frequently consulted, and the varied benefits to be de- 
rived from them must largely increase with the growth and ex^ 
pansion of the Society. Pains have been taken by the Society to 
encourage and facilitate the preparation of works devoted to tiie . 
history and progress of the more important towas land countiii . 
of our State. .^ 

The Society has sustlfi^ued, during the year* a flerious loss in the 
dei^^B of Judge Wright^ a member of the< Executive Oommittee, 
Dn McLane, a Vice President of the Society, and S. M. Sully, 
an Honorary Member, and one of its largest benefactors. We 
cannot well overestimate the Ices of the lamented Sully, whose 
generous soul seemed cdnstantly on the slmdy to devise new plans 
by which to render the Society unique a«d prosperous. And dy- 
ing ivhih) on his journey to take, up his permanent residence 
among, us, an€\ devote his auperior talents to the honor of our State 
and Society, added not a Uttle to our sorrow and. regret at his un- 
tiip^ d^partur^. .The .gpt^n. of the . Bxecutiye Oommittee on. . 
th^ oQCftsiona, will> l^f^ fo^nd, ap|i^f^4«d to thia report. 


ISie Socddly will oontinne to need, as we trast it will cheerftilly 
reoeiyoi the foetering oare of the Legiriature, and the people. — 
Hay we not yentare to express the hope, that many of onr liberal 
and wealthy citizens may be induced to bestow <% portion of their 
sniplus wealth npon onr Seciety, that it may, like several similar 
societies, have an endowment to place it beyond the reach of ca- 
pricions favor, and thus never be suffered to languish for want of 
means to carry into effect its laudable purposes. 

Onr collections are already becoming so large and valuable, as 
to impress the minds of the Committee with the importance of a 
fire-proof building for their safety and preservation. We should 
be admonished by the destruction, in whole or in part, of public 
archives by fire on many occasions — in New Hampshire in 1736, 
in Massachusetts in 1747, besides having been damaged by three 
previons fires ; in New Fork in 1740-41, and 177t ; in New Jer- 
sey in 1686 ; in North Carolina in 1881 ; in South Carolina in 
1698 ; and in Canada in 1854^- all which were accidental ; and in 
Yirgiaia in 1781, by the fratricide Arnold. Five times have the 
national archives suffered by conflagration — ^in 1800, when the 
buildings of the War Department were destroyed ; in 1814, when 
the British troops burned the public buildings; in 1838, when the 
Treasury buildings were destroyed ; and again in 1836, and lastly 
in 1851, when the Congressional Library was burned. Until our 
Society secures a fire-proof building for the custody of its inesti- 
mable treasures, its friends cannot entirely repress their fears and 
anxieties. Several public-spirited citizens of our State, justly ap- 
preciating the importance of preserving the Society's collections, 
have each pledged fifty dollars towards a fire-proof building fund ; 
others stand ready to contribute liberally when it shall be deemed 
a proper time to make an effi(mnt movement 

The American Antiquarian Society has a fire-prcof building 
which cost about $18,000, of which its President, Hon. Stephen 
Salisbury, contributed $5,000 and the £:round on which the btdld- 
ing stands ; the New York Historical Society has a commodious 
building nearly ready for occupancy, the foundation fimd ^ 



which was the generoas bequest of a maideu lady, of five thou- 
sand dollars ; the Pennsjl vania and Maryland Historical SocietieSi 
possessing each a library and collections scarcely larger than oursi 
have their permanent quarters ; while the Maine Historical Socie- 
ty has received from the Legislature of that State a donation of 
land, valued at $6,000, to aid in erecting a permanent edifice. 
The Historical Society of New Jersey, whose collections are about 
the same in extent as ours, has raised funds for a building; and 
even the young, energetic Society of Minnesota is now engaged 
in raising fifteen hundred dollars to purchase a lot for the site of 
its intended structure. 

If we had a fire-proof depository for our collections, they would 
be largely augmented by books, manuscripts, papers, pictures — 
comprising the most authentic materials for history, now scattered 
over the State, and beyond the reach of those who might, for 
pvblic or historic purposes, wish to consult them. It is to be 
hoped that if the State should soon erect a new capitol, or enlarge 
the present edifice, the legislature would provide a permanent^ 
safe and commodious Hall for the use of our Society ; and if this 
cannot be effected within a reasonable period, that the Legislatqro 
be memorialized for an appropriation to aid in the erection of a 
fire proof building, on condition that a certain additional amount 
be raised among the citizens of the State for that purpose. A Hall 
of this character is greatly needed, and we cannot too soon take 
the matter into consideration, and devise the best means to secure 
the object in view. 

Such is the history and almost unexampled growth, and suoh 
the aims, the hopes, the wants, of our State Historical Society. — 
We can better comprehend what has been accomplished in our 
comparatively brief career, by glancing briefly at the rise and 
progress of similar Societies in our country. The MassachusetM 
Historical Society, the pioneer institution of the Union, which 
was founded in 1701, has 8,000 volumes in its library, and haa 
published 81 volumes of collections ; the New York Historical 
Society was founded in 1804, has 25,000 vols., and has published 


ab<mt thirteen volames of collections and proceedings ; the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Societj, founded in 1819, has 33,000 voU., and 
has published 8 toIs. of collections, a catalogue volume, and sey- 
eral pamphlets ; the Rhode Island Historical Society, founded in 
1833, has 3500 vols., and has published five volumes of collections; 
Maine Historical Society, founded in 1832, number of vols, in 
its library unknown, has published 8 vols, of collections ; the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, founded in 1823, has 1600 
vols., and has published six volumes of collections ; the Connec- 
ticut Historical Society, founded in 1835, has 8,000 vols., but has 
published no collections ; the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
founded in 1835, with 3,000 vols, in its library, has published five 
vols, of collections, and several bulletins and pamphlets ; the Vir- 
ginia Historical Society, founded in 1831, has 1300 vols., and has 
published one volume of collections, and about seven volumes of 
an Historical Register ; the Ohio Historical Society, founded in 
1831, has 1,000 vols., and has published three volumes of collec- 
tions and several pamphlets ; the Kentucky Historical Society, 
founded in 1838, has 1,000 volumes, and has issued no publica- 
tions ; the Oeorgia Historical Society, founded in 1839, has united 
its library with that of the Savannah Society, and has published 
three volumes of collections ; the Maryland Historical Society, 
founded in 1814:, has 3138 vols., and has published several pam- 
phlets : the Missouri Historical Society, founded in 1844, has SOO 
vols., and has issued one pamphlet of proceedings ; the New Eng- 
land Historic-Genealogical Society, founded in 1844, has 3,000 vol- 
unuM, and has published 9 vols, of an Historical and GteuealQgieal 
Register, and some pamphlets ; the New Jersey Historical Socie- 
tjf founded in 1846, has 1980 volumes, and has published four 
volumes of collections and six of proceedings ; the Minnesota 
Historical Society, founded in 1849, has 800 volumes, and has 
pablislied four pamphlets of collections. There are other Histo^ 
ioal Societies extant, such as those of Vermont, Ni>rth Carolina, 
SQttth Carolina, Alabama, lowai whose libraries are small, and 
whieh ha^e i#aued no publicaUoiis. It thos appeal^ from the most 

recent statistiGa of these Sodetiesi that^there are .^^ seyen which 
escceed onre in the ezteot of their librariee, and . none that iJuM 
equalled ours in the rapidity of its growth — oor Society ha^mi^ 
been founded Jan. 30, 1849, and having 2,llt yolnmes, some 8000 
pamphletSi eleyen paintings, and a large number of manusoripts, 
engrayings, antiquities and curiosities in its library, and having 
published one volume of coUeotions, and three annual addressee 
in pamphlet form. 

The value ci such coUectionB cannot be too highly estimated. 
Clinton, Gallatin, Webster, ^Bancroft, Cass, Everett, Hamsop, and 
many other leading minds of our country, have warmly ocm- 
mended and encouraged the labors of Historical Societies. '^ The 
advantages resulting from the study of history and the oollectien 
of historical records,'' as remarked in a former report of the New 
York Historical Society, and which is equally applicable to ours, 
^' cannot be too strongly urged on the attention of the members of 
this society. In order that history may be written with truth, au- 
thentic materials must be provided. No generation comprises 
within its own knowledge and experience all that is necessary to 
secure the integrity of its annals. It must rely upon records, it 
must examine and compare opinions, it must study the events of 
the past. It must have the means of investigation and analysis 
at hand. Collections like this by which we are surrounded, and 
which are designed to preserve the memories of other days, will 
be deemed of inestimable value by generations which are to come 
after us. Such works are a blessing to mankind, since they fiir- 
aish men with a true standard of character, excite them to a no- 
ble emulation, keep alive the stimulus of honorable example and 
prevent that lapse of national reputation which would be una- 
voidable without the incitement and influence of great names and 
noble deede." 

In drawing their report to a close, the Executive Committee 
would advert to the fact, that they have been cheered iu their la- 
bors by the encouraging words of those who mok among the most 
eminent in our country In the walks of history — such as Bancroft, 
Prescott, Hildreth, Irving, Spiarks, Parkman, Adams^ MkX^«.^>'^- 

*- '■ 

• -» mf- 


r .  / ' • 

I.! iij^. I, . ■. ..  • n'r : ' . \ •':■■■ ,■: 'Wi. 

J  ■• . ■'.••■.-. 


. t 1 ■• .  \ 

TBfiASSliffiitV. RBFOBT. 

. r 

The Treasurer of Ibe Wttoomm SiULtB HimSbioal BooBiihTe- 
gpectfidlj presentB the fb&oving stfttemeot of receipte into ^the 
Treasoiy, and di8bTlnement^ therefromi dwisg the year ending 
Janmxy Isl^ 1856: 

Jaa S^ 1855, BaliiKeintrniing,Mj>«r lMtwport.,..,>^> ;..... f^ Mt 

llank-7,. " Aimiiilmppropriia2oiii^iftt]MStoto^..4v^-< «- .AM 60 

April 7| i ^ From S«Qtiltt7^daiiftoiBaoliT«rmMibii%.».i; » . .il#0 

** " do doMition from Hon. J. A. 9i7iii» '5 00 

" ^ " dft> e^ Hoii.a.f.Vilg!it^...^i..... lOt 

Avg. % " . do . 4««tteia,MtiT« membitt, «•'•... '7 00 

do A. Ffcirt, Jr, Ml mwihntiiifp^ «.U...< WOO 

do l|r.Ho<Jhir,4aQiiAio%4.».«.*» .*... MOO 

BipiUk . " do daw &»"> Wn  ei^fc t rv, j '4 00 

do doMttoftfawi Oen* O.^^ieken, .'StUO 

do do OoLJ.lfMnnU, k.... 100 

do do Di;BwfikHMUiiQg, 100 

Oft 9, do dniilromMlIro aM»lnrK^^« ; dOO 

^^ " . . do HmmJoIw OatKQ»lil»miiibenUp,. ...... SO 00 

Kor. ^ " do . daet fro4A:40liT«iBei9b6n, 4^... 3 00 

BmlSB; " do 4o. do .). v..w>.. i^OO 

" ' / do Hoo,l^J«V4rw»U,lUos|0mVenhip;..^... 90 00 

JmL i# 1850, do .. 4iMftfiom«etiT«fnMibtn». •.... • 5 00 

«. — u do Hon. L.B.Yna8, life memlMnliip,.. 90 60 

- ■' '>' do Hon. D. J. r wwi ; do .J 90 00 

,«#/- *• db H.aFdn. do 90 60 

• . :il». V 'fl:K.LK«PiiQie, d^ .w ^00 

* - ^di^ RF.Htjpriiit,  So, 9000 

■( • M 

•I M 

IP - » 
i. •t„ I 

Total,.... •■'JvJ.i.-llr:.......-uC»iiiiiV..JL*l fTOO 



f«bi 6, 18S6, To B. WUte A Ckh, for dielfing in Ubnry, $10 00 

do do- AtwoodABiib]M,«ztrmpq>tniof prooMdingi.. 10 00 

do do D. Goram, for 9 cordf woodbind nwiogaamo.... 8 00 

do do L.O. Draper, postage, light! and ezpn«ehaig«f. 1 75 

do do For laige nyp ^fc^g^ffteq u^- ^^ 

Apxfl5, do ToR.lLdimj%l&rifim^&D$ortraite 100 00 

do do T nut eeaof Baptiat Sodety for room rent, 50 00 

do do 0. B. Norton, for Lit: Gaiette, 1855 3 00 

do do For booka pnrchaaed ataale of Ingraliam library. 56 43 

do do &,R]09ffm^,]i^imi^i«M^:i 3000 

do do L. 0. Draper, for poetage and freight 6 35 


1$, d^' ' OL B. KortoniKbr bSof booha .••'..^l: "50 64 

."»*do' di ''fea»nip»,forAilVh^/lJekBii^ MCT* 

do do MiL<kMia8.R.B. *.l... ..»:'' «'fl 

do do Am. Ezpreaa Compai^^ for freight 8 75 

Ang. 14, do S. O. Deethffer bound neirqMtpen and booka .. 54 50 

Jh(.'^ do Am.Exprwtompiny,IIM'fiUji^...^^ *^ 75 •^''' 

(woifc -do   li^aihtLph^if&iii^^ik'i'S^^^^ " 817 '■'^ 

O^Sripi 11, do TroifM'liqNttildW^^ 60 00' '> 

01* <. do do •'4r.4.-]^!ti;>ftr'irihd«^^ 90 00 

Or : do do- •■ ll'0.-ttniper,iMoiint of 'two freight biOi 6 88 

0" Vdo do «B»'- • |k)MBg#iadlflMM lOM '•' 

(JOOii S» do irMd<ltBbMUd,biiiaig i4 n. 40 00 

o: do do Aai.» KB|i iW a '0ofa|>ii(f,Mfer ILight . . . . , 4 75 

0<: . do do U«D^Mr,fiielghl^A^..i'.s 300 -P^ 

'^IffiT. 6^ do - ''-''^- -*|KMtB|fe=luitfll«nia 6 47 

0*5  do - do it *4I. I. IC freight.: : 3 00 

K^i i do •4o----'iAjli;'^faprta0'tlompany, freight 138 

G^IIila 90, • do L* a Dfi^; pdW^t*; Migh^ - ^ 

CO i.'io do- {>^'^Aittllfaq(JMaa-0«Bp^ 2L....... 96 50 . 

oa i'do --do af. * ■k.B:K;ft«^-j.&r:*- -ik " 9 to ■"■'' 

^J<^M.l,1856^ L. 0. Drap«r,p>Btageaii*itema 6 MT- .^ 

^-' ^do •do-''''''=']UBi:'lxpteat:€M9MWy^l^ '98 00 

W'^do ^ Qrim Aik(i'§(klMMe\^igmfing tOCrt^ 00 ^^ 

on oi mil'-'. • '♦i. »*:.'. .yj .J..... . '-.• » > 

00 oe " >iancajB»hand... -.rTni-rr.H vn ^^^ n 

Of) oroochiit Ar each oHUm fowgoiay iWHiJuHaHi are hegjyith meaent^L 

«>•' *>i .. ^ ^ ^ ^ ,»'Pytgliy^tsty»H> :; ^ -H- OOuSvBR, 

A ud i t ed and fMod eef fawb 
JOmr ▼• HUNT, ) 

a^oart j.v.,axww)J>. Uitdtfog.Omivdttpfi. ujoT 


..' . .U >' itrfo[. .Vdir'" 

.'/;jif»:fA'1 iT-iJ ]'»tJ* 'loH 

' . . . vr.iiiijO if':"-"^' noU 

}h***--:i' ,'.■ »n 

AUFKEDIX VO* )!• i> *.j(J niiou 

£? __ M.'I'i-! ■'■ .i!r~V . ,. :v 

t: , jJI'"C ii-iOT 


Only 60 Tpihtti^f^ o? iht feUowip^ lifii IvjfNpf^tjIoeiTi^ 

 ." 1 • ■;':' -■ '"  'T ■■' ■■-•'f'  ft.  :! r ' -■. '-oii 

... .'■•[■' ^^ ,!■.■..-■ • !.-. •, 1:: .-: ' 

lUne Histoiicil Sodetj 6 

B«T. J. 0. a Abbott 6 

OlyruflEat^n J..'.L 1 


• 4 » 

ITtirHampahirsHiBtQcii^l Society., « ^ •«««..«..wi. 4.... '«..,.' 7:^ 

R0r-i>r.]r.Boiito)V. ^ ^,.^.,„*.^» h\ :i-^ 

DstmonthCoU^I..! 1 

'^ i '^du 

ItT. Br. L. W. Loonaid V-^-- 1 

Bcr.ZadoekTbomptoa ,...,,,^.............4f«>,'.i,r,.: - .? 4 


r I  » f  ^ • 



MAnchuMtti Higtozicil SoeUty .i^ji*4tk-.!\C^fci-)' 31 T 

AilMrican Antignariip Society ^ w^«..v.v.jy.v J^m 

Vinr Xnglaiid Hiitorie-Qeneclogioal Sooietgr.*^ .Ji^jaV. ^'.«v^^&- T 4-y 

HUrrftzd OolUge w^.-v^! €■ 

Isstitiite.«««.... ••••••••.•••..•.•...•••••••.•••• •»««.j*«.«j..4.. '' '4. 

Wm. B. Tome ;.l.^i-*.:iiiri. • la J 

flimiMl O. Drake 15 

Hod. Edward Ererett ^...^....^ 10 

joliii P. Jewett... * 

Qm^K Sampoon ^. ...**.,.*.. .^.:l>i.'....r.'...-.«V.l.<..'^-:.-'^. * • 

IfW. H.Pf«8eett .-..-^-*... *..v.v...VC....:j.'J.'.v....;^!^  

BALObtflea Pmocto AdaBu.«...4. ..---*- v......'.^;-* i  ' 

MASBAOHUBBTTS — contiivued. 

B«T.JohnS.Ban7... 3 

EonStephfln Saliibary 3 

Bim.Joaiah Qainoj i. 3 

Henxy Ganett 3 

John Dean -{^:.:ir..iU'^^;.:.. 3 

A. H. Waid 3 

Hon. Wm. Whiting 3 

Dean Dudley 3 

fljer.Pr^JLlMfDMon *...p.. 3 

ti^%i4.»S*.. ......i... i^ 

FrtneU Parkm&n, CM. Sam'l Sweet, J. S. Loring, Rev, H. R. Hoiiington, 
^OlilrlMdeMnii; ibti.VfSlaA^iid&er, fion. S. A. Mb t, 0. tf. EIBs, t,T. 
(MLdB, G. A 0. Meniam, S. H. JenniBon, fiTon. iUtk DooHttle^ Jolm I^^i^gfi:e t, 
Rer. John PierponI, H. S. Ohaae, Hon. Joaeph WOlard, Rer. E. B. Wilson, 
Dr. Edward JarriB, and Dr. W. R. Lawrence^ 1 Tol. eaeh 19 


"• . . ... . 

Rbodelaland Historical Sodetj 7 

Rer.E. M. Stone 6 

JL A. Onild 2 

Boii.W. B. Iiawi>enee....4«.^.««. ^ k...^...: -. 1^- 

Dr.'D'sherPai«onB.«^..r^«.r.i «•«.<.. .« 1'^ 



Oonnecticnt Historical Society 3 

Wm. G. Webster 4 

J. H Tnimhnll ^ * S 

PtoC B. Silliman, Sr .' S 

Roy. Edwin Hall 3 

Hblii Heory Baniaid ..••» ^.. ft . 

Hob. Wm. Oothien. ' 9' 

Misk Frances M. Oanlkioa ^ <^..... %'' 

John Dnrrie..* ft- 

HoilN. a. Phelps i"' 

Pro£ B. SilliBian, Jr .i 1^ 


Hcfe.E^W.l4saTi9AWOCih,.l^)at6 Department , I^Pi 

Riients of thelTiaTw^..,.. .,,..„,.,....,,.,, ,,,.,,., , )|^V 

Ai^enCBIl JjMwVlie •..«•• '^n^ si*«^ •%*•. ^n^m ••n". *\*» \*\^ •»<K»:»A- •*^.»**i* •^^•■•^•.40 ..*T1 


ID XthaalogiMl Sooi«tj • m-i > .'t^ 

Xnititato; ' f  

ttloot Agncaltonl Socbty ^<j. 50 

tions Amarican TnatStnU ^. « .IvulT 4$' 

ibaelL 93 

ndler R. Gflman ..^•^j^,.,,„^ 36 

?. YaleDtine 11 

vVAUvU V m m m m m m m m •••* ••■• •••• m m m m ••••••••• ••«•'• «i«»«b ••«• ••'•• •«•«••'• * • 

btyn Paine. v-..,...-.i.-.. ;....., ...';.•:.- 4 

.-Hiekcoz ...i i ■, 4*1.-^ :-..:!. -6' 

)aYid90ir i. ;.....■.-.... -. ..i%it.. ■....• .'.... - -6 '' ' 

imilton Fish .r*j. ..-.*,.... $ ' 

amaWillard ,.... 8 

imesdE Oo. ■»■ 1... ft 

\, Hough.... ...;^. •......: •.....-.....••• .^^ti.l. ft 

istnrnell ...'. .'.iv. ...^l . .-. 'ft' ' 

aahington Htmt..*. v.. %. ....«.^i> 4 ; 

111178. fimdaHf.... :; 4* . - 

«d«rickFolibtt:.... .1... L.:. w..... 4 

Clark 4 

P. Johnaoa ^ : 3 

. W. R. Williams ,..., 3 

in S. VTiUiams 3 

oyalB. Hinnuui 3 

m. W. Campbell 3 

lUen Bryant 1 .' .-.. ••.•-.- 4 

!jenox «... S 

idenB.Chaae J..'. '^ 

1 J. Meyer 3 

Shea :....:..... 2 

MMN^Webetor *. i.j..»*NA;«. . .3' , 

WmUa De Peyaier. i'w..: i ii.;.:)il j 

W.Clintoo ^ ...^ '^tlii : 

DM Dean..... ...« ^ «.k;i*. «•««•«; ^,.: ;9 . = *: 

V onea ...& ...h*. ■'w.*.... .... .«•• «... .^.. ■•'•* •'.*. .'-^ •'•m « x «. • • **« tt^M**- • * * * v  '  ^'i 

,MeKim A Oei, J. B.SuMnfl> Ladowig. G. iL:1Caf4,.Hm>^ B..W^^ 

r,HoB/A.W.Bf«lft>rd.S.A.fieaoh,I?ia(«4E.Pidba^]Uv.aWUi^V ' ^ 

nderdonfa, jr.) »r.-A. -T. 8kikoa, and Rev. Dh fF^OL'SUimM:, 1 M Mh. 19 . . 

— 3W. 

■■1' ;• , . • . . . 

NEW 7SR8EY. ...-■./. 

•  - -■ - • ■:■■.■.■•:■' ;;.v;vy :'. ,■'   / . 

iMy.HiftoricalSodttj.,,.,,.,. .......:.•. ..., , U , . 

Mfh 30 


NSW. JXB8Sr-HHm^t«^* 

Henry 0. Carey a 

Ber. Dr. J. F. Steams 1 

Her. Dp* J. Hall .: 1 

Hob. Wte. Wright 1 


Pennaylyania Historioal Sodeiy , 1 * 

State Department 9i 

Her. Albert Bamea 16 

J. B. lippincott A Oo...p 18 

B.O.*J. Biddle...., , 7 

Dr.Wm. Darlington 7 

J.W.Moore S 

Neville B. Crwg 4 

President W. H. Allen, Girard College 3 

Stepben Taylor 2 

Samuel Hasard, Jolm F. Watson, Dr. J. Thomaa, Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Be?. Dr. Jos. 

Beldier, Isaac Lea, Hon. J. Bobbins, jr. and J. G. C. Kennedy, 1 toL each. . . 8 

— gc B 


Benjamin Ferris 4 


BeT. G, W.Bnmap 9 

Hon. James A. Pierce 3 

Hon. Thos. G. Pratt 1 

~ IS 


Smithaonian Inatitation ^ ,. 7 

State Deparimeot, Hon. W. L. liaicy 164 

Indian Boreaa 5 

Patent Office, Hon. C. Maaon 4 

TopograpbiGal Bureau, OoL J. J. Abert ^ 3 

Coast Surrey, Prol A. D. Bacbe « 3 

Hon. B. Mcdalla&d, Bealniaiior 5 

Qen.Tlio8. Lawion, Burgeon Qcxeral...^ ^ ^ 4 

Geo. Ogden Deeth 11 

Samuel Cole, Oh'f Clerk Pension Office^ ., 7 

Wm. a Carroll, Clerk Sup. Court 2 

has. Jjanman.... ......•^... ........ — ....; .'. j^.. % 

- ^.^»^ 

I  I! 
 I  .  k . . ) I 

t 'III 

JimetlLllAlOD... 4 ,^ 

riKHowiaon.. J 2 ' . 

itll J«nn«y...... ...^. ^. % 

r«IbDiHi8i .......J ^. 1 

• , • - . » 

RThomptoii 1 

— 10 



IlB?idL.8wBiii..».. ..^»»« 1 I 


Dr. Thomas Smyth. U 

oieph JohnBOD '. 1 

iuP.Botler 1 

— 16 . 

• . ; i 


dbarlee Gayarre .., ^.j. ^ 

JJ). DeBow 3 

> I 

loseiesippi. ' 

41bfft G. Browu .-.•... % 

(Sliqdien Adanal. 1 ,.**^*. '1. 

G. M. Bamaey ii..w..,. 1 


L«w!a OoDixii ^ 1 

Unn Boyd ^ 1 


TbomatH. B«iton ^ 4 

D. B. AtahSaon 3 

— 7 


^HlrtoHoal and PhflAMpUnl 8ooi«lgp../.i.-.. 6 

jBubmh P* Ghaaa .*••■••••••. •.......••iyi'afiti|\fiif^.«Mr*ii'»00«i'..»**«*. 8 * 

yBmd ir..... .!,..: 6 

'. s 


Bon. EUsh* Whittleaoj -*- .4; 

CUab AtwaifiBr -...^ fJ. 

Bcrid And«noh .-- y%. .. 

f ohn f. Fo(»tt^ John C. McDonald, Dr. S. P. Hildreth. W. H. Saflbcd, G«ii« L. 

Y. Blsrce, W. T. Coggflshall and Cbas. Oloott, 1 Tol eadi ••^.•-.' 7 

 • - . _ 31 

Got. JosephA. Wright •••«>. t. 21 

H<)n. John Petit : *. 6 

Hon. J. G.Davia •-s-.-^^^^r 2 

' .... ,•-.■■ 


A. H. 4 0. Burley :. 30 

D/fB. dooke <fe Co 90 

Eon. Jamas Shielda ,^.^ 5 

COiarlea B. Starkweathar 4 

Dr. E. €. Bbipnan .....^ : iP 

Hon. a. A..Douglaa S 

Hta. John Reynolds 2 

H. 0. Foster -^..t 2 

8.0. OriggsdrCo ...•..,-. I 

Hon. ITonnan fiddy ••••^..•.. 1 

8. De Witt Drown; : ..: I.."....' 1 

>: — 7» 


Hon. AngnstUB 0. Dodge ' #'* 

Hon. Bemhart Henn 2 

fA.y: '  ' — !• 

inoraoAN. ' *^-'*' 

^9B. LewiisOaflB 3 

inSBBAfiKiu' ' 
William Walker «..,« «Uw«.....w > J < l'-'- 

K. Tnibner, publisher, London 14 

•J >iw^1t«5S 



From the State 71 

HoilN. p. Tallmadg« 160 

Hon. Ben. 0. Eutman 45 

Hon. Henry Dodge 35 

Ljman 0. Draper 31 

Hon. I. P. Walker 21 

Bilaa ( hapman 18 

CjniB TYoodman 18 

W. N. Seymour 15 

Darwin Clark 15 

W.W.Wyman 15 

Hou. James D. Doty 14 

Daniel S. Dum'e 14 

Dr. H.U.Holt 11 

Hon. Levi Rusisell 10 

OoL John Shaw 9 

Dr. JohQ W. Hunt 8 

Hon. Charles Durkee 8 

Hon. John B.Macy 7 

Chancy C. Brilt 7 

Dr. Joseph Gray 7 

Hon. Charles Clement 6 

Dr. Wm. Henry Brisbane 6 

Daniel Noble Johnson 6 

EliaaA. Calkins 5 

I. A. Lapham 5 

Daniel 8, Curtis 4 

David ilolt 4 

Mark Miller 4 

State Agricultural Society 3 

Hon. James H. Lockwood 3 

Beriah Brown 3 

CoL Alex.Botkin 3 

Stephen G. Benedict 3 

Hon. Daniel Wells, Jr 3 

Hon.0. R. McLane 2 

Prof, r. Hudson 2 

OoL James Morrison 2 

Hon. Thomas McHugh 2 

Hon. Sqnire S. Case 2 

Wted d( Eberfaard 2 

W. H.Watton 2 

Dr. A. L. OMtlmum 2 




Rev. M. D. MiUer 2 

Juliu* T. Clark 2 

'D. 0. Browo. Hod. 0. A. Stevens. J. R. BalUell, Hod. D. J. Powers, G. 0. TiSaxxj, 

Hon. I. E. GoodaU, Rev. Spencer Carr, Gen. A. G. Ellis, Gen. Wm. R. Smith* 

P. Toland, 0. Beeson, Royal Buck. John Delaney, A. F. Clarke, ProC J. G. 

Pereival, Jas. T, Smith, N. Campbell, Prest. Rosweil Park, Hon. L. J. Farwell, 

Joshna Hathaway. Col D. At wood, Col D. M. Parkiaon, Hon. J. Sutherland, 

D. C. Bush, and Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, 1 yoL each S5 

- 643 

Purchased 323 



Wisconsin 642 

New York 338 

Purchased 333 

District of CelnmbSa 216 

Hasflachusetts 160 

Pennsylvania 90 

Illinois 70 

New Jersey 46' 

Ohio 36 

Indiana 80 

Oonnecticnt ^ 2S 

Rhode Island.. It 

South Carolina 16 

Great Britain 14 

Ifaine IS 

Ifaryland 12 

New Hampshire 10 

Yir);:inia .' 10 

Iowa ^ 10 

Ifissonri 7 

Louisiana 5 

Vermont 4 

Delaware 4 

MissisBippi * 3 

Michigan 2 

North Carolina 1 

Tennessee 1 

Nebraska 1 

Denmark T 

Totil..... ::. 52' 

 *..• i"i '■' 





• I • 

"From Hon. Charles Durkee, of Wia a,, .^^ • ».. •«*. .^^J .^ ..-•• . •••w' 1»180 

do Joel Munsell. Albany .-^:..^,-, ^.. ........ ...... 850 

do Rev. E. M. StoDo, of R. 1.... 1.'..'. .-..'... \.. ......... ..1..... 185 

do Dr. Edward Jarvis, of Mass :... ..::.:.'/.... 175 

do Emox Institute. ..^. /^ /....•^i ......»r-^..»...w:j -j 109 

do Dr. F. B. Hongb, Albany -.,-..j..-. 105 

do Samuel G. Drake, Boston , ^« 85 

do Hon. Levi Russell, of Wi« 76 

do Lyman 0. Draper, ** 75 

do Cyrua Woodman, f* , J...,.-.JJ 75 

do Wm.H. Wataon, " ,; 75 

do Harvard College, Maas 60 

do Dr. J. W. Hunt, of Wis 50 

do J. S. Loring, Boston ^ 45 

do J. H. Hickcoz, Albany ^......v ^. 43 

do L A. Lapbam, of Wis -• 30 

do SibuCbapmnn, " 30 

do a O. Deeth A Son, New Jeraey 1 30 

do MarUn Miicbell, of Wis 90 

do Hev. Spencer Carr, •* ...• * 15 

do Hon. W. B. Towce, of Mats 19 

do Hon. G. S. Boutwell, •' 10 

From Hon. H. Dodge, Hon. L. J. Farwell, Atwood & Rublee, E. A. Calkins, 
American Antiquarian Society, American Po^Msopliksiil Boti^y, Steltlienian 
Institution, Boyal Society of Northern Antiquoto, Rkcids Island, Psdnsyl- 

Tsnia, Maryland, and Minnesota Historical Socie|ie% and^)i^r sources, at least 365 

Total -..-..c..J......i..tL.... 3^ 

Maps and charts have been received from Lieut Maary, Hoi£ 0, Durkee, Hon. Jss* 
Bbiskla, J. Disturnell, I. A. Lapham, S. A. Mitchell, Dr. J. VV . ;Hunt, Mrs. Emma Wil- 
lard, Dr. H. Newhall, Rev. A. Kent, Gen. Charles Bracken, S. Chapman, and others. 


. I 




. ' . '* 

New York Qnarteriy Review, (pot. noHr r^o^ived^^h 
BibliothecaSacr^j^.,,]^ ii' ^ . . :;<ip - ' do u 
N. E. Historical and Qenoa]^8^,fi4(i8tert,L» 



Mining Magazine. 

Western Literary Messenger. 

Oincionati Genius of the West. 

Wisconsin Farmer. 

Telegraph Magazine, (not now received.) 

Phrenological Journal. 

Wis. Educational Journal. 

Beloit College Monthly. 

OarroU OoUege Student 

Wisconsin Home. 


Milwaukee Sentinel. 
JanesTille Free Press. 
Madison Argus and Democrat. 

do Journal. 

do Patriot. 


Milwaukee Wisconsin. 
Kenosha Telegraph. 

do Democrat. 
Baraboo Bepublic. 
Geneva Express. 
Whitewater Gazette. 
Waukesha Plain Dealer. 

do Democrat. 
Beloit* Journal. 
Janeaville Standard. 

do Free Press. 

do Gazette. 
Sheboygan Journal. 

do Evergreen Oity Times. 

do Nieawsbode. 


Manitowoc Tribane. 

do Herald. 

do Democrat, 
Fond du Lac Union. 

do Herald. 
Madison Weekly Argns. 

do Journal. 

do Patriot. 
La CroBse Kepublican. 

do National Demo crat 
Monroe Sentinel. 
Platteville American. 
Prescott Transcript. 
Portage City Badger State. 
Watertown Democrat. 
Beaver Dam Bepablican. 
Horicon Argus. 
Oshkosh Courier. 

Menasba Advocate. 

Appleton Crescent. 

Green Bay Advocate. 

Mineral Point Tribune. 

Columbus Republican Journal. 

Ozaukee Advertiser. 

Newport Wisconsin Mirror. 

Bichland County Observer. 

La Fayette County Herald. 

Mineral Point Democrat, file kept at the office. 

Stevens Point Pinery, do 

West Bend Organ, do 

Hudson North Star, do 

Lancaster Herald, do 

Oshkosh Democrat, do 

Madison Staats Zeitung, do 


Ohicago Democratic Press. 

do Ohristian Times. 
Kentucky Oommonwealth; 
Athens, Tennessee, Post 
Philadelphia New Ohurch Herald. 
New York Criterion — ^literary. 

do Publishers' Circular. 

do Weekly Mirror. 

do Weekly Tribune, preserved by secretary. 

do Home Mission Ile(5ord,(monthlj) do 
Philadelphia Christian Chronicle. do 

Total, 78 periodicals — of which 59 are Wisconsin publications. 



J. ,, • '■■> . ■■•':•'  ■; ::! 




As the statistical details relative to the increase of the library 
proper daring the past year, are more appropriately embodied in 
the report of the Execative Committee, the librarian begs to sub- 
mit the following report on the rise and progress uf the Pictubb 
Gallery, togetlier with some remarks on the merits of the several 
pictures, and their respective artists : 

The design of the Historical Society is to preserve all memen- 
toes of the past that yet remain to us, buried though they may be 
underneath the dust and rubbish of ages ; records of the Aboriginal 
inhabitants of the country, as well those which have forever pass- 
ed away, leaving behind them only apocryphal mounds, to puzzle 
the learned antiquary, as those who yet mingle among us. But 
we must not lose sight of the great fact, that the present will soon 
be past, and the incidents that we hardly notice to-day, will ere 
long form a portion of our history ; and the knowledge that wo 
now scarcely think worth retaining will one day be earnestly and 
laboriously sought after by the carious antiquarian. 

History, proper, is a record of deeds, but a valuable aid, and a 
•choice relic of the past, are true and reliable portraits of those whose 
acts formed the history of their day. Deeds will live in tradition 
'Or in the more lasting forms of books and writings, but the fbnn 
and features are doomed to a more ephemeral existence. Oonse- 
•qaently, a great part of the labor of an Historical Society, in the 
realm of the present, is to secure reliable portraits of those who 


figure prominently in our State ; and as some may imagine, that 
the Society have exceeded the limits of a proper discretion in 
laying so much stress upon this subject, we will give a brief out- 
line of the plan proposed to be carried out by the Society. 

I. To secure the portraits of all the Governors of Wisconsin. 
Fortunately all are yet living, and after the lapse of centuries, 
when all those noble forms shall have mingled with their kindred 
dust, with what feelings of pride will the inhabitants of our State 
point to this list of portraits, sketched by master hands, of those 
whom their ancestors delighted to honor I 

II. To secure the portraits of the Judges of our Supreme 

ni. To secure portraits of noted Indian Chiefs and early set- 
tlers. In this department we are peculiarly fortunate, as from the 
master pencil of Sully, we have those of Black Ha.wk, his Son, 
and the Prophet, which we will notica more at length hereafter ; 
and of our Wisconsin pioneers, we have made a noble commence- 

IV. To secure the portraits of our Senators and Representatives 
in Congress. All are yet living, except Mr. Eastman. 

V. To obtain portraits of some of the illustrious historic men of 
our common country. 

It will be seen that this plan is extensive, too extensive to be 
properly carried out, with the limited means at the disposal of 
the Society ; and were it not for a private liberality and hearty 
co-operation of lovers of art, and of artists, it could hardly be 

Of the Gk)vemor8 of the State, but one portrait, that of Gover- 
nor Barstow, is yet in the Gallery, and this is a striking and ef- 
fective likeness, painted by S. M. Brookes. Gen. Lewis OasSi 
who was Governor while Wisconsin formed a part of Michigan 
Territory, Governors Dodge, Tallmadgb, Drwey and Farwsll 
have promised theirs, which will shortly adorn oar walls. 


Of the Sapreme Court Judges only that of Hod. A. D. Siotb 
is as yet received. This portrait, executed by S. M. Baookss, of 
Milwaukee, il a strikingly accurate one, and is remarkably correct 
in preserving the expression — an excellence which we can almost 
call a peculiarity of the celebrated artist. 

The preservation of the likenesses of early Indian Chiefs is too 
often overlooked, and we suffer the consequences. Still wo are 
fortunate in having striking portraits of Blaok Hawk, and the 
leaders of his band, who were at one time the terror of the whites 
of the North West. The original portrait of Black Hawk, of 
which this is an improved copy, was painted by Sully at Fortress 
Monroe, Old Point Comfort, Virginia, while Black Hawk was a 
IT. S. prisoner, and strikingly depicts the sad and mournful ex- 
pression of a captive chief, struggling to subdue his feelings, and 
depress the sad emotion of a vanquished chieftain. There is a 
dignity in his look, an expression half concealed by the cloud of 
sadness that shades his brow, that marks him as a man of charac- 
ter and of true greatness. He is clad in the English drees, and 
one in gazing upon his portrait might well imagine him a Roman, 
looking mournfully upon his degenerate country. There is less 
of the features and expreseion which we are wont to associate 
with the Indian name and character, than we usually find. Of 
the truth ot the likeness we have many living witnesses now 
* among u8, all of whom agree bs to its exact and striking correct- 

Black Hawk's son, Na-she-a-ktjsk, never bore a conspicuous part 
in the early history of our State, and is chiefly interesting from 
his association with the more noted chief, his father, whose for* 
tunes he followed during the war of 1832, and whose captivity he 
shared. The portrait was painted under the same circumstances as 
the former; only this is an origiual,never copied,a8 is also that of the 
' Pbophbt, who accompanied Black Hawk, taken at the sametime. 
The Pbopiibt's is a striking portrait. The very muscles of the face 
seem to relax and tighten with all the malicious passions, of which 


man in his most degraded state is capable. The dark depths of a 
fiendish soni, with all its hellish thoughts of torture and revenge 
seem insoribed in every feature of that forbidding' countenance* 
The drapery of the fignre is bad, but the head is perfect The 
low forehead, the matted hair, the deep-set eyes, the heavy jaws, 
and the sensuous mouth, all betray the most accomplished villain ; 
and such his character is well known to have been.* 

From this dark picture we turn to the light, graceful, and beau- 
tiful portrait of Pocahontas, the well known Indian Princess of 
Virginia, whose history and early death are familiar to every one. 
Soon after, her marriage with Kolfe she sailed for England, where 
her beauty and queenly behavior attracted universal attention. A 
portrait of her was there painted, which subsequently passed into 
the hands of the family of his brother in England. In process of 
time this old portrait was brought to Yirginia; and, in a state a]> 
most cmmbling to ruins, it was copied by Sullt, and from this waa 
made the copy in our possession, although the artist in bad taste, 
as we think, embellished it with a wreath of flowers in her hair, 
and substituted the simple drapery of an Indian maiden, in place 
of the antique dress of the time of Jambs L The embellishment 
gives to the picture an air of ideality, and we are apt to consider 
the portrait as a fancy sketch, while it is, as will be seen from the 
following testimonials, a genuine and truthful portrait of this 
celebrated princess : 

Statement of Richabd Randolph, of Virginia, April 1st, 1843: 

" Pocahontas and Mr. Rolfe, her husband, arrived at Plymouth 
on the 12th June, 1616. Their portraits were taken whilst in 

• The foUowiog notice of tbd Propbkt was written in 188S, bj the late Mi^. Thoiu.8 Fouttb, wlie 
k§d prerionalj for maajr jfn been an Indian traidar, and uatil 1880, the Indian agent of the Saoka acd 
Foxea ; and girea ns a more farorable riew of bit eharacten Yet troth extorts the remark, that he haa 
bad the reputation of being ehleflj iastramental in leading fata deluded followers, against the wlahatof 
Black. Hawk, into the oBfortaaate outbreak of 1888. Maj. Fobatu'b testiaaooy ia taken from tlh% 
•zeeUent and charming work, Mu. KnriiM Wau-Bun, or tht * Earlp Day * in the North' Wat : " Kaaj 
a good meal has the Fr^phd giren to people traTelllng past his Tillage, and yvtf macj atn^ hoiMt kftl 
iMMOorertd iron the IndtoB^Md xartoftd to 1ii«ir rigMM ovmov wttboat aakiaf ai^ nrnupMMi^ 
whaterer." X. 0. D 


England, where their son Thomas was born. Pooahontas died at 
Gravesend in the early part of the year 1617 ; her husband return" 
ed to Virginia, leaving his son to the care of Mr. Hbnbt Bolfb, 
his brother. 

^' Thomas Kolf£ returned to Virginia, and there married, and 
died, leaving an only child, Jane, who married Col. Robebt.Bol- 
lONG, and died, leaving an only child, John Bolling, whoso daugh- 
ter Janb, married Bichabd Randolph, of Curies, in the county of 
Henrico, Virginia. Their son Ryland, who owned and resided on 
the patrimonial estate, after receiving his education in England, 
was informed that the portraits of Pocahontas and Rolfe, were in 
possession of a gentleman in England,whose name is now forgotten. 

^' He wrote to his friend in England, to endeavor to purchase 
them for him ; when the gentleman was applied to, and informed 
that Hr. Randolph was a descendant of Pooahontas and Rolfe, 
he presented the portraits to Mr. Randolph, whose friend sent 
them to Virginia, where they arrived safely, and were hung up in 
Mr. Randolph's mansion, at Turkey Island. 

^ Mr. Randolph died in 1784. Soon after his death, his estate 
was publicly sold, and these portraits were purchased by Mr. 
Thomas BoLLuro, of Oobbs, in the county of Chesterfield, at 
twenty shillings each, that being the appraised value; owing to 
the following agreement : Mr. Thomas Rolling, and four other 
deecendants of Pooahontas, were each anxious to purchase the 
pietares, and a proposition was made to decide by lot which of th% 
fiv^ ahonld have them, and Mr. Bolling, being the nearest, was 
permitted to putrchase them without opposition. 

''This statement was made to me by my father, David Meade 
Randolph, who waa the executor of Rtland Randolph, and sold 
the pictures. The inventory and account of sales may be seen in 
|}ie office of the comity court of Henrico." 

Btetement of D. M. RAmx>LPH, of Yorktown, September, 1830, 
Additased to R. M. Sullt : 


" About the year 1788-9, 1 resided at Presque Isle, one mile 
from Bermuda Hundred. Occasionally iatercbanging visits of 
hospitality with the masters of vessels while in that part, it was 
my good fortune to become intimate with a Captain Joseph Wat- 
son, of tlie brig Jane, of^ Washington. This Captain Watson 
brought' Mr. Randolph a parcel of books. These books were 
accompanied with a long letter from Jonah Wheeler, of the re- 
spectable commercial house of Gerard, Preston, Winder and 
Wheeler, then existing in Liverpool. The books were presented 
by Mr. Wheeler, from his having understood my character as a 
farmer, and my name as a descendant of Pocahontas. / 

" Mr. Wheeler stated that he had ' heard his mother relate the 
circumst'ancefs of a Mr. Randolph or Bollino, having in their day 
been over to England and going down into Warwickshire, one 
hundred and fifty miles from London, in pursuit of the portraits 
of Mr. RoLFE and Pocahontas;' the gentleman, he said, oflfered a 
large price for the pictures, but the family who had them, them- 
selves not descendants from Pocahontas, but from Rolfe, disdain* 
ing a premium, generously gave the same to Ryland Randolph, 
who satisfied them of his better pretension to so valuable a posses- 
sion. I retain a perfect recollection of their being brought over from 
England by my uncle, their appearance at Turkey Island, and 
lastly their sale, by myself, acting as clerk to my father, the ad* 
miuistrator, in the month of March, 1784. Our estimable fellow- 
citizen, La Fayette, was he now among us, would, I believe, 
Identify the pictures and confirm their history, from the fact of his 
intimacy with Ryland Randolph, whose house served for his 
headquarters a considerable time in the memorable campaign of 

Statement of Mrs. Annb Robinson, of Virginia : 

'* From my earliest recollection I have been accustomed to see 
the picture copied by Mr.;^SuLLY, in the house of my grandfather, 
Mr. T. BoLLiNO, of Oobbs ; it was always shown as the portrait of 
Pocahontas. Mr. T. Bollino was the representative of iPowoM* 


TAN ; my grandmother, Mrs. Betty Bollino, equaIl7«distiDct from 
FooAHosTAs ; neither entertained a doubt that the picture in ques- 
tion was a portrait of PooIhontas. My father, also a descendant 
of Pocahontas, was well acquainted with the history of the pic- 

Statement of Dr. Thomas Robinson, Petersburg, Ya., August 
30th, 18i3 : 

" The Indian picture copied by Mr. Sully, the original of which 
is now in my possession, was shown to me at Cobbs, some seyen- 
teen or eighteen years ago, by Mr. Bolliko, as the portrait of 
Pocahontas; Mrs. R, then proprietor of the portrait, was herself 
a descendant of Pocahontas, and widow of the representative of 
Powhattan. a slight inspection of the costume, satisfied me that 
this was the only portrait of a female, painted in the reign of 
James I., among the family pictures. 

" With very great pleasure I bear testimony to the rigid fideli- 
ty, with which Mr. Sully has copied this very interesting portrait, 
notwithstanding the temptation to certain alterations in conformi- 
ty witli the romantic spirit of the history of the individual whom 
it represents, by which the eflTect might have been increased, with- 
out impairing the likeness. From every thing of ^is kind Mr. 
Sully has, with great propriety, abstained, while the likeness, 
4X)6tume ami attitude have been presented with great exactness. 

('The original is crumbling so rapidly that it may be considered 
M having already passed out of existence." 

Statement of W. F. Simpson, of V^., Aug. 13, 1830: 

' *^I>KAR Sully : — You requested me a few days ago to call and 
tee the portrait of Pooahontas you have lately been busy upon, 
from the one which you borrowed from the descendants at Cobbs. 
I did so last evening while you were from home, and feel much 
pleasure in bearing testimony to the' style in which you have exe- 
Mted your trust, a tas^so difiScult from the mutilated state of the 
origittBl picture, that I really thought it almost impossible for you 


to succeed as completely as jou have done. It is faithful to a 
letter, perhaps more so than is politic^ since had you made some 
little altemtion in her ladyship's position, and dressed her rather 
more in accordance with the taste of this after age, I have no 
doubt the picture would tell better with the majority of those who 
may hereafter see it. I of course think you quite right in sticking 
as rigidly to the ' better of the law' as you have done." 

Additional statements could be adduced, but we think these 
will be deemed amply sufficient upon which to rest the genuine- 
ness of the original picture, as well as the first copy taken by 
Sully. He employed great labor in attaching the mutilated and 
decaying parts together, so as to bring the whole within his pow- 
er, and at length happily succeeded. When Sully proposed to 
execute a new copy of Pocahontas for our Society, and another 
for the Virginia Ilistorical Society, his own deep reverence and 
admiration for the memory, virtues and portrait of the lovely 
Forest Princess, led him while anxiously desiring to preserve a 
faithful copy of her features, to wish to change the full facial fronti 
to the three quarter vi^w, and substituting for the absurd costume 
of the time of Jatltes the FrasT, the more appropriate Indian dress 
of that period. Sully thought that in this ancient English costume, 
all Indian associat'on was destroyed, and that the proposed change 
would give her a much more truthful and characteristic represen- 
tation. The Virginia Historical Society expressed a wish that 
Sully would 60 paint it — thus Indicmizing the original portrait ; 
and our Society left the matter entirely to the artist's taste a&d 
judgment, as the copy he designed for us was to come as a gift. 

As Sully learned from the early Virginia historian Beverly, • 
that it was customary for the Indian maidens on their gala day8| 
to weave wreaths of the fairest wild flowers of the forest, into 
their hair — and that Pooahontas took part in these past-time^he 
conceived the idea of heightening the effect of the pictara t^ 
introducing such a wreath encircling her brow, and particiUnrlj 
aa he had unquestionable historical aathoi^ity f!or it, and hjffitwlf 


lived in the valley of Jamee Riveri ia the native region of the 
Princess, and could there select from the forest the loveliest flow- 
ers for the purpose. Such were Sully's views, sanctioned and 
approved by the Virginia Historical Society, and acquiesced in by 
our own ; and though we may not all of us fully co incide with 
them, jet they d^erve groat respect, and serve to show that the 
artist did not make the change without some show of reason for it. 
He accordingly made a selection of forest flowers, and the painting 
will ever testify with what taste he executed that delicate task. 

ine Society may well feel proud of possessing such correct 
likenesses of BLi.cK Hawk and his companions — of Blaok Hawk's 
SON and the Prophbt none others are known to exist; and we be* 
lieve there are but two other portraits of Pocahontas, in the 
country, that can lay the least claim to genuineness, and both were 
copied by Sully. But with the feeling of pride in the possession 
of these treasurers, comes an emotion of sadness as we remember 
the melancholy fate of the talented artist whose gift, in part, they 

By Tnoe. SuUiV, we have a fine copy of Gilbbrt Stuart's cele- 
brated portrait of Washington. It stands out nobly from the can- 
vass, and impresses every beholder with a feeling of awe and ad- 
miration. By Edwards, formerly of Cincinnati, now of Louisville, 
we have two fine portraits — one an original of Dr. Wm. Btrd 
Powell, the other a copy of Jarvis' portrait of Gen. Geo. Rogers 
Clark, the Washington of the West. Clark did for the great Ohio 
Valley what Washington did for the Atlantic States; his life and ex- 
ploits we hope soon to see rescued from oblivion by the Corres- 
ponding Secretary of our Society, who possesses all his old papers 
and other ample materials for such a work. Dr. Powell, of 
Kentucky, as his noble head would indicate, is a man of origi- 
nality of mind, and has written much and well upon medical and 
acientific subjects^ 

. From the pencil of Bobt. M. Built, in addition to the four be* 
firV: mentioned, we> have an cKcellent portrait of Ohihf Jxmum 


Masshall, 80 eminent as a soldier, statesman, jurist and historian^ 
While this was his last, it is by far the best of the Sullj })ortraits, 
in its artistic finish — and he himself so considered it. 

The portrait of Db Wm Clinton which we possess, is one which 
adorned the Governor's own libiary, which fact is a sufficient 
guarantee of its correctness. Bj whom it was painted is a matter 
of some doubt, though the weight of evidence points to Cath'n as 
the artist; if so, this must have been during his earliest efforts. 
It is said to have been 'painted while Clinton was Major of New 
York, and this is rendered almost certain by the dress which ap- 
parently belongs to the costume of that period. None of the 
Clinton family can give any positive testimony concerning its 
origin; but we know it is an original, as we obtained it from an 
aged retired bookseller of Albany, who purchased it at the sale 
of Gov. Clinton's library, immediately after his death in 1828. 

Of our Congressmen, although many are promised, as yet only 
that of Ex Senator I. P. Walker is received. It is a good portrait, 
and was painted at Milwaukee by Wm. J. Head, of St. Louis, in 
1852, and presented to the Society by G. P. Delaplainb. 

Our list of portraits of old pioneers is quite full, and bespeaks 
well for the future. The. following are by S. M. Beookes, of Mil- 
waukee : Btbon Kilboubn and Alanson Sweet, among the first 
settlers of Milwaukee ; I. A. Lapham, an early settler, well known 
by bis writings, illustrating the natural history and antiquities of 
our state ; Wm. R. Smfth, the President of our Society, and his- 
toriographer of the State, author of the Documentary History of 
the State, two volumes of which are published ; Col. Ebbnezeb 
Ohilds, of La Crosse, one of the first American settlers of Oreen 
Bay ; Ebenezeb Brigham, one of the pioneers of the lead region, 
who was engaged in the Indian difficulties from 1828 to 1832; 
SncEON Mills, who was one of the three first settlers of Madison; 
Solomon Juneau, an early American trader at Milwaukee, before 
there were any settlements in the State, except at Oreen Bay and 
Prairie da Ohien, and who was ehoeen tiie first Mayor of JtUr 

wankee : and Hknby 8. Baibd, of Green Bay, one of the first 
American settlers there, and the first practising lawyer in Wis- 

Besides these, we have a fine View on the Hudson^ from the 
pencil of Jaspp:r F. Cropsey, tlui well kiu>v/n landscape arti^*- of 
New York. The view is looking down the IIJ2d^on, with the 
Higiilands in the distance ; and the effect ivS tliat'of the sun about 
an hour or two high of a warm, hazy, summer afternoon. It is a 
picturesque scene well worthy of the artist in both the study and 
execution. This is the twenty-second picture in the catalogue. 

This feature of the Society — the Pictukk Gallejuy, is alone well 
worth tlic attention of the public. For although the library, as 
another department, may be ever of more lasting interest, the 
Gallery of portraits cannot fail to attract a large share of atten- 
tion from those who have little time for more lengthy examina- 
tions of books and references, and bespeaks well for the liberality 
and public spirit of our citizens, and promises well for the future 
prospects of the Society when its aims shall be more generally 
tinderbtood, and public attention more particularly attracted to it 
by its merits and success. 

The Society may well pride itself upon the possession of such 
a list of portraits already furni&hed, and we hope it may have the 
effect 40 incite more of the old pioneers to furnish theirs. If the 
forty-seven persons who have so generously promised the Society 
their portraits, are not foigetful of their pledges, the Picture Gal- 
lery must speedily become the })ride and admiration of Wisconsin. 

We shall close this report, by a brief reference to the several 
artists by whose skill and genihs our Gallery enterprise has re- 
ceived so much encouragement and fostering car(^ 

The first to tender our Society a production of his pencil, was 
the veteran Thomas Sully, who was born in Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, Jane, 1783, and, at the age of nine, came with his parents, 
irho were comedians, to the United States. At the age of twelve, 
he was placed in the office of an insurance-broker in Charleston, 



but his artistic inclinfitinn rendered his services of little avail to 
his emplojer, who advised his father to make an artist of him. 
This advice was followed, and young Solly studied for some time 
with his brotherin-Iaw in Charleston, and subsequentiy with his 
brother, a miniature painter, at Richmond, Ya. Having made 
creditable progress in oil painting, ab^ut I8u3 he commenced the 
world for nimself. For the ensuing six years he was engaged in 
his profession successively at Norfolk, Richmond, New York and 
Boston, and met with much success as a portrait painter. In 1809 
he settled in Philadelphia, where he has ever since made his 
home; and the same year he visited England, and during a so- 
journ of nine months there, he made the acquaintance and en- 
joyed the friendship of West. During a second visit to England 
in 1837-38, he painted a fulMength portrait of Queen Yictoria, 
which is said to be the most faithful likeness of her that has yet 
been taken. He has painted full lengths ot La Fayette and Com- 
modore Dkoatur, and a large picture of Washington crossing the 
Delaware. He still lives, with rigor unabated, the Nestor of 
American art. 

Clement R. Edwards was born in Wooclston, New Jersey, in 
1820, and ten years afterwards his parents removed to Clncinuati| 
where, in 1837, he was apprenticed to a house and sigfi painter, 
and so remained two years, when he yielded to his strong inclina- 
tion to portrait painting, and opened a studio. He left Cincinnati 
in 1843, following his profession in New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
and Maryland ; and in 1847, joined the army, and served in the 
Yoltigeur Regiment in the memorable battles of Contreras, 
Oherubnsco, Molino del Rey and phapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Mexico. At the termination of the war, he retnrned 
to Cincinnati ttt\d resumed the practice of his profession, and last 
year removed to Louisville. His two portraits of Oen. Obobgi 
BoGEBS Clark and Dr. Wm. Bybd Powrll, which he so kindly 
presented our Society, deservedly fill a conspicuous place in tke 





It is not Q^easary to sptak of B. M. Sitixt in this coaM«t^,> 
Kr» Dha^sb's remarks upon the occasion of anncfniieiibg Aie 
4Mth lo the Society, are as foil as coold be desir^. Hiis fihe 
pictures will remain to tell their own storj of the worth amd gmhiB 
of the lamented artist. 

Sakitel M. Brookes, who for several months has been sd 'basy 
with his pencil and pallet in the production of faithful pictures 
for our Qallery, is a native of England ; but when a child his pa-- 
rents migratec^ to America, and in 1833 we find them at Chicago, 
and subsequently in the region near Waukegan. Possessing an 
early aptness for drawing, young Brookes took lessons in oil paint- 
ing of an artist who tarried a while at Chicago, and soon after 
opened a studio of his own. He> met with encouraging success, 
considering the newness of the country, the poverty ot the people, 
and the little taste for art then prevajent in the I^orth- West. Deter- 
mined on visiting London and the Continent, he started with only a 
few dollars in his pocket, spent nearly two years abroad, and return- 
ed with more money than when he left, besides several hundred 
dollars' worth'of pictures, the most of which were copies he had 
made in London. Since his return, he has followed his profession 
first in Chicago, but for several years past in Milwaukee, and bids 
fair with his genius and love for the art, to add largely to his own 
repntation, and do a noble work for our Piotctrb Gallery. 

Of the artist Catlht, we need only say, that since he visited the 
Ifandans and other distant tribes beyond the Mississippi, and 
made a noble collection of portraits of the Bed Men, which he 
has exhibited in this country and Europe, he has written a work on 
the Indians, and is now understood to be in the Amazon Valley, 
in South America, where he is doubtless engaged in making 
aketches of that wonderful country. We know but little of Wh. 
J. Head, save that he is regarded at St. Louis as an artist of much 
akiU and promise. Jasper F. Cbofset has long ranked among 
the most eminent landscape painters of our country. We should 
eateam it no small honor to have in o\ir collection one of the pro* 


dactions from hifi fine pencil — and it should be regarded as donblj 

honorable, as it comes to hs as a free offering of his appreciation 

of the worth, enterprise and success of our beloved WisooNSDr 

Bjbtorioal Sooiett. 


MiDiBOif, April 10, 1856. 



AIlfEMDIX. Ho. 4. 


HOir. HIBAM A. wRiom. 


In Execntivo Committee, June 5, 1855, Hon. John T. Smith 
in the chair, Hon. J. P. Atwood arose and announced the death 
of Hon. Hiram A, "Wriqut, as follows : 

Mb. Fbbsidbnt : — I arise to announce an event as solemn at 
such an announcement is unusual, in this hall. For the first time 
fince the organization of this society, the members of the Execu- 
tive Committee have occasion to mourn the loss of one of their 
number. A bolt has descended from a clear sky, and the heavens 
are shrouded in gloom. A chair is vacant, and with heavy hearts 
we sit amid the sable insignia of death. 

The Hon. Hiram A. Weight, late Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of the State of Wisconsin, and one of the Curators of 
this Society, died at Prairie du Chien, on the twenty seventh ult. 

This event was as unexpected as the intelligence which is now 
flying from town to town, and from hamlet to hamlet, is startling 
and mournful. The shadow of his form lingers about the capitol, 
and the instruments of his office — the opened book — the unfinished 
manuscript, lay upon the table where he placed them. Almost 
imperceptibly we expect on the walks and in public places, that 
pleasant, yet dignified and courtly salutation, and can hardly be- 
lieve that we are to receive that greeting no more. 

The deceased left us, but a few days since, in feeble health, oc- 
MMonod, as was then supposed, by constant and arduous labon 
dtuing the past winter, for the porposo of enjoying a short season 

of relaxation and repose, among the recuperating inflnencee of 
his home, and with the intent of soon resuming the official datiee, 
in the discharge of which he had been actively engaged np to 
the hour of his departure. Bat ere we were apprised that his ill- 
ness denoted impending danger, and before he was scarcelj 
missed, the wire vibrates^ and we are told that he is dead. 

Mr. Wjught left the place where he was reared and educated, 
in the State of New York, near where lived and died his illus- 
trious namesake and relative, whe& quite young, to seek his for- 
tune in the adventurous and rising west. He came to this State 
when its beauties and resources were comparatively unknown, and 
before it had emerged from its territorial infancy. He early learned 
the habits, customs and peculiarities of the people, who were then 
laying the foundations of a State on the frontier of civilization ; 
and that people early conferred upon him the honors and distinc- 
tions, which though sometimes tardy, surely come to crown the * 
just and meritorious. He won their confidence — they trusted 
him — and the highest eulogium that need be passed upon hii 
name is, that he never betrayed that trust. 

In the various positions of responsibility and prominence which, 
he occupied, at the Bar, on the Bench, in the Assembly hall, in 
the Senate chamber, at the head of an important department of 
the executive government of the State, during the mutations of 
party and the ebullitions of public opinion, he maintained the 
confidence reposed in him, and did what he esteemed to be his 
duty and his right, unswerved by considerations of a temporary 
policy. He was eminently consistent in all the relations of life, 
of unqueationable integrity, prudent, considerate, decisive, ener- 
getic in action and untiring in the prosecution of his purpose. A 
firm, inflexible partizan, he was not a demagogue. Though al- 
ways, from his youth, in public life, he never forgot his responsi* 
bilities as a man. Exalted to a seat with the first men in the 
State, he preserved a modest and unpretending demeanor. TheM ' 
qualities, not alwaya found in public men, were discovered aadf 


appreciated. They made his name a familiar word in every^ 
hamlet and cotfage. The impress of his character is on the pub- 
lic heart, and there U his cenotaph^ f^d there it will remain mofe 
eloquent and enduring than the chiseled column. 

Judge Wright was still young. Thirty summers had not yet 
strewed flowers in his pathway — thirty winters had not yet come' 
to chill the life blood in his heart. He had but just entered upon 
the broad iield of manly aspirations and exertions, and was pre- 
pared by age and experience, for a life of enriable distinction and 
usefulness. Competency, honor, station, a cultivated head, a no* 
ble heart — the enjoyment of domestic felicity, all seemed com- 
bined to make his future fair and auspicious ; but he fell, ^' with 
all his blushing honors thick upon him," ere the early days of 
manhood had lost one ray of brightness. 

The reflections suggested by this dispensation of Providence, 
are a sad and truthful commentary upon the uncertainties of life 
— on the frailty of all earthly hopes and enjoyments. 

In this connection I cannot refrain from remarking, that it was 
my fortune to be associated with him, a short time, in the private 
walks of life^ and that it was there, amid the kindly influences 
which hallow and bless the domestic altar, that I learned to love 
the man. Of the ten persons, including children, comprising the- 
families of Judge Wright, then a member of the Senate — Hon. 
Oqab. D. RoBiNsoir, then Secretary of State, Doct. Ladd, then 8u« 
perintendent of Public Instruction, and myself, who sat around the 
same boards during the winter of 1852, but three remain. The 
wisest, the purest, the loreliest have left us, and lent the light of 
their character and their smiles to illumine another sphere. 

Our grief is assuaged by the reflection, that the last moments of 
onr friend were spent where he most loved to live — in the bosom 
of his family — in the quiet seclusion of his home. The amiable 
and accomplished lady, whose life destinies were linked with his 
by ties which now bind her to the spirit world — smoothed with her 
own gentle hand the pillow of the dying man, and closed his eyes 


in that sleep which knows no earthly waking. I would not in- 
trude, with words of condolence, upon the sacred reverie of that 
widow — weeping with her orphaned child, at the fountain where the 
silver cord has been loosed, and the goldeo bowl been broken. Her 
sorrow is too holy for the minstration of human consolation. All 
that we could say is* but the suggestion of every mind. She will 
seek and obtain from another source that purer ilIumination| of 
which human reason is but the reflection. 

We mourn not as for one who leaves no bright mark behind 
him. "We will cherish his memory, and feel that we shall grow 
better by a contrast of our lives with his own. 

His race has terminated ; his mission on earth is ended ; his cnp 
of fortune has over-run. On the eastern bank of the Mi^sisBippi| 
his ashes repose, but his spirit — free as the wind that swept around 
his river homo, and now sings a midnight requiem o'er his urn — 
still lives and moves among us. Truly tbe form may moulder to 
its native dust — but for the memory of the just and good there is 
no grave. 

Mr. President, I offer the following resolution : 

Hesolvedj That a committee of three be appointed by the chair 
to report to this meeting resolutions expressive of the eense of the 
Executive Committee of the State Historical Society upon the 
death of Hon. Hibam A. Wkigut. 

It was moved by S. H. Oarpenter, and seconded by L. 0. Dra- 
per, that Judge Atwood be requested to furnish. a copy of his ad- 
dress to be filed among the papers of the Society. Carried. 

Messrs. E. A. Calkins, J. P. Atwood and J. T. Clark, were 
app »inted the committee on resolutions, who, through their chair- 
man, reported the following: 

Hesolved^ That wo have heard with feelings of the deepest re- 
gret, of the recent death of tlie Hon. Hiram A. Wright, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction of Wisconsin, and a mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee of the State Historical Society. 


: JSesohsdy That, in the death of Judge Wbiqht, the communitj 
has lost aa honored and useful member, his friends an ornament 
to their circle, bis family a devoted husband and father, the State 
a faithful and efficient officer, and this Society a worthy coad- 

Beaolvedj That, in respect for the memory of Judge Weight, 
this meeting do adjourn for one week, and that a copy of these pro- 
ceedings, properly attested, be transmitted to the family of the 
lamented deceased. 

In presenting these resolutions, Mr. Calkins said : 

Mr. Peesidknt : — ^The duty which I have discharged in offering 
for consideration these resolutions, is rather to me a sad and sacred 
pleasure. It is a tribute due to the memory of my lamented 
friend, a respectable member of my own profession, a man whom 
I loved and honored. I can add little to the generous and eloquent 
fervor of the eulogy already rendered to the deceased — it express- 
es the emotions of us all at the melancholy event which it com- 

The death of J udge Wbioht was unexpected, tliough in no form 
does death appear, and not strike a thrill to the hearts of tlie liv- 
ing. It reminds us how frail we are, how feeble and fleeting is 
the hold we have upon life, how closely the pathway which we 
travel lies to the borders of the tomb. But death came to him 
whose respected memory we here honor, as it comes to few. It 
came to him when the spring was opening upon the pomps and 
gh)ries of sumiaer, like the cloud that veils a morning sun, or the 
blight that settles on a bursting flower. He was in the earliest 
prime of a successful life, in the possession of a comfortable com- 
petence, enjoyir^g the ends of a manly ambition, popular favor, 
and the esteem of troops of friends. I hardly know of one whose 
deatii could sunder more or dearer ties, one who could leave so 
much behind him, and a path lighted by a fairer radiance. 

A more modest, unassuming man ; a finer and a truer gentle- 


man, in the esseDtial qualities that made him sach ; a better and 
a nobler friend, I never knew. But he is dead. So true it is, 


The good die first; 

While those whose hearts are dry as summer dust, 
Bum to the socket.'^ 

But death comes to us all. It is the catastrophe which makes 
life a tragedy, shrouding its close in gloom and bedewing it with 
tears. Yet it makes the meanest of us sacred ; it instals the hum- 
blest in human respect; it lends to vice even a shield that pro- 
tects it from insult, while it doubly canonizes social and public 

I can but add the invocation, green be the grave of the lament* 
ed dead, as his memory will be in the hearts of those that loved 
him. , 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted.^ 



In Executive Committee, Sept. 4th, 1855, S. H. Gabpkmtbb, 
Esq., in the chair, Dr. John W. Hunt arose and announced the 
death of Hon. Okorgb B. MoLane, of Delafield, Waukesha 
county, as follows : 

Mr. Presidbnt: — Again we have to record and deplore the de- 
cease of another of our most valuable and estimable associates. 
Since our last meeting, the hand of death has been laid upon our 
Vice President MoLane, who closed his earthly career at his resi- 
dence, Headland, in Waukesha county, at noon on Thursday, the 
16th day of August last, 

* Judge Wriuht wm a daUto of St. Lawrence Coantjr, N. T., and eettied at Prairie du Chien la IM^. 
and took part in the publication of the Prairie du Chion Patriot, the pioneer pa|>er of that place, 
eontinaed that oonnectlon till ita diicontinuanee in 1852. In 18A0, he waa elected a member of the I 
Senate, and senred two jrean, and then, in 18&2, wae ehosen to a eeat In yie j^eeembljr. He held at > 
•nt times the position of County Judge,and several minor offices of Crawford Count/, and in the faU of 
1868, was elected State Superintendent of Public Instmction. "It was our fortune," said the KenoAl 
Tribone and Telegnph, " to be quite well acquainted with him, and we saj in the apirit of aevera tratk 
nlher than that of customary eulogy, that few men ezhlUtcd more rirtnea and fbw«r fsolte thiUi kt dUU" 
Atthetimeof his death he laeked a Uttle of thirty yean of age. . l. O. •. 


GsoBGtt Bead MoLajtb was a native of Delaware, born at Wil- 
mington, on the SOth of December, 1819. He was descended 
through both parents from some of the earliest and most honora- 
ble stock in that State. His paternal grandlather, Colonel Allen 
HoL^NB, was a most gallant and distinguished officer of the Ber- 
olncion — a most intrepid leader of a legion of cavalry, under the 
immediate command of Washington ; and his maternal great 
grand father, Giobge Bead, was one of the illustrious signers of 
the Declaration of Independence. His father, the late Dr. Allen 
MoLanb, was an eminent physician and distinguished gentleman 
in Wilmington. 

At an early age, Obobgb became a pupil at ITewark Academy, 
in that State, to which resor'^ed, for a period of nearly seventy 
years, many of the youth of the peninsula, composed of Delaware 
and the Eastern shore counties of Maryland and Virginia. In 
due time he was admitted to the Presbman class in Delaware Col- 
lege, in the village of Newark, and continued a student of that 
institution until the second term of the Sophomore year. The 
profession of Oivil Engineering was at that time attracting to its 
ranks many young men of the older States, and young ^oLanb 
entered it at about the age of 17, under the instruction of Isaac 
TsncBLB, a distinguished engineer, then in charge of the Balti- 
more and Susquehanna Bailroad. Bemaining in the service 
nearly two years, he became satisfied that his right place was in 
the profession of which his father had so long been an ornament 
in his native State. 

TJnder the instruction of his accomplished parent, he went 
through the regular course of study, and after graduating with 
credit in the Medical department of Pennsylvania University, 
availed himself of the advantages afforded "in the city of Thila- 
delphia, for the reputation which ho afterwards acquired as a 
practitioner in his native place. Several years were spent by him 
in the active pursnit of his profession, in partnership with^ his 
father, until the decease of the latter, and a large and lucrative 
practice rewarded his industry and merit. 


Like all men accompliBhed in their calling, Dr. MoLahs lored 
his own ; but he foaDd the duties of his honorable bat ardnooa 
profession too severe for his delicate constitution ; and with a view 
of finding a more healthful field of labor, he first visited Wiscon- 
sin, in the autumn of 1847, and removed to this State in the Ihll 
of 1848. He went immediately into the occupation of his beau- 
tiful farm of Readland, on Fine Lake, Waukesha county, where 
he resided for the remainder of his life, and where he died. Few 
could receive so much inspiration from the calm moral beanties 
of nature ; and in this lovely spot, amidst its quiet duties, his 
gentle, refined and cultivated character made his home a paradise 
to himself and family. But he was too young, and gifted with 
talents of too hifijh an order, to remain wholly content in rural 
privacy. The quiet duties of his farm and his household were 
insuflScient to satisfy his mind and to develop his capacities , and 
loving them none the less, 4ii6 generous ambition craved farther 
and larger duties in life. And when, in the fall of '52, his friends 
pressed upon him the position of State Senator from his district, 
he accepted the trust, and was elected to that honorable and re- 
sponsible office. He remained in the Senate for two years, dis- 
chargingVjvery duty industriously, intelligently and faithfully. 

The office was not one to give full scope to his peculiar powers; 
but ho always brou<^ht to its discharge more than ordinary ability, 
lie was one of those who honor station, rather than are honored 
by it; but in this position his admirable talents, attainments and 
character Ijecame more extensively known and more justly appre- 
ciated. It falls to the lot of but few men in public life to win for 
themselves such universal and cordial respect and aflfcction as Dr. 
McLane did in the Senate. 

Ketiring from that position in 1854, an appointment was ten- 
dere<l t) him, far more congenial to his tastes and acquirements. 
Tlie State had been, as it still is, without any provision for the 
insane. The Legislature having taken preliminary measures for 
the csttibliBhment of an Insane Asylum, the Governor appointed 
Dr. MoLanb to the position of Superintendent A happier selee* 


tion could not have been made. The high general cultivation, the 
eminent medical attainments, and great benevolence of our la- 
mented associate, peculiarly fitted him for the place. 

The friends of Geo. R. McLusfB. will long remember with adn^i- 
ration the generous ardor witlx which ho devoted his whole mind 
to his new duties, and the comprehensive and intelligent benigni- 
ty of character with which he mastered the charitable science , 
which modern skill has brought to the cure of that most pitiable 
and helph'ss class of human unfortunates, the insane. It was to 
his fine nature a labor of noble hearted. love. It was amongst his 
duties to perfect a plan fur the institution. In the highest heat of 
summer he proceeded to the eastern States, visited the best insti- 
tutions of the kind, and consulted the most eminent men skilled in 
the cure of the insane. By them he was cordially recognized and 
appreciated as a brother in human science. He brought back, as 
the result of his investigations, a plan diftering in some n-spects 
from any yet in use, and believed by many eminent physicians, of 
large experience in sucli institutions, to be the best ever devised 
for the purpose. In all the controversy which followed, no fault 
was ever found with the admirable adaptation of the plan to the 
object, and no imputation was ever cast upon the benevolent abil- 
ity which matured it. 

The succeeding Legislature abandoned the undertaking. But 
it is earnestly believed that Dr. MoLakb's labors have not been 
in vain ; and that in due time hereafter an institution will arise, 
upon t^e model he devised, which will be an honor to the State 
and a monument to him. 

This was Dr. MoLane's last active employment. His strength 
was not equal to his duties and trials. He suffered severely du- 
ring the summer journey, and never after wholly recovered his 
health. Upon the termination of bis duties, he'returned home an 
invalid, and his disease soon assumed an alarmiug character. He 
. himtelf, from the begianipg, foreaaw its fatal termination, and 
]i«?er suJOT^red himaelf to hope for recovery. 


He set himself to pat his hoase in order, and to provide for his 
beloved family after be should be gone. For over four mouths he 
endured a painful.and distressiog disease with singular patience 
and resignation. Always foreseeing his own speedy death, he 
calmly awaited it in the noble gentleness of his disposition, cheered 
by the intense affection of his home, sustained by the conscious- 
ness of a just life, and consoled by the undying hope of a Chris- 
tian. And so he died. 

Dr. MoLanb was a gentleman of rare talents, of refined taste, 
and extensive acquirements. In his profession he was learned 
and able. He was a good scholar in several languages, and an 
accomplished one in his own. The real literature of our language, 
too rarely studied in onr day, was familiar to his cultivated mind. 
He was no mean scholar in the common law, and had acquired 
much and varied scientific knowledge. But high as were his 
talents and his acquirements, it was by his singularly noble dis- 
position he was most distinguished. Peculiarly unpretending and 
inobtrusive, to be truly known, he must have been intimately 
known. His fine nature was too sensitive for the trials, and too 
high for the appreciation of comm.on life. In him happily blend- 
ed tho strength of his own sex and the gentleness of the other. 
He united the unflinching firmness of upright manhood to the 
unselfish devotion, the fervent aff^ection, the fine sensibility of 
woman's nature. Brave, upright, loyal, generous, gentle to all 
he lavished c^n those he loved a devoted enthusiasm of affection, 
rarely to be met with in man, and in return he was beloved in 
life, and is mourned in death as such a man only can be loved and 

In our Society, Mr. President, Geoboe E. MoLake was active 
whenever opportunity was presented, and he felt a deep interett 
in its success. Our kindest memories are due to his worth aaa 
public man, and his many noble qualities as exhibited in the coQ- 
mon relations of life. 

He hat left his place of honor and nsefQlneas among ns in ihi 
prime of early manhood He lived the life and died the doslii'df 


^An unsullied, noble OhriBtian gentleman. All our memories of 
him are gentle and reverential ; gentle and fall of hope is tl&e 
sorrow, acate as it is, of those whom no time can console, no for- 
tune can compensate for his loss. 

Messrs. Drapes, Dubbib and Ookoybr were appointed a com- 
mittee on resolutions, who, through their chairman, reported the 
following : 

'^ Resolved^ That in the death of Hon. Obo. R. MoLakb, W6 
have to lamefit the loss of an intelligent and sympatliising coad- 
jutor, and the State! one of her most worthy and public-spirited 
citizens, who, by his talents, usefulness and gentlemanly deport- 
ment, endeared himself to all with whom he associated. 

" Resolvedy That in respect to the memory of Dr. McLinb, this 
meeting a<jjourn for one week, and that a copy of these proceed- 
ings be transmitted to his family, with the expression of our sin- 
cere condolence." 

After appropriate remarks by Messrs. Dbapeb, Dubrib and 
Oabfentbr, as to the worth and talents of Dr. McLanb, and the 
great loss the Society has sustained in his death, the resolutions 
were adopted. 

It was voted that Dr. Hunt be requested to furnish a copy of his. 
address to be filed in the archives of the Society. 


In Executive Oommittee, Dee. 18th, 1855, E. A. Oalxinb, Esq, 
^in the chair, Lymak 0. Drapbb arose, and announced the death 
of Bobbbt M. Sullt, as follows : 

Mb. PBBsmBNT : — Once and again have we met, within a few 
l>rief months, to pay a merited tribute of respect to departed 
worth. In May last, Hon. Hibam A. Wbioht, a fellow member of 
the Executive Oommittee of this Society, was summoned away ; 
andj in August, Hon. Gxobob B. MoLahb, one of our Vice Pros- 


ident3, followed him to that " bourne whence no traveller returns.*' 
Both had evinced a lively interest in the prosperity of our Socie- 
ty, and we all felt, and still feel, that in their death, we were bereft 
of true hearted co-workers in the particular field of labor and re- 
search for which this association was especially formed. 

And uoWf in such quicTc succession, wc are called upon to 
mourn the departure of another devoted friend of our Society — 
Robert M.-Sully, one of its honorary members, and one of its 
most generous benefactors. The peculiar relation which he bore 
to this Society, calls for some appropriate notice of bis profession- 
al career, and of his worth as a man. But such a rehearsel car- 
ries with it a melancholy reflection, for it will naturally serve to 
enhance the sense we all fei^l of the uncommon loss our Society 
has sustained by his sudden and untimely death. 

Mr. SnixY was born at Petersburg, Virginia, July I7th, 1808. 
His father, who was a native of England, w^as by profession an 
actor, and was for many years attached to the Charleston theatre. 
Between his ninth and tenth years, and not long afcer his father's 
death, young Sully evinced an extreme fondness for drawing, 
which was increased, if not originally excited, by the sight of 
some excellent drawings made by his father, who, when a youth, 
had received some instruction from NAYSMrrn, a celebrated laud- 
scape i)ainter of Edinburg. This early partiality for drawing 
steadily grew upon him, and when about sixteen or seventeen, he 
fully determined on becoming a painter, despite the many difli- 
cultiee and privations attending the profession, which were care- 
fully pointed out to him by his friends. In his eighteenth year, 
ho visited Philadelphia for the purpose of placing himself under 
the instructions of his distinguished uncle, Thomas Sully. His 
zeal, which had hitherto been wasted in ill-directed efforts, was 
now, for the first time, applied to a proper course of study. As 
he was enthusiastic, and labored with great assiduity, he made 
Vapid advancement in the art He ever remembered, with fiin- 
eere gratitude,^ his uncle's kindness and instractions. 


Having remained with his uncle eight or nine monthe, he re- 
turned to Virginia, and commenced the practice of his profession. 
He soon found the ancient saying bat too trne in his case, that a 
prophet is not without honor, save in his own country ; and so the 
poor artist was left to obtain, as best ho could, a precarious sup- 
port ill Richmond, the capital of the 0!d Dominion. One friend 
however, Mr. J. H. Si-robia, patronized and encouraged Wni. But 
even at that day, Sully's proud spirit despised the canting term 
of patron as generally used, as much as he did the artist, who 
could descend to apply it to those who, after all, give him merely 
the value of his homst services. 

The letters of his uncle, Thomas Sully, at this period were very 
enc(>uraii:inir, ands^ron^^lv advised him to vic»it L»ndon as soon as 
possible. Naturally proud of hU chosen profession, he cherished 
an ardent desire to comply with his uncle's wi^hes and advice, 
and improve his taj^te and skill by studying the works of the great 
Englii?!! masters. To aid in this pur. ose, he visited several towns 
in North Carolina, where he met with encouraging success. He • 
sailed for L'^ndon on the first of August, 1824, where he arrived 
the 23d of the following month. 

Now thrown into the vortex of art, it was some little time be* 
fore he could sufficiently recover from the fascinating excitement 
produced by the change, to commence a regular C(»uise of study. 
Of the then living English artists, Sir Thomas Lawrence became 
his tirst idol, but after remainii g sometime in London, and care- 
fnlly studying the woiks of Sir Joshua Reynolds, his admiration' 
for the former bomewhat abated. The portraits of Lawrknce are 
Bftid to bo striking likenesses, and display a bold and tree pencil; 
bat they are, particularly his later ones, chargeable with manner- 
ism, and are not considered to be successful in expressing the 
nicer shades of character, while his drawirig evinced a want of 
ac6aracy and finish. Nothing eo delighted Sclly as the pictures ' 
of Rktnolds, and no wonder, for they were master pieces of art,^ 
KkraoLDS rejected the stiff, aavaried and unmeaning attitudes 6f^ 


former artists, and imparted to liis pictures ''the air and actioa 
adapted to their characters, and thereby displayed something of 
the dignity and invention of history. Ue has seldom been ex- 
celled in the case and elegance of his faces, and in the beauty and 
adaptation of the habiliments of his figures ; and his coloring com- 
bined, in a high degree, the qualities of richness, brilliancy and 
freshness. These were the excellencies of Rkynolds' productions 
that so strongly attracted the attention, and extorted the admira- 
tion of the young American artist. And frequently, ae some fine 
engraving from his works would catch Sully's eye, would ho reo- 
oncile himself to the loss of his dinner, and spend his last shilling 
to possess it. 

Sully thought Jaokson, who then ranked as the second portrait 
painter of England, surpassed Lawuence in color. There was a 
fine rich tone to his pictures not unlike Heynolds, but he wanted 
the grace and elegance of Lawrence. In their peculiar walk, 
Sdlly fuund none equal to Lkslie and Newton ; but in the higher 
tanks of history, he concluded that Haydon, Gimr and IIiltoh 
were inferior to our own Washington Allston, judging fiom his 
exquisite production of Jacobus Drtani^ then on exhibition at the 
British Gallery. 

During the course of his second year in London, Sully painted 
a portrait of Mr. C. B^loe, the Secretary of the Briti.-^h InstituUon. 
It was shown to that veteran in art, Jamf« Northcotk, a pupil of 
Bkynolds; it gained his approbation, although qualified by a 
very judicious criticism, which ended with his sending Sullt an 
excellent picture by Reynolds to coj^y, Irum which he derived 
much improvement. lie also painted a portrait of Nobthoot^ 
then eighty years of age, which gained him great credit in Lon- 
don, and was much praised by connoisseurs and artitts. Fiom 
NoETHOOTB he derived much useful information respecting Rby- 
MOLDS, Opib, GAiNB^BORouon, aud others. But Sully found the 
older artists generally little disposed to aid their younger breth* * 
ren in art, either by advice or by the loan of their pic tares. Hi 

therefore the more highly appreciated the kindncee of the veterai^ 
NoRTHCOTS. Lbslir too, was an exception, for he was not onlj. 
kind in directing hid stadies and criticising his work, but in lend*^ 
ing him many of his own choice productions. Such were some^ 
of the great masters of the British Metropolis with whom Sullt 
associati-d, and from whose* experience, suggestions and instruc- 
tions he adiled largi^ly to his knowledge and skill in the divine 
art to which he so enthusiastically devoted the better portion q£ 
his days. 

After an absence of four years, he returned to his native country 
in September, 182S, and at once commenced redeeming the promise 
of his youthful genius. Of all the numerous productions of his 
pencil, the five noble portraits now adorning our Hall, will ever 
render his name indii^solubly connected with our Society. Two of 
them are originals — those of Wa-pe-she-ka, or the Prophet^ and 
Blaok HawVs son Na-shka kusk, both painted from life in 1888, 
and never copied. That of Black FIawk is a perfect copy of the 
original which he painted at the same time, but the copy is an im- 
proved picture. In a letter ad'iressi-d to onr Society, Sully him- 
self happily remarks, that "there is in the ongmal portrait of 
of the PiiOPUEP, a peculiar, indei»cribable, devilish expression — tk 
something that you cannot explain, that I hit exactly in the origin- 
al, and might not hit ai;a*n so perfectly in«any copy. It might be 
a fac simile, and yet not; retain that ^somethhtg^ which has been a 
subject of remark by all who have seen it." Sullt spent nearly 
six weeks at Fortress Monroe, OhI Point Comfort, Virginia, with 
Black Uawk and his companions, studying their characters and 
sketohiug their features. The officer^} at the furt, Gen. Dooos uid 
other pioneers of thii> Sra'^e, unite in testifying to the life like ex- 
pression and accuracy ot the likenesses. The portraits of these 
remarkable Indians, whose names are so closely identified with 
the early history and border warfare of our Srate, will ever pos- 
aees an enduring interest to the citizens of Wisconsin. 

The other Sullt portra'ts in onr collection are more national in 
thAhr character — those of PooAuoHTAi ' and Chief Justice 


nrALL. The beantifal Pooahomtas appears to us as the guaiv- 
dian angel who twice Baved the infant Colony of Virginia froo^ 
destrdction, by her almost sQperhumaa heroism and devotion, and 
under circumstances of singular peril and romance. This floe 
painting is a copy of a copy of an ancient original, which was 
long preserved in the family of Mr. Rolfu, the hnsband of Poga« 
HONTAS, in Warwickshire, England, until about 1772, when it 
was sent over, together with RoLKi£*s portrait, as a present to the 
late Ryland Randolph, of Virginia, a lineal descendant of the 
Indian princess. The tooth <>f time had bo gnawed tliis ancient 
relic, that it crumbled to pieces soon after Sully copied it, which 
was in 1830. The copy, however, banginc; upon our wall, is some- 
what idealized, yet preserving a faith! ul trant^criptot her features, 
with her costume Indianized, iuid a wreath of the beautiful wild 
flowers of Virginia embroidered in horhair, as represente I by the 
ancient Virginia historian Bevkrlt. It is not necessary to dwell 
upon the remaining Sully picture, that of Chief Justice Marshall, 
the soldier, statesman, jurist and historian. Ho was one of the 
fathers of the republic, and prior to his d«:;ath in 1836, he sat to 
Bully, and ours is a copy of that picture ; and this copy Sully 
declared to be the best portrait ho ever executed. 

Mr. Sully had resolved, as you all know full well, to migrate 
to Wisconsin, and make our town his future homo. Everything 
our Society could do, was done to encourage his cpming ; and not 
a few of our pioneers and public nien were waiting his arrival, to 
sit to him for their portraits for our Picture Gallery. We all fondly 
hoped to grasp the hand of the accomplished artist, whose genias 
and success in fine painting had given him a place in all our hearts. 
"Man proposes, but God disposes." He left Richmond for this 
place, with boujant hopes and' high anticipations, on the 16th of 
'October last, and proceeded as far as Buffalo, where he was ar- 
rested by a fatal disease, at a hotel where he stopped, and was 
removed by the advice of his physician to a hospital, fur the uA- 
Tantsge of more oonstknt mediioal Sittendance, and more assidupos 
•joaniugt Bixt «U to Mpiusgqfi^ .^^ lingered till the S8<h, wi^ 


ke breathed his laet, and his body was interred in the eemeWf]^ 
of the institation ; and has rioce been removed by his relatives 
to Biobmond, and bnried by the side of the mouldering relies ef 
his mother. It is fit, in the langaage of the Richmond Enquirenty 
that the citizens of Bichmond should ^'pay some tribute to the 
memory of a man whose talents have done honor to their eii|f 
and state." 

Since it was the misfortune of ns all not to have personalty 
known Mr. Sully, I can only say, that he has been represented 
by those who best knew him, to have possessed many of tbe 
finest traits that adorn the human character. '^ We knew the de- 
ceased," says the editor of the Bichmond Enquirer^ ^' somewhat 
familiarly for some years, during his residence in our city, and 
whilst we admired his brilliint talents as an artist, we coald not 
help warmly esteeming some of his most amiable qualities as a 
man. Unhappily, however, neither his fortune nor his fame was 
at all equal to his merits, and he lived, as it were, under a cloud, 
and oppressed by adverse circumstances which he could not con- 
trol. He bore up, however, against thern with a manly fortitude 
which won our respect." It was in making a noble effort to come 
to Wisconsin'to retrieve his f^^rtune, and add to his fame and use- 
fulness, that he sickened by tbe way, and passed to the tomb — 
thus blasting his own and our fondest aiyiicipations. 

I have endeavored, in a brief and faithful manner, to trace Mr. 
SmjLT^s career and characteristics, as due to his worth and memo* 
rji and especially as he had d'»ne so much, and that so well, in 
-aiding to found the Picture Gallery of our Society, and by his 
name and influence had added to the reputation of our institution 
at home and abroad. In acquainting ourselves with his history, 
and his early struggles and success in fitting hitnseH for his noble 
.profession, we cannot but admire his genius, deplore his loss, and 
place a higher estimate upon the value of his paintings which it 
IS the good fortune of oar Society to possess. 

' Sully evinced, in an unuiual degree, the spirit of the true an- 
tiquarian. Even when in lion<i6n^ in his visits to the Tower, fie 





diflcovered, by meaDS of eome ancient fire-arms, the peenliir 
^meaning of certain paa^agea in the primitiye history of Virginia, 
which had hitherto been regarded as vague and obscure. He 
•loved to visit scones rendered sacred from tfielr historic associa- 
tions, and to decipher, like another Old iMortalitj, the moss coT- 
0red and half obliterated inscriptions on tomb-stoues in ancient 
grave yards ; and he delighted, as in the ca^o of the liiieness of 
Pocahontas and others, to preserve for history and future useful- 
ness, truthful representations of such characters as have rendered 
themselves conspicuous by tlieir labors of love, or deeds of noble 
daring. We had, by common consent, awaited his arrival, to ten- 
der him the place in our Executive Committee, made vacant by 
the death of the lamented Wright. 

He had devised liberal things for our Society- -to sketch and 
paint the battle fitjlds of our Black Hawk war, and portraits of 
our noble and fast fading band of pioneers. Ho hud also copied 
a fine sketch of Osokola, which he proposed enlarging into a por- 
trait of that unfortunate Seminole chief, as an addition to our gal- 
lery ; and he had visited the ruins of Jamestown, and sketched 
that hallowed spot, made memorable by Pocahontas and Cap- 
tain John Smith nearly two hundred and fifty years ago, and 
which he designed putting upon canvass for the further adorn- 
ment of our hall, already so richly embellished by tho beautiful 
creations uf his genius. But Sully is gone — these hopes and de- 
signs all frustrated ; and in lamenting the loss we have sustained 
— we can not repress the anxious inquiry — upon who'n will his 
mantle fdll? who can W(»rthi)y fill the place his untimely death 
has made vacant? 

It was moved by Hon. J. P. Atwood, seconded by Ex Gover- 
nor Farweix, that a copy ol Mr. Draper's address bo filed in the 
archives of tho Society. 

Messrs. Judge Atwood, Whitb and Dbaprb were appointed a 
commiitee to report suitable resolutions, who through Mr. Wnm 
submitted the following — whioh were unanimously adopted : 


Seaohedj 'That in the death af Robbbt M. Sully, we feel that 
our Society has met with an irreparable loss, and we deplore the 
•ad event which has deprived our State of an artist of high merit| 
and our Society of one of its truest friends. 

Resolved, That^we tender his relatives our sincere condolence, 
and that a copy of these prooeediuga be transmitted to them ; 
and, in respect for the memory of the deceased, that this meeting 
do now adjourn till Thursday evening next. 

. /J 


r I 

.' .»i' 




Annual Address delivered before the State Historical Societj^ 
in the Senate Hall, by Hon. Henry S. Baird, of Green Bay, on 
the 3()th January, 1856, the seventh anniversary of the Society: 

Mr. Presidknt: — The eventful changes and vicissitudes constant- 
ly occurring in the history of nations an 1 individuals, admooish 
ns to note carefully every thing of moment connected with our 
own generation ; to look forward to that period when the present 
shall have passed into futurity — when the forms of government^ 
and existing institutions, both civil and political, shall have 
changed — and when those who are now the busy acU^rs in the 
grand drama of life, shall have given place to those who are des- 
tined to succeed them. Then nothing will remain to commemo- 
rate the events of our time but the page of History, or the imperfect 
recollections of our descendants. 

It is the design of History faithfally and truly to record erenta 
worthy of notice, in the rise, progress and decline of nations; 
also to transmit to posterity the virtues and noble deeds.of indi- 
viduals, and the perfections in the several forms of government| 
as examples worthy ^f imitation ; and, on the other hand, to point 
out the vices, errors or imperfections to be avoided. To rely solely 
on tradition for a knowledge of preceding generations, wonld in- 
evitably involve the past in uncertainty and obscnrity. As it is 
the province and design of History to preserve and perpetntli 


events, so is it equally the daty of man faithfallj to record, and 
leave to his successors an account of the transactions and occur- 


rences of his own generation. 

The historian is often misled by misstatements or prejudices, and 
oftentimes fiads himself at a loss for reliable materials from which 
to prepare a correct history/ The formation of Historical Societies 
is com parati^ely of but recent origin, Sach institntious may have 
existed for a long period, but to a very limited extent, in some of 
the older countries in Europe. Still their usefulness and value 
are, as yet, scarcely appreciated as they deserve. Their object ia 
not only to collect information as to existing iostitutions, and the 
present state of social and political society, but to rescue from 
oblivion the events of past ages; to delineate the character and* 
habits of the people of past generatious ; to record whatever was 
peculiar in their forms of gavernment, their social and iiational 
habits, their virtues or their vices, and transmit the whole to those 
who may succeed them. 

The State Historioal Society of Wisconsin is yet in its infancy. 
It has been in existence but seven years. For the first fonr or five' 
years after its foi mation, but little more was accomplished than to 
organize it, and hold an annual ineetingfor the election of officers. 
A degree of ai)athy seemed to exist, which greatly retarded its 
prosperity, and limited its usefulness. But it is highly gratifying 
to know, that such is no longer the case. Your Society ^is con- 
stantly receiving valuable contributions, the number of its niem- 
bert steadily increasing, and its early establishment will doubtless 
secure and perpetuate many interesting metuorials of the ''olden 
time," which otherwise would bo lost or forgotten. Let ub hope 
that its usefulness will bo duly appreciated ; that the be&t men of 
onr country will not oiJy give it theircountenance, but contribute 
freely their aid and exertions to render it worthy of the noble 
objects it has in view ; and may its annual gatherings, in all time 
^ come, be attended, as od the present occasion, by the intelligent 
mtuens, and high functionaries of the State. 

10 * 


On an occasion like this, it may by some be expected, that 
some allusion will be made to the hi8tt»ry of the State in which 
the Society is located. To attempt anything like a connected his- 
tory in an Annual Addre-^s, even in ret'e ence to so young a mem- 
ber of the C'ntederacy as Wisconsin, would be preposterous. — 
Still much may be said relating to particular periods or occar- 
rences in that history, worthy of being preserved, and wiiich 
may prove interesting to the audience I have the honor to ad- 

The rise, progress and prosperity of this Republic, are unparal- 
lelled in the annals of nations. Within little more tb an half a 
century, ana in a period of time scarcely equal to that allotted to 
the ordinary life of man, the United States have emerged from 
a state of vassalage and dependence — defied and rejected the 
master tliat controlled and governed her, declared herself free 
and independent, and now forms,' within her awn limits, a con* 
stellation of States, each of which is equal in power and resources 
to many of the kingdoms of the old world. To trace the history 
and progress of the several States comprising this Uni'>n, would 
be interesting. For although the period of their existence is 
brief, vet it is ro|>lete with events of most thrilling interest* In 
this respect, Wisconsin occupies a position surpassed by no other 
State in the Union. It is true, much of 'her history is involved 
in obscurity, and it is in some degree blended with that of 
other §tatc3 which are parts of what was formerly termed the 
North West Teiritory^ and out of which have been formed the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. 

The early history of this region can only be gathered from the 
traditionary accounts given by the oldest inhabitants, and the ex- 
aggerated published journals and narratives of the early mission- 
aries and tther explorers of these then wild ftnd inhospitable 
regions. This portion of the history of Wisconsin has been writ- 
ten by an abler hand than mine. The yolumes lately compiled bj 
the venerable historian of the State, have done full justice to the 


•nbjeot, and are nndonbtedlj as full and correct a bistorj of tha^ 
period, as ample knowledge, indnstrj and rc^oarcb could make 

In recnrring to the early history of the country, we are natnr- 
ally led to inquire — By whom was it first explored, and what mo- 
tives prompted its exploration and occupation ? And hero, I would 
observe, that posterity has scarcely yqt done justice to the char- 
acter and merits of those who first entered upon this hazardooi 
enterprise. Coltjmbus, after repeated rebuffs and disappointments, 
at length, by indomitable courage and perseverance, succeeded in 
discovering a new world. That success excited the envy and 
hostility of the great and powerful. During Lis lite time he suf- 
fered injustice at t^e hands of bis sovereign, and failed to receive 
the reward he so nobly won, and so richly deserved. It was re- 
served for posterity to do full justice to his merits. His monu- 
ment is no less than this vast Continent, peopled by millions of 
freemen, who acknowledge him as the discoverer of America. 
The principal motive which influenced him in undertaking his 
great voyage of discovery, was probably that of ambition, and 
the desire to give his name to the new and hitherto undiscovered 

But how different the motives of those who first entered the 
path for the exploration of the distant wilds of Wisconsin ! They 
were the poor but devoted missionaries, who could gain nothing 
by their discoveries ; men, who not only professed to have at 
heart the welfare and happiness of the Indians, but by every ac- 
tion of their lives, proved the disinterestedness and purity 
of their intentions. Whatever opinion some may entertain of the 
efforts of modern philanthropists to ameliorate the condition, and 
improve the morals, of the natives, none should withhold from the 
early missionaries and reverend fathers, the meed of praise for 
their zeal and devotion in their attempts to civilize the Red Man, 
and better his moral and social condition. The kindness and 
friendship with which these efforts were received by the IudianS| 
Aod the sincere and enduring ties of good will which so long Bubsi»- 


ted betvreen the French and the Natiree, show conclnsirely thattHe 
early vrnts of the missionaries, were missioDS of peace and friendl- 
ship. To the efforts of these primitive pioneers, devoted and pioiti 
men, do we owe the first settlement of this country ; and to their 
jonrnals and narratives, imperfect thongh they be, can we alone 
!have recoarse for information relative to their early expedition 
and discoveries, and the condition of the country at that remolt 

* period. 

Ootemporaneous with the arrival of the Jesuits in this region^ 
another class of adventurers visited, and eventually became iden- 
tified with the country. I allude to the French traders, familiarly 
known among their compeers as vnyageurs. They were truly 
pioneers of Wisconsin, and are ju-tly entitled to share with the 
nii8si«»naries the reward and credit of bringing the country into 
notice ; opening the way fur the introduction of civilization and 
improvement, and, to some extent, improving the condition of the 
natives, and subduing their savage propensities. This class of 
men were actuated by more selfish and sordid motives than tho€e 
which governed their brethren the missionaries, yet their charae- 
ter and disposition bore a great similarity to each other. All, or 
nearly all, were Frenchmen, and were possessed, in common, with 

• that urbanity of manner, and all those warm and friendly traits 
so chnracti*ri8tic of that polite but volatile nation. And experi- 
ence has shown, that the people of no other country have ever 
acquired and maintained, during their interc<»ur8e with them, the 

same deurree <»f influence over the Indian tribes. 


Nor have any other people ever succeeded in prcpcrvingso long 
and enduring peace and friendship. This result was probably 
owing as well to the peculiar character of the French people, as 
also to their adaptation, and ready conformity, to many of the 
cnston)8 and habits of the Aborigines. Of a social and excitable 
temperament, fmd of change, and unaccustomed to the rt- 
straints and conventional refinements of society, they foniid 
'it an easy task to conform readily to the customs and modte 
of life peculiar to those with whom they came to reside. TM7 

77 • 

ljly|dd| to some extent, as the lodians did ; occupying wig-warns^ 
<}r rude bouses made of the bark of tree-) ; deiending for foodj^ 
daring a portion of the jenr, on the proceeds of the chase, or 
success in taking fish, which abounded in the numerous lakes afd 
streams interspersed throughout the North- West; and ihanj,more- 
OTer, iutermarrjing with the native females, and raising families, 
WHO in their turn became permanent residents of the country. 

When the dominion of the North West was transferred by the 
French to the English, the latter failed, in a great measure, to 
conciliate the good will of the natives and secure their triendbhip. 
That nation never acquired the confidence of, ons'aMished a per- 
manent friendship with the Indian tribe-, liko the French. The 
feelings of the Indians towards the French seem to have been re- 
spect and affection, induced by kind treatment, and fair and 
equitable traffiic ; while towards the English, they cherished a 
secret dislike, only subdued and smothered becatuo they were the 
weaker party. On the surrender of the country to the United 
States, these unfriendly feelings were by no means diminished| 
but rather increased; which but too often showed themselves ia 
hostile attacks, and the murder of the weak and unprotected. 

These different phases of feeling manifested by the Wisconsin 
fndian tribes towards the people of the several nations who suc- 
cessively became the occupants of tiieir countrv, may be easily 
accguuted for. The French came as friends, and not as task mbs- 
ters. They opened a traffic with the natives, lucrative to the 
former, and, at the same time, brneficial to the latter ; supplying 
their wants in exchange for tlieir furs and peltries. They did not 
attempt to take forcible possesi^ion of the foii, or appropriate it to 
their own use. They cultivated little or no land, and did not in- 
terfere with the game. 

(The English had in view, not only this rich and profitable traf- 
tfi^ but a more important ulterior object — tlie acquisition of the 
^fn^iry^ and its aatire su|;)jection to British dominion. This sooot 
mauifested itself to the Indiana by tba policy adopted by tbi^ 

* 78 

l^Iish government^ and the trbitrary acts of her govemon and 
military commandants. And when we add to these canses of 
d\^like and alienation, the recollection that for many years a san- 
guinary war had been waged between France and England for 
the avowed purpose of gaining ascendency in, and exercising ez- 
clnsive sovereignty over, this very country — the hirth-riff/U of ths 
natives^ it is riot wonderful that the latter should favor the people 
whom they viewed as friends, and take sides against the English, 
whom they always considered as their worst enemies. During 
the period of English sovereignty over the country, this state of 
things scarcely changed. That period was marked by constant 
outbreaks, and frequent sanguinary conflicts between the whitea 
and Indians. 

At the termination of the American Eevolution, the whole ex* 
tent of territory lyir^g between the Canadas, the Great Lakes, and 
the Mississippi, was to have been surrendered to the new Republic 
The formal surrender, however, was delayed on various pretexts 
by the English government ; and many of the fort-?, trading posts 
and settlements were with held for severnl years after the time 
stipulated for their delivery ; and we can well imagine, that during 
this period, no pains were spared by the emissaries of the English, 
to keep alive the jeaUiis feelings of the Indians, and incite them 
to hostilities with those whom they believed had come to expel 
them from their country, and destroy and exterminate them as a 
people. The English differed from the French in many partica- 
lars, but especially in their taciturn dispositions and unsocial hab- 
its. Tiie character of the Americans was still more marked, and 
in many respects obnoxious to the Indians. They came as con- 
querors, and assumed the government of a country and peopid 
originally free and independent. They asserted that the country 
was theirs by conquest, and that the natives were but tenants at 
sufferance. They assumed the right to fell^the forest, till theeoil| 
and destroy the game, the sole dependence of the people who in- 
herited this beautiful region — the gift of the Great Spirit whott 
tiiey worshipped and adored. 


Is it sarprisiog then, that this i#t)ple should have entertained 
hostile feelings, and waged war against the intruders? Before 
dismissing this part of Wiscofisin history, let us for a moment 
pause. Let us sympathise with a race who have been most deep- 
ly, most irretrievably wronged. When this fair land was first in- 
vaded, and takin po>se88ion of by the whites, it was as the God 
of Narnre had formed it; abounding in every thing to make It 
desirable for the residence and support of man in a state of 
primitive simplicity, and peopled by numerous aboriginal 
tribes. Unacquainted with the wants, luxuries and refinements 
of eivilizat'on, and free fiom the vices and crimes of modern so- 
ciety, they lived a contented and happy people. The French and 
English found the country inhabited by the Sauks, Foxes, Winne- 
bagoee, Chippewas, Pottawattamies, Otfawas, Menomonees and 
other powerful tribes which have now become extinct, and whose " 
names even are forgotten. Those tiibee, numbering many thou- 
sands, occupied the country now embraced within the present 
States of IlUuoiK, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and the tenitory of 
Minnesota. But where are they vowi While some of these war- 
like and noble tribes are entirely extinct, others bear but a faint re- 
semblance of their loriner greatruss ; a few miterableand pqualid 
families make up the sole remnant of their once formidable 

It 18 the common practice of the white man to charge cruelty 
and duplicity upon the Indian. If he is cruel, who has made him 
sol If he is guilty of duplicity, who has taught him the lesson? 
We are too apt to charge upon this wrcmged and persecuted peo- 
ple the commission of unprovokid crinjcs, and tiie perpetration 
of cruel wrongs, with<tut justificatitm or excuse; and this is 
especially the case amongst Afnerican frontiersmen who may 
have suffered at their hands. But when we compare the present 
condition of these people with that when first discovered by the 
whites, their suffeiings muht go far to mitigate, if not justify, their 
Bangainary warfare. At that period, they were truly the lardi 
of ikt ioU — sole aud uadiaputed owners of the rich tnd lovely 


conntrj they occupied, surrounded by the abundant gifts of na- 
ture, sufficient for the supply W every want, and unaccountable 
to any master, sare the Grand Master of the Universe. Thus 
they passed their lives in happy simplicity and contentment, little 
dreaming ^f the disastrous future that awaited them. The 
first white men who visited these tribes were received with 
friendship, :t::rl entertaiiiod with hospitality. But, alas! it 
was but a brief space before this kind reception met with an un- 
grateful return. Soon were tliese children of nature to be driven 
from the furests and prairies, through and over which ihey 
had been accu8torr;ed to roam unmolested and uncontrolled ; to 
be exi)elled from their beautiful villages where their ancestors 
were born ; from the hunting grounds which for eo many genera- 
tions bad supplied tliem WMth game— yea, even denied the last 
consolation of decaying nature, that of mingling their ashes with 
the dust of their kindred. Why then should Wo express any 
wonder that the untutored and injured Indian, goaded on by such 
harrowing recollections, should feel resentment, and seek to 
avenge himself on those who have wrought this crushing misery I 
To feel and act otherwise, would rather evince a want of the no- 
blest and holiest feelirtgs of our nature — filial attachment, and a 
love of our homes and firesides. Comj)ared with nations of an- 
tiquity, who were clas.^ed as refined and civilized, the North 
American Indians would lose nothing in the scale of humanity. 
Many of the battles of the ancients were equally sanguinary, and 
blackened by deeds as cruel and cold-blooded in their character. 
Even among our own people, acts of atrocity have been commit- 
ted on the Indian, revolting to humanity, and contrary to e?ery 
principle of honorable warfare. 

There is much that is noble and elevating in the character of 
the Indian yet left to him. But how dififerent is the present from 
his original character. When first visited by, Europeans, he 
walked erect, with the proud and haughty bearing of one con- 
Boious of his independence, and freedom from restraint; yet with 
all this feeling, he would extend the hand of friendshipi and w* 


tertain the stranger with kindness fend hospitality. And what has 
been the retnm for all this? The answer is fonnd in the sqnalld 
appearance of a few miserable beings who yet linger in portions 
of our State ; reduced by the introduction of the low and wasting 
vices of the whites, and the more dire effects of spirituous liqnora, 
be stalks our streets a living evidence of what he is^ contradistin- 
guished from wJiat Jie once was — an enduring reproach upon the 
white man for the debased creature he has made hitn. The nar 
ture of the Indian is to avenge injury or wrong, but he is always 
susceptible of friendship, and grateful for kindness shewn him. 
To partake of his hospitality is sure to secure protection and 

Much has been said as to the policy adopted by ©ur Govern- 
ment in relation to this suffering people. Some public functiona- 
ries have, at different times, lauded the Government for its just 
a/nd parental care and protection of this persecuted race. Jus- 
tioe to the Indians ! After robbing them of their possessions ; 
forcibly expelling them from their homes and their country ; and 
by the introduction of spirituous liquors and low vices of civilized 
man, degrading them from their once proud and noble bearing to 
the lowest and most abject condition ; then the General Govern- 
ment does them justice^ and exercises parental care over them, by 
doling out a pitiful annuity of a few blankets to cover their naked 
limbs, and a scanty supply of provisions to keep their famishing 
women and children from utter starvation. It would be more 
magnanimous for the white man candidly to acknowledge the 
wrongs committed, and to the utmost of his power to atone for 
them by exertions to ameliorate the hard fate of the sufferers. 

But their destiny is written. As the white man advances, they 
recede — even the stupendous and almost inaccessible ramparts of 
the Kocky Mountains cannot stay the advance of the enterprising 
American. Already has the Bed Man fled beyond what he once 
believed to be the utmost boundary of civilization, and yet he is 
pvaaed. His relentless foe is still close upon his retreating foot- 


BtepB, leaving no hope to him but that of finding a peacefol grave 
--^ last resting place from his porsaer — ^beneath the rolling biU 
lowB of the Pacific. 

If we cannot do jastice to the Indian by restoring him to his 
oomitrj) and re-uniting him with his scattered race, let qb at 
least do jaBtice to hiB character. lu onr prejudice, let as notloee 
sight of his many noble and redeeming traits. Many of the earlj 
settlers of Wisconsin have experienced from the Indians nnmer- 
oub instances of friendship and hospitality ; and not a few were 
indebted to individuals of the Menomonee tribe for the pres- 
ervation of their lives and liberty during the war of 1812. 

By the treaty of peace of 1783, as also by Jay's Treaty of 1795, 
it was stipulated by the English Government, that the North- 
western territory, with its forts, trading posts and dependencieS| 
should be surrendered and transferred to the United States ; but 
as already remarked, the surrender of the posts and evacuation of 
the country, by the English, were long delayed. Although the 
United States exercised nominal jurisdiction over parts of the 
territory previous to the warot 1812, yet this exercise of au- 
thority was barely in name. During the war, nearly all of this 
part of the North West was in possession of the Britibh, and the 
few Americans who resided here were subject to their authority. 
It was not until 1816, that that portion of the territory comprising 
Wisconsin became really a portion of the United States. 

All of the tribes of Indians inhabiting the North West between 
the Lakes and the Mississippi, with the exception of the Potta- 
wattamies and a part of the Ottawas^, were hostile to the States ; 
enlisted on the side of the English, and during the contest waged 

• Thert would appear to be eome miitake in thla itattmeni. When CoL Robibt Dioksoit eolteetei 
»kif« Indian foree under the Britiah flag at OrMnB^ in th« iommer of 181^ the PottswatluriM «A 
OttBWU fonned a part ; and in Angnit of that j«ar, a large band of Pottawattamiee, under their chla^ 
Blaok Bnu>, eommitted the memorable maeeaerv at Ohieago ; and the Pottawattamiee aleo figoni 
ireniMntlj at TIppeeanoev Brow n itewa, Bbr« Bdrfn, Fort Meig% SaadaalEj aod the ThiaiH. liit 
M«Qo«BOBoea aa a natiooj it ia beliera<^ were mais^ controlled bj their able ehief Toiufl, who oMi id| 
hla gmt liilnence to preraJl nponhia people to leoiaiB atgtcal and bat a few of the yonng wanlaiii 

l#iM4iiMftfft*Mi€rtk»BHiM. L.)aqa 


war against the Americans. The Pottawattamies and OttawM, 
alihoagh friendly, remained neutral. By the terms of Jaj's 
treaty, all the inhabitants of whatever nation, then residents of 
the country, were protected in the possession of their property^ 
with the right to remain, or, at their option, withdraw with their 
effects from the country, and one year was allowed them to make 
their election. All who did not withdraw within that period wem 
deemed American citizens, allowed to enjoy all the privileges of 
citizenship, and to be under the protection of our Government 
But few of the settlers left the country. Those who remained 
virtually became American citizens ; but we find that nearly all 
the French and IngUsh of this class, ^ere subsequently found in 
the ranks of our enemies. Several bore commissions under the 
King, and, with their Indian allies, assisted in taking Mackinaw 
and other places, during the war of 1812-'15. Daring that con- 
test, the few Americans that resided at Green Bay, Mackinaw, 
Ohicago, and Prairie du Chien, were at the mercy of the British, 
and exposed to the depredations of the Indians. Some were taken 
prisoners and convoyed to Detroit; some made captive by the 
Indians, and others fell by the tomahawk and scalping-knife. The 
cruelties practised upoa the whites have been generally and in- 
discriminately charged upon the Indians, when in truth they were 
instigated to the commission of such deeds by white men, the 
officers or emissaries of the English. Perhaps some of the most 
diabolical acts were committed by the white fiends themselves ; 
for instances were not rare, when white men or their descendants 
were found wearing the garb and wielding the weapons of the 
red men, the better to conceal themselves from the Americans. 

At the termination of the war, formal possession was taken by 
the American troops of the North West The first American 
Tessel, laden with troops and military supplies, entered Green 
Bay, and finally anchored in Fox Biver, opposite where Fort 
Howard was soon after established, in August or September, 181flL 
They were piloted from Mackinaw by two old citizens of Brown 
ocmnty— AuouBHEr GbDOvoEr and Staioslatjs OHAfpnr, the former 


of whom is still living. Tliev wore traders and residents of Green 
Bay, but then at Mackinaw, on th-oir annual visit to sell their pel- 
tries, and obtain supplies fur the trade of the ensuing winter. 
They were applied to by Ool. CiiAMr^icRS, the commanding officer 
of the American detachment, to pilot tlie ye5"=els; but as they had 
their own boats and men tlioro, t]u\v declined, as it would bo a 
sacrifice of time, and be attendi-^J. with risk in reaching their re- 
mote wintcrinir irronnds, ov tradinif; r>o?ts, bjfore the commence- 
xnent of winter. Rut these ohi-or'.iris availed nothing. In those 
days, and in this country, tlie v/ill ^f tiie military commandant 
was the law «^f the liml. Uavii-.L" refused to ^ro r<»lnntarilyj they 
were pressed int.) the public sorvii/e. and safely j>iloted the ves- 
sels into the waters of Fox Kivor. 

From 181C to J82-i, a period of eight years, aith'>ugh Wiscon- 
fiin and a part of Michigan Tcrrir«»ry were ni>minally under the 
protection of the flag of the TTiiii.?', yet but little of parental care 
was bestowed upoti her citizens \\\ civil life bv the General Gov- 
emment. The rule that bore sway was essentially military. Jfo 
courts wore organized, and oflenders against the laws were either 
sent from remote parts of the settlement to Detroit for trial, or 
perhaps more usually suftered to escape punishment. The civil 
code was limited, and but sparingly administered. But the mili- 
tary code, such as it was, more thar* supplied the deficiencies of 
the civil. While this state of things continued, it occasionally 
happened that some military genius, possessed of more tinsel than 
discretion, became the commanding officer, and to mark the era 
of bib reign, would exercise his '* little brief authority'' in an ar- 
bitrary manner, and thus contrive to render the condition of the 
citizen as uncomfortable as possible. Instances of high handed 
oppression and injustice were, in the early days of our history, 
frequently committed by some military martinet, upon the per- 
sons, Jiberty or property of those whom they were sent to protect 
A few'such cases were witnessed by myself. 

It happened that some thirty years ago, a gentleman still living 
In this State, being then engaged in the Indian trade near Green 


Bay, became obnoxious to a Government agent who bad tbe au- 
tbority to grant licenses to the traders. On applying for a licenBe^ 
as usual, tbe trader was refused, on tbe alleged ground, tbat he 
bad on some former occasion^ violated tbe laws of trade and in* 
tercourse witb tbe Indians. Tbe trader tberefore hired two hxr 
dians and tbeir canoes, and started for a distant agency, intending 
there to obtain bis license, and return for bis goods. After pro- 
ceeding some miles, the trader was overtaken by another canoe^ 
strongly manned and armed, having on board tbe United States 
Indian interpreter, and eight or nine Indians. The interpreter 
stopped the trader, and ordered him to go on board of the armed 
canoe, together with his Indian comrades. This he refused to do, 
when he and his companions were seized, and forcibly carried 
back to the place whence they started a few hours previously. 
They were all landed on a beach near the Agency House, and the 
trader and Indians ordered into the building. The trader of 
course refused to obey, and wont bis way unmolested, but the 
poor, innocent Indians fared much worse. They were marched 
as prisoners to tbe garrison, accompanied by tbe interpreter, with 
a polite note from the agent, requesting the commanding officer 
to give each a dozen la^/i^Sy and coniine them in the guard-bouse 
until further orders. This request was promptly complied witb, 
before tbe civil authority could interpose to prevent it. I need 
hardly say, tbat great excitement prevailed, and nuich indigna- 
tion was manifested at this cruel and arbitrary exercise of unlaw- 
ful authority. As soon as a writ of hahcas corpus could be ob- 
taiued. the poor maltreated Indians were releaped.'"" But unable 
to cemprebend why they were thus punished, they fled as soon 

•TkoM iMor liijuroil re<l men \v\\\^% li.ivo folt vi.Ty mu- li a-< Ren Jacli. r Ui'I when rcturniiii; with a 
gronp of liwy'Ts from n ronrt of jii*ti.'i', v.-horo nnc r.f \aa P'.'np«M i'r'>t!:cr?« 'i;i'l Ji:»t hn'^n rionlt-nccil to 
inprUonnvfot for lifts after the nlil rliiff h.vl eioiaently ari'l ctiir^lily y^L.'fid that tbo bccii^hI mfffbt bv 
tried aod ji'iiilKhM bv luOian Inw^ Ai.ii u-tAgvt— t.r'.in,; tJic c:iil.l< iwiti<."il r(;]ir«t-i.n^Btiun or LiU-rt/ KvA 
Jnvtlce cniMaz'MU'l in lartr? G^nron itri 1 rhurtictor!* <\\\ thf yl::n of a iisiiitlnj: unii*', lli«" ♦^M ohfeitRin 
aliippv'I, and printing to tti9 apin* of Li'x>rt.v,aikrd in brnkon En? llVu— •*'-kim^caU ?" He wai 
aaimrc'd, ** Liiierty." " I'gh ! " wm ihti signilicaut au'l trulj ali<>ri^inttl ro<i)ioii»o. Thiu iKtiDtlng to 
the otlMr Oipirp, he in'iulred— " /TRo*— /a'ai— caHJ^ " Hi- w.w iiuswered, JrfJTiCE— to tvlildi, with a 
ktaiUiiff tre, ba iiuteitly replt«^ bj askings" fr^km^fi^-Uve-Mm r* L. 0. IK 


M ihej were set at liberty, and were not Been at the place of their 
mdt^ng for a long time afterwards. Oivil antiioritj being then 
tdHj establohed, (he persons who so grossly violated law, and 
antraged every feeling of hnmanity, were immediately arrested, 
and required to give bail for their appearance to answer the com- 
plaint at the next term of the coort ; but before the time^for trial, 
fhe gnilty parties were very willing to settle the matter by making 
i^sparation, and paying the Indians handsome smart money. 

A more recent affair of a similar character, occurred at Green 
Bay, when two citizens were arrested by the sentinel in open day, 
and marched by the gnard to the fort, a distance of half a mile, 
diarged with having dared to land on the fort side of Fox Biver, 
without permission from the commanding officer. In this instance, 
the military was obliged to succumb to the civil authority. The 
i^cer by whose orders the parties were arrested, was prosecuted 
for the outrage, and considered himself fortunate to escape with, 
a fine. 

Many other instances of usurpation of authority, although not 
on record, are fresh in the recollection of the early settlers of 
Wisconsin, — such as demolishing houses, firing into vessels or 
boats attempting to pass the fort without stopping to report to the 
oommandant. As late as 1837, your speaker and the Hon. Jambs 
D. Doty, then Judge of the District, were on our return from 
Mackinaw, where the Judge had held his court ; we were in a 
htak canoe, manned by Frenchmen and Indians, and entering 
¥cfz Biver, we arrived opposite Fort Howard about §ight o'clock 
in the morning, and while steadily pursuing our way up the river 
to our homes, we were hailed by the sentinel, who was stationed 
on the wharf, and ordered ashore. This command we at first dis- 
regarded, and ordered our men to go on ; but they became 
alarmed, when the sentinel deliberately presented and cocked his 
musket, at the same time threatening to fire into us if we did not 
immediately go ashore. We permitted the men to do so, and 
were met at the wharf bj the offioer of the day, of whom we ia* 


quired when war had been declared ? He rather sheepishly re* 
plied, that it was a standing order of the post that no boat or 
vessel should be permitted to pass without reporting. 

These incidents in the early history of our State are not alluded 
to for the purpose of injaring the feelings of any of the actors in 
them, if any are still living; but to show the privations and hard- 
fihips experienced by the early settlers ; and to exhibit in their 
true forms, the inefficiency of the protection afforded by the 
General Government, and the proneness of military men, when 
exercising the supreme authority, to become tyrannical and op- 

I have remarked that during the period of eight years prior to 
1824, the country was principally subject to military rule. It waa 
not, however, entirely so, as there was a species ot civil authority 
exercised in parts of the country where there were white inhabi- 
tants,* and which, in many respects, was quite unique and amusing. 
I will allude to one or two cases that occurred in that part of the 
fitate where I have long resided, and with which I have become 
acquainted. All who have any knowledge of the early settlement 
of the northern part of the State, have heard of the venerable 
Judge Beaumb, who resided for many years at Green Bay, and 
died near there over thirty years ago. A relic * of this venerable 
functionary is preserved among the collections of your Society. 
Where the Judge came from, is not very well known, and whence 
he derived his authority is a matter likewise involved in uncer- 
tainty ; but it is a well established fact, that he exercised the 
functions of a Judge or Justice for a long period. When be first 
assumed the robes of office, he probably received his authority 
from some commanding officer or governor. His judicial career 
commenced before the war of 1812, and probably continued until 
near the time of his decease. This exercise of authority seems 
to have been tacitly acquiesced in by all. It has never been as- 

* fill lewlet coat or oonrt drM^fkoed with white ■Ok, and bedMilnd with ipaiiglfd Imttoni, In whloh 
in an fobUe oco Micni i. L. 0. D. 


cert&ined that the Judge received a renewal of his tirst appoint- 
xuent from any governor in Michigan or elsewhere ; but he could 
not be termed an usurper, as there appears to have existed no op- 
position to his judicial acts, but on the contrary, a quiet submission 
to his authority, and a ready acquiescence in his quaint and odd 

Many amusing anecdotes are told of the Judge, and of the na- 
ture of his judgments. One, which was related to me by a friend 
now deceased, who on the occasion was chosen defendant, will 
serve to illustrate the primitive judicial decisions in Wisconsin. 
My friend was sued by a Frenchman on an account, and sum- 
moned to appear before Judge Kkaume. The summons was 
returnable at 2 o'clock, P. M., but the defendant forgot the hour. 
Four o'clock arrived, when he bethought himself of his remissness. 
He immediately repaired to the Hall of Justice, first taking the 
precaution, however, to slip into his over coat pocket a bottle of 
good old whiskey. On entering the presence chamber, he found 
the cause decided against him — the plaintiff exultant in his suc- 
cess — the Judge rigid and dignified. The defendant had defied 
his authority and disobeyed his mandate. In vain did my friend 
attempt to thaw the ice of the Judge's cold reserve, and obtain a 
rehearing. Failing in all these eflForts, the defendant rose from 
his seat, and approaching the door of an inner apartment, invited 
the Judge to follow. This he did reluctantly. When safely out 
of sight of the other party, the defendant slowly drew from his 
pocket the aforesaid black bottle, and placed it on the table, where 
were already glasses and water. The stern features of the Judge 
suddenly relaxed. It was an easy matter to prevail upon him to 
taste the tempting beverage; it was indeed so good, that he re- 
peated the dose, and like many other great men before him, he 
lost his resentment in his love for good liquor. The Judge and 
the defendant soon re-entered the Justice Hall, and the plaintiflF, 
who was still present, was required to appear, when he was in- 
formed chat the court had decided to grant a re-hearing of the 
case. This was accordinglv done, and after a brief examination. 



tho former judgment was reverQed, and entered against the plain- 
tiff. The- latter remonstrated in vain, stoutly contending that the 
Jndge had already decided the cause in his favor. All was cat 
short by tbo Judge declaring, that '^ hU first decision was only 
that the plaintiff ahcmld win for to lose! " I am not positive 
whether it was on this or some other occasion that the Judge 
further ordered, that the losing party should work three days on 
his farm, and the constable pay the costs ! Upon the whole, the 
administration of justice by the venerable Judge was mild and 
lenient. No cruel or oppressive punishments were inflicted, and 
in the wholQ course of his career, it is not alleged that he ever 
exercised that prerogative of judicial power so abhorrent to the 
ftelings of modern reformers and and philanthropists, the infliction 
of the death penalty. 

I will relate one other early judicial decision, which came with- 
in my own knowledge. It was made by an old pioneer settler, a 
Frenchman, who in character and manners was a perfect gentle- 
man, but was better acquainted with the principles of honesty and 
fair dealing, than with the subtleties and technicalities of the law. 
Most of you are doubtless aware, that according to Uie laws of 
tho United States for the government of the land and naval ser- 
vice, it is provided that "no person who has been enlisted as a 
soldier, shall be liable to ai rest or imprisonment for any debt con- 
tracted by him duuig the term of his enlistment." At all mili- 
tary posts, soldiers were in the habit of contracting debts with 
citizen traders who would give them credit. A huge proportion 
of these debts were lust, for in addition to his inability to pay, the 
soldier was often aided by his officers in cheating his creditors. 
there was some excuse lor this on the part of tlie officers, as their 
Kuen were often found intoxicated in the shops and groceries, and 
not unfrequently sold their clothing and military accoutrements 

to obtain li^juor ^ The officers would, therefore, aid the soldier to 


•Tlielr thlnt for rum \fA tlipm iioiiietinMa vvvb tostttrnfyttoitMl from or pluniler tbo IndfaiDii to OMtia 
t« It l^ ttated io the Detroit Gaictte, Feb. 15. 182S, th«t not long preriouslj one dnldicr wnii killed at 
l^^u B*3r wiA aaotiktr ftt the mmetfme wounded, hj an Indian waman, )n Ardor fo mit« her kef of 
»iiaktT whkh th^ nm% tBdecraiiBg to wfMt frna har. V.Q.1K - 



erade the parment of his debts, by granting him leave of absence 
for the few closing dajs of his term of Berrice, so that if arreBted 
for debt before he left the post, he coald still avail himself of his 
enlistment as a bar to collection. 

It happened that on the occasion alluded to, a non-commis- 
sioned officer had contracted a considerable debt with a trader, 
which he refused to pay. Some days before the expiration of his 
term of service, he applied to his officer for a furlough for his un* 
expired time, which was granted ; and shielded by this, with his 
regular discharge, he left the garrison, defied his creditors, and 
was about to leave the country forever. In those days, it was 
lawful to arrest dishonest debtors, and imprison them until they 
paid their debts, or were otherwise discharged. The creditor ap- 
plied to my old friend, who was a Justice, for a warrant ; it was 
granted, and the soldier was arrested, and brought before the 
magistrate. The accused readily admitted the justness of the 
debt, but plead the law of the United States, which protected him 
as a soldier from arrest. After patiently hearing his defence, the 
Justice proceeded to give judgment in favor of the plaintiff for 
his debt and costs. The plaintiff immediately demanded execu- 
tion against the body of the defendant. This too was granted. 
The soldier remonstrated with the Justice, saying he was a sol- 
dier of the United States' army, and as such was exempted by 
law from arrest for debt, and concluded by assuring the Justice 
that '* he did not understand him." The phlegmatic Justice, who 
did not speak very plain English, thus emphatically explained htf 
meaning—" You^o-go-to-d^-jail^ and-stay-there-untilr-yau-paf 
'-de-'debt, andr-ycmr-^iU-underatand-me-very-well /" The reiitt 
was that the defendant rather than go to the place named, poUsd 
out his purse, paid his debt, and went on his way, though probabfy 
not rejoicing. The upright old magistrate could not underafavid 
the reasoning, that while an honest citizen paid his just debtii 
Uncl6 Sam's hard cases should go soot free. 

It was not till 1824| that the civil code and civil aofthflrilf 
d be oonsideced fairly established in tiiis part of tbe Hcrik 


West At the sesrion of 1898-34, Ooogress passed a law for or- 
ganizing an additional jndicial district in the then territory of 
Michigan, comprising the counties of Mackinaw, Brown and 
Orawford, and the Hon. James D. Doty was appointed judge, 
the duties of which office he continued to discharge until 1833. 
lie establishment of regularly organized courts may be consid- 
ered a new era in our history, for it was then for the first time, 
that the citizen regarded himself as really under the protecting 
arm of the law, and in the full enjoyment of his liberty and 
property. Yet it is a fact worthy of note, that this iunovation on 
the primitive rights of the old settlers, was viewed by them with 
great jealousy. They looked upon it as a violation of theii* 
Magna Charta — a serious infringement on their long established 
customs ; and they heartily wished the court, and (perhaps with 
better reason) the lawyers too, anywhere but amongst themselves. 

The advance and improvement of the country was slow but 
sure. For a few years its history was monotonous, exhibiting but 
little of interest or importance — occasionally presenting an Indian 
murder, or rumors of wars or hostile designs. Thus it continued 
until about 1827, when the region of country bordering on the 
Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers, known as the Lead Mines, be- 
gan to attract attention. In a short time this whole district was 
over-run, and swarmed with enterprising western explorers. Th^ 
occupation of the country by the whites, as might have been 
- foreseen, led to the Indian wars that followed. At lirst the diffi- 
onlties were confined to occasional out-breaks, and single acts of 
. violence. But all who knew the Indian character, were well con- 
I vinced that a general rising of the tribes would soon follow the 
I forcible possession taken by the white adventurers. The title of 
I the Indians to that part of the country had not yet been extin- 
I guished* ; and the land was owned, or claimed by the Sauks, 

• PHliUtt wwildba mJM to tay, ihtt tht ladUna JM at rtkaowkdy tt. At 81 Lonla, In lt04» flf« 
nymithif V»mmAr%^ u Ibt cUtAi Md htad naa ol th* wilt«d Strnki wd Foxet, eondiidti • 
Willi CtT. Wa. H. HABBiaoir, etdiag to tlw Unlttd StatM iiMrlj the whole of tlw prMMtSlal* 
«( #lMoailBy lytag Math of the WleeonelB Blvir, miA wtet of the Vox RHw ; elM %terarf^ yj^l— %\ 


Foxes, Pottawattamies, among the most numerous and uufriendlj: 
tribes of the Korth-West. The General Government foresaw the 
consequences likely to ensue, but either from snpineness, or per- 
haps owing to the small and inefficient military force of the comi-. 
try, no adequate measures were adopted to prevent an open rupt- 
ure. The Black Hawk war of 1832 ensued, which spread alarm 
and consternation throughout the extended and sparsely populated 
settlements. The history of this war, and its speedy termination, 
are events of too recent date to i:cquire more than a passing notice. 
With all its evils and calamities, this unhappy contest was not 
without its corresponding henefics and advantages. It brought 
prominently into notice large portions ot our State hitherto unex- 
plored, made known its natural resources, and proved the precur- 
sor to the rapid settlement of the country ; and, moreover, called 
the attention of the Government to the North- West, and led to 
the speedy extinguishment of the Indian title to the soil. 

In short, from the year 1832, we may date the commencement 
of our prosperity, and from that period until 1836, when Wiscon- 
sin was organized as a Territory, her prosperity and improvement 
continued with a steady space. The short space which elapsed 
between her Territorial organization and hur admission as a mem- 
ber of tlie Confederacy — twelve years, wa^ characterized by rapid 
and almost incredible changes, and this not only in the increase 
o'f populati* n, but in the develoi»ment of her many natural advan- 

KorthQrn IlHnoia, rcml ronricU-niblo portion*! of the States of Inini and Miciouri. Tlir* rontddentUm flsr 
thii lAr^e tnct of countrf, en:l)mcliig, it \b said, mora than flfty-one nillUoiia of aorea, waa f i nailliifl^f 
small — '^ood« iti h.ind to tbo aiudunt of $2,2w4 •'•0, an<l a yearly annuity of $1(KKK of which $600 waa fK 
thp SauUn, anJ if 4 w) for tho. Foxes*, to l»e jinld In poo«l« valued at flrtt po«t. Tills treaty waa ratified ud 
oonfirm^d )<y a Rnlxtequent treaty, in I^IG, trhen Oom. Clark and EdwakziS, and Col. Choutiao fMt 
the commlhhlunvris an<l Black Hawk wn^ one o( the !>i^crR. Jini Ulack Uawk lubAeiiuenUy daaM 
the vallJity of the treaty of 1S04, wIu'D at leapt tlsrec of the five chiefn wIjo Mgiwd 11 ftjgrured prodU 
ueotly In hchalf of their trib«i at seTcral treatien held afterwards ; and it ihonhl be added^ that Du4B 
Hawk alleged that hu was iipiorant of uhat he was doing when he signed the confirmatory trMlf t^ 
1810. VCc must Bay, thit we Itelisro IlLAfK Hawk to have been too shretrd and cantioas to act I 
rantly in a matter of so gn.>at importance, and ivarticularly if, as he mibHeqaently represented, his ; 
had been or»r-Teaahed bj the whilesi ai the prior treaty ot I90i ', and vo cannot believe, Uiai 
booorAlde as the commissioBeiv would have deceived 0I.AC& Hawk and bis people.— -Sett ladbvi ' 
ties ; SmxB'a Wifoonsln, I— SSi, JBS, 408 ; Black Havk'b AateUoffnptaj ; D]iakS>8 JHM^.B|#I 
Bavmk's Memoirs of iTAiuu«o:f ; Wis. Hist Soc CoUs. 1— W^ L. C]L i^ 


tages, tbc cultivation of the s- >il, the diffusion of knowledge, and 
the introduction of the arts and pc'ences, until wo now see her vie 
with her sister states, with every prospect of fipeodily becoming 
one among the richest and most populous in the Union. 

A conipari>:'>n of tlic jTesent condiiion «)1 uur Siutc with its con- 
dition thirty years ago, will prove interesting, and fill the mind 
with wonder and admiration. Let me first revert to the appear- 
ance of the countrv. In JS24, when I hccanv.* a resident 6f Wis- 
consin, there were hufc two small white s-. ttleinenls within the 
present limits of the State, and tlicy situated nearly at its extreme 
points — namely, Green Buy and Prairie du Chion.* The furmer, 
besides the garrison of United States' troops, had a population of 
whites and those of mixed hlood amounting to about six hundred; 
while the latter was still moixi limited in point of numbers. Wis- 
consin now contains abMUt 000,000 people. The country was 
then one unbroken forest, or boundless waste of prairie, i)osses8ing, 
it is true, the beauties of nature in their mo^t enchanting forms, 
but uncultivated and unadorned by the hand of man. Now how 
changed the scene ! The silent forests and boundless wastes have 
been converted into cities, towns and settlements, and throughout 
its whole extent, the country now presents a picture of prosperity 
and improvement rarely equalled, and never surpassed, on this 
Continent. At that time, no roads or public highways, save the 
navigable waters, or the blind Indian trail, traversed the country. 
The traveler had no choice in his mode of transit from place to 
place*; no public means of conveyance from which he might se- 
lect the most expeditious or agreeable. His only alternative was, 
to travel on foot through the forest, or pursue his voyage in the 

• If we except the andent lettlemeiit at La PolDte, od Lake Superior— whicli wax, indeed, so far aep- 
anted from Green Bay and Pralrte dn Cbleti as to hare no IntcrconrFO vhatercr with tbcm, and tti 
aMoelatloni and eonneetiooa oniit hare beon coaflneU almost exeluaiveljr with Uackinaw. It would 
flM^ that Father Mutarb Tblted La Aiiate aa earlj ai IdSO. A French poit wai maintained then in 
.Xn^ M nty be aeen t^ nferenaa to the Ut Toi. CoUa. Wii. HiatSoc^ p.2!L It la remarked in Ovaii'a 
Oielntlml 8an«j» that La Poinle waa eriginallj Mleetad bf the adventurom traden of the North- West 
Var CliiMiiiij aa the moat eligibU tUe tor a d^K>ft and tradfa)M<Mt in the North- Weat Territorj ; and 
VM^IWAlMf tteib their priaeipBi tm^MfVM, tad the eeatse- of tiieir estemiTe aad wide-qaeed 

L. CD. 


frail bark canoe. What a change has since transpired ! Now the 
iron horse traverses the land in all directions ; the noble steamer 
plows through the streams and lakes ; and a journey that then oc- 
cupied from six to ten days of toilsome labor, hazard and fatigae, 
is now performed in safety and comfort within as many hours. 

At that period the United States' mails were conveyed, during 
the season of navigation, by the irregular and tardy conveyance 
of sail vessels, and the inhabitants of the country were oflentimea 
for weeks or months without intelligence of what was passing in 
other parts of the world, from which they were completely isola- 
ted. During the winter, the mail was carried on a man's back, 
through the trackless wilderness, between Green Bay and Chica- 
go, a distance of about two hundred miles, ouco a month. This 
privilege was purchased, partly by voluntary contributions of the 
citizens, and an allowance from the IT. S. Quarter Master's De- 
partment, and the military post fund at fort Howard. The 
Government at Washington found it would not pay to establish a 
mail route, or. defray the expenses of carrying the mail, and de- 
creed, no doubt wisely, that no expenditure could be made by the 
Post Office Department for that purpose, exceeding the nett pro- 
ceeds of the mail matter. In those days, the arrival of the nudl 
was looked forward to with anxiety and impatience, and if for 
any cause, the arrival was delayed beyond its usual time, the car- 
rier was supposed to have fallen a victim to starvation, or been 
detained by Indians, the only inhabitants of the country through 
which he had to pass. Now there are but few settlements in our 
State where the daily or tri- weekly mail does not penetrate. 

Then the whole commerce of the country was carried on by 
means of a few sail vessels, of less than one hundred tons hnrthen. 
The first steamer ploughed the waters of Lake Michigan in 1828.* 

•IlwMAytwMrHer. Th» ptoa>«r rtt— M W aU i im tk e Wtlkr^ u»M hw flwttrip to Mi 
tbtfUBBcroritlO, tmuipoitiBf MppllM to th* troopt steUoMd then, and mait tiro trips tk«» lb 
in»;omth«Slitof Joly, IMI, ilio WtOttvoltforlUcklBmrMd GfMO Bqr, wWi KM pHMsfM iii* 
w§9 iiof tliO|MiioHH «w» m» Knf, WiMuam WnUAMit ikm wnaUmg his 
, 9iVf «>< M«|. CKMUM UnuM^ tbo felkflr ^ Hhu QfeiMM K 

'% < 


For Beveral sacceeding years, one trip was made annually, and 
rery rarely a second one ; yessels upward bound 'were generally 
Eraighted, but seldom returned with a cargo. Our lakes and riy- 
ars are now covered with steam and sail vessels of the largest 
olass and finest construction, freighted with valuable cargoes, and 
people from every dime. Then the inhabitants of the country, 
the GovernmeDt troops, and to some extent, the Indians, were 
lolely dependent upon adjoining States for the necessaries of lifOi 
and the means of subsistence. Nearly all kinds of provisions 
were then brought from Ohio, or other Western States, for little 
beyond the necessary supplies of vegetables was raised in the 
conntry. At the present period, Wisconsin not only sends her 
lurplus produce from her teemiog granaries to supply the defi- 
ciencies of sister States, but annually exports millions in value 
to remote parts of the Old World, to feed the starving poor, and 
provide for the wants of the wealthy. 

Wisconsin formed, at that period, in name but scarcely in affin- 
ity, a part of the Territory of Michigan. The laws then in foroe 
were crude and ill-devised, some of which were really disgracefid 
to those who enacted them^*euch, for instance, aiapublio wh^pfping^ 
and selling the offender into eerviiude for a period not exceeding 
three months, simply for the commission of mere petty offences. 
These laws were enacted by a Legislative Board, consisting of the 
Gk>vemor and Judges of the Territory, who received their appoint- 
ment from the General Government, and were in no way amena- 

WM tlM bOMt of the Detroit Qexette, tlut the WaUHn-tke-'Water made thia trip, of aboat 1200 miltf 
MdUng, and rttamed to Detroit in thirteen days. She waa onfortanatelj wrecked on the beaeh new 
BbAIo in KoTember following. The new eteamer Smperiar took her place the next aeaeon, and made 
mm trip to Ifaekinaw, and another to Saat de Ste. Marie^ daring the lommer of 1822. Theae datea and 
iirtAerlfefiromsTihnhltftleof the Detroit GaMtte,preaented to onr Hlatorioal Sotlety hj Bon. 
I D. Dorr. Itlagl«Mlalbiepanphlflw«rkef jAifX8L.BABnnrof Bnliilo^on the LakeOes- 
that <* in 1820 or 18ST,the mi^eatSe watara of Lake Michigan were flrat ploughed hj ateam, [eiro. 
M we lec^ ai to being the flnt]— a boat haTiag that jear made an ezeoralon with a pleaau* 
k9mBv ThmoiUmmmncnaMa wen taamSlj —4a, by two or thwe boal» natt tm 
UH** Inthi8 7ear,ii»QrataairiMiliw«eehartandtotrmnaportOen.8con^itroopa«BdaappUai^ 
ilMraxfltvpean&ee«tOhleH(0)b«1»inl8a^MateaBiboalTl8iiedGreeaBaj. Inl8a»two 
ilMaairt%l|iwe i t i i^datoOMatfp,iMcaitoGit>illiyi«iatniaMtwoti%iwt i t ma ial>€hit^ 

96 ' 

ble to the people who were to be governed bj these enactments. 
Many amusing anecdotes were told of the manner in which laws 
were sometimes passed by this sage body. It happened that the 
members of the Legislative Board were not always on the most 
friendly torms with each other. A law which one wonld approve, 
another would oppose from the very spirit of opj)o.>ition. A 
gentleman of the bar, for instance, might wish to get a law passed 
to meet some particular emergency ; and it required not a little 
management to get the legal number of signatures to give it force. 
An examination of the old statutes enacted by this body, will 
show that sev^eral of them which ])as3cd at the same sitting, bear 
only the requisite number, but not the same names. But what a 
change thirty years have wrought! The whipping-post and sel- 
ling white men into servitude arc now unknown ; and with a 
more enlightened people, better laws have followed. 

Such was Wisconsin of the past, and such is she at present. 
But her future destiny — ^what is that to be ? She possesBes a fer- 
tile soil — an extended territory — inland seas on the ITorth and i 
East, and a noble navigable river on the West ; watered by pure 
and everlasting fountains, lakes and streams, affording water pow- 
er illimitable and unsurpassed — covered with immense forests of 
pine and other valuable timber — enriched with inexhaustible mine? 
of copper, lead and iron ; and above all other earthly blessinge, 
possessing a climate as sulubrious as any on the Continent. With 
all these advantages, is it unreasonable to predict, that W isconsin 
is destined to become among the richest and most populous States 

in this vast Kepubllc ? 

* •» ^- * * ^ * « 

To-day is the seventh anniversary of the organization of this 
Society. I was prepared to find that it had greatly inoreased 
within the past two years in its collections of books, pamphlets, 
newspaper files, manuscripts, narratives, and its meana of neefiil- 
ness. But until niy present visit, I had no correct conception of 
its rapid progress and prosperity. It has now become orediubto 
to the State, and richly deserves the cocintenance and pafhiaage 

of all our citizens, and the fostering care of the State government. 
ToibU I most heartily commend it, not doubring but that, in this 
enlightened age, and among a people so generally intelligent, it 
will meet the encouragement, and receive the favor, which so 
useful an institution so justly merits. 

I must beg, in conclusion, to return my grateful acknowledge 
ments to the Society, and more particularly to the members of the 
Executive Committee, for the honor they have done me by invi- 
ting me to deliver- their Annual Address. I must regiird this as 
a courtesy extended to the old pioneers, by selecting one of their 
number for so honorable a p<»sitiou. I cannot but feel, that many 
better qualided for the task could have been selected. I hav,e, 
however, done the best I could under the circumstanced, and could 
wish that the offeiing weie more worthy of the occasion. Witboit 


stopping to apologize for its imperfections, or to express my deep 
regret that time is not permitted me for revision or correctioni 
permit me to tender ynu all the anxious wi^h of my heart, that 
many a returning anniveisary will continue to exhibit the same 
unabated interest, prosperity and usefulness that hav^e thus far 
cbaractetized the brief yet brilliant career of the Stats UjebtorioAl 
Society of Wisconsin I 

. I  

• > 


• t 


APFEirors Ko. 6. 



At the- request of tbe Wisconsin Statb Historical Sooibtt, 
tbrongh tbeir Corresponding Sucretary, I shall attempt to give 
flome reminiscences of the early history of W sconsin, and more 
eepecially of the western portion of it. I feel much distroBt in 
my ability to do justice to the subject, as writing for the public 
eye has never been, thus far in life, any part of my employment 
or ambition ; and yet, in my unprt-tending way, I feel willing to 
contribute my reminiscences of early times for the archives of a 
Society which I regard as having commenced, with commenda- 
ble zeal, a noble and important work. Very likely I may appear 
egotistical in many instances, and too prolix in others; but the 
discriminating reader can make all duo allowances, and the future 
historian can sift the wheat from the chaff. 

I was born in the town of Peru, Clinton county, N Y., Dec. 7tb, 
1793 — and as the sequel will show, I have lived in the woods the 
most of my days. My father was a farmer, to which occupation I 
was raised until past the age of sixteen years. When I was be- 
tween two and three years old, my father's house in Peru took 
fire, and almost every thing he possessed of a moveable characteri 
was consumed. He sold his farm, and about this period removed 
to the town of Jay, in the adjoining county of Essex, where he 
owned or obtained land. Here he made improvements, and had 
good buildings, an orchard, and every thing comfortable about 


him, when, about 1803, be got the Ohio fever. He sold biB farm 
at a great sacrifice; bat before he collected the money for. it, 1^^ 
met a gentleman who had just returned from Ohio, who stated 
that though lands were cheap, aud they could raise large crops of 
grain and flocks of cattle with little labor, yet many of the settlers 
were obliged to go twenty or thirty miles to mill, and there was 
no market for their fine cattle and rich harvests, and that a farmer 
with a comfiirtable home was better oif in the cold and nnprodnb- 
tive region of Northern New York, than in the fertile plains of 
Ohio without a market. These considerations dissuaded my 
father from removing to Obio, and, in March, 1805, he settled in 
Cbamplain, Clinton c mnty, N. Y., where he purchased a farm, 
with a log dwelling and forty acres of improvement. 

Living thus on the frontiers, and removing from place to place, 
my educational advantages were very limited. But after moving 
to Ohamplain, the nearest school was at the village of Chazy, two 
and a half miles distant, whither I went pretty regularly for two 
or three winters. In that day and in a new country, to be able 
to read, write, and cypher as far as the Rale of Three, was con- 
sidered sufficient qualifications to teach a common school. I was 
ambitious to obtain a good education, and relaxed no efibrts to be 
punctual in my attendance, although the distance was great, and 
traveling through the deep snow was often very laborious, t read 
with avidity every book that chance threw in my way, or which 
I could obtain by borrowing in the neighborhood. 

In the summer of 1808, 1 boarded at Champlain Village, and 
attended the school taught by the late Dr. William BeAUMoirr, 
who was then a student of medicine. Under his tuition I greatly 
improved myself in grammar, geography, &c., but at that early 
day I never saw a school atlas. Opportunities for attending better 
schools increased, and I continued alten.ately on the farm and at 
flchool until I was between sixreen and seventeen years of age, 
/when I engaged in the study of the law. I, however, concludfed, 
that from deficient early education and my native difiidenoe, I 



ihonid never make a great lawyer, and mj ambition proteatiBg 
against a second or third rftte position, I abandoned the law at I 
then supposed, forever, and songht and obtained a situation ma a 
merchant's clerk. 

The merchant who employed me, became the sutler to the 
Light Artillery Regiment, then commanded by Col. Wm. Feu- 
wick, and formed a part < f Gen. Izard's army. This force com- 
menced its march from Plattsbargh to the West, in AngnBt,1814; 
and my employer having Rome business to transact in Plattsbnrgh, 
before his departure, sent mc on to attend to the sutling buginesis, 
and I continued with the regiment until the campaign on the 
Niagara was over, and the troops retiro«l into winter quarters near 
Bu£PaIo. In November my employer arrived, aud taking offense 
at some of his acts, I demanded a settlement, and left him, I 
then etigaged myself to a man named Fullke, sutler for Maj. 
Ball's two companies of dragoons, then cantoned near Avon, N. 
T., on the Genesue river, where I remained doing little or 
nothing dnring the winter, as the dragoons, for aome reasoni were 
not paid off. 

In April, 1815, 1 received a letter from the late Lewis "Rootb* 
of Green Bay, a townsman of mine, dated at Buffalo, stating that 
be had obtained the sutling of the Consolidutod Rifle Regiment, 
and desired my assistance. Having no need of my seivice^, I 
left Mr. Fuller, and repaired to Buffalo, rftid the stage which 
conveyed me carried flying colors aimouncing the news of peace. 

Those of the troops enlisted for the war, were now discbai^ed, 

and those enlisted for five years retained ; of the latter waa the 

. Rifle Regiment, then understood to have been ordered to Detroit 

As I had conducted Mr. Rouse's business principally, he wistied 

• Judge RouSB «m a natire of Rsape'a Pi4ikt» oa Lake ChampUio, Md tf ttM t( Orcao Baj utmt 
mi. He wafi Judge of Uia North -weat Judicial Dutrict while Wiaconiio jet formed a pait of MiebiglB 
Territory. He wu a man of promlneaoe In fata day, ao4l p m eew o 4 many kiadaod geatltiaaiily qatf ikr 
Bt diet MAdenlx si his mIdMwe, Iq Maaitowo^ ApxH 19th, l»U, at the tg» of 69 jean. Hia miMm 
4eath wai probaUj oauaed bj apopleij, u he waa of plethorio haUt» and we^lied over time hw*ei 

L.O. D. 



me to go with him, and desiring to Boe the coantry, I accepted 
hiB inTitatioD. The troops haviog left Boffalo about the lirBt of 
June, we sailed from tiiat place on the 15th of that month , in the 
schooner Lady of the Lake^ said to have been the beat veBsel then 
on the Lakes, and arrived at Detroit on or about the 10th of Julj. 
Here we found, that tlie regiment had been ordered to Mackinaw. 

Detroit was then an old French village, with the houBcs moiCl j 
covered with bark^ Waiting here a few days for a vessel on 
which to proceed to Mackinaw, we engaged passage about the 15th 
of July, on a crazy old schooner commanded by Oapt. Psabsobt, 
bound for Drummond's Island, with pork and hard bread for the 
British troops then stationed at that place. On board the vessel 
as a passenger was Rambay Crooks, since so distinguished among 
the It)cky Mountain traders, then on his way to Mackinaw, to 
receive the property of the South-West Fur Company, which had 
been recently purchased by John Jacob Abtor of New York.* 
We found this old crazy vessel without any convenience of table, 
furniture or provisions. Mr. Crooks had come passenger on her 
from Buffalo, and the captain had promised him that he would 
lay'in ample supplies &t Detroit, but just as we had got under 
way from the latter port, Mr. Crooks went into the cabin and as- 

* Ib irtti MTerml of the prineipal uereluuito of aioatrMl «atend into apArUicnhlp to p r onwite tlM 
flur trade, &nd, in 1787, uniteU with sriTal eompanj, and thai arom the (amoua NorthrWett Omfmn% 
whlcb, for many yeara, held lordly sway over the immenao rof^on tn Canada andheyond the Great Ifait- 
mea Lakes. S«T*ral yean later' a new ansodatlon of Britiili marebaota fomed tba MicAAiaio Omftm^t 
lUTlng their chi<;r factory or depot at Mackinaw; and their Held of operation! waa south of their 
pt>at riralii— nendinf^ forth their light perog^os and hark canoeR, by Green Bay, the Fox and Wlseonila 
Blvan to the MtaiiflRippi, and thenca down that rtrean to all ita tribotariea. In IfiOO, Mr. AiffOB oxsan- 
iMd tha Ameriean Fwr Oimpuvf^\M alona ooniitltating the company ; and, in 1811, in connection with 
Mrttln partners of the NHk-WbH Ctimp-imifj and others, he bought out the Madtittaw Ckmpcmf, aai 
mmffd tha* and his Amriem^ Pur OBmftatf into a new association, e&IIed the S^utk-Wial Onmpamf 
Bj this arrangement \lr. Aitor became propHetnr of one-half of all the intTefita which the Maekinmm 
Ounpiny hsd in the Indian country withtn the United States ; and it was nnderstood that the whole, al 
tha evpliBtioaof Are jeani, was to psjis into Iila haads^ on eondition that the ^siericaii, or S0»tk^ HM 
Omjinwy would not trade within the Kritisli dominions. The war of 1812 unspended the association ; 
and after the war It was entirely dlsHoIved'-^ngri'SS haying paaa^d a law prohibiting British fur trudeis 
aam prosecvtlag their enterpifara within the terrlteriea of the United dtatee. Thus we And M r. dooUg 
ha 1816. cloiiing up the affairs of the 8«mttf ff^tH Gunprnny, preliminary to enlarged indiTidnal enterprlaa 
ertttMpvtcf Mr. Aaroa. h,0>9. 


certained that the captain had failed to folfill his engagemeiit ; 
aad itn mediately he took the skifi', went ashore, and par* 
chased dishes, knires, forks, spoons, and provisions, and we 
proceeded on oar vojage. We were beoalmed about tea dajsoa 
the St Olair River and Flats, daring which we went on shore mi 
bought a sheep, which helped along with the rustj pork and hard 
bread. At that time, I had seen very little of hardships, and I 
suffered much from such fare as hard bread and rusty pork. 

We were almost a month from Detroit to Drummond's Island, 
where we found a trader named Lacbodc, with a boat bound to 
Hackinaw, and with him we engaged our passage. No provisions 
coald be had at Drummond's Island, sj we were obliged to de- 
pend on the voyageuTM* kettle of corn soup, a new kind of fare to 
me; and, I believe, I ate but a few mouthfuls from Drummond^s 
Island to Mackinaw. We were two days reaching Mackinaw, 
where we arrived on the morning of the 15th of August. Once 
there and recruited, we had a new source of anxiety, iu daily ex- 
pecting the arrival of the paymaster until the close of navigation ; 
and then I had to content myself, as well a9 I could, until the en- 
suing spring of 1816. At the request of some of the inhabitantSi 
I concluded to open a school, as it would keep me from idleness ; 
if my scholars did not learn much Eoglish, I concluded I should 
stand a chance of acquiring some French — thus acting out t|ie 
Yankee character of adapting one's selt to circumstancea. Aj&d 
thus I spent the winter. 

Daring that winter of 181S-'16^ Congress passed an actexcliid- 
ing foreigners from participating in the Indian trade within the 
limits of the United States or its Territories. This was then sup- 
posed to have been done through the influence of Mr. Astob, and 
upon the purchase of the property of the South West G^mpany^ 
the American Fur Company re-appeared under the auspices of 
Mr. AsTOR — the bead quarters of which were at Mackinaw. 

Although Congress had passed a law excluding foreigaen. 
from the Indian country, it was found that the trade could not 


be carried on without their aid, as most of the clerks^ inter- 
preters and boatmen were foreigners; and, in the summer of., 
1816, the Secretary of the Treasury of the ITnited States issued. , 
orders to the Indian Agents on tuis froutier to license foreignera , 
as interpreters and boatmeu, ou their giving bond with large pen* , 
altiea for their g<>od conduct in the Lidian country.' Thus the.. 
British traders, who wantcsd to get iuto the Indian country, bad 
only to employ an American, to whom the goods were invoiced, 
and the license taken in his name, and the trader went as inter* 
preter until they were beyond the Indian sgencies, when the 
trader assumed the control of his property, and carried on his 
business as usual. 

During the summer of 1816, it was projected to establish a 
United States fort at Green Bay ; and, in July of that year, Ool. . 
John Millbb, then Colonel of the 3d regiment U. S. Infantry, 
was ordered on that service, and soon chartering three vessels, 
embarked three or four cotnpatiies of rifle-n^en and infantry with 
some artillery. Among the vessels was th«^ Waahivgton^ the 
largest of the fleet, commanded by Capt. Dobbins, on board of 
which Tessel was the Commandant I had that year engaged 
myself as a clerk to some traders, to take charge of an outfit or , 
trading establishment near the head of the St. Peters Biyer^ and 
the Colonel apprehending diiBculty from the Indians in landing 
at Qreen Bay, proposed to take the goods of several boats in the 
TeeBel,and tow the boats, and use them, if necessary, in landing^ 
aad then return them to their owners. 

Accordingly Auoustin Gbionon, myself and a French clerk by . 
th^ name of Chafpin embarked on board the Washington, Mr. 
Gkionoit and Chappin, acting in some measure a^ pilots. During 
tha night of the second or third day out from Mackinaw, the oth- 
ar two vessels became separated from the Washington, and arri« 
yiBg in the vicinity of what is now called Washington Island and 
B^arbor, and learning from Mr. Grionon that there was a good 
haibor, Col. Millbb ordered the Washington to put in there to 


wait fbr her conaorts. We remained there nearly two daye, dmr«' 
ing which time the officers and passengers ramhled over the'Ii^ 
labd, and finally, in honor of onr yessel, snpposed to be the first 
one that had entered the harbor, we gave its name to WashingtoK^ 
Island and Harbor, which they have ever since retained. Finding 
the other vessels had got inro Oreen Bay ahead of us, and had 
found a harbor at Yermilliun Island, and were waiting for ns, we 
proceeded np the Bay, and arrived at Green Bay setUeinent about 
two days atlter, when the troops landed without the anticipatod 
opposition from the Indians. 

This was in the month of July, 1816. Green Bay and PraTrie 
dn Ohien were then the only setrlementa in what is now the state 
of Wisconsin, if wo except Solomon Junrau^s trading bonse at 
Milwaukee;* and they cnuld not well be called settlements accord^ 
ing to the American idea of settling and improving a conntry. 

Green Bay was a kind of traders' de))Ot for the trade of that' 
Bay, the Fox and upper part of Wisconbin Rivers, which were 
eousidered dependents of it. 

There then resided at Green Bay as a trader John La.wb, and, 
four or five at the Gbionons. Auoustin Gbionon resided and 
traded at the Little Kankalin. These traders who pretended to 
make Green Bay their home, resided generally but a small poir* 
tion of the year there, as most of them wintered in the lodian 
c^nnitry, and generally spent two or three months of the somnieB* 
at Mackinaw. The traders of Green Bay mostly married, aftex 
the Indian manner, women of the Menomonee tiibe, there being 
no white women in the country. I saw at this time bnt one ^o* 
man in the settlement that pretended to be white, and she had 

*8o farftM Mr. Jtwc\u'8 miDe in coneeroed. tbU Deeds a flight correction. Traders were at MlWraih 
1mm mr\j u 176:2 ; and, tJbonX 1816, Jaoqum Vb40x, who had been preceded hj one LArROMBOiSBaajl 
J. B. Bbaubiem. eoramenoed wintering there m a trader, and it wai not till 1818. that Solomon JuinaV 
Wtnt there, erected a permanent dwelling, and on the 14th of Sefripmber In that year heeemo the OHir 
■etUer of the pfaMa. Set Hon. M L. H\btiji b Hi«torical Addreae before the Wis Hint Sockri^ 
vol. 1, p. $6, 13i, of the Soeietjr'a CoUectiona. In a formnr note, referenoe wm had to the r«mlbt 
WtoMBila JNttltntnt) Bveb m it was,' at Lb Folnte, Lake Superior. !«; O. DU^ * * 


aooideotaHy h%eik brought there at an early day, but her history, 
however, I do not now recollect. There were at Gi*een Bay acme 
forty or fifty Oanadians of French extraction who pretended to 
cultivate the aoil ; bat they were generally old worn oat vaya* 
gm»t$ or boatmen, who having become nofit for the hardships of 
the Indian trade, had taken wives generally of the Menomonee 
tribe, and settled down on a piece of land. As the land did not 
coet anything, all. they had to do was, to take up a piece not 
claimed by any other person, and fence and cultivate it. But 
they had generally been so long in the Indian trade that they had^ 
to a great extent, lost the little knowledge they had acquired of 
farming in Canada, so that they were poor cnltivators of tie 8oiI| 
although they raised considerable wheat, barley, peas, &c. Green 
Bay was at that time a part of the territory of Indiana, of which 
the seat of government was at Yincennes, which was also the 
countfT town of the county to which Green Bay was attached — 
between four and five hundred miles distant by the tedious and 
circuitous route of that day. 

There was an old Frenchman at Green Bay of the name of 
Ghables Rbauhb, who could read and write a little, that acted as 
Justice of the Peace. He had been commissioned under George 
ni, when Great Britain held jurisdiction over the country, and 
after it was givcu up to the American Government and attached 
to Indiana, he had been commissioned by Governor IIabrison,* 
and being thus doubly armed with commissions, he- acted under 
either, as ho found most convenient. The la^s under whicli he 
acted were those of Paris f and the customs of the Indian traders 
of QreoQ Bay. Ho was very arbitrary in his decisions. 

The county seat was so distant and difficult of access, that it a 

• Belbf* Jadg« Lockwood's nArratire came to hand, Col. EBsnzBR Cuilps, who knew Judge RB«oiai 
#•11, infonof d the writer of Hib note, that Riavm reeeWed hU commiMlon u Joattee from Got. B4»> 
maffOm/A IndUm* Tteritoiy, which wae probejblj not long after the organization of that Torritorj in 1801, 
ftroBi which till 1818, Gen. HaMuaov eontinued nnintermpiedlj itj Uoremor. L. C. D. 

^TlM eode Oniteaw de Pmrit, the law of Franer, which gorened Canada, and all the territory of the 
VrillkWlwhltowndtrtheVkMeh'lMdaloiL UiUlk 



perv>n felt himself aggrieved, he preferred Bafferin^ injnstiee to 
going Vj the expense of an appeal ; s-^ that, praetieallT, RbaukA 
court was the Supreme Court of the conntnr. He took care not 
to decide against any of the traders who were able to bear the ex* 
peoBe of an appeal ; in fact the traders made nse of him to hold 
their men in bubjection, bat nerer submitted to him any difflcaltf 
between themrelTes. The^e were left to the arbitration of other 
traders. Ic was said of him, that a bottle of spirits was tlie beat 
witness that e-.'nld be introduced into his court, and that after the 
decisi'.'n of a case, the losing party producing the above witnesay 
has been granted a new trii^l or rehearing* and a reTaraal of the 
former decision obtaiae J. F-^r misdemeanor he sentenced the col- 
prit to labor a certain number of days on his farm, or cut and split 
a certain number uf rails fur him. I have read the narratiTO of 
James W. Bidddle, of Pittsburgh, whom I knew at the time, and 
the anecd'^tes related by him of Judge Beaitms were cnrreot at 
that day, together with many others that would not look well in. 

During my stay at Green Bay waiting the arrival of my em- 
ployers, one of their "engagees*' or boatmen had left their employ 
and engaged himself to an American concerned in sutling for die' 
troops, and I went to Judge Reaume, stating the case to him, 
asked him what the law was on that subject, and what could be 
done. He answered me in his broken English : " PU — make — 
de — man — ffo — hack— to — his — duty.^ "But,** I again asked, 
"what is the law on the subject?" He answered, "rfi« — lav) — •# 
— PU — make — de— -man— go— back — to— his — duty.^ I reiterar 
ted my inquiry, ^' Judge Reaumb, is there no law on thi.* subjeotf* 
He replied, with a feeling of conscious dignity, " We — ars 
— accustomed — to—mak^ — de — rn^en — go — hade — to — their — bout' 
geois^ Finding Judge Bbaumb had no law except hia own pre* 
cedents and the customs of Green Bay, and not believing thai 
American citizens would submit to, and obey the process of hia 
old jack-knife, or the customs of the Green Bay Indiaa ^^r^MTLii. 


I jconcladed to leare the matter until the arrival of my employers,. 
aod let them proceed before Judge Ruaume, if they thought 
proper. * 

The Indian trade carried on at that day for the Mississippi and 
ICisaouri and their tributaries, was from Mackiaaw. Until 1818|, 
gDoda came mostly from Montreal, iu batteaux or cauo^^s, mostlj. 
bj the Mackinaw, or its successor, the S lutb West Company, or 
bj tome private traders. But early in i 81i>, Mr. Astor purchased: 
out the interest of the South West Company at Mackinaw audita, 
dependences, and in August, of that year, Ramsay Ckooks, as al* 
' ready mentioned, went to Mackinaw as agent for Mr. Astob, to 
complete the arrangements. In the spring IS 16, the goods of 
the American Fur Company were imported to NewTojk, and 
thence brou|j;ht by way of. the Lakes to Mackinaw. During 

* Of Jodge Bbaume, wa have learned soms addltloiml facts from lion. ^OLOHoir JmfCiu, and witk 
u ltei aw to \l» dMih and burial, firom P. O. GiuoBroic, tbxough Hon. H. 8. B vut, and aim from CoL 
a. CauPt. Uo was bora about the j«ar 1752, at La Pralrlv, ooarlj oppoislU of Montreal, of a promt' 
BMit and respectable (kmily. As mentioned In a no*e to tho Iftt vol. of the Wis Ulst. Soc. Colls., w 
mHj flcU bim al Bvtrolt* and in tbe serrlee of the British Indisn department, as a captain, and wM . 
among the prisoners taken by the giillant Col. Qkokqb hooutt Clasu at tbe capture of Yincennee, ia . 
Vebniary, 1770, and taking the oath ot neutralitj, was permitted to return to Detroi . In 1790, ha' 
■tlilMt si Grsan Baj, aad appears to hare t>een, in a small way, and a part of the time, engaged in tb« 
Indian trade. Ills first commlnlon of Justice of t^e Peaco he probably dorlTed from the British 
anlfc s ii tiea at Detroit, belbre the surrender of that post to tba American goivemmeat in 1796, and p0 
■«l»«qakntlj reoeiT«!d a similar eommlsslon fh>m Qot. Uarriso.i of the Indiana Territory. In 181C 
'17, he made his home with John Laws at Green Bay; and, in 1818, he was appointed by Got. 
\ti IHehigan Territory, ontiof the Asaoclate Justice! of the court fbr Brown county, and the wuam 
r« 1m lamoTod tu Uttle Kaukalln, about tea miles aboTo Oreeu Bay, and there sold liquor to tba 
Indians, not unlrequently drinking freely with them, and sharing in their frajs, as well as In blaok- 
Mpi ey«a and bruiiiea. There ho died alono, in the spring of 1822, for he « as found dead in hia oaUn. 
H* ms abont seven^ yvats of age. His friends at Green Bay Lad his remains couToyed there, and 
boxiad in tho old Catholic barial place, which was in the|^resent plat of Astor; but tho bodies interrad 
< wete mibeequfiatly remored to the pn^sent^rying ground. No tablet marks his grave. Ha wii . 
In this Tolame and its predecessor, screral anecdotes illustrating Judge Rbaumb's primitive mode of 
Inlsttriog Justice, hare b»cn glren; to which wo add the following, from tho interesting work of 
KiMU: "Thfia wasan old Fienchmsn at 'tho Bay,' named Rxaumi, ezcessivoly ignorant and 
fnqiing, although otherwise tolerably good-naturtd. Tbii* man was appointed Justice of the Peace. 
TWo men oooe appeared betora bfaa, the one as plaintiff, the other as defendant. The Justice li»1«aed 
to tha oamplalat of the one, and the^defttnce of tbe other; then rising, with dignity, he pro- 
his decii^ion : ' Tou are both wrong. You, Boia-vuT,* to tho plaintiff, * you bring me one 
IMiCf bay; and yon, Ouly,* to tha deftodant, 'you bring me one load of wood; aad now the matl« - 
k aatUed.* It does not appear that any exoeptions were taken to this Tcrdict*' L. 0. D. 



that spring, seyeral Montreal traders arriving at Mackinaw 
Indian g(M>ds, probably not aware of the law of Congress prohib^ 
iting British subjects from tradinu^ within the American territories^ 
now took advantage of the order of the Secretary of the Tieasnrj, 
and sent their goods into the Indian conntry, under the noannal 
direction of a hired Amencan clerk, to whom the goods wers 
invoiced, and who took the license in his name, and gave proper 
bonds with security to the traders who owned them^ who went 
along, ostensibly as interpreters, until the boat passed all the Am&f^ 
ieau forts and agencies, when they assumed the ownership, and 
proceeded as usual in their business — these clerks' bonds were 
considerad as a mere formality to evade the law, and were worth 
so much brown paper, and no more. 

In the spring of 1817, the Amencan Fur Company bron^t a 
large number of American clerks frorn Montreal and the United 
Srates, some of whom made g»od Indian traders and are yet in 
the country, but nearly one half of them were found not qualified 
for the buniness, and in the following spring many of them were 
diechHrged from Mackiuaw, which was then the grand depot of 
the Indian trade. 

The American Fur Company, as had been the practice of tta 
Mrickinaw and South AVest companies, made their outfits toLiike 
Superior, to the Missisbiftpi, the head of St. Peters, and the TMi^ 
Bonri. The boats fur the Missitsippi and Missi>uri trade passed 
through the north end of L^ke Michigan from Mackinaw, thenea 
throngli Qreon B^y to the settlement of that name ; thence up 
the Fox River to the Little Kaiikalin, where they made a portaig^ 
of ab' 'lit three fourths of a nale. Auolstin GirioNoiff had a trading 
house at this point, and kept teams to transport the goods and 
furs, (the men taking the boats empty up or down the rapida, aS. 
the caso might bi) for which he charged about twenty cents per 
100 pounds. Tiie boats then proceeded to Orahd Chute, wher#^ 
the tnen made another portage of the g»ods or ftirs, and passed 
the boat over the Grand Chute empty. Thence thej prQcee4t9 

• :9 * 


to tbe rapids »t the lower end of Winnebago Lakef where tbej 
Atoallj miide half loads over tbe rapids into the lake. Thence 
thej proceeded upward to where the Fox river enters the lake, 
thence up Fox river through Puckawa Lake, and Lac de Boeuf, 
or Buffalo L^lie, and some smaller lakes to the Portage of Wiscon- 
sin, where a man by the name of Rot resided, who kept teams 
fnd hauled goods, furs and boats across the Portage of one and 
one fourth miles frum the Foz to the WiMCOusin river, for which he 
charged forty cents per 100 pouuds, and ten dollars for each boat 

The boats then went down the Wisconsin to its month, and 
thence up tbe Mississippi* abont three miles to Prairie du Chien ; 
the traders of the Lower Mies'ssippi and Missouri never ^oing 
down without a 8h'»rt stop at Prairie du Chien, where thej gener- 
ally spent some days in conviviality, dinners, dancing, &c. Tra- 
dition says that many years since, when there were many winter- 
ing traders in both the Upper and Lower Mississippi, it was the 
custom of every trader visitin^i: Prdirie du Ohien, to have in storea 
keg of eight or nine gallons of- good wine for convivial purposes 
when they should again meet in the spring, on which occasions they 
would havi) great dinner parties, and, as is the English custom, 
drink largely. But when I came into the country, there were but 
few bf the old traders remaining, and tbe storing of wine at Prai- 
rie du Ohien had become almost obsolete, although the traders 
were then well supplied with wine, and that of the best kind, of 
w'hich they mad6 very free use. It was then thongbt that a clerk 
in charge of an outiit must have his keg of wine, but after the 
American Fur Company g it fairly initiated into the tn«de, they 
abolished the custpm of furnishing their clerks with this luxury at 
at the expense of the outfit. As I have already said, the Indian 
trade of the Mississippi and Missouri and their tributariiS was 

•learned on IVom Mackinaw as tbe grand depot of the trade of the 


' Tlie traders and their clerks were then the aristocracy of the 
ebtintry ; and to a Yankee at lirst sight, presented a siugularstate 


of societj. To see gentlemen selecting wives of the nut-brown 
native?, and' raising children of mixed blood, the trader! end 
clerks living in as much Inxary as the resources of the country 
wonid admit, and the engagees or boatmen living npon soup made 
of hulled corn with barely tallow enough to season it, devoid of 
salt, unless they purchased it themselves at a high price — all thfs 
to an ATnerican was a novel mode of living, and appeared to be 
hard fare ; but to a person acquainted with the habits of life of 
the Canadian ])ea8Hntry, it wuuld not look so much out of the way, 
as they live mostly on pea soup, seasoned with a piece of pork 
boiled down to grease ; seldom eating pork except in the form of 
. grease that seasons their eoup. With ih\% soup, and a piece of 
coarse bread, their meals were made ; hence the change from pea 
fioup to corn is not so great, or the fare much worse than that 
which they had been accustomed to, as the corn is more substan- 
tial than peas, not being so flatulent. Theee men engaged in 
C^iiiada generally for five years f^r Mackinaw and its dependen- 
cies, transferable like cattle to any one who wanted them, at gen- 
erally about 50i) livres a year, or in our currency, abont $83 33 ; 
furnished with a yearly equipment or outfit of two cotton shirts, 
one thiee point or triangular blanket, a portage collar, and one 
pair of beef ehoe^; being obliged, in the Indian country, to pur- 
chase their moccasins, tobacco, pipes, and other neceeaariee, at 
the price the trader saw fit to charge for them. Generally at the 
end of five years, these poor voyag urs were in debt trom fifty to 
one hundred and fifty doll ari^,. and could not leave the country 
nntil they had paid their indebtedness; and the policy of the 
traders was, to keep as mai^y of them in the country as they could ; 
and to tliis end they allowed and encouraged their engageesX/ctfgb^ 
in debt daring the five years, which of necessity required them 
to remain. 

These new hands were by the old vayageurs called in deriaum, 

mangeurs de lard^-pork-eaters — as on leaving Montreaf, and on 

•the route to Mackinaw, they were fed on pork, hard bread, and 

pea^aoup, while the old voyageara in the Indian country ate com- 


ionp, and Booh other food as could conyeniently be procured.* 
These mamg^Ufrs de lard were brought at considerable expense and 
troable from Montreal and other parts of Canada, freqnentlj de* 
sertiog after tbey had received some advance in money and their 
equipment. Hence it was the object of the traders to keep as 
many of the old voyctgeurs in the country as they could, and they 
generally permitted the mangev/rs de lard to get largely in debt, 
as they could not leave the country and get back into Canada, 
except by the return boats or canoes which brought the goods, 
and tbey would not take them back if they were in debt any- 
where in the country, which could bo easily ascertained from the 
traders at Mackinaw. But if a man was prudent enough to save 
his wages, he could obtain passage, as be was no longer want- 
ed in the country. 

The engagements of the men at Montreal were made in the 
strongest language ; they bound themselves not to leave the duties 
assigned them by their employers or assigns either by day or night, 
under the penalty of forfeiting their wages; to take charge of and 
safely keep the property put into their trust, and to give notice of 
any portending evil against their employers or their interests that 
should come to their knowledge. It was the practice of the tra- 
ders, when anything was stolen from the goods during the voyoge, 
whether on the boat or on shore, to charge the boat's crew with 
a good round price for it, and if anything not indispensable was 
accidentally left on shore at the encampment, they did not return 
for it, but charged it to the crew, as it was uuderatood to be their 
duty, not the employer's, to see that every thing was on board the 
boat. These people in the Indian country became inured to great 
hardships and privations, and prided themselves upon the distance 
they could travel per day, and the small quantity of provisions 
they could sub^st on while traveling, and the number of days 
they eould go without food. They are very easily governed by 

•ffc» mk f MAmm A M^fu g mn m% mSkA h h m mmm <r ■^ ili^itri, ftcccrdliig to BntUM'i work od At 


a person who nnderstenda eoraething of tlieir natare and di^HMi- 

1 • 

tion, bat their bargeois or employer most be what tbej considara 
gentleman, or superior to themselTes, as they nerer feel mnch re- 
spect for a man who has, from an en/fogee^ risen to the rank of a 

The traders in this country, at the time I came into it, were a 
singular compound ; they were honest so far as they gave thetr 
word of honor to be relied upon; and, in their business transac- 
tions between themselves, seldom gave or took notes for balances 
or assumptions. It rarely happened that one of them was found 
who did not fulfill his promises ; but when trading m the Indian 
country, any advantage that could be taken of each other in a 
transaction, was not only considered lawful — such as trading each 
other's credit — hut an indication of tact and cleverness in busi- 
ness. Two traders having spent the winter in the same neighbor- 
hood, and thus taken every advantage they could of each otbefi 
would meet in the spring at Prairie du Chien, and amicably settle 
all difflculties over a glass of wine. 

There was not, at the time I came to Prairie du Ohien, any In. 
dian corn raised there. The traders for the Upper Mi^^sissippi, 
bad to send down, for their corn which they used, to the Banks 
and the Foxes at Rock Island, and trade with them for it It is 
'believed that the liist field of corn raised at Prairie du Chieo waa 
by Thomas McNair, an Atnerican, who had married a French girl 
and settled down to farming. 

The farmers of Prairie du Chien appeared to be a more thrifty 
and industrious people than those of Green Bay ; they raised a 
large quantity of small grain, such as wheat, barley, oats, peas^ 
and also some potatoes and onions. Every two or three farmers 
united and had a horse flouring-mill — the stones being cot from 
the granite rock found in the country. There ftey gnmnd their 
wheat^and sifted the flour by hand. The surplus flour was sold to the 
Indian traders for goods, or exchanged with the Indiana for veni- 
son, ducks, and geese, or dressed deer-skins^ as there was no moA* 


0j in circniation in the conntrj. Any pnrchase made was paya- 
ble in goods from the traders or flour from the inhabitatits. 

The manner in which the traders dealt with the farmers was 

this ; to let the farmer set his price on anything That he had to 

•elly without grumbling or saying anything about its being higli, 

as it wa» payable in goods ; the trader charging his price for tiie 

goods — 80 each }>arty got al) he asked, and neither had cause for 

oomplaint, but of course the trader was not the looser by tb^ 

transaction. Mr. Michafl Bribbois related to me a transaction 

which took place between himself and a fanner by the name of 

PiKBRR Labivirbb. This Labivibrr was ambitinu!) to pass with 

his neighbors for the best farmer in the country, and went to Mr. 

Bbisbois to see what he was pacing for fl'ur. which I think was 

then six dollars per 100 lbs ; but Lariyibbb desirous of the oppor^ 

tnni'ty of boasting to his neighbors that he had gotten n»ore for 

his flour than they did, expressed a wi^h that Mr. BRiSBf»is would 

pay him more than the market value for his fluur, whicii Mr, 

BstSBois told him him he could not do. " Oh,'' said Mr. Lari- 

TiKRK, "you can mnke it up by charging more for the goods with 

which you pay me;" and so they closed the bargain, not to Mr^ 

Bbisbois loss. The prices compared somewhat like this : When 

flour was worth $S,00 per K'O lbs., hyson or young hx son tea 

was worth $8,00 per pound; if fl -ur was worth only $8,o0, tea 

would remain the same price, when the farmer got $9,m() per bush* 

el for oniotis, and $1,00 per dozen for oggs, he paid the ahove 

price for tea. The women of Prairie du Chien, mostly dntighters 

of the Indian traders, had been raised in the habit of drinking a 

grest deal of tea in the In<iian country, where other beverage for 

children could not be procured, and it thus became from long 

habit with them almost a necessary of life, and they would make 

any 8acriti(5e to obtain their favorite bevei pge. When e^r^- wt^re 

worth $1,(H) per dozeiu rosin soap was worth $l,t'0 )ier pound, and 

tsAioij that at this date, would be sold at Prairie dn Chien from 20 

to 25 cts. per yard, was then sold at $3,00 per yard ; clay pipes at 


40 CSL eac^ &iid cucunoc tobacco u; &bo£;t S^OO per pound. So 
nragh &jZT wfta zukie &t PnLrle ^i:i Calen a; tkla time« thai im 
ISO J'OSErH Bjixm: coLtrac:e i "srliji ic GoTemzicnt for supplj- 
iay the two c»?ppa:; es cf :r::5 a: F:»r: Crnrrord w:di it, thej 
pfefcrrlnz riie oarse S:::r ::' :ic Pr:.:r:e -R-Lioh was sweet, to the 
fine fi.-ar traLSj-ortei in keel-hrits :n the l3L j voyage from Pitts- 
lnr]gb, -^rhlch 'xoald be M'ur cr. its ri.riva!. 

Prairie -i Ciien :» ^'c-er^ll/ s^ ..^r^jn ■: d» ai- oM settled town. 
Ills lr-t> :1a: tLe lLdiir.5 inli-'ittd I: iiiar.v vtirs since; and 
aboct the j-jir IToT iLe FroacL ti: .oiishei a traiing post there, 
and bail: h stockade iro^Li ilc^r L .i-idi::^? lo pr.teot them froni. 
the iLdians, and troia tLa: Jav u::::. :i icw vears siiiCi:- i: continued 
to be a trading ULd militarj- j ?". Mii •: .?:\isi« riaiiy a worn out 
voyayevr got n-anied. and sc::!*. .^ I. wl n & j iece .. i land. But 
what adva::tsgei ^vere tLese- oli ::i'iirg posts to the settlement 
and derelopement c:' the countr — such as Dotrc'It, Kaskaakia, 
Cahokia, Vinceaces,S:. Loaic anJ S:. Charges? All thes« placee 
remained stationary for inany year.". ;i:i::l the Americans emigra^^ 
ted to them, and took hold of thc-i:: ^vith their enterprise, when 
they at once improved, and mo9t o: them became places of bnai- 
nesa and importance. 

Indian traders, as a class, ]> sie«b !. ' cnte prise, at It^aat noiit 
that is of any advantage to the settlement aud improTement of 
a country. They are enterprising ia going into the unexplored 
Indian country to traffic, and coiicct furs and peltries; but 
I have never seen a man who made money in the Indian trade, 
apply it to the ordinary improvemen:s that fuster aud encoaraga 
the growth of a country — they have made money in a certaut 
routine of business, with which they are acquainted, and fear to 
invest it in some other business with which they are not fiamiliff ^ 
Such has been the case with Prairie du Ghien, so long noted aa a 
trading post and garrison. 

The land about Prairie du Chieu was not purchased from At 
iBdians ; and none anrrejed, except the private daima on tti 


Prairie, for many yeafs after the Government took ])OSBe88ion of 
it as a military post. There were not, until 1835, ar«y Americana , 
that emigrated to the Prairie for settlement ; and even then, as the 
coantry about was not in market, very lew came, 

In the winter of 1S18-'19, Illiuoi^i was admitted ub a Siaiu into 
the Union, and all that part of the courtry formerly belonyiijg to 
the territories of Indiana and Illinv>id was altaehed tu Michigan, 
then under the governorship of (ion. Lewis Cas;*. Iu the spring 
of 1819, he set off tho county of Brown, including all the country 
East of a North and South line running through the Portage of 
Wisconsin to the Illinois line ; and at the siinie time, set off the 
oonnty of Crawford, including all the country West and South of 
theaforesaid line to the Missouri line, including what is now the 
State of Iowa and Territory of Minnesota. 

Governor Oass sent blank commissions for the different officers 
of the couuiies, to be filled np by the inhabitants. These had 
been tent by Lieut Ool. Lsavenwobtu, then on his way, with the 
Fifth Begioient of U. S. Infantry, to occupy Forts Crawford and 
Armstrong, and to build a fort at the month of St. Peters. Nion- 
ohMM BoiLVDf, £sq., was appointed to administer the oath to the 
officers of Crawford coanty. Two ^companies of the regiment '• 
were aent to Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, under command of ' 
Brevet Major Mastik, and two companies to Fort Crawford nnder 
Major MdULBNBKRG. Shortly after receiving the blank commis- 
sionsi the principal inhabitants assembled at tlie house of Nicho- 
las BoiLviN, Esq.y and then the' difficulty was to find persona 
sufficiently acquainted with the business to fiU'the offices and per* 
form the duties. Finally John W. Johnsoh, the U. S. tac|or, was 
selected as the Chief Justice of the County Coart. I was solici* 
ted to take the office of Associate Justice, or Judge of Probate, '■ > 
bat being then young, and appearing much younger than I really 
was, and knowing very little about the proceedings of courts, and 
thuriring that I had neither the practice aor dignity to hold a ju- 
dicial office, and that I should probably make myself ridiculous, 


I deci:-ei either of the jii-igeshlps, b^t accepted the office of SuMr 
tree of tie Pea.:e. I *■ aJ n :•: then decided to make Prmirie da 
Cbrea r t fz'zre ho::.e, haviriirLMhcr:" 5L»eat mv vintera near the 
he«d f'f S\ Pe*erd rive-, in the Indian trade : bat in the fiill of 
18.9 I ro-ik up mj itnr.&r.en: retridence at Prairie do CbieiL 

Jobs W. Johivsos was a man of g>:d seise and jadgmeDt, but 
had ff...Ti 'j::::e a j'-'^i:-? ma'j 1 rl J ti.e aj-p-vntme-t of U. S. factor, 
and reride-i ia iSc Indian c»a'.ty where he could oStaia but little 
ku'^wled^'v: of thtf i'T**C':**d'"-z^ vf c u-r? -.r the ordioa'-v transao* 
tioni of c'.r.Wz^l life, Th- c Tniiiss'or.s of Ass ciate Justices 
werefii?»rd r:p vitb the naTies of Micjafl Brisb»»is* and FuiLScm 
BoGTHiLUre. bo»h of wln-m from r'^'-vi had been in the Indian 
cou'jtrj ar-d ••a'l very l;:i"e«»p[.'^rt'.::iiV of witiiedsing proceedings 
at cf^urts. WiLTEED OwL>-« was a; poiiittd Judge of Probate, 
and NicriMLAS Ralvis an i John W. Johx^ox and mvself Jasticea 
of the Ptraot;; JodN S. FixDLET clerk of the Cmrt; JoaxP.Oam 
B4:gitU;r of Probate, which al^o iiiclnded the reordit^g of deeda, 
and TiKiM AS McN aib was ap|.x>inTed Sheriff. It should be remom* 
bered, tlmt all the?e otBcera had to inter npou the duties of their 
sertrral ^'fficec without ftirma to refer Vj or precedents of proceed- 
ings, and it can astonish iio )>er8'*n that the records nf that day 
are wirhout uinch furrn. Such was the or;pranization of the county 
of Crawfiird, and I think that the materials iu Browu were not 
much berter, although beveral Americans by that lime hadsettled 
at Green Bay. 

At the se-Bion of Congress of 18 9 — '2^, an act was passed to 
take testim iuy relanvc ti the private land cfuims at Sank St 
HnryA, Mackinaw. O'ven Bay and Prairie dn Ch'en, that were 
reset ved to ontjt^c^s -^f the BnMsh g*)vernment nndcr J/iy*B Treaty; 
and in the fall of 1^20, c>>mrnit«8i<pn('r8 were dispatched to the 
different pTa«-eti to take tesnni.iny. A Mr.^ Lkk came to Piairia 
dn Chit n. The in«>sf of tlHH«* claims at Prairie du Chien were 

Sai^, fiv« the oaow •! XiaBoi.Aa BoiLTOL L.(X9 


found to come under Jay's Treaty, but there were several that 
wanted a year or more of coming under it. These facts being 
reported to Congress, they at a subsequent session passed an act 
giving to eyei*y settler who wa^ in posse^^sion of land at the date 
of the declarationof war in 1812 against Great Britain, and who had 
continued to submit to the laws of the IT. S., tho lands he claimed* 
It is a matter of history, that the Bi itish took Miackinaw and sub- 
jected its dependencies to their government, ipcluding all the afore 
named places, and the most part of these claimants were ignorant 
Canadians and supposed themselves British subjects, not aware 
that if they did not within a year choose, as stipulated in the 
treaty, to continue British subjects, they became American citi- 
Eens; and when the Britisli government took military possession 
of the country during the war of 1812— M5, the military officers 
in command considered them as British subjects, and ordered 
them to do milit^iry duty as militia. They were a conquered peo- 
ple, and feeling tha tthey owed no allegiance to the Unired States, 
took up arms in obedience to the orders of the British officers* 
There were some among them intelligent enough to know their 
position, but had they claimed to be American citizens and re- 
fused to take up arms, surrounded as they were by hostile Indi- 
ans, they would not have been safe — especially as the British 
officers did not believe in a British subject expatriating himself 
and of course there was no law of the United States in the con- 
quered country to submit to. Notwithstanding all these circum- 
stances being known to the officers of the army stationed atSault 
Bt. Marys under Major Cdtleu, they got up a rem:>iistrauce to the 
Qovernment, representing these people as traitors; in consequence 
of which the patents were delayed, to the great annoyance and 
sometimes to the great injury of the claimants. 

Sometime in the year of 1820, * Wilfbbd Owkns of Prairie du 
Ohien, then c<mnected in business with the late Oov. MoNais, of 


* It WM io 1810. CostTiurv A . Awsuin, wlio appcftn to hMf be«B fimm PraniijivAota, ftad «■■ l» 
iw i ^i hi th« Oftrver eUIn, wrote from Pmirfo do Chfeo, Tt^ 1. ISlOrto Rot. Dr. Samvkl Pkti 
V Mi BOW boUdlag o lovisUI la compooj with Batilu, em ToQow Rlror, ondir • 


Missouri, furnished the capital, and associated with two other 
men by the name of Andrews and Dixon, built a saw-mill on 
Black River, and commenced sawing lumber ; but before they 
had done much business the mill was burned, supposed to have 
. been set on fire by the Winnebagoes, who had then lately taken 
possession of that country, and claimed it as their own. The mill 
was not rebuilt, owing to the declared hostility of the Winneba- 
goes to it. 

In the year 1820-'21, the county authorities of Crawford erected 
a jail in the old village of Prairie du Ghien, in the rear of village 
lot No. 17 of tliat village, made of hewn oak logs of about one 
foot square ; the house was about 25 by 16 feet, and divided by 
the same kind of logs into a debtors' and criminals' apartments*. 

There is a tract of land nearly opposite the old village of Prai- 
rie du Ohieu in Iowa, which was granted by the Spanish Lieut. 
Governor of Louisiana to one Bazil Girard, and running 
through it, was a small stream or brook usually called Qirard'a 
Greek ; but, in 1823, the commandant of Fort Crawford had 
a party of men detailed to cultivate a public garden on the 
old farm of Girard, on paid creek, and Martin Scott, then a 
Lieutenant of the fifth infantry, and stationed at Fort Crawford, 
was directed to superintend the party. Fond of pliooting, and a 
igreat shot generally, he took his dogs and gun every morning, got 
into his little hunting canoe, and ppent the day in shr»oting wood- 

Uined from tbc cuinuiaading oflicer. ^ • • For mj oh-d iiart, 1 apprcheDd no diffiealty. If y^tt 
obtain p«»nni«»ion from the Sorretary of War, and can niak«> tb«m [the IndLin*] gome presontt.** Ob 
"ttio 10th Not. 1810, Mr Aitdrkwd writes to Dr. Pkthih, from " Falls Rlack nircr :" On the Id daj «f 
MoTember I swt a saw.mlll a running, not much inferior to anj in tho United Etatei. * * TIm bIU 
ia about thirty or forty miles eaat of Lake Pepin. The Sioux >pry 'v»illin>;Iy (;ave uh permis-sioa to eoa» 
Iwr^ There wereicven chiofn In conncil — LtroT not there ; the jieren jfave on five years ; Lkfot evat 
back after, and trave it forayer. 1 am yerj mach pleased with my situation. I was obliged, on acMiBl 
of iron, to go to the Prairie once, but was overjoy rd on my at rival l>ack, and now repret to leave »|^t 
of the mill." • * # Here I am happy to live— here T nni willing to die. Pee Km. State Papers Ptablle 
Lands, IV. p. 2^ L. 0, A. 

* At this old log jail, a sergeant of the first regiment of U. S. Infantry wai hung, in 1828, for thMl- 
Ing Lieut. McKitckie of the same r«*giment ; and in I8:i3 or *84, a soldier of that rcglmant waa esccylli 
^ibUftt for shooting Serg«ant Coppt'v In the new Fort Crawfnrd. Tbo old jail was bnmt in 1834. 


cocks which were plenty in the marshes ahont there, and return- 
ing in the erening wonld boast of the namber that had bled thAt 
day. After a while he gave the creek the name of Bloody Hun^ 
which name it still bears. The name generally suggests to 
strangers the idea of some bloody battle haying been fongkt 
there, and I have been frequently questioned as to the tradition 
relative to it, and a few years since the editor of our village 
paper had somewhere picked up the same romantic idea, and 
published a long traditionary account of a bloody battle pretended 
to have been fought there years ago. But the creek is indebted 
for its name to the hunting exploits of Major Mabtik Scott, when 
a lieutenant, and stationed at Fort Crawford'^. 

On the 16th of September, 1816, 1 arrived at Prairie du Cbien, 
a traders' village of between twenty-five and thirty houses, situa- 
ted on the banks of the Mississippi, on what, in high water, is an 
island. The houses were built by planting posts upright in Ij^e 
ground with grooves in them, ro that the sides could be filled in 
witli split timber or round poles, and then plastered over with 
clay, and white-washed with a white earth found in the vicinity, 
and then covered with bark, or clap-boards riven from oak. 

This village, now called the old village of Prairie du Chieni 
was designated by Lyons as the main village, as it was so at the 
time he surveyed the private land claims of Prairie du Chien. — 
Tradition says the place took its name from an Indian Chief of the 
Fox tribe by the name of Cbien, or Doffj who had a village some- 
where on the Prairie near where Fort Crawford now stands. — 
Obibn or Doff is a favorite namo among the Indians of the North- 

* Scott, at thi« date, iru « young man. and had bc«>n but a few yoAif in the armr. U« was a nattf* 
of Bcnnin(;ton, Yennont, and waa adacated at W'^nt Point. In h\n 3'outh, lie was famnutf among tlM 
akarp-ahooteni of the Oreen Mountatai, nvnr shoAting gania in the body, bnt, at whaterer height or 
4iatancc, always strlliing the head. He would drive a nail into a board p.%rt way with a hamnior, ani 
HMn, taking the flirth^st dlatance at whl<*h his eye could diritln«'tly Pce it. drive it home with his nn«r> 
jtef boUet. Ue itrTed with distinction in th« Mexioan war under Qen. Scott, and at nearly tha dMi 
•f that brilliant campaign, Breret Lient. Col. Mautix Scott was killed at the sangninary battle cf 
Vdlliio del Rey, Sept. 8th, 1847. He had wen mncb hard service, and alwajs condacted hhoaelf wltb 
gmA ekiU, cantion and Intmpldi^, ud waa rtspedod and belored for his fotefritj of cbftrMter, iMi 
for hia great kindness and benerolenee of heart. L. 0. D. 


There were on the Prairie about forty farms cultivAted along 
under the bluffs where the soil was first rate, and eocloeed in one 
common field, and the boundaries generally between tiiem marked 
by a road that afforded them ingress and egress to their fields; the 
pLintations running from the bluffs to the Mississippi, or to the 
slough of St. Frei/le, and from three to five arpents wide. The 
owners did not generally live immediately on their farms, but 
clustered together in little villages near their front, and 
were much the same description of inhabitants as those of G-reen 
Bay, except that there were a number of families of French ex- 
traction, entirely unmixed with the natives, who came from the 
French villages of Illinois. The farmers' wives instead of being 
of the Indian tribes about, were generally of the mixed blood. — 
They were living in Arcadian biujplicity, spending a great part of 
their time in fishing, hunting, horse racing or trotting, or in danc^ 
ing and drinking. They had little or no ambiti ai for progress 
and improvement, or in any way bettering their condition, pwvi- 
ded their necessities were suppl ed, and they could often collect 
together and da^ce and fnilic. With these wants gratified, thej 
were perfectly satisfied to continue in the same routine and habits 
of their forefathers before them. Tliey had no aristocracy among 
them except the traders, who were regarded as a privileged dase. 

It was said, that about 18i)9 or 1810, a trader, an Irishman bj 
birth, oi the name of Campbkll, was appointed by the U. S. gOT" 
erument bub-Lidian agent at Prairie du Chien, and by the Oct* 
eruor of the Territory ut Illinois a Justice of the Peace. The 
currency of Prairie du Chien was at that time flour, and Camp- 
bkll charged for celebrating the rites of matrimony 100 poundt 
of flour, and for dissolving it 20ij pounds, alleging Uiat when peo- 
ple wanted to get unniarried, they would willingly give double 
what they would originally to form the matrimonial connectLon. 

In speaking of the ctmrts of justice of the country, and of their 
county seat8, Mr. Brisbois related to me, that sometime prcvione 
to the war of 1812, he and Mr. Campbiall had a dispute about e 
heiier that was worth lit the time perhaps eight dollars ; and ■• 


eteh beliered it to be his property, they applied to the lawyer at 
Oahokia to a^aiat them in finding out who was the real owner. — 
The mode of traveling in those days was in a canoe, manned 
with six or eight men to paddle, and taking with them some flonr, 
tea and engar for the bnrgeois; and some hnlled com and deer 
tallow, enough to season the sonp for the men, depending npon 
shooting game by the way, or buying wild fowl or venison from 
the Indians. The parties litigant were obliged to take their wit- 
nesses with them, paying them for their time and expenses, from 
their departure until their return home. The parties were also 
obliged to take a bundle of beaver skins, and dispose of them at 
St. Louis to pay the expenses of lawyers, &c ; and the lawj ers, 
as usual, were disposed to oblige the parties by putting over the 
case from time to time, .and the parties continued the suit in this 
manner until it had cost them about fifteen hundred dollars each, 
when they took it out of court and settled it. But whicu retail^ 
ed the heifer, if I ever heard, I do not now recollect. 

The coutume de Paris so far prevailed in this country gener- 
ally« that a part of the ceremony of marriage was the entering 
into a contract in writing, generally giving, if no issue, the pro- 
perty to the survivor ; and if they desired to be divorced, they 
went together before the magistrate and made known their wishes, 
and he, in their presence, tore up the mairiage contract, and ac* 
cording to the custom of the country, they were then divorced. I 
was once present at Judge Abbott's at Mackinaw, when a couple 
presented themselves before him, and were divorced in this man- 
Ber. When the laws of Michigan were first introduced at Prairie 
da Chien, it was with difficulty that the Justice of the Peace 
eonld pnrsuade them that a written contract was not necessary, 
and some of them believed that because the contract of marriage 
gave the property to the survivor, that they were not obliged to 
pay the debts which the deceased owed at the time of his death. 

There was an instance of this at Prairie du Chien. A man 
t>y the name of Jean Mabie Qusn (de Lamonche), who had been 

• 182 

married bj contract, died without ieaue, learing a widow, aome 
personal property and a good farm, bnt was indebted to JosvB 
JEtoLSTTfi about $300, which bis widow pay, allegiiig 
.that the contract of marriage gave her all the property ; acir 
could she be convinced to the contrary, untfl I had brought a tint 
against her and obtained a judgment. 

"When I arrived at Prairie du Chien, there were four companies 
of riflemen under command of Brevet Major Morgan, building 
the old fort, which was constructed by placing the walls of the 
quarters and storehouses on the lines, the highest outside, and 
the slope of the roof descending within the f>rt; with block* 
houses at two corners, and large pickets at the others, so as en- 
tirely to enclose the fort. Joun W. Johnson, a gentleman from 
Maryland, was XJ. S. Factor, with a certain Mr. Belt as assistant 
and book keeper, and John P. Gates as interpreter. CoL Alsx- 
#1NDER MoNatb, late Governor of Miesouri, had the sailing of the 
fort, and his nephew, Thomas MoNair, and John L. FiHDi.Err, 
were the clerks in his employ, and liad charge of the businesB. 

There were then of the old traders residing at Prairie da Chien 
Joseph Rolette, MicHAtL Bitisnois, Francis Bodthillies and 
Jean Baptiste Farribault, all Canadians of French extraction, 
except Francis Bouthillter who wns from France, and Nicholas 
Boilvin who was Indian agent, and held the comMiission of Jus- 
tice of the Peace under the government of Illinois Territory, 
whence be came. 

At this time at Prairie da Chien the events of the war of 181S 
in that quarter, were fresh in the minds of every one. I learned 
that in the spring or sunmrer of 1814, the IT. S. Government sent 
' boats, made bullet proof, under a Captain Ybisbr, who was i& 
command of the boats, and a company of U. S. troops, under 
Lieut. Perkins, to take and retain possession of Prairie dii Ohion. 
Perkins built a stockade on a large mound, on which Ck>L I>oo9- 
han's house now stands, and Capt. Yriseb remained on bo&rd the 


. bp^t8» wbcre xmwt of the amaiiitioii and provisionB were stored, 
f^ tbeir waa no room for them within the stockade. 

Soon after the breaking out of the war, when the American 
offleers in garrison at Mackinaw, and the citizens of that place 
'Were yet ignorant of the oommencement of hostilities, but appre- 
henslFe that war had been declared, some traders were despatched 
to the old British post and settlement of St. Josephs, on the eas- 
tern shore of Lake Michigan, for intelligence. As none of the 
traders returned, remaining absent so' much longer than was 
deemed necessary, it naturally enough excited the suspicions of 
the commanding ofiScer and the principal citizens of Mackinaw. 
Under the circumstances, a council was held, ^t which it was de- 
termined that immediate information must be had from St. Jo- 
sephs, and the question then was, who could go there and not be 
anapected ot being a spj. Afler looking around and finding none 
qualified to go, the late Miohael Dousmak, of Mackinaw, said that 
he had an outfit in Lake Superior that ought, by that time, to be 
at St. Josephs, and he thought that he could go there and look 
after his property without being suspected. Accordingly he rol- 
unteered his services, and late in the afternoon he left Mackinaw 
for St. Josephs in a canoe. Abont dark, at Goose Island, fifteen 
miles from Mackinaw, he met the British troops on their way to 
that place, who took him prisoner, btit released him on his parole 
that ho would g^^ back to Mackinaw, and not give the garrison 
any information of what he had seen, but collect the citizens to- 
gether at the old still-house on the southern side of the island, 
where a guard would be immediately sent to protect them from 
the Indians. This promise Mr. Doitsman faithfully performed, 
and was probably the cause of saving many an innocent family 
fVom being brutally murdered by the savages. Tne British ar- 
yiyed, planted their cannon during the night, and in the morning 
sent in to the commanding officer a copy of the declaration of 
iffBT, with a demand for him to surrender, which he complied with* 

The traders in the British interest, resorting to Mackinaw as the 
head-quarters of the North- West, learning of the Ameri- 



can occopation of Prairio dn Ohien in 1814, and anticipating, tfiat 
80 long as this force should remain there, thej wonld be cnt ofi 
from the trade of Prairie du Chien, its dependencies, and tfaa 
Sioux country, at once set on foot au expedition for the re-eaptnit 
of that place. The British officers and traders accordingly fittsd 
out an expedition under the command of Gol. McKat, of thela- 
dian department, an old trader ; and under him were, a sergeant 
of artillery with a brass six pounder,. and three or four volanteer 
companies of the Canadian voyageura^ commanded by traders and 
officered by their clerks, all dressed in rod coats, with probably 
one hundred Indians, officered by half-breeds. * Having made a 
secret march they arrived on the Prairie without being expected, 
and made the best display of red coats and Indians that thej 
could. They made a formidable show, and the Americans not 
knowing of what matei ials they were composed, and sappoaing 
they were all British regulars, appeared to have been panio- 
struck. The sergeant had brought his field piece so well to bear 
that ho hit one of the boats, I believe the one YmskX waa in. 
During this time the troops and Indians had madea movetowardi 
the fort, but keeping out of gun shot. On the boat being hit^ 
Capt. Yeiseu had the cable cut, and swung round *down theriver^ 
ordetitig the others to do the same, carrying with them the pro- 
visions and amunitiun of the garrison. After the boats hadgon6| 
Col. MoKa.t summoned the fort to surrender, and having neither 
provisions nor amunition they had no other alternative, and ac- 
cordingly surrendered. The British took and kept possessioa of 
Prairie du Chien until peace, in 1815, thus opening the Indiaa 
trade to the traders at Mackinaw. The inhabitants of Prairie da 
Chien being British subjects, were ordered into service by the 
Biitish government to do duty in the garrison durii.g the watt 
The British sergeant of artillery for hitting the keel-boat, waa pco* 
moted by his government. 

Of the persons spoken of as resident traders of Prairie du CShiai^ 

•Thar* were «! leMi a ttaooMad lodtou vndar OdL MoKaT, m itaM la ttie MoewHp af fkm 
asdnotleMUiMiiluMikiMMof UghiMittlHy. • UftiH 


JofEPH BoLKTTi^ ID coooexioD with the Indian trade, carried on 
faraiingi after the faahion of the conn try, pretty exteuBively. 
MiOHAXL Bbibbois, beaides being a trader, carried on tlie buHineea 
of baking, and farming to some extent, receiving of the inhabi- 
tants l(Mi pounds of flour and giving in return tickets for fifty 
loftTea of bread, and these tickets made a convenient change to 
boy trifles of the Indians with. None of the inhabitaiUs pre- 
tended to make their own bread, but depended entirely upon* the 
bake house. Jsak BaftibtsFarbibault did something in the line 
of Indian trade, and carried on a small farm, but soon after left 
the Prairie to reside on the St. Peters Biver. * 

Among the other inhabitants of notoriety at that tii^e, was a 
Mrs. MsNARD, of mixed African and white blood. She came 
from some one of the French villages below, and was then mar- 
ried to OuABLEs Mkkabd, a Canadian of French extraction. She 
had been married twice previously, first to a man by the name of 
Du Chouqubitb, by whom she had two sons, one of whom was in 
the employ of Mr. Astob in that unfortunate expedition of his 
ten tin 1810 by sea and across the continent to the mouth of the 
Oolumbia Biver, now Oregon Territory. Her next husband waa 
named Oaonikr, by whom she had three sons and three daughters. 
After Gaonibb's death, she married Chablks Mknabd, by whom 
ahe had three sons and two daughters. She was generally called 
by the inhabitants Aunt Mabt Anh, and was a person of conse- 
quence among them, being midwife, and the only person pre- 
tending to a knowledge of the healing art Until a fort was 
erected at Prairie du Chien, and a surgeon arrived there with ihe 
troops, she wa** sent for by the sick, and attended them as regularly 
as a physician, and charged fees therefor, giving them, as she ex- 
inressed it, ^^ device and yarb drink." She was an excellent nurse, 
and even after there were regular surgeons of the army stationed 
at Fort Crawford, Maby Ahn continued to practice among 'he in- 

• W« li«ra Imm tlic AduIh off tte MfainMnU Hittoiir&l Sodciy, tbat •* rulj •> lfe(6. kAhi iJi/ilt 
iipp«MJt« >>cDdota, MlBMMto. tiadliif ^Itfc Um ImUiimi; and, la If £2, be Icined one of Um 
of tha CoIubUa rw Co»i«iir oi MlBBtwU. WnmJMmAnmUn BM» P9cpm% 


habitants. Whether they employed her because they bad nioire 
faith in lier ekill, or because they could pay her with more ea86| 
as she took lier pay in the produce of the country, but was not 
very modest in her charges, I cannot with certainty state ; and 
frequently aUur the arnjy physician had attended a patient along 
tiiUL', who pc»rhap9 for want of good nursing could not be cured 
Mary Ann would take the patient home with her, and by the 
force of ^ood nursing and '' yarb drink " restore him to health, so 
that we IVequently joked the physician about Mary Ann's supe- 
rior fikill ill the healing art. There are at this time many of 
her (losvcndants residing at Prairie du Ohien, who are generally 
as industrious and orderly inhabitants as any others. 

Mr. Gampj^ell, of whom I have previously made mention as 
Indian Agent and J nstice of the Peace, had passed to his long 
home before I came to the country, and I found a Canadian of 
French extraction by the name of Nicholas BoiLvra clothed with 
the dignified office of Sub-Agent and Justice of the Peace. He 
had ai)out the same amount of education as Judge Bkaumb of 
Green Bay, previously spoken of, and about the same idea of jus- 
tice, and was nearly as arbitrary. Ilis law library consisted of 
a single volume of old statutes of the North Western Territory, 
one of Illinois, and one of the Missouri Territory ; but in decid- 
ing cases he paid no attention to the statute, but decided accord- 
ing to his own idea of right and wrong. •^* 

* CoL BoiLvu'u trio vnlunjes fonm-u proUiUjr the fint law librarj in WUeozuio, exotpi 

Judge Keacmic'a HiDgU- volui.ii- vl Bl.ii-kstonc ; one of wUich ia now , bj the courtesy vt Judge LocKWOOO 

ftmoag tlM cttllertloiui of the WK Hl^t. Sodcty. lie did not proliablj often consult th«m. If w« ma; 

judgo Irnm hii oIT-buid numnrr of aduiiuigtcring justice, as related by Ura. KiauiK in her TTeu JJmn 

<*Col. Uoilvik's oirico was juAt without the waUs oi the fort at Prairie du Chion, and it wua much tiu 

fiuhion among the officers to louotte in tliero of a morning, to find iporl for an Idle hour, and to take a ' 

glaiia of brauily and water witlx thu old gentleman, which he eallod takung > iitti^ 4 fiffjntykmm * ▲ - 

•oldii-r, uanu'il Fuv, had Ueu accu5eU of htealing and killing a calf belonging to U. Kolettb, and the 

eonatable, a bricklayer of the name of Bill, had been didpatched to arrest the culprit and bring him to 

trial. While the gentlemen were making their coatomaxy morning yiait to the Jaattoi^ a note IM 

heard in the entry, and a knock ut the door. 

< Gome in/ oricd the old gentleman, rieing and walking towaid the door. 
Bell — Here. kIi. I havp brought Fky to you, aa you ordsred. 
JuMtke^Vn'T, yon great rascal f What for yon kill M. RoLcm*B calf? 
i>»^ did Mt kUI M EQuna's ealL 

•/luUbe— {shaking his flat) Tou lie, you great rascal 1 Biu. tike him to laiL Com^ a^^^H^ 
WM^idwUtkeaMUivapie'ehoH.'' *^ ^^ L. Oil™ ' 



C!oL Alkxaitdsr MoNais of St. Loaia, had, as already mention, 
ed, for his clerks in the sutling buBiuefis, hid nephew TnoHAs Mo- 
Nair, afterwards captain of the militia, and John L. Fuydlet. — 
Bat Thomas McNaiu shortly afterwards married a daughter of 
Mr. CuHTOis, a respectable farmer of French descent, and Futdlet 
married a Miss Huktileksk, a half sister of Mrs. Bolettk, and a 
quarter blood of the Sioux nation. Upon learning these transac- 
tions of his clerks, Col. MoNaik naturally concluded that they 
were attending more to their own })lea6nre than to his mattery 
and sent a man by iliKi name of Wilfkkd Owkics, a KeutuckiaUi 
to whom he gave an interest in the business, and discharged Mo- 
Naib and Findlkt from his employ. 

McNaib went to farming. Findlkt went te Mackinaw, and 
procured, by the assistance of Mr. Eolkite, a small assort- 
ment of goods, and attempted to trade at Prairie du Ohien ; but 
as there was then no money in circulation, except what little came 
from the few troops stationed at the fort, and goods were then 
selling vnry high at Mackinaw, he did not succeed in busiaesa, 
and before the close of the year turned oyer to Mr. Kolette hia 
Btock and assets towards the payment of the purchase, which was 
made of Messrs. BEBTUELoriE and Eolettk. 

In the spring of 1817, a Euman Catholic Priest from St. Lonii 
called Peee Pbikhe, visited Prairie du Chien. He was the first 
that had been there for many years, and perhaps since the settle- 
ment, and organized the Eoman Gathlic Church, and disturbed 
some of the domestic arrangements of the inhabitants. He found 
several women who had left their husbands and were living with 
other men ; these he made by the terror of his church to return 
and ask pardon of their husbands, and to be taken batk by them, 
wliich they of course could not refuse. 

Brevet General Smythe, the Colonel of the Eifle Eegiment, 
who came to Prairie du Ohien to erect Fort Crawford in 1816, 
had arrived in June, and selected the mound where the stockade 
had been built, and the ground in front, to include the most thidk- 


ly inhabited part of the Tillage. The grotrnd thus selected en- 
croached upon the ancient burying ground of the Prairie, so that 
the iuhabitaetB were obliged to remove their dead to another 

During the winter of 1816 or early in the spring of 18l7,Lieat 
Ool. Talbot Chambbrb arrived at Fort Crawford, and assumed thtt 
command, and tho houses in the village being an obstrnction to 
the garrison, in the spring of 18 17, he ordered those houses in front 
and about the fort to be taken down by their owners, and removed 
to the lower end of the village, where he pretended to give them 
lots. When Gen. Smythr first arrived at Prairie du Ohien, ha 
arrested Miohakl Bbisbois, then the most prominent citizen of the 
Prairie, nnd placed him under a guard of soldiers for several 
days, charging him with treason^ for having taken nparmsagunat 
the United States. After keeping him in duress for several 
days, he was sent on board of a boat under a guard to Sl X<(»ui8^ 
Oen. Smtthk refusing to let Mrs. Bbisbois send Ler husband a 
-package of beaver to raise money in St. Louis to pay bis ex- 
penses. The guard took him to St. L'>ui3 and landed him on the 
levee, where they left him, not having delivered him over to the 
civil authorities, or instituti'd any proceedings againut him, bat 
left him thero without money or means to return home. But Mr. 
Bbisbois was known in St. Lrmis, at least by reputation, and 
readily iound fiicnds who assistt^d him to return home. During 
his alienee the commandant, who I believe was Lieut. Ool. Halt* 
ILTON, c»rdered Mrs. Bkisbois and family out of her hou^e, and 
took possesniiiU of it, in which to spread the contractor's fl^inr to 
dry; and also to ik posisession of Mr. Bkisbois' bakehouse, with 
about two hundred cordd of dry oven wood, which was used hj 
the coiniiiirt}«arjy or contractor, for which aggressions and injiirici 
Mr. IJki>bois received no compensatic»n. 

Alth*n;;li i*i a time of peace, and our Government had received 
thH country by treary stipulation, the officers of the army treated 
the inhabit ante aa a conqaered people, and the commaudaote a^ 


turned all the authority of goyeraorB of a conquored conntry < 
arraigning and trying the citizens by conrts-inartia), and Bentencing 
them to ignominious punishments. Tiiis was more paiticularly 
the case Uiider the reign of Col. Chambers, who was a brave sol- ' 
dier in the field, but a weak man and not qualified for a comman- 
dant, as ho was generally governed by some favorite officer or 
oiBcers, who not being rofc^ponsiblo tor the outrage committed by 
their flnperior, would induce him to do acts to gratify their whima 
or })r( j')(li(;ccA. 

Chahlks Mknakd, the husband of the notable Mauy Ann, waa 
arnsted, having been 'iluirged wiih selling vvhibkey to the Foldiers, 
He was^bn»ught about i!vt; milfs from hi? residence ULder a guard* 
tric'l by ji conrt martiiil, \vhif»pe(l, and with'ii bottle hung to his 
neck, inarched through thv stretts, wiih music playing the Rogu^B 
March affer him. Mknard pn.^U sted tliat ho had not pr)I(I liquor 
to the sohlit'is, but that ihey ha<l asked him for i^, and that he 
rtfu»rtd to lut them have any, as h«j did not keep liquor for sale. 

Arid durir gCol. Chambiks' reign, fur some alleged immoral con- 
ducr h '■ ')a »iHii id Joskpu R)L':rihi to an isUirid, about seven miles 
abc>Vf Prairie* du Chie'», where ho obliged him to pass the winter, 
but in the npring pennitred \\\\\\ to return to the viiljige'to attend 
to his business, as his outfits were coming in from the Indian 

Mr. Bri-b«»is informed me that he had resided in Prairie du 
Chien about thirty jears ; * and there was an old Scotchman by 
the natiMj <»f Jami s Aikd, f conriccted with the comj)any by which 
I was first omp'oyt'd in tlu; Indian trade, who generally wintered 

* • llr BniBwoia. in 182« gare evidence Icfnre Mr. Lxc, the government commlw'i'ner, that he had 
W«B thitt>*nlri«> >earii in the ciiuntrr, and vra^ then sixty years o( age; and tbia woald give the year 
Yt%\ aa the ;«sr of his cuniiitg to Ftiiiiio du (.'hleo. L. C. D. 

f llr. At: D wan (tnm Maeklnaw and wake worthy man and eDterprisiof trader. BU fleld of operalioaa 
VM Mainly «itli tlie Sioux or Dak*ttae, in wliitt U now Iowa and Miunei-ota. On the return of Ltwil 
ftiMl CLjikkV « x| edition in 18A the^ oset .^r. AiRu with two trading boats above the Big Sioax Klvtf, 
•tt tlw MieM»uri; and in their Journal Uiey speak of him u **• very friendly and liberal genticmaa." 
Ib \^i% be liad a trading post at >leadot«. L. 0. D. 



among the Sionx Indiane, and had been a trader about forty yean^ 
There was also another man by the name of Ddnoan Graham, irho 
had been engaged in the Indian trade about the same length of 
time, and was captain in the liritish Indian Department during 
the war, from whom I obtained considerable information of the 
Indian country, and of the earlier days of Prairie dn Chien. 

Prairie du Ohien was, at this lime, an important post for Indian 
trade, and was considered by tho Indians as neutral ground, where 
different tribes, althougli at war nu'^ht visit in safety ; but if hos- 
tile, they had to bewaro of being canght in the neigfi box hood, 
going or returning. Ytt I nevtr heard c>f any hostile move- 
ment on the Prairie after they luid eafdy arrived. » 

The factories which John W. Johnson liad charge of, were es- 
tablished by an act of Congress i>revious to tho war of 1812, fof 
the humane purpose of preventing tho British tiadois from extor* 
tions on tho Indians, and of counteracting British infiueuce over 
them, which they exercised through tho traders. But nnforta- 
nately tliey had the contrary effect, and through the bad manage- 
ment of the traders, the Government of tho United States wai 
made to appear contemptible in the eyes of the Indians. The idea 
was then prevalent in the U. S., that the most sleazy and cheap 
goods were what tho Indians wanted, whereas the blankets fur- 
nished by the British traders, although of coarse wool, were thick 
and substantial, and so were the cloths and calicoes, while those 
famished by the Americans were greatly inferior. It was many 
years before Mr. Astor, with all his wealth and eagacity, could ob- 
tain in England suitable blankets and cloths for the Indian trade, 
and also the proper guns. There was, at that time, an Indian gon 
manufactured in England, called the North West gun, of simplei 
plain and strong construction, and it was understood that the 
manufacture of blankets, cloths and gnns was so much under the 
influence of the North West Fur Company, that an American 
could not procure the genuino article, and hence the goods fo^ 
aiahed by the factors were all of an inferior artiele, ezoept 


tobacoo; aad the British traders took especial pains when they ) 
happened to have a poor article, to call it American. They ^• 
had been furnisbed for many years with their tobacco from Al- • 
bany, an inf<:;rior article, made into carruts of from two to three 
pounds; and whon the American tobacco in plugsS, and of a toler- 
able gOi)d quality, was introduced umrng them, they admitted 
that it w:;s the best. 

When I tirat came to the country, it was the practice of the old 
traders and interpreters to call any inferior article of goods Amer- 
ican, and to speak to the Indians in a conteniptuons manner of the 
Americans and their goodt^, and the goods which they brought in- 
to the country but too generally warranted this reproach. But 
after Mr. Astor had purchased out the South West Company and 
established tho American Fur Company, ho succeeded in getting 
suitably kinds of goods for the Indians, except at first the North- 
West Indian gnu. He attempted to introduce an imitation of 
them, manufactured in Holland, but it did not succeed, as the In- 
dians soon detected the liifference. 

At that time there were generally collected at Prairie du Chien 
by the traders and U. S. factors, about three hundred packs of one 
hundred pounds each of furs and peltries, mostly fine furs. Of the 
different Indian tribes that visited and traded more or less at 
Prairie du Chien, there were the Menomonees from Green Bay, 
who frequency wintered on the Mississippi ; the Ohippewas, who 
resided on the head waters of the Chippewa and Black rivers ; the 
Foxes, who had a large village where Cassville now stands, called 
Penah—i. e. Turkey ; the Sauks, who resided about Galena and 
Dabnque; the Winuebagoes, who resided on the Wisconsin River; 
thefiowas, who then had a village on the Upper Iowa River ; Wa- 
BAflHAw's band of Sioux, who resided on a beautiful Prairie on the 
Iowa side of the Mississippi, about one hundred and twenty miles 
abiive Prairie du Ohien, with occasionally a Kickapoo and Potta- 

'Qi4 Banks and Foxes brought from Galena a considerable quan- 


tity of lead, moulded in the earth, in bard about two feet long, 
and from six to eight inches wide, and from two to four inches 
thick, being something ol an oval form, and thickest in the mid- 
dle, and geni^rally thinning to the e<lge, and weighing tVom thirtj 
to forty p'Unds. It was not an nncannnon thii'g to tee a Fox 
Indian arrive at Prairio du Oliit n with a hand sled, londeJ with 
twenty (ir thirty wild tuikii-s t'<r sale, aa llu^y were very plenty 
about CaSBville, and occasionally there were sunie killed opposite 
Pi-airij du Chien. 

About the year 1822, a nian by the name of IlARniN Pkrkin8, 
from Kentucky, camo to Pra'rio du Chien for the pnr|)09e of 
bnilding a sawmill in the Indian country, and obtained I'errnia- 
Bion fro»n Mji jor Taliafkhro, then iiuent for the Sioux Indiane, 
wiih the coiiFciit of the ludiMny, to erect a sawmill on their land 
on the Chi|»j'ewa river and trihutariea; hut: Pkkkins not having 
the capital to carry out hi.-* proje'.-t, or sufficient influence to ob- 
tain the I ernjission of the Indiar.s to erect this mill, solicited 
JosKrii TtoLKiTK an<] myflelf to join him, which wc did, and C'»n- 
tracted with Wabasuaw's band of S'oux, who cluimed the 
Chipj)e\va River countrj^ for the privilege of erecting a mill and 
cutting timber for it, pajing them about $lOl)0 per year in goiids, 
and furnicihed Perkins the necissary mear>B f>r the purpose; and 
he wa^ to take charge of and conduct the business. lie pro- 
ceeded to Mi-nomouee River, a tributary of thoChipfjewa, and oa 
a small stream running into the Menominee, about twenty m'des 
from its mouth, erected a saw mill and had it so near done that 
he expected t<i commence sawing in a very few days, when one of 
those sudden frechetri to which hilly countries are subject, came 
upon him and swept away the dam, mill ad appendages, and 
Pkkkins returned to Prairie du CUien with his family and handsy 
having suiTered during hid residence there c^j^nsiderable from fear 
of the Chippewa Indians who resided near, and sometimes visited 
the mill builders. 

Ool. Sj^sluno, who oommanded at Fort Snelliogy had freqnaotlf 


since Pbbkins and his men commenced oporationb, threaten^ to 
send a force and doitri>7 the niill, Baying the Indian Agent had no 
authority fogiv^o permidPion tu build mills in the Indian country* 
Thd parties bein^ pretty wl*II convinced of the fact, and that 061. 
Bkklliiyo hud malice cnongh to carry out his threat, if for nothing 
olse but to [iuiiish Mr. RoLGxrE, with whom he had somediificnltji 
concluded not to rebuild, until they oonld be authorized by some 
better authority, supposing then that the Secretary of War had 
that power; and Mr. Eolkttb and myself made up our minds to 
pockut the loss, and lot Perkins off with the loss of the few arti- 
cles lie had furnished and his services, which amounted to about 
fifteen hundred doliard. Ic proved a bad speculation to all par- 
ties. Tlie aimuity we agreed to pay the Indians for the privilege 
of building thu uiill and cutting timber, being stopped during the 
tiuie there wiis no work on the mill, the Indians insisted upon its 
payment, and inquired the reason we did notgoonwiththe work* 
We were obbgiul to tell them that their Great Father would not 
allow us to du so. They said they had given us permission, and 
that the country was theirt^, and their Great Father had uo right 
to say anything about it. 

In the fall of f829, returning from St. Louis, I met at Galena 
llajor John Biddlk of Dotroit, who had then been elected onr 
delegate to Congress from Michigan, and enquired what he could 
do for me, or the people of Prairie du Ohien at Washmgton. I 
then related to him the situation in which I and Mr. Rolkttib were 
placed with regar i to tiie mill and annuities to the Indians. He 
told me that when I got home, if I would address him at Wash* 
iiigton, stating our case, that he would attend to it. I wn»te to 
him a full statement of the case aud difficulties, and Major BmoLi 
obtained fv>r us tVom the Secretary of War permission to erect 
millt^, &c., provided We contracted with the Indians through tho 
Indian Agent ut Prairie du Chieu. 

We renewed cmr contract with the Indfans, through their agenti^ 
and in May, 1880, sent a mill-right who was also a partner, a sa- 


perinteudent, carpenter and blacksmith, with laborers, proviaions, 
. teams, and tools, to erect a mill on the Obippewa River or its 
tribataries. The mill-right selected the site of the old dam of 
«PftRKiNB for his dam, and built the mill on the Menotnonee River, 
and dug a canal across a point of land from the small stream to 
the mill. The hands we were obliged to employ were moaUy 
Canadians, and we engaged the wife of one of them, a Menomonee 
half breed, as cook for the hands. Few Americans can manage 
the Canadian voyagewra to advantage. They suppose that they 
must be treated with the same familiarity as American laborers, 
and reason them into doing their duty ; but this is not the proper 
treatment. The voyageur has been so long accustomed to look 
npon his employer as his superior, and to be treated by him aa 
hia inferior, that so soon as he is treated as American hands expect 
to be treated by their employer, they at once conct:ive a contempt 
ibr him, and become mutinoas. Such was the case with onr 
; Buperintendent, and he proved not to bo qualified to superintend 
any kind of men or business, and all the hands looked upon him 
with contempt. 

Three or four Chippewas came to them and the Menomonee 
half breed woman, she being the only one that understood the 
Chippewa language, and told them that if they did not leave therB 
they would kill them all. This was about night-fall, and the su- 
perintendent was so much alarmed that at dark he got into a canoe 
- with one man, as much frightened as himself, and went down in 
the night over the rapids, that were difficult to navigate even in 
the day time, leaving orders with the men to load the provisioils, 
• tools, &o., into the boat, and to start in the morning down the 
> Chippewa River near to its mouth, which they did, driving tka 
^ oxen by land. The superintendent, whose name was Aricstbovq, 
"• arrived at the Prairie evidently much alarmed, and gave me a 
terrible account of h/s escape; and not until he had been at the 
Prairie some considerable time did he inform me that he bad o^ 
'. dered all the men to leave the mill| and that they were pr9MM7 


OQ their way down. I was then BatiBfied that my preeeooe waa 
raquired there, unless I intended to abandon the mill ; and it being 
in the hot weather of August, I cKd not feel mueh inclined to make 
a Toyage in a canoe exposed to tho sun, butfrom the materiala we 
had to deal with, I saw at once that it was necessary. 

I had a canoe manned with a half breed Winneba^, who spoke 
Ohippewa, and together with Abustboko and the Frenchman who 
had come down with him, put out at once, taking in my canoe 
provisions enough for myself and crew to reach the mill. We 
had proceeded about forty miles up the Missiseippi, when early 
in tLe morning at a sand-bar, in the middle of a channel, and 
about one fourth of a mile from the shore, I met a canoe with a 
Kenomonee half-breed and a large athletic Ohioan by the name 
of Habtwell, whom I had never seen before. Abmstboho bad 
ODgaged him OS carpenter, and taken him to the mill without my 
baring seen him, or knowing his name. I asked them where they 
were going, and they said to the Prairie. I said, *^ no I — you must 
return with me." I knew that the half breed would obey without 
difficulty, but Habtwell said he was going to the Prairie, and I 
knew in order to take all of tliom back, I must take these back as 
I met them. Habtwell was a strong man and armed with a 
rifle, but I said to him, ^' this canoe at least is mine, and does not 
go to the Prairie; you can take your choice, either to go back, or 
to remain on this eand-bar." 

He concluded to go back, and for fear that they might give me 
tike slip, I got into the canoe with them and we proceeded up the 
ffiTer about ten miles farther, where we met all the Canadians 
with the half-breed Mcnomonee woman, when we all put ashore. 
I told thorn that they must go back t'>the mill, which they refused 
to do. I soon dibcovered, as I had suspected, that the woman was 
the leader of the party, and I bribed her to go back. She con- 
■eated, and the others followed her example. She and her hus- 
bud were in a large canoe, not half finished, which would go 
luvd up stream. From the manner of her consenting so rei 


to return, I snspected that she intended as soon as they could lag 
a little behind, and get some point between me and them, to slip 
down the stream, which I aftefwardi learned was really their in- 
tention ; to prevent which, I told them, as thoy were weak band- 
ed, and had a heavy canoe, that I would embark with them and 
help them paddle. I paddled all day, and made a good day's 
work up stream, and encamped in a channel of the river opposite 
to Wabashaw's Prairie. 

The men had only taken provisions enough to last tbe"»i to the 
Prairie, and it was soon seen that mv stock would not be sufficient 
fbr the additional months until wc reached the boat. In camp at 
night one of the men named Fkancis L\ Pointk, a native of 
Prairie du Chien, aiid well acquainted with the customs of the 
Indians, tt)ld me that it was but a short distance across the oono- 
try to the Chippewa, whore the boat then wa^ ; and proposed to 
 go there, take a canoe and meet us with pro vi ions, which I re- 
quested him to do. Ho accordingly after brertkfa^t borrowed a 
gun, took somo crackers in his pocket, and started across, while 
we proceeded np the channel along under the bluffs 'or about five 
miles to where the canoes crosH the Mississippi to tiio western 
side. Just as we were about putting off fr«»m the hhore. La Points 
came running down the hill hallooing ''Indians!" The carioeg 
were all putting out into the river, but I ordered the canoe that I 
was in to put to shore, and take the man in, confiding, at the 
timO| in his statement. 

La Pointe had on, when he started, two cotton shirts, and when 
ho rcturrjed one of the shirts was iicaily cut from him, and several 
stabs through the other. IIo had thrown away all his animnni* 
tion and his hat, and stated that after crossing the hill and getting 
into a ravine of tall grass, that tive Chippewa Indans suddenly 
Surroun<lcd him, took away his powdor, shot and provisions, cut 
bis bat and shirt all to ]>iecop, called him a dog, and would have 
taken his gun had ho not begged hard to rtrtain it, telling fh(Ml 
' that it was not his. He told so probable a 6U»ry of t^hat woold 


naturally be the oondact of a war partj of Indianr^ that I at first 
believed him, hat we stopped shortly after for dinner, and althongh 
the noen pretended to be mnch afraid of the Indians, I discovered 
m merbin^ in their condact that satisfied me, that it was a hoax* 
Thej proposed to torn back to Praiiie da Ghien for fear of the 
Indians, but I told them that I was never in the habit of taming 
back through fear, until I saw theie was really danger, and that I 
did not require them to run any risk which T would not myself 
fieely sbaio. 

We finally proceeded on quietly nntil near the month of Biveira 
An Boeufor Buffalo River, when ARMSTBONoand the man whocama 
down with him, who were actually in great foar, as thoy were Dot 
ID the seciet of tbo plot, discovered an Indian on the blufifs below 
its mouth, or imagined they did, and gave the alarm of "Chippe- 
wa I" But we met some Sioux at the foot of the bluffi), and thej 
aaid that it could not be Chippewas, as they had the day before 
been hunting over thcro and thought it probable that some of 
thfir people might stiil be hunting there. So we proceeded to • 
point Oi'posite to the mouth of the Chippewa Biver, and encamp- 
ed for the night. 

60 much had been said about danger from the Chippewss, thai 
I began to boliove there was something in it, and mast confess 
that tile next morning I entered tbo narrow month of the Chip- 
pewa, fringed with bushes, with some fear that some Indian might 
be hid, and tire upon us without giving notice of his presence; 
bat once in, the feeling of fear wore off, and we proceeded on 
with little to eat until about 10 o'clock, when we came to a Me- 
nomonee lodge, where we found a great deal of venison, and a 
quantity B^nck up around the fire cooking, to which we did ample 
JDStice. We then proceeded about ten milesup the river, whei^ 
we found the boat and three Americans who had remained with 
it But thoy refused, as well as the Canadians to go back to the 
mill under the snpe* intondence of AiuisTRONa; and from all ao- 
donots of the men, as well as from what I bad seen of him, I mm 


Batiefted that he was not oaloolated to condnot each a batinaM, 

i\ and I conoluded that the beat way to get rid of hiuiy was to pur- 

ohase him oat, eveu if I had to give more than he was jnaily 

entitled. His fear of the Obippewas was SQch, that he did not 

wish to return. He owed me about five hundred dollars, which 

would not be worth much if he lofb the mill ; yet, to get rid of 

i him, I gave him that, and took a quit claim of all his claims apon 

' -the mill, and let him have a small canoe in which he desoeoded 

the river. 

, My people agreed to go back to the mill, provided I would get 
^ the Menomonees to go up the river with ns, but I had no inter- 
. preter in whom I could confide, as my half breed Winnebago had 
. joined bis comrades, the Canadians, against me. So I sent down 
for the Menomonees at the lodge we had passed, to come and go 
. .with us ; but presume that the half breed Menomouee woman 
. had instructed them how to act ; Tor although I offered them a 
high price, they pretended to be afraid of the Obippewas, wluch 
I was satisfied was not the case, and declined to go, unless anoth- 
. er band who were hunting on the Chippewa, above the mouth of 
the Menomoneo River, would go with them. So I sent an Indian 
for them, and proceeded on with my bout, and encamped on a 
sand-bar opposite tlie Menomonce River, and waited for the In- 
dians until about noon the next day, when they arrived, bat did 
not want to go into the Menomonce, expressing their fears of tlbe 
Obippewas. I offered them a keg of powder, a bar of lead, and 
promised, when they next came to Prairie du Ohi^, to give them 
a keg of whiskey ; but they still declined going, reiterating their 
apprehensions, which I was satisfied were feigned for the occasion, 
and that they were but playing their part as instructed by the 
half breed woman. Believing such to be the case, I ordered tbe 
••'inen to put the things in the boat, telling them tliat I waa act 
afraid of the Obippewas, and should go to the mill. T7pon iMs, 
"some of the Canadians showed a disposition to mntiny, but I bid 
'made np my mind to go, and knock down the leader with a oWi 
* and force them to accompany me. How I thould haTesueoaidted 

« 189 

I do not know, bat at that moment the ladiang finding that I was 
determined to go without them, said thejwoald go, and we proceed- 
ed np the Meaomonee Rirer abont nine ratios, whero wq en- 
- eamped. 

The Winnebago and Menomonee half breeds nnloadod one of 
the canoes and said there was a lake near there, and that they 
would go and shoot elk ; but in aboat ^n hour they returned, 
apparently much alarmed, and said they saw tracks of Indiana 
around the lake. Bat the Menomonees who had agreed to go 
with us fearing to lo >8e their promised pay if we weut back, said 
that the tracks were not Ohippewas but Menomooees, as some of 
ibeir people had been there that day hunting. The next day we 
proceeded on up the river without any thing of note until we 
reached tlie mill, except occasionally seeing a Ohippewa in imagi- 

There was among the carpenters of my party a discharged sol- 
dier of the name of Holubb, who was a better mill-wright than 
AmcsTROxo, and upon whom, as I afterwards learned, Abmstrovg 
iiad depended to build the mill. I then made a bargain with 
IsAAo Saunders, one of the carpenters Armstrong had taken up, 
giving him an interest in the mill to superintend it, and engaged 
HoLMBS by the day to build the mill. There had been very little 
^ork done during the summer, and thej did not get the mill ready 
to commence sawing until March, 1831 ; and b; the Ist of June 
following, had sawed about 100,000 feet of lumber. It was im- 
possible at that time at Prairie du Chien to get any other bands 
than Canadians, except occasionally a discharged soldier; and 
among the Americans that were at the mill, there was not one 
who knew how to construct a raft. 

n The Oanadian manner of rafting had been to lay two floats of 
w limber about ten inches squfire, and rafb the boards on them, and 
iitb^ rafred our lumber in that way ; but when they bad completed 
<^lb4 raft, they found tihare was not water enough to float it, the 
If being v^ry low) that ipring. J^ many of the men's time 


would be out in May, I wont np with another get of hands towp- 
plj the places of those that woald come awBj with the raft. Bat 
on arriving there, I found the water very low, and the Caoadiana 
declared that the lumber cou^d not bo rafted out of the river. It 
appeared that we would Lave to wait for a riee of water; and hav- 
ing a double set of hands, I coucluded to build another mill, on a 
atream about one mile from tho other. I set the haudd to work 
gettiDg out timber for tho dam, mill, &c. 

The Canadians who had first gone there, and went back with 
me against their will, and whrse times wero about expiring, were 
8till disposed to be mutin'^'ii^, and declared their intention of not 
waiting for a rise of water to get the timber out, and of leaving 
as soon as their time ehonld expiie. I told them that they conld 
not leave until they took down the lumber ; that 1 wonid pay tfcem 
for their time, and that they conld not get permis^siont^ go aniesa 
Ibey took it by force, and that, I did not think, woald be very 
aafe for them to attempt while I was (here, and if they cut a pine 
tree to make a canoe of, I would have them prosecuted and im- 
piisonod— and, as aCanadian is much afraid of a jail, they eon- 
eluded to continue their work. 

During the time I was contriving how this lumber was to be got 
to the mouth of the Mcnomonee, and talking with Uouai one 
day about it, he told me he had somewhere seen lumber raited 
over rapids by lujing one sawed board or slab lapping aboot half 
its length upon another, after the manner of shingling, and thae 
repeat and combine until the raft or crib should be formed ; and 
that it would hang t<»gether in j^assing over any rapids. CTpoa 
this hiut I caused a crib to be made, but the men saiv! it would 
drown any one who would be fool hardy enough to take it over 
the rapids. I waited till the following Sunday, when the men 
Would be idle, and then told two of the hands that if they woald 
take that crib to the mouth of the Menomonee« I would pay thtm 
one dollar each. They did so without aecident, and retomed Kj 
land before night, and reported thai tha^ laatbar eould be 


down in that way without any difficulty. The men now went to 
work and rafted it; got it nearly all to tbo month of the river, 
when abont the Ist of June, it commenced raining, and continned 
most of tbe time very hard for a fortnight Tbo stream on which 
onr dam was, rose in mbout twelve hours sometbing like twelve 
feet, and the Menomonee River abont tbe sanie, carrying away 
the dam, and sweeping the loose made cribs of lumber from their 
moorings, anJ scattered the lumber over tbe bottoms of tbe Me- 
nomonee and Chipj-ewa Rivers. About fifty tbons^nd feet of this 
lumber was afterwards recovered in a damage*! state, at a great 
expense, and taken to St. Louis and sold at a foduccd price. Such 
were pomo of Ibe diffii-ullies a- tendiig tbe early aMeinpts at lumber- 
leg in thirt country. Tbo only bandji thut cfjnld be rirpb»jed were 
tbe Cnna'lian v<ryayeHr8\ tbey cou!d row a boat well, or run a 
rafr, hut tliat was ab »ut tbo exterit of their knowledge of lumber- 
ing. Oociuionaliy }<>u (:o;i!d pick np a di^cb:irged soldier tbat 
had some knowledge of ibe liUbir.css, and tliese were the materials 
tbat pioneer saw imll prOi-riutors had to use, and manage as best 
they could. 

Shortly aftor tbis, Daniel WHrrNKT, of Green Bay, obtained 
from the Secretary of War a similar permit to tbat giantt'd to Mr. 
RoLKiTB and mjseif, and built a mill upon tbe Upper Widcouain. 

Of all tbo foreigners tbat came to this country, tbo Canadians 
of Frencb extraction seemed to have tbe It ast id^a of the privi- 
leges of American citizensbip. It appeared almost impossible to 
instil into tbcir minds any tbing of tbo independence of Belf ^ov- 
ernment, ai»d this was uot conlined entirely to tbe uneducated, but 
would apply more or lens to the partially educated classes. Tbey 
do not consider it a privibge to vote f»r the olKcers wbo are 
to govern tiK-m ; and c uinider it only desirable to u.<e tbe elective 
francbioc in order to gratify some friend who bas atked them to 
vote for himself or bis candidate ; and when so requested, tbey 
are i^> polite to refuse, nulesa a previous promise had been mada 
to apoio other. 


I have lived among this ]>eopIe upwards of thirtjr years, aad h^mt 
taken considerable iatere^t in electioos, and freqaently aaked thfi 
people to vote lot the candidate that I supported, and recollect 
bat a solitary instance, in all that time, where a man had the in- 
dependence to rci'usd uiy lequest. It wat amusing after the 
comity of C iwford was < r^anized, and an e!eciiou was to take 
place for a delegate to Conj;;ree6 Irorn Michigan, ti> see these peo- 
ple about election time. It so Iiappencd that Jo?}£PH R •lltte and 
myself influenced about an equal number of voters, and as we 
generally sup i juried diflerent candidate:^, these people would meet, 
and talk among tliemsQ^ves about the election, asking each other 
who they were going to vote for? The answer invariably was, 
" Je va vote pour Mons. Rolbtfe;" or ^^Je va vote pour Mon$. 
LooKWooD ;" the names of the opposing candidates never being 
meiiiioned, and very seldom known — a rather amusing circam- 

In the spring of the year 1824, a delegate to Congress was to 
be elected for Michigan ; and Michigan, like all other portions 
of the Union, bad several patriotic men who desired to eacri- 
ficc themselves to the service of their country. Among the nu- 
merous candidates, Mr. Rolette and I each selected one for oar 
support, and solicited the votes of the Canadians for our respect- 
ive candidates. Among the voters was a respectab'e and indos- 
trions fanner living in the lower end of Prairie du Chien, by the 
name of Barretip, whose vote had been solicited both by Mr. 
RoLETTK ai«d myself; but Barrbtte being engaged in getting in 
his spring crop of grain, and thinking if he went to the election 
he would otiend one or the other of us, which ho wished to avoid, 
concluded it would be wisest to remain at home, an3 work on his 
farm. Mr. Rolette's idea of the elective franchise was snch, that 
he believed that every man was bound te vote, and, moreover 
that he should do it precisely in accordance with his loader's 
wishes, without exercising any judgment whatever of his owQ. 
Hr. RoLBTTK buing a Canadian by birth, of French extraction, and 
although an educated man, considered himself insulted bj Bab- 


bbtib's not ooming to the election and voting for bia candidate,  * 
and declared that he wonld be revenged on him. 

There was a law at that time in Michigan preventing stnd horses ' 
from running at largo when over eighteen months of ago, under " 
a penalty of ten dollars for each offence, " if willingly or wilfully * 
at large." At this time the water was high in the Mississippii ' 
and the old village of Prairie dn Chicn was an island. One 
morning shortly after the election, Mr. Rolette with his men' ' 
brought me two horses of the aforesaid descripiion, and hitched 
them before my door. I was then a Justice of the Peace. Eolettb ' 
entered my house under considerable apparent excitement, saying, 
he had brought me two horses that were running at large contrary 
to law. 1 answered him, thai I did not want the horses, nor was 
I going to take charge of them. Mr. Kolkttb then abked, as they 
were at largo contrary to law, what was to be done ? I answered, 
that I would have nothing to do with the horses, and should not 
take charge of them ; but if he wished to make a complaint against 
their owners, I was bound to take notice of it. Mr. Rolette then 
concluded to make such complaint against liARRETTE, the owner 
of one of the horses, and let the other off, as ho had no pique to 
gratify in his case. Process was accordingly issued against Bar- 
bette, and 80(»n returned served. On the day of trial, a man by 
the name of Perkins, heretofore i^oken of, seeing that the suit 
was brought by an apparently wealthy man to oppiess a j;oor one, 
volunteered his services to assist in defending him, and on calling 
the case the defendant demanded a jury. The Ligit^lature of 
Michigan hud some two or three years before this reduced the 
jnry before a Justice of the Peace to six, and the year preceding 
this trial, they had repealed that law, without any saving clause. 
Under these circumstances, I decided that the repeal of the law, 
revived the old one of twelve jurors, and accordingly had a jury 
of that number summoned and sworn. It so happened that there 
were- some Americans on the jury, and as the trial proceeded, the 
defendant admitted that his horse was at large, but not " willingly 
or wflfuUy," and proved that his home was old, and had been work* 


cd down yerj poor in the spring, and that when he was tbroogfa 
with Lis work and wished to torn him out on the Prairie, to save 
himself from the penalty of the Uw, he had taken him to be cas- 
trated to the only man on the P»airie that pretended to perfirmsach 
opeiationB. But he declined do<ng so, saying that the horee was 
too poor and weak to live through if, and that ho had better tarn 
him out on the Prairie to reet and reeniit a few days, as he could 
do no harm. Under this testiincmy, the jury brought in a verdict 
for defendant, stating that Barrettk's horse was neither " wiltully 
nor willingly " at large, contrary to law. 

AftiT this Barrktfe, by a^lvice of his friend, bronght pnit 
against Mr. KoLKrn:, befon^ N. noiLviN,Et»q., another Jnetice of the 
PiBoe, for trePpa^B, and swimming liis horse across the slt^ngh of 
Bt. Ferole, nnd had auotlier jury, who gave Barrkttb five do'lars 
damages and co-ts, which mortifierl Mr. R(»l»':tte vrry nmch. He 
did not caie so much abont the money, as ho did ahont itrempting 
to pnnit»h a C:ina!ian farmer for disobeying his wiehcB, and to 
have that farmer beat him. 

In the fall of 1818, a severe fight took place on the prairie be- 
twien Lac Traveree and the head waters of the MissisHijipi, under 
something like the following circumstances, as related to me im- 
XDidiately after by some Indians jrho had partic'pated in the ac- 
tion. I was then at my wintering station near Lmc qiii-Parle, on 
tlir St. Peters. During the summer a Yankt«»n chief, who gener- 
ally resi'Jed near Lac Traverse, called by the French the Grand 
81N0KE, had met with some Chippcwas, with whom he had smok- 
ed the p'pe of peace, and after the council had broken up, and 
the Chippewas were wending their way, as they supposed^ eafelj 
to their Ijoincs, when a |jarty of the Grand Sinork^s hand fallowed 
them and killed some of the men, and took one woman pHaoner. 
Upon this, eleven young Chippewas armed, provisioned, and pro* 
Tided with moccasins, and started for the Sioux country, declaring 
that they would not return until they had avenged the insult and 
outrage. They travellied in the Sioaz coimtry aboat a moutk 


without falling iu with any Sioux, and were apparently on their 
way home, when on the prairie between Lac Traverse and the 
head waters of the MissisBippi, they discovered a largo camp of 
Sioux of abont five hundred lodges. As they were in the neigh- 
borhood of the camp, they were discovered by some Sioux on 
horseback, who immediately gave notice to tlie cam]). The Cbip- 
pewas finding that they were discovered, and that theirfate was seal- 
ed,sent one of their number home to carry tidings of their probable 
destruction, and the other ten got into a copse of timber and brush 
on the prairie, and commenced throwing up breast works by dig- 
ging holes with their knives and hands,* determined to sell their 
lives as dearly as possible, knowing that there was not the re- 
motest hope for their escape. 

In a short time the warriors from the Sioux camp surrounded 
them, and, it would appear, made the attack without much order 
or system, and fought something like the militia in the Black 
Ilawk war at the attack near Kellogg's, where each one attacked 
and fought on his own account without orders. To show their 
bravery, the Sioux would approach the entrenched Chippewas 
singly, but from the covert and deadly fire of the Chippewas, 
they were sure to fall. They continued to fight in this way, until 
about seventy of the Sioux were killed or wounded, when one of 
the Sioux war chiefs cried out, that the enemy were killing them in 
detail, and directed a general onset, when they all in a body rush- 
ed upon the Chippewas with knives and tomahawks ; and, after a 
severe struggle, overpowered and exterminaced them, wounding 
in the melee many of their own people. The bravo Chippewas 
had exhausted their amunition,and now fell a sacrafice to superior 
numbers. Thus perished ten as intrepid warriors as ever entered 
the battle field. The eleventh pursued his way, and carried to his 
people the news of the probable fate of the others. The Sioux 
exulted in their mournful victory, which was purchased at the 
cost of the lives of between seventy and eighty of their warriors. 

*nh tifgiag hol0a wm • eoouDon Hod* of dtttam tnm wwdc p«rty.-^9ee Plke'i EzpidlUoa% PhiU. 
tttSm, mOi p. 19; Md BBonoi'i Sktidh of OkawfortfOoontj, la Vol. 1, WU. Ay. Timnf. L. 0. D. 




K Bcalpa are taken after the fall of the leaves from the trees, it 
is usual for the Indians to continue the scalp dance over them un- 
til the appearance of the leaves again, when the scalps are buried 
with considerably ceremony ; and if scalps are taken after the put- 
ting out of the leaves, thoj continue to dance until their fall in 
the autumn. 

In the year 1828, Qeneral Joseph M. Street was appointed In- 
dian Agent at Prairie du Chien, and arrived alone in the fall of 
that year to assume the duties of his office ; and, in the winter, 
returned to Illinois and brought his family to Prairie du Chien in 
the spring of the following year, being the first family who settled 
in Prairie du Chien that made a profession of religion of the Pro- 
testant faith of anv of the different sects. 

In 1830, a man by the name of Cok, '^ho claimed to be a min- 
ister of the Presbyterian church, and missionary to the Indians, 
passed through the country, and remained over Sunday at Prai- 
rie du Chien, and made an attempt at preaching ; but he was a 
very illiterate man, and not over stocked with good sense. I 
must here relate an anecdote of this man. He made several 
trips to the upper Indian country, and on one occasion took pas- 
sage on a keel-boat, and arrived within about thirty miles of Fort 
Snelling on Satarday night ; and as the boat would start early in 
the morning, and he would not travel on the Sabbath, he went 
on shore without provisions, and encamped over Sunday, and on 
Monday made his way to Fort Snelling, hungry and nearly ex- 
hausted. Sometime in the year 1832, a student of divinity, of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian sect, came here and taught school for 
about six months, and on Sundays attempted to preach. 

In some of the treaties with the Winnebagoes,* provision had 

* At the treatj of Fort Armstronf , Rock laUnd, of which Gen. Soott aod Got. Bcynolds irti* tb« 
flODimlnioiMrB, cuncladod Sept 16, 1882, in part consideration for a claim ol land, it was htipntaCrd that 
th« 0«Bara] OoTenunent ihoiild, for a term of twentj-Mven jeaxv, maintain a aehool at or aw TMftila 
daChian for the education and rapport of each Winnebago children at ahonld ke voloBtftrtly twi to 
i^ to be conducted I7 two or more toachert, and at an annual cost not to fzceH the worn of Hut* 
tlMuiBd doUm, Xtt^Kll 


been made for an Indian Bchool near Prairie dn Chien, and in the 
year 1833, the Rev. David Lowby, of the Onmberland Presbyte- 
rian denomination, came to the place as superintendent of said 
Indian school, but it was about a year thereafter before suitable 
buildings were erected on the Yellow river in Iowa, and Mr. 
LowBY remained at Prairie du Ohien, and preached on Sundays ; 
and during this time, collected those professing religion of the 
different denominations into a society. In the fall of 1835, the 
Rev. Alfked Bbukson visited Prairie du Chien, and returned 
home the same autumn ; and in the spring of 1836, he came back 
with his family, as snperinteiident of the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission of the Upper Mississippi and Lake Superior. He pur- 
chased a farm and built a house, the materials for which he 
brought with him from Meadville, Pa , and continued for several 
years laboring in his missionary capacity. He several times 
visited the missions on the Upper Mississippi, and when at the 
Prairie, preached and formed a Methodist society. In the year 
1836, the Rev. Mr. Caddle, of the Episcopal church, came to the 
Prairie as a missionary, but was shortly after appointed chaplain 
to Fort Crawford, in which capacity he continued until 1841, when 
feeling, as he expressed it, that he was not in his proper place 
preaching to soldiers, who went to hear him more from compul- 
sion than anything else, he resigned his chaplaincy, and again 
.entered the missionary service in another part of the Territory. 
Mr. Caddle, while -chaplain of the fort, formed a church of the 
few communicants of the Prairie, and the ofiScers and ladies of 
the fort, which he called Trinity, but was obliged for most of the 
church officers to elect non communicants. 

I must not omit to mention another of the early American set- 
tlers. In 1833, the quarter-master of Fort Crawford advertised in 
Galena for proposals for a contract to furnish the fort with a year's 
supply of wood. EzEEisL Tainteb and a man by the name of 
£eed, got the contract, and came here and supplied the first con- 
tract together, at the end of which Mr, Eeed left the country. 
Mr. Taintkb remained, and continued for several years ^to take 


the wood contract, tc^ether with that for supplying the fort with 
beef; and at this business, which he well understood, in connec- 
tion with the cultivation of a farm on the bluff where he cut his 
wood, he made money quite fast, as he was industrious and saying. 
He sent for his family, which he had left in the state of New 
York, and paid off some old scores that ho had previously been 
unable to do, and had some money left for which he had no im- 
mediate use. Kotwithstauding he knew nothing about merchan- 
dizing, he concluded as he expressed it, " that the merchants were 
coining money, and that he would have a hand in ;" and borrow- 
ing some means in addition to his own, went to St. Louis and pur- 
chased a small stock of goods, which, as might be expected^ were 
not very judiciously selected for the market. During this time 
his brother Gobuam arrived by his assistance, whom ho took into 
partnership ; but knowing as little about mercantile affairs as his 
brother, the business was not very well conducted. Both had 
large families to support, and it appears that they kept no ac- 
count of expenses, or of what each took from the store. If one 
wanted an article, the other took something else to balance it 
They continued business for about two years, when they took an 
account of stock, and found a deficiency of about three thousand 
dollars, for which they could not account ; and as goods to this 
amount had been taken from the store without keeping any ac- 
count of them, it did not at first occur to their minds that their 
families had consumed them. This satisfied Mr. Tainter that 
money was not so easily gained by merchandizing as he had sup- 
posed, and he returned to farming, and is now a resident and 
worthy citizen of the county. 

In the year 1842, the Rev. Mr. Stephrns, of the Presbyterian 
church, who had been on a missionary service somewhere in tfae 
Indian country, came as a missionary of that denomination, fonn- 
ed a church, and continued here two or three years. There being 
too few members of his church to supply the means of sapport 
with the stipend he received from the Missionary Sodety, he left 


for some other part of the Territory, since which time the Meth- 
odists have supplied the place regalarljr with preachers, and ooca* 
sionally a transient clergyman of some other denomination visits 
ns and preaches. Bev. Alfbed Bbukson since his residence at 
Prairie da Chien, has probably taken more interest than any oth- 
er person in it, to develop the resonrces of the country, having at 
different times visited most parts of Western and Northern Wis- 
consin, and has written and published several articles on the sub- 
ject, well calculated to attract attention to this part of the coun- 

Of the old inhabitants found at the Prairie on mj arrival here, * 
John W. Johnson the factor, and Chief Justice of the county 
court, was in 1832, relieved of his duties as factor, by the winding 
up of the factory system of Indian trade, when he removed to St. 
Louis, where he died a few years since. Fbancis Bouthillikb, 
one of the Associate Justices of the county court, moved to Ga- 
lena, near which place he died in 1833 or '34. 

Wilfred Owens ended his days in 1821 by cutting his throat 
in a fit of mental derangement ;* and John L. Findley, the first 
clerk of the court, went, in 1821, in comply with a Frenchman 
by the name of Depouse, and a Canadian named Babrette, up 
the Mississippi in a canoe on some business. On their arrival at 
Lac Pepin, near the mouth of the Chippewa, they met with a 
war party of Chippewas looking for Sioux Indians, and the whites 
being probably overcharged with whiskey, of which they were 
all exceedingly fond, a quarrel ensued, as was afterwards learned 
from the Chippewas. Barrette, who had been lumbering on the 
Black River the previous winter, recognized in one of the Indians 
of the war party, one whom he believed had formerly stolen his 
horse ; and b^ing of rather a pugnacious disposition, and proba- 

•The followin; notice of Mr. Owrag* ddath, tre find In the Detroit Gazette, Oct. Stb, 1821 : ** Died at 
FniiiB da Chien, on the 23d of Anguit iMt^ Mt. WnmD Uwura, merchant. He committed lalddt bj 
cmtllag an artery of his arm, and blji throaty in the preeenee of two of hii frieade, and wai Mippoaed 
to he ioMne. Mr. Owtst wae Jndge of ^rolMte, and JInodate Juptire, la the coontj of Omwiotd, and 
m r^rj leipeetahle member of ^ndetf .'* U 0. D . 


blj Bimdiarged with whiskey, impradently chaiged the Indian 
with the theft. Upon which a quarrel ensned, which ended in 
tiie TnHimnf mnrdering the whole party, and plnndering them of 
their goods, provisions, &c. 

JoHs p. Gates, the first Register of the Probate, on the dosing 
of the factory, went to Carondelet, Missonri, where he was 
drowned a few years since. Thomas McNaik, the first Sheriff of 
the county, moved down to Fever river near Galena, abont 1830, 
and, as I learned, died a few years since in some part of Illinois. 
Nicholas Boilyix died on a keel-boat on his way to St. Lonis, 
abont the summer of 1824. Joseph Roleitb* died al Prairie dn 
Chien in 1641« 

While our county court was still in existence, a district court 

* Mxs. KmzM nlatn ia ittr Watt^Bmm the follovias capital ftorr of X. RoLxm. Thm 
OB Uk« Wir»bA^ whnt IL aoLsm «m eagkgtd wiU a tading^bofti^ wkai te vak —ntharboofc 
•B whkh ven hie emplojMa, ^mUt from Pn£rie da CMea. " Of oootm. ftfter aa obMSfoe of somt 
wMks tnm Kojob^ tht aiMtlag on th«M Iom^j wateio, sad tho grtingtig of ■««% vat a oea- 
cUm of fnot exciteamit. Tbo Umu vir rtoppcd e a rnes t grertiiigi intefthaDfed— qwatSon foUowvd 

«* A / Wen"— enqaifod H. BouEjrrx, " bare they finbfaed the mw hooae •" 

*■ Omi, Memtumrr 

^ EUa cA«»i»M, fmmt-t'tlU r (Doei the chianet smoke :, 

*- Aad the harrMt^Low i« that :" 

*» Verr fine, lodef!." 

«* If tiie mill at work 'r 

*^ Yei, plenty of water.' 

•^ How U Whip ?•• (Hi* (avorite Lorw . , 

«0h! Whip la lint rate.'* 

Brir7thiB|^ in ehorl^ alioal the fttore* the iana, the btuiaoM of rariou dBtcriptlooa baiiif aatilbeit- 
fUj gone o*er, there wa* no occuion for farther delaj*. It waa time to prooe«d. 

" Ek : bifu—adini .' bon T«jafft r 

•'Jrrmcha-weMgeutr (Cio ahead, men .') 

Then auddenlj — " Jrrettz-<tmUz " * ^Stop : stop !; 

*< Commrnt tf yrrt^mt Madmme Rolttf tt Irt f^f^nti J" [Eow are Mrs. BOLsm and tho ^114«b ?> 

Mrs. KmiE aim i^rea oa another ^limpee of M. Bourra'a character. The Indiana, aha nfl. ttUad 
hia, or Fhe if»r<->booaoa«, aa th^ aald, kt them ofltc what aamkvflff ikiai 
thif might, In baiteriog for an article, hia Urrma weac iBrarUUij " firt moraL"* 

'•UpoB one oecMion,** oontinata 51ra. Kunu, **ala4f remaihad to Uaa, * Oh,]C BouTXi^ X ««ili B0t 
b*iNPiC«diatha Indian trade; itacema tomaaajstwaaCdiaatiagtbepoorlndiMM.* 

* Utme teU joa, madame,' replied he with great naiteU, 'it laao4 ao aaij n thii« to chMl Ite b- 

diaas aa yon imagine. I hare triad it these twenty years, and have nrr«r raeeacdad r ** 



was established, in 1823,'"' comprieing the counties of MackinaW| 
Brown and Crawford, and an additional Jndge appointed, m the 
person of James Ddtane DotIt, a young lawyer of Detroit, thea 
only about twenty-three years of age. He had come to Prairie 
du Ohien in the fall of 1823, for the purpose of making it his resi* 
dence, and remained until after the following May term of his 
court. Soon after arriTing at Prairie dn Chien, and finding our 
mail matter came up on keol-boats, or by military express seat 
occasionally for the special purpose, to Olarksville, Missouri, a 
village about one hundred miles above St. Louis, and the then 
nearest post office, Judge Dott made application to the Post Of- 
fice Department for the establishment of a post office at Prairie 
du Chien, which was granted, and he was appointed post-master, 
with the privilege of expending the proceeds of the office for car- ' 
rying the mail. The receipts for postage, together with contribu- 
tions from the principal inhabitants, and officers of the garrison, 
enabled him to send Jeak B. Soyeb, an old voyageur^ one trip to 
Olarksville during the winter, for which ^he was paid thirty dol- 
lars. When Judge Doty arrived to enter upon his duties as 
Judge, he brought me a commission as derk of his court for 
Orawford county, which 1 declined to accept 

As (here were then no attornies here, and Judge Dorr learning 
that I had at one time studied law, and had relinquished the pro- 
fession for mercantile pursuits, suggested that I had better resume 
the practice of the law, and kindly tendered me the use of his 

• It U itated in Mr. Oai»o'» Addresa, th*« II wm ftt th« 182a-*a4 MsBlon of Gonertaa, that the 
jadidal district waa established. It was done at the prerioos teiision, when an act was passed to pro- 
lide for the appointment of " an additional Jndg« for the T^rrltorj of Miefaigan/' and jorisdictlon was 
giren to the courts hold by him ovtir the counties of Mackinaw, Brown and Crawford, which indndad 
all of Michigan not in the Peninsula, the now State of Wisconsin, and the country north of St. Croix 
Biver and cyrt of tlw Uiaaiaalppi to UUtnde 4^-^o w under tb» fforernoMnt of Minoeaota. In tha win- 
ter or spring of 1823, Jaxu D. Dott was appointed b/ President Moitbob, the additional Judge. At 
the senrfon of 182S-'24, Congress changed the temiro of offlca of the Jndgee of Michigan from *< good 
babarlor " to the temi of foar years, and Jvdga Dott*! re-appointmact was annonnoed in IftU§ 
JUgiiUr of Feb. 28, 1824. The first term of Judge Dott' I court was held at Mackinaw, in Joly, 1828. 

Sating a dlserepancy in dates fn regard to this matter between Mr. Baibd and Judge Loocwood, 
J«l|gi Dott waa rtllnTtd to, to sA the nattar ilgh^ viw ha9 finnialMd tht fMita in tbU Bots 

L. C. D. 


library and any iDBtmctions I might require, in order to refresh my 
stodies. Xot being extensively engaged in business at this time, 
I availed myself of Judge Dorr's snggestions, library and instruc- 
tions, and studied hard all the following winter and spring ; and, 
although I had obtained considerable knowledge of law, I was 
entirely ignorant of the practice of courts, except what I learned 
from old English authors on that subject. I commenced the prac- 
tice of the profession, and attended the courts of Brown and 
Mackinaw, and found no attoroies in Brown ; but at Mackinaw 
found a man by the name of Rex Bobd^sox, who had studied law 
in the State of New York, but had abandoned it, and come to 
Mackinaw to try his luck in the Indian Trade ; and a man by the 
name of Les, who bailed from Ohio, and claimed to be a lawyer, 
but wLose greatest qualilication was his impudence ; and Hekbt 
S. Baikd, then quite a young man, just commencing the practice, 
and whom I considered the best lawyer among ns. 

Until the year 1824, it was belieyed that a steamboat could not 
come up to Prairie du Chien over the Des Moines and Bock Riyer 
rapids. But in the spring of that year, DAvm Gr. Bates, who bad 
for several years been engaged in running keel boats on the Upper 
Mississippi, the water then being at a good stage in the riTor, 
brought to Prairie da Cbien a very small boat called the I^utnam. 
She was one of the smallest class of boats that run on the Ohio in 
a low stage of water. Capt. Bates proceeded to Fort Snelling with 
his boat. In June following, boats of a much larger class came 
over the rapids, and went to Fort Snelling with supplies for the 
troops. Since then the river from St. Louis to Fort Snelling has 
been navigated by steamboats, increasing every year in size and 

Daring the winter of 1823-4, Judge Doty concluded to change 
his residence from Prairie du Chien to Green Bay, and resigned 
his ofl9ce of post-master, and recommended me for the vacancy ; 
and I was appointed, with the same power and authority that be 
had. I applied during the summer of 1824, aad got a poat-offloa 


estabHshed at Galena, and Ezbkibl Lockwood appointed post-mas- 
ter ; also an office at Bock Island with Lee DAVEin'OBT postmaster ; 
the proceeds of both offices to be applied by me to defraying the 
expenses of convoying the mail from Prairie da Chien, via Galena 
and Ilock Island, to Clarksville, Mo. The increased fand by this 
new arrangment, enabled me to send the mail twice daring the 
winter to Clarksville, and thus the postal arrangements remained 
antil the close of 1825, when a post rente was extended from 
Springfield, 111., to Galena; and on the first of January, 1S26| 
John D. Winters, the contractor, arrived at Galena with the first 
mail sent through by this arrangement, the office at Prairie dn 
Chien continuing to send to Galena for her mail at her own ex- 
pense, until the fall of 1832, when Doct. Addison Phillko, who 
had obtained the contract to Prairie du Ohien, sent through the 

In the summer of 1826, a grand council or treaty was held at 
Pridrie du Chien with the different tribes of Indians. Gov. 
Cass of Michigan, and Gen. Clark, superintendent of Indian Af- 
fairs for Missouri and dependencies, were appointed commissioners 
on the part of the United States. The Indian tribes represented 
were the Sionx, Sauks, Foxes, Chippewas, Winnebagoes, Menomo- 
necs, and lowas. Some of the Indians from up the Missouri were 
expected, but did not come. The professed object of this treaty 
was to make a general and lasting peace between these tribes, and 
also to settle the boundaries between them respectively. After 
I understood the object of the treaty, I asked Gov. Cass what 
good he thought would result from it. He shrugged up his shoul- 
ders, and smiling said, that they would have it so at Washington. 
They made the treaty of perpetual peace, and settled the bounda- 
ries between the different tribes, which resulted in the U. States 
sending a corps of surveyors, and surveying the boundaries at 
great expense, and perhaps keeping the Indians at peace until 
they were ready to go to war again. 

In the winter of 1825-'26,, the wise men at Washington took it 


into their heads to remove the troops from Fort Crawford to Fort 
Snelling, and abandon the former. This measure was then sup- 
posed to have been bronght abont on the representation of Col. 
BmLLiNO of Fort Snelling, who disliked Prairie dn Chien for dif- 
ficulties he had with some of the principal inhabitants. During 
the winter there were confined in the guard-house of Fort Craw- 
ford two Winnebago Indians for some of their supposed dishonest 
acts ; but what they were charged with, I do not now recollect. 
At that time, as already mentioned, our mails from St Louis, the 
East and South, came via Springfield to Galena, and the post- 
xnaster at Prairie du Chien sent to Galena for the mails of that 
place and Fort Snelling. An order would frequently arrive by 
steamboat countermanding a previous order for the abandonment 
of the fort, before the arrival of first order by mail, and this mat- 
ter continued during the summer of 1826, and until October, 
when a positive order arrived directing the commandant of Fort 
Crawford to abandon the fort, and proceed with the troops to Fort 
Bnelling ; and if he could not procure transportation, to leave the 
provisions, ammunition and fort in charge of some citisen. 

But a few days previous to this order, there had been an alarm- 
ing report circulated, that the Winnebagoes were going to attack 
Fort Crawford, and the commandant set to work repairing the old 
fort, and making additional defences. During this time the posi- 
tive order arrived, and the precipitancy with which the fort was 
abandoned during the alarm — was communicated to the Indians 
through the half-breeds residing at or visiting the place, which 
naturally caused the Winnebagoes to believe that the troops 
had fled through fear of them. The commandant took with him 
to Fort Snelling the two Winnebagoes confined in Fort Crawford, 
leaving behind some provisions, and all the damaged arms, with 
a brass swivel and a few wall pieces, in charge of Jonir IEassh, 
the then Sub- Agent at this place. 

The Winnebagoes, in the fall of 1826, obtained from the traders 
their usual credit for goods, and went to their hunting grounds ; 


but earlj ia the winter a report became current among the 
traderSi that the Winnebagoes had heard a rumor that the Amer-^ 
leans and En£;li8h were going to war in the spring ; and hence they 
were holding councils to decide upon the course they should adopt, 
hunting barely enough to obtain what they wanted to subsist upon 
in the mean time. 

Mr. M. Bbisboib said to me several times during the winteti 
that he feared some outrages from the Winnebagoes in the spring, 
as from all he could gather they were bent on war, which I ought 
to have believed, as Mr. Bribboib had been among them engage 
in trade over forty years. But I thought it impossible that the 
Winnebagoes, surrounded as they were by Americans, and troops 
in the country, should for a moment seriously entertain such an 
idea. I supposed it a false alarm, and gave myself vary little un- 
easiness about it ; but in the spring, when they returned from 
their hunts, I found, that they paid much worse than usual, al- 
though they were not celebrated for much punctuality or honesty 
in paying their debts. It was a general custom with the traders, 
when an Indian paid his debts in the spring pretty well, on his 
leaving, to lot him have a little amunition, either as a present, or on 
credit A Winnebago by the name of Wah wah-peox-ah, had tak- 
en a credit from me, and paid me but a small part of it in the 
apring ; and when I reproached him, he was disposed to be impu- 
dent about it ; and when his party were about going, he applied 
to me as usual for ammunition for the summer, and insisted upon 
having some, but I told him if he had behaved well, and paid me 
his credit bettor, tlmt I would have given him 6ome» but that he 
had behaved so bad that I would not give him any, and he went 
away in a surly mood. 

A man by the name of Methods, I think, a half breed of some 
of the tribes of the Nortli, had arrived here, sometime in the 
summer of 1826, with his wife, and, I think, five children; 
and, Bometime in March of 1827, ho went with his family 
up the Yellow or Painted Rock Creek, about twelve miles above 


the Prairie, on the Iowa side of the Mississippi Biyer, to make 
sugar. The sngar season being over, and he not returning, and 
hearing nothing from him, a party of his friends went to look for 
him, and found his camp consumed, and himself, wife and chil- 
dren burned nearly to cinders, and she at the time enceinte. They 
were so crisped and cindered that it was impossible to determine 
whether they had been murdered and then burned, or whether 
their camp had accidentally caught on fire and consumed them. 
It was generally believed that the Winnebagoes had murdered 
and burnt them, and Bed Bisd was suspected to have been con* 
cerned in it ; but I am more inclined to think, that if murdered 
by Indians, it was done by some Fox war party searching for 

In the spring of this year, 1827, while a Chippewa chief called 
HoLE-iN-TnE-DAT, witli a part of his band, visited Fort Bnellingon 
business with the Government, and while under the guns of the 
fort, a Sioux warrior shot one of the Chippewas. The Bioux waa 
arrested by the troops, and confined in the^guard-house. The 
Chippewas requested Col. Spelling to deliver the Sioux to them, 
to be dealt with after their manner ; to which he agreed, provided 
they would give him a chance to run for his life. To this they 
acceded. The Sioux was sent outside of the fort, where the Chip- 
pewas were armed with tomahawks and war clubs. He was to be al- 
lowed a fair start, and at a signal started, and one of the swifteat 
of the Chippewas armed with a club and tomahawk after him, to 
overtake and kill him if ho could, which he soon effected, as the 
Sioux did not run fast, and when overtaken made no resistance. 
The Winnebagoes hearing a rumor of this, got the news among 
them that the two Winnebagoes confined there had been executed. 

During the summer of 1S26, 1 built the first framed house that 
was erected in Prairie du Chien. I sent men to the Black BiveTi 
and got the timber for the frame and the shingles, and had the 
plank and boards sawed by hand, and brought them down to the 
Prairie. But then I had no carpenter or joiner, there being none 
at Prairie du Chien. I went x)n board of a keelboat that had 


landed, and enquired if there was a carpenter and joiner on board, 
on which a ragged, dirtj looking man said that he professed to be 
such, and having before seen quite as unprepossessing fellows 
turn out much better than appearances indicated, I agreed with 
him at $1 50 per day and board. I built on the site near Fort 
Crawford, now occupied by what is called the commanding offi- 
cer's house. My house was of the following description : a ccllar- 
• kitchen, 30 by 26 feet, with a frame on it of the same size, two 
stories high, with a wing 16 by 20, on the south side, one story, 
which I used for a retail store. There was a hall through the 
south end of the two story part, the whole length of the house, 
with stairs from the cellar-kitchen up into the hall, and stairs from 
the hall to the upper story. The north end of the house was di- 
vided — the front part about 14 by^l6 feet, into a parlor or sitting 
room; a chimney in the centre of the north end, and a bed-room 
in the back part about 14 leet square ; a door leading from the 
hall to the bedroom, and one to the sitting-room, and a door by 
the side of the chimney from the bed-room to the sitting-room, 
and a door from the hall into the wing or store. This house I af- 
terwards sold to the Government, with the land on which the fort 
now stands. It was good enough for General Taylor and family 
while he commanded hore; but as soon as General Brooke was in 
command, ho got an appropriation from Congress to repair the house, 
and had it all torn down except a part of the cellar wall, and built 
the one which is there at present, at a cost of about $7,000. 

During the spring of 1827, the reports about the Winnobagoes 
bore rather a threatening aspect; but^ as I said before, situated as 
they were I did not believe they would commit any depredations. 
Under this belief, and having urgent business in New York to 
purchase my goods, I started for that city on the 25th of June ; 
it then took about six months to go and return. Mine was the on- 
ly purely American family at the Prairie, after the garrison left* 
There was Thomas MoNaib, who had married a French girl of the 
Fraurie, and John Mabsh, the Sub Indian Agent, who had no fam- 
ily, and there were besides thret or four Americans who had been 


discharged from the army. Without appreheDsion of danger from 
the Indians, I lelt mj family, which consisted of Mrs. LocewooD| 
and her brother, a young man of between sixteen and seventeen 
years of age, who was clerk in charge of the store, and a servant 
girl beloDging to one of the tribes of New York civilized Indians 
settled near Green Bay. 

I started to go by way of Green Bay and the LaKes for New 
York, in a boat np the Wisconsin, and down the Fox Eiver 
to green Bay ; thence in a vessel to Buffalo, and down the canal 
to Albany, and thence by steamboat to New York City. About 
4 o'clock in the afternoon of the first day's journey up the Wis- 
consin, I came to an island where were sitting three Winnebagoes 
smoking, the oldest called Wau-wah-veck-ah, who had a credit 
of me the fall previous, and had paid but little of it in the spring ; 
the other two were young men not known to me by name. They 
had some venison hanging on a pole, and we stopped to purchase 
it. As I stepped on shore, I discovered an appearance of cold 
reserve unusual in Indians in such meetings, and as I went up to 
them, I said ' bon jour^ the usual French salutation, whiali they 
generally understood ; but Wah-wah-peck-ah said that he^ would 
not say ' hon jour^ to me. Upon which I took hold of his hand 
and shook it, asking him why he would not say hon jour to me! 
He enquired what the news was. I told him I had no news. He 
told me that the Winnebagoes confined at Fort Snelling had 
been killed. I assured him that it was not true, that I had seen a 
person lately from that fort, who told me of the death of the Sionx^ 
but that the Winnebagoes were alive. He then gave me to un- 
derstand that if such was the case, it was well ; but if the Winne- 
bagoes were killed, they would avenge it. I succeeded in 
purchasing the venison, giving them some powder in exchange, 
and as I was about to step on board of my boat, Wah-wah-pbck- 
jlh wanted some whiskey, knowing that we always carried some 
for our men. I directed one of the men to give them each a drink, 
which Wah-wah~pbok-ah refused, and taking up his cup that he 
had by him, he showed by signs that he wanted it fiUed ; and be- 


lieving that the Indians were seeking some pretense for a quarrel 
as an excnse for doing mischief, I thought it most prudent under 
the circumstances to comply. 

There were among the boats' crew some old voyageura^ well 
acquainted with Indian manners and customs, who, from the con- 
duct of these Indians, became alarmed. We, however, embarked, 
watching the Indians, each of whom stood on the bank with his 
gun in his Iiand. As it was late in the day, we proceeded a few 
miles up file river and encamped for the niglit. As soon as the 
boat left the island, the three Indians each got into his hunting 
canoe, and the two young Indians carae upon either side opposite 
the bow of the boat, and continued thus up the river until we 
encamped, while Wah-wah-peck-ah kept four or live rods behind 
the boat. They encamped with us, and commenced running and 
playing with the men on the sand beach ; and after a little, the 
young Indians proposed to go hunting deer by candle-light, and 
asked me to give them some candles to hunt with, which I did, 
with some amunition, and they promised to return with vension in 
the morning. After they had gone, WAnwAH-PECK-AH proposed 
also to go hunting, and begged some gaudies and amunition, but 
remained in camp over night. Morning came, but the young 
Indians did not return, and I saw no more of them. In the morn- 
ing, after Wah-wah pkck-ah had begged something more, he 
started, pretending to go down the river, and went, as we supposed ; 
but about an hour afterward, as we were passing on the right of 
the upper endof the island on which we had encamped, I saw Wah- 
WAHPKCK-AH comiug up ou tho left. He looked very surly,and we 
exchanged no words, but we were all satisfied that he was seeking 
some good opportunity to shoot me, and from the singular conduct 
of the Indians, I and my men were considerably alarmed. But 
about 9 o'clock in the morning, meeting a band of Indians from 
the Portage of Wisconsin, who appeared to be glad to see me, 
and said they were going to Prairie du Ghien, my fears with those 
of men were somewhat allayed. I wrote with my pencil a hasty 

i nc 10 mj wife, which the Indians promiied to deliver, but thej 
never did, as they did not go there. 

This day, the 26th of June, we proceeded up the Wisconsin with, 
out seeing any IndiaiiS until we came near Prairie du Baie, when 
an Indian, uloiie ir. a hr.nting canoe, cainu out of some nook and 
approach^:*i us. He was piiUen, and we could get no tajk out of 
hiui. We landed <»ii PrrJrie du Baie, and lie stopped also ; and, 
a fu'.v iiioraciitB thereaftei, a canine of ilenomonees arrived from 
Prairie <lu Ciiicn, bringing a brief note from JoiixMaash, saying 
the Wiiinebagoes had murJered a man of mixed French and negro 
blood, named Rijlsie Gaumee, and Solomon Lu'cap, and forme, 
for Gjd'a sake, to return. I imnieJiately got into the canoe with 
the Alenomonees, and directed my men to proceed to the Portage, 
and If I did not overtake them, to go on to Green Bay. I pro- 
ceeded down the river with the Monomonees, and when wo had 
descended to the neighborhood where we had fallen in with the 
Indians the day before, we met Waii-wau-peck-ah coming up in 
his hunting canoe alone, having with him his two guns. He en- 
quired if I was going to the Prairie ' I told him I was. He 
then told rae that the whisKey at the Prairie was shut up, but did 
not tell me of the murders, and asked me that sliould he come to 
the Prairie, whether I would let him have some whiskey ! I told 
him I certainly would, if he brought some furs, not wishing then 
to make any explanation, or to enter into any argument with him. 

About this time, we heard back of an island, and on the south- 
ern shore of the Wisconsin, the Winnebagoes singing their war 
aongs and dancing, with which I was familiar ; and so well satis- 
fied was I that Wau-wau-pece-ah was only seeking a favortble 
opportunity to shoot me, that if I had had a gun where he met ub, 
I believe tliat I should hare shot him. After talking with himf 
the Menomonees moved down the river, and arrived at themoath 
of the Wisconsin about dark, without seeing any more Wione* 
bagoes. It was so dark that the Menomonees thoight that we 
had better stop until morning, and we accordingly crawled into 


the bnsbeB without a fire, and fought musq^aitoes all night, and 
the next morning, the 27th, proceeded to the Prairie. I went to 
znj house and found it vacant, and went to the old Tillage where 
I found mj family, and most of the inhabitants of the Prairie, as- 
sembled at the house of Jbah Bbunet, who kept a tavern. Mr. 
Bbunst had a quantity of square timber about him, and the peo- 
ple proposed building breast-works with it. 

I learned on my arrival at the Prairie, that on the preceding 
day, the 26th, Red Bird, (who, when dressed, always wore a red 
coat^ and called himself English,) went to my house, with two 
other Indians^ and entering the cellar kitchen, loaded their guns 
in the presence of the servant girl, and went up through the hall 
into Mrs. Lookwood's bed-room, where she was sitting alone. 
The moment the Indians entered her room, she believed they 
came to kill her, and immediately passed into and through the 
parlor, and crossed the hall into the store to her brother, where 
she found Duncan Graham, who had been in the country about 
forty years as a trader, and was known by all the Indians as an 
Englishman. He had been a captain in the British Indian De- 
partment during the war of 1812, and a part of the time was 
commandant at Prairie du Chien. The Indians followed Mrs. 
LooKwooD into the store, and Mr. Gbahah by some means in- 
duced them to leave the house. 

They then proceeded to MoNais's Ooulee, about two miles from 
the village, at the lower end of Prairie du Ohien, where lived 
RuxsTX Gaonisb, son of the noted Mabt Ann, heretofore men- 
tioned ; his wife was a mixed blood of French and Sioux extrac- 
tion, with two children ; and living with him was an old dis- 
charged American soldier by the name of Solomon Lipcap. The 
Winnebagoes commenced a quarrel with Gagnieb, and finally shot 
him, I believe in the house. Lipcap, at work hoeing in the gar- 
den near the house, they also shot During the confusion, Mrs. 
Gaonieb seized a gun, got out at the back window with her 
boy about three years old on her back, and proceeded to the vil- 


lage with the startling newB. The cowardly Indians followed her 
a part of the way, but dared not attaok her. On her arrival at 
the village, a party went to the scene of murder, and found and 
brought away the dead, and the daughter of Mr. Gaonikb, about 
one year old, whom the mother in her fright had forgotten. The 
Indians had scalped her, and inflicted a severe wound in her 
neck, and left her for dead , and had thrown her under the bed, 
but was found to bo still alive. She got well, and arriving at 
womanhood got married, and has raised a family of children ; she 
is yet alive, and her eldest daughter was but recently married. 

The people had decided not to occupy the old fort, as a report 
had been circulated, that the Indians had said they intended to 
bum it if the inhabitants should take refuge there. During the 
day of the 27th, the people occupied themselves in making some 
breast-works of the timber about Mr. Betjnet's tavern, getting the 
swivel and wall pieces from the fort, and the condemned muskets 
and repairing them, and concluded they would defend themselves, 
each commanding, none obeying, but every one giving his opinion 

About sunset one of the two keel-boats arrived that had a few 
days previously gone to Fort Snelling with supplies for the garri- 
son, having on board a dead Indian, two dead men of the crew, 
and four wounded. The dead and wounded of the crew were in- 
habitflints of Prairie du Chien, who had shipped on the up-bound 
trip. They reported that they had been attacked the evening be- 
fore, about sunset, by the Winnebago Indians,* near the mouth 
of the Bad Ax Biver, and the boat received about five hundred 
ahots, judging from the marks on its bow and sides. The Indians 

• £x-6oT. RsTHOLDS, of niinoLg, in hia recent interestiDg volnm* of his Lift •nd\Timt, thoj sUtei 
the immediate caom of thli attack, and which, if true, exhibiti the hoatmcn and wffa^eurt in no eaHa- 
VU light : That eomewhere abore Prairie da Chien on their upward trip, they itopped at n laxft <mp 
•f Winnabago Indiana, gare them liqnor tnelj and got them drunk, when thej forced dz or avfon 
tquswa, itupefled with liquor, on board the boata, for corrupt <xnd hruUU purpous, and kept thaa darinK 
ttflir TojafB to Fort Snelling, and on their return, Whon the Winnebago Indiana became m¥^ ind 
HbDj eonedoua of the hgjuiy done them, thej muatered all their forces^ amoontLng to aertxal baaAicdt 
and ftttacked the fbramoat of the deaeeading boatf in whieh thtlr ■quAWi w«ia eonflned. L. C. D. 


were moeilj on an island on the west of the channel, near to which 
the boat had to paee, and the wind blowiDg strong from the east, 
drifted the boat towards the shore, w£ere the Indians were, as tiie ^ 
steering-bar had been abandoned by the steersman. Daring this 
time, two of the Indians succeeded in getting on board of the 
boat. One of them mounted the roof, and fired in from the fore 
part; bnt he was soon shot, and fell off into the river. The other 
Indian took the steering oar, and endeavored to steer the bokt to 
the island. He was also shot, and brought down in tho boat where 
he fell. Daring all this time the Indians kept np a hot fire. The 
boat was fast drifting towards a sand-bar near the shore, and tiley 
wonld all have been murdered had it not been for the brave, reso- 
lute conduct of an old soldier on board, called Sauct Jack, (his 
surname I do not remember,) who, during the hottest of the fire, 
jumped over at the bow, and pushed tho boat off, and where he 
must have stood, the boat was literally covered with ball marks, 
80 that his escape seemed a miracle.^ They also reported that 
early the day before the attack, they were lashed to the other boat 
drifting, and that they had grounded on a sand-bar and separated,, 
since which time they had not seen or heard any thing of the 
other boat, and thought probably that it had fallen into the handa 
of the Indians. 

This created an additional alarm among the inhabitants. Tho 
same evening my boat retdrned, the men becoming too much 
alarmed to proceed. That night sentinels were posted by the in- 
habitants within the breast work6,who saw, in imagination, a great 
many Indians prowling about in the darkness ; and in the morn- 
ing there was a great variety of opinion, as to what was best to 
be done for the safety of the place, and appearances betokened a 
great deal of uneasiness in the minds of all classes. 

• Got. Rbt^olds add*, that Sauot Jack, ai he waa called, waa a lailor by profession on the lakea and' 
oomn, aod bad been in naaj batUei with the .Srttiiili darinf( the war of 2812-*16; he waa largtwid 
pteoag, and poiaeMed the eoniaga of an AfH«aa lion, and aeizinf a piece of the aettinff pole of the boat 
irhldi waa about fear feet loni;, and had on the end a pieee of iron^ which made It a more weight/ and 
fovaMaUe weapon, he need it with great eflMit wlwn the Indians attempted to board the boat^ Knocidnff 
Ihfln baek into the xiver aa flMt aa they approached. Snohaniaalanoe of gignallieroifiaijcnoa^to 
render aaj van fiunouR, and we ahonld be glad to learn more of Sacct Jack's hiiitorj. L. C. D. 


On the morning of the 28th, I slept rather late, owing to the 
fSatigue of the preceding day. Mj brother-in-law awakened me, 
and told me the people had got into some difficnltji and that they 
wished me to come out, and see if I could not settle it. I went 
oat on the gallery, and enquired what the difficulty was ; and 
heard the various plans and projects of defence proposed by 
different persons. Some objected to staying in the village, and 
protecting the property of the villagers, while theirs, ontude ilie 
Tillage, was equally exposed to the pillage of the Lidians. Others 
were for remaining and fortifying where they were, and others 
still urged the repairing of the old fort. As the eminence on 
which my house stood overlooked the mot^t of the Prairie, some 
were fur concentrating our people there, and fortifying it After 
hearing these dilicrcnt projects, I addressed them something as 
follows : " As to your fortifying my house, you can do so, if it is 
thought best, but I do not wish you to go there to protect it ; I 
have abandoned it, and if the Lidiaus bum it, so be it; but there 
is one thing, if wc intend to protect ourselves from the Indians, 
we must keep together, and some one must command." 

Some one then nominated me as commander, but I said, ^No, I 
would not attempt to command you, but here is Thoxas McNaik, 
who holds from the governor a comnussion of captain over the 
militia of this place, and has a right to command ; if yon will 
agree to obey him implicitly, I will set the example of obedience 
to his orders, and will, in that case, furnish you with powder and 
lead as long as you want to shoot, (I being the only person having 
those articles in the place :) but unless you agree to obey McNab, 
I will put my family and goods into my boats and go down the 
river, as I will not risk myself with a mob, under no controL" — 
Upon this they immediately agreed to acknowledge Mr. McMais 
as commander, and I was satisfied that he would take advice up- 
on all measures undertaken. Josei^h Jh^ignois was lienteoant, and 
Jean Bbdnet was ensign, both duly commissioned by the gover- 
nor. Captain McNaib ordered a move of all the familioe, goods, 


with the old gnnsy to the fort, and it was near sunset before we 
had all got moved there. 

About that time we discoTered the skiff of the other keel-boat 
coming aronnd the point of an island near Yellow Kiyer) about 
three miles distant ; but we could not discover whether they were 
white men or Indians in the * canoe, and of course it created an 
alarm, but in a few moments tliereafter; the keel-boat hove in 
sight, and the alarm ceased. It soon arrived, reporting that they 
had received a few shots in passing the places where the other 
boat had been attacked, but had received no injury. On this boat 
Jo&EPH Snelltng, son of Col. Swelling, returned to Prairie du 
Chien. Joseph Snelltng and myself aoted as supcmumerariea 
under Captain McNaie. The government of Fort Crawford was 
conducted by a council of the Captain and those who acted under 
him. It was immediately resolved to repair the old fort as well 
as possible for defence, and the fort and block-house were put in 
as good order as circumstances and materials would admit. Dirt 
was thrown up two or three feet high around the bottom logs 
of the fort, which were rotten and dry, and would easily ignite. 
Joseph Snelling was put in command of one of the block houses, 
and JeanI^vnkt of the other, with a few piqked men in each| 
who. were trained to the use of the swivel and wall pieces that 
were found and mounted therein : and a number of barrels were 
placed around the quarters filled with water, wi^h orders in case . 
of an attack to cover the roof of the buildings with blankets, &c.,' 
and to keep them wet. All the blacksmiths wore put in requisi- 
tion to repair the condemned muskets found in the fort, and, mus-. 
tering our force, wo found of men and women about ninety that 
could haudle a musket in case of an attack. 

The next day after taking possession of the fort, J. B. Loteb, 
an old voyaffeuTy was engaged to cross the Mississippi and go back 
through the country, now the State of Iowa, to inform Col. Snkd- 
us^j commanding Fort Snelling, of our situation. For this ser- 
Yioe Lover was promised fifty dollars, and furnished with ahorse 


v.'.">u'.y li.ii., r.-i wli.fli lu' wiiH l(» receive rwEmT- aa-isa. jn- 

* ^ ' __ ^ • 

vi«io'ifc ;nj'l li hoiPii I.I ihio; mwl fi»r these pBjmemE. -. :«aiD€ 

«i.ivc«ji.*» i1a«, uliii liiitl r.nuo to Butte des Mora. zcii^Fox 
rivij, I., 1...1.1 ii hoit(> Willi llu» Winnebagoes, le^rLinr i-isi ra- 
jiiiir tliai iliiiii wan ilinhiiiihruciioii amoDg thexTi, Eiamc in his 
iujiur., mul uiiixiMl 111 Piiiiiio an Chien on the morning of tk^ 
tiiuiili i.r Jiilx . Ilo luilnva iho oonipany of militia in» the ser- 
vile- III ihr I iiiinl Sttttrrs iiihl rtppointed me quarter-master and 
^lllllllli^^:ln, \m{\\ \\iv \kx\\wM ihrtt 1 would usc mv own funds for 
the ^.iii.plv o( t!u- iU'ii:utuuMU, :ind that he would see it refunded; 
aiuU l'urihoni.ort\ :\*siuuoa iho doht for ammunition and provis- 
ioub iihvadv adNAnoca. juid h'^.» tho expenses of the express to 
Fort S:!.:::;-.,:. aircoioa ir.o t.> issuo to the troops a keel-boat 
load .f i ur, :ha: 1 j nnioiuslv ivi'i-.rtod for to one of the agents 
cf the L\ Liractors :\c Vovl Siullini:, who feared to go farther 
with ::. 

After thofo arrR!^irt".'.uMU!^ Imd boon made, Gov. Cass proceeded 
in his cano»e to G.ile:i:i. auil rai^od a volunteer company under the 
late Cv^l. Ar»NF.i: KiFnv- :\!i i-aiiain, and assigned himthecommand 
of FcTt Crawiord. lliniciiani Martin Thomas of the U.S. ordi- 
nance departnunt, .niul iliou ^tiitioned at the arsenal near St. 
L.■^ni^. who haj^j'i-ni-il t- l.i- at Galena, c.ime up and mustered flie 
rwL' compair.e> of ilu- inilitin ihtothcserviceof the United States; 
and contraoti-rl w'wh I'mM. a> 1*{.ack. of the village of Louisiaaa, 
in Missonri. m!k«iii lu- iV.^inl at Galena, for a quantitr of poik 
whitl: wri^ m:h iij- i.\ i!u- !• 'jiT that l-roughi the vc'.nzteer com- 
pany. Gov. c^\^^ J ruci'i'iiiVi fnan Galena t»SL Louis tc* CuZifer 
with General Atkin>»»n, ilioii in ivimmand of Jeffert^o* Barrs 
and i'f the westt-ri; uiujijtiv ui-partn.ent. This resulted iii i 
Atk.iksh:«V nio\ ihir up ihi* Mi^Mi^Mppi with the disj»>a*-tl"e i 
under his conimand ut Jolierson Barrackf. Durinir txu» uzu^' 
fiKELLix.., caiuc J'»w:i v\ic Mi&;&is^ip}>i. \r:tL two comT>arie* re" C 



fifth regiment of IT. S. Infantry, and assumed the command of 
Fort Crawford) and soon after discharged the Galena yolnnteer 
company,^ as the j conld not well be brought nnder military disci- 
pline. Ent the Prairie da Ohien company was retained in serrice 
until some time in the month of Angnst, for which serrice, thronf^ 
the i^nlt of some one, they never received any pay. 

Daring this time General Atkinson arrived with the troops 
from Jefferson Barracks, having on his way np dispatched a vol- 
unteer force under General Dodgb from Galena, to proceed by 
land to the Portage of Wisconsin. When General Atkinson 
with great difficulty, owing to the low state of the water in the 
Wisconsin, arrived at the Portage, he met old grey-headed Dat* 
KAu-RAT with his baud, who finding himself surrounded by the 
volunteers in the rear, and General Atkinson's force of regulars 
in front, and a company of volunteers from Green Bay, concluded 
to disclaim any unfriendly feelings towards the United States, and 
disavowed any connection with the murders on the Mississippi. 
Gen. Atkinson, on these assurances of Dat-kau-say, returned, but 
ordered the occupation of Fort Crawford by two companies of 
troops. Notwithstanding these murders of our citizens and move- 
ments of troops, the wise men at Washington, with about as much 
judgment as they generally deeide upon Indian affairs, decided 
that this was not an Indian war. 

After the people had taken possession of the fort, and before 
the arrival of General Oass, Indians were seen in the village, and 
a guard was sent out to take them and bring them to the fort. 
They made no resistance, but surrendered themselves, and were 
brought to the guard-house. One proved'to be the famous Bed 
BnuD, who headed the party that murdered Gaonieb and Lipoaf ; 
another was Wah-wau-pbck-ah, the Indian I had met up the Wia- 
eonsin river, and whose conduct had so much alarmed me and my 
men ; the other was a young Indian whose name I do not recol- 
lect. There being no charge of crime against Wah-wah-peok-ah 
and the young Indian, after the United States troops were sta- 


tioned at Fort Crawford, they were discharged ; and Bed Bibd 
was retained in the guard-house, where he died before he was 
tried for the murder of Gagnieb and Lipcap. 

The first Sunday-school established in the place was by my fijnst 
wiie, Mrs. Juuanna Lockwood. Mrs. Lockwood was raised among 
the Presbyterians or Congregationalists of New England, and 
early imbibed the strong prejudices ef those people against the 
Boman Catholics, but afterwards, having lived in Canada two or 
three years, and having become intimately acquainted with seve- 
ral ladies of that faith, who were apparently good pious people, 
she concluded that there were good and bad among all sects or 
denominations calling themselves Christians, and her early preju- 
dices in a great measure wore off. We were married in the sum- 
mer of the year 1824, and came to Prairie du Chien in the au- 
tumn. There was not at that time any church or meeting to 
attend on Sunday. Even the Boman Catholics had a priest visit 
them only occasionally, and Mrs. Lockwood having been accus- 
tomed to see tlie children collected in Sunday-schools, and seeing 
a large number playing about the streets on the sabbath, con- 
cluded it would be doing them a good service to gather them into 
a Sunday-schoc^, and proposed to Miss Crawfokd, a young lady 
raised in the place, who spoke English and French fluently, and 
who had a good common education, to assist her. To this she 
agreed at once, and they influenced Dr. Edwin James,* surgeon 
of the U. S. army, then stationed at Fort Crawford, and John H. 
KiNziE, Esq., formerly of Chicago, then quite a young man, in 
the employment of the American Fur Company at Prairie du 
Chien, to assist them. They collected the children, and com*: 
menced their school in the spring of 1826, and continued it until 
the winter following, but not without opposition. As this measnra 
did not originate with Mr. Bolbtte, he felt bound to oppose it 
He took what he thought would be the most effectual mode of 

* Dr. Jaicu aeeoBpaaied MiJ. Losra's expadiUoo to th« Raekj MonnUiat la 1819-*20^ of wbkh kt 
wrote a XamtlTe, pobllBhed in 1828, in fhre« Tolamei ; tnd, in 1830, app««re4 Tuum*! Indian Naxit- 
tift^ €f irMch he wai the editor. U a It 


suppressiDg it, by going to the mothers of the children who at- 
tended the school, and representing to them that it was the design 
to make Protestants of the children. To counteract Mr. BolettBi 
they introduced and taught the children the Boman Catholic cat- 
echism, finding nothing to their minds very objectionable in it; 
and, as I said before, they continued their school until winter,' 
during which time Dr. Ja^ies was ordered to some other post. In 
the spring of 1838, my wife and myself went to New York ; Misa 
Crawford accompanied us as far as Mackinaw, where she re- 
mained until she was married. Mr. Kikzib went also to Macki- 
naw, during which time he received an appointment in the Indian 
department, under Gov. Casr, and went to Detroit to reside. The 
Sunday-school was not again resumed, nor was one again attempt- 
ed in the place until about 1830, when the members of the dif- 
ferent religious denominations united in forming the Union 
Sunday-School. This continued a few years, until the Methodists 
becoming by far the most numerons class, assumed the manage- 
ment of it, since which time they have claimed it as a Methodist 

When the fifth regiment of U. S, Infantry came into the country 
in 1819, and established their head-quarters at the mouth of the 
St. Peter's Kiver, they brought with them a man by the name of 
JoHx Marso, a graduate of some eastern college, as teacher of the 
pi.»st school at head-quarters. He appeared to have a great fond- 
ness for the Sioux Indians, and was endowed with the faculty of 
acquiring languages with great facility ; he soon learned the Sioux 
language, so^ that he spoke it with as great ease as they did them- 
selves. Getting tired of teaching an army school, he came down 
to Prairie da Chien in 1826, and went over to Green Bay, and 
either went to Detroit, or somewhere met Gov. Cass, who was 
much interested in getting Indian information, traditions, anec- 
dotes, tales, &c. He employed Marsh by the month for that pur- 
pose, and procured for him the appointment of Sub-Indian Agent 
at Prairie du Chien, and appointed him Justice of the Peace for 
the county of Crawford. 



nii^ Ai-:ve tils, ani wh:- arriveo a: •:■::: liv-lii:':::, and save the 
irst IrJJ^mat:«:- !»:• :he fort. Alrhou^*; tliere hal been a great 
zr.i:2 -f g::::* aid LaII>:in^ the Liiiar-s, the sentiaela had 
reported sotLir.? of :t to the ofScers: bat or. learinc of thea9air, 
tie comnandant ::::in:ed:ate> dispatcliei r. cjmpanv of men in 
h-oats af^er the Foxes, b:i: ther did not overtake them. The Gov- 
en.i:.eTit dema::ied of ::.:- Sa^ks t> deliver Tip the perpetrators of 
this deed. T::e Foxes ^e ! to the Sauks. an I ieir chief. Kettle, 
bein^ dead, thev remained aiuoDj^" a:: 1 ama'ganiated with them, 
an! have r.t 5:r.:3 eonvlnaed a serarate natira or tribe. I have 
a'wavs Iclieved this to be the orij^In of the P'.ack Hawk war. — 
There 'vere. I sapr se. ther eaases o: disc, nten:, but I believe 
that this transaction wa? the immediate cause ot ilie moTements 
of Black Hawk. 

In ISSO, t'.e present For: Cra-vf 'rd was co:n:nenceJ, aad, in 
1S31, it v.-a= cccupicl 'vlth a par: f t'.e ""■.•p-. !eavis^ the sict 
It. the oM hospital, and t}.e siir^'O".-^ ir. the • 11 :ort. The f;.rt, I 
thir.!:, wfis tiiiished ::\ l^SJ. In l^Z^-, the authorities of Crawford 
couT-ty concIudc'L; to }uV. \ n ■? urt ho"?:- av.l ;:v!j aiul commenced 
raiitiiJL' fiiiilsbv incroasirir the taxes : a:;-:, in IrS^, c./nstructed a 
stone r.":!'!:rjL' of sufH.-'ent size to have on the crround floor a 
ro'-irn each f.r criniiniils i^nd debars, and f.r-. r»:oTns lor the jailer, 
with a court room a!id t'vo jurv rooii^s m the second ll>or. The 
taxable inhabitaT.ti? tLen in the countv wore confir.ed to the Pra- 
r:e. We were then attached to Mieh5!ran Territorv, and so well 
were ' iir cor.ntv aflairs nianacod, that the taxe? were not raised 


more than five mills on a dollar t* pay for this improvement : and 
this was tile first c-iirt V.-'iue erected in Wisconsin. 

Sometime in 1S27 or 'SS, the Chief Justice of the county and 
one of the Ass^'ciate Ju=:tices having removed away, I presnme 
application wastnade v» Governor Cass— I do not know how it 
was, as I was absent from the last of July, 1S27, to the sammer 
of 1829; and Joseph Rolette was appointed Chief Justice, and 
JEA^" Eruxet Associate Justice. When Thomas K BuRNffrr ar- 


rived here, in 1 8S0, ho found the court bo difierent from wh^t he 
had been accuBtomed to, that he at once decided thi^t ho could 
not practice before one organized as ours then was, and made rep- 
resentations ot their proceedings to the Govemory reporting some 
decisions, and sending a petition requesting their removali and 
the appointment of General Joseph M. Stbeet* as Ohief Ji^s- 
tice, and myself and Heboules L. Dousman as Associates. These 
removals and appointments were accordingly made. Mr. Miohael 
Bbisbois, the other Associato Judge, became blind in 1829, and, I 
believe, died in 1887, and by his son, at his request, was buried 
on a prominent bluff back of Prairie du Ohien. 

JoBEFH HoLETTE, of whom I havo so often spoken, was a Cana- 
dian by birth, of French extraction, and an educated man. He 
told me he was educated for the Eoman Catholic church, but not 
liking the x^rofossion, he quit it and served a regular apprentice- 
ship to mercantile business, and, about the year I80ly came to 
Prairie du Chien in business connection with Mr. Ca^ikkon, f an 
old Indian trader who usually resided at Lac-qui-Parle on the 
St. Peter's River. Mr. I^oleite superintended the business at 
the Prairie, and kept the books of the concern ; wintering occa- 
sionally at, and in the vicinity of Lake Pepin, and retnming to 
Prairie du Chien early in the spring, to take advant&ge of the 
spring trade of the Indians visiting here. Mr. HoLBfTE was an 
active merchant and trader, and I suppose would be called a 
clever merchant; that is, he was active in taking every advantage 
of his neighbor for making money, without regard to the morali- 
ty of the transaction. Although he was active in business, and 

* Gen. Stisxt inignta<l froui BlcLiinond, Va., in the winter of 180o-'9i»t to Frankfort, K/., vLcro he 
■oon engaged in tUe publication of the Wettcrn TIt/Wii, aud for scvc-nil vcnrfl took a C'^napicnnas |)art 
in tbo gladiatorial field of Kentucky i>olItl(iA. Appointed, iu 1S2S, to the Indian Agencjr at PnlriB du 
Cliien, he waa there during the Black Hawk « ar, and that captured chlof waa inrrendorel to him by 
OnE-ETED-PAT-KAU-iur and iwrtj ; and ho died on tlic Dcs Moinej* }«{ver, Igwo, Ashilo Acreiit for the 
Sinks and Fox«r, May 5tti,'19M, at a<>out the a^ of sixty years. L. C. D. 

^yiDm the Annala of the HinMwta niatorieBl Sodcty, we learn that Caubov had hit trading poit 
towaxda the sonrcei of the Minnetota : tliat he vat a ihrewd and daring Scotchman, and dltdln 1811 : 
and tfaa ipot where he waa buried, on thi> Upper MlnneMta, la known to thLi day m Cemtr9**i Orrnv*- 
lfVB90GS Cakibox left behind him a name of mach celebrity in the Notth-Weit. L. C. D. 


used every exertion to make moaev, :t was not with the miserlj 
disposition of hoarding it, for he was e|TiaIIr liberal in scattering 
it. Among many bad qualities as a citizei:, Mr. Eolette yet pos- 
sessed many redeeming traits. He was hospitable and generons, 
and liberal to the poor, and There a had met with loss by 
accider.t, he was generally one of the 5rst to aff-^rd relief; and, 
for an India", trader, he had cor.5iJerab!e enterprise for the pros- 
perity and improvement •: f the coTintry. 1 1 eliove that he intro- 
dnccd the first swine into the conntrv, but am not sure that STich 
is the fact; I know that he introduce! the first sheep, and that he 
was mnch imposed on in the purchase. He barj;a:ned with an 
American below this Mn the Mississippi, t Jo-iver him a cerr:iin 
nnmber of ewes at the Prairie. T!vo man bi rusht the nnnil-er of 
sheep, and told liim they were accor Jir.g to cor.tract, and Mr. Ro- 
LETTH knowing very little about sheep, counted them and directed 
his man to take them to his farm, and paid for them agreeabljr to 
contract, and aAer a while some one examined them, and found 

that instead of ewes thev were nearlv all wethers. 


About 1840, a man by the name of Ma^^da^, who was a tan- 
ner and currier, came to this place, and proposed to set np his 
bosinefis here, but not having the necessary means, Mr. Bolette 
advanced them to him ; but it turned out a jh^jt adventure. I 
must here relate an anecdote of Eoletie. His ambition was al- 
ways to be ahead of me in ovorythiiig. I think that some time 
in 1823, 1 mentioned to some person that I tiiought a distillery 
would do well at the Prairie, and that I would introduce some 
rye ; and if I could induce the French to raise it on the front of 
their farms that were sandy, I would build a distillery, but wished 
to get the rye growing first. Mr. Rolette hearing of my suo^- 
geation, concluded at once that he would build a distillery ; aod 
in going to Mackinaw, he fell in with a man by the name of Ope- 
zis, who had been a captain in the army, and had been cashiered 
by coart*martial, and being without means of support, was ready 
for almost anything. He persuaded Mr. Bolette, that he was a 


scientiiic man, and could do almost any thingi and eBpeciallj was 
well acquainted with distilling. Mr. Bolbttb enjpiged himi and 
bronght him to the Prairie^ in 1824 ; bnt as the distillery was 
not yet bnilt, Mr. Solhttb employed him as a teacher in his 
fiunily, for which he was very well qualified. Daring this time 
Mr. BaLBTTB ordered and received the coppers and other appara- 
tus for his distillery. For some reason, the building of the disttf- 
leiy was delayed until the sprang of 1828, when a man by the 
name of Giafok, a Canadian by birth, clerk of our circuit court, 
and fond of a joke, told Mr. Bolbttjb one day, that I would make 
him build a distillery ; that I had only to say that I was going to 
build one, and he would be certain to immediately do so. It was 
not true that I had ever said so to Giapon, but Mr. Soletts soon 
after sent his coppers and other apparatus to St. Louis, and noth- 
ing more was heard of the distillery. 

It was 80 well understood that Mr. Rolbtte would oppose any 
measure that he did not introduce, that when I wished to carry 
out any object without opposition, that I considered for the public 
good, I would get some person to go to Mr. Bolvtte and tell him 
that I was going to introduce such a measure, and I would soon 
after hear that Mr. Bolbtte was going to do the same thing. I 
would of course second him and we would get along without any 
difficulty. Mr. Bolette was evidently the first man of this little 
village when he came to the country, and some may say that in 
representing his foibles, I have maliciously taken advantage of 
him, as he cannot now answer for himself. As we were for seve- 
ral years opposing candidates for the rank* and consideration of 
the first man of our little village, and were rival Indian traders, 
I have introduced our respective names only when necessary to 
elucidate the events in the history of the region of Prairie du 

Col. Hebculss L. Dousmak came to the Prairie in the autumn 
of 1827, in the employ of the American Fur Company, and has 
ever since steadily pursued what he appeared to have most taste 


for. :he acct^ianl&tioa or wealth, until at tnU tise he is CMiaidered 
very wealLbj. 

In speakiDg of the ear> settlers, and their marriage connec- 
tion;. I Biionld perLaps explain a little. In the absence of reli- 
gious instrr'^tiooB, and it becc»n:ing so common to see the Indians 
use so little cerenrionv about marriage, tha idea of a verbal ma- 
triniOLial contract became familiar to the earlv French settlers, 
and thev ^enera.Ir believed that such a contract of marriase was 
vali*^! "withoat anv other ceremonv. Manv of the women, married 
in this "wav, believed, in their simi>Iicitr and ieaorance, that thev 
were a= ia^uljv the wives '•: the men thev lived with, as though 
they }i&d been married with all the ceremonv and solemnity pos- 
sib!*:. A woman of PrAirie dn Chien, respectable in her class. 
told ::.^z she ;ras attci.iiL^ a ball in the place, and that a tra- 
der. v.-:..j r jiLded on the Lower ^ssissippi, had his can^.^ loaded 
to leave as 3 ^on as the bail was '.verj proposed to marry her ; aud 
as he wfl^": a trader and rankci above her, she was pleased with 
the 'jtier, a:id as his canoe was in waiting, he would not delay for 
further ceremony. She stepped from the bali-room on board Lis 
canoe, and went with him down the Mississippi, and they lived 
together three or four years, and she had two children by him. 
She assured me that she then believed herself as much the wife 
of this man as if she had been married with all the ceremony 01 
the most civilized communities, and was not convinced to the con- 
trary, until he unfeelingly abandoned her, and married another ; 
and from her manner of relating it, I believed her sincere. 

In 1S16, at the time of my advent to Wisconsin, the Menomc- 
nees mhabitcd the country about Green Bay, and their womei'- 
occasionally married Winnebagoes, but not often. The Menonao- 
nees are a quiet and peaceful race, well disposed, and have al- 
ways, since their acquaintance, been friendly to the whites. Xomah, 
the acting chief of the nation, was highly spoken of by all the 
traders as a great and good man. It was related to me bj some 
of the traders at that period, I believe it was Judge Laws, that at 

/ 17' 


tho time of the general combination of the Indians under Ponti* 
Ao, in 1763, for the doatraction of all the English in the westehi 
country, the Monomonees under their chief Tomah, went to the 
officer in command of the British fort at Green Bay, consisting of 
about twenty men, and informed him of the plot for tlicir destruc- 
tion, in common with other garrisons, but if he would abandon 
the fort, an<i he and his men surrender up their arms, that he, To- 
M/ur, and his people would conduct them safely to Montreal. The 
officers and men yielded up their arms to Tomaii, except Sergeant 
NonLEsi, who declared that lie would never surrender Iii.s gun to 
an Indian, and was finally allowed to retain it. All were safely 
conveyed in cannes to Montreal ; and Sergeant, for his 
fearless conduct, though he could nut be promoted, having a fam- 
ily, ho was fiivorod with a discharge, and engaging in his trade 
of a shoemaker, eventually became wealthy. But as I see no 
special mention made of it in Lieutenant Gorrkll's Journal of 
those tiuies, published in the first volume of Oollections of the 
"Wisconsin Historical Society, I conclude there must be S'>me 
mistake about it.* 

The princi|)al villages of tho Winnebagoes were at tho lower 
and uj^per end of the lake of that name, with an occasional lodge 
along the Fox river. At the season that traders generally passed 
the Portage of Wisconsin, they would find old grey headed Day- 

*TliU trA'Iitlon, jud^In^ from QokRKr.i.*s Journal nnd PaRRMan's Hliitorj of tbc Cuimplrar} or Poir- 
TIAO, e&nnut In refrankHl iia rHlftU<*t It Is certain tliat Llcat. Gokbbll anU hilt iupd ma'lo no tnirroader 
of thcmtoheii or Mnurt, anil that the Meuomoneoa and -olliorfi, conducted Uicm !•> the Tillage of L'jVrUre 
Croche, in the rCKtou of Mac.Uiiiaw, whrnco tho Mononionct^s returned to Orocn tiay. llut tlii^ tradi- 
tion wn-o* To counrni uiin Uiv belief, that TosiMl or CARiunr was much ohlor than ropres'outed by tho 
ioierlption on Lin tomb-stone, and thai he wan a man of conwqnenrc during the iKtrder war* o{ 1755 
to 17C3. In (iOKUE,LL*3 Juuriuil, rcfi*rring to tho I'vcntsi of ISth May, 17^.'), In^ Piif^a^s thus: "Tho 
Ckleb [of tlic Henomotiee*] woro much diRpIeasod at Cakrot'b g«ttiuf; a prr-cnt flmmBIr. Gopdard of 
ft fine suit of cmbroldenH] duth^'R. This Cabkot wsn much thought of by Uie Fn-udi." This rufen 
uodouhtodly to the noMe Tomaii or Caxkox ; and w^ liiipo h«»r^aft»?r to 1)P aMo to pre}'.in«, for i-^mo fa- 
turp voIuiiiC of the Socloty't Collpctlors", a more c\tpu^^^I and detalli-d a«'«'OTjnt nf Jjis Tlfoand dmracter 
than has y^t bnrn vriven. What wati recorded of hln In onrlnut year's Report ar.r! ColI«H:t{i)ns, excited 
li Interest in the histny of this braTe and f^eroiirf chief. 11 1^ noblomv^i and irenoroMty of char- 
n reflect real honor on the TnAan raeo, and OA the Menofmonees enperlnlly : nnd it Khoald bo tfao 

8(nd p1ea5iir<> of oar Bistorical BoelAty to aptn oo pnlna to search ont and pamer up emj hot 
vslMrti nioatrfttiTe of tho ouvor of to traly grsat $mA worthy a WlMoniln chieftain. L. 0. D. 



Eau-bat at tho Portage with his band. Their village was a 
short distance from there up the Wisconsin, and the Winnebagoes 
had villages np the Manois [?] and on the Baraboo Rivers, and 
several small ones along down the Wisconsin to near its mouth. 
They were estimated at that time by the traders best acquainted 
with them, to be about nine hundred warriors stroBg. Of the 
Dat-Ejlubays, there were four or five brothers, who were all 
influential men in the nation, and I knew one sister who had a 
family of children by a trader named LEcurKR, who had married 
her after the Indian manner. Tradition says that their father was 
a French trader, who during tlie time the French had possession 
of the country, married a Winijebag'> woman, the daughter of the 
principal chief of the nation, by whom he had these sons and 
daughter ; that at the time the country was taken possesdion of 
by the English, he abandoned tliem, and they were raised among 
the Indians, and being the descendants of a chief on the mother's 
side, when arrived at manhood they assumed the dignity of tlieir 
rank by inheritance. They were generally good Indians, and fre- 
quently urged their claims to the friendship of the whites, by say- 
ing they were themselves half white.* 

I suppose that having been so long among the Indians, it will 
be expected that I should give some account of their manners, 
customs, religions ceremonies, &c. ; but of the Indians who in- 
habit Wisconsin, I can gay very little. The ludiaus who vi&it a 
trading post like Prairie du Chien, are generally seen in their 
worst state, and I always had such a dislike io the Winnebagoes, 
that I never sought to learn their language, or much of their cus- 
toms or ceremonies. The Indians with whom I am most familiar 
are the Sioux, with whom I spent three winters in their own 
country, where I saw many Indians who had never seen any 

*Mn. Kiinii coavejr* the idea, that thej boMted of s nmota eroM of French t4ood Ini 
tUMntion ; that they poueeied remarkablj huideome fiuitarefl, and their mother wm lirinf at kto M 
3I31,theimppoMdtobeoT«roiiebiuidzed je«nofage,' Y" ^rrvt 'HrFgrtW irnt nf tht PHT^E^lTT- 
BAT8 MS *'p<^dold chief'— the aune donbtleH^ mentlotied tj Judge Logkwoqd ; and " rf^^. Mi 
Toy utipodet, waa not iiuippropttetelj called Uueal Oat-Kau-«lat ; and th« 0iM-l^j«d JUT-JUv-lAf 
«udiatliigQiahedfortIitpartlMtookl]ithaeiptveotBx.AOKH4WK. UOLS. 


white men, except occasionally a trader. But none of the Sioux 
have ever resided within the limits of our State, although they 
were at one time included within the Territory of Wisconsin, 
when what is now Iowa and Minnesota formed a part of thatTer- 
ritory. Of them I will endeavor to give some account. 

And, firstly, of their marriages. When a young Indian desires 
to marry, he invites his relatives, who are near or in camp, to a 
feast, and informs them that he wishes a certain girl for his wife. 
If they are in favor of the match, they immediately collect goods 
and suitable articles for a present to the relations of the desired 
one. One gives a gun, another a blanket, and another a kettle or 
horse, as they may happen to possess at the time. When the ool- 
lection is completed, some of the relatives carry the presents to 
the lodge of the father of the young woman ; one of them express- 
ing in song the object for which they are intended, and leave the 
things at the door and retire. If the father is favorably disposed to 
the match, he invites all his relatives that are near to a feast, and 
when assembled, if they conclude to give the girl in marriage to 
the young man, each takes of the articles such as he can return in 
kind ; for instance, if one can return a gun, horse, kettle, blanket 
or other articles, he takes such an article ; and presents in this 
way are made up by the relatives of the desired bride, generally 
of the same kind of articles they have received, and taken, to- 
gether with herself, to the lodge of the young man with singing, 
&c. After which she returns again to the lodge of her father, 
where they usually reside, th% son-in-law hunting for the father- 
in-law until about the time the oldest child can walk, after which 
he generally gets a lodge for himself. A small apartment is pe- 
titioned off in the lodge of the father-in-law for the young couple. 
The young man generally during the day is out hunting, and 
seldom visits the lodge of his bride until the others have gone to 
sleep, when he crawls into the lodge. There is no familiarity be- 
tween the parents of the bride and their son-in-law. If he is 
eyer in their presence, he appears ashamed, and seldom speaks to 
them. If he wants to communicate to them, it is done throu^ 


his wife ; aDd if he happens to be in a traders houee, and either 
father or mother-in-law enters, he generally retires. Sach is 
Sionz etiquette between these relations. 

Of births. As soon as a cLild is born, the motherges into the 
water, and stands in it r.ver her waist, and bathes herself for some 
considerable length of time. If in winter, she has a hole cut in 
the ice, through which she enters and bathes. 

Deaths and burials. When a person dies, is decorated 
in all of his or her iiiu-ry, and fuur forks or crotches are cut and 
stuck in the ground, up.»u which u scatiold is made, and the de- 
ceased wrapped in a lcwIv j^ai.iU-d buffalo fckiu or new blanket, 
and laid there ^u with sonic ceremony. If the death takes place 
at a trader's house in the tall i)titbi'e they go to their hunt, an old 
woman, a relative of the deceiised, is left there to feed and cry 
over the dead during the ubbenoc of the others. She usually 
goes about dark in the evening with a dish of provisions, and sits 
down under the scaifold, and commences crying and howling, 
with loud lamentations, and calling upon the Great Spirit some- 
thing as follows : Wah kawtonggaw^ oh she mendok (naming 
the deceased) with other cries, which moan — Great Spirit, have 
mercy on the deceased, <$lc. This doleful noise is very unpleas- 
ant, and after continuing it Tor about an hour, she leaves the dish 
of food under the scaffold, and returns to the jodge, and the 
dogs or wolves eat the provisions, when the Indians suppose the 
dead eat them. The corpse is 16ft in this manner until nothing 
remains but the bones, when they are collected and carried to 
their village. Atone time at my house in St, Peters, au Indian 
of some note, who had four giown daughters, had a deatli in his 
family, and he named four ycung men to build the scaffold and 
put the corpse thereon, and when concluded, he rewarded each 
with one of his daughters for a wife. 

When a deatli happens in a family, no matter how well they 

are clothed, the good clothes are stripped off and given away, 

it: And ^^ worst old leather rags substituted in their place, besmear- 


ing their hair, handa and face with dirt, leaving the hair on* 
combedtomat with .the dirt, gashiog thoir legs and arme, and 
leaving them to get well without the least attention. Some of 
them carry their grief so far as to raise the skin of their arms and 
pierce holes with their knaves, and put pegs through. They con* 
tinue their mourning about a year, although by giving a feast and . 
performing certain ceremonies they can be relieved from their 
mourning in a much less time. 

Keligious superstitions, &c. Wawkaw, in their language, sig- 
nifies a spirit or spiritual.' The French have interpreted or render- 
ed it medicine, but the Indians call the Great Spirit or God Waw- 
SAW TONG-OAw, the latter part signifying great. The devil they 
call WaW'KAw-shb-coh, the latter part signifying iad. It is dif- 
ficult to get an Indian to talk on the subject of his religious belief| 
but my interpreter, who was a half breed, informed me that they 
believe, that the great Good Spirit resides in a beautiful country 
of good hunting ground, and where there is everything in abun- 
dance that an Indian can desire, even a plurality of beautiful 
wives. But to get there, they must bo good Indians in this world, 
and perform all their duties well as hunters, warriors, &c. ; that 
on the way to this happy land, there is a deep gulf to pass, with 
a very narrow way to cross it, and that only the good can success* 
fully pass over ; that the bad, in attempting to pass, fall off into 
the gulf, and wander about in a starving condition. They are 
very particular in performing their religious rites by feasts, sacri- 
fices, &c. The first fruits gathered are set apart for the purpose 
of a spiritual or holy feast ; the first corn or wild rlcj of the sea- , 
son, the firot duck or goose killed whuu they appear in the spring, 
are all reserved for the feast ; at which those Indians only who 
are entitled to wear the badge of having slain an enemy, are in- 
vited. The women, and those who have never taken the scalp of 
a foe, no matter how hungry, are never invited to participate* 
You will see boys of sixteen or eighteen years of age at the 
feast, while old gray-headed men are excluded with the women, 


and looked upon as old women, which is a term of great reproach 
among them. We cannot then wonder, that the Indian tribes are 
80 constantlj at war, as it is the only thing that gives them fame 
and consequence among themselves. I was told of a tradition of 
the Sionx, that in ancient times a man coald not get a wife nntil 
he had killed an enemj. The mother trains her sons to believe 
that revenge npon their enemies is a cardinal virtue, and thia ad* 
vice and admonition are constantlj instilled into their minde. 

From early infancy they believe in minor evil spirits, and in 
ghosts who operate npon, and influence them. While sleeping 
in a camp of Indians in the night, you will frequently be awa- 
kened by the firing of guns, and enquiring the cause, you will be 
told they are shooting the dead that trouble them. Over-loading 
their stomachs, as they often do, they are no doubt frequently 
troubled with tho night-mare, and imagine that they are attacked 
by a ghost, and get up and shoot at their supposed intruder. They 
have also their doctors and astrologers, who are well paid for their 
services. When a person is sick, they send for a doctor, who gets 
his pay in advance. He then commences shaking over the sick 
his gourd, which has in it some beads to make it rattle, until he 
finds out what is the matter with his patient, which he generally 
discovers is, that some beast, fish or bird has got into the body of 
the patient, which by shaking his rattle, signing, and other nec- 
romancy, he causes to depart. Previously to driving out the 
unwelcome intruder, he cuts its figure or likeness out of birch 
bark, Nand places it in front of the dooi' of the lodge, with 
two young men situated so to fire at it from different di- 
rections at a given signal, who generally blow it into pieces. If 
this operates upon the mind of the patient so that he recovers, it 
is well ; if not, there is some mistake about it — the animal was 
not killed, or some evil spirit operates against him. So they try 
it over again, and probably continue to do so for months, until the 
patient recovers or dies ; in which latter case, they have always 
good reasons to^how why the patient did not recover. 


Thoy have some few specifics, which they sometlmeB adminis- 
ter, but their art consists mostly in necromancy. They <nLre 
wonnds generally sooner than most surgeons, because they sUck 
them, and thus keep them clean from all matter. It is also 
the business of the doctor to suck clean any old sote that he un- 


dertakes to cure, no matter how filthy or disgusting, eren venereal 
diflorders and sore eyes ; I har^ seen th^ doctor pretend by sack- 
ing to draw from sore^eyes small bits of straw, 4&c.; and^/Aooord' ' 
ing to their theory, as in most other complaints, some animal^ 
bird, fish or reptile has inflicted the disease. 

He father in law of ray interpreter, was an Indian doctor 
among the 8ioax. I recollect hearing the old man the most part 
of a day singing and shaking his gourd rattle in his lodge ; after" 
which he canio into the house, and sat down looking very serious ' 
and thonghtful. His son, over thirty years of age, had sore eyes, 
and ho was endeavoring to cflFcct a cure. He said, that nearly 
thirty years before, when his son was a very smull boy, he had 
fastened a pin to a stick, and was amusing himself one day spear- 
ing minnows, and that he thus pricked one with his pin-spear; 
and that it was strange, that the fish, after so long a time, should 
come to seek revenge on his son's eyes* 

Their sooth-sayer or spiritual man after sweating alone in a small 
lodge and singing, pretends to foretell events, as when certain 
fKends will arrive, or when the buffalo will come into that neigh- 
borhood, or when some other expected " event will happen, and 
should it fail they will explain it by saying, that the little spirit 
lied to them, an imago of which each one of these jugglers cwv- 
ries in his holy or medicine bag. Ah Indian in a pious fit hangs 
on a tree a beaver or otter skin, bear or dressed deer skin, for a 
sacrifice to the Oreat Spirit, which remains there until destroyed, 
or until some other Indian passes that way, wants and takes it| 
leaving a piece of tobacco in place tliereof, which he may IsrWiuI- 
ly do. On the Frairie are often found isolated granite rooksy 
ifkioh, from their isolated and seattered appearance are coasider- 


ed holjf and every Indian who passes them^ either paints them . 
with yermillion, or leaves a piece of tobacco as a tribate to the 
Giwt Spirit. Hence the great number of places in this countrj, 
where the 8iouz were accustomed to pasS| that bear the name of 
Fainted Bock. 

I have frequently been told by French voyageursj traders^ and 
interpreters, of the ceremonies performed by some juggler, in 
going into his little holy lodge, to consult with the Great 
Spirit. After having fasted a while, he strips himself naked, and 
goea into the lodge alone ; and soon after entering, the poles of ihe 
lodge commence shaking violently,, and those without hear two or 
three distinct voices within. After this has continued about two 
or three hours, the juggler comes out of the lodge in a high state 
of perspiration ; during the time of the ceremonies in the lodge, 
the jingling of bells and other musical instruments is heard, aa 
though they were attached to poles of the tent or lodge, and my 
informers generally believed that the Indians had commuuicaUona 
with the Devil. It so happened, that I never witnessed one of 
these scenes; 

The Sioux have a feast which is calculated, in their estimation, 
to preserve their women from all ilUcit connections It is after 
this manner : Tlie young Indians, like some young white men, 
are in the practice of vaunting of having gained some advantage' 
over some frail one of their tribe. When a woman, either mar- 
ried or single, learns that she has been slandered in this way, she 
selects a spot, clears away the bushes and rubbish, builds a firei 
puts the kettle on, makes a circle around it, and near one end of 
the fire, places a stone painted with vermillion ; and when every- 
thing is properly prepared, she sends the crier of the camp 
around to give notice of it. He performs this duty by gang 
throagh the camp, singing in'as loud a voice as he possibly esoi 
tbaiauoha woidso, announcing her name, will give her feast* 
that day, stating the name or pbject c^f th0 feast, and jiaviting. aU. 
to attend. All the women of the camp are usually present on 


bucIi occasions ; if anyone is absent, it is strongly snspected that 
she dare not come, for fear of being exposed. When assembled on 
the ground| the hostess of the feast heads the ring formed by the 
^women, and marches around until she reaches the painted stone, 
which she touches reverently, thereby solemnly protesting her " 

Some Indian, the while, stands on some slight elevation, and 
harangues the young men, telling them if any of these women 
are unworthy to partake of this feast of the virtuous, to fail not 
to expose them. The young men pride themselves upon every 
exposure it is in their power to make; so that a woman who is 
unworthy dare not be present, unless she happens certainly to 
know that her guilty paramour is so far away that he cannot be 
there. If a woman, not worthy to partake of the feast is so bold 
as to venture there, the Indian who says she is not worthy, goes 
and takes her by the arm, and leads her out, asking her before 
the whole assemblage, if she does not remember such a time and 
place, which he specifies. It is thought that they seldom falsely 
accuse, as they believe that if they do so, the Great Spirit would 
be ftngry, and visit tbem with some dire calamity. 

Tiieir feasts. With Indians, a man who gives feasts is popular 
and well spoken of, and has plenty of pretended friends, precise- 
ly as with the white man who often gives good dinner and other 
parties. Tbey have their holy or sacred feasts, where the guests 
know, when they are invited, of what they are to partake ; and 
as they prido themselves upon the quantity they can eat, each 
carries with him the sized dish which he supposes he can eat full. 
The master of the feast, not eating himself, serves tjie otbers, 
singing and shaking his gourd-rattle all the time. ilTothihg of 
this food must fall to the ground. Each guest's dish is filled, and 
he must eat it himself, or pay some one else to eat it for him ; 
^ and frequently in attempting to devour what has been put in 
their dish, they eat until they vomit it back again into the dish, as 
nothing is allowed to fall upon the ground, and some one nltiMbe 


hired to oat it for thom. They have been known to gormandize 
to that extent, that on leaving the feast they have fallen down 
dead ; but even then | the survivors will not admit that it was 
overeating that killed them. After the feast is over, the dishes 
and kettle are carefuUj wiped out with grape or evergreen 
boughs. They accustom their sons, when children, to eat a great 
deal, and frequently stuff them, when very young, with raccoon 
oil, to expand their stomachs, and often boast of their feats in 

The dog feast! The Sioux Indians, and I believe it is true of 
all others, consider that the greatest compliment they can pay a 
Btranger, is to give him a dog feast. And tliis intended compliment 
constitutes the burthen of the speech of the giver of the feast, or 
the master of ceremonies. The traders arc generally invited to 
these feasts. I have tasted dog meat ; it is like pork, only it has a 
sweeter taste ; those who can get over the prejudice against such 
meat, become very fond of it, but my prejudice was too strong 
ever to be able to relish it. 

I think the Indians understand the art of flattery as well as any 
people in the world. When I concluded to enter into business 
for myself, there were several Indians of influence from about the 
mouth of the St. Peter's Kiver, and of the Gens de Feuille or 
Leaf Nation from the Little Rapids on the St. Peters, who had 
wintered in my neighborhood, and came to my house in the 
Bpring. I agreed with these Indians to meet me at my wintering 
house in the fall, with as many of their tribes as they could per- 
suade to come up, that I would have a large cargo of goods, and 
would fit them out to go across to the head of the Mississippi to 
hunt. According to agreement, I met them in the fall, with two 
Mackinaw boat loads of goods, and found on my arrival, about 
three thousand Indians of the Yankton, Sissiton, Gens do Lac, 
Gens de Feuille, and other Sioux bands, encamped about it, 
and they received me with a grand salute, each man having 
a guui firing with ball over the boat, so that we coold hear the 


balls whistle nearer than was agreeable to og. They had prepared 
several lodges together, so as to make one great lodge of at least 
twenty feet, across the middle of which they had made a wall of 
dried buffalo meat,^ and had made a dog feast, to which they in- 
Tited me. The customary speech on snch occasions was made, 
as uanal ; saying that this feast was designed as the greatest com- 
plin^nt they conid pay me, and then added : Your Father must 
be a great man to send out one so young as you, with so many 
goods, and we hope you will be very charitable, and furnish us 
with plenty of clothing to keep ourselves, women and children 
warm, and with plenty of ammunition with which to hunt, etc. 
To all which 1 replied, that unfortunately my father was a poor 
man, and I was a poor boy, and that I had got these goods on 
credit to supply their wants, and that unless they hunted well and 
loaded my boats with furs, 1 should not be able to pay for these 
goods, and get more to come back again ; but that I would furnish 
them with clothing to keep them warm, and with arms, traps and 
ammunition to keep them from starving, and hoped they would 
hunt well and pay me, so that I could get more goods and con- 
tinue to trade with them. I took to my house the meat presented, 
and made them payment in suitable presents of ammunition, etcf 

An Indian thinks it politeness to eat everything that is set before 
him, and vrhen traders are invited to a feast, what they do not eat, 
they generally carry home with them in the dish and give it to 
their men, and send back the dish with a piece of tobacco in it. 

*The manner of drj-iog tho buffalo meat is this : They take each aide and the belly, and eat and 
Ipead them oat thin, lo tliat they will thoroughly dry throagh ; whan ftiily extended, this makM ft 
Aeet of about the liia of a deer akin, and when dried thoy fold them np aa they do their deer akina, 
nd pack them into bandlea. J. H. h. 

fit la proreittal, with all acqaalnted with the Indiana, that to reeelvo preaonta from them ia by fi^ 
tte moat expenaire way of obtaining their deairable commodltlea, u the trader not only haa to pay back 
flba ftxU Talae of the artldea, bat also aomethlng derer lo addition fbr the^compllmMit of the pretnt. 
H ig not anoommon for a Yankton dilef to make a preaent to the trader of all the baflUo robet ho 
hringn, and after he haa reeelred in return all they are really worth, together with aomething for the 
eoaipltBent, he remembera a great many little articlei, naming them, of which he ia in wont ; and It 
»»tgmtila4yhoiaoff8Bdtd,orparetBndatobaM. Thongh it ia, In Indian etiquette, an Inoolt to x«feie 
ftpretent, I hare often done ao, and adrlied Ike Indian that he had better trade them in the nanel way. 



I have Been generoae ladies residing in the neighborhood of the 
Indian country, when visited by Indians, set food before them and 
keep renewing the supply, and wondering at the Indians eating so 
much, whereas they considered themselves bound in politeness 
to eat all that was set before them. 

When Indians become too old and infirm to travel, they build 
a fire near water, and giving them some provisions and generally 
a small kettle, leave them to take care of themselves. Many 
children from exposure and learning them to be great eaters, die 
in infancy. The practice of leaving the aged to die, applies 
more particularly to migratory bands on the plains. Indians 
living about lakes and rivers, where they have canoes, I do not 
think ever expose them thus, at least I never heard of an instance. 

You never see a Sioux Indian, if he is in company, smoke 
alone. The pipe is lighted and he takes a whiff or two himself, 
and passes it to his neighbor, always passing it around with the 
sun. When several are assembled together, you will see a num- 
ber of pipes going the rounds in the same manner. Their princi- 
pal subjects of c >nversation at these times, are their wars, feasts, 
hunting and their women. A man may have as many wires as I 
he can maintain among the Yanktons ; the more he has, the bet- 
ter lie is off, as^they can dress and prepare the mo^o buffalo robes 
for market. If an Indian marries the eldest daughter, he is enti- 
tled to take the others, as they come to maturity, for wives. But 
those who do not live in the buffalo range, content themselves 
generally with two, and many of them with one. I knew one 
Yankton chief who had six. 

When the Sioux women have their "inensc^^ they are looked upon 
as unholy and unclean, and are not allowed to remain in the 
lodge with the family, but are obliged to build a small lodge ont- 
side of the (»ther, and remain alone during the time of itv con- 
tinuance, fed in a dish by one of the family, and not aQowedi 
durmg the time, to enter the family lodge, or touch anything, ex- 
cept the dish in which their food is handed to them, until the 


menstraal diBcbarges cease, and they are wasbed up. When; a 
maiden arriyoB at womanhood, and has made her first ont-oMoor 
lodge, the pnblic crier goes throngh the camp or village, and an- 
nonncfss the fact in a loud song. 

The Sioux have secret societies, something like freemasonry, 
but they admit women to membership. They meet in a lodge, 
which 13 guarded on the outside from prying curiosity, by one of 
their members. In this lodge they perform their ceremonies. 
Any person wishing to join them, makes tlie application through 
one of the members, and is then on probation for about a year. 
If they are bad, they must reform. If, at the end of that period, 
no objection is made, ho is generally admitted ; and, I was told, 
that they have signs by which Indians of that fraternity of dif- 
ferent bands know each other. Either after or before their meet- 
ing, I do not remember which, th(yr assemble and have a holy 
dance, which is called by the French, la danse efe la graiide med&- 
cinsj as the French translate all their spiritual or juggling pro- 
ceedings into medicine. At this dance, among other ceremonies, 
after dancing and singing awhile, one of their number takes a 
garnished sac, usually made from tho^ otter, and runs at the dif- 
ferent members, making some noise, and they generally fall down 
or over, pretending that it is the effect of spirits from the bag, and 
lay prostrate for a moment or so, and then rise again, and join in 
the dance. This dance is generally continued till late in the 

l}ie amusements of the men are shooting at a mark, or playing 
at the game of ball, called by the French, le Jeu de crosse. This 
is usually played in the summer on some large prairie,* with a 
stick about two and a half or three feet long, with a small hoop on 
one end, crossed with net-work of thongs of leather, making a 
sort of sac, in which they frequently catch the ball. How they 
count, or their boundaries, I have forgotten. The women amuse 
tliemselves by playing at what is termed the dish play, which is 

•PMfal»UCtoBMi0OkKiiiaa«frQiBtlitfaMMii^fr«qoMtlrplayMtUn J. HL L. 


performed bj having the pits or stones of plums marked on one 
side with hieroglyphics, and put into a dish/shook np, and tamed 
out, and the marked ones turning up, count They are so fond of 
gambling at this play, that they will sometimes continue at it for 
several days without cessation, and until one or the other has lost 
every thing that she can put up for a stake. Women well clothed, 
having lost every thing else, have been known to strip off their 
good clothes, and gamble them away, and put on old rags. The 
men also frequently play at this game, and to the same excess as 
the women. The men have also another game, called the shoe- 
play, which is generally played by two parties of four each. Pour 
moccasins are placed between the parties on the floor, and the 
side that gets the fir^t winnings, hides a piece of wood in one of 
the moccasins, by running his hand into each cf them, in the 
presence of the others, when one of the opposite party searches 
for it; if he finds it in the first moccasin that he examines, he 
looses a certain number, I think ten ; but if he finds it in the aec- 
.ond or third, it counts twenty for his side, and if in the fourth| a 
less number. The game tallies at one hundred. They play at 
this game sometimes as long as they can raise anything to wager. 

Indians generally in a state of nature, have no word or gesture 
of salutation. Those acquainted with the customs of white peo- 
ple, sometimes make use of the French salutation of hanjaur^on 
meeting a white man, but seldom on meeting another Indian* I 
was struck with the meeting of some Sioux Indians the first year 
I was in their country. When the attack was made on Prairie 
du Ohien under Col. McKay, a son of the Yankton chief called 
Le Geaijd Serviteub, happened to be there with the Agent, Bf. 
BoiLvm, Esq., and embarked on board the keel-boats under com- 
mand of Oaptain Yeiseb, and went to St. Louis with him, where 
he was obliged to remain until the war was over ; and, in 1816 
had got as far back as Prairie du Chien, and as we were 
then going into his country, we took him into the boat with Hi. — 
When arrived in the neighborhood of Lac-qui-Parle, on a cold 
morning about the first of December, I was awakened from aleep^ 



and told that there were some Indians on the shore who had made a 
fire. We disembarked and breakfasted there, and fonnd that the 
Indians were fonr Yanktons, the nncles of the yonng Indian with 
us. They had come across the country to meet their nepheW| 
who had been absent two and a half years, and previous to their 
heariDg that he was on his way home, they supposed he was dead. 
The uncles had made a fire and commenced smoking, when the 
joung Indian walked from the boat to where they were, without 
saying a word to them, or they to him. The lighted pipe was 
handed to him, when he smoked ; and after it had passed around 
two or three times, they commenced talking slowly, and the con- 
versation at length became general among them. 

In almost every Indian camp, they have what is called the sol- 
dier's lodge, where the men of consideration of the village assem- 
ble to smoke, and talk over the affairs of the nation. An Indian 
of consideration arriving from another camp, usually goes to this 
lodge ; but if a young man, and not of su£Blcient distinction to go 
there, he stands about among the lodges until some one sees that 
lie is a stranger, and invites him to his lodge. On entering, the 
pipe is handed to him, and after smoking a few whifih, something 
is set before him to eat. After he has eaten awhile, conversation 
is commenced^ but no questions are asked previous to his having 
smoked and eaten. It was sometime before I could learn so much 
of Indian politeness as to make no inquiry of an Indian arriving, 
until after the smoking and eating had been attended to. At first 
I commenced talking to them before this important preliminary, 
and always found them sulky and obstinate about entering into 

Hy interpreter, FasNiEB, told me that some years previous to 
the war 1812, that he resided at the same place where we were 
then wintering, in the employ of Mr. Oamebon ; that Oahebok 
had credited a band of Indians to go on the head waters of some 
of the streams that empty into the waters of Mississippi in the 
direction of the Bed Biver of the North ; and, that in the month 


. of February, an Indian runner camo from the hunting ground, and 
informed Cameron that the Indians were so loaded with fars and 
peltries, that they could not bring them, and. suggested to him to 
send his men to assist them. He sent Fbenieb with some ten 
men, in company with the Indian, to the camp. After they had 
traveled tniue three or four days, they were overtaken by one of 
those sudden snow storms that are so frequent in those vast prai- 
,ries in that high latitude They .are often so sudden, and give so 
little warning of their api)roach, that you may set out on a prairie 
on as beautiful a sun-shiny morning as you ever saw in winter, 
and before noon be enveloped in one of these storms; tlie snow 
so fine and thick that you cannot see a rod before you. On this 
occision, as Frknikk's party could not see any wood or timber, 
they concluded their safest plan was to stop where they were. 
Wrapping themselves snugly in their blankets, they all laid down 
and let the snow cover them, except the Indian, who, having pur- 
chased several blanketb from the trader, wrapped himself in them, 
and staid on top of the snow nntil the storm was over, which lasted 
three days, when he discovered that it was not more than one 
fourlii of a mile to a point of wood, whither he repaired and bun- 
dled a fire. lie then made use of a pole, poking through the deep 
snow, where he recollected to have seen the men lay down, and 
found them till alive and uninjured, except one man a little frost 
bitten on the hip. 

In 1816, and for years previous, the Yanktons were in the prac- 
tice of making up war parties and going into the Spanish territory, 
for the purpose of stealing choice horses and mules. "Whe^i 
on a march from place to place, there are warriors on duty to 
regulate the march according to rules promulgated before their 
departure ; and, if any one infringes on these rules, he is pnnisbed 
by having his gun broken, his dog or horse killed, his lodge cut. 
or causing him to suffer a penalty in some manner.  The chief, or 
leader of the party, is not cTrompt from these regulations. Any 
act of this kind performed by warriors on duty is not rerengedj 


thev did it in performance of inflexible reghlationB ; but any 
affront of an individual in his private capacity, is snre to be re- 
renged sooner or later, and the avenger is always koown, as it 
wonld not be any satisfaction to him if he could not enjoy the 
credit of it. An instance came under my observation. It is usnal 
for the trader to take to his post as many guns as there are good 
hnnters, who will probably pay f >r them. These are generally at 
first distributed to those for whom he may particularly intend 
them, before he commences giving out other articles. One year, 
in distributing the guns, my interpreter overlooke . 'ood hun- 
ter, while Some other not so good a hunter gi>t the gun. Fiiii 
mortified the good hunter, und that nigbt he killed the horse of 
every man who had received a gun, and it was known the next 
morning who had done it, and what was the cause. It is common 
to revenge an insult or injury by killing the ofiender's horse or 
dog, and there are, in this way, a great many horses killed every 
year among the Sioux. And they not only revenge insults or 
injuries among themselves, but, as the late Col. R<.>bh:rt Dicksov, 
in conversation with me on the subject, expressed it, *Hhey revenge 
vpon their enemies the acts of the Almiffhti/;^^ for, when a chief 
or man of dintinction die?, they commence singing the war songy 
and raise a war party to revenge his death upon their natural ene* 
mies, as wull as to appease the troubled manes of the departed. 

It is a prevalent opinion among persons not acquainted with 
Indian customs and polity, that they, like white people, have a 
king or great chief over all ; but such, so far as I am acquainted, 
IB not the ca»e with any Indians in the North West or South 
West The government of their tribes or bands is patriarchal, 
mie chiefdi, as with politiciatis who obtain office, are the greatest 
laves among them. They get the honor without independence, 
not being able to do any act of their own will, without first look- 
lag to see if it will be populrtr. If a cliief buys a good gun, and 
one of his young men takes a fancy to it, and expresses a wish for 
it, it is given to him ; if not, probably the chief's horse wonld pay 
the forfeit. These banda are generally thus originated : When A 

man has five or aix^sons and several daughters, taking his fSunil j 
he leaves the large band, forms a new camp or settlement, and 
acts the patriarch or chief; his sous and daughters marryinj^ 
bring their wives and husbands to his baud, and frequentlj a 
brother-ialaw acconpanies him and remains. Thus the new 
band multiplies from natural increase aud accessions, until it be* 
comes large and respectable. In case of the death of the father, 
the eldest son assumes the duties of chief, if old enough ; if not, 
one of the brothers of the deceased assumes the office. The chiet 
uses no authority, but advisoB, and if popular, his advice is fol- 
lowed ; if not, each one judges and acts lor himself. The only ar- 
bitrary authority exercised among Indians, is by the war chief 
when on the war path, which, I am told, is then absolute. The 
warriors, when on duty, never correct their cluldren, except by 
advice, and if they are obstinate and pugnacious, it is laoghed at, 
and looked upon as a sign of bravery. 

There was, when I first visited the country, a band of Indiana 
who had their village on a prairie on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, where the village of Winona, which means ih4 
eldest daughter^ now stands, about one hundred and tventj 
miles above Prairie du Chieu. The chief was called Wji-siL- 
SHA.W} ho wa3 a very sensible Indian, aud was truly one of na- 
ture's noblemen.'^ Although only chief of his band, he had gTe$,i 

* The name of Wa-oa-shait, the great Sioux chief, will \on^ live in historjr. He was indootd to Jua 
tiM fortaoM of the Britinh in tho war ot 1812-'15, and funght at the aeigt of Fort Meiga and elnvlMMb' 
When peace took place, tbe lodiaos were lelt hj th«-ir eoiplo^era in a wretched condition, and, at • 
MBtequenoe, their npirits were broken. Gen. Cass han prtKc-rved a speech of Wa-ba-shav's, at Vra^ 
moad'a Island, la 1616, when, Col. McOowdLi, the British cowmandaiit ot that post, laid a fe« prcMiti 
belore him. It is touch inglj' pathetic and «-loquent : 

*' Mj lather/' said he^to Cot. McDowell, <' what i^ lliln I see before me t A few knirea and bUnk«(i^ 
It this all jon promised uh at tho b«-ginning ol tlie \^'ar r (Vbere arc thoM> proujisos joa made us al 
llichilimackin-tc, and sent to our lillagcs on tbe Mis^i^hippi? You told us you would a«wr let faUa* 
hatchet until the Americans wt-re drivc-n U-yond tbu uiouutuius ; that uur Dritiifh father would arW 
make peace without consulting bis rt:d cfaildrfn. IIn» that rome to pAs>? We lu^wr knew vf thlA 
paaoe. We arc now told that it was made bj our gnat futher beyond the water, wtlbout tha kasalsilH 
of hts war-el^iefii ; that it bi jour duty to ob:*/ IiIk oidcrs. \?h«t in tbif to ns ? Will thesw paltr; pm- 
•nia paj for tba inan wa have tost, butli in battle and on the ruad ? Will thej suothts the tcvUiip et 
our frieada ? Will Uie/ make guod jour promi«<a to uii ? For my self, X am ao old naa. I kaat Ui^- 
|oai,aUaHri^albaaditaam«aoaof aupportiocmyablf^andlcaadotoatUl.'' UC^A 

Ut^ bfttid df fMVants, ^hb Hild tbeit Tifhi^ otf iShb ^^ t^k'ilP 
tlM^ IB^MlplfnV wKbrb'the Pi^byt^n^ari misMfoti! tltfW'!^;'^^^^ 
itflfes below 8t. PSaii»;^VbdBe"cbief was '<*alIetf*Ltrii.i^''CrfoW*;*k^ 
aftln^\rf gfliod 80118^,' ^fclld-gfeneraliy^ cdnfi^tlferea a ^otitf in^laii!'' 
Thei^^was anotber tfrfiuTl band who bad thijir vmkgQaiiilteni^^^ 
which eipnifi08i9l^'fW^<fy$' Qf the waters;* whose cbfef*Wad <&iteJr 
Black Dog. He was not a man of much conseqnence. There 
was aleo another small band who had their village a short dis- 
tance above, whose chief was Po nechon, a man of little note. 
Where the village of Shakopee now is, was an Indian village, 
whose chief bore that name, which simply means six ; he pos- 
sessed a good intellect, bat was not popular among the traders, as 
he was considered very dishonest. At the Little Bapids was an- 
other village, called by the French Gens de Feuille^ or Leaf Peo- 
ple. The name of their chief I do not recollect There was a 
Tillage of the Sissitons at the Rocher Blanc ; above which, I re- 
member no others. The Sissiton and Tankton bands seldom 
made any regular villages, as they roved from place to place, en- 
camping temporarily for the purpose of hunting, and that mostly 
among the buffaloes. 

Under the most unfavorable auspices have I written these rerni* 
niscences. With ill health, suffering a great part of the time 
with rheumatism and bad eyesight, bordering almost on blind- 
ness, I have not been able to prepare this narrative to my own 
•atisfaction, and, I fear not, to the satisfaction of the Society. I 
bave no doubt omitted many things that might have been inter- 
esting, but never having kept a journal or notes of events, I was 
obliged to depend upon memory ; and frequently when writing 
and having, by a train of reflection, recalled pa^t events to mind 
either my rheumatism or my eyes would admon'sh me that it 
was time to cease from my labors, and before I could recommence 
I would probably forget the thread of my narrative. Nor have I 

>itth*trikraof tlM>orttiir«tl|iv)»Ullniotetb«ftlcBliMU(niortar#<«r#r«il Uaa 


fe60Q able to review.whgt I have written. LearaiDg that tka 
BttT. AuTBf D Bbuhboh had been inrited to write a hietory of 
O^wford countji and that he intends to comply with the reqaeet^ 
I have purposely omitted saying any tbirg of the events of the 
county since he settled therein, believing that he will be able to 
do the subject more jostioe than I oonld, even were I in better 
haalth than I am, and had all my fkcoltiea abont me. 


Afpursiz VO. 7. 



I was born May 30th, 1783, in Johnstown, Montgomery coantyi 
N. Y. My father's name was Comfort Shaw, and my grandfather^ 
was Daniel 8haw, who resided in Stonington, Conn., and was of 
Scotch descent; and at Stonington my father was bom. Soon 
aiter the commencement of the Revolutionary war, fired by the 
patriotism of the times, my father, nnable to obtain the permission 
of his parents to join the American army, ran away at the age of 
aizCeen, and effected the object so near his heart He had from 
early life excelled in playing the spirit-stirring fife, and soon re- 
oeiviid the appointment of Fife-Major, and served several yean 
in that capacity in the army. He was present, and participated 
in the memorable battles at Saratoga, and was among the first 
that scaled the enemy's breast worics on the 7th of October, 177T. 
My father was a man of nnnsnal personal activity, and rendered 
his country long and faithful service in the war of Independenoe. 

Towards the close of 1780, he was united in marriage, at Johna- 
t0wn, N. Y., with Miss Mart Holunbbok, whose father was 
JoHif HoLLiiiBEcx, a native of Amsterdam, Ilolland, and who^ 
*iehen a yoniig knan, came to America, and settled at Olarerack, 
<m the Hudson. Hd marriisd a Ketr England wffe and raised a 
Urge family, only one of Vhbm was a son, named after his father* 

;• 'Mt^iM eiiiM «f CM. SiA«« MS vilttos SMm If l«iU« a OSAn«» U ifet an fMl«C 
>Mb Mi^ Mi* —y fct tittt4— wtiNittiOy 

-• I 


This young John Hollinbeck early migrated to JohDstowDi and 
aettled on a farm abont tliree miles nearly east of the village, and 
took with him his young sister Maby. 

I was the second of eight children, all sons, six of whom grew 
to years of maturity, and. two of m^ brothers, Nathaniel, of 
Calhoun county, and Comfort, of Pike county, Illinois, both fore- 
handed and rov^pectable farmers, yet survive. When three years 
of age, I one forenoon accompanied my elder brother Daniel to 
the village school in Johnstown. A'Mr. TnRoor, the adopted 
father of Enos T. Throop, since Governor of New York, was the 
teacheh I was so terrified with his repulsive appearance, having 
very long eye-brows and a very unpleasant physiognomy, that I 
'could never after be induced to attend school. What little edn- 
^cation, therefore, I became possessed of, was obtained by piece- 
meal, and in a picked-up way. When I was fourteen years of 
age, my father died, having been fuur years incapiicita^edby con- 
gumption for labor ; and the two eldest boys, Danibl and I, had 
af^ll the work to do in order to support the family. 

r In the spring of 1808, when twenty«five years of age, I resolved 
4a go to the Western country, as my younger brothers had now 
jrown up, and could more than fill my pl&eo in providing the 
{finnily aupport. I had thought there was bo chance to secure a 
jQQtnpeteucy in the old settlements, and I had foruaed an ardent 
d^re to pass the Socky Mountains, and bathe on the shores of 
Ibe Pacific Foot a year prior to this period^ I hadcarefnlij prac- 
tised the use of: the guD, and became very expert with it. I 
j^tart^d that spring for Montreal, intending to.jou;*ney with some 
narty of the North-West Fur jCoqapany^ aifd by that means rfiadi 
fl^e reoiote Westi But concluding this was not very pr^pti^al^lf^ 
^TT^n^ap.tbe 8t. Lawrence, and along the ^j^ ore of Ljike Ontjff^ 
^^^g^a FaiULp, wjiicb latj^r I had firflj yy^ited tf^(hy^eB^iW^ 

JPff^^fi^rJ^^F^:yf'^.fi^]S a siqgl^ log^hous^ nearly ^ mile.jBrW 
j]^ Falls^ on the Canada shore ; aad at Black Bock 1 crossed tlie 
^if9mi*^ tm i w e i>fe °t<»JB«ffliik>f ^heie thes»l(^r»»bwHiik'y ^podtM 


From some of the Indians at Buffalo, I purdiBsed a bark canoe 
and paddles, and made the necessary out-fit, and resolved to push 
on np Lake Erie, and pursue the Lake route to Green Bay, and 
employed two ^poung men to accompany me. In consequence of 
a severe storm, and the rock-bound shores of tbe Lake, I changed 
my course ; I had my canoe transported across the country on a 
•wagon to Chatauque Lake, when again launching my frail bark, 
I descended the Lake, its out-let into French creek, and finally 
entered the Alleghany. Continuing down the river, I stopped 
at Pittsburgh, Wheeling, Marietta, Limestone, now Maysville, 
Cincinnati and Louisville, only long enough to rest, and procure 
needful supplies. Thence I kept on down the Ohio, and crossed 
the Mississippi on the 10th day of August, 1808, when I turned 
my course up the Mississippi by land to Cape Girardeau and St. 
Genevieve ; at which latter place, I well remember seeing Henbt 
Dodge, then sheriff of that county, and since so distinguished in 
the West. Passing up to St. Louis, thence to Florisant, Portage 
des Sioux, and St. Charles, I then became acquainted with the 
celebrated Daniel Boone and family, together with nearly all the 
leading French families of these several Missouri settlements. 

Spending the ensuing autumn and winter at St. Louis, New 
Madrid, and the various settlements in then Upper Louisiana, in 
viewing the country ; I early the next spring procured from Ed- 
'^TABD Bates (father of the present Hon. Edward Bates, of St. 
lonis,) an accomplished Marylander, then Secretary of Louisiana 
Territory, and in the absence of Gov. MBRmWETHEB Lewis, acting 
governor, a license to search for gold and silver anywhere within 
the limits of that territory, then supposed to extend to the Pacific 
—still resolving to reach that distant ocean. 

I at once fitted myself out for a long journey, and engaged 
PitTER Spear and William Miller to accompany me in this ad- 
Tenture. I fully explained to them the dangers to be encountered, 
aiid if successful, I agreed that we should equally share the pro- 
Sts of the enterprise. We started trotii the extreme western set- 
flcMAtot of Cape Girardean eonnty, on the head of St. Franctfii 


Biver, where a few families then rcBided, and then pushed into 
the great western wilderness. Our route was very nearly upoA 
what, I have since learned, was the 37cb degree, or perhaps half 
a degree south of that parallel. We crossed a branch of Wiiito 
Biver, which I named ;the Currents, which it has ever since re- 
tained, and then Black River, and afterwards Spring River, which 
we followed to its source, where we found a very large spring, 
and hence the name of the stream. We next passed the main 
fork of White River, and then continued on westwardly until we 
reached the prairie country, and went bejoad all the western head 
waters of the Mississippi, except the Arkansas and Missouri. 

We continued our journey, as I should judge, between eight 
hundred and a thousand miles from the settlements. On our out- 
ward journey, we met with a number of friendly Indian parties 
of the Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Cieeks or Muscogees, engaged 
in hunting, who did not venture too great a distance beycnd the 
westein verge of the white settlements; but we hud no difficulty 
with them. We encountered vast herds of buffaloes, and occa- 
sionally large herds of wild horcoe. We judged from the buffa- 
lo trails, that we passed near the Great Salt liock ; and a long 
distance beyond, we came in view of the spurs of the great Rocky 
Mountain chain. 

In this remote region, we one day, during tlie summer, met three 
men, who proved to be the only survivors of a party of some fif- 
teen trappers who had penetrated high up the Missouri, whem 
in two savage attacks by the Indians, all the others were aUia; 
and these survivors were now directing their course to the Ar* 
kansas River, and admonished us to dusist our further jonmey 
westward. Not heeding these earnest admonitions, we kept oUp 
and the next day discovered a party of a dozen or twenty wild 
Indians, probably Camanches or Pawnees, chasing and catchim^ 
wild horses with the lasso, which they used with great doxtarity 
and success. We saw them in time to secrete ourselves, aniaen 
by them, and bad a full view of them fur three or four bours^ is 
an immense prairie; and thongh generally perhaps not leae.tlUM 


five miles diatant from nt, thej once came within a mile of «■ in 
clMBing the wild horses. Those engaged in the chase were, of 
eonrse, mounted on well- trained steed6| while others were m 
groops on foot, taking care of the restless animals that had btea 

When these unwelcome Indians disappeared, we took the mat- 
ter into serioQS consideration, and as painfully as I regretted te 
abandon our intended exploration to the Pacific, it seemed mad- 
ne€S to attempt^anj farther progress; and so we reluctaotlj 
tuned our faces to the eastward ; and when we got what we 
deemed prettj sate hunting ground, in what is now eastern Kan- 
■as, and western Arkansas^ and Missouri, we pitched our camp^ 
and went to hunting, mostly tor boaver. We then little dreamed 
that the white settlements would extend to that region for the 
next five hundred years. Our main camp was near the bead 
waters of one of the northern tributaries of the Arkansas ; and 
having no traps, we procured the boaver mu»k, and placed it 
aome distance from the shore, which tempted the animals to ge 
and smell it, when we would secrete ourselves and shoot them. 

During the autumn of 1809, all of the year 1810, and the win- 
ter of I8i0-'ll,westeadily pursued our hunting; and,in tbeppring 
of 181 1, we gathered and packed up all of our beaver, otter and bear 
skins — about fifty beaver and otter, and about three hundred bear 
akins, and eight hundred gallons of bear's oil ; and making canoes 
or pirogues on one of the head waters of White Biver, we coBr 
▼ejed our skins and oil to them by the three horses which we had 
taken with us in all our journey ings. The oil was cart ied in sacks 
made of bear skins, one being swung on either side of a horse. — 
Lashing our boats together, and trading off our horses to friendlj 
Indians, we descended White River to the Mibsieisippi, and thencOi 
■topping briefly at one TurnbulPs, an English planter, upon the 
bigh bluff where Yicksburg now stands, and at Natchez, we past- 
ed down the river, and arrived at New Orleans about the first of 

Bere another disappointment was in store for ns ; the EmbaiKO^ 

tiien in force, pot a total check to mil exportation, and onr cargo 
of fors, peltries and oil, which farmd their market in Enrci{)e, 
Nrere a drag in New Orleans. The large qnantitr of oil, if not 
aoon shipped, as the hot season had comTienced, wonld become 
rancid, and almost -worthless. Ttie re?a!t was, that car large car- 
gOj which 2t former rates wonld have broTTght between two and 
'ilree thon«a?ii dollars, we EOTrsoIi for rhc mere pittance of thir- 
ij'fiix dinars. Xolani^nage cai der-ctrnv great disappointment, 
first in farlin J to reach the P iciGc. aid then all onr hopes being 
frustrated in regard to the priceeds of -nr two years' hnnt. The 
SickW «ea«oi p^wa^'proaching, I proceeded throngh the Chocraw 
fiation, Rcompanied by Speap, leaving Millkr in New Orleana, 
and never f?eeing him afterward?. We passed throngh the Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw country to C'^lhcrt's Ferry on the Tennessee, 
and thence to Vincennes, and at lenirth to St. Louis. 

Willie lod;ririg about thirty miles n* rth of New Madrid, on the 
14th of December, ISlf, ab>)ut 2 o'clock »n the morning, occurred 
la heavy slock of an earthquake. The house, where I was stop- 
ping, was i^artly of wood and partly of brick structure ; the brick 
portion all fell, but I and the family all fortunately escaped nn- 
ifcnrt. At the still greater shock,* about 2 o'clock in the morning 
of the 7tb of February, 1812, I was in New Madrid, when nearly 
two thousand people of all ages, fled in terror from their fallfng 
dwellings, in that jilace and the surrounding country, and directed 
their course north about thirty miles to Tywappety Hill, on the 


Vestern bank of the Miesissippi, and about seven miles back from 
fte river. This was the fir?t high ground above New Madrid, 
and here the fugitives formed an encampment. It was proposed 
fliat all phonld kneel, and engage in supplicating God's mercy, 

• Since CM. Sii%ir dictated this DftmtlTe, I hare diMoovered hj nTnenee to BRADBrBT*a psMilwA 
JItomfl]. kf^i At tb« tliM, aad th* writiv lino in the ^dnltf off K«w Madrid, tk«t the Srst iMk, «i4 
■pfcl^ liM writnfl on tliat OTont coaT«y tbe IdM of b^sg tho aeTenrt, ooonmd on tho montac •f ^k* 
16tb of (>ec^Tiil*«!r ; and ai Col. Shaw waa thirty miles diittant from New Madrid, the centre of 
•OBTolirionii of nature, on thia flrMt ocenrrenoe, and waa there at the Fehraaiy ahodk, the lattar'^ 
\ mfi f$ $% n it^ hh» to he the aioit ifiwi, .U^iOi 



«id all simnltaneoiiBly, Catholics and Ppotestants, knelt and of- 
fered Bolemo prayer to th^r Oreaton 

About twelve miles back towards New Madrid; a joung woman 
aboQt seventeen years of age, named Bbtset Mastbbs, had been 
left by her parents and family, her leg having been broken below 
the knee by the falling of one of the weight-poles of the roof of 
the cabin ; and, thongb a total stranger, I was the only person 
who would consent to return and see whether she still survived.-^ 
Receiving a description of the locality of the place, I started, and 
found the poor girl upon a bed, as she had been left;, with some 
water and corn bread within her reach. I cooked up some food 
for her, and made her condition as comfortable as circumstances 
would allow, and returned the same day to the grand encamp- 
ment Miss Masters eventually recovered. 

In abandoning their homes, on this emergency, the people only 
■topped long enough to get their teams, and hurry in their fami- 
lies and some provisions. It was a matter of doubt among themi 
whether water or fire would be most likely to burst forth, and 
cover all the country. The timber land around New Madrid 
sunk five or six feet, so that the lakes and lagoons, which seemed 
to have their beds pushed up, discharged their waters over the 
sonken lands. Through the fissures caused by the earthquf&e. 
were forced up vast quantities of a hard, jet black substance, 
m^hioh appeared very smooth, as though worn by friction. It 
scttmed a very different substance from either anthracite or bitn- 
ainons coal.* • 

' HiIb hegiraj Avith all its attendant appalling circumstances, was 
1^ most heart-rending scene, and had the effect to constrain the 
noet wicked and profane, earnestly to plead to Ood in prayer for 
mercy. In less than three months, most of these people returned 

^ their homes, and though the earthquakes continued occasion- 

i*t 111 I - ««     1. - J* » ... I .11 -  I ii^^ 

•Tbt lAto Hon. Liwii F. Lnnr, a rnldent of St* Otneriere, and for manj jtvn a membtr of Ukt'lIM" 
M Stfttw ?'enat« from Uliaoiirly and % nuui of acAmm, addwued a lottor. In 1830, to tho chalfioan of 
ItAma^AllM OB MiDttereej ta wfai«h fe« tpoaka of fhm Ktw Madrid cartbqnakM, and dlgtineCI^ inM. 

illy with lesB deetmotiTe effeots, they became so aconstomed to 
the recarring vibrations, that they paid little or no regard to them, 
not even iiiterrnpting or checking their da ices, frolics, and vices. 
The Upper Mississippi Indians, of all tribes, commenced dep- 
redations on the frontiers of Missouri and Illinois, in 1811, and 
early in 1812. Several persons were killed in different quarters. 
AboQt thirty miles above the month of Salt river, and folly a 
hnndred above the month of the Missouri, was Gilbert's Lick, on 
the western bank of tbo Mississippi, a place of noted resort for 
animals and cattle to lick the brackish water ; and where a man 
named Samuel Gilbert, from Virginia, had settled two or three 
years prior to the sjring of 1812. In that region, and particnlarly 
below him, were a number of other settlers. About the latter 
part of May, 1812, a party of from twelve to eighteen Upper 
Miic^sissippi Indians descended the river in canoes, and fell opon 
the scattered cabins of this uf^per settlement in the night, and 
killed a dozen or more people. At the time of this masaaore, I 
was staying at the house of one Riffle in that region ; and hear- 
ing the alarm, I went in company with others in pursuit of the 
Indians, and saw them at a distance as they were embarking in 
their canoes, and soon disappeared to our view. 

This massacre in the Gilbert's Lick settlement, caused great 
consternation along the Missouri frontier, and the people, aa a 
matter of precaution, commenced forting. Some seven or eight 
forts or stockades were erected, to which a portion of the inhabi* 
tante resorted, while many others heVd themselves in readiness to 
flee there for safety, in case it should bo thought necessary. I 
remember the names of Stout's Fort, Wood's Fort, a small atoek- 
ade at what is now Clarksville, Fort Howard, and a fort at How^ 
^'s Settlement — ^the latter nearest to OoL Daniel Boons ; bat 
the people bordering immediately upon the Missouri river, being 
less exposed to danger, did not so early resort to the erection ot 

About this time, probably a little after, while I was eagagtl 
with eighteen or tw^aty men in building a temporaty nfdcfciJI 


where OlerksTille now stands, on the western boiik of the Missie- 
sippi, a party pf Indians oi^me and killed the entire family of one 
O'NKUiy aboat three milee above OlarksTille, while O'Nkil him- 
eeir was employed with his neighbors in erecting the stockade. 
la eompany with O'Nkil and others, I hastened to the scene of 
2SQrder, and found all killed, scalped, and horribly mangled. One 
of the children, about a year and a half old, was found literally 
baked in a large pot metal bake kettle or Dntch oven, with a cover 
on ; and, as there were no marks of the knife or tomahawk on the 
body, the child must have been put in alive to suffer this horrible 
death ; the oil or fat in the bottom of the kettle was nearly two 
inches deep. 

I went to St. Louis in company with Iba Cottle, to see Gov. 
Clabk, and ascertain whether war had been actually declared. 
This mnfit have been sometime in June, but the news of the dec- 
laration of war against Great Britain had not yet reached there* 
On our return, I was strongly urged by the people to act as a spy 
or soout on the frontier, as I was possessed of great bodily activity^ 
and it was well known that I had seen much woods experience. 
1 consented to act in this capacity on the frontiers of St Charlesv 
cdunty, never thinking or troubling myself about any pecuniary r 
recompense, and was only anxious to render the distressed people 
a nsetal service. I immediately entered alone upon this duty, 
sometimes mounted, and sometimes on foot, and carefully watch- 
ing the river, above the settlement^, to discover whether any 
ludians had landed, and sometimes to follow their trails, learn 
their destination, and report to the settlements. 

Upon my advice, several of the weaker stockades were aban- 
doned for twenty or thirty miles around, and concentrated at a 
place near the mouth of Cuivre or Oopper Biver, at or near the 
present village of Monroe ; and there a large number of us, per- 
haps some sixty or seventy persons, were some two or three weeka 
employed in the erection of a fort We named it in honor of the 
pal^otic governor, Behjaiuk Howabd, and between twenty and 
tkir^ ianulies were soon aafelj kNlged in i^< iZimMirdL 


As the war had now fidrly commenced, an act of CkmgMw aiiw 
thorued the raiabg of six companies of Bangers ; thiee to -hd^ 
raised on the Missonri side of the Mississippi, and the other tUM 
on the Illinois side. The Missouri companies were commavdeB'- 
by Dahibl M. Boons, Nathah BoaME, and David Mobiok. The* 
oommibbion of Nathan Boons was dated in Jnne, 1812, to 
a year, as were doubtless the others. 

The Indians, supplied by their British employers with 
rifles, seemed bent on exterminating the Americans — always, 
however, excepting the JFrench and Spaniards, who, from thsir 
Indian intermarriages, were regarded as friends and connectionaC 
Their constant attacks and murders, led to offensive meaenreis ;* 
bnt I did not serve on Busskll and Edward's expedition, in Sep- 
tember, 1812, against the Indians in the Peoria region. 

Dnring not only the year 1812, but the whole war, I acted asai' 
spy and was in constant service. The Missonri Bangers, by the 
terms of their enlistment, were to supply themselves with horsea, 
accoutrements, provisions and provender, and they expected to 
have been mostly stationed, and in service, in the frontier settle* 
ments ; but finding that they were chiefly required to seonr the 
region beyond the verge of the settlements, they had neoedsaiily 
to enter into some arrangement to procure their supplies, as tbey^ 
were too far from their homes to provide for their wants from tbat> 
source. I was solicited by them to furnish these needed SQpplie8| 
pledging me payment every three months, not doubting that they' 
would promptly receive their own pay from the General Grovem- 

I commenced furnishing these supplies early in the summer of 
1812, when the Ilan£:ers were ordered to the frontiers; and these 
three Missouri companies^ wero each to consist of one horfdrM ' 
men, and were nearly fall, and all of tliem I supplied mdre or 
less. I furninhed, upon an average, more than a hundred and 
fifry. of t'e Rangers duiing the whole war. Thvse men could'ndt' ' 
apply to the Government commfssarief*, bad there been my'tiT^ 
the countr y > M a nd thef^ were aene }. aa4reiif ' the ^i^attfi^ M^ tH^' 

anliBtmenta they were to provide for themselves. Tkey had, in, 
their iDdividaal capacity, made repeated efforts to procure sup*, 
plies upon their own credit, but they met with very indifferent 
snceess. The millers and farmers would be runniDg no small, 
risk to dole out their surplus provisions to so many personst of, 
whose ability and good intentions to remunerate them they conld^ 
know 60 little. It seemed necessary that some person should step, 
forward, and act in the capacity of commissary to supply the 
Rangers, and this I was induced to undertake at their urgent de«t 
sire. I had' become pretty well acquainted throughout the Mh^, 
aouri frontiers, and my anxious solicitude to servo the frontier: 
settlers was also well known, and hence I could command the re- 
quisite credit from the nullers and stock-raisers of the country. 

1 employed the necesssary number of assistants to purchase, 
and drive forward beef cattle, and hands to boat or wagon floor 
and other provisiona to the frontier stations where wanted. At 
the same time, I continued to act as a spy, sometimes going iifi, 
advance of my teams in places of danger. On more than one, 
occasion, have I thus discovered the Indians in time to retreaty, 
and save my men and teams. I remember in the spring of 1813|, 
being at the head of live teams loaded with supplies, when at thai 
fording of a large stream known as Peruque creek, in the northerly ; 
part of St. Charles county, I discovered a party of thirteen lon- 
dians concealed behind blinds, formed of .bent bushes, or broken 
bushes btuck in the ground for a screen, and retreated in time to- 
save both teams and loading.^^I then procured a large boat, in 
which to transport the BUppIies up the river to the nearest point 
to Fort Howard, in order to avoid the danger to which we were 
ezpo^ed by the land route. Leaving my horse, I went up with 
the boat, and met with no obutaclo. 

Upon arriving at Furt Upward, so many reports came to the 
ears of my boatmen, that they at tiist declined returning in th«^ 
boat down Cniver River a tew miles to the AlitsBissippi ; whein. 
once into the large stream, they would feel perftsctly Bale, as they., 
coai4<)K«cp out beyond tb/i raadi ^f danger. Culver iii var wm« 


very crooked, and between twenty and thirty rods in width| yad 
its banks generally low, and fiometimes overflowed back a con- 
■Merabfe diataoce. At length, however, the boatmen contented 
to retam, I agreeing to go ahead of them in a canoe, to aee tkat 
ao Indians were ready to intercept them. Taking with me in the 
eanoe one Joskph CLASKincifr, we proceeded, and the large boat 
was to follow at a respectful distance, nntil they shonld hear the 
report of one or more gnns as a signal to retreat. The distance 
from the lauding spot on Cniver River to its month, by its sinv- 
iirities, was some eight or nine miles, thongh not exceeding three 
by land. 

When we had descended abont three mites by the river, I db- 
eoTered three or four Indian canoes on the northern bank of the 
ftream, when we were abreast of them ; and knowing ladiana 
were not far off, concluded to pnsh ahead, and did so, bat in lees 
than a minnte, we heard a noise, and looking back, we got a 
glimpse of a dozen to twenty Indians rushing down the bank and 
jamping'into their canoes, seizing their paddles, and pursuing after 
as. In a very short distance, we fortunately turned a sharp 
wooded angle in the stream to the right, which screened us from 
the Indians, and there we ran a few rods up a small bayou, and 
left the canoe, and ran abont a mile and a half up the stream, 
nnch of the way fully knee deep in water on the overflowed bot- 
tom ; and fearing tbe Indians might be near, we remained from 
abont ten o^cIock in the forenoon till dark, some of the time in 
water up to onr necks, when some men came from the fort, only 
a mile distant, and conveyed us over the river, and thence to the 
garrison that evening. Tbe larger boat and crew also escaped. 

I can add nothing particularly to the statements given in the 
histories of the times, relative to the occurrences at Forts Madisoa 
and Mason, in April, 1813. About the 1st of June followiogi 
QoT. Howard resigned his governorship, and accepted the ap- 
pointment of brigadier general in the United States' aervieCi to 
aommand the eighth military department, then embracing the 
lanitory from the interior of Indiana ta the frontier of Maiioa. 


Qen. HowABD booq after viaitod Fort Howard, and upon the or^ 
gent solicitation of all the inhabitants that I should be continued 
in the spy service, as I had repeatedlj discovered aud given 
timely notice of the approach of ludian war parties, Qen. How- 
ard said, as ho had no authority to appoint spies, lie would use 
every exertiou in his power to secure ample reninnenitfon for 
anch services as I had rendered, of which he had i^jod evidence 
from the people and Rangors, and which he desired I mi^ht con« 
tinuo; giving me a certificate, pledging himself to use liis best 
exertions to secure for me pay from Congress or the War Depart- 
ment. He also commended m}^ exertions in furnishing supplies 
for the Bangers. 

Shortly after Gen. Howard's visit to Fort Howard, a strong ap- 
prehension was entertained by the people, that the Upper Missis- 
sippi Indians would descend the Mississippi in a body, and it was 
concluded that it was advisable to erect a fort directly on the 
bank of the river, to watch and check any such movement of the 
enemy. A^bout eight or ten miles above the mouth of Ouiver 
Bivcr on the eastern bank of che Mississippi, is a largo well-known, 
promontory of grit or sandstone, hence called Cape an 6r>s ; di- 
rectly opposite to which, on the western shore, was tlie place se- 
lected for the new fort, which was soon erected, and named Oape 
an Gris Fort. ' Capt. David Musiok was placed in command there ; 
it was less in size than Fort Howard, and some of the neighbor- 
ing people took shelter there with their families. 

Some time during the summer of 1813, 1 crossed the Missis- 
sippi to its eastern shore, two or three miles above Oape au Gris, 
to see if there wore any signs of Indians in that quartor. When 
about three miles east of the river, I discovered quite a large 
camp of Indians, somewhere, I thought, from sixty to eighty in 
number. I immediately retreated without being observed, and 
hastened to Cape au Gris with the intelligence. It was at onoe 
resolved to pursue, and it was only a question of numbers, and a 
strife for the command. Lieut Jojeui MoNaib, of the Bangeiv, a 
resident of St. Charles ooanty, a nephew of Col. AxBZijnm 


MoNaib, afterwards Governor of MiMonri, was permitted to take' 
tlie eommaod at his own nrgent request, and selected twelve men 
lor the service, together with myself for pilot. I stroDgly urged 
a larger nnmber, bnt the LienteLact was head-strmg, and ntterlj 
rejected my advice. 

There were but a couple of email log canc>es or dug outs in 
which to cross, and it required three trips to eonvej our small 
party of fourteen ovar the river. We immediately pushed for- 
ward, I taking the lead as pilot, and soon came in sight of the 
encampment, in which the Indians still remained. Each party 
discovered the other about the same moment, we having crossed 
a rise of ground, which brought us within about forty rods of the 
Indians; who, when they et^pied us, seized their arms and rushed 
towards us. Seeing that they out-numbered us four or five to 
one, we instantly retraced our steps towards Cape an Grls rock, » 
distance of some four or five miles. It was a hot chase, the In- 
dians rather gaining upon us, and when we arrived at the water*a 
edge of the river, about mid-day, we turned and fired upon the 
Indians, who were now within a few rods of us, They wero mo- 
mentarily checked, and, in turn, fired upf>n us, killing MoNaib 
and eleven of the men instantly, while the twelfth Sanger, one 
Wkhbeb, dressed in a yellow hunting shirt, jumped into the river, 
evidently intending to swim over to the fort, but was soon ar- 
rested by a ball, and his lifeless body dragged ashore. 

Providentially I was untouched, and quickly turned down the 
river bank, leaped a small stream at a single bound, and then 
running along the side of the dripping 'rock, closely 
three Indians, who kept up the exciting race for about a mile and a 
half— all this in full view of two hundred persons at the fort on the 
opposite shore, who, from their distance and want of boats, were 
unable to render the least assistance. I gained so much on the Indi- 
ana during that mile and a half race, that they abandoned the pur- 
siiit--^e gnna of the Indians and myself being alike empty. Not 
aware that my pursuers had given over the chase, I kept on as rap- 
at I eoald for two or three miles, when, taming a point on 

the riTer, and seeing nothing of tbe fndiaiiB, I re loaded my gon,* 
and kept on at a slackened pace. In the night, when some twenty 
miles below Cape an Grit, I made a raft of dry sticks fastened 
together with grape vines, and crossed to the western bank of the 
river; and, on the morning of the third day, reached Fort How- 
ard, and the same day was escorted to Cape an Gris Fort, where 
I was received with unaffected joy. 

I now learned that the Indians had horribly mangled the btKlies 
of my unfortunate companions, and left them with every mark of 
indecency and indignity their inventions could suggest; and they 
shook the reeking scal])S in bravado in sight of the whites on the 
distant opposite shore. IlaviDg secured the guns, clothing and 
scalps of their victims, and fully indulged themselves in yelling 
and screaming awhile, like so many demons, seeming conscious of 
their own safety, as the whites could not at once cross, they at 
length departed. Fearing to pass the river with only the two 
small dug-outs, lest they should be ambuscaded, the Eangers did 
not venture over till the next day ; and not then, until they had 
brought the cannon in the fort to bear on the spot where their 
slain companions were. The fragments of their mangled bodies 
were gathered up, conveyed over the river, and buried near the 

On the 16th of Jaly, 1813, the Indians attacked Fort Madison; 
I do not renicmber the number of troops stationed there, or their 
commander. The block-house, built especially to command the 
ravine, was doubtless located . west or north-west of the fort, as 
the ravine circled around the west side and north end of the fort, 
into the Mississippi. The Indians having carried the block-house, 
now availed themselves of the shelter of the deep ravine, and at- 
tempted to dig a passage into the fort, and continued at it for 
some time, but finally gave it up. This was the second attack on 
Fort Madison, in which two whites were killed and one wounded. 

On the 15th of August, 1813, Capt. Nathan Boons and a party 
of spies under his command, while on a scout between the Mia- 
sisaippi and Illinois rivers, were attacked in the night by three 


tim66 their namber. bat no livee were iosu About September 
fidlowiog, I acoompamedGreneral Howard's expedition to Peoria, 
where a fort was erected ; Maj. Nathan Boonb, and Maj. Wm. 
OBsmTY of St Loaie, were along. I wade bat a short stay, when 
I letomed ; after I left, there were some Indian disturbances, and 
Maj. N. B0051: and Gapt Samuel WnrrssiDEs seoured the eonn- 
try. Robert Wash, a lawyer, afterwards a Jodge, of St Loois, 
was an Aid to Gren. Howard. The latter part of October, on the 
retnm of the troops, there was some suow, and the men suffered 
considerably; some having worn oat thoir shoes, killed their 
horses, and wound strips of the hide around their feet, or made 
hide shoes. 

Early in NoFomber. 1813, Eort Madison was evacuated, and the 
buildings burned, iu cjDseqnonce of the contractor failing to furnish 
that garrisonwitli provisions, wliich caused much alarm and appre- 
hension at the forts and settlements below. In consequence of the 
abandonment of this -important position, Fort Johnston was built, 
opposite the mouth of the middle fork of the Des Moines Riyer, on 
a high promontory < ai the eastern bank of the Mississippi ; it was 
erected by the Kau<rcr3 and regulars, and anlbng tbe officers were 
Lieut Benket Rili.y, and W. S. Harney, and Dr. Mitib, after- 
wards of Galena. I was there during its erection. The next spring, 
for the same reas<>ii that Fort Madison hud been al)andoned, Fort 
Johnston was also evacuated and destroyed. It was, however, 
gnbsequently rebuilt, and called Fort Edwards. Fort Mason, 
which was pi\>bably erected at the out-break early in 1812, was 
located fifteen or twenty miles above the mouth of Salt River, on 
the west bank of tiie Mississippi. This too, was abandoned not 
&r from the I'bt of May, 1814, about the same time as Fort 

The famous battle of the Siuk-nole, near Fort Howard, ocenr- 
led on the 24th of May, 1814. Some two or three tijghts pre- 
viously, I made a i.arrow escape iu riding in the night from Oape 
sa Gris to Fort Howard. When about half a mile from the lat- 
ter, I heard a whistle on the chai^r of powder horn, aad aoon 


heard a party of Indians endeavoring to cat me off from the fort, 
when I took a cmsnit and evaded them, by taking a bj-patii, 
when they had way-laid the main trail, and thus I reached the 
fort in safety. 

Not long before the Sink-Hole affair, one Bebnabd was killed 
on Dardenne Eiver, the next stream below Pemqne creek; and 
about the same time one Wetlt was killed near the crossing <^ 
Pemque, and Wm. Linn, a Banger, within thirty rods of Oape au 
Gris Fort. Linn had gone into the edge of the woods to visit a 
whiskey jug he had secreted there, when the report of several 
guns was heard. Lient. Masset went oat in pursuit, but the In- 
dians had crossed the river below, where their canoes were, and 
decamped. On the Oapo au Gris rock, opposite the fort,, the In- 
dians deliberately .showed themselves, when a young warrior 
about a dozen years of age advanced, exhibiting Linn's scalp, and 
exclaiming in the Sauk language, ^^ Gome here, you Americans, 
and we will serve you the same way." Linn's family, at the time 
of his death, were living in Wood's Fort. Within a few days of 
this affair, a young man named Bolles went to a deer-lick at the 
foot of the bluff, about two and a half miles from Oape au Gris, 
and was there shot and scalped. 

Of the Sink Hole battle, fought on the 24th of May, 1814, near 
Port Howard, I shall bo able to give a full account, as I was pre- 
sent and participated in it. Oapt. Peter Oeaig commanded at 
Port Howard ; he resided with his father-in-law Andrew Ramset, 
at Cape Girardeau, and did not exceed thirty years of age. 
DaAKEF.''RD Gray was first lieutenant, Whjson Able, the second, 
and Edward Spears, third lieutenant. 

About noon, five of the men went out of tlio fort to Byrne's 
deserted house on the bluft', about a quarter of ji niilo below the 
fort, to bring in a grind-stone. In consequence of back water from 
the Mississippi, they went in a cftnoe ; and on their return, were 
fired on by a party supposed to be fifty Indians, who were under 
shelter of some brush that grew along at the foot of the bluff, 
near Byrne's house, and about fifteen rods distant from the canoe 


at thil time. Ihree of the whites were killed, &nd one moitallj 
wonadad ; azid u the back water, where the canoe was, was only 
about knee-deep, the Indians ran out and tDxnahawked their tIc- 

Ihe people in the fort ran ont as qnick as possible, and fiied 
across the back water at the Indians, but as they were nearly a 
qnarter of a mile off, it was of course without effect. Capt. Craiq 
with a party of some twenty-fiye men hastened in pursuit of the 
Jfuiiff na ^ and ran across a point cf the back water, a few inches 
deep; while another party, of whoui I was one, of ab jut twenty- 
five, ran to the right of the water, with a view of intercepting 
the Indians, who seemed to be making towards the bluff or high 
plain west and north-west of the fort. The party with which I 
had started, and Capt. Craig's, soon united. 

Immediately on the bluff was the cultivated field and deserted 
residence of Bexjamin Allen, the field about forty rods across, 
beyond which was pretty thick timber. Here the Indians made 
a stand, and here the fight commenced. Both parties treed, and 
as the firing waxed warm, the Indians slowly retired as the whites 
advanced. After this fighting had been going on perhaps some 
ten minutes, the whites were re-inforced by Capt. DAvm Musics, 
of Cape au Gris, with about twenty men. Capt. McsicKhad been 
on a scoot towards the head of Coiver Biver, and had returned, 
though unknown at Fort Howard, to the crossing of CniverBiver, 
about a mile from the furt, and about a mile and a half from the 
scene of conflict; and had stoppci with his men to graze their 
horses, when hearini^ tlie firing, they instantly remounted, and 
dashed towards the place of battle, and dismounting in the edge 
of the timber on the bluff, and hitching their liorse?, they rushed 
tluough a part of the Indian line, and shortly after the enemy 
fled, a part bearing to the right oi the Sink-Hole towards Bob's 
Creek, but the most of them taking rufuge in the Sink-Holei 
which was close by where the main fighting had taken place. 
About the time the Indians were retreating, Capt. Cbaig exposed 
himself about four feet beyond his tree, and was shot through the 


1)ody, and fell dead ; Jaicbs Potnbt was killed before Oapt. Obaio, 
and perhaps one or two others. Before the Indians retired to the 
Sink-Hole, the fighting had become animated, the loading waa 
done qaick, and ehota rapidly exchanged, and when one of omr 
partj was killed or wounded, it was announced aloud. 

This Sink-Hole was about sixty feet in length, and about twelve 
to fifteen feet wide, and ten or twelve feet deep. Near the bot- 
tom on the south-east side, was a shelving rock, under which 
perhaps some fifty or sixty persons might have sheltered them* 
selves. At the north-east end of the Sink-Hole, the descent was 
quite gradual, the other end much more abrupt, and the south- 
east side was nearly ])crpendicular, and the other side about like 
the steep roof of a house. Ou the south-east side, the Indians, 
as a further }»rotectio7i in case the whites should rush up, dug un* 
der the shelving rock with their knives. On the sides and in the 
bottom of the Sink- Hole wore some bushes, which also served as 
something of a screen for the Indians. 

Gapt. Musick and his men took post on the uortli-east side of 
the Sink-Hole, ana the others occupied other positions surround- 
ing the enemy. As the trees approached close to the Sink-Hole, 
these served in part to protect our party. Finding we could not 
get a good oppojtunity to dislodge the enemy, as they were best 
protected, those of our men who had families at the fort, gradually 
went there, not knowing but a large body of Indians might seize 
the fuvorable occasion to attack the fort, while the men were mostly 
away, engaged in the exciting contest. 

The Indians in the Sink Hole had a drum, made of a skin 
stretched over a section of hollow tree, ou which they beat quite 
constantly ; and some Indian would shake a rattle, called sKe-Blvur 
qui^ probably a dried bladder with pebbles within ; and even, for 
a moment, would veuture to thrust his head in view, with his 
hand elevated shaking his rattle, and calling out lyeash ! peash! 
which was understood to be a sort of defiance, or as Black Hawk, 
who was one of the party, says in his account of that affair, a 
jLind of bravado to come and fight them in the Sink-Hole. When 


thelndiaoB would creep up and shoot over the rim of the Sink- 
Holey they wonld insttntlr disappear, and while they sometiiiies 
fired effectual shots, thej in torn became occasionally the Tictifltt 
of our rifles. From about one to four o'clock in the afternoon, 
the firing was inconstant, our men generally reserving their fire 
till an Indian should show his head, and all of us were studying 
how he could more effectually attack and dislodge the enemj. 

At length Lieut. Speabs suggested, that a pair of cart wheels, 
axle and tongue, which were seen at Allen's place, near at hand, 
be obtained, and a moving battery constructed. This idea was 
entertained favorably, and an hour or more consumed in its con- 
fltruction. Some oak floor puncheons, from seven to eight feet in 
length, were made fast to the axle in an upright position, and 
port-holes made through them. Finally, the battery was ready 
for trial, and was sufficiently large to protect some half a dozen 
or more men. It was moved forward slowly, and seemed to at- 
tract the particular attention of the Indians, who had evidently 
heard the knocking and pounding connected with its manufac- 
ture, and who now frequently popped up their heads to make 
momentary discoveries ; and it was at length moved up to within 
less than ten^aces of the brink of the SiukHole, on the south- 
east side, 'ihe upright plank did not reach the ground within 
some eighteen inches, onr men calculating to shoot beneath the 
lower end of the plank at' the Indians ; but the latter, from their 
position, had the decided advantage of this neglected aperture, 
for the Indians shooting beneath the battery at an upward angle, 
would get shots at the whites before the latter could see them. 
The Indians also watched the port-holes, and directed some of 
their shots to them. Lieut. Speass was shot dead, through the 
forehead, and his death was much lamented, as he had proved 
himself the most active and intrepid officer engaged. John Pat- 
terson was wounded in the thigh, and some others were also 
wounded behind the battery. Having failed in the object f&r 
which it was designed, the battery was abandoned after sun-down. 

Our hope all along had been, that the Indians would emer{g6 


from their covert, and attempt to retreat to where we aappoeed 
ihejir oanoea ware left, some three or four miles distant, iu which 
case we. were firmly determined to rush upon them, aiid endeavor 
to cot them totally off. Thei -men generally evinced the greatest. 
bravery during the whole engagement. Night now coming on, 
and having heard the reports of half a dozen or so of guns in the 
direction of the fort, by a few Indians who rushed out from the 
woods skirting Bob's Creek, not more than forty rods from the 
north end of the fort. This movement on the part of the few In* 
dians who had escaped when the others took refuge in the Sink 
Hole, was evidently designed to divert the attention of the whites, 
and alarm them for the safety of the fort^ and thus effectually 
relieve the Indians in the Sink-Hole. This was the result, for 
Oapt. MusiOK and men retired to the fort, carrying the dead and 
wounded, and made every preparation to repel a night attack. 
As the Mississippi was quite high, with much back water over 
the low grounds, the approach of the enemy was thus facilitated, 
and, it was feared, a largo Indian force was at hand. The people 
were always more apprehensive of danger at a time when the 
river was swollen, than when at its ordinary stage. 

The men in the fort were mostly up all night, ready for resis- 
tance, if necessary. There was no physician at the fort, and 
much effort Wi.s made to set some broken bones. There was a 
well in the fort, and provisions and ammunition sufficient to sus* 
tain a pretty formidable attack. The women were greatly alarmed, 
pressing thoir infants to their bosoms, fearing they might not be 
permitted to behold anoUicr morning's light ; but the nigbt passed 
away without seeing or bearing an Indian. Ther next morning a 
party went to the Sink Hole, and found the Indians gone, who 
had carried off all their dead and wounded, except five dead 
bodies left on the north west bank of the Sink Kolo ; and by the 
signs of blood within the Sink Hple, it was judged tliat well nigh 
thirty of the enemy munt have been kille^I and wounded. Lieut. 
DrjlKSfobd Gray's report of the affair, made eight of our party 
killed, one missing, and five wounded — making a total of fourteen; 


I had thought the number was nearer twenty. Our dead were 
buried nea^ the fort, when Capt. Httsick and his men went over 
to Oape an Gris, where thej belonged, and of which garriflon 
Oapt MuBiCK had the command. We that day eent out eoonta, 
while I proceeded to St. Oharlee to procure medical and enrgieal 
assistance, and sent forward Drs. Hubbard and Wilson". 

It may be proper to remark, that from the crossing of Ouirer 
Elver to Fort Howard was a mile ; from the fort to the Sink 
Hole half a mile, and nearly a quarter of a mile from the fort 
to BoVs Creek. The fort was an oblong square, north and south, 
and embraced about half an acre, with block-houses at all the 
comers, except the south-east one. Lieut. Draeeford Gray was 
left in command there ; he belonged in the New Madrid region, 
and did not long survive the war. Oapt. M rsiCK resided near 
Florisant, and lived, I think, to a good old age. 

Black Hawk's published narrative of this affair, and partic- 
ularly of all the preliminary incidents prior to taking re&ge 
in the Sink-Hole, is quite strange and confused ; and I can only 
account for it, by supposing that ho has related as occuring here, 
what really transpired at a diflferent time and occasion. He re- 
presents, that there were only eighteen Indians with him in the 
Sink-Hole, while there must have been more than twice as many ; 
he speaks of only one Indistn and two whites being killed, and 
that when they emerged from the Sink-Hole in the evening, 
they placed their dead Indian on top of a dead white man — of 
this latter circumstance, I have no recollection. 

In July, 1814, two families had been killed by the Indians, in 
the Wood river settlement, east of Alton : their names were 
Moore and Reagan. Capt. Samuel WerrKsroES, who buortly after 
served on Maj. Taylor's expedition, immediately pursued the 
Indians with some thirty t:> fifty Illinois Rangers. Being then in 
that region seeking supplies as commij^sary, I went along as a spy 
and volunteer. We trailed the Indians towards the junction of 
the Sangamon with the Illinois ; we got distant glimpses of them 
several times in the hot pursuit ; and just at the dusk of the eif^ 


niog) we last saw tliein enter a thicket in the bottom of the Illi- 
nois, jnst below the month of the Sangamon, where the Indiana 
had probably left their canoes. We had chased them that day 
what we judged to be sixty miles ; and one old Indian, wearied 
out, gave out and stopped on the prairie just before the other In- 
dians entered the thicket. As several of our party approached 
him, the old fellow raised his gun, and pointed it rapidly from 
one to another, as if to deter them from firing ; but about a dozen 
fired and killed him. We camped near there that night, and then 
returned home. 

In the spring of 1814, Gov. Olakk headed an expedition to 
Prairie du Chien, and there met the Indians of that immediate 
region in council, and established a fort, when he returned to SU 
Louis. Butin July, 181 1, the British under Col. MoKay or MoCoy 
retook the place. Col. McKay^s force must have been less than 
two hundred whites, and perhaps two or three thousand Indians,* 
of all the nations of the North-West, except the Menomonees. 
They descended the Wibcoiisinf to the point where the high 
bluff on the eastern bank of the Mississippi terminates near the 
Wisconsin; there, on the northern bank of the Wisconsin, they 
landed, and marched over land about seven miles to Prairie du 
Chien. Col. McKay immediately sent a flag demanding the sur- 
render of the fort, to which Lieut. Perkins declined a compliance, 
as he said he would detend it to the last. An attack was at once 
•ommenced, and an assault upon the fort made by the large body 
of Indians there assembled. Upon this rush and attack upon the 
fort, Lieut. Perkins cniciudeJ it wuuld be folly to resist, and sur- 
rendered ; aiid the g.'eatest exertions were required on iho part 

•Thlis BumlK»r,U probably much too high: tbc neirapaper accouats of that period apeak of tho Indian 
fone being at leaj«t a thonwrnd. It was the 17th of July, 1814, that Col. McK.VT appeared before, and 
captured Prairie du Cblen. L. C. D. 

f Mr. Sti:i:il.v Taylou, wiio rtsided in WiBconi«lu from 1S35 to 1S43, and now Controller of the dty 
of PhiUiUdphio, states in^aliou, that ho learned flrom different Rource?, that Col. McKay's forces 
encamped on irhat liaa i-ver tsince been known as Engluk Prairu, on which \a located the present ril* 
Isge of Husco'Li; and from this rircumatance tlie Prairie derired it» name. Thla Prairie ia »>mo fifteen 
miles in length, and perhapa, upon an arerage, tiro in width, and \s romethln;; like fortj miles abote 
tho mouth of the Wisconsin. L. C. D. 


of Ool. McKay to preserve Lieut. Fbbkins and his men from the 
fnrj of the Indians, and his almost superhuman efforts to this end 
were at length successful. Lieut. Perkins probably surrendered 
at discretion, as there could have been no time for securing any 
specific terms. Col. McKay parolled all the Americans, and sent 
them down the river in the gun-boat Oovei^nor Clark^ and sent a 
force with them for safety until beyond Eock Island ; but they 
were dogged all the way by a large number of canoes of Indiana. 
After passing belo^ the mouth of Eock Eiver, the British escort 
withdrew, and' in due time the gun-boat arrived safely at St 

Of Lieut. Campbell's expedition, destined for the relief of Prai- 
rie du Chien, in July, 1814, 1 need say but little. The attack on 
Campbell was made about throe miles above Eock Island, at a 
small island near the Illinois shore, ever since known as Campbell's 
Island. Lieut. Campbell disobeyed orders, was heedless, and 
kept out no spies ; and, in the attack, he was badly shot through 
the left wrist. Hq was known after the war as Major Campbell, 
and settled at Louisiana, about a mile and a half below the month 
of Salt Eiver, Missouri, and there lived many years. He was a 
great spend-thrift, and fond of drinking. He left two sons, sort of 
traders at Louisiana, who sometimes traded among the Indians. 

Maj. Zacuary Taylor's expedition uu the Mississippi, to puniah 
the Indians on Rock Eiver for their hostile attacks, took place in 
the latter part of August and early in September, 1814. Having 
furnished a narrative of this affair for Gen. Smithy's History of 
Wisconsin, I shall only speak in a brief manner of some of the 
events connected with it. Since learning the particulars of Maj. 
Taylor's official report, I feel constrained to modify some of my 
former impressions. I must have been mistaken as to the es^tent 
of Taylor's forco, as it was clearly loss than I had supposed. I 
know tliere wore twenty* -tvv.i boats iit the rondez.vous, but most 
likely Ct»»ti. Dodge's expedition np the Mii?fiouri at this time, eauBod 
the dimiriuiion of the boats and force designed fur Maj. TAYliOS. 

i accompanied Maj. Taylor. Near Rock Island, it was ^s- 


ooTcred that a large bodj of Indians had collected ; it seemed to 
me, that there were from two to four thousand of them. Hie 
British had erected a battery on the left or eastern bank of the 
Mississippi ; in a row witli two real twelve-pounders, they had 
six painted wooden guns, all on a knoll oi* elevation on the river 
bank, and there were apparently some fifty men dressed in British 
uniform — some of them may have been Indians so dressed. 

From Maj. Tatlob's report, it is uncertain whether it w^ 
Rkotob's boat which got aground, and Capt. WnrrEsiDB relieved ; 
but I would not now say, as I did in my narrative to Gten. Smtth, 
that Oapt. Whttkbide disobeyed orders in doing it. The attack 
occurred on a very bright raomiug ; the preceding night was 
cloudy, very windy, with some rain. I still insist, that the first 
cannon ball from the British battery passed through Taylor's 
boat, called the Gamjnodore^ yet Taylor, in his report says, it was 
Hkmtstead's boat — it may be, that Hemp&tbad was the captain of 
the Commodore^ while Taylor was commander of the expedition. 

It became necessary for some one to expose himself in order to 
cast a cable from a disabled boat which was drifting fast towards 
the shore where the Indians were, to Oapt. Wiutbsidr's boat ; and 
one Paul Harfolb greaUy exposed himself in accomplishing the 
object. But having done this, he lingered, and one after another 
hB shot at the enemy fourteen guns handed to him, when he him* 
self was shot in the forehead, and tumbled forward into the river 
when his body was obtained by tlie Indians, and out up into a 
hundred pieces. Tlie crippled boat was saved, but po^r Hab- 
polb'b exploit, in which he lost his life, was the wonder and ad- 
miration of all. He was a young man of some twenty -three years 
of age, and resided near Wood's Fort, in Missouri, where he had 
mlways been celebrated for his strength and activity, and was pos- 
sessed of much backwood's wit and humor. 

The prairie where Maj. Taylor halted to repair his boats, and 
attend to the wounded, was about three miles below the mouth of 
Bock river, on the Illinois shore. There were, as Maj. Tatlob 
states, a great number of Indian horses opposite the moath of 


Bock river, and were doubtless placed there to decoy the whites 
CD shore into an ambuscade. Though Maj. Taylor dated his re- 
port at Fort Madison, that fort had not been re o<*— ' , , 
n,i«t have stopped there, and there ^j^;^^ ^ ii^^^\ Ly 

add. that mv ob^*'**^ "" • ^.l j-i.* 

nuui wf^fii, , ^ ^^^^ ^^ accompanying the expedition was two- 
fold; to Kirnish supplies, which I took along, to such of the 
Bangers as I had contracted to supply, and also to act, if needed, 
in the capacity of a spy or scout. 

The death of Gen. Howard, after a two days illness, at St. 
Louis, in September, 1814, was a serious loss to me. The certi- 
ficate which he had given me in 1813, I had carried with me in 
my pocket during my spying service, in rains and storms, until it 
got frequently wet, and finally worn out ; and I had relied on 
Gen. Howard to make the proper application lor me to obtain 
adequate compensation from Government; but amid hid multi- 
plied public duties, he had neglected to make the necessary rep- 
resentation, so far as I know, to the War Department. Thus was 
I left at the close of the war without my certificate, and Gen. 
Howard in his grave. 

Early in the spring of 1815, while the Indians were still hos- 
tile, the young men of Cape Girardeau, St. Genevieve, and parts of 
St. Oharles and St. Louis counties, to the number of 750, formed 
themselves into a regiment, with a view of offering their services 
to the Government for the protection of Upper Louisiana. Mee^ 
ing at Oape Girardeau, I was chosen Colonel, and Licvi Kobesis 
Major of the new regiment. The Bangers had been disbanded, 
perhaps the preceding fall. Two hundred and fifty of the regi- 
ment embodied at Portage des Sioux, about April, 1815, and 
taking the command, I marched them up the Mississippi to Bock 
Island ; and finding no enemy there, we went across towards the 
Blinois Biver, crossing Spoon Biver ; and on the Illinois we met 
an express from Gov. Clark, from St. Louis, with the news of 
}>eace, stating that all hostilities would cease, and a treaty beheld 
it Portage des Sioux in June, to which the Indians were invited. 
Betoming home, atid the war no w ended, no report was made of 


the organization of the regiment or of our econt, and now we di^ 
banded. I was present at the treaty of Portage des Sionx, which 
was concluded on the 18th of Jnlj ; Got. Olask, Gov. Edwabdb 
of niinois, and OoL' Aug. OaoinxATT ot St. Lonie, were the oom- 
misBioners, and CoL Rknb Paul, Choutbau^s son-in-law, was ap* 
pointed French and English interpreter. 

My pecnniary condition was, at this time, exceedingly nnpleas- 
ant. I was now about thirty thousand dollars in debt for supplies 
ftirnished the Rangers, and not a cent had they received for their 
servicfS during the war, owing, I believe, to the culpable wiih-^ 
holding of the pay on the part of the paymasters, who probably 
used it for i>nrpose8 of speculation, rather than the inability or in- 
attention of Government to pay it. The Rangers getting no pay, 
of course I got none. In some instances, the paymasters bought 
up the Rangers' claims at a reduced price, and paid for them in 
goods. The balance due the Rangers, was finally paid towards 
the close of 1815 ; but as they lived in various parts of the coun- 
try, and many of them were irresponsible, I eventually lost 
$18,684: 03, all in consequence of the Rangers not getting their 
pay while in service, for had they been paid then, I should have 
promptly received mine. After collecting all I could from every 
quarter, I was still over eight thouBand dollars in debt, which I 
ultimately paid to the last i'arthing, by boating and other opera- 
tions during the ensuing four years. My creditors, knowing the 
object for which I purchased supplies of them, and knowing also, 
how I had snflFered heavy pecuniary loss by the Rangers failing 
to get their pay prom;)tly, never charged me any interest. I men- 
tion this to their credit. 

Though the Indians, at the treaty of Portage des Sioux, had 
promised to be peaceful, there were individual exceptions. Re- 
lying upon the treaty, and the good faith of the Indians, the en- 
terprising whites pushed out up the river, while, as the sequel 
proved, not a few of the Indians were yet hostile in their feelings. 
Several whites were attacked by these malcontents during 1815. 
Afojojxg them was John Yore Sawtsb, a Yermonter, afterwards it 

Circnt Jodge of DKook, who V1B one of a partr iz: m bost 
die Miniuippi, and bad lar^ded on the west bank cf the river, 
aboDt tw6>e mileB below the piese^t dtr of Daboqce. at aplaee 
known as Buttrs ds9 llorU. where ther wex^ *attad»d and eerer- 
al killeG. Sawixl, a Terr corpulent man, ccjcee Jed ia secreting 
hiiLStlf :l . -ii^k-Lole i-ik of the rirer hiU, where iie remained 
three a&js wiibout iiXKi. and tLan escaped. S*yas S. Virj-yg^ 
another of rhe partr, ^iio was a blacksmith, uianagad, tocrether 
with hU wile, in some war to reach &n island, ret known as Mil- 
ler's iftiaod. waere ther rem£.!Lt;d i:ea:Ij a moLth befjre they 
were tak^n o^. Mn.TFR afterwards settled at Galena where he 
died aboat i<^ii. 

A'oTit :Li5 period. Dr. Mute, c: the United Si&tes Armr, whom 
I had seen at Fon Johnston in 1514, wa^ a; Prairie da Chien« 
when his ii:e was threatenei. and he was saved by a jonng Sank 
squaw, -^^hom he married, and : v whom he raised a lamiiv. Dr. 
Mna oft*. n related to mi. the iucidents of hi^ wife's heroism in 
saTing him« bat the particniars I hare torgottor.. Like most of 
pei»jnB coni^ectei with :be rj-inv. he was r^j fond of liqaor. 
otherwise he znight have risen to distinction and oseiolness.* 

In the f&U oi iSIo« I went np the Hississip^ i with a boat pto* 
perl J inanned. en a trading voyage. The Indian traders on the 
Upper Aiississippi, piirchasing goods at St. Ir?uis, were desirons 
of making p:^jmcnt 07 remitting ^iead irom the mines on Fevre 
River, which they bad received in trade from the Indians, and 
which was 01 tLeir own smelting and manulsciore from the min- 
eraL This {.roinised to ^pen np a new field of trade and com- 
merce : bnt the {^riocess of bcatirg u]> the Mississippi at this period, 
at times qnito tedions. The boats were propelled np stream 

'IacoaT^-sft:k>n vitii Mr. Bosii:: Sict^-, of Grant co^mj-, who retl^k^i ia tke nt 
fr-.s !s:7 t3 :=r::»^ ^e learz rirtLer of Tr. Mv a, 'Jiit L« ns & fcotittAn, & good 
i as Bdlctutb ; tut trm^icg vUfa tl« ViaDtht^oef, a fiui «m er cco^ted ia tb« 
rfcca a jocEg #'^a*-r appriicsl hia cf it, aci ftfcnt^ his is a Ckv;, aci s«|*(Iied hiai 
n tbt alann puatA xw^kx. la gratltede to hit dalirertr, ba tock \9x wilh bim aa Ua «l^ i 
ifteriaM,aMdnlaadM««alcfalldr«. Dr. Men wanf la WA <g 9mmm% tta twj fct 
iDrii^vtaMlMflBnMoatLt latfm tndt, wA wh«* 1« dM, yiv vMAlii bnl^ 


bf'means of poles and sails, and with favorablo wind, a handred 
and ten miles hare been accomplished in a single day. From 
twelre days to a month were requisite for the voyage from St 
Loais to Prairie dn^-Ohien, while the descending trip was made 
in from six to ten days. 

I had conversed with Indians at the treaty at Portage des 
Sioux, and at St Louis, about trading with them, and asking 
their permission to build a saw-mill in their country, if I could 
find a suitable locality, as it was a pine res^on, and pine lumber 
was then worth seventy dollars a thousand in St. Louis. I now 
started to carry out these views. At the place now called fielle- 
vue, in Iowa, about fifteen miles below Galena, and about six 
below the mouth of Fevre river, I stopped, and found a water 
power, which I judged would fully answer my purpose. Here a 
small stream flowed intp the Mississippi, and somo thirty or forty 
rods above its mouth was a fine locality for a mill ; and logs could 
be rafted down the Wisconsin, and other streams upon which the 
pine grew abundantly, as I had learned from traders and Indiana 
in that quarter. The Indians had previously informed me, that 
if I should go up for such a purpose, I must obtain written per- 
mission of the Government. I now had a regular license from 
Gt>v. Olabk, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to trade with 
the Indians. 

There were a few Indians then encamped at this Bellevue 
locality, and others collected while I remained, so that in all, 
there were three or four hundred warriors, and many more squaws . 
and children, assembled there. I soon discovered but little feel- 
ing of friendship on the part of the Indians towards tlie Ameri- 
cans. I had a talk with them, reminding them of their promises 
to me, and my wish to trade at that point, and erect a mill there. 
After I had distributed presents during several days to the amount 
of three hundred dollars in value, and concluding that they had 
obtained all they could, they said they had. been consulting about 
tbe matter, and declined to grant my request ; that doubtless 
flKttiy wfaitieto "vtrbifld^ W iloltei& similar fkvors and prf vile jjesj^ ! 


and one grant of this kind wonld pave the way for another, and 
they must firmly deny all ; that they mnst check the advance of 
the whites, for if one should go into their country, others, like 
Bwarms of bees, would follow. They constantly begged for 
whiskey, of which I had none. 

I now proceeded on to Prairie du Ohien, and there engaged in 
some little traffic. The place was much scattered, and sparselj 
settled ; there were some fifty or sixty dwelling houses, and all 
the people could speak the English, French and Indian langnagea, 
and all imperfectly. There were perhaps three or four permanent 
traders located there, and, during the warm season of the year, 
some fifty or more would resort there, and late in the fall scatter 
abroad to their several trading stations on the Upper Mississippi 
and its numerous tributaries. This had been the custom for many 
years. I do not think there was an American resident at Prairie 
du Chien. The traders were polite and kind, and their hospitality 
was both general and generous; and while they drank freely,- it 
was regarded a9 disgraceful to get drunk. 

Mr. Jambs Aird, a Scotch trader, had been thirty-seven years 
in the Upper Mississippi country, making Prairie du Ohien gen- 
erally his place of summer resort. Joseph Bolettb, AmroiNE and 
Michael Beisbois, Fbanois Boutielle, Jean Bapttste St. Jean, 
Mons. Tiebcoubt, Mons. Bennette, Mens. Palen, and many others, 
were among the traders. All these traders had families, and 
mostly by Indian wives ; but Michael Bbisbois had a fine French 
wife. In Bbisbois' family was a beautiful girl named Fishkb, 
whose parents,* early settlers there, were dead ; and Joseph Bo- 
XJETrE was said to have married this young girl when she was only 
ten years of age. Holette was regarded as the largest trader 
there, and reputed wealthy. The marriages of the traders with 
aquaws was without ceremony, and to last only for a single trading 
season. The trader would make the engagement with the parents 



' * I   I 


of the yoTiDg gc^uaw, to whom he woald make liberal oomptmul^^ 
Hon ; aad by making a permaDent marriage, the trader's bneinewr 
would be increaBed. When the trader renewed his engagemeDt: 
for his sqnaw wife for two or three years in Buceession, he genets, 
ally then kept her for life. 

I remained a few weeks at Prairie du Ohien, and then retmved 
without molestation to 'St Louis, taking down a few skins and 
hides, but the trip was unprofitable. I learned, while at Prairie 
da Ohien, that the people there had chiefly depended upon the* 
traders bringing flour und other snpplies from Mackinaw, bat 
their remoteness from the older settlements, would now render it 
neqessary to engage in farming, and raise large crops of wheat, 
and that arrangements were then making for that purpose. I' 
thought it would be a good locality for a grist mill, and promised' 
the people that I would erect one, for which there was sufficient 
water-power at Fisher's Ooulee, four miles above Prairie du Ohieiu 
This promise Was gratifying to them, as they had no mode of 
grinding except sometimes to hitch a horse to a sweep, and grind 
on a small scale with a band and small stone — hence called a 

About June, 1816, 1 returned to Prairie du Ohien with a large 
boat, and full load of merchandize and provisions, I then being^ 
but a common carrier tor others. The post at Bock Island was 
then occupied, and commanded by Maj. Willouobbt Moboav ; 
this post was commenced the previous year. On this visit, I be- 
lieve, I found a detachment of IT. S. troops arrived- at Prairie du 
Ohien shortly before me; perhaps from fifty to one hundred 
aad fifty in number, but I have forgotten the name of the 
commanding officer. Their arrival was very unwelcome to the 
settlement generally. They were occupying and repairing the t3A 
fort, on the bank of the river, at the upper part of the town.' 

Having discharged my load, I descended to Fevre river, as I 
bad orders from St. Louis merchants to bring down lead from the 
traders in payment for goods they had purchased there. Beaob- 


iDg a point then known as Kettle Chief's Prairie*, some little 
dMnee below where OassTille now is, perhaps fifteen or e%h- 
teen miles, I Ihwe met the traden npon whom I had the ordws, 
aad some two or three thousand Indians congregated, holding a sort 
of jnhilee jnst after their com-plauting, swigging whiskey, and 
invoking the blessing of the Great Spirit npon their crop. The 
tniders requested me to go down to the month of Feyre riverj 
and there await their sending the lead down ; thev were Terjr 
anxious that I shonld take it down to 8c. Louis for them, and they 
had it piled up at the very spot where Galena now is. This I re* 
flised, as I could not consent to wait so lorcr. and asked to go up 
with my boat. Thi& request the Indians refused, saying that 
''the Americans must not see their lead mines," as they were par- 
ticularly suspicious of Americans, but did not cherish the same 
ftelings towards Frenchmen, with whom they bad been so long 
connected and associated. Speaking, as I did, the French as fln- 
ently as I did the English, the traders declared to the Indiana 
that I was a Frenchman, and all my boatmen, which was true, 
were French voyageurs ; the Indians, with very little persuasion, 
consented that I might go to their smelting establishments. 

About two hundred Indians jumped upon my boat, while otheiB 
followed in canoes, and we pushed on to the spot. There was no 
Indian toMrn there, but several encampments, and no trading es- 
tablishment There were at least twenty furnaces in the imme- 
diate neighborhood ; and the lead was run into plaques or plaU^ 
otflata^ of about seventy pounds each. These jlaU were formed 
bj smelting the mineral in a small walled hole, in which the fuel 
and mineral were mingled, and the liquid lead run out| in front, 
inio a hole scooped in the earth, so that a bowl-shaped mass of 
lead was formed therein. The squaws dug the minefa), and car- 
ried it in sacks on their heads to the smelting places. I loaded 
seventy tons of lead in my boat, and still left much at the for- 

* PkobttUjr 9MB«d alter the Fox chief Kittl^ vho v« killed, ia 1831^ bj % w«r sMrty oC Mmz t^ 
MtnoaoBMii M rdated \^ Jadfe Lockwood— VIdt p. 1T0-*71, of t^ volume. L. 0. D. 


nacefi. Ihii was the first boat-load of lead, from Gkdena. Ibe 
Indians had often previously taken lead in small quantities in 
their canoes to Portage des Sioux and St. Louis, for purposes of 

In the course of that year, I made two other trips in the trade 
to Prairie du Ghien, and also trips in 1817, 18,^ 19 and '20, mak- 
ing altogether nine trips. I am not, certain that I took more than 
one other trip up Fevre river for a load of lead, for the traden, 
now making all their purchases at St. Louis, would carry down 
their own lead, and take back a new supply of goods suitable for 
the Indian trade. After the peace of 1815, and all was settled 
down again in quiet in the North-West, the channel ot the Indian 
trade was completely changed, from Mackinaw, where it had so 
long centered, to St. Louis, as it was found far more accessible, 
and by this time there were several heavy establishments of mer- 
chandize selected with special reference to this trade. 

In 1818, 1 built a grist-mill, as I had promised, at Fiaher^a 
CouUcy four miles above Prairie du Chien. It had but a single 
run of stones, and eventually proved a source of expense to me, 
but a matter of great convenience to the people. Lieut. Col. 
Talbot Giiambers went up to Prairie du Chien in 1817, in my 
boat, and assumed the command of the garrison. Col. Chahbeoks 
loved to make a display, was fond of drinking freely, and was 
naturally tyrannical and over-bearing — and, when intoxicated, 
was desperate and dangerous. Once when so' inflamed with 
liquor, he chased a young female into the house of Jagque Mk- 
NARD, with no good motive for doing so, when Mekabo reproached 
him ; upon which Chambers ordered a file of twenty-five soldiers 
to tie him up, strip, and give him twenty-five lashes with a cat o'- 
nine-tails, well laid on. 

• In s lettor dated at Piralrie da Chien, Jnno 7th, 1818, it is rtated : " SInco yna left this place, 
ttIM hare bees sererml aniTala at diffBrtat tbiiM from St. Loaii, ftmnng whom were Mr. B0R.Tnr,(w1to 
Is BOW Indian Agent, and drO magiiitrato,) CoL McNaik, Hi^. Fowuer, Mr. Shaw, and Lieateuat 
(taow captain) Hickman and ladj. In two bonn after hln arriraJ, Col. CnAaracss started for SI Lonls ; 
lAtthit he will return, I do cot know. HtokvaJi now totanauAs tbii pott.*'— A b. State Fhiwrs, Paltfe 
Lands, IT, 83. ''• 0. D. 

the prepanuioDs were making for carrying this inhuman 
mier into eibet, a em of Kkhous Boiltis, a briglit and faapni- 
aoma joadi of tome ten years of age, ran up and oommenoed 
ci/iag and pleading in behalf of Mxstabik not wishing to see one 
of the citizens thos hnmiiiatingly punished in public. After two 
or three Mows were struck, Col. Chaxbses ordered the drummer 
to eease. Mevaju) was a cleTer citizen* cnltiTsted a large fium, 
and had a worthy family of quarter-bloods. Col. Chambeis in- 
flicted corporeal punishment in several instasces, and finally for 
cutting off both ears of one soldier, and one of another, was tried 
and cashiered ; and then descended the Mississippi, went to Mex- 
ieo, and joined the army tLere, and had risen to about the rank 
4l colonel in that service, and was in the Mexican army at the 
tnrrender of the city of Mexico to Gen. Scott. It was in conse- 
quence of Col. CflAicBEBs' petty tyranoies, the civii law not being 
much ia force or very effectual, that I abandoned all idea of set- 
tling at Prairie dn Chien, and all the designs of improvement I 
had formed, and sold my mill at a sacrifice. 

In 1819, I proceeded up Black Biver to the first fall, about six 
ibet descent, and erected a saw mill on the southeastern bank of 
the stream. I had barely got it fairly going, when hundreds of 
Winnebagoes came there, in a starving condition, and importuned 
me incessantly for every thing I had for eating or wearing pur- 
poses, and I was thus soon lelt without supplies, and returned to 
Prairie du Ghien. The next spring I went up there again, and 
found the Indians had burned the mill ; I then rafted down a 
quantity of pine logs I had cut the previous year. These were 
■the first mills erected in western Wisconsin. 

In the early part of 1821, I commenced clearing and settling a 
fkrm between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, at the point 
where Gilead is now located ; and, from year to year, extended 
my farming operations, until I cultivated twelve hundred acres 
in one year, and bad nearly four hundred head of cattle. In 18&S, 
I was chosen to represent Pike county in the Illinois Legislature, 
and my diatriot then embraced all the country north-west of the 


iiUinoiB BlMr ta the^noithem limits of the elate. I was the anti- 
-^jriAYery candidate, *aii9 in fiivor of a new CkJDTention.^ I was 
twiea snfafieqiifiiitly chosen to the Legislature, though others man- 
aged to gat the certiflcatesiof election. I repeatedly held the office 
of' county commissioner, was twenty-three years post-master, and 
OTer twenty years a magistrate. 

For twenty nine years I continued' forming, and pnrehasing 
lands, nntil, at one time, I owned thirty thonsand acres in Illinois 
and Missouri. Bat in 1841, 1 was induced to bnild a steam-boat, 
and it was the first one built on the MissisBippi above St. Louis; 
it bore my own name by special desire of many friends; and the 
total loss of the boat a year after, caused me a loss of eighty 
thousand dollars. This so broke me np, that, in 1 845, 1 came to 
Wisconsin, and after exploring ali the northern part of the Terri- 
tory, I finally located the present site of St. Marie, on a bean* 
tiful bank of Fox River, in Marquette county, where I removed 
in 1846, and where I still reside. On the opposite bank of Fox 
River, is a large spring, called by the early French, La Gate 8f. 

In 1852, I lost my eye-sight, which I have partially recovered 
early in 1855, as the result of surgical operations in New York 
city, but not sufSciently restored to enable me to read or write. 
I am now in my 73d year, five feet and five inches in height, 
with dark eyes, hair and complexion, and weighing about one 
hundred and forty pounds ; never having drank spirituous liquors, 
nsed tobacco, or indulged in games of chance, and am still gen- 
erally healthy and active. I was never married. I have been 

* Nicholas Hixaoii oontested the iMt with CoL Sbav. Partiet xmn high in the State, «nd the L»> 
glilatara wm ytrj elotelj beUnced. Two qneitlone then teemed to be the ell-abeorblng nutten of fa>- 
tvwt ; one WM, the re-election of /nra B. Thovai ■« United Btatei Senator, and the other wae th« 
eftlllog of a new ConTention to reriie the Conitltation of the State. Oor. Fori), in hie Histoij of 01^ 
aslg, remark! : ** Hahboit ^wonld rote for TkoxaB, hat Shaw would not ; Shaw wonld rote for tht 
0»BTtntlon, but Havsov wonld not The partj had nee for both of them, and thej determloed to wm 
Hhb both, one after the other. For thla porpoie, thej flnt decided in fkror of BAJiaov, admitlid htai 
t» a imI^ and with hie rote eleeted their United States Senator ; and then, towarda the eloee of tte 
with mere bmte loroe, and in the moot btn-lheed HiMUMr, thej re-eonddered their fonMV 
tamed HanoH ont of hlfl sealk aftd derided la Amw oC SiAW, and with hit ▼HecuHodllMlrir 
Iw a OoBrention.** fc. a 9. 


almofil fifty years a Wettem pioQeer, and during this time hate 
served my eaontry to ihe best of my ability. I have nm maiy 
ananow chance of my life m defence of the exposed fixmtier sst- 
tlsrs. Oommendng forty years ago, I hare been a pioneer in the 
commerce, navigation, milling, lumbering, and lead trade of Wis- 
consin ; and, in every situation in life, I have aimed to prove 
myself honest, patriotic, enterprising and useful — these reflections 
are a comfort and consolation to me in my old age. 



' .). 

AFPEiroiZ V«. 8. 

f < 



At the request of the Hutorioal Soelety of the State, I hate oompiled the 
fi)llowu)g pages, mostly from the papers aod correspondence left bj Mr. B<m- 
lYiTT. Being his Tather-in-law, I shall be readily excused from eulogising him. 
I hare aroided the selection of such passages in his correspondence, as might 
be caloolated to give oftaee to the living, or the friends of the dead ; except, 
perhaps, in a fiw inataBoee, where it seemed necessary to do juitiee to the sub- 
jeot I haye omitted names where the snlQeot matter might be offeiuaTe, if I 
could do so without marring the interest of the history. 

The writing has been done in detached portions of time, snatched from other 
Tocations, and in connection with the examination of some fifteen hundred letters 
and papers, to ascertain which and what had reference to the subject in hand, 
and of course is not as perfect in compoeition as it might be, not hating had 
time to oopy. But among the moat sensible of zeadees, a simple unmamished 
statement of facts is of more interest than highly-oolored, wire-drawn detaila 
ef matters uninteresting in themselves. 

Some matters herein set forth may be of littlo interest to a oert^ class of 
readers, while they will prove very much so to others. In a work of this kind, 
variety is necessary to suit all kinds of taste. The historian of Wisconsin and 
the* lawyer, will find some things of interest to them ; and, it is hoped, that the 
citixen, the ttndent, the politician, and especially the (Henda ef the deceased, 
will be gratified with the peiusal of the whole. 

Thomas Pstratxrov Bumrarr, fi<m of Jobs and JuDrrB^^BuROTnrr, 

was bom in Pittsylvania connty, Virginia, on the third diKy of 

September, A. D. 1800. Of hie parentage and family I hftve but 

Ifttte knowledge. From his ndttie -and place of nativfiy,'W#Ti**- 



nrally infer that his famil j must have been connected, bat how 
nearly or remotely we know not, with some of that name who hold 
honorable relation to the '' Old Dominion." Mr. BuBNnr, how- 
ever, never boasted of his " decent from one of the first families 
of Virginia," nor did he depend upon the merit or fame of his 
ancestry to give him an honorable position in society. He de- 
pended upon his own merits, arising from his own native talents, 
acquirements, enterprise, worth and indnstry ; and whatever lie 
"Aras in the estimation of others, he claimed to be '^ a self-made 
man," having, as the Sage of Ashland once said of himself 
^^ inherited nothing from his parents but existence, ignorance and 

His father emigrated to Bourbon or Spencer county, Kentucky, 
when Thomas was but a child. From his letters I le^m, that he 
had three brothers, Geobob W., Wiluah, and John 0., and one 
sister, Emilt A., who married J. H. D. Stbkbt, now of Iowa. 

His education was such as the common schools of die country 
then afforded, with an academy at some county seat. He was 
raised to farming, but aspiring to the profession of the law, he 
sought a suitable education with that view. The circumstances 
of his father not admitting of his aiding his son in his laudable 
design, he, like young Webstbb, was thrown on his own resources 
to obtain it. But not having the New England colleges to repair 
to, he availed himself of an academy, with some private instruction 
from gentlemen who delighted to aid him in his studies. He 
wrought with his own hands a part of the time, to obtain means 
with which to attend school the other part ; and when he was suf- 
ficiently advanced to teach school, he did so a part of his time, 
prosecuting his studies as best he could when not so engaged. 

While reading law, he was favored with some minor offices, 
such as constable, deputy-sheriff, sheriff, &c., from the fees of 
which he derived a scanty means of support Soon after ha was 
admitted to the bar, he settled himselt in Paris, Ky., and com- 
menced its practice. Here he was often compelled to eneonntir 
some of thd ablest lawyers in that chivalrous state. This, horn- 


ndr, instead of being detrimental, was a benefit to him, becanse 
leing resolved to succeed in his profession, the sharp robbing he 
eceiyed from his elder brethren at the bar, served to nerve him 
ip to greater effbrt to meet, and if possible to vanquish those legal 
foliaths ; and by availing himself of the points they raised, and the 
.uihorities they cited against him, when they changed sides on 
imilar cases, he was able to hnrl back at them their own thnn- 
ler, now made his own by adoption. By these means, added to 
ntiring application, he gained considerable eminence for a yonng 
lan, in a short space of time, so that for two years he filled the 
esponsible place of district attorney. 

At this time the contest for the Presidency was pending between 
OHN QumcY AnA\ffl and Andrew Jaokbon. In this, Mr. Bubnett 
sponsed the cause of the latter, and it seems that he was so active 

partizan of that cause, that it brought him into favorable notice 
nd fraternal feelings with such men as Col. R. M. Johnson, Thos. 
Iabshall, W. T. Barry, N". Davis and others'of the same school, 
^ho were his fast friends at Washington, and aided him in his fu- 
are enterprizes in that direction, when, in accordance with the 
pint of the successful party, lie sought a portion of the " spoils" 
1 the shape of an office. 

The difficulties, however, attending the distribution of political 
stTors, where there are so many more applicants than there are 
ffices to fill, prevented his succeeding according to his wishes. 
Vom a letter to him from Mr. Barrt, it seems that he sought a 
lerkship at Washington, but was informed not only that the 
laces were filled, but that the salary, a thousand dollars, would 
ot pay the expenses of a married man, and he was advised to 
ccept of an office on the frontier, where, though the salary was 
3S8, the expenses were so much lower as to make it more profita- 
>le; and further the prospect of rising to some higher place on 
he frontier was so much greater in a new country than at the 
)apital, as to make it preferable to the other. He was accord- 
Qgly appointed sub-Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien, October 
5thi 1829, under the agency of the late Gen. J. M. Stbbkt. 


But during the pendency of this questioOi being in suspense 
whether to accept it or not, an incendiary set fire to the town of 
Paris which threatened its entire destrnctiou. In this emergency, 
though he had not a cent at stake, he exposed himself in hia eoi* 
ertions to arrest the fire, and save the property of others, to an 
extent that nearly cost him his life. A wall of hot bricka fell 
upon him, which not only broke^ but literally crushed one of his 
lower limbs, from the effects of which he was confined to hia bed 
and room for seven months, and left him a cripple the remainder 
of his life, causing him to limp as ho walked. As though the 
cup of his affliction was not yet full, while his sufferings were in- 
tense, and his life despaired of, his ungrateful wife left him to be 
cared for by others, and never returned to her duty in the rela- 
tion of a wife. It will be seen hereafter, that there was no cause 
on his part for this desertion, and that both his and her friends 
justified and approved his suing for a divorce from her, at a sub- 
sequent period. 

The disaster at the fire disabled him for business ; his practice, 
of course, passed into father hands, and his funds were nearly ex- 
hausted. The idea of be:: inning anew to regain his practice being 
rather gloomy, he concluded to }iccei>t the office offered to him in 
the Indian Department, and arrived at Prairie du Chien in June, 
1830. From some letters from his Kentucky friends, it would 
appear that this country, its tlien inhabitants, and the duties a«- 
signcd him in his agency, did not exactly suit his taste, or meet 
the pre-conceived idea he had formed of it. But as ho became 
better acquainted with matters and things connected with his re- 
sidence, his duties, and the country, he became passionately at- 
tached to them all. 

At the time of liis arrival in the country, there were but two or 
three American families in tlie place, except in the garrisou, 
Port Crawford. But the major part of the inhabitants, some 
four hundred in number, were Canadian French and half-breeds, 
who spoke only French, with some Indian languages, all of 
which were to him unknown tongucp. 


A po8^office had been established for the benefit of the garri- 
Km, agency and tradefe ; bnt commnnication with the States by 
nail or otherwise was seldom and uncertain ; the next nearest 
poBt-offlce on the south beiog Galena, and there being no regular 
sontractor to carry the mail, eight weeks sometimes intervened 
l)ttween the arrival of the mails. 

To give an idea of his duties, as well as to preserve an item of 
bhe early history of Wisconsin, 1 copy the first letter of instruc- 
ttons which he received, soon after his arrival at this place, from 
GKen. Stbebt, the Indian Agent, dated July 1st, 1830 : 

*' Sir : — You will please to remain at the lower part of the vil- 
lage of Prairie du Ohien, until otherwise directed, and occasionally 
nsit the quarters of Gen. Wm. Clai:e, Superintendent of Indian 
Af airs at St. Louis, and receive and perform all that ho may re 
jnire of me as Agent, during the time I may be absent. You will 
particularly attend to and draw provisions for all the Winnebago 
[ndians, except those living in tlie superintendency of Gen'l. 
Oa«s ; and if any Winnebagoos from Rock River attend and wish 
yon to draw them provisions aiid attend to them, you will do so, 
ind report the case to me. 

"If at any time a special requisition to sec me is made, you 
vrill please hire some person to come immediately to my house for 
me. I shall be obliged to you, to copy and hand to Gen. Clark 
aiy letter on the difference between the Indians, and, if desired, 
SI list of the principal men attending and where from, also the 
anmber of Indians and where from." 

The residence of Gen'l. Street, at tluit time, was at the north 
and of the Prairie, about five miles from the fort, the usual place 
>f doing business. These instructions therefore laid upon Mr. 
BtrBKBTr all the active duties of the agency, except when special 
sails for the Agent occurred ; and required of him the clerking 
labor, and traveling to and from Sr. Louis, " to hand to Gen'l, 
CAejlbx" the reports and returns made by the agent. 

At that time, this place was entirely within the Indian country. 
Ille besutiftal Prairie, seven miles long, and from two miles wide 


at the Bonth end to a point at the north end, was, from its 
settlement by the traders and their employees, say 1747, given, 
by common consent of the Indians, to the French and other set- 
tlers, and was, previous to 1798, divided off into farm and village 
lots. The farms fronting on the river or sloughs, and running 
back to the bluffs, being of different widths, as agreed upon by 
the claimants. These claims were subsequently confirmed by 
Jat's treaty and an act of Congress ; and in 1823, the evidence of 
settlement was taken, and in 1828, the claims were surveyed by 
order of the Government. 

St. Louis was then the emporium of trade, and the headquar- 
ters of the army and Indian department, and the centre of mail 
facilities for all this upper country. This caused frequent jour- 
nies for the Agents, to obtain supplies of money, provisions, an- 
nuity goods, and to make returns and reports to the Superinten- 
dent, as well as to receive instructionls. These journeys were 
. performed in summer by the occasional steamboats which ascended 
and descended the river ^ but if no boat came along at the timsi 
the voyage was made in a canoe, or by land through the wilder- 
ness five hundred miles. Steamboats ascended this high only 
when government supplies were sent to the agency or the armyi 
the traders availed themselves of such opportunities to get up 
their goods and send away their furs and peltries. 

The friends of Hr. Burnett in Kentucky felt a strong solicitude 
for his safety, and a great curiosity to know how a Kentud^ 
lawyer would act in such a place, and especially in an Indian 
council. His correspondence at that time, shows that their inotagi* 
nations were in active flights of fancy, and pictured him oat in a 
citizens dress, but seated on the ground by the side of huge In- 
dian chiefs, with a long Indian pipe in his mouth, smoking peace 
with the stalwart sons of the forest Some thought, that in a 
few weeks he could dispense with interpreters, and talk himself 
with the four or five different tribes who did business at the 
agency ; some feared he would fall aprey to savage feroeiij^ while 


others Biipposed be could, if need be, fight his way through their 
imnks at pleasure. 

ITotwithstudiog ibe remoteness of the place from civilization, 
and the sparseness of the population, saj three or four hundred, 
courts had been instituted under the laws of Michigan, which 
then extended its jurisdiction over this country. What is now 
Wisconsin was divided into Brown and Orawford counties, by a 
line running north and south through Portage, where Portage 
Oity now stands ; and all that part of Orawford south of the 
Wisconsin, was set apart as Iowa county, Oct. 9, 1829. The 
courts for Brown county were held at Green Bay, those of Oraw- 
ford, at Prairie du Ohien, and those of Iowa, at Mineral Point. 
Judges, justices of the peace, sheriffs and constables were in be- 
ing. Under these circumstances, Mr. Bubnett had some practice 
as a lawyer. 

As a specimen of the surprise and amasement this fact produc- 
ed among his old friends in Kentucky, I give the following ex- 
tract of a letter f^om 6. W. Wuluams, Esq., dated Paris, Ey., 
Feb. 17th, 1881 : ^' I am much gratified to learn, as I did by your 
letter, that you were well and in good spirits, and what is perhaps 
nearly as comfortable, able to make something approaching re- 
qpectabiliiy by the practice of the law. Heavens I wbo would 
have thought a sustenance could be made at Prairie du Ckien 
at law ; whilst in the commercial and monied states, the most in- 
dustrious and talented, scarcely receive more than three per cent 
upon the capital invested, which upon an average may be estima- 
ted at about $20 office rent, $5 for wood in winter, and $100 for 
books. I am equally well pleased to learn that you are better 
satisfied with the country and your location than you at first an- 
ticipated would be the case. By-the-by, how do you get along 
with your sublime talks and big speeches with the Indians! I 
presume by this time, you scarcely stand in need of an interpreter, 
but can converse in their language with some degree of facility. 
I wish you would in your next give me a speoinien of one of your 


Mr. BuBNsrr's sabseqaent prominence in the country of lug 
adoption naturally excites the desire to know his chanicter i&d 
Btfuiding in the society he had left when he came here. Of tluB 
we gain some knowledge by the letters he received after his ar* 
rival. Na^tha^iivl Datis, under date of Jnly ISth, 1830, says; 
" I had iho satisfaction of examining a letter from yon, in whioh 
you speak of the habits, customs and manners of the people of 
your country, as well as its situation. Your friends here appear 
to be all anxiety for your safety and prosperity. You have no 
correct idea of the number of your friends, nor of the lively in- 
terest they seem to evince both for your welfare and happiness. 
A person's absence will generally eidiibit the extent of his friends 
or of his enemies; of the latter none have been so bold as to ap- 
pear." Geo. W. Williams, under date of July 23d, 1880, says : 
^^ I am pleased to learn that you arrived safe at your point ot dea- 
tination, and I certainly hope you may realize all your reasonable 
expectations. Your trip must have been one of considerable in* 
terest, notwithstanding you had to undergo some necessary hard- 
ships. I expect it will be some time before you will be entirely 
at home in your agency, judging of you by myselfl I suppose 
you will not at once be enabled to understand and act up to the 
notions of Indian conduct and character. 

^' You mention something of a council held recently for the 
purpose of making peace between some hostile tribes. I suppose 
in that council you made yonr debnt : if so, give me an aeconnt 
of it in yonr next I should like to know whether or not the re- 
ality will verify my imaginations on the subject. For InstaQce I 
fiuicy you to be, not clouted or painted, but, as usual, in your or- 
dinary dress, the broad-brim beaver, I mean the iDhii&, outfing 
the moat oonspicuous figure ; handing a large stone pipe wititi reed 
handle four feet long, plentifully supplied with kin-a-ki*nie aoi 
tqbacco, with the utmost dignity, combined with all possible con- 
ciliatory address, from one chief to anoAer and so on, hstfing 
and makiag all kiada of speeches and pow-wows, and' gtatd ^ 

.:1 «« 


tingB, 4&C. &c. Is it a faocj or is it a fact, as OnrraD said. God 
bless yonr labors, ray dear fellow* and he will, for ' blessed art 
the peace-makers.' ^ 

At that time, 1830, there were evident signs of nneasiness 
among the Indians, lint three years had passed since the distnrb- 
ance made by the Winnebagoes, when several white famih'es were 
murdered by them in this vicinity. Gen. Street, the Agent, was 
fiequeutly absent on daty or business, when the duties of th^ 
agency fell upon Mr. Burnett as sub-Agent, and he was assidooua 
in watching the signs of the times. Col. Morgan, then in com- 
mand of Fort Crawford, Wiis also on the alert, and to obtain infor* 
mation addressed a note to Gen. Street, which called from Mr. 
Burnett the following answer, under date of Dec. 6th, 1830: 

" Sir : In compliance with a request in your letter of the 7th 
inst., addressed to Gen. J. M. Street, TJ. S. Indian Agent, I have 
to inform you, that every intelligence which I have received since 
my arrival at this agency, has confirmed me in the opinion that a 
war carried on between the Sioux and Chippewa tribes of Indians, 
is highly prejudicial to the safety of white men in the vicinity of 
their hostile movements, and dangerous to the navigation of the 
Upper Mississippi, particularly that part about Lake Pepin, and 
the mouth of the Chippewa river. 

'^This opinion, I think, is fully sustained by that of men older 
and more experienced in Indian transactions than myself, and by 
the murders committed on that lake in 1825. The facilities with 
which the Chippewa war parties descend the Cliippewa River, and 
Inrk and conceal themselves about the shore of the lake, enables 
them, if so disposed, t) murder men navigating those waters, with 
impunity. Of their disposition to attack white men when in a 
rage ft»r war, I think tlieir former outrages, and their conduct 
this season at the mill on the Menomonee River and its vicinity, 
affofd sufficient evidi-nce. 

*^I am satidtied, that while affairs with those tribes remain in 
their pr i^ent state, no man, who has a pnident ie«rar(l for his 
eafictj, would in navigating the Upper Mississippi, encamp on the 


Mit side anywhere near the lake, or the month of the Chippewa 
Rireri at any time during the season ia which the war parties of 
' tboee tribes are out" 

We have already seen that Mr. BuiurEiT was one of Gen. tTACK- 
•Qw^a early friends and firm supporters, and as such claimed, in 
oommon with the party, a share in the favors of that chieftain, 
and finding that the pay of his office, $500 per year, was not 
equal to the duties he had to perform, nor the expenses of living 
on this distant frontier, be addressed his firm friend, Ool. R. M. 
JoHNBOM, soliciting his aid in obtaining a better s.tuation, from 
whom he received the following answer of Feb. 5th, 1831. This 
letter shows not only the high estimation in which he was held at 
Washington, but also the difficulty of obtaining office, owing to 
the great number of applicants : 

" Your favor has been received, ia which you express a desire 

to bo appointed Indian Agent at , &c. As soon as I received 

your letter I called on the Secretary of War to ascertain whether 
the place was still vacaut, that I might present your claims as 
desired ; and was informed by him that the person was selected 
for the office, and I believe was nominated to the Senate, which 
prevented even an opportunity of serving you. I should be hap- 
py to servo you whenever opportunity offers. But lean €usur$ 
you that there u such a press of amplications for every vacancy 
high or low^ that the prospect of success is gloomy, for «my per 
son. I feel sincerely ^and /eelingly what you say about yonr 
difficulties and embarassments." 

At this time, the national administration looked with a jeal- 
ous eye, not only at the National Bank, but also at the American 
Fur Company. Whether this was because the chief agents of 
that Company differed in politics from the administration, from 
which was inferred that opposition existed in their Bubordioates; 
or whether, as ia case of the Bank, the trade was deemed so pro- 
fitable as to be an object worthy of control, to furnish office aad 
employment for aspirants who could not otherwise be proTided 
for, is not easy to be determined at this late day. Bat it if cer 


tpdn that a war of words, and, to some extent, of laws, was wa^sed 
•gainst the Oompany, as well as against the Bank, and Mr* Box- 
IBRTy as an Agent of the Gorerninent, was called upon hy a/uthoT' 
itjf to farnish information to be used in the attack upon the Oom- 

A letter dated St Louis, Mo., May 3d, 1831, to Mr. Bubnbtt, 
reads thus : ^^ The American Fur Company geems to have made 
war upon the agents in all the Missouri country , except oue or two 
who belong to them ; hence the reason fur the publication of a 
aeries of numbers in the St. Louis Beacon, commencing 8d Feb., 
to which you are referred. They have been attributed to me. 

'^ I wieih you to furnish mo a full and minute history of the 
workings and doings of this Company in your quarter; whether they 
do not oppose the present administration and views of the Gov- 
etnmenty and the agents of the Oovermnent ; whether they do not 
cheat and impose on the Indians of your agency, as to prices, &c. 
What are their prices, and whether they have not purchased up 
all the interpreters that are worth anything ; whether they do not 
hold councils with the Indians, and render the agents odious to 
them ; whether they do not employ persons that are really op- 
j>osed to our Government ; (the monopoly I refer to is the Am. 
Far Co.) ; whether they do not bid an insolent defiance to the 
aothority of the Government and its agents; and is not their 
coarse opposed to civilizing the Indians. 

^^ I want the benefit of your information generally ; but not to 
be published, or your name in any manner exposed, or in the 
•lightest manner referred to unless authorized. This Company 
have threatened to break down the Department and elevate 
themselves ; hence the lot has fallen on me to expose and break 
them down, which will be accomplished. Dovbt notf I know 
the authority under which J proceed. Direct to me, care qf Gen. 

\ OlarkJ' 

\ ' Whatever may hay^ been the motive of this system of espiofi- 
age^ or whether Mr. Bmarnr did aa required, I know not ; bat I 


do know, that whatever he may have thonght of the course ptat^ 
Bued by the Am. Fur Co., he held in perfect odium this rolic of 
tyranny, a system of espionage in other men's concerns* Bat 
there really being no gn»unds, except as above hin-ed, for this pa- 
rade of weapons against that Cuinpanj, the probability? is Mr. BiTB* 
IETF did not furnish the desired information ; and it is further 
probable, that his not doing so, was one cause of his ])roacriptioii 
in 1834. There \Vere, no doubt, some thing'^ in the manag.'ment 
of the fur trade about as detrimental to the interests nf the Iudi> 
ans, as in the trade of merchants generally with The whites. But 
the advantages that both are to the communities in which they 
are established, so far exceed their disadvantages, that the latter 
sink into the shade of forgetfulness in the tight of the fi»rmer. 

In twenty years residence amnng Indians*, traders and Canar 
dians, I have not been able to discover any ten'iency towards 
Oanada or the British government from the employment of Cana- 
dians or foreigners in the fur trade. The only thing that I could 
discern as influencing the Indians towards the Bjirish, was tht 
presents given them on Drummond's Island in Lake IIuroiL 
While these were given, the Indians from the head of Lake Supe- 
rior and it9 tributaries would go occasionally to get them, but 
when these were discontinued, their visits were also discontinued. 
Nor were the profits of the fur trade bo very valuable as waa 
supposed ; in proof of which we have the f«ilure of one of the 
companies, as well as the vast majority of their factors or sub* 
traders. Tlie trader might sell his goods for three times their 
 original cost, and yet be the lo^er in the transaction. To give an 
idea of this, or the facts in the case, the account stands as follows: 

•It nuj well be rvfnretted, that so maeh strNe la kid apon thl* matter bj Mr DncrjfBnx. flf tt« 
writer «if the letter dted, we know nothing:— the letter lti.elt e>*niefi ti* nii an anonymone ; and Ibi *ly 
amthoritj" maj well hare been awnmed for aome alninter nr rindictire purpnee the »riier liad la v|a« 
AfalnRt the American Par Coropanj. 7 arratlrea like thin, deatgned U\r hUttnic pnvierratiMm !• C« 
fcrtk under the anaploM of the State Blatorieal Horletj, and dedgned tiio for readem i»f all flia^a ai 
political ^laioo, ahoold cerar ba aiam4 kgr tTtB Iha mtmtUmH 9i jianf pc^adki' m j^uail ■nft* 
•«"*^« U tX 1^ 


TIi« original cost of the outfit, say $S0O 

One clerk, whose pay per annum IS 600 

Foar voyageurs, who convey the clerk and his goods to 
their winter quarters, build their fort, guard their goods, 

get wood, provision^ &o., Ac, at SlUO per man, 400 

The wild rice and meat purchased, 100 

Cost of outfit, besides canoes, $1,500 

In this tra'le, tho I'ldiana mufit have credit for ammnnition, 
blankets, &c., or they cannot hunt, and of theae, upon an averagOi 
onetiii: d is not jmid. The game may be scarce, the hunt unfavor- 
able, 6) that they carmot pay ; and some Indians, like some white 
men, are dishonest, and will not [)ay. Now unless tho trader sells at 
a price to pay expenses including transportation from Europe to 
the place of s.ile, the expense, of agents, factors, chief officerSi 
&c., it must bo a losing concern. 

Ill view of the facts of the case, tho supposed profits of tho 
trade were probably the obju-ct of jmrsait. But before that could 
be obtained, some pretext must be* found on which to legislate 
the Company out of the Indian country. The act of 1834, regu- 
lating tlie trade with tho Indians, did not do this, but was in 
reality a benefit to the Company ; yet the Company failed bccaQse 
the Indians were decreasing, the trade diminishing, and the game 
last disappearing. 

It was true enough, that a majority at least of the agents and 
clerks of the American Fur Company were, like most other busi- 
ness men of that time, not favorable to the political views of the 
then dominant party, and it is further true that the Indian agen- 
cies being now filled by the friends of the dominant party, in re- 
ward for their services in electing their chief, this would of course 
bring the two opposites in political views into contact in the In- 
dian country, and tho traders might truly enough bo opposed to 
the then administration. But this trading Company was a pri- 
Tftte, not public concern, and the Government had no authority or 
rfght in oar free couutry, to interfere with the buainodSi or to seek 

the supposed profits of the trade, in order to reward partizana for 
iheir political serrices. 

The Oovemment bad its factories established under its patron- 
age and control, the offices whereof conld be^ filled by the Ezee* 
ntive with the same right and authority as other offices under his 
eontroL Bat these factories had proved a failare as to profit, and 
therefore were of no value. In all mj intercourse with the 
traders, I found them very prudent and cautious in expressing 
their views on politics ; and, without exception, found them dis- 
posed to sustain the Government in its measures regulating in- 
tercourse with t})e Indians. This was policy in them, lest they 
should bring down the flower of the Government upon them, in 
the shape of oppressive laws, which would break up their trade. 

I allude to these facts, to show the absurdity and bad policy, in 
a free country especially, of this " spoils " theory, and whether 
Democratic or Whig, or any other party should be at the head of 
affairs, the rewarding of partisans with office is setting a prece- 
dent which must eventually, if not discontinued, lead to the ruin 
of our institutions. Those out of office are always more numer- 
ous than those who are in, and if at any time the '' outs " nQite9 
they can oust the ^' ins ;" and by this process, the most villainous 
may gain the highest power, and by sufficiently rewarding his 
followers, secure himself, as did Louis Napoleon, on a throne^ 
before the country is aware of it. 

In May 1831, Gen. Stbeet leaving the agency in care of Mr* 
BnsNETT, the latter reported to Gen. Clabk, on the 18th of that 
month, that ^' the Indian relations among the different tribes of 
this quarter, have not a very amicable appearance. The threai- 
ning of the Sauks and Foxes, and occasional acts of mischief 
committed by them against the whites, in the vicinity of Book 
Island, have doubtless been communicated to you before this timfi. 

'^The Sioux chief Wabashaw and a considerable number of his 
tribe, are now here. A small party of them who came acroaa 
tke country from Red Oedar, state that within their country north 
of the line of the purchase of last summer, they came upon a war 


road of the SaokB and Foxes. They followed the trail leading 
ont of their country seyeral days, aod from the elgna f0Diainii)|[ < 
at their camps, they have no doubt, that three or more of thch' 
Sioux have been murdered by the Banks and Foxes. Among" 
other appearances that confirmed tliem in this belief, was a painted ' 
buffalo robe, sach as no ludiaDS in this qaarter but the Siouz^ 
make or use, cut in pieces at one of their camps. Ttiey pursued'' 
their trail until they came upon their camp, a few miles north oV 
the old Bed Cedar Fort ; but finding them double their own nuito^ ' 
ber, did 'not make an attack. Thoy^ say, that they have made' 
peace and promised to keep it, and will not in any case be thi^ 
aggressors. * 

^^ Col. Morgan informed me two days since, that he had sent 
down to the Sauks and Poxes to send up ten or twelve of their 
men to see him, and have a talk with him. They were, expected 
here on yesterday, but have not yet arrived. The Sioux are 
waiting their arrival, and are, I believe, ready to meet them| 
either as friends or enemies. When they were informed that the 
Foxes were coming, they put their anns in order. They say thafc 
if the Sanks and Foxes come and deport themselves peaceablyt > 
they will not molest them, but if they see any hostile manifesta* . 
tions, tht*y will strike them. My own opinion is, that if the Banks - 
and Foxes have had a war party out against the Sioux, they will 
not come here upon Col. Mohgan's invitation, knowing as they 
do, that the Sioux always visit this place about this season in con^ 
siderable numbers. 

^^ A part of the Menomonees have been to see ine since G^n. 
Stbeet's departure. Tliey renewed their promise not to g / against.. 
the Chippewas for the present, but to wait a while longer to hear 
from their Great Father." 

The squally appearance of Indian affaire, called for the watch- 
fnl attention alike of agents, and officers of the army. But 
it became a question of etiquette, which should take the lead in 
the matter. The military seems to have claimed that right, while 
tl^ agents claimed at least to know what had been done in the . 


premises ; both being tbon under the snperintendence of tbe War 
Departmenti the military considered the Indian Department as 
subordinate to theirs. But Mr. Burnett thonght otherwise, claim- 
log that each branch of the pnblic service had its appropriate da- 
ties^ with which the other should not interfere, while in case of 
necessity one should assist the other, both acting in unison. And 
at the Sauks and Foxes alluded to in his letter to Gen. Clark did 
come to the place, with whom Ool. Morgan held a council, with • 
out the knowledge or co operation of the Agent, Mr. J^urnbt? 
claimed to be informed of tho nature and extent of the proceed- 
ings, and addressed a note, dated May 23d, 1831, to Col. Moboajt, 
at follows : 

*'SiR — I was informed yesterday that you held, on the morning 
of that day, a council with a party of Sioux and a party of Fox 
Indians which you had assembled in the Tillage of P/airie do 
Ohien. As the actiug Indian Agent ut this place, it properly con- 
cerns me to know what takes place at this post in relation to In- 
dian affairs. I should therefore bo glad to be informed of the cir^ 
cvmstances that required such council. The objects to be effecl- 
ed, and the results accomplished ; also the names of the chiefs 
or men of influence of either tribe, who were present Will you 
please to communicate to me as early as may be convenient, the 
desired information, and likewise whether Gen Strest was ap- 
prised, previous to his departure, of the contemplated meeting of 
those Indians." 

This brought from Col. Moroak the following tart reply, and 
raised the question of prerogative : 

*• Sir — I acknowledge in you no right to call on me to render 
an account of my proceedings to you, though if yon will do me 
the favor to call at my quarters on my return from St. Peter's, for 
which place I am just about to set out, I will explain to yoa the 
object of the council and tell you what passed. You were ap- 
prised yourself of the Foxes having been invited, and you knew 
they had arrived. Why stay four or five miles off t I stated to 



tbia Indians that yon ehonlQ' bare been to tbe eoondl, if yon bad • 
been here,** : I - 

Tiie ^' four or fire miles" alladed to by the Colonel, was the die* 
taHcb from the fort and Tillage to the residence of G^h. STSBBrr, 
irhere the office of the agency was kept, that being the neareal 
honse snitable for his family that conld then be obtained. Itwae- 
true, that Mr. BoRicicrT bad knowledge that the Foxes had been 
sent for, the Sioux being already on the ground, and that the 
Foxes bad arrired, bat not of the time and place of holding the> 
eouDci^ and this he claimi'd should hare been giren. But the 
Colonel, standing upon the dignity of his office, as commandant of 
the military post, seemed to think that the Agent must or should 
have been on hand, whether he bad notice thereof or not, as any 
other spectator. 

The question of prerogative was now fairly raised. Whether 
it was ever settled by tlie War Department, I do not know, but a 
comjmon sense view of the subject would say, that each branch of 
the public service had its own appropriate duties and prerogar 
tires, and that ueither bad a right to interfere with or encroach 
upon the other. The Indians weie placed under the care and 
contrMi of the agency, while the military was under the care and 
control of its proper officers; nor had Col. Moboah any more 
control of the Indians, than the agent bad of the troops. Their 
uniting in one common bead at Washington, gave one no more 
rigbt to interfere with ttie duties of the other, than it would the 
Navy and War Departments to encroach upon each other because 
the President was their common head, or fur the Executive, Ja» 
dicial and Legislative departments to arrogate each others' rightSi 
because their respective powers were alike derived from the Con- 
stitution. Every department of the Government, and each sub- 
ordinate branch of the respective departmente, hare their appro- 
priate duties to perform ; and when necessary, to unite their 
McrgTcs for the benefit of the whole. So if theciril department, 
to which the Indian department belongs, and is now appropriately 

igtied, requires th^ aid of the military, the latter must acvrc 

the ibrmer ; fori in oiur form <^ govemmeat, the military mnaibe 
Bubject to the civil anthorif j. It is clear, therefore, that in thk 
eaae Mr. Busnitt was right 

. It is well known, that on the frontiers, and beyond the reach fif 
courts of justice, and sometimes within their reach, if not veiy 
strong, the military officers are yerj apt to exercise all the au- 
thority of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial departments^ 
over the few stra^linc: citizens who may chance to bo in their 
vicinity. In some cases this has been absolutely necessary, be- 
cause no other government existed. In my first visits to Fort 
Snelling, at the mouth of the St. Peters, then commanded by 
I^ent Col. Davbnpobt, and three hundred miles beyond the jn- 
risdiction of any civil court, this vras the only government exer- 
cised over the traders, their employees, discharged soldiers, and 
voy^euTS who had settled in that vicinity. But such was the 
mild and patriarchal character of the administration of the gov- 
ernment, that no one could reasonably object to it, or be particu- 
larly anxious for a change. The only thing complained of, was 
the suppression of the whiskey trade among the Indians and sol- 
diers ; but this was done by authority of an act of Congress, and 
the articles of war, and was not only justified, but demanded by 
the laws of humanity. 

Yet, in some instances, the ofiicers «>t' the army have exceeded 
the bounds of propriety and the rights of citizenship, and that too 
where the civil authority was within reach. A citizen of this place 
w«s once whipped by the soldiers by order of Col. J — s ; another 
was sent to St. Louis under guard, without any charge being pre* 
ferred against him, and left to find his way back to his iamily as 
best he 0'>ul<J, and upon his return, he found them ejected from 
his house by the soldiers. 

Mr. BoRNKTT informed Gen. Clabk uf the trausaction of OoL 
MoR0%N, May 28rh, 1831 : ''In m^^ letter of the 18th inst., lin- 
foarmed you that Col. Morgan bad sent for the Sauks and Fozeii 
to visit this post On the 2l8t instant, about fifteen men o^ the 
Foonsiof Dsbnque mines arrived at the villi^, and on th« next. 


diy Ool. MonoAir held a coancil with them and the Sioux, who 
were here. I preenme that whatever took place at the conndl, 
or was effected hj the meeting of the Indians, of any impoi tance, 
will be oommnnicated to yon through the proper channel, by Ool. 
Moseiv who acted alone in the measure. 

'^ Hie Sioux had been waiting the arrival of the Foxes for sev- 
eral days. The Foxes landed at the village on Saturday evening, 
not later I think than four o'clock. The conncil was opened the 
next morning, as I am informed, at ten o'clock; yet no intimation 
of either time or place of meeting, or that my presence was at 
all de£>ired, was gi^en, although there was ample time to do so. 
Throughout the transaction, there has been no consultation had, 
or co-operation had with the agency. The only communication 
upon the subject previous to the conncil and the departure of the 
Indians, was the simple fact that he had sent for the Foxes, of 
which I apprised yon. I suppose that if any thing occurred of 
suflBcient importance to found a report nt'on, ho will communicate 
the facts, and in that case, it must appear that the measure was 
undertaken and canied through without any connection or co- 
operation with this agency. I have, therefore, given the above 
statement of fiicts to show that the absence of co-operation in the 
affair, was not from neglect of duty or inattention on the part of 
this agency. 

"The information that I have collected on the subject, is this: 
some fifteen Foxes fioni Dubuque mines, all joung men except 
one or two, camo up and had a talk with the Sioux and Col. Moe- 
GAK, in which each expressed a desire to continue the peace which 
had been concluded between them the last year. The Foxes de- 
nied any knowledge of a ^ar party having gone against the Sionx. 
iJhey said they wished to be at peace, and would not do any act 
o>f hostility, but they could not answer for those below — they 
spoke for themselves only. They smoked and danced together, 
and parted in apparent friendship and harmony." 

The extent of the frontier, and the number of tribes within the 
agency, kept up an almost incessant excitement as to their aflkifBi 


and to keep the Govemme^Jt adviaed of all their moyementi, re- 
qmred coi.&Unt vigilaoco and the writing of iiunier<.*a8 letters. 
Under date of Jime Idth, 1&3I, Mr. Bcjusjrt writes to G«ai^ 
Clakk: " I have received, eiDce the last mail from this place, in- 
formation which I consider entitled to credit, that a war party of 
Sionz is LOW being organized among Wasbabl^b band, to go 
against the CLippewae, bj a warrior of some note in that band. 
I have albo nnderatood, that there are a few Menomouee«« rela- 
tives of those who were killed bj the Chippewae in the fall aod 
winter past, now with the band of Sioux. Bat I have not been 
able to leara whether they intend joining the Sioax in their expe- 
dition, or not, but think it probable that some of them will do 

Under date of Juno 29th he wrote : ^' I am informed by Major 
Lasoham, who arrived here fruisi below a few days since, that 
the Winnebagoes of the Prop/uVs village on Ruck river, have 
united with the Sauks and Foxes- The Winnebagoes of the Wig- 
consin and Upper Mississippi are still peaceable. They are most 
likely waiting to see the first results of the movements below, 
and intend to act afterwards according to circumstances. 

"Until within two or three weeks past, very few of those In- 
dians have visited this place, for a length of time, fewer, I am told» 
than usual at this season of the year. Lately a great man/ of 
them have been here, the most of whom came down the Wiscon- 
sin and have gone up the Mississippi. A great portion of them 
are old men, women and children. They continue to pass by 
daily. Many rumors are in circulation as to their present dispo- 
sition and intention ; very few of which are, perhaps, entitled to 
implicit belief. Thoy have served, however, to ^ive considerable 
alarm to many of tho inhabitants of the Prairie, and many of 
them begin to think themselves in danger. I have spared no pains 
to ascertain the disposition of the Winnebagoes. here, and have 
found no evidence of a disposition to hostilities on their part^ un- 
less their sending so many of their old men, women and children 
np the river, and purchasing powder in larger quantities than 


tisnai for ordinary hunting, shonld indicate something of the 

^^ I also learned a few days since, that the 'one eyed Deoosi' 
had left; his villoge at Prairie La Crosse, and gone down to the 
Banks and Foxes. This was accidentally commntiicated to my 
Informant hy a Winnebago, and is probably true. Decobi was 
down ab(->nt two weeks since, and called to see me on his retnrn 
borne. His deport. i ent was as nsnal ; I saw no change. In fact 
I have not discovered any change in the deportment or appear^ 
*nce of any of them that I have seen. They all appear to be 
perfectly friendly. None of tho traders hero think they have 
any hostile intbntions. 

"Col. Morgan left the fort for Eock Island on the^ morning of 
the 27th insf., with two companies from his post, and two more 
from Fort Winnebago, under Msjor Twigos. He had previously 
called in all fatigue parties, and put his whole force under a course 
of training. Much alarm prevails in the mines. The people are 
arming and preparing for their defence. I do not consider that 
there is any immediate danger cither here or in this vicinity. 
Much, however, will doubtless depend on the result below. The 
Sioux- and Monotnonees are certainly friendly, and against the 
Sauks and Foxes, wonld willingly unite with the whites, if per* 
mitted to do so. I have heard nothing since my last of a war 
paity of those Indians against the Chippewas.'' . 

Ott the 24th of October, 1831, Mr. Bubnbtt obtained leave of 
absence until tho ensuing spring, to visit some friends and ar- 
range some business he had left unsettled in Kentucky. In grant- 
ing this permission, Oen. Street says: ^'Permit me to avail 
myself of tlie present occasion to acknowledge tho great support 
I have received fn^m you in all my official duties, during aperiod 
of fourteen or fifreen months, and to assnre you of my high re- 
ga>d and unfimired friendship." 

8<»inerime before h's depar^nre, Mr. BuRinCTT had writtep tohis 
frh'nJ Dr. R. McFall of Keene« Ey., in which he gave some 
accujnt 6f the dntiea and amount of business of an Indian 


Agent, which drew from him, mider dste of No^. ISth^ IftSli the 
following amnsiDg remarks : 

'* The idea I had formed of the daties of an Indian Agent, I 
ind bj the light yon have reflected upon the aobject, wm by no 
means correct. I had thought his only duty was, to sit behind his 
desk, Mid iesuu onl to the Indians their regular snpplj of whis|^ey, 
powder, lead and other articles which Uncle Sam coTcnants to 
fnroieh to the said Indians at an nnnBuallj low price ; and inpay- 
ment for said articles, said Indians hare ceded to Uncle &am a 
certain tract or parcel of laud known by certain bonndariea, &c. 
Bnt DO ; in place of enjoying himself in luxurions ease, the poor 
Agent has to take long and painful journeys by land and water ; 
iufler from the bites of musquitoes, from heat and oold, &c* \ 
Pretty tough work this, for a Kentucky lawyer especially. But 
it is not, I lind, Uncle Sam's plan to hire laborers to work his 
farm, and suffer them to sleep out their time in complete torpidity. 
No, they must bo up and doing, must earn their wag^t by hard 
labor. I 

*^ It must certainly have been a queer kind of a sight, to hare 
seen a Eentuckian, learned in all the lore of the law, holding s 
council with the red men of the forest. Like a young Mercory 
he arrives among them ; they are assembled together; mute si- 
lence reigns thronghout the Assembly ; deep thought and anxious 
expectations sit on every countenance. Now is the time ; he 
rises, tells them in the most finished language of the moat fertile 
imagination, the object of the meeting, what Uncle Sam expects 
to do for them, and what they must do for him. As be warms 
with his subject, his imagination expands ; the earth, air and set 
are brought to his aid, as comparative objects. He ceaaea, and 
hia audience knows not what he has said." 

During the time that Mr. Busneti had been at the agency^ he 
had attended as counsel to some important suits, in which the 
Government through some of its agents was a party, for which 
he clbimed fees aa attorney, this not being embraced in.hia dutiMi 
aa Agent, and if he had not done so the Goyemmeiit ul^$t baT6 


' employed sotne one ebe. fhe ftes ebai^ged for the aeveral wHb 
were $500, which the Agent approved and allowed. In Deeam- 
ber of this jear, he visited Washington, for the double purpose>of 
keeping his office from the grasp of some hungry offlce*huntar, 
hundreds of whom are hovering around the capitol any winter, 
and against whom I perceive by his correspondence, it is neoea- 
sary for every office holder to keep a watchful eyo, which is the 
reason that so many of them visit Washington so often ; and also 
for tbe purpose of securing this fee, which had been refused. 
But this latter he did not get allowed at that time, but being loag- 
winded on such a chase, he hung to it until the Department paSd 
him $235. 

In February, 1882, while Mr. BuBitBrr was in Kentucky, Qon. 
SisvsT wrote him, that '^ the Menomouees and Sioux are preparing 
for a retaliatory war against the Sauks and Foxes in the spring. 
' The Menomouees have made peace with the Ohippewas, in order 
to have no fears from that quarter. The two tribes met above the 
mill on the Ohippcwa and made their peace. I have adviscid the 
Superintendent so as to have the earli^t interferauce, if any is 
intended. The Sauks and Foxes, I learn, expect retaliation and 
will be prepared to meet them. If the Government is not early 
in stopping them, they will certainly ^oin considerable force, and 
a bloody contest may be expected:" 

Ab>ut the first of April, Mr. BtraNiprT received instructions, 
' while yet in Shelbyville, to " proceed to tlie agency at Prairie du 
Ohien by way of St. Louis, and call on Gen. Claek for the funds 
alloted to the agency for 1832, or such portion thereof as he shall 
determine to forward. The receipts will bo forvrarded to you at 
St. Louis as soon as a conveyance by steam-boat shall occur." 
Mr. Bdknbtt reached the agency about the 1st of May. At that 
time the Banks and Foxes under Black Hawk wero in hostile 
movements on Bock Biver, with Gten. Atkinsoh in pursuit. To 
aid in the defence of the country, Gton. Atkinson from Dixon's 
Ferry, May S6th, 1832^ addressed Gen. Street as follows: 

^'^Sib: — I have to request, tlttt you send me at thfs plaoe, with 

$B little delay as posBible, as many Menomonee and Sioux lodW 
ana aa can be collected, within striking distance of PiAirie dn 
Ohien, I want to employ them in conjunction witli the troops 
against the Sauks and Foxes, who are now some fifty miles abo?a 
ns in a state of war against the whites. I understand the Me* 
Domonees, to the number of three hundred warriors, who were with 
yon a few days ago, are anxious to take part with us. Do encour- 
age them to do so, and promise them rations, blankets, pay, Ac* 
I ha^e written to Capt Loomis to furnish them some arms, if they 
can be spared, and ammunition. If there are none at Prairie da 
Chien, I must procure some in this quarter. Col. IlAiciLToar, who 
has volunteered his services to lead tfie Indians to this place, will 
hand you this letter; and if the Indians can be prevailed on tocomOi 
will perform the duty. I have to deaire that Mr. Majeksh may be 
sent with Col. IIahilton and the Indians, and an interpieter of 
the Menomonee language.^' In accordance with this i eqaircmepti 
Oen. Street gave, on May 80th, to Mr. Bubhett the iollowing 
instructions : 

^'Sir : — Yon will please proceed with Mr. John Mabbh, who 
goes express to the nearest Sioux village, and render him sucli 
aid as may be necessary in obtaining as many Indians as posaiblei 
to come down with you, and proceed under the command of Mr. 
Marsh to join Gen. Atkinson. The letter of Gen Atkiksob 
will be your guide in the business. Use every means to expedite 
the object; and hasten your return, as much depends upon ex- 

The nearest Sioux village was one hundred and thirty milea up 
the river from the seat of the agency, which had to be ascended 
in canoes, there being no steamer then to be had. Yet in h\x 
days after receiving the order, Mr. Bdrnkti made the following 
report to Gen. Street: 

<'Sir : — In obedience to your order of the 30th ult , I aet out 
immediately from this place, in company with Mr. Marsh, in a 
canoe, with eight hands, to visit the neareE>t village of the SiunX 
Indians. From recant indications among the Winuebagoes of the 

, 267 

Upper MiBsiBsippi of a disposition to engage in hostilities with the 
Sauks and Foxes, Mr. Mabsh and myself thought best to call at 
their village on the river La Orosse, and invite so many as might 
be disposed to join us on our return, and go with the Sionx and 
Menomonees to join Gen. Atkinson's army on Rock Kiver. We 
arrived at the Winnebago village, on the evening of the next 
day after leaving this post, and that night had a talk with the 
chiefs and braves upon the subject. Win-o-a shb-kan was opposed 
to the measure, and declined having anything to do with it. He 
said the Sauks had twice, this season, presented the red wampum 
to the Winnebagoes at Portage, and that they had as often washed 
it white, and handed it back to them ; that he did not like that 
red thing ; he was afraid of it. Waudghha-takan took the 
wampum, and said that he with all the young men of the village 
would go ; that they were anxious to engage in the expedition, 
and would be ready to accompany us on our return. 

"The next day we reached Prairie Aux Ailes (Wa ba-sha), and 
found the Sioux extensively anxious and ready to go against the 
Sauks and Foxes. They were intending to make a descent 
upon them in a few days, if they had not been sent for. They 
engaged with alacrity in their preparations, but we found it ne- 
cessary to wait till Monday morning to give them time. We left 
their village on our return, at nine o'clock in the forenoon, ac- 
companied by the whole effective force of the band, and at La 
Crosse, were joined by twenty warriors of the Winnebagoes, the 
remainder of their village to follow the next day, and reached 
this place to-day, at 2 o'clock P. M, with one hundred warriors ; 
eighty of whom are Sioux, and twenty Winnebagoes. I think 
from the dispobition manifested by the Winnebagoes, that fifty or 
aixty more of them will be here before the expedition leaves the 
Prairie, making a force of one hundred and thirty, or one hun- 
dred and forty. The Indians, with whom I have met^ appear 
well effected towards the whites, are in fine spirits, and seem 
anxious to engage with the Sauks and Foxes. 

<(I zQgde the promise authorized to the Indians of subsiatancib 

268 ^ 

pay^ &c., and told them that their families shonld be supplied 
with provisions during their absence from home. The most of the 
famih'es of the warriors have accompanied them thus far, to take 
a supply of provisions home with them, when the expedition shall 
have left this place. It is due to Mr. Maksii to say, that he has 
displayed great zeal and energy in effecting the object of our visit, 
and that his exertions had the effect of bringing out the greatest 
possible force from the bands we have called uj^on." 

Mr. Burnett greatly desired and strongly urged Gen. ST&EErto 
allow him to accompany these Indians and take part in the war. 
But the general thought his services were needed at and near the 
agency, and therefore declined to comply with the request. 

In the meantime, the Sauks and Foxes retreated from the Eock 
River to tlie Wisconsin, taking their own time for it on account of 
the slow motion of Gen. Atkinson. Blaok Hawk is said to liave 
remarked, tliat he could plant and raise corn, and keep out of the 
way of Atkinson. But on the Wisconsin, the wiley chief met an- 
other and unexpected enemy in the persons of Gen. Dodob and his 
volunteers, who gave the Indians battle, and routed them, "horse, 
foot and dragoons." The news of this defeat of the Indians soon 
reached Prairie du Ohien, and it was thought probable that if the 
Sauks and Foxes could get canoes or even rafts, that they would 
attempt to escape from their pursuers by descending the Wisconsin 
River. To prevent this, some volunteer troops, Mr. Bdenett 
among others, were stationed on that river at the ferry, now Bab- 
bettt's. But the Indians took across the country towards Bad Ax. 
The success of Gen. Dodge at the Peckatonica, led to the follow- 
ing expression of respect from the prominent men of Prairie du 
Ohien, not included in the army, addressed to him July 3d, 1882 : 

" SiE : — The undersigned, citizens of this place, have witnessed, 
with feelings of high respect and admiration, the patriotic exer- 
tions you have made for the defence of our frontier against the 
cruelties of savage warfare. Fully appreciating the nature and 
motives of the bold and energetic course of your conduct in be- 
hfdf of our suffering country, we send you by Oapt. JjkB. B. Esiss, 


a double-barrelled gun, which we hope jon will accept, as a 
small testimony of the high estimation in which we hold joar 
character as an officer and a citizen." Signed bj J. M. 8tbbeT| 
J. P. Buazrarr, W. M. Beed, H. L. Dousmak, Michael BbibboiB| 
B. W. Bbisbois, Jeah Bbunett and Joseph Bjbisbois. 

As soon as it was ascertained, that the hostile Indians were 
wending their way to the Mississippi, north of this place, to es- 
cape pursuit ; with a view to intercept them Gen. Stbeet, July 
25tli, 1832, wrote to Mr. Burnett : " Sir : — You will proceed up 
the Mississippi to the Winnebagoes, twenty-live or thirty miles 
above this place, and inform them of Gen. Dodge's battle, and of 
;he crossing of the Sauks to the north side of the W'isconsin, and 
that their chiefs Oabbam.vka and Decobi* are hero, and that I 
Tvant all of the Winnebagoes to come down with you immedi- 
ately ; tell them it is the wish of their chiefs also. One object of 
this is, to get them out of the way, with their canoes, to prevent 
their crossing the Sauks over the river. Send on word, if yon 
can, to the upper villages, that the Sauks have been defeated, and 
iiave crossed the Wisconsin. And should the Winnebagoes hesi- 
tate, tell them that if they do not come, I will not pay the annu- 
ity to any who refuse. The time is now near and they will lose 
their money. Hasten back as soon as possible." 

The next day, July 26th, Mr. BmiNBrr reported : ** Sir : — ^In 
obedience of your order of yesterday, I set out from this place ia 
a bark canoe late last evening to visit the Winnebagoes, supposed 
to be encamped twenty-five or thirty miles above Prairie du 
Ohien. This morning before day the steamboat Enterprise^ witk 
a military command, came by my encampment and took myself 
and crew on board. Before arriving at the place where the In- 
dians had been encamped, we found that they had been gone for 
several days, and had removed some distance aboye. We there- 

• Kat-bat-mao-ssk, «r imking TmrtU^ iMk pvt trtth th« BritUh at tht tefctle of the lh$am^mfA 
of Dat-xau-bat mentioii hM aliwdj been made. In additton to the note on page 178 of thla Tolama^ 
t*e can itate, that the ** grand old ehleT* Dat-SaV'Bat, whose Indian name wa^ ScRA-CfHxr>KA-Ki, 
ilM'on the WlMonilnRhtr,Apd 10111,1891^ la IdiMtliTWr. UCbJ), 


fore continued on up a considerable distance, passing seyeral 
lodges at different points until we came to the principal camp, on 
the east side of the river, supposed to be sixty miles above Prairie 
du Ohien. I communicated your message to all the Indians I saw 
on the way, who readily promised to obey your instructions. 

^^ At the principal camp, I found Washington Decosi with a 
considerable part of the tribe from the Wisconsin and Kickapoo 
rivers. I immediately informed them of your request, and desired 
them to get ready as soon as possible and go to the agency. They 
manifested entire willingness to do so, but said some of their 
party were out hunting, and would be in at night, for whom they 
wished to wait, so that all might come together. They promised 
very positively, that they would start as soon as the hunters 
should arrive, and would certainly see you by the middle of the 
afternoon tomorrow. After some conversation about their start- 
ing this evening, and their still objecting to do so until the hunt- 
ers came in, Lieut. Abebobombie told them, that he would wait 
until sunset for them to get ready ; and if they did not start by 
that time, he would take all their canoes, and bring them down 
with the steam-boat. About two hours after this, they concluded 
to start, and let the hunters come on after them ; and after seeing 
all the canoes move off, we started on our return, and reached this 
place at 9 o'clock this evening. The Indians whom I saw, will be 
here to-morrow by 12 o'clock. They had not heard of the battle 
on the Wisconsin, but appeared to be highly gratified and pleased 
at the news." 

The next day, July 27th, Gen. Stbbet ordered Mr. Burnett to 
^^ proceed with Washington Decobi to La Crosse, and such other 
points as you may deem important, and tell the Winnebagoes I 
wish to see them at the agency. I wish Win nebhiok certainly to 
come. Much must be left to your own judgment ia the case. The 
object is to get what information you can relative to the Banks 
and Foxes, and to draw all the Winnebagoes from the Upper Mis- 
tiisippi, and with them the means o£ paaaii^ the river. If you 
can, extend the news to the Sioux." 


The following day Mr. Buenett reported to Gen. Street : " In 
obedience to jonr order of yesterday, I went on board the steamer 
Enterprise last evening, and started for La Orosse. We arrived 
early this morning at the entrance of the lower mouth of 
Black Biver, and found the Winnebagoes encamped on the 
shore. I took We-kon Deoobi, and went on shore immediately to 
see the Indians. I found the One-Eyed Deoobi and the LmiJB 
Thunder at the lodges, but found that most of the band had left 
the village sometime since, Win-neshick and Wau-har-nab-sab, 
with about fifteen men and their families, had been gone near a 
month to hunt, and dry meat, about fifty miles up La Orosse and 
Black Bivers. The rest of the band were in the camp. I told 
them that you wished to see them immediately ; that the Ameri- 
cans under Gen. Dodge had defeated the Sauks and Fozes on the 
Wisconsin, and after killing a great many had driven them across 
the river ; that the defeated Indians were endeavoring to make 
their escape to the Mississippi for the purpose of crossing it, and 
regaining their own country ; and that it was probable they would 
attempt to reach that point, that they might get the Winnebago 
canoes to cross in, and that they must get away from that place 
before the Sauks and Foxes arrived. 

*^ They said they would come down immediately on the return 
of the absent party; that they were afraid of the Sauks, and did 
not wish to leave a small part of their band behind, who wore too 
few to resist if they Id meet them. I then told them to send 
two of their best young men on horseback, to bring in tho hunting 
party. They very promptly complied, and in a short time the 
young men were mounted and on their way. I charged the 
express to carry to the absent Indians the message I had deliver-' 
ed, and to tell Win-neshiok especially, that his presence was re- 
quired at the agency. The chiefs present told me, that they 
tiiought they would ail be here certainly in six days, and proba- 
bly sooner. I told them it was of great importance to them to 
come as soon as possible, and bring all their canoes on the river ; 
that if the Saaks should come to that point, they were not strong 


enough to prevent them from taking their canoes (if they did not 
idll them), and crossing over the river ; that should they effect a 
passage to the west side of the river, at any point above this place, 
within their country, they would be suspected of assisting them, 
and if it should be known that they had done so, they would lose 
their annuities, and be treated as allies of the Sauks and Foxes. 
They promised to start for this place on the return of the absent 
party, and bring all their canoes with them. From their appar- 
ent anxiety, I think they will be here in three or four days at the 
fiffthest, though they said it might be six. 

*^ The Sioux chief, L' Abk, who left this place on the evening of 
the 25th inst, passed Black River this mominor before our arrival, 
and will reach his people with the news (which he received from 
here) to-day. Having done all we could, we left La Orosse at 10 
A. M., and reached this place at 3 F. M.," making 90 miles in 
five hours. 

It was but a few days after this, the 2nd of August, 1832, that 
Gten. Atkinson over-hauled the broken fragments of Blagk Hawk^s 
army, fatigued, hungry, and dispirited, and attacked them on the 
bottoms of the Mississippi, a few miles below the mouth ot Bad 
Ax Biver, about forty-five miles above Prairie du OhieUi and 
totally defeated and scattered them. Blaok TLawk succeeded in 
crossing the river by some means, probably on a' raft of driftwood, 
but was soon after taken prisoner by a company of Winnebagoes. 
Mr. BuBNBTT was with them or met them soon after the capture, 
to whom Blaoe Hawk gave a piece of red ribbon which was tied 
to his hair.* Thus ended the most fearful Indian war that has 
ever occurred on the soil of Wisconsin. 

We have noticed before, that Mr. Bubnett being a lawyer, and 
having but a small salary, one not equal to the duties performed, 
and the expenses of the place in which he lived, claimed ther^ht 
which was exercised by others of his profession, to practice at the 
bar. But in doing so, he involved himself in a dififtculty wifh an 

♦Wtia |a^^^.jv»w>«<, »^ T>« ^Q*u 10M t« .^ ^..^^..^^ -^M ^t ^»4*. ^^ mtf fffr, ti nnt -^ 
Ite Btete Hiitorloal Sodelf fSor preeerration. A. B. 


officer of the armyi which was not settled for several years. The 
affair itself is an item of history in his life worthy of note, but it 
assnmes a higher degree of importance in this connection than 
mere history, because it inTolves an important legal question, and 
possibly will cast some light upon the rights, privileges and duties 
of public agents, as to whether they must abandon all other means 
of Bupport,^when in the public employ, though the pay therefor 
is insufficient for their support, or less than an equivalent for the 
eervices rendered. 

The ground work of this matter was laid during the first year 
of his agency, 1830, but was suffered to slumber till 1832, and 
was continued under advisement, or something else, until 1883. 
But to give the whole matter in one view, I shall here place it in 
one connection, which cannot be done to better advantage than 
by copying some of the proceedings. On the 3rd of November, 
1830, Oapt. B. B. Mason preferred the following charge against 
Mr. BuBNBTT, to Ool. WiLLouoHBY MoBOAK, who, as we have seen, 
had no jurisdiction or control over the agency or its incumbents, 
it being a seperate and distinct branch of the Government. The 
Oolonel, as we have already seen, was at this date commanding 
officer of the garrison^ not of the Indian Department : 

^^ Sib — I beg leave to state to you, and request that you will lay 
the case before the Secretary of War, that while the officers of tlie 
army at this post are striving to prevent drunkenness among the 
soldiers, and are prosecuting before the civil courts various persons 
for selling spirituous liquors to them contrary to the law of the 
Territory, that Mr. BujEUfSTi, the Sub-Indian Agent, an officer 
of another department of the Government, is throwing his weight 
in the opposite scale, by appearing before the courts, and defend- 
ing the persons who thus offend against the laws, and who have 
annoyed us so much. This conduct on the part of Mr. Bubiiett, 
is the more surprising as his duties are somewhat connected with 
the military, and from his intercourse with the garrison, it must 
be known to him how ezeeedingly we are annoyed by the grog- 
shop keepers, and how much the works at this place have been 


retarded in consequence of the drankenness of the men. The Gov- 
emment, I preanme, in giving Mr. Bubnett the appointment of 
Sab-Indian Agent, and sending him to this place to perform the 
dnties of that office, little expected that he would be aiding the 
whiskey-sellers, and thereby opposing the exertions of the ofKcers 
of the garrison in endeayoring to keep their men sober." 

At this time, Mr. Bubnett was absent at Fort Winnebago on 
official business, and had no knowledge of what was brewing, un- 
til his return, about the first of December. On the 18th of No- 
Yomber, while Mr. Bubnett was still absent, Col. Morgan, without 
waiting for his return, or giving him any notice of the complaint, 
wrote to Gen. Steeet, that " A communication from Oapt Masor 
was yesterday forwarded to head- quarters of the Western Depart- 
ment, with a view to be transmitted to the War Department, com- 
plaining of the course taken by Mr. Bubnett, your Sub- Agent, in 
defending before the courts here, persons accused of selling spi- 
rituous liquors without license. I have deemed it my duty to for- 
ward this communication in obedience to the request of Captain 
Mason ; though I believe Mr. Bubnett in the course complained 
of, is actuated more by a sense of duty than inclination. I am 
certain he is as anxious to put down the grog-shops, which have 
sprung np here to our great annoyance, as any other person. He 
is the drafter of a petition to prevent the sale of whiskey to sol- 
diers within the limits of this county, which is now circulating 
for signers. Mr. Bubnett being absent, is the reason I have ad- 
dressed you this communication.'' 

On the 30th of November, Mr. Bubnett having returned from 
Fort Winnebago, Gen. Stbeet wrote him : " I avail myself of the 
earliest moment after your return to hand you the enclosed letter 
from Col. W. MoBGAN to me. Not being favored with Oapt Ma- 
son's complaint, I am ignorant of the particulars objected against 
you ; yet I am desirous that you may be apprised of what has 
been doing here, during your short absence, with a view, it would 
seem, to operate on you as an officer of the Itidian Department 
I could not feel, that such a communication, to one so kitimately 


acquainted with your whole oonrse of conduct since jotir arriyal 
here, required an answer from me. 

^^ In handing over Ool. M OBOAiir's letter, which bears date Kor. 
18fh, I will inform jon that there is evidently a mistake in the 
date. On the 19th of November, abont 10 A. M., I was in Ctol. 
M organ's quarters. He informed me that he had received a com- 
plaint from Col. Masoit against you the day before, the 18th, and 
that he was about to write you. I told him you had left for Fort 
"Winnebago two days previous (the 17th Nov.). Ool. Moboak 
then said he Would address me on the subject as you were absent. 
I replied, ' it will be useless, as I cannot get a letter to him before 
he returns.' I then left his quarters. On the next day I received 
a letter on other business, from him, properly dated the 20th No- 
vember, by his servant, and on the 25th November, the enclosed 
letter, bearing date the 18th November, was handed to my son in 
the village. The mail started before 10 A. M., on the 19tih, and 
Col. Morgan says in his letter, dated the 18th, that he forwarded 
Oapt. Mason's complaint ' yesterday,' which would have made 
the departure of the mail the 17th, instead of the 19th. Conse- 
quently Ool. Morgan must have written this letter after 10 o'clock 
A. M., on the 10th of November. The date I presume has been 
a mistake." 

Such conftision in dates, casts a gloomy appearance on the mat- 
ter, and tends to create suspicions that there were some misgivings 
of mind as to the propriety of the course being pursued. First, 
on the 19th November, Gen. Street was in Ool. Morgan's quar- 
ters, when the Colonel informed the General, that he received 
Gapt. Mason's complaint against Mr. BrBNErr t?te day h&fore^ and 
yet the complaint is dated November 3rd. It further appears 
that Mr. Burnett left for Fort Winnebago on the ITth, so that the 
complaint of Oapt. Mason must have Iain in his hands two weeks 
after it was written, before it was forwarded to Ool. Morgan, and 
that the complaint was not presented to the Colonel until the 
day Mr. Burnmt left, and as Mr. BiTRNBrr in going such a dis- 
tance through the then wilderness, would start early in the mom- 


ing, the complaint was not probably presented till after his depar- 
tore. And, secondly, it seems that OoL Mobgan sent off the 
complaint to Head Quarters on the day folbwing its reception, 
Ifr. BuBHXiT yet being absent ; and yet Ool. Mosoah seems to 
have been ignorant, or at least professes to hare been so, of Mr. 
Bubhstt's absence from the place. Thirdly, in the midst of this 
delay in one case, hot haste is seen in another, and confnsed dates 
and statements in the whole ; all casting a blur over the proceed- 
ings as an honorable, open-handed matter. We can bnt notice 
the want of jurisdiction in the case, for Oapt. Masok calls Mr. 
BuBNxiT ^^ an officer of another department of the Government ;" 
and being of another department, he was not responsible to the 
military officers. A military officer, or a citizen, if he had so 
wished, could have preferred charges against Mr. BuBKsrr di- 
rectly to the Secretary of War, or through the Agent and GFener- 
al Superintendent, which would have been the usual and proper 
way ; but to complain of a ovoU officer to a military one, or to 
arraign a civil officer before a military tribunal, is in violation of 
the spirit of our American institutions, and placing the civil under 
the control of the military powers. 

On the first of December, Mr. Bubnett addressed Oapt. Mabok^ 
requesting a copy of the complaint, which being furnished, is 
placed first in this series. From this letter it appears that Mr. 
3x7BNETT and Oapt Mason had conversed on this subject on 
the third of November, and the Oaptain promised a copy of the 
complaint, but had failed to furnish it. As the complaint was 
written at the time of its date, Nov. 3d, it is strange that as be- 
tween gentlemen, the Oaptain should neglect to give a copy of it 
as he had promised, and keep it in his possession for two weeks 
before presenting it to OoL Mobqajbt, and then to present it after 
Mr. Bubnbtt's departure for a distant post on official duties. 

The point at issue was, whether Mr. Busnsti, as Sub-Indian 
Agent, had a right to practice law in any case where an officer ol 
the army was in any way interested. In cases before alluded to, 
in which the United States were interested, through their agents, 

he defended the intereBt of the Gtovernment, and after a long de- 
lay, was paid his fee for so doing. No complaint was made for 
ihiSy but whien an officer of the army, on his own responsibility, 
has brought suit against citizens for selling whiskey without 
license, because soldiers were the purchasers thereof, for defend- 
ing them as a lawyer, complaint is made. To prepare for the 
worst, Mb. Burnett addressed a note each to Qeh. Stbbst, Ool. Mob- 
•AK, the Judges and Olerk of the Court, enquiring as to his con- 
duct in his professional duties, as well as his general deportment 
in his official course, to which he received the most satisfactory 
and flattering answers. 

Gen. Stbbet, under date of Dec. 2d, 1833, says : '' I received 
yours of to-day, and cannot resist the opportunity presented, to 
assure you of the high estimation in which I hold you, as an ami- 
able, intelligent and honorable man ; and most cheerfully do I 
bear testimony to the correct, prompt, and vigilant discharge of 
your duties, as an officer of the Government. As the'Snb-Agiant 
of Indian AfiEairs at the agency, your official duties, when not per- 
formed in obedience to orders emanating directly from me, have 
mostly passed under my notice, or been submitted for my advice. 
The duties of this agency have been greatly increased within the 
last two years, by wars and murders among the adjacent tribes, 
and subsequent attempts on the part of the Government, to pro- 
duce a general peace amongst all the Indian Nations on this fron^ 
tier. The reckless course of one of the nations at war, in having 
wantonly killed two Indians belonging to the tribes under the 
care of this agency, as well as the assembling of the council at 
Prairie du Ohien, cast upon the officers of this agency new and 
additional duties, tedious, difficult and laborious. But notwith- 
Btanding the personal inconvenience, the new and peculiar duties 
you were thus subjected to, they were performed faithfully, and I 
have every reason to believe to the entire sati'sfaction of the com- 

^^e Indians under the care'of this agency, have been fully and 
eoinpletely conciliated, and from being the most savage, warlike 


and ferocious on the northern frontier, hare become the moat 
gentle and harmlesB. Since you arrived at the agency, I feel a 
high gratification in saying, that every official duty has been dis- 
charged by you with a faithful and untiring vigilance, that de- 
mands my most unqualified approbation, ISTo duty has been neg- 
lected, or attempted to be evaded from personal indulgence, or 
professional pursuits ; but a peculiar devotion to the best interests 
of the Government, has stamped a character on your official 
course, that needs only to be examined, to be appreciated in its 
proper light Not have your labors been in vain, but succeu 
has crowned them in several instances, bearing strong testimony 
to the faithful exercise of official duty. Eesiding with me as a 
member of my family, I am enabled to speak of you more fully 
as a private friend and public officer. As a man, I have found 
you amiable, friendly and decisive ; as a member of the bar, open^ 
candid, liberal, independent and manly. 

'^In regard to the particular matter of complaint, as made 
through Ool. Morgan, if I rightly comprehend it, Capt. Hasok 
complains of your successful defence of citizens charged with 
having sold spirituous liquors contrary to the laws of Michigan 
Territory, not for any exceptionable management or sinister in- 
trigue — this, Oapt. Mason or any other person, I presume, would 
not venture to attribute to you ; but for defending them as a law- 
yer. He conceives, I understand, that in accepting the office of 
Sub-Indian Agent, you had deprived yourself of the privilege of 
pursuing your profession as a lawyer, or at least of defending any 
citizen charged with a breach of the laws. In this I can only re- 
mark, we differ widely in opinion. You early applied for obtain- 
ing my coneent to practice law, unless it should interfere with 
your official duties. As yet no such interference has occurred. 

'^ In relation to the particular complaint, feeling no particular 
interest in attending the session of a county court held by two un- 
learned men, I was in the house only a few minutes during the 
term. From what I saw, and the subsequent representationa of 
the most reputable individuals, I feel no reluctance in declaring 



that your couree as an adroeate, was polite and deferential, though 
uncompromising, bold and energetic.^' 

Ool. HoBOAN, Dec. 3d, 1880, says : '^In answer to yours of yes- 
terday, I have the honor to say to yon, that yonr course at the 
late treaty here, and since, has been entirely satifactory to me, 
both as it respects your official duties and private deportment. I 
have not heard any complaint of either. The point in controversy 
between you and Capt. Masok, seems to be, whether you have a 
right to practice your profession, or not. That matter can easily 
be adjusted by higher authority." The Judges, Olerk, and Prose 
cuting Attorney all testified that the course pursued by Mr. Bub- 
HETTin the cases in question, as well as generally, ^^was open, 
fair and honorable, and such as could give offence to no man what- 
ever,'^ as they should suppose. 

Mr. BuBiTETT made out and forwarded to the War Department 
his defence against these charges, with the letters and certificates 
alluded to above, but heard no more from them till near two years 
after. In the meantime, the demeanor of Mr. Bubnett towards 
Oapt Maj^on was such, as to show the contempt he felt for the 
course pursued by him, a^ which Mason took exceptions, and sent 
him the following challenge, dated Jan. 9th, 1831 : "Sir, — I pre- 
sume from your manner on Sunday last, when I met you at Mr. 
BsiSBOis', that you feel yourself injured or aggrieved by some can- 
duct of mine ; if so, it will afford me pleasure to give you honor- 
able satisfaction, at any time you think proper to call for it. You 
cannot, of course, mistake my meaning." 

Were it not for the last sentence in the above, it might be easily 
construed to mean the " amende honordhle^'* such as ought to be 
rendered by one gentleman to another. But this diplomatic 
double meaning so plainly shows its murderous intent in the last 
sentence, that no mistake could be made. But to the honor of 
Mr. BusKBiT, he treated the challenge, as every man of high moral 
courage will — with silent contempt. 

Hearing nothing from the complaint for nearly a year, Mr. 
BuBNXXT wrote to his friend, Hon. W. T. Babbt, to ascertain the 


result ; in answer to which he was informed, that no charges had 
been preferred against him, though his answer to the charges had 
been nearly a jear in the office of Indian Affairs. Here the mat- 
ter rested, in statu quo^ and probably [would have remained so, 
the officer to whom it was sent at ^' Head Quarters," most likelj 
thinking the matter unworthy of notice ; but Capt. Mason would 
not yield the point so easily, and accordingly on the 8th of July, 
1832, wrote fr* m St. Louis to Major Jonv Gabland, then at Wash- 
ington, to '• have a talk with the Secretary of War on the subject." 
And Mr. Gabland, himself having some private piq[ue at Mr. 
BuBKBTT, appears to have been glad of an opportunity to do him 
an injury; and accordingly on the Slst of July, 1832, wrote to 
the Secretary of War, endorsing Capt. Mason's letter to him, 
which greatly enlarged the complaint, affirming that the charges 
were true, and urging that they might be investigated. Upon 
this, Mr. KoBB, Acting Secretary of War, wrote to Gen. Clahk, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs. It seems that the original 
complaint was entirely lost, not having reached the War Depart- 
ment, being most probably deemed unworthy of notice. But now 
Major Ga^land^s urging the investigation so earnestly, and yet 
leaving nothing to go upon but the fetter of Capt. Mason, the 
Major added what was not true, that '' the work on the new gar- 
rison was retarded by the drunkenness of the soldiers, which 
drunkenness occurred in consequence of Mr. Bukneit's defending 
the whiskey-sellers." 

The (fomplaint was now made in fact de novoy this being the 
first knowledge of the matter at the War Department, and Mr. 
RoBB gave it its proper direction by sending it to the Superinten- 
dent of Indian Affairs, who in turn sent it to Gen. Steekt for 
investigation, nearly two years after the cause of complaint had 
occurred. No evidence was presented to sustain the complaint, 
except the bare assertions of Capt. Mason and Major GablanBi 
hoih ex parte ; and in reply to these, had been filed in the office the 
letters and certificates heretofore mentioned. Mr. Bubnett did 
not deny the defending of those who were prosecuted for selling 


liqnoT without license, but denied that his holding the office of 
Sub-Indian- Agent cut him off from his professional privilegeSi 
and he denied that his defending those men was the cause of the 
drunkenness of the soldiers, or that the work of the garrison was 
retarded on that account. The defence of Mr. Busnett, addressed 
to Gen. Stbbbt, is lengthy, but as it gives items in his history of 
which we have no other means of knowing, and at the same time 
embodies an able legal argument and defence, with a correct 
history of the case, it is given here entire : 

"Sia: — In the investigation which you are making, under 
the orders of the Department of War, of the charges against me 
as Sub-Indian Agent preferred by Capt. Mason, Nov. 3d, 1830, 
and in his letter to Major Garland of the 8th of July last, and 
Major Garland's letter to the acting Secretary of War of the 81st 
of July last, endorsing the cbar^^es, I beg leave most respectfully 
to submit the following response : 

'^ Before going into a particular examination of the case, I will 
say, without hesitatiou or fear of contradiction, and challenge a 
reference to all or any who have been acquainted with me in pub- 
lic or private, from my boyhood t<:) the present time ; that to those 
who have known and understood my conduct, official or other- 
wise, and who have no personal feeling to gratify, it needs not the 
formal ceremony of an investigation, and the production of testi- 
mony, to satisfy them of its general correctness, and of my dispo- 
tion faithfully to discharge any duty with which I may be charg- 
ed. In this case I am highly gratified that after so tedious a de- 
lay since the origin of the charges, an investigation has taken place 
that will lay the whole truth of the matter before the Hon. Secre- 
tary, confident that when he knows the whole truth, a correct de- 
cision will be given. 

^^ The appointment of Sub-Indian Agent was given me on the 
15th of Oct., 1829, and although the salary is a mere pittance, it 
was accepted in consideration of recent misfortunes, and with the 
expectation of being able to render a situation in this country ul- 
timately advantageous. On the night of the 2nd of that monih| 


I was bftdlj crippled bj the fjEdliog of the wall of a bumiikg hoofie 
in Faria, £j.» from which I shall neyer entirelj recover, aad so 
gzeat was the iDJiuy received, that mj life waa despaired oil This 
too was the result of mj exertioDs to save the property of mj fel- 
low citizens, when the whole town was threatened with immediate 
destracti^n, and where I had not a dollar in jeopardj from the 
flames. It was upwards of seven months before I was able to re- 
gome mj business, which was now broken up from my protracted 
inability to attend to it I might perhaps in time hare regained it, 
bat the necessity produced by my misfortune required an imme- 
diate supply of means, and within five days after I could wall: 
without a crutch, I started for this place. 

^^ Upon my arrival here, you were so fully sensible of the in- 
adequacy of my salary to the services to be performed, that I re- 
ceived your cordial consent to pursue the practice of my profes- 
sion, when public duty did not require my attention. I have 
continued to do so, under the sanction of that permission, until 
the present period, at no time neglecting, in the slightest degree, 
any official duty which devolved upon me. In this way, I have 
been able to render the office acceptable, which could not have 
been so from the salary alone. 

" The first term of the County Court of this county, after my 
arrival, commenced the 1st day of November, 1830. At that 
term the grand jury found bills against Saicusl Griffin, a licensed 
tavern-keeper, for selling spirituous liquors on Sunday; against 
Chables La Points, jun., and several others, for selling in less 
quantities than one quart, without licenses ; and against Johk 
DowLiNG, a licensed tavern-keeper, for keeping a disorderly house. 
In the most of these cases, if not all, I believe that Oapt Mason 
was the prosecutor. There was no attorney attending the court, 
except Mr. Dallum, the Prosecuting Attorney, and myself. I was 
employed by Griffin and Dowlino to defend them, and the 
court assigned me as counsel for La Pointr, in consideration of 
his circumstances. These were all the prosecutionB that I defend- 
ed at that or any other term of the court, and I have never been 


concerned in any way, in the defence of any otlier prosecutions 
of the kind before any tribunal in this county, except a single 
case before a Justice of the Peace, near a year afterwards. 

^^ There was nothing in any of these indictments, or in the 
proof upon the trials, which rendered my appearance in the cases 
incompatible with my duties as an agent of the government — 
They were charges of simple offences against the laws of the 
Territory, without the remotest connection with the laws of the 
United States, or any order or usage of the Department, to which 
I am attached. It is true, that Capt. Mason attended the court 
daily , for the purpose of prosecuting the poor and ignorant inhab- 
itants of the place, with a host (as he would probably say) of sol- 
diers attending his call as witnesses, aided by the vigilance and 
faithful attention of the Prosecuting Attorney ; and that in most, ^ 
if not all, of the cases, it came out in proof upon the trial, that 
some soldier had participated in the act for which the defendant 
was prosecuted. But I know of no law, I understand no duty, 
which will require me to keep silence in a court of justice, be- 
cause Oapt Mason or any other officer of the army may think 
proper to come forward and charge a citizen with an offence 
against the laws of the country, wholly disconnected with my 
official station. 

'^ The fii'st intimation that I received, that the slightest except 
tions were taken to my conduct in this matter, was on the evening 
of the third day of the court, after adjournment, when Capt. Ma- 
son showed me his communication to Ool. Mobgan of that date, 
Nov. 8rd, 1830, which he did, as he said, to satisfy me that he had 
no personal feeling. I thought it strange that any one, who com- 
prehended my duties, should entertain the views of the subject 
which he expressed, and requested him to furnish mo with a copy 
of his communication, which he promised to do on the next day. 
At the meeting of the court on the next day, I called on him for 
the promised copy, and he promised it that day. That was the 
last I heard from him on the subject for several weeks. I left for 
Fort Winnebago on the 17th, under the impression tliat the 


charges had been abandoned, as a copy had not been fumishedj 
and as Col. Morgan bad told mo that be did not agree witji Capt 
ILksoN npon the snbject On raj return, I was surprised to learn 
that the charges had been preferred, and forwarded to the Depart- 
ment. I obtained from my accuser, a copy of the complaint, nearly 
a month after it had been promised, and two weeks afrer it had 
been forwarded, in my absence. 

"I lost no time in preparing and forwarding my defence to 
Washington. I also sent a copy of the chargers, lest they sliould 
be lost on the wav. I heard no mure uf the matter, till I visited 


Washington in December, 1831, when I found that no charges 
had been filed in the office against me. I lemaincHl in Washing- 
ton till the 20th of February, 1S32, and during a portion of my 
stay, Mflj«jr 6abla:«d was in the city ; yet while I was there, and 
my defence supported by documents not to be refuted, and on file 
in the Indian Office, no move was made against me in the case ; 
and a few days before I left the city, I withdrew my defence, con- 
sidering it unnecessarily there. 

^^ Capt. Mason, I believe, visited Washington in the spring, but 
took no steps to call up the investigation while there ; bnt on bis 
return to the frontier, he wrote from St Lonis to Mnjur Gablahs^ 
to revive tlie matter. This brought the matter before the Secre- 
tary of War, July 31st, 1832, fur the first time. This revival of 
the matter, it will be recollected, after so long a time had elapsed, 
and opportunities, for a full and fair investigation had passed, 
took place when the Indian war was raging in the vicinity of this 
place, and the whole of both your time and mine was incessantly 
engaged, often in the night as well as in the day, in the discharge 
of paramount public duties ; while Major Gabi.ano, snugly seated 
in his Bureau^ could manage the charges, secure from the dan- 
gers or toils incident to a frontier station. 

<Trom a subsequent letter from the Acting Secretary, of the 
26th of September, 1 832, it appears that the original commonica- 
tion ot Oapt. Masov to Col. Mosgak, has at length made its ap- 
pearance at the Department, and the chaig#s therein ogiitaiiied 


can now be met This I shall do fallj and fairly ; and while*I 
shall endeavor to correct any nnjnst inferences which may possi- ^' 
bly be drawn from the very general nature of his statementS| I 
shall not deny, evade or palliate any thing that I have done. 

" It will be perceived, that Capt. Mason does not charge me 
with a breach of any law of the United States, or of the Terri- 
tory ; he does not charge me with disobedience of any order or 
instrnction emanating from any authority I was bound to obey; 
he does not charge me with a breach of any custom or usage of 
the Department; nor does he charge me with any mal-practices 
in my profession. It is not pretended that any act of this kind 
has occurred. lie makes a general charge, that cannot be referred 
to any law or preceden^, order or custom, with which I am ac- 
quainted, for decision. Tie says only, ** that whilst the oflBcers of 
'^ the army at this post, arc striving to prevent drunkenness among 
" the soldiers, and are prosecnting, before the civil courts, various 
"persons for selling spirituous liquors to the soldiers, contrary to 
" the laws of the Territory, that Mr. Burnbti^, Sub Indian Agent, 
" an officer of another department of the Government, is throwing 
"his weight in the opposite scale, by appearing before the conrta, 
" and defending the persons who thus offend against the law, and 
" who have annoyed us so much." He concludes with a general 
charge of aiding the whUJcey-sdlera^ and thereby opposing the 
exertions of the officers of the garrison in endeavoring to keep the 
men sober. 

" When the facts upon which the charge is founded are under- 
stood, it amounts simply to the question — have I a right, holding 
the appointment of Sub-Indian Agent, to practice the profession 
of the law ? This is the view which Col. Morgan took of the sub- 
ject at the time, and gave it as his decided opinic n that I had the 
right. Capt. Mason represents that the prosecutions were ^< for 
selling spirituous liquors to the soldiers contrary to a law of th$ 
Territory^ Now the truth is, there w»s no law of the Territory 
in existence at that time, which prohibite i the selling of spirita- 
ona liquors to soldiers any more than to other persons, as a ref(^^ 


ence to the Btatutes then in force will prove. Capt Mabov web 
himself the individual and onlj prosecutor in the cases in qnes- 
tion ; no other officers of the arrwy at this poet were known to me 
in that attitudoi nor do the records of the court show it The whole 
of my practicei which he considers a breach of my public duty, 
took place in the Crawford county court, and at one term only of 
the courty and not before the ciyil courts of the country ; and the 
usurious persons whom I had defended at that time, consisted of 
two individuals only, Gsiffin and LaPointe, and to one of them, 
La. Fointe, the court assigned me as counsel. The indictment 
against Gbiffin, charged him as an inn-keeper, with selling differ- 
ent liquors on Sunday, to divers persons, whose names were un- 
known to the grand jury, the selling on that particular day being 
made an offence in a tavern-keeper by the laws of the Territory. 
The indictment against La Fointe was for selling spirituous liquors 
without a license ; and that against Dowling was for ^^ keeping a 
disorderly house." In neither indictment was a word said about 
^^ selling to soldiers." Dowliko's case came on the day after the 
oharge was made out, the 4th, so that Gbiffin and La Foihtb 
were the only ones whom I had defended at the date of the com- 
plaint. CapL Mason makes a further general charge of defeating 
the expectations of the Government, in conferring upon me the 
small office which I hold, and with aiding the whiskey-sellers, 

^^ How far I may have fultilled, in the discharge of my public 
duties, all reasonable expectations of the Government or citizens, 
I shall not pretend to say. I leave that for you to decide, because 
all my official acts, both before and since these charges, have been 
made under your own observation, and I am perfectly satisfied, 
that you would not have sanctioned, or tolerated in me a course, 
that could be construed into a dereliction of duty. As to the 
charge of aiding the whiskey-sellers, a criminal law advocate who 
had defended one on his trial for murder, could with f& much 
justice, truth and propriety, be charged with being the aider of 
the murder. It was evident in all these cases, that they did not 


involvei in any way, our Indian relations. If they had ; if ladi- 
ans had obtained the liqnor, or had they been riotous in Dowubto's 
house, I should have had nothing to do with them, or either of 
them. To know this for a certainty, I enquired of the Prosecuting • 
Attorney, if any testimony connecting either case with the Indi- 
ans or Indian affairs, had been, or would be presented. He said 
there would not. 

^< It has been before stated, that Mr. Daixum, the Prosecuting 
Attorney, and myself were the only members of the bar in atten- 
dance at that term of the court. It would therefore seem to have 
been th% wish of Oapt. Mason, that those whom he saw fit to 
prosecute, should not have the benefit of counsel to defend them. 
But the Constitution of the country guarantees to every one ac- 
cused, the right of counsel to defend him.. The people of this 
place, however poor and ignorant, have not forfeited their consti- 
tutional privileges. This is their right, as well as the highest in 
the land. I do not pretend that the absence of all other attorneys 
from the court, or even the assignment of myself by the court as 
counsel, would have justified me in a positive breach of duty. I 
do not expect or wish to shelter myself under any such plea. 
But I do contend, that when law, order, regulations, customs and 
instructions are all silent upon the subject ; or, so far as they do 
exist, favor the exercise of my profession in the manner that it 
was exercised, that the circumstances of the case form a strong 
reason why I should act as I did. 

" In support of the facts herein above stated, I beg leave to 
submit the documents which I once before forwarded to the De- 
partment upon the same subject, and which were on file there 
about fourteen months. 'The testimony here offered, will sustain 
every material fact I have stated, and is of a character not to be 

Oapt. Mason, in his letter to Major Garl.vnd of July 8th, 1833, 
attempts to implicate the character of the Judges and Clerk, as 
being notorious whiskeyseU&ir^y thereby to destroy the force of 
their testimony as to the facts of the case.' Mr. Bttbnsit's re- 


; ifponae to tiliiBi is omitted as anneceBsary to the queBtion at issue. 
Bat it shows the doBperate means retorted to by Capt. Mason, to 

,gratifj personal reyengOi because be could not accomplish his 
wishes in the premises. Both Oapt. Mason and Major Gabland 

; affirm things in their charges which are proved not to be true, in 
the response, but it is not deemed necessary to copy. 

The determined and dogged zeal with which the two officers of 
,the army followed Mr. Burnett in this matter, might have been 
commendable in a cause demanding it ; but to follow a man of 
Mr. BuBNsrr's known reputation, on a charge of so trifling and 
unfounded a nature, evinces a degree of venom not at all com- 
mendable in any man. Nor is it at all agreeble to the fine feel- 
ings of such a man as Mr. Burnett, to be thus prosecuted from 

.year to year, with no other cause for it than the revengeful feel- 
jmgs of disappointed pride of opinion. But the end of the matter 
is not yet. 

On the 16th of Feb., 1833, Elbsbt Hebsing, Ck)mmissioner of 

. Indian Affairs, wrote Mr. Burnett as follows : '^ The charges pre- 
ferred against you by Oapt. Mason, your reply and the document- 
ary evidence, have been referred to this office for examination 
and report. I am instructed by the Secretary of War to inform 
you, that he acknowledges with much pleasure, the excellence of 
your character, and the ability and zeal manifested in the dis- 
charge of your duties as Sub-Agent, and though he disclaims all 
inclination and right to interfere with the fair exercise of your 
professional talents, he expects and must insist upon a cordial co- 
operation in the officers of the Government, to enforce the laws, 
and punish offenders. He cannot perceive that co-operation, where 
an officer of Government appears as the public apologist or de- 
fender of the violators of the law. Taking it for granted, that the 
cases defended by you did not occur in the Indian country, and 
that strictly speaking, they had no relation to the Indian Depart- 
ment, still year defence of them has been productive of unplea- 
sant consequences. Collision has taken place between yoorfelf 
and some offiqers ot the army ; and instead of harmonious action 


to promote tlie policy of the Government, crimination and recrim- 
ination have been resorted to, weakening its influence and resist- 
ing its operation. 

"The practice, therefore, of publicly defending persons accused 
of unlawfully introducing, vending or using ardent spirits, is con- 
sidered inconsistent with your duty as Sub-Agent, and ii Is confi* 
dently trusted, that thid intimation from the Department will pre- 
Tent a repetition of the practice." 

To this decision Mr. Bubneit took decided exceptions, and re- 
monstrated in the following letter, ad^iressed to Mr. Commissioner 
Hbrring, dated April I8th, 1S38, to which he received no an- 

"Sir: — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 16th of February, communicating to me the decision 
given at the Department, upon the charges preferred against me 
by Capt. Masok. It is with much regret, that I perceive in that 
letter, wh&t seems to me to be an indirect censure upon the 
transaction which had been made the subject of complaint, and 
the establishment of a restrictive rule for the future government 
of my official conduct. I had flattered myself, that I had shown 
to the satisfaction of the Department, by the testimony of those 
who were best acquainted with my acts, both public and private, 
and a reference to the only authorities to which I had ever been 
directed to look for the definition and regulation of my duties, 
that I had, in every instance, performed everything that could 
reasonably have been required of a Sub-Agent for Indian Afiairt. 
And I expected, that if I were mistaken in this supposition, and 
it fihould be considered by the Honorable Secretary, that I had 
violated any rule of public duty, a direct decision to that effect 
would be given. A charge had been made against me. I had 
responded to i*;, and the cause was submitted, upon testimony, to 
the proper authority for decision. Either the complainant or the 
respondent was wrotig in the position assumed, and I wished to 
'Ifibow which ; and I humbly conceive, that I was justifiable in 
'tep^etltig a decision npon the issue. This I have not been able 


to perceive in the commnnication which 70a have addrened to 

The infonnation giren in jonr letter, that it is the dnty of the 
officers of the army, and that it is a duty in which the other offi- 
cers of the Govemment most coK>perate, to become informers and 
prosecutors nnder the mnnicipal code of a State or Territory, is 
the first that I hare ever receired of the existence and concur- 
rence of such a daty. The principle may be one that has hereto- 
fore been practiced upon, but I hare looked in vain for^a prece- 
dent. It is possible, that ^e circumscribed sphere of my public 
acts, and my limited Imowledge of the practical operations of 
Government, Lave kept mc in ignorance of a rule of official duty, 
so important in its application to the conduct of public officers. — 
It had been my opinioD,** previous to the receipt of your letter, 
that the civil departments of the Government, either general or 
local, were provided with sufficient and competent officers to ad- 
minister the laws of the country, and that in that administration, 
the only legitimate duty resting upon the military departnftnt 
was, to aid the civil authorities when they should be found too 
weak to execute them. If in forming this opinion, I had been led 
into error, I trust that it will be perceived, that it is an error into 
which any one, with the lights before him, that I have received, 
would most likely have fallen ; especially when it is borne iu mind, 
that a different principle of duty is essentially variant from all ob- 
vious purposes, for the organization of either the Army or Indian 
Department, or any published regulations for the government of 
either. If the converse of the opinion which I had formed upon 
this subject, be correct, I would suggest the extremely unpleas- 
ant situation in which I should be placed, should it be required of 
me, as an act of duty, to co-operate with an officer of the Army in 
the prosecution of any citizen, for an alleged petty offence 
against the municipal laws of the Territory, in a case where it 
should be known, that the prosecution originated in malice or ig- 
norance, passion or prejudice. The officers of the army are man, 
and being men, they are subject as others, to the influence of the 


passionB, prejadioeB and weakneaseB of hamanity, of which it 
woxdd not be difficnlt to fdrnish examples. In making this state- 
ment, I mean no disrespect to the militaiy. There is no one who 
holds that honorable profession in higher estimation than myself, 
or who is more sensible of the many brilliant enmples of worth 
and talent of which the army of oar country can boast I only 
atate a self-evident ftct, for^the purpose of illustrating the subject. 

You observe, that the Honorable Secretary cannot perceive the 
necessary co-operation, ^^ when an officer of the Qovemment ap- 
pears as the public apologist or defender of the violators of the 
law." Pardon me. Sir, for I must say, that Iha^e nsv&r in all 
my Ufe appeared as eUher the pvblio or prvoate apciogiet cf the 
violatore of the law. The distinction, in all common parlance, be- 
tween an apology and a legal defence, is too obvious to a mind of 
philosophical reflection or legal attainments, to require illustra- 
tion. An honest man may scorn to be concerned in the one, while 
he may undertake the other according to every principle of honor, 
virtue and morality. 

You say to me, '^ taking it for granted that the cases defended 
by you, did not occur in the Indian country, and that, strictly 
speaking, they bad no relation to the Indian Department, still 
your defence oi' them has been productive of unpleasant conse- 
quences." Again, Sir, I must beg your indulgence. I cannot 
perceive that it is at all necessary, that a proposition should be 
grantedj the verity of which is demonstrated by the history and 
legislation of the country, and by testimony which cannot be con- 
troverted. The legal character of the country where acts referred 
to transphred, is established by the history and legislatioii of the 
GK)vemment. The precise nature of the transaction, is explained 
and made manifest by positive and incontestible testimony. But 
if the transaction has been productive of unpleasant consequences, 
I would most respectfully ask — am I chargeable with them ? If 
aiiy one officer of the army, or other person, shall see fit volun- 
tarily to bring himself into collision with me, while I am in the 
exercise of a natural right secured to me by the laws of the coun- 



trjs ftod resort to criminatioa for the purpose of prejudieiDg mj 
relations with the Goyemment, can I, upon any principle of jag- 
tioe, be held accountable for the act, or the effects which it may 
prodace J And can an act of mine, right in itself, jastlj be de- 
cided to be wrong, because it may be found to hare given dis- 
pleasure to particular indiyiduals } If re-crimination has followed 
upon crimination, so &r as it has been resorted to, it hai» in my 
humble opinion, been fully justified by the system of persecution 
which has been pursued against me, and the gross misrepresents- 
tions that have been made of my conduct It is impossible for 
these misrepresentations to escape the observation of any one, 
who will cast his eye over the charge, and the response, and the 
testimony in the case ; and if I had tamely submitted to the 
fraud ; if I had £ailed to repel the inflaence which it was designed 
to have upon the decision of the Department, I should consider 
myself unworthy of the trust of the Government, or the confi- 
dence of my countrymen. And yet, this gross and enormous fea- 
ture of the transaction has, for anght that I know, passed without 
animadversion, while I am rebuked for collisions and unpleasant 
consequences that have been forced upon me. 

I am told that these collisions and unpleasant consequences, in 
the production of which I have been a party concerned, have 
weakened the influence of the Government, and resisted its oper> 
ations. I trust I shall be believed when I say, that there is no 
man in the country who would regret more deeply than myself, 
the commission of an act calculated to weaken the influence of 
the Government, and resist its operations. I had hoped that the 
Honorable Secretary was sufliciently satisfled by proofs that my 
humble abilities had been exerted to the utmost, to further the 
views and operations of the Government, so far as they had been 
made known to me. I feel conscious of unceasing efforts to ren- 
der the Government my b^st services; and it is painful to receive 
this intimation, the first that has reached me from any source en- 
titled to consideration, that instead of doing what I thought I had 

donei and what I know I desigoed to do, mj acts have tended to 

thwart the Government, and weaken its inflaence. 
Without going into a detail of former years, I will state some 

jof the hard Bervices which I performed duriog the last aeaaon — 
,a season pregnant with distress to this frontier. From my return 
^ to this agency, in the spring of Uiat year, after a visit to my family 
^^d friends in Kentucky, until the termination of the Indian war, 

I underwent the most unremitting toil and exertion, in the dis- 
-rjbhorge of my public duties, and I feel justified in saying, there 
. was no one in any station in this vicinity, who was not actually in 

the campaign, who endured more fatigue, who performed more 
^laborious and hard service in the public cause, than I did. About 
-the first ef June, I visited, by direction of the Indian Agent, the 
'^Winnebago and Sioux villages on the Upper Mississippi, for the 
purpose of raising a band of warriors, to send to the aid of Gton. 
^^TKiNsox, at his request. I succeeded in the object of the ezpe- 
p|lition, and returned to this place in six days with about one hun- 
|rired and fifty warriors. Soon after it was known here, that the 
l^hoslile Indians had been forced to cross the Wisconsin, and were 
qpoaking their way towards the Mississippi, I was sent by the 
l^lgent on two different trips to the Winnebagoes above this post, 
c^jfixr the purpose of withdrawing them with their canoes to this 
r Agency, before the Sauks and Foxes should reach the Mississippi. 
g^Chese measures were also successful; and although I went in 
^/Company with a military command from Fort Crawford, I have 
^Ao hesitation in saying, from my knowledge of those Indians, and 
K^m my observations while amongst them, that if I had not gone, 
^,the success would not have been complete, unless the Agent had 
^.-attended to the business in person. I spent the whole night pre- 
^oediug the battle of the Bad Ax, in aiding the preparation of 
«^ expedition to be sent up on board the steamboat Warrior^ 
^.jWhich had just c<jme down with information that the hostile In- 
^'diaus had reached the shore of the Mississippi. I visited the 
. Meuomonee camp at midnight, and collected a small party of 
; warriors, supplied them with ammunition, and got them, with an 

killed in the engagement. 

Soon after tlie close of the campaign, I was diBpatdfa 
Lonis, at an nnhealthy season of the year, and at a ti 
the whole coast below was panic-stricken at the appe 
the cholera npon our borders, and when I returned, the i 
was making its most dreadful ravages at Kock Island, 
way down, I communicated to Gen. Scott, then at that 
first intelligence he had of the capture of Black Hawi 
Pbophet. By the time I again reached the agency, I w 
prostrated with fatigae. I had endured four months of 
incessant labor in the public service, at the cost of mfl 
steepless nights, and during the whole of the time, thi 
my health was so feeble, that under other circnmstances. 
scarcely have justified the most ordinary exertion. I < 
tend to make even a suggestion as to what has been th( 
all these hard services, and the proportion which they b( 
compensation. I only state the fhcts, and in doing sc 
the consciousness which I feel, that throughout all the 
labor, I was animated by an ardent and sincere desire to 
the Sest interests of my country ; and that then, and at 
times, instead of contributfng to " resist the operation 



I this frontieri either in the closet, the camp, oiithe field ; yet, I 
^ proudly conscious of having done aU tJuU was ever requi/red 
' me^ and of having done it promptly and faithfully, according 
ifliejbest of my poor abilities; and if my country has derived 
m benefit from my labors, I am content. I know how little the 
Iplications of those times have been calculated to give the peo- 
li^rrect information of the character of the war and its opera- 
Ijjis. Their history has been made up too much of exaggerated 
l^ievements, and concealed or palliated defaults, of fulsome 
Uation, and gross and unmerited censure, to give the public a 
fenct knowledge of the transactions ; and had I have occupied 
■Qore conspicuous station, I think I should have felt as little 
^tious of obtaining the frothy notices current at the time, as 
sure I do now. But what I desired, what I thought I had a 
it to expect, was, when I had served my country to the utmost 
it which my situation enabled me to do, at the expense of a 
sn of labor and fatigue that few men under the circumstances 
d endure, the humble merit of having done my duty would 
icorded to me, without the censure of having contributed to 
it the operations of the Government. 

le rule which has been established by the Honorable Secretary 
limy special government in future, seems to me, with all due 
mce to the high authority from which it has proceeded, te 
unequal and unjust in its discriminating character, and ii;i its 
idgment of my rights. I would respectfully ask, what are the 
ins for establishing a principle by which I am directed to re- 
my future actions, which, so far as I can perceive, does not 
to any other officer of the Department! And if the reason 
||not be found, wherein consists the justice of the discrimina- 
1 I trust, Sir, that upon reflection, you will be sensible of the 
leasant sensations which the establishing of discriminating 
and individual applications of them, are justly calculated to 
in the mind of the public officer who is made the subject 
ll^eir operation; and that you will be convinced, that they 
Mtld be resorted to in extraordinary cases only. But, Sir, I 


hnmbly contend, ifiat the prohibition to practice in a State or 
Territorial court, in cases arising under the local laws of the State 
or Territory, which hare no p-^ssible relation or bearing npon In- 
dian affairs, is r.ot a legitimate restriction to lay npon an officer 
of the Indian Department. TThi'e I contend for th!5 principle,! 
flay to yon most sincerely, that it is n.jt becanse I think, that I 
flhonid be bp*iefittcd one dollar by a chin^e of *!ie regulation. It 
is now more than eighteen months since I hare bo-n engaged ini 
single case embraced in the rn!e, and it is quite probable that few 
or none would again occur should it cease to operate. Since the 
first Monday in November last, I have been performing the duties 
of Prosecuting Attorney for this county, and it is not unlikely 
that I shall continue to perform tho?e duties so l^ng as I continue 
at this place. It U not, therefore, from any desire or expectatios 
of gain, that I ask for a recision of the rule, but for the reason 
alone, that, as it seems to me, it restricts my natural rights sxti 
privileges. HAMPni-y resisted the levying of the illega! tax, not 
because the payment would impoverish him, but because submia* 
sion would make him a slave. While I am prohibted the privil- 
ege that has been denied me, I feel that I have been deprived of 
one of the rights of freemen, secured to every citizen of the coun- 
try, and to every other officer of the Government. And if I maj 
be legally deprived of this, what security is there for the otherel 
The Honorable Secretary disclaims all right to interfere with the 
fair exercise of my professional talents ; but what shall be cona- 
dered a fair exercise of them, I cannot know until his decision 
shall be had. If one class of cases may be rightfully prohibited, 
may not another and another, until the whole shall be swept from 
me; and a profession which I have acquired under privatioui 
and disadvantages that few men have encountered, rendered whol* 
ly useless f I wish to be understood — I do not indulge in any 
present anticipations of this kmd, I only extend the prmciple to 
flhow the length to which it will lead, if it shall be finally eatab- 
lished, whenever it shall come to be acted npon by a less liberal 
head of the Department. 


For the reaooDS whioh I baye given, I flatter myself with the 
hope, that if the Honorable Secretary will do me the faror to give - 
the caae a second examinatiooi he will perceive, that I have not 
merited the censnre contained in your letter, and that I cannot be 
jnstly Bubjeoted to the mle which has been established for the fa- 
tnre A:egalation of my duty as Sab- Agent at this place ; I therefore, 
most reBpectfully ask, that he will re consider the eabject, and 
that I luay be made acquainted with his ultimate determination. 
In considering this communication, I trust that the sentiments 
advuncod, and the manner in which they have been expressed, 
will no( be misconstrued. They have been conceived and utter- 
ed, I assure you, with the most respectful deference, and the 
higjieet considoi ation for the superior authorities of the Depart- 
meut. I mean only to exercise in an appropriate manner, a priy- 
ilege guaranteed to every citizen of the country, to every offioer 
: of tlie Government, the privilege of remonstrance." 
. Whilo such scenes were pending, and before the final decision 
^ of the Department had reached Air. Bubnett, it was pleasant and 
I agreeable to his feelings, to receive the following from Dr. Beau* 
^ KONT, one of the most distinguished surgeons in the XT. S. army, 
'" under date of Washington City, Jan. 7th, 1833: 
s ^' My dear Sir : — An agreeable impulse of hearty joined to a 
^ sort of compunctious state of mind for the sin qfomiwiony com* 
pels me now to express my undiminished regard for one whose 
4 kind disposition, warm heart, and generous feelings, have gained 
- the siucore admiration and esteem of myself and family, during 
our short but very agreeable acquaintance. It is with peculiar 
^ pleasure and satisfaction, that I reflect upon the scenes of social 
enjoyment incident to our residence at Prairie du Chien, and 
more especially our last journey down the Mississippi, and short 
"^ sojourn at St. Lonis« There is indeed an abiding happy impression 
made upon the mind, by the manifestations of ingenuousnees and 
magnanimity of soul, widely different from that produced by the 
commoo place, every-di^, poorly-diflgvised^ cold, hollow-hearted, 
affeetodaeai of fashioMbla society, of whioh this plaee is the seat 



zens actnally shed upon oar prairies, that Congress deigns to cast 
an eye to onr defence. The intimate and accurate knowledge you 
possess of public affairs, beyond any other person in your section 
of &e country, seems to justify us in calling upon you to take a 
leading part in these measures ; and as our purposes must be the 
same, it may be expected that we should be united in the means 
to obtain them." 

The judiciary system of Michigan, to which, at that time, what 
is now Wisconsin was attached, was deemed to be very defectiye, 
which was considered, with other things, as a good reason for de- 
siring a separate Government. Mr. Bitbnett suggested to the 
Hon. M. L. Mabtiw, then in the Territorial Council at Detroit, 
some amendments to the judiciary system, to which Mr. Mabtik 
answered, Feb. (tth, I8S8 : ^* It is found extremely difficult to re- 
gulate, by any general provisions, the different interests of the 
eastern and western sections of Michigan ; especially such as re- 
fer to the judiciary system, or the proceedings in courts. I have 
procured the passage of a bill that I think will go far in relidvbig 
us, in cases of chancery attachment and insolvency." 

In May, 1888, Gen. Street was called to Washington to deftnd 
himself against a complaint that had been previously prefbrred ; 
the maiii ground of which was, that by his vigilance and care of 
the Indians, the traders were prevented from skinning them quite 
so easily as some of them wished to do. This, of course, was un- 
pardonable with those interested ; but he was not removed for the 
offence. In the meantime, the duties of the agency devolved up- 
on Mr. Burnett till the 20th of June, when the General returned. 
Then Mr. Bubxett obtained leave of absence from the Agent for 
three months, to visit his friends and attend to business in Ken- 
tucky, subject, however, to the approval of the Superintendent at 
St. Louis. But the Superintendent curtailed his furlough to two 
months, that being the extent of his powers, as he alleged. Gen. 
SnoBMrr on being apprised of this, remarked to Mr. Bjmsnsrty di6n 
in Kentucky, " the curtailing of your permit was, to say the least 
of It, in xny dpfiiion, a singular measure. It will assure you, how- 


ever, tliat mj opinion of a hostile feeling towards you is not wifh- 
ont soihe foundation. I am now convinced that a similar feeling 
extends from the same quarter towards me. The whole of his 
course towards me for the last six or eight months has been strange, 
and his recent letters confirm me in the belief, that my course has 
been too independent to suit him. Neither jou nor I may lo»k 
that way for support. If we can get slow justice, it will be at 
much as we should calcnlftte upon." 

The reasons assigned in several letters for the hostility of Gton. 
GuLBKare these : his feelings were in the interests of the Army and 
Fur Company,* so that if an Agent should pursue a course confiiet- 
ing with those interests, he was at once marked by the G^eneral. 
Such things are not new, singular, or yet out of date on the fron- 
tier. Oea. Stbebt felt assured, that his communications to the 
Indian Department, were copied and given to the Fur Oompany 
how or by what means he did not know ; he could only know that 
they Went sealed to the Superintendent, who after reading and 
copying/in* kU evm use^ sent them sealed to the Oommissioner of 
Indian afikirs. lie copying might have been flone in the office, 
without the knowledge of Gen. Olabk ; but whether so or not, 
Gen; Stbest felt assnred that they were copied, from the way he 
h(Cd sometimes to meet from the traders, what he knew to be only 
in thosd reports to the Superintendent. The charges against Hr. 
BuBXTBiT were from the army ; those against Gen. Street from the 
Fur Oompany. The Company, however, were not friendly to Mr. 
BulcfniTrr behind his back, however much so they were to his fitce. 
So says a letter now before me. 

Hr. BuxNffTT returned to fhe A^ney within the time, two 
months ; and in Obtobor, Gefa. Stbeet left; again for Washington, 
to meet the charges before mentioned, and not then decided, bxA 

^B fht part cf fpMttodJy to bnak down tiM Antrieu For Compasj, ud fh»t wamakodj/ wl«lwd Mr 
BvuiR to Aid In th« mottar, OBd MBd hit oonmaaioMlon to ttao * aan of Mb. Clak," tMf Mitr 

OtaKE wal liart frtfy l» jljio jiBtMirtii! jM^m ^mnwuM^m. Bat 

Bov, VOM told, that Oon. ObAftTt •fMUap wtio UlhoUltniti of Ihil^^ It woill 

g«i^'iMliMdqMteMto«toBM4v^wbiattteB«ifito«f#wtrtofhf! L.f)LlP^ 


to settle his acconBts witL the Departmeii, where he contiDued 
till the eoaning April, leariDg the entire duties of the agency in 
the hands of Mr. Busnett. In confr^queLce •.'! the amonnt of 
Berrice reqnired, !Mr. BrssnEn apj'lied to tLe Department through 
CoL B. IL Johnson, to be allowed pav for an inierpreter $400, 
through which mears he would receive a compensation more com- 
mensurate with the amount of eervices rencirrcd, and the Tespon- 
dbilitj renting upon him. But Mr. He&ring, the Commissioner 
of Indian Afiairs, Dec. ISth, 1S33| repiiei : ** It is conceded, that 
Mr. BrsNxn is a valuable officer, aLd that his salary is an inade- 
quate reC'^mpence ivr his serrices. But the standard has been 
determined by an authority to which the Dei^artment must boW| 
and the Secretary of War is precluded from the exercis>e of dis- 
cretionary powers in the case." This terminated his attempts to 
obtain office, or an adequate compensation for the services he ren- 
dered in the one he had in the Indian Department. 

On the 30th of June, 1531, the act for re organizing the Indian 
Department was passed in Congress, by which Mr. Busnext and 
all other Sub-Agents were legislated out of office ; but few of 
whom were reappointed. And on the 2nd of J uly, Mr. Hbbbdtg, 
by direction of the Secretary of War, wrote to Mr. Busssrr, ^v- 
ing an extract of the law, and directing him to render his account 
for salary, as his services in that Department were no longer re- 
quired ; and concluded by saying : " I am directed by the Secretary 
of War, to tender his acknowledgments to you for the zealous and 
faithful performance of the duties of your office, and I will thank 
you also to accept the assurance of my high respect." He re- 
ceived this note on the 6th of August, when he wrote to Mr. 
Heebiko to know to whom he should render his accounta, as no 
directions were given on that point ; Gen. Stbebi ceased to be an 
Agent at the same time at Prairie du Chien, by being removed 
to Bock Island, and no one had yet been appointed to fill tihe 
Pndrie du Chien yacancy. 

Before amffident time had elapaed to receiye an anawari ke 
wrote August 80th : *^ Sir :— In your letter of «the Snd Julj laiti 


yon direct me to render my account for settlomentinp to the date 
of the reception thereof. Gen. Stbeet arrived at this place a few 
days since, and informs me, that he has not received any funds 
for the payment of my salary, due since the 31st of December, 
1833; and that he has not been advised whether the money will 
pass throngh his hands or not. There is now due me on account 
of my salary from the 1st of January, to the 6th of August, 18S4:| 
inclusive, $800. Will you be so good as to inform me when and 
where I am to receive this money ? Whether it is to be paid me 
in the usual way, or whether I am to roam from office to offlcei 
until I shall find some person authorized to settle and pay my 
account ; or whether it is the intention of yourself, the Hon. Sec- 
retary of War, and his privy counselor Gaeland, to construe me 
out of it altogether." 

In this apparent hot haste, Mr. Burnett would hardly have been 
justifiable, were it not that the circumstances as heretofore detailed, 
and especially the non-attention of the Department to his charges 
against Major Garland, for preferring which his dismissal was 
determined on, whether the law passed or not, indicated a degree 
of neglect on the part of the Department, very trying to his pa- 
tience. Still it must be admitted, that the time was short, after 
the passage of the act new-modelling the Indian Department, and 
also the appropriation act, and the money had not had time to 
reach the distant posts on the frontier. But the Commissioner 
might have informed him in very few words, in what way the 
money would reach him. Possibly ft was an oversight in the 
hurry in which the sub- Agents had to be apprised of their dismis- 
sal from office. On the 8th of September, however, the Oommis- 
■sioner writes: "I have received your letter of the 6th August 
Funds to defray the expenses of the Prairie du Ohien Agency for 
the first half-year, have been sent to the Superintendent at St. 
Louis." But this left him in suspense, whether he should go te 
St Louis for it, or whether it would be sent to him ; and it left 
$10 non-provided for, as the half year would only give him $260. 
He was relieved from this suspense in a few days by the receipt 


of a letter from Gen. Clabe, dated September IStb, aajingi ^' I 
have redeved to-daj your letter of August 80th, and of the Snd 
inst, on the subject of your paj, and of your fees, as counsel in 
the case of Buxhett vs. Street and EsAXsnre, the defendants 
being sned as the Agents of the GoTemment, and of conrset the 
Ooremment should pay the expenses, &c On the SOth ult Gen. 
SziBKr was informed of the amount allowed the Prairie dn Ghien 
Agency, for the first and second quarters of the present year. 
Tour pay up to the 31st of July is embraced in it, amounting to 
|S9 1.87. This as well as the other sums specified in the allotment, 
will be, as usual, paid over to Gen. Stbeet, whenever called for, 
to be by him applied to the payment of the objects for which they 
are intended. No conmiunication has been made to me firom 
Washington, on the subject of fees for counsel in the cases jou 
have mentioned. It were, perhaps, advisable that yon write di- 
rect to the Commissioner of Indian AfiBurs, requesting him to p^ 
yon whatever has been allowed for your services in those cases.' 

Gen. Stbkki at this time, was Agent at Bock Island, two hnn* 
dred miles below Prairie du Ohien, nor was it certain when Gen. 
Stsbbt would receive the money, nor whether it would be sent to 
ICr. BuBHETT, or whether he must go for it The sum allowed was 
more than his half year's salary, but some nine dollars less thaa 
was duo him. This jewing a public servant out of such a pitiful 
sum, was a small business for a great nation ; but such seems to 
be the way of the world. As to his fees, he had written to the 
Pepartment again and again, and was informed that the matter 
had been r^erred to Gen. Gujle ; but the Greneral says, ^^ he had 
received no conamxmication" on the subject, and when great men 
and rulers of the nation make such contradictory statements, 
whom are we to believe in such matters ! 

This terminated Hr. Busirarr's connection with the Indian De- 
partment, and his cennection with any office in the gift of the 
Government ; nor was his experience calculated to inspire him 
i^ith any great degree of confidence in the ^^ spoils" theory, of tiie 
party in power, as hi^ share of th^ wa* b.ut small, find dpujily 


earned befor^hereoeiyed them. * * * * Ab soon as it wa9 known, 
that he was thus displaced from his office, his wprth now beii^K 
known through the countigr, he began, and continued for sopie 
time, to receive voluntary and strong expressions of sjipp^tl^y, 
and the confidence of the public in his merit, a few ()f which Wu 

August 16th, 1884, Judge Dorr wrote him firom Kincpd. Poii^t : 
'^ After a long conversation with Mr. AirdLEr, I have, at hi^ re- 
quest, concluded to suggest to you, the propriety of fbdpg your 
residence at this place, now that you are no longer required in 
the Indian Department. It is certainly a fine opening for a law- 
yer. You will,' in addition, have the advantage of a good u^der- 
Btanding with the people now, for everybody that I speak with, 
thinks well of you. It appears to me yon ought to ay^ youjnielf 
of these circumstances. Your friends wish to have you appoint- 
ed District Attomej(, and I think you must take it, because I think 
there will soon be a vacant judgeship in the District, and this will 
eiiable us to help you to it, if it should be desirable to you." 

On the 28th of August, Bobbbt Doughkbit, then clerk of the 
Oircuit Court at Mineral Point, wrote : ^^ The people in general 
in this section of the country are very anxious for you to come 
and reside with us. We have got up a petition to the Governor 
with almost a thousand signatures, which will be sent on to-mor- 
row morning, in your favor for District Attorney. Every man 
that saw it, signed it" 

Sept. 4th, Ool. B. M. Johnson wrote : ^^ My dear Sir: — ^I sin- 
oerely regret to learn that you are out of office. I know your 
capacity for such a place, and the sacrifices you have made. — 
You know quite as well as I do, the uncertainty and difficulty of 
obtaining office. All I can say is, that if an opportunity offers at 
the next seseien, I shall be ready to serve you sincerely, as I have 
always done." 

Sept. .6th, Alvzb Baxlvv, Esq., writes Irom St Peters: .'^I 
always feel a pleasure when I hear fi^m my friends. Bnt this lat- 
ier fk yours made me fed the truth of the fable of the fos in. the 


bramble, that an equal portion of the bitter is mixed with tiie 
sweetB of thia life, and that perfect happiness is unattainable in 
fliiB world. I feel for yon in the mode taken to thank jon for 
your services. The mcmner in which it was done, conveyed one 
of dioee catting slnrs, the more so that one does not or cannot 
obtain satisfaction. But, my dear Sir, our Government is a Be- 
pnblie, and where did yon hear of one being gratefnl ? Yon are 
yonng, and can do better ; yonr profession and abilities entitle 
yon to a higher sphere than the one yon were in.'' 

Oct Ifth, Major T. Allest, of Ky., wrote: "I regret exceed- 
uigly to learn that arrangements have been so made as to displace 
yon from the office you held ; however, make no complaint^ and 
suffer it to pass off silently. Yon have been placed in a good 
situation, by the appointment, and I have but little deubt you wQl 
not feel the loss of it long, if at all." 

Being now released from the cares and responsibilities of offiee, 
and being yet in the unpleasant relations of a married man with- 
out a wife, he returned to Ky. to spend the winter, and also obtun 
relief from the legal bonds in which he was held to the woman 
who had deserted him in the time of his calamity, from the fkll 
of the burning building in Paris, Ky., in 1839. On his way there, 
while between St. Louis and the mouth of the Ohio River, the 
boat on which he took passage was soagged and sunk to the hur- 
ricane deck, leaving that deck but just out of water. The occur- 
rence took place in the night, when the passengers were asleep; 
ihey escaped to the upper deck, mostly in their night dothes, 
where they remained in a snow storm till morning, being without 
fire, and but poorly clad, or otherwise sheltered from the stormy 
wind and driving snow. There were several women and children 
among them. The most of the passengers, Mr. Bubnirt among 
others, lost all their baggage, and some their money. In the 
hurry of escape from the rushing flood that came into the oabin, 
Mr. BuBNim had caught his clothes and his cloak, but not his 
trunk. But finding some ladies and children exposed', withoat any 
protection from the storm, he gave them bis cloak, and kept hfan- 


self warm as beet he coald, by walking and other exercise. In 
the morning they succeeded in reaching the land, in a thick 
v^ooded bottom on the Illinois shore, where a log-heap fire was 
soon kindled, around which the passengers and boaf s crew gath- 
ered to warm, but were without food, and not within reach of a 
house from which supplies could be obtained. They remained in 
this situation till near night, when they were relieved from their 
sufferings by a steam-boat that was passing down the river. 


The nature of the case between him and his recreant wife, and 
the ground upon which the divorce was granted, are set forth in 
the following certificates, sent to him a year or more after the di- 
vorce was obtained. At the time of the divorce, he knew not 
that he should ever again enter into the marriage state. And die* 
tant as he was from the place of his marriage, and the residence 
of his wife, he might have done as thousands of others have in 
the great West, married again without the formula of a divorce ; 
but his sense of propriety and legal liabilities forbade such a 
breach of the civil and moral law. And the fine feelings of his 
nature as well as his sense of the propriety of the thing, induced 
him to obtain these papers, to show that his way was clear and 
his course honorable, if he should again see fit to enter into that 
holy relation. After he came to this country, his correspondence 
shows that ho preferred to forgive the past, if she would return 
to him, but she refused. 

The first of these papers is from the Hon. Otbus Winoatb, who, 
Mr. BuBKSiT says in a note added to it, ^^ has for many years in 
succession been a member of the Ky. Legislature, and is a wor- 
thy and highly respected member of the Methodist Ohuroh." It 
is dated April l7th, 183S, but referring, as it does, to a transac- 
tion in 1834'd, this is deemed the appropriate place for it. The 
letter says : *' The bill which divorced you from your wife Lucy, 
was reported from the House of Bepresentatives to the Senate, on 
on the 10th of Feb. 1835, and was referred to the ^^ committee on 
Beligion,'' on the next day. I had the honor to be chairnian of 
that committee for several years, and was so at the Ume whan 


your appUoation was invortigated. For twelve yearB in anooea- 
8k)a I have been honored with a seat in the Legislataie of Sy» ; 
^d during that time, as a general thing, have &lt it my dotj to 
pppoee applications for divorce. Indeed each haa been my ooune 
on those sobjeots, that I have been considered by many as b^ing 
too rigid in my inquiries, and examined too closely into tlie do- 
mestic relaci0ns ; this may be true, but I feel that I haye d<m6 my 
duty in relation to your application. 

^^ I recollect distinctiy, that intelligent and honorable men were 
examined before the committee, and the result was the firm con- 
idction of mj mind, (and I believe of every member of the oooi- 
mittee,) that your bill ought to pass. And in obedience to the 
corder of the committee, I reported the bill back to the Senate on 
die ISth, with an expressed opinion of the committee, that the bill 
ought to pass; and the rules being suspended, the bill passed, I 
believe, without a dissenting voice. I can say, without fear of 
contradiction, that during the pendency of your application, your 
conduct was dignified, honorable, and manly; and that you not 
only sustained the character of a gentieman of nice feelings, and 
a just sense of honor, but that you occupied a place in the sym- 
pathies and affections of all the members of the L^gidatnra^ with 
whom you became acquainted. And I farther know, that year 
character in Bourbon was sudh, as not only enlisted Gen. Haxbov, 
Mr. Thornton, and Mr. Davis, in your behalf; but it also pro* 
cured for you the application of the near relatives of the woman 
yon were married to, for your release ; and upon the groimd tkat 
ahe was in default entirely and exclusively ; and I vfill fax&iv 
Add, that BO far from your reputation having suffered, or in tbs 
least degree been prejudiced, by this procedure, itmnathave 
snffered if you had not, applied." 

The next paper was from the Hon. Gabbet Davis, of ApdJM, 
1886: ^'I managed Mr. BunNBrr's application for diyoro& • Se 
took this step with the knowledge, approval and co-operation of 
ihia wife's brother and brotherin-law. The ground of it, malauud 
tby prod^ was, that her ccmduct, and treatment of liim gmBXiiij» 

^d particularly when he was confined by the fracture of hia leg, 
occasioned by the falling of a house during a fire, was marked by 
AOthipg bqt iBxtravagant magl^ct and aversion.; and such was the 
jBifij^ness luid maleyolenco of her dispitsition as to forbid all hope 
of .^tfrmpny with her. JBLia case was so well made out as to meet 
with no opposition. 

^^ When Mr. ]3uBHErr came to Paris, he was a stranger, and op- 
posed in politics to a large majority of the town and county. Be 
was open and divided, though temperate and respectful in his 
political cours6| ^d though in the first few months of his. resi- 
dence amongst u^ his politics awakened some prejudice against 
himselfrhis discretion and the propriety of his conduct overcaqae 
ihem, and when he left us he had the respect and good wishes of 
our society, without distinction, and I believe that he merited 

The correctness of the statement of Mr. Davis was certified to 
by John B. Thosnton of the Senate, and Bobebt Matron of the 
House of Representatives. Similar papers and of similar import 
were signed by Dr. G. Nichols, of Shelby ville, Ky., " an exem- 
plary member of the Baptist Church, and long at the head of his 
profession in that town.'' And also by the Bev. A. A. SBANNo;or, 
pi th^ Presbyterian Church of the same town. But it is deemed 
unnecessary to copy them. The main fiActs b^ing thus established 
by six of the most prominent men of the country, political and 
reUgious, no doubt need remain on any mind, as to the propriety 
and justice of his course, in this solemn and afllctive matter. . 

The subject of a separate Territorial Oovemment, from that ,of 
Michigan, hereto^ora alluded to as in contemplation, was s^l 
growing and maturing, with the leading men of the country lyiftg 
west of Michigan. Judge Doit was in the Legislative Council at 
jPfetroit, and by a letter from him to Mr. Buhn^sxt, dated Janu^y 
8<^, 1835, it appears that in accordance with measures concocted 
in Wisconsin, and especially Crawford county, a bill was introduced 
into the Legislative Council to provide for a State Governmeat 
fH^tl^e j^astit.of that LakeL TJbus pbjo^t i^as to have the State Qav- 


eminent fbrmcd, leaving the Territorial Government on this side 
of the Lake. The bill met with opposition, because it originatec 
in Wisconsin, and the men of Michigan saw that if it passed, the] 
wonld bo indebted to Wisconsin for a State Goremment. Bat tiu 
bill passed, and a Convention was called, and and a Constitatioi 

The prospect of a speedy separation frcmi Michigan, preventec 
the passage of a law to establish a Di&trict Court west of the Laloe 
for a while. Bat a question arose as to the residence of Jadgi 
Lewin, who, it seems, resided in Ohio or Virginia, except whei 
attending courts in the Territory. The people of Green Ba] 
deemed the office to be vacant, on account of non-residence, an< 
petitioned the President to appoint one in his stead ; and Mi 
Buknett's name was presented to the President to fill the vacancy 
The vacancy was not recognized, and the appointment, of coune 
was not made. But Mr. Bubnett was appointed in January, 188!i 
District Attorney for the counties of Crawford, Iowa, Dubuqui 
and Des Moines. 

In the summer of 1835, the formation of a State Constitatioi 
for Michigan, and the expectation of admittance into the Union 
induced the people to be on the lookout for a Delegate to Congrea 
and for a transfer of the Territorial Gt)vemment of Michigan t 
Wisconsin, without an act of Congress to authorLee it Thoa 
who are conversant with the history of Michigan becoming j 
State, will recollect that the people acted without law or preee 
dent, in forming and adopting their Constitution, without fin 
obtaining an act of Congress authorizing them to do so, andof th* 
same piece of policy and law, was the attempt to transfer A* 
Territorial Government from the east to the west side of Lab 
Michigan. The latter, however, was not recognized by the Gtenen 
Government ; while the former was, and other States, followiD] 
the precedent, have been admitted into the Union in a simili 

But to save appearances, and obey the forms of law, it wa 
agreed on the two sides of the Lake, that the Delegate to npn 


sent the Territory ahonld be elected ou the west side, leanng the 
peBinBola to form a State Government, and be represented hj 
their Senators and Bepresentatives in Congress. While this was 
arranging, Mr. Bubnbtt received numeroos letters, which I find 
on file, urging him to be a candidate for the Delegacy. 

One arrangement in this transferring the Territorial Government 
to Wisconsin, was. to apportion die whole of the thirteen members, 
among the counties west of the Lake. This being done by Gk>v. 
S. T. Mason, those counties elected their Council men, among 
whom W2is Mr. Bubkett from Crawford. The reason assigned 
for this movement, as stated in a letter now before me, dated July 
10th, 1835, fr6m a prominent actor in the business, is in these 
words: -' You will perceive by this, that it is our intention to 
continue the Territorial Government of Michigan in force, with- 
out any farther legislation by Congress, and this is the result of 

• ail my exertions last winter, because I am satisfied, that it is 
f the only way in which we can get a separate Government, until 

the b(*undary question shall be settled." This boundary ques- 
1 ^on was between Ohio and Indiana ou the one side, and Michi- 
» gan on the other; and carried with it the boundary question 
I between Illinois and Wisconsin, and, as in most cases, the weak* 

er party was compelled to yield up their rights to the illegal 
: ^ claims of the stronger, in open violation of the ordinance of 
I 1787, which run the line due east and west, from and through the 

• southern extremity of Lake Michigan. But the whole scheme 
of the transfer of the Territorial Government was a failure. 

Mr. Burnett attended the summer terms of the courts in which 
he was District Attorney. But finding '' it inconvenient and on- 
pleasant" to continue in the office, on the 10th of September, 1885, 
he tendered his resignation to Gov. Mason. 

The election of Delegate to Congress and members of the Ter- 
ritorial Council, was held on the 1st Monday of Oct, 1886, when 
Gwk W. JoHXS was chosen Delegate from Michigan, and Mr. Bie- 
nrr, among otherSy was elected to the Legislative Council, to 
meet at Ghreen Bay. The Oounoil met at the appointed time it 



Deeember, bnt the new acting Ooyernor of Mxchigan not appear- 
ing, as was expected, there was not much of importance done hj 
it. Mr. Buxxcrr was chosen President of the Gonncil, bnt as no 
Governor was on hand, no message presented callmg attention to 
important sabjects for c ' asideration, the members present had an 
opportunity to pass r?solntTons implicating the acting Goremor 
for neglect of duty. Why acting Gov. Hobkeb did not meet the 
Council at the time and place fixed npon, has not, I believe, been 
made public. Some supposed that he was advised from Washing- 
ton, that the whole proceeding was without the authority of law ; 
bnt from a letter from Col. Jokes, then the Delegate from Michi- 
gan, dated at Washington, Feb. 20th, 1836, it appears that Mr. 
HoBiffEB " dreaded the journey " from Detroit to Green Bay, in 
dead of winter, " as he admitted " to him. 

It appears from the correspondence of Col. Joirra with Mr. Bus- 
K£TT, that the Council passed resolutions censuring Gov. Hokr& 
tor non-attendance, and resolutions touching Gov. Cass in relation ' 
to Indian Treaties. These resolutions implied blame, or at least 
something that needed explanation. There were also speeches 
made by Mr. Btrkett, and others, but especially by him, impli- 
cating Gov. Cass' administration of Indian Affairs while Ckyveraor 
of Michigan, and even after his elevation to the head of the War 
Department. Whether these charges were well or ill founded, I 
have no means of knowing. I can only say, that on this frontier, 
I have found those who think that they were, while others are of 
a different opinion. Tho speeches made while the resolutions 
were under discussion, wcro printed in the newspapers of the 
time, and were reiterated and elaborated in a series of nnmberB 
afterwards printed in the Chdena Gazette^ over tiie signatmre of 
Wiaconsi/n^ all of which, it seems, found their way to Washington 
and called forth expressions of regret from Ools. Jo&Hsoir and 
JofursB, and a kind offer of mediation from Gov. Dozmfb, in aMiAi 
he Hied the language of Gor. Cabs in refertnce to l&l B uitoiri t , - 
all of which were in forms of the hi^est rlispect fbi* Mr. Bftlmifl, 
and the matter sMms to have beta dhiptM her^ ' 

•• •» 


We may add, that the Council not being properly organized, 
the resolationB, of conrso, did not possess the prestige of legality. 
But it seemed, from what followed the publication of those num- 
bers in the Gazette^ that there was some foundation for the charges 
implied in the resolutions, and which were amplified and sus- 
tained in the numbers alluded to. For in a letter now before me« 
finom an officer of the army ef some rank, dated May 11th, 1836, 
at Natchitoches, I find the following : "I saw your No. 1. for 
the first time this morning in a <S!f. Louis Republican^ taken from 
a Galena paper. But my 'lear fellow, have you no conscience, 
that you put it to our talented and literary Secretary so unmerci- 
iiilly ? If you fail to make an impression, then set it down as 
established, that honesty goes for nothing when in contest withr 
political power. Some of us have had strong suspicions on this 
point before now." 

And before the closo of the publication of these numbers, Mr. 
BcrBNBTT received a polite intimation from Washington, that he 
conld have any appointment at the disposal of the Department, 
it being understood, though ii<<t expressed, that their publication 
should cease. But this intioiation was viewed by Mr. Bue- 
NETT in the light of a bribe, and he said, that if he was not 
entitled to an office from merits he should not accept of one as a 
bribe, to be silent on matters of public interest, when exposure 
of political or other corrui)tion, seemed to be a duty.-' Those 
numbers, so far my knowledge goes, are out of print, unlcbs some 
one has an old file ot the Gakna (raxette for 1836. 

* Tbii ** Intixuitiea'* •f a bribe fran Wr, «hinstnD, woali fysm to Uat that it o«inat»d i& mne wty 

fr^m Gen, Ca8S| ai the newipAper Btriirturts raff-rre'I to hin. From the ragvB aM«rtiong of Mr. Bsmi' 

fosr, wo reiipectfnlljr auggert, whether in (If:fi ndin; the dead, our Mend ma/ not, in hifi zeal, hare done 

iBj«fltiee to the Ilrlngf What tlie rbargCK were, wo k« iMt told, except that ihej, ia a gemwal mf, 

implied eoma blame againrt Den. Casv, eonaertuJ vith Indian treaties, both while Goremor ol Hietd- 

g«i* Territory, and wince hie admlaiBtration oi the War Department. Bnt Ur. BarKSny himseif caa- 

didly admitfly that " whether theee elungve trare well vr illJouoded, I have mt meani ^ knowing i* 

acd addig ** I wa only say* that on thie fioatier, I have ftond them who think that thej were, white 

otbenue ot a dilTerent opinion." Col ];. M. JoBxioar and Hon. G. W. /oirzs ** regretted*' that gndi 

cbargMlMl been made, and, Gen. DODot conld iMilum iNUerod them, or ho wonld not havo oflbMff 

hlflMtadljBtiUtioBintheBUIeL Jb*orG«o.CAM:tt h^f«<«iatiBMilad'*abrfhBhWwi#tev»ivpB«t 

gmilt ; and no one, wo can hardly lappoie, wonld eeriouly entertain eren a fOfpicion of hie haifag 

IVfOwiBgly wronged either the Goremment or the IidliDe. L. C. 1. 


Among the actg and doings of the Council, were memorialfi to 
congress, to organize the Territory of Wisc'jnsio, whether Michi- 
gan became a state or Bot, and to the President, in reference to 
the officers of the Territory, praying that the offices thereof be 
filled by citizens of the Territory, and not by men of other States, 
who would come to the country for the sake of office, and not 
without; claiuiing that competent men could be found already in 
the c- »nntry, who came here to reside, whether in office or out of 
it It was expected that Gen. Dodge, who was, and yet ii, a dti- 
zen of the country, would be made Grovemor. And it was re- 
ported that the Secretary of Michigan had the promise of a trans- 
fer to Wisconsin in the same office ; but against this, the Council 
protested in the strongest manner, and solicited the appoiatment 
of Mr. Burnett to that office. The report and resolutions of the 
Council, on this subject, were conveyed to Col. JoNm at Washing- 
ton by Col. Hamilton, and were immediately laid before the 

Col. Jones says : " I proceeded in propria persona to the Pres- 
ident, presented the document to him, and endeavored to impress 
upon him the propriety of granting the prayer of the CounciL" 
Col. Jones further says, in a previous letter, dated Dec S2d : ^^ I 
have but one course to pursue, and, first, my feeble efforts will, 
in all cases, be made to have appointed citizens of our own Terri- 
tory. From amongst these, I will endeavor to have those appoint- 
ed, who I honestly believe to be best qualified, everything consid- 
ered, to discharge the duties of the office to be filled. As to (he 
office of Secretary, I know of no person who is an applicant for 
the place, that I believe to be so well qualified to dischai^ its 
duties as yourself, and I have no doubt, if justice is done to 
the people interested, but that you will receive the aj^intment" 

If the Secretaryship could not be obtained, Mr. Burnvft de- 
sired a judgeship, and for one of these offices, his friends in Ckm- 
gress, such as Johnson and Jones, and through them Bbteon, 
Iflnr, WxioHT, Taixxadob and many others, earnestly contended. 
Bat perhape there never was a greater seramblelbr the offleas of a 


Territory than in this instance. Ifc was the first Territory organ- 
ized under tlio administration of Gen. Jackson, and his friendSi 
or at least many of tliem, were disposed to avail tlieniselires of 
the opportunity i.ow oBored, to get some ofiico. 

Col. Jones says, nndcr date of March 13th, 1836, while the bill 
to organize to the Territory was pending: "The^ President told 
one the other day, that there would he a thousand applicants for 
the offices of our Territory. Tliero is scarcely a day that I am not 
asked for my feeble influence in favor of some rascally office* 
huntor from this District, or some State. I assure you, that I 
have beeon)e so disgusted with the hungry wolves, that I cannot 
treat them with coiumon civility. I hate the sight of them, and 
look upon them as robbers of the dearest rights of my constita* 
ents. We ought to drive them from our soil, if they succeed in 
stealing our offices." 

But notwithstanding all the eflbrts made in favor of citizens of 
the Territory, the offices were mostly filled by those from other 
States ; and as a reason for this. Col. Jonks says, Apr. ISth, 1836: 
" I go fur Wisconsin and her citizens before the world. But, Sir, 
we have no votes to give for President, and are not worth pleas- 
ing. Thete office-seekers are strongly recommended, and it is a 
difficult matter, as the President tuld me, to get over the impor* 
tunities of his numerous political and influential friends, who 
have their friends to please." It is possible, if not probable, that 
ULt, BuRNKTT would havo been more successful in his application 
for office, it' he had been less independent, and allowed what he 
considered to bo corruption in high places, to pass without his 
caustic strictures npon it. * 

A.9 early as March, U3G, the incipient steps were taken at De- 
troit, to form the Four Lake Company^ with a view to secure the 
•ite, and lay out a cit^', which should afterwards be the capital of 
Wisconsin. Several persons were associated with Govs. Masov 
and Doty in this enterprise, one of whom, was Mr. BoKiiKTr. Tha 
country being then unsettled from the Blue Mounds to Milwaukee^ 
and boK little explored, measurea were taken bj tome of the oain* 


pany, to ascertain the practicability of the measure, and the land 
was entered and a citj laid ont^ which was afterwards christened 

Early in April, 1836, acting Gov. Hoenke had moved to Wis- 
consin, expecting to hold the same relation to Wisconsin that he 
had held to Michigan. The bill to organize the Territory of Wis- 
consin had not yet passed Congress. Michigan had assumed to 
be a State, and was expecting to be admitted into the Union; but 
the spirit of the times, and of the dominant party in politics, was 
of the progressive character, and those who felt most interested, 
were impatient at the tardy movements of Congress, and were 
still anxious to move the Territorial Government of Michigan to 
Wisconsin nolens volens. Accordingly, Gov. Hobneb, then at Du- 
buque, (Mr. BuKifETT being there at the same time,) addreased the 
following to Mr. Buenett, April 8th, 1836 : 

" SiE : — As the Executive of Michigan Territory, I desire your 
opinion on this point : Can I convene the Legislative Council of 
Michigan Territory at any other place than Green Bay % If I can, 
will it suit your convenience, as a member of that Council, to at- 
tend in the next two months, at a convenient place within the 
Mining District! I should also be glad to know, whether you de- 
sire a session of it." To this Mr. Buenett answered as follows : 
" In answer to the first question proposed, that is, whether you 
can convene the Council at any other place than Green Bay, I 
will state what took place during the session of January last re- 
lative to that subject. Near the close of the session, a resolution 
was introduced, requesting the Governor of the Territory to call 
the Council together at some further day, and at a different place. 
Upon this resolution a discussion arose, and the measure was op- 
posed by some, upon the ground, that the place for the assembling 
of the Council having been once designated by the competent 
authority, it was then fixed, and must remain so until it shoiiid be 
changed by law. It was contended, that the power vested in the 
Executive by the act of 1835, (of Michigan, making Green Bay 
the pIaqO of meeting,) was not a continuing power, to be wfiroiied. 


at will, by changing the succeeding meetings of the Council from: 
place to place ; but that when it had been once exerted, the au- 
thority was exhausted, and could be renewed only by subsequent' 
legislation. The subject was one upon which I had not previous- 
ly reflected, and the arguments, by the opponents of the measure, 
had not before occurred to me, and I was not prepared readily to 
admit the conclusions to which they brought the minds of others; 
they, however, prevailed with a decided majority, and the meas- 
ure was defeated by an almost unanimoiis v(»to. Whatever my 
present opinion may be upon the legal principle involved in the 
question, it seems to me to be of very little consequence, as I am 
persuaded that unless other members have changed theirs since 
the close of the session, a quorum could not be obtained, who 
think that the Council can be legally convened at any other place 
than the one first designated under the law. 

" As to the inquiry, wbether it will suit my convenience to at- 
tend a session, &c , I will remark, that, in the discharge of any 
public duty, I have ever made my personal considerations yield 
to the emergency of the case ; and that in as much as it is not my 
privilege to have public measures shaped with a view to suit my 
individual wishes and convenience, it is not my expectation that 
they should be so ordered. 

" In reply to the last question proposed, I will say, with all due 
deference and respect for the Executive, that it seems to me, that 
my individual wishes either for or against the assembling of the 
Council, ought not to have more weight and influence in directing 
the action of the Governor, than those of any other citizen of the 
country. The Governor will, I presume, exercise his discretion 
upon the subject, and judge of the expediency of the measure 
proposed, from the exigency of the times, in reference, as well, to 
the domestic affairs with the General Government" 

This, so far as I am advised, was the last attempt to keep alive 
the Territorial Government of Michigan in Wisconsin. On the 
20fh of April, 1836, the act organizing the Territory of Wisconr 
tin was approved, and took effeot on the 4th July of that year. 

Things now began to operate m a niore legal f ^r-n than before.^ 
The Secretary of the former Territury was made Secretary of thii| 
and notil tbe arrival of G *y. Dodge was, as he had been in Siidx- 
igan, acting Govern t. Under th;: new or^a'iiza*ion, new officerii 
a new Delegite to Cingrea?, and new Coancilinen and Repreeea- 
tativea had to be chosen ; and, as on former o^caait^na, Mr. Bro> 
VEiT waa the ch^'ice of numerous frieLds. A strong effort waa 
made to get his name befure the people as a candidate for Con- 
gresSi bat thla he declined. 

The organic law of the Territory anthorized the Gro^emor to 
cause a census of the different counties tu be taken, and to ap- 
portion the thirteen member's of the G luocil and the twenty-six 
members of tbe Houee of Ke^^resentatives, ^^ among the sereral 
counties^^ '^ aa nearly equal as practicable." Tbe peo^.Ie of Craw* 
ford county, whero Mr. Bl'bvktt resided, underatood this law to 
give each county a representation in each house. But the Got- 
emor understood it oth-^rwiso, and apportioned the membensof cho 
Council among the C'junties that had a larger population than 
that of Cra^rford, giving tbe latter tfvo meuibeis of the Ilouse, 
but no member of tlie C juncil, nor attaching tbe coiiuty to any 
other so as to form a Council district, or affoiding tho pe4>ple an 
opportunity in any way to vote lor a Councilman. IJpon this 
state of tho case, the [jO'jplo claiming to be erititleil to a repi'escn- 
tative in the Council, unanimously elected Mr. Cuasr^TT to that 

Tho election being over, Mr. Burhbtt wrote to Gov. Dodq1| 
October 17th, 183H, as follows: *'cSir:— You will peicicve from 
the Sheiiff'a return of the election held in this county, that the 
people have unanimousl v elected mo to the Council in tho Lco'is- 
lative Assembly of tbe Teiritory. As tbe act for establishing 
the Territorial Government provides, that ^* tho number of porsuBi 
authorized to be elected, having tho greatest number of votes m 
each of the said counties for tbe Council, shall be declaiod by the 
aaid Governor to bo duly elected to tbe said Council^" the quel* 
tion b anbmitted to joo, whether yen will deelare me to be 4i4j 


elected to tbe Oonncil, According to the vote of the connty. It is 
hardly necessary now to go into an argnment of the case, bnt I 
may be permitted to remark^ that the organic law evidently was 
intended to, and does most folly, so far as positive enactment can 
go, secure to the people of evert/ connty, the eqnal rights of suf* 
frage and representation with tLeir fellow citizens in other parti 
of the Territory. The people of this county have elected one 
member to the Oonncil, which is the leagt they could do, to have 
any representation in that body. That number seems most clearly 
to me to be authorised by law, to be elected, and proper to be 80 
declared by tbe Executive. I am well aware of the difficulties 
of the case, as it now stands," (there being thirteen members 
elected, besides Mr. Bdrrbtt,) ^* and it is not for me to make sug- 
gestions as to the course proper to be pursued by the Executive, 
under the present circumstances. I only ask, in the name of the 
people of an entire county, what they and I are perfectly con- 
Tinced is our lawful right, and that the member chosen by them 
with one voice to represent them, may be officially declared to be 
duly elected.** 

It is a question which I leave to others to decide, whether the 
trouble in this case, grew out of the wording of the organic law> 
or out of the Governor's mis application of that law in making 
ihe apportionment. There were at that time but six counties in 
the Territory among which to apportion the thirteen Oouncilmen, 
and the twenty-six Kepreeentatives. Tbe organic law seems 
clearly to contemplate, that each county would contain a sufficient 
population to entitle it to at least one member of the Council, and 
one or more members of the House. But on taking the census, 
it was found, that Orawford county did not contain one thirteentli 
part of tbe population of the Territory. It seems, further, that 
the organic law made no provision for attaching two or more 
eoonties together, so as to constitute a Oouncil district Here 
was a lameness in the law, which the Oovernor, it seems, thought 
ba liad no power to remedy ; 'but apportioned the members of the 
l e ay setive hones, as nearly in proportion to the Inhalntaats ai 

powible, under the circainfiUnce& No one caa jnsdj iapeidL 
the motives of the Goyemor. He certainlj could have had no 
intentioii to wrong the people of Crawford couatj, for he gare 
them two members of the Honse, which was more than their pro- 
portion according to population. But still the law, though enaet- 
ed under a misttdken view or opinion as to the population of the 
sereral counties, most clearly contemplated giving each county 
at least one Councilman, as well as representatires. The ^por* 
tionmenty howeyer, was so made as to give the 13 members to the 
other five counties, and without attaching Crawford to any other 
county for this purpose. 

Under these circumstances, the Legislative Assembly met at 
Belmont, in Nov. 1836, when ICr. Bitrvkit presented his claini 
and certificate of election, demanding a seat in the GounciL Bat 
the trouble, in case he was admitted to a seat, was, that there 
would then be fourteen instead of thirteen, and no one knew 
which of the others must retire to give him room. The Council 
had not the apportionment of its own body previous to its first 
meetmg, and if the Governor had erred in the apportionment, 
the Council had no power to correct the error ; and the result was, 
that Mr. Bdbkiit was refused a seat in that honorable body. All 
the proceedings in this case, will be found in the journal of the 
Council of that session. 

At this Belmont session, and in organizing the Territorial Gov- 
emment, Mr. Burnett was nominated by the Governor, and con- 
firmed by the Council, as District Attorney for Crawford county, 
and on the receipt of the oonmiission therefor, wrote the Govern- 
or as folbws, from Prairie dn Chien, Dec. ITtli, 1836 : ^< 8ir :— I 
was, on this day, handed a commission appointing me, by and 
with the advice and consent of the LegislatiTe Council, District 
Attorney for the county of Crawford. I take the earliest ooea- 
sion to inform you, that I decline accepting the appointment, that 
you may take such steps to fill the ofl^ as may be deemed expe- 
dient Beliering, as I do, most sineerely, that the Council Wi^: 
not legally organised, and that it had not, thesefiNre, tb^ UiriU 


authority to perform any valid and binding act, I cannot, consist- 
ently with these opinions, assume an office that has been confer- 
red by the action of that body. It is proper to state, that my name 
was presented for the appointment, withoat any knowledge or 
consent on my part.*' 

^^^^The people of Crawford county, not being satisfied with the ap- 
:nrtionment of the Oounoil, petitioned Congress for redress ; the 
etition being sent to the care of the Hon. John QmNor Adamb 
CO be presented, and Mr. Bubnett wrote that eminent statesmaa 
a letter, explaining the matter, and urging the favor of his influ- 
ence in their behalf. But it seemed that nothing was done in the 
premises. In the circumstance of Mr. Bubnbtt's addf essing that 
great statesman on this subject, we see the impropriety of any 
one's taking ultra measures in political matters. It has been seeui 
that Mr. Bubnett was an original Jaoksok man, and of course 
was an opponent of Mr. Adams. And those who recollect the 
spirit, as well as the means, need in that contest, would hardly 
think it possible, that a Jackson man would ever ask a favor of 
Mr. Adams, under any circumstances. But in the circumstances 
herein related, under the administration of the man whom he had 
helped into office, Mr. Buenett had not received what he deemed 
equal and impartial justice ; and to obtain this, he addresses the 
the very man whose election he had opposed. I do not mean to 
be understood as saying, that Mr. Burnett changed his political 
views, as a Jaokson democrat, but simply, that it is unsafe in 
political contests to condemn or consign those of an opposite party 
to oblivioi], for circumstances may so change, that we may agree 
on public measures, or we may be glad of their favor and assist- 
ance in subsequent cases. 

On the 29th day of Dec. 1886, Mr. Bubnbtt was married to 
Miss Lucia Mabia Bbunbon, my second daughter, and in the 
spring of 188T, he removed to OassviUe, in Grant county. Wis-' 
omsin. He changed the place of his residence, to be more cen- 
tral to his professional business, which was now greatly extend- 
ingi not mdy in the western eoontiet of what is now Wisconsin, 


bat also into what is now Iowa, in Dabuqe, and eren into Det 
Hoinos conntj. 

Early in the year 1838, the subject of the election of a Delegate 
to Oongro38 from Wisconsin Territory was agitated ; and Mr, Bdjk* 
JTETT was not only consulted as to the measures proper to be par- 
Baed, but was strongly solicited by bis friends, on both aides of 
fhe river, to suffer his name to be used in the contest. But before 
preliminaries were arranged. Congress divided the Territory, and 
organized that of lowi out of the portion of Wisconsin which 
lay west of the Mississippi River. This entirely changed the fact 
of things leaving the aspirants on the two sides of the river, an 
open field, •without the interference of the local interests, wbioh 
naturally grow out of such circumstances. 

Party politics had hitherto been kept out of sight in Territorial 
matters, and Whigs and Democrats were not known in the can* 
Tasses for office. The first Delegate from the Territory, was on^ 
derstood to be a Whig, when elected; but the administration of 
the General Government, and a majority in Congress, being of 
ihe Democratic party, it was deemed prudent by himself and iiia 
friends to change his political character. One reason for tliis, wa8| 
that as the Territory was dependent upon Congress for fundi to 
tupport its Government, make its internal improvementB| and 
pay its numerous officers, it was policy — the usual standard of 
n:.orality, truth and justice, with the majority of the politicians 
of the day — for our Delegate to be on the strong side of CongreaSi 
and the Administration, in hopes to obtain greater appropriations 
from the National Treasury. 

With a view to secure this object in the election, witbont tha 
contingency of a change in political views or policy, Mr. BuBSSit 
wa8 called upon by the Hon. J. 8. H., one of the delegatea to the 
nominating convention, to know whether he ^^profofsed the priir 
ciples of the Whig party, and whether he was in favor of aNl^ 
tional Bank as the only means of regulating the currency, and 
whether he believed in its constitutionality." 

The abpve waa dated at Green fii^j, Ang. ITthp 18^ wd Ur. 


BuBmrr, then being at that place, on the daj following replied at 
followB : ^^In answer to jour letter of jesterday, it gives rae plea- 
sure to etate, that I do not now and never have profesBod the 
principles of tlie Whig party. All my political principles were 
imbibed in the school of the Democratic party, as taoght by Mr* 
Jefferson and his associates and followers, and I am too far ad* 
vanced to change these principles. I have always been opposed 
to the Bank of the United States. All the arguments that have 
been elicited in late years in favor of that institation, have not| 
in any degree, tended to change my opinion. I am, and ever 
have been, in favor of a strict, limited constmction of the Consti- 
tution, and a strict responsibility of all public agents. I do not 
believe it was intended by the framers of our Constitution, to con- 
fer on Congress the power of creating a National Bank ; and in 
all cases where such a measure is even doubtful, I think the safer 
€0Qrse is, to leave the matter to the people, and to the States. I 
bave thuf frankly, and in a few words, given you my opiuiooa 
upon these questions ; believing it to bo the right of the citizen to 
enquire of a candidate for office as to his views npon the political 
measures of the country ; I am nevertheless clearly satisfied, that 
it is not good policy to make national politics a test question in 
onr Territorial elections, and am opposed to any attempt, at pre* 
sent, at the organization of parties in the Territory.'' In this 
Congressional contest, there were three candidates in the fieldi 
6x0. W. Jones, J. D. Dorr, and Mr. BuBjrsrr. Each had his 
warm friends, and the election was^ warmly contested. But Mr. 
Doty was the successful man. 

In a letter now before me, from a friend of Mr. Burhbtt in 
Bacine, giving reasons why the election in that county went so 
different from what was expected, among other reasons says, ^^ the 

tar in this villsge was kept open by 's friends on the day oi 

•lection, and I am credibly inforoied that the bill was $26 00.'' 
When will the time come that bribery will not be resorted t0| to 
purchase votes t And what can a man value himself at, who viU 
stU ilm Tot^i a fiot bioiseUi for a drink of wiuskey I U^itil tU« 


cormpt and corrapting practice is ditcountenanced, discarded and 
abandoned, we cannot reasonably expect ^mrt^y in our public men* 
In this case, it is not said that the candidate footed the mm bill, 
bnt that his friends did. This thej might do without his knowledge 
or consent, but these friends would not be to that expense unless 
they expected, if their candidate was successful, to be compensated 
in the shape of ofBce, contract for some public work, or by direct 
remuneration. In either case, corruption is at the bottom or 
foundation of the movement, and while men will thus sell their 
influence, the electire franchise is but a &rce, and liberty is bnt 
a solemn mockery ; for the people who thus dispose of their rights, 
are but slaves to a political demagogue, who, if he would thus 
purchase votes, would, in time, sell himself to a usurper of a 
higher grade, and become a vassal to a crowned head, if by so 
doing he could be well paid for his own, and the liberty of his 
country. These remarks are not made with reference to this case 
particularly, but the fact having occurred here gave rise to the 
general reflection. 

From the numerous nominations, together with Ihe numerous 
letters Mr. Bumnnr reeceived from the leading men in different 
parts of the Territory, it was but a reasonable calculation on his 
part, as well as on that of his' friends, that he would be elected. 
But such is the ^^ glorious uncertainty" of politics, as well as law^ 
that he, like many others of merit, was doomed to be disappoint^ 
ed, and this one added to others heretofore alluded to, induced 
him to remain silent and inactive on this score for some length of 
time. Nor would he ever again have been a candidate for any 
office in the gift of the people, if he had not literally been dreg- 
ged out of his retirement by his friends. 

The Delegate from Wisconsin had up to this time been eleeted 
in the odd year, so that his two years ran into two Oongi^Mea, 
and as Judge Dorr was successful 1838, and the Govemer and a 
majority of the Legislature being opposed to him, it wto ddemed 
a flivorable opportunity to get rid of him, by esaottng that tiM 
tlaetiov of Delegate should oonreepood to the^ tieetfcm of •d^dfe' 

ibers of CongresB iu the States. This of conroe brought on fts 
election of Delegate in 1839. Judge Dorr and Btbon limBovas 
were the prominent candidates, and by Bome means which I have 
not seen explained, Mr. BuxumiT was again brought before the 
pnblic in that connection. I have not been able to learn from his 
own correspondence, that he consented or refused to have his 
mune used in that way. The frieoda of each of the prominent, 
candidates, reported that his name was used for the purpose of 
dividing the vote of their respective friends. Of this Mr. Bu&T 
VXTT was not guilty, nor was he capable of such a measure. As 
ft was, he received but a few scattering votes, and Judge Dorr 
was again successful, contrary to the expectations of the law-ma- 
kers and changers. 

In the meantime, Mr. Bubneti's practice at the bar was greatly 
enlarging, and he was preparing his farm in Grant county for the 
reception of his family, where ho intended, and, as it finally re^ 
suited, did spend the remnant of his days on earth, and to which> 
he moved his family in 1840, andgave it the name of ^'Hermitage.'-, 
In the spring of 1842, Gov. Dorr in organizing the militia of the 
Territory a^^ointed Mr. Bitbnbit General of the 2nd Brigade o£ 
the 2nd Division. 

In the fall of 1842, a murder was committed on Prairie du Ohieiiy 
£>r which five soldiers were arrested and indicted, for whose de- 
fsnce Mr. Bubnbtt was employed. The accnsed were acquitted, 
and for the want of other means to pay their Counsel, they assign- 
ed over to him their pay due from the United States, for and 
daring the time of their confinement, which assignment was 
sanctioned by the officer commanding the company to which they 
belonged. But the pay ^master, M^or Stbest, refused to pay him^ 
or them, for the time of their crmfinement, under a decision of 
ICr. Thorktoh, the 3nd Oontroller of the Treasury, made in IStft.. 
Siom this decision^ Mr. BnBVsnr appealed to the Beoretary o£ 
"WsVi who referred the matter to the Pay-Msilter General, snd he 
IP torn referred it to the decision of the Controller, ^' that sddierii 
f(NDifiiiftd(bgr the eifil Mibmitj for aUsged ^ciminsL oflRBftces, in 


not entitled to pay from the United States for the time they aie 
00 ooDfined. The fact that the men were not cooTicted, does not 
alter the caee. The decision is 'based on the gronnd, that no ser 
vice having been rendered the Uuited States dnring that time, 
tbejTy like other employers, are not bound to pay for any." 

Bat Mr. BaBEfirrr, with his characteristic diligence as a lawjer, 
Aever yielding a point in which he thought he was right, until the 
last thing possible was done, appealed from this tribunal to the 
President of the United Stater, to whom he writes Ang. 98tb, 1848| 
as follows : ^*I beg leave respectfully to request your ezaminatioB 
of the enclosed correspondence. When the matter was snbmitted 
to the Hon. Secretary of War, it was erpected that he would give 
it some attention, and not turn it over to the Pay-Master GeneraL 
Be had already given his orders in relation to the decision of the 
Sd Controller, under which Major Stbbet was acting, when he 
refused to pay the men. If I had wanted a re iteration of tha 
order, if it could have been of the least imaginable benefit to flie 
or the men for whom I have been acting, and at whose request 1 
am still urging their claims for justice, to have it again promnl-' 
gated, I should' have written to the Pi^y-Mastcr General direct, 
without troubling the Honorable Secretary to hand my letteia 
over to him to be answered. 

** The Pay*Master General says, that ^ the decision of the 9d Con* 
troller is based upon the ground, that no service having beev 
Fsadered the United States dnring that time, they, like other ei^ 
ployers, are not bound to pay for any.' The same principle 
would prevent the payment of a soldier for the time he might be 
confined in the Hospital by sickness, or wounds, or while he was 
m prisoner of war. Why are the men, in either of these cases^ 
paid for the time in which they render no service t Because they 
have been prevented by circumstances to which they mustsuV 
mit, and have not withheld their services voluntarily. But Mr. 
Ibouitqh says, * where the soldier is confined by the elvil an* 
liMHity,' (an authority to which the highest ofllclal ie bound la 
tDbmit, no mattar how «i|jiiat the eonlBMmeBt nmy biS|)'tlie^ «rii^ 


fbrtnne fell on Iiim, and he most bear it. Now in every imagina- 
ble case, for every day when the muster roll does not show the 
eoldier to be present, or absent on doty, no matter what acoident| 
or misfortune may have intervened, the rale, with equal justice 
and reason, and aa much law to support ir, would be applied — the 
eoldier must bear his ujisfoi tune. The principle will not not bear 
extension ; it cannot be sustained by reason and analogy. 

^'The substance of tlie position is, that in every case, where no 
service id rendered, there can be no pay demanded, and the Gov- 
ernment of the United States is cou)pared to an individual. Thie 
rale would exclude every officer of the Government, civil and 
aiilitary, from receiving pay when absent from the appointed 
place of his duty, or when he fails to render service. To apply 
it to the army, if an officer is absent on furlough, or imprisoned 
on either civil or criminal process, we never hear of the rule be. 
ing applied to him. Is law or reason ditferent when applied from 
what it is, when, under the same circumstances, applied to a sol- 
dier! Is it to be established as a permanent measure of our 
Government, that one rule of justice is to be applied to the poor 
soldier, who always needs protection, and a different and more 
favorable one to officers who are never so necessitous, and who 
are always more able to protect themselves, and whose pay is of 
io much more consequence, so far as saving is concerned ?" 

But the appeal was of no avail until two years after, when the 
money was paid. It appears from the papers in the case, that 
this rule of the Controller had lain dormant for ten yeartt^ on this 
frontier, and it was not known to exist either by the Pay Master 
or officers ot the army, until it appoaied in this case, and of its 
injustice no one can reasonably doubt. As an item of history, it 
is of little importance; but as it involves an important principle 
of law, and exhibits the glaring injustice of the Government to- 
wards the weak and beipletiS, it is worthy qf nolo. 

From the organization of the ^upjomo Court of the Territory^ 
lir., Jioiuuxr had been the Sepocter thereof^ and in the winter ef 


1843-4, the Legislature authorized the publication of the Seports 
of -casee in that Court, with the Laws of the session. This requhv 
ed the re-writing of the whole on short faotice, but the work was 
accomplished in due time. But in this, as in many other cases, 
where political squabbles for the ascendency interfered with the 
proper administration of the Government, there were two claim- 
ants of the manuscript. The Legislature had given the printing 
of the Laws and Beports to Mr. Geosgb Hyeb, while the Secre- 
tary of the Territory, who held the ** purse strings," wished to 
give it to Mr. W. W, Wtman. Furthermore the Legislature ap- 
pointed Jomf Catlin and Bek. 0. Eastman, commissioners to su- 
perintend the publication of the Laws and Beports, and to com- 
pare the Laws in the proof sheets with the originals in the Secre- 
tary's Office, but there were some fears expressed that the Secre- 
tary would not grant the privilege of this comparison in his Office, 
which fears, I believe, were without sufficient foundation to justi- 
fy them. In this state of the case, Mr. Bxtbnstt was called upon 
by both claimants for his MS. Beports. But the commissioners 
being first in their call, and Mr. Bubnett believing that the will 
of the people as expressed by their representatives, should be 
obeyed, in preference to that of a foreign Secretary, who was sent 
here by the Federal Government merely or chiefly as a fiscal agent 
he sent the MS. to the commissioners, who caused the Reports to 
be printed according to law. 

Bi the year 1844, Mr. Buknbtt was called upon to appear be- 
fore the people of his county of Grant, as a candidate for the 
Assembly. There seems to have been strong efforts made against 
his election, on account of the independence with which he attend- 
ed upon his duties at the bar, but he succeeded by a handsome 
majority, having 1000 out of the 1500 votes cast. 

In the winter of 1844-5, and while the Assembly was in ses- 
sion, a rumor that an Indian war had broken out, camOi with a 
thousand fearful forebodings, producing intense excitement in and 
aboat the OapitoL At this time, the militia laws had dl been 


repealed, probably with a view to counteract the euppoaed influx 
ence of Gov. Doty, and the capital he might have made by the 
organization of the militia, and the appointment of the officers 
from among his friends, the majority of the Legislature being 
opposed to Doty. At this juncture, however, a change in the 
administration of the General Government had changed Governors, 
and Gen. Dodge was again at the helm of the Territory. Bat the 
law which abolished the militia service with a view to hamper 
and trammel Doty, was now, in a time of need, found to trammel 
and hamper Dodgb, for though great fear was excited, that plunder 
and murder would be, or were actually being committed by the 
Indians, the Governor's hands were tied by the law, which he 
had himself approved. The representations of Indian disturban- 
ces made to the Governor, he communicated to the Assembly. 

K I have been rightly informed, the emergency of the case was 

such, as to call the two Houses together at an evening session, to 

recieve the Governor's Message on the subject, and to devise 

ways and means for the public defence. And while one was 

looking at another, at a loss to know what to do, Mr. Bubnett 

penned and offered a bill to repeal the act by which the militia 

organization had been abolished, and to restore the former laws 

upon the subject. In offering the bill which contained only a 

few lines, he moved a suspension of the rules, so that the bill ' 

passed at once, and was sent to the Oouncil ; and, by the same 

process, it was passed there, and in about half an hour from the 

time it was first offered, the Governor had approved of it, and 

the whole militia of the Territory was organized, officers and all, - 

and measures were said to be taking to call out a portion of it, to 

chastise the supposed marauders ; when a second communication 

to the Governor, showed that there was no occasion for it. Hie 

first report had grown out of exaggerated statements of some 

white hunters, who had come in contact with some Indians in the 

aune pursuit, and^who probably took some game which the whites 

wmdd have l>een glad to have taken ; and possiblj some pigi hid^ 


taVei on the credit of tie I::d:an<, bat this v^ssnsfer prom 

agtti'.it th^rn • 

Mr. B^EHETf was ••r^-n in tfe I>2i5'a^re ia 1SI6. w^ea ir* 
ran?«:nr cTHa were ./.idctocali aC ?! vent on toform a Cjosutctios 
for a F" ito G "er . :e^^ II :? wa- aV^ e?ec*c«: a Dr'e^te-ta tbe 

C-T»vei.' 'H?, 'xLich m'-t en th^r 5th day *.'f 0-*t bo^ 18 16. lie wn, 
however, preheated, \v «!.-knrs3. fm'n reacbir^ Mad:son, nnfil 
the 14'Ii '^f the rr.onrh, when he to-.k hU se^t in tM* firs: State 
Convent! .n. lie had licen some morirhs c^nfir.ed at home by 
difease, arid waa indeed : nrit to leare h ri.e whe": he did. Bat 
feeling the high r«.-5p^n*i'j lities wh'eh rested np.-n him, he re- 
paire'i to tiie Capital, b:it Lis star there wa« desticed to be ahorl 
On the 19th of iLe :n irsth, Mrs. Bcrxett, wlio thedaj prerioos 

• Bj wUncn t* tW :^j.»U*1v« JoarcAU. it vrpean that tki> mmtM^w tm^ytrnt •• Uwbrti 

la^ «4 t^ dlwFL**! liaK*4s» os tb« Vi*en3«ia Kirvr. fo OrmLtCJi' tj, d*lc4 >aa^f t.lewt F«Jk X, 
Ittf, AUXug *a [•&!*>*•: "!*• a'.i£.-BA««f :<m pr«i-i«aB4 •air-fSBdiof erwatry. having te«Blv Ha 

■AllH to thni bu!l;lBf ted iegvXis, b«v« &t IrsfiL C^rii ft-rod Co t^i* ^€rmier rvMirt — Co tab ap •■«■ 
Utmas fjbUctiriB. TbUevebi»f » »kiimt*h loot pUc* W-iactB tlit iMiuM ^mjA tiM cillarc*, to «hMi 
four cf tb« tun^r vrre MrT*:n:i/, if loI mortsilj. woandcJ : aaJ fri-a tae koova cliandrr •# ttel*- 
4haii, «• mMj Bitonlij »Tr«il aior« •cr*"es em ae^rDers tu ttuae. A ir je aod comtt »tabvmi •! 
t^ «QE VMBOM of tLr a»j, i« MUtotaaluI'iy a* foiloa » : A Bamter af tho lodiaaa aias do« » Ite «wtt 
•ids 4t li«« Wi^erfLftio Kt^er to Ca{.L iu^tu'*, acd aIu!* Li« caai«. Ht cuciTertd ia«a^ Mi caitoi Ift 
t^m to biio* itteek, vLieL thrj r«.'n««d to do. TLe Capt ia. aiih aevrral flt^r mm, aumm «n«rtA 
ttia »b-i«, f«uLd tbe I&ciact wLo tt^ok lLi b<iai, aad cha»tiM4 ao* ar two d th* d witb « ■tjft. aad to 
Um m*:la*, one ul hi* laen «&/« Mvert'v Lurt miib a club, ia XLv band* of one ot tiie luaiaaa. Tba !■- 
tfana thto ran, and the cilra^nc, a uumUer o( vhi'ia La-J b> ll.i* timeobllrclrd, tult*.«ed tbvaafittto 
«iiy mid rttarwrd. la a abi^rt tioit tb« laaiaoa oma toefc ala«. All iba diiircA b%rit.c If ihia tiai 
aaaembl<*d. ( a^.t. Jahu B. Bar^a aL<J Uourm advADCvd tovatda tbcin, aaamird aad iu a paaccaWa bmb* 
■cr, saklnjf fn*-:'dl/ manif^^taU'M.e— ail ni wLL b iiiur tL« IbOiaiia Uinrateocd, I j dra«l..g tb^irkuivM^ 
thMwiof off tbrlr Uanfceta, waving ibrlr gaaa la Ibc air, and puinting tben towar,! tLa wbilrau Fto^ 
leg it im[0ii»AUli! tu paciry or a|i(.ea»a tbroi, tbcj tvparali d, aou lo a BMUvcai the/ fiffi4 opifO tiM dW> 
oeaa^^ba r.rzt miouti! tbt-ir fire waji rvtunird, aad loar of Uitm feli ** TLe/ thro add, that Uw lodiaai 
bate aeal tticir raaoera to eollrtt tbfir acaticTrd hiwlff, atid tta vbitea bavt Pvat for al4 ; Uiat Ik^f 
vaoi tbe Govfroor'a aft*iataiice, and aia deUiniiMd ta Ull ar driraevefy Ikdiiaao |li« Vlaaaaali^ 
•ver tta lltflftia»ip|,i ; ha«a npmaida of fort j meo anderama,aad hava choaao JaHaaO. Karsste 

(fOT. robcc recanmeBded Iba adopllaa mi a ■wiirial ta tbt Vm itdai j ef ITv, apbiag tor Awfviff 
€ngaoDa to protect tbe froaller aetilmwiita. ** la tba coBrM«d^ balf aa boar/* aaf a tba Madlnoa S^[m 
%t fkat period, •• raaalatloM wcfv a*>ple4 ta tbat eftct, aad the nlUtla Uar of iba I^rrie^iy niin< ^ 

nTrT-lhiaiyiaffBinrBtif Hi I gl lilw^ililTiTir H«llMimiito<j ai Ifa U f Itoil 

^^^tkaaaclte■•mthaddi•4Mr»J«BMlD•Bantro•bto«u•pflch«lie& LkOLBl 


had returned from Ae fnneral of her mother, was taken with the 
typhoid fever, then prevalent in the conntry. In a few days, 
her danger was snch, that his presence was deemed essential, 
and a messenger was sent with his own team for him. On the 
night of the 25th, after the fatignes of the day, he left Madison 
in a wagon for home, eighty-five miles distant, and reached home^ 
before he slept, the night following. This fatigno and exposure^ 
together with his anxiety of mind, canse^ a relapse of his disease, 
and he was at once confined to his bed ; and besides his wife, hia 
mother, who a few months previously bnd come to spend her de- 
clining days with him, also lay under the same roof, and under 
the inflaenco and effects of the same disease, and all three within 
hearing of each other. 

On the Ist day of November, 184:6, his mother departed this 
life in peace, but neither Mr. nor Mrs. Burnett could follow her 
to the grave. On the 5th of the same month, Mr. BuENErx 
breathed his last, and in about three hours afterwards his wife 
followed him into the spirit-world. The house, at this time, was 
emphatically the house of mourning. Mrs. Bcrnett's father, two 
brothers, sister, and several other relations were present, but Mr. 
BtmNSTT had no relative present, other than those already men- 
tioned, of his wife's. But such was the deep hold he had upon 
the affections of his neighbors, that no care or pains were spared 
for his comfort, and that of his afflicted family. The house was 
literally thronged both day and night, not merely by spectators, 
but by those who sympathized with the afflicted, and came to 
administer relief. 

The news of this double death, spread with the velocity of the 
wind ; and on the 7th, a large concourse of people assembled to 
convey the deceased couple to their single grave. Mr. Buknett 
had selected a spot in a beautiful grove, at the head of his gar- 
den, for his family cemetery, where he had already buried a little 
son, who was killed by the kick of a horse, and where his mother 
but five days before had been interred ; and there his masonic 
brethren, hia fiunilj conneotion8| and a large conconrse of friendly 

eonsigiied hu remains mod those of his oompanion to one *^ft™«wn 
2i»Te. Lsngnage can never depict the intense state of feeling 
that pervaded the whole commonity. The mail oonveyed the sad 
intelligence to the Convention. 

On the 10th of November, Hon« J. Aixkn ttAMtw^^ to vfaom 
the sad intelligence was sent, rose in the Convention, and made 
the following announcement : " Died at his residence at the 
Hermitage, Nov. Sth, 1846, TnoacAs P. Bnumn^ aged fovty-ox 
years and two months. ' Also, the same day, Lucia M. Buassn, 
his wife, aged twenty-nine years and seven months. Also at the 
same place, on the let inst, Mrs. Judfth Buxnstt, mother of Ifr. 
Buhkett, aged seventy-three years." Mr. T^A»pg» then offued 
the following resolutions, which were nnanimonsly adopted : 

*^ Sesclved^ That this Convention has heard the announcement 
of the appalling intelligence of the death, by a malignant fever, 
during the ssmc day, of the Hon. Thomas P. Busseit, one of its 
members from the county of Grant, and his wife, and also of his 
mother, with feelings of the most poignant grief and heart-rend- 
ing sorrow. 

Hesdved^ That in the death of the Hon. Thob. P. Bubnxit, this 
Convention has lost one of its most talented, intelligent and use- 
ful members; community one of its most, valuable citizens, and 
brightest ornaments ; his immediate circle of acquaintance an 
ardent friend, and his family and kindred have sustained a lose, 
for which, the expression of our deepest and warmest sympathies, 
can afford but a slight consolation. 

^^ JSesolved^ That as a testimony of our respect for the deceased, 
the members of this Convention will wear crape on the left arm 
fbr thirty days. 

<' Heaolvedy as a further testimony of respect for the deceased, 
That this Convention will adjourn over the morrow. 

<' JSeaolvedf That a copy of these resolutions be signed by the 
President and Secretary, and transmitted to the relatives of the 

On the monow after these proceedings, the Oimveiitioii, wMt 


1A1II7 cituenB of HadiBon, and of the Territory then at that place, 
met in the Oapitol, when a eoitable fhneral disconrse was delivered 
bj Bev. Mr. HoHugh, the Chaplain. This was probably one of 
the most, if not the most, solemnly impressive scenes ever wit- 
neeaed in that place. The death of Abnoti, who fell in the Oonn- 
cil Chamber by the hand of Yineyabd, probably produced more 
ezeitement, bat it was of a different kind ; it was produced by 
man acting upon his fellow man. Bat this was caused by the act 
of God, to whom all bowed in humble submission, and not with 
feelings of revenge or retaliation. 

At the next meeting of the District Court at Mineral Point, 
the absence of Mr. Buknetf, for the first time since that place 
had become a county seat, produced a most solemn impression on 
the minds of the Court, the bar, officers and citizens, and a pub- 
lic meeting was held; an address suited to the occasion was 
delivered by Mr. Jaoksobt, afterwards Judge Jacesok, and reso- 
lutions, similar to those of the Convention, wore adopted. 

Mr. BuBHETT left one daughter six years of age, and one son 
not quite two years of age, with sufficient means for their support 
and education, and to make a respectable beginning in the world, 
if spared to reach their majority, which is most ardently desired. 
It will be expected, that in a memoir of so distinguished an 
individual, something will be said of his character. But from 
the relation which I sustained to him, it will at once be seen, that 
a delicacy rests upon me, which forbids any attempt at eulogy or 
panegyric upon him from my pen. I may, however, be permit- 
ted to give the naked facts, and leave the reader to enlarge accor- 
ding to his own ideas of propriety. 

In person, Mr. Bubhstt was below the ordinary size, being about 
five feet, eight inches in hight, rather slim built, and weighed 
about one hundred and thirty pounds. His education was not of 
the profound and extended character of some, b^ing principally 
self-acquired ; but being a diligent student, he was second to bat 
few of his profession in legal lorei or in general historical and 
poUtfeaL knowledge^ and knowing that if his aapiratioDB in the 


world were ever attained, it must be bj his own industry and 
application, he spared no pains in acquiring all osefdl knowledge 
for his profession. His address was of the most pleasing and popu- 
lar character. At the bar, to the court and jury, as well aa in his 
social intercourse, he was courteous and affable, and seldom gave 
offence to his opponents. One strong and prominent trait of Ida 
character, was, the sympathy of his nature. He so fully entered 
into the feelings and wishes of his clieute^, that even in doubtful 
cases, he felt that he was right ; yet his courtesy never allowed him, 
in arguing a case, to aflirm things to be true, of which he had no 
knowledge. That which rested on opinion, he gave as opinion ; 
and after stating his reasons for so thinking, left it to the court or 
jury, whichever ho was addressing, to dociUe from their own con- 
victions of right. 

In his pecuniary matters, he was industrious in accumulating, 
and economical in all his habits. He had au eye to competent re- 
tirement; and to this end, selected one of tlie most lovely spots 
on the Military Hoad from Prairie du Chicu to Fort Winnebago^ 
now Portage City, it being on a high ridgo, where timber and 
prairie lands were in close connection. And liaving a taste for 
agriculture and horticulture, he devoted his leisure time to their 
superintendence. Ho built a double log cabin in which to live, 
till his means would allow him to build a better; and nt tho time 
of his death, had his drafts made, and was about to close hia con- 
tracts for the erection of a spacious stone mansion ; but this was 
not accomplished. His orchard, gardeu, and lawns, were arranged 
with great taste and beauty. Tho trees and shrubs were pruned 
with care ; his stocks of cattle and horses were of the improved 
breeds of the day ; and the newest and best agricultural imple- 
ments were in use on his farm. 

Like too many, his worldly cares and aspirations had engrossed 
the most of his attention, to the exclusion of the duties of practi- 
cal piety. He was a firm believer in revealed religion, xeoog- 
nized and acknowledged his obligations to practice its duties, and 
like most others, intended to do so before he died. Hjb wife beings 


s professor, he often accompanied her to the house of worship, 
and always furnished her with the means, besides his own contri- 
butions, for the support of the Gospel. And often when in places 
of worship, or in company with the religious, the sympathies of 
his nature would yield to the moral influences with which he was 
surrounded. But this same sympathy of nature led him to assim- 
ilate with other and different influences when surrounded by them. 
Owing to this, as he associated with men of the world, he fell 
into their habits, so far as they were deemed consistent with the 
character of a gentleman ; and, it is to be regretted, that some 
things are not deemed inconsistent with that character, that are 
very much so with Christianity, and which no gentleman would 
like to meet unpardoned at the bar of Ood. Over these, we throw 
the Tail of charity and forgetfulness. 

After Mr. BmunErr's return from the 6tate Oonvention to his 
sick family, and a relapse of his own complaint had lain him up- 
on his sick and dying bed, the associations around him were cal- 
culated to awaken the most serious reflections as to his future 
stale, and the necessary preparation to meet it. Tbere lay hh 
dying mother, and dying wife, from both of whom he had re- 
ooLyed religious instruction. My own relation to him, as well as 
my profession, both required and justified, now that I saw the 
hand of death upon him, to present more fully to his consideration 
tkan I had done before, the importance of obtaining forgiveness 
from God, before he appeared at his bar to answer for the deeds 
done in the body. He saw and felt the impropriety of deferring 
such important conoems to so late an hour, but devoted his few 
remaining hoars to prayer, and to seeking mercy and forgiveness 
from the hand of that God against whom he had sinned, before 
he should be ushered into his presence, and receive his final doom. 
And it was, and still is, a source of comfort to his friends, to 
knoWi that he expressed confidence in the hope of forgiveness 
heie, and a blessed immortality hereafter.^ 

• iBoomBMMomtioBOf hif Mr. BuiaTT*! mtmsrf Md itfTieif, Um Ligiibtiiit «I ttmMtea •f 
4IH^)MfttAiiM«r«oaityaflirfataii, dtaitod In tht BOtlh-irMttni pttrt of tht State. L. a U. 





In compliance with the request of the Btatb Hibtobioaxi SoGnrr, 
for mj reminiscences of pioneer life, together with my recollec- 
tions of the Winnebago and Black Hawk Indian Wars, I herewith 
communicate an imperfect and concise sketch for the use of the 

I was bom in Garter county, East Tennessee, August Ist, 1790. 
My parents were natives of Shenandoah county, in the Yalley of 
Virginia, and my father, Pbter PABKmoN, served under Ck>L 
Daniel Mobgan in the Bevolutionary war, and on one oeearioa 
was wounded ; and about the close of that contest, he removed 
to East Tennessee, where he took an active part in all public mat- 
ters pertaining to that pioneer era in Tennessee settlement He 
served under Col. John Tiffon as a captain, in 1788, in a sort of 
civil strife then raging among the East Tennesseeans, growing out 
of a conflict of jurisdiction in consequence of the short-lived re- 
public of Franklin, organized under the leadership of OoL Joan 
Skvieb. It was mainly a war of words, though some blood was 
shed before its termination. My father died in Carter county, in 
March, 1792. 

After residing a while in White county, Tennessee, I migrated 
in May, 1817, to the southern part of the then Territory of Illi- 
nois, and settled in Madison county, twenty-five miles east of SL 
Louis, which town then contained about five thousand inhabitiiifti* 


The Burroimdixig country, however, was quite sparsely settled, and 
destitute of any energy or enterprise among the people ; their 
labors and attention being chiefly confined to the hunting of game, 
which then abounded, and tilling a small patch of com for bread, 
relying on game for the remaining supplies of the table. The 
inhabitants were of the most generous and hospitable character, 
and were priudpally from the southern States ; harmony and the 
utmost good feeling preyailed throughout the country. 

In 1819, I removed to what afterwards became Sangamon 
county, which was then an entire wilderness, there being then 
but»six fiimilies, including my own, within eighty miles ; and for 
that distance, the inhabitants were, for several years, compelled 
to go for their supplies of merchandize, as well as the transaction 
of all matters of a political or public character. But notwith- 
standing their isolated position, and in the midst of numerous 
Indian tribes, their prosperity was rapid. " This portion of country 
was then a frontier on the north and west ; and, like southern 
Illinois, was settled by emigrants chiefly from the southern States, 
possessiug enlarged views of generosity, hospitality, and confi- 
dence in their fellow men. When a new-comer arrived in the 
country, the settlers, without distinction or ceremony, went at 
once to pay him a visit, whom they usually found in a tent or 
camp. The warmest sentiments of friendship and good-will were 
interchanged, the old settlers assuring their new neighbor, that 
every thing they possessed, in the way of tools, teams, wagons, 
provisions, and their own personal services, were entirely at his 
command. Hence, in a few days, all hands, as the phrase then 
was, turned out, and built the new-comer a house, cut and split 
his rails, hauled them out, put them up in fence around the land 
he wished to cultivate, and then his land was broken up for him 
ready for the seed. Thus, in the space of a few days, the new 
comer was in a comfortable condition, well acquainted, and 
upon the best terms of friendship, with the whole neighborhood. 
And to conclude these friendly attentions to the new-comer, a 
most joyous and convivial occasion was enjoyed, when the 


younger portiun of the companv would trip the light, fantastic toe, 
over some rough puncheon fioor. Thus would be formed the moftt 
warm and enduring fiiendships — such as no ordinary circamstaa- 
ces could disturb. 

Among the settlers, the utmost confidence was reposed in the 
honor and integrity of each other; consequently all business was 
done upon the coniidence principle. Notes, receipts, mortgages, 
or bonds, were scarcely ever given in those days; and afterwards, 
when the Yaukccs, as we called them, came among us, and sought 
to introduce their system of accounts, written notes and obliga- 
tions, v.'c I'joked upon them with great suspicion and distrust, ^d 
regarded their mode of doing business as a great and unwarrant- 
able innovation u]."jn our established usages. We looked upon 
them as a selfish, small-dealing, and narrow-contracted people, 
and, consequently all intercjurse with them, was at first, as much 
avuided as pucsiblc. After a few years, however, these prejudices 
in some degree wore of!*, and a general good feeling prevailed. 
I must here remark, in justice to the Yankee or Eastern charac- 
ter, that I Iiave found among them, as warm hearts, as firm, enr 
during friends, and formed as ardent attachments, as among any 
other people. Some of my most devoted and highly esteemed 
friends are among this clats. 

I heard the first sermon preached in Sangamon county ; it was 
in 1819, and by Kev. Rivebs Cosmuck, of the Methodist denom-